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THE IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO 
AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 



The Irish Contribution to 
America's Independence 



By 
Thomas Hobbs Maginniss, Jb. 



PUBLISHED BT 

THE DOmE PUBLISHING COMPANY 

Philadelphia 
1913 



l>a^.^^:v^ ^^\^ 




\^^C ^-r-^ ^^,^- 



Copyright, 1913, by The Doibb Pubushing Co., Philadelphia 



PRESS OF WM. F. FELL CO. 
PHILADELPHIA 



PREFACE 

"It becomes nations as weU as individttals not to think of them- 
selves more highly than they ought, btU to think soberly. Self- 
exaggeraUon detracts from their character without adding to 
their power; but a greater and more dangerous favU is an 
fiabitual depreciation of their real resources and a consequent 
want of self-reliance J* — GtOdkin. 

ONE of the faults chargeable against the Irish 
people, and particularly Americans, of Irish de- 
scent, is that they are ignorant of the achieve- 
ments of their race in the past. This is probably due to the 
fact that the p€K)ple of Ireland have for generations been 
taught to beUeve that everything respectable has come 
from England and that the English are a superior race. 
Indeed, an attempt has been made to impress the same 
theory on the minds of Americans, and perhaps the most 
pernicious falsehood promulgated by pro-EngUsh writers, 
who exert a subtle influence in spreading the gospel of 
"Anglo-Saxon superiority,'' is that America owes her 
Uberty, her benevolent government, and even her pros- 
perity to her "English forefathers" and "Anglo-Saxon 
blood." The truth is that the impartial history of Ireland 
is the story of England's shame, while the history of Amer- 
ica offers abundant evidence of the innate greatness of 
men of the Irish race. In the first part of this work I have 
endeavored to show that the American people derive their 
character more from the Celt than from the Anglo-Saxon, 
but the book is designed primarily to offer evidence to 

[S] 



PREFACE 

substantiate the claim that more than one-third the offi- 
cers and a large proportion of the soldiers of the Conti- 
nental army in the American Revolution were of Irish 
birth or parentage, and that the Irish were an important 
element in American colonial history. 

As the Irish were driven from their own country by a 
system of persecution much more severe than that of which 
the Puritans complained, it is necessary to include in a 
work of this character some facts of Irish history which 
account for the large volume of emigration to America in 
colonial times. I am a representative of the very class 
in Ireland, which, in an effort to be truthful, I am com- 
pelled to condemn for their treatment of the. main body of 
the Irish people. My ancestors in the male and female 
lines for many generations have been- members of the 
Episcopal (or AngUcan) church. My grandfather was a 
clergymian of that church in Ireland, and his father was 
mayor of the city of Londonderry at a time when it was 
perhaps the most anti-Irish city in Ireland. Had I been 
bom and bred in Ireland, I should probably have had no 
opportunity and less incUnation to learn the real facts of 
her history; but jfifteen years' study of Irish genealogies 
and family histories has provided me with an intimate 
knowledge of the causes that are the root of Irish hostility 
to EngUsh rule, which, after all, were the basic causes of 
the American Revolution. 

Thomas Hobbs Maginniss, Jr. 

Philadelphia, December 1, 1912, 



[4] 



INTRODUCTION 

IF the peasantry of Western England at the beginning 
of the seventeenth century were Anglo-Saxons, then 
the first settlers of New England in America were 
also Anglo-Saxons, since the Pilgrims and Puritans were 
chiefly farmers, small tradesmen, and mechanics from the 
western counties of England. The descendants of these 
'* first settlers" in New England became the landed- 
aristocracy, and the majority of them were to be foimd 
among the Loyalists, who formed a considerable portion 
of the population of America (especially Massachusetts) 
during the Revolution. But most of the people through- 
out all the Colonies — ^those who were devoted to the 
patriot cause — ^were by no means EngUsh nor Anglo- 
Saxon, and American love of liberty, our republican form 
of government, and our ideals of justice are directly op- 
posed to the character of the so-called Anglo-Saxons, a 
fact that is evident to any one familiar with the history 
of that race, who has studied the history of the EngUsh 
people with any degree of analysis. For several centuries 
after the Norman conquest of England the conmion 
people, essentially Anglo-Saxon, were notable for their 
serviUty, while the landed proprietors and governing class 
were of Norman stock, who contributed to the EngUsh 
character the spirit of arrogance, selfishness, and lust for 
territorial expansion for which England has chiefly been 
noted. It is certain that the spirit of independence and 

[«] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

liberality shown by the men who founded America finds 
no comparison in the serviUty of the Saxon, nor in the 
selfishness and imperiousness of the Norman. 

The school histories inform ns that the settlers of the 
American colonies were English, Welsh, Germans, Dutch, 
Swedes, and French Huguenots. The Irish are mentioned 
only in connection with the potato famine in Ireland, which 
caused himdreds of thousands of persons of that nation to 
emigrate to the United States in the middle of the last 
century; but a careful analysis of American colonial 
records and immigration statistics will serve to convince 
one that more than half the people of the United States, 
before the nation was sixty years old, had Celtic blood in 
their veins. The Irish, Scotch, and Welsh belong to the 
Celtic race, while recent researches by a learned society 
in France lead to the conclusion that the French, too 
(whom our histories admit were an important part of our 
colonial and revolutionary population), are a Celtic race. 
Thus, even if the English population of the colonial period 
did outnumber the Irish (which could not be true in the 
light of statistics), it surely did not outniunber the Irish, 
Welsh, Scotch, French, Swedes, and Dutch, who assuredly 
were not Anglo-Saxon. 

But because of the preponderance of what appear to be 
English names in colonial military and poUtical history, 
the average reader may question the truth of the claim 
that the Irish came to the colonies in such large numbers, 
that a large proportion of the revolutionary army were 
men of that race, and that Irishmen occupied positions of 
prominence in early American history. Senator Lodge 
tries to show the superiority of men of English origin by 
classifying the names in a dictionary of biography, and 

[6] 



INTRODUCTION 

naturally he concludes that the majority of great men are 
''Anglo-Saxon'' because the majority of the names appear 
to be of English origin. To arrive at his conclusion he 
probably classified as Irish only those men whose names 
begin with "Mc" or "O/" or names obviously Irish. 
As a matter of fact, before the period of the Irish revival, 
which began in the last century, the use of the prefixes 
had been almost universally discontinued by Irish families, 
especially those who were within the pale of EngUsh 
patronage and favor, while members of the laboring and 
servant class were frequently led to assmne the EngUsh 
and Scotch names of their masters. The English govern- 
ment exerted every effort to destroy all vestige of Irish 
nationality, and this effort extended even to an attempt 
to eradicate ancient Irish names, a purpose which is clearly 
illustrated in the following statute of Edward IV, 1465: 

"At the request of the Commons it is ordeyned and 
established that every Irishman that dwells betwixt or 
among Englishmen in the County of Dublin, Myeth, 
Uriell and Kildare (the whole extent then of the EngUsh 
dominion) shaU goe Uke to one EngUsh man in apparell, 
and shaving off the beard above the mouth, and shaU 
take him an EngUsh surname of one town, as Sutton, 
Chester, Tjrrm, Skyme, Corke, Kinsale; or color, as 
White, Black, Brown; or art, or science, as Smith or 
Carpenter; or ofl&ce, as Cooke, Butler, and that he and 
his offspring shaU use this name under peyne of forfeiting 
of his goods yearly tiU the premises be done, to be levied 
two times by the year to. the King's warres, according 
to the discretion of the lieutenant of the King or his 
Deputy."* 

But like the Penal Laws, which might have reduced any 
♦ Spenser's "View of the State of Ireland," 1585. 
[7] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

other race to barbarism or caused them to change their 
reUgion for the sake of security, the law against the use of 
Irish names was in the main a failure, and more Irish 
names were changed in the effort to curry governmental 
favor than to escape the penalty which the law imposed. 
In addition to those famiUes who changed their names 
while still in Ireland, thousands changed the form of their 
names after their arrival in America, while many of the 
inhabitants of Ireland were of English, Scotch, and Nor- 
man origin, and thus bore names characteristic of those 
nations. 

In tabulating his statistics Senator Lodge would prob- 
ably have classified Sir William Johnson, Colonial Gov- 
ernor of New York, as EngUsh, yet Sir William John- 
son's real name was McShane (which is AngHcized John- 
son). Reference to the 1912 edition of Burke's " Peerage '' 
discloses the fact that Sir William Johnson was the son of 
Christopher Johnson, of Coimty Meath, Ireland, who was 
the son of William McShane, son of Thomas McShane, son 
of John O'Neill. 

On the same principle Robert Treat Paine, signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, would have been classed as 
EngUsh, yet on reference to Vol. I, pp. 726, 727, O'Hart's 
'' Irish Pedigrees," we find that Tiege O'NeiU, b. 1641, had 
a son Robert, who changed his name to Paine and emi- 
grated to America, and was the ancestor of Robert Treat 
Paine. This Tiege also had a son, Henry, whose son, Art 
O'Neill, changed his name to Payne, and had a son Thomas, 
who emigrated to America. 

The genealogy of the Kane family, the members of 
which occupy a prominent position in law, business, and 
society, shows that the first member of the family in 

[81 



INTRODUCTION 

America was John O'Kane, who came to New York in 
1752 and dropped the O'. He was a member of the family 
of O'Caihan, of Derry. 

Thomas Butler would without doubt be classed as Eng- 
lish, yet two distinct famiUes of Butlers, both of whom 
attained prominence, came from Ireland to America and 
were members of a family that had been in Ireland 
several centuries and had fought many times against 
British oppression. Mathews' "American Armoury and 
Blue Book" shows that a Thomas Butler was bom in 
Ireland in 1674 and settled in Maine in 1692, while 
another Thomas Butler, bom in Dublin 1720, settled in 
Lancaster County, Pa., 1748. Of the family of the latter, 
four were officers in the Revolutionary army, the eldest 
advancing to the rank of Major General. 

Alexander Falls, who served in the First Colonial Regi- 
ment of New York, would no doubt be classed as EngUsh, 
yet he was the son of Alexander McFall, which is proof 
of his Celtic origin (Mathews' "Armoury and Blue Book")- 

Innumerable instances like the above might be cited, 
but it is an easy matter to trace the transition of names 
from an Irish to an English form. The descendants of 
men who were named O'Bryan are now Bryant; OTooles 
have become Tuthills; McNees in New Hampshire 
became "Nay'' in the second generation; McCormac has 
become Camac; O'Shaughnessys have changed to Chaim- 
ceys, and Ryan has even assmned a Dutch form, VanRyn. 
Meade might be mistaken for an English name, but it 
was formerly O'Meagh. Neilson is not so Irish as Mac- 
Neil, but it means precisely the same thing. O'Hart is 
Irish, but drop the 0' and it is English. Moore looks 
Scotch or English, yet many descendants of the O'Mores 

[8] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

of Ireland bear the former name. It is obvious, there- 
fore, that a claim to En^Ush origin must rest upon a 
stronger foundation than an English name, and, while 
thousands of Scotch, Irish, German, French, and Welsh 
names have assumed an English form, we have been 
unable to discover an EngUsh or American family that 
has assumed an Irish name. 



[10] 



THE ANGLO-SAXON AND THE IRISH 

SINCE her separation from England America has been 
a country of opportmiity for all men. Americans 
are known as a generous, witty, and democratic 
people, and for these characteristics they are indebted 
more to the Celtic blood in them than to the narrow, 
intolerant, harsh character of the early Anglo-Saxon 
Puritans. To arrive at an intelligent estimate of the 
justness of this claim it is only necessary to consider the 
points of difference in the character of the Anglo-Saxons 
as a whole and the Irish, as it is by an analysis of the vicis- 
situdes and achievements of a people that we may arrive 
at a true estimate of their contribution to the national 
character. 

The most marked difference between the English (Anglo- 
Saxons and Norman) and the Celts is that the former 
were noted for their achievements in plundering and op- 
pressing the weak and their land covetousness, while the 
latter were devoted to scholarship, religion, and the de- 
fense of the principles of liberty. This is best illustrated 
by a consideration of the elemental characteristics of the 
tribes or races that formed the English nation, on the one 
hand, and the struggle against oppression carried on by 
the Irish people for many centuries, on the other hand. 

The island of Britain was anciently inhabited by a 
Celtic race, which was succeeded in the course of time by 

[111 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE . 

tribes of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, of Teutonic origin, 
who came, not like the conquerors of the continental 
provinces, as disciples of a civilization which they revered, 
but simply as destroyers of a civilization of which they 
knew nothing. It was a destroying conquest, which 
swept away the former inhabitants and their whole politi- 
cal system. It was especially a heathen conquest, which 
utteriy rooted up Christianity from a land where it must 
already have taken deep root.* These tribes formed the 
Enghsh nation, which, by the ninth century, had become 
civiUzed and apparently Christianized, when "Christian 
England was now attacked by the heathen Danes, as 
Christian Britain had been attacked by the heathen 
EngUsh. These Danes were not a people altogether 
foreign to the English; they were of a kindred race and 
spoke a kindred tongue." t The Danes plundered and 
ravaged various parts of the country; they made many 
settlements, in which they held the English inhabitants 
in bondage; and finally a Dane was crowned king in 1013. 
The Danes ruled the Enghsh until 1042, when a Saxon 
king was crowned through the efforts of both Danes and 
EngUsh. 

Thus, when William the Conqueror came to England, 
he found there a nation made up of the descendants of 
heathen tribes, each of which had come to Britain bent 
upon plunder and extermination, and the people were 
called ''Anglo-Saxons." The quality of the Anglo-Saxon 
spirit of independence may be judged by the fact that 
within five years WiUiam had conquered the entire nation, 

* ** England," Prof. E. A. Freeman, Encyclopedia Britannica, 
pp. 266, 7. 

t Ibid,, p. 287. 

[U] 



THE ANGLO-SAXON AND THE IRISH 

and in 1086, on Salisbury Plain, received the sworn alle- 
giance of every lord, every lord's free vassal or tenant, and 
every landholder, to the number of about 60,000,* and by 
far the greater part of the land was taken from Anglo- 
Saxon owners and granted to Norman followers of Wil- 
Uam. This conquest of Britain was not, as some writers 
would have us beUeve, a mere amalgamation of two 
branches of a kindred race. On the contrary, it was a 
complete conquest, which enriched the conquerors and 
reduced to poverty and virtual slavery the conquered. 
The condition of the Anglo-Saxons one hundred years after 
the landing of the Normans is truly portrayed in Sir 
Walter Scott's ^'Ivanhoe," as follows: 

"A circimistance which greatly tended to enhance the 
tyranny of the nobiUty and the sufferings of the inferior 
classes arose from the consequences of the Conquest by 
Duke WilUam of Normandy. Four generations had not 
sufficed to blend the hostile blood of the Normans and 
Anglo-Saxons, or to unite by common language and mutual 
interests two hostile races, one of which still felt the ela- 
tion of triumph, while the other groaned under all the 
circumstances of defeat. The power had been completely 
placed in the hands of the Norman nobiUty by the event 
of the battle of Hastings, and it had been used, as our 
histories assure us, with no moderate hand. The whole 
race of Saxon princes and nobles had been extirpated or 
disinherited, with few or no exceptions; nor were the 
numbers great who possessed land in the country of their 
fathers, even as proprietors of the second, or of yet inferior 
classes. The royal poUcy had been to weaken, by every 
means, legal or illegal, the strength of a part of the popu- 
lation which was justly considered as nourishing the most 
inveterate antipathy to their victor.'' 

* Montgomery's ''History of England." 
[13] 



HUSH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

For two hundred years after the Conquest the Anglo- 
Saxons wore the collar of the Norman. Their complete 
subjection to Norman rule eventually secured for them a 
measure of independence, for they became useful to the 
barons in the latters' conflicts with the crown and in their 
wars for plunder. Most assuredly the motto, ''Give us 
liberty or give us death," could not have had its origin 
in Anglo-Saxon fidelity to the principles of liberty. For 
centuries the masses of the English people were contented, 
because they were willing to serve their masters; they were 
wiUing to pay the taxes necessary to maintain an aris- 
tocracy, whose titles to large landed estates were founded 
mainly on the superior force used to obtain them; and 
to provide the soldiery necessary to carry on those wars 
of conquest that have brought to the kingdom so much of 
the treasure that was the foundation of Britain's power. 
Indeed, England's greatness as a world power begins with 
her conquest of India before the American Revolution, 
when the wealth from India, at first mere plunder, began 
to pour into England, and the revenue from that country 
amounted to from 15,000,000 to 75,000,000 pounds a year 
in specie, besides the commerce from the East which 
poured into English harbors.* 

It is clear to the average student of history that the 
Anglo-Saxons were not notable as a brave people; that 
the Normans, while brave, were adventurers, and that 
love of plimder was the predominating characteristic of 
both races. And as we contemplate the present state of 
the British nation, and the liberties enjoyed by its mem- 
bers, we are apt to forget that England, in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, had her "bloody commissions, 
♦ Fisher's "True Story of the Revolution." 
[14] 



THE ANGLaSAXON AND THE IRISH 

gun-powder plot, her intrigues and cabals; chevaliers and 
round-heads, Pride's Purge and Rump Parliament, Bare- 
bone's Parliament, and no Parliament; with dregs of fanat- 
ics, and for thirty years 100,000 men of the same coimtry 
at war with each other, and all to satisfy the ambition of 
the weakest or the worst in mankind/'* 

On the other hand, the history of the Irish people for 
the last nine hundred years deals mainly with their struggle 
to retain their property and to secure their independence. 
The land in Ireland has been confiscated, the ancient 
churches and castles lie in ruins, but the Irish people have 
never been conquered and their spirit remains unbroken. 
Had the Irish submitted to the loss of their property; 
had they been wilUng to wear the collar of Norman 
slavery, as the Saxons did, Ireland's history would have 
been different. But in Ireland the Normans had an en- 
tirely different character of people to deal with. The Irish 
of the twelfth century were naturally a proud people. 
The antiquity of their race, their form of government, 
and the fact that serfdom never existed among them made 
their submission to the Norman feudal system and Nor- 
man plundering impossible. The Irish at that period 
were not barbarians, nor had Ireland, like Britain, been 
conquered by the Romans and several successions of 
foreign tribes during the period from the beginning of the 
Christian era to the coming of the Normans, though it is 
true the Danes made settlements on the coast and estab- 
lished separate kingdoms in Dublin, Waterford, and 
Limerick, and it was in these cities the EngUsh secured 
their first foothold in Ireland. 

In scholarship and fidelity to the cause of Christianity 
♦ "History of Derry." 
2 [151 



miSH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

the Irish people of the middle ages were unexcelled by any 
other nation. Edmund Spenser, the celebrated EngUsh 
poet, said, ''It is certain that Ireland hath had the use of 
letters very anciently, and long before EnglandJ^ Not only 
did they have the use of letters long before England, but 
they actually taught the Saxons the use of letters. The 
Saxon nobility and gentry resorted to Ireland for edu- 
cation in the seventh and eighth centuries, and were 
received at the famous university of Armagh and main- 
tained free of charge, supplied with books, and taught with- 
out fee or reward. Lord Lyttleton, Sir James Ware, 
Edmimd Spenser, and the Venerable Bede, Anglo-Saxon 
historian, furnish ample testimony regarding the superior 
learning and culture of the Irish over the inhabitants of 
Britain before the Norman conquest; but few EJnglishmen 
know that one of the f oimders of the great University of 
Oxford was an Irishman, Johannes Scotus Erigena, and 
that Alfred, King of the Northiunbrian Saxons, received 
his education in Ireland the latter part of the seventh 
century. While the Saxons, Danes, and Normans (all 
belonging to the race of Northmen) were pm^uing their 
r^ular vocation of ravaging, murdering, and plundering 
the people of other nations in western Europe, the Irish 
were engaged in the nobler occupation of spreading 
Christianity and learning throughout the world. For the 
truth of this statement we have the testimony of not 
only English historians of earUer times, but historians of 
other coimtries. Mosheim, Protestant ecclesiastical his- 
torian of Germany, said: "That the Irish were lovers of 
learning and distinguished themselves in those times of 
ignorance beyond all other Emropean nations, traveling 
through the most distant lands with a view to improve and 

[161 



THE ANGLaSAXON AND THE IRISH 

communicate their knowledge, is a fact with which I have 
long been acquainted, as we see them in the most authentic 
records of antiquity discharging with the highest reputa- 
tion and applause the functions of doctors in France, 
Germany, and Italy." Moreri, a distinguished French- 
man, in his Dictionary, pubUshed in 1795, under Ireland, 
said: "Ireland has given the most distinguished professors 
to the most famous imiversities of Europe, as Claudius 
Clements to Paris, Albuinus to Pavia in Italy, Johannes 
Scotus Erigena to Oxford in England. The English 
Saxons received from the Irish their characters or letters, 
and with them the arts and sciences that have flourished 
since among these people, as Sir James Ware proves, in 
his Treatise on the Irish Writers, Book I, chapter 13, where 
may be seen an account of the celebrated academies and 
public schools which were maintained in Ireland in the 
seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth ages, which were resorted 
to, particularly by the Anglo-Saxons, the French, and 
ancient Britons, who were all received there with greater 
hospitality than in any other country of the Christian 
world." 

Irish woolen fabrics were celebrated on the continent 
as early as the eighth century; the skill of Irish art metal 
workers was notable in the sixth century, and the Tara 
Brooch, belonging to the eighth century, "is a wonderful 
specimen of exquisite deUcacy." The artistic merit of 
the illiuninated manuscripts of the seventh and tenth 
centuries is a matter of conunon knowledge, while a no- 
table church, called St. Caimin, with richly carved doors, 
was built on an island in Lough Derg in 1007, fifty years 
before Edward the Confessor (a Norman by education and 
inclination) laid the foimdation of Westminster Abbey. 

[17] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

The Irish conception of an enduring state or nation was 
seven centuries ahead of the times. "The law with them 
was the law of the people," and the Irish clan system was 
essentially a pure democracy; in fact it went so far as to 
include the initiative and recall, for "each tribe was 
supreme within its own borders; it elected its own chief 
and could depose him if he acted against the laws." The 
head king was the representative of the whole national 
life, but his power rested on the tradition of the people 
and the consent of the clans. He covdd impose no new 
law, and might demand no service outside the law.* 

It is therefore easy to understand why the Irish never 
wovdd submit to the Norman feudal system, and why they 
so readily adapt themselves to the principles of democracy 
as exemplified by the government of the United States. 

But from a race of scholars in the eleventh century the 
Irish had developed through necessity into a race of 
fighters by the thirteenth century, and whereas the 
Anglo-Saxons and the Normans carried on wars of op- 
pression and plimder, the Irish have been distinguished 
for their warfare against oppression, not only with regard 
to their national and poUtical existence, but in those 
practical affairs that concern the masses of the people. 
The reason for this change in the character of the Irish 
nation is clear to any one familiar with the practices em- 
ployed by the English government in their effort to con- 
quer and despoil the people of Ireland, and as it was these 
practices which drove the Irish people to America in 
colonial times, we shall now proceed to a consideration of 
the causes that engendered in Irishmen that distrust of 
British promises which they brought to America. 

* Alice Stopford Green, in "Irish Nationality." 
(181 



WHY THE IRISH CAME TO AMERICA 

THERE is no people on earth that has been so 
vilified, deceived, and persecuted as the Irish, 
first, on the pretext of the advancement of civili- 
zation; next, under the cloak of religion, and lastly, under 
the pretext of the common weal; and the underlying 
motive has always been plunder. Whether the Irish were 
loyal, peaceable, or righteous made little difference if they 
did not "stand and deliver" to the horde of English ad- 
venturers who came to rob them. English ''civilization" 
in Ireland began with the granting by Henry II of the 
County Meath 800,000 acres to Hugh de Lacy, a Norman 
baron, who immediately commenced to make good his 
claim by the sword. From that time on, for several centu- 
ries, the English carried on a war to secure the land and for 
poUtical ascendency. The Irish fought to retain what had 
been theirs for a thousand ye^ars before the coming of the 
Normans. 

Henry II, who first proclaimed himself "Lord of Ire- 
land," sent his son John in 1185 to receive the homage of 
the Irish chieftains. Immediately on his arrival at Water- 
ford "the leading Irishmen of the neighborhood who had 
hitherto been loyal to the Enghsh and had lived peaceably, 
came to welcome the king's son as their lord and to give 
him the kiss of peace. But John's Norman retinue treated 
them with derision, some even rudely pulling their long 

[19] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

beards in ridicule of the alien fashion. This irresponsible 
levity had its natural effect. The Irishmen, deeply in- 
censed, betook themselves and their families to Donnell 
O'Brien, and disclosed to him and to Dermot McCarthy, 
and even to Rory O'Connor, the treatment they had 
received, adding that the king's son was a mere stripling 
surrounded and counselled by striplings himself, and that 
from such a source there was no prospect for Irishmen of 
good government or even of security. Influenced by these 
reports these three chief kings of the south and west of 
Ireland, who, we are told, were prepared to wait upon 
John and offer him their submission as they had previously 
done to Henry, were induced to take a different course. 
Lajdng aside for the moment their interminable quarrels, 
which had hitherto given opportunity to the advance of 
foreigners, they formed a league together, and unani- 
mously determined to defend with their Uves their ancient 
liberties. This example was followed by the other native 
chieftains, who all held aloof from John and his giddy 
court. 

*'A proud and sensitive people never wiUingly submits 
to the rule of a master, however mighty, who despises 
them. But of course this rude plucking of the beards was 
only a symbol of that want of consideration for the native 
Irish which exhibited itself in more harmful ways. Con- 
tinuing with the causes of the failure of the expedition, 
Gerald Cambrensis says: 'Contrary to our promises, we 
took away the lands of our own Irishmen — ^those who from 
the first coming of Fitzstephen and the Earl had faithfully 
stood by us — and gave them to our newcomers. These 
Irishmen then went over to the enemy and became spies 
and guides for them instead of for us, having all the more 

[20] 



WHY THE miSH CAME TO AMERICA 

power to injure us because of their former familiarity with 
our ways.' "* 

"The custody of the maritime towns and castles, with 
the adjacent lands and tributes, was given to men who, 
instead of using the revenue for the public good and the 
detriment of the enemy, squandered it in excessive eating 
and drinking. Then, though the country was not half 
subdued, both the civil and miUtary command was given 
into the hands of carpet knights, who were more intent on 
spoiling good citizens, than in attacking foemen, who, 
reversing the politic maxim of the ancient Romans, 
oppressed those who had submitted while leaving the 
enemy imscathed. So that nothing was done, either by 
making incursions into the enemy's coimtry, or by the 
erection of numerous castles throughout the land, or by 
clearing the *bad passes' through the woods, to bring 
about a more settled state of things. The bands of mer- 
cenaries were kept within the seaport towns, and, imitat- 
ing their captains, gave themselves up to wine and 
women." f 

Many of the early arrivals were assimilated by the 
Irish and adopted their customs, dress, and laws; in fact, 
they "became more Irish than the Irish themselves"; and 
for three hundred years English influence was confined to 
the Pale, which comprised the territory within a radius 
of 30 miles of Dublin. This center was a hotbed of in- 
trigue, treason, and deception. Common honesty was so 
rare among the English rulers, it is no wonder that, on 
the death of Earl Clifford, the English President of 

* "Ireland Under the Normans," Goddard Henry Orpen, late 
Scholar Trinity College, 1911, vol. ii, p. 96, etc. 
t Ibid., p. 106. 

t«l] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Connaught, in 1598, "the Irish of Connaught were not 
pleased at CUfford's death — ^he had never told them a 
falsehood."* Naturally, the Irish people looked upon the 
English as a nation of robbers, bribers, and deceivers, 
because so many of those who failed to satisfy their 
ambition in England came to Ireland, a country rich in 
natural resources, fertile land, and of honorable traditions. 
Her early misery was not due so much to English laws as 
to the action of the parasites who hoped to feed on the 
misery they created. As the Protestant Archbishop, King, 
wrote in 1697, "The Governors of Ireland for their own 
interest have kept it in a state of war these five himdred 
years, and will if not prevented keep it so to the end of 
the world. A governor comes over here himgry and poor, 
with numerous dependents to be provided for, and how 
should he provide for them but by bringing as many under 
forfeitures as he can, as they have done all along and so 
they will do so still." 

The fundamental cause of the struggle between the 
Irish and EngUsh from the coming of the Normans to 
that of William of Orange was for possession of the land. 
By various grants from the Crown to EngUsh adventurers 
and court favorites, and by so-called plantations, Irish 
gentlemen were removed from their heritages and obUged 
to accept the merest shreds of their own soil, to become 
laborers for those whom they viewed as highwaymen, or 
to fly into the woods and mountains, there to await the 
opportunity and the call of a leader to recover their 
property. The awful scenes of misery, the enormous blood- 
shed, and the sacrifice of the general interests of Ireland 
as a nation are traceable to the imlawfvd, un-Christian, 
♦"Four Masters." 
[22] 



WHY THE IRISH CAME TO AMERICA 

and inhuman disregard of property rights, moraUty, and 
ordinary justice on the part of the EngUsh party in Ireland. 
This theory is confirmed by the circumstance that the 
Province of Ulster was comparatively free from the misery 
suffered by the people further south until the Plantation 
of Ulster, begun by James I. The land in the other prov- 
inces had gradually been taken from the Irish owners 
and granted to EngUshmen. Ulster was left, but there 
were still more land hungry gentlemen of broken fortune, 
and younger sons of noble houses, in England and Scotland 
to be rewarded, hence James undertook the Plantation of 
the fertile Province of Ulster in 1607. Large estates in 
the possession of ancient Irish families for centuries were 
granted to EngUsh and Scotch gentlemen, who for their 
greater security, partitioned the land out in smaller tracts 
to their own followers, who held upon payment of a yearly 
tax to the grantor. By this plan a stranger to Ireland 
would secure a tract of, say, 20,000 acres, on which he 
colonized 30 or 40 f amiUes, who worked the land and paid 
him a yearly rental. In many instances an Irish gentle- 
man who had owned 10,000 or 20,000 acres by inheritance, 
in which his kinsmen shared, was allowed to retain a few 
hundred acres, subject to the payment of an annual rental 
to an EngUsh adventurer, as in the case of a colonizer. 
Naturally, even if the then owners accepted the conditions 
without rebelling, their sons and grandsons would suffer 
the effects of this injustice; and naturally, too, it led to a 
division of the inhabitants Uving side by side in the same 
coimtry. On the one hand, were those who had been 
reduced from a condition of gentiUty and plenty to poverty 
and peasantry, while on the other hand, were those who 
enjoyed comparative plenty, secure in their possessions 

(281 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

by the power of an alien government, at the expense of 
the former, and who committed such acts as might incite 
Irishmen to further rebellion, in the hope of securing the 
remaining renmants of the land left to them. 

The Plantation of Ulster culminated in the Rebellion of 
1641, which marks the last great struggle of the older 
Irish families for the recovery of the land and their ancient 
liberties. Other features developed which attracted to 
the cause of the Irish the descendants of English settlers 
in all the provinces. The Rebellion was finally crushed 
by Cromwell, assisted by those in Ireland who represented 
Enghsh interests. From the standpoint of those interests 
Cromwell did his work only too well. His object was 
extermination, and when he had finished, Ireland had been 
laid waste, the population had been reduced to about 
850,000 (of whom about 150,000 were EngUsh and Scotch), 
and the helpless Catholic Irish gentry, with their followers 
and tenants, had either been transplanted to the barren 
and bog lands, had migrated to foreign lands, or were 
so broken as to be no further menace to the Enghsh and 
Scotch planters who took their places. 

To finance the army which Cromwell used to crush the 
Rebellion bonds, each representing so many acres of land 
to be confiscated, were sold in England. In addition to 
the forfeited lands disposed of in this way, Cromwell's 
soldiers were allotted sections of the land according to 
mihtary rank. In this way practically the whole of Ulster 
and portions of other provinces not already confiscated 
were repeopled. But the ancient Irish were by no means 
exterminated, as the majority of Irish laborers were allowed 
to stay and work under the new settlers, and in a mihtary 
colony, women are scarce, hence Cromwell's soldiers 

[241 



WHY THE IRISH CAME TO AMERICA 

married natives. *To use their own words, they saw the 
daughters of Moab that they were fair."* Furthermore, 
recovery from defeat or misfortime is essentially an Irish 
characteristic, and many of those who had been trans- 
planted gradually worked their way back, though imder 
altered circumstances, and the laborers left sons and grand- 
sons who became merchants and professional men of a 
future generation. 

One effect of Cromwell's conquest that concerns us 
particularly is that it marks the beginning of the first 
noticeable migration of the Irish people to the American 
colonies. In addition to those who voluntarily came to 
the New World to escape the misery in Ireland, Cromwell 
caused about 9000 (some say many more) women and 
children to be sent to the colonies and to the West Indies 
as slaves, while 40,000 men among the disaffected of the 
population are estimated to have enUsted in the armies 
of France and other European coimtries, and transmitted 
their Irish blood to the population of other coimtries that 
helped in the peopling of America. 

Apart from the natural struggle for the land, the Irish 
people had other causes for detesting a government and 
its representatives who not only deprived them of their 
property, but attempted to reduce them to a condition 
of barbarism, moral depravity, ignorance, and slavery. 
The traits we commend in the Irish people — ^their humor, 
pathos, versatiUty, fidehty to principles, and devotion to 
traditions — ^are inherent and a part of their character. 
The ignorance of some and the lawlessness of other 
members of the race are the direct result of EngUsh ex- 
ample and laws made for the governance of the Irish 
♦ "Ireland," Encyclopedia Britannica. 
[26] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

people. The diversity of interests between those that 
represented English interests on the one hand, and the 
Irish people on the other, accounts in great measure for 
the factional strife down to the period of the great mi- 
gration to the United States at the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century. Added to this was religious persecution, 
which spared neither Celtic-Irish nor Anglo-Irish, Catholic, 
Presbyterian, nor any others who did not conform to the 
state religion; and still later legislation which affected the 
whole nation, or such of the people as were not large land- 
holders and government employees. We have already 
cited the opinion of the Protestant Archbishop, King. At 
about the same time, the Catholic Bishop, Molowny, 
wrote to Bishop Tyrrel as follows: **Nor is there any 
English, CathoUc or other, of what quahty or degree 
soever alive, that will stick to sacrifice all Ireland for to 
save the least interest of his own in England, and would 
as willingly see all Ireland over inhabited by EngUsh of 
whatsoever religion as by the Irish."* 

It was Henry II who strengthened the power of the 
Pope in Ireland; it was Henry VIII who received from the 
Pope the title of "Defender of the Faith" for his perse- 
cution of Protestants before he desired to divorce his wife; 
and it was his daughter by his second marriage who first 
began the persecution of the Irish and Anglo-Irish who 
had not acknowledged Henry as Head of the Church. In 
England the religion of the people was a pohtical affair. 
During the period of the Reformation, the people changed 
their form of religion with a change of kings, and those who 
refused to worship according to the then existing religion 
were persecuted. Thus, in Elizabeth's reign barbarity was 
♦ "The Revolution in Ireland," p. 87, time of James II. 
[26] 



WHY THE IRISH CAME TO AMERICA 

not only practised on Roman Catholics, but extended to 
such Protestants as did not conform to the ritual of the 
Church of England. In 1575 two Dutch Baptists of Lon- 
don were burned aUve at the stake, and at one time 
Ehzabeth had 300 heads of "heretics" exposed over the 
entrance to London Bridge and the Tower and Temple 
Bar. 

The Reformation did not afifect Ireland as it did other 
coimtries, because the social conditions in that coimtry 
did not offer the opportunity, because their reUgion had 
been a part of the national Uf e of the people for a thousand 
years before the Reformation, and instead of an influence 
from within, an attempt was made by an alien government 
to coerce the clergy to acknowledge the supremacy of the 
English sovereign, rather than to change the material form 
and substance of their worship. With a change of rulers 
in England, Irish bishops were required to conform on 
pain of death. The priests and laity were ordered to 
conform or suffer persecution. Apart from the principles 
involved, the missionaries sent from England to reform 
the Church in Ireland were of a type unUkely to secure 
either the confidence or respect of the people. In the 
words of a Protestant historian: *To preach what he 
thought true when he could do it safely, to testify against 
toleration, and in the meantime to make a fortune, was 
too often the sum and substance of an Anglican prelate's 
work in Ireland."* This was also the attitude of the entire 
English laity in Ireland. 

Growing out of the attempt to promote the Protestant 

reUgion, or rather the Church of England, in Ireland, 

penal laws were enacted from time to time in the reigns 

♦ " Ireland,'' Encyclopedia Britannica. 

l«7] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

of Elizabeth, James I, William and Mary, and Anne. 
These laws provided that: 

1. No Catholic might teach school or any child but 

his own, or send children abroad to be educated. 

2. Mixed marriages were forbidden between persons 

of property, and children might forcibly be 
brought up Protestants. 

3. A'CathoUc could not act as guardian, and all 

wards in chancery were brought up as Prot- 
estants. 

4. The son of a Catholic landed proprietor might 

by "conforming" — i. 6., turning apostate — make 
his father simply a tenant and secure his own 
inheritance. 

5. A CathoUc could not take a longer lease than 31 

years at two-thirds of a rack rent. 

6. If a CathoUc inherited property he could be ousted 

by the next Protestant heir unless he '^conformed" 
within six months. 

7. No CathoUc might have arms in his ik)ssession, 

and justices were empowered to search houses of 
CathoUcs for arms. 

8. If a CathoUc owned a good horse, any Protestant 

might claim it on tendering 5 poimds. 

9. No CathoUc could be admitted to the bar, nor 

could he hold a commission in the Army. 

NaturaUy, "these laws put a premium on hypocrisy, and 
many conformed only to preserve their property or to 
enable them to take office." Of the Penal Code, Edmund 
Burke said: "A complete system, fuU of coherence and 
consistency, well digested and composed in all parts — a 
machine of wise and elaborate contrivance, and as well 
fitted for the oppression, impoverishment and degradation 
of a people, and the debasement in them of human nature 

[28] 



WHY THE IRISH CAME TO AMERICA 

itself, as ever proceeded from the perverted ingenuity of 
man." The wonder is that there were any Catholics left 
in Ireland, for the Penal Laws were effective wholly or 
partially for a period of three himdred years. It was not 
mitil 1795 that CathoUcs were admitted to Trinity College, 
the only miiversity permitted in Ireland, and not imtil 
1829 were they permitted to vote for CathoUcs; yet such 
is the Irish devotion to principle and their love of Uberty 
that at the beginning of the eighteenth century, two- 
thirds of the Irish people were CathoUcs! 

Dean Swift, while pastor of Laracor, was visited by a 
friend from England who, surprised at the forlorn aspect 
of the landscape around the rectory, asked the cele- 
brated divine, "Where are your old Irish nobiUty?" 
Swift repUed: "You will have to search for them 
amongst the hovels of the poor." This was not satire: 
it was Uteral fact. Many of the CathoUc Irish nobiUty 
were reduced to absolute destitution, as Burke's "Vicissi- 
tudes of Irish FamiUes" amply proves. There was one 
remarkable illustration of the completeness of the trans- 
formation well known in Cork City for many years in the 
beginning of the nineteenth century. The representative 
of the oldest baronetcy in Ireland, Sir Theophilus Moore, 
and his lady, Uved in Cork Bridewell — ^the baronet 
jingling the keys every day as BrideweU keeper; and the 
lady running around in the morning among the hucksters, 
buying bread, milk, and vegetables from the hucksters 
who rented stalls on the Coal Quay, the spot whereon 
the ancient Bridewell stood. 

ReUgion was used in Ireland as a cloak for the ad- 
vancement of worldly and poUtical power. As all the land 
was held by the inmiigrants from England and Scotland, 

[29] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Protestants naturally became the ruling class. Their 
position was made more secure by viUfying the ancient 
Irish whose lands they had taken, and it became the 
fashion to keep the **mere Irish" down. While the 
CathoUcs still had some strength, the Penal Laws were 
enforced to reduce them to pauperism. After Cromwell's 
conquest the Presbyterians rose into power, and "as soon 
as they felt their strength, asked to have the army under 
Presbyterian influence." They refused to take apprentices 
that would not covenant to go to their meetings, and when 
a majority in municipal corporations, they excluded all 
not of their persuasion. On the return of Charles II, they 
lost some of their power, and 61 ministers in Ulster were 
ejected from their churches and Anglican curates appointed 
in their places. With the conquest of WilUam of Orange 
they again regained strength, but "under Queen Anne 
(1702-1714) the Presbyterians again lost almost every 
advantage that had been gained and became by the Test 
Act of 1705 virtually outlaws. Their marriages were 
declared invaUd and their chapels were closed. They could 
not maintain schools nor hold office above that of petty 
constable." Their right to worship was not legally recog- 
nized till 1719, but from 1704 to 1778, they were in- 
capacitated for all public office.* 

"Persecution peopled America," and in the case of the 
Puritans, Pilgrims, and Quakers this meant reUgious 
persecution by a Protestant government. But the Irish 
people fled from Ireland, not only because of religious 
persecution, but because they suffered from every form of 
oppression that selfish interests could devise. In Ireland 
the government was opposed to everything Irish. Cath- 
* Bolton, "Scotch-Irish Pioneers." 
[30J 



WHY THE IRISH CAME TO AMERICA 

olics and Presbyterians alike were excluded from all office, 
and tljese were filled by English members of the Elstab- 
Ushed Church, "who bartered Irish freedom for the place 
and power of their own families and dependents." The 
causes that led to the American Revolution were in- 
significant compared with those of which the Irish com- 
plained. The Navigation Acts of 1666 excluded Ireland 
from all her natural advantages and cut her off from 
direct trade with the colonies. When tobacco growing, 
introduced into Ireland by Sir Walter Raleigh, had become 
profitable, it was forbidden. When the exportation of 
cattle into England was placed under prohibitory duties, 
the Irish turned to sheep-raising, and the manufacture of 
woolen goods, an ancient Irish industry, began to flourish. 
The EngUsh Parliament, at the demand of selfish English 
interests, then crushed the Irish woolen industry (1698) 
by heavy export duties, and suggested the substitution 
of linen manufacture. When this had become profitable, 
laws were enacted in 1708 to discourage it, hence we find 
thousands of men employed in the Unen trade emigrating 
to New England, where they introduced the spinning- 
wheel and the manufacture of linen in 1718. Cotton, 
glass, brewing, sugar-refining, and other industries were 
systematically strangled when they interfered with the 
trade of Britain. "Kidnapping, enforced service in the 
American colonies, and traffic in political prisoners were 
indulged in by the government. Ireland as a dwelling- 
place for Catholics or Protestants, for Celts or Saxons, 
for native and Scotch settlers, was a coimtry of ever- 
renewed distress."* 

* Edward Potts Cheyney, "European Background of American 
ffistory," 1909. 

3 [8ia 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

While England was at war with the colonies, Irish- 
men at home were quietly working to secure a measure of 
independence for themselves. '* England's Extremity is 
Ireland's Opportxmity," and when England foimd it neces- 
sary to withdraw several thousand soldiers from Ireland 
for use in America, the Irish Volunteers were organized, 
ostensibly for the ''defense of Ireland against foreign in- 
vasion." On February 15, 1782, representatives of 143 
corps of volunteers of the Province of Ulster met at 
Dimgannon and adopted 21 resolutions, among which 
were the following: 

Resolved, That a citizen, by learning the use of arms, 
does not abandon any of his civil rights. 

That a claim of any body of men, other than the 
King, Lords, and Commons of Ireland, to make 
laws to bind this kingdom, is unconstitutional, 
illegal, and a grievance. 

That the ports of this country are, by right, open 
to all foreign countries, not at war with the 
King; and that any burthen thereupon, or 
obstruction thereto, save only by the parlia- 
ment of Ireland, is unconstitutional, illegal, and 
a grievance. 

That the independence of judges is equally essen- 
tial to the impartial administration of justice 
in Ireland, as in England; and that the refusal 
or delay of this right to Ireland makes a dis- 
tinction where there should be no distinction, 
may excite jealousy where perfect union 
should prevail; and is, in itself, unconstitu- 
tional and a grievance. 

That we hold the right of private judgment in 
matters of reUgion to be equally sacred in 
others as in ourselves. That as men, and as 

[82] 



WHY THE IRISH CAME TO AMERICA 

Irishmen, as Christians and as Protestants, 
we rejoice in the relaxation of the penal laws 
against onr Roman CathoUc fellow-6ubjects; 
and that we conceive the measure to be 
fraught with the happiest consequences to the 
xmion and prosperity of the inhabitants of 
Ireland. 

Among the signers of the foregoing resolutions, who 
were appointed a committee to represent the corps, were 
the following: 

Meryyn Archdall John Harvey 

WilliMn Irvine Robert Campbell 

Robert McClintock Joseph Pollock 

John Ferguson Waddell Cunningham 

John Montgomery Francis Evans 

Charles Leslie John Cope 

Francis Lucas James Dawson 

Thomas Morris Jones James Atcheson 

James Hamilton Daniel Eccles 

Andrew Thompson Thomas Dixon 

Alexander Stewart David Bell 

James Patterson John Coulston 

Francis Dobbs Robert Black 

Charles Duffin William Crawford 

These resolutions have somewhat the ring of the Dec- 
laration of Independence. They were passed by men of 
the Province of Ulster (whose descendants in America 
now call themselves " Scotch-Irish ")> and it will be noticed 
that the names are not at all unlike names prevalent in 
Colonial America and would not distinguish the bearers 
thereof as Irish; yet these men were as much Irish as 
the present members of the Sons of the Revolution are 
Americans. 

The Volunteers of Ireland soon numbered nearly 100,- 
000 men in all the provinces, more than half being in the 

[88] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

southern provinces. As a result of their strength and 
activity, Ireland secured her legislative independence in 
January, 1783, and from that time to 1798 there was not a 
nation on the habitable globe which had "advanced in 
cultivation and commerce, in agriculture and manufac- 
tures with the same rapidity, in the same period" as Ire- 
land.* 

Had this prosperity come fifty years earlier, it would 
have checked the tide of emigration to America and per- 
haps have changed the whole history of the latter coimtry. 
The Volunteers had in mind the establishment of a demo- 
cratic parliament, and they probably would have obtained 
absolute independence had not the American Revolution 
terminated when it did. With the increase of prosperity 
and the growing strength of the people the English gov- 
ernment, after its recovery from the American war, set 
about finally to take away even that measure of inde- 
pendence which England in her extremity had been com- 
pelled to grant to Ireland. Writing in 1798, Sir Ralph 
Abercromby, who had been appointed commander of the 
forces in Ireland the year previous, declared that "Within 
these twelve months every crime, every cruelty that could 
be committed by Cossacks or Calmucks has been trans- 
acted here;" that "houses had been burned, men murdered, 
others half hanged." Abercromby, himself a humane 
man, could not coimtenance these tortures, and in 1798 
he was recalled. A month later the Rebellion of the 
United Irishmen, whose leaders were, with few exceptions, 
Protestants, broke out. When this Rebellion was crushed 
the Irish ParUament was packed with placemen, and in 
1800 the Act of Union did away with the Parliament and 
* Lord Clare, in a pamphlet published by him in 1798. 
184] 



WHY THE IRISH CAME TO AMERICA 

Ireland lost her national identity. Lord Comwallis, who 
as lord lieutenant, supervised the details, wrote : " Nothing 
but the conviction that an Union is absolutely necessary 
for the safety of the British empire could make me endure 
the shocking task which is imposed on me. — ^I despise and 
hate myself every hour for enga^ng in such dirty work. — 
How I long to kick those whom my public duty obliges 
me to court!" The methods employed to bring about the 
Union and to crush opposition are strikingly illustrated 
by the following facts: 

One hundred and sixty-two members out of a total of 
303 in Parliament voted for the Union. Of these, 116 
were placemen, some of them English staff generals with- 
out one foot of land in Ireland. 

The expenditure for the military force maintained in 
Ireland from 1797 to 1801 amounted to over $80,000,000, 
over $20,000,000 of which was spent for the year 1800. 

The following received the amounts set opposite their 
names for their patronage in suppl3dng placemen for the 
Parliament: 

Lord Shannon $225,000 

The Marquis of Ely 225,000 

Lord Clanmorris 115,000 besides a peerage 

Lord Belvidere 75,000 

Sir Hercules Langrishe . . . 75.000 

Seven million five hundred thousand dollars were distri- 
buted among the members of Parliament, as "compensa- 
tion for their losses incident to the Union," and many were 
raised to the peerage, elevated to the bench, or pensioned. 

Reynolds, who kept the government informed of the 
proceedings of the United Irishmen, an organization of 
patriots, leaders of the Rebellion of 1798, received a pen- 
sion of $4600 a year for thirty-seven years, $27,000 in 
gratuities, and a foreign consulship. 

185] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

The above is intended merely to illustrate the lavish 
expenditure of money by the British Government, a prac- 
tice carried on for several hundred years to destroy Irish 
independence. The people's money was used for the pur- 
pose, and the following note on Ireland in 1716, found 
among the papers of Archbishop King, shows how this 
money was obtained and the suffering it caused the Irish 
people. "Upon the whole I do not see how Ireland can 
on the present foot pay greater taxes than it does without 
starving the inhabitants and leaving them entirely without 
meat or clothes. They have already given their bread, 
their flesh, their butter, their shoes, their stockings, their 
beds, their furniture and houses to pay their landlords and 
taxes. / cannot see how any more can be got from them, 
except we take away their potatoes and bvUermilk, or slay 
them and sell their skins."* 

* Second Report, G. B. Royal Commission on Historical MS., 
London, 1874, pp. 256, 257. 



[86] 



THE IRISH RACE OF THE EIGHTEENTH 
CENTURY 

NO other race possessed more vitality and assimi- 
lative powers than the ancient Irish people; and 
the settlers from England and Scotland (except 
possibly those among the official class) became in a very 
short space of time mmiistakably Irish. Most of the 
Normans and English that came to Ireland in the thir- 
teenth and f omiieenth centuries soon adopted Irish customs 
and dress. The poet Spenser "was one of the band of ad- 
venturers, who, with mixed motives of love of excitement, 
patriotism, piety, and hopes of forfeited estates" went to 
Ireland in the sixteenth century to aid in the suppression of 
a rebellionledby the Earl of Desmond, and he advocated the 
destruction of the race by a process of systematic starva- 
tion, yet his own grandson was expelledfrom house and prop- 
erty by Cromwell as an " Irish Papist." James the first's 
Scotch and English settlement of Ulster took place in 1603, 
Cromwell's confiscation and plantation of nearly the whole 
of rural Ireland occiured in 1652, and William the Third's 
confiscation of more than a million acres was made in 1691. 
Scotch and English farmers, soldiers, tradesmen and a few 
gentry immigrated into Ireland and settled on the con- 
fiscated land, yet forty years after the Puritans settled 
in Ireland it was reported that many of the children of 
Cromwell's soldiers could not speak a word of English, and 

[87] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

in 1690 hundreds of the descendants of Puritan settlers 
were fighting for the Catholic King James II. Seven 
years after the battle of the Boyne, when William defeated 
King James, many of William's soldiers had become 
Catholics.* 

Wolfe Tone, leader of the Rebellion of 1798, was the 
grandson of an EngUshman and an Episcopalian; Thomas 
Addis Emmett, great-great-grandson of one of Cromwell's 
soldiers, was banished from Ireland for his participation 
in the same Rebellion and emigrated to America. His 
brother, Robert, was hanged in 1803 as leader of the Re- 
bellion of 1803. Francis McKinley, great-grand-micle of 
the American President, was hanged as an Irish rebel in 
1798. These are not isolated cases, but are iypical of 
thousands of instances where men of English and Scotch 
name were just as Irish in sentiment and action as the 
O'Briens, McLaughlins, Murphys, and O'Callaghans. 

It will be observed in the Dungannon Resolutions of the 
Ulster Volunteers that the members refer to themselves 
as Irishmen, not as Scots or Scotch-Irish, yet of the 28 
names of members given, only one is distinctively an Irish 
name. The term '* Scotch-Irish" is purely an American 
invention, used by an unthinking class of descendants of 
Irish immigrants who imagine it is more respectable to be 
Scotch-Irish than pure Irish. As a matter of fact, it 
would be hard to find an Irish family that has not some 
Norman, English, or Scotch blood, and if those who pride 
themselves on being the direct descendants of Scotch and 
English settlers were familiar with Irish history, it might 
occur to them that the majority of English and Scotch in 
Ireland were settlers who usurped the property of the 
♦ "The Legacy of Past Years," Lord Dunraven. 
[38] 



THE IRISH RACE OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

rightful owners and were, consciously or unconsciously, 
the cause of the poverty and misery suffered by thousands 
of ancient Irish families. 

Among the middle-class residents of Belfast and Lon- 
donderry and their immediate environs, the Scotch settlers 
retained their Scotch sentiments and characteristics for 
a generation or two, but the emigration to America from 
these two cities was insignificant compared to that from 
other parts of Ireland. Indeed, the few hundred settlers 
of Londonderry, New Hampshire, were perhaps the only 
body of distinctively Londonderry Irish emigrants in 
colonial times. The other Ulster immigrants came from 
the hills of Donegal, from Down, Antrim, Tyrone, Mon- 
aghan, and Armagh, where they had associated and inter- 
married with the Irish for several generations and they 
possessed the good nature, optimism, and generosity of 
the Irish race. A period of over one himdred years had 
elapsed from the Plantation of Ulster with Scotch and 
English adventurers until the beginning of the great Irish 
emigration to the American colonies, and surely a family 
that had lived in Ireland for that length of time might be 
considered as Irish. It is true, of course, that the people 
of Ulster were, as a whole, more prosperous than those 
from some other parts of Ireland, but this was due to the 
fact that Ulster had since the Plantation enjoyed an equi- 
table tenure of land, which was not extended to other parts 
of Ireland until late in the nineteenth century, and indus- 
tries were established in Ulster as in no other parts of 
Ireland. The prosperity of Ulster could not have been 
due to EngUsh blood, as there was more Anglo-Saxon and 
Norman blood in the Province of Munster in the seven- 
teenth century than there was in Ulster. The people 

[39] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

of Ulster had greater advantages and were freer from 
English influence than the people in the South, the south- 
em provinces, with the ports of Dublin, Waterford, Cork, 
and Limerick, being more accessible and more attractive 
to English settlers. 

But by the eighteenth century the descendants of Scotch 
and English settlers had in most instances become Irish 
in fact as well as by birth, and in this work we include as 
Irish all who came from Ireland. Of late years the 
'* Scotch-Irish" have been receiving due credit for their 
contribution to the settlement and prosperity of America, 
but in another chapter we shall show that these so-called 
"Scotch-Irish" had good old-fashioned Irish names — 
when they arrived in America, at any rate. 



[40; 



THE IRISH COLONIAL IMMIGRATION 



**Even the Protestant exiles from Ulster went to America as 
*Sons of St. Patrick J To shun persecution and designed 
ruin by the English government^ Protestants and Catholics 
had gone, and their moneys their arms, the fury of their turath, 
were spent in organizing the American war. Irishmen were 
at every meeting^ every council^ every battle. Their indignation 
was a white flame of revoU that consumed every fear and vadUa- 
tion around it. That longy deep, bitter experience bore down 
the temporizers, and sent out men trained in suffering to 
triumph over adversity." — ^Alicb Stopford Green, in "Irish 
Nationality," pp. 179, 180. 



W 



E have seen that three causes operated to drive 
the Irish people to the American colonies, 
namely: 



First: Wars of extermination, carried on by the English 
to secure the land of the ancient proprietors. 

Second: Religious persecution, having for its real object 
the advancement of the political power of the Anglican 
party. 

Third: Economic and industrial oppression, which 
aflfected famihes of all reUgious persuasions, and particu- 
larly the inhabitants of the Province of Ulster, who, under 
hitherto favorable conditions, had built up thriving in- 
dustries. 

It is evident that the first to leave Ireland were the older 
Irish people — ^the men who had fought the incoming ad- 
venturers in the effort to retain their property. These 

[41] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

were followed by others who fled to escape the Penal Laws 
and other forms of oppression to which the Irish and 
Anglo-Irish Catholics were subject; the Presbjrterians, 
who were persecuted by the Anglican Church party; and, 
lastly, all classes of Irish men and women who wanted to 
work, but were prevented from enjoying the fruits of their 
labor by unjust legislation enacted upon the demand of 
selfish British business interests to depress Irish industries. 
The destruction of the wool trade is estimated to have 
ruined over forty thousand families in all parts of Ireland, 
while tlie destruction of the linen trade, together with 
other forms of oppression, reduced the population of 
Ulster alone by half a million people before the beginning 
of the American Revolution. 

The actual loss in the population of Ireland from 1672 
to 1695, according to the statistics of Sir William Petty, 
was over 700,000, while the loss from 1712 to 1785 is 
estimated to have been over 1,000,000. The exiles went 
into every coimtry in Eiu'ope In the service of France 
alone over 400,000 Irish soldiers are estimated to have 
died from 1691 to 1745. There was not a coimtry among 
the powers, and not an occupation, in which Irishmen 
were not to be found as generals, admirals, statesmen, 
scholars, physicians, engineers, business-men, and labor- 
ers. As for the American colonies, Irish men, women, 
and children began coming before 1650, while in the eigh- 
teenth century they came in thousands, from North and 
South, East and West, Catholics, Protestants, gentry, 
nobility, and peasantry, bearing English names, Irish 
names, Scotch names, or any convenient name that would 
free them from English malice. There can be no question 
regarding the attitude of these exiles from Ireland. They 

[«] 



THE IMSH COLONIAL IMMIGRATION 

had suJBfered untold misery; they had been persecuted to 
the verge of despair; and they came with a burning sense 
of the selfishness and deceit which characterized English 
rule in Ireland. The proof of their coming, — ^that they 
came in alarming numbers, — and that they did not alto- 
gether escape EngUsh persecution, is found in contempo- 
rary records. Nor did they come only to a few of the 
colonies, but to all, and that they influenced the poUtical, 
economic, and religious life of the colonies is certain. 

In "Races and Immigrants in America," John R. Com- 
mons, speaking of the Irish immigration, says, "This was 
by far the largest contribution of any race to the population 
of America diu-ing the eighteenth century." Writing in 
1789, Ramsey, the historian of North CaroUna, said: 
"The Colonies which now form the United States may be 
considered as Eiu'ope transplanted. Ireland, England, 
Scotland, France, Germany, Holland, Switzerland, Sweden, 
Poland, and Italy furnished the original stock of the pres- 
ent population, and are generally supposed to have con- 
tribvied to it in the order named. For the last seventy or 
eighty years no nation had contribiUed so much to the popu- 
lation of America as Ireland^* On the other hand, Sena- 
tor Lodge, in his "Story of the Revolution," says that 
"the people of Massachusetts were of almost piu-e English 
blood, with a small infusion of Huguenots and a sUght 
mingling, chiefly in New Hampshire, of Scotch-Irish 
from Londonderry." The latter statement shows either 
gross ignorance or is a deUberate fabrication. While it 
is true the colonists that arrived in New England, from the 
landing of the Mayflower passengers in 1620 to the rise of 
Cromwell in 1648, were ahnost wholly yeomanry from 
England, the latter circimistance reduced the necessity 

[48] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

for Puritan emigration to the same extent that it increased 
the necessity for Irish emigration; and while nimibers of 
the Puritans returned to England to receive the benefits 
of the rise of their party into power, Irishmen left Ireland 
to escape Puritan persecution. In any case, a large niun- 
ber of Irish gentlemen came to New England (by way of 
England in some cases) among the 20,000 persons that 
are estimated to have arrived during the period of the 
great Puritan exodus; but the first noticeable influx of 
Irish people into New England began in 1652, when by 
Cromwell's orders, 400 Irish children were sent to the 
colonies to be sold as slaves. From that time on the ship- 
ment of Irish men, women, and children to New England 
was common practice. Many of them were political 
prisoners, whose chief crime had been the ownership of 
property; hundreds were kidnapped with the connivance 
of government officials; and many came of their own 
volition. That they came in sufficient niunbers as to 
cause alarm is evident from a manuscript report of a 
conmiittee appointed by the Colony of Massachusetts to 
consider certain proposals for the public benefit, dated 
October 29, 1654, of which the following, with spelling 
revised, is a copy: 

"This Court, considering the cruel and malignant spirit 
that has from time to time been manifest in the Irish 
nation against the English nation, does hereby declare the 
prohibition of any Irish men, women or children being 
brought into this jurisdiction on the penalty of fifty pound 
sterlmg to each inhabitant that shall buy of any merchant, 
shipmaster, or other agent, any such persoii or persons 
so transported, which fine shall be by the county's mar- 
shall, on conviction of some magistrate or court, levied, 
and be to the use of the informer one-third and two-thirds 

[44] 



THE IRISH COLONIAL IMMIGRATION 

to the county. This act to be in force six months after 
pubUcation of this order. 

(Signed) Dan Gooken. 

Thomas Savage. 

Roger Clap. 

Richard Russell. 

Francis Norton." 

It would appear that similar laws existed earlier, as in 
1650 applications were made by several individuals for the 
remission of fines imposed for the offense.* The enact- 
ment of this law is sufficient proof that the number of 
arrivals from Ireland must have been large, as a few 
himdred women and children vWould not have given rise to 
grave fears. It is more than probable that many proud 
New England families of today, bearing "English" 
names, are descended from some of these poor Irish serv- 
ants, many of whom were of better blood than the most 
arrogant Puritans, but their old Irish names were in most 
instances replaced by English ones, and not having the 
opportunity to practise any other religion, became Puri- 
tans themselves. But servants, political prisoners, and 
kidnapped children were not the only classes of Irish 
people that came to New England early in her history. 
We find, for example, that Captain Daniel Patrick (other- 
wise Gilpatrick) and Robert Feake, bearers of Irish names, 
were the first white settlers in what is now Greenwich, 
Conn., 1639; John Burrage Martin, bom in England, son 
of a County Galway gentleman, came to Massachusetts 
in 1637; Captain Robert Keajme or Kane (name of Irish 
origin) came from London to Boston in 1635, and founded 
the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Co., of Boston; 
* Notes and Queries Magazine, vol. v, seventh series, p. 226. 
[451 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Richard Wilkins, a householder in Boston, 1689, was 
formerly a bookseller in Limerick, Ireland, and the an- 
cestor of John Hancock, who came from the Coimty Down. 
We learn further, from the chapter on King Philip's War, 
1675, in the " Pilgrim RepubUc '' by Goodwin, and this war 
was far more grievous to New England than the Revolu- 
tion, — ^that during this war England was an indifferent 
spectator, and that the "only aid which ever came to the 
colonies from any source" was a subscription for £1000 
raised in DubUn, Ireland. 

It is clear that Irish or Celtic blood early mingled in the 
New England population, which, in 1700, was estimated to 
have been 105,000, some part of which, in addition to the 
Irish, was made up of Normans from the Channel Islands, 
Welsh, and Scotch. Granting, however, that the popula- 
tion was "almost wholly English'' in 1700, it certainly 
was not in 1775. With the beginning of the eighteenth 
century the Irish began coming to New England in vast 
numbers. It would be impossible to estimate the nimiber 
of persons that came from Ireland, or the number of ships 
from that coimtry which landed colonists at New England 
ports, as the arrivals during the eighteenth century were 
not so much an event as the landing of the Pilgrims, how- 
ever much they may have influenced future events of 
importance to the colonies. But from the Boston News 
Letter we learn that 53 ships from Ireland landed colonists 
at Boston in the years from 1714 to 1720. In the Records 
of the Boston Selectmen, Report of the Record Conmiis- 
sioners, 1736 to 1742, we find the following items: Cap- 
tain George Bond gave a bond for £1000 for 37 persons 
imported from Ireland; Capt. Gibbs and Mr. Ramsey, 
bond of £1000 and Mr. Waldo £200 for persons imported 

[461 



THE IRISH COLONIAL IMMIGRATION 

from Ireland; Hugh Ramsey, John Weirs and William 
Moore £1000 for 381 passengers from Ireland September 
15, 1737; Capt. Montgomery and Nathaniel Bethime, 
£500 for 80 passengers from Ireland; Capt. Jackson and 
Samuel Dowse, bond of £250 for 46 passengers from Ire- 
land; Sloop Sea Flower with 65 passengers from Ireland. 
The records are fuU of such notices. Of 14 ships reported 
in the Boston News Letter that arrived in 1718, three were 
known to have come from Dublin and one from Water- 
ford; while in 1720 one was from Cork and three from 
Dublin. Thus the inmiigrants came from the south as 
well as from the north of Ireland. They introduced the 
potato into New England, and — ^mark this — ^they intro- 
duced the spinning wheel, considered by all Americans as 
a peculiarly New England institution, and the manufacture 
of linen. For this we have the testimony of Drake, in 
his "History of Boston," as follows: 



"About two years previous to this (1718) there arrived 
in the coimtry a large colony of persons from in and about 
Londonderry in Ireland, denominated Scotch-Irish, be- 
cause they emi^ated originally from Scotland to Ireland. 
The most of tMs colony settled in New Hampshire, but 
a considerable nimiber of them fixed their residence in 
Boston. These emigrants were chiefly manufacturers of 
linen, and they brought their utensils for that purpose 
with them. The foot or linen wheel, since so famiUar in 
the households of New England, was introduced by this 
colony and the raising of flax and the manufacture of 
linen cloth was looked upon as of great importance to the 
coimtry. The pec^le of Boston took hold of the matter 
with great earnestness. The subject was put into the 
warrant for a town meeting September 28, 1720." 

Note. — ^The Irish also introduced the potato at this time. 

4 [47] 



IRISH CX)NTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

The author of the above erroneously refers to the 
colonists as "Scotch-Irish." With few exceptions, the 
families of these colonists had lived in Ireland for at least 
three generations, and a large niunber bore Irish names. 
In any case they left Ireland because of the persecution 
and imjust laws imder which they lived while there. 
That they were Celtic and not Anglo-Saxon is evident 
from the following names which appear on a petition ad- 
dressed to Governor Shute in 1718 by some of the colo- 
nists from Ix)ndonderry who desired to locate in New 
Hampshire: 



Neal McNeall James Kenedy 

James Moore John McEeen 

Alex. McGresore Robert McEeen 

Alex. McNeall Andrew Patrick 

John Morrison James McFee 

James Cochran Rich. McLaughlen 

James Morrison Andrew McFadden 

John Cochran James McEerrell 

William Cochran Andrew Fleming 

Daniel McEerrell Patrick Orr 

Fergos Eenedy Daniel Orr 

James Gilmore Alex. McBride 

Arch. McCook William Orr 

Edward McEene Samuel McGivem 

Samuel McMmi George McAlester 

Thomas McLaughlen Rob^ Neilson 

Lawrence McLaughlen Henry NdUe 

William Boyle Will McAlben 

Benjamin Boyle John McCan 

The settlement of New Hampshire by colonists from 
the North of Ireland has received sufficient mention in 
American history to be well known; but the Irish of Lon- 
donderry, N. H., constituted only an insignificant propor- 
tion of the Irish colonists who came to other parts of New 
England and to the other colonies. Irish people from all 

[48] 



THE IRISH COLONIAL IMMIGRATION 

parts of Ireland settled in the city of Boston and in other 
parts of New England, from the coast of Maine to Lake 
Champlain. In 1718 the town of Worcester, Mass., 
consisted of 58 dwellings and 200 inhabitants. The Rev. 
Edward Fitzgerald, a Presbyterian minister, with 50 
famiUes from Ireland, settled in Worcester and doubled 
the population. The town of Concord was foimded by 
emigrants from Ireland, as were several other towns in 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire. One 
of the original settlers of Worcester was James McClel- 
land, ancestor of General Samuel McClelland, General 
Geo. B. McClelland, and of the former Mayor of New 
York City. 

Among the settlers of Pelham, Mass., were the follow- 
ing colonists from Ireland: 

James Clark Duncan McFarland 

John Clark John Mclntyre 

Robert Ferrell Robert McLem 

Robert Forbush Daniel McMains 

Patrick Gregory James McPherson 

John Hamilton John Moore 

John Lecore John Murray 

Wm. McCarter Robert Patnck 

Thomas McClanathan Edward Savage 

John McClanathan William Sloan 

All the above names are as prevalent in Ireland as in 
Scotland. The Savages were in Ireland as early as the 
fourteenth century, and the Edward Savage above men- 
tioned was the grandfather of the celebrated portrait 
painter who lived in Philadelphia and painted a portrait 
of Washington. 

Among the colonial settlers in the region now called 
Vermont were families with the following distinctively 
Irish names: Burke, Barrett, Kennedy, McCoy, Hogan, 

[49] 



IRISH CX)NTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Dunn, Larkin, McConnell, Moore, Garvey, Goflf, Carey, 
McCarra, Duane. The Duanes owned 63,000 acres of 
land, and the first member of the family in America was 
Anthony Duane, who was bom in the Coimty Galway, 
Ireland. Other settlers in Vermont from Ireland were 
Archibald Stark, father of General John Stark; Matthew 
Lyon, from the Coimty Wicklow, who by his eloquence 
swimg the Green Moimtain Boys of Vermont into line 
early in the Revolution; Captain Ma^ennis, who com- 
manded the New Hampshire MiUtia and is given credit 
for turning the f ortimes of the day in the attack on Long 
Point, Lake George, March, 1757, French and Indian War; 
and many other Irishmen whose sons and grandsons 
became famous in American History. 

The city of Boston contained a large Irish population 
in colonial days and they were by no means all "Scotch- 
Irish from Londonderry." The Records of the Boston 
Selectmen already referred to contain the names of per- 
sons to whom Ucenses as " City Porters " were issued in the 
year 1738. There are 16 names in the list and 12 of these 
are as follows: John Whaland, Robert McMiUion, Patrick 
Goflfe, Paul Bryan, Thomas O'Brien, Patrick Bourke, 
John Keefe, Jeremiah Maccarty, Timothy Harney, Ed- 
ward Kelly, Thomas Pheland, James CoUins. The same 
records contain many items of the following character: 

'^John McGuire appeared and stated he had in his 
house, Daniel GriflGith, Mariner, John Welch, Mariner, 
James Miufey, Mariner and Joyner, Cornelius Fling, 
\^ctualer." 

"Sarah McLucas, given charity." 

"John Maccanis (McGinis) wife and four children 
arrived from Ireland Jime 9, 1719." 

[501 



THE IRISH COLONIAL IMMIGRATION 

"John Mackmaster, wife and four children, who arrived 
from Ireland June 1722. 

"Dennis SulUvant and wife, lately came from South 
Carolina, is going to return to Ireland or England in about 
five weeks." 

In 1733 an Irish Church was shown upon the map of the 
city; in 1737, on St. Patrick's Day, the Charitable Irish 
Society of Boston was organized; the Boston Tea Party 
met at an inn kept by a man named John Duggan, and the 
tea was thrown into the harbor oflf Griffin^ s Wharf; and 
Patrick Carr was one of the men killed by the British 
soldiers in the Boston Massacre. 

The Irish Presbyterians formed extensive settlements, 
as a body, in New Hampshire and in the settled portions 
of Massachusetts. The Irish Catholics, however, sought 
refuge as individuals in the remoter regions of the province. 
The territory of Maine, for example, while a part of the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony, was to a large extent free from 
the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts govemmentjj**^ 
much so that Gov«nor Winthrop complained: "They ' 
ran a diflferent course from us, both in their ministry and / 
in their civil administration, for they had lately made i 
Acomentious (a poor village) a corporation and had made j 
a tailor their mayor, and had entertained one Hull, an / 
excommunicated person, and very contentious, for theii>' 
jniiiiMwH^* . Thus, in the character of the people of Maine, 
we see the beginning of American democracy. They had 
little of the intolerant, overbearing spirit of the Puritan, 
and they had the audacity to elect as mayor a man who 
worked for his Uving. The Irish settled extensively in 
Maine. The town of Berwick, one of the earUest settle- 
* Bolton, "Scotch-Irish Pioneers." 
[Ml 



IRISH CONTRIBUnON TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

ments, was probably named in honor of the Duke of Ber- 
wick, one of the commanders of the Irish forces in the 
Revolution of 1691. Among the Irish who lived in the 
town was Owen SuUivan, bom in Limerick, Ireland,^ during 
the siege of 1691, who was the father of John Sullivan, 
member of the Continental Congress in 1774 and a Briga- 
dier General of the Continental Army in 1775 at the age 
of thirty-three; of James Sullivan, Member of the Provin- 
cial Congress of Massachusetts 1775, judge of the Superior 
Court 1776, Attorney General, Governor of Massachu- 
setts, and founder of the town of Limerick, Maine, whose 
son, John Langdon Sullivan, bom 1777, invented a steam 
tow-boat for which he received a patent in 1814, in prefer- 
ence to Robert Fulton, who applied for one at the same 
time.* 

Another Irish settler in Maine was Maurice O'Brien, 
bom in Cork, whose five sons, on hearing of the battle of 
Lexington, with a few volunteers captured a British 
armed schooner in Machias Bay, May 11, 1775 — the first 
naval victory and the first blow struck on water in the war for 
independence. The leader of this expedition was Jere- 
miah O'Brien, who was bom in Scarboro', 1740, and was 
afterwards a captain in the Massachusetts Navy. An- 
other member of the family, Richard O'Brien, born 1758, 
commanded a privateer in the Revolution, and was an 
officer on the brig Jefferson in 1781, when he was captured 
by the Dey of Algiers and enslaved for many years.f 

* Appleton's American Biography. 

t Harper's Cyclopedia of American History. 



[52] 



THE IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

THE extent of the Irish colonial population in America 
is perhaps best illustrated in the history of their set- 
tlement and activity in the province of Pennsylva- 
nia. Penn received his grant of the province and his pro- 
prietary charter from King James II. His father owned an 
estate in Cork, Ireland, where the eminent Quaker spent 
much of his time as manager of the estate before coming to 
America. He manned a vessel that brought him to Amer- 
ica mostly with men that he secured in the city of Cork. 
His secretary, James Logan, was bom in Lisbum, Coimty 
Antrim, and Thomas Holme, his Surveyor-General, who 
laid out the city of Philadelphia, was bom in Waterford. 
According to a recent authority, "the actual treaty for the 
lands of the present Philadelphia and adjacent coimty, 
out to the Susquehanna, was made in the year 1686 by 
Thomas Holme, as president of the Council in the absence 
of William Penn who had gone to England."* William 
Welsh, who was one of Penn's councillors, negotiated a 
treaty with the Indians of northwestern New York in 

1683, and he represented the Governor of Pennsylvania in 
negotiations with Governor Dongan, of New York, in 

1684, relative to Penn's quarrel with Lord Baltimore. 
The Irish Quakers who came to Pennsylvania formed so 
large a proportion of the colonists that the "Irish Quaker 

* Appleton's "American Biographies.'^ 
(581 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Immigration to Pemisylvania" is the subject of a volume 
of more than 500 pages. 

In 1700 Pennsylvania and Delaware together had a 
population of about 20,000. While the inhabitants of 
Pennsylvania were chiefly Quakers at that time, a large 
number of Irish Catholics and Protestants must have 
settled in the Province in the seventeenth century, for 
Penn offered freedom of worship to all settlers, and be- 
cause of his well-known toleration for Catholics he was 
himself sometimes accused of being a "Papist." In 1729 
an Irish lady of some means, with a number of her tenantry 
from Ireland, settled near what is now Nicetown, Phila- 
delphia, and established a Roman Catholic chapel on her 
estate."^ About the same time the Irish were coming to 
Philadelphia in such large nmnbers as to alarm the Quaker 
and En^sh inhabitants, for in a statement to the Coimcil 
in 1729 the Deputy Governor of the Province said: 

"It looks as if Ireland is to send all its inhabitants 
hither, for last week not less than six ships arrived, and 
every day two or three arrive also. The common fear is 
that if they thus continue to come, they will make them- 
selves masters of the province."! 

That the English inhabitants of the city had cause for 
alarm at their rapidly diminishing majority is indicated in 
the following table of the immigrants arriving in Pennsyl- 
vania during the year ending December, 1729: English 
and Welsh, 267; Scotch, 43; German Palatines, 243; 
Irish, 5655.J: In 1728 there arrived at New Castle, 
Delaware, 4500 persons, most of whom came from Ire- 

* Watson's "Annals of Philadelphia." t Ibid, 
t Gordon's "History of Pennsylvania." 
154] 



THE IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

land.* By 1772, the Irish immigration had reached such 
proportions that 3500 persons from Ireland arrived in 
Philadelphia diuing the first two weeks in August of that 
year.f Before the Revolution the prophecy of the Deputy 
Governor had been fulfilled, and the Irish and their de- 
scendants had indeed become proprietors of the province. 
In a measure this was fortunate for the colonies, as the 
principles of the Quakers prohibited their taking an active 
part in the war, and the Tory sentiment among the Eng- 
lish residents of the province was notorious. 

For confirmation of the claim that the Irish population 
of the province was large we need only examine the colo- 
nial marriage records, Usts of soldiers in the colonial 
militia companies, and lists of taxables, for Irish names. 
In Philadelphia the marriage records of all Protestant 
churches contain old-fashioned Irish names in abimdance. 
Most of the bearers of these names were imdoubtedly of 
Catholic birth, but in many cases their marriage in Protes- 
tant churches was due, despite the Uberal attitude of Penn 
himself in foimding of his colony, to restrictive laws 
against the performance of the marriage ceremony by 
Catholic clergjrmen. The Pennsylvania Archives, second 
series, vol. ix, contain the marriage records of Philadelphia 
churches covering certain periods before the Revolution. 
On the list of the First Presbyterian Church, 1702 to 1745, 
occur the following distinctively Irish names: 

Mary Brian and John Smith 
Mary Bryan and William Love 
Henry Bryan and Dinah Philips 
Margaret Bryan and William rorter 

♦ Watson's "Annals," p. 266. 

t Spencer's "History oi the United States." 

[66] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Patrick Caffry and Esther Rice 

Richard Cahill and Eliz. Burrege 

John Callahan and EUz. Sweet 

John Callahan and Winifred Casebnm 

Edward Callahan and Mary Rice 

Roger Cane and Eliz. Welsh 

Rose Cane and Adam Little 

Jannet Cannon and Geo. Calahone 

Joseph Cannon and Rachel Gethram 

Margaret Carey and John McMicken 

Jane Camaghan and Josias Brown 

Abraham Carel and Kath. Van Pelt 

Richard Carrel and Grace Williams 

Anne Carroll and Geo. Hawkins 

Daniel Carty and Margaret Lavender 

Miles Carty and Joan Dickey 

Darby Carty and Hannah Richardson 

Thomas Carty and Anne Haimer 

Jane Cary and George Brown 

John Cleary and Jane Collins 

Katherine Coghran and Francis Willson 

Charles Coile and Anne Price 

Mary Magdalena Colerain and Christian Taylor 

Jacob Coney and Barbara Van Clinkenbaugh 

Mary Coney and Joseph Walton 

Darby Connelly and Jane Price 

John Conner and Mary Rambo 

William Conner and Mary Quill 

Michael Connolly and Anne Clingman 

John Connor and Mary Foreman 

John Conway and Susanna Bound 

William Conway and Mary McAnally 

Daniel Daily and Mary Hill 

Eleanor Daily and Anorew McBroom 

Joanna Daily and John Murphy 

Katherine Daily and Duncan Campbell 

Mary Daily and Robert Fleming 

Thomas Daily and Mary Harden 

Daniel Donavin and Anne Wood 

Peter Donavin and Eliz. Wright 

John Donelan and Eliz. Parker 

John Dorkarty and Susanna Seinchy 

Jane Drogheda and Thomas Jones 

Katherine Drogheda and Richards Warkins 

Kath. Eagin and Patrick Daveny 

James Farrel and Jane Heath 

John Farel and Honour Farel 

William Farrell and Mary Barroe 

[56] 



THE miSH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

Mary Flanekin and Edward Swinney 
Samuel Foley and Mary Sinkler 
James Kerrel and Dinah VanKirk 
James Laughlin and Jane Jones 
Rebecca Mackinaire and Peter Jackson 
John Mackneal and Martha Floyd 
Mary Magenny and James Kelley 
Margaret Mahaffy and William Walker 
Honour Malenny and Michael Fleming 
Edward Malone and Agnes Eider 
Jane McCane and Huu^ Gunning 
Mary McCannin and Samuel Low 
Margaret McCarty and Thomas Holmes 
Jane McClenaghan and Job Guthrey 
Agness McClenan and John Griffith 
Isabel McCloghUn and Abram Russel 
Martha McConnell and James Little 
Patrick McCormick and Blanch Hughes 
Mary McGeorge and George Lewis 
Margaret McGown and Joseph Frasder 
Susanna McKelan and James Steward 
Elizabeth McKane and Joseph Kerr 
Sarah McKenny and Walter Brjrson 
Jane McMurran and John Forsyth 
Michael McDonald and Bridget Kerr 
Margaret Meals and Daniel Dismond 
Jane Mulle^an and John Wayne 
Mary Mullm and William Hart 
John Murphy and Joanna Daily 
Katherine Murphy and John McPack 
Eleanor O'Biyan and Robert Baker 
Katherine O'Bryan and Edward Winter 
John O'Bryant and Mary Dukeminer 
Anne O'Bum and Thomas Holland 
Peter Okdy and Mary Asson 
Joseph Or^ and Oath. Kirk 
Mary Pendergrass and James Frazier 
Eleanor Reiley and Henry Early 
Charles Rdly and Isabel Easly 
Joshua Reily and Rebecca Doyle 
Timothy Siuliman and Rose Waters 
Mary SuUivan and John Fleming 
Dennis SuUivan and Elizabeth Caldwell 
Bartholomew Welsh and Maiy Kirk 
Elizabeth Welsh and Roger Cane 
Mary Welsh and Abrahun Laybrook 
Rebecca Welsh and John Lockhart 

[571 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

On the above list, in addition to the names given, the 
name Dimn occurs 3 times, Fitzgerald 6 times, Fleming 5, 
Kelley 11, Kilpatrick 3, Martin 11, and there are 95 
names beginning with "Mc'*. 

The marriage lists of Old Swedes Church, 1750 to 1810, 
contain a very much larger proportion of Irish names. 
There are 486 names beginning with "Mc," as well as 
every other form of Irish names, of which the following is 
an indication: 



Mary Branagen and William Erskin 
Michael Branin and Barbara Evans 
Patrick Brawley and Sarah Thompson 
Patrick Brian and Marsaret Smith 
Timot^ Brian and Isabella Dickinson 
Roger Brogen and Elizabeth Warren 
Sarah Brogen and Lewis Moliere 
Patrick Cacharin and Gracey McNeal 
Mary Carrigan and Charles Domonick 
Ann Cartey and Patrick Dowen 
Patrick Cashaday and Catharine Baldwin 
Hugh Cassaday and Rachel Richards 
Ann Cassel and Dennis Leary 
James Colgun and Mary flannagan 
Catherine Condon and Michael Mmphy 
Patrick Condren and Mart Latterson 
Dennis Conneley and Mary Eilkenney 
Neal Connolly and Mary Macumtire 
Margaret Connoway and Thomas Haley 
Patnck Conrey and Nancy Early 
Biddy Devine and John Bogg^ 
Patrick Doran and Jane Long 
Patrick Fares and Elec. Garvey 
Elizabeth Fairies and James Cochran 
Brigith Fegen and Chris. Fitzgerald 
Patrick Gallenogh and Susanna Brown 
Patrick Glyn and Maiy Christie 
Patrick Kempsey and Miz. Davis 
John Logan and Jane O'Connor 
Patrick Loghan and Margaret Docherty 



[58] 



THE IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

On the same list the names foUowmg occur the number 
of times shown: 

Barry, Bary, 15 

Braidy, Brady, 9 

Brannon, 6 

Burk, Burke, 19 

Bum, Bumes, 14 

Cahan, Cahil, Cahill 

Cain, Cane, 7 

Callaghan, Callahan, Callan, 7 

Cannon and Canon, 6 

Carrell, Caril, Carill, Carol, 6 

Carney, 10 

Carr, 22—2 Michaels and 2 Patricks 

Cassidv, Cavenaugh, Cavener, Cavenough 

Connelly, 4 

Connar, Connard. Conner, Connor, 19 

Connel, Conell, Connelly, Connerly, Connil, 10 

Conway, 3 

Corran, Corridon, Corrigan. Corrill, Coughlin, Courtney, Curin 

Daugherty. 2. DaJey, 2, Delaney, 7. Dempsey, 5, Dennis 

Deyer, 2, Dillon, 2, Docherty, 2, Doharty, 2. Doil, Doile, Doyle, 15 

Donavan. Donevan, Donovan, 5, Donohus, Donohow, Donohoo, 4 

Dorian, Doman, Dougan 

Dougharty, 21, Donlin, Dyer, Dwire, Dyar, Dyer 

Egan, Eagan, Egins 

Farran, 2, Fanrel, 6, Ferrell, 4 

Fitzgerald, 12, Fitzpatrick, 3 

Flaherty, Flanigan, Flaniken, Flannigan, Flannagam 

Ford, 15 

Gallagher. 3, Galespy, Gillaspy, 2 

Gilmar, Uilmer, Gimnore, 8 

Griffen, Griffin, 5 

Hagartny, Hagerty, Haggerty 

Hagens, Haley, Haney, 5, Hanighan, Hanley, Hennesey 

Higgins, 5, Hogan, 6 

Kaley, 2, Kane ,2, Karrigan, Kavanagh, Kean, 3, Keen, 11, Keane 

Keley, Kelley, ±eUy, 23 

Kenneday. 3, Kennedy, 10, Kenney, 2 

Laffarty, Laffertyj 3 

Madden, 7 

Maguire, 3, Maquire, Mahon, Mahon^^ Mahney 

Patrick Mahney, Patrick Mahoney, Tunothy Mahoney, Anthony 

Mahony 
Maloney, 4, Mooney, Moraty, Moriaty 
Mullan, 16, Morphy, Morphey, Morphy, Murphey, 26 

t«»l 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Neal, Nealy. O'Neal, O'Ndl, 18 times 

O'Biyan (Oorayne, O'Brian, Obrian, Obrien, Ibryon, etc.), 17 times 

O'Comior, 5 

O'Daniel, O'Damiil, O'Dear, Odomielly, O'Domiel 

O'Hager^, O'Hara, Ohara, O'Harra 

O'La^, Onie, Onor, Orane 

Timothy Organ 

Quimi, Quin, Quinlin 

Reighley, Reiley, Reily, Riley, 7, Ryan, 9 

Sweeney, Swiney 

Sullevan, Sullivan 8, Swayney, Sweaney 

Welch, 7, Welsh, 16, Walsh, Whelan, 3 

The Marriages of Christ Church (Episcopal) at the same 
period contain 332 names, beginning with Mc and 29 
beginning with "O' ", 14 Bryan and Bryant, 37 Kelly and 
Kelley, 17 Kennedy, 12 Ryan, 10 Sullivan, and 10 Welsh, 
together with many other names of evident Irish origin. 

Persons bearing such names as appear in the foregoing 
lists were unquestionably of Irish birth or extraction; but 
there were thousands of men in Philadelphia, who, while 
of Irish birth or descent and enthusiastic Irishmen, bore 
names that would not be classed as Irish by the average 
reader. This is best illustrated in the membership of the 
Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, a Society organized in Phila- 
delphia March 17, 1771. Active membership was confined 
to men of Irish birth or extraction, and the Society was 
evidently the successor of the Hibernian Club, which was 
holding meetings as early as 1749. On March 17, 1781, the 
active members of the Friendly Sons were as follow: 

Thomas Barclay John Murray 

George Campbell John Donaldson 

William West Matthew Mease 

Benjamin Fuller James Caldwell 

J. M. Nesbitt D. H. Conyngham 

George Davis John Barclay 

George Henry John Nixon 

[601 



THE miSH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

Samuel Caldwell Commodore John Barry 

John Brown James Crawford 

John Mitchell Ceorge Meade 

Sharp Delaney Thomas Fitzunmons 

Andrew Caldwell Col. John Shee 

Gen. Anthony Wayne William West, Jr. 

Blair McClenachui James Mease 

John Dimlap Tench Francis 

John Mease Alex. Nesbitt 

George Hughes John Patton 

John Mitchell, Jr. Gen. Ephraim Blaine 

Gen. Stephen Moylan Francis Johnston 

Handle Mitchell Gen. William Irvine 

John Boyle Col. Richard Butler 

John Patterson Robert Gray 

James Moylan Joseph Wilson 

Every one of the gentlemen above named was either 
bom in Ireland or was descended from a man bom in 
Ireland; and they were not what is now commonly called 
"Scotch-Irish." Gen. Stephen Moylan was bom in 
Coimty Cork, was a Catholic and the first president of the 
Society; George Meade was a son of Robert Meade, an 
Irish Catholic refugee from Limerick, Ireland. The name 
is derived from O'Meagh, and 18 properties owned by 
persons of the name Meade were confiscated by Cromwell 
and are mentioned in his book of forfeitures. (See Bache's 
Life of Gen. George Gordon Meade, page 2, and the Life 
of Richard Meade.) Col. Richard Butler was bom in the 
Parish of St. Bride's Dublin, and his father in Kilkenney. 
While Butler is not an Irish name, the family had been in 
Ireland for several centuries, and played an important 
part in the rebellions against English rule in Ireland. 

The First City Troop of Philadelphia, now one of the 
most exclusive military organizations in the coimtry, was 
organized November 1774, as the Light Horse of the City 
of Philadelphia. Of the twenty-eight men who comprised 

teij 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

the Troop on the date of its organization, ten were bom in 
Ireland and were members of the Friendly Sons of St. 
Patrick, namely; James and John Mease, John Boyle, 
John Mitchell, George Campbell, Samuel Campbell, 
Samuel and Andrew Caldwell, George Fullerton, John 
Dunlap, and Blair McClenachan. Of the remaining 
eighteen members, William West, Jr., was the son of an 
Irishman, and it is probable others were of Irish birth or 
descent, but the eleven already mentioned were members 
of the Friendly Sons, and their nationality is therefore 
known. Among the eighty-eight men who were members 
of the Troop during the period of the Revolution, thirty 
were members of the Friendly Sons and represented only a 
small proportion of the men of Irish blood who would have 
been likely to join such a troop. 

Many other names, well known in Philadelphia society, 
were borne by colonial immigrants from Ireland. Thomas 
Lea came from Dublin before 1757, and his son was one 
of the twelve founders of the Hibernian Society; George 
Fullerton was bom in Ireland and joined the Friendly 
Sons in 1771 ; John Frazer was bom in County Monaghan, 
Ireland, came to Philadelphia in 1735, and was the father 
of Gen. Persifor Frazer of the Revolution and the great- 
grandfather of Dr. Persifor Frazer, the well known phy- 
sician; William West, ancestor of the West family of 
Philadelphia, was bom in Sligo, Ireland. On the other 
hand, the designer and builder of many of the most im- 
portant buildings in Philadelphia during and after the 
Revolutionary period, "a man of marked ability as an 
architect and at that time thought to be the best in this 
coimtry," was an Irish Catholic named Nicholas Fagan, 
who was bom in DubUn and came to Philadelphia in boy- 

[62] 



THE miSH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

hood. He designed the First Church of St. Augustine, 
Philadelphia.* 

Andrew Porter, whose father came from Ireland, opened 
a mathematical school in Philadelphia in 1767, and his 
grandson became Governor of Pennsylvania. Rev. 
Francis Allison, the first vice-provost of the University of 
Pennsylvania, emigrated from Ireland in 1735. The 
parents of Thomas McKean, Chief Justice of Pennsyl- 
vania for 22 years from 1777, and Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1799, were both bom in Ireland. 

It is evident from the foregoing that the Irish held a 
position of considerable prominence in Philadelphia during 
the Colonial period. The men who comprised the Friendly 
Sons of St. Patrick were all well to do, for each member 
had to provide himself with the Medal of the Society, at 
a cost of $15, and the fine for absence from the meeting 
on March 17th of each year was $1.80 and from other 
meetings $1.25. It was essentially an Irish society, whose 
badge contained on one side a representation of Hibemia 
and America, with Liberty in the center joining their 
hands, and the inscription "Unite," while on the other 
side was a picture of St. Patrick, holding a cross, trampling 
on a snake. 

While the Irish were numerous in Philadelphia, they 
were still more numerous in other parts of the province. 
Local historians erroneously class them as "Scotch-Irish," 
but as the names of most of them were distinctively Irish, 
it is difficult to comprehend why they should be so classed. 
Let us take, as an illustration, the list of inhabitants of 
Fort Pitt, Pa., for the year 1760, when the village numbered 
149 inhabitants outside of the army. In this list occur the 
following Irish names: 

♦ Watson's "Annals of Philadelphia." 
5 [63] 



IBISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Ephraim Blane James Mulligan 

Charles Boyle Siimott 

James Bradden Jacob Sumott 

Andrew Byarly Susannah Sinnott 

Philip Byarly Thomas Welsh 

William Bryan Bridget Winsor 

John Coleman Patnck Feagan 

Patrick Cunningham Thomas McCollum 

John Daily George McSwine 

Sarah Dauy John and Philip Sinnott 

William Downy Margaret and Kebecca Boyle 

Patrick McCarthy Margaret Coghran 

Neil McCollum Susan Daily 

Hugh McSwine Mary McSwine 

Susannah McSwine 

In addition to the foregoing, there were George Carr, 
John Finley, William McAllister, John McClure, John 
McKee, who were undoubtedly Irishmen with Scotch 
names. John Finley was known to have been bom in the 
North of Ireland, and Burke's "Landed Gentry" shows 
that a Robert Finlay fought for Queen Mary and on her 
defeat fled to Ireland in 1568. Unquestionably, a number 
of the other inhabitants, bearing English-sounding names, 
were also Irish. In the census of Fort Pitt for 1761 — 
house-owners only — occur the following Irish names addi- 
tional to those ahready given: 

Thomas Carney Dennis McLaughlin 

William Cassady Richard McMahan 

John Craven Joseph McMurray 

Geor^ Croghan Patnck McQuaid 

Dennis Drogharty John Neal 

Dennis Hall Christopher Negley 

Hugh Henry John Welch 

There is no mistaking Dennis Hallj but if his name had 
been John Hall, he would have been omitted from the list, 
even though he might have been of Irish birth. 

[64] 



THE IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 



The lists of Taxpayers in Dauphin County, 1750, 
printed in the Historical Sketch of Dauphin County, 
include the following Irish names: 



Deny Township 
James McKee 
Patrick Down 
Charles Neely 
Andrew Morrison 
John Kerr 
David McNair 
Michael Houry 
John Welsh 
Hugh Hayes 
Jolm McCord 
David McCord 
Leonard Devine 
John McCulloch 
Charles Conway 
Andrew Moore 
Thomas Mackey 
Robert McClure 
John McQueen 
Niel McAllister 
Neal Dougherty 
Thomas Lo^an 
John McAllister 
John McCleUand 
Andrew Rowan 
John Kerr 
Dimcan McDonnell 
Mr. McClan 
Patrick Kelly 
William Hayes 
John Cochran 
John McColloch 

Hanover Tovmahip 
James McCreight Mr. McCowen 



Paxton Township 
Robert Dugan 
James McKnight 
William McCalley 
George Gillaspy 
Alex. McCay 
Patrick Gillespy 
Thomas McArthur 
Robert Curry 
John Neal 
John Dougherty 
John DaUv 
William Calhoim 
Thomas McCormick 
Andrew Cochran 
William Kirkpatrick 
Peter Fleming 
Kennedy Kanix 
Rich. McClure 
H. McKinney 
Thomas Dugan 
Timot^ McKnight 
H. McEbroy 
Timothy Snaw 
Matthew Jordan 
John Welsh 
John McKnight 
Patrick Kinney 



Thomas McQuire 
John McCord 
Wm. McClenahan 
David McClenahan 
Daniel Shaw 
John McCavitt 
James McCavitt 



Thomas McClure 
William Bamet 
Francis McClure 
Michael Neal 
John McCormick 
James Finney 
John McNealey 



105] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

James McConnell John Eansey 

Charles McClure James McCorey 

John McClure Dennis Kerril 

Patrick Gracey John Sloan 

Michael Wallace Andrew McKeehan 

James Sloan Patrick Brown 

Walter McFarland Antony McEhrath 

Bamet McNight Adam McNeeley 

Hugh McGowen John McClure 

Edward McMiuray Patrick Bowen 
Jacob MoCormick 

In the above list, it is probable "Patrick Brown*' and 
"Patrick Bowen" were Irish, but if their names had been 
"James,** they would not have been included and thus two 
Irishmen would have been missed, as many others are 
when an attempt is made to select them by name. One 
can always be sure of a man's origin if he has an Irish name, 
but one with an English name might be Irish, Scotch, 
German, Swedish, or Russian. 

The following men with Irish names received licenses 
in the State of Pennsylvania as Indian traders between 
1720 and 1758: 

Patrick B<wd, Lancaster Co., 1730 
Lawrence fiurke, Wyomins, 1758 
Thomas Burke, employe of John Martin, 1750 
Georse Connell, Chester Co., 1749 
Charles Conner, Chester Co., 1730 
Peter Corbet, Don^^al, 1747 
James Crawley or (S-owley, 1747 
George Croghan, 1744 
Bamaby Curran, Ohio Company, 1749 
Timothy Mtzi)atrick, Alle^eny, 1734 
'Timothy Higgins, Shamokm, 1728 
Barnabas Hughes, Donegal. 1753 
John Kelly, Don^;al, All^eny, 1732-34 
John Kennedy, a Lowry Trader, 1764 
Edward Kenny, Allegheny, 1734 
Ralph Kilgore, Pickawillany, 1750 

[66] 



THE IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

Alexander McGinty, 1733, furnished information for Evans' Map, 

1766 
Jolm McGuire, one of Washington's guides in 1763 
James McLaughlin, 1762 
Neal McLaughlin, Chester Co., 1749 
Charles McMichael, Chester Co.. 1742 
Samuel Mealy, Chester Co., 1760 
Thomas Moran, Allegheny, 1734 
Owen Nicholson, 1762 
Terence O'Neal, Chester Co., 1730 
Garret Prendergrass, 1736 
John Quinn, Allegheny, 1748 
Timothy Reardon, Venango, 1762 
Dennis Sulliyan, Donegal, 1747 
Michael Taafe, Logstown, 1763 
Patrick Whinney, Chester Co., 1749 

In addition to the above list, the following names appear 
on the list of Traders, but were not included because the 
names might be claimed to be of other than Irish origin, 
yet are just as prevalent in Ireland as in Scotland or else- 
where: 

James Butler, 1747 

Thomas Butler, 1747 

John Carson, Alle^eny, 1763 

Philip Coleman, 1746-47 

Cornelius Comegys, Trader among the Susquehannocks, 1696 

John Dougell, 1748 

James Dunning, Allegheny, 1734 to 64 

Robert Dunning, Donegal, 1730 

John Pinley, 1744 

Edward Hart, Shamokin, 1729 

James McAllister, 1743 

Andrew McBryer, Lowr^s Trader, 1762 

John McClura, Chester Co., 1743 

Archibald McGee, Chester Co., 1730 

John Mcllvaine, 1743 

Thomas McKee, 1744, Capt. in French and Indian War 

James McKnight, 1743 

James McMordie, Chester Co., 1761 

John Martin, Ohio Trader, 1760 

Hiomas Meener, 1747 

Peter Moyer, 1748 

[67] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Peter, Robert, Thomas and William Wilkins, Donegal, 1718-46. 
Samuel Smith, of Donegal, a prominent trader, was bom in the 

North of Ireland. 
Lasuiis Lowrevj Lancaster Co., one of the largest traders in the 

State, whose nve sons, were also traders, came from the North of 

Ireland. 



The Butlers, Rnley, Dunnings, McClure, McKnight, 
Martin, McGee, etc., axe known to have come from Ireland. 
George Croghan, in the first list, came from Dublin in 
1741, and was probably the best known trader in the 
country; "A complete history of his life and activities 
would be a history of the Indians and Indian trade of 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana from 1746 to 
1776."* 

On March 29 and May 25, 1748, commissions were 
issued by the Governor of Pennsylvania to the following 
officers chosen for that part of Lancaster County lying 
between the Biver Susquehanna and the lines of the prov- 
ince: 

Colonel, Benjamin Chambers 
Lt. Colonel^ Robert Dimning 
Major Wilham Maxwell 
Captains, Richard O'Cain 

James Camaghan 

James McTeer 

James Galbreath 

Adam Reed 

John McKown 

John Galbreath 

David McClure 

Thomas McKee 
lieuts. Andred Findlay 
James Dyssart 
John McCormick 
Charles McGill 

*Por further information relating to Indian Traders see "The 
Wilderness Trail,'' by Hanna. 

[681 



THE IRISH IN PENNSYLVANIA 

Ensigns James Finney 

John Dougherty 
'William McMiulan 
JohnLesan 
Greorge Brannan 

Of the above twenty-one names, 10 are distinctively 
Irish, while of the remaining number, WiUiam Maxwell, 
Andrew Findlay, Charles McGill, James and John Gal- 
breath, David McClure, and Thomas McKee came from 
the North of Ireland. 

The predominance of Irish names in the Usts of colonial 
taxpayers, traders, soldiers, oflScers, etc., as illustrated by 
the foregoing, is sufficient evidence of two facts, namely: 
that the Irish were numerous in Pennsylvania before the 
Revolution, and they were not altogether the so-called 
"Scotch-Irish,'' as they bore real Irish names. As it was a 
common practice among Irish families to change or modify 
their names to a Scotch or English form, many men of 
Irish origin were necessarily omitted from the lists. 



[691 



THE IRISH IN OTHER PROVINCES 

WE have devoted considerable space to the Irish in 
New England and Pennsylvania because of the 
theory that New England contained no real Irish 
population, and because, while it is conceded by most 
writers that the Irish came to Pennsylvania in large 
numbers, they have been called "Scotch-Irish" from 
Ulster, who had no "Celtic blood in their veins'' — a theory 
which is destroyed by the names of these early Irish set- 
tlers and the facts already presented. But what is true 
of the Irish in New England and Pennsylvania is true of 
all the other colonies. The Irish in early New York was 
the subject of an address by Michael J. O'Brien, Esq., de- 
livered before the N. Y. State Historical Society at Lake 
George, August 22, 1906, from which we take the following 
facts to indicate the extent of the Irish population of the 
province: 

In the census of the city of New York for 1703 occur a 
large niunber of distinctively Irish names, as Mooney, 
Dooley, Walsh, Carroll, Dauly, Corbett, Kenny, Gillen, 
Morrayn, and in 1733, McLennon, Lynch, Rafty, Hanlon, 
Darcy, Dwire, etc. 

The tax rate lists of Long Island for 1675 contain the 
following distinctively Irish names: Kelly, Dalton, 
Whelan, Condon, Barry, Byrne, Goulden, Quinn, Cayne, 
Kane, Bradley, GriflSn, Terrell, Brien, Clery, Patrick, 

[711 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Holdren, Sweeney, Murphy, McCorkel, Kennedy, Mc- 
Cown, etc. 

In the lists of marriage licenses issued by the secretary 
of the province previous to 1784, which has been printed 
in small type in double colimm, there are eleven pages of 
names beginning with "Mc," three pages of names begin- 
ning with the capital O', and hundreds of other distinct- 
ively Irish names, as McDonnell, 24; Walsh, 22; Murphy, 
21; Kelly, 16; Ryan, 17; Kennedy, 15; Sullivan, 11; 
Collin, 24; and Moore, 84 times. 

Sir William Johnson, Colonial Governor of New York, 
had as his lawyer a man named Kelly, his physician was 
named Daly, his secretary Laflferty, his superintendent of 
properties Flood, and among other employes were Byrne, 
McCarthy, Colter, Doran, McDonald, and Connor. 

In a petition to the Governor of New York dated 
January, 1695, occur the following Irish names: Connor, 
Kilmore, McLean, McDermott, Whalen, Dennis, Mc- 
Arthur, Cannay, Murphy, Mclntyre. 

But perhaps the most interesting records are those of 
the marriages performed in the Dutch Reformed Church 
of New York between 1639 and 1801, between persons of 
Irish birth. These records contain niunerous entries like 
the following: 



George Walker, from Ireland, to Miss VanHeck, September 

23, 1692. 
William Doulen, from Ireland, to Catharine Strides, April 18, 

1701. 
Denys Costula, B. in Ireland, m. Elizabeth Rendel, widow of 

Barney Hamilton, bom in Ireland. 
John O'Bryan to Margary Flingh, both bom in Ireland, June 

7, 1761. 
Martin Coin and Hannah Boyl, January 6, 1757. 

[721 



THE miSH IN OTHER PROVINCES 

Hannah Ryn to Wm. Hayes, both bom in Ireland, January 3, 
1772. 

Magrite Dally, from Ireland, to Patrick Dallon, December 22, 
1774. 



The records are full of such names as Boil, Coil, Rein, 
Rian, Ryen, Ryn, Ryne (for Ryan), McManus, Mc- 
Manness, McMoness, McMulland, Macknult, Megee, etc., 
and it is easy to trace the transition of Irish names like 
Ryan to the Dutch Ryn or Van Ryn, and McManus to 
McMoness and Moness, etc. 

A large number of Irish Quakers settled in New Jersey, 
but a still larger number of Irish of other denominations 
came to that colony just before the Revolution, and the 
lists of New Jersey oflBcers and soldiers of the Revo- 
lutionary War contain an abundance of Irish names. 
By reason of the fact that Catholic Churches were scarce 
and practice of the Catholic religion prohibited, many 
Irish Catholics or their children drifted away from the 
Church. The following excerpts from the biography of 
Richard Collins, printed in Heston's "Annals of Eyren 
Haven and Atlantic City," illustrate a tj^ical case: 

"In 1765, one year before the organization of the State 
Medical Society, Richard Collins, a native of Ireland, 
settled in that part of old Gloucester which afterwards 
became Atlantic County. Dr. Collins was the first 
physician resident in the county. . . He was a Roman 
Catholic, but settling among Quakers, he eventually 
adopted their mode of speech and dress. . . Speaking 
of his three sons by his second marriage, he once said: 
' I have raised one Methodist, one Quaker, and one Uni- 
versalist.' He died a Methodist in 1808." 

1781 



miSH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

It is commonly known that Maryland had a large Irish 
Catholic population early in its history, and it was the 
only one of the colonies that sent a Catholic to the Conti- 
nental Congress — Charles Carroll, the signer, grandson of 
an Irish colonist. The shipment of Irish political prisoners 
and persons kidnapped in Ireland to Virginia and other 
Southern colonies was carried on extensively during the 
latter part of the seventeenth and early in the eighteenth 
century. Campbell's News Letter, Boston, April 27, 1703, 
contains the following significant item: 'Thiladelphia, 
April 13th, they writt that on Saturday last arrived a 
Gentleman from Maryland brings the following news. 
That 40 Sayle of West Countrey Men were arrived in 
Maryland and Virginia about 7 weeks passage. . . . 
two men of warr Conveyed them from Corke in Ireland." 

About 1683 a large nmnber of immigrants from Ireland, 
influenced by Sir Richard Kyrle (Governor in 1684) who 
was himself a Dublin Irishman, settled in South Carolina. 
In 1700, James Moore, descendant of Roger O'More, who 
had emigrated from Ireland in 1665, was governor of the 
colony, and Patrick Calhoun, bom in Donegal, father of 
Vice-President J. E. Calhoun, settled there in 1735. In 
fact, the history of the entire South is largely the story of 
the Irish immigrants and their descendants. In Virginia 
the Colemans, Ryans, Dohertys, McLoughlins, McDowell, 
Shays, Joyces, Conways, and Dalys were colonial settlers; 
in Carolina were the Burkes, Rutledges, Moores, Lynches, 
Calhouns, Caldwells,and Jacksons (ancestors of President 
Andrew Jackson); in Georgia were Knoxes, Dooleys, Mc- 
Callas, Clarkes, Butlers, and Pollocks (ancestors of Gover- 
nor Polk), who came from Ireland. 

That these early settlers were not altogether the so- 

174] 



THE miSH IN OTHER PROVINCES 

called "Scotch-Irish" is clearly evident from the following 
distinctively Irish names which appear in the lists of 
soldiers of Colonel George Washington's Regiment of 
Virginia Militia, appearing in a report made July 9, 1754, 
just after the battle of Great Meadows: 



David Welsh 
John Carroll 
Robert MoKoy 
Anthony Kennedy 
William Deveny 
James Welch 
Joseph Costerton 
Henry Neill 
John Bryan 

Michael McGrath, wounded 
Michael Reily, woimded 
Patrick Dmphy, wounded 
Robert McCulroy, woimded 
Daniel McClaran, killed 
Thomas Luigdon, Sergeant 
Dennis Kenton 
Michael Scully 
David Gorman 
Dominick Moran 
Michael McGannon 
Patrick Coyle 
John Burk 
Cornelius Henley 
l^^lliam Cames 
Terrenoe Swinney 
Lieutenant Savage 
John McCuUey 



John Rodgers 
Edward QJiill 
Philip Comerley 
George McSwine 
Robert Murphy 
John Mclntyre 
Patrick McPick 
Daniel Malatte 
James McCormick 
Thomas Dunahough 
John McGuire 
John Coin 
Charles Dunn 
Patrick Galloway 
Thomas Hennesnr 
Angus McDonald 
James Tyrrel 
John Given 
Nathaniel Barret 
Thomas Burk 
Timothy Conway 
Bamaby McKan 
John Gallahour 
T^^lliam Mclntyre 
Hugh McKay 
James Dailey 
John McQuire 



How many of the soldiers bearing other than Irish 
names were of Irish birth or extraction it would be im- 
possible to guess, but Andrew Lewis, a captain in one of 
the companies (a general in the Revolution), was bom in 
Donegal. 



175] 



THE IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMER- 
ICA'S MATERIAL PROGRESS 

THERE can be no doubt that the colonial immigration 
from Ireland was large. Several volumes of stories 
of a most romantic character might be written to 
portray the rise of these Irish immigrants, exiles from the 
country of their birth because of intolerable conditions, 
banished because of their devotion to principle, kidnapped 
and sold into slavery because of their helplessness, and 
starving because they were robbed of their sustenance, 
finding their opportimity in another world, an unde- 
veloped wilderness where the very air and vastness of the 
country instilled in their hearts the f eeUng that here at 
last was liberty. As former President Roosevelt has said: 
"The Irish people have proved themselves a masterful 
race of rugged character — ^a race the qualities of whose 
womanhood have become proverbial, while its men have 
the elemental, the indispensable virtues of working hard 
in times of peace and fighting hard in time of war." What 
a sad commentary on British rule in Ireland that Irishmen 
need only leave their own land to become leaders in every 
occupation, or at least to develop habits of industry and 
self-reliance. In his "Annals of Philadelphia," in comment- 
ing on the Irish immigration, Watson says : "In some cases 
the severity of the British laws pushed ofif young men of 

[77] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

good abilities for very small offences, who made very capa- 
ble clerks, storekeepers, etc., among us. I have knowl- 
edge of two or three among us, even within my memory, 
who rose to riches and credit here and have left fine 
families. One great man before my time had been sold in 
Maryland as an offender in Ireland. While serving his 
master as a common servant, he showed much ability, 
unexpectedly, in managing for him an important lawsuit, 
for which he instantly gave him free. He then came to 
Philadelphia and amassed a great fortune in landed estate, 
now of great value among his heirs.'' The same author 
says that Lord Altham came to Philadelphia from Ireland 
in 1728 and served out his indenture as James Annesley, 
with a farmer. 

The type of men that Ireland lost and America gained 
through the severity of British laws referred toby Watson, 
is illustrated by the following brief biographies of "Irish 
rebels" who came to America early in her history: 

Robert Adrian, bom in Carrickf ergus, Ireland, took part 
in the Irish revolution of 1798, was wounded in an engage- 
ment and later escaped to America, where he became one 
of the foremost mathematicians of the early part of the 
nineteenth century. He was Professor of Mathematics 
at Rutgers College, at Colmnbia College, and the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 

Matthew Carey had to flee from Ireland because of 
inflammatory articles against the government. While in 
Paris he met Franklin, who employed him to write for the 
patriotic cause in America. Later he returned to Ireland 
and became a power in politics, was arrested for libel, 
imprisoned, and on his release came to America. In 1784 
he began the Pennsylvania Herald, the first newspaper 

178] 



THE IRISH IN OTHER PROVINCES 

in the United States that furnished accurate reports of 
legislative debates, and "he interested himself in forward- 
ing education and in establishing the charitable institutions 
for which Philadelphia is famous." 

John Lewis, of County Donegal, killed his landlord in 
resisting an illegal attempt to eject him from his home, 
and with three sons he came to Virginia in 1732, being the 
first white settler in Belief ont, Va. His oldest son Andrew 
became brigadier general in the Continental Army; his 
son Thomas was a member of the Virginia legislature; and 
his sons William and Charles were colonels in the Revo- 
lution. 

Dr. William James MacNevin, bom in Ballynhowne, 
County Galway, at twelve years of age went to Austria, 
where his uncle. Baron O'Kelly MacNevin (also an exile), 
was physician to the Empress Maria Theresa. Returned 
to Ireland and became a leader in the rebellion of 1798, 
was imprisoned four years, came to America, and estab- 
lished the first chemical laboratory in New York. Was 
Professor of Obstetrics and Chemistry College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons, and with others founded a medical 
school in New York City. 

George McCook, who was concerned in the United 
Irishmen, fled from Ireland about 1780, and came to 
America. He was the ancestor of the "Fighting McCooks,'' 
a family well known in American history. His two sons 
and eight grandsons were officers in the army and one 
grandson a naval officer during the Civil War. 

The Irish contribution to the material development of 
America is best illustrated in a practical way by the 
following facts: 

[79] 



miSH CONTRIBUTION TO AMEMCA'S INDEPENDENCE 

The first daily newspaper in America, 1784, the "Pennsyl- 
vania Packet" (predecessor of the North American), 
was edited and printed by John Dimlap, of Philadel- 
phia, bom in Strabane, Comity Tyrone, 1747, came 
to America in early youth. 

First American writer on Political Economy, Matthew 
Carey, was bom in Armagh, Ireland, 1761. 

First steam engine built in United States by Christopher 
CoUes, bom in Ireland, 1738, came to America, 1765. 
Was also the first to suggest canals and improve- 
ments to connect Lake Ontario with the Hudson, and 
a system of pipes to supply New York city with water 
from outside. 

First steamboat built and operated by Robert Fulton, 
whose father came from Kilkenny, Ireland. 

First grain-cutter manufactured and invented by Robert 
McCormick, son of Robert McCormick and Mary 
McChesney Hall, daughter of Patrick Hall, both of 
Irish descent. 

First practical reaping machine manufactured by Cyrus 
Hall McCormick, son of Robert McCormick. In 
1859 Beverly Johnson said: "The McCormick reaper 
has already contributed an annual income to the 
whole coimtry of $55,000,000 at least. 

First cut nails invented and made by James Cochran, 
whose father came from Coleraine, Ireland. 

First to introduce cotton manufacture, Patrick Tracey 
Jackson, in partnership with Francis C. Lowell. 

First to introduce linen manufacture into New England, 
the Irish colonists of 1718. 

First piano manufactured in the United States by Thomas 
Crehore, descendant of Teague Crehore, who was 
said to have been kidnapped in Ireland and brought 
to Massachusetts, between 1640 and 1650 (CuUen's 
"Irish in Boston"). 

First chocolate in America manufactured by John Hannan, 
who came to Boston from Ireland in 1764 (Haltigan). 

[80J 



THE IRISH IN OTHER PROVINCES 

First college in the world to admit women on equal terms 
with men, and which received colored students 
twenty-eight years before emancipation, was OberUn 
College. First president of this college, Asa Mahon, 
whose ancestor came to New England from Ireland 
(''National Cyclop. American Biography," vol. ii, 
p. 461). 

First literary institution higher than a common school 
within the bounds of the Presbyterian Church, which 
is regarded as the germ from which sprang Princeton 
College and several lesser institutions of learning, 
was the "Log College," founded at Neshaminy, Pa., 
in 1728, by Gilbert Tennant, who was bom in Ireland 
in 1673, educated at Trinity College, and settled at 
Neshaminy in 1726 (Appleton's "Biographies"). 

First Presbyterian Church in New England founded at 
Londonderry, N. H., by James MacGreggor, who 
was bom in Ireland, 1677. 

First Presbyterian Church in Baltimore, Md., estabUshed 
by Patrick Allison, a native of Ireland. 

First Republican Methodist Church, afterwards the 
Christian Church, in North Carolina and Virginia, 
founded by James O'Kelly, who was bom in 1735. . 

First Roman Catholic Bishop of America, John Carroll, 
grandson of an Irishman. 

First Methodist Episcopal Bishop in America, William 
McKendree, bom in Virginia, 1757. 

It was not alone in the settled portions of the Atlantic 
colonies that the Irish became leaders in pubUc enter- 
prise. The immigrants from Ireland were the advance 
guard of civilization in the vast wilderness of the West. 
Alexander Macomb, who came from Belfast in youth, 
became one of the largest fur merchants in the west, with 
headquarters in Detroit, and was associated with John 
Jacob Astor and Elias Kane. His fortune was such that 

[811 



IMSH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

in 1791 he bought of the State of New York 3,670,715 
acres of land on the St. Lawrence River, including all 
of the Thousand Islands that belonged to New York. 
The first white child bom in the Western Reserve was 
the grandson of a Dublin woman,* and the history of 
Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana is closely interwoven with 
the activities of George Croghan from Dublin, the Mc- 
Gradys, from County Mayo, the Robinsons and Robert- 
isons, from the North of Ireland, the O'Haras, the OTal- 
lons, and many others of Irish name. John McDonough, 
who at his death in 1850 left the bulk of his fortune of 
nearly $2,000,000 to the cities of New Orleans and Balti- 
more to found free schools, who liberated all his slaves 
and shipped many to Africa, was the son of an Irish immi- 
grant who served in the Colonial Wars and the Revolu- 
tion. John OTallon, who estabUshed the OTallon 
Polytechnic Institute (now the scientific department of 
St. Louis University), gave liberally to Washington 
University, built a dispensary and medical college, and 
altogether spent over $1,000,000 for benevolent purposes 
in St. Louis, was the son of Dr. James OTallon, who 
immigrated to North Carolina in 1774 and served in the 
Revolution. The man who wrote the poem, "The 
Bivouac of the Dead," verses of which are carved over 
the entrances to all national cemeteries, Theodore O'Hara, 
was the son of Kane O'Hara, an Irish political exile who 
settled in Kentucky. 

* The son of William Tapi)an Thompson, whose father was of 
Irish descent and mother a native of Dublin (Appleton's "American 
Biographies")- 



[82] 



THE GROWTH OF RELIGIOUS 
FREEDOM IN AMERICA 

THE "Charter of Liberties and Privileges'' granted 
to the province of New York in the year 1683, 
nearly a century before the adoption of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, is a landmark in the history of 
popular government in America. It provided that: 

"Every freeholder within this province and freeman 
in any corporation shall have his free choice and vote in 
the election of the representatives, without any manner 
of constraint or imposition, and in all elections the ma- 
jority of voices shall carry it. 

"No aid, tax, tollage, assessment, custom, loan, benevo- 
lence, or imposition whatsoever shall be laid, assessed, 
imposed or levied on any of his Majesty's subjects within 
this province, or their estates, upon any manner of color 
or pretense but by the act and consent of the Governor, 
Council, and representatives of the people in General 
Assembly met and assembled." 

The man who granted this charter was not an "Anglo- 
Saxon," but a Roman Catholic Irishman named Thomas 
Dongan, bom in Castletown, County Kildare, who was 
Governor of New York from 1682 to 1688. Had all the 
English Governors in all the provinces of America been 
equally liberal in their government, the Revolution would 
not have occurred. 

The religious freedom which Americans now enjoy, 
[831 



miSH CONTMBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

and which began with the close of the Revolution, presents 
a strong contrast to the spirit which prevailed in Massa- 
chusetts under Puritan domination. The New England 
Puritans, who supposedly came to America to escape 
persecution, were themselves bitterly intolerant toward 
all other sects. Their burning of heretics, their per- 
secution of Quakers, Baptists, and others of more liberal 
views, whom they drove from the province, are matters 
with which students of history are well acquainted. The 
extent to which their narrowness prevailed is perhaps 
best illustrated in the following law, promulgated by the 
Massachusetts Puritans in 1670: 

"For preventing disorders arising in several places 
within tMs jurisdiction by reason of some still observing 
such festivals as were superstitiously kept in other coun- 
tries, to the great dishonour of God and ofifence to others: 
It is therefore ordered by this Court and the authority 
thereof, that whosoever shall be found observing any 
such day as Christmas or the like, either by forbearing 
labor, feasting, or any other way upon such accoimt as 
aforesaid, every such person so offending shall pay for 
every such offence five shillings as a fine to the coimtry." 

Americans have cause to be thankful that Piuitanism 
collapsed, and for the further fact that the politicians 
within the Anglican Church, who used the Church to 
further their own interests, did not secure the hold on 
young America that they had on Ireland. "It is inter- 
esting to observe that the Quakers and the Catholics, 
men standing at the opposite poles of theology, set the 
highest examples of tolerance. Quaker Pennsylvania 
enforced absolute liberty of conscience, and Quakers in 
all the provinces worked for religious harmony and free- 

[841 



GROWTH OP RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN AMERICA 

dom. Catholic Maryland, as long as its government 
remained in Catholic hands, and under the guidance of 
the wise and liberal proprietary. Lord Baltimore, pursued 
the same policy and attracted members of sects perse- 
cuted in New England." * But when the Puritans gained 
control of the Assembly in Maryland in 1654 they im- 
mediately passed an act against popery, while in 1689, 
the Church of England was established by law and the 
Penal Laws were applied to the Catholics of Maryland. 
After the death of William Penn, with the rise of the 
Anglican Church party in Pennsylvania, intolerance im- 
mediately became the order. 

It is clear that war on popery was the ruling passion of 
the Puritans and a certain element in the Established 
Church. In the former this was due to a narrow spirit, 
which was ''dull, unamiable, and unintelligent." In the 
latter it was fostered by pure selfishness and that greed 
of spiritual and worldly power which has always been 
the ruling element in British character. The chief com- 
plaint against the Church of Rome was its activity in 
secular affairs, yet the Church of England carried this 
very principle to an excess in Ireland which no other 
church has tried to equal, and this at a time when the 
world had emerged from the dark ages of ignorance, 
superstition. Knights Templars, and Crusaders. 

At the period when the Irish began coming to America 
in large niunbers, early in the eighteenth century, they 
found the restrictions against Catholics as severe as in 
Ireland. In every colony except Pennsylvania (Mary- 
land being then subject to the Church of fkigland) Roman 

* Erskine Childers, "The Framework of Home Rule," London, 
1911. 

[85] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Catholics were debarred from civil rights or were sub- 
jected to severe penalties.* This accounts in large measure 
for the fact that so large a proportion of the Irish immi- 
grants, instead of founding distinct colonies themselves 
on the Atlantic seaboard, scattered through all the prov- 
inces, settled in the remote parts of some provinces, or 
pushed on to the frontiers, where they were comparatively 
free from British persecution. Thus, in Maine, a re- 
mote district of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, niunbers 
of Irish Catholics — Sulhvans, O'Briens, Murphys, Burkes, 
and Ryans — settled, while thousands f oimd refuge in the 
wildernesses of western New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, 
and the Carolinas. 

Thousands of Catholic Irish, brought to the Colonies 
in youth, were reared as Protestants; others, finding the 
struggle against persecution too hard, became Protestants 
for the sake of the advantages denied to Catholics; while 
others became Protestants through intermarriage. This 
is clearly illustrated in the marriage records of Protestant 
churches in Philadelphia, previously referred to. 

What proportion of the Irish population of the colonies 
at the beginning of the Revolution was Catholic it would 
be impossible for any one to say, because the practice of 
that religion openly was proscribed and churches did not 
legally exist. Even in Philadelphia, where himdreds of 
men of some prominence were members of the Catholic 
faith, the Governor of the Council, Patrick Gordon, at a 
meeting held July 25, 1734, "informed the Board that 
he was under no small concern to hear a house lately 
built in Walnut Street in this city had been set apart for 
the exercise of the Roman Catholic religion, and is com- 
♦ Channing's "History of the United States," p. 144. 
[861 



GROWTH OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN AMERICA 

monly called a Romish Chapell, where several Persons, 
he understands, resort on Sundays to hear Mass Openly 
celebrated by a Popish Priest; that he conceives the 
tolerating the Public Exercise of that Religion to be con- 
trary to the Laws of England, some of which, particularly 
the 11 and 12 of King William the Third, are extended to 
all His Majesty's dominions; but those of that Perswasion 
here imagined that they have a right to it, from some 
general Expressions in the Charter of Privileges granted 
to the inhabitants of this Government by our late Honour- 
able Proprietor, he was desirous to know the sentiments 
of this Board on the subject." * 

Evidently, it was considered inexpedient to interfere 
with the Church, as the complaint seems to have been 
tabled and no further action was taken on the subject. 
It is strange that the complaint should have come from 
a man with such a name as that of Patrick Gordon, but 
it always happens that the man loudest in his denuncia- 
tion of any religion is one who has abjured that religion 
for the sake of his own worldly advancement or some 
equally base motive. As a general rule, the bigot lacks 
an appreciation of the fimdamental principles of Chris- 
tianity — charity and sympathy. 

On November 5, 1775, while camped before Boston, 
General Washington foimd it necessary to publish an 
order against the celebration of "Pope's Night" by the 
New England troops. The celebration, a childish practice, 
was aimed at the Catholic people, and while Piuitanism 
would not tolerate the celebration of the birthday of 
Christ by any other form than fasting and prayer, it set 
apart a day to give vent to its hatred of the head and 
♦ ** Colonial Records," vol. ii, p. 589. 
[87 1 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

followers of a Christian church. Before the Revolution 
had ended CathoUcs were not only tolerated, but eight 
of the colonies which formed the United States incorpor- 
ated in their constitutions the great principle of religious 
equality. The emancipation of the CathoUcs in America 
began as early as 1774, when England, in order to 
strengthen her own hands against the Colonies by secur- 
ing the loyalty of the people of Canada and the Catholics 
of England, reUeved them of the pressure of the Penal 
Laws. The Continental Congress, having in its army a 
large number of CathoUcs, and at the same time seeking 
the aid of a CathoUc nation, France, was forced to a similar 
policy, and CathoUcs were thereafter cultivated by both 
sides to the struggle. 

To such an extent had official and public sentiment 
regarding CathoUcs changed with the breaking of the 
ties that bound the Colonies to England that in 1791, on 
the visit of the Roman CathoUc Bishop Carroll to Boston, 
he was invited to the annual dinner of the Ancient and 
Honorable ArtiUery Company; about the same time. 
President Washington made a contribution to the build- 
ing fund of the Church of St. Augustine, PhUadelphia; in 
1799, President John Adams headed the Ust of contrib- 
utors to the building fimd of a CathoUc Church for the 
city of Boston; while Bishop CarroU was unanimously 
selected by Congress to deUver a panegyric on Washington, 
22 February, 1800. 

Thus the soldiers of the Revolution secured for America 
not only poUtical freedom, but reUgious tolerance and 
equaUty, and the universal equaUty and Uberty extended 
to CathoUcs were, without doubt, due to the part played 
by Irish CathoUcs in the Revolution. 

[88] 



THE IRISH AND THE WAR FOR 
INDEPENDENCE 

IN her effort to subdue the American colonists, fkigland 
spent £100,000,000 sterUng and some 50,000 lives. 
Had she been successful, the history of Ireland would 
have been repeated in America. Washington, Hancock, 
Adams, FrankUn, and other leaders would have been 
hanged as "rebels," and "America would have become a 
great boiling volcano, a poHtical hell of rebellion, revolu- 
tions, vengeance, assassinations, and wholesale executions, 
with here and there a province or a section winning its 
independence for a time to go imder at the next turn in 
the poUtical game. The British ParUament meantime 
would be kept busy through the centuries passing those 
land acts, reform acts, and crimes acts which, in the case 
of Ireland, have been steadily turned out for nearly seven 
hundred years. In a word, it is extremely doubtful whether 
fkigland could have controlled America any more profit- 
ably than she has controlled Ireland."* 

While the Irish were unable to throw off the British 
yoke in Ireland, they contributed their strength to the 
cause of the colonists, and, being the best fitting men 
in the world and the most eloquent orators in the cause of 
liberty, those of them who bore arms in the patriot army 
were a match for the British soldiers sent to suppress the 
♦ "The Struggle for American Independence/' vol. ii, p. 553. 
[89] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

"rebels," while the Irish orators aroused the temporizers 
among the colonists, and by their eloquence kept alive 
the spirit of patriotism which finally led to success. Their 
experience with the broken promises of the British govern- 
ment, their intimate knowledge of the methods employed 
by that government to serve her purpose in Ireland — ^this 
knowledge, combined with a brief respite from the depri- 
vations and misery they suffered in Ireland, gave added 
strength to their determination to destroy every vestige 
of EngUsh tyranny in the new world to which they had 
come to escape that tyranny. 

The leaders of the patriot party in the Colonies early 
realized the importance of securing the moral and 
practical support of the Irish people for their cause. 
The Irish had for centuries been fighting England's bat- 
tles, as there was no other occupation open to them, and 
many were compelled to serve in the army to keep from 
starving. Their reputation as excellent soldiers was known 
throughout the world. Hundreds of thousands of exiles 
had gone into the service of France, Spain, Austria, Ger- 
many, and even Russia. The Irish Brigade in the service 
of France preserved its Irish identity and carried the flag 
of Ireland into every battle in which it participated from 
1691 to 1794, and every year thousands of young men 
were recruited in Ireland for the Brigade. Spain main- 
tained four distinctively Irish regiments for many years. 
Two Irishmen had become field-marshals in Russia, an 
Irish lord and an Irish soldier had become marshals of 
France, while Maguires, Lacys, O'Donnells, Taafes, and 
Nugents were Austrian generals; and O'Donnell, O'Reilly, 
O'Neill, O'Hara, and O'Mahony were famous Spanish 
generals. 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 

With a view to securing some of this talent in the cause 
of the Colonies, Franklin visited Ireland in 1771. He met 
Irishmen in Paris and encouraged Irish revolutionary 
leaders in their plans to secure Irish independence.* 
On May 10, 1775, the Second Continental Congress met 
at Philadelphia and sent an address to the people of 
Ireland, in which they enlarged on the wrongs committed 
against Ireland, "in whose rich pastures many himgry 
parasites have fed and grown strong to labor in its de- 
struction, " and they offered the whole region of America 
as a safe asylum for the Irish people.f This was followed 
by a letter from Franklin to the people of Ireland, in 
which he argued the justice of the American cause and 
pleaded for the support of Ireland. 

In Ireland, every man not boimd to England by ties 
of self-interest was with America, while in America every 
Irishman was a patriot. The seventeenth century writings 
of Mol3meoux, a Dublin Irishman, in defense of Irish Ub- 
erty, became the text-book of American freedom,^ and 
while Biu-ke and Barr^, Irishmen in the fkiglish ParUament, 
were influencing EngUsh sentiment in favor of the Colonies, 
Matthew Lyons, Patrick Henry, and other orators of the 
Irish race were using their eloquence to convince Ameri- 

♦ While in Paris, Franklin met Matthew Carey, who had fled from 
Ireland because of inflammatory articles he nad published in a 
Dublin paper, and gave him employment. Later Carey returned to 
Ireland and established the "Vomnteers' Journal," and in 1784 
was tried for libel before the House of Conmions and was imprisoned. 
On his release he came to America and established the 'Pennsyl- 
vania Herald" and interested himself in forwarding education and in 
establishing the charitable institutions for which Philadelphia is 
famous (Appleton). 

t "The Struggle for American Independence," Sydney George 
Blsher, 1908, voL i, p. 330. 

t"The Legacy of Past Years," Lord Dunraven. 

[911 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

cans of the desirability of separation. This required 
considerable eloquence, as it is well known that the 
majority of the New Englanders and many inhabitants 
of other colonies had no idea of separation when hostilities 
commenced. 

We have already seen that the immigration from Ire- 
land had steadily increased in volmne, and during the 
years 1772 and 1773 it reached the enormous number of 
18,500 persons, mostly men. This inmiigration had an 
important bearing on affairs in the Colonies, and it should 
be borne in mind that many of the immigrants were men 
of education and position, who came directly for the 
purpose of bearing arms against England.* The welcome 
they received is illustrated in the following statement of 
the Marquis de Chastellux, a Frenchman who was in 
America in 1782: 

''An Irishman, the instant he sets foot on American 
soil, becomes ipso facto an American. This was uniformly 
the case during the whole of the late war. While English- 
men and Scotchmen were treated with jealousy and dis- 
trust, even with the best recommendations of zeal and 
attachment to the cause, the native of Ireland stood in 
need of no other certificate than his dialect. Indeed, 
their conduct in the late war amply justified their favor- 
able opinion, for whilst the Irish emigrant was fighting 
the battles of America by sea and land, the Irish merchants, 
principally of Charleston, Baltimore, and Philadelphia, 
labored with indefatigable zeal at all hazards to promote 

* Among many others were Richard Montgomery, from Donegal, 
who settled in New York, 1773, brigadier-general, the first to fall 
in the Revolution; Edward Hand, from Clyduff, Kin^ County, 
who settled in Pennsylvania, 1774, and became brigadier-jgeneraJ; 
James McHenry, who came from Ireland to Philaddphia in 1771, 
was Medical Director of the Army and became Secretary of War to 
Washington, January, 1796. 

[9«1 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 

the spirit of enterprise, and increase the wealth and 
maintain the credit of the country. Their purses always 
were opened, and their persons devoted to the country's 
cause, and on more than one imminent occasion Congress 
itself, and the very existence of America probably, owed 
its preservation to the fidelity and fimmess of the Irish." 

In his "History of Ireland," 1809, Plowden said: "It 
is a fact beyond question that most of the early successes 
in America were immediately owing to the vigorous 
exertions and prowess of the Irish immigrants who bore 
arms in that cause." The "vigorous exertions and 
prowess of the Irish" were not confined to arms, but 
extended to the deliberations of coimcils and the Congress, 
the raising of money to feed and clothe the army, and 
advancing the credit of the new government. Irishmen 
were "first in war, first in peace," and during and im- 
mediately following the Revolution, first in the hearts of 
their fellow-Americans, as the following address made by 
George Washington Parke Custis, grandson of Martha 
Washington, in 1828, in answer to an appeal from Ire- 
land for funds in aid of the fight for Catholic emancipa- 
tion, would indicate: 

"And why is this imposing appeal made to our sympa- 
thies? It is an appeal from that very Ireland whose 
generous sons, alike in the day of our gloom and of our 
glory, shared in our misfortunes and joined in our success; 
who, with undaimted courage breasted the storm which, 
once threatening to overwhelm us, howled with fearful 
and desolating fury through this now happy land; who, 
with aspirations deep and fervent for our cause, whether 
under the walls of the Castle of Dublin, in the shock of 
our liberty's battles, or in the feeble expiring accents of 
famine and misery, amidst the horrors of the prison ships, 

[93] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

cried from their hearts, 'God Save America.' Tell me 
not of the aid which we received from another European 
nation in the struggle for independence; that aid was 
most, nay, all essential to our ultimate success; but 
remember, years of the conflict had rolled away. Of the 
operatives in war — ^I mean the soldier — ^up to the coming 
of the French, Ireland had furnished in the ratio of one 
himdred for one of any foreign nation whatever. 

''Then honored be the old good service of the sons of 
Erin, in the War of Independence. Let the shamrock be 
entwined with the laurels of the Revolution, and truth 
and justice, guiding the pen of history, inscribe on the 
tablets of America's remembrance 'Eternal Gratitude to 
Irishmen.' " * 



We shall now proceed to illustrate in a practical way 
the part played by men of the Irish race in securing the 
independence of the Colonies, by evidence that is incon- 
trovertible. The Declaration of Independence, for ex- 
ample, is the basis of American independence. No one 
knows the true origin of all the members of the Congress 
that adopted it, and it has been the practice to claim 
EngUsh descent for every man of importance in American 
history unless his name leaves no doubt of other nation- 
ality; but the following facts are interesting: 

John Hancock, President of the Congress, was the des- 
cendant of an immigrant from Ulster, Ireland. 

Charles Thompson, Secretary of Congress, who made the 
first finished copy of the Declaration, was bom in 
Maghera, Coimty Derry, Ireland. 

John Nixon, Member of the Pennsylvania Coimcil of 
Safety, who first publicly read the Declaration, from 
the steps of the State House in Philadelphia, July 

♦ " Case of Ireland Stated," Burke. 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 

8, 1776, was the son of Richard Nixon, of County 
Wexford, Ireland. 
John Dunlap, who first printed the document, was bom 
in Strabane, County Tyrone, Ireland. 

Among the signers of the Declaration who were known 
to be of Irish descent, besides John Hancock, were the 
following: 

Matthew Thornton, N. H., whose father came from 
Ireland. 

John Hart, N. J., whose ancestor from Ireland settled 
in Jersey. 

James Smith, Penna., bom in Ireland, came to America 
in 1729. 

George Taylor, Penna., bom in Ireland, came to Amer- 
ica as a redemptioner. 

George Reed, Delaware, son of John Reed who was born 
in DubUn. 

Thomas McKean, Delaware; father and mother born 
in Ireland. 

Charles Carroll, grandson of Charles Carroll, an Irish 
Catholic who emigrated to America in 1689. 

Edward Rutledge, South CaroUna, son of Dr. John 
Rutledge, who came from Ireland to America in 1735. 

Thomas Lynch, South Carolina, grandson of Thomas 
Lynch, a native of Galway, who went to Austria after the 
Irish Revolution of 1691. 

Robert Treat Paine, Massachusetts, descendant of 
Robert O'Neill, who changed his name to Paine and 
emigrated to America. 

George Taylor, in the above list, was the lessee of the 
Durham Furnace, the first iron works in America, at 
the time when it was turning out shot and shell for 
Washington's army. 

7 [95] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

American history records the fact that Robert Morris 
was "the financier of the Revolution," and tells how he 
later occupied a debtors* prison because of advances made 
to the Government; but we never hear of Oliver Pollock, 
a native of Ireland, who settled in Carlisle, Pa., 1760, who 
from 1777 to 1783 made advances to the province of 
Virginia and the Continental government, on the basis of 
his own credit, to the amount of $300,000, over $100,000 
of which amoimt had not been repaid to him at the time 
of his death; and Edward Fox, a native of Dublin, who 
came to America in 1776 was ruined by the large advances 
he made to Robert Morris and the latter's associates, a 
decision of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania (2 Norris' 
Reports, 512), showing that in 1797 these gentlemen owed 
Edward Fox the smn of $900,000. When the Continental 
army was in dire distress and Congress unable to raise the 
money to supply its needs, a number of gentlemen of 
Philadelphia conceived and put into operation "the plan 
of the Bank of Pennsylvania'* for supplying the army with 
provisions and clothing. Robert Morris headed the list 
of subscribers with a subscription of £10,000. Blair Mc- 
Clenachan, a native of Ireland, subscribed an equal 
amoimt, and the following Irishmen subscribed the 
amoimts set opposite their names: 

J. M. Nesbitt £6000 

James Mease " 6000 

Thomas Barclay " 6000 

Hugh ShieU " 6000 

John Dunlap " 4000 

John Nixon, father from Wexford, 

Ireland "5000 

George Campbell " 2000 

John Mease " 4000 

John Murray (firm of Bunner, Murray 

ACo.) "6000 

[96] 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 

John Patton £2000 

Benjamin Fuller " 2000 

George Meade & Co. (members Irish) " 2000 

John Donaldson " 2000 

Kean & Niohols ..." 4000 

James Caldwell " 1000 

JohnShee "1000 

Sharp Delany " 1000 

Tench Francis " 5500 

John Mitchell " 2000 Hibernian Society 

Joseph Carson " 4000 

Thomas McKean " 2500 " " 

The above named-subscribers were members of the 
Friendly Sons of St. Patrick and the Hibernian Society. 
They were all bom in Ireland, except John Nixon, whose 
father came from County Wexford. Robert Morris, who 
was a native of England, was an honorary member of the 
Friendly Sons, as were also William Bingham, Richard 
Peters, Samuel Meredith, and Henry Hill, who, in ad- 
dition to the above, subscribed £20,000 to the bank. 
Thus, of the total amoimt subscribed to supply the army 
(£316,000) £112,000 was subscribed by men who were 
members of the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick and the 
Hibernian Society.* 

When the Continental soldiers were half starved, half 
clothed, and their spirits so low that their commanders had 
almost despaired of holding the army together, an Irish 
ditty was used to revive their sinking spirits, as the 
following letter, written by Richard Peters, of Philadelphia, 
to General Anthony Wayne, will show: 

"I heard an Irishman the other day sing a very foolish 
ballad of three or four verses, yet its simplicity struck me 

♦ The information regarding contributions of money was obtained 
from the records of the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick and the Hi- 
bernian Society, of Philadelphia, edited by John H. Campbell. 

[97] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

and I have this rainy morning scribbled the enclosed. I 
have adopted, with a few alterations, the first verse, and 
except for another line or two, am answerable for both the 
folly and length of the rest. I send it to you that you may 
give it to some of your singing sergeants or corporals, as I 
wish the poor devil to be introduced into the army imder 
the protection of at least a non-commissioned officer. It 
goes to the time of an Irish lilt, which I have often heard 

the fifers play I am a great believer of ballads 

and believe that more can be achieved by a few occasional 
simple songs than by an himdred recommendations of 
Congress, especially considering how few attend to or read 
them.'' 

(Signed) Richard Peters. 

General Wa3me replied that he had given the song to 
some ''Singing Colonels"* 



The first armed attack on land against the British was 
the capture of the arms and ammunition at Portsmouth, 
four months before the battle of Lexington. The attack 
was led by John Sullivan (afterward major general), the 
son of Owen Sullivan, a native of Limerick, Ireland. 

The first decisive victory of the Revolution for the 
American cause was won at Moore's Creek Bridge, near 
Wihnington, N. C, February, 1776, when 1500 Tories 
surrendered to the troops imder command of Colonel 
(afterward General) James Moore, descendant of Roger 
O'More, a leader of the Irish Rebellion of 1641. (Apple- 
ton's "American Biography.") 

The first general officer killed on the American side was 
General Richard Montgomery, who fell leading the attack 
♦ Register of Pennsylvania, vol. iv, No. 7, p. 47. 
[981 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 

on Quebec, December 31, 1775. General Montgomery 
was bom in the Coimty Donegal and settled in New York 
State in 1773. 

The first attack against the British on water was the 
capture of a British armed schooner in Machias Bay, May 
11, 1775. The capture was made by Jeremiah O'Brien, 
assisted by his four brothers and some other volunteers. 
(Harper's "Cyclopedia of American History.") 

The first Commodore of the American navy was John 
Barry, bom in County Wexford, Ireland, in 1745. 



Turning now to the Generals of the Continental Army, 
we find among them the following men of Irish origin: 

Richard Montgomery, Major General, bom in Donegal, 
Ireland. 

Thomas Conway (Coimt de Conway, of France), Major 
General, bom in Ireland. 

John SulUvan, Major General, son of Owen Sullivan who 
was bom in Limerick, Ireland. 

Henry Knox, Major General, son of Andrew Knox who 
was bom in Ireland. 

John Armstrong, Brigadier-General, bom in Ireland. 

WiUiam Thompson, Brigadier-General, bom in Ireland. 

Andrew Lewis, Brigadier-General, bom in Donegal, 
Ireland. 

William Maxwell, Brigadier-General, bom in Ireland. 

Anthony Wa3me, Brigadier-General, father bom in Ire- 
land. 

James Clinton, Brigadier-General, son of Charles 
Clinton who was born in County Longford, Ireland. 

James Moore, Brigadier-General, descendant of Roger 
O'More, a leader of the Irish Rebellion of 1641. 

Joseph Reed, Brigadier-General, father bom in Ireland. 

iwl 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

John Nixon, Brigadier-General, son of Richard Nixon, 
of County Wexford, Ireland. 

William Irvine, Brigadier-General, bom in Enniskillen, 
County Fermanagh, Ireland. 

Edward Hand, Brigadier-General, bom in Clyduff, 
King's Coimty, Ireland. 

Richard Butler, Brigadier-General, bom in the parish 
of St. Bride's, Dublin. 

Walter Stewart, Brevet Brigadier-General, born in Ire- 
land. 

Stephen Moylan, Brevet Brigadier-General, and Chief 
of Cavalry, bom in Cork, Ireland. 

James Cochran, Surgeon-General, parents bom in Ire- 
land. 



We have already referred to the Irishmen in the French 
service. When the French Government decided to send 
aid to the Colonies, among the first troops sent were the 
Dillon, Berwick, Roche-Fermoy, and Walsh regiments of 
the Irish Brigade, composed exclusively of Irishmen; and 
among the French officers in the Continental Army whose 
names appear in the ''Historical Register of the Officers of 
the Continental Army" were the following who bore 
distinctively Irish names: 

Jacques Philippe D'Arcy, Captain, died at Savannah, son 
of Patrick D'Arcy, who was bom in Galway, Ireland, 
and was appointed mar^chal-de-champ in France, 
1770. 

Captain Commandant O'Neill, wounded at Savannah. 
(He represented the fifth generation of those who had 
served the King of France in the Dillon Regiment, 
since the passage of Irishmen into France.) 

Arthur Dillon (Count de Dillon), Colonel, March, 1772, in 
s France. 

[1001 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 

Barthelemy Dillon, Lieutenant-Colonel, bom in Ireland, 

1729. 
Denis d'Hubart Du Barry, Captain, 1776. 
Count de Dune (name also given as O'Dunn), ''took part 

in all engagements of the campaign.'' 
Isidore Lynch, Captain in Dillon Regiment. 
Captain Macdonnal, of second Dillon Regiment. 
Captain Mullens, Lieutenant in the Regiment de Berwick. 
Lieutenant de la Roche Negley, wounded at Savannah. 
Lieutenant OTarrell, of the Dillon Regiment, wounded 

at Savannah. 
Jacques O'Moran, Major, bom in Ireland. 
Jacques Shee, Captain, bom in Ireland. 
Georges Taafe, Lieutenant, killed at Savannah, 1779, bom 

in Ireland. 
Ferdinand O'Neill, Captain of Lee's Battalion of Light 

Dragoons, Pulaski Legion. 



The very highest estimate of the patriotic portion of the 
population of the colonies places it at two-thirds, or about 
1,400,000, of the white inhabitants. A. R. Fisher, in his 
"True History of the American Revolution," says: "If 
there were really 1,400,000 enthusiastic patriots, they 
would surely have furnished more than the 11,000 men 
which Washington usually had. Even in their direst need 
and by the greatest urging and compulsion of all the 
patriotic leaders by offering bounties, gifts of land, and by 
drafting, they could never get quite 26,000 all told." 
While the New Englanders were active in the protection 
of their own homes and in opposing the stamp tax and 
duties which affected their own pockets, they were rather 
lukewarm in their support of the principle that America 
was to be absolutely free and independent of England, 

[1011 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

and while the first armed resistance to British authority 
occurred on New England soil, the siege of Boston, 1776, 
was the last struggle between the Continental Army and 
English troops in New England, and King Philip's Indian 
War of 1676 was "far more grievous to New England than 
the Revolution."* All the colonies furnished a large 
number of miUtia, who were more or less "home guards," 
but most of the real fighting was done by the Continental 
Line, of which a large proportion were men of the Irish 
race. "One of the offences charged upon the Irish, and 
amongst the many pretexts for refusing redress to the 
Catholics of Ireland, was that sixteen thousand of them 
fought on the side of America."t It would be difficult to 
give exact figures as to the number of Irish that fought 
on the side of America, for, apart from the natives of Ire- 
land who came to America in such large numbers before 
and during the Revolution, there were thousands of native 
Americans who were of Irish descent. Furthermore, if 
there were 16,000 Irish Catholics in the American army, 
there was an equal or greater number of Irish Presbyterians 
and Episcopalians. That the Irish were loyal to the 
American cause, and that they helped to establish the 
new nation are facts which, while ignored in the school 
histories, are supported by the testimony of men who lived 
at a time when "Anglophobia" had not begun to affect the 
thoughts of American writers. In December, 1781, Gen- 
eral George Washington was elected an "adopted" mem- 
ber of the Society of the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, 
of Philadelphia, and in his letter of acceptance to the 

* Drake, ''History of Boston." 

tFrom an address made in New York, 1809, by William J. 
MacNevin. 

[1021 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 

President of the Society he said: " I accept with singular 
pleasure the ensign of so worthy a fraternity as that of 
the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick — a society distinguished 
for the firm adherence of its members to the glorious cause 
in which we are embarked." But this is not all, for in an 
address to the CathoUcs of the United States (most of 
whom were Irish), in 1790, President Washington said: 
"I hope ever to see America amongst the foremost nations 
in examples of justice and UberaUty, and I presume that 
your fellow citizens will not forget the patriotic part which 
you took in the accomplishment of their revolution and in 
the establishment of their govemm^entJ' 



The most conclusive evidence of the prominence of the 
Irish race in the accomplishment of America's independ- 
ence is to be found in the abundance of Irish names in 
the lists of soldiers of the Revolutionary War. As the 
official lists do not contain nationality of soldiers, it would 
be impossible to judge by names alone those who were of 
Irish blood, but bearing in mind the fact that those who 
bore real Irish names constituted only a small percentage 
of the number who were actually of Irish birth or descent, 
the lists to follow will serve to indicate the large number 
of men of Irish blood that served in the Revolutionary 
Army. 

Irish names on rolls of the Minutemen of Lexington 
and Concord: 

Daniel Bagley John Bradlee 

John Barrett William Bradley 

John Boyd Joseph Burke 

Daniel Bradley Richard Burke 

[lOSl 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 



Joseph Carroll 
Cornelius Cochran 
William Cochran 
Henry Cogen 
John Collins 
Jeremiah Collins 
Daniel Collins 
William Connors 
John Crehore 
Timothy Crehore 
William Crehore 
James Dempsey 
Phihp Donehue 
Benjamin Donnell 
James Donnell 
Joseph Donnell 
John Donnelly 
John Downing 
Andrew Dunigan 
John Fadden 
Thomas Fanning 
William Fanning 
John Farley 
Michael Farley 
John Fay 
Thomas Fay 
Timothy Fay 
William Fay 
John Flood 
William Flood 
John Foley 
Matthew Gilligen 
Richard Gilpatrick 
James Gleeson 
John Gleeson 
Thomas Gleason 
John Grolden 
Joseph Grolden 



James Gooly 
John Grace 
Daniel Griffin 
Joseph Griffin 
John Hacket 
Joseph Hacket 
Wait Burke 
Daniel Carey 
Joseph Carey 
Peter Carey 
William Carey 
Silas Carty 
John Carroll 
Patrick Carrell 
Jonathan Carroll 
Joel Hogan 
John Haley 
Thomas Haley 
William Haley 
John Healy 
John Holland 
John Hugh 
David Kelly 
George Kelly 
John Kelly 
Patrick Kelly 
Peter Kelly 
Richard Kelly 
Stephen Kelly 
Samuel Kelly 
James Kenny 
David Kenny 
John Kenny 
Nathaniel Kenny 
Thomas Kenny 
William Kenny 
Jeremiah Kinney 
Daniel Lary 



tl04j 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 



Samuel Lauchlin 
James Logan 
Joseph McAmiell 
Thomas McBride 
John McCarty 
Andrew McCausland 
John McCullin 
Michael McDonnell 
James McFadden 
Ebenezer McFarley 
Thomas McFarley 
Henry McDonegal 
John McGrah 
Daniel McGuire 
Patrick McKeen 
James McKenny 
Joseph McKenny 
John McLeary 
David McLeary 
John McMnllen 
Thomas McMnllen 
John Mack 
John Madden 
Daniel Mahon 
James Mallone 
John Manning 
Robert Manning 



Samuel Manning 
Thomas Manning 
Timothy Manning 
William Manning 
James Magoone 
John Mehoney 
Daniel MuUikin 
Ebenezer MulHkin 
John Murphy 
Patrick Newjent 
Patrick O'Brien 
Richard O'Brien 
Daniel Shay 
John Shea 
Edward Tappan 
Michael Tappan 
John Walsh 
Joseph Walsh 
Benjamin Walsh 
Edward Welsh 
John Welsh 
Joseph Welsh 
Samuel Welsh 
Thomas Welsh 
Walter Welsh 
William Welsh 



Irish names of American officers and soldiers at the 
Battle of Bmiker Hill: 



Colonel John Nixon 
Major Andrew McClary 
Captain Samuel Dunn 
Captain Timothy Carey 
Captain Michael Gleason 
Captain Nathaniel Healy 
Captain Jeremiah Gilman 



Captain Darnel Gallusha 
Captain John Ford 
Lieut. Charles Dougherty 
Lieut. Joseph Welsh 
Lieut. Daniel Collins 
James Barry 
John Barry 

11051 



miSH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 



Joseph Bany 
John Bryan 
John Bogan 
WiUiam Bogan 
Wait Burk 
Tilly Burk 
Josiah Burk 
Edward Burk 
Thomas Burk 
Richard Buik 
Joseph Bume 
Thomas Bum 
William Connor 
John Connor 
David Connor 
Edward Connor 
James Connor 
John Coner 
John Cron3m 
Isaac Collins 
Stephen Collins 
Demerel Collins 
Lemuel Collins 
Richard CoUins 
Henry Collins 
Daniel Collins 
Ambrose Collins 
David Collins 
Peter Collins 
John Collins 
Aaron Carey 
Luther Carey 
Caleb Carey 
Arthur Carey 
Josiah Carey 
Jesse Carey 
Joshua Carey 
John Coy 



Daniel Callahan 
Robert Callaghan 
Joseph Cavenaugh 
Josiah Cummings 
John Cummings 
Charles Casity 
Arthur Collamore 
Samuel Carr 
David Coye 
Ambrose Craggin 
Edward Casey 
Michael Clary 
Jeremiah Cady 
Ebenezer Craggin 
Daniel Carmical 
William Carrall 
James Carrall 
WiUiam Casey 
Laurence Carrol 
John Connelly 
Francis Crowley 
Hugh Cargill 
John Carel 
Caleb Comings 
John Calahan 
WiUiam Dougherty 
Thomas Dougherty 
WiUiam Dunn (2) 
John Dougherty 
John Dun 
James Dunn 
James DonneU 
Jotham DonneU 
Thomas Doyle 
Patrick Doyle 
Charles Doroughty 
John Dougharty 
Elijah Doyle 



[1061 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 



Edward Finiken 
JohnFlyn 
John Foy 
Thomas Finn 
Edward Fogarty 
David Fling 
James Fitzgerald 
John Foye 
Jacob Flyn 
John Fitchjeril 
Eendel Farley 
Matthew Gilligan 
John Gleason 
William Gilman 
William Gilmore 
Joseph Griffin 
Richard Gilpatrick 
Joshua Gilpatrick 
John Gilmor 
Joseph Gleason 
Thomas Gleason 
Daniel Griffin 
Joseph Griffin 
Nathaniel Griffin 
Daniel Leary 
William Linnehan 
Bartholomew Lynch 
John Laughton 
John McCartney 
John McCoy 
Thomas McLaughlin 
Thomas McCullough 
C^eorge McCleary 
Robert McCleary 
Peter McGee 
Terrance McMahon 
James McCormick 
Daniel McNamara 



John McDonald 
Joseph McDonnell 
Joseph McLallin 
William McKenny 
John McCullough 
John McGrath 
John McLarty 
Hugh McCarthy 
James McGraw 
William McCleary 
Michael McDonald 
Robert McCormick 
James McCorrer 
Morris McCleary 
William McClure 
John McDonald 
John McGuire 
James McFadden 
Lawrence McLaughlin 
David McEhroy 
James McCoy 
James McCidlough 
Daniel McCart^hy 
Daniel Maguire 
John Morrison 
Israel Murphy 
Thomas Mahoney 
William Murphy 
Daniel Morrison 
James Milliken 
Daniel Moore 
Daniel Maley 
Hugh Morrison 
James Milliken 
Joseph Manning 
Peter Martin 
Richard Murphy 
Edward Madden 



1107] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 



Daniel Miirphy 
John Manning 
John Mitchel 
John Madden 
Michael Minihan 
Edward Manning 
Patrick Mahoney 
John Noonan 
John O'Connor 
Dennis O'Brien 
Bryant Ryan 
Cornelius Ryan 
John Ryan 
Thomas Ryan 
Dennis Ryan 
James Ryan 
Augustus Ryan 
Martin Rourke 
Daniel Rioden 
Timothy Roach 
Thomas Roach 
James Richey 
Fred Roach 
John Rannor 
John Rickey 
John Savage 
Jeremiah Scanlon 
John Sullivan 
Timothy Sullivan 
Oliver Sullivan 
Ebenezer Sullivan 



Patrick Shea 
Richard Shea 
James Shay 
Daniel Shay 
John Shay 
John Shield 
John Shanahan 
Patrick Scandalin 
Thomas Savage 
Patrick Tracey 
Thomas Tobin 
Mathew Tobin 
Peter Welch 
James Welch 
Jonas Welch 
Silas Welch 
John Wolley 
Joseph Welch 
Walter Welch 
Isaach Welch 
Richard Welch 
Richard Welch 
John Welch 
Mathias Welch 
Benjamin Welch 
John Welch 
William Welch 
William Welch 
Edmund Welch 
Joseph Welch 
William Welch 



If, as Senator Lodge says, the inhabitants of Massachu- 
setts at the period of the Revolution "were almost wholly 
of pure English descent," that may accoimt for the fact 
that Massachusetts furnished more Tories during the 

1108 1 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 

Revolution than any other provmce; but there were evi- 
dently enough Irish ready to bear arms in the patriot 
cause, as the muster rolls of Massachusetts soldiers and 
sailors of the Revolution clearly prove. In the lists 
pubUshed by the State of Massachusetts the name O'Brien 
under its various forms occurs 369 times; O'Neill, 48 
times; Ryan and Rion, 92 times; Sullivan, 47; Murphy 
and Morfey, 80; Higgins, 140; Gleason, 140; McCarthy, 
42; Maloney, 64; Larkin, 69. Altogether there are more 
than 2000 names of Irish origin — McSweeneys, O'Donnells, 
Mahoneys, McGuires, McMahons, Connors, Dalys, Dona- 
hues, Donovans, Kennedys, Kellys, Kenneys, Learys, etc., 
by the hundreds, to say nothing of thousands of men of 
Irish nationality who bore English and Scotchnsounding 
names. 



The following letter, written by no less an authority on 
Pennsylvania history than William H. Egle, State Libra- 
rian to the late Dr. Charles J. Stille, which the latter 
printed in his "Anthony Wayne and the Pennsylvania 
Line, " illustrates the effort made by historians to detract 
from the credit due to the Irish for their part in the 
Revolution: 

State Library of Pennsylvania, 

Harrisburg, Pa., April 11, 1892. 
Charles J. Stille, LL.D., 

Philadelphia. 
My dear Sir: 

In reply to your inquiry of 9th April, permit me to state 
that Mr. Bancroft and other writers were entirely wrong 
in their statements as to the nationality of the soldiers of 

11091 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Wayne's Division. With the exception of the Scotch- 
Irish who formed about two-thirds of his force, the re- 
mainder were almost entirely of German parentage. In 
the French and Indian War the emigrants from the 
Province of Ulster were chiefly selected, while those of 
pure Irish descent or migration were rejected on the 
ground that they were Roman Catholics and that they 
would not be loyal to the Province when opposed by the 
French troops. If you so desire, when the opportune 
time arrives, I might amplify what I have here alluded 
to. The Irish were not in it, although all immigrants 
from Ireland were thus claimed. The facts are, few 7mA 
came until after the War of the Revolution. I doubt if 
there were 300 persons of Irish birth (Roman Catholic 
and Celtic) in the war from Pennsylvania. 
Yours with respect, 

(Signed) William H. Egle. 

Is there such a thing as a "pure Irish Celt"? Is it not 
true that hundreds of Roman Catholic Irish families in 
the bog lands of the south and west of Ireland, with names 
like Smith, Johnson, Fleming, Nash, Molyneaux, Dever- 
eaux, Lestrange, DeCourcey, Montgomery, etc., have as 
much Celtic blood in them as the McGuires, McLaughlins, 
McMuUens, O'Briens, and O'Reillys, with whom they have 
intermarried for centuries? On the other hand, are the 
Maguires, Bryans, Ryans, Reillys, Kennedys, Sweeneys, 
etc., of the Province of Ulster any less Celtic Irish be- 
cause they live in Ulster and are Protestants? Is Thomas 
Flaherty, Presbjrterian clergyman, "Scotch-Irish'' and 
Patrick O'Flaherty, ditch digger, "Celtic-Irish" because 
he is a Roman Catholic? Why should Edward Hand, 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 

Brigadier General in the Revolutionary army, bom in 
Ireland, a Protestant, be classed as "Scotch-Irish," and 
Patrick Hand, private in the Third Pennsylvania Conti- 
nental Regiment, a Roman Catholic, simply as "Irish"? 
What is the racial difference between Dennis McKnight, 
of the Comity Mayo, and David Knight, of the County 
Antrim, if Dennis's mother's maiden name was Knox and 
David's mother's maiden name was Maguire? Which 
one is "Scotch-Irish"? 

In the foregoing letter Dr. Egle makes the following 
assertions: 

1. That few 7mA came to America until after the 

Revolution. 

2. That in the French and Indian War the immigrants 

from Ulster were chiefly selected, while those qf 
"pure Irish descent or migration" were rejected. 

3. He doubts if there were 300 persons of Irish birth 

(Roman Catholic and Celtic) in the war from 
Pennsylvania. 

4. That two-thirds of the soldiers of Wayne's Division 

(the Pennsylvania Line) were "Scotch-Irish." 

In previous chapters of this work we have shown that 
the 7mA came to America in very large numbers before 
the Revolution. The three remaining statements are 
refuted by material edited and published under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Egle himself while State Librarian. The 
Pennsylvania Archives, notably Vols. I, II, Second Series, 
edited by Dr. William H. Egle and John B. Linn, contain 
lists of Pennsylvania soldiers in the Colonial wars and the 
Revolutionary War. The nationality of soldiers is, with 
few exceptions, not stated, but on pages 490 to 501 of 
8 [1111 



IRISH CONTMBUriON TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 



Vol. II| 2d Series, Penna. Archives, are lists of the soldiers 
in four companies of Provincial Militia, in which, for- 
tunately, the country of birth is in most instances given. 
The muster rolls are dated August and September, 1746, 
while the French and Indian War was in progress. As 
the roll of the first company includes birthplaces of only 
halt the members, we shall consider the other three, com- 
manded by Capt. William Trent, Capt. Samuel Shannon, 
and Capt. Samuel Perry. These three companies con- 
tained 324 men, country of birth of 301 being mentioned. 
Of the latter, 167 whose names are printed below were 
bom in Ireland. An examination of these names will 
enable the reader to judge how ridiculous the claim is that 
the real Irish were excluded from the ranks during the 
French and Indian War: 



Adams, Emanuel 
Almond, Thomas 
Aimsbie, Luke 
Armstrong, Joseph 
Baem, David 
Bamett, James 
Barr, Thomas 
Bayman, Nathaniel 
Black, Thomas 
Boyd, John 
Boyle, James 
Brennan, Edward 
Brennan, James 
Bum, Edward 
Bums, Edward 
Bums, John 
Bym, Charles 
Caldwell, Robert 
Carney, Daniel 
Carr, George 



Carroll, John 
Carson, Robert 
Carty, Thomas 
Ca3rton, Edward 
Cooley, William 
Corbet, John 
Comeallie, Cornelius 
Coyle, Charles 
Crowley, Bartholomew 
Crowley, James 
Davis, Valentine 
Davis, Edward 
Dick, John 
Dennahew, Florence 
Dermott, Matthew 
Donnelly, John 
Donally, Felix 
Donohue, Timothy 
Dunbar, John 
Eakin, Michael 

in«l 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 



Ensleyi John 
Fay, Matthew 
Frazier, Andrew 
Fitzpatrick, Dennis 
Flannigan, George 
Flood, John 
Fox, Thomas 
Futhey, Henry 
Gallagher, Felix 
Gallagher, Thomas 
Gillespie, Abel 
Gallagher, Henry 
Goodf ellow, Daniel 
Gethins, Daniel 
Grace, William 
Grant, John 
Hall, Jonas 
Hanmion, John 
Harkins, James 
Harris, James 
Henry, Henry 
Holland, Charles 
Hamilton, James 
Huston, William 
Johnston, James 
Jones, Robert 
Kain, John 
Kain, Miles 
Kelly, Peter 
Kelly, Daniel 
Kennedy, Hugh 
Lappin, Paul 
Lastly, Barnabas 
Larey, John 
Laverty, Patrick 
Lee, James 
Lee, Robert 
Lee, Thomas 



Lindon, Patrick 
Lindsey, Walter 
Lome, Charles 
McAfee, Robert 
McCabe, Alexander 
McCalla, Charles 
McClean, John 
McDaniel, Dennis 
McGarvey, James 
McGuire, Nicholas 
McKee, Andrew 
McCarty, Barthdiomew 
McCarty, ComeUus 
McCarty, John 
McQoskey, Henry 
McCord, William 
McCormick, Thomas 
McDonald, Minass 
McGaughy, John 
McGaughy, William 
McGee, Thomas 
McGroun, Patrick 
McGuiie, PhiUp 
McRvaine, Joseph 
McKee, William 
McKinney, Alex. 
McKinny, James 
McLees, Archibald 
McLees, James 
McMahon, Redmond 
McManus, James 
McPeak, James 
Mahan, Owen 
Malvain, William 
Mangan, Owen 
Martin, Patrick 
Matthews, George 
Merchant, ^Uiam 



[1X3] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 



Meredith, Philip 
Miller, Henry 
Mooney, Michael 
Mooney, Patrick 
Morrison, James 
Murphy, Michael 
Murphy, Patrick 
Murphy, Thomas 
Murphy, Archibald 
Neal, John 
Nicholas, David 
Neigle, James 
Newman, Edward 
O'Donnelly, Arthur 
O'DonneD, Michael 
O'Neale, Arthur 
Parker, Anthony 
Priscott, James 
Raredon, Michael 
Rea, Thomas 
Read, John 
Reynolds, Edward 
Reynolds, Patrick 
Richardson, ^\^lliam 
Rodgers, James 
Robertson, William 



Runnell, Peter 
Russell, Nicholas 
Savage, Patrick 
Scott, Valentine 
Semple, William 
Shea, Timothy 
Shortall, John 
Shortall, OUver 
Sim, John 
Simpson, James 
Slevan, John 
Smith, James 
Stevenson, James 
Sutliff, Michael 
Snapes, Paul 
Sullivan, Daniel 
Swaney, Thomas 
Tomey, John 
Tay, Daniel 
Tulton, William 
Turner, Samuel 
Wasson, Robert 
Weir, Owen 
^\^lson, Thomas 
Yorgen, Dennis 



The list of soldiers in Colonel Washington's 
ment of Virginia Militia, engaged in the French and Indian 
War, printed at end of the chapter on "The Irish in Other 
Provinces," is additional evidence that the "pure Irish" 
were not rejected during the French and Indian War. 
But even if it Were true that the emigrants were mainly 
from Ulster, the following list of soldiers bom in Ireland, 
taken from a "Return of a Full Company enlisted for the 
Campaign in the Lower Counties, by Capt. McClughan, 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 

delivered Wednesday, the 17th May, 1758," printed on 
pp. 570-73, Vol. II, 2d S. Pa., in which the County of birth 
is given, will show that the Irish Irish were well repre- 
sented among the Ulster emigrants. 

Black, George, from Armagh, Ulster 
Connelly, Bryan, from Monaghan, Ulster 
Crawford, John, Donegal, Ulster 
Dougherty, John, Donegal 
Dougherty, Owen, Donegal 
Dougherty, Patrick, Donegal 
Dunbar, John, Tyrone, Ulster 
Dunfee, Michael, Wexford 
Fitzsimmons, John, Dublin 
Henderson, James, Antrim, Ulster 
Houston, Alexander, "Toboyne" 
Innis, Timothy, Kildare 
Jones, Christopher, West Meath 
Kelley, John, Down, Ulster 
Kilpatrick, Patrick, "Faughboyne" 
McAnulty, John, Londonderry 
McCleam, James, Londonderry 
McClelan, James, Antrim 
McGill, Patrick, "Kihnore" 
Martin, Hugh, Tyrone, Ulster 
Mitchell, Joseph, Down, Ulster 
Mullan, Daniel, Dunluce, Ulster 
Murrain, John, Dublin 
Sheerman, James, Dublin 
Sloan, John, Tyrone 
Stragan, John, Londonderry 
Whellan, Luke, Waterf ord 

[1151 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Vol. I (10), Second Series, Pennsylvania Archives, 
contains lists of names of soldiers in the Pennsylvania 
regiments of the Continental Line in the Revolution. 
The regiments are numbered First to Thirteenth in- 
clusive, and to show the falsity of Dr. Egle's statements 
that not more than 300 Irish were in the war from Penn- 
sylvania, we give the following list of 1000 distinctively 
Irish names taken from the lists of soldiers in only the 
first six regiments: 



First Pennsylvania Regiment 



Ambrose, Patrick 
Barney, Nicholas 
Bradley, Robert 
Bums, William 
Bryan, Jacob 
Blake, Edward 
Blake, Michael 
Blakenny, John 
Bleak, Michael 
Bough, John 
Boughter, Martin 
Boyle, James 
Boyles, Charles 
Bradley, James 
Brady, Michael 
Branahan, George 
Burke, Edmund 
Bums, John 
Bums, Lawrence 
Bums, Michael 
Butler, Patrick 
Cavanagh, John 
Calahan, Daniel 
Callen, Edward 
Camahan, William 



Camey, Barnabas 
Carroll, James 
Cary, Aiken 
Casey, Roger 
Cavenaugh, Edward 
Cavenaugh, Patrick 
Cochran, George 
Colgon, Barnabas 
Collier, Richard 
Collins, John 
Collins, Thomas 
Coneway, James 
Condon, Peter 
Connelly, Patrick 
Connel, Terrence 
Conner, Charles 
Conner, John 
Cooley, James 
Cooney, John 
Coyle, Alexander 
Cross, Patrick 
Crowley, Lawrence 
Crowly, Miles 
Cmnmings, Edward 
Curley, Barnabas 

[1161 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 



Curry, James 
Curry, Samuel 
Curry, Samuel 
Curry, William 
Donlin, William 
DaUey, Joseph 
Dailey, William 
Dalton, Richard 
Delany, Martin 
Delany, Murdoch 
Dempsey, Charles 
Dempsey, Sampson 
Dempsey, Timothy 
Devinney, John 
Donnell, John 
Donahoo, Timothy 
Donovan, John 
Donovan, Timothy 
Doran, James 
Dorsey, Matthew 
Dougherty, Daniel 
Dougherty, James, Jr. 
Dougherty, Matthew 
Downing, Jeremiah 
Dowther, John 
Doyle, John 
Doyle, Morris 
Doyle, Samuel 
Dugan, Charles 
Dunahoo, Patrick 
Dunn, John 
Dwier, Cornelius 
Early, Michael 
Ennis, Francis 
Enos, Francis 
Farrall, Patrick 
Feagan, James 
Feagan, William 



Fennell, Patrick 
FerroU, Michael 
Finley, Robert 
Finnegan, Christopher 
Finney, Roger 
Fitzpatrick, William 
Fleming, Hugh 
Fowler, Patrick 
Grimes, James 
Garvey, John 
Gowen, Henry 
Gehan, Peter 
Gibbon, James 
Golding, William 
Gordon, William 
Gorman, Laurence 
Gorman, John 
Gorman, Samuel 
Gowen, Francis 
Grimes, John 
Hagan, Peter 
Haggerty, Archibald 
Hagey, Henry 
Haley, Michael 
Hanley, Hugh 
Hanlon, Marmaduke 
Heagey, Henry 
Heaney, Henry 
Hening, Patrick 
Heron, Patrick 
Higgins, James 
Hogan, Sylvester 
Kelly, John 
Einkaid, Joseph 
Kinkaid, Andrew 
Eain, John 
Kain, Michael 
Keam, Luke 



[1171 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 



Keary, Arthur 
Keaton, John 
Keaton, Thomati 
Keenan, Lawrence 
Keenon, John 
Keenon, Roger 
Kelly, Alexander 
Kelly, Edward 
Kelly, Hugh 
Kelly, James 
Kelly, John 
KeUy, KilHan 
Kelly, Patrick 
Kelly, Thomas 
Kelly, Timothy 
Kempsey, Patrick 
Kennaghan, Richard 
Kennedy, Denis 
Kennedy, Richard 
Kennedy, Thomas 
Kinney, Michael 
Knight, John 
Lochery, Michael 
Lafferty, Edward 
Leaman, Michael 
Leamy, James 
Leonard, John 
Leonard, Patrick* 
Leonard, Richard 
Leonard, Roger 
Linn, John 
linn, William 



Lynch, John 
Lyons, Edward 
Lyons, Moses 
McCartney, John 
McCartney, Henry 
McCartney, James 
McBride, Peter 
McCann, Daniel 
McCarroll, John 
McCartney, Felix 
McCarter, David 
McCarty, John 
McCaslin, Patrick 
McCloskey, John 
McCloskey, Neill 
McCloskey, William 
McClurghan, Samuel 
McConnell, Charles 
McConnell, Cornelius 
McConnell, William 
McCord, Isidah 
McCord, Thomas 
McCormick, John 
McCormick, Hugh 
McCormick, Patrick 
McCormick, William 
McCortley, Michael 
McCoy, Michael 
McCoy, Rory 
McCoy, William 
McCreedy, James 
McCrossan, Patrick 



* Bom in Ireland, 1740: joined First Rifles, and served in Proc- 
ter's Artillery at Bunker Hill, Long Island, White Plains, Trenton, 
Princeton, Brandsrwine, Germantown, Stony Point. Served in 
Captain Ziegler's company at Block House, where he carried off 
Lieut. David Hanunond, who was badly woimded. Discharged 
at Pittsburgh, 1783. Served also under Harmar, St. Clair, and 
Wayne, 1791-96. 

[1181 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 



McCullomy John 

McCune, James 

McCullough, John 

McDonald, Francis 

McDonald, John 

McDonald, Michael 

McDonald, Robert 

McDonald, William 

McDonald, John 

McDonald, Alexander 

McDonnagh, James 

McDowell, Andrew 

McElhone, Isaac 

McEnnally, Matthew 

McFatridge, Daniel 

McGakey, Andrew 

McGaw, Patrick 

McGee, Robert 

McGinnis, Daniel 

McGinnis, Robert 

McGinness, Owen 

McGlaughlin, Felix 

McGlaughlin, Samuel 

McGowen, John 

McGraw, John 

McGuire, Barney 

McGuire, John 

McGehegan, George 

McHaffy, James 

McHose, Isaac 

Mclntire, John 

McKeen, Edward 
(McKelvey, McKinleys, Mc- 
Kenzies, etc., etc., evidently 
Scotch, omitted) 

McKnight, Dennis 

McMahon, John 

McManus, John 



McMtdlan, Daniel 
McMuUan, Michael 
McMullen, John 
McNair, John 
McNorton, Michael 
McOnally, Michael 
McPike, Richard 
McSwine, George 
McMurray, William 
McMurtrie, John 
Madden, Edward 
Madden, Michael 
Madden, Thomas 
Magee, James 
Magrath, Thomas 
Mahoney, James 
Mahoney, Arthur 
Mahoney, William 
Maloney, John 
Maloney, William 

(Martins omitted) 
Means, Thomas 
MiUigan, James 
Milligan, Hugh 
Momey, Henry 

(Moores omitted) 
Moriarty, Dennis 

(Morgans omitted) 
Mulhollan, Hugh 
Mullen, John 
Mullen, Patrick 
Mullen, William 
Mulvany, Patrick 
Murphy, Archibald 
Murphy, Dennis 
Murphy, James 
Murphy, Peter 
Murphy, Philip 



11191 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 



Murphy, Timothy 
Murphy, William 
Murray, Daniel 
Murray, Francis 
Murray, Jeremiah 
Murray, John 
Murray, Patrick 
Murray, Thomas 
Murray, William 
Neill, James 
Norton, Joseph 
Norton, Henry 
Norton, Patrick 
O'Bryan, Daniel 
O'Bryan, Dennis 
O'Bryan, Martin 
O'Bryan, William 
O'Neal, Edward 
O'Neal, James' 
O'Neal, John 
O'Neal, Richard 
Phelan, Peter 
Power, John 
Powers, Robert 
Quigley, James 
Quinn, Francis 
Quinn, Michael 
Quinn, Patrick 



Roark, Andrew 
Ryan, John 
Redman, Michael 
Redman, John 
Reiley, Bernard 
Reiley, Christopher 
Reiley, Job 
Reiley, John 

(Reynolds omitted) 
Riley, Christian 
Rowan, John 
Rudy, Barney 
Rudy, Patrick 
Ryon, Patrick 
Sweeney, James 
Shehan, Thomas 
Shehan, Daniel 
Sloane, Lawrence 
Sullivan, Murty 
Sullivan, Patrick 
Sweeney, Hugh 
Taggart, Dennis 
Temay, Matthew 
Welsh, James 
Welsh, John 
Welsh, Michael 
Welsh, Thomas 



Second Pennsylvania Regiment 



Bums, Samuel 
Boyd, Abraham 
Boyle, Philip 
Bradley, Hugh 
Brady, Michael 
Brandon, Nathaniel 
Brannon, James 



Brannon, John 
Brogan, Michael 
Bryan, William 
Burke, Alexander 
Bums, Carberry 
Calalan, Patrick 
Callagan, John 

[120] 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 



Carney, Barney 
Casey, Richard 
Cassaday, Patrick 
Cochran, John 
Collins, John 
Collins, Joseph 
Collins, Thomas 
Collins, Patrick 
Connely, James 
Connor, Matthew 
Cooley, Edward 
Cooney, James 
Cowan, Charles 
Cross, Patrick 
Crossan, John 
Crowley, David 
Cullen, Thomas 
Cummings, James 
Dailey, Joseph 
Devine, James 
Duggan, Patrick 
Deady, Patrick 
Deny, Michael 
Donahoo, John 
Donovan, James 
Dougherty, John 
Dougherty, James 
Dungan, Thomas 
Dunmore, Paul 
Dwire, Cornelius 
Eagan, John 
Fagan, Garrett 
Fagge, Patrick 
Fagony, James 
Faugh, Michael 

(Finleys omitted) 
ntzgerald, Edward 
fitzgerald, John 



Flanagan, Timothy 
Galli^er, Francis 
Gillespie, George 
Gordon, Daniel 
Gordon, John 
Grifi&n, David 
Hurley, John 
Hagan, Peter 
Hagerthy, Dennis 
Hale, John 
Haley, Morris 
Hanney, Thomas 
Harlan, John 
Jennings, Thomas 
Kemey, Bamet 
Kennedy, Thomas 
Kennedy, Robert 
Kallahan, John 
Keaton, John 
Keating, Ignatius 
Keating, John 
Keele, Francis 
Keene, Francis 
Keenan, Roger 
Kelly, James 
Kelly, John 
Kelly, Matthew 
KeUy, Patrick 
Kempsey, Patrick 
Kennard, Joseph 
Kennedy, Andrew 
Kennedy, Samuel 
Kenny, Neal 
Knight, Michael 
Kough, Ludwig 
Kusick, John 
Lafferty, Daniel 
Larkins, David 



[121] 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 



Lary, Daniel 
Leary, Daniel 
Loughy George 
McCullan, John 
McDonald, William 
McKilloh, Robert 
McMurdy, John 
McPike. James 
Mulhollon, Hugh 
Murphy, Archibald 
McLaughlin, Robert 
McCarty, Daniel 
Murray, William 
McAfee, Neil 
McCahan, Richard 
McCalla, Daniel 
McCarty, Richard 
McCastleton, Samuel 
McCay, Daniel 
McChord, Isaiah 
McCloskey, John 
McCollum, John 
McConnell, William 
McCormick, John 
McCormick, William 
McCourt, John 
McCowen, John 
McCue, Arthur 
McDowell, William 
McEhx>y, John 
McElvaine, John 
McElvany, Patrick 
McFatridge, Daniel 
McGahan, John 
McGahy, Andrew 
McGaughin, Michael 
McGteary, Neal 
McGilton, William 



McGinnis, Roger 
McGrath, William 
McGraw, John 
McGraw, William 
Mclntire, Daniel 
Mclntire, William 
McKillin, Edward 
McKinney, John 
McKinsey, John 
McMahon, Richard 
McManus, Hugh 
McQuead, John 
McQuillin, James 
McQuillion, Robert 
McVeagh, Patrick 
McVey, Daniel 
Madden, Thomas 
Magee, Thomas 
Mahon, John 
Malony, John 
Maloy, James 

(Martins omitted) 
Mellen, John 

(Morrisons omitted) 
Moyne, John 
Mullen, John 
Mulloney, John 
Mulvany, Patrick 
Murphy, Andrew 
Murphy, Christian 
Murphy, John 
Murphy, Philip 

(Murrays omitted) 
Neill, James 
Neill, John 
Norton, John 
Norton, Henry 
O'Brien, Daniel 



im] 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 



O'Bryan, Martin 
0*Bryan, Sylvester 
O'Bryan, WiUiam 
O'Foy, Patrick 
O'Neal, Christopher 
O'Neal, Edward 
O'Neal, James 
Orand, Patrick 
Quigley, Edward 
Reagan, James 
Reagan, Michael 
Reardon, Jeremiah 
Record, Patrick 
Redman, John 
Redman, Michael 



Reily, Job 
Ryan, James 
Sloan, John 
- (Shaw, Patrick) 
Shea, Daniel 
Sullivan, James 
Sullivan, Michael 
Sullivan, Patrick 
Sullivan, Thomas 
Sullivan, William 
Tague, Patrick 
Temey, Matthew 
Thornton, James 
Whelin, ITilliam 



Third Pennsylvania Regiment 



Boyd, Thomas 

(Brown, Patrick) 
Barrett, William 
Boyd, Thomas 
Boyle, Neal 
Boyles, Charles 
Bradley, Thomas 
Brady, Thomas 
Brannon, John 
Bryan, William 
Bryan, Patrick 
Burk, John 
Bums, James 
Bums, Timothy 
Bums, William 
(Ik)llings, Thomas 
Collins, Samuel 
Cain, John 
Calligan, John 
Calligan, William 



Carshay, Michael 
Cochran, Blaney 
Collier, Richard 
Collins, David 
Collins, Richard 
Collins, William 
Connell, Terrenoe 
Conner, Patrick 
Conroy, James 
Conway, Michael 
Cooley, William 
Courtney, Cornelius 
Courtney, William 
Coyle, Mark 
Coyle, Robert 
Craven, John 
Cummings, Edward 
Curley, Barney 
Cusick, John 

Doyle 

ll«8l 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 



Dougherty, George 
Dagley, James 
Dagon, William 
Dougherty, William 
Dekmey, Daniel 
Dempsey, Charles 
DemiisoUj John 
Donely, William 
Donohoo, Patrick 
Donavan, John 
Doody, James 
Dorman, William 
Doyle, Henry 
Doyle, Samuel 
Doud, Michael 
Dougherty, John 
Dowling, Lambert 
Downey, Patrick 
Druery, Michael 
Dugg, James 
Dunivan, John 
Dunleavy, Anthony 
Ferall, Patrick 
Fitzsimmons, Philip 
Ford, Charles 
Fagan, Grarrett 
Fagan, James 
Fagan, Michael 
Farren, Francis 
Farroll, Patrick 
Fitzgerald, Edward 
Fitzgerald, John 
Fitzgibbon, James 
Fleming, Henry 
Flinn, James 
Ford, John 
Gowen, Hugh 
Gordon, John 



Gordon, William 
Gordon, Abraham 
Gallagher, Daniel 
Gallagher, James 
Gibson, Thomas 
Gilling, Daniel 
Gordon, Joseph 
Hagerty, James 

(Hand, Dominic) 

(Hand, Patrick) 
Hanlin, Patrick 
Hannon, John 
Hartney, Patrick 
Herron, Patrick 
Houghey, Patrick 
Huggins, John 
Hughes, James 
Hughes, William 
Hurley, James 

(Jennings omitted) 
Joyce, Michael 

Keny 

Kennedy 

Kilpatrick, William 
Kennedy, Robert 
Kating, Ignatius 
Keenan, Nicholas 
Kelly, George 
Kelly, Thomas 

(Kerr, Michael) 
Kincaid, John 
Kusick, John 
Lafferty, Daniel 
Lavery, John 
Leary, Daniel 

(Leland, Patrick) 
Lynch, Lawrence 
McMeehan, John 



[ml 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 



McLaughlin 

McFaddin, Angus 
Macky Peter 
McFaddin, Joseph 
McAnarmey, Patrick 
McAnnelly, James 
McAnneUy, Patrick 
McCarr, John 
McCartney, Dennis 
McCaspy, John 
McClarren, Thomas 
McCloskey, Cornelius 
McClosky, John 
McClung, William 
McConnel, James 
McCormicky Hugh 
McCormick, Timothy 
McCoy, Nicholas 
McCoy, William 
McCummings, John 
McCune, William 
McDermott, John 
McDonald, Charles 
McDonald, Godfrey 
McDonald, John 
McDonald, Patrick 
McDonald, William 
McDowell, John 
McElhone, William 
McElroy, John 
McEntire, Thomas 
McFatridge, Daniel 
McGahy, William 



McCary, Neal 
McGeary, Hugh 
McGinnis, Daniel 
McGinnis, John 
McGinnis, John 
McGowan, William 
McGuighan, Peter 
McBgar, John 
Mclntire, Daniel 
Mclntire, William 
McKann, Charles 
McKinney, John 
McKnight, David 
McLaughlin, George 
McManus, John 
McMath, Daniel 
McMichael, James 
McMichael, John 
McMullen, John* 
McMullen, "Vniliam 
McQuin, Daniel 
Mahan, Arthur 
Malone, Richard 
Malony, Archibald 
Malony, Richard 

(Martins omitted) 
Mullen, Andrew 
Mulvany, John 
Murphy, Christian 
Murphy, Timothy 
Murphy, Thomas 

(Nixon, Martin) 
Nowland, John 



* At Newark he and thirty-three other Irishmen and other soldiers 
were captured; was a prisoner nine months and ten days; rejoined 
the company commanded by Capt. Thomas Butler; then marched 
south in the company commanded by Cai>t. Henderson; at Green 
Springs and surrender of Comwallis; died in Mifflin county, Jan. 3, 
1832, aged eighty-one. 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 



O'Neal, Nicholas 
O'Harra, Patrick 
O'Hara, William 
O'Neal, Daniel 
O'Neal, James 
O'Neal, John 
Quigley, Edward 
Quinn, Francis 
Reilly, John 
Redman, John 
Reily, William 

(Rock, Patrick) 
Rowan, John 



Ryan, James 
Shehan, Daniel 
Sloan, Lawrence 
Slone, William 
Sullivan, Daniel 
SuUivan, Owen 
Sweeney, James 
Sweeney, Hugh 
Toner, James 
Toner, John 
Toole, John 

(Wear, ComeUus) 
Welsh, William 



Fourth Pennsylvania Regiment 



(Allwine, Barney) 
Boyle, John 

(Butler, Patrick) 
Bannon, Jeremiah 
Blake, Michael 
Boyd, Thomas 
Boyle, John 
Boyle, Neal 
Bradley, John 
Brannon, Darby 
Bryan, William 
Burke, Francis 
Byms, James 
Cochran, George 
Conroy, James 
Connor, Patrick 
Callaghan, John 
Camaghan, James 
Carroll, Thomas 
Cassady, William 
Cavanaugh, John 
Cochran, Blaney 



Cochran, John 
Collings, John 
Collings, Richard 
Collings, Robert 
Collings, William 
Conner, Charles 
Conner, Martin 
Connelly, Andrew 
Courtney, ComeHus 
Donnell, John 
Dunbar, John 
Donnelly, Greorge 
DaUey, John 
Demond, Peter 
Dempsey, Patrick 
Dennison, Thomas 
Desmond, John 
Deveney, Hugh 
Devine, Bernard 
Devine, Hugh 
Drudge, John 
Donahoo, Patrick^ 

[126] 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 



Dougan, John 
Duffield, Felix 
Duffield, John 
Fagin, James 
Fitzgerald, Edward 
Garvin, Henry 
Gralagher, Daniel 
Galagher, James 
Garvey, John 
Gogehan, Joseph 
Hagan, Patrick 
Hanlin, Patrick 
Hartney, Patrick 
Higgins, James 
Kain, Michael 
Kain, Henry 
Kealing, Thomas 
Keenan, John 
Keilan, John 
Kelly, Barnabas 
KeUy, Charles 
Kelly, Thomas 
KeUy, William 
Kennedy, Andrew 
Kemahan, Richard 
Lynch, Michael 
Lafferty, Robert 
Larkins, James 
Lynch, Lawrence 
Lynch, Michael 
Mclntire, William 
McPike, James 
McMullen, William 
McDonald, Alexander 
Mcllvaine, Thomas 
McBride, James 
McCarty, Denis 
McColly, Robert 



McConnell, Charles 
McCormick, John 
McCormick, Patrick 
McCoy, Rory 
McCmie, John 
McDonald, Francis 
McDonough, James 
McElroy, Hugh 
McFarland, James 
McGahy, Andrew 
McCarrigan, Daniel 
McGlaughlin, Bryan 
McGuire, John 
Mclntire, James 
McKevey, Hugh 
McKevey, Thomas 
McMahon, Timothy 
McManus, Hugh 
McNamara, Dennis 
McPike, Thomas 
McQueen, Daniel 
McQueen, John 
McSwaine, George 
Madden, Michael 
Magan, Patrick 
Magee, Daniel 
Maloney, William 
Maloney, Archibald 
Maloy, James 
Martin, Patrick 
Mullen, Manus 
Murphy, Peter 
Murray, Daniel 
Murray, Patrick 
Nixon, John 
Noglan, William 
O'Neal, John 
O'Hara, Patrick 



ll«7] 



miSH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 



O'Neal, Richard 
Reily, Charles 
Rourky Andrew 
Rion, John 
Roach, Sadler 
Ryan, Michael 
Ryan, Patrick 
Sloan, John 
Shannon, James 



Sullivan, Daniel 
Sullivan, Murty 
Sullivan, Owen 
Sullivan, Thomas 
Welch, Edward 
Welsh, James 
Welsh, Patrick 
Welsh, William 



Fifth Pennsylvania Regiment 



Bradley, Hugh 
Brady, Robert 
Brady, Thomas 
Bums, Daniel 
Bums, Laughlin 
Bums, Lawrence 
Coyne, Bartholomew 
Cain, John 
Cary, Arthur 
Cavanaugh, John 
Cochran, Robert 
Collins, John 
Connel, Patrick 
Conner, John 
Conner, Matthew 
Connor, Ambrose 
Cooley, James 
Costello, Jordan 
Crossley, Thomas 
Crowley, Miles 
Curry, Roger 
Curry, William 
Delany, William 
Devene, James 
Daly, James 
Deveny, John 



Dailey, James 
Dailey, John 
Delaney, Martin 
Deviny, Cornelius 
Donnelly, John 
Doran, James 
Domey, Matthew 
Dorsey, Matthew 
Dougherty, Bernard 
Dougherty, James 
Dougherty, William 
Doyle, John 
Doyle, Morris 
Doyle, Peter 
Doyle, Thomas, Sr. 
Doyle, Thomas, Jr. 
Drury, Michael 
Duffy, George 
Duffy, Michael 
Dunn, John 
Ekigan, John 
Farrall, Patrick 
Farroll, Michael 
Feagan, William 
Fennell, Patrick 
Fitzpatrick, William 

[1281 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 



Flanaghan, John 
Forbes, James 
Fowler, Patrick 
Garvey, John 
Gillespy, John 
Gordon, William 
Gowen, Francis 
Griffin, William 
Hagens, Daniel 
Haney, David . 
Hanin, Richard 
Hannan, John 
Hargan, John 
Harrigan, John 
Heany, Daniel 
Hogan, Daniel 
Hogan, Sylvester 
Kennedy, James 
Keary, Arthur 
Keenan, Nicholas 
Kelly, John 
Kelly, Michael 
Kelly, Thomas 
Kelly, Tunothy 
Kennedy, Cornelius 
Kennedy, Dennis 
Kergey, John 
linn, Patrick 
Lynch, Patrick 
McDonald, William 
McDougal, William 
McMahon, John 
McCowan, John 
McCowen, WiUiam 
McAnaly, Matthew 
McCamron, James 
McCann, Daniel 
McCarter, John 



McCarty, Jeremiah 
McCarty, Michael 
McColly, Samuel 
McCord, Thomas 
McCortley, Michael 
McCowan, Hugh 
McCowan, John 
McCoy, John 
McCoy, Michael 
McCrackin, John 
McCroBsan, Patrick 
McCuen, William 
McCulloch, John 
McCulloch, John 
McCulloch, Samuel 
McDaniel, Robert 
McDonagh, John 
McDonald, Robert 
McDonald, Terrence 
McDonald, William 
McDonnell, Robert 
McElheny, George 
McEnally, Martin 
McEwen, John 
McFall, Archibald 
McFall, Dennis 
McFall, Thomas 
McGee, William 
McGlaughlin, George 
McGlaughlin, John 
McGrotty, Dennis 
McGuigan, Andrew 
McGuire, Charles 
McKissick, John 
McKnight, David 
McLochlin, Hugh 
McMahon, John 
McManness, Michael 



112»1 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 



McMullen, Francis 
McNamara, Patrick 
McOwen, John 
McPheran, Andrew 
McPike, Thomas 
McQuillen, Charles 
McSherry, Peter 
McSwine, Dennis 
McWillfams, Alexander 
Mahoney, James 
Manley, William 
Murphy, Lawrence 
Murphy, Arthur 
Murphy, William 
Neill, James 
Nixon, Marvin 



Norton, John 
O'Hara, George 
O'Harron, David 
O'Harra, Daniel 
O'Neil, James 
Phelan, Peter 
Redman, John 
Reily, James 
Rock, Patrick 
Roddy, Patrick 
Rodgers, Patrick 
Rooney, Peter 
Saladay, Daniel 
Walsh, John 
Welsh, John 
Welsh, Michael 



Sixth Pennsylvania Regiment 



Bready, Robert 
Burke, Michael 
Brady, Samuel 
Bryan, William 
Buckley, Daniel 
Biurke, William 
Bums, John 
Carroll, Dennis 
Colgan, John 
Callaghan, Patrick 
Casaday, John 
Colgan, Barnabas, Sr. 
Colgan, Barnabas, Jr. 
Collins, William 
Connor, John 

(Cox, Barney) 
Donavan, John 
Doyle, Peter 
Duffy, James 



Fitzpatrick, Peter 
Finley, Peter 
Finney, Roger 
Flanagan, Timothy 
Gehon, Peter 
Gordon, Charles 
Gordon, John 
Griffin, David 
Grimes, John 
Henny, Henry 
Haley, John 
Hanley, Christopher 
Hanley, Marmaduke 
Healey, John 
Henley, Maurice 
Hogan, Daniel 
Huggan, Daniel 
Kelly, Benjamin 
Kelley, Charles 

[130] 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 



Kelley, Killian 
Kelly, Dennis 
KeUy, William 
Kenney, Daniel 
Kenon, Lawrence 
Laughlin, Peter 
Logan, Michael 
Lowrey, Patrick 
McGilton, William 
McGee, James 
McCord, Samuel 
McAfee, John 
McBride, James 
McCarroll, John 
McCastleton, James 
McCastleton, Samuel D. 
McCaslin, Patrick 
McCaston, James 
McClusky, Francis 
McDaniel, Malcolm 
McDaniel, Matthew 
McDaniel, Michael 
McDonald, Michael 
McDonald, Terrence 
McDonagh, James 
McDowell, John 
McEntire, James 
McGee, Thc»nas 



McGinnis, Robert 
McGuire, Philip 
McKinney, John 
McCune, Frederick 
McLine, John 
McManamy, Daniel 
McMullin, John 
McPike, Richard 
Magaw, John 
Malone, John 
Milligan, William 
Moran, Michael 
Morrison, Michael 
Mullin, William 
Mullin, Patrick 
Mulvaney, John 
Norton, Patrick 
O'Brian, Philip 
O'Brien, John 
O'Bryan, William 
O'Neal, Daniel 
O'Neal, James 
Reily, Thomas 
Shawnesse, John* 
Shehey, Daniel 
Swaine, Edward* 
Welsh, John 



One hundred Irish names of Pensioners of the Revolu- 
tionary War, living in Virginia, printed in Senate Doeu- 

* These two names illustrate how Irish names are changed: 
O'Shaughnessy, Shaughnessy, Shawnesse^ Shaw; McSwine, Swine. 
Swaine. Hundreds of names of Irish origin were necessarily omitted 
from the list because so many Irish names have assumed an English 
form. The names Shaw, Moore, Smith, Morrison, Newman, Kerr, 
Carr, Clarke, are just as prevalent among Irish Catholic families as 
names beginning with "Mc" or "O' ". 

1131] 



IRISH CONTRIBmiON TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

mentSy 1835, giving names of State Troops in which they 
served and year pension commenced. 

Martin Mooney, "Virginia, 1819 
Edward Casey, Virginia, 1819 
Bartholomew Ragan, Virginia, 1818 
Patrick McCowan, Pennsylvania, 1818 
James Bryams, Virginia, 1818 
Peter Dager, Virginia, 1818 
Benjamin Galloway, \^rginia, 1818 
Sampson Dempsey, Pennsylvania, 1818 
John Gallegher, Maryland, 1818 
Wm. Connerly, Virginia, 1818 
Wm. Kennedy, Virginia, 1818 
Dempsey Stuart, Virginia, 1819 
Francis Burk, Maryland, 1818 
John Cochran, Virginia, 1828 
John Donnell, Pennsylvania, 1818 
Archibald Casey, "Virginia, 1818 
Wm. Burke, 2nd, Virginia, 1818 
Daniel FUn, Virginia. 1818 
Perry Carroll, Vir^nia, 1818 
Joshua Dimn, \^rginia, 1818 
Michael Grosh, Maryland, 1818 
Samuel Courtney, Virginia, 1818 
William Drone, Virginia, 1818 
John Dulin, Virginia, 1818 
Thomas McGee, Pennsylvania, 1819 
William Burke, Vir^nia, 1808 
Dennis Bush, Virginia, 1818 
William Burke, Virginia, 1808 
Dennis Bush, Virginia, 1818 
John HefferUn, Virginia, 1818 
Samuel Harrell, Virginia, 1819 
John Haney, Maryland, 1818 
Daniel Hayley, \^ginia, 1818 
Alex. McMullen, Virginia, 1818 
Arch. McDonald, Virginia, 1782 

[13«1 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 

Dennis O'Brian, Maryland, 1818 

John Hackett, Virginia, 1819 

Dennis Ready, Virginia, 1818 

John Mallory, Virginia, 1818 

Francis McCraw, Virginia, 1818 

Martin Delany, Pennsylvania, 1818 

Geo. Dougherty, Pennsylvania, 1824 

John Dailey, Virginia, 1818 

Hugh Malone, Maryland, 1818 

Isaac Welch, Virginia, 1819 

John Byms, Virginia, 1818 

James Cochran, Ensign, \^rginia, 1818 

Michael Gary, Maryland, 1818 

Stephen Flecherty, Maryland, 1818 

James Hanlon, Virginia, 1818 

Hugh Mullegan, Pennsylvania, 1790 

Michael McKnight, Virginia, 1785 

Terence McDonald, Virginia, 

Geo. Murfree, Virginia, 1818 

Samuel McCoy, Virginia, 1818 

Daniel Brian, Maryland, 1818 

Peter Hains, Virginia and Maryland, 1818 

Andrew McCarty, Pennsylvania, 1818 

John Collins, Virginia, 1818 

Patrick Gleason, Virginia, 1818 

John Meanly, Virginia, 1818 

Wm. McGeorge, Virginia, 1818 

Wm. Dennis Hampton, alias Wm. Dennis, Virginia, 

1818 
Peter McCune, Virginia, 1818 
Wm. Carney, "Virginia, 1818 
Francis Dyer, Virginia, 1832 
Dennis Crow, Vir^nia, 1832 
James McDade, Vir^nia, 1818 
Argelon Toone, Virginia, 1818 
Daniel Lee, New York, 1818 
Thomas Malone, Delaware, 1820 
James Larkin, Virginia, 1818 

[1881 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Thomas McDaniel, North Carolina, 1821 

Daniel Conner, Virginia, 1820 

John Nash, Virginia, 1819 

John O'Neal, Pennsylvania, 1818 

John Bourn, Virginia, 1818 

Charles Mnrphey, Virginia, 1818 

Terry McHaney, Georgia, 1821 

John Quinn, Vir^nia, 1823 

Robert Dyson, Virginia, 1818 

Thos. Dondeen, Virginia, 1818 

John Flaridy, Pennsylvania, 1820 

Thomas Mahorney, Virginia, 1818, aged 105 years 

Patrick McEwing, Virginia, 1818 

John Roach, Virginia, 1818 

John Sullivan, Virginia, 1830 

John Ferrall, Pennsylvania, 1818 

Thomas Plumkett, Virginia, 1818 

John Reardon, Virginia, 1800 

Peter Grim, Virginia, 1818 

Wm. Grady, Virginia, 1819 

Joseph GoUoday, Virginia, 1819 

Benj. McKnight, Virginia, 1819 

Wm. Knight, Virginia, 1818 

Wm. Thornton, Virginia, 1818 

Archibald Maloney, Virginia, 1819 

Patrick Hanlin, Pennsylvania, 1818 

John Burke, Maryland, 1818 

Terence Doran, Virginia, 1818 

Bennet McKey, Virginia, 1818 

Daniel Bennett, alias Bennings, Maryland, 1823 

One hundred Irish names of Pensioners of the Revolu- 
tionary War, living in Ohio and Indiana, printed in Senate 
Documents, 1835, giving name of state troops in which 
they served. 

Michael Bowen, Massachusetts 
John Bums, Sergeant, Virginia 

[1341 



miSH AND THE WAR FOB INDEPENDENCE 

Sylvanus Burke, Massachusetts 

Lawrence Bym, Pennsylvania 

Daniel Cornell, Pennsylvania 

James Curry, Captain, Virginia 

George Carrol, Maryland 

William Colgan, Virginia 

John Clancey, Maryland 

Francis Costigan, Lieutenant, New Jersey 

Daniel Clay, New Hampshire 

Patrick Cunningham, Pennsylvania 

Jacob Casey, Virginia 

Thomas Downey, Pennsylvania 

Henry Dugan, Pennsylvania 

Elias Dailey, Pennsylvania 

Dennis Dailey, Virginia 

Richard Done, Connecticut 

John Derrough, Virginia 

Samuel Dailey, Massachusetts 

John Denoon, Maryland 

Andrew Dennis, Pennsylvania 

Joseph D. Finley, Major, Pennsylvania 

Henry Fitzgerald, Pennsylvania 

William Flood, Virginia 

Robert Fleming, Pennsylvania 

Anthony Geoghegan, Maryland 

ComeUus Hurley, Virginia 

John Kelly, Virginia 

Daniel Keyes, Sergeant, Massachusetts 

Andrew Kennedy, Pennsylvania 

John Legore, Pennsylvania 

Peter Lynch, Pennsylvania 

James Larkins, Sergeant, Pennsylvania 

Patrick Leonard, Pennsylvania 

Patrick Logan, Virginia 

Daniel Morley, Connecticut 

Peter Magee, Lieutenant, New York 

John McMahon, Pennsylvania 

John McElroy, fife major, Pennsylvania 

[195] 



IRISH CONTRIBUnON TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Neal Murry, Pennsylvania 
John McKnight, Maryland 
Redmont McDonough, Virginia 
Hugh McClelland, Pennsylvania 
Hugh Miilloy, Lieutenant, Massachusetts 
Jolm McCarroU, Pennsylvania 
John Murphy, Virginia 
Samuel McKee, Pennsylvania 
John McQuown, Virginia 
William McGee, New Hampshire 
James McEver, Massachusetts 
Patrick McDaniel, Pennsylvania 
James Murphy, Pennsylvania 
James McBumey, New Jersey 
Alexander McGloggan, Pennsylvania 
Robert McCullough, Connecticut 
Cornelius Morris, Maryland 
Connelly McFaden, New Jersey 
Walter McFarland, Pennsylvania 
Charles Magin, Maryland 
Richard McHenry, Pennsylvania 
Wm. McClain, Pennsylvania 
Wm. Manning, Sergeant, Connecticut 
Francis McConnell, New Jersey 
Abner McMahon, New Jersey 
Wm. McKelvey, Pennsylvania 
Michael McClunie, Pennsylvania 
Neil McMullen, Pennsylvania 
Jesse Meneley, New Jersey 
James McGuinnes, Pennsylvania 
Thomas Mclntire, Pennsylvania 
William McMurray, Pennsylvania 
Charles McGuire, Pennsylvania 
Dennis O'Laughlin, Pennsylvania 
William Roach, Pennsylvania 
Daniel Reddington, Massachusetts 
James Reiley, Pennsylvania 
Richard Rilea, Virginia 

[1361 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 

Patrick Sullivan, Pennsylvania 
Timothy Sherman, Massachusetts 
David Boylls, Virginia 
Charles Boyll, Vir^nia 
John Bums, Virginia 
Bartholomew Carroll, Virginia 
Michael Courtney, Virginia 
Terrance Connor, Virginia 
Thomas Flynn, Delaware 
David Haney, Pennsylvania 
Richard Kenney, Maryland 
Daniel Kenny, Pennsylvania 
Matthew McAfee, Pennsylvania 
James J. Murphy, Virginia 
James Mahoney, Virginia 
Daniel Sullivan, Pennsylvania 
Daniel Welch, Connecticut 

One hundred Irish names of Pensioners of the Revolu- 
tionary War, living in New York State, printed in Senate 
Documents, 1835, giving names of State Troops in which 
they served. 

Lewis Brady, New York 
Daniel Brackett, Massachusetts 
James Bryan, Rhode Island 
Adam Brannon, New York 
Michael Burdge, Sergeant, New York 
Elijah Bryan, Connecticut 
Nicholas Cusick, Lieutenant, New York 
Michael Cross, Hazen's Regiment 
Joseph Carley, New York 
Lewis J. Costigin, Lieutenant, New Jersey 
William Conner, New York 
James Cooley, Massachusetts 
John Cahall, New York 
James Dorsey, Massachusetts 
[1871 



IRISH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

Daniel Dorsey, Captain, Maryland 

Timothy Dunn, Connecticut 

Timothy Driskell, Pennsylvania 

James Dailey, Connecticut 

James Dorey, New York 

John Dailey, New Jersey 

Thomas Dennis, Rhode Island 

Francis Delaney, North Carolina 

Silas Daley, New York 

Jonathan Farley, Massachusetts 

William Farley, New Hampshire 

Amos Flood, New Hampshire 

Joseph Flood, Massachusetts 

Aaron Forbes, Massachusetts 

Samuel Farley, Massachusetts 

Jonathan Finney, Massachusetts 

Bethuel Finney, Massachusetts 

Benjamin Griffin, New York 

Thomas Gilligan, Massachusetts 

Francis Garvey, New York 

Kirkland Griffin, Mariner 

Thomas Gillen, Maryland 

Joseph Henegin, Connecticut 

Daniel Hayden, Massachusetts 

Benoni Hogan, Connecticut 

Nathaniel Higgins, Sergeant, New York 

Robert Kelly, New York 

Hugh Kennedy, Rhode Island 

William Kennedy, Connecticut 

Edmund Kelly, New York 

Joshua Kelly, New York 

William Kelly, 2nd, Massachusetts 

James Kane, Pennsylvania 

John Kennelly, Hazen's Regiment 

Josiah Kenney, Massachusetts 

William McMennes, New York 

Neil McCoy, Massachusetts 

Charles McDonald, Sergeant, Connecticut 

[1881 



IRISH AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 

Patrick McGee, Hazen's Regiment 

Bernard McKnight, Massachusetts 

James McCauley, New York 

Michael McGingar, Sergeant, New York 

John McMillan, New Jersey 

Paul McCoy, Connecticut 

John McNeil, New Jersey 

George McMurphy, New Hampshire 

Martin McNeary, Connecticut 

Jeremiah McCartney, North Carolina 

John McManners, Connecticut 

Joseph McFarland, New Hampshire 

William McMuUin, Pennsylvania 

John McDongal, New York 

Andrew McKenney, Pennsylvania 

James McKinney, New York 

John McMuUan, Massachusetts 

Thomas McCarty, New York 

Michael Madden, Massachusetts 

WiUiam Mooney, New York 

Ebenezer Morley, Massachusetts 

John McNally, Massachusetts 

Hugh McConnell, New York 

Daniel McCarty, Massachusetts 

Henry McNeal, New York 

Robert McKnight, Massachusetts 

Rufus Mclntire, Rhode Island 

Christopher McManus, Sergeant, New Jersey 

John C. McNeil, Sergeant, New Hampshire 

Andrew McNutt, New York 

John Maloney, Massachusetts 

Alexander Maroney, New York 

Michael Madden, Massachusetts 

John Murphy, New York 

James Murphy, Massachusetts 

Richard Nixon, New Jersey 

Daniel O'Keiff, Pennsylvania 

Cornelius Organ, Pennsylvania 

11891 



miSH CONTRIBUTION TO AMERICA'S INDEPENDENCE 

James Patrick, Rhode Island 

Thomas Quigley, Captain, New York 

William Quigley, Massachusetts 

Robert Ryan, Connecticut 

Jacob Reddington, Massachusetts 

Daniel Shays, Captain, Massachusetts 

John Sloan, Massachusetts 

John Welsh, New York 

Joseph Walsh, Lieutenant, Massachusetts 

Robert Welch, Connecticut 

Walter Whalen, New York 

Jeremiah Whalen, Rhode Island 

Samuel Welch, Connecticut 

Rossel Welch, Massachusetts 

Thomas Walsh, New York 

Note the New England influence on the names of many 
of these soldiers who were unquestionably of Celtic Irish 
origin, e. g., Adam Brannon, Silas Daley, Jonathan Farley, 
Amos Flood, Aaron Forbes, Jonathan Finney, Nathaniel 
Higgins, Joshua Kelly, Josiah Kenney, Ebenezer Morley, 
Jacob Redington, Jeremiah Whalen. 

In compiling the foregoing lists, names like Michael 
Dunning, Daniel Fort, Daniel Hamilton, Daniel Moss, 
Michael Lochrey, Daniel Lindsley, Daniel Osboum, 
Daniel Ward, etc., etc., were not included, as the sur- 
names might not be considered as Irish. 



[140] 



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