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lEELAND IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 



OR 



THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1641-2. 



/DA 



OWLL LIBRARY f) 1.-7 

BOSTON COLLEGE 



/ 



.;^^' a 



CONTENTS 



THE SECOND VOLUME. 



DEPOSITION S-con(zm<ed 

Massacre of Protestant Colonists at Suhvle — continued . 

English Cattle tried in Court, and Allowed Benefit of 
Clergy ....... 

Massacre of Protestant Colonists at Ardglass 

,, at aohalon ..... 

The Murder of the Rev. Mr. Montgomery . 

Deposition of Dean Bartley's Servant . 

Massacre of Protestant Colonists at Silver Mines 

,, AT CaSHEL ..... 

Murders of Children in Caulow . . . . 

Massacre of Protestant Colonists near Kilkenny, and at 
Ross ....... 

Desecration of Protestants' Graves in Kino's County 

Massacres of Protestant Colonists in King's County . 

Mangling of the Corpses of Protestants in Kilkenny 

Deposition of Barnady Dunne, Esq., of Brittas 

Desecration of Protestants' Graves in Kildare 

Murder of Mr. and Mrs. Nicholson at Mountrath 

Massacre of more than a Hundred Protestant Colonists in 
the Church at Loughoall .... 

Massacre of Protestant Colonists at Rathkeale 

Deposition or Dame Barbara Brown, Ancestress of the Earl 
or Kenmare ...... 

Mabsacre of Protestant Colonists in Clare 



6-7 
12 
20 
28 
36 
37 
40 
51 

53-61 
69 
70 

75-78 
80 
84 
90 

91 
93-96 

9§ 
99 



VI 



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME. 



DErOSITIONS-coni/nwcfZ page 

Deposition of Lady Harms, Widow of Sir Thomas Harris, and 
Mother of Sir Edward Denny of Tralee Castlb 



Massacre op Protestant Colonists at Killarney 

SiEOE OF Trai-be Castlb . . . . . 

Massacre of Protestant Colonists near Newmarket 

,, near Maoroou ..... 

,, AT COOLE ...... 

,, AT CaPPOQUIN ..... 

The Case of Henry O'Neil of Glasdromin 

EECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE . 
Trial of Sir Puelim O'Neil .... 

Trial of Lord Mobuerry ..... 
Case of Colonel MacSweeny .... 
Trial of Vicar General Edmund O'Reilly . 

List op Examinations takhn against Captain Santhy or Sankey 

for Murder of an Irishman .... 
Letter of Capt. Stopford on behalf op Lieut.-Gen. O'Farrel 
List of Persons Tried in High Court and Verdicts . 
Order of Cromwell respecting the Widow and Orphans oi' 

TiRLOGH O'ByRNB . . . 

Order op Fleetwood, Corbet and Jones on the Petition of 
Daniel O'Haoan ..... 

Letters of Cromwell on behalf of James Barry and Tibbot 
Roche ....... 

Letter Concerning Lord Muskerry and Col. Callaghan 

Catholio Accounts of the Massacres at Silver Mines, Fethard 
Cashel, and Shrule ..... 

APPENDIX 

Examination of Dkrmot Ogk ..... 
Petition of Wexford Irish against Plantations 
The Commissioners' Report on the Wexford Plantations 
Project for tub Plantation of Longford . 

Arguments of the Longford Irish against Plantations 
Artioles and Conditions of the Longford Plantation 



102 
105 
107-121 
122 
137 
139 
141 
144 

171 

181 
192 
205 
219 

230 
231 
232 

230 

237 

238 
239 

240 

257 
2G3 
266 

270 
281 
283 



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME. vii 

AVrE^mX—continucd p^ou 

MKMoniAL OF Grievances of thu Lonoford Irish . . . 293 

The King's Irish Wards . . . . . . . 300 

Letter of the Lords Justices on tub Plantations of Ely O'Carrol, 

Leitrim, and the MaoCoghlan'b Country . . . 303 

Selections from Documents Concernino Phklim O'Byrne . . 306 

The Established Church in Ulster ..... 324 

Discourse Concerning the Settlement of the Natives in Ulster 327 

Letter of Lords Justices on the Irish Parliament and Army, 

12th of May, 1641 . . . . . . . 332 

Letter of Sir W. Parsons on Poynino's Act, 12th July, 1641 . 334 

Irish Privy Council to Vane, 30th June, 1641 . . . 336 

Parsons to Vane on Parliament and Graces, 8th August, 1641 . 339 

Relation of the Plotting of the Rebellion dy Lord Maguire . 341 

Relation of the Same by a Franciscan Friar . . , 355 

Sir W. Cole to the Lords Justices, IItu Oct., 1041 . . . 359 

The Lords Justices to the Lord Lieutenant, 25tii Oct., 1641 . 361 

Examination of Owen O'Connolly . . . . . 367 

Examination of Hugh MacMahon ..... 308 

Declaration of Dean Kerr . . . . . . 370 

Brodie's Note on the Royal Commission to Sir Phelim O'Neil . 373 

Outbreak of the Rebellion in the County Cork from a Con- 
temporary Anonymous MS. . . . . . .• 379 

Outbreak of the Rebellion in Kerry from the MS. Autobio- 
graphy OF the Rev. Dkvereux Spratt .... 384 

ADDENDA : 

Examination of Rev. George Creichtoun . . . . 388 

Extracts from Cromwellian Council Books .... 397 

Examination of Nicholas Simpson, M.P. . . . . 398 

Letter of Dr. Ingram, F.T.C.D., on the O'Byrne Depositions in 

THE College Library ...... 405 

Note on Depositions and Fascimiles . . . . . 407 

FACSIMII-E 
7'o /ace par/e 141. 



THE IRISH MASSACRES OE IGll. 



DEPOSITIONS 

(co}itinucd) . 

CXVIII. 

The Examination of James Lynch concerning the murders 
committed at Shrule, taken Nov. 23rd, 1G52. 

Saith, that on Friday night the convoy that was with the Engliah 
lay with them at one Bourke's of Kinlough's, within a mile of 
Shrule, and the next day towards evening came to Shrule the Lord 
of Mayo and his son, then Sir Theobald Bourke, now Lord of Mayo, 
being with them ; the said Lord of Mayo then demanded the castle 
of Shrule from this examt.'s brother, Pierse Lynch, who answered 
that one of the Lord Clanricarde's houses being already surprised, 
he would let none into the castle without the said Lord Clanricarde's 
orders, upon which answer the said Lord of Mayo, with the English 
and their convoy, went to one Eobert Lambert's house in the town 
of Shrule {illegible) the castle side of the bridge, and there lay that 
night, and the next morning a brother of this examt.'s, William 
Jjynch, beuag a friar, went forth of the castle in his liabit, but this 
examt. nor any of those in the castle durst (not) stir forth, in regard 
that they had denied the said Lord of Mayo entrance. And being 
at dinner, a sentinel upon the top of the castle called to them and 
told them of the murder. This examt. further saith, that Mr. Beu- 
cannon's son was killed m the arms of his, this examt.'s, brother 
William, but he luioweth not the murderers. After the murder was 
committed this examt. observed the old Lord of Mayo with one 
Henry Brinkhurst {sic) and two horsemen more whom he knows not 
riding towards the church, where they halted, and within a quarter 
of an hour after he saw the young Lord of Mayo ride from the 
other side of the bridge and follow his father ; but where the said 
young Lord was or what he did in the murder this deponent 

VOL. II. B 



2 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

kiioweth not. He likewise saw one Edmund Bourke of Cloughans 
with a sword drawn, in whose company was one Kedagh Feinne 
and his son, with two of the Clooneanodas [sic], one of whom told 
him, this examt., the next morning, when he desired their assistance 
in burying the corpses, that it was enough (trouble) for him to kill 
them, and not to bury them. He likewise saw one Eichard Burke 
{■illegible) Hugh 0' (illegible) living near Tobberkedagh, and one of his 
sons, and he saw in the morning Major Browne, and Andrew Browne 
his brother, but whether they went out of town before or after the 
murder this examt. knoweth not. He likewise observed Ulick 
Bourko and William Bourke his brother to be tlioro, James Mao 
Eneas MacDonnell [torn) now at Castle Hacket, Hugh O'Duynane, 
who, as this examt. heard, showed gold rings belonging to the English 
(torn). 

Note. 

The rest of this examination is so torn or faded as to be quite 
indecipherable ; but he was again examined on the 14th of April, 
1653, and further said that * Eichard MacTibbot (Burke) of the 
barony of Kilmaine was the person who murdered Mr. Gilbert, 
when he was flying from Shrule to Cong, under the protection of 
Friar William Lynch, his (the examt. 's) brother.' The friar made 
the following deposition on the 28rd of April, 1658, from which it 
would appear that Mr. Gilbert was not killed before he reached Cong. 
This discrepancy in the evidence of two Catholic witnesses, brothers, 
shows the extreme difficulty the Cromwellian Commissioners had 
to contend with in their effoi'ts to ascertain the truth, and how 
indefatigable and impartial those efforts were. 

CXIX. 

William Lynch Fitzpeter, of Galway, Franciscan friar, aged 
forty years, being duly sworn on the Holy Evangelists, and examined, 
deposeth that he, the said deponent, came into Shrewle to see his 
father, then residing in the castle at Shrewle, the night before the 
murder was committed, and that on the day the said murder was 
committed, the said deponent, being a Franciscan friar, came out 
of the said castle, when the murder was acting on the bridge of 
Shrewle aforesaid, to shelter some of the British, and that one 
Beuchannon's {sic) son was twice or thrice, at least, forcibly 
taken out of this deponent's arms. And this deponent further 
saith, that the murderers, whom this deponent, being a stranger. 



DEPOSITIONS. 

knew not, threatened to kill this deponent if he let not the son 
of the said Buchannon go, and that the son of the said Buchannon 
was forcibly taken out of this deponent's arms, and murdered. And 
further saith, that Mr. Gilbert, his wife and children were sent by 
the said deponent unto the house of Mr. Kobert Lambert of Shrewle, 
and were there sheltered until midnight (after the said murder was 
committed) under beds. At which time this deponent, with his two 
foster brothers, Edmund MacGilloroman, yet living in Shrewl, and 
William MacGilloroman, deceased, came with horses of Peter 
Lynch's, this deponent's father, and conveyed the said Mr. Gilbert, 
with his wife and two children, unto Fryar's Island, on the lands of 
Moyne, where they stayed twenty-four hours, expecting the conve- 
nieucy of this deponent to carry them towards Cong ; the said wife 
and childi-en of Mr. Gilbert the said deponent left in the said island, 
until a better conveniency might be assured for their safe convey- 
ance thence. And on Wednesday after the murder, he, this depo- 
nent, went with the said Mr. Gilbert out of the island towards 
Cong, and about a quarter of a mile from the island there appeared 
out of an ambush Donogh O'Kennie and Eichard McTibbot, who, 
as this deponent hath been informed, had waited for this deponent's 
coming along with the said Mr. Gilbert all that morning. And the 
said Donogh McKennie and Eichard McTibbot, after saluting 
this deponent, came up with a firelock, which was in the hand of 
the said Donogh, unto whom this deponent cried, that they should 
not draw any blood from the said Mr. Gilbert, the said Donogh being 
a follower of this deponent's father, whereupon the said Donogh and 
Eichard came up with the said firelock, unto whom this deponent 
again said to abstain from meddling with the said Mr. Gilbert, and 
this deponent endeavoured as much as in him lay to preserve the 
person of the said Mr. Gilbert from the said Donogh and Eichard, 
yet, notwithstanding the said deponent's entreaties and endeavours 
to defend the said Mr. Gilbert, the said Donogh came with his fire- 
lock to shoot him through; whereupon this deponent took hold 
of the said firelock, so as the shot was thereby diverted from 
the body of the said Mr. Gilbert, and only pierced his skin, and 
grazed his arm, who immediately fell, and then the said Donogh and 
Eichard stripped the said Mr. Gilbert of his clothes, and what he 
had about him, leaving him so stript with this deponent, who took 
his foster-brother's mantle, and put the same about him, and carried 
him, the said Ur. Gilbert, along unto Mr. Andrew Lynch's, at 
Ballymacgibbori, which Andrew relieved the said Mr, Gilbert with 



4 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

clothes, and then the said Andrew and this examinant conveyed the 
said Mr, Gilbert safe to Cong. And further saith not. 

William Lynch FitzPeter. 
Taken before me, 
RoBT. Ormsby. 

cxx. 

Thomas Johnson, Vicar of Tullagh and Killycomen, in the 
county of Mayo, sworn and examined, saith, that on or about the 
10th of November, 1641, after the present insurrection and rebellion 
was begun, divers rebels of the baronies of Costello and Gallen in 
the county of Mayo, whose names he knoweth not, in forcible and 
rebellious manner came and broke into this deponent's house, at 
Ballynow, in the same county, and then and there rebelhously and 
by force and arms, seized on, took, and carried away this deponent's 
household goods, books, and all things they pleased, which they 
found, and so departed away. And the next morning those, or some 
other rebels, not known to him, forcibly also at the same place took 
and carried away all his cows and young cattle, two horses, and his 
sheep, all worth fifty pounds, and above. And then or soon after, one 
Malachi, the titulary Archbishop of Tuam, seized on this deponent's 
church living, and took upon him to give and confer it on one Eiver 
O'Conaghan, a popish priest, who thereupon entered thereunto, and 
received the profits thereof ever since, worth 80Z. per annum, a 
year's profit being now lost. And this deponent himself, having 
fled for safety of his life to Castlebar, being Sir Henry Bingham's 
castle in the same county, and staying there until about Candlemas 
in that year, 1641, the said Henry Bingham at that time, upon 
certain terms, and articles, betwixt liim and Miles, Lord of Mayo, 
delivered the castle aforesaid to him, the said Lord of Mayo, to 
keep for him during the rebellion, there being at that time and for a 
month before a siege maintained against that castle by the arch- 
rebel, Edmund Bourke of Braskagh (sic), in the barony of Owles, 
gent., at which time of the delivery of the said castle, he the said 
Miles, Lord of Mayo, undertook to convey the said Sir Henry Bing- 
ham, and all the English and Scottish in the castle, with their 
clothes, unto the fort of Galway. And, thereupon, they coming the 
first day to Ballinacarragh, in the same county, a town belonging to 
the Lord of Mayo, this deponent there fell sick and was forced to 
turn back again, and in his return to Castlebar he was set on and 



DEPOSITIONS. O 

surprised by one MurrowO'IIargan [sic) a rebel, who was a plough- 
man to Patrick Harte, gent., who stripped this deponent of all his 
clothes, and in that state he came to Castlebar, aforesaid. But 
fearing to stay there, this deponent fled to the house of Walter 
Bourke of Tyrloghe, Esq., who gave him not only clothes, but kept 
and defended him against the rebels, although the Popish priests and 
friars laboured to have him put to death. And as to the said Sir 
Henry Bingham, he went to the town of Neale, where he stayed for 
some time. But as for the rest of the English and Scottish that 
went along with the said Lord of Mayo, which w^ere about fourscore 
or upwards, whereof the Lord Bishop of Killalla was one, and eight 
Protestant ministers besides, the said Lord of Mayo and his company 
brought them all along to the bridge of Shrule, where a great number 
of the rebels of the county of Mayo and the county of Galway met 
them, and then and there assaulted and set upon them (they being all 
without weapons, and not suffered to take away any from Castlebar 
aforesaid), and slaughtered and murdered the most part of those 
English and Scots, and amongst the rest six of those ministers, the 
Bishop being shrewdly wounded, and but two of the ministers escap- 
ing. And the said Lord of Mayo's company flying- to the rebels, and 
he and his son Sir Theobald Bourke also flying away, left those they 
conveyed to the usage and mercy of the rebels ; the ministers' 
names then slain being Dean Farges (sic) of Killala, Mr. Corbett, 
Mr. Bingham, Mr. Barnard, Mr. Rowledge (sic) and the Bishop of 
Killala's chaplain, whose name he, this examt., cannot express. 

And further saith, that the rebels in the barony of Costello and 
Gallen, in the said county of Mayo, in mere hatred and derision of the 
English and their very cattle, and in contempt and derision of the Eng- 
lish law, did ordinarily and commonly prefer, or seem to prefer, bills 
of indictment, and brought the English breed of cattle to be tried by 
juries, and having in their fashion arraigned these cattle, their scorn- 
fid judges, then sitting amongst them, would say (of the cattle in the 
dock), ' They look as if they could siieah English! give them the hook 
and see if they can read; pronouncmg the words ' Legit aut non ' 
to the jury. And then, because these English cattle stood mute and 
did not read, the Irish judges would pronounce sentence of death 
against them, and so they were committed and put to slaughtering. 
And this deponent further saith, that in the time he stayed with, 
and was protected by, the said Walter Bourke, the young priests 
and friars demanded of Stephen Lynch, prior of Strade, in this de- 
ponent's own hearing, if it was not lawful to kill this deponent, 



6 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1011. 

because he would not turn to mass, which prior answered that it 
was as lawful to kill them as to kill a sheep or a dog. And divers 
of the Irish rebellious soldiers then told this deponent to his face, 
that were it not for fear of offending the said Walter Bourgh, they 
would make no more conscience or care of killing him than they 
would do of a pig or a sheep. And the said Walter Bourgh (sic) 
being threatened to have his house burned over his head, and to be 
pillaged of his goods, if he kept this deponent any longer, he gave 
him a pass under his hand to take to the Earl of Clanricarde at 
Loughrea, which brought him thither accordingly in safety, where, 
as otherwise without God's miraculous delivery, he could not, as he 
is verily persuaded, have escaped murdering. And this deponent 
ever after that time lived by the noble and free charity of that 
good Earl, until of late that his Lordship sent him and divers 
other Protestants away with a convoy. And this deponent further 
saith, that one of those rebelhous murderers aforesaid, named Kedagh 
Roe MacJames Clandonnell, boasted at his return from Shrule that 
he had killed with his own hands four of the Protestants, namely, 
Mr. Barnard, commissary ; Mr. Corbett, minister ; Edward Jones, 
and Mr. Smith, a merchant. And in triumph of that his villany, 
the said Kedagh brought their blood upon his hands, arms, and 
weapons to Ballinacarragh aforesaid, sixteen miles distant from 
Shrule, and being advised to wash his hands, arms, and weapons 
of that blood, he answered, with an oath, that he would not wash off 
the English blood until he came to Aheedrinay (sic) to Eory Oge's 
house. And this deponent saw the said Kedagh afterwards wear a 
suit of clothes he knew to be Mr. Barnard's, the same whi"?!! he 
wore when he parted from this deponent at Ballincarragh aforesaid. 

And further this examt. saith, that after the massacre at Shrule, 
he, this deponent, having a daughter blind of both eyes, who went 
to seek relief up and down the parish of Turloglv, where he had been 
vicar, with a little boy that led her, also this deponent's child, these 
two poor children of his being met on the highway by one Manus 
MacJames, brother to the before-mentioned Kedagh, that bloody 
rebel, knowing them to be this deponent's children, took the boy 
and tied him to a tree and there left him, and the poor girl, weeping 
and in great fear, almost starved with cold, when and where he is 
persuaded they had both perished, had not one Donnell O'Duggan 
by accident come that way, who, knowing the children, loosed the 
boy from the tree and sent them both away. 

And this deponent also saith, that while he was at Turlogh 



DEPOSITIONS. 7 

aforesaid, in Mr. Walter Bourgh's house, divers friars of the order of 
!St. Doininick in their white habits, knowing this deponent to have 
been vicar of that parish, and that he would not turn to mass, per- 
suaded one Tirlogh Duffe, footman to the said Walter Bourgh, to set 
up two cars to hang this deponent on, but he refused, and certifying 
to his said master the same, the master sharply reproved those 
friars. And he gave warnmg to all his tenants to relieve this de- 
poneiit and suffer none to hurt him, which they accordingly per- 
formed, and so by God's great mercy and providence his life was 
saved, and he was sent with the pass to the noble Earl of Clanri- 
carde, as aforesaid. And this deponent further saith, that he heard 
divers of the soldiers at Mr. Walter Bourke's house earnestly protest 
and say that they heard that Sir Charles Coote had given them 
some overthrow, and that they were preparing to go against Castle 
Coote ; that the titulary Archbishop of Tuam, Malachi Keely (sic), 
had assured them all that they need not fear, for that the English 
should not have power to fight against them, but should be de- 
livered mto their hands, so as they (the Irish) might cut their (the 
English) throats, or kill them at their pleasure. And that they 
should have the Holy Ghost to say mass unto them thrice before 
they went into battle. 

Thomas Johnson, 
Jurat, lith Jan. 1643, Vicar of Turlogh aud Killycomcn. 

Hen. Jones. 

Hen. Brebeton. 

Note. 

Mrs. Fargy, or Varges (the name is as usual spelt in various 
ways in the deposition), widow of the Dean of Killala, sworn before 
the Commissioners on the 19th of October, 1642, confirmed much 
of the contents of the foregoing depositions. She says that, beside 
the Bishop and the Dean and six other clergymen, there were about 
fifty-five Protestants, amongst them her father, ' John Beucannon, 
Esq.,' and that all the men in this party, except the Bishop and two 
of the clergymen, were murdered at Shrewle bridge. Several women 
were also murdered, two of them being enceinte ; all the rest were 
stripped naked, and the examt. ' knew not what became of them.' 
She further swore that she often heard the rebels say that they 
meant to ' root out all the English and Scottish because they had 
gotten all from them {the Irish) by their courts and assizes.' Walter 
Bourke, who sheltered Mr. Johnson, was also examined on oath 
before Sir Robert Meredith, Avhen he swore as follows : — 



8 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1011. 

" This examt. saith, that such was the hatred of the English by 
the Irish, in the county of Mayo, that they could not endure to see a 
beast of English breed live amongst them, and not only destroyed 
those cattle, but with all derision and scoffing carriage used to 
bring a book before the cow or sheep of English breed, that they 
had taken from the English, and ask it whether it could read, and 
in case they were disposed at that time to spare the cow or sheep, 
one of them answered it could read, and bade that its appearances 
(recognisances) should be entered ; but if they (the Irish) were 
otherwise disposed, they killed it. In conclusion, he saith they left 
not a beast living that they took from an English Protestant." 
This treatment of the unfortunate English cows was a double 
satirical punishment of their owners and ' their courts and assizes.' 
So late as 1688, three rebels and cattle-stealers were allowed at a 
Wicklow assizes to plead the old exemption of punishment, under 
' the benefit of clergy ; ' but two of them being returned by the ordi- 
nary ' non legit ' were hung ; the third, and most guilty, it was said, 
escaped. Corbet, the minister murdered at Shrule, was the author 
of some severe pamphlets against the Covenanters and the Jesuits, 
whom he charged with being in a confederacy against the king and 
the Church of England. He was said to have been assisted in those 
writings by Maxwell, Bishop of Killala, also a high churchman. 
Baillie says that Maxwell ' received a warning from heaven, as dis- 
tinct and loud as any used to be given on earth, to reclaim him from 
his errors, for with his eyes he did see that miserable man John 
Corbet, who took upon him the shame of penning a rabble of contu- 
melious lies against his mother church, hewed in pieces in the very 
arms of his poor wife ; the prelate himself, in the meantime, was 
stricken down and left with many wounds as dead, by the hand of 
the Irish, with whom he had been too familiar' {Vindication of 
the Church of Scotland, p. 2), Corbet had been a Presbyterian 
minister in Scotland, but adopting Episcopalianism Wentworth 
gave him a valuable living in the diocese of Killala, displacing 
Adair, the low church bishop of that see, and putting Maxwell in 
his place. The latter was a learned and able prelate, but a violent 
persecutor of the Presbyterians. He died in Dublin in 1G46, ' quite 
worn out and spent,' says Ware, 'with the miseries of the times.' 
An immense number of depositions were taken respecting the massa- 
cres in Sligo and Mayo. Andrew Adah', of Magowney, in the latter 
county, Esq., swore that he believed above six hundred Protestants 
had been murdered in Mayo and Sligo by the rebels, and that he ob- 
served one John Eeynolds, who had murdered Mr. Traftbrd, minister 



DEPOSITIONS. 9 

at Longford Castle {v. Deposition of Mrs. Trafford, p. 849, vol. i.), 
to tremble most fearfully when he heard that minister's name men- 
tioned. Thomas Hewitt, of Belcarron in Mayo, swore that the 
Irish had often told him that they had drowned between two and 
three hundred Protestants in the river of Moyne, within ten miles 
of Strade, taking them out in boats on the river and throwing them 
into it. Whether this was all vain and wicked boasting, or a true 
relation of crimes they had actually committed, it is hard to say. 
The mixture of superstitious devotion and bloodthirstiness in the 
rebels is curiously shown in the deposition of another witness, the 
widow of Michael Darby, gentleman, of the Creaght in Roscommon, 
who swore that her husband, ' having died of fatigue and cold while he 
served against the Irish, she and her father-in-law, Mr. Corshead, a 
minister, went into the castle of Elphin, then held by Bishop Tilson, 
which was besieged by the rebels.' She goes on to say that when 
the besiegers ' saw that they could not prevail, but that many of 
their party were slain, then they would say and confess that God 
fought for the besieged. Howbeit, such was their foolish supersti- 
tion, that those besiegers would blame one another for breaking 
the stone font in St. Mary's church at Elphin, where, they said, 
St. Patrick had left the print of his knee, and for other abusing of 
that church, being our Lady's church, and they said therefore 
God was against them.' A tolerably well-known passage in the 
writings of Erasmus, in which he describes a ' religious ' of his ac- 
quaintance planning an atrocious murder, and after praying for its 
success, 'purely and piously,' assassinating his victim, occurs to one 
when reading these and other similar annals of Irish crime. 

CXXI. 

Egbert Nesbitt, being of the age of twenty years, or thereabouts, 
being duly sworn upon the Holy Evangelist and examined, saith, 
that he lived with his father, Eobert Nesbitt, in Ardnaglass, within 
the barony of Tiroragh {sic) and county of Sligo, at the beginning of 
the rebellion, and that the said Eobert, with his wife and five small 
children, were constrained to continue in the same place for a year 
and a half, or thereabouts, after the said rebellion began, until about 
the month of ]\Iay, in the year 1G43, at which time this deponent 
saith there came a company of Ulster men to the said town of Ard- 
naglas, commanded by one Captain MacSweyne, who (during the 
time of their abode this deponent saith) they were hired (sic) by the 
MacSwcynes of Ardnaglas to murder his father, his mother, and 



10 THE IRISII MASSACRES OF lG-11. 

their cliildren ; whereupon, on a Saturday at night, these murderers 
came to this deponent's father's house and quartered there all night, 
and did dress a heef for their supper, which Boger MacSwyne of 
Ardnaglas had given them as a part of their hire ; and on the Sun- 
day morning the aforesaid murderers bound this deponent's father, 
Robert Nesbitt the elder, and in the meantime this deponent's 
mother went to tlie said Roger MacSwyne's house, and told him 
that they had bound her husband and intended to murder them all, 
and prayed him for God's sake to save them ; whereunto the said 
Roger replied that what was to be done was by his command, for 
he had given orders to them, and commanded her to depart, adding 
withal that, if they (his men) did not kill the thieves, as he named 
them, that he would do it himself ; notwithstanding which answer 
this deponent's mother came back to the house where her husband 
was bound, and immediately they tied the said deponent's mother, 
Emmeline Nesbitt, with ropes of hair, and drew them all, to wit, 
the father, mother, and five children, to the place where they in- 
tended to act the murder, and before they came to the place this 
deponent, with his two sisters, Helen and Mary, shrunk back out of 
the way, and hid themselves. The rest were led on to the slaughter, 
when they murdered the father, and also the mother by ... . she 
being then great with child, and threw a young child, newly weaned, 
into the river. Whereupon, the eldest son, whose name was John, 
fled away (being then sixteen years or thereabouts) until he met 
with one Owen O'Dowd, now living in Ardnaglas, unto whom he 
addressed himself, and told him that the Ulster men had killed his 
father and mother, and prayed him to save his life, unto whom the 
said Owen replied that he would, and yet he brought him back to the 
murderers, and delivered him unto their hands, who killed him. 
And this deponent, being further examined, saith, that Roger Mac- 
Swyne, Edmund McSwyne, Alexander McSwyne, Roger McSwyne 
Fitz Alexander, Hugh McSwyne, and divers others, were all of them 
contrivers and assistants of the murderers in the fact ; and, further, 
he, this deponent, saith that they, the said McSwynes, were always 
jealous that the said persons should escape into the English 
quarters, and discover their actions, which was the cause they mur- 
dered them after so long a time. And further this deponent saith 
not, but that one George Evans, now living near Donegal, can testify 
to what this deponent hath saith. 

Robert Nesbitt + 
Being jyresent, 16th June, 1653, 

Chables Gore. 



DEPOSITIONS. 1 1 



CXXII. 



Egbert Lydford, of the abbey of Boyle {illegible) in Major 
King's house, being duly sworn and examined, saith, that at the 
breaking out of the rebellion in 1G41, he lived at Shrone, in the 
county of SHgo, and soon after Candlemas in that year Sir Eobert 
Hannay, with his lady, children, and many of the British nation 
who had lost their substance by the rebels, little surviving but their 
lives, were, by a convoy of the county Mayo, from whence they 
came, brought towards Ardnaglas, but the said convoy being sur- 
prised by the means of Eoger Oge MacSweyne of Ardnaglas, and 
his brother Brian MacSweyne, the most of those distressed people 
fell into the enemies' hands, and were murdered ; but this examt. 
more particularly saw one Connor MacNamee pulling a pretty 
youth of those prisoners, who, being brought within twenty yards 
of the place where this examt. was then hiding himself, near the 
church of Skreine, and took him (the youth) by the hair of the head 
with one hand, and with the other hand cut his, the said youth's, 
throat, by stabbing him through the same several times with an 
Irish skean, and then seeing a poor churl accidentally pass by, caused 
him to drag the said corpse to an open grave in the said church- 
yard, and there to bury it. And when he, this deponent, had so 
done, he saw the said Connor follow an old British man, who carried 
a young child in his arms, and driving the old man before him out 
of this exanit.'s sight, to murder him, as this examt. verily believes, 
but what was done with the old man this examt. knoweth not. He, 
this deponent, further saith, that there were three of the number of 
those British at the same time hanged by the inhabitants of the 
comitry thereabouts, which one Owen MacEdmunds, living there, 
perceiving, and that the said Connor, with other wicked persons, 
were saying that they would pass from Ardnaglas to the Skreine, 
where this deponent lived, there to kill all British mhabitants, did 
hastily run to this deponent to advertise him what he (Owen) hath 
heard spoken, and to put this deponent upon his guard against the 
said rebels' approach thither, which he did the best he might by 
hiding himself up and down the country. This examt. further saith, 
that one Thomas Coote and his wife, and one Thomas Carurie {sic), 
and two Enghshmen were soon after that time murdered at {illegible) 
by Hugh O'Connor, son of Tiegue O'Connor of Sligo, Esquire, de- 
ceased, and his brother, Cathal O'Connor, and that Tiegue O'Connor 



12 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF lOU. 

of Sligo, Esquire, and the said Hugli and Cathal O'Connor, brethren, 
went together into the baronry of Tireragh, with many idle persons 
calhng themselves soldiers, following them, a little while after the 
murder at Sligo was committed ; and the first night they all lay at 
Ardnaglas, and from thence went forward into the barony, and 
within four or five days returned back and lay at {illegible) aforesaid, 
when and where the said murder was committed, but whether the 
said Tiegue O'Connor of Sligo, the eldest brother of the three, was 
there at the instant doing of the same, this examt. cannot tell. 
This examt. further saith, that Eobert Nesbitt and his wife, a British 
couple, and inhabitants of Ardnaglass, were soon after that time 
stabbed and murdered, but by whom this examt, doth not know, 
the said woman being great with child, and this examt. heard that 
when she was killed ... as was commonly reported in the country, 

and further saith not. 

Egbert Lydford, 
Takeyi hefore me, 
RoBT. Parke. 

CXXIII. 

The Examination of Editha Gardiner of Portumna, aged about 
tioenty-five years, xoife to Bichard Gardiner, one of my Lord 
President's troop, December 18th, 1662. 

Being examined upon oath, saith, that in the beginning of the 
war, her husband, Richard Gardiner, with his two brothers, Mat- 
thew and Archibald Gardiner, and Mr. Walker, and Mr. Shauld, 
ministers, with others, were besieged in the steeple of Roserke Abbey, 
in the barony of Tyrawly, for three quarters of a year, by the Barretts, 
and others of the enemy in that country ; being so long besieged 
they sent to Mr. Edmund Burke of Rappagh, to deliver the place 
to him, if he would give them a safe convoy for this examt., her 
mother, Mr. "Walker, and his man, to Abbey Boyle in the county of 
Roscommon, it being an English garrison, her husband and some 
others that were in the steeple being to remain there with Mr. 
Burke's people ; whereupon Edmund Burke of Rappagh came and 
received the place, and sent his brother Richard Burke, a friar, and 
six soldiers to convey them, two of whom left them at Ardnaree, 
and the friar, and the other four went on with them to Ballyjordan, 
where they broke their fast. And when they were going from 
them after breakfast, the said Friar Richard Burke bid them go the 
shortest way unto Lough Cuiltoge, over a bog, and he would meet 



DEPOSITIONS. ] 3 

them, and sent lour soldiers of Edmund Bourke along with them, 
and about half an hour after they were gone out of the town 
where they broke their fast, about seven or eight of the town's 
people followed them, and fell upon Mr. Walker and his man, and 
killed them ; and being demanded whether the four soldiers who 
were to convey them did offer to prevent the killing of them, she 
saith they did not, and she further saith, that, before the town's 
people came to them, the said guard fell upon this examt. and her 
mother, and stript them to the skin, saying, they (the guard) had as 
well do it as others, and when this examt.'s mother saw the people 
commg, she had some small linen and a gold ring, which she gave 
to the soldiers, and asked them to take her and this examt. aside 
and save their lives. Being exammed Avhether she knew any of 
her convoy, she saith that she knew none but Eichard Burke, the 
Friar, and one Gilduffe, and being asked whether the said Edmund 
Burke did punish any of the soldiers, she saith she doth not know, 
and saith that the soldiers told Mr. Burke and her husband that 
they (Mr. Walker and his man) were killed. And after Mr. Walker 
and his man were killed, this examt. and her mother went to Bally- 
cottle, to this examt.'s father-in-law, where they remained, and 
afterwards her mother was murdered, going between Ballimote and 
the Boyle, but by whom she doth not know, and this examt. went 
to Eoserke, and stayed there with her husband, till the Lord Presi- 
dent came into the country, with a party for their relief. And 
this examt. being demanded if she knew anything of the murder 
that was committed between the Moyne and Killaly, saith that she 
heard that one James Dexter did instigate the people to murder 
them, in regard that some of the British had gone away in his 
boat. 

Taken before vie the day 

and year above written, 
Cha. Coote. 

Note. 

Editha Gardiner's husband swore to the same effect, stating how 
the rebels had burned the town and forced the English to retreat 
into the church tower, or steeple (tower), and that he had heard, 
that when James Dexter's boat was stolen by three Scotchmen Avho 
escaped in it to Ulster, he (Dexter), and some Irishmen, gathered 
all the rest of the Scotchmen of that neighbourhood, and drowned 
them in the sea and the river at Moyne. 



14 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1011. 



CXXIV. 
■ Julian Johnson, the relict of John Johnson, clerk, preacher of 
God's word, parson of Athenry, Donmore, in the county of Galway, 
sworn and examined, saith, that since the present rebellion began 
in this kingdom, a little before Christmas, 1641, her husband, then 
alive, and she, were robbed and despoiled of their means, goods, and 
chattels, to their loss of 1,655Z. sterling, by, and by the means of, 
the Lord Clanmorris, and his soldiers, who at first in a fawning 
and seemly fair manner, as a man seeming to partake with the Et. 
Hon. Earl of Clanricarde, came into her house, and by his promises 
of loyalty to his Majesty, and love to her husband, was kindly enter- 
tained by them, but when he, by information, had discovered and 
searched out where all their goods were, he then discovered his 
former dissimulation and treachery, and deprived them of all their 
said goods to the value aforesaid. But before that time, viz. about 
the beginning of November, 1641, her said husband and she were 
forcibly robbed at Oorrindely, in the county Leitrim, and thereabouts, 
of goods worth 760Z. by the treacherous rebel Owen McQuillen, 
then bailiff and receiver of rents, and others whose names she can- 
not express. And afterwards her said husband and she, forsaking 
both those counties for safety, retired to the island called the Inch 
in the King's County, to the house of Capt. Robert Smith, and stayed 
there about five weeks, and then her said husband and her eldest 
son, and one Mr. Baxter, a minister, and the said Captain Smith, 
and twenty more Protestants of their company, being all slain in a 
skirmish by the sept of the O'Molloys, and their soldiers, she, this 
deponent, was robbed at the same Captain's house of goods and 
chattels worth 241Z. more. And then and there the said Captain 
Smith's wife was also robbed of all her goods, and she and this 
deponent, after several days' restraint with those rebels, were con- 
strained to eat and drink with those that murdered their husbands. 
And saith, that Paul O'Molloy, a friar, was the principal man in that 
slaughter and robbery, who quickly after that skirmish, in a tri- 
umphant rejoicing way, said, ' It was brave sport ' to see the young 
men, meaning some of the young Englishmen, then slain, defending 
themselves, ' their eyes hxirningin their heads.' And saith also, that 
the rebels robbed her of her clothes, and that that friar, though often 
entreated, would give her none of her clothes again, because, as he 
said, and as was indeed true, because she was a minister's wife. 



DEPOSITIONS. 15 

And then all the Protestants were turned out of the island, stripped 
of all they had, and denied any of their meat and provision, which 
the rebels had surprised, almost surfeited themselves on, and had 
then thrown on a dunghill. And saith that, although this deponent 
and the said Captain Smith's wife escaped away, and lived, yet the 
rest, being in all about one hundred and forty, being turned out 
without their clothes, died of hunger or starving. And this de- 
ponent, after her removal from the island, being brought to one John 
McFarrell's house, sho heard some one of the cruel rebel soldiers 
then and there boast and brag of the brave sport he and others had, 
in setting on fire the straw with which a stripped Englishwoman 
had tied about her, and how bravely he said, ' the fire made the 
English jade wince.' And this deponent afterwards endured many 
miseries coming to Dublin, where she now is in great want and 
misery, her former sufferings being too many to be related, and 
she charged with nine small children, who for a year have been 
maintained by the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Clanricard, Captain Chidley 
Coote, and Captain Parsons, out of their mere worthy bounty and 
charity. 

Julian Johnson. 
J7(.rat. Sth Feb. 1643, 

Henry Jones. 
Hen. Brereton. 

CXXV. 

Ralph Lambart, late of tlie town of Gal way, gent., sworn and 
examined, deposeth that he was robbed and despoiled of leases, 
goods, and chattels, worth 401^., and upwards, at the beginning of 
this rebellion. And further saith, that himself and his family, with 
many other pillaged Protestants, repaired for refuge to Loughrea 
and Portumna. And saith that one Hugh Langridge, a house- 
carpenter, being a servant of the late and present Earl of Clanri- 
carde for twenty-eight years, and a dweller in Loughrea, about July, 
1G42, had occasion to go to the woods to cut timber about five 
miles from home, taking with him his son of the age of fifteen years, 
and lodging in an empty house one night in a scattered small village, 
there came five men and broke in upon them both asleep, the chief of 
these men being one Rowland Bourke, formerly a soldier in the said 
Earl's foot company, but who, through some misdemeanours, was 
cashiered ; they first bound the said Hugh with his son, and then 
led them forth in their shirts, a quarter of a mile, and then bound 



16 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

them to two trees about twenty yards asunder, and then began to 
cut, hew, and stab them, as long as they perceived any life in them, 
the said Rowland with his sword, and another with the said Hugh's 
own axe, and the rest with darts and skeans ; tlie father received 
seventeen wounds, and the son nine, and as soon as the malefactors 
had ended their said mischief, they forthwith returned back to the 
said house, to pillage further the said Hugh's tools and victuals, 
and in a while the said Hugh, being a strong-hearted old man, 
began to revive, and asked his son if lie were living, who answered 
that he was so wounded that he coiild not tell whether he would 
recover or not, for his head was almost cut open, but his throat had 
escaped. The father replied he feared he never could recover, for 
that he had received a stroke under his ribs with his own axe, and 
that his bowels were coming through it, but he desired his son if he 
(the father) should die, to commend him to his wife and other 
children, and to report of his usage, and so, commending himself 
and his family to Almighty God by an earnest prayer, he began to 
sing a psalm, and by that time the cruel rebels returning from the 
house, the said Eowland Bourke said, ' Are you singing ? then Til 
sing with you ! ' and struck him on his head with his sword, so as 
his brains did appear, as this deponent hath seen, within three days 
after, when the corpse was brought into the town, but the youth 
was cured at the Earl's charge, who did keep him some time. Also 
this deponent saith, that about July, 1642, there was a poor old 
minister named Mr. Korbett, living in the time of peace within four 
miles of Loughrea, but in the troubles he remained at Loughrea, 
for relief and safety as the rest did, yet in expectation of kindness 
from his former parishioners, he went towards his parish, and by 
the way had his head cut off by two young cowboys, one of whom 
was apprehended by Captain Thomas Leicester, who should have 
him hanged for that murder, but that one of Captain Burke's sol- 
diers then being on the mainguard, let him out of the stocks, and 
this deponent heard that prisoner say, when he was demanded 
why he murdered so harmless a person, that he thought it a good 
service to God, seeing that Mr. Korbett was an Englishman, and 
especially because he was a minister. Moreover, this deponent 
saith that he had a son at nurse with one that dwelt at Clancannon, 
upon the Bourke's land, so that this deponent could not send for 
him, it being January, 1G41, and the child was beaten by one of 
Hubert Buie Bourke's soldiers, so that it died in three days after. 
This deponent further saith that, about February, 1G42, there was 



DEPOSITIONS. ] 7 

a cruel murder committed at tlio abbey of Jjoylo, by Charles 
McDermott.one of the great McDermott's sons, and his men, who one 
night came into the said town of Boyle, and there murdered many 
persons, amongst them this deponent's sister and her child, and her 
Jnisband, William Stewart, were there slain, as this deponent hath been 
credibly informed by both English and Irish. . . . And further saith, 
that he heard it credibly reported, that about December, 1G41, one 
Con O'Bourke of the county of Leitrim, then a new made colonel, 
did produce a supposed commission from his Majesty, under the broad 
seal, wherein full power was given to the Irish to banish all tho 
English, and despoil them of all their goods, but this deponent hath 
been credibly informed by some of the Irish, that the said broad seal 
was the seal of a patent for lands that the said colonel had gotten 
at Moliill, when he took it from Mr. Henry Crofton, and that he, the 
said Con, or his son, did forge the said commission to the said seal. 

Ralph Lambeet. 
Jurat, dth July, 1G45, 
Coram Hen. Jones. 

Hen. Breketon. 

CXXVI. 

Colonel Fuancis Taafe, being duly sworn and examined, 
doposcth and saith, that he knew Charles O'Connor and Hugh 
O'Connor, the brothers of O'Connor Sligo, and he heard of a horrid 
murder committed in Sligo upon Mr. Stewart, William Walsh, and 
divers others, wherein the said Charles and Hugh were principal 
actors. He further saith, that Major-General Lucas Taafe and this 
examt. did, with five hundred men, apprehend the said persons and 
brought them prisoners to Ballinafad in order to try them for the 
said murder, where they were kept prisoners for a long time (bat the 
certain time ho doth not remember), during which time he believed 
the said Major-General Taafe sent to such as had the chief authority 
in this province, desiring that the said parties might be brought to 
a trial, and at length, finding it very inconvenient to continue there 
any longer in that place, the said Major-General caused them to be 
conveyed to Castle Coote, to the intent they might be there brought 
to justice, as he believes, whore Lieut. -Gen. Bourke there was with 
an army, who then commanded in chief both in the army besieging 
that place, and in the whole province where the said Charles and Hugh 
were left prisoners, and were within a week set at liberty, but by 
what means or by what order he knoweth not. He further saith, 

VOL. II. c 



18 TTIK IRISH MASSxVCRES OF 1(541. 

that about a twelvemonth ago lie saw the said Hugh O'Connor 
come into the Lord Clanricard's army near Bally shannon, and dis- 
cover himself to his lordship and desired that ho might be ques- 
tioned for the aforesaid murder, who promised and engaged that so 
soon as he got into Ballyshannon he would have the said Hugh 
hanged, which was prevented by the sudden approach of the English 
army, and the said Hugh is now in actual rebellion, not daring to 
come in because of the murders, as this examt. is informed. 

Francis Taafe. 
Taken before us ISth of May, 1653, 
Charles Coote. 
Walter Carwardine. 

Note. 

The deponent Colonel Francis Taafe was the fourth son of the 
first Viscount Taafe by his wife, the daughter of Lord Dillon, and 
having gone abroad after the Cromwellian Settlement, and married 
an Italian lady, he died at Naples leaving a son Charles. The 
elder brother of Colonel Taafe, Major-General Lucas Taafe, married, 
first, Elizabeth Stephenson of Dunmoylan, county Limerick, by 
whom he had a daughter ; and secondly, Annabella, daughter of 
Captain Thomas Spring {v. Deposition CLXXXVI.) of Kerry, by 
whom he had a son, Christopher, who married and left issue a son, 
Abel Taafe of Tipperary, living in the early part of the last century. 



CXXVII. 

Margaret Kelly, of Dundalk, in the county of Louth, widow, 
aged forty years or thereabouts, taken the 24th of June, 1654, 
being duly sworn and examined, deposeth and saith, that on or 
about the 23rd of October, 1641, this examt., then living at 
Carrickm across, in the county of Monaghan, did there and then see 
Patrick MacEdmund MacMahon, Patrick MacToole MacMahon, 
where they now live she heard not, Toole MacEward now in the 
county of Do\vn, Patrick MacCollo Eoe MacMahon, Hugh Bander 
(sic) O'Collan, and Patrick O'Lerdy {sic), all three prisoners, now in 
Dundalk gaol, and several other rebels whose names this examt. 
remembereth not. She saith that the said rebels did then and there 
seize on the several English inhabitants and Protestants of the 
town of Carrickmacross, and amongst them seized on John Jackson, 
George Gedden, and Tiiomas Alsdersly, and committed and kept 



DISPOSITIONS. 1 9 

tliein prisoners in the said town, until the 1st of Jimuary, 1G41, 

and then the said rebels having erected a gallows near to the Castle 

of Carrickmacross, this deponent did see the said Patrick MacCollo 

Eoe MacMahon, Hugh Rander O'Collon, Patrick Lerdy, Patrick 

MacEdmund MacMahon, Patrick MacToole MacMahon, and Toole 

MacEward, and several other rebels aforesaid, carrying the said 

John Jackson, George Gedden, and Thomas Aldersly, to the said 

gallows, and the said rebels being come to the gallows she did then 

see them ready to hang the said Jackson, Gedden, and Aldersly, 

and this examt. having gone a little way into the said town, and 

returning immediately, did as she Avas passing by see the said 

Jackson, Gedden, and Aldersly hanging dead upon the said gallows, 

and the said Patrick MacCollo Roe MacMahon, Hugh Eander 

O'Collon, Patrick O'Lerdy, Patrick MacEward MacMahon, Patrick 

MacToole MacMahon, and the said Toole MacEward standing at 

the said gallows among the other rebels, aiding and assisting at the 

hanging of the said Jackson, Gedden, and Aldersley. This examt. 

further saith, that about a month or six weeks after the 1st of 

January aforesaid this examt. did see the said Hugh Rander 

O'Collon and Toole MacEward present, and assisting other rebels 

at Carrickmacross aforesaid at the hanging of Mr. Russell and his 

wife, whose Christian names deponent remembereth not, and further 

saith not. 

Margaket Kelly. 

Taken and deposed before me the day and year aforesaid, 
Thomas Dongan. 



cxxvni. 

Anne Moobb, of Portfreany, in the county Down, aged fifty years 
or thereabouts, duly sworn and examined, saith, that at the begin- 
ning of the rebellion she and her husband, Edward Moore, lived in 
the parish of Ballydowney, and they removed from their own house 
(when all the goods they had therein were taken away by the Irish 
party) to the house of Phihp Kelly, bemg a neighbour of their own, 
where they tarried one night, and the next morning this examt. 's 
husband went into one John Porter's hard by to hear what news 
there was, and at his coming into the said Porter's house he was 
seized upon by Callo McKnogher and others, whose names slie 
remembers not, to about the number of six persons, when he, her- 

c 2 



20 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGll. 

said husband, was taken a little way and killed by tliem. And the 
cause of this examt.'s knowledge is that she chanced to look out of the 
said Philip Kelly's house towards John Porter's, when she saw the 
said Callo and the others carrying her husband by the said Porter's 
house ; upon which she hasted after them as fast as she could, but 
before she could come unto them her said liusband was killed and 
the Irish had left him full of wounds. And she further saith, that 
the saw the corpse of one Hugh Wild, who was murdered at the 
same time, by the same party. And she saw his entrails coming 
forth of his body ; and she did hear among the Irish, while she was 
their prisoner, that one Pat Oge O'Hoolihan was amongst them that 
committed these murders. And further saith not. 

Ann + Moore. 
Jurat. 13 Matj, 1653, 
Edwabd Conway. 
Geo. Kawdon. Note, 

John Porter, sworn, confirmed the above in all particulars, 
adding that Art O'Huolihan, a priest, was amongst the party that 
committed these murders. 



CXXIX. 

Edward Wilson, of Lattmarkmurphy, in the parish of Augh 
{illegible), in the barony of Dungannon, county of Tyrone, gent., 
being duly sworn and examined, deposeth and saith, that in the 
beginning of the present rebellion, and by means thereof, to wit 
on the 28rd of October last, he was robbed or otherwise despoiled of 
his goods and chattels worth 870^., by, or by the means of, Shane Oge 
MacCanna {sic) of the barony of Truagh, county of Monaghan, gent,, 
Toole MacCanna and his brother Cuconnaght MacCanna, Patrick 
MacCanna and his brother, and several of the septs of the Mac- 
Cannas. And this deponent saith, that there was murdered at 
Aghalon aforesaid, by the rebels, men, women, and children, to the 
number of one hundred persons or thereabouts, some whereof they 
killed with swords, others they hanged, others they shot to death, 
others they hung up by the arms, and with their swords did hack 
them, to see how many blows they could endure before they died, 
and others they knocked on the head with hatchets. And further 
this deponent saith, that he heard it credibly reported by men 
of credit that the rebels of that county publicly said that the 
king of England should no longer be tlieir king, saying further. 



DEPOSITIONS. 2 1 

• Hang him, the roijiic ! he has been too long our king already ! ' 
and they said the king of Spain should be their king, and they 
drank his health in the house of a Scotchman they had mur- 
dered. And further saith, that he hath also heard it credibly 
reported that at other times the rebels said Sir Phehm O'Neil 

should be their king. 

Edwabd Wilson. 

Jurat. IQth October, 1742, 

Coram John Watson. 

Wm. Aldiucii. 



cxxx. 

The said Edwakd Wilson, of Lattmarkmurphy, in the parish of 
Aghalon, in the barony of Dungannon, being duly sworn and ex- 
amined, on behalf of Robert Rowan, a little child, son to James 
Rowan, late of Magharnahaly, in the county of Armagh, gent., mur- 
dered by the rebels, deposeth and saith, that the said James Rowan 
before the rebellion began was worth and had in estates, lands, 
leases, ready money in his house, and money owing him by men 
now in actual rebelHon, and in other goods and chattels to the 
value of 2,000Z. and above ; and having such an estate as aforesaid, 
was, since the rebellion began and by means thereof, expelled from, 
deprived,, robbed, or otherwise despoiled of all his moans and estate 
aforesaid, and after half a year's imprisonment was himself murdered 
in prison. And his wife and four small children, going towards 
Clannaboys for safety of their lives, were all most cruelly murdered 
by the rebels on the highway, to wit, the mother was knocked on the 
head, being great with child, and two of her children were hanged 
over their mother's shoulder before they murdered her, and the other 
two children were laiocked on the head and so killed ; and at the 
same time and place four of her servants were also murdered by the 
rebels. And saith, that the rebels that robbed the said James Rowan 
aforesaid were the inhabitants of the Newry. But the names of 
those rebels that committed the aforesaid murders, nor their places 
of present abode, this deponent knoweth not. And that the estate 
of the said James Rowan aforesaid, by the death of his wife and her 
other children, of right belongeth to the said Robert Rowan. 

his 
Jurat, nth October, 1642, Edward + Wilson. 

Wm. Aldeich. mark 

John Watson. 



22 TllK IRISH MASSACRES OF lOll. 

Note. 

John Henderson, gent., sworn on the 2ncl of May, 1G53, before 
Colonel George Kawdon, deposed that he and about forty other 
Protestants were imprisoned at Armagh in the spring of 1641, by 
order of Tirlogh Roe O'Neil, that he looked out one morning of a 
window in the back of the gaol, and saw ' James Rowan, an inhabi- 
tant of Newry, brought thither by one Walter Bodley, Hugh Modder 
MacCadden {sic), and Neil O'Mallan, with others whose names he 
knoweth not, and there murdered by them.' Henderson further 
swore that Mr. Griffin, curate of Armagh, William Cammoge, and 
others to the number of about twenty, were all taken away from 
Armagh to Munolly, about twenty-four miles distant, and all mur- 
dered except Cammoge, who escaped and told him the fate of the 
rest, and that thirty-six persons were drowned or murdered by the 
rebels at the ToUwater. 



CXXXI. 

The examination of Humphrey Stewart, taken before me, this 
8rd day of May, 1653, being aged forty years or thereabouts, who 
being duly examined and sworn, saith, that the next day after the 
town of Lisnogarvey was burnt by Sir Phelim O'Neil, and his army 
returning home scattered, this examt, coming down to the Tollwater 
the same day saw Joseph Hanley, his wife, and their children, cast 
into the Tollwater, with one Plenry Taylor, son of William Taylor, 
and there drowned by Donnell O'Neill McCann, David McVeagh, 
Edmund Roe MacEIevay, and Neil O'Doven, whereupon this 
examt. was glad to fly back into the woods for shelter and there 
hid himself. And as for the drowning at Portadown, he, this 
examt., saith, that he and one James Jackson being at plow for 
Mr. Jones, about Lammas last, there came to them wlion they 
were ploughing one Toole Oge McToole dubh MacCann, and they 
falling into discoiirse about the great murders committed at Porta- 
donne, this examt. charged the said Toole with being one of them 
that committed them, to which the said Toole answered, that he 
did nothing but what he had command for ; for that Toole McRory 
liad the command of many men and him amongst the rest, and 
that he commanded them not to suff"er any of the British nation to 
pass over the bridge, without money and some of their clothes, 
and this examt. saith, he heard there wore drowned by the said 



DEPOSlTIOiNS. 23 

men about seven score men, women, cantl cliildren, among whom 
were AVilliam Taylor, Avith four or five cliildren, Alexander Rose, 
with six or seven children, John Jackson and his wife, Edward 
Eaton, James Rumbold, and very many more of this examt.'s 
neighbours, but this examt. knoweth not the names of those that 
were at the said drowning, but heard from many it was done by 
the command of the said Toole McRory McCann, and further saith 
not. 

Geo. Rawugn. Humphrey Stewart + 

CXXXII. 

John Hickman, late of Tinakeertagh, in the parish of Armagh, 
county of Cavan, yeoman, sworn and examined, saith, that in the 
beginning of the present rebellion, viz. about the 24th of October, 
1041, he, this deponent, was deprived, robbed, or oihorwise despoiled 
of his lands of inheritance, worth 48/. yearly, and is like to lose 
the future profits thereof, mitil a peace be established, and of goods 
and chattels worth IIGZ. more. And also this deponent's house 
was taken up by the rebels, Hugh O'Reily, gent., of Drumnaloe, 
and Hugh McDonough Malmore O'Reilly of Ardlough, in the same 
county, Owen O'Gowen of Cordnashure, who forcibly took from 
this deponent his horse and stripped his father-in-law and his wife 
of their clothes. And further saith, that when this deponent and 
his wife and children intended to come away from the rebels, one 
Donnell O'Leary, his brother-in-law, who is an Irishman and yet 
a Protestant, being not allowed to come away with them, took this 
deponent into his own house, and there kept him for about one 
year together, during which time the rebels sent them word and 
threatened them all with death, if they would not go to mass. 
And the rebels forcibly took from his said brother-in-law, Donnell 
O'Leary, the possession rents and profits of his land, and some of 
his goods, and promised to restore all unto him if he would forsake 
the Protestant religion and go to mass. And further saith, that 
Avhilst he was so kept at his said brother-in-law's house, he and his 
brother-in-law drew cut of the river of Lough Erne the corpses of 
six persons that the rebels had formerly drowned, which corpses 
they buried. And this deponent observed that although those 
corpses had lain long in the water, yet they were not torn, iior 
eaten by the fish, nor devoured, but their skins were whole. And 
further saith, that since those persons and other Protestants 
were drowned in that river, which is called Lough Erne river, this 



24 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

deponent liatli heard divers of the rebels complain that they could 
not get bream, pike, or other fish in that river, since the English 
were drowned there, as formerly they had done, and they used to 
say that they (the Irish) thought all the fish and the English had 
gone away together. 

John + Hickman. 
Jurat. IQth Feb. 1G42, 
Randal Adams. 
Will. Aldeich. 

CXXXIII. ^ 

Randall Adams, clerk, duly sworn, saith, that about the 1st of 
November, 1641, being in company with some of the chief gentle- 
men of Westmeath, near the place of his and their residence, he 
heard some of the said gentlemen profess and say to some friars 
then in their company, that they, the friars and their fellows, were 
the cause of this great and mischievous rebellion, and showed to 
their face what little, and indeed no cause they had to have begun 
so many foul abominable actions ; as first, generally they enjoyed 
the highest benefits the kingdom could aftbrd, and that none even 
of the best and greatest, all things considered, could be so fully 
made partakers of them, the benefits aforesaid, than they were, 
and for further convincing them of their damnable villainy, they 
instanced, in very many particulars at first, the great freedom they 
had in religion without control, and that they, the friars, had 
generally the best horses, clothes, meats, drinks, and all provisions, 
delightful or useful, as none others had, or could hope to have, the 
like on such cheap and easy terms, for they had all without care or 
cost of their own, and many other privileges, beyond any of their 
own function either regular or secular, through the Christian 
world ; and therefore those gentlemen most bitterly cursed them, 
the friars, to their teeth, saying they hoped God Avould bring that 
vengeance home to them which they, by their wicked plots, laboured 
so wickedly to bring on others. The gentlemen before named that 
spoke these very same words were Sir Phelim Tuite, Knt. and 
Baronet, Edward Tuite, Esq., justice of the peace, and Andrew 
Tuite, Esq., justice of the peace. 

Randall Adams. 
Jurat, August 22ncl, 1G42, 

John Watson. 
Wm. Aldrich. 
Hen. Bkeueton. 



DEPOSITIONS. 25 

CXXXIV. 

The Examination of Christopher Hampton, taken before me, by 
direction of the Bight Honourable the Lords Justices and 
Council, this 11th of December, 1G41. 

The said Hampton, being sworn by the clerk of the Council, 
saith, that he and divers others coming ashore on the 5th of the 
present at the Skerries, within ten miles of this city, one called 
Father Malone, with many 4iccompanying of hun, laid hands upon 
this examt. and the rest, and stripped them of all they had, and 
likewise entered into the ship, and rifled and took away what was 
there, which being done, the said Malone sent this examt. and the 
other passengers by a warrant under his hand, from constable to 
constable, to Eogcr Moore, colonel in the army. According to the 
warrant of the said Malone, this examt. being brought before Mr. 
Eoger Moore, he after some time let this examt. and the rest go 
free and at large. This examt. further saith, that at the same place 
and time there was present at the Church of Duleek, in consulta- 
tion, sundry of the Lords of the Pale, namely the Lord of Gormans- 
town, the Lord Netterville, the Lord of Slane, the Lord Louth, the 
Lord of Iveagh, the rest were miknown to this examt. 

Egbert Meredith. 
Note. 

Was this Father Malone the provincial of the Jesuits before 
mentioned {v. ante, p. 88G) or a parish priest in Wicklow ? This 
outrage was committed on the day that Sir Charles Coote was sent 
from Dublin into Wicklow, and six days later another English bark 
was pkuidered in the same neighbourhood, as appears by the next 
deposition. 

cxxxv. 

The Examination of David Powell, taken before me. Sir John 
Temple, Ent., December lith, 1G41. 

David Powell, one of the inhabitants of Clontarf, saith, that a 
bark belonging to Philip Norrice, of Liverpool, ran aground near 
Clontarf on the 11th of December, that some dwellers of {sic) 
Eahenny, to the number of fourteen, came and pillaged the said 
bark, and took away all the best commodities that Avere then in her. 



26 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

and that when one Evers and a miller came to liclp to save tlie 
goods, they fell xipon them and womided the miller to death, and 
caused Evers, for fear of losing his life, to tm-n Papist. On the 14th 
of December the inhabitants of Clontarf, chiefly fishermen, came 
and took away out of the said bark such coals and salt and ropes as 
were left in the said barque and carried them to their houses. And 
saith further, that FitzSimmons of Eahenny, gent., was amongst 
those at Rahenny that pillaged the bark all night. And saith 
further, that there came some of the rebels on the 12th of December 
to Clontarf, and that they came to the house of this examt., finding 
no other English in the town, and rifled all he had, and said they 
would set fire to his house if he would not leave it, and that they 
would not leave an Englishman dwelling upon the land, and they 

said they would go from thence to Howth, 

{Unsig7ied.) 
J. Temple. 

Note. 

The above deposition appears to be a copy of a lost original. 

CXXXVI. 

Joseph Smithson, minister and preacher of God's Word in the 
parish of Clonskerme [sic), in the county of Dublin, and barony of 
Eathdown, being duly sworn and examined, deposeth, that in 
December last, upon {illegible) day at night, he was robbed in house- 
hold goods to the value of 40Z. ; in hay, 50^. ; in {illegible) 21. ; in bills 
and bonds, 101. ; in the loss of his glebe lands and garden, 5/. ; in 
divers hens, geese, ducks, pigs, and turkeys, 18s. ; offerings and other 
duties, 51. And that his wife was that night taken prisoner in her 
own house at Dean's Grange, county Dublin, by the servant of 
Richard Rochfort of the same parish, in the county of Dublin, gent., 
viz. Phelim Malone and John Carrick of {illegible), and others 
whose names are James Goodman of Ballinley, Alexander Rochfort 
and Patrick Sherman of the Kill, all of the parish and county 
aforesaid, and being so taken in her own house, her apron pulled 
off and herself dragged out by the hair of her head, she was then 
pinioned and set upon her own horse, her clothes plucked from her, 
and they drove her horse through bogs to one Mr. William Wolver- 
ston, of Stillorgan, in the said county. Esquire, who gave command 
to the rebels to hang her but not upon his land. Afterwards she 
was carried, still on horseback, a matter of twenty miles after the 
same manner. And this deponent further saith, that the said Mr. 



DEPOSITIONS. 27 

Wolverstoii told him, this deponent, that he would pay no more 

tithes but to the mass priest. And this deponent is like to be 

deprived of the same tithes which since the rebellion began ]\Ir. 

Wolverston hath detained from him. And saith also, that Mr. 

Eichard Rochfort, a wilful Papist, kept from this deponent as many 

tithe furs as came to 51., and said to this deponent that he kept 

them in hopes to see the Protestants buried in them. And this 

deponent is like to be deprived of those tithes also due from the said 

Rochfort since the rebellion, he peremptory denying to pay them. 

And further the said Rochfort did say to one Thomas Frisby, that 

if he would get him Mr. Smithson and his wife he would shoot 

them to pieces with his pistol. And further this deponent saith, 

that he credibly heard that the robbers that took away his wife 

were of the council of {illegible) the said William Woolverston 

aforesaid, and of one Patrick Coleman, Nicholas Farrell, Daniel 

McQuin, Nicholas Rochfort, and William Taylor, of Stillorgan, 

being all Papists and rebels, as he considereth. And this examt. 

is credibly informed that the said rebels have most barbarously 

and cruelly hanged his said wife till she died, and a servant woman 

of hers also. And this examt., for fear of the cruelty of the said 

Wolverston, Rochford, and the rebels before mentioned, was enforced 

to fly from his benefice, with his two sons, whither they dare not 

return, but arc deprived of the bench t thereof, being worth yearly 

40^., and above, and being as aforesaid robbed of his other goods, 

hath no means whereby to maintain himself and his children, but 

they are all exposed to great want and misery. 

Joseph Smithson. 

Jurat, coram nobis, IStJi Jan. lG-11, 

Wm. Hitchcock. 

Wm. Aldrich. 

Note. 

In former times Wicklow was well stocked not only with the red- 
deer which Strafford loved to hunt {v. Introduction, note p. 71), 
but with otters and other small wild animals, the furs of which were 
valuable. In a letter to Strafiford, Laud thanks him for a gift of a 
cloak lined with Irish furs, in which it appears from the above deposi- 
tion portions of the Established Church tithes were sometimes paid. 

CXXXVII. 

Denney, the relict of James Montgomeky, clerk, parson of 
Donnamayne, in the county Monaghan, being duly sworn and 



28 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGll. 

examined, deposeth and saitli, that since tlie beginning of this 
present rebellion and by means thereof, her said luisband, and she, 
this deponent, were expelled from, deprived, robbed, or otherwise de- 
spoiled of their goods and chattels to the value of 703/. And further 
saith, that the rebels that so robbed and despoiled them were Colonel 
MacMahon MacBrian, and Patrick MacLaughlin, Colonel MacQuin, 
Colonel MacArt Ardle MacMahon, and Ewer MacCallan. And she 
further saith, that on May day last, when the rebels were beaten at 
Ardee by the English army, they all came to Carriclanacross, and 
then they killed her, this deponent's, husband, and said they would 
not leave a minister alive in Ireland, because, as they said, the 
English army killed all their priests at Ardee. And the chief captains 
and colonels in the Carrick said they did God good service in killing 
the ministers. And this deponent saith also, that at Christmas last 
the rebels most cruelly murdered, at three several times, nineteen 
Englishmen, and since Christmas killed and drowned, at or near 
the Carrick, of men, women, and children, to the number of eighty- 
nine persons. And saith, that the persons that did these murders 
and cruelties were Colonel MacBrian MacMahon, a chief rebel in 
Carrickmacross, Ewer MacLoughlin, a rebel bishop who was the 
chief director and causer of these murders, and Patrick Mac- 
Loughlin, a colonel also among the rebels. And this deponent 
further saith, that such was the cruelty of those that murdered her 
husband, that after they had hanged him up they cut his head from 
his body and stabbed him with skeans. And that one Friar John, 
who was one of the principal murderers, took hold of her husband's 
leg while he was hanging, saying, ' Go tell the devil I sent thee to 
him for a token.' And the same rebels did commonly say that tlie 
Protestants were to be all crushed. And this deponent saw one 
who termed himself to be the priest of Carrickmacross sprinkle 
water on and christen anew one Francis Williams, of Carrickmacross, 
and his wife, who were formerly Protestants, but turned to mass, ho 
further saying they could not be Christians until they were so 
christened. And the rebels before her husband's death prest him 
much to turn to mass, but he told them he would die in his own 
religion. 

Denney Montgomery + 
Jurat, nth November, 1642, 
John Watson. Eandal Adams. 

Wm. Aldricii. Ed. Pigott. 

Hen. Brereton. 



DErosmoNS. 29 

CXXXVIII. 

John Joice, Vice-Constable of the Black Castle, of Wicklow, 
sworn and examined, saitli, that since the beginning of tliis present 
rebellion, and by means thereof, he was deprived of his goods and 
chattels hereafter expressed, viz. upon and from his farms of- 
Greenane and Ballinowle, in the county of Wicklow, and within 
Wicldow aforesaid, of beasts and cattle worth lOOL, horses worth 
801. , sheep worth 26L, neAV tanhouse and bark worth IQOL, in his 
haggard of corn and hay lOOL, hogs, rents, owing by tenants that 
are now in rebellion, 15L, by those rebels following, Luke Toole of 
Castle Kevin, Tiegue Oge Birne of Ballinvallagh, Esquire, an 
ancient traitor in the time of Queen Elizabeth, Brian Birne of 
Killnamonagh, gent., Walter Birne of Neuragh, gent., John McBrian 
Birne of Ballhiater, gent., Luke Birne of Killwanagh, gent., James 
Birno of TinwilUn, gent., William {illegible) of Ballireagh, Brian 
McDonogh of IJehanagh, Donogh Commian of Kilnemanagh, gent., 
Thomas Archbold of Wicklow, gent., Alexander McDonell of the 
same, gent., John Coghlan of Wicklow, gent., all of the county of 
Wicklow, Patrick Bane O'Cullen, James McOwen Doyle, Owen 
Doyle, a butcher, Edmund O'Cleary, Art McShane, Gerrot McShane, 
Shane O'Cleary, Michael Bassmore, Brian McArt, Edward McBrian, 
Tirlogh Birne, Nicholas Doyle, Turlogh Doyle, Harry Barnewall, 
Eichard Barnewall, Patrick McDermot, James Corley, Nicholas 
McBroder, Henry White and John his son, Tadey Newman, Eichard 
Hore, Shane McEdward, Thomas White, James White, Wilham 
Mcllderry, Edward Connell, Shane IMcMurrogh, Edward and Peter 
White, Fitz Andrew; Eichard Kinn, Edward Duffe, WiUiam McDer- 
mot, John McDermot, Tiegue O'Cullen, Hugh O'Eonon, Eichard 
O'Eonon, Laughlin O'Eonon, Patrick and Nicholas O'Eonon, Walter 
White, Eichard Cottner, Gillernow Cottner, John Toole, William 
Kearny, James McEichard, Henry Bronocke, James McDermot, Don- 
nell Eoe Slater, Nicholas ]\IcMurtagh, George Sherlock, Laughlin 
McTirlagh of the town of Wicklow. And further saith, that Oliver 
Masterson in the county of Wexford, gent., James Fullam of the city 
of Dublin, shoemaker, Tiege McDonnell Enos, Tirlagh MacGerald, 
who are now in actual rebellion, were and are indebted to this depo- 
nent in several sums amounting to 881. is., and by means of their 
being in rebellion he hath lost the same. 

And this deponent further saith, that Thomas Mullinex, gent., 
now resting by commission in the castle of Wicklow, told this dcpo- 



30 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF KUl. 

iient, and so have others whom this deponent gives credit unto hke- 
wise informed him, that Philip Birne of Barnasoile, in the comity 
of Wicldow, gent., son-in-law to Mr. Edward Leech of the Grange 
near Wicklow, was, about seven weeks since, by or by the means of 
the said Mr. Mullinex, apprehended in Dviblin for partaking with 
the rebels, and especially for writing a letter to him and this depo- 
nent for delivering up the castle of Wicklow unto the rebels. And 
that the said Philip Birne was brought before Sir Cliarles Coote, 
and there examined and committed, and threatened to be hanged, 
but how he was enlarged this deponent knoweth not. Howbeit, by 
some means he hath gotten fi-esh liberty, and at or about the Gth 
or 7th of April last this deponent received another letter from him, 
which followeth in these words, \'iz. — 

Mr. John Joice. — So it is, though (as) you partly know, I intend to 

assault the Oastle of Wicklow, hefore I depart, I do not desire to take the 

lives of any Christian, so I desire you and the rest to prepare yourselves 

to serve God, so I rest 

Yours as you deserve it, 

Philip Birne. 

Which letter this deponent received about the 7th of April afore- 
said, 1642, which letter was thus endorsed, * To John Joice and the 
rest in the castle of Wickloiv.' And afterwards this deponent re- 
ceived a letter from the said Luke Birne, colonel of the rebels, thus 
directed, viz. ' To my loving and respected friend Mr. John Joice, 
and the rest of the gentlemen in the castle of Wickloiv, these.' 

CoiniTEGUS GENTLEMEN. — It is Dot unknown to men of your litteration 
{sic) and experience, that it is no perfect point of Christianity that men 
should, in scorn of other Christians, rather untimely perish hetweeu hope 
and despair than yield to many well-disposed men of note, as many other 
gentlemen of your country have done and some to myself, for which they 
received the benefit of faithful promises faithfully performed to their 
content in the present, and ever shall, by God's grace subsisting, which 
gentlemen like (illegible) and quarter of goods and lives shall j'ou receive, 
with all sufficient security of performance, if it shall please God Almighty 
to mollify your hearts, no longer to stand in your own light, and to listen 
with attentive ears to your own good and safe desires, wished by your 
true and aflectionate friend to do you service ; in expectation of your 
answer I rest. 

Lttke Birne. 
April 2Gtk, 16J2. 

Since which time this deponent received another letter, delivered 
mito him about the last of April, 1G42, from the said Walter Birne, 
thus directed, ' To Mr. John Joice and the rest of Jiis company.' 



DEPOSITIONS. 31 

Mr. John Joice. — Being not otliorwise employed, I am bold to write 
to you and the rest of my ueigliljours here with you ; we were not wont 
to be so long in one town, but we drank and made merry together. For 
my part I am here since the day that Thomas Marcor was killed, who I 
protest should not be killed if I were present ; in the meantime, I gave 
way to others to send letters to you, which I know to be no great purpose. 
But if you were in that mind or in that want whereby that you would 
leave that place, which I know to be no pleasant place for you, my word 
should be as (illcqible) as any man's in the country. I will not threaten 
you, nor tell j'ou of anything that is like to befall you, for I know you 
would not bolievo it, but I will toll you some news, that you may believe 
if you please. The English army took the castle of Oarrigmaino on Sunday 
last, was sinnoige (sic) and killed fourteen men, that were warders there, 
and many women and children. But there was killed of the English Sir 
(illegible) the colonel, his lieutenant, five captains, and 200 soldiers. So 
I rest yours as you are mine, 

Walter Birne. 

2,th April, 1642. 

Notwithstanding which letters, and the often assaults and 
attempts of the rebels aforesaid, whereby some of the people of the 
castle perished, the castle was not taken, but the enemy from time 
to time repulsed by his Majesty's small number of soldiers there. 
And this deponent further saith, that the rebels ni the town of 
Wicklow have burned, pulled down, and destroyed 23 of this 
deponent's houses or tenements in Wicklow, upon one of which 
this deponent «pent IGOL in buildings, by which burning and 
spoiling this deponent hath lost to the value of 500/. And this 
deponent hath afterwards been despoiled by the rebels of corn in 
the ground worth 40/., and there is now due unto him by one 
Dudley Birne of Ballinmacshannon, who is now in rebellion carrying 
arms against his Majesty and his loyal subjects, and therefore this 
deponent maketh accompt that he shall lose by the same 10/. 
sterling. And this deponent is also expelled from, deprived and 
forcibly dispossessed by the rebels of his lands of inheritance lying 
in the Eanelagli worth 40/. per annum, whereof one year's profit is 
already lost, and this deponent is like to be deprived of their future 
profits until a peace be established. So as his present losses by 
means of the rebellion come to 1,102/. 45. and his future loss to 40/. 
per annum as aforesaid. 



Jurat. Idth AucjJist, 1G42, 
John Watson. 
Wm. Aldkich. 
Hen. Breeeton. 



John Joyce {sic). 



32 THE IRISH massacres of igii. 

Note. 

John Joyce held the Black Castle of Wicklow, the ruins of which 
I believe still remain, for three years after he mailo this deposition, 
until the rebels, despairing of being able to take it by force or per- 
suasion, obtained admittance by treachery and sot it on fire, when 
the brave warder perished in the flames. From Byrne's letter it is 
evident that Joyce had Kved on good terms with his neighbours in 
times of peace, but when they went into rebellion he was their 
stoutest opponent, until the Black Castle became his funeral pyre. 
(See the trial of his murderers hereafter given.) 



CXXXIX. 

Edward Deane, late of Oghran, in the county of Wicklow, 
tanner, sworn, saith, that on or about the firstday of November last 
he was by the rebels robbed and despoiled of his goods to the value 
following : of corn worth lOL and above, of beasts, garrons, and sheep 
worth 1001. , household goods worth above 20Z., leather and bark worth 
250Z. , wearing apparel worth lOZ. , in all 380Z. And this deponent and 
his wife and seven children were expulsed from their house and his 
farm at Oghran aforesaid, whereof he had a lease fi-om Captain 
Bryford for 48 years in being under the rent of '61. per annum, his 
interest therein being worth 1001. And for another lease of 29 
years in being of a farm in Tennekilly in the same county, whereof 
his interest was worth '2.01. at least. And that the parties that so 
robbed him were Luke Toole of {illegible), ^Yit\nn the county "Wicklow 
colonel of 500 rebels, Luke Byrne of Killarlonon, in the same 
county, gent., captain of 100 rebels, John MacBrian, the son of 
Brian MacPhelim, gent., Turlogh MacIIugh Duffe, lately resident 
with Mr. Job Ward of Knockreagh and steward of his court, another 
captain of 100 rebel soldiers, and about 500 others in their company 
and under their command. And that divers of those rebels said they 
were the queen's soldiers, and fought for her, and they made a 
proclamation that all the English men and women that did not 
depart the country should be hanged, drawn, and quartered in 21 
hours, and that the houses of the Irish that kept any English 
children should be burned. And afterwards the same rebels, or 
some of them, did murder and hang one Edmund Snape, and 
Thomas Hanpath, smith, and others, being Enghshmen. And 
further saith that the rebels about the same time did prey and 



DErOSITIONS. 33 

despoil the said Captain Byford, Nicholas Bretxiay, Thomas Holman, 
Clemence Stephens, widow, David Stanhope, Peter Deane, Thomas 
Walton, James Shuttleworth, and Stephen Sandes, all this de- 
ponent's neighbours, and English people, and their wives and 
families, of their goods and clothes. And the rebels burnt two 
Protestant bibles, and said it was hell fire that burnt, and burnt all 
this deponent's rescripts, bonds, and leases. 

Edward Deane. 
Jurat. 1th Jan. 1G41, cora nobis, 

Roger Puttock. 

John Watson. 

CXL. 

David Koch, of Dublin, labourer, duly sworn upon the Holy 
Evangelists, deposcth and saith, that at the beginning of the rebel- 
lion in Ireland he lived with Robert Kennedy, Esq., of Ballygarney, 
as plowman. And saith, that he did then know John Leeson, 
shepherd to the Earl of Mcatli, and Nathaniel Snape, sometime 
servant to Mr. Silvester Kennedy, son to the said Robert Kennedy, 
and that they were both English Protestants. He further deposeth, 
that at the beginnnig of the rebellion aforesaid Colonel Luke Toole, 
of Castle Kevin, in the said county, having the chief command of 
the rebels there, entered into possession of the house at Ballygarney, 
belonging to the said Robert Kennedy, Esquire. This deponent 
further saith, that whilst the said Luke Toole was in the said house 
he (this deponent) saw the said Nathaniel Snape and John Leeson 
brought into the said house, as prisoners to the said Luke, by some 
under his command, but their names he knowcth not. And about 
a half an hour after he saw the said Nathaniel Snape and John 
Leeson brought out of the said house, and carried to two thorn- 
trees, near to the said house, and there hanged until they were dead, 
and, as some of the soldiers under the said Luke Toole told this 
examt., the same was done by directions of the said Luke. This 
deponent further saith, that the said Snape and Leeson were, as he 
believeth, hung because they were English Protestants, and he saith 
that after they were dead he did help to bury them. And further 
he cannot depose, 

•David -f Roche. 
nth Jan. 1G52, 

James Donnelan. Dudley Loftus. 

Thos. Dongan. Thomas Hooke. 

VOL. II. • D 



34 THE IRISH MASS ACHES OF 1011. 

TJie said David Borke is botmd in 101. to give evidence against 
Luke Toole for the aforesaid murder in the High Court of Justice 
at Dublin, the first day of the sitting of that court, and not to depart 
hence ivithout licoise, dc. 



CXLI. 

Luke Toole, of Castlekevin, in the county of Wicldow, aged 
seventy-five years or thereabouts, examined before us, saith, that 
at the beginning of the rebelhon he was summoned by Hugh 
McPhehm Byrne, Lieutenant-General of the running army for the 
Irish, to be at Ballygarny, to join with others of the Irish army 
there, to give opposition to Sir Charles Coote, who about that time 
with a party of the English army marched into the county Wiek- 
low. He saith, that he being come to Ballygarney, found Phelim 
McRedmond Byrne, who commanded in chief over this examt., and 
the rest of the party at Ballygarney. He further saith, that he 
coming in and entering into the said town of Ballygarney, there 
was a man hanging upon a bush near the house of Ballygarney, at 
which his horse started, and upon inquiry he, this deponent, was 
told by some of the soldiers there that the man was a sheplierd, 
but to whom he, this deponent, cannot now remember, nor doth he 
know the man's name, nor whether he were English and Protestant. 
He saith that he did not give any order for the hanging of the said 
shepherd, or any other person at Ballygarney, neither doth he 
know of any other that gave an order for the hanging of any one 
there, nor doth he know of any other man that was hanged there. 
He saith he doth not know of any Englishman or Protestant being 
brought into the said house at Ballygarny, before him, this de- 
ponent, or any other person, he, this deponent, and the rest of his 
party having gone away early the next morning, after his coming 
there as aforesaid, to meet the said Sir Charles Cooto. Ho furtlior 
saith that ho neither saw or knew John Leeson or Nathaniel 
Snape. 

Lu. Toole, 
^Ith Jan. 1G52, 
James Donnellan. Thos. Hooke. 

Isaac Dobbon. Dudley Loftus. 

Thos. Donqan. 



DErOSITIONS. 35 

CXLII. 

Elizabeth Leeson, late of Delgany, in the county of Wicklow, 
widow, sworn, deposetli and saith, that since the beginning of the 
present rebelHon, viz. about a month before Christmas last, her 
late husband, John Lisson {sic), late of Delgany aforesaid, was 
hanged at Ballygarney, in the county of Wicklow, by Morgan 
McEdmund and Brian of the Killory in the said county, and Brian 
Fynn of the Doune in the said county, yeoman, as this examt. was 
informed, and as they both confessed afterwards to this examt. 
herself. And further saith, that ever since her said husband's 
death she lived with John Walshe of Killenargy, with whom her 
said husband formerly lived, and that about three weeks before 
Easter the said Morgan McEdmmid and Brian Fynn, with two 
others, whose names she knoweth not, came to the said John 
Walsh's house, he and his wife being absent, and from thence 
violently took her to Ballygarney, in the said county, to one Captain 
Toole, a commander of the rebels, and to George Hacket, then 
marshal there, who threatened to hang this examt., except she 
could procure security to be true to the Irish army, and thereupon 
sent her to Arklow gaol, where she had been committed in a most 
miserable manner, but that one of their commanders there, whose 
name she knoweth not, took pity on her and let her go abroad, by 
means whereof she escaped, and coming to Dublin was several 
times on the way threatened to be hanged by the rebels, and at 
Bolton Hill, in the said county, upon Monday in Easter week, 
several rebels, whose names she knoweth not, took her and put a 
rope about her neck and tied her up to a gallows, until she was 
almost hanged, but afterwards took her down and said she should 
not be hanged but shot to death, which the said rebels would have 
done, but that their chief commander sent her away, after he had 
sworn her not to go near the English army. And she further 
saith, that before her said husband was hanged as aforesaid, they 
were robbed of cows, horses, household goods, provisions and 
clothes, besides clothes which she had to leave at Mr. Walsh's 
house, when she was taken away from thence, to the value in 
all of 561., all which were taken from her by the said Morgan 
]\IcEdmund, Brian MacFinn, and Philip O'Eeilly, near about the 
Killory aforesaid, and others whose names she knoweth not. 

Elizabeth Lisson (sic). 
Jurat. 21st April, 1642, 

William Hitchcock. 

William Aldkich. v 2 



36 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGJl. 



CXLIII. 

George Twelly, sworn and examined, saitli, tliat at the 
beginning of the rebelhon, and about a quarter of a year before, he 
served Dean Bartley, of Truaglitown, in the county of Monaghan, and 
that on the rising of the rebellion one Neil MacCannan possessed 
himself of the Dean's house, and took him prisoner, together with 
about fifty or three score English and Scots, men, women, and 
children, all of the said Dean's family and tenants, and about a 
month after, he, the said Neil MacCannan, conveyed the said Dean 
to Enniskillen, and promised to protect the servants and the rest of 
the said family and tenants with him at Truaglitown, which he ac- 
cordingly did for the space of three-quarters of a year, about which 
time Sir Phelim O'Neil and many more rebels in his company came 
to Truaglitown, to make merry, as this examt. then surmised, who 
perceiving so many English and Scots there, he, the said Sir Phelim, 
uttered words to this effect in English ; ' Cozen {sic) Neil MacCan- 
nan, I wonder you keep so many English and Scots about your 
house.' ' Why,' said MacCannan, ' they he poor servants of the Dean's 
and I keep them under myself, you need not fear what they can do, 
poor things, they had rather have a hit of meat than to do any mis- 
cJiicf against you or I.' Sir Phelim replied, ' I desire that you 
make away with them, for they may do mischief hereafter, if their 
army should he near us, and any escape from you.' Then said 
MacCannan, * J have kept them. Sir Phelim, so long, that I am 
loath to see them suffer death noiv.' Sir Phelim hastily made 
answer again, * Plague on them I ' or some such reviling words, ' set 
out all your guards, and let me see afire made for them hefore I go 
hence I ' ' No I ' said MacCannan, ' Ituill not,' and thereupon some 
difference about it seemed to arise betwixt them, and Sir Phelim 
told MacCannan that he might be assisting at his own death in 
keeping these servants alive, and MacCannan then said, that not- 
withstanding that, he would protect them, and did so accordingly. 
That this discourse, or the substance of it, this examt. was ear- 
witness of himself, being one of the servants of the said Dean, when 
he was a prisoner under the aforesaid MacCannan, And further 

saith not. 

George Twelly. 
Taken hefore us [illegihle], 1G52, 
R. Tigiie. 
R. Ryeves. 



DEroSlTlONS. 37 



CXLIV. 



Anne Shebring, late wife of John Slierring, of the territory 
of Ormond, at the Silver Works, in the county of Tipperary, aged 
about twenty-fivG years, sworn and examined, deposeth and saith, 
that about Candlemas was two years ago, the said John Sherring, 
her then husband, going from his farm which he held from Mr. 
John Kennedy, Esq., near to the Silver Mines, one Hugh Kennedy, 
one of the brothers of the said John, a cruel rebel, with a great 
number of Irish rebel soldiers, then and there forcibly assaulted and 
set upon her said husband, and upon one John Brooke, William 
Loughlin, and eighteen more English Protestant men, and about 
ten women and four children in their company, and then and there 
first stripped them of their clothes, and then with stones, pole-axes, 
skeans, swords, pikes, darts, and other weapons most barbarously 
murdered and massacred them all ; in the time of which massacre a 
most loud and fearful noise and storm of thunder and lightning, 
Avind, hailstones, and rain began, the time being on a Sabbath day, 
about an hour before night, the former part of that day being all 
very fair. But that thunder, lightning, and tempest happening 
suddenly soon after the massacre began, much affrighted and terrified 
this deponent and many others, insomuch that those very murderers 
themselves confessed it to be a sign of God's anger, and a threatening 
of them for their cruelty, yet it restrained them not, but they per- 
sisted in their bloody acts till they had murdered her husband and the 
rest of these Protestants, and had hacked, hewed, slashed, stabbed, 
and so massacred them that they were all cut to pieces, her husband 
for his part having thirty grievous wounds then and there given 
him, some near or through his heart, some mortal wounds in his 
head, some in his belly, and in cither arm four wounds, and the 
rest in his back, logs, thighs, and neck. And that murder done, 
those barbarous rebels tied withes about the necks of those mur- 
dered and drew them out of the refining mill, where they slew them and 
threw them all or most of them into a deep hole, formerly made, one 
upon another, so that none of those men, women, and children 
escaped death ; liowbeit, one Thomas Laddell, a Scotchman, and 
Thomas Wallop, who then and there received many grievous wounds 
and had been left on the ground for dead, crawled up, after the 
rebels were gone away, and with much difficulty escaped with their 
lives. And further saith, that such was God's judgment, upon the 



38 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

said Hugh Kennedy, for that bloody act, that he fell into a most 
desperate madness and distraction, and could not rest day nor night, 
yet coveting to do more mischief on the English, but being pre- 
vented and denied to do it, he about a week after drowned himself 
in the next river to the Silver Works. But his barbarous and 
wicked soldiers went on in their wickedness, and afterwards bragged 
how they had killed a minister and his wife and four children near 
the city of Limerick. And this deponent is too well assured that 
those and other Irish rebels in that part of the country executed 
and committed a great number of bloody murders, robberies, and 
outrages, against the persons and goods of the Protestants, so as 
very few escaped with their lives, and none at all saved their goods. 
And further saith, that all the Popish gentry in the country there- 
abouts, especially all those of the septs and names of the O'Brians, 
the Coghlans, and the Kennedys, were all actors in the present re- 
bellion against his Majesty, and either acted or assisted in murders, 
robberies, cruelties, and rebellions aforesaid. And she further saith, 
that by means of the said rebellion her said husband and she were 
in Ormond aforesaid, about Candlemas 1G41, robbed and stripped of 
goods to the value of lOOL at the least. And that the said John 
Kennedy, being their landlord, was the man that so deprived them 
thereof, and the other rebels stripped her. 

Anna + Sherring. 
Jurat, coram nobis, 10th Feb. 1643, 

Hen. Jones. 

Hen. Brereton. 

Note. 

Several depositions were taken about the murders at the Silver 
Mines. Amongst others William Timms, gentleman, sworn before 
Jones, Brereton, and Aldrich, on the 26th of May, 164.5, deposed, 
that he was made prisoner by the Irish and that he and his 
wife and children were robbed and stripped. He confirmed Mrs. 
Sherring's statement as to the murders and the mangling of the 
unburied corpses, and he goes on to relate how either through 
inability or disinclination to punish the murderers, they as usual 
escaped serious punishment. 

'After the cessation proclaimed in October, 1643, this de- 
ponent coming from Cork to Sir George Hamilton's house, where 
he had sent his wife and children before him, he stayed there 
and at the Silver Mines until about the 14th of January, 1644, 



DEPOSITIONS. 39 

wlien there came directions from the Supreme Council at Kilkenny 
unto the said John Kemiedy of Dounally, to apprehend and 
bring into prison the persons of all those that committed the 
said murders at the Silver Mines. Whereupon the said John 
Kennedy apprehended and carried to prison all the known 
murderers saving his brother Hugh, who had before that time 
drowned himself, and one Hugh O'Coghy, who was servant to 
himself, the said John Kennedy, which said Coghy, whether to 
prevent some confession and discovery of hia said master's 
wicked acts, or to preserve him, the said Coghy, to act more 
mischief, this deponent cannot tell, he, the said John Kennedy, 
did not or would not apprehend, but rather sent or suffered him 
to go away, and stay mitil the danger was passed over, amongst a 
wicked company of priests and friars. And when the other persons 
so apprehended and imprisoned for that foul massacre aforesaid 
had been imprisoned for some time, and slightly questioned for 
the fact, then they were either suffered to escape, or set at liberty 
and so came home again. And then the said Coghy returned 
home unto his said master's house, where he was entertained 
and harboured as formerly, served and attended his master, and 
for anything this deponent knoweth to the contrary he doth so 
still, without being punished for his wicked acts.' 
Another witness, John Powell, sworn and exammed on the 
15th of July, 1G45, confirmed the truth of Mrs. Sherring's and 
Mr. Timms' depositions, adding that when John Clark was mur- 
dered at the Silver Mines, his wife flung herself on her knees 
before Hugh Keimedy crying out, ' I have but a shilling left, but 
I ivill give it to you to save my child I ' on which he took the child 
by the legs, ' dashed out its brains against the stones, and then 
his followers ripped up the woman, who was great with child, and 
murdered her with the rest.' {MS. Depositions, Tipperary, T.C.D. 
p. 407.) See the royalists' and Catholics' account of the massacres 
at Cashel and Silver Mines and the fate of the murderers hereafter 
given. 



40 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1011. 



CXLV. 

GiLBEET Johnston, late of the town of Casliel, parish of Cashel, 
within the county of Tipperary, husbandman, duly sworn and 
examined, deposeth and saith, that about the 1st of January last, 
1641 (0. S.), this deponent was robbed and forcibly despoiled of 
his goods, &c., to the value of 32Z., part consisting of debts due to 
him by Papists now in actual rebeUion, as Philip O'Dwyer of 
[illegible), and James Butler of Ballynahinch, in the county afore- 
said. And further saith, that about the same time this deponent 
and divers other English and Protestants betook themselves for 
their safeguard into the city of Cashel, yet the mayor of the city, 
James Sail, and the corporation of the same admitted the under- 
named persons with forces and arms to enter the same, namely 
Philip O'Dwyer aforesaid, Charles O'Dwyer, James Butler of 
Ballynahinch aforesaid, they being accompanied by five hundred 
or six hundred men, and having entered the said city, in a most 
rebellious and inhuman manner they stripped the most part of 
three hundred persons there, men, women, and children, Enghsh 
Protestants. This deponent further saith, that at that time he and 
to the number of forty more, young and old, in one company, being 
all stripped as aforesaid, by the direction of the said parties were 
in one flock stark naked driven to one of the gates of the city, and 
then and there in a most barbarous manner, before they could get 
out of the gate the said parties and their followers and servants 
murdered John Linsay, clerk, Thomas Charleton of Cashel, sadler, 
Mr. Carr, a schoolmaster of Cashel, and this deponent was 
dangerously wounded in his head, arms, and thighs, and was left 
for dead amongst the corpses under the gate, where he lay from 
four o'clock in the forenoon until four in the afternoon, during 
which time, it being then frosty weather, this deponent's body, after 
he came to himself, was frozen to the ground with his own blood, 
and the blood of those that were killed close by him, so that he had 
much to do to loose himself from the ground. After this while, 
and during the time that the murders and stripping were com- 
mitted, the said Philip O'Dwyer {toni) stood in a window at the 
said mayor's house, perceiving what was done. And after this 
deponent recovered himself, m the way going to {illegible) was 
apprehended by some of the said party's company, as he believeth, 
and commanded to stand to a post, where they shot several shots 



DEl'OSITIONS. 41 

at him, to wrest a confession out of liim where his money was, 
being before robbed and stripped of all that he had. Yet God 
miraculously rescued him from them. 

About the 3rd of January, aforesaid, this deponent, his wife, 
and children went to Golden Castle, in the same county, to save 
their lives, where two hundred persons, young and old, English 
and Protestants, got themselves in for fear of the rebels, and were 
afterwards closely besieged by Pierce Butler of Banslia, and divers 
others of the gentlemen of that county, till towards Easter following, 
the besieged having no relief for a long while, but a little oatmeal 
and water, divers of them died, and at length the provisions being 
spent, the survivors ventured to steal away by night, and coming 
in the way towards the English quarters, in a place hard by 
Closhguire, in the said county, were assaulted by the rebels, who 
then and there cruelly murdered some of them, some others they 
hanged ; this was in or about Easter last, the names of those that 
were so murdered this deponent partly knoweth, namely James 
Hook of Golden, aforesaid, tanner, George CrafFord and Jane his 
wife, who was great with child, which child they took up and 
tossed upon a pike, Anthony Patten of Ballygriffin, miller, and 
his wife, James Guthrie of Ballygriffin, yeoman, and the names of 
the rest he knoweth not, or doth not remember. He also saith, 
that the said parties being come away from Golden Castle, the 
wife of George Miller being then left sick, as soon as the rebels 
entered, they dragged her out of bed by the legs down stairs, till 

they knocked out her brains. 

Gilbert + Johnston. 
Jurat, coram nobis, 2Qth Feb. 1G42, 
Phil. Bisse. 
Thos. Bettesworth. 



CXLVI. 

Ellish Meagher, alias Jbanes, sworn and examined, 23rd 
of August, 1642, saith, that she is aged thirty-three years, and is 
the wife of Thomas Jeanes, of Captain Perry's troop in the Lieut.- 
General Cromwell's regiment, and that she was formerly married 
to Peter Palfrey of Cashel, and that she did nurse a child to Eobert 
Brown of Cashel, in the year 1641. That at the latter end of 
December, viz, the 31st of the month, 1641, Philip O'Dwyer of 
{illegible) entered the town of Cashel, with a number of the Irish 



42 THE imsii massacres of kwi. 

in arms and plundered all the English and Protestants of the said 
town, and the next day, the 1st of January, they fell a killing of 
them, and murdered John Beane, innkeeper, with his hrewer and 
tapster, whose name she remembereth not, Mr. Ealph Carr, school- 
master, about eighty years old, Thomas Charleton, commonly called 
Thomas Sadler, Eichard Lane and his two daughters, John Linsey, 
Mr. Bannister, minister, a man who was a tyler and his wife great 
with cliild, John {blank), a glazier's son, about eleven years of age, 
Peter Murdoch and his child about seven years old, John Anderson, 
an old woman about eighty years of age, and six more, whose 
names this examt. remembereth not, but she saw them lie dead. 
That she herself received eleven wounds, and many other women 
and children were then and there wounded. That of the murderers 
of the English, Eichard O'Molony, of Captain Patrick Boyton's 
company, William Conway, John O'Herrick (stc), Thomas O'Gorman, 
Eichard and William Fleming, James Minoge and others, were 
afterwards killed or are since dead, whose names she remembereth 
not, they being of the town of Cash el, as for others who also acted 
in those murders and cruelties, she remembereth them not by name, 
being strangers unto her and she knoweth not who wounded her. 
That between thirty and forty women and children were then 
stripped quite naked, and kept in guard together under the upper 
gate, about three or four hours, and after the gate was opened, they 
were sent out in frost and snow, naked, and betook themselves to 
Moyldrom, two miles from Cashel, where they were entertained by 
James Sail, until about ten days or a fortnight after they were 
sent for to be returned to Cashel, by Colonel Philip Dwyer aforesaid, 
then governor of the town, by whom they were committed to prison, 
where the poor creatures were again stripped of the clothes they had 
gotten at Moyldrinn, and the plasters that were laid on their wounds 
were plucked off lest they should be cured. And that while these 
women and children aforesaid were at Moyldrum, all the English 
Protestants were cast into a dungeon at Cashel, being in water up 
to their knees, and that they were sent away afterwards by a convoy 
to Clonmell, which convoy was commanded by the said Captain 
Patrick Boyton, and Pierse Boyton, his lieutenant, that three of the 
said Protestants were by the said convoy killed, by John O'Herick 
aforesaid, who killed theA and there the aforesaid glazier's son. 
That some men followed the convoy, especially to kill Edward 
Bourke, one of the said Protestants, whom they wounded, but he 
was rescued by Eichard Conway of Cashel, who went with the 



DEPOSITIONS. 43 

convoy. That she, this examt., did see the said O'Herick afterwards 
in the company of the said Boytons, and that neither of them did 
hinder the said persons of their company from kilhng the English 
in the way aforesaid. This examt. further saith, that one named 
George {blank), an Englishman, was murdered on the way between 
Ardmaile and Casliel, but by whom she knoweth not. 

Ellish + Meagher. 
Deposed before us, 
the day and year above iV7'iUen, 

Hen. Jones. 

Char. Blount. 

CXLVII. 

The Examination of Nicholas Sall, of Casliel, taken the 
2ith of July, 1G52. 

This examt. swoni and examined, saith, he is aged forty-five 
years or thereabouts, and further saith, that he is an inhabitant of 
the town of Cashel, and was there resident on the 31st of December, 
1641, when Colonel Philip O'Dwyer and his party did enter the 
said city with about 2,000 men, and that so soon as they entered 
they began to plunder the English and Protestants, bringing in all 
their plmider to Mr. Beane's house, which was appointed as a store- 
house for the said goods. And further saith, that the next morning 
early they murdered divers English Protestants to the number of 
fifteen or sixteen ; he further saith, he did not see those persons as 
they were being murdered, but heard that they were murdered by 
one James Eoche of Ballygrilfin, the sons of John MacMaglumagh 
of Crossall, and Edmond MacDonagh and William MacShane. 
And further saith, that Philip MacThomas O'Dwyer of Moorestown 
cast a dart at one Mr. Bannister, smiting him in the leg as he was 
running away to save his life, by which means he came to a stand, 
and then they murdered him, as this deponent was credibly in- 
formed, and that William MacPhilip of Ardmaile killed Thomas 
Sadleir, as he was credibly informed, and further saith not. 

Nicholas Sall. 

Jurat, coram nobis, 
Hen. Jones. 
John Booker. 



44 TIIIC IRISH MASSACRES OF KUl. 



CXLVIII. 

Edmund Spillane, of Cashel, aged about twenty years, deposeth, 
that he was present when one Conogher MacShane Glas and liia 
son murdered Mr. Francis Bannister, and took some of his money 
away. 

John Booker. 
Nath. Willmer. 
John Hacket, 
Mayor of Cashel. 
28th Aug. 1G52. 



CXLIX. 

William Power, of Cashell, sworn and examined, saith, that he 
was at Cashel when Phihp Dwyer and his forces came thither, and 
that he saw one Thomas Charleton murdered by WiUiam MacPhihp 
O'Dwyer of Ardmoile, and that he also saw one William J3cano, 
imikeeper, murdered by James Roche of Griffinstown, and that 
when he was standing in the street Thomas Brown, cooper, was 
murdered by the said Eoche, and that he was present when John 
Dwyer of Knockgorman thrust with a naked sword at Mr. Beane, 
the innkeeper's ostler, wherewith he wounded him, and further saith 
not. 



CL. 

Joan Meagher, of Cashel, aforesaid, aged about thirty-five 
years, being sworn on the Holy Evangelists, deposeth and saith, 
that she saw Mr. Bannister and John Linsey murdered by some 
of the party that came into Cashel, but their names she knoweth 
not. 



CLI. 

Ellen IIanrahan, aged sixty years, deposeth, that she did see 
one William McPhilip of Ardmoile murder Thomas Sadlier, and 
that she did see four or five of the soldiers of the O'Dwyers murder- 
ing John Linsey. 



DEPOSITIONS, 45 



CLII. 

Catheeine Hooan, aged fifty years, deposefch, that she saw Mr. 
Beane and his tapster murdered by some of the soldiers that came 
into the town, whose names she knoweth not, but was informed by 
divers of the neiglibours that Phihp MacShane of Kilhiamanagh 
and his sons were the murderers. 



CLIII. 

Daniel Bourke, of Cashel, deposeth that he was present when 
Thomas SadHer and Ealph Carr were murdered, and that Connor 
FitzJohn Began of Poulvaly and Wilham MacPhihp of Ardmoile 
woro tho chief actors in these murders. And further saith not. 

Note. 

The foregoing depositions of Spillane, Power, Meagher, Ellen 
Ilanrahan, Catherine Hogan, and Daniel Bourke appear to be copies 
of originals taken before Booker, Willmer, and Hacket, the Mayor of 
Cashel, for the High Court of Justice in 1652-3. They are all un- 
signed by deponents. 



CLIV. 

John IIacket, Mayor of Cashel, duly sworn and examined, the 
24th day of August, 1G52, deposeth and saith, that he was an in- 
habitant of Cashel, and there present when the rebels entered the 
city aforesaid, being on New Year's Eve, 1G41, and that the chief 
commander of the Irish party was one Phihp O'Dwyer, a colonel, 
and with him there entered into the aforesaid town, Tiegue Oge 
O'Meagher, Douogh O'Dwyer, brother to the said Philip ; Thomas 
Purcell, brother to the baron of Loghmoe, Philip Magrath of Cluain, 
in the Ormond ; Philip McThomas O'Dwyer, Philip MacTiegue 
Eyan of Kippensally, Thomas Eoo Began of Clonulty, Hugh 
McShane Began of Clonulty, James Eoche of Ballygriffen, the three 
sons of Daniel MacMahounagh O'Dwyer of Crossall, James Bourke 
of Scarte, and many others, whom this deponent knoweth not, all 
of whom began the same day to strip and plunder the English 
of that city, and cast them into prison, and the next day, being 



46 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1011. 

New Year's Day, in the morning at the daybreak, they began to 
wound and murder the said English, killing outright sixteen of 
them, men and one woman, viz. Ralph Carr, William Beane, 
John Linsey, Richard Lane, Thomas Charleton, Thomas Browne 
Cooper, William Manifold, alias Captain Kerog, and his wife, Wil- 
liam Bean's ostler, whose name this deponent romembereth not, 
and further saith, that James Roche of Bally griffen, and the three 
sons of Daniel MacMahounagh O'Dwyer of Crossall, Thomas Roe 
Ryan, Hugh MacShane Ryan, aforesaid, Brian Carney of Tief- 
knockan, were the chief actors in the murder of the Protestants afore- 
said, and further saith, that Edmund McRoas O'DAvyer of Knockgor- 
man, Owny MacCollum and Thomas McWilliam Dwyer of the same, 
were then keepers of the magazine, and John Dwyer of Gurtonaske, 
Philip Magrath of {illegible) in Ormond, Tiegue Oge O'Meagher, 
Donogh O'Dwyer, Thomas Purcell, Philip MacThomas Dwyer, 
Philip MacTiegue Ryan, and James Bourke aforesaid, were some of 
the chief murderers, and further saith, that James Roche aforesaid 
bragged that he had revenged the death of his wife, by killing two 
of the English with his own hands, and Philip MacShane being 
slain by some of Captain Peisley's troop, the son of the said Philip 
made his brags that he had revenged the death of his father, for that 
he had killed twice as many of the English in Cashel, and that he 
had killed Thomas Charleton, for that he, the said Charleton, was 
one of the troop under the command of Captain Peisley, and that 
he heard it was he (Charleton) had killed his father. And further 

saith not. 

John IIaoket, 

Deposed before us, the day and Mayor of Cashel. 

year first above ivritten, 
Hen. Jones. 

Jo. BOOKEK. 



CLV. 

DoNATus O'Connor, late of Ardtramon, in the county of Wex- 
ford, clerk, duly sworn and examined, deposeth and saith, that 
since the beginning of the present rebellion, viz. a week or there- 
abouts about All Hallowtide, 1641, this deponent was by the rebels 
at Ardtramon and Castlebridge in the same county deprived, robbed, 
and otherwise despoiled of his means, goods, and chattels, to his 
present loss of 120Z., and of the rents and profits of the church 



DEPOSITIONS. 47 

livings worth 200Z. yearly, but who they were that so despoiled him 
he cannot tell, since at that time he had fled for safety of his life to 
the town of Wexford, where he stayed two days, until his wife, 
children, and family came to him, and afterwards he and they 
stayed there until about the 1st of March, subsisting principally on 
the means they had from friends in the country thereabouts, and 
then by, or by the means of, Nicholas French, and other priests 
and friars there, he, this deponent, because he w^as a Protestant 
minister, was put in prison in a most dark, odious, loathsome 
dungeon, exceedingly fraught with the ordure of former prisoners 
imprisoned there, which dungeon indeed hath killed him indeed, as 
he knoweth, but that God gave him strength and power to survive 
and overcome that heavy calamity, and yet there the deponent 
endured restraint until about the 1st of July following, at which 
time the great God, his sure deliverer, gave him a way to go from 
thence by the warrant of the Lord Mountgarrett, and the Lord 
Gormanston, and others of the rebellious council at Killkenny to 
appear before the said comicil, in which town he stayed for three 
months longer, viz. July, August, and September, and part of the 
j)resent month of October, when the rebellious party often endea- 
voured to seduce or draw him from the Protestant religion to mass 
and the Popish religion. But he, this deponent, by the help of 
God continued constant in his true religion as a Protestant, and 
endured his misery, restrahit, and want, which was very much, with 
the fitting patience of a true Christian. And Avithin that time he 
was greatly taxed with malice and plotting against them, the said 
rebels, especially by one Mr. Hore of Killsallaghan, in the county of 
Dublin, Esq. (one of their grand council), for writing a letter in his, 
this deponent's, own blood to his father in England, which letter the 
rebels intercepted, pen and ink being denied him, and for other acts 
against them. And whilst this deponent was in restraint in Kil- 
kenny, he observed by general report that seven heads of Pro- 
testants, whereof one was that of Mr. Bingham, a minister near 
Ballinakill, in the Queen's County, were cut off, and brought by 
the rebels to Kilkenny, where a gentlewoman of the rebels, in her 
malice, drew out a skean and stabbed the said Mr. Bingham's head 
through the cheeks. And further saith, that whilst this deponent 
was at Kilkenny, the great councillor men that sat there, with, for, 
or amongst the rebels were, first the Lord Mountgarrett, the Lord 
Gormanston, the Lord Netterville, Sir Edward Butler, Sir Richard 
Butler, Pierce Butler of Monihore, in the county of Wexford, Esq., 



"48 THE IRISH massacijes of igii. 

the said Philip Hore, Eichard Bealing, son-in-law to the said Lord 
Mountgarrett, David Rowth (sic), titulary Bishop of Ossory, the 
titulary bishop of Downpatrick, and divers other titulary bishops and 
abbots whose names he Icnoweth not, and divers Jesuits and friars, 
and amongst the rest one that called himself Sir Nicholas Shea, 
who lately, as was generally there reported, came fi'om Eome, and 
brought with him a great deal of ammunition to Wexford, and 
that called himself the parson of Callan by jurisdiction from Rome. 
And another, a Franciscan friar, by naine, as he styled himself, Sir 
Eichard Synnot, was a rebellious councillor there. And one 
Nicholas French, a seminary priest, who, being at Wexford, when 
this deponent was a prisoner there, said, upon controversy concern- 
ing the jurisdiction of the Church of Ireland, that if Charles, 
meaning the King's Majesty, were there himself, he would not 
give him an inch of right over the Church. For that he, meaning 
the King's Majesty, hath no power over it, or words to that effect. 
And saith, that the said French and Synnot, being at Wexford in 
the beginning of the rebellion, when the state of Dublin had sent 
gunpowder or other provision there, to be transported to Dun- 
cannon, they undertook to convey it with their assistants, but they, 
being the chief guides, they carried it to the rebels there, being 
about two or throe barrels of powder, with shot and match. And 
further saith, that the rebels from time to time divulged that the 
cause of their insurrection was, that ten thousand at least of the 
Protestants in England and Ireland had put their hands to a note 
to hang all the Papists at their own doors, unless they came to 
church within a short time afterwards, and so would excuse their 
rebellion and bloody acts comniittod. And therefore, they alleged, 
it was time for them to prevent the danger the Puritans intended 
to do them. And saith, that this deponent was told by an Irish 
captain, who came lately out of France, that the Romish priests 
sent from Dublin by the State as banished men, not long after their 
arrival beyond sea, falsely and publicly divulged, or caused to bo 
divulged, over France and Spain, that the English had committed 
divers outrages and cruelties in Ireland upon the Romish Catholics, 
namely, ripping up women great with child, throwing children 
into the fire, and other supposed barbarous cruelties, which this 
deponent is assured the rebel Irish in this kingdom were guilty of, 
and manually exercised against the Protestants. And further saith, 
that the rebels frequently protested that the Lords Justices and 
Council here, and all that took their parts, or the part of the 



DEPOSITIONS. 49 

Parliament of England, were notorious rebels. And saith, that the 
rebels have often, in this deponent's hearing, commonly observed 
that they would not if they might be pardoned, and every one called 
home to his own living, submit, unless that all the church lands 
and livings of Ireland were restored to the Eomish Church, and that 
they might enjoy their religion freely, and that the Protestant 
religion might be rooted out of the kingdom, and the Church of 
Rome restored to its ancient jurisdiction, powers, and privileges, 
within this kingdom of Ireland. And the rebels also publicly and 
frequently villified the Protestant religion, and all Protestants, and 
said that the priests formerly banished should return to Ireland. 
And this deponent hath been credibly and secretly told, that he 
hath been put to death by the rebels, if they had had a competent 
luimber of their bishops together, who would have degraded him 
first, but because they had not he escaped with his life, as they told 
him, ho having been formerly been a Eomish priest, but the light 
of truth gave him power to become a Protestant. And this de- 
ponent did still observe, that the Romish priests and friars did 
frequently in their sermons and in other ways persuade the rest of 
the Romish faction to extirpate and root out all the Protestants in 
the kingdom. And saith, it was generally reported amongst the 
rebels of Kilkenny that the Pope of Rome had engaged himself to 
give 50,000^ per annum for the maintaining of the wars ui Ireland, 
against the Protestants, so long as the said war should continue, 
and that the rebels expended GO,OOOL more for their colleges and 
religious houses to that end. And this deponent continued a 
prisoner at Kilkenny, until within the present month. But then 
the great God in whom he trusted offered him a way of escape. 

DoNATUs O'Connor. 
Jurat. 28th October, 1GI2, 
Will. Aldkich.' 
Hen. BiiEiiETON. 

CLVI. 

Robert Wadding, of Killstoune, in the county of Carlow, gent., 
duly sworn and examined, deposeth and saith, that he was robbed 
and despoiled of his sheep, cows, goods, and chattells by the Bagenals 
of Dunleckny, the Byrnes, and Nolans, to the value of 2,835Z. 9s. 2d. 
And this deponent further saith, that coming to Leighlin to make 
inquiries for his sheep aforesaid, thinking the rebels to have de- 
parted that town, at the house of one John Carron, this deponent 

vol. II. E 



50 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF Kill. 

was beset by ten or twelve of the rebels, armed with guns, pikes, 
and skeans drawn, some they held at the deponent's throat, some 
at his breast and back, and took his money from his pocket, likewise 
his cloak and hat, and were unbuttoning his doublet, insomuch that 
he verily thinks they would have stript him naked, but that Owen 
Garkagh O'Birne in the interim came in and rescued this deponent 
out of their hands, and procured this deponent his hat and cloak 
again, whereat they were grieved, but durst not oppose him, he 
being powerful amongst them, but they swore they would inform 
against him that he was a protector of Protestants. However, they 
would not let this deponent go until the said Owen O'Birne made a 
solemn promise unto them he would not depart with this deponent 
until he, the said Owen, had delivered him unto the priest to be re- 
conciled, as they termed it ; who accordingly brought this deponent 
to the house of Mr. Reynolds, where the priest of that parish, one 
Butler, was so busied in giving absolution to the poor English 
Protestant inhabitants thereabouts that this deponent had to wait 
his leisure, and while he was so attending it, this deponent heard 
him, the priest, before absolution given, tender to them an oath to 
this effect, viz, that they should continue true and faithful subjects 
to the king of England, and should honour and obey him in all 
matters temporal, and that they should acknowledge the Holy 
Church of Rome to be the true Church, and the Pope of Rome to be 
supreme head of the Church of Ireland, and should honour and 
obey him in all causes spiritual whatsoever. In conclusion, the 
priest's leisure serving, he came to this deponent, and told him by 
way of advice that his only course was to go to mass, and to hold 
with them, and by so doing this deponent should get restitution of 
all his goods that he had lost, and should live among them and 
come to great preferment, if not, there would be no living in this 
country for the deponent, for no Protestants must abide therein. 
Whereupon this deponent seemed to take time to consider of the 
matter, and desired a pass to Carlow, where he might have further 
conference with Sir Matthew Roth concerning the same, which being 
obtained, this deponent missed of going to Father Matthew Roth, 
and betook himself to the Castle of Carlow, where the English 
kept in hold, until he had the opportunity of coming to this city. 

Egbert Wadding. 
Jiirat. nth March, IQU, 

Roger Puttock. 

John Sterne. 



DEPOSITIONS. 51 

CLVII. 

Anne Hill, wife of Arthur Hill of Hacketstown aforesaid in the 
county of Carlow, sworn and examined, deposeth, that about the 7th 
day of November last she lost from Hacketstown aforesaid three 
cows worth six pounds, robbed from her by the hand of Pierce Grace 
of Bordkillmore, in the county of Wicklow, as she is credibly in- 
formed, who is now in rebellion, and who, accompanied by one 
Maurice Bane, alias Birne, and others, this deponent divers times 
since the beginning of the rebellion saw in Hacketstown, rifling the 
houses of Protestants, among others robbing the house of John 
Watson, Archdeacon of Leighlin. And this deponent further saitli, 
that she lost from the lands of Killerlonagh, in the county Wicklow, 
a mare worth 3^. ster., but by which of the said rebels she knoweth 
not. And further saitli, that the said Maurice Banc, alias Birne, of 
(illegible) in the said county of Wicklow, with certain other rebels of 
the said county under the command of Luke Birne, robbed and 
despoiled her of household goods to the value of 80/., and of 205. in 
money, and drove her with her four small children from her house 
and grounds Avhich she held in Hacketstown aforesaid, worth 301., 
and took away from her hay worth 30s. and of household provisions 
worth 71. 10s. And she further saitli, that as she was coming to 
Dublin, through the lands of Bordkillmore, in the said county of 
Wicklow, she was assaulted by Mortogh Ewy (sic) of Hacketstown 
aforesaid, and one William of Killolonagh, in the parish of Kiltegan, 
county of Wicklow, accompanied with about nine or ten more, who 
pulled off her back a young child of about a year and a quarter old, 
and threw it on the ground and trod on it so that it died, and stripped 
herself and her four small children naked, threatening to kill her 
and drown them. And through the cold contracted by such usage 
her other tlirce children are since dead. 

Anne Hill + 
Jurat. April llth, 1G41, 

John Watson. 

Wm. Aldrich. 

CLVni. 

Dame Ann Butler, wife unto Sir Thomas Butler, of Kathhelin, 
in the county of Carlow, knight, and baronet, duly sworn and ex- 
amined, deposeth and saith, that about St. Patrick's Day last and 
since she was robbed and deprived of her lands, rents, goods and 

B 2 



52 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 10(1. 

chattels, to the value following, by means of this rebellion, in 
sheep, cows, oxen, young cattle and old, in breeding mares, saddle 
mares, horses and other cattle, to the present loss of 1,542/. at 
least. In corn in the haggard, the house, and the ground, which 
by means of this rebellion she utterly despaireth to have any profit 
by, to the loss of 1,412L In household goods, provision, and furni- 
ture necessary for a house 832Z. 5s. 4.d. In plate 200/. at least, in 
rents due from those that are rebels and from others that are un- 
done by the rebellion 750/., and more. Money lent to Mr. John 
Thompson, who by means of this rebellion is utterly disenabled to 
pay lOOZ. Houses burnt, wasted, and depopulated 70/., so as this 
deponent's losses by this rebellion amount to the sum of 4,90G/. 5s. id. 
And this deponent further deposeth, that the parties that so robbed 
and despoiled her were Sir Morgan Kavenagh of Clonmullin, in 
the county of Carlow ; and Walter Bagenal of Dunleckny, Walter 
Butler of Polestown, living in the county Kilkenny, Thomas 
Daniels of Killeghan, the son of Oliver Costae, a captain of the 
rebels, Ambrose Plunkett of {illegible), James Allen of Linkerstoune, 
Turlogh Brian of {illegible), all these being freeholders, living in 
the county of Carlow ; Tybot and Walter Butler of Tully, sons to 
James Butler of Tully, in the county Carlow, who besieged this 
deponent's house, with about six or seven hundred men, and in the 
dead of night burnt the outer gate of her house, and at length with 
great violence did approach and undermine the said house, so as 
this deponent, her husband, and family were constrained to desire 
quarter, and had only their lives promised. And after the rebels 
had in this violent way entered, she and her husband, not being 
able in any way to resist, the rebels set strict guard over them, 
and brought them from their said dwelling unto the castle of 
Leighlinbridge, where they kept herself, her husband, and children 
for two weeks, and from thence conveyed them under a strict guard 
to the town of Kilkenny. And there they were brought before the 
Lord of Mountgarret, when Walter Bagenal and James Butler, 
brother to the Lord Mountgarret, did use all means possible to 
move the said Lord to put them all to death, alleging that they 
were rank Puritan Protestants, and desperately provoking in these 
words, saying, ' tJicre is but one ivay, we or they,' meaning' Papist 
or Protestant must perish, to which malicious provocation the said 
Lord Mountgarret would not hearken. And this deponent further 
deposeth, that Walter Bagnall, with his rebellious company, appre- 
hended Richard Lake, an English Protestant, and his servant, with 



DErOSITIONS. 53 

liis wife and four children, and one Eicliard Taylor of Leiglilin- 
bridge, his wife and children, Samuel Halter of the same, his wife 
and children, an Englishwoman called Jones, and her daughter, 
and as she was credibly informed by Dorothy Eeinolds, who had 
several times been witness of these lamentable particulars, that they 
violently compelled another Englishwoman, who was newly delivered 
of two children in one birth in her great pain and siclmess, to rise 
from her bed and took the mfant that was alive, and dashed out 
its brains against the stones and afterwards threw him into the 
river Barrow. And this deponent one day having a pioco of salmon 
for dinner, Mr. Brian Cavenagh's wife being with her, she refused 
to eat any part of the salmon, and being asked the reason, she said 
she could never again eat any fish that came out of the Barrow, 
because she had seen twenty-three Protestants and other carcases 
taken up out of it. And this deponent saith, that Sir Edward 
Butler did credibly inform her, that James Butler of Tenahinch 
had hanged and put to death all the English that were at Goran, 
and thereabouts, Jane Jones, servant to this deponent, going to 
their execution, and as she conceived they were about the number 
of thirty-five, and she was told by Elizabeth Humes that they 
were all executed. And further saith, that being in restraint and 
having intelligence that some of her own cattle were brought 
thither by Walter Bagenal, she petitioned, being in great extremity, 
the Lord Mountgarett to procure her some of her own cattle for 
her relief, whereupon he recommended her unto the mayor and 
corporation of Kilkenny, who concluded that because she and her 
family were Protestants and would not turn to mass, they should 
have no relief. 

Ann Butler. 
Jurat. 1th Sept. 1G42, 
Fban. Pigott. 
John Watson. 

CLIX. 

Sir Edward BuTLEB,'Knt., aged sixty-six or thereabouts, being 
duly sworn and examined, saith, that about the 1st of May, 1642, there 
came a company of James Butler of {illegible) and his servants with 
others, armed, into the town of Graigue in the county of Kilkenny, 
to search, as this examt. was informed, for his tenants, then in- 
habiting the town, being English men and women, and there they 
seized upon the bodies of John Stone, his wife and son, Walter 



54 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF lOJl. 

Sliirly, witli others whose names he rememhereth not, who they 
carried out of the town and hanged, some of them upon the lands of 
{illegible) near Graigue ; tlie rest were carried furtlier hy Gibbon Fore- 
stal, Garrett Forestal, Donogh 0' {illegible) now in Connaught, whither 
he went with his master James Butler, and others whose names he 
rememhereth not. And this examt. is confident that James Butler 
was then at home in his house, but he doth not certainly know 
whether Colonel Bagenal's wife was there or not, but saith that she 
doth frequent the place and continue there sometimes two months or 
thereabouts. He further saith, that soon afterwards he heard that 
Morris Kelly with others brought divers English prisoners from 
Gowran to Graigue, amongst whom was Henry White, tenant to this 
examt., at which time there was there Edmund Butler, Sir Walter 
Butler, Captain Shortall, and Captain John Butler, this examt. 's 
son, and this examt. hearing that these prisoners were so carried 
away, he sent his servant Andrew Barlow to use his utmost endea- 
vour to save Henry White, by reason he was his, examt. 's, tenant, 
who so prevailed with Colonel Edmund Butler, then commanding 
in chief, that he got off the said White, and the rest, as lie heard, 
were conveyed to Boss, and near to that place put to death, as he 
was informed ; and that the said Kelly did convey them to Graigue, 
and thence to the gates of Boss, and that he, this examt., sent his 
said servant and another to mediate to save their lives. Being 
demanded what he knoweth of the death of Richard Lake, he saith 
he heard he was hanged, and further saith not. 

Edward Butler, Knt. 
Taken on the IBth August, 1G52, before us, 

Hen. Jones. 
. Hen. Stamer. 

CLX. 

Sarah Francis, alias Boulger, aged thirty-six years or there- 
abouts, duly sworn and examined, saith, that she lived at the Graigue 
at the beginning of the rebellion, and continued there five or six years 
after. That she is the daughter of Barnaby Boulger of the Graigue, 
and was formerly married to Walter Shirley of the Graigue, who 
by his trade was a carver and joiner. That he, her said hus- 
band Walter Shirley, did work with James Butler of Tennahinch 
near the Graigue, and made up a gate for his house at Tennahinch. 
That there then lived at the Graigue of English, John Stone, Robert 
Pyne, William Stone, one John, servant to the said John Stone, 



DEPOSITIONS. 55 

Zacliary Pyne, a child of about a year and a half old, Joseph 
Valenthie married to the examt.'s sister Katharine, and Walter 
Shirley her husband, as before mentioned, Margaret Stone, wife of 
John Stone, Margaret their daughter, then wife to Thomas White 
of Goran, Barbara Pyne, wife of the said Kobert Pyne, and others 
whom she, this examt., remembereth not. That Walter Bagenal, 
Esq., now called Colonel Bagenal, was at Tennahinch about the 
beginning of May, 1G42, where Avas also his wife, and Colonel 
Edmund Butler was there also. And this examt.'s Imsband did 
make some pistol and carbine stocks for Colonel Bagenal and others, 
he being promised thereupon a protection to live quietly in the 
country. And the said Shirley, this examt.'s husband, having 
finished his work and brought it home, obtained from the said 
Bagenal fifteen shillings for it, and a protection under the said 
jliagenal's hand for his quiet living in the place. But before her 
said husband could recross the bridge of Graigue on his way to his 
house, he was followed by one fi-om Tennahinch to deliver back the 
pass he had received, which he refusing to do he was brought back 
to Tennahinch house, where it was taken from him, but by whom 
this examt. remembereth not. The same day James Butler of 
Tennahinch and the said Colonel Edmund Butler went from that 
place on horseback ; this deponent did see them going, but did not 
know that Colonel Bagenal was with them. The same night about 
midnight Dermot O'Donoglme and Connor More, servants of James 
Butler aforesaid, knocked at this examt.'s house, and she opening 
the door, they entered and took away her husband, and the examt. 
going forth found all the rest of the English taken out of their 
houses and carried over the bridge of the Graigue by James Butler's 
followers. That this examt., fearing some mischief to her husband, 
went to Ballyogan to her landlord Sir Edward Butler, living about 
a mile from the Graigue, to desire his assistance for preserving 
her husband. That returning with a paper signed by the said 
Sir Edward Butler, those persons in whose hands her husband was, 
seehig her commg with the paper, hanged her husband forthwith, and 
cut him down when he was so hanged before she, tliough making 
all haste, could come to him ; that a little Avay from thence they did 
also hang Joseph Valentine aforesaid, this examt.'s brother in-law, 
his wife, this examt.'s sister, being then present, who came along 
with this examt. from Ballyogan aforesaid, and overtook her husband 
before he was hanged. Being demanded who of the Irish were present 
at these executions and driving away of the English, she said that 



56 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

she saw Garret Codd, Gibbon Forestall, and about ten more that she 
knoweth not the names of. She further saith, that Jolm, the afore- 
said servant of John Stone, was also lianged on the same tree that 
her husband was hanged on and at the same time, and that John 
Stone and the rest of the English were carried towards Ross, and 
by the way murdered. She further saith, that the same day towards 
evening, William Stone, son of Jolm Stone, working at the river 
on a ship for Sir Charles Coote, was brought to the Graigue and 
hanged on the same tree that her husband was hanged on. And 
that one . . . Bennett of Ross came riding thither post to save 
William Stone if he could, but could not prevail by reason of 
Mrs. Ellen Butler, who tlien lived in the house of James Butler of 
Tennahinch aforesaid, and opposed his saving said Stone. That this 
examt. did that day see the said Bennett on horseback bareheaded, 
and that she was told by others that he had neither cloak, band, or 
hat on, through riding in haste to save the said William Stone. 
She further saith, that she hath heard that Gerard Codd, Gibbon 
Forestal, and a servant of Henry Bagenal's were present at the exe- 
cution of the said Stone. 

Saeaii Francis + 
Deposed before us, IGth October, 1G52, 

Thomas Herbert. 

Hen. Jones. 

Thomas WiijSOn, 

Note, 

James Butler of Tennahinch, mentioned in the foregoing deposi- 
tions, was the younger brother of Lord Mountgarrett, who was the 
father of three sons, viz. Edmund Roe, his heir; Edward of Urling- 
ford, whose examination is hereafter given, executed in 1G53, like 
Bagenal, for his share in the murders at Kilkenny in 1641-3 ; 
Richard, also a captain in the Irish army in those years. Carte's 
abstract of the missing portion of the Plunhet MSS. which Mr. 
Prendergast copied for Colonel Plunket Dunne [v. ante, p. 107, note) 
gives the following account of Bagenal's conduct, but it is shown 
to be wholly untrustworthy on the vital point of his guilt by the 
documents here printed for the first time : — 

" When Colonel Bagenal," says Carte's MS., " was by the 
Supreme Council made governor of the county Carlow, Mr. 
James Butler of Tennahinch, brother to the Lord Mountgarrett, 
was competitor with him for the place, and missing his aim, 



DEPOSITIONS. 57 

■ advised him to write a warrant to put William Stone to death. 
Bagenal, just then turned of thirty (Butler about sixty), ordered 
it. Butler advised the wife of the man who had Bagenal's order 
to keep it carefully for preventing future danger. Bagenal when 
a hostage ten years after was arraigned for this and other 
murders in Lady Butler's deposition, who was summoned to give 
witness against him, though the whole story was but hearsay 
from one Dorothy Eeinolds, wife to a native of the country, 
enemy to Bagonal, on account of his estate. Nor does she charge 
Bagenal with the murder of the tliirty-fivo, and in her ovidonco 
she deposed nothing of consequence against him at his trial, 
so that he had been acquitted, if they had not arraigned the 
wife of the man, as egging Bagenal thereto, who by his order 
executed Stone. She (this woman) heroically sent for a friend 
of Bagenal's and told liim, * Sir, your friend Colonel Bagenal 
will be tried for the death of Stone, and I am imprisoned for 
it, all they aim at from me is, to get the warrant my husband 
had for his (Stone's) execution, thereby to charge Bagenal. 
Here, take the warrant, carry it to Colonel Bagenal, my life 
is not worthy to be saved where he is in danger, if he thinks it 
will injure him let him burn it, I'll leave myself to God, if it will 
do him no hurt, bring it to me again.' Bagenal after perusing 
it returned it. It was thus ; 

' Whereas proof is made before me that William Stone, a late 
convert, hath lately and often resorted to the garrison of Dmi- 
cannon with intelligence as a spy. These are therefore to re- 
quire you to apprehend the said William Stone and him so appre- 
hended to hang till he be dead,' 

or words to this purpose. Bagnal though a hostage was tried and 

put to death at Kilkenny, though he apprehended no guilt either 

on evidence of the warrant or rather his own confession, and yet 

so ill an opinion of their sentence {sic) that they sent in vain to 

Leighlin Bridge for intelligence of Sir John Temple's thirty-five 

murdered persons. As to Sir John Temple's charges against 

Bagenal of designs agamst Lady Butler, &c., they needed only 

to have left them to the rabble and it had been done." {Carte 

Papers, Bodleian Library, pp. 418 et seq.) 

The original pages of the Plunket MSS. of which the above 

professes to be an abstract have long been lost or destroyed, so 

that we have no means of testing its accuracy. But whether the 

abstract be true or false the account it gives of Bagenal's conduct 



58 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1011. 

and tlie charges on which he was condemned and executed is, as I 
have said, shown hy Lady Biitler's deposition to be wholly untrust- 
worthy. Plunket probably, and Carte certainly, were too blinded by 
party prejudice to aclmowledge, what they must both have well known, 
that no prisoner in the High Court of Justice was ever found guilty of 
murder and executed for it, when he could bring reasonable proof 
that the death of the person laid to his charge occurred in open war, 
or that such person, man or woman, was adjudged by the rules of 
such war a spy, and had been seized and sentenced to death while 
acting in that capacity. A prisoner in the High Court, like Lord 
Muskerry, as will be seen hereafter, was tried separately for each 
murder of which he was accused. When he could prove that one 
of these, say, four or five murders charged against him was really a 
case of sentence of death against a spy, he was pronounced not guilty 
of that charge and then the rest were heard in turn, and if they were 
proved to have been murders of persons who had never acted as 
spies, but lived peaceably and were unarmed, the prisoner was 
pronounced guilty of murder and executed accordingly, although 
he had been cleared of the guilt of the spy's death. Carte's 
theory, which he would have us to take for truth, that the finding 
of the warrant with the woman whose husband had hung William 
Stone would have secured the condemnation of Bagenal, and saved 
her and her husband, and that she acted ' heroically ' in sending it 
to him, is untenable. The production of such a warrant as Carte 
gives would have almost certainly procured a verdict of ' not guilty ' 
for Bagenal, the woman, and her husband, inasmuch as it distinctly 
states that Stone was regularly employed as a spy against the Irish 
army. The warrant which is in the books of depositions in Trinity 
College differs somewhat from Carte's copy and is as follows : — 

" Whereas proofs have been made before me that Mr. William 
Stone {illegible) is a spy and hath of late resorted to Duncannon, 
and that he would be a guide to the enemy to distress the country 
and the inhabitants thereof, this order is given to apprehend the 
body of the said William Stone, and having so apprehended him 
to hang him, for which this shall be your warrant. Dated at 
Tennahinch, May 2nd, 1642. 

" Walter Bagenal." 

It was often difficult to ascertain whether the person killed had 
been really acting as a spy between the hostile armies. Prisoners 
brought before the High Court endeavoured sometimes to prove by 



DEPOSITIONS. 59 

perjury that their victims were spies (knowing the result would 
be a verdict of ' not guilty') when in fact they were nothing of 
the kind, but inoffensive men and women, endeavouring to live in 
peace, or to escape to Dublin or England. Some of the rebels, as 
we have seen {v. Depositions IV. : XXII.), put a very wide inter- 
pretation on the word spy and murdered or wished to murder those 
poor fugitives, lost they should ' carry news to England ' or the 
English army. The judges in 1652-4 had no easy task to ascertain 
the truth in such cases, but the prisoners were allowed to make the 
best defence they could, and call witnesses on their behalf. If 
William Stone had never been hung, it is probable that Bagenal 
would have been condemned on the evidence of Lady Butler, who 
swore positively that he had urged Lord Mountgarret to murder 
her and her husband. She may have been too willing to listen to 
rumours, and may have been deceived by Dorothy Eeynolds and 
Jane Jones, but she was an eye-witness and an ear- witness of what 
she relates about Bagenal and James Butler, and no impartial per- 
son will reject her testimony. Taken in] connection with the de- 
positions of Mrs. Shirley, Morris Kelly, and others, the evidence 
was quite enough to condemn Bagenal. Carte's observations on her 
deposition are alike incomprehensible and absurd. The following 
letter from Lady Butler to her brother-in-law, Brian Cavenagh, son 
of Sir Morgan Cavenagh, is amongst the MSS. in Trinity College. 
Lady Butler and Mrs. Brian Cavenagh were the daughters of Sir 
Thomas Colclough of Tintern. The spelling of this letter, bad as it 
is, is quite as good as that of many ladies of rank in both islands 
between IGOO and 1780 :— 

" To my loveing brother, Bryan Cavenagh, Esq. 

" Dkati BiiOTiiER, — I am hartily groavcd for the troblo yow 
are in, and do condoale with yow, as being one that hath felt it. 
And now I was told by Bryan MacWilliam who came from the 
county Carlow, that they will preasently apprend yow and com- 
mitt yow to the Black Castle of Loughlin. Yow do not know 
what may befall yow in it and I do think it is the saffer way for 
yow to come hither, where my Lord of Mountgarret is, who I hope 
will use yow no wors than he hath used us ; but he hath been 
earnestly presed to take away my life by your unkle James and 
Bagenal, but I thank God he refused it. So God grant yow may 
find the same favor at his hands but yow must instantly heaste 



60 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

away. Thus beseecbing tbe Ahnigbty God to direct yow to the 
beste and to grant yow favor amongst them first, 

" Yovir trewly lovemg sister, 
" Ann Butler." 

Brian Cavenagh's mother was tlie sister of Lord Mountgarret 
and of James Butler of Tennahineh. From her marriage with Sir 
Morgan Cavenagh (chief of the Slught Dermot) descends the present 
Art MacMurrogh Cavenagh of Borris House, Carlow, formerly M.P. 
for Wexford. 



CLXI. 

Elizabeth Ennis, alias Harris, aged fifty years or thereabouts, 
sworn and examined, saith, that she laiew Edward Butler of Urling- 
ford, second son to the late Lord Mountgarret, two years before the 
rebellion began, and about a week after Easter, in the year 1G42, 
this deponent with several others, to the number of eighteen men, 
women, and children, were carried from Freshford to Ballyraggett, 
by a company of foot soldiers, whom this deponent doth verily 
believe were commanded by Captain Edward Butler aforesaid, who 
was then in Ballyraggett, commander m chief of the castle and 
company, and upon the application of Mr. Clerk and Mr. Byfield, 
both of Parkscrone, English Papists, prevailed with the said Captain 
Edward Butler to spare the life of this deponent, and one Anne 
Deals, and this deponent's husband, who was horse-rider to the said 
Edward Butler's father ; and this deponent was told by Mr. Clarke 
and Mr. Byfield aforesaid that the said Edward Butler told them 
that if he hanged his father's horse-rider, his father would hang 
him ; whereupon the said horse-rider was saved, with his wife and 
children, and being demanded by whose order the five English 
Protestants who were then in prison in Ballyraggett with her, this 
examt., were put to death, she saith, that the said Clarke and 
Byfield told her that it was by Captain Edward Butler's order, and 
she further saith, that she knoweth that the said Captain Edward 
Butler durst not come into his father's, the late Lord Mountgarret's 
sight, for his hanging of the said five persons. 

Elizabeth + Ennis. 
Sworn before us, the 5th Feb. 1G52, 
EiCHD. Stephens. 
(illegible) Evans. 



DEPOSITIONS. 61 

This examt. being furtlior asked whether the aforesaid five 
persons were hanged, were thrown into a pit, and buried before 
they were dead, she saith that she often heard from several persons 
of credit that said they saw it, that they saw the persons that were 
so hanged, as they lay in the pit, throw back the earth with their 
hands upon the enemy, the persons that suffered thus being two 
men, two women, and a boy. 



CLXII. 

Anne Bradford, aged about thirty years or thereabouts, duly 
sworn and examined, saith, that she was born in Gowran, in the 
county of Kilkenny, but descended from English parents, and that 
she living in Gowran, with her parents, at the beginning of the 
rebellion, that Walter Butler of Polestoune and Pierce Butler, son 
to Sir Edward Butler, came to Gowran, and the places there 
adjacent, and seized upon and took all the English inhabitants 
they could find, and gathering them together put them into prison 
in Gowran, where they continued a fortnight or thereabouts, and 
afterwards took them and pretended to send them with a convoy 
to Ross, and bound them two and three together, and that Morris 
Kelly of Gowran aforesaid, being ensign to Captain Pierce Butler, 
commanded the said convoy, who conveyed them within a musket 
shot of Ross, and there left them, who were in number about thirty 
or forty, young and old, as she thinks, viz. Thomas "White, this 
examt. 's brother, her husband's father, mother, and sister, James 
Bromfield, and his wife and three children, Arthur Scott and his 
wife, one Thurston and divers others, whose names she remem- 
bereth not. And saith, that after the convoy had left there, the 
said Kelly went into Ross and presently after there came out of the 
town of Ross seven or eight persons, with swords and batts in their 
hands, and did drive them all below Ross for a mile to a woodside, 
and there they murdered all these English, except this examt. 's 
husband's sister, and her four children, but who these murderers 
were or their names she knoweth not. 

Anne f Bradford. 

August , 1652, examined before us, 
Hen. Jones. 
Jo. Stamer. 



G2 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

CLXIII. 

The Examination of Morris Kelly, of Gowran, taTcen before us 
this [blank) day of August, 1652. 

This examt. saitli, that at the time of phmdoring, when the 
rebellion first broke out, and he came out of [illegible] and was in 
Gowran, and when Captain Pierce Butler raised his foot company 
he was made ensign of it against his will, as he now allegeth, and 
saith that about eight or nine weeks after he was made ensign, the 
rendezvous being at Tennahinch, near the Graigue, he repaired 
thither and then divers Englisli people, viz. Erasmus Bradliold, 
James Blomfield, Arthur Scott, with divers others, men, women, 
and children, to the number of 134 persons as he remembereth, 
being then prisoners, brought from Gowran to Graigue, were de- 
livered to this examt. by Colonel Edmund Butler, Major Kobert 
Shortall, Captain Pierce Butler, and Sir Walter Butler, and James 
Butler of Tennahinch, who were all present together, and saith 
that Colonel Edmund Butler, then commanding in chief, com- 
manded this examt. and gave him orders to receive the said English 
into his charge, and to convey them to Boss, which he did, and 
delivered the said order to Captain James Duffe, who there had the 
command of a company of foot, according to the directions thereof, 
which said Duffe was by the said orders commanded to convey 
them to Duncannon ; but what the said Duffe did therein this 
examt. knoweth not, but said that at the first he refused to receive 
the said orders, but afterwards he took them ; and this examt. 
saith he left the English prisoners at the gate of Boss, and at his 
return in three days he heard that they were murdered, but by 
whom he knoweth not. And further saith, that he received the 
said prisoners bound, yet notwithstanding when he was marched 
out of the commander's sight he unbound them. 

The examt. being demanded why he did strike Alexander 
Bradford and threaten that neither he nor any of his generation 
should be living within a month, he denied that he struck the said 
Bradford, or used any such threatening language. He further 
saith, that after he heard that the English who were committed to 
his charge, whom he safely conveyed to Ross, and left there, were 
murdered, he laid down his arms and never bore arms after. 
Examined before us, Morrish Kelly. 

Hen. Jones. John Stamer. 



DEroSITIONS. 



CLXIV. 

The Examination of Edmund Scott, of Balliraggctt, gent., aged 
forty years or thereabouts, sivorn and examined saith. 

That in the beginning of the rebellion he lived under Edmund 
Butler, Esq., who was elder brother of Edward Butler of Urlingford, 
Esq., and living in the town of Ballyraggett ; in the year 1641 [sic) 
there was brought six or seven English Protestants, from Freshford 
to Ballyraggett, by the said Edward Butler and his company, and 
this deponent saith that there was a little boy amongst the prisoners 
about sixteen years of age, that was going to be hanged, and the 
mother of the said child, whose name this deponent knoweth not, 
earnestly besought this deponent to beg for her son's life, where- 
upon this deponent went presently to his own house, where the 
said Edward Butler then was, and desired him that he would be 
pleased to give the said boy's life to this examt., and that he would 
keep him to be his servant, whereupon the said Edward Butler 
said that he should have the boy, and sent a token to the Marshal 
by this examt., that was then executmg the prisoners, but before 
this deponent could return to the place of execution the boy was 
hanged, and this examt., being asked what commander was then 
in the town of Ballyraggett, at that time, saith he knew or hoard 
of no other but the said Edward Butler. And further saith not. 

Edmund Scott. 
Taken before us, 31si Jan. 1G52, 

EiCH. Stephens. 

Aethur Bell. 

CLXV. 

The Examination of Edward Butler, of Urlingford, Esquire, in 
the county of Kilkenny, taken before Colonel Thomas Herbert 
and Bobert Doily, Esquire, members of the High Court of 
Justice sitting at Dublin, 

Who saith, that he hath lived at Urlingford in the county 
Kilkenny for twenty years past or thereabouts, and that he is the 
second son of the late Lord Mountgarrett, and that his eldest brother 
is called Edmund. And being demanded if he Avas in that party of 
GOO or 700 horse and foot, which his brother commanded, and 



64 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1011. 

fought with, against four score Englishmen in the year 1G42, a 
little before Michaelmas near to Ballinakill, in the county Kilkenny, 
at which time that Irish party killed amongst others Lieutenant 
Gilbert, Ensign Alfrey, Mr. Thomas Bingham, a minister, Eobert 
Graves, Eichard Bentley, and others whose heads as a trophy of that 
victory were sent to be set up at Kilkenny, a piper playing before 
them ; he, the examt., saith he was not in that fight, but at his 
own house at Urlingford, about ten miles from Ballinakill, but heai'd 
of the Englishmen that were then killed, and that his cousin Walter 
Butler was also killed there, and he, this examt., was at the burial 
of the said Walter Butler the next day, his brother Edmund was 
also at that burial. Being further demanded if he had not the 
command of a foot company that year, or the year after, he said 
that he had such command that year, and that so soon as that 
fight aforesaid was ended, he laid down his command, and was not 
in arms since, but continued at his aforesaid dwelling-house at 
Urlingford, and hath not since meddled with any military employ- 
ment. 

Being demanded if he was governor of Ballyraggett in the year 
1G42, and if any of his foot soldiers were quartered there, he saith 
he never was governor there, nor did any of his foot live in that 
place to his knowledge, but he confessed that he was in the town 
of Ballyraggett about Easter after the rebellion broke out, and in 
one Edmund Scott's house there. Being demanded if he saw any 
English people brought prisoners into Ballyraggett at the time he 
was there in Scott's house, he saith he did not that night hear 
anything of them, but that next morning, being the next day of his 
coming thither, he was told by Mrs. Scott, wife to Edmund Scott, 
that there were some prisoners then going to execution, and she 
earnestly desired this examt. to save their lives if he could, and that 
thereupon he went in person to the place where the marshal's man 
was hanging them, and he did see three hanged, an old man, an 
old woman, and a boy, and that he saved all the rest who otherwise 
had been hanged, all having ropes about their necks, that he was 
so troubled at it, that he called the marshal's (Cantwell's) men 
rogues, and demanding of them by whose order they hanged these 
prisoners, they could not show any order in writing for the fact, 
but alleged it was by the provost marshal Cantwell's order. Being 
demanded if there were not five hanged at that time, he said ho 
saw but three, nor did he hear of any more being executed of that 
company. 



DErOSITIONS. C5 

Being questioned if upon Mrs. Scott's begging the boy's life, he 
did not give the said Scott a token by which the marshal should 
deliver the boy to Mr. Scott, he said he is assured Mr. Scott never 
did ask such a ring of him, nor did he, the examt., give him any 
token to have the boy delivered to him or any other. Being de- 
manded if Mrs. Scott did desire him to save one Anne Trout, alias 
Deals, who was going to execution and was one of those brought 
from Freshford to Ballyraggett, he said that Mrs. Scott did not 
name any one to him in particular, but in general words coming 
hastily into his chamber betimes in the morning, she told him that 
some English people were going to be hanged, and desired him to 
use the best means he could to save them, and he thereupon 
presently went to the place of execution, with his sword in his 
hand, and did save all that were not put to death, as he hath 
already declared. Being also demanded if Mrs. Scott did not 
entreat him to save the life of a poor Scotch woman who was 
then to be hanged with the others, and if he did not send his man 
with her to the guard near the gallows, he, this examt., saith, that 
he did save that poor Scotch woman, whose name is Kincade, wife 
to a corporal in the Earl of Ormond's regiment, and to that end 
went thither in person, denymg that he sent his man thither, but 
remenibereth that Mrs. Scott, and he thinks her husband, also went 
with him to the said place of execution. Being demanded if Mrs. 
Scott went upon her knees to beg from him the lives of those poor 
English people, he saith not, nor any other person did so, as he 
remenibereth. Being demanded if he knew Mr. Bifield and Mr. 
Clerk, he said he did know them, and that they lived at Parkscrone, 
half a mile from Ballyraggett. Being questioned further if these 
two gentlemen did not intercede to him for the saving Elizabeth 
Ennis, alias Harris, and her husband, who was ambler or rider to 
his father, and were likewise then to be executed, he, this examt., 
saith, that he well remembers they were led to execution with the 
English before mentioned, and that he then saved their lives also. 
But remembereth not that they spoke with him before Mrs. Scott 
and he went together to the place of execution, but well remembers 
that he saw them and the said Bifield and Clarke in town that day. 
Being questioned if at his apprehension by Sergeant Williams 
and Jeremy Weaver he did not desire them to shoot him, being 
sure that he should be hanged if he came to Kilkenny, he said that 
their usage was so violent and uncivil towards him, taking from 
him his money, jewels, and cloaths, that he confessed in his passion 
VOL. II. F 



GG THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

he desired tliem to slioot liim, rather than to use him so, but denied 
that he was afraid of going to Kilkenny, or that there was any Avord 
spoken of it at that time. Being lastly demanded why, having 
solemnly engaged himself to the Countess of Ormond to see the 
poor stripped English safely conveyed from Kilkenny to Waterford, 
at the first outbreak of the rebellion, he forsook them at Knock- 
topher, and thereby exposed them to the rage of the bloodthirsty 
Irish, he, this examt., saith, that he did promise the Countess to 
secixre those English {illegible) Waterford, and accordingly went 
with them to Knocktopher and two miles further, and being that 
cold and snowy day surprised with a quartan ague, he was so ill 
that he was thence carried in a horse litter to Urlingford, and for a 
month after was forced to keep his bed, and that if those English 
received any bad usage afterwards, he could not help it, but denies 
that those English were plundered that night or had any loss of life 
or goods while he had charge of them. And further saith not. 

Edwakd Butler. 
Taken before us, 
26 Feb. 1G52, 

Thos. Herbert. 

E. Doily. Note. 

The following are also in the Kilkenny volume of depositions. 

For y" Lord Pressident of if higli Court of Justice in Dublin, 

These, 
My Lord — I have sent your Lordship the enclosed examina- 
shuns aganst Mr. Edward Butler, second son to the late Lord 
Mountgarrett, and I shall only give your Lordshipp my knowledge 
conserning him. When I had reseived orders from the hands of 
the parliment to aprehend all such perssons in these ptes, that 
had bin guilty of sheding the English inoscent blood in the first 
year of the rebellion, I sent a pty in the night. to cease the sd 
Butler, but he was not at home, and he, heareing that there was 
a cesuir of blood guilty persons, he fledd into the boggs and 
fastnesses out of y® parlement's quarters for his safty, and thaire 
continewed, untill he was going in a disguise habitt to Spain with 
some Irish offisers, and was providencialy taken between Thomas- 
town and Waterford, by some soldiers that knew him of Captain 
Frank's troop. I shall not ad but reraayne ^ly liord, 
your Lordshipp's humble servant 

D. AXTELL. 



DEPOSITIONS. C7 

{Enclosiire 1.) 

The Examination of Jeremiah Weaver, of Captain John Frank's 
troop, against Echvard Butler, of Urlingford, Esq., taken 
before us on oath 31si Jan. 1G52. 

This deponent saitb, that when the said Edward Butler was 
apprehended by him, he made resistance and laid hands on Captain 
Heygate's sergeant's carbine, and called to some Irish officers there 
to assist him, saying, ' Will you leave mo so ? ' This doponcnt 
asked him for arms, he denied to have any but a laiife, but behig 
searched by me I found a maddeogue or skean with the haft in his 
hand and the blade in the sheath. The said Edward promised me 
lOOZ. to run away with him for Spain, and promised to make me a 
captain there, and he then desired to be shot by me and the others 
that apprehended him, for he knew that he should be hanged if he 
were brought to Kilkenny, and further saith he feared nothing but 
false information. 

Jee. Weaver. 

Taken before us, 

EiCH. Stephens. 
John IlEyDON. 

[Enclosure 2.) 

The Examination of Sergeant Egbert Williams, against Edward 
Butler, son of the Lord Mountgarret. 

That the said Edward Butler when he was apprehended laid 
hands on my carbine. I asked him if his name was Butler, he said 
it was not, he asked me why I laid hands on him, he being under 
protection and having his protection in his pocket. Then the said 
EdAvard Butler desired those Irish officers that were present to assist 
him, saying, ' Will you leave me thus ? ' I asked him for arms. IIo 
said ho had not any but a knifo, but being searched by one Joshua 
Weaver, of Captain Frank's troop, a maddeogue (Irish dagger) was 
found about Mr. Butler, the haft thereof in his hand and the blade 
in a sheath. The said Edward Butler desired me and the rest to 
shoot him, for he said he knew if he were brought to Kilkenny he 
should be hanged, and further he saith he feared nothing but false 
information. 

Bobert + Williams. 

Taken before us, 

on oath, dlst Jan. 1G52, 
EiCHARD Stephens. 
Wm. IIeydon. f 2 



08 THE TRI3II MASSACTES OF 1G41. 



CLXVI. 

Magdalen Eedmaine, late of Dowry in tlio King's County, 
widow, the relict of Thomas Eedmaine, who was one of tlie soldiers 
that were slain with Captain Smith by the rebels, sworn and ex- 
amined, deposeth and saith, that since the beginning of the present 
rebellion, viz. on or about the 26th of December, 1641, when her 
husband was slain, she, this deponent, was deprived, robbed, and 
despoiled of her goods and chattels, consisting of tanned leather, 
bark, green leather, corn, cattle, worth llil. 10s. id., by the rebels 
Costiny Molloy, gent., Art Molloy, Shane O'Farrell, and their ac- 
complices and soldiers whose names she cannot express. And 
further saith, that this deponent and divers other Protestants, and 
amongst them [illegible) widows, after they were all robbed, were 
also stripped naked, and then they covering themselves in a house 
with straw, the rebels then and there lighted the straw with fire and 
threw it amongst them on purpose to burn them, when they had 
been all burnt or smothered, but that some of the rebels, more piti- 
ful than the rest, commanded these crueller rebels to forbear, so as 
they did, yet the rebels kept them (the English) naked in a wild 
wood from Tuesday till Saturday, in frost and snow, the snow un- 
melted long lay upon some of them, so as three children died in 
their arms. And when this deponent and the rest endeavoured to 
have gone away for refuge to the Birr, the rebels turned them back, 
saying they should go to Dublin, and when they attempted to go 
towards Dublin, they (the rebels) hindered them again and said they 
should go to the Birr, and so tossed and haled them to and fro, yet 
at length such of these poor stripped people as died not in the hands 
of the rebels escaped to the Birr, where they were harboured and 
relieved by one William Parsons, Esq., and yet there died at the 
Birr, of those poor stripped persons, about forty of men, women, 
and children. And this deponent and those other stripped people that, 
survived lived miserably at the Birr aforesaid until they and the 
rest had quarter to come from thence to Dublin. 

Magdalen Eedmaine -f 
Jurat. 6th March, 1642, 
John Watson. 
Wm. Aldrich. 



DEPOSITIONS. G9 



Note. 



It lias been said by not a fewwriters on 1G41, that no massacres 
or oven niurclors of unarmed persons were committed in Leinster, 
but such writers must change their opinion after reading the above 
and many other depositions in the Leinster volumes. Isabel, the 
widow of Christopher Porter, one of the poor women so mercilessly 
treated, as Mrs, Eedmaine relates, sworn and examined before the 
same commissioners, confirmed all she had related of the cruelty of 
the Leinster Irish. 



CLXVII. 

Nicholas Walsh, of Harristown, in the King's County, clerk, 
duly sworn, deposeth, that on the Gth of December, 1641, he was 
robbed and despoiled of his goods and means worth 888Z., by the 
hands and means of Henry MacOwen Dempsy, Colonels Donogh, 
Nicholas and John Dempsy, Brian MacGlashny Dempsy, and others 
their Icindred and followers. And this deponent further saith, that 
on the 10th of the said month of December he was robbed of and 
lost in the castle of Castle Dermot, county Kildare, ready money, 
plate, rings, jewels, and household goods worth 200L by Pierce 
FitzGerald of Ballysonan, now a colonel among the rebels, Luke 
FitzGerald of Molamoy, Ensign Gerald FitzGerald of Castleroe, and 
their servants. Further he saith, that the graves in the churchyard 
and church of Harristown were digged up, and the corpses of Pro- 
testants that were there interred for seven years at least before that 
time were taken up and their bones and bodies thrown into ditches, 
and other base places, by the directions of the Vicar-General James 
McShane Dempsey. And a poor Englishman called Toby Emmet 
being by the rebels drawn to go to the mass, was on the same day 
of his reconciliation returning homeward hanged, the rebels them- 
selves saying that they hanged the English after their reconciling to 
the Eoman Church, that they may pray for their souls. 

Nicholas Walsh. 
Jurat. Gth Jan. 1642, 
John Sterne. 
Wm. Aldrich. 



70 THE misTi massacres of un. 



CLXVIII. 

Richard Taylok, late of the Birr, alias Parsonstowii, in the 
King's County, shoemaker, sworn and examined, deposeth andsaith, 
that about All Hallowtide, 1641, the rebellion began about Birr and 
the country thereabouts, and then this deponent being bound 
prentice unto and living with one William Remington, an English 
Protestant, stayed with his said master working at his trade. And 
saith, that soon after Hollandtide aforesaid, or thereabouts, the 
murders and cruelties after-mentioned were committed by the rebels, 
viz. : One Mary Nelson, a Scottish Protestant, was at Craghan, in 
the county of Tipperary, very near the Birr, assaulted by two rebels, 
viz. by one William Oge and William Buie of Craghan afore- 
said, and as she was stoutly defending herself, one Donogh 
McThomas of the Birr aforesaid, a bloody butcher coming towards 
her, she conceiving him to be her friend, cried out to him and said, 
' For God's sake help vie ! ' whereunto he answered ' / loill help you 
I ivarrant yoii,' and thereupon coming behind her, he with a beef- 
axe first knocked her down, and then with the axe cut her in the 
head and hand, and then with the others gave her thirty wounds, 
so as then and there she was barbarously murdered. And at the 
same time and place there were six more Protestant women, viz. 
Ellen Palmer, and one Mary Taylor, and four others murdered by 
the three rebels before named, and others to the number of a hun- 
dred or thereabouts, which seven murdered Protestants were all 
stripped stark naked and left lying on the ground weltering in their 
blood in the open air for a day and a night, and then Mr. Parsons, 
governor of the Birr, made such means that they were sent for and 
carried there and buried in this deponent's presence. And about the 
same time was murdered at the Birr one Thomas (illegible), servant 
to Mr. Heyward, an English Protestant, each of the said so murdered 
having several wounds. And further saith, that about a quarter of 
a year after these murders were committed, viz. about Candlemas, 
1641, one Edward Garner of the Birr, a tailor, and his wife, being 
taken from the Birr aforesaid with a convoy towards Dublin, were 
on the way, at a place called the Island in the King's County about 
three miles from Birr, murdered by one Turlogh Carroll, now of the 
Birr aforesaid, and his companions, as they were travelling at niglit 
a little beyond the convoy, which said Carroll and his wife did then 
and tlicre strip naked the said Garnet and his wife, saving that they 



DErosinoNS. 71 

left lier a pair of stockings on her legs, and there they were left lying. 
And about a week after a Popish priest, called Father Caliir Farrell, 
coming by with his boy, and being displeased that the woman had 
her stockings left upon her, said to the boy that he would give him 
sixpence to pull off ' that English sow's stockings,' which the boy 
eftsoon performing, found 51. in her stocldngs, which they then 
carried away, but left the dead bodies there still until the crows and 
ravenous creatures devoured them. 

About Easter, 1G42, one Edward Erwin, late of the Birr, being 
sent from Birr towards Banaghcr to fetch salt, was met by the way 
at Dolnagh in the MacCoghlan's country, in the King's County, by 
some of the Coghlans and their confederates, the soldiers of John 
MacCoghlan, chief of the country, since Imighted as is reported, who 
carried him thence to Ormond, hard by Timielogh, in the county of 
Tipperary, where they first half hanged him, and then letting him 
recover breath, buried him alive in a hole with rubbish and stones, 
yet so that about a month after the dogs drew the body out of the 
ground and devoured the flesh. 

And this deponent further saitli, that quickly after the time the 
town and castle of Birr was upon a siege taken from the English by 
the Irish rebels, viz. about February, 1G42, there was left in and 
about the town to the mercy of the rebels about seventeen of the 
children of the English, whose parents were either formerly slain by 
the rebels or dead, as namely, three children of one Samuel Smith 
of the Birr, named Euseby, Anne, and Margaret, who, being almost 
starved with hunger and cold, and denied to come into their father's 
house by one Eobert Tew that had gotten possession thereof, those 
three poor children for shelter from the cold crept into an oven in 
the back yard of their father's house, whither that inhuman rebel, 
Eobert Tew aforesaid, brought some straw and putting it into the 
oven with the children set it on fire, so as then he burnt all three 
in the oven to death. About the same time a young Irish rogue 
called Adam, son of the said Eobert Tew, with a cudgel knocked on 
the head and killed another of those fatherless children, that was the 
daughter of one Patrick Taylor, a Protestant, and that done tied a 
withe about her legs and drew her up and down, making that good 
sport and recreation. 

In or about the month of February aforesaid, 1G42, two other 
of those fatherless children, by name Grace Middleton and Anne 
Middleton, children of John Middleton (who with his wife was for- 
merly hanged to death at Castletown by John O'Carroll of Clontisk, 



72 THE IPJSri MASSACRES OF UMJ. 

Esq., and his soldiers), were at Birr aforesaid Icnocked on tlie head 
and murdered when they came to beg rehef by certain stranger 
rebels that were said to have come thither out of the Pale, whose 
names this deponent cannot express. Ilowbeit they are or very 
lately were dwelling at the town of Birr aforesaid. And the residue 
of all those fatherless children, save only one, are also murdered or 
starved to death at or about Birr. All which this deponent knoweth 
to be true, for that from the very time of the beginning of the rebel- 
lion until about the 15th of March, 1G44, he was restrained and 
kept at Birr aforesaid, by and amongst the rebels, to make shoes and 
boots for them, and then by God's providence he escaped from them 
one morning when they were at mass. And this deponent saw most 
of the murdered bodies aforesaid, and might have seen more of them 
if he durst have gone to them, and at length God delivered him out 
of their hands, who doubtless else would have murdered him also, 
wanting not malice to do so. 

RiciiARD Taylor + 
Jiirat. 21si October, 1G45, 

Hen. Jones. 

Wm. Aldrioh. 

CLXIX. 

Martha Mosley, the relict of Samuel Mosley, late vicar of 
Carlow, now deceased, sworn and examined, saith, that about th 
beginning of November, 1641, when the rebellion was begun at 
Carlow, her said husband was then alive. And that then he and 
she, this deponent, were forcibly expelled, deprived of and from the 
possession of his benefices, or church means, and of their goods 
and chattels to the value in all of 1,000^,, and above, by Thomas 
Davells of the Queen's County, Esq., Mr. Wall of Loughlan, in the 
county of Carlow, Esq., and Eobert Harpole of the Queen's County, 
Esq., and their soldiers and partakers, whose names she knoweth 
not. And that this deponent's husband and she, and their four 
children, and her mother fled from their habitation into the Castle 
of Carlow, where they remained for about one year, and there en- 
dured much grief and calamity, insomuch indeed, that she thinketh 
it was the death of her said husband, and also of her mother. And 
she further saith, that during the time that she and the rest were 
in the said castle, viz. betwixt St, Stephen's Day, 1G41, and the 
week before Easter, the said castle Avas besieged by the said Thomas 
Davells, Wall, Harpole, and their soldiers, and by Walter Bagenal of 



DEPOSITlOiNS. 73 

Dunleckny, Esq., and Robert Evers of Cloglinory iu the county of 
Caiiow, gent., and their soldiers and accomplices, whose names she 
cannot tell. And saith, that one night, whilst that siege lasted, 
there was slain and hurt near to the castle and church, to the 
number of twenty-five, men, women, and children, English Pro- 
testants, who were most barbarously mangled, hewed, and slashed 
by the rebels. And one woman who had her hand cut off this de- 
ponent, by God's assistance, cured, as she did divers others whilst 
she was there. And amongst the rest she so cured, there was a 
poor stripped woman, that the night aforesaid was most miserably 
wounded, and had several great cuts through her skull, and one in 
her face, who was left for dead, and lay there for twenty-four hours, 
and at length, by God's great help, recovered her senses, and so 
much strength that she crawled and came into the castle, being a 
most miserable object of pity, and although such as saw her despaired 
of her recovery, yet God, working through such means as this de- 
ponent used to her, she afterwards very well recovered. 

About Whitsuntide, 1G42, one Hugh Everardand Edward Howe, 
two Protestants, were, within a musket-shot of the castle, both 
murdered, mangled, and cut to pieces most barbarously by the said 
Mr, Harpole and his soldiers. The wife of one Jonathan Lyn and 
her daughter were also surprised by the rebels, as they were gather- 
ing corn, and were from that place carried to Stapletown wood, 
where and when those two poor women were hanged up on a tree by 
the hair of the head all night. And the next morning they were 
cut down by the rebels, and being found to have life in them, the 
cruel villains then and there killed them outright. About the latter 
end of August, 1G42, one Bcnnet Bower went out of the castle to 
get in corn, and there went with him one Alice Chevening and her 
little son, and another woman, that had been formerly his servant, 
all which four about a quarter of a mile from the castle were met 
by the soldiers of the said Harpole, who then and there took tho 
said Bower prisoner, murdered the little boy and his mother, and 
the said other woman, the poor child's head being pitifully mangled 
and his belly so opened that his bowels fell out, and one of the 
women's throat being almost cut through, and the other pitifully 
mangled. 

MAIiTHA MOSLEY. 

Jurat. 2>dth October, 1G43, 
Hen. Jones. 
Hen. Brebeton. 



74 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF lOJl. 

Note. 

Charles Jewell, gent., of Dourigally, in the King's County, 
swore before Jones and Brereton that of twenty-two families, his 
near neighbours, in all about one hundred and twenty persons, he 
believed only his sister and two others survived. The rest were 
stripped, and in one way or another were murdered by the rebels. 
He was himself sheltered by one Nicholas White and Brian Molloy, 
but was beaten and wounded because he refused to go to mass. 
While he was at White's house, one Ellinor Bycroft and her two 
children were murdered in that neighbourhood, their bodies being 
thrown into a hole in a ditch before they were quite dead, and the 
earth cast over them while they were ' groaning miserably.' He 
also swore that the rebels read aloud in his presence the commission 
whicli they said they had received from the King, and showed a 
broad seal attached to it. It would almost appear that there was 
more than one of those mysterious real or forged documents in 
circulation in 1G41. If so they were probably all forgeries. 



CLXX. 

James Benn, late of the city of Kilkenny, shoemaker, sworn 
and examined, deposeth and saith, that since the beginning of the 
present rebellion, that is to say, about the 26th of December, 1041, 
he, this deponent, at Kilkenny aforesaid, was deprived, robbed, or 
otherwise despoiled of leather, household stuff, and other things 
worth 30L by one Mr. Codd, a commander of rebels, who that day 
came into the said city, and one Bourke and other accomplices 
and soldiers of or with the said Mr. Codd, whose names this 
deponent cannot remember ; which said rebels then and there 
forcibly robbed and pillaged all the Protestants in that part of the 
city, or suburbs, called tlie Irish town, of their goods. The gates 
of the city being at that time shut, and some others, especially 
Eoe Purcell, merchant, then sheriff of the said city, and son-in-law 
to Patrick Murphy, now mayor of the same city, and liis servants, 
and others as well Papist inhabitants of the same city, and other 
devilish rebels of the country that they had called to partake with 
them, robbed and dispossessed the rest of the Protestants in the 
city. 

And further saith, that one of the rebellious cruel soldiers, about 



DEPOSITIONS. 75 

Easter, 1G42, did in Kilkenny aforesaid, in this deponent's own sight, 
most barbarously and wickedly with a sharp skean rip open the belly 
of a poor English young woman, that fled thither from Castlecomer, 
for safety, so that her entrails tumbled out, and she received them 
in her arms, and at the same time stabbed and wounded the mother 
and brother of the said young woman, and had killed them outright, 
as this deponent is verily persuaded, but that he sent one Eichard 
Lawlor, a shoemaker, to rescue them, who carried the two, the 
mother and son, to one Thomas Archer, then mayor of the city, to 
whom complaint being made of these outrages, he so far sleightod 
it, that he turned them scornfully away, so that the villainous 
rebels of the city, viz. some men, but mostly women and boys there, 
threw stones on them and dirt m the streets, and pursued and beat 
them out of the town. But as to the poor young woman, she 
crawled away with her bowels on her arms, out of the to^vn, and 
died that night under a hedge. And further saith, that on the Sun- 
day, in the mornmg next after that this deponent was robbed of his 
goods, he went to the church of St. Canice to pray, where he saw 
one Mr. Smith, a Protestant minister, late of Ballynekill, and one 
Mr. Lemon, a Scottish Protestant, late a schoolmaster in Kilkenny, 
which Mr. Smith was then and there stark naked, and the said 
Lemon had only a pair of breeches on, both having been stript in 
the church, and standing trembling near the altar ; when this de- 
ponent not being able to relieve them, left them in that poor state. 
And the same morning the deponent met coming out of the church 
one Mr. Jones, late minister at Stroncarty, who was stript of almost 
all his clothes, and had a great wound in his shoulder, given him 
by the rebels. 

And further saith, that w^iilst this deponent remained at Kil- 
kenny, which was from the beginning of the rebellion until about 
the 2(;tli day of Juno, IGIB, then ho, this deponent, observed and 
saw in the houses and shops of Andrew Murphy, James Archdeacon, 
Pierse Archer, Eobert Tobin, and divers other merchants in the 
said city, the Protestant bibles and prayer-books torn in pieces, and 
used as waste paper to wrap up soap, starch, candles, and such wares 
as they sold. And further saith, that although after they were 
robbed this deponent and some of the English were suffered to stay 
at Kilkenny, yet the rebels gave them nothing, but they lived by 
their hard labour. And when they had gotten anything, it was 
taken from them, by cesses, presses, and soldiers. And this de- 
ponent and the rest of the Protestants were often threatened to bo 



76 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 10 J 1. 

hanged, so as they stood in fear of their lives till they got away. 
And further, this deponent hath been credibly told by some of the 
Eomish and rebellious citizens there, that the titulary Bishop of 
Cashel and Turlogh Oge O'Neil, brother to the devilish rebel Sir 
Plielim O'Neil, and the Popish citizens of Kilkenny aforesaid, 
petitioned and earnestly moved the council at Kilkenny, that all 
the English Protestants there should be put to death, whereunto 
one Kichard Lawless, an alderman of the city, in excuse of them 
answered and said, that the English were all robbed before, and he 
saw no cause that they should lose their lives. And at divers other 
times, when it was pressed that the English should be put to death, 
the Lord Mountgarrett, and his son, Mr. Edmund Butler, and Mr. 
Philip Purcell, by their strength, means, and occasions prevented it, 
they being, as the deponent believeth, commanded by God Almighty 
so to do. And further saith, that the said Sir Phelim O'Neil, about 
a month or six weeks since, came to Kilkenny (out of the north), 
where this deponent left him and his lady, and the other grand 
rebellious councillors. 

And further saith, that about a month since, one Captain 
Chambers being taken prisoner by the rebels, and promised fair 
quarter, was brought to Kilkenny, when and where the base rebel, 
Captain Eobert Harpole of Shrule, having begged leave to have him, 
caused his, the said Harpole's own men to hang the said Captain 
Chambers upon a gate, and before he was dead they cut off his head 
and let his body fall to the ground, and cruelly and indecently 
mangled it. And the stripped body was carried away into a ditch, 
with the head, and there buried, as this deponent was credibly in- 
formed by one Brian MacShane, his apprentice, whom he, this ex- 
amt., sent purposely to see how they used the said Captain Chambers, 

not daring to go himself. 

James Benn. 
Jurat. 8rcZ J%dy, 1G43, 
Wm. Aldkich. 
Hen. Pigott. 

Note. 

As I have already said, the fewness, comparatively speaking, of 
massacres in the province of Leinster was made up for by out- 
bursts of ferocious bigotry in the destruction of churches, the digging 
up of Protestants from the graves in which they had rested for 
months or years, and the casting of their bones into ditches and roads. 
Nothing can whitewash some of the Roman Catholic clergy from 



DEPOSITIONS. 77 

the guilt of these outrages. The order of the ' moderate ' Bishop of 
Ferns respecting the burial of Francis Talbot, given at page 1 55 , vol i. , 
and the testimony of innumerable witnesses at Kilkenny, Wexford, 
Carlow, and other Leinster counties, show that the people acted 
only in accordance with the mandates of their priests, when they 
profaned the graves of the Protestants. And we have equally good 
evidence to show that up to the eve of the rebellion those same 
priests were, even in that intolerant age, treated with courtesy and 
even kindness by the Protestants of those counties. A somewhat 
rare edition of Lord Castlehaven's ' Memoirs of the Irish Wars of 
1G41,' pubhshed in 1815, contains Lord Anglesey's letter of ob- 
servations and reflections thereupon, written in 1G80. Of the terms 
on which the Koman Catholics and Protestants lived in 1G40-1 
Lord Anglesey says, ' there never was more miity, friendship, and 
good agreement, amongst all sorts and degrees, excepting in the 
standing root of mischief, the difference in religion, than at this 
time, or more mutual confidence. ... I remember very well the 
summer before the rebellion, the titular Bishop of Ferns coming on 
his visitation into the county of Wexford, where I then dwelt, at 
the request of the Popish priest, I lent most of my silver plate to 
entertain the said Bishop with, and had it honestly restored.' 
How this courtesy and tolerance, which, needless to say, would 
never have been exhibited to a heretic bishop by a Spaniard or 
Italian in their native countries, in 1040, was repaid by the Bishop 
of Ferns and his brethren we know. John Mayer, sworn on the 
29th of May, before Henry Jones and Henry Brereton, deposed 
that the rebels of Kilkenny had brought into the town the heads 
of ' Mr. Alfrey, son of the Lord Lieutenant's comptroller. Lieutenant 
Gilbert, Mr. Bingham a clergyman, and four others,' which heads 
they knocked against the stones, cut, slashed, and mangled, and 
scorched the face of Mr. Bingham. They then placed his head on a 
pole, and laid a leaf of a book before it, ' scornfully saying lie might 
■preach now if he ivoulcl, for his mouth ivas open enough I ' The 
same witness adds, that the rebels robbed the Protestant churches, 
broke the pulpits, and made gunpowder in some of them, 'swearing 
they would turn the bodies of the Protestants out of their graves that 
had been buried a year before.' Long before Cromwell's soldiers 
came over to desecrate, as is popularly supposed, the churches, they 
were desecrated, plundered, and their bibles and service books 
kicked into the kennel and trampled on by the orthodox Catholics. 



78 THE imsn massacres of kmi. 



CLXXI. 

Ann, wife of Mervin Maudsley, late of the city of Kilkenny, 
gentleman, duly sworn and examined, deposeth and saith, that since 
the beginning of the present rebellion, viz. about the 1st day of 
(illegible) past, her said husband and she were, at Kilkenny afore- 
said, deprived, robbed, and despoiled of their means, goods, and 
chattels, consisting of household goods, linen, apparel, beer in the 
cellar and other things, to the value of 69Z. 15s. ster. And saith, she 
knoweth not the names of the rebels that so robbed them, but was 
credibly informed and believes that they were the rebellious soldiers 
serving under the command of Philip Purcell of Ballifoyle in the 
county of Kilkenny, Esq., son-in-law to the Lord Mountgarrett and 
captain of a company of rebels. And about the same time some of 
the rebels in Kilkenny aforesaid struck and beat a poor English- 
woman, until she was forced into a ditch, where she died, those 
barbarous rebels having first ript open and let her child's guts 
about her heels and most cruelly murdered her, being about sixteen 
years of age. And further saith, that Joan Smith, this deponent's 
mother, who dwelt in the house of her, this deponent, was also by 
the rebels robbed and despoiled of her goods worth 60Z. And 
further saith, that one (hlanh) Cantwell, provost marshal for the 
rebels, at or near Kilkenny, and his company hanged seven English- 
men that they foimd on the way from Ballin [torn], whereof one 
was a tailor, named Kichard Philips, and they also hanged an Irish- 
man, because he was in company with these Englishmen. All 
which eight persons were hanged in the town of Kilkenny, on a 
house of newly-framed timber. And also the rebels called on the 
Lord Mountgarrett to have all the English there hanged, he 
answered, that he would pistol any who made such a request 
again, for that the English who were left would gladly enough go 
away and leave the country, if they knew how ; which this deponent 
knew they would, for the rebellious Irish would still abuse and 
oppress those English whom they had not slain or banished, and 

would commonly call them English dogs. 

Ann Maudsley. 
Jurat. March 28th, 1G43, 
Hen. Brereton. 
Wm. Aldrich. 



DErOSITIONS, 79 



CLXXII. 



Ealpii Bulkely, of the town of Carlow, parisli clerk, sworn and 
examined, saitli, that since the begmning of the present rebelhon, 
that is to say, in the months of November and December, 1G41, 
and since, he was robbed and forcibly despoiled of goods and chattels 
to the value of 231/. by the Irish Papists and rebels, viz. Robert 
(illegible) of Clownagh in the same county, gent., a captain of 
rebels since slain in rebellion, Eobert Harpole of Shrewle in the 
same county, another captain of rebels, Thomas Davells, Esq., of the 
Queen's County, Edmund Wall of Loughane, and Edward Wall of 
Ballynakill in the county of Carlow, Esq., another commander of 
rebels, Walter Bagenal of Dunleclmy, another of their commanders, 
who at the first, upon his promise of loyalty and to do his Majesty 
service, procured to himself arms from the stores in Dublin and 
then most perfidiously and treacherously turned rebel and used 
those arms against his Majesty and his loyal Protestant subjects, 
Murtogh Oge {blank) of Castletown, Esq., James Butler of Tully, 
Esq., Garret {illegible) of Brisholstown (szc), Esq., and generally 
all the other gentry and commonalty of Irish Papists, within the 
county of Carlow. . . . And this deponent and many of the English 
for the safety of their lives fled to the Castle of Carlow, to the 
number of GOO men, women, and children, many being very poor 
and having nothing to eat when they came thither. And further 
saitli, that such was the providence and mercy of God to them in 
the said castle, to save them from the rebels, that a great flood fell 
into the river of Carlow aforesaid, about the beginning of December, 
1G41, and continued until after Candlemas following, in such a 
height, that he never saw the like there, where he hath dwelt 
eighteen years. Insomuch that none could approach the castle 
but upon a narrow causeway, which they might with difficulty 
defend. Howbeit the rebels before named and divers others of the 
country on St. John's Day of Christmas, 1641, while the flood was 
high, came into the town of Carlow, and took it, and the Irish of 
the town joined and resorted with them, and set and kept several 
corps de garde, and hemmed in all those in the castle, so that they 
could not stir out, so much as to fetch a pail of water, but they were 
slain. And afterwards, viz. a little after Candlemas, the flood still 
continuing, those rebels secretly in the night time with cotts, and 



80 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF ICll. 

on horseback approached unto, and summoned the castle, and laid 
siege thereunto, and also to the church, and with pickaxes and 
sledges broke down the church wall, but were repulsed-, and many 
of them slain, but those of the English that were found out of the 
castle, these rebels most barbarously murdered, some of them being 
children, that were slain hanging at the breasts of their poor 
mothers, and some very old people that could scarcely go. And 
the said rebels, to their great loss of men, continued the siege until 
the morning following, but were much aimoyed and hindered by 
the water, insomuch that when they were quite repulsed, and forced 
to leave the siege, many of them were put to deep wading and 
swimming, and some in the cotts slain, wherein that flood and the 
narrowness of the pavement, afforded to the besieged Protestants 
not a little relief and advantage. By which repulse these rebels 
were, as he conceiveth, so deterred, that afterwards they did not 
attempt to besiege the castle or the church, but yet lying in the 
town, kept the Protestants in the castle until his Majesty's army 
did, about Easter following, march thither, and then all that were 
there besieged went away with the army. 

Ralph Bulkely. 
Jurat. Sth Jan. 1G43, 

Hen. Jones. 

Hen. Breketon. 

CLXxin. 

Barnaby Dunne, of Brittas, in the Queen's County, Esquire, 
being duly sworn and examined, deposeth, that about the end of 
November, 1G41, and since, he was robbed and deprived of his goods, 
rents, chattels, and other profits as followeth, by and through the 
commotions and rebellions begun in that and other parts of the 
kingdom of Ireland, viz. of corn, sheep, cows, oxen, garrans, and 
plow harness, which he left as a stock in his lands of Ballyvadock, 
Rahmore, and part of the lands of Stradbally, held by Robert 
Robinson, Thomas McCarroll, and Walter Fullam, his farmers, 
worth 400Z., which stock was taken for the most part, as he credibly 
heard, by Henry Dempsey, Con Dempsey, Murtagh Dempsey, Failly 
Dempsey, Rossa and Nicholas Dempsey, William Cosby, otherwise 
called William Kelly, and others their adlierents. In cows,- mares, 
sheep, horses, colts, swine taken and stolen from him in Irregan, 
worth 400Z,, by and through the means of Daniel duna, Arthur and 
Rory duna, John McWilliam Conraghy, and others, their adherents 



DEPOSITIONS. 81 

and confedoratcs. In corn and malt at Brittas, and corn in ground, 
and household furniture and stuff which he is not permitted to pos- 
sess or move from thence for not joining with these rebels, and 
because he is a Protestant, worth 300/., of his rents due and payable 
at Michaelmas, and Easter 400^., and the same for two years to 
come, 800Z., which he doth not expect to receive by reason of the 
rebellion and the banishment of his English tenants that he had 
in Iregan, to the number of twenty and upwards, part of Avhom he 
was driven to keep and relieve at his house of Brittas, until at 
length they came with much difficulty to the fort at Maryborough 
after Easter last, and partly by reason of the wasting, burning, and 
destroying of his houses, mills, and other improvements that were 
thereon by this unnatural rebellion. Also the rent of the impro- 
priate rectory of Iregan for harvest, 1642, worth lOOZ., and is like 
to lose the future profits thereof (until a peace be established) 
through the intrigues of Ross Geoghegan, titulary Bishop of Kildare, 
who doth claim the same, and inhibited the inhabitants of the 
country by himself and Tiegue Delahunty, priest, to pay this 
examt. the said rent and the rents and profits of the impropriate 
rectory of Kilruish and Collier's land, in the said diocese, worth 34/. 
per an., and is likely to lose the future profits thereof, also of arrears 
of rents and tithes before the last year, and debts due by persons 
who are likely to grow desperate, and not be recovered through this 
rebellion, 400/., also 100/. due on a mortgage or rentcharge on part 
of the lands of John Carroll of Clonlish in the King's County, 
Esquire, and the said rentcharge for Michaelmas, 1642, 15/., also 
a mortgage on the lands of Eory Oge of Banellileg, Daniel cluna 
of Tinnahinch and John cluna of Coulloghlane, in Iregan, in the 
Queen's County aforesaid, 100/., of which they intend to deprive 
him, this examt., being now not amenable to his Majesty's laws, 
nor he, according to their new ways and laws, capable to partake 
thereof or recover the same. All which amounteth to the full sum 
of 2,134/. sterling. 

This examt. further saith, that about Christmas, 1641, one 
Tiegue MacRory Dunne, Avho sometime lived with him, spake to 
Sybil, wife to this deponent, as she told him this deponent, and as 
the said Tiegue afterwards confessed, that there was no safety for 
her life or this deponent's in Iregan, unless they went to mass. 
Whereupon this deponent discharged the said Tiegue out of his 
house, and bade him or any of them that were Papists to burn and 
kill him this deponent, and his wife, and their children, if they, the 

. VOL. II. Q 



82 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGJl. 

Papists, could or durst, for that he, this deponent, and his family, 
would not join in the rebellion, nor change their religion. 

He further saith, that one Robert Story, an Englishman that 
then lived at Mr. Richard Redish's house, affirmed unto him that 
about that time one Tiegue Delahunty, a mass priest, that lived in 
Iregan, desired him, the said Robert, to carry a message from him 
to the said Sybil, which was that if she did not go to mass she must 
leave Iregan, and go to her father. Sir Robert Pigott. 

He also deposeth, that Daniel Dunne of Tomgraney, gent., and 
Arthur Dunne of Ballynahonne, gent., told him that it was certain 
that there was some powerful personage in the Irish army in the 
north that used to sit under a tent cloth or canopy, and that none 
but prime men or commanders were admitted to his or her presence, 
some saying it was the young prince, others the queen or the queen 
mother. And said, that those that begun this commotion gave it out 
for certain that they had the king's commission to do what they did, 
and that they were to extirpate or banish all the English and 
Protestants that would not become Roman Catholics. 

He also saith, that Plielim Dunne of Lackamore, and Elinor 
FitzGerald, wife to Brian McDonnell, told him that the titulary 
bishop and the priests said they could not consecrnte the churches 
wherein to celebrate the mass, until the corpses of the Protestants 
should be removed thereout. 

He further saith, that in January last, or February, the fore- 
named Ross Geoghegan, titulary bishop, came with others to this 
deponent's house at Brittas where he then was, being sickly, saying 
that this deponent was one of his charge, and that he was bound to" 
labour to reduce him to be of the Roman Catholic religion, where- 
upon divers arguments about religion, the king's prerogative and 
supremacy, past between them, which this deponent put down in 
writing, and upon the said Geoghegan's earnestners, this deponent 
alleged that he was the king's sworn officer, as being a justice of tlio 
peace and twice a high sheriff, and had sworn the oath of supremacy 
which he held to be lawful, and he in conscience tried to observe 
the same ; to whom the said titulary bishop replied that it was an 
unlawful oath, pretending it might safely be dispensed with, further 
urging that God would not permit any to have power above his 
vicar on earth, meaning the Pope. Whereupon this deponent 
alleged a passage that fell out concerning the King of Hungary being 
in league with the Turk, who, by the persuasion of a legate from the 
Pope, violated his oath in breaking that league and joined in battle 
with the emperor against the Turk. And the Turk having a copy 



DEPOSITION,^. 83 

of the league and oath taken betwixt them called upon Christ Jesus 
to avenge Himself upon the perfidious Christian that brake the oath 
taken in His name, upon which it was observed as remarkable that 
the Turk gahied the victory against the Christian army. 

And further this deponent saitli, that 'about the end of that 
month of February, one Brendan Conn, a friar, as he heard him to 
be, came to this deponent, labouring to persuade him from being a 
Protestant, and to join and subscribe to a writing that he, the friar, 
had drawn up, the contents whereof, as this deponent remembercth, 
was to bind himself to join with the undertakers of that commo- 
tion in their confederation for banishing the English that would not 
conform to the Eoman Catholic religion, and doing such further acts 
as the undertakers or rebels would appoint, which this deponent 
refused to yield unto. During which time some forbearance was 
shown to this deponent in permitting him and some of his English 
tenants to remain there, hoping from time to time they would be as 
they (the rebels) were. And divers messages and threatenings were 
brought to this deponent from Florence FitzPatrick, Arthur Molloy, 
and some of the Dempsies, and divers others that if he did not put 
away his English tenants and servants and become as one of them, 
they would pull him out by the heels and take all he had. And 
this deponent, seeing the dangerousness of the time, and perceiving 
the rebel's evil intentions and cruel dealings with others, and pro- 
clamations for robbing all Protestants, and to kill them if they would 
not leave these parts, though the said rebels pretended to be autho- 
rised by the king to do as they did ; which this deponent bclievetli 
not, for that his Majesty would surely stand by his Protestant sub- 
jects, and as soon as he, this examt., got a little cured of his sick- 
ness, he being altogether unable to suppress or resist them, being 
one against many thousands, fled unto the house of his father-in- 
law, Sir Robert Pigott, at Disart, in the month of March last. And 
saith, that some of his servants in the night time, as they told this 
deponent, brought unto him to Disart aforesaid, two beeves, twenty- 
six muttons, some plate, and a little linen, for which he heard Daniel 
Dunne and his rebellious adherents threatened to hang the said 
servants, and in a rage wounded one of them. So that they durst 
not any more come with any relief to this deponent. 

Barnaby Dukne. 
Jitrat. 2,2nd Nov. 1G42, 

Cora Wm. Aldrich. Eandal Adahs. 

John Watson. Hen. Brereton. 

o 2 



84 THE IRTSII i\rASSACT!ES OF KJJI. 

CLXXIV. 

Thomas Huetson (sic), of the town and county of Kildare, an 
English Protestant, sworn and examined, saith, about a month or 
three weeks since one John Courtney of Kildare aforesaid, weaver, 
and IMartin Courtney, his son, Walter White of the same town, 
labourer, Buonaventure Berry of the same town, the reputed son of 
WiUiam Berry of the same town a Popish priest, and Thomas Berry 
of Kildare aforesaid, near kinsman of the said William Berry, and 
divers other rebels of the Irish, did in the cathedral church of 
Kildare aforesaid dig up the graves of Dominick Huetson, this 
deponent's brother, who had been buried about twenty months, 
and of Christian Huetson, this deponent's grandmother, who had 
been buried about one week, and took their corpses out of the same 
graves in the church, and laid them both in a garden, outside the 
walls of the churchyard, which was done by the council and pro- 
curement of Ross McGeoghegan, titulary Bishop of Kildare, and 
James Dempsy, the Popish vicar general, William Berry, priest, 
Dominick Dempsy, guardian to the friars, who live in Kildare afore- 
said, James Flanagan of the same, a friar, Brian O'Cormady of the 
same, friar, and other fiiars, whose names he now remembereth 
not.' And further saith, that the same William O'Berry {sic) 
brought this deponent before the said titulary bishop, and informed 
him that this deponent was looking in the church window Avhen 
the corpses of the said brother and grandmother were being taken 
up, and that he writt down the names of those parties that so took 
them up, and desired to know what must be done with this de- 
ponent, to which the said Bishop Geoghegan answered that if he 
found the report to be true, and that this deponent would do any- 
thing against their Catholic cause, he would imprison and hang 
him. And further deposeth, that some of the parties above named, 
with divers others of the town of Kildare, said that they could not 
sanctify or hallow the said church of Kildare until the heretics' 
bodies were removed out of it. 

Thomas Hewetson. 
Jurat. 15th Feb. IMl, 
Roger Puttock. 
Wm. Aldrich. 

Note. 

Ralph Walmesly, farmer, of Ballynegulshy near Birr, sworn and 
e:;amined, deposed to the murder of his mother and- his infant 



D]:rosiTioxs. 85 

child by an Irishman who was sent to convey them to Birr by Lady 
Herbert. He also deposed as to several other murders of which he 
had heard and to the seditious speecliea, drunkenness and profligacy 
of a friar. But he spoke in high terms of the kindness shown to 
him by Captain Turlogli Molloy and John McFarrell, gent., of 
Ballycally in the Queen's County, saying that ' he (this deponent) 
is confident that the said Molloy and IMcFarrell were much grieved 
at the ill-treating of the English, which appeared not only by the 
said ]\Iolloy's and MacFarrell's loving words, but by the real cour- 
tesies they did the English at divers times.' 



CLXXV. 

The joint Examinations of Edward Saltinghall, late of the 
Grange, in the parish and county of Armagh, gent., and 
Geokge Littlefield of the said county. 

These deponents, being duly sworn and examined, say, that 
Manus O'Cahan of the Grange, in the county of Armagh afore- 
said, colonel of the rebels, Brian O'Kelly of Charlemont, captain 
of the rebels, Patrick O'Mallan late of Munroy (sic) in the county 
of Tyrone, another captain of the rebels, caused to be gathered 
together and put into the church of Loghgall, in the said county of 
Armagh, three score and ten persons, all English Protestants, and 
there kept them two days and two nights, and afterwards sent them 
with one hundred soldiers to {blank). And the rebels did in 
[illegible) aforesaid likewise suddenly gather all the English there 
together and drove them to the bridge of Portadowne, and threw 
them all over the bridge into the water, they being in all 154 Pro- 
testants who were then and there most miserably drowned. And 
afterwards the three rebels last above named gave to the rest of the 
English a pass to go into England that they who were left behind 
should not be afraid. 

And further saith, that the said Manus O'Cahan and Brian 
O'Kelly, and Shane O'Neil, and Art Oge O'Neil, gent., did take 
William Blundell of Grange, yeoman, in the said county of 
Armagh, and put a rope about his neck and threw him into the 
Blackwater near Charlemont, and did draw him up and dowii in 
the water to make him confess his money, who thereupon gave 
them 211., yet within three weeks after he arul his wife and his 
three children were drowned by tlie rebels, and one more of his 



8G THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

children being left behind in Grenan, was afterwards taken by 
Tatrick O'Donnelly of Knockaconey, in the county of Armagh, 
gent., out of the same house, who caused it also to be drowned. 
And further saith, that Samuel Law of Grenan in the parish of 
Armagh, yeoman, was forcibly taken out of his house at Grenan 
aforesaid, by the rebels Neil Oge O'Neil and Donogh O'llagan, and 
Phelimy O'Mallon, all of Grenan aforesaid, and brought to a wood 
and there they put a withe about his neck, and therewith drew him 
up and down by the neck until he was glad to promise to give them 
ten shillings. And further saith, that Art MacHugh Boy O'Neil 
and Neil Modder O'Neil, both captains of the rebels, caused divers 
of the inhabitants of Armagh to bo put to death, namely, James 
Chappell, Esq., Thomas Whitacre, gent., Thomas Glover, gent., 
Mr. Starkey and his two daughters, William Wollard, yeoman, 
Thomas ColUer, hatter. Christian Symonds, shoemaker. And there 
were also divers other persons by the rebels put to death, as namely, 
William Marriott and his son, and Kobert Spring, all of Loughgall, 
gentlemen, who were hanged upon the butcher's stalls before their 
own doors, and their houses set on fire and burnt. And the rebels 
also murdered William Galvin and his brother's wife and children, 
Thomas Sadlier, John Keighley and Peter Keighley, Samuel Birch, 
Thomas Foster and James Berrall, Kobert Berrall, Patrick Erwin, 
Joshua Griffin, James Rodes and John Bartlett, all of Armagh, 
And further saith, that one Loughhn MacArtee {sic) of Horkly, 
in the county of Armagh, boldly affirmed that he had killed one 
Thomas Woodward of Horkly with a blow of his stave, and that he 
made a woman help to hang her husband. 

And saith, that the rebels Patrick MacPhelimy of Ballymoilmurry 
in the county of Armagh did forcibly and cruelly throw one John 
Hale of Ballimacroome into a river, when he swimming over to 
the other side, the said Patrick ran on a piece of wood that lay over 
the river, and with an axe knocked out the said Hale's brains. 
And also saith, that Noil O'Hologan, William O'Hologan, and 
Patrick Ballagh O'Donnelly, all of Torgardan, in the parish of 
Kilmore, and county of Armagh, yeomen, did maliciously kill and 
murder Richard Roe of Kilmanin, in the county of Armagh, yeo- 
man, because he had justly caused some of their friends to be 
hanged. And that Phelimy Mac (illegible) and Redmond Roe 
O'Crelly, both of Ballaghkernon, in the county of Armagh, yeomen, 
did take their master, Henry Pilkingfcon, gent., out of Loughgall 
aforesaid, professing much kindness unto him, because he was their 



DEPOSITIONS. 87 

master, and said tlicy would keep him {illcyible). But as soon as 
tliey had got him within less than a quarter of a mile of his own 
house, they, thinking that he had money hidden thereabouts, took 
his own garters and tied them about his neck to make him confess 
the money. But because he would not confess to any they hanged 
or strangled him on the highway, and stripped him of all his 
clothes and put his head into a ditch and there left him. And 
further saith, that the said Manus O'Cahan and Brian O'Kelly 
received at one time from one William Fullerton, parson of Lough- 
gall, 85L upon promise to send a convoy with him and one lUchard 
Gladwich to Lisnegarvy, and gave the said William Fullerton a 
pass to go .there safe and sound. But when the convoy of rebels 
had carried or brought them about two miles on their way, they 
cut off their heads. And the rebels James O'Donnelly and Hugh 
MacManus, both of Dromoly, in the county of Armagh, gent., did 
take and imprison John Piichardson, gent., and Christopher Blake 
Francis Hill, butcher, and Ambrose Castleman, baker, all of Lough- 
gall, in the said county of Armagh, until they were forced to give them 
all the money they had, and then promising to get them a convoy 
to the Newry, at length, when they had got their money, hanged 
the poor men. And further saith, that one George Lawlis, a rebel, 
of Loughgall, yeoman, resolving to kill John Corrider, told him he 
Avould do so, but bid him first say his prayers, whereupon the said 
Corrider kneeling down to pray, the said Lawlis instantly cut off 
his head as he was upon his knees. And one Patrick O'Donnelly 
of Knockcrony, in the county of Armagh, gent., being cured of a 
wound which he had in his arm by William Wollard of Armagh, 
chirurgeon, about a week after most barbarously and ungratefully 
killed the said Wollard. And the rebels Hugh O'Farrel of Mount- 
joy, in the county of Armagh, gent., did most barbarously murder 
one Alexander Corridor and Bichard Humfrey and his wife, after 
they had given him all their money and wealth. And further 
saith, that Hugh O'Quin and Art O'Lockane {sic), both of An- 
naghe, in the county of Armagh, rebels, most cruelly murdered 
Williams of Drumakroffe, in the county of Armagh, yeoman, 
when he was naked and his wife and children were looking on, 
and also that John Proctor of the Oalmeton, in the parish of 
Armagh, was killed by the said Hugh because he could give him no 
money. But before they killed the said Williams they kept him in 
the court of guard till he Avas scarce able to go, and then they let 
him out, cut off his head and held it up to his wife and children. 



88 THE irasii massacres of ig-ii. 

And after the rebels were gone away, liis sorrowful and poor wife 
burjnng him in the garden, one Patrick O'Daly, a rebel, took up his 
corpse and threw it into a ditch. 

And further saith, that Patrick O'Kelly, Hugh O'Kelly, Patrick 
MacEarny, Shane MacCoddam, Ann ny Coddam, all of Clonedan, 
in the county of Armagh, caused twenty-three of the poor English 
who were made servants to Brian O'Kelly to be drowned because 
two Englishmen that were in {illegible) company at the siege of 
Drogheda fled into the city from the rebels. And these deponents 
heard divers of the rebels often say, that if Owen MacArt should 
not ere long come out of Spain, they would make Sir Piielim their 

king. 

Edwakd SaLtinhaltj. 

Jurat. 1st June, 1G42, Geoege Littlefield. 

Wm. Aldeich. 
Wm. Hitchcock. 

Note. 

I have given the foregoing as a specimen of one of those very 
unreliable depositions which the Eoyal Commissioners sometimes 
received. One-fifth of it may be reliable, the rest is evidently mere 
hearsay, {v. Introduction, pp. 135, 145.) 

CLXXVI. 

RiCHAED Hudson, of (illegible) Street, Dublin, carrier, aged 
forty-five years or thereabouts, duly sworn and examined, saith, 
that on the 24th of October, 1641, at the beginning of the rebelhon, 
he was living at Kildargin in the territory of Idough, in the county 
of Kilkenny, within two miles of Castle Comer, and saith that about 
a month before Christmas, 1641, a company of the rebels, to the 
number of fifty or thereabouts, fell upon this examt.'s house, and 
robbed and stripped this examt., and that Edmund Brenan, late 
of Ardee, deceased, was commander of these rebels. And further 
saith, that the country being full of rebels, this examt, ran for 
safety of his life into Castle Comer, in the said county, and there 
continued, and saith, that after his coming to the said castle of 
Castle Comer, the said Edmund Brenan, who was captain, one 
Thomas Butler, brother to one Richard Butler, who lived in Castle 
Comer, was made captain of the rebels in garrison in the said town 
of Castle Comer, and that during his being in such command, a 
youth called Richard Barnard being sent out of the castle, on some 
occasion into the town, one Lisagh Brenan took the said Barnard, 
and carried him and hanged him upon his father's tenter hooks. 



DErOSlTiONS. 89 

till he was deatl, his father being a clothier by his trade, the said 
youth being so hanged on the tenter liooks within view of the said 
castle. And further saith, that an Englishwoman, the wife of a 
collier, being scut with a letter from some of the Irish to Captain 
X^'arrer, who was in the same castle, was by some of the Irish 
soldiers shot before the gate of the castle and died there of the shot. 
And further saith, that about the secoiid week of Lent then follow- 
ing, quarter being offered to those that were in the said castle, 
he, this examt., and many of the English left the said Captain 
Thomas Butler, and some of his soldiers followed them and by force 
took from thence one Eichard Philips, and one John Showell, whom 
the said Thomas Butler carried to Kilkenny and there hanged them 
until they Avere dead. And further saith not. 

Gekauu Lowther. Richakd + Hudson. 

Edwahd Bolton. 

Thos. Dungan. 

CLXXVII. 

Lucy Swift, of Ballyraggett, duly sworn and examined, deposeth 
and saith, that she lived inldough in the beginning of the rebellion, 
and being demanded what she knew of the murders committed in 
Idough, she said that one Lewis Davis, a Welshman, was murdered 
by one James IVIcWilliam O'Brenan, now in prison, and James 
McDonnell, living in Idough, and that one William Stretton was 
murdered by Melaghlin McTiegue, and that Barnaby Dempsy 
hanged this examt. 's godmother Lucy Coale in his own town, where 
she then lived. 

Taken before us, lAtli Se2)t. 1652, 
William IIeyuon. 
[illegible.) 

CLXXVIII. 

Elizabeth Lawless, being examined upon oath, what she 
knoweth of the murder of Eichard Barnard, son of Alexander 
Barnard, deposeth that about Shrove Tuesday, in the year 1G41, 
she, this deponent, being in the town of Castlecomer, did see Lewis 
Brenan strike at the said Eichard Barnard (being then young, about 
nine or ten years of age) with his sword drawn, and gave hiin first a 
deep wound upon his head, and presently after on his face, and this 
examt. thereupon saw the said Richard fall to the ground, and the 
said Lewis Brenan, not being therewith satisfied, in pursuance of 



90 THE IKISTI MASSACRES OF 1011. 

his bloody and murderous disposition, took off a liempen cord from 
a greyhound's neck, and put it about the said Eichard's neck, and 
dragged him to his father's tenter hooks, and there the said Lewis 
hanged him, the said Eichard, and being demanded what she knew 
or conceived to be the reason of this murderous and bloody action, 
she saith she knoweth no reason, unless it was because he, the boy, 
was of English parents, and further saith, that the said boy came 
out of the said castle of Castle Comer, not an hour, or thereabouts, 
before he was murdered, and saith that the said LeAvis Brenan did 
exceedingly vaunt, after he had perpetrated that bloody murder. 

Elizabeth Lawless + 
Taken before us, 
John Stamer. 

(illegible.) ■ 

Note. 

William Collis of Kildare, saddler, sworn before Brereton and 
Jones in 1G43, deposed that Walter White of Kildare, a commander 
of the rebels, said in his (Collis's) hearing, that he thought ' tlie 
worse of himself the day he saio any of the breed of English walk 
along the streets of Kildare,' one of many proofs showing that the 
rebels of English descent, but Irish by birth, were more inveterate 
haters of the English rule than were the rebels of old Irish descent 
and name. English writers of the seventeenth century noticed 
that it needed only one generation to make the colonists of Ireland 
more rebellious than the Irish themselves. John Glasse of Mount- 
rath swore on the 8th of April, 1642, that Mr. and Mrs. Nicholson 
were offered their lives if they would go to mass, but that they re- 
fused to do so, ' the wife showing even more resolution than her 
husband,' and ' when they pi'cssed her,' says the deponent, ' to burn 
her bible, she said she would die on the point of the sword first, 
which they both made good on the Sabbath day, tlie morning after 
Twelfth Day last, when they were cruelly butchered and murdered 
before mass time by the followers of Florence EitiiPatrick.' The 
wife of FitzPatrick, according to several witnesses, was a most cruel 
persecutor of the Protestants. Oliver Davoren of Eathmore, in 
Kildare, sworn before Sterne and Aldrich, in January, 1641, deposed 
that he was robbed of goods worth 281/. by one Lynch of Eathmore, 
but that ' he saw no murders although ho heard that they were 
committed.' He further swore that the said Lynch said in his 
(deponent's) presence that ' it was no sin to rob and spoil heretics, 
and that Catholics were not bound to spare them as neighbours.' 



DEPOSITIONS. 91 



CLXXIX. 

The Examinal'wn of Alice Gregg, the widow of Richard Gregg, 
late of LougJigall, in the county of Armagh. 

(Ilarleian MSS., Erit. Mus. III. 5,999.) 

This examt., duly sworn, deposetli that one Doglierty, a colonel 
of the rebels, with others his soldiers and partakers, stripped at one 
time three hundred Protestants about Loughgall of their clothes, 
and then drove them like sheep into the church of Loughgall, and 
there the said Dogherty publicly said to his bloody and rebellious 
crew that all these, meaning the Protestants so imprisoned, should 
be put to death, both men, women, and children, and then and 
there caused the door of the church to be shut and locked, and left 
them naked, save that some few covered themselves with straw, 
where in that state they remained for four days after, having but 
very poor allowance of victuals, and indeed scarce enough to keep 
their bodies and souls together, and then by the command of the 
said Dogherty, his merciless soldiers, with their skeans, set upon 
this deponent, her husband, and children, and in the same church 
gave her eight wounds in her head, and divided and cut her son 
John Gregg whilst he was yet alive into quarters, and threw 
them in his father's face ; then they stabbed her husband, and 
gave him seventeen or eighteen wounds, and so murdered him, and 
cut him in quarters in this deponent's sight. And then and there 
in the same church the said rebels stabbed and quartered or other- 
wise cut in pieces at least one hundred more Protestants, especially 
those that were able to bear arms, and continued in their bloody 
massacre and murder, which, as this deponent is verily persuaded, 
had fallen upon all the rest, but that one Captain O'Eeilly forbade 
them to kill any more ; so that these bloody and barbarous villains, 
merely out of awe, desisted, and about a day after this deponent so 
wounded, and many others all severely womided, were turned out of 
the church, and were suffered to go up and down the country naked, 
to taste of the cold and sorrowful charity of the usurphig, merciless, 
and pitiless Irish. And this deponent is confident and partly 
knoweth, that the rebels put to death, by drowning in the flood, 
famine, hanging, and extreme tortures, almost all the Protestants 
in the county thereabouts. Insomuch that one in a hundred 
hardly escaped with life, as this deponent is verily persuaded. And 



92 THE IRISH MASSACIJES OF IGll. 

further saitli, that many of the poor Protestants tliat fled the bloody 
hands of the rebel soldiers were afterwards most brutally murdered 
by the very Irish cripples, and those women of base condition that 
kept them company, which cripples and idle women did much vaunt 
the glory of such their cruelties, wherein they had no little assist- 
ance from their children, that, as far as their powers extended, 
assisted and exceeded them in their merciless and bloody acts. 
Jurat. 21si July, 1643, 
Coram John Watson. 
Wm. Aldkich. 

CLXXX. 

(Hiu-leian MSS., Brit. Mus. III. 5,999.) 

Thomas Perkins, clerk, late curate of Lynally, in the King's 
County, duly sworn, deposeth, that one Mr. Gearnye, who had been 
in the said parish forty years, and was then near a hundred years 
old, was killed by the Dempsies in his own house, and buried in a 
ditch by the common road, and they murdered also one Jolm Ap 
Hugh, and his wife, being sick in bed. 

Note. 
The above are accurate copies of the originals in the books in 
Dublin, omitting details of the deponent's pecuniary losses, {v. In- 
troduction, p. 129.) 



CLXXXI. 

Walter Disskcome {sic), a British Protestant of Mountrath, in 
the Queen's County, sworn and examined, saith, that since the 
beginning of the rebellion, viz. about the 11th of January, 1641 
(0. S.), he was robbed of goods worth lOZ. by Captain Edmund 
Butler and Tiegue {illegible). This deponent further saith, that he 
knoweth Mr. John Nicholson and his wife were murdered upon the 
Sabbath day morning, about seven of the clock, by the servants of 
Florence FitzPatrick, to whom they (Mr, and Mrs. Nicholson) betook 
themselves for protection, and this deponent hearing where and 
how they were murdered, and finding the report true by finding the 
said parties murdered in a wood near Mountrath in such a cruel and 
barbarous manner as is hardly to be expressed, and this deponent, 
desiring to do the neighbourly and Christian office to bury them in 



DicT'osrrioxs. 93 

the best manner lie was then able, he was pursued to all extremity of 
his life because he tried to bury them, and the rebels came to his 
house with their swords drawn to dispatch him, asking in Irish 
' where that Enghsh churl was that buried Nicolson and his Avife,' 
and they sought him all day in the neighbouring houses, thrusting 
their swords into the hay to see if they could find him, but it pleased 
God to offer an unexpected occasion to draw him from his own 
house at the instant they thought him there, and his life was saved 
by betaking himself to Maryborough. He heard that they inquired 
whether the dogs and crows had as yet devoured Nicolson and his 
wife, and it was answered they had not, for they were buried by 
Disskcome, whereupon they (the Irish Catholics) professed he should 
* need to-morrow someone to bury himself.' 

Walter Disskcome -f 
Jurat, nth April, 1G42, 

Randalfj Adams. 

rogek puttock. 

CLXXXII. 

Anne Southwell, late of Ballenekilly, county of Limerick, 
widow, relict of Captain John Southwell, lately slain by the rebels, 
duly sworn and examined before us, deposeth and saith, that about 
Christmas last, and divers times since the beghming of the present 
rebellion, she was robbed and forcibly despoiled of her goods and 
chattels worth 1,472/. 10s. She further saith, that she was robbed 
of all her goods, quick and dead, by the hands and means of William 
CuUum of Lismoly, county Limerick, gent., and his eldest son ; 
James FitzGerald of Kilkenane in said county, gent., Edmund 
Pursell of Ballincullane, gent., and their soldiers to the number of 
300. She also saith, that her said husband was, on Easter Tuesday 
last, shot and killed by an ambush of rebels at Grange bridge in the 
said county as he was on his way to relieve Newcastle. She saith 
that one Maurice Herbert of Eathkeale, in the said county, Esquire, 
about Candlemas last did hang three Englishmen of Eathkeale, but 
their names she knoweth not. She also saith, that Mrs. Anne 
Woodhall, wife to Mr. Woodhall, gent., with her daughter Amie, and 
Josias Walker, gent, and his wife ; Anne Gerald, wife to Maurice Fitz- 
Gerald, Mr. Jennings, a minister, Mr. Escott and his wife, late of the 
Castle of Mahonagh, with divers others, unknown, to the number of 
forty, were stripped naked by Thomas McGibbon of Mahonagh, 



94 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF Kill. 

gent., and his followers, who hanged eight of those so stript parties 
unlmown. This act was done about Christmas last. She also saith, 
that she saw two letters under the hands of Richard Stevenson of 
Dunmoylan, and Maurice Herbert of Eathkeale, Esq., aforesaid, 
therein persuading this deponent's husband, to whom they directed 
the said letters, to change his religion and join with them, and that 
suddenly too, for otherwise it would not serve his turn, ' notwith- 
standing all our. puritan helps that we were likely to have out of 
England and Scotland.' She lastly saith, that Mr. Thomas Philips of 
Ballyea, in said county, formerly a reputed Protestant, since this 

rebellion is turned Papist. 

Anne Southwell. 
Jurat, coram nobis, 
2dth Sept. 1G42, 
Phil. Bisse. 
Pvo. Southwell. 

Note. 

This deponent was Anne, oldest daughter and co-heir of Sir 
John Dowdall of Kilfinny Castle, in the county Limoriclc, by his 
wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Soutliwell of Poylong in 
the county Cork, Captain John Southwell was the eldest son of 
Edmund Southwell, Esq., of Castle ]\Iattress, in the county Limerick, 
by Catherine, daughter and heir of Garret Herbert of Eathkeale, in 
the same county. Thus Captain Southwell and the Herberts of 
Eathkeale (the descendants of an Elizabethan or early Tudor colonist) 
were relatives, which accounts for their warning him to change his 
religion. Captain Southwell died s. p., his widow Ann married 
William Piggott, Esq., of Kiliinny, by whom she had a son and heir, 
John Piggott, and two daughters, Martha married to Lieutenant- 
Colonel Stamerof Clare, and Elizabeth married Thomas FitzGerald 
of Woodhouse. The Eathkeale Herberts lost almost everything in 
1649, and the family is now extinct in the male line. The last notice 
I have been able to find of them is in the will of Morgan O'Conncll 
of Kilfinny in 1747 (my great-great-grandfather), which mentions 
his ' nephew Garret Herbert of Eathkeale.' For Lady Dowdall's 
curious account of her spirited defence of Kilfinny Castle against the 
Irish in 1G42, see the appendix to Belling's History of the Irish 
Catholic Confederation, edited by Mr. Gilbert as before mentioned. 
One of her five daughters and co-heiresses marrying Sir Hardress 
Waller, that regicide's life was spared after the Eestoration in con- 
sideration of the Dowdall's loyalty. 



DEPOSITIONS. 95 



CLXXXIII. 

Thomas Southwell, of Cloughkeltred, in the county of Lime- 
rick, gent., duly sworn and examined, deposetli and saith, that he 
was robbed and despoiled by the rebels of goods and chattels worth 
1,854Z. He further saith, that Thomas Whitby of Eathkeale, hus- 
bandman, James Bowerman of the same, husbandman, Edward 
Parsons of the same, labourer, John Gale, tailor, John Sworder, 
labourer, Maurice Branagh, an Irish Protestant, Tiegue McCono- 
glier, of the same, an Irish Papist, yeoman, but true to him (this 
deponent), Edward Harding of the same, were taken away about 
Lady Day last and half hanged by Maurice Herbert of Eathkeale, 
and Garret Herbert, his son, a captain of rebels, who threw three 
of the said English into the river Deele ; also he saith, that a poor 
English maid of Eathkeale was thrown off the bridge into the said 
river, by the said Herbert's soldiers, and she swimming to the 
shore was beaten off by them, and brained with stones. Not long 
after one Stubbs, near Eathkeale, a fellmonger, was murdered, as 
is conceived, by the said Herbert's directions ; also he saith, that 
about the beginning of September last one Eobert Eice of Eath- 
keale, gent., was nmrdered in his bed, after quarter given to the 
Castle of Callow wiiere he was, also Thomas Eussell and Thomas 
Eggshill of the same, husbandmen, were murdered at Eathkeale by 
Stephenson's followers immediately after the report came that Oliver 

Stephenson was killed in battle. 

Thos. Southwell. 
Jurat, coram nobis, 
Ufh October, 1G42, 
Phil. Bisse. 
Tristram Whitcombb. 
Eg, Southwell. 

Note. 

Thomas Southwell was the younger brother of the husband of the 
former deponent and the fifth son of Edward Southwell by Catherine 
Herbert of Eathkeale. For his services in 1G41 he was appointed 
Commissioner for the precinct of Limerick in 1G53, and in the fol- 
lowing year was High Sherill" for the counties of Limerick, Kerry, 
and Clare. After the Eestoration he was created a baronet, and 
from him descends the present Lord Southwell. 



96 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF Kill. 



CLXXXIV. 

Dame Barbara Browne, late of the town and parish of the 
Hospital, in the barony of Small, in the county of Limerick, duly 
sworn and examined on behalf of Sir John Browne, Knt,, her 
husband, deposeth and saith, that on the 1st day of January, 1641 
(0. S.), and since, by the means of the present rebellion in Ireland, 
her said husband lost, or was robbed of goods and chattels, &c., 
worth 3,800Z. She also saith, that the said lands and house of 
Hospital, oxen, cows, and steer were taken away by Murtogh O'Brian 
of Duharra, of Upper Ormond, in the county of Tipperary, gent., 
and John O'Kennedy, of the same, on the 1st of January aforesaid, 
and tlie horses and mares were taken away about the same time by 
John Lacy of Karrigkelle {sic), near the said Hospital, gent., Maurice 
Hurly of Knocklong, eldest son of Thomas Hurley of Knocklong, 
Esq., and the household stuff was taken away by ]\Iaurice Baggot of 
Baggotstown, in the same county, gent., about the 21st of March 
last past, and Dermot O'Brian of Coonagh, gent., and his followers ; 
another part of the household stuff' left at the castle of Lough Gur, 
near Any, was taken away by' the Lord of Castleconnel, Captain 
Pierce Walsh of the Abbey of Owny, Esq., in the said county, and 
their followers. The rest that was kept at the Castle of Limerick 
was taken when the said castle was taken by the besiegers with 
General Purcell, &c. The corn in the haggard was taken away by 
Morris Baggot and Dermot O'Brien aforesaid, on the 1st of March, 
1641, the corn in the ground, as she is informed, was reaped and 
taken away by means of the said Lord Castleconnell, the houses 
were demolished by rebels whose names she knoweth not. 

She also saith, that the Castle of Castletown, where she fled for 
refuge, was besieged upon the 26th of March, 1642, by Luke Purcell 
of Croagh, Lieut. -General ; Captain John FitzGerald, second brother 
to Thomas FitzGerald of the Glyn, Esquire, Lieut, -Col, Garret 
Purcell of Curragh, and divers others to the number of two or three 
hundred rebels, who lay close to the castle, so that the besieged could 
not stir out ; during which time she often heard the besiegers say 
that they had the King's authority for what they did. During the 
siege one Thomas Hill, shoemaker, of Castletown, was killed by a 
shot from the besiegers, and at length for want of water the place 
was yielded up, about the 13th of May following ; having been 
besieged five weeks and odd days, the quarter was for their lives and 



DEPOSITIONS. 97 

wearing clothes, and a few other comraoditieg. After the quarter 

was given and taken, this deponent was conveyed to Cork by a 

sufficient convoy, the said Patrick Purcell conducting her with 

wonderful civility all the way, and as they were going along the 

said Purcell, in a serious manner, told this deponent that he had 

been twice excommunicated before he would take up anns, and that 

he would rather suffer for his religion than take up arms as he did, 

if he thought that there was not the king's authority for it. She 

also saith, that being brought near Macroom, the Lord Castleconnell, 

her nephew, mightily tempted her to mass, promishig her thereupon 

a restitution of what she had lost, which she denying, he wished 

her to leave her children with him, that they might be bred up 

Catholics under him, promising her withal that none but Papists 

should possess a foot of land again in Ireland. And further she 

cannot depose. 

Bakdaka Beowne. 
Jurat, coram nobis, itli Feb. 1642, 

Peecy Smith. 

Phil. Bisse. 

Note. 

This deponent was the daughter of John Boyle, Bishop of Cork, 
and the wife of Sir John Browne, Knt., son of Sir Thomas Browne, 
who had a grant in 1G04 of the preceptory or Hospital of Awney, in 
the county of Limerick (a foundation of the Knights of St. John), with 
the lands around it. The wife of Sir Thomas Browne was maternally 
descended from an old Anglo-Irish family, named Brown, settled in 
Limerick and Kerry before the twelfth century (and not related in 
blood to her husband, who was an Enghshman), who were Masters or 
Warders of Awney before 1560. The sister of Sir John Browne was 
the mother of Lord Castleconnell, whom Dame Barbara Browne 
therefore calls her ' nephew.' Iler only daughter Elizabeth, heiress 
by survival of her brother to Hospital, married Captain Thomas 
Browne of Molahiff, county Kerry, and had by him a daughter, who 
married her cousin Nicholas, second Lord Kenmare, ancestor of 
the present Earl of Kenmare. Castletown, the seat of Sir Hardresa 
Waller, Lady Dowdall's son-in-law, was a rich booty for the rebels 
if the immensely long bill for damages in the form of a deposition, 
furnished by its owner m 1644-9, be not exaggerated. The inventory 
of lands, houses, corn, hay, cows, horses, household furniture, &c., in 
this deposition of Sir Hardress Waller's covers five or six pages of the 
Limerick book, and over each one of them the pen has been drawn. 



VOL. II. 



H 



98 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

It would have been too unmerciful to inflict the reading of this tedious 

inventory on the king and parliament. But to modern readers it 

lias some interest as giving us an idea of the fine and useful articles 

in an Irish gentleman's country house in 1G41, and their separate 

money values, compared witli the value of similar articles at tlie 

present day. The following are a few of the items : — 

£ 

Hangings and tapestry for drawing-room . . . 100. 

Eiderdown and feather beds and flock do., with bol- 
sters, pillows, blankets, rugs, and caddows . . 80. 

Canapies [sic] and vallances . . . . .15. 

One dozen of Turkey work cushions ... 3. 

Do. of chairs 26. 

Half a dozen very rich cushions .... 6. 

Half a dozen cushions of satin richly embroidered . 8. 

Six green broad cloth stools richly embroidered, with 
a large carpet, and cupboard cloth richly em- 
broidered . . . . . . . .10. 

Three large cloth carpets, and one dozen of chair 
covers, same cloth, three cupboard cloths of same 
consisting of sixteen yards of broad cloth . . 5. 

One large couch with bed and bolsters of rich taffeta 6. 

Two very rich Turkey carpets 10. 

Four copper vessels for brewing, washing, &c. . . 2G. 

Four iron pots valued at . . . . . .2. 

A great iron jack, being a thing hard to be got in this 
kingdom . . . . . . . .8. 

In white earthenware of all sort, basin, ewers, and 
candlesticks ........ 10. 

One great chest of books ...... GO. 

One pair of great bossed andirons of brass and tAvo 
pair bound with brass 10. 

Three pairs of plain iron andirons, half a dozen spits, 
and four great dripping-pans .... 3. 

It is strange to find an ' iron jack ' costing more than half as 
much as a ' Turkey carpet.' The ' caddows ' in the first item must 
have been counterpanes, the word was used for such articles in 
Ireland until the middle of the last century. The ' Turkey work ' 
must have been a kind of ' crewel work,' the former name being the 
most appropriate to describe the useless expenditure of woman's 
time, lounging on one embroidered cushion to embroider another. 
Every pound in the above probably represented ten of our present 
money. 



DErOSITIONS. 99 



CLXXXV. 

Beatrice, tlie wife of CnRiSTorHEE Hopditch, late of Esuddogli 
{sic) in the county of Clare, sworn and examined, saitli, that since the 
beginning of the present rebellion, that is to say about Christmas, 
1G41, this deponent and her said husband were robbed and dis- 
possessed, at Esuddogli and Kilfenora, of horses, cattle, corn, pro- 
vision, and other things, their goods and chattels, worth 1501. , by 
the rebels, John Anderson now of Esuddogli, yeoman, Dermot 
O'Brian of Dromore Castle in the county of Clare, Esquire, nephew 
to the Earl of Thomond, ]\Ioyle MacBrody of the parish of Inslii- 
crony in the said county, gent., Cahil O'Eoghan of the same, gent., 
Garrald O'Flannigan of Kilfenora, gent., and their soldiers and 
servants, whoso names this deponent cannot express. And further 
saith, that her husband and she being for safety of their lives fled to 
the castle of Inshicrony, they were there robbed and deprived of 
their household stuff, provisions, and the rest of their goods and 
chattels, worth fifty pounds, on the 21st of March, 1G41, and then 
and there her husband was cruelly murdered by John O'Grady, James 
Ogo O'Grady, Brian O'Grady, Loghlin Oge O'Grady, Gilladoffe 
O'Shaughnessy, William O'Shaughncssy, and Cahill 0' (illegible), 
all of the parish of Inshicrony, gent., and by divers others of the 
neighbours thereabouts, whose names she cannot remember now. 
And further saith, that the rebels aforesaid, or some of them, also 
at that time and at Inshicrony aforesaid, cruelly murdered one 
Peter Newman, this deponent's brother-in-law, Eichard Adams and 
his wife, whom they undertook to convey aAvay, but murdered her 
on the way ; Anthony Davies, Eobert Hart, Eobert Blenkinsopp, 
John Holland, Eichard Blagrove, Thomas Watson, a servant of 
Mr. Heathcote of Inshicrony and William Abbot, all English 
Protestants, and proper able men, and they also murdered the wife 
of Thomas Watkins, and her two children, and another child of 
William (blank) the turner, and generally robbed and stripped of 
all their means all the Protestants in the country thereabouts, and 
carried arms with, for, and amongst the other rebels, and committed 
divers outrages and cruelties. 

And at length this deponent for more safety fled to the castle of 
Ballially in the said county of Clare, and she and about a hundred 
more Protestants were there from about the 20th of June, 1G42, 
last past, until about the 4th of September following, besieged by 

H 2 



100 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGll. 

the rebels aforesaid, and by Connor O'Brien of Leminagh, and Chris- 
topher 'Brian, brother to the Lord of Inchiquin, Dermot O'l'rian 
of Dromore, nephew to the Earl of Thomond, Connor O'Brian, 
eldest son to Sir Donnell O'Brian, Knight, Loghlin ]\IcLoughlin near 
to Kilfenora, and a great number of rebel soldiers, whose names she 
cannot express. But she often observed seven several colours dis- 
played and flying amongst them ; which said rebels having brought 
with them from Limerick a brass piece of ordnance, did therewith 
make several shots against the castle of Ballially, and prepared and 
brought near the same castle baskets of earth, and engines, called 
sows, and thereby, and by their shots against the said castle those 
within it durst not go out, and were driven to that extremity for want 
of victuals that they were glad to eat the flesh of horses, dogs, and to 
feed upon nettles and other weeds, so that divers sickened and died, 
and some that had five or six children in the beginning would have 
none left alive at the end of the week. And at length the assailant 
rebels, as it seemed, growing partly weary of all their attempts, came 
to a parley with those in the castle, and offered terms of fair quarter 
to be given upon surrender. And so much and so far that the said 
Christopher Brian, by his adulations and fair speeches, prevailed and 
persuaded with one Maurice Cuffe, who was one of the chief gentlemen 
in the castle, that he and the wife of Mr. Winter Bridgeman, and one 
Mr. Hill, Thomas Cuffe and John Cruise, that they went out to the 
said Christopher Brian and the rest of the rebels. But they were no 
sooner gone a little out of the castle but that the rebels laid violent 
hands on the said Morrice Cufl'e, Mrs. Winter Bridgeman, and Mr. 
Hill and made them prisoners. But the other two, viz. the said 
Thomas Cuffe and John Crewse, suddenly overran them and fled 
back into the castle, and the other three were kept prisoners for 
ten days or thereabouts. Then the rebels erected a gallows in sight 
of the castle, whither they brought the prisoners, threatening to 
hang them if those in the castle would not surrender it. But that 
way prevailed not, and they took away the prisoners again and kept 
them in great misery for a good space. At length when the said 
Morrice Cuffe writ a letter to the castle, telling in what misery he 
and the other prisoners were, and what little hope there was of 
relief, those that then commanded in the castle, and others therein, 
pressed by extreme want of meat, and seeing no means of relief, 
took quarter to go away with their lives and half their goods, and 
so did depart away, and left the castle to the rebellious enemy. 
And then this deponent being very sick and weak, getting to an 



DErOSITIONS. 101 

Irislnnan's house near there was there kept for some time. But being 
laboured to go to mass, she and her children privately escaped away, 
and at length, though she was very weak, got to the castle of Barnes- 
more in the night, and from thence got to Galway, and from thence 
by sea to Dublin. And further saitli, that in the acting of cruelties the 
rebellious women were more fierce and cruel than the men. And 
amongst the rest one Sarah O'Brian, sister to the said Dermot 
O'Brian, undertook to convey out of the castle of Dromore the said 
Peter Newman and his wife, this deponent's sister, and their family, 
so as she might have their goods. But when she had gotten their 
goods, she suffered the barbarous rebclls there first to cut off the said 
Peter Newman's arm, and afterwards extremely to torture him, and at 
length to shoot him to death, and after the said Sarah had stripped the 
said Peter's wife and children of their clothes turned them away, ex- 
posed to the dangers of those persons whom, as she told this deponent, 
she had hired to kill them. But they having notice of her bloody inten- 
tions did by God's assistance escape the danger by going another way. 

BeATKICE + Hoi'DITCH. 

Jurat. Mth May, 1643, 
John Stebnb. 

Hen. Bkereton. ' 

Note. 

Andrew Chaplin, a Protestant clergyman, one of the besieged in 
Ballially Castle, sworn and examined on the 12th of May, 1043, 
before Commissioners Bisse and J. Wallis, made a long deposition, 
in all things confirming ]\Irs. Hopditch's evidence. He says that — 
" About the Gtli of August, 1642, the said besiegers of the.castle 
of Ballially, or some of them near the said castle murdered or caused 
to be murdered the inidernamed persons, "namely Adam Baker late 
of Ballymacagill, in the county of Clare, yeoman, Ambrose 
"Webster, miller, of Inish in the said county, John Walker, yeoman, 
of Lisson in the said county, Thomas White, mason, late of Knock- 
derry in the said comity, John Twisden, yeoman, late of Bally- 
vanny in the said county, John Sutche, yeoman, late of Ballyally, 
John Burgess, yeoman, late of Inish aforesaid, Robert Harte, yeo- 
man, of the same place [illegible), whereof being murdered, and 
then stripped, their corpses lay about the ground not far from 
the castle walls, and were not suffered by means of the said parties 
to be buried, mitil the dogs and crows did pick and eat up their 
carcasses." 



102 THE IRISH massacres of ig41. 



CLXXXVI. 

Elizabeth Haekis, relict of Sir Thomas Harris, Knt., late of 
Tralee in the county of Ken-y, sworn and examined, deposeth and 
saith, that since the beginning of the present rebellion her said 
husband, Sir Thomas Harris, and she were by means of the rebel- 
lion despoiled and robbed of their plate, money, jewels, household 
stuff, beasts, money, cattle, horses, and other goods and chattels 
amounting to the sum of 2,000Z. And that she by means of the 
present rebellion is deprived and expelled from the possession of 
rents and profits of lands assigned and appointed to her for life for 
her jointure amounting to 500L per an., one year's profits being 
already lost, and the future profits she is likely to lose and be 
deprived of until a peace be established. And she further saith, that, 
as she is credibly informed and hath too great cause to believe, her 
said husband. Sir Thomas Harris, after he had defended the castle of 
Tralee for six months, or thereabouts, against the violent assaults 
and attempts of the rebels, he was driven and exposed to such wants, 
that he drank puddle and corrupted water, and by that means and 
other'- wants he died, and that after his death the remainder of the 
men that assisted him, wanting a governor and means, were forced 
to leave or surrender the said castle, being not able any longer to 
keep the same. 

Eliza. Harris. 
Jurat. Jan. ith, 1G42, 

John Watson. 
Wm. Aldrich. 

Note. 

This deponent was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Anthony Forrest, 
Knt., of Huntingdon, and wife of Arthur Denny, Esq., of Tralee 
Castle, eldest son of Sir Edward Denny, Knt., by his wife Margaret 
Edgecombe, daughter of Piers Edgecombe of Mount Edgecombe, 
and maid of honour to Queen Elizabeth. Sir Edward Denny, 
the cousin german of Ealeigh and Sir Humphrey Gilbert, had 
obtained a grant of Desmond's chief castle and town of Tralee, 
with a fine estate around it, for his gallant services against the rebels 
in 1570-84. His eldest son, Arthur Denny, died in 1G19, leaving a son 
and heir, Sir Edward Denny of Tralee Castle in 1G41, and M.P. for 
the county, who had married in 1625 Euth, daughter of Roper, Lord 
15 altinglas, and cousin maternally of Sir Philip Sidney. Sir Edward 



DErOSITlONS. 103 

Denny had by this lady nme children (from his eldest son descends 
the present Sir Edward Denny, Bart.), the youngest, a daughter, was 
only a few weeks old when the rebellion began in Ulster. His 
mother, who made the above deposition, had married secondly Sir 
Thomas Harris, Knt., of the old family of his name at Cornworthy, 
Devonshire, and when Sir Edward Denny went to join the troops 
mider Sir William St. Leger in Cork (having sent his wife and young 
children to England) he left his castle of Tralee to the care of his 
stepfather. Lord Kerry w^as appointed governor of Kerry by St. 
Leger, and at his request Sir Edward Denny, who had a garrison at 
Castlemaine, delivered the ward of that place to Captain Thomas 
Sprhig, by whom it was soon after surrendered to the Irish. Pierce 
Ferriter, owner of a good estate and the Ferriters or Blasquet 
Islands on the west coast of Kerry, was appointed captain of some 
troops collected in that neighbourhood, whom Lord Kerry supplied 
with arms, but in a few weeks Ferriter carried off both men and 
arms to the rebel side, and proceeded to besiege Tralee Castle. He 
was a man of considerable ability, and a long poem in Irish, written 
by him on the death of a son of the Knight of Kerry, who died in 
Spain circa 1G40, has been translated by Crofton Croker and pub- 
blished in the Percy Society publications. Lord Kerry fled to Cork, 
and from thence to England, in February, 1G41-2. His brothers 
joined the rebels. The depositions here given and a document in 
the appendix show the sufferings of the besieged at Tralee. Dr. 
Smith when writing his history of Kerry in 1750 had access to 
an hiteresting journal kept by Elkanah Knight, a steward of Sir 
Edward Demiy's, who was in the castle during the siege. This MS. 
has of late years been lost or stolen, but from Smith's abstract of 
its contents we are able to test and supplement some of the 
following depositions. 



CLXXXVII. 

Stephen Love, late of the town and parish of Killarney, in the 
barony of Magunihy, within the county of Kerry, a British Protes- 
tant, duly sworn and examined before us by virtue of a commission 
bearing date 5th of March, 1G41, concerning the robberies and 
spoils since this rebelUon committed upon the British and Protes- 
tants in the province of Munster, deposeth and saith, that on or 
about the 15th of November, 1641, Edmund Hussey of Eath, in the 
said county, Esquire, steward and overseer to Sir Valentine Broome 



104' THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1611. 

Bart., now under age, came to Killarney aforesaid, and there warned 
the Enghsh inhabitaiits of the same to consult together and muster 
there under and according to the tenor of their respective leases, 
being bound by them severally to have so many men in readiness in 
times of open insurrection, which being then denied, amongst others, 
by this deponent, fearing ho and the rest thereby to bo betrayed of 
their firearms, and also because the Papists generally deceived great 
statesmen, this deponent then and there told the said Hussey that 
he and the rest (of the Protestants) had doubtless reason to mistrust 
them. The said Hussey then made answer, * This national distinc- 
tion will breed a national quarrel,' and pressing them further saith, 
• Nay, and it shall breed a quarrel.' This deponent saith that since 
that time the said Hussey has gone into actual open rebellion and is 
one of the committee for the said county. 

From the best information and intelligence this deponent could 
learn, the said Hussey was from time to time a messenger between 
the enemy and Sir Thomas Harris, and the rest of the English in 
the castle of Tralee, who were besieged from the 14th of February, 
1641, until the Christmas following, during which time the English 
in the castle endured extreme misery, being at least five or six 
hundred souls when they went into tlie same, and there were three 
hundred of them perished through the extremity of the siege, some 
of them being driven to eat bran and tallow, and others raw hides ; 
this was occasioned by the hands and means of Donnel MacCarthy of 
Ballincarrig [sic) m the same county, gent., then colonel in the said 
siege. Captain Florence MacFineen, commonly called Sugan, since 
killed in rebellion, Donogh MacFineen of Ardtully, Esquire, Pierse 
Ferriter of Ferriter's Island, in the said county, gentleman, then 
captain of a company, Tiegue MacDermot and Cormac Carty of 
Tiernagouse, in the said county, gentlemen. Captain Morris Mac- 
Eligot of Ballymacelgott {sic), in the said county, gentleman, Walter 
Hussey of Castle Gregory, gentleman, Plielim MacFineen of Tulla- 
ghie, gent., Dermot O'Dingle of Ballinacourty, gent., Nicholas Mac- 
Tliomas of Ballylcealy, gent., Garret MacPatrick, alias Pieree, near 
Ballinfroyne in the same county, gent.. Garret Mac James FitzGerald 
of Ballymora, gent., John FitzGerald, commonly called John Atlea 
{i.e., of the hills or sides of the hills) of Glandine, gent., Edmund 
FitzMaurice of Listohill [i.e., Listowel), gent., James Knowde of 
Abbeydorna, Esquire, Francis Knowde, his brother, of the same, gent., 
Pierse Fitz James FitzPierse of Ardfert, gent., Donogh MacGillicuddy 
of Castlecorr, gent., Arthur O'Leary of Kilcours {illegible), Owen 



DEPOSITIONS. 



105 



O'Sullivan, alias O'Sullivan llov of Diuikerron in the same county, 
Esquire, Douell O'Sullivan of Coolmagort, gent., Owen Donell 
MacCarty, alias Moylc of Dunguile, gent., Owen MacDerraot O'Sul- 
livan of Formoyle (in Iveragli), gent. Fineen MacDermot Mac- 
Fineen of Kenmare, gent., now high sheriff of the same comity of 
Kerry Tiegue O'Donoghue, alias O'Donoghue of Glanflesk m the 
same 'county, gent., and Jeffrey, Daniel, and Tiegue O'Donoghue, 
his sons, of the same, gent., Cormack Eeagh MacCarthy of Lyshm- 
goune in the same, gent., and Donogh MacCormac, his hrother, gent 
Donell MacMoirtaghe, alias Moriartaghe, of Castle Drum, gent. 
Owen MacFerris of Ballymalis, in the same county, gent., and 
John and Donnell Ferris of the same, gentlemen, Thomas Mac- 
Tirlogh of Noghoval, in the same county, gent. Tirlogh Mac- 
Dermot O'Connor, son and heir of Dermot McTirlogh of Bally gowan, 
in the said county, gent., Thomas Plunkett of Gorthainvoga {sic) va 
the same, gent., John and Patrick Plunkett, his brothers, of the 
same, gentlemen, Richard McElgott of Batanny, in the said county, 
gent John Field, doctor of physick, a most pestHent and pernicious 
enemy to the English nation, and one of the Committee for the said 
county. Florence MacCarthy of Castle Logh [illegihlc), governor of 
the said county. James Browne, gent., of Ross, Morris FitzEdmund 
of Clonratt, gent., Edward Spring of Killaghie, gent., Thomas 
Spring of Stradbally, Esquire, Daniel Creagh of Castlcmame, gent., 
John Pierse of KiUiny, gent., one of the attornies of his Majesty s 
Court of Common Pleas, and {illegible) of the said county's Coimci , 
Caroll O'Sugrue of Castle Curr, in the said comity, gent, [illcgihle], 
Mortogh McEgan of Cam {illegible), in the said county, gent. The 
above named parties, either in their own proper persons or by their 
counsel and assistance, were at several times at the siege of Tralee, 
as also at the sieges of other castles in the said county, where the 
English betook themselves for safety. 

This deponent further saith, that about Easter the above named 
Phehm MacFineen MacCarthy, being exasperated against the 
English for the death of Captain Sugaii, who about that time was 
killed in open rebellion, hard by Cork, came to the castle of Ross 
in the same county Kerry, where divers English Protestaaits were 
living, and then and there drew and hauled out of the castle the 
undernamed persons, namely Thomas Whittell and Margery his wife, 
two old people past three score years of age, or thereabouts, Patrick 
llaysam, and Mary his wife, then great with child, John Heard and 
his wife, George Lincgar, the widow Hawkins, aged three score and 



106 THE imSII MASSACRES OF IGIL 

ten years, and to the number of nine others, who no sooner came 
a Httle distance from the castle, than they were all immediately 
stripped by the means of the said Phelim, and kept up close and 
naked in the market-place of Killarney, and afterwards being con- 
veyed two miles from the town, they were in a most inhuman manner 
murdered, one of the women being buried alive. 

About the latter end of November last, this deponent being 
then in the castle of Ballycarthy, where the said Florence came to 
take possession of the same from Kobert Blennerhassett, Esquire, he 
then observed those particulars following ; first, the said Florence 
then and there produced a list of all the names of the lords and 
commons assembled in their parliament at Kilkenny, and then in 
this deponent's presence did aver that Nicholas Plunket, Esq., and 
counsellor-at-law, was speaker of the said parliament ; he likewise 
produced a rough draft of the several acts concluded in the said 
assembly, namely, that all manner of persons, of what degree, state, 
or condition soever, should take the oath of union and association 
in this general cause, as they termed it, otherwise to be dealt 
withal as enemies and accounted of the malignant party, and to 
maintain the Roman Catholic cause, to the uttermost of their skill 
and endeavour, and not to embrace any particular pardon until 
such time as a general pardon was granted for the whole kingdom, 
&c., &c. . . . During the siege of the castle of Traly aforesaid, 
William Bolton of Glanoroght, in the said county, carrier, Lawrence 
Tristram of Traly aforesaid, gaoler, John Abraham of Ballycarthy. 
husbandman, English Protestants, were hanged at Traly, by direction 
or appointment of the said persons or some of them, likewise John 
Carty of Cloghane in the said county, husbandman, being sent from 
Ballycarthy aforesaid by Captain John Hasset to Cork to Sir Edward 
Denny to give intelligence how the English and Protestants stood 
in the county, at his coming back was apprehended by the above- 
named rebels or some of them and then and there was hanged at 
Traly aforesaid. This deponent lastly saith, that John Picrse, above 
named, John Madden of Itattoo, in the said county, gentlemen, 
Christopher Holcome of the same (illegible), and his wife Ellen 
Holcome, and their daughter Anne, Eichard Curtis, yeoman, of the 
same, Richard Linegar and his wife Mary, of the same, being 
formerly English Protestants, are since this rebellion turned Papists, 
and further deposeth not. 

Jurat, coram nobis, ^rd Feb. 1642, 

Phil. Bisse. 

Thos. Bettesworth. 



DEPOSITIONS. 



107 



Note. 
This 'appears to be a copy made by the Commissioners. It is 
si-ned by them, but not by Stephen Love. The omitted portion 
merely relates to the proceedings of the Confederation at Kilkenny, 
as told by Florence MacCarthy to Robert Blennerhassett, after the 
sm-render of Ballycarthy. Sir Valentine Browne, second baronet, 
the son of Sir Valentine Browne, by Mary, sister of Donogh Lord 
Muskerry, was a child of three years old when the rebellion broke 
out. 

CLXXXVIII. 
Michael Vines, late of the town and precinct of Tralee, in the 
county of Kerry, shoemaker, a British Protestant, duly sworn and 
examined before us by virtue of his Majesty's commission, deposeth 
and saith, that about the last of January, 1G41 (0. S.), he lost, was 
robbed, or forcibly despoiled of his goods and chattels, worth 340^., 
part consisting of debts due by Papists who are now out in open 
rebellion, as Walter Hussey of Castle Gregory, gent.. Garret 
Mc James of Ballymacthomas, gent., John Mac James of Ballymace- 
quim, gent., John Iluggan of Lixnaw, tailor, Patrick Purcell of 
Croagh, in the county Limerick, gent., John a Clee of Caragh, in 
the county of Kerry, gent., Conagher O'Dynan of Liselton, Dermot 
O'Dingle of Ballinacourty, gent., Thomas MacEdmund of Dunlow, 
gent., John MacVaine (sic) of Ballymacthomas, gent., Morrish 
FitzGerald of Gallerush {sic), gent.. Pierce Ferriter of Ballyferriter, 
gent., Nicholas Trant of Ventry, gent., John Golden {sic) of Ventry, 
gent., Patrick Trant of Ventry, gent., all of the said county of Kerry, 
and divers others, and therefore this deponent cannot get any 
satisfaction. This deponent further saith, that he and his wife and 
seven children were forced to go into the castle of Tralee in the 
possession of Sir Edward Denny {illegible) there was the short 
castle of the freehold of Stephen Rice of Dingledecuish, gentleman, 
a Papist and out in rebellion where they were closely blocked up 
and besieged nearly three quarters of a year by Colonels Donogh 
Oge MacCarthy of {illegible) and Edmund FitzMaurice of Ardagh, 
Esq., Captain Picrse Ferriter of Ballyferriter, Esq., Capt. Dermot 
O'Dingle of Ballincourty, Esq., Capt. Walter Hussey of Castle 
Gregory, Esq., Capt. Donnell McMortogh of Castle Druim, Capt. 
Morrish McElgot of BallymacElgot, Esq., Capt. Garrett MacJames 



108 THE IRISH INIASSACRES OF 1041. 

of Ballymacthomas, Esq., Capt. Jolin FitzGeralcl of Caragli, alias 
Jolm A Glee, Esq., Capt. MacFineen MacCarthy of Clonaragh, Esq., 
Capt. Florence MacFineen MacCarthy, alias Captain Sugan, Esq., 
Capt. James Browne of Killarney, Esq., Capt. Florence MacCarthy 
of Pallasmor, Esq., Capt. O'SuUivan Mor, Esq., Captain MacGilla- 
cuddy, Esq., who was formerly a Protestant, but is since turned 
Papist, near Bally {illegible), and Captain O'Donoghue of the Glins 
near Killarney (who, as it was credibly reported, undertook the 
undermining of the said castle), and divers others, to the number of 
about a thousand armed men, and this deponent saith, that during 
the time of the siege they were undermined at four quarters of 
the castle, and the warders within countermined against them 
again. 

And further he saith, that they (the Irish) Ijrought four sows 
which the warders of the said castle broke and burnt killing those 
within them, and again they (the Irish) brought a great piece, and 
shot fourteen shots at the castle, and boat down the battlements 
of the said castle, and this deponent likewise saith, that he heard 
Captain Pierce Ferriter and other rebels did say, that they had the 
King's Commission for what they did, and therewithal he sent a 
copy of the same unto the warders of the said castle, and said that 
we were the rebels and those (with him) the king's subjects, and 
further, he, this deponent, saith, that they were forced to eat raw 
salt hides, that did stink, and to drink water that was as black as 
ink, and as thick as if it were thickened with flour, and other water 
there was full of yellow clay, and he saith, that there died of want, 
or were killed by the enemy to the number of at least two hundred 
men, women, and children, and during the siege of the said castle 
there was killed outside it, as this deponent was credibly informed 
by some of the rebels themselves, the number of three hundred. 
And he also saith, that the castle was yielded upon quarter for their 
lives, and a suit of clothes a piece, and that {illegible) Bradfield 
of Tralee, yeoman, John McMorrish of {illegible), yeoman, John 
O'Lenane of Tralee, yeoman, John McMurrogh of Ballycarty, yeo- 
man, who before this rebellion were Protestants, have since turned 
Papists, and go under the rebel's colours and do fight for the rebels 
against the English, and further he saith that two that were 
English Protestants before this war have since turned Papists, and 
conveyed powder to the rogues for using against the English castles, 
their names are these, John Hollis and George Hollis of the Island 
of Kerry, brothers, and yeomen. 



DI'rOSITIONS. 109 

lie also Scaith, tliat one John Williams, alias John Eoe, hereto- 
fore of the town of Tralee, servant to one Thomas Day of Tralee, 
nud since one of the warders of the short castle of Tralee aforesaid, 
about midsummer last stole forth out of the ward, and ran to the 
enemy that besieged the said castle, and discovered to them the 
designs of the English of both castles concerning the prey of cattle 
near the castles which they had gotten for their relief, and had it 
not been for the aforesaid discovery by which their design was 
defeated and they of the castle for want of provision enforced to 
yield {sic) two months sooner, which John Williams from that time 
went and bare arms amongst the rebels. This deponent also saith, 
that he was credibly informed by many that John Blennerhassett of 
Ballycarty, alias Captain John Hassett, about Christmas Day, 1G41, 
when the enemy was going from Castlemaine towards Tralee Castle, 
with a piece of ordnance for the battery of the said castle, the 
carriage of the piece then faihng on the way, did send a carpenter 
to the carriage to mend the same for the enemy. This deponent 
also saith, that Eobert Blennerhassett of Ballycarty aforesaid, 
father to the said John, said to this deponent, that the Irish never 
did him any hurt, his ground being ploughed and sown by the 
rebels his tenants, who robbed many of the English thereabouts, 
but as for him (Vines) and others of the English Protestants, 
he, Kobert Blennerhassett, said that the ground was the worse 
that the English trod upon it. This examt. also observed that 
Robert Blennerhassett would suffer harmless the Irish to cut 
whatever wood they wanted for their use, and never contradict 
them, but that if any of the English went to the wood to cut 
but a stick of wood, then they would be presently threatened and 
beaten by his servants whom he had appointed and who were very 
rebels. 

This day also came before us Nicholas Roberts, late of Bally- 
maccligot, within the county of Kerry, husbandman, who being duly 
sworn and examnied, saith, that the deposition concerning the names 
of the besiegers of Tralee Castle are true. The deponents (Vines and 
Roberts) also say that about the last day of November, about the 
time that the castle of Ballycarthy was yielded to the rebels, they 
saw these persons sworn upon the bible and on their knees to the 
oath of association with the rebels, viz. Eobert Blennerhassett 
aforesaid, John West of Kilcow, Esq., James Conway of Cloghane, 
gent., Henry Iluddlestone of the Grange, in the parish of Ratass, 
gent., before Charles MacCarthy Mor of the Pallace, Esq., DoneU 



110 TTTE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGll. 

Oge MacCartliy near Killarney, Esq., Dermot O'Dingle, Esq., 
Commissioners of the association at Ballycarty Castle. 

Michael Vines. 
Nicholas + Roberts. 
Jurat, coram nobis, Idth Jimc, 1G13, 
Philip Bisse. 
Thomas Elwell. 

Note. 

There were two castles in the town of Tralee in 1G41, the larger 
or ' great castle,' as it was called, heing a ' restoration ' of the old 
castle of the FitzHenrys and the FitzGeralds, Earls of Desmond, 
which had heen destroyed in the wars of 1580-1602. Two short 
entries in the diary hefore quoted {v. Introduction, p. 52) kept by Sir 
Edward Denny, which records the general feeling about Stafford's 
advent in Ireland, are as follows : — 

" 22d of December, 1G27, 1 finished this great castell and came 
with my mother to live in it. 

" 20th November, 1G29. My wife and I began housekeeping in 
this caetell." 

It stood nearly on the site of the present Denny Street, a rather 
handsome outlet of Tralee, backed by the present Sir E. Denny's 
demesne, and a fine range of mountains between Tralee and 
Killarney. The ' Short Castle ' mentioned in the deposition as the 
freehold of Stephen Rice, a member of an old Anglo-Irish family 
settled in Kerry, as far back as the eleventh century, stood a little 
to the west of the larger fortress, on the east side of the present 
' Square ' of Tralee. It was forfeited with large estates in the Avest 
and north-west of Kerry in 1G49, although the Rices do not appear 
to have had any share in the outrages committed by the rebels. 
But they were, as they have always been (until one of the junior 
branch, the ancestor of Lord IMonteagle, conformed in the last 
century), Roman Catholics, and Stephen Rice had been M.P. for 
Kerry in the troubled Parliament of 1613. In 1G34 his two sons 
were M.P.'s for Dingle, but five years after, in Wentworth's last 
Parliament, they were unseated, and Christopher Roper and Sir 
George Blundell, Englishmen, utter strangers to the borough, were 
elected in their stead. Robert Blennerhassett, who had been M.P. 
for Tralee, was also imseated in 1G39, and Thomas Maulo, with a 
Henry Osborne, were elected for the same place. Out of the eight 
members for Kerry and its boroughs in 1G39, four were sti-angers to 
the county, probably officers in the army, and only one of the remain- 



DEPOSITIONS. Ill 

ing four, Sir Valentine Browne, was a Eoman Catholic. According to 
the diary of Elkanagh Knight before mentioned the Enghsh and 
Irish Protestants who had crowded into the ' Great Castell ' of 
Tralee wore hearing the church service read on Sunday, the 23rd of 
January, 1G41-2, by the Eev. WiUiam Fell and the Rev. Nathaniel 
Harrison, when the sentinels on the battlements perceived the rebels 
approaching from the west. The siege continued from that day 
until the following July or August, when Sir Thomas Harris and 
many others having died of want and hardship, the unfortunate 
remnant of tlio garrison surrendered upon quarter, which appears to 
have been honourably observed by Ferriter. But before the sur- 
render his soldiers had committed many cruel murders. Knight's 
diary mentions that on one occasion they took an Englishwoman, 
and stripping her, broke a hole in the ice on the river and set her 
standing in it, keeping her there until she was frozen to death or 
starved in the sight of those within the castle. While the siege 
went on a certain Henry Lawrence, called by Knight an ' English 
Eoman Catholic,' who if he were not the subsequently well-known 
president of Cromwell's Council was assuredly a relative of his, kept 
moving in a rather mysterious fashion between the contending 
parties. On the strength of his nationality, he was admitted into 
the great castle, where some movements or words of his arousing 
the suspicions of the garrison, Sir Thomas Harris ordered hhn to 
be arrested and searched, when the following passport was found in 
his pocket : — 

" I have employed this gentleman, Mr. Henry Lawrence, upon 
some special occasions for the furthering and advancing Catholi- 
cism, to go to Tralee, and from thence to Castle Drum, or the 
camp, wherefore I pray the Irish and English not to molest or 
hinder him in body or goods. Given under my hand, this 8th of 
February, lOlL 

"Pierce Feeriter." 

He was dismissed from the castle, and appears to have returned 
to the rebel camp. 

His signature and that of Hardress Waller appear to a deed 
securing the jointure lands of Elizabeth, Lady Harris, before 
mentioned, the mother of Sir Edward Denny, nde I'orrest. Her 
niece, Martha Lyn or Lynn, was the wife of John Blennerhassett, 
eldest son of Eobert of Ballycarty, in 1G41. Eichard second Earl of 
Barrymore, whose sister married Sir Arthur Denny, married Martha, 



112 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF Kill. 

daughter of Henry Lawrence. Tlie first husband of Cromwell's 
mother was a Lynn, and the families of Denny, Waller, Barry, 
Forrest, Lynn, and Lawrence in 1640-70 were certainly connected by 
marriage and ties of friendship. That President Henry Lawrence 
himself played a strangely double part in politics is matter of 
history, and his religious opinions seem to have boon as insincere 
as his politics. 

CLXXXIX. 

AiiTHUE Blennekhassett, late of Ballycarty, in the county of 
Kerry, gent., dcposcth and saitli, that upon the 2nd of February, 
1G41, or thereabouts, the undernamed persons, gentlemen and free- 
holders of the said county, in a rebellious and hostile manner, came 
to besiege the town and castle of Tralee in the said county, namely 
Florence MacCarthy of Carrigprehane, Esq., since made governor of 
Kerry, Donnell MacCarthy of Castle Logh, colonel of rebel forces, 
Edmond FitzMaurice of Tubrid, Esq., Garret FitzGerald of Bally- 
macdaniel, gent., John FitzGerald of Caharragh, alias John atlca, 
gent., Donoll Moriarty of Castledrum, gent., Florence MacCarthy of 
Glanaroght, gent., since killed in actual and open rebellion, Fineen 
McDermot MacCarty, of Creggane, gent., Owen O'Sullivan, alias 
O'Sullivan Mor, gent., Donogh MacGillacuddy, alias O'Sullivan of 
Castlecurr, gent., Tiegue Donoghue, alias O'Donoghue of Killaghie, 
gent., James Browne of Killarney, gent., Maurice MacElgot of 
Ballymac Elgot (sic), gent.. Captain Roger O'Donoghue of Ross, 
gent., Nicholas MacThomas (a FitzMaurice) of Ballykealy, gent., 
Garret Pierse of Aghamore, gent., Pierse Ferriter of Ballysybil, 
gent., Tiegue MacCarthy of Tiernagouse, gent., Walter Hussey of 
Castle Gregory, gent. This deponent further saith, that the said 
parties, with their forces, consisting sometimes of three hundred 
armed men, at other times ot five hundred, sometimes of a thousand, 
continued the siege of the said castle till the beginning of August 
following, during which siege the English Protestants in the castle, 
being in number five hundred persons, young and old, or thereabouts, 
endured much misery, the enemy having cut off all relief from them 
so that by the time the said castle was delivered up, divers of the 
besieged men, women, and children, English Protestants, Avere shot 
and murdered, namely Lawrence Tristram of Tralee aforesaid, 
merchant, Hugo Dashwood of the same, shoemaker, Henry Jones of 
the same, merchant, Edward Westcombe of the same, shoemaker, 
John Truby, late of Ballymacfine, husbandman, John Dickson of 



DEPOSITIONS. 113 

Portally, shoemaker, Valentino James of Povtally, Jolni Gooding of 
Tralce, yeoman, Jeffrey Bayley, in or near Portally aforesaid, mer- 
chant, La^Yrence Tristram the elder, gaoler, of Tralee, who was appre- 
hended hy the rebels and hanged in the market-place of the said town, 
Joseph Collier of Ballyvelly, yeoman, Edward Barrett of Tralee, yeo- 
man, John Turner of the same, yeoman, Mary Batchelor of the same, 
widow, Elizabeth Vine of the same, widow, Andrew Eawleigh of the 
same, tailor, Robert Haysam of the same, smith, Edmund Commane 
of the same, yeoman, and divers innocent children, at least half a 
score, were shot and murdered in or about the said castle, during 
the siege, by the same parties and their confederates. This de- 
ponent's cause of knowledge is, that all the time the said castle was 
besieged this deponent lived in another castle hard by the same, 
and had daily credible information of the passages that past in 
the said siege, and was likewise an eye-witness of the delivering up 
of the said castle into the hands of the said parties, whereby lie 
came to know that the premises are undoubtedly true. 

About the 3rd of September last, the undernamed persons, officers, 
and commanders among the rebels gathered their forces together, 
consisting of six or seven thousand armed men, horse and foot, on 
purpose to assault and set upon the English garrisons in the 
county of Cork, and take them, namely the Lord Viscount of Mus- 
kcrry, the Lord Roche, the Lord of Ikerrin, the Lord of Castlecon- 
nell, Theobald Purcell Baron of Loghmoe, Garret Barry, General 
of their forces in IMunster, Patrick Purcell of Croagh, in the county 
of Limerick, Esq., Lieut, -General of the same forces, Maurice Fitz- 
Edmund of Castle Ishin, in the county of Cork, gentleman, Oliver 
Stephenson, since killed in open rebellion, late of Dunmoylan, intJio 
county of Limerick, Esq., Cormac MacCallaghan Carty of Sugreena, 
in the county of Kerry, gent., Dommick Fanning, late mayor of 
the city of Limerick, Edmund FitzGerald of Clenlish, in the said 
county of Limerick, gent., Edmund MacSheehy of Ballyvellan, in 
the same county, gent., Thomas Oge of Bally kealy, in the county of 
Kerry, gent., and their said forces having met together with colours 
flying in a rebellious and hostile manner, entered upon the confines of 
the county of Cork, and would have advanced further to effect their 
enterprise if not then seasonably resisted by the English forces. 
This deponent's cause of knowledge herein that he was prisoner with 
the said party, and therefore present, whereby he observed the said 
parties, and such of them in arms commanding such companies of 
horse and foot whereby to maintain their hostilities and open rebellion, 
VOL. II. I 



114 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGll. 

Jane Guard, the wife of {illegible) Guard, late of Tralee afore- 
said, a British Protestant, was produced as witness only touching 
the siege of the castle of Tralee. She deposed and saith, that she 
saw the above-named parties, and each of them severally maintaining 
the said siege, and continuing it during the time above mentioned, 
and that the persons above named being English and Protestants 
were then and there shot and murdered by the said parties. Her 
cause of knowledge is that she being a dweller in the town of Tralee 
aforesaid, she knew the said gentlemen to be at several meetings 
in the same, and also that she being in the said castle during the 
siege she observed and saw the said parties shot and murdered in tlio 

said castle. 

A. Blenneehassett. 

Jurat, coram nobis, '2,5th Feb. 1G42, her 

Phil. Bisse. Jane -f Guaed. 
Thos. Bettesworth. mark 

Note. 

Arthur Blennerhassett was the third son of Robert Blennerhas- 
sett mentioned in Vine's deposition, and the ancestor of the family 
of his name settled since the 17th century at Riddlestown, near 
Eathkeale, in the county Limerick, a place which in the 12th 
century was owned, as its name imi^lies, by the De Ridels or De 
Rudels, an old English family, passed from them to the Rices, and 
by a Rice heiress marriage to the Windalls, whose heiress married 
the grandson of this deponent. Many of the so-called murders in 
this deposition were probably the result of gun or cannon shots fired 
at the castles in Tralee during the siege. 



cxc. 

"William Dethick, late of Killvallehagh {recte Killballylahiff), 
in the parish of Killiny in the barony of Corcaguiny, within the 
county of Kerry, gent., a British Protestant, duly sworn and 
examined before us by virtue of his Majesty's commission, &c., 
deposeth and saith, that about the last of January, 1641, and since 
the beginning of this present rebellion, he lost, was robbed, and was 
forcibly despoiled of his goods and chattels to the value of 402Z. 10s. 
Also he saith, that his {illegible) and goods were taken at the time 
aforesaid by Walter Hussey of Castle Gregory in the said barony, 
gent., Owen MacMoriarty of Castle Drum, gent., Owen MacDonnell 



DEPOSITIONS. 115 

Oge of Keelgarrylandcr [i.e., the wood of the garden of Laundrc ov 
De Laundre, an old English name hibernicised into Lander) in the 
said barony, gent., and their associates to the number of a hundred 
men in a hostile manner. He also saith, that his ammunition, viz, 
one of his guns, was taken away by Owen MacDonnell Oge aforesaid, 
and another of his guns was taken away by John MacMorrish Fitz- 
Gerald of Knockglass in the said barony, about the time aforesaid. 
He also saith, that his money was taken away by the captains and 
commanders at the siege of Tralee, whose names shall bo set down 
in their due place, about the latter end of August last past. Ho 
also saith, that the persons above mentioned who took away his 
goods were they also who robbed most of the Protestants in that 
part of the barony aforesaid (commonly called by the name of 
the half barony of Lettrogh), about the time aforesaid, the said 
parties being accompanied by Edmund MacShano FitzNicholas 
EitzGerald of Tierbrin in the said barony, gent., John Grand 
(sic), alias John FitzGerald of Knockglass, gent., having also in 
the said action Captain Thomas MacPhilip FitzGerald of Deylus, 
in the same barony, gent., Avho is a freeholder ; John MacDermot 
of Tralee aforesaid, yeoman, Tiegue MacShane O'Sulhvan of Cappa- 
clogh, yeoman, Nicholas FitzEdmund FitzGerald of the same, yeo- 
man, together witli his four sons, all that that he hath. 

Also this deponent saith, that after the battle of Newton, in 
which the rebels had an overthrow, among which the MacCarthys 
of Kerry had a share, some of the county having the fortune to 
return home, found in the town of Killarney many old decrepit men 
and women and young children, Protestants, to the number of six- 
teen, who could not get into some castle for refuge thereabouts, and 
all those persons were taken by the MacCarthys and their followers 
in those parts, and being stripped, were first whipped up and down 
from one end of the town to the other, then they were taken alto- 
gether, and a great hole being made for the purpose, they were 
thrown into it, and so buried alive. This the deponent saw not 
with his own eyes, but he dares avouch it for truth, because he hath 
heard it most confidently related from the mouths of many Protes- 
tants who are of good credit, and from many of the rebels them- 
selves, some whereof have boasted and gloried in that wicked act, 
others ui their relation of it spealdng with some remorse and pity. 
He also saith, that one John {illegible) of Lixnaw, in the barony 
of Clanmaurice aforesaid, yeoman, a Protestant, being permitted by 
one Thomas Stack of those parts, gentleman, to live peaceably and 

I 2 



116 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF lG-11. 

enjoy what he had, at length, about Christmas last, as he was cUggmg 
potatoes in his garden, four or five of the rebels there came and 
most cruelly murdered him and threw him into a river. Two or 
three more were killed there that night, but unknown to deponent. 

Also he saith, that upon the 2Gth of January, IGil, a part of the 
enemy's army, to the number of two hundred, marched through the 
town of Tralee, and encamped that night at Ballyvelly, where they 
met a party of five hundred more, and the next night they lay at 
Cloghane, and from thence went to Castlemayne, pillaging and 
stripping the country where the English were, and driving their 
preys before them as they went. Also he saith, that upon the 15th 
of February last was twelvemonths, Ann. Dom. 1041, the town of 
Tralee was taken and plundered, where there was a gi'eat deal of 
pillage ; at that time one Lawrence Tristram, the jailor there, was 
hanged and laid naked for two days together before the castle. The 
same day the two castles of Tralee were straitly besieged, and the 
burning of their premises seen at the distance of a mile and half 
a mile, as at Bally velly, and {illegible), in the greater of the two 
castles was Sir Thomas Harris, Knt., who also died there about the 
Easter following, besides him there were as warders about four 
score fighting men, besides three or four hundred men, women, and 
children. 

In the lesser castle at Tralee John Freeman was deputy con- 
stable for the Lord of Kerry, and besides him were about thirty 
fighting men, whereof this deponent was one ; besides other men, 
women, and children in all to the number of about six score. The 
besiegers were to the number of two and twenty hundred, some- 
times more, having a.bout one hundred horse, the chief commanders 
were Donell Oge MacCarthy, colonel from near Killarney, Esq., 
Captain Nicholas MacThomas FitzGerald and Major [torn) of 
Ballykealy, Esquires, Captain Florence MacCarthy of near Kil- 
larney aforesaid. Esquire, who was governor of the county from the 
beginning of the rebellion, and so continued for the space of seven 
or eight months, until the castles were yielded up, and then the 
Lord Muskerry was made governor of the whole county ; Captain 
Fineen MacCarthy of Ardtully in the barony of Glaneroght, gent., 
Captain O'Sullivan Mor of Dunkerron, Esquire, Captain MacKilla- 
kudagh {sic) of the barony of Magunihy (as ho believoth), gent. 
These captains are all of the part of Kerry aforesaid which they 
call Desmond, Nicholas FitzThomas aforesaid excepted ; besides 
other commanders of the other parts of Kerry, viz. Edmund Fitz- 



DErOSlTIONS. 117 

IMorris of Lixnaw, Esq., Captain Walter Hussey of Castle Gregory, 
ill the barony of Corcaguiny, gent., Captain Pierce Ferriter, Captain 
Dermot O'Dingle of Ballinacourty, gent.. Captain Donnell Mac- 
Moriarty of Castledrura, gent., Captain John FitzGerald of Glandine, 
alias John atlca, gent., Captain Garret MacPatrick FitzGerald of 
Aghamore, in the barony of Clanmaurice, gent., slain at Liscarrol, 
Captain Morris MacEligot of Ballymaceligot, gent., and John his 
brother, Captain Morris FitzEdinimd Gerald of Clongonldjat {sic), 
in the barony of Corcaguiny, gent., with divers others whose namea 
this deponent cannot now remonibor, who laid close siege unto 
these castles within thirty yards and sometimes within thirty feet 
of them, from about February 12th luitil the four or five and 
twentieth of the August following, the enemy watching most 
commonly during the siege about 800 every night. About the 
latter end of March, after the beginning of the said siege, the 
enemy brought three sows towards the west, whereof two were set 
close to the wall, which were first broken with great stones from 
the castle, and after fired, and two or three rebels were burnt in 
them. After this, upon the 27th of April ensuing, they brought 
four sows towards the castle, and a piece of ordnance, out of which 
they discharged thirteen shots, which broke down some of the 
battlements of the castle, but no hurt besides, of these sows two 
were brought near the castle wall, but were burnt and two rebels 
in them. 

The 18th of May after, they began to undermine the small 
castle, they of the castle countermined, and beat them out of their 
works, having killed a great many of them. About a fortnight 
after, being the latter end of May, having assaulted them again, 
they of the castle killed at one shot two of the rebels, by name, 
Tirlogh McCarty of Tralee, and a Lieutenant Tirlogh MacShee that 
came out of the Low Countries lately. 

After this there wore daily acts of hostility past betwixt those 
of the castle and the enemy, until the castle Avas yielded up; during 
the said siege those of the castle from time to time lulled no less 
than a hundred of the enemy, and that by the enemy's own con- 
fession, and those of the castle during all that time lost no more 
than five men upon service out of the small castle, and about 
eighteen or nineteen out of the great castle, that were lost by 
venturing out for relief. Besides these there died out of both castles 
through the sickness, called the scurvy, no less than about four 
score persons, men, women, and children, during the time of the 



1]8 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGH. 

siege. The deponent often heard the rebels and besiegers call 
those of the castles ' English dogs and rebels,' and (say) that they 
had kept them long enough in Ireland already, and that now they (the 
Irish) would spend their lives, but that they would leave not a man 
of them (the besieged) alive in this kingdom, and that it was the 
king's pleasure that they (the Irish) should do so by virtue of his 
commission, and often when those in the castle were at their 
devotions of preaching, praying, and singing, the rebels underneath 
would mock them in a most reproachful manner. 

At length, the provisions of both castles being wasted, they (the 
besieged) being kept alive for a time with eating of cats and raw 
hides, they were enforced to yield it up upon quarter of their lives 
and wearing clothes, which castles afterwards the besieged burnt ; 
also he saith, that Ellis Whey wall {sic) of near Stradbally, in the 
barony of Corcaguiny, miner, Richard Walker of Kilgobbin, in the 
said barony, yeoman, together with his brethren llichard and 
Arthur Walker of the same, yeomen, Thomas Goodenough of the 
same, yeoman, William Farryn of Ballyenough {sic), in the barony 
of Trughenackmy, yeoman, Eichard Bigford of the Kerrics, in the 
said barony, yeoman, John Pierce of Ballynallard {sic), in said 
barony, gentleman, formerly reputed to be Protestants, are since 
this rebellion turned Papists. He also saith, that after the deliver- 
ing up of the said castles upon quarter, he, this deponent, repaired 
to John FitzGerald's castle of Ennismore, where he often heard 
some of the priests and friars that usually resorted thither say, that 
it is true the rebels had not the king's commission for what they 
did, but that, however, the king did connive and wink at it. And 

further ho cannot depose. 

William Detiiick. 
Jurat, coram nobis, 11th May, IGIB, 
Phil. Bisse. 

James Wallis. 

Note. 

This deponent was probably the son of Humphrey Dethick, one 
of the first twelve free burgesses of Tralee named in the charter 
granted 81st of March, IGll, Robert Blennerhassett being provost. 
Humphrey Dethick was also the lattcr's colleague in the representa- 
tion of the borough in 1G13. I have in the above deposition, as in 
the former ones, omitted the long inventory of lost goods, lands, 
&c., and their money value. Amongst them salt works carried on 
in Killballylahifl" and tucking mills there arc inonlioned, showing 



DErOSITIONS. 119 

how the son of the M.P. for Tralee did not disdain trade, and how 
the industrial resources of even the most remote districts in the 
west of Ireland were being utilised by the colonists until the land 
was once more reduced to a waste by an ill-advised rebellion. A 
curious proof of the dislike of the Irish to mercantile pursuits is 
furnished in the before-mentioned Irish poem by Pierce Ferriter, 
the rebel leader, translated for the Percy Society by Crofton Croker, 
Describing the wailing of the bansJicc or guardian spirit for Maurice 
FitzGerald, son of the Knight of Kerry, who died on the eve of the 
rebellion, Ferriter says : — 

The prosperous traders 

Were filled with aflright, 
In Tralee they packed up 

And made ready for Uight, 

For there a shrill voice 

At the door of each hall 
"Was heard, as they fancied, 

Regretting their fall. 

They fled to concealment, 

Ah I fools thus to ily — 
For no trader a Banshee 

Would utter a cry I 

Acting out wliat ho wrote, Ferriter marched with his Hussey and 
Geraldine associates to Tralee, sweeping poor Mr. Dethick's salt 
pans and tucking mills into the sea and the rivers, and leaving the 
districts of Castle Gregory and KillballylahilT in a state of desolation 
and poverty, from which they have never thoroughly recovered to 
this day. 

CXCI. 

Daniel Spratt, late of the town and parisli of Tralee, in the 
barony of Trughenacmy, county of Kerry, clothier, a British Pro- 
testant, duly sworn and examined before us by virtue of his Majesty's 
Commission, &c., deposeth and saitli, that about the latter end of 
January, 1G41, he lost, was robbed, and forcibly despoiled of his 
goods and chattels, and of debts which before this rebellion were 
esteemed good, but now become desperate (by reason that the debtors, 
as Daniel Chute of Tulligarron, Esq., in the said county, are im- 
poverished Protestants), to the value of 1571. Also he saith, that 
about the time mentioned his goods were taken by Captain John 



12.0 THE IiaSII MASSACRES OF lOil. 

FitzGerald, alias Jolm aclee, of the said barony, within the said 
county, gentleman, and divers others that were at the siege of Tralee 
Castle, whose names he knoweth not. And further he deposeth, 
that whilst he was one of the warders of the said castle, he saw Mr. 
Edmund Vorldey, the elder, of Tralee aforesaid, gentleman, come to 
the grate of the said castle and seemed to bo importunate with the 
warders of the said castle to give it up to the enemy before they had 
been a month besieged, when, as there was no such necessity, they 
(the warders and people within) having then, to Mr. Vorldey's own 
knowledge, provision to hold out for a great while against the enemy, 
Mr. Vorkley being amongst the rebels from the beginning of the re- 
bellion, and being pressed to come within the castle, where his wife 
was, but did not, but sent for his wife out of the castle, and left 
her at the castle of Ballycarty. This deponent also saith, that when 
the castle of Tralee was yielded up, and when all the rest had only 
quarter for life, and one suit of clothes apiece, that the said Mr. 
Vorkley had no less than about eleven horse-loads of clothes, that 
he brought from the castle of Tralee to the castle of Ballycarty, and 
further he deposeth that about a fortnight before Michaelmas last, 
1G42, he saw Captain John Crosbie of Ballingarry Island discourse 
freely with the rebels that came within a bow-shot of the island, aaid 
brought them forth drink, and drank freely with {illegible) Fitz- 
Maurice, McEligot of BallymacEligot, gent., Captain Walter Hussey 
of Castle Gregory, gent., and Dermot O'Dingle of Ballynacourty, 
gent. 

Daniel Spkatt. 
Jurat, coram nobis, 15th June, 1G13, 

PniL. BissE. 

Hen. Eugge. 

Note. 

The eleven horse-loads of clothes, which naturally provolccd the 
clothier, Mr. Daniel Spratt, to jealousy, was certainly an unreason- 
able proportion for one man to bear away with him from Tralee 
Castle, unless he were a rival clothier, which it does not appear 
Mr. Vauclier was. But it is very likely that he had strong sympa- 
thies, notwithstanding his Protestantism, with the rebels, for ho 
was the brother-in-law of O'Sullivan Mor, their wives being the 
grand-daughters of Jenkin Conway of Killorglin before mentioned, 
and the nieces of the wife of Eobert Blennerhassett of Ballycarty. 
During the earlier years of the rebellion Vauclier and the Blenncr- 
hassetts seem to have been endeavouring to conciliate the rebels, or 



DEPOSITIONS. 121 

to ' keep in ' with both parties, but in the end they were glad to 
adhere to the side of the Parhaniont. The island of Ballingarry, a 
most picturesque spot, now an isthmus, on the beautiful north-west 
coast of Kerry, not far from the mouth of the Shannon, was fortified 
and gallantly held for several months by Colonel David Crosbie, 
Avho sheltered there inany Protestants from the surrounding districts 
and from Tralce. A short sketch of the siege of Ballingarry in 
1G42-3, and of the beauties of the coast in that neighbourhood, which 
I di'ew up for the 'Leisure Hour,' after spending a summer day 
there two or three years ago, will be found in the number of that 
periodical for February, 1882. The locality is full of interest for the 
artist, the antiquary, and the lover of fine coast scenery. Captain 
John Crosbie mentioned in Mr. Spratt's deposition was the Catholic 
nephew of Colonel David Crosbie. Captain, afterwards Sir John, 
Crosbie, baronet, from the first adhered to the Irish and Catholic 
side, and could only have been at Ballycarty as an ambassador from 
the besiegers. MacEligot and MacGillacuddy, colonels in the 
Irish army, were also nephews of Colonel David Crosbie. When 
Ballingarry was at last taken by the Irish, through the treachery of 
the two warders appointed to guard the drawbridge connecting the 
precipitous shores of the island with the cliffs on the mainland, 
Colonel David Crosbie's life was saved only through the influence 
of his nephews, and his niece Katherme MacGillacuddy who was 
with him in the castle or fort. He managed, with their help, to 
escape to Cork, and returning to Kerry in 1049, was made governor 
of the county by Cromwell, which enabled him to save not a few of 
his friends and relatives from transplantation. The confused state 
of parties in Kerry, owing to the constant intermarriages amongst 
the Irish and the Elizabethan or earlier colonists, was far from ad- 
vantageous to the English who had come to the county in the 
reigns of Charles I. and his father, and the depositions of these 
later colonists are full of complaints of the apparently friendly inter- 
course which from time to time existed between those who were 
opposed to one another in religion and politics. John Abraham, 
Josias White, and Nicholas Eoberts made a joint deposition before 
Archdeacon Bysse and a magistrate or commissioner named Elwall, 
of which only a copy remains. It is nothing more than a repetition 
of the evidence given by Vines and Eoberts, with the exception of 
the following passages : — 

" The deponents further say that about New Year last, 1G42, 
there went forth from the castle of Ballycarty nine men and one 



122 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGll. 

woman, who lost tlieir lives going to tlie English castle called 
Newmarket, when they were taken hy the rebels. The names of 
the said persons were these, John Ellis, near Stradbally, in the 
barony of Corcaguiny, gent., and his son, Thomas Ellis ; Thomas 
Goodwin of the Currens, barony of Trughenacmy, tailor, John 
Williams of Killontierna, in the said barony, husbandman, Andrew 
Morgan of the Currens aforesaid, butcher, and his son William : 
James MacGarret of Ballycarty aforesaid, husbandman ; John 
Prosser of Killarney, mason ; Eobert Ingledew of Killarney afore- 
said, butcher ; and Elizabeth Dashwood of Tralee, wife to John 
Dashwood, shoemaker, who, as was reported, was thrashed {sic) 
to death, but among these Robert Ingledew, tiring upon tho 
mountains behind the rest of the company, was brought back 
by six of the rebels to the said castle of Ballycarty, who, being 
brought there, Mrs. Hannibal {sic) 'Hassett, wife of Captain 
Edward 'Hassett, being there, began to complain to her father-in- 
law, Robert Blennerhassett, of the cruelty of tho enemy towards 
the rest, and beseeching him very earnestly to take some course 
to save the said Robert Ingledew, his answer was, ' He is a coio- 
stealing rogiie, and let them do toith him evenwJiat they ivill,' and 
upon that the rebels carried him about a mile from the place, and 
murdered him most cruelly. They also say, that the cause these 
persons fled out of the castle, before it was yielded up, was that 
they were daily threatened by the Irish ward there, so that they 
stood in danger of their lives, being accused of stealing cattle from 
the enemy for their relief, before the castle was yielded up. And 
although Mr. Robert 'Hassett told all the English of the castle 
that he had gotten quarter for them all for life and goods, and a 
convoy to be conveyed on to the next English garrison in the 
county of Cork, yet it afterwards appeared to the contrary, there 
was no such matter, for the said Robert 'Hassett confessed to one 
of these deponents, Nicholas Roberts, and to others, that tho 
truth was ho made no quarter at all, but referred him and all tho 
English ward to Mr. Florence MacCarthy's own breast. They 
also say that without any consent or foreknowledge of any of 
the warders when the castle was to be yielded up, the said 
Robert Blennerhassett called unto him all the warders and caused 
them to be all disarmed of their arms {sic), Avhich were their own 
proper goods, and so they were delivered up to the Irish ward, 
he himself being permitted to live within the castle among the 
Irish. They also say that about the time of the siege of Tralee 



DEPOSITIONS. 123 

Uioy saw two oi- three of the Irish of Glaiioroglic (sic) Avhoso 
names they know not, rehels, permitted to come within the grate, 
in company of Captain John Blennerhassett, and there eat and 
drink in the httle buttery, with their arms, skcans, and swords, 
where hved Eobert 'Ilassett ; also they say that in Captain John 
'Hassett's house, that was situated within the bawn of the said 
castle, they have often seen divers of the prime rebels of that 
country to come in and out, to eat and drink and be merry. Also 
Florence MacCarty, about the latter end of August last, came to 
Captain John 'Hassett's house, within the said bawn, and lay 
there one night, and so went away next morning, the said Florence 
being then a prime man at the siege of Tralce. The said John 
'Hassett was often seen to parley with divers others of the rebels, 
and letters passed to and fro betwixt them. They also say, that 
the warders of Ballycarty Castle, with the rest, might and would 
often have reUeved the castle of Tralee when they were besieged, 
and often propounded the design to do so to the said Captain John 
'Plassett, but he never would consent that they should fall upon 
that design. They also say that John Abraham the elder, one of 
these deponents, and the aforesaid Josias White, with his wife and 
two children, and Richard Page's wife of Tralee, and Mary the 
wife of John Boysc of TuUigarron, in the parish of Jiallymacoligot, 
husbandman, were all stripped by the rebels. They also say that 
John MacThomas FitzGerald, late of Tralee, tailor, and Anne his 
wife, Gibbon Supple of Tralee, tailor, James O'Connor of the 
Kerries, in the parish of Tralce, gentleman, Garret More of 
Tralee, gent., Eichard Bigford of the Kerries aforesaid, husband- 
man, also the wife of the second son of Patrick MacEllistrum of 
Tralee, gent., John Pierce of Tralee {illegible), formerly reputed 
Protestants, since the rebellion turned Papists, also one Mr. 
Chafe {sic) of Lixnaw, gent., and his wife Frances, and one called 
MacWilliams of the same, gent., William Jones of the Currens, 
husbandman, Thomas Morgan of the same, husbandman, George 
Murrow of the Disert, husbandman, Walter Kirby of near Strad- 
bally, husbandman, and his two sons Richard and WiUiam, Peter 
Brian, miller, of Tralee, and his wife, John MacAuliffe of the 
same, miller, also Anne and Elizabeth Reens, daughters to Mrs. 
Rcens of Cornfield, near Potally {sic), widow, Katherine Conway 
of Killorglin near Castlemayne, widow, also Mr. Traws {sic) of 
Kill {illegible) near Currens, widow, Arthur White of Ballyfinnoge, 
husbandman, and farmer, reputed Protestants heretofore, but 



124 THE IRISH massacres of ion. 

since not only (are) turned Papists, but live among the rebels, 
and do duty and service for tliera ; lastly, these deponents say 
that Lawrence Tristram, when the rebels put a rope about his 
neck {torn) if he would go to mass, said he would not. And that 
{illegible) of Tralee, tailor, and John Hall of Glanerogh, husband- 
man, put into the gaol as ward, wore taken out and hanged at 
the market cross of Tralee, on the {illegible) of February last was 
a twelvemonth, being before promised quarter for life by Captain 
Dermot O'Dingle and his company ; a third person that was of 
the ward, who was called the black man of Glanerogh, being shot 
ran into the castle of Tralee, and there died ; a fourth called {torn) 
Marwood being taken prisoner, after awhile made his escape to 
the castle of Ballycarty, and further they cannot depose. 

" JosiAS + White. 
♦• Jurat, coram nobis, John + Abraham. 

Phil. Bisse. Nich. + Eobekts." 

Thos. Elwbll." 

Note. 

The lady styled * Mrs. Hannibal 'Hassett ' in this deposition, by 
a mistake which betrays the cockney origin of the deponent, was 
the daughter of Mr. or Captain Vauclier, mentioned in Mr. Spratt's 
deposition, and her christian name must have been Annabel, a very 
common name m the Spring family (which was connected by mar- 
riage with the Conways, Blennerhassetts, Husseys, Browns, and 
FitzGeralds), although in a voluminous pedigree of the Blenner- 
hassetts, written between 1G90-173G, she is called ' Mary, daughter 
of Edward Vauclier, Esq.' The deponent, however, who know her 
husband and father personally, and who had resided in her house, 
could not have been mistaken as to her christian name except 
through his failure to discard the cockney H. The place now known 
as Ballycarty is a small townland to the east of Ballyseedy demesne, 
still the property of the Blennerhassetts. There is a small square 
tower on Ballycarty, which was probably a Geraldino fortress before 
1584. At that time the present Ballyseedy was included in Bally- 
carty, as appears by the Elizabethan maps of the Denny estate in 
the Bolls House, and the castle or mansion mentioned in the depo- 
sitions stood a little to the south-west of the present Ballyseedy 
House. Extensive ruins still remain thereabouts of a castle or 
mansion with a bawn or strong outward wall. 



DEPOSITIONS. 125 



CXCII. 



Edward Voakley {Vauclie}-), late of Tralee, in the bcarony of 
Truglienacmy, county of Kerry, gent., being duly sworn and 
examined, &c., deposetli and saitli, that about the 20tli of January, 
1641, he lost, was robbed, and forcibly despoiled of his goods and 
chattels to the several values following, viz. of cows, horses, mares, 
oxen, sheep, and sums to the value of 400L ; of household stuff to 
the value of 21/. ; of ready money to the value of 120Z. ; of wearing 
apparel to the value of 50/. ; of corn and hay in house and haggard 
to the value of 200/. ; of debts to the value of 500/., which ere this 
rebellion were esteemed good debts, by reason that some of the 
debtors are become impoverished Protestants, as John Mason, John 
Barret, Arthur Rawleigh, and divers others whom this deponent 
doth not now remember, and the rest Papists and rebels, as Garret 
FitzGerald of Ballymacdaniel, gent., Fineen MacDermot Carthy of 
Glaneroght, gent., Thomas Malone of the parish of Clogherbrien, 
gent., Edmund More O'Shane of Ardglass, gent., Conogher Trassy of 
Balliuorogh, husbandman, Phelim MacFineen Carthy of Drouma- 
vally, gent., Christopher Hickson of Knockglass, gent., John Granal 
(sic) of the same, gent., all of the county Kerry aforesaid, and divers 
others whose names he cannot remember. Also he says, that by 
means of this rebellion he is dispossessed of the benefit of certain 
leases in the said county, as hrst, of the lease of New Manor near 
Tralee, where he had a term of eighty years to run and upwards, 
worth above the landlord's rent 70/. per annum, in which, together 
with his improvements and housing, now burnt to the ground, he is 
damnified to the value of GOO/. Also a lease of certain lands in Bally- 
mullen wherein he had a term of eleven years, if a certain w^oman so 
long lived, worth 10/. above the landlord's rent, wherein he conceives 
himself damnified in 50/. ; also a lease of Gorthataumple, wherein 
he had a tenure of ninety-seven years, worth above the landlord's 
rent 7/. per annum, damnified herein 100/. Also certain leases of 
certain houses in the town of Tralee wherein he had a tenure of 
ninety-nine years to come, all of them being burnt all to three, the 
number burnt thirteen, he conceives himself damnified to the value 
of 600/., the whole of his losses in goods and chattels amounting to 
the value of 3,600/. Also he saith his goods were taken away by Garret 
FitzJames Gerald of Ballymacdaniel, and Walter Ilussey of Castle 
Gregory, gent., and their followers. His household stuff and money 



12G THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGll. 

were taken by the besiegers of Tralce Castle, whereof these were the 
chief : Domiel MacCartie of Castlelogh in said county, gent., Florence 
MacCartie, formerly living with his father, O'Donovan, in the county 
of Cork, gent., Garret MacPatrick of Aghamore, gent., Fineen Mac- 
Dermot Carthy of Glanerogh, gent., captain among the rebels, 
Donogh MacFineen Cartie of Ardtully, gent., Captain Tiegue Mac- 
Dermot MacCormac Cartie of near the Currens, gent.. Captain 
Dermot O'Dingle O'Moriarty of Ballinacourty, Captain Donnel 
MacMoriarty of Castledrum, and Captain O'Sullivan Mor of Dun- 
kerron, Esquire, Captain Fineen MacDaniel Carthy, alias Captain 
Sugan, near Glanerogh, gent., and divers others to the number of 
one thousancl. He also saith, that Daniel MacMoriarty of Castle- 
drum aforesaid, gent., hath possessed himself of this deponent's 
house in Tralee, and certain other tenements belonging to that 
house. Also he saith, that divers Protestants to the number of 
forty, as Arthur Barham of Clogherbrien, Eobert Brooke of Carrig- 
nafeely, Eobert Lenthal of Tralee, Thomas Arnold and John Cade of 
Tralee, Grifiin Floyd of Killarney, William Wilson of the same, dyer, 
Donnell O'Connor of Killarney, maltster, Robert Warhani of Tralee, 
John Godolphin of Tralee, shoemaker, Hugh Pioe of Tralee, barbur, 
Benjamin Weedon, hosier, Henry Knight, tailor, Richard Horc of 
New Manor, husbandman, were all treacherously killed by O'Sullivan 
More of Dunkerron and his followers to the number of five or six 
hundred, this deponent having the command of the said Protestants 
(there being two more that escaped) saved his life by leaping off a rock 
into the sea, being enforced to swim at least a mile, and so got away, 
having first received fourteen wounds with swords and skeans, and 
one shot in the right shoulder, and one deep wound in his back Avith 
a pike ; this was done about midsummer last near Ballinskelligs in 
the said county. He also said that eleven men and one woman were 
murdered on the 15th of January last, coming out of the county of 
Kerry from the castle of Ballycarty, which was then lately yielded 
upon quarter, in which castle they were, they were murdered in the 
mountains near Newmarket by the rebels of Cork and MacAulifle 
of Duhallow, in the county Cork, the names of those that were 
murdered were these : John Ellis of BallydufT in said coimty and 
his son, Andrew Morgan of the Currens, butcher, Elizabetli Dash- 
wood, wife of William Dashwood of Tralee, shoemaker, Hugh 
Williams of Ballymariscal, Thomas Goodwin of the Currens, John 
Norris, servant to the ward of Ballycarty, and divers others to the 
number of eleven. This deponent also saith, that being employed 



DEPOSITIONS. 127 

about midsummer last by Sir Edward Denny, his captain, from 
Cork into the county Kerry, to give notice to the castle Avard which 
were in some distress, to prevent the yielding of the hold to the 
enemy, upon his intelligence of the Lord Forbes, his coming 
towards those parts to relieve them. He was by the way taken 
prisoner about the black walk in the middle of the mountain called 
Slieve Lougher by Tiegue MacAuliffe of Castle MacAuliffe, Bawn 
MacAuliffe, Conogher Ceogh near Liscarroll, and Owen O'Callaghan 
of near Newmarket, to the number of 600 men, w4io brought him to 
the camp near Adare, where there were about 7,000 then prepared 
to fight against the English, among whom were Garret Barry, their 
General ; Patrick Purcell, Lieutenant-General ; Charles Hennessy, 
Sergeant-major General; Garret Purcell, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Lord 
Pioche, the Lord of Castle Connell, the Baron of Loghmoe, alias 
Theobald Purcell; O'Sullivan Bear; O'Sulhvan Mor ; Dominick 
Fanning, mayor of Limerick ; Edmund FitzTliomas Gerald.captain. 
Deponent was detained twenty-three days, but was afterwards 
exchanged for Captain James Brown, taken at Newtown a little 
before. He also saith, that while in restraint he heard it generally 
spoken among them that they, the rebels, fought for the kmg's pre- 
rogative, and that we were the rebels and traitors, and that they 
were not preferred to any places of honour, and that they Avere not 
made judges of assize, and had not the liberty of their rehgion. He 
also saith, that the besiegers of Tralee burnt Sir Edward Denny's 
castle there, with the greatest part of the town, to the number of 
one hundred houses at least, also Kichard Hoare of the New Manor 
had his houses, to the number of four, burned by the said besiegers 
at the time of the said siege, and further he cannot depose. 

Edw. Vauclier. 
Jurat, coram nobis, 21 March, 1G42, 

Phil. Besse. 

Benj. Baraster. 



cxcni. 

TiRLOGH Kelly, of the town and parish of Youghal, in the 
barony of Inchiquin, within the county of Cork, gent., an Irish 
Protestant, duly sworn and examined upon oath, before us, by 
virtue of a conunission under the broad seal of this kingdom to us 
and others directed, bearing date at Dubhn the 6th day of March 
last, touching the losses and sufferings of his Majesty's subjects 



128 THE IRISH »r ASS ACRES OF 1011. 

British and Protestant, in the province of Minister, by means of 
the rebellion, besides divers other particulars to be inquired after 
by virtue of the said commission tending to the (illegible) of this 
present rebellion, deposeth and saith, that about the 1st of May 
last one Thomas Williams of Youghal, merchant, was appointed 
captain for the sea, by the late Lord President of this province, and 
being directed by his lordship, amongst other instructions, to go in 
company with Sir Edward Denny, Knight, to relieve the castle of 
Tralee in the county of Kerry, then in great extremity, being 
closely besieged by Colonel Donnel MacCarthy of Currens, in the 
said county of Kerry, Esquire, and his forces. The said Williams, 
about the last of May, having received directions touching his 
intended voyage, took shipping at the harbour of Youghal aforesaid, 
carrying with him four score men or thereabouts, part whereof lay 
aboard the said Williams's ship called the Flower of Youghal ; their 
admiral appointed for the voyage the other part aboard the ship 
called the Lion of Yonghal, whereof Thomas Bryant was captain, 
and being then seasonably provided, they sailed from thence to 
Cork and there took aboard their ship Sir Edward Denny and his 
foot company, which done they sailed away westward to a place 
called the Derries [sic) in O'Sullivan Bear's country, and having 
landed some men there, the enemy gave them a skirmish, and one 
of the said Sir Edward Denny's company called Philip O'Leinsy 
{sic) was there shot, and from thence, having got that resistance, 
they sailed to the river Kenmare, in the county of Kerry, in 
O'Sullivan Mor's country, and some men being there landed the 
enemy did likewise then skirmish with them but no men lost, we 
{sic) then set forth to sea again, but sailing to and fro in the river, 
and about the sea coast, put into a place called Ballinsceligs, where 
the inhabitants pretended themselves to be good subjects, but they 
having betrayed some of Captain Leo's company then in the harbour 
that went ashore, presuming on their loyalty, by disarming three 
or four of his musketeers there we landed some forces, and having 
exchanged some shots with the enemy, but losing no men, we took 
to sea again, burning the said Ballinsceligs and the country round 
about it, and took one {blank) Segerson, a gentleman of the same 
place, prisoner. Afterwards'we came to the harbour of Dingley- 
cooshe, where the townsmen resisted us, and made divers shots at 
the ships, and being thus opposed, we sailed out again to the river 
of Kenmare, and {illegible) drawing some cattle near the shore 
which were left on purpose to draw us on, Ave landed four score men 



DEPOSITIONS. 129 

or thereabouts commanded by Edward Vauclier, Esq., Ensign to 
the said Sir Edward Denny, having tlien in company with him 
Captain Grinfield Halce {sic) and one Mr. Lintoll. No sooner 
they came ashore, but O'SuHivan More's forces, consisting at least 
of seven or eight hundred men, laying in several ambushes, fell 
upon them, killing the said Halce in a barbarous manner, hewing 
and hackmg his body in divers places, and cutting ofl' his head, 
and likewise murdered the said Mr. Lintoll, and desperately 
wounded the said ]\Ir. Vauclier, besides threescore and seventeen 
common soldiers, then killed, so that of all that company that went 
ashore not above three that escaped to come on board, this waa 
upon Friday, the 3rd day of June last. 

Upon Saturday following, the 4th of June, we set forward to sea, 
purposing to come to the harbour of Kinsale, our surgeon the day 
before being murdered, whereof we had then great necessity, but 
the wind altering, we put in that Saturday to a place called Kil- 
macldllokistig {sic), in the county of Kerry, formerly a known place 
for fishing, and in the afternoon we landed some men, and took 
away from thence a quantity of salt, and having lain there at 
anchor until Monday following, the 6th of June, early in the morn- 
ing the said Captain Williams, this deponent's lieutenant George 
Symons, Samuel Fenton of Cork, merchant, James Monsoll of 
Youghal, butcher, John Boulgor of the same, yeoman, Thomas 
livne of the same, shipwright, and two otliers went to fetch away 
more salt, but then and there Daniel O'Sullivan, alias O'Sullivan 
l\ror, Avith six hundred men or thereabouts, lay in ambush in two 
companies at the town of Killmackillosta, and no sooner were the 
said Williams and the rest come ashore, but presently the enemy 
started out of the {illegible), which being discovered by the said 
Williams, he endeavouring to regain the boat, the enemy came 
upon him and the rest pell-mell with stones ; the boat being out of 
sight of the ships, and the stones flying so fast that they could 
neither discharge muskets nor pistols, but at last regained the boat, 
yet had not the power to launch it forth from the shore through the 
multitude of stones flung upon them, until at last they were all 
stoned to death, excepting this deponent and one James Monsell 
aforesaid, but both Avere l)ruised and sorely wounded, and taken 
prisoner by the said O'Sullivan Mor, but the rest of them that were 
murdered and stoned, they stripped them in a barbarous and most 
inhumane manner, and threw their naked corpses upon the shore, 
cutting and mangling them in a piteous manner, not admitting 

VOL. II. K 



130 THE IKISH MASSACHES OF 1G41. 

them to have Christian burial, aftertimes the tide at ebb and flow 
beating upon their corpses on the beach to and again. 

Upon Tuesday following, the 7th day of June, this deponent 
and the said Monsell, being the night before kept close prisoners 
and asunder, he, this deponent, was then brought before the said 
O'Sullivan, who then and there impannelled a jury of twelve men 
to pass upon the life of this deponent, and being arraigned and 
evidence also given against him, by the said O'Sullivan himself, 
that this' deponent was guilty of high treason and (as he alleged) 
of robbing and burning the king's subjects, meaning themselves, 
but by God's assistance this deponent was then conveyed away out 
of sight by means of {blank) Sullivan, who knowing this deponent's 
father, the last war in the camp at Kinsale against Tyrone and the 
Spaniards, by his intercession this deponent's life was saved. 

This deponent further saith, that during his abode with the said 
O'Sullivan, which was for six months or thereabouts, he heard him 
and other gentlemen confidently say, at several times, that they had 
a large commission from his Majesty for what they did, and he 
heard the said Daniel O'Sullivan oftentimes say, that they made 
no question but that the king was on their side, and was become a 
Roman Catholic ; he likewise saw and observed during that time a 
Spanish barque out of Biscay, burthen thirty tons, come to Bearhaven 
about Michaelmas last, loaded with arms and powder, for the said 
Donnel O'Sullivan, which barque, as by credible information given 
to this deponent appeared, came hither about tlie 9th of May before 
with more powder and arms. 

This deponent was likewise credibly informed, that they have 
four several councils or common meetings of their chieftains, and 
gentlemen, about the raising of an army to surprise and take the 
English garrison in the county of Cork, one in Tralee, in the county 
of Kerry, one in the city of Limerick, another at Cashel, and 
another at Kilkenny, the motives that induce him to believe this 
information to be true is, that about the latter end of November 
last, this deponent perceiving no way otherwise for him to come 
away, requested the said O'Sullivan to give him, this deponent, a 
pass to go to the county of Roscommon to his friends, where ho 
was born, which being granted this deponent came to Limerick, 
accompanied by two of the said 0' Sullivan's men, who had charge 
given them to see this deponent safely come thither, where this 
examt. stayed two days and two nights, and then and there 
observed several meetings of the gentlemen of the country {illegible) 



DEroSITIONS. 131 

in counsel, namely Garret Barry, then called general of the Catliolick 
forces for the provhice of Munster, for so they commonly styled him, 
Patrick Pm'sell of Croe, in the county of Limerick, Esquire, lieu' 
tenant-general of the said forces, Sir Daniel O'Brian of Ballykett 
{sic), in the county of Clare, knight, the Lord of ]\Iuskerry, Captain 
Charles Hennessy, master of their ordnance for the said province, 
the Lord Baron of Castle Council, Pierse Creagh, mayor of the city,' 
and divers other gentlemen of the county of Clare, and county of 
Limerick, whose names this deponent doth not remember; like- 
wise ho took notice at Clonmell that Captain Pennell and one 
Mr. {illegible), mayor of the said town (this deponent then coming 
thither from Limerick), went to the council at Cashell from Clonmell. 
This deponent further deposeth and saith, while he stayed at Clon- 
mell he was credibly told that Owen Roe O'Neill came to Wexford, 
not long since out of the Low Countries, who brought in great 
store of arms and ammunition, and was made since general of all 
the forces of the province of Ulster ; and after him came likewise 
into Wexford one Colonel Preston from Flanders, with more arms 
and powder, and soon after the same Preston's wife and children 
came into Wexford in another ship, loaded with arms, who were 
received with great joy and solemnity, and very soon after their 
landing Sir Phelim O'Neal married one of the Lord Preston's 
daughters, to Avhom the same Preston gave as marriage portion 
a thousand pounds in money, a thousand muskets, a thousand 
bandeliers, a thousand swords, a thousand carbines, a thousand 
pair of petronells, and one thousand great saddles. This deponent 
examined, likewise deposeth and saith, that he heard it credibly 
reported at Clonmell aforesaid that the said Lord Preston undertook 
{illegible) of taking the Castle of Dublin by May Day next, and 
.therefore he was to have from the kingdom threescore pounds for 
his pains. 

TiKLOGii Kelly, 
Jurat, coram nobis, llih Jan. 1642, 

Philip Bisse. 
Thomas El wall. 

Note, 
The deponent's account of the skirmish at Ballinskelligs is some- 
what different from that given by Vauclier and probably more 
correct. The latter as a connection of the O'Sullivan Mor would 
be very likely to underrate the number killed at Ballinskelligs. It 
is evident, however, that those killed at that place were all soldiers, 

VOL, II. * K 2 



132 THE miSII MASSACRES OF 1041. 

well armed, surprised by well armed Irish soldiers, and tliat the 
surprise was a retaliation for the burning of Ballinskelligs a few 
days before. But Kelly tells us that the burning was also a retalia- 
tion for the killing of some of Captain Lee's English soldiers. The 
killing of the English at Kilmalochinsta was also a skirmish between 
open enemies at war, but the hacking and mangling of the bodies 
show how little O'Sullivan's followers understood the first conditions 
of honourable warfare. An old MS. History of Kerry in the Eoyal 
Irish Academy collections, written by an 0' Sullivan of Dunkerron 
about a hundred and twenty years ago, gives the traditional account 
of the skirmish at Ballinskelligs, which does not differ materially 
from that in the foregoing deposition, but makes the number of the 
slain a hvindred and thirty-five. The spot where they fell, which 
is on the way from Valentia or Cahir to Ballinskelligs Abbey, is to 
this day called Traigh na Sassenagh, or the Strand of the English- 
man, and tradition says they were there interred, but from Kelly's 
deposition this seems unlikely. Tiegue MacMahon, an Irish Pro- 
testant of Stradbally, in the barony of Corcaguiny, county of Kerry, 
sworn before Bysse and Williamson on the 8th of May, 1G42, con- 
firmed the greater part of his neighbour William Dethick's deposi- 
tion, and Marcus Evans, sworn before same on same day, deposed 
that he lived near Tralee when the siege began, and that he and his 
father went into the castle for shelter, that the latter died there, and 
that he, deponent, was present when the castle was surrendered. 
He further swore that ' the Protestants who died during the siege 
were not permitted to have Christian burial, some of the popish 
clergy affirming that their bodies ought to be bui-ned and their 
ashes cast into the sea because they were heretics.' {MSS. T. G. D., 
F. 2, 17, p. 81.) Margaret Perry of Kilcushna, near Castle Island, 
sworn before Gray and Bysse that her husband and her two sons 
were murdered by the rebels. The Eev. Gregory Dickenson, rector 
of Dingle, sworn before Bysse, Wallis, and Elwall on the 6tli of 
August, 1G42, deposed that Thomas Hood of Dingle and his brother 
John were hung, the one at Dingle, the other at Tralee, by the rebels, 
and that ' Thomas Spring of Stradbally, Mrs. Eose Morley and her 
two sons of Ventry, William and Gilbert Bayley, and the Eev. John 
Connor had all turned to mass since the rebellion.' 



DEPOSITIONS. 133 



CXCIV. 



Thomas Feitii, Into Arcluloaoon of Ross, one of his Majesty's 
justices of the peace for the counties of Cork and Kerry, duly sworn 
and examined, deposeth and saith, that he lost, was rohbed, and 
forcibly despoiled of his goods and chattels, and of the goods and 
chattels left him by his late brother, John Frith, gent., deceased, in 
Cork, worth 1,12GL 15s. lOd., part of which consisted of debts to tlie 
sum of 557Z. 15s. lOd., which before this rebellion were esteemed 
good debts, but are now become desperate, by reason that some of 
the debtors are impoverished Protestants, such as William Eussell, 
yeoman, Henry Bergin, gent., Edmund Wallis, clerk, all of or about 
Aghardowne, in the county Cork, John Bradshaw, gent., and John 
Grant, yeoman, of and about lloss, in the said county, John Barrett, 
yeoman, late of Killoyne (sic), in the county of Kerry, Kichard Black- 
hall of Castlemaine, in the said county, Tiegue O'Healy of the same, 
gent., Thomas Spring of Stradbally, in the said county. Esquire, 
Edward Spring of Killahie, in the same county, gent., both of whom 
were accounted Protestants before the rebellion, Thomas Goodman, 
yeoman, Daniel Stiles, gent., William Dethick, gent., John Morris, 
Richard Trant, Morgan {illegible), yeomen, all of or about the 
parishes of Killiny, Kilgobbin, and Stradbally, in the barony of 
Corcaguiny, in the said county of Kerry, Devereux Spratt of Tralee, 
minister, Robert {illegible) of Glanerogh, hi the said county, and 
divers others, and the rest are Papists, and are, as this deponent 
supposeth, out in actual rebellion, such as William ny {illegible), 
alias Donovan, yeoman, Maurice O'Callinan, ge)it., Owen MacDon- 
nell Sullivan, gent., Connor O'Regan, gent., Donogh McConogher, 
gent., Tiegue O'Hogan, Fineen MacDermot Sulhvan, James Neville, 
Donogh MacDermot MacAuliffe, Conogher O'Mahony, William 
O'Fiherly, John Bowler, yeoman, Fineen Oge Carty, gent., William 
MacTiegue, gent., Fineen MacRandal Hurly, gen^r.., Conogher Mac- 
Saunnagh, yeoman, William O'Cronin, yeoman, Melaghlin and 
Randal O'Regan, yeomen, with many others in the county of Cork, in 
and about the barony of Carl)erry, at the several villages and parishes 
of Aghadoune, Kilmacabee, Killahin, Kilfaghny, Kilton, and Ross 
Carberry. Also Hubert Huseey of Kilshannig, and Walter Hussey 
of the same, in tlie county of Kerry, gentlemen, Kelly FitzPatrick of 
Ardfert, gent., Tibbot FitzGcrald, gent., Robert Oge of Listrim, 
gent., Edmund Stack of Ardfert, gent., John MacFinecn, gent.. 



134 THE IRISH MASSACIIES OF inji. 

James Cronin, gont., Edmund MacShane of Farrondalloge, gent., 
and Dermot O'Dingle, alias Moriarty of Ballinacourty, yeoman, for 
liis cruelty to Protestants now advanced to be a captain amongst the 
rebels ; also Owen MaclMoriarty of Kildnnn, gent., Daniel O'Dina- 
gan, yeoman, John {illegible), yeoman, all of the county Kerry 
aforesaid, with divers others of whom he claims mortgages, debts, 
bills, bonds, under their hands. lie likewise saith, that he hath 
heard that Thomas Spring of Stradbally, Esquire, in the county of 
Kerry aforesaid, with his wife and his only son, and Edward Spring 
of Killaghie, in the said county, gent., who were reputed Protestants, 
have since this rebellion turned Papists, as also John Gardiner of 
Ardfert, in the said county, minister, and his wife, he, as it is 
reported, would have turned friar, but the Papists refused to admit 
him, he is a man of so notorious, evil, and scandalous a conversation. 

Thomas Fiiith, 
Jurat. Srd November, 1G42, 
Philip Bisse. 

ElCHAED PeISLEY. 

CXCV. 

EoBEKT Becket, of Carrigaliue, in the county of Cork, clerk, 
duly sworn and examined before us, deposeth and saith, that on or 
about the 25th of May last he was robbed and forcibly despoiled of 
his goods worth SGI. He also saith tliat about the time above men-' 
tioned he was robbed by Captain MacSwiney and Captain Donell 
MacCarty's men, their names he Imoweth not, except one Daniel 
O'B {illegible) of Barnahealy, in the said county of Cork, who carried 
this deponent and his wife prisoners to Dermot MacCarthy's house, 
brother to the said Donell MacCarthy, and after this deponent was 
released, on his way coming to Cork, he was assaulted violently by 
the number of sixteen of the rebels, who then and there stripped 
him of his clothes in a most shameful manner, and within the 
matter of a week aftcrsvards this deponent's wife, Elizabetli Becket, 
coming to Cork after the deponent, she was assaulted in the highway 
between Barn {illegible) and Bally (illegible), in the said county, and 
was stripped and shot to death, and lier throat cut by the rebels, 
where she lay in a most inhuman manner two days, and at last was 
buried in an unchristian manner in the liighAvay. 

IxonEUT Becket, cleric. 
Jurat. 27 (h April, 15-12, 
Phil. Bisse. 
rtiCHARu [iUcijihle). 



DEPOSITIONS. 135 



CXCVI. 



Jasper Horsey, late of Bally {illegible), in the parish of Temple 
{illegible}, barony of Clangibbon, county of Cork, gent,, a British 
Protestant, duly sworn and examined, deposeth and saith, that 
upon the 1st of January, 1G41, or thereabouts, this deponent lost 
or was robbed and forcibly despoiled of his goods and chattels to the 
value of MGl. 10s. And this deponent further deposeth, that about 
the 9th day of April last ho, accompanied by Walter Ilarte and 
Robert Mitchel, English Protestants, both warders of old Castletown, 
in the said county, went to Doneraile to provide some powder for 
the defence of the said castle, and stayed there that night. But the 
next day, the 10th of April aforesaid, this deponent and the other 
two coming back to hold CastletoAvn aforesaid, they were assaulted 
and set upon on the highway by John Roche of Ballinemony, in the 
said county, gent., having in company with him five horsemen and 
twenty armed footmen, who apprehended this deponent and the 
rest, and caused them to be disanned and stripped of their clothes, 
calling this deponent an ' Enghsh traitor ; ' likewise the same 
John Roche then and there took from this deponent besides apparel 
{illegible) shillings in money, and a gold ring price thirteen shilhngs. 
And the said John Roche inunediately caused the said Walter Ilarte 
to be hanged, but in the meantime proffered him his life if he would 
turn Papist, and for that purpose brought to him a mass priest to 
persuade him thereunto, but the said Ilarte utterly denying to turn, 
was presently executed. 

This deponent further deposeth, that the same night, being the 
10th of April aforesaid, he and the said Robert Mitchel were carried 
to Castletown, the Lord Roche's house, where he, this deponent, 
continued prisoner for ten weeks, during which time this deponent 
observed these particulars folloAvhig, viz. first, he saw about the 
15th or IGth of April two of the Lord of Inchiquin's troops, one was 
a Scotchman, the other an Irishman, both Protestants, Avith their 
horses and arms both taken prisoners by the said Lord Roche's 
forces, and brought to Castletown aforesaid, where, though the 
Scotchman was sorely wounded and shot through the back, they 
were without any mercy hanged. Secondly, this deponent likewise 
observed and saw one Donogh MacTiegue, an Irish Protestant, a 
man of threescore years of age and upwards, who was sometime 
servant to William Jephson of Mallow, Esquii-e, about the beginning 



136 THE IRISH MASSACKES OF l(Jil. 

of May last, as lie went on the highway to Youghal, to be assaulted 
and taken by some of the said Lord Roche's company, who brought 
him to Castletown aforesaid, where he remained prisoner a long time 
till he was half starved, being allowed but a small morsel of bread 
in four-and-twenty hours, and day by day the priests and friars in 
the same {illegible), to this deponent's knowledge, being then in 
number fifteen at least, did use to come to the said Donogh Mac- 
Tiegue, persuading him to turn Papist ; at last when they could 
not draw him, they gave him his choice to turn Papist and save his 
life, or else there was no remedy he must be hanged, he told them 
plainly he was persuaded in his conscience he was of a good and 
sound profession, and that he would not turn Papist while he lived. 
]5eing at last carried to the place of execution, one Father Roch and 
other friars and priests were a long time with him, at last he told 
them openly they might go to the devil if they would, but for his part 
he would never be persuaded by them, and begged heartily they 
would trouble him no more, and so, heartily pi'aying upon the ladder, 
he was at last executed. This deponent's cause of knowledge of 
this is, that being a prisoner himself, ho saw and observed those 
passages, and having his liberty to go up and down he came to the 
certain knowledge of these premises. During this deponent's 
restraint at CastletoAvn aforesaid he saith, that he observed, about 
the latter end of April last, one Elizabeth (blank), a maidservant to 
Stephen Thompson, at Mitchelstown, in the said county, on the way 
coming for Cork, was apprehended by the said Lord Roche's forces 
and brought prisoner to Castletown, where she was adjudged to be 
hanged, if she would not turn Papist, which she utterly refused to 
do, but others then present thinking it a favour done to her, com- 
manded her to be tied to a post and shot to death, and having made 
seven shots at her and hit either time, yet not mortally wounded 
her, at last she was in a tormenting way hanged. This examt. lastly 
deposeth and saith, that he, being a long time in prison and naked 
upon the {illegible), being stripped before and lying upon the ground 
with a little straw under him, at last he desired to speak in private 
to the Loi'd Roch that some course may be taken for his enlarge- 
ment, and being admitted to his presence, his lordship spoke these 
answering words, or others like to them in effect, ' I can show you,' 
quoth he, ' a Coiinnission under the king's hand that ice have gotten 
lately from Sir rheiimy O'Neil, whereby tie (meaning the Irish) 
are authorised to strip and banish all the English and Protestants 
out of this kingdom, if they do not joi)i uilh us a)id do as we do,' 



DISPOSITIONS. 137 

aucl adding furtlier iu a smiling way, ' I ivill promise yon,' quotli he, 
* the English shall eat no more fat beef in this kingdom,' or words 
to that purpose, and further deposeth not. 

jAsrEK Horsey. 
Jurat, coram nobis, IGth May, 1042, 
Phil. Bisse. 
Kicn. Williamson. 

CXCVII. 

[Copy.) 

Ceokge Gould, of Kinsale, aged thirty years or thereabouts, 
sworn and examined, saith, that about the first winter quarter in 
the year 1042 he lived in Kerry, and came thence to Blarney, to 
buy tobacco, and did see about sixteen English persons, men, women, 
and children, that he understood were sent from Macroom, by order 
of the Lord IMuskerry, with a guard to Blarney, where they were 
delivered to the Commander there, viz. one Lieut. John McWilliam 
O'Eeardon, as this deponent believes, who was to send them to 
Cork. This deponent did not see the said persons conveyed with a 
guard from Blarney towards Cork, but he saw some Irish men of the 
ward of Blarney, carrying divers clothes much bloodied on their 
backs, wlicrcupon tliis deponent asked them whence they canie, to 
whom some of them answered in Irish, that they had dispatched 
the said persons, they should never eat more bread, whereupon this 
deponent turned aside to James Nagle, now of Dingle, being in his 
company then, and said to him, that was no place for them to stay 
in, for he believed the vengeance of God would fall thereon, for such 
actions, and thereupon they went away together. This deponent 
being further examined, saith, he knoweth neither the names of 
these English persons, nor the names of those Irish that murdered 
them, neither doth lie know any other person then at Blarney, but 
the said lieutenant and his ensign, Humphrey Callaghan, and 
whether these ofiicers be living now or not he knoweth not. 

Geokge Gould. 



138 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF lG-11. 



CXCVIII. 

Mary Smyth, of the town and parish of Castle Lyons, county of 
Cork, widow, duly sworn and examined, saith that she hath lost by 
means of the present rebellion to the value of GOO^., and that her 
husband Henry Smyth of Castle Lyons aforesaid, was cruelly 
murdered by the Condons on the Gth of April last, at Coole, near 
Castle Lyons aforesaid, who cut off his tongue and other members 
most inhumanly after he was dead. 

1\Iauy Smyth + 
Jurat, coram nobis, 19th August, 1G42, 
Philip Bisse, 
James Wallis. 

CXCIX. 

Anne Smyth, of the aforesaid parish of Castle Lyons, deposeth 
upon oath that the contents of Mary Smyth's deposition are true. 
{Signed as before on same day.) 



CC. 

Catherine Egberts, the relict of George Roberts, of Gortna 
{illegible), in the barony of Duhallow, in the county of Cork, a 
British Protestant, duly sworn and examined, deposeth and saith, 
that at Christmas last, and divers times since the beginning of the 
present rebellion, she lost, or was robbed and forcibly despoiled of 
her goods and chattels to the value of 22GL 10s. She likewise de- 
poseth, that about Whitsuntide last, her husband, George Roberts, 
in the way coming from Doneraile to Liscarrol, was assaulted by 
Redmund Barry of Lisgriffin, gent., and being taken prisoner, they 
first stripped him stark naked for the space of three hours, and 
afterwards most grievously stabbed his body in several places and 
cut his throat. And further deposeth not. 

Elizabeth Thwaites, of Liscarrol, in the said county, widow, 
this day also came before us and deposeth and saith, that the ac- 
count in this bill {sic) concerning the murder of George Roberts is 
true. 

Katherine Roberts + 
Jurat, coram nobis, 5th Feb. 1G42, Eliz. Thwaites + 

Phil. Bisse. 

Thos. Betteswortii. 



DEPOSITIONS. 139 



CCI. 

John Whetcombe, late of Coole, in the county of Cork, gent., 
a British Protestant, duly sworn and examined, deposeth and saith, 
that upon the 2nd of February last, or thereabouts, and since the 
beginning of this rebellion, he lost and hath been robbed and forcibly 
despoiled of his goods and chattels worth 998^. He further saith, 
that John and llichard Condon of Ballymacpatrick, in the said 
county, gentlemen, and John and Eichard Condon of Ballydurgan, 
in tlie said county, gentlemen, and their companies (as this deponent 
is credibly informed by his neighbours) were the parties that took 
away his cattle. He lastly saith, that his brother Bartholomew 
Whetcombe and a matter of eight-and-twenty persons more, or 
thereabouts, men, women, and children, whose names he cannot 
now remember, were cruelly murdered at Coole aforesaid by the 
said Condons and their companies. 

John Whetcombe. 
Jurat, coram nobis, MtJi Junii, 1G42, 

Thos. Bkettkidge. 

Phil. Bisse. 

ccn. 

CnJUSTorHEii Chokeii, being duly examined and sworn upon the 
Holy Evangelists, deposeth and saith, that upon Shrove Tuesday, 
1041, Captain Ednunid Fennell, with a strong party of rebels with 
him, came to Ballyamber, where this deponent's father, Edward 
Croker, James Pike and his son John, Thomas Putter and another 
Englishman, servant to Captain Joshua Boyle, then lived, and saith 
that the rebels summoned them to deliver up their arms and the 
house unto them, or otherwise they would take it by force, yet not- 
withstanding they had been about half an hour attempting of it and 
failed, this deponent's father desired quarter for himself, his wife, 
and children, and those above-named Englishmen, and all others in 
the house for their lives, which was granted and promise given to 
convey them safe half way to Youghal or unto the town's end of 
Lismore, whereupon the door Avas opened, and as soon as the rebels 
came in, they began to deal very roughly and barbarously with us, and 
stript this deponent and his mother and brothers, whereupon this de- 
ponent's father, Edwaxd Croker, demanded what they meant to do 
with him and if they meant to break their quarter ; the deponent's 



140 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

cause of knowledge is, that he was with his father, Edward Croker, in 
the house, and heard when the quarter was granted, and saw his 
father deliver up the arms, at the same window which they at- 
tempted to enter at, and that he was hy his father when he ques- 
tioned them whether they meant to hreak the quarter, after the 
house was delivered up. 

He further saith, that the same day they caused this deponent's 
father to be shot to death, and as this deponent heard, the said 
Fennell did with his own hand shoot this deponent's father in the 
head, after he had received two shots before from those that were 
appointed to execute him, and this deponent doth the rather holicvo 
it, for that ho heard one shot a little while after the two first were 
discharged, and that he saw his father's corpse wounded with shot 
in the head, and two in the body, when it was carried to Lismore to 
be buried. And further saith, that he, this deponent, heard several 
of those rebels tell his mother that Fennell was the man who caused 
her husband to be put to death, and that all the others of their 
oflicers were willing to spare his life, but that the said Fennell 
swore that he would have it in revenge of one of his men who was 
hanged by Captain Croker, then governor of Cappoquin, who was 
kinsman to this deponent's father. And further this deponent saith, 
that the above-named four Englishmen were on the same day hanged 
upon the gate by the said Fennell's party, and this deponent stand- 
ing by, saw them so executed, which is his caiise of knowledge. 
And further this deponent saith, that in or about Midsummer, 1650, 
he being then in command under Colonel Sankey in Clonniell, met 
with one Lieut. -Colonel James Brian, who was then a prisoner 
there, to whom this deponent went, who told him that the above- 
named Fennell was the only man who caused his, this deponent's, 
father to be put to death, and in this the deponent doth the rather 
believe he told the ti'uth, for that the said Brian used him and his 
mother civilly, and took care of them at the same time his (de- 
ponent's) father was murdered. And further saith not. 

Christophek Choker, 
This deposition was sxoorn before us, 
Eg. Standish, 
Ed. Thomas. 



DEPOSITIONS. 141 



com. 

John Dartneld, late of Balliliane and county of Waterford, 
Carpenter, deposetb and saith, that on or about the 29th day of 
!Receniber last past, and since the beginning of this present re- 
bellion in Ii-eland, he lost, was robbed, and forcibly despoiled of his 
goods and chattels to the value of 217^. 10s. by the hands of 
William O'Murrye of Affane, in the aforesaid county, husbandman, 
and by the rebels in those parts whose names he laioweth not. 
Likewise this deponent saith, that there was murdered at Cappo- 
quin the wife of Hugh Shuger and her daughter, one Mrs. Brown 
and her maid, the wife of Robert Sanders, the wife of Henry Vance 
and her child, the wife of William Hill, and one Eichard {illegible}, 
all which were inhabitants of Cappoquin, murdered by the hands 
and moans of Captain Edmund FemioU, Captain Sharloge, and their 
followers, whoso names this deponent knoweth not. 

John + Dartnell, mke. 
Jurat, coram nobis, 30th day of June, 1042, 
Thos. Badnege. 
Phil. Bisse. 

CCIV. 

John Pollard, late of Carriginlu-a, in the barony of Fermoy, 
county of Cork, deposeth and saith, that upon the 26th day of 
February last, or thereabouts, he was robbed and forcibly despoiled 
of his goods and chattels to the value of 221. 16s. He further saith, 
that one Henry Denn, servant of Captain Hargill of Carriginlira 
aforesaid, was murdered by Theobald Purcell, the baron of Lough - 
moe's men, and he further deposeth that John Keene of Carriginlira 
aforesaid, an English Protestant, was likewise murdered by the 
tenants and soldiers of Eichard Nagle of Monaniminy in the said 

county, gent., now in actual rebellion. 

John + Pollard. 
Jurat, coram nobis, 2ith May, 1642, 
Thos. Bettesworth. 
Phil. Bisse. 
EicH. Williamson. 



142 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1641. 



ccv. 

MuLRONEY O'Caroll, late of Castledoe, in the county of Done- 
gal, gent., sworn and examined, deposetli and saith, tLat since the 
beginning of the present rebellion, that ia to say, about the last of 
October, 1641, this deponent was at Castledoe aforesaid, and else- 
where in Donegal and the King's County, robbed and despoiled of his 
estate and goods and chattels, consisting of cattle, sheep, corn, debts, 
benefit of leases, money, hogs, household goods, boats, fishings, and 
other things, amoimting in all to the value of 1,5001., by and by 
the means of those notorious rebels following, viz. Sir Phelim O'Neil 
of Kinard, Knt., Maolmurry MacSwyne of [illegible), in the said 
county of Donegal, captain of rebels, Neil Mergagh MacSwyne, 
gent., Owen Eoe MacPodden, gent., Henry MacSwyne of Castle 
Croghan, gent., ]\Iaohnurry MacSwyne of Castle Roughare, gent., 
Manus MacConoglier of Drim, gent., Tiegue O'Swighan {sic), Owen 
MacAnally, Tulogh MacAnally, Dermot Mac Anally, Shane O'Murry, 
Lawrence O'Murry, James and Col. O'Murry, three brothers, all of 
the (illegible), in the said county Donegal, gent., and divers others 
whose names he cannot now call to mind. That one Manus Bane 
of Doe aforesaid, and his three sons, and some of the rebels before 
named, most barbarously hanged and murdered one Robert Akins, 
a Protestant minister (who had often relieved and kindly entertained 
them in his house), and two of his brothers, John and {illegible) Akins, 
in their own house at Clondrohid, in the county of Donegal. And 
they also murdered three women, one of whom was great with child 
. . , and also murdered eight more Protestants in the Doe aforesaid, 
which cruelties and murders were exercised and done chiefly by com- 
mand of the said Maolmurry MacSwyne of Magheramoynagh, who is 
grandchild to Sir Maolmurry MacSwyne. Those Septs being the most 
cruel and bloody minded people of any other in Donegal. And further 
saith, that Erwyn MacSwyne is greatly suspected for (being) a most 
close, cunning, and dangerous rebel, and to be accessory to divers 
bloody murders committed by his kerns and soldiers commanded 
by him. And this deponent was most earnestly moved by the said 
Maolmurry MacSwyne of Magherimagh, and by Brian Oge Mac- 
Loghlin, a popish priest, to join the rebels against the Protestants, 
and to deliver the castle of Doe unto them. And they told this de- 
ponent that the Scotch had petitioned the parliament house of 
England that there should not be a Papist left alive in England, 



DEPOSITIONS. 143 

Ireland, or Scotland. And that some of the committee employed out 
of Ireland in England for Irish affairs having notice thereof writ 
over unto them in Ireland to rise in arms and take all the strong- 
holds and forts here into their hands, or to that effect. And that 
they commanding the rehels now expected the fulfilling of Colum- 
kill's prophecy, which as they did construe it, was that the Irish 
should conquer Ireland again, or to that effect. 

Maolrony Caroll. 
Jurat. 2(jth April, 1G43, 
John Watson. IIen. Brereton. 

Eandal Adams. 

Note. 

After the words ' most cruel and bloodyminded people of Donegal,' 
the following sentence is interlineated : 

* And further saitli, he well knoweth that county, and he verily 
believeth that there have been a thousand Protestants murdered 
and starved there, besides them that fled from it,' 
For the Cromwellians' investigation into this murder see the 
letters and petitions given hereafter. 



144 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF UMl. 



THE CASE OF HENEY O'NEIL OF GLASDROMIN. 

In his notice of the Manuscripts in Trinity College, Dublin, 
which I have already referred to {v. mite, pp. 122-139), Mr. J. T. 
Gilbert says : — 

" A remarkable instance of the unreliability of statements in 
the ' depositions ' has been recently brought to light from un- 
published records, in the case of Henry O'Neil, son of Sir Turlogh 
O'Neil. At the Court of Transplantation at Athlone in 1055, the 
Attorney-General produced depositions taken in 1042 in which 
Charity Chappell and George Littlefield of Armagh declared, with 
much circumstantiality, that O'Neil had been in rebellion- in 1041 
and had plundered to a large amoimt. O'Neil, however, obtained 
permission to have Littlefield and Chappell examined in Court. 
There both of them admitted that they were not acquainted with 
the facts from their own knowledge, but on tlie contrary knew 
O'Neil to have always assisted the English. The Court (at 
Athlone in 1055) consequently set aside the statements in the 
depositions, and decided in favour of O'Neil." {Apj)endix to 8th 
Report of the Historical Manuscripts Commission, p. 570, 
1881.) 

The substance of this passage has been repeated in Mr. Gilbert's 
preface to the History of the Irish Catholic Confederation. The ' un- 
published records ' on which he relies to sustain his charges against 
the depositions are those referred to in the following passage in 
Mr. Prendergast's and Dr. Russell's Report on the Carte MSS. in 
the Bodleian Library at Oxford, published in 1871. 

" It was before the Court at Athlone, a.d. 1055, that Henry 
O'Neil's (claim and qualification) was heard. In the first instance 
will be found the extent and annual value of his lands, for by 
these Avere to be measured the lands he was to receive in Con- 
naixght, and either in fee for life or for term of years, according 
to the estate ho held in them in Armagh. He claimed and proved 
his title to 10,000 acres (exact 9,305) in fee, of which 2,000 acres 
(exact 1,994) were unprofitable ; that he held them by letters 



DEPOSITIONS. 145 

patent of King James I., dated IGtli September, 1003, and of King 
Charles I., dated intli Dec, 1025, made to his father, Sir Tirlogh 
O'Neil, Knt., and by the rent of a hawk, or 40s. Irish, and that on 
his father's death they descended and came to him. And this 
chiim and title was allowed by the court at Athlonc. But touching 
his qualification, evidence was tendered, on the part of the Com- 
monwealth, of his delinquency from the books of Discrimination, to 
bar his claim. The Attorney-General produced the depositions of 
Charity Chappell of the city of Armagh, and of George Littlefield 
of Loughgall, in the county of Armagh, and others, taken thirteen 
years before, i.e., early in 1G42, just after the outbreak, who 
alleged that the said Henry O'Neil, Arthur his brother, and 
Tirlogh his son, and others, on the 23rd of October, 1041, had 
stripped Sir Henry Spottiswoodc of all that ever he had in the 
counties of Monaghan and Armagh, being over 4,000L in value, 
and that they had robbed and despoiled her and her husband, 
deceased, and said George Littlefield of all their goods. The 
claimant, Henry O'Neil, begged to be allowed to call some of 
the witnesses, who were still alive, and to produce a]id re-examine 
themvivd voce to their former depositions, and this being granted 
he called said Charity Chappell. She was thereupon demanded 
her cause of knowledge of what she had sworn in her deposition 
against Henry O'Neil in 1042. She then (in 1055j said she heard, 
when she was in prison in Armagh, the first year (of the re- 
bellion) that he was in rebellion, and that what induced her to 
believe it was that all the country generally was in rebellion. 
And George Littlefield being re-examined vivd voce to his former 
deposition, said that he heard said Henry O'Neil was out in 
action, but not a plunderer. But neither of them knew any 
such matter to be true of their own knowledge. On the cor- 
trary. Charity Chappell knew him of her own knowledge to 
be a great friend to the English, and it was proved by one 
Eichard Lee, that the persons who so robbed Sir Henry Spottis- 
woode were tenants to the said Henry O'Neil. l^'or proof of his 
good afl'ection O'Neil produced the depositions of several witnesses 
on his behalf, that at the beginning of the rebellion he saved the 
lives of Mr. Thomas Taylor of the city of Armagh, his wife and 
family, and six more families of that town, who fled to him for 
protection, and sent them away to the English quarters. He 
saved the lives of Mr. FitzGerald, a minister, and Mr. Edward 
Trevor of Monaghan, and the wives and families of both of them. 

VOL. II. L 



146 THE imSII MASSACRES OF IGJl. 

He had kept altogether 200 persons in his house from the violence 
of the rebels, until he could send them to Dundalk and other English 
quarters, and as often as he heard of the approach of the rebels, 
into his country, he sent intelligence to the governors of Dundallc 
or Newry or the adjacent garrisons. For giving such intelli- 
gence General Owen O'Neil sent a party of horse and took the 
claimant prisoner and sent him to Kilkenny, where he was kept 
prisoner for three months, till the army was gone out of the 
county, and then he escaped. He had himself been robbed by 
the rebels of his horses and cows, and those at Glasdromin had 
been burned by order of Sir Phelim O'Neil. It was also deposed 
that he could not endure any of his sons to come near his castle. 
Once he shot at one of them, who was with a pai'ty coming to his 
house, because he was in rebellion. And he had been seen 
with weeping tears to bemoan himself, saying, what would be 
thought of him, his sons being gone into rebellion, he ' having 
been ever faithful to the crown of England.' Upon this state of 
facts the court found that he did not aid or promote the re- 
bellion in the first year. It might perhaps bo supposed that 
Mr. O'Neil would be entitled to a restoration of his estate, and to 
escape transplantation. But this would prove a very imperfect 
conception of the strictness of the rules of transplantation. Of 
course the commissioners could not find that he had aided or pro- 
moted the rebellion in the first year, or was ever in arms since, 
and they accordingly acquitted him of this. He had also exhibited 
much good affection to the English, but he must prove a con- 
stant, good affection to bo spared from transplantation, and by 
contributing money or victuals, not taken by actual force, and 
the payment of taxes and levies in the rebel's quarters (where no 
person dared refuse them), he lost his claim (to be exempted from 
transplantation). Mr. Henry O'Neil was probably in this latter 
predicament. He was adjudged to transplant, but being within 
the eighth qualification to have two-thirds of his estate in Con- 
naught. The value of the depositions taken shortly after the 
outbreak of 1G41 is strikingly illustrated in these proceedings. 
Though taken on oath they were taken in the absence of the party 
incriminated, and without cross-examination, &c. . . . The decree 
which follows is believed to be the only example to be found of 
the decrees of the Court at Athlone." {Report on the Carte MSS. 
in the Bodleian Library by Dr. Russell and Mr. Prendergast, 
pp. 117, M8.) 



DKPOSITIONS. 147 

Then follows the decree, of which more presently. Such is 
Mr. Prendergast's and Dr. Russell's very ahle statement against 
the Cromwellian judges of Henry O'Neil, and against the truthful- 
ness of the depositions taken in 1G42. It seems at first sight un- 
answerable. At the same time thoughtful readers of the Report 
may be inclined to doubt that even if Mrs. Chappell and Mr. Little- 
lield did contradict in 1G55 what they had sworn in 1G42, that would 
be sufficient ground for our believing that the eight hmidred or a 
thousand witnesses, baronets, knights, gentlemen, clergymen, ladies, 
farmers, and tradesmen, who had made depositions in the latter 
year against the Irish Catholics were all more or less perjured. 
But setting this aside, let us come to the pith of the whole matter, 
and in the first place inquire where Mr. Prendergast and Dr. 
Russell found all those remarkable proofs of O'Neil's loyalty to 
England and the English, the tales of his refusal to allow his sons 
to come to his house, his tears and his threats to shoot them for 
their rebellion, his viva voce examinations of Mrs. Chappell and 
Littlefield in the Court at Athlone in 1055, which drew from them 
a flat contradiction of what they had sworn to in 1042, &c. What 
proofs have we of all those things set forth in the above passages 
of the Report ? Any one reading those passages would naturally 
suppose that Dr. Russell and Mr. Prendergast had examined for 
themselves the records of the Court of Transplantation at Athlono 
in 1055, containing contemporary reports of the re-examinations 
of Mrs. Chappell, Littlefield, Lee, and others, as well as the first 
examinations of the two former in 1042, and that a comparison of 
the two sets of original examinations, and an exposure of their in- 
consistencies, was the ground (and a very good one it would be) 
which Dr. Russell and Mr. Prendergast had for declaring O'Neil 
had been wronged through the perjuries of the examinants. The 
confident tone of the above passages regarding their re-examina- 
tions in 1055, leaves no doubt on the reader's mind that the original 
contemporary reports of those re- examinations are in existence, 
and that those passages in the Report give us a correct abstract of 
them, and I was so impressed by it, that after I had copied the 
original examinations of 1042, from the books in the College, I at 
once set to work to search for those of 1055, taken in the Court at 
Athlone. I had not (and have not) any wish to make a ' case ' out 
for either party, and if it could be proved that those two witnesses 
or any others had sworn falsely, I was sincerely desirous to expose 
their falsehood, and thereby serve the cause of truth, which was all 



148 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

I had at heart in the investigation of the depositions from first to 
last. But to my surprise, when I came to searcli, at the Puhhc 
Kecord Offices and the Eecord Tower in Dubhn, for the records of 
the Court of Transplantation at Athlone, containing the re- 
examinations of Mrs. Chappell and Littlefield, which the Eeport 
on the Carte MSS. led me to believe were in existence, I learned 
that all Records of that Court, with the exception of one thin 
volume containing the reports of the trials of a few delinquent 
proprietors in the precinct of Athlone, had been burnt in the great 
fire of 1711, which destroyed many other valuable State papers 
in the Dublin collection. Still impressed with tho idea that Dr. 
Russell and ]\Ir. Prendergast must have in the course of their long 
researches somewhere seen, at least, authentic contemporary copies 
of those re-examinations of Mrs. Chappell and Littlefield in 1655, 
I asked my friend and relative IMiss Rowan, who inherits the 
ability of her accomplished and worthy father the late Yen. 
Archdeacon Rowan for historical research, to examine the Carte 
MSS. at tho Bodleian, the MSS. in the British Museum, and the 
State Papers at tho Rolls House, to endeavour to discover those 
documents. Our united searches, with every assistance from the 
courteous officials in those institutions and offices, proved fruitless. 
In the end I reluctantly came to the conclusion that Dr. Russell 
and Mr. Prendergast could never have seen the re-examinations 
of 1655 or even authentic contemporary copies of them, and that 
their sole authority for the statement in favour of O'Neil and against 
Mrs. Chappell and Littlefield was the decree above mentioned. 
It is printed at length at p. 148 of their valuable Report oil tho 
Carte MSS., but as three-fourths of it consist of a schedule of the 
different lands comprised in the 10,000 acres claimed by O'Neil, it 
is only necessary to give here the remaining fourth part, which is 
as follows : — 

"Touching the qualification of tho said Ilonry O'Noilo, it 
appeared by tho evidence produced on behalf of the Comon- 
wealth & by the general oaths of John Corren of Drumboate 
aforesaid, Charity Chappell, late wife of Richard Chappell, late 
of the town & county of Armagh, & George Littlefield, late of 
Loghgall, in the county of Armagh, tliat on the 20th day 
of October, 1641, S'" Henry Spotswood, knight, was stripped & 
dispoyled of all his goods, ready money & chattells, that ever 
he had, in the severall counties of ]\Ionoghan k Armagh, to the 



DEPOSITIONS. 149 

value of above I.IGOL by Henry O'Neile of Glasdroinine, Esq., 
Arthur O'Neile liis brother, Tirlogh O'Neil his son, & divers 
other Eebells ; tliat the said Charity Chappell & her late 
husband & the said George Littlefield were in the first yeare 
robbed & dispoyled of all their goods, &c., by the parties then 
in the present rebellion, to wit, Henry O'Neil of Glasdromine, 
Esq., & divers others, and Avhereas it Avas alleged by the 
councell on behalf of the said claymant, that some of the 
deponents were yett living who had deposed against the said 
claymant (O'Neile), to witt, Charity Chappell & George Little- 
field, & therefore (he) prayed a commission to re-examhie 
them, touching theire former depositions, against the said 
claymant, & the Court being desirous to be fully informed of 
the truth thereof, gave liberty to the claymant to produce them 
viud voce in Court, which accordingly he did, & this day behig 
appointed for the re-hearing of the said cause, the Court having 
entered into a full and deliberate hearing thereof ; and the said 
Mrs. Chappell being demanded upon oath the cause of knowledge 
of her former depositions against the said Sir Henry O'Neile, 
said she heard he was in rebellion the said first yeare, when she 
was in prison in Armagh, Sc the reason then inducing her to 
believe the same was, that all the country was gonorally in re- 
bellion ; & the said George Littlefield deposed upon oath, that 
he heard the said Henry O'Neile was out in action, but not a 
plunderer, but neither of them of their own knowledge did knowe 
any such matter to be true ; but on the contrary, the said Charity 
Chappell did affirme her knowledge of him to bee {sic) a greate 
friend to the English ; and by the oath of Richard Lee it ap- 
peared that S'" Henry Spotswood was robbed in the first evening 
of the rebellion ; the persons that so robbed the said S*" Henry 
were tonnants to the said Henry O'Neile ; and the oaths of the 
said John Si Samuel Corren being too gcnerall & uncertaine 
to amomit-to convincing proofes ; and touching the good affection 
of the said claymant, it appeared to this Court by depositions of 
sevcrall witnesses, taken in behalf of the saide claymant, that 
the said Henry O'Neile at the beginning of the rebellion secured 
& saved the lives of Mr. Thomas Taylor of Armagh, his wife 
and family, and six more families of the said towne which fled 
unto him for safeguard, & sent them away to the English 
quarters, & did likewise save the lives of Mr. FitzGarrett, a 
minister, his wife & family, & one Mr. Trevors, a minister. 



150 THE TRISII MASSACRES OF 1041. 

& Mr. Edward Trevors of Monoglian, & both their wives &, 
families, with sevei'all other Enghsli, to the number of two 
hmidred, all which persoiis he kept in his house, from the violence 
of the rebells, untill he found conveniency to send them safe to 
Dundalke & other places of the English quarters, & from time 
to time, as often as he heard of the approach of the rebells 
into the country, the said Henry O'Neile did send intelligence 
to the governor of Dundalk or Newry, or the next adjacent garri- 
sons of the English, & that for giveing such intelligence, General 
Owen O'Neile sent a party of horse & took the said claymant 
prisoner, & sent him to Kilkenny, where he was kept prisoner 
until the army was then gone out of the country, being about a 
quarter of a yeare after, at which tilne he made his escape, & 
the rebells did at the same time take a great number of horses, 
mares, cows, and other cattle from the said claymant ; that the 
said claymant's cattle and horses at Glasdromine Avere burned 
by Sir Phelim O'Neil's order ; that the claymant could not 
endure any of his sonns to come neare his castle ; that he once 
shott at one of his sonns who was with a party comoing to his 
house, because he was in Eebellion, & did oft with weeping 
teares bemoan himselfe saying, Avhat would be thought of him, 
his sons being gone into rebellion, hee having ever been faithfull 
unto the Crown of England ; so that comparing the evidence of 
the said claymant with the evidence against him, upon the whole 
matter, the Court is not judicially satisfied that the said Henry 
O'Neile did not aid & assist or otherwise promote rebellion in 
the first yeare, nor was in arms since. The Court dotli therefore 
think fit and adjudge the said Henry O'Neil to be comprised & 
doth fall xnider the eighth qualification of the Act of Settlement 
of Ireland, bearing date the 20th day of August, 1G52. And it 
is further ordered, adjudged, & decreed that the said Henry 
O'Neile shall have and enjoy two thirds part of his said estate to 
him, his heirs and assigns for ever, in Connaught or Clare, ac- 
cording to the true intent of the said eighth qualification of the 
said Act of Settlement : Saveiiig to his Highnesse the Lord 
Protector & Comonwealth of England all right and title which 
at any time hereafter may appear to belong or appertain to 
his said Highnesse, or the said Commonwealth, and saveing to 
all other persons all right and title which at any time hereafter 
may appear to belong or appertain to them or their heirs, into 
or out of the lands and estate claymcd by the said Henry O'Neil 



DEPOSITIONS. 151 

or into or out of any part thereof in any wise. Dated at Athlone 
the 5tli day of November, 1G55." 

"Examd.by, " Isaac Dobson. 

Ed. Couse, Registrar r Wm. Frankland. 

J. SOUTHEY." 

" Compared with the Original this 2dth December, 1GG8," 
"John Tayloia, Beg'' r " Wm. Cooper." 

Perceiving that the above as it stands in Dr. Russell's and Mr. 
Trendergast's lleport on the Carte MSS. (p. 151) seemed to have 
been printed from a mere copy made in IGGB, of an original of 1G55, 
and Imowing the suspicious character of many similar documents 
drawn up in the former year, I wrote to Mr. Prendergast to ask if 
the original decree or a certified contemporary copy of it made by 
the Cromwellian officials was in existence. In reply he wrote to 
me saying, ' the decree is an office copy made in 1GG3, by the 
officers who had official care of the Cromwellian legal papers. 
These being all brought together for the use of the Commissioners 
of the Court of Claims, were unfortunately burnt in the great fire 
at the Council Office in 1711, and amongst them the Athlone 
decrees.' Thus there is not a single original record of the pro- 
ceedings at the Court of Athlone in 1G55 regarding Henry O'Neil 
in existence. 

The sole authority for all that Dr. Russell and Mr. Prendergast 
have stated about him and the alleged re-examinations of Littlefield 
and Mrs. Chappell in 1G55 at Atlilone, cowtradicting what they 
had sworn in 1G42, is this copy said to have been made by the 
royalist officials of the Court of Claims in 16G3 of a decree, alleged 
by them to have been issued by the Athlone Court of eight years 

before. 

Now when we remember that all impartial historians of credit, 
and some who, hke Carte, are decidedly partial to the claims of the 
Irish loyahsts of 1660, admit that the forging of documents at- 
tempting to prove the ' nocent ' Irish of 1641-2 ' innocent,' in order 
to restore them to their forfeited lands and oust the CromweUian 
grantees, was a regular branch of business in 1G60-7 ; that Richard 
Talbot, 1 subsequently Duke of Tyrconnell, known even amongst his 

1 V. p. 153 "f I^cport on the Carte MSS. by Dr. Eivssell and Mr. Prendergast, 
where they say with respect to the Allen estate tliat the old proprietors were 
restored through the aid of Tallwt and Lord l^erkely, the latter acting ' it would 
seem out of pity, and Colonel Talbot on promise of part of the lands for his 



162 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 10 II. 

Cavalier associates by the sobriquet of ' lying Dick,' drove an actual 
trade in those frauds, receiving large sums of money or promises of 
large slices of the lands claimed in return for concocting them and 
' floating ' them by his influence at Court ; that Ilem-ietta Maria's 
profligate favourite Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans, also traded success- 
fully in the same frauds, it seems quite probable that this 1G63 
copy made by those noblemen's friends is from beginning to end a 
forgery. It is to the frequency of such frauds that Brodie alludes 
in his observations on Dean Kerr's worthless declaration [v. Vol. I. 
Introduction, p. 119). 

At all events before wo accept this copy of a lost original against 
the veracity of the still extant original depositions of Chappell and 
Littlefield in lG-12, we are surely bound to sift and test the former 
by the latter. This is just the contrary of the process adopted by 
Mr. Prendergast and Dr. Russell. They print the copy of 1G63 
impugning the veracity of the original depositions of 1G42, without 
printing, or even examining the latter, and they build up a whole 
case against those original documents on the sole authority of a 
copy of a lost original. 

I must ask my readers to note that I am not here concerned 
Avith the guilt or innocence of O'Neil, but with the charge made by 
Dr. Russell, Mr. Prendergast, and Mr. Gilbert against the veracity 
of Littlefield's and Chappell's depositions in 1G42. For reasons to 
be given hereafter, I think Henry O'Neil was not deeply involved 
in the massacres and outrages committed by his sons and other 
rebels in 1G41-3, but that he was a more or less passive spectator, 
a waiter on providence, afraid or unable to do'mucli against them, 
and desirous to take his politics and his creed from the conquering 
party. But before we can believe, on the authority of the copy of 
1GG3, that Littlefield and Chappell contradicted in 1G55 what they 
had sworn in 1G42, we must satisfy ourselves, by the examination 

soliciting Allen's cause,' which promise -was fulfilled. Carte, in his Life of Ormond, 
tells us that six Irish gentlemen, whose names he gives, paid 05,000^. to Jermyn 
to procure for them decrees of innocence, and that Antrim having no children 
settled the reversion of his estate on Jermyn for his influence to procure a 
similar decree, and to cause him (Antrim) to be released from imprisonment in the 
Tower, but that when Antrim was set free and restored to his estate it was found 
that he had, before the settlement on Jermyn, conveyed over all his said estate to 
his brother, so that Jermyn was baulked, and the biter bit. l'\jr a Christian and 
high-minded view of Jermyn's character generally and his acts, by the most emi- 
nent of living Knglish historians, see The Personal Government of Charles the First, 
hi/ S. 7?. Gardhur, F.S.A., vol. ii, p. 10. 



DErOSlTIONS. 153 

of tlieir original depositions made in the latter year, which fortu- 
nately still remain, what it was they actually did then swear to, 
and compare it with what this copy says of both those depositions, 
and the re-examinations of 1G55. If we find that the origmal 
depositions of Littlefield and Chappell in 1G42 correspond with 
the abstract given of them in the copy of the decree, and that 
they are in contradiction to the abstract the copy gives of the 
same witnesses' re-examinations in 1G55, then Mr. Prendergast, 
Dr. Russell, and Mr, Gilbert have some ground whereon to maintain 
their particular charge against those witnesses, and their general 
one against all the depositions of 1G42. But if, on the contrary, 
we find that the 1GG3 copy gives an untruthful abstract of the two 
witnesses' depositions in 1G42, making them say what they did not 
say, and that the abstract it gives of their re-examinations in 1655 
shows that they only repeated in substance what they had actually 
sworn to in 1G42, then manifestly there is no reasonable ground 
for doubtuig their veracity, and the particular and general charges 
of Mr. Prendergast, Dr. Russell, and Mr. Gilbert cannot be main- 
tained, while the copy of the decree, on the other hand, is proved to 
be untruthful, is self- convicted of untruthfulness, if I may be per- 
mitted to use the expression. 

According to the copy and the three gentlemen who place such 
reliance on it, as convicting Chappell and Littlefield (and many 
others) of perjury, those two witnesses deposed on oath in 1G42, 
that in the fust year of the rebellion ' they were robbed and de- 
spoyled of all their goods and chattels by Henry O'Neil of Glasdro- 
min.' George Littlefield made two depositions before the Com- 
missioners, one of which, containing no mention of Henry O'Neil, 
has been already given {v. ante, p. 85). The second deposition of 
Littlefield, sworn on the same day before the same Commissioners, 
is as follows : — 

" George Littlefield, late of Loughgall, in the county of 
Armagh, being sworn and examined, deposeth, that about the 
bcgimiing of the present rebellion he was robbed and despoiled 
of his goods and chattels, viz. two horses worth 51., household 
stulf and {illegible) to the value of 15Z. ; also this deponent hath 
lost the benefit of a lease of a house and backyard which ho held 
in Loughgall for fourteen years to come, upon which this de- 
ponent hath bestowed lately in building 30L ster., and he like- 
wise hath lost the hereafter profits of a farm worth 7/. per an. 



154 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

He also saith that about the 11th of May last, when the whole 
country about Armagh was burnt, this deponent was forced to 
shelter himself in an island, and being there taken by the rebels 
James O'Donnelly, late of {illegible), labourer, and Hugh Boy 
MacManus, late of Dromnlly, gent., he was constrained to give 
them Idl. for a convoy for himself and some of his friends 
towards Dublin, but having got the money into their hands, they 
did not according to their promise send a convoy with this de- 
ponent, but kept him prisoner, and would have murdered him, 
but he escaped that night. And this deponent saith, that the 
persons hereinafter named were in open rebellion in the said 
county of Armagh, about the beginning of March last : Sir Phelim 
O'Neil of Kinard, in the county of Tyrone, Turlogh O'Neil, Esq., 
brother to Sir Phelim, Patrick Ballagh O'Donnelly of Bally 
(illegible), yeoman, Neil O'Donnelly of the same, yeoman, Shane 
O'Haghie {sic) of Benburt, in the county of Tyrone, gent., Alex- 
ander Hovenden of Ballinbeatagh, in the county of Armagh, 
gent., Edmund Crawley of Armagh, gent., Murtogh O'Donnelly, 
late of Charlemont, gent,, Henry Oge O'Neil of Glasdromin, 
Esq., John Stanley, late of Drogheda, alderman, Shane O'Neil, 
late of Killnaman, in the county of Tyrone, gent.. Art O'Neil of 
Mullaghmore, gent., Henry O'Neil his son of the same, gent., 
and several others whom this deponent cannot now remember. 
And further saith, that Manus O'Cahan of the Grange, near 
Loughgall, gent., a colonel among the rebels, Brian Kelly of 
Charlemont, in the county of Armagh, a captain of the rebels, 
Shane O'Neil, also of Charlemont aforesaid, captain of the 
rebels, Patrick O'Donnelly of {illegible), in the same county, 
gent., are with many others mentioned in his former deposition 
in actual rebellion." 

"George Littlefield +" 
" Jnrat. June 1st, 1642, 

Wm. Aldrich. 

Wm. Hitchcock." 

It will be seen that in this, his second and last deposition, made 
on June 1st, 1G42, George Littlefield does not accuse Henry O'Neil 
of having 'despoiled him of all his goods and chattels.' The 
deponent does not in fact accuse O'Neil of plundering any one, but 
merely swears in 1042 what, according to this copy of the decree, 
he sworo in 1655, that he believed O'Neil was out in rebellion with 



t)EPOSITIONS. 155 

his sons, brotlier, and kinsmen. Hence tlie whole charge made by 
Dr. Piussell, Mr. Prendergast, and Mr. Gilbert against Littlefield'g 
veracity, on the ground that he contradicted in the latter year what 
he had sworn to in the former, falls to the ground. The main 
question before the Court was not whether O'Neil was a rebel, for 
that the Court held every man to be who had sided with Charles I., 
but whether he had murdered or plundered Protestants, or sheltered 
their murderers and plunderers. 

Now as regards ]\Irs. Chappcll's evidence, it will be also seen by 
her deposition of 1G42, hero printed from the original in Trinity 
College, Dublin, that she never did swear in that year as the copy 
of 1GG3 alleges she did: — 

" Chaiuty Chappell, late wife of Richard Chappell, late of 
the town and comity of Armagh, Esq., widow, duly sworn and 
examined before us, deposeth and saith, that, since the beginning 
of the present rebellion, her late husband and she have been 
by the rebels forcibly expelled from their farms and grounds, 
Avhich they held in lease for sixty years or thereabouts, all lying 
in or near Armagh aforesaid, of the yearly value of 400Z., her own 
when the rebellion began, one year's value whereof they have 
already lost, amounting to 400^., and that her said husband being 
since dead, she is like to lose the future profits thereof until 
a peace be settled, and that the same farms come to their 
former value. And this deponent and her husband were also 
deprived, robbed, and otherwise despoiled, since the beginning of 
this rebellion, of their stocks of cattle upon their grounds, worth 
961 Z., of corn and hay in the stack worth {illegible), corn in the 
ground worth 87Z., plate and household stuff worth {illegible}, 
wool worth {illegible), debts owing by divers persons, some in rebel- 
lion, and the rest robbed and disenabled by the rebels to make her 
any satisfaction, in all amounting to the sum of 2,248^. And 
further saith, that there is owing unto her by debts of English 
Protestants, slain and robbed by the rebels, so as they are disen- 
abled to give her any satisfaction, amounting in all to 253/. And 
that the parties hereinafter named, being all actors in the present 
rebellion, are also indebted to this deponent, in several and par- 
ticular sums of money, amounting in all to 131Z., the names of 
which positive rebels are these, viz. Hugh Boy McDonnell of 
{illegible), in the county Antrim, captain of rebels; Alexander 
Hovenden of Ballin [illegible), another captain ; Hugh Moddcr 



15G THE IKISIl MASSACRES OF lOJl. 

O'Quin of tlie same, gent. ; Patrick Morgan of Armagli ; ^lackill- 
duffe O'Quin of the Fews, gent. ; Henry O'Neil of Glasdromin ; 
Turlogli O'llagan of Armagli, labourer ; Patrick and Tliady 
. O'Donnell of Armagli, merchants ; Edmund Kelly of {blank), 
John and James Hanlon of Armagh, millers ; Patrick Donnelly 
of Armagh, merchant, Edmund O'Donnell of Lisduanfe, fafmcr ; 
all of the county of Armagli, and Edmund Crelly of Armagh 
aforesaid, another captain of rebels. And further saitli, that by 
means of the said rebellion she hath lost and suffered by the 
wasting, spoiling, and burning of her houses and improvements 
to the value of 1001. , besides many debts and other losses she 
cannot remember, she having had her debt books and most of 
her writings burnt by the rebels, and therefore their value she 
cannot now estimate. And further she saith, that she hath 
credibly heard that the rebels did slay and kill divers Protestant 
ministers, viz. Mr. Fullarton, minister of Loughgall, Mr. Blyth, 
minister of Dungannon, Mr. Kobinson, minister of Kilmore, and 
his wife ; Mr. Hudson, minister of Desert Martin, Mr. Griffin, 
curate of Armagh, and that at one time the rebels took away from 
Armagh threescore Protestants and murdered them, and a second 
time about forty-five were also by them murdered, and that Avhen 
Armagh was burned, the rebels murdered a great many more 
Protestants, but how many she knoweth not ; many children 
being seen there murdered in vaults and corners, where they 
fled to hide themselves. And saith, that her present losses by 
means of the rebellion that she can remember, cometli to 3,243/., 
her future loss being like to be 400/!. per an. as aforesaid. And 
further saith, that one Mr. Preston, son-in-law to Turlogh Ogo 
O'Neil, uttered these words, viz. that the ' gantry of Ireland on 
their side did much grieve that the scum of the English should he 
there to overtop them.' And that she often heard divers of the 
rebels say, that Sir Phelim O'Neil was by them made 'the O'Neil.' 
And the very morning that Armagh was burned, the said Turlogh 
Oge O'Neil said in her hearing, that if the English army came 
on behalf of the king, he would deliver to them the town of 
Armagh, but that if they came on behalf of the parliament of 
England, then he would not surrender it to such rogues, but 
would fight it out. Yet afterwards, when he thought the English 
army came near the town, both he and Sir Phelim O'Neil and 
the rest of the rebels there suddenly ran away from them and 



■ DEPOSITIONS. 157 

fled. And further saith, that Michael Dunn of Castle Dillon, in 
the county of Armagh, was in open rehellion." 

" Charity Chappell." 
" Mrat. 20th July, 1G42, 

John Steune. " John Watson. 

Wm. Aldiuch. Wm. Hitchcock." 

Hen. Breketon." 

]\Irs. Chappell was the widow of a rich merchant, and evidently 
a shrewd, money-loving, energetic woman "of business, and a friend 
to the parliament even in the presence of the royalist Commissioners, 
Like all persons of her type and class, she may have somewhat ex- 
aggerated, with no deliberate or conscious dishonesty, the value of 
her stolen goods and bad debts. But she never once in this her 
deposition of 1G42 accuses Henry O'Neil of having ' robbed and de- 
spoiled her of all her goods,' as the copy of the decree says she did. 
She merely says, like Littlefield, in his deposition made some six or 
eight weeks previously, that she believed Henry O'Neil was in actual 
rebellion, and that he was one of her debtors. 

Thus we have now exposed two absolute falsehoods in this copy 
made in 1GG3 of a decree alleged to have been issued in 1G55. This 
copy tells us the two witnesses swore in 1G42 that they were robbed 
and despoiled of their goods and chattels by Henry O'Neil of Glas- 
dromin, but their original depositions of that year now before us 
prove that they swore no such thing. Therefore Mr. Prendergast's 
and Dr. Russell's charge against the said witnesses, based on the 
statement in the copy that they, when re-examined in 1G55, swore, 
in contradiction to their evidence in 1G42, that they were not 
plundered by O'Neil, is proved utterly groundless, as is the general 
charge against the rest of the depositions based on this imaginary 
contradiction. 

But it may bo said the copy of the decree asserts that Mrs. 
Chappell swore in her re-examination in the Court at Athlone in 
IGGS, that Henry O'Neil, whom she called a rebel in her first ex- 
amination in 1G42, was a great friend to the English, and that here 
at least she contradicted herself, and gave ground for Mr. Prender- 
gast's and Dr. Russell's charges. To this I answer that our sole 
autliority (so-called) for what Mrs. Chappell is asserted to have 
said in her re-examinations in 1G55, our sole authority, in fact, for 
supposing that these re-examinations ever took place at all, is this 



158 THE IRISn MASSACRES OF 1(311. 

copy of the decree in which we have ah'eady deteoted two great 
falsehoods. If such re-examinations in the case of Henry O'Neil 
were ever made in the Athlone Court, I do not beheve the abstract 
of them in this copy of 1GG3 is correct, any more than the abstract 
of the examinations of 1G42 which it gives is correct. We have found 
the latter to be false, and are therefore quite justified in believing 
the former would be found so, if the records of the Athlone Court 
had been preserved as the depositions of 1G42 have been. And 
as to the alleged depositions of ' divers (anonymous) witnesses ' 
which are mentioned in this untruthful copy, as bearing testimony 
to Henry O'Neil's tears and threats at his son's robollion, and liis 
having saved the lives of more than two hundred Protestants, in- 
cluding the family of Mr. Taylor, they may be all dismissed as 
myths of Dick Talbot's or his friends' invention, or at least as 
exaggerations containing a grain of truth with a hundredweight of 
falsehood. It is probable that Henry O'Neil, like Sir Phelim him- 
self, and other rebels who actively persecuted and plundered the 
Protestants, and were accessory to their murder, may have protected 
a Protestant here and there, towards whom he had a friendly feeling. 
But such exceptional acts of kindness it is needless to say would not 
entitle him to be pronounced innocent in the Court at Athlone, 
where justice was impartially administered. We know from the de- 
position of Michael Harrison that it was Sir Phelim O'Neil himself 
who gave Mr. Taylor and his wife a protection, although it would 
appear that Henry O'Neil also had a friendly feeling towards their 
Bon, and as Harrison believed, would have saved him if possible. 
And it is wholly incredible that if Henry O'Neil had been such an 
uncompromising friend to the English and Scotch colonists, had 
protected them and opposed Sir Phelim and his followers to the extent 
asserted in this alleged copy of a decree of 1G55, that those facts 
would not have been stated in several of the depositions taken 
between 1641 and 1G54, the originals of which still remain. We 
have seen how careful the deponents generally were to mention 
the names of any Roman Catholic, from Owen O'Neil down to a 
poor labourer, layman or priest, who had done them a kindness, 
and the letters, orders, &c., hereafter given written in 1G50-5, ex- 
empting from transplantation and forfeiture John Knight of Kerry, 
John O'Connell, Daniel O'Hagan, and other Eoman Catholics who 
had been real, not pretended, friends of the persecuted Protestants 
in 1G41-9, will show that such good deeds were always rewarded by 
Cromwell. Even Roman Catholic historians are obliged to admit 



DEPOSITIONS. 159 

tliat lie rewarded the two priests wlio saved the lives of a few 
Protestants in the massacre at Cashel, a massacre which drew down 
on that place the terrible vengeance of Murrogh O'Brien, fourth 
Baron of Inchiquin. Another proof that this copy of the decree of 
1GG3 is a more or less clumsy fraud, is to be found in the account 
it gives of the sworn evidence of John and Samuel Corren.' Both 
those witnesses distinctly and positively swore in 1G42, that Henry 
O'Neil was one of the rebels who plundered the houses and lands 
of Sir Henry Spottiswoode. Whether they swore truly or falsely 
their testimony Avas decided and particular in marking him as a 
plunderer as w'ell as a rebel in 1641. Yet this copy of the decree 
describes it as having been ' too generall and uncertaine to amount 
to convincing proofes.' How false this description is, will be seen 
by the following copies of the Corren's deposition in 1642, from the 
originals in the books in Trinity College, Dublin. 

" Samuel Corren, of Drumboate, in the county of Monaghan, 
yeoman, aged threescore and four years or thereabouts, being 
examined and sworn upon the Holy Evangelists, saith as foL 
loweth : that on the 22nd day of October last past, Sir Henry 
Spotswood, Knt., Avas robbed, stripped, and despoiled of all the 
goods, chattels, ready money, and other things that over he had 
in the several counties of Monaghan and Armagh by Henry 
O'Neil of Glasdromin, Arthur O'Neil, his brother, and Tirlogh 
O'Neil, son to the said Henry O'Neil, all of them inhabiting in 
the county of Armagh, and their accomphces and adherents, 
that is to say, in ready money, plate, and household stuff to the 
value of 2,500/., in cows, horses, and sheep to the value of 
[illegible), and in corn and hay to the value of 160/. or there- 
abouts. And he further deposeth and saith, that Sir Christopher 
Bellew, alias Bedlow, of Castletown, in the county of Louth, 
knight, on the 25th day of October last past, being Monday, 
between nine and ten o'clock in the forenoon of the same day, 
he, this deponent, did then see him, the said Sir Christopher, 
accompanied with his own footman, Patrick O'Doughlin, come 
off and from his own lands into and upon the lands and grounds 
of the said Sir Henry Spotswood, lying and being within the 
territory of Drumboate, in the said county of Monaghan, and 
from thence he, the said Sir Christopher in his own person, his 

' They were dead in 1G55, if wo are to believe the decree, which only mentions 
ChappoU and Littlefiold as then living. 



IGO THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGll. 

said footman, and certain other persons, liis tenants, did drive 
away to the number of eighty head of cows and other cattle of 
the proper goods of him the said Sir Henry Spotswood into the 
lands of him the said Sir Christopher Bedlew, alias Bellew, lying 
in the comity of Louth. And further this deponent deposeth 
and saith, that he, being then servant to the said Sir Ilem-y 
Spotswood, and tendering the goods and welfare of him the said 
Sir Henry, went of his own accord to Castletown, the dwelling- 
house of the said Sir Christopher Bedlow, alias Bellew, and in- 
formed him that the said Sir Henry was then before robbed of 
his goods and chattels to a great value, and also then and there 
told the said Sir Christopher that there was to the value of 200Z. 
worth of the proper goods of the said Sir Henry then remaining 
in the houses and possession of several of the tenants of him, the 
said Sir Christopher, hoping by such complaint tliat the said 
Sir Henry might receive some present remedy and relief. But 
he, the said Sir Christopher, said he would neither meddle nor 
make nor give any assistance at all." 

" Sam. CoRiiEN." 
" Deposed before us, Jan. 15th, 1G41, 

Randall Adams. 

Hen. Breeeton." 

Three days later John Corren made the following deposition : — 

"John Coriien, of Drumboate, in the county of Jlonaghan, 
yeoman, sworn and examined, saith, that on the 2Gth day of 
October last past. Sir Henry Spotswood, knight, was robbed, 
stripped, and despoiled of all the goods, ready money, and 
chattels that he had in the several counties of Monaghan and 
Armagh, which this examt. believeth to be to the sura of 4,1G0Z. 
or thereabouts, by Henry O'Neil of Glasdromin, Esq., Arthur 
O'Neil, his brother, and Tirlogh O'Neil, son to the said Henry, all 
of them of the county of Armagh, and divers other rebels, some 
on horseback and some on foot under their command, and that 
they left the said Sir Henry nothing at all. And further saitli, 
that on Monday next then after this deponent being escaped 
away from Drumboate aforesaid, where he and other of his 
fellow- servants were shewdly wounded, inasmuch that he be- 
lieveth the other two are dead, went to one Sir Christopher 
Bellew, alias Bedlow, of Castletown, in the county of Lowth, knt., 
Avith intention to have procured a pass to Dublin from him, and 



DEPOSITIONS. IGl 

telling the said Sir Christopher how the said Sir Henry Spots- 
wood was robbed of his goods, the said Sir Christopher then 
denying to give this deponent any pass, then and there said, 
and confessed to this deponent that he (Sir Christopher) was 
present on the lands of the said Sir Henry Spotswood when hia 
goods were taken and carried away, and that therefore this de- 
ponent need not tell him any more about it." 

" John Corren + " 
"Jurat. 18fhJan. IGil, 

Hen. Jones. 

Wm. Aldrioii." 

The following deposition was als-o made against Henry O'Neil, 
his sons, and tenants. I omit the long inventory of the deponent's 
goods and chattels stolen or destroyed. 

" Paul Reed, of Blackstaff, in the comity of Monaghan, clerk, 
sworn and examined, saith, that by means of this rebellion he 
was deprived and despoiled of his wife and children ; two of his 
children with poverty and bad usage perished, and three with 
his wife were murdered ; one was murdered at Blackstaff with 
three men and women by the rebels of Monaghan, viz. Patrick 
MacMahon, Art MacMahon, and their brother, whose (Christian) 
name he knows not, and one James MacMor ]\IacMahon and a 
drummer from Ardee, whose name he knows not ; this deponent's 
wife and the two other children were barbarously and cruelly 
murdered within one mile or two of Glasdromin Castle, in the 
Fews, by Henry O'Neil's servants and tenants, and their bodies 
left to be food for dogs and fowls of the air. This deponent 
further saith that the rebels of the county Monaghan, Lowth, 
and Armagh, over and above the above-named rebels who with 
force of arms have used (illegible) and cruelties towards his 
Majesty's Protestant subjects of the kingdom of Ireland, whom he 
knows are : Ardell MaclMahon, MacHugh IMacMahon, Cormac 
Art MacMahon of [illegible), in the county of Monaghan, Con 
MacMahon, brother-in-law to Cormac Bawn MacMahon in the 
parish of Killeane, county Monaghan, Patrick MacLaughlm 
MacMahon of the (illegible), Henry O'Neil of Glasdromin, Art 
Oge O'Neil, brother to said Henry, both of the Fewes, in the 
county of Armagh, and the most part of the inhabitants of the 
{illegible) towns of the Fews, of the county of Lowth, and the 
inhabitants of Drumbic (sic), of the county of Armagh, were at 

VOL. II. jl 



162 THE IRTSri MASSACRES OF 1011. 

the robbing and spoiling of the inhabitants of Drumboate, being 
Sir Henry Spotswood's house, in the county of Monaghan. This 
deponent further saith, that he thinks of his conscience, that the 
tenth part of the British of the whole north of Ireland who were 
robbed and despoiled by the rebels, are not at present alive, so 
many being murdered and cruelly put to death, others being 
stripped and robbed of their clothes and all they had, through 
sickness and poverty miserably dying, and others for succour and 
relief flying the kingdom, and dying in Scotland and England 

although relieved there." 

" Paul Reed." 
" J^irat. Oth August, 1G12, 

John Watson. 

John Sterne. 

Hen. Brereton." 

Sir Henry Spotswood himself made the following deposition. 
It is as far as I could ascertain the only one in the whole thirty-two 
volumes in the college in which the pen has been drawn over the 
relation of a murder or alleged murder. Sir Henry having left his 
Irish servant O'Donnelly at Drumboate after ho was wounded, was 
in doubt about his having recovered and heard conflicting accounts 
on the subject. This accounts for the alteration in the MS. which 
was evidently made the day or week that the deposition was taken. 
It tells in favour of the Commissioners' impartiality, not against it, 
that they hastened to erase the account of the supposed murder. 

" Sir Henry Spotswood, late of Drumboate, in the county of 
Monaghan, sworn and examined, deposeth and saith, that about 
6 or 7 o'clock in the night of the 22nd of October last past, he 
this deponent was robbed, stripped, and despoiled of all the goods, 
chattels, ready money, and other goods that ever he hath within 
the several counties of Monaghan and Armagh. And quickly 
after he was also robbed, stripped, and despoiled of all the goods 
and chattels that he had within the counties of Fermanagh and 
Tyrone, by the rebels now up in arms in those counties, viz. by 
Turlogh O'Neil of Lany, barony of Glasdrum, county of Armagh, 
Esq., Sir Phclim O'Neil, knt., of Kinard in the said county. Coll 
MacMahon of the barony of Dunamaine, county of Monaghan, 
Esq., and Rory IMaguire, the Lord Maguire's brother, and divers 
other rebels, under their command whose names this deponent 
knoweth not : which said goods consisting of corn, cattle, house- 



DErOSITlONS. 1G3 

liold atulT; ready monoy, liis interest of leases and debts dno, 
amount in all to the sum of 5,G80Z., or thereabouts. And this 

thrvt the said reliels did grievously -n-ound 

deponent further saith that the said robola about -tho s ame ti me 

JicT iiiosl jrucll}- and harharcus!}' niurdcr one Patrick 'Donnelly, 
this deponent's servant, and detained as prisoner Jane, thi e 
deponent's daughter, and three of his servants, by name John 
]\Iorris, Eichard Lee, and Anne Lee, who still, as he believeth, 
remaineth in prison with the said Coll MacMahon, in Carrickma- 
cross. Beside the same rebels kept in restraint one Mr. Robert 
Boyle and his wife, one Mr. Magill, another minister, Mr. James 
]\Iontgomery, another minister, one Ealpli Seacome, gent. And 
this deponent hath not only suffered the losses and wrongs 
aforesaid, but many more in other places, whereof as yet he can 
give no present estimate. And further saith, he credibly heard 
that the rebels aforesaid, or some of them, did often wish that 
they had in custody this deponent's person, that they might cut 
him in pieces, or words to that effect." 

"Hen. Spotswoode." 
"Jurat. 15th Jan. 1041, 
Roger Puttock. 
Randal Adams." 

Anotlicr Monaghan witness made the following deposition a 
year later : — 

"Elizabeth Clark, late of Peterborrow, in the county of 
Monaghan, widow, late wife of Thomas Clark, of same, gent., 
sworn and examined saith, that in the beginning of the present 
rebellion, and by means thereof, her said husband and she were 
expelled, robbed, and otherwise despoiled, of their residence, 
goods, and chattels of the value, and to their present loss, of 385Z. 
by Patrick MacArdell MacEiver MacMahon of the Cargagh, in the 
said county, gent.. Garret Makee {sic), of (blank), near Peterbor- 
row aforesaid, and many other rebels, whose names she knoweth 
not, and saith, that most of her said goods were brought unto 
and received by Collo MacBrian MacMaghan {sic), now of 
Carrickmacross, Esq., Roger Whitehead of Enniskeen, in the said 
county, gent. And further saith, that the parties whom she saw 
and knoweth to be in actual rebellion, and to carry arms against 
his Majesty and his loyal subjects, are these that follow, viz. the 
said Collo MacBrian MacMahon, Roger Whitehead, Patrick 

u 2 



164 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

McArdell McEiver McMalion, Patrick FitzEdmund and Owen 
O'Murpliy, two bloody rebels, Patrick Groom {illegible), Garret 
Makee, and one Art McBrian McMahon, brother to the said Coll 
Patrick McLoughlin McMahon, and Koss McLoughlin Mac- 
Mahon, Eiver MacLoughlin MacMahon, their vicar-general, a 
most cruel and bloody priest ; Edmund McLaughlin McMahon, 
another priest ; Pierse O'Duffy, and Turlogh O'Dufify, his eldest 
son, which said Turlogh O'Duffy, and Ross McTurlogh Mac- 
Mahon drowned seventeen men, women, and children, all Protes- 
tants, at Ballenrosse, in the said county ; Patrick ]\IacEiver 
Mahon, Owen MacEiver MacMahon, Rory and Hugh MacEiver 
Mahon, and Art MacEiver Mahon, being the sons of Collo Mac- 
Eiver MacMahon near Castleblaney, gent., Tirlogh Oge O'Neil 
and Shane O'Neil, both sons of Henry O'Neil of Glasdromin, Esq., 
Philip O'Calon (sic) oi {blank) near Carrickmacross, gent. Donogh 
Roe O'Calon and Patrick Roe O'Calon, brothers and kinsmen to the 
said Philip O'Calon ; Philip O'Duffy, popish priest, of the parish 
of Dunamaine. And further saith, that on New Year's Day, 1641, 
the aforesaid three priests, chief instigators, and the rest of the 
rebels caused this deponent's husband and Mr. William Williams, 
Mr. Ethel Jones, Mr. Gabriel Williams, Mr. James Montgomery, 
minister of Dunamaine, Mr. Boswell and his wife, who were so 
aged they both went upon staves, Thomas Osburne, Richard 
Ilollis, Richard Taylor, John Morris, Philip Pliarley, William 
Wood, Thomas Traun, John Jackson, Thomas Aldersley, George 
Green,Ralph Seacombe, Edward Ball, Edward Cudworth, Robert 
Ray, Richard Gates, and John {blank), servant to Mr. Boyle, 
and another that was servant to Mr. Dillon and gathered his 
rente, John Walmisley, Richard Musgrave, William Musgi-ave 
and his wife, Henry Wylie, George Harrison, Thomas Young and 
divers other Protestants, whose names she knoweth not, to be put 
to death ; some they hanged, and some they stabbed, wounded, 
and cut to pieces, and one of those, the said Osburne, after they 
had hanged him they gave him at least forty wounds in several 
parts of his body. And saith further, that the said Eiver Mac- 
Loughlin (MacMahon), the priest, brought a warrant from Coll 
MacBrian, and others of the rebellious council at the siege of 
Drogheda, for putting to death the Protestants aforesaid, and 
employed and busied himself in the procuring thereof, and after- 
wards showed the said warrant to this deponent and others. 

And further saith, that the said rebel Patrick MacLaughlin 



DISPOSITIONS. J 65 

MacMahon, ami others of the rebels, often said in her hcanngthat 
if they might have their own laws, and all Lord Deputyg and 
other great general officers, judges, and magistrates to be all of the 
Irish (race), then they Avould not forsake the King of England, but 
if they might not they would make a king amongst them of their 
own ; further saying that now they had begun they would either 
root out all the English, or the English should root out them, for 
they knew if the English prevailed they (the Irish) should never 
be trusted, and therefore they would go on in their actions, or 
words to that effect. And saitli also, that the said rebel, Owen 
O'Murphy, escaped the gallows by the means of the said Mr. 
Williams, and yet he was the man that caused the said Mr. 

Williams to be hanged." 

" The mark + of Elizabeth Clabke," 
" Jiirat. 11 th Jan. 1642, 

WiD. Aldkich. 

Hbn. Breketon." 

As I have already pointed out, the question with which I am 
here concerned is not the guilt or innocence of Henry O'Neil, but 
the veracity of Mr. Chappell and Mr. Littlefield in 1G42. Did they 
swear in that year that they were robbed by Henry O'Neil as this 
1003 copy of a decree alleged to have been made in 1055 tells us 
they did? Their original depositions made in 1042 before us 
prove that they did not. The falsehood of at least one portion 
of this copy being thus proved, are we justified in accepting as 
truthful the other portion of the same copy professing to give us 
an abstract of what the same witnesses are said to have sworn in 
1655 ? Clearly not, the strength of the chain is its weakest link. 
Unless we find from other contemporary records good proof that 
the statements of the 1003 copy respecting the depositions (now 
apparently lost or destroyed) of 1055 are truthful, we are justified 
in believing they are as untruthful as the statements of the same 
copy respecting the depositions of 1042 (still in existence) are known 
to be. Until such contemporary records of 1055 are before us, 
whatever be the guilt or innocence of Henry O'Neil, the charges made 
against the voracity of Mr. Chappell and Mr. Littlefield fall to the 
ground. 

After a careful search through the fifty-five volumes of Com- 
monwealth Eecotds now in the Public Record Office, I could only 
discover the following brief order concerning Henry O'Neill of 



166 THE IRISH MASS AGUES OF 1011, 

Glasdrorain, directing that tlie ' allegations ' lie had made in his 
petition to he dispensed from transplantation to Connaught should 
he considered, and that his prayer should be granted if he were 
found to he superannuated, that is, too feeble in health, and too old 
to move with safety to his life. Many old, sickly persons who had 
been proved ' nocent ' were nevertheless dispensed from transplanta- 
tion on the ground of sickness or old age. The dispensation was 
sometimes for a given time, sometimes for a prolongation of a tempo- 
rary reprieve, sometimes excusing the person from moving at all. 

•' Commojuvcalth Books, j- P. li. 0. 

"■ Ordered that the above petition of Henry O'Neil of Glas- 
dromin, in the barony of the Fews, in the county of Armagh, set- 
ting forth his saving many English at the beginning of the rebellion 
to the hazard of his life ; being therefore wounded and driven from 
his habitation by the rebels, his continued good affection, his for- 
mer dispensation from transplantation, be referred to the Commis- 
sioners for the adjudication of claims and qualifications of Irish 
proprietors, to consider of the allegations therein ; and if they find 
him superannuated, then to certify the same, that his person may 
be dispensed from transplantation, but his estate to be disposed of 
according to rule, as by his qualifications shall be distinguished by 
said Commissioners, according to their instructions. Dublin, 5th 
February, 1654. Thomas Herbeet, Clerk of Council.'" 

All the scanty evidence we have about Henry O'Neil of the Fews 
or Glasdromin proves that he was at best a weak, wavering man, 
not an active rebel or persecutor of the English like his sons, 
brother, and nephews, hut on the contrary willing, if not earnestly 
desirous, to save the lives of some of his Protestant neighbours, pro- 
vided'that he could do so without much trouble or danger to him- 
self. One of the deponents in 1012 sworo that Henry O'Neil 
had promised the mother of Brownlow or Bromley Taylor to inter- 
cede with Sir Phelim for her son's life, but that he failed to do so 
through timidity or dilatoriness, and that she bitterly reproached 
him on that account. Michael Harrison's evidence tends to confirm 
this. The times in which Henry O'Neil lived were unfavourable to 
lukewarm politicians or timid mediocrities. It is one thing to pity 
him as we may, nay, must do, but quite another to make his weak- 
ness and wavering timidity a ground for calumniating persons who 



DiorosrnoNs. 107 

honestly swore to what they know or heard of his conduct in UMl. 
Had he been allowed to retain his estate he could only, at his 
advanced age, have enjoyed it for a few years, his brother, nephews, 
and sons being all indisputably active in the rebellion, mercilessly 
plunderhig the Protestants, * nocent,' as the phrase went, in the 
fullest sense of the word. Nalson gives the following deposition 
concerning Henry O'Neil's nephews. 

" The examination of Richard Grave, of Drumboate, in the 

county of Monaghan, taken 25th October, IGll, who saith, that 

on Friday last, the 22nd of this month, a little before night, a son 

of Art Oge O'Neil's of the Fews, whose name he knoweth not, 

accompanied by about a hundred of the said Art Oge's tenants, 

armed with swords, pitchforks, and muskets, came to Drumboate 

to the house of William Grave, brother to the said Richard, and 

luiving broken down the doors and windows of the said house, 

they rifled it and robbed him of all the money they could find 

there, and of smidry goods that they were able to carry away, and 

when they had so done they came to the house of William Grave 

the elder, father to this examt., and robbed him of all his money, 

clothes, and sundry other goods. He saith that also, the same 

night, they broke into the house of Sir Henry Spotswood in the 

same town, and took from it all the money, plate, &c., they could 

find there. He saith also, that about twelve o'clock the next 

day the same persons came again to the said town, accompanied 

by two or three hundred more, and robbed and spoiled it of all 

the goods and chattels they found there, and presently after they 

set fire to all the houses and burnt them to the ground. That 

the goods which his father, himself, and his brother did lose 

thereby wore worth 500/., and that he verily believes that the 

goods which Sir Henry Spotswood lost were worth 1,000/. at 

least. And saith further, that on Friday aforesaid, while the 

said Art Oge's son was in this examt. 's father's house, he heard 

him, the said Art Oge's son, and one Patrick MacCadron of 

Dromboate, say that it was but the beginning, but that they, 

before they had done, would not leave one alive, rich or poor, 

who went to church, and saith also that the said Art Oge's 

son and Patrick MacCadron said there that by the next night 

Dublin would be too hot for any of the English dogs to live 

in." 

"Richard Grave." 

" James Ware." 



EBCOEDS 

OF THE 

HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE 

1652—1654. 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 

The documents from which the followmg extracts have been made 
are bound up in a small, square octavo volume, forming part of the 
valuable collection of MSS. bequeathed to Trinity College, Dublin, 
by Doctor Stearne, Bishop of Clogher, from 1717 to 1745. Con- 
sidering the groat interest and importance of those notes, made by 
one of the judges of the High Court of Justice of 1G52-4, as the 
prisoners were on their trial before him, it is truly strange that they 
should have lain for more than two hundred years quite unnoticed 
by historians, so that no portion of them, except the speech at 
O'Neil's trial, which I chanced to discover in 1882, ' and which was 
immediately printed by the Rev. Mr. Meehan, has ever been even 
quoted until now. 

In the official report for the Historical MSS. Commission on 
the MSS. in Trinity College, those records are merely catalogued 
with many others, although one would have thought that a few 
extracts from them would have been rather more useful to the 
student than the many with which the report is filled from the pub- 
lished works of Michael Carey (which Rcid says he notices only for 
its ' flagrant demerits ') and other well-known writers. I greatly 
regret that the work of copying the depositions and the limits of the 
space at my disposal hero do not allow mo to give the whole of the 
records of the liigli Court of Justice in 1052-4. The trials of Mac- 
Carthy Reagh, of Colonels Fcnnell and Luke Toole of Castle Kevin, 
who was seventy-four years of age when he was brought before the 
court, charged witli being accessory to the murder of two poor cottiers 
in "Wicklow, are full of interest. 

The long trial of the Reverend Edmund O'Reilly, the Roman 

Catholic Vicar-Gcncral of Dublin diocese, shows the impartiality 

with which the prisoners were treated, and the latitude allowed 

them in the preparation of their defence, The popular notion that 

' V. Introduction, vol. i. p. 160. 



172 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGU. 

neither justice nor mercy was shown to priests in the Cromwelhan 
courts is scattered to the winds by the proceedings on this trial. 
It is noteworthy that the majority of the witnesses against the 
Vicar- General were persons of his own race and creed. Mr. 
and Mrs. Wolverston, members of an old Anglo-Irish Eoman 
Catholic family of good position in Dublin and Wicklow, whose 
daughter was a nun, gave evidence against him. He charged two 
of the Irish witnesses of the 'Byrne clan with having sworn falsely 
against him because he had formerly punished them for immorality, 
but their evidence was in itself trifling, and it is impossible to be- 
lieve that all the rest of the witnesses were immoral and perjured. 
The prisoner did not indeed venture to say that they were so. At 
the same time it is only fair to point out that much of their evidence 
was mere hearsay, and that a witness of English name, probably a 
Protestant, swore that O'Reilly had saved the lives of several 
Protestants. For these very sufficient reasons, although a verdict 
of guilty was found in his case, his life was spared. He himself 
gave a remarkable piece of evidence as to the impunity that mur- 
derers enjoyed under Lieutenant-General O'Byrne. 

Carte, and other Royalist historians, assert that the real cause of 
the mercy shown to Vicar-General O'Reilly was that he had secretly 
betrayed the Irish and English troops of Ormond and Purcell at 
Baggotrath in 1649 to Michael Jones, the Parliamentary general, by 
inducing an Irishman to offer himself as a guide to the Irish 
Royalist troops, and to mislead them in a midnight march. Father 
Walsh, the Franciscan friar, who certainly had peculiar oppor- 
tunities for detecting such an act of treachery, assured Carte and 
Ormond that O'Reilly had been guilty of it. The charge may have 
been true, for it is certain that about that time the Jesuits and a 
section of the Roman Catholic clergy were endeavouring to come 
to secret terms with Cromwell and the Independents, finding that 
Ormond could not be won over to change his religion. {ii. vol. i. 
p. 380.) O'Reilly was appointed Archbishop of Armagh by the 
Pope in 1G5G and died in 1GG9. 

I would direct the reader's special attention to that passage in 
the judge's speech at Sir Phelim O'Neil's trial which relates to the 
Royal Commission. There are two reports of this speech amongst 
the Stcarne MSS. One of them, as I have already said, has been 
printed by Mr. Meehan in his history, and for this reason, as well 
as because it is much less full than the one given hereafter, and 
contains only a bare allusion to the Royal Commission, I do not 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 173 

think it worth reprinting. The fuller report of the speech, which I 
do give, distinctly charges O'Neil with havhig altered the commis- 
sion. This throws quite a new light on the historical puzzle, 
showing that the popular notion, grounded on Dean Kerr's declara- 
tion, that the judges in the High Court pressed O'Neil hy threats 
and bribes to throw the whole burden of his guilt on Charles, is 
wholly erroneous. The passage hereafter reported shows that while 
the judges believed that the king had given O'Neil a certain com- 
mission to raise the Irish against the Parliament, that they equally 
believed that he, the prisoner, liad altered the commission to justify 
crimes and outrages, for which the king had given him no hcense. 
And this is probably the true solution of the puzzle. It is con- 
sistent, too, with the revelations in Lord Antrim's ' Information,' and 
Lord Maguire's confession, which, as Eeid observes, do not tell the 
whole truth, but a portion of it {v. Eeid, vol. i. p. 289, note). I 
have also omitted the two reports of the trials of Sir Phelim for the 
murder of Bromley ' or Brownlow Taylor, and ]\Ir. Blaney, because 
the evidence in these is merely a summary of that already given at 
length in the depositions of Michael Harrison, Anthony Atkinson, and 
others. Harrison was the principal witness against Sir Phelim on the 
general charge of rebellion, and on the particular charges of murder. 
A curious ' hitch ' occurred when preparations were behig made 
for the trials, owing to the fact that under an old law in the Irish 
statute books the murder of an Englishman in Ireland by an Irish- 
man was made high treason, and a correspondence took place on the 
subject between the judges and the English Council. Ultimately 
the rebel leaders appear to have been all tried, first for the crime of 
rebellion, and then for being principals or accessories in the murder 
of one or more persons. 

A deposition which I copied, but in some Avay mislaid, mentions 
tliat the murderer of Mrs. J\laxwell said, in the deponent's hearing, 
that he had drowned her because Sir Phelim told him she was a 
witch, and the murderer added that he had never any luclc since, 
which he ascribed to the vengeance of the devil and her sister 
witches still living. The almost universal belief in witchcraft in 
both islands in the 17th century makes this very probable. The 
exaggerations of the numbers murdered in the rebellion, and the 
language of the judge to O'Neill seem to us of course cruel if not 
unjust, but they were as much the result of the spirit of that age as 
were the accusations of witchcraft and the stories of omens and 

» Tho iiiuue is spelt iiKliiR'niUly Eroniley or Ero-.vnlow in the depositions. 



174 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IC.Jl. 

apparitions. The blood which had deluged the country for ton long 
years, since O'Neill had begun the rebellion, had excited men's 
minds to the highest pitch. But, however that excitement and 
panic influenced the imaginations of orators and writers who had 
lived through those terrible years, it is clear that the judgments 
of the court were unbiassed, and that priests as well as laymen had 
fair trials. Lord IMuskerry's speech after sentence shows that this 
was the case. A letter, printed by Mr. Gilbert, from Colonel Jones 
to Major Scott, dated 1st March, 1G53, gives the following account 
of O'Neill's bearing in court and of Lord Muskorry's return to 
L'oland. 

" Sir Phelim O'Neill was taken and yesterday tried at our High 
Court of Justice at Dublin, and condemned of high treason, and 
within a few hours a period will be given to his high titles as 
being created Earl of Tyrone by the Ultaghes, according to their 
rude solemnities, Prince of Ulster by the Pope's commission or 
bull. General of all the Leinster and Ulster forces by commission of 
the Lords of the Pale, and the prime and chief actor in the horrid 
massacre and rebellion by commission from the late Charles 
Stuart, as himself hath often confessed and published in his 
manifesto, all of which was made good by evidence at his trial. 
This course of inquisition after blood and doing exemplary justice 
is terrible to this nation, insomuch that the murderers' hearts 
faint, and their joints tremble, even to admiration, when they 
come to the bar. This cruel monster of men, when he first came 
to the bar, was scarce able to stand for trembling or to speak for 
tears. . . . The Lord Muskerry is lately landed at Cork, and 
says he will cast himself upon the Parliament's mercy, pretend- 
ing that the clergy in Spain had determined to murder him, and 
that Portugal would not entertain him, of all of which I believe 
but my share. He is sent for to Dublin in saloa custodia." 

Jones's letter must be taken cum gram sails. His sentiments 
about Muskerry were not shared by Cromwell or the judges. 
The writer of the ' Aphorismical Discovery,' who shared to the 
full and revealed the real sentiments of the nuncio and his 
clerical following in Spain and Ireland, leaves us no room for 
doubting that Lord Muskerry was regarded with the most deep- 
rooted hatred by them, and that he could find neither rest nor peace 
amongst them, although he had forfeited vast estates and risked his 
life a thousand times for Ireland, and for the Roman Catholic 



IIECORDS OF TIIIC HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 175 

Church. But, staunch and devout llonian Catholic as ho was, he 
refused to sanction the extermination of his Protestant countrymen 
at the bidding of his priests, or to become the mere tool of their 
msatiate greed, and therefore his ancient royal Irish blood, his 
valour, his devotion were as nothing in their eyes. 

Nalson has printed several depositions from the Carte MSS. of 
Protestants whose lives had been saved by Lord Muskerry. He 
was pronounced not guilty in consideration of the articles under 
which he had surrendered Ross Castle to the army of the Parlia- 
ment in 1G52, commanded by Ludlow and Waller, who besieged it 
for some weeks straitly by land and ships on the lake. It was the 
only place of strength then left to the Irish in Muuster, and its fall 
was inevitable, but a whole fortnight was spent in debating on the 
articles of surrender. The followuig explanation was appended to 
these articles, which exempted from pardon all who had a share in 
the massacres : 

" We esteem such persons only guilty of murder who, during 
the first year of the war, have contrived, aided, or assisted, acted 
or abetted, any murder or massacre upon any person or persons 
of the English, not in arms, but following their own occupations 
in their farms and freeholds. By aiding, assisting, or abetting, 
we understand such as have by acts of their will, either pre- 
cedently advised, or commanded, such murders or massacres, or 
subsetjuently approved thereof, in sheltering such murderers and 
keeping them from justice. 

" Since the first year of the war, we esteem those only guilty 
of murder who have killed any of our party after quarter given ; 
provided always, the person or persons who did so kill did know 
before, or at the said killhig, the said person or persons had tho 
quarter ; provided likewise, the person or persons so killed did not 
by act of hostility against the Irish, or otlierwise, legally forfeit 
his said quarter before the said killing. 

" We further esteem such to be guilty of murder who Icilled, or 
commanded to be killed, and whuso killed, any of our protected, 
Avho were protected by the Commander-in-Chief of the Irish party 
or by anyone authorised to give protection in the behalf of the 
Irish party, if the party so killing knew of the protection at the 
time of killing. Provided the party so killed did not legally 
forfeit his said protection at the time he was so killed. 

" We further esteem that if any person formerly under our 



17G THE IRTSII MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

protection, who shall during that time have killed, or cause to be 
killed, any person under our protection, and afterwards shall run 
to the enemy, this with any case of the like kind shall be adjudged 
murder. And that any countryman not in arms, nor under our 
protection, who has by any sleight or promise of safety drawn, or 
caused to be drawn, in any person under our protection, to tlie 
taking away of his life, this with any case of the like kind shall 
be deemed murder. 

" As to religion, we do declare that it is not our intention, nor 
as we conceive the intention of those we serve, to force any to 
their worship and service contrary to their consciences. 
" Hugh Rogers. Andrew Elliott. 

Frederick Mullens. John Ustead (Welsted ?) 
Francis Goold. Hardress Waller. 

AuLY Leyne. William Allen. 

John Nelson." 

In the copy of the articles of Ross, which Archdeacon Rowan has 
given in his ' Lake Lore,' the name of Frederick Mullens does not 
appear ; the signatures are Hugh Rogers, Andrew Elliott, Fj-ancis 
Goold, Andrew Leyne, John Meade, Edmund FitzMaurice, Gerald 
PitzMaurice, Robert Coppinger, and Callaghan O'Callaghan. 
Frederick Mullens, an oflficer in the army of the Parliament, was 
ancestor of the present Lord Ventry. The Archdeacon adds in a 
footnote that Lord Muskerry and those under his command, liad 
good need that the definition of ' murder should be clear and well 
limited,' and that ' in the University Archives {ATSS., F. iv. IG) 
there is a shorthand abstract of the trial of Lord Muskerry and 
acquittal for the murder of Mrs. Hussey at Macroom ' (' Lake Lore,' 
Appendix, p. 182). The abstracts mentioned by Archdeacon Rowan 
are the records, given hereafter, but he was mistaken in supposing 
that they are in shorthand ; they are all in a very crabbed, bad, but 
ordinary handwriting, passages here and there are extremely difhcult 
to read, some words quite indecipherable, but again whole pages can 
be read without much difficulty by any one who lias long experience 
in such researches and jiatience over tbem. At first sight the writing 
does resemble shorthand, and it is in a certain sense mental short- 
hand, if I may use the expression, for the writer constantly omitted 
articles, conjunctions, and prepositions not essentially necessary to 
the understanding of the meaning of the sentence. I have supplied 
those words here and there, putting them in parentheses, so tliat 



RECORDS OF HIE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE, 177 

tlio reader may read the notes as they stand in the original only, 
or with the supplementary words as he pleases. 

Another highly important passage to which I would direct his 
special attention is that at page 199 of the report of Loi'd Muskerry's 
trial, where the depositions taken hy Archdeacon Bysse at Waterford 
and Cork are referred to. From this passage we find that for the 
'justifying ' of those depositions Avhen they were produced in court, to 
be used in evidence against the prisoner, that Mr. Waring, the official 
who had charge of them under the Council of State, ' testified upon 
oath ' that he had ' abbreviated ' them, by order of the said Council, 
' as to losses but not as to murders.' I had not read those notes of 
the proceedings in the High Court when I came to the conclusion, 
mentioned in vol. i. p. 129, that those crossing-out lines in the de- 
positions taken by Archdeacon Bysse in Waterford and Cork were 
marks of abbreviation, not cancellings, but if any doubt had remained 
on my mind that they were so, Mr. Waring's sworn statement would 
have at once dispelled it. 

The order at page 23G, confiscating the Cromwellian soldier's 
debenture for the benefit of the widow and orphans of Turlogh 
O'Byrne, the poor Irish carpenter he had murdered, and the letter 
of Cromwell at page 238, on behalf of Mr. Barry, are good proofs 
of the generous and merciful nature of the Protector, so ill under- 
stood to this day by many of his countrymen who profess to admire 
' his historical greatness.' 

Those English commentators on Irish history who know less of 
it than of the history of any other country in the civilised world, 
write of the crimes of Cromwell at Drogheda and Wexford, and tell 
us that his ' groat figure cannot charm or attract though it may 
overawe,' and that ' sentiment and romance ' ' are all in favour of 
his opponents in Ireland. This may be true of that trumpery 
modern sentiment the late Lord Lytton describes in his ' New 
Timon ' : — 

' Men ill wliom eeutimeut the bloodless shade 
Of uoble passion alternates with trade.' 

But Cromwell's justice and mercy are alike incomprehensible to 
men of this stamp. A hundred poor Irishmen, like the carpenter 
Turloo-h O'Byrne, might have perished before that hero of modern 
sentiment and romance, Harry Jermyn, and his associates, would 

' V. an article on ' The Ethics of Biograplxy ' in the Contcmporari/ Review 
for July 1883. 

VOL. II. N 



178 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1641. 

have wasted a thought on those waifs and strays of the ' common 
sort,' as the Cavaher phrase went in both islands. The Keverend 
John Dod, whose evidence before the Enghsli Parhament has been, 
as I have ah-eady said, in part printed by Mr. Gilbert, stated that 
he saw among the Irish officers and soldiers, high in favour with 
Charles and the Cavaliers at Oxford in 1G43, many Irish rebels, 
especially one " Thomas Brady, who had been a chief actor in the 
massacre at Belturbet," when old men, helpless mothers, and little 
children, shrieking on their knees in vain for mercy, were driven in a 
flock to the river's side and there drowned {v. ante, vol. i. p. 303). 
The carnage at Drogheda, when the town, garrisoned by the English 
Cavaliers, who expelled impartially many Irish Protestants and Irish 
friars (lest they should betray it to Cromwell or O'Neil), was taken 
by storm, was at once a retribution for Portadown, Belturbet, and 
Shrule, and a preventive against the repetition of such horrors in 
future. Cromwell's judgment was that of the prophets of old, ' tJie 
leaders of this peoide cause them to err,' and who can doubt it was a 
right one that knows the real facts of Irish history? The Eoman 
Catholic Lord Castlehaven, while endeavouring to clear the Irisli 
royalist leaders of encouraging the barbarous cruelties committed 
by their followers, is honest enough to add, ' Still I think them 
(the leaders) inexcusable, because I see no great difference whether 
a man kills another himself, or unchains a fierce mastiff that will 
tear him in pieces.' But the noble historian should have remem- 
bered that the English Cavaliers were as responsible as the Irish 
leaders. Cruel as Phelim O'Neil and his followers were, they had 
at least certain great provocations to urge in their defence, which 
I have been careful to record, moreover the masses of the Irish 
were grossly ignorant and superstitious, and the English Cavaliers 
who garrisoned Drogheda, while they were willing to use those 
masses for their own purposes, hated and despised them. So long 
as that garrison maintained itself and its party in Ireland, so long 
must the island have been stained with crimes like those at Bel- 
turbet and Portadown. 

Those ill-informed English commentators on Irish history above 
mentioned are fond of quoting from the pages of Anthony k Wood 
a story which he alleges he heard from his brother, who served 
under Cromwell at Drogheda. Wood, according to this story, just 
after the town was taken in the hottest moment of the storm, met 
a beautiful young lady, richly dressed and covered with jewellery, 
who entreated him to save her life, which he was about to do, when 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 179 

a Oromwelliaii soldier dragged her away, killed lier and flung lier 
corpse over the city wall. The incident was a sad and horrible 
one, only too likely to have taken place then, or even at a later 
date, wherever an infuriated soldiery took by storm a besieged 
town. But when English modern sentiment and romance under- 
take to deliver judgment on Irish history, they ought to remember 
that long before this richly dressed lady was killed at the siege 
of Drogheda by an infuriated soldier, hundreds of helpless old 
men, women, and little children (poorly dressed it may be), were 
flung into the rivers at Portadown and Belturbet, not in the fury of 
battle or siege, but as they submissively fled before their Irish 
captors who had promised to guard and protect them to the place 
where they were to embark for England. The relatives of those 
humble victims, the brother or cousin of John Gregg {v. Depo- 
sition CLXXIX.), who saw his son cut in pieces, and had those 
pieces flung in his face in the church of Loughgall before he too was 
murdered, those who saw the Kev. Mr. Oliphant murdered in 
presence of his wife, and his corpse tied to a horse's tail and dragged 
about the roads [v. Dep. CIII.) were probably some of them assisting 
Cromwell at Drogheda, and they were not likely any more than John 
Erwyn, mentioned in Grany ny Mullan's deposition {v. ante, vol. i. 
p. 152), to measure out much mercy to the Cavaliers and their 
allies at Drogheda and Wexford. 

A review of Lord Lawrence's Life, by Mr. R. B. Smith, lately 
appeared in a first-class English magazine. The reviewer, Mr. 
Eastwick, excuses the severities inflicted on the Indian mutineers 
of 1857, and blames Lord Lawrence's biographer for not remem- 
bering the atrocities which provoked those severities. One epitaph 
in the memorial church at Delhi, Mr. Eastwick says, records the 
' death of thirty-one persons all of the same family, from the 
aged folk down to children of a few years old, ending with the 
murder of the baby in arms. Mr. Smith,' adds Mr. Eastwick, 
' seems altogether unable to realise the feelings of Englishmen at 
this period.' Yet Mr. Eastwick in this very same review censures 
Cromwell, and revives against him the stale old worthless accusa- 
tions of self-seeking and duplicity. If it were a horrible crime, 
deserving severest punishment, for the Hindoos and the Mahometan 
people of India to murder in one day thirty-one persons of one 
household, what shall be said of a professedly devout Christian 
tribe who murdered in one hour a hundred helpless unarmed 

N 2 



180 THE miSH MASSACRES OF lOil. 

men, women, and little children, believers in Jesus Christ, and 
many of them of the mixed English and Irish race, as were not a 
few of the murderers ? 

Let English modern commentators on Irish history judge of our 
forefatliers as they may, the wise and true-hearted Irishman of 
1883, knowing how Ireland was made the victim of English parties 
and the Stuart king's greed and despotism, will, like Irishmen of 
the same type in 1G49, acknowledge that the advent of Cromwell 
was, as I have already said, a blessing in disguise, since it put an 
end to the scenes I have described in the Introduction to the Depo- 
sitions (vol. i. p. 15G). 

Had our forefathers bearing English or Irish names, whatever 
their creed, been united, and by their union had they been able to 
fight for and maintain the freedom of the whole country, and to 
establish prosperity and peace within its borders, against all in- 
truders, royalist or republican, I could wish that advent had never 
taken place which caused no doubt temporary suffering to so many 
of them. But as matters went in 1641-9, I cannot, notwithstand- 
ing my sincere and deep natural sympathy witli my forefathers' 
sufferings, regret the inexorably stern decrees of this true High 
Court of Justice, or admit that Oliver Cromwell was Ireland's worst 
enemy. 



RECORDS OF THE lUGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 181 



rARTICULAR CHARGES AGAINST SIR PHELIM G'NEIL. 
February, 1652. 

I. 

For the murder of Lord Caulfield. 

1. Major Patrick Dory, present (in Court swears) that Sir 
Plielim in October, 1642, seized the Lord Caulfield and kept {ille- 
gible). That the Lord Caulfield desiring the examt. to be left with 
him as speaking the (Irish) language, being that day to be sent 
away, Sir Phelim told him that he (Lord Caulfield) should have 
better company before night. That Neil MacKenna asked Edmund 
Boy Hugh (as the prisoner and his escort were entering Kinard 
gate) ' Where is your heart now ? ' who thereupon shot liim, Lord 
Caulfield. That tlio Lord Caulfield was committed to Neil Mac- 
Kenna and Neil Modder O'Ncil. That as the Lord Caulfield was 
passing through the gate at Kinard the word was given to the left 
hand file to make ready, at which the Lord Caulfield was startled a 
little, but Neil Modder told him there was no danger, then Neil 
MacKenna said to Edmund Buoy Hugh as before (' ivhere is your 
heart now ?'). 

2. Alexander Crichton, (deposed) that Edmund Buoy O'Hugh, 
foster-brother to Sir Phelim, shot Lord Caulfield. 

3. John Perkins, (deposed) that Lord Caulfield (was) com- 
mitted to Neil MacKenna and Neil Modder O'Neil ; that he was shot 
by Edmund Buoy O'Hugh, foster-brother to Sir Phelim. 

4. Mr. JosEni Travers, present (in Court swears) that about 
the end of December, 1641, the examt. speakhig with Sir Phelim 
O'Neil, he said to examt. ' they (the English) have Maguire prisoner 
with them, hut if they touch the least hair of his head Caulfield shall 
die for him.' 



182 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

6. Mr. John Kerdiffe, present (in Court swears) that at the 
funeral of the said Lord Caulfield Sir Phelim came to Charlemont, 
and ahghting (from his horse) in the examt.'s hearing asked, ' Is 
the Lord Caulfield dead ? I tvould he had died seven years ago, for 
I am a thousand pounds the ivorse for him.' 



The Prisoner's Defence. 

That the Lord Caulfield was to he sent away to Cloughoughter 
by order of the Provincial Council. Dcnioth not hut that he 
might say and do as to the Lord Maguire what concerns Lord 
Caulfield. 



II. 

For the murder of John Maxu'ell and his wife. 

1. Dr. Maxwell, deposed, that by Sir Phelim's express orders 
James Maxwell was murdered in heiglit of a fever, and raving so 
(Sir Phelim) paying him (a debt) of 2G0Z. His wife murdered while 
in labour. 

2. John Parry, deposed, John Maxwell and his wife were 
drowned by (order in a) letter from Sir Phelim, that letter {illegible'^ 
convoying. 

8. Michael Harrison, present (in Court swears) that he heard 
that James Maxwell having lent Sir Phelim about 200^. sent a 
letter concerning him, after which (letter was received) Maxwell 
%vas murdered. 

4. Nicholas Simpson, present (in Court swears) to the murder 
taking place, but not to Sir Phelim (ordering or being engaged) 
in it. 

5. John Perkins deposed those two were murdered by special 
directions from Sir Phelim and his brother Tirlogh. 

The Prisoner's Defence. 

That he desired his witnesses' papers, but that they were not 
allowed him. Denies that any of his convoys ever sold their trust 
for convoy of English, but that {illegible) only to IMoneymore, and 
there delivered them over to another convoy. Tliat many English 



KECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 183 

so convoyed (by liis orders) came safe, amongst them some now 
appearing in Court. That at the Newry the Enghsh and Scotch 
army put all to the sword, and not till then was any such thing 
done by his party. Denieth owing Maxwell any money, but he 
(Maxwell) gave him some money for kindness he owed him (prisoner). 
Denieth that he (prisoner) had a half sister unmarried before the 
wars, this to charge as to Cowell. Denieth his giving a warrant 
for hanging Maxwell, but that he (prisoner) did hang some for 
murders. Saith that one of the O'Hughs, a principal actor in this 
murder, is now in Coleraine, Art Hugh or Brian Oge O'Hugh. 



The Lord Peesident's Speech at the Sentence of 
Sir Phelim O'Neil. 

March btli, the day of Sentence. 

Sir Phelim O'Neil, Mr. Attorney, hath exhibited a charge of 
High Treason in this Court, not one charge but several charges, ac- 
cumulated treasons, rebellion, and the effusion of a sea of innocent 
blood (against you). 

The first charge is for the Eebellion itself devised by you and 
acting in it. The others are particular (charges) for (murder of) 
James ]\Iaxwell, etc. 

1. For the general charge it is testified that about five or six 
years before the rebellion the plot was in your heart, that to avoid 
suspicion you counterfeited yourself as a fool in all great men's 
company, that none might think you had in you such a contri- 
vance, but when the tragedy began to open, then the world would 
know you were not a fool. But now see in the conclusion who is 
the fool I You fool this night [illegible) shall take away thy soul 
was said to one fool Avho heaped up treasures ; you (Sir Phelim) 
heaped up treasures by pillage of Protestants, but now, oh ! fool 
this night, etc. (shall thy soul be required of thee). But habemus 
confulentio rem (sic) he in his own examination clears [i.e. shows) 
his being guilty of raising this rebellion (saying) that he and the 
Lord Maguire and others met in Dublin and consulted on this plot. 
That for carrying on of the plot that there was an oath of secresy, 
that at their meetings (there was) a dividing of tlie shares of the 
work, and who was to take Dublin, Londonderry, Charlemont, etc., 
the last (was) your part as you acknowledge, and by the evidence (it) 



184 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

appears with how much treachery that your part was acted. Next, 
you appear at Drogheda, at the invitation of the Lords of the Pale ; 
there you were invested with power from them and made commander- 
in-chief at that siege, see your confession. But what ! O'Neil to he 
chosen hy those of Enghsh blood ! Can they forget their blood ? 
But why this ? You laid not your plot like a fool (in this), for you 
said if they would not come (to join you) you would produce their 
writings under their own hands against them, thus you are chief in 
command. Then you came to Monaghan and met the ancient 
vassals of O'Neil, O'Reillys, MacMahons, etc. (They) clioso you 
thoir chief in Ulster, this is another title, and all this is hy your 
own confession. (You have) another title from the Supreme Council 
of Kilkenny, by whose order you are made President of Ulster, this 
also in your own confession. Further, by other testimony titles 
come yet on you, and at Tullaghogo you are made Earl of Tyrone. 
Now you are above your former style, you are his Excellency, not 
Sir Phelim, you have all at your will and command, and may grant 
commissions that all may be done according to your royal intents, 
you grant charters, power of life and death, commissions of oyer 
and teryniner. Now state is upon you truly, and your Excellency's 
meat is served up with drum and trumpet. Are you yet at the 
highest ? no, to all this is wanting the Pope's Bull, without him 
the work is imperfect. Now Father Paul O'Neil that went thirteen 
times in a half year between you and Brussels (comes in) and by a 
Bull from the Pope you are made Prince of Ulster, now are healths 
drunk on the knee to Sir Phelim O'Neil, Earl of Tyrone, Lieutenant 
General of the Catholic army, and King of Ireland. Are we yet at 
the end ? No, yet is there one more title wanting (to you) Phelimy 
Totane, the last and most affecting, as sung by your Bards, none of 
them singing of any of your titles, but (this of) FheJlmy Totane. 

But (let us) add to all these the degrees and merits of your (other) 
actions. 

»1. Your first action of treachery and blood was that of your sur- 
prising Charlemont, and using those there (as you did) then and 
after. 

2. At Dungannon, Captain John Perkins, your ancient acquaint- 
ance, is surprised, and (the warder) of the castle by Patrick 
O'Modder, under colour of (seeking a warrant) for (recovery of stolen) 
sheep ; see your treachery throughout, while he (the warder) is 
labouring to do justice he is set upon with skeans at his breasts. 
Did not Hugh MacPhelim Byrne do the same against Pont on the 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 185 

lull of {illegible) under pretence of expecting justice from liim a 
prisoner ? The like was done at Mr. Arthur Champion's, in the 
same way he was seized and murdered with his family. But that 
this may not (appear to he done) hy Sir Phelimy O'Neil, he cometh 
in (to Captain Perkins) at midnight {illegible) after Charlemont with 
a boast, ' ^ Ho ! so you old Fox have I caught yon all secure ? like 
the Lord Caulfield, all is our oivn, all Ireland {is ours) this night ! ' 
' I fear,' says Perkins, truly speaking, ' Sir Phclim, we shall have a 
second O'Dogherty in you for seizing and burning Derry, and kill- 
ing the governor ' (great is your) anger, and there you leave him, 

3. You go on (your way unchecked) and on Captain Perkins* 
horses you post the same night to Mountjoy, and after the same 
night you come to Dungannon again, and there you and your fol- 
lowers kill and pillage sixty families in and about Dungannon, con- 
trary to your covenants, and now Phelimy Totanc begins (indeed) 

to appear. 

4. You burn {illegible) and all the Londoner's plantations in one 
morning, 1,200, 900, 1,000, 300, and many more in the counties of 
Antrim and Down, and murdered {illegible) now (you are) Phelimy 

Totanc. 

6. Five thousand in three days when the Scots began to march. 
G. The murder of the British is so acceptable to you that Art 

Oge O'Neil, to please you, and to gain your good opinion (says that), 
he had but one Scotclnnau on his land, and that he killed him. 
Why (did he so kill this man) ? To please (you) Sir Phelim O'Neil. 
To please you is to murder. That murdering sept of the O'llughs 
and the MacModders were yours and your brother's (own) fosterers 
and followers. 

7. Many Protestants are buried alive, otherwise they would not 
bury them at all, the Enghsh now are {illegible) denied (when dead) 
a grave. 

8. You yourself confessed, as is testified, that you killed G80 at 
Scarvagh, and (that you) left neither man, woman, nor child in the 
barony^'of {illegible), and left none in all the plantations about you. 

9. Those actions put the EngHsh on their defence in the church 
of Armagh, Sir Phelim comes and treats (with them) and with the 
fox's skin, since the lion's will not do, ho offers good quarter for life, 
goods, estates, and to (let them) live in their own houses. They are 

« This is a quotation from Captain John Perkins' examination, which is in the 
volumes in the College, bub as it contiins little more than Harrison's I have not 
copied it. 



186 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGJl, 

glad of tins, they accept, for Sir Plielim swears (they shall have 
quarter), nay, you would sign it (you say) with your own blood, nay 
you (say to them) if you need it you shall have my son Henry (for) 
a pledge. They yield, now all is yours, they are oppressed, they 
cry, but no remedy I 

10. But that is not all, after your being beaten off that siege at 
Drogheda, and afterwards from Dundalk, one of your bloodhounds, 
Manus O'Cahane, is employed to carry away the Protestants. 
Whither ? to Coleraine ? But how (does he do so, he) who mur- 
dered on the way three hundred, and these (murdered) after all 
those engagements (of yours) ? 

Things to be observed in your convoys in every treachery (said 
to be) safe convoys, but see the secret of it, to make them sure by 
murdering (those convoyed) and this appearing the English began 
to (iUegiblc) not going with those convoys, and so were preserved. 

(It is to be) observed also that in any loss (to you) or on the 
English army marching away, all the English about (there were) 
murdered (by you) in revenge, and by way of prevention {illegible). 

To keep yet fartlier at Armagh (you are) now Pholimy Totano 
again, Armagh is fired (by you), and many in theirjliouses and outside 
them (are) murdered and drowned, to the number of 580 in the country 
thereabouts {illegible), the English drawing towards the Newry. 

You will not be bound to (keep faith with) heretics by your 
religion. ' Children are to be deceived by apples, and Heretics by 
oaths,' so saith your clergy, to promise and break (your promise) is 
your doctrine, and in that way destroy them. 

On the repulse (of your followers) at the siege of Augher, all in 
the way are murdered, so at Castledergo, and (your followers have 
for these murders) warrants under your own hand. Being beaten 
(again) at Lisnagarvey, you come away, Phelimy Totane, (and) 
you let twenty-four (Protestants) be locked up in one house (to be 
burnt) poor souls, whose outcries might move many (as well as) 
Sir Phelimy O'Neal (who) could not but hear, and yet he was not 
moved, and his wicked followers boasted of that fact, and delighted 
in the cries of the poor people. This (happened) not in one place 
but in many instances. Now (you are) Phelimy Totane indeed 
{illegible), so as no lustre can parallel (yours). 

In the parish of Loughgall, of 4,000 communicants all are lost, 
murdered, or drowned. 

At Portadown drowning of Protestants (goes on) by 20, 40, 60, 
100, 150 at a time (illegible) to 1,000 at least estimated in all, (imtil) 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 187 

God testified against it by visions affrighting tlie very murderers, 
some warrants under Sir Phelim's hands {illegible) these they said 
were but EngHsh devils. Owen Eoe O'Neil detests your execrable 
actions and cruel villainies {illegible), your brother Hovendon 
would not join with you (in them), your very {illegible), and your 
secretary also. ' What is that to you ? ' say you to them all ; nay 
your own mother said she had never offended the English but in 
being mother to Sir Phelimy O'Neil. 

And for particular revenges of yours, 1st, the murder of one 
Cowell, because ho would not marry your kinswoman ; 2nd, Dr. 
Hodges (is murdered) because he would not make your gunpowder. 
And for particular cruelties, 1st, your burning of Armagh 
(illegible), contrary to your promises, llemember Mr. Starky and 
his daughters, what could an old man of a hundred years old (do to) 
hurt you ? but blood is the thing (you want) it matters not where 
or how. Many are not killed outright, that is too much mercy, but 
they lialf kill them, and come again and look on them, and rejoice 
to see them languish, they beg for death, but that mercy is denied ; 
for instance a young man with his back broken is put to (He on and 
eat) grass, the mercy (accorded him) is to remove him to another 
pasture, to live longer in that misery. 

When murdering the Protestants the word was ' your soul to the 
devil,' was not the cruelty to the body enough, but will you folloAV 
the soul (with it) as far as in you is ? Mr. Allen's wife outraged 
before her husband's face, then they kill him and her. 

But these (thhigs) are (done by) men whoso hearts are hardened 
{illegible), kilHng poor English, {illegible) ille improbus ille puer 
{sic) tu quoqnc mater, mothers and children are as bad as the men, 
and their children like them. That the heathen should act cruelties 
it is not to be wondered at so much, but here religion is the busi- 
ness, and for religion see {illegible). 

At Monaghan at a festival in their drunkenness (this is one of 
the crying sins of Ireland) what sport have they at their feast? 
An Englishman is laid before them on the board bound, and at 
every health they stab him with a skean, but do not (kill him), and 
they drink and he bleeds, and they drink again, and presently, 
when he is all one wound, he is cast out on a dunghill. 

All this on {illegible) of the great rebelHon and the proceedings 
in it. Next their hatred to the English nation. 

(They) destroy even the cattle because they are Enghsh, this at 
{illegible). 



188 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1641. 

They destroy all the English habitations. When asked, can you 
not keep them for yourselves ? No ! (they answer) that would 
make the English think of returning here again, and so we will 
burn all to the ground {illegible). O'Neil cursed any of his posterity 
who would (take to) building houses, sowing corn, or wearing 
English apparel or speaking the tongue of the English nation. 

This is an inherited hatred, see it in Shane O'Neil, he built a 
fort which he called Fagh na Gall, or ' to the hate ' (or scorn) ' of 
the English,' when he burnt Armagh. Do not you inherit that ? 
So Tirlogh Lenogh is chosen after Shane as O'Neil, the Act (of 
Parliament) makes it high treason to take that title, but the Parlia- 
ment withal begs Tirlogh's pardon from the Queen (for having 
taken it), the Queen pardons him, he as soon as he returns to 
Ulster rebels again and burns all, and after him Hugh O'Neil is 
set up by the English against Tirlogh {illegible). 

To all this is added your turning the dead Englishmen with 
their faces downward to look into hell, and women in like manner 
obscenely dealt with. Hatred to the Nation (not less than to 
the) Religion (of the English), the Holy Scriptures dcspitefully used, 
Bible trodden under foot, etc. 

Your neighbours murdered, one of them, Blyth, being about to 
be murdered, held up your protection to heaven (to witness) against 
you {illegible). 

Now to what end was all this ? the end Avas to maintain the 
king's prerogative, the Catholic cause, and to banish all heretics. 
In your commissions to advance the king's prerogative, and to pro- 
pagate the Catholic {illegible) is to murder by fa-o and sword. Is 
this tlio way to plant (your) religion, to beat your religion into 
Protestants' hearts by beating out their brains ? 

But they (the Protestants) had a Protector whom you saw not. 
He that is in heaven laughs you to scorn. He saw your red hand, 
you now see His, He made you scourges to His enemies, now He is 
casting the rod into tlie fire. 

But by Avhat authority was tliis your end to be compassed ? 
You knew well {illegible), but the king's commission you altered, 
the copy of the commission is produced, but you deny it. 

I will be brief now in the particular cliarges against you. 

1st. For the Lord Caulfield, he invites you to his house, you 
enter and then betray him, but you might then have used him 
civilly, you had inventories of his plate and linen, which pleased 
you so well that you kept it yourself. The Lady (Caulfield) and 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 189 

lier cliiklren are sent out barefoot, and after fifteen weeks the Lord 
Canlfiold is sent away to Kinard, and, in the midst of the guard 
you appointed for him, he is murdered by O'llugh, your own 
fosterer. You had not justice in your heart, Prince of Ulster I on 
other (and lesser) occasions he (O'llugh) was clapt up in prison, 
now he escapes, and for him an Englishman and a Scotchman are 
hanged ! 

2ndly. Lieutenant James Maxwell and his wife (are murdered, 
and) this by your command ; he was a gentleman to whom you 
were indebted, and, being in a burning fever he is taken out of 
his bed in a raving fit, and then murdered, he not knowing what 
they were doing with him. His wife, how was she used ? She, 
being in labour, is also dragged out, the child half born, and both 
drowned in the Blackwater, what 1 this done by (order of) Sir 
Phelim ? What I was he born of a woman who did this ? 

8rdly. Richard Blaney was hanged by your special command, 
and that without question or trial. This was not done by that law 
of England so scorned by you, charge him, hear him, try him 
legally, that is the way of our English law ! 

4thly. Brownlow Taylor, this is the last (particular charge) as 
now remembered. He was carried before you not examined, or tried, 
but by your orders hanged, no entreaty for him would prevail with 
you, notwithstanding your protection and quarter at Armagh. 

All this is truly (sustained) according to the ovidonco (before the 
Court), and upon all and singular you are found guilty, and (we) 
have given sentence. Not such as to those on either hand of you, 
but as you exceeded (them) in cruelty, so is your sentence ; though 
your actions were beyond all, that sentence is {illegible) by the just 
and honourable {illegible) of England. 

To be hanged, drawn, and quartered, etc. 

At the Sentence. 

You have received the just judgment of this Court for your 
actions. I desire, though your bodies perish here, that you may yet 
have a joyful resurrection in the day of the Lord Jesus. There is a 
throne of Grace even for murderers, a blessed Saviour who died for 
you, the perfection of His sufferings is sufficient for all sins whatso- 
ever {illegible), and faith in His blood will wash out every guilt, 
apply yourselves to Him that you may die with faith and repent- 
ance, that while your bodies shall go to the grave, your souls shall 
fmd grace, mercy, and comfort. 



190 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 



The Exami7iation of Sir Phelim O'Neil, taJce7i 2Srd February, 
1652-3, before {blank).^ 

Who being examined, saith, that about a quarter or half a year 
before the beginning of the rebelHon in Ireland, that the plot of the 
said rebellion wag discovered to him by the Ijord Maguire and 
Eoger Moore, and they two and Philip O'Reilly and this examt. 
several times met and discoursed of the said plot. He saith, that 
at other some of the said meetings, Colonel John Barry, Sir James 
Dillon, Anthony Preston, and Hugh MacPhelim were present. He 
saith, that there was an oath of secresy administered to such persons 
as were made privy to the said plot, (and) that the said oath was 
given to the examt. at his chamber in Nelson's house in Castle 
Street by the Lord Maguire and the said Roger Moore. He saith, 
that at their meetings it was agreed that the several forts in Ire- 
land should be taken, and to that purpose the examt. was appointed 
to take Charlemont, the Lord Maguire to take Enniskillen, Colonel 
Barry, Anthony Preston, Roger Moore, and Colonel Plunkct to 
take the Castle of Dublin, Sir James Dillon to take the fort of 
Galway, Sir Morgan Kavenagh and Hugh MacPhelim to take the 
fort of Duncannon. That when the forts had been taken, that then 
the government (was) to be altered and new Lords Justices to be 
made and addresses to be then sent to the king. 

He saith, that after the rebellion, at the time of the siege of 
Drogheda, the examt. with his forces in Ulster were invited to 
come to the said siege by several of the Lords and Gentlemen of the 
Pale, both by message in writing and otherwise. He saith, that the 
letter for his invitation was subscribed by the Earl of Fingal, the 
Lords of Gormanston, Slane, and Louth, and by most of the Gentle- 
men of the Pale then at the siege, both by message in writing and 
otherwise. Pie saith, that when he and his forces came thither, the 
said Lords and Gentlemen of the Pale, at a meeting at Bewly, gave 
a commission to the examt., signed by the persons aforesaid, 
appointing the examt. Commander-in-Chief of all the forces then at 
the said siege. He saith, that soon after the 22nd of October, 1G41, 
at a meeting at Monaghan, the examt. was chosen Commander-in- 
Chief of Ulster by Philip MacHugh O'Reilly, Colonels MacMahon 
and Maguire, and several of the O'Neils and MacMahons, Maguires 
and others, and a Commission for that purpose was given to him 

' MSS. T.C.D., F. 3, 7. 



RECORDS OF THE 1110x11 COURT OF JUSTICE. 191 

by tliem. That afterwards, by order of the Supreme Council of 
Kilkenny, the examt. was made president of Ulster. 

He denieth that he was chosen Earl of Tyrone at the hill of Tul- 
laghoge, or that he ever assumed that title, or subscribed any letter 
or writing as Earl of Tyrone. He saith, that the said Colonel John 
Barry being very intimate with the Lord of Ormond, it was con- 
sidered that the said Colonel Barry was at the said meetings by the 
privity and appointment of the said Lord of Ormond. 

He saith, that it was resolved at some of the said meetings, that 
upon the change of the government, the said Lord of Ormond and 
the Lord of Gormanston were to be appointed Lords Justices of 
Ireland, and that the sword should be given them. 



Witnesses : 

CriAiiLEs CooTE. Hen. Jones. 

EoBT. Meredith. Anthony Morgan. 

Hie. Sankey. Wm. Allen. 



Phelim O'Neil. 



192 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1C41. 



HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE, DUBLIN, 
December 1st, 1653. 

Trial of the Lord Viscount Muskerry, as accessory to the viurdcr of 

I. 

Mrs. Hussey, 

Mrs. Crocker {sic) and her daughter, 

George A. IMiller and his wife, 

Ellen Caiman and her child, 

Charles Vavasour and his wife and two children, and two other 
persons whose names are unknown, near Blarney, in the county 
Cork, on the 1st of August, 1042. 

II. 

William Deane and three others and a woman called Nora at 
Kilfinny, co. Limerick, on July 29th, 1G42. 

III. 
Eoger Skinner at Inniskerry, co. Cork, {blank), August, lG-42. 

Evidence. 

PniLiP King present in court swears {illegible), that Captain 
Reardon of Blarney slighted the relation of that murder when 
fourteen persons were slain, of whom eleven were slain near Blarney, 
the other three near Cork. Saith, that Gerald Barry ordered this 
examt. with others to serve under said Captain Eeardon at Blarney, 
that Donogh Reardon did ^end out Denis Long and others from 
Blarney to convoy them (the fourteen English) to Cork, and that 
Denis Long {illegible). 

That the convoy sent from Macroom returned and were not at 
the murder, and that some English did stay at Macroom Castle 
without constraint, that these were afterwards convoyed thence as 
they desired it, and that this examt. was one in those convoys. 

Richard Stabbeu deposed that some English, amongst them 
]\Irs. Ilussey, etc., desired to go to Macroom, and that the Lord 



IlECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 193 

Muskerry appointed Donogli Eeardon to convoy them to Cork. 
Examt. heard not that any of the murderers were ever punished. 

Geobge Smith, present in court, swears, that on Ash 
Wednesday, lG41,the Lord of Muskerry first ordered {illegible) that 
thereupon the Enghsh (prisoners) desired to be gone to Bandon, 
which the Lord of Muskerry would not allow of, but he assented 
to their going to Cork, that they were on their way thither, the 
most part of them, murdered, and that the Lord of Muskerry did 
to this examt. 's luiowledge {illegible) for the fact. 

2nd Examination. The murder of Scott (he) being under 
Muskerry's protection, and the murderers not punished, but some of 
tliem dwelling on his (the Lord of Muskerry's) land. Saith, that 
when those with Mrs. Hussey went towards Cork, orders were given 
by the Lord of Muskerry's steward, MacSwiney, who did {illegible) 
the examt. not {illegible) and advised Mrs. Baldwin in like manner 
not to {illegible) that murder. Tlie'examt. heard that the clothes of 
those murdered about Blarney were brought back to Macroom, and 
heard that MacSwiney, said steward of the Lord of Muskerry, did 
inquire of those that came back (from conveying the murdered) ' if 
that were not done,' they answering it was, {illegible) examt. being 
demanded by the Lord of Muskerry what was his cause of knowledge 
that said MacSwiney was his (Lord Muskerry's) steward, saith that 
he (MacSwiney) was commonly esteemed as such and did live in 
Macroom. That the time of this murder examt. saith he remem- 
bers not (certainly), but thinks it was about Easter, 1642. Saith, 
that he, the examt., did stay until August after at Macroom, and that 
other English did desire to stay when Mrs. Hussey went away and 
did stay. Saith, he knoweth not whether those murdered with 
]\lrs. Hussey were killed by the convoy from Macroom. Saith, 
that the Enghsh desired to be gone, {illegible) that a gentleman 
desired the Lord Muskerry to stay the examt. and Mr. Baldwin. 

4. Geoiige Fife.' 

5. Mahy Fife. 

G. Melaghlin Buohilly, present (in court, swears) that he 
was one of the convoy that went with Mrs. Hussey ; that he was a 
servant to Mrs. Hussey and by her own desire (appointed) to go with 
her ; that the Lord Muskerry was not going from Macroom ; that 
Mrs. Hussey desired to go to Cork, her husband and son being there. 

' The witnesses -whose iiiinies only are set down, appear not to have sworn t^ 
anything material, and consequently no notes of their evidence are given in the 
original MS. 

VOL. II. O 



194 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

Alice Stabbeb, present (in court, swears) that the Lord 
Muskerry did send MacSwiney to tliis examt.'s motlier {illegible), 
that her mother desired of the Lord ]\[uskerry that she might stay 
(at Macroom), but he said, as this examt. was told by Mrs. Hussey 
her mother, he would not have any such wasps in his beehive ; 
saith, that the English being gone away some of the convoy re- 
turned and left the said English and they were afterwards murdered. 
Saith, that one O'Keily was sent by the Lord of Muskerry to Barry, 
the (Irish) general, by whom he was hanged for saying that one 
troop of horse would rout all Muskerry's. 

2nd Examination. Saith, that the Lord of ]\Iuskerry, as she 
heard, denied a pass to lier mother desiring it. 

3rd Examination. Saith, that an Irishman that came from 
Castletownroche was hanged by the Lord of Muskerry's directions, 
he being charged to be a spy, and that he (Lord Muskerry) then 
ordered the hanging of a woman for a spy and that she was hanged 
accordingly : that it was about Lammas that those were sent away 
with Mrs. Hussey. Saith, that Eeardon, who was an Ensign at 
Blarney and did command the convoy, did dismiss some of the 
convoy and carried the English with him, after which they were 
murdered by four musketeers that came out of Blarney Castle ; 
that the Lord of Muskerry did examine {illegible) that murder as 
she heard, but did not do anything against them. Saith, that 
Edmund Maolmor MacSwiney was the Lord of Muskerry's steAvard. 
Saith, she heard that MacSwiney did ask (the murderers) ' if that 
were done ' as aforesaid. She further saith, that she heard of 
threatenings given out against the English (party) and that there- 
upon he (Lord Muskerry) sent them away. She had this relation 
(only) by hearsay. 

Captain John Eeardon, present (in court, swears) that the 
next morning after the murder he went to Macroom hoping to 
see the Lord Muskerry, but not finding him there he did write to 
his Lordship, and also to General Barry giving the names of the 
murderers ; that Donogh Eeardon told him that the Lord Muskerry 
sent him with the convoy. 

The Prisoner's Defence, 

That being then to remove out of that country, the English 
apprehended hurts and desired and prayed him to give way to their 
departure desiring to go to Cork ; that (therefore) he sent to the 



RECORDS OF Til 10 lllGII COUIIT OF JUSTICE. 195 

constable Tiegnc MacDonogh Bearo to appoint a3 many of the 
neighbours as was convenient for a convoy. That Mr. Balclwm 
desired to go to Bandonbridge, that there were then {illegible) of the 
Lord President's (St. Leger's) army at Cork ; that Kihiameaky with 
his party was at Bandon, representing in or about 200 horse and 680 
foot ; that he (Lord Muskerry) denied Mr. Baldwin and Smith (leave) 
to go to Bandonbridge, for Baldwin was a clever and knowing guide, 
he using writing, and the country (Irish) fearing prejudice by him, 
they advised him (Lord Muskerry) not to let Baldwin go, therefore 
he (Muskerry) desired Mr. Baldwin to stay till his return, for rea- 
sons that he had, and that [illegible) should be safe in the interim ; 
that they (Baldwin and Smith) stayed accordingly, and were after- 
wards with all theirs safely conveyed away. It was the desire of all 
the rest of the English to be gone, wherein the prisoner (Lord 
]\Iuskerry) said that he would not advise either their stay or their 
going, but that they might go if they pleased. 

Witnesses for the Defence. 

1. Walter Baldwin (being) asked whether those going were 
ordered to go, or (whether) it was of their choice (that they went), 
saith that those going to Cork, as he heard, desired to be going to 
Cork ; did not hear that they desired to go to Bandon, but he, the 
cxamt., desired it, and did before that hear them desire to go to Cork, 
and particularly Mrs. Hussey. That none were enforced to stay, 
nor (had he) heard of any (being) forced to go. 

2. Edmund Stabbek. That he lived at Macroom when Mrs. 
Ilussey and others came there ; that she desired him, this examt., 
to desire the Lord Muskerry that she might go to Cork with the rest 
of the English going thither, that the Lord Muskerry answered he 
would not either advise them to stay or to go ; that if any pleased 
to go he would send to the constable for a convoy for them. Being 
asked whether any of those desired to go to Bandon, saith none 
desired or had occasion to go to Bandon but Mr. Baldwin, Smith, 
and some others who were afterwards sent thither. That Donogh 
Reardon coming to Macroom at the time of the convoy he was 
desired by the Lord Muskerry to assist the constable in the convoy. 
That the examt. 's brother, Bichard Stabber, told him that that 
convoy went as far as (illegible) bridge, about a mile or more from 
Blarney, that he, the said Richard, went a little further [illegible), 
and afterwards returned, after which those English were murdered 
by the soldiers of Blarney, not by any of the convoy. That the 

o 2 



196 THE IKISFI MASSACRES OF 1041. 

convoy was sent away the next day after the Lord Muskerry went 
away ; that the Lord Muskerry did stay away a long time, but how 
long this examt. knoweth not. That the English that stayed or 
went were not enforced to do either. 

3. TiEGUE Murphy. (Saith) that he was in Macroom when 
Mrs. Hussey, the day before the Lord Muskerry went away, desired 
she might have liberty to goto Cork, and named some townsmen to 
go with her, his Lordship said she need not trouble herself, but go 
to the constable and he would order it. That he, this examt., was 
then present, and that he went away with his Lordship the next day. 
Behig asked if his Lordship did force any to stay for his convenience, 
saith that his Lordship said that who would should go. 

The Lord of Muskerry here added that he prosecuted those that 
acted in that murder. That he left the country for a time. That 
he did hear of that nnu'der by letter from John Reardon, and that 
he did give an account thereof to the General {illegible). That he 
did also write to the {illegible) concerning it, desiring that it might 
be looked after, and to bring to justice the actors. 

Witnesses for the Defence. 

1. Cornelius Murphy. That he, this examt., Avaited on the 
Lord IMuskerry and Avas his secretary ; that a letter was sent by 
his Lordship to General Barry {illegible) being then at Kilkenny, 
the substance of it was that an account might be had by him, the 
General, of that murder (committed by the garrison of Blarney). 

2. Colonel Callaghan O'Callaghan. That he, this examt., 
was with General Barry, either at Limerick or Kilmallock, when 
the General did read to Lieutenant-General Purcell a letter sent by 
the Lord Muskerry concerning the murder of the English sent from 
Macroom ; the contents of it were tliat his Lordship was much 
grieved at that murder, desiring the General to prosecute the 
murderers to justice, but (examt.) did not hear what was then done 
thereupon. 

The Lord of Muskerry here added that on the conclusion of the 
treaty of peace in 1G40, among the instances of murders to be ex- 
cepted he elected to offer (those concerned in) this murder now in 
justice, if any instances of that kind might be allowed, but that 
course was not thought fit, lost any should know what was intended, 
and so decline joining in the peace and avoiding the trial after. 



i^EcoRDS OF Tin<: HIGH court of justick. 197 

For this the prisoner produced as witness, 

1. Sir EoDEiiT Talbot (who saith) that a Committee was ap- 
pointed at Kilkenny to consider of the treaty for peace, and they 
considered concerning instances of murder {illegible) they of Leinster 
gave that (massacre) of Longford, those of Connaught that of Shrule, 
those of Munster that of Cashel and the Silver Mines. The Lord 
Muskerry then added that of Macroom, which he said should be 
punished, which paper was afterwards delivered by this examt. 
to the Lord of Ormond, who said that such instances would restrain 
justice to those few and desired rather to [illegible) in the general 
murders and massacres and the time for prosecuting them (to be 
limited) to two years, that the Lord Muskerry did insist on the said 
murder to be excepted out of the Act of October 8tli. 

2. John Gold (sic) that he waiting on the Lord of Muskerry, 
being one of the Commissioners for the treaty of peace, at Mr. Booth's 
house in Dame Street, Dublin, the examt. did hear his Lordship in- 
stance the murder of Macroom as one he would insist upon was 
not to be shut up (but) that it Avas conceived not fit to give any 
(such) instances fearing Sir Phelim O'Neil Avould fall oil, this 
examt, 's cause of knowledge is that be was standing by at the 
meetings of the said Commissioners and did hear as aforesaid. 

(Here) the Lord Muskerry desired that Dr. {illegible) might 
declare himself in this particular. 

3. Dr. {illegible) saith, that at supper with the Lord of Ormond 
at the time of the said treaty he did hear the Lord of Muskerry 
desire much to insist {illegible) on the prosecution of murders. 

Here his Lordship added that the Nuncio and his party, oppos- 
ing the peace and corrupting many to join with them, made pre- 
parations against the Lord of Ormond then with a party ordered to 
Kilkenny ; that the Lord of Ormond returned to Dublin, after which 
the Nuncio and his party prosecuted those, and particularly him, the 
Lord Muskerry, for insisting on the peace, and seized on him and 
Sir Kobert Talbot, Dr. Fennell, Sir James Dillon, Sir Pierce Crosbie, 
etc., who were kept prisoners at Kilkenny and adjudged to suffer if 
(illegible), but that waiting and seeing the Lord Ormond treating 
{illegible) they hastened to close with him and the rest of the 
before-mentioned prisoners, and called (illegible) to employ some to 
France to the Queen and to the Prince then there and to present 
themselves to them, and to excuse their miscarriages with the Lord 



198 THE IRISH massacres of loii. 

Ormond and the Lord Muskerry, and the Lord {illegible) and Mr. 
Brown (were) cliosen for it. On whicli they (the Council of Con- 
federate Cathohcs ?) reassuming their authority at Kilkenny he, the 
Lord Muskerry, did %vrite to the Council from Waterford, (he) then 
Bailing for France, desiring them to take the said murder at Blarney 
into consideration. 

For this the prisoner produced as witnesses : 

1. John Gold (who saith) that on the Lord of Muskerry going 
into France he did send the examt. to Kilkenny, to take out a com- 
mission there for inquiring after the said murder, which he had, 
and it was sent into the country, that it related to this particular 
murder, Mr. {illegible) and Dr. Fennell's hands were to that com- 
mission among others. 

2. Dr. Gerald Fennell (who saith) that the Lord Muskerry 
did send before going into France for the said commission, which 
was issued accordingly, to which the examt. 's hand was added and 
that John Gold had the commission to be executed. 

His Lordship (here) added that on the Treaty in the last articles 
he did insist on the explanations, and did then instance that he 
would never consent that any of the actors in this murder should 
be pardoned, and (allowed to) pass under these articles. This 
testified in Court by Colonel {illegible). His general (course) con- 
cerning murders to be {illegible) testified by the Major- General, and 
that he (prisoner) was full in his expressions against murder {ille- 
gible), this murder particularly, and was equally against (all) murders 
in general. 

CoLONEEi {illegible) did then declare that the Lord Muskerry did 
as was before spoken by Sir Robert Talbot and Dr. Fennell. His 
Lordship added his insisting on the articles. 

The Counsel. 1. Mr. Eeardon. (There is) nothing in this 
evidence of the Lord of Muskerry commanding or advising as in the 
explanation and 2nd and 7th articles. That more thaii one witness 
is necessary for life, etc. That no act of his (prisoner's) will 
proved (him consenting) to the act he might know of it after (it was 
done). 

2. Mr.. Kennedy. Accessory to persons unknown. 

Mr. Reardon. The Lord Muskerry commands a lawful thing 
(in commanding) them to be conveyed away, (and) if the convoy 
had murdered, as it appears (they did) not, it is not to be charged on 
Jiim not commanding it. 

3. Mr, Browne. The 1st Explanation. Where an cxplana- 



Rl'XORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 199 

tion is given of an article it is to be insisted on not to give an 
explanation of an explanation, {illegible) proof not probability (of 
guilt necessary). 

LoBD MusKERRY saitli his apprehension of the meaning of the 
article, explanation 1st (is that the person accused as accessory must 
be shown to have had a share in the murder by) an act of the will 
either advising or commanding (it to be done) (or by) sheltering mur- 
derers knowing them to be such, and proved to be such (or by) keep- 
ing tliom back from justice {illegible). That he hath prosecuted and 
endeavoured to bring them (the murderers) to justice. He saith, 
that he never had a command till the siege of {illegible), and (that) 
when (he was) not in power he could not punish {illegible) not done 
by that civil convoy which he sent (from Macroom). 

On the Private Debate. 

DoNOGH, Viscount Muskerry\ 

for VNoT Guilty. 

Mrs. Hussey, etc. ) 

DoNOGH, Viscount Muskerry, for (murder of) William Deane, 
alias Dene, and three others, Irish, and a woman called Nora. 

Evidence. 

As to generals. George Smith, present. Alice Stabber, 
present.' 

Mr. Attorney, for justifying the examinations taken by Mr. 
Bysse in Munster, produced the warrant for the Commission for 
taking the examinations, from the hands of Mr. Exham, the Clerk 
of the Hanaper, which was endorsed by some of those who paid the 
{illegible) now in Court. Also concerning the said examinations 
Mr. Thomas V/aring was examined in Court on oath of his receiving 
them by order from the Council of State to be {illegible), he saith 
further that by order he did abbreviate the said examinations as to 
losses (but) not ^ as to murders. ' 

• George Smith and Alice Stabber merely repeated the evidence already given 
by thorn on the former trial. 

* V. a7ite, p. 177. This passage, -with the exception of two words, is unusually 
clear and legible. The first word marked in above as illegible is probably ' fees ' 
or ' fines,' the second looks like ' preserved,' but it may be ' copied.' Here, at all 
events, is the explanation of Warner and Mr. Gilbert's (so called) ' cancellings.' 
They are marks of abbreviation made carefully so as not to cancel a single lino, 
but to leave it clear and valid. 



200 THE IRISH massacijes of ig4I. 

Mr. Attorney then desired that the exammations of Bird so 
taken should be recorded. To whicli the prisoner's counsel, Mr. 
Reardon, opposed that before the reading of the examinations it 
should be {illegible) concerning the said Bird, whether he be alive, 
if so, and that he may be had, that he appear, or that the truth of 
liis examinations appear on oath. 

William Bird (saith) that the Lord of Muslcerry about February, 
1641, told this examt. that the Irish had a commission from the 
king to do what he did. 

Mary Fife (saith) that her father having the Lord of Muskerry's 
protection, notwithstanding some of the Lord's soldiers did murder 
him, and she heard that the Lord of Muskerry liad notice thereof, 
and of the actors, yet never heard that he punished any for it, and 
the examt. durst not complain to the Lord of Muskerry. 

lilARY Austin. That the examt. 's father and her brother were 
murdered, that she believeth the Lord Muskerry heard of it, yet did 
not punish any for it; that John O'lveily, her late husband, Avas 
sent by the Lord IMuskerry to General Barry, by whom he was 
hanged, as she heard from Alice Stabber, that the Lady Muskerry 
did send (him) to the Lord Muskerry, who sent him to General 
Barry as aforesaid. 

Simon Brigges (saith) that in the ward of {illegible) he did see 
{illegible) persons hanged by the Lord of INIuskerry's command. 

John Cruce, present (in court, saith) that at the siege of 
{illegible) by the Lord Muskerry, one Dermot O'Brian, an Irishman 
of the English party, and not a soldier, was brought before the Lord 
of Muskerry and hanged in his camp in his presence. The oxamt. 
heard this from others. 

John Warren (saith that) John Millet and two others English 
(were) killed near the Lord of Muskerry's camp, that they had been 
prisoners the day before in the said camp, and were sent away with 
a convoy. 

William Gary, present (in court, saith) that John Phips, sent 
away by the Lord Muskerry with a convoy, he was with his wife 
hanged by the convoy, and the son of the said Phips also murdered 
afterwards by the same party. This by hearsay. 

Honora Shea, present (in court, saith) that William Woods 
and William {illegible), who had and shared the Lord Muskerry's 
protection, were notwithstanding murdered, this (was) done, as (was) 
reported, by some of the Lord ]\Iuskerry's soldiers, others reporting 
them to belong to others, this (was) about throe years since. 



i{ECORDS OF THE IllC.ri COURT OF JUSTICE. 201 

lloniniT MoKLFA', present (in court, saitli) as the former examt., 
Ilonora Shea, and that he did not think the Lord Muskerry careful 
of making good his protection. 

William Eames saith, that the Lord of Muskerry was of those 
that hcsieged the Castle of Askeaton, and that after quarter was 
given it was broken. 

December 8rd, 1G53. 

Evidc7icc. 

1. The prisoner's examination. (He saith) that in June or July, 
1G42, Kilfinny Castle was besieged by General Barry, not by this 
examt., that the siege continued about six {illegible). That he, this 
examt., was there but four or five days before the castle was 
delivered, he denieth that any were executed in hia presence, or 
that he did then hear of any (that were) executed after quarter 
given, that the quarter was for the English ; the Irish {illegible). 

2. Richard Blackball (saith) that he was besieged at Kil- 
finny by the Lords Muskerry, Roche, Major Purcell, etc., that 
William Deane was murdered {illegible), three Irishmen and Nora, 
a woman, hanged. 

3. Dame Elizabeth Dowdall saith that Licutenant-General 
Pati'ick Purcell, witli an army of seven thousand, (besieged) the 
Castle of Kilfinny, (which) being taken July 29th, 1641, William 
Deane, sent out as scout, was killed. That the chiefest of the 
besiegers were General Barry, Lieutcnant-Gcneral Purcell, and the 
Lord Viscount Muskerry, etc., that Nora and some others were then 
murdered. 

4. Anthony Shehyn (sic), present (in court, saith) that he was 
(among the) besieged at Kilfinny by the Lord Muskerry, etc., that 
William Deane was murdered at the siege, that {blank) and three 
Irishmen were hanged, and an Irishwoman after the castle (was) 
delivered. 

This Examinant's 3rd Examination. He names the persons 
of those Irish so hanged, and that he did see the day before the 
surrender the Lord of Muskerry ride by the castle, and did see 
him after the castle siu-rendered. That the Lord of Muskerry 
commanded there a regiment of foot, which he, this examt., did see 
(illegible), and on inquiry was told it was his (Lord Muskerry's). 
That (when) quarter was given, the Irish being to stand at mercy : 
that after those Irish were hanged, as before (related), the news of 



202 THE IRISH massacres of kui. 

it was brought to the Lady Dowdall, who demanded the reason, 
it was answered because they stayed with the EngUsh ; that two 
of those Irish so hanged did not bear (arms). 

The Prisoner's Defence. 

(He) desired to hear all his charges before (he made) a par- 
ticular defence ; the reason (is) for answering the articles together 
with Mr. Attorney's preamble, which did not relate to this (par- 
ticular) charge : yet proof was brought into it, contrary to the nature 
of a preamble. But, tlie Court desiring him to proceed to his 
defence on the present charge, he produced : 

1. Gerald fitz-Gerald (who saith) that he was in the Castle 
of Kilfinny when that place was besieged by General Barry, that 
the Lord Muskerry was at the siege, and that he, this examt., did 
not hear of any detained there, that the prisoners that were hanged 
did watch and ward, and did march out with others in the castle to 
take preys, and had arms in the place, that they did take preys in 
the country before the siege ; so said Anthony Sherwin ; that Nora 
or her brother did go forth as a spy, which occasioned their hanging 
her, whereas they spared other Irishwomen there ; so said Sherwin ; 
that the Lord of Muskerry was not present (at the execution), and 
that the execution was by order of General Barry and Purcell, and 
was [illegible) by the captain that carried this examt. with the rest 
[illegible). 

2. Captain David Poer (saith) that the quarter to the castle 
was that^the Irish [illegible) General Barry commanded three men 
and a woman to be hanged, being Irish, that the Lord Muskerry 
liad no command at the siege, that General Barry commanded in 
chief. 

3. John Gold (saith) that going to Limerick he went to the 
siege of Kilfinny, which was in the way ; that the Irish (in the 
castle) were by the General Barry excepted from quarter, and that 
the woman Nora was looked upon as a spy that passed through the 
camp into the castle ; that those hanged were executed the day 
after the surrender, as he remembers. He did not stay (to be 
present) at the execution [illegible), the examt. is now servant to 
the Lord Muskerry, and [illegible) since 1G44 ; that the Lord 
Muskerry had no command at that siege, that he (examt.) desired 
General Barry to give him a convoy going away, which he refused 
till Newcastle were taken. 



RECOKUS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 203 

Council, Mn. Reardon {illegible). That those hanged were 
(hanged) hy order of the General (Barry) or of Lieutcnant-Gencral 
Purcell, the Lord Muskerry was there, hut as a private person, none 
ordered hy him to be hanged, and he (was) not present at the execu- 
tions, and, not having command, he neither advised nor acted nor 
kept {illegible) to be charged with it. 

As to the Time of the Acts. 

It was in the first year (of the rebellion), a puissant army of 
7,000, with a lieutenant-general, a major-general, in an orderly 
course of war (illegible), whether what was done at that time be 
(illegible) excepted in the articles. 

As to the Charge. 

The actors (in the murder), said to be persons unknown, and 
(no one can be charged as) accessory with persons unknown, the 
other persons murdered are unlmown, the evidence is as to persons 
known, so as the provisions agree not to the charge. 

Mr. Brown. By the articles murder excepted, (illegible). 

The prisoner challengeth the articles and the {illegible). 

At the Private Debate. 

DoNOGii, Viscount Muskekby \ 
for L 

William Deane, etc. ] 
As to matter of fact . . . G uilty. 

Articles considered . . . Not Guilty. 

Read the Sentence. 

As now on the whole matter you are discharged, my Lord, give 
me leave for a word to you. You have escaped the last judgment 
of this Court. You had a just judgment of indemnity in the first 
charge, (and) of acquittal in the rest. 

I only offer now to your notice this, that when you went off and 
joined with the rebels, if that you have not joined with all that they 
did, and the shedding of innocent blood, with which these wicked 
rebels have defiled the land, yet see if it deserves not your serious 
thoughts, that through you also the sword hath raged in this land 
and plague and famine. 



204 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

We shall all one day stand before the judgment-seat of Christ 
to answer for all done ; and certainly, surely, for this also at that day, 
my Lord, you must answer, and see if you have not in that join- 
ing, joined Avith one of the most horrible massacres in the (world). 
I observe two such: 1, the Sicilian Evensong, anno 1282, when 
all the French were (cut off) by conspiracy on Easter Day at the 
tolling of the Evensong, which they (the Sicilians) performed without 
sparing any, for they intended to root out all the French [illegible). 
This was the Sicilian Vespers. 

The second massacre, that of Paris (St. Bartholomew), was also 
very notorious, but it and the other were short of this. That of 
Sicily was to root out the French, this was to root out the English 
nation and the Protestant religion, there but 8,000 killed, only a 
few that escaped to a fort called {illegible), who were afterwards 
starved. But here in a short time above 800,000 British and 
Protestants murdered or lost in cold blood, so as that the number 
far exceeds Paris or Sicily, no torments, no burying alive there, 
only death, but here death was a mercy {illegible). 

Now, my Lord, lay your hand on your heart when you leave us 
(illegible) that party, see how this blood comes home (to them). 
Go ! expiate it by repentance. 



Lord Muskerry's Speech after his Acquittal. 

I have not much to say, although I cannot say all I feel in the 
way of thanks to this Honourable Court (illegible), I must say 
that I have in these whole proceedings met with justice, without 
any leaning to my prejudice, but that if any leaning hath been it 
liath been to my favour rather. It is one of the greatest provi- 
dences that ever I met with this. I met many crosses in Spain and 
Portugal. I could get no rest till I came hither, and the crosses I 
met here are much affliction to me, but when I consider that in 
this Court I come clear out of that blackness of blood by being so 
sifted, it is more to me than my (lost) estate. I can live without' 
my estate, but not without my credit. 



UKCORDS OF TJIK HIGH COUllT OF JUSIICi:. 205 



THE CASE OF COLONEL MACSWEENY. 

The first witness examined against Colonel Maolmurry ' Mac- 
Sweeny appears to have been Maolrony O'Carroll, Constable of 
Castle Doe for the English government and a Protestant, whose de- 
position, talvon on the 2Gth of April, 1G43, by the three clerical com- 
missioners, Rev. John Watson, Rev. Randal Adams, and Rev. Henry 
Brercton, has been given at p. 142. MacSweeny was then serving 
in the Irish army with many others against whom similar charges 
had been made. Yet the clerical commissioners have been censured 
by Irish writers for having taken depositions against the accused in 
their absence, as though the unfortunate clergymen had it in their 
power to compel the accused to leave the Irish army and appear 
before them in the midst of a fierce civil war. The marvel is how 
the Commissioners or Magistrates were able to move about the 
country at all at such a time, that they did so at peril of their lives 
is shown by the murder of Archdeacon Bysse, one of their number, 
in Waterford, on his Avay to Dublin with the depositions he had 
taken (v. vol. i. p. 123). After the reduction of the whole island 
by Cromwell, the relatives of Mr. Aikins revived the old charge of 
IG'13 against MacSweeny. By that time O'Carroll was probably 
dead, at least ho was not re-examined in 1058, and as usual, tho 
Cromwellian Court did not rest satisfied with tho depositions of ten 
years before, but sought in every direction for living witnesses, 
whose evidence miglit be collated with these documents. 

I desire to call the reader's particular attention to this case, 
inasmuch as it shows how utterly incorrect is Sir Charles Gavan 
Duffy's account of the Commission issued under Cromwell to inquire 
into the murders committed between 1041-54. Sir Charles tells us 
that this Comniission was issued to investigate the wrongs of the 

' For the mcaiiiii;,' of Maolnnirry (wiUed in I'higlish Myles) iiiid Maolrony 
r. .Tuvco'^! Irish ]S'(i»u\i, Ist Series, [>. ;iGO. 



200 THE IRISH massacres of igil 

' British in Ii-eland,' and that the ' maddest evidence ' was received 
by it ' against the Irish, while no witness was heard on their behalf ' 
{Bird's-eye Vietu of Irish Histonj, p. 100). This is surely the 
' maddest assertion * that party prejudice ever put forth even in 
Ireland. As I have already shown, more than thirty depositions, 
some of them made in Irish by the Magees and other poor Irisli 
Roman Catholics (who probably had not a drop of British blood in 
their veins) whose relatives were murdered in the retaliatory mas- 
sacres at and near Island Magee in January, 1042 (N.S.), were taken 
by the Cromwellian Commissioners against the Scotch and English 
murderers. Some of those depositions and many others against 
English and Scotch murderers of Irish are now laid before the 
reader for the first time, after they have been neglected or delibe- 
rately suppressed from party motives, by every writer except the 
able and impartial historian of the Irish Presbyterian Church, Dr. 
Reid. We can see for ourselves, unless we prefer to be misled, as 
Sir C. G. Duffy has been, by the rhetoric and false statements of 
Burke and Curry, that the Cromwellian Commissioners took care to 
collect evidence against all murderers, English, Irish, and Scotch, 
showing no favour or partiality to any one of them, on account of his 
creed or nationality, or the worldly position or creed of his victims. 
So far did the Commissioners go in their care to punish murderers 
of inoffensive Irish, and to sift and test the evidence of Englishmen 
and Scotchmen against Irishmen, and to allow the latter to bring 
forward witnesses for their defence, that Carte and other royalist 
writers charge them (the Cromwellian Commissioners and judges) 
with unjustly favouring the Irish, just as in the following letters Ave 
find Mr. Aikins, a Cromwellian officer, charging Colonel Venables 
with unduly favouring Colonel MacSweeny. Indeed, Sir Charles 
Gavan Duffy, with a curious inconsistency, says that the ' only 
notable victim ' of the Commission (which a few pages before he re- 
presents as eager to exterminate the Irish) was Sir Phelim O'Neil 
{v. Bird's-eye Vieio of Irish History, pp. 100-118). There are 
birds and birds, but clearly Sir C. G. Duffy's bird is not the ' keen- 
eyed eagle.' The truth is that a poet seldom makes a good historian, 
and that in much of what Sir C. G. Duffy has written about 1G41 
he has been guided by that mistaken poetic maxim which he sets 
forth in the dedication of his brochure to the Roman Catholic bishop 
of Clogher, that ' traditions and memories interpret the past better 
than the historian.' One of the real grievances of Ireland is that 
writers on her past and statesmen who desire to draw instruction 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 207 

from it too often prefer to rely on traditiona and memories more or 
less myths, rather than on the sober facts of history. How these 
latter can put an end once and for ever to the myths about the in- 
justice of the Cromwellian Commissioners to the Irish leaders the 
following documents will help to show. 



To the Right Honourable Sir Gerald Lowthcr, Knight and Baronet, 
Lord President of the High Court of Justice, sitting in Dublin, 
these, 

Right Honouiiable : In observance of the Commission sent 
to us bearing date the 10th of January last, we have sent for Mr. 
Alexander Aikins, not being able to get any information of any other 
person in this precinct that could give evidence concerning the mur- 
ders committed by Colonel Myles MacSweeny and others, and we 
took his (Mr. Aikins') examinations and recognizances to {illegible) 
and afterwards by virtue of your said Commission we sent unto the 
said Mr. Aikins unto the north, having written unto Sir George 
St. George to send some soldiers along with him, to endeavour the 
apprehending of MacSweeny and the rest, who had their hands in 
that murder ; but after his long stay there, seeing he could not 
apprehend them, he sent us the enclosed letter, which with his ex- 
amination and recognizance we have transmitted to you, and leave 
to your consideration. Having received information from Captain 
Takenham, that there was one Dendy hi Captain Sandford's troop, 
who could give evidence concernhig the murders committed at 
Bellanleck [sic] in the year 1651, for which we understand Daniel 
Maguire is now prisoner in Dublin, we sent for him and hkewise 
for Nangle, Darcy, and Fagan, who the said Dendy informed us, he 
conceived were accessory to the murder, and having taken their ex- 
aminations, they confessing nothing which we could apprehend to 
bo material, and his (Dendy's) evidence against them being but 
slender, we adventured, upon good bonds for their appearance upon 
summons, to let them have their liberty ; his recognizance to 
prosecute the examinations, bonds, and recognizances, we hke- 
wise enclose, and having also received some information against 
Con Kelly about the murder of Thomas MacEgan, we took the 
enclosed examination, but seeing we could not apprehend his body, 
although we endeavoured it, we proceeded no further. We do here- 
with return your Commission, which if not delayed (through our 
not hearing from Mr. Aikins until very lately) you had received 



208 THE inisii massacres of ion. 

sooner, and leaving the whole to your consideration and to the 

guidance of the {illegihle), we remain your assured and humble 

servants, 

H, Waddington. 

Athlone, 20th March, 1653. Alex. Brasier. 

[Enclosure.) 

The Examination of Alexander Aikins, gent., of the (blank) in Sir 
George St. George's comimny of foot, concerning the murder of 
Bobert Aikins, and some otlier Englisli in the beginning oftlic re- 
bellion at Clandehorba, in the county of Donegal, in the 'province 
of Ulster, taken by order of a Commission of the High Court of 
Justice, sitting at Dublin, bearing date the IQth of January 
instant, directed unto Alexander Braxfield, James Shacn, 
Henry Waddington, and George Southcote, Esqs., or any one 
of them. 

The said examt., Alexander Aikins, aged about twenty years, 
duly sworn and examined, deposeth and saith, that this examt. 's 
father, Eobert Aikins, minister of God's word of the parish of 
Clanderhorba, in tlie county of Donegal, Avith several other persons 
were living in a slated house, three stories high, at Clandehorba 
aforesaid, in the first year of the rebellion. And that about Candle- 
mas in the said year, in the night time, when all the people of the 
house were asleep, there came some persons unto tlie door and 
knocked, and this examt. 's said father awaking, inquired of one 
Edward Evans, advising ' him thereof. The said Robert Aikins de- 
manded who was at the door, and it was answered, ' I, ]\Iaohnurry 
MacSweeny.' Thereupon the said Robert caused a candle to be 
lighted, and called upon one to open the door, whereupon the said 
MacSweeny and five more, viz. Manus MacKonogher, Dualtagli 
MacGarvy, Brian Reagh Ofifary, Donnel Macllbridy, and Neil 
O'Donnell, came rushing into the said house with their swords 
drawn. And the said Robert Aikins inquiring of the said Maol- 
murry MacSweeny what was the matter with them, the said Maol- 
murry answering bade him put on his clothes and he should know 
presently. And having caused the said Robert to put on his clothes, 
the said Myles ^lacSweeny took him and three more, viz. Marcus 
Aikins and John Aikins, brothers, unto the said Robert, and one 
Robert Buchanan out of doors, and bade them say their prayers, 

' /. e. wiiriiiiifr liiin oi- tcllini^ him of the kimckiiiii;. 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 209 

and then brought them into a barn, where they hanged them 
all four and murdered one John Adams, whom they stabbed with 
skeans, being all English Protestants, and afterwards the said 
Myles came back again into the said house and sat down upon 
Edward Evan's bedside, with his sword drawn, lying across his knee. 
And then one Janet Parbarot (sic), lying in bed in the same room, 
went down upon her knees and prayed him to save her and such of 
her family as were there, whereupon the said Myles (in Irish Maol- 
murry) promised and said, ' My life for you and yours, no harm shall 
come to you or to any one that belongeth unto you.' And then when 
news was brought that the said Robert and the other four were mur- 
dered he, MacSweeny, went out of the house, and having put this 
examt. and all belonging to his father out of it, he put the said Janet 
in possession of this examt. 's father's house and goods. And then 
he with those of his company went away that night ; and the next 
morning some of the said Myles's men, but examt. cannot positively 
depose whether the said Myles was with them or not, came to the 
said house and took the widows of the said murdered persons, and 
hanging up ropes upon the rafters, threatened that if they would 
not confess their money they would hang them. Whereupon one 
Elizabeth Todd, the widow of the aforesaid John Aikins, confessed 
and gave sixteen or twenty pounds unto them, which money the 
said Elizabeth did lately receive satisfaction for from the said Myles. 
And this examt. saith, that his cause of knowledge of what he hath 
deposed is, that he was in that said house the night the murders 
were committed, and that he saw the said Myles and the other 
persons who came upstairs with him, Avith their swords drawn, and 
doth perfectly remember and know what he hath deposed to be 
true. And further saith, that one Robert Dall, who held the candle 
while the said persons were murdered in the barn, told the widows 
awhile after, in this deponent's hearing, that the said Myles cut down 
the said Marcus after he was hung up, and that afterwards the 
said Marcus was hanged up until he died. And this examt. further 
saith, that he is informed and verily belie veth that the said Myles 
MacSweeny, Manus McConogher, Dualtagh McGarvey, Brian Reagh 
Offary, Donogh MacGilbridy, and Neil O'Donnell, the murderers 
aforesaid, do now lie and reside in the country of Doe, in the county of 
Dunangall (sic) and barony of Kilmacrennan, and parishes of Clande- 
horba, Rey, and MuUish O'Biggory {sic) in the province of Ulster. 
And being demanded who can probably give evidence on behalf of 
the Commonwealth concerning the matters and things aforesaid, 

VOL. II. p 



210 i'lIE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1641. 

this examt. saith, that the persons undernamed can give full infor- 
mation therein, viz. Margaret Walker, late wife to Mr. Robert 
Aikins, who was then murdered, now married to William Cumber- 
land, living in the town of Coleraine, Elizabeth Todd, late wife to 
John Aikins, now widow, living in the county of Donegal, barony of 
Raphoe, parish of Rey, Elizabeth Morton, late wife of John Adams, 
who was then murdered, now married to Edward Dall, living in the 
parish of Clandehorba, barony of Kilmacrenan, county of Donegal, 
Robert Dall, husbandman, now living in the same parish, barony, 
and county : Janet Greenhill, married to Phelimy O'Dogherty, 
now living in the parish of Menagh, barony of Kilmacrenan, county 
of Donegal, Jane Evans, married to James Peebles, now living 
in the same parish, barony, and county. And further deposeth 

not. 

Alexander Aikins. 

Taken as aforesaid, 28th January, 1653, before vs, 
II. Waddington. 
Alex. Braxfield. 

To the Honourable the Commissioners of Bevenuc for the 2^recinct of 
Athlone, tJiese present. Hast, liast {sic). 

Honourable Sirs, — By virtue of the power, authority, and 
order given me by your honours for to repair into the province of 
Ulster with a commanded party of Sir George St. George's soldiers 
for the apprehending of the bodies of such persons as had a hand in 
the murder of Robert Aikins and others who were murdered at one 
time with him. According to your honours' orders, I have been in 
the aforesaid province, and have done as much as it possibly lay in 
my power to do, in exercising my duty in performance of the trust 
laid upon me, yet could not find any of the said persons, orders 
having been sent to the Commissioners of the Revenue for Derry 
ten days before my going into those parts, viz. to Major Bolton, 
Ralph King, Owen Wynn, and John Reeves for the causing of the 
body of Colonel Myles MacSweeny to be appreliended and sent close 
prisoner to Dublin, the said Colonel MacSweeny, not thinking of 
any such thing, went, as I was informed, to the gates of Derry, and 
there got intelligence that if he would go into the town he would be 
apprehended. What way he could have been thus informed I can- 
not tell, unless it were by some person belonging to the Commis- 
Bioners, for it is told me that none did know of it but themselves and 



nECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 211 

some officers that they had given orders to for the apprehending of 
him : but being informed one way or the other at the very gates of 
Derry, he went away and could not be found, neither could I hear 
where he should be, he being so well beloved by all in these parts, 
and especially by ' Colonel Venables, Lieut.-Col. Thomas Newburgh, 
and the rest of the Commissioners. They told me they were sure 
he was cleared of the murder laid to his charge before them already, 
and that they would do their endeavour that he should not suffer 
for it. As for the rest of the murderers, there is (sic) three of them 
in the county of Dunagall and barony of Kilmacronnan, viz. Dual- 
tagh MacGarvey, Donell MacGilbridy, and Brian Reagh Offary, they 
are maintained by their friends in the said barony, yet hath this 
long time been upon their keeping. They were at my being there 
treating with one Lieutenant Matthew Foot, that they might have 
his safe conduct to come in and clear themselves, and lay the fact 
upon Colonel MacSwcony, who is guilty of it, but they would not 
come in so long as I was in the country. Yet they are much afraid to 
come in, by reason that they are informed Colonel Venables is such 
a great friend of Colonel MacSweeny, and would, right or wrong, 
have them to suffer for what MacSweeny hath done. For what 
they did they say they will make it appear it was by his directions and 
commands, he being then their connnander. Colonel Venables 
I am confident hath written to Dublin that MacSweeny may be 
granted the privilege to be tried in Ulster, when, as I heard Colonel 
Newburgh say, he would be willing to come in and there to be tried, 
but as for to be sent to Dublin, he (Newburgh) considered that they 
were as sufficient to try him there as to send him to any other place. 
I know very well if they pleased they might apprehend him, but 
they had rather give him intelligence of any such thing than do him 
any such prejudice, they are all of them such friends of his, and will 
do all they can to clear him. I delivered your honours' letters to the 
Commissioners, wherein you desired that they would be pleased to 
give me their warrant, being within their precinct, for seizing the 
goods of the murderers, the which at first they granted, and wrote 
their warrant upon my petition, and after they had signed it they said 
one to another that Colonel Venables would be offended at it, and they 
tore it in pieces, and said they would give me no warrant for any- 
thing until they did know Colonel Venables' pleasure in it. Upon 
which Colonel Venables came to Derry, when I did question the 
Commissioners before him the reason for not granting me my 

' ^oniparo Bird's-eye View of Ireland, p. 122. 

P 2 



212 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1C41. 

lawful request. They answered me that tliey would consider what 
they thought fitting to be done, and bade me to wait and they 
would give me an answer : so after having waited ten days upon 
them, their answer to me at last was that they would give me no 
order against their goods until they saw whether they (the accused) 
were condemned or not. Their plot for it is that I may not have any 
ability wherewith I may be able to pursue against MacSweeny 
in law, neither am I able for want of the same to pursue him, nor 
the others ; they made me wait upon them so long that it did prove 
very chargeable to me, having the charges of eight soldiers to pay 
for the space of twelve days, while the said Commissioners kept me 
there, and nothing the better for my staying. 

I have sent here enclosed unto your honours my petition, humbly 
desiring that your honours may be pleased to get me a warrant for 
the goods of the murderers, without which I am not able to pursue 
them, nor answer at any court where I shall be summoned to appear, 
all which I humbly desire your honours to take into consideration, 
and trust that they who defend the cause of murderers will be 
found out. There are two of the murderers, as I am informed, viz. 
Manus McConogher and Neil O'Donnell, in the county of Tyrone, 
but what place within that county I cannot tell, this being all that 
I can give you and account of, I take leave and rest 

Your honours' in all humbleness to serve you, 

Alexander Aikins. 
Carrigdromask, this 2,5th March, 1653. 

{Enclos2ire.) 

The Humble Petition of Alexander Aikins to the Et. Hon. the 
Commissioners of the Bevenue of Ulster, 

Humbly sheweth, unto your Honours, that in the first year of 
the late rebellion in Ireland Colonel Miles ]\IacSweeny took 
away in his custody and keeping the value of 200/. worth of your 
petitioner's father's goods and chattels, which he converted to 
his own use, and refuses to give your petitioner any satisfaction 
for the same, pretending that his capitulation doth fi'ee him of all 
such like facts done by him. It is the desire of your petitioner 
that he (the said Colonel) might appear and first clear himself 
of the murder laid to his charge, which if he can free himself of 
that he may be the sooner freed of what robberies he hath done 
if his capitulation doth clear him. So it may be please your 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 213 

Ilonourg that your petitioner doth conceive that if he, Colonel 
MacSweeny, cannot clear himself of the murders laid against 
him, that he is as Hahle to give satisfaction for what rohberies he 
hath done as for the murders he hath committed. May it there- 
fore please your Honours to take the premises into consideration, 
and to grant your petitioner a warrant to what officer your 
Honours shall think fit, for the seizing upon the goods, chattels, 
and corn of the said Myles MacSweeny, and the same to be put 
upon security until the said MacSweeny appears and answers 
your petitioner's suit. And your petitioner shall always pray, &c. 
&c. — February 1st, 1G53. 



To the Bt. Hon. Sir Gerard Lowther, Knight, Lord President of 
the High Court of Justice at Dublin. 

My Lord, — Some public occasions drawing me at this time 
hither, I met with your Lordship's (order) to one Mr. Aykins {sic) 
for the apprehending of Colonel Miles MacSweeny with others as 
murderers of his father Mr. Aykins, a minister, and in regard some 
occurrences relating unto that matter are known to me, I thought 
myself obliged to give your Lordship an account of my knowledge. 
In September, 1052, I marched to suppress the said MacSweeny, 
who was in arms at that time in these parts, and hearing some 
reports of the said Mr. Aykins' murder, I made inquiries into the 
matter and examined some witnesses, Scots, Protestants and such 
as lost some of their nearest relatives at that time, by some of the 
men in your order mentioned, being some of them servants to Mr. 
Aykins at the time of his death and eye-witnesses of all that was 
done, as Robert Dall, Janet Doherty (a Scotchwoman as I am in- 
formed married to an Irishman, her daughter married to a Scottish- 
man), and one Greenhill, who lost his mother and brother, as is re- 
lated, with some others whose examinations were taken by Sir 
George St. George at my request, in regard I declined to enter 
into any treaty, much less to conclude any articles with the said 
MacSweeny until I were satisfied he was guilty or no ; and since 
his articles were approved and further explanations added to them 
by the Rt. Hon. the Commissioners of the Commonwealth, of all 
which Examinations, Articles, and Explanations the enclosed are 
copies. This young Aykins lived a soldier under Sir George St. 
George when those examinations were taken and could not be 
ignorant of the business, and was then silent ; since which time he 



214 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1641. 

and his mother, of whose abode at the time I could not learn any- 
thing, have sought unto MacSweeny for satisfaction, which being 
denied in that measure they demanded, they now prosecute him, 
after they have, as I am informed, taken some money which their 
threats and hia fears extracted from him, not being guilty as I be- 
lieve. Aykins' petition is herein enclosed, who being examined by 
us, confessed that in September last he demanded the money for 
his father's goods, which being refused, he, in January last, in- 
formed against the said MacSweeny, who hath lately writ to me 
and I believe will offer himself to trial, but is I am informed at 
present very sick, and very probably will give bonds to appear when 
recovered, if your Lordship please to allow of the same. His 
fidelity since his submission in discovering enemies, and assisting 
our forces upon all occasions which all the State's servants em- 
ployed in those parts can and will testify, from whom I have this, 
will I hope persuade your Lordship to accept of bail (for him), 
which is all that is humbly offered on his behalf by, my Lord, 

Your Lordship's very humble servant, 

R. Venables. 
Derry, Feb. 22nd, 1653. 

[Enclosure 1.) 

The Examination of Robert Ball, of Donraghe in the parish of 
Kilmacrennan, cou7ity of Donegal, taken by me, Sir George 
St. George, Knt., at Castledoe, by the direction of the Hon. 
Colonel Venables, Lt.-Col. [torn) iipon the last day of Sep- 
tember, 1G52, tuho being duly sworn on the Holy Evangelists, 

Saith, that he being at Mr. Robert Akin's ' house, his then 
master, at the very beginning of the rebellion, there came to 
that house in the night, three hours before day, some men and 
knocked very earnestly at the door requiring to come in : they 
within fearing no great harm opened the door to them, when 
presently entered four men, viz. Manus McKonogher, Dualtagh 
MacGarvey, Brian Eeogh Offary, and Donell MacGilbridy. The 
first man, Manus MacKonogher, had his sword drawn, and to the 
best of this examinant's remembrance there was also one Neil 
O'Donnell, who likewise came into the house with his sword 

' The name is spelt indifferently in the depositions, Aikins, Aikin, Akin, and 
Aykins, but this is a common occurrence in old documents, wliero a suruame is 
often spelt in a dozen different ways. 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 215 

drawn. As soon as they came in they called earnestly for Mr. 
Kobert Aildus and his two brothers to rise hastily, which ac- 
cordingly they did, then they pressed them hard to have money 
from them. Uv. Aikins answered them that he had none and 
told them that it was well known in the comitry that he lived to 
the height of his estate, that he had newly built the house he 
lived in, and married one of his daughters, which would suffi- 
ciently excuse him from ha^^ng any money, if they would be 
reasonable. They replied that they would have money or they 
would put him to death, he answering still as before that he had 
none : then they took him and his two brothers Marcus Aikins 
and John Aikins and led them forth of the door threatening to 
kill them unless they (the rebels) might get money, which the 
others still said they had not: then they bade them (their 
prisoners) prepare to die, offering them to choose what death they 
would die, either to be killed by a sword or bullet or to be hanged, 
they all chose to be hanged, so they (the rebels) carried them all 
into Mr. Eobert Aikin's barn a little remote from the house, and 
first they hanged up Marcus Aikin ; then presently came in 
Colonel Miles MacSweeny, who very much reproved them for 
that bloody act and presently di-ew his sword and cut down 
Marcus Aikin again, and charged them with all the earnestness 
he could to desist from such outrages, and not only to forbear 
hanging the other two, but him he had cut down, who was then 
recovered and walked on his feet about the house. I\Ianu3 
O'Konogher replied that he would not obey any of Colonel 
MacSweeny's commands that night, and presently the said 
Manus and his company took the said Colonel by the neck and 
thrust him out of doors and locked the door, and so they returned 
to their bloody business and hanged up all the three brothers 
and another man called Eobert Buchanan, a servant of Mr. 
Aikins. After that they went to John Adams' house and brought 
him to the barn where those men lay dead and bade him prepare 
himself to be hanged as the rest were before him, he told them 
he would not, and so struggled the best he could for his life, and 
then Manus McKonogher drew out a long skean he had and 
thrust it through him and so killed him, this deponent saith they 
forced him to carry a candle and light them all the time they 
were doing these villanies, which is the cause of his certain 
knowledge of all that he hath here deposed. He also saith that 
Colonel Miles MacSweeny came not to them until seven o'clock 



216 THE IKISII MASSACRES OF 1041. 

the next morning after he was thrust out of doors, and then he 
came to the house, and this deponent could not observe that 
either the night before, or in the morning when he came, that 
he had any wish or desire that any should be murdered, but was 
very much offended at it. 

signed George St. Gkoiiqe. 

copia vera, examined by us, this 20th Feb. 1653, 
E. Venables. 
Ealph King. 
John Keeves. 

[Enclosure 2.) 

The Examination of Janet O'Doherty being taken before Sir 
George St. George, Knt., at Castledoe, the last of September, 
1652, by desire and order of the Hon. Colonel Venables and 
Lieut. -Col. Thomas Newburgh. 

Who being duly sworn upon the Holy Evangelists saith, that 
Bhe being in Mr. Robert Akin's house, with her husband where 
they then lived about the Candlemass after these wars began, 
there came some men to that house after their first sleep in the 
night and called earnestly to come in (i.e. to be allowed to come 
in). Mr. Robert Akin himself rose out of his bed opened the 
door and let them in, when presently entered Colonel Miles 
MacSweeny, Manus MacKonogher, Donell MacGilbridy, and 
Donnell MacGarvey, Brian Reagh Offary, and Neil O'Donncll. 
Upon their coming in in such a manner John Akins demanded 
of them what they would have, and some of them, this deponent 
knoweth not which, said they would have money : presently 
another, whom she thinks was Manus O'Konogher, answered that 
they would have lives and money afterwards M'hen they had 
(torn) them all. Robert, Marcus, John, and the servant Robert 
Buchanan put on their clothes, and they (the rebels) carried them 
out of the dwelling-house into the barn, this deponent and her 
husband being in their (torn) in an upper chamber in the house 
saw not further what they [torn). After a little Avhile Colonel 
MacSweeny came into the chamber of this deponent where she 
lay and sat down at the {to7-n) side and told this deponent and 
her husband that those com.{torn) that were with him had 
hanged up Marcus Akin, which he thought at the first they had 
done in jest, but seeing the man was black in the face and sup- 
posing he drew nep;r death, he drew out hig sword and cut him 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 217 

down, and desired tliem, as he told this deponent, that they 
would forbear to kill any of them, whereupon they took him by 
the shoulder and told him he was a faint-hearted fellow and 
thrust him out of doors, from whence he came to this deponent's 
lodging as aforesaid and stayed until fair {i.e. clear) day in the 
morning. This deponent further saith, that after the murderers 
had dispatched their murders, they came into Mr. Akin's house 
agam, and one of them, Manus MacKonogher, having a long skean 
in his hand, his arm being bloody up to the elbow, sat down and 
called for drink ; then he and the rest of his followers were 
boasting and bragging of what they had done, and they said that 
Colonel MacSweeny was but a faint-hearted, cowardly man, and 
that they had thrust him out of door from amongst them for 
that he would not have them kill the men. And further de- 

poneth not. 

signed George St. Geoege. 
cojjia vera. 

{Enclosure 3.) 

The Examination of John GreenhiU, of the jiarish of Moragh, 
barony of {illegible), county of Donegal, husbandman, aged 
forty years or thereabouts, taken before us the 2nd of 
' October, 1G62. 

This deponent being duly sworn, on the day aforesaid, de- 
posoth and saith as followeth, viz. : that in or about the month 
of February, 1G41, this deponent being at Mr. Robert Akin's 
house at {illegible) in the county aforesaid there came thither 
Colonel Maolmurry MacSweeny, Manus MacKonogher, Doltagh 
MacGarvey, Daniel Macllbridy, Neil O'Donnell, and Brian Reagh 
Offary, who, as they confessed, often stayed in the said Mr. Akin's 
house, and took forth Mr. llobert Akm and his brothers, Mr. 
John and Mr. Mark Akm, and Robert Buchanan their servant, 
and carried them to the said Mr. Akm's barn near his house, 
where they first hanged the said Mark Akin. And the said 
Colonel Maolmurry MacSweeny coming thither after them, and 
finding the said Mark Akin hanged, did threaten the said Manus 
MacKonogher, and the rest of his confederates, and thereupon 
the said Colonel MacSweeny drew out his sword and did cut the 
rope wherewith they hanged the said Mark, so that he fell down 
alive begging his life again, whereupon the said Manus and the 



218 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IQil. 

rest of the said party did, as they said, thrust the said Colonel 
MacSweeny out of the door, locking the door upon him, and 
calling him a cowardly base fellow for not joining with them in 
executing and murdering the said Mark Akin and his son and 
servant, whom they murdered, as they told this deponent that 
very night, and that Colonel MacSweeny thereupon fell a weeping 
without doors at their killing Scotchmen as they all said. And 
this deponent also saith, that the said Manus MacKonogher and 
Doltagh MacGai'vey did in this deponent's hearing in a bragging 
manner affirm and say, that they and the said Donell Macllbridy, 
Neil O'Donnell, and Brian Reagh Offary did at the time aforesaid 
send for one John Adams, then living near Clonder {blank) afore- 
said, and would have hanged him, but he struggling with them 
they took their skeans and stabbed him. And this deponent 
further saith, that he hath often afterwards seen the said Colonel 
MacSweeny weep and lament the murdering and killing of Mr. 
Akins, his son, and servant aforesaid.' 

signed Egbert Venables. 

J. Edwards. 

Thos. Nbwburgh. 

copia vera, examined by us this 20th of February, 1653, Egbert 
Venables, Ea. King, Thomas Newburqh, John Eeeves, 
Francis Bolton, Owen Wynn. 

' Janet Peebles (daughter of Janet Doherty) and John Ennis also swore to the 
eamo effect. 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 219 



HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 
Gth Sep. 1654. 

Trial of Edmund O'Eeilly, 2^^'i'^st and Vicar -General, and of 
Edmund Duffe Birne, for the murder at the Black Castle of 
Wickloio, 2,dth December, 1G42. 

Evidence. 

Luke Birne. That before the battle of {illegible) Hill, he was 
at dinner with Edmund Birne {illegible). That O'Reilly advised 
him (witness) to kill all the English about him. That witness 
saying that Joyce was a person of honour, O'Reilly replied, ' I know 
more than you.' Edmund Duffe told witness he had a hand in that 
murder. O'Reilly charged witness with high treason for corre- 
sponding with the English, and got him thereupon to be questioned 
and committed, and that the said O'Reilly excommunicated him 
for favouring the English. 

Hugh MoLoughlin Birne. (It was) reported that Edmund 
Duffe Birne and others were principals actors in that murder. 

Hugh McLoughlin Birne, further examined, (swore he) 
heard that Edmund Duffe Birne, etc., (were) actors in that murder. 
Heard that O'Reilly continued at Ashpole's house at Wicklow until 
the night of that day, and that some of the murderers were in his 
company before the action. He believeth that O'Reilly had a hand 
in the murder for the reasons aforesaid. 

Peter Wickham, (present in court, swears) that he, being then 
high sheriff of Wicklow, and at Ashpole's house at Wicklow, did 
see Edmund O'Reilly (there). That he, this examt., ordered the 
empannclling a jury for inquiring of that murder ; that (on his) 
saying they (the warders of the Black Castle) were murdered, 
O'Reilly said, ' What great hurt was there if those churls were burnt 
accidentally ? ' Witness was told by the inhabitants of Wicklow, 
that Edmund O'Reilly did he at Ashpole's house aforesaid all the 
night that the murders were committed, and that Edward Birne, 
foreman of the said jury, saying it was murder, he was put out 
and another put in his place. That Edmund O'Reilly, being one 
of the commissioners for the county, refused to deliver the Castle of 
Wicklow to the English, for it would be, he said, {illegible) to the 



220 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

country to keep it. Heard that O'Eeilly was present when Edward 
Birne was removed from the jury as aforesaid, that the said Birne 
said so to the examt., and (it was) so reported commonly. 

Edward Birne, present (in court, swears) that he was fore- 
man of the jury, that being of opinion that it was murder, he was 
sent for by Edmund O'Reilly, one of the commissioners for the 
county of Wicklow, and demanded why he thought it murder, and 
he gave his cause of knowledge therein, and he was, by the said 
O'Reilly and the rest of the commissioners, put out of the jury. 
That this inquiry was two or three days after the murder, and that 
another foreman was put in his place. (It was) reported that 
Edmund Duffe Birne did that murder. (It was) reported that 
O'Reilly was an adviser in that murder, and an {illegible) of it 
before the fact. 

Edward Birne's further examination. That he was by Edmund 
O'Reilly and the rest of the commissioners, of whom he (O'Reilly) 
was chief, put off the jury, for the reasons aforesaid, and com- 
mitted by them for twenty-four hours, and being released that he, 
with Peter Wickham, desired Edmund O'Reilly and {illegible) to 
permit the persons murdered to be buried, offering twenty shillings 
for each of them ; they (O'Reilly and the commissioners with him) 
refused, in that they (the murdered men) were heretics, (to bury 
them) in the church or churchyard, and that O'Reilly ordered 
examt. 's imprisonment aforesaid. 

Thomas Sherin {sic). That he was then servant to Edward 
Birne, former examt., examined June 8rd, 1645, soon after the 
fact, and that Edward Birne and Peter Wickham offered twenty 
shillings apiece for burying each of the murdered persons, which 
was offered to Edmund O'Reilly and others, but it was not allowed. 
Andrew Kenny. He heard that O'Reilly said that Joyce and 
the rest should not be buried in the church. 

CooLE Toole, (present in court, swears) that he heard that 
Edmund Duffe Birne, etc., were actors in the murder at the Black 
Castle in Wicklow, and that Edmund O'Reilly used to say that 
they had little to do that inquired after the murder of churls, 
meaning the commissioners taking the examinations concerning 
that business (had little to do), and that the said O'Reilly was busy 
in demolishing the Castle of Wicklow, the examt. not hearing of 
any direction he (O'Reilly) had for so doing. 

CooDE Toole's further examination. He heard that Edmund 
Duffe Birne, etc., were actors in that murder ; heard that Edmund 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE, 221 

O'Reilly did stand by and see the Castle of Wicklow demolished ; 
heard that Edmund O'Reilly did find fault with the examt. and 
others for being inquisitive after the said murder, and that (he said) 
they had little to do. 

Nicholas Pasmeke. That he, dwelling at Wicklow, Edmund 
O'Reilly, commanded this examt. and others, about six or seven 
weeks after, to break down the Castle of Wicklow, on pain of 
hanging; that the said O'Reilly used to lodge at Thomas Ashpole's 
house in Wicklow, which Ashpole was agent or proctor to the said 
O'Reilly, and that the said O'Reilly was Governor (of Wicklow) 
when the hiquest was taken concernmg the murder, and that 
Edmund Birne, the foreman of the jury, was soon after committed 
(to prison) by Edmmid O'Reilly, but wherefore this examt. knoweth 
not. 

Nicholas Pasmeke's further examination. That the examt. 
with others, shortly after the murder, demolished the castle by 
order of Father O'Reilly, and, in the doing thereof, Hugh McPhelim 
Birne, demanding who put them on that work, and they saying 
Father O'Reilly, he forced them off of this design, but the next 
day O'Reilly did set them to work again. 

TiRLOGH McDermot Birne, (present, swears) that he did see 
the Castle of Wicklow on fire, and about a month after (it was) 
reported that Edniund Duffe Birne, etc., were actors in that murder, 
that Edward Birne, who had been foreman at the inquest, was 
about a week after committed to the castle at Arklow, but for what 
cause he (witness) knoweth not. 

LouGHLiN QuiN, (present, swears) that about a week after the 
murder Cahir Cullen told this examt. that Edmund O'Reilly and 
Luke Toole's sons were the prmcipal men that caused that murder, 
etc., and that the said Cullen and others told him that O'Reilly had 
his share of the arms, ammunition, and goods which were in the 
castle, and (it was) commonly reported that the said O'Reilly caused 
the castle to be demolished, and caused a cess on the country for 
the charge of that work. 

LouGHLiN Quin's further examination. That Thomas Ashpole, 
about a month after the murders, then proctor to the said O'Reilly, 
told the examt. that Edmund O'Reilly was in his, the said Ash- 
pole's house, that day that the murder was committed, and that 
O'Reilly did then and there promise the said murderers that he 
would absolve them if they would kill all in the said castle, who 
did kill accordingly, and that the said persons after told the said 



222 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

Aslipole that they would not have done it but by command of the 
said O'Keilly, and that he, the said O'Eeilly, promised them abso- 
lution. And the examt. did about a month after see the said 
O'Reilly putting his foot on several places of the wall of the castle, 
and he did order and direct the pulling the same Aovm, and the 
examt. was told it by James MacBrian Birne, that Garret Toole 
and Talbot Toole told him that they would not have committed 
the said murder and burnt the castle, but that they were set on by 
Edmund O'Reilly, who promised absolution for the same. That 
Edmund Dufife Birne, etc., were also actors (in it). 

Phelim McTiklogh Birne, (present, swears) that the next 
day after the murder ho did overtake Edmund O'Reilly and others 
going towards Wicklow, who being told of the murder by one they 
met, the said O'Reilly seemed to Avonder at it. (It was) reported in 
the country that the said murder was contrived in the house of 
Thomas Ashpole, and that Edmund O'Reilly was one in the plot, 
and paid for the demolishing the Castle of Wicklow. Examt. also 
heard that some of the actors in that murder did after {illegible), 
of whom Edmund Duffe Birne was one. (It was) reported that 
none durst act such a murder if Edmund O'Reilly had not a hand 
in it, he being so leading (a man) in the country. Examt. heard 
that Edmund O'Reilly was the day of the murder in the town of 
Wicklow, and that night he went to Christopher Wolverston's 
house, and the next day returned to Wicklow. 

Christopher Wolverston, (present, swears) that the night 
the Black Castle was burnt, Edmund O'Reilly did lodge in the 
examt. 's house at Newcastle, and having discourse the next day 
with the said O'Reilly, both going towards Wicklow, he, the examt., 
did perceive that O'Reilly was no way troubled at the news then 
brought him of the said murder, and that late in the night of the 
murder the said O'Reilly did come from Wicklow to the examt. 's 
house, and it was commonly reported that the said O'Reilly had a 
hand in advising and furthering the said murder, and examt. was 
told that (when) O'Reilly saw a piece of pork (being roasted) at the 
fire, he said it was like Joice's breech, and examt. believeth that 
the actors would not have done that murder but by countenance 
of O'Reilly, that this was a common report; that the examt. 's 
daughter observing Edmund O'Reilly to speak much of Joice, she 
told this examt. she believed he (O'Reilly) was troubled with Joice. 
Mary Wolverston, (pi-esent, swears) that it was reported 
Christopher Toole was an actor in the murder at the Black Castle, 



KECORDS OF THE 111011 COURT OF JUSTICE. 223 

and she telling Edmund O'Reilly of the murder at Wicklow, he 
Biiid it was accidental, and she pressing the contrary, he said 
angrily, • WJiat have you to do to he so curious as to inquire after 
such things ? ' Examt. was told by her daughter-in-law, Margaret 
Wolverston, that, discoursing of "the murder, the said O'Reilly said 
' there was more ado about the roasting of a company of chxirls 
than about the committal of the good Lord Herbert then committed 
at Dublin.' And her said daughter told her that a piece of pork 
roasting at the fire and blistered, the said O'Reilly said it looked 
hko John Joice'a breech. Examt. 's said daughter is a nun. 

Lewis Davys. That Father O'Reilly and others of the clergy 
did put Tibbot Toole on the murder at Wicklow, in which they 
were actors, which the said Toole told this examt., he being then 
a proctor in the county of Wicklow, 

Richard Quin, (present, swears) that Edmund Duffe Birne, 
etc., were said to be actors (in the murder), that he, Birne, went 
first into the castle with Joice, drinking with him until night, and 
that the next day Edmund O'Reilly came to Wicklow, (and it was) 
reported he said that ' it teas little hurt that the churl was burnt," 
meaning John Joice. The examt. was one of the coroner's inquest, 
and Thomas Ashpole told him then of the persons who did the 
murder, who had been hi the said Ashpole's house. 

Edmund Walsh. That Edmund Quin, priest, told this examt. 
that Edmund Dufi'e Birne, etc., were drinking with John Joice in 
the Castle of Wicklow, who made much of them on the day of the 
murder. That the murderers did frequent the company of Edmund 
O'Reilly, who never questioned them (for it), though he had power 
in the country, nor were they excommunicated by him or by any 
others. That Edmund DufTe Birne being charged by the examt. 
with that murder, said he made some of the clergy acquainted with 
it, but which of them he would not tell. 

Dermot McWilliam Toole (first examination). That Tibbot 
Toole told him that Edmund O'Reilly did put him (Tibbot) on to 
that murder, the examt. said that Edmund O'Reilly was hke 
enough to charge him with it, to which Tibbot said he feared him 
not, he being in it as deep as any, (for) he did advise him. 

Dermot Mac William Toole (second examhiation). 

Brian Birne, (present, swears) he heard that Edmund Duflfe 
Birne, etc., were drinking in the Castle of Wicklow the day of the 
murder. (It was) reported that Edmund O'Reilly was tlie chief 
adviser and procurer of the said murder to be committed (there), 



224 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

and of the demolishing of the castle, that no more English garrisons 
should be there. A warrant (was) signed by Edmund O'Keilly and 
other commissioners, he first subscribing for raising the power of 
the country, if need be, for obedience to that order. 

Edmund Duffe Birne (prisoner), his first examination. That 
two days before the murder he discoursed with Tibbot Toole and 
others at a place called (illegible) concerning that business, and the 
day of the action he was in the castle. 

Edmund Duffe Birne (prisoner), his second examination. 
That he, with the rest, were drinking till night at the Castle of 
Wicldow, and that all being made prisoners, the examt. being 
above stairs, heard a voice below, and, going down, found Joice and 
the rest murdered, that he asking the rest, who brought him into 
that action, how they durst enter on it, they answered they were 
warranted by one of the chiefest men in the country, viz. Father 
Edmund O'Reilly : that afterwards the examt. told O'Reilly that 
Lieutenant- General {illegible) had sent to seize him, examt., and 
O'Reilly answered, * You need not fear, I warrant you.' This was 
in the garden of Balligarney. 

Simon Archpole. That he was clerk and registrar to Father 
Edmund O'Reilly when the murder was (committed) at Wicklow, 
that he heard O'Reilly say he gave 31. of his own money towards 
the breaking down of the Castle of Wicklow. Examt. heard that 
some of the murderers came to O'Reilly to be absolved for that fact, 
and that he did absolve them. That the castle was pulled down 
about a month after the murder. 

Henry Heny, (present, swears) that it was reported tliat 
Edmimd Duffe Birne, etc., was of the actors in the murder at 
Wicklow Castle. That Edmund O'Reilly was in Wicklow that 
week that the murder was acted. That O'Reilly was at the 
demolishing of the castle the summer after the murder, 

Edmund O'Reilly (the prisoner's examination). That Tibbot 
Toole and Edmund Duffe Birne coming to him to be absolved for 
the murder at the Black Castle, he refused it, being forbidden by 
the Common Law, etc. 

Edmund O'Reilly. He demanding time for his defence until 
the next day, it was granted, notwithstanding that it was not 
usual, the evidence of the Commonwealtli having been opened. 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 225 

The Defence of Edmund O'Eeilly, rniEST, 
September 7tii, 1G54. 

He takes exception to the testimony of Luke Birne as being an 
enemy mito him, the prisoner, who did note that at the beginning 
of the rebelHon he, being at DubHn resident at that time, excom- 
mmiicated the said Birne for living in adultery, and not for such 
ends as is {sic) alleged. (In answer) to the second witness, Hugh 
MacLaughlin, as to the prisoner's being at Ashpole's house the 
day of the murder, Nicholas FitzGerald (is) produced by the 
prisoner, (who saith) that he is most certain (that) the day of the 
murder Edmund O'Eeilly Avas then at Eathdown, ten miles from 
Wicklow ; that the night before the murder he, O'Eeilly, came to 
the house of Mrs. Wolverston at Newcastle, the examt. being then 
in his company and was his attendant at mass. He did hear 
Edmmid O'Eeilly excommunicate all that were actors in that 
murder about a month after. 

(In answer) to Mr. Wickham's examination, (prisoner) denietli 
hearing anything of Joice's murder until then, that examination 
contradicted what was spoken by Wolverston of prisoner's being at 
Wicklow the night of the murder, denietli he refused delivering 
Wicklow Castle to Ormond, saith he was a friend to Joice and did 
him good offices, denietli saying ' Wliat matter if the cJmrls were 
hiirnt accidentally ? ' (In answer) to Edward Birne's examhiation, 
prisoner saith he, Birne, was not committed for that cause (his 
verdict on the inquest), but that he was charged with sending his 
servant Sherin to Dublin with billets, and that for giving intelligence 
to the enemy he was committed. Denietli that Edward Birne was 
removed from the jury. (In support of this) Eichard Quiii is pro- 
duced by prisoner, who having been one of that jury saith he did 
not see any put out of it, or put in on the putting any out, and Peter 
Wickham (is produced, who says) he was not present at the first 
inquest. 

James Biene, the examt. offered by Mr. Attorney, deposes that 
he was coroner, and appointed a jury of which Edmund Birne was 
foreman, that he, Edmund, being of a different judgment from 
others, was called before Edmund O'Eeilly and others of the com- 
missioners, and was put out, and another was put in his place, 
being Walter Ijirne or Eichard Quin. 

The prisoner (in rejoinder) allegeth that James Birne had this 
information from Edward Birne, and he (prisoner) laboureth to 

VOL. II. 4 



226 THE IRISH massacres of leu. 

weaken Edward Birne's testimony by denying his having offered 
money for the bm-ial> as was said, and if false in that, he is not to 
be beheved in other things. Saith, that Edward Birne beareth 
mahce to him, the prisoner, for adjudging against him in a matri- 
monial cause, and for living viciously, and that the prisoner there- 
fore had put him out of employment. (In answer) to Edward Sherin 
(prisoner says) he was servant to Edward Birne and (in answer) to 
Andrew Kenny (it is) all but hearsay. (In answer) to Coole Toole as 
to the demolishing of the castle, he saith nothing, as nothing is now 
in question. He saith much inquiry was made' after the murderers 
whom they (the witnesses against him) well knew, this was the fault 
he found with them making ado about nothing, not doing therein 
what should have been done. Denieth he found fault with Toole 
or any for being inquisitive after the murderers. Saith, as to de- 
molishing of the castle, it was not begun until nine months after the 
murder, and not altogether until March following. Bichard Quin, again 
produced by the prisoner, (saith) that the demolishing of the castle 
was in October after the murder, which was in the December before ; 
his cause of knowledge is that he was then portreeve of Wicklow, 
and questioning Thomas Ashpole's absence from court he excused 
himself as being then overseer of the work for pulling down the 
castle of Wicklow. 

In answer to Laughlin Quin prisoner saith he is a notable thief, 
and that for a fact of that kind the examt. caused him to be bound 
with withes, but after upon meditation released him, and on that 
account he, Loughlin, feigns all that ho hath saith. 

In answer to Simon Ashpole prisoner saith that ho, Simon, leaving 
Ilia religion to please the enemy, he speaks against the prisoner 
being a priest. Denieth giving SI. or any money towards the de- 
molishing of the castle. The prisoner saith that he engaged for 
Thomas Ashpole, who promised to pay 3Z. for {illegible) the castle. 

In answer to Phelim MacTirlogh Birne denieth the contriving 
of the murder, and in answer to Edmund Duft'o Birne, prisoner, 
saith that he did not speak with those that acted in the murder 
{illegible), and that if they said they had allowance from him (to com- 
mit it), why did not Edmund Duffe Birne himself ask him (O'Keilly) 
the question, often seeing him ? He assured them he believed it.' 

' Edmund Duffe Birne having informed against his fellow-prisoner, Father 
O'Reilly, and sworn that the murderers had told him, Edmund Duffe, that they 
had the priest's permission to commit tho crime, O'Reilly asks why did not Edmund 



RECORDS OF TTIE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 227 

Edmund^Duffe Birne here saith tha,t he confessed to Edmund 
O'Reilly that he was in the action at tlie Black Castle hut not in 
the Wood there spilt, and that O'Reilly ahsolved him and enjoined 
him penance hy saying some prayers and fasting. O'Reilly denieth 
this or that he said ' I'll warrant you you need not fear,' or if he 
said so it was hecause Hugh MacPhelim did never punish any one 
for crime. ^ 

Mr. Attorney General {intervening) offered in further evidence 
the examination of Tiegue MacMorrogh Birne that shortly after the 
murder Edmund O'Reilly did send warrants for demolishing the 
castle of Wicklow, and of John MacCahir Birne that he heard by 
common report that the castle was pulled down by direction of 
Edmund O'Reilly. 

The prisoner Edmund O'Reilly's defence to this is that it was 
no difficult matter to demolish the walls of that castle next the sea, 
being of clay and stone easily cast down, and not needing much 
labour. In answer to Christopher Wolverston and his wife ho 
denieth his coming to Newcastle from Wicklow, but he came from 
Rathdown to tlie other side of Newcastle. In answer to Lewis Davis 
sa'th that what Toole said was false, in answer to Richard Quin 
saith that he, prisoner, did speak those words about churls, etc., 
that he might gain an opportunity to prosecute the murderers more 
freely, and in answer to Edmund Walsh prisoner denieth keeping 
company with the murderers, and that they might be in the place 
where ho was without that implying his conversing with them. 
And the prisoner here (further saith) he did excommunicate all the 
actors in that murder, and that it was a simple [i.e. foolish) question 
of Edmund Walsh to ask, ' Would yo2i do such an action without the 
advice of the clergy ? ' 

The Lord President (here saith) : But such things have been 
done by the advice of the clergy, as the powder treason and this 
rebellion, and this war is called (by them) helium religiosum. 

Edmund Duffb Birne, prisoner, being demanded of that dis- 
course, saith that he had discourse with Edmund Walsh, but doth 

Duffo ascertain from him, wliom ho often saw, if tliis Avas true? arguing tliat as 
ho did not his evidonco is inconsistent and false. There is much in this argument. 
' V. anic, p. 223, -whcro Edmund DufFo enj'S O'Reilly spoko those -words to 
encourage him and tlio rest of the murderers not to fear being punished by their 
Lioutenant-Genoral, Ilugh Macrhelim Byrne, for the murder. Whatever we may 
think of the truth or falsehood of this statement of Birue's, the admission of 
Father O'Reilly that the Irish Lieutonant-General never punished murderers is 
noteworthy for more reasons than one. 

Q 2 



228 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

not remember the particulars, and that he did never personally apeak 
with any of the clergy in that business, but he was told by Tibbot 
Toole, etc., that they had spoken with the clergy. Denieth that he 
was excommunicated by O'Reilly. 

Edmund O'Reilly, prisoner, saith that the excommunication 
was spoken at mass, and he produced for witness 

Alison Browne, who saith that she was present in Wicklow, 
when Edmund O'Reilly spoke publicly against tlie murderers at 
Wicklow, and said that he would go to Kilkenny to get them 
{illegible). 

Richard Quin being told by the said Alison that he was then 
present and heard what she hath declared, he saith he remembereth 
it not. 

Cahir Toole saith he did never hear of any such excommuni- 
cation. 

A letter from Kilkenny, without date, was offered by Edmund 
O'Reilly to the Court and read, (it saith) he did excommimicate 
those that burnt the Castle of Wicklow. This (was writ) with 
another ink and I think with another hand. In answer to Dermot 
O'Toole prisoner saith if Tibbot Toole said so, it is false {illegible). 
In answer to (illegible) Birne it is but by report and that private. 

John Birne and Hugh Birne said in court that they did not 
hear of any excommunication. 

Sir Robert Talbot, present, swears that on the Treaty for 
Peace, he being one of the Commissioners for it, Edmund O'Reilly 
did write to them that if a course were not taken for punishing the 
murder at Wicklow, God would not prosper them. Also at Kilkenny 
Edmxmd O'Reilly did solicit proceedings in it {illegible), who gave 
commissions for inquiry of it. 

Captain John Bellevv^'s letter was offered by Edmund O'Reilly 
in court, dated 12th June, 1652, mentioning that O'Reilly was the 
great prosecutor (of the parties) in that murder. 

Nicholas FitzGerald, produced by the prisoner, (swears) that 
the prisoner did solicit Nicholas Plunket the lawyer to prosecute 
(for) that murder, 

TiRLOGH Reilly (swcai's) that prisoner did write by the examt. 
to Mr. Belling concerning that murder {illegible), which letter he 
delivered the same year the murder was committed. Examt. 
heard from others that the murderers were excommunicated and 
that prisoner was beneficial to the English, and not a murderer of 
them. 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 229 

Mk. Pemdekton swears concerning Mr. Walworth, a minister 
preserved (by prisoner), also lie preserved a trumpeter, Simon 
Bellew, George Green, William Willings, and other English about 
(illegible), he preserved an EngHshman at Arklow, in aiino 1G46 he 
preserved a boy, anno 1G45 he preserved some in a frigate that was 
cast on the coast of Wicklow, an {illegible) surgeon coming from Dub- 
lin, a (illegible) coming from Dublin, Christopher FitzWilliams and 
a boat at {illegible) belonging to [illegible) some cars of a company 
going to Wicklow, a cow taken from one, (he also) preserved Mr. 
Cornowall, a minister, Henry White, a minister at Arklow, another 
old minister and Mr, ConAvay, a minister, and Mr. Eobert Conway. 
He (prisoner) was courteous to Lieut. -Colonel {illegible), lent him 
his sword and gained him the best respite he could. Lieutenant 
Mason had respite by his (prisoner's) means. On Captain Hewetson 
being wounded, and after ho died would have buried him. lie pre- 
served one that would have been otherwise hanged at {illegible), he 
brought to Dublin from Trim Mr. Eobert Lett's children, he pre- 
served two soldiers of the name oi {illegible). 

Edmund Duffe Bibne's defence (is) that he was of that party 
but not in the murder. 

TiKLOGH MacDeumot Birne. This now offered by Mr. 
Attorney : That Edward Birne, the foreman of the jury, found 
it murder. But afterwards it was found chance medley, and so 
delivered in writing to the coroner. 

Verdicts. 

Edmund Reilly, a priest . . . Guilty. 
Edmund Duff Birne ' . . . Guilty. 

' Birne's fate is uncertain, but O'Reilly, as I have said {v. p. 172), received r 
parJon and lived until 1669; 



230 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF l(i4l. 



LIST OF EXAMINATIONS TAKEN AGAINST CArTAIN 
SANKEY' FOR THE MUEDER OF ONE EORY alias 
JAMES MACGANAN {sic). 

Exam, of Garrett FitzGarrett. 
Exam, of Anstace Lojibard. 
Exam, of Edward FitzGarrett. 
Exam, of George King. 
Exam, of Thomas Bourke. 



To Thomas Herbert, C.C. 

Sir, — This gentleman, Mr. John Farrell, is one in our order to 
be aprehended (sic) and brought to Dublin for the High Court of 
Justice, but these are to mind you that in the course of all the 
examinations or the brief of them by which your orders are drawn, 
you will find this gentleman had no hand in the murders, but only 
it was desired he might be spoke withal, but yet notwithstanding 
it was thought he should be sent for ; now, Sir, upon his importunity 
and {illegible) having earnest occasion with Lieut. -General Farrell, 
his brother, Major Eiehardson and I have taken the boldness to 
give him leave to go to Dublin, where he will stay till Major 
Richardson come with your prisoners, which I hope will be in a 
few days, and I hope we shall give a good account of what we arc 
entrusted withal. Sir, because you will have more at large very 
suddenly I have spared to trouble you at this instant with any par- 
ticulars. I pray, Sir, that this gentleman may have all the civil 
icspect that may be, for I am confident there is nothing against 
liim, and by those {illegible) and by those which he hath kept and 

' lie seems to have Leon a nepliow of Colonel Jacob Sankey, the •well-kuown 
Oromwellian officer. The nmrdered man -was probably a MacCaunan or MacCan. 
i could ot find the verdict in this aiso. 



RECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 231 

delivered unto us as much as will be desired of him. And by the 
examination of several witnesses it appears he hath been very kind 
to several of the English and deserveth much respect for it. I 
know, Sir, you may serve him in getting him discharged with all 
convenient speed, after your prisoners are come to you, which I 
desire your favour in, and I know you will the rather do when you 
see the examinations which with all speed shall be sent unto yovi ; 
which is all but to assure you, Sir, I am. 

Your servant, 

II. STorroRD, 
Feb. 2nd, 1G52. 



232 THE lEISII MASSACRES OF !G41. 



LIST OF PKISONERS TRIED FOR MURDER BEFORE 
THE HIGH COURT. 

December, 1052. 

Charles MacCartliy Reagli for the murder of John Burrows, 
Andrew Rackham, Owen MacDermot, and John Phipps. — Not 
Guilty. 

John Oge Crowley for murder of John Phipps. — Not Guilty. 

Dermot O'Mahony for murder of John Phipps. — Guilty. 

Colonel Bourke for murder of two English at Callan. — Not 
Guilty. 

Patrick Boylan for murder of three English. — Guilty. 

John Elliott for murder of Philip Gloster. — Guilty. 

Richard Rourke, alias Raherty, for murder of three Englishmen, 
names unknown. — Not Guilty. 

James Goodman for murder of William Behane. — Guilty. 

Edmund Brennan for murder of Christopher North, clerk, and 
forty persons in a church at Castlecomer, also for the murder of 
Anne Guest, three more English, Lewis Davis, and one Barnard. — 
Not Guilty on all counts. 

Colonel E. Fennell for murder of several persons at Cappoquin, 
women and men. — Guilty. 

John Brukler and Tiegue O'Holohan for murder of an English- 
man. — Guilty. 

John Long for murders at Belgooly.— Guilty. 

Manus MacShee for murder of Thomas Reynolds. — Not Guilty. 

Fineen Gibhon and Donogh Keefe for the murder of John 
Baker and the Combes. — Gibbon, Guilty. Keefe, Not Guilty. 

Richard Condon for the murder of one Morris, a sawyer, — 
Guilty. 

David Rawleigh for the murder of the Whites. — Guilty. 

Redmond Roche and Phelimy O'Connor for the murder of Der- 
mot {illegible). — Not Guilty. 



HECORDS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 233 

Garret Fit/Gerald for the nuu-der of William Atkins and two 
others. — Not Guilty. 

David O'Connell for murder of Ensign Miles Cooke. — Guilty. 

Colonel Fennell for a murder at Ballinkea, and for the murder of 
Ensign {illegible). — Guilty. For two maids at Dungarvan. — Not 
Guilty. 

John Lacy for the murder of Donogh O'Donoghue, Patrick 
Doran, and Gregory Thomas. Deferred for further evidence to 
Chief Justice Cooke's Session. 



Dec. Uth, 1G52. 

Sentence was this day pronounced in open court, whereby 
twenty-four were acquitted, thirty-two condemned, and some re- 
spited. 

John Tyrell for murder of Philip Carr.— Guilty, by confession. 

Edward Butler for murder of three Englishmen and two women. 
■ — Guilty. 

Charles MacCarthy for murder of Owen MacDermot, Carthy, the 
question put whether the prisoner did know of the articles of pro- 
tection given the said Owen. — Negative. 

John Barnewall for murder of an Englishman.— Guilty. 



Jan. 21th, 1G52, O.S. 

Gerald FitzGerald for murder of Eicli. Price.— Guilty. 

Patrick Begg murder of Rich. Langford.— Guilty. 

John Talbot murder of Owen Healy.— Guilty. 

Nicholas Sweetman murder of Nich. Smith.— Guilty. 

Hugh Connor, alias Hugh MacDavid, for murder of John Taylor. 
— Guilty. 

Same for murder of Alexander Shine.— Guilty. 

Luke Toole and Donogh Oge Birne and Charles Birne for the 
murder of Edward Snape, Thomas Huntpage, and one Richard a 
carpenter.— Luke Toole and Donogh Oge Birne, Not Guilty. 
Charles Birne, Guilty. 

Ambrose Connor nmrdcr of Mary Bax.— Guilty. 

Captain Dudley Colley murder of John Brown.— Not Guilty. 

Tiegue Molloy murder of Phihp Carr.— Guilty. 



234 THE IKISII MASSACRES OF IGll. 

Fch. 1G52. 

Edward Fitz for the murder of Toby Emmett. — Guilty. 

Liike Lynam murder of Richard Gaine. — Guilty. 

Phelim MacTirlogh Binie for the murder of Dudley Birne. — 
Guilty. 

Sir Pliehm O'Neil for the rebellion, — Guilty. 

For the murder of Lieut. James Maxwell and his wife, Bichard 
Blaney, Brownlow Taylor, and Lord Caulfield. — Guilty. 

March, 1G52. 

Andrew White for the murder of John Wear. — Guilty. 

Murtogh MacEdmond Birne for murder of John Leeson. — 
Guilty. 

Patrick Boylan for murder of George Blundell and five others. 
— Guilty. 

July, 1653. 

John Keane for murder of Thomas Robson. — Guilty. 

Dermot MacDonogh Birne for murders at the Black Castle of 
Wicklow. — Guilty. 

Donogh Magennis, alias Donogh the Smith, for Thomas Reade, 
Thomas Taylor, Henry Reade his wife and son. — Guilty. 

The Com-t adjourned to the 11th of August next, at nine of the 
clock. 

Augmt nth, 1G53. 

Robert Pasraere and John ]\Iaguire for murder of Robert and 
Ambrose Burton. 

(blank) Nugent for a person whose name is unknown ; prisoner 
saith he is not of Drumacree as alleged but of Nugent's [ille- 
gible), and that John Nugent of Drumacree is the person charged. 
Prisoner respited till inquiries are made. 

Brian Farrell for Thomas Canning in 1044. 

Nicholas Archbold for Robert Pont. 

John Archbold for Thomas Potts. 

September, 1G53. 

Edmund Reilly, a priest, for murders at the Black Castle of 
Wicklow on Doc. 29th, 1G45.— Guilty. 



RECOI^DS OF THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE. 235 

Edmund DufTe Birne for same. — Guilty. 

Andrew Eafter and Bridget FitzPatrick for the murder of Mary 
Harding and four of her children. — Andrew Eafter, Guilty. Bridget 
FitzPatrick, Not Guilty. 

October, 1653. 

Eobert Passmere for murder of Thomas Cox. — Guilty. 
Same for murder of Ambrose Eobert and Mr. Burton, a minister. 
— Guilty. 

Nov. 1G53. 

Michael Doyne for murder of James Hamilton. — Guilty. 

Dec. 1G53. 

Lord IMuskerry for Mr. Deane and three others, and a woman 
named Nora. — As to the matter of fact, Guilty. As to articles con- 
sidered, Not Guilty. Same for Eoger Skinner. — Not Guilty. 

May, 1G54. 

Lord Muskerry for murder of a man and woman unknown. — 
Not Guilty. 

June, 1054. 

Brian McCooker for William Norman. — Guilty. 

Brian ]\IcEedinond for murder of Jane Leslie and her children, 
20th May, 1G42.— Guilty. 

Hugh ]\IcEicliard Farrell for the murder of Thomas Trafford 
and others at Longford in 1G41. — Guilty. 

Christopher Nugent for a person unknown. — Not Guilty. 

Manus Duff MacMahon for William Williams, Gabriel Williams, 
Ishell Jones, Thomas {illegible) at Carrickmacross, county Mona- 
gluiu, 2nd January, 1G4L — Guilty.^ 

' The above is only a portion of tlio list in the Stcarno MSS., -which appears 
to have hecn made out from day to day in the court hy Judge I;owther. In some 
few cases the verdicts are not mentioned. For the murders at Carrickmacross and 
Longford see Depositions XXIJI., XCVI., XCVII., etc. 



230 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 16-11. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

COMMONWEALTH BOOKS. P.R.O. DUBLIN. 

(Vol. f, p. 07.) 

Upon consideration had of the report made by John Santhy (sic) 
and Thomas Fowler, Esquires, late Commissioners appointed for 
holding the assizes in the Circuit of Connaught, whereby it appears 
that at the assizes and gaol delivery holden at AthJone, for the 
counties of Longford, Westmeath, and King's County, the 10th day 
of April last, Jeremiah Stibbins, late a soldier in Captain William 
Heydon's company, being disbanded and left to due course of law, 
was indicted of treason for the murder of Tirlogh O'Byrne, a 
carpenter, and the issue being referred to the trial of a jury, they, 
upon the evidence before them, did return their verdict, and found 
the said Stibbins guilty of manslaughter, per misadventure, so that 
by the law he was adjudged to forfeit his goods and chattels to his 
Highness the Lord Protector. And whereas information hath been 
given to this board that the said Captain Heydon hath remaining 
in his custody a debenture belonging to the said Stibbins, amount- 
ing to about fifteen pounds,' which the said Commissioners did pro- 
pound might be disposed of for the relief of the widow of the said 
Tirlogh O'Byrne and his four orphans. And upon consideration had 
of their poverty and distressed condition, it is ordered that the said 
Captain Heydon do cause the said debenture to be delivered to the 
said widow, or disposed thereof to the best advantage towards the 
support of her and the said children. Dublin Castle, 0th July, 
1665. Thom.\s Herbekt, Clerk of the Council. 

' It is to bo remcraljerod that 1.5/. at that time was equivalent to at lei.et 150/. 
of our present money. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 237 

{Ibid. r.R.O.) 

Upon the petition of Daniel O'llagan, setting forth his constant 
good affection to the Enghsh interest, and desiring he might be 
dispensed with from transplantation into Connaught or Clare ; on 
consideration had thereof, and of the report of the Committee for 
transplanting, it appeared by certificates from several persons of 
known integrity that the petitioner did expose himself to many 
hazards of his life, against his kindred and relations, in the 
beginning of the late horrid rebellion, and was, under God, a means 
to preserve many of the poor English and Protestants from the 
bloody massacre, and hath continued always faithful to the English 
interest. To the end, therefore, that so singular an example of 
kindness and affection may not be left unrewarded, it is thought 
fit and ordered that the said Daniel O'Hagan be dispensed with 
from transplantation into Clare or Connaught, and likewise that 
he be recommended to those in chief authority in England for a 
mark of their favour unto him. And, in the meantime, that the 
Commissioners of Kevenue at Belfast do, out of the lands of Arthur 
(Art) O'Neil, in the county of Antrim, set out and make and perfect 
a lease of some part thereof unto the said Daniel O'Hagan, for a 
term of seven years from May next, (paying contributions) as they 
shall judge to be of the clear yearly value of 50/. per annum. 
Dublin, Gth March, 1G53. Chakles Fleetwood, Miles Cokbet, 
John Jones. 

(Ibid. P.K.O.) 
To the Committee of the Comvwmvealth in Ireland. 

Gentlemen, — Having received the two enclosed petitions and 
papers of John Prtndergast and the widow Brooke, whose cases 
have been so represented to me, which, if true, deserve some tender 
regard. Wherefore I thought fit to recommend them to your con- 
sideration, that they may be permitted to reside on and enjoy their 
present estates and habitations, unless there be some instant cause 
to the contrary. 

However, I would have their transplantation to be suspended 
until I receive from you an accompt of their particular cases and 
conditions, and that you receive further order therein. 

Your loving friend, 
Whitehall, 22ud March, 1G53. Oliver P. 



238 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 10 11. 

{Ibid. P.E.O.) 
To the Bight Hon. the Lord Dejjuty.^ 

Deab Charles, — This poor man's case, if it be as it is repre- 
sented in his petition, is very sad and deserves to be pitied. I 
believe him in great extremity of want and poverty, and therefore 
I earnestly desire you to take his condition into your considera- 
tion, and let something be eflfectually done for him, whereby he and 
his family may have a subsistence ; indeed, I have been much 
affected with the sense of his distressed condition, and therefore 
pray do not forget to take some course for his relief, 

Your loving father, 

Oliver P. 
Whitehall, 10th May, 1G55. 

{Ibid. P.R.O.) 
For the Bight Hon. the Lord Deputy and Council in Ireland. 

My Lords and Gentlemen, — The enclosed petition being pre- 
sented to us by Colonel Jephson, we could do no less than earnestly 
recommend the same unto you, judging it very reasonable, and a 
matter of great justice if what is alleged therein be made appear 
unto you upon the place, that the orphan Tibbot Roche be restored 
to the possession of his father's lands and estate, and that some other 
lands in Ireland not yet disposed of bo assigned to those officers 
and soldiers to whose lot the lands of the said orphan are fallen 
for satisfaction of their arrears. We shall not need to use any 
further arguments to press you to this our desire, the case itself as 
represented being so just and equitable, we rest. 

Your very loving friend, 

Oliver P. 
Hampton Court, \Q>th July, 1G55. 

{Ibid. P.R.O.) 

To Colonel Phaire. 

Receiving intelligence of the return of the Lord Mn skerry and 
Colonel Callaghan into this country, and of their declining their 

' This letter was addressed to Fleetwood on behalf of one James IJarry, a 
native of Cork or Kerry. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 239 

former intentions for the transporting of men, we have thought it 
lit and shall desire you inunediately to send both of them up with 
a safe convoy to Dublin, that so we may understand something 
more further from themselves of their present resolution ; in the 
doing whereof we shall desire you that all civil respects may be 
shown unto them, we remain, etc., 

M. C, C. F., J. J.' 
DicbUn, VJth Feb. 1G52. 

' i.e. Miles Corbet, Charles Fleotwood, and John Jones. 



240 THE IRISH JMASSACRES OF 1041. 



CATHOLIC ACCOUNTS OF THE MASSACEES. 

I feel it is only fair to give the following liitliorto unpublished 
accounts of the massacres at Cashel, Shrule, and other places which 
are amongst the Carte MSS. in the Bodleian Library. The first 
and fourth appear to have been drawn up by Mr. Kearney, a native 
of Tipperary, and the brother of a Roman Catholic ecclesiastic, for 
the information of the Duke of Ormond, when he was Viceroy after 
the Restoration, and engaged in carrying out the Act of Settlement. 
The rest appear to have been written by an Irish Catholic during 
the Commonwealth period. As all four accounts are largely com- 
posed of hearsay reports of what took place fifteen or sixteen years 
before, they must be received with caution and carefully compared 
with the sworn depositions given in vol. i. p. 388-08, vol. ii. p. 42- 
46. At the same time it is evident that the Catholic writers in cer- 
tain cases honestly relate what they had seen for themselves, and 
thus we can in turn check the hearsay in the earlier depositions by 
their testimony and discover when it is false. On one point it will 
be seen that those contemporary accounts drawn up betAveen 1650 
and 166G by Roman Catholic Irishmen are in perfect accord with the 
depositions and flatly contradict the declamatory assertions of certain 
Roman Catholic writers and orators of the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries. While these latter, as boldly imaginative on their side 
as Sir John Temple was on his, profess to have discovered that 
no massacres of Protestants took place, that the soldiers in the 
Irish army ' never massacred • one Protestant in cold blood,' Mr. 
Kearney and his co-r^ligionists Avho lived through the civil war 
never dream of denying that cruel massacres of unarmed Protestants 
Avere committed not only, as Father Walsh ^ admitterl, in Ulster but 

' Bird's-eye VUw of Irish History, p. 117, l»y Sii" C. G. Duffy. 
* ' Youi- Grace,' says Walsh the Franciscan friar, writing to Ormond, 'knows 
with what horror tlio Irish nation looks upon the massacres and murders in tlio 



MISCELLANEOUS. 241 

at the Silver Mines, Shrule, Casliel, ami other places, and even 
describe at length how, as they believe, the vengeance of God fell on 
the murderers, who managed to escape the arm of the law. Sir 
Charles Gavan Duffy draws a terribly sensational picture of the 
slaughter at the taking of Cashol by Murrogh O'Brian, Lord Inchi- 
quin, but omits what the better informed Irish Catholic contem- 
porary of Inchiquin takes care to mention, that one at least of 
those who fell on the ' Rock,' Tiegue 'Kennedy, had been a chief 
actor in the cold-blooded massacre of the thirty-two unarmed poor 
men, women, and children at the Silver Minos. If all of the 
murderous brood who committed that massacre had fallen by the 
swords of Inchiquin and his soldiers, it would have been, even in 
the judgment of not a few of their better disposed Eoman Catholic 
contemporaries, too honourable a death for them. 



To His Grace the Dicka of Ormond, Lord Lieutenant oj Ireland. 

Humbly presented : I find that the first insurrection in the 
county of Tipperary was on the Eve of the Presentation of the 
Virgin, being the 20th of November, 1G41, when a great many of 
the common sort and many young idle fellows of the barony of 
Eliogarty, some of the barony of Middlethird, and some of Kilne- 
managh, gathered into a body and took away a great number of 
cows and sheep from Mr. Kingsmill from Ballyowen, whereof notice 
being sent to Sir William St. Leger, then Lord President of 
Munster,> being brother-in-law to Mr. Kingsmill, he, within two or 
three days after, came with two troops of horse to Ballyowen, and 
being informed that the cattle were driven into Eliogarty he 
marched that way, and as he set forth he killed three persons 

north committed at tlio beginning of tlie rebellion by the rascal multitude upou 
their innocent, unarmed, and unprovided neighbours .... all unbiassed men dis- 
tinguish between the first conspirators that were a handful of hare-brained men 
of broken fortunes and desperate resolution, who took up arras and made the 
crime of rebellion more horrid by the foul actions with which the rude multitude 
did asperse \t:~The Irish Colours Folded and Tracts of Irish History from 1655 
to 1682. British ]\[usoum Library. Father Walsh, it must be remembered, was 
iiore writing his own opinion, not that of his Church, which excommunicated him 
for his candour. 

' V. Carte's Life of Ormond and Liters, vol. v. for St. Leger's own despatches 
relating his pursuit of the rebels on this occasion, and Appendix Y. 

VOL. II. ^ 



242 THE IRISH MASSACKES OF IGll. 

at Ballyowen, who were said to have stolen some mares of Mv. 
Kmgsmill's, and near it at Grange he killed 'four innocent labourers, 
and at Ballygalbert he hanged eight persons, and burned several 
houses there, and with much importunity and intercession the life 
of Mr. Morris Magrath, a well-bred gentleman, being one of the 
grandchildren of Archbishop Milerus, was saved, it being plainly 
proved he had no hand in the prey. And from thence Captain Peasley 
with some of the troops marched to Ardmaile {sic) and there killed 
seven or eight poor men and women, and thence marched to Clonulta, 
and there killed the chief farmer of the place, being Philip Ryan, a 
very honest and able man, not at all concerned in that insurrection. 
And thence they marched to Gowlyn {sic) and there killed and hanged 
seven or eight of Dr. Fenning's tenants, and burned many houses in 
that town. And in all this march the Lord President and Peasley 
took up all the cattle of the inhabitants they met, being great 
numbers, and sent them to the county of Cork. After this service 
the President about the 25th of November went to Clonmell, where 
Captain Peasley with his troop met him, and the prime nobility 
and gentry of the country being surprised at this rash and bloody 
proceeding of the Lord President, many of them flocked after him 
to Clonmell, as James Lord Dunboyne, Thomas Butler of Kilconnell, 
James Butler of Killslaugher, Theobald Butler of Ardmaile, Eichard 
Butler of Ballynakill, Philip O'Dwyer and divers others of good 
quality, and observed to the President how he had exasperated the 
people generally to run from house and home, and that they were 
gathering in great numbers together, not knowing what to trust to. 
And that they the aforesaid gentlemen waited upon his lordship to 
be informed how affairs stood, and that they coveted nothing more 
than to serve his Majesty and preserve the peace, and desired that 
he would be pleased to qualify them with authority and arms, and 
that they would suppress the rabble and preserve the peace. But 
he, in a furious manner, answered them that they Avere all rebels, 
and that he would not trust one soul of them, but thought it more 
prudent to hang the best of them, and in that extraordinary passion 
he continued, while those and divers other persons of quality, their 
neighbours, waited on him. And they withdrawing returned to 
their several habitations much resenting his severity and the un- 
certainty of their safety. And then suddenly the President marched 
from Clonmell unto Waterford, hearing that some of the Irish of 
Carlow, Kilkenny, and Wexford went over the river into that county 
to plunder and prey some of the English. Li which march his 



MISCELLANEOUS. 243 

soldiers killed many harmless poor people, not at all concerned in 
the rebellion, which also incensed the gentry of the county Water- 
ford to betake themselves to their defence. 

After the President returned to the county of Cork, the gentry 
of Tipperary considering the violence of his proceedings, and the 
aptness of the vulgar sort under colour thereof to plunder their 
English neighbours, laboured within their various jurisdictions for 
a while to suppress these insolences. But notwithstanding all their 
care the common sort grew so addicted to plunder that they found 
a body of about 500 of them together, and marched towards Cashel, 
in order to take that city and plunder the English. But several of 
the gentlemen of quality in that country, and some of the Catholic 
clergy of Cashel, hearing of their resolution met them ' in their march, 
and by fair words and sermons dissuaded them from that wicked 
attempt' and by that means dispersed them. But soon after Philip 
O'Dwyer of Dundrum, alleging that he could not keep those of his 
country at peace, pretending that they could not sleep safely in their 
houses, while Cashel was a receptacle for the President's troops to 
come thither and rush amongst them and destroy them, as they did 
their neighbours, Philip Eyan and others, he, Philip Dwyer, gathered 
a body of people of the county together on the 30tli of December, 
1G41, marched to Cashel and took the place. And they endeavouring, 
as it is said, to secure the goods of all the English inhabitants there 
and to put them together into a storehouse, whether with his com- 
mand or against his will (lam not certain),^ some of the rabble that 
went with him to Cashel, finding out some of the English there, 
killed thirteen of them, viz. William Bean and his servant Thomas 
Sadler, William Bousfield and his wife, John Banister, Mr. Carr, 
John Lentre, Eichard Lane, John Anderson, Mr. Franklin {illegible), 
a joiner, and John Fawkes.' 

But all the rest of the English were saved by the inhabitants, 
and by the Eoman Catholic clergy of the town, who in the streets 
exposed themselves to rescue them. Some of those preserved were 

• None of the dcposiLions, not evou that of the Catholic Maj-or of Cashel iu 
1641-2, Nicholas Sail, meutiou a word of this. 

^ Gilbert Johnstone's deposition (CXLV.) sajs that Dwyer was looking on 
wliile soma of those murders were committed. 

* EUish Meagher's deposition (CXLVI.) sa3's that to her knowledge twentj-- 
three persons, including old women and children, were murdered, and that sho 
saw their corpses in the streets of Cashel, while a number of others were subjected 
to the most barbarous treatment, stripped not only of their clothes, but of the 
bandages and ]-ilasters they had put on their wounds. 

e2 



244 TIIE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

Dr. Pullen and his wife and cliildren, who were protected hy the 
Jesuits,' [illegible) Darling and one Bankes by Richard Conroy, Row- 
land Lynch and his wife and children by William Kearney ; James 
Hamilton, the Archbishop's son, and his mother and sister, and 
{illegible) and Daniel and Mrs. Brown and others at Mrs. Young's 
house. Mr. Mooney his wife and daughter, John Morewood and 
his wife, Mrs. Moore, Laughlin Fislce and his wife, Toby the cooper 
and several others whose names I yet find not. 

The preservation of Dr. Pullen by the Papists is taken notice of 
in Sir James Ware's books die iiossibilie Ilibernice {sic), and divers 
of the poor English were preserved by Joseph Everard and Redmond 
English, two Franciscan friars in their chapel,'* some under its 
altar, which was proved in Cromwell's time upon the trial of the 
said Father English, whereupon he was acquitted and permitted to 
live in the country, and the like privilege was accorded to Father 
Joseph Everard, as Colonel Sankey well knows. 

And soon after the said English persons so preserved were by 
a guard of the Irish inhabitants of Cashel safely * conveyed to the 
county of Cork as they desired. And in their marcli some of tlie 
convoy were wounded in preserving them from the violence of the 
rabble that met them on the mountains. For this murder at Cashel, 
at a Court at Clonmell, about the 8th of November, 1652, Colonel 
Tiegue O'Meagher, Lieutenant-Colonel Donogh O'Dwyer, Theobald 
Butler, Hugh Ryan, Ulick Bourke and others, were tried and con- 
victed and soon after executed : some at Clonmell, some at Cashel. 
And at another assizes James Bourke of Scartfield was convicted 
and executed for the said murder. James Hamilton, the Arch- 
bishop's son, who now lives in Dublin, and was an eye-witness of 

" One copy of a deposition made by a maidservant in Cashel says that a Jesuit 
father exerted himself to s-ave the lives of some of his Protestant neiglibours, 
and Dr. Pullen, a Protestant clergyman, made a deposition to the same effect. No 
other Jesuit is mentioned in the depositions as aiding the Cashel Protestants. | 

^ I could find no mention of those Franciscans in any of the dopositious or in 
the Records of the High Court of Justice, 60 far as I had time to search them. 
If the two fri;irs performed such great services to the Protestants it is strange 
that they are not mentioned in the depositions where the Jesuits' services to Dr. 
Pullon are recorded. The only authority for F. Everard and F. English's services 
seems to be the above document amongst the Carte MSS., but the writer of it 
appeals so confidently to Colonel Sankey as a witness to the truth of what he 
states, that it is difficult to doubt hira. 

• EUish Meagher's deposition says some of them were murdered, and others 
treated with atrocious cruelty, v. ante, p. 42, 



:MiscELLAxr.ous. 245 

t]ie barbarous proceedings at Casliel, can, if ho pleases, give your 
Grace a perfect account of them. His father Archibald and his 
brother William and others were gone away before Cashel was 
taken, and his brother Lewis was left with Edward Sail of Cashel. 
The 1st day of January, 1641-2, a rabble of people Hocked into 
Fethard and seized on the keys of the gate, there being but few 
English inhabitants in this town, such as ]\Ir. Loe, the minister, 
and his family, Mv. Robert Hamilton, a minister, and his family, 
Ivobcrt Powell and John Lubb, and their families ; they were all 
secured and preserved, but such of their goods as they had not 
before placed by way of trust in the custody of their Irish neigh- 
bours were seized upon and put up in a castle or tower, and James 
Lord Duuboyne hearing of the violence committed at Fethard, did 
the next day go thither and dispersed the rebels, and set the 
]!^nglisli at hberty, and at their request sent Mr. Hamilton and his 
family safe to the Lady, then Countess, now Duchess of Ormond, 
who took them with Mrs. Loe and her children, and divers other 
English families, soon after safe to Dublin. The Powells and 
Lobbs and their family were safely conveyed where tliey desired, 
and Mr, Loe preferred to be left at his landlord's, Geoffrey Mockler's, 
Jiouse of Mocklerstown, in hopes the times would grow calmer, but 
unfortunately lie afterwards went in Mr. ]\lockler's company to 
Fethard, and Mr. Mockler having unfortunately left him there, 
as he thought in safe hands, his own occasions calling him to 
Clonmell, Mr. Loe most inlunnanly and barbarously was at night- 
time taken out of his lodgings and cruelly inurdered by a com- 
pany of rebellious rogues, which were discovered to be Thomas 
Quigley, James MacHugh, Eichard Nagle, Donogh Markey, 
and others. And afterwards the first three of the murderers 
Avere, by the inquiry and care of Mr. Mockler, ]\ir. Loe's son, and 
by some of the inhabitants of Fethard, brought to judgment and 
oxecuted. , , . 

In the monlh of December, 1641, the English in the towns of 
Clonmell and Carrick were preserved, and no blood spilt or plunder 
suffered, and so was Waterford, Dungarvan, Kilkenny, Callan, and 
Gowran, only that some of the rebels fell to plunder at Kilkenny, 
which when the Lord Mountgarret heard he rushed among them 
and shot one Richard Cantwell to death, which stopped their fury. 
I find that Sir George Hamilton the elder, having kept several 
families to work the Silver Mines at Doonally, in the county 
Tipperary, several of the Kennedys and others in their company 



246 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

most inhumanly and cruelly murdered sixteen ^ of these poor people. 
I cannot yet find certainly in what month this murder was com- 
mitted, but have sent to know, and hope soon to be directly 
informed, and though these murderers were not brought to justice 
according to the due course of law, yet by the just judgment of God 
they all came to very sad ends. 

After the taking of Cashel, as before mentioned, several of the 
prime gentry of the county Tipperary had several meetings in 
January, 1G41, and agreed to raise several foot companies, and 
appointed officers over them, and invited the Lord Viscount Moimt- 
garret, whom they heard had a commission from the justices to 
raise men, to be their general, upon which his lordship, about the 
latter end of January, 1641, came with fifteen companies of foot 
to Cashel, where, and in his rendezvous at Menenerla, in Clan- 
william, some of those of Tipperary joined him. In his march he 
appointed a company to block John Wise, one White, and others, 
who kept the castle of Ballyowen, and used to plunder some of the 
neighbours at night, and in the day-time appeared on the roads in 
women's apparel and robbed and killed some. Wise happened to 
be shot as he was going out of the castle, and afterwards White 
delivered it up to the Irish. And then also Lord Mountgarret 
ordered a company to block in a company of the English that had 
got together into the castle of Goelyn, who also burned and plun- 
dered some of their neighbours. From his rendezvous at Menenerla, 
Lord Mountgarret marched to the castle of Cnockardan, kept by the 
sons and servants of one Thomas Groves ; he summoned them to 
yield, which they refusing, after two days' resistance, they surren- 
dered upon a promise of life and arms, which was performed to 
them, and their goods given to the soldiers. In the taking of this 
castle the second son of Mr. FitzGerald of Burntchurch was killed. 



Before Mountgarret returned from the west, the poor English at 
Goelyn Castle being straitened for want of victuals, and despairing 
to be relieved, such of them as were able to march went on a dark 

' Anna Sherring's deposition says that thirty-two persons, including her 
husband, ten women, and four children, Avere mui-dered at the Silver Mines on this 
occasion, v. Deposition CXLIV. For the fate of their Kennedy murderers v. 
p. 251. The Kilkenny depositions prove that cruel murders took place in that 
county, and that Cantwell was active in committing them, notwithstanding Lord 
Mount garret's exertions. The proofs that heshot Cantwell, however, are slender. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 247 

niglit unawares to the besiegers, and made their escape with theii* 
arms, but they were met the next day in the mountains by James 
Butler of Ruskeagh, who killed some of them ' and took others 
prisoners, whereof he hanged a Scotsman, for which the said James 
Butler was tried, convicted, and hanged at Clonmell, at a gaol 
delivery before Colonel Sankey and others. And for the poor men, 
women, and children left behind at Goelyn Castle, that were not 
able to go, the barbarous fellows that blocked them in most traitor- 
ously and inhumanly murdered them, the certain number of these 
murdered I find not, but I hope soon to know it. And because the 
company that did besiege the castle did belong to Pierse Butler of 
Shanballyduffe, and James Butler of Boytonrath, the said James 
and Pierse, Thomas the eldest son of Pierse, and one Patrick 
Keane, were in Cromwell's time, anno 1G53, tried, convicted, and 
executed at Clonmell for the same barbarous butchery, though they 
were not present at it, yet their being officers of the company was 
suilicient to convict them. One George Cooke and his brother 
llobert kept the castle at Breakstown, and Robert being upon the 
battlement in September, 1G42, was shot by one of the soldiers that 
blocked them up, and the castle surrendered in October, 1012. 

These are the chiefest and all the violent actions I can find to 
have been done in the county of Tipperary in the first year of the 
rebellion. 

And I do find that several of the English were preserved by 
some of the Irish there, as Sir Richard Everard, Bart.,^ before the 
rebellion had planted the most part of his estate with English 
tenants, and at the beginning of it, observing the force and violence 
of the Irish to be so great that he was not able to protect all the 
English from the violence of the rabble, at first he sent away such 
of them as w^cre able and rich with all their stock and other goods 
to the English quarters, and there being families of them that were 
poor and unable to remove, as many as 88 persons, the said Sir 
Richard kept and maintained them until the middle of June, 1G42, 
at his own charges, and not being able to protect them longer 
against the violence of the storm, he conveyed them and their goods 
safely to the English garrison at Mitchelstown. And when that 
garrison was taken by the Irish, Sir Richard sent to some of the 

' For tlicse nmnlers v. Deposition CXLV. 

^ Soveral depositions confirm tlio account licrc given of Sir Richard Everard's 
conduct. lie was, I liolieve, the brother of the friar already mentioned as having 
saved some lives atCashel. His daughter married the son of the Kuightof Kerry, 



248 THE IT^ISII MASSACRES OF lOJl. 

families there that were very poor to come to him, whom he kept 
and maintained a long time, and then sent them away to the place 
they desired to go to. And as soon as the Cessation was made 
some of those poor tenants came back to him, and he settled and 
maintained them till Cromwell came to the country. All Avhich 
was snflficiently proved by several persons in the Court at Athlone, 
when Sir Richard was upon his trial of qualifications, and that he 
was a common harbourer of the poor English in their distress, and 
that he was neuter for the first two years, and that several of his 
houses were rifled and burnt for his opposing the Irish, and that 
they took away from him IGO cows, 88 stud marcs, and 2,000 sheep, 
all which can be fully proved if mat.erial. The Lady Viscountess of 
Thurles preserved some English. Thomas Tobin of Kilgenemanagh 
preserved many English families at Clorhane, Jolni Hackctt of 
Ballyskittane preserved two or three English families, as Piuth 
Hope's, John Moore's, (blank) Fiske's. And John Campbell of 
Ballynakeady preserved some, as did Dr. Fcnnell. — (Carte MSS.) 

II. 

On January 1st, 1G41, Fethard was surprised by Theobald Butler, 
commonly called the Baron of Ardmayle, by drawing thither in 
small parties, such as he intrusted, of the vulgar sort of the barony 
of Middlethird, without any suspicion had by Martin Hacket, the 
governor of the town, or any of the burgesses or inhabitants. The 
honest and simple magistrate was seized in his own house, the keys 
forced from him by the Baron, who opened the gates and let in a 
throng of his adherents, about 1,000, armed some with swords and 
skeans, most with dubs and pikes. The lower sort of them, and 
especially one Theobald Butler FitzTheobald, fell to plundering the 
English inhabitants, viz. Eobert Hamilton, minister of the town, a 
Scot, G. Loe, minister of Clonyn and three parishes, Bobert Powell, 
John Lobb, and five others, in which Theobald Butler had the 
greatest share, pretending to be an okl soldier and to have served 
in Ulster in the disbanded army of the Lord Strafford, and usurping 
the office and name of Quartermaster-General. Hamilton was kept 
in restraint some days, and also minister Loe, and then Hamilton 
was sent with his wife and children under a safe-conduct to 
Carrickmagrissy {sic), where the Countess of Ormond then resided, 
and went thence in her ladyship's company to Dublin, where he 
deposed before the mayor impious falsehoods, and several gentle- 



MISCELLANEOUS. 249 

men of Tipperai-y with being at the surprisal who were not there, 
particularly one Mr. St. John of St. Johnstown (who died yesterday, 
being Gth of February, 165G, at Kilbride, at the house of his second 
son, Oliver St. John '), and whom he, Hamilton, calls a colonel and 
puts at the head of 500 men bearing the name of soldiers, in the 
market-place of that town upon its surprisal. Whereas it is gene- 
rally known to the chief hihabitants of Fethard that Mr. Eobert St. 
John was not there at all, and was of so temperate a disposition 
that he scarce ever wore so much as a defensive sword, and loved 
his ease so well that he scarcely ever appeared at any pubhc meeting 
of the barony of ]\liddlethird, and had no ambition but to enjoy liia 
estate, which he derived from his ancestors many centuries ago, and 
all his discourse to me, who was one of his nearest neighbours, was, 
that he would have nothing to do in those wars, and that whoever 
had Cashel, Clonmell, and Fethard he would submit to him, and to 
my own special knowledge he had no personal intermeddling with 
tliat war, otherwise than in paying his contributions. Yet upon 
Hamilton's false information, against which no appeal or traverse 
would be admitted without a bribe, he was by the Commission 
lately sitting at Athlone declared a • nocent,' and deprived of two- 
thirds of his estate, and was so harassed with his own and his son's, 
John St. John's fruitless attendance for redress, that he died before 
his time of grief and want. 

James Butler, the now unfortunate Baron of Dunboyne, lying 
the night that Cashel was taken at Ballyshiaghane, overslept him- 
self luckily in the morning, and a gentleman, a neighbour intimate 
with him, sprinkling him with some drops of water as he lay in 
his bed, he resented it, rose in a passion, and would not go to 
the surprise of Cashel, but returned to his house of Kiltynane. 
In his return passing near Fethard, and hearing the town was sur- 
prised by the Baron of Ardmayle, his lordship being chief com- 
mander of the barony of Middle third, by special grant made to some 
of his ancestors for services performed to the Crown of England, 
took on him the command of Fethard, and made his brother, Mr. 
Thomas Butler, governor of it, and sent out the disorderly rabble that 
came with the Baron of Ardmayle, and Mr. Piers Butler of Rathcoole 
(next the baron the chiefest of the surprisers) placed in it a garrison 
and guard of the ablest persons, protected the British inhabitants 

' A note to this says : ' Robert St. John died at Kilbryde, February 6th, 1656, 
and was buried the next day at St. Augustine's Abbey near Fethard.' 



250 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

from further plundering, freed tliem from restraint, sent I\Ir. Loe to 
his landlord, Mr. Geoffrey Moclder of Mocklerstown, with his wife 
and family, as also the Powells and John Lobb to a place of safety 
as they desired, towards Youghal. And so ordered the matter that 
there was not one man, woman, or child killed in that enterprise, 
and the goods pillaged wore returned with little or no charges, and 
satisfaction fully made to the sufferers, not by the actors, but by 
the better sort of people in the town ; only Pierse Butler, as he 
pi'etended, out of friendship to Hamilton, kept all his cattle tliat he 
possessed in Ballynteample, parcel of Eathcoole, and at Mylctonne 
(sic). G. Loe, Vicar of Clonyn, coming a pretty while after from 
Myletonne to Fethard, was murdered in his bed (as he lay there) 
by one James MacHae, a carpenter, and another, while he was fast 
asleep, and carried out folded in a coverlet, or forced to walk with 
them, to Crump's Bridge (a pretty distance to the east of Fethard), 
and there they threw his body into the river. Great search was 
made after the murderers by Mr. Geoffrey Mockler, and by Robert 
Bysset, in whose house the murder was committed, and James 
MacHae being suspected, Mr. Mockler gave information against him 
to the Lord Ikerrin, then Lieut. -General to Lord ]\Iountgarret, who 
committed him to prison to the county gaol, whence escaping he lived 
in Leinster, and coming to Kilkenny was known by an inhabitant of 
Fethard and committed by the governor. But denying himself to 
be MacHae, he was sent to Clonmell to have the fact cleared, denied 
the murder at first, but at last owned it, and discovered his accom- 
plice, Avho was drawn and quartered at Clonmell, as MacHae was at 
Fethard on a gibbet erected near the place of the murder. Before 
he was imprisoned by Lord Ikerrin he had been taken up at 
Fethard, but an officer, pretending he was one of his soldiers, took 
him out of prison, and, marching with the other Tipperary forces, 
he was then known and seized. 

In December, 1G41, the city of Kilkenny was surprised by the 
Lord Mountgarret, who fortunately died soon after the yielding up 
of Galway, thereby preventing the execution intended him. He 
never thought of permitting plunder, yet the vulgar sort flocking 
after him plundered English, Irish, Papist and Puritan alike, with- 
oiit distinction, which all the generals with him could do could 
not prevent, though they did the shedding of blood. His lord- 
ship published prohibitions against pillaging, and one Eichard 
Cantwell (descended from Mr. Richard Cantwell of Paynestown, in 
the barony of Slieveardagh, a gentleman while he lived of great 



MISCELLANEOUS. 251 

esteem for liis hospitality and good parts) transgressing his inhibi- 
tion ho (Lord Mountgarret) shot him dead with his pistol, having 
no respect of persons, or regard to friendship and dependency in 
such a public concennnent, though. he would not for 500^. have lost 
that person so killed, being an able and very active young man, and 
a brother of Mr. John Cantwell, the late abbot of the abbey of Holy 
Cross, whom his lordship for sundry respects much favoured and 
respected. 

Dermot O'Kennedy of Dounarieke {sic) in the barony of Upper 
Ormond, dying before these distempers, happened to have seven 
sons. These seven combining together, without any provocation, 
came suddenly into the dweUing-houses of Dounarieke aforesaid, 
and massacred sixteen ' honest and civil miners, and refiners, hired 
to work at the Silver Mines, under the oversight of Sir George 
Hamilton, who not submitting until near his decease to the course 
of government established by the confederate Catholics, and the 
poor man having no near relation to prosecute, the murderers 
escaped a legal punishment, for which the magistrates appointed by 
the confederate Catholics are not to be excused ; yet they escaped 
not the judgment of God, for 1st, John O'Kennedy, the elder 
brother of the seven, having attempted several ways of preferment 
in Munster, Leinster, and Ulster, where he bore the name of a 
colonel to uphold himself, and received the profits of his estate of 
Duneally, and the lead of that mine, all could not maintain him in 
any decency, so debasely addicted (was he) to swearing, tipphng, 
and plundering, that with a party of thieves and tories he wasted 
his native country, and cruelly oppressed Upper Ormond, and at last 
was killed in an action and beheaded, his head put upon a stake, 
and his body left to the fowls of the air. 

2ndly. Henry O'Kennedy, the second brother, followed the out- 
rageous courses of his elder John in rapine, troubled in conscience 
for it, ran headlong desperately into the Shannon and was drowned. 

3rdly. Kenny, the third brother, not inferior to the former in 
mischief, being committed to the shire gaol at Limerick, did indeed 
before his trial make his escape, but so odious was he to his neigh- 
bours that he has not been inriuired after, nor is it known what has 
become of him. 

' V. note to p. 246, and Deposition CXLIV., showing that thirty-two persons, 
of whom ten were women, and four children, were murdered at the Silver Mines. 



252 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF KUl. 

4th. Donogli, the fourth brother, though a Franciscan by voca- 
tion, yet joining with his brothers, so infectious is iniquity, was of 
late mifortunately killed. 

5th. Edmond, thefiftli brother, a Franciscan too, but an associate, 
died lately, I pray God that he ended his days like a good Christian. 

6th. Tiegue, the sixth brother, was killed at St. Patrick's rock, 
when surrounded by Lord Inchiquin's forces. 

7th. William O'Kennedy, the seventh brother, though yet living, 
is credibly believed to have in the first year of the late civil war 
kiHed sixteen innocent persons by treachery, besides what he did at 
the Silver Mines. 

A like cruel massacre upon the poor English men, women, and 
some young children was committed at the Castle of Goellyn {sic) 
Bridge in the barony of Clanwilliam, in the county of Tipperary, 
after that the English warders, having formerly l)y burning and 
spoiling much injured their neighbours, ran away from there, those 
weak, feeble persons not able to go after them, being found tliore 
the next day, as the report then was, is since continued, and by the 
English especially accepted for truth, some of whom were killed, 
and others cast alive into a deep hole or pit and covered with earth 
and stones, aiid some young children, at least one infant of a goodly 
aspect, cast over the bridge into the river Suir and drowned . . . 
the actors in this crime were never since nor in Cromwell's time 
called to account for it . . . but James and Pyers Butler, Thomas 
Oge Butler, and Patrick Keane (leaders in the siege of the castle) 
were condemned and executed at Clonmell, 10th IMay, 1G58. Thomas 
Butler FitzJohn and Eichard Bourke were acquitted on proof that, 
they being of the company that blocked the castle, yet out of their 
affection to the English interests and government relieved the 
warders with ammunition and victuals. Piers Butler, who was 
{illegible) just before the deserting of the castle, was at his trial so 
weak that he could hardly stand or speak, he died a lloman Catholic. 
His son Thomas, idly talking at his trial of his and Patrick Kcan's 
being wounded at the siege of the castle as they were viewing the 
outworks (for the evidence did not go so far), occasioned their con- 
viction. James Bourke, the informer against them, was descended 
of good parents in the county Limerick, and married one of the 
Hacketts of Cashel, widow of Mr. Bourke of Scartvicfoyle {sic), in 
Clanwilliam, whose estate and means he lavished, and then follow- 
ing unruly courses, fell upon a poor tenant residing at Ballyshiagh- 
nine, and charging him with the massacre at Cashel, seized the 



IHISCELLANF,OUS. 253 

poor mail's goods without warrant, and being questioned for it 
before Major Green, it fell out that he was himself impeached as 
concerned in that massacre, and he was arraigned at the next 
assizes before Judge Donellan, convicted, and executed. — {Carte 
MSS. vol. Ixiv. pp. 435-4G1.) 

III. 

When Cashel was, on St, Nicholas' Day, attempted by Theobald 
Purcoll, liaron of Loghmoo, since deceased, with a party of 1,500 
foot, who came to the gates of the town with intent to surprise it, 
the intercessions of Father Dan Kearney, Friar Joseph Everard, 
and Father Sail, who went out with the Roman Catholic clergy in 
procession ' to meet them, prevailed with them (the rebels) to desist 
from their enterprise without doing violence to the city or any 
English or Irish there, which gave them respite to remove them- 
selves and goods to places of safety, as Archibald Hamilton and his 
Dean Dr. Pullen did, who went away with their wives and families, 
and such as tarried till O'Dwyer's coming had their goods, which 
they confided to the Eoman Catliolic clergy, re-delivered to them. 
Philip O'Dwyer died of a languishing disease at his house Doun- 
dromoro, on the 3rd of May, 1G48, Mr. Theobald Butler, Mr. Tiegue 
O'Meagher, Lieut. -Colonel O'Dwyer, brother to Philip, with one 
Brian Kearney FitzJohn of Ballybcgg, Ulick Bourke of Lis {illegible), 
Hugh Ryan, and others were executed for the Cashel massacre, 
being condemned at the greatest trial held for the county Tippe- 
rary under Cromwell. Mr. Richard Butler of Ballynekill and Mr. 
Charles O'Dwyer were fortunately acquitted at the great trial held 
at Clonmell before Justice Donnellan, who sat as president a day 
or two before the feast of St. Martin, in November, 1G52, Redmond 
Enghsh, a Franciscan, was so zealous to save the English, he hid 
some of them under the altar, which being proved at his trial 
saved his life. Mr. R. Butler of Ballynakelly was the youngest 
son of James, sometime Baron of Dunboyne, and was saved by the 
English jury on the general good report of his noble carriage and 
civility in all his actions, and so was Charles O'Dwyer of Crul 
{illegible) for the like character, and his love of quietness, though 
the evidence was as full against them as against the others, who, 
except Ulick Burke, whom I cannot specially accuse, and will not 
attempt to excuse, were all free from shedding of blood, and so 

' V. ante, p. 243, Jiote. 



254 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

Tiegue Oge O'Meara, Lt.-Col. Dwyer, and Brian Kearney protested 
at their examination at Clonmell, on November 23rd, 1052. 

Theobald Butler, Ulick Bourke, and Hugh Kyan were executed 
at Cashel on the gibbet in the wall against the Court House, 
November 24th, 1G25. Fr. Joseph Everard when ho could not stop 
the massacre left his maledictions on the actors of it. — {Carte MSS. 
vol. Ixiv. pp. 432-458.) 

IV. 

As concerning the murders committed at Shrule, in Connaught, 
I live at such a distance from that place that I cannot yet exactly 
learn the precise time, manner, or number of the murders there 
committed, and can only at present as to that particular observe 
to your Grace, what I I'emember to have read in a printed collection 
by K. S.^ of some murders committed on the Irish with observations 
on falsifications of some murders said to be committed by the Irish. 
I say that it is confessed that a barbarous murder was committed 
by one Edmund Atlea,'* an irreligious, profane fellow of the county 
of Mayo and his wicked accomplices at Shrule on about thirty-' 
persons. And that the neighbouring gentry came with all expedi- 
tion to the rescue of the said Protestants. And that they did rescue 
the Bishop of Killala (who was said to have been murdered in that 
place) and his wife and children and most of the Protestants there, 
and that one Brian Killery, a friar, the guardian of the abbey of 
Ross, near Shrule, was one of the first that made haste to that 
rescue, and brought the said bishop and his wife and children with 

' The pamphlet or paper containing this collection by R. S. is in the British 
Museum Library, and has been often quoted by Irish writers, but a comparison of 
its statements as given in the above account with the sworn depositions of the 
survivors at Shrule and others, will show how little the vague stories of this 
anonymous pamphleteer are to be trusted. 

'' This Edmund Atlea, probably Edmund of the Hills (v. Deposition 
CLXXXIX.), could have been no other than the Edmund 15ourko witli whom 
Lord Mayo 'covenanted' to convey the Protestants to Shrule, and who was the 
first to begin the massacre at the bridge (v. vol. i. p. 1582-394). The choice 
of such a man for the convoy renders Lord INIaj'o suspect, although it is probable 
he could have found no trustworthy person, hud ho really wished to do so. 

' Dean Fargy's wdow swore {v. p. 7) that there were a party of fifty-five 
Protestants, besides the Bishop, the Dean, and six other clergymen (in all sixty- 
three), and that all the men of this party except the Bishop and two others were 
murdered at Shrule. Several women, she also swore, two of them being enceinte, 
were murdered there. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 255 

several others of the said distressed Protestants into his monastery, 
where he civilly treated them for several nights, until Mr. Bourke 
of Castle Hackct brought the said bishop, his wife and children 
into his own house, where they wanted nothing for several weeks, 
the like being done by several other neighbouring gentlemen to the 
rest of the said Protestants, until they were sent into places of 
security by the Marquis of Clanricarde's orders. That paper 
(written by R. S.) observes that the Lord Viscount Mayo, upon pre- 
tence of having a hand in that murder, was in Cromwell's time put 
to death, though it is said he proved at his trial that he was a Pro- 
testant at that time that the murders were committed, and that it 
was a great providence he escaped to be killed by them ' (the Irish). 
That paper also takes notice that though he who writ the collection 
of the murders committed upon the English, said in his first and 
second pages that in 1G42 many Protestants were murdered in a 
barbarous manner at Kilkenny, and likewise that at Graigue, in the 
county Kilkenny, seventy Protestants were murdered with most 
horrible circumstances, whereas at Kilkenny there was but one 
woman smothered in a tumult in 1G41, for which the Lord Mount- 
garret shot Cantwell dead, and that at Graigue there were not any 
murdered during the rebellion. The truth of this is so confidently 
affirmed by persons of honour and quality as that they are content 
to allow the whole abstract of murders of English for truth if the 
author can prove that any Protestant was murdered in Kilkenny 
or Graigue but the said single woman. '^ 

' The Viscount I\Iayo of 1611-2 died before Cromwell arrived in Ireland. His 
son Theobald or Tilibot, according to his own deposition, given in vol. i.p. 396, was 
forced away from Slirulo by John Garvey, the sheriff of tiic county, to save his 
life, while he was attempting to stop the massacre. Lord Mayo's Protestantism 
was doubtful, he became a Roman Catholic three days after the massacre (De- 
position CIX.), and liis son the Viscount, executed by Cromwell, was, I believe, 
a Eoman Catholic. In his examination, however, lie charges the Roman Catliolic 
Archbishop and priests with having failed to keep their promise of remaining 
with the convoy to ensure its safety. There is not a particle of good evidence to 
show that the gentry generally made any efforts to save the fugitives. John 
Brown, Esq., of the Neale admits that he, like the Roman Catholic Archbisliop and 
priests, fled away from Shrule and left the Protestants to their fate. (v. Deposi- 
tions CIX. to CXVII.) 

^ If this rash challenge were accepted all Sir John Temple's abstracts would 
pass for truth, inasmuch as the murders of several Protestants at Graigue are 
proved by the depositions of the widows and relatives of the murdered men, and 
by those of Sir Edward and Lady Eutler. The oaths of those 'two persons of 
honour and quality' must certainly bo preferred to R. S.'s anonymous report of 



256 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF lOU. 

And R. S. also observes that in the county of Galway all the 
war time, several Protestant ministers, viz. Dean York, Mr. Carryn 
(sic), MacNeil and other ministers and their flocks had meetings 
there without interruption, living amongst the Irisli. If your Grace 
think fit to speak to the Earl of Clanricarde, he may persuade 
Colonel Kelly to give your Grace a true account, as well of that 
murder at Shrule, as of all other notable transactions in Connaught 
in the beginning of the rebellion, and to read the collections of 
murders on both sides would do your Grace no harm.' — {Carte MSS. 
vol. ii. pp. 122-215. Bodleian Library.) 

the parole evidence of anonymous persons, who for aught wo know never existed 
at all. R. S.'s observations as to the safety of the Protestant clergy in Galway 
are proved worthless by the depositions of the few of tliem who survived. See 
also Mr. Goldsmith's account of Lord Mayo's remarks to the Archbishop when he 
wished to have tliat clergyman given up to him. 

' The above is endorsed by Carte, ' This seems to me to be IMr. Kearney of 
Fethard's handwriting.' 



APPENDIX. 



{v. vol. i. p. 17.) 

Examination of Dermot Oge McDonne, taken before the 
Lord of Meath, Sir Toby Caulfield, CArTAiN Dodding- 
TON, AND Francis Annesley, the 8rd of April, IGIC.^ 

•' About a fortniglit after the summer assizes lield at Dungannon, 
A,D. 1G14, this deponent, with one Dermot McEedmond Moyle in 
his company, came to the house of Art Oge McDonnel O'Neil 
chanceably at a time wlien those therein wore at mass. They 
found the door shut, and two men keeping it, called Hugh Moyna 
McGillpatrick and Hugh Moyna MacArt, who knows this deponent 
and his companion, and let them into the house, where they found 
the friar O'Mullarlcy saying mass, who was lately come thither out 
of Tyrconnell. The hearers were Brian Crossagh O'Neil, Art Oge 
O'Neil McDonnel, and his two brothers ; Owen McPhelimy, Slieely 
ny Hosye, wife to the said Art, ' Ould ' Donnel O'Neil, father to the 
said Art, and the priest MacMurphew. Examt. only stayed within 
while he said his prayers, and came out of the house within a little 
while, and Cormac MacKedmond Moyle followed him soon after. 

At this examt. 's going out of the house the priest MacMurphew 
called after him, saying, * Dermot, you arc making great haste out 
of the house,' To which this examt. answered him that he had 
some business without, and that he could stay no longer in the 
company. The priest then said to this examt., 'It is no matter 
whether we ever see any of your master's men or not,' meaning the 
king's, as this deponent expounded it. Then said Brian Crossagh 
to the priest, which words this deponent overheard, ' lie shall 
ansiucr for this another day.' 

' MSS. T.C.V. Fol. 3, 15. 
VOL. II. S 



258 THE IRISH massacres of ig41. 

Then this examt. went on his way with Cormac McRedmond 
Moyle towards the house of Brian Crossagh, and on the way met 
Owen McFerdoragh Ony Maguire, who, after holding some sliort 
communication with them, they telHng him what they were doing 
at Art Oge's house, went along with them to Brian Crossagh 's 
house, but before they got there Brian himself overtook them, and 
said to this examt. that ' they did ill to flee from God's service,' 
to which this examt. answered, that ' thejj did not flee from God's 
service, hut from the trotibles of this world, which he had lately 
tasted enough of.' And this the examt. said further to Brian, ' // 
thou wilt give me a buieng ' to be thy friend, I will give thee a 
huieng to be my friend.' Then Brian Crossagh answered, he would 
take no huieng of this examt., but then presently after gave him 
his sword, bidding this examt. say, if he were asked how he came 
by it, that he got it at play ; whereupon this examt., taking the 
sword, said he would refuse nothing that came to him in God's 
name. 

And so taking his leave this examt., with Cormac ]\IcIlodmond 
Moyle and Owen McFerdoragh Boy, went to the house of one Brian 
Maguire, which was not far off, where they had not stayed long 
when Brian Crossagh O'Neil sent for them to come back again, and 
on their way back this examt. said to his companion, ' I am afraid 
Brian ivill take back the s2vord from me, and therefore I tvill hide 
it,' and so this examt. left it in a farmer's house called Gillenef 
MacRogan, who can witness it, telling him he won it at play. 

At his return to Brian's house he found Brian and his wife on a 
bed of rushes, and Brian called to him and bade him sit down, 
which he this examt. did, leaning his back on a sincere or division of 
wattles made in the house, which looking through he espied Friar 
O'Mullarky on the other side of the said wattles, and when Brian 
perceived that this examt. had espied the friar, he said in jest to 
him, ' Take care, there is something there that will hurt thee,' to 
which this examt. answered, he woxild not willingly be hurt. Then 
the friar spoke likewise in jest, saying, 'If I loere a hull beggar I 
would eat thee,' and then, turning his speech into earnest, said, 
' If I did not think thoii ivoxddst be of my counsel I ivould cut off 
thy head.' Then Brian rose from his bed and said, ' Tarry until I 
have talked loith him,' and so went out of doors, taking this examt. 
with him, and said unto him, ' Dermot, thoit, hast been a servitor for 
the king, and hast brougJit many men to great trouble and some to 
their deaths. Let me see what thou hast got by it. If thoic shouldest 

' Bie)ig, a gift to win favour and pledge friendfjliip. See vocab. of Iri.'^h terms, 
Calendar of Irish State Papers, lien. VIII. vol, iii. p. 58S. 



ArPENDix. 259 

serve for five years more, and cut off as many more, thou shouldest 
have nothing hut in the end to he hanged for thy labour. I was at 
the assizes the other day, and Justice Aungicr zuas ready to revile 
me like a churl if I did hut look awry, and the other hlack judge 
would lean his head tqmn one shoulder to see if he could espy any 
occasion to hang me. By my good will I ivill never go among them 
any more, and if thou wilt take my counsel I shall have no occasion 
to think my sivord ill bestowed.' 

Upon these speeches Art Oge O'Neil came out, and with him 
Owen McFordoragh Boy and Cormac McRodmond Moylo, and then 
Brian said to this examt. and the rest that they liad been servitors 
formerly, but now if they would take his counsel he would bring 
them to better service, and if they would take his counsel he would 
take theirs. And he further said, ' You are all gentlemen; I know 
if you give me your tvord you will not break with me, and if you 
loill be of my counsel we xoill get many more of our party, and for 
your better assurance Edward O'Mullarkcy shall make the order of 
your reivard,' 

Then said this examt., ' Let me know first tohat you mean to 
do, and then it may he we would he of your counsel.' Then said 
Owen McFerdoragh Boy, ' I love my own Lord locll (meaning Con 
Eoe Maguire), yet I love thee far better, and I have cause to love 
thee because thou marriedst my Lord's daughter.^ Therefore if 
thou canst work with these gentlemen (meaning this examt. and 
Cormac MacRedmond Moyle), tJioumaycst be sure of me.' 

Then said Art Ogo O'Neil, ' If I durst trust thee I tvould quickly 
tell thee tvhat ive ivould have thee do. But I am afraid you ivould 
betray us,' and with that he went into the house where the Friar 
Edward O'Mullarkey was ; and the said Art, plucking out a little 
red box, Avished all the men that were where that box came from 
were there betwixt that and the church well armed, which church 
stood about half a mile off, called Tullyakteyue, and with that 
pulled out a large paper out of the box, saying that if they knew 
what was written in that paper they would not be afraid to take 
their party in the business they went about, for, said he, ' there is 
not a gentleman in the country hut his hand is set to this i^aper to 
take our parts.' 

Then they drank aqua vitce out of a little bottle, which the friar 
had of extraordinary good aqica vitce. Having drank, this examt. 
said to Owen MacFerdoragh Boy, and Cormac LIcRedmond Moylo 
asked, what business was that they so earnestly demanded help in, 

' Brian Crossagh O'Neil, himself illegitimate, was married to the illegitimate 
daiightor of Con Eoe Maguire, chief of his sept. 

S 2 



260 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

and what aid or warrant they had to hope to bring it to pass. Then 
said Brian Crossagh, ' Is not Sir Toby's fosterer a good %oarrant ? ' 
This examt. replying, asked, ' IVJiat fosterer has Sir Toby?' They 
answered it was Con Koe MacNeil. And Art said further tliat, 
howsoever long Sir Toby had that fosterer, he had much need to 
have him. Then this examt. asked, ' ^V^iy lioto do you think you 
can get Sir Toby's fosterer that he is so careful of ? ' 

Then Brian Crossagh said he was sure to have him, whensoever 
he liked, and that he had a h-iend in Sir Toby's house that was 
most of his counsel, which had promised to deliver the boy unto us. 
Cormac asked, ' Who was that that was so near Sir Toby and so 
mucli their friend ? ' Art Oge said it was Ned Drumane. Tlion, 
said Brian McFerdoragh Boy, it is ti-ue that if you have Ned Dru- 
mane to your friend you may be sure to have the boy, for Sir Toby 
trusts him as much as any man about him. And then Art Oge 
said that in a few days he would go to Charlemont to see how soon 
Sir Toby was to go to Dublin, meaning not to take away Con 
McGregy until Sir Toby were gone to Parliament, and that then 
Ned Drumane should bring the boy unto them, and they would keep 
Ned Drumane prisoner with them two days, and then send him 
back to Sir Toby, as if he were in no fault. And further Art Oge 
said, ' If our fortune be to sj^eed ivell you shall have good coviniands 
under us : if not, toe caii all go to Spain with the boy, and be 
welcome there,' Saying further, ' Do not you see that William 
Steioard, who married my sister, if he take our j^^i^ts, he being 
of the best blood of the Scots, you may be sure that the best of 
the Scots will be loith us, and %ve make no question of William 
Steioard but he will join with us ivhensoever we shall call for liini, 
either in Ireland or to get us a ship to convey us away.' 

Then this examt., making a doubt that William Steward was 
not on their side (as they boasted), Brian Crossagh took a book and 
swore by it that William Steward was promised to them. Art 
O'Neil took the book and swore the like, and so did Owen O'Neil, 
brother to said Art, and that William Steward's hand was to the 
writing, further telling and assuring them that within one month 
they should hear of wars in Scotland, and that Alexander MacJames 
MacSurly Buy had set his hand also to the writing, and those of 
Scotland should begin the war first. 

Brian Crossagh said further, that if it had not been for three of 
his friends that counselled him, he had not been at the last assizes 
at Dungannon. Then this examt. and his companions asked Brian 
how long it Avould be before the plot was put into execution, and 
Brian answered that they would stay no longer than to receive an 



APPENDIX. 261 

answer to a letter which the Friar O'MuUarkey was then writing 
to Alexander McSurley Buy, which letter being written, they all 
four signed it before their faces, viz. the Friar O'MuUarkey, Brian 
Crossagh O'Ncil, Art Oge O'Neil, and Owen O'Neil, brother to the 
said Art, and then Brian Crossagh put the letter in his pocket. By 
this it was supper time, and Brian swore that he would eat no 
meat until the friar had made friends between them and Art Oge, 
for there had boon unkindness between them and Art Oge upon a 
matter they had discovered to the Bishop of Meath of Art Oge 
having an intention to take him prisoner. Then the Friar O'Mul- 
larkey ordered that Brian Crossagh and Art Oge should give this 
examt. and Owen McFerdoragh Boy 51. apiece, and that they should 
botli go to Sir Toby Caullield to deny tlie truth of the information 
they had before given to tlie Bishop of Meath of Art Oge's inten- 
tion to take him prisoner. Owen McFerdoragh Buy said he durst 
not go without a protection, so that Art Oge sent one Hugh Moynagh 
McArt to the said Sir Toby for the said warrant and protection, 
promising they should discover some good service for his Majesty. 
As soon as Hugh was returned with the protection and warrant, 
they both went to Dungannon, where they found Sir Toby, and 
Owen Boy did then and there make his denial (of his former infor- 
mation) touching the taking of the Bishop of Meath. 

But this examt., being as he said moved in conscience, stole out 
of town, and performed not the like as he had promised, for which 
Art Oge grew very much displeased, and devised to murder him, or 
do him some miscliief, as hereaiter shall be shown. 

About a fortnight afterwards, this examt. was by the devices of 
Brian Crossagh O'Neil decoyed to the house of one Shane O'Dowey 
and Owen O'Bowcy under false pretences, and having gone about a 
stone's cast within a wood near the house, being led by one Phelimy 
McGillrowney, one Patrick Oge O'Murphew, that was lying in 
waiting for him, fell upon this examt., and then the aforesaid 
Phelimy, that enticed him into the wood, took him by the leg and 
pulled him down to the ground, and instantly Art Oge came in 
with Mahon McGillegroom, Hugh Moynagh McArt, Owen McFer- 
doragh Boy, and Owen O'Neil, brother to Art, all falling upon this 
examt. First they searched him and took away from him his ticket 
of pardon, and the warrant that the judge had given him for his 
safe coming to the assizes at Dungannon. Having taken those 
things from him. Art Oge drew his skean to have killed him, but 
Patrick Oge MacMurphew stayed him, wishing him not to draw his 
blood, but rather to sew him up in his mantle and leave him there. 
So they tied him up Avith withes and stames, and then fell to 



2C2 THE IRISH MA.SSACRES OF 1G41. 

council whether they should kill him or not. And he thinketh they 
had killed him but that his gossip Owen McFerdoragh Boy dis- 
suaded them, wishing them rather to send him to the gaol and lay 
treason to his charge. With which course Art Oge was at the last 
contented, making full account Sir Toby would have hanged him 
as soon as he had brought him to him. And so this examt. was 
sent to the jail, and there remains." 

(Signed) George Midensis. 

Toby Caulfield. 

Fkan. Annesley. 

In order to understand Brian Crossagh's account of the criti- 
cising glances of ' Justice Aungier,' and the ' other black judge ' 
(probably the counsel or serjeant-at-law) at the Ulster Assizes, which 
so disgusted him, we must remember that the government of 
1609-20 professed a wish that the Irish chiefs should attend the 
courts of justice, and take part in their proceedings, at least mani- 
fest an interest in them, and a preference for English law over the 
Brehon system. Thus in 1G09, the Solicitor- General, Sir E. 
Jacob, describing the Ulster Assizes, Avrites to Salisbury, that 
' Mac Sweeny Fanagh came and sat with the judges in Court, 
though he came in an uncivil fashion in his mantle.' The Irish 
chief's preference for the Irish mantle (a graceful covering enough) 
was believed to betoken that he had still a suspicious hankering 
after his native fashions, if not native laws. 

The Alexander MacJames MacSurly Buy or Buie, i.e. Alexander 
the son of James, the son of Charles the Yellow, or yellow haired, 
mentioned in this deposition, was, I believe, the son of Sir James 
MacDonnell, brother of the first Earl of Antrim, but the genealogy 
of this family has been much confused (t>. ante, vol. i. p. 21). 



AITKXDIX. 263 



B. 

(". vol. i. p. 25.) 

Petition of Wexford Fkeeiiolders against Plantations.' 

To the Bt. Hon. Lords and others of his Majestjj's most honourable 

Privy Council. 

The humble petition of Eedmoncl McDamore, gent., in the 
behalf of himself and of divers gentlemen and freeholders of Mac- 
Damore's comitry of Wexford in the realms of Ireland, 

Humbly shewing unto your Lordships that your petitioners, 
according to his Majesty's gracious commission of defective titles 
for the settling of the subjects of that kingdom in their estates, 
and his Higlmess's proclamation thereupon, and the Lords Justices 
of assizes in that county, their publication thereof at the general 
assizes there holden, and according to an order of the late Lord 
Deputy and other commissioners on the 8th of February, 1G09, did, 
in the year 1G09, surrender their lands unto his Majesty, assuring 
themselves of re-grants of them to themselves and their heirs by 
letters patent. After which surrenders the petitioners seeldng to 
have re-grants accordingly from his Highness of the said lands, Sir 
Edward Fisher, Knight, William Parsons, surveyor, and others 
having obtained letters patent as midertakers of the petitioner's said 
lands did set on foot an ancient pretended title to the said lands 
for his ]\Iajesty, derived from the Lord Viscount Beaumont, never 
before heard of in the memory of man, and thereupon suddenly in 
term time (your petitioners then being destitute of counsel) procured 
a commission to return commissioners, some of them being under- 
takers, for finding of an oflice at the town of Wexford to entitle his 
Majesty to the premises by colour of the said supposed title, for th^ 
finding thereof there was impannelled a jury of the great freeholders 
of the said county, some of them being near of kin to Sir Lawrence 
Esmond, Knt. (who was a principal undertaker of other lands in the 
said county of Wexford upon the same ancient pretended title) to 

• .S. /'. /. J'o/. 234, ISA, Rolls House. 



204 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

inquire of the said petitioner's title. Yet after full evidence given 
the said jury would not find the pretended title for his Majesty, 
whereupon the said jurors in the winter vacation were advised 
(called before) to the Exchequer at Dublin, and there urged to 
inquire further into the said title. And the said jurors, insisting 
iipon their first verdict, were thereupon examined separately, and 
some of them for their intractability were there publicly committed 
to the Marshalsea, and afterwards censured in the Star Chamber 
without allowance of counsel, and some others, whereof one was an 
undertaker, and another who was employed in the said commission, 
were joined with the other yielding jurors, who found the long- slept 
title for his Majesty to these lands. 

And whereas heretofore, upon humble petition and complaint 
made unto your Lordships of the said proceedings, it pleased your 
Lordships, among other directions, to direct that if the petitioners 
and the natives did not conform themselves to your Lordships' 
directions, that then all parties should be left to be tried by the due 
course of the common law, and that the possession in the meantime 
should be left in the natives until (lawful) eviction. 

Yet notwithstanding, so it is. Eight Ilonourablos, that the said 
Sir Edward Fisher, William Parsons, and others, in Michaelmas 
time last, preferred an English bill into the Exchequer against the 
petitioners, setting forth no other title but that the Icing Avas seized 
and granted the same by letters patent, dated the 17th of February, 
in the 9th year of his reign, to the said Sir Edward Fisher and his 
heirs, yielding 81. Irish per annum, where the petitioners paid yearly 
101. for the same, and suggested that by reason the petitioners hold 
the same by force ho could not make his entry into the said lands 
to enable him to have an action at the common law. Unto which 
the petitioners made answer, that they held their lands by descent 
for many hundred years together, and that they were ready to 
answer the petitioner at the common law, and in the same term a 
Tjatin information was exhibited in the same Court of Exchequer 
against your petitioners for the same cause, and before they 
answered the said informations, the said Sir Edward Fisher 
obtained an injunction to dispose of the petitioners' said lands, 
which they and their ancestors held by descent time out of mind. 
The which was executed accordingly in March last in a most in- 
jurious manner by soldiers with force and arms, to the great annoy- 
ance and utter ruin of the petitioners, their wives and families, 
being many thousand souls, if their Lordships did not yield speedy 
relief unto them. 

The petitioners most luuubly beseech your Lordships to consider 



APPENDIX. 2G5 

tlieir poor estates being utterly ruinated and impoverished by the 
aforesaid courses, and for that they did hold their said lands by 
course of descent and not by tanistry, as was said, that therefore 
your Lordships would be vouchsafed to further their suit, and that 
his Majesty may be graciously pleased to direct his Highness's 
letters to the Lords Justices of the said realm of Ireland, requiring 
them thereby to grant by letters patent unto the petitioners and 
their heirs respectively, their said several lands, surrendered as 
aforesaid, according to his Majesty's said commission, proclamation, 
and order in that behalf, under such rents, terms, and service as to 
his Majesty shall be thought fit. And that such distresses as have 
been taken on their lands by the said Sir Edward Fisher may be 
restored. 

And also that order may bo taken for the enlargement of such 
of the petitioners as remaii:ied in prison upon attainder, by reason of 
their suit concerning the said lands. And your petitioners shall be 
bound to pray for your Lordships' long lives, &c. — [No date, calen- 
dared under May, 1G16.) 



266 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF Kill. 



c. 

(y. vol. i. p. 26.) 

The Commissioners' Eeturn and Certificate concerning the 

GRIEVANCES OF THE NATIVES IN THE PLANTATION OF WeX- 
FORD, A.D. 1G14.' 

The new plantation intended in the county of Wexford, in the 
province of Leinster, is to be made in the two baronies of Gowrie 
[sic) and Ballykenny in the half barony of Skerrywalshe, which 
contain, as they are estimated by survey, 6G,800 acres of land and 
certain tracts of wood, boggy land and mountain, all lying together 
in one continent betwixt the river of Slane on the south, the river 
of Arklow north, and the sea on the east, and the bounds of the 
counties Carlow and Kildare on the west, whereof the profits and 
occupations have been for many years in the several septs of the 
Kavenaghs, Kinsellas, MacSaddoes, MacDamores, and ]\Iurroghs, 
and other of the Irish septs, and to some of ancient English that 
not long since obtained part of those lands from the Irish. The 
possessioners claimed and pretended to hold those lands as their 
freehold by descent, after the custom of Irish gavelkind, and have 
been impannelled since the king's time on juries as freeholders, 
whereof the number presented to be freeholders and who offered 
their surrenders were 440 or thereabouts, as appeareth by the books 
delivered to us for surrenders, but now affirmed by the natives to 
be 6G7, of which fourteen had letters patent for part of their lands 
from the Crown, all which coimtries yielded yearly to his Majesty in 
rents and compositions only 179Z. 8s. 4fZ., besides 90/. yearly which 
Sir Eichard Masterson, Knight, had anciently granted him, and 201. 
yearly which Walter Synnot had in lieu of Irish chiefries to them 
granted by the Crown ; by several letters patent, upon evidence 
given at the Exchequer bar, in a trial betwixt the said Eichard 
Masterson and one of the sept of the Kavanaghs, in the term of 
Easter and in the seventh year of his highness's reign, some over- 
ture was made for a title to his Majesty to these lands, after which 
and before the said title was made known to the Lord Deputy and 
commissioners such as claimed to be freeholders obtained from the 
' Ilarrii's HHicrnicn. 



APPENDIX. 2G7 

commission of surrenders, orders, according to the usual form, for 
their several surrenders, and for effecting thereof procured out three 
several commissions to the king's escheator, and others, to inquire 
what lands and tenements they hold either by descent or tanistry 
and thereupon to accept their surrenders. Upon two of which com- 
missions nothing was done, but upon the third commission directed 
to his Majesty's said escheator and others, the commissioners on the 
27th of January, 1G09, received the several surrenders of all such 
as then claimed to be freeholders within those limits of all their 
lands, tenements, and hereditaments, comprised and specified in two 
several books then delivered to the escheator : the which surrenders 
the escheator confessed he did show to the Lord Deputy, and some 
other the commissioners for surrenders sitting upon the commission ; 
but for that the time by proclamation limited for the natives to pro- 
ceed with their surrenders was then past, the escheator was by the 
commissioners desired to return and keep the surrenders, and not 
to make return thereof, until his Majesty's pleasure was further 
known ; for that the king's learned counsel affirmed, they had dis- 
covered a good title for the king to all those lands, and that the 
commission warranted not them to accept those surrenders : accord- 
ing to which direction the escheator detained still the commission 
surrenders and books not yet returned, after which the Lord Deputy, 
aimo IGIO, certified his Majesty and some of the Privy Council in 
England of his higlmess's title, and that the natives offered to sur- 
render and to take new estates upon the commission of surrenders, 
and defective titles, and thereupon several directions were given to 
his lordship for the proceeding unto plantation, as by his Majesty's 
letters, and letters from some of his Privy Council, doth appear. 

After Avhich, the Lord Deputy resolved on a project for the divi- 
sion and plantation of those countries, whereof he hath sent to his 
highness by us a copy subscribed by his lordship, since which, on 
the 27th of July. 1611, his lordship sent Sir Lawrence Esmond, 
knt.. Sir Edward Fisher, knt., William Parsons, Esq., and Nicholas 
Kenny, Esq., his Majesty's surveyor and escheator, to make known 
to the inhabitants of these countries that nothing was intended 
unto them by that plantation but good, for albeit the whole country 
was the king's to dispose of as he pleased, yet he was pleased to 
accept of their surrenders, and to repass to such as were worthy 
and fit to be made freeholders, convenient portions in fee simple at 
reasonable rents, and to others of the inferior sort competent por- 
tions for lives and years, and that the civilising of the country was 
the chief thing aimed at, with some increase of revenue to the king, 
and that if any man were obstinate and opposed against the general 



2G8 Till': HUSH massacres of 1641. 

good intended, they should have justice, which is the benefit of sub- 
jects, but were to look for no favour. According to these directions 
the said commissioners treated with the inhabitants, and divers of 
the principal of these pretended freeholders yielded to accept the 
Lord Deputy's offers, and by several writings, dated in August in 
the ninth year of his highness's reign, did give up and surrender 
their lands to his Majesty, upon hope to have re-granted to them 
convenient portions in the new plantation, his lordship thereupon 
assigned unto 57 of the natives, to be divided into several portions, 
35,210 acres, to be granted in fee simple, which 57 were by a jury of 
that country presented to be the fittest men in those limits to be 
made freeholders. The particulars of these proportions, together 
with the names of those natives, are hereinafter expressed, of which 
35,210 acres there were assigned to the said Sir Eichard Masterson 
10,169 ; for his said chiefries 2,120 ; the residue for his land in the 
IMorrogh's country. Of the natives which agreed to the new planta- 
tion 16 of them accepted estates of their proportions from Sir Eichard 
Cooke, Sir Lawrence Esmond, Sir Edward Fisher, knights, the 
first patentees made of that country in trust. Of these 57 natives 21 
are still to retain their ancient houses and habitations, with their 
grounds adjoining. Some of their lands lying remote from them 
being laid to the now undertakers' proportions are to be talien from 
them, in lieu whereof some allowances are to be made of lands lying 
nearer their dwellings, with which they are not contented, for that 
they are not sufficiently recompensed for the lands taken from them 
as they affirm. To the residue which claim to be freeholders, being 
for the most part possessed of but small portions, no allowance of 
land or recompense is assigned or given, but all they, in number 
390 or thereabouts, and all the residue of the inhabitants, tenants, 
and cottiers, estimated to be 14,500 men, women, and children, 
may be removed at the will of the patentees, which notwithstanding 
few are yet removed, and it is offered by the new undertakers, as 
formerly by the Lord Deputy, it was appointed that all those to 
whom no portions by this new division are assigned, and all the 
under tenants inhabiting within their proportions, may, if they will, 
reside and dwell in these countries, as tenants to the English and 
native undertakers, without removing of any but such as dwell on 
those grounds, which the patentees shall use for their necessary 
demesnes to their castles and houses, and that they will be bound 
to let and set to those natives that want proportions lands at easy 
rents and rates as they held them before, all rents, charges, and 
exactions being considered which they paid to his Majesty, Sir 
Eichard Masterson, Walter Synnot, and others. 



APPENDIX. 2G9 

The proceedings against the natives have been in this manner": 
ni June, IGll, upon motion of the king's learned counsel, a writ 
of seizure was awarded out of the Court of Chancery, to take into 
his Majesty's hands all the said lands and tenements, which was 
grounded upon some ancient records remaining in that court, 
mentioned in the inquisition hereinafter specified, which was re- 
turned and executed by the sheriff, but no proceedings thereupon. 
After which a commission under the great seal of Ireland was 
directed to the Lord Bishop of Ferns, Sir Thomas Colclough, knt., 
Sir Dudley Loftus, knt., John Beere, Esq., his Majesty's sergeant- 
at-law, William Parsons and Nicholas Kenny, his Majesty's sur- 
veyor and escheator, to inquire of his Majesty's title to those lands. 
The commissioners, on the 2Gtli of November, IGll, met at Wex- 
ford for the execution of the said commission, where after divers 
adjournments until the 4th of December, the jury then offered 
their verdict of ignoramus to the king's title, the which the com- 
missioners refused to accept, and bound the jury to appear before 
them in the Exchequer Court, the Thursday s'ennight next follow- 
ing, but the jury, upon their petition to the Lord Deputy, had their 
appearance respited until the 18th of January following, at which 
day the jury appeared in the Exchequer before the said commis- 
sioners and Sir John Denham, knt., then Lord Chief Baron, Sir 
Francis Aungier, knt., Master of the Eolls, Baron Ilassett, 'and 
Justice Lowther, associated by commission to the former commis- 
sioners. After long time spent in the evidence on both sides, eleven 
of that jury agreed to find his Majesty's title, but five others of them 
refused to join witli those cloven in that verdict, who were then by 
the commissioners committed to prison, and afterwards censured in 
the Castle Chamber for refusing to join with their fellows to find his 
Majesty's title according to their evidence, and the rest of the jury 
were discharged. Then the Court of Exchequer directed a writ to the 
sheriff of Wexford, to summon a jury to appear at the Exchequer 
bar in Hilary Term next following for the said inquiry. The sheriffs 
returned Sir Thomas Colclough, one of the former commissioners, 
and those eleven of the former jury that had agreed to find his 
Majesty's title, and some others, which eleven, so formerly sworn 
with Sir Thomas Colclough and John Murchoe, now a patentee in 
the new plantation, found an inquisition to this effect, the copy 
whereof we are ready to show, namely ; That upon the submission 
of Art MacMurrogh and Mallogh O'Murrogh, chief of their septs, 
and David Moore and Manus MacGerald of the Kinsellas, and 
divers others of the Irish, unto King Kichard the Second, by inden- 
tures dated the 7th of January, in the 12th year of the reign of the 



270 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

same king, the said parties did covenant with Thomas, Earl of 
Nottingham, then Marshal of England, and Deputy of this king- 
dom, that they and every one of them before the first Sunday in 
Lent then next following, would relinquish and surrender to the 
said king the full possession of all the lands, tenements, castles, 
woods, forts, and pastures, with their appurtenances, which by 
them and all others of the Kinsellas and every of them, their com- 
panions, men, or adherents, late were occupied within the province of 
Leinster in Ireland, sine aliqno retinemant, sibi reservato, sine rcser- 
vando quocunque modo,sine dolo et absque frMide, (sic) their move- 
able goods only excepted, and that they before the said day would 
leave the whole country of Leinster to the true obedience, use, and 
disposition of the said king, his heirs and successors ; and that the 
said earl, on the part of the king, covenanted that these chief men 
and their soldiers or men of war, during their lives shall have pay 
in the king's wars, and should enjoy them to these and their heirs 
all such lands as they should conquer from any rebels in this king- 
dom. The said Earl also agreed that the king should grant to Art 
MacMurrogh, the chief of the Kavenaghs, a yearly annuity of eighty 
marks, and restore to him his wife's inheritance in the county of 
Kildare, which annuity was paid divers years, as appears by some 
records : they also find that on the 12th of February next ensuing 
a commission was granted unto the said Earl Marshal to receive 
the homage of MacMurrogh and all the Irish of Leinster, and to 
take their homages and submissions, which was done, and to dis- 
tribute the lands of the chieftains and men of war who were to 
depart to others of tlie king's subjects. They further found that on 
the 28th of April then following. King Richard the Second granted 
to Sir John Beaumont, knt., and his heirs all and singular the 
castles, manors, lands, tenements, and hereditaments within the 
meares and bounds following, namely, from the bank of the water 
of Slane, on the part of the south, to the black water of Arklow, of 
the part of the north, and from the main sea on the east unto the 
bounds of the counties of Carlow and Kildare on the part of the 
west, excepting the lands of the Earl of Ormond, if he had any 
within these bouiids, to be liolden by knight service in capite ; and 
that the said Sir John Beaumont, by virtue of these letters patents, 
was seized of all the lands within these meares (excepting the Earl 
of Ormond's lands, Roches' lands, Synott's lands, Wadding's lands, 
the lands of the Bishop of Ferns, advowsons of churches, and some 
other tilings in the said inquisition excepted), and that the said 
Sir John Beaumont died seized thereof, and that after his death 
the same lands (except the before excepted ones) descended to 



APPENDIX. 271 

Henry Beaumont, his son and heir, who, 1, Henry V., died thereof 
so seized, and that all the premises, except before excepted, de- 
scended to John Beaumont, his son and heir, being an infant, after 
whose death an office was found accordingly, and livery used by 
which it appeareth that seven manors, namely Farringmall O'Fel- 
migh, Shemall, Lymalagoughe, Shelala, Gory, and Dipps (sic) 
wei'e all the lands and dominions within those meares and bounds 
which were granted by virtue of that office seized into the king's 
hands, and so remained until the said John Beaumont sued his 
livery the 8rd of September, 13, Hen. VI., and that the said John, 
on the 7th of August, 24, Hen. VI,, made a warrant of attorney 
unto John Cornwalleys, chief baron of the Exchequer, and John 
Townley, Esq., to let and set his lands within those meares and 
bounds, and all other his lands in Ireland and that he thereof died 
seized, and had issue two sons, John the eldest and William the 
second, both viscounts, and one daughter named Joan, which two 
sous died without issue of their bodies, and that the said Joan 
their sister was heir to William, who last died, and was married to 
John, Lord Viscount Lovell of Titchmai-che, and that they had 
issue Francis, Viscount Lovell, attainted of treason by Act of Par- 
liament in England, 1, Henry VII., and confirmed in Ireland : by 
which acts all his lands in England and Ireland were vested in the 
actual and real possession of the Crown, and so descended by mesne 
descents to Queen Elizabeth, and after her Majesty granted the 
manor of Dipps to the Earl of Ormond and the manor of Shilcia to 
Sir Henry Harrington : and that the rest descended to our sovereign 
lord the king, as liy the copy of the said ollico and inquisition ready 
to be shown doth appear. 

On the 12th of February, in the 9tli year of his Majesty's reign, 
upon motion of his Majesty's Council, before any patent was granted 
of these lands, it was ordered by the Court of Chancery that such as 
should be patentees from the king should be put into possession by 
injunction out of that court, without further motion of all those 
lands, within those meares and bounds, when the same shall be 
granted and the sheriff to continue them in possession from time to 
time, in which order the king's title and the seizure is expressed ; 
after which the said inquisition so found at the Exchequer bar was 
transmitted into the Chancery and then several patents granted of 
several portions as followeth, namely, 

Acres. 

To Sir Kichard Cooke, knt., his Majesty's secretary . . 1,600 
To Sir Lau. Esmond, knt., a servitor native of Wexford . 1,500 
To Sir Edwd. Fisher, knt., a servitor ..... 1,500 



272 



THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1C41. 



To Francis Blundell, Esq 

To Conway Brady, the queen's footman .... 

To Nicholas Kenny, escheator 

To Wm. Parsons, surveyor 

To Sir Koger Jones, knt 

To Sir James Carroll, knt., Eemembrancer in the Exchequer 

To John Wingfield, Esq., servitor 

To Sir Adam Loftus, knt 

To Sir K. Jacob, knt., his Majesty's solicitor 

To Fergus Graeme 

To Sir Kich. Wingfield, knt., marshal of the army 
To William Marwood, Dep. Remembrancer 

To John Loghorn, Esq 

To Francis Blundell, Esq 

To Capt. Trevillian and Capt. Fortescue . . . . 
To Thomas Hibbots, Esq 



Acres. 

1,000 

600 

500 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

. 1,000 

. 1,000 

800 

. 1,000 

. 1,000 

. 1,000 

. 1,000 

. 2,000 

Total 19,900 



Proportions of the micicnt possessioners, how many acres they for- 
merly enjoyed, and how many are assigned unto them in the 
plot of the new plantation, and which of them had formerly 
jMtents from the Crown. 



Ancient. 


Acres. 


Newly Assigned. 


Sir Richaid Masterson . 

Michael Synnot 
Dowlin MacBrien, patent \ 
Morgan MacBriau, patent 
Edward MacDowlin, patent j 
Dowlin MacMurrogli, patent J 
Griffin MacDonuel, patent 
Walter Pliinket 
Uonnel Spaniagh, patent 

Patrick Peppard . 

Dermot Ciine .... 
Capt. Bonis Vale . 

Walter Synnot 


7,060 

800 

2,800 

350 
350 
400 

1,400 

100 
400 

1,900 


Whereof of native lands 3,800, 
of crown lands 2,800, by eo- 
lation of patent 400, and 2,400 
assigned for his chiofries. 

240 of his former possessions. 

2,400 removed. 

200 of his former possessions. 

300 of Ills former possessions. 

300 of his former possessions, 
besides 320 by former patents. 

1,252, wliereof his former pos- 
sessions about 700 acres, a 
place taken from him where- 
in he had made provision to 
build. 

100, to hold his former lands. 

900, whereof 400 old posses- 
sions. 

1,9()7, whereof 1,567 old pos- 
sessions, and for his rents 
newly added 2,120. 



APPENDIX. 



273 



Ancient. 


Acres. 


Newly Assigned. 


James Synuot 


8Go 


86o, whereof old 567. 


John Synnot FitzRicliard 




545 


605, Avhereof old 545. 


John FitzPierce 




556 


410, whereof old 360. 


Jasper 8ynnot 






075 


730, whereof old 390. 


Robert Codd' 






900 


840 of Ids former possessions. 


John Malone . 






486 


480 of his former possessions. 


Henry FitzPierce . 






^40 


240 of his former possessions. 


William Fitz\\'alter Synnot 




120 


240, whereof 120 former pos- 
sessions. 


Donnel Vally . 




626 


370, whereof former 229. 


Tiegue iMacArt 






330 


220, whereof former 13 i. 


Patrick Walsh 






126 


] 26 removed. 


Tiegue O'Bolger 






120 


120 former possessions. 


Ferdoragh McDermot 






382 


240 removed. 


George O'Murchoe . 






200 


1 60 of former possessions. 


Donnel O'Doran 






480 


300 of former possessions. 


Felix McDermot, patent 






505 


1,206 removed. 


Murrogli iMcPhavson 






250 


204 removed. 


Gerard McJames . 






IGO 


120 removed. 


Piielim Mc da ]Moore 






240 


200 removed. 


Redmond Mc da Moore 






240 


200 removed. 


Tirlogh MclMoriertagh 


) 






Donogh McMoriertagh 


. 


400 


300 removed. 


Donnel Mc^Ioriertaffh 


1 






Owen McHugh, Ballach 


300 


300 removed. 


McDermot 






John Fymond. 


100 


100 removed. 


Cullogh jMcBragh . 


120 


100 removed. 


Francis Wasser 


200 


187 removed. 


Donnel McDonogli Euteskin 


196 


208, whereof formerly 80. 


(sic) 






Owen McGerrald . 


200 


127 removed. 


Anthony JJrisket 


120 


120 removed. 


Edmund Dull' McDermot 


206 


120 removed. 


Owen jNIacIIuii-li . . i 
Ballagli McDonogli Oge . ) 


450 


300 removed. 


Donogh Oge .... 


120 


GO removed. 


John Brazil . 




120 


iGG removed. 


Mr. Browne . 




840 


840 removed. 


Nicholas Nettcrvillo 




500 


500 former possessions. 


Thomas jMcKeogh . 




200 


200. 


Richard Oromwell (patentee) 




300 


300 former possessions. 


Henry AN'alsh . 




220 


130 former possessions. 


Sir li. Wallop 




1,010 


1,100, whereof formerly 1,040. 


Patrick Esmond 




400 


500. 


John Murchoe . . . 




— 


700. 


Art McDermot 




1,200 


1,000 removed, but not yet set 






out. 



' Aiiastatia Coild, the mother of Thomas IMoore, was a member of this Wexford 
family. (I'. Lord John UtisseWs Life of Moore.) 



VOL. II, 



274 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

Edmond MacArt and Eichard MacArt, patentees, have no allow- 
ance in this new plantation from the lands taken fi-om them. 

There are within the limits aforesaid more than the said pro- 
portions about 12,000 acres not yet granted, intended to be passed 
to martial men, who are to build upon the borders and fastnesses 
but cannot until some of the patentees be removed unto the lands 
assigned to them. The names of these martial men are Captain 
Dorrington, Captain Meares, Captain Pikeman, Captain Cawell, 
Captain Ackland, Captain Henry Fisher, Lieutenant John Fisher, 
Lieutenant Burroughs, Mr. Gillet, Mr. Waldrond, Lieutenant Strat- 
ford, Mr. Sherlock, Mr. Hashwell {sic). After the before mentioned 
patents granted the said patentees this 7th of May last obtained 
several injunctions to the sheriff of Wexford to put and continue 
them in their several portions of lands specified in these patents, 
which the sheriff accordingly performed, and did break open the 
doors of such as resisted and turned them out : yet, notwithstanding, 
upon submission divers of them were permitted to return to their 
houses again. And in harvest last the said sheriff by warrant from 
the Lord Deputy was assisted by the bailiffs of the now patentees to 
take up the fourth sheaf of their corn for the Michaelmas rent, in 
regard they were then to pay the king's rent ; which fourth sheaf 
the patentees still detain, the natives being allowed to take the I'est 
to their own use. Many such of the natives as formerly agreed to 
this new plantation now absolutely dislike thereof, and of the pro- 
portions assigned to them in lieu of their other possessions taken 
from them because that, as they affirm, their proportions assigned 
are not so many acres as they are rated to them, and because the 
acres taken from them are far more in number than they are sur- 
veyed at, which difference cannot be decided without a new survey, 
which some of the natives desire. All the ancient possessioners of the 
English race, and divers of the Irish have been always faithful to 
the Crown of England ; but most of the Irish were rebels in the 
time of the great rebellion of Tyrone. Several of those to whom 
proportions are assigned are of the septs of the Kavenaghs and 
Murroghs, which hold land in tlieso limits before ; Walter Synnot, 
Patrick Peppard, and Art MacDermot offer for themselves and the 
rest of the countries that they will pay such rents and perform the 
buildings and covenants to the king's majesty that these new un- 
undertakers are to perform, but they do altogether refuse to repay 
to the undertakers their charges disbursed about this plantation, 
which are rated at 8,000Z. Every undertaker of 1,500 acres is to 
build a castle or stone house of 80 feet in length, 24 in breadth, 
and BO feet high besides the battlements. Every undertaker of 



APPENDIX. 275 

1,000 acres is to build a castle or stone house of 24 feet square, ami 
JJO feet high besides the battlements ; and every undertaker of 500 
acres is to build a strong bawn of lime and stone, these buildings 
to be made within four years after the patentees have quiet posses- 
sion. The yearly rent reserved to the king is five pounds for every 
thousand acres granted to the English, and (SI. Qs. M. for every 
thousand acres granted to the natives, except for those lands assigned 
to Sn- Kichard Masterson and Walter Synnot in lieu of their rents 
and chiefries out of the whole. 

The rents yearly reserved and to be reserved to liis Majesty if 
the plantation proceed will be 42GZ. I85. I0\d., and the country is 
discharged of the rents and chiefries granted to Sir Eichard JMaster- 
son and Synnot, which are 210^. per annum. 
Signed and sealed by 

Akthur Chichester. Humphrey Winche. 

Charles Cornwaleys. Roger Wildraham. 
George Calvert. 



X 2 



276 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1641. 



D. 

{v. vol. i. p. 29.) 

Project for the Plantation op Longford, by Sir Oliver 
St. John, Lord Deputy, sent to the English Council 
May, 1G18.1 

The time of the year wearing away in the employment of the 
measurers in the county of Longford, I thought it agreeable to my 
duty at this time to make known to his ]\Iajesty and your Lordships 
what I conceive will be the issue of the work of that plantation, so 
lionourable for his Majesty and so profitable for tlie present con- 
dition of this poor kingdom ; preserving a more fall relation thei'eof 
until the finishing of the advancement, at which time I shall be able 
to acquaint his Majesty and your Lordships with a more particular 
knowledge of the state thereof. The work being great and requiring 
a careful deliberation in the proceedings thereof, mine opinion is 
that the best (plan) is to settle Longford this year, and if the time 
will permit O'Carrol's country, and to leave the county of Leitrim, 
MacCoghlan's and O'Molloy's countries, being more factious than 
the first two, for the work of next year. 

Concerning the county of Longford, of which I will now only 
make mention, having carefully looked into the former proceedings 
and the inquisitions and surveys of that county, I find that the 
whole consisteth of six baronies, esteemed at 50,000 acres. But 
I hope when the exact measure is taken it will come to more. I 
find that the lands of the bishops and clergy, the old glebes and 
churches, the abbey lands and some patentees who have obtained 
grants in fee farm, will not come within the compact of the 
escheated lands, but must for the most part be set apart from all 
distributions. I find also two rents payable by that county, the 
one of 200Z. to the heirs of Sir Nicholas Malby, being the ancient 
composition of that county, the other of 120 beeves, being the 
ancient rent payable to the castle of Granard. These two rents are 
needful to be compounded for and a compensation of land for them 
taken out of the whole county, otherwise the undertakers will be 

• Carew MSS. Lamhclh, vol. G13, p. 83. 



AITENDIX. 277 

subject to the exactions and distresses of other men, which would 
be very inconvenient. 

It will be needful also, that there be taken out some quantity of 
land, to be bestowed by his Majesty for the bettering of the livings 
of the poor incumbents of the parish churches, according to that 
which was allowed in the plantation of Wexford. And in like sort 
a portion of lands to be bestowed upon a corporate town and for 
the creating and maintenance of free schools ; all which must be 
deducted before I can give a guess what the remainder will be, 
that shall be left for the distribution. For albeit the king's advisers 
are of opinion that some of the grants of the patentees are question- 
able, yet I suppose his Majesty's purpose is not to have them for 
the most part questioned, but either to let each of them have their 
lands, or to give them other lands in lieu thereof. 

The general contents of the whole country and the deductions 
formerly mentioned being thus compared, I am of opinion as well 
upon the consideration of the former surveys taken in the late Lord 
Deputy's government, and by the former judgment of this begun 
advancement, that out of the remamder there may be set by for the 
placing of undertakers 12,000 acres, being, as I guess, a fourth 
part or somewhat more ; in the distribution whereof, I humbly 
propound to his Majesty and the Lords, how needful it will be 
that the natives of all tliose lands as are so to be disposed of to 
undertakers may be bestowed upon such servitors remaining in this 
kingdom as have well served in the wars, and have had no land at 
all given them, and those to be chosen and nominated by the Lord 
Deputy, not in great quantities, as was done in Ulster, and in the 
late plantation of Wexford, but in smaller proportions, as in 200, 
or 300, or 400 acres. By which manner of plantation the buildings 
will be more, the bodies of men in greater quantities, and conse- 
quently they and their posterity, by their continual residence, be a 
sure continuance of the plantation, and a stroiig instrument for the 
settling of peace and civility in those parts, and become more profit- 
able for the commonwealth, and yet his Majesty's rents continue 
the same ; whereas if those lands should be distributed in greater 
proportions, as 1,000, or 2,000, or 3,000 acres, the building would 
go on more slowly, the country would be left more weak, by reason 
of the large wastes, the freeholders more scarce and the Irish less 
kept in awe by them. And for the residue to be bestowed upon the 
British undertakers, I humbly propound that their portions may be 
smaller, and the undertakers more in number than they were in 
Ulster and AVexford. For now Irish land is more valuable, and the 
county of Longford adjoining on the English pale more safe and 



278 THE IRISH ]\rASSACliES OF 1041. 

commodious to bo planted. And experience hath taught us that in 
Ulster the undertakers' buildings have not been so readily performed 
as was expected, nor the British brought over in sufllicient numbers 
to inhabit those great scopes, neither hath the number of freeholders 
been planted in those lands that was covenanted by those under- 
takers, and such as have been made freeholders were held at such 
high rents as they are not left able to do the service of freeholders, 
And this way of making smaller undertakers holding only of the 
CroAvn was the ancient manner of planting Irish countries, as may 
appear by the multitude of castles in the English pale, and the 
counties of Tipperary, Limerick, Kilkenny, and all the counties where 
the old English do yet keep their footing ; that course was held in 
the late plantation of Leix and Offaly, where many English under- 
takers had freeholds granted unto them from the Crown of small 
quantities of land. And their posterity continued there freeholders 
still, and are very useful, as well in times of war as in times of 
peace, and it is very probable that in this very county of Longford 
the granting of great proportions to the English at their first planting 
there was the principal cause it was so soon overcome by the Irish. 
I do also humbly propound as a matter of special consideration in 
this work, that the undertakers may be placed in the most uninhabited 
parts of the country, as towards the county of Leitrim, Cavan, and 
lloscommon, and so to leave the natives to inhabit that part that 
lieth nearest the English pale, where their ancient borders do still 
remain, and the rather for that the natives now inhabitmg that part 
are reasonably reclaimed by civil education, and many of them have 
built good stone houses where they dwell. And for the full setting 
of those lands I humbly propound that I may be warranted to grant 
estates in fee farm as well to natives as to undertakers, receiving 
from the natives for every acre of twenty-one foot to the pole two- 
pence sterling, and from the undertaker one penny sterling, in 
respect of the charges of his building, and that where the towns or 
cartrons do consist for the most part of bogs, barren mountains, and 
unprofitable wood, the surveyor to have power in the making up of 
their particulars to lay those bogs as an addition to the towns, and 
to set a rent upon the same by the acre, at one rate to the natives, 
and at a lesser rate to the undertakers, according to the goodness 
and qiiality thereof. 

That every proportion of under 1,000 acres may hold of the 
castle in Dublin of free and common soccage, and every proportion 
of 1,000 acres, or above to hold of the king's majesty in capitc, for 
in the old plantation of tlie pale all the undertakers and their heirs do 
hold of the king their proportions by the greater or smaller capitc. 



APPENDIX. 279 

That ovci-y undertaker and native of 1,000 acres and above be 
bound within three years to build a castle of 80 feet in length, 20 
feet in breadth, and 25 feet in height ; the castle to be built of stone 
and lime or brick and lime, and compassed in with a bawn of 800 
feet in compass of stone and lime or brick and lime. And every 
undertaker of two acres, and so to 1,000 acres, to be bound to build 
a strong house of stone and lime or brick and lime, within a bawn 
of 200 feet in compass. And every undertaker of quantities under 
GOO acres to build a good house of stone and lime or brick with lime, 
the natives of those two last named proportions to bo left to them- 
selves. 

That every proportion of 1,000 acres and above may have a 
manor with a Court Baron and power to create tenures and a 
{illegible). And every proportion of GOO acres, and so to 1,000, 
to have a manor with a Court Baron, and power to create tenures. 
The proportions under GOO acres to have neither. 

That among all the undertakers and natives there may be grants 
made of six market-towns in the most convenient places, and no 
more ; and fairs in so moderate a number as may stand with respect 
and convenience, and rents to be reserved upon both. That no 
native shall have granted unto him less than 100 acres, except very 
few, and upon good consideration, and none at all under GO acres. 
That every undertaker and native that is bound to build may have 
liberty to take a proportionable quantity of timber and other 
material for his building in any place within the plantation, by war- 
rant from the Lord Deputy, with a limitation of the time of that 

liberty. 

That every ancient pretended possessor who shall be now made 
a freeholder shall depart with at least a fourth of the lands he 
formerly possessed, for the accommodation of the plantation, besides 
a rateable proportion towards the compounding of the two rents 
before mentioned, of Sir Nicholas Malby and Sir Francis Shaen. 
That every undertaker and native shall content himself to enjoy 
his proportion, according to the number of acres laid down by the 
now admeasurement, without any questioning of the old measures. 
That every undertaker and native shall bo bound to make his under- 
tenants build together in townships, with a nomine pena for those 
that shall suffer their tenants to build dispersedly. 

That the tenants may be tied with a proviso of forfeiture not to 
sell their lands in fee simple or fee tail, or lease them above forty 
years or their lives to any of the Irish, lest the old lords should 
grow great again. That the State may have power to place such of 
the (ii/ff/i'iic) natives of the country as shall not have lands attached 



280 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF KUl. 

unto them upon the lands of any undertakers or natives, who are to 
have leases for 21 years or for their lives, at such reasonable rents 
as shall be set down by the Lord Deputy and Council, whereby such 
as cannot be made freeholders may be provided for here to remain. 

That every undertaker and native be bound to sow yearly a 
quantity of hemp, according to his Majesty's directions in that 
behalf, and that proportionally according to the quantity of each 
man's proportion. That the Lord Deputy may be warranted to 
grant a quantity of lands to each parish church for the bettering of 
the living of the poor incumbents, as was done in Wexford. That 
a corporate town be established in some convenient place within the 
plantation, and 100 acres to be allowed to the burgesses that shall 
undertake it, with warrant to make a grant of a corporation with 
such name and such immunities and privileges as were granted to 
the corporations in the escheated lands of Ulster, and tliat some 
lands may be allotted for the maintenance of free schools. That 
the natives be tied by a proviso of forfeiture neither to take upon 
them the name of O'Farrell, nor to yield or maintain or set up that 
name by giving it rent, cutting, or service, nor to divide their lands 
by gavelkind. 

That the whole charge of admeasuring the country and other 
necessary accounts for the finishing and settling of those lands bo 
borne by the natives and imdertakers by equal contributions. 



APPENDIX. 281 



E. 

(i'. vol. i. p. 30.) 
AllGUMENTS OF NATIVES AGAINST LoNGFORD PLANTATION.' 

Motives to prove that it is more for his Majesty's honour, j^rofit, 
and service to confer the lands in the county of Longford on 
the natives than to dispose thereof by ivay of plantation. 

1. For his honour : It will be taken most grievous, not only by 
the inhabitants of the said county, but by all the subjects of Ireland, 
that a title of 800 years ago should be now discovered to take away 
any man's land, by which course no man can be secure of his estate, 
for in that space their patents and credences might be lost. 

2. Tlie composition by her late Majesty in the 13th year of her 
reign with the said natives, that in compensation of 400 marks to 
be yearly paid to her and her successors that the said county 
should by this patent pass to them and their heirs, by this planta- 
tion will be violated. And if it were with a common person the 
covenant had 'been made in law and honour, he had been bound to 
perform it. And the like covenant now made with all the rest of 
the subjects of the said realm was performed unto them. And to 
exclude only Longford were most injurious. And for further proof 
of this assertion his Majesty in July last sent his letters to the Lord 
Deputy of Ireland, commanding him to pass to all his subjects of 
Connaught and Thomond all their land by letters patent, according 
the like indentures of composition, signifying by his said letters that 
he was bound by law and in honour to perform with them, and so 
by a like reason with Longford. 

3. The Earl of Devonshire's word, being then Lord Deputy, 
given to the natives for their lives, will be by this disposal of a 
plantation not performed, and the meanest undergovernor's word in 
the kingdom heretofore hath been inviolably kept, and now, if it be 
broken, it must make us distrustful, and be a touch of dishonour. 

4. The benefits of his Majesty's Council several letters for pass- 
ng the land to the natives, wherein he specially noted that he was 

' S. P. J. vol. 23.T, j). 59, lioUs House. 



282 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1011. 

bound to convey it to them, is not performed. Yet those letters 
were granted upon great deliberation of the Lords of the Council, 
and after consultation and a full debate of the matter were drawn 
up by Sir Thomas Lake, Sir Robert Gardiner, and Sir Roger 
Wilbraham by direction of the Lords. 

5. James O'Farrell, one of the chiefest men in the country, who 
hath great possessioias there, and hath served the Crown in France, 
Flanders, and Ireland, died ; his son is very young, and his ^lajesty's 
ward, imder his protection, and derives his estate by letters patent. 
His Majesty in honour cannot dispose of the land during his ward's 
minority, to dispose of others and to take part of their land for rent, 
where the ward ought to contribute, is not just but ruhious. 

Secondly, to confer the land upon the natives is most for his 
Majesty's profit. 

1. It is to be considered what rent his Majesty is to get by the 
plantation: which it will appear is not more than lOOZ. per an., 
which also must be laid upon the natives as more aggravation. 

2. Lands according to Lord Chichester's project must be taken 
from the natives to buy the rent beeves of Granard, being 120 
beeves per annum, to the assignees of Sir Francis Shaen nominally. 
But the truth, as it shall appear, is that the assignees of Sir Francis 
are not known and are uncertain, but that this land is intended for 
Sir James Hamilton, who ought not to have it. And if he ought, 
yet there is but a lease for thirty years yet to come thei'eof, and of 
the manor of Granai-d, yielding to his Majesty 87Z. per annum. 
And the portion in the Crown (illegible) a small recompense to bo 
given for the lease, yet his Majesty will lose the inheritance of the 
manor of Granard, and the said rent by the plantation. It will be 
objected that Sir Francis Shaen had his Majesty's letters to have 
the fee farm. To this we answer that the letters never took effect, 
and that his highness was deceived in the grant. And even if the 
grant did pass to Sir Francis his heirs ought to have it, for Avhom 
it is not now intended, neither do his heirs sue for it, or know of it, 
but it is Sir James Hamilton that must have it all. 

Admitting that the fee farm was passed to Sir Francis, yet that 
no recompense was given for it, for it shall be proved it was ever 
had by coercion or distress, by bringing of soldiers hither, and there 
is no account to prove that his Majesty or his lessor ought to have 
it, and it can be proved that the inliabitants brought several actions 
at the common law to try the title, but they were not suffered to 
proceed in them. And although the rent were lawfully taken, yet 
if the last office taken before the Lord Chichester be of force, and 
that it cntitletli his ]\Iajesty to the land, it shall be made most 



AriM'NDix. 283 

apparent that the lessor or his assignee hath no right to the rent 
boevos, and therefore ought to have no right to the land. 

3. Land according to the plantation project must be taken from 
the natives and given to Malby to buy up 200^. rent per annum. 
But it is to be noted that the rent was only entailed to the heirs 
male of tlie body of Sir Nicholas Malby, of whom there is only 
{illegible) and the reversion is in the Crown, so that the (illegible) 
recompense ought to be given, and the Idng may [illegible) to give 
a fee simple for an estate in tail. And it can be proved that about 
the Gth year of the king's reign this rent was sold unto his Majesty 
and surrendered in his Chancery in England, for which his highness 
gave valuable consideration, yet never received the rent. If those 
that tlien sold it had no estate therein, they deceived his Majesty, 
and ought to restore the recompense. 

Admittmg his Majesty hath no right to the rent by the con- 
veyance, yet if tho last oflico bo of force, wherein Malby was one 
of tho jury, it can be made most apparent that he hath no right to 
the rent, and by consequence ought to have no land in recompense. 
And furthermore, as the Lord Chichester hath been careful to give 
the opinion of the king's counsel of his Majesty's right to the said 
county, it were expedient to have their opinion whether the king 
also ought not to have the said rent. 

4. The Lord of Delvin must have land, and it is most apparent 
that the letters patent granted unto him by his Majesty of lands in 
tho said county were surrendered, and that his Majesty gave him 
Crown lands in lieu of them Avhich ho enjoyeth. And these Crown 
lands were granted unto him to the intent he should restore the 
lands contained in his former patent to the natives, and now to 
demand them again is most strange. And if he sues for other land 
not contained in the former patent, it is for others besides himself, 
from whom he hath private compensation, and by his countenance 
seekcth to serve them. Abbey lands ho hath by letters patent 
which he ought to enjoy. 

5. Five hundred acres of land shall be discovered to lie in his 
]\Iajesty's grant by good apparent title lately accrued that shall not 
offend any native, and that his Majesty by the indenture of compo- 
sition, letters, or otherwise is not tied to give away, but undoubtedly 
hath in his own grant which maybe granted to satisfy the {illegible) 
of his service. 

G. The project of Lord Chichester intendeth to have land given 
to buy up this rent, whereby great possessions are to be taken from 
the natives, is fully satisfied by the observations afoi'esaid, for as 
there was no rent there is no land needed to buy it, and also his 



284 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGll. 

project to tal{e land from them for service is supplied (shown that it 
can be satisfied another way). By these means tlie benefit of his 
Majesty's indentures, his Majesty's word and letters, and all things 
else are performed to the natives to their full contentment and 
settlement, and his Majesty's revenues will he increased 300Z. per 
annum (which was the old rent intended) by reserving so much 
upon the new patent to the natives. His Majesty in right ought to 
have that, and it was nimbly paid formerly to others. 

Thirdly, it is most for his Majesty's service to confer the land 
on the natives. 

1. By giving the land to undertakers his Majesty preserveth but 
some servitors, and will lose the love and hearts of many of his 
poor subjects. 

2. By taking the land from those that served him truly all 
through the last rebellion, and not performing his covenant and 
promise with them, he will make them desperate. 

3. If these lands be taken from them, they being no tradesmen 
or having any other means to exist, they will commit all manner of 
villanies. 

4. All the natives of the North are discontented by the last 
plantation amongst them, and it is much to be feared that upon the 
least occasion and advantage they will do miscliief. It were there- 
fore not convenient that those in the west should also be discon- 
tented, and the eyes of all the nation are fixed on this business of 
Longford and on the usage of its natives, that ever for the most part 
have done the king good service. 

No date. Endorsed 'Lord Deputy Chichester revoked Nov. 
2dth, 1616.' 



Plantations of Longford and Ely O'Carrol. 

Lord Deputy and Council to the Lords (E.P.C.), 
November 8th, 1G19.» 

It may please your most Honourable Lordships. So soon as 
we received his Majesty's pleasure and directions for the intended 
plantations of Longford and Ely O'Carrol we fell into consideration 
how we might begin and proceed with the care and diligence the 
work required, but find some present interruption, partly through 
want of a competent number of the principal commissioners who 

' S. P. I. vol. 235, p. 44, Roils House. 



APPENDIX. 285 

Avero not resident here in the late time of vacation and specially 
bocansG we could not draw together the chief men of those parts 
until the finishing of their harvest, which in this country is seldom 
done until towards All Hallowtide. But upon summons given 
them they have lately presented themselves before us ; since the 
28th of last (month) those of Longford submitted by an instrument 
under their hands and some four days after those of Ely O'Carrol 
did the like. 

The O'Farrells, who are those of Longford, at the first made 
show of backwardness, not in dislike of the deduction of a fourth 
part of their lands, which they all knew to be his Majesty's pleasure 
and full resolution, but in that they complained the remaining three 
parts were not only subject to bear the whole charge of the com- 
position for the 120 beeves belonging to the manor of Granard and 
200/. a year claimed by Malby, but they also doubted that some 
other persons of quality each pretending to lands in that country 
might procure favour and exemption from bearing (a share of it) 
with them. 

We treated as fairly as we could, and bestowing much good 
language upon them in the end they yielded and with cheerfulness. 
But not without a promise from us to become suitors for them to 
his Majesty that no more charges might be imposed on them nor 
land taken from them than is contained in his Majesty's instruc- 
tions. Now may it please your Lordships to understand that there 
are several letters are now come to me the Deputy, for lands to be 
passed to some that have obtained the special favour not only to 
have them freed from the deduction of a fourth part, but with a 
direction that the undertakers shall nevertheless be fully provided 
for, according unto the quantities assigned unto them, and the supply 
of this bounty is to fall upon the natives' three-fourths, which will 
become the more grievous unto them. These letters I have hitherto 
concealed from the people, and the truth is, that as the letters 
preceded the instructions in date, his Majesty is as yet at liberty 
to do as he pleases, and they beseech him to mention their en- 
gagement to the natives to his Majesty and to let them know his 
pleasure therein. 

As for Ely O'Cfirrol, the same is not liable to such charges as 
Longford is, being free from any compositions or burdens more 
than the deduction of the fourth part, and the assignment for 
glebes, allowances, and admeasurements and the necessary expenses 
for settlement of the plantation for all which the undertakers are to 
contribute with them. Tlierofore for his Majesty's service and 
their own good, considering it, Ely O'Carrol, a county far separated 



286 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 10-11. 

from Longford, we would wish the erection of a corporation amongst 
them, as well as in Longford, with tlie same privileges and assign- 
ments of 100 acres of land, the place to be at Ballendoragh, which 
is a narrow passage or strait that openeth out of that part of 
Leinster into Ormond and Tipperary ; parts of so evil haunts as 
that it hath been found necessary to lay a garrison at the said 
Ballindoragh, which hath this two years been commanded by 
Francis Acland, houtenant to Sir Henry Docwra, who is a sufficient 
active man, and hath been so fortunate in his employment that he 
has well abated the number of malefactors in these parts, whereof 
divers have been by him cut off and many forced into the hands of 
justice, to the great contentment of the country and preservation 
of the poor thereof. And if his Majesty and your Lordships shall 
approve of this proposition for a corporation, we would also wish 
that it were countenanced by the residence of some commander 
that might continue there in command of a company, *fc there is 
there already a little strong castle, which may be to great good 
purpose maintained and preserved without charge to his Majesty, if 
500 acres of land were laid to it, and a lease thereof granted (at the 
same rent the undertakers pay) to the commander of the fort for 
twenty-one years if he hve so long. And now that the natives 
have made their submission, we will enter into the main work, one 
of the first parts thereof being to compound for the 120 beeves and 
the 200L rentcharge. The one we shall soon do, but the other is 
encumbered with difficulty, by reason of young Malby's nonage, 
and his mother the Lady Sidley's absence in England, who hath 
an estate for life in the said rent. Besides we have no means to 
inform ourselves of the facts of the composition that is said to have 
been already made by his Majesty for the same. Because it was 
made in England and the several pensions given in lieu thereof arc 
paid out of the Exchequer there (as we hear) to Sir James Crichton, 
Sir James Hamilton, and Sir James Sempill, who are now in England 
or some of them, for whom it may please your Lordships to send or 
cause such other as you sluill think fit to confer witli thorn and give 
your Lordships satisfaction therein. 

In the meantime for clearing the way to our present proceedings, 
which might otherwise be hindered by this particular, we have 
resolved to set apart a proportion of land equivalent for the redemp- 
tion of this '2,001. per annum which may be hereafter disposed of 
according to occasion. 

These things we have esteemed it our duty to acquaint your 
Lordships witli, and do beseech your {illegible) for his Majesty's 
and your Lordships' further pleasure iii the same. And so craving 



APPENDIX. 287 

pardon we liunibly take our leave from his Majesty's castle of 
Dublin, this 8th of November, 1G19, your honourable Lordships in 
humbleness to be commanded, 

Oliver St. John. Dom. Sarsfield. 

Ad. Loftus. Cane. Wm. Methwold. 

PowERscouRT. Jqhn King. 

Hen. Docwra. Dudley Norton. 

Wm. Jones. Fr. Annesley. 



288 



THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 



F. 

(v. vol. i. p. 31.) 

Theee are in this county op Longford 142 natives unto 
whom lands are assigned, their names and proportions 
are as follows.' 

Earl of Westmeath ...... 2917 

Eoger Farrall ...... 2143 

Faghney Farrall ...... 2005 

James Farrall . . . '. . .2458 

Robert Farrall . . . . . . 1451 

Fergus Farrell . . . . . .1100 

Lisagh Duffe Farrell ...... (582 

William Farrell . . . " . . . lO;-}*}. 

Edmund Reogli Farrell ..... GOO 

Sir Christopher Nugent ..... 1102 

John Farrell ....... 708 

Maurice FitzGerald . . . . . .087 

Thomas Nugent . . . . . .018 

Richard Nugent . . . . . .009 

Gerrott Nugent ...... 044 

Oliver FitzGerald ...... 732 

Kearagh MacLisagh ...... 037 

Faghney MacCormack and Gerrot Farrell . . . 785 

Gerald FitzGerald ...... 097 

Edmund Nugent ...... 701 

Nathaniel Fox . . . . . .947 

Edward Dowdall ...... 718 

Lisagh McJames ...... 519 

Lisagh McGillemor ...... 501 

Brian Melaghlin . . . . . .120 

Patrick McIIubert ...... 99 

Gerrot MacShane ...... 210 

Gerald MacRory . . . . . . 879 

' Harris MSS. Libmrij of Royal Dublin Society. 



ArPENDIX. 



289 



Eichard MacJames . 

Connell MacMorragli 

Lisagli MacCorniac and Daniel MacCormac 

Gerald MacKedy 

Tiegne MacConnell . 

Donnell Mac William . 

Brian MacEdmund . 

Gerrot MacHubbert . 

Cahill MacHubbert . 

Gillernauer 'Kenny . 

Tirlogh MacVry 

Edmund Nugent MacEdward 

Donogh Farrell 

Gerrot MacMelaghlin 

Brian Buie MacHubbert 

Connell MacMoragli Moyle 

Shane McHubbert and Faglniey McHubbert 

Picrse McMelaglilin . 

James McMelagiilin . 

Malia Mac Shane 

Brian O'Quin 

Edmund McHubbert . 

Gerrot Murtagh 

Patrick MacKedy 

James Buie MacMorogh 

William Oge Farrell . 

Morgan Farrall 

Tirlogh McDonnell . 

Brian McTiegue and Donogh MacBrian 

Edmund MacHubbert 

Hugh McEdmund 

Donnell MacJames . 

Nicholas Archbold 

Robert Gayner 

William McDermott . 

Thomas McTiegue 

James Nugent 

Nicholas McDermott . 

Earl of Kildare 

Keadagh MacLisagh . 

Hubert Dillon 

Robert Dillon 

Morrogh McMelaglilin 

VOL. II. 



I\IcBrian 



236 
192 
160 
208 
110 
64 
811 
111 
86 
62 
63 
163 
164 
124 
100 
115 
180 
89 
136 
83 
115 
127 
493 
200 
219 
60 
263 
65 
155 
77 
92 
74 
411 
420 
400 
151 
124 
92 
424 
482 
353 
406 
100 



Geoffrey MoBrian 


1" lU-i I 




. 119 


Dnnogh McTiegue 






. 107 


William Ferrall 






. 100 


Donnell McDermott . 






80 


Thomas Nugent 






0-2 


Edmund MacBuie and Eicliard MacTirlagh 






97 


Edmund MacKichard 






92 


Edmund MacMorogh 






CO 


John MacEdmund 






88 


Caliil MacFergu3 






80 


Hugh MacCormack O'Dnffe . 






90 


Geoffrey MacHichavd 






GO 


Fergus MacCahil 






70 


Lisagh Oge O'Farrel . 






60 


Shane MacHugh 






70 


James MacHuhbert . 






. 158 


Connell MacMorrogh McEdmund 






. 108 


Bryan McKay 






70 


Fergus McPhelim and Hugh McGenor 






. 231 


John Quin .... 






GO 


Eobert and Phelim Quin 






100 


Lord Dillon .... 






415 


Christopher Brown . 






101 


James Nangle 






98 


William MacVry . . . 






116 


Thomas Kearnon 






323 


Eichard McDonogh . 






85 


Shane McTirlagh 






215 


William McDonnell . 






179 


Edmund Dillon 






699 


Edmund MacCormack 






278 


Conell Maclrell 






420 


James Mao William . 






813 


Tiegue MacCormack . 






265 


Garratt Nugent 






677 


Oliver Nugent 






162 


Call ill MacHugh 






280 


John Farrell .... 






120 


Tirlogh Farrell 






162 


James MacTirlogh Cormac O'Farrell 






120 


Edward MacBrian 






106 


Eory MacCahil 






95 


Theobald Delamore {sic) 






210 



APPENDIX. 



291 



^lauvice Dillon 

James ]\IcTieguo 

Connor Farrell 

Carberry McSliane 

Eichard FitzGerald 

Eicliard Delamare 

Hugh MacTirlogh 

James FitzGerrott 

Edward Nugent 

Anion ]\IacKegan and Patrick MacKcgan 

Patrick O'lleiraght 

Cormac MacKay 

Faghney MacEory 

Shane MacEichard 

Kedagh McConnell 

Andrew Nugent 

Walter Nugent 

Gerrott McJamos 

William McDonnogl 

Murrogh McTirlogh 

Daniel McDermott 

Both the natives and the undertake 
measurers have abused {i.e. deceived) the 

survey of more acres in every proportion than there are to be 
found. 

The case of one Tirlogh Farrell is much to be pitied, being the 
only Protestant of his name, and having, as is said, lands sufficient 
to make him a freeholder, all deductions being made, hath notwith- 
standing no lands assigned to him, as his own petition will show, 
Avhich we offer to your consideration on his behalf. 

There is no hemp sown by any in this county or in Leitrim, 
though his Majesty directed it by his instructions. 



800 
60 
811 
207 
171 
16G 
IGO 
214 
892 
173 
180 
119 
107 
199 
128 
885 
120 
103 
16G 
104 
110 

complain that the 
n in giving up their 



The Abticles akd Conditions to be Inserted in the Leases 

WHICH AKE to be made TO THE LESSEES IN THE PLANTA- 
TION OP Longford, April 5, 1G20.' 

1. The demises or leases are to be for three lives, or for one- 
and-twcnty years, at the election and choice of the lessees, and no 
longer. 



Harris MSS., Library of Royal Dublin Socieiy. 



u2 



202 THE IRISH MASSACIIES OF 10-11. 

2. The lessors and lessees are to treat together for the rents of 
every acre, and in case they cannot agree, then two commissioners 
are to repair to the land to be demised, and are upon view thereof 
to assess the rent, near to the value of the land as it may be, bona 
fide, to be let for : and the lessors and lessees are to contribute 
equally for the commissioners' trouble and charges, while they shall 
be at that business. 

8. For non-payments of rents at the feasts of Easter and Michael- 
mas, or within fifteen days after the said feasts, the lessor may dis- 
train, and for non-payment after forty days the lessor may, at his 
election, re-enter to avoid the lease. 

4. The lessees shall build their houses in town reeds or street- 
ways, and not dispersed, and each lessee to build a chimney in his 
dwelling-house, and to make a convenient garden and plant an 
orchard. 

5. Each lessee to sow a quantity of hempsocd proportionally to 
the number of acres ho shall hold. 

G. The demises or leases to be only of acres, without making 
mention of cartrons. 

7. Every lessee holding sixty acres shall within four years enclose 
ten acres of his portion, and set in the banks of the enclosure 
quicksetts or frith, and so rateably each lessee of lesser proportion. 

8. No lessee is to hold any parcel of land where he makes any 
claim or title, or whereof he was formerly possessed, unless the 
lessor himself will admit the same. 

9. No lessee shall alien or do away his interest in his lease 
without the lessor's consent. 



ATPENDIX. 293 



G. 

(v. vol. i. p. 32.) 

To THR KiaHT Honourable the Commissioners authorised 
BY HIS Majesty to hear the Grievances of Ireland.' 

A Memorial and true Information to their Honours of part of their 
grievances and the destrnotion done upon the most part of the 
poor natives and inhabitants of the county of Longford, in the 
time of the late plantation thereof, by the comitties and sur- 
veyors appointed for tJie said comity as follow eth : — 

First, some of these comitties {sic) were their own carvers, im- 
plotting land for themselves and others, contrary to his Majesty's 
instructions. 

Item, one Robert Kenedy, that was clerk to Sir William Parson.s, 
Knt., Bart., chief surveyor and one of the said comitties, hath 
three cartrons of land in the barony of Maidower in the said county, 
viz. the cartron of Lymfaighter,^ the cartron of Boherbay, the car- 
tron of More, the two cartrons of Bernenuer, and the cartron of 
Belladrama, and the wood called Grillaghgarda and Clonfraigh, that 
containeth forty acres of arable land, or thereabouts, in these woods. 

Item, the said Robert's brother, John Kennedy, clerk in the 
king's receipt, hath six cartrons in the quadrat of the county 
called Moitragh near the town of Longford. 

Item, one Robert Dillon of Kanerstown, in the county of Wosfc- 
meath, one of the aforesaid comitties for the county of Longford, 
having before the plantation but one cartron of land there, hath now 
four large cartrons, in the barony of Rathcline, as more at large shall 
appear by the said Robert's patent past of it, and other parcels of 
land, every cartron thereof he setteth at lOZ. yearly rent. 

Item., one Mr. Hubert Dillon, of Killireninen, in the county of 
Westmeath, gent., being not a native or undertaker, nor having any 

' Harris 3fSS., Library of Boyal Dublin Society. 

' T!ie spelling of Irish natnos and words, ahvnys had in documents ■written hy 
Englishmen in old times, is in this petition so had and ahsnrd as to make any 
attempt to correct it useless. 



294 THE TRTSTI MASSACRES OF 1041. 

land by inheritance or puvcliase within tliat county of Longford, hut 
one demi-cartron, hath obtained of the said comitties four good 
cartrons in tlie said county of Longford ; Mr. Robert Dillon, the 
aforesaid comittie, gave the said Hubert an exchange in a town 
called Bruenmore, hi the county Westmeath. 

Item, Sir Christopher Nugent, Knt., deceased, that was one of 
the said comitties, hath applotted for himself a thousand acres of 
arable land within Longford county, as more at large shall appear, 
by the said Sir Christopher's particular of the premises, notwith- 
standing the said Sir Christopher's continual oath before divers 
gentlemen of the said county, that he would never demand or take 
a foot of the said natives' lands for himself, or his posterity, but 
one cartron he had before the plantation there, the which thousand 
acres he passed as inheritance to his second son. 

Item, Mr. Harry Crofton, one of the said comitties, having never 
a foot of land in that county before the plantation thereof, hath now 
the cartron of Clonsherin, the cartron of Agheneskiagh, the demi- 
cartron of Tureowagh, in the barony of Moydore, also he hath the 
cai-tron of Kiltevriavagh, as shall appear more at large by his par- 
ticular that he hath, every cartron of the premises he scttcth at 
Ql. a year besides duties. 

Item, Mr. Thomas Nugent of Collamber, Esq., one of the said 
comitties, hath an augmentation of four or five cartrons of the poor 
natives' lands, in a quadrat of the county called Killecowara, in the 
barony of Ardagh, and in Clinhena, in the barony of Longford, as 
may appear more at large by the said Thomas's patent of the pro- 
mises (if any by) {sic). 

Item, it is so that at the time of the meeting, or making acres of 
the whole county of Longford by survey, the eight or nine surveyors 
that continued more than a quarter of a year in performing that ser- 
vice, accompanied all that time to the number of thirty-six soldiers, 
who live together, and the said soldiers with their horses and four 
men, or horseboys, with every one of the said surveyors, lived at 
the charge of the poor country, taking meat and drink and lodging, 
and 8fZ, per day sterling beside for every one of the said soldiers, 
notwithstanding that the king's majesty did give the said surveyors 
their charges in ready money all that time ; moreover, when all the 
natives and undertakers had their patents out of all the lands in the 
county, every one paid according to his proportion of land a penny 
ster. for every acre he had, in lieu of the charge of the said surveyors, 
and in recompense of the charge and service of the comitties ap- 
pointed by my Lord Deputy for the said county, which charge was 
named the admeasurement money. 



ATTEXDIX. 295 

Item, at the second time the said surveyors returned to the said 
county to apportion the lands between party and party, besides their 
meat and drink and lodging for themselves, their horses and horse- 
boys, took dd. an acre from each party. 

Item, the whole number of the poor natives of this country do 
find themselves grieved in manner following, viz. where they have 
been formerly charged with 200^. ster,, composition rent to her late 
Majesty Queen Elizabeth, that resigned the same to Malby and hia 
heirs, and with another rentcharge of the king's that Sir Francis 
Bhacn in his lifetime did hold, viz. 1001. or twenty-six towns, 
named of the manor of Granard : for all which rentcharge at the 
planting of the county there was plotted and given of the natives' 
land the number of one hundred cartrons, or thereabouts, which I 
doubt not is set, or may be set,' at above AOOl. yearly rent, besides 
that the glebe lands and lands plotted for corporations and forts, 
comes to near a hundred more cartrons or above ; notwithstanding 
that the said poor natives had not left them, for the most part, the 
fourth part of their former possessions, of all the whole county, the 
which course, as they conceive by all credible accounts, is contrary to 
the king's gracious meaning, to take any more of their lands from 
the natives of the county but the fourth part. In regard thereof, 
they feel it grievous and too great a chai'ge, after the losses afore- 
said, and more that comes not yet in this reckoning, to be charged 
with 2|(^. in every acre of arable land they have left them, and a 
halfpenny in every acre of unprofitable land, and that the said 
lands being given unto the Lord of Longford and Mr, ]\Ialby for the 
said composition, the said inhabitants do find themselves nothing 
eased thereby, but all charged upon them, as well as upon them that 
got the said allowance and their rent raised to the sum of 8001. 
or 9001., and odd money, beside the land given in lieu of the said 
old rents aforesaid. 

Item, James MacWilliam O'Farrell of Balliiiathan of the said 
county, gent, and native, having a good scope of lands of his own 
there by inheritance, made means to Kobert Dillon, aforesaid co- 
mittie, by whose means he, the said James, lost no part of the said 
lands in any of the deductions aforesaid. And by the recital of the 
said James's wife her husband paid the said Eobert 20^. for the same. 

Item, one Edmund MacHobert O'Farrell, gent, and native, had 
by inheritance eight or nine cartrons of land in the said county, in 
a quadrat thereof called Callo, and was driven to give the said Mr. 

' In Ireland the -word ' set ' wa^, and often is still used for ' let ' by landlords' 
and tenants treating about farms and houses. The same exprassion was used in 
Lancashire. 



29C THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

Bobert Dillon, comittie, a house and other private gratifications in 
money, having gotten but three small cartrons in lieu of the said 
eight. 

Item, Gillernowe O'Kenny of Gurteenbuie, in the said county, 
having but a cartron of land in mortgage, which was divided 
between him and three of his brethren, he got a cartron and one 
quarter of a cartron of land augmentation by the means of the 
foresaid comittie Eobert Dillon, who received by other private 
gratifications of the said Gillernowe two beefs and two vessels called 
Cans of Honey. 

Ite^n, Sir Richard Browne, knight, baronet, being not a native 
undertaker, nor having any land in the said county but what he 
holdeth by his lady wife's jointure, hath gotten by favour or other 
means the following lands there, the two cartrons of Bollanathmor, 
the cartron of Corelaggan in the barony of Moydaner, more in the 
barony of Longford, the cartron of Briskill, the cartron of Clonneth- 
lie, the cartron of Clonalsan, in Literkiragh one quarter of a cartron, 
in {illegible) and Enane two quarters of a cartron, and the third 
part of a cartron in Crodrum, the which lands the said Sir Richard 
did pass in a native's name in a patent, who had but one quarter of 
a cartron, which native was his gossip called Kedagh McConnell 
O'Farrell of Brekagh in the said county, gent. Every cartron of the 
aforesaid land the said Sir Richard doth set for 8^, ster. yearly rent. 
Item, Morogh Madrid O'Farrell, native, had but five carti'ons 
of land before the plantation in a quandrat of the county called 
Callo, viz. in Castlebegg, and by whatever struggling he came 
thereto hath now an augmentation of five more, the which ten that 
he now hath is plotted to him in a choice land in the said county 
called Montergeolgan. 

Item, Thomas McTiegue O'Farrell, a base born, that was never 
born to have any land, and a traitor in the late great rebellion, 
hath gotten one cartron of land, about the town of Granard in the 
said county, containing above six score acres by survey. 

Ite7n, one Pierse McMelaghlin O'Farrell, that had never a foot 
of land before the plantation, hath gotten four cartrons in the 
quandrate of the county called Moitra, the said Pierse being a traitor 
in the late great rebellion. Four cartrons granted thus a traitor. 

Item, one Nathaniel Fox of Rathrenagh, within the said county 
of Longford, hath gotten an augmentation of the natives' lands 
about the said town of Rathrenagh, to the number of ten or fifteen 
cartrons over and above his former possessions in that county. 

Ite7n, one Robert MacIIessiagh O'Farrell of Glyn, within the 
said county, Esquire, hath gotten of the poor natives' lands there, 



ArrENDix. 297 

ami an augmentation allowed him to the number of 800 acres of 
arable land, and a watercourse of a mill in Ballineaso in the said 
county, the inheritance of one William Farrell of Ballintobber, 
Esquire, without giving any allowance for it to the said William. 

Item, one Robert McLisagh 0' Farrell of Ballicor, in the said 
county, gent., hath gotten allowance of the said committies of the 
poor natives' lands to the number of six cartrons, without any 
deduction thereout, he being in open rebellion in the great general 
rebellion in Captain Farrell 's company. 

Item, Connell MacMergagh O'Farrell of Baileclare, within the 
said county, gent., having by inheritance there but one cartron, 
had allowance gotten him by the said committies of two cartrons 
more and two woods without any deduction, he having been also in 
open rebellion aforesaid. 

Item, one Eory MacCahil O'Farrell of Ballinbuien, a poor free- 
holder, having but three quarters of a cartron before the plantation, 
hath gotten of the said committies an augmentation of two of the 
best cartrons and the largest in the territory of Moitra or Clanhue 
over and above within the said county. 

Itevi, one Donough Duff McBrian of the territories of Clanhue, 
in the barony of Longford, in the said comity, a poor freeholder, 
having but three demi- quarters of a cartron in the said quandrat, 
got of the said committies half a cartron and a demi-quarter aug- 
mentation over and above his said domi-quarters. 

Item, one Ednmnd MacHubert O'Farrell of Moniskelagh, in the 
barony of Granard, witliiu the said county, a poor freeholder, having 
but one cartron of twenty-four acres by survey, hath the same of the 
said committies without any deduction, he being in actual rebellion 
in the general revolt. 

Ite))i, one Pvichard McDonogh O'Farrell of Kilnemaddagh, in the 
aforesaid barony, having but one cartron in the said town of Kilne- 
maddagh of eighty-five acres by survey, did obtain the said cartron 
of the said committies without any deduction, he being also in actual 
rebellion in the last revolt. 

Item, one Tirlogh McDonogh O'Farrell of Cavan, in the said 
barony of Granard and county of Longford, having by inheritance 
but as much as sixty acres within that barony, did obtain of the 
said committies the number of thirty-three acres in addition to his 
said three score acres without any deduction. 

Item, it is so that one Edmund Nugent of Roconellan, in the 
county of Westmeath, gent., learned in the law, lately deceased; 
in the plantation time of the said county of Longford did in his 
rental name two cartrons, the which two Faghny O'Farrell of the 



298 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGll. 

Moat, in the said coimty Longford, did also name in liis rentals ; 
so as it came to pass, in order to give tliem both satisfaction, or for 
some better cause known to the committies, Avhere the {illegible) 
was but for two cartrons, either {i.e. each) of them had two, by 
which, or some other means, one Donogli MacOwen O'Farrell of 
Cnockaha and a brother of his that had an inheritance of two 
cartrons in the said county, in Cnockahabeg (which was surveyed 
as 200 acres of arable land, though in such cases the surveyors who 
gave allowances to some others, to the said Donogh and his brother 
gave none at all), had these said two cartrons of 200 acres quite 
taken away from them and given to the said Faghnoy O'Farroll for 
his part of the aforesaid satisfaction, as more at large shall appear 
by the said Donogh's bill of computation of the premises. 

Itein, it is so that the surveyors or measurers of the said county 
of Longford did at the time of their survey to discharge the surveyor 
of some remiss in his accounts in England upon the making up of 
his books there, for that surveyor accounting for more lands than 
the county containeth, surveyed and admeasured the lands of the 
natives next to their chief houses unreasonably and above ad- 
measurement, and the lands of the undertakers and other favourites 
admeasured a far less nvmiber of acres than could stand with 
reason, by which many of the freeholders of that county lost their 
livelihoods. 

Item, Mr, Edward Dowdall, learned in the law and one of the 
committies of the said county, hath in Clanhue, in the barony of 
Longford, the demi-cartron of Aghinmadder, the demi-cartron of 
Mogherdran, the two cartrons of Ardcullen in the barony of Gra- 
nard, the cartron of Tonfinlissinbanardagh, the cartrons of Kilco 
and Kill (illegible) in the barony of Ardagh within the said county, 
he having no lands by purchase or by inheritance there before, and 
now having upwards of 1,000 acres. 

Item, one John Mclriell O'Farrell of Ardenragh, in the said 
county, gent., having only two cartrons of land in possession, to 
which there was a claim made by his elder brotlior's son, hath 
gotten an augmentation of a castle and twenty cartrons, he having 
been in actual and open rebellion in the company of Captain 
Kichard Farrell in the heat of the last great rebellion. 

Item, one Lisagh Oge O'Farrell of Leitherie in the barony of 
Eatliclonie, in the said county, having never a foot of land before, 
hath gotten three score acres of arable land in Leitherie aforesaid, 
he being in actual rebellion in the heat of the last general revolt. 

Item, one Owney McFarrelly O'Farrell of Carnagh in the barony 
of Moidaune, within the said county, being seised as his inheritance 



APPENDIX. 299 

as of one cartron of land, called Corremore, the largest scope of all 
the cartroiis within that territory, Avaa not surveyed ; but about 
four score acres of arable land, which is, by all reason, and further 
sixty acres over and above that reckoning, in regard that the cartron 
next adjoining the same near the bigness of it is found to be eight 
score acres arable ; notwithstanding that the said Owny hath been 
a good servitor in the late wars, under the leading of Captain 
Lawrence Esmond, one of his Majesty's Privy Council, who not 
only wrote in commendation and behalf of the said Owny to Sir 
William Parsons, knight and baronet, one of the said comities, for 
passhig the said Owny the said land, but also came in person to 
entreat for him to the said Sir William and the rest of the comities, 
nevertheless that they faithfully promised the said Lawrence to 
give the said servitor his own land, he being for half a year in 
(illegible) charges {illegible) them for the same, was nothing the 
more regarded by the said committees, but quite forgotten, and 
cast out of his said land without any manner of allowance. 

Item, it fell out so that divers of the poor natives or former 
freeholders of that county, after the loss of all their possessions or 
inheritance there, some ran mad, and others died instantly for very 
grief, as one James McWilliam O'Farrell of Clangrad, and Donogh 
McGerrot O'Farrell of Cuillagh, and others whose names for brevity 
I leave out, who on their death-beds were in such a taking that 
tliey by earnest persuasions caused some of their family and friends 
to brhig them out of their said beds to have abroad the last sight of 
the hills and fields they lost in the said plantations, every one of 
them dying instantly after. 

Item, all the natives and poor freeholders of the said county, 
that lost their former possessions and inheritance, doth most humbly 
desire your Lordships that all the plans and rentals of the whole 
county be brought in one place before your honour, and the same 
and the grand office taken at Longford compared together, by which 
and the testimony of the inhabitants of the county shall be known 
what land and demesne belong to every native and in his possession 
before and at the taking of the said grand oflice, for it did appear 
that some lands at the taking of the said office that were then in 
possession of some of the said natives was then left out unmemor- 
able or called upon ; some others by the collectors of that county, 
either from mere malice or negligence, by which course, or one 
better known to your honours shall be known and sifted out what 
was done in the plantation of that county contrary to his Majesty's 
intentions. 



100 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 



H. 

(v. vol. i. p. 30.) 

Thk Kino's Imsn Wards. 

" To the Honourable the Lords and others of Ids Majesty's Most 
Honourahle Privy Council, 

" The Humble Tetition of Brian O'Rourhc, prisoner in his Majesty's 
Tower of London, 

" Most Immbly sliewetli tliat, as your Lordsliips well knowetli, 
your suppliant's whole estate is detained in liis Majesty's hands, 
since and during your petitioner's minority, he having as yet 
nothing left to live on but bare [illegible) for his allowance, during 
his Avardship, whereof your suppliant not having received a penny 
for these four years last past, he hath been forced to go naked, had 
he not asked some poor friend's credit for his poor clothes, which, 
resting unpaid, hath left both him and them utterly void of all 
further supply. In which extremity his Majesty was most graciously 
pleased to give his reference to the Eight Honble. the Lord 
Treasurer for the payment of your suppliant's arrearages, yet his 
Lordship excusing the delay upon his Majesty's other occasions, 
your suppliant is enforced most humbly to beseech your Lordsliips 
to mediate with my Lord Treasurer for the present payment unto 
your suppliant of the said arrearages, and the preventing of any 
such future extremities as he hath now long time suffered. It being 
a pitiful thing that a man whose whole estate is detained should 
thus miserably starve in prison, which your Lordships taking into 
your gracious consideration, he shall (as nevertheless bound) daily 
pray for your Lordships' present and eternal happiness." 

There is no date to the above petition, but it has been calendared 
by Dr. Eussell and Mr. Prendergast under 1G20. A second 
petition from the same to the same, bearing date January, 1G19, 
runs as follows :— 



AITENDIX. 301 



" To the B'ujhi Hon. the Lords of his Majestifs Privij Council, 

" The Ilumhlc Petition of Brian O'Eourkc, prisoner in the King's 

Bench, 

" In all submission humbling himself unto your Lordships that, 
whereas your petitioner, being ward unto his Majesty, is every way 
by himself disabled to take up such sums of money as may give 
content unto his court charges, in that the laws of this realm admit 
not his act to be of authority, by means whereof your petitioner is 
likely to remain with tedious and miserable imprisonment, to the 
hindrance of his ensuing preferment and present money without 
your honours afford him some speedy redress. 

" May it therefore please your Lordships, out of your accustomed 
pity to a distressed prisoner, to mediate, by letters or otherwise as 
seomoth best to your noble persons, with my Lord of Clanricard, 
that he would furnish your petitioner with such sums as may pur- 
chase his freedom, which your petitioner, God permittmg him to 
attain to maturity, would faithfully repay. 

" And your petitioner, as in all duty bound, shall implore Heaven 
for all your honours, and {illegible) eternal glory upon ye all." 

Two more dateless petitions, one in prose and one in verse, give 
us further glimpses of the life of his Majesty's Irish wards in London. 



" To the Ilonble. Lords and others of Jiis Majesty's Privy Council, 

" The humble petition of Brian O'Rourke, Francis Congleton, 
and Christopher Phillipson, humbly shewing that, whereas your 
petitioners have understood that Aquila Weekes, keeper of the Gate- 
house of Westminster, hath informed your honours of divers mis- 
demeanours committed by your petitioners against him and his ser- 
vants, which his reports are but mere suggestions and false surmises, 
as we will make manifest before your honourable Lordships : In 
tender consideration thereof we most humbly beseech your Lord- 
ships to be pleased to command both our appearances before your 
honourable tabic, that your Lordships maybe better satisfied of the 
truth in this business. And your petitioners shall ever pray for 
your Lordships' happy preservation." 

On May 1st, 1G21, he again petitioned to be released from the 
Gatehouse prison in Westminster. 



302 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

" To the King's Most Excellent Majesty, 
" The Humble Petition of Brian O'Bourke. 

Oh ! enliglit thy hart with a sakred fire ! 
Glorious great lunge, grant but my desier. 
Oh ! doe but grante that most gracious faver, 
Now in my miserie prove my Savior ; 
Libertie, sweet Sir, is all I crave, 
Oh ! grant but that, and then my life you have. 
In the meantime I am bound to pray 
For thee my Soverayn long to bear sway, 
And from your enemies may you always be 
Guarded by Heaven's great polisy 1 " 

Mr. Lemon has left the following note on the above documents 
(v. Calendar of Irish State Papers, 1G14-25, p. 264). 

" On the 8th of October, 1619, the Privy Council wrote to the 
Lord Chief Justice that Brian O'Rourke, being brought over hither 
to be brought up in religion, and to ' have that education that is 
meet for a gentleman of his fashion and means,' was in the first 
instance sent to the university, and from thence removed and 
admitted into the Middle Temple, where he continued until it hap- 
pened, on St. Patrick's day last, coming from supper with some of 
his countrymen, he fell into a brawl, wherein some were hurt, and 
O'Rourke thereupon committed to the Gatehouse.' He was then in- 
dicted and removed to the King's Bench, and is there detained luiless 
he can pay 800Z., for the charges and damages ' about a broken pate,' 
desiring his Lordship to take order for his release. It seems that 
the above letter was ineffectual, for on the 28th of November, 1619, 
they wrote again to the Lord Chief Justice to release Brian O'Rourke 
from the imprisonment he had so long endured, as the parties had 
since procured a verdict against him for 280Z., and praying and re- 
quiring his lordship to give order for ' stay of execution of that 
verdict,' and to mediate ' some reasonable and indifferent composi- 
tion between the parties.' It is not improbable that the subjoined 
rude verses interested the king in his favour and caused the in- 
terference of the Privy Council on his behalf. 

" He appears, however, to have been a very troublesome fellow, 
for on the 24th of January, 1621, the Privy Council themselves 
committed him to the Marshalsea, for Avliat offence is not stated." 
[Calendar I. S. P. 1614-25, p. 2G5.) 



ArPENDix. 303 



I. 

{v. vol. i. p. 37.) 

Lords Justices and CoifNciL to Pkivy Council, 
June 22, 1G22.' 

May it pleaao your honourable Lordships. We hold it our duty 
to advertise your Lordships, that not only the Lords and gentlemen 
here in a great assembly have complained to us of abuses in tho 
plantations in this kingdom, but now many of the natives of Long- 
ford, Ely O'Carrol, and Leitrim, and the lesser territories, with 
daily importunities did so press upon us, that we thought best, in 
regard of his knowledge of the Irish language, to entreat Mr. Hadsor 
to peruse the matter of their complaints, but with this caution, that 
if any of them did oppose his Majesty's title to that land, the great 
inquisition or the instructions given by his Majesty for settling 
of those several plantations, that they should be {illegible) by him ; 
Avho accordingly has taken note of those which he conceiveth to be 
just complaints within tho limits prescribed, and by our direction, 
advised the petitioners to return into their several countries with 
tlie assurance that, if there were cause, care should bo taken to in- 
form his gracious Majesty, whereon they all returned, well satisfied, 
as he assures us. Since their departure we have examined two 
particular cases (of grievance), those of Shane MacBryan O'Farrell 
and Sir John MacCoghlan. Shane MacBrian O'Farrell, as we 
conceive, had wrong in not having any land at all assigned hun in 
the plantation, seeing that of the lands found (by the inquisition) to 
bo his in the county of Longford after all deductions, or anything 
that we hear or can be said, he had left (as it was passed to other 
men) 106 acres of profitable and 348 of miprofitable lands, and by 
the king's instructions all that had above 60 or 100 acres were only 
to lose a fourth, or if they would not submit, a third part of their 
freeholds. And likewise we find that Sir John MacCoghlan was 
wronged in his loss of his lands in the King's County, which he had 
truly purchased of Sir John King, and held by patent from his 
» S. P. I. vol. 230, 23, Rolls House. 



304 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IG-ll. 

Majesty. To omit other particulars, and because we hoped that 
those two were but singular cases, that might in so great a work 
as these plantations easily slip in, we advised that the commissioners 
for plantations should propose some satisfaction to these men, Sir 
John MacCoghlan and Shane MacBrian O'Farrell, out of the lands 
yet unbestowed, and that the proportion miglit be so good, that the 
new patentees might be willing to take them, and leave the peti- 
tioners their own land, which would be to their full content. 

This moderation we the rather advised, for that we find, although 
for Sir John MacCoghlan's obstinacy and refusal to submit, order 
was sent from England to take away a third part of his land, yet 
your Lordships had formerly written in his favour, and his com- 
plaint is, that much more than a third was taken away from him, 
besides his patent lands. And my Lord Justice Powerscourt, my 
Lord President Wilmot, and other ancient servitors here, give great 
testimony of the valour and fidelity of Sir John MacCoghlan, fight- 
ing for the English Crown against the rebels, in the places and 
lands now taken away from him. We did likewise order that Mr. 
Hadsor should communicate the rest of his complaints (which are 
many) to Mr. Surveyor Sir William Parsons to be examined, 
whether, in truth, the instructions his Majesty gave were broken, 
and they wronged or not; but it hath pleased God that the con- 
tinued sickness of Sir William Parsons, best acquainted with that 
business, hath hindered our hopes of success and expedition in these 
our directions, and now the Lady McCoghlan again importunes us, 
and we are advertised that the natives prepare to come up by multi- 
tudes out of those parts (to urge in person their grievances). To 
prevent this, we have written letters to the several sheriffs to wish 
them for saving of their charge rather to send a few agents to deal 
for them, and in the meantime we, for (the sake of) his Majesty's 
service, humbly entreat your Lordships to give some speedy direc- 
tions what answer may be given to those petitioners, whose case or 
complaint in general is this : they had all lands found to be theirs 
by the great office, but when the glebes and other public lands were 
deducted they were esteemed in the survey to be under GO or 100 
acres, and yet sometimes they were passed to others for more. All 
of the natives thus dispossessed (of their small freeholds) were by 
the instructions to be made lessees for three lives, or some years 
at reasonable rents, but by the instructions for that plantation 
(the case of Wexford may differ from the rest, yet wherein Ave 
know not, the instructions for its plaiitation not appearing unto 
us) they, the dispossessed natives, could not be lessees to the 
king, but to some of the undertakers or other natives, and the com- 



APPENDIX. 305 

missioners here in their discretion do not think fit to let them be 
lessees of their own land taken from them, and the midertaker'a 
rents and fines and {illegible) and charges are so great that they 
cannot afford to take only a reasonable rent, so that the poor (dispos- 
sessed) men have in truth nothing, yet seem to be so reasonable 
that divers of them offer to talce satisfaction out of the mountain 
wood, bog, and unprofital^le lands given to others, and to pay rent to 
his Majesty for them (as Mr. Hadsor telle us), but this would make a 
new work of these plantations, like that of Wexford, undone after the 
patents were sealed, and new made again. Now for the satisfaction 
of those poor men, or suppressing of their claims, what course your 
iiordsbip shall please to direct by the new Lord Deputy, or to the 
Lords Justices here, we will dutifully expect, having discharged our- 
selves and our duties, we hope, as far as we can see. 



VOL. II. 



30G THE IRISH massacuks of kmi. 



J. 

The first Remonstrance op Phelim MacFeagh Byrne.' 

This remonstrance is made by Phelim MacFeagli Byrne, in 
the behalf of himself and his five sons, now close prisoners in his 
]\rajesty's castle of Dublin, of a few of those many exceptions which 
miglit be taken against the proceedings which have been of late 
held against them ; wherein, though the said Phelim should be 
silent, and conceal his grievances against them, yet the whole 
kingdom is so full and sensible of it, and the echo thereof doth so 
fill all places, as your Lordships who ai'e appointed commissioners 
to inquire of this matter, cannot but take notice thereof. But yet 
that the said Phelim may not seem to sleep in so dread an hour, he 
doth most humbly offer your Lordships these matters following : 

First, the nature and quality of the Gi-and Jury which did lately 
pass upon the said Phelim and his sons at Wicklow, (within most 
men's opinion) was packed of purpose, to take away the life and 
estate of the said Phelim and his sons, as will easily appear by 
taking these jurors by the roll and considering of them, wherein 
Sir James FitzPierse was the foreman, whose father, brother, mother 
and sister, or the most of them, were at one time burned or killed 
by Walter Reagh FitzGerald, who was accompanied by Turlogh 
MacPheagh, brother to the said Phelim, and others of near alliance 
to the said Phelim, in that bloody action, in those late troublesomo 
times of this kingdom. Since which time the said Sir James hath 
borne a secret and mortal hatred unto the said Phelim and his 
family, as might be instanced in many particulars. And yet to 
this man's judgment was the life of Phelim and all his children 
committed, that he might likewise cut off root and branch at one 
blow. 

Sir Henry Bellings was the next man of the said jury, a man 
generally known to be the only informer against the said Phelim 

• MSS. T.C.D. F. o, 17. 



APPKXDrx. 307 

and his sons, as will appear more plainly by the subsequent matters 
with which he standeth charged. And the said Phelim is ready to 
prove that the said Sir Henry Bellings used these or the like words, 
to the said Sir James FitzPierse in George Sherlock's house at 
Wicklow at the time of the trial ; ' Now is the time for you, Sir 
James, to be revenged on Phelim MacPheagh and his sons, for the 
blood of your friends spilt by them.' 

George Sherlock, at whose house these words were spoken, was 
one of the said jury (appointed to try Phehm's case), and is a man 
who is altogether ruled by the said Sir James, who doth lodge at 
the said Sherlock's house at Wicklow at all assizes and quarter 
sessions, where the said Sir James being a Justice of the Peace 
doth duly attend, and by that means bringeth great profit to the 
said Sherlock. William Pluck, who is servant to the said Sir 
Henry Bellings, attended his said master in this service and wag 
one of the jury. 

And as for the rest of the said jurors, they are either allied or 
have dependency on the Lord Esmond, and some other of tho 
undertakers, who have in a manner divided that whole county 
between them, and were to have proportions in the said Phelim'g 
lands ; as namely Mr. Robert Walker, and Mr. Matthews of tho 
Rath, were and are tenants unto the said Lord Esmond, and Roger 
Wickam, who was likewise of the said jury, is nephew unto the said 
Jjord Esmond, and as for IMr. Fcnton, William Pluck, John Fitz- 
Gerald and the rest, they are known to be dependants on the said 
undertakers. 

And this is tho first thing which the said Phelim doth offer 
unto the consideration of the said Commissioners, to consider 
whether tliese men thus excepted against, can be competent judges 
of the said Phelim's life and estate, and the lives and fortunes of 
his children ; or whether they be such men (in regard the most of 
them have no freehold in the said county, but are bare dependants 
on the said Phelim's adversaries) Avhich his Majesty's writ doth 
command to be summoned, which runneth in this form, * Prcs- 
ceptumfuit vicecomiti quod venire faciat coram nobis 2i probos et 
legales homines comitatus predicti, quorum quilibet habeat per se 
X lib. ster. vel redditus ad minus p)er annum, ad inquirendum, etc." 

And the said Phelim doth not doubt but if the sheriff were 
examined upon oath, but that he would confess that tho said jurors, 
or the principal of them, were nominated by the means of some 
great persons, or by direction from authority, and so agahist the 
laws and statutes of this kingdom. The next thing which the said 
Phelim doth offer unto the consideration of tlic said Commissioners 

X 2 



308 THE inisii iMASSaciies of ig4i. 

is, tlio violent and midne proceeding of the said Grand Jury after 
tliey were sworn, which will appear hy these particulars. 

First, it will he found if matters be examined into upon oath 
that no evidence was delivered to the Grand Jury against the said 
Phelim but the examination of Nicholas Notter, a man that hath 
been a common and notorious thief, and who was prosecuted so 
hard by the said Phelim for stealing of seven cows and five garrons 
from his tenants, as he was forced to fly that country, and being 
further pursued by the said Phelim, had no way to secm-e himself 
but by accusing of the said Phelim. And tliis was the fit man 
found out to give evidence against him to such a foreman of the 
jury as Sir James FitzPierse. 

Secondly, if Sir Henry Bellings were here to be examined upon 
oath, he could not deny but that the Right Honourable the Loi'd 
Chief Justice, being doubtful of what credit this evidence would be 
to the jury, the said Sir Henry desired the Lord Chief Justice to 
sign the bill and he would undertake the finding of it, which the 
said Phelim doth hope that the Lord Chief Justice cannot forget, 
being so fresh in his memory. And as for the former words spolcen 
by him to Sir James FitzPierse, the said Phelim will not trouble 
your Lordship with repetition of them. 

Thirdly, the eyes of great men were so fixed upon the success of 
this business that two several pacquets were dispatched to Wicklow 
about it, during the time of the trial, and these were sent for tlie 
more expedition by William Greame, one of the Right Honourable 
the Lord Deputy's chamber, and who is a professed enemy to the 
said Phelim and his family ; and the said William had two or 
three horses set by the way to return with more expedition Avith the 
news of the said verdict. 

The third thing which the said Phelim doth offer unto the 
consideration of the said Commissioners is, the proceedings which 
were held after the bill was found, which will be seen in these 
particulars. 

The first thing which happened after the bill was found by the 
said Grand Jury, was the sudden death of the said Phelim's wife, who, 
though in perfect health at the time of the said trial, yet when she 
perceived the courses which were taken against her said husband and 
her five sons, and that their professed and known enemies were the 
prime and leading men of the said jury, she was so overwhelmed 
with grief that her heartstrings brake, and she died within some 
two days after. And after she was interred for the space of three 
weeks thereabouts, the body (contrary to all law and justice) was 
digged up in the presence of Mr. Fox, who is vicar of Wicklow, and 



APPENDIX. 300 

tfilicu out of the ground in a most barbarous and inlunnan manner. 
And this shameful act, which is Avithout example, was done, as tlie 
authors pretend, by direction from public authority, which the said 
Phelim doth humbly desire may be inquired after. 

Secondly, the adversaries of the said Phelim were so thirsty 
after his blood and so impatient of delay that the term was has- 
tened before the usual time, to no other end, as is conceived by the 
most of that kingdom, but to make a quick dispatch of the said 
Phelim and his sons ; for the Courts did sit some seven or eight 
days before the return of any writ, except it was the venire facias 
which was for the trial of the said Phelim and his sons, which 
being stayed by his Majesty's most gracious commission, the said 
Courts had nothing to do until the ordinary time of the return of 
writs was come. 

Thirdly, there have been some (which is a fearful thing to be 
thought of) executed in this city of Dublin by martial law, in or 
about term time, when the Courts of Justice have been open, who 
were never brought to public trial, to the shame of justice. And 
some of these have declared in the hearing of thousands at the 
time of their death, which was not an hour to dissemble with God 
or the world, .that they could not do that service against Phelim 
or any of his sons which was desired of them, and that they knew 
nothing whereof to accuse Phelim nor his sons, concerning Morrogh 
Baccagh, as John Toole, who was lately executed here in town by 
martial laAV, and divers others who suffered in the country. 

And what do these extraordinary courses portend but that the 
ruin of the said Phelim and his posterity was intended by the Lord 
J)cputy ? whose master piece hath been for these two last years to 
rack matter against the said Phelim and his sons out of prisons 
and dungeons, as will appear more particularly by that which 
foUoweth. 

The fourth thing which the said Phelim doth offer unto the 
consideration of the Courts is the preparing of convicted or attainted 
persons for that trial to accuse Phelim and his sons. And these 
will be found to be either those who have refused to be drawn by 
promises and rewards to accuse them, or who are of that base and 
tainted condition that the law and justice doth reject their 
testimony. 

The following are the names of such as could not be drawn to 
accuse Phelim and his sons : 

Cahir McBrien of Ballydonnellstown was committed by the 
above named Sir Henry Bellings for not accusing them, and when 
the said Sir Henry could not draw him thereto neither by threats 



310 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G4]. 

nor promises of reward, tlie said Sir Henry set liim at liberty for a 
nag of four pounds price. 

Donogli Corren of Tiglicullen, in tlie county of Carlow, being 
appreliended by tlie said Sir Henry and brought before the Lord 
Deputy, was set at hberty when he could not persuade him to 
accuse Phelim or his sons. 

Melaghlin McDonogh Oge of Fyana, in Eanelagh, was examined 
and promised great matters by Sir Henry Bellings if that he would 
accuse Phelim and his sons, but the said Sir Henry not being able 
to tempt him, he set him at liberty on some equivalent reward. 

Edmund McDermot was in like sort tempted by the said Sir 
Henry Bellings, and released for a nag, when he could not be drawn 
to accuse Phelim and his sons. Tirlogh McGarret was used in the 
same nature by Sir Henry, who likewise received a nag from him, 
as will be proved. Uonogh IMcPhilip was likewise in durance for 
the same cause, until he purchased his enlargement of the said Sir 
Henry for a garran. 

Lysagh McMurtagh Byrne, being apprehended by tlie aforesaid 
William Graham, who offered him rewards and the favour of the 
Lord Deputy, if that he would accuse Phelim and his sons ; but the 
said Lysagh, protesting that he knew nothing by them, purchased 
his peace of the said Graham for seven pounds, which he paid unto 
him. 

Tirlogh McFardorogh, being apprehended by the said William 
Graham and his servants, was promised the favour of the Lord 
Deputy, and that his Ijordship would make him a man, if that he 
would join with his brother Gerald in accusing Phelim and hia 
sons ; but being not able to persuade with him, he suffered him to 
go at large ; and with this the said Phelim did charge the said 
Graham before the Lord Deputy at the Council table, but little 
notice was taken thereof at the time. 

And whether this be not a poisoning of justice, contrary to the 
wholesome laws and justice of this kingdom at the very fountain 
head, where nothing but bitter waters can be expected, the said 
Phelim doth humbly leave to the consideration of the said Commis- 
sioners. 

The names of those that have been drawn by promises of re- 
wards to accuse the said Phelim and his sons are : 

Nicholas Notter, whose examination was the only evidence which 
was given to the Grand Jury as aforesaid, he was furnished with 
apparel and other necessaries for doing that service, and this as 
the said Phelim had good cause to think from some such tempter. 

Lysagh Duffe IMacLoughlin hath been a common thief, and 



APPENDIX. 311 

being prosecuted at tlic last assi/.cs at Wicklow, by Luke Byrne, wlio 
is nephew to tlie said Plielini, for stealing a horse, and Condcnnied 
for the same, did in malice and to save his life undertake to accuse 
the said Phelim ; for which service he was set at liberty and well 
clothed, with allowance of meat and drink. 

Gerald McFerdoragh is brother-in-law to Shane Bane, who was 
apprehended by Hugh MacPhelim, being in rebellion, and thereupon 
executed ; for which he doth charge Phelim and his sons. And for 
pretending this service the said Gerald hath the liberty of the castle 
and his diet. 

Ednnmd McDowall Ena hath been a connnon thief, and several 
times indicted and tried for the same, as may appear by the several 
records thereof ready to be produced, and he being foimd guilty of 
several offences at the last assizes at Wicklow, desired the benefit 
of his book, which being tendered unto him, he could not read, and 
was thereupon adjudged to die ; but the said Edmund promising to 
do service against Phelim and his sons, his book was tendered unto 
him the next day, and he had the benefit thereof, though he could 
not read therein, nor cannot at this time. 

And hoAV dangerous it may be to the subject that they who shall 
undertake to accuse others should receive countenance from him 
Avho represents the person of the king, the said Phelim leaveth to 
the consideration of the said Commissioners. The exceptions of the 
said Phelim against the rest are aa just, for they are exceptions 
which the law doth take, and not of the said Phelim's framing, 
as will appear by that which followeth. Edmund Duffe being pre- 
sented by the wife of John Wolverston for burglary committed since 
the said John went last into England, and being brought to the 
gallows by her prosecution, it was demanded of him whether he 
would do service, and to have his life, being then ready to bo 
turned oil the gibbet, he undertook to accuse Phelim and his sons, 
or some of them. Tiegue MacWalter hath been a common and 
notorious thief, and arraigned four several times at one sessions and 
kept in close prison, until hope of a pardon did draw him to accuse 
Phelim and his sons. 

Dermot O'Toole hath been a common thief, and these three 
years hath been in prison, and questioned for several stealths and 
robberies, and had no way to save his life but to accuse Phelim and 
his sons or some of them. 

AValter Butler is a man that hath been in rebellion, and to save 
his life hath accused Phelim and his sons or some of them. 

Shane Duffe MacTiegue, Avho is one of Phelim's accusers, is a 
man of an ill and lascivious life, having compacted with tlie devil. 



312 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

and was many times in familiar correspondence with the devil, as 
the said Shane hath confessed hefore many. And of as ill and 
notorious a life ia Brian Albanagh, his son, who is another that 
doth pretend to do service, as they term it, on the said Phelim and 
his sons. 

Cahir Beogh of Kilballow is one who hath been always mali- 
ciously bent against the said Phelim, and brought in Sir Kichard 
Graham, the father of the said William Graham, into that territory, 
and procured the said Eichard to pass a great proportion of the said 
Phelim's lands ; a part whereof the said Cahir hath now in his pos- 
session, and to that end would be glad that Phelim and his sons 
were cut off, lest in time they might question him for the said lands. 
Owen, alias Owny McMurrogh Byrne, having fled the kingdom 
for some criminal olfence, was apprehended upon his return, and 
being brought before the Lord Deputy was committed by his Lord- 
ship's directions, and soon after put upon a rack, which he endured 
at that time with much torture ; but in his weakness remembering 
his former tortures, did yield in the end to accuse the said Phelim 
and his sons or some of them. 

And whether these be fit or competent witnesses to convict the 

said Phelim and his sons, or whether it is likely that the said Phelim 

should commit the great designs and ill purposes he is charged with 

to the secresy of such ministers as these, and should not labour to 

draw into his faction a more likely party, the said Phelim doth 

humbly offer to the consideration of the said Commissioners, before 

whom he doth protest, as in the presence of Him who knoweth all 

secrets, that he never harboured a thought of those horrible offences 

which he is charged with : neither was there any provocation to him 

thereto, his late Majesty having signified his pleasure by four several 

letters that the said Phelim should entirely enjoy all such lands as his 

father died seised of, or was reputed to die seised of ; and his Majesty 

that now is, having by the advice of all his Lords of his council and 

the opinion of the Commissioners for Irish affairs, signed two several 

bills for the settling of all the said lands on Phelim and his sons, 

which being altered on the information of those great persons who 

have desired to make themselves lords of the said territory, they 

thought themselves engaged to cast what aspersions they could 

upon the said Phelim and his sons, who since the time that the heir 

of Sir Terence O'Dempsey (whose daughter was questioned for her 

life by the said Phelim's son) was married to the Rt. Hon. the Lord 

Deputy's daughter, they found an eclipse of those favours which 

they were formerly wont to receive from his Lordship. 

And this storm hath been increased by reason of the late grant 



APPENDIX. 313 

M-hich the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Carhsle did pass of the Byrne's 
country in England, the envy whereof doth now fall heavy upon the 
said Pheliiu and his said sons, who are supposed to be the chief 
instruments used by the said earl therein. But now the said Phelim 
and his sons do thank God that their great master hath taken these 
matters into his own royal consideration, and appointed your Lord- 
ships to be his delegates, to inform yourself of the premises, and to 
make such a return as the whole kingdom may have cause to bless 
you and your posterity for it. 

And in regard it will be impossible for the said Phelim or his 
friends to make proof of the former particulars, if that the same 
be divulged and come to the knowledge of their adversaries, the 
said Phehm doth desire your Lordships upon his bended knees 
to seal up the same in secrecy, mitil he shall make proof of those 
matters which your Lordships do most doubt of, and in the mean- 
time to protect the said Phelim and his friends from the greatness 
of their said adversaries, who, as in other things, so in this, will 
labour to suppress them. And they shall pray, etc. 



314 THE IRISH MASSACUES OF IGll. 



K. 

December 1st, 1G28; Puesent, Loud Chanoellou (Adam 
LoFTus), Loud Chief Justice (Sir G. Shirley), Lord 
Archbishop of Dublin (Lakcelot Bulkely), Sir Arthur 
Savage.' 

Seventh Deponent. Hugh MacGerrald, being duly sworn and 
examined, deposeth that he was apprehended by Wilham Gnmne, 
the Provost Marshal, who kept him seven days in his custody, tied 
with a handloclc, and two several times the said Graliara threatened 
to hang this examt. if ho would not do service against Phclim Mac- 
Pheagh, one time sending for a ladder, and another time shewing 
a tree, whereupon he would hang him, and the ropes and withes, 
but the examt. making protestation of having no matter to lay to 
the said Phelim's charge did choose rather to suffer than to impeach 
him without a cause. He saith that there were present at one time 
Mr. Calcott Chamber the elder and younger, and Mr. Sandford, when 
the said Graeme threatened to hang this examt., and at that time 
the examt. verily believeth he had been hanged if Mr. Chamber, ob- 
serving the examt. to be on his knees, to prepare himself by prayer for 
death, had not dissuaded the said Graham from it for that time, the 
examt. being told by some present who interpreted to him Mr. 
Chamber's speeches, that Mr. Chamber would not have the examt. 
hanged on his land without better ground (of his guilt). He further 
saith, that after ho was committed to prison, wlioro ho luith remained 
twenty-two weeks, he was divers times solicited by Sir Henry 
Boilings and Mr. William Graeme promising him that he sliould 
liave from the Lord Deputy much favour, means of livelihood, and 
his liberty, if he would do service against Phelim IMacPheagh and 
his sons, which he refused, having nothing whereof to accuse them. 
He saith that he was several times brought to the Et. Hon. tlio 
Lord Deputy to be examined, many fair promises being made him 

' MSS. T.C.I). 



ArrEM)ix. 



;15 



by the said Sir Henry and Ih. Graham, so as he Avould do service 
against the said riielini and liis sons, which he this examt. Avas not 
able to do. 



Dec. 1, 1028. Pkesent, Lokd Chancellor, Lord Chief 
Justice, Lord Archbishop of Dublin, Sir Arthur Savage. 

Tenth Deponent. Ludowick Ponten, gentleman, being duly 
sworn and examined saith, that in the beginning of the last term he 
was going down St. Patrick Street, and that one Lysagli Duffe 
]\IcMelaghlin, standing within a shop, called the said Lodowick by his 
name and asked an alms of him. The said Lodowick answered and 
told him that he did not think he wanted any alms by reason he was 
very fat in flesh, and well clothed, whereupon L.>sagh said that he 
thanked the Lord Deputy for his clothes, for they were given him 
by the Lord Deputy, and a better thing. The said Lodowick then 
answered that he was happy that the Deputy was so well-aflfected 
towards him to give him the like. Then the said Lysagh said that 
the cause why he had that reward was for accusing Phelim Mac- 
Pheagh and his sons for the reheving of Murrogh Baccagh. The 
said Lodowick said it was well done of him so to do if he might with 
truth accuse them. Then the said Lysagh said that he could not 
accuse them justly of anything, but that he belied them to save his 
own life, he being formerly condemned for the stealing of a horse : 
and also said that every man that he was acquainted withal was 
beholding unto him for not accusing them with the like lies, and 
said that there was no man that was in his case but would do the 
like to save his own life : and withal that he would rather do it 
because Luke Birne, Redmond McPheagh's son, presented against 
him the last assizes for stealing a horse. And at another time the 
said Lodowick, standing at Sergeant Catlin's door waiting for Mr. 
Francis Sandford's coming out of the office, this Lysagh Duffe pass- 
ing by, he wearing of a mantle, the said Lodowick asked him where 
he had that mantle, and he answered that he borrowed that mantle, 
and said that the Lord Deputy bought a blue mantle for him that 
cost ten shillings. Whereupon the said Lodowick said that he 
(Lisagh) was beholding to the Lord Deputy. Then Lisagh said 
that the Lord Deputy promised him to release his brother that was 
committed for Murrogh Baccagh's cause, for the service that he, the 
said Lysagh, did in accusing Phelim MacPheagh and his sons, and 
then the said Lysagh went away.^ 

' Compare Phelinrs account of Lysagh Duffe at p. 310. 



31 G THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGil. 

Further tlie said Lodowick saith, that Sir James FitzPierse 
FitzGerald told him several times that Walter Reogh, and Phelim 
MacPheagh, and Piedmond MacPheagh burned his (Sir James') 
fatlier and mother. 

Further the said Lodowick saith, heknoweth William Pluke, one 
that was in the Grand Jury finding the indictments against Phelim 
MacPheagh and his sons, to be servant in livery to Sir Henry 
Bellings. 

Further the said Lodowick saith, that he knoweth John Fitz- 
Gerald, one that was in the Grand Jury, to be a dependant on the 
undertakers in the Ranelaghs, and a sergeant inlooking to their 
woods, and now dwelling in the plantation. 

Lodowick Ponten. 



2nd December, 1G28. Present, Lord Chancellor, Lord 
Primate (Usher), Lord Archbishop op Dublin, Lord 
Chief Justice, Sir Arthur Savage. 

Fourteenth Deponent. Murtogh MacTiegue O'Doyle being duly 
sworn and examined saith, that Sir Henry Bellings having sent 
some of his people to the examt.'s house to apprehend him, the 
examt. was not then at home, wherefore his Avife was taken and 
carried to Limerick to the Lord Esmond, which so soon as the 
examt. heard at his return home from a fair where he had been to 
buy hogs, he immediately departed from home and came to this 
city to Sir Henry Bellings a fortnight before Lammas Day last, who 
brought him to the Lord Deputy, where he was examined and com- 
mitted to prison, where he hath hitherto remained. He saith that 
no man hath dealt with him by promising reward, release, or other 
recompense for accusing any or doing service against any. 

Fifteenth Deponent. Gerrald Owny being duly sworn and ex- 
amined saith, that he hath remained in restraint this half year 
wanting only a fortnight, being charged with stealing cattle for 
Phelim MacPheagh. He saith that no man hath dealt with him by 
promising him any reward or recompense for accusing or doing 
service against any man. 

December 6th, 1628. Thirty-fifth Deponent. William Eustace 
of Castlemartin, in the county of Kildare, Esquire, being duly sworn 
to set down in writing under his hand what he can say or hath 
heard and knoAvn concerning Phelim MacPheagh and his sons now 
prisoners, and others, for cause of hatred, or malice, or otherwise, of 
any other matters known to him that may concern the said Phelim 



APPENDIX. 317 

or his sons, doth declare his knowledge as followcth : Ist, I do well 
remember and know that Sir Piers FitzGerald of Ballysonan, in the 
county of Kildare, knt., was taken prisoner by Pheagli MacHugh 
Birne, father to this Phelim now prisoner, and some of their fol- 
lowers killed on both sides, as also that Pheagh MacHugh kept Sir 
Piers prisoner until such time as there was a consideration given for 
liis enlargement. 

2ndly, I do well remember and know, that the said Pheagh 
married one of his daughters to Walter Eeogh FitzGerald, when he 
was banished by the said Sir Piorso'a means out of the county of 
Kildare. 

8rdly, I do well remember and know, for that banishment and 
other occasions that the said Walter Keogh FitzGerald, accompanied 
by his brothers-in-law, this Phelim now prisoner, and Redmond 
MacPheagh now living, and divers others of their adlierents, went 
afterwards to a place in the county Kildare called Ardrio, where 
finding the said Sir Pierse FitzGerald in a little castle that was 
thatched with but straw or sedge, set fire to the same and burnt him 
and his wife, and one of his daughters there. 

4thly, I do well remember and knoAV, that after these occasions 
and after the death of the said Pheagh MacHugh that Sir James 
FitzPierse FitzGerald now living, did go into England to procure 
letters for passing the said Phelim's lands of Ranelagh, or part 
thereof, as also that he did prosecute and endeavour all he could to 
pass the said lands according to the effect of his said letters, until 
he was crossed by reason of a general instruction sent soon after by 
the State of England after the last great rebellion, for settling of 
divers of the Irish of the province of Leinster, and this Phelim and 
his brother Redmond were by special name inserted therein for 
their ancient estate and lands. 

Sthly, I do well remember and know, that after the settlement 
of the said Phelim and his brother Redmond in their own possessions, 
it happened upon their going homewards from Dublin, that they 
and their compo,ny met with the aforesaid Sir James FitzPierse 
FitzGerald and others in his company in the county of Wicklow, 
taking aAvay certain stud mares by force from them, or from some of 
their friends, and then did take the said Sir James prisoner and 
killed one of his horsemen, and took him home along with them to 
his house of Ballynecorr. 

Gthly, I do well remember and know, that within a few years 
after the aforesaid Sir James did entertain and countenance with 
all his endeavours certain of the said Phelim's followers and tenants, 
that preteii^led title to part of the said Phelim's lands, and by that 



318 THE IRISH .AFASSACllRS OF Kill. 

means did often trouble the said Plielim, and give cause of ofYence 
to him and his tenants, and soon after gained a proportion of tlie 
said Phelim's lands by that means, and afterwards Sir James fell 
into a great league of friendship with Sir Eichard Grneme, knt., 
being then one of the greatest adversaries that the said Phelim had, 
as appeareth by the countenancing of divers of his followers and 
supposed freeholders against the said Phelim, by which means and 
otherwise' he gained a great part of the said Phelim's estate, and 
sought by all endeavours, as well to the State as otherwise, to pro- 
cure as much harm and hindrance as possibly he could to the said 
Phelim. 

7thly, I do well remember and know, that the said Sir James's 
near kinswoman, Mary Dempsey, was supposed to be prosecuted by 
Phelim and his sons, or by their means, for her life, which was ill 
taken by the said Sir James and Sir Terence Dempsey, knt., father 
of the said ]\Iary. 

8thly, I do well remember and know, that now lately by reason 
of the late plantation there, Ballymoroghroe and other the lands 
which the said Sir James got into his possession being taken from 
him, that he petitioned soon after to the Rt. Hon. the Lord Deputy 
for recompense for the same, of some other lands of the plantation 
there, in regard he had been one of the first that moved for a plan- 
tation in Ranelagh, and whether this and the rest do show first and 
last to be causes of hatred and malice (to Phelim and his brothers) 
I humbly leave to your honourable censure. 

9thly, I do well remember and know, that since the time that 
Phelim MacPheagh procured letters out of England for confirmation 
of the first instructions formerly mentioned to pass the whole terri- 
tory of Ranelagh to him, because his own patent first past did not 
extend to the true meaning of the first settlement, and letters sent 
out of England in that behalf, that his o^vn brother Redmond and 
all the natives of the territory of Ranelagh and Cosha that were 
supposed freeholders by gavelkind of the most part of the said 
Ranelagh and Cosha, did always join together to do the said Phelim 
and his sons all the mischief they could, as well appeareth by their 
working to hinder him from passing a new patent in all the time of 
the Lord Grandison's government, and the now Lord Deputy's 
time, and part of the same natives do now also accuse the said 
Phelim and his sons more than any others, and have all their 
depending upon none but such as have got part of the said Phelim's 
estate or patrimony, or others that are knoAvn adversaries to the said 
Phelim. 

lOthly, I do well remember and know, that the said Phelim 



Ari'lONDIX. ?)19 

before his late imprisonment did publicly tax William Grajme, sou 
to Sir Eicliard Gramme, knt., and inheritor of such lands as his 
father got from the said Phelim, that he sought to procure and 
draw one Tirlogh Bane, tenant to the said Phelim to Dublin, for 
concurring and agreeing with what his brother Garret Bane then 
and now prisoner could say against the said Phelim by way of ac- 
cusation ; at which time the said Phelim offered to prove the same 
by witnesses ; and the said William doth also maintain and coun- 
tenance one Cahir Pteagh, being one of the aforesaid natives, who 
hath been these thirty years or more factiously bent for a pretended 
title to part of the said Phelim's lands, to do the said Phelim all 
the harm he could, by the countenance and supporting of the said 
William Greame's father, and liveth now upon the said lands 
under the said William free from imprisonment, for that which he 
accuseth Brian MacPhelim withal concealing the same as the other 
did. If it bo treason I humbly leave it to consideration. 

llthly, I do know all the Grand Jury that found the Bills of 
Indictment against Phelim at Wicldow for the most part not to be 
freeholders, except a few that were not iiidiiferent, and the rest 
who had no freehold had altogether their dependancies as tenants 
or otherwise upon such persons as have got a great part of Phelim's 
estate in their hands. 

12thly and lastly, I do well Imow that Pierso Sexton, late 
sheriff of the county Wicklow, had not a freehold ansAverable to a 
statute in that case provided to be sheriff, but by the favour and 
means of my Lord Esmond, who hath gotten part of the said 
Phelim's lands, Pierse Sexton's wife being a near kinswoman to 
the said Lord Esmond. 

William Eustace. 

Twenty-seventh Deponent. W^alter Butler being duly sworn 
and examined saith, that about a fortnight after ]\Iay last, he was 
apprehended as having converse with Murrogh Baccagh, being this 
examt.'s ixncle. He saith that he was brought before the Kt. Hon. 
the Lord Deputy to be examined several times, and that the Lord 
Deputy told him, that three or four witnesses had proved his being 
privy to the confederacy of Murrogh Baccagh and Phelim MacPheagh 
or his sons, ajid when the examt. denied to have any such know- 
ledge, the Lord Deputy told him he should be hanged. He saith 
also that Sir Henry Bellings and Mr. William Graham did promise 
the examt. his pardon and his life, if he should concur with the 
rest, in doing service against Phelim MacPheagh and his sons ; 
and that if he would not do it he should be hanged ; whereupon he 



320 THE IRISH massacres of ig41. 

answered that if lie had service he would do it to save his life. And 
he also saith that to save his own life he would do service against 
his father. 

27th November, 1628. Francis Sandford deposeth, that all he 
knoweth concerning the prosecution against Phclim MacPheagli is, 
that there was one Edmund MacDonall this last assizes condemned 
at Wicklow who was afterwards saved, and as this examt. heard it 
was because the said Edmund could do some service against Phelim 
MacPheagh and his children in a plot, whereof Murrogh Baccagh 
had been the principal plotter, and as this examt. heard Sir Henry 
Bellings was a principal cause of his saving. 

Seventeenth Deponent. Grace Pont, widow, duly sworn and 
examined saith, that when Phelim MacPheagh's wife died, there 
was a report that she was not dead : wherefore the parish clerk and 
some others, the examt. being present, did dig open a grave, in the 
church of Kathdrum, where they found no body, and close by that 
digged another grave, where they found the body of the said Phelim's 
wife, and presently closed up the ground again, but by what warrant 
that was done she knoweth not. 

Twelfth Deponent. Teigo MacWalter being duly sworn and 
examined saith, that he was committed to prison some three weeks 
before Lammas Day past (1628) by one of William Graham's 
servants, where he hath ever since remained ; he saith that the 
occasion of his committal was an accusation made against him by 
one Dermot Toole and others, that he was privy to some concern 
between Phelim MacPheagh and his sons and Morrogh Baccagh. 
And the examt. affirmed that he neither knew the man, nor to his 
knowledge did at any time see him, saving, as he formerly declared 
to the Lord Deputy at his examination, that one time he had occa- 
sion to come into the house of Elizabeth ny Shane in Ballynecorr, 
where he saw a stranger unknown to him, together with the said 
Dermot and others. And the examt. demanding who it was, he 
was told by those who were present, that the said stranger was one 
of the sheriff's men ; but since this examt. hath heard that his 
accusers pretend that that stranger was Murrogh Baccagh, and 
other knowledge than that he hath none of him. He complaineth 
that since his restraint, he hath been very severely used, having 
been oppressed with grievous irons on his neck and legs, and having 
been kept five weeks in a dark dungeon, without fire or candlelight. 
By occasion of which hard terms wherein he stood, he saith that 
he was brought to that extremity, that he had purposed to say any- 
thing that would be demanded of him, and that he thinketh there 
is no man but would do so. 



APPENDIX. 321 

Ninth Deponent. Derniot O'Toole being duly sworn and 
examined saith, that some seventeen or eighteen weeks since, he 
was sent for by the Et. Hon. the Lord Deputy, whereupon he came 
and immediately presented himself before his lordship, at Avhich 
time he was committed upon false accusations, as he affirmeth, 
made against him of having knowledge of some concerns between 
Murrogh Baccagh and Phelim MacPheagh and his sons. And he 
saith that since his committal, he hath been solicited by Sir Henry 
Belling to do service against Phelim MacPheagh and his sons, in 
accusing thom to have had converse or dealings with Murrogh 
Baccagh, with promise that in recompense thereof he should be 
enlarged, and have his pardon, and that if he did not yield to do 
such service he should be lianged. He deposeth also that the said 
Sir Henry dealt with him in like manner with the like promises 
for accusing Phelim MacFeagh with the death of Mr. Pont. All 
which the examt. denied, being unable to accuse them thereof. 
He saith also that being examined before the Lord Deputy touching 
the said matters of Morrogh Baccagh and Mr. Pont, when this 
examt. did not declare anything in accusation of any man, the 
Lord Deputy wished him to choose whether of these three provosts- 
marshal he would be hanged by, viz. Mr. Bowen, Mr. Graham, or 
Sir Henry Bellings, whereunto this examt. answered that he was 
innocent of any crime and tlierefore hoped not to bo hanged by 
any man. 

Twenty-fourth Deponent. William Duffe McLaghlin being duly 
sworn and examined saith, that he was committed to prison twenty 
weeks since, whore he hath ever since remained, upon an accusation 
made against him by Dermot Toole, that the examt. had some con- 
federacy with Morrogh Baccagh whereof he is in no way guilty. He 
this examt. saith there was no reward or recompense offered him to 
accuse Phelim or his sons. 

Twenty-fifth Deponent. Morris O'Mulconry being duly sworn 
and examined saith, that about eight weeks since he was committed 
upon an accusation made against him (as he understandeth) by 
Gerald MacFerdorogh, who accuseth this examt. to have been a con- 
federate with Morrogh Baccagh. He saith that the examt. having 
been brought before the Lord Deputy and Mr. Serjeant Brereton to 
be examined, the Lord Deputy told this examt. that if he did not 
declare what he knew of the confederacy between Morrogh Baccagh 
and Phelim MacFeagh and his sons, that he, this examt., should be 
put into bolts. He saith also that some five or six years since he 
was in company with and assisting Hugh McPhelim when he appre- 
hended Shane Bane and Tirlogh Archbold, who were in rebellion, 

VOL. II. Y 



322 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

and brought them to the assizes at Wicklow, where they were exe- 
cuted. He saith also that Shane Bane was brother-in-hiw to 
tlie said Gerald MacFedoragh. He saith also that one Murrogh 
MacHugh, who as this examt, heard accuseth Phelira, is uncle to 
the said Shane, and that Tirlogh Archbold and Gerald's wife are 
cousins german. And he saith that Tirlogh Archbold is sister's 
son to Murrogh MacHugh. 

Thirty-sixth Deponent. May it please your Honours, — In 
accomplishment of your Lordships' warrant of the 21st of this 
month, I have made search for the causes against the persons 
named in the said warrant, and do find that Nicholas Nottery, one 
of the said persons, stands indicted of two several felonies, the ono 
being found against him at the assizes held at Wicklow, the 14th 
of August, 1G2G, for the felonious stealing of two cows, of the goods 
of one unknown, and the other at the assizes held in the same 
county, the 28th of March, 1G27, for the stealing of one garron, of 
the goods of one unknown. Also I find that Lysagh Duffe McLough- 
lin, another of the persons mentioned in the said warrant, was, at 
the last assizes held at Wicklow, condemned and adjudged for the 
felonious stealing of a horse, of the goods of Philip MacLaughlin, of 
Killorcloghernan. I find also that Gerald MacFerdoragh was bound 
over to the assizes, the 14th of March, 1G2G-7, for felony, viz. for the 
felonious stealing of a certain quantity of aqua vitte and other goods 
out of the dwelling-house of Phelim MacPlieagh, Esq., but was dis- 
charged the same sessions thereof, and bound to appear upon ten 
days' warning. It appeareth likewise that Edmoud Macl^onall 
Ena, another of the said parties, hath been twice indicted for 
several felonies in the same county, the first was for stealing ono 
horse and one mantle, of the goods of Thomas O'Murgho of Bally- 
ellan, which indictment still remains against him in the King's 
Bench, being returned thither by me upon a writ of certiorari ; and 
the other was for stealing of a cow, of the goods of William Murrogh, 
for which he was at the last assizes condemned and adjudged. I 
find also that Edmund MacDonogh Byrne, who is alleged to be 
Edmund Duffe mentioned in the warrant, was at the last assizes in 
Wicklow, condemned and judged for breaking a trunk of Mrs. Sara 
Wolferston's in Newcastle, and thereout one silver bowl and four 
pair of sheets value vii. lib. It likewise appeareth that Tiegue Mac- 
Walter at the assizes held the 19th of August, 1G23, was charged 
with the felonious stealing of one mare, of the goods of James Mac- 
Thomas of Koxagh ; but the bill being found ignoramus he was dis- 
charged the said sessions. And also I find that Dermot O'Toole, 
another of the said parties, was amongst others indicted at tbe 



APPENDIX. 323 

assizes held in the county of Kildare, the 2nd of March, 1G2G-7, for 
committing a burglary and stealing divers goods from Murrogh 
Smith, of Kill, and was afterwards acquitted thereof. 

And these be all the indictments and causes that I can find 
against the said parties. As for Shane Duffe MacTeige I find no 
indictment, which I humbly certify the 25th of November, 1G28. 
Copia vera. Per Henry Warren, Deputy Clerk of the Crown. 



Those who wish to read the whole of the depositions and many 
documents, including Lord Falkland's ' Apology,' relating to the 
O'Byrne case will find them in the appendix to Mr. Gilbert's last 
work before mentioned. They are far too voluminous to be inserted 
Jiere, but the above selection will give a fair outline of the whole. 
As I have already said, the original documents have nearly all been 
lost or destroyed, and we have nothing to rely upon for Phelim's case 
but the copies of his remonstrance and petition, and the copies of 
the depositions, many of them uncertified and none of them official, 
merely second, or perhaps third hand copies, made by some private 
person unknown, for his own purposes. They have no doubt a 
certain value, but a much less one than the official certified copies 
of depositions in the 1641-1654 collections, which Mr. Gilbert and 
others reject because they are official copies while accepting all the 
foregoing copies of copies in the O'Byrne's favour. 



T 2 



324 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1(S41. 



The Established Chukch. Tithes. 

(»', vol. i. p. 7<^.) 
Lord Deimty Chichester to Privy Council} 

May it please your Lordships, — I lately received your letter of 
the 20tli of last month, imparting the suhstanee of a declaration 
there made mito yoiu- Lordships concerning the order which I made 
a little before here in favour of the British undertakers and the rest 
of the inhabitants of the escheated lands in the province of Ulster, 
for non-payment of certain tithes in kind, together with certain 
directions for me how to demean myself in that business. Therein 
I have observed, that as the reporters endeavoured to possess your 
Lordships with an opinion that I stood not so well-affected on the 
Church's behalf as was expedient, so your Lordships are pleased to 
make a more benign and honourable construction of my doings or 
good intentions therein ; which I will lay up in a faithful remem- 
brance among the other manifold debts and obligations which 
I owe unto your good Lordships. 

But now by way of answer I may truly say this much of myself, 
that as I know it to be a service most pleasing to God and to the 
king our sovereign to have this poor Church of Ireland planted with 
ministers of the gospel, so the world will witness with me, I doubt 
not, that I have always cherished their profession, and done more 
for the same than for any other sort of men besides. And I have 
most commonly accommodated or applied the rule of justice unto 
all their occasions whensoever I saw it requisite. Yet it is an easy 
matter 1 know, and usual for persons who live here at their own 
ease, looking for awhile not beyond the exterior of some thing, to 
find fault in many things which they possibly cannot redress though 
they have power and liberty to make essay. If I had known that 
some had not been sufficiently satisfied here with my doings in that 
behalf, and that your Lordships had been pleased to take notice of 
the cause and the proceedings in that business, I would undoubtedly 

' Fhiladdplda Vaperst, vol. 2, p. 399, No. \7GA, Iiol/s House. 



APPENDIX. 325 

have given you the just account thereof, as now I must. I do con- 
fess it unto your Lordships that when I first heard it maintained by 
some of the prelates of Ulster here that by the project of plantation 
the titho-milk, among some other innovations, was due and payable 
to the ministers there, truly I held it a position more zealous and 
sharp than moderate and cautious, and I will here trouble your 
Lordships with these few reasons out of many more that might be 
truly alleged on that behalf. 

First, I knew by experience, and had heard, that this manner of 
tithing was not general in all the king's dominions, no more was it 
ever heard of or ever exacted in this realm until now. Besides, if 
your Lordships had a prospect of this country you would easily see 
that it never was possible for it to be otherwise than it is at this 
day, (divided) in parishes of great extent, without any townredes, or 
certain habitations of people generally (except what some of the new 
planters have lately made for themselves), and those also so broken 
in sunder many times with rivers, bogs, woods, and mountains as 
are not easily passable. 

Again, the ministers there are non resident for the most part, as 
having few churches in repair to serve God in, nor any houses to 
dwell in ; neither do they endeavour to build any. Yet neverthe- 
less, intending to still make their profits most among the Irish, 
who first felt and complained of this new tithing (and were thereto 
animated by some of the undertakers no doubt), they did farm their 
said tithe-milk unto certain kern, bailiffs-errant, and such like 
extortionate people, who, either by immoderate avarice or malice 
infused, did exact and take away the same rudely, to the extreme 
displeasure of the poor people, whose daily food and blood it is, and 
with like envy {i.e. prejudice) to the ministers of the gospel and their 
(Christian) profession. 

When I first heard of those violent courses, a}id how they were 
being taken, I thought it very doubtful whether that manner of 
tithing in kind before the people were persuaded to conformity 
could be fitly called a planting of religion, and an advancement of 
the (Protestant) church, as many do, and sure I am that whilst 
some of them (the clergy and their tithe collectors) strove incon- 
siderately to get those tithes into their hands they foresaw not the 
peril they engaged themselves and others in, for one minister was 
pitifully murdered with forty-four wounds about him for that cause, 
and another lay person was slain in defence of a mmister his master, 
and divers have been sought for, as I have formerly written unto 
your Lordships. 

Again, of late I have been advertised of other sundry outrages 



326 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

committed by priests and tlieir abettors against the ministers in 
other places ; also, so far hath hatred increased against them that 
there are some six or seven score people engaged in these villainies, 
•vvho have taken to the woods and mountains upon tlieir keeping in 
several parties. 

On the other hand, seminary priests and Jesuits, waiting upon 
doubtful chances and changes of time, are still ready to work on 
the ill-affected multitude, incensing them to entrap and oppress the 
ministers how they can ; insomuch that it is no more safe for them, 
especially in Ulster, to stray much abroad without guards and con- 
voys if they have occasion to travel. 

Soon after the first noise and advertisement of these things, 
there came unto me Captain Tirlogh, the son of Sir Arthur O'Neil, 
and Con McTurlogh O'Neil, two principal gentlemen of tlieir sept, 
one of the county of Tyrone, and the other of Armagh, expressly 
employed by the country to complain of this grievance they felt and 
to get redress, and on their own behalf also to show how one of 
them had been committed to prison, with many other men, by one 
Danson and others, the Lord Primate's officers (but without his 
Lordship's knowledge) for light causes to wring money out of 
them, etc. 

Now these things, and greater, being considered of, I will leave 
it to your Lordships' wisdom to judge whether it were not high 
time, and more necessary for me, to make some good provisions for 
the honour of this cause with moderation and justice, and for the 
safety of the whole ministry, than to please the avarice of the few, 
in things not to be accomplished without general displeasure and 
danger, as experience <lid teach. These things I meant not to 
reveal unto your Lordships at this time, but I have been urged to 
do so, and I herewith send you the copy of the order I made for the 
observance of a milder temper hereafter in tithing, by which it will 
appear that it is but temporary, and that, howsoever they may here- 
after be able to enjoy the benefit thereof, the church and clergy of 
Ulster is, at this day, far otherwise pro\idcd for than this king- 
dom hath over known before, an everlasting monument of his 
Majesty's bounty and beneficence. 

If I have erred in anything, I pray your Lordships to believe it 
proceeded of a good intention, and I will hereafter duteously observe 
your commandments in all things, as I am otherwise bound to do, 
in assurance whereof I will here cease, and humbly commit your 
Lordships to God's holy preservation. From his Majesty's castle 
oj Dublin, tJiis 22;uZ day of March, 1014, etc. 



ArrENDix. 327 



M. 

A DlSCOUESE CONCEUNING THE SETTLEMENT OF THE NATIVES 

IN Ulster, A.D. 1028.' 
{v. vol. i. p. 76.) 

All British undertakers, by the articles of the plantation of the 
l^rovince of Ulster, are bound to bring households out of England 
and Scotland to people their lands, which, unless they do, that can 
never bo a good plantation, and they will never do it, as long as they 
may keep an Irish native on their lands, for these reasons :— 

First, because the bringing of such famihes thither out of Eng- 
land and Scotland would be very chargeable unto them, as the 
natives will not be, being already found there. 

Secondly, because the undertakers are not wilHng to make 
estates for lives or years, as they must do to the British tenants, 
until such time as they have improved their lauds to as great a 
value as they can. 

Thirdly, because the Irish tenant is more servile than the 
British, will give more custom,^ and pay more rent. 

Now because that plantation can have no good progress, if the 
natives be still permitted to stay upon the British undertakers' 
lands, and that the forcing of the poor people from thence, before 
they are otherwise provided for, would breed an exceeding great 
clamour and confusion, if not a present rebelhon, it were fit that 
such a course were taken for them, that they themselves might, 
Avith all willingness, leave the lands of the British undertakers', 
which may be done in this manner. His Majesty hath given large 
scopes of land to— (1) the bishops of Ulster ; (2) the servitors ; 
(3) some of the natives ; none of which three sorts of men are to 
perform the same conditions as the British undertakers are, but 
may all retain the Irishry upon their lands ; nay, to say truth, 
their lands were chiefly given them to that purpose, and their lands 
> Carte MSS., vol. 30, pp. 53-58, Bodleian Librari/. 

2 By custom is meant the luicertain amount of butter, pigs, fowl, turf and 
manual labour which the Irish were willing to give in addition to money rent to 
Uic undertaker. 



328 THE IRISH massacres of igii. 

would, if not altogether, yet witliin very little, require as well those 
natives which are now upon them as the others which do not yet 
inhahit the British undertakers' proportions, if care be taken in the 
well disposing thereof amongst them, and no man have a larger 
scope assigned him than he can conveniently manure and stock. 
For the better performance of which service his Majesty may be 
pleased to give authority to certain discreet Commissioners, to whom 
both the country and people are well known, as well to view what 
lands are yet unplanted amongst the said bishops, servitors, and 
natives ; as to take notice what number of people are now unplaced 
and do live upon the British undertakers' lands. After which 
several surveys so made then and there, to have places assigned 
them by the said Commissioners, some of them greater, some of 
them lesser, according to every man's quality and means. And the 
natives, servitors, and bishops should be commanded expressly from 
his Majesty to admit the natives upon their lands so assigned to 
them by the said Commissioners, and to make them either leases 
thereof for years, or estates for lives, at sucli rents as are noAV 
reserved, or such as shall be thought reasonable by the Commis- 
sioners, for that plantation. Which when the people shall under- 
stand they are already so bitten with the tyranny of their landlords, 
the uncertainty of their abiding in any place, having no residence 
but at pleasure, and their expense and continual vexation in seeking 
new habitations, and fearing to lose their old, that they shall not 
need to be compelled to leave the British undertakers' lands, 
for they will go of themselves to their newly-assigned lands, 
whereof they may be assured to have estates. Or if any of them 
should be so senseless as to refuse so great a good, yet most of them 
will cheerfully embrace it, and such as are obstinate amongst them 
may then be compelled to leave the said lands, with more colour of 
justice, when there is care had for their settlement, rather than now 
to turn them from their habitations, before any provision be made 
for them, or course taken where they shall plant themselves. And 
because this will be a work of great pains and expense to the Com- 
niissionors that shall undertake it, whoso charge there is no reason 
his ]\[ajesty should defray, considering that it doth principally tend 
to the good of others. His Majesty therefore may be pleased to 
give directions, that the said Commissioners may require from the 
natives, that are to be settled as aforesaid, for every ballyboe, 
quarter, poll, or [illegible) of land, six shillings and eight pence, 
sterling, and so rateably for life, or greater proportions as they 
shall be estated in tliem, or if this shall seem too much, it may be 
left to the Commissioners of that plantation to appoint what reward 



APPENDIX. 329 

every native that is to be settled should give to the Commissioners 
that are to take the pains in it. It will be a work of great piety 
and honour for liis Majesty to command a settlement of the natives 
(by certainty of estates under the undertakers there, bishops, 
natives, and servitors), who have humbly and quietly submitted 
themselves and their possessions to be disposed of by his Majesty, 
whereby they are utterly destitute of all habitation or abode other 
than the will of others. It will be a means of bringing great profit 
to his Majesty, for, as now the case standeth, if all the natives of 
Ulster who have no lands should go into rebellion and be attainted, 
his Majesty nnist be at the charge to reduce them into obedience, 
and yet gam nothing by the attainder ; whereas if they were estated 
by long lease, or freehold for lives, his Majesty should have many 
forfeitures thereby, besides his usual revenues, as well in subsidies, 
as fines, amercements, the profits of (illegible) and other benefits of 
law proceedings, according to the course of England, which amongst 
those Irish can never be raised, as long as they live this vagrant 
and uncertain course of life. It will assure the peace of that 
country, for when they who had hitherto no places of residence, 
but were accustomed upon all occasions to run into rebellion with 
their lords, upon whom they did depend, shall by this settlement 
be drawn from them, and find the contentment of a civil life, they 
Avill then endeavour to improve their lands, increase their stocks, 
and get goods about them, Avhich upon any ill-attempt they will be 
loth to lose. His Majesty shall by this means be the author of that 
great Avork of uniting the English and Irish together, which yet 
could never be done, because they never live together as landlord 
and tenant either in perpetuity or long leases. It will be an 
assured means of peace and good order to reclaim that people to 
civility, religion, and obedience, which will be a work of greater 
glory to his Majesty than if he had brought a new people into their 
places. 

The ancient tyranny of liolding them in slavish tenancy-at-will 
shall be thereby removed, and the minds of the people set at liberty, 
which were heretofore burdened with the fear of being put out of 
their lands, which fear always made them follow their lords into all 
desperate and disloyal conspiracies. It is a matter of necessity for 
his Majesty's service in jiuies and other country occasions, in which 
case the service is now often supplied with tenants-at-will, and 
those such as are barbarous and unskilful, who must do as their 
lords command them, though against the known truth, which, 
though it be much complained of by the justice and justices, yet it 
cannot be remedied, the British undertakers and tenants being so 



330 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

few. By this course liis Majesty shall do that peaceably, and with 
comfort and prayers of the people, which hitherto could not be done 
nor carried, but with contention, clamour, and grave grievances, 
both of the British undertakers and the Irish inhabitants, if they 
are compelled to leave their lands, before they are in law provided 
for. By this remove of the Irish from the undertaker's lands, the 
great work of the plantation will be made perfect, which is to bring 
British inhabitants thither, and for which only end his Majesty 
gave away such large possessions for so small a value by the year. 
If his Majesty will endeavour a reformation in religion, that work 
will be of less difficulty when the people are gathered together into 
townships, and settled in separate parishes, whereby the minister 
may know his parishioners, and they him, by his having a residence 
amongst them, which, as long as they continue this wandering 
course of life, can never be done, but after the settlement it may not 
be doubted it will— for, to say the truth, most of the people are not 
unwilling to go to church if they might be so provided for — that 
they need not fear their lord's disfavour for so doing. 

Whosoever doth know Ulster and will deal truly with his 
Majesty must make this report of it ; that in the general appearance 
of it, it is yet no other than a very wilderness. For although in 
many of the proportions, I mean of all kmds, there is one small 
township, made by the undertakers which is all, yet, the proportions 
being wide and large, the habitation of all the province is scarce 
visible. For the Irish, of whom many toAvnships might be formed, 
do not dwell together in any orderly form, but wander with their 
cattle all the summer in the mountains, and all the winter in the 
woods. And until those Irish are settled, the English dare not live 
in those parts, for there is no safety either for their goods or lives, 
which is the main cause, though other reasons may be given, why 
they do not plentifully go thither, and cheerfully plant themselves 
in the province. 

At the time of the plantation many of the best blood of the 
people of that province were settled, yet for the most part they were 
such as in time of war had relation to this State, and for their 
inclining that way, neither had nor have any power with the Irish, 
to bring them into any civil order, though they should endeavour 
it. But there are others, some of them heads of Septs, some of 
them chief of creaghtes,^ and some principal followers to the rebellious 
lords, in whom alone the power of those lords consisted, and who 
did support them in their wars. For the lords themselves had little 

' V. vol. i. p. 314, for M. H. P. Here's description of the Ulster cre.ights of 
the 17tli century. 



APPENDIX. 331 

benefit out of their lands, and no goods at all, but those men en- 
joyed or at least commanded all there were, and are they which 
have power over the bodies of the people and can command their 
dependency on whom they please. And these men have no lands, 
but are left at large with their followers, who now, when they see 
the times fall out so contrary to their expectations, would willingly 
settle themselves, and for the good of the country it were requisite 
that they should. For by them the rest of the people shall be 
assured, for no stealth can be done but they know it, nor any mis- 
chief plotted but they can discover.it. Yet in this settlement their 
own dependants would be scattered from them, as much as may be, 
and others mingled among them. 

By this settlement the Irish gentlemen who had lands assigned 
them in the plantation shall be rid of their multitude of idle fol- 
lowers, which yet do hang upon them, of whom they have neither 
corn or money ; which is the cause that for their present relief 
given to these followers, they do sell away their lands by pieces, 
and so in a short time, all being sold, they will become rebels again. 
For nothing doth contain them so much in obedience as the cer- 
tainty of their estate. And therefore it was one of the greatest 
policies that ever his Majesty put in practice in this kingdom, when 
he granted his commissions for surrender and settling of the Irish 
in their ancient estates, as by a law letter he hath been graciously 
pleased to do for the poor inhabitants of Connaught. 

Lastly, both the habits, manners, and language of the English 
shall by this means be in time brought in amongst them, which, 
until it be done, they can never be a civil people, or any good ex- 
pected out of that province, notwithstanding the plantation as it 
now is. 



332 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 



LoEDS Justices to (no name given).^ 
(y. vol.i. p. 98.) 

The letter whereof you last wrote, that Sir Henry Vane would 
send us concerning the Lord Chancellor and Lord Lowther, is come, 
and therewith we have made pretty shift to work their quiet for a 
time and reasonahle hope it will so continue, we having in a good 
measure calmed hoth Houses towards them and yet not used the 
power given us, threatening a rough fit of disturhance. We have 
now sent over all the Acts required by the King's letter brought 
over by the Agents, and amongst the rest that of Connaught, 
wherein we have sent such necessary explanations as I hope with 
what we formerly sent will acquit us from betraying our Master's 
cause. We have also now agreed upon very earnest solicitation to 
send over an Act against Monopolies, and an Act to take away 
felony, for transportation of native commodities, and in that Act 
we have made the four towns of Dublin, Drogheda, Waterford, and 
Gal way subject to poundage wherefrom they were formerly freed 
by Parliament or Charter, and paid it only by imposition, as you 
may remember, which hath no ground of law, and this is a benefit 
to the king; on the other side we lose for the present 3 or 4,000Z. 
a year, which came to his Majesty by imposition and additions in 
the book of rates, which I confess was hard and I think cannot 
hold ; and besides we let loose a tie which we have on the merchants 
to bend them to reasonable impositions if the King will take that 
course. 

It is true the Act will be pleasing to the people and perhaps 
increase trade, which is good, only one thing I would wish to be 
added in the return which I durst not press here, which is, that as 
we have got poundage upon the four towns for these native com- 
modities, so I would have the same put in for importations specially 
in those four towns, and perhaps the desire of the rest will help that 
to pass with the other. 

Now, Sir, another thing I would have presently cared for, which 

' MSS. h'oUn House. 



APPENDIX. 333 

ia the matter of proxies of the lords now there, the names of whom 
I have sent unto you ; they have ordered here not to allow them 
voices unless proxies do come, and the King's licences also for their 
ahsence, which are to be entered here, and it is most necessary that 
they should have voices as things stand, the whole house being now 
swayed by Papists : specially if they take upon them judicature in 
causes capital, which I see the King is not willing to allow them, 
and if he can keep it from them is most necessary, though they 
seem resolved to have it, whether precedents can be found or no, 
which we yet cannot find, I pray you be careful in this : I have here 
sent you the names of the lords here to whom I wish the proxies 
distributed some more and some less. 

The most to come Ormond, Kerry, Thomond and Ards. 

The agents of the Byrnes are now gone or going over ; I pray be 
careful to prevent their designs, you know how it concerns the King 
and that country. They intend to reverse the whole plantation, 
which certainly will be a great mischief to the people, for they 
cannot be better settled both for accommodation and for rents and 
tenures. 

This kingdom is most fearfully robbed and harassed by the 
soldier in every part where they come. They go six or seven miles 
from their garrisons, and rob houses, take away all they meet with 
on the way, and do all the mischief that can be, we have not had a 
penny these four Aveeks to give them. There is no martial law to 
govern them, which they knowing do what they list. 

The people suffer much because they are Papists, wherein there 
is some mystery, but certainly no good to us : at least they 
waste many places and will bring a great destruction. I marvel 
they there do not send us some directions for the ' Queres.' The 
parliament do extremely press the Judges and they are like to be in 
an ill case, I beseech you urge some directions from thence with 
speed for it is a business of great moment. 

12th of May, 1G41. 

Endorsed .•—12 Mmj, 1641. 

Extract of a letter from the Lords Justices 
concerning the Chancellor and others impeached. 



334 TIIE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGll. 



0. 

Sm William Parsons to {name not givcn).^ 

I do hero inclosed send you another petition or declaration of 
the two Houses sent to his Majesty, which perhaps is delivered, 
for I hear the delivery of it is left to the discretion of their agents. 
By it you see with what vehemency and a kind of eager postulation 
they pressed for judicature, wherein his Majesty most wisely makes 
a stay. The danger threatened to the English and his Majesty's 
servants in allowing them judicature in capital causes doth daily 
more and more appear hero, and I douht not is foreseen there ; and 
therefore I assure myself, his Majesty will bo very weary in as- 
senting to it. First they have not precedents for it ; and secondly 
it is barred by an express law made in England in the first year of 
King Henry IV. and afterwards (amongst others, authorised, and 
confirmed as laws in Ireland) anno 10 Henry VII. c. 22. Besides if 
you please to look into the Statute Book of Ireland in a session of 
parliament held 11 BegincB ElizabethcB c. 1. you will find it there 
declared in parliament, that by occasion of Poyning's Act, this 
parliament could not make any ordinance, provision, or order, to 
bind this people but such as must be first certified into England, 
and returned hither ; whereupon some such things were done for 
that pai'liament only. And in another Act in another session of 
that parliament c. 8, they did esteem that Act a repeal of Poyning's 
Act, for so much but never to bo so dono again, whereby it is plain 
they then conceived that Poyning's Act had taken from them all 
immediate judicature, so as for his Majesty to grant that which 
can be used to no purpose but the prejudice of himself and his 
servants in this place (where they most need support) I submit to 
his high care. Touching the extenuations they seem to set forth 
for their two orders which we formerly sent unto you I forbear to 
give reply, the things being so plain in themselves only where they 

' MSS. Rolls House. 



APPEiNDIX. 335 

say their order for seven days' secresy wag not exclusive to the 
justices. It is most apparent it was, inasmucli as we could not 
have the copies in less than two days after demand and both 
Houses consultation which took up that time. 

Endorsed .-—12 Jubj, 1G41. 

Sir William Parsons 
out of Ireland touching 
Judicature and Poyning's 
Law. 



136 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 



P. 

ImsH Council to Vane, SOtli June, IGll.' 

(v. vol. i. p.'99.) 
(Extract.) 

Sir, — Since our last despatch to you of the seventh of this 
month, Colonel Belling (who brought us warrant from thence for 
exporting out of this kingdom one thousand soldiers of the new 
army lately disbanded here) departed hence with that regiment very 
quietly, although we are informed that there was great underhand 
labouring among the Priests, Friars, and Jesuits, to dissuade the 
disbanded soldiers from departing the kingdom, which also you 
may partly observe by the enclosed examinations. 

No other of the persons licenced to export those soldiers hence 
have as yet come unto us, but when any of them shall come we 
will give them such assistance therein as his Majesty's pleasure 
shall be obeyed. 

Upon receipt of your letters dated the eighth day of June last, 
we sent away our letters immediately to all the ports of the kingdom 
for seizing all Popish books that shall be there brought in, as also 
to inform us what books of that kind have been brought in and by 
whom within one year last past, what numbers of Jesuits, Friars, 
or Priests, have this last half year arrived here, and what numbers 
of the like or of soldiers who have had command abroad shall here- 
after arrive here. 

We lately received a petition in the name of the Archbishops, 
Bishops, and the rest of the clergy now assembled in this city of 
Dublin, and subscribed by two archbishops and sundry other 
bishops, wherein they complain that they see (with sorrow) in their 
several dioceses and places of residence a foreign jurisdiction 
publicly exercised, and swarms of Popish priests and friars openly 
professing themselves by their words and habits to the outdaring 
of the laws established, the infinite pressure of the subject, and 

' MSS. Rolls House 



APPENDIX. 337 

tlio vast cliargo and impovorishing of the whole kingdom, ag you 
may observe by a copy of their petition which wo send you here 
enclosed. 

Some of the archbishops and bishops have lately made known 
tinto us in writing under their hands (copies whereof we send you 
here enclosed) some particulars of the excess of Popery and the 
public and bold exercise of that foreign jurisdiction in their several 
dioceses. 

And seeing instead of that due obedience which the Popish pre- 
tended clergy ought to have rendered to the laws, they thus break 
out contrary to the laws into such insolencies and inordinate as- 
semblies, and innovation holding of public conventions, exercising 
publicly foreign jurisdiction, burdening his Majesty's subjects with 
the heavy weight of a double jurisdiction, and double payments to 
clergy, labouring to erect a dependence on the See of Eome, laying 
hold as you may see not only on the spiritual but also on the tem- 
poral power, extending in the consequences thereof as far as in 
them lies even to the violent rending out of his Majesty's hands a 
part of his royal authority, under which all his subjects do gather 
the blessed fruits of his justice and the safety of his protection, as 
from other evils so from all foreign jurisdictions, we may not be 
silent, it being very apparent that such bold and insolent beginnings 
may proceed to further and so general mischiefs as may prove the 
originals of dangerous alterations if they be not seasonably prevented. 
Whorcforo to acquit ourselves towards the duty wo owe to his 
Majesty and this government wherewith wo are entrusted, we 
humbly crave leave to acquaint his Majesty therewith, as a matter 
of high and important consideration which we humbly submit to 
his excellent justice. 

We have also lately received information from Drogheda that 
there is a house there for a nunnery opened with great charge, 
which is so spacious it hath four score windows of a side and is not 
yet finished but great expectation there is of it being so soon. 

We are informed likewise that of late there have been and are 
yet supposed to be in and about Dublin many hundreds of Jesuits, 
friars, and priests, which extraordinary convention of so many of 
them cannot be for any good purpose. And that in Whitsun-week 
last there was a very great assembly of them gathered together 
at the wood of Maynooth, within ten miles of tliis city, that divers 
gentlemen were solicited to meet at that assembly, and that some 
refused to bo there, which particulars also we humbly offer to his 
Majesty's royal consideration. 

We send you here enclosed a copy of a declaration and suppli- 

VOL. II. Z 



338 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

cation made to liis Majesty by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal 
and Commons in this Parliament assembled, dated the tenth day of 
this month. 

Notwithstanding his Majesty's letters dated the 28th of April 
last concerning the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Chief Justice of the 
Common Pleas, and others, the House of Commons on the nineteenth 
of this month ordered and appointed a Committee to prepare and 
draw up particular and several charges against those persons, and 
on the 22nd of this month ordered a Committee of the Commons 
house to have conference with a Committee of the Lords house 
concerning the manner of examination of witnesses upon oath, aa 
you may perceive by copies of both the said ordera liGrowith sent. 



APPKNUIX. 339 



Q. 

Parsons to Vane.^ 

{v. vol. i. p. 99.) 

Sir, — I lately wrote to you of several things sent by the running 
Ijost which I hope is come to your hands : amongst other things I 
wrote to you of the bill sent thither for repealing the two Acts of 
Queen Elizabeth concerning certain of our native commodities. 
Now you see it is become the suit of the whole kingdom, and there- 
fore now you may be confident to make the alteration which I there 
moved, for it will doubtless pass, which I take to be a very strong 
assurance of that part of his Majesty's revenue, which is the best 
he hath here, as it may be carried, and therefore I beseech you 
neglect it not. Yet as I then wrote, let not his Majesty suppose 
that the stay of that only will bring on the despatch of all his other 
business with the rest, if they come, for certainly they are much 
more greedily sot upon the Connaught act and the act of limitation 
for divers main ends, than on this. Therefore let all go, equali 
(jradu, which will make sure work. His Majesty runs hazard 
enough in passing those two acts admitting his revenue were in all 
the parts at the same time restored and settled ; and if those acts 
were passed without concurrence of his business, I dare say he shall 
not easily obtam anything afterwards to his advantage, either in 
this parliament or another. I know what I say, I dare say no more, 
only I beseech you disrespect not this caveat. 

We send you also the suit of parliament and reasons for stay of 
the men to be sent over seas. "We formerly wrote to you how the 
priests had laboured in that business. Now you see the strong in- 
fluence of those priests upon all public actions here, insomuch as 
they are able to guide the whole parliament (the Papists' votes 
being now strongest) to such a motion, quite cross to his Majesty's 
commands, which we often declared unto them, specially in a busi- 
ness which really is rather against than for the public peace and 
safety, and which few men of understanding are not so persuaded 
' MSS. Rolls House. 

% 2 



340 THE IRISH riassacres of lou. 

of save that thoy desire to keep as strong a party hero as they 
can for other ends, chiefly if anything touching religion or the 
government should be in earnest pressed upon them : herein his 
Majesty may please to let us have his resolution as soon as may be, 
for that though we make no stay of the men, but have given the 
colonel's warrant, and all the helps we can, yet this obstacle of 
parliament may much retard their despatch if his Majesty intend to 
Bend them. One thing in their reasons may be of some use, you see 
they speak in sheAv of disaffection to the king of Spain, whom in- 
wardly they too much honour. This may be so placed in the ears 
and apprehension of the ambassadors and others of the Spanish 
side there, as may gain so ill a relish of that people against these 
priests and their proselytes, as may have an operation for good in 
the intercourse between Spain and them, and a sense of these men's 
ill nature and ingratitude, whose youth for matter of nurture in 
religion and other ways have had great and favourable acceptations in 
Spain, in their colleges and elsewhere. 

We have with much ado drawn the parliament now to agree 
upon a bill for assuring a revenue out of the tobacco of Gd. upon the 
pound or 9d. if his Majesty will have it so. They liavo not yet pre- 
sented to us the bill, when they do we will be as careful as we can, 
that it shall contain all the means both of punishment and other 
provisions to prevent frauds and keep up that revenue : a profit well 
gained upon so paltry and needless a thing. I formerly also wrote 
unto you of the queres which have been voted in the Commons 
house and now remain with the Lords. They were once there 
ordered to stay till next session, now by plurality of votes of the 
Papist party and much urgency of some of the Commons are again 
there in agitation and like to pass. They contain very dangerous 
matter both against the government in general and all the English 
here, whereof I can but give you notice, being the office of your poor 

watchman and 

most humble servant, 

8 Ang. 1G41. W. Paksons. 

Mr. Secretary Vane. 

Endorsed : — ' From the Lord Justice 

Parsons. 8 Augtist, 1G41. 

For yourself.' 

The passage in the above letter referring to the Connaught Act 
and the ' Grace ' limiting the king's title, seems unquestionably to 
show that there was some secret design between Parsons and the 
king to, at least, delay the latter until the Irish session was over. 



AITENDIX. 341 



(y. vol. i. p. 105.) 

The IIelation of the Lord Maquire written with his own 
Hand in the Tower, and delivered by him to Sir 
John Conyers, then Lieutenant, to present to the 
Lords in Parliament. 

Being in Dublin, Candlemas term last was a twelvemonth, 
(1G40) the parhament then sitting, Mr. Eoger Moore did write to 
mo desiring mo that if I could in that spare time, I would come to 
his house, for there the parliament did nothing but sit and adjourn, 
expecting a commission for that continuance thereof, their former 
commission being expired, and that some things he had to say mito 
me that did nearly concern me. And on receipt of his letter the 
new Commission for continuing the parliament landed, I did return 
him an answer that I could not fulfil his request for that present, 
and thereupon he himself came to town presently after, and 
sending to me, I went to see him at his lodging. After some 
little time spent in salutations, he began to discourse of the many 
afflictions and sufferings of the natives of this kingdom, and parti- 
cularly in those late times of my Lord Strafford's Government, 
which gave distaste to the whole kingdom. And then he began to 
particularise the sufferings of them that were the more ancient 
natives, as were the Irish ; how that on several plantations they 
were all put out of their ancestor's estates. All which sufferings, 
he said, did beget a general discontent over all the whole kingdom, 
ill both tlie natives to wit, the old and new Irish. And that if the 
gentry of the kingdom were disposed to free themselves furtherly 
from the like inconvenience, and get good conditions for themselves 
for regaining their ancestor's estates, they could never desire a 
more convenient time than that time, the distempers of Scotland 
being then on foot, and did ask me Avliat I thought of it. I made 
him answer I could not tell what to think of it ; such matters being 
altogether out of my element. Then he would needs have an Oath 
of Secresy from me, which I gave him, and tliereupon he told me 



342 THE IRISH MASSACl^ES OF 1041. 

that he spoke to the beat gentry of quality in Leinster, and a great 
part of Connaught, touching that matter, and he found all of them 
willing thereunto, if so be they could draw to them the gentry of 
Ulster, for which cause, said he, I came to speak to you. Then he 
began to lay down to me the case that I was in there, overwhelmed 
in debt, the smallnesa of my now estate, the greatness of the estate 
my ancestors had, and how I should be sure to get it again, or at 
least a good part thereof, and moreover how the welfare and main- 
taining of the Catholic religion, which he said the parliament of 
England will now undoubtedly suppress, doth depend on it. For 
said he, it is to be feared and so much I hear from every under- 
standing man, the parliament intends the utter subversion of our 
religion, by which persuasions he obtained my consent. And so he 
demanded, whether any more of the Ulster gentry were in town, I 
told him that ThiUp Reilly, Mr. Turlogh O'Neil, brother to Sir 
Phelim, and Mr. Costello MacMahon were in town, so for that time 
we parted. The next day he invited me and Mr. Reilly to dine 
with him, and after dinner he sent for those other gentlemen, Mr. 
Neil and Mr. MacMahon, and when they were come he began the 
discourse formerly used to me to them, and with the same persua- 
sions he obtained their consent. And then he began to discourse of 
the matter, how it ought to be done, of the feasibility and easiness 
of the attempt considering how matters then stood in England, the 
troiiblea of Scotland ; the great numbers of able men in Ireland, 
what succours there were (more then) to hope for from abroad and 
the army then raised, all Irishmen, and well armed, meaning the 
army raised by my Lord Strafford against Scotland. First, that 
everyone should endeavour to draw his own friends into that act, 
and at least those that did live in one county with them, and when 
they had done so to send to the Irish in the Low Countries and 
Spain, to let them know of the day and resolution, so that they be 
over with them by that day, or as soon after with a supply of arms 
and ammunition, as they could : that there should be a set day 
appointed, and everyone in his own quarter should rise out that day, 
and seize on all the arms he could get in his county and this day to 
be near winter so that England could not send forces into Ireland 
before May, and by that time there was no doubt to be made but 
that they themselves should be supplied by the Irish beyond seas, 
who he said could not fail of help from either Spain or the Pope, 
but that his resolutions were not in all things allowed. For first it 
was resolved that nothing should be done until they had first sent 
to the Irish over seas to know their advice, and what hope of success 
they could give; for in them, as they said, all their hope of relief 



ArpENPix. 343 

was, and they would have both their advice and rcsohition beforo 
any further proceedings more than to apeak to and try gentlemen of 
the kingdom everyone, as thoy could conveniently, to see, in case 
they would at any time grow to a resolution, what to be, and what 
strength they must trust to. Then Mr. ]\Ioore told them that it was 
to no purpose to spend much time in speaking to the gentry. For 
there was no doubt to be made of the Irish, that they would be 
ready at any time. But that all the doubt was in the gentry of the 
Pale, but he said that for his own part he was well assured that 
when tlicy had risen out, the gentry of the Palo would not stay 
(quiet) long after, at least that they would not oppose the Irish in 
anything, but be neuters, and if in case they did, that the Irish liad 
men enough in the kingdom without them. Moreover he said he 
had spoke to a great man (who then should be nameless) that would 
not fail at the appointed day of rising out to appear and to be seen 
in the Act. But that until then, he was sworn not. to reveal him ; 
and that was all that was done at that meeting, only that Mr. Mooro 
should at the next Lent following make a journey down into the 
north, to know what was done there, and that he also might inform 
them what he had done, and so on parting Mr. Philip Keilly and I 
did importune Mr. Moore for the knowledge of that great man that 
he spake of, and on long entreaty, after binding us to new secresy, 
not to discover him until the day should be appointed, he told that 
it was the Lord of Mayo, who was very powerful in command of 
men in those parts of Connaught where he lived, and that there 
was no doubt to be made of him, no more than of himself, and so 
we parted. 

The next Lent following, Mr. Moore, according to his promise, 
came into Ulster, by reason it was the time of assizes in several 
counties ; there he met only with Mr. Eeilly, and nothing was then 
done, but all matters put off till May following, when we or most 
of us should meet in Dublin, it being both parliament and term 
time. In the meantime there landed one Neil O'Neil, sent by the 
Earl of Tyrone out of Spain, to speak with the gentry of his name 
and kindred, to let them know that he had treated with Cardinal 
Eichelieu for obtaining succour to come to Ireland, and that he only 
expected a convenient time to come away, and to desire them to be 
in readiness and to procure all others whom they could to be so 
likewise, which message did set on those proceedings very much, so 
that Mr. Moore, Mr. Keilly, my brother and I, meeting the next 
May at Dublin and the same messenger there too, it was resolved 
that he should return to the Earl into Spain with their resolution, 
which was, that they would rise out twelve or fourteen days beforo 



3^4 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1011. 

or after All Hallowticle, as they should see cause, and that he 
should not fail to be with them by that time. There was a report 
at that time and before, that the Earl of Tyrone was killed, which 
was not believed, by reason of many such reports formerly which 
we found to be false, and so the messenger departed with directions, 
that if the Earl's death were true he should repair into the Low 
Countries unto Colonel Owen O'Neil, and acquaint him with hig 
commission from the Earl, whereof it was thought he was not igno- 
rant and to return an answer sent by him and to see what he 
would advise or do himself therein. But presently after the mes- 
senger's departure, the certainty of the Earl's death was known, and 
on further resolution it was agreed that an express messenger should 
be sent to the colonel to make all the resolutions known to him, and 
to return speedily with his answer. And so one Toole O'Connolly, 
a priest, (parish priest as I think to Mr. Moore) was sent away to 
Colonel O'Neil. In the interim there came several news and letters 
and news out of England to Dublin of proclamation against the 
Catholics in England, and also that the army raised in Ireland 
should be disbanded and conveyed into Scotland. And presently 
after several colonels and captains landed with directions to carry 
away those men, amongst whom Colonel Plunket, Colonel Byrne, 
and Colonel Bryan O'Neil came, but did not all come together, for 
Plunkett landed before my coming out of town and the other two 
after ; whereon a great fear of the suppressing of our religion was 
conceived and especially by the gentry of the Pale, and it was very 
common amongst them that it would be very inconvenient to suffer 
so many men to be conveyed out of the kingdom, it being as was 
said very confidently reported, that the Scottish army did threaten 
never to lay down arms until an uniformity of religion were in the 
three kingdoms and the Catholic religion suppressed. And there- 
upon both Houses of Parliament began to oppose their going and 
the Houses were divided in their opinion, some would have them to 
go, others not, but what the definite conclusion of tlie Houses was 
touching the point I cannot tell, for by leave of the House of Lords 
I departed the county before the prorogation. But before my 
departure I was informed by one John Barnewall, a friar, that those 
gentlemen of the Pale and some other members of the House of 
Commons had several meetings and consultations, how they might 
make stay of the soldiers in the kingdom, and likewise to arm them 
in defence of the king, being much injured both of England and 
Scotland then, as they were informed, and to prevent any attempt 
against religion : presently after I departed into the country, and 
Mr. Reilly being a member of the House of Commons stayed for 



APPENDIX. 345 

tlio prorogation, and on his coming into the country sent for me to 
meet him. I came to his house, when he told me for certain that 
the former narration of Barnewall to me was true, and that ho 
heard it from several there ; also Ever MacMahon made firmly 
privy to all our proceedings at Mr. Ecilly's was come lately out of 
the Pale, Avhere he met with the aforesaid John Barnewall, who 
told him as much as he formerly told me and said, moreover, that 
those Colonels that lately came over did proffer their service and 
industry in that act, and so would raise their men, under colour to 
convey them into Spain and then seize on Dublin Castle, and with 
the arms therein arm the soldiers, and have them ready for any 
occasion that should be commanded them ; but that they had not 
concluded anything, because they were not assured how the gentle- 
men m the remote parts of the kingdom and especially Ulster 
would stand affected to that act, and the assurance of that doubt 
was all their impediment. Then we three began to thmk how we 
might assure them help and the assistance of Ulster gentlemen. It 
was thought that one should be sent to them to acquaint them 
therewith, and they made choice of me to go by reason they said 
that my wife was allied to them and their countrywoman and they 
would believe and trust me sooner than others of the party, they or 
most of them being of the Pale. And so without as much as to 
return home to furnish myself for the journey nolens volens they 
prevailed or rather forced me to come to Dublin to confer with 
those Colonels, that was the last August twelvemonth. 

Commg to town I met Sir James Dillon accidentally before I 
came to my lodging, who was one of those Colonels ; and after 
salutations lie demanded of me where my lodging was, which when 
I told him we parted. The next day beuig abroad about some 
other occasions in town, I met him as he said coming to wait on 
me in my chamber, but being a good way from it he wished me to 
go into his own chamber, being near at hand. And then he began 
to discourse of the present sufferings and afflictions of this kingdom, 
and particularly of religion, and how they were to expect no redress, 
the Parliament in England intending, and the Scots resolving, 
never to lay down arms until the Catholic religion was suppressed. 
Then he likewise began to lay down what danger it would be to 
suffer so many able men as were to go with them to depart the 
kingdom at such a time. * Neither,' said he, ' do the other gentlemen 
that are Colonels and myself affect our own private profit, so as to 
prefer it before the general good of the kingdom, and Imowing you 
are well affected thereunto, and I hope ' (said he) ' ready to put 
your helping hand to it upon occasion, I will let you know the 



346 THE fRISn MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

resolution of those other gentlemen and mine, which is, if we are 
ready, to raise our men and then to seize on the castle, where there 
is great store of arms, and to arm ourselves.' This was the first 
motion that ever I heard of taking the castle ; for it never came 
into our thoughts formerly, nor am I persuaded ever would if it 
had not proceeded from those Colonels, who were the first motioners 
and contrivers thereof for aught known to me, and then, to be 
ready to prevent and resist any danger, that the gentlemen of the 
kingdom like thereof, and help us, for we ourselves are neither able 
nor willing to do anything therein without their assistance. I 
began, according to the directions that were sent to me, to approve 
of their resolution and also to let him know how sure he might bo 
of the assistance of those of Ulster. Then he told us that for my 
more satisfaction I should confer with the rest of the Colonels 
themselves as many as were privy to the action, and accordingly a 
place of meeting was appointed that afternoon, and at the time and 
place appointed there met Sir James himself. Colonel Byrne, and 
Colonel Plunket. And that former discourse being renewed they 
began to lay down the obstacles to that enterprise and how they 
should be redressed. First, if there should war ensue how there 
should be money found to pay the soldiers, secondly, how and 
where they should procure succour from foreign parts, thirdly, how 
to draw in the Pale gentlemen, fourthly, who should undertake to 
Bui-prise the castle and how it should be done. To the first it was 
answered, that the rents in the kingdom everywhere, not having 
any respect whose they should be, due to the Lords and gentlemen 
thereof, should be collected to pay the soldiers. And moreover 
they might be sure, nay, there was no doubt thereof, to procure 
money from the Pope, who gave several promises formerly to my 
Lord of Tyrone (in case he could make way to come into Ireland) 
to maintain six thousand men yearly at his own charge, and that 
notwithstanding my Lord of Tyrone was dead, yet that he the Pope 
would continue the same forwardness now. To the second it was 
answered by Colonel Byrne that help from abroad could not fail 
them, ' For,' said he, ' Colonel O'Neil told me that he had or would 
procure in readiness, I do not remember which, arms for 10,000 
men. And moreover,' said he, ' I make no great question that if 
we send into Spain we shall not misa of aid, for I being in London 
the last year in the Scots troubles, I was in conference with one of 
the Spanish Ambassadors there then, and talking of their troubles 
then afoot he said, that if the L'ish did then rise too their messengers 
would be received under canopies of gold.' These last words he 
told me and some one man of those that were present privately, 



APPENDIX. 347 

■whose name I cannot call to mind, neither do I well remember 
whether he spoke to them all or no, that it was thought when they 
were both in arms for the Catholic cause they would be succoured 
by the Catholic princes of Christendom. To the third, it was 
answered by Colonel Plunket, that he was as morally certain 
(those were his words) as he could be of anything, that the gentlemen 
of the Pale would join with and assist them, ' For,' he said, ' I have 
spoke to several of them since my landing in this kingdom and 
I find them very ready and willing, and I have at London spoke to 
some of the Committees, and particularly to my Lord of Gormanston, 
to let them know his resolution and they approved it very well.' 
AH this was not done at the first meeting but at three or four 
meetings. And at the last meeting it was resolved to the last 
doubt touching seizing the castle that Colonel Plunket and Colonel 
Byrne should undertake that task, because they were nearer to it 
than any other, and also seize on the forts, garrisons, and other 
places, where they think any arms should be, and in particular at 
Londonderry, which should be undertaken by those of Ulster, and 
then there was a set day appointed for the execution thereof, that 
was the 6th of October ensuing (it being then the latter end of 
August, or the beginning of September, 1G41, I do not Imow 
whether). And everyone should make provision to rise out that 
day and those were named that should first succour them, that 
would take the castle with men presently, namely Sir James Dillon, 
who did undertake to be with them in three or at the most four 
days with a thousand men and as much more should come to them 
out of the north. For these two Colonels did not intend to use 
above a hundred men in the surprisal, whereof they were to have 
twenty good able gentlemen, for they made account, that having 
the castle, they with the artillery would master all the town, until 
they were relieved by men from the country. And because there 
was a doubt made how all this should be done in so short a time, 
they did appoint that all that were there present should not fail to 
meet again there on the 20th of September, to give an account of 
all things, hopes as well as impediments. And if on that interview 
all things should happen to be well, that they go forward, if other- 
wise that they prolong the execution of it to a more convenient 
time, and so we parted, every man into the country about his own 
task. 

And I in my way home came to Mr. Eeilly's house and there 
I received a letter from Sir Plielim O'Neil that his lady was dead 
and to be buried on the Sunday following, this being on the Saturday, 
and desiring me in all kindness to come to the burial, and Mr. Eeilly 



348 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

having received another letter to the same efifect would needs have 
me go thither (whereunto I was very unwilling, being weary and 
withal not provided to go to such a meeting), as well said he to 
prevent any jealousy from the Lady's friends as also to confer with 
Sir Phelim touching all those proceedings, for neither he, Mv. 
Reilly, nor I spoke to Sir Phelim concerning the matters before, 
but to his brother Turlogh O'Neil. And coming thither we found 
Captain Brian O'Neil lately come out of the Low Countries, sent 
over by Colonel O'Neil to speak to and provoke those of Ulster to 
rise in arms and that he would be with them on notice of their day 
the same day or soon after it. And it was asked tlie said Captain 
what aid he could send or procure being but a private Colonel, or 
where he could get any. He replied, that the said Colonel O'Neil 
told him he had sent to several places that summer to demand aid, 
and in particular to Cardinal Richelieu into France, to whom he 
had sent twice that year and had comfortable and very hopeful 
promises from them, and especially from the Cardinal, on whom he 
thought the Colonel did most depend ; so that there was no doubt 
to be made of succour from him, and especially when they had 
risen out, that would be a means to make the Cardinal give aid. 
We did the more credit him in regard of the former treaty between 
the said Cardinal and the Earl of Tyrone as formerly is said. 

For my own part I did and do believe that Colonel O'Neil doth 
depend on France for aid more than on any other place, as well for 
those reasons, as also that Ever MacMahon formerly mentioned told 
me that presently after the Isle of Rh^'s enterprise, he, being then 
in the Low Country, did hear for certain, that the Earl of Tyrone 
together with the Colonel did send unto France to the Marshal of 
France, that was general of the French forces at the Isle of Rh6, to 
deal with him for procuring of aid to come then for Ireland, and 
that he received an answer from the said Marshal, that lieAvas most 
willing and ready to contribute his endeavours for his furtherance 
therein, but that he could not for the present answer my Lord's ex- 
pectations, by reason that the king had wars in Italy which ho 
tliought would be at an end Avithin half a year or little more, and then 
my Lord should not doubt of anything that he could do for his assist- 
ance, but these wars continued a great deal longer, so for that time 
the enterprise failed. So after the burial was done, I gave those 
gentlemen knowledge of what I had done in Dublin and how I was 
to return thither, and then they began to think how they should 
surprise Londonderry, they being near it, but could not then agree 
in the manner ; so Sir Phelim desired me to take his house in my 
way going to Dublin and that I should have a resolution to carry 



APPENDIX. 349 

with mo touching Londonderry, and thereon I parted home, but 
soon after came to DuhHn to the before appointed meeting of the 
Colonela. But first, I took on my way Sir Phehm O'Neil's house to 
be certain what he had done, and his answer was, that he knew the 
matter could not be put into execution by the 5th of October, as 
was appointed, and that they must make another longer day for it, 
and that he would provide for the taking of Londonderry by that 
day, and so I came to Dublin to give an account of what was done 
and also to know what further should be done. I was not two 
hours in my lodging when Mr, Moore came to mo, who knew what 
was done formerly by those Colonels from Colonel Byrne, and told 
me that the messenger sent by Colonel O'Neil was come with an 
answer, desiring us not to delay any time in rising out, and to let 
him know of that day beforehand, and that he would not fail to bo 
with us within fourteen days of that day with good aid ; also desiring 
us by any means to seize the castle of Dublin, if we could, for he 
heard that there was great provision in it for war. And Mr. Moore 
moreover said that time was not to be overslipped, and desired me 
to be very pressing with the Colonels to go on in their resolution, 
but on meeting the Colonels I found they were fallen from their 
resolution, because those of the Pale would do nothing therein first, 
but when it was done they would not fail to assist us Colonel 
Plunket did afiirm, and so by several meetings it was resolved on by 
them to desist from that enterprise for that time, and to expect a 
more convenient time. But before that their resolution. Sir Phelim 
O'Neil and the aforesaid Captain Bryan O'Neil followed me to 
Dublin, as they said to assist and advise me how to proceed with 
Colonel Plunket, but neither they nor Mr. Moore would be seen 
therein themselves, but would meet me privately and ask me what 
what was done at every meeting, alleging for excuse that I being 
first employed in that matter, it would not be expedient that they 
should be seen in it. And moreover they would not be known to bo 
in tho town, but by n few of their friends, until they were ready to 
depart from it, at least as long as I was in town, for I left them 
there. But when I made them acquainted with their determination 
of desisting from that enterprise they thought it convenient that we 
should meet with Mr. Moore and Colonel Byrne to see what was 
further to be done concerning the further intention of their own, 
and accordingly we did send to them that they should meet us, and 
at that meeting there was only Sir Phelim, Mr. Moore, Colonel 
Byrne, Captain Neil and myself. After a long debate it was resolved 
that we, with all those that were of our faction, should go on with 
that determination that was formerly made to rise out. Moreover 



350 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

it was determined to seize on the castle as the Colonels purposed, 
for if it were not for tlieir project and the advice sent by Colonel 
Neil, we would never venture to surprise it, neither was it ever thought 
on in all the meetings and resolutions between us, before those 
Colonels did resolve on it ; but by reason that the other gentlemen 
that were privy to these proceedings were not present, the certainty 
of the time and the manner how to execute it, was put off to a 
further meeting in the country ; and this was resolved in Dublin 
upon the Sunday at night, being the 2Gth or 27th of September, and 
the meeting was appointed on the Saturday following at MacGallogh 
(sic) MacMahon's house at Farney in the county Monaghan. And 
thereupon we all left the town, only Sir Phelira stayed about some one 
of his private occasions, but did assure his being there at that day, 
and by reason of that at that meeting the gentry of Leinster could not 
be, considering the remoteness of the place from them, it was thought 
fit that Mr. Moore should there wait to receive their final resolution 
and should acquaint the rest therewith. And in the meantime 
Colonel Byrne who had undertaken for Colonel Plunlcct should 
inform them of all the intention conceived, and dispose them in 
readiness against the day that should be appointed. 

On Saturday I came to Mr. MacMahon's house ; there met only 
Mr. MacMahon himself. Captain Neil, Ever MacMahon and myself, 
and thither that same day came the messenger that was sent to 
Colonel Neil and did report the Colonel's answer and advice verbatim 
as I have formerly repeated from Mr. Moore, and by reason that Sir 
Phelim, his brother, or Mr. Phillip Keilly, that were desix*ed to meet, 
did not meet, we stayed that night to expect them, and that night 
I received a letter from Sir Phelim entreating us not by any means 
to expect him until the Monday following, for he had some occasions 
to dispatch concerning himself, but whatever became of them he 
would not fail on the Monday. And the next day after the receipt 
of the letter being Sunday (by Mr. Moore's advice) we departed from 
Colonel MacMahon's house (to prevent, as he said, the suspicion of 
the English, there many living near) to Loghrosse (sic) in the county 
of Armagh to Mr. Turlogh O'Neil's house, not Sir Phelim's brother, 
but son to Mr. Henry O'Neil of the Fewes, son-in-law to Mr. Moore, 
and left word that if Sir Phelim or any of those gentlemen did come 
in the meantime they should follow us thither, whither only went 
Mr. Moore, Captain O'Neil and myself, and there we expected until 
the Tuesday subsequent before any of those did come. On the 
Tuesday came Sir Phelim and Ever MacMahon, all the rest failing 
to come ; Mr. MacMahon's wife was dead the night before, whicli 
was the cause that he was not there, but I gave his assent to 



APPENDIX. 351 

what should bo concluded to therein and his promise to execute 
what should bo appointed him ; and then we five, viz. Sir Phelim, 
Mr. Moore, Captain O'Neil, Ever MacMahon and myself, assuring 
ourselves, that those gentlemen absent should both allow and join 
to what we should determine, did grow into a final resolution, 
grounding all or the most part of our hope and confidence on the 
succours from Colonel O'Neil to seize on the castle and rise out all in 
one day, and the day was appointed on the 23rd of that month, it 
being then the Cth day of October, having regard therein to the day 
of the week on which the 28rd did fall, which was Saturday, being 
the market day, so that there would bo less notice of people up and 
down the streets. Then began a question who should be deputed 
for the surprisal of the castle, and then Mr. Moore said he would be 
one of them himself and that Colonel Byrne should be another, and 
what other gentlemen of Leinster they could procure to join with 
them, and seeing the castle had two gates, the one the great, the 
other the little gate, going down to my Lord Lieutenant's stables, 
hard by which stables without the castle was the store-house for 
arms ; they of Leinster were to undertake one gate and that should 
be the little gate, and the great gate should be undertaken by those 
of Ulster, and said he, ' of necessity one of you both,' meaning Sir 
Phelim and mo, ' must bo there, for the mere countenance of the 
matter, it being the glory of all our proceeduigs,' and this speech 
was liked by all then present. But Sir Phelim wished to be ex- 
empted from that employment and so did I, but then all of them set 
on me, desiring me to be one, alleging for reason, that their pro- 
ceedings and resolutions were very honourable and glorious, it being 
for religion and for to procure more liberty to their country, as did 
they said those of Scotland of late, and that in taking the castle 
consisted all the glory and honour of the said act, all which should 
be attributed to them employed therein, and so in consequence, all or 
most part to be there, being as they said the chiefin that enterprise. 
And moreover Sir Phelim said that lie would endeavour to take or 
to procure others to take Londonderry the same day, and if he 
should be away that place would not be taken ; with these and 
many other persuasions they obtained my consent, and then the 
Captain offered himself. They then began to think what number 
should be employed in that act, and they concluded two hundred 
men, one hundred from each province for those gates which they 
seized on, of which number Sir Phelim should send forty, with an able 
sufficient gentleman to conduct them. And likewise Captain Neil 
twenty, Mr. MacMahon and Mr. Eeillyten more, and I should bring 
twenty-two. Then began a doubt how they should raise those men 



352 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

and convey them to Dublin without suspicion, and it was answered 
that under pretence of carrying them to those Colonels that were 
conveying soldiers into the kingdom it might be safely done, and to 
that purpose Sir Phelim O'Neil, Mr. Moore, and the Captain had 
several blank patents to make Captains, sent to those Colonels which 
they sent to those that were to send men to Dublin for the more 
colour they bethought them of what was to be done in the country 
that day ; and it was resolved that every one privy to that matter in 
every part of the kingdom should rise up that day, and seize on all 
the forts and arms in the several counties, to make all the gentry 
prisoners, the more to assure themselves against any adverse for- 
tune, and not to kill any but where of necessity they were forced 
to do so by opposition, and that rule those that were appointed for 
the taking of Dublin Castle should observe and in particular the 
gentry. All their army in Ulster were that day to take London- 
derry, which Sir Phelim did undertake, and Knockfergus, which 
they thought Sir Henry MacO'Neil would do, and to that end 
Sir Phelim's brother Turlogh should be sent to him, and the 
Newry was to be taken by Sir Con ]\Iagennis and his brothers, 
for whom Sir Phelim, in regard they wore his brothers-in-law, hia 
deceased lady being their sister, did undertake. Moreover it was 
agreed, that Sir Phelim, Mr. Reilly, Mr. Coll MacMahon, and my 
brother should with all the speed they could after that day raise 
all the forces they could and follow us to Dublin to arm the men 
and succour and attend and garrison the town and castle. And 
likewise that Mr. Moore should appoint Leinster gentlemen to send 
a like supply of men. Then there was a fear conceived of the Scots 
that they should oppose us, and that would make the matter more 
difficult, to avoid which danger it was resolved not to meddle with 
them or anything belonging to them and to demean ourselves 
towards them as if they were of ourselves, which we thought would 
pacify them from any opposition. And if the Scots would not 
accept of that offer of amity and would oppose us there was a good 
hope to cause a stir in Scotland that might divert them from us. I 
believe the ground for that hope was that two years before in or 
about the beginning of the Scots' troubles my Lord of Tyrone sent 
one Turlogh O'Neil, a priest, out of Spain, and that this, I take it, 
was the time that he was in treaty with Cardinal Richelieu to my 
Lord of Argyle, to treat with him for help from my Lord, for him to 
come into Ireland as was said for marriage between the said Earl 
and my Lord of Argyle's daughter or sister I know not which, and 
this messenger was in Ireland, with whom Mr. Turlogh O'Neil, 
Sir Phelim's brother, had conference, from whom this relation was 



APPENDIX. 353 

had. That said messenger went into Scotland, as I did hear from 
the said Mr. Neil or from Ever MacMahon before named, I know 
not from which of them, but what he did there I never could hear 
by reason that my Lord of Tyrone was presently after killed. They 
were the more confirmed in this hope hearing that my Lord of 
Argyle did say (near to the same time as I guess and when the 
army was raised in Ireland as I think) to a great lady in Scotland, 
I know not her name, but did hear that she was much em- 
barqued in the troubles of that kingdom, when she questioned how 
tlicy the Scots coiild subsist against the two kingdoms of England 
and Ireland, that if the king did endeavour to stir Ireland against 
them, he would kindle such a fire in Ireland as would hardly ever 
be quenched. And moreover they, the Irish, knew my Lord of 
Argyle to be powerful with the Highlander Eedshanks in Scotland, 
whom they thought would be prone and ready to such actions ; they 
the Highlander Redshanks being for the most part descended out 
of Ireland, holding the Irish manners and language still. And so 
we all parted. 

The next da,y being Wednesday at Leghrose [sic), every man 
went about his own task, and so when I came home I acquainted 
my brother with all that was done and what they had appointed 
him to do, and did also as they had appointed me to do, I sent to 
Mr. Reilly to let him know as much, and the 18th of the same 
month I began my journey to Dublin. And when I came to Dublin, 
being the day before the appointed day for putting that resolution 
into execution there, I met with Captain Con O'Neil, sent out of the 
Low Countries by Colonel O'Neil (after the messenger formerly sent 
by us to the said Colonel was by him {illegible) with his answer) to 
encourage us in our resolution and a speedy performance of it, with 
assurance of succour which he said would not fail of the Colonel's 
behalf and from the more certainty of help from him and to assure 
us, that the Colonel had good hopes to procure aid from others ; he 
said that it was he himself that was employed from the Colonel to 
Cardinal Richelieu twice and that some men gave very fair promises 
to assure the Colonel's expectations, and that the Colonel was really 
himself assured of the Cardinal's aid. And he said that he was 
likewise commanded by the Colonel upon our resolution of the day 
to give notice thereof to him and that he would be over in fourteen 
days with aid. But he (the messenger) landed nine or ten days 
before and meeting with Captain Brian O'Neil, who made him 
acquainted with what was resolved, he did write all the matter to 
Colonel O'Neil so as he was sure of his speedy coming. And so 
that evening he and I came to meet the other gentlemen, and there 
VOL. II. A A 



354 THE IRTSTI MASSACRES OF 1041. 

were met Mr. IMoore, Colonel Byrne, Colonel Plunkett, Captain Fox, 
and other Leinster gentlemen, (a Captain I think of the Byrnes or 
the Toolcs but I am not sin-e of which) and Captain Brian O'Neil, 
and taking an account of those that should ha been there it 
was found that Sir Phelim O'Neil and Mr. Collo MacMahon did fail 
of sending their men, and Colonel Byrne did miss Sir Morgan 
Cavenagh, that had promised him to be there, but he, the Colonel, 
said he was sure Sir Morgan would not fail to be that night or the 
next morning in town. And of the 200 men that were appointed to 
come there were only 80 present, yet notwithstanding they Avere 
resolved to go on with their enterprise, and all the difference was at 
what time of the day they should set on the castle, and after some 
debate it was resolved in the afternoon, and the rather hoping to 
meet the Colonels there then. For they said that if they should take 
the castle and be enforced by any extremity for not receiving timely 
succour out of the country (having that they could not want) . . . 
And so parted that night, but to meet in the morning to see further 
what was to be done. And immediately thereupon I came to my 
chamber, and about nine of the clock Mr. Moore and Captain Fox 
came to me, and told me all was discovered, that the city was in 
arms and the gates shut up and so departed from me. And what 
became of them and the rest I know not, yet think that they escaped, 
but how and at what time I do not know, because I myself was 
taken that morning. 



APPENDIX. 355 



S. 
Council of the Rebels at Multifarnham Abbey. 

{v. ante, vol. i. p. 106.) 

After detailing the suspicious movements of the disaffected in 
Ireland for some months preceding October, 1G41, the circulation 
of seditious books, and unfounded rumours of the intention of the 
English parliament to imprison all the chief Roman Catholic peers 
and members of the Irish houses, and to compel all Roman Catholics 
to conform to Protestantism on pain of death. Dr. Jones proceeds 
to give the following account of the meeting of the rebel leaders 
lay and clerical at Multifarnham Abbey in Westmeath a few weeks 
before the outbreak, as he heard it from the guardian of the Fran- 
ciscan friars who was there present.' 

" A great meeting was appointed of the heads of the Romish 
clergy, and other laymen of the faction, said to be at the abbey 
of Multifarnham, in the county of Westmeath, where a convent 
of Franciscan friars being openly and peaceably possessed of the 
monastery, the day of their meeting being also St. Francis' day, 
early in October, but the time and place I cannot confidently affn-m, 
yet whatsoever their several opinions and discussions were as follows : 
like as I have received them from a friar, a Franciscan, and present 
there, being a guardian of that order. Thereupon a man and many 
others there agitated and the question was, what course should be 
t;i.ken with the English and all others that were found in the whole 
kingdom to bo Protestants. The Council was thereon divided, 
some were for their banishment without attempting their lives, for 
this course was given (for example) the King of Spain's expelling 
out of Granada, and other parts of his dominions the Moors, to the 
number of many hundreds of thousands, all of them being dismissed 
with their lives, wives, and children, with some of their goods, if 
not the most part, and that this way of proceeding redounded much 
to the credit of the house of Spain, whereas the slaughter of many 
innocents would have been everlasting blemish of cruelty on that 
state ; that the usage of the English, their neighbours, and to whom 

' MSS T.C.D. 

A A 2 



356 THE IltlSTI MASSACRES OF 1041. 

many then present owed if no more their education would gain 
mucli to the cause both in England and other parts. That tlieir 
goods and estates seized upon would be sufficient without meddling 
with tlieir persons, that if the contrary course were taken, and their 
blood spilt, besides the curse it would draw from heaven upon their 
cause, it might withal incense and provoke the neighbouring king- 
dom of England to the taking a more sevei'e revenge on them and 
theirs, even to extirpation, if it had the upper hand. 

On the other side there was urged, a contrary proceeding, the 
utter cutting off of them and theirs, and to the instance of the dis- 
missed Moors it was answered that that was the sole act of the 
King and Queen of Spain, contrary to the advice of the Council, 
which howsoever it might gain that prince a name of mercy, yet 
therein the event showed him to be most hurtful not only to his 
own nation, but to all Christendom besides. That this was evident 
in the great excessive charge Spain hath been since that time put 
to by the Moors, and their posterity to this day, all Christendom 
also doth still groan under the misery it doth suffer by the piracy 
of Algiers, Sallee, and the like dens of thieves. That all this 
might have been prevented in one hour by a general massacre, 
applying that it was no less dangerous to expel the English, whose 
robbed and banished men might again return, with their swords in 
their hands, who by their hard usage of spoiling might be exasperated, 
and by the hope of recovering their former estates would be animated 
far more than strangers, that would be sent against them, being 
neither in their persons injured nor grieved in their estates ; that 
therefore a general massacre were the safest and readiest way for 
freeing the kingdom of any such fears. In which diversity of 
opinion, however, the first prevailed with some for which the 
Franciscans saith, their guardian did stand, yet others inclining to 
the second, some again leaning to a middle way, neither to dismiss 
all nor kill all. And according to this do we find the event and 
course of their proceedings. In some places they are generally put 
to the sword or other miserable end. Some restrained their (the 
Protestants') persons in durance, knowing it to be in their power 
to dispatch them at their leisure, in the meantime they being pre- 
served, either for profit of their ransom, or for exchange of prisoners, 
or gaining their own pardons by the lives of these prisoners if time 
would serve, or by their death if the worst did happen to satisfy 
their fury [illegible) at the first dismissed tlieir prisoners, having 
spoiled them of their goods and raiment, exposing the miserable 
wretches to cold and famine, whereby many have perished by death, 
more than by the sword or halter. 



APPENDIX. 357 

So much for their councils and the effect of them, now for their 
intentions, all heing reduced, which God forbid, to their power. 
And therefore do they as by a law give such peremptory conclusions, 
that it may bo well wondered the thoughts of men, professing them- 
selves wise, should be so vain. And herein do I still follow mine 
informer the Franciscan aforesaid, 

1st, Their loyalty to his Majesty shall be thus reserved, thus 
say they of the modest sort, but both his revenue and government 
must be reduced to certain bounds, his rents to be none other than 
the ancient reservations before the plantations, and the customs so 
ordered as to them shall be thought iitting. 

2ndly, For the government ; such of them as would be es- 
teemed loyal would have it committed to the hands of two lords 
justices, one of the ancient Irish race, the other of the ancient 
British inhabitants of Ireland, provided that they both be of the 
Komisli profession. 

Srdly, That a parliament be forthwith called consisting of whom 
they shall think fit, wherein their own rehgious men, bishops, 
priests, and friars, shall be assistants. 

4thly, Poyning's act must be repealed, and Ireland declared to 
be a kingdom independent of England, and without any reference 
to it in any case whatsoever. 

5thly, All acts prejudicial to the Eomish religion shall bo 
aljolished, and it be enacted that there be no other profession in 
the kingdom but the Komish. 

Gthly, That only the ancient nobility of the kingdom shall stand, 
and of them such as shall refuse to conform to the Romish religion 
to be removed, and others put in their room. Howsoever tho 
present Earl of Kildare must be put out and another put in his 
place. 

7thly, All plantation lands to be recalled and the ancient pro- 
prietary to be re-invested in their former estates, with the limita- 
iions in their covenants oxpressed, that they had not formerly sold 
their interests for valuable considerations. 

Stilly, That the respective counties of the kingdom are to be 
subdivided at certain bomids or baronies assigned to the chief septs, 
and others of the nobility, who are to be answerable for the govern- 
ment thereof, and that a standing army may be still in being, the 
respective governors keeping a certain number of men to be ready 
at all risings out, as they term it ; they also to build and maintain 
certain fortresses in places most convenient within their precincts. 
And that these governors be of absolute power and only responsible 
to the parliament. 



358 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 

Lastly, For maintaining a correspondence with other nations, 
and for securing the coasts, that also tliey may he rendered con- 
siderate in the sight of others, a navy of a certain numher of ships 
is to be maintained ; that to this end five houses are to be accompted, 
one in each province, accompting Meath for one of them, that to 
tliese houses shall be allotted an annual pension of certain thousands 
of pounds, to be made up of lands appropriate to abbeys. And a 
further contribution to be raised in the respective provinces to that 
end. And these houses are to be assigned to a certain order of 
knights answerable to that of Malta, who are to be seamen and to 
maintain the fleet, that all prizes are to be apportioned, some part 
for a common bank, the rest to be divided, for which purpose the 
felling of wood suitable for use is to be forbidden. The house for 
this purpose to be assigned to Leinster in Kilmainham, or rather 
Howth, provided Lord Howth join with them, his house being 
esteemed most convenient in respect of situation. 

That this kingdom being thus settled, there are thirty thousand 
men to be sent into England to join with the French and Spanish 
forces and these jointly to fall upon Scotland, for the reducing both 
England and Scotland to the obedience of the Pope, which being 
finished, they have engaged themselves to the King of Spain for 
assisting him against the Hollanders and giving their (the Dutch) 
rebellion, as they term it, its due correction. And thus I have laid 
down all that I heard related, omitting what I find others more 
largely to insist upon. All which treacherous, vain, and airy pro- 
jects God disappointed." 

Hen. Jones. 



Jurat. 3rd May, 1641, 




Cora. EoGER Puttock. 


Wm. Aldrich. 


John Sterne. 


Wm. Hitchcock 


John Watson. 





From the above it will be seen that according to the Franciscan 
guardian (Jones's informant) his order was desirous to spare the 
lives of the colonists. 



AITENUIX. o59 



T. 

Sir W. Cole to the Lords Justices Enniskillen, 
11th October, 1G41.* 

(i-. vol. i. p. 108.) 

Right Honourable, — Upon Friday last two of the natives of 
this country, men of good credit, came to my house and informed 
jno that Hugh ])oy McTirlogh McHenry O'Noil, a captain who 
came from Flanders about May last, hath since that time had tlio 
chiefest part of his residence in Tyrone, at or near Sir Phelim Boo 
O'Neil's house, to which place it hath been observed there hath 
been more than an ordinary or former usual resort of people, so 
frequent that it hath bred some suspicion of evil intendments in the 
minds of sundry men of honest inclinations, and these gentlemen, 
my informants do say, they hold no good ophiion of it, rather con- 
struing an evil intention to be the cause thereof. For my own part 
I cannot tell what to make or tliink of it. The Lord Maguiro in 
all that time, as they also inform me, hath been noted to have made 
many very private journeys to Dublin, to the Pale, into Tyrone, to 
Sir Phelim O'Neil and many other places this year, which likewise 
gives divers in the country cause to doubt that something is in agi- 
tation tending to no good ends. Upon Saturday last one of the 
same gentlemen came again to me, and told me that as he was 
going home the day before, he sent his footman a nearer way than 
tlie horseway, who met with one of the Lord Inniskillin's footmen 
and demanded of him from whence he came ? Who made answer 
that he came from home that morning, and the other replying 
'you have made good haste to be here so soon,' to which ho 
answered that his Lord came home late last night, and writ letters all 
that night and left not a man in or about his house, but he hath 
dispatched in several ways, and that he hath sent him [the foot- 
man] this way to Tirlagh Oge McHugh, and others, also witli 
letters charging them to be with his Lordship this night at his 
house. Of which passage I would have given your Honours sooner 
' MSS. Rolls House. 



3G0 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

notice but that I deemed it fit to be silent, in expectation that a 
little time would produce some better ground to afford me more 
matter to acquaint your honours withal. Whereupon this day I 
understood by one Hugh Maguire that the said Tivlagh Oge Mac- 
Hugh, Cuconnaght MacShane Maguire and Oghie O'Hosey reported 
themselves to have been appointed Captains by his Lordship (Lord 
Maguire) to raise men, and that he had the nomination of seven 
other Captains to do the like for to serve the King of Spain in 
Portugal, and that one of the said Captains entertained twelve men. 
What authority or commission there is for this is not here known, 
but it makes some of us that are British to stand in many doubts 
and opinions, concerning the same, and the rather for that those 
three men so named to be Captains are broken men in their estates 
and fortunes, two of them being his Lordship's near kinsmen, and 
that if any evil be intended, they are conceived to be as apt men to 
embrace and help therein as any of their degree in this country. 
These matters seem the more strange unto me, for that they are so 
privately carried and that upon Friday last I heard Sir Frederick 
Hamilton say, that the Colonels that at my last being in Dublin 
wore raising men to go to Spain were since stayed by command out 
of England. I have now therefore sent this bearer purposely by 
these to make known to your Lordships what I have heard in this 
business, which I humbly leave unto your Honours' consideration, 
and desiring to know your -pleasure herein, with remembrance of 
my most humble service- unto your Lordships, I will end these and 
be ever your Lordships' in' all duty to be commanded, 

William Cole. 



ArrENDix. 361 



U. 

The LoiiDs Justices and Council to the Loud Lieutenant,' 
25th Octoijeu, IGU, Dublin. 

{v. vol. i. p. 111.) 

May it please your Lordship, — On Friday the 22nd of this 
month, after nine of the night, the bearer, Owen Connolly, servant 
to Sir John Clotworthy, Imight, came to me, the Lord Chief Justice 
Parsons, to my house in great secresy, as indeed the case did 
require, and discovered unto me a most wicked and damnable con- 
spiracy, plotted and contrived and intended to be also acted by 
some evil affected Irish Papists here. The plot was on the then 
next morning being Ignatius (Loyola's) day about nine of the clock, 
to surprise his Majesty's castle of Dublin, his Majesty's chiefest 
strength in this kingdom, wherein is also the principal magazine 
of his arms and munition. And it was agreed, it seems among 
them, that at the same hour all other his Majesty's forts and 
magazines in tliis kingdom should be surprised, by others of the 
conspirators. And further, that all the Protestants and English 
throughout the whole kingdom that would not join with them 
should be cut off, and so all those Papists should then be possessed 
of the government and kingdom at the same instant. As soon as 
I had that intelligence, I then immediately repaired to the Lord 
Justice Borlase, and thereupon we instantly assembled the Council, 
and having sat in Council all night, as also all the next day the 
23rd of October, in regard of the short time left us for the consulta- 
tion of so great and weighty a matter, although it was not possible 
for us, on so few hours' warning, to prevent those other great mis- 
chiefs which were to be acted, even at that same hour, and that at 
so great a distance in all the other parts of the kingdom ; yet such 
was our industry therein, having caused the castle that night to be 
strengthened with armed men and the city guarded as the wicked 
councils of these evil persons by the great mercy of God to us 
became defeated, so as they were not able to act that part of their 

' Kalsoi, vol. ii. 



362 THE IPJSII MASSACRES OF 1011. 

treachery which indeed was principally intended, and which if Llicy 
could have effected, would have rendered the rest of their purposes 
more easy. Having so secured this castle, we forthwith laid ahout 
for the apprehension of as many of the offenders as we could, many 
of them having come to this city that night, intending it seems the 
next morning to act their parts in those treacherous and hloody 
crimes. The first man apprehended was one Hugh MacMahon, Esq., 
grandson to the traitor Tyrone, a gentleman of good fortune in the 
county of Monaghan, who was with others that morning taken in 
Dublin, having at the time of their apprehension ofiered a little 
resistance with their swords drawn, but finding those employed 
against them more in number and better armed yielded. lie, upon 
examination before us, denied all, but in the end, when he saw we 
laid it home to him, he confessed enough to destroy himself and 
impeach some others, as by a copy of his examination herewith 
sent may appear to your Lordship. "We have conniiitted him until 
we might have further time to examine him again, our time being 
become more needful to be employed in action for securing the place 
than in examining. This Mr. MacMahon had been abroad and 
served under the King of Spain as a Lieutenant-Colonel ; upon con- 
ference with him (MacMahon) and others and calling to mind a 
letter which we received before from Sir William Cole, a copy 
whereof we send your Lordship here enclosed, we gathei'ed that the 
Lord Maguire was to be an actor in surprising the castle of Dublin, 
wherefore we held it necessary to secure him immediately, thereby 
also to startle and deter the rest when they found him laid fast. 
His Lordship observing what we had done, and the city in arms, 
Hed from his lodging early before day, it seems disguised, for wo 
had laid a watch about his lodging so as he could not pass without 
disguising himself, yet he could not get forth of the city so surely 
guarded were all the gates. There was found hidden at his lodging 
some hatchets with the helves newly cut off and many skeans and 
some hammers. In the end the sheriffs of the city who were em- 
ployed in a strict search for his Lordship, found him hidden in a 
cockloft in an obscure house far from his lodging, where tliey ap- 
prehended him and brought him before us. He denied all, yet so 
as he could not deny he had heard of it in the country, though he 
would not tell us when or from Avhom, and he confessed he had not 
advertised us thereof as in duty he ouglit to have done. But we 
were so well satisfied of his guilt by all circumstances, that we 
doubted not upon further examination, when we could spare time 
for it, to find it apparent. Wherefore we held it of absolute neces- 
sity to commit him close prisoner as we had formerly done MacMahon 



APPENDIX. 363 

and others, where we left them on the 23rd of this month in the 
morning, about tlio same hour thoy had intended to be masters of 
that pLace ami the city. That morning we laid wait for all strangers 
that came the night before into town, and so many were apprehended, 
whom we find reason to believe had hands in this conspiracy, that we 
were forced to disperse them into several gaols, and since we found 
that there came many horsemen into the suburbs that night, who 
findhig the plot discovered dispersed themselves immediately. When 
the hour approached which was designed for the surprising of tho 
castle, great numbers of strangers were observed to come to the town 
in great parties several ways, who not finding admittance at the gates 
stayed in the suburbs, and there grew numerous to the terror of the 
inhabitants. ^Ve therefore to help that, drew up and instantly 
signed a proclamation commanding all men not dwellers in the city 
or suburbs to depart within an hour upon pain of death ; and made 
it penal to those that should harbour them, which proclamation the 
sheriff instantly proclaimed in all the suburbs by our commandment, 
which being accompanied by the committal of those two eminent 
men and others occasioned the departure of those multitudes ; and 
in this case all our lives and fortunes and above all his Majesty's 
regal power and authority being still at stake, we must vary from 
ordinary proceedings, not only in executing martial law, as w^e see 
cause, but also hi putting some to the rack to find out the bottom 
of this treason and the contrivers thereof, which we foresee will not 
otherwise be done. On the 28rd of this month we, conceiving that 
as soon as it should be known that the plot for seizing the castle of 
])ublin was disappointed, all the conspirators in remote parts might 
be somewhat disheartened, as on the other side the good subjects 
would be comforted and would then with the more confidence stand 
on their guard, did prepare to send abroad to all parts of the 
kingdom this proclamation which we send you here enclosed, and 
so, having provided that the city and castle should be so well guarded 
as upon a sudden we could, we concluded that long council. 

On Saturday, at twelve o'clock of the night, the Lord Clayney 
came to town and brought us the ill news of the rebels seizing with 
200 men his house at Castle Blayney, in the county of Monaghan, 
as also a house of the Earl of Essex's called Carrickmacross, with 200 
men and a house of Sir Henry Spotswood's in the same county with 
200 men, where there being a little plantation of British, the rebels 
plundered the town and burnt divers other villages and robbed and 
spoiled many English, and none but Protestants, leaving the English 
Papists untouched as well as the Irish. On Sunday morning at 
three of the clock we had intelligence from Sir Arthur Terringliam 



364 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGll. 

that the Irish in the town had that day also broken up the king'3 
store of arms and munition at Newry, where the store for arms liath 
been ever since the peace, and where they found seventy barrels of 
powder and armed themselves under the command of Sir Con 
Magennis, knt., and one Crelly a monk, and plundered the English 
there and disarmed the garrison. And this, although too much, is 
all that we yet hear is done by them, however, we shall stand upon 
our guard the best we may to defend the castle and city principally, 
those being the places of most importance. But if the conspiracy 
be so universal as Mr. MacMahon saitli in his examination it is, 
namely that all the counties of the kingdom have conspired in it, 
which Ave admire (wonder) should so fall out in this time of uni- 
versal peace, and carry with them that secresy that none of the 
English could have any friend among them to disclose it, then 
indeed we shall be in high extremity, and the kingdom in the 
greatest danger that ever it underwent, considering our want of 
men, money and arms, to enable us to encounter such great multi- 
tudes as they can make if all should so join against us ; the rather 
because we have pregnant cause to doubt that the combination hatli 
taken force by the incitement of the Jesuits, priests and friars. All 
the hope we have here is that the English of the Pale and some 
other parts will continue constant to the king in their fidelity, as 
they did in former rebellions. And now in these our straits, we 
must under God depend on aid coming forth of England for our 
present supply with all speed, especially money, we having none, 
and arms which we shall exceedingly want, without which we are 
exceedingly doubtful what account we shall give to the king of this 
kingdom. But if the conspiracy be only of Maguire and some other 
Irish of the kindred and friends of the rebel Tyrone and other Irisli of 
the counties of Down, Monaghan, Cavan, Fermanagh, and Armagh 
and no general revolt follow thereon, we hope then to make head 
against them in a reasonable measure, if we be enabled with money 
from thence, without which we can i-aise no forces ; so great is our 
want of money as we have formerly written and our debt so great to 
the army ; nor is money to be borrowed here, and if it wore we would 
engage all our estates for it ; neither have we any hope to get in his 
^Majesty's rents and subsidies in these disturbances, which adds 
extremely to our necessities. On Sunday morning, the 24th of 
October, we met again in council, and sent to all parts of the king- 
dom the enclosed proclamation and issued patents to draw hither 
seven horse troops as a further strength to this place, and to be 
with us, in case the rebels should make head and march hitherward, 
so as that we may be necessitated to give them battle. We also 



APPENDIX. 3G5 

then sent away our letters to the presidents of both the provinces of 
Minister and Connaught, as also to the sheriffs of five counties of 
the Pale to consult the best way and means of their own preserva- 
tion. That day the Lord Viscount Gormanston, the Lord Viscount 
Netterville, the Lord Viscount FitzWilliams, and the Lord of Lowth, 
and since then the Earls of Kildare and Fingal, and the Lords of 
])unsany and Slane, all noblemen of the English Pale, came unto 
us declaring that they then and not before heard of the matter and 
professed all loyalty to his Majesty and concurrence with the State; 
but said they wanted arms, whereof they desired to be supplied by 
us, which we told them we Avould willingly do, as relying much on 
their faithfulness to the Crown, but we were not yet certain whether 
or no we had enough to arm our strengths for the guarding of our: 
city and castle ; yet we supplied such of them as lay in most danger 
with a small proportion of arms and ammunition for their houses, lest 
they should conceive we entertained any jealousy of them, and we 
connnanded them to be very diligent in sending out watches, and 
making all the discoveries they could and thereof to advertise us, 
which they readily promised to do. And if it fall out that the Irish 
generally rise, which we have cause to suspect, then we must of 
necessity put arms into the hands of the English Pale, in present 
and others as fast as we can, to fight for the defence of the State and 
themselves. Your Lordship now sees the condition wherein we stand, 
and how necessary it is, first, that we enjoy your presence speedily 
for the better guiding of these and other public affairs of the king 
and kingdom, and 2ndly that the parliament of England be moved 
imnu'diately to iidviinco to us a good sum of money, which being now 
speedily sent hither may prevent the expense of very much treasure 
and blood in a long continued war. And if your Lordship shall 
happen to stay on that side any long time, we must then desire your 
Lordship to appoint a Lieutenant-General to discharge the great and 
weighty burden of commanding the forces here. Amidst these con- 
fusions and disorders fallen upon us, we bethought us of the parlia- 
ment wdiicli was formerly adjourned to November next, and the 
term now also at hand which will draw such a concourse of people 
hither, and give opportunity under that pretence of assembling and 
taking new councils, seeing the former seems to be in some part 
disappointed, and of contriving further danger to this state and 
people. We therefore found it an unayoidable necessity to prorogue 
the parliament to the 24tli day of February next, and therefore we 
did by proclamation prorogue it accordingly, and do direct the term 
to be adjourned to the 1st of Hillary term, excepting only the Court 
of Exchequer, for the hastening in of the king's money. We desire 



IGG 



THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1041. 



that upon this occasion your Lordship will be pleased to view our 
letters concerning the plantation of Connaught dated the 24th of 
April last, directed to Mr. Secretary Vane in that part tliereof 
which concerns the county Monaghan, where now those fires do first 
break out. In the last place we must make known to your Lord- 
ship that the army we have, consisting but of 2,000 foot and 1,000 
horse, are so dispersed in garrisons, in several parts of the four pi-o- 
vinces, for the security of these parts, as continually they have been 
since they were reduced, as if they be all sent for to be drawn 
together, not only the places where they are to be drawn from and 
for whose safety they lie thei'e, must be by their absence distressed 
but also the companies themselves coming in so small numbers 
may be in danger to be cut off in their march ; nor indeed have we 
any money to enable the soldiers to enable them to march. And so 
we take leave and remain your Lordship's to be commanded, 

William Parsons. 
John Borlase. 
Egbert Bolton. Cane. 
Thomas Eotherham. 
Adam Loftus. 
J. Temple. 
G. Lowther. 
G. Wentworth. 
R. Meredith. 



J. Dillon. 
A. Midensis. 
J. Raphoe. 

R. DiGBY. 

F. WiLLOUGHBY. 

J. Ware. 



APPENDIX, 3C7 



The Examination of Owen Connolly, gent., taken reforr 

us whose names ensue, the 22nd of October, 1G41, at 

Dublin.' 

{v. vol. i. p. 108.) 

Who being duly sworn and examined, saith, that being at Money- 
more in the county of Londonderry on Tuesday last, he received a 
letter from Colonel Hugh Oge MacMahon desiring him to come to 
him to Connagh in the county of Monaghan and to be with him on 
Wednesday or TJiursday last. Whereupon ho this oxamt. came to 
Connagh on Wednesday at night last and finding the said Hugh 
come to Dublin followed him hither. He (the examt.) came to 
Dublin about G of the clock this evening and forthwith went to 
the lodging of the said Hugh to the house near the Boot in 
Oxmantown,^ and there he found the said Hugh and came with 
him into the town near the pillory to the lodging of the Lord 
Maguire, where they found not the Lord within and there they 
drank a cup of beer and then went back to the said Hugh's lodging. 
He saith that at tlio said Maguire's lodging the said Hugh told him 
that there were and would be this night great numbers of noblemen 
and gentlemen of the Irish and Papists from all parts of the king- 
dom in this town, who with himself had determined to take the 
castle of Dublin and possess themselves of all his Majesty's ammu- 
nition there to-morrow morning being Saturday, and that they 
intended first to batter the chimnies of the town and if the city 
would not yield then to batter the houses, and to cut off all the 
Protestants that would not join with them. He further saith that 
the said Hugh told him that the Irish had prepared men in all parts 
of the kingdom to destroy all the English inhabitants there to-mor- 
row morning by 10 of the clock, and that in all the seaports and 
other towns of the kmgdom all the Protestants should be killed this 

' NaJson, vol. ii, 

^ Oxmantown, originally Ostmen'stown, from the Ostraen or Danes, is now- 
covered by the Four Courts and buildings around them, but was in 1641 a suburb 
of Dublin. 



368 THE iriisii massacres of ig41. 

night and that all the posts that could he could not prevent it. 
And he further saith, that he moved the said Hugh to forbear the 
executing of tliat business and to discover it to tlie State for the 
saving of his own estate, who said that he could not help it, but 
said that they did own due allegiance to the Idng and would pay 
him all his rights, but that they did this against the tyramiical 
government that was over them and to imitate Scotland who got a 
privilege by that course. And he saith further, that when he was 
with the said Hugh in his lodging the second time, the said Hugh 
swore he should not go out of his lodging that night, but told him 
that he should go with him the next morning to the castle and 
said that if that matter were discovered somebody should die for it ; 
whereupon this examt. feigned some necessity for his easement and 
went down out of the chamber and left his sword in pawn, and the 
said Hugh sent his man down with him, and when this examt. 
came down into the yard, finding an opportunity, he leaped over a 
wall and two pales and so came to the Lord Justice Parsons. 



Owen O'Connelly. 



W. Parsons. 

TlIOS. EOTIIERAM. 

RoBT. Meredith. 



The Examination of Hugh Oge MacMahon of Connagh, 
Esquire, aged 85 years or thereabouts, taken before 
THE Rt. Hon. Lords Justices and Council.' 

The said examt. saith that he thinks there will be trouble this 
day throughout all the kingdom of Ireland and that all the fortifi- 
cations of Ireland will be taken as he thinks. And he saith that he 
thinks that it is so far gone by this time that Ireland cannot help it ; 
he saith he was told this by Captain Brian O'Neil and that he and 
Captain Hugh Byrne were designed for the surprising of the castle 
of Dublin, and tliat if this examt. were one for that surprising, those 
captains were the principals therein. He saith that the place of 
meeting was to be at this examt. 's lodging, and that twenty prime 
men of every county in Ireland were to be at Dublin this last night 
concerning this matter, and that they were to consult of it this 
morning at his lodging, their weapons were to he swords and skeans 
and that the captains that were raising men in the Irish countries 
were they that should bring men hither to second the business. He 

' Nalson, vol. ii. ■ ■ 



APPENDIX. 369 



fiirtlier saitli, that when tliey liad Dublin they made sure of the rest, 
and expected to be furnished with more arms at Dublin. He said, 
' I am now in your hands, use me as you wdll, but I am sure I shall 
bo shortly revenged.' And being demanded Avhether the Lord 
]\Iaguire was one appointed to this business he said he thought he 



was. 



Tho. Eotherham. William Parsons. 

E. Meredith. E. Dillon. 

Ad. Loptus. 

J. TeMI'LE. 



vol. II. B B 



370 THE IRISH mass aches of ion. 



W. 

Declaration of Dean Ker.' 

(r. vol. i. pp. 117, HP.) 

"I, Jolin Ker, Dean of Ardagh, having occasionally discoursed 
with the Rt. Hon. George, Lord Viscount Lanesl)orough, concern- 
ing the late Tiehellion in Ireland, and his lordsliip at that time 
having desired me to certify the said discoiu'se under my hand and 
Bcal, I do declare as followoth : That I was present in Court Avlien 
the rebel Sir Phelim O'Neil was brought to his trial in Dublin, and 
tluit he was tried in that Court, which is now the High Court of 
Chancery, and that his judges were Judge Donellan, afterwards Sir 
James Donnellan, Sir Edward Bolton, kiit., some time Lord Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer and Dungan, then called Judge Dungan, 
and another judge whose name I do not now remember. And that 
amongst other witnesses then brought in against the prisoner there 
was one Joseph Travers clerk and one Mr. Michael Harrison, if I 
mistake not the Christian name : and that I heard several robberies 
and murders proved against him the said Sir Phelim, he having 
nothing material to plead in his own defence. Aiul that the said 
Judge whose name I remember not as abovesaid examined the 
Baid Sir Phelim about a commission that he should have {i.e. was 
said to have had) had from Charles Stuart (as the said Judge called 
the late king) for levying the said war ; and that the said Sir 
Phelim made answer that ho never had such a commission and 
that it was then proved in Court by tho testimony of the said 
Joseph Travers, and others, that the said Sir Phelim had such a 
commission, and did then in the beginning of the said Irish rebel- 
lion shew the same unto the said Joseph and several others then 
in Court. Upon which the said Sir Phelim confessed, that when 
he surprised the Castle of Charlemont and the Lord Caulfield that 
ho ordered the said Mr. Harrison and another gentleman, whose 

> Nnhott. Carte ^fSS., Bodleian. 



ArPENDIX. 371 

name I do not now remember, to cut off the kinp^'s broad seal from 
a patent of the said Lord's they then found in Charlemont, and to 
affix it to a commission which he the said Sir Pliehm had ordered 
to be drawn up. And that the said Mr. Harrison did, in the face of 
tlie whole Court, confess tljat by the said Sir Phelim's order, he did 
stitch the silk cord or label of that seal with silk of the colours of 
tlie said label and so fixed the label and seal to the said commission, 
and that the said Sir Edward Bolton and Judge Donelan urging 
the said Sir Phelim to declare why he did so deceive the people, 
he did answer that no man could blame him to promote that cause 
he had so far engaged in. And that upon the second day of his 
trial, some of the said judges told him that if he could produce any 
material proof that he had such a commission from the said Charles 
Stuart to declare and prove it before sentence passed against him, 
and that then he the said Sir Phelim should be restored to his estate 
and liberty. But ho answered, that ho could prove no such thing, 
nevertheless they gave him time to consider of it until next day, 
which was the third and last day of his trial. Upon which dp,y, the 
said Sir Phelim being brought into Court and urged again, he de- 
clared again tliat he never could prove any such thing as a commis- 
sion from the king. And added that there were several outrages 
committed by officers and others his aiders and abettors in the 
management of that war, contrary to.liis intention, and which now 
pressed his conscience very much ; and that he could not in con- 
science add to them the injustice of calumniating the king, though 
he had been frequently solicited to do so by fair promises and great 
rewards while he was in prison. And proceeding further in this 
discourse, he was immediately stopt, and before he had ended 
further what he had to say, sentence of death was pronounced on 
him. And I do further declare that I was present a,nd very near tp 
the said Sir Phelim, when he was upon the ladder at hig execution, 
and that one Marshal Peake and another Marshal befpre the said 
Sir Phelim was cast, camo riding towards the plapo in great hasto 
and called aloud ' Stop a* little ! ' and having passed through the 
throng of spectators and guards, one of them whispered a little 
while with the said Sir Phelim, and that the said Sjr Phelijn 
answered in the hearing of several hundred people of whom I 
myself was one, I thank the Lieutenant-General for hjg intended 
mercy, but I declare, good people, before God and his holy angels, 
and all of you that hear me, that I never had any commission from 
the king for what I have done, in the levying or prosecution of this 
war, and I do heartily beg your prayers, all good Catjjolics and 

J3 B 2 



372 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGll. 

Christians, that God may be merciful unto me and forgive me my 
sins. More of his speech I could not hear, which continued not long, 
the guards beating off those that stood near the place of execution. 
All that I have written here I declare to be true, and am ready, if 
thereunto required upon my corporal oath, to attest the truth of 
every word of it. And in testimony thereof I do subscribe my 
hand and affix my spal this 28th day of February, 1681," 

John Ker {Locus SigilU). 



APPENDIX. 373 



X. 

Buodie's Note on the Commission to O'Neil.' 

(y. vol. i. p. 115.) 

" The Commission with instructions was supposed to have been 
carried to Ireland by Lord Dillon of Costellogh, who when the 
Irish Connnittee left the king in August accompanied his Majesty 
by the queen's orders to Scotland and was remarked at Court to bo 
an uncommon favourite. He left the king about the beginning of 
October and carried letters to Ireland to be sworn a privy councillor 
of that kmgdom. Now the Commission is dated on the 1st of 
October, while the Incident ^ occurred on the 11th, and the Commis- 
sion contained a particular clause in favour of the Scotch, whom 
it was imagined the Licident should as a people have put under the 
royal management against all their former measures. See letter 
from Sir Patrick Wemyss to the Earl of Ormond about Dillon, Sec, 
and which appears by comparing the matter contained in it, with 
"the Scottish parliamentary records and acts lately published, to 
have been written between the 1st and 8th of October, while the 
postscript shows that it was carried by Dillon. {Carte's Letters, vol. i.) 
Dillon afterwards avowed himself a Papist and soon became active 
for the confederated Irish. Another remarkable coincidence regards 
tlie Scottish great seal, which prior to the 2nd of October, 1G41, 
had been for ' those years begane,' to use the language of the Scots 
Acts (see late publication of Scots Acts, vol. v. for 30th September, 
and 1st and 2nd of October, and Appendix, p. 676 et seq.), in the 
possession of the Marquis Hamilton and his underkeeper John 

• Hist, nf the British Emjnrc, by Brodie, vol. ii. p. 378, note. 

* Tho Incidont, as it is called by the Scotch historians, was a plot said to have 
been devised by Montrose and the king to seize and imprison or put to death 
Argyle, Hamilton and his brother the Earl of Lanerick. They were to bq invited 
to attend Charles at a drawing-room in Holyrood on the 1 1th of October,' and were 
to be there arrested by the Earl of Crauford, Colonels Stewart, Hume and Coch- 
rane, Hardwicke's State Papers, vol. ii. p. 299 ; Burton, vol. vii. 



374 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

Hamilton, advocate ; but which on the appointment of Loudon as 
chancellor, with the approbation of the States on the 1st of October, 
was ordered to be produced in parliament by the Marquis, and the 
underkeeper, on the following day, that it might with all formality 
be delivered in parliament by the king to the newly appointed 
chancellor. This was accordingly done, and an act of exonera- 
tion which had been previously prepared in favour of the Marquis 
and the underkeeper was passed that very day. Now the supple 
character of the Marquis is well known, and the underkeeper was 
likewise a keen royalist and indeed the other's creature. Though 
therefore it may be inferred from the Incident that they knew 
nothing of any intention to grant a commission to the Irish, it does 
not follow that the seal, which was not confided to the ]\Iarquis as 
chancellor or regular keeper, was not at all times at the king's 
service. Indeed it might easily be required or might easily be 
givdn up as a test of loyalty without suspicion of any foul purpose 
either on his or his underkeepfer'fe part ; and it was alleged to have 
been occasionally in the possession of llndynlion Porter, one of the 
king's attendants who had formerly accompanied him into Spain. 
{Mystefy of Iniquity, ed. 1643, p. 87, 8.) Now it is remarkable 
that Burnet in his Lives of the Hamiltons, and he was at that time 
a keen royalist, though he takes notice of this passage in the above 
pamphlet, and denied the charge about the commission, says nothing 
about the Seal's having been occasionally in the custody of Porter. 
See p. 250 and compare it with Carte's pretended reference to this 
work for his statements in his Life of Ormond, vol. i. p. 180. See 
also Charles' own ofier in his answer to the declaration of no more . 
addresses. Was not this answer originally di-awn by Clarendon 
without the king's knowledge ? Yes, and that without communica- 
tion with Charles, though his Majesty afterwards approved and thus 
in a manner adopted it. See Clarendon's Letters^ voL i. p. 244, 
ed. 16G2, p. 289, to prove by witnesses that the Scottish seal had 
not for many mOnths previous to the date of the alleged commission 
sealed anything, without mentioning the only witnesses who could 
possibly have boon admitted. The fact is that the Marquis and 
the underkeeper soon engaged for the king and that the act of 
exoneration closed both their mouths, since without renouncing the 
benefits of it, they could not allege that they had not faithfully 
kept the seal, the ground on which the exoneration was granted 
them. Now if there were a coincidence between the date of the 
alleged commission, the depai'turc of Dillon andotliers ; for pi'esently 
after its date we are told Butler and divers Irish commanders of 
whom the court was then full were as well as Dillon dispatched for 



APPENDIX. 375 

Ireland with liis Majesty's license ; {Mystery of Iniquity, pp. 87, 88) 
if I say there was a coincidence between these and the Incident, 
surely there was a greater between the date of the commission and 
the delivery of the great seal to Loudon when it was put beyond 
the king's reach. Parliament then met early in the morning, and 
Friday the 1st of October was consequently the last day on which 
Charles could command the seal. But it is said that no true copy 
of the pretended commission was ever produced, that in Milton and 
Eushworth, being an evitlent fabrication, as it relates to events 
which did not happen until some months afterwards. Now it will 
be curious if this should turn out to be a perfect mistake. The 
commission states, that for the preservation of his person, the 
king had been enforced to make his abode for a long time in Scot- 
land, in consequence of the disobedient and obstinate carriage of 
the English parliament, which had not only presumed to take 
upon them the government and disposing, &c., but had also pos- 
sessed themselves of the whole strength of the kingdom, in ap- 
pointing governors, commanders and olllcers in all parts and places 
therein, &c. 

This commission is said in regard to the question about the 
power of the militia to relate to events which did not occur for 
Bomc months afterwards, but Hume, who in this follows Rapin, had 
not much studied the subject, otherwise he never could have made 
such a statement. For as early as the 10th of May, IGll, the very 
day on which the bill was passed for continuing the parliament, a 
report was made in the lower house ' from a committee that was 
a[vpointed to prepare heads for a conference ' with the lords, ' that 
one have power to command in chief on this side of the Trent, and 
such power to choose officers as the now general hath, and to bring 
a list of their names to both houses of parliament.' {Journals for 
lOtJi May.) Agaui in the ten propositions to be presented to the 
king before his going to Scotland, there was one, that his Majesty 
might be petitioned to remove evil counsellors, and to commit the 
business and affairs of the kingdom to such councillors and officers 
as the parliament may have cause to confide in, another regarded 
lord lieutenants, and their deputies, and there is one expressed thus— 
' That the cinque ports and other ports of the kingdom may be put 
into good hands, and a list of those who govern them may be pre- 
sented to parliament, and that those persons may be altered upon 
reason, and that especial care be taken for reparation and provision 
of forts ' {Nalson, vol. ii. p. 811, 313). In addition to this, we may 
remind the reader of Haselrig's bill, all which is the more astonishing 
that Mr. Hume should have overlooked, since Mr. Carte, from whom 



8T6 



THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1(3 tl. 



he borrows so liberally, has distmctly stated it. But the Commons 
were not content with all this, for they actually interfered Avith the 
forts, as may be seen by the Journals for the 14th, 21st, and 25th 
of August. What had occurred in Scotland prior to the date of the 
Commission confirmed their purposes. A publication of original 
correspondence shows, that Charles was apprised by Secretary 
Nicholas of the intention of the English parliament to make the con- 
cessions in Scotland a precedent for themselves. Nicholas' letters 
were sent back apostiled and therefore we shall present them in 
the original form. On the 28th of August, he writes from West- 
minster, ' All things are now likely to be very still here, every man's 
expectation being fixed upon your majesty's and the parliament's 
proceedings there.' On the 24th September he writes from Thorpe : 



(Nicholas' Letter.') 

" This enclosed from my Lord Keeper 
was brought to me last night to be conveyed 
to your majesty and will I hope give your 
majesty an account of your last letter to his 
lordship. Your majesty may be pleased to 
procure from your parliament there some 
further reiteration of their declaration that 
what your majesty hath consented to con- 
cerning your election of officers there may 
not be drawn into example to your majesty's 
prejudice here, for if I am not misinformed 
there will be some attempt to procure the 
like act here, concerning officers, before the 
act of tonnage and poundage be passed to 
your majesty for lief. I hear that the com- 
mittee of the commons hath appointed to 
take into consideration on your majesty's 
revenue next week, and that then they Avill 
sit at least twice a week. I am unwilling 
to give your majesty in your great affairs 
there too long an interruption, with the 
tedious lines of your Sacred Majesty's, &c, 
App. to Evelyn's Memoirs, p. 24. 



{The King's EemarJ:^.) 

"It is SO and likes 
me well. 



" I like your proposi- 
tion and shall get as 
much as I may how- 
ever I thank you for 
your advertisement. 

" I pray God it be to 
a good purpose, and 
no knavery in it. 



" I command you to 
send in my name to 
all those Lords that 
my wife shall toll 
you of, that they fail 
not to attend at the 
doAvn sitting of the 
parliament. 



On the 27th of September, Nicholas writes from Thorpe, that 
the parliament had by its imusual proceedings begun to lose the 
reverence it had licfore tlio adjournment, and then proceeds thus : — 



APPENDIX. 



377 



(^Nicholas' Letter.) 

" I hear there are divers meetmgs at 
Chelsea at the Lord Mandeville's house and 
elsewhere hy Pyiii and others, to consult 
what is best to he done at their next meeting 
in parliament, and I believe they will in the 
first place fall upon some plausible thing 
that may reindegrate them in the people's 
good opinion, which is their anchor hold and 
only interest, and if I am not much misin- 
formed, it will be either upon Papists or 
upon some act for expunging of officers and 
counsellors here, according to the Scottish 
precedent, or on both together and therefore 
it will import your majesty by some serious 
and faithful advice to do something to an- 
ticipate or prevent them before their next 
meeting. 



(77i!C King's Rcinnrks.) 

" It were not amiss 
that some of my 
servants met likewise 
to countermine their 
plots, to which end 
speak with my wife 
and receive her di- 
rections." 



On the 



The apostiles to this letter are dated 2nd October 
29th of September, Nicholas writes from Westminster : 

{Nicholas' Letter.) (^Tho King's Remarks.) 

" By letters to particular persons which 
I have seen dated 25th September it is ad- 
vertised from Edinburgh that your Majesty 
hath nominated the Lord Lothian to be your 
chancellor. "Whatsoever the news that is 
come hither amongst the party of the pro- 
testers, they are observed to be here of late, 
very jocund and cheerful, and it is conceived 
to arise from some advertisements out of 
Scotland, from whose actions and successes 
they intend as I hear to take a pattern for 
their proceedings here at their meeting. 

This was apostiled on the 5th of October, but his Majesty men- 
tions that he had that day also received one dated the 1st {Ibid. 
p. 28). . . It has been well observed that Charles never very pointedly 
denied the commission. . . The Earl of Essex told Bishop Burnet 
that " he had taken all the pains he could to enquire into the origin 
of the Irish massacre, but he could see no reason to believe the 
king was accessory to it ; but he did believe that the queen did 



"It is not Lothian 
yet. 

" I believe that be- 
fore all be done, they 
will not have such 
great cause for joy. 



378 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF lOJl. 

hearken to the propositions made by the Irish, who undertook to 
take the governni(nit of Ireland into their own liands, which they 
thought they could perform and then they promised to assist the 
king against the hot spirits in Westminster (Burnet's Ilist. of Jiis 
07vn Times, vol. i. p. 41). I cannot distinguish between the king 
and queen considering their dark correspondence and joint plots. . . 
But here a distinction must be again pointed out between the 
massacre and the proposition by the Irish to take the government 
of that island into their own hands. Of being accessory to the first 
the king must be acquitted. The last is in a different predicament." 



APPENDIX. 379 



Y. 

Outbreak of the RebelIjIOn in Cobk.' 
(y. vol. i. p. 111.) 

" The misery and wretched calamity that now befals the English 
nation, was first bruited at Cork oil the 25th of April, 1641, that 
there should be a massacre of all the English in the city on May 
Day following, upon which report the primest of the English in St. 
Finbarry's betook themselves to the Fort on May Eve, whereupon 
the mayor forbade the bringing in of the May, (an ancient custom of 
that rich city) whereby no suspicion might be embarked in the 
hearts of the English, and his fair court made him and us seemingly 
secure. 

That day being May Eve, I came from Cork to my own house 
at Eoss Carberry, where I met with Dominick Coppinger, Esquire, 
who came to entreat me to dine with him the morrow after, at his 
house in Ballinvreine, and desired that my man might bring a 
musket to help to bring home the May, and set up a May Pole at his 
new intended plantation by the Powry bridge, where he had begun 
the foundation of a market house a mile from Ross. The former 1 
refused, the latter I sent him. This being past, all things were quiet 
and the raisers of that report were censured. But about the 20tli of 
November, McCarthy Reagh, O'Donovan, Tiegue O'Downy, Domi- 
nick Coppinger, justice of the peace, his brother Thomas Coppinger 
of the connnission, also Tiegue O'Driscol who married their sister, 
Dermot Glas alias Carthy, brother to Tiegue O'Downy, Tiegue 
MacFineen Carthy son of Finneen Carthy of Gortmaclough, Donoghd 
Carrogh alias O'Driscol, Keife O'Keife, Florence MacCarthy of Ben- 
duffe, Murrogh O'Donovan, Rickard O'Donovan, Dermot O'Donovan, 
Douogh O'Donovan, Cade O'Donovan, all brothers of O'Donovan, 
and their sons with Daniel MaoOwny O'Donovan of the Freugt {sic), 
and Monartagh [sic) O'Donovan and his sons and Rickard O'Donovan 
of Kilfinian, and all the rest of the Irish gentry of East and West Car- 
berry, were summoned by McCarthy, Lord of the coimtry, to appear 

' MSS. T.C.D. 



380 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IJJl. 

at {illegible) the Friday following by virtue of a commission granted 
from the Lord President of Munster to the said MacCarthy to impress 
and raise according to his ability as many soldiers as could be pro- 
vided by them to defend the western parts, they hearing that there 
was a rebellion in the eastern parts of Munster. 

On Friday, being the 7th of January, the gentry before named 
with their freeholders and tenants that day met, and after their 
treacherous meeting was dissolved, they went to Mr. Edward New- 
man's house, and there told me that they would ever stand for our 
defence against the rebels in Tipperary and Limerick. In the very 
interim there came in the constable of Ross, to desire Dominick 
Coppinger, or his brother Thomas, commissioners of the peace, to 
examine one Dermot O'Brinnyand six others who had stolen divers 
cows from an Englishman the night before, but they utterly refused 
it, saying that they were on the king's business already, so that in 
the churchyard before them all, there fled away four of the robbers, 
and none of the Irish would lay hands on them, though the con- 
stable in the king's name commanded them to do so. 

The 2nd of January, at 12 of the clock at night, word came to 
us from Tiegue O'Downy, that we must shift for our lives, otherwise 
we should all be killed on a sudden, whereupon we all fled presently 
to Rathbarry Castle, a mile from the town, being in great danger of 
our lives, which by God's help we did, they seizing our goods Avitli- 
out doors and within. The governor of Bandon hearing of those 
troubles sent on the (illegible) day of that inst., one Captain Hoop, 
a Scotsman, to Ross, who coming to the town found nothing there 
of any value and the rebels fled so he returned. Upon the 24th 
day of January, the Lord of Kinalmeaky came from Bandon to 
Clonakilty, where he lay all night, being most tempestuous weather, 
and but six troopers to Rathbarry Castle that night, who (illegible) on 
purpose to know the strength of the town of Ross, answer was 
returned we could not tell, but we saw numbers of people resorting 
thither, yet Lord Kinalmeaky came half the way from Clonakilty to- 
wards (illegible), but the weather being so tempestuous and the enemy 
strong he returned to Bandon. About the 3rd of February, Mr. 
Joseph Salmon, Mr. Henry Hull and John Vincent, servant to Mr. 
Samuel Salmon, who kept Glandore Castle, ventured to come to 
Rathbarry Castle three miles distant, the very day all the barony of 
Ibawne rose and showed themselves before the castle of Rathbarry, 
yet their (illegible) would (illegible) home to Glandore, but as they 
were riding home they Avere set upon, two of them then taken being 
sore wounded, and John Vincent was shot, who falling down, they 
presently came in upon him, stripped him stark naked not being 



APPENDIX. 381 

yet dead, presently threw a heap of stones upon him, which while 
they were doing as long as he had breath he called them rebels 
and murderers. Those were the first men of the English that were 
slain in those parts. And that very same night the rebels took the 
castle of Donnemcas, where Mr. Richard Hungerford, his two sons, 
and his daughter-in-law, were taken prisoners, with three men and 
eight women and children, who were afterwards ransomed by my 
Lord of Kinalmeaky. Upon the 7th of February Florence Mac- 
Carthy of Benduffe and his rebellious crew took two of the Rath- 
barry Castle men who were gone out to fetch some furze for firing, 
who being carried to Eoss, one was cut in divers pieces and the 
other upon much entreaty was first stripped naked and then hanged. 
About the 17th day of February, the Down {illegible) Castle was 
yielded upon quarter to the rebels, that they the besieged should 
have what goods they could carry and be conducted safe to Castle- 
haven, where Rickard O'Donovan, as they were on their journey, 
met them and stripped them contrary to their quarter, some were 
wounded and part came all safe to Castlehaven. Upon the 14th of 
March eight men and eleven women of the castle of Donnmahon, 
as they were washing clothes, were taken by the rebels, none were 
slain but all ransomed by the Lord of Kinalmeaky, and that night 
the rebels cast a trench, before the castle gate, by which means they 
kept Mr. Barliam who was the owner of the castle from water ; 
whereupon before ten days' siege he surrendered the castle upon 
quarter, but as eight of the {illegible) of the rebels were in the 
castle with him delivering the orders of their agreement, one of the 
king's ships called the r>uonaventure shot at the rebels from 
14 or 15 pieces of ordnance, which made them fly, and sent the 
longboat on oars with a small prize in her and GO musketeers, who 
marched to the castle and brought Mr. Barham and a great 
many women and children who were then with him out of the 
castle, aboard the ship, and set fire to it, thinking to burn all the 
goods therein, which wore of great value, but presently after Mr. 
Barham's departure an Englishwoman, that was hid in the clilfs 
thinking to remain until Mr. Barham came back, went into the 
castle quenched the fire and saved all the goods ; and the next day 
John Barry, captain of the rebels, his brother Edmund and his 
brother William Barry and Thomas MacMahony O'Hea came to 
the castle, seeing the coast clear and entered upon all the goods, 
whereupon they sent to the Lady 0' {illegible) to Timoleague who 
came thither herself, and to her the goods were delivered ; she had 
for her part eight {illegible) loads of bedding and clothes, and other 
provision which was supposed to be third part of the goods in the 



382 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

castle. The other two parts Captain John Barry and his hrotliers 
divided. 

Upon Palm Sunday eve ahout half an hour before sun setting, 
the sun was encompassed about wjth a circle as red as blood, and 
presently after there went a stroke throughout it, like blood, part of 
the sun appearing on one side q-nd part on the other side, which 
continued for the space of a quarter of an hour, at last it seemed all 
blood which was fearful and terrible to behold, and a little after the 
sun appeared bright. Upon Trinity Sunday there came fifty pike- 
men and thirty musketeers of the rebels to a meadow near adjoin- 
ing the castle of Rathbarry, where 18 horses were feeding, which 
they thought to have taken away, but six of our musketeers and 
four pikemen went forth and turned the horses into the castle, 
and then fought with the rebels and killed six of them, only one of 
our men was shot in the thigh ; there was on the top of the hill 
some half a mile from the castle 1,200 of the rebels, who showed 
themselves to the castle and sent unto us to yield upon quarter. 
Answer was returned that we scorned to take quarter at their hands. 
The 9tli day of Ji^ly, a boat being made in the castle of barrel boards, 
by one John Sellers, a miller, it was carried on men's shoulders in 
the dead of the night to the sea, being a quarter of a mile from the 
castle, wherein four men were put who rowed tliat night to Castle- 
haven, thinking to find there one of the king's ships to acquaint the 
castle with the great distress for victuals of those within the castle, 
biit finding none there, they came away the 13th day of that instant 
July in another great boat to Glandore at midnight, with 12 men 
•where they found the Elizabeth of Plymouth ; the captain thereof 
being one Captain Brown, who had done great service in the western 
parts in burning the Irish dwellings and killing all that he met, 
withall bringing off many distressed English, and the boatsmen 
acquainting him with the misery of the castle, he came the next 
morning about 8 of the clock and sent two longboats ashore, and 
60 there came from the castle 75 men, women, and children, 
who were like all to be cut off by (the rebels of) the baronies of 
Carberry and Ibawne, had he, Captain Brown, not kept them oft" witli 
his ordnance. And he brought us that night safe to Kinsale, where- 
upon some of us going aboard to the Admiral in the Swallow, 
acquainted hjm with the distress of those that were left behind, 
upon which the next morning he went himself aboard of the Lord 
Forbes' ship, Avho was general of the army then newly come into 
Kinsale harbour, who called a council of war, and that afternoon 
went towards Bandon Bridge, the true relation wliereof hereafter 
folio weth." 



APPENUIX. 383 

The anonymous fragment breaks off here, but from the following 
letter it would appear that the rebels at Kinsale began their work 
earlier than those in the city of Cork. Lord Kinalmeaky mentioned 
in the above narrative was the fourth son of Richard, Earl of Cork. 
He married in 1G39 Lady Elizabeth Fielding, daughter of the Earl 
of Denbigh, but was killed at the battle of Liscarrol on the 3rd of 
September, 1642, leaving no issue. 

Sib Henry Stkadling from Kinsale to Sir John Pennington.' 

Honoured Sir,— I arrived here on the second present. This 
country, which I ever thought most free from disloyalty of any in 
Ireland, is at this instant in a general revolt, and the Enghsh in a 
very miserable condition, fallen from much plenty on a sudden to so 
much poverty that they ovm nothing. Every Irishman now declares 
lumself a rebel and of all tliis province only the towns of Kinsale, 
Cork, and Youghal, (a little kept in awe by the castles) stand out for 
the king ; and Bandon-Bridge inhabited only by English. On Tues- 
day last there was a meeting of the chief men in these parts, most of 
which pretended to be good subjects, and they have all taken oath 
and entered into confederacy to extirpate the English ; the names of 
some I can remember, My Lord of Muscroe [Muskerry), Macartie 
(a man of much power) Macartie Eey [Bcagh), Teg O'Doney, and 
some ten more ; and they have appointed one Colonel Barry (Ljen- 
tenant-Colonel to my Lord Barrymoro last year in the north) to bo 
their general of these forces. There is very Httle quarter given of 
either side and nothing to be expected but destruction, When I 
shall have the happiness of an opportunity I shall take the boldness 
to tender my service to you and Sir, as long as I live, endeavour tq 
express myself to my power. 

Your faithful servant, 
Kinsale, March Gth, 1641. Hen. Steadlingb, 

.IfWrcsscc^ .•—" For my honourable friend Sir John Pennington, 

" knight, these." 
Endorsed .•-—♦' March 6th from Sir Henry Stradling," 

- MSS. Rolls House. 



oSi THE IRTSTI MASSACRES OF 1011. 



z. 

The following proffer of testimony against an Irish rebel by two 
of his countrymen (seventeenth century " Careys") appears to have 
been preserved by the royalist or republican commissioners as an 
etymological curiosity. The original MS. is carefully bound up with 
the other documents in one of the volumes of depositions in Trinity 
College. 

" Theise ar to sertif that i Knogher ma guire and Log])lin 
farnegan, that in regard wee have not goode Englis wee could not 
expres our minds to the ful. Therefore all that Avee both can 
saye is that in regard wee cannot seure that wee did here him 
Cohonaght o garvey say that bee did kil the woman, but wee did 
hero many others that was pressent and before his fase and lice 
himselfe did never deneye it, but wee can bring in too that can 
iustifie that they hard himselef confes seueral times that lie did 
murder an Engliswoman and did produse his skene and did show 
the nix that her hed did make in it, the names of these tow wit- 
nessies ar Hugh Farrele of Magestown in the barrinny of 
Nannin and Turlogh Mac Carran of Tooltoilno near Keles." 
The proffered testimony was rejected by the Commissioners, who 
had more than enough of trustworthy witnesses to hear. 

The following extract from the MS. autobiography of a clergy- 
man who was with the besieged in the Castle of Tralee in 1042, 
has I believe been already published by one of his descendants, an 
English admiral, author of Travels in Greece and Asia Minor. 
Some account of the Rev. Devereux Spratt will be found in tlio 
Clerical Eecords of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross, edited by tlie Rev. 
Dr. Maziere Brady. 

" May 1st, 1020. I was born in a parish called Stratton on Vosse, 
in the county of Somerset, where I was religiously educated by my 
parents, Mr. Thomas Spratt and Elizabeth his wife, my father 
being a reverend, godly divine, whom God made instrumental in 
the conversion of many souls. When I was fourteen years old my 



APPENDIX. 385 

father dioil, afterwards I was sent to Maudlin Hall iu the University 
of Oxford, wlicro 1 took my dogroo, after wliicli I removed to Ireland, 
my mother Elizabeth being called there by her father Mr. Robert 
Cooke, a reverend divine, pastor of the parish called the Island of 
Kerry in the county of Kerry, where I remained not long, but was 
called to the head town of the county named Tralee, where I was 
tutor to 8ir Edward Domy's three sons. After, by persuasion of 
friends, I entered into the functions of the ministry. In October, 
1641, the horrid rebellion of Ireland broke forth, and in it God's 
severe judgments on the English Protestants, there being no less 
tlian 100,000 murdered, as by public records appeareth. In 
February, 1041, it reached us (in Tralee), the whole county behig 
up in rebellion, and the two companies besieging us in two castles, 
Avhen I saw the miserable destruction of 120 men, women, and 
children, by sword and famine and many diseases, among whom fell 
my mother Elizabeth and my youngest brother Joseph, both of 
whom lie interred there. This was a sad aflliction, yet I was com- 
forted by the good end my brother made, being but eight years old, 
yet he begged me to pray for him and gave good assurance of dying 
in the Lord. After {illegible) months' siege both castles were sur- 
rendered upon articles into the hands of the Irish rebels. Then the 
Lord removed me to Ballybeggan garrison, where I preached the 
gospel to the poor stripped Protestants there, and passing thence 
to P>allingarry, an island near the Shannon, I fell sick of fever, out 
of which the Lord delivered me. Then having an opportunity I 
returned to Ballybeggan, Captain Ferriter being my convoy, where 
I remained in the discharge of my calling until the English army 
came to carry us off. At which time the enemy burnt both the 
castle and town of Tralee, and twice set upon us on our march to 
Cork, but with the power of God we still beat them. Then at Cork 
I petitioned the Lord Inchiquin, who gave me a pass for England, 
and coming to Youghal in a boat, I embarked there in one John 
Filmer's vessel, which set sail with about six score passengers, but 
before we were out of sight of land we were all taken prisoners by 
an Algerine pirate, who put the men in chains and stocks. This 
thing was so grievous that I began to question Providence and to 
accuse Him of injustice in His dealings with me, until He made it 
appear otherwise by extending mercy to me. Upon my arrival in 
Algiers, I found some fellow-Christians who changed my former 
thouo-hts of God that He dealt more hardly with me than with 
others of His servants. God was pleased to guide me and those 
relations of mine taken with me hi a providential ordering of civil 
patrons for us, who gave us more liberty than ordinary, especially 
VOL. II. ^ ^ 



aSC) THE IRISH MASSACRES OF Kill. 

to me, so that I preached the gospel to my poor countrymen 
amongst whom it pleased God to make me an instrument of much 
good. I had not stayed long there when I was like to he freed by 
one Captain Wilde, a pious Christian, but on a sudden I was sold 
and delivered over to a Mussulman dAvelling with his family in the 
town, upon which sudden disappointment I was very sad. ]\Iy 
patron asked me the reason, and withal uttered those comfortable 
words ' God is great,' which took such an impression as strength- 
ened my faith in God, considering with myself ' Shall this Ma- 
hometan teach me who am a Christian my duty of faith and de- 
pendence upon God?' After this a bond of l.OOOZ., preserved in 
my pocket at sea when all else was lost, was now like to be lost, the 
chest wherein it lay being broken up by thieves. After this God 
stirred up the heart of Captain "Wilde to be an active instrument for 
mo at Leagurno {sic) in Italy, amongst the merchants there to contri- 
bute liberally towards my ransom, which amounted to 200 cols, which 
after the Captain returned to Algiers he paid. Upon this a peti- 
tion was presented by the English captives for my staying amongst 
them, that he showed me and asked mo what I would do in such a 
case. I told him ho was an instrument under God of my liberty 
and I would be at his disposal ; he answered, ' no,' I was a free 
man and should be at my own disposing. Then I replied ' I will 
stay,' considering that I might be more serviceable to my country 
by my continuing in enduring affliction with the people of God than 
to enjoy liberty at home. Two years afterwards a proclamation was 
issued that all free men must be gone. I then got my free card, 
which cost fifty cols, and departed with several of my counti-ymen to 
Provence, where I fomid the English merchants very civil to me. 
At {illegible) I embarked in a vessel bound to London, Ave touched 
at Malaga, where I went ashore to refresh myself. From thence 
we put to sea again, and coming on the coast of Cornwall, the 
Vice-Admiral Batten invited me on board his ship, and kept me a 
time as chaplain to his squadron, and going to the Downs I parted 
from him and went to London, thence to a kinsman, one Mr. 
Thomas Spratt, Minister of Greenwich. After a time the Lord 
opened a door of settlement for me in a place in the county of Cork 
called Mitchclstown." 



He was appointed rector of Mitchclstown parish, in which I be- 
lieve he died late in the reign of Charles II. Sir lulward Denny, 
in whose family ho was living as tutor when the rebellion began, 
was the great gnindson of Sir Anthony Denny (the favourite of 



AITENDIX. 387 

Henry YIII. and one of his executors) and his wife Joan Cliampor- 
iiowii, the aunt of llaleigli, and therefore the cousin of Edward 
-Denny, Earl of Norwicli, mentioned at p. 31, vol. i. Sir Edward 
married tlie Hon. Euth Kopcr, dau,^dlter of Eoper Lord Baltinglass 
by his wife Anna Harrington, of the Exton family, and had with 
other issue Sir Arthur his heir, Edward and John, the three sons 
to whom the Kev. Devcreux Spratt Avas tutor in 1641. From the 
eldest of the three descends the present Sir Edward Denny, Bart. 
An ijiteresting relic, an old English black-letter J'.ible, which was in 
'riitloo cliurcli during the two rebellions of 1011 and 1088, when 
tlie town was burnt, escaped the flames, and is still preserved hi tlie 
Denny family. It retains the old covers, Avith metal loops at the 
edges for fastening it with chains to the lectern or reading-desk in 
tlie church. It is probably tlio oldest English Protestant Bible in 
Ireland. 



ADDENDA. 



The Examination op George Creichton, op Virginia, in the 

COUNTY OP CaVAN, CLERK. 

{Ilarhian MSS. 5,999.) 

This examt., duly sworn, deposetli {inter alia) that Tnrloj^li 
]\[acShane MacPhillip O'Reilly, captain of rebels in the comity of 
Cavan, this 23rd of October, lG-11, told this deponent that there was 
a general insiu-rection through the whole kingdom, that the castlo 
of Dublin and all the castles and cities in the kingdona were taken ; 
that all the Catholics in Ireland should else have been compelled to 
go to Church or they should have been all hanged before their own 
doors on Tuesday then next, and asked this deponent if he were not 
privy to such a plot among the English. 

This deponent further saitli, that upon the Tuesday night after 
the beginning of the rebellion, being the 2Gth of October, 1041, 
Colonel Eichard Plunkett and Captain Nugent, both rebels, camo 
to Virginia, and the said Colonel would needs make this deponent 
believe that all the cities and castles in Ireland were taken by the 
Catholics, the city and castle of Dublin only excepted, and that 
there was assux-edly great wars raised in England. 

The said Colonel Plunkett also said he had a contract under the 
hands of all the Earls and Lords in Ireland that were Catholics, to 
stand firm in this insurrection. ' What ! ' said this deponent, ' you 
have a covenant among you as the Scots have.' ' Yea,' said he, * the 
Scots have taught us our A B C ;' in the meantime he so trembled 
that he could scarce carry a cup of drink to his head. This deponent 
further saith, that upon Wednesday, October 17th, 1G41, there came 
to Virginia four hundred and forty stripped English Protestants, 
many of them sore wounded, and this deponent desiring the said 
Colonel Plunkett to come to the door and to look on the first fruits 
of this war, the said Colonel at the sight wept and said Rory ]\raguire 



ADDENDA. 389 

had uudoiie ihcm all : their plot was not to kill or to rob any man, 
but to seize on the persons and estates of all the British, and when 
they had all in their hands then to present their petition to the 
House of Commons in England, and if their petitions were granted 
then to restore every man as he was ; if it Avere not granted, then 
to do as seemed good unto them. After this came a great number 
of stripped Protestants from about Ballyhayes in the county of 
Cavan, and afterwards about 1,400 from Belturbet in the same 
county, and after many more from about Cavan , and the parish of 
Dun [illegible). All whom this deponent, by (rcd's especial provi- 
dence and through the favour of his parishioners and the O'lleillys 
(being left among them as yet not robbed being a Scottish man), to 
his power having store of provisions relieved : who in all likelihood, 
had not the Almighty so prevented the rebels that they spared him 
(this deponent), had perished all or the most part of them by famine, 
starving with cold, or the rebels' malice ere they could have reached 
Dublin. 

And further saith, that the English who came from northward 
told him, this deponent, and the company that was with him at 
Virginia aforesaid that the Irish that pillaged them told them that 
they should be of good comfort because they were sent away with 
their lives, but that they had a sorer matter to put in execution 
against the Scots. And further saith, that ho had heard some of 
the rebels say that their purpose at first was to spare the Scots and 
to make them all prisoners, and then if their countrymen would 
relinquish the quarrel of the English and be content that their 
friends in Ireland should be despoiled of their goods and lands, then 
they would spare the prisoners' lives, otherwise they would put all 
the Scots to death. But the blessed providence of God setting 
limits to their proceedings and saving the castle of Dublin all their 
purposes and resolutions were altered, and what they did but 
fcignedly pretend in sparing the Scots before they heard of the 
ciiistlo of Dublin being safe, now tlioy did desire that the Scots 
should believe to be intended with all reality ; for having before 
they were aware so much provoked the English, it was very likely 
they would have willingly made the Scots their friends, being won- 
derfully dismayed when they heard they had failed in their main 
design of taking the castle of Dublin ; for some of them came to 
this deponent desiring advice what they should do with some 
Englishmen's goods that they had gotten into their hands. And 
the Irish would tell this deponent that the Scots were their kindred 
and had not oppressed them in their government, and if the Scotf^ 
would be honest men and ttake heir parts they would share the 



390 THE lUISII MASSACKES OF IGH. 

kingdoms among them ; tliey (the Irish) bulieved that the Scots 
would not forget the great trouble (as they said) the English ])vo- 
cured lately in Scotland ; now (they said) it was their case with the 
English, and they resolved never to have any Englishman to be 
Chief Governor of Ireland but either an Irishman, a Scotsman, or an 
ould Brittayne (sic). 

This deponent further saith, that upon Thursday, October the 
28th, 1641, Captain Owen MacShane MacPhillip O'Reilly and one 
Maolmore O'Reilly coming from Dublin to Virginia, being saluted 
by this deponent, he observed that their liands trembled exceedingly ; 
those two among others were appointed to assist in taking the 
castle of Dublin and Avere once, as they said, taken themselves, but 
made an escape. All of them looked with heavy countenances, and 
Captain Nugent before named said to this deponent that he believed 
if they who began this business had it yet to begin they would 
never go in hand with it. And this deponent further saith, that 
when the O'lleillys of the county Cavan assembled in great com- 
panies to go to the beleaguering, or as they called it the taking of 
Drogheda, and I'liilip IMacIIugh MacShane, Colonel and chief of the 
rebels of that county, seemed slow in bringing in his men so that 
some stayed (waited) for him a while at Virginia, their general 
rendezvous, so that the rebels tliere seemed suspicious that he would 
forsake them, the mother of the said Philip being their prisoner 
gave her counsel that if he failed them they should send their 
soldiers and pillage his tenants. 

This deponent further saith, that Mr. Daniel Crcan, an Irishman 
and some time a priest of the Romish Church, then minister of the 
next adjoining parish, did at Virginia, before one Thomas MacKernan, 
guardian of Dundalk, with great confidence ailirm that the friars 
had preached in his parish that the Irish shoiild not leave with any 
English Protestant twopence worth of goods, of Avhich the said Mr. 
Crean did likewise complain before divers of the Irish, and (said) 
that the priests and friars had formerly undone O'Neil and O'Dormcll 
and had now raised up a mischief that would go near to undo tho 
whole kingdom, which words of his (Mr. Crean's) had almost cost 
him his life, one seeking to save him, another to betray him. 

And this deponent observed that it pleased Cod so to divide the 
Irish amongst themselves thereby the lives of many have been 
saved, as was not only this Mr. Crean but also this deponent and 
many in his company several times at Virginia, where one great 
rebel or tho meaner rout would seek to destroy them and another 
would for that time save them. Albeit tho niiiin thing that delivered 
him and his company from the malice of the priests and friars his 



ADDENDA. 391 

greatest enemies, who once persuaded and sent men to destroy 
them, from whom they were hardly by others dehvercd was a mes- 
sage sent from Sir Paul Davis, elerk of the county, and Captain 
William Cadogan, who enjoined one Friar Nugent, who had license 
to pass for exchange of prisoners, to tell the priests and friars of 
that county, that if this deponent miscarried, his death should be 
revenged on all the priests and friars that should be found about 
Dublin. By which means he had from the rebels greater respect 
and his enemies were his guards against their will. This deponent 
further saith, that after the overthrow of the six hundred English 
at Clillianstown going to Drogheda, it is incredible how the Irish 
were lifted up, how all that were something friendly before to this 
deponent and his company had now changed their countenances, 
and that this deponent was informed by the rebels that at the over- 
throw Colonel Byrne was a principal actor, the first man tliat dis- 
charged his pistol exhorted to spare none, but kill all, now was the 
hno of their deliverance. And further saith, that he heard credibly 
that friars were dispersed among the rebel soldiers, who with tears 
exhorted and set them on to kill the English, whom God had so 
wonderfully given into their hands, and the rebel soldiers assured 
him and others at Yirgmia that they had killed divers wliom they 
would have spared but that their captains would have otherwise 
killed them. 

This deponent further saith, that some of the Irish rebels told 
him that they admired [i.e. wondered) at the behaviour of tlio 
English, being so many and well armed, why they did not at once 
at least discharge their muskets, and that if they had made but ten 
shots the Irish would have tied, they concluded that God had taken 
away the heart of the English, and now they would destroy them 
all out of the kingdom (their words behig ' noiv xcc will devour the 
seed of the English out of the land '), and they said when they had 
rid them out of Ireland, they would go over into England and not 
leave the memorial of the l<^nglish name under heaven, and some 
said they would have England as long in possession as the English 
had possessed Ireland. 

The O'Keillys did much extol themselves for being the destroyers 
of those GOO English, for that by their valour, as they said, all the 
pale before that morning and all Ireland was brought together to 
be joined in that war. This deponent further deposeth, that he and 
others in his company heard from divers persons bitter words cast 
out about Dublin, viz. that they would burn and ruin it, destroy all 
records and manuscripts of the English Government, they spake of 
laws to be made that the EngHsh tongue should not be spoken, but 



392 THE irasii massacres of ig4i. 

this deponent vcmcmbcreth not whether that law sliouki take phice 
through Ireland or Ulster only, and that all the names given to 
lands or places by the English should be abolished and the ancient 
names restored. And that the Earl of Fingal demanded of this 
deponent what was the ancient name of Virginia, who replied, as this 
deponent could remember, Aghanure, whereupon the said Earl said 
that must be the name thereof again. 

This deponent further saith, that he had conference with divers 
of the pale gentlemen, concerning the bitterness of the Irish against 
the English, and they acknowledged that it was common for them 
to hear the same and a great deal more than this deponent had 
observed, saying withal that they were surely all bewitched to join 
with such bitter cursed people, from whom they were sure to find as 
bitter persecution as from the English, and that Sir Phelim lloe 
O'Neil had told them that they (meaning the old Irish) hoped they 
had noAv requited them (meaning those of the pale) for helping the 
English in former times against the Irish ; * you,' said they (the 
Irish), ' broke our heads heretofore, now we hope we have broken 
yours, you brought plantations into our land, now we hope to have 
the i^lantations in the counties of Mcath and Dublin.' This de- 
ponent further saith, that it was declared to this deponent and others 
of his company by divers of the Irish, that upon the overthrow of 
the aforesaid six hundred (English) the O'Eeillys had concluded to 
kill all the Protestants that were in the county of Cavan, however 
it pleased God to divert that their cruel resolution, though while 
they spared this deponent and his company they were as dead men 
every hour, seeing their lives not so much regarded as the life of a 
dog. 

This deponent further saith, that about the 19th of February, 
1G41, about ten or twelve of tlie rebels assaulted the house wherein 
this deponent and his company was, and had not a neighbour and 
parishioner to this deponent by persuasions diverted them would 
have put them all to the sword, alleging to that neighbour of his 
that they had directions from the priests and friars to kill thorn. 
This deponent farther saith, that the rebels after they failed in their 
hopes of taking Droghoda, as they came homo were more mild in 
their behaviour tlian before and began to pray for peace and at last 
to curse them that began the war. 

This deponent fiu-ther saith, that the Popish prete}Klcd Bishop of 
Kilmore, retiu-ning from a great meeting of the Popish clergy held 
at Kells about the 2Brd of ]\Iarch, then next told this deponent that 
the council of their (the Irish) commonwoallh had made a law that 
all that went not to mass should be sent out of the country, and 



ADDENDA. 393 

afterwards put it to this deponent's clioice wlicther ho would go to 
mass or be sent to the gaol of Cavan, at which words one Phelini 
MacShenien sitting near this deponent whispered him in the ear, 
' 2Ir. Crichton, they speak of carri/ing you to gaol, but you are to he 
killed before you come there.' 

The same bishop going out of town a dog ran fiercely at his 
horse, and the bishop having drunk very much, was almost cast to 
the ground. Whereat, ' do you see,' said he (the bishop), ' the very 
dogs here are not yet converted.' 

This deponent further saith, after the O'Eeiilys were returned 
from Drogheda the Earl of Fingal w'ent for them to come into this 
country of Meath ; that one of the O'Reillys read the letter to this 
deponent, and that this deponent perceived that the O'Reillys were 
suspicious the pale had some purpose to bring the people of Ulster 
into a snare and revenge their cruel oppression and pillaging where- 
with they had wasted the county of Meath. And further saith, 
that the Earl of Fingal was his bitter enemy, and that the Countess 
of Fingal told him (the Earl) that this deponent had made a 
catalogue of all the English driven out of the country and had sent 
it to the justices. 

This deponent further saith, that being m distress in his own 
parish and having requested the Popish priest of the parish to put 
his neighbours in mind to supply him with some victuals, some of 
them told this deponent that the parish priest said to the people 
that the Protestants there (all in distress) were no better than dogs, 
that they Avere altogether unworthy that they should give them 
anything, but they might give it if they would, but strictly forbade 
them to visit or converse with this deponent. 

This deponent further saith, that he never saw such base cove- 
tousness as did show itself in these Irish rebels, such bitter in- 
veighings and en:iulations, such oppositions and divisions behind 
the backs of one another ; sometimes the chief of the Irish would 
make heavy moan for tlie great evils they perceived were coming 
on their country and kindred, and said they saw utter destruction 
at hand, for they had cai'ried so great bitterness for so long tune 
in their hearts and had now so suddenly broken out against them 
that had brought them up, kept them in their houses like their own 
children and made no difference between them and their English 
friends and kindred, by all which the English had so well deserved 
of them and they had requited them so evil, that the English would 
never trust them hereafter, so that now it remained that either they 
must destroy the English or the English must destroy them. 

This deponent further saith, that one time Colonel Plunkett the 



304 THE IinSII iNIASSACrtES OF KMl. 

Earl of Fingal's brother, and one Mr. Strake of Ballhurne {sic) told 
this deponent that it was their priests and friars that had undone 
them, they had no want of wealth and good land and liberty of con- 
science they said, and yet tliey must not they know not what for 
their clergy to make them great. They cursed themselves if ever 
they would believe either priest or friar, whom they had foinid to 
be such cheating knaves, and such as to save a priest or friar would 
not care if their best gentlemen were hanged. 

This deponent further saith, that the Lord of Gormanstown was 
pleased one day to fall into discourse with this deponent and made 
great complaint of the misfortune of these times, that ho had 
adhered to the English in the begimiing and received arms out of 
the king's store, that when he saw there was danger to lose them 
he had sent them to Drogheda, but in the end he spake many 
bitter words against the Lords Justices and of all the Privy Coun- 
sellors by name that did then, as he said, freqixent the council board. 
And this was most manifest in almost all the gentlemen of the pale, 
and greater eagerness did sliOAV itself in the gentlewomen than in 
the men, that they were irreconcilable enemies to the English 
nation, for such were their words that they were sorry that they 
suffered any English to pass safe to Dublin ; and in their discourses 
among themselves, speaking of what number of English were killed 
in the several counties of the kingdom, the men of Fingal and the 
pale did maintain they had killed far more than other counties ; and 
at other times those people of the pale driven from their own homes 
by our forces and being at Virginia and thereabouts among the 
Irish, charged the northern L'ish to be the men that had undone 
the whole kingdom, saying it was that covetousness that hath 
Avronged us all, for 'if (said they) you had deatroijed the English 
in their several divellings and maintained them on their oion goods 
then had toe had i^lcdges in our hands that might have stood us in 
good stead.' 'You,' said the O'Keillys, 'might have then hilled 
them, for ive sent tliem to yo2c.' And those two enemies were thus 
every day in one jar or another, and as this deponent believeth, hate 
one another, as nuxch as any two nations in the world. 

After they had had these controversies amongst themselves they 
would many times apart make their complaints to this deponent ; 
the people of the pale saying, how unfortunate they were to be 
joined to such people (as the Irish), who had ever been their enemies, 
or to have need of such, in whom there was neither honesty nor 
worth; 'a people' (they said) 'jjro^c/ without anything tliat vas 
lionourable, covetous without indw.try, and bragging wiUiout valour,' 
calling them 'a conipaiiy of thieves,' which this deponent knoweth 



ADDENDA. 395 

they had reason to call them, for that the northern Irish stole their 
English muttons as heing such as were taken from the English, 
and every day some of their horses would be missing and the 
O'ilcillys got many a crowii to find them for their owners and 
within a while they were stolen again. 

The O'Reillys would have druik from the pale people had they 
money to pay for it or not. And the northern Irish would call 
the pale men cowards, saying they had no heart, nor durst fight 
Avith the English ; they would {illegible) where there was a good 
sword or piece, and by night, sometimes by day, would enter the 
houses of the men of the pale and take what they would ; they 
raised continual taxes and levies and cessed soldiers upon the pale 
so that if the Turks had been their lords they could not, as this 
deponent conceiveth, have done worse. 

This deponent further saith, that the priest of the parish of 

Lurgan did so hate the pale people that he would not that any of 

their priests or friars should say mass in his parish, and the people 

of the pale did so hate him that they Avould not come to hear him. 

Neither party believed each other, the Irish would usually abuse 

those of the pale with news of foreign aids landed at Wexford and 

Kmsale, and while they were thus telling lies one to another and 

seemed to give themselves comfort in telling them, some would 

sometimes conic in from Dublin and tell them some news that 

would change all their cheer and then how earnestly would they 

pray for peace and many a bitter curse would they give to them 

that bega)i the war. They would affirm that the parliament of 

England was the cause of all their harms, and being by this deponent 

demanded what laws they had made to their prejudice he was 

answered that they (the English) were about to make (thenr). 

This deponent further saith, that in the parish of Kells, in the county 

of Meath, the year before this rebellion a hundi'cd and forty women 

bare so many children unlawfully begotten, three score whereof 

lived in the town of Kells, this was often acknowledged to this 

deponent to be true by the Papists themselves. This deponent 

further saith, that he observed that the Irish after the overthrow of 

our men at Gellingstown grew more proud and cruel, and that one 

Turlogh O'Reilly that had a sore hand, going to the siege of Drogheda, 

being after his return demanded by one of this deponent's family 

how his hand did, replied ' vcri/ well now dnce I have been killing 

En(jli>ih people ! ' and divers the like expressions of their affection 

to the EngUsh they heard from the rebels. This deponent further 

saith, that the Olieillys who had been at the slaughter of the 

English at Gellhigstown aforesaid acknowledged that the English 



396 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF IGil, 

did yield themselves and called to their old acquaintances and 
friends amongst the rebels for mercy, but they spared not any. And 
further this deponent saith, that during his abode among the rebels, 
about the time that so many stripped English passed through 
Virginia divers women constantly witnessed and affirmed to this 
deponent that in their company and fights a young woman tlien 
present with them being almost naked was near this deponent's 
house set upon by a rebel, who demanding money of her and she 
answering that she had none, the rebel told her that if she would 
not deliver her money he would kill her with his sword, and there- 
with drew it, to whom the young woman replied ' you cannot kill 
me unless God gives you leave and His will be done,' and instantly 
the rebel struck three times at her naked body with his drawn 
sword and yet never cut her skin, albeit those that know the Irish 
know that they carry no swords unless they be very sharp and there- 
withal the rebels seemed confounded and left her. 
Jnrat. 15th die April, 1G43, 
Coram, John Sterne. 
Wm. Aldkicii. 



Council Books op Commonwealth. 

{Dublin P.B.O.) 

To the Bt. lion, tJie Lord Deputy and Council in Ireland. 

My Lords, — Edward Plunkett, one of the sons of Luke Earl of 
Fingal in Ireland, having by petition to his Highness set forth there 
being a small estate in lands called Drumbarah and Caslaughton 
in the county of Meath of about the yearly value of lOOL settled on 
him by his said father in his lifetime, he was shortly after his father's 
death, Avhich he allegeth to be in the year 1G35, the petitioner being 
then in his minority, sent by his friends to travel in foreign parts 
for his education, where he continued about nine or inn years, anil 
on his return towards England was taken by the Turks and was 
carried to Bailee, where he remained in captivity five years, and 
about January last arrived in England, having not been in Ireland 
since his travels and captivity. And therefore expresses his hopes 
that his estate so settled on him shall not be adjudged liable to 
forfeiture or sale, his Highness and the Council in consideration 
thereof have thought fit to refer it to your Lordships to examine 
the petitioner's title to the said estate, and if you shall find the 



ADDENDA. 397 

same to bo as is before set forth tlien you are desired and hereby 
authorised to cause possession thereof to be fortlnvith delivered to 
him. 

Signed, itc, 
WJiitehall, Hen. Lawrence, 

21 October, 1G5G. Prcs. 



Ckomwell to Same. 

Gentlemen, — Having received the two enclosed petitions and 
paper of John Prendergast and the Widow Brooke, whose cases 
have been so represented to me which if true may deserve some 
tender regard. Wherefore I thought fit to recommend to your 
consideration that they may be permitted to reside on and enjoy 
their present estates and habitations unless there be some instant 
cause to the contrary. However, I would have their transplantation 
to be suspended until I receive from you an accompt of their par- 
ticular cases and conditions and that you receive further order 
therein. 

Your loving friend, 

Whitehall, Oliver P. 

22nd March, 1653. ' 



For the Lord Henry Cromwell. 

Upon the addresses of James Coppinger, Esq., finding that hig 
case if truly stated by the enclosed to be different from many others, 
and in respect his father was faithful to the parliament in assisting 
against the rebellion and lending at the first 500Z. towards the 
maintenance of the army, and supplying it with victuals and other 
necessai'ies, upon which account the rebels burned his house and 
his castles, and that he himself never acted against the parliament, 
and liath lately married a gentlewoman who is a Protestant, and 
of good repute, we desire that all favour may be shown him, both 
as to his estate and also in exempting him from transplantation 
and rest. 

Your loving father, 

Whitehall, Oliver P. 

lUh August, 1055. 



308 THE niTSII MASSACKES OF ir.ii. 



Order. 

It is desired tliat Dudley Colley of Carberry, in the county of 
Kildare, who is called Captain Colley, and Avas lately governor of 
Carberry Castler, on the enemy's behalf may be forthwith sent for 
as criminal for the murder of one John Brown. 

2nd Jan. 1652, 

Rob. Meredith. 
Ralph Hunt. 
r. W. Piers. 

For the liei/istrar of the IJicjh Court of Justice. 



The Examination of Nicholas Simpson, of the tmvn of GInsIogli, 
in the coxinty of MoungJuin, Esquire, Knt. of the Shire in. 
Parliament for the same county. 

This examt., duly sworn, depostth [inter alia) that on Saturday, 
the 23rd of October, lG-11, divers of the Sept of the IMac Wades {sic), 
fosterers to Tirlogh Oge O'Neil, came to the town of Glaslogh afore- 
said, being market day, pretendhig that the said Tirlogh had lost 
thirty English sheep, whose track they brought to the end of the 
town, for the following of which track they borrowed all the weapons 
they could get in the town. Then came the whole Sept of the 
]\IacWades {sic) into the town and brake into every man's house on 
the sudden, and possessed themselves of their weapons and wished 
every man to yield and that no hurt should be to any man ; for it 
was not their doing, but they had good warrant for what they did, 
and it was only to secure themselves against an order made at tlic 
Council Table of Ireland to hang all them that should refuse to go 
to church on the All Saints' Day after ; which order divers friars 
adirmcd in this deponent's hearing that they had seen, and that 
they had asked Sir Edward Trevor, a privy councillor, and then in 
their hands at the Newry, whether there was not such an order 
made at the Council Board, and that he had confessed there was 
such an order and that his hand was to it. And the said friars 
further confidently afiirmed that the warrants were out in every 
county under the hands of the justices of the peace, whose hands 
they said were to every warrant ; and although all the justices of 
the peace present protested to the contrary, yet the multiindc! 



ADDENDA. 399 

believed their lioly friars, and this was the greatest cause, as they 
pretended, of their cruel murders committed on the British. 

And this deponent further saith, that when those MacWades 
{sic) came in such multitudes upon the British in the town, which 
Avere but few, for the greater part there were Irish and ran to them, 
they the British Avere not able to resist them, for besides the sud- 
denness they had no powder amongst them ; the late proclamation 
against any having powder being so strict that none could be gotten 
but by license from the Newry, but yet they refused to yield to 
those rebels until some gentlemen of (piality in the county came 
to them. And further saith, that presently after night falling, 
Tirlogh Oge came and went directly into the castle and took pos- 
session thereof, and sent for all the British in the town unto him, 
and wished them to fear nothing, for there was no hurt intended 
against them, it was but to secure the Catholics, and he kept this 
deponent and divers others with him that night, when he affirmed 
to this deponent that all the noblemen of Ireland had their heads 
and hands in this insurrection, and many of tlio noblemen of 
England, but that he, the said Tirlogh, knew not of it above a fort- 
night before. And this deponent asked him (Tirlogh), knowiiig' he 
married the Earl of Antrim's bastard sister, whether the Bf^i had 
any knoAvledge of it, he told this deponent he could not t6ll, but' 
he was sure his Duchess had divers letters from many of the noble- 
men of England about it. He told this deponent further when he 
first heard of it, which was from his brother Sir Bhelimy, that he 
utterly dishked it, and persuaded Sir Phelimy from it and thought 
he had prevailed with him, until he heard he, Sir Phelimy, had 
taken Charlemont, and he assured this deponent that Monaghan, 
Newry, and Dublin and all the forts and castles of Ireland were 
taken before that time, for that was the day of taking them ; and 
that my Lord INlaguire and Hugh MacMahon were gone out of the 
north to take Dublin, and every messenger that came to him he 
said had brought him letters that Dublin and the castle were taken. 

But at last came Ever ]\IacMahon, the Vicar-General of Clogher, 
or titulary Bishop of Down, (who this deponent thinketh was one 
of the principal plotters of this treason) and he, knowing that my 
Lord Maguire and Hugh ]\IacMahon were apprehended, desired to 
draw certain remonstrances of their grievances, with the reasons 
of this their insurrection, and scizhig on the king's forts, and in 
every county thereabouts made choice of some gentlemen to send 
them up to the State, thence to be sent into England to his Majesty ; 
and told this deponent that the gentlemen of the county of Monaghan 
had chosen him {illegible) to be their messenger to present them, 



400 TTTE IltTSn iMASSACRES OF 1011. 

and left a copy of the said remonstrance and a copy of the protesta- 
tions of their loyalty with him, (both which this deponent delivered 
to Sir Robert Meredith) and so departed, going as he, the Vicar- 
General, said, to get the hands of the gentlemen of the comity to 
these instruments and to provide the deponent money and a pass 
for his journey ; and presently after his departure was the overthrow 
of the GOO near Drogheda, of which he sent notice to Tirlogh Ogc 
by his letters, which caused great triumphing amongst them, leaping 
and dancing and crying ' Victoria! God Almighty had j^ut -us all 
into their hands,' from which time the deponent never saw tlio 
Vicar-General, but is sure that he was a continual bloody persecutor 
of the British, and chief inciter to all the barbarous murders in the 
north. 

And the deponent further saitli, that Tirlogh Oge O'Neil having 
gotten all the money, plate and goods, and cattle about Glaslogh 
into his possession, and conveyed them to his own castle and lands, 
he left Glaslogh and went to Armagh, and by the way protested 
very much against those courses of his brother Sir Phelimy, and 
tliat he, being sheriff of that county, would keep the Britisli from 
all, oppression and wrong, and that lie would carry the king's money 
he hadVeceived to Dublin and pass his accompts. And when this 
deponent >vith other of the British came to Armagh, tliey found Sir 
Phelimy 'O'Neil, Eory O'More, and divers other principal rebels 
there ; to whom the town had then yielded upon promise, under 
Sir Phelimy's hand and seal which this deponent saw, which he 
(Sir Phelimy) offered to sign with his blood, and to deliver his sou 
in pledge that they (the Armagh Protestants) should not be molested, 
or troubled either in their lives or estates, but should enjoy all they 
had as quietly and peaceably as they did before {illegible), and in a 
great bravado offered fifty townlands for fifty barrels of powder, 
and fifty muskets, and bragged that he had got one barrel of powder 
out of the store in Dublin, in his own name, his brother's, and Sir 
William Brownlow's ; and that my Lord Maguire had brouglit 
down many muskets and corslets in trunks and chests from Dublin, 
and that Philip O'Reilly had made 5,000 pikes out of the woods of 
Loughrea. Sir Phelimy stayed in the town two or three days after 
it was yielded up, and then departed, leaving one Hugh Buie Mac 
Gonnell (sic), a man before that time of base condition, governor, 
who presently pillaged all the houses and shops at his pleasure, 
took up the best house in town, commanded every man to seiul 
him in provisions, and domineered upon the spoil lilce an Emperor ; 
Tirlogh Oge living then in town (and seeing the port and state of 
this base fellow) uud liis wife being a woman of a hauglity and liigli 



ADDENDA. 401 

spirit and basely covetous, thinking anything too much that passed 
by her, persuaded her husband to take upon him the government 
of the town, and at Sir Phehm's next coming he was made governor 
of the county of Armagh, and what Hugh Buie had left he took 
into his possession ; he made the shopkeepers both in Armagh and 
Loghgall to be accountable to his wife for all the wares they sold 
out of their shops. In this his government he forgot his promise 
to the British to protect them, and by the setting on of his wife 
and mother, a most cruel woman to the English, he turned a bloody 
persecutor of thom, and was the cause, as this deponent and other 
British conceived, of the death of about 2,000 persons by drowning, 
hanging, pistolling, stabbing, and starving. 

These that the deponent knew to be murdered thereabouts and 
saw most of them carried to their ends were as followeth, viz. at 
Corbridge sixty-eight drowned ; at Portadown one hundred and fifty 
droAvncd in one week or thereabouts led out by one Manus O'Cahane ; 
at Armagh a hundred and twenty-six drowned ; at Loughgall 
eighteen at one time drowned ; besides this deponent observed that 
out of that parish and Kilmore, where they reported there were 
three or four thousand communicants, there came not above two 
or three alive from them ; at Glaslogli thirteen drowned ; at Kinard 
that night, and the night before my Lord Caulfield was shot by 
them, fifty at least killed in the town besides many in the county. 
Mr. James Maxwell, Mr. Henry Cowell, Hugh Echlin ajid his son 
and his servants hanged, and James Maxwell's wife, being in strong 
labour, drawn down to the river by the hair ^f her head and she 
and her infant drowned ; at least three hundred killed and burned 
when Armagh was burned. This deponent speaketh not of Clones 
and thereabouts, where the first day they killed all they lighted on, 
besides afterwards many hanged and drowned ; nor of Mojiaghan, 
Carrick, Castleblaney, and Drumbo, where multitudes were hanged 
and drowned ; nor of small numbers, as Carsnett Clinton, (who) 
being blind and led by his grandchild they cast them both into the 
river and drowned them ; nor of Ambrose Blanoy, Ensign Pierce, 
and many others. They hanged Ensign Pugh twice or thrice till 
he was half dead and then let him down and afterwards killed him 
and his wife, and, as this deponent heard, set a Scottishwoman upon 
a hot gridiron and bored another through the hands to make them 
confess their money. 

To strip men and women stark naked as they Avere born, was 
their ordinary sport. Nor did the malice of those friars and priests 
end with the death of the poor British, but when they had murdered 
them or that they died they denied them burial in the churchyard, 

VOL. II. D D 



402 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

but made them be buried in gardens, and flung them they killed 
into ditches, or left them to the dogs to devour their carcases, and 
excommunicated all them that relieved them alive, or buried them 
being dead. And the friars preached in their sermons that it was 
as lawful to kill an Englishman as a dog. 

And this deponent further saith, that while he and other of the 
British were in Armagh, Sir Phelimy was created O'Neil and Earl 
of Tyrone at Tullaghoge, and proclamations were often made in the 
market-place in the name of O'Neil. He took petitions directed to 
him as Earl of Tyrone, and so he subscribed them and his letters. 
And he, this deponent, and others heard Tirlogh Oge's son, a 
youth of twelve or thirteen years of age, say that his uncle Sir 
Phelimy should be king of Ireland, and Sir Phelimy himself said 
that he would have that statute repealed that men born in this 
kingdom should not be governors thereof, and they would give his 
]\Iajesty the double revenue he now received out of Ireland by way 
of tribute. And at a meeting at Carrick there were various statutes 
made for the government of the county in Sir Phelimy's name, 
wherein he gave every gentleman power to try treasons and felonies, 
and all other actions and to keep courts on his own lands. This 
authority this deponent saw and read in his (Sir Phelim's) own 
name, and under his own hand and seal, wherein he wrote We, after 
the manner of kings, and according to Our royal intentions, etc. 
In this, his commission, the gentlemen had power to cess all the 
lands in the county towards the maintenance of the Catholic army, 
except Church lands, which were exempted at a former meeting at 
Cavan. It seems the rebellion was not so sudden as they pretended, 
for in the former assizes before in the county of Monaghan, there 
was one Shane O'Neil of Tyrone indicted before Sir Samuel 
{illegible) for stealing of cows, whereof he was apparently guilty, 
yet by the cunning of one William Kelly of Carrick, now a great 
rebel, he was acquitted. And Neale McKenna told this deponent, 
that if Shane O'Neil had been hanged, there were five hundred 
horsemen well weaponed that would have hanged both the judge 
and the sherilf, before they came to Armagh. 

And this deponent further saith, that when he was relieved and 
came to the army who quartered near Armagh, he and his company 
went into the town, but there was not a roof on church or house to 
cover them, all was burnt ; and looking into some houses they 
found divers dead bodies burnt in the chimneys and the stones 
in the streets were all bloody, and like the floor of a butcher's 
slaughter-house, since the day of the murdering of the inhabitants, 
which was three weeks before. 



ADDENDA. * 403 

And further saith, that the men and women rebels did not only 
commit those cruel murders, but by their example, and no doubt by 
their encouragement, the fry of young children of 12 or 13 years of 
age, with skeans, would stab and kill poor women and children they 
met in the fields ; nay, the very spawn of six or seven years of age 
that could not use a skean had daggers, made of laths, with which 
they would follow the English in the streets, pushing at them with 
those laths and crying ' Boddagh Sassanagli I ' {i.e. English churls) 
and none durst speak a word or reprove them for fear of murdering. 

And further saith, that Sir Phelimy O'Neil scoffing, as it now 
appears, at our laws whose execution upon his prodigal riotousness 
had brought his great estate to nothing, which was more likely the 
cause of his entering into rebellion than religion, would oftentimes 
ask him, this deponent, where were now our laws, statutes, staples, 
or executions, and our dedimus potestationes ? {sic), he cared not 
now (he said) a farthing for them all, nor for our pursuivants and 
serjeants-at-arms. 

And they (the Irish) had a proverb among them in every man's 
mouth, that ' the horse had been a long time atop of the rider, hut that 
now, God he thanked, the rider had gotten atop of the horse again.'' 

And further saith, that the rebels of that county hanged Mr. 
Richard Blaney in the orchard of the castle of Monaghan, and 
refused him to have a minister come to him, but scornfully offered 
him a priest, and being dead they cast him into a bag scarce covering 
his corpse, and the Lady Blaney procuring him to be coffined, could 
not obtain so much favoiu' of the friars and priests as to bury him 
in the churchyard, but was suffered to have him buried in the said 
orchard, and they that coffined him were threatened to be hanged. 
And when this deponent next met with Sir Phelimy O'Neil he 
asked him, this deponent, ' lohat was hecome of the fallen knight of 
the shire of the county Monaghan ? ' to which this deponent making 
no answer, Sir Phelimy told him, he had sent a warrant to hang 
him and said it Avas done by very good advice. 

And Tirlogh Oge told this deponent that his name was in that 
warrant also to be hanged, but that he, the said Tirlogh, procured 
him to be struck out. The rebels also at that time hanged another 
gentleman, one Luke Ward, at Monaghan, and flung his body into 
a ditch, and would not suffer his wife to take him out and bury him. 

And further saith, that Tirlogh Oge oftentimes persuaded this 
deponent to stay with him at mass in his own house ; this deponent 
answered him that he, the said Tirlogh, pretended that religion was 
the cause of this general insurrection, because they (the Catholics) 
would not be enforced to church, and desired him not to enforce. 



404 THE IRISH MASSACRES OF 1G41. 

him (this deponent) to mass, for he was resolved to die in the 
rehgion he had heen bred. The said Tirlogh said he would not 
enforce him (to go to mass) but because he loved him (this deponent) 
and for his soul's sake persuaded him ; but when he (Tirlogh) saw 
he could not prevail with him, he wished him before Sir William 
Brownlow, then a captive with him, to shift for himself, saying that 
he (the said Tirlogh) could no longer protect him. And this 
deponent demanding the reason of this sudden alteration the said 
Tirlogh Oge answered him, that he was persuaded it was a mortal 
and unpardonable sin to protect heretics. And this deponent heard 
by one that was near him that it was his mother's and the friars' 
persuasion. And afterwards this deponent was always in fear of 
murdering. 

And this deponent further saith, that they, meaning the British, 
had every Sunday sermons in Armagh, and every month at the 
farthest communions, and that the rebels led out the curate, one 
Mr. Griflfln, to be drowned, and that he, this deponent, and Sir 
William Brownlow entreated for him, and Sir Phelimy told them 
that the said Mr. Griftui was their chaplain, and at that time they 
prevailed for him, but when Armagh was burned he and his family 
were murdered, with two or three other ministers. 

And further saith, that his, this deponent's, son being a minister, 
and then lately come out of an extreme fit of the gout, was carried 
to the gaol and sent with many others to be drowned ; and not 
being able to go, one Manus O'Cahane, that Arch Devil and execu- 
tioner of all the British thereabouts, beat him with a cudgel, till he 
was like to murder him ; but by the means of Mr. Henry O'Neil 
the deponent got him recalled, but he was stript of his clothes and 
all the rest were drowned. 

And further saith, that the said Mr. Henry O'Neil entertained 
a gentleman, one Brownlow Taylor,' to follow him, and going with 
him towards Charlemont on May Eve, 1G42, being unwilling that 
Sir Phelimy should see him in his company, turned him back to 
Armagh, who going to a farm his father had, was apprehended by 
some of Tirlogh Oge's company, and carried to him to Loghgall, 
who sent him to Charlemont to Sir Phelimy and Mr. Henry O'Neil, 
returning that night without him, his mother made a great moan 
for her son. At last they heard that he was with Tirlogh Oge and 
sent unto him for him. The said Tirlogh told the messenger that 
he was sent to Charlemont, but that he would send for him, and so 
it seems he did, for the next morning being Sunday by four of the 
clock he was hanged at Charlemont. 

' c. ante, p. 158. 



AUJ)ENDA. 405 

And this deponent further saith, tliat the rebels pistolled many 
men as they walked in the streets of Armagh, for every roguo would 
kill nny man upon any grudge between them, and one of them 
pistolled a smith in the town in the sight of his wife and son, and 
divers other English, whereof when he, this deponent, complained 
unto Tirlogli Oge, and told him it was contrary to his promise of 
protecting the ]lritish, and contrary to his own proclamation which 
he had publicly made in the town, he called a council, but neither 
wife, nor son, nor any other that saw the murder committed and 
know the nuirdcrcr, durst come in and give any evidence against 
him. If they had they had been sure to be murdered themselves, 
and so not only he, but many other murderers in that town escaped 
unpunished. 

Jurat. Qtli April, 10d3, 
N. Simpson. Coram, John Sterne. 

RANDALii Adams. 

The Case of Phelim McFeagh O'Byrne. 

I FIND it necessary to qualify very slightly the statement I made 
at p. 40, vol. i. respecting the documents in Trinity College library, 
Dublin, relating to the O'Byrnes of Wicklow. I\[y reference to 
them was incidental, and was made chiefly for the sake of con- 
trasti)ig the ready acceptance those copies of depositions in favour 
of riiclim MacFeagli had met with from some modern historians, 
who contemptuously rejected all ofilcial copies of depositions made 
by the plundered colonists in 1041. I had not made a very close 
examination of the O'Byrne J\rSS., but writing of them from memory 
I said that they were unsigned and unofticial. I judged them to be 
mere copies by a private collector of historical MSS. of the lost ofli- 
cial copies of lost originals. They are v\'ritten in a small, weak 
hand, very unlike that of an official copyist. While the foregoing 
p;iges were passhig through the press, ]\Ir. S. B. Gardiner wrote to 
ask me if I was certain that the O'Byrne depositions were not duly 
certified official copies with signatures and the words ' copia vera ' 
at foot of each. He added that such copies were always considered 
in the Public Record Office to be only second in value to original 
documents. I was quite aware of this, and had I found the O'Byrne 
documents in the Public Record Office, I would have set more value 
upon them, notwithstanding their very unoflicial appearance, and 
the absence of signatures and the words ' co2na vera ' to many, if 
not all of them. Determined, however, not to trust to my memory 
of them, seeing that I had not examined them very closely as I had 
examined the 1041-52 depositions, I wrote to the learned and 



406 ADDENDA. 

courteous librarian of Trinity College, Dr. Ingram, F.T.C.D., to ask 
his opinion of them, and in a few days received the following 
reply :— 

' Dear Miss Hickson — I looked carefully into the depositions 
in the O'Byrno case which are given in our volumes F. i). 15, 
and F. 8. 17. There is nothing to show that they are certified 
official copies. The words " copia vera " are at the foot of soine 
of them, but there is no signature to attest their being true copies. 
I think it probable that they are copies of certified official copies 
as you suggest. The signatures (at the end of all) of Loftus, the 
Archbishop of Armagh, etc., are not in the handwriting of those 
persons, but in that of the person who wrote the documents to 
which they are appended. In other words, these signatures also 
are copies, most probably at second hand. " Copia vera " occurs 
but twice, once in each volume, and perhaps is meant to apply to 
all the entries about the case collectively. The signatures of Loftus, 
the Archbishop, etc., occur only in one of the volumes. 

' Yours truly, 

' John K. Ingram.' 

Thus while I may have misled my readers into thinking that all 
the O'Byrne depositions were unsigned and without the words 
' copia vera,' in the main my judgment of them was right. They 
are mere copies of official copies, many of them unsigned, and the 
words ' copia vera ' do not appear at the foot of each document. 
They are not absolutely worthless, nor do I think of asserting that 
they are forgeries, or even inaccurate copies of the lost official 
copies, but they can by no means be classed with regular official 
copies preserved in a State Paper Office, and to compare them in 
value with the duly certified oflicial copies of the depositions of wit- 
nesses in 1641-2, having the words ' Examined and entered," or ' copia 
vera ' written at foot over the original signatures of well known 
officials, much more to reject the latter because they are copies 
and accept the second hand unofficial copies in the O'Byrno case, 
is most inconsistent and absurd. It is an instance of that unreal 
and fanciful way of dealing with the materials of Irish history to 
which I have before referred. Moreover, if every one of these docu- 
ments could be proved an original, or a certified official copy of an 
original, with all of them before us we should still have only half 
the case whereon to pronounce judgment, all the depositions, origi- 
nals, and copies taken against Phelim O'Byrne having been lost or 
destroyed. 



AI)J)ENDA. 407 

N.]>. In copying the depositions relating to the massacres for 
print, I have followed the plan adopted hy the official copyist of 
1G45-8, who made those duplicates present in the Harleian MSS. 
and in the MS. volume which Warner prized so highly (v. vol. i. p. 
126), that is to say, I have omitted all the superfluous words, repe- 
titions, and the long inventories of stolen or destroyed goods and 
chattels, over which Mr. Waring drew lines of abbreviation (v. anlc, 
p. 199). I have carefully preserved the total money value of those 
as it is inserted by the said copyist. A comparison of the facsimile 
of John Dartnoll's deposition (v. vol. i. p. 129) with the printed 
abbreviated copy of the same at page 141 of this volume will make 
this explanation clearer and will show how mistaken Dr. Warner 
and ]\Ir. Gilbert have been in supposing that the abbreviating lines 
(called by them cancellmgs) can in the slightest degree invalidate 
the original, or that the omission of the portions of it over which 
those lines were drawn can invalidate any copy of it, printed or 
written. As Dartnell's deposition is one of those in the Water- 
ford book which ]\Ir. Gilbert says contains so many crossed-out 
passages, I have selected it for reproduction by photography 
and lithography. The former process being too expensive for 
these volumes, I had a limited number of excellent photographs 
(autotypes) taken from the original MS. in the Waterford book 
by Mr. Chancellor, 55 Lower Sackville Street, Dublin. These 
can now be seen in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, the 
libraries of the Eoyal Dublin Society and Eoyal Irish Academy, 
the British Museum Library, the London Library, and the Free 
Library at Hastings, founded, I believe, by the munificence of Sir 
Thomas Brassey. Although my researches chiefly lay in the MS. 
departments of the flrst-mentioned libraries, I cannot refrain from 
expressing my obligations to the London and Hastings libraries, 
for the many valuable rare old books of reference I was able to 
obtain from both. It is impossible to exaggerate the value of those 
libraries to authors and readers, and the admirable way in which 
they are managed by their generous and courteous patrons and 
librarians. In copying all the foregoing seventeenth century docu- 
ments I have modernised the spelling, because it seems to me that 
the preservation of the old-fashioned contractions ' y« ' for ' the ' 
' w*''' ' for ' which ' and the doubling of the final consonants in such 
words as ' faithful ' only puzzle and tire the majority of readers. 
Those who want tlie old spelling literatim will go to the original MSS. 

THE ENI>. 



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1997 



DATE DUE 











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JuN " 


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UNIVERSIT 


Y PRODUCTS, INC. 


#859-5503 



BOSTON COLLEGE 




3 9031 026 17016 7