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ai tlje 


Professor Lavell 















llt proua^o antitJ . , y, , 

dicarn, mcdiis anteriorum. Itaque utex Anglicis lingua? veterum Saxonura, et ex Cambricis veterum Gallo- 
rum; ita ex Hibernicis vetustiorum adhuc Celtarum, Germaoorumque, et ut generaliter dicam, accolarum 
Ooeani Britannici Cismarinorura antiquitates illustrantur. Et si ultra Hiberniara esset aliqua iiuula Celtic! 
fermoois, ejus filo in multo adhuc antiquiora duceremuT.LeibnitzJus, CoUectan. Etyatoi. vol. 1. p. 153. 





Printed by H. 



IT is due to the public to offer an apology for undertaking an 
office for which I must be so little qualified as that of an Editor 
of an Irish Dictionary ; and it may not be amiss to give some 
reasons for selecting O'Brien's Dictionary for republication. 

I should not have undertaken this work could I have met 
with any person, zealous for education through the medium of 
the Irish language, who was better qualified than myself. 
There are, 1 regret to say, very few persons zealous in this 
cpuse, who are well acquainted with the vernacular tongue, 
and I found none of those few sufficiently disengaged to un- 
dertake the labour. I would not under any circumstances have 
ventured upon the work entirely alone, but I was fortunate 
enough to find in my neighbourhood an intelligent and trust- 
worthy assistant, Mr. Michael M'Ginty, a good Irish and 
English scholar, to whose industry and attention I am glad of 
having this opportunity of bearing testimony. He was not 
unwilling to take directions, and to go by rule towards se- 
curing uniformity in the spelling and accents of the Irish 
words. He has revised every line, and no change has been made 
either in the orthography or the accentuation without having 
authority from the Irish Bible, or some other printed Irish 

It may be a further apology for one not originally ac- 
quainted with the language undertaking such an office, to re- 
mark, that the Irish language has been very little indebted to 
natives for its cultivation. Those works which have contri- 
buted most to furnish a standard for the language, or to facili- 
tate its study, have come from the labours of strangers. I 
need but mention the name of Vallancey, who, though an 
Englishman, has done more to promote Irish literature than 


all the native Irish put together. But in connexion with an 
Irish Dictionary, I cannot omit to mention the name of Ed- 
ward Lhuyd, a learned Welchman, to whom we owe the first 
Irish-English Dictionary that ever issued from the Press. 
How far we are indebted to him for the Dictionary now re- 
printed, will appear in the sequel. Mr. Lhuyd was a very 
eminent linguist, and engaged deeply in researches into the 
ancient languages of Great Britain ; for the furtherance of 
which study he set himself to learn the Irish language. The 
circumstances which led him to this work will best appear by 
the following extract from his Preface to the Irish Dictionary, 
published in his Archaeologia Britannica, a translation of which 
Preface is to be found at the end of Nicholson's Irish Library : 

" It is but reasonable that I here make an apology for un- 
dertaking to write and publish a Dictionary of a different lan- 
guage from my native tongue, and which I did not learn by 
ear from any person whose native language it was. 

" Some Welch and English gentlemen laid their com- 
mands on me to write something beyond what has hitherto 
been published concerning the original antiquity of the British 
nation, and in regard, that the old and ancient languages are 
the keys that open the way to the knowledge of antiquity, I 
found it the more necessary to make myself as much master 
as possible of all the old obsolete words of my own native lan- 
guage ; for it was generally owned and taken for granted, 
(whether true or false,) that the British was the first and most 
ancient language in Great Britain. 

" As soon as I had made, by the help of a certain parch- 
ment manuscript, a tolerable progress in the old British lan- 
guage, I found my knowledge therein not. only imperfect and 
defective as to the meaning and signification of the old names 
of persons and places, but also that there were many more 
words in the old statutes, histories, and poems, whose signifi- 
cations still remained to me very dubious and obscure, not- 
withstanding the great benefit and advantage we have from 
the Welch and Latin Dictionary compiled by the very learned 
and ingenious Dr. J. Davies, and printed at London, A. D. 

" This difficulty naturally led me to conjecture that a little 
skill in the old Irish words would be very useful to me in ex- 
plaining those old British words, and therefore I applied my- 
self to read the Irish Bible, and the Chronological History of 


Ireland, written by the learned antiquary, Dr. J. Keating, 
with a few modern books that occasionally fell into my hands; 
and being persuaded that making a collection of the words 
would very much assist my memory, I therefore at first made a 
Dictionary for ray own particular use, which afterwards 
swelled to the bulk you now see it in the following impression. 

" As concerning those words which are not distinguished 
with a letter or any other mark, I collected them for the most 
part out of divers Irish books, but most particularly from the 

Old Testament, translated into Irish by the friar, King, 

at the desire and expense of Dr. William Bedel, Bishop of Kil- 
more, and from Dr. William O'Donel, Archbishop of Tuam, 
his translation of the New Testament." 

From this account of the origin of Mr. Lhuyd's Dic- 
tionary, it appears that the Irish Bible of Daniel and Bedel 
formed a principal foundation of his work, and that it would 
itself be likely to be very useful to those engaged in the study 
of the Irish Scriptures. 

Our author O'Brien availed himself largely of Lhuyd's 
labours, and so made his book a repository of his predecessor's 
Selections from the Holy Scriptures, as will appear from a 
reference to his Preface, p. xliii. We have then, in fact, in 
O'Brien's Dictionary a work particularly suited for the study 
of the Irish Bible, in which references are often made to the 
chapter and verse. This circumstance had great weight with 
me in selecting this work for republication ; and I have myself 
made use of both O'Brien's and O'Reilly's Dictionaries in reading 
parts of the Irish Bible, and I have no hesitation in saying that 
I found O'Brien's, though the smallest, far the most satisfac- 
tpryof Jthejtwp, from his frequently inserting Scripture phrases 
andTeferences. Whilst then O'Brien's Dictionary has this 
recommendation to the student of Scripture, it recommends 
itself on many accounts to the native Irish reader. O'Brien 
was a thorough Irishman, a Roman Catholic Bishop of Cloyne ; 
he has inserted in his book much of Irish families and of Irish 
geography, which will make it very interesting to those of 
Irish blood, and will no doubt give the book an increased po- 
pularity and circulation. 

It is further no slight recommendation of this book that 
it can be sold at nearly one-third of the price of O'Reilly's, 
which was so expensive as to preclude the possibility of gene- 
ral circulation. 


It is necessary to state the peculiarities of this edition, 
which I feel confident will be considered improvements. 
O'Brien's Dictionary was printed throughout in the Roman 
character, and Irish, English, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin words 
were all written in the same letter. In this edition eo,ch Ian- 
guage has its appropriate character. In order to render the 
work popular among the Irish this change was necessary with 
regard to the Irish words, and every scholar will feel the pro- 
priety of the change in the Greek and Hebrew words. In the ^ 
course of my reading some parts of the New Testament, I dis- N _ 
covered a few words omitted in O'Brien's book, and friends 
have communicated a few other omissions. These words 1 
have inserted, taking care in every instance to state the autho-^ ,, 
rity on which the word has been introduced by a reference to 
the book, chapter, and verse of the Bible in which it is to be 

That there may be many imperfections in the execution of 
this work I think not improbable, considering the circum- 
stances under which it has been undertaken ; that in spite of 
all its imperfections it will be found an effective assistant in the 
study of Irish literature I have no doubt ; that it will be par- 
ticularly useful to the student of the Irish Bible I am fully 
persuaded. I ardently desire the intellectual and spiritual 
culture of the natives of my country, my kinsmen according to 
the flesh, who speak the Irish language. I see no reason why 
they should not have their language cultivated as well as the 
Scotch and the Welch. I anticipate national and individual 
improvement from the education of the people of Ireland 
through the medium of their own language. 

With these convictions and these hopes I have given my 
time and labour to the Work. I now send it forth to the Irish 
public, bespeaking their candid acceptance of what has been 
undertaken for their good ; and though it be but a Dictionary 
of Words I can commit it to the blessing of God as one link 
in a chain of mercies which I trust he has in store for my 




August, 1832. 



THE tedious and difficult task both of compiling and correctly printing 
the IRISH DICTIONARY now offered to the public, hath been undertaken 
by its Editor with a view not only to preserve for the natives of Ireland, 
but also to recommend to the notice of those of other countries, a lan- 
guage which is asserted by very learned foreigners to be the most ancient 
and best preserved dialect of the old Celtic tongue of the Gauls and 
Celtiberians ; and, at the same time, the most useful for investigating 
and clearing up the antiquities of the Celtic nations in general : two 
points which it is humbly hoped the learned reader will find pretty well 
confirmed, if not clearly verified in this Dictionary, and which it is natu- 
ral to expect may engage the attention of the Literati of our neighbour- 
ing countries to this ancient dialect of the Celtic tongue. A third con- 
sideration regarding this language, and which is grounded on a fact that 
is solidly proved by Mr. Edward Lhuyd. a learned and judicious anti- 
quary, viz. that the Guidhelians, or old Irish, had been the primitive in- 
habitants of Great Britain before the ancestors of the Welch arrived in 
that island, and that the Celtic dialect of those Guidhelians was then the 
universal language of the whole British isle; this consideration, I say, 
which regards an important fact of antiquity, whose proofs shall hereafter 
be produced, will, I am confident, appear interesting enough in the eyes 
of learned foreigners, especially those of Britain, to excite their curiosity 
and attention towards the Iberno-Celtic dialect, and engage them to 
verify by their own application, the use it may be of for illustrating the 
antiquities of the greater British isle. Some instances of its utility in 
this respect shall be added in the sequel of this Preface, to those that are 
produced by Mr. Lhuyd. 

A fourth circumstance which must naturally incite the Litterati of 
different nations to a consideration of the Irish language, as explained in 
this Dictionary, is the very close and striking affinity it bears, in an abun- 
dant variety of words, not only with the old British in its different 
dialects, the Welch and Armoric, besides the old Spanish or Cantabrian 
language preserved in Navarre, Biscay, and Basque, but also with the 
Greek and Latin ; and more especially with the latter, as appears 
throughout the course of this work, wherein every near affinity is re- 
marked as it occurs, whatever language it regards. Short specimens of 



the affinity of the Irish with the Latin and Greek shall be laid down in 
this Preface; and the plain fact of this abundant affinity of the Iberno- 
Celtic dialect with the Latin in such words of the same signification as 
no language could want, should, I presume, be esteemed a strong proof 
that the Lingua-prisca of the Aborigines of Italy, from which the Latin 
of the twelve tables, and afterwards the Roman language were derived, 
could be nothing else than a dialect of the primitive Celtic, the first 
universal language of all Europe : but a dialect indeed which in process 
of time received some mixture of the Greek, especially the ^Eolic, from 
the colonies, or rather adventurers, which anciently came to Italy from 
Peloponesus, agreeable to that saying of Dionys. Halicarnas. Romani 
autem sermone nee prorsus barbaro, nee absolute Grceeo utuntur, sed 
ex utroque mixto, accedente in plerisque ad proprietatem linguae sEo- 
licce. But it shall appear from this Dictionary, and partly from what 
shall be laid down in this Preface, that the Greek itself had a strong 
mixture of the primitive Celtic, which was a more universal language, 
and more simple in the radical formation of its words. 

But before we can expect that the considerations now set down, as 
motives of incitement for learned foreigners to take particular notice of 
the Irish language, should be of due weight in their eyes, it is natural 
and necessary we should first make appear that our assertions concerning 
these motives are grounded either on good reasons or respectable autho- 
rities. And now, as to the two first assertions, viz. that the Irish lan- 
guage is acknowledged by very learned foreigners to be the best pre- 
served dialect of the old Celtic of the Gauls and Celtiberians, and the 
most useful for illustrating the antiquities of the Celtic nations in general. 
To justify this assertion, we have only to refer the learned reader both 
to the honourable testimony of the great Leibnitz, as it stands in the 
title-page of this work, and to several remarks of the like nature made 
by the learned and candid Mr. Edward Lhnyd, not only in the Preface 
of his Irish Vocabulary, but also in his letter to his countrymen, the 
Welch, at the head of his Arehceologia Britannica, which is published 
in English by Dr. Nicholson in his Irish Library. In the former Mr. 
Lhuyd candidly acknowledges that the roots of the Latin are better and 
more abundantly preserved in the Irish than in the Welch, which is the 
only Celtic dialect that can pretend to vie with the Iberno-Celtic with 
regard to purity or perfection; and adds the following words: "Your 
language," says he to the Irish nation, " is better situated for being pre- 
served than any other language to this day spoken throughout Europe." 
His reason, without doubt, for this assertion, was because languages are 
best preserved in islands and in mountain-countries, being the most diffi- 
cult of access for strangers; and especially because the Roman arms ne- 
Ter reached Ireland, which received no colonies but from the Celtic 
countries. In another part of the same Preface this author observes that 
the eminent antiquaries Cambden, Bochart, Boxhorn, and other learned 
men of that kind, acknowledged the utility of the Irish and Welch dia- 
lects for the illustration of antiquities, and that they themselves did not 
write so fully and copiously as they would have done if they had been 
masters of those languages. He likewise observes that it was impossible 


for Menace and Aldrete to have fully succeeded in accounting for the 
radical derivation of the languages they undertook to explain, without 
some perfection of knowledge of the Irish language, or of the Welsh. 

But in his letter to his own countrymen, the Welch, this candid 
writer entirely gives the preference to the Irish before his own native 
language, not only for purity and perfection, as well as for antiquity of 
establishment in the British isles, but also for its utility in illustrating 
the remote antiquities of Great Britain. The truth of this assertion very 
sufficiently appears from the following words of Mr. Lhuyd in that let- 
ter : " We see then," says he to the Welch, " how necessary the Irish 
language is to those who will undertake to write of the antiquities of the 
Isle of Britain ; and by reading the first section of this book it will be 
also evident that it is impossible to be a complete master of the ancient. 
British, without a competent knowledge of the Irish.' 1 '' Mr. Lhuyd's 
foundation for this assertion in favour of the Irish language, will appear 
in full light in the following arguments in support of the third conside- 
ration, which we have laid down as one motive for learned foreigners to 
take notice of the Irish language, and which is. that the Guidhelians, or 
old Irish, were inhabitants and possessors of Great Britain before those 
Britons who were the ancestors of the Welch ; and that the Guidhelian 
language, which Mr. Lhuyd gives good reasons for concluding to be the 
same as that of the Gauls of those days, was the universal dialect of Bri- 
tain before the British, which was established in that island by the colony 
from which proceeded the Welch. 

This assertion Mr. Lhuyd supports with very solid reasons and argu- 
ments, amounting, in my humble opinion, to as high a degree of evi- 
dence as the subject can naturally bear. But before we produce them, 
which shall be done in his own words, it is fit to observe that this writer 
lays down as his opinion, that the ancient planters of Ireland consisted 
of two different nations of people, coinhabiting and mixed with each 
other in that island. The one he proves to have been originally a 
Gaulish colony, from the near and abundant agreement of a part of the 
Irish language with that of the old Gauls, as far as it can now be traced 
or discovered. And the other he derives from Spain, grounding him- 
self on the affinity he had observed between a part of the Irish and the 
old Spanish or Cantabrian language, and which he shews in a long list 
of words of the same meaning in botli languages. The colony which 
originally proceeded from Gaul he calls by the name of Guidhel ; and 
so the Irish called themselves by that of Gaidhil, which is but an abusive 
writing of the word Gaill, the "plural of Gall; Lat. Gallic, a Gaul. 
/ id. Remarks en the letter <T. And the colony which came from 
Spain, and brought a mixture of the old Spanish into the Irish, Mr. 
Lhuyd supposes to be the Scots, relying on the authority of the Irish 
historians, and of Nonius the Briton, who agree in bringing the Scots 
into Ireland immediately from Spain ; though they are all at the same 
time of one voice in affirming them to be Scythians; and not only Nenius 
calls them Scythians in the following passage, where after calling them 
Scoti (because the Britons called them i/-8cot) when he mentions their 
coming from Spain, novissimc venervnt Scoti a partibus Hi$panici> ad 


Hiberniam; he then in the following words calls them Scythians: 
Scythce in quarta mundi cetate Hiberniam obtimterunt. But as to this 
early epoch he only mentions it. on the credit of the Irish antiquaries, as 
appears by the words sic mihi peritissimi Scotorum nunciaverunt, im- 
mediately preceding those last above cited. Not only Nenius, I say, 
calls the Scots by the national name of Scythiani, but in like manner 
King Alfred, in his translation of the History of Orosius into the Anglo- 
Saxon language, renders the word Scoti by Scyttan ; and Cambden in- 
forms us that the Anglo-Saxons who inhabited the northern parts of 
England on the borders of Scotland in his own time, always called the 
Scots by the names of Skittes or Skets. And the Low Germans have no 
other name for either the Scots or Scythians but Scutten; which shews 
that they always knew the Scots and the Scythians to be only one 
and the same people ; or in other words, that from their first knowledge 
of the Scots being inhabitants of Ireland, and afterwards of the North of 
Britain, they knew them to be Scythians, and that both names were 
synonimous, or rather that the British word Scot, or y-Scot, the Irish 
Scu;tr, and the Lat Scoti, were but different pronunciations of the Gr. 
^KvOai, and the German Scutten. 

These authorities will always be an insurmountable bar in the way of 
establishing the new-invented system of the antiquity of the Scots, by 
pretending to derive them from the Caledonians ; a system which Mr. 
David Malcolme, Minister of Duddingston in Scotland, boasts of as his 
own invention, in the work entitled " A Collection of Letters," &c. 
printed at Edinburgh an. 1739; and this new invention has been fruitful 
enough to produce another of a more elevated nature, calculated chiefly 
to confirm that of Mr. Malcolm ; I mean the Erse, or Irish Poems of 
Mr. Macpherson, pretended to be the work of a Scottish (i. e. Caledo- 
nian) bard of the fourth century. Fid. Mem. de M. de C. sur les Poemes 
de M. Macpherson, Journ. des Scarants, an. 1 764, Mai, Juin, &c. But 
who could ever imagine that Mr. Malcolme would be bold enough to 
pretend to ground his new system of the antiquity of the Scots in Britain, 
upon Mr. Lhuyd's curious discovery of the Irish Guidhelians having 
been the earliest inhabitants of the British isle ; since this learned anti- 
quary so expressly, and even repeatedly distinguishes these Guidhelians 
from the Scots, whom he declares to be a quite different nation, who first 
came from Spain into Ireland, and there coinhabited with the Guidhe- 
lians, who before had been inhabitants of Britain ? 

For this reason the ingenious inventor of the modern scheme of 
Scottish antiquity entirely overlooks what Mr. Lhuyd says of the Scots 
as being a nation quite different from the Guidhelians, and takes care to 
quote no more of that learned antiquary's reflections for the foundation 
of his new system, than what he writes of the Guidhelians alone, whom 
Mr. Malcolme identifies with the Caledonians, and these with the Scots. 
But one point relative to the Scots, and a point which suffers not the 
least doubt, is, that whatever part of the world they immediately came 
from to Ireland they were mere Scythians by nation, cither Asiatic or 
European ; but much more probably of the latter, I mean Scandinavians, 
or other northern Germans, of whom Plinius (lib. 4. c. 12.) says, Set/- 


tharum nvmen usquequaque transiit in Sarmatas atque Germanos ; and 
Anastasius Sinaita, (quaest. 38.) Scythiam solid stint vocare veteres om- 
iiem regionem Borealam ubi sunt Gothi et Dani. But it is far from 
being certain or universally agreed on. that the Caledonians were origi- 
nally Scythians, or Germans, as Tacitus conjectures, rather than mere 
painted Britons of the same stock with the Welch, whose ancestors were 
likewise a painted people before the Romans reduced them into a pro- 
vince, and brought them to conform to the Roman manners. And another 
point equally certain is, that the Scots never inhabited Britain before 
their arrival in Ireland, but came directly by sea to this latter island, 
from which, after a long process of time, they sent a colony to the north- 
west coast of Britain ; and this point is universally agreed on by all the 
Scottish writers, none excepted, before Mr. Malcolme's time, who there- 
fore is well grounded to vindicate to himself alone the invention of the 
new scheme of Scottish antiquities, first broached in his letter to Archi- 
medes the Caledonian, and afterwards enlarged upon in his subsequent 
letters and remarks. But Mr. Lhuyd is far from authorizing Mr. Mal- 
colme's system of identifying the Caledonians, or old Picts, with the 
Scots ; since he says " that though their language is lost, yet their re- 
mains or posterity are yet intermixed with Scots, Strat-clyd Britons, old 
Saxons, Danes, and Normans ;" where we see he entirely distinguishes 
the Caledonians (who with him are the same people with the old British 
Picts) from the Scots, as well as from the old Saxons, &c. 

Now, with regard to Mr. Lhtiyd's opinion that the Scots were the 
people that brought the old Spanish language to Ireland, and there 
mixed it with the dialect of the Guidhelians, with whom they became 
co-inhabitants; this notion would not hare been entertained by that 
learned gentleman had he been thoroughly acquainted with Irish anti- 
quities. For in the first place, the general tradition of the old Irish, 
handed down to us by all our historians and other writers, imports that 
when the Scots arrived in Ireland they spoke the same language with 
that of the Cu<xt<x-fce-<Dar><x;n, i. e. the Danish tribes, who were their 
immediate predecessors in the usurpation and chief sway of the island, 
at least in the northern provinces. And in the next, if we suppose it a 
real fact that the Scots came directly from Spain to Ireland, we must in 
all reason, and for want of further light from either Latin or Greek wri- 
ters, regard them only as a part either of those Germans, of whom Se- 
neca, about the year 60 of the Christian sera, says that the Pyrenean 
mountains were not a sufficient barrier against their incursions into 
Spain; Pyrenceus Genaa/nantm transitus non inJtibuit ; per invia per- 
que incognita versavit se hinnana levitas. Sen. de Consolat. ad Albi- 
num. Or else of the other swarm of remote or northern Germans, of 
whom Orosius, by the words Gen/mni ulteriores, Gallieno Imperatore, 
abrasa potiti sunt Hispania, &c. informs us that they invaded, plun- 
dered, and possessed themselves of Spain for twelve years ; that is to 
say, from the reign of the indolent Emperor Gallienus about the year 
260, to that of the brave Valerianus, who by his General Saturninus 
partly routed them out of Spain, and probably settled another part of 
those barbarians in some portions of land, under condition of serving the 


empire, as may be inferred from a speech of that general, wherein he 
boasts of having pacified Spain by his expedition against those invaders 
in the year 273. We see then that neither of those two swarms of Ger- 
mano-Scythians had been suffered to remain long enough in Spain to 
have exchanged their native language for the Spanish ; for these latter 
mentioned by Orosius had but twelve years' settlement in that country ; 
and for the other band of German rovers mentioned by Seneca, we find 
no further account of them in any other author ; whence it is natural to 
conclude, that they were only a flying party, who went about for the sake 
of plunder. However that may be, it is natural to think it an unlikely 
story that a Scythian people should have been the importers of the old 
Spanish language into Ireland ; though the fact of its having been 
brought very anciently into that island is not the less certain, and that 
by a colony of the old Spaniards, who coinhabited with the Guidhelians, 
but in a smaller number, as appears by the nature of the Irish tongue, in 
which the Gaulish Celtic predominates over all other mixtures, not 
only of the old Spanish, but also of the Scandinavian and other Scytlio- 
German dialects, though Ireland anciently received three or four diffe- 
rent colonies, or rather swarms of adventurers, from theft* quarters. The 
Scots were the last of them, unless we should count as a colony those fe- 
rocious Danes and Norwegians who infested us, and tyrannized over 
most of the maritime parts of our island, from the beginning of the ninth 
century to the year 1014, when the ever- victorious Brien Boiroimhe, 
after a continued series of thirty pitched battles fought against, them in 
different parts of the kingdom, at last entirely and irretrievably broke 
their power at the memorable battle of Clontarf near Dublin. As a 
more ample inquiry into the origin of the Scots, and the antiquity of their 
establishment in Ireland, would stretch out this Preface to an enormous 
length, I therefore reserve it for another work, which is already so far 
advanced that it may in a short time be made ready for the press. 

We are now to lay down Mr. Lhuyd's reasons for concluding that the 
Guidhelian Irish were inhabitants of all Britain before the ancestors of 
the Welch. Other writers had indeed declared it as their opinion, that 
Ireland was first peopled from the greater British isle, which in like 
manner received its first inhabitants from Gaul, by the short passage 
from Calais to Dover, according to those writers; for which they have 
assigned no other reason, than that every island should in all seeming 
reason have received its first planters from whatever peopled land hap- 
pened to be the nearest to it, and that too by the shortest passage. But 
to make this argument conclusive for this point, it should first be proved 
that none of the nations on the Continent near those islands had the use 
of ships, or practised any sort of navigation, as early as the time in which 
those islands are supposed to have been peopled. For if the Spaniard*, 
the Gauls, or the Lower Germans, had been at that time accustomed to 
go to sea, were it only for fishing, or plundering the neighbouring coasts, 
it might very naturally have happened that some parties of them, even 
by an accidental stress of weather, would have discovered and afterwards 
planted both the British isles, before the inhabitants of Gaul on the 
coasts about Calais, had entertained any thoughts of extending thrir 


knowledge of Britain beyond the white cliffs of Dover ; in which case 
the opinion of Tacitus, (de Morib. German, c. 1.) " that in ancient times 
people sought out new habitations rather by sea than by land," would 
have been verified with reaard to the first peopling of the British Isles. 
But Mr. Lhuyd's reasonings to prove the fact of the Irish Guidhelians 
havins been inhabitants of Britain before the ancestors of the Welch, 
are liable to no such exceptions, as they are grounded upon what may be 
called living evidences, consisting in plain and natural restige-s of those 
Guidhelians still remaining after them throughout the whole island. 
Here I lay them before the reader in Mr. Lhuyd's own words : 

" Seeing then it is somewhat manifest that the ancient inhabitants of 
Ireland consisted of two nations ; that the Guidhelians were Britons, and 
that Nennius and others wrote many ages since an unquestionable truth, 
when they asserted the Scottish nations coming out of Spain. The next 
thing I have to make out is, that that part of them called Guidhelians 
have once dwelt in England and Wales. There are none of the Irish 
themselves that I know of, amongst all the writings they have published 
about the origin and history of their nation, that maintained they were 
possessed of England and Wales ; and yet whoever takes notice of a 
great many of the names of the rivers and mountains throughout the 
kingdom, will find no reason to doubt but the Irish must have been the 
inhabitants, when those names were imposed upon them. There was no 
name anciently more common (in Britain) on rivers than Uisc, which the 
Romans wrote hca and Osca ; and yet retained in English, as I have 
elsewhere observed, in the several names of .Isk, Esk, Usk, and Ax, Ex, 
Ox, &c. fid. Archcelog. p. 7. col. 3. Now, though there be a con- 
siderable river in Wales of that name Uisc, from which Carleoii, in 
British called Caer-leon ar Uisce, derives its name ; and another in De- 
von, ( from which the city of Exeter, in British called Caer-esk, has its 
name, see the note on the word ujfje infra,) yet the signification of the 
word is not understood either in Welch or in the Cornish. Neither is it 
less vain labour to look for it in the British of Wales, Cornwall, or Ar- 
moric Britain, than it would be to search for Avon, which is a name for 
some of the rivers of England, in the English; the signification of the 
word in Irish is water. And as the words Coom, Dore, Stour, Tainc, 
Dove, Avon, &c. in England, confess that they are no other than the 
\\ elch Kit in. Dur, Yxdur, Tan, Did, and Avon, and thereby show the 
Welch to be their old inhabitants. So do the words Uisc, Luch, (or 
Loch, or Lac/i,) Kin nay, Ban, Drirn, Lecldia, and several others in 
Britain, make it appear that the Irish were anciently possessed of those 
places; forasmuch as in their language the signification of the words are 
water, laki>. a great river, (or literally a head-river,) a mountain, a 
back or ridge, a grey stone. As for the word ajfc or u;^e it is so 
well known, that they use no other word at all for water. And I have 
formerly suspected that in regard there are so many rivers of that name 
in England, the word mii*ht have been anciently in our language ; but 
having looked for it in vain in the old Loegrian British, still retained in 
Cornwal andBasse-Bretagne, and reflecting that it was impossible, had it 
been once in the British, that both thev and we should lose a word of so 


common an use, and so necessary a signification ; I could find no place to 
doubt but that the Guidhelians have formerly lived all over this king- 
dom, and that our ancestors had forced the greatest part of them to re- 
tire to the North and to Ireland, in the same manner that the Romans 
afterwards subdued us, and as the Barbarians of Germany and Denmark, 
upon the downfall of the Roman power, have driven us, one age after 
another, to our present limits. We see then how necessary the Irish 
language is to those who shall undertake to write of the antiquities of 
the isle of Britain ; and by reading the first section of this book it will 
be also evident that it is impossible to be a complete master of the an- 
cient British without a competent knowledge of the Irish. Nor is it 
necessary for satisfaction herein to look farther than for our common 
names for a sheepfold and milch-cattle; for who should ever know the 
reason of our calling a sheepfold kor-lan, although he knows Ian, the 
latter syllable of the word, signifies a yard or fold, unless he also knows 
that the Irish call a sheep cu.0ft? or why it is that we call milch-cows 
guartheg-blithion, unless he knows that M<xtu;n, in the same language, 
signifies to milk ; and so for a great number of other words, which we 
have neither leisure nor room to take notice of at present, nor indeed 
any necessity, in regard they are obvious to all observers in the follow- 
ing book." N. B. A part of these words meant here by the author are 
to be found in p. 7. col. 1. &c. of his ArcJiceologia. 

This learned antiquary resumes this argument in other works and 
writings. In one of his letters to Mr. Rowland, the author of Mono, 
Antiqua, we find the following words : " Indeed it seems to me that the 
Irish have in a great measure kept up two languages, the ancient British 
and the old Spanish, which a colony of them brought from Spain. For 
notwithstanding their histories (as those of the origin of other nations) 
be involved in fabulous accounts, yet that there came a Spanish colony 
into Ireland, is very manifest from a comparison of the Irish tongue partly 
with the modern Spanish, but especially -with the Cantabrian or Basque ; 
and this should engage us to have something of more regard than we 
usually have to such fabulous histories." The same writer, in his Ad- 
versaria Posthwna de Fluviorum, Montium, Urbium, fyc. in Britannia 
Nominibvs, pag. 264, &c., repeats that the names Asc, he, Osc, Use, of 
rivers in South Britain, varied by moderns into Ax, Ex, Ox, Ux, are but 
corrupt writings of the Irish words u)fc, u;/"ge, or ea/*c, (for so it is 
written indifferently in the old parchment manuscripts) signifying water; 
and Mr. Baxter, in his Glossarium Antiquitatum Britannicarum, ac- 
knowledges the same thing. 

To all this I shall add some remarks of my own upon Mr. Rowland's 
description of the isle of Anglesey, the last refuge of the remains of the 
old Guidhelian Druids from the Roman tyranny. In this island I have 
remarked the following vestiges of the Guidhelians, or Irish, and of the 
Irish language. In the first place, Mr. Rowland, in his Mona Antiqua, 
p. 27, observes that the vestiges of old habitations still to be seen on the 
tops of high places in Anglesey, are called to this day Ceitir Guidelod, 
which he interprets the Irishmen's cottages, but should more properly 
and literally be rendered the Irishmen's habitations or seats ; for the 


Irish word C<xta;;t, of which Ceitir is a corruption, signifies either a 
city, or town, or habitation. And Mr. Rowland very justly observes in 
the same place, not only that those are the vestiges of the first habita- 
tions that were made by the first planters of the island, because the 
valleys were then all covered with woods, which were the haunt of 
wolves and other wild beasts, but also that those old ruins of habitations 
could not be so called as being built by those Irish ravagers or plun- 
derers who came to the island, under the command of Sirig, towards the 
end of the fourth century, and from whom the place called yn Hiric y 
Guydhil, where this commander engaged and defeated the Britons, de- 
rives its name. Vid. Humfred. Lhuyd. Descript. IVaUice and Cambd. 
In Anglesey. And this last assertion Mr. Rowland supports with this 
plain and sound reason, that those Irish plunderers found good habita- 
tions already made to their hand in the island. And indeed it is not 
natural that a flying party of foreigners who rush in upon a coast with 
the mere design of plunder, should think of building forts on high places 

" ' T " 

without a view ot conquest or permanent settlement in the country ; nor 
does it seem that that band of Irishmen had time enough allowed them 
for forming such a project, before they were attacked and routed by a 
superior number of the Britons led against them by Caswalhon Lhawir, 
Prince of North Wales. 

Two other places or objects in the same island, whose names are 
mere plain Irish, and not understood by the Welch, are so many living 
evidences of the Irish being the ancient inhabitants of those parts before 
the Welch. The landing place of the ferry or passage from North 
Wales to Anglesey is called Port-aeth-wy, for so the Welsh write it. 
Mr. Rowland, for want of understanding the Irish, is driven to the ne- 
cessity of giving this compound word an absurd and strained interpreta- 
tion, as if it meant, the passage which some before had passed over. 
These are his very words. Now this word is of so plain a signification 
in Irish, that a child bred up to the use of that language would under- 
stand the genuine meaning of it at its very first utterance. The three 
monosyllables, of which this complex word Port-aeth-wy is composed, 
signify in Irish the bank, or landing-place of the yellow for dor passage; 
pOfit being the Irish for a bank or port ; Lat. port us ; at, or <xb, the 
Irish for a ford or passage ; Lat. vadum ; and bu;, or bu;, pronounced 
try, the Irish for yellow. And indeed no name of a place could have a 
more natural signification, as the water of that small arm of the sea is 
always of a yellowish colour ; and if my memory does not very much de- 
ceive me, the earth or soil on both sides of that passage is of a saffron or 
ruddy hue. It is also remarkable that Tin-dath-wy, the name of the 
territory adjacent to this place called Port-ath-wy, is mere Irish ; for 
tyn in Welsh signifies a country or region, as ta;n does in Irish ; so that 
the word was originally Cajn-or-bu;, the territory of the yellow ford. 
The other vestige of ancient Irish habitations in Anglesey, is the name 
of the ruins of a great edifice in that island, which Mr. Rowland thinks 
to have been the Arch-Druid's supreme court of judicature. Those 
ruins are to this day called Bruipi-gwin, as the Welch write it; a plain 
Irish word, which signifies a white palace, or house, the same as White- 


hall in London. O^tu; jean, pronounced bruian or bruyn,'m Irish signifies 
a great house or palace ; gwin, in the Welch way of writing, is of the 
same signification with jrjonn or b&n in Irish, which means white. Now 
as the Welch have not the word bruin in their language, Mr. Rowland 
vainly strives to derive that word from the Welsh breiniol, i. e. supreme 
or royal ; and gioyn, which in Welch is the common word for ivhite, he 
changes, or rather strains into cwijn, a suit or action at law. This in- 
deed may justly be called a far-fetched, or forced interpretation, while 
the meaning of the word is quite plain and natural in the Irish lan- 

I shall finish this supplement to Mr. Lhuyd's observations, after re- 
marking, in the first place, that the name of the very capital of Britain, 
as it was used in the time of the Romans, who added the termination um 
to it, was mere Guidhelian or Irish, in which language long is still the 
only word in common use to signify a ship, as b;n or bjon is, and always 
has been used to imply a place of safety, or a strong town, being very 
nearly of the same signification with bun, with this only difference that 
in the Iberno-Celtic language bun signifies a fortified place that is con- 
stantly shut up or barricaded, and bjn or bjon literally means a place of 
safety, a covered or walled town ; so that long-bjn, or long-bjon, which 
the Romans changed into londinum, literally signifies a town of ships, or 
a place of safety for ships. To which may be added, that the old name 
of the river of London was likewise very plain Guidhelian Irish; Caesar 
calls that river by the name of his, which is only Latinizing the Guidhe- 
lian word 1fc, water, the name it then bore amongst the people of the 
country; an d whether the word Tarn was always prefixed to Isc or Isis, 
either as an epithet, or as being the name of the river Tame, which joins 
its water, as it possibly might also have joined its appellative with the 
river Isc or Isis ; in either supposition the Iberno-Celtic word tram, 
which signifies still, quiet, gentle, smooth, &c., was a very natural epithet 
for the river Thames, as well as it may be a very significative name for 
the river Tame. To all this I shall not hesitate to add, that Albion, the 
most ancient name of the greater British Isle, and under which it was 
, known to the Greeks, not only in the times of Ptolemy, of Marcianus 
Heracleota, Eustachius, &c., but also in the much more ancient time of 
Aristotle or of Theophrastus, as is observed by the great Ussher, Anti- 
quit. Eccl. Brit. p. 378, that this name, I say, is plain Guidhelian Irish, 
in which language <xl or <x;l signifies a rocky cliff, and b<xn, white ; 
whence the whole name Alban, Albain, or Ailbion, signifies the white 
cliff; a very natural name in the mouth of a Gaul or Guidhelian placed 
on the Continent, at or near Calais, where the first and only knowledge 
he has of the British Isle consists in the bare sight of the white cliffs of 
Dover. This Guidhelian or Gaul having crossed the channel, and ob- 
served the situation and sliape of the land about Dover, he calls it by 
the name of Ce<xn-t;;i, i. e. head-land, which Guidhelian word the Ro- 
mans Latinized into Canthtm. A numerous colony of the same nation 
being afterwards corne over to that island, which they peopled by de- 
grees from one end to the other, it is quite natural that they should have 
given names to all the remarkable objects of either nature or art through- 


oui tiie whole country, such as rivers, mountains, headlands, towns, &e. ; 
and accordingly we still find these Guidhelian names every where in Eng- 
land and Wales, all the way from Dover to York, I mean from Cean-t'n\ 
or Kent, to the river Isc, now called Ouse, and by the Romans Isis, 
which passes through York ; and from the river Isca, passing through 
the town of Caer "Leon ar Isc, in Monmouthshire, to Longdion, or 
Longdun, the city of London, and its river Tamh-isc, Thamisis, the 

It is particularly to be remarked that the Guidhelian colony never 
gave any other name to the island than that of Alban, or Albain ; and 
that when the Belgics, afterwards called Britons, ancestors of the Welch, 
and who in all likelihood were mixed, either from the beginning or by 
degrees, with Gauls, as well as with Cimbrians and other Germans, 
forced the Guidhelians towards the northern parts of the isle, the name 
they had first given it, followed them always, so as to be appropriated 
to whatever tract they inhabited. Hence it came to pass that this name 
stuck at last to Caledonia, or North Britain, afterwards called Scotland, 
from the colony of Irish Scots who first settled in those parts tinder the 
command of Fergus, son of Ere, and his brothers, in the beginning of 
the sixth century. This circumstance of Albain, the first name of the 
whole island, being limited at last to the northern parts of it, is clearly 
evinced by the constant tradition of the Irish, who never, even to this 
day, gave any other name than that of Albain to the country now called 
Scotland by the English. And to finish my observations on this subject, 
I shall remark that Kimry, or Ki/nraeg, the national name the Welch 
distinguish themselves by, though I do not find that they can account for 
its radical derivation in their own language, is a very plain Guidhelian 
or Irish word still of common use in Ireland. Caman in the Irish lan- 
guage signifies a deep valley between two hills, as cume/tac does a tract 
of land consisting of hills and deep valleys; and the inhabitants of such 
a country are very properly called Cunnd;t<xr. A well-known example 
of this appellative is furnished by the distinctive sirname of a branch of 
the O'Briens of Thomond, which settled about the end of the fourteenth 
century in the valleys and hi.iih lands called Cuma/tac, northwards of 
Dungarvan, in the County of Waterford; from which they were always 
called Cuma/KXjj, or the O'Briens of Cuma/tcvc, i. e. of the valleys and 
hills. / id. cum an infra. I need not observe that this is a very proper 
and significative name for the Welch, and that this national appellative 
they are distinguished by, is much more naturally derivable from the na- 
ture of their country, than from the supposition of their being either 
Gomarians or Cimbrians, as some writers have imagined. In the mean 
time it is natural to think that if the old Britons had the word cwnar in 
their language, with the meaning now explained, those of that nation who 
lived on the plains might have given the name of dtmaraig, corrupted 
into Kimraeg, to the" inhabitants of the hilly countries of Wales and 
Cumberland. But if they never had it in their dialect, it seems a plain 
case that these countries were first called Cuma/t<xc by the Guidhelians, 
in whose language the word is still of common use in Ireland, as above 
observed ; whence it is natural that the Britons finding those countries in 


possession of that name at their arrival in the island, always called the 
inhabitants of them by that of Cumaraig, or Kimraeg and Kimry, ac- 
cording to the genius of their dialect. 

But however useful or necessary the Irish language may be for clear- 
ing up the antiquities of Great Britain, some of our learned readers may 
very possibly think us quite presumptuous, and even extravagant, if we 
adopted the assertion of Mr. Lhuyd, " that the learned nations of 
France, Spain, and Italy will not be capable of giving a full etymological 
account of those languages which Menage, Aldrete, and other learned 
persons endeavoured to do, if they do not acquire some perfection of 
knowledge of the Irish language and the Welch ; which, without dis- 
pute, are allowed to have been the best preserved part of the languages 
those learned men treated of, before they were corrupted by the Romans, 
Goths, and Africans." As to this assertion of Mr. Lhuyd in the Preface 
of his Irish Vocabulary, I shall only be bold enough to assure the reader, 
from my own knowledge of the matter, that with regard to Menage, (for 
I have not seen Aldrete's book,) and even Ducange, any man of letters 
well acquainted with the Iberno-Celtic dialect, may, with all the facility 
imaginable, make up such supplements to the erudite performances of 
both the one and the other, as may comprehend very extensive and cu- 
rious improvements of their respective works. And to put the learned 
reader in the plain way of judging whether it be possible that this asser- 
tion may naturally be well grounded, I shall only desire that he may 
join me in supposing " that a colony of Gauls or Celts might have se- 
parated themselves from the rest of their nation on the Continent some 
hundreds of years before Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, and that ever since 
their separation they lived together by themselves in remote islands, 
without being exposed to such a mixture of other people of different 
languages, as may cause any great alteration in the dialect they originally 
used in common with the main body of the Gaulish nation on the Conti- 
nent. But in the mean time the original tongue of their brethren, the 
Gauls, on the Continent, was from age to age liable to corruption and 
alteration from their mixture, first with the Belgians and other Germans, 
then with the Romans and their troops of different nations constantly 
quartered amongst them for many centuries ; and much earlier, as to the 
southern parts of Gaul, with the Phocean-Greeks of Marseilles ; beside 
that the language of a very extensive and powerful nation, consisting of a 
great number of different tribes and provinces, whereof some are very 
remote from others, is much more subject to alteration than that of a co- 
lony of the same nation, which, from the time of its separation, has been 
concentered and kept together within the circumscribed borders of an 

Now, if the primitive language of the Gauls on the Continent hath 
been at long run so entirely altered and disguised, that very little of it 
is discernible in the chaos of the many other different languages it is 
confounded with, which is now its real state ; the learned reader is to 
judge whether it be not very natural to think that the dialect of that co- 
lony of ancient Gauls which brought away to their islands, and there pre- 
served in the best manner the original Celtic language, may be of great 


help to make this discernment, by pointing out and separating from that 
chaos the genuine remains of the old Gaulish tongue ; and consequently 
an effectual help and guide in tracing out the real origin of those words 
which Menage and Ducange undertook to explain ? If the reader judges 
on the affirmative side of this question, as it is natural to expect, he then 
will decide in favour of the Iberno-Celtic dialect, as being that which 
furnishes the surest clue for tracing out what may still remain of the old 
language of Gaul, through the confused assemblage of other foreign 
dialects in which it is wrapped up and disguised. For it seems certain, 
that the Guidhelian or Gaulish colony which settled in Ireland, after 
inhabiting Britain for several ages, separated from the Gauls of the Con- 
tinent long before their mixture with any foreigners ; since it appears 
from Ca?sar's account of the infinite multitude of people, into which the 
Britons, ancestors of the Welch, were already grown in his time, that 
they had then been possessors of the island for many centuries after the 
Guidhelians had passed over to Ireland; which number of centuries 
being added to those which the Irish Gauls must necessarily have spent 
in the same British Isle, before they could multiply to a sufficient num- 
ber to people it universally, and give names, as hath been proved above, 
to its rivers, mountains, and remarkable places, from one end of it to the 
other ; these two numbers of centuries being, I say, joined together, and 
considered as the space of time between the epoch of the separation of 
the Irish Guidhelian,- or Gaulish colony, from the Gauls on the Conti- 
nent, to that of Caesar's invading Britain, must throw back that separation 
to a period of time much earlier than that of the Belgic Germans mixing 
with the Gauls, or of any other mixture their language could have re- 
ceived. From which it is manifestly consequent that the Guidhelians 
brought away to the British Isles the pure original Celtic tongue of the 
primitive Gauls ; and as to their preserving it in the best manner pos- 
sible, even to this day, the reasons already alleged are sufficient to evince 
that point. 

The remains of the Gaulish language in its present confused state, 
are mixed with the old French, or the German dialect of Franconia, as 
also with the different dialects of the Burgundians and Goths, from 
which the affinity of the French with the Italian in words which are not 
of Latin extraction, is chiefly derived ; (and this shews, by the by, how 
improper it is to derive, without distinction, from the Italian, as Menage 
generally does, those French words which bear a resemblance with 
Italian words, or vice versa ; since this resemblance or affinity on both 
sides proceeds from one and the same common source ;) and lastly, those 
remains of the old Gaulish tongue are mixed with the Latin, besides the 
old mixture of the Belgic German. But one particular circumstance of 
its Latin mixture, and a circumstance that neither Ducange nor Menage 
seem to have taken any notice of, is, that besides the great multitude of 
words which the modern French language, made up of all the mixtures 
now mentioned, has really borrowed from the Latin, and are the more 
easily discerned as they are generally formed upon the genitive case of 
the Latin words, as conversion, sermon, &c. It contains also an abun- 
dunt variety of other words, which, though seemingly of Latin extraction 


by their near affinity with words of the same sense in that language, are, 
notwithstanding, genuine and real Celtic words, and the very archetypes 
or radicals upon which the Latin words have been formed. This will 
be more clearly understood and evinced from what shall be observed in 
the sequel concerning the striking affinity of the Irish with the Latin in 
an abundant variety of words. The sure method of discerning those 
original Celtic words resembling the Latin in any European dialect of 
the Celtic nations, is by considering, in the first place, if they are ex- 
pressive either of such ideas or such objects of the senses as no language 
can want words for from the beginning, because no society of people, 
nay, none of its particular members enjoying all the senses, could at any 
time or in any country be strangers to such objects or ideas, and conse- 
quently none destitute of words to distinguish them ; and secondly, to 
consider if such words be the only appellatives of their respective objects 
or ideas used in the language either in common practice or in old wri- 
tings, for signifying the things they are appropriated to. All words in 
any of the Celtic dialects, which can stand the test of these two qualities, 
may with full assurance be regarded as mere Celtic, (though probably 
somewhat changed from their primitive form and pronunciation,) and not 
derived from the Latin, whatever resemblance or affinity they may bear 
with words of the same signification in that language. 

It was upon the foundation of the two characteristics now explained 
that I demonstrated, as I cannot but think all the appellatives of objects, 
or signs of ideas, in the list of Irish words published last year at London 
in the Prospectus of the following Dictionary, to be pure original Celtic, 
notwithstanding their close and striking affinity with the Latin words of 
the same signification, which are stamped with plain marks of being 
rather derivatives of the Celtic words of the sort I am speaking of; 
these being generally monosyllables, and seldom or never consisting of 
more than two syllables; whereas the Latin words corresponding with 
the Celtic monosyllables, consist generally of two syllables, as those that 
agree in signification with the Celtic words of two syllables, are gene- 
rally of three or four syllables, which, according to the rules of etymo- 
logy, evinces them to be derivatives from the more simple radicals of 
the Celtic, of which the lingua prisca of the Aborigines, the mother of 
the Latin, was only a dialect. Thus also, and upon the same foundation, 
we may, I think, assure ourselves that the following French words, with a 
vast number of others of the like nature, are mere Celtic or Gaulish, 
though doubtless somewhat changed from their primitive structure as 
well as pronunciation; such as pain, vin,froment, komme t femm&,pere, 
mere, fils, fille, sceur, frcre, lawf, cheval, cavale,jwnent,ame,cor, or 
corps, coeur, amour, &c. ; all .signifying objects or things which no lan- 
guage can want, words for, and which, at the same time, are, I think, the 
only words used in the French for the objects they respectively signify ; 
from both which characteristics it is evident they are not derivatives of 
the Latin, notwithstanding their resemblance to its words of the same 
meaning. And here I think it pertinent to remark, that men of letters. 
of the French, Spanish, and German nations, who had leisure and cu- 
riosity enough to make out ample lists of words bearing these two cha- 


racteristics, and resembling the Latin in their respective dialects, would 
thereby contribute in a very essential manner to the improvement of Cel- 
tic literature. And if the words of any kind which may be found to 
bear an affinity with the Greek as well as with the Latin, were marked 
and pointed out in such lists, it would not only enlarge such an improve- 
ment, but also evince a curious point and matter of fact which I shall 
remark in the sequel, when I have compared many Iberno-Celtic words 
with Greek words of the same, or of an analogous signification, and which 
I do not find that any writer has hitherto taken notice of, viz. that the 
Latin has borrowed much less of its words from the Greek than is gene- 
rally imagined, and that a vast number of those Latin words which are 
supposed to be of Greek extraction, have been really and immediately 
derived from the Celtic, and not from the Greek, whose words of this 
nature are likewise derivatives of the Celtic ; or, which is the same thing, 
either of the Phrygian or Thracian ; this latter people being unquestion- 
ably Celts, as well as parents of the former, according to the best autho- 
rities. And this confirms the truth of Plato's opinion in his Cratilus, 
that the Greeks have borrowed a great deal of their language from the 
Barbarians. Before I have done with this subject of the utility of the 
Iberno-Celtic dialect towards improving Celtic literature, and illustrating 
the antiquities of the Celtic nations, I think it proper to produce some 
few examples of words or terms used in the base Latin and French, of 
whose radical structure or derivation our glossarians or etymologists, 
particularly Ducange and Menage, have not been able to give any posi- 
tive or satisfactory explication; and examples which will justify in some 
measure my preceding assertion, " that very considerable supplements to 
the works of these two learned writers may easily be made up with the 
help of the Irish language." 

First, I shall instance in the word allodium, in old English, attend, 
and in French, alien, or franc-alien. It is agreed upon that this word 
signifies a free hereditary property of long standing in a family, and de- 
scending from father to son, without chief-rent or other obligation to any 
lord paramount. But the radical derivation of the word is far from 
being agreed upon by our glossographers, as appears at the words allo- 
dium in Ducange, and alien, orfranc-alleu, in Menage. Nothing more 
plainly intelligible than this word in the Irish language, wherein its true 
derivation is found and well known, and not, I dare say, in any other 
Celtic dialect. The word allod, othenvise written allud, signifies, in 
Irish, any thing that is ancient ; thus, ;n dllob, or jn atlub, signifies an- 
ciently; Lat. olim, antiquitus; jn <xjm^jrt allojb, in ancient times ; Lat. 
tempore ant i quo ; jrea/idnn <xllob, an ancient land property; Lat.fundus 
antiqaus, sen prcedinm antiqiium ; irxxojn <xtl6b, old properties, or goods 
of any kind, in a family; Lat. bona allodialia. A like facility of ex- 
plaining the radical derivation of the word feodum, or feud urn, is fur- 
nished in the Irish language, wherein the common and only word in use 
to signify a piece; portion, or division of ground, assigned to be cultivated 
under some obligations, is the monosyllable jrob, which is visibly the root 
of the Latin verb /W/o, to dig or work at the ground; and it is natural 
to think that the Latin, or the lingua prisca, from which it is derived, 


had a noun of the same radical structure with this Iberno-Celtic word 
jrob, from which the Latins derived the verb fodio, as verbs are gene- 
rally formed upon and derived from the nouns. This Celtic word jrob is 
evidently the root of the Latin feodum, sometimes written feudum, of 
which it likewise furnishes the true sense and common meaning ; as it 
signifies a piece of land or ground assigned for improvement, under some 
obligation to the paramount, by which this kind of tenure or property is 
distinguished from allodium. Some modern writers, particularly Mr. 
Dalrimple, have advanced that the Germans were the first authors of 
the feodal tenure; an opinion which plainly shews that those writers 
have not dipped very deep into the German antiquities, and the manner 
in which those people lived in the times of Caesar and Tacitus ; nor con- 
sidered that the Emperor Alexander Severus in the year 222 established 
feodal tenures, called military benefices, on the frontiers of the empire, 
obliging the proprietors of them to defend the limits of the empire against 
the barbarians, by defending at the same time their own properties. And 
if those writers had carried farther back their researches into antiquity, 
they would find in Diodorus Siculus, lib. 1. that the Egyptians, for a 
proof that the people of Argos and Athens, and of another city of 
Greece, named Asty, descended from themselves, alleged, " that the se- 
cond order of people amongst them was those unto whom the lands of 
the countiy were assigned, to the end they may the better apply them- 
selves to arms for the defence of the country ; like those of Egypt, who 
are there the proprietors of the lands, and are therefore obliged to fur- 
nish soldiers for the wars at their own charge." I have been often think- 
ing that the custom of feodal tenures for military service among the 
Egyptians, derived its origin from the time that Joseph bought for the 
king all the lands of Egypt for the provisions he furnished to the par- 
ticular proprietors, during the seven years of famine mentioned in Gene- 
sis ; after which event the king was at liberty to give out the same lands 
in equal or proportionable divisions, as Lycurgus did those of his juris- 
diction, under the obligation of military service. Before that epoch the 
properties of particulars in Egypt were doubtless of the free allodial 
kind, which in the primitive times must have been the case in all other 

Another word of the same nature with those I have mentioned, I 
mean soccagium, soccage, a tenure subject to services of agriculture, or 
some other duties or rents to the Paramount, has its natural root in the 
Irish language, wherein the monosyllable foe is the common and only 
appellative of a ploughshare, or that pointed iron instrument which lies 
perpendicular to the coulter, and parallel to the ridge. As this word 
soc has been in the old French or Gaulish language with the same 
meaning, I cannot but think that that language had also the word pot, 
plur. piotu, which in the Celtic means a wheel and wheels, and is the 
only word used for it in Irish ; Lat. rota and carruca, which latter word 
signifies a plough, as well as any wheel-carriage, (vid. Littleton's Dic- 
tion, in V. Carruca,} and whence in the modern French a plough is 
called charrue, as it may as properly be called jioc, or plur. /tocu, from 
its wheels, being words of the same meaning. I therefore refer to the 


judicious etymologists, whether the French words roture and roturier 
may not be more properly derived from pot, or ;tOtu, signifying a 
plough, than from the participle of the Latin word rumpo, to break, be- 
cause agriculture chiefly consists in breaking or dividing the ground. 
Vid. Menage in the word roture. And to finish my remarks on words 
of this nature, I shall only add, that I very much doubt if the root of the 
Latin word armarium, armaria, can be as properly found in any other 
living language of the Celtic nations as in the Irish; wherein the mono- 
syllable ojnnf signifies any close place, which is likewise the general sig- 
nification of the word armarium, though it is particularly used to signify 
a storehouse, a closet, a cupboard, a chest, a study, or library. "\ id. Da 
Cange, and Littleton's Diet, ad Voc. armarium. Thus also the Irish 
word cam, crooked or convex, is the root of the Latin camurus, as 
camuris cornibus of Virgil, and camus of the French. And as to the 
names of rivers, mountains, and towns all over the Celtic nations, I dare 
say no Celtic dialect now subsisting can equal the Irish in accounting for 
their radical derivations. For the etymological explanation of all the 
names of towns that end in bun, I refer the reader to that word in the 
following Dictionary, as I do to the word maj, (which in Irish is the 
common word to signify a plain field, or any open piece of ground clear 
of trees or woods,) for explaining those which end in maju^, of which 
Bochart (lib. 1. c. 42. p. 757.) assures us, there were more than thirty in 
the Celtic countries, besides six which he names. But Ortellius, Rhe- 
nanus, and Cambden, who are followed by Bochart, and lately by Bullet 
and Peloutier, are all mistaken as to the signification of the word magus, 
which they interpret a town or habitation, not considering that all towns 
or habitations would have as good right to that name as those which are 
particularly distinguished by it. The name ma j was doubtless given to 
those plain or clear pieces of ground at or before the time of building 
thereupon the towns whose names terminate in that monosyllable of 
which the Latins made magus. In the same manner as we read in the 
life of St. Patrick, that the town which he built on the high ground of 
)^ujm Sajleac, derived its name of Ard-magh, from its situation on a 
high field or plain, which clearly indicates the literal signification of the 
Celtic word maj. Thus also, for the literal explication of the names of 
towns terminating in durus or eh/rum, it is sufficient to observe, that in 
the Iberno-Celtic dialect the monosyllable bu^i signifies water ; and ac- 
cordingly it is observable, that those towns are situate near some rivers, 
lakes, or marshes, or otherwise convenient to good springs or fountains. 
And as to the names of rivers, it is to be observed, that the common ap- 
pellative fora river in Irish is <xmu;r>, Lat. amnis; which name joined to 
that of some remarkable quality of any particular river, makes up its 
name. Thus ga^b, pronounced gan\ which signifies violent, rough, 
rapid, being joined to amtrjn makes "gapbamajn, and contractedly 3<*- 
jiamujn, ^flumujn, Latinized into Garumna, the river Garone. Lastly, 
to account for the etymology of the names of rivers ending in ana or 
anus, as Sequana and Rhodanus, &c., we have only to remark that an is 
one of the common appellatives of water in the Irish language. If Mr. 
Bullet had been well acquainted with it, he would have had no need of 



so often recurring to strained explications of the names of the remarkable 
rivers of France. 

Now, to acquit myself of the fourth and last point of my engagement 
to the public, as it is stated in the beginning of this Preface, I have only 
to shew, in the first place, the close and abundant affinity of the Irish 
language with the Latin. And at the same time, in order to demon- 
strate that the Iberno-Celtic dialect did not borrow from the Latin any 
of those words in which both languages agree, (excepting always such 
words as are significative of the rites and mysteries of the Christian reli- 
gion; objects which no people could have words for before the preaching 
of the Gospel,) I shall only lay down on the part of the Irish, those 
which are expressive of ideas or objects which no language can want 
words for, even in its most incult state, and are at the same time the only 
words in common use in that language to signify precisely and properly 
the things they are appropriated to ; two characteristics which plainly 
demonstrate that they are not derivatives of any other language, but ra- 
ther genuine original words of the Celtic tongue. From which circum- 
stance, joined to the plain marks of derivation with which the corres- 
ponding Latin words are stamped, as shall hereafter be observed, it will 
evidently appear that those Latin words, with a vast number of others 
taken notice of throughout the course of this Dictionary, are derivatives 
of the Celtic; and consequently that the lingua prisca of the Aborigines 
of Italy, from which the old Latin, refined by the Romans, had been 
formed, was only a dialect of the Celtic; which was the more natural, as 
the Aborigines themselves, consisting of Umbrians, Sabins, and others, 
were certainly Celts. In the next place, I shall compare the Irish with 
the Greek, in order to shew that the Greeks have derived a great part 
of their language from the Celtic, for most certainly the Irish never bor- 
,.| rowed any part of their's from the Greeks, no more than did the Gauls or 
any other Celts : and by comparing the Latin, as well as the Greek, 
with the Irish in words, wherein the three languages agree in affinity, it 
will be made manifest that the Latin did not borrow from the Greeks 
(as it hath hitherto been imagined) those words which agree with the 
Iberno-Celtic, as well as with the Greek, but rather that both the Latin 
and the Greek derived them from the Celtic. This point hath been 
already touched upon and laid open, in some measure, in the preceding 
part of this Preface ; I shall therefore now proceed to lay down my list 
of Irish and Latin words of the nature I have explained, but not in an 
alphabetical order. The Irish precedes, the Latin follows, in Italic cha- 
racters, and then the English in the Roman. At the same time it is to 
be noted, that to judge of the affinity of the Latin with the Irish, it is 
necessary the reader should know that the Irish alphabet has no v con- 
sonant, but that the letter b, aspirated with an h, serves instead of it, as 
in the Spanish. It is also to be remarked, that the change of initial con- 
sonants makes no difference as to the identity of radicals between the 
words of different languages, no more than the exchange of one vowel 
for another in any syllable of such words. Now begins the list, wherein 
the letter M. shall be fixed immediately after every Irish word that may 


seem to strangers to be of two syllables, though it be really but a mono- 
syllable. No Irish word of this list is of more than two syllables. 

Ir. <D;a, M., genit. be, Lat. Deus, God ; Ir. anm or anam, Lat. 
anima, the soul ; Ir. jntleact, Lat. intellectus, the understanding ; Ir. 
roeamo;/t, Lat. memoria, the memory ; Ir. to; I, Lat. roluntas, the will ; 
Ir. ;nt;n, Lat. intentio, intention ; Ir. me;n, M., Lat. mens, the mind ; 
Ir. ;teo/an, Lat. rath, reason; Ir. ;~fn;b, Lat spirit us, spirit ; In beat a 
and 5;t, Lat. vita, life ; Ir. co/tp, Lat. corpus, the body ; Ir. cjtojbe, M., 
Lat. cor, abl. corde, the heart ; Ir. co;~, Lat. pes, the foot ; Ir. uct, Lat. 
pectus, the breast; Ir. j:ea;t, plur. f)j\, Lat. vir, a man; Ir. bean and 
ben, Lat. fen us, woman; Ir. ata;ri, Lat. pater, a father; (vid. atta 
in the Gothic Glossary at the end of the Codex .4rgenteus, where it ap- 
pears that this word had not the letter p as its initial in many ancient 
languages, not even in the old Greek, nor anciently in the Latin, as may 
be inferred from the word attar us. See atajft infra;) Ir. mata;;t, Lat. 
mater, a mother; Ir. bpata;^, Lat. f rater, a brother or cousin; Ir. 
ma;l;;~, Lat. malitia, malice; Ir. jreall, Lat. fallacia, treachery; Ir. 
f)0j\, Lat. verum, true ; Ir. bo, Lat. bos, a cow ; Ir. taftb, pronounced 
tarv, Lat. taurus, a bull : Ir. cabal or capal, Lat. cavallus, a horse ; 
Ir. eac, plur. e;c, Lat. equus, a steed ; Ir. cu, plur. ca;n or ca;n, M., 

Lat. cants ; Ir. cu;n;n. Lat. cuniculus, a rabbit; Ir. Taba^, Lat. caper, 
a goat; Ir. uajn, M., Lat. agnus, a lamb ; Ir. cuac, M., Lat. cucullus, 
the cuckoo; Ir. cat, Lat. cctus, a cat; Ir. co;^t, M., Lat. cortex, bark ; 
Ir. ce;/t, Lat. ccera, wax; Ir. fc<\n, Lat. stannum, tin; Ir. o/t, Lat. au- 
rum, gold; Ir. a;^tjet or a;^jjot, Lat. argeittum, silver; Ir. ;e^n or 
;a^un, Lat./mv/w, iron ; Ir. cnajb, Lat. canabis, hemp ; Ir. c;toc, Lat. 
crocus, saffron; Ir. ca;lc, Lat. caLc, calcis, chalk or lime; Ir. tj;t, Lat. 
terra, land or country ; Ir. talb and tellu/t, Lat. tellus, telluris, ground ; 
Ir. co^tcufi, Lat. purpura, purple; Ir. amujn, Lat. amnis, a river; Ir. 
loc or lac, Lat. lacus, a lake, or pool of water ; Ir. ^ea^al, Lat. secale, 
rye; Ir. cpu;t/?eact, Lat. triticum, wheat; Ir. a^ba^, Lat. arva, arro- 
rum, com, or fields of com; Ir. j/tan and j;ta;ne, Lat. granum, grain ; 
Ir. Ijn, Lat. linum, flax; Ir. ob, pronounced or, Lat. ovum, an egg; Ir. 
coj^e, Lat. caseus, cheese ; Ir. lact, Lat. lac, milk ; Ir. pjun, Lat. //- 
'/no/i, wine; Ir. a;lmu;nt, Lat. aliment um, food or nourishment; Ir. 
g;neamu;r>, Lat. genimen, a generation ; Ir. balb, Lat. balbus, a stam- 
merer; Ir. calb, Lat. calvus, bald; Ir. coec, Lat. caucus, blind; Ir. 
macu;l, Lat. macula, a spot or stain; Ir. me;r\bfieac, Lat. meretrix, a 
harlot ; Ir. b/iuct, Lat ructus, a belch ; Ir. clum, Lat. pluma, a feather ; 
Ir. mob, Lat. modus, a mode or manner ; Ir. no^, Lat. mos, a custom or 
usage; Ir. clabm, M., Lat. gladium, a sword; Ir. lann, Lat. lancea, a 
lance ; Ir. ya; jjb, Lat. sagitta, an arrow ; Ir. ftot, Lat. rota, a wheel ; 
Ir. mol, Lat. mola, a mill-wheel, or the whole mill ; Ir. obtrjft, Lat. opus, 
operis, work ; Ir. neab and n;b, Lat. nidus, a nest ; Ir. ^-oc, Lat. soccus, 
a ploughshare; Ir. jrcb, unde Lat. fodio aiidfeodum, a sod or piece of 
ground ; Ir. allob, Lat. allodium, an ancient property ; Ir. ca^ta, Lat 
char us, a dear friend; Ir. c/tejb, Lat crede, believe tliou; hence Ir. 
cpe;b;om, *Lak. fides, belief. N. B. These two words were in the Irish 
language before the knowledge of Christianity, as all people must have 


had an idea of the act of believing each other in their mutual converse of 
life. Ir. f&e jul, Lat. sceculum, an age, or man's life ; Ir. m; and m;^, 
Lat. mensis, a month ; Ir. ye<xctroa;n, Lat. septimana, i. e. septem mane, 
a week; Ir. uajft, Lat. hora, an hour; Ir. eun, Lat. unum, one; Ir. too, 
Lat. duo, two ; Ir. t/vj, Lat. tres, tria, three ; Ir. ce<xt<x;/t, Lat. quatuor, 
four ; Ir. cujj, Lat. quinque, five ; Ir. ye, Lat. sex, six ; Ir. yeact; or 
yect:, Lat. septem, seven ; Ir. oct, Lat. oco, eight ; Ir. n<xo, Lat. novem, 
nine ; Ir. be;c, Lat. decem, ten ; Ir. ce<xto or ce<xt, Lat. centum, one 
hundred ; Ir. m;te, Lat. mille, a thousand ; Ir. njumu}/t, Lat. numerus, a 
number ; Ir. cmnju/i, Lat. angor, anguish, trouble, or vexation ; Ir. <x^im, 
Lat. armus, unde anna armorum, the shoulder, also arms, so called from 
that part of the body, which is the chief seat of strength ; Ir. ne<xbul, 
eontracte neul, Lat. nebula, a cloud ; Ir. fjoc, Lat. siccitas, frost ; Ir. 
roo;/i or mujft, or m<vj/i, Lat. mare, the sea; Ir. mo;n or mu;n, Lat. mons, 
a mountain ; Ir. po/it, Lat. portus, a bank, a landing-place, a port, or 
haven ; Ir. jrdlla, Lat. vallum, a wall or rampart ; Ir. ol<x, Lat. oleum, 
oil ; Ir. cajnneal, Lat. candela, a candle ; Ir. pof and /tojy, Lat. rosa, 
a rose ; Ir. ca/t/ia, Lat. carruca, any wheel-carriage ; Ir. ycuab, Lat. 
scopa, a floor-brush, or a sweeping-broom ; Ir. lecxtun, Lat. latum, 
broad, breadth ; Ir. <xjtp, any huge lump or heap of earth ; hence the 
Latin Alpes, the name of that huge mountain which separates Gaul from 
Italy ; for the Gauls called all mountains or heights by this name Ailp, 
of which the Latins made Alpes. Omnes altitudines montium a Gallis 
Alpes vocantur, says Servius ad ^Eneid x. initio ; and Georg. in. v. 474. 
Cluverius remarks in his Germania Antiq. that Gallorum lingua Alpes, 
monies alti vocantur, and that alp signified a mountain in the British ; 
Alp mons Britannis. Vid. Isid. Orig. 1. 14. c. 8; Strabo, 1. 4. p. 201 ; 
Ptol. 1. 2. c. 2. Thucidides mentions a mountain in the country of the 
Argians called Olpe in his time. Ir. oijU-b/iOgac, plur. oijU-b/iOjtvjj, 
Lat. allobrogi, from <x;ll, which in Irish signifies a rocky cliff, and b^iog, 
a habitation ; so that Allobrogi signifies a people inhabiting rocky cliffs 
and hills, such as were those who lived near the Alpes in the hills of 
Savoye and Dauphine, from thence called Allobrogi, which is but a 
Latinized writing of the Celtic word -CljU-B/tOgiVjj. 

The preceding list of Irish words, all, excepting the last, stamped 
with the two characteristics above described, might be stretched to a much 
greater extent, were it reconcileable with the reasonable length of a 
Preface. The last word, <t;ll-bfiO<xc, hath been added to show that 
Allobrox, Allobroges, is mere Guidhelian, or Gallic Irish, as are like- 
wise vergobretus, the title of the chief magistrate or judge of the yEdui, 
vercingetorix and vergasillaunus, two military officers of the Arvemi. 
Vergobretus is but a Latinized writing of the Guidhelian or Gallo- 
Celtic words jrea/i-jo-b/iejt:, in Irish signifying a judge, or literally, the 
man who judgeth, or the man of the judgment, vir ad judicium, or ad 
jiidicandum, from jreaft, a man, and b;te;tr, judgment; whence b/ie;- 
cearri, a judge, (qd. vid. infra.) Vercingetorix is likewise a Latin 
fashion and contraction of the Celtic words jrea/t-cjn-go-tojft, orru^uy, 
which literally means the head man of the expedition ; and Vergoslllau- 
nus is another Latin form of the Celtic jrea/t-go-ya; glean, pronounced 


, meaning, verbatim, the man of the standard, or a standard- 
bearer, J'icl. 7"<x;jlean. But however short or incomplete the above 
list may be, I cannot but doubt that any other dialect of the Celtic coun- 
tries could furnish as many words of so near a resemblance and radical 
affinity with the Latin, all being nouns, and such appellatives as no lan- 
guage can want, and at the same time the only words in use to signify 
precisely the things they are appropriated to ; I say precisely, because 
there are a few words in this list whose objects are also signified in 
some manner by other appellatives. But besides that those other appel- 
latives are not of the old Guidhelian or Iberno-Celtic dialect, but rather 
of a Scytho-German, or Scandinavian origin, they are not exactly and 
properly of the same signification with those in the above list, to which 
they are pretended to be synonymous. Thus the word tuj;'e is some- 
times used instead of jntteacc to signify the understanding, though it 
rather means conception, or the act of the understanding, than that fa- 
culty of the soul which is called intellect. So likewise the word c<xo;ne 
is sometimes employed in the place of me<xmo;^, though its proper mean- 
ing is remembrance, or reminiscence; while the word me<xmo;p signifies 
that very faculty of the soul of which reminiscence is but the act. In 
the same manner the word j-ljtxb is made synonimous to mojn or mujn, a 
mountain, though it rather means a heathy ground, whether it be low 
and flat, or in the shape of a hill ; and so is j:<X;tu;;z;e to mu;^ or m<x;/t, 
the sea, though it more properly signifies deluge, as in the common ex- 
pression ;iu;ge jrea^it<xnna, a deluge of water. Now it is to be noted, 
that inasmuch as it is allowed by the best etymologists, that of radical 
words of the same sense in different languages, those should be esteemed 
the more ancient that consist of fewest letters ; and that of words agree- 
ing only in part, those which have the additional letters or syllables are 
for the most part the derivatives, as Mr. Lhuyd justly observes ; it fol- 
lows that the Iberno-Celtic words in the preceding list, being all either of 
one or two syllables, and mostly monosyllables, should be esteemed the 
radical and ancient words of the Celtic, from which the corresponding 
Latin words, all consisting of a greater number of syllables, were de- 
rived. For it is remarkable that the Latin words agreeing in radicals 
with the Irish monosyllables are generally of two syllables, and those 
that correspond to the Irish words of two syllables, always consist of 
three or four ; not excepting the names of numbers, which are all mono- 
syllables, exclusive of ce<xt<X)/i, whose corresponding Latin, quatuor, 
surpasses it by one syllable. It is therefore to be presumed that no ju- 
dicious writer will ever join Mr. Thomas Innis in his strange assertion, 
" that the Irish had no names of numbers until they came to the know- 
ledge of the Latin tongue after their conversion to Christianity ;" an as- 
sertion which betrays his want of attention to the affinity of all the ancient 
dialects of the European nations with each other, and which he supports 
with no other reason than the resemblance of the Irish numerical names 
with the Latin ; and this reason he pretends to corroborate with the 
marks of Latin derivation with which our exotic words, significative of 
the rites and mysteries of the Cliristian religion, are plainly and neces- 
sarily stamped ; without considering that no people can have words for 


things or objects of which they never had any knowledge until they are 
made acquainted with them; though, on the contrary, no society of 
people could want words for those objects or ideas they must at all 
times be conversant with ; such as numbers, or the multiplicity of things, 
with which all people had as early an acquaintance as with their fingers. 
Nor can I imagine that any body will ever shew a solid reason why a 
people who march against their enemies on a day of battle, a practice 
which all different tribes constantly observed ever since the division of 
mankind, should not at all times have names for the numbers of their 
men, as well as for that of their fingers. 

Now I think it pertinent to my subject to remark, that the very near 
resemblance and affinity between the Irish words and the Latin, in the 
above list, furnishes a fresh proof of the high antiquity both of the 
Iberno-Celtic dialect, and of the epoch of the separation of the Guidhe- 
lian colony from the main body of their nation in Gaul ; inasmuch as 
that near affinity of the Irish with the Latin must necessarily proceed 
from much a nearer one, and probably from an original identity between 
the language of the Guidhelians or the Celts of Gaul, and that of the 
Aborigines or Indigenae of Italy, who were a people of very remote an- 
tiquity. This original identity of the primitive language of the Gauls 
with that of the Aborigines of Italy might, I think, be accounted for in 
a very natural manner. That part of the posterity of Japhet which 
peopled the south and south-west parts of Europe, must have first pro- 
ceeded from the centre of the separation and dispersion of mankind, 
(whether it be Armenia, or the plains of Senaar,) towards the straits of 
the Thracian Bosphorus, and those of the Hellespont, which they crossed 
over by the means of boats, whose construction, doubtless, was familiar 
to them from the traditional knowledge they had of that of the ark. 
Those tribes which passed over the Hellespont first inhabited the south 
parts of Thracia, as also Macedonia and Greece; and those which 
crossed the Thracian Bosphorus, now the straits of Constantinople, 
must, by the same reason of convenience, have been the first inhabitants 
both of the northern parts of Thrace and of Lower and Upper Mysia, 
as also of Dacia, when a part of them had crossed the Danube. In 
process of time a part of those tribes which first stopped in the two 
Mysias and the northern parts of Thrace, proceeded towards Illyris, or 
lllyricum, and Pannonia; from which regions, where they were separated 
into two different bodies, it is natural to conclude, from the situation of 
them parts, that they proceeded towards the west by two different 
courses ; those of Pannonia steering towards Noricum, now Austria, 
Stiria, Carniola, Carinthia, and Upper Bavaria ; from which quarters all 
the western parts of Germany, in all appearance, were first peopled, as 
the east and north-east parts very probably were from Dacia ; and those 
of lllyricum, taking their course towards Istria, from which point of the 
Adriatic coast they poured down into the delicious regions of Italy, 
whence, after having multiplied their numbers, a part of them proceeded 
to Gaul, speaking the very same language with those of their nation 
which they left in Italy, and who by all the ancient authors were called 
Indigence, or Aborigines, words of the same signification, meaning that 


they were the original or primitive people who first inhabited that land. 
Those were the Siculi, the Ausones, the Uinbri, (and all their descen- 
dants of different names mentioned by Cluver. Georgr. 1. 3. c. 33. p. 332.) 
and the people who were particularly called Aborigines, of whom 
Dionys. Hallicarnassus says, that some of the ancient historians counted 
them amongst the Indigetes, or Indigence, and that others wrote they 
were a tribe of the Ligures, who came into the centre of Italy from the 
neighbourhood of Gaul, where indeed it is well known that those an- 
cient people were settled at both sides of the Alpes as far as to the banks 
of the Rhone, being in all appearance a part of the first detachments that 
went off from Italy towards Gaul, and who may consequently be ranked 
amongst the Indigenae. The same author adds that other ancients iden- 
tified the Aborigines with the Umbrians, whom Plinius represents as the 
most ancient people of Italy, Umbrorum gens antiquissima Italics exis- 
thnatur,\.3. c. 14; and Florus calls them antiqui-ssimus Italics popidus. 
But this diversity of opinions concerning the origin of the Aborigines 
serves to prove that they were a tribe of the first inhabitants of Italy, and 
consequently of the same stock and body of people, whereof the first 
planters of Gaul were but a detachment, as the Umbri are acknowledged 
by some of the most respectable ancient writers to be of the same stock 
with the old Gauls, not of those who repassed the Alps, and inhabited 
the upper parts of Italy called Gallia Togata. So Solinus, citing Boc- 
chus, says, Gallorum veterum propaginem Umbros esse Bocchus absol- 
vit, Sol. c. 8 ; and Servius, Sane Umbros Gallorum reterum propaai- 
nern esse Marcus Antonius refert, Serv. 1.11; Isidorus, Umbri Italics 
gens est, sed Gallorum veterum propago, Isid. 1. 9. c. 2. The Sabini, 
who, as well as the Umbri and the Aborigines, made a part of the peo- 
ple afterwards called Latins, were but a tribe of the Umbri, and conse- 
quently of the same stock with the primitive Gauls. For this origin of 
the Sabini we have the authority of Zenodotus of Tzezene, as quoted by 
Dionysius Hallicarnassus,!. 2. Antiq., and who had anciently written the 
History 7 of the Umbrians, whom he calls Indigetes, and says that a part 
of them being forced by the Pelasgi to remove from their former quarters, 
were afterwards called Sabini: mutatoque cum sedibus nomine, Sabinos 
fuisse appellatos. Now supposing the above scheme of the original 
population of those regions of Europe which I have mentioned, to be 
agreeable to reason and the nature of things, a point which is to be sub- 
mitted to the judgment of the public, it must naturally follow that all 
the primitive inhabitants of those regions had originally but one and the 
same language. Of which fact Cluverius has produced very good proofs 
and clear vestiges in Gaul, Germany, Spain, Italy, and Illyricum, 
(German. Antiq. c. 6, 7, 8.) ; and had he also taken "in Thrace," Mace- 
donia, and Greece, I cannot think that he would have been mistaken. 
I am much inclined to believe that the near agreement which the ancient 
writers have remarked between the old Latin and the Greek, was in 
greater measure owing to this original identity of the European lan- 
guages, than to whatever mixture might have been introduced into the 
Latin from the dialects of the Greek adventurers that came to Italy from 
time to time. Nor do I doubt tHit that the Gauls who repassed the 


Alps, and settled in Upper Italy in the earliest times of the Romans, 
found the language of that country very nearly agreeing with their own : 
in the same manner and by the same reason that the people of Ireland 
and those of the Highlands of Scotland easily understand each other's 
dialects, though it be now near twelve hundred years since the Scots of 
Scotland parted from those of Ireland. 

What I have now advanced concerning the chief cause of the near 
affinity and agreement anciently remarked between the Latin and the 
Greek, may perhaps be found supported in some measure by the like 
affinity appearing in several instances between the Iberno-Celtic and the 
Greek in the following list of Irish, Greek, and Latin words. For 
whenever the Latin shews a radical affinity with the Celtic, as well as 
with the Greek, at the same time, I cannot but think we may conclude 
that such an affinity does not proceed from any mixture derived into the 
Latin from the Greek colonies anciently settled in Italy, but rather from 
the remains of that original agreement which subsisted in the primitive 
times between all the dialects of the Celtic nations, amongst which the 
Greek may justly be counted, especially before it was changed by the 
mixtures it received from the Phoenician and Egyptian colonies. Hence 
we may conclude that the Greek words in the following list which agree 
with the Ibemo-Celtic and the Latin, are certainly of a Celtic or Celto- 
Scythian origin; and that the Latin words are immediately derived 
from the Celtic in the same manner, and not from the Greek, as I have 
before observed. In this list the Greek words are set down after the 
Irish ; next, the Latin words that agree with both, in Italic characters, 
and then the English explication in Roman types. The letter M. shall 
be fixed after the Irish monosyllables, which strangers may mistake for 
j (/ words of two syllables. When it happens that the words resembling 
each other are not exactly of the same, but only of an analogous signifi- 
cation, their respective meaning and common acceptation shall be ex- 
plained apart. The letters Ir. are to distinguish the Irish words, Gr. 
the Greek, and Lot. the Latin, in the following manner : Ir. <xe/i, M., 
Gr. arjp, Lat. aer, the air ; Ir. <xjliej/-, Gr. ajSuo-o-oc, Lat. abyssus, the 
sea; Ir. ajf-iget or ojftjjgot, Gr. apyvjooc, Lat. argentum, silver; Ir. 
<xll, Gr. aXAoc, Lat. alius, another; Ir. <xm<x;l and pxtrxxjl, Gr. 6/iaAoc, 
Lat. similis, like; Ir. <xnnco;/te, Gr. ayicvpa, Lat. anchora, an anchor; 
Ir. <xon and eun, Gr. EV, Lat. unum, one ; Ir. <x/i, Gr. apomz, Lat. aratio, 
ploughing; Ir. <xt<xj/t, Gr. Trarijp, andarra, (quavoce cetatc provectiores 
a junior ibus,et altores ab alumnis olim nuncupabantur. Vid. Glossar. 
Goth, in Voce Atta ad Celcem Codicis ArgenteL} Lat. pater, a father. 
y The letter p was abusively prefixed by the Greeks and Latins to the 
original Celtic word <xca^t or <xte/i. Ir. bac andbdcul, Gr. jSaicrpov, 
Lat. baculus, a staff; Ir. b;t and beatcx, Gr. jStorrj, Lat. vita, life ; Ir. 
be;/t and bejfvjm, Gr. ^gpw, Lat. foro, to bring or carry; Ir. bo, Gr. 
QOVQ, and JEo\. fSoe, Lat. bos, a cow or an ox ; Ir. b;t<xc, Gr. ftpa\iov, 
Lat. brachium, the arm, meaning all the hand down from the shoulder to 
the fingers, all comprehended; Ir. bun, Gr.QevOog, Lat. fundum, a bot- 
tom or foundation ; Ir. c<xbun, Gr. Karrwr, Lat. capo, a capon ; Ir. cajlc, 
Gr. xoX(, Lat. calx, colds, chalk or lime, or cement of limestone ; Ir. 


, Gr. icava/3tc> Lat. canabis, hemp; Ir. cej/i, Gr. Kjjpoe, Lat. cera, 
wax ; Ir., Gr. k-arov, Lat. centum, one hundred ; Ir. cjfce, a trea- 
sure locked up in a chest, Gr. KHTTT), Lat. ci-sta pro area, a chest; Ir. 
cojljy, Gr. KauXoe, Lat. caulis, cabbage; Ir. cclun, Gr. k-oXwvjj, Lat. 
columna, a post ; Ir. co^-, Gr. TTOUC, Lat. pes, a foot ; Ir. cu, genit. sing. 
and nom. plur. cajn, Gr. KUWV, genit KVI/OC, Lat. canis, a hound or dog; 
Ir. c/toc, Gr. KpoKog, Lat. crocus, saffron ; Ir. Oe and );a, Gr. GEOC, 
Lat. Z)ew.s, God ; Ir. bejc and beaj, M., Gr. Saca, Lat. decem, ten ; Ir. 
b;^-, two persons or things, Gr. &?, Lat. bis, twice ; Ir. bo, Gr. 8ww, Lat. 
f/w o, two ; Ir. ea/t/t, Gr. ^pwe, Lat. heros, a hero ; Ir. pijb and ba;b, 
Gr. 0cm/c, Lat. e.-fc.?, a prophet; Ir. jrjle, or jrjleab, Gr. 0tXoo-o0oc, 
Lat. philosophus, a philosopher or poet; Ir. jreall, deceit or treachery, 
Gr. 0/jXew, Lat.fallo, to deceive ; Ir. fecij, Gr. ^cryoc, Dor. Lat./ao^s, 
the beech-tree; Ir. jrjon, Gr. CHVOS, Lat. I'htum, wine; Ir. gftan and 
/ta;nne, Gr. jpavov, Lat. granum, a grain, or grain, meaning corn; 
Ir. la and 15, plur. lajona, Gr. Xiov, in the compound word, ytviOXioc; 
and yevtQXiov natalis dies, Lat. lux, a day, or day-light ; Ir. lac or loc, 
Gr. XaKKoe, Lat. lac us, a lake or pool of water ; Ir. lar/n, Gr. Xoy^rj, 
Lat. lancea, a lance or sword; Ir. l;n or ljun, Gr. XLVOV, Lat. Unum, 
flax; Ir. maca;^, Gr. ^ur/rrj/o, Lat. mater, a mother; Ir. m;l, Gr. /urjXt, 
Lat. mel, honey; Ir. m; and m)0f, Gr. /u>jv, Lat. me us is, a month ; Ir, 
neabul, Gr. i/0eXj, Lat. nebula, a cloud; Ir. no, Gr. veoej Lat. novus. 
new; Ir. noct or nuctr, Gr. w, Lat. WDJ:, night; Ir. ola, Gr. eXatov, 
Lat. oleum, oil ; Ir. oct, Gr. OKTU, Lat. oc^o, eiuht ; Ir. p;an, Gr. iroivr), 
iatpoena, pain; Ir. /teuma, Gr. ntv/jia, Lat. rheuma, phlegm; Ir. ^ac, 
Gr. o-ak-Koc, Lat. saccus, a sack or bag ; Ir. j'Cjf, Gr. <rica^>j, Lat. scapha, 
a ship ; Ir. /~be;/t or /^5e;/t, Gr. afyaipa, Lat. splicer a t the sky, the 
sphere; Ir. ;tra;b, Gr. oraSfov, Lat. stadium, a furlong; Ir. ta/tb, Gr. 
rov/>oc, Lat. taurus, a bull; Ir. tja/tna, Gr. -upavvoc, Lat. tyrannus, a 
lord or king; Ir. tojl, Gr. OeXijjua, Lat. voluntas, tlie will. The Iberno- 
Celtic monosyllable co;l is the root of the Latin and Greek words, as 
well as of the Latin volo. Ir. tr^t;, Gr. r s ot?, Lat. tres, tria, three. 

This list might be made much longer, and carried even to a greater ex- 
tent than the limits of a Preface could reasonably admit ; especially as 
it is now to be followed by another series of Irish and Greek words of the 
like affinity, in which the Latin takes but little or no share, and from 
which it will further appear how abundantly the Greek hath derived its 
words from the old Celtic, the primitive and universal language of all 
Europe, its north-east parts alone excepted. And this abundant deriva- 
tion of the Greek from the Celtic, would, I am convinced, appear still 
more remarkably, if such another comparative vocabulary as this I am 
working at, were made up in a series of German and Greek words, 
agreeing with each other in radical structure as well as in signification. 
Iff reason for thinking so is, because it is in my thought very natural to 
believe that Germany received its first inhabitants remotely from 
Thracia and the two Mysias, and immediately from Dacia and Pannonia, 
as hath been laid down in the above plan of the first population of 
Europe ; and consequently that the German language must abound with 
the old Thracian, Phrygian, and Macedonian tongue, which was origi- 


nally but a dialect of the Celtic. Here follows the series of Irish and 
Greek words as above described : Ir. <xj<xlld, a speech or declaration., 
Gr. cryyeAAw, nuncio, whence ayytXog, and the Latin angelus ; Ir. <x;be, 
M., the face or countenance, Gr. oc, species, prcRstans forma, a good 
face or countenance ; Ir. <xjbme, pronounced <x;me, Gr. ai/uiog, coarse or 
shrubby land, Lat. dumus ; Ir. <x;n, Gr. cuvrj, praise, honour ; Ir. <x/ig, 
Gr. aoyog, white ; Ir. cumrou, a horse's neck-band, or collar, Gr. ei/z/ia, 
I vinc'idum, a band or bandage ; Ir. <x/i, slaughter, Gr. Apijc, Mars ; Ir. 
beann, Gr. jSouvoe, the summit of a mountain, or the top of any thing ; 
Ir. c<xc, the excrement of man or beast, Gr. KUKKI], dung; Ir. ca/i/t<xjc, 

a rock, also a stone-castle, Gr. vapa!;, a rock or bulwark ; Ir. c<xla, Gr. 
XoAeTroe, hard ; Ir. cam, crooked, Gr. KOJUTTTW, to make crooked ; Ir. col, 

Gr. Ko\ov(TiQ, an impediment ; Ir. c/io, Gr. Kvap, the eye of a needle ; 
Ir. Cjion, dark or brown coloured, Gr. xp w > to colour; Ir. c/ijt, a 
trembling, Gr. KpatW, to tremble ; Ir. cujfim, Gr. Kovpjut, beer or ale ; 
Ir. bea/ic, the eye, Gr. Stp/cto, to see. The Celtic be<x/ic is manifestly 
the root of the Greek verb SepKw, and the more evidently as verbs are 
generally derived from nouns. I doubt that any other language affords 
a word of a stronger or more natural signification than that which is the 
only word in the Irish to signify sight, or the eye-sight, I mean ;t<x;b- 
bea/ic, contracted into ^ajbedfic, whose literal meaning is, in Latin, 
radii oculorum, the rays of the eyes; Ir. bo/idj", Gr. Ovpaz, accusat. 
plur. a door ; Ir. bu/1, Gr. i/Swp, water. Plato in his Cratilus is of 
opinion that this word, as also TTVO, fire, and KVVEC, dogs, are derived 
from the Phrygian language. He might as properly have derived them 
from the Celtic of Europe, wherein u/i is fire, cujn, dogs, and bu/t, water, 
whence the termination bu/ium of many names of towns in the Celtic 
countries. Ir. bj<xcu;/i, grief, Gr. <Wpoue, tears ; Ir. ^^Ijf, Gr. jij- 
j\ianog, a tickling; Ir. lea^t<x/i, plur. lea^a;/i, ships, Gr. Xrjarrjcja pi- 
rate, and Arjorpticov, a sea-rover ; whence Lestrigones, the name of a pira- 
tical people anciently settled in Italy ; Ir. obcxn, Gr. 0o|3oc> fear, dread ; 
Ir. 7-e<x/icall, Gr. cropica, accusat. flesh ; Ir. ^noeu^t, Gr. juopov, a black- 
berry; Ir. 7710/7 and /vjn, Gr. ptv, the nose; Ir. t;me, Gr. T^JJ, honour 
or dignity ; Ir. ton, Gr. VWTOV, the breech ; Ir. tjtOfc<x, fast, Gr. 0pccrKta, 
in the compound word tOtXo-OptaKia, i. e. voluntaria jejunia, and 
rendered in the vulgate, superstitio, from the original Greek of the 
Epistle to the Collosenses, c. 2. v. 23. where it alludes to the super- 
stitious Judaical fasts observed without authority ; vid. Buxtorf. Si/nag. 
Jud. c. 13. versus Jinem. Ir. c/-ie;b, a quarrelling with words, a dispute, 
Gr. OptTTt, (vid. Scholiast. Aristophan. in voce thrette,) to litigate or 

dispute ; Ir. o;ce and u;ce, Gr. vyta, (in the compound word aicpovu- 

X<a, nox intempesta,} the night. Ma 

this list, had not our Preface been already stretched to too great a length. 

The reader may remark that the Irish words in the preceding lists are 
either of one or two syllables, and that the Greek and Latin words cor- 
}. i, responding to them are generally of two or three syllables, which is a 
* plain mark of their being derivatives from the Celtic. 

Before I have dismissed tin's subject, I find myself interested by the 
plan I have laid down to account for the origin of the affinity still sub- 


sisting iii some measure between the ancient different languages of 
Europe in its south and south-west parts, to make a i'ew remarks on a 
system of quite a different tendency published last year at London on 
the same subject, in a work entitled " The Remains of Japhet," wherein 
all the different dialects of the posterity of Japhet by his sons Gomer 
and Magog, are reduced by the learned author to the one common name 
of Japhetan Language, which, he says, "was afterwards called Pelas- 
gian, and then the Gomerian and Mogogian, or Scythian language ; 
which, he adds, is now to be found only in Ireland, the Highlands of 
Scotland and Wales; and hence," says he, "I count the Irish and 
Welch to be sister dialects of the Pelasgian." These are the very words 
of the author, (Praef. p. 12.) by which we see he not only reduces all the 
different dialects of the Japhetan language under the one general name 
of Pelasgian, which he consequently must mean to be the national name 
of all the descendants of Japhet by his two sons Gomer and Magog; but 
also adds that the name of Pelasgian was more ancient than that of Go- 
merian and Magogian, or Scythian language. This learned author does 
not stop here, but extends the Pelasgian name still farther, by attributing 
it also to the dialect of the descendants of Javan, the fourth son of Ja- 
phet, (Genes. 10. 2.) for in the first place he tells us, (chap. 1. p. 47.) 
that, " thus," to cite his own words, " was the Ionian or Gomerian lan- 
guage first founded in Greece, the isles of Elisha, and afterwards called 
Pelasgian;" where, by the by, he identifies the name Ionian with Gome- 
rian, as he does in the preceding page, though those two races, and their 
names, proceeded from two different persons, both sons of Japhet. This 
notion surely could not be a consequence of the mistake committed in 
chap. 1. p. 35, where Javan is set down as the third son of Gomer, 
which must be through inadvertency, or the fault of the printer, since 
the author mentions him as the fourth son of Japhet in p. 41. It is 
likely the descendants of Gomer and Javan used but almost one and the 
same language in the primitive times of their separation ; but as this 
learned author acknowledges that Greece was first peopled by Javan 
and his children, I cannot imagine why he identifies the Javonian and 
Gomerian, as well as the Pelasgian dialects in so many different places 
throughout his book, even when speaking of times of great distance 
from the epoch of the dispersion of mankind. The few remarks I have 
f x *~ to make on this learnecf"auffior's system cannot, with any reason, be 
judged offensive to liim, since I begin with fairly confessing that I have 
not acquired erudition enough to understand it, or to discover any solid 
foundation he may have to extend the Pelasgian name not only to all 
the posterity of Javan and their language, but also to all those of Gomer 
and Magog, and their different and widely spreading dialects through- 
out all Europe and the greater part of the Asiatic regions ; a point he 
insists on in many places besides those I have quoted, and very remark- 
ably in the following words, ch. 3. p. 71 : " But though the whole issue 
of Japhet were first called Pelasgians in general, yet they appear to have 
been all along considered, both in Scripture, and among the earliest as 
well as modern authors, under the two general appellations of Gomerians 
or Celts, and Scythians." And here it is observable that our author, who 


now makes no mention of the Javonians, must still mean to identify them 
with the Gomerians, since he says that " all the issue of Japhet were first 
called Pelascpans, and then Gomerians," &c. 

The origin of the Pelasgians, and the derivation of their name, is 
well known to be a very uncertain point : I have diligently examined all 
the different accounts given of them by the ancient historians, such as 
Herodotus, Thucidides, Pausanias, Strabo, Dionys. Halicarn., Macro- 
bins, besides what little Homer and Hesiod say of them ; all which 
authors I have now before me, and have pretty maturely consulted. I 
have also compared the different opinions given of them by the moderns, 
such as Gurtlerus, de Originibus, 1. 1. c. 15, 17, &c., Pezron, Fromont 
the elder, Peloutier, and others ; and after all, I can only say that the 
origin of the Pelasgians and that of their name is a point that seems to 
me still wrapped up in its primitive uncertainty and obscurity. It ap- 
pears indeed by all accounts that they were very ancient inhabitants of 
different parts of Greece, removing successively from one quarter to 
another; and I see no absurdity, though no certainty, in the opinion of 
their being the descendants of some of the earliest planters of that coun- 
try. But of what particular stock, whether Javonians or Gomerians, or of 
the posterity of Peleg, the fourth descendant from Shem, as Epiphanius 
gives room to think them, and as Gurtlerus assures himself, no body can 
determine with any degree of certainty. Strabo, lib. 5, upon the autho- 
rity of Ephorus, who, he says, had his from Hesiod, derives their origin 
and name from Pelasgus, the founder of the kingdom of Arcadia, and so 
does Macrobius, Saturnal. 1. 5. c. 18, which is the more apparent, as the 
former tells us in the same place that it was upon Hesiod's authority 
that Ephorus had derived the origin of the Pelasgians from Arcadia, as 
being descendants of Pelasgus; for Strabo had, a few lines before, cited 
Ephorus in the following words, for having related that those people 
were originally Arcadians : " Eos (Pelasgos) originem ab Arcadibus du- 
centes, vitam militarem delegisse, author est Ephorus;" to which he 
adds, " that having induced many other people to observe the same mi- 
litary institution, they were all distinguished by the one common name of 
Pelasgians ;" which, we may observe, furnishes one reason to account for 
their multiplicity. But who this Pelasgus was, or of what origin, is 
another point that still remains involved in very deep obscurity. Sir 
Isaac Newton, accustomed to give no proofs but demonstrations, tells Us, 
without proof, that Pelasgus was one of the race or subjects of the Pastor 
Kings of Egypt, made fugitives by Misphragmuthosis, and that he came 
to Greece, together with Inachus, Lelex, Oeolus, the old Cecrops, and 
others, all adventurers of the same pastor-race. But we are told by 
Greek historians that he was the son of Jupiter by Niobes. Vid. Gurt- 
ler. 1. 1. c. 15. s. 15. The learned Fromont the elder is very positive 
that the Pelasgians were originally Philistines, and the same people as 
the Lclei^os. But whatsoever origin or stock Pelasgus may be of, if we 
suppose the Pelasgians to be his descendants, their antiquity in Greece 
must, be allowed very respect able, as Gurtlerus and Simson refer him t<> 
A. M. 2420, about, 1600 yeaw before Christ, though still very short of 
what it would be, had they descended from ihe Javonians or lonians. 


who, according to Josephus, Epiphanius, and others, were the first inha- 
bitants of Greece. And indeed if what Herodotus relates (in Polymn.) 
as the opinion of the Greeks in his time, viz. that the lones. when they 
had lived in Achaia of Peloponnesus, which, he says, was before the time 
of Danaus and Xuthus, the son of Deucalion, were called Pelasgi 
.'Egiales, or Littorales, but afterwards lones, from Ion, the son of 
Xuthus ; if this report of the Greeks, T say, were well founded, it would 
seem to identify those Pelasgi ^Egiales, or Littorales, with the old 
lonians. But Herodotus seems to have had no opinion of the foundation 
of that report of the Greeks in his time, for when first he mentions the 
Pelasgi in his first book, after observing that they were a different 
people from the Hellenians or Greeks, being of different language and 
manners, and that they were perpetually removing from place to place, 
(which, it would seem, may be partly owing to their military way of liv- 
ing,) he adds, " that under King Deucalion they inhabited the coast of 
Phthiotis, (near that bay which in Ptolemy's maps is called Sinus Pelas- 
gicus,) that under Dorus, the son of Deucalion, they removed to Estiotis, 
(in Upper Thessaly,) that being thence expelled by the Cadmaeans, they 
settled for some time in a place called Macednus in Pindus, (a city or 
territory of the Dorians,) whence they returned to Thessaly, then called 
Dryopides, and that it was from this last station they came into Pelopon- 
nesus, where they were called Dorici, or Dores;" doubtless for their 
having lived among the Dorians of Thessaly ; Pindus, where they had 
lived for some time, being, as I have just now said, one of their cities or 
territories, and which with Erineus, Boius, Cytinius, and Doris, all 
situate about Mount Pindus, constituted the Dorian State. See Diod. 
Sycul. 1. 11. c. 79. and Gurtler. 1. 2. c. 30. s. 55. 

But the author of " The Remains of Japhet," availing himself of 
this appellation of Pelassi &giales } which Herodotus mentions to have 
been attributed, by a vulgar report among the Greeks, to the lones of 
Peloponnesus, concludes thereupon, not only that the Pelasgi were the 
same people as the Sicyones or ^Egiales, subjects of ^Egialeus, the first 
king of Sicyonia, but also that they were the most ancient settled people 
of all the Greeks, inasmuch as " the Slavonians were the eldest settled 
kingdom of all Greece," according to Bishop Cumberland, whom he 
quotes, pp. 81, 82. This conclusion our erudite author introduces by 
the following lines, p. 88 : " The most ancient monarchy of these (the 
Pelasgi) was that of the Sicyonians, and their country was called 
Sicyonia, situated on the north-west side of the Peloponnesus ; but the 
name of this peninsula was first /Egialea, which, in the opinion of the 
famous Bishop Cumberland, was so called either from its first king, 
/Egialeus, or because it lay near the shore of that peninsula." This pe- 
riod, indeed, seems somewhat obscure ; to me, at least, I confess it is 
not intelligible. But the following in p. 82 is very clear : " Now as to 
the Sicyonians. a division of the Pelasgi, which was the first and general 
name of all the original settlers, their antiquity cannot be disputed ; for 
Herodotus says, in his Polymttia, that the Greeks Affirm the people of 
this kingdom, ^Egialea, were called Pelasgi ^Eszialenses before Danaus 
came into Greece, and before Xuthus' time, whose son Ion is fabulously 


said to have given the name lones to some of the inhabitants of Greece." 
Now with this worthy author's good leave, I humbly think these two pa- 
ragraphs of his work may want some share of revision for their greater 
accuracy. For in the first place, I must observe to him, that Herodotus 
does not say " the Greeks affirmed that the people of the kingdom of 
^Sgialea were called Pelasgi ./Egialenses," as this writer sets down ; but 
that the Tones of Achia, in Peloponnesus, were said to be so called, ac- 
cording to the report of the Greeks. lones qui quamdiu in Peloponneso 
Regionem quce vocatur Achia incoluerunt, et ante adventum Danai et 
Xutti in Peloponnesum (ut Greed aiunt) vocabantur Pelasgi ^Egiales 
sen Littorales, sed ab lone Xuthi^/fo lones sunt appellati. These are 
the precise words of Herodotus in the Latin edition revised by Henricus 
Stephanus. In the next place I do not find any authority for this author's 
assertion, " that JEgialea was the first name of the peninsula of Pelopon- 
nesus ;" nor does it appear that it was even the first name of Sicyonia, 
but rather the contrary ; inasmuch as I find in Ptolemy's map of that pe- 
ninsula, which now lies open before me, the following words marked 
down in that part which comprehended the kingdom of Sicyonia, 
" Sicyonia, prius Micone, post ^gialis" Besides all this, it is to be 
considered that Herodotus, as I have already observed, does not appear 
to have any good opinion of that report of the Greeks about the Pelasgi 
^giales, especially as by his account of the migrations of the Pelasgi, 
they did not enter into Peloponnesus until long after the time of ^Egia- 
leus, who, by all accounts, was of much higher antiquity than either Da- 
naus or Xuthus. And another reason why this author could not, with 
any degree of certainty, have concluded, from the appellation of Pelasgi 
JEgiales, that the Pelasgian name in Peloponnesus was as ancient as 
^Egiales, or the kingdom of Sicyonia, is, that the word sEgiales is made 
synonimous to Littoralis, not only by the Latin edition of Herodotus, 
but also by Bishop Cumberland, as above cited by our author, and by 
Fromont the elder, who likewise derives the proper name of King 
JBgiales, from his having settled himself near the shore ; and this deri- 
vation is the more natural as mytaAoc in Greek signifies the same as 
littus, a shore. In short, all that can be said, with any appearance of 
foundation or probability, for the antiquity of the Pelasgian name in 
Peloponnesus, in my humble opinion, is reducible to this alone : that 
after the removal of the Pelasgi from Thessaly to that Peninsula, where, 
according to the above account of Herodotus, they were called Dorici or 
Dores, (a name which they brought with them from Doris, where they 
had inhabited, in the city of Pindus, as I have already observed, and 
what I find confirmed by Gurtlerus, lib. 2. c. 30. s. 56.) The lones of 
the Peloponnesian Achia, who then were settled in the twelve cities enu- 
merated by Herodotus in his first book, having plain cause of appre- 
hending the consequences of the growing power and ambition of the 
Athenians, joined both in alliance and military institution with those 
Doric Pelasgians, as being a numerous tribe of veteran soldiers. In 
consequence of which junction the lonians were called Pelasgi ^Egiales, 
i. o. Littorales, as being all situated on the coast of Achia, behind 
Sicyonia, towards the west. And this new appellation of the lonians is 


naturally consequent from Strabo's account of the Pelasgi, of whom he 
says that all the different people who had associated themselves with 
them in the same institution of a military life, were distinguished by the 
same name of Pelasgi: ad quam vitcp (militaris) institutionem cum alias 
permidtos convert issent, idem omnibus rocabulum impertisse. Strabo, 
(ex Ephoro,) lib. 5. The apprehension of the Tones was but too well 
grounded, inasmuch as they were afterwards dispossessed of their twelve 
cities by the Adrians, or Athenians, who transplanted them backward of 
Athens into Hellas, or Hellades, afterwards called Achaia, on the conti- 
nent of Greece in Lower Thessaly, where they could secure them from 
any junction with the Spartans. 

The circumstance explained in the above quotation from Strabo, ac- 
counts very naturally, as I have hinted before, for the great extent of the 
Pelasgian name ; and this author, immediately after his remark in that 
passage, plainly tells us it was from that circumstance it happened that 
the Pelasgian name was famous in Greta, Thessalia, Lesbos, and the 
neighbourhood of Troas. Other authors, particularly Pausanias and 
Dionysius Hallicarnassus, extended that name to other parts of Greece 
and the Ionian coasts of Asia ; and this, I think, is all that can be said of 
the Pelasgi and the cause of the extent of their name. As to that adven- 
turing band of them that went to Italy, they were so inconsiderable that 
the Aborigines conceived no jealousy against them for their number, but 
received them with open arms as their auxiliaries against the Umbrians. 
Peloutier cites Thucidides as if he had said that the Pelasgians were 
most widely dispersed throughout all Greece before the time of Hellen, 
the son of Deucalion. His quotation runs thus : ante cetatem Hellenis 
ftli > Deitcalionis gens Pelasgica latissime diffusa erat. Thucid. 1. 1. 
c. 3. I have scrupulously examined Thucidides, not only in his first 
book and third chapter here cited, but throughout the whole Latin copy 
revised and published by Henricus Stephanus, and could find no words 
to that purpose in any part of his work, nor any mention of the Pelasgi 
but in two places. First in that very place cited by Peloutier, where I 
only find these lines wherein the Pelasgi are occasionally mentioned : 
ante Trojanum helium constat Helladem (postea Achiam) nihil commu- 
niter egisse ; ac ne ipsum q u idem hoc nomen tota ubiqtie mihi ridetur 
habuisse, scd qucedam loca ante Hellenem Deucalionis filiiim : nee us- 
quequaque hocfuisse cognomen, sed turn suum cuj usque gentis pro- 
priif.m, turn Pelasgicum a seipsis cognomen imposition. This only shews 
that the Pelasgians were one of the different people that inhabited Hel- 
lades in Lower Thessaly before the reign of Hellenes, which agrees 
with Herodotus's account above related. The other mention of the Pe- 
lasgians by Thucidides, is in his fourth book, where he only says of them 
that the Pelasgici Tyrrheni were formerly inhabitants of Lemnus and 
Athens. In the last-cited page of " The Remains of Japhet" the 
learned author advances, " that Pelasgi was the first and general name 
for all the original settlers." Certainly he could not have devised a more 
concise and effectual method to comprehend within that name, not only 
all the primitive descendants of Japhet, but also those of his two bro- 
thers. But I apprehend he will scarce be able to reconcile it with the 


particular character given of those people by Herodotus and Strabo, of 
whom the former, in his account above related, says of them : ilia vero 
(gens Pelasgica) assidue multumque est pervagata ; and the latter ob- 
serves that the Attican writers said of the Pelasgians, that being accus- 
tomed to go about like birds wherever chance or fortune led them, they 
were hence, instead of Pelasgr, called Pelargi, i. e. Ciconiae, meaning 
storks or cranes, a kind of strolling birds. Rerum Atticarum scriptores 
de Pelasgis tradidere Athenis fuisse Pelasgos, qui cum, instar ai'ium 
quo sors vocaret hue atque illuc errabundi commearant, pro Pelasgi, 
Pelargl, i. e. Ciconice vocarentur ab Atheniensibus. It is from this 
unsettled kind of life, and from the radical derivation of the word Pe- 
lasgi, that the erudite Fromont the elder, and the very judicious and 
learned author of the Mechanical Formation of Languages, make the 
name Pelasgi synonimous to dispersi; and indeed it would seem by 
Strabo's remarking that all those who came into the military institution 
of the Pelasgi, which engaged them to march from place to place, 
wherever they found it advantageous to take party as auxiliaries, that 
this appellation of Pelasgi was rather significative of their profession or 
state of life, than the particular name of a tribe or nation. From all this 
it follows, that the Pelasgi were of all others the people who had the 
least right to be called Settlers. 

One point relative to the Pelasgi at which, I confess, I am somewhat 
surprised, is the great consideration they are held in by some modern 
writers on account of their religious maxims, as they are described by 
Herodotus in the following passages, by which the learned reader will 
judge whether the Pelasgi deserve to be extolled, as they are by those 
writers, for their manner of worship, as if it were agreeable to the pure 
patriarchal religion : " Hos itaque ritus, et alios praeterea quos referam, 
Greed sunt ab ^Egyptiis mutuati ; sed ut Mercurii statuam facerent por- 
recto cum veretro non ab dEgyptiis, sed a Pelasgis didicerunt, et primi 
quidem ex omnibus Graacis Athenienses acceperunt, et ab his deinceps 
alii : nam praestabant apud Grcecos ea tempestate Athenienses, in quo- 
rum regione permixti Pelasgi habitant, ex quo coeperunt pro GriKcis 
haberi. Quisquis Cabirorum sacris fuit initiatus, quae Samothraces 
peragunt a Pelasgis sumpta, is, o vir, quae dico intelligit. Nam Samo- 
thraciam prius incoluerunt hi Pelasgi qui cum Atheniensibus habitave- 
runt, et ab illis Samothraces orgia acceperunt." It seems to me very 
extraordinary that those writers who affect to extol the religion of the 
Pelasgi, take no sort of notice of this fine sample of their piety, which 
they communicated to the Athenians in the shameful attitude of the sta- 
tue of their god Mercury, no more than of their horrid Cabirian myste- 
ries, of which they were the authors, according to the above account ; 
mysteries which not only encouraged but even required fratricide. 
Cablros autem dam Corybantes vacant, mortem quoqm Cabiricam an- 
nunciant. Hi enim duo fratricides sublatam cistam, in qua pudendum 
Dionysi erat repositum, vexerunt in Hetruriam, egregiarum mercitmi. 
mercatores. Ibique habitantes exules, venerabdem pietatis doefrinam, 
pudenda cistamque Hetruscis colendam commendarunt. Clem. Alex. 
Admon. ad Gent. p. 1 2. And Firmianus informs us, that at the cele- 


bration of those Cabirian and Corybantian rites, it was required that two 
brothers should kill a third brother, and to the end that this pious cere- 
mony should not be profaned by being made known to the public, the 
two parricide brothers were to consecrate and bury the murdered body 
under the cliff of Mount Olympus. The approvers of the religion of the 
Pelasgi must have taken no notice of those horrors, of which they were 
the first inventors among the Greeks, by the account of Herodotus. 
See also Gurtler. 1. 1. c. 17. s. 22, 23. But here follows the passage, in 
the same place of Herodotus, which is strained, and indeed it must be 
violently strained, to found a favourable opinion of the primitive religion 
of the Pelasgi as here described; at least it will never appear from it, 
that their manner of religious worship was the same as that of the 
Patriarchs, who worshipped the one and only true God ; whereas the 
Pelasgi professed at all times a plurality of Gods, as appears by this 
passage of Herodotus which here followeth, lib. 2 : lidem autem, (Pe- 
lasgi) in deorurn invocatione turn omnia immolabunt (iiti ego apud Do- 
donam audiendo cognovi} turn nidli deorum ant cognomen ant nomen 
imponebcau, quippe quod nondum aud'rissent multo deinde pro- 
gress u temporis al tor inn deorum nomina audierunt ex sEgypto allata, 
post quos din nomen Dionyst acceperunt. Here we see that the Pe- 
lasgi always admitted a plurality of gods, and that the reason why they 
gave them no particular names was because they had heard of no such 
names until they were received from the Egyptians. It is well known 
to all readers of antiquity that in the primitive ages, after the knowledge 
and worship of the true Deity had been generally swerved from, no na- 
tion, not even the Egyptians, as appears from the first book of Diodorus 
Siculus, knew or worshipped any other gods than the sun, moon, stars, 
and the four elements ; and that idolatry was not in practice until after- 
ages, when the different nations began to deify their kings and illus 
trious personages, which seems to have had its first rise from Egypt ana 
Phanicia, whence it first came to the knowledge of the Greeks, as ap- 
pears by the preceding passage ; and in Greece it was first brought to 
perfection and method by Hesiod and Homer, as we are informed by 
Herodotus in the same place, and in the following words : Unde autem 
singuli deorum extiterint, an cuncti semper fuerint, ant qua specie, 
hactenus ignorati/m est, nisi nuper atque heri, ut sic dicam. Nam 
Hesiodus atque Homerus (quos quadringcntis non amplius annis ante 
me opinor extitisse) fuere qui Gratis theogomam introdurerunt, diis- 
que et cogno?nina, et honores, et diversa sacrificia, etfiguras attribue- 
i'nnt. Here we see no particular merit can be derived on the religion of 
the Pelasgi from their observing no difference of sacrifices, since no 
such difference was known to the Greeks before Hesiod and Homer had 
instructed them of it. 

These remarks on the history of the Pelasgi I have made with a view 
to submit them entirely to the" judgment of the learned author of the 
Remains of Japhet. Far from being disposed to derogate in the least 
from the merit of his work, I rather should, in my quality of a mere 
Irishman of the old stock, show him my gratitude for his zeal in assert- 
ing that Patriarchal senealosy of Milesius which our bards have been 



stout enough to trace up to our first lathers through the plains of Senaar, 
mentioning also in their way both the Pharaohs of Egypt and Moses, 
V ][ though they knew not one step of that dark road, no more than Senaar 
and these personages, until they had learned them from the holy scrip- 
tures. As to this erudite author's first peopling Ireland from the 
Scythian countries by a north-west route, I must take leave to observe to 
him, that it manifestly appears, from the nature of the Irish language, 
that Ireland was peopled by Celts both from Gaul and Spain, long be- 
fore the arrival of the colony brought thither by Milesius ; and that of 
the Tuatha de Domain, or the Dananian tribes, who had preceded the 
Milesians, the only Scythian colonies that ever came to Ireland before 
the Norwegians or Danes, that were expelled by Brien Boiroimhe in the 
beginning of the eleventh century. I am not interested to make any re- 
marks against this learned author's making the Britons a Gomerian co- 
lony, and bringing them by sea from Greece, though a great deal could 
be said, and has already been said upon good grounds by several learned 
writers against the old reveries of Jeflfry of Monmouth, who first pub- 
lished that opinion, whose chief materials he had found in Nennius. 
But if he means, as it seems he does, that the Britons, ancestors of the 
Welch, were the first inhabitants of Albion, afterwards called Britain, 
he will, I am confident, find the contrary of that opinion well evinced in 
the preceding part of this Preface, where it is proved, both by good au- 
thorities and what may be called living evidences, that that island was 
peopled before them by the Guidhelians or Celts of Gaul, who after- 
wards constituted the main body of the Irish nation. As for this learned 
writer's making the Irish language a dialect of the Scythian, formed, as 
he says, upon the authority of the Irish bards, at the famous school on 
the plains of Shinar or Senaar, by a king of Scythia, called Feniusa 
Farsa, son of Baath, wlio is pretended to be a son of Magog, I do not 
conceive how he can reconcile this opinion of the Irish being a dialect of 
the Scythian or Magogian language, with that circumstance he mentions, 
p. 119, " that it is called Gaoidhealg, from its first professor at the above 
school, by name Gadel, a Gomerian," and that the language he then 
spoke and taught as an usher of that school under that royal school- 
master Feniusa Farsa, grandson of Magog, is the language of the native 
Irish to this day ; a very venerable antiquity, I must conless. But at the 
same time I cannot but regret that this worthy gentleman, who appears 
but too well inclined to favour the antiquities of Ireland and Britain, 
did not consider that nothing could be of greater prejudice or discredit 
to them than asserting those fabulous genealogies, and the stories of the 
fi v travels of the supposed leaders and chiefs of their ancient colonies, such 
as have been rejected with just contempt by all learned nations, first 
invented in Ireland by bards and romancers after they came to some 
knowledge both of the sacred writings and profane histories ; and in 
Britain by Nennius and JefFry of Monmouth, as above observed. The 
real and true antiquities of Ireland are not to be derived from any other 
sources than our authentic annals, such as those of Tighernach of Innis- 
fallen, and the Chronicon Scotorum, and a few others, wherein no fabu- 
lous stones are taken notice of, such as those of the book called 


Leabber Gabhala, and otbers of tbe kind, published in the translation of 
Doctor Keating's History, which he never intended for the public, but 
only for the amusement of private families; a translation which must 
have been intended for ridiculing and entirely discrediting the Irish 
antiquities, as the publisher of Clanrichard's Memoirs has justly ob- 
served in his erudite preface. The other repositories of the true Irish 
antiquities are, first the very language of the ancient natives, as it is pre- 
served in old parchment manuscripts ; next the history of the customs or 
manners of these same ancient natives, inasmuch as the surest clue for 
tracing out the origin of nations consists both in their language and 
old usages; and in the last place, the ancient names of tribes and 
places, by which the origin of the old natives may likewise be pointed 

Now remains that I should give a particular account of the sources 
and authorities from which the following Irish Dictionary hath been de- 
rived and composed, which consist not only in different vocabularies, but 
also in a good number of the best and most ancient Irish manuscripts 
now extant, as is mentioned in the title page. The chief vocabularies 
which are inserted in this Dictionary are those of Lhuyd, Plunkel, and 
Clery, with others of anonymous authors, besides particular collections 
of words taken out of different old writings by persons of the best skill 
in the Irish language, with whom I kept a correspondence of letters for 
that purpose for several years. The manuscripts out of which I have 
taken a great number of words not to be found in any of the vocabularies 
above mentioned, are the Annals of Tighernach, of Innisfallen, those called 
Chronicon Scotor unhand that great and voluminous repository of the old 
Irish language, called LeaHdft Orie<xc,orthe Speckled Book of Mac Eagan, 
containing a great collection of lives of saints and historical tracts, and 
whereof my copy hath been writteiLsoon after the middle of the eleventh 
century, as appears by a list of the archbishops of Armagh down to the 
writer's time, who finishes it with CD<xol;;-a. OD<xc-<f mdtjcijb, who suc- 
ceeded to that see an. 1165. Another very ancient parchment manu- 
script entitled pe;t;/ie na f-Jaom, or the Book of Vigils and Feasts of 
Saints, together with that extensive Life of St. Patrick, called f'ita 7V/- 
partita, written, according to the judicious Colganus, about the middle 
of the sixth century ; besides another Life of the same Saint, written by 
Fiechus, one of his earliest disciples, in the beginning of the sixth cen- 
tury, and the Life of St. Brigit, composed by Broganus about the year 
625, as is solidly proved by Colganus in his Notes on that Life. The 
History of the Wars of Thomond, or North Munster, written in a very 
florid and copious stile by John Magrath in the year 1459, is another 
great repository of the Irish language, which is often quoted in this Dic- 
tionary, to whose composition several other manuscripts and printed 
books have also contributed. One advantage which accrues for the cul- 
tivation of the Irish language, from our having inserted and explained in 
this Dictionary the hard words that occur in old manuscripts is, that it 
will enable all readers of Irish to understand such manuscripts ; what 
will encourage them to cultivate that ancient language, which is the best 


preserved remains of the old Celtic of Gaul and Spain, as hath been 
already proved by several reasons and authorities. 

But before we have finished this Preface, it may be necessary to ob- 
viate an objection that might possibly be made against our opinion of 
the purity of the Irish dialect, and our deriving it almost entirely from 
the old Celtic of Gaul, or rather identifying the one language with the 
other, allowing only a small mixture of the old Spanish, and without 
taking much notice of any mixtures it should naturally have received 
from the two Scythian or Scytho-German colonies, the Dananians and 
the Scots, which we acknowledge not only to have been mixed with the 
primitive Irish, but also to have obtained sovereign sway amongst them, 
at least in the northern provinces. This objection, which indeed carries 
a plausible appearance, can, notwithstanding, be obviated, as I humbly 
think, in a very natural manner ; by which it will appear that the mix- 
ture which the primitive language of the main body of the old Irish na- 
tion, before those Scytho-German colonies, could have received from 
their dialects, may justly be esteemed as inconsiderable, or rather almost 
as a mere nothing, as that which may be thought to have been intro- 
duced into the Irish of all our manuscripts written from the time of the 
arrival of the English, Welch, and Norman colonies in Ireland, down to 
our own days : manuscripts which shew not the least mixture of English. 
The reason is very plain and natural, and can very pertinently be ex- 
emplified and confirmed by what happened in Ireland relative to the 
people now last mentioned. All the Celtic nations, as may clearly be 
inferred from Cesar's Account of his Wars with the Gauls, Germans, 
and Britons, as also from other ancient writers, were divided at all times 
into different tribes and petty sovereignties, all as independent of each 
other as their respective forces could make them, almost perpetually in 
war amongst themselves, at least in one part or other of the same nation, 
and never acknowledging any one common sovereign or monarch, but 
when they all judged it necessary for their defence against a common 
enemy to choose a supreme commander invested with all civil and mili- 
tary power, as in the case of Cassivellanus : " Non enim unius imperio 
regcbantur (says Cambden) sed, ut Gallia, sic quoque Britannia plures 
reges habuit. Utque Gallia in rebus difficilioribus publicum gentis 
concilium egerunt, et unum imperatorem designarunt ; idem Britannos 
praestitisse ex his Caesaris verbis elici possit. Summa imperil belli(///<' 
administrandi communi concilia permissa est Cassivillauno" From 
this political constitution of all the Celtic nations it naturally followed, 
that whenever an adventuring party of strangers came into a Celtic 
country, they could never fail of being well received by one tribe or 
other of the nation, who employed them as their auxiliaries against those 
of their neighbours with whom they had any quarrel ; and in proportion 
as those auxiliaries helped the natives to weaken each other by their 
quarrels, so they themselves gained ground and strength from day to 
day, until they reduced, at long run, the silly warring tribes under their 
own sway. And as such foreign adventurers and sea-rovers from the 
northern parts always came in small numbers and parties, without 
charging their leather boals and .small vessels with women, so they were 


under the necessity of begging wives from the natives of the countries 
they were received in : an instance of which fact Beda gives (Hist. Eccl. 
c. 1.) in his account of the manner in which the Scandinavian Picts got 
wives from the Irish Scots, who certainly were their countrymen, as ap- 
pears by the proper names of the chiefs or petty kings of both people, 
and from several other arguments. The necessary consequence of this 
mixture and alliance of these new adventuring people with the old na- 
tives of the country was, that they, or at least their children, lost their 
own original language, and spoke no other than that of the nation they 
mixed with ; which was exactly the case with the first English settlers 
in Ireland, who soon became mere Irishmen in their language and man- 
ners, so as to have entirely disused the English, and spoke nothing but 
Irish : a circumstance which made the English government think proper 
to oblige them to return to the use of the English language, and disuse 
the Irish, under certain penalties specified in an Act of Parliament, in 
whose preamble it is observed that those English planters were become 
more mere Irish than the very natires of the old sort; ipsis Hibernis 
Hiberniores. These arguments, I flatter myself, will sufficiently obviate 
and annihilate all the force of the above-mentioned objection ; especially 
in the eyes of all those who will have read and considered the examples 
and proofs produced by Monsieur Bulet in his Dissertations, where he 
shews, by solid reasons and plain evidences, that the Gauls preserved 
their old language under the empire of the Romans, and for a long time 
after the northern people, Goths, Burgundians, and Franks, had settled 
among them ; and that it was in Charlemagne's time they began to mix 
it with broken Latin. 

The author of the Remains of Japhet thinks his system of deriving 
the Irish language from the Scythian, or rather identifying the one with 
the other, is very clearly and effectually confirmed by Colonel Grant's 
explication of an inscription found on the reverse of a Siberian medal, of 
which that officer gives a copy in a French Memoir addressed to Mon- 
sieur De Lisle, a French envoy or resident at the court of Petersburg. 
Colonel Grant, by his explication of that inscription, published in the 
Remains of Japhet, pretends that the characters and words inscribed on 
that medal are all mere Irish, delivered partly in abbreviations, and 
partly in entire words. I have long examined and pored over that in- 
scription, as published in the now-mentioned work, and can declare to 
the public, with full assurance and knowledge of the matter, that it con-/' 
tains no more of Irish characters or words, either entire or abbreviated, 
than it does of Greek or English, or any other language I have any ac- 
quaintance with. And further, that that officer's Irish explanation of the 
Tartarian words Artugon, Schugo-Teugan, Tangara, not only is vio- 
lently strained, but also shows very clearly that Tie had but a very im- 
perfect knowledge of the Irish language, and none at all of its ortho- 
graphy ; a fact which appears throughout his whole Memoir. And for 
a more evincing proof of this fact, I can, with good authority, inform the 
public that that officer acknowledged to a worthy person of the fairest 
character, both in his public office and private life, in this capital, that 
he could not read the Irish language in its old and common letters or 


types, either in print or manuscript. This he could not avoid acknow- 
ledging, being put to the trial by the person I mean, with whom he had 
a friendly intimacy, and from whose mouth I have received this anec- 
dote. All this serves to shew us how dangerous it is to grasp at every 
appearance of an argument for supporting a favourite opinion. To me 
it is really inconceivable why the author of the Remains of Japhet so 
earnestly insists on deriving the Irish and their language from the Scy- 
thians or Magogians, while he asserts that the Britons and their dialect 
proceeded from the Gomerians ; though he brings them from Greece, a 
country which he mentions in several places to have been first peopled 
by Javan and his posterity, agreeable to Josephus and the authors of the 
Universal History ; and yet as often represents its most ancient inhabi- 
tants as Gomerians or descendants of Gomer. The close and abundant 
affinity, or rather identity, in many instances, so remarkable between the 
Irish and Welch dialects, proves to a demonstration that both people 
proceeded from the same country or the same nation, in times later, by 
many ages, than the epoch of the separation of the Gomerians and Ma- 
gogians ; and as we are assured by Tacitus that the language and man- 
ners of the Britons agreed with those of the Gauls in his time, it evi- 
dently follows, from the close affinity or agreement between the Irish and 
Welch dialects, joined to this testimony of Tacitus, that both people 
were inhabitants of Gaul immediately before they passed over to the 
British isles ; and no good author ever advanced that the Gauls were 
Magogians or Scythians. If we should say, with this learned author, 
that this close agreement between the Irish and Welch dialects hath pro- 
ceeded from the supposed sameness of the dialects of the first descen- 
dants of Gomer and Magog; by the same reason we must conclude, that 
the dialects of any other two different people descended from any two 
sons of Japhet, Sem, or Cham, should keep as close an affinity with each 
other to the present time, as the Irish and Welch dialects mutually pre- 
serve in our days. But this conclusion is very far from being verified by 
experience, nor is it natural or agreeable to reason that it should. The 
difference or alteration wrought in the dialects of any two tribes who 
proceeded separately from the same country or nation with which it once 
made but one and the same people, is owing partly to the difference of 
their climates, which having naturally an influence on their organs of 
speech and their imaginations, causes a like difference in their pronun- 
ciation, and consequently in their language ; and partly to the new dif- 
ferent names they must give the new objects they meet with both in their 
travels and the countries they fix in ; besides the new names and terms 
belonging to the different trades, arts, or sciences they may happen to 
invent or discover in process of time, or regarding their different ways of 
life : all which names and terms must naturally be different in all diffe- 
rent dialects. Now all those alterations, together with what may pro- 
ceed from mixtures of words borrowed 1'rom other people in course of 
time, must always be proportionable to the space of time which has 
elapsed since the first separation of those two tribes or colonies from the 
same common country or stock, with which they once constituted but. 
one and the same nation : so that the difference of their dialects is 


necessarily in a direct ratio of the length of the time elapsed since their 
separation, and consequently their affinity- must always be in an inverse 
ratio of that same space of time. Hence it is manifest, that if we com- 
pare any three or more dialects of the Celtic nations with each other, the 
two whose dialects have preserved the closest affinity are those whose 
separation from each other has been most recent ; allowances being 
made for their situations and difference of climate. And if a just pro- 
portion could be struck out between the respective affinities of the dia- 
lects of any two different people with the dialect of any third separate 
people ; the quantity or space of the time elapsed since their respective 
separations from that third tribe may be determined in some manner ; 
not indeed with precision, but so as to leave it unfixed within the com- 
pass of some few centuries. Thus if we should suppose that the affinity 
of the dialect of the Highlanders of Scotland with the Irish language 
may be in the ratio of three to one with the affinity between the Welch 
dialect and the same Irish language ; then, if no allowances or deduc- 
tions should be made with regard to climate, situation, or other circum- 
stance, the quantity of the time elapsed since the separation of the 
Welch and the Irish, should be in the same ratio of three to one with 
the space of time elapsed from the separation of the Highlanders from 
the Irish ; or, which is the same thing, this last space should be in the 
inverse ratio of three to one with the former. Now, as it is known from 
the Irish Annals that the separation of the Highland Scots from the 
Irish began in the year 503, and that they continued to increase their 
numbers from Ireland during the sixth, seventh, and eighth centuries, we 
may, by taking a medium, fix their entire separation about the middle of 
the eighth century ; that is to say about a little more than one thousand 
years since. Tliis computation, if we should exactly conform to the 
above proportion, would throw back the separation of the Irish from the 
Welch on the continent of Gaul, to the term of three thousand years. 
But as tlieir climates and thei? situations for preserving their respective 
languages in the British Isles, are not very different, we may, with a 
good face of certainty, supposing always the above proportion of affini- 
ties, refer their separation to some epoch between 2300 and 2600 years 
backward of our time ; so as it may be about eight hundred years before 
the birth of Christ : a very inconsiderable antiquity in comparison with 
that of the separation of the Gomerians and Magogians. 

For a conclusion of this Preface, I have one remark to add, which 
tends to shew the perfection and politeness, as well as the antiquity of 
the Irish language. It consists in this one remarkable circumstance, 
that before the Irish came to the knowledge of the Gospel or Christian 
morals, their language had words for all moral duties and virtues, and 
their opposite vices or sins ; nay, and for those acts which are called 
theological virtues, faith, hope, and chanty, and whose Irish names are 
c;te;b;orii, boc<x/-, g/uxb, all three mere original Irish words, such as no 
language can want. The Irish names of the seven mortal sins, u<xb<x/<, 
1 y<x;nt, f)j\u)f, c;t<xop jreo.fig, jro/tro<xb, tej^e, are of the same nature, 
as well as those in which are expressed the ten commandments, the four 
cardinal virtues, the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost, the seven corporal 

-.^v^P^>V* .. 


and seven spiritual works of mercy or piety, and the twelve fruits of the 
Holy Spirit. Galat. 5. 22. Not one of all those names having the 
least resemblance in radical structure to the Scriptural Latin words of 
the same signification, excepting Cfiejbetxm, which I have demonstrated 
above, and in the note at the word ojpijon in the Dictionary, to be an 
original Celtic word, and that upon whose root, which is c^ejb, the 
Latin credo was formed. All this plainly shows that the Druids, who 
were the doctors of morality and religious discipline among the Celts, 
and particularly in Ireland, were a learned body of people, and fully in- 
structed of all moral duties and virtues. For the Irish language could 
not have words for objects or ideas that were unknown to the Irish 
Druids and the rest of their nation. Of the same genuine stock of the 
old Iberno-Celtic, are the names of penitential works, t^io^c<x, bej^tc, 
Ufinajte, i., alms, and prayers; though the first is of a radical 
identity with the Bpriaicua. of the Greek, in the compound word e&Ao- 
0jorj<r;ceta, which expresses the same thing as the Irish compound tojl- 
tpOfca, voluntary fast. Caesar's remark that the Gauls went over to 
Britain for perfecting themselves in the Druidish discipline, shews that 
the Druids who belonged to the colonies that passed over from Gaul to 
the British Isles, carried with them, and preserved in those remote re- 
cesses, the original doctrine of morality, possibly the same that had been 
handed down to them from the Patriarchal times. And if those Gauls 
who went to Britain for that purpose, had passed over to Ireland to be 
instructed by the Irish Druids, it is quite agreeable to reason to think 
that they would have found the primitive traditions still better preserved 
amongst them than among the Britons, who left the continent of Gaul 
much later than the Guidhelian Irish. Another short, but curious re- 
mark to be made on the Irish language is, that though it be not com- 
mon in the other European languages, nor indeed does it seem natural, 
that monosyllabic words should be expressive of complex ideas, yet the 
Iberno-Celtic dialect abounds with such monosyllables. For instance, 
this one syllable nxxrj conveys at once a complex of all the different 
ideas of a stern and proud attitude of a person's head and face, with an 
affected air of the countenance. 

I am very sensible that some account of the origin and antiquity of 
the use of letters in Ireland, would be very pertinent at the head of an 
Irish Dictionary. But as that subject, and the inquiry that should at- 
tend it, would require an extensive dissertation to set it in its due light, 
I have reserved it for another work, which, as I have hinted before, might 
in a short time be made ready for the Press. It is just to inform the 
reader, who will doubtless take notice of several instances of repetitions 
of the same words in different writings throughout this Dictionary, that 
such repetitions proceed partly from the difference of pronunciation in 
the four provinces of Ireland, and partly from the substitution of corn- 
mutable vowels and consonants indifferently for each other. I have fol- 
lowed Mr. Harris's example in his edition of Sir James Ware's works, 
by inserting, in an alphabetical order in the Irish Dictionary, the names 
of the old families of Ireland, and of the territories they anciently pos- 
sessed, but in a more ample manner than Mr. Harris has done. The 


abbreviations used in the Dictionary are explained at the heel of this 
Preface. I would recommend to those who would be desirous to con- 
ceive at once a general notion of the nature and radical constitution of 
the Irish lansiiase, to begin with reading successively the Remarks pre- 
fixed in the Dictionary before even* one of the seventeen letters of the 
Irish alphabet. 

P. S. The author of the following work having forgot to account in 
his Preface for the plain affinity observable in many instances throughout 
the Dictionary between Irish and Anglo-Saxon words of the same signi- 
fication, he now thinks fit to offer as his humble opinion, that that affinity 
may, for the greater part, be rationally derived from the radical agree- 
ment which originally subsisted between all the dialects of the Celtic 
nations, and more especially between those of the Gauls, Germans, Ita- 
lians, Spaniards, and the inhabitants of the British Isles : a fact whereof 
Cluverius has alleged many such proofs, as may be esteemed living evi- 
dences, in his Germ. Antiq., 1. 1. c. 5, 6, 7, 8. And though it hath 
been observed in the Preface that the mixture introduced into the pri- 
mitive Irish language, which was the original Celtic of Gaul, from the 
dialects of the Scytho-German colonies that mixed with the Guidhelians, 
who were the old natives of Ireland, should be esteemed very incon- 
siderable for the reasons therein alleged ; yet the author did not mean to 
deny or doubt Jwft that several words of those Scytho-German dialects 
might have crept into the Guidhelian language, and many more of the 
Germano-Belgic dialects of those several tribes of Belgians whom the 
Irish called Cl<xnna-0olj, or Cj/t-Oolj, i. e. Viri Be/gii, who were 
mixed with the old inhabitants in the different provinces of Ireland, 
where they even obtained sovereign sway for many centuries, especially 
in Leinster and Connaught, in which latter province they maintained 
their sovereignty to the end of the third century. 


H. and Heb. for Hebraice ; Old Parch, for Parchment ; L. and Lat 
for Latine ; PI. for Plunket, and Cl. for Clery ; Gr. for Greece ; Ant. 
Membr. for Antiqua Membrana; W. and Wei. for Welch, and S. W. 
for South Welch, N. W. for North Welch; dim. for diminutive; pi. for 
plural ; Q. for qutsre ; i. e. for id est ; ex. for example ; Ir. for Irish ; 
vid. for vide ; sup. for supra ; qd. vid. for quod vide ; Brit, for British ; 
Syr. for Syriac; Hisp. for Hispanice ; Belg. for JBelgice; Gall, for 
Gallice ; Dan. for Danish; Germ, for Germanic e ; S. for Saint; gen. 
for genitive; Goth, for Gothice ; Teut. for Teutonice; Cantab, for 
Cantabrice; Chal. for Chaldaice; N. B. for notabene; Sc. for Scotch ; 
an. for anno; Sax. for Saxonice; Ang. Sax. for Anglo-Saxon; C<x;t;i. 
Cfro;fib. for Ca;t/ie;m ^ Cbo;/ibealb<xjrr ; Z-. i?. and Leabh. Br. for 
Le<xb<X;-i 0/ie<xc G0;c {Tobjajn, or Mac-Egan's Speckled Book; compar. 
and comp. for comparative ; gen. for genitive; Brog. and Brogan. for 
Broganus; col. for column; p. and pag. for page; c. and ch. for chap- 
ter; v. for. verse; t. and tit. for title; vit. for vita. 


THE letter A is the first in the alphabets of almost all languages, 
though our ancient historians inform us, as O'Flaherty, upon the autho- 
rity of the book of Lecan, observes, that the old Irish like the ^Ethic- 
pians or Abyssines began their alphabet with the letter O, and therefore 
the Irish called it bet-lajf-njon from its three first letters b, I, n. How- 
ever, in imitation of other learned languages, and particularly the Latin, 
whose alphabet was introduced into Ireland by the first missionaries of 
the Christian religion, the modern Irish thought proper to begin their 
alphabet with if. This letter is one of the five vowels (called cu; 
jut<x;be in Irish) and is pronounced broad, like aw in English. It 
is distinguished by the appellative of <vjlro, which seems to signify strictly 
and properly the palm tree, called palma nobilis, and therefore deserves 
precedency ; although Mr. Flaherty, notwithstanding the affinity of the 
words <x;iro and palma, interprets it' the^r tree, Lat. abies. It is not 
unlike the Hebrew K and the Chaldean and Greek a. By our Gram- 
marians it is ranked among the levxran-jut^fce. or broad vowels ; 
and in our old manuscripts we find <x, o and a written indifferently one 
for the other, as in ^<^f, ocor*, aguf, and : as also in bean, beOft, beu/t 
a tear, &c. thus among the /Eolians we find o written for a, as arporoQ for 
(rrparog, an army, ovai for avw, meaning over or above, and the Latins 
have imitated them, saying ilomo from the Greek gajuw, to tame, or 
subdue ; as also Fovius for Fabius, according to Festus, and fort-ens 

<H was sometimes written for the ea of the moderns, as b<xj for 
be<xj, good, &c. it begins all those diphthongs which in Irish are called 
no. cejCfte bdimirtcdjU, or the four aphthon^s, viz. <xo, <xoj, u;, <xe. 
Note that <xo (which is a modern aphthong, as is the triphthong AOJ, and 
is substituted instead of <xe and oe used by our old writers) is pronounced 
broad like e long, or the Latin oe, as in the words f^o j<xl, an age, Lat. 
Sfpctilvm, and adf, age, lat. fetas. The triphthong <xo; is pronounced 
like ee_ in the English words been, keen, &c. but more nearly like uj in the 
Irish, for which it has been substituted by the modems. It is an inflection 
of <xo and formed directly from it, as from m<xol, bald, comes nxxojt and 
roaojle, bald and baldness; pxOft, baOfi, produce also faojp, baojp, &c. 
so that the Irish triphthong in general is formed by adding an j to the 
diphthong, and thus serves to express the genitive case and other inflec- 
tions of the same word, as <xoj from <xo, eoj from eo, ;<xj from ;a, ju; 
from ju, and ua; from u<x. Analagous to the genius of the Irish language 
in this manner of inflecting the diphthong into triphthongs, it is obser- 
vable in the Ionic inflections of nouns that they frequently use oto for ou 
in the genitive case : and nothing more common in the Greek language 
than a vowel extraordinary, and sometimes two, added in the beginning, 
middle or end of words, that they may sound the sweeter, or that the 
verse may flow the more pompous and musical. Thus, for one example 
amongst many, the Phoenician tribe, who are called Gephyrcei in the 
Latin edition of Herodotus, are written rtfvoaioi in his Greek origi- 


nal, 1. 5. c. 57, 58. So that if we would compare both languages toge- 
ther, we should find much a greater number of such inflections and vari- 
ations in the Greek, than in the Irish. And they are the less puzzling 
in the latter, as the three vowels are all pronounced with one breajji and 
in one syllable, and as no vowel but the ; is added to the diphThong to 
form the triphthong. 

But this singularity seems peculiar to the Irish language, that no two 
or three vowels joined to each other in the same word, can form two 
different syllables. For which reason our bards or versificators who 
frequently wanted to stretch out words by multiplying their syllables, 
( according to the exigency of their rhymes, devised the method of throw- 
^ ing in between the two vowels an adventitious consonant (generally a b 
or g aspirated by b) in order to stretch and divide the two vowels into 
two different syllables. And as this consonant was quite foreign to the 
natural frame of the word, so it entirely corrupted and disguised its radi- 
cal formation and structure. It must be confessed this method has the 
sanction of a respectable antiquity, and is countenanced by examples, if 
not precedents, not only in the Welch or old British language, but even 
in the Greek, wherein theJBolig digamma (which is the v consonant, and 
was pronounced by the Colics, as it is still by the Germans, likef) was 
inserted when two vowels met together. For example, the word Jaones 
was pronounced Javones or rather Jafones, and Jaon changed into Ja- 
von, &c. vid. Stillingfleet Origin, p. 560. Thus also an adventitious d 
is inserted between two vowels in many Latin words, both to distinguish 
the syllables and prevent a hiatus, particularly in compounds whose first 
part consists of the iterative particle re while the following part begins 
with a vowel, as in the words redargue, redeo, redigo, redimo, redinte- 
gratio, &c. but certain it is, notwithstanding these examples or prece- 
dents, that this rule, together with another devised in like manner by our 
bards or rhymers, I mean that which is called c<xol lecaol, xxjuj- Lecxtan 
le Leacan, has been wofully destructive to the original and radical purity 
of the Irish language. This latter rule (much of a more modern inven- 
tion than the former, for our old manuscripts shew no regard to it) 
imports and prescribes that the two vowels thus forming, or contributing 
to form two different syllables by the interposition of a consonant, whe- 
ther such a consonant be adventitious to, or originally inseparable from 
the radical formation of the word, should both be of the same denomina- 
tion or class of either broad or small vowels : and this without any regard 
to the primitive elementary structure of the word. So that if the vowel 
preceding the consonant should originally happen to be of the class of 
broad vowels <x, 0, u, while the vowel following the same consonant 
should be of the class of the small vowels e, ;, or vice versa : in that 
case, the vowel preceding the consonant being of a different class from 
that which follows it, must either be struck out entirely, to make room 
for a vowel of the same class with the following, (for it is the vowel fol- 
lowing the consonant that commands the clianuc in the preceding, with- 
out being subjected to any in itself,) or else another adventitious vowel 
must be placed after it of the same class with the subsequent. 

I shall instance only in two words amongst many others, both to illus- 


trate those two rules by way of exemplification, and to shew how preju- 
dicial they naturally must have been to the primitive purity of the Irish 
language, by changing, corrupting, and metamorphosing a great number 
of its words from their original and radical structure. I shall first ex- 
emplify in the Irish word "&oM, a Gaul ; pi. "&aill, Gauls ; which are the 
Celtic words upon which the Latin words Gallus, Galli, have been 
formed. Nothing more evident from the most ancient monuments of the 
Irish nation, than that the national name of the first Celts who came to 
Ireland (whether they arrived there immediately from Gaul, or rather 
after remaining for some tract of time in the greater British isle, as 
Mr. Lhuyd gives good grounds to think) was "&4.11 in the singular and 
Ja;U in the plural ; and that their language was called Galic or Gallic : 
though it is equally certain this same national name of "&4.1.1, and 3<vjll in 
the plural was afterwards applied by the old natives to other colonies 
that followed these primitive Celts into that island from different parts 
of the continent, and even to the English adventurers whom they called 
Ctanna "&&11, as well as Sd^anajc : which must have proceeded both 
from their having forgot their own origin, on account of the change of 
their national name from "&&)U. m t 3 d }kjt, & c - an d a l so from the 
knowledge they traditionally preserved of the Gaulish nation, of its great 
extent, as well as of its vicinity with the British isles : all which circum- 
stances occasioned that the generality of the old Irish Celts and Celtibe- 
rians, who probably were the first planters of Ireland, imagined that the 
strangers who came amongst them from time to time, whether imme- 
diately from Britain or otherwise, must have originally proceeded from 
Gaul. Now, the Irish bards or rhymers wanting to stretch out this mo- 
nosyllable "&&]{[ into two syllables, to serve the exigency of their verses 
and rythmical measures, have first formed it into 3<Xb;ll agreeably to the 
former of the two rules now mentioned, and when the second rule caol 
le caotjtook place, it required that an ; or an e should be thrown in before 
the consonant b, by which means it turned out jgajbjU or Jaebjtl instead 
of its simple original formation 3<x;tl. So likewise the word ^aljc or 
3<xjtjc meaning the Celtibemian language was changed into J<x;b;l;c 
or "aei>jl)c genit. 3<xeb;tjc.e or 3 ae ^3 e > ^ rom which last spelling 
it has been changed by our modern Grammarians into "&oi>Ajljc } genit. 
3^obajlge, by the unnatural substitution of <xo instead of the <xe or oe 
j of the ancients, absolutely ordering that we should pronounce their do 
just as we do oe in the Latin word Gael urn. 

JujbjU, another writing of the same word, meaning the Irish 
people, and "^ufofyc their language, are found in some Irish manu- 
scripts of good antiquity, from which the moderns, by abusively substi- 
tuting <xo; instead of uj, though carrying no other sound, have turned 
these words in ^ojiyjll and gootytjc, genit. "Zaofofae, which is the 
gothic and uncouth shape, in which, to conform with the modern ortho- 
graphy, I must let it stand, in the very frontispiece of my Dictionary. 
I have just hinted that gujbjll and ju;b;t;c is not to be counted "a 
modern manner of writing these words; which truth is confirmed by 
"W elch manuscripts of respectable antiquity, wherein the Irish are called 
Guydhill and sometimes Guydilod, and their language Guydhilec. 


Apropos to this writing of the Welch, I cannot but observe by-the-by 
that it hence appears this old nation must have always judged the primi- 
tive Irish and the Gauls to be originally one and the same people, inas- 
much as we find in Mr. Lhuyd's Archseologia (comparat. etymol. p. 23. 
col. 3.) that the Welch or old Britons interpreted in their language the La- 
tin word Gallus or Gallicus by Guydhileg, a word which is plainly and 
literally of the same formation with those whereby they distinguished the 
Irish people and their language. Before I have done with the words 
gajll and 3<rt;c> 3<^ c or S^JCj I tnm k it pertinent to remark, that 
notwithstanding the complex and inform shape of the words g<x;b;l, 
3<^eb;l, 3<xo;b;l, and g<x;bjl;c, g<xeb;l;c, 3<xo;b;t;c, into which they 
have been changed, yet the originals from which they were derived 
are still preserved in their primitive simplicity, by the very pronuncia- \ 
tion of these latter words, which is very nearly the same as tfiatfof"the 
former, inasmuch as the adventitious letter b is not pronounced, and 
' serves only to distinguish the syllables : which shews that this was the 
only purpose it was first thrown in for. We should not in the mean 
time forget that it is to this change made in the words "Ztyll and "&aljc, 
doubtless by our heathenish bards who inserted the letter b, that we owe 
the important discovery necessarily reserved to their successors who em- 
braced Christianity, of those illustrious personages Gadel and Gadelus; 
the former an usher under that royal schoolmaster Pheniusa Farm, king 
of Scythia, in his famous school on the plain of Sennaar, where this 
Gadel invented the Irish alphabet and the Gadelian language, so called, 
as it is pretended, from his name ; and the latter, a grandson of that king 
by his son Niul, married to Scota daughter of Pharaoh Cingris, as our 
bards call him instead of Cinchres, king of ^Egypt, under whose reign, 
they tell us, Moses and our Gadelus were cotemporaries and great 
friends : and from this Gadelus our learned bards gravely assure us that 
the Irish derive their name of Gadelians, who, they tell us, were also . 
called Scots from his wife the ^Egyptian princess Scota. This disco- 
covery, I have said, was necessarily reserved to ouFt^hristian bards, 
as their heathenish predecessors most certainly could have no no- 
tion of the plain of Sennaar, of Pharaoh, or of Moses; objects not to 
be known but from the Holy Scriptures, or some writings derived from 
them, such as those of Josephus, Philo, &c., never known to the Irish 
bards before their Christianity. I have remarked in another work not 
as yet published, that our Christian bards did not lose much time in 
availing themselves of the sacred history to frame this story, inasmuch as 
we find it word for word in the scholiast on the life of St. Patrick by 
Fiachus, bishop of Sleipte, one of that saint's earliest disciples ; which 
scholiast the learned and judicious Colganus places towards the end of 
the sixth century. This date is much earlier than that of the manuscript 
called Leab<x/t gdbalta, or the book of conquests, wherein our story 
now mentioned is embellished with further circumstances. 

The other word I mean to produce as a remarkable example and 
proof of the alteration of the primitive and radical frame of many words 
of the Irish language, caused by the above described rules and other 
innovations of our modern copyists and rhymers, as well as by the cor- 


ruption proceeding from vulgar pronunciation, to which indeed all lan- 
guages have been subject (even the Latin, witness the words mtdiu-ster- 
tjus, pridie, postridie, &c.) the word, I say, I mean to exemplify in, is 
Ol;aba;n or Oljajajn, a year, Lat. annus. The original formation or 
construction of this word was bel-ajn, or beat-ajn* i. e. the circle of 
belus, or of the sun. <t;n or <vjnn in Irish signifies a great circle, as its 
diminutive a;nne, vulgarly pvjnne, means a small circle or a ring; vid. 
<x;n, <x;nn, <x;nne, infra ; and bel or beal was the Assyrian, Chaldean, 
and Phoenician name of the true God, while the patriarchal religion was 
generally observed ; and very properly, as it signifies Dominus or Domi- 
nator in Latin. This name was afterwards attributed to the sun, when 
these oriental nations generally forgot, or willingly swerved from the 
worship of the true God, and adored that planet as their chief deity. 
See Gutlerus Origenes Mundi, lit. 1. cap. 9. Schedius de Diis Germ, 
cap. 7. Tirinns in cap. 2. Osee, v. 16. It is very certain that the pri- 
mitive Irish observed this idolatrous worship of the sun under the name 
of bel or beat, whatever part of the world they derived it from, as ap- 
pears very manifestly by those religious fires they called beal-te;nne, 
which, according to all our old monuments and histories, they lighted 
with great solemnity on May day : a fact which is evidently proved by 
the very name whereby they distinguished that day, which is still called 
and known by no other name than that of la beal-tejnne, i. e. the day 
of the fire of bel or belus ; this solemnity they celebrated in honour of 
the Sun under the name of beat on this first day of their summer, when 
the benign influence of that planet begins to restore new life to both the 
animal and vegetable world in most parts of our hemisphere. 

Now this word bet-a;n being changed by the vulgar pronunciation 
into ble-a;n and bl;-ajn, in which position it required the insertion of an 
aspirated b or j, consequently turned out bljbajn or bl; ja;n, according 
to the former of the two rules above explained, and then the latter rule 
of leacan le leatan, to vindicate its right to share in the new crea- 
tion of this word, threw in the vowel a, before the adventitious conso- 
nant to agree with the subsequent <x, so that the original word having 
thus received two adventitious letters besides the aspirate b, is thereby 
metamorphosed from its original form bet-a;n into bl;aba;n or bl;<x- 
ja;n, for it admits of both these writings. In my general preface 
to this Dictionary I shall mention a good number of other words 
whose true radical originals are scarce, if at all, discernible through the >- 
hideous shape they have been transformed into, both by vulgar pronun- ~" 
ciation authorized by ignorant copyists who had not skill enough to rec- 
tify them, and by the insertion of so many vowels and consonants which 
were quite adventitious and foreign to the natural and radical frame of 
the words. I shall finish these remarks with observing, that the word 
<x;n or a;nn (which is the latter part of the compound word bel-a;o, sig- 
nifying the great circle of belus, i. e. the solar circle or annual course 

* Vid. the valuable Irish manuscript called Feilire no Naomh, i. e. the vigils and feasts of 
saints, judged to be a work of the eighth century, whereof I have a copy, which, by the ap- 
pearance of tha writing and parchment, cannot be less ancient than the tenth century 


of the sun) is the Celtic original upon which the Latin word anus was 
formed, it was afterwards written annus, for Quintilian informs us that 
the ancients did not double their consonants. Varro assures that the 
proper and original signification of this word anus or annus is a circ or 
great circle, whose diminutive anulus or annulus signifies a small circle 
or ring, his words are, nam ut parvi circuli, ammli, sic magni diceban- 
tur anni. But the word annus is now exalted to mean solely and pro- 
perly the solar circle or annual course of the sun, whilst anus its more 
ancient writing, is degraded to signify no more than the circular form of 
X the podex : vid. Littleton ad voces anus, annus, annulus. Other ex- 
amples, To observe it by-the-by, of words of an honourable meaning at 
first, being afterwards degraded to a dishonourable signification and vice 
versa, will be found in the following Dictionary at the word Cnjoct. 




if, his, her ; ex. <x ce<xnn,his head; 
<x ceann, her liead. 

if, their ; ex. <x cceann, their chief, 
or, their head; <x ccl<xnn, their 

if, before inanimate things in the 
singular number signifies its ; ex. 
<x Bun, its bottom ; <x tOfac, its 

<T is a sign of the present and pre- 
ter tenses ; ex. <x be;;t me, I say; 
<x bubvvjfit ye, he said. 

if is sometimes a sign of the future 
tense ; ex. <xn &;t &f <x tt;ocpxb 
pj, the place from which he 
shall come. 

if is a sign of the vocative case, and 
signifies the same as tu or o in 
Latin ; ex. <j. (Db;a, O God ; <x 
&0a)ne, you man, or O man. 

if is sometimes an interrogative, as, 
<x bjrujl fe <xnn, is he there ? 

if is also a sign of an affirmative ; 
ex. <x ^e<nb, yes, yea. 

if is sometimes a preposition equal 
to in; ex. <x ttujf, in the be- 
ginning; <x tte<xc, in a house. 
N. B. " In old parchments it is 
always written ; ttu;^-, ; tre<xc, 
&c. before words beginning with 
a consonant ; butbefore those that 
begin with vowels, it was rather 
jn that was prefixed instead of the 


modern <xn or <x ; ex. ;n ojt, in 
a place ; jn eaglu;^, in the 
church ; ;n eajco;^, in the 
wrong. But in the modern way, 
when the Irish word begins with 
a vowel, or with the letter , the 
n in the preposition 70 or oin is 
transposed and prefixed to the 
word, and the vowel left by it- 
self alone ; ex. <x na;t, in a 
place ; <x ned^tu;^, in a church ; 
<x njeatl, in pledge. This /? is 
pronounced nearly as the gti in 
the French word Seigneur, or 
the double nn or Ti in the Spanish 

if is prefixed to adverbs and nouns 
of time ; ex. <x nallob, formerly, 
or anciently, (vid. <xllob) ; a n;u, 
to-day; <x ma;/te<xc, to-morrow. 
"Remark the affinity between 
;u j in the word <x n;uj and Jiuy 
in the French word cnyourcThvy, 
and between ma;/te<xc and the 
Saxon word morrow" 

if sometimes signifies out of or from, 
like the Latin e, ex ; ex. d. ba;le, 
out of town ; Lat. e villa, <x bej- 
/tjnn, out of Ireland. 

if is sometimes equivalent to the 
Latin prepositions in and cor am ; 

ex. <x tcvctxjn and o. bjr;a 

before, or in presence of. 

tf in old writings signifies an ascent, 
a hill, or promontory, as also, a 
car or drag. 

<T signifies also good luck or good 
adventure ; vid. ub ; hence the 
compound word bon-a, bad luck 
or bad accident. N. B. From 
the above examples it appears 
that the single letter <x in Irish, 
has almost as great a latitude of 
signification as the Greek OTTO, 
which signifies in, from, out of, 
&c. ; Lat. a, ab, e, ex. &c. ; 
Goth. of. 

<tt>, an abbot, or rather a father. 
" N. B. This word is of the 
same radical structure and signi- 
fication as the Hebrew i12N> and 
the Chaldaic N3DK, as also the 
Greek and Latin abbas." 

-ctb, sometimes signifies a temporal 

<fb, ex. nci/i <xb beo e, let him not 

Cfba, a cause, a matter, or busi- 

<tbdc, the entrails of a beast. 

d b<x;b, a bud ; also ripe. 

ifbajl, and <xbajlr, death; also, 
dead, or expired. 

tCbajfi, say you, speak you; the 
imperative mood second person 
of the verb <xb<x/i<x;no, or <xb/ia;m, 
to speak. 

cTba^t, speech, an articulate form 
of expression. 

Cf btvj/it, education, politeness, good 

<Tb<vj^e, a custom, or manner. 

ttb<xc, a dwarf; <xb<xc, a proclama- 

<lb<xc, a terrier, a little cur dog to 
unkennel foxes. It seems derived 
from the word <xb, the sound of 
dogs in barking by an onomato- 
poeia, hinc <ib<x^t:/<ac, the bark- 
ing of a dog. 

<fb<xb, a camp, or encampment ; 
commonly called lonjpo/it. 

rfbal, an apple-tree, also an apple ; 
vid. ub<xl, Wei. aval. 

<fb<xn, a river ; rectius <xm<xn ; Lat. 

cTbantu/i, good luck upon any un- 

Cfba^tfuxc, the barking of a dog. 

Ctbcojbe, an advocate ; potius <xb- 

iTblxxn, a wafer; <xblan co;^;ie;cte, 
the host or Eucharist. 

<l'be;l,vid.<xbb<xt, terrible, dreadful. 

<tbl<xn, a portion of meat, fish, or 
butter, which a person may eat 
with his bread, vulgarly called 

cTblaba/i, no <xbl<xb/i<xc, mute, or 

<Tbir)a<::<xj;t, a mother-abbess. 

<Tb/i<x, an eye-lid, plur. <vb/i<x;b, 
vulgo i:<xbfia;b. Corn, abrans. 
^<x and ab/i<x, a speech, a say- 
ing, a poem ; hence the diminu- 
tive <xb/u\n. 

, a song, or sonnet, &c. 

<fbft<V|in, to say, or speak. 

N. B. Many 'of the Irish verbs are 
irregularly declined or conju- 
gated; ex. <xbfux;m, I say; <i 
be;/it:u, you say; <i bejji ^e, he 
says ; be;/-tm;b, we say : be;/i 
pb, ye say ; be;;t p<xb, they say. 
Thus the verb <xb;t<x;m, which 
may be called defective, borrows 
most of its persons, not only in 
the present tense, but also in the 
entire perfect, from the verb 
be;/i;m; ex. <xbub<x;/tt: me, I said ; 
<xbub<v;/tt ta t you said. This 
verb be;/v;m has a plain affinity 
with the dicere of the Latin, and 
the dire of the French. 

<Tb/i<vn, and <Tb;t<xon, the month 
of April. 

cfb;-i<xnn, evil, naughty; also bad 

, forgiveness, absolution. 
, and <xfy-c<xl, an apostle; 
plur. ecybajl and 

tf C 

tb;-talb<x, apostolic. 

<f bftoUbact, apostleship. 

tf&ujb, ripe; also ready, expert, 
alert, thrift}". Sometimes written 
<vpujb, ripe, not unlike aprici/.t, 
a. urn, which is to the same sense. 

<fbult<i, able, strong, capable : Lat. 

-, a wild beast of any kind; 
teac no. nabtty", a house in which 
wild beasts are kept ; hence aba- 

etc, a refusing, a denial. 

tfca, with them ; n; bjon <xc<x, they 

have not ; <x;ce, with her ; <x;je, 

with him. 

<Tc<xjbe<xb, an inhabitant, a tenant. 
ttcana,an acre of ground; vid. <xc^i<x. 
ilcd/tno.? the loan of any thing; 

also, conveniency. or use. 
ttevbtdc, useful, necessary; also, 

ttcafttd., profit. 
tfccujl, backwards ; vid. cut. 
<Tc, but ; vid. <ictr. 
tfca, a mound or bank. Canta- 

brice, <xc<x, a rock. 
tf cab, a field. 
<fc<xm<vjft, soon, timely ; also, 

abridged; ex. b<xc<Mn<vjrt; brcvi 

tempore, soon, or speedily. 
<f carrxvjjteact:, abridging, abrevia- 

tlcun, and <xceci/t, sharp, tart, 

sour ; Lat. acer, acerb us ; Gall. 

acre and aigre. 
Ctcbttd, an expedition by sea or 

land ; ex. 710 jm; j <\/t <xcb/t<J., he 

went on an expedition. 
dcb;to.n, an ad venturer, a foreigner. 
tfcbttanac, the same, and more 

ttcpujn, ability, capacity Mat. 25. 


n, a reproof, a reproach. 
l, an angel. 

ct:, the same as <vc and <\cb,, 

except, save, only ; Liit. at ; ex. 

0.6 <Xma;n, save only : <\ct ce- 

<xnn<x, however. 

tfcr, a statute, decree, or ordi- 
nance ; hence Lat. actor signifies 
a pleader at law. 

<3i ctr, a condition, act, or deed ; ex. 
<X;t nd. Jxxctojb fjn, upon them 
conditions ; Lat. ac fa. 

dct, a body. 

iCct, danger, hazard, or peril. 

ifctrajm, to ordain, or order, to 
pass an act in parliament. 

<Tcl(X;b, to chase, pursue. 

<tcl<xb, and <xclajb, the art of fish- 
ing, also a fishery. 

<Tcl<x;be, smooth, soft, also ]X)lite, 
civil, generous, like the Greek 

, splendidus. 
, a circuit, or compass. 

and cicmapje^c, puis- 
sant, plentiful, copious, rich. 

tXcomal, to heap together, to in- 
crease ; Lat. accunndo, are ; ex. 
/to <xcoiTK\;l fe n<x cntxmo. bd 
beojn, he heaped up the bones. 
Old Parchment. 

tfcomal, an assembly, or heaping 
together ; ex. acomol beo^a jro 
mo beanc. Old. Par. ; Lat. ac- 

and <vcoba;fi, avarice, co- 
vetousness, penury. 

an acre of groimd; Lat. 
acra. This Irish word has a 
close affinity with the Hebrew 
*DX, a husbandmen, agricola, 
and from this "JDK. or the Irish 
<\cj\<\, comes the Latin acra and 
a per. Vid. Bm'torf. and Opi- 
th/s Lexicons. 

, vulgo, aguf, Lat. ac. Go- 
thice gah. 

<tb is sometimes the sign of a par- 
ticiple, governing a second per- 
son ; ex. <vb Buala, striking you ; 
Lat. te ftriens, <vb m<i;tB<xb, 
killing you, Lat. te W/--A'//*. 

lib is jireposed in the old Irish to 
all verbs in the perfect ter 
the indicative and the present of 

the potential, indifferently, or in 
the same sense, as bo in the mo- 
dern way of writing ; ex. <xb rcfi;o- 
b<x^", I wrote, for bo fcpjtibaf, <xb 
^c/i;ob<x;nn, for bo ^qi;ob<vjrm, 
I would write, Lat. scriberem. 

Ctb is a sign of the present tense 
sometimes, but often of the per- 
fect tense ; ex, <xb be;^;m, I give ; 
<xb clu;n;n), I hear. 

cTb signifies <x or <xr> ; but always 
applied to the second person ; 
ex. Ojojb tu <xb Sfoeanfuvb agu^ 
<xb jiro/ijrocat, thou shalt be a 
proverb and a by-word. 

Cfbaj, a shock of corn, a sheaf or 
bundle of corn, or several small 
sheaves set together, to make 
one great shock or heap. 

cfbanKXntr, a diamond, the hardest 
and most glittering of all pre- 
cious stones called by the Lapi- 
daries a diamond, Lat. adamas. 

ifbam and <tb<xro, Adam, the first 

<Tb<vj/i, an adder. 

cTbbat:, to die ; ex. /to <xbbat, he 

cfbbat, slaughter, destruction. 

tfbjrja, it belongs to you, it is 
your property ; this is an imper- 
sonal verb like the Lat. decet. 

Ctb, a law ; also fit to do any thing. 

ifb, felicity, success, good luck ; 
ex. <x^ trea/ifi <vb no. ealujbe, 
good luck is better than skill or 

{fb is an intensitive or augmenta- 
tion of the sense, or signification 
of a word. 

<fb<xbaj/t, to sport or play. 


complexion, Gr. EtSoc- 
<fb<vjlj, desire. 
cTba^l^ne, the military law, or law 

of arms. 

<tb<\/tcac and <Tba/tc<xmu;l, horny, 
luiving liorns. 
t, a flesh-hook. 

{("Mil, dull, deaf, having the ears 
stopt up ; (rectius ob<ul, from o, 
an ear, and bo.ll, dull or deaf, 
vid. o ;) hence the word <xb<xtl- 
tan, a stupid, dull fellow. 
, sin, corruption. 

an adulterer, 
the same, 

ft e, let him be 
blessed or beloved, not unlike the 
Lat. word adametur, but that 
this Irish word is an impersonal, 
ban, a pan, or large chaldron. 

<fb<xnn, the herb colt's foot. 

cTb<xn<xb and <fban<xm, to kindle, 
to warm ; ex. bo babncxb <xn 
tejne, the fire was kindled; also 
to stir up, like the Lat. adunare. 

CTb<xnt;<x, kindled, warm, also exas- 
perated; <x ta <xn te;ne <xbanca, 
the fire is kindled. 

<Tbna, the kindling of the fire, the 
warmth or fervour of an action. 

cfb<x/i<x;m, to adore. 

cTb/KX, adoration, 

<rb<x/t<xb, to join, to stick close to, 
Lat. adherers. 

<( baftc, a horn ; ex. <vb<X;ic bo, &c. 

<Tba/-ic<xc, horned, horny. 

cTba/icjn, a little horn. 

<Tba;it, and -cTba/ican, a^bolster, 
a pillow, hence claon ab<x;/ic, a 
pain in the neck, and by a me- 
taphor, ceannOLbajftt; JO.CA po- 
bu;ll, the chieftains and re- 
presentatives of every people ; 
ceann <xb<V7/it properly means 
a bolster. 

<Tb<x/ic<x/t, a dream. 

cTba^, good. < 

iTbba and iCbbaban, instruments ; 
ex. <xbba ceojl, instruments of 

-Ctbba and <Tbbdb, a house room, 
or habitation, also a garrison, a 
fortress ; it is very common to sig- 
nify a prince or great man's pa- 


<f 6 

lace in old poems. 

a harmless or inoffensive 

jibing or joking. 

<lbbact<xc, jocose, merry, jesting. 

<fbbact<xc, gross or fat; in good 

<rbb<x;/ye\j.c, a carder of wool or 
flax ; mn<x <xbb<x;if; je, women 
hired for carding. 

<tbb<xl, quick, nimble, thrifty. 

cfbbo.1, prodigious, .great, strange ; 
ex. <xbbal mo/i, exceeding great. 

N. B. This word has generally the 
same signification with <xbejl, 
which in the ancient celtic did 
signify air, that element being 
still called arel, in the British 
language, (uid. Lin/id's comp. 
ri'C. in verbo aer,} hence bj<x<xb- 
e;l contracted into b;a-b<xt, sig- 
nifies devil or spirit of the air, 
from which the Greek and La- 
tin diabolos and diabolus, quasi 
dtemon aerhf-s ; in Irish be<xro- 
<xn <xe/t. 

<rb<xntr/rjfie<xc, a sort of music con- 
taining three notes called by the 

<(bb<Xrt, a cause or motive ; ex. <x?i 
<xn <<x;i yjn, therefore, for that 

if bb <x/i, a subject or matter to be 
shaped in another form ; hence 
metaphorically, <xbbci/i f <xo;^, an 
apprentice to a carpenter or a 
mason ; <xbb<Xft ceanbaj je an 
apprentice, or the matter of a 

<fbb<i/i<xc, or <f gb<x/i<xc, lucky, for- 

<f bb<ifi<x^, carded wool for clothiers, 
hence <xbb<x;fi^-e<xc, quod vide. 

, a proclamation, also a cry 
for war ; even- prince and tribe 
had one peculiar to them. 
bbct<ty~, joy, pleasure ; also osten- 

.c, pleasant, ambitious, 

vain glorious. 

tfbbub, joy, pleasantry, merriment. 

<tbboco;be and <tbbocojbecic, an 
intercessor, an advocate. 

<fbbocojbeci.ct:, a pleading. 

<Tbtrt<vjt;, a constitutional or right- 
ful sovereign installed according 
to law, from <xb a law, and jrtajt: 
a sovereign. 

<tb/:u<J.t:m<x/i, detestable, odious, 
abominable ; <xb in this word be- 
ing an augmentative of the sense 
and force of the word, vid. <xbu<xc. 

tfbjajfi, lawful, just 

ctbl<xc<xb, to bury, to inter, rid. 
<xbn<xc<xt, it is formed from te<xc, 
a stone laid over the grave. 

<lblac<xn, a burial or interment. 

cCblajCte, buried, interred. 

<tbl<X)C, the desire. 

tfbl<xnn, a youth or lad, one able 
to bear arms, from <xb, fit, and 
l<xnn, a sword or lance. 

tfbtaocba, fit to take up anns or 
enter the military degree, 

<Cbma, knowing, skilful. 

<Tbmab, timber. 

xXbm<x;l, an acknowledgment or 

<Tb?r)<x;m and xfbmuj j;m, to confess; 
ex. <xbm<vjm mo pe<xc<j.b, I confess 
my guilt. 

<, to confess. 

ifbm all, wanton, desultory, nimble. 

cCbmolab, to extol, to praise to 
one's face, from <x;b, a face, and 
motdb, a praise. 

<fbn<xc<xl, a submitting to the law 
of nature, a burial, interment, 
from <xb<x, law, n<xe or no.;, man, 
and cal, obsen-ing or submitting 

<tbn<x;/i, and Ctbnaj/ie, villany, 
shamefacedness, confusion. 

cTbncijfi;^ean, it shames, pudet. 

<Tbnao;, old, ancient. 

tlb/t<xb, and tTb/tcijm, to worship, 
to adore, Lat. adoro ; ex. jobat- 
<xb/t<xb, to worship idols, or ido- 

latry, also to adhere or join ; <xj 
<xb/t<xb bon ^; j, adhering firmly 
to the king and his cause, Lat. 

Cf b/ta and <Tb/i<x^, worship, adora- 

<fb/t<xe, to refuse, deny, reject. 

tfbub, a circle fire ; vid. Martin's 
west islands, p. 1 16. 

cTbub, vid. jrabub, to kindle fire. 

cTbuac, horror, detestation i 

tfbuatma/t, horrible, terrible, 

tfbu<xtm<x;/ieact;, abomination. 

cTe, no -dob, the liver. 

tTe, <xon, one, bo jac <xon, to each, 
to every one. 

<Te^i, the sky, or air, Greek and 
Latin, aer. 

cTe<x/tb<x, airy. 

itea/ibajte, sky-coloured. 

ileb, the eye. 

tTe^e, the liver ; more commonly 
<U)ba and baoba. 

cTpyr, gold; (vid. Lhuyd's Comp. 
voc. inv. aurem.) 

Cfjr/Kx; j;b, to rise. 

ifprjonn, the mass, or eucharistic 

<f 5, a sign of the participle of the 
present tense; ex. <xg jicvb, say- 
ing, <xg ealob, stealing into a place 

cfg, at or by ; ex. <xg <xn bo/ia^, at 
the door, Lat. ad, as 6^ ostium, 
<X <xn txmajn, by the river, ad 
veljuxta amnem. 

itj, with ; ex. <xg <xn ajjwejf, with 
the cattle. 

<Tg, signifies, in the possession or 
power of a person ; ex. /to <xta 
<xn bjtxjl <X G0u/tc<x, the axe is 
in Morrogh's possession. 

<fg<x, whose, whereof; ex. <XT<X 
nbe;n ^e ;on<xb, whose place he 

ttga, or <x^ab, leisure, time, or op- 
portunity; ex. njbjrujl a^<xb a^ivm 
<x;/t, I have not time nor leisure 

to do it. 

Tga, or <C;?;o.b, an addition, hence 
its diminutive, <xgaj^jn. 
Tg<xb, unto thee, with thee ; 
unto you ; ex. 
stand by thyself. 
, a speech. 

and xt^5<xU(Xm, a dialogue ; 
unde AjaUam o;^;n <xju/" p&t- 
tr/iu;j, also persuasion ; jreo^t 
<X5<xlm<x,an interpreter, a speaker, 
a, to speak, or tell to a per- 
son ; this word is of the same 
root and origin with the Greek 
ayytXXw) Lat. nuncio, are, in 
wnich word the ancient Greeks 
always pronounced the two gam- 
mas or double y, the former be- 
ing changed into v by modern 
grammarians, as avytX Aw instead 
of ayytXXu) ; in the Celtic agal- 
la, to speak or tell to ; hence the 
Greek Ev-ay-ytXiov, i. e. good 
telling or good tidings, anglice, 
Gospel, i. e. God's spell or good 
spell, which is the same as God's 
tell or good tell, the words God 
and good being of the same ori- 
ginal sense for reasons obvious 
to every one. 

if j, an ox, bull, or cow ; & j <xttra;b, 
a buffalo. 

N. B. <T j or <xb are always pro- 
nounced like i in English, or 
like the word eye in the begin- 
ning of words, except when the 
syllable is marked with a long 
stroke, or ^Jne jcaba, in which 
case it is pronounced like aw in 

it j, a battle, a conflict ; also feat of 
arms, Greek cry on', wrtamc.n, pi. 
&i<x ; ex. Conn <\n a j<x, the war- 
like Conn. 

<t j, fortune, luck, happiness, pros- 
perity, vid. <xb. 

<T^, fear, astonishment, aue. 

xlja, or ttia;m, to be afraid or 
astonished, like the Greek 


d&niror, stupeo, hence awe in 

<T jac, warlike, brave. 

iT j<i;b, be mem', j. b; ^ubac. 

tt j<x;b or <t^a; j, the face or com- 
plexion, also the front ; ex. <\ j- 
v\/b <xn c<xtd, the front of the 
army, hence <xj<vjb signifies a- 
gainst ; ex. <\m <xjcijb, against 
me ; bo cua;b ;~e <x; ; -t <v j<x;b, he 
prospered, but more properly 
written <iba;b, like the Greek 

u.m, with me, or in my posses- 

and -cTgfyta, to revenge. 
t, revenge. 

tttc, vindictive, revengeful. 
, or <xxu^-, and ; in old parch- 
ments it is written aaif ; Latin 

<f jcint, a bolster ; rectius <xb<x;ntr. 
<T j<x/tt<x, deaf, also little, diminu- 


<T jd/tro^, a halter to lead a horse 
or other beast by, like the Greek 
ayofiai, duco, to lead ; in its 
inflexions of the present dual, 

<f jba, of, or belonging to a fight or 

<tjm<x;t, <f jT)a;t<xc, fortunate or 
lucky, happy, prosperous ; an- 
ciently written am/td. 

<T jn<x^", a pleading for, argumenta- 

<t jn<x;be, an advocate or pleader. 

<fg;t<xb, to expostulate, also to 
challenge, to lay to a person's 
charge ; ex. nfyt <*;;**> bfo <*fl 
cujft yjri o/tt, that God may not 
avenge or punish you for this 
crime ; n<x/t ^r 1 ^/ 1 o^tra e, let 
it not be laid to their charge. 

iTjna, wisdom, discretion, pru- 
dence, Greek ayvtia, castitas, 
and cxjno^-a^na, castus, pur us, 
chastif\- being the truest sign of a 

wse man. 

, generous, noble. 
i;, . e. c<X)njen, a cause or con- 

<f ), a swan. 
<t;, or <xoj, an herd, also a sheep, 

a cow. 
it; or ifo;, a region, country, or 

territory ; plur. <xo;b ; ex. <xo;b 

IjAtdjn, the country about Cas- 

tle Lyons ; <xob maccojlle, tlie 

country of Imokilly, &c. 

N. B. In Hebrew >K signifies a 

region or country ; vid. Opitius' 

if;, i., e. e;^^e, or eolc<x, the 

or if ojb, a similitude. 

, the sea ; Lat. abyssm, and 

Greek afivaaoq, also great boast- 

ing, vain glory. 

;be^e<i6 and <t;bVe<xc, wonder- 

ful, terrible, also enormous, 

strange, arrogant, surprising. 

or <Tjbcjtj^t, rectius, <x 7 o- 

c;t;;t, the alphabet ; abeceda- 

<T;b;b, ripe, grouTi to perfection, 

is like Hebrew ION culmus, 

arista ; straw, stubble ; also an 

ear of com which is never <ib;b, 

ripe, till it has the 3 OX or cul- 

mus upon it. 
tCjb;b;l, the alphabet. 
<T;cbe, a veil. 
<T;ce, with her, by her ; ex, bo b; 

<n;ce, she had. 

-cTc<x, with them ; <i;je, with him. 
tTjce, led, as c<xpull <x;ce, a led 

Ctjce, Ct;ceac, and cT^cJbia.ct, a 

leading; from the verb <x;c;m, 

to lead ; Lat. ago. 
djce, a tribe, also nourishment, 

also a desire. 
tfjce, near, close to, hard by, as 

<xm <i;ce, near me. 
tf;cjreo.ct, power. 
<f;cea/t, angry, cruel, severe, disa- 

greeable to all the senses ; Lat. 


ocer and acris. 
if;c;b, a disorder, sickness. 
if ;c;beac, a sick disordered or in- 

firm person ; Greek cuSvog, in- 

firmus, eegrotus. 
if;c;be, accident, as <x;c;be <xn 

<\fta;n <x^uy- <xn p;on<x, the ac- 

cidents of bread and wine. 
if;c;lt;be, dextrous, handy; and 

<x;c;lt;be<xcfc, dexterity, from the 

root ; <x;c;l, able, w/z^/e Achilles, 
if(c;ro and <x;tc;ro, to pray, be- 

seech, entreat, or beg. 
ifjcme, a sort or kind, a sect of 

people; Greek a/cjurj, is the 

bloom of age. 
if ;be6m<x;b, they shall confess ; vid. 


if;bbe<xn, long, also bad or evil. 
if;bBe;l, a wonder, a boasting. 
if;bBe;leo.ct, the same ; Greek 

a/SeArepoe, stolidus. 
if;bB^e, an old sort of Irish song, 

or c/tonan ; Greek aaSw, cano, 


if;bcte<xb, mischief, violence. 
if;be<xc, or <xo;be<xc, a milch cow. 
if;bj:;be<xc, demonstration. 
if;b;be, or <x;b;b;on, humble, res- 

pectful, Gr. mSoioc, venerandus. 
if ;bme, raiment, apparel, also goods 

and chattels. 
if ;bme, a military dress. 
cTjbnoe, coarse or rough land, Greek 

cujuoc, dumus, vel locus arbori- 

bus consitus. 
<t)bne, age. 
iT;bm;tle, to consume, confound, 

destroy, pervert ; ex. Bu/t na;b- 

mjtle, your confusion. Is. xxx. 3. 
djbmejlte, consumed. 

^, or -ct;jn;o^, arguing, 

pleading, reasoning ; vid. <x j- 

bn<x;^e and -cT;bne, advocate, 

, of or belonging to the air, 
beamon <vje;/i, rectius 
mon aerius. 

, blame, fault. 
Cl;jr;vjon, the unbloody sacrifice of 

the mass. 

to act or carry on ; aonacfr 

t<x;ltjonn bo <x;ge ; vid. Croni- 

cum Scotorum. 

;^e;n, antiq. oce;n,the ocean, the Y 

deep ; hence bubu.;5e;n r>a j:<\;t- ' 

je, the bottomless depth of the 

sea ; vulgo, bujgejn. 

jjeo/Kxme, I will visit, or punish. 

; je, a beam, a prop or supporter. 

; je, stout, valiant. 
il; je, a hill. 
<t; je<xn, a kettle, a brass pot; vid. 

, intentions. 
, the intention, mind, or 


, a judge, Greek mptu, 

signifies to make choice of judges 

being the elect or chosen men 

among the people. 
Cf/jneac, or 0;neac, liberality, 

cT/jte, faces, the pi. of <x j<x;b, Bu^ 

na; jte, your faces. 
xf;le or C;le, another, Lat. allus. \ 
tT;t, a stone ; <x;l <xoBt<x, a pebble, 

hence <x;le<xc, a stone horse, 

Heb. y^D is a rock or stone. 
cT;l, shamefaced, also noble, beau- 

tiful ; Cantabrice, <xb<xl, shame. 
it; I, a sting or prickle. 
it;l, will, pleasure; ex. noa a;l 

leat, if you will ; munab <x;l 

le<xt, if you will not, Lat. vo- 

iT;lb;n c<xe/iac, a small parcel of 

ifjle, the same as u;le ; ex. <x;le 

corrxxctttc, Almighty ; Gothic 


, a bridle bit. 

, a noble offspring, from 

<x;l noble, and jean kind, i. e. 

, a desire, longing appe- 


tf J 

, an alms ; jujb 
h eprayed for alms. 

<T;l;m, to pray, entreat, or beseech; 
in the Arabic and Hebrew lan- 
guages n^K signifies to adore, 
to worship, whence the epithet 
m/N is given to God ; vid. 
Deut. xxxir. 15. 

'tf;l;m, to nurse, foster, nourish; 
Lat. alo. 

Cljljomvtjnt:, nourishment. 

<f;ll;m, I go, or come ; Gal. aller. 

<T;lt, go thou or come; ex. <x;ll 
jlle, pOfitajg, vein hue, et suc- 
currp. Vid. Vitam S. P. apud 

N. B. This last example shows 
how different the Irish orthogra- 
phy in ancient times has been 
from that of the present age. 

Cf;ll, course, place, stead, turn ; 
Lat. rids. 

<T;U, or pv/ll, a great steep or pre- 
cipice, a rock, or cliff; Lat. red- 
linn, (like falla ;) multac n<x 
7)<x;Ue, the top of the rock ; all 
B/tudc<xc, having steep or rocky 
brinks or borders; hence per- 
haps the national name of Allo- 
brogii, a people who inhabited 
the rocky country near the Alps. 

<f jllbjt, a bridle-bit. 

<f;llb/iu<ic<xc, having steep or rocky 


Ctjlle, most beautiful. 

cTjllean, a causeway. 

Ct;ltear>, a pet, or darling. 

cfjlljAt:, roaring or lowing, as <x;l- 
t;<xt leo;n, tlie roaring of a lion. 

<t;ll;^, a canker, an eating or 
spreading sore ; hence b;t<xon 
<x;lty-e, a drop observed to fall 
upon the tombs of certain tyrants, 
so called from its cankerous cor- 
roding what it falls upon. 

<TjUjn, or <x;l;n, another, a second; 
Lat. alias. 

, of or belonging to a canker; 

vid. <x 

delay, neglect, heedless- 

Cf;lm, the name of the letter <x in 
Irish, so called according^ to 
O'Flaherty, from <xjlm, which 
signifies a fir-tree; it is not un- 
like the Heb. , and the Chald. 
and Gr. a. 

{fjlm, a fir-tree, but more properly 
the palm-tree ; hence boit)n<xc 
no. bo;lme, i. e. Palm Sunday. 

<fjlp, any gross or huge lump, or 
chaos. Query, if this Celtic word 
be not the origine and radix of 
Alps, the mountains so called, 
rather than from their beins: high, 
ab altitudine, or from their being 
white with snow, quasi albi mon- 

cfjlt:, stately, grand, noble; Lat. 

cTjlt, joints, the pi. of dlr. 

cfjlt:, a house ; also any high place, 
p};fce Co;n an <x;lc/ sexsio al/fts 
in alio.\\di. Brogan in Vita 
S. Brid. 

<Tjlcjfte, an architect, a carpenter. 

cTjmbeojn, unwilling, against con- 
sent, bambeojn <x t b;trc;l, ;b;^t 
jraonmb <xju^* <x;mbeo;n ; Lat. 
volens, nolens. 

^Tjmea^an, an abyss ; vid. ogjejn. 

tX;mecvnn, pleasant, agreeable. 

cTjm;b, a fool or madman, or 
woman, its diminutive amaban ; 
Lat. amens, amentis. 

<f jmleaf% hurt, detriment. 

, slothful, indolent. 

drowsiness, sluggish- 

, force, violence. 
<T;mKe;b, disquieted, disturbed, 

<Tjm^te;be, strife. 

ttjmne;be, the defiles or straits of 
a place; blut-ajirmejb n<x cojlle, 
the fastnesses of the wood. 
cT;m;t;<x/i, mismanagement. 

CT|iD/v;b, barren, steril. 
<l;jmf;u gab, temptation ; also to 
tempt; ex. j\p ba;t /te mac be e 
ajnty";uj o b;abal, the Son of 
God was pleased to be tempted 
by the devil in the wilderness; 
vid. leaba/t b/teac. 

, season ; Wei. aim ser. 
, honourable, praiseworthy, re- 

Cfjne, delight, joy, pleasure; Gr. 

and a;n;oj~, joy; Greek 
aivog, laus ; but the Irish word 
<x;n, which signifies honourable, 
respectful, praiseworthy, is more 
agreeable to the Greek CUVTJ and 
mvoe, and is in all probability 
the radical word. 

, agility, expedition, swiftness ; 
also music, harmony, melody; 
also experience. 
Cf ;nbcealac, rough, rugged. 
<t;nbeac, manifold, copious. 
cTjnbeac, rain. 

ignorance, rudeness. 
c, ignorant, from a;n- 
gnorance, which comes 
from an, the negative quod vide 
and fjOf or fea^, knowledge. 
<T;nbj:e;le, impudence; also stin- 


iTjnbjrejteac, rude, ignorant. 
<T;nbjc;ne, a foreign tribe, or strange 
people ; ex. a cc/i;oc a;nbjr;ne, 
in a foreign country. 
<T;nb; j, rainy weather ; laete a;n- 
bj j, <x;nb; j uatiD<x/t<x, a terrible 
squall of wind. 
Ctjnbte, naughtiness, badness. 
<t.;nb]:o;t, brave, valiant, intrepid. 
<t;nce<x^b, and <x;nce<x;tb<xc, a 
buffoon ; also an ingenious, fal- 
lacious fellow, an impostor, or a 

, a doubt. 

a champion, or 



, a toy or trifle, 
and <X}nc;<xlt<xc, peevish- 
ness, frowardness. 

cfpc;<xlt:a, peevish, froward, testy. 

<l jnclju, a peevish person. 

nbe;^e, affliction, calamity ; Ian 
ba;nbe;^-e, loaded with afflic- 
tion; o bu/t nu;te a;nbe;^e, out 
of all your calamities, com- 
pounded of the negative an and 
beaj", dextrous, convenient; an- 
beojn, against one's will. 

a young woman, or vir- 
gin fit for marriage ; compounded 
of the intensitive an, fit for, and 
jrea/1, a husband ; it should be 
more properly ajnppu 
nb;a^ia; j, angry. ^ 

cT;nb;u;b, obduracy in sin, final 
impenitence ; ab a;n and b;u;b, 

cTjnbl; je, trespass ; m'anbtjgte, 
my trespasses or transgressions ; 
also usurpation, or an infringe- 
ment of the old constitution. 

Cfjnbljjteac and a;nbl;jeac, a 
lawless person, an usurper; 50 
ba;nbl;jeac, wrongfully, per- 

<T;neac, horsemanship. 

djneam and a;n;m, a blemish, stain, 
or blot. 

cTjneamac, blemished, maimed. 

Cf;nea/it and a;mnea/tt;, violence, 

cTjneolu^, ignorance, from the ne- 
gative an, and eota^, knowledge. 

cfjneolac and a;meol^ac, illite- 
rate, not cultivated with learning 
or knowledge; one ignorant of 
the road. 

Cfjnjreab, plenteous, abundant. 

<T;nje;^", a curse, or malediction. 

Ctjngeal, or ajngjol, an angel, or 
messenger; Lat. angelus. Vid. 

cTjngeat, sun-shine, light, fire. 

djngljbe, angelical, bright. 

if jnjljbeact, an angelical state. 

be, malicious, envious, spite- 

tfjnzjbeact;, malice, spite ; ex. 

cro;be ran ajnjjbeact jan 

ruat, a heart without malice or 

cfjnja-tmantac, too much, too pow- 

erful, too many, over-swaying, 

cT;n;m, or ojnrn, a name ; Lat. 



j, a beast, or brute animal ; 
vid. bj. 

cTjn;mneamu;l, famous, renowned, 

cfjnjmnju jab, to name, to mention. 

tTjnjmnjjre, named; go b<x;n;m- 
n;te, namely. 


c, oppressive, tyrannical, 
also inhospitable, compounded 
of the negative an and joct, 
clemency, humanity, hospitality. 

Cfjn;6ba/i, unclean, impure, com- 
pounded of the negative <in and 
)0ban, pure, clean, fit ; Lat. ido- 

<Tjnjom, or ajn;m, a natural spot, 
or a disagreeable mark in the 
body ; also a stain or blemish on 
a person's reputation. 

<f;nle, or jreanloj, a kind of 
creature with four legs and a 
winged tail always living on 
trees, called by the Irish cat 
Cftajnn, i. e. a tree-cat. 

Ctjnte, well-featured. 

if jnleact, softness, smoothness. 

cTjnleanrxvjm, to persecute ; a;n le- 
anpjibme tu, I will persecute you. 

cfjnleanirxijnt;, persecution. 

<f;nlea^, disservice, or great harm 
done to one's self. J\ote, it is 
the negative of leaf, advantage, 
service to one's self; ex. bo ;t;n 
fe <x tea^, he acted wisely, and 
to his own advantage ; bo ftjn 
fe tx <\;nte<x^, he conducted 

himself unwisely, and to his 
own disadvantage ; ra coii)<i;;ite 
tajnlea^a fujat:, you are re- 
solved to destroy yourself. I 
know no Language that can ex- 
press in one word the full mean- 
ing of either of these Irish words, 

, oppression, injustice. 
itjnleog, a swallow ; corruptly, 

u;nme;b, a wonder. 

cfprneafanba, excessive, huge ; 
also inordinate, intemperate. 

cTjnmeafa/tbact, excess, intempe- 

tfjnm;an, lust, passion, inordinate 
desire, concupiscence; ex. a;n- 
m;ana na colla, the lusts or 
concupiscence of the flesh. 

<fjnm;anac, lustful, intemperate. 

<l;nm;nt:e, or ajnb;nte, beasts. 

<f;nn and a;n, a great circle ; 
hence Oel-ajn, (viilg. Olja ja;n) 
the great circle of Belus, i. e. of 
the sun, or the annual course of 
that planet tlirough the ecliptic. 
Note. Upon these Celtic mono- 
syllables a;n and <vjnn, the La- 
tin words anus and annus have 
been formed. Vid. Remarks. 

<Tjnne, vulg. pxjnne, the diminu- 
tive of ajnn, a small circle or 
ring ; Lat. annulits. 

, or ajny ea?tc, hatred. 
and ajnfjjanac, and 
, a furious, extrava- 
gant man. 

Cljnfgjanta, destroyed, broken 

{Tjnreann, braced up, over-stiff. 

djnteaf, an excessive or scorching 
heat, also an inflammation. 

cf;nceaf u; jeacc, idem ; <xntea- 
f u;ieact: na p)la, a great heat 
of blood. 

cTjnc^ean, ungovernable, inflexible. 
SfitC: In several of tlie preceding 
words beginning with ajn, that 

tf J 

particle, which should rather be 
<xn, but is here changed into <v;n 
by the abusive rule coel le coet, 
is a prefix signifying excess; as 
in the words ajnmetxpx/iba, <x;n- 
rojoin <x;nte<^-, &c. ; in other 
words it is a negative particle, 
such as vn in English, as in 
<x;n;oct<xc, <x;n;oban, &c. 

<f;;i, upon, or over ; in all old 
writings it is jro/i, as jro/i <xn t;/t, 
instead of <xj^i <xn tjp. 

tf;/i, numbered, from the verb 
tx;;i;m, to number, or reckon; 
bo &;/t j-e, he reckoned. 

cTjji, destroyed; from <vj/i;z;;iT), to 
destroy, rob, or plunder. 

Cljft, arise, rectiits ojp, as in the 
word tnuco;/i; je, early rising. 

<l;/i, the second person of the im- 
perative of the verb <x;/rjm, vulg. 
jr<xj;t;m, to watch, or take care. 

CT;/t, the genitive case of &j\, 

1, ploughed ; Lat. aro, arare. 
be, ribs. 

d;/tbe, a story. 

<f//tl)e, ribbed, furrowed. 

"Cl;/tbe<xbA, divisions ; ex. bo ;vjn- 
ne<vb<Xfi t/t; ];aj;ibeab<x ba f-lu- 
<x ja;B, they made three divisions 
of their armies. 

<t;/ib;^e, an armful, as much as one 
may carry between both arms. 

cfj/ib/ie, a multitude, a legion ; 

e ene;npe<\ct te f)enoc 
|i<xt<x^", he was seated amidst le- 
gions of angels with Enoc in Pa- 
radise. Vid. Le<xb<Xft b/te<xc. 
tb/ie, a host, or army. 

, the ark ; Lat. area. 

, a strait, or difficulty, great 
hunger ; hence <x;^c;^"e<xc, a 
hungry, starving man. 

, a lizard; <x;/ic luac/ta, an 

cfj/icecxbal, a prophesy. 

<T;/tceaUab, sacrilege; from 
a robbing, and ceall, a church ; 
Lat. cella, the same as ceo.ll- 

u;/iceallc;iac, a hind or doe of the 

third year; also a hind-calf, a 

hart of the first, year. 
<Tj/iceann, certain, positive, un- 

cTjftcjtl, to lie in wait, or in am- 


cf;/tc;onn, aside. 
tTjficjopxc, covetous, greedy of 

food, hungry, voracious, rave- 

<(jj\c)f, a complaint, or expostula- 

iTj/tc;^, meeting ; bo cu;/t f& 

ajj\cjf ojijta, he sent to meet 

<l;/tce^t, the same; <vjft <x;/icej^t; 

<xn p.} j, to wait on, or be of the 

king's levee; <x;pi <x;;tce;^t an 

t^lua j, to expect the coming up 

of the army. 
<t;^ce<xc, ingenious. 
<t;/ic;ll, i. e. co;me<xb, keeping. 
, a coast, a quarter or cardinal 

point; 0/7 &;/*b ^o;/t, from the 

eastern quarter, or from the east. 
cTj/tb, loud, also public; ex. 67- 

&/ib, publicly ; vid. u/ib, Lat. 

cT}/tb and o;/tbe, order, improve- 

ment ; Lat. ordo. 
<f;/tbbeab, to cut down. 
xt;;-tbceann, a sovereign or supe- 

rior, whether ecclesiastic or civil. 
Cf^ibceann<ty-, superiority, sove- 

reignty, great power. 
tt/jftbe, height; ex. cu bcx;/tbe, 

what height .' 

cf;^be and a;/tbe<xn, a sign. 
Cf;/ibeana, the position or situation 

of a thing; ex. b/iOc-cvjftbeana 

<x cuca, the disadvantageous po- 

sition of his legion. Vid. 

it;/tb;nt;nn, haughtiness, arro- 

<L 1 


gance, high-spirited. 

jftb;nt:jnneac, high-minded. 
<Tjnbean<vjb, constellations. 
cf^tbfjje, an >" kingdom governed 

by one person. 
tfjrtty-jejmleojrt, a curious, inqui- 

sitive, over-prying body. 
<T;ne, heed, care, attention ; ex. 

tdbajft b<xm b<xjne <x )nnfj <xn 

L<xo;, rid. Brody's poem. 
if; ;ie, a fishing-ware. 
<fjfte<xc, careful, vigilant, circum- 


cCj/tetxc, hostile, violent. 
tTjfteac, ingenuity. 
<T;neab<x and oj/ie<xb<x, excellent, 

<f;;ieam and tvjnjom, to number, to 

count ; ex. noc bo baftmeab bjob, 

that were numbered of them. 
<Tj/te<xn<xc, a beginning. 
<T;/te<x,n, a bay or harbour. 
t, to satisfy. 
t, food, also pleasant. 
, the apple of the eye, the 


jftel, a bed. 
je, a herd ; pi. ajnj je and 

cTjHJe. a place for summer grazing 

in the mountain. 
tfjn jeac. one who has many herds; 

of or belonging to a herd. 

a ren; <x;neana 
<xj/i; the reins of a bridle. 

symptoms, signs, or in- 
dications ; ex. <\nf e<xn<x <xn b 
the symptoms of death. 
;njjob, money, properly silver ; 
Lat argentum ; Greek apywpoc, 
derived from the Celtic arg, 
white, which is like the Greek 
apjoc, whence they derive their 
apYuooc, as well as the Lat. 
argent urn ; <X;tj;ob beo, quick- 

;/t^jm and ct;n;m, to heed, to 
mind, to take care of, or ob- 
seive; ex. ma <x;n;jeamu;b, if 

we perceive or observe. 
t, a cow-calf. 

> to ask, seek, or demand. 
, to spoil, rob, or plunder, 
take or drive away ; Lat. arceo ; 
Greek a ( ok-o, propnlso ; and 
Hebrew niN, ftigio ; hence 

cLjn, sacrilege. 

ce, spoiled, plundered, ra- 

-cT^njredc, a spoiler, robber. 
if; figtedc, also signifies bountiful, 
generous in bestowing silver ; 
hence C<xnna of the Dalgassian 
princes is said to derive his sur- 
name <tj;t;5red.c, quasi, <x;nj;o- 

<f;n;be, spectres, visions. 
<l;>t;be no. Cftojce, the sign of tlie 

j, certain, particular, especial ; 

j, especially. 
q j, a prince, nobleman, &c. 

a sovereignty, princi- 
pality ; ex. <xj/t;^eact: C^jfjl, 
the sovereignty ol Cashel. Old 
tfjftjUettb, a law. 
lT;^jtcean, a fashion. 
ttjnjoct: or o;neacc, clans, fac- 
tions or parties ; hence <vjft;oc- 
tu^, an assembly ; <x;n;oct, also 
signifies a cantoon, and corres- 
ponds with the Lat. word regio. 
rT), ploughing, also agricul- 
ture, husbandry ; Lat. aro-are / 
hence <v;^eo.nxi;n, ploughmen, 
i. e. 7'tu;n. 

, knowledge ; &1rijf, arise : 
and J^fe, history ; jnfe 
ancd^-bala, lu'ston- and 
genealog\- ; chronic um Scot or um. 
and <xjK;^jn, a rehearsal, 
or narration. 

, an appointment ; ajnjfjn 
, an appointment for battle. 
to watch ; ex. <x;/t;^jb 
yunn, watch here ; vicl. le<\ba/i 

{fjrtleacab and <x;;tleac<vjm, to 

lend or^borrow. 
<f;/ileacab and aj/tleajab, loan, 

also usury, or any extravagant 

gain arising from the practice of 

lending money ; <vj/ile, counsel. 
tfjftleactac, ready or willing to 

lend money or any other thing, 

also he that lends. 
cTj/tteoj, a fling, jostle, or toss. 
ct;/il;jte, lent, adventitious, bor- 

Cfj/ileojac, enterprising, adventu- 


arms, weapons. 

;/tm, a place ; 50 

<xn ;t;j, to the place where the 

king was ; ca ba;/im or ca;/tm, 

where, in what place, ubinam. 
;o^, a belt worn by a sol- 

dier to fasten his armour on. 
cT;/tme<x/-it: and a;/tm;b, an order 

or custom. 
Cf;/tmjejn and <xrT)/iaje;n, well 

born, or descended. 
<f ;/imeab, a kind of measure. 
cTj/troeab, a herd of cattle ; Lat. 

armentwn, plur. armenta. 
Cf;/im;b;r>, honour, reverence. 
cT;/inr;b;neac, venerable, respect- 

ful, as, <x o; j <x;/iro;b;neac, vir- 

go veneranda. 
cTj/trirjb, an interdict, also a troth, 

vow, or promise. 
cTj/tne, sloes ; Greek s otvsoe. 
cf;/ir>e, pi. of a/ta, the kidneys. 
tT/;ine, a sitting or watching up all 

night; hence the diminutive a;/i- 

nean, which is the more common 


tfjfinean, a sitting up late. 
CtjfiOjle, all together ; Lat. slmuL 
tTjfifibe, a sign ; <x;/t/ibe na c/tO;ce, 

the sign of the cross, L. B. 
<fjj\j\fcj, the hinder part of the 


cTj/t^je, contemplation. 
tT;;ttea;rat, an article. 



and <\;^ce;n, a pebble. 
, weariness, fatigue. 
, a soldier's whetstone, 
among the old Irish. 
, a hill, also a fort of covert. 
1 , dependence ; <xt<x <x;^ <X5<xno 
, I depend upon him ; hence, 
, to depend, to have confi- 
dence in; as <x;pm <x;/i, I de- 
pend upon him. 

, back, backwards; as t<x/i <x 
<x;^-, backwards; cuj <x;/t <x;^-, 
to recall ; hence aj^ecXg, resti- 

, a loan. 

<(-)f, free, willing ; <v;^t <x;^, no <x;^ 
e;j;on, nolens, volens. 
, damage or trespass. 
eab and <x;^cjm, to clean, or 
examine the head or any part of 
a person's body. 

, death, applied to a dead 
person ; hinc <v;^le;ne, a shroud. 
' a reproof, reprehension, or 

, a present, or free gift or 
donation ; bo tug b<xm An <J.;^e, 
he presented me, or gave me 
gratis ; <x;/~g;b, freely, gratis. 
f"ge;/t, a mountain ; as <x;^je;;i 
or C;;-^;/! t?;uba, the ridge of 
mountains, which part Leat: cu- 
;nn from I eat mo j ; f W. C^;/t. 
and cv;^re, a poem, also any 
ingenuity or invention ; Latin, 

! or ajfteojfl, a tricking, 
ingenious, artful fellow, a cheat 
or impostor ; Lat. astutus. 
cf/rbe or <x;^ te, out of it, or of 
her ; <xg but <x;^be, departing 
thence or thereout; compound- 
ed of <XT~, from Lat. abs, and e or 
; / bo cuo.;b <x ^p;o/tiib <x;^-be, 
she gave up the ghost. 

and <x;^b;o/i, a journey 
or peregrination ; ojfi jreab <X 
na;^b;;i, during their journey ; 
tr/t; la a;^-bjo/i, three days' jour- 


ney ; it now vulgarly means 

missing one's way, and disap- 

pointment in one's journey. 

jfbea/tu j<xb and ajfcpjm, to re- 

move from one place to another, 

to travel, or sojourn. 
<Tj/-b;<xccand <x;^beo;^e<xct, play- 

ing pranks, acting the impostor. 
<Tj^e<xtb<x, restitution, also to re- 

store, or give back in specie. 
<f;/-;ce<xc, crafty, ingenious. 
Ctjfjoc, i. e. <xjf*-;oc, restitution in 

sequiralenti, repayment literally, 

also vomiting. 


and o.;pc;m, to restore, 
return, give back. 

, a diadem or crown. 
, a relic ; as 
n<xom, tlie holy relics ; vid. 

/t, a spring tide. 

jflejne, a shroud, the woollen co- 
vering commonly put upon the 
corps of dead people. 
Jfijng, a dream. 

jj'l/njea.m and <x^t;onj;<xb, to 
dream ; noc G)fijn$e4f, that 

c, a dreamer. 
, out of her or it, from it. 

t, a journey ; vid. <x;^be<i/< ; 
Lat. iter ; afcpjo gab, to re- 

Cfjt, a place. 
<t;t, comical, strange, arch ; hence 

ajtjOf, pleasantry, drollery. 
<fjte<xm, a proof, a convincing ar- 


<C}tre<inn, furze. 
<T;t; jjm, to prove, to convince. 
tijtjujab, to inhabit, or improve ; 
<x;teoc<xjb me, I will inhabit ; 
a%uf bo bjonncolnab <\n fpjo- 
c<xl, agdf bo t\;t;j jono.;nne, 
ff rerbitm caro faetum est, et 
hnbitavtt in nobls. 
<C;c, quick, also sharp. 
Ctjc, a ford, or kiln; <xjc ao;l, a 
lime-kiln ; pi. a;cce, kilns. 

and <X)tn;m, to know, to 


Ctjcbe, the ebb of the tide. 
<T;cbeobam, to revive ; <X)tbeobab, 


<fjc5eobc<vjn, enlivening, reviving. 

UJC&jOp, blame, reproof ; some- 

times written o.jtj:;0;t, and <xjc- 

a reprover, a censor. 
xb, to blame, censure, re- 

, appeared ; f<\r> 0;bce 
no <xjcce<x^ fOjllfe mo^, great 
light was seen in the night. 
<T;tceob<vjm, to disapprove, dis- 

like, contemn. 
<f;ce<xc, a sow. 
<T;te, revenge. 
cT;cce<-, a lady of pleasure. 

and <x;ccea^<x;be, who- 

, to pray or entreat. 
, a contradicting or gainsay- 

, concise, compendious. 
, to steal away, or retire 

<T;teaUo.c, a second proof. 
<T;t:ecinnra, the commandments, 

also precepts, singular tvjcne. 
<T;ceannt<x and <x;ceo.nt:ac, known, 

also familiar, free, sociable. 
CCjceantd^, acquaintance, know- 
ledge : bu;ne bom <x;teant<x^-, 
one of my acquaintance. 
<f;te<xn^<\c, a different person or 

thing, another. 
<T;ce<Xrt/t<x6, a change ; <x;f e<j.;t^<xc 

culdijb, a change of raiment. 
tfjte&fc, an admonition, advice, 
or lecture ; vid. le<xb<X;t b/teac, 

, resurrection ; 

, to rise from the dead. 
t, soon, short, generally 
applied to time; 50 b<x;cje<x/t, 
shortly; brevi tempare, a short 
cut or wav. 

if/t^ejn, like, or another one's self, 

quasi regenitus. 
cf;t jenjro, to regenerate. 
cT;t je;r)e<xrou;n, a regeneration. 
d;tjb, a serpent, which seems to 

be the asp ; sometimes said to 

a fiery, peevish person ; Gr. arrj, 


cf;t;b;n, a little venemous creature. 
if;t; j and <x;t;^e, giants ; vulgo 
; its singular is <xt<xc or 

cT;t;r), commanded ; bo <x;t;n f&, 

he commanded. 
<T;t:;n;m, to ordain, to order, to 

command or direct. 
Cfjcjnne, a firebrand ; vulg. pajt- 

;nne ; also a wart. 
<T;t;/t, father ; gen. <xta;t <x;c;/t 

n;me, a serpent, an adder ; <x;t;/t 

tu^<x, ground ivy. 
tfjtr;^, an affront, an abuse ; also 

shame, confusion ; ex. n aomajt;^, 

djtjpm and <xjt;^;u j<j.b,to affront, 

to abuse, to shame ; hence <x;tj- 

7-6 <vc, and bu;ne <x;t;^evXc, an 

abusive reviling man. 
Ctjcjuba/t, banishment, expulsion. 
Ctjcle, an old rag. 
-cT;tle, after; ex. bajtte <xn tao;, 

after the poem ; ba;tte &ba.m 

bjona/tba, after Adam's exile. 
cT/tmed-t, repentance, an after sor- 

Cf/tne, a district in the county of 

Meath, anciently the estate of a 

tribe of the O'Caseys. 
<f;trne, knowledge, known ; 

bub <x;tne, it was not known. 
cTjtne, a commandment ; <xn ba 

ba;tne, the second command- 

cfjtnjm, to know, also to recom- 

mend ; <vjc;/t netxmba 

man<xm ;/- mo ^p;o^i<xb;t;t 

in manus tttas cominendo 


c, treasured or hoarded up. 

rf ) 

, an ox, bull, or cow. 

and <x;t^e<xca^-, repen- 

<T;tftJii, a sharp point. 

cT;c/i;nne, a calf. 

Cfjt/tjogdb, to dethrone, or depose 
a sovereign. N. B. The trans- 
lator of Dr. Keating's History, 
whose ignorance of the Irish lan- 
guage appears in every page of 
his work, translates the Irish 
word <x;t/i;0j<xb into that of re- 
establishment on the throne, 
where he treats of the reigns of 
C<xj/ib/ie l;jcjre<xc<vjfi king of 
Leac-cujnn, and OOoj-co/tb kiug 
of Leat-mo j ; the scope and 
sense of the history being therein 
directly contrary, as the reader 
may plainly see. 

it jt]\-)f, an imitation. 

t^;t;t;/-, a report. 

<t;t;i;pm, to report ; bo <x;t/t;^ ye, 
he reported it ; also to imitate. 

<T;t/r^teac, a rehearser or relater; 
ex. <xjt/i;^-tetxc ^jeul, a tale- 

<C;t; jea^-, vulg. pa;tJje<J.^-, reluc- 
tance, unwillingness. t 

cT;t/te<xb and cijt/teab<xb, dwelling, 

-cT;tjrj/i;ob<xb,to transcribe or copy. 

ttl, i. e. <x;te<xiT)ujn ; Lat. alimen- 
tum, nurture, food. 

itl, a brood, or the young of any 
animal ; <x I)ul 65, her young ones. 

<Tl<x, nursing ; hence bula, i. c. bo 
cila, to nurse ; ex. <x;tj/t-bala, a 
foster-father ; Lat. alo, alere. 

Cfl<x, ((///ftxi <xtb<x <xb <xlbeb;ne,) a 
swan ; and Welch alark, a swan. 

<f t<x, a wound. 

<tt<x, <xUa;b, skill or craft ; hinc, 
<xla;be, an art or trade, and 
<xlabn<xc, full of artifice, comical, 
, wisdom. 
, speckled. 

itl<x;m, to hail or salute, sometimes 

rf L 

written ;~ala;m bo ^cijleaba/t n<x 
n;j e, they hailed him king. 

<fla;m, to nurse, or foster ; Lat. 
alo ; o;ljm, idem. 

<na;ro, to sing, to praise, or pray 
to ; ex. ala;m );a an co;rcbe ; 
this verb is like the Heb. verb 
bbn, which signifies to praise, 
to worship, and adore; hence 
H'lWn, laudate Dominum. 

<flajn, white, bright, clear, fair. 

<flban, <tlb<\jr>, the name of Scot- 
land; Lat. Albania genit. na 
b alb an. 

Ctlbanac, Scottish, also a Scot. 
i <f Ibci^b, an halbard, or halbert. 

cflpat, a cause or reason. 

<Upxlac, hid or concealed. 

<Tlj<X, noble, brave ; Gr. a\Krj, 
jRobur, Hisp. ft/go, uncle h? d" 1 
algo, a well born man ; Jnjf 
alga, an old name of Ireland. 

<(l^f, or ajlgjcy", a false inclina- 
tion to stool. 

-<f II, universal, or all ; as buab-all, 
or all-buabac, all-victorious or 

{Hi, or oil, .great, prodigious, mon- 
strous, as also u;le, universal, 
is like the Hebrew ^X, magmis, 
patens, fort is ; hinc ^ nomen 
Dei, > ! ?N >^>N, my God, my God. 

<fll, a bridle. 

Ull, and vulgo e;le, other, strange, 
another, is like the Gr. aXXoc, 
and the Lat. atius. 

<Tll, foreign, alien ; hence all- 
muftbci, exotic, that comes from 
a foreign country, (from <xll, and 
mu;;t, the sea, or from <xll, fo- 
reign, and mu/i, a habitation,) 
Lat. transmarinus, bon t<xob <x;^ 
<x;ll, on the further side ; trajnjj 
f~e <x no.ll, or <xn <xll, lie came 
from the opposite side, but com- 
monly, he came from beyond sea. 

<Cll, wild, mabrto, alia, i. e. canis 
silvaticits, a wolf. 

itll, a rock, or rocky cliff; by the 

moderns, a;ll, p a;ll, ex. aUclujr, 

i. e. petr^a clujt ; juxta Bedam 

hist. lib. i. c. 12. miatimeninni 

erat Pictorum. 
itlla, the name of a river in the 

County of Cork, which gives a 

name to a barony, called after it 


<TUafca;^, or muc alia, an echo. 
if Ua6a/t, a great army. 
ttllab, to go to, to meet ; Gall. 


iTllab, a present. 

cTllab, excellency, fame, greatness. 
<Tlla;b, savage ; allta, idem. 
ctllann, formerly, as a n'allan, in 

former times. 

transposition ; allcun na 
, the transposition of the 

<Tll jlo^, mischief. 
<Tll jo^tr, an orchard, rectit/s abal- 
, an apple-field ; rid go oll- 


c, or allma/tac, a foreigner, 

a transmarine. 

cfllmu/tba, exotic, outlandish, of 
another country. 

tfllmuribact;, barbarity, or extra- 
ordinary cruelty, ex. allmunbacc 
na Loclannac j\o b; ^an Bjrea/t 
fjn, he had the barbarity of the 
Danes in him. 

<fllob, ancient, also formerly ; a 
n'allob and a n'allub, in ancient 
times. Note. This Celtic word 
allob is the original, upon which 
the Latin allodium, signifying 
ancient property, hath been form- 

and allijan, a foreign ex- 
pedition, or voyage. 

c, other, diverse, opposite ; 
taob allranac na baman, the 
other side of the river. 

<TUca, wild, savage; beacajje all- 
ta, wild beasts. 

iflluj^, wild ; ex. bam allu; j, or 
bama/3 alia, a spider, the black 

if L 

worm of the wall, for alia, jralla, 

or balla, are synonymous, Lat. 

vallum, and hence the English 

word wall. 
ifllojn, of a hind; laoj allu;n, 

a lawn, 
if Imcaba, charitable, giving alms; 

iflmojnne, almonds, 
dlm^-ana, alms-deeds; Lat. elee- 

iflma;n, the country and residence 

of the famous Fion Mac Cumhail 

in Leinster. 
iflpa, ylljab alpa, the Alps ; vid. 

die, a nursing; ban-<vjlte, a nurse, 

Cantab, banlitu. 

if It, a high place, or edifice ; see 
the word a;lt ; Wei. alth, is an 
ascent ; Lat. altus. 
if It, an action, deed, or fact; also 

an article. 

die, a leap ; Lat. saltus. 
if It, a part of any thing, a section 

of a book, 
if It, a joint : e;b;/i altajb, between 

the joints. 

<flt, the state or condition of a 
person or thing ; ex. o. Cbajbg 
na tataojfi Co/ma : jf gan e 
an alt Bu/t najallma, Thady re- 
vile not the poet Torna, who is 
not in the way of accosting you ; 
Lu;j 6 Clejpie. 

iflto;/i,an altar; Gen. no. balto/ta. 
ifltocta, visiting, 
iflt/ia, a foster-father ; ban-alt/ia, 
a foster-mother, or nurse. 
, to move. 

nursing; <xt<Xjft <xlt;-to- 
m<x, a fosterer, also to nurse or 

ty*9 nursing; vw/. <xla; 
to nurse ; Wei. aultruan, a god- 

ifltuj<xb, and <ilcu;g;m, to give 
. God thanks; ex. alcujijm le 
jCx, I thank and glorify God. 

jab, grace after meat. This 
word seems to be derived 
from the custom of our Pagan 
ancestors, who worshiped their 
gods in altis sen excelsis, on the 
summits of hills and mountains, 
as appears by the earns or heaps 
still to be seen on the tops of 
high places in Ireland. 

and alltu^", altact and all- 
tact, wildness, savageness, bar- 

ifluba, wounds. 

iflujn, fair; jngean alu;n, a fair 
daughter or lady. 

iflujnn, time. 

if m, time ; fto;me bam, before her 
time ; o.n am, in time ; pi. aman ; 
ex. t/to^ga no. g' ce;t^te baman, 
the fast of the quatre tense. 

ifma, the hame of a horse-collar, jf' 
a kind of band about a draft- 
horse's neck; Gr. afjLfia, a band. 

if mac, a vulture, or any ravenous 

if mac, out; 6 7-0 amac, hence- 
forth, henceforward. 

if mab, and vulgo am;b, a madman, . 
a simpleton, a foolish, silly per- 
son, a fool ; hence the diminut. 
amaban ; Lat. omens. 

if maban, a fool, a madman. 

if mabanajt, folly, foolishness. 

if mabanta, foolish, ill-judged. 

ifmajl, broken. 

if ma/tac, fondness ; Lat. amor. 

ifma/tca, a fondness, a being over 

ifma/tcac, fond, over kind, too in- 

if noa/ica;m, to be fond of, or kind 
to a person ; a^ ama^ac, idem. 

if mbeat, quick, nimble, swift. 

if no be; t, a being, essence. 

if w-gojfte, a godfather. 

ifm, raw, sour, bitter; ex. j:eo;l 
am, raw flesh. 

ifm, a kind of fishing-net. 

ifm, even, also, but; Heb. r\K, 

tt CD 


etiam, quinctiam. 

vtm, bad, naughty. 

<f ma and ama;m, to be raw. 

<fma;l and amu;l, like unto, as; 
Gr. 6/iaAoc, and Lat. .sv/wY/V, 
Wei. hamal. 

cfmajlje, t;/t amajlje, Tyrawley 
in Connaught. 

cfmajn, only, alone, except. 

iTmaon, plurality, it is used also for 

cfma/t, music. 

cfmanc, a fault. 

<Tma/tc, behold. 

tfm a/tea; m, to see, to behold, to 
look at. 

<Tman, a river; Lat. amnis, Wei. 
avon, Cor. auan, and Arm. M/?. 
Tills Irish word is pronounced 

tlma/tj, woe; ama/tg bujt, woe 
unto you. 

{(roan GQoft, the river Black Water 
in Munster. 

ttmantaft, rectius abbanta^t, good 
luck or prosperity in adventure ; 
Gal. avanture, bonne avanture, 
vulgo dicitur anntiifi ; as, aj 
aju^ anntu^ ; it also signifies a 
perquisite, or royalty ; ex. fe 
roa/tj beag, aneajma;;- aman- 
tu;t, sixteen marks, (as chief- 
rent,) besides the casual perqui- 
sites, or royalties. 

tfmancotl, the letter X, according 
to Flaherty, also the aphthongs, 
sometimes written ama^coll. 

CfrrKX/tu^, doubt, suspicion, or mis- 
trust ; 5 an ama/inf, without 

ifroa/ta^ac, dubious, distrustful, 

, a wild, ungovernable, or 
mad man ; tr; j na n'ama^-, Bed- 
lam ; hence the dimin. ama^an 
and aroa^-oj. 

ma^, a soldier; in the Hebrew 
language pDN signifies robustus, 
fortis fit it ; in the German am- 

bacht is a soldier. 

*an, a dull, or stupid man. 
, a silly woman. 
, affliction, tribulation, sor- 
row; an amga/t mo^i, in great 

arola;b, and amlu;b, so, 

, dumb, mute. 
, impudent; Brogan in vita 
Brigidce; also importunate, trou- 

cTmna^, unusual, extraordinan : 
cac Cfioba aronar*, a smart and 
remarkable battle. Vid. Chro- 
nicon Scotomm. 

iTm^a, rectius abfia, a poem, hence 
aro^an, a sonnet ; quod rid. 
aiiifta collujm c;lle, a poem com- 
posed for St. Columbus. 

<f m/ta, good, great, noble, prospe- 
rous, lucky ; amfta a/tab bo cua- 
ta;b, bona est scala populis. 

cTm/ta, dark, gloomy, obscure. 

cTro/ta, mourning, lamentation for 
the dead, also the hilt of a 

<(" mpan, a song, rectius abftan. 

cTm/^aojleab, a lax, a looseness, 
or flux. 

Cfmujn, a river ; Lat. amnis. 

Cfmm, mischievous, evil, bad. 

{from, to refuse. 

{from, time ; cat e an tarn , what 
time? Lat. tempus. Vid. am. 
tr^o^ga na m'amman, the fast of 
the quatuor tempora. 

<fm;t;, a cupboard. 

ujc, or ama; j, on the outside, 
without doors, besides, without, 
an ambush, ambuscade, or 
surprise ; also any violent attack 
or onset; ex. amu^ lonjpojnt:, 
surprising the camp or quarters 
of an enemy ; also protection ; 
ex. a Chpjofc mac Oe, t;aja- 
majt: u;le a;^ barnu^*, Christ. 
Son of God, we all fly to thy 
protection. Old Parchment. 


to hit; b'amu^dba/i na 
b6j;i;je e, the archers 
hit nim ; also to level, or aim 

ifo, the; ex. <xn bu;ne, the man. 

if n, whether ; ex. <vn tu mo cfyi<x ? 

art thou my friend ? Lat. aw. 
' il n, or ; <xon, one ; Lat. unus. 

ifn, in compound words sometimes 
signifies negation, and answers to 
the in and un of the English, 
and to the in of the Latin ; ex. 
<xnC\ j, unhappiness, infelicitous ; 
sometimes when put before a 
substantive it signifies very great, 
or very much ; ex. <xn;a;i<xct, a 
very great attempt ; when put 
before an adjective it signifies 
very ; ex. <xnmo/i, very big. 

if r> is the article of the masculine 
gender in oblique cases, as na is 
of the feminine ; as m<xc an p^t, 
nrxxc n<x mn<x ; vid. na, the plural 
of this article <xn before mascu- 
lines is n<x, as n<x p;/i, the men. 

ifn, evil, bad, also a kind of ves- 

<fn, water; also still or quiet. 

ifn, true ; also pleasant. 

ifn, noble ; also swift. 

if n<x, riches ; a cornu copice, or in- 
exhaustible treasure ; also a con- 
tinuance of calm weather ; ex. <x 
ttx <xn <xn<x n<xomt<x <xnn, there is 
now a heavenly blessing or plen- 
ty- . 

<Cnabu;b, unripe, sharp. 

xtWcajl, quietness, protection, re- 
lief, deliverance, also mercy ; ex. 
bo jrjnne <xn<xc<xl <vjfi, he showed 
him mercy. K. 

itn<xc<x/i, affliction, calamity ; <x lo 
m'<xnacfi<x, in the day of my af- 
fliction ; t'&noic/ia, thy affliction. 

cTflcxc, anger. 

itn<xc, a washing, or tinging; 
<xn<xc jrcub <x n<x;/im <x l;n c^io, 
intixerunt sua arma sanguine. 
, danger, misfortune ; also 

a bad accident; bo b<vj 

cajn bo, he came by a bad acci- 

if nab, delay ; g<xn <xn<xb, sz/ze 

b, danger. 
, neat, clean. 
iTna;c, a wound. 
iTrxvjc me, save thou me. 
iTna;ce, a saving, or protection. 
if/?<x;c;m, to save, to relieve, or 

protect ; also to beware, or take 

care ; ex. <xn<vjc te<ttr, take heed; 

<xrKx;cj:e<xb <n.jt <vn pen;cjl ub tu, 

I will save you from mat danger. 
iTnacjll, restless. 
iTn<v;nbfteab. insatiable. 
iTna;/tt:, soft, tender. 

, bandle-cloth, or linen of 

small breadth. 

, backward, reversed. 

, unknown. 

al, breath ; Wei. anadl. 
itnal, an annal ; pi. <xnat<x, annals. 
if n&lac, a chronicle, annals. 
ilnall, hither, from beyond; ex. 

<xn'<xll, Jo^ib<xn, over Jordan. 
ifnam, life, soul ; Lat. anima. 
iTfl<unc<XfUX, a bosom friend; also a 

penitentiary ; lofep <<x/i<i 

cluan<x mjc no;^-, Joseph Peni- 

tentiary of Clonmacnois. Vid. 

Chron. Sc. 
ifnam, rare; 50 b<xn<xm, seldom, 

xf n<xo;b;n, woe, also disagreeable ; 

ex. <\f <wao;bjn bu;c, woe unto 

iTnb<x, prodigious, great, porten- 

iTnbal, huge, exceeding great ; 

from <xnb<x and <xll, universal, or 

all ; <xnbctt, all-prodigious. 
ifnbj:<x;ne, weakness, fainting ; <xg 

bul <xn <xnbj:<x;ne, ready to faint ; 

from the augmentative <xn<x and 

pann, weak, feeble; hence <xn- 
Tliis word is commonly 

pronounced <xnu;ne. 
if nbpxnn, weak, feeble. 
cfnBa^, a sudden, untimely, or 

unnatural death. 
ifnbjrob, ignorant. 
if nbp);l, brave, or courageous. 
if nbj6m<xc, sensual, lustful ; rectius 


if/ibob, falsehood, villany. 
if nbo^b, furious. 

t and <xnb/tu;t, broth ; from 
, water, and b;tu;t, boiled. 

, tyranny. 
ifnbuan, uneasiness, anxiety ; pro> 

nounced <uibojn, as Ian b'an- 

buajn, full of anxiety and sur- 


ifnc<x;ntr, reviling, or backbitingi 
if/7c'a;t: and <xnc<x;te<xm, a squan- 

dering, or extravagant spending. 
if nco;;te, a ship-anchor. 
c, bad, also anger. 

j , sn. 

ifnbana, presumptuous, impudent. 
ifnbo/i, although. 

, presumptuous. 
, presumption. 

, Cathecliresis. 
if"bu;ne, a wicked man. 
if neat, a swoon ; ex. te;b <xne<xl, 

she fell in a swoon. 
if nejj-, a skin, or hide. 
ifnpi, dflpxb, an]:a;b, a storm, a 
tempest; ex. <xn <\nj:<xb )5;tba;n, 
in the swelling of me Jordan. 
<fr)j:ac, or <xnj:o.bac, overflowing, 


tTnfram, we will stay, or remain. 
Cfnpl<xt:, a tyrant, an usurper. 
it njro/ttan, puissance, tyranny, op- 
pression, usurpation; <xr>p);tlan 
n<\ toctanac acaf no. njatl 
mbuAnna, the tyranny of the 
Danes and other foreigners. 
and ;nge, but. 
, a snare. 

c, glittering. 

valiant, stout, hardv. 

ifn^clu, a champion. 
ifnjc/tu;^e, an anchorite. 
ifnjlonn, adversity, danger; also 


b, a great cry. 

rnata, relations; also respite, 


i to-day; anciently written 
;n u; j, and jn u;, for j is not 
pronounced ; it is the same 

hui in French and oy in Spa- 

nish ; Lat. hodie. 
ifn;ub, error, depravity. 
if njubac, depraved, perverse. 
ifnrrxxojn, hatred, pique. 
ifnm;<in, concupiscence, sensuality. 

excess of any thing, mostly ap- 

plied to the passion of lust ; 

from the particle <xn and m;an, a 

desire; plur. <xnm;<xn<x, <xnm;ano. 

n<x colnd, the lusts of the flesh. 
ifnm;dn<xc, sensual, lustful. 
ifnmo/t, very great; go banmo/t, 

ifnn, there, therein, in the said 


if nn<x;cte, a cleansing or purifying. 
ifflntxb, i. e. ma.;lt, delay ; j<xn <xn- 

n<xb, immediately. 
if/in<x;b, a year. 
cfnnpocvxl, a word of course, a pro- 

ifnn jajfttn, an appellation, or nam- 

tfnnfa, in this very place, here; 

also in the ; ex. annf<\. 15, in the 


ifnn^a, beloved, dear. 
ifnn^act:, love. 
ifnntojl, lust. 

if nn^-an, in him ; also then. 
ifnont<X;t, over. 

if no;^-, now ; a no^-a, the same. 
if ncyjajlt, a chasm, or great gap. 
/ta, one in the next degree of 

honour to an ollaii). 

, abundance. 
ifn/to, misery, hardship, bad wea- 



ther ; from <xn and ;io, frost. 

<tn/t<x, the dregs of men, or meanest 
person ; gjolta. <xn/ia. 

cTn/io;bte<xc, oppressed. 

<fn/io;be, oppressed, hard set. 

cTn^5<x;ne, a chasm. 

<fn;-5<x;/tt, a clamour, or great 

dnfanntac, a greedy-gut, a gor- 

iTn^oj, misery, adversity, hard 
cheer, affliction ; bo luct <xnp);j, 
to the afflicted. 

cTn/~;n, then. 

it n^ujjKXb, scurrility. 

tfnttx/ifuxjnj, a strife, or debate. 

cfntojt, inordinate desire or will. 

tfntojljm, to lust after a thing, or 
be very desirous thereof; b'<xn- 
tO;l; j ^-e, he lusted. 

<fnto;l;Teact, an earnest or vehe- 
ment longing or desire. 

if o to limit o;/i, a glutton ; from <xn<x 
and tom<xlt<vjm, to eat. 

cTnudb<x/i, excessive pride. 

cfnua;b/ie<xc, proud. 

<fnu<x;;i, when, at the time that. 

cTnuaj^jfierce or cruel. 

if nimble, baseness ; also more 

rfntmluji, burdensome. 

own, from above. 
, mean, base, or ignoble. 
, or xxnonn, over to the other 
side, beyond seas. 

<fo. Note, <xo is used by our mo- 
dern grammarians instead of the 
<xe, and oe of the ancients, and 
OiO; instead of uj, and are pro- 
nounced in the same manner. 
It has been already said that this 
substitution is very abusive, as it 
carries away the words from their 
radical propriety and affinity with 
other languages. 

cTobb<\, beautiful; b/ic<xc <xobb<x, 
<xobb<xct, obedience; also beauty. 

{fob, fire. 

<Tob, the liver. 


tfobd, the proper name of a man, 
equal to Hugo and Hugh in . 
English ; ex. <tob<x u<x ^ ^le;tl, 
Hugh O'Neil, potms Oeb; it is 
the same name as Eudes in 

cToba;/ie, a pastor, a shepherd, a 

cTob<x;/-ie<xct, a keeping, or herding 
of cattle. 

<foj:ru<xtm<x/t, detestable, horrible, 

Cto;, a stranger, a guest. 

Cfo;, or <x, a swan. 

,, a confederacy, a compact, or 

instruction, knowledge, or 
, honour, respect, 
and ;, an island ; ex. <xoj or ; 
Colu;m Ch;lle, an island in Scot- 
land, where St. Columbus lived 
chief abbot. 

tfo; and ;, a country ; as <xo; GOac 
Cujtle, the territory of Mac 
Cuille, or the barony of Imo- 
killy. Note. This Irish word 
OlOj or j, signifying an island, 
also a region, or country, is quite 
analogous to the Hebrew >K, in- 
sula, regio, provincia, an island ; 
also a territory, or region. Vid. 
Opitius's and Buxtorfs Lexi- 

<To;B, neat, elegant, civil, cour- 

-Cfo;b, likeness, similitude. 

<fo;be, pleasant, comely. 

tTo;be<*l, pleasant, a rejoicing, or 
merriment; ex. mj <xo;be<xl, re- 
joicing time. 

tfo;be<xl, fire, or a spark thereof; 
from <xob, fire ; ex. na ^e;b 
<xo;be<xl gan p<xbuj<xb, do not 
blow a spark or ember that is 
not kindled. 

cTojble, a sign or mark. 

<fo;blj jjm, to mark. 

and cio;bn;o^, joy, de- 


light ; cum <xo;bn;f , for delight. 

<fo;be, youth. 

<Tojbe<xb<xc, well-behaved. 

cfojbeoj, a hair-lace, a fillet, a 

<fo;be, a skilful or knowing per- 

tfo;be<3.ct, hospitality, succour, 

<To;beact<xc, hospitable. 

Ctojbebe, a guest. 

<fo;l, the mouth ; Cantab, ahol. 

<To;lfyteO, a lime-kiln. 

<To;leac, a gazing stock. Nah. 3. 

cTo;le<xc, dung ; <xojl; j, of or be- 
longing to dung; ex. ca/in, or 
ca^nan <xo;l; j, a dung-hill. 

<To;teanba, excellent, fine, charm- 

cTo;ll/-eoj and ajU/'eoj, a cater- 

<fo;n, a rush. 

cfojn, honour. 

<fo;n, in compound words is the 
same as 0.00, one, though cio;n is 
never said but when the first or 
initial vowel of the second word 
of the compound happens to be 
of the denomination of c<xol, or 
small vowels ; ex. <xo;n-;nt;;n, 
one mind ; <xo;np;^t, of a single 
man; as conwac, or co;m-nejc 
<xojn-p;/t, a duel; <xo;n-n;, any 
thing; but <xon-jr;/t and <xon-n; 
is said very commonly and pro- 

<f o;ne, the vulgar and corrupt word 
for Friday ; ex. <xo;ne <xn ce<x^- 
ba, Good Friday. Vid. infra 
be and b;<x. 

ttojnjro, to fast, or to abstain from 
flesh on Friday. 

ifojjt and <X};t;;te, a curse or male- 
diction ; is analogous to the 
Hebrew 1HK, accursed, niale- 
dictus. Genes. 3. 14. 

c(o;/cjm, to curse. 

, a restipulation. 

and <xo;^-e, an oblique case 

of <xo^", quod i- id. 
<Tol, lime ; <xoty-0;tn, a lime-kiln. 
-cToltxb, to plaster and to whitewash 

with lime. 
<Ton, excellent, good ; Cantab, on, 

the same. 
cTon, a country. 
-cfon, or baon, rectius eun, one; 

the same as the Gr. nominat. 

neuter li>, genit. kvoq, and Lat. 

itonac, a fair, an assembly. J-ld. 

a market-town in Lower 

-cfona;t, alone. 
Cfon<x/t<xct;, singularity. 
-cton<X;xn and <j.on<Xfiba, single, all 


cb, singularity. 
, a;;t <xonbat, together. 
<ic, a fellow-citizen, or 

one of the same town or city. 
<Tonba, a simple ; it is the opposite 

of camafc, a compound. 
Ctonba, singular, particular. 
<fonb<xct, unity ; rid go <xonrcictr. 
cConjruj/tt;, wallowing, 2 Sam. 20. 

12. Bedel's Bible. 
ttbnjuxcanac and <xonrt<xcanb<x, de- 

solate, solitary ; also particular ; 

as 50 "oaon/t<xcan<xc, in particu- 

lar, only. 
<fon;t<xcan<xc and <xon;t<xcana^, de- 

solation, or solitude. 
-cTon^lojne, of one surname. 
<Tontr<x and <xonta j<xb, celibacy, or 

the unmarried state; brjne <xn 

<XOntu jab, a man unmarried^ 
Ctonra, <xonc<xb and <xoncuj<xb, a 

vote, or consent. 
<Contrab<xc, willing ; go b<xont<xb<xc, 

<Tonte<ict:, corrupte et vulgo <xo- 

nac, a fair, an assembly, or con- 

vention ; plur. txonta; je. 
cConcu;j;n), to obey, to consent 



tfontujj and <xontu;jte, united, 
agreed to. 

t, once, one time. 

the small County of 

/ C3 / * - . 

Limerick, from the hill called 
Knockgreine to Limerick, the 
ancient patrimony of theO'Conu- 
ings, whose principal castle, near 
Limerick, was called C<vjf le<xn 
O'Conujnj, or Castle Connell ; 
<\0f t/ijma; j, from Owny to Li- 
.- if Of, age ; cot b<xo;f tu, how old 

are you ? Wei. oes. 
if Of , a sect or kind of people, of 
the same condition, profession, 
or degree ; which answers to the 
Latin and French gens : <tof 
e<xtab<xn, the men of arts and sci- 
ences ; <\0f te<xb, no c;u;l, mu- 
sicians ; dOf ban 01, poets ; <*.0f 
5<xl<V7/i, the sick ; <xof u<\f <xl, 
the nobility or gentry ; <xOf OT 
young and old 


f t<x and o.0f m<Xfi, old, ancient. 
t, small, little. 
<fot, a bell. 

a crown. 

ot, any servile work, especially 

<Tp<\, an ape. 
cTp;i<x;nn, mercy. 
Clp/tun, an apron. 
Ctptac, mortal. 
itpu;j, ripe; id quod <vjbjb, 

<T/t, our ; a pronoun agreeing with 
the Latin nosier. 

<f ft, or <vj/i, upon ; as <x/t <vn b'tra- 
l<xm, upon the earth ; also at, or 
in ; as <x/t btu;^, in the begin- 
ning ; vid, <x;/i. It is written in 
the old manuscripts fajp. or fop. ; 
English, over. 

Ctp, or <x;^t, when set before words 
of price answers to the English, 
for ,' ex. <n.;i be;c bo <x rtcob 
bo 6/-t<X 


Ceo;;i ; it also agrees withybr in 
other respects ; as <x;t otc<x^ , for 
badness; <i/i <x ne<xcu;b, for their 

/i, by adding another word to it 
makes the same an adverb ; as 
<x/i <x;^, or <x^ b;iu;m, back- 
wards ; <x/t <xonb<xll, together, in 
one place. 

i, is very often taken for <x be;/i ; 
ex. <x^t f e, says he ; <x^t 
she ; <x/t f ;<xb, say they. 

; \, 
s -^V 

i, a plague ; also any great slaugh- 
ter, or havoc; also the slain in 
battle ; as <x/t <x n'<x/t, upon the 
slain ; Cantab, hara, slaughter ; 
Gr. a/orjc. Mars ; and Gr. apa, 

dp, ploughing, husbandry ; <n/t n<x 
a^i bo b; <xn tJ/1, the land was 
ploughed ; Gr. apow, and Lat. 

<f jt, a guiding or conducting. 

<fy<x, a page, lacquey, or coach- 

tffx, a conference. 

<t/i<x, the loin; plur. <i;i<xn<x, the 
reins; 3<xt<x/t n<x nafi<xn, a pain 
in the reins, or loins. 

d;i<x, a country in the County of 

ctfi<xb<x, for the sake of, for. 

<f ;iOic<X;i, motion. 

<T;i<xc, a ploughshare ; also utensils 
for ploughing. 

iT/KXc, strength, puissance, power ; 
hence &ft<xcb<xc, able, puissant: 
and &/i<xcb<ty~, the same as <x/i<xc. 

<T/i<xc, a bier ; Jjat.feretrwn. 

<T^acul, a cell, or grotto, a hut, 
&c. ; wo commonly call a deso- 
late forsaken house t;j <\;i<x- 


Cl;i<xb, strong, brave. 

cT/taboi, a severe punishment. 

<t/t<xb, a ladder ; ex. <xm/i<x <i/i<xb 
bo tucvt<Xjb, 6owa esi 5ca/a po- 
pulis. Vid. Brogan, in t r if. 



, a runnng. 

tlie runnin of the 


<T|t<x;becir>, a desk, or pulpit. 
tT/Kx; j-^^;<xn<x, the reins of a bri- 

dle; pi. <x;t<x;jeanoi. 
tf;x;tl, both. 
xl -t<x;m, to plough ; Gr. apow, and 

Lat. aro. 

<f/uin, bread; derived from <x^, 
ploughing, husbandry ; as, apart 
x;tdn 6/tn<x, <x^an 
, &c. ; Gr. aorov, panis. 
a name of diverse hills or 
hilly places in Wales, Ireland, 
and Scotland ; Gr. ooov, accusat. 
of 6poc, a mountain. 

, the kidneys; j^o.b n<x 75*61- 
, a tender love. 
a pannier. 
"Cl ;t<inc<i, a pantry. 
cTftcinojjt, a baker. 
if/taon, both; ffi <x ;t<xon, you 

tf ;t<x/% a room, a house, or habita- 

tion ; m'a/xtty-, my house. 
Cf/tb<X, yet, neverthel' 
<f/tb<xc, havoc, destruction. 
<C/tba.;t, or <ifim<xn, a host, an army. 
<T;tb<Xft, corn, either wheat, oats, or 
barley, &c., particularly so called 
when in standing corn, or before 
it is threshed ; Lat. ana, arvo- 
rum, fields of corn. 
ct/tb/KXjjneac, scarce of corn. 
i.(nc, an ark; Lat. area-, as a/ic 

/Mao;, the ark of Noah. 
iT;tc and <Xftj, a large chest in the 
form of a ship. The name of 
the ship Argus seems formed 
upon the Celtic <X;t. 
<C;tc, the body. 

and <x/tcdn, a little pig ; also 
a dwarf. 

;tca;n je<xt, an archangel ; other- 
wise aftb<x;nge<xl. 
Cf/tce<xnn<xc, an archdeacon. 

-na, henceforth, in like man- 


tfftcii, a band-dog; otherwise n<ty"C- 

<r/tcla<xcfi<ii, an emmet or lizard; 
<x/iclucic^i<x n<x ^le;be, coluber. 

iT/tc^Ki, or e<x^C|t<x, an eclipse; 
<XfiCft<x j^ejne, eclipsis soils. 

<f/icu;ll, a hermit's cell. 

, an ascent, or high place ; 
hence the British Garth, a pro- 

<Tfib, high, might}', great, noble; is 
used in the same sense in the 
Persian language ; it is true Cel- 
tic, and the Lat. arduus-a, urn, 
high, lofty, difficult, is formed 
upon the older Celtic language, 
Wet hardh, fair, handsome. 

t^/ib and <tyt, noble, or strong ; 
hence the proper name of a man, 

u/iba, a mountain to the east of 
Cashel, anciently the estate of a 
tribe of the O'Deas. 

<T/tb<x, high, haughty ; cnu;c a/\b<i, 
high lulls. 

<fybac, a territory of Carbury in 
the County of Cork, the ancient 
patrimony of the O'Flins, called 
from thence O'pl<x;n &nb<x ; also 
a hill and village in the County 
of Limerick, near Newcastle. 

tf /tbacdb, a height, top, or sum- 

<T/tb<xg<xb, honour, promotion. 

tf ;tb<x; jjm, to extol, exalt, or pre- 

cTftb&n, a hillock, or little height. 

tfybanac, proud, high-minded. 
;tbc<xtd.o;;i, a throne; pi. &;tb- 
co.;c;te<xc<x ; also an archiepisco- 
pal see. 

<f;tbce<xr>n<if, dominion, power, 
supremacy; hence txncednrxxc, 
sometimes written jr<x;/tce<vnn<xc, 
signifies a superior, or eminent 
person in the hierarchy, as a 
metropolitan, bishop, abbot, arch- 
deacon, &c. 

, tribute, chief rent. 



<fnbea/i, supreme power, rather 

tfybearcop and vulgo ecyboj, an 

archbishop. F/Y/. etfy-bog. 
it/tbjrecuTKXfldc, a high-steward ; 

potius a;tbjr<vbno<xnac. 
d /tb jotruc, loud, noisy. 
d'/ib<xiT), a plough-ox. 
tt/tb<X;tc, a pair of colours, an en- 

, high, stately, bold. 
, -ct/tbma j, the archiepis- 
copal seat of the Primate of Ire- 

and o/tboj, a thumb; o/i- 
boj co;^-e, the great toe. 
bolkuT), a chief professor of any 
science; as otloiiT) fte fQ<\nc&f, 
an antiquary, a chief chronicler, 
olldiY) ;te ban, a poet, 
tf nbo/"t<\;-, vulgo, jcajtbOfKty-, the 

lintel of a door. 
tt ;tbn<xc, a monarch. 
cT/ib/KXc, gain, profit, advantage. 

cttfy-, a synod, an assem- 
bly, or convention ; a contraction 
of <x/tbo;;ie<xct:<ty-. 
<tpib^go;l, a college, or university. 
,tt/tbr-aT<x.nt;, a high priest, or pon- 
tf/tbujab, to extol, to promote, 


<Tftj:<xb, in the meanwhile, 
eab, for. 

, white; G.r. apyog, albus ; 
silence the Latins derive their 
argentum, ab albedine, though 
as properly from this Celtic word 
<x/tj ; iinde <i/i5;ob. 
, milk. 

, a champion; from <x^rajm, 
to spoil; hence oi/ijba, valiant, 
brave, military. 

the same as <\ftc, an ark, 
chest, bier, or coffer. 

, famous, excellent, noble. 
r$<xb, or <x;/t3;ob, a stopping, or 

to spoil, plunder, lay 

waste, or destroy ; and 

is the same. 

;i<X}n, a plundering, or robbing; 

hence ceaUfytjajn, sacrilege, 

robbin churches. 

o keep, to herd. Vid. 

, he or she kept; ex. <x/t- 
jftt laete <x;nb;j coe^ica jro/t 
meobon 7?ejbe, custodiebat die 
vehementis pluvice oves in media 
planitie. Brogan, in Vit. Brigit. 

<l fignab, robbery, plunder, devas- 
tation ; <xj;tgne, idem ; ^o nno 
tan<x;^be <xj/tjne bo Ct^bimaca, 
so that Armagh was near being 
ruined by pillage. 

xf /tgto;/t, a destroyer. 

if /tjirjmejnt: and <x;-igu;n, an argu- 
ment, or proof. 

dtir, again.-- -Mat. 17. 23. 

cT/tleoj, a high ill-judged aim, 
high flight. 

<f /ileojdc, full of high attempts. 

tt;tlo; j, gathering, rectius trfytlo; j, 
as jrea^t:<x <xn cCAjtlo; j, the feast 
of the gathering ; hence t&ftlog; 
<x/ib<xjji, a gathering or bringing 
in the corn from the fields to the 
barns or corn-yard. 

Ct/tm, & weapon, arms ; le lama/im ji 
mvx^be, with a hand-weapon of 
wood. The Egyptian Hercules 
is said to have used no other 
arms but staves of wood. 

cT/imajl, an army ; also weapons, 
arms, an armoury ; it forms <x/i- 
rodla in the genitive. 

d ftm<x;n, or <x;tm<xnn, an officer ; 
hence is derived the name of Ar- 
minius, the famous German gene- 

<f ;ima;t<i, a check, or rebuke. 

it/tmac, slaughter. 

tt^im;nb;m, to worship, honour, or 


the Britons of Low Brittany. 
This word is compounded of.a/t 

tf ft 

and mo/i or ITKX/I, both together 
signifying ad mare, or super 


<f;tmt<x, armed. 

d ;tm<x;m,to arm ; tytma; jte, armed. 
it/tmujntrea/t, let him be blessed; 

an impersonal. 
cTftn, the genit. of <x/ux, the loin, or 

flank ; Scot, the kidney ; 6 na 

J)<x;/tn;B, from the loins. 
{Tftrxvjb, a band. 
tf /tncvjjjm, to pray ; rid. u/tnaj^m, 

pnjtc<xb, batpxb, Uftnojgeab,, 

prcedicabat, baptizabat, orabat. 

Vit. S. Putric. 

if 71770.7 jre, p-o Ufincvjjre, prayers. 
<f/tO;ll or <x/tcv;U, a great deal, 

many,, &c. ; jUfi 6>bo; j fjcvb 

a^<x;U bo /i;dj<xluj& fan co- 

moj/ile yjn, that they ordained 

many wholesome laws in that 

synod. fid. Annales Tigher- 

nachi, ad annum 1152. 
tfyojte, a certain, or another ; ex. 

j\o jro;ll/-;b <x;nje<xl <xn 

b'o.;tO;le ^eano;/t, 50 

cmdani viro sapienti 

In somni-s apparuit et dixit, JL. B. 
<f/to;le, or tx/t<vjlle, as much, as 

many more ; ex. ^0 jrajvx/o OLD 
al pcipa/to palljum <xn 

Cljac, <^uf <x/ta;le <x Ccooac- 
cajb <xju^ ^-an GOuman. Cardi- 
nal Papyron left a Pallium at Ar- 
magh, a Pallium in Dublin, and 
an equal number in Connaught 
and Munsier. fid. Annales 
Tighernachi . Clonmacnoisensis 
if ^t;t, a stau, or hind. 

;, an image, a spectre, or 

/tftdcSOj tall, puissant, mighty, 

^-, power. 
, ornament. 
tab, merchandize ; pi. <j.tuxjbe, 
pedlars' <ioods, &c. 

, convulsions; also a stitch. 
cf/t;~a, old, ancient, stricken in 


<f/t^a/it;a, ancient. 
<tj\t, a bear. 

<f;tt:, a man's name, Arthur. 
called from <xnt, a bear; like 
the Gr. aicprocj ursus, or rather 
from a,nt, noble, great. 
<Tftc, noble, generous. 
d/tt;, a stone; hence a^tene, gra- 

vel, pebbles. 

cf rtt, a tent, or tabernacle. 
tf /ttcoj/teal, a quarry, or stone-pit, 
, an article. 
a ship ; u/t/ttv. 
/it;t<x, an artery, or vein. 
, to do, or make. 

, to s 3 ^- 
, to increase or enlarge. 

-, the way. 
, the neck. 

out of; ex. &f An b'c<xl(Xm, 
out of the ground ; <\f <xn ctj/t, 
out of the country ; Lat. 6.?. 
^-, is equal to am and ?.s in Eng- 
lish ; ex. ap me <xn tr; a^ roe, 1 
am that I am ; ci/~ cijcne ba;tr^e 
e, he is known unto thee. 
f often comes before a compara- 
tive degree, and then always be- 
gins a sentence, (just as r>) bap 
always stands in the body of a 
sentence,) and is equal to the 
Latin verb sum in any person of 
the present tense ; ex. <xr n 
(Domnal na (Donca, Daniel is 
bigger than Donogli. 
, a cascade, or fall of water. 
~ and <v^t\, a shoe. 
-ac, shod. 

-ab, out of thee, from thee ; 
<, out of me. 

kindling; also stopping, 

, to remove. 
, to rest, or stay. 
tf;-<x;/ie, a shoemaker ; Hob. 
it, comtria.dt. 

, an ass. 

, a stocking, or hose; Wei. 
<fy-a/ilajacat, magic, divination 

by herbs. 

/cf^cajm, to ask for, to beg, to be- 
seech ; ftob a^cajb 0/t; jjbe a/t 
eujnaj/ic <xn 7?j;i;, #? postula- 
vit a Brigida propter amorem 
Regis. Vid. Brogan. The Saxon 
word ask is visibly of the same 

cT^cal, a conference, or talking 
together, conversation. 
l, a forcible onset. 
l, the flowing or swelling of 
the tide. 

l, an increase. 

and a^atlan, the 
arm-pit ; 0^-5 al and oc^al, the 
same ; Germ, achsel, and Belg. 
oxel, the arm-pit; Lat. axilla, 
Gall, aiselle. 

-aa/i, a guest ; nj Bu b/tonac an 
ta/"ca/i, non contristatus est 

t, a soldier, or champion. 

<{fcu, and eapiu, an eel; apiu 
<x;/ijte, a conger-eel. 

cT^"c;^it:, tow, or wadding .used in 
charging a gun ; <x^c<x/it<\.c, zW. 

Cf^cn<x;m, to mount, to ascend, to 
come, to approach ; also, to en- 
ter into; boycnam jrl<xt<x^ m;c 
tr)u;/ie, 6/ intrandum in Reg- 

num ftlii Maries. 
u^-cn<xm, ascension. 

cfy-ba, of them, out of them; <x 
t:o.;b pcib tan <x^ba pe;n, they 
are self-willed ; i. e. they are full 
of themselves. 2 Pet. 2. 10. 

<T^b<x^t and <xjbjO;i, vid. 
a journey, potius <i 

<(}-e<xb, yes, yea ; Wei. ysser. 

CLfjon, a crown. 

tt}-l<xc, a request, or petition. 

CCflac, temptation. 

cT^lu;b;m, to beg, to request, to 
beseech; also to tempt; 

b;m o/it, I beseech you. 

, a search, or discovery. 

<xrrK\b, a rib; <x <x^- 
n<x;b, his ribs ; Wei. asen. 
, ribbed, having ribs, 
and o^-n<xb, a sigh, a groan. 
c, a hewer of wood or 

, a stranger, potius <xc- 

, plates ; 

a tu;/vj jnjb, greaves of 'brass up- 
on his legs. 

ap^ujt an j/^<xn, it was 

, a porter. 

and artat, a spear or jave- t 
lin ; Lat. hasta. 

inwards ; leacta a^"- 
teac, flattened inwardly, com- 
pressed ; a^b; j or a^t; j, with- 
in ; also at home. 

, to travel, to go afar off. 
, to bear or carry aside, 
to remove. 

and apiannac, a .' 

B, from you, out of you. 

, kindling. 

, from me, out of me. 
-Ctt, a rising in the skin or flesh, a 

tf t, milk. 

cTta roe, ata;m, I am ; a ta ta 
and a tao;^;, thou art ; a ta 
ye, he is; a ta pb, you are; 
cjonuf a ta tti ? how do you 
do ? Hisp. como esta tu ? 
cTtac, a request, or petition. 
cTta;m, to swell ; bo at bo cOf, 

thy foot is swoln. 
cftajmeact, redemption. 
xttajf, woe, desolation, destruc- 

<tta;^eac, desolate, full of sor- 

<Tta;^eac, woeful, destructive ; 
c/teac ata;^-eac, a destructive 

, garlands, Acts, 14. 13 ; also 
a sort of hood, cowl, or bonnet. 
<Tt<x;-, victon". 
Cfcb<xc, an attack. ^ 
-etc, a ford ; pi. or an no. ; -cfccljat, 

Dublin ; -U.'ctao.;n, Athlone. 
CTtr, just, lawful. 

<Cta, r?//g. rata, a green, a plain, 
an open place, a platform ; hence 
ceanata, the human face. 
ta, the cud ; ruma. 
tac, a giant ; pi. <xt<vj j ; also a 
plebeian; corrupts jratac. 
, waves. 
, a request. 

c jaojte, a blast of wind. 
cTc<x;le, inattentiveness. 

embers, coals; 

, a father ; <xc<x;/t 
a godfather ; <xca;/t altritoma, or 
<ilr/t<xnn<Xf-, a foster-father ; <x- 
t<vj;t cteamncx, a father-in-law; 
<it<x;n jr<xo;7~;b;n, a father-con- 
fessor ; Gr. Tren-jjp, and Lat. pa- 
ter, Goth, atta, Cantab, aita, 
Frisiorum lingua, haite. Confer 
illud Pompei Festi: attain pro 
reverentia seni cuitibet dicimus 
quasi eum ari nomine appelle- 
mus; hinc attavus. Hesychius 
says that the Cretans meant by 
the word eittas what the Greeks 
meant by -ouc Trartpac; the old 
Greek word arra had the same 
signification. J'id. Francisci Ju- 
nii Glossarium Gothicum ad Vo- 
cem, atta, ad Calcem Codicis 

, the herb called ground- 

. . r . 

<tca;/t-b;ob(Xb, a patrimony ; <it<xjrt 
calamcw, yarrow ; Lat. mellifo- 

Ctt:<i;x") reproach ; also confusion ; 
written also <x;tjp 

, to revile, to reproach; 



c, reviling, rebuking, &c. 
l, deaf; idem quod cvbal. 
cTc<x/tbact:, a patrimonial right, or 

hereditary property. 
<ft<inb<xjm, to adopt, to make the 

son of another man capable of 

inheriting your own estate. 
Cf C<xnb<xb, adoption ; also that which 

belongs to a person by the here- 

ditary right of kindred, or of 


<Tta;t5<x;B, importunity, solicitation. 
crca/t5<x;m, a conflict, or skirmish. 
cTt:aitm<xct;<xb, parricide, a patre 

mactando. PI. 
iTca/t/tujab, to exchange, to re- 


<ft<x/t^u jab, a difference. 
cCcbac, strength. 
<Tcb<xc, a different time. 

, a complaint; rid. 

nab, a chewing the cud. 
<ltca;t:e, worn, cast off. 
-cTcc<xnt<x;;ieo.ct;, recantation. 
<Ttc<i;^t:, a repairing ; also a re- 
newal of one's lease or other 
right or privilege. 
Cttca/ttoj/t, a restorer, or renewer 

of a lease, charter, or privilege. 
<frc<x^<x;m, to return ; also to un- 


Cf tc'd^-ba, returned ; also twisted ; 
ex. 7~ncit <xtc<^ba, twisted yarn. 
iTtcojab, a rebellion. 
, to rebel. 
tan, a register. 
t, short, abridged. 
, an abridgment. 
/iKxc, asking, or inquiring. 
<tcco;ft;t:e, repaired, mended ; <XC- 

coj\u jab, id. 

cCcc/t^b, restitution, or restoration. 
cTtCftAjm, to restore, or recover. 
<Ct:cu;ne, a repeated request or 

petition; rid. cujnge. 
ttccujnj^m, to request, entreat, or 
beseech ; orcujnjjm 0/ttr, I pray 

rf U 

, banishment, exile. 
cftcu/i, a surrender. 
lft:cu;/i;m, to give up, to surrender; 

ex. j\d <xtcu;;t <x j:ea/t/t<vjnn a;/-i, 

he gave him up his lands ; also to 

banish or exile out of a country. 
cTtb/tu;b;n), to open, 
tl tjccy, a new growth, or a second 


cf tjrcyajitt, to grow again, 
if t j<xb<x;l, retaken spoils. 
eft jab <x; m, to resume. 
Cftj<j.;/t;b, short. 
cftrj;<x;/te, a brief, an abridgment, 
tftjlacojm, to resume, to take 


Cttjl<xn<xb, to cleanse anew. 
cCtglant<x, refined, burnished, or 

Cftlab, a wound or scar received in 

battle or elsewhere. 
tTtlajab, a delaying, or putting 


Cftlam, quick, brisk, nimble, 
cftlejtjbe, requited, retaliated. 

Cft-lu<x;n, Athlone, a barony in the 

County of Roscommon, also the 

town itself. 

ro, store, great treasure. 
, to give up, or deliver. 

tttnu<xb<x;nn, to repair, to make 

a reparer, re- 
cft/ieo^, to improve, amend, or 


<Ct7t;uc<xc, a man that removes 
from one country to another ; 
also a captive in a foreign land. 
ab, variableness, inconsi ancy , 
j, he arose, or removed. /*'. 

, to remove, to change. 
t/iu; jte, of captivity. 
tfuj jeabab, a second proof. 
tfccmma/t^horrible, detestable. 

redemption ; pothis 

, a wherry, a small river- 

boat, to transport passengers. 
cftt;a;ce, i. e. <ib tttjce, hard by, 

near you. 
tttceogab, a dwelling, or habita- 


<ftr/t<x;be, in the first place. F. 
dttjn, furze, or gorse. 
-dca;b, space. 
if ub<vct, death. 
'tfc/ball<x;m, to be deaf, or hard of' 

hearing; vid. aball; Tl. ex. Cl. 
cfu/tjno.;^-, or etx/tjna, an exalted 

or noble prayer. 


b is the second letter of the Irish alphabet, as well as of most oilier 
alphabets ; it is the first consonant, and is called a labial letter, because 
the lips are mostly used in the formation of it. In Irish manuscripts of 
late ages it is written for p, both b and p being made commutable one 
Avith the other, as in the words bub, black, bo;15, to them, bcx, it -was, they 
write bup, p<X, &c., which is also the case with the Greeks and Latins, 
for the former write ftiKooc for 7nf:/)oo> amarus ; and the Latins wrote 
poplicola and publicola indifferently, and populus and publicus ; also 
scriptum, and not scribtwn, from scribo. !By putting a tittle or point 
over this letter in Irish (which is a late invention, being not to be found 
in any old parchments,) it sounds like the Latin r, consonant, as wi> have- 
no such letter in our alphabet, which is the case of the Greeks, though 

b < b <f 

their )3 or beta, is often rendered in Latin by v, as Gr. flappov, Lat. 
Y>, Gr. fiipyi\iog, Lat. tlrgilius, Gr. pivrrj, Lat. vita, Irish beata, 
and when tittled it sounds v eat ha, vita ; the name of this consonant in 
Irish approaches much closer in sound and letters to the Hebrew name 
of the said letter than either the Chald. 3. or the Gr. |3, it being in Irish 
be;r, and in Hebrew rv3. JV3 signifies a house in Hebrew, and boc 
in Irish is a very common name for an open house or tent. It is to be 
observed that the Irish consonants b, c, b, g, , t, by a full-point or 
tittle set over any of them, do thereby lose their simple strong sound, 
and pronounce after the manner of the Hebrew consonants, 3, n. *T> 
J, D, Jl, which are simply and genuinely aspirates. On the other 
hand, it is to be particularly noticed, that the now-mentioned Hebrew 
consonants, by them called rDD TJD, memoriae causa, by fixing a dages/i, 
or full-point, in the middle of any of them, do thereby also lose their 
simple aspirate sound, and pronounce strong, like the Irish b, c, b, g, p, 
t: ; so that the addition of a full-point to any of those Irish consonants 
changes it immediately into its corresponding letter of the Hebrew r ; and 
again, the addition of a full-point to the above-mentioned Hebrew con- 
sonants, changes them into their corresponding letters of the Irish. By 
this kind of reciprocation between the Hebrew and Irish languages, the 
antiquity of the Irish or Celtic seems to be sufficiently demonstrated ; 
although it must be confessed, that the using a full-point in either of 
the two languages is of a late invention, these consonants being naturally 
wrote down, and the strong or aspirate pronunciation of them left to the 
judgment of the skilful readers, who doubtless wanted no such points to 
direct them ; thus the modem Spaniards who use the L and the v indiffe- 
rently for each other, pronounce the word Liber, to drink, as if it, were 
written Lifer, &c. ; as did also the ancient Romans, ex. hie se bivo om- 
nibus suis bencfecit ; and Lid it for vidit, bixit for vi.rit, beto for veto, 
boluerit for voluerit, Lendere for vendere, &c. V'uL Lhuyd. Compar. 
Etymol. p. 22. 

Oci, were, have been, the preter- 
perfect tense of the verb b;m, to 
be, to live, Gr. jStoc, vita, and 
)3tow, vivo, ex.^bo ba me, I was, 
bo ba tu, you was, bo ba J~Q, he 

T was. &c. 

Oa, theplur. of bo, cows; Lat. bos, 
and Gr. /3<oc, MoL 

OCx, good. 

Oa, death. 

Oa, under ; ex. ba ape, under the 

OcKXjn, rectius buajn, to cut, or 

.. mow down; bo bua;n luacmx, to 
cut rushes. 


Ov\an, matrix bovis, the matrice of 
a cow, PL ; it is vulgarly called 
bftucvn, and understood to be the 
skin which covers the calf in the 
matrice, and is discharged after 
the calf., sweetness, innocence; Lat. 
LaLa-s, a baby or fool ; Gr. /3a- 
j3a, talkative. 

Qu.ban, a baby. 

OCxbun, a bulwark. PL 

Oo.c, a hindrance or impediment; 
b<xc<xjl, idem ; bo cu;t bac Oj\j\- 
t<x, he hindered them. 

l\\cc and bacab, lame, halting; 

n; ;o^* copx <xn 
n<xnn, tlie legs of the lame are 
not equal. 
bo.c<x;m, to hinder, to frustrate, or 


0<xca;^eac, impeding, or obstruct- 
in y 
<xco,l and bo.col, a staff, a crosier; 

Lat. baculum. 
Oacalto., baked. 
Oacan, the hinge of a door ; <vj/t <x 

b<xcan<x;B, upon its hinges, from 

b<x;c, which signifies a crooked 

turn, or bending ; Wei. bach, a 

Oac<xt, a captive, or prisoner. PL 

ex. CL, a shepherd's crook ; Gr. 

/3arpov, and Lat. baculum. 

1 F- 

Oacc;m, to crooken, or make 

Oo.c, a breach ; also a violent at- 
tack or surprise. 

Oac, drunkenness; Lat. bacchatio. 

b<xc<x;/ie, a drunkard, a baccho; 
vid. be;ce. PI. 

Oaco.ll, clipping, shearing. 

b<, an acorn; Lat. baccliar, 
the herb lady's glove. 

0<xcl<x, a cup, or chalice. PL 

0<xct<xc, curled, frizzled. 

b<xcla, an armful. 

bac-tamac, disabled in the hand 
or arm. 

0<xclu5rt<x, a surfeit from drinking. 

7 P . 1 : 

OactOfttnan and b<xctO|tan, the 

noise of drunkards. 

bcxcojb;m, to go by crutches. PL 

bo.ctfxc, the name of an Irish 
Druid, who is said to have dis- 
covered to his prince, from an 
eclipse of the sun, the Passion of 
our Saviour the very time it hap- 

bacul, a stick, or staff; Lat. ba- 

Oacul earpujc, a bishop's staff or 

1 crosier. 

Oab, a boat; Wei. bad, and Fr. 


0<xbb, the north. 
b<xbb, a tract of land. 
b<xbb, the Roiston crow; also any 

ravenous bird, as a vulture, &c. 
Oabb, i. e. be<xn tuat<xc, or beon- 

pje, a fairy-woman vulgarly 

supposed to belong to particular v/ 

0<xbb, a scold, a quarrelsome wo- 


c, warlike. 

and bo-jcx/i, threatening ; 

a mbo.5<xj/i, their threats. 
0<x^<x;/it;, idem; pi. baga/icojje, 

Oaj, a battle; and bctjje, the 

60,5, a kindness, respect, friend- 


Oaj, a word. 

Oagcxc, fond, kind, sympathetic. 
baja;m, to promise. 
bajalac, dangerous; baogcxl<xc, 

the same. 

bu jtr^o;b;iT), to wrangle, chide. 
bo.;, the same ; as b;, ba; ye, he 

bajc, a twist or turn, a crooked- 

ness or bent ; Wei. bach, a 

b<x;cbea/il<x, a solecism, i. e. a 

crooked reasoning. PL 
bojcjm, to touch. 
Octjb, a wave. 
ipcxjb, love. 
Odjbe, gratitude, alliance, amity ; 

<x ta ba;be mo/-i <xj(xm lejf, I 

have a great kindness for him. 
bcgbe, prediction; and b<xo;be, 

the same. 

ba;becxc, a comrade, or coadjutor. 
ba;beac<x^, grace or favour. 
ba;beab, or bat<xb, to drown; 

ba^bp; je<x^t e, he will be drown- 

ed ; ba;cpb an t;/i, they shall 

overflow the land. 

pa;bce, drowned. 

ua;b;n, a little boat. 

OCv7ppj<xr"t;, a toad. PL 

O<i; jjm, to talk, to speak to. 

Ud; j;n, a waggon. PL 

Oajjle, a fawn; ex. <xt cona/tc 
b^<ijce<xiT) <xcu^- b/tu, <xcu^* bci) j- 
le e<xtOftftu: ^oc<x;be bo beat 

bab <x pxou, i. e. I saw a 
hart and hind, and a fawn be- 
tween them; this tribe stalked 
through the plain, where they 
fell victims to a wolf. 
Oa;l, a place; hence b<vjle, a vil- 
. lage, ball being the same. 
O'ajl, put for bub <x;l, as r.jop. ba;l 
lej^ me;^reacr, he would not 
hear me. 

U<x;l, prosperity, good-luck. 

0<x;lc, bold ; also straight. 

0<v;llcfie<xc:<xb, trembling. 

0<x;le, home, as jmr; j a ba;le, go 

Oa;le, a city, town, or village ; 
Lat. villa, quasi billet, b and v 
being correspondent and corn- 
mutable letters ; pi. b<vjlte. 
N. B. This Celtic word btxjlte, 
and the Lat. vallis are originally 
the same, as the ancients always 
built their habitations in low 
sheltered places, near rivers or 

0<x;lle;n, a little bubble, a boss or 

O<x;lle;n, drink. 

OcLjlm, balm, or balsam. 

Oajloj, a twig, sprout, or sucker. 

0<x;n, the first person of the pre- 
sent of the imperative of the 
verb bajnjm, to pull, cut down, 
or take from. 

Oa;n, a drop ; pi. b<x;nnj5, bo b<x;n- 



0<x;nceab<xc, authorized, an autho- 
rized person. 



, it belongs. PL 
0<vjncl;curiu;l, a mother-in-law ; 

bu.;ncl;amu;n, a mother, or daugh- 


Oa;nc;i;otd., white clay. PL 
pajnbedftj, flesh-coloured. 
Oa;nb;a, a goddess; b<x;nbujlecuf, 

the same. 
Oa;ne, whiter, of the comparative 

Oajne and bajnne, milk ; bxx;nne 

;te<ima;t, thick milk ; rid. lactr. 
0<ijnea6t:, the actions of a heroine, 

i. e. eact; ban, no mna; also 
- woman-slaughter. K. 

a ferret. 
a wedding-feast ; vulva 


Oa;nj:o;b, first person of the fu- 
ture of the indicative of the verb 

Oa;np;^;n^jne, the epicene gen- 
der, from be;n put for feminine, 
and fe<Xfi for masculine, and 
Jjyjne a gender; but there is 
no such gender in the Irish, nor 
in the Hebrew, Syriac, or Chal- 
dean languages, they having only 
two genders, masculine and fe- 
minine, proper to distinguish the 
two sexes, male and female, which 
is the office of a gender to do. 

Oajnp/teaj^ab, a bond, or stipu- 

pajnjrjb, they shall take, 

p<x;nj, on a sudden, by surprise. ~- 

Oa;n je<x^;t<xct, a goddess. PL 

Octjnjbe, rage, fury, madness; <x;^i 
bu;le jf ajri ba;n;be, mad and 
furious ; also silly, lunatic. 

Oa;n;m, to belong to; nac ba;- 
n;onn pjf, that doth not belong 
to him ; b<vjnjb, they belong. 

0<xjn;m, to pull, to hew or cut 
down, to take from ; bojnjro 
fop, I pull a wisp; b<tj/7;m 
Cft<xnn, I cut down a tree ; baj- 
n;m b;or, I take from you. 

Oa;n;ofl and b<xnb<x, female; leon 

ba;n;on, a lioness. 
0<x;n;<ijtla, a countess. 
Odjneanto., effeminate. 
Ou.;nleoiTwn, a lioness. 
0<x;r)i;<xj, a doctress, or woman- 

p<x;n/t;ojan, a queen. 

a feast; genii of b<x;n- 

c, retired, desolate. 

0<vjn^e<xj<xb, desolation, destruc- 

0<X)r)fp;/teo5, a sparrow-hawk. 
1 1. 
<x;nt;d;tn<x, a lord's lady. 

0<X)nt/teo.b, a widow ; jrxxn <xb b<x;n- 
t;ieab<x; j, remain a widow. 

p<x;;tce, strong, brave, valiant. 

O<x;^be7^*, the end ^ or point; ex. 
b<x;/tbe;^ <w cl<x;b;ii), the point 
of a sword. 

0(Vjfte<xb, a bonnet, or cap, or any 
sort of head-dress, from ba/t, the 
head, and e;be, or eab<xc, 
clothes. This word is otherwise 
written b;^ieo.b, and in the vul- 
gar Greek there is jStpprjra, and 
in Latin biretum, Germ, baret, 
Ital. baretta, Sclavon. baretta. 

Oajfie, a goaling, a military kind 
of exercise played with a ball 
and hurly, greatly practised 
among the Irish ; bajfie coiflOfi- 
t<*.)f, a great goal played be- 
tween two counties, or two baro- 

n, the ribberies, or cross 
sticks, or side timbers, between 
the rafters of a house. 

OajjxefC, the froth of water, or any 
other liquor when boiled. 

Oaj/ijean, rectius ba;/ijn, a cake ; 
6<x^e<w<x o^na, barley cakes; 
Lat. farina, in the Welsh bar a 
signifies bread ; and in the Or. 
is any meat ; in the Heb. 
, any food, and Heb. 

comedit, refecit se pastu. Vid. 
Buxtorf, Lexic. 

0<x;/i;teabu<ib and b<Xftji<xbu<xbb<x;l, 

a trumpet, or sounding horn ; 

bo rejb <x b<x/t;i<xbuab, he sound- 

ed his trumpet. 

0<xjfijje<xn, a floor, a plot of 


p<x;^nn, a firebrand. 
Oti;;ine<xc, perverse, angry, morose. 
Octj/ibealg, a hair-bodkin. 
p<x;;te<xbtjtom, quick, nimble. 
0<x;/rj<xt, a shoe-latchet; also the 

cover of a book. 
0<x;/i;n, a cake of bread ; vid. 

p<i;/-i^eact:, a satire. 
0<x;jt;~50;5, the top of the wind- 


y*Wf)tp> brawling. 
0&1f> or b<x^-, the palm of the 
hand ; pi. ba^<x and 
boij^e, a handful. 
0<j.;^c<x;l and 
, raddle. 
ba;^*cne, a tree. 
Ocvj^be, Baptist, as Co;n 

John the Baptist. 
O<x;^be<xb, baptism ; 
, idem. 
, to baptize. 

, palm, or hand's-breadth. 
0<Xjnreilt, pride, arrogance, haugh- 


Oa;^eoj<xb and b&^u j<xb, to die, 
to perish ; bo cum nac bcxj^eo- 
c<xb ^e, that he should not pe- 

0<xj^;;nne<xc, a barony in the west 
of the County of Clare, the es- 
tate of the Mac-Mahons of Tho- 
inond, but anciently of the 



, a bason. X 
, an ox. 

flesh-coloured, red- 

(Xc, rain, severe weather ; 

b d 


genit tejftm ; on boja bo;r- 

r-je. the rainbow. 

jijmdjp, one that baptueth. 
I >a/teoc T nrfsr-fl boboc, a clown. 

6&jbte. drowned. 
Oi-rrS. j-" 1 -:-i-r:?5 ~-e. tha: I rnav 

Hot out. 
bajtjT*. the pate ; bajt-hr on cjnn, 

die crown of the head ; it is the 

genitive of bazraj*. 

j. 7 . 3. stick, or htne start. 

a place; an bal, or 4jyt an 

bal, on tiie spot, instantly. 
boloc, a giant; alao a conceited 

spark. P/. 
boloc, a fellow, (or as the Scots 

say) a chill, from booc-looc, a 

foolish lad. 
bolob, a smell, scent, or savour ; 

Lat. adoratus ; also the smell, 

one of the senses. 
O-_uj.tje. rron", advantagK 
O<U.5, a stammering person, tongue- 

tied; and Heb. %3, cow^ir*? 

/ogrm, node boiel, I at. battnts. 
OoI5ah, to become mute, &c. ; bo 

EalBdtxirt na &fe<ijbe<il5a, the 

false oracles were struck dumb ; 

Lat. baUnitio, and telfaeimar. 
, die diniiimtiw? of boIB, a 

mute, dumb, or tongue-tied per- 

T . 

Oa;l5e y die act of stammering. 
Dole, a hardness or crustiness in 
the surface of the earth, caused 
by dry weather. 

Dole, strong, stout, mighty*; WeL 
hj proud, arrogant. 
a man of letters, or erudi- 

an open, or great gap. 
and tal, a place, or spot ; boll 
coiiiHfTT, a place of habitation, 
or abode. 

Doll, a limb, or member; pL IO|U 
or &o;ll; Greek |uXoc T mem- 

ball, a stain, spot, or speck, either 
natural or artificial; hence bot- 

lac, speckled, 
batta, a wall or bulwark; Lat. 

vallum f pL boUajfce. 
ballon, a teat or dug. PL 
ballon, a shell; ballon 

, a churn, or madder. 

to divulge, or re- 

Oallajrtoab, a setting forth, a pub- 
a declaration. PL 


die jomts, die limbs. 

k a lobster. 

'a blot, spot, or speckle; 
pll bollfjobo. 
Ootao, balm. *+~ 
OobnuTJeob, to embalm, 
bohro, a welt or border ; pi. bol- 


trojTc. ii. 
!? _ur.v v ;r. i-?~!?r*, boMi. 
ban, white ; laj/rt Can, a white 

mare; Lat. <rxwr, by changing 

the initial letter b into c. 
fan, true, certain. 

. copper. ^ i 
i, waste, uncultivated; hence 

pojjric bajn, a waste field. 
bon,L e. rjjtjmie, truth, 
ban, pro bun, die foot or pedestal 

of any thing. 
Don, usual, common; bo ban and 

bo lojtg, usually; and bonob, 

the same. PL 
ban, light 
Oana, death. 
OonoS, an abbess. 
bonoB, and bonoBp, a socking - 

bonob, g bonob, usually. 

bonob, to waste; bonpi/jeort c, 
it shaO be wasted. 

bono job, pillaging, or plunder- 

bono^w, to make waste or deso- 
late; also to blanch or whiten. 

banajw, to grow pale. 


a feast, or a wedding-en- 
Oanajteac, serious. PI. 
y>anattr/ta, a nurse. 
Oanamalta, shame-faced. 

pana/ta, a maid-servant. 

yancx^<xl, a she-ass. 

Oanb', or banban, a pig, a slip. 

Oanba, an ancient name of Ire- 

Oancejle, a wife, or spouse. 

Oancojgle, a cup-gossip, a she- 

pancojmbeact, a waiting-maid. 

Oancongantra, a midwife. 

pancuntajm, to stipulate. 

Oanc/iirjt;;/ie, a woman that plays 
on a harp or violin. 

Oancujfleantic, a woman-piper, 
or one that plays upon a wind- 

Oa;nj:eabanac, the same. 

Oanba, female, modest. 

Oanbe and ba;nb;a, a goddess. 

Ocxnb/uiab, or banb/iujbe, a sorce- 

pane, a wave. PI. 

pan j: &; j, a prophetess. 

Oanjceabmanac, a waiting-woman, 
or house-keeper. 

n&nj:lu-gf&,jluxus muliebris. PI. 

Oanjrlajt, a lord's lady. 

Oanruabac, a rape. 

Dang, a nut. Fid. Glossar. Ve- 

Oanj, a reaping. 

Oanj, the touch. 

6anab, a promise. 

6<xnj<x;^-je<xb<xc, a woman-cham- 

Oan j<xt, the same ; ja;!, or ja;^- 
ceab mna, idem. 

Dan mac, a son-in-law. 

/)anmata;/i, a mother-in-law. 

Oann, a marching, or journeying. 

6<xnn, a band of men. 

Oann, a law, or proclamation ; 
banna imperialia, the banns of 

the German Empire ; banna ma- 

frimonialia, the banns of mar- 

riage; hence also bann eag- 

lu;^e, ecclesiastic censure. 
0<xnn, a deed or fact. 
6<xr>;), death. 

O<xnn, a ball. PI. ex. Cl. 
Ddnn, a censure, suspension, or in- 


Otxnna, a band, or troop. 
Cannae, i. e. gnjomac, actual, or 


Oannac, a fox. 
6dnnaom, a woman-saint. 
Odnnlam, a cubit, a bandle ; bann- 

lam eaba; j, a bandle of cloth. 
Oannleannaim, to act the part of a 


, an arrow, a dart. 

ac, licensed, autho- 

rized. Pi. 
Oann^o/m, a kind of griddle or 

bake-stone ; Lat. fornax, fur- 

nus, clibanus. 
Oanojlac, a servant-maid; bano- 

jtac an c;a/ino., Ancilla Do- 

Oan/i<xc, a fold ; ban;t<vc cao/-iac, 

a sheep-fold. 
Oan/tac, a smock or shift. 
Oan^gal, a woman ; ex. 

a/t peaba^fi, rfj <\f tuc bam <xn 

te be;/t cu, woman, I know not 

the man, says Peter; jy t^te 

banzai ta;n;j ba^ bon bjc, it 

is by a woman that death came 

into the world. Pid. teab<x/t 


n^-jlaBa, a bond-maid. 

n^cot, a son-in-law. PI. 
Oan/-ea;i, or ban^ea/t<xc, a mare- 


Oanta, a niece. 
Oao jal, peril, danger ; a mbao jat 

caca, in the perils of a battle. 
Oaojlac and baojatac, perilous, 


, lust, concupiscence. 

, levity, vanity, madness; 

b<xo;r n<x bojge, the follies of 

youth ; ceac baojj-e, a bedlam. 
Oao;^-cjot, lascivious. 
0<xo;p;eac, a brothel, or bawdy- 


Qaopc/tejbmea j, credulous. 
Oao^, fornication. 
O<xot, weak, soft, simple ; co 

6<xot, simple talk. 
p<xotc<x;^-;T, riotous, profuse. 
Dan, sometimes used for hup, your; 

jo-ftt:, you shall be unto me as a 
kingdom of priests., a son ; Heb. 13, filius, as 
njV 13, the son of Jonah ; 
bo. j-ba/t, a good son / rid. the 
Irish Poem of Eocha O'Floinn ; 
ex. <fbna.;iT) bo ??Jj ncx nbu;le 
bo ba-6d;tft b;5fl <Xft nbo.o;ne. 
From this word ba/t comes the 
word bdfifidn and btXft/tanac, a 
young man ; commonly pronounc- 
ed beaftftandc. Vid. bea/ta- 
n<xc, Scotice beirn. 

6<x;t, a learned man. 

Od/i, or bcx/t^t, the head or top of 
any thing ; hence ba.j\f\jn,rectius 
b<x/tb;on, a cover for the head, a 
cap or mitre ; catba/t^, a hel- 
met ; \Vel. bar, the top of any 

6a/t, the hair of the head. 

Oa/t, the overplus of a thing ; also 
advantage ; as 

, sway, excellency ; piug ft <xn 
ba^, he bore the sway. 

0<i^, the top or summit of any 
thing ; Armor, bar, and Cantab. 
barua, hinc the Italian barruca, 
and the French perruque. 

OO./KX, to go, to march. 

O<x/t<x, anger. 

6<x/t<x, the palm of the hand. 

Od./tama;l, a supposition, a conjec- 
ture, or opinion ; b^iOc-Boi^a- 
ma;l, a bad thought or opinion ; 

t>o pejp. mo ba^tamlac, according 

to my opinion or conjecture. 
0<x/t<xmla;m, to suppose, or conjec- 

Oa/tamoc/te, the plant called worm- 

wood; Lat. absinthium. 
0\x/i<xnn, a degree, or step ; also a 

0<Xftant<x and b<Xftdnta^, a war- 

rant ; also confidence. 
0<x/tant<im<xjl, warrantable, authen- 

tic ; 


><Xfib<x, severity. 

oj, the barbery-bush. 
a storm ; also much. 
a/tc, a small ship or bark. 

a book; unde b 

Oa/tb, a poet ; Lat. bardus, pi. 
ba;^ib , Brit, bardh, a mimic or 
jester, a poet. 
/tba^, a lampoon, or satire. 
d/tjibaj and Ba;^beaml<xct, 
a writing of satires, or other re- 
viling rhimes. 
6a/ibama.;l, addicted to satires or 


Od/tj, burning, red hot. 
0<x/tn, a judge ; Wei. barn, judg- 

, a fight or battle. 
, irf. <jrfl?. ba/t : ba ba^^, over 
and above, also the height or 
top of any thing ; b<i^-cu;H; j, a 
stumbling, or falling headlong. 
/ifi, b/t;u;r>, c<icb<x/t;t, a helmet, 
because worn on the head. 
/tfi, the hair of the head 
the head. 
, an end. 
, a bar. 

ci/1/ux, the fat of the pot 
, grease. 

tow; fn&jt 
threads of tow. 

/t^<xca^, overplus; also great 





l, the tops or lop-branches 
of trees ; ba/t/tajlac, id. 
paft/iajbeact, id. q. bajtftaca;". 
6<Xft/i<x; j;n, a mitre ; vid. ba/t. 
pa/tfiajft, borage. 
oa/iji<xm<x;l, gay, genteel. 
, curled hair. 
, a box, a pannier, a ham- 

Oa/tpioj, a young girl ; the dimi- 
nutive feminine of ba/t ; bajt/toj- 

Oa/i/ioj, a knot. 
Oa/t/ioj, an oppression or stitch in 


Oapifiog, a grappling, or seizing, a 
fastening-hold taken in wrestling, 
alias bu^t/iog. 

, a wattle to make a wyth. 

, to take fast hold of. 
af, death; Heb. ttfK3, putruit, 
fcetuit, 1 Sam. c. 13, v. 4, for 
death submits the body to stench 
and rottenness. 

, the palm of the hand ; ba^ a, 
the palms; bua;lp;b pab <x 
robapx u;me, they shall clap 
their hands at him. 
l, judgment. 
t, pride, arrogance. 

, the base in music. 
pa;-ba;;ie, a fencer. 
Oa^b/tujbeac, leacherous. 
Oaf c, red or scarlet. 
OafC, round. 

Oaf cae;b, a basket ; baf ce;b, id. 
naf cajftro, a circle. 
6a^c<x/inac, lamentation ; also 


Oa^ca/it, cinnabar. P/. 
Oa^c-cd^inte, globular. 
O<Xf-c-c;i;<xb, raddle. 
O<v^-b<x/ib, a bastard. 
Oa^e, the base, a basis. 
Oa^a;ni, to stop or stay, to check, 

to drown. 

0(X^a;;ie, a mournful clapping of 
hands; ex. go jt<vjb <xn c<xt<x;/t 

u;le co aonra; 
. L.B. 

, carnificina. 

XfOjlle, a vassal, or tenant. > 
F. C. 

, fate or fortune, 
u jab, a putting to death. 

Oat and bata, a staff or stick, x' 

Qatajl, threatening or terrifying. 

Oat and ba, pi. of bo, kine, or 
cows ; f eact mbat, seven cows. 

Oat, the sea. 

Oat, a bay. J( 

Oat, death, slaughter, murder. 

Oatajnte, a booty in cattle. 

Oatajf , baptism ; o jejn Cb^;OfC 
50 <x b'atajf, from Christ's nati- 
vity to his baptism. L. B. 

Oatam, to drown, to eclipse, to 
blot out, or cancel. 

Oatam, to die, to perish ; <vb bat 
Gpu/ica, Morogh died. 

Oataf , the top of any thing ; ba- 
taf cjnn, the crown of the 

Oatjo/im, a kind of blue, or azure 

Oatlac, a clown ; vid. balac. 

Oatlan, a calm. 

Oatlaob, a hat ; galerus. PI. 

pat/to;b, a token. 

Oaty^tut, a calm ; also any part 
of a stream that does not flow 

Oat/tOf, rosemary. 

Oe, is ; noc a/t be, who is. 

Oe, night. 

Oe, a woman; bean or ben, idem; 
pi. bejte, young handsome wo- 

Oe, the visage, or face. 

Oeb', he died. 

Oeab'am, to die. 

Oeaj and beacan, a mushroom. 

Oeac,abee; fa;te bead, a swarm 

, of bees. 

Oeact, a multitude. 

Oeact, a circle, a ring, or com- 

b e 


pass; beact, perfect. 
beacta, carriage, behaviour. 
be<xcto,;ro, to compass, to embrace ; 

beacca; jte, perfected. 
be<xcb<ij;m, to certify or assure. 
be<vcbaiT)<v/l, round. 
be<xcl<xn<xc, a place where bee- 

hives stand. 
beac'lann, a bee-hive. 
be<xc;uvjr>;m, to grieve or trouble. 
beab, mournful or sorrowful news. 
beo.bajbeo.ct, sweet-mouthedness, 

or an epicurean taste. 
Oe<xbajbe, a lover of dainties. 
pe<xba;be<xn, a scoffer. 
bed.bajbeo.nd.ct, scurrility. 
be<xba;b;m, to act the parasite; 

also to love sweet things. 
beaban and be<xb<xn<xct:, calumny, 

talking ill of the neighbour. 
be<xban<xc, calumniating, given to 


be<xb<\7~, that shall be. 
be<xg, little ; b/ionj <x;pi <x/< be<xj 

j-jb, they that despise you ; bedj 

nac, almost, in a manner. 
beATdo, a little, a small quantity ; 

Wei. bychan, small, 
Oeo-jeajlac, void of fear. 
be<xgtuac, despicable, of little va- 

be<xl, a mouth ; be<xl mo^i, a wide 

mouth ; Wei. bill, AngL bill. 
beal<x, to die; j<ic <xon tr<x;/tjn- 

Zjof clojbecvm, ;/ 5 cto;be<xm 

<xt beata : leab<x;i b/ie<xc, qui uti- 

tur gladio, gladio peribit. 
Oealac, a highway, a road or 

path ; bea,lac <t/t ^lancv; jce, ria 

salutis nostrce. 
Oeatab, anointing. 
be<xlb<xc, a bit ; be<xl6<xc f^jn, 

the bit of a bridle. 
be<xtc<x;nce<xc, talkative. 
beatc/tab<xb, hypocrisy, devotion 

in words ; unde be<xl-c^<xbac, a 


be<xlb;tu;b;m, to stop one's mouth, 


to silence or nonplus. 
Oed,tbun<xjm, idem. 
Oe<xl^oc<n^5<x;n, a gargarism 

washing of the mouth. 
be<xlpotA^i<X5<xb, a gargling of the 

mouth, id. 

Oe<xt;z;o,c, prattling or babbling. 
beatj/tab, dissimulation, false 

OeAt^<xjbt:eo.c, famous ; also prat- 

tling, talkative. 
be<xl^o.b, any language or tongue ; 

bo bexx/ygrKXjb fe bom j<xc njb 

n<x be<it;tab pe;n, he related all 

to me in his own language. 

be<xlt<x;b and be<xlt<xn, dirty, fil- 

, uncleanness. 

Oe<xltra;ne, a compact, or agree- 

be<xl-c;ne, or be;l-tr;ne, ignis belt 
Dei Asiatici; i. e. t;ne-bejl, 
May-day, so called from large 
fires which the Druids were used 
to light on the summits of the 
highest hills, into which they 
drove four-footed beasts, using 
at the same time certain ceremo- 
nies to expiate for the sins of the 
people. This Pagan ceremony 
of lighting these fires in honour 
of the Asiatic god Belus, gave 
its name to the entire month of 
May, which is to this clay called 
m;-n<x be<xl-t;ne in the Irish lan- 
guage. Dr. Keating, speaking 
of this fire of Beal, says, that the 
cattle were drove through it, and 
not sacrificed, and that the chief 
design of it was to keep off all 
contagious disorders from them 
for that year ; and he also says, 
that all the inhabitants of Ire- 
land quenched their fires on that 
clay, and kindled them again out 
of some part of that fire. The 
above opinion about the cattle is 
confirmed by the following words 


of an old Glossary, copied by 
Mr. Edward Lhuyd : " b<x tene 
bo jn;tey n 
l<x;b mo/i<x;b 

bo beftbjy n<x ce<xt:;ta en- 
o/t teom<xnbu;b cecxx bl;<xb- 
n<\." The mean sense of which 
is, that the Druids lighted two 
solemn fires every year, and 
drove all four-footed beasts 
through them, in order to pre- 
serve them from all contagious 
distempers during the current 

Oe<xn, a woman, or a wife; vid. 

Oecin, a step, or degree. 

Oean, he beat; and bearxvjm, to 
beat; Anglo-Sax., to bang. 

Oe<xn<xb and bean<x;m, to apper- 
tain or belong to ; <xn n; Be<xn<xy 
l;om, the thing that belongeth to 
me ; also to touch, or meddle 
with ; nci be<xn l;ono ; vid. b<x;n. 

Oe<xno.b and b^<xn<x;m, to reap, to 
shear, to cut ; bo 15e<ui<xba/i <xn 
jrojiTxx/i, they reaped the har- 
vest; beanj:<vjb me <x ceouxri b;, 
I will cut her head off; rectius 
bo b<x;ne<xba/i, b<x;nj:e<xb me. 

Oe<xn<xb, dullness, bluntness. 

Oe<xn<X5<xb, a salutation ; rectius 

Oe<xnan, the name of one of the 
Irish saints, called in Latin Be- 
nignus, who was the successor 
of St. Patrick in Armagh. 

Oe<xn<xnn, furniture, household 

Oe<xncoba/i, a horn; be<xncofy<x, 
plur. be<xncob<Xfxc, horned, hav- 
ing horns. 

Oeanjan, a branch or bough ; 
be<xn^a;n bo Cfi<wna;b t;ur<x, 
branches of thick trees ; also the 
tooth of a fork or trident. 

6e<xnn, the top or summit of a 
mountain or rock ; ba te<xnn 
bear bean n a beola, the twelve 

summits of beanntx beota, high 
mountains in the County of Gal- 
way ; also a promontory or head- 
land towards the sea; as ben- 
e<xba;/i, the hill of Howth to 
the north-east of Dublin. But 
notwithstanding these examples 
it signifies properly any steep, 
high hill, seeing we find it so 
used throughout Ireland, Scot- 
land, and Wales; it is of the 
same origin with the Gr. j3ov- 
vog ; in the Welch it is pen, as 

Oe<xnn, a horn, Lat. cornu. 

Oe<xnn, i. e. horn, a drinking-cup, 
because anciently drinking-cups 
were of horn. 

Oe<xnn<x b<x;^ice, a famous moun- 
tain in the extremity of the 
County of Derry in Ulster. 

pe<xnn<xc, horned, or forked. 

Oe<xnn<xc<x/i, or beoinncu;^, i. e. 
be<xnn<x bo, cow-horns. 

Oeanndct, a salutation ; also a be- 
nediction. It is properly written 

Oe<xnn<x;j;m, to bless, to conse- 

crate; also to greet or salute; 

bo betxnna; j ye t/t; ce<xtla, he 

consecrated three churches ; be- 

<uin<xj jte<x/< bu;t, God save you. 
Oe<xnn<x; jte, blessed, consecrated. 
Oeannog, a coifj or linen cap worn 

commonly by women. 
Oe<xnnu^<xb, or be<xnbu j<xb, a be- 

nediction or salutation. 
Oe<xnr)u; jce, blessed. 
Oe<xnuj<xb, to recover; bo tie<xn 

ye <xn tjomtun, he recovered the 

Oe<\.n/t;oj<xn, a queen, as she is the 

wife of a king, and not a jrj- 

be<xn, or sovereign queen. 
Oe<x^, a spit; <v//t be<x;i<x;B ]:<xb<x 

ponncojtt, on long wooden 


, the beast called the bear. 
a judge. 


Oea/ta, spears, or javelins. 

Oe<xn<i, Bearhaven, the name of a 
territory in the most south-west 
part of Ireland, extending from 
near Glanroghty to Bantry Bay. 
The country called Dea^td. for- 
merly belonged to the O'Dris- 
cols, who were of the tribe of 
Dairinne and Ithian race; but 
in late a^es to the O'Sullivans. 
- Oea^KXb and be;n;m, to take or 
cam* away, to bring; ex. bea- 
fiu;b teo, they shall take with 
them; bej;t le<xt <xm<xc, bring 
away with you ; Lat. fero, and 
Gr. 0po, porto, aufero. Note 
that the imperative be;/i, which 
is the same with pejp, (the b as 
well as the v consonant being 
conimutable with jr,) agrees ex- 
act!}^ with the Latin fer. 

Oefyuxb and be;ft;m, to bear, to 
bring forth ; bo be;/t co^<xb, to 
bear fruit; this, as well as the 
foregoing verb, makes its parti- 
ciple bftejc, as <XT bfiejt leo, 
carrying away with them; <ij 
b/tejt cla;nne, bearing children : 
and their perfect tense ftug, as 
bo jtug te;^, bo ftug ^7 ctann ; 
"Lai. fero, to breed, bring forth, 
or bear; and Heb. *T&,jrwctUf s 
and rr\%fructum edidit ; b, the 
initial in bea^ab, and D, the 
initial in the Heb. rHD, making 
no difference ; Goth, bairan. 
^Ajtcib and bejfvjm, to tell, to re- 
late, which makes its perfect 
tense bea^t, as <xb be<x/ic <xn 
jrjte, fert poeta; <xb be;^;m, 
vitlgo <x bej;tjm, corresponds 
very closely with the same Latin 
verb fero, to report, relate, or 
say. This Irish verb in the first 
sense is like the Greek and La- 
tin ; in the second it agrees with 
the Latin and Hebrew; and in 
the last with the Latin only, 
e/tan and bea/tanac, a young 

/ O 

man, a youth; Goth, and Is- 
landice barn, Saxonice beam, 
Scotice bent. 

6e<xb<xb, a boiling or seething. 

6e<x;tb'<xjm, to melt, dissolve, or 
liquify; also to shave the beard, 
rather than be<x/t/uvjm. 

6e<i;tb6;/t, a barber. 

6e<\rt, a soldier, or champion. 

Oeanj, anger. 

Oeo.jt5<icb, diligence. 

OeAfita, a language, or dialect ; 
be<iftta no. pe;ne, the Fenian 
Irish; be<x^il<i no. bjr;te<xb, the 
Poetic Irish ; be<x/tl<* na be<x j- 
<X;t^<xj;t, the style of the his- 
toriographers ; gn<i;cbe<xnt<x, the 
vulgar Irish. It is now used for 
the English tongue, and is the 
same originally with the French 
parler, and the Italian parlare. 
The Irish etymologists derive it 
from beat, the mouth, and /tab, 
a saying, i. e. any dialect or 
speech ; but this seems an ab- 
surd derivation. 

Oe&ftn, a breach, a gap, a notch, 
or crevice; be<x/tna;be tytujte, 
repaired breaches. 

6e<\./vt, short; Wei. byr, Corn, 
and Arm. her. 

6e<x^/ta, a spear, a spit; some- 
times written b;0fi ; bjOft ;a/tujnn, 
a spit of iron ; Lat. vent, Wei. 
cor, and Ar. ber. 

a pair of snuffers ; 
the same. 

clipping, shearing, or 
cutting off; from bea^ajm, to 
shave, or shear ; be<x^;tjr<\ j"e, 
he will shave; <XT beajt/KXb <x 
c<xo;xc, shearing his sheep. 
e<x^^i<xb, a piece, shred, or slice ; 
also a segment. 
)e<x^^an, gall ; also grief, smart, 
, a razor. 
, any satirical or bitter- 



tongiied man. 

Oca/it, a bundle ; as bed/it tu; je, 
bea/tt: jceu^i, a bundle of straw 
or hay ; also any load. 
Oea/it, a judgment. 
Oca/it, clothes ; as co;^-bea/it, 
shoes and stockings ; ceann- 
bea/<it, hat and wig. 
Oea/itr, said ; the third person, per- 
fect tense of the verb bej;t;m, to 
say ; <ib bea/it; an jr;le, vw/g-o 
. abubajfit an jr;le. 
Oeafit, the third person singular 
of the perfect tense of flie indi- 
cative mood of the verb bej/r/m, 
to give ; bo bea/it, he gave. 
Oea/it, to carry, to catch, hold, 
bring forth ; is a perfect tense of 
the verb be;/i;m. This word, 
and the substantive it governs, 
are often rendered in English 
by the verb of the said substan- 
tive; as bo bea/it;, or bo ;tug 
le;m, he leapt. The difference 
between those two verbs is, that 
.lejWm, to give, hath an aspira- 
tion on the initial letter 6 in the 
present and future tenses, as be;- 
jijro, or bo be;;i;n), I give ; bea/t- 
f ab, bo bea/ijrab, vel bo bea/i, 
I will give. But lejpjm, to car- 
ry, &c. can never have the said 
aspiration, and maketh fiujuf, 
as well as bea/ttrur, in the first 
person of the perfect tense, and 
are both equally formed in all 
other persons; nor can it have 
bo before it in the present or 
future tenses, as the other verb 

Oea/tta; j;ro, to wield, or flourish, 
as <XT bea/ttu jab <x c/iao;^eac, 
wielding his spear, also to me- 
ditate ; as bo be<x/itu;j fe <xn 
^njom, he meditated on the fact ; 
likewise to tuck up or gather, as 
VJjjb <xj bea/itu jab a b^a;t, 
Brigida trussing her garment ; it 
means to shrug or stir up ; as 

)ft j:e;n <x meo- 

bon <x <x;/tm <xju^ a eaba; je, he 
manfully shrugged himself in the 
midst of his military dress and 

, a cast, a shot, or stroke. 
, shaved, shorn ; 
beci;i/it<x, a sharp razor. 
ea/ita, boiled. 
Oea/tto;/i, a barber, a shearer ; 

6e<x/it6;/i, quasi b<x/tbato;/t. 
Oea/tt;tdc, a pair of tables, or 


Ueaf, behaviour, manners ; plur. ^ 
a and be<ty-<x;b. 
n, a syllogism. 

, an agreement, or ac- 

, to confederate. 
, a harlot. 

, a grievance. 

, a birch-tree; Lat. betula; t 
hence the name of the Irish let- 
ter b, or beith, according to 
O'Flaherty ; perhaps rather from 
the beech-tree. PL The letter 
beith answers more exactly to 
the Heb. n, or beth, than to the 
Chald, betha, and the Gr. beta. 
Oeac<x, life ; c/iann n<x beata, the 
tree of life ; Lat. vita, Gr. /3to-j; ; 
vid. b;t, infra. 
Oeacaj, provender; also a por- 

tion or allowance of meat. 
Oeatac, a beast ; pi. beata; j <nll- 
ta, wild beasts; be<xt<x;jeac, 
the same. 
Oe<xta;b, living ; <x mbe<xt(X;b, 

amongst the living. 
Oeata; j;m, to feed, to nourish. 
Oeat jab, nurture, or bringing up, 

Oeatman, a bee. 
Oeatobac, a beaver. 
Oeat^a, water. '?'. 
Oeatu jab, to support, or feed. 
Onb, a deed or action, a practice ; 


coj/i; I /at. fac'iinu ; 
a thin. 

beb nac 
. Wei. &t' 
Deb, a mournful news, or dismal 


Oebjr5;v;ob<ib, a commentary, a re- 
gistering or recording of mat- 

6e;c, an outer}', a roaring, a grie- 
vous crying. 

Oe;ce and be;ce<xc, crying out 
through grief, clamorous weep- 
ing. It is exactly equal to the 
Heb. Dn. HD3, and rVDl, all 
words of the same signification, 
meaning loud or clamorous 
weeping, fletus, ploratus ; vid. 
the Heb. verb nD2. ftevit, de- 
JJevit cum lamentatione, et ele- 
rf it tone vocis, whence the Latin 
Bacchus and Bacchanalia. 
Vid. Henr. Opitius's Lexic. 

Oe;cecib, or bejcjm, to roar, or cry 
aloud; ex. cja ta.f<\. bejceo.;- 
cum <\.n 17; j. who art thou that 
criest out unto the King ? 

Oe;cj j;l, an outcry. 

Pe;c<x;/tc, a bee-hive. 

Oejc;m, to cry out loud, to roar. 

Oe;ctejmne<xct, a dancing or skip- 
ping. PI. 

6e;b, they shall be. 

Oe;l, of the mouth ; pi. be;lj;b, is 
sometimes written. 

Oe;le, a meal's meat. 

Oe;lte, a kettle, or chaldron. 

OejUe&n, blame, reproach ; com- 
monly said me;UeC\n. 

Oejlt:, or b<x;lc, a cingle; Aug. 
Sax. belt, Lat. balteus. 

Oe;m, a stroke or blow; pi. be;- 
me<xnn ; be;m ctojbjm, a stroke 
of a sword. 

Oe;iD, sometimes signifies a step, a 
pace; Gr. j3/uo. 

Oe;m, a blemish, stain, or spot ; 
gar) be;m g<xn loct, without stain 
or blemish. 

Dejro, a beam, or large piece of 


6 e 

ce;mceap. a whipping-stock. 

Dejmneac, reproachful, contume- 
lious, abusive ; ex. n;/t bu n<x;c;/t 
fee;mne<xc, non erat serpens con- 
tumeliosus. Brogan. in Vit. Bri- 

- gid. 

bejin/teac, talkative. 

Oe;n;b, or b;n;b, a cheese-mnnet. 

Oe;ne, a champion, or famous 

Oe;ne, the evening ; so called from 
the bright appearance of the 
planet Venus at the setting of 
the sun and after; vid. ben in- 

i f ra - 

Oe;ne, a separation, or disjunc- 

Oejnjn, a little woman ; Corn, be- 

nen, and Wei. bc/inyn, a wo- 

Oe;nn, from beann, a summit, or 

a top of a hill. 
Oenneocu;b j~e, ^ he shall bless ; 

rid. beannu'j<xb. 
Oe;/tb"; j;y, an anniversarv feast or 

Oe;/t;at<x^, birth. 
Oe;;t;tn, tvW. bea/tab. 
pe^t^-jjan, a razor. 
Oe;^itr, tw r o persons, whether men 

or women. 

Oej/tC, help, assistance. 
Oe;/tt, a burden. 
Oej/tte, birth, potius born. 
Oe;;-rjn, a dimin. of b; A;-t;, a little 

beast ; Lat. bestiola ; by the 

moderns it is taken for any little 

worm or insect; Lat. vermicu- 

lus ; ex. <\f edtral mo^ IJOID <xn 


charmed to have found this little 
animal. Old Parchment. 
Oe;;-g;ne, peace, quiet, ease, rest. 
e, ointment, oil. 

Oejjtne, a vestry. 
Oe;t, both, twain. 
Oejcr, to be : AK mb,e;c, being : 
mbe;r, if it be. 


* Oejt, a being, or essence, rectius 

b;t, qd. vid. 

^Oe;^ and be;te, a birch-tree. Fla- 
herty, betula vel potius, a beech - 
tree ; be;t /-ejro, b or b. 

nejtecic, or be<xt<xc,. a beast. 

Qe;t:e<xma;n, bees. 

Oe;t;l, Bethel. 

Oejtn;u/i, the plant St. John's wort, 
Lat. hypericum. 

Oe;t;;i, a bear, a fierce wild beast, 
has an affinity with the Hebrew 

- HQrD. brutum, bestia,fera. 

el/-i a, a parish or district; ex. <xn 
Ijon tj/ie <xn j<xc tu<x;t, <xn l;on 
cat/iac <xn gac ^ tjp, an l;6n 
betyo. <xn j<xc C<xt<x;/i, <xju^ <xn 
Ijon ><io;ne ;n jac bel/ia. 

we would have been; 50 

i, we would have been on 
our return a second time. 

Oefl, or be<xr>, a woman ; Wei. be- 
nyn ; Corn, banen. Note, this 
Celtic word ben is the radical 
origin of the Latin Venus, which 
means a woman, and may be as 
properly benus as venus, the b 
and the v being equivalent in 
most of the ancient languages. 
The genitive case of ben is bene, 
pronounced benne, in two sylla- 
bles; ex. b;<x bene, corruptly 
b;<x <xo;ne, dies veneris, Friday; 
and the genitive of bean was 
primitively and properly be<xn<x, 
which was likewise its plural ; 
but now it is strangely and awk- 
wardly corrupted into mnci : ben 
is as frequently used in all old 
Irish parchments as be<xn. Vid. 
Poema Sancti Canici in C/iron. 
Scotor. ad annum 532. 

Oenejgean and bene;jn;uj<xb, a 

Oeo, cattle ; beo, living, or alive ; 

Oeoba, lively, full of spirits. 

6 3 

OeoMct, vigour, sprightliness. 
Oeobajtn, to quicken, bring to 


pe6-j<x;ne<xm, quicksands. 
Oeo;l, the genitive case of beol, or 

beul ; as teoig^g beojt, oral 

Oeol, the mouth. 
Oeol<xc, i. e. beolaoc, an active 

lad, or man. 
Oeol-o;be<ty~, tradition, or oral 

Oeo-lu<x;t, hot embers, or rather 

hot ashes. 
Oeo-jioiba/tc, quick-sightedness, or 

Oeo-fi<xb<\;ic<j,c, a quick-sighted or 

discerning man. 

, bright, glittering. 
', ready to lie-in. 
b; the hair of the head. 
the belly ; also a bottle. 
, rent, tribute. 
Oe^cn<x, peace. 
Defend, any land that is inha- 

Oete/ile<xc, the old law, or Old 

Testament ; j-xxn mbete/iteac, in 

the Old Testament; Lat. in ve- 

teri lege ; no;leac, the new law, 

or New Testament. Le<xba/t 

b^e<xc passim. 
Oetlu;^-n;on, according to O'Fla- 

herty, signifies the Irish alpha- 

bet, from its three first letters, b, 

I, and n. 

Oete, birch ; Lat. betula. 
Deal, the mouth; also an orifice, 

or the open part of a vessel, or 

other thing. 
Oeul, the false god Belus, to whom 

the solemn Druidish fires in Ire- 

land were dedicated. 
Oeulmac, or beutbac, the bit of a 

bridle ; beulmac S/t;<x;n. 
0;, or b;t, a killing or mu 

ex. Conal 


b;t <Tob<x, Lu;j 
la<x ;to b; be;ne b/i;oc. Via. 
Annal. Tighern. Passim. 


U), was, answering to all persons 
as well in the singular as in the 
plural numbers; as bo b; me, 
b; tu, fe, &c. ; Lat fid. 

U) and beo, Gr.jStw, living, )oy<\. 
mac be b;, Jesus, _ Son of the 
living God; ca;rp;b gac b; <x 
bjatab, every living thing must 
be supported and fed ; cojftm <X 
ccudla clua/- neac <x b;. ubinam 
audirit auris riventis. Brogan. 

Ojac, i. e. ball jreattba, virilia 

;acacb, priapismus. PI. 
, meat, food, sustenance. 

t, plentiful, abounding with 

OJabta, fed, fat; bam b;abra, a 
stall-fed ox. Pror. 15. 17. 

Ojabtac, a hospitable, generous 
man ; also a particular order of 
people among the old Irish, 
whose care and duty was to supply 
the king's household with all 
sorts of provisions; they also 
furnished the standing army of 
the kingdom or produce, as well 
as all foreigners or travellers, 
and were in the quality of public 
victuallers. Now it signifies a 
good and hospitable house- 

0;a;l, a hatchet, or axe; Wei. 
buyall ; Suev. beyel. 

OJan. a pelt, skin, or hide of a 

Dj&f, i. e. jonjra^, that shall hurt 
or wound. 

bjaft, anciently signified a beast, 
as also fish, birds ; Lat. bestia ; 
it now is taken for a worm, or 
little reptile, and written p;af b. 

Ojata, well-fed ; vid. bjabta. 

u;atab, a generous farmer, or hos- 
pitable man ; vid. bjabtac. 

O;acu;^-, the plant or herb betony 
or beet ; Lat. betonica. 

O;cea/tb, or b;c;m, mercury or 





Ojbceatib, i. e. b;ab-cea/tb, a ta- 
vern, or victualling-house. 

Ojg, from beaj, little. 

Ojgeu/}, or b;rjn, a coif, a hair- 
lace, a caul that women 
their hair in. PI. 

O; j, glue, or bird-lime. 

O;l, good. 

Ojl, a beak or bill of a fowl. 

0;l, the mouth; Brit, bit, 
mouth of a vessel. 

Ojle, a tree ; bjle ma j -cTbaj/t, a 
remarkable tree in the plain of 
CDaj <Tba;ft in the County of 
Clare, where the Dal-Cassian 
princes were usually inaugura- 

Q;l;an, a small vessel ; from ;an, a 
vessel, and b;le, or b;lle, small, 

Ojlle, a bill ; bjlle bealu; jte, a 
bill of divorce. 

poor, little, mean, weak. 
bo ju;be nj batac 
mbjlle, i. e. _ n; ju;be faoct 

. C^-fofc bo ju;be. 

OjUeoj, a corruption of bujlleog, 
a leaf of a tree, or of a book. 

0;lleog-bajte, water-lily ; Lat. 

Ojlleoja an Spo;nc, colt's-foot ; 
Lat tussilago. 

0;m, I am, I am wont to be. Jf 

Ojnn, true. 

bjnn, I was, I was used to be ; bo 
b;nn, idem. 

bjnn. sweet, harmonious, melo- 
dious; ppxjlmceatlac bjnn, a 
sweet Psalmist ; aj~ bjnn bo jut, 
thy voice is sweet. It is very 
often prefixed to several words 
by way of a compound, as bjnn- 
b^;ar^act, eloquence ; bjnnceol- 
ma/i, harmonious ; bjnngucac, 
melodious: its comparative is 
b;nne, more sweet or melodious. 

Ujnn, from beann, a hill or pro- 
montory. In books of the mid- 
dle ages it is sometimes written 


O;nne and bjnnjOf, harmony, me- 

j y- 

O;n/ie&n, a bell ; gu/t beanab bjn- 
nean Cb;<x/-ia;n <x;^, an expres- 
sion that signifies a formal ex- 
communication by the ceremony 
of the bell, c. Vid. Chronic. 
Scotorum ad an. 1043. 

O;nbjol, a forehead-binder to dress 
children's heads. 

OJnneabu^t, the hill of Howth 
near Dublin. 

Ojnnedlta, pretty, handsome, neat, 
fine; Lat. bellus. 

0;nr>e<xlt<xc, musical, harmonious ; 
from the melody of birds. 

O;n;b and bjnbear), calf's runnet, 
which is put into milk to thicken 
and consolidate it for cheeses. 

6;nege/i and bjnejj/ie, vinegar or 
pickle ; quasi zej/ie <xn p;6n<x, 
the dregs or acids of wine. 

OJn^e, a bench, or seat. 

O;obbu<xn and bjtbudin,^ perpetual, 
everlasting ; 50 bjobbuan, for 
ever ; Lat. perennis existentia. 

6;oca;/ie, a vicar, or subordinate 
to any ecclesiastic superior. 

O;ocon, a viscount. 

/">joban<xc, a tattler or tale-bearer. 

6 Job, although, suppose, let it be ; 
b;ob <x pjo-zntyfe, for example, 
as witness. 

bjobba, a guilty person; ex. <x^ 
b;obb<x b&jy- e, he is guilty of 
death. Matth. 26. v. 66. 

bjobbd, an enemy, an adversary. 

5;OT<xb and bjo^ajm, to rouse, to 
stir up, to startle. 

bjosatodjfc active, lively. 

O;6l, a viol, a kind of musical in- 

6;oUjt, water-cresses. This word 
is a corruption of b;0fi-pe<x/i, 
from b;0ft, water, and jrea/t, 

, talkative, or prattling. 
rowing, oaring. 


0;o/7, nj b;o/i <xco, they have not 

0;o/i and becx/i, a spit to roast meat 


0;oft, water. PI. t;ob<x/t and t;o- 
ba/ioib, a well or fountain ; and 

j t;ob<x/tb;o/i, well-water. 

Ojo/tcxc, a cow-calf. 

Ojo/t&n, a little stake, pin, or nee- 
dle ; the diminut. of bjojt, a 

PjO/KX^g, a fishing-bait. 

OjO;tbo^<x, a rainbow. 

P;0;ibu<xj:an, a water-serpent. 

O;0/tb<xc, watery, full of water. 

Ojo/tbOfUjy, a flood-gate, or sluice. 

6;o/tjo;n, a flood-gate, or dam. 

0;ofio/i, the brink of any water ; 
from b;o/i, water, and o/i, the 
extremity or brink. 

OjO/i/i<x, a king's fisher, a long- 
necked bird ; b;o/t/t<x-c/tu;b;n, 
the same, as also ja^uj^e co;/t- 
neac. PL 

, an osier, or twig. 
, water-lily. 

)0f<\j\,mendose pro bjota/i, water- 

upf^p., silk 

P;ot, the world. 

0;ot, life, living ; Lat. vita ; b;oc- X 
fcuan, living for ever ; b;otr/ta- 
na, always deformed. This is 
but another writing of bjt and b;t 
buan ; the former is nearer the 
Greek, and this latter nearer the 

0;otbu<x;ne, eternity, everlasting- 

0;oc Bu<xn, or b;t buan, life-ever- 

Ojocbuan, perpetual, everlasting, 

0;ot: j/t<xj:<xb and b;ot j/t<x;bteact:, 
cosmogmphy, or a description of 
the world ; tld.ctjfi<xj:ab, ^< <( >- 
graphy ; from b;ot, the world, 
and 5^tAj*jj<Xb, description ; and 
from tlact, i. e. talm, the earth, 

b L 

and j;taprab, description. 

O)n, water, the inflexion of b;o/t. 

O;-u short. 

bjnjrjon, metheglin, i. e. water- 

O}>t;b, a sow for breeding. 

Pj/tmejn, oosiness or moisture. 

0;-tn<x, abounding with wells and 
fountains of water ; hence the 
name of a town in the Kind's 
County, called 0;/tn<x, English 

O;n;tcie, standing or lodged water. 

bjfttr, the plur. of beaftt, loads, or 

Oj/ttr, a hilt, haft, or handle. 

Qif, a buffet, or box. 

b;/~eac, ease, a mitigation of pain 
at the crisis of a disorder. 

b;;~ecvc, prosperity, increase ; hence 
bl;<xjan bjfj j, the bissextile, or 
leap year, from the increasing 

0;^ecxct:, the same; hence also 
bl;<x j<xn b;/-e<xcta, a leap year. 

bjt, a wound. 

O)t, the world ; hence <ift b;tr, any 
existing, or in the world ; bu;ne 
<vj;t bjt, any man in the world. 

O;t, any custom or habit. 

Ojt, a being, an essence. 

/;, life ; Lat. vita. 

Uj'c, or bjot, signifies perpetuity or 
continuance when it forms the 
first part in a compound, and 
may be rendered by always, as 
bjtfjop., semper ; vid. b;ot, b;t- 
beo, continual, ever-living. 

Djce, female, belonging to the fe- 
male sex. 

Ojteamnac, a thief. 

Ojtredmantra, stolen, or given to 

Ojt-jrjOfi, always, everlasting life. 

hla, a town or village. 

j3la, piety, devotion. PL ex. CL 
a, the sea ; also a green field, 
a, healthy, safe, or well. 

.<i, a cry ; M<x, yellow. 

3tacr, a word. 

.3tab3<x;m, to cry. 

3lab and blcibmjc, renown, repu- 
tation, fame ; <LJ- bua;ne blab n\x 
paojal, reputation lasts longer 
than life. 

blab, a part, or portion ; rid. bio j. 

blt\ba;m, to break. 

blaba;rte, a flatterer, a soother, or, 

; blaba;/teacr, coaxing, flattering. 

Olagaj/teactr, a blast ; also boast- 
ing ; vulg. glajajneactr. 

blagdntrap a bragging or boast- 

blajman, boasting, or pretendiniz; 
to great matters of wealth, skill, 
or pedigree. 

blajmanac, a brag, a boasting, 
noisy fellow. 

lo.;n;c, rect'uis btonoj, suet. 
lajn;ceac, fat, full of suet. 
^a;^;m, to taste. 

.ajc, plain, smooth: its compa- 
rative is MCxjce. 

bla;c, a blossom ; rid. btat, hence 
the dim. bta;t;n. 

btajtplea^, a garland of flowers. 

btcxjt:lj<Xg, a pumice-stone. PI. 

blame, sound, healthy. PI. 

blanb<Xfi, dissimulation. 

blaoc, a whale. 

blaob, a shout, or calling ; hence 
bl<xob^u;j, constant shouting and 

, bawling; Wei. bloedh. 
, the same. 

.6, brawling, constant bawl- 

6, noisy, clamorous, 
and blao^j, a husk, scale, 
or shell. 

.<xo^<xojn, rectius bluj^cjn, di- 
minut. of blao^c, the skull ; 
more usually plao^<vo;n, from 
blaOy-T, or plao^, a shell. 
,<Y, a taste or flavour ; Lat. gns- 

fa I 

l<x^"<x and bld^ba, palatable, well- 
tasted; cdjnc bld^ba, well-ac- 
cented words. 

and bldjpm, to taste. 
, savoury. 

-, sweetness. 

>ldt, a flower; also a blossom; 
bldt n<x ccftdnn, the blossom of 

Idt, a form or manner. 
Idt, praise. 
ldt<xc, buttermilk. 

i, politeness, smoothness. 

Idtugdb, to flower, to flourish; 
bldjteocd^" re, he shall flourish, 
i. e. in issue and riches. 

bldcuj<xb, to make smooth, to 

bledcr, or bljocc, kine. 

bledcc, milk ; also milky, giving 
milk ; hinc bo bleact, a milch- 
cow, or bo bljocc ; in the Welch 
blith is milk ; vid. Idee, milk ; 
Lat. lac. 

bledctdj/ie, or bljoccdjfte, a 
wheedler, a soothing, under- 
mining fellow, who strives to steal 
into your confidence in order to 
come at secrets, and then to be- 
tray them. Metaph. from sooth- 
ing a cow's milk. 

bledccdjfie, a milker of kine. 

Oledjdjirt, to milk. 

bleatac, a bag or bags of corn for 

ble;b, a cajole, or wheedle., a coaxing, wheedling, 
or ^flattering. f 

blejb and blejbe, a drinking-cup, 
a goblet. 

blejn, a harbour or haven. 

blejtrjm, to grind corn ; hence 
blcdtdc, a bag of corn not yet 
ground ; bo blejt <xn <x/tb<xjft, to 
grind the corn. 

bleun, the groin or flank. 

bljdjdjn, a year, rectms bljdbdjn, 
to agree with the Welch bluy- 
dhen, and the Cornish bledhan. 


Vid. Remarks on the letter -cf . 
OljajarKXiTxvjt and bl;a|<xnt<X)T)<xjl, 

yearly; 50 blj<xj<xn<xm<x;t, every 

bl;nn, the froth or spittle of a dead 


Oljoct, product, fruit. 
Oljoc, vid. bleach. 
bl;o^-<in, an artichoke, 
ploac, a whale, rectius bl<xoc. 
bloc, or bloc, round, 
bloc, the fat of any beast. 
blocb<x/t/i<x;m, to point, to make 

round and sharp of one end, like 

Olob, a piece; blob bo cloc mu;l;n, 

a piece of a millstone, 
blob, <xo;b blo;b, now the barony 

called Lower Ormond in the 

County of Tipperary. 
blobizjbeoj, a piece or fragment. 
blo, a piece, portion, part; pi. 

bloj<x;b and bloj<xn<x;b. 
blo^oib, to crack, to break in 

blonog, fat, tallow, suet; mostly 

said to express the fat of swine, 

or lard ; Wei. bloneg. 
Olofi, a voice ; aliter, ^lo/t. 
blof , open, plain, manifest, 
blorc, a congregation. 
Qlor-c<V7fie, a collector. 
blOf~cn)<xo/i, a collector. 
bloy"3<xc, a robust fellow. 
blo^jAb, a sound or report. 
blo;"5<vjm, to make a noise. 
blotl<xc, a cave or den. 
Oluc, fatness. 

blurxxg, lard ; vid. blonoj. 
6lu/*ci/i, a great noise, or outcry. 
60, a cow ; Gr. by the JEol. /3o>Cr 

and Lat. idem, plur. bua;b, Lat. 

boves ; in the genit. and dat. 

singular it is inflected bo;n, as 

bon bo;n, to the cow ; Gr. fiovv, 
in accusat. 
boba^, bo oba^, I refrained, I 

would not. 


bobetot, the alphabet, according to 
O'Flaherty, so called from its 
two first letters, b and 1. Fid. 
Ogyg. p. 235. 

Qobgimnac, a blast. 

Oobo, O strange! an interjection, 
like the Latin papce! and more 
like the Gr. |3a/3ai. 
>oc, deceit, fraud. 
<oc, a blow or stroke. 
oc, a weather-goat, a he-goat. 

joe, a false, or bastard dye, or 
paint; ~Lat. focus. 

bocab, a discussing or sifting a 

bocam, to swell ; also to bud forth 
or spring. 

Ooca;n, hobgoblins, or sprites. 

Ocean, a covering. 

I poc, hey-day! an interjection. 

i^ocb and boct, poor, distressed. 

Oocbaj jjm, to impoverish. 

bocbajne and bocta;neact, po- 
verty, misery. 

Oocna, the sea. 

Docc, a breach. 

bocojbe, the studs or bosses upon 

boccojb, boco;b, or bojo;b, a spot, 
or speckle. 

boccojbeac, spotted, chequered or 
speckled with red, or bastard 
scarlet ; from the Irish boc, fo- 
cus ; bo tojbaba/t a feolta 
bocco;beac<x, bajn-bea/tja, they 
hoisted their chequered red and 
white sails. 

bob, a tail ; te;b <xn jrea/t toptr, 
amajt tejb a bob t<x/t an car. 

T <? 

Oobac, a nistic, a clown, or churl. 

Oobamajl and bobatama;l, clown- 
ish, rustic. 

Ooba^t, deaf; more usually written 
bojan, though not so properly 
as the British word of the same 
signification is written with a d, 
asbydhar, Brit. deaf. 

Ooboj, rage, anger, fury. 

Ooboj, a heifer. 

005, soft, penetrable, tender. 

Oogac, a bog, moor, or marsh. 

Oojabac, gesture. 

foojab, tendemess. 

nojab, to stir, shake, or toss. 

hOjg<U)j an egg in embryo. 

f>oj jlua;^-eacb, floating. 

no ja, a bow. 

no jt\b3;^i, an archer, 

noja;m, to bend like a bow. 

O&Td/t, another writing of boba/i, 

^ojaft^a;iT>, to make dea 

Ooja;/te, deaftiess. 

Oojbupe, corrupts bo;jjun, a bul- 
rush; quasi, bajnc bog, a soft 

Do^luacajri, a bulrush. 

Oorluy, bojlOjy, i. e. ox-tongue. 

ojun, bacon. 

Oou;t, soft and fresh; boj, soft; 

u^, fresh. 
Ooju^-, a bjrogu^, near, close to, 

hard by. 
Oogtajn, a vault or roof, an arched 

roof, a cave. 

Oojcbe, poverty, misery. 
Oo;cbe, poorer, the comparative 

degree of bocb. 

Oojb, a bottle ; bojbe, the same. 
Oo;beacan, pot i us bujbecan, the 

yolk of an egg. 
Oojbeal, a pudding. 
Oo;be;^, drunkenness, rectius po;- 

r t^lf- 

Oojbe, potius bujbe, yellow. 

Oojbeacb, yellowness. 

6o)bean, a yellow-hammer, a little 


Oo;be;-eacb, the yellow jaundice. 
Oojbeojj, a goldfinch. 
Oo;bl;a, a puddle, 
bojbndjr, the month of July. 
6o;b;tealtr, a comet; Stella cau- 

data ; from bob, a tail; and 

, a stuttering or stam- 

pojjfjn, a box. 

bojll, the pi. of ball, limbs, mem- 

bo;l, issue, success ; also use. 
Odjig'pjaft, a belly or maw-worm, 
bo; tie, a knob or boss, as of a 

n, the navel. 

n, the centre of an army ; 
ex. bo 

he closed up their centre, and 
he strengthened their front. 

bo;l^e<xn<x;b, hills or mountains, 
or any bulge. 

bojltne<xb, to smell or scent ; 
bo;ltneoc<x me, I will smell. 

Oo;n ; vid. bo. 

bo;ne<xb, a bonnet or cap ; quasi a 
beann, the top or upper part of 
a thing, the head ; and ejbe, a 
>o;nne, on a sudden. 

j, a cake or bannock. 
)0)/t, an elephant. 

j, the compar. of bo^tb, rank, 

U0)j\be and bO)/ibe<xcb, fierceness, 
roughness, barbarity ; also rank- 
ness, luxuriancy, &c. 

boj/tb-fyvjatfKXc, boasting, or vain- 

bodice, a large hind. 

bo;/ic/-i}<xb, a kind of fat clay or 

bo;^ce<xll, i. e. e;l;c, or aj, a 

bo;^ce<xll, i. e. jejltr, a mad or 
wild man or woman who lives in 

Oo;^cea;l, boasting, bragging. 

boj^ceall, a wild man ; also fierce, 


V bojt and botoga, cottages, huts, 
lodges ; hence the Eng. booths ; 
also a tabernacle. 

I, haughtiness, arrogance. 


bo;te<xllba, arrogant, proud, pre- 

Ool, a poet; also art or skill. 

Oolan, a bullock. 

boUxnn, an ox-stall, a cow-house, a 
fold. PL 

Ool, a cow. 

Oolb, a sort of caterpillar. 

bolj, a bag or budget ; Lat. bolga ; \ 
antiq. bulga, et forsan belga ; 
boljpx; j;t, a quiver ; quasi bol- 
ga sagittarum. Query, if the 
national name Belga? may not be 
derived from their being noted 
quiver-bearers, as going always 
armed with bows and arrows; 
whence perhaps it was that Ca3- 
sar called them Fortissimi Gal- 
lorum. The Irish called the an- 
cient Belgian Colony that came 
here from Britain, jr;/t bolj, i. e. 
viri Bolgce, or Bolgi, which 
seems to be a proof that the 
Belgians had originally their na- 
tional name from bolj, and the 
Irish historians remark that they 
were called pjp. bolj, from being 
noted to carry leather bags about 
them. Query, if the national 
name bulj<x/t; may not be de- 
rived from the same origin. 

j, a belly ; Ger. bulgen, a bag 
or sack. 

bolj, a pair of bellows ; bolj ^e;b, 

bolg, a pouch, budget, or satchel ; 
Lat. bulga, and Gr. yol. |3oX- 

bolg, a blister. 

bolg<xc, the small-pox; pi. bol- 
gctjbe, blains, blisters, boils. 
)lja;m, to blow, or swell. 
)lgan, dimin. of bolj, a small bag 
or a budget. 

Oolg&n, bolj(in-^<vjj;b, a quiver; 
Lat. pharetra. 

Oolj&n, the middle, or centre. 

y>oU<x, a bowl or goblet. 

bolloj, a shell, a skull, the top of 


6 o 

the head. 

Ootl^ci;;te and boU;*5<J.jKe, an an- 
tiquary, a herald, a master of the 

ceremonies. K. et alii. 
Oolljrga-f/te bu;tb, a meat-carver 

at a great man's table, 
bolog, a heifer. 
Oolrnu jdb, to smell, to scent, or 


pottu; j, fetters. 
Oolu; j, scented ; bed. j-bolu; j, 

Oolunca, fine, exquisite. 
OoiT)0.n<x;m, to vaunt or boast. 
Pomannacb, boasting, bragging. 
Don, the end or bottom of any 

thing ; bonn coj^e, the sole of 

the foot ; bonntx ta/t;td, the 


'bonn, good; Lat. bonus. 
Oonnojfie, a footman. 
Oo.nnan, a bittern ; alitcr bonndn- 

Ponn^a; j;m, to dart. 

go/t, a swelling. 
o/tb, fierce, cruel, severe ; 50 
bOftb, severely, roughly ; d bo/tb- 
g/tedbdjb, his terrible strokes. 

DOftb, haughty, grand ; pea^i bo/tb, 
a proud man ; also luxuriant, 
rank, rancid ; as j:eu;t bo^tb, rank 
grass ; peojl bo^tb, rancid meat. 

UO'tbd and bo/tbdj", i'id. bo;^tbe, 
haughtiness, fierceness. 

Oo^b, a table. 

O6ftb, the border or coast of a 
country, particularly the sea- 
coast; also the edge, brim, or 
extremity of any thins; ; pX fco/t- 
bajb 0/tmum<xn, on the confines 
of Ormond ; gac cuan po/t bo;t- 
ba;b CJ/tjOnn, every harbour up- 

^ on the coast of Ireland. 

05;tojme, a tribute of cows and 
other cattle; bourne taj^ean, 
a tribute of this nature that is 
said to have b?en exacted from 
the people of Leinster by the 
of Tara and Minister. 

6 o 

O6/t/t, a bunch, or knob; hence 

bo;t/tc<xc, crook-backed. 
Oo^t/t, great, noble, extraordinary. 
Oom, majesty, greatness ; also 

pride, grandeur. 
OOfi/tactX, a bladder. 
Oojtjto. and bonnAJirt, to swell ; 

bo/t/td, a swelling., warlike, puissant, va- 
liant at arms ; from bo/tp, great, 
and cv j, a fight, or feats of amis. 
6o/t;iam, to swell, to grow big and 


Oo/tf tomocu/t or b<x;t;t<xmoca;t,worm- 
wood; Lat absyntium. 
to bail. 

greatness, majesty, 
Oo/i;iujn, a haunch, a buttock. 
Oo/tuma, genit. bo;/tbe ; a town in 
the County of Clare, not far 
from Killaloe, near which was 
Ceann Co;t<xb, the royal resi- 
dence of the great Brian Boirbhe, 
which ijave occasion to his hav- 
ing been called by that sir- 

L>0;~, a hand; vid. bd^, i. e. the 
palm of the hand ; Wei. bys, a 

, a purse or poucli. 
jn, apjilause. 

, applause, a clapping of 
the hands. 

, to applaud. 
c, applause. 
Oo/-luo.c, nimble-handed, active, 
brisk ; hence bo^ludc, a pick- 
Oo;-6j, a gentle blow, or slap with 

the open hand. 
DOf txxb, a pillar or 
OopiaHaj/n, to extol or applaud ; 

id. qd. bo^-bu<xla;m. 
Doc, bojc, fire; vid. Lhuijd. Corn- 
par at. Etym.f hence bo;te, a 


b i? 

corruption of bo;te, burned ; 
tojtean, a great burning, is 
another corrupt derivation from 
Ootallac, furious, outrageous, 


; Dot, botog and botan, a booth, 
cottage, hut, tent, or tabernacle. 
Ootac, a fen or bog. 

Oot<Xfi, a lane, street, road, or way ; 
bota/i na ClQ;a^, a way between 
Durlas Guaire, in the County of 
Galway, and Mochua's Well or 
St. Mac Duach's Hermitage in 
Burren, in the County of Clare. 

O/ta, or bfta;, an eyebrow ; b; b/iti, 
buba, i. e. ba mala buba, two 
black eyebrows. 

Ofiac, an arm, a hand ; Lat. bra- 
cMum, Greek ^pa^iittv. This 
monosyllable is doubtless the 
Celtic root of these Latin and 
Greek words. 

b/tacab, a harrow; pi. jra b/ia- 
cujbjb ;a/tu;n, under harrows of 

b;taca;ro, to harrow, to break 
asunder; also to torment, afflict, 

Qftacan, broth. 

b/tacca;te, or b/i<xc;tle, a sleeve, 
or bracelet ; from b/iac, the arm, 
and c<xl, a covering, sheath. 

O/taca, corruption, suppuration. 

fo/tacb, hatred. 

Ojt&cb, substance, sap, or juice. 

6/tacbac, b/tacbama;l, and b/tac- 
bma/i, substantial. 

Ort^ct, idem quod b/uvcb. 

h/KXCOj, bleareclness. 

/")/t<xc/*u;leac, blear-eyed. 

the same as b/i<x- 


,j lv ^vJ7, a salmon. 
O/tabam, to oppress, 
b/iab/tub, an ambush, or lying 


b/ta jab, the gullet or windpipe. 
b/tciTab, the nppqr part of the 


>/-ux ja;/it, a truss or pack. 

c, malt, vulg. b/tajt. 
>/ia;ceam, b/ia;c-bam, i. e. b/teac 

bam, from b^ieac, speckled, and 

bam, Lat. dama, a hart; vid. 


)/-ia;cne, a cat. F. 
)/ia; j, the neck, or throat ; t;om- 

p;ol bo b/tajab, about thy neck; 

jrab b/iaia;b, under thy throat. 
tya; j, an liostage ; also a captive 

or prisoner; pi. b/iajjbe. 

, a hostage. 
Ofia; jbeanaf, captivity, imprson- 

ment, confinement, also restraint. 
6/ia; jean, debate, quarrel ; b/iaj- 

jeanac, quarrelsome. 
O;ta; jfte, a bag, or budget. 
0/ta; jj^-leab, a bracelet, or collar j 

b/ia;^leab, idem. 
p^a;l;m, to reject, or slight. 
PftajVjm, to feel. 
0;ta;ne, a beginning. 
O^a;neac, much, many, plenteous. 
6/tajnn, the womb, or belly. PL 

to/t/ta bo b/ta;nne, or bo b/iu;n- 

ne, the fruit of thy womb. 
6/ta^eagnac, a false accusation, a 



a ro- 



b/ia;ponlac, a reproach, false ac- 

b/iajt:, 50 b/tajc, for ever. =: 

b^a)t;m, to observe, to perceive, 
to spy ; bo b;ta;t na bu ta; je, 
to spy or reconnoitre the coun- 

b/-ta;t;m, to betray; bob/ta;c 
he betrayed; bo b/ia;t:an be. 
c;obal a Cbjanna, the disciple 
betrayed his Master. 

ntac, treacherous. 

t, an overseer, a disco- 


b n 

rectius Ipat-ljn, a veil, 
a sheet; vulg. bapt/n. 

O/ta;t;tearrKx;l, or b/ttxtoi/iba, bro- 
therly, friendly. 

Oj\ajtj\jn, a little brother ; the di- 
rain, of b;tatajrt. 

Oftamac, a colt, as of a mare, ass, 
&c. ; Hisp. bramar, to bellow, 
to bray. 

0/tam<v;/ie, a noisy troublesome 
person ; Hisp. bramador, a pub- 
lic crier. 

Oft<xmdnt<x, bujne bftamanta, an 
unpolished, ill-humoured man. 

Q;t<Xfl, poor. F. 

O^<xn, black. 

Ona/7, a raven; b/tan-bub, a black 
raven or rook, otherwise fr;o.c- 
bub; coc-bftan, a jackdaw; in 
"Welsh it is the same, and means 
any crow; so kigrran is a ra- 
ven, i/dvran a rook, cogvran a 

O /tan -bub, which means a black 
raven, was the name of a king of 
Leinster at the end of the sixth 
century, from whom sprung the 
O'Brains, now called O'Byrns. 
, fallow ; jrea/tjtdn b/\<x- 

a spider, a spider's 




, a burning coal, or ember. 

, the collar bones ; other- 
wise b;tomn/i<x b/iajab, because 
those bones support the neck; 

O;i<xr>ft<x ajjdjn, or cuocajn, a 
brass or iron circle with legs, to 
support a bre wins-pan, or large 

O;t0.nnum, chess, a game played 
upon a square board divided in- 
to sixty-four small chequers : on 
each side there are eight men 
and as many pawns, to be moved 
and shifted according to certain 
rules ; <in jrjcceatt acaf <xn 
ban, (Old Parchment.} 

properly means the men ; jOn d, 
bft<xn<xjb be<xb, with his ivory 
men, because made of elephant's 
teeth. This was a favourite game 
with the old Irish. Lat. scacha- 
rum Indus. 

0/t<xoc, i. e. b/tudc, the border of a 

0;t<xo;, eyebrows ; vid. in voce bu j 

- infra. 

P^tao; j;lle, a crack. 

6/t<xo;Ueab, a bounce, rushing, rat- 

i, a drop ; pi. b^<xo;n and 
2, i. e. b/tonoic, sad, sorrow- 

, to drop. 

and ;t<xo^ ci; j, yawn- 
ng, gaping. 
} brisk, active. 
", fiction, romance. 
-, a hat ; b/ta^-ba^, b^<x/"-polr, 
and bor-rtua, the same. 

c, the same as 
, quick, nimble. 
.;fte-bu;^b, a table-tattler, a 

, a sophister. 
, jousts, tilts, and tour- 

Ofi<X/"coir)<xb, counterfeiting, or fal- 

, to counterfeit. PL 
m, a declamation. PL 
the vulgar, or mob; 
the same ; b^u^ja^t 
j, the garcons and servants 
of the army. 

na^eul, a fable, a romance. 
, a cloak, or mantle. 

c, a standard, or pair of co- 

0/tac, to spy, or observe ; luce 
<xc<x, spies ; vid. b;ta;tjm. 
c, to betray ; vid. b/tajc;m. 
c, to depend upon, to expect 

b n 

, i. e. rojUe<xb, destruction. 
, a fragment, a remnant. 

design; <x t<x;m <xj b/-xt 
o/tt:, I have a design upon you ; 
also a dependence, an expec- 

, a mass, or lump. 
/i<xt, malt, 
fi&t, go bjtat, for ever. 

P/itxt<xc, continual, utterly. 

Pft<xt<xm, vid. b;id.jt;ro. 
i O/tutoi;;t, a brother, also a brother- 
religious, a friar, so said from 
the French frere, a brother ; 
Lat. frater, also a cousin, or 
near relation ; Gr. 0(oarwp, one 
of the same tribe of people. 

O/i<xtc<xb, corruption, purulent mat- 

p/KXttxxb, a caterpillar. 

6/te<xb, a bribe. 

Ofiecxc, speckled, or of various co- 
lours ; hence 

Ofieac&n, a party-coloured, or 
striped stuff, anciently used by 
different people in their trowsers 
and cloaks; hence some of the 
Gauls were called Galli Braccati, 
and their country Gallia Brac- 
cata. Diodorus Siculus, lib. 6, 
mentions that the garments of 
those Gauls were rough and 
party-coloured, and calls them 
braccce. The Irish Scots pre- 
served this kind of garment to 
our days. 

O/ie<xc, a trout, from the various 
colours of its skin ; pi. b^vjc, and 

, dimin. b/i;c;n. 
and pvjl-b/ie<xc, hops ; 
leann <xn bloy* g<xn bfieac j<xn 
be^vjuj^b, beer without taste, 
without hops, without sufficient 
boiling. Vid. Lhuyd's Comp. 
Etym. in voce lupulus. 
fie<xc'<xo;, indifference. 
/, doubt. 

/teactna; jte, different. F. 

, butter ; Scot, custard. 

, mixture. 
*, twilight. 

hypocrisy with re- 
gard to religious worship or de- 

and b/teun, filthy, stinking. 
to stink. 

a stench, an odious 

, a prince or potentate. 

great, mighty, pompous, 
grand ; Wei. bras, large ; also 

Ojiecxr, a voice, a great noise. 
0/-iea^<xt-m<xc<Ji., a large territory in 
the County of Armagh, which 
anciently belonged to the O'Don- 
negans, the O'Lavargans, and the 

p/ie<x^-c<xtu.o;f(, a throne. 
0/tea^-c<xt<xj/t, a royal seat or re- 


p^ea^-cotb, a sceptre. 
/iearb<x, chief, principal ; also 

active, lively, &c. 
O^eOL^-pO/ta, a throne. 
b/iea^ldnj, fraud, deceit. 
0/tea/"lann, a prince's court or pa- 

0/tea^-0;;tc;^be, a prince's trea- 


0^e<xt, judgment, also a sentence ; 
as b/te<xc buna;b, a definitive or 
irrevocable sentence. 
0/ie<xt, to give, tender, or offer; 
bo b/-ie<xta le<xb'<Xjt bo Cu;m;n, a 
book was given to Cuimin. 
c, judicious, critical. 
and b/te ataman, a judge. 
judgment, discern- 

P;ie<xtta, a birth-day. 
O/tecxtnac, Welsh, from Wales, a y 

Welshman, rectlns b/tjoe/iac. 
0/tedtnajj;m, to think, or c 



/ieatnaf, a thorn, a skewer, a 
bodkin; the tongue of a buckle; 

6 n 



also a higliland broach or fibula, 
called properly b^at-nofc. 

Oftetitnu jab, to judge ; also to 
look, or behold. 

b;te<<x;n, the isle of Britain ; it 
is now used only for Wales, as 
is also bpetttnac, for a Welsh- 
and jft&jj no. mb;te<xt:n<xc, 
no. mbpeatnvxc, flfi15 n<x 
, are places in Ire- 
land, so called because formerly 
inhabited by Britons. 

bftec, a wolf, wild dog, &c. ; some 
say a brock or badger. 

Qne;c;n, a small trout ; vid. b^ecvc. 

O^e;b, a kerchief, or head attire 
for women : it is now commonly 
used to signify frize, or coarse 
woollen cloth. 

Ofte;b;n, frize, a coarse strong kind 
of woollen dress. 

Pftejj:;, a hole; also a man's nail. 

0/te;jrne, a large territory or sove- 
reignty in the province of Con- 
naught, which comprehended the 
entire County of Leitrim, and 
most part of the County of Ca- 
van, whereof the O'Ruarks were 
chief lords. 
fte;j:ne<xc, full of holes. 

, of a boor, or rustic. K. 
a falsehood, or lie; rid. 

false, lying ; b;<x 

a false god. 
Dfte; jedb, a violating or abusing. 
0/ie;m, a breaking wind, or crack- 

ing: backwards ; like the Greek 

/3p/uo>, to rattle, or make a thun- 

dering noise ; hence the Latin 

fremo, to rattle ; bfte;m then sig- 

nifies a rattling noise. 
bftejne, the compar. of bfte<xn, sig- 

nifying more filthy or stinking. 
O/tejne and bjtejneact, filth, 

stench, &c. 
bne;n-t;fte, now Brentry, near 

Callane hill to the west of Ennis, 

in the County of Clare. 

, moved, provoked, stir- 
ed up, &c. 

te;p, or trejbftj^e, the dropping 
or gentle falling of any liquor or 

ejfjm, a shout, laughter. 
ejpijon, a writ or mandate. 
0/iejc, to earn'; also to feel; vid. 

be<ifux and be;/t;m. 
P^e;c, a carrying, or taking away. 
6;tejce<UTi, a judge. 
yfte;te<xmn<ty*, judgment. 
3rte;te<xnc<xc, judicious, keen in 

3ne;tr;onto;;t, a fuller. 

, word; from b/tj<xt<i;i. 
, a fire, or flame. PI. ex. Cl. 
, a brim or brink. 
, a flint. PI. 
, a bonfire, funeral pile. 
/teo-co;fie, a warming-pan. PI. 
, a Leveret. 
<xb, to pound or bruise ; 

so that they were bruised and 
battered ; also to bake. 
b/teoj<vjm, to bake. PL 
bfteo;lean, darnel; vul%. b/tojj- 

bneojte, sick, tender, delicate. 

Luke 7.2. 

bfteon, a blot or blur, a spot, &c. 
Oft;, anger. 
Op], or bn; j, a word ; hence b/i;<x-^ 

td/t, a word or sentence. 
Oj\j, a hill or hillock, a rising 

ground ; Wei. bre, as Pen-bre. 
Oftj, near, nigh, close to. 
a word. 

i, i. e. ba/tanta, a warrant, 
an author, or composer, 
bnjoinna, i. e. mj;te<xnn<x, or 5;tea- 
man<x, parts or divisions. 
L ft, a prickle. F. 

i, a word, also a verb. 
i, victor}- or conquest ; jraj- 
3jtt: b^tjat:<l ; 't <Xjur* buu.jb, 
Columc;lle ;te bomnall CCcic 


f . C/. 

Oft;be<xb<x;beoin, one that affects 

hard or difficult words. 
O/vjce, brick ; pi. b/i;c;b. 
p/i;beac, a dwarf. 
O/r/beoj, a superstitious resem- 

blance or picture of St. Bridget, 

made up on the eve of that saint 

by unmarried wenches with a 

view to discover their future 

0/i; j, price, worth, value ; <x^ fOn 

ne;te g<xn b/ijg, for things of no 

moment or consequence ; bo bfi; j 

gu/i, because that. 
O/t; j, virtue, or force ; bo c<x;tl j-e 

<x P/t/Zj it lost its virtue. 
O/i; j, the meaning, interpretation, 

or substance of a thing. 
/i; j, strength, also a tomb. 
ft; jjb, Bridget, the name of a 

0;t;j;be, i. e. b/nvjgbe, hostages; 

gar) ^e;ll g<xn b/i; jbe, without 

submission or hostages. 
6;t;nbe<xlb<xb, a disguising, or 

Op-jinn and b^i;0nglo;b, a dream, or 


6/vjnnbecil, portrayed. 
Ofi;nne<xc, a mother, a dam. PI. 
Oj^OcC, sorcery, a charm. 
O;t;oct:, a colour, a complexion; 

Oft;oj<xc, efficacious, capable, ef- 
fectual; also bitter, violent; n) 
lu c<x/i b<vnc<xt: b;i)oj<xc, non 
dilexit contentiones muliebres 
vehementes. Brog. in Vit. S. 

O/ijojnKX^ powerful, strong, able, 

bfi;o;cb;c, an amulet. 

O/i;olt^j<x;/ie, a busy body, a med- 
dler in other men's affairs. 
, inquietude, dissatisfaction. 
, a fiction, a lie ; bfijonn, the 
same. PL 

O/i;oflb<xt<MY), to paint, to counter- 


, a dream, 

a revere; <x mbont6bb, in 

and b/i<xon, a drop. 

a sophister. /Y. 

>/t;or-T, pressed ; also apt to break, 


, a witch or sorceress, 
and b;t;ot-b<xlb, Lat. brito- 
balbus, stammering, like a Bri- 
ton, because the Britons seemed 
to the Irish to speak in a stam- 
mering and awkward manner. 
/tjotdjn;^, the British tongue. 
/t;ot<x;/ie, a stammerer, or stut- 
tering person 

tender, brittle; also nim- 
ble, active; also open or free- 

vj^e<xb, a breach ; also to break, 
to win ; bo bitjy" y~e tni c<xt<x 
Ofi/tt<x, he broke three legions of 
them, aliter, he won three bat- 
tles from them, 
a wound. 

a breach or derout of an 
army ; ex. bfi;^le<xc roo/t ma;j 
mu;/tte;mne, the bloody and ge- 
neral derout of the plain of Muir- 


and b;te<xc, signify speckled, 
spotted, party-coloured, or paint- 
ed ; hence b^jt;ne<xc and b^;t- 
tjnnjOf, the measles, as being a 
speckled or painted distemper ; 
hence also O/vjotrxvc, orO|te<xc- 
rxxc, a Briton, or Welshman, 
whence Brittania, compounded 
of b;i;c, painted, and t&n, or 
t<i;n, an Irish or Celtic word, 
meaning a country, region, or 
dominion : thus Brit-tania means 



the country of the Brits, or 
painted people, because the an- 
cient inhabitants thereof painted 
their bodies. f id. Canibden's 

0/t;teajla;b, kind, gentle, cour- 

P;tO, old, ancient. 
O}\o, a grinding-stone, a quern, or 


PfiO, much, many, plenty. 
i,)ftoa/t, a fault or error, 
l^/toa^, old age. 
oc, a badger. 

,Voc<xc, dirty, ill-scented, odious. 
'^noca/i, pottage. 

-^"O/tob and b/ta;b, a goad-prick, a 
sting ; cleac b;tOjb, a long club, 
with a goad at one end, to drive 
p'tobojl, proud, saucy. 
DftOJ, a shoe, or brogue. 
"hO/tOg, or b;tug, a house or habita- 
tion ; via. bitug infra ; /"J^-bftOj, 
a fairy-house; ;tjj-b/t0j, a royal 

Onoj, sorrowful, melancholy. 
O/tOgac, lewd, leacherous, wan- 

no jab, increase, gain, profit, opu- 
lent ; ex. nj bto jajbe e an bea- 
jan ^*an, he is not the more opu- 
lent for that trifle. 
O^oja; jjl, dirt or filth. 
Onojajn, excess, abuse. 
Onojba, excessive, superfluous ; 

also great. 

DnOjce. a mole or freckle. 
Ono;c/ie, idem. 
>no;cneac, freckled, 
jtojbjnealra, embroidered. 

the sea-raven. 
rid. b;tu, the belly or 
womb ; to/iab bo b/tonn, Jo^a, 
the fruit of thy womb, Jesiis ; 
r^te na b;to;nn, through her bel- 
lv; a mbnojnn an eirr, in the 
fish's b-liy. 


, to excite or provoke. 
/to;j-n;n, a bundle, or small ga- 
thering of sticks, &c. to make 
fuel ; dimin. of bj\0fn&. 
OftO;tbe<xnba, carnation, or flesh- 
coloured. PL 

, talkative, prattling. 
, the bosom, or breast. 

boldness, confidence. 
/iottac, a prologue ; bjonbnoUac, 
the preface of a book or other 
O'tomac, a colt ; c/tjoc<xt b^omac 

<i^"(Xjt, thirty ass-colts. 
Oftoman<xc and b^iomantra, mstic, 

rude, impertinent. 
0/tomu^^uboi^ac, too confident, too 

full of assurance. 
Ofton, sorrow, grief. 
O/t6n-mujl;nn, a mill-stone. 
Upon, a fasting. 

On6/i<xc, sorrowful, mournful, la- 
mentable, also sorry ; oy b;ton<xc 
<xn njb, e, it is a lamentable case 
or thing; <\f b/tono.c me bon 
^-geul fjn, I am sorry for that 

0;ton<xb, destruction. 
Upon <xbajl, or b^un-j<xbajl, con- 
ception ; from b;tu and bpun, a 
womb or belly ; and g<xbcv;t, 
taking or conceiving. 
, a gift or favour. 
, a track, or sign, an impres- 
sion ; m<vjft;b ba ejf na bpo/ina, 
exinde mantut impressa ejus 
/\onn, the breast. 

/tonnab and brtonrxx^m, to give, to 
bestow, to present ; b/tonnpa fe, 
he will bestow. 

a flux or lax. 
, distempered with 
the flux. 

/tonnca, bestowed, devoted, pre- 

nonnccy and bpiOntana^, a gift, 
favour, or present. 

, an incentive or piovo- 




cation; also to hasten, to make 
haste or expedition ; bo B/tor- 
bu; jeabu/i, they hastened. 

O;to^<ib, an exhortation, a per- 

7 suasion. 

0/iop7a, a faggot or bundle, an 

O;top7ac, the name of a river in 
the County of Tipperary, and of 
a village in the County of Kerry. 

tyot, a mote. 

6 /ioc, a straw ; v ulg. bjiob. 
Oftot:, broth; <xnb/tu;t, the same, 

from <xn, water, and b;iu;t, flesh, 
- i. e. ajf^e j:eol<x, flesh-water. 
P/iot<x;;ie, a chaldron. 
0^oc<x;;ie, a butcher, or slaughter- 

0;ioc<x;;tne, i. e. ;iu<x;nne, or /t;be, 

down, fur, &c. 
0/tOC;n<X;t5<x, a butchery, or sham- 

bles ; also a victualling-house. 

7 PL 

0;tOtl<xc, a boiling-pit ; poll no 

;on<a.b net nobe<v;ibt:<v/t, j:e6;l <x 
tt<xlm<x;n. See Keating's Ac- 
count of the Method used by the 
Feinians, commanded by Fion 
Mac Cumhail, to stew their meat 
in pits dug into the earth. 
0;iu, the womb or belly : the in- 
flexions of it make bfiOnn,b/io;n, 
b/io;nne, bpiu;nn, &c. ; Wei. bry, 
Gr. 3w and /3pvv, vox infan- 

tium potum petentium. 

0/tu, a hind, a deer ; vid. b<x; jle 

bpu, a country ; hence b/tutojnne, 
the low marshy part of Orrery 
in the County of Cork; Wei. 
bro. Vid. Comp. Etym. pag. 3. 
col. 3. 

Oftu, the borders or banks of a ri- 
ver ; vid. b^uotc. 

O^u<xc, a bank, edge, or border ; 
<x^ b;umc n<x bairxxn, on the 
brink of the river; fie b;tu<xc, 
by the coast ; b/iuoic no. i) 
te, the borders of Egypt. 


a fawn. 

a suburb; 

7 b<x;le, idem. 

0/tu<xcbcL and b/iojba, stately, great, 

0/iua;b and b/iu;b, y?/a^ b/tu;r; 
Lat. brutum, a peasant, a coun- 

.3/iu<x;b;;t, a dream. 

O/tucb, a belch. 

!?/iucb, froth ; also a blast. 

.3f\ucb<x;m, to belch, to spring up. 

3/tuban, a salmon; b;iubcxn 05, a 

P;iube<X, a soliciting, or enticing. 

Oftub<vjte<xc, a tiiread-bare gar- 
ment PI 

Of(ub<x;m and b/iuj<x;m, to pound, 
to bruise. 

O/iuj, a grand house, or building, 
a fortified place, a palace, or 
royal residence. This Celtic or 
Irish word b;iuj or b/iOr is ori- 
ginally the same with the Ger- 
man, Gallic, and Hispanic, brui- 

a, briga, and broga; whence 
le Latins formed the word bri- 
ga at the end of the names of 
certain places, as samarobriga ; 
vid. Caesar. Com. lib. 5. and la- 
tobriga; as also the Greeks their 
Bpm, as ZrjAajujSpta, MfcrrjjujSpta, 
vid. Cluver de Ger. Ant. 1. I.e. 
7. where he even remarks, p. 61, 
that the ancient Celts pronounced 
this briga as broga, which is the 
same as the Irish b;tOj or b/tuj. 
This Celtic word bfiOg or b;iuj 
is the root of the word b/\u; je<xn, 
signifying the same thing, quod 
vid. infra. From this same bftUT 
or bfiog, with the prefixed word 
<xll, a rock or rocky, the national 
name -crilob^oj; may naturally 
be derived. 

O^U5<x;be, a husbandman, plough- 
man, or farmer. 

O/iu j<xb, or b/tu; jeab, a burgher, 
or farmer. 

0/tu j, a monument ; also a heap or 


' iV u j> a * own or borough. 
jrO/tujab and bfiujajno, to bruise, 
pound; also to oppress, hard- 
ship, &c. ; Tr^t bftu jab tan mob 
;ab, that they were oppressed 
beyond measure ; noc b/tu; j- 
tea;t, that are bruised. 

Pftu j<VJbe, gormandizing. 

0/tu;, the belly, paunch ; vzW. 

;tu;b, grief, anxiety, sorrow. 
;xujb, captivity ; 5 <Dba;b; 



, from David to the capti- 
vity of Babylon are fourteen ge- 
nerations. Matt. cap. 1. v. 17. 
tujb, pricked or pointed. 
;tu;be, a carrying or bringing. 

0/iu;beama;l, brutal, beastly ; com- 
parat. b;tu;bearola, more bru- 

. tish. 

p;tu;beamlact, brutality, gluttony. 

O/tujbeact, a colony ; potius 


O/tujbJbe, or b/tu; je, a farmer, a 


Oftu; j, bo b;tu; j ^e, he boiled. 

Ortu; je, a farm, or lands. 

0/tu; jean, a strife, quarrel, fight ; 
briga in the barbarous Latin sig- 
nifies the same thing ; briga, i. e. 

, a palace, royal house or 
seat; 2/7*rfe b/tuj jean caortca^n. 
It is like the ^ram of the Welsh, 
signifying a king's court; they 
also call it priv-lys, as the Irish 
do, with the same pronunciation, 
pftjm-l;^, a principal seat. 
N. B. Strabo observes, lib. 7, 
that brio-, and in the accusat. 
brian, in the Thracian language 
signified a to\vn or habitation; 
the Irish bjtuj jean is pronounced 
b/tujan, the same as the Thracian 
brian, both words being also of 
the same signification. Note 


also, that Strabo, in the same 
book, 7th, says that the Phryges 
were formerly called Bryges, or 
Bruges, as the Greeks write it, 
and were a kind of Thracians : 
Phryges antiquitus Bryges 



non Bruges, ut 

Qucere an 
revera Greece 

scribitur, (id quod Hiberno- 
Celtice Orture^,) quia domos 
et civitates liabitabant, sicque 
distinguebantur a Notnadibus ? 
0;vjjeanac, riotous, turbulent, 

Oj\ajn, a chaldron. 
O/tu;n, the womb, or belly. 
ip;tu;neabac, an apron. 
Oftu;nneac, a mother, a matron, a 


Oftojntreac, big with child. 
O;tu;tr, hangings, curtains. 
O/tujte, beaten, oppressed, bruised. 
Of\u)'c, flesh. 

sodden, boiled, 
a skirmish. 

and b/tujcneoc, heat, 

>;tu;tjm, to boil, also to bake. 
>/tujtne and briu;tne6;^, a refiner 
of gold or silver, or other metal. 
>^u;cneac, glowing, as in a fur- 

ftuiD, a broom. /* 
>/tuma;m, to vaunt backwards. 
>;tut, the hair of the head. 
>;tuc, strengtli, vigour, spri<jhtli- 
ness; hence the epithet b/tot- 
b^Jorma^ given to a strong 
sprigntly man; also rage, any 
heat or warmth ; Wei. brud,fer- 

UJHTC, a wedge or piece of any me- 
tal when glowing and red hot out 
of the furnace. 

0/tucccin, broth or soup ; /tug Jacob 
le)^ an b^tuccan aguy tuj ba 
aca;fi e, Jacob carried the soup, 
and gave it to his father. Lea- 

6 u 

b/iujtjnedc, the measles, variola;, 

vid. b/v)tr. 
budbdl, a horn; hence it some- 

times stands for a cornet of a 

troop ; Wei. byelin, a drinking- 

horn, derived from byal, a buffalo 

or wild bull ; budl, bubalus, urus. 

Vid. Dav. in Diet. Brit. 
budcdjt, a servant, a boy; pro- 

perly a cow-herd ; Gr. J^OVKO- 

Aoc, i- e - Pastor bourn ; the Irish 

derivation is from bo, pi. bud, or 

budjb, a cow, and cdl, to keep, 

i. e. custos bourn, a cow -herd; 

Corn, bigal, Wei. and Cor. bi- 


budcdjf , the wick of a candle. 
budcdjtledc, herding. 
budb, food ; also a bait. t 
budbd, victorious ; budbdc, the 

budbd, estimable, precious ; Of 

c;onr> n<x cctoc mbudbd, above 

precious stones. 
budb-dtl, triumphant, all-victo- 

budb-d^g, a victorious champion, 

a hero. 
budbd/^ut;, clamorous, shouting 

with victory. 
budbd/- and budbdcd^, victory, 

budbd/'td-j troubled, afflicted, from 

budbd; ;tt, trouble. 
bu<XbU)fli a judge. < 
budbmd/t and^budbdc, swaying, 

conquering, victorious. 
budjr, a toad; hence bud;jredc 

signifies poisonous ; and bu 

a young toad. 

cb an( l budjrdb, poison 
b, menacing, threatening. 
, a young toad; r* 

, a viper 
ku<Xf<Xt<X/i, an adder. 

a tap or faucet 

a wave. 

f ft, victory, conquest, 

bud;bedb, to trouble, to afflict. 

bud;bedn, a throng or multitude ; 
rectius bu;bedn. 

Oud;b;m, to overcome, to sw r ay over. 

bud;b;/ic, tumult ; also crosses, 

bud;b;iedb, to trouble, vex,perplex. 

bud;b/tedb, vexation, discontent- 

bud;b/i;m, to molest, or disquiet. 

bud;jrp;d/-c, a serpent. PI. 

bud;tedb, to strike, smite, or thresh ; 
bud;lj:;b j~e fejle nd eubdn, he 
shall spit in his face. 

Oud;l jld/-, a mill-pond. 

bud; I;, an ox-stall, or cow-house. 

bud;t;b, a dairy-house ; v id. buci;l- 

, cede. 

DiKVjlljle, a mower or reaper. 

bud;ltedc and budjle, a dairy- 
house, a summer-house or tent 
for making butter and cheeses in. 

Oud;lc;/7, a flail; bud;ltedn, the 

Oud;r>, to loose or untie ; dg butvjn 
d b^ioj, untying his shoes. 

Oud;n, to take. Mat. 5. 40. 

Oud;fl, cutting, reaping ; dj bud;n 
mond, cutting turf. 

Oud;r>, equality, comparison, pa- 
rity ; c/teb e bud;n nd cdtu ]\jf 
dn cc;tu;cnedct, what is the 
chaff to the wheat ? 

bud;nc;ncedcc, constant care or 

bud;ne, most durable, more last- 
ing ; d^ bud;ne bldb nd ^-dO^dl, 
reputation lasts longer than life. 

Oud;ne, perpetuity, continuance. 

Oua;nceo;/t, a reaper, or mower; 
bud;nteo;/t;je connu;j, hewers 
of wood. 

budl, w r ater. 

Hudldb, a remedy or cure. 

budldb and budld;m, to thresh, 
strike, smite ; Gr. fio\r\,j (ictus. 

budld;nli, clnclvs avis, PI. a kind 
of sea-lark. 


Oualc,'t<\(inac, a float or raft; Lat. 
rat is. 

Qtmtcomla, a mill-dam. 

Ou<xttdc and bualt/tac, cow-dung. 

Ouan, lasting, continual. Tliis word 
is often used in the first part of 
a compound, and always signifies 

uan, good; Lat. bonus, Gloss. 

uucina and buancx;be, a hewer, 
reaper, &c. 

Ou<in<x, a quartered soldier ; fa- 
ojt/vjoc no buana <x^ g<xc rjg, 
a quartered soldier in every 

Outxrxxctr, forced or tyrannical quar- 
tering, like that of the Danes on 
the Irish ; unfair or unjust bil- 
leting; buanact n<x Loclannac 
<x;jt pe<x/ta;b ej/tjon.i, the unjust 
quartering of the Danes, &c. ; 
it was called by the name buan- 
<xcc, because during the tyran- 
nical oppression of these fo- 
reigners, the Irish had no inter- 
mission from this oppressive kind 
of Danish quartering called bua- 
n<xcc, quasi sit buanjoct, per- 
manent entertainment. 

6u<xn<ty* and Ivdnact, perpetuity, 
duration, perseverance. 

Oudncu;mne, a chronicle. 

Ouafi, oxen, kine, &c., like the Lat. 
boarius, of or belonging to oxen, 
as forum boar him, the cow- 

Ouci;t<xc, a cow-spancel, or rope to 
tie cattle, especially cows, while 
they are milking. 

c, early in the morning, 
the belly. 
, a breach or rout. 
, bovibus abundans. PI. 

Oubab, threatening, menacing. 

foubac, sly, crafty, wily. 
f Ducl<x, a buckle. 

6ub, the world ; Wei. byd. 

cVb, was. 



pube<xc(J.jr, thanks, thanksgiving. 

Duj, a kind of herb, a leek ; ex. 
beatc<x ma/t blao; bon bu j<x j-<\. 
ba bn&oj ce<x;tc<x cciotbubA, her 
eyes green as a branch of the 
leek, and her two black small 
even eyebrows. 

Ouj, a breach, a rout; tu;c, the 

an unlaid egg that lias not 
yet a shell ; or an embryo-egg ; 
rid. bogun. 

Ouj^<x, the box-tree. 

Ou;ceab, a bucket. - 

PU;C, a breach. 

nu;c;le;/t, a buckler. 

Oujbel, a bottle. 

Ou;b and bu;be<xc, thankful, grate- 

Ou;be, thanks ; as bo be;tjm <x 
bu;be j\e t);<x, I give thanks to 
God : hence the common phrase, 
<i bu;be ;te b;<x pn, thanks be 
to God for it. 

Ou;be and bu;beacb, thanks, piety, 

Ou;be, yellow ; c/ie bujbe, yellow 
clay ; bu;be con<x;l, a plague in 
Ireland, anno 665. K. Perhaps 
the same with the vad-uelen 
amongst the Britains. 

Oujbe n<x njn je<xn, the herb spurge, 
the juice whereof is of so hot 
and corroding a nature, that 
being dropped upon warts it eats 
them up ; in Latin, titJiymallus. 

Uu;be<xc, thankful, grateful. 

Oujbeacci;", gratitude, thanks. 

Ou;beo.ct, yellowness. 

Ou;bean and bujb;r, a band or 
troop of soldiers ; plur. bu;bne ; 
also a company or multitude. 

6u;be<!icCxn, the yolk of an egg. 

Oujg-bujnne, bullrushes, the plur. 
of bog-bujnne. 

Oujge, softer ; the compar. degree 
of boj ; also softness. 

, a bullrush ; rectius bog- 


bu;gy";n, a little box. 

bujl, the river Boyle in the County 
of Mayo. 

bujle and bujleab, madness, rage ; 
<x/i bujle, mad, crazy, or dis- 
tracted; Lat. bills. 

bujle<xro<xjl, mad, raging mad. 

bujle&n, or bujljn, a small loaf of 
bread; t/rj |ceb bujljn, three 
hundred loaves. 

bujlle, a stroke or blow. 

yujtj, a pair of bellows. 

bujlg, a distemper very noxious to 
cattle, especially kine, which is 
thought to proceed from the 
want of water; or from violent 

Oujljlecy, a blister. 

bujljle<x^<xc, spotted, blistered, 
pock-holed ; from botj<xc, the 
pock, and lecy, a spot. 

bujme, a nurse. 

bujmpj;-, a pump, also the sole of 
a shoe, pronounced bu;mpe;^. 

bujnne, a tap or spout ; a tap or 

Oujnne, an ulcer. 

bujnne, a branch, a twig; hence 
boj-bujnne, a bull-rush. 

bu;nne<xc, the lax, a flux, or loose- 

bujnnean, a shoot, a young twig 
or branch; the diminutive of 

bujnnecvn le<nn<x, a bittern. 

bujnnjje, that is troubled with the 

bajnnj/te, rectius bonnaj/ie, afoot- 
man, a post-boy. 

bujnt<xc, vid. bujnn; je. 

buj/tbe, wrath, anger, severity. 

bujfibe, more robust, or wrathful. 

bujfteab, or buj^jretxb, roaring, 
bellowing; bujftjb <yy<k)l, the 
braying of an ass ; 0.5 jnr^ejm 
^Tur" <XT bujrt, ravening and roar- 

bujpieab, gore, or corrupt mat- 


b u 

c, rectius bo/ij-uijac, pu- 
issant, warlike, brave ; compound 
of bo/1/t, great or extraordinary ; 
and a <x, battle or fight ; quasi 

, an outcry, a bellowing. 
a burgess, rectius 
, from b^iuj, a town, or 

;fi^;n, now Dumten, a barony in 
the County of Clare, which an- 
ciently belonged to the O'Loch- 
lins; its genitive case is bo;^- 

a haunch or buttock. 
, a pouch, scrip, or satchel. 
u;te, fire ; vid. bo;tr. 
6u;teat<xc, a large fire. 
6u}tle;/i, a butler; bu;tlea/i<icb, 

, a manner or fashion. 
a pope's bull. 
utla, a bowl ; ceannbulla, bowls 
of the chapiter. 

OuUdc, the fish called Connor. 
buimbean, an old woman. 
Oun, about, keeping ; <x mbun <x 
cc<xo/iac, taking care of their 
sheep ; <x robun a le<xbo./t, about 
his books. 

bun, the stump or bottom, or root 

of any thing; bun <x ne<x/ib<xjl, 

the rump ; bun Of cjonn, upside 

down, topsy-turvy ; join bun g<xn 

ba^ift, without head or tail. 

bunab, the stock, or origin, root, 

&c. ; buntxb t/te;be, the stock or 

origin of a tribe or family. 

bun<xbuy, iMt.fundamentum, foun- 

dation, origin, radix ; also autho- 

r ritv :_ 

Oun<xbu^<xc, authentic ; jo buna- 

bu^<xc, with authority; also ra- 

dical or fundamental. 
buna;t, a foundation ; also a dwell- 

ing, or habitation. 
bun-6.;te<xc, fundamental. 
bun-ajt;jjm, to found or esta- 



bun-ca;leac, an old woman. 

ban-cjof, chiefiy, or chief-rent. 
,bunbun, the iundament; also any 
base blunder. 

bunbunac, ungainly, blundering, 
silly ; bujne bu/ibunac, a clumsy, 
bungling, clouterly man. 

bann, work. 

Ounncin, a bittern. 

bunr>r~<xc<x, rods or osiers ; bo can 
Jacob bunpxca blara bneacba- 
t<i fno. locn<xc<\)b <i^d trcomajl- 

;tejt, Jacob put speckled osiers 
in the ponds where the sheep 
were led to wash and cool them- 
selves in the ramming season. 
fid. leaba/t b/teac, in Gen. c. 


30. v. 37,38, 41. 
Ountrop, hast}' or sudden. 
bannui)<\f, authority; vid. bun<x- 


c, authentic. 
un, or bun, your. - 
UK<XC, exploits, military 
great valour. 

uftjaj/te, a burgess, a citizen. 
af, shall be ; n; be fO bu^ o; j^e 
Ofit, this is not he that shall be 
your heir. 
uf, the mouth. 

f, on this side ; <in t<xob <x baf 
bor> <xm<vjn, on this side the ri- 

, to stop, to hinder. 
, a boot. 


THIS letter obtains the third place in the modern Irish alphabet, as 
it does in the Latin, and other European alphabets. Our grammarians 
distinguish it by the name of Coll, which is the hazel-tree in Irish, Lat. 
Corylus ; and so every other letter of the Irish alphabet is called by the 
name of some particular tree of the natural growth of the country : for 
which reason the old Irish called their letters and writings peaba, i. e. 
woods; and so did the old Romans call their literary compositions by 
the name of Sylvee, when they wrote on leaves of trees and tables of wood ;* 
the Danes also called their runics by the name of Bogstave, for the same 
reason and in the same sense. Vid. Olam Wormius de Liter. Riui. 
pag. 6, 7. The Irish C, or Coll, is ranked by our grammarians among 
those consonants they call bOT-cOn^ojneaba, soft consonants : though it 
is to be noted that this letter invariably preserves a strong sound where- 
ever it stands in its simple and unaspirated state, whether in the begin- 
ning, middle, or end of a word ; so that of its own nature it always carries 
the force of the Gr. K, or the English k ; but when it is aspirated by an 
b subjoined to it, or a full-point set over it, instead of the b, it then car- 
ries the soft, gutteral, or whistling sound of the Greek ^, or the Spa- 
nish x. 

Our Irish copyists have frequently substituted the letter 5 in the place 
of c, which substitution is, indeed, the more natural, as they both may be 
regarded as letters of the same organ ; and yet this exchange was not 

* Vid. .Eneid. 1. 6. Gellius, 1. 11. c. 10. Sueton. de Claris Grammat. Cicero de Ora- 
tore, 1. 3. Quintilian. 1. 10. c. 3. 



always free from abuse, as it sometimes carried away the Irish words 
from their natural affinity with other languages, especially the Latin, 
thus : for c<xba;t, Lat. capra, a goat, they wrote jdba/i ; for c<xmul, Lat. 
camelus, a camel, and metaphorically, a simpleton, they wrote gamut ; 
for be;c, or beac, Lat. decem, they wrote beag ; for con or co, Lat. cinu 
or co, they write 50/7, or 30 ; as for con <x mb/tcijt^b, Lat. cum suisfra- 
tribus, they write gon <x mbfKtjt/i;b ; for co ngatlajb, i. e. con gaUa;b, 
Lat. cum gallis, they write 50 ngtxllajb, &c. And, vice versa, our 
grammarians have as frequently substituted c in the place of g, esteeming 
these two letters naturally commutable with each other, like b and t, as 
indeed they always were in most of the ancient languages. But it is par- 
ticularly to be observed, that although the letters c and g usurp each 
other's places, yet in the Irish language they never exchange sound or 
power, each invariably preserving its own natural power and pronunciation 
wherever it appears ; for c is always a K ; and g is as constantly a strong 
ungutteral j, excepting the case of their being aspirated by the imme- 
diate subjoining of an b. This property seems peculiar to the Irish or Cel. 
amongst the old languages, since we see in the oldest draughts of the Heb. 
and Gr. letters that the J of the former, and the j of the latter, are marked 
down as having the force and pronunciation of either g or c indifferently ; 
which is likewise the case in the Armenian, ^Ethiopian, and Coptic al- 
phabets, as appears by the tables of Dr. Barnard and Dr. Morton. Thus 
likewise do all the other letters of the Irish alphabet constantly preserve 
their respective force and power, without usurping on each other's pronun- 
ciation or function, as it happens in other languages, wherein^ often 
usurps that pf .?, as in the Latin word Cicero, as does likewise t when 
ininiediatelylollowed by the vowel i, and then by any other vowel, as in 
the words Titins, Mauritius, usurpatio, 8fc. So that if Lucian had to 
deal only with the Irish alphabet, he would have had no room for the 
humorous quarrel and lawsuit he raised between the consonants of his 
alphabet for encroaching on each other, as those of most other alphabets 
frequently do, by usurping each other's function of sound and pronun- 
ciation. And this circumstance regarding the Irish alphabet is the more 
remarkable, as its whole natural and primitive stock of letters is but six- 
teen iu number, the same as that of the first Roman or Latin alphabet 
brought by Evander the Arcadian, which was the original Cadmean or 
Phoenician set of letters communicated to the Grecians, and yet our six- 
teen letters of the primitive Irish alphabet were sufficient for all the es- 
sential purposes of language, each preserving its own sound or power 
without usurping that of any other letter; as to the I) it is only an aspi- 
rate in the Irish language, and never entered as a natural element into the 
frame of any word; though indeed of late ages it seems to have put on 
the appearance and function of a letter when used as a prefix to a word 
that begins with a vowel, which happens only in words referred to females 
or the feminine gender : for in Irish we say 01 <x;be, his face ; but as to > 
the face of a woman, we must say tx ba;be, where the b is a strong aspi- 
rate, and carries such a force as it does in the Latin her/, hodic, the 
Greek 'Ayiog and r HpaK\oe, the French, hero, the English, hoxf, &c. 
And as to the p, we shall, in our remarks on that letter, allege some 

reasons which may seem to evince that it did not originally belong to the 
Irish alphabet. 

One remark more remains to be made on the letter C. which relates 
to the aspirate or guttural sound, (the same as the Greek ^,) it is sus- 
ceptible of at the beginning of a word ; a remark which is equally appli- 
cable to the letter b, and partly to other consonants of the Irish alphabet : 
in all nominal words or nouns substantive, of whatever gender, beginning 
with c, and bearing a possessive reference to persons or things, of the 
masculine gender, the letter c is aspirated, but not so when they are re- 
ferred to feminines : ex. a ceann, (mascul.) his head; a cor, his foot : 
a ceann, (fern.) her head ;,a cor, her foot. So likewise in b : a buacajt, 
(mas.) his servant-man: a beanrclaba, (fern.) his servant-maid," a 
buacajl, her man-servant ; a beofl-rctaba, her woman-servant. But 
when those words, or any other nominals, are taken absolutely, and with- 
out reference to any thing, those of the feminine gender alone are aspi- 
rated in their initial letter, whether c or b : ex. an cor, the foot; an 
bean-rclaba, the maid-servant; an buaca;l, the man-servant. So that 
this prefixing of the particle an before nouns substantives, is one method 
of discovering their gender, but it does not hold good with regard to 
nouns beainnins with b or c. 

C tt 

Ca, in Irish, is always an inter- 
rogative, and has various signifi- 
cations; as, what? ex. ca bam, 
what tinie? ca bu;ne, what man ? 
how : ex. ca jrea/i/i, how better? 
ca ba;/ibe, how tall \ whither, 
or where : ex. ca /iaca;b tu, 
whither art thou bound I ca bj:;l 
tu, where art thou ? Lat. qua : 
ca bua;/i, when ? ca bar, whence ? 

Ca, or ca;, a house. 

Cab, the mouth; analogous to this 
word is the Gr. tcajSn, food, and 
the Lat. cibus. 

Caba, a cloak; also a cap or co- 
vering of the head ; Lat. cappa. 

Cabac, babbling or talkative. 

Cabac, a hostage ; ex. b' jrjlleabajt 
ca/t anajr gan cap gan cabac, 
they returned without tribute or 
hostage. Chron. Scot. 

Cabaja, a drab or quean, i. e. a 
common strumpet. 

Caba;te, a fleet, or navy. 

Cabaj/te, a babbler, a talkative 

Caba;/teact, a prating or bab- 

Cabon and cabun, a capon; Lat. 
capo, and Gr. KUTT^V. 

Caban, a tent, booth, or cottage ; 
Wei. gaban. 

Cab a/i, a conjunction or union. 

Caba/t, a joint. 

Caba/xta, joined. 

Cab a/t, a goat. J^ 

Caba;/i, help, relief, succour. It 
is prononnced cou;/i, Gr. ETT^- 
ovoog, auxiliator. 

Caba;/te, a helper, assistant, &c. 

Cabaj/ijm, to help, to aid. 

Caban, a field, a plain, -i^- 

Caban^a;t, the prop or stay of a 
a building, the wind-beam. 

Caba/ta, a shield or buckler : it is 
more properly a helmet or head- 
cover, for it seems to be the 
same as cat-ba/i, from ba/i, the 
top or crown of the head, and 

cat, fight. 

Caba/ita and c&b<x/ttd.c, helpful, 
comfortable ; luct cabcx/tca, as- 
sistants^ auxiliaries. 

Cabl<xc, a fleet. 

C<xbog, a jackdaw. 

Cabog, a ransacking or plunder- 

Cabla, the cable of a ship ; plur. 

Cab/icx, id. qd. c<vbo.)fi, succour, 

CaB/ia;^;nr), to help, or succour; 
also to conspire. PL 

C<xbftab, a coupling, or joining. 

C<xb;ia;tn, to bind or tie. 

C<xc, the ordure or dung of man, 
beast, or fowl, and in its in- 
flexions; ca,ca is like the Gr. 
Kai}, stercus, merda. 

Caca and cac<x;m, to go to stool, 
like the Gr. ica^aw, and the Lat. 
caco, cacare. 

Cac, all, every, the rest ; like the 
French chaque ; ccic ejle, all 
the rest ; vid. gac ; tjnTjre c&c 
<\7;t a to/rg, the rest will pursue 

C<x6an bujt, i. e. cci ta;ib<x bujt ? 
what use to you ? 

Cacn<v/m, to effect, or bring to 

Cactr, a maid-servant, bond- wo- 

C<xct, the body ; 710 Uqb 50 b<x;n- 
jl;8 <x^ <x 6<xct, he quitted the 
prison of his body ; i. e. he re- 
tired from this world into the 
converse of angels. Vid. Chron. 

Coict, as py. c<xct, generally. 

C<xct, a fasting, fast, &c. 

C<xcttt, hunger. 

Cact<xiT)<X)l, of or belonging to a 

C<xb, is an interrogative, and signi- 
fies what : as, c<vb bo pjnne tu, 
what hast thou done? c<xb cu;je, 
what for? Lat. quid, quod. 

C<xba;no, a fall, also hap, chance ; 
Lat. cado ; Wei. codum, a fall. 

C<xb<xb, an eclipsis, or suppression 
of a letter which happens when 
the radical letter is not pro- 
nounced, though written in the 
beginning of a word. 

C<xb<Xftu^, i. e. catu/iu^, whither? 
which way ? 

Cdbar, cotton ; also the cotton 
plant called bombast. 

Co.b<xl, a basin. 

C<xb<xt, a skin, or hide. 

-, friendship, honour, privi- 
lege. K. 

'-., respectful, honourable. 
k , i. e. c<xba/i, a goat. 

C<xbla, delightful, charming. 

C<xbt<x, the small guts. 

Cab-lujb, the herb cudvvorth. 

CabrKxmoi, equal, alike. 

Cab/ianta and c<xb/i<xn^<x, stub- 
born, obstinate. 

C<xec, blind; Lat. ccecus. Vid. 

Caem, a feast or entertainment. 

Caj, a jackdaw. 

;, profit, advantage. 
., the herb cockle. 

i, to spare ; cajol <w <x/t- 
t, to spare the corn ; cagajl 
fjnn <x CJ7;<x/in<x, spare us, O 

Caj<xltr, frugality. 

Cagaltttc, frugal, sparing. 

Caj<x/t and cog<xji, a whisper, a 

C<xga;b, legal, just. 

Cajna;!)) and cognajm, to chew. 

C<x;, or COLO;, a way, or road. 

Co.;, i. e. cu<xc, the cuckoo; ex. 

be<xnn<vjb no. mbo ; i. e. the cuc- 
koos used to sing perched on the 
horns of the cows. 

Co.;bbe<xn, a number, or multi- 

Caibbean, a harlot or prostitute 
also any depraved or debauch 

C rf 

c a 


Cajbne, friendship. 

C-ajojbjl, a chapter; Lat. cipitu- 

Co.jbjnneact:, talkativeness, pra- 

_ ting. 

Co.jcme, a kind of neck ornament. 

Co,;b, a rock. 

C<i;b, t'z'rf. cujb, a part or share. 

C<x;bce, fine calm weather. 

C<xjbe, where ? wherefore ? 
/rCajb, i. e. ge<xno,mnujj, chaste, 
pure, unspotted. It is generally 
pronounced cajg in the province 
of Minister. 

C<xjb, order; also a manner or 

C<xjbe, i. e. co, e ? who is he ? 

Cojbe, dirt ; also a blemish. 

Cdjbeac, polluted. 

CajbeamO-jl, becoming, decent. 

Cu.;b;be, hides, skins. 

Cojb;ol, a sun-dial. 

Co.jbfteo,b, or cojbpieo,b, acquain- 
tance, friendship. 

C<xjb,neo.b, fellowship in traffic. 

Co.jbrteo.roo,c, conversant, acquain- 
ted ; also a companion. 

C<x; jne, the inflexions of co.jnjeu.n, 
quod rid. 

Cajgnean, a van to winnow withal. 

Co;l, a condition or state; also 

Cajl and co.jljbeu.ct:, good dispo- 
sition, the quality of a thing or 
person; <x beuj cujt, his good 
name or good quality; o, beuj- 
cajljbeucta, id. 

Cajt and CL cca;t, behind. 

C<xjl, a spear, a javelin. 

C<x;l, an appearance. 

C<v/tbe, a mouth, an orifice. 

C<xjl-be<Xftb, a cow-herd, from c<vjl, 
to keep, and pea/tb, a cow. 

C<x;lc, a buckler. 

Ca;lc, chalk, or lime; Lat. calx, 
calcis, and Gr. xa\&, lapis ex 
f{uo ccementum fit. 

ijl, chalky. 

C<x;lceant<x, hard. 

C<x;lc;n, a little shield. 

Ca;lc;n, a disorder which affects 
the eyes. 

C<x;le, a country-woman ; whence 
the dimin. c<xjl;r>, a marriage- 
able girl, a young woman : it is 
analogous to the Gr. k-aXrj, fitl- 
chra, and the Heb. n^D, sponsa, 

C<x;leo.c, a cock; Wei. keiliog ; 
this Irish word forms cujlj j in 
the plur ; Lat. gallu-s, and Gr. 

, a letharg}-. 
i cealj, a sting. 
, pungent, pricking. 
, a qualification ; also a 
C<x;tjn, a girl ; rid. c<xjle. 
C<x;ll, loss; <x;m^j?t ^ie cctjll and 


and a time to lose; c<x;tl no. 
maojne, confiscation of goods. 
C<x;tlcul<x, i. e. c<xjlletuml<x, ^je- 
<ila c<x;tlete<xmla, old wives' 

C<vjtte, or c<xtla, a veil or cowl 
given to a nun or monk ; ex. po 
GQo.c-Cu.jUe c<xjlle 

ceunn nuom 0/t; jbe ; Lat. po- 
suit Maccaleut velum super ca- 
put sanctce Brigidfe. 

CujUeuc, an old woman; cujlleuc 
bub, a nun of the order of St. 
Benedict and others, who wore 
black hoods and habits, now 
passes as a common name for 
nuns of any order; cujlleucu 
bubo, in the plur. 

Cu.jU.eucu/-, dotage. 

CujUeu/3 or cujUjo/-^ a horse or 

CujUeumujn, loss or damage. 

CujUjnp, to lose, to destroy. 

Cujlljm, to geld ; cujllte, gelded ; 
also ruined, destroyed. 

Cujllteunuc, an eunuch. 

C rf 

C<V)lltea/trxvc, a place where shrubs 

C<x;tm;on, a helmet. 

C<x;ltjoj and c<x;le<xm<x;n, loss. 

C<xjtp;g, a sort of bottle or jug. 

Cajlte, or cotjllte, lost, ruined. 

Cctjm, a fault, stain, or blemish ; 
5<xn ccn;m g<xn loct, without 
stain or blemish. 

C<x;me, crookedness; also the com- 
parat. degree of cam, more 

Cajmean, reproved, blemished. 

Ca;mbeo.n, a throng or multitude. 

Ca;m;/~, a shirt. 

C<x;mpecx/t, a champion ; Wei. kam- 
piur, Armor, kimper. 

Ca;m^e, a shirt, shift, or smock ; 
the genitive case of c&jmjf ; Lat. 
chamisia ; Gal. chemise. 

Ctvjm^eog, or camoj, falsehood, 

C<x;n, chaste, undefiled ; as, <x 
G01}u;/ie <x flOb<xt<x;/t c<v;n, ^a- 
ria Mater intemerata ; also de- 
vout, religious : jto b; ^-e c<x;n 
na Cfiejbjom ; likewise sincere, 
faithful ; bfy~ conjoint cejftt;- 
b;te<xt<xc c<x;n ; Lat. candidus. 

C<\jn, dearly beloved, choice, &c. 

Cujn, a rent, or king's tax, or 
amercement; j<xn cujn, without 
duties ; cu;/ip;b ^;ab cctjn, they 
will amerce ; vid. canac. It 
makes ccwa in its genitive case ; 
ex. t;ie cp;ll <x carxx bd/i cce<xb- 
<xta;/t <Tba;m, through our first 
parent's violation of the com- 
mandment: here c<\;r> signifies 
a precept or commandment. 

Cajneab, a dispraising, or reprov- 
ing ; Wei. kuyn, complaint. 

Ccx;nj:;c;m, to fine, or amerce. 

Ctxjnb; jeact, quantity. 

Cajngeal, i. e. cl;<xc, a hurdle. 

C<x;njean, a rule, cause, or reason. 

Cajngean, a supplication or peti- 
tion ; ex. bo ;tcvb l;om 

bo beandiT), he desired 
me to make no poor or sparing 
petition ; vid. beoroi m<V;ijfie<xt:. 

C<x;njean, a compact, covenant, 
league, or confederacy; ex. bo 
pijnne me c<x;nje<xn /tern Sbu;- 
l;B, pepigi fcedus cum oculis 
meis. JOD. 

C<x;/igean, in its inflexions makes 
ca;gne, as may be seen in the 
competition between le<xt-moj 
and le<xt-cu;nn. 

Ccv;n;m, to dispraise or traduce ; 
ex. bo c<rjn aguf bo <xo;;t ^e 
;<xb, he dispraised and satirized 

C<x;nne<xl, a channel. 

C<x;nne<xl, a candle, potius c<x;n- <;' 
be<xl ; Lat. candela. 

i, a bitter scolding per- 

ct, scolding and curs- 



, or c<xo;n^e, the face, or 

, speech ; ;tem c<x;nt, with 
my speech ; <xg c<x;nt, speaking 
or talking ; Lat. canto, -are. 

C<x;nt:e<xc, talkative, prattling. 

Ca;nteo;/i, a babbler, a talkative 
person ; c<x;nteo;/t m<x;t, a good 

C<x;nt;c, a song or canticle. 

Ccx;/i, the gum. 

C<x^, an image. 

Ccv;;ib;m, to shake or quiver. 

C<x;/tb/ie, the name of several 
princes among the old Irish, the 
same as Charibert, the name of 
one of the kings of France ; it is 
also the name of different terri- 
tories; as, C<x;/tb/ie g<xb;t<x, or 
Carbury, in the County of Meath, 
anciently belonging to the O'Ro- 
nains; Ca^tb/ie-<xobb<x, in the 
County of Limerick, now called 
Kenry, the original country of 
the O'Donovans andO'Cuileuns, 
or Collins ; also Ca;/ib/ieac<x, in 

C cf 

the west of the County of Cork, 
first called C0ftca-Lu;be, ex- 
tending from Bandon to Crook- 
haven and to the river of Kin- 
mare, anciently possessed by the 
O'Driscols, the O'Baires, O'Lea- 
rys, O'Henagains, O'Flains, 
6'Cowhigs, O'Fihilla, O'Deada, 
O'Hea, O'Kiervic, &c. 
Ca;/tce<xc, pleasant, agreeable. 

~, a twist or turn, as of a 


. CCvjnbe, the plur. of c<Xfia, a friend, 
a bosom friend ; Gr. KapSia, the 
heart or bosom; ccvj/tbe 
kindred, relations. 

Ccvjftbe, c^;/ibea^, or 
friendship, amity. 

Ca;^be, respite of time ; j<xn ca;/t- 
be <V7ft b;t, without any delay ; 
bo cu;/t fe <vjfi cd;/tbe, he pro- 
longed or delayed. 

Caj/tbe<Xf-, or caj/tbjo^, a gossip ; 
c&j^bjoy-c^jort, a sponsor to 
one's child at baptism. 

Ca;/tbe<xm<X)l, friendly, favourable. 

Ca;;ib;oc, friendly; Wei. karedig. 

C<x;;te<xro<x;n, shoemakers. 

Co.;it-frj<xb, a hart or stag; Armor. 

Cajj\-)0f, rectlus cab;ia;je<X|-, 
Lent ; from qiiadragesima. 

Cdjftjjm, to forbid, to prohibit, 
to abstain ; c<vj/v;n jreojl ran 
t/*<v;U, abstaining from unsalted 

C<vjftl;m, to beat, to strike, &c. 

Cd;/tneac, stony, saxatilis ; Y&f- 
c<x;^te C<jjftne<xc, is translated 
in the Bible, an asprey, com- 
monly called the King Fisher. 

CvXjjineAc, (SoLja^it) quasi co/to;- 
neac, on ccOfto;n bjor u;m <x 
c;onn, a priest, thus Clery ; but 
the true origin of the word c<x;;t- 
neac is from cann, a heap of 
stones, &c. on which the Druids 
or Pagan priests offered sacri- 
fices to Belus; whence the Ar- 

morics have the word belec, to 
signify a priest. 

C<vj;t/t; j;m, to amend, to correct. 

Cd;^tea;c, or c<xn^<x;cc, a rock, or 
bulwark ; Gr. \apaZ,, vallum ; 
in its oblique cases, ^apajcoe, 
YapoKt, it corresponds with the 
oblique cases of this Irish word, 
to wit, c<x.rt<xjce, or ctyi<vjcce ; 
Wei. karreg, and Cornish car- 

c and 

rocky, full of rocks ; ca/t;t<vjge<x- 
m<xjl, idem : it is pronounced 

a charioteer ; also a 
vctor or conqueror. 
a club. 

C<x;nt, or coj/tt, the bark or rind 
of a tree. From this Celtic word 
the Latin word cortex is visibly 
derived ; and charta, paper, 
seems to be more properly de- 
rived from it than from the Gr. 
\aip(i>, quoniam saltttatrix, or 
the Gr. ^apao-ffw, sculpo, espe- 
cially as it is allowed that the 
ancients wrote upon the bark 
and rind of trees before the in- 
vention of parchment. N. B. 
the Irish word c<x;/tc signifies 
paper, or any piece of writing, or 
a book ; as the Latin liber, pro- 
perly sisnityino: the inward rind 
or bark of a tree, used by the 
ancients instead of paper, for the 
same reason means a book ; and 
as the Gr. /3</3Ao also signifies 
a book, because the Greeks and 
Egyptians anciently wrote upon 
the bark of the Egyptian tree 
biblos, or bublos, which was 
otherwise called papyrus, pa- 

C<x;/tt, a charter, deed, bond, or - 
indenture ; pi. cajpteana ; also 
a card ; pi. cCijtta; j, and plur. 
cfyttaca, deeds, bonds, or in- 

C <f 

Ca;;tt, a rock or stone. 

C<t;;tte, or c<x;;-it, a chariot or 

C<x;/tt-ce<xp, the nave of a cart- 


a waggoner, a carter. 
, to clear out, pack off, or 
cleanse; rectius cd./tta;ro. 

, and gen. cc^e, cheese ; Lat. 

a regard ; nj b jrjl ca;^ <xj<xm 
<xnn, I do not regard it; rectius 
Gal. cas, eodem sensu. 

a cause, a reason ; vid. c-ujy- ; 
Lat. causa. 

or ca;^e, hatred, dislike, 
enmity; Wei. kas, hatred. 

or c<x;^e, love, regard, es- 
teem. It may seem extraordinary 
that any one word could at the 
same time bear two directly op- 
posite significations, such as this 
word doth, according to the 
Irish verse following : c<x;^-e 
m;o/~ccv;^,c<vj^e7-e<x/ic: bo /te;/t 
n<x te<xb<x/t lan-cecijtc ; but there 
are several examples of the kind 
in different languages, even in 
the Hebrew, wherein ttfTp sig- 
nifies both sacred and execrable, 
as does ayiog in Greek, ^>N in 
Hebrew; Lat. altus signifies ei- 
ther high or low, or height and 
depth; and so does altitudo in 
Latin ; as the O altitudo of the 
apostle is the same as O profun- 
ditas. ]N in Heb. means air, 
water, or fire ; *p in Heb. signi- 
fies either convex or concave. 
All ideas as opposite to each 
other as love and hatred. 

txn, hoarseness. 
m, curled hair. 

that hath curled 

, cheese ; Lat. caseus. 

e, a stream of water or other 
fluid ; pi. caipbe ; c<tjpbe p- 
la, streams of blood. 

, a wrinkle. 

, vid. c<x;pot, a bulwark, 
or wall ; any great rock. 

or cajfc, Easter ; corrupte 
pro pa;^c. Gr. Trao-ica, and Lat. 
pascha, and Chal. idem ; a r?DD, 
Heb. i. e. tr audit ; quia an- 
gelus ^Egyptiorumprimogenitos 
occidens, Israelitarum domos 
sanguine agni conspersas et sig- 
natas transivit, illisque peper- 

ajfjol, the foundation of a wall 
or building; also any stone 

ajfjol, or Coij^eal, the town of 
Cashel in the County of Tippe- 
rary, anciently the metropolis of 
Munster, being the regal resi- 
dence of the kings of that pro- 
vince, and the archiepiscopal 
see of its metropolitans. 
ajpot, c;cty~<x;l, i. e. <x;l <xn c;o^-<x, 
a toll-stone, or stone whereon 
tribute was paid. 

an, a castle, garrison, or 
fortress : it seems to be a deriva- 
tive of c<x*eal, or 

, a projector or maker of 

castles or towers. 
Cajf /"teaBact, juggling, or the art 

of legerdemain. 
C<x;/7~;ol<xct, a battlement. 
Ca;c, a sort, or kind. 
Ca;c, where ? whither ? compound- 

ed of C&, what, andtxjt, a place; 

ca;t-<x^*, whence ? 
Ccijte, winnowed; lucb cct/te, win- 

nowers of corn, &c. 
Ca;te<xc and c^ceaj, a sort of 

basket ; also a mat or cloth on 

which corn is winnowed. 
Ca;t:e<xc, chaff, or the winnowing 

of corn. 

expensive ; bujne c<x;- 
c, an expensive, prodigal 


, prodigality. 

j, butter. 
Ca;teteo;;t, a spendthrift, a la- 

vi slier. 
Cajt, chaff 

Ca;t;m, to winnow ; noc too cajt- 
eab, which was winnowed ; cajt- 
jre ta ;ab, thou shalt winnow or 
fan them. 

Ca;t;m, to consume or wear out, to 
eat ; bo ca;tye a Ion, he consum- 
ed his store ; also to fling or cast. 
Cajtpb, it becomes, it behoves ; 
an impersonal verb ; an ccajtjre 
me, must I ? 
Cajtjocb ajmyjfte, a pastime ; 

cajteam <x;mn/ie, idem. 
Ca;tleac, chaft, husks, &c. 
Ca;c/te;m, sway in fight, triumph ; 
vid. ftejm. 

16 and caj 

a;t, triumphant, nctorious. 
Ca;c^e;m;u jab, to triumph, exult, 

"n, shag, villas. PL 
ic and ca^ca^c, a bodkin. 
Cajcre, how ? after what manner ? 
Cal, caleworts or cabbage, cales. 
Cal, sleep or slumbering. 
Cal, to keep safe, to preserve, sur- 
round, or comprehend ; Heb. ^D, 
complex us est. 

Cala, hard; also frugal, thrift}-; 
Wei. kaled, and Ann. kalet, Gr. 


i, a ferry, a harbour, port, or 
haven ; Lat. cola and cale, hence 
Caletum, Calais ; Burdi-cala, or 
Burdigalla, Bourdeaux ; vid. 

, a couch, a bed-place. 

, a college. 

, vi-.L e<xla, a ferry, harbour, 
or passage ; Lat. calfi. 
C<xl<x;m, to sleep ; vid. cot<i)m, 

quod rectius est. 

C<xtb, the head; ex. too ceil!) jte 
clo;c Cftu;toeal<x, your head up- 
on a hard stone ; Lat. calvaria. 
Co.1'6, hardness, &c. 

C<xlb, bald, bald-pated; Lat. cal- 
rus, Chald. pjVp, clecortia: 
and Heb. V^p, tersus, polittis. 
Vid. Ezech. c. 1. v. 7. 
C<xlb<xc, a proper name of man, de- 
rived from c<xlb, bald. 
C<xl5<xctr, a baldness, or bare- 

headedness ; Lat. ca 
C<xlbc<x^-, Lat. cothurnus, a bus- 

C<xlc, or c<Xjlc, chalk or lime ; Lat. 
calx, calcis ; and the Irish c<xjlc 
makes c<x;lce in its genitive. 
Calc<xb and c<xlc<x; jjm, to harden, 
to grow hard; bo c<xlcu;j ye 
n<x cjon, he fastened or hardened 
in his guilt. 

C<xlc<vj jce, hardened, obdurate. 
C<xlcu jab, obduracy, obstinacy. 
C<xlejt, a feny; hence Caletum, 
Calais ; also a harbour, port ; 
vid. cala. 

C<xlj, a sword; rectius colj. 
Calj, a prick or sting. 
Calg<xc, sharp-pointed, prickly ; 
also angry, peevish ; the same as 
C<xl jaojy, cheat ; c<xl j<xo;;-e<xc, a 


C<xll<x, a veil, or hood. 
C<xll<xc, i. e. peaycd^-luc, a bat ; 

Lat. glis, also a boar. 
Callajbe, a partner. 
C<xll<x;n, a town and territory in 
the County of Kilkenny, which 
anciently belonged to the O'Glo- 
hernys, and a tribe of the Cea- 

C<xlla;n, the calends, or first day of 
a month ; C<xlla;n Oelte;ne, the 
Calends of May. 

C<xll<v;fte, i. e. bolly<x;;ie, or fea^i 
jaftma, a crier; Wei. calur, is 
one that cries ; Gr. KoXsa), voco ; 
call in English is of the same 

C<\Ue<X;teact:, a constant calling. 
C<xllan, prating, babbling. 

, the highest mountain of 

Clare, belonging anciently to 
the district of tTo;5 Cco;taroa;e, 
which was the patrimony of the 

Callanac, clamorous, noisy. 

Callo;b, a wrangling noise, an out- 

C alma, brave, valiant; jrea/i calma, 
a brave man. 

Calmact; and calmaj", courage, 

Cam, a duel or combat. 

Cam, crooked; Gr. Ka/nrrw, in- 
curvo ; in barbarous Lat. camus, 
a, urn. 

Cam, deceit, injustice; jrea/i gan 
cam, a just man, a plain dealer. 

Camab, to crooken, make crooked ; 
Gr. KajU7rrw, incur vo,flecto. 

Camajlte, rubbed, from cumajlt, 

Camccyac, bow-legged ; Wei. kam- 
goes, bandy-legged. 

Cameb, how much ? how many ? 

Camac, power. 

Carnal and cama)l, a camel ; Heb. 
^>DJ, the Irish word jamal, a fool, 
a stupid person, is exactly like 
this Heb. VOJ in sound, letters, 
and almost in meaning, because 
the camel is known to be the 
most stupid of beasts. 

Cama6;/i, the first light or appear- 
ance of day ; and is compounded 
of caom, beautiful, and o;/i, the 
east ; _ Lat. oriens. 

Camna;be, a building, or edifice. 

Camloj/ijneac, bow-legged. 

Cam-muga/ilac, club-footed. 

Cammujn, the bird wry-peck. 

Cam6 j, a bay, a turn or winding ; 
Lat. sinus; also a comma in 

Camojac, crooked, curled, wind- 
ing ; also quibbling ; also mean- 
dering as a river ; jrea/t camo- 
gac, a sophister or quibbler. 

C<xm6;, the temples of the head. 

Cannpa, a camp, or encampment. 

C cf 

Cam/i<x, a draught. Matt. 1,5. 17. 

Can, whilst that, when ; Lat. quan- 
do, &c. 

Can, what place ? can a^, from 
what place ? 

Can, pro gan, without ; can cjal, 
senseless, without reason; Lat. 

Can, a lake. 

Can, i. e. tea^ta^t, bad butter. 

Can a, a whelp or puppy; Lat. ca- 

Can a, a moth. 

Canac, standing water. 

Canac, tribute; and cana, the 
same, is like the Heb. tt'JD, col- 
legit, congregavit. 

Canac, cotton, bombast. 

Canab and cana;m, to sing; ex. 
bo can ;~e, he sung ; Lat. cano. 

Can a; 6, hemp ; Gr. and Lat. KU- 

Cana; je, dirt, filth, &c. 

Canba^*, canvas. * 

Canmu;n, pronunciation, accent ; 
also an epithet. 

Canmajn, a dialect. 

Canna, moths; otherwise called 
eu jrjonna. 

Canojn, a rule or canon ; Gr. ica- 
viov, regula ; canun, idem. 

Cann^an, to mutter or grumble : it 
is of the same force with the 
French word bonder. 

Canta, a lake, or puddle. 

Cantraj jea^i, an accent. PL 

Canta;l, auction, or a cant. A; 

Canta;;ieact, a singing by note, 
or in chorus ; Lat. cantare. 

Cantala;m, to sell by auction. 

Cantac, dirty, filthy. 

Cantaojft, a press ; cantao;;i JTJO- 
na, a wine-press. 

Cante, as c/tann cante, the quince- 
tree ; ubet cante, the fruit there- 

Cant;;c, a song, or canticle. X 

Canu/i, and caona/1, cotton, 

Caob, a clod. 

C <f 

a prson. 
C<xol5, a bough, a branch. 
Caoc, blind ; Lat. CCPCUS ; vid. caec. , 
and c<xoc<x;m, to blind, also j 
to blast; ex. to;t<xb na p;ne- | 
<xmn<x <x/t na cccioca, the fruit of ' 
the vineyard blasted. 

or c<xojc;b;o^-, a fort- 
night, or fourteenth night. 
Caobe, how ? 

, to come. 

a, or c<xo<xb, fifty ; ex. cu;j 
be;c t;t) caorab cnjoctr, an 
hundred and fitty foot soldiers. 
C<XOj, a visitation, a visit. 
C<xo;, lamentation, mourning. 
OlOjce, blindness. 

z C<x6;m, to lament, to grieve, or 
mourn : commonly written c<xo;- 
bjm; bo c<xo; mjfe 50 noo/t, I 
lamented .Grievously. 
, from cuol, small. 
, the waist ; <x cc;mpc;ol a. 
c<xo;l, about his loins. 
C<xo;le, smallness. 
Cu.o;lle, land. 

^<T<i6;iT}, gentle, mild, clean; from 
caom : hence the family-name 
0'C<xo;m, or the O'Keeftes ; 
\Vel. ky is dear or well-beloved. 
cu.^, socieh". 

;ci;c:, a buckler, a shield; 
also a scutcheon, scutum. 
C<xo;mreac, strange ; also a stran- 


C<x6;tT)tecvc<x^, strangeness. 
Caojmteactr, a county. 
C<xojm;n, the murrain, a noxious 
distemper of the same nature 
among cattle, especially kine and 
oxen, with the plague among 
C<xo;n, gentle, mild, sweet-tem- 


Caojne, the Irish lamentation or 
cry for the dead, according to 
certain loud and mournful notes 
and verses, wherein the pedi- 
sive. laud property, generosity, 

and good actions of the deceased 
person and his ancestors are di- 
ligently and harmoniously re- 
counted, in order to excite pity 
and compassion in the hearers, 
and to make them sensible of 
their .great loss in the death of 
the person whom they lament. 
Aofc, this Irish word, written by 
our late grammarians c<xo;ne, 
but anciently and properly cjne, 
is almost equal in letters and 
pronounciation to the Hebrew 
word nJ'p, which signifies lamen- 
mentation, dr crying, with clap- 
ping of hands, lamentatio,planc- 
tus, ploratus ; vid. 2 Sam. 1. v. 
17., and in its pi. C3'3'p, lamt'ii- 
fationes, vid. Ez. 2. iO; Wei. 
kuyn is a complaint. 

C<vo;nte<xc, stubbles, or stalks of 
corn left in the field by the reap- 
er; vid. c<xoj;tle. 

C<xojn;m, potius c;n;m, to lament 
with clapping of hands and other 
formalities; bo c<xo;r>, or cjnr-; 
<x bdr, she lamented his death ; 
Heb. pp, lamentatus est. Vid. 
Hcnricus Opitius's Lexicon ; 
bo cjn, lamentatus est. 

C<xo;n-but;t<xct-, devotion; caon- 
ct:, id. 

a garrson. 

C<xoj|t-c;nnt:)je, a thunderbolt ; 
from cao;t and c;nnt; je, fiery, 

c, bearing berries. 

C<xo;/t<x, a sheep. 

C<xo;;te, sheep; also a sheep; and 
more properly written c;/te, has 
a natural affinity with the Greek 
verb K<po>, to shear sheep, &c. 

C<xojftle, a club, also a reed ; dim. 
caojfiljn. queere an hinc c<xo;^t- 
lecxc, rather than c<xo;nle<xc 
stubbles or stalks of corn left in 
the field by the reaper. 

C<x6jy, a furrow. 

Cao;r*, sometimes written for 


a young pig ; vid. ce 
<xol, slender, small. 

C<vot, a calling. 

Caolam, to lessen, to make slen- 

C<*ol<x;r>, the small guts; Gr. ^o- 
Aa, signifies the bowels or inte- 
rior parts of either man or beast, 
l- jotac, shrill. 

t, an apparitor. 

C<xom, gentle, mild, handsome. 

Cuom, little, small. 

CAOITXX, skill, knowledge ; also no- 
bility; ex. a caoma u;le cla^i 
cajnn, all ye nobles of Leath- 

CuorT)a;m, to keep or preserve ; 
also to spare ; caomujn fjnn <x 
Cb;<v/ma, protect us, O Lord ; 
fljo/i caomujn <x mjUeab, he 
spared not their destruction ; 
vid. c<xomrxx;nr). 

Caoman, the diminut. of c<i6m ; it 
is the proper name of many great 
men amongst the old Irish, par- 
ticularly of one of the princes of 
Leinster, from whom are de- 
scended the O'Cavanachs. 

C&omba, poetry, versification. 

C<x6ir)-loj7~e, i. e. caomla^/i, a 
moderate fire, or small blaze. 

C<xomn<x, a friend. 

C<xomoa, protection, defence. 

C<\6fT)fl<xc<x, to be able ; tr<x;n;j 
mo/t <xnr>, go na caom- 
netxc a jreacu.b, L. B. 
there appeared such a blaze of 
light that the earth was not able 
to bear it long, and that no 
body's eyes could bear to look 
at it. 

aomrKXjm, to keep, defend, pro- 
tect, or maintain ; also to spare ; 
bo c<xomn<xb beajun, a few were 
saved or spared. Note that this 
verb caomn<vjm, and the above 
c<xom<x;m, are one and the same 
verb, being distinguished only 
by one letter, and always bear- 

ing the same different senses. 

C<xomnci;be, a companion, a bed- 

C<xoifit<x, society, or association. 

Caon)t<xc, an associate, comrade. 

Caom-teactr, i. e. co;mbe<xct:, a 
company; hence be<xnc<xo;mbe- 
<xct<x, a waiting-maid, or woman 

C<x5tD-n<x^cx/i, defence. 

Cixom-^<x;beo;/t, a rehearser. 

C<xon<x;m, to resemble. 

Caon<i;m, to hide or conceal. 

C<xon-bu)be, gratitude. 

Coion -but/met:, devotion; also fide- 

C<xon<xc, moss. 

CdOntd, private, hid, secret. 

C<xo/i, a sheep; pi. c<xo;/ie; Gr. 
Kptog, aries. 

C<XO;i, a berry; also a cluster of 
grapes or other fruit ; tu<xba/t 
a ttft;op<x;ll c<xo/-i<x <xpu; je u<x- 
t<\, their bunches bore ripe ber- 
ries.^ Gen. 40. v. 10. 

CAO/KX, uvfs, vel botri, the grains 
of raisins whilst on the vine or 
bunch, clusters, &c. 

Ctf.o/1, a flash of light, or flame; 
c<xo/\ tjntjie, a thunderbolt. 

n, a sheep-fold ; Brit, cor- 
lan, ovile. 

;n, the quicken-tree ; cu&;l- 
le c<xo/it<x;n, stakes of quick 
beam; S. Wei. her din ; hence 
b/tu;ge<xn cao/it<i;r>, an enchant- 
ed castle built all with quick- 
beam. Vid. Memoire de M. de 
C. Journal des Savans, 1764. 

C<xoc/tuab, mildew. 

Cap, a cart, 

C<xpa and Cflpcxn, a cup. 

C<xpdU, a horse; Gr. KajSaXAr/c,^ 
and Lat. cobnllus. In sonn v 
parts of Ireland capall is used 
to signify also a mare ; Wei. 
kephylf diinin. c<xpu;ll;n. 
, to renounce, disown. 
, brittle, smart. 

c a 

ap, care. 

C<x/ta, a leg, a haunch ; 

mu;ce, a gammon of bacon. 
- Ca.'ux, a friend, or dear person ; 
Lat. char us, and Gr. y^apiug, 
gratiosus ; plur. caj/ibe ; as, 
coj^be bjonjroald., near or trusty 
friends; co.;i<xb and c<x;?t;b lias 
the same signification; rid. c<vj ji- 
be. In tlie Welsh it is kar. 

G\it<xb<\c, well-befriended, power- 
ful in friends and allies. 

C<Xft<xb<x;m, to befriend. 

, alliance, friendship. 
or cfytab, a friend ; vid. 

ct, a debate, or dispute, 
a struggling. 

C<Xfta;je<x;-, Lent; Lat. quadra- 

gesinia ; 
C<x;td;no, to love, to affect ; ca/t, 

love thou; bo ca;t<x^, I have 

loved : in the Wei. kerai-s, I 

have loved ; kar a and kar, love 


, baggage, carriage. 
, the crown of the head. 
Ct\rib, a basket ; Germ, horb, and 

oeig. korf. 
- Can:, a chariot, or litter. 

, a coach, waggon, chariot, 

or bier ; hence c<x^bo.boj/t, a 

coachman ; also a coachmaker ; 

Wei. kerbyd. 

, the jaw ; pacla c<x/tba;b, 

the cheek-teeth. Query if it be 

not rather combat. 
Ca/tb<xl, the palate of the mouth ; 

<x U\;t <x canbtxjl, or c<x,H<xoa;l, in 

the midst of his palate. 
Canb, a ship. 
Ctt/tbanac, the master of a ship, a 

captain of a ship. 
C<x/t-bob<x;j, clowns. 
C<X;tbu, intemperance, extravagant 

feasting, &c. ; ex. b;u jo. jac'a 

ce;nbe an co.ftbu^, intemperance 

is the worst of all bad habits. 

This word is of the same root 

with the Iris 
CcXnca/t and ca.fica;ft, a prlsjn. A 

gaol ; Lat. career. 
C<i;tco.;i, a coffer ; Lat. area. 
Canb<x, or ca; ( nb;o^* cnjo^r. a ^ 


Ca/tbci;^, to set or lay. 
C<Xrtb;m, to send. 
Cfyttam, excellent. 
Cti'tmdn, the ancient name of Wex- 

ford, now called in Irish ioc- 

Ccx>t-iT)Oj<xl, a carbuncle. 
a province. 

a heap or pile of stone-. 
wood, or any other thing ; ca/tn 
<xo;tjj, a dunghill, and com- 
monly called cdfuxxojle ; cfyto- 
ajl, a heap of stones ; c<irin-a;l 
cujnn, i. e. ca/tn-cloc cu;.on. 
It is remarkable that on the 
summits of most of the hills and 
mountains of Ireland, the earns 
or piles of stones on which the 
Druids offered their sacrifii 
are still to be seen, even at a 
considerable distance. It wa.s on 
those earns the Druids lighted 
their solemn fires in honour of 
Belus, on May -day, which \\o 
still call ICx Oe;t-te;ne, as above 

<!<x;tn<x, flesh ; Lat. carnis, carni, 
of caro. 

c, a heathenish priest : 
called from the earns or stone- 
piles on which they offered sa- 

C<Xftno.b, riddance. 

C<x^na;m, to pile, or heap up; 
hence the participle ca;<nt<v, 
heaped up, or piled. 

n, dimin. of c<x/tn, a heap. 
and c<X;t^a, a cart, or drag;- 
Gr. Kappuv, and Lat. carri'nt. 

C<x/t;t, a spear. 

C<x/t^a and c<xn;a\jbe, the scald, 
or scald head, a scabby distem- 
per that settles in the skin of the 

head, is exceeding sore, and hard 
to cure ; Gr. Kapw, i'ut. 2 of KH- 
pv, scindo, and Chald. rnp, 
cegrotum csse; as ca/t/iajbe t;- 
;t;m, is a dry scald. Lev. 13. 

Ca^ia, bran. 

Ca/i/iac, stony or rocky. 
> Ca/i/iajg, a great stone pitched on 
the end ; Wei. karreg. 

Caftan, a weed. 

Ca/i/ian, a reaping-hook. 

Ca/i;-u jab, punishment. 

Ca/tt, or co/it, the bark or rind of 
a tree; Lat. cortex; vid. caj/\t 
and cojfic, idem. 

Ca/itac, made of bark. 

Ca/itac, a cart-load. 

Ca/ttaca, deeds, charters. 

Ca/itanac, charitable. 

Ca fit anactr, charity, brotherly love. 

Ca/itojt, devout. 

Cay, money, or cash. 

Cay, fear ; also a case, accident. 

Cap, the hair of the head. 

Cay, wreathed or twisted. 

Cay, gu;t cay ye a;/t, that he met 
him ; bo cay ye, he went back. 

Cay, passionate, in haste ; a ng^y? 

Cayac, an ascent. 

Cayacbac, a coughing. 

C<xy<xcb<xj je, the herla colt's-foot. 
bay, a cough. 

and c<xy<x;m, to bend, wind, 

, a bending, winding, twist- 
ing, spinning, &c. ; also a wrin- 
kle ; gan c<xy<xb -)n eaban, witli- 
out a wrinkle in his face ; r<xn 
cay<xb b;onyu;be Jo/tuajb, with- 
out returning to Herod. 

C<xy<vjb, a cause or action, a pro- 
v Ct\ya;n, patlis. 

C<XyaJ/t,a kind of glimmering light 
or brightness issuing from cer- 
tain pieces of old rotten timber 
when carried to a dark place : 

it is commonly called tejne 

/i, a thorn or prickle, a 

C<xr<xiti, a shower ; Wai. keser, 

, to wind or turn ; vid. ca- 

C<xy<xno, to scorn, to slight, or dis- 

, a path ; also a thorn. 
t and c<xy<x^i<xc, slaughter, 
havoc, carnage : has a close affi- 
nity with the Heb. Titfp, caro, 
flesh. Vid. Opitius's Lexic. 
C<xy<xo;b, a complaint, accusation, 
a smart or severe remonstrance. 
C<xy<xo;b;no, to complain; <xj c<x- 
om, remonstrating to me. 
\, a path. 

c, free. 

lightning, a flame or 
flash of fire. 

Cayba;/inecxc, a kind of small shell- 
fish called periwinkle, otherwise 
called bctjftneac. 

, a drinking-cup. 
and c<vyta, wrapped ; also 
twisted, braided. 
blao;, curl-haired. 
l<x and c<xylo, frizzled wool. 
Cc\/~l<xc, children. 

c, havoc ; vid. c<xy<x/i. 
l, a storm. 

, chaste, undefiled. Old Par. X 
Lat. castus. 

C<xyteo.;tban, or c<x;yea/tban, suc- 
cory; Lat. sichorium; caytea;t- 
ban na muc, dandelion; Lat. 

Cayto/i, a curled lock. 
C<xy-u/ita, a curled lock. 
C<xc, pro cab, what '.' an interroga- 


Cat, a cat ; Gr. Vulg. KUTIQ, ya- ' 
roc, Kara; Lat. COtUS f It. and 
Hisp. gato;; Bel. kaf- 
te; Russ. /i'o^,- Arm. to,- Wei. 
and Cor. kath; and in the Tur- 

c e 

kish language, keti. 
, generosity. 

, to honour, revere, or 

Car, a fi^ht, pitched battle ; also 
an Irish battalion or regiment 
consisting of three thousand men ; 
hence the Lat. caterva ; Wei. 
C<Kt6b and catam, to winnow ; <xj 

catab, vrimowing ; rid. cajt. 
Co.ta.jab, or catujab, tempta- 

, to wear; ex. cacajb no. 
no. cloca, the waters 
wear out the stones ; vid. ca;- 

Catajjjm, to battle, to fight; also 
to prove or try. 

ri, pronounced Ca.b;/t, a town 
or city ; plur. car/tacu, and in 
its inflections c<j.r : rt<xj j ; Brit. 
/'Y/P/V Scythice, e<7r/ Antiq. 
Saxon, caerten ; Goth, gards ; 
Cantab, caria ; Bret, her ; Heb. 
mp ; Phoen. and Pun. kartha ; 
Chaldaice, kartha ; and Syriace. 
karitita ; Grsece -^opaK. N. B. 
Malec-karthus, or Mel-karthus, 
i. e. king of the city, was an ap- 
pellative of the Phoenician Her- 
cules, said to be the founder of 
the city of Tyre. 

Cat&jf, a guard, or sentinel ; ex. 
]\Q b; boj't^eofteact; bizb-/to;y- 
<xn /to-cdra;^, their watch-guards 
or sentinels guarded the passes 
of the gloomy wood ; rid. c<x;t- 

, brave, stout, clever ; 
car<x;^-eo.c, a brave able 

ac<xm, to winnow ; ri/7. ca;c. 
xcaOjK, a chair; catao^n 
pu;c, a bishop's see; Lat. ca- 

and c<xca/tb<xc, a citizen ; 
pi. cat<xjtb<xjj ; bo cu<xb<X;t ca- 
an bajle ; cc6ma;;tle, 

consilium inirerunt cii-es. Au- 
tiq. Membran. 

Cdt-bd;t;i, a helmet. 

Cdt-bd/t/tun, a commander or offi- 
cer in an army ; ex. jb;n cn;0ct 
dju^ cdc-bd/i/iun, both soldiers 
and officers. 

Cdt-j:;>t, warriors. 

Cdtjrjb, rid. cd;tj:Jb, ye must ; 
cdjtjre ire, I must. 

Cdt-ldbd;/t, or cdt-tdb/id, a mili- 
tary speech, or harangue of a 
general to his army before a 

Cdc-mjledb, colonels or officers of 

Cdtoljce, Catholic ; dn c^dbdb 
Cdto;l;ce, the Catholic reli- 

Cdjt/tuj jteoj^i, a citizen. 

Cdtu jdb, fighting, rebelling, also 
temptation; bo cdtujj fe, he 
fought or rebelled ; ^-do/t fjn o 
cdtu jdb, deliver us from temp- 

Ce, the earth ; Gr. yj ; hence geo- 

Ce, night. 

Ce, a spouse, 

Cede, each, even- : in old parch- 
ments written for jdc, qd. vid. 

Cedcdjnj and bo-cjnj, or bOce;m- 
n; j, hard to march or travel in, 

Ceded; /i, dirth, filth ; also penury. 

Cedcd;tbd, or cedcd^bdc, dirty, 
stingy, penurious. 

Cedcd/tbdctr, penun-. misen,-, stin- 

i, each, any, either ; ceac- 
bjob, any of them; vid. 

Ceaclajm, to dig ; /to ceaclaba/t, 

they dug. 
Ceoctob and ce<xclci;m, to hackle, 

destroy, violate. 

Cecxco;/i, a wetting, or moistenin<:. 
Ceact, a lesson ; rectius leacc ; 

Lat. lectio; hence <x;cleact, a 

c e 

C C 


Ceact, power. 

Ceacta, a plough, a ploughshare ; 
hence camceacta, the seven stars 
that roll about the pole : so 
called in Irish because they lie 
in a position which resembles a 

Ceacta/t, either, any, each; also 
of two ; Lat. liter, utervis. 

Ce<xb, leave, permission, license. 

Ceab, an hundred : anciently writ- 
ten ceat, and pronounced eceat 
or aceab ; Gr. CKOTOV, centum. 

Ceab, the first. 

Ceabac, cloth. 

Ceabac, talkative. 

Ceabaj j, a sitting or session. 

Ceaba; j;m, to permit, or give con- 
sent ; also to dismiss or dis- 

Ceabal, a narrative or story; N. 
Wei. chuedel. 

Ceabal, malicious invention; de- 
traction, deceit ; gan cam jan 
ceabal, without injustice or de- 
ceit; also a conflict, battle, or 

Ceabamap in the first place, first 
of all ; imprimis. 

Ceab-ao;n, Wednesday: a corrup- 
tion of (Dja-^ueben ; vid. b;a ; 
Ceab-ao;n a Lutvjt/ie, Ash- 

Ceabj:ab, an opinion, thought, or 

Ceabjrab co/rpo;iba, the senses. 

Ceabpa;gea^~, beastliness, sensua- 

Ceabal, blistered, full of sores. 

Ceablajm, to blister. 

Cea-b/ugbeact, geomancy, a sort 
of divination by means of small 
points made on paper at ran- 
dom, and by considering the va- 
rious figures which lines drawn 
from these points represent, a 
ridiculous judgment is formed, 
and the future success of an ac- 

tiqn is declared. 

Ceabna, sameness, identity; 

ceabna, and in like manner; 

ma/i an cceabna, also, likewise. 

Ceab-nabba/t, an element ; so call- 

ed from its being the first or 

primary ingredient in corporeal 


Ceab-tom<x;ltr, a breakfast. 
Ceab-tujj-meab, the firstling. 
Ceab-tu^j an element, a begin- 


Ce<xb-ucx;^, at first, the first time. 
Ceabu j<xb, a permission. 
Ceabu; jtreac, allowable, lawful. 
Ceal, use ; also forgetfulness ; ta/t 

ceal, out of mind. 
Ceal, concealing; Lat. celo; vid. 

ce;l and ce;lt infra. 
Ceal, heaven ; Lat. ccelum; Gall. 


Ceal, death. 
Ceal-aj/im, a hiding-place, a place 

of refuge. 
Cealam, to eat. 
Ceal-jruat, a private grudge or 

Cealj, treachery, conspiracy; a 

cce;lj, in insidiis, in ambush. 
Cealj, a sting or prickle; alilcr 


Cealj, deceit, malice, spite. 
Cealgac, malicious, spiteful. 
Cealga;be, more spiteful, more 


Cealgajm, to lie in ambush, to en- 
snare; ma cealjan bu;ne, if a 
man ensnare ; also to sting ; bo 
cealjab pyf an mac-caom, the 
youth was stung by it; also to 
allure, entice, spur on, or pro- 
voke to do a thing ; also to se- 
duce or turn a subject from his 
duty to his prince by bribery or 
promises of great consequence ; 
rid. Ca;t/te;m Cl?o;;tbeal ; ;to 
cealg fe O'Concuba;^ ^uf 
O'Loclujnn ta/tceann ba Cljo/t- 
catn/tuab: he (Turlogh) seduced 

c e 

O'Conor and O'Loghlin from 
their allegiance and adherence 
to their prince, Donogh, son of 
Brien Ruadh, by promising them 
the two districts called the Two 
Cealgajne, a cheat, a knave. 

a cheating ; also 

tricks or pranks. 

Ce<xlg<xonab, dissimulation. 

Ceall, a church ; and in its in- 
flexions cjll, plur. ce<xtl<x ; Lat. 
rella : for the word ceatl doth 
properly signify a cell, or her- 
mit's cave, though now com- 
monly used to signify a church ; 
hence ceall-pOftt: means a ca- 
thedral church ; rid. ce<vll-pOftt 

Ceall<x,(0'Ce<xlld,) the family name 
of the O'Kellys, whose chiefs were 
dynasts or lords of the country 
called U<x 03U;ne, or J ClOajne, 
in Connaught. Other chiefs of 
the same name, O'Kelly, but of 
different stocks, are mentioned 
in the Topographical Poems of 
O'Dubhagain and Mac Feargail, 
as toparchs of different territo- 
ries both in Leinster and Ulster. 
rid. Cambrensis Eversus, from 
p. 2G ro p. 29. 

CexU<xc, the proper name of seve- 
ral great men of the old Irish : 
Ceallac GQac <fob, (Dae GOcxojt- 
J0f&, was the name of a holy 
archbishop of Armagh, an. 1106, j 
who died at Ardpatrick in the 
County of Limerick, and was 
buried* at Lismore in 1 129. 

Ce<xlt<x<&n, (O'Ce<xtlacci;n,) the j 
family name of the O'Callaghans, 
descended from Ceall<vctf.n-C<x;- 
fjl, king of Munster, an. 936 : 
they were dynasts of the count ry 
called pobul J Che<;n, iii 
the County of Cork, until Crom- 
well's time. 

Ceatlac, war, debate, strife. 

C C 

Ceallab, custody. 

Ce<xUo;;t, muck, dung. 

Ceallojft, the superior of a cell or 
monastery ; ex. nj ceo.116)^ na 
yub-ce<xllo;/t tu, you are neither 
superior nor vicar. 

Ceal-mujn, an oracle, or prophecy, 
whether good or bad : probably 
compounded of ceall and mu- 
ncvb, instruction, admonishment ; 
Lat. moneo ; because the Pagan 
oracles were delivered from cells 
or grottoes. 

Ceall-pOftt, a cathedral church, or 
an episcopal see. 

Ceat-^rol, a close-stool. 

Cetvle, apparel, raiment, clothes ; 

Cealcaj/t, the same ; cealrcvjn 
b;tu;beactra, a magic dress. 

Cealc<xc, a Celt, or Gaul. 

Ce<xlt<vj/t, a cause or matter. 

Ce<xlc<x;;t, a castle, a fine seat. 

Cealta.jft, a spear, a lance. 

Cealt-iriu;leojft, a fuller. 

Cean, anciently written for gan, 
without; Ga\L sans ; Lat. > /'//-,- 
ex. cean n;m, cean m<x;c;m, sine 
felle, sine rela.mtione, vel inte- 
rn) ssi one. Vid. Infra in \*erbo 

Cean, or cjon, a debt, a fault, 
transgression, or crime ; plur. 
ceantxx, or c;ont<x ; as, mojt 
bujnn a^i cc;onta, dimitte nobis 
debita nostra. 

Ce<in(X, alike, the same ; <xn re<X;t 
cean<\., the same person; no<x/t 
<xn ccecina, in like manner. 

Cea.ji<x, even, lo, behold. 

Ceana, already ; <xcc cecwa, ne- 
vertheless, howbeit. 

Ceo.n<x, favour, affection ; the ge- 
nitive of ce<xn, love, respect, 

Ce<UKXc, buying; also a reward; 
a covenant. 

Ce<xn<x;j;m, to buy; rid. 

c e 

c e 

Ce<xn<vj/i, a hundred. 
Cean<MT)0t;t, fond, beloved ; 50 ce- 
<xn<xmajl, fondly, much esteemed. 
white, or bald-faced ; 

Cean<xnn<3y, a remarkable town of 
the County of Meath, now called 
Kells, where a national council 
of the clergy of Ireland was held 
towards the year 1152; in which 
council Cardinal Papyron gave 
the first pallia to the four arch- 
bishops of Armagh, Cashel, Dub- 
lin, and Tuam, and also another 
remarkable town near Kilkenny. 

Cear>-bu/i3<x;/ie, the head of a 
burgh, a burgo-master. 

Cecxn-caom, a pair of tables to play 

Ce<xn-co.t<X)/t, a metropolis. 

Ce<xn-co/i<i, the royal residence of 
the great Brien Boirbhe, king of 
Ireland, near Killaloe, in the 
County of Clare, otherwise call- 
ed Oajle <xn Oo/umia, whence 
sprung the stream called itt no. 
Ooj/tbe ; from hence he had the 
surname of Brian-J3oirbhe, or 

Cecxn-ckuxn, steep, headlong, &c. 

Cecinbo., id. qd. cearxx.;, identity, likeness. 

Ceanba^l, lice. 

Cean-bcuicv, headstrong, impudent. 

Cean-ponan, white-headed. 

Cean-pne, the head or chief re- 
presentative of a tribe or family. 

Ceangojl, a band ; Lat. cingu- 

Cear)5<x;lte, tied, bound. 

Ceanjal, a restraint; a bond or 
covenant, a league ; also a bunch, 
as of grapes. 

Cean-j<x/tb, rough, rugged. 

Ceanjlajro, to bind, to join ; ceoui- 
jola tu, tliou shalt tie up ; ;to 
ceanjlab <xn nao;, the infant 
was swaddled. 

Ce<xnn, the head ; also the upper 

part in building, &c. ; also an 
end or limit ; as, ce<xnn-t;/te, a 
headland, or a promontory ; na 
cean ^-o, moreover ; ce<xnn- 
|:eoibn<X, a captain, a demagogue : 
in its genitive case it makes cjnn ; 
as, bat<ty~ mo cjnn, the crown of 
my head; hence the English 
king, being the head of his peo- 
ple or subjects. Vid. Luyd's 
British Etymol. p. 279. col. 3. 
The kan of the Tartarians and 
other Asiatic nations is of the 
same radical origin with the 
Irish ce<xr>. 

Ceanrxxc, a buying or purchasing. 

Ce<xnn<xc, a leward, or retribution. 

Ceanrxxc, i. e. conji<\, a covenant, 
or league, 

Ceann-oict/iAc, the upper part of 
the throat. 

Ce<xnn-<xb<x;/-it, a bolster; ex. K\ 
c<vjfit <x ceoinn-<xb<X)/tt:, his bols- 
ter was a stone or rock ; speaking 
of St. Patrick's self-mortification ; 
vid. <xb<Xrtt. 

Ce<xnr>ojbe, a merchant; also any 
dealing or trafficking person ; 
pi. ce<xnn<vj jce. 

Ce<xnnci;je<xct:, merchandizing, 
trafficking, trading ; trj/t cean- 
nu; jeact<x, a trading land. 

Ceanncij j)no, to buy, or purchase. 

Ce<xrxvj;tc, insurrection Mark 15. 

Ce<xnn<x/-, authority, power. 

Ceoinna^c, powerful, mighty. 

Ce<xnn/i<xc, a fillet ; also a halter, 
or a horse-collar. 

Ce<xnn-fte;bt:;c, propitiation, mer- 

c y- 

Ce<xnn/-<x, mild, gentle*>/-act, lenity, mildness. 

Ceannfat, they went. 

Ce<xnn^ci; j;m and ceann^u j<xb, to 
appease, to mitigate. 

Cear>n/*oit<vjbe, a president or go- 

CeAnn-/~a;le, the town now called 

c c 

c e 

Kinsale, in the south of the 
County of Cork, at the mouth 
of the river Banclon, famous for 
an excellent harbour, and pro- 
tected by a strong fort, called 

Cea/intafi, a canthred, the side of 
a country ; Wei. kant, an hun- 

Ceann-t;/i, a headland, a promon- 

Cean/i-t;tom, sluggish, heavy, drow- 

Ceannuajj-jneac, rash, thought- 
less, precipitate. 

Ceap, a block, or stocks; ceap- 
tajfle:, a stumbling block ; 
\\nnfnA c;p, or anryoa ceapajb, 
in the stocks. 
Ceap, a head ; Lat. caput. 

Ceap, the head or stock of a tribe 
or family ; ex. ceap na Cftaojbe 
665 an, Eugene is the stock of 
the branch. 

Ceapacujnn, the town of Cappo- 
quin, in the County of Water- 
ford, on the bank of the Black- 
water, to which place it is na- 
vigable from Youghal. 

Ceapan, a stiimp. 

Ceapanta, niggardly ; also stiff 
and wrong-headed. 

Ceap-^ao;l;m, to propagate. 

Ceajt, offspring, or progeny. 

Cea^t and ceana, blood ; also red, 
ruddy ; Wei. guyar, like the 
English gore. 

Cea/iacab, wandering, or straying. 

Ceanb, money, silver. 

Ceartb, a cutting, or slaughtering, 
havoc, or massacre; hence the 
name of Xx;ne-cea>tb, an Iri-h 
prince of the Eugenian race. 

Cea/tb, a rag. 

Ceafibac, ragged. 

Cea/ib-cnajb, a severe reflection. 

Cefytball, massacre, carnage. 

Ceanc, a hen; cea/tc p/ianncac, 
a turkey-hen, or more properlv 

cea/tc j/ibjdc, an indian-hen ; 
plur. cea/tca and c;/tc. 

Cea/tcatl, a hoop; Lat. circuli/s. 

Cea/icall, a block, like that of a 

Cea/tcatl, a bed, or bolster. 

Cea/tc-loj, a hen-roost. 

Ceanc-man^tac, a pen or coup, 
wherein poultry are fed. 

Cea/tb, an artist or mechanic ; also 
an art or trade; ced^b some- 
times signifies a tinker or refiner ; 
ceanb-o;n, a goldsmith ; cea/tba, 
or cea/tbca fro jlomca, ingenious 
or skilful artists : in its inflexions 
of the singular number it forms 
ce;nb and ce;tbe, and in tlu- 
plur. ceanbca andceaftba. This 
Irish word cea/ib, edgnifyinff a 
tinker, a man in any base or lo'.v 
employ, is like the Latin cerdo, 
which means a cobbler, a currier, 
a tanner, a tinker, a smith, or 
like artisan, that uses a base 
trade for gain ; and it is not un- 
like the Gr. iceoSoc, which sig- 
nifies gain, profit, lucre ; and 
hence it is that the Greeks call 
the fox icepStu, from his ingenuity 
and artfulness to provide for 
himself; cea/tb is any art, trade, 
or profession; ex. j\<xc na njt- 
cea/tb nea^amujt, a place of all 
sorts of trades; and pea;t ;lce- 
a/tbac, Jack of all trades ; Wei, 
kertlh, a trade. 

Cea;tba; je, a tradesman, or artist ; 
plur. cea/tbaj jte. 

Cea/tbactr, a low or base trade: 
as above in cea/tb. 

Ceaftbamajl, ingenious, artificial ; 

Cea^bamlacc, a being ingenious. 

Ceanbca, a shop, a forge: in its 
inflexions ceanbca;n, pronounc- 
ed cea/tbu;n, &c. 

Cea;mcu;t, a grave. 

Cea/tma, the old name of Wick- 
low, a town and county in the 


c e 

c e 

province of Leinster; (Dun Ce- 
<X;tirw, the town of Wicklow. 

)a,(Dun-Ce<Xrtmncv, now call- 
ed the Old Head of Kinsale, a 
famous promontory in the south 
of the County of Cork. 

jay, a lie, invention, or 

a man. 
Ce<x/in, a victory. 
Ceciftn, expense. 
Cea/ma, a comer. 
Cecxjmaban, a hornet. 
Ce<Xjin<xc, four-square ; 

put for 

victorious ; hence the 
famous champion Con alt Cea/t- 
nac had his surname of Cea/t- 

:, a trophy of victory, 
a prize given in any 
game of activity, as running, 
wrestling, &c. 
Ceafin-luac, the same as cea/in- 

and ceaftdb, to kill, to 
slaughter, or destroy; also to 

die or perish ; bo cean ye, he 
j - i ' 


bac, spoil. 

bac, a gamester at cards, 
dice, and such other games, 
sapt/ibacdy, a gaming at cards, 

:an, a skiret. 
Cea/it, just, right, true ; genit. 

c^nt ; Lat. certvs. 
Cea/tt, a subst., justice, right, equi- 
ty; genit. c;/it; cea/ic-be;/ite, 

and cej/tteac, a rag, old 
garment, or piece of old cloth. 
;, little, small ; cea/it: a loc- 

:a;j;m and cea^t:uj<xb, to 
pare or shave; also to dress, 
prepare, or put in order ; also to 
correct or chastise. 
Cea/it<xjjteo;/i, a corrector, a re- 

gulator, &c. 

, to cut or prune. 
>, a house of correction. 
t, the centre, or middle 

Cea/itu j<ib, a correction or chas- 

, obscurity, darkness. 
, irksomeness. 
, grief, sorrow, sadness. 
i. e. oib conc<x^~, I saw. 
, punishment, suffering ; 

Ce<xyb<x, or ce<x^"t<x, punished, put 
to death; <xo;ne <xn ce<xrt<x, 
Good Friday, on which Christ 
suffered death. 

c, finding fault with, a 
grumbling; also a curse; ex. 
mo ce<xp3.ct <xj;i, my curse upon 

ct, an excuse or apology. 
ctac, grumbling, dissatis- 
fied ; also giving excuses. 
Ce<x^<xb, a passion or suffering ; ex. 
ce<xpxb &/t ttj<x/in<x, the passion 
of our Lord. 

Ce<x^-<nb and ce<x^a;m, to vex, to 
torment, to crucify, &c. ; bo cea- 
f&i) <i/i <xn ccpojf, that suffered 
or was tortured on the cross. 
Ceo.^-<xboj;t, a tormentor. 
Cea^b ana ce;yb, a question, an 
enigma; plur. ceoyban, doubts 
or queries. 

, to ask or inquire about. 
, an oar. 

c, the coarse wool on the 
legs, tail, and hinder parts of 

, a great want or necessity. 
e<xpitx;jeact and ce<ty-r>a;j;l, 
complaint, anxiety. 
ecty-na;j;ro and ceoynti<xb, to 
inquire, to be anxious, or solici- 
tous ; also to expostulate, to 

or cetxrxx te<xc, com- 

c e 

c e 

plaining, sad, necessitous; ^o 

ceap7d;jjte<xc c;t;te<j.;z;la.c, in 

fear and necessity. 
Ce&fcaj j;m, to amend, to correct, 

or chastise. 

Ce<x/tran<xc, a tormentor. 
Ceat, to sing, or celebrate ; ex. /to 

ceac Decui&n m<i;t lecinna^, 

Beanan sung as follows., one hundred. 
Ceata-c<xm, rather ce<ict<x-c<xro, 

the seven stars, or Charles' 

wain ; called, from their appear- 

ance, by the Irish, ce<xcc<x cam, 

or caro-ce&cta, i. e. the crooked 


Ceatdi, a singing, or composing. 
Ceaepa-bact, lust. 
Ceatjrab, an opinion, or conjec- 

ture ; also a maxim or system ; 

cecirpxb na be<xzlci.j^e, a maxim 

of the church ; also a sense ; vid. 

Ceatpttxxc, sensible, judicious, 

Ce<xt, a sheep ; and ce<xtn<v;b, the 

Ceatoi and c;r, a shower, as of 

rain, hail, or snow. 
A Ce<xt<vj/t, four in number ; Lat. 

quatuor; ce<xtr<\ft and ce;t;te, 

the same. 
Ce<xt<v;/t-be<xnn<xc, quadrangular, 

Ce<xt<x/i-c<yxxc, quadruped, four- 


Ceor<xri-cujnne<xc, quadrangular. 
CcAta/iba, of or belonging to four; 

ex. <xn Cftujnne ce<xca;tb<x, the 

world, or terraqueous globe, so 

named from the four elements. 
Ce<xt:<Xftbujt, the vvorld, the uni- 

verse ; from ceor<x;fi, four, and 

bujt, an element. 
Ceara^b, a troop, a company, or 

multitude ; Lat. caterva ; hence 

Ceac<Xfincxc, a soldier, a guardsman, 
an attendant ; Latin, satelles ; 

co;lle, a tory, be- 
cause of frequenting woods to 
conceal and lie hid in. 

Ce<xcn<x;b, a sheep. 

Ce<xc/t<x, four-footed beasts, any 
kind of cattle. 

Ceat ( H<ic<x, ce<xc;t<xcab, forty in 

Ceatndm<xn<xc, of a cubical figure. 

Cede/tarn and ceac/taman, pro- 
nounced ceatftu j, a fourth part, 
a quarter ; hence it signifies the 
leg and thigh, because they con- 
stitute the fourth part of a man, 
but it mostly passes for the thigh 
alone; also the quartan of a 
verse, sometimes expressed to 
signify the whole verse, consist- 
ing of four quartans. 

Ce<vtrt<vma, a trencher; also the 
fourth, as <uj cear/tama bl;<x- 

, four men or women. 

Cect:, power, might, strength. 

Cect, rulg. ce&cr, a lesson, or 
lecture. This word was ori-_ 
nally lect, the Celtic root of the 
Latin lectio, the initial I being 
changed into c by vulgar pro- 
nunciation ; and as to the aspi- 
rate b it is but a late invention. 

Ceb, to shun, avoid, &c. 

Ceb and ceab, an hundred. 

Ceb, or ceab, first. 

Cebo.6, a mantle, veil, or garment. 

Cebtxc, stripes ; also striking. 

Ceba;b, to sit down, or rest ; Hisp. 

Ceba^, at first, first of all. 

Ceb-jejn, the first born. 

Ceb-lub, beginning ; also non-per- 

Ceb-luc, the first shout or ap- 

Cebub, a bed. 

Ce-baro, when ? at what time ? 

Ce-bu<x?n, the same. 

Ce;b, first, former ; often used in 
compound words ; as, ce;b-ft; j, 

c e 

c e 

the former king ; cejb-/iecttu; je, 
the forerunner. 

Cejbe, a market, or fair. 

Cejbe, a green, or plain. 

Ce;be, a hillock, a compact kind 
of hill, smooth and plain on the 

Cejb-jfijnneaqt, ripeness of age. 

Cejbce, or c<x;bce, till night, quasi 
TO bo;bce, most commonly un- 
derstood to signify ever, _or at 
all ; as, n; ;i<vc<xb <inn co;bce, I 
never will go thither. 

Cejbjl, a duel, conflict, or battle. 

Ce;b;n, a hillock, or little hill. 

Ce; j, a quay, or wharf. 

Ce;l, or ce;lt, hiding, concealing ; 
Lat. celatio. 

Ce;l, or ce;ll, sense or reason ; 
ba cu/t d. cce;l, demonstrating, 
or putting in mind; bo ;te;/i 
cejlle, according to the tenor : 
it is the oblique case of c;al. 

Ce;le, a spouse, a husband, or 

Ce;le, a servant; hence Ce)te-<be, 
Colideus, or Coil-Dei, an order 
of religious formerly subsisting 
in Ireland, England, and Wales, 
so called from being the servants 
of God : they were called Cul- 
dees in Great Britain. 

Ce;le, together ; also each other ; 
ba ce;le, to each other ; o ce;le, 
asunder. _ 

Ce;leab/iab, leave, farewell ; bo 
;i;nne cejleab/iab bo;b, he bid 
them adieu. 

Ce;leab;tab and cejteab/ia;m, to 
bid farewell, or adieu, to take 
leave of; ce;le<xfyt<Y* /~e, he took 

Cejled5ft<xb, a festivity or solemni- 
zation ; Latin, celcbratio ; ex. 
ce)le<xli/i<xb <xn <x;^/i;nn b;<xb<x, 
the celebration of the holy mass. 

Ce;le<xb/uxb and ce;le<xb/t<x;m, to 

celebrate, to solemnize ; Lat. ce- 

Icbro, brare ; ex. ap tpj 


ce;leabd/ttd/t /'olo.mujn bo S. 
00jce<xt, the festivity of St. Mi- 
chael is solemnized for three 
reasons. Old Parchment. 

Ce;lj, vid. ce<xlj. 

Ce;l-jea.tld;m, to betroth. 

Ce;l; je, sober, sensible ; go ce;- 
IJje, sensibly. 

Ce;l;m, to hide or conceal ; ce;t, 
hide you; ce;lpom, we shall 
conceal; Lat. celo. 

Cejljubfta, a concealment. 

Ce;ll, or c;ll, from ce<xll, a church 
or cell. 

Cejlle, of or belonging to sense or 

Ce;lc and cejlte, hid, secret. 

Ce;m, a step, or degree ; also gra- 
dation in any employ of life ; 
be;c ce;m;o/i<x, ten steps ; c;tu- 
<x;bce;m, an adventurous act; 
Wei. kam. 

Cejm-becilj, rectius c^o-mbealj, a 
crisping-pin, a hair-bodkin. 

Ce-jme^f^f, geometry ; from ce, 
the earth, and medyojm, to sur- 

Ce;ii);n, a fillet, or hair-lace. 

CeJmleoT,, a garret, fillet, or hair- 

Ce;tT)m;le<!ic, a hair-bodkin. 

Ce;(T)-p;or>, the same as cejm- 

_ becxlj. 

Cejmn; j;m, to step, to go. 

Ce;mn;uiab, a path, step, &c. 

Cejn, whilst that; <xn ce;n bjab 
<xnn, whilst that I am, or have a 
being ; vid. c/j<xn ; cejn 50 tc<J.- 
;t;^-te<x/i, till he comes. 

Ce;n, <x cce;n, in foreign or re- 
mote parts; <x cce;n 4%uf <x 
bjTOju^*, far and near. 

Ce;n-be<x/it, or c;n-be<x/it:, a hel- 
met ; also any head-dress, as hat 
and wig, 

Cejnirxxe/1, oh happy ! an interjec- 

Ce;nmoc<x, besides, without, ex- 
cept; vid, 

c e 

c e 

Ce;/?r)l;at, grey-headed. 
Ce;nn^eacab, to appease. 
Ce;;t, wax ; ce;/t-fce<xc, bees' wax ; 
Gr. KTipoc ', Lat. and Hisp. cera; 
Gall. c/re. 
Cejft, corrupte pro c<xo;t, a berry 

or cluster. 
Ce;/te<xc, of wax. 
Ce;^Ke;/te<xcc, carving. 
Ce;/tb and cej/ibe, occupation, a 

trade ; luct: ce;pbe, craftsmen. 
Ce^b-tO|-<x;je, screen,-, witch- 
Ce;/i;n and ce^;n, a poultice or 


Cej/tjoccin, c^<xnn-ce;;i;oca;n, wa- 
Cejpltj jtre, conglomerated, wound 

up like a bottom of yarn. 
Ce;/tn, a dish, or platter. 
Ce;/tn;n, a plate or trencher. 
Cejftt, or cjfitr, justice. 
Cejj\t, an apple-tree. 
Cejfit, a rag; plur. cej ( nte<vc<x, 
diminut. cejftteoA. 

ac, ragged ; 
treac, a kite. 

and ce;^tl;n, a bottom of 
thread or yarn. 

meobar), the centre ; bo cea/t 
<xo macaom <x cce;;tt-meob<xn 
na namab, the youth expired in 
the centre of his foes, or of the 

j a lance or spear. 
, a loathing or want of appe- 

, a basket, or pannier : hence 

an, a small hamper. 
-, grumbling, murmuring. 
-, a furrow. 

, a sow : hence the diminutives 
cejfjn and cc;^-eoj, a slip, or 
young ping ; Hebr. ^33, a 

e;^-e<xn, a small basket ; also a 
hurdle ; cej^eanac, or c;^ea- 
n<xc, a way made through shaking 
bogs by laying down hurdles 

joined together. 
Cej^eog and cejfjn, a slip or 

Cejpie<xm, a wfaeening or grumb- 

ling of pretended poverty. 
Cejfnjm, to complain of poverty 

and distress where there is no 

real want; to be always mur- 

muring and grumbling. 
, a question. 

uft <x ccejft, rectius C]ft, 

and cjfce, qd. vid. to hoard, or 

put up in store. 

eo. jab, examination. 
rnju j<xb, to inquire, examine, 

&c. ; n; ce;/-rneoc<x^ ro;;~e, I 

will not be examined. 
Ce;c;m and ce;ce<ib, a kind of 

vehicle or carriage made of osiers 

or other rods. 
Cejtfie, four in number; cejc^te 

ceub, four hundred ; vid. cea- 

Cel, the mouth. 

Cel, a prophecy. 

Cenel, children ; riY/. cjne-at. 

Ceo, a fog, mist, or vapour; Gr. 

X>v, nix, snow. 
Ceo, milk. 
Ceo and yceo, are of the same 

force with the Irish copulative, 

<xju/~, and. 

Ceo<xc, dark, misty, cloudy. 
Ceoact, darkness. 
Ceob<xc, drunkenness. 
Ceo-bfi<xon, vidg. ce65/tun, a rain- 

ing mist, or misling rain. 
Ceofyojn, dew. PL 
Ceobjrab, vid. ce<xbj:<xb. 
Ceol, music, melody; luctceo;t, 

musicians ; c^ut<x;/te ceol-bjnn, 

an harmonious harper. 
CeotaD, a little bell. 
Ce6tm<Xft, musical, harmonious. 
CeoirxXft, misty, dewish. 
Ceo;t, a lump or mass. 
Ce/t;n and cejfijn, a poultice, or 

Ce;/ir>;?7e, small plates or dishes ; 

C J 

C ) 

ex. gan colt^jro;! c/t;b ce;/tn;ne, 
i. e. gan b;ab go luat a;/i me;- 
^*;n;b, without speedily serving 
meat on their small dishes. 

Ce;tea/inac, a soldier, a sturdy 

Ceub, or ceutr, an hundred ; Lat. 

Ceub, the first. 

Ceuna, the same ; also likewise. 

Ceu^at: and ceu^ajm, to vex, also 
to torture or crucify. 

Cj, from cjm, to see ; ma c; f&, if 
he see ; bo cjb pab o^im, they 
look upon me ; an ua;/i bo 
cb;j:;b fe, when he shall see. 

C;, to lament ; ex. a roacajn na c;, 
lament not young men. 

C; and cja, who ? an interrogative, 
answering exactly to the Lat. 
quis, cm, the letter q and c 
being originally the same, and q 
in the immediate inflexions of 
this word changed into c, as 
quis, cujus, cui ; cja a^", whence, 
c;a ga, with whom. 

Cja, a man, a husband. 
<Cja, what, whatsoever. 

C;ab, or c;ob, a lock of hair ; cja- 
ba;b ca^-ba, curled or braided 

Cjabac, bushy. 

CJac, mist, fog ; also sorrow, con- 

CJat, death. 

C;all, reason, sense, the meaning, 
cause, or motive of any thing ; 
ex. Cfieab an cjatt jra/i, &c., 
what reason or motive had you 
to, &c. 

Callba, cjallma/i, cjaltmac, and 
ce;ll;be, rational ; also of good 
sense or prudence. 

C;allu jab, to interpret ; also in- 
terpretation ; Cfieb cjallu; jea^ 
Cu, what meanest thou ? 

C;am, a lock of hair; Lat. coma. 

C;ama;/te, sad, weary. 

CJambacalac, curl-haired. 

CJan, long, tedious; ex. <xr 
learn 50 bpx;cj:;ob t:u, 1 think 
it long till I see you. 

CJan, long since. 

CJanacta, a large tract of land in 
the County of Deny, which was 
anciently the patrimony of the 
O'Cathanes, and more extensive- 
ly of the family of the O'Conors, 
distinguished by the title of 
O'Concuba/t CJanacta, being 
descendedfrom Qan, son of OU;- 
olol;m, king; of the south half of 
all Ireland in the third century. 

CJa/i-pullang, longanimity, for- 
bearance, or perseverance. 

C;an-jr uUang, hard to be subdued, 
invincible, proof against. 

CJan-mafttanac, continual, perpe- 

Qapab and c;apa;m, to vex, tor_- 
ment, or teize ; <x ta f& ab c/tab 
agu^- ab cjapab, he is teazing 
and tormenting you. 

Qapajl, a debate, strife, or con- 
troversy ; ag c;apa;l, striving. 

CJapatac, contentious, quarrel- 

Cyapalajge, a quarrelsome person. 

C;apala;m, to encounter, to quar- 

Qa/t, vid. cjp, c;a/i rrjeala, a 

CJa^i, of a chestnut colour, dark, 
black ; bor? pojp. co clojbejb 
ce;neab bon cat p/t;uala c;a/ia, 
i. e. succurrat cum gladio igni- 
to, in certamine contra dcemones 
nigros. Brogan. 

C;a/ta;be, or C;a/iu;be, Kerry, a 
county in the west of Munster, 
comprehending a great part of 
the territory formerly called Des- 
mond ; was anciently ruled by 
the O'Conors Kerry. 

Qa/ia;beac, one from Kerry ; pi. 

C;a/iajl, a quarrel, stnte, or 
bate ; Gall, querell-e. 

C;<x/talac, perverse, froward. 
C;<x/t05, a kind of black reptile 
with many claws, called a chafer. 
, a thrush. 

a kerchief; and cju/t- 
n, the same. 
C;<x;tt<x, waxed ; b;te;b-cj<X;tt;<x, a 


Cjafajl, a dispute or quarrel. 
Cjb, a hand. 
Qc, a greyhound ; Wei. cor, and 

Arm. c/, a dog, bitch, &c. 
Cjcjjr, to complain. 
Cj i j, a hind, or doe. 
V Qjjm, to see or behold ; cjm, the 

the grave ; also death ; cu/t- 
td. y-<xn c;l, buried in the grave, 
but properly in the church or 
cell, the word c;ll or cejll being 
no more than the inflexion of 
ceall ; Lat. cella, which signifies 
a cell, a church, churchyard, 
grave, death, &c. N. B. Num- 
bers of towns and villages, as 
also several bishops' sees in Ire- 
land, begin with this word Cjlt, 
as Cjll-cajnne, Kilkenny, C;tl- 
b<xlu<xb, Killaloe, C;tj:;on<xb^<x, 
Killfenora, both in the County 
of Clare; C;U<xla, C;tlm<xcbuac, 
both in Connaught 
Cjll, partiality, prejudice : it is 
sometimes an adjective, and 
means partial, &c. 
C;U;r>, the diminutive of cjll or 
ceo.ll, a purse or store of hoarded 

Cjm, a drop. 
Qm, money. 

Cjmce<Xfit<x; jjm, to rifle or pillage. 
C;me and c;noe<xb, a captive or 

prisoner; cjmjb, idem. 
Cjm;m, to captivate, to enslave. 
Qn-be;ftt, a ruler, or governor. 
C;nc;Je<xj^ and cjncjpy, Whit- 
suntide ; quinq uagesuna, Lat. 
C;nc,a race, tribe, or family; Ang. 
Saxon, kind and kindred; Gr. 

, and Lat. genus; also a 
nation or people ; as cjne Scujtr, 
the Scottish race ; also a surname 
or descent. 

Cjne<xb<xc, Gentiles. Matt. 4. 15. 

C;ne<xb, vid. cjnnjm, infra. 

Cjne<xl, an offspring or progeny, 
generation or tribe of people ; a 
sort or kind; also a family, a 
nation ; Wei. kenedl ; it is writ- 
ten c;nel, c;neul, and cjne;l. 
N. B. Several districts of Ire- 
land have their ancient names 
from this word c;ne<xl, by add- 
ing thereto the distinguishing 
appellative and origin of the 
tribes that respectively inhabited 
them : of these the following 
were remarkable, which I de- 
scribe according to the account 
given us in O'Dugan's and Mac 
Fearguill's ancient Topographi- 
cal and Genealogical Poems. 

C;neoil-<xm<vjtTe, a large territory 
in Ulster, the ancient patrimony 
of the O'Millanes and the O'Mur- 

Qne<xl-<xoba,inthe County of Gal- 
way, the estate of the O'Shagh- 

Cjne<xl-<xob<i, a barony in the 
County of Cork, so called from 
one of the ancestors of the O'Ma- 
honys, whose country it an- 
ciently was, as well as another 
district called Cjne<xl-mbe;ce. 

Qne<xl-j:ea/t<iba.;cc, in Ulster, the 
country of the Mulpatricks. 

C;ne<xl-j:;<j.c/t<x, in the County of 
Westmeath, the estate of the 
Mac Eochagans. 

Qne<xl-mb;nne, in the County of 
Tyrconnell, part of the estate of 
the O'Donnels. 

C;ne^l-mb;t<xcu;be, in Tyrconnell, 
the country of the O'Brodirs and 
the Mulfavils. 

Cjneal-naongu^a, in the County 
of Meath, the country of the 

C J 

C J 


d, in the country of 
Orgialla, the estate of the O'Go- 
rans, the O'Linsheaghans, and 
the O'Breaslanes. 

Cjne<xl-r>e<xng<x, in the County of 
Meath, the country of the Mac 

C;ne<xl, a kindness, fondness, &c. 

C)ne<xtta, kind, affectionate. 

", kindness, fondness. 
strong ; also a prince or 
king; vid. cjnn. 
, stepping, or going. 

C;nge<xb, courageous, brave. 

C;ngte<xct, courage, bravery. 

Cp;b, inherent, or peculiar to a 

Cjnmeat, a consumption. 

C;nm;ol<x, a picture, or image. 

C;nn, the inflexion of the word 
ceann, the head ; ex. bat<ty- mo 
cjnn, the crown of my head; 
hence the Anglo-Sax, word king, 
because the king is head of his 
people or subjects, the Irish c 
and English k being equivalent, 
as the two nn are to the English 
ng; vid. ceann supra. 

C;nn-Bea/tt<ty-, sovereignty, domi- 

C;r>n-be;/it, a helmet, a head-band, 
and any sort of head-dress. 

C;nn-6e;ftte<xb, dominion. 

Qnneamujn, an ominous accident, 
or destiny ; also chance ; bo c;n- 
e<xirm;n, by chance; genit. c;nn- 

Cjnn-jprjon, bald-pated, also white- 

C;nn;m, to agree to, assign, or ap- 
point; ex. bo c;nne<xb<Xfi, they 
appointed ; <x ta fe cjnnte, it 
is decreed, it is certain ; also to 
establish, resolve, or purpose ; 
ex. bo c;nne<xb coirmjftte <xco, 
they resolved in council ; also 
to excel, surpass; ex. bq c;nr> a. 
na icoblcx, she 

surpassed all others in beauty; 
also to spring from, or be born 
of; ex. bo cjnn <xn irxxcaom o 
;i;o ja;b Cojyjol, the youth was 
sprung from the kings of Cashel. 
C;nn;/-ie-cafit<xc, a carter. 

C;nn-l;t;/t, a capital letter. 

C;nniT);ola;m, to paint. 

CJnn-mj/te, broken down. 

C;nnm;/te, frenzy ; also the vertigo. 

Cjrinte, formed from the above 
verb c;nnjm, quod vid., certain, 
assigned, or appointed ; c;nn- 
te, certainly, punctually; <xm 
c;nnte, the appointed time, &c. ; 
also close, near, stingy ; <v ta ye 
c)nnte, it is certain. 

CJnnteact:, positiveness, poor- 

CJnntfteun, obstinate, stubborn. 

C^ntecxct, confidence. 

C;nte<xj<xl, a coarse cloak or man- 

C;r)tJ^;m, to appoint. 

C;ob, vid, c;&b, a lock of hair. 

C;oc<x/i, a starved or hungry hound ; 
hence c;oc;tay, infra. 
'OcxXftoic and c;oc<x/ib<x, of a ca- 
nine appetite, hungry as a dog, 
greedy, ravenous. 

Qoc, a woman's breast. 

C;ocl<x;b;m, to change. 

CJoctr, a carver or engraver ; also 
a weaver. 

CJoctxxb and cjoctan, engraved 

vid. cJoc<X;t<xc. 

an earnest longing. 
greediness, covetousness, &c. 

C;oc^i<xyun, a hungry fellow. 

C;oct:<vjm, to rake or scrape. 

C;ob and c;ob, what? c;ob me;t 
how many; Lat. quid. 

Cjoba/1, wherefore. 

C;obea, wherefore. 

C;og<xl, a spindle-whirl ; also a 
cycle ; ex. c;oj<xt g;t;o.nb<x, the 
cycle of the sun ; vid. bua;n u; 


Cjol, an inclination, or propensity. 

Cjol, death. 

, C;ola, moderns j;ola, a servant 
who leads or drives a horse, or 
conducts a blind man ; Lat. calo, 
onis ; vid. Tjolla. 

C;ola/in, a vessel. 

Cjolcac, a reed ; vid. Tjotcac. 

Cjolor,, a hedge-sparrow. 

C;ol/icit<x;m, to chatter. 

Cjoma, a fault. 
,*Cjoma;m, to card or comb. 
Xjombal, a bell; Lat. cymbalum. 

C;omay, a border, brim, or extre- 
mity of any thing. 

C/on/a fault, guilt, sin; pi. cjonn- 
ta and cjontajb ; cean and ce- 
anta, the same : in the Turkish 
language, giunek. 

Cjon, love. Luke 7. 2. 

Qonaytajm, to bear. 

Cpnco/t/ta/i, a hook; Lat. Jiama. 

Qonba, written for ceabna, the 
same; 50 najt cpnba, to the 
same place. 

Qonpata, occasion; also a quar- 

Cpnmaft, because. 

Cjonmalca;n), to bear. 

C;onn, bo c;onn ju/iab, because; 
6 c;onn TO cejle, from one end 
to the other ; a ccjon, unto ; ex. 
bo p;l ye <x ccjonn a 6gan<xc, 
he returned to his young men ; 
go Oe;ltejne <x;/t d cc;onn, un- 
til next Ma 

. . x a censor. 
" Cjonnta, iniquity, guilt, sin. 
Cjonnuf, how, after what manner ? 
whereby? cjonnuf fijocta/t, what 
needeth it? 

Cjonoj, a kernel; Lat. acinus; 
hence it also signifies the smallest 
coin, and in the Welsh, keiniog 
is a penny. 
Cjon ftaba/ic, fate. 
Cjon /taba/tcac, narrow-hearted, 

close, sting)-. 

C;ontac, guilty, wicked. 

C;0nt<x jab, a being guilty or ac- 
cessary ; also coition, copulation. 

C;ont<x;jjm, to blame, to accuse; 
also to have criminal knowledge, 
to sin. 

CjOft and cjfte, the cud; bo <xr, 
cojn<xb <k c;/ie, a cow chewing 
her cud. 

C;o/t, a comb. 

C;0|t<xm, to comb. 

C;o;ic<xc, a circle. 

, bub, coal-black. 
-j<xl, i. e. jal-t<xm, feats of 
arms. The explication given by 
Clery of this word, shows that 
cjo/i, in Irish, is equivalent to 
lam, a hand, and therefore like 
the Gr. \eip, manus. 
oftmaj/te, a fuller; also a comber 
or comb-maker ; ex. mac an 
c;0fima;/te jay an ce;/t, the 
comber's son to his combs. 

ab and c;0ftftba;m, to man- 
gle, to mortify, also to violate ; 
ex. cjoftjtbab cu;l, incest; rcc- 
tius forsan co^ba cu;l ; vid. 

CJo^;tbab, ^ to become black; bo 
cjo^^bab a co^ip, his body was 
become black. 

C;0;tficamac, lame, maimed. 

CjOf, rent, tribute, revenue; jra 
cjOf, tributary. cu, 

Cjoy, sin. 

Qoyac and c;oyactrac, importu- 
nate ; also slovenly, dirty. 

CJoyal, nurse- wages, i. e. the wages 
given to a nurse for nursing a 
child ; from cjOf and at, nurs- 
ing. ^ 

C;oy-ca;n, tribute, a tax or assess- 

Cjorac, left-handed, awkward. 

C;otan and cjocoj, the left hand ; 
Wei. chuith and chuithigh, si- 

Qoc/tamac, mean, low, abject. 

GotOT,, the left hand. 

c i 

C;p, a rank or file in battle ; plur. 

cjpeoibd. and c;pe , be;c cc^pe, 

ten ranks or files. 
7/1, a comb. 
Cjfi, joined, united. 
CJ/tan and c;ft;n, a cock's comb, a 

crest, &c. 
Qftb, swift, fleet, expeditious ; 

hence it also signifies a warrior, 

or gallant champion, swiftness 

and agility being requisite for a 

Cj/tbp/ie, a brewer. 
CJjxejb, a tumult, or insurrection, a 

great noise or rattling; genit. 

c;/te;pe, or cjjiejbe. 
CJpjn, a crest, or cock's comb. 
C;/t)ne<xc, crested. 
C;^-ce<x/i, a shepherd's crook. 
Cj^be and cjfte, a treasury, or 

treasure: the Latin word cista 

signifies a strong box or coffer, 

very proper to preserve a trea- 

sure in. 

C;^be, a cake. 
C;^bean and cjj-teanac, a kitch- 


l, Satan; ex. bo I5b<x/t u;le 
/ie Q/-e<xt, they were all led by 
Satan. Vid. Hym. Phattraice. 
Cjfean, a little chest or coffer; 

c;^-ecxno.c, idem. 
Orel, low, as between two waters. 


C-)f)j\e, a romancer, a story-teller. 
Cj;-t;e, vid. cjj-be and cj^cearxxc ; 

vid. cj^becxn. 
C^rcanab, rioting. 
C;te<x/i, 6 c;te<Xft, seeing that; 
noc bo cjte<x/i, that appears; 
mo./t bo c;te<X|t bujc, as you 
please, as it seems unto thee. 
C;tr, a shower ; pi. cecxca. 
C;t;, vid. c; ; bo c;t;, you see. 
C;uc<xttoj/i, a hearer, an auditor. 
, to walk. 

con c;ucl<xt<i;^ bo 
, i. e. your cause will 
be heard. 


Qu;t, music ; vid. ceol ; abba 
c;u;l, instruments of music. 

Qujn, meek, still, quiet. 

Cjujn, a gentle gale, or blast of 

Cjujne and cjujne<ty", tranquillity, 

Cju;n; jjm, to appease, to mitigate, 
to quiet, or silence ; cju;n; jeay 
ujTila, submission pacifies. 

C;um<ty", a selvage ; also the border 
or extremity of any thing, the 
limits of a country, the extreme 
parts of a vessel, or of any other 

C;un<ty- and cjanuf, silence ; also 
a calm ; <x ccjunaf, in quiet. 

C;u/i<x, merchantable. 

Cjupam, to buy. 

Qufica, bought or purchased. 

Club, the mouth open ; also a lip : 
like in sense to the French 



, thick-lipped, wide-mouth- 

Clab<x;/ie, a blabber-lipped fel- 
low, a vain babbler ; Wei. kla- 
bardJiy, to bawl ; ct<xb<j.;jte rou;- 
Ijnn, a mill-clapper. 

Cl<xb<Xfi, clay, dirt, or mire. 

Cl<xb<xpuxc, dirty, filthy. 

Ct<xb, scorbutic, mangy ; Wei. clew, 
a sick person ; vid. cla;be. 

Ct<xbytu/i, a cloister; Lat. claus- 

Cttxboj, a scoff or jeer. 

O<xbo, a blabber-lipped woman. 

Qabpxt, a column in a book or 
writing ; ex. ^pfe ce<xb cldb^t, 
in the first column. L. B. 

Cl<xb<xc, the sea-shore. 

Ctabac, dirt or clay, a clot ; also 

Clab<x;/ie, i. e. c/ie<xc<xbo;/i, a pil- 
lager, plunderer, a rogue, a vil- 
lain, in the vulgar acceptation. 

a bank, mound, or ditch ; 
Scot, a churchyard; W. klandh, 
rectius cluidhe, or rather clni ; 

Lat. clivus, a bank or brow; as, 
in clii'o montis, on tlie brow of 
the hill. 

m, to make a noise. 

Clajaj;te, a coward. 

Cla ja/tba, villanous ; also lazy, 
idle. m 

bact, villany; also sloth, 
\ Clagun, a flagon. 

Clajbe, from dab, the mange ; 
also any cutaneous disorder in 
men or beasts, such as the itch, 
the scurvy, or mange : in the 
I Welsh clav is a sick person ; in 
Irish clajbte, or clao;te, is the 
same ; and ctaojbteact is sick- 
ness of any kind : is sometimes 
written cUvjro and cla;roe. 

Cla;b;n, a tap, or spigot; also the 
latch of a door. 

Clajceoj, deceit. 

Cla;ceac, or clojacb, rectius 

clojgteac, a steeple. 
-, CICvjbe, a burial, interment ; Wei. 
cladhy, to bury. 

CliXjbe, to dig. 

CtajbjiD, to lay the foundation ; co 
ba;/tm co clajb <x bot, ubi fun- 
daverat suam cedem. 
. Cla;beam,a sword; Lat. glad'nnn, 
quasi cladium, a clade ferenda. 
Littleton. Wei. kledhyv. 

Cla;j, a dent or dimple. 

Clajjeann, a skull. 

Clajm, and clajme, the mange, 
itch, or scurvy ; vid. clab. 

Clajm^eac, scorbutic, mangy. 

Ctajn, to engender or beget. 

Cta; ^, boards or tables; vid. cla^t. 

Cla;^i-bejl, a lid or cover, as of a 
box, tankard, or pot. 

Cta; ft-e<xbom ac, broad-headed,bee- 

Cla;/i-p;acla, the foreteeth. 

Cla;;t;m> to divide. 

Claj|t;/7, a small board. 

Q&J/tjneoCj lame, maimed, going 
upon crutches or stools. 

the harp; genit. cta;n 

i a harper, a fiddler. 
Cla;;tte, dealt, parted, divided. 

a pit or dike; pi. claf<xc<x ; 
^ t<vlrri<x;n, a clay-pit. 
-, a stripe or streak. 
-ceabal, the singing of divine 
hymns, &c. ; trejb /te bet na 





u;me, they went to visit the regal 
seat and the church, Patrick fol- 
lowing them with the staff of 
Jesus in his hand, while the 
clergy of Ireland attended him 
singing divine hymns in chorus. 
rid. Leab<x/t Ojteac G0be;c 

te, a jest or ridicule, a game. 

Ctdjte, a genealogical table. 

Clam, vid. clab, scorbutic; Wei. 
clav, sick. 

Qampa/i, wrangling. 

Ctampa/tac, litigious, wrangling. 

Clam/ta^, a brawling or chiding. 

Clanac, virtue. 

Clanac, fruitful persons. 

Clanb, vid. ctann. 

Clanmaft, fertile, fruitful, abound- 
ing with issue. 

Clann, antiq. clanb, children, pos- 
terity ; also a tribe, clan, or fa- 
mily, a breed or generation ; 
hence the Ang.-Sax. clan. 
Note. The names of several ter- 
ritories of Ireland begin with 
this word Clan/?, distinguished 
by the family names of the tribes 
that inhabited them ; thus, 

ClanVeapJjl, a territory in the j 1 
County of Armagh, the country 
of the Mac Cahanes. 

Clanna-aob-bujbe, or Clanaboy, 
whereof there were two, one in 
the Comity of Antrim, and tho 
other in the County of Down, 

C I 

C I 

both formerly belonging to the 

Clan-colm&;n, a territory in the 
County of Meath, the O'Melagh- 
lins country, otherwise O'Ma- 
olseachlain, formerly kings of 

Cl<xn-j:e<Xfi5<x;l,an ancient territory 
on the east side of Loch-Cuirb, 
in part of which the town of 
Galway now stands, and was the 
ancient seat of the O'Hallorans. 

Ctdn-pnalujfia, now Glenmalire, 
divided between theKing's Coun- 
ty and the Queen's County, for- 
merly belonging to the O'bjonooi- 
;~<v;b, or O'Dempsies, and others, 
several septs of the Strongbonian 
adventurers, in imitation of the 
old Irish, called the countries 
they had possessed themselves 
of, by names beginning with the 
same word Cl<xn, as Clan/-t;c<x/tb, 
the country of the Burks, Earls 
of Clanricard, in the County of 
Galway ; it was formerly called 
OQaonmu} j, and belonged to the 
O'Neachtains and the Maolallas, 
i. e. the Lallys : so likewise the 
country of the Fitzmaurices, lords 
of Kerry, was called Cl<xn nouj/i;^, 
and several others, in the same 

Clann-mo-jcne, children, posterity, 
descendants of the male sex. 

Cl<xnn<xb, a thrust. _ 

Clannca^,", i. e. <*.bn<x;cte<v/t, was 
buried or interred. 

Claoctabj alteration; also annihi- 

Claoclxxb and ct<xocl<x;g;m, to 
change ; also to weaken or reduce 
the power and strength of a per- 
son or thing, to cancel or annihi- 

Ctcxoclob, the same as cl<xoct<xb, a 

change, &c. 

Cl<x6;be<xb, a defeat, conquest, or 
destruction ; Lat. clades. 

Clao;b;m, to oppress, overcome, 

Ctao;bte, overpowered, destroyed ; 
also weak, disabled. 

Cl<xo;n, from cl<xon, partial, &c. ; 
vid. cloJon. 

Q<xon, partial, prejudiced, inclin- 
ing to one party more than to 
another; claonb/iejt, a biased 
sentence; also prejudice, par- 
tiality ; ex. bujne g<xn cl<xon, a 
man without deceit ; also error ; 
tttfiang o ctaon, converters ab 

Cl<xon<xb and cl<xo;ne, the inclina- 
tion, propensity, or bent ; cl<xo- 
77<xb n<\ colloi, the bent of the 
flesh; hence it signifies partiality 
or prejudice when a person fa- 
vours one party's cause more 
than another's, and is thereby 
led to do injustice; hence it 
signifies also malice, deceit, in- 
j ustice. 

Cldon<x;m, to incline, to bend to- 
wards, to have a propensity to a 
person or thing, also to deceive ; 
Gr. and Lat. (cAtvw and inclino, / 
to incline, &c. ; bo cl<xon ^e e 
pejn, he bowed himself down ; 
bo ct<xon<xb<Xfi <x;/i, they de- 
ceived him, or proved false to 

Claon-ci^b, steep, inclining, &c. 

Clap-^olo.^, the twilight. 

Clan, and genit. cla;/i, a board, a 
plank, a table, or any plain or 
flat piece ; ex. <i ccl&/t<X}b <x 
neubdn, on their foreheads; <x 
cctfyt be&b<x;n, on thy face ; 
cla/i ju<xl<xn, a shoulder-blade ; 
<x cclcijt be<i/-(n<x;ne, on the palm 
of his hand; pi. cla/t<x;b and 
cta/KXcd., also a plain or level. 

Clo./i, and genit. cla;/t, a town in 
Thomond, which gives its name 
to the county, and is so called 
from Thomas and Richard de I 
Clare, who made some conquests 

C L 

C I 

in that country, being encouraged 
by the intestine divisions and wars 
or' the O'Briens of Thomond 
and Arra. Vid. c<x;5r-;tejm, and 
Cambden's Chorogr. Descrip. 

, bare or bald. 

Claft<x;neac, flat-nosed. 

Claf, a lock ; rid. "&l&f- 

Cl&f, melody, harmony. 
, a clasp. 

Cle, partial, prejudiced, wicked. 

Cle, left-handed ; Wei. kledh. 

Cleacb and cleacba, a custom or 
manner, a practice, or exercise ; 
bo ftejfi a gcle<xct<x;b, after their 

Cleacbdc, constant, accustomed. 

Cleacbcxjm, to use, to practise, to 
be accustomed ; cle<xcb tu pejn, 
use yourself; n;;t cleacb me <x/i 
60 jo. bo luba, I never practised 
the bending of the bow ; na/i 
cleacb <in cu;nj, unaccustomed 
to the yoke. 

Cleamncv. and cle<xmn<x^, affinity; 
<yc\\)f\ cleamna, a father-in-law. 

Cleo.^i<xb, familiarity. 

Clecy, a play or trick ; also game 
or sport; and cleoyaj jeact, a 
sporting or diverting ; Heb. ttf^D, 
ludificatio ; vicl. Psalm. 44. 14. 
gen. cljf and cleapa. 

Clea/~, craft, or dexterity. 

Cle<x/-<xc, joking, sporting ; also 
crafty, cunning. 

Clea^ajbe, an artful man ; also a 
mimic or humorous fellow. 

Cle<j./~ajbeacb, craft or subtlety; 
also sporting; <j. bednam cle<x- 
yaji i jeacca, playing tricks. 

Cleat and cteatxxc , a stake, a rod, 
or wattle. 

Cleo.fvx;fte<ict, rusticity, rustic as- 

steep, inaccessible. 

a milch-cow, 
relations by blood. 
, partiality or prejudice, 

from cle, wrong, and ft&nxxb, to 
row, viz. metaphorically. 

Cle;b, the genit. of cl^ab ; the sid, 
q. rid. 

Cle;b;n, a basket, the dim. of cljab. 

Clejn, the clerg\-; Lat. cleros. 

Clej^ie, the island of Cape Clear 
in Carbury, in the County of 
Cork, which anciently belonged 
to the O'Driscols. 

Qe;/tceacb, scholarship, clerkship. 

Clej^oc, a clergyman, a clerk; 
Lat. clericus ; also a scrivener, 
notary, or secretary ; Wei. glei- 
riach, an old man, or elder, like 
the Gr. jcXtpticoc, a presbyter or 

Cle;te, a quill, or feather. 

Ctejcean, a penthouse, or eves. 

Cle;te, hid, concealed ; po cle;, 
privily; ;b;^ clejt i\f ci/tb, nei- 
ther quite public nor quite pri- 

Clejte, the top of a house, moun- 
tain, or hill. 

Clejte<xc, private. 

Cle;ce<xcb, a lurking. 

Cle;c;m, to conceal, to keep pri- 
vate, &c. 

Cte;c-m;0jr5<x;/*, a private grudge. 

Cle-l<xmac, left-handed. 

Clemano., mischief. 

Clet and cletoj, a quill, or hard 

Cl;, vid. cle, j\e la;n) clj, to- 
wards the left hand. 

CIJ, a successor in an episcopal see, 
or any church living ; also a clerk 
obtaining a benefice, &c. ; vid. 

Cl;, the body; also the ribs or 
chest of a man. 

Cl;<xb, a basket, a cage. 

Q;<xb, the trunk of man or beast's 
body being fonned like a basket 
by the ribs and chest; in the ge- 
nitive it makes clejb and cle;be. 

Cl;<xban, a small basket, cage, a 

C I 

C L 

Q;ab<xc, a wolf, as having a large 

G;<xb/-xc, the side, or trunk of a 
man's body; vid. cljab. 

Cl;dbu;n, a son-in-law ; sometimes 
written cljamujn. N. This word 
is an abusive contraction of the 
compound clj<xb-bu;n, or cl;<xb- 
bujne, i. e. bu;ne clejb, an en- 
dearing expression, signifying 
one who is as dear to us as our 
heart or trunk. 

Cl;<x/i, the clergy; also any tribe 
or society; cljaji gaj^eabac, 
a band of heroes. 

O;a/ia;be, a songster. 

Q;a/ta;beact;, singing. 

t, the darning of a stocking or 
other garment by mending it 
cross-wise, in imitation of weav- 


Ct;at, a hurdle of wattles. 
Cl;<xt, a harrow; cljat: 

a harrow. 
Cl;<xt, or "&l)<yc, rectius glj<xb, a 


Cl;at<xc, a battle or conflict. 
Cljatcin, the breast or side. 
Cljoroj, a hurdle; also the chine 

or back. 

Cl;b;n and cljoboj, a piece. 
Cl)bjf, tumult. 
Cl;b;^e<xcb, peevishness. 
Cl;c;b, to gather together, to as- 


Cljjr/ng, a bottle. 
Cl;ob<xc, rough, hairy, shaggy ; 

gVjobac, idem. 

Cljobaro, to pluck or tear in pieces. 
Cl;obgun<x, a nig. 
Cl;oboj e;c, a shaggy colt or 


Cljolunta, stout, potent, hearty. 
Cljpe, a hook to catch salmon or 

other fish with ; hence it signi- 

fies fraud, deceit, &c. 
Cl)f, from cleoy, tricks, jokes, &c. 
b, a skip or jump. 
, to skip or jump; ct;r;m 

i, to frustrate. 

, active, swift, expert; 
<x to.;m be;^- <xju^ cle, ex- 
pert at each hand. 

cb, dexterity, agility. 
c, left-handed. 
Cl;t, close ; also true. 
Cl;ub, squint-eyed. 
Clo, a nail, a pin, or peg ; Gall. 
clou, Lat. clavus ; 

i;t <x e<xba;b, after 
piercing Christ's hands and feet 
with iron spikes or nails, they 
cast lots for sharing his garments. 

Clo, a print or mark, a character: 
so called because the ancients 
wrote their inscriptions on the 
barks of trees and tablets with a 
nail of iron or brass ; on account 
of which ancient custom among 
the old Romans also, an epoch 
is called sera. 

Cloca, a cloak. Matt. 5. 40. 

Cloc, a stone ; clo;ce a;n;me, 
gravel stones ; cloc-Y~ne<xct<x, 
hail-stone; cloc-tejne, a flint; 
cloc-ta/ifKXnjtd., a loadstone. 

Clocajm, to stone. 2 Chr. 2. 18. 

Cloca-uct/fle, pearls. Matt. 7.4. 

Cloc, the herb Henbane. 

Clocac, stony or rocky. 

Clocan, a pavement, a causeway ; 
also stone steps to pass over 
small rivers. 

Clocdft, an assembly or congrega- 
tion ; also a convent. 

Clobac, dirt, slime. 

Clob and clo, print ; vid. clo. 

Clob, variety, change. 

Clobajm andclob-bual<x;m, to print 
a book, to stamp ; clobugab, the 

Clob-buajlte, printed, stamped, 

Cloebeac, the name of a river in ; 
the County of Cork, near Mai- } 

C L 

C L 

low, celebrated in Spencer's 
Fairy Queen. 

Clog, a bell, a clock; Wei. clock, 
and Gall, cloche ; its dimin. is 
clojgjn, a small bell ; also a 
blister and a bubble. 
Clo<vb, a helmet ; also a mea- 

Clojajm, to sound like a bell. 
Cloj<xn, or clojj-ceann, the skull; 
clojj-cjonn griuajac, the hairy 
scalp ; Wei. clog. 

a little bell ; t^; n<xonm<x^ 
, three times nine bells. 
, a ringing or tinkling, 
i. e. clog-cd^, a belfrey, 
or steeple. 

, the pin of a dial. 
Clo;c-bejmn; j, stamping. 
Clo;ce, from cloc, of or belonging 

to a rock or stone. 
Clo;ceab, a passport. 
Clojcfiecxc and clojc;te<xn, a stony 


Clojbe and cl<xb, a ditch or dike. 
Clo;b;m, a sword. Matt. 10. 34. 
Clojjean, the skull ; Wei. clog. 
Clojjjn, a little bell. 
Clojjjneo.6, curled, frizzled. 
Qojjrriej, the gnomon or pin of a 

c, a steeple, a belfrey; 
corrupte cujljte<xc. 

, the sense of hearing. 
, to hear. 

t, a brave or famous cham- 

Clom and clo;m, a pair of tongs. 
Clonn, (the same as columan, a pil- 
lar, or pedestal,) a chimney- 
piece; Vulg. Gr. KoXova, Hisp. 
colima, and Lat. columen et co- 

, a hearing, a report ; clo^ no. 
<xn, the hearing of the ancients. 
This word has a radical affinity 
with the Irish word clucy, an 

Clot, noble, generous, brave. 

Clot, fame, praise ; Gr. tcXfoc, glo- 
ria; Wei. clod; and Ir. also 

Ctotd, heard ; ;to clot<x, was heard. 

Ctot<xc, famous, illustrious, re- 
nowned ; ex. clotac l<xb^<x,pr- 
clarus sermo. 

Clo<x;r and cluoj^e, of the ear; 
rid. clu<\f. 

Cloc<X;i, chosen, elected. 

Ctu, praise, reputation, fame; Lat. 
cli/eo, to be famous; and Gr. 


Cluj, written clujbe by an abusive 
modern orthography, a ditch, a 
coping ridge of earth; also a 
cliff; Lat. cl/ru*. 

Clu<x;n, adulation, flatten', blan- 

Clu<x;n, a plain between two woods, 
also any fine level fit for pasture ; 
Lat. planifm,Ar\g\. -Saxon, latctt, 
visibly of the same root with 
cluajn. Vid. Lhr/yd's Compar. 
Etym. pag. 10. col. 1., for an 
initial letter being expressed in 
one Celtic dialect, and omitted 
in another. Note that several 
towns and bishops' sees in Ire- 
land derive their names from 
this word Ctu<x;n ; ex. Ctu<x;n 
utT)<x, now the town of Cloyne, a 
bishop's see in the County of 
Cork; CUm;n b<x;bne<xc aguf 
Cluujn CDdc jNojr, in Leinster, 

Clua;nj;ie, a flatterer, a seducer, 
deceiver, &c. 

Clc/txjn;^e<xct, flatten*, deception. 

Clua-jf, to hear. 

Clua;;-jn, a porringer. 

Cluan<x;^e, vid. ctua;n;^e, a 

, joy or gladness. 
, the ear. With this Irish 
word the cloche of the French, 
the Welsh clcch, and Angl.-Sax. 
clock, have a visible affinity, as 
the ear is formed like a bell or 

C L 

clock, whence tympanum amis, 
the ear's bell ; clucy-pajne, an 
ear-ring ; clu<ty--y*e6;b, ear- 
pendant ; hence bu/1-cluo.pxc, 
ypA/ic-clu<x^<XC, and t;iomclu<x- 
y<xc, all meaning dull or hard of 

c, having ears or handles. 
m&otun, the tip of the ear. 
and clubajm, to cover up 
warm ; also to cherish or nou- 
rish ; Lat. claudo, include. 

Cluboib, a cover or coverture; 
clubo. le<xpt<x, a bed cover or 
bed-clothes; Angl.-Sax. cloth. 

Club<xm<vjl, famous, renowned. 

Clujceog, fraud or deceit. 

Clu;ce, a battle, a game. 

Clujb and clu;be<vn, a nook or an- 
gle ; r>; <x cclu;b, not in a corner. 

Clu;j, the pi. of clog, a bell. 

Clu;j;n and clojan, a little bell. 

Ctu;m, the genit. ofclum, a feather 
or down. 

Clu;ro-e<xltd., a feathered flock, or 
flock of birds ; and clu;me<xlt<x, 
the Royston crow. Q. 

Clu;n, heard, from clu;n;m. 

Clujnjro, to hear; clu;n;be, hear 


Clujnfjr), to hear. 

Clujnte, heard. 

Clu;nteo;;i, a hearer, an auditor, 

Clujnteo;t<xcb, craftiness ; vid. 

, to hear, alias 

vid. cloy, &c. 
Clu;te<xc, famous, renowned; Gr. 

icAuroe, Lat. inclytus, famous, 

Clu;te, a game, play, or sport; 

clu; jte, clu;te<xb<x, and clu;te, 

P L . 

Clujte<xb, a gaming, sporting, &c. 

Clum, a feather or down : also fur 
or hair, plumage, &c. : Lat. 

Clumac, feathers, plumage ; leu? bo 


cliiirxxc, full of feathers ; also of 
or belonging to feathers ; an ad- 
jective, signifying full of hair, 
plumage, down, or fur, &e. 

Clum<xm, to pluck feathers; also to 

Clumtac, feathered ; also hairy ; 
vid. clunxxc. 

Clutu j<vb and clut<xj j;m, to chase, 
to run down; <xj clutuj<xb <xn 
je<ty-i;i-t:;<xb, running down the 

Cn<x, good, gracious, bountiful ; ex. 
GOoic C/i;omt:<xjn jra cn<x ;te 
^jo;l, i. e. the son of C;i;omtan 
was bountiful to the learned. 

Cndba^i, drowsiness, heaviness. 

CnJibo.;/te, a prating jester, a scoff- 

c<*, ships. 

, a knock, crack, &c. \ 
c, rough or uneven, 
cb, sternness or sourness of 

Cn<xg<x;b, bunch-backed, bossed; 
Gal. bossu. 

a noggin. 

to knock, to rap, to 

xxj and cn<J.o;, a consumption, a 
phthisic ; Gr. KVCLW, scindo, ra- 
do, Sfc.) seems to have an affinity 
with the Irish cn<vo;. 

, hemp ; vid. c<xna;b. ' 
, a scoff", jeer, or flout, 
treac, a fret ; also fretted. 

Cna;b;m, to deride or ridicule. 

Cn<x;^teac, sluggishness. 

Cnci;m-p;<xc, a raven, or vulture. 

Cn<x;/te, a buckle. 

Cnam and cn<x;m, a bone. 

Cnam<x^T<xb, i. e. cncur)m<x/ig<xb, the 

CnaiT)-;iu; jecxb, a cubit, from cn&m, 
a bone, and'jtu; j, the arm, down 
from the elbow to the fist. 

Cnao;, a consumption, or phthisic. 

Cno.0;, or cnu; j, the plur. of cnujj, 
a maggot, or worm. 


Cn&o;b;iY), to consume or languish; 
4t<x ft <xj cnao;, he languisheth ; 
cnaojfj jea/t ;ab, they shall con- 
sume away ; also to gnaw or 
chew ; Gr. KVUW, ratio, scindo. 

Cn<x<x; jce, consumptive, spent, &c. 

Ciap and cnogpe, genit. a bunch, 
knob, or button ; old English, 

, bunched or knobbed. 
m, to strike or smite. 

C.mpan, a knob, bunch, or boss. 

Giarwa, a ship ; plur. crKX/t/KXba, 
Gloss. Vet. 

Cneab, a sigh, or groan. 

Cneabtvjm, to sigh or groan. 

Cneab, a wound; cneab <\ft fOn 
cnejb, a wound for a wound. 

C/ieab<xc, full of sores. 

C/iearc<x;;te, a tricking, artful fel- 

Cnz&f, man's skin ; gjle & cnjf, 
the whiteness of a man's skin. 

C/iea^-bd. and cnea/td., modest, 
meek, well-tempered. 

Ciearbact, mildness, meekness, 

C/iea^aj jjm, to heal or cure. 

Cnecyu j<xb, a healing or curing. 

C neat/torn, a kind of horse litter. 

Cne;b-^ljOc, a scar. 

Cne;b-^l;ocbac, full of scars. 
rjoct, originally signified a com- 
mon soldier or swordsman; ex. 
jb;/t cn;oct a^uf car-ba/iun, 
both common solaiers and offi- 
cers. N. B. This word is of the 
same origin with the German 
knecht, which with them was 
formerly the only word to signify 
a soldier, what the Latins called 
miles; and to this day lanze- 
knccld signifies a foot-soldier. 
Fid. Claver. Germ. Antig. lib. 
1 . cap. 44. The Anglo-Saxon 
word knight is visibly the same 
as the German and the 
Irish cnjoct, and properly, as 
well as originally, signified no- 


thing else but soldier. But it 
seems that among the Saxons and 
Low Dutch, the knights be- 
longed rather to the horse than 
to the foot-soldiery ; for ridder, 
the same as the English word 
rider, is still the only word 
amongst the Dutch to signify a 
knight; and the Irish word ;tj- 
bj/te signifies the same, whether 
they had it originally in their 
language, or borrowed it from 
the English after their settlement 
in Ireland. Cneoht, or cniht, in 
old English, was not anciently 
any title of honour, but signified 
at first a boy or youth ; as learn- 
ing cniht, a school-boy ; and af- 
terwards (as it does yet in the 
Danish) a servant; for ccpp- 
citilitas were market- slaves; and 
knecht, witU the low Germans, 
is now also degraded to signify a 
servant. " Nam knecht quod 
nunc servum sive ministrum no 
famulum, olim nil aliud quam 
militem denotabat." Clurer. 
ibid. I find in Mac Craith's 
History of the Wars of Thomond, 
in the time of Thomas and Ri- 
chard de Clare, that the words 
cnjoct and /tjbjfie are used 
synonymously. This word is 
therefore one of those, which 
from a mean original significa- 
tion, have ennobled themselves 
by degrees; as, to the contrary, 
other words, whose primitive 
meaning was honourable, have 
been degraded to an infamous 
sense ; thus latro, originally sig- 
nifying a hired soldier, whose 
functions were rather honour- 
able, now means a highwayman ; 
and leno, which meant a prince's 
ambassador, is so strangely de- 
graded as to signify nothing bet- 
ter than a pimp, or procurer of 
lewd women. On the other hand, 



Inro, which like latro, signified 
a hired soldier, is now become a 
title of honour and peerage. 
Again, Tyrannus, a lawful king 
or lord, now means an usurper 
or oppressor. 

Cn;op<vj/ie, a poor rogue. 

Cn;op<x;;te<xct, acting the rogue. 

Cno, famous, excellent, generous. 

Cnobdb, a territory in the County 
of Meath, which anciently be- 
longed to the O'Duains. 

Cnoc, a hill. 

Cnoc, the herb navew. 

Cnoccu?, a small hill, a hillock, a 

Cnoc<jifl<xc, full of hills. 

Cno-mujne, a wood of hazels, ches- 
nut-trees, or walnut-trees; Lat. 

CnOjiac<ty~, honour. 

Cnu and cnub, a nut. 

Cnuay, a collection. 

Cnu<tyxtjm, to gather together, to 
collect, or assemble. 

Cnuo.px;Ti:e and cnu<x^ca, gather- 
ed, collected. 

Cnuty--<xpuj j, fruitful. 

Cnubojfte, a nut-cracker. 

Cnu;j, a maggot or worm formed 
in rotten cheese or corrupt flesh. 

Cnum, or c/turr), the same as cnu;j. 

Co, formerly written for the mo- 
dern go, asco-bj:e<Xfi<x;b Cj/tjonn 
u;me, with the Irish forces in 
general under his command ; CO 
ceoi/it, justly. 

Coac, i. e. jtuacdft, a violent pur- 
suit. Note that rhythyr in Wei. 
signifies a violent attack, or vigo- 
rous onset. 

Coa/ib, a husbandman, a rustic, a 
clown ; pi. coajftbe. This word 
co<x;ib seems to have an affinity 
with the Anglo-Saxon, coward, a 
dastard, or faint-hearted man. 

Cob, victory, triumph ; hence cob- 
c<xc and cob^ac, victorious. 

Cobcic, a tribute. 


l, an enclosed place, not co- 
vered over head ; Lat. caula ; 
also a woman's stays. 

Cobajfi, or c<xb<x;/i, help, aid, re- 
lief, assistance ; Gr. Kovpoe- 

Cob<x/it<x, tuct cob<x/it<x, assistants. 

Cob^/itac, or c<xb<x;tco.c, a helper, 
an assistant. 

Cobl<xc, a navy or fleet. 

Cob;i<x, a shield or target. 

c, victorious; cob/~<ic, beo- 
b<x, c<xlm<x, ceoibj:<xt:<xc, epithets 
given to a sprightly, brave, sen- 
sible man. 

Cobtxc, stout, brave, valiant. 

Cobtac, victorious; hence it be- 
came the proper name of many 
of the Irish kings, and answers 
very nearly to the Latin word 
victorinus. N. B. Cobcuc, sig- 
nifying victorious, was the proper 
name of an Irish Chief, from 
whom the ancient family called 
O'Cobtajc derive their name 
and descent : they were dynasts, 
or chief lords of the territories, 
now called Barryroe, east and 
west, in the County of Cork. 
They were of the Lugadian race, 
which gave the ancient name of 
Co;tc<x-lu;je to all the south- 
west parts of the County of 
Cork, a name that is now re- 
duced to only two parishes, se- 
parated by the river Eilean, 
which forms the harbour of Bal- 
timore, and are called Cotlu; je, 
a corrupt contraction of the word 
Co/ic<x-lu;je. It seems the 
0'Cobt<x;c;b, Engl. O'Cowhig, 
were originally the most distin- 
guished of the Lugadian families, 
since their chief is mentioned in 
the first rank, and with high dis- 
tinction, particularly with regard 
to his hospitality, before the 
O'Flains and the O'Driscols, in 
the following ancient rhymes : 
0'Cobt<i;cc n 


6;t: t)\jaj\ too c;nn a;/t ;ata;b 
7"ean : t/t;u;t nac bo ctanna;b 
m;leab. Where the compound 
word a/tto-ccOfin-oj/t, signifying 
tall and large drinking-cups of 
massy gold, and not inferior, in 
sublime combination of ideas, to 
any compound epithet in Homer, 
is pompously expressive of the 
great hospitality of O'CobtaJcc. 
Note that the verb too cjnn, in 
the above rhymes, signifies to 
reign as king. P id. ceann, 
cjnn, supra. But a melancholy 
remark, which remains to be 
made, is, that of the two families 
first mentioned in the just re- 
cited rhymes, there is not, to my 
knowledge, one individual now 
existing that may be held in the 
light of a gentleman, having 
been all dispossessed long since 
of their very ancient and large 
properties ; which indeed is the 
case of many other Irish families 
not less illustrious in former 
times, who are now either quite 
extinct, or reduced to a state of 
perfect obscurity, for the reason 
now mentioned. 

Cobtac, a creditor ; perhaps rather 
a debitor. Clery explains it by 
pea/t too tol; jea/" p;aca. 

Coc, manifest. 

Coca, a boat ; Wei. kuch. 
- Coca, a cook ; Lat. coquns. 
. Cocajfte, a cook; Lat. infinit. co- 

Cocajfteact, a cooking; also the 
art thereof. 

Coca/t, order, economy. 

Coc-tou^n, a buckler. 

Cocal, a net. 

Cocal, a cloak, mantle, or vestment ; 
cocat fpojl, a satin cloak; also 
a hood or cowl; ex. cocal an 
naoro bjtata/t, the holy friar's 
cowl ; Lat. cue nil us. 


Cocma, the parity of one thing to 

Coc /tot, a shield or target. 

Coto and cotoa, a piece or part ; 
le;t-cotoa, of the half part ; can - 
cotoa, any part : it is mostly writ- 
ten cot and cota in old manu- 
scripts; pi. cotca;b and cota- 
r> a; b ; Lat. quota. 

Coto, victor}'. 

Cotoa, or ato cotoa, i. e. bl; jjto, it 
requires, it deserves. This word 
is always used in an impersonal 

Cotooc, invention. 

Cotoac and catooc, friendship. 

Cotoato, a mountain. 

Cobajle, a supping-room. PI. 

Cotodl, or comtoal, a convention, or 
assembly; also friendship, inti- 

Cotoalta and cobalt ac, sleepy, ad- 
dicted to sleep; ^uan cotoalta, 
a profound sleep, 
a sacrificing, an offer- 

ing. ^ 

Cotonac, a lord, a powerful per- 
sonage, or principal man in a 

Cotolato and cotola;m, to sleep ; bo 
cotolajto fe, he slept ; cojtoeol- 
cao;, ye shall sleep. 

Coblajnean, poppy. 

Coto^iama, equal, even. 

Cotoftamac, a countrj-man, a rustic. 

Coto /tarn act, equality, parity. 

Coto/tomta, tou;ne coto^omta, an 
uncivilized man ; also a stran- 

Coem or caom, little, small. 

Coem, i. e. corn-em ; o;^ a^" jonan 
em aju/- e/^a, no tuat, as soon 
as, as swift as. 

Cop^a, a chest or box ; Ang.-Sax. . 



Cop/tJ^n, a little box, or drawer. 
Co^ato, war, rebellion ; also to wage 

war or rebel; too cojatoa/t an 


C O 

<xj<xjb <\.n <vnnpla;t, they re- 
belled against the usurper. 
Cog<x;b, or c<X5<x;b, just, lawful, 


Cojajbe-mujtljn, mill-cogs. 
.\ Cojat, the herb cockle. 
Coj<xl, the beards of a barley-ear. 
Cogamd.}! and cojamujl, warlike, 


Cojaj-i, a whisper ; also an insur- 
rection, a conspiracy; ex. po 
mcx/tbab e bq cogfyi pea/t mjbe 
50 7)<xer)cle;t;e, he was privately 
murdered by the unanimous con- 
spiracy of his own subjects, the 
people of Meath. VicL Tighern. 

, to whisper. 
c, whispers. 
-, peace, amity. 
Co jalc, a wash-ball. 
Cojnab and cogrxvjm, to chew, to 

, a well-ordered system. 
, to conspire. 

c, rebellious; also a warrior. 
and coju^, conscience; 
<xn cojuj^, the scrutiny 
and examination of the con- 
Cojb, a company, a troop; Lat. 


vCo;b and cojbedb, a copy. 
Cojbcjob, ravenous, fierce. 
Co;bce, a dowry, a reward. 
Cojbce, a buying or purchasing. 
Co;bc;cjm, to purchase or pro- 


Cojbcjte, bought, purchased. 
Co;bbetxn, i. e. com-bu;be<xn, of 
which it is a corrupt contraction, 
a troop, or company. 
Co;bfteoc<xb, to comfort. 
C6;b/~e<xn<x, confession. 
Co;c, a secret, a mystery. 
Co;ce, a mountain. 
C6;cc and cojje,a fifth part : hence 
the word co;ge is prefixed to the 
names of the five different pro- 

vinces of Ireland, as they are es- 

teemed each a fifth part of the 

kingdom, though they are not 

all of an equal extent. 
Co;cme, small, little. 
Co;ct, children. 
Co;cme, an udder. 
Co;bce, again; also ever, conti- 

nually ; nj co;bce, never. 
Co;beol<xb, to sleep or slumber; 

c/teb <xnn <x cco;beoto.;b fc, 

wherein shall he sleep ? 
Co;bc, always, utterly ; also verily. 
Cojbe, chastity, continency. 
Co;be<xc, a fighting. 

rectius cojj/ijoc, or 
c, a foreigner, a stran- 


jrc/vjocoy, the remoteness of one 

place from another. 

potius COJJ c^joc, a 

strange land, a remote country. 
Co;je, the fifth part of any thing. 
Cojge, a province, so called because 

Ireland was divided into five 

territories or provinces ; vid. sup. 

cujg c6;ge no. r)e;fi;onn, the 

five provinces of Ireland. 
Co;3eab<xc, a provincial. 
Cojjeol, a noise or clap. 
Cojgeat, a distaff'. 
Co;gealt<x, a conference. 
Co;je<x/tt, judgment. 
Cojjecv/tt, asking a question. 
Co; je<x^-, or co;ge;^e, five ways or 

manners, i. e. co;j-be<X^. 
Co;5;t;m, to rake up or kindle ; 

co;jjl <xn te;ne, kindle the fire. 
Co;g;t;m, to spare, to save, to lay 

up; bo c'o;j)l mog nudjab, i. e. 

eojan-noo/i, <xn ca/tba/t: eo^an- 

mo/1, spared the corn, or laid it 

up ; cojgjl pnn <x Cb;a/tna, 

sjiare us, O Lord. 
Coj^jU, a thought or secret ; genit. 


Co;jle, a companion. 
Co;jle<xcb, a train or retinue. 

to accompany, to at- 




Corgne, a *pear or javelin. 
j, a bound or limit. 
jeac, a stranger, a foreign- 

Coj-gpjnn, five parts or divisions. 

Co;lb;n, a small shaft ; a stem or 
stalk of a plant. 

Co;lce, a _ bed, bed-clothes ; tn; 
co;tce<xb<x no. bjrejnne, the three 
materials of bedding amongst 
the Fenii, or C;ana. C;/t;onn, ac- 
cording to romantic accounts, 
viz. bd/1/tujd.l Cfi<xnn, caonnac, 
0.5 df u/t-liMcajfi, branches of 
trees, moss, and green rushes. 

Cojtea^ab, a lethargy. 

Co;le;/t, a quarry, or stone-pit, a 
mine ; corrupte co_jfieat. 

or co;le<xn, a whelp, 

^Co;leac, a cock. Mark 13. 35. 

\Cojljce, the cholic. 

. Cojl;/-, rectius coljf , cabbage ; 

//'//. cot;/", Lat. caulis. 
Co;lt, sin, iniquity. 
CojU, and gen. cojlle, pi. co;ltte, 

a wood, a grove, a wilderness ; 

a, ccojlt b;cim<x;/t, in a dark 

wood, or desert ; cu;n ollcgb n<x 

co;lle, the wolves of the forest ; 

Wei. kelli, a grove; vid. ge;lt. 
Cojtteab, a hog. 
Cojlleab and cojlt;m, to blindfold, 

or make blind. 
CojUeab and co;ll;m, to trespass, 

to infringe, to violate; also to 

plunder, to geld, &c. 
Cojttmjn, a young pig. 
Cojllre, woods or forests. 
Co;lltre GQajb)ne<xc<x, a territor> T 

near Mitchelstown, in the County 

of Cork, formerly belonging to a 

tribe of the O'Caseys. 
Cojtlte, or ctxjtlte, and c<xjtttrea- 

ndc, an eunuch; also gelded, 

lost, undone. 
Cojl-m;<x/-, a wooden dish. 

and coll<x_;b, vuly. cotan, a 

young cow or heifer. 

Co;tce<xir)u;t, woody, fidl of wood*. 

C6;mc/t;o/*l<xc, the confines of a 

Co;mbe, custom, practice, use. 

Co;mbe, a keeve, a large tub. 

Co;me<xt:<X, a comet. 

Co;rr>, the inflection of com, equal, 
answers exactly in sense to the 
Latin con, and often forms the 
first part of a compound; it is 
generally written by the modern 
grammarians co;m when an e or 
; becomes the initial letter of the 
second part of the compound : 
it was anciently written com 
without any alteration or addi- 
tion; it implies as, so, or as 
much, equal, &c. N. B. This 
prefix com has occasioned that 
several words subjoined to it, 
have been corrupted from their 
true original formation, some of 
their radical letters being sup- 
pressed and lost by abusive con- 
tractions; first proceeding from 
vulgar pronunciation, and then 
continued and authorized by co- 
pyists, who had not skill enough 
to rectify the words by restoring 
them to their radical purity. 
And the prefix too has suffered 
in one of its radicals in some ren- 
counters; for instance, in the 
word co/~mu;t, which in its origi- 
nal formation was com /-<xmujl, 
from the prefix com, and /"<xmu;l, 
similar, Lat. similis, the prefix 
has lost its last radical m ; and its 
adjunct, /-amu;t, hath been re- 
duced from two syllables to one. 
We shall occasionally take notice 
of some of those corrupted wri- 
tings, guided by this rational 
maxim, that when the adjunct 
part of the compound word 
makes no sense by itself, it is to 
be rectified by restoring it to the 
frame of a known word, bearing 



such a meaning as may be natu- 
rally reconcileable with that of 
the compound word in ques- 
-V Combe, a lord, laird, or master. 

Cojm-be, or C<Wjbb;<x, according 
to some, the Trinity, from Com, 
and <De or (D;<x, God. 

Co;me<x/i, short, brief; aliter, cu- 
moj/t and <xtcum<x;/t. 

Co;me<ty-ba, i. e. co;m-me<ty-b<x, of 
equal esteem or worth. 

C6;m<i;/te, g<xn cojmaj/ie, without 

Co;nr)-6ecxfila, corrupted into co- 
rn o.;/ile, a conference, or consul- 
tation by mutual talking or 
speeching, a council or synod; 
vid. com-<X5<\l and c6m<x;/tle, 

C6;m-be;/<t;m, to contribute. 

Cojm-ceanjal, a joint, an union, 
league, or covenant; a conspi- 
racy; also a conjugation. 

Cojro-ceangldb, to couple, to unite. 

Co;m-ce<xp3., a protection. 

Cojm-cejmn; j;ro, to accompany, to 
go together. 

Co;ro-cl;<xiTKx;n, vid. ct;&Bu;n. 

Co;m-c;ie<xpab, contraction. 

C6;m-c/i;o^lac, the confines of a 

Co;mbe<n.c, safe or secure. 

Cojro-beantact, a composure. 

Co;m-b/te;me<xct, competition. 

C6;m-b/ieact:a, conformed. 

Co;mecxc, like, alike. 

Co;me<xb<xc, a watch or guard. 

Co;medba;be, a keeper; j:ea/t co;- 
meaba, idem. 

Co;me<\b<x;m, to keep, to preserve; 
also to beware, or take heed ; 
cojmeabjrujb tu,thou shalt keep. 

Cojmeabac, coupling or joining. 

a^gapi, a conflict, a mutual 
strife or struggle; coiruptecojn- 
yca^, qd. vid. 

o;me^n;^m, to force or con- 
strain, to oppress, to exact ; 

co;m-ejgn;t;, ye exact ; bo co;m- 
e;5"j| fe> he urged ; ta^/tajb 
an pj'g japfjn na ^e<xct:m b/nx;- 
t/te goncx m<xt:a;^, <xgu^ feo 
co;me;5njT }<xb cum jreot<x muc 
b;te, the king urged the seven 
brothers (the Machabees) and 
their mother, to eat swine's 

Co;m-e_j/tje, associates, partners, 

Cojm-ejfijjm, to join with auxilia- 
ries, to assist. 

Co;meub, a ward or custody, watch, 
&c. ; b) tu <Xfi bo cojmeu be 
upon thy guard; co;meub<v, as 
luct co;meuba, a guard. 

Co;meuba;je, a keeper, an ob- 

Co;m-feab<xn, a troop, a company. 

Co;m-j:c<x/-(-c05<vjb, a fellow-sol- 


tcxc, agreeable to, 
or corresponding. 
Co;ro-pie<X5ft<xb, conformity. 
C6jm-p:;c;m, to dispose, or to set in 


Co;mjte;c, a conflict, or struggle 
in wrestling, running a race, or 
any other bodily exercise ; vid. 

Co;m-jne, or cojm-eagrxx je<x/7<x 
. e. 

;io;le, a chronological and his- 
torical knowledge. 

Co;m-jl;nneab, a fastening, or ad- 
hering to. 

Co;ro-j;iearocij<xb, a fastening, or 
adhering to. 

C6;m-j/te(xma;j;m, to adhere, to 
cling to. 

Go;m-;<xtac, one of the same coun- 
try with another; vid. jac. 

Cojm;be<xct:, guarding, attending ; 

Co;m)beac or co;m; jteac, strange 
or foreign; also an out-comer, 

c o 


stranger, or foreigner. 

Cojmjoc and co;m;uc, a comedy. 

Grjm-jonann, even, equal, alike. 

C6jm-le<xn5<v, a course or race. 

Cojml;c, corrupted from co;m jlejc, ; 
a struggle, particularly in run- \ 
ning a race. 

Co;m-l;je, i. e. lan&mn&f, coup- j 

Cojm-lj j;m, to lie together. 

Co;m-l;onga, the even or regular 
march of an army : hence that 
Irish name or description of a 
camel, eac cojmljonga, signify- 
ing a kind of walking-horse, be- 
cause he always walks with equal 

Cojm-ljon, a multitude. 

Co;m-l;ont<v, fulfilled, complete. 

Co;m-l;ont<xct;, a completing or 

C6;m-meant<j.^, a comparison ; rec- 
tius com-iDOrtt<x^. 

Cojm-med.^, equal. 

Cojm-meci^-, a consideration, or 

Co;m-me<ip3.;m, to compare. 

Co;m-medfba, equal, of equal 

Co;m-m5;it<jy and com-m6/t<xb, a 

Co;m-najj;m, to dwell together, to 
inhabit. This is a corrupted 
contraction of the word com- 
tjonu; j;m, compounded of com 
and t;onu;j, which means fre- 
quenting a place ; and com t;o- 
naj j means dwelling, or continu- 
ing in a place. 

Cojmneac, mindful. 

Co;;o.J2}ff)> * confirm, to 

Cojm-ne<x/it<x) jte, confirmed ; Sa- 

je, the Sacrament of 
Cojm-necintu j<xb, confirmation. 
Co; m -near, a neighbourhood. 

Co;m-ne<xr<vjm, to approach, to 
draw nigh to. 

Co;mnj j;m, to remember. 

C6;mn;u j<xb, a remembrance. 

C6;m/te<ic, assistant. 

C6jm-/te<xlr and cojm-^e<xlc<xb, a 

Co;m-/te<xn<x;m, to divide. 

C6;m-/te;mn; jjm, to assemble. 

Cojm-^ejn, syntcuis, or construc- 
tion, concord, &c. 

C5;m-/t;<xcbciri<i.^, great want, or 

C6;m-ft;j<xcbu;n, to engender. 

Co;ro-ft;<xt;u;n, copulation. 

C6;m-^-e<x^am, equilibrium. 

Cojm-^eacd.c, consequently. 

Co;m-^e<xc<xcb, consequence. 

C6;m-/-e;ceam<X)l, by consequence, 

w-f) j?m, to perceive ; also to 
comprehend as in a sum. 
m-^; jce, provident, frugal. 

C6;m-^-^e<X5<xb, a connexion, or 

Co;mce<xca/% cohabitation, or living 
together in the same house. 

C6;mce<xcA)be, or cojmceacac, a 
person that cohabits with another 
in the same house and family. 

Cojmt; je<x^, cohabitation, or living 
in the same house. 

Co;mt:;je<j.^<xc, one who lives in 
the same house with another. 

Co;m-rjonal, an assembly, a con- 
gregation, a synagogue, or con- 

Cojm-cjo/t/ttac, one of the same 
country, a countryman. 

Co;m-t;te<xnab, a confirmation. 

Co;muc, a comedy. PI. 

Co;m;n, a common. j 

Co;m;;te, a brief, an abridgment. 

Co;mpfteab and co;m-p/te<xm<xb, 
conception, generation. 

b and co; 
m<x;m, to conceive; ex. b 
<vn CJ<iftna bo 
bo cojm-p^eamab 



ttfl Sp;o/xAb naom, Angelus Do- 

mini Annunciav it Mar ice, et con- 

cepit de Spiritu Sane to. 
Cojn, or cujn, (pi. of cu,) hounds; 

vid. cu. 
Cojnbecvb, a feast or entertainment; 

co;nbe<xb coecjf, a fortnight's 

Co;nbeabd.c, a person who is in- 

vited to, or partakes of a feast ; 

Lat. conviva, Gall, convie. 
Co;nbed./ipVjb, conversation. 
Co;n-b;le, the dogberry-tree. 
Co;nbl;octr, a conflict or battle ; 

sometimes, and better written, 

co;nj:l;oct; ; Lat. conjlictus. 
Co;nce, haste, speed, expedition. 
Co;nc;n, the brain. 
Cojnbealj, counsel. 
Co;nbe<xtj, comparison, likeness, 


Cojnbealj, a criticising. 
Co;nb;u;/t, as straight as. 
Co;nb/te<xc, co;r>b/tecLc 0;tt, mis- 

chief on you. 
Co;nb/te<xc, instruction. 
Co;nb/ie<xc, to direct. 

here they separate, or branch out 
from each other. 
Cojnbfteagab, to fight or battle 


Co;nb/te<xm<xn, rage, madness, fury. 
Co;nb/i;^, a dog-brier. 
Co;ne<xb, reproof. 
Co;ns<xl-5a;te, excommunicated, 
accursed, detestable; c<vjnbe<xl 
Ba;te, idem. 

Co;neo, the dogberry-tree. 
, the evening. 
, a confessor. 
c, late. 
, otters. 

cb, a debate, a battle, a 
Co;njjolt, a qualification. 
Cojn jjall, or co;n j;ol, a condition ; 
cojrjjjot, ujion condition. 
, conditional. 

Co;n;r, or cujnjn, a rabbit; Lat. ^* 

cuniculus ; vid. cu. 
Cojnteo^t, a candlestick. 
Cojnljn, co;nle, and ca^leoj, a 

stalk, a bud. 
Co;nne, a meeting ; ;on<xb co;nne, 

a place of meeting, a rendez- 

Co;nne, Of co;nne, opposite; of 

cojnne <x ne<xba;n, to their faces ; 

bo jvjt fe no. co;nne, he ran to 

meet him ; &f co;nr>e <x cejte, 

over against one another. 
Cojnne, a woman. This old radi- 

cal word of the Celto-Ibernians, 

is the same in origin as the word ^ 

quean or queen of the Anglo- ' 

Saxons; Lat. cunnus, ex. ante 

Helenam cunnus fuit causa te- 

terrima Belli. Horat. 
Co;nn-<xta;/i, a father-in-law, a 

wife's father. 
Co;nne<xt and c<vjnbe<xl, a candle ; 

Lat. candela. 

/teo.ct<x, i. e. ;i<xct<x-con, 

the laws of hounds and of hunt- 


Cojrif~]4f, vid. co-uf, conscience. 
Co;nt, a woman. 
Co;nt;n, a controversy, a debate, 

dispute, or contention : jrea/t 

co;nt;nne, a contentious man. 
Co;nt;nne<xc, contentious. 
Co;nt;ono;beo.c, custom. PL ex. 

C6jp ; a tribe or multitude of peo- 

ple, or military forces ; Lat. co- 


Cojp, a copy of any writing. 
Co;p-^5/t;b;n, a transcript of any 

piece of writing. 
Co;;i, in compound words signifies 

false, as co;;t-ctejftjoc, a false 


jft, or cujjt, sin, guilt, iniquity, 

fault ; Ian bo co;;tr;b jrujlteaca, 

full of bloody crimes; bo ^e;/t 

A cOj;ie, according to his fault. 
, solitary, lonesome. 



Co; ;t, just, right; nci/i com <x beu- 

nam, that ought not to be done. 
Coatee, oats ; Wei. keirk ; cojnce 

f) <xba;n, wild oats ; <*ft<xn co;/tce, 


Cojflbjn, a small cord. 
Co;;te, trespass. 
Co;;te, a chaldron. 
Cojfie, an invitation to any meeting 

or entertainment. 
Co;fieamdrt, coriander. 
Coj/tjnjom, satisfaction. 
Co;fV, ranges. 
Co;ft; jjm, or cujftjgjm, to sin, tres- 

pass, or offend ; bo cO;tu;j me, 

I have offended ; also to con- 

demn, to chastise, or correct ; 

coj/teOcci me, I will punish, or 

Co;/t; j;m and conujab, to mend, 

to repair, to trim, or dress. 
C6;/t;gte, dressed, amended ; go 

co;/t; jte, sprucely, neatly. 
Co;/t;m, to teize. 

Co;rt;pe<xb, corruption; and co;- 

Co;/t;p;m, to corrupt or spoil. 
Co;/t;pte, corrupted, depraved, 


Co;n;pte<xct, corruption, villany. 
Co;/tm and cajuro, a kind of ale 

among the old Irish ; vid. cu;;tm. 
Co;;tme and cOj/tmedc, a pot-com- 


Cojfimeoj, a cup-gossip. 
Coj;im;n, the dimin. of co/tmac, a 

proper name of a man. 
Co;;tneac, a part. 
C6;/-toe<xc, ;a^ja;^e c6;;ineAc, the 

king's fisher. 
Coj'tneul, a corner; Wei. kornel ; 

it properly means the point of 

the interior space of any angle ; 

a nook. 

Cojnnjneac, frizzled, curl-haired. 
Co;/tn^-b;all, a cupboard. 
Co;npe, wicked, corrupt; bao;ne 

co;^pe, potius co;/ipte, de- 

praved or wicked person*. 

, to make round 
and sharp like a top. 
Cojjtficeann cjogojl, a whirl^ig. 
Co;/t;t-be<xbab, to fight with a 
spear; o_jft &f pnnan co;^/t 
<x 5 a^ ^leaj. C/. 
Cojn^Cfieaboj, a screech-owl. 
Co; fit, bark ; Lat. cortex. 
Co;;tteo;rt, a carter. 
Co^, near to, hard by; cojf na 

p<\jf\%e, by the sea. 
Co;j-be<X;tt:, leg-armour, or a pair 
of greaves, or boots; also a shoe 
or stocking. 

Co;^ce;m, a pace or step ; red i us 
co^-ce;m, from co^, a foot, and 
ce;m, a degree ; vid. co^-ce;m. 
Co;^be, a coach. . 
Co;^-be, orco;^te, a jury of twelve 
men for trying a criminal cause 
according to the law of Ens- 

Co;^-eona me, I will prove, main- 

tain, or defend ; via. co^<xna;ir. 

CojfZJm, to still or quiet, to quell 

or allay ; also to cease, to leave 


, diligent, careful. 
be, a footman. 
, a stem or foot-stalk. 
, a great feast, or plentiful 
entertainment ; co;^"/te<xc, idem. 

, broad. 
c, vid. co;^;/t. 

, to consecrate ; Lat. 

, consecration ; also 

Co;pie<xctrtX, consecrated, blessed. 
agta, idem; u;^je cojf- 
tci, holy or consecrated wa- 

, consecration. 
, the scanning of a 
verse ; . e. ;i;omab, or <x;;team 

Co;^react, potius clo;^teactr, 



, a coachman. 

-j* Co;t, and gen. cojttre, a coracle, 
or small boat. 

Cojtceab, public ; fgola co;tce- 
<xba, public schools ; trcW. co;t- 

Cojtceann, vulgar, common, pub- 
lic; cojtcexxnn bon u;le bu;ne, 
common to all men; go cojt- 
ce<xnn, in general. 

Co;tce<\nnact:, community. 

Co;jteo/t<xn, a limit or boundary. 

Co?t;t, an awl, a bodkin, &c. 

Col, an impediment or prohibition ; 
Gr. Kb)\vit>, impedio ; col gd-Ojl, 
the impediment of consanguinity; 
col com-jrogu;^, the impediment 
of affinity ; colu;^je, i. e. c<v;/t- 
b;o^ c;i;o^-b, the impediment of 
spiritual relation, contracted in 
baptism or confirmation : this 
last is vulgarly called col ^/iu;^-, 
corrupted from col j<xji-u^"r.e. 

Colac, wicked, impious, prohibited, 
C<x;n col<xc, impious Cain. 

Col<v;m, to hinder; Gr. jcwAvw, 

Coltx; jneacb, a colony. 

Colajj-be, a college. 

Colcxm, to plaster. 

Col<xm5}/i, the fish called Hake in 

Col<xmu;n, vid. colum<x;n, 
leap<x, a bed-post. 

Col<xmn<x pe<Xfib, a cow-hide. 

Cokvn, the body, flesh; bo c 
b<xjt <xn col<xnn, they mortified 
the flesh; <x;^"e;/ije nd colnd, 
the resurrection of the flesh. 

Colb, a post or pillar ; also the 
stalk of a plant. 

Colba, a sceptre. 

Colb<x, love, friendship, esteem, 

Colb<X)m, to sprout, or shoot forth 

Col6c<x and colpa, the calf of the 
leg, the shank, the le? of a man 

from the knee to the ankle. 

Colbt<xc, a cow-calf, a heifer. 

Colcac, or colc<vjb, a bed, 

Colg, a sword. 

Colj, a prickle, a sting, a beard or 
awn; as of barley, colj 6/ina, 

Colr<xc, full of prickles or beards ; 
also smart, lively ; also fretful. 

Colgan, a salmon. 

jb;m, to fence, to fight 
with a sword. 

, cabbage ; Lat. caulis. ..>- 

Coll, the hazel-tree : hence the let- 
ter c took the name of coll. 

Coll, a head. 

Coll, destruction, ruin. 

Collac, or fton-coll<vc, a fat heifer. 

Collab and coll<vjm,to sleep : some- 
times written coblab 

Collab, sleep, rest. 

Collajb, a heifer of two years old. 

Coll<x;b, carnal, venereal. 

Coll<x;m, to sleep ; Heb. cfrn,som- 

Coll-c<x;ll, a wood of hazel. 

Collcnu, a hazel-nut. 

Ccll-lecxba;b, a bedstead. 

Collc<xc, a fleet : written also cob- 

Colloc<xc, sleepy. 

Colm and coluno, a dove, or pigeon; X 
colu/i, idem. 

Colm<x, hardness. 

Colmca, a dove-cote, a pigeon- 

Colm-lcw, a pigeon-house. 

Colog, a stake or collo]). 

Colp<x, a single cow, horse, &c. 

Colpac, a bullock, or heifer; a 
young steer, a colt. 

Cole, meat, victuals ; vid. in voce 
ce;;in;ne, supra. 

Colca/i and colt<x;/i, a plougli- 

Coltjta, dark, gloomy, obscure. 

Coluba;/tb, coleworts, cabbage. 

Colum and colom, a dove or pigeon ; 
Lat. columba, Wei. clommen, 


Cor. kolom, Arm. kulm and ku- 

^, Columan, a prop or pillar, a pe- 
destal ; Lat. columna, Wei. en- 
lorn, Hisp. coluna, \ ulg. Gr. 

Com, the waist or middle, the body ; 
t;nne<xr- co;m, the bloody flux ; 
also a defence, protection, guard ; 
ex. pi co;m, under covert, or 

Comae, a breach, a defeat ; com<xc 
<xn cat<x, the defeat of the army. 

Com<xbo;jt, a romancer. 

Com<ib6;fte<xcb, a feigned story, in- 

Comajftce, protection. 

Com<x;^c;m, to protect or defend. 

Comci?t<xjm, to liken or compare. 

CorTKXnn, communion, society. 

Comd/t, the nose ; also a way. 

Com<x^c, a part or share. 

Coma.;tcteo;n, a protector. 

Comdftt, to kill. 

Coma/-, the pulse ; rid. cujrte. 

Com<ty*<xc, efficacious, capable, able. 

Comcyg, mixture, a blending toge- 
ther ; <i ccoma;/^ leat, higgle- 

a composition, 
m, a chaos, or confused 

Coma^mo;!, idem. 

Combac, a breach, defeat, &c. 

Combajbe, assistance, friendship. 

Combfiujtre, crushed. 

Combaj^, resembling, like. 

Com, in compound words some- 
times signifies so or as ; corrxx/tb, 
as high; com-bao;ne<xc, so po- 
polous ; and com-p ab^-o, this far; 
com -mo ^, as great ; vid. co;m. 

Com, to keep, to preserve. 
Com^cb, might, power, ability : 
<xnn bo comacb, in thy power. 

Comacbac and com<xcb<xma;t, able, 
capable, powerful ; 

Coirxxcmac, a circuit. 


C6m<xb, the two last quartans of a 
verse are distinguished by this 
name, as the two first are by that 

Com<xb, an elegy ; rectius cum<xb. 

Corrmb, preservation. 

C6m<xb, a sigh or groan. 

Comab, or cum<xb, a bribe ; also a 
reward, a condition, or article of 
peace, &c., a gratuity, hire, or 
recompense ; ex. b^ear nan co;;t 
a bonca bajc : <vjft comtotjB 6;t 
no. ajngjottr, a judgment which 
you should not pronounce for 
gifts of gold and silver. 

Com-dgcil, a conference, a council, 
from com : Lat. con ; and <xj<xl, 
mutual talk or discourse : it is 
of the same import with co- 
majftle, corrupted from comte- 
<X/il<x, signifying talking, speech- 
ing, or conferring in common : 
bedfild. is of a Gennano-Celtic 
origin, the same word with parle, 
parler, of the French. 

ComajUe, being big with cliild, 
pregnancy, &c. 

Com<x;lt;m, to bear or carry. 

C6md.jlt:;m, to join. 

C6mcv;nn^etXrtac, cotemporary. 

C6majm/"e<x ; nba, idem. 

Coma;nm, a surname. 

Coma;;t and comu;/t, opposite, to- 
wards; <ty- bu/t ccomajfi, over 
against you ; Cx^t ccom&j/tne, for 
us ; j:a c6m<V7;t ncx clo;nne, for 
the children. 

ComA;tbjm andc6m<Xjfim;m, to num- 
ber, to count, or reckon ; bo 

be, ye shall count. 
, a cry, an outcry. 

Com<x;;tce, quarter, or mercy. 

Com<x;;tc;m, to cry out, to bewail. 

C6iri<x;|tle, an advice or counsel. 

Como.;^te, a convocation, council, 
or synod ; from com and be<x/tla, 
a speech, an arguing, or consult- 
ing ; comdj/tle bjredft nejpjonn, 
the general council of the Irish 




Coma;ftleac, a counsellor, adviser, 

Coma;/*!; j;m, to counsel, to advise, 
to consult; bo coma; /it; j ye, lie 

Coma;tceab, competition. 

Coma;tcea^, a neighbour. 

Cornell, the performance, execution, 
or accomplishment of a thing; 
ex. bo 7^70/1 b/ia; jbe pie comat 
r>a cuma;b, he desired to have 
hostages as sureties for the per- 
formance of the conditions. 

Comat, bold, courageous, brave. 

Comat, or cumat, a waiting-maid. 

Comat, or accomat, to heap or join 
together ; Lat. cumulo, accu- 

C6mala;m, to discharge an office 
or duty, to perform, fulfil. 

Comalt and comatta, a foster-bro- 
ther; Lat. co-alitus, from alo, 
alere, altum, et alitum. 

Comattac, fulfilled, performed, &c. 

Comam, to defend. 

Com-annan, like, alike ; co;m-;on- 
nan, idem. 

Com-aonta, consent. 

Com-aontacb, agreement, unity, 

C6m-aonta; j;m, to agree with one, 
to consent to ; as com-aonta; j;m 
an co;m^e;ce<xcb, concedo con- 

Com-ao^ba, cotemporary. 

Comtx^i, opposite, vid. com<n;;t, 

Com<x/tb<x, protection. 

C6m<X;tb(X, i. e. com-jro/iba, a co- 
partner in church-lands or bene- 
fices; also a successor to a see 
or other ecclesiastical dignities ; 
Comd/tba pfratt/rjcc, St. Pa- 
trick's successor in Armagh. 
Vid. Colg. Triad. Thaumatvrg. 
pag. 293. 693. col. 1. and War. 
Antiq. Hib. cap. 17. I id. J?OK- 
b<x, Coirm/ibcx p/?e<xb<x;/i, the 
pope, or St. Peter's successor. 

Com<X;tb<x, a religious order of 
monks among the old Irish. 
Vid. Keat. 

CoiTKX/tba, bean com<x/tba, an ab- 
bess ; bean coma/tba Oft;5;be, 
the abbess of Kildare, or the 
successor of St. Bridget. Vid. 
Chron. Scot. 

Coma/ibacb, a vicarage. 

Coma/ibab, agreement, correspon- 
dence : in the composition of an 
Irish ban, or verse, coma/tba, or 
coma/tbujab, is an agreement 
and correspondence of two words 
in number of syllables, quantity 
of vowels and consonants of the 
same class. 

Coroa/tjirjn, a syllogism. 

Coma/t^a, and gen. coma/i^an, a 
neighbour, rectiuscdwupfa, from 
com and u/t^a, the jamb or side- 
post of a door: a very natural 
expression of the mutual con- 
nexion and dependance of neigh- 
bours on each other. 

Coma/t^anacb, a neighbourhood. 

Coma/ita, a mark or token ; com- 
a/tta na c/io;^ e, the sign of the 
cross ; ph coma/tta; je. 

Coma/ttu jab, a marking or point- 
ing out. 

Coma/itu;j;m, to remark or ob- 

^te, marked, remarked. 
Com-b/iuac, the marches or con- 

fines of a country. 
Com-b/iuacac, bordering upon one 

another, conterminous. 
C6m-ca;b/ieac, corresponding, a 


Com-ca;b/ieact, commerce, traffic. 
Com-ca^/ieaca^, commerce, mu- 

tual correspondence. 
Com-ca;nt, a conference ; also con- 

troversy, an abuse, or affront; 

tugaba/t comca;nt ba ce;le, 

they abused or reviled each 

C6ir)-ca;6b;m and c6m-ca6;n;m, to 



condole, to bemoan. 

Com-c<Xrtci;beacb, rectius comcu- 
;t<v;becicr, mutual struggling or I 

C6m-ca.;insr<x, heaped together. 

anjat, a confederacy ; com- 
ceangdl, also means any joint 
union or tie either in social lite, 
or degree of affinity. 

jg/tjj, a border or limit. 

Com-conjBajl, honour. 
v Com -coup, a corporation. 

Com-cOffoujl, alike, suitable, con- 
formable. N. B. This word is 
corrupted and abusively con- 
structed ; for the word copriujl 
is a corrupt contraction of com- 
7";l; Lat. consimilis. 

Com-cnajtre, sprinkled. 

C6m-c/t<ty-, good-fellowship. 

C6m-6;tao;be<xcb, agreement. 

Com-Cftu;nn;^;m, to assemble, to 

C6m-c;tu;/7nju;z;<xb, a congregation. 
tu;nnj jre, assembled ; <x taj- 
mjb annpx jo com-CKirjnn;jte 
<x ncvjnm <De, we are here assem- 
bled in the name of God ; from 
com, Lat. con; and c ( nu;/7ne, 
quod vid. 

u;^;m, to dispose or set in 

ub/mmd; j;m, to equalize. 

C6m-cu;r-n; jte, congealed. 

Combo.; gjm, or combu; j;m, to build, 
ex. combujjjb ceu.mpolt bam 
Jf]n Jon<xb ub, build me a temple 
in that place. This word is a 
corruption of comjobujj;m, as 
the primitive buildings consisted 
chiefly of sods of earth; vid. 
}:6b, infra. 

om-bajl, or combajl, an assembly 
or convention; a congregation, 
or convocation ; combajl co;t- 
cean n<x cle;;te, a general coun- 
cil ; gen. 

or combajngnj- 
i, to confirm, strengthen, &c. 

, a foster-brother: it is 

pronounced c5alt<x. 
Com-b<\^, an equal right. 
Com-btut:<v, a compact. 
Com-blucdb, contribution. 
Com-bluC(X;m, to frame, to join, or 


C6m-bo;c, as soon as. 
Com-baanAb, confirmation. 
Com-bucca;^", of the same kindred 

and country. 
C6m-butc<x^<xc, a countryman, one 

of the same country. 
C6m-bluc<x, assembled. 
C6m-pcyg<x;m, to embrace. 
Com-prOga/-, consanguinity, or mu- 

tual proximity of blood. 
C6m-pu; jleab, a conference. 
Com-jcu;l, consangninih- ; com- 

flannaf, idem. 
Com-pu/tt<vc and com-jrufi 

comfort ; com^ru^ttracb <xn 

^<xb n<xo;m, the consolation of 

the Holy Ghost ; also confirma- 


m-pujrttu; jceo;/t, the comforter, 

<xn 0);0;t<xb n<xo;m <xn com-pujn- 

t) jteojfi, Spiritus Sanctus Pa- 


;m, to compose. 

m-gabcv;l, i. e. 6 ( nb<x;n, harmony, 

C6m-T<x;l, of the same tribe or fa- 

mily : -cf GCfyciojtj-ecxclajnn mjc 

^)omn<x;lti Oo clajnn ;nj;ne 

Com-ja;t, consanguinity ; com- jd- 

ojl, /f/ew. 
Ccm-ja;;t and co 

congratulation, rejoicing. 

m-ga^bjuJAb and comja;/tbj- 

jjm, to congratulate. 
-jtxjMiD, a convocation ; bo cu;t 

7"e com-jo.;;tm <x;^t <x m<x;c;fc, he 

convoked their chiefs. 
C6m-<x/i, near, nigh at hand; yl;j 

comjaj^, a short or direct way. 
Com-jjol, condition. 
, genteel. 



, conversation. 
ta, heaped together. 

, a consonant. 
Com-ju;t;m, to condole. 
Conrguf, rectius comfO^Uf, con- 

sanguinity, or more literally, mu- 

tual proximity of blood ; vid. 

compo^u^, supra. 
C6ml<x, guards ; <x b;6.n-coir)l<x, his 

aid-de-camps, or life-guards ; 

vid. c<j.;tfiejiD. 
Comla, a horn. 
C6ir)-ldb<x;/tt, a conference, or col- 


Com -lab ft<x, the same. 
C6m-l<xb/i<x;ro, to converse, or dis- 

course together. 
Cornice and comlaoc, a comrade, 

or fellow-soldier ; also a guards- 

Coroldctu; je, a foster-brother, one 

who should naturally be nursed 

by the same breast-milk that 

another was nursed with to his 

prejudice; Lat. collactaneus. 
C6ml<xb, a door ; pi. coiriUx; j ; cow- 

la; j u;/~je, sluices. 
Coml<x;no and comt<x;m, to rub. 
Comta;^, quiet, even-tempered. 
Corol<xn, a duel, a combat; jreaft 

comltxn ceab, a centurion : more 

properly a man who is so great 

a champion as to be able to en- 

counter a hundred men. 
Coro-laoc, vid. comlac. 
C5m-l;6fl<xb, to fulfil. 
C5m-lu<xb<x/i, conversation, com- 

pany ; y-e<xcn<\jb <x coir)-lu<xb<x/i, 

avoid ye his company. 
Con)-lufl.bfvjm, to accompany. 
Com-lu<xt, as swift, as soon as. 
Com-lucb, partners, comlucb ojb^te, 

Com-lu;be, alliance, confederacy, 

&c. ; bo ^nneAbA^t pbe ^af 

comtujbe, they made peace and 

alliance. Vid. dnnal. Innisfall. 

in the reign of Mortogh-more 



G>m-m<xojbe<xm, common joy or 
boasting ; also congratulation. 

C6T)-iDcvo;b;ro, to congratulate ; also 
to boast together. 

', consanguinity. 
cb, idem. 
j<xb, contrition. 

C6m-mb/iu; j and com-fyujte, con- 

Com-mbu<x;b^e<nb, a tumult, uproar, 

Coir)-n<x/^<x;nD, to compact or join 

Corn-net; je, a dwelling, or habita- 

Corr)-nu;je, as; a ccomnd;je, al- 
ways, continually. 

Com-nu; j;m, to stand still or quiet, 
to rest ; pan <xb comnu; je, stand 
still ; also dwell or inhabit ; vid. 
co;m-ncv;i;no ; bo jrjnneaba/t co- 
mna;be, they dwelt, they pitched, 
vid. comtjoou; jjm, supra. 

Comnu;jteac, continuing, perma- 
nent, staunch, steadfast, conti- 
nual; comnu;ie<xc, the same. 

Com-oglac, a fellow-servant. 

C6m-o; j^ie, co-heir ; com-ojj/i; j 
bo ChjijOft) f]nn tpef <xn B<x;^-- 
beo.b, we become the co-heirs of 
Christ by baptism. 

, a pot-companion. 

c, a fellow-prisoner. 

Com;i<x, a coffin, an ark; cornea 
buj^buj^ne, an ark of bulrushes, 
as the cradle of Moses is called. 

Com-/t<xc, a fight, conflict, engage- 
ment; ex. com-nac e;n-p;^t, a 
duel. N. 13. As the monosyllable 
^IOLC in this compound word com- 
;t<xc is absolutely unintelligible 
and unknown in the Irish lan- 
guage, it must therefore be look- 
ed upon as only the maimed re- 
mains of a right genuine word 
that lost some of its radicals in 
its junction with the preposition 
com ; which has been the case of 



in the word c6mnu;je, of' 
te in comajftle, of -guf in 
, i. e. comjroju;-, of bu;- 
j;m in combtrmm, i. e. compob- 
u;j;m, &c. This monosyllable 
/KXC must naturally be a part of 
he word b/t<xc, which is also 

' written bftajc and fytojc, all 
meaning the arm ; Lat. brachiwn. 
which in its ancient and proper 
signification comprehends the 
shoulder and all the rest from 
thence to the fingers inclusively. 
Antiqui humeros cum brae hi is 
armos vocabant, says Festus ; 
and Celsus says that brachium 
meant the whole from the shoul- 
der inclusively to the fingers' 
ends ; which is likewise meant by 
the Irish word b/t<xc, bnajc, or 
6fto;c: and as the Latins de- 
rived their word arma, fighting 
weapons, from armus, the arm, 
and pi/gno pugnare, to fight, 
from pugnus, the fist, because 
the first way of fighting was with 
the arms and fists: so in Irish 
the word combmxjc, or com- 
Bftojc, signified fighting or com- 
bating with the arms and fists, 
and is of the same import as the 
Latin compugnare, we have still 
the word b;to;c in common use 
to signify an effort or struggle, 
as, tra;m <x b/to;c le;/-, I am 
making efforts at it ; and also, I 
am struggling with or against 

C6m-/tac<vjm, to battle, to encoun- 
ter ; bo comn<vjc me, I fought. 

C6m-ft<ib, a dialogue, conversation, 
pi. com-/-uvjb;5, or com/tctjbtjb. 

Com-;tci;b;m, to talk together, to 
converse ; bo ccm-fta;b ^e fte 
n<x be<Xft-bftut<xj^, he conversed 
with his brother. 

and c5m-;ta;bt;je, 
conversable, a good companion. 
, wrinkled. 

C6m-^ocb<xjm, to meet. 

Com-ftojajn, election, choice. 

C6n)-/to;cjm, to choose. 

Com-fto;nn, a share or portion ; 
tucb com/tOjnn, partakers. 

C6m-rtujb;m, to concur. 

C6m-;iun<vjm, to impart or commu- 
nicate as a secret. 

Com-ftunuj<xb, a conspiracy; It/ct 
com/tu;n, conspirators. 

Com-j'ajjjb, peace among you, 
quiet, rest. 

b, everlasting, perpetual. 
, rest, quietness, &c. 
, a school-fellow. 
, to vomit. 

b, a meeting or conflu- 
ence of rivers or waters. 
, a constellation. 

Com-^/tut, a confluence of rivers. 

C6m-^uana;b, he slept or reposed. 

Com-^-u;/tJje<xc, a rival or compe- 
titor, a candidate. 

Com-fpajpn, a wrestling or con- 

Comc<x and comtac, a companion 
or comrade; jretXft comc<x Cd- 
K^tac ;to b; ajam, j/'e bo bea/t- 
^jnajbeac bom g<xc n;b bo pj<x- 
FW&1 n ^ n<x te<xl/t<x pejn, a 
companion, who was a Hebrew, 
answered all my questions in his 
own tongue. 

Comta, a fidelity. 

Comtac, a comrade, or close com- 
panion : derived perhaps from 
com and te<xc, a house, from co- 
habiting together in one house. 

Comt<x;te, a compact. 

Com-tanngCd, contracted. 

Com -tat, a commissure, joint, or 

C6m-tor<i;m, to join together. 

Com-torujje, a mutual old ac- 

C6m-t}0na.l, congregation. 

Com-tonJ^jm, to agree with one, 
to consent to. 

Come/id;", a sweet scent. 



Ccm-t/iono, just, equal ; also equity, 
justice ; also ballast, or counter- 
poising ; ex. ced/tt: -)f cot/iom ; 
also njl fe cot/iom, &c. 

C6m-t/iomd;j;m, to balance, weigh, 
or poise. f 

C6m-t/iim;be, compassion. 

Coro-tu/~5<x, when first, as soon as. 

C6mu<x, a cousin-german ; u<x is a 
son, or a son's son, or daughter ; 
and com-ua means two sons or 
daughters in the same second de- 

Com-u;bneo;/i, a pot-companion. 

C6rou;b, a present. 

Comroajm, a wife. 

Comm<x;/tce, a riding together. 

C6mnr)a;tce<ty-, a neighbourhood. 

Corcroeab, free quarters; conomeab 
6 pxmtrjfl bejltrjne, free quar- 
ters from All Saints till May. 

Commo/t, the nose. 

Comon, but. 

Como/KXb, an assembly, congre- 
gation, &c. 

Como/ioib and como;i<x;m, to gather 
together, to assemble ; bo coiiio- 
jiab n<x fldto., the chiefs were 

Comparxxc, a companion, a comrade. 

Coimpant<x/~, fellowship, ^society. _ 

Compaq, a compass, a ring, or cir- 

CompfUi;b, a comparison. 

Com/i<x; je<y, a form or fashion. 

ComW/i<xb, rest. 
>' Comc<xc, a companion. 

CoiDujfjjm, to mingle ; bo comu;^j 
me, I mixed. 

/t^a, abusively written com- 
<x, genit. com-u/ipxn, a neigh- 
bour; u/ipx, genit. u/-i^<xn, sig- 
nifies the jamb or side-post of a 
door : so that the compound 
word comurya, pi. comu/t^na, 
metaphorically signifies persons 
living in close connexion, and 
supporting each other as mu- 
tually as the two jambs of one 

and the same door ; a very natu- 
ral emblem and representation of 
the reciprocal duties of neigh- 
bours towards each other. 
Con, sense or meaning. 

a carcass; Lat. cada- 


Con<xc, a murrain among cattle, 
which is of as pestilent a nature 
amongst them as the plague is 
among men. 

cxc, prosperity, affluence, world- 
ly blessings : written also cona- 
jac, and conab, the same; t\ 
con&c f~)n O/tt, may you benefit 
by it. 

c, a shirt, a smock. 

Corxxcloon, an equal, a comrade, a 
mate, a fellow. 

Conaclonn, a kind of versification 
common among the Irish, ac- 
cording to the strict rules of 
which, the last word of a verse 
is the first of the next, pursuing 
the same order to the end, the 
last word of the whole poem 
being like unto the first. This 
is vulgarly called paba;/t;n, or 

Conab, prosperity, potius cona j. 

Con<xb, a greedy appetite ; also 
rage or fury ; hence mab/x<xb co- 
n<x;b, a mad dog. 

Conaba;/ie, therefore ; ex. 0n a;/te 
f)n t for which reason, a frequent 
expression in Irish. 

, the proper name of many 
great princes of the old Irish. I. 
Conal Cea/incxc, a prince of the 
Royal Ruderician race of Ulster, 
was a celebrated warrior about 
the time of the birth of Christ, 
according to our annals ; he was 
cotemporary and cousin of the 
same blood with the famous 
champion Cuculajnn. From this 
Conat the large territory of Jb 
Conajl GOuj/itemne, otherwise 
called GQo.c<tj/te C;ofl<i;l, now n 

c o 

part of the County of Louth, had 
its name. His chief descendants 
are the Magenis's, ancient lords 
of J5-e<xt<xc, or Iveach, a large 
territory now comprehending the 
two baronies of upper and lower 
Iveach, and other tracts in the 
County of Down ; and the 
O'Mora's, or O'Mores, princes 
or lords of Laighiseacha, now 
called Leix, comprehending the 
two large modern baronies of 
Maiy-burrongh and Cuilleanagh, 
with other parts, reduced into a 
county, called the Queen's Coun- 
ty, in Philip and Mary's reign. 
Mr. O'More of Ballyna is now 
the chief of this noble family. 
II. Conal "golban, one of the 
sons of /M;<xl-^l<xo; j;<xllac, king 
of Meath, and supreme lord of 
Ulster and Connaught towards 
the end of the fourth century. 
From this Con<xl "golban, the 
country of Cjne<xl Con<x;l, or 
Tirconell, now the County of 
Donegal, which was the ancient 
estate of the O'Donels, derives 
its name ; and of which large 
territory this princely family have 
been sovereign lords from the 
fourth century to the time of 
King James I. of England. The 
great general O'Donel, field mar- 
shal, chief general of cavalry, 
governor-general of Transylvania 
and grand croix of the military 
order of St. Theresa, descended 
from a series of kings, princes, 
or counts, who have maintained 
their sovereign independancy, at 
least from the second eentury, 
down to the beginning of the 
sixteenth, in the reign of James 
I. of England, is now the chief 
of this princely family. III. Co- 
ral gati/tO, from whom the coun- 
try of Jt-Conajl 3^fyt<* derives 
its name, was the ancestor and 


stock of the O'Conels, widely 
spread throughout the Counties 
of Limerick, Kerry, and Cork ; 
that country, now comprehend- 
ing the baronies of Upper and 
Lower Conello, in the County of 
Limerick, was more anciently 
called C;ft-bjre<x^mo/tc, or other- 
wise C;ft-<Xftmoic. The O'Conels, 
it seems, were dispossessed of 
that territory long before the 
twelfth century ; for we read in 
the Continuator of Tighernach's 
Annals at the year 1155, that 
O'Cinealy and O'Cuileain were 
then the two kings of Jb Contvjl 
3<xB/t<x, and that they killed each 
other in a duel or rencounter on 
a day of battle. 

Con<x;l, cnom concxjl, a plague in 
Ireland, an. 540; bujbe condjl, 
another plague which raged in 
Ireland, an. 1664. 

Con<x;tHe, love, friendship. 

Con<x;l6eo.c, upholding, assisting. 

Corxxj/t, a way, a road; and gen. 

Con<vj/tbe, as, or alike. 

Cono/^t, cormjpt boco;n cllca, a 
rout of wolves. 

<vc, busily employed, 
love, friendship ; hence 

Conaf, a carcass, a dead body. 

Conb&j j;m, to stop, stay, or with- 

Conb<x;/"cne, the dogberry-tree. 

ConBujbean, a guard. 

Concljub, a conclusion, \ 

ConcuB<Xft, or concumcift, (from con, 
a contracted writing of cu-oun, 
rid. oa and ou;n, i. e. a river- 
hound, or an otter, and cumdn, a 
lover of hounds or dogs, has 
been the name of several great 
personages of the old Irish : the 
r'amily name O'Connor, whereof 
there are different septs de- 
scended from different stocks, 

c o 

such as the great O'Connors of 
Connaught, who were the last 
kings of that province; O'Con- 
nor of Kerry, and O'Connor of 
Corcumroe, both descended from 
Fergus, son of ftop^x ftucxb, of 
the Ruderician race, hereditary 
kings of Ulster ; and O'Connor 
Cianachta, a descendant of C;<xn, 
son of Oljotolujtn, who was su- 
preme king of Le<xt-inoj, i. e. 
of Munster and Leinster in the 
third century. These different 
O'Connors, I say, were so called 
from one of their respective an- 
cestors named Concuba/i; and 
yet the descendants of other 
great princes of the same name 
were not called by that of 
O'Connor, such as Concub<x/t 
(Dae fv]e<xpx, king of Ulster, 
said to be a cotemporary of our 
Saviour, and Concuba/t 0'0^i;en, 
surnamed |M<X Cu.t<Xfi<xc, the 
fourth descendant of the great 
Brien-Boirbhe, which Concub<x/t 
died king of Munster and su- 
preme king of Leinster, accord- 
ing to the Continuator of the 
Annals of Tighernach, an. 1 142, 
wherein he is marked down as 
the eldest son of Dermod O'Bri- 
en, whom he had succeeded in 
the throne of Munster, an. 1120, 
as his younger brother, Turlogh, 
second son of Dermod, and an- 
cestor of the O'Briens of Tho- 
mond, did likewise succeed this 
Concubo.;i in the same throne, 
an. 1142. The Genealogical 
Records of the Mac Brodines, 
hereditary antiquaries of the 
house of Thomond, and likewise 
those of the Mulconneries, not 
less famous genealogists, after 
setting down Concub<x/i fM<x C<x- 
ta^ac as the eldest son of Der- 
mod, mention the O'Briens of 
Clangibbon, whose chiefs resided 

atBalyshyhan,now in the County 
of Tipperary, and the O'Briens 
of Coismagh, in the County of 
Limerick, as his direct descen- 
dants, and consequently the direct 
descendants of Brien-Boirbhe ; 
I mean of all those of his pos- 
terity that bear the name of 
O'Brien, for it is well known, 
and is candidly acknowledged 
by the now-mentioned genealo- 
gists, that the Mac Mahons of 
Thomond and the Mac Donals 
of Darach, in the same country, 
are the true direct heirs of Brien- 
Boirbhe, they being the descen- 
dants of Mortogh Mor O'Brien, 
king of all Ireland, and eldest 
brother of Dermod O'Brien 
above-mentioned ; and accord- 
ingly the Mac Mahons have pre- 
served, as their arms, the three 
lions simply, which were the 
royal ensign of Brien-Boirbhe 
in all his battles; in the same 
manner that they are preserved 
as arms by the O'Briens of the 
direct line of Concub<x/i fl<x C<x- 
ta/t<xc. This King Concub<x/t 
had his surname fl<x C<xt<x/tac 
from the great number of castles 
and churches which he built in 
Munster, besides two sumptuous 
monasteries he built and founded 
at Ratisbonne for Irish Bene- 
dictines, now possessed by the 
Scots. Fid. Cambrensis Evers* 
pag. 163, 164. And yet neither 
of the two families, the O'Briens 
or the Mac Mahons, are the di- 
rect chiefs of the Royal Dalcas- 
sian race : the Mac Eneirys of 
Castletown Mac Eneiry, in the 
County of Limerick, who are 
dispossessed of their large estate 
since King James the Second's 
time, are before them both in 
the order of lineal descent, being 
descended from the eldest son 



of Mahon, king of Munster in 
the tenth century, and elder bro- 
ther of Brien-Boirbhe, who suc- 
ceeded him in that throne, and 
afterwards became monarch of 
all Ireland. Such has been at 
all times the instability of human 
grandeur and pre-eminence. 
Conba, until ; Lat. donee ; contxx 
ta;n;c <xn tap/-bal, donee venit 

Conba; jj^, a countess. 
Conba^acb, rage or fury. 
Conb^iecxjab, a separation. 
Conbuata, embroidery, sculpture. 

n<x jroj/te, the roaring of 
the sea. 
onidbac, a vulture. 

, the antlers or branches of 
a buck's or stag's horns. 
o/iga, an abbey of canons regular 
in the County of Mayo. 
Cong<x, cotemporary. 

, an assistant. 
.c, a kinsman ; rectius 

aj jjm, to keep, to hold ; also 

to attend. 
ConjKvj jcea^, abstinence, tempe- 

Conjbcul, a habitation, a house, a 


Congbdla;'. a stay, or support. 
Conjbt/j^jjm a la;m, I restrain 


, conquest. 

, to roar, to make a 

great noise. 

Con jcil, gallantry, bravery. 
Congmajl, to hold ; congmcijb <x 

taroa <xn cojgeul, her hands hold 

the distaff; bo c'ongbujb ;-e, he 

Conjnajm, to help, assist, or suc- 


Conjnoun, aid. assistance. 
Conjnd, a narrative, a relation. 
Con^nCxjbe, a relater or rehearser. 
Conjt<v;m, cunning, craft, inge- 


Conj^<x;m, apparel, clothing. 

Conki, or con/>la, with', sensible, 
prudent; also chaste. 

Conlac, straw, stubble, hay. 

Conlan, healthy. 

Conldn, an assembly. 

Conmo.;cne, the old name of seve- 
ral districts in Connaught, so 
called, as our antiquaries assure 
us, from Conmac, one of the 
three sons whom CTXv;bm C?tu<xc- 
na, the wife of O;ljolt, king of 
Connaught, bore, as we are as- 
sured, in one birth, for Fergus, 
an exiled king of Ulster, before 
the Christian sera. Tims Con- 
ma;cne, of Moyrein, divided into 
two parts, the one otherwise call- 
ed -cfnjsx;te, or tfntvjle, as also 
OQujnteft CDcxolmo;taba, in the 
County of Longford, the estate 
of the O'Farells, and the other 
called 00u;ntj/t Colu;^, in the Co. 
Leitrim, the ancient proper 
the Mac Ranells. In this partition 
I follow O'Dubhagain's Topo- 
graphical Poem, with \\hichMr. 
Harris, Editor of Sir James 
Vs'ure's works, agrees, in vol. '2. 
pag. 48 ; though the learned 
Mr. Flaherty (Ogycr. prig. ^75.) 
.:is the part called CDu;nt;^i 
Golajf in the County of Leitrim, 
to the O'Farells, and that in the 
County of Longford to the Mac 
Ranells. Conmacne of )unmo;t, 
now the barony of Dunamore, in 
the County of Galway. was the 
ancient estate of O'SJoblojn, ac- 
cording to O'Dubhagain. Con- 
m<vcne Cujle Cola, now the ba- 
rony of Kilmaine, in the County 
of Mayo, was the lordship of 
0'C<xlccuu\;n ; and Conroacne 
G0a/t<x, in the County of Galway, 
was the country of 0'C<xbU\, 
Eng. OF Kelly, lliis Comn<xcne 
is now the barony of Ballyim- 

c o 

c o 


Conm<xot, the proper name of some 
famous personages of the old 
Irish, particularly of the son of 
the great champion Cucuto/jnn, 
and of whose tragical fate of 
being killed by his father in a 
duel, neither of the two being 
personally known to the other, 
the reader may see a very 
moving account in a dissertation 
published in the Journal des 
Savans of the year 1764, under 
the title of Memoire de M. de C. 
au Sujet des Poems de M. Mac 
Pkerson ; it is distributed in se- 
ven pieces, between the months 
of May, June, (which contains 
two pieces in two different vo- 
lumes,) August, September, and 
December, vol. 2, wherein is re- 
counted the tragical story of 

Conn, a meaning, sense, reason. 

Connacb, and gen. connacba, the 
province of Connaught ; <x ccon- 
n<xcb<x;b, in Connaught. 

Connacbac, a Conacian. 

Connab, wood. 

ConnujU. Jocta/tac, the lower ba- 
rony of Connalla, in the County 
of Limerick, the ancient estate 
of the O'Cinealys, the O'Collins, 
and the O'Sheehans ; but more 
anciently of the O'Conels. 

Conn<x;tl Uactafiac, the upper ba- 
rony of Conalla, in the County 
of Limerick, the patrimony of 
the Mac Ennerys. 

Conna;l, vid. conjmct/l, to hold. 

Conn<x;l, prudent ; vid. conlcx, id. 

Connajl) a civil or polite farewell. 

Co/ma;;tcjm, to see or behold ; bo 
conndj/ic ye, he saw; bo con- 
n<x/ic<ty- mullujje n<x ^"le;bte, 
the tops of the mountains were 

Conna;/tcte, i. e. bog, indulgent ; 
conn<x;/tcle pt; pxnn, i. e. bog 

j\e bujne jrann, to be indulgent 
to an infirm or weak man. 

Connate, i. e. teac cujnn, or tea- 
mo; 71 bpteaj, the royal seat of 
Conn of the hundred battles at 
UecxmO;i. N. B. Ce<x-mo/i, or 
Ceacnoo/t, literally means a great 
house, or sumptuous building. 

Connao;, a preserving,' protecting, 
or building. 

Conna/tca, earnest. 

Connco.^, bo conncaf bu;tr, it 
pleased you, i. e. visum est tibi. 

Conn^po;b, controversy, debate ; 
bo bcuba/t 0.5 conn^po;b pjf, 
they were contesting with him. 

Connf po;b; je, a disputant, an ar- 

Conn;~po;b; jeact, disputing, con- 

Conntajfi^me, a prince's court. 

Connto;/ib/i;m, to allege, or main- 

Conojbjro, to heed or regard. 

Con/ta, an agreement or compact. 

Con/i<x, a bier. 

Con/tabo;^t and con/io;/i, a bearer, 
one that carries a corpse. 

, a consonant. ,;' 
, a consul. 

or ^-;ot;-coma;be, 

Con^tat, counsel, advice. 

Co/itrabo.;/tc, chance, peradventure, 
peril, danger; gan contab<x;/tt, 
doubtless, truly - 

Conntdb<x;;ite<ic, doubtful, du- 
bious, dangerous, hazardous. 
c, idem. 
, to affirm, to allege. 

Contra/t, a doubt. 

Contaf, an account, a reckoning, 

Cont/ta;tl, opposition, adversity. 

Conc/ia/iba, contrary. 

Cont/ia/tb<xct, contrariety, variety. 

, lean, poor, 
copper. X 

and conop;ta;b, a comj)a- 



Copoj, and copo^<x, copojg, in the 

genit. dockleat ; Lat. lapathum. 
Copoj, any large leaf of an herb or 

Coj\ and cu/t, sent ; ta/t ejf <v co/x 

<X;t <x baif, after she had been 

sent back. 
C0f\, a state, condition, or circum- 

Co/t, <x/t cOft, so that, to the end 

that; co/t 50 mujnjrjbe, that ye 

may teach ; <xn co/t <xn bye, <x/t 
co/t, at all, in the least ; <x/t 
c ean co/t, by all means. 
oft, music. 
Co/t, a twist or turn. 
Co/t, a throw or cast ; also a rouud 

or circular motion. 
Co/t, surety. 
Co/t, odd, i. e. co/t;t<x ; ex. ojnean 

no co/t/td., even or odd. 
C6/t<x, rather, the comparative of 

co;/t ; b<x co/t<x bujt, it was fitter 

for you ; co/t<x, a weir, or dam. 
Co/t<x, a choir : hence the Scottish 

word coronach, signifying the 

Irish cry ; Lat. chorus. 
Co/t<x, Ceann Cbo;i<x, in the County 

of Clare, near Killaloe, where 

the famous Brien-Boirbhe had 

his court. 

CO'KXgab., neatness, trimness. 
Cc/Kijb, a pair, a couple; co/t<vjb 

bo, two cows. 
CofKXjb, cheese-runnet. 
C6;ici;b, a champion, a hero ; vid. 

, a recognzance. 
, although. 
, a curtain. 

, a territory anciently com- 
prehending Xalen^a, (now the 
barony of Galen, in the County 
of Mayo,) Lujn;<x, or Lu; jne, 
now the barony of Leny, in the 
County of Sligo ; and Conowna, 
the barony of Corran, in the 
same county. 
, to turn. 


, a coach, a waggon, 
a, or cu/tbo., lewdness, incest: 
hence cu/iba cujl, perhaps more 
properly than the usual expres- 
sion cjo/tbo. cujl, to signify in- 

, or cu/tb<x, lascivious, lewd, 
incestuous. In the Sclavonian 
language curba is a whore or 
prostitute ; and kurva the same 
in the Hungarian. 

b, a cast, throw, or fling. 
, the cramp. 

, a cartwright, or coach- 

C0fibo;;te, a coachman; Lat. rhe- 

Cope, a great round pot or chal- 
dron; hence co^can, a small 
pot ; and cOficog, a bee-hive. 

COftc, children. 

Co/tco.c, a moor, or marsh; any 
sort of low and swampy ground ; 

Co/tea, the old Irish name of 
Cork, a large city built on a low 
marshy island, formed by the 
branches of the river Lee, a fa- 
mous sea-port, and the greatest 
mart of trade, for import, of all 
Ireland. The County of Cork 
is the largest in the kingdom, 
comprehending nineteen largo 
baronies and three bishopricks, 
Cloyne, Cork, and Ross. 

Co/tco.-5<x;^Tjn, a barony of the 
County ot Clare, which anciently 
belonged to the O'Baiscins and 

Co/tc<x-eacl<xn, a territory in the 
most northern part of the County 
of Roscommon, anciently be- 
longing to the O'Hanlys and the 

Cofic<x-e<xt/t<xc, a territory about 
Cashel, comprehending the tracts 
now called Onac and Cojtl no. 

, a barony in the west 


c o 

of the County of Kerry, the an- 
cient estate of the O'Failvies 
and the O'Sheas, as was also the 
barony of <lojt> ftatrac in said 

C0fic<ntu;be, now called Cotlujbe, 
a territory of Carbury in the 
County of Cork, of which enough 
has been said at the words 
and cobtdc. 

a barony of the 
County of Clare, formerly the 
estate of O'Conno/t Co/ico.m/tu<xb 
of the Ruderician race. Vid. 
the notes on the names Concubcx/i 
and Con<xl. 

/ Coftcu/t, red, purple ; co/ic/t<x, id. 
hence the epithets g/tuabgte?- 
geat com-co/tc/a<x spoken of one 
that has a charming white and 
red in his complexion ; Gr. ?rop- 
0upa, Lat. purpura. Thus the 
lerno- Celtic often changes the 
p of the Greeks and Latin into 
c; as cof for TTOUC and pes, 
cajfc for pasca, Sec. Sec. 

Cojic&n, a pot. 

Co/ica/ib, now the County of Long- 
ford, anciently the patrimony of 
the Mulfinnys, the Mac Corga- 
vanes, the O'Dalys, the O'Sla- 
manes, and the O'Skollys. 

Coficor, and genit. co/tcojge, a 

Co/icrta;be, a tract of the County 
of Meath, the ancient inheritance 

Co/ib<x, a cord or line ; Gr. ^opSr/, 
and Lat. chorda. 

, hath been the proper name 
of several great princes of the 
old Irish nation. 

, surnamcd 0'Cu;leanci;n, 
a prince of the Eugenian race, 
descended from Oltjol-Olum, 
king of Munster, and supreme 
king of Leinster in the beginning 
of the third century, was pro- 
claimed king of Cashcl an. 902, 

according to the Annals of Inis- 
fallen, and at the same time ex- 
ercised the functions of arch- 
bishop of that see. In the year 

906 he was suddenly attacked 
by plann flOac G0aol^e<xclu;n, 
king of Meath, and supreme 
king of Ulster and Connaught, 
and by Cea/iub<xl Gptxc G0u;/ie- 
&;n, king of Leinster, who 
jointly plundered his country 
from Cashel to Limerick. In 

907 Co/imac, at the head of the 
forces of Munster, returned their 
visit, met and defeated plann 
and all his forces collected from 
the northern provinces, on the 
plains of Moylena in Meath ; 
marched from thence to Ulster 
and Connaught, and returned 
home victorious, bringing hos- 
tages from the different powers 
he had attacked. But in the 
year 908 pl<xnn, assisted by the 
kings of Connaught and Leinster 
with all their forces, attacked 
Co/imoic and the Momonians on 
the plain of Moyailbhe, where 
he was defeated and killed. 

o/tmac, surnamed Cajf, i. e. be- 
loved, son of the above Oll;ot- 
Oluno, was supreme king of 
Munster and Leinster in the 
third century ; he is the stock of 
the Dalcassian race, from whom 
descended the O'Briens, the Mac 
Mahons of Thomond, the Mac- 
namaras, the O'Kenedys, and se- 
veral other noble families, 
o/iroac, surnamed O'Cujnn, Son 
of Art, was king of Meath, and 
supreme king of the two northern 
provinces, after the middle of 
the third century. He was de- 
posed by pe/tju^, king of Ul- 
ster, notwithstanding the efforts 
made in his favour by Q<xn and 
Coca C<xoI3j:cvba, two sons of 
Oll;ol-0luno, who fought tvro 

c o 


battles against pe/tguf, in the 
second of which they both lost 
their lives; but pe/tju;- in his 
turn was defeated and slain at 
the battle of Criona by the hands 
of the renowned champion LUJJ- 
L&j<x, brother of Oltjot-Olum, 
and his army all defeated and 
routed by the forces of Ccxjbj, 
son of the now-mentioned Qan, 
by whose prudence and valour, 
as well as by the extraordinary 
feats of arms of i-ujj Laja, that 
bloody battle was gained in fa- 
favour of Coftmoic, who there- 
upon recovered his crown. The 
above Cj<xn is the ancestor and 
stock of the princely families of 
the O'Haras, of whom Charles 
O'Hara, of Nymph's Field, in 
the County of Sligo, is now the 
direct chief of the O'Garas, of 
the O'Connors of Qtxrxxcta, of 
the O'Carols, of the O'Meac- 
hairs, &c. 
opncttiHj a cupboard. 

, a horn ; Lat. cornu. 
tn, a drinking-cup, because an- 
ciently drinking-cups were of 
horn : hence the cornucopia of 
the Latins ; Wai. corn ; hence 

. the name of Cornwall, from 
corn-dill, which signifies a horny 
cliflfj as it jets out into the sea 
with horny precipices. Vid. 

. Cambden in Cornwall. 

Conn<xb, a folding or rolling. 

Co/tnajm, to fold or plait. 

Co/tnta, folded or wrapped up. 

COfiog, a faggot, a bavin. 

Conojn, a crown; Gr. Kopuvi), and 
Lat. corona; co^o;n fpjne, co- 

t rona spinarum. 

Co/t6;n-n)irj;te, the rosary, a set of 

Copip, the body, a corpse; Lat. 

Co/tplen, a winding-sheet, i. e. 

. lejne cojrtp ; Lat. Iccna corporis 

rel cadaveris. Note. Strabo 
observes that Icena or lena is a 
Gallic or Celtic word. The Irish 
have no other word to express a 
shirt or inside garment but ten 
or tejne. 

/tpOfiba, corporeal, of or belong- 
ing to the body. 
o^t, a snout, a bill. 

, a comer ; o co;t;tu;B n<x tcil- 
, from the ends of the earth ; 
<xn c6^t<x;B no. b<xlc6;\<x, upon 
the horns of the altar. 
Cojt;t, any bird of the crane kind ; 

a crane ; C0;i^i- /t;<J.n, a bittern. 
Cortfi, odd ; u;rii;j/t co^t/t<x, tlie odd 


Coj\ji, a pit of water. 
Co/-iux-m<*rtgu;b, the rabble. 
c, a fetter, a shackle. 

wavering or inconstant. 
Cori;t<xc, a marshy or fenny piece 
of ground. 

a town and territon" in 
the County of Clare, the ancient 
estate of the O'Heffernans and 
the O'Quins. 

gesture, stirring about. 
, to move or stir; also to 

, a sickle ; 
a pruning-hook. 

c, hooked, having hooks. 
i, crooked or hooked. 
to carve or engrave. 
, be<xjt<x 50 
lest he persuade, or move. 

ica, wean", fatigued. 
Coj\j\u j<xb, a motion, also to move ; 
nj co/t;t6cd tu, thou shalt not 
stir ; ma/t co/t/tuj jea^ <xn cjol<X;t 
fu4f <x ne<xb, as the eagle stirs 
up her nest ; bo co^jxuj j <xn 
t<xl(xm, the earth shook. 
Co^tu; je, idem. 

Co/tftujjetxc and cot^u;jte<xc^ 
stirring, active, moving. 

injury ; also anger. 


, debt. 
Co/ita, of or belonging to sowing ; 

ppl-co/-ita, sowing seed. 
Co/it u; pi, the border or fringe of a 

Cobban, coral. 

Copu jab, subst, an ornament ; aj 
co;iu jab, mending or dressing ; 
too co/iujab, to dress out or 
adorn ; co/tur-cata, the dress or 
armour of a fighting man. 
Cof, the foot, the leg, is like the 
Gr. Trove and the Lat. pes ; the 
letters c and p being often corn- 
mutable with respect to the 
Greek and Irish. 
Cof, consideration. 
C0f<xjb;m, to teach, to instruct. 
Co^a;nt, a reply, defence, &c. 
Cofajp, a feast, a banquet, or re- 

Cof4)j\, a bed. 

Ccy-ama;l, alike ; corruptly written 
, Lat. consimilis. 

, similitude, a parable, 
a comparison. 

a path. 

Co;-ana;m, to keep off, out, or 
away, to defend, to preserve, to 
vouch a thing, to maintain and 
stand to it. 

, kept off, defended, main- 
Copxnta, perplexed, entangled. 

and co^anro;/i, the de- 
fendant in a process. 

, fetters. 
C0fl>6)j\, an object. 

, a ceasing, failing, or giving 

, or ccifg, an impediment or 

Co^ce;m, a step, or pace; from 
cdf, the foot, and cejm, a de- 

cost, expense. 
, rich, costly, expensive, 
a stopping or suppress- 



1, a slaughter, a havoc. 

a triumph, a great re- 
ocng; gn;om fa ftfyb cp^5<X)/t, 
Lat. J acinus magni triumphi; 
and cogga/i jleac<xc, victorious 
in fight. 

and co^jj^xc, victo- 
rious, triumphant. 
o^jt<xc, slaughter, massacre ; also 
of or belonging to the same ; 
lam co^<x/xc, a slaughtering 

, barefoot. 
-lu^t, swift-footed. 
Coprwjl, like, as. y 
Co^mujledcb, imitation, likeness, 

or similitude. 
Co^-n<xb, defence, preservation. 

to defend or maintain ; 
noc bo co^-nab<x/i, which they 
held; also to cost; bo copxjn 
bam op., it cost me gold. 

m, a defence, or protection ; 
<i co^-/7<xm <x c;/tt, defending 
his riht. 

m, war, battle, 
c, slaughter, massacre, &c. 
c, sumptuous, costly, 

wild chervile; Latin, 
Cot, a part, a share, a portion, or 

division ; a quota. 
Cota, a coat, an outside garment ; 

cota ban, a groat. 
Cota;g, a good correspondence or 
harmony; 50 mbejt aonta agity- 
cotajj jtojjt a. rclannajb 50 
b;tat, insomuch that union and 
harmony will always subsist 
among their children. 
Cota; j;m, to be afraid. 
Cotcajb and cotcanu;b, in parts 

or pieces ; md. cu;b and cot. 
Cot, meat, victuals; hence cotu- 

Cotab, a support, a preserving, a 

Cota; jjm and cotu j<Xb, to feed, to 

c n 

C 17 

support, maintain, &c. ; <i co- 

tujcib <x f-e;lbe, maintaining liis 

Cotan, a cough. 
Cot-Ion, riatlcum, or provision of 

victuals for a journey. 
Cotujab, (vld. cotajjjm,) a stay, 

or support ; a rampart ; also food 

or sustenance. 
Cottub, a mountain. 
Cncvb<xb, religion; <xn c^abab Ca- 

co;l;ce, the Catholic religion ; 

also more properly devotion ; 

hence b;te<X-Cfuxbab, false de- 

votion or hypocrisy. 
Cftab, pain, anguish, torture, vexa- 

C/tabdjm, to torment, to vex ; bo 

cnab<ib<x/t, they vexed ; c^eb 

jrCut c/iajb tu, why hast thou 

afflicted .' Gr. KOOUO>, to strike. 
C/tajbbjaj, mortification. 
Cnajbbjj, a religious order of peo- 

ple, any persons that mortify the 


C/tajbtreac, devout, pious. 
Cft&jtieedcb, devotion. 
C/tajbte, tormented, vexed, afflict- 

CrtCvjbteacb, misery, by famine, 

hunger, &c. 
CfKVjj, a rocky or craggy place ; 

Wei. kraicr, a rock or stone. 
C;t<xjm6/i, gross, corpulent. 
C;uxjmp-;ay", the torpedo or 

C/uxjn, a sow, the female of a 


CftdjnjiD and c^e;njm, to gnaw. 
Ot<x;ntjrejle, tough phlegm. 
Gt<v;tc, shrunk. 
C?tamp<x, a knot. 

, a choosing by lots. 
jlac, a carpenter. 

, a decrepid old man. 

C|t<X/7C<X;t, a lot. 
Ci\<\ncafc, the bark of a tree. 
, lottery. 

, sorcery. 


C/tann, a tree ; c/icinn 

an aspen-tree; c/ioinn ola, an 
olive-tree ; c/i^nn-treanntra, a 

C;tann bo/tba;n, a kind of music 
made by putting the hand to the 

Cpann ja;l, lattices before the al- 
tar, for separating the laity from 
the clergy. 

C/iannba, decrepid; jrea/i c/tann- 
b<i, a decrepid, stooping man. 

Cn<xnnl<xc, boughs or branches of 
a tree; also stalks of roots or 
plants; corrupte clan lac. 

<xo;t, a carpenter. 
oinn-ta/t/tajnj, a drawing by 

tann-cu^i, a casting lots ; bo /t;n- 
ne<xb<xt c^tanncu/t a;;t, they cast 
! lots for it. 

C/tann Tdj:j:<xn, the herb henbane ; 
Lat. hyoscyamus. 

C;taob, a bush, a bough, or branch ; 
Cfiaob co;mneo^o. /^eul, a pedi- 
gree ; also the sway or chief ho- 
nour of an action ; rect. c/taom : 
quod vide ojam-c^aob, the an- 
cient occult manner of writing of 
the Irish Druids or Celts. 

C/taobajm, to sprout, or shoot 

C;taobao;n, orc^ao;b;n cno,a clus- 
ter or bunch of nuts. 

C/taob J7uab, in the Count)' of Ar- 
magh, remarkable for the resi- 
dence of the famous Ruderician 
champions Cuftctjbe n<x C^<xo;be 

C;taob 7"5<xo;t;m, to disperse, to 
propagate, to delineate, to ex- 
plain, enlarge upon ; also to set 
down a genealogical table of li- 
neal descent ; c^t<xob^<xo;le <xn 
tfOfifgejl, the preaching of the 

C/taojbjn, a bush; diminutive of 

Cjtajbte, shod; pot i its qtujbte ; 

c r? 

vid. c/tub. 

Cp&ojjrjr), a glutton. 
... C/tuono, a branch ; Lat. ramus ; 

either the Latins threw off the c, 

or the Celts prefixed it. 
C/tcno^, excess, gluttony, revelling ; 

Gr. aicepao-ta, intemperantia. 
C/tUjopic, a glutton, a debauchee, 


xn and Cpiaoj-cinac, idem. 

a gargarsm. 
, gargling, or gar- 


Cftcuty-o;/te, a riotous spendthrift. 
C/t<io^-6l, drunkenness, or excessive 

C/xp<xb, a contraction ; also to 

shrink, to contract ; also to crush. 
C/ioipluj jjm, to fetter, to bind. 
C;t<xpt<x, wrapped, contracted. 
Cft<ipu;7~u;l, the twilight ; Lat. 

Cpaf, the body ; diminut. cpty-&n 

and c;i<x;pn. 
C/toi^gab, a box, or small coffer ; 

vid. c;tufT<xb. 
C/xc<Xb, shaking. 
C/i<xc<3Lm, to shake; also to sprinkle. 
Cjt<xt;i<xc, aplashy bog, scarce pas- 

Cfluf&, a pitcher, earthen pot, 

&c. ; c/iuj-ja. beo;i<xc, a pitcher 

of beer. 

Cfte, the Creed. 
Cj\e, dust, earth, clay; c/te na 

caliixxn, the clay or dust of the 


, the keel of a ship. 
B mu;ce p;ab, hart's-tongue ; 

adiantum nigrum. 

t, a vestry. 
c, a prey, booty, spoil ; gen. 

c and c^ie;ce. 
C/teac, an army, host, &c. ; potius 

C^teac, a wave, a billow. 
C/ieac, blind. 

C/teac, woe, ruin ; mo c/ieoic, my 


b, a preying or plundering, 
a runing. 

C/ie<xc<xb5);i, a robber, a plunderer, 
cpieoic tojfl, idem. 

C^eoicb, a wound, a sore, a stripe ; 
cjie<xcb<x mjc t)e, the wounds of 
the Son of God. 

Cfie<xcb(X)/ibe<xc, full of scars. 

C/ie<xcblo^j<xc, full of scars or 
sores on the legs. 

Cpie<xcft<x;m, to mark or stigmatize, 
to burn with a searing iron. 

C/ie<xb, orc/ieb, i. e. ccx-pteb, from.-" 
c<\, i. e. what, and jieb, i. e. 
thing, Lat. res, what, why, where- 
fore, for what reason ; like the 
Latin quare, and more literally 
like the Latin qua re de, or de 
qua re; Ir. c<x /ieb ; in the Wei. 
it is pa rdd, which is of the 
same root, p and c being corn- 
mutable with each other; vid. 
i, clerkship, clergy. 

, religious, worshipping. 

C/ie<xbla, clergy. 

C;ie<XbiT)<X)l, faith. 

C;ie<xb/iab5 a chariot. 

C/teajrog, powder, dust, earth. 

C;ieaj<x6, rocky ; also a cliff or ** 
crag, <x;t cj\eo^<\c n<x bajlle, 
upon the crag of the rock ; 
c;te<xgiria;i, rocky. 

C;ie<v jna;^;m, to tremble. 

Cjte(XTm<x/i, craggy, rocky, full of 
rocks or clifts. 

C/ietxjbteac, sacred, devout. 

C/ie<xiT)-r>u<xjt, the noise of people , : 

C;te<\n, a buying, or purchasing. 

C/ie<xn-ajt, a market-place. 

C;te<xndiD, to consume. 

Cfie<xoc<xm, to wound or hurt. 

C/teapab, contraction. 

C^e<xp<xl, entangling; vid. 

C/te<xpl<x;no, to stop or s1;iy 

c r? 

c 17 



&, a bending or crooken- 
l, a retaining or witlmold- 

-, or cpjOf, a. girdle; rid. 
; Wei. guregis, and Cor. 


, to set or lay. 
, narrow, strait ; 

caf, a narrow house; 

rnujp, an ami of the sea. 
Qtecy, a shrine. 
C/tea^am, to tire, to fatigue. 
CpeAfu j<xb, a girding. 
C^e<xc, the form or figure of a per- 

son's complexion, or state of 

Cfte<xtr, a science; also knowledge, 

Qteata, earthen. 
Qteatac, an hurdle of rods wat- 

tled together. 
C/teta/t, faithful, religious, holy, 

C^teaca^, a sanctuary, or shrine ; 

Wei. krair, a relic. 
Cfte<xtaj;t, Creator. 
C/teaca/ta;c, a sanctuary. 

a swan. 

, a trembling. 
Cfteata;no, to make one tremble, 

to tremble. 

C/te<xtdn, a shaking, or quivering. 
C/ieacnci;j;m, idem quod c/teat- 


Qteatnugab, to make one tremble. 
Cfieat/tac, a wilderness. 
Cfteatu/t, a creature. 
C/tecbac, sinful. 
Cfteb, wherefore ; c^ieb le, where- 

with ; rid. c^teab. 
C^eb, the ore of any metal; ex. 

Cfteb-uma, the ore of brass. 
Cfteb-uma, the ore of brass. 
C/ie;be<xm, or Cftejbjom, faith, be- 

lief; <\.nn-fO Cbjrtejbjoii) Catoj- 

l;ce ctfytalba, in the Catholic 

and Apostolic faith. 
C tejbjm, to believe, give credit to ; 

Lat. credo. 

Cftejbjmeac, or c/iejbme<xc, faith- 
ful, believing; plur. c/te;bm;j; 
and c^e;bme<xc<xjb. 
C^e;bce, believed. 
C^iejbceo;^, a creditor. 
C/ie;bm, a disease. 
C/te;bnneac, full of sores. 
C/te;bm;m and c/te;n;m, to gnaw 
or chew; c^e;bm;b cnam, pick- 
ing of bones. 
C/tejjjoc and c^eajac, rocky, full 

of rocks: Wei. kreiqiog. 
C^ie;n;m, to gnaw, to chew. 
C/te;f;ne<xm, a scar. 

t;^t, a cup, madder, or pitcher. 
c;^i;n, a little sieve. 
rxx; jte, terrified. 

, a rail, or sieve. 
C/te6pa;m, to seduce. 
-dn, a girdle. 
e<xn, religious, pious. 

an, old earth, or clay. 
C/teubjra, rid. c^te<xb, why, where- 

, the heart ; rectius c^o;b; Lat. 
cor, cordis; vid. c^tO;b. 

c, pro C;t;te<xc, trembling ; 
i;ac, or c^;ceac, the 

Qtjab, earth, clay ; c;t;<xb loj^ce, 
a potsherd ; ^0;teoc C;t;ab, 
earthen vessels. 

C;t;ab<v, earthen, made of clay. 
C/t;<xb-luc, a mole. PL 
C/vjabuj/te, a husbandman, a tiller. 
C/i;apac, rough. 
C;i;ata/t, a sieve ; c/i;ata^ mecxlcx, 

a honeycomb ; Lat. cribrum. 
C^j<xt^<xc, a wilderness. 
C;t;<xt;t<xb, a sifting; Lat. cribro 

, swiftness, haste, speed ; 
c/t;b, speedily ; vid. in voce ce;/t- 
njne supra. 
Cj\]c, a land or country ; vid. 

b, a buying, or purchasing. 
, a box, or small coffer. 

c r? 

c r? 

C";i;mte/tt, second milking. 

Cjijne and c/t;ne<xcb, rottenness or 

C/tjnecUT), doc n<x c/tjneamna, cor- 
ruptly for cloc na c;nneamn<x, 
the stone of fatality, or fatal 
stone, or the coronation stone of 
the Scottish kings ; it is com- 
monly called the Ija pxjl. This 
famous coronation stone of the 
Irish Scots is now preserved as 
a great curiosity and monument 
of antiquity in Westminster Ab- 

Qvjneam, to fall. 

Cfljnljn,, a writing-desk. 

Cjijnmjol, a wood-louse, a wall- 

Cpjnjm, to bite. 

C/vjrteac, fretting. 

C/t;ob, a jest, a trifle. 

C/t;oc, preferment ; bo cua;b ye <\ 
ccfijc, he was prefered. 

c, an end or conclusion, a pe- 
riod ; tjgeab cum Cfijce, let it 
come to pass. 

c, a region, territory, or king- 
dom ; for example, 

C/tJoc Cu;/ic, an ancient name of 
the baronies of Burren and Cor- 
oamruadh in the County of 
Clare, where Core of the Rude- 
rician race had been king before 
the birth of Christ, as we are as- 
sured by our genealogists. 

C;t;oc 6 pe;bl;me, a territory in 
the County ef Wexford, the es- 
tate of the O'Murphys. 

C/t;oc Cucxlan, a territory in the 
County of Wicklow, anciently 
the property of the sept of the 
O'Kellys of the Lagenian race. 

C;t;oc plajnn, an ancient name of 
the province of South Minister, 
so called from ptann C<xt/i<xc, 
an ancient king of the same. 

C/iJoc n<x Ccecvbac, a territory in 
Meath, the ancient property of 
0'p<\U<\m<\;^ Eng. O'l'allon. 

C;t;0c Cnobdb, also in Meath, lltr 
ancient lordship of O'CDubajn. 

C/t;oc o GDa^Dj, a district in the 
Queen's County, the estate of the 
O'Coelujf, i. e. the O'Keylys. 

6 CDbdjftce, a teritory be- 
tween the King's County and 
that of Kildare, the ancient es- 
tate of the Mac Gormans. 

C/t;oc 6 G0u;je, a district in the 
Queen's County, the estate of 
the O'Coelajf." 

C/t;oc-c<x;jftb;ie, _ otherwise called 
SJot OQu;/ije<xb, a territory about 
Sligo, comprehending a good 
share of the barony of Carbury, 
the estate of the O'Conor Sligo. 

C/t;oc<x ftoj^tedc, the barony of 
Roch's Country, or Fermoy, so 
called in late ages; its former 
name being 00<x jj:e;ne. 
I C/tJocnctjjjm, to end, to finish, or 
accomplish ; bo c/t;ocmvjb ye, 
he finished. 

C;t;ocncx; jce, finished, concluded. 

C/t;oba/t, a leech ; sanguisuga ; 
also a woodcock ; potius c/iecx- 

/t;ol, a chest or coffer, x 

Qi;oiT)t:<xn, a fox. 

C/i;Omt<xn, the name of several 
kings in Ireland. 

C/i;on<x, old, ancient; also prudent, 
sage; Gr. cptvw, judico, seems 
to bear an affinity to this word ; 
c/vjon l<xoc, corruptly said c/icxnn- 
IdOC, an ancient or old man. 

Qtjon, withered, dry, rotten ; con- 
nab C;tjon, rotten wood. 

C/i;o/7<vjm, to wither, or fade, to de- 
cay, also to be extinct; ex. /io 
cjijGnfdb ujte <xct bcvjn-yt;ocb, 
ce;n mota (DomnaU, they all be- 
came extinct (or dwindled away 
into obscurity) all to female po* 
terity, excepting Donald, (who 
had issue) ; n; c/t;onj:a;b <x 
bu;lle, it's leaf will not fade. 

C;i;onc<Vfl. a strife, a tumult, 

C 72 

C 17 

Cfi;onc<xn<vjrtv, to strive or contend ; 
c\ nud;rt bo cftjoncdixxbtyi /vjom, 
when they contended with me. 

, a collection. 
, wise, prudent, sage. 
C/tJonnacb, wisdom, wit. 
C;t;oonlac, touchwood. 

a. girdle, cingle, belt, or 
girding-string ; Armor, guris ; 
rid. c.neay, idem. 
C}\jOf<\c, tight. 

and cnjoyujb, written 

sometimes for TrtjOplc, embers. 
Christ, the Messiah, and 

Saviour of mankind. 

3, swift, quick, nimble. 
f \, a godfather. 
C/t;oyl<xc, a limit or border. 
C/t;oyl<xc, a girding of the loins. 
'njoylajrjno, to gird, to limit, or 
determine ; bo c/t;oylu; 5 ye, he 

C/vjoylcvjTt-e, girded. 
C/tjoyt, Christ, our Creator. 
; \C/vjOytal, crystal; Arm. kristal, 
Gr. xptoraAAoc, Lat. chrystal- 


.m<xjl, transparent. 
, ..., girded. 

C/t;6yt<xma;l, christian-like, hu- 

C^;oytamlacr, Christianity. 
C/tJoytuc and Cftjoytujbe, a Chris- 
tian ; c^Joybu; j, idem. 

I, earthen, made of clay. 
, trembling. 

_ a potter. 

, , .- ..5, fear, dread, horror. 
C/vjotrnujjeajm, to tremble, 
te, a potter. 
[, a swaddling band, 
the back. 

aliter, c/t;oc, a region or 
country; hence c^teac, is a 
countryman; and cdjj-C;t;ce<xc, 
corrupted into co;^/t;<vi, is a 
stranger, i. e. a province-man, or 
one of another province, 

C/tjt, or c/tjotr, a trembling, or 
shaking; c/tjr-tatman, an earth- 

C/tjt, and genit. c^eata, a fit of an 
ague, the ague, a trembling ; 
"Welsh kryd, and Greek KOU- 

C/tjt:-be<vlbo^ft, a potter. 

C^teo.6, shaking ; cptann c^;- 
te<xc, an aspen-tree. 

C/tjc-e<x;rat and CK^ceajld, terror, 
astonishment ; <xg c^;c-eaj<xl, 

C eo.jl(Xc, astonished, timorous. 
njt- JAld;t, the palsy ; fto ^tdnu;- 
jeab le )6yoi t)o;tl <xjuy b<x- 
cd;cc, bujb;;t ;y luce c;t;t j<x- 
la;^ <xguy cla;me, jy luct j<xca 
te;bme ejle, &c., Jesus healed 
the blind and lame, the deaf and 
the paralytic, the lepers, and 
those who were afflicted with all 
sorts of disorders and sickness. 

^, cause of fear and horror. 
ib, terrible, horrible, 
t, a drinking-cup. 
I, a shower. 

sparkles of fire arising 
from the clashing of weapons. 
Cpi;ub<Xfin<xc, the hiccup. 
Cpjun, a wolf. 

C/to, a hut or hovel ; c/to e<xb, a 
goose-pen ; c/to muc, a hog-sty ; 
Wei. kran-inoc, and Cor. 'krun- 
moch ; also a fortress, or fortified 

C/to, death ; c/to, an iron bar. 
C/to, children. 
C/to, the eye of a needle ; Gr. KVOO, 

the eye of a needle. 
C/tO, strait or narrow. 
C/toan, correction. 

j, a hand, a fist, a paw ; 5 c/tob 
<xn ipu.jjo.irxxj/7, out of the paw 
of the bear; pi. c/toban<x and 

C;tob-p/t;<xcd;/7, the herb crane's- 
bill ; Lat. geranium. 

c n 

c r? 

, genital. 
Cfiobu/ij<x;b, clusters. 
Q-iocan, a remarkable hill of the 

country called Uojb p<x;tge, in 

the County of Kildare. 
C/t6c, saffron ; Lat. crocus. 
Qioc, red ; Brit. coch. 
C/iOc, the gallows, or a cross to 

hang malefactors. 
C/tOcab, grief, vexation. 
CftOc<xb, a hanging. 
QtOcojm, to hang, to crucify. 
C/ioc<X;t, a body. 

toca/ib and Cfioca/ibab, a bier; 

commonly called c/iocd.ft. 
; a hangman. 
b, the name of an idol 

amongst the old Irish. 
C/tOb, cattle, cows. 
C/iob, a dowry, a wife's portion ; 

hence colpo. cpto;b, a woman's 

portion in cattle. 
, a slipper. 

toba and cpiobacbcx, valiant, 

brave ; also smart, terrible ; as 

cat cjtoba. : it is pronounced 

ct, valour, bravery. 

C/ioba;be, an heir. 

C/iob-bo;nn, a bunch of berries. 

C/tob juta, the hand-gout ; chira- 

Cfiobma;n, the wrist. 
-/- C/iojdU, the crocodile. 

C/tog<xn, i. e. f?at C/iu<xc<vjn, called 
also Hlejljj na I7;oj, one of the 
regal houses of Connaught in the 
County of Roscommon. 

C|tojbe<xl, coral. 

Cfio;cbe, hanged; c/iocb<x, idem. 

C^0jc;on, a skin, a hide, or pelt ; 
Arm. crochenf gcnit. c^iO;cne, 
and plur. c^o;c;no. 

AC/tojbe, the heart; bo lajab a 
Cftojbe, his heart fainted ; bo 5; 
<x Cftojbe <xj lut, his bowels did 
yearn; Gr. KapSia, and Meta- 
thesi, cradia', Lat. corde, abl. a 
cor, cord is. 


C/tojbeact, a portion, or dowry ; 
vid. c;tob ; sometimes written 

C^o;;l, hearty, generous. 

C/io;bean, a gallant, a lover, a 

Cfiojbe b/tub, contrition. 

C/iOjbeoj, a mistress or sweet- 

Cpojljje <xn b&jf, the extreme 
agonies of this life ; also c^ot; j, 
infirmity, and c/toljjte<xc, in- 

CftOjm, genit. of c^iom, crooked. . 

Cjiojroy^oc, or cua;^-^;<xt, a 
crooked target. 

Cpojnjc, a chronicle, an annal. 

C/tO;n;c;m, to colour, to paint; Gr. 
Xpwvw, coloro; cponajm, idem, 
from Cfton, <7C?. z?zWe. 

, to correct. 
, a cross; also cpojfe. 

Cpojfpj-gjl, a cross-prayer, i. e. 
with hands stretched across. 

Cpojfljne, a diameter. 

CpOty-flj je, a by-way, or road. 

Cfio;c, shook ; bo c/tojt me, I 
shook ; bo c/to;te<xba/<, they 

C^o jtte, waved, tossed ; also sprin- 

C^io-loc, a place where malefactors 
are executed. 

Cft6lo;t;m, to give a mortal wound. 

C^tolo;t:;jte, dangerously wound- 

C/iom con<x;l, a plague ; vid. co- 

Cfiom, and genit. CftO;m, crooked, 
bending down; Belg. krom, Ger. 
krumb, Wei. fo-wm. 

C/iomab and c^iom<v;m, to bow 
down, to bend; bo c/tono f)0f 
bon )ob<xl, he bowed down to 
the idol ; <xg c/tomab, bowing or 

C^oman, a kite. 

Qtoman, the hip, or hip-bone. 

C/tomc/tuac, a i'amous Irish idol. 

c n 


r-tom-leac, an altar for heathenish 

worship, on which the Pagans 

offered sacrifices. 
C/tom/iOfj, pro jo/tm-fto^, grey- 


C;ton, a sign or mark. 
Cpdn, brown, dun-coloured, red ; 

also swarthy. 

, time ; bjocfton, want of time ; 

Gr. Ypovoc, temp us. 
C;t6n<xjm and CftOnaJj;n), to be- 

witch ; also to blush for shame ; 

annfjn po Cft6n<x;j 

hereupon Peter blushed 

shame. Leaba/t b/te<xc. 
(Tuonan, the base in music ; 

nan Jacbaftcanuy, cajitus-bas- 

Crionan, any dull note; also the 

buzzing of a fly or other insect. 
C/tonnoj, a kind of basket, or 

C;ionog, a roundle or circle, and 

figuratively a castle, fortress, &c. 
Cftontrajjjm, to loathe, to abhor, 

to detest. 

pOf, a cross ; also a let or hin- 


c, streaked. 
and crtopx^m, to cross, to 

hinder or debar a person from 

an action: c/topxjm 0/tt, 1 for- 

bid you. 
Cftoy ab, a crossing, a stopping, or 

C/tOf-<xnacb, perverseness, peevish- 

C/iop:vn<xcb, a kind of versifica- 


C/tOpinta, froward, perverse. 
Qtoyoj, a small cross. 
Cj\Ofj\<3i, i. e. c^o^-;tjan, a cross- 

road, or a cross formed by the 

intersection of two roads. 
, prohibited. 

crooked, hunch-backed; 
hence the family-name of the 
O'Crottys of Lismore, descended 
from Teise O'Brien, surnamed 

C/tOt<vc, of the branch of Con- 
nor O'Brien, son of Mahon 
Maonmhuigh O'Brien, princes 
of Thomond in the fourteenth 
century. This descent of the 
O'Crottys is mentioned by Hugh 
Mac Curtain in his genealogical 
manuscript, wherein I perused it 
a few years since. 

C/iocoic and c;tot<xc-ma/t<x, a cur- 

, a cymbal. 

rmc l f a kernel. 
, a kernel. 

t, a form or shape; cajji tu 
jrejn <x/t A7t:e<xp<\.c c^otra, dis- 
guise thyself; its genit. is some- 
times cpiojt or c^u;c, as well as 

ta, a cymbal. 
C;iOt:<xb, a sprinkling; bo c/tOjt: 

ye, he sprinkled. 
C/toc<x;t, a bier ; rid. c/toca;tb ; 

also any vehicle. 
Cj\u, blood, gore; Wei. kray. 
Ctu<xcan, a little town of Carbury 

in the west of Ireland, which 

hath a remarkable harbour or 

haven called Crook-haven. 
Cfiuac, a rick, as of com, hay, turf, 


Qtuackib, a heaping. 
C/tu<xc<xn, as J?ar C/tu<xcr>a, an- 

ciently the regal house of the 

kins:s of Connaught, situate in 

the County of Roscommon. 

;t<X)5, the herb plantain ; 

Lat. plantago latifolla. 
C;tuab, a stone. 
C/tu<xb<xjl, covetousness. 
C^u<xb, hard, difficult, firm ; hence 

signifies steel ; c^ua;b, iflem. 

, of or belonging to steel. 
t, hardship, distress, diffi- 

cult)', stinginess. 

\u<xbal<xc, liard ; also stingy, poor, 

also puzzling. 

uiab-cujnj, rigour, slavery. 
C;m<xb-cu;yeo,c, difficult. 

c r? 

C/tud.b-mujnJleac, stiff-necked, ob- 

, entangled, 
strict ; 50 

C/iuabojje, distress. 
C/iu<xj<xb, a strengthening. 
C/iu<x;b, steel. 
C/iu<x;beab, hardening. 

ce<in5<xl and c;iu 
, to tie fast, to bind. 

, hardened ; o.;ib<\;t c/tu- 
<i;bt:e, hardened or kiln-dried 
, red. 

hardness, rigour. 
C/iub, a horse's hoof, or any cloven 

foot, as of a cow, sheep, &c. 
C/iubab, to bend or make crooked. 
C/tuban, a crab-fish. 
C;tub jojn, a flood-gate. 
C;iub, w/0?w quod Cfiub, a horse's 

hoof; pi. c/iub<x. 
C/iub<x^c, of a crimson colour. 
Cj\ubjn n<x pj.ona, dwarf-mountain 

Qiuboj, a thrum, or thread in 


C;tuc<x, a hook, or crook; c/iuc<x 
t;te<xbu;ge, a shepherd's crook. 
Qtuc<xc, a heap. 

C/iub, a milking; <xg c/iub n<x nobo, 
milkin the kine. 
to milk. 

t, a belt, or sword-girdle. 
C/tufe<xct<x, or Cftu;be<xct<x, a 


Cfiu jatac, hard or difficult. 
Cfiu;be<xt<x, hard. 
C/iu;be<x/rz;, of a scarlet colour. 
Cftu;b;n, a king's fisher. 
C/tu j jneacb, or c^u;tne<xcb, wheat. 
, thunder. 

eabanac, whole, entire; 
also a down-looking person. 
C/tu;m;m, to thunder. 
C;t;m/-ljnnean, a bunch or gibbus 

on the back. 
C;tu;mtea/i, a priest. 

C ?? 

Cnajn, or c/tu;nn, round, circular ; 

Wei. ATMTZ. 
C/tu;nea^<xb, a dizziness or giddi- 

C/tu;nne, the globe of the earth, 

the world ; orbis terrarum. 
C/tu;nn;u jab, an assembly, a con- 

C;iu;nn;uj<xb and c^tu;nn;j;m, to 

collect, to assemble, to gather 

C/iu;nn;m, to wrangle. 

, dew, mist, fog. 
, a small pot or pitcher ; 

as cpujfZjn ot<x, a pitcher of 


n, a lamp. 
C/tujtr, a harp, a crowd, or violin. 
a bunch on the back. 
oj, a woman-crowder, or 
that plays on the violin. 
Cpajt, ingenuous, lively. 
Qiujte and -<xcb, prudence. 
C/tu;teoc<xm, I shall mention or 

Cfiujtjn Cu<x;t, the old Irish name 

of the country of the Picts. 
C/tu;tneac; a Pict ; corrupted from 
b/vjtneac, derived from b/t;t ; 
Lat. pictus, variegatvs. Vid. 
Lhuyd. ArchceoL tit. 1. pag. 20. 
col. 3. 

C;iu;tneo.cb, wheat; Lat. trit'icum. 
C/-iu;tn; j, the Picts. 
C/tu;t;n, crook-backed. ^ 
C/iu;t;neac, crumji-shouldered. 

, a crowder, a harper. 
, bowed, crooked ; vid. c/tom. 

, half a quarter of a yard. 
C;tuno<xjm, to bow or bend, to wor- 


C/tuman, the hip-bone. 
C/tuman, a sort of hooked instru- 

ment used by surgeons. 
Qiumcvna;be, a turner. 
C/tum, a worm, a maggot. 
Qiama/1, bloody, full of blood. 

, sourness of look. 

c u 

c u 

j, need, necessity. 

Gtupotroj, a blood-pudding. 

C'tu-^ciojleab, the bloody flux. 

Cftutaj/te, a musician, harper, &c. 

C nut, curds; Lat. coagulum. 

Citut, a form or shape; also the | 
countenance; n; 5u/- mea^a <x 
cc/tut, worse in appearance ; A 
cc/tu;t colujm, in the form of a 

Crtutaj jjm, to prove, to aver, as- 
sert, or maintain : bo c^ujt; j 
<vj;t e, he proved the charge 
upon him ; also to create ; bo 

<xma;n neam <xju^ tralam, 
the Lord by his word alone 
created heaven and earth. 

C/tuc<t;jre, created; also proved 
or experienced. 

Cfiutd.;^teo;/t, the Creator. 

C/tutu jv\b, a proof; also the crea- 

Cnutlacb, a belt, a sword-girdle. 

Cu, anciently signified any dog ; 
cu <xUo.jb, a wild dog, a wolf: 
cu m;l, or m;ol cu, a greyhound : 
cu pjonnvx, a fur-dog, i. e. a moth 
or insect that gnaws clothes ; i 
commonly called leoirxxn ; but 
now the word cu is used to mean 
a greyhound only. Cu is like ! 
the Gr. KVIOV, canis, any dog; ! 
and in the pi. cujn, like the Gr. 
Kuvtz, Lat. canes. The Irish 
word cu;njn, a rabbit, is the i 
diminutive of this word cu, Lat. i 
cumculus. Cu in the genit. 
makes con or cun. N. B. Plato 
in his Cratylus observes, that 
this Greek word KVVCC, plur. and 
many others, such as TTVO, fire, ! 
Ir. u/t, and uSwp, water > Ir. bu/t, 
were derived from the Phrygians, 
of whom Strabo, lib. 7, p. 540, ; 
says they were originally Thra- \ 
cians, and these were anciently 
of the Celtic nations, 
ua, flesh, meat ; ctiaffKXHTab, the 

flesh-market or shamble^. 

Cua, a remarkable mountain in the 
barony of Burren and C'ounty of 

Cu<xb<xcdr), a flesh-hook. 

Cuab/tu;b, itch, leachery. 

Cuac, narrow. 

Cuacca and coc<x, empty. 

Cuac, the cuckoo. 

Cuac and cuacan, a bowl, a cup. 

Cuaco.6, curled or frizzled. 

Cuacajm, to fold or plait. 

Cuacan and cuacoT, a plait or 

Cuac-^-^Kinn, a vehement snoring 
or snorting. 

Cuab, to tell or relate; cuC\b bo 
taoc, to tell a story to an insipid 

Cuagan, the hinder part of the 

Cuainan a bpeoit, a kernel in the 

Cuojb, bo cua;b fe, he went; bo 
cuamo.^, <x /xe<3.c, we entered ; 
bo cuajb fe &f, he escaped. 

Cuajl^ne, a remarkable mountain 
in the County of Down ; also a 
territory in the County of Loutli, 
made famous by the romantic- 
account of a general prey of 
cattle brought away from thence 
by Fergus, son of T2off<\. J?u<xb, 
king of Ulster, aided by 00e;bb 
C/tu<xcrKX, queen of Connaught, 
in spite of all the valour of Cu- 
cull<x;n and the rest of the famed 
champions of the red branch. 

CuojU and cuajlle, a stake or pole, 
cua)tleab<i caontu;n, stakes of 

Cu<vjttb, a travelling or sojourning. 

Cucxj/tb, a visit; mo;t cu<xj/tb, the 
visitation of a prince or bishop. 

Cuaj/tj-getxb, a volume. 

Cuajft^-gean, that wherein a thing 
is wrapped. 

Cuajn^jm, to roll, to wreath, to 
twist, or fold ; also to wrap up. 

c u 

c u 

, wreathed, wrapped up. 

Cuaj/it;, a circulation, also any cir- 
cle; pk>;tciKVj;tt na jrola, the 
free circulation of the blood ; jra 
cuajjtt, round about. 

Cuajt, the country. 

Cual, a faggot. 

Cuala, bo cuala me, I heard ; c;<x 
cuala, who hath heard. 

Cualann, a territory now compre- 
hended in the County of Wick- 
low ; vid. Cfqoc cualan supra. 

Cualjn, a bundle, a small faggot. 

Cuallacb, followers or dependants, 
also a colony. 

Cuallacba, a district in the County 
of Clare, the ancient, patrimony 
_of O'bubj;;?. 

Cualta;be, a companion. 

Cualla;beacb, society. 

Cualla;-, an assembly. 

Cuamafi, fat, gross. 

Cuama/trab, the flesh-market or 

Cu<xn, a bay, a harbour, a haven ; 
plur. cuanta; cuan loca 3 d / 1 " 
man, Wexford. 

Cuan, Loc Cuan, the ancient name 
of Strangford Bay, in the County 
fc-*Afv.of Aaatagh in Ulster. 

Cuanna, a hill. 

Cuanna, handsome, neat, fine, ele- 
gant, or artful. 

Cua/i, crooked, perverse ; Wei. 

Cua^-cuma)^, a circular round, 
or tour. 

Cua/ian, a sock. 

Cua/toja, brogues made of un- 
tanned leather. 

Cu<x;ttr, vid. cua;;tb. 

Cu<x/-ita;j)in,to seek out or search; 
bo cu<Xfitu;g tu me, thou hast 
searched me; bo cu<x/ttra;jed.- 
ba/i na bci.o^<v;beo.bcx, the shep- 
herds sought out; also to sur- 
round, to encompass, 
fyttujab, a diligent search or 


", a cave, the hollow of a tree, 
a hollow place in the ground, a 
cavity in a rock or in any other 

, <xb cutx^, it was told. 

c, hollow, full of holes or 

<xc, or cu^<xct<xc, a cough- 
ing, cough. 
Cuafan, a hole, or cavity ; dim. of 


Cu<xu;nne, worm-eaten nuts. 

Cubet, joking, sporting, or ridi- 

Cub<xcdji, a bed-chamber; Lat. cu- 

Cubab and cubat, a cubit. X 

CuBajb, decent, becoming; ba/t 
mo cubajb, upon my honour. 

Cubaj^*, an oath ; tuj <x cub<\^ 
/te na comal, he took his oath he 
would perform it. Vid. Tig/tern. 

Cabal, apparel, raiment, vesture ; 
particularly a religious habit. 

Cub<x/t, froth, foam ; m<x/t <xn ccuba/t 
<x/t <xn u;^je, like the foam on 
the water. 

Cuba;", a tree. 

Cuca, to them : pronounced cu jta. 

Cucama/t, a cucumber. 

Citcclajbe, a narrow way. 

Cucc, a colour, a kind, an image, 
or sort. 

Cucta;b, a maker, former, &c. 

Cucta;/t, a kitchen. 

Cuclajbe, a residence, habitation, 

Cuculla;n, the proper name of a 
famous hero of the Royal Ruderi- 
cian race of Ulster, whose death 
is referred to the second year of 
the Christian era in the Annals 
of Clonmacnois, called Chroni- 
con Scotorum; he was captain 
of the renowned band of cham- 
pions styled Cu/ia;be naC/iao;be 
I7uab, i. e. the heroes of the red 
branch. Fid. conmaol and cu- 

c u 

c u 

<i;tg/ie supra. 

Cubajm, or cabam, to fall ; Lat. 

b, the falling sickness, 
al, bad, wicked, naughty. 
Cubam, cubam <xn t^lejbe, an emp- 
tion on the side of a mountain ; 
also a fault in hair, when split 
and withered. 

Cub<xm<xc, frail, corruptible. 
Cuba;im<xn, the common people; 


Cubanmanta, or cobapmanta ; as 
bu;ne cob<mmanc<x, a rustic, or 
unpolished man. 
Cuba/tun, a sort of cap or hood. 
Cub, or cut, a head. 
Cubnob, haste, speed, expedition. 
Cubor, or coboj, the fish called 

Cub/t<xm<x, complete, regular, even, 


Cub-j-aot, an apoplexy, 
a cypress-tree. 
, the same. 

or cuj<xb|-<x, to you, unto 
CujAbta, or cuca, unto them ; and 

cuju;n, unto us. 
J Cu;b, a cup. 

* Cu;b, a greyhound ; Angl. cub. 
Cu;be;^-, so much. 
Cu;Ker, fraud or cheat. 

c and cujfytjje, bonds; 
je fcu^t ccu;nge, the bonds 
of your yoke. 
Cujb/t;j;m, to fetter, or put in 


CujBft; jte, bound, fettered. 
Cu;ce, until; cu;ce fQ, i. e. 30 

nujje fO, till the present time. 
Cujb, a part, share, or portion ; <x 
7"e fjn <*.j\ ccujbne, this is our 
share; an cu;b fOjji, the east 
part; gen. coba, plur. cotcanci. 
Cujb, a supper. 
Cu;bcv/tun, a cowl or hood. 
Cu;beacb and cujbeacba, or cuj- 
a companv, troop, so- 
139 ' 

ciety, &c. 

Cujbeacbaj jjm, to accompany, to 

Cu;be<xb, help, aid, assistance, suc- 
cour : sometimes written cujbsa- 
jab; gen. cu;bjb. 
i Cujbearrxxjl, bu;ne cu;be<vma;l, an 

Cu;beamajt, meet, decent, proper. 

Cujbcxmakicb, decency, meetness. 

Cu;bbe<xcb, decency. 

Cujbbeacbac, parted, severed. 

Cujbjj, be<vn cujb; je, a midwife : 
-i' id. cu;bedb. 

Cu;b;jjm, to help, to succour 

aid, or assist. 

; C^bjjteac, an assistant or helper. 
! Cujbrneab, a scoftj a jeer, or flout; 
also a scorning, ridicule, or deri- 

b, the fifth. ' 
Cu;ge, or co;je, a province; so 
called because Ireland was di- 
vided into five provinces, \\z. 
Minister, Leinster, Meatli, Con- 
naught, and Ulster, therefore 
called cu;j cojje, or cu^je r. A 

Cu;je, or cu;ge, therefore ; cujje 
fO, for this purpose ; cujge and 
udjb, to and fro ; cujge fjOii, 
unto him. 

Cujgedl, a distaff. 

Cu;I, a fly. 

Cu;l, a couch, a corner, a closet ; 
also any private place ; <x ccujl, 
in a private place or closet ; 
Ccql ?7<xt<in, Coleraine, a town in 
the County of Antrim, i. e. 
Ferny Corner. 

Cujt, bad, wicked, prohibited ; 
cu;tb<x cu;l, prohibited incest ; 
rid. col. 

Cu;lc, a reed. 

Cujlce, any clotlies. 

Cujlceac, a cloth, veil, or hood. 

Cu;lce<xc. a steeple ; cu;lce<\c 
ctu ana-urn a, Cloyne steeple. 

c u 

c u 

This word is a corruption of 


Cu;lceann, the noddle. 
Cu;lbu5, a beetle. 
Cu;leac, party-coloured. 
Cu;tean, a whelp, a kitling. 
Cujleann, the holly-tree ; Wei. 

, a jade, 
a horse. 

Cujteat, vid. 

Cu;leoj, a gnat, a little insect. 

Cu;l;^-eal, vile, little worth. 

CujUecift, a quarry. 

Cujlle, a quill. 

Cu;lle, black cloth. 

CujUea^a or cujlja^a, jrtea^ga 
cujll, hazel rods or twigs. 

Cu;lm;onr>ujab, abjuration. 

he quilt or tick of a 

a bed-chamber. 
, delay, negligence. 

Cujlt, a bed-tick ; also a bed ; Lat. 
culcitra. This word being found 
in Clery's vocabulary of old 
Irish words, shows it to be Cel- 
tic, and the origin of the Anglo- 
Saxon word quilt. 

Cujtteac, a bake-house. 

Cu;m, entertainment; cujm, from 
com, j:<x na cu;m, under his co- 

Cu;me, hardness. 

Cu;mjeab, a narrative, a relation, 
or story. 

Cu;mne, memory, remembrance. 

Cujmne, a memorial, a record. 

Cujmneac, mindful. 

Cujmnjjjm, to remember. 

Cujrnnj jceo;/t, a recorder, a chro- 
nicler, or remembrancer. 

Cujmnjugab, a memorial. 

Cu;m/teafl, a share or portion ; 
yeacc nacfia mo cu;m/tean ^"0, 
seven acres are my proportion. 

Cujm/teafl, a messing or eating to- 
gether; a. ta ye <MD cu;m/tean, 
he messes with me. 

a little coffer or chest. 

Cujm;n, cummin seed. 

Cu;m;n, and plur. cu;mjn; je, a ^ 
commonage, or tract of ground, 
the property of which belongs to 
no one in particular, but to an 
entire village or town in general. 
In France it is called les com- 

Cu;mleab, to intermeddle, or tam- 
per with; an ce cujmtjo^, he 
that intermeddles. 

Cu;mne, protection. 

Cu;n, when. 

Cu;nab, mourning ; vid. caojne. 

Cumang, strait, close, narrow. 

Cu;nea^~, rectius c;u;nea/", rest, si- 
lence, quietness, a calm. 

Cujneoccaoj, ye shall keep. 

Cupeog, or cu;nneOj, a churn, 
also a can ; Wei. kjinnog. 

Cujnj, a yoke, a band, a duty, or 
an obligation ; a cu;n - o 
his bands of matrimony, a c< 
c/tabab, his religious vows. 

Cujnr, a yoke ; cu;nj po^ba, the 
yoke of marriage. 

Cujnge, a solicitation, an entreaty ; 
hence accu;nje, a repeated en- 
treaty or request. 

Cu;nj;m, to desire, solicit, require, 
or demand ; /i; j Lejte-Cu;nn 
bo cu;njea^, Cain, the king of 
leac-Cu;nn, demands his tri- 

u xl, subjugium. 
-, they used to keep or re- 

Cu;n j;b, a request or petition, 

Cu;n;z;;;t, a yoke of cattle ; as cu;n- 
j/t bam, a yoke of oxen ; cu;n- 
c, idem. 

i, a pair or couple ; cu;/ij;;t 
[, a couple of horses. 

a cart or waggon of 
two or more beasts yoked toge- 
ther; as ctrjng/teac bam, cu;n- 
3/teac capul. 

Cu;n;cea/i, a coney-burrow. 

c u 

c u 

Cujn; jjm, to assuage, to mitigate. 
C.-j.ijn, a coney, a rabbit; i'id. cu. \ 
Cu;nn, the genit. of conn, the name 
of a king in Ireland ; Lat. quiti- 

Cujnne, a corner, an angle; Lat. 
cuneus, Gall, coin, and Gr. -yo- j 
via ; hence the English word 
coins or q nines in architecture ; 
cu;nne is also a border, and so 
is coin in French and English ; 
hence the English word coin, 
mint-money, because it is marked 
or inscribed on its borders. 

Cu;nj-eat, a face or countenance. 

Cu;/itOftcu;b /~e, he will render, 
return, or recompense.- 

Cu;p, foam, froth. 

u;/ibeacta, birds'-claws. 

Ca)i\c, a knife. 

Cuj/tc, from co/tc, a whittle, or 

rce, or CDacajfte Cu;/icne, a ; 
territory in Westmeath, now the 
barony of Kilkenny-west, was 
anciently the lordship of O'Co- 

Cit)j\t>, or cujnt, a court. 

Cu;^tb, a trade ; vid. 

Cifjfte, a chaldron. 

Cuj;xe, a throng or multitude, a 
troop or company ; bdb cuj^e i 
bednmov be;jn;m, a troop that ! 
Achieved <iood actions. 

Cu;/teat, the knave in cards; cu;- 

c/t;oc, rou;ll;ot, 

maja af pea/t/t pan jmjftt:, id 
cst, the knave and five of spades, 
of clubs, of diamonds, and of i 
hearts, are the best trumps in 
the game of cards. 

m, to tire, to fatigue. 
Cu;/tjm, to put or set, to sow or 
plant, to send, to invite; lucb 
cujn;j, guests; nC\ cu;neo.b <xn 
njb f)n o/tt:, let not this thing 
displease thee ; cuj;t;m d;t ccut, 
to cancel or annul ; cujftim mo 

an ^-ndm, I make my bed 
to swim ; cu;ft;m jrdjlte beatcv. 
no ^tcijnre, to greet or salute; 
;nop;be, to beseech ; bu<xl<xc, to 
impose ; <Xft Cu<x/ta^-b<xl, to hire ; 
cu;^ Ont bo b;teacd;n, put on 
your plaid. 

Cajj\jn, a small chaldron, a pot, a 
can, &c. ; dim. of cuj^e. 

Cu;fim, a kind of beer or ale 
amongst the old Irish ; in the 
vulgar Greek Kovofjii signified a 
kind of beer or ale; and curmi 
in Latin is ale or beer, as is also 
the Welsh hum; hence cu;/tm 
signifies a feast, banquet, or 
drinking-bout ; ;t<xco.b bol mo 
cu;;tme, I w r ill go to drink. 

Cujftpe, wicked, impious, corrupt ; 
bujne cu;/ipe, homo corriiptm ; 
cuj^ipceac, idem. 

Cujftpecicc, wickedness, corrup- 
tion ; clann na cuj/tpeacta,^'/// 

and cu;/\teo3, an apple-tree, 
a wilding. 

, a court or palace. 

Cujftte<xmo.;l, complaisant, cour- 

<xb, c^teb jrCv cuj;tceoc<xb, 
why should he reward ? 
, a kind of cup. 

Cujuteoj, rid. cujnt. 

Cu;/ttj;t, an eunuch. 

Cujf, a matter, a thing, a cause, a 

Cuj^cle, a private or secret affair. 
a crime. 

corrupted from 
Lat. pidsus, a vein, also the 
pulse ; cajfle <xbeab, liverwort ; 
plur. cuj^tecvno. and cuj^ljb. 

c and cu;^-leo.bu.c, full of 
;-teaj, a lancet. 

or rather c\\jfiert.n, a 
castle ; is more properly written 
, an augmentative of 
. a word compounded of 

c u 

c u 

, a house in old Irish ; Lat., 
Ital., and Hispan., casa, and jol, 
or <xo;l, lime; so that ctvjpot 
signifies a building of stone and 
lime-mortar, whence the house 
or court of the kings of Cashel 
was called C<x;pot, at least as 
early as St. Patrick's time, as 
we see in the acts of his life ; a 
fact which, besides many others, 
proves that the old Irish knew 
and practised the art of building 
with stone and lime-mortar long 
before they were visited by the 
English adventurers, contrary to 
the erroneous assertion of some 
English and Anglo-Hibernian 
writers. The old and strong cas- 
tle of Castlelyons, in the County 
of Cork, was built with most ex- 
cellent cement of lime-mortar 
by Cujlean O'Ljatajn, A. D. 
1010, as appeared by an in- 
scription on a marble chimney- 
piece, when the Earl of Barry- 
more was repairing it about the 
year 1722. In my old copy of 
the Annals of Tighernach and 
his Continuator, I find mention 
of several castles in different 
parts of Ireland long before the 
arrival of the English, who ad- 
ventured with the king of Leins- 
ter ; and of several other diffe- 
rent castles in my copy of the 
Annals of Innisfallen ; wherein, 
at the year 1124, I find mention 
of three castles built by the peo- 
ple of Connaught, one at Gal- 
way, another at Dunleodh, and 
a third at Cuilmaol. At the 
year 1137 it is mentioned in 
Tighernach's Continuator, that 
the people of Ce<xbt<x, or Teffia, 
in Westmeath, plundered the 
castles of Loch-cairigin, which 
had been built a long time be- 
fore; and that in the year 1155 
Roderick O'Connor, king of 

Connaught, destroyed an old and 
strong castle at a place called 
Cu;l-t/iaj, which cost him the 
lives of a great number of his 
men ; a clear proof that the cas- 
tle was ancient and strong, from 
its cement having had time 
enough to consolidate with the 
stone : and finally, that in the 
year 1164 the same Roderick 
O'Connor built a large and 
strong castle at Cu<vjm ba Jul- 
ian, i. e. the city of Tuam. But 
from the description Giraldus 
Cambrensis (It'mer. Camb. 1. 1. 
c. 12.) gives of the castle of 
Pembroke, built, as he says, with 
rods or twigs lined about with 
sods of earth, " ex virgin et ces- 
pite temd" by Arnulphus do 
Montgomery, son of the great 
Earl of Shropshire, and son-in- 
law to Mortoghmore O'Brien, 
king of Ireland, as appears by 
his letter to St. Anselm of Can- 
terbury, (vid. Syllog. Epist. Hi- 
ber. p. 93,) by this description, 
I say, it would seem to appear 
that the English themselves knew 
nothing of the art of building 
with stone and mortar, since so 
great and opulent a man as Ar- 
nulphus did not put it in prac- 
tice with regard to his castle of 
Pembroke, which was the more 
necessary, as he designed it for 
the preservation of the conquest 
he had made of the County of 
Pembroke ; an event not long 
preceding the time of the expe- 
dition of the English adventurers 
into Ireland, since Gerald, s~ur- 
named Windsor, who was the 
father of Maurice Fitzgerald, 
one of the earliest of those ad- 
venturers, was the person whom 
this Arnulphus of Montgomery 
first appointed as keeper of his 
new-built castle of Pembroke- 

c u 

c u 

And as to the old Britons, so 
far were they ignorant of the art 
of building stone-work that when 
Ninian, who converted the sou- 
thern Picts, built his church of 
stone and lime-mortar, they call- 
ed it Candida Casa, or white 
house, being the first structure 
of the kind, as Beda observes, 
that was seen in Britain. 

anac, i. e. jre-abarxxc, a pi- 

, ice, frost. 

Cu;pie<xm<vjl, frosty. 

Cu;pi; jjm, to freeze, to congeal. 

Cujfnj jce, congealed, frozen. 

Cu)fOn, wise, prudent. 

Cujj-te, a couch. 

Cu;t, the head. 

Cujte, sound, healthy, well. 

Cu;te<xc, recompensing, or requi- 
ting a good or bad office as it 
deserves ; ta;m cu;te<xc lejf, I \ 
am up with him. 

Cu;te<xc, a denial. 

Cu;t:eoc<xb, a requital; and cu;- 
team, the same. 

Cu;t-be;/tt, or rather c<xjtr-be;/tt, 
an helmet, or head-piece; also 
a hat or bonnet. 

Cujtre, a trench ; <x la;t cu;te, in 
the midst of a pit ; cu;te cajlce, 
a lime-stone pit, a chalk-pit; 
also any deep moist place. 

Cu;teac, foam, froth; also rage, 
Jury : Icvn bo cufcj j, full of rage 
and fury ; cutcxc, idem ; <xm<x;l 
bo^<xo/t<xb (Dem/mil 0'CJ)u;ten<i 
Leogan, as Daniel was delivered 
from the fury of lions. L. B. 

C-Ufijgfttif to requite, to recom- 
pense; cujtrlocajb 7-6 jt;n, he 
shall requite us. 

Cut, custody ; also a guard, pro- 
tection, defence. 

Cul, the back part of any thing ; 
cul-bO/tu;~, a back-door : cul- 
, the back of a knife ; <\;\ 
oiT, back, away; pa oul, 


Cul, a chariot, a coach, or waggon : 
bo tfiejg <v cula, his coach 

Cul<Xjb, or cul-e<xbac, apparel, a 
suit of clothes, habit, &c. ; ;-eom- 
^i<x cul<x;b, the vestn\ 

Culam, to thrust or push back. 

Calanta^-, bashfulness. 

Cat<x/t<x;n, cucumbers. 

Culh, an artist. 

Culboc and bocjabdrt, a wether- 
goat, a buck. 

Culc<vjn;m, to slander, or backbite. 

Culc<x;nt: calumny, backbiting. 

Culca;nte6;/i, a backbiter, a slan- 

Cul-co;me;b, a guard. 

Cul j<x;/t;m, to recall. 

Culla, a hood, a cowl, x 

Cullac, a boar; p;db-cull<xc, a wild 

Cttlljj), holly ; rid. cu^leann ; cu- 
jll;n-t/ta; j, eringo, or sea-holly, 
a plant. 

Cullojb and cullo;be, a great noise, 
or rattling. 

Cullojbeac, noisy, brawling, quar- 

CulnKVjjte, a wheelwright. 

Culoj, one that rides behind ano- 

Culpoc, a he-goat, a buck. 

Cul;t<xbd/tc<xc, circumspect. 

CulcA;be<xc, preposterous. 

Culiajpn jjm, to retract. 

Culu; je<xc, apparel. 

Cum, the middle 01 waist; the body 
or trunk of an animal ; rid. 

Cum, a fight, a combat, a duel, or 

Cum, answers to the English parti- 
cles to and for ; as cum j-lejbe, 
to a mountain ; cum bejc, to be; 
cum bu;t mbeaca, for your suste- 
nance ; ba cum, in order to ; bo 
cum cuc<x, in order to fight. 

Cuma, &f cuma l;om, it is indiffe- 

c u 

c u 

rent to me, I care not. 

Cuma, a model, form, or pattern. 

Cum<xc, a breach or derout ; CUITKXC 
cojtrcjon/?, a general derout. 

Cumacba, a command. 

Cum<xb, or c<xmm<xb, crookedness. 

Cum<xboim, a fashioner, framer, a 
statuary ; also a liar. 

Cutrxrjl, bo cumajl 7-6 te ;meal a 
eubajje, he touched the border 
or hem of his garment. 

Cumcgtjm, to touch ; also to rub 
oftj or wipe. 

Cum<x;ltr, wiping; <xj cum<x;lc <x 
beo/id, wiping his tears. 

Cum<x;ne<xc, or cumao;ne<xc, com- 
' Cumajfc, a mixture. 

Cuma;/"c;iT), to mix, blend, or min- 

Cum<x;^cte, mingled, compounded. 

Crmal, a forfeit consisting of three 
cows; vid. O'Flo/iert. p. 296; 
it may signify the price of three 
cows, as tirz; me c/t; cum<x;l <xj/i, 
it cost me nine cows. 

Cum<x;m, to shape, to form ; bo 
cum fe, he shaped ; cumaj j bo 
teanga cealg, thy tongue 
frameth deceit. 

Cumcxnn, bo cumcxnn fe, he dealt. 

Cumann, common ; also mutual 

Cumuo;n fellowship, communion ; 
also an obligation. 

Cuma/i, a valley; also the bed of 
large rivers, or of a narrow sea ; 
whence the sea between Ireland 
and the Pictish country in North 
Britain was called Vallis Scy- 
thica; hence 

Cuma/t, na tt/t; nu;/"je, is the 
Irish name of the valley wherein 
the three rivers, Suir, Nore, and 
Barow, or rather Mearow, meet 
below Water ford, and form the 
harbour of that city. 

Cu-m<x/ia, literally signifies a sea- 
hound. This word has been the 

proper name of several great 
men of the old Irish nation ; it 
makes Con-ma/ta in the genitive 
case, as G0<xc con-ma/i<x, the son 
of Cuma/io.. The family name 
of the princely tribe of Dalcas- 
sians, called GOac n<x m<Xfi<*, is 
but an abusive pronunciation of 
the words fO<xc con-m<x/i<x, i. e. 
the son of Cum<x/t<x, one of their 
ancestors, descended from Conal 
Cdc-lu<xt, the fifth direct de- 
scendant from Co/imac C<\]f, 
(from whom the Dalcassian race, ) 
king of Munster and Leinster in 
the third century. The present 
chiefs of this noble family are 
John Macnamara, Esq. and Da- 
niel Macnamara, Esq., both of 
the County of Clare. Counsellor 
Macnamara of London, a lawyer 
of particular distinction, is the 
eldest son of the now-mentioned 
Daniel Macnamara, Esq. The 
brave Admiral Macnamara, who 
died at Rochfort soon after the 
beginning of the last war, be- 
longed to one of the chief 
branches of this ancient family. 
The chiefs of the Macnamaras 
were hereditary lords marshal 
of the kings of Thomond of the 
O'Brien race, and were charged 
with the function of proclaiming 
every new king on the day of his 
inauguration. Vid. C<x;c/te;m. 
Their ancient estate was the large 
territory called C/t;uc<x ceab JB 
C<x;^;n, now one of the baronies 
of the County of Clare. 
Cum<x/t<x;cc, derived from cuma/t, 
a valley; are a people living in 
a country full of valleys and hills. 
Thus the O'Briens of Cuma/iac, 
in the County of Wateribnl, 
were called Cuma;t<x;cc, as they 
inhabited the valleys betwri n 
Dungarvin and the river Suir. 
N. B. Hence also the old Bri- 


c u 

tons of Cumberland, whose lan- 
guage Mr. Lhuyd (Archaeol. p. 
2'2>j] remarks to have carried 
the closest affinity with the Irish 
of all the other British dialects, 
called themselves Cumbri, i. e. 
Cumeri, as Caniden observes in 
his Cumberland, doubtless be- 
cause their country consisted all 
of valleys and hills ; and for the 
same reason the Britons of Wales 
were called by that name, whose 
original meaning and derivation 
they have utterly forgot, as they 
did that of several other words 
still in use amongst them, whose 
signification, as Mr. Lhuyd re- 
marks in the Welsh preface to 
his Archaeologia, is to be found 
in the Irish language alone : the 
deriving of the appellation of 
Cumbri, or Cambri, from the 
Gomarians, or from the Cimbri, 
seems to be but a modern and 
chimerical notion. 

Cum<y3<x;m, to mix, to mingle or 
join, to incorporate. 

Cum<\f, strength, power ; jre<Xft ea- 
rn a;/*, a strong man ; also a 
wealthy, powerful man. 
c, strong, powerful. 
a mixture, id est com- 
; hence cum<ty"gd;m, to 
mingle or mix together. 

Cum a, mourning, sorrow, grief, la- 

Cuma, a bribe, a reward, or condi- 

Cumac, strait, narrow. 

Cumacb, power, strength, ability. 

Cumacbac, might}-, powerful, puis- 
sant ; compar. cumacba; je. 

Cumabac, sorrowful, sad. 

Cumajnj and cumanj, narrow ; 

Wei. curing- 
. . 
Cumaiflje, narrowness. 

Cumajnjjm, to straiten, to make 


Curt) a;;-, a selvage ; rid. c 

, a handmaid, a bond- wo- 

Cumal, obedience, subjection, &c. 

Cumalba, of or belonging to a ser- 

Cumanj, power, strength. 

Cumbac, defence, protection. 

Cumbac, a veil or covering; cum- 
bcic leapta, bed-clothes ; cum- 
bac oj/t, a golden cover. 

Cumbac, the cover of a book ; as 
appears by the following inscrip- 
tion on a silver cross upon the 
cover of a very old manuscript 
of the four Gospels in Latin, 
written in Irish characters by St. 
Columb Cille, an. 500 ; the in- 
scription runs thus : onajt acuj~ Cbotujmb Cbjlle bo 
planb 0?<xc C10ael-;-ecna;l bo 
;t;j Cftenn la^ <xnbe;tn<xb a 
Cumbac ;*0 ; i. e. Oratio et be- 
nedictio S. Columbce Cille sit 
Han/to filio MalacJiirp R?gi 
Hibernits qui hoc operimentum 
fieri fecit. Conceniing this in- 
scription Mr. O'Flaherty made 
the following note, which I have 
seen in his own hand-writing, on 
pa^e 434 of that inestimable 
manuscript : " Flannus hie Rex 
Hiberniae decessit 8vo. kalendas 
M^aii die Sabati, ut in MS. Co- 
dice Hibernico, quod Chronicon 
Scotorum dicitur, adnotatur anno 
-Era? Christiana? vulgaris 916, 
liber autemhic scriptus est manu 
ipsius S. Columbfe Kille per 
spatium dierum duodecim anno 
Domini 500, et postea subjungi- 
tur, hanc inscriptionem interpre- 
tatus est Rod. O'Flaherty 19. 
_Junii, 1677." 

Cumbactra, fenced, guarded; bo 

cumba;j fe na cat/tac<x u;le, 

he fenced or protected the cities. 

Cumbajjjm, to keep or preserve, 

to maintain or support ; also to 

build, rather to roof and cover a 


c u 

C U 

Curojac, straitness, distress; CUIT)- 

<xng;t<xc, idem. 

Cuml<v;m, to rub or scrape, to wear. 
Cumfia, fragrant, sweet; bola curo- 

fia, a sweet smell. 
Cum/tog, a sweet apple-tree. 
Cunty-gal, a stirring about, or mov- 

Cum^j<xt<x, moved, stirred, pro- 

Cuirty-gugAb, marching or journey- 

ing. p 

Curcttxc, bribery. 
Cumut, or cumal, a handmaid. 
Cumca, shaped or formed; be<xg 

cumtcx, well-shaped; also a man- 

ner or fashion. 

, power, ability. 
c, able, capable, active, 

CuiYimtty-g, a mixture or compound 

in physic ; Lat. commixtio ; it is 

the opposite of eanbd, a simple. 
Can, a body. 
Cunabt<xc, a filthy carcass, i. e. 

<xblu.c can, a carrion left to dogs. 
Cun<xb'a;/ie<ty*, slothfulness. 
Cunjanta, lucb cunganttt, helpers, 

Cun j<ty* and cungu^, a co-opera- 


Can jrxxm, help, succour, aid. 
Cung;/i, a couple ; vid. cu;nj^t. 
Cunna, friendship. 
Cunn&jpc, bo cunrxxj/tc me, I saw. 
Cunncx/ttdc, betrothed ; from cun- 

^a, a pact or agreement. 
Cunnt<x, modest. 
Cunr)fi<xb, a covenant. 
Cunn/i<xt<xc, agreed upon. 
Cuntoib^;^t:, doubt, danger; 

cuntrcxb<x;fit:, without question. 

, accpunt ; n;l cunt<\^ <x^am 
t, I have no account of it, I 

know nothing of the matter, also 

an account in dealing. 
Cup<x and cuptui, a cup. 

Cuplcv, a pair or couple, twins. *. 
Cu/t, \veariness, fatigue, also care ; 

Lat. cur a; hence cu/tta, tired, 


Cu/1, difficult. 
Cu/idc, a bog or marsh ; cu^<xc 

mon<\, a turf-bog. 
Cufi<xc, a body. 
Cu/iac, a coracle, a kind of small 


Cu/t<xcan, a skiff, a small boat. 
Cu/i<xb, an obstacle : n<i cu;/i cu- 

;t<xb <X;t ^p;o/mb Oe, oppose no 

obstacle to the spirit of God. 
Cu/i<xb, a champion, a warrior ; 

plur. cu/uvjbe and cu/ia;bb. 

the heroes of the red branch, 
were a band of brave warriors in 
the service of Concub<x/t OOtxc 
Ne<tyy<x, king of Ulster, said to 
nave reigned before and after 
the birth of Christ ; vid. Cucu- 


Cu/i<x;iean, a can, a mug, a tan- 
kard ; vid. cajpjr>. 

Cu/iajjean, cheese-runnet. 

Cu/i<xm, a charge or command, care; 
b;6b <x cu/-xm o/ic, let the charge 
of it be on you ; pea/i cu/i<x;m, 
a man of charge. 

Cu/i<xm<xc, careful, solicitous, busy. 

Cu/tann<ty", care, diligence. 

Cu/i<xt<x, courageous. 

Cu/tb;^eac, an addition. 

, flags, or bulrush. 
-, hair. 

c, or Co^mac, surnamed 
00u;j-te<vmn<x, ancestor of the 
Mac Carthys, was king of Des- 
mond from the year 1124, after 
the death of his uncle Thady, 
(elder brother of his father, from 
whom the Mac Auliffes,) to the 
year 1 138, when he was treache- 
rously killed, according to the 
Annals of Innisfallen, by Der- 
mod Sugoch O'Connor Kerry, at 
the instigation of Cu/itoj 0'6/vj- 

c u 

C 11 

en, younger brother of Concuba/t 
O'Oftjen na Cata;tac, who was 
supreme king of all Munster and 
Leinster at the same time. In 
an old valuable manuscript of 
the four Gospels in Latin, writ- 
ten in Irish characters, first be- 
longing to the king's library at 
Paris, (where Pere Simon igno- 
rantly judged it written in the 
Saxon character,) but now to be 
seen in the British Museum at 
London, the following marginal 
remark in old Irish is found at 
the end of the Gospel of St. 
Matthew, p. 60 : ;^ mo/t jn jn;m 
Co/tmac GOac Cantxyj bo ma/t- 
bab O'Cbonbealbac 0'0/v/a;/?, 
i. e. "the killing of CormacMac 
Carthy by Turlogh O'Brien is 
a very surprising act." At the 
end of the book appears the fol- 
lowing Irish Note : " O'Ra^b bo 
rcael-bfijjtre O'CTJael-uanjj qui 
scripsit hunc Ubrum ;n <Tjtbmac 
jf an bl;a;n /to ma/tbab Co/imac 
fbac Cam:a; T^J-Cea^-cop OOu- 
roan. Hi ta;b j-eo f]df na 
7?;o;ria an C/teann ^an a;mj-;;t 
fO ; i. e. 0}u;,K cea/itac CQac 
/Me;l an <fl;uc; Cu-ullab (Eac 
Concubajft 71; Ullab ; OOu/ica. 
ua (Waeleaclu;nb ^; CD;be; 
OQac CDuica ;t; La;- 
; Concuban 0'0;tj<xjn ;t;j 
n ; co;ibealodc O'Concu- 
bdt ;t;j Conacc; ^jo^^ ^ Ac 
CDac t?uj;t; j <x ccomOftbur 
; i. e. Pray for fl}ae(- 
ua OMel-uanjj, who 
wrote this book at Armagh in 
the year that Cormac Mac Cart}-, 
the Royal Bishop of Munster, 
hath been killed. The following 
personages are kings in Ireland 
at this same time, i. e. GOo/ttrO j 
CDac /Me;t, king_ of <T)t;uc, or 
Ulidia; cu Ullab CDac Concu- 
t, king of Ulster; 

ua GQaefeac la;m, king of Meath : 
(D;anmu;b CDcxc CCu/tca, king oi' 
Leinster ; ConcuBa/t O'Omen, 
kin^ot'Munster; Co;tlojO'Con- 
cul ; a;n, kins: of Connau.iiht ; and 
3;olla CDac L;aj OOac ?7uj^; j, 
successor of St. Patrick at Ar- 
magh." It is to be noted, that 
this writer had no other founda- 
tion for styling Coraiac Royal 
Bishop ofMujister than because 
he had repaired the cathedral 
church of Cashel and two church- 
es at Lismore, and was otherwise 
reputed a man of a pious and 
holy life, which is the character 
St. Bernard gives of him in his 
book De Jlfa S. Malachite, ac- 
cording to Malachy's reports to 
him concerning Cormac, to whom 
he was doctor and director 
during his retreat at Lismore, 
after his dethronement by the 
faction of his brother Donogh. 
By virtue of these marginal re- 
marks of the writer of that in- 
estimable manuscript I have been 
enabled to furnish the keepers 
and overseers of the British Mu- 
seum with a note, whereby the 
antiquity of that manuscript is 
ascertained, and fixed at the 
year 1138. This Co/tmac (Eac 
Ca/ttajg was deposed by his 
younger brother >ono, assisted 
by Turlogh O'Connor, king of 
Connaught, an. 1127, and shut 
up in a monastery at Lismore ; 
but before the end of the same 
year he was restored to the 
crown of Desmond by Concuba/t 
0'0;t;en, and Oonoj was exiled 
to Connaught. fid. Annal.In- 
nisfallen, ad an. 1127. This 
fact of Co/imac -being restored 
by Concuba/t 0'0/vjen is men- 
tioned by St. Bernard in Vita 
MalachifP, chap. 3. But the par- 
ticular reason of the surprise of 

c u 

c u 

ClQaetb/ijgte at the act of Cu/tloj 
0'0/v/en towards Cormac Carty, 
was because he was Cormac 's 
son-in-law and his gossip, be- 
sides his having been bred up 
from his earliest days at Cor- 
mac's court, according to the 
friendly custom of the Irish 
princes, who often educated each 
other's children for riveting mu- 
tual confidence and good har- 
mony. The fact of these several 
ties of friendship between Tur- 
logh and Cormac, is attested in 
the Annals of Innisfallen at the 
year 1138, where it is said that 
Turlogh was Clj&majn, <*;/*- 
tyOf-Chp-jOft, and -cUt/iono of 
Cormac Mac Carty, i. e. his son- 
in-law, his gossip, and his foster- 
child. The Chronicon Scoto- 
rum and the Continuator of 
Tighernach attribute the fact to 
Turlogh alone, without any men- 
tion of O'Connor Kerry; but 
the authors of the Annals of In- 
nisfallen are more to be credited 
as they wrote in the very centre 
of Kerry. 

Cu/in, a cup ; vid. co/m. 

Cu/iji, a corner, an end ; gu/~ <xn 
ccujpfl e;le bon ttxlam, unto the 
other end of the earth ; also a 
site or situation. 

Cu;t/i, a pit. 

^x-Cu/ifUXc, a bog or fen ; mojn is 
drier ground than what they call 

Cu/t/tel, plain, manifest. 

Cu/tft j<xtan, a bucket. 

Cu/i/tta, weary, tired, fatigued. 

Cu/y<x, a course or manner, a row, 

. rank, or order; cejtfte cu/ipa, 
four courses. 

bj a curse or malediction ; 

bo ;t<xb 
cursed them. 

a learned man. 
a bucket. 

cx, he 

ji, a courer or messenger ; 
also an attendant ; Lat. cursor ; 

, i. e. jjolla 
jro/i ce^nn Jo^-<x jon 
then Pilate sent a messenger 
along with Jesus to Galilee. 
, a bending or inclining. 
, courage. 

, an object, a mark to 
shoot at. 

, diversity. 

cb, an objection, or argu- 
mentation; from cunDOjji, any 
object that may be disputed on. 
Cu^p5;ta;be, an opponent. 

, to object. 
, skin. 

e, a tanner. 
, ceremonies,, customs. 
Cutac, bob-tailed. 
Cutal and cutal, bashful ; cu;l, 

Cut<xUa;be, a companion, comrade, 

or partner. 
Cut, a head. 
Cuca, rage, fury, fierceness, &c. ; 

cutac, idem. 
Cuccxc, furious, raging mad ; leon 

cut<xc, a raging lion. 
Cuc<x;tecvcb, bashfulness. 
Cuta/tldn, an onion, an earth-nut, 

or pig-nut. 
Cut-ba/i/i, a helmet; vid. cujt- 


CuC-Ba/1/i, the Irish name of St. 
Cuthbert ; it is rather Cubea/t- 
tac. Vid. Chronic. Scot, and 
Tighernac. Annal. 
Cutb<x/iun, a sort of Montero or 
Monmouth cap. 



THE letter >, or OU;H, which is so called frombu;/i, the oak-tree, \* 
now the fourth letter of the Irish alphabet, and is ranked by our gramma- 
rians among the CftuAb-cOnj-Ojne, or hard consonants; but by adding an 
b, or fixing a full-point above it, falls under the denomination of light 
consonants, called in Irish confOjnz eab-C;tom<x. In our old manuscript- 
b and t; are written indifferently, as cvXftab, or c<Xft<xt, a friend; Ja.b, or 
;ac, them, c. ; and this indifference is common also to the Greeks and 
Latins, as Gr. ouSt; and ourij, neque. &c., and Lat. hand and haut, reli- 
f/ifit and reliquid, quodannis and quotanms, &c. In the Greek language 
the third rank of the mute consonants is T, 8, and 9, the middle conso- 
nant B, respectively corresponding to T and 9. Now it is to observed that 
in the Irish language any word beginning with tr, will in its variations 
admit both b and t, as trjanna, a lord, Lat. tyrannus, and Gr. rvoav- 
vog, <x b'tja/tncu their lord, mo cjdnna, my lord, and so on with every 
word whose initial letter is t. The Irish b corresponds with the Gr. & 
and the Lat. d, as Ir. >;<x, God, Gr. accusat. Aa and 0oc, Lat. Dens : 
Ir. bea/tcvxb, to see, from bea/ic, the eye ; Gr. Seonio, to see; Ir. bo, 
ttco ; Gr. and Lat. Sucu ; Ir. b;^, two persons ; Gr. &c, Lat. bis, twice ; 
Ir. beac, or beaj, and be;c, ten; Gr. Stk-a, and Lat. decem. The Irish 
b also agress with the Gr. 6, or theta : as, Ir. bo^a^, Angl.-Sax., door, 
Gr. Oupas, accusat. plur. This Irish letter agrees in like manner with 
the Hebrew T, or dh, which by putting a full-point over it becomes a 1, 
(i-id. the general remarks on the letter b,) Ir. b;/^j or b;/t;c, Lat. dirigo, 
to direct; Heb. "pi, via, iter, and "pi, dirt' fit viam, tedendit ; Ir. 
bu;tle and bujlleoj, the page of a book; Heb. rfyl, folium, pagi nee libri. 
The Irish language is industriously censured by some critics for admit- 
ting a superfluous b or b in the latter end of several words ; but these 
censurers should consider that this redundancy of the letter b was for- 
merly observed in the Latin, of which we have a remarkable instance left 
us in Fabr. Iss. Antiq. Expl. p. 427 : " Neve in publicod neve in pri- 
vatod nevextrad Urbem de Senatuos Sententiad, &c." And we find a 
near coincidence of that redundancy in the Hebrew language ; for as in 
the infinitive mood of several Irish verbs, such as jreaUvXb, to deceive, 
laLfallere, be<x/tc<xb, to see, Gr. Sepicw, b and its aspirate b are not pro- 
nounced ; thus in the Hebrew n*O, to see, nV, to toil or labour. $c., the 
final letter n> or //, is not pronounced, but like the Irish b, becomes a 
mute or quiescent letter. Many other examples of redundancies, both 
of consonants and vowels, as also of barbarous forms of words in the old 
Latin tongue, may be produced from Signor Febretti's collections of an- 
cient Roman Inscriptions, and other w Tilings ; and this barbarity of the 
Latin we may trace down to the time of the first Latin poets, such as 
Ennuis and Naevius ; nay even as far as Plautus, in whose time the Ro- 
mans did not think themselves entitled to be excluded out of the number 
of the barbarian nations, since this poet not only calls Naevius Poeta JBar- 
barttx. but also says of himself, on occasion of his version of a piece of 
Greek into Latin, M. Atticus (for that was his name, Plautu* being only 
a nick-name,) verlit barbare ; whence it appears that Festus Pompeius 


was well-founded in saying, that anciently all nations, excepting the 
Grecians, were called Barbarians. But the proud Greeks should in 
gratitude have excepted the Phoenicians, from whom they had received 
tlie knowledge of letters, and the Egyptians, to whom they owed their 
theology and mythology. And indeed the Latin may justly be looked 
upon as a mere Barbarian language, when it was written in such a style 
as appears in the following lines : " Quom ea res consoleretur, iovsisent 
censuere homines Pius V. oinversei virei, atque mulieres sacra nequis- 
quam fecisse velet, neve inter ibei virei Pious duobus, mulieribus Pious 
tribus adesse velent, nisi de P. R. Urbani, Senatuosque Sententiad utei 
supra scriptum est Haice utei in conventionid ex deicatis ne minus trinum 
noundinum Senatuosque, &c." Fabr. ibid. p. 427. These two samples 
of the old Latin are enough to demonstrate that the language of the pri- 
mitive Romans, much-famed as they have been, was at least as much 
charged with redundant consonants at the end of words as the Irish is 
thought to be : and if those who censure it for such redundancies of con- 
sonants did but look back and consider the kind of jargon their ancestors 
spoke and wrote about four or five hundred years since, and even to the 
end of Queen Elizabeth's reign, they could not but acknowledge it to be 
a much more uncouth and rude language than the Irish ever hath been. 
It is a well-known fact that the sons or grandsons of the chiefs and 
leaders of those English who adventured into Ireland on the expedition 
in favour of the king of Leinster, and made settlements there under the 
protection of that prince, became so disgusted with their own native lan- 
guage, that they utterly abandoned and forgot it, and spoke no other 
than the Irish ; insomuch that the English government judged it neces- 
sary to order an act of Parliament, whereby the English who settled in 
Ireland were strictly forbidden the use of the Irish language under cer- 
tain penalties. To all which I shall add, that those censurers of the 
Irish language for a pretended redundancy of consonants, betray their 
want of knowledge concerning the true marks of the perfection and anti- 
quity of languages, of which marks the most essential is the preservation 
of radical letters, which are properly the consonants. And in this very 
point the learned Mr. Lhuyd gives the Irish the preference of perfection 
before all the other dialects of the Celtic tongue, as may be seen in his 
Archseologia, pag. 23. col. 1. But it is moreover to be observed, that in 
reality there are no redundant or superfluous consonants in the words of 
the Irish language, though there are some that are not properly radicals, 
originally belonging to the frame of the words they are found in : of 
these non-radicals there are two sorts ; the one consisting of consonants 
that are merely adventitious, of which there has been a good deal said in 
the remarks on the letter <C ; I mean those consonants that are thrown in 
between two vowels belonging to two different syllables. But as those 
adventitious consonants have the sanction not only of antiquity, but also 
of examples in Greek and Latin, and, I dare say, in most other ancient 
languages, they are not to be counted superfluous ; especially as they are 
of particular use in easing the voice by preventing a disagreeable hiatus. 
Another kind of adventitious consonants is frequently found at the be- 
ginning of words, particularly when those words have a reference to per- 


sons or things ; as in the words a n'bojftne, their fists, d;t n'boca;", our 
hope, a g'cjnn, their heads, where the consonants n and are naturally 
foreign to the words they are prefixed to, though the nature of the lan- 
guage absolutely requires their being prefixed in such circumstances ; but 
the .other sort of consonants, which are not properly radicals, are yet 
neither adventitious nor foreign to the nature of the words, but do rather 
necessarily arise from the inflections of nouns and verbs, and therefore 
cannot be redundant. Nor do those non -radical consonants clog the lan- 
guage, or render it disagreeable in its use ; inasmuch as they are either 
mollified, or rendered entirely mute or quiescent by the aspirate b, ex- 
cepting only the consonant brought in as an initial, which is always pro- 
nounced ; but then it eclipses the radical consonant, to which it is pre- 
fixed, so that the word is pronounced as if that radical had no existence, 
though all radical initials are religiously preserved in the writing, for tho 
sake of preserving the original structure and propriety of the language : 
a method which that candid and learned Welshman, Mr. Lhuyd, highly 
commends, and shows the abuses which the non-observance of it by the 
Welsh writers has occasioned in their language. Vid. Archceol. p. 23. 
col. 1. 

b rf b it 

bd, unto her or his, unto their; 
ex. tug fj bd f ea/t e, she gave 
it unto her husband; bd ca/ta 
jrejn, to his own friend ; bd 
najmbjb, to their foes: where 
note that bd is a contraction of 
bo a, as bd jrea-t is properly bo 
a pea/i, bd carta is bo <x ca/ia, 
b<x na;ri)b;b is bo <x na;mb;b, 
vid. a, his, her, their. 

Od, of or from his, hers, or their ; 
ba cO)f, from off his foot ; pro- 
perly bo a cojf, de pede, bd 
Cftejbeamujn. of her reputation, 

A, or bo, two; ba bt;dja;n beag, 
twelve years. 

bd, if; ba nbdo/iu;b d;t ccoju^ 
f)nn, if our conscience condemns 

<Dd, is sometimes a sign of a parti- 
ciple, as bd jd/tab, asking, be- 

(Dd, as bd cojf, (going) on foot. 

(Da, good : sometimes written ba j 
and beaj, (vid. (Dja, God,) 
ba-bd/t, a good or hopeful son. 

c, a tub or large vessel, a vat, 
particularly used in brewing ; 
pronounced douch, for ab and 
ob, and very often o j, are pro- 
nounced like QIC in English in 
the beginning and middle of 

t>aba,rt and boba/i-^Ojbeac, a buck- 
et, a picher. 

t>abab, a jot, a whit, a trifle, some- 
what ; njt a babab, not a jot : it 
is pronounced babam. 

(Dde, a man, a person. 

(Dde, or bua, a high ditch or wall. 

(Dde, a house ; j\)0 j-bde, a pa- 

(Dde, a hand; pio fjn a bde, he 
stretched forth his hand. 

(Dd-j:0 jfyt, i. e. two vowels joined 
in one syllable, a diphthong ; 
plur. bd f oga/tu;j and bd-jro ja- 

bd j, good ; bd and bed j, idem. 

bd^a^, wind. 

baib^at, the ancient name of the 
place now called -ct^bpndn, si- 
tuate on the banks of the river 



a;bl;aT, potius bajm-ljaj, a 
church ; pi; bu;ll;n <xn ba;m- 
Ij&j, on the pinnacles of the 

ba;ce, oi' or belonging to a tribe, 

Oajb, afather ; mo b<x;b, my father, 
Wei. dad, hence the English 
dada; its diminutive is bdjbjn ; 
Ann. tat, Cor. to/ and taz, 
Rhaet. bab, and Turc. baba. 
x;bb;^, poor, or more properly, 
not rich ; its opposite is px;bb;/-t, 
rich, abounding; pxjbbj/i acaf 
b<x;jbb;;t bon c^ie, rich and poor 
belong to the earth, i. e. by 
death. This word ba;bb;/i is 
but the negative of pxjbbj/i, and 
is formed by a violent contrac- 
tion ofbo-y-<x;bbj;i orbj-p*;bb;/i, 
compounded of bo or bj, signify- 
ing not or un, and prjbbjfi, rich. 
Here it is to be noted, that our 
grammarians reckon ten negative 
particles in the Irish language, 
which are ne<xm, <xn, <xm, eab, 
eag, e<x/-, b;, bo, jn or jnj, m; ; 
all these negatives enter as pre- 
fixes into compound words, 
wherein they frequently occasion 
a suppression of the initial radi- 
cals of the words they are pre- 
fixed to, as it happens in many 
of the words subjoined to the 
preposition com. 

b<x;jr, drink; 710 51 <x b<xjjr, he 
quaffed his drink. 

j and bo; je, hope, confidence ; 
ex. b;ob bo b<xjj ujle y<xn 
C;<x/tn<x, let all your hope be in 
the Lord. 
, fire. 

t<x^, fuel. 

ba;jc;nnm;ol, enamelling. 

pa) jecxb, a giving or delivering. 
, to give ; Lat. do, dare. 
b, ^z^osz b<xj-e<xb, or <IT<X, 
a good time or opportunity ; also 

great odds. 

Oa n; JJID, to establish. 

, a decree, an ordinance. 
, delay, respite. 

ba;l, a share or portion ; bujl alsi> *. 
means the same thing in the 
Gothic. Vid. Glossar. Gothic. 

Oa;l a particular or separate tribe ; 
as, bal-c<x;^, the race^ of Co/1- 
mac Caff, 6al-o./i/tcx;be, (Dal- 
f Jatac, &c. 

ba;l, desire, willingness. 

Oa;l, a meeting ; mSfi-bctjl, an as- 
sembly or convention ; bajt catvx, 
a pitched battle. 

t>a;leab, tradition. 

b<x;le;r>, a scoff. 

ba;l;m, to give, to deliver; hence 
<xc<x;/t bal<x, he that gives in mar- 
riage ; also to afford, to render, 
&c. ; <xtr<vjri bata, the bride- 
groom's man. 

bailee, dealt, parted, or divided. * 

ba;lt;n, the diminutive of b<xlt<x, 
a Jackanapes, an impertinent, 
insignificant fellow, a puppy. 

e<ty-, or bajltjneact, scur- 
rility, impertinence. 

Oa;m, kindred, consanguinity; also 
a gang or company. 

b<x;m, rectius bom, a house ; Lat. 
domus ; hence bajmtjag, any 
church made of stone -work. 

ba;m, assent, free-will ; bom b<vjm, 
with my assent, voluntarily. 

ba;m, a poet, a learned writer ; 
Gr. Sarjjuwv, a learned or know- 
ing man, coming from <?mw, sc/o, 
which as well as the Heb. ny*T, 
scientia, seems to corrcsjtond 
with the Irish adjective becxj, 
good; as beaj-bu;ne, a good 
man ; plur. bam<x and ba;me, 

ba;meac, a companion, or asso- 

ba;m-e<xs<xn, a frontispiece. 

bajm-peojl, beef; literally the 
flesh of oxen. 

b rf 

ba;m;ac, potent in relations. 

ba;m-l;a5, a church; bajm-ljaj 
Qartan, the Cathedral Church 
of St. Ciaran at Clonmacnois. 

ba;nty-;n, a damson-plum. 

ba;n and buna, the gen. of ban, a 
poem ; ex. gne band, a kind of 
poem ; f e<x^t ba;n, a poet. 

bajngean, sure, fast, close, secure, 
sometimes written ba;r)j;on. 

Oajnjean, a fortification, fort, or 
tower; bajngean, the town of 
Dingle in the most western part 
of Ireland, in the County of 

bajngean and ba;nj;r>, an assu- 
rance, a contract. 

ba;njneacb, a bulwark, a fast- 

ba;/7jn; j;m, to fasten, to confirm, 
to establish ; bajngnmm mo 
cu/iftab ^;b/~e, I establish my 
covenant with you ; bo bajngn; j 
me an bu;ne pio b; <x bponc an 
baj^- jonna c/te;bjOm, I confirm- 
ed the dying man in his faith ; j 
bo ba;ngn; j fe na cat/taca, he 
fortified the cities. 

t, the oak-tree; Brit. cfar. 

, a kind of worm, some think 
the black worm. 

, an oak; also a nursery 
or grove of oak-trees ; Lat. quer- 

ba;/ie, the proper name of several 
ancient kings of Ireland, corres- 
ponding perfectly with Darius. 

Oa;/te, the genit. of bajft, an oak- 
tree ; also a wood. 

bajfieab, bo a^t ba;^e<xb, a cow 
that is a bulling. 

(Dajftt, a clod. 

(Da;fttr, a young cow or heifer. 

(Dajftteac, full of clods. 

b<x;^;n, a writing-desk. 

(Da;te, coloured. 

(Dojtedn, for b<x;bean, a foster- 

t, quick, nimble, active, supple; 

t;, iflem ; hence ba;c;, or 
ba;c;je, the name of several 
persons, as bojc; GOac pjacjta, 

ba;ce, revenge. 
bajtea jab, revenue. 
ba;ceam<x;l, likely, comely, hand- 
some ; bacama/t, idem; literally 
bctjce<iml<xcb, comeliness. 

, eloquence, a speech, or 

, unanimously, with one 
accord ; j\o jecdl /-;ab bard^j, 
they unanimously agreed and 

, an avenger. 

ba;rle, i. e. bo a;tte, after ; t-id. 

Oa;trn;b, sorry, bad for ; a^ ba;c- 
n;b bam a ba^% I am sorry for 
his death ; it is bad for ine he 

Oal, a division, portion, or lot ; 
also a particular tribe of people, 
together with the country or re- 
gion belonging to such a tribe ; 

Oal-a;tajbe, a large territory in 
Ulster, comprehending the S. 
and S. E. parts of the County of ^ 
Antrim, and the greatest parts of 
the County of Down : it derived 
its name from pjaca-a'ta;be of 
the Ruderician race, king of 
Ulster, towards the middle of 
the third century ; from him de- 
scended the G0ac-a-ba;^b, Eng. 
Ward, and the 0'Oubaja;n, 
Eng. Dugan. V. Ogyg. p. 327. 

bal-pacac, another large territory 
in Ulster, so called from p;atac- 
pjnn, king of Meath, soon after 
the beginning of the third cen- 
tury, (Ogyg. p. 301.) whose pos- 
teritv settled in that territory. 

-, the tribe or race of Co-t- 
-. king of Leacmoj. i. e. 


6 if 

of Munster and Leinster in the 
third century, from whom de- 
scended the O'Briens, the Mac- 
namaras, the Mac Mahons of 
Thomond, &c. 

aba, a large territory in 
Ulster, possessed by a tribe, 
which were distinguished by the 
same name, and of whom the 
Dal-Riadas, or Dal-Rheudins, 
as Bede calls them, of Albany 
or Scotland, were only a detach- 
ment or party, which settled 
amongst the Picts of Albania, or 
North Britain, under the con- 
duct of Fergus, a young prince 
of the Irish Dalriadian family in 
the year 503, according to the 
Annals of Tighernach. Fid. 
Memoire de M. de C. Journal 
des Savans, an. 1764. 

, a relation, or historical fact ; 
ye<xnc<xy bal<x, genealogical re- 

bal<x, news; also meetings, con- 
ventions, assemblies. 

, as to, as for ; bala no. OOuJro- 
ne<xc, as to the Momonians ; 
bcxl<x <xn c<xt<x, concerning or as 
to what regards the battle ; also 
like unto; bo /t;nne ye bala 
cac, he acted like the rest. 

bcvl<x, an oath. 

<Dala, Sl;ge bala, a place near 
Boiris of Ossery in the Queen's 
County; Cnoc no. (Data, a hill 
in Kintire, where meetings were 
anciently held. 

balxx, O'bata, a family name very 
respectable in Ireland ; whereof 
there are several septs descended 
from different stocks, viz. the 
Q'Dalys of Munster, who sprung 
from the third son of Jjlngus, 
king of Cashel, who was bap- 
tized by St. Patrick ; the O'Dalys 
of Ulster, of whose branch there 
were several kings of Meath, 
and who are of the same stock 

with theO'Donels of Tyrconnell : 
of these O'Dalys of Ulster the 
O'Dalys of Connaught are a 
branch, who, according to Mr. 
Harris, (vol. 2. p. 50,) were co- 
partners with the O'Kellys in 
the large district of Hy-Maine. 
The late and present O'Dalys, 
celebrated oracles of the Irish 
and English laws, are the chiefs 
of this Conacian branch of the 
great O'Dalys of Ulster, the di- 
rect posterity of Con<xl "&oiban, 
son of fM;<xt ^1<xo;j;<xl<xc, king 
of Meath in the fourth century ; 
and the O'Dalys of Meath, of 
the posterity of |M;<xl |M<xom<x- 
lac, by his son GQ<x;ne. rid. 
Ogyg. p. 401. 

bala/jjm, to assign or appoint. 

b<xlan be, a butterfly. 

balan, a great bulk. 

ballon clojce, any great or large 
stone, whereof many were erected 
by the old Irish throughout all 
Ireland as monuments of some 
remarkable achievements, with 
inscriptions on the same to ex- 
plain the facts; all written mostly 
in their oghams, or occult manner 
of writing, not unlike the Egyp- 
tian hieroglyphics, which were 
in like manner inscribed on large 
stones, on obelisks or pyramids, 
and which could be explained 
by none but their priests, as the 
Irish oghams were by none but 
sworn antiquaries, or perhaps 
their Druidish priests. 

balb, a lie, an untruth, or false- 

b<xlbba, sorcery. 

ball, blind, puzzled. 

bo.U<j.b and ball<x;m, to blind, to 
blindfold, or puzzle. 

baU-;nt;nne<xc, dull-witted, fool- 
ish, heavy. 
, a leech. 
and btxltan, a foster-child, 


a disciple. 

baltac, betrothed. 
-f bamajfce, damage, detriment, 

bamanta, condemned, damned. 
-f- bam, an ox ; Lat. dama, a buck; 
bam allta, a wild bull, a buffalo ; 
j:;ab-bam, a buck, or stag. 

bam, the dative case, unto me, i. e. 
bo am. 

bamab, permission, liberty-. 

bamab and bamajm, to permit, 
suffer, or allow. 

baman, an ox or bull. 

baman alia, a spider; potius bu- 
ban alia. 

, dancing. 

i. e. bo prjtngeaba/i, 
they forbear. 

bamlan, an ox-stall, or a place for 
oxen to stand in. 

bamna, the matter out of which 
any thing is or may be formed : 
when spoken of a prince, as 
fi;oj-bamna, it signified a fit 
successor or presumptive heir of 
the crown among the Irish ; 
which generally was the right 
of the Thanist, or eldest prince 
of the family. A modern able 
writer thinks jvjo j-bamna means 
king-elect; in which he mis- 
takes the sense of his author, 
O'Flaherty. who positively af- 
firms that the presumptive suc- 
cessor was the Thanaiste, and 
that every one of the rest of the 
family that may be fit candidates 
for the succession were called 
T?joj-bamna, which he explains 
by regia materies apta ad reci- 
piendam regiam formam suce 
familicp. Ogyg. p. 58. The 
Thanist, i. e. the next in age and 
merit to the reigning prince, 
being one of his nearest kinsmen 
of the same name and blood, 
was generally looked upon as 
the future successor, agreeably 

to the Tanistic custom ; but as 
to a formal election in favour of 
any prince before the demise of 
the actual sovereign, not one in- 
stance of such a measure appears 
throughout the whole course of 
our old Annals. 

bamnab, a band, or tie. 

bam-naritrajbe, a bullock. 

bam-Ojbe, a doctor or teacher. 

bampupa, a school-master. 

bam^a, dancing; pie bam^a;j;b, - 
with dances. 

bampx; jjm, to dance. 

bam^oj/t, a dancer. 

bamta and bamama;l, a student. 

bamnu; jjm and bamujnt, to damn, 
to condemn; noc bamnujjecy, 
who condemnest; bajmneocu;b 
^;<xb, they shall condemn. 

ban, work. 

ban, fate, destiny; bo bj fe <x 
n'ban bam, it was my fate, &c. 

ban, a poem, &c. ; an bafl^o, this 

bana, bold, impetuous ; hence tho 
old Celtic name of the Danube, 
which is ban-ou, the bold im- 
petuous river; oba, or obu;n, 
pronounced oua and oujn in 
the Irish Celtic, signifies a ri- 
ver ; amu;n is another Irish Cel- 
tic word for a river ; Lat. amnis. 

bana, impudent, presumptuous. 

ban-a/t;b, money-worth, goods. 

banalojnj;o^, a fleet or squa- 

bcinacb, boldness, presumption ; 
also confidence; a ta banacb, 
or bana; jeacb agaro <x;/i, I can 
make free with him. 

bana; jjm, to dare, to adventure. 

bana;/t, a stranger, a foreigner; 
properly a Dane ; ban pj;t,Danes. 

ban at:, a nurse. 

banba, fatal. 

bant, a morsal, portion, or share. 

baoc and bacoj, a periwinkle, or 

b cT 

baocatl, a bit or morsal. 

baoj, a man. 

bao;l, a leech. 

baojne, men, mankind ; the plur. 
of bu;ne; baojne jaojl, rela- 
tions; bao;nceap, relations, those 
of the same stock. 

bao;n-c;neal, of one and the same 

baojneac, populous. 

baoj/t-jrjne, a subjected people, 

Oa5jfi-joUA, a slave. 

bao;/t-mea/"ba, tucb baoj/troea^- 
ba, task-masters. 

bao;/t^e and ba6;/t^eacb, dearth, 

bao^tj-e, captivity ; a n'bao;/t^e, 
in bondage. 

Oao;;i^;n, captivity, bondage. 

baol, a bug, a chafer. 

Oaoma;pm, to ruin or demolish. 

Ocxdn, to raise up ; also to ascend. 

baona, human; an c;ne baona, 
mankind ; bao/iba, ?We?. 

baonacb, civility, hospitality ; also 
humanity; bjabact; <xju^ bao- 
nacb, divinity and humanity. 

baon co/7, the moral of a fable. 

Oaonj:u;l, kin, allied, related. 

baoji jao;b;le, moral philosophy. 

baonnacb, vV/. baonacb. 

)aonn<xcbac, civil, liberal, hu- 

>aor)tOftfta;jte<x^, of the same 

)<x6/i, guilty, condemned, captive. 
* Oao^i, dear, precious, costly. 

)<x6;i<x;m, to condemn, to con- 

><x6/i<x/ioi, a slave. 

)ao/i-<ji/i;ia,dear goods, dear ware. 

(")<io/t-bob(xc, a slave. 

O<v6/i5glac, a slave. 

)<xo/it<x, condemned, convicted. 

^ao^ja^^luaj, the lowest rank 
of men, the plebeians. 

><xotajn, a sufficiency ; bua; j ^e 
c\ baot<x;n, he eat a sufficiency. 

b cf 

ba/t, by, or through, upon ; b<\;t 

txnum p/)afi<xob, by the life of 

Pharaoh ; Lat. per. 
ba/i, whose, whereof; ne<xc ba/t 

bajnm C6j<xn, a certain man 

whose name was Owen, i. e. 

necxc bo <x/t bub <x;nm, &c. 
ba;t, unto our ; ba/t cclo;nn pejn, 

i. e. bo fyt cclo;nn fejn, to our 

own children. 
b<Xft, ba/t t;om, I think, in my opi- 

nion ; ba/t leo, in their opinion. 
ba/ta, the second; <xn ba^<x la, 

the second day ; ba/tnd, the 

same, vulgarly said. 
ba/tab, whose, vid. ba/t. 
ba/tabal, an oak-apple, galls. 
ba/tac be/tj and ba/toj, an oak ; 

Wei. deniy Arm. ofaro, genit. 

Oa/ta;/tjr)e jeab, thought. 
ba/ta;/tjne j;m, to think. 

^-, a home, a dwelling; 

Oa/tb, a worm, a reptile. 

ba/tb, a coach or chariot. 

ba/tca;n, a mast or acorn ; <xj 
ba/tca/iab, gathering acorns. 

ba/tcujje, ((bac-ba/tcu;je,) a 
family-name in Connaught of 
the same stock with the O'Con- 
nors and O'Rourks, and whose 
ancient estate was the large ter- 
ritory called Cjneat Luaca;n, in 
the County of Leitrim. N. B. 
This Irish name ba/tcu;je is 
pronounced Durchuy, almost the 
same in sound as Darcy. 

ba/tbal, bad weather, severe time. 
PI. ex. F. 

ba/tn, a school. PL 

ba/t/t;o ja, above or beyond kings. 

ba/tt, to bull a cow ; ju/t bajjtt 
bo;n, that the cow was bulled. 

ba/ttan, a herd or drove; Laf. 
armentum; ba/ttan bo, a herd 

. of kine. 

ba/tt/ta;be, in the County of Ros- 
common, the country of the 

O'Fins, the Mac Flanchas, and 
a tribe of the O'Carrols. 

)a;-acb, fierceness, boldness. 

)<ty-acbac, compar. b<ty-acbaj je, 
presumptuous, assuming, imper- 

(Data, pleasant, handsome, agree- 

(Datan, a foster-father. 

>at, colour ; bat b/tejge, a dis- 
guise, a false show, a bastard 

- die; bata eaj^amla, various 

(Datab, dying, a tincture. 

)atab, a present, or favour. 

>atabo;ft, a dyer. 

>at<x;m, to dye, to colour. 

>atamtacb, honour, respect, de- 
cency ; also comeliness. 

>atama;<-, decent. 

<Dataroa;l, pleasant. 

(Dat-clobac, party-coloured. 

>atna;b, a foster-mother. 

>atu jab, a dying, or colouring. 

>atugab and batajm, to dye or 
colour; a^ na batujab bea^tj, 
dyed red. 

(De, whence, from whence ; also 

thereof, i. e. bo e, of it. 
v)e, the genitive case of );a, God, 

rid. (D;a. 

- <De, the genitive of b;a, a day, vid. 
bja. m 

)eabab, haste, speed ; be;n beaba, 
make haste. 

)eabab, beabajb, and bejbeab, a 
skirmish, a battle, or encounter ; 
pi. beabtajb, and bejbte, Angl. 
Saxon, debate. 

)eaba;m, to hasten ; also to battle, 
encounter, or skirmish. 

)eabtac and beabtac, contentious, 

)eaca;/t, strange, wonderful. 

)eaca;;t and beaclac, hard, diffi- 
cult ; beacaj/t le beanam, hard 
to be done. 

)eaccanac, a Dane. 

better; ba be<xc, i. e. ba 

this seems to be the 
comparative degree of the word 
ba or ba j, good. 

^)eacab, to go to, to reach; 50 
nbeacab me, that I may go. 

)eaca;/t, bealujab, a separating. 

beacaj/t, to follow. 

>eaca;;t, brightness ; also bright, 

)eacbab, a law. 

(Deacmab, the tenth ; also tithe. 

(Deacmu jab, a tithing. 

)cacnama/i, a decade; also the 
number ten ; be;cn;u/t, idem. 

(Deacmo/tab, courtesy, aftabilit}'. 

beacna, separated. 

)eac/iab, anger, indignation. 

beact, divinity, Godhead ; nj 
c^ejb^-eab jn p/t-beact na 
Cft;ono;be pj^te, non credebant 
in veram Deitatem, &c. 

beacta, dictates, doctrine, or in- 

)eacta;m, to teach or instruct, to 
suggest or dictate ; also to order 
or enact ; also to debate. 

>eacta; jte, taught, instructed. 

)eact6jft, a dictator, a teacher. 

(Deactac, hard, difficult. 

(Deacmajc, difficult, hard. 

Oeacmaj/ig, strange, miraculous. 

)eac;ia, more hard or difficult, 
the comparat. of beacajft. 

fc>eac/tacb, difficult}', hardship. 

)eab, or beat, a tooth, sometimes 
put for the jaw ; Lat. dens, dcn- 
tis ; sometimes it implies ivory ; 
ex. jona b^anajb beab, with 
ivory men, speaking of chess- 

)eab, meet, proper, decent, be- 
coming ; ma/t a^" beab, as is 
meet; also kind for, or here- 
ditary; bub beab bojb atftac- 
ta;^ bo beunam, it was kind for 
them to do brave actions. 

>eabacb, godliness, religion. 

freabajl, a releasing. 

(Deabbal, wretched, woful. 

6 e 

a moth. 

>eabo;l, or beajujl, the sepa- 
ration of night and day, the 
dawn of day; be<xbojl n<x ma;b- 

)e<xbta, bold, confident. 
)eabl<xj-, confidence. 
CDeajro ja/i<xc, a diphthong. 
>e<xgar><xc, a Dane ; Lat. decanus. 
(Deaj, (O'cDeaj,) the name of a 
family of the Dalcassian stock, 
whose ancient estate was the ter- 
ritory called Qneal pecifimajc, 
otherwise Qt;oc<x Uact<Xji<xc<x, 
in Thomond. 

j, bd. j or ba, in the beginning 
of compound words signifies 
well, good, fair, as beaj-a/ta^, 
a good house; be<xj-l<xba/tt<x, 
well-spoken ; be<XT-cne;brr)e<xc, 

t, swift or nimble. 
to recall. 

, a chronicler, anti- 

eajarxxc or be;j;n;oc, late, last; 
50 be<xjn<xc, lately ; pxn mbl;a- 
beajnac, in the last year. 
e<x^, civility. 
<!>e<XT-bla;-t-<x, toothsome, dainty, 


)e<xj-bol<xc, sweet- seen ted. 
<Deaj-bolt<xn, a sweet smell, fra- 

grancy, odour. 
)eo j-pocl<xc, fair spoken. 
(De<xla salutation. 

, conversant, well- 
spoken, eloquent ; bea j-l 

t>e<xj-laba/it:<xc, an orator. 
t>e<xj-mo.;^eac, comely, hand- 

some, beautiful. 
(^eAJ-md;/-; j;m, to adorn. 
^)e<xj-m<xj^u j<xb, an ornament. 
)e<x j-me;^ne<xc, confident, hearty, 

bea j-iT)ej^ne<xiT)ujl, w/ew. 
^)e<xjn<xc, the last. 
)ean<xb, frost. 
be<xj-o;bear<xc, discreet. 

(5e<xj-o/ib;ujt:e, prudent, provi- 
dent, well ordered or regulated. 

pea^/icvjbjm, to love sincerely. 

Oea^-tojl, benevolence. 

Oe<x j-te;^b, a good report, a fair 
character ; also good news. 

Oeaj-to;le<xc, favourable, friend- 
ly, bearing good will. 

Oeaj-u<x;/<, an opportunity; also 
an acceptable time, or favourable 

^eajla 50, for fear that, lest that. 

)eta.jt, wind. 

)e<xjte<xc, windy. 

)e<xl<i, kindred, friendship. 

Oe<xl<x, a refusing or denial. 

)e<xla, a cow's udder. 

Oealcxcb, a divorce, or separation. 

Oealun, a coal. 

>e<xlan be, a butterfly. 

Oealb and be;tb, the countenance, 
face, or figure of man or beast ; 
Wei. delu and deluad. 

Oealb, poor, miserable ; bu;ne 
be<xlb, an indigent man. 

Oealb, an image, a statue ; betxlb- 
mu;^te, the image of the blessed 
Virgin Mary; bealb <xn bx;^, 
the image or picture of death. 

>e<xlb<xc, resembling ; hence Co/t- 
beatbac, the proper name of se- 
veral great personages of the old 
Irish, signifying a person who 
resembles Thar, the German 
name of Jupiter. 

>ealba, a framing or fashioning. 

)e<xtb<xb&n, a mould. 

Oealbrxx, the name of several ter- 
ritories of Ireland, in different 
provinces, so called from LUJT- 
(Dealbcxob, a prince of the Dal- 
cassian race in the fourth cen- 
tury, whose posterity settled in 
them territories: they were se- 
ven in number, according to our 
topographers : )e<xlbn<x- mo/i, the 
lordship of O'l?;n<xU<xn, dispos- 
sessed by Hugo de Lacy towards 
the end of the twelfth century, 

who granted the same to Gilbert 
de Nugent, whose posterity be- 
came Barons of )e<xl5n<x, Eng. 
Delvin, and afterwards Earls of 
Westmeath. 2. )e<xlbn<x-beg, 
situate also in Westmeath, the 
estate of OTOoel-caUa;!]. 3. 
)e<xlb'na-e<itfia, now in the 
King's County, the estate of the 
O'Coglans. 4. )eat5n<x-tean 
(Co;, somewhere in Meath, other- 
wise called ^)ealbn<x-;a^tr<Xft, the 
estate of O'Scotu; j. 5. 6e<xl!5- 
n<x-/iu<xb<xt;, now of the County 
of Roscommon, of whose pro- 
prietors I find no mention. 6. 
C!)ealbna-cu;leu.b"<x;ft, and 7. 
)eo.tb'n<x-j:eab, botii in Con- 
naught, the latter to the west of 
Galway, between the two lakes 
of Lough-Curb and Lough-Lur- 

OealKcac, pleasant. 

)e<xU>t6jft, a statuary. 

)e<xlb't6;/teactr, delineation, &c. 

Oealbu^*, misery, poverty ; njt <xco 
<xct <in be<xlbu^, they have no- 
tliing but misery. 

(Dealj, a thorn, a skewer, a bod- 

)e<xt5<xc, sharp-pointed, prickly, 

(^ealjamtu., scorpions. 2 Chron. 
10. 14. 

>eal5n<\;be, unjust, unlawful ; 
also a rebel or outlaw. 

)e<xlft<xb, brightness, splendour. 

Oe<xlftcib<xc, bright, shining ; also 
likely, like to. 

Oealft<x;b;m, to shine, to grow 

Oealujjjm, to part, to separate ; 
also to depart, to quit, or go 
away; bo beatujj 7-6 ;t;u, he 
departed from them; bealoca 
me ;ab, I will separate or di- 
vorce them. This verb hath 
both an active and passive signi- 
fication ; the old Greek verb 

Stt\etv is of the same origin, 
which signifies divide-re, sepa- 

)e<xlu;jte, divorced, parted, se- 
parated ; b;lle beolu; jre, a bill 
of divorce. 

)e<xm<xl, a demon, or evil spirit. 
(Deamon or beamon, an evil spirit ; 

Gr. ^aifjLwv, and Lat. dfemon. 
)e<xm, want, lack. 

<xnftujn, a mystery. 
)n<x, rid. b;omo.jn. 
, or beann, colour. 
)e<xnacb<ic, vehement, grievous; 

jo be<xn<xcb<*c, bitterly, 
feeanab and bean<xm, an action or 
deed; bob beajKXm^o, of thy 
CDeantvm, to do, to act, to work, to 


(Deanam, come away, go on ; age- 
dura; teunam, idem. 
, a space, a while. 
jpe, a chaldron. 
(!)ea/ictob<xc, of changeable co- 
C!)ecxnm<x, tucb beanmo. mo.;c, doers 

of good. 

)ea/im<xb, an effect. 
CDeanirKJ.^, an effect. 
Oeann, colour, figure, &c. 
, to colour. 

and genit. beantu;^e, 
rhjTning, poetry ; luce bean- 

, rhymers, poetasters. 
, a daughter. 
, a denial, a refusal, &c. 
, great, large, prodigious, 
aft, or beu^t, or beo^t, drops or 
tears ; tob<x^t bea/i, a fountain of 
tears. This word is written in- 
differently with <x, o, and u, shows 
that these three vowels were 
written indifferently for each 

fretytd, remark or notice. This 
word seems to be an auxiliary, 
and is so added to several verbs, 
as, taU<x;ri jra bed;t<x, remark or 

6 e 

6 C 

take notice ; tug ye pi bea;t<x 
o/ita, he commanded or obliged 
them ; bo bea/t pi bea./ia, I will 
cause, or bring to pass; also I 
shall take notice. 

ye, he would say, vid. 

Oeo.;t<xo;r)te<xc, despairing. 

tbe, signs or tokens ; 
t/tat bea/tb<x;;tbe o;le 
cuc<x, <xjuy njfi c/te;b y;<xb, the 
time of signs appeared to them, 
yet they believed not. 

)ed./ib, sure, certain, true; 50 
bea/ib, truly, indeed. 

Oea/ib, peculiar, particular. 

(Dea/ib, i. e. cu;nneoj, or 

a churn, a madder or milking- 
pail ; m'o^a /te bo n<x be;/ibe : 
If o n& be;be /i;y <xn 5/1 Jan, 
i. e. mo cluay ;ie cluay na cu;n- 
neojje: ;y cluay na cu;nneo;je 
jtjy <xn j/t^n ; vid. <X5<xll<xii) na 

>e<x/ib<xb and bea/tb^cb, expe- 
rience, trial. 

)e<x/tb<xb and be<x/ib<x;m, to try or 
experience, to prove ; bo bea/tb 
ye ;<xb, he proved them ; also to 
avouch, to aver, or assert. 

, a proverb. 
, a touchstone. 

)e<x/ibarm, a maxim, an axiom. 

(Dea/tb/icicaj/t, a brother; bea/t- 
b;iat<x;;t <J.ta^i, an uncle; bea/t- 
b^iat<x;/i mo.t:<x/i, avunculus, the 
former being patruus. 

t>ea/ib/ta;t:;te(Xcb, a fraternity, so- 
ciety ; be<X;tb/iac<x/xbo.cb, the 

i, a sister. 

sure, certain, expe- 
rienced, tried ; jrea/i bed/ibc<x, a 
man of experience. 

)e<x/tbt:<icb, experiment. 

^)e<i/tbuj<xb, alleging, protesting, 
or affirming; also an oath or 

)ea/ibu j<xb, to swear ; vul. be<x/t- 

, the eye. 

, a grave, a cave, or grotto. 
Oea;ic<xb<xU, an oak-apple, or 

t>eo.^c<x;m and be<x/tc<xb, to see, to 

behold ; Gr. StpKu, video. 
Oe<x/tcn<xc, goodly, likely, hand- 

and be<x/ij^n, crimson, 
red ; j:eo;l betx/ij, raw meat or 

efyig, i-Oc-beafij, a large lake 
to the north of Enniskillen in 
the County of Fermanagh in 

, to make red, to paint 
a crimson or purple colour, to 
blush ; also to kindle or burn ; 
bo beoL/igab n<x ymea/iojbe /t;y, 
coals were kindled therewith. 

, to make or prepare ; 
ex. bo beo,/ig<xb <x ;omba, his 
bed was prepared. 

, the fish called breame. 
i, a flea. 

, purple or crimson. 
.y<xb, red hot, flaming. 
)eoi/im<xb and bea/imab<x; je, for- 

)e<x/"ino<xb<xc and beoi/iirxxbama;!, 


^)e<x/im<x;l, huge, very great. 
>ea/irT)<x;/i, is an adjective, which 
implies very great, excessive, ex- 
traordinary, violent, vehement; 
g/iab bea/tm<x;/i, passionate love ; 
/to jab ton/iay <xzuy petx/tj 
bea/i?fi<x;;t e, he fell into a ter- 
rible passion and anger. Vid. 
<fg<xll. no. ^1o;r)b;be<xb. S;oc 
bea/tirta/t, intense frost, Annal. 
Tigh. ; as also, ex. bo;ne<xn mo/t 
<xjuy pile bea;t(T)<x/t yan jejm- 
;te;b fO, heavy rain and intense 
frost in this winter. Vid. An- 
nal. Tighernachi ad an. 1406. 

, a wonder. 
, the palm of the hand. 

o e 

b and bea/inajm, to do, 
or act ; n; beaftna me pof, I 
did not yet: the same as beu- 
>ea/tnab, a flea : as also bean- 

gan and brteancab. 
(Deci/tnaboj/teacb, chiromancy or 
palmistry : the pretended art of 
telling fortunes by observing the 
inside of the hand. 
>eaftnajte, the same. 
>eam5;l, poor, wretched, miser- 
able ; hence bfteolan or b/teoj- 
tjn, a wren. 
(Dean^a; j, to awake. 
)eanfa;geacb, vigilancy, watch- 

, to watch. 

and beafi^cna^m, to 
polish, to file, or burnish; ex. 
bo bea/t^jnajb j~e an to/i, he 
polished or burnished the gold; 
also to expound or explain ; also 
to praise, to commend, to excel 
or surpass, &c. 

eaftfu;t:e and beo.^^rnu;ce, 
complete, finished, polite, oright, 
of good parts. 

a making polite, 
complete, &c. 

C^eaHT-jnujteact;, or bean^u;te- 
acb, politeness, excellence, ele- 

<Dea/t-teac, a certain apartment in 
a monastery calculated for pray- 
ers and other penitential acts ; 
bean-bun and buntreac, idem; 
vid. Annul. Tighernachi et 
Chronic ScoTorwn passim ; ex. 
bea/tcac c;lleba/ta, a/ttxxmaca, 
cluana mac nojf, &c. 
)eaf-, the right hand ; Lat. dex- 
ter, dcjrtra manus. It is re- 
markable how exactly the Irish 
agrees with the old Hebraic 
style and scriptural manner of 
expressing the four cardinal 
points. 1- The Hebrew word 
I'D' properly signifies the risht 

hand, Jerem. 2'2. '24 ; and is also 
used to denote the south, Job ^3, 
9, Psal. 89, 13, Jos. 15, 1, be- 
cause the Hebrews in their pray- 
ers to God always faced the 
east, and therefore being consi- 
dered in that position, their right 
hand was next to the south. 
fid. Dav. Lex. Brit. Lat Ja- 
in in. says he, est m until plaga 
Australis, ut quce orientem a$- 
picientibus orantiitm modo dex- 
tra est. Tliisform is also pecu- 
liar to the Irish nation and lan- 
guage, for the word bea^-, which 
properly means the risjht hand, 
Lat. de.ctra, as, na ^u;be a^t 
bea^ lajm, no a;ft be;^~ (De, 
sitting at the right hand of God, 
is the only word we have to ex- 
press the south ; ex. (Dea^- 
OOuman, South-Munster, or Des- 
mond; bety-cjftt, orbe;pot C;- 
pjonn, the south part of Ireland. 
2- Tlie Heb. word ^NO, which 
properly signifies the left hand, 
sinister, sinistra matnts ; as in 
Gen. 24, 49, and Gen. 48, 14, is 
used for the same reason to im- 
ply the north, vid. Job. 23, 9, 
which is^the same with the Irish, 
for Cuajb, properly the left hand, 
as t:uac and tuacatlac, signify- 
ing a left-handed or undexterous 
man, is the only Irish word to 
point out the north; as Cuab- 
muman, North- Munster, or Tho- 
mond; Cua^-cjpt; C;^jonn, the 
north of Ireland, or Ulster. 8- 
The Heb. word inx, which pro- 
perly signifies after or behind, 
post, posterior pars, as in 2 
Samuel 10, 9, and Genesis 9, 
28, is commonly used to im- 
ply the west, vid. Job. 23, 8; 
and the Irish word ;a/i pro- 
perly signifying after, behind, 
hinder, as ;a/t ba^be, after bap- 
tism ; ja't^A ^, behind all ; ;a^t- 

6 e 

b e 

l, the hind part or tail of a 
thing or beast ; it is the only 
Irish word to express the west, 
as M/t-CDbtfTOAn, West-Munster, 
Ja/urafi C;/ijOnn, the west of 
Ireland. 4. The Heb. word 
Olp, which naturally means be- 
fore, the fore part, ante, anterior 
pars, as in Ps. 55, 20, is used to 
signify the east, vid. Num. 23, 7, 
Isa. 11, 14, respectively to the 
above described position of the 
Hebrews in their devotion and 
prayers to God ; or else accord- 
ing to the following explication 
of HenricusOpitius m his Lexi- 
con Hebrseo-Chaldaeo-Biblicum 
in this last word cedem, where 
he says, Cedem, ante, anterior ; 
item oriens, plaga orientalis, 
quasi anterior pars respectu 
Adanii creati versus solem ori- 
entem, juxta Rabbi Bechai ad 
Deuter. 33, 15. In the same 
manner the Irish words 0;/t and 
o;^iteo./t, like the Latin oriens 
and ortus, are the only words in 
our language for signifying the 
east or eastern point, or the 
rising of the sun ; and this word 
o^tea/i, Lat. ortus, also signi- 
fies the beginning or fore part, 
as jfyttdft also means the end 
or hindmost part of any thing ; 
ex. o;/ite<x/t 50 b;a;tt<V(t <x 
txojf e, from the beginning to the 
end of his age. 

'(De<x^, neat, fair, elegant, hand- 

>e<x;~, order ; nxx/t bub beoy, as is 
proper, uti decet. 

(Deapx; jjm, to dress, to adorn ; 
also to mend or correct, to chas- 
tise ; bo be<vpzj j ye e, he fitted 
it; be<x^u;j bo clajbeam, gird 
thy sword, or arm thyself. 

<De(X^am, to stay or remain. 

<De<ty-cab, the last. 

)ear-cab and be<ty-cact, lees, 

dregs ; bea^gab JCJOJKX, the lees 
of wine, vinegar; be<v^j<xb n<x 
nb<xo;ne, the mob or lowest class 
of men, the rascality, or rabble. 

b/i<x, elocution. 
ujab, a mending; also an 

(Deatac, smoke, vapours, fumes. 

>eat<x; j;m, to smoke ; <xg beatu- 
j<xb, smoking. 

Oeoit:<xm<x;l, full of smoke, smoky ; 
IJn beatamu;!, smoky flax; be- 
^xccd, the same. 

>eac<x;~a, lo there, see, behold. 

(Decealt, cloth. 

fc)ecebj:<x;b, war, battle. 

)ebbel, poor, miserable, unhappy. 

CDebel, a calf. 

^>ebl<x, bold, impudent, presump- 

, error. 

, courage; be j 

n; jte<xma;l, courageous. 
)e;<xbe, care, diligence, circum- 

>e;beab, a debate, a skiimish or 


C5e;5e(Xb, haste, speed, expedition. 
)e;b;be, the first sort of banb;- 

;iecxc, a kind of verse which re- 

quires that the first quartan shall 

end with a minor termination, 

and the second with a major ter- 

mination, with several other rules 

to be observed. 

)e;c, ten ; Lat. dccem, ^ 

)e;c-b/t; je, the decalogue, or ten 

<j>e;c-mj, the tenth month, De-- 

)e;c-f ;tbe, decurio, a serjeant or 


t>e;c^;n, to see or behold. 
)e;be, obedience, submission. 
^)ejbeab, the toothach ; rid. be<xb. 
t)e;be, two things, a double pro- 

portion, &c. 

, haste, speed, expedition. 
c, hasty, in haste. 

b e 

6 C 

b, a difference, 

to hasten, to make 

j, fire, a flame. 

j, r/rf. beaj, good, well, &c. 
in compounds. 

)e;j-;omcojri, well-behaved. 
>e;J70nac, the last, the hinder- 
most, the hindmost ; fna. taetrjb 
bej jjOncic, in the last days, also 
late ; ex. 50 bej jjono.6 yon Id, 
late or far advanced in the 

ledn, a quire of paper. 
j-rjobl<xjcte, goods. 
)ejl, a turner's lathe. 
>e;t, a rod, a twig, &c. 
>e;lb, the figure, or face of a per- 

son or thing. 

>e;lb, an adjective, signifying fine, 

fair, brave, sightly ; formed from 

bealb, whose gen it. is be;tb and 


>ejl-be<xlMc, the meeting of two 

ways ; Lat. bivium. 
t)e;tb;n and bejlboj, a little image 

or statue. 

)ejlce<xb, ill, bad, sad. 
(Dejlcednnac, having two heads, 


>e;tedbanac, double-faced. 
>e;le<xbo;rt, a turner. 
>e;le<xla, the space of two days. 
bejieanj, a two year old pig. 
)ejleay, grudging through cove- 


Oe;t-ojbce, the space of two nights. 
)e;letO;tc, a hog of two years. 
v Oe;tjr, a dolphin. 

, waste or havoc. 
m, to lay waste. 
, thorns, prickles. 

, thorny, full of thorns. 
, to turn with a lathe. 
n, the dim. of bejl. 
>e;tl;bjm <X;t, to lean upon ; also 
to follow, to adhere, to stick to. 
>e;ttjb, bejtt;b jyf, they part or 
separate from him. 

)e;ll;m, to part or separate ; hence 

be;U:, separation. 
(Dejlm, a sound, a noise, or trem- 


<be;tmjiD, to make a noise. 
)e;t?T)UC, a pig of two years old. 
)e;lr, a separation, or setting a 


(De-jltfte, Druid idols. 
<De;m, lack, want ; Lat. demo. 
)e;mea^, a pair of sheers ; pro- 

nounced b;0j-. 
Oejme, darkness; bejme na nbul, 

the obscurit)' of the firmament. 
<De;me, protection. 
Oe;m;n, true, certain, sure; 50 

be;m;n, surely ; be;m;n-^5eut, a 

true account. 
)e;rf ne, the assurance or certainty ; 

be;mne bo lao;, veritas poema- 

>ejmn; j;m, to ascertain, to assure^ 

to- affirm ; ne;te be;mn; jjm, 

things I affirm. 
be;n, ^<x be;n, even as, 
Oe;n, clean, neat. 
>ejne, ardour, vehemence; also 

the comparat. of the w T ord bjan, 

quod i- id. 

t)e;/ie, neatness, cleanliness. 
)e;neacb<xc, rude, vehement, ear- 

nest, urgent. 

bejnea^, violence, fierceness. 
>e;ne<i;~<xc, fierce or cruel. 
bejnea^cvc, quick, nimble, brisk. 
>e;neo.f<x; je, lightning. 
)e;/7meoy, vanity. 
bejnraeac, vokl. 
>ejniT}eac, vain or frivolous. 
^)e;nmeac<x, toys, trifles. 
)e;r)irreaco;rt, a pedlar that sells 

small ware. 
Oe;nm; j;m, to vanish. 
(De;nm;n, a vain fellow, a trifler. 
<De;nmne, swift, quick, active, sup- 


, says ; <xbe;^t ye, he says ; 

vid. be;njm. 

, i. e. te;ne f;a;b, St. An- 

b e 

o e 

thony's fire, the shingles. 

b and bejjtbe, gen. of becv/tb, 

ej/tb-eljAmcrjn, a son-in-law. 
(De;/tb-jr);om, an axiom, or maxim. 

ag, a touchstone. 
, the deep or abyss. 
, alms; <xj ja/t/tajb be;/tce, 
or bea/tc<xb, asking alms or beg- 

, they used to say; vid. 

Oe;/ie, the end ; p<x be;^e, at last ; 
^o be;/te, to the end; an be;/ie, 
the rere ; 6 b;e/ie&b, out of the 

ac, late, also the last, 
idem quod, be;jjon<xc. 

, a red colour ; ex. be;/ige 
<x tj, the ruddiness of his visage ; 
gne be;/ije, a red appearance. 
e7;ige<x/tt, a lake near Lower 
Ormond and Killaloe, formed 
by the river Shannon. 

/t je;ne, he made. 
ej/tgjnnleab, i. e. jnneal bea/tg, 
red cattle, red cows. 

;, a buying or purchasing. 
-t;&j j, a surgeon. 
, a secret, or mystery ; be;/t- 

)e;/vjb, the last or hindmost. 
(!)e;;tjm, to speak, to say, to tell, or 


<De;/i;ro, i. e. bj<xlj<xb, to dismiss. 
)e;/t;0nn<xc, the last; also late, 

latter, &c. 

&ej)\l), a present, a reward. 
t)e;/tim;be, i. e. b;c-o;/im;b;n, dis- 


t>e;/t^ijb, a secret, a mystery. 
^>e;/t;i;beac, secret, hid, private. 
(De;/-, after ; bety- <x ^aota;/t, after 
his pains. 

, the right hand ; vid. beoy ; 

and be;;" are its genit. 
, more handsome, more neat ; 
also neatness, elegance ; also 


Oe;^-cecx/tt, the southern point, the 
south quarter ; be;^ce<X;tt ncx 
bC;/t;onn, the south of Ireland. 
e<x^<x, a territory 
of Meath, the estate of the Mac- 

Oe;^cea/tt: L<x; jecxn, the County 
of Wexford. 

, a disciple or scholar. 
, discretion. 

c, discreet, prudent, 
grave, sober. 

e;^e, a suit of clothes ; tuj Cjcin 
d. a^m y<\ be)^e batii^oi, Cian 
gave me his arms and clothes. 
ej;~e and be;^"eo.ct:, elegance, 
handsomeness, beauty. 

or 50 be;^-eal, towards 
the right, southward, 

)e;/~eacb, a dress, an ornament ; 
vid. be^-e. 

t)e;^;b, i. e. j:e<x/irx?i<x;b, lands; 
the plur. of be^, land. 

, he sat, or rested ; also he 
stayed, or remained. 

, to stay or remain ; also 
to mend. 

)e;pb Cuct/fcjfit, the North De- 
sies in the County of Tipperary, 
the estate of the O'Felanes. 

(Dejfjb )e^ce<x/it, the Soutli De- 
cies in the County of Waterford, 
the estate of the O'Brics; but 
when the O'Felans were routed 
by the Eugenians, they banished 
the O'Brics, and maintained the 

, they agreed to, it was 
consented to. 

, a beam or ray of light, 
proceeding from some luminous 
body, as from the sun, &c. ; p5/t 
j/iejne, upon a sun- 

beam. Vid. Brogan. in Vita 

S. Brigid. 

, to dress or adorn. 
)e;pnj;iecxc, curious ; 

ct, a proof, a quotation, 

b e 

b e 

also a quibble, also a cunning 
way of talking, also curiosity, su- 

be;^re<xn, disgust, disrelish, ab- 
horrence, disdain, loathsomeness, 
nauseousness, or squeamishness. 

be;^reana;m, to hate, to abhor, or 

)0n, a numbness; ex. bua- 
no. b<x;t/ie caortd. /-ea/tbo., 
bo cu;rte<xb bejj-trjon <x;^i 
jr;act<x;b na clojnne, the fathers 
have eaten sour grapes, and the 
children's teeth were numbed, 
et denies jiliorum obstupue- 

be;tb;;t, legal. 

be;tb;iea.j<xb, haste, a making 

be;tb/t;j;m, to hasten, or make 

be;t;be, separation. 

be;t;be, care, diligence. 

be;t/i earn a/i, a decade, also ten 

be;tneaj<~, haste, speed. 

be;tne<Xj~oic, hasty, making haste 
or speed. 

benea^oj j;m, to make haste. 

benn<xb, variation. 

beob/ionntd, consecrated. 

beo, 50 beo, for ever, always. 
-beoc, drink ;;/t bam beoc, 
give me a drink ; b; je in the 
genit. ; jlo;r)e b; je, a glass of 
drink ; plur. beoccirxx and beo- 

Oeocdb and beoc<xjm, to embrace 
tenderly, to cherish. 

>eoc<x;ft, a difference or distinc- 

>eob<xm, God willing. 

(Deobanb, a deodand, or atonement 
to God for a violent death given 
a person, by disposing of the in- 
strument of the person's acci- 
dental deatli to charitable uses. 

<Deojb<vj;te, i. e. jjolld-co^n, a 
cup-bearer, a butler. 

j, therefore. 
beo;i, p\ beo; j, at length, at last, 

beo;j and be; j, for the sake of, 

beo;n, bom beo;n, of my own ac- 

cord; bo beojn be, God will- 


beo;/i^e<xc, a slave, a porter. 
be6;ft^"eo;/t, idem. 
be6;^eo;rte<xct:, going about from 

door to door. 
beot<x;b, aid, help, succour ; also 

a portion or dowry. 
beolc<x, sotting, drinking copious- 


beolc<x;fi, a present. 
beontic, or beonajjceac, agree- 

able; ma beo/iac leat:, if you 

please or vouchsafe. 
beondcb, pudendum. 
beona;j;m and beonujafc, to al- 

low or grant, to approve, to like; 

50 nbepnu;b b;a, God grant ; 

beonoi;b b<xm tru molab o 0;j 

^laomta, dignare me laudare 

te Virgo Sacrata ; beon-ijb C;t6- 

ca;rte bo, grant him mercy. 
beontac, voluntary. 
beonra^, willingness; beontacb, 


beonnj jteac, willing. 
beo^t, a drop or tear. x 
beo/i<x;b, strong, stout, able- 

beOft<i;b. a surety that withdraws 


be6rx;b, disobedience. 
be6/ta;be, a stranger, a guest, a 

banished man ; also an outlaw, 

a vagabond ; beo/iu;be and beo- 

;iu;je<xc, idem. 
beo/tajbeact, banishment. 
beOftd;b;m, to banish or expel. 
beo/ianta, strange ; also expelled, 


strayed cattle. 
beo;tu;be, vid. 
be/tn, a buffet, or box. 



be;", land ; pi. be;pt>. 

be/-, a spot or speckle. 

be^e, a number or multitude, a 
troop, &c. 

bet, tom<xlt<x/~, no b;<xb, victuals, 
food ; Angl.-Saxon, diet. 

beugajbe, go beurctjbe b;ti, I 
wish, I would to God. 

beuncxin, let us make. 

Oeuj~, be<Xj~, an ear of corn; beu- 
7"<x, bjoya, or beaded, ears of 

bj, in the beginning of a com- 
pound is a negative. 

bj, unto her, unto it, from her, i. e. 

O;, little; b;<x <xm, a little while ; 
b;<xm&5; <xnn, for b; <MD BJ o.nn, 
was little while there ; b;am- 
bo; fS <xnn 50 ccucxlajb <xn gut, 
he was but a short while there 
when he heard the voice. 
A b;<x, written also b;e, and be in 
the genitive, is the sacred name 
of God in the Irish language. 
It has a plain affinity with the 
Gr. 0oc, which makes &a in 
the accusative, as well as 0ov ; 
and with the Latin deus or dim, 
which was the ancient writing, 
the 6 in the Greek being natu- 
rally commutable with 8, makes 
no difference with regard to the 
affinity, no more than the termi- 
nations QC and us, which are 
merely adventitious to the radi- 
cals Oe and de, the same as the 
Irish b;e or be, Hispan. dios, 
Ital. dio, Gall, dieu, Wei. dyu, 
Arm. due, Corn. deu. The 
Greek and Latin grammarians 
have been trifling about different 
derivations of 0eoe or deus, ac- 
cording to their different fancies. 
Some would have it derived 
from TiQiifjii, pono; quia Deus 
omnia ponitordine. Others from 
OtaofjLai, video; quia Deus vi- 
det omnia. Some again from 

Sect), curro, or from 8eo?, timor, 
quia primus in orbe Deus fecit 
timor em; or lastly, from the Heb. 
word n, sufficiens, satis; quaxi 
qui sufficiens in se, vel a se suffi- 
cientiam et abundantiam oni- 
nino habet. Vid. Hen. Op it. 
Lexic. Heb.-Chald.-Biblic. in 
voce Dai. But might not ano- 
ther, with less grammatical eru- 
dition, be free to think it an ab- 
surdity to derive the word which 
in any particular language is the 
name of the supreme Being, from 
any word of the same language, 
or even of any other different 
language, of which it has been 
originally independent ? In the 
Adamic language it is natural to 
think that no word was earlier 
in use than that which signified 
the great Creator of the uni- 
verse, which consequently was 
not derived from any other word 
of that first language. When 
the Adamic tongue, which was ( 
preserved by Noah and his chil- 
dren, happened to be corrupted 
and diversified by the order of 
God, for the wise ends of dis- 
persing the tribes and peopling 
the different regions of the ha- 
bitable world, every particular 
tribe or nation had its peculiar 
dialect, new-fashioned as it was 
by order of Providence, with 
which the whole body of the 
people of which such a tribe 
consisted, proceeded on their 
progress towards the particular 
region designed them by the 
supreme Master of the universe. 
And as the knowledge of the 
true Deity was as yet generally 
preserved among the people of 
each tribe, at least until their 
general dispersion, and for some 
time after, it necessarily follows 
that one of the principal and 


consequently underived words in 
ever)' new dialect was the sacred 
name of God ; it being both na- 
tural and necessary that every 
language should have a peculiar 
word to signify even- particular 
object that is generally known 
among the people that speak it. 
It might, indeed, very naturally 
have happened that in some lan- 
guages the name of the supreme 
Being may bear a close affinity, 
or even an identity as to radical 
structure, with the name of one 
of his attributes ; which, though 
essential to him alone, may be 
applicable by way of an epithet 
to a created being in a limited 
sense. Thus in the old Spanish 
or Cantabrian language the name 
of God is Joincoa, and unqui is 
the word which in the same dia- 
lect signifies good, Lat. bonus, 
an attribute which is essential to 
the Deity, but applied as an 
epithet to any created being, is 
a derivative of a very limited 
sense, and consequently a very- 
absurd origin to derive the name 
of God from. Thus also in the 
language I am writing these lines 
in, the word God, which in Eng- 
lish, as in most of the German 
and Scytho-German, or Scandi- 
navian dialects, is the sacred 
name of the Deity, bears a plain 
affinity with the Anglo-Saxon 
word good, Lat. bonus; and in 
the Irish language we have in 
compounds the word bea or ba, 
and be;, frequently written bea j, 
bag, and be; j, by our modern 
.grammarians, all signifying good, 
Lat. bonus. It is also natural 
that a word which in any par- 
ticular language signifies a 
created being that may be es- 
teemed a just emblem of the 
Creator, should carry a near 

affinity, if not an identity with 
that which is used as the name 
of the Creator in that same lan- 
guage. Tims, in the Latin 
tongue, the word dies, the day, 
bears so plain an affinity with 
the word deus, that Varro, who 
by ancient writers was styled 
Doctlssim usRomanorum, doubt- 
less thought himself very wise in 
deriving the latter from the for- 
mer; thus preposterously bor- 
rowing the name of the prototype 
from that of the emblem, which 
should naturally be regarded as 
the derivative. In the Irish lan- 
guage there appears not only a 
strong affinity, but even a radical 
identity between the word which 
makes the name of the supreme 
Being and that which signifies 
day, or that part of the four 
and twenty hours in which we 
enjoy the light of the sun, as in 
the following words : 
<Dja, b;, and be, all written indif- 
ferently to signify day, Lat. dies. 
It seems to appear from this 
identity between the sacred name 
of God and that of the day, in 
the Iberno-Celtic dialect, that 
the Celts, of whom the first Cel- 
tic colony that went to Ireland 
were a detachment, had but one 
and the same word to signify 
both God and the day; what, 
indeed, may carry the greater 
propriety, as the day is the most 
natural emblem of God that falls 
within the sphere of the senses. 
In the Irish language this word 
b;a or be is prefixed before the 
proper names of the week-days, 
agreeably to the manner of the 
Latins, and contrary to that of 
the French, Germans, and Eng- 
lish, who subjoin their common 
name for a day after the proper 
names of the week-days. Thus, 

b j 

as the Latins said 
rfzes lunce, dies mortis, &c., so 
did the Irish say b;cx yul, b;<x 
limjn, b;a met/fit, &c. Of those 
proper names of week-days in 
the Irish language, five are of 
the Gaulish-Celtic, (upon which 
the Latin names have been form- 
ed,) and two of the German. 
)}<x-Sul was the Irish name of 
Dies Solis, or Sunday, before it 
was changed into b;&-bomn<x, 
according to the Christian style. 
bja-Luo;n, Lat. Dies Lunce, is 
still the Irish name of the se- 
cond day of the week. b;a- 
OD&jjtt is the same as Dies Mar- 
tis, by the Anglo-Saxons called 
Theuts-day, (Tuesday in mo- 
dern English, from Theut, the 
German name of Mars, whence 
the national name Theutones. 
b;a-b'e;ne, Friday, pronounced 
Diaveine, (vid. ben and be;ne 
supra,) corrupted first into U;ne 
and after into -cCojne, Lat. Dies 
Veneris, English Friday, from 
Friga, the German name of Ve- 
nus; whence frau, the Dutch 
common name for woman or 
lady, as be<xn or ben is in the 
Irish language, and in the Latin 
Venus, (formed upon the Celtic 
/. ben,) signifying woman per ex- 
cellentiam ; and the last of the 
Irish names of the week-days de- 
rived from the Gaulish Celtic is 
b;&-Satfiu;n, Lat. DiesSaturni, 
Eng. Saturday; but the Irish 
names of the two middle days of 
the week, Wednesday and Thurs- 
day, are of the German Celtic. 
b;<x-eben,or b;a-Ceben, (cor- 
rupted first into Ceabiqn, and 
after into Ce<xb-dojne, English, 
Wednesday, is visibly derived 
from the German name of Mer- 
cury, which is Woden or Weden. 
The Irish having no w in their 

alphabet, use either g or c in- 
stead of it, as the French do ; 
and even some of the German 
tribes said Goden for Woden, 
whence God, the sacred name of "V 
the Creator, is most generally <"f 
used, with little variation of wri- 
tings, amongst the German na- 
tions. Lastly, b;a-Cbo;ib<x;n, 
pronounced b;&-0/ib<vjn and 
b;<x-<Tfib<vjn, (corrupted into 
b;<x/ibao;n and bapibaojn,) is 
the Irish name of Thursday, lit- 
terally derived from Thor or 
Tor, the German name of Jupi- 
ter, and which in some German 
dialects is written Thordan, 
Thoran, and Tonar, (vid. Clu- 
ver. German. Antiq. p. 196.) 
From this German name of Ju- 
piter, the Irish words to/-i<xn, a 
great noise, and to;/meac, thun- 
der, are visibly derived. All 
nations attributed the thunder to 
the supreme power, whence the 
epithet Tonans is applied to Ju- 
piter by the Latins, who very 
probably derived their Tonitru 
and Tonare from either the To- 
nar of the Germans or Thra- 
cians, or the Taran or Taranis 
of the Gauls, (vid. Lucan. lib. 1.) 
The Welsh and Cornish word 
tar an, thunder, is visibly derived 
from Taran or Taranis, the 
Gaulish name of Jupiter; and 
so may b;a-Cba/ib<x;jn, the Irish 
name of Thursday, be derived 
from the same Gallic name of 
that false God; in which case 
our bja-Ceben, i. e. Wednesday, 
would be the only week-day- 
name the Irish had derived from 
the German Celts, from whom 
we see the Latins must have de- 
rived, in all likelihood, their to- 
nitru, and tono, tanare. 
6;<xb<x;t, i, e. b; ao;b';l, without 

.fcal, the devil ; Gr. &a/3oAoc, 
and Lat. diabolus, Wei. diaro'l. 
It. diarolo, Hisp. diarlo, Gal. 
diable ; vid. <x;5e;l. 
);<xMa;be orb;<xblu;be, diabolical, 
devilish, wicked. 

, double, or twice as much. 
, sorrow, grief, weeping ; 
Gr. SaKovw, fleo. 

, sorrowful. 

and bjdbamojl, godly. 
b, Godhead, also divinity. 
>;dpia jma, the midriff; Lat. <#a- 


O;a;^, an end; <x nbjdjj, after; 
;nb;a; j pn, afterwards ; anb;<x; j 
n<x ne;ceann 7*0, after these 

<bj<x;l, a dial. 

^J A & quick, soon, immediately. 
O;-d;;tiT)e, innumerable, infinite, 

that cannot be numbered. 
O;all, submission. 
, a knapsack. 

, the arse or breech; hence 
b;dll and bjdtlajb, a saddle; 
Wei. dilhad, apparel. 
>;att<x;t, quasi b;all-ajc, a sad- 


Ojdton, a diary, or day-book. 
, food, sustenance. 
, unspotted, untainted. 
, 7 uasi mao;n-b;ab<x, the 
substance of a church. 
Oj<xma;n, vain, trifling ; idem qd. 

t, i. e. b;-mo^, huge, enor- 

jaiTKXft, dark, occult, hid, secret ; 
50 b;<xm<x;^t, secretly; b;am<Xft 
na cojlle, the thickets of the 

-l<xb, or b;a-m<x^liij<j.b, 
blasphemy, the reproachins: or 
dishonouring God, the ridiculing 
of religion, or speaking evil of 
holy things. 
<x-n)a~l<V7Jt:e6jtt, a blasphemer. 

b. a place of refuse. 

, to make dark, or co- 

;an, vehement, violent ; also nim- 
ble, brisk ; comparat. be;ne. 
;dno.7^m, a place of refuge or 

jan-comla, an aidecamp, also an 
officer of the life-guard. 
c, daily. 

n, anger, also churlishness. 
, Thursday ; rid. O;a. s 
, the proper name of 
several great princes of the old 
Irish. This name is a compound 
of >Jd, God, and <Xftma;b, the 
genit. plur. of the Irish word 
<l/tm, Lat. arma, armor inn ; so 
that t);<x-<X;tiDa;b literally signi- 
fies the same as Dens Armor urn, 
the God of Arms. Such is the 
exalted origin of this Irish name, 
which does not screen it from 
being at times a subject of ridi- 
cule to some of our pretty gen- 
tlemen of the modern English 

O;anmu;b, (GDac (Dja/imu;b,) a fa- 
mily name in Connaught, of the 
same stock with the great O'Con- 
nors, kings of that province, be- 
ing descended from C<xjb;z; dn 
Cjc^jl, i. e. Teige of the White 
Steed, of whom Roderic O'Con- 
nor, who was styled king of Ire- 
land at the arrival of the English 
auxiliaries of the king of Leins- 
ter, was the sixth descendant. 
From the first and principal 
CD<xc (Dja/imujb, English, Mac 
Dermod, descended another chief 
of the same name, called OOac 
bja;imujb ftuab, or Mac Der- 
mot Roe ; as also the O'Ci owl\ s 
of Munster. The estate of the 
principal Mac Diarmod in late 
ages was the country of Moy- 
luirg, now the Barony of Boyle, 
in the County of Roscommon ; 
but more ancientlv the chief of 

the Mac Dermods was supreme 
lord or prince of the following 
districts and tribes; viz. CJ/i- 
ojtljolta, C;/-i-tuata;b, Co/ica- 
pjptp), Cluajne, CJ/t-neactajn, 
and CJ/i-neanba. It is to be 
noted that the O'Connors and 
the Mac Dermots, as also the 
O'Rorks, the O'Reilys, and 
others, are descended from Brian 
or rather Briun, eldest son of 
Coca-CDu;j-GQeab;z;o;n, king of 
Meath, and supreme king of 
Connaught and Ulster in the 
fourth century. From the above 
Brian, or Briun, the territories 
of Hy-briuin, in Connaught, are 
so called, as being possessed by 
his posterity. 

j<\f, for b;^-, two persons ; b;<fy- 
mac, two sons; b;a- ban, two 


, for beu^, an ear of corn ; pi. 

or sea^, the south ; 
CDuman, South-Munster, or Des- 
mond ; corruptly for bea^~. 
(D;at;/ia;m, desart, desolate. 
);beabac, negative. 
);beall, old, ancient. 
(Djbeojl, dumb, mute, tongue-tied, 
quasi a/t bjc beojl cum labaj/tt. 
);bea/ita, banished. 

.6, a fugitive ; also an 
exile or banished man. 

i, to rout, to banish, or send 
in exile. 

:, a banishing, exile, or ba- 
(DJb, from you, or of you, i.e. bo 

jb, or ^-;b. 
)Jbe, thirst, i. e. b;t-;be, want of 


t);be, refusing, separating. 
>;-beata; j, without way or pas- 

,c, a robber; naonba/1- 
b;bea/i^ac, nomm Intronas ,*also 


to comfort or con- 

, vid. 

, wrath, indignation, also 
vengeance ; as bjbjrejftge be, 
God's vengeance. 
e, an endeavour. 
cac, diligent ; also fierce, 
violent, unruly. 

a part or division ; b;b- 
te<xn bo jac fppe, a division or 
part of every kind of cattle, also 
a couple, two; jro/i <v jroepxm 
bun b;bl;n;b, amborum patro- 
cinio innitimur. 

and b;b;ne<xcb, extremity. 
j, vile, vulgar, of little worth. 
, to become vile or cheap, 
to banish, to exile, to 
rout, to expel, or drive away. 
CD;ceal, forgetfulness. 
t>;ceal, or bjtrceal, more com- 
monly b;tc;ot, attempts, endea- 
deavours ; be;n bo b;cce<xt, do 
your best, do your endeavour, a 
term of defiance. 

);cealt<x;;i, the shaft of a spear. 
(Djceatcajfi, a deer-park ; an en- 
closed spacious field. 
O;cean, a man beheaded. 
);ceann<xb and b;cecvnn<v;m, to 
behead ; noc bo bjceannab, that 
were beheaded. 

(Djceannab and bjcneab, decapi- 
fc>;ceannt<x, beheaded, executed ; 

pip. bjceannra, executioners. 
>;cejl;m, to forget. 
fc>;-C;tejbeam, want of faith, dis- 
belief, incredulity. 
)j-Cfte;bmeac, an unbeliever, an 

incredulous person, an infidel. 
(D;-c/ie;bce, incredible, hard to be 


);b, a woman's pap, a diddy. ~-^ 
>;bean, and b;b;n, or bjon, a fort, 
a sanctuary, protection, refuge ; 
also a defence or preservation ; 
bjbean <x^i c/tob jan pat 

6 j 

dOba;?te, a protection to un- 
defended cattle ; mo cutbjbjn, 
my protector. 

>;beanna; j;m, to save or protect ; 
bo b;b;n fe e fe;n, he saved 

>;bl;ocbab, delight. 

);b;l, great love or kindness. 

>Jb;n, r/rf. bjbean. 

);b;o;io;;i, a protector or guar- 

);j:eabaca, froward. 

>;j:j/t, difference. 

>;ie, the genit. of beoc, i. e. of 

); jbe, a commendation, a bless- 

O; jbe, gratitude ; eab-b; jbe, in- 
gratitude ; t-iW. caon-b'u;be, gra- 
titude ; so eab-6u;be should be 
ingratitude, and eabb'u;beac un- 

ji, succour, also satisfaction. 
je, condign or adequate. 

, to come to, or arrive at a 
place, time, or thing ; jo b) jjb 
cum m<xjcj07"<x, may they come 
to good ; go b; jjom cum bajle, 
till we arrive home, &c. ; idem 
quod tj jjm. 

j;n, or b;n, to suck ; bo bj jjn 
<xn cuan, the lamb sucked its 
dam ; cjoc na fc^jne m<x^j 
jtOj- bjn, woe be to him that 
sucked the breast of the shrine. 


, bald. 

, or, to cluck as a 

, sorrow, pain ; Gr. SIK? 

and bjljon, a deluge or inun- 
dation; uj^e na bjtjonna, the 
waters of the flood. 
(Djle, love, friendship, affection. 
>jlea jdb, digestion ; and bjtea- 
j<x;m, to digest food ; b;tea jtci, 

(D;te<vd<x;m, to reverence or re- 


a;n, love, kindness, affec- 

, or bjl;0j-, dear, beloved, 
faithful ; <x;nm bjtea^, b;tl|-e 
and bJU^eacc, sincerity, fidelity, 
the proper name Gr. SijAoc, 
certain ; Wei. dilys. 

<DJl jjonn, destruction, plundering, 
pillaging; 50 nbea/tna;b t);a 
ba ta bon <ion la 50 ttajn;^ 
b;ljean clajnne Canaan. 
Lcaban b/ieac ; God made two 
days of one day for the destruc- 
tion of the Canaanites. 

(Djljjon and bjt^pnab, emptying. 

)jl;abab, boiling, concoction. 

t);tmajn, meet, proper, fit, be- 
coming ; n; bjlnoajn bom bol an 
Cjjjpt:, bo /tab CDao;^e, &c., a 
peanca aju^* a jmteactra a,n 
peab r/t;ocab bljajan j~jn n; 
bjlma^n a cu/t jro lamajb an 
bao^-ja^t /"tua j a^t a naomcact : 
it doth not become me to go 
into Egypt, says Moses, &c., his 
miracles and the course of his 
actions for thirty years were not 
proper to be put into the hands 
of the people by reason of their 
sanctity. Vid, Leaba/t b/teac 
me;c -dfobgajn. 

O;mc;^;n, to see, to behold. 

>Jmea;-, a bad name or reputa- 

to undervalue or de- 


(^jmeaj-ra, of bad repute, vile. 
CDjmeafracb, disrespect. 
Ojme, protection. 
)jm;ccjn, contempt, reproach. 
);mjn, certain, sure, without doubt. 
);m;n and bjmneacb, provision, 

caution, heed. 
>jmneacb, confidence. 
t>;mn; j;m, to affirm, to avouch, to 


>jmn}beac. sad or melancholy. 
<D;n, pleasant, delightful, agree- 



O;ne, like c;ne, a generation ; 6 
bjne go bjne, from generation 
to generation ; also an age. 
, a beginning, also the first. 

or bene<x/tt, the power 
of God. 

<D;ne<x/tt;, imbecility, weakness. 
in, to weaken. 

a wege. 

to urge, also to thrust. 
i, custody. 
jte, wedged in. 
a helmet. 

to drink, to imbibe, to 
suck; vid. b;j;n. 
<b;nm;ac, idle. 

O;n/7, from, off us, i. e. bo ;/in, or 
rjnn ; temoro bjnn, let us leave 

a hill, a fortified hill or 
mount ; in the Welsh it is din 
and tin, and has the same signi- 
fication with the word bun ; and 
hence the Roman dinum, di- 
nium, and dunum, frequent ter- 
minations of the names of cities 
in Gaul and Britain, as Londi- 
num, Uxellodunum, Augusto- 
dunum, &c., and the old English 
tune, now changed into don, ton, 
town ; pjtjtc<x;^ jr/v; be ;n b;n- 
nfi,pr(zdicabat de die in colli- 
bus. Vit. S. Patric. 
a dinner. 
an oath. 

6;ob<xb, to die without issue ; b;o- 
bab Cogan, Owen died without 
(D;obab, an edge or point, a prick 

or sting. 

(Djobanac, lawless. 
);obb<x/i, disrespect, contempt. 
of them. 

b, a portion or dowry ; also 
any transitory or worldly inheri- 

tance; ^eac n; c;u;;i 3> r>j Ijoj 
^euna jnb noeb bpbab be<xt<x 
ce, the saint did not affect or 
regard the inheritance of the 
world, or things transitory; n; 
71; ;t m<xc fc>e <x/i b;ob<xb, non 
vcndidit filium Dei pro trann- 
toriis. Brogan. in Vit. S. Bri- 

6;ob<x;b, wicked, impious. 

b;ob<x;b;m, to consume or destroy, 
b;ob<x; jjrjbea/i ;ab, they will be 

)Joba}l, damage, loss, defect. 

O;ob<xll, old, ancient. 

6;ob<X;tt<x, banished, exiled. 

);ob;t<xt:<x, discovered. 

6;obu;be and b;o-bu;be<xc, un- 
grateful, unthankful. 

6;obu;be and b;obu;beact, ingra- 

6;o-c<x;/tt;m, to peel off bark, to 

)jocirKx;fic, theft. 

>;0cotn<i, without body. 

);o-co;iT)ne, forgetfulness. 

fc);o-cOna;^ie, without any way or 

(!);ocri<i and bjocuft, diligence. 

t>;0c/ion, immediately, without 

);ocu;b, little, small. 

6;oc^(X, high, mighty, lofty, state- 
ly > 3 e J n P^jl;b <\f b;oc^<x, the 
descendant of Philip is most 

<D;ob<v;l;j7, an atom, a mite. 

);o-baojneab, a depopulation. 

6;o-bat<x;m, to discolour, tarnish, 
or^ change the colour. 

C3;obmoi, a fort, a fortification. 

>;o-bn<xb, to satisfy. 

);o-bu;lle, without leaves. 

(Djo-pulang, intolerable. 

6;o-jrl<x;nn, exanguious, pal<>. 

O;o-jro^ca;n, a mulct paid for not 
marrying ; potius b;o-po^cu;n. 

6;5j, a dike or pit; b;g, /V/ry//. 
and en it. b. 

b J 

Am, to enclose or entrench. 

, spiteful, revengeful ; be;lb 
bjojan, having revenge in his 

bjOT<xnra, fierce or cruel, revenge- 

ctr, revenge ; also cruel- 
ty, barbarous or savage fierce- j 

b;ojab<xjm, to lessen or diminish, j 
to lavish or squander ; bjo j<x;b 
a lednamu;n, wee diminuit ejws : \ 
substantiam, Brogan. ; from b;t, 
want, and jtxbdjm, r/. 

bjo^db, mischief. 

b;6gann, plentiful ; quasi bjt- 
ga;nne or gan/KXCuj^e, not scant. 

<b;o j<x;;", high, tall, stately. 

b;o<xl<x;m, to revenge; bo b;o- 
Tdjl ba;- <x <xta^t jronntu. ^"<xn, 
he revenged upon them the 
death of his father. 

b;6g<xttr, revenge, vengeance ; b;6- 

L, revenged. 

,c, revengeful, vindictive. 

an avenger. 
-, revenge, vengeance. 

.c, revengeful. 
- , o-i - -y ' to behead. 
b;o jbajl, damage, destruction. 
);6 jbalac, hurtful, noxious, pre- 

b;6j;ona, morose, 
bjojla, revenge, also injustice; 
destruction ; ex. 6; 
bjojla, amajt 
no. rt<XM leabdjn. i. e. 

ujle ej^jon 
<xju^ b; jla an pobu;t T?omanaj j 
x\/t an bpopall Jubaj jeac, the 
order and beginning of the (di- 
vine) vengeance according as it 
is recorded by Josephus in his 
history, to wit, every rapine, op- 
pression, and destruction of the 
Jews by the Romans. Vid. 

6;6 jlu;m, gleaning, as <xj b;6 jlu;m 

<xn a/tba;/i, gleaning the corn. 

bjo jn<x, contempt ; also contemp- 

b;6 jncty-, rare ; b;6 ^naf cloc, rara 
virtus. Brogan. 

ba, morose, rude. 
, constantly, frequently. 

, to belch. 

u^, uprightness ; bjoj^uy- 
c>\ojbe, uprightness of heart ; 
also zeal, or ardent desire. 
, forcing, compelling. 

, diligence ; also a secret. 
, a diocese. 

b;6t, worthy. 

and b;6t<x^acb, sufficiency, 
, an end. 

bjol, use. 

(Djol, a selling; r/V/. b;olam. 

bjSlact, blameless. 

b;olact, or b;lleact<x, an orphan, 
i. e. n<xojbe<xn<xn <x c a <x^t b;c 

bjolacccom, protection. 

b;6ta;beact, payment. 

bjola;n>, gleaning, leasing ; also to 

bjoltxjmnj jceo^t, a weeder. 

b;6t<xm, to pay ; ca;n bo b;ol, to 
pay tribute ; bjoljra |-e <x mo;be, 
he will pay his vows; also to 
sell ; as, noc bo b;6lab m<x/t 
^-e;^b;^e<xc, Wo was sold as a 

bjolam, to renew or change. 

O;6lamn<xc, written by the transla- 
tor of the Bible b;6tmanac, and 
vulgarly pronounced bjolun<xc, 
i. e. any hireling : it is particu- 
larly used to imply a soldier, 
which is properly a hireling ; 
Lat. sold u r it, qui salario con- 
ducuntur; vid. Li ttlet. Diction. ; 
hence it signifies any brave, 
lusty, stout man ; also a generous 
man, one different from the ple- 
beian or low class of men. 
The French call a soldier soldat, 

from solde, hire, payment. 

, fornication. 

;5t<x^co;iT)e(Xb, patronage, pro- 

e, a guardian. 
b, forgiveness, 
m, to dismiss. 
., apparel, raiment; Wei. 

), faithful, true, sincere. 

c, a hired soldier; from 
b;ol, pay ; and manach, man, in 
the German Celtic. 

);6lunt;<Ji, valiant, stout, brave, 
lusty; also generous, hospitable; 
vid. b;ol <xmn<xc. 

(Dj6lunt<ty* and b;otunt;<xcb, hospi- 

)Jom, from me, of me; bo 15<vjn 
bjom <*n tu<xll<xc, he took from 
or off me the load, i. e. bo roe. 

CDjomcxb and b)orobua;b, anger, in- 
dignation, displeasure ; b;omb<x, 
is the same; bo f&p fi)u <* 
b;oimb<x mo/i, he parted them in 
great displeasure. 

(Djombaj, grief, sorrow. 

<b;ombaj<xc, sorrowful, mournful. 

<D;ombajl, waste. Luke, 15. 13. 

);o-rnbuan, unlasting, transitory, 
fading ; beatcx b;ombucxn, transi- 
tory life ; ecvb<xc bjombuan, fad- 
ing or unlasting clothes, frail, 

>jOmbd, vid. b;omab, anger, dis- 
pleasure, &c. 

);omb<xc, displeased. 

(DJomaloLC, profuse, hurtful ; vid. 

^);om<xlt<x^, caution, notice. 

^);0)T)<xo;n and b;om<xojneac, idle, 
lazy, vain, trifling, frivolous. 

(bjomaojneoy, vanity, idleness ; 
but more commonly pronounced 
b;om<xo;nte<xr ; bjom<xo;nea^ ex 
t/-<xoj<xll, me vanity of the 

(Djoma/ijx, secret, private, dark, 


);5-mOTdb, enfranchisement, free- 

dom, liberty. 

>;o-rr)oj<xb and b;6moj<x;m, to 
make free, to set a slave at li- 

Ojomojteab, a demolishing. 
);omfi<xcb, obscurity, darkness. 
, a mystery. 
, a hermit's cell. 
i, a glutton ; potius c;o- 

^>jo-mol<xb, dispraise. 

);oinold.b and bjo-mola;m, to dis- 
praise or find fault with. 

);omott;oi, blamed, censured, dis- 

);omolto;/i, a slanderer. 

);om/-t<xc, a temple. 

(^Jom^d.c, for b;om<x^"<xc, proud, 
haughty, arrogant. 

t>;omu^, pride, arrogance. 

>;on, a shelter or protection, a 
covert or fence from the weather ; 
bo t^ie;j fe a b;on, he forsook 
his covert; px bjon, under pro- 
tection ; bo^ cuj/i bjon ajp, he 
covered it. ./-AA- Z> ^oti-O^K- 

^);on, the second semimetre or 
leat/i<xnn of a verse consisting of 
two quartans: it is more com- 
monly called coiTKib. 

>;6n<x;~3<xb, a disjoining. 

>;6n<x/-;z;a;m, to ungird, to undo. 

&jonaf'c<\, dissolute. 

(Djongdbajl and bjongbata, and 
commonly written bjonjmala, 
worthy, meet, proper, suitable, 
fit to bear ; ex. 01 Cbjdjtna be;n 


bob commo/i txxo;beab, O I^ord, 
make me a habitation for thyself, 
worthy so great a guest ; ba 
bira; jeab jrea^i <x bjonjaba;l, if 
she got a suitable husband; also 
fixed, firm; botca^* bjongbcila, 
firm hopes. 
jongbatajt, worthy. 
pngbdlcoi or b/ongirwlta, firm, 
fast, fixed. 

6 } 

Ojonn, a hill or hillock ; cid. 

an, a little hill. 
;gb, even to. 
e, unto, i. e. bo ;onn- 
tu b;onn/-u; je 
7?;j, thou shalt go to Caesar ; 
b;onr>fu;je n<x Cearo/tac. to- 
wards Tara. 

);onnta, turning about. 
&)0ji, meet, proper, decent. 
);0ft, a law. 

>;5;t<xc, or bjpeac, just, right, 

c, lawless. 
, a dropping. 
garo, to belch. 
O;o-;iaba;ro, to annihilate. 
O;0;tg<xb, direction ; b;;t;u jab, 

, uprightness. 

, a troop, company, crowd, 
or multitude; Wei. tyrva, Lat. 
O;6rimac, quasi b;-a;^roeac, nu- 

merous, infinite. 
(DJOrtna, quantity. 
O;0fy-an, bad news ; its correlative 

word is fjopfan, good news. 
>jO;tua;meac, an atom, a mite. 
&)0fc or b;yc, barren ; bo b;6^c, 

a cow that hath no milk. 
(DJoj-can and gjo^ccin, a grinding 
or gnashing of the teeth ; also a 

chewing of the cud. 

jo/"<j.b and 
the teeth ; also 

, a nose or 
, to gnash 

and b;o^5<x^n<xc, the 
vulgar, the mob or rabble rout. 

, to snuff a candle. 
bm, smooth, without knots, 

o^po;^e<xcb, or b;o^bo/t<xcb, an 
argumentation, pleading, &c. 

, of thee, or from thee, i. e. 
bo tu. 


t);6r-cu;/t;m, to force away, to 
drive off, to expel ; bo b)5ccu;/t 
<Jif <xn ttj]\ e, he banished him 
the country. 

ju j<xb, consumption, de- 

m, a wilderness, a desart ; 
from bjoc and t^tejb, a tribe. 
Jotr;tua;Ujm, to unsheath. 

, a tribute. 

e<xc, straight, right ; bj^e<xc --> 
7-ua^, straight, upright ; ban b;- 
;te<xc, a verse or metre ; also ge- 
nuine ; Lat. directus. 
c, frugal. 

, uprightness. 
, to geld, 
a panegyric. 
b, direction. 
t);;teme, without way or passage, 

out of the way. 
b;^i;be, bald. 

O;/t; jjm, to straighten, to direct, ~-r 
or guide. 

, numerous, plentiful, great ; 
matoy b;^t;m <x/t 
y be;ceA;t b<x bu^ 
in n tp 7"eo, you will be 
plentifully rewarded ; or lite- 
rally, you will reap plentiful ad- 
vantage from your journey hi- 
ther, and will be obeyed and 
served in this country. L. B. 
Otr, two, both, a pair, a couple, a ^ 
brace ; ba b;r bea/tb/tac<x;/t, to 
both his bretnren ; Gr. Sig, and 
Lat. bis, tv^ice. 
Ojjr, poor, miserable. 
t);^-be<X5<x;m, to contemn or de- 
spise; ma bjj-beajan ye tu, if 
he contemn you ; also to pro- 
fane or violate, to unhallow. 
, twofold, double, 
fierce, nimble, active, 

and -be<xy, discretion. 
c, discreet. 

; bea^a, a territory of 
the County of Clare, the ancient 



estate of the O'Deas. 
f sudden. 
jt^a, a disease. 
love, friendship, esteem, 

fidelity, loyalty; also subjection; 

bj^leact, idem. 
{e;, property. 
, a dye ; aj jm;/it bj^lj^e, 

playing at dice. 
p;/-lean, a dice-box. 
O;-^-tJjeac, deviating, uncouth, 


, to hide or conceal. 
, the aspergillum, used at 

Mass to sprinkle the holy water 

on the people. 
bjt, bo b;t, it remains. 
b;t:, want or defect. 
b;t, to suck, to give milk. 
p;tbj/i, difference. 
bjtceal, industry, endeavour ; vid. 

b;tcealta/i, a necromantic veil or 

cover, that makes things invisible, 

as is supposed. 
b;t-ceannajm, to behead; bo bjt- 

ceann aba/i a /i; j bjlea^, they 

beheaded their rightful king. 
bjtcjotl, an attempt or endeavour, 

also industry. 

bjtcjoUac, careful, diligent. 
bjtrcjoUajm, to endeavour, to do 

the utmost. 
bjteac, to refuse. 
b;t-lactac and b;t-lactu; je, an 

orphan, or a motherless child, 

who consequently wants suck or 

milk ; from b;t, want, and lact, 

milk; vid. tact. 
b;t;jnje, dumb, speechless. 
p;tleac, forgetful. 
b;t/ieab, an hermitage or wilder- 

ness; Wei. didrevvar ; /lO^bajt 

/te mac be e a;m^u;jab on 

b;abal /-an tyt/teaB, the Son of 

God was pleased to be tempted 

by the devil in the wilderness. 
bjt^eabac, a hermit or anchoret. 

more properly bjt-t/ieabac, a 

man that has no society or com" 
mon habitation with others, or 
one living separate from his 
tribe; vid. t/ieab and t;/tc;b. 

bjtjieactac, lawless. 

b;u, a long time, long since; Lat. 

b;ub;iaca;m, to cast, to fling, to 
throw, to brandish, shake or 
quiver ; ag bjubnajc clojce, 
throwing a stone; from b/iajc, 
the arm. 

bjublab, refuge ; b;uc, the pip, a 
sickness of fowl. 

b;uca, to cry out, to exclaim ; ob 
cona/ic an naom an ;ijj gona 
^luaj aj eacnac Cbpjft, agu^ 
aj ab/tab beamajn, bo /tola 
;a/tam a b/iat be, aju^/io b;u- 
ca;/i bo jut mo/i a meoba^n an 
pOpu;ll : when the saint saw the 
king and his army to deny 
Christ, and to adore devils, he 
rent his garment, and then cried 
out with a loud voice in the 
midst of the people. L. B. 

b;uga; jjl, a sobbing or sighing. 

bjugam, or b;j;m, to cluck or 

bju jam, to drink off. 

Oju;ca;n, the eyes. 

bju;b, tender-hearted, flexible. 

bjujbeac. the same; hence a;n- 
bjujbe, obduracy. 

b;ula;tm, to suck ; Utman b;ujl, a 
sucking lamb ; noc bo bju;t 
c;oca mo mata;/t, who sucked 
the breasts of my mother. 

b;uttab, a negative ; nae b;ultab 
na 5aeb;tje, the nine negatives 
of the Irish tongue. 

bjultab, a denial or refusal ; jruaj/t 
fc b;ulta, he got a refusal. 

b;ultajm, to deny or refuse, to 
renounce, disown, cast off, 6cc. 

bjunc.6, vid. beonac. 

b;u/t, difficult, hard; Lat. durus : 
n; bu b;u/t an jabab, non dura 
fuit nccessitas. 

b i 

bju;tn<xm, to gulp or swallow ; to 
drink speedily. 

&]uf, protection. 

bl<x;j, blajjeos, and bl<w;j, a 
lock of hair. 

bla;m, darkness. 

bl<xo; j, blao; j J^^je, a lock of 

bleacb, law. 

bljgeab, a separation. 

bljje, a law or ordinance; Lat. 
legs, a lex, d being only wanting 
in that Latin word; pe<X;t t<x- 
btx/ita blj je, a lawgiver ; pea/i 
bljje, a lawyer; luce bl;je, 

bljjeac and bl; jtea.6, lawful. 

bl; j)b, perfect, excellent, 

bl;jteac, lawful, just; <x^ bt;j- 
te<xc <x beunam, it is lawful to 
be done. 

bljjt:e<xm<xjl, just, skilled in the 
law ; bu;ne bl; jte<xm<vjl, a liti- 
gious man. 

bl;jte<xmn<xc and bl;tean<xc, a 

bt; jteojft, a lawyer. 

blj jtjonojn, a magistrate or jus- 
tice of the peace, whose care is j 
to have the laws enforced. 

bljjjm, to separate. 

blty~tcanac, or bt;^t;on<xc, law- 
ful ; njl fe ce<x/tc na bl;/trea- 
n<xc, it is neither just nor lawful, 
also rightful, legitimate ; as nmc 
bl;fbean<xc, a legitimate son; 
ne<xm-bl^reanac, unlawful, il- 
legal, illegitimate. 

btocb and blocban, a strainer, a 

blom ; to tell. 

, a denial or refusal. 
, to make plain or mani- 

btorrxxj^n, destniction. 

blub, a retribution. 

blu;je, a loosing, releasing. 

blu;j, active, nimble; also pre- 


b o 

blu;m, a cloud, darkness; also a 

blaze of fire. 

blu;c;n, a little study or closet. 
blum, much, plenty : commonly- 

blut, close, tight, confined; blue 
^tol, a closestool ; bluc-<xjm- 
ftejb, the defiles; bluc-bjon, a 
close guarding. 

blut, an enclosure, a cloister. 

blutajm, to shut in, or enclose, to 

blutujje and bluta;jte, knit, 

bo, before nouns sometimes agrees 
with the Latin tints, -a, -um, as 
bo leabap, tuus liber, your book, 
&c. ; it also sometimes corres- 
ponds exactly with the Latin 
preposition de, and signifies of, 
from, out of, at, concerning, &c., 
ex. bo 15 a%uf bo ojbce, de die 
et nocte, i. e. by day, &c. ; bo 
la;m, by the hand, or out of 
hand, de mauu ; bo t/tejb Leb;, 
de tribu Levi; l<xb;t<MT) bo <xn 
bey, de morte loqitamur, i. e. 
concerning, or about ; bu;ne bor> 
t^-lu<xj, uniisdeejcercitu; bealb 
beantra bo clojc, simulacrum de 
lapide faclum, fyc. ; it still an- 
swers in sense to the Latin pre- 
position de when added to pro- 
nouns, and is generally contract- 
ed ; as bam, i. e. bo mo, bom OM, 
de meo AUTO ; boc, i. e. bo tru, 
bob on, de ti/o ; ba, i. e. 
bo a, ba 6;t, de suo aitro, Sfc, ; 
and this contraction is always 
observed when a vowel is the 
initial letter of the word ; bo/t 
<xcu/~ ba;/tj;ob, i. e. bo 5/t <xgu/~ 
bo <x;ftj;ob, de auro et argento, 
<^r. Oo is often a negative or 
diminutive, and often an aug- 
mentative, and implies a diffi- 
culty; as bocojra, hard to be 
raised; bo-mujnte, hard to be 
taught; bo-cxj/trojjte, innumer- 


b o 

b o 


able; bo-cujm^jjte, incompre- 
hensible ; t boj-bea jla, indivisi- 
ble ; bo;-bealbac, ill-featured ; 
b6j-bea/-ac, ill-bred : and in 
this it agrees with the Latin 
word de, which in compounds is 
sometimes a negative and some- 
times an augmentative, as des- 
pero, to have no hope ; demens, 
void of reason ; and de-amo, to 
love passionately, &c. 

Oo, sometimes signifies to; Lat 
ad; bon ma/ijab, ad mercatum; 
bon amajn, ad amnem, i. e. bo 
an; it corresponds with ad in 
the pronouns, as bam, i. e. bo 
me, Lat. ad me ; bujtr, i. e. bo 
tru, Lat. ad te ; bo, i. e. bo e, 
Lat. adeum; b;, i. e. bo ;, Lat. 
ad earn ; bu;nn, i. e. bo ;nn, or 
fjnn, Lat. ad nos ; b;b, i. e. bo 
jb, Lat. ad vos ; ba/t, i. e. bo 
a^t, ad nostros vel de nostris ; 
ba/t namu;b, ad hostes nostros, 
vel de hostibiLS nostris. In this 
manner it seems to be the same 
as ad by a metathesis or trans- 

)0, is often the distinguishing par- 
ticle of the perfect and future 
tenses : bo ftjnne me bo comajfi- 
le, I have done your bidding; 
bo cua;b fe, he went ; bo jeo- 
ba;b ujle bey, they will all die. 
As also of the conjunctive mood 
present tense : bo /tacainn, I 
would repair or go ; bo r&pjo- 
ba;nn, I would or could write. 
In old manuscripts the particle 
<xb was used for bo of the mo- 
dern writers, as was the particle 

<D5, two in number; Gr. <W, and 
Lat. duo; pa bo, twice. 

(Doacal, affliction. 

>o-a;riroeac and bo-a;/im;gte, in- 

(Do-ata/tfiu; j, immutable. 

(Dob, and gen it. bo;be and bo;b, a 

plaster; also gutter. 
)ob, i. e. bo bub j:e;b;^, perhaps, 

or it may be possible : sometimes 

written bob ejbjft. 
)ob, a river or stream; Lat.^w- 

vius ; j\jt conuc<x;b an bob, 

eis restitit ftuvius. 
^)oba;t, a daubing over. 
(Dobajro, to plaster or cement, to 


t>oba;^, immortal ; bo-ba;/". 
^)o-balab, a rank or rammish 


, obscure, dark. 
and bu/i, water; Gr. vSup, 

aqua ; Wei. dyvr, or dur ; bo- 

ba^tcu, an otter or water dog; 

Wei. dyvr-gi, an otter ; vid. cu, 

Ooba/t, the bound or border of a 

country. ^ 
(Doba/y~ojbea6, a pitcher, or buck- 


, mischief. 

b, boisterous, swelling, raging. 
, sorrow, grief, concern. 
, sorrowful, sad. 
and bobjiona;m, to be 

sad or sorrowful. 
)ocamal, a difficulty, hardship. 
)ocamalac and bocamlac, hard, 

difficult ; yaota/t bocamalac, 

hard labour. 
(Docamlacb, a difficulty. 
^)oca, likely, probable; bocu;je, 

more probable. 
)oca;/iea;- and boca/t,hurt, harm, 

damage; cum a nboca;/i, to their 

)ocafiac, grievous, hurtful; Lat. 

angustiatus, in angustiis. 

, hope, confidence ; al. bot- 

c, confident. 

t)ocma, weak, incapable. 
(Doc/tajt:, lust. 

t>0ct, strait, narrow, close ; j/ 
boct:, a close and fast hold. 
)octa, i. e. teagaj^jte, instruct- 

b o 

ed, taught ; Lat. doc t us. 
boct<i.;m, to strain or bind hard. 
boctfta;l, luxury. 
bo-ctrjnjeab, a disjoining or un- 


bocum, an arbour. 
bob, to thy ; bob ojlac, to thy ser- 

vant; I'M. bo. 
boba, of two, binarius. 
boba;l, or bnoc-bajl, bad news. 
boba;nj, difficult, hard; also dis- 

mal, sad. 

bo-et, sickness or disease. 
bo-pi;c^eac, or b5-jr<x;cj-;on<xc, 

bo-px j<xl<x, hard to be found ; also 

bojcx;fy-;, anguish, perplexity; id. 

qd. bo jnan/7. 
boja;m, to burn, to singe, or 

boj;i<x, sorrow, sadness, dullness, 

bo jncuin, anguish, perplexity ; Kx 

bo j;t<x;ne, a day of perplexity. 
b5;b, plaster, &c. 
b5;beat<ib, a daubing or plaster- 

bo;b, to them : sometimes for b;bb, 

i. e. bo ^;b, to, or from you. 
bo;be<x,n, more rude or uncivil. 
bo;becty-, vice. 
bo;bne, sacrifice. 
bo;b/i;t, boba./i, i. e. u;^z;e, and 

;t, i. e. <x/iba^, sowens or gruel. 
bo;c, quick, swift ; also early, 

timely : its comparative is bojce, 

the former, or foremast ; r>; bu^ 

bo;ce, earlier. 
>6;ce, hope, or confidence. 
bo;-ce<xnn<xc, two-headed. 
0o;c;m, to hasten. 
bo;cme, i. e. bo cumta, ill-shaped. 
)o;b, the hand. 
6ojbce, jf bo 15, i. e. bo ojbce 

a%uf bo 15, by night and by 

bo;beajla, individual, indivisible, 

spoken of a spirit. 

a duel, i. e. 

no cat, and bo or b;f . 

a |X)tion. 

, trust, confidence, hope. 
j, a manner. 
O5j j, fire. 

Do; j, a guess or conjecture, opi- 
nion, or supposition ; Gr. SOK^W, 

bo; j, a testimony. 
bo; j, sure, certain, doubtless ; go- 
bo; j, truly; bo;j Ujt<xb, per- 
haps ; ex. Oif bo; j t;n nbe nj 
ft;ocpx;b go;c; a ta r;^ tcv;^ 
na joca, a^* boc<x bo ^iocbo;n 
bo;b, it is certain that liars will 
not approach the kingdom of 
God ; but liars have a kingdom 
(Hell) which they will undoubt- 
edly approach. 

b5; jeab and bo;g;m, to burn or 
consume ; bD bo; j me, I have 
burned or consumed ; also to 
destroy, to singe. 
Oo; je<Xft, a spear. 
bo; j;m, to hope, to confide in. 
bo; jl;d, a touchstone. 
b5;rn;om, injury. 
bo;jte, pangs. 

bo;le;ft, dark, obscure, mystical, 
i. e. bo, negat., and le;^, mani- 
feste, the oppcsite of ^-o;le;^, 

bojlb and bO;tpe, dark, gloomy, 
obscure, dusky; ceo bo;ljre, a 
dark or thick mist ; also sorrow- 
ful, mournful, sad. 
bo;lbea^- and bo;tb;0j- and bo;l- 
ie<x>-, sorrow, mourning, trou- 
bo;ljea/- and bo;lj;o^, sorrow, 

grief, trouble, affliction. 
bo;lje, sore, hard, or trouble- 

bo;lje<ty-<xc, grievous, sorrowful, 


bo;l;beacb, frowardne-. 
bo;l;j, difficult. 
bo;l;j, doleful, grieved, melan-,.V 

b o 

b o 

choly; af bO;t;j <w bea/it, it 
is a melancholy action. 

bo;lle, blindness ; also dimness. 

bo;m, poor. 

bo;-me;;-, infinite. 

bo;m;n, deep, profound. 

b:>;mne, depth, the deep. 

bo;nean, hard weather, inclement 
times: its opposite is ^ojnean, 
fair weather. It is more pro- 
perly written bo or bon-pn ; 
vid. fjon. 

bo;n-beafij, of a reddish dun. 

bo;ne;m, deep. 

bo;nte, intelligible. 

bo;nt:e, a small black insect. 

Oo;/ib, an attempt. 

bo;/tb, peevish, quarrelsome, dis- 
satified, also hard or difficult. 

bo;/tbce;fi;m, to frame or model, 
to fashion. 

bo;/ibeacb, peevishness. 

bo;/tb;o^- or bo;/ibea^, anguish, 
grief, sorrow. 

bo;/ie, or bu;/te, a wood, (pro- 
perly of oaks,) a grove; also 
any thicket; &f an bo;/ie, out of 
the thicket. 

bo;-/ie<xma, bye-paths, impassable 
places. ^ 

bo;-/v/<x/ib(X, difficult, ungovern- 
able. ^ 

bo;/im;b<xp*b, lethargy. 

the plural of bO;t<x^, 

;fi, a porter. 

bo;fyeo;/te<n.cb, doing the duty of 
a porter. 

bo;/tt;e<xl, a sink. 

(Do;/tte<xc, that sheddeth or spil- 
leth; bO;tteac-j:ol<x, a blood- 

;^, a spiller or sheddei ; 
bo;/tt; jteojjKt, idem. 

./-, affliction, misfortune. 
, to spill or shed. 
, burned ; c<xt;t<xca bo; jte, 
burnt cities. 

bo;te and ba;c, quick, active, 


Oojtceal, or bo;tc;oll, niggard- 
liness, illiberality, or grudging ; 
n; m<x;lle ;ie bo;tce<xl, not 
grudgingly, also loathing. The 
most proper English word I find 
for bO;tce<xl is churlishness. 

churlish, grudging, 
and niggardly. 

bo; j;m, to singe ; bo bo;t 
<xn te;ne ;ab, the fire singed 

bo;t;/t, dark, gloomy, obscure. 
bo;tj;t, ill-featured, ugly, deform- 
ed; also dull, unpleasant, ill- 

;/t, a contract or covenant, 
a kind of fishing-net, 
bol, a space or distance. 
bola;b, loss, detriment, defect. 
bola;b, impatient; also intoler- 

bct<x;mgen, a two-handed sword. 
-, grief, mourning, desolation, 

<x;mrm cum bold;/-, a time for 

. if, > 


oloy, i. e. botce<xlt, abhorrence, 
disdain, loathing. 

xc, sad, melancholy, mourn- 
ful ; also sick, 
bolb, sorcery. 


:<x, hesitancy, slowness. 
^XWUIKX, delay, loitering. 
bolubc<x, stubborn, obstinate, in- 

bom, a house; Lat. domm. Vid. 
Archseol. Brit. Compar. Vocab. 
p. 55, col. 3, in voce domus. 
bom a, scarcity, want. 
bom<x;n, transitory. 
bom<x;/t;m, speech. 
bom-<x;;im, i. e. teac M<X na/tm, an 
armoury, or magazine of arms. 
i, immortal. 

the gall on the liver ; 
genii bombld;^, also anger, cho- 
ler; beoc. bombkx;r, a drink of 
gall ; from bo, ill, and 

b o 

b o 

)o-mbta7-ba, unsavoury, ill-tasted, 

also insipid. 

>0-mbu;be<xc, unthankful. 
)6n)ab, the second. 

mo;o, deep, hollow; bomujn, 

O6m<x;n, genit. the world; bom<xn 
(^orixvn--tobcxb or boroanux 

a, cosmography. 
<x/i, the earth, the world, the 
terraqueous globe ; 50 tejt 
;mc<xl <xn boroojn, unto the end 
of the world. 

omo;n for bo;mao;r>, bad, naught, 
oroa;<, pro bu^, water ; rid. bo- 

, hereditary; also a pa- 
trimony, inheritance. 

>om jnd;", propriety. 

bom-ljOf, a house surrounded by 
a moat, or watered-trench, for a 

bomn<xc, or bomnac, a great house, 
also a church. The epithet mo^t, 
i. e. great, is generally subjoined 
to this word when it means a 
great building for residence, or 
a church. Thus the church which 
St. Patrick built on the banks of 
the lake called Loch-sealga, near 
Galway, was distinguished by 
the name of borcnac-mo/t, i. e. 
the great church. Vid. Vit. 
Tripart. par. 2, c. 52, and Ogyg. 
p. 374. )omnoic-mori OT)eol- 
ujgce, i. e. the great house of 
O'Healy, is the name of a town 
and large parish in Musgry, 
westward of Cork, formerly the 
estate of a very ancient family 
called O'Healy, a name to which 
the present Lord Chief Baron, 
Hely Hutchinson, is an orna- 
ment of high distinction. 

bomnac, the Irish name of the first 
day of the week, since the es- 
tablishment of Christianity in 

Ireland. In the heathenish times 
it was called >;<x-Sul ; fid. );a 
and )e, sup. 

(Domnal, pronounced )on<xl, the 
proper name of several great 
princes of the old Irish. From 
an ancestor of this name the 
princely family of the O'Donels 
are so called. / id. Conal-gol- 
ban, p. 125. (Domnat geapnlci- 
moic, otherwise called (Domn<xl 
no. ^!b<x^<xc, was the eldest son 
of roo^tOTmo^ O'O/ijen, king of 
all Irelanct, who made him king 
of Dublin, an. 1 1 15. This 60- 
77 al gained a complete victory 
near Dublin over the forces of 
Leinster, commanded by their 
king, )onoc GOac-GQu/tca, who 
was killed in the action, as was 
likewise O'Connor, prince of 
Ibhfailge. fid. *4nnal. Innis- 
fall. an. 1155. From this Donal 
descended the Mac Donals of 
Darach, who consequently are 
the eldest and most direct de- 
scendants of the great Brien 
Boromhe, monarch of Ireland. 
Vid. Concubuft n<x C<xcci;i<xc, sup. 
pag. 126, 127. From Mahon, 
the younger brother of this Do- 
nal, are descended the Mac Ma- 
hons of Thomond. Whether 
the Mac Donels of Darach still 
subsist with any becoming dig- 
nity, is what I am not enabled 
to ascertain with sufficient evi- 
dence. If the family of the 
Mac Donels, who are now in 
great splendour in the County 
of Clare, and whose chief has 
been representative for that coun- 
ty in the last Irish Parliament, 
belong to this prince's race : it 
is their interest to show and as- 
sert it, as it would add a very 
high lustre to their family. 

The above Donal's eldest son, 
Connor, was king of Thomond 

b o 

b o 

in the year 1155, he was made 
prisoner by Cufiloj O'O/ijen, 
ancestor and stock of the Tho- 
mond branch, from a motive of 
jealousy of the lineal right of 
succession in supreme authority, 
which Turlogh knew this prince 
Connor was vested with as the 
direct heir of Brien Boromhe ; 
but he was delivered from his 
imprisonment the same year by 
the combined power of Turlogh 
O'Connor, king of Connaught, 
and be/imob G0<xc CTOu/ica, king 
of Leinster; and after all, this 
unfortunate direct heir of Brien 
Boromhe had his eyes put out, 
or bursted, by his cousin Turlogh 
O'Brien, the stock of the Tho- 
mond branch. It was pursuant 
to this ambitious and bloody 
maxim of the O'Briens of the 
Thomond branch, that (Doncxt- 
roo/ie 0'0/t;en, the son of this 
same Turlogh O'Brien, attended 
by a strong body of armed men, 
being come to make a treache- 
rous visit to Mahon O'Brien, 
great grandson of Conno^i O'Ofi;- 
en ^l<x Cat(Xfi<xc, and then the 
direct representative of the eldest 
branch of all the O'Briens, vio- 
lently seized on his person at 
his own residence in the castle 
called Co.^"le<xn j C/)Onu;nT, 
now Castle-Connell, east of Li- 
merick, and there put out his 
eyes to render him incapable of 
asserting his hereditary right to 
the crown of Munster. This 
barbarous act was perpetrated 
by Donal O'Brien in the year 
1 175, who, by a just judgment, 
was dethroned before the end of 
the year by Roderick O'Connor 
and other Irish princes ; but was 
restored after some interval of 
time by the assistance of his 
father-in-law, the king of Leins- 

ter, and that of the English ad- 
venturers, more effectually than 
by the peace he made with Ro- 
derick, then styled king of Ire- 
land. P id. Annul. Innisf alien, 
ad an. 1175, 1176. 
bomnon, pj/i-boronon, the name 
of a tribe of the Belgians who 
settled in Connaught, after in- 
habiting for some time the wes- 
tern parts of Britain, now called 
Cornwall and Devonshire, or 
Denshire, where, in the time of 
the Romans, they were called 
Damnonii by some writers, and 
Danmonii by others. V. Cam- 
den's Brit. bun-bomnan was 
the name of a strong fortress 
and seat belonging to those 
Damnonians in Connaught ; and 
Jo/i<x^ bun-bomnon was the dis- 
trict in which it was situated. 
borona^-co^m, to bind, 
bon, of the, i. e. bo <xn ; bon 
mu;nt;/i, of the family, or to the 
family ; bon-<x/tcin, of the bread, 
de pane, vid. bo; bo j<Xjft ye 
bon tfolay la, he called the 
light day. 
bon, mischief, evil, 
bon, although. 

bona, corrupt, awkward, ungainly, 
unfortunate ; bonajbe, the com- 

bona;j<v;m, to destroy, 
bonal, ((b<xc-bona;l,) Engl. Mac 
Donel, the name of an ancient 
and princely family of the pro- 
vince of Ulster, whose large es- 
tate was anciently situate in Or- 
gialla, a tract which now com- 
prehends the Counties of Louth, 
Monaghan, and Armagh. The 
chief of this family, who is the 
Earl of Antrim, still enjoys a 
very considerable estate. The 
Mac Donels of Scotland are of 
the same stock, all being sprung 
from Colla-uais, king of Ulster 

b o 

b o 

and Meath in the fourth century, 
one of the three brothers of the 
same name who destroyed Ema- 
nia, the royal palace of the Ru- 
derician race, ancient kings of 
Ulster, and put an end to the 
regal succession of that family 
in the year 347. The Mac 
Dowels, as also the Mac Rorys, 
lords of the Hebrides, or Wes- 
tern Isles of Scotland, and the 
Mac Shyhys of Munster, are 
sprung from the same stock. 
Ogyg. p. 362. 

bonatan, (O'bonnatlajn,) a family 
name, of which I find three dif- 
ferent chiefs mentioned in the 
Topographical ban of O'Dugan : 
one in Ulab, or Ulidia, now the 
Count\" of Tyrone ; another in 
Orgialla, and a third in Con- 
naught. I am not enabled to 
point out the respective stocks 
of these three families of the 
same name. The estate of the 
O'Donelan of Tyrone was Ce<xl- 
letxc ^]<x;nBjt, which he enjoyed 
in partnership with O'pedn^ujl; 
that of O'Donelan of Orgialla, 
jointly withO'Flin, was Jb Cu;^t- 
tj^te, and the O'Donolain of 
Connaught's ancient estate was 
the territory called Cl<x;nbne<x- 
pxll. I suppose the present ve- 
nerable Bishop of Clonfert is 
of this ancient family of the 
O'Donalans of Clanbreasail, or 
Cloinmbreassail, as the author 
of Cambrensis Eversus writes it, 
pag. 27, lin. 32. 

xftc, naughtiness. 
on<ty- andbonur, distress, misery, 
misfortune, calamity. 
- borm, of a dun or brown colour ; 
e;c bonna, dun horses ; bonn- 
pxB/t<xc, having dun or brown- 
coloured eyebrows. 

bonn, pregnant. 

bonn, Ce<xc bo;nn, the west of 

??at<xc in Kerry, where 
bonn, son of Milesius, is said to 
have been drowned on his arri- 
val in Ireland. 

bonncu, (O'bonncu,) the name of 
a very ancient and princely fa- 
mily descended from Cas, the 
son of Core, who was the grand- 
father of ^Engus, the first Chris- 
tian king of Cashel in St. Pa- 
trick's time. The O'Donoghues 
were first settled in the country 
now called the County of Cork, 
where they were supreme lords 
of that tract which extends from 
Iniskean to the borders of Ban- 
try, and from thence northward 
to Ballyvurny and Macroom, 
comprehending the territory now 
called Ive-Leary, and all that 
part of Musgry which was called 
C)0u;-cnu;ie ; pbl<vjn, extending 
from Ballyvurny to the river 
Dripseach, (for the O'Flins were 
a branch of the O'Donoghues.) 
In the twelfth century the chiefs 
of this family removed to Kerry, 
being hard pressed by the Mac 
Carties-Riagh and the O'Ma- 
honys, and subsisted in great 
sway as proprietors of all the 
country about Loch-Lein and 
Killarney, until the late revolu- 
tions, when their estates were 
confiscated, and given to the 
present Lord Kinmare's ances- 
tors. Vid. Annal. Innisfal. 

bonnec and bonnoc<x, rectius 
bonncu, the proper name of a 
man, very common among the 
old Irish; hence GOac bonnoca, 
English, Mac Donogh, the fa- 
mily name of a branch of the 
Mac Cartys, descended from 
Dermocl Mac Carry, the second 
son of COftmac p;on, who was 
Mae-Carty-more, and prince of 
Desmond, A. D. 1242. The large 
estate of this familv was situate 

b o 


in the country called Duhalla, 
westward of Mallow, in the 
County of Cork, where their 
grand seats and castles are still 
to be seen, all in the possession 
of the Earl of Egmont. Ano- 
ther family of the name of Mac 
Donogh, but of a different stock, 
had a considerable estate in the 
barony of Goran, County of 
Sligo, in Connaught; a barony 
which belonged first to the 
O'Haras ever since the third cen- 
tury, (vid. Ogyg. p. 334.) A 
branch of this ancient family of 
the Mac Donoghs of Connaught 
removed to the County of Clare, 
of whom descended Dr. Mac 
Donogh, the late Bishop of Kil- 

)o/t<xb, a line or rule. 
>0;ta;b, intricate. 
(!)o/id}b, strife, dispute, contro- 
versy, at variance. 
C}o/t<x;nge<xcb, frowardness. 
t, a battle or conflict. 
, a door, Gr. accusat. pi. 
Lat. januas, a Ovpa, 
dempto a Ovp, Wei. dor, and 
Angl.-Sax. door. 
>0fiala, it happened, an imper- 
sonal verb ; Lat. contigit. 
f )o;ic<x, dark, black, dusky, &c. 
Observe the near affinity of the 
Irish Celtic with the German in 
this word, as in great numbers 
of other words throughout this 
)o/icab<x^, darkness. 
)0ficab<x;m, to darken, to make 
dark ; bo/tcot<x/t <xn la, the day 
shall be darkened. 

a humming, or muttering ; 
hinc bo/tb irxx/tba, the office of 
the dead, because it is commonly 
read with that grave tone which 
the French call Psalmodier. It 
is improperly said o/tb ma/ib. 
)OKb<xm, to hum like a bee ; bo/t- 

ban<x;nr, idem. 
bo/ibcin, a humming noise, a buzz- 


Ooftbujlle, folding doors; from 
bo/i, a door, and bu;tle, a leaf, 
or board. 

>0;ij<x, despicable. 
)o-;ija/tt<x, insatiable, ungovern- 

&0f\r>, the fist; Wei. and Corn. 

durn, the hand. 
>o/in, a hilt, haft, or handle. 
bo^nan, a handful. 
)'o;t-ncty*5, a gold ring or chain, 

i. e. n<x/-g bo <xn 6/t. 
)0;incu/t, the haft or hilt of a 
sword; <xgtty~bo cua;b <xn bo/in- 
cu/i oyte<xc <xnb;<x^ n<x l<x;nne, 
the haft also went in after the 

, a round stone. 
, anger, wrath, resentment. 
, very rough, harsh, &c. 
, rough, rugged. 
, austere, harsh, unplea- 

>o/i/tb<x, fierce, cruel. 
&0]\fir pftoct, a stirring to anger. 
&0j\l\u) je, surly, grim. 
Oojtt<x, spilled or poured ; <x/i n<x 
bo/itoi <xm<xc, which are poured 
>0/it:<xb, a spilling, pouring ; bo^- 

t<xb j:ol<x, an issue of blood. 
bo/iub<x, a line. 
^)oiu;n5e<xc, uneasy. 

, a door ; vid. bo/KXp 
, a bush, bramble, or thorn ; 
also a thicket ; hence bor signi- 
fies, figuratively, a thick body of 

, froth or scum. 
jin, a little bush or bramble ; 
<x me<x^5 no. nbo^&n, amongst 
the bushes ; <x nbo^-ano.;b, in 

, to him, anciently written 

, unsearchable. 


, a romance. 
, troublesome, difficult. 
, obstinate. 
, unsearchable. 

stubborn, intract- 

, or bob, to tliee, to thy ; i. e. 
bo cu ; bot caojb, concerning 
thee, or on thy side. 
<!)6t<xb, singeing, scorching. 

i, a river ; botu<vt, idem. 

, a conduit-pipe. 
, hope, expectation. 
c, confident, hopeful. 
ib andbotcupvjm,to hope, 
trust, confide, or depend. 
t>o-te<x;z; <vjf, indocile. 
(Do-togta, rejected ; also hard to 

be reared. 

>/tab, a spot or stain. 
)n<x<xcma, a dram. 
, fire. 
, anger. 

.nn, a fire-shovel. 
, the lesser bear-star, i. e. 
the fiery-tail. 

, a flint; 
n, a dragon. 

);ta;c and b/iajj, a dragon ; Gr. 
, and Cat draco. 

, a thorn. 

, fuel. 


and b/t<x;nt, grinning ; 

, a hunch, or humpback. 

and b^<x;nt;m, to 


a sect of people, a commu- 
nity ; b^am baojne, any society 
of men. 

ftam, much, plenty. 
/^im<xbta;m, or b|t<xnil<x;m, to 
kick, spurn, stamp, tread, &c. 
- O/tatTKXjfC, a play, a comedy, or 
tragedy, any stage performance ; 
Lat. drama, and Gr. 
, to srin. 


, to mutter or grumble. 
and b/tanog, a rhj-me or 

O/iant: and b/t<xnncan, the snarling 

of a dog ; also grumbling. 
(D/tantranac, snarling, envious, 

grudging, complaining. 
(Dft<xo;, a druid, an augur, charmer, 

or magician ; bt<xo;ce n<x f)e;- 

jjpre, the wise men of Esypt ; 

plur. b^ao;ce, anciently written 

b/iuj and brtujbte in the plur. 
<Dfiao;be<i.cb and b/-iao;be<xcca, 

mas;ic, or sorcery ; properly the 

druidish form of worship and 


, thorns. 
50 b/tfy-b<x, hactenus, hi- 


^e, a sled. 

, a wren ; vid. b^ean. 

, a statuary. 
or b;ijuc, the figure or 

face of a person or thing; an 

image or portraiture, a statue ; 

Wei. drych, a looking-glass, the 

(Dnedcac, drawn, figured, deli- 

neated ; also fair, handsome, 


(3;te<xc<xb&n, a mould. 
O;te<J.c<xb, a portraiture. 
);teac<xm, to figure. 
)ftedc'b<x, a troop. 
b;teacb<xm, to signify. 
b/tecxc-^omplcvb, a platform, or 

ichnography, i. e. the represent- 

ing persons or deities by certain 

figures, or by words. 
b;te<xct, a poem; also a draught 

or pattern. 
b/teact, an article. 
)fte<xcta, weakness. 
)/te<xjab, advertisement. 
)/te<X3<xm, to fight, to wrangle, &c. ; 

also to certify or give notice. 
>;te<xm, a tribe or family; a band 

or company, a people, &c. ; 
, idem. 

2 A 


, fanatical, mad, fran- 

, madness, furiousness. 
c, perverse, foolish. 
O^e<MT)n<x;n), to rage or fret. 
(D/tean, bad, naught. 
Ofiean, a wren ; Wei. driubh. 
Ofie<xn, strife, debate, contention. 
>/ieo.n<nb, good. 
<D;te<xnb<x, repugnant, contrary, op- 


b/ieann, good. 

<D/iecinn, contention ; also grief or 
sorrow, pain ; g<xn b^ie<xnna, 
without dispute. 
O/te<xnn<xb, rashness. 
>jte<xnnam, to skirmish or en- 


)fie<vp<x;rte<xcb, or b/t<xp<xbo;^- 
eacb, a climbing, or clambering 

(Df<eap<xno, to creep. 
&pe&f, place, stead, turn ; t<xba;/t 

barn b/tecty-, give me a turn. 
O/teoy and b/ieoyoj, a briar or 

bramble ; plur. b^i^e<xc<x. 
O^ea^-co;ll, a thicket, or place 
full of brambles ; b/ie<xpY)un, 

cb, a tale or story. 
, three persons. 
, a space ; b/iejb^e 5 fjr>, 
a little while ago ; tr/ie^e, 

)/<e;m, an endeavour or attempt. 
)/ie;m;fle<xc, a gradation, or de- 


O^e;m;^e, a ladder. 
^)^e;m;^e-mu;^e, the herb cen- 

taury ; Lat. centaurium. 
)/ieo jam, to grow rotten, to rot ; 

also to wear out. 
(D/teoUan, a wren ; b/teotlan 
bu;b, a grasshopper. 

> news ; a tale or story. 
c, a tale-bearer. 
-b, a rehearsal or relation. 

l, prickly. 

and b/iojc, a dragon. 


the back; also a ridge of 
mountains. N. B. The old na- 
tives of Lybia called Mount At-' 
las by the name of Dyrim, ac- 
cording to Strabo, 1. 17, p. 645. 
/t;ob<x/i, gore, or corrupt matter ; 
also dregs, lees, or sediment ; 
b^Joba/t n<x gcobac, the dregs, 
or last of clowns. 
)/i;ob<x/ica, mixed with dregs. 
, to drop or distil. 
, to climb. 

and bft;/-le, b^leac, a 
briar or bramble ', plur. 


Corn, dreez, Wei. drey sin; the 
dimin. is b/tj^eoj, or bfij^teoj, 
b/ij^leoin, and bfijfjn. It is of 
the same literal construction as 
the Greek name of the oak-tree, 

id. bfiu;je<xn, infra. 
, a sparkle; plur. bjtjtte- 

, to sparkle, to shine. 

fo/tjuc, a beak or snout. 

b^ocdb, bo b^;uc <x polt <x 
^iab, his hair stood at an end as 
he spoke. Fid. Caithr. Toird. 

(D/tjucb, a standing at an end, as 
the hair of the head. 

)/i6, a mason's line. 

(D/tobtcty-xxc, miserable, pitiful. 

b^Oc, and in its inflexions bfio;c, 
denotes bad, evil ; b/to;c-t;on/"- 
jndm, a conspiracy, or evil ima- 
gination; b/to;c-jn;om, a trans- 
gression, or bad action ; b/iOjc- 
fjon, bad weather : in the Wei. 
drug is bad, and hin is weather, 
asdrykkin, bad weather; hence 
it signifies short, penurious, spar- 

>/iOc, right, straight, direct. 

>/iOc, a coach wheel. 

(Ityocab, or^b/to^cjob, a bridge; 
b^ioc<xb-aca, Drogheda, a well 
fortified town in the County of 

b r? 

Louth, on both sides the river 
Boyne, joined by a good bridge, 
seated near the mouth of the 
river, which brings up to it ships 
of great burthen. 

b/tdcAnpdty", mistrust, jealousy. 

(Dftocanpij/'ed.c, jealous. 

(Dfioc-bottan, a bad smell. 

(Dftocb, black, dark, obscure. 

bjtoc-jrocal, a malediction ; a bad 
character given of one. 

^oc-^ujbe, a bad prayer. 

(D/toc-mapbab, murder, treacherous 


<b;ioc-mu;nte, saucy, insolent 
Oftoc-te<xb, a bridge. 
)/iOc-tua;ft, an ill omen. 
b/toc-tuajtafjbctjl, an evil report. 
)fto;bel, hard, difficult. 
>/to;c-jn;om, mischief, a crime, 

or wicked act. 

O/tojc;m, to wrong or abuse, to do 

shortness of breath. 

-ieac, mistrust. 
>;t6;be<xcb, vid. bft<x6;beacb, sor- 
cery, divination, magic. 

jean, the deep, or depth ; go 

cnoc<x;b, to the fountains and 
depths that spring out of high 
grounds and hills. 

)/to; jne<xc, thorns. 

>;tO;ml;n, the dimin. of b<om<x;n. 

b/tol, a bay, a plait, a loop ; also 
a quirk, a stratagem. 

>/tolt<x, a pair of pot-hooks ; tyol, 

O/tOm, otherwise written b^u;m and 
brtjm, genit- bnoma and bfiujme, 
plur. brtomana and bnombd, the 
back, or back part of either man, 
beast, or any other object of the 
senses; Lat. dorsum, Gall, dos ; 
seems to be one of those original 
words that have been preserved 
in most of the languages of the 

posterity of Noah after the dis- 
persion of the different tribes 
descended from his children. It 
is natural to think that the con- 
fusion or alteration of the Ada- 
mic language purposed by God 
for effecting that separation, and 
thereby peopling the world, did 
not so universally affect all the 
words of that first language, that, 
absolutely speaking, none of 
them should be preserved, even 
as to their primary radical struc- 
ture, in different dialects formed 
by that confusion. The contrary 
appears in several words through- 
out the course of this Dictionary. 
This word bnom, when applied 
to the back of a man or woman, 
is understood to mean the higher 
part of the back towards the 
shoulders ; as appears by its 
being synonymous to IDU;T>, Lat. 
mons, which, in both the Irish 
and Welsh, signifies mount, hill. 
or more properly the summit of 
any rising ground; for we say 
either <x;/t mo mu;n, or <xj/t mo 
bftu;m, indifferently, to mean 
upon my back. The genitive 
case of this word is either b^u;me 
or b/toma, as cnam t>|tom<x, the 
back-bone. This same word, 
b^om or b;tu;m, signifies also the 
back or ridge, or summit of a 
hill or mountain, and especially 
of such hills as are extended in 
the manner of a ridge through a 
long tract, like the Pyrenean 
Mountains, which run in one 
continued chain from the ocean 
to the Mediterranean. This 
word bfiu;m, b/tom, or b/t;m, 
makes the name of several hills 
both in Ireland and in the Irish 
parts of Albany or Scotland ; 
and it has been observed above 
in the word bft;m, that the old 
inhabitants about Mount Atlas, 

b n 

'o n 

who were the Getulians, called 
that mountain by the name of 
Dyrim, as we are informed by 
Strabo, lib. 17, which is of the 
same radical structure with the 
Irish b/i;m ; and either Strabo 
or his copyists might have erro- 
neously thrown in the y after d. 
I strongly suspect that the 
word dromedarius. a kind of ca- 
<t_ mel with two high bunches on 
his back bone, might have been 
derived from this monosyllable 
bj-iom, because each of these 
bunches may be considered as a 
back or mount, and consequently 
these being the most remarkable 
badges of distinction in the frame 
of that animal, his name may 
very naturally be derived from 
the plural of the word b/tom, 
which is b;iomba, rather than 
from the Gr. Spo/uae, velocitas 
cursus, as imagined by Isidorus ; 
for camels, as well as elephants, 
are naturally sluggish and slow, 
and all the celerity that can be 
attributed to their march, pro- 
ceeds only from the length of 
their legs : in the same mecha- 
nical manner that the shepherds 
who stride away on the lands or 
wilds of Bordeaux upon tall 
stilts, on which they are raised 
about ten feet from the ground, 
go much faster by walking lei- 
surely on their stilts, than they 
possibly could by running on 
foot with their utmost speed. I 
also suspect that the word ca- 
mclus, meaning a common camel 
with only one bunch, or convex 
protuberance on his back, is de- 
rived from the Celtic mono- 
syllable c<xm, which in Irish 
Celtic means crooked, convex, 
bowed ; as in the words c<xm- 
bjiom<xc, crook-backed ; c<xm- 
vc, bow-legged ; 

n<xe, hawk-nosed, or eagle-nosed; 
Lat. nasi aquilini, from being 
bunched or raised in a convex 
manner on its back; Gall, ca- 
mus. And as the people of 
Lybia called Mount Atlas by 
the name of Drim, so it seems 
those of Egypt used the word 
drom to signify the summit or 
back of any mount or high 
ground: for I find in Strabo's 
description of Heliopolis, built, 
as he says, on a mount, in agger e 
ingenti, with a temple of the 
sun at the very summit, that a 
paved long square, raised ridge- 
way, which led into the temple, 
was called Dromus, according 
to Callimachus, cited by Strabo, 
lib. 17. It would be too tedious 
to name all the hills and high 
grounds that had their names 
from this word drom in Ireland 
and Scotland. Thus, 
);tom-;"<x;leac, was the old name 
of the hill of Armagh. <D/-iom- 
bamgojfte was anciently that of 
the hill now called Cnoctujnje, 
or Knocklong, in the County of 
Limerick. O/iom-pn;n is a long 
ridge of high ground extending 
from near Castlelyons, in the 
County of Cork, to the bay of 
Dungarvan, in the County of 
Waterford, interrupted only by 
the channel of the Blackwater, 
near (D/iom-<xn<x, the seat of Lord 
Grandison. (Dftom-ceat, a place 
where several of the princes and 
nobles of Ireland assembled in 
council soon after the middle of 
the sixth century. <D/iujm-<xlbar), 
otherwise called Ofia;b-alb<xn, 
by the Latin writers Dorsum 
Albanice, was the name of a long 
and high hill that separated the 
Northern Picts from the South- 
ern. This same word enters as 
a component part into the names 

or titles of some noble families 
of Scotland, Drommond, Drom- 
Lanery, &c. 

Mom-jul, or Dromgole in Eng- 
lish, the name of an ancient and j 
respectable family of the Scan- 
dinavians or Fin-Landers, who 
adventured into Ireland in the 
years 852, 853, according to all 
our annals. These Scandina- 
vians were afterwards the chief 
inhabitants of Dublin, and gave 
its name to a large territory near 
that city, which is still called 
Fingal. They continued in great 
power in these parts until the 
victorious monarch, Brien Bo- 
romhe, destroyed the greater 
part of them, and reduced the 
rest to a state of perfect depen- 
dance and subjection. Yet at 
the arrival of the English ad- 
venturers,, brought over by the 
king of Leinster, there were 
many respectable families of 
those old Easterlings in Dublin 
and Fingal, who by the com- 
bined forces of the king of Leins- 
ter and his English auxiliaries, 
were obliged in process of time 
to retire, for the most part, to 
their country seats in Leinster 
and Ulster. The Dromgole fa- 
mily had anciently acquired a 
considerable landed property in 
the County of Louth, on which 
they built the strong castle of 
Dromgole's town, which was the 
place of their residence until the 
unhappy and murdering times 
of Charles the First and the 
usurper Cromwell, when a party 
of the parliamentarian regicides, 
commanded by one Anthony 
Townsly, hanged M. Dromgole, 
of Dromgole's town, at his own 
gate. rid. A. Brief Account 
from the most authentic Protes- 
tant Writers, printed at London, 

an. 1747. 

, a drummer. 
, a dromedary. 
n, the back. 
)/iom<xna, renouncing or declaring 
against a thing or a person ; ex. 
cu;/ijro n<x b/tomano. le;^, I re- 
nounce to it, or to him. 
CD^omcta, a surface. 
)/tom<xo;ne<xc, idle. 
n, right, straight. 
, sure, steadfast. 
d, as <(o;b (D^ond, a territory 
in Leinster, anciently the estate 
of the O'Ryans. 
, direction. 
, a throne. 

, to affirm or avouch. 
>fioncfto;ct:e, perpendicular. 
>ftonbuan<xro, to stop or shut close. 
);tOn j, a band or company ; plur. 
b/ionjAjb, also a troop, multi- 
tude, or sect. 

an, the back. 

, fear. 

, a rafter; also a wain- 

Ofiotlo;^, a carpenter. 
)ftu<xb, a charmer or magician. 
>/tuat<x;m, to commit fornication. 
O/tub, a chariot. 
Oftub, a house or habitation. 
O/tuboj/i, . a cartwright, or coach- 


Oftucb, a hearing ; also a rising up. 
)/tucb and b/uicb<xfl, dew; Gr. 

(D/tuctd, be<x, i. e. joe and bl;0ct, 

prosperity in corn and cattle. 
Ofiuctu/i, whey. 

O/iuctjn monab, a sort of herb 
used in colouring hair. 
, an enclosure. 

, a slave or drudge. 
, a dark place or recess. 
, dew. 

7, a kind of reptile. 
(D/iu;b, a stare ; in the Welsh it is 
dridu, and in the Armoric dret. 

<D/iu;bjiT), to draw, also to shut; 
bo bfiujb led, he drew nigh to 

tyu;jean, pronounced b;iu;-ean, 
or bfij-en, in two syllables, sig- 
nifies the black-thorn bush ; its 
pronunciation, as well as its con- 
struction, is like the accusative 
case of the Greek word Spue, 
accus. Sptv, the oak-tree. 

<D/iu;m, the back, the ridge of a 
hill or houses; a nbfio;m, their 
backs ; jra bftujro, backwards, 
also the surface or outside of any 
thing ; b/iu;nr and bjyjm ; vid. 

<D/-iu;n, needle-work, embroidery; 
aj jro jlu;m bftu;ne agur beaj- 
taroa, learning to embroider; 
b;ty-e b/iu;ne, the pursuit of em- 

<D;iu;neac, an artist, one that works 
with the needle. 

(Djtujneaca^, practice in needle- 
work or embroidery; also artifice. 

Jdpujf, lust, one of the seven mor- 
tal sins which kill the soul. 

<D;tu;;-eac, a leacherous person. 

Oftuj^eamajl, leacherous, inconti- 
nent, unchaste, dissolute. 

(DrtuinWj to play the wanton. 

61 // 1 ' ill 
/iu;p.ann, a bawdy-house. 

(D/iuj-teoj/i, a fornicator. 
(Dfiuroa, a drum. 
<D/iumabo;/i, a drummer. 
(D/tun)cla, a house-top. 
(Dftunan, the back ; also the sum- 
mit of a hill, or other place. 

, id. qd. b/iooj. 
, leachery, fornication ; lucb- 

, whore- mongers. 
t, a harlot, or other unchaste 
person; Wei. drythyll, lasci- 
);<u, foolish. 
C^/iutd/ifiAnjtog, a bawd. 
)/tutt<xb;t<x;jiT), to blab out, or speak 

, a bawdy-house, 

, a fornicator. 
u, and buc, or bubac, ink. 

(Du, meet, just, proper, fit; also 
kind for> 

bu, a land or country ; also a vil- 
lage, also a habitation, or place 
of abode. 

)u<xc, a proper name of several 
ancient Irish princes. 

)uab, labour, hardship, difficulty. 

(Dudbaji, did eat. Gen. 14. 24. 
Matt. 13. 4. 

t)u<xbmu^, laborious, hard, difficult. 

)uab-ob<x;/i, a handicraft, hard 

)u<xe, a dwelling-house. 

)u<x;qn;u j<xb, to disfigure ; <jy 
;omba b/ie<xc <xobb<x ba bu<x;c- 
n;ujj<xb y^n cat ^-o, many a 
handsome face disfigured in this 
battle. FzW.C<xjc-^e;n)-CJ70;/i- 
be<xU>u;3, ad an. 1310. 

bu<x;b, or bu<xjr, evil. 

)u<xjl, v^- bu<xl. 

bu<xjte, propriety. 

)u<x;;ic, surly, stern, ill-humoured. 

t)u<x;/te;b, so often. 

(Dua}f, a reward, a present. 

(Dual, part or duty, office; also 
meet, just, proper ; ba/t bual e, 
to whom it belongeth, also kind 
for; bub bual bo fjn bo b<x- 
it was kind for him to do 


(Dual, a law, &c. 
(Dual, a fold, or ply of a cord. 
(Dual, a lock of hair. 
(Dualujbe, an engraver. 
(Dualujbea/', sculpture, engraving, 
(Dualam, to carve, or engrave. 
(Dualga;-, hire or wages, duty, &c. 
(Duaro, a city ; Brit, dinas. 
(Duan and buanoj, a rhyme or 

poem; and buanajje, or jrea/t 

bua;n, a rliymer or versificator. 
t>uana^tea^, a senator. 
(Duanc/iujteacb, policy ; bu<xn- 

jao;^", idem. 
(Dua^t, a word, or saying; also a 


6 U 

metre or verse consisting of four 


bub<x;ftt, an earnest prayer. 
bub, black, dark ; bub ; bbnn, a dark 

brown colour ; bub-beabac, hav- 

ing black teeth ; hence bub sig- 

nifies ink. 

bub, great, prodigious. 
bub<xc, a tub ; buba 

a tub of sweet milk; pronounced 


bub<xc, melancholy, sad, dejected. 
bubac, ink. 

bub<xcu;-, sadness, melancholy. 
bubaban, an ink-horn, or stand- 


bub<xb, mourning. 
bub<x;je;n, the deep; from bub 

and <x;jejn, ocean; bub<x;3e;n 

no, p4JW$e, the bottomless 

depths of the ocean; vid. <x;- 

bub<x;lce, vice, the opposite of 

yub<x;lce, virtue. 
bub<xll<xb, want. 
bubalta, doubtful, uncertain. 
buban, a hook, a snare ; le bub<x- 

n;b ;<jyj<x;;te<xct<j., with fish- 


buban, a kidney. 
bub<xn-alla, a spider. 
bub-co/M.6, the herb maidenhair. 
bubcujl, a beetle. 
bubjrocal, a word out of course, an 

(DubjOfimojm, to be black and 

bub-Loc'lonn<x;cc, the Danes, from 

Denmark; and the pjonn-Loc- 

lonn<vjcc, those from Norwegia. 
bubdj, a lake. 
t)ubfi<xb, to say; bubftdb, it was 

said ; m<x^o. bub<i;^c fe, as he 


)ublo;ce, melancholy. 
Oub-^nam<x;be, a diver; the bird 

called didapper. 

-, a house, room, or habita- 

tion, also a gloomy wood ; from 

bub and j\0f, a wood. 

)ub;"lcu), defiance. 

bub^^c.;t, foundation. 

bubtOjll, haemorrhoi, the swelling 
of the veins in the fundament. 

bubla, a sheath, case, or scabbard. 

)ubl<x; j;m, to double. 

)uc<jy, a visage, countenance. 

bucon, war, battle. 

bub, the ear. 

bub, or bujb, a tingling or noisy 
buzzing in the ear, proceeding 
from an obstruction whereby the 
air that is shut up, continually 
moved by the beating of the ar- 
teries and the drum of the ear, 
is lightly reverberated. 

buab;^e, a trumpeter. 

bub <x, chalybs, steel. 

buboj, a pat upon the ear, a little 
stroke on it. 

buboj, a measure of liquids con- 
taining a dram, commonly made 
of horn. 

buboj, a trumpet or horn pipe. 

bujbedl, quick, nimble, active. 

bu;bc;0f , tribute ; jro. bubc;o^, 

bujbcjbe, a duke. 

bu;be, darker, blacker. 

bujbe, blackness ; also ink. 

bu;be<3ic<xn<x;^e, depth. 

bu;be<xlt, switt or nimble. 

bujbe<x/tc<x, vernacular, or pecu- 
liar to a country. 

bujbelne<xc, a necromancer. 

bujbgeann, a sword, a dagger. 

bujbgejnte, the Danes, i. e. the 
black nations. 

bujbjljar, the spleen. 

bu;bte<xb, a doublet. 

bu;f <xm, orb; j;m, to cluck as a hen, 

bu;l, an element ; n<x ce;t^e bul- 
te, the four elements ; also a 

bujt, delight, desire. 

bu;l, partition or distribution. 

t, anxious, sad, melancholy. 


Ou;le and bu;lejn, a leaf, a fold. 
Ou;le<xro, God, because Creator of 

all things. 
Ou;te<MTi<x;rt, God. 
Ou;learr)anacb, the Godhead. 
Oujleamantoi, of or belonging to 

the Godhead. 
Ou;le6^<x, folding doors, the leaves 

of a door, or the leaves of trees. 
Oujljne, wages, hire. 
Oujl;m, to take pleasure or de- 

light ; bujlj j me, I desired, or I 

found pleasure in. 
On; tie, a green bough or leaf; 

also the leaf of a book. 
Ou;Ue<xb<x/i, leaves, a leaf of a 


Ou;le<xb<Xfi<xc, full of leaves. 
Ou;lle<n.can, a book, or the leaf of 

a book. 

>u;tle<xn, a spear. 
Oujleog and bu;lean, diminut. of 

bu;lle, leaf, either of a tree or 

book ; also the fold of a door ; 

Wei. deilen. 

OujUeojac, leafy, full of leaves. 
Ou;tteu;/i, of or belonging to 

OujUJjjm, to bear or bring forth 

leaves, to bud, to spring. 
(Dujllrojol, a caterpillar ; Lat. con- 


(Du;ro, poor, needy, necessitous. 
Ou;ne, a man, either the male or 

female sex : it is a general name 

for man, like the Lat. homo ; its 

root is the same with the Greek 

verb Swa/uuti, possum; vid. j:e<Xfi 

and pjfl, infra, Wei. dyn, C. 

Den, Ar. den, Ger. daen and 

diener, a servant, and Cantarbr. 

duenean, idem. 
Ou;ne<xb<xb, manslaughter ; j<xc 

olc r/ pxn bpman ;b;/i jreall 

Ou;nn, to us, i. e. bo ;nn or 
Oujnoj/tcncac, an assassin or mur- 
derer ; <xb bea/it f)<\l ptju i c;<x 
bon b;^* yeo jf |:e<x/i/i t;b bo 


, <xn e 6 
no <xn e 

an oak-tree ; hence the let- 
ter (D is called Oajp ; Wei. and 
Cor. Dar. 
l/tc, rude, rugged, surly; vid. 

, a wood or grove of oaks. 
, stupidity, insensibility, Lat. 
duritieg, also obstinacy ; ex. bo 
b buie no. 

<xn UfiroOft, such was the obsti- 
nacy of the battle, &c. Vid. 
Cdjc/tejiD Cbojftbectlbajj, ad 
an. 1318. 

a crow. 

, a precious present or favour, 
hence a jewel. 

, a sanctuary. 
, a spout. 

, a client. 

, awaked ; bu;^-; jte, zWem. 
dbu^-j<xm, to awake. 
, to awake, to rouse up. 
, unto thee, i. e. bo tu ; bu;t- 
^e, idem. 

>ujtb<vj/-t, deformed, ugly ; also 
dark, gloomy. 

na bojbce, the morning. 
, a snare or trap ; also a fishing 
with nets. 
Oal, the terraqueous globe. 
, a satyrist. 

, to go; bo but ta/t, to pass 
over; bo but a mu j<x, to be lost ; 
but <x/t <x n<xj<x;b, to proceed. 

a pin or peg. 
Outb<x;;t, doleful, unpleasant. 
>ulc<vr)<xc, dirty, miserly, pitiful. 
)ulc<xn and bulc<x^<xcb, avarice, 

^)uttaob, a page. 
OUITXX, a place of gaming, as burria 

Oun, a strong or fortified house, a v 
fortress, or fastness ; a habitation ' 
built on a hill or mount, such a 

6 u 


position being generally the fit- 
test for defence; but the true 
meaning of this word in Irish is 
a strong and well barricaded ha- 
bitation, as appears from our 
having no other verb, at least in 
common use, to signify the act 
of shutting or making fast, but 
bunci;m, which in its second per- 
son singular of the imperative 
mood makes bun, Lat. clattde, 
occlude. Tills monosyllable is 
one of those primitive and prin- 
cipal words that have been pre- 
served in various different lan- 
guages. (Dun was in common 
use in the Celtic of Gaul, and 
gave name to several places or 
habitations, as Lugdunum Au- 
vustodunum, &c. We find the 
same word used in the same 
sense in the Cantabrian or old 
Spanish ; the Anglo-Saxon wr>rd 
town is of the same structure 
and meaning. It appears by the 
very name of the capital of Bri- 
tain, I mean London, called both 
Londunum and Londhu/m by 
the Romans, that the old Britons 
had the word dun in their lan- 
guage. The name of that fa- 
mous town is constructed of 
long, which in old Celtic signi- 
fies a ship, and bun or b;n : for 
in our old Irish the two writings 
are used indifferently, (uid. b;n,) 
the compound of which signifies 
a town or station for ships. The 
names of a great part of the an- 
cient strong habitations of the 
old Irish begin with the word 

i, now Wick- 
low; (Dun-cea^mna, now the 
old Head of Kinsale; (Dun- 
jlaj;te, a regal house near Sl;a5 
CO;;-, in Munster; (Dun-Cljac, 
another royal house near Knoc- 
aine, in the County of Limerick ; 
(Dun-C/i;omta;n, the palace of 

an Irish king near the hill of 
Howth; (Dun-jftot, one of tho 
regal houses of Munster near 
the Gailty-hill ; (D~/n-b<x Leatr- 
jla^, now Down, a bishop's see 
in Ulster, the bury ing-place of 
St. Patrick, S. Columcille, and 
St. Bridget; Oun-Ou'cljne, au 
ancient name of Dublin, literally 
signifying the castle of the Black 
Pool, the water of the river 
LifFey being very black towards 
the harbour ; (Dunn a Seab, Bal- 
timore, &C. 
The old Irish had four sorts 

of habitations, viz. 1. , 

city; '2 3 . Odjte, a town; Lat. 
villa, called also Odjlle CTDo/t, it' 
a large town ; 3. (Dun, a strong 
or fortified habitation ; 4 n - Oj\uj- 
jenn, otherwise called 0;tuj. 
i "i/l. Cor-Aj't and O/iu; jean and 
0/tuj, supra, where it is re- 
marked that those words are or 
were preserved in different other 
old languages in the same sense, 
and in the same radical struc- 

cDunab, a house, a habitation ; also 
a camp. 

(Djnab, a multitude. 

<Duna;m, to shut up, to close toge- 
ther, to join ; n] pejb;,* <x bunab, 
it cannot be shut. 

^)un-a^ta^, a habitation. 

Oan-ljOf, a palace. 

(Dun-manbvXb, homicide, man- 

<bun-ma/tbt:ac, a manslayer. 

Ounn, a doctor or teacher. 

(Du;t, stupid, dull ; bujne bu/t, a 
blockhead ; also hard ; Lat. d ti- 
nts . 

(Duft and buOfi, water, June buplu/~, 
watergrass, or water-cresses ; 
Gr. v$&p. 

Ou/ta;n, affable. 

t>ufta^, a house or room. 

>u;tb. a distemper or disease. 


b U 

b u 

bu/in, a fist, a hand; Ian buj/in,. a 

bu/itrac, a temple. 

bu^ceac, a cell, a pilgrim's hut, 
or cabin ; bu;tt:e<xc b;t/ieab<vjc 
naomc<x, the holy anchoret's 
cell, & c . 

bu;-tur)t<x, rigid, morose. 

bu/*, in order to, that, to the end 
that ; jo Jibeac<x;nn bon c<xta;fi 
bu^ <x bpa ja;n ne<xc bu m<x b<vjl 
n^b bom e<xl<xjb;n, till I. go to 
the city, to the end that I may 
there find some person who may 
want my goods. 

a fort; bu^-^.;t, a place of 
refuge, or safety. 

bu/-<x;ta, a client. 

and t>uf&f, watchfulness. 
I, a woman-client. 

a calling, appellation, 
c, a client. 

nature, or the place of 
one's birth. 
but<xca/t otlanKXntd, fee farm, 


but<x;b, a land, a country, 
butamajl, of a good family, 
butctx, genuine, 
butca^ac, an inhabitant ; one 

from the same country, 
butftacb, diligence, kindness. 
but/t<xcbac, diligent, urgent, kind, 


C is the fifth letter of the Irish alphabet, and the second of the five 
vowels, of the denomination of caol, or small vowels ; it is sometimes short 
and sometimes long, and thus answers the Greek E and rj, as Capelles in- 
geniously observes of the Latin : E vocalis, says he, duarum Grcecarum 
vim possidet, nam cum corripttur, E est, cum producitur r\ est. It is in 
Irish called Cab<x, or Caba, from eaba, the aspen-tree ; Lat. tremula ; 
which is commonly called C/t<xnnC|ijo<xc, and is not unlike the name of 
the Greek vowel rj, and the Heb. n. It is commutable only with ), and 
is very often, but especially in ancient manuscripts, written and used for ) 
indifferently ; and we find this indifference common to the Latins, as Dii 
lor Dei, fieri for here, vespere and vesperi, cinis and ciner, impubes and 
irnpubis, omnis for omnea, from decem is formed undecim, from emo, 
premo, is formed redimo and comprimo. C is the prajpositive vowel in 
the five diphthongs and triphthongs, called na cujj beabba, or he<xb<xb, 
or the five eph thongs, viz. ea, eo, eo;, eu, e;, and of these the Hebrews 
have eu, as Heb. 'plpttf ; but the Gr. and Lat. have both EU and ei, as 
Lat. heu, hei, and Gr. tu, Ivat. bene, Gr. e<Sa>, Lat. video, &c. 

e and e<xb, are negatives in Irish, 

as e-bejmjn, uncertain. 
C and j-e, he, it ; c 70. be, who is 

he ? rf) be fO, it is not this. 
C, an interjection importing grief; 

e cf 

Lat. hei. 

e<xb<x;i and e<xb<x/i, mud, mire, &c. 
Ccxbab, the aspen-tree ; hence the 

name of tl 10 leller 6. 

.b, the Hebrew tongue ; Cd- 

b;ta.;;r, the same. 
Cab/tabac, a Hebrew, one of the 

Hebre\v nation. 
Cab/tab, iron. 
C<xb/iOn, a pan, a chaldron. 
Cabu/t, ivory ; Lat. ebur. 

Caccea^tt, iniquity, injustice. 

Caccomlan, injustice, oppression. 

Caccomla;m, to omit. 

Cacco/iac, mad, doting, absurd. 

Cacconn, rage, madness, want of 

Caccon, or eajcon bujne, a silly, 
foolish man : for cc, or double c, 
is pronounced always like . 

Caccoj-j, the face or countenance. 

Caccoj-j, a degree. 

Cacco^-j, a framing or building. 

Caccopi)u;l, unlike. 

Cacco^mu;le and -leacb, dispa- 

Cac, ahorse; Lat. equus; in the 
genit. sing, and nom. plur. it is 
e;c ; eac-co;ml;onja, a drome- 

Cac, any. 

Cacac, having many horses. 

Cacac, -cfojb Cacac, a barony in 
the west of Carbury, in the 
County of Cork, the ancient es- 
tate of the O'Mahonys. 

Cacb and eact, a condition, &c. ; 
vid. act; also or, either, unless. 

Cacba, clean, pure, neat, decent. 

Cacbarn, to do, to act. 

Caclac, a servant, a post-boy, 
news-carrier; also a soldier's- 
boy, a knapsack-boy, a sarson. 

Caclafj, a rod, a whip to drive a 
horse; from eac, a horse, and 
l<ty~g, a lash. 

Cacmac and eacmonj, to happen 
or fall out; as eacroac bujne 
b;ob fjn 50 ftojnn bon beaj b;a 
bo bjob aco p^ja, a man of them 
happened to be there, who dis- 
tributed part of their small pro- 
vision among them; eacmonj | 
t/ta )n a/to;le b<x;mpjt cat ;b;;t j 

f)j/icanu;- A^U;- 71; j no. f)a/ta- 
b;a, at another time a battle 
happened between Hircanusancl 
the king of Arabia. L. B. 

Caen 0.6, blasphemy ; jy polluf 
ju/t /to cualaba;/t <\nojf an 
eacnac, mine and is t Is blasphe- 
miam. L. B. 

Cac/tab, horses. 

Cac/ia.;/-, rowing. 

Cacfiajf , a fair. 

Cact, an accident that moves sor- 
row or compassion ; &f mo/i an 
teact tujtjm Ua^j, Thady's 
fall is a great cause of sorrow. 

Cact, an achievement, feat, ex- 
ploit ; ex. jrea/t eactra, a brave 

Cact, a condition. 

Cactama;l, conditional ; also hav- 
ing great performance. 

Cact/tab, an adventure, or adven- 
turous uncertainly; no;n;c <x/~ 
fea/t/t eact/tab no. a;/t;jte, 

Cactftan and eact/tannac, a fo- 

Cotr/toca};t, a prey or spoil ; also 

Cact:jtoca;/teac, merciless : but 
more commonly and properly 

C ab, is one of the ten negatives of 
the Irish in compound words, as 
eab-ttajt, eab-clarac, undaunt- 
ed, intrepid : these ten negatives 
are in the followin Irish verse: 

I O / * > o^ / 7 

C, eab bo, b;, n; bo/tb b;mea/-. 
Jnj, mj, n; mob cejlge. 
t)e;c nbjaltab na 3^J^jls e - 

Cab, jealousy, also zeal ; genit. 
eaba ; bean eaba, a jealous wo- 

Cab, eut, obloquy, reproach. 

Cabac, clotlies, raiment ; eabac 
^tojn, sackcloth. 

Cabojjjm, to clothe, to cover. 

Cabajl, profit, advantage ; vid. 


Cabajlleac, an Italian. 

Cabajngean, weak, not strong. 

Cabajngneact, weakness. 

Caba;/te, a jealous lover. 

Cabajpimea;-, the art of invention. 

Cabal, or eaba;l, gain, profit; also 
a prey, spoil, or booty. 

Cabalac, profitable. 

Caban, the forehead ; a/t meaban, 
on my forehead. 

Cabanan and eabnan, a frontlet. 

C aba/1 ja;/te, corrupted from ea- 
ba/t-^ga^/te, divorce, or separa- 
tion. Note that ea without a 
long stroke over it, as in this 
word, is pronounced like a, but 
with that sign over it, sounds 
like ai in the English words 
maid, laid, or as a in the words 
trade, made, &c. 

Caba/igna, ingenuity. 

Caba/tjna;m, to know, to distin- 

Caba/tju;be supplication, inter- 
cession; eaba/t jujbe na naom, 
the intercession of saints. 

Caba/tnajb, fraud, malice, deceit ; 
also an ambuscade; ;to jrag ea- 
ba/tna;be ;nn gac bealtac 6 
f)n 50 treamcxj/t, i. e. he left 
men in ambuscade on every road 
from thence to Tara. L. B. 

Caba/t^-gajn, an interposer. 

Caba/tta, noon, or dinner-time. 
This word I judge should be 
rather eaca/tta, i. e. between 
two ; as the sun is at noon ex- 
actly midway between east and 

Cab-bo j/tj-jjjm, to naturalize. 

Cab-bojmjn, shallow. 

Cab-botca;-, despair. 

eab-bot:c{X^<xc, despairing, 

Cab-botc<fy-<\;ro, to despair, to be 
out of hopes. 

ulang, intolerable ; also im- 



, time, opportunity, season ; 

jan eoiba, without time. 
Cab, yea, yes; n; beab, no* so, 

Cabab, an aspen-tree; also the 

name of the <xe, and the diph- 

thong ea ; eabab. 
Gabon, namely, to wit. 
Cabma/t, jealous. 
Cabma;/ie and eabma;/ieact, jea- 

Cdbmeobanac, immediate ; and 

e;b;;imeobanac, mediate. 
Cabo;bj j;m, to despair, be out of 

Cabotrca^*, despair; vid. eab-bot- 

Cabjt and eaba/i, in compound 

words is the same with ;b;/-i, be- y- 

twixt, between ; Lat. inter. 
Cab/iab, between thee, i. e. eaba/t 

"ca ; eabfiatn, between me, i. e. 

eaba/t me ; eab;tu;n/i, between 

us, i. e. eaba/t jnn, no f)nn; ' 

eab/tu^b, betwixt you, i. e. ea- 

ba/t ;b, or ;b. 
Cab/tocb, plain, manifest. 
Cab-ta;/t;^;occ, alienation, ill- 

Cab-tlajt and eab-tlatac, coura- 

geous, strong, undaunted, in- 

Cab-t/ieoj/t, imbecility; also ir- 

Cab-r/teo/tac, ignorant of the way : 

also weak. 
Cab-t/tono, light, brisk, nimble ; 

also giddy. 
Cab-t/tomacan,eab-t/tomu jab and 

eab-t/tu;roe, lightness, ease, com- 

fort, riddance. 
Cab-tr/toman, a bladder: pronounc- 

ed eab/toman. 
Cab-tualanj, incapable, unable; 

a^* eab-tualanj me a/t <x pu- 

lanj, I am^not able to bear it. 
Cab-u/tlab/tab, a solecism. 
Cab-u/tcam, of old. 
Caj, is one of the Irish negatives, 

as ear-c/tuoy, sickness; cCvj- 

coj/t, injustice. 

Caj, i. e. ecyja, the moon. 

eCv, death. 

- Caja, ice; l;ce edja, flakes of 

Caj<xc, deep. 

, to die, to perish. 
?, ((Dac-C<XT<&jn,) a family- 
name, whereof I find four diffe- 
rent septs, two in Connaught, 
i. e. one in Breiffne, whose lord- 
ship was the district called 
Q<v/n j:e<X)t<x:r>uj je, and the other 
in Conmojcne, or Sjol-<xn<xm- 
cu;be, who was toparch of Clcijn- 
bjanmaba, in the principality of 
O'OOcxbagajn, or O'CDabjn ; ano- 
ther GOac-eagdp. who is other- 
wise written O'QeagCxjn, was 
one of the eight toparchs de- 
riving under O'Carol in the 
country called C}le ; C/jeanbujl 
or Elia Carolina, now partly in 
the King's County and partly in 
Lower Ormond, in that of Tip- 
perary; and the fourth sept of 
the Mac-Eagains were dispers- 
ed through the Counties of Cork 
and Kerry, the chiefs of which 
were hereditary judges of the 
courts of Brehon-laws under the 
jurisdiction of the Mac Carty- 
Mores, kings of Desmond. A 
gentleman of this family of the 
Mac-Eagains, by name Oaoclac 
or boetjaf GOac-Cajan, was the 
Roman Catholic Bishop of Ross- 
Carbury, in the reign of King 
Charles I. of England, who 
having engaged himself with a 
partyjsf the confederated Roman 
Catholics, as their spiritual di- 
rector, in an expedition tending 
to relieve the town of Clonmel, 
and being taken prisoner of war 
by Lord Orrery, was immediate- 
ly, and without examination or 
trial, ordered to be hanged like 

a common malefactor ; contrary 
to the laws of war, of nations. 
and of common humanity. 

, a bottom ; hence poll bub- 
<x;ge;n, or bub-eagajn, an abyss. 

i, order; bo cu^i fe <x nea- 

, he put in order. 
to set in order. 

a carron. 

, a sick or dying groan, 
or plaint ; from e<\j, death, and 
plaint or moan. 
a sounding line. 
, falsehood, injustice ; also 

vgco^z;, a face, form, figure, or 

g-c/iucvjb, sick, weak, feeble : 
more properly in the literal ex- 
plication it means, not firm ; Lat. 

, infirmity, sickness. 
b, unfit, improper. 
el, fear, dread, apprehension ; 
eagta 30, lest that. 
C<xjlac, fearful, timorous. 
CtAgl^m, to fear ; also to frighten, 
or deter, to affright ; bo eaglo.;- 
be<xb<xn jo mo/t, they were ex- 
ceedingly afraid. 

Cagta;^, the church ; Wei. egluys, 
Lat. ecclesia, and Gr. tKK\i]ma, 
gen. ecvjajl^e, or e<xgl<x;^e. 

7-e<xc, of or belonging to 
the church, a churchman, or 

becoming a clergyman. 

C<xjlan, a biting. 

, ecclesiastical. 

without ; 
la; me, without a hand. 

, reputation, fame. 

very great ; g;tab 
c, very great love. 
Co.gro;n, about ; circa. 

a, prudence, wisdom ; rid. 

wise, prudent,, discreet; 

e rf 

and eagnojbe, a philosopher. 

Cajnac, or eacnac, blasphemy; 
bo ]\jnn an f ea/t ub eacnac, bo 
;tab <xn ^aga/it, ;^ jrollu^ 50 ;to 
cu<\U<xb<x;^i <x noy-a an eacnac, 
bo jrfieaja;/! na Juba; j, jf bj- 
obba ba;;r~ bu;nn e, that man has 
been guilty of blasphemy, said 
the priest, it is evident that you 
have heard now the blasphemy ; 
the Jews answered, he is our 
mortal enemy, or an enemy who 
deserves death; 5 bo conaj/ic an 
naom <xn fl) j ag eacnac Qvjoj-b, 
<xgu/" aj ab/tab beaman, when 
the saint (Patrick) saw the king 
blaspheme Christ and adore de- 
mons, &c. Leaba/t b/teac. 

Cagnac, a complaint, also resent- 
ment, also a cause of grief and 
sorrow; as prnba Cagnac a;/i 

C<xgn<x;be, a wise man, a philoso- 

pher. p 
Cajrxxjbjm, to complain, to ac- 

C<xjna;^c, querulous, full of com- 

plaints; nj/i bu e<xjna;/tc, n;/i 

bu ealc, non querula neque ma- 

levola erat. 

, love; a/i eagrxxj/ic <x 
, propter amoremfilii ; vid. 

Brogan in Vita Brigidae ; writ- 

ten indifferently eujnaj/tc, or 

, a mediator. 
bjm, to set in order. 
Cag;tuab, impotent. 
Caj-^<X(T)u;l, singular, matchless; 
from eag, wow, and ^-<xmu;l, si- 

Caj^-amajl, strange, surprising, ex- 
traordinary ; also various, di- 
verse, mixed. 


strangeness, variety, diversity. 

to vary, to diversify. 
C&r<xmluT<xb, a varying or chang- 

U)g. ^ 

Cal, fainting; aj bul a neal, faint- 
ing; vid. neal. 

Cala, a swan. 

Calab and ealaban, learning, skill, 
knowledge; also an art or sci- 

Calabanta, artificial, curious, in- 

Cala;b;m, to stalk ; also to steal 
away, to desert, &c. 

Calajbteac, a revolter, or deserter, 
one that sneaks ofi^ or steals 

Calanj, a fault, or flaw. 

Cala/t, salt. 

CalBa, a herd, or drove. 

Calc, malicious, spiteful, envious, 
&c. ; r?;/< bu eajna;^c, n;/i bu 
ealc, non erat querula, non ma- 
levola. Brogan in Vit. Brigid. 

Calcma/i, envious, spiteful ; also 
lazy, sluggish. 

Calg, noble, excellent ; hence Jnjf 
Calga, a name of Ireland. 

Calojab and ealujab, sneaking, 
stealing away. 

Cal;uj;m, to sneak off, to steal 
away; as bo ealu;jeaba/t bon 
cat/ta^;j, they got by stealth 
into the city. 

Call, a trial, a proof, or essay. 

Callaba;/t, a vast number, a great 

Callac, a hearth ; a/t an teall<\c, 
upon the hearth. 

Callac, a burden, or load. 

Callac, cattle of any kind. 

Callac, an artful trick. 

Callac, a battle. 

Calla;je, household stuft^ furni- 

Callam, wonder, astonishment. 

Callam, cattle given by way of a 

Cal^cab, coziness. 

Calta, repentance. 

Calra, a flock, herd, drove, trip, 
rout, pace, &c. ; ex. ealca ean, 

e <f 

a flock of birds ; ecvlcci mac, 
a herd of swine; e<xltd b<\m, 
a drove of bullocks ; e<xltr<x 50.- 
bd/t, a trip of goats; e<itt<i ma- 
bu;be tillta, a rout of wolves ; 
ealra xx^yajl, a pace of asses ; 
also a tribe or family, as e<ilta 

ealta nrn/tc<xc, a troop of the ca- 
valry ; a;t;b b;n-e<xltac, places 
resounding with the melody of 
birds ; 

Caltajbe, white. 

Cattjn, a razor. 

Caman, the principal regal house 
of Ulster, anciently the seat of 
the Ruderician kings of Ulster. 

Camojn, double; and e<xmanta, 
the same. 

eama;n/-e, wisdom. 

Camp<x;b, a kind of stone. 

Ccin, eun, and en, a bird, a fowl ; 
e<xn pon, an osprey. 

Can and an, water. 

Can, any ; <x^t ecin-co/t, in anywise, 
at all, in the least ; <v^ g<xc ean 
cOft, by all means; rid. <xon. 

Canbo., a simple in physical drugs. 

e<xng, a year. 

Ccinj, a track or footstep. 

Cannae, a fishing net ; also a chain 
of nets, such as is used for 
salmon and herrings. 

C<xn j<vc, a babbler. 

Cdn-jto/1, of one voice or speech. 
la, an anniversary feast. 
, a lining. 

", bad or weak drink with 
bread, as milk mixed with wa- 

, generosity, also dexte- 
rity at arms, prudence, &c. ; <i 
^e eangnam na Locl<xnn<xc bo 
majft S<xn ODojco^ib ycin, the 
dexterity of the Danes (at arms) 
was known to be inherited by 
that Moghchorb. Fid. Anncil. 
In nisf alien. 

, they advanced, or went 


Ccintujfteacb, fowling. 
Ctxnnec, innocent. 

, at once. 

, a nettle ; neantog, idem. 
, on purpose ; also in one 
bulk; be<inco;^5 is the usual 
Ccin-t:6;tt:, of any manner or sort. 
C<xn-ua;/ie, one hour ; pe<x/t-eci- 
nu<x;/te, a way-taring man that 
stays not above an hour in a 
C<xni/c, a eunuch. 

b, an unity. 
, a head. 

, fear, mistrust. 
C<x/t<x;m, riding. 
C<X;t<xm, to refuse, to deny ; bea^KX- 

ba/t, they refused. 
C<X;t<x;^*, the end. 
C<x/tb, or pea/tbog, a roebuck. 

, to tell or relate ; 50 nbu- 
;ne<ic no. 7"<ij<x^c pie 
c;m cu ajp O;<x beo 
ea^bo. bujnn <xn tu C^tjo^t: 
C0<ic be, so that the high priest 
said unto Jesus, I conjure you 
by the living God to tell us if 
you are the Christ the Son of 
God. L. B. 

C<Xftb, an offer ; also command. 
Ca/tba., an occupation or employ- 
ment ; <x fe pa 7?eo.;tb<x bo, b;c 

^5 7 n 2W/\ e muc ^ Opb;lco ^; j 
bal-^1a/iu;be jn bjc/tetxb na 
ylejb'e, his occupation was herd- 
ing swine for Milco, king of 
Antrim, in the wilderness. 

Cobalt, a tail; bun <in ea/tb<x;l, 
the rump. 

to bid, or command ; 
also to rely or depend upon ; 
e<3ifiba;m ;t;oc, I depend upon 
/ic, speckled ; also red. 

, a cow. 

, a salmon. 

e rf 

e rf 

Ct\/ic, honey ; also a bee. 

Cciftc, a tax or tribute ; joe ea/ica, 

e/t;c, or kindred money. 
Ca/tc, Heaven. 

e<x/tc<xb and ea/tca;m, to fill ; 
ea/icbao;^ n<i ^lua;^, i. e. bo 
l;onabao;^" no. /-tua;g. 
C<x/ic<xm<x;l, sweet, pleasant, agree- 


C<Xficbat, coloured red. 
C a/tea; U, a prop, post, or pillar. 

jle, a barring and hinder- 

m, noble. 

, a lizard, an emmet. 
, a deficiency, an eclipse. 
c, a feast or solemnity. 
t, a piper, trumpeter. 
an aristocracy. 
a miserable state of 
Ca/igdjm, to build, to frame, or 

make up; Gr. cpyav, operari. 
C<x/vz;txb(Xb, to apprehend, or make 
prisoner ; ex. <xn tub^o/it; ;n- 
na/t e<xp5<xb<vb Jopx, the garden 
wherein Jesus was made prison- 
er. L. B. 

C<x/rj<x;/te, prohibition. 
6<Xfij<x;;i}m, to congi-atulate ; also 
to prohibit or forbid. 
i julan and eol/ijtan, a piper ; 
also noisy, clamorous. 
<x/ijna;b, magnificent, worthy, 

m, to prepare a feast. 
, conception, quickness of 

d/tlam, noble, august, grand ; 
hence Anglice, earl. 

and ea/ima;bea^a, gallop- 


, for opna, barley. 

/inac, or 
b, redemption. 
l, a part or share. 
C<x/mebe, to watch, to take care 
of; <XTU/- b;r~o ronn <XT 

ja (CDuJ/ie) 

n ^Jt)j\ bu^ <\n b|:ci- 
jnnte neac bcv mba;l n;b 
bom ealeab;n t<x^t ceann coba 
na ?)0;je <x nocc; stay here to 
wait on the Virgin (Mary) till I 
go to the city, where I may find 
some person who may give this 
night's lodging and entertain- 
ment to the Virgin in exchange 
for some thing which belongs to 
my trade. L. 13. 

6c.|i/i, and genit. e;/ift and ej/i/ie, 
the end or conclusion ; also the 
limit or boundary of a place ; 
bu;;ie <v nea/t <\ <xo;;-e, a man in 
the declension of his years; u 
nea/i/i na t;/ie, in the limits of 
the country. 

Ca/t/i, a champion ; Gr. rjpwc? Lat. , 
her os ; also noble, grand. 

c, the spring ; gen. ea/i- 

6a/t/io.b and ea/i;iu;be, wares or 
commodities, furniture, accou- 
trements, either personal or 

Ca/ifi<xb, a military suit, a complete 
armour ; hence the English word 

C<x/t/i<x;b;m, to spring. 
Ca/i/tajb, a mistake, a fault ; Lat. 
erratum; <x/t fOn <x e<x/i/-Ki;be, 
propter erratum. 

e<J./i/i<xjt:e<x/i, to be served or at- 

, a sickness, or disease ; bon 
cvb j:u<xj/i <x o; jeab, he died 
a natural death. 
C<x^<xj:n<xb, expulsion, banishment. 
6<-<xbro, expulsion, banishment. 
dispraise, disparage- 

, to make, or do. 
lci/i, or eoyamla;;t, an ex- 
ample, sample, or pattern. 
, a tail. 

a^<xontab, and, ea- 
, dissension, disagree- 

e rf 

ment; also disobedience. 

.6, disobedient, repug- 
nant, rebellious. 
Caraoncu jab, schism. 
Ca;-at, a cataract, a fall of water, 

a cascade. 
Ca^arib, idem. 

Caranb, a quarrel ; ea^a/tb bo 
5, to provoke a quarrel. 
7, a tumult. 

i, want, scarcity, defect, ab- 
sence, also vanity; ea^ba b/td- 
jab, the king's evil. 
Ca^'bcvj jjro, to want or lack. 
Ca;-!>djn, the kingdom of Spain. 
Ca;"bat, an apostle. Matt. 10. 2. 
Ca^balojb, absolution. 
Ca^-ba^tra, or ea^po^ta, vespers, 
or evening prayers. 

j, or ea^cop, a bishop. 
i, water, also old. 
a warning. 

a storm, a blusterous 
wind ; also a surprise. 

t, or eaj'gOft, shooting into 
ear, as the corn does when it be- 
gins to form an ear. 
orca/i, a fall ; ea^ca/t a. mbeal 
oea^tnan, to fall at entering a 
wide gap. 

ayca/ia, an adversary, an enemy ; 
from the particle ea^, one of 
the Irish negatives, and ca/ta, a 

?, dirh", filthy, nasty. 

x, satisfied. 

i, to die or depart this 
life ; fe bl;ajna aju^ ce;c^e 
jrjtjb ba ^-tan bo ]Dbjl;p an can 
/to ea^comla ja^r an ccojmbe, 
i. e. Philip was eighty- six years 
old when he departed this life 
to enjoy God. L. B. 
;, water. 

i, a cry, or proclama- 

Ca^conn, an old man, an elder. 
7, the moon. 

x, a cup, a drinking vessel, 


also a chaldron; a buba;/tc Jo- 

jt: bo cu/t a 

OenjAmjn, i. e. Joseph said to 
his house-steward, put my silver 
cup into the sacks of Benjamin. 
L. B. 

^cnab, walking, stepping, or 

, the moon, also ea^can ; 
rid. buajn j bubaja;n. 
a^jajb, easy, sensible; also nim- 
ble, active. 

a^ajne, a curse or malediction, 
a cursing. 

, a sound or noise. 
>, an eel; rectius 
, or ratlier ea^jcu, an eel ; 
from ea^, or ea/*j, water, and 
cu, hound, and may properly be 
called a water-hound. 
, confusion. 

and ea^najm, to climl) 
up, to ascend ; henee t);a^bajn 
Ca^jnab, Ascension-Thursday, 
so called anciently, but now it 
is commonly called (Dja/tbap 
(Dea^-gabala, signifying the 
Thursday on which Christ sat 
on the right hand of God. 

a wave. 

be, conspicuous, remarkable. 
b/ta, bounty, courtesy, affa- 

and ea^lajnte, a dis- 
ease ; also infirmity or unhealthi- 

lan, sick, infirm. 
Ca^loc, a lake, or pool, &c. 
j, a lath or spar. 
l, a reproach, or reproof. 

ceac, a reproaching or chiding 

Ca^nab and ea^nam, a want of 

web enough for the loom. 
eap?ab. music ; also a song, or 

any melody. 
Caroab. time. 

2 c 

;, a weasel. 
7, a welcome. 

or ea^ojmojb, dis- 
respect, dishonour. 
C<X7"Omojbeo.c, disrespectful, dis- 

G<\f-0noji\, dishonour, abuse. 
C<ty-ono;;ie<xc, abusive, unmanner- 

ly ' ' 1 
c, rude. 

>, disorder, confusion. 
7, contrition. 
}, to hurt or offend. 

squeezing or crush- 

C<x;~;pu;z;-fpe<x;n, the herb ox-eye- 
daisy ; Lat. bettis major. 
eo.^/tanna;c, the world. 
C<x/7i<xo;/te, loose. 
C<ty";iimb, a famous cataract of the 
river Earn, now called the Sal- 
mon's Leap, which divides the 
County of Donegal from that of 
Leitrim Vid. As. 
it, health. 

j, extraction. 
i, to scum or skim. 
I, disobedient. 

and ea^-uml<xcb, dis- 
obedience, obstinacy. 
<ty--u^jiub<y, presumption. 
C<x^-u/i/vm<xc, disrespectful, stub- 
born ; also a rebel or revolter. 

rebellion, disobedience. 
6<xc<x, old, ancient ; 65 

young and old; Gr. trog, i. e. 

annus, and Lat. cetas. 
Catac, i. e. ^-e<xno;/i, an elder, or 

an aged person. 
C<xtal, pleasure, delight ; ay ea- 

t<xl team, I am well pleased. 
C<xt;<xt and eoic<v.l<xb, flight. 
C<xt<xl, the world. 
Catcv, gone, sent. 
Cet<Xfi, a ship. 
C<xtt<x, prayers or supplications; 

e\. bo ;t;nne Stxmtvb CJ;jd/<a;n 
cum t);<x JTKI <x tt;r<xb 

ylan b^ njOnnc<x;B, the convent 
or religious community of Kie- 
ran offered up their supplications 
to God for their safe return. 
C<xtkn, sadness, dullness. 
C<xtl<x;m, to fly ; bo e<j.c<x^l) jjoba/i 
7"<xn mu;/i, they flew into the sea; 
Lat. attollo. 
e<xto/tft<x, between them, amongst 


e<xt^dc<xc, late. 
Cat/toman, a bladder. 
e<xt/iu;me, lighter ; also lightness; 
vid. eab-t/tom. 

, cruelty, no mercy. 

c, unmerciful. 
, light, swift. 

to relieve, to make 

Cbe;/tc, or ebj^ic, topography. 
6B<xb, the aspen-tree ; also the 
name of the letter 6. 
, to spring off or on. 
e<xb, a skipping or leaping. 
or ebleoj^ a hot coal or 
ember; ebloj bea/tj, red hot 

, a kettle, or chaldron. 
etui, or <xo;beo.l, a coal of fire ; 

dim. ebloj, supra. 
Cccntxc, reproof, or reprehension. 
Cccn<x;fic, the time past. 
eccrxvjfic, a prayer or interces- 


eccoj-g, model, shape, or appear- 

c, spiteful, unfaithful. 
, enmity, hatred, spite. 
Cce, clear, evident, manifest ; ece 

<xn t<vl<xm, the land is in sight; 

Lat. ecce. 

Ccn<x, eating, spending. 
Ccfjbe, apparent, manifest. 
6b, jealousy. 

b, gain, profit, advantage. 
Cb, to take, to receive, to handle. 
Cb, defence, protection. 
6b, or e;b, cattle. 
Cbao; j, uncertain. 

e i 

bb/te;nvjm, to catch at. 

Cbean, a receptacle. 

Cbedrtb, false, uncertain. 

be; jneac, gelded. 

Cbel, prayers, or orations. 

Cbon and e<xbon, to wit, namely, 

that is. 

Cb;b, ugly, deformed. 
eb;m, to catch, to apprehend. 
Cb;ne, hostages. 
Cbjjigtjmjm, to endure, to suffer. 
ebjnmeobanco;^ a mediator. 
Cbma/t, jealous. 

Cfreact, effect, also consequence. 
Cjceanr, iniquity, injustice. 

ldjb, absurd, silly, foolish. 

ac, an Egyptian. 

, defect, lack, want. 

, to sparkle. 
C;bt;t, an interjection. 
C;b, tribute, tax, or subsidy. 
C;b-b; jbe, ingratitude ; from e<xb, 
negat. and b;jbe, gratitude ; rid. 

C;be and e;be<xb, cloth, apparel, 
raiment, also an armour ; go 
n;om<xb onconn, eac, <xju^- ejbe, 
with many colours or flags, 
horses, and armours; cujft Opt 
trejbe, put on thy brigandine. 

C;be<xb and ejbjm, to dress, to at- 
tire ; e;beoct<XK e, he shall be 
attired; bo ejb;j Saul (Da;b;, 
Saul armed David. 

C)be<xb<xc, harnessed. 

CjbeAribca, dissolute, loose ;baO;ne 
ejbea/ibta, reprobates. 

ejbe<x^-c<x^<xm, to scatter or dis- 

jbe<j.n and genit. ejbne, ivy; 
dimin. ejbnean. 

Cjb^e<\c, full of ivy ; Lat. liedero- 
sus ; hence Clu<xjn h)ejbne<xc, 
in the south of Leinster, which 
in St. Fintan's life is interpreted 
Latibulum Hcederosum. 

Cjbeanan, the dimin. of ejbne, an 
iv\--branch or bough, an ivy- 
bush ; cao/t ejbnein, an ivv- 

Cjbeanoj, another diminudre of 

C;bl;ob and ejbljom, a plea, a 

case ; also a claim, or demand of 


, a curasser. 

e;b;mjn, doubtful, uncertain. 

Cjbpte, doubtful. 

e;bjOtt-;o)l<y, twilight. 

Cjb;n, between, betwixt, amongst; 
Lat. inter. 

n and^:e;b;rt, to be able; nj 
fejb^ lejf, he cannot; it is not 
in his power. 

t, a captive or prisoner, a hos- 

Htr, an equal distributive 
right ; jf jdbpn bcx mdc bedj 
J^/t<xet 5000. ne;bj/tce<xnca;b, 
these were the twelve sons of 
Israel with their equal portions 
or rights. L. B. 
jbj/tceant poc<xl, an interpreta- 
tion. I'id. Old Parchment. 

jab and e;b;/tbe;le, a 
difference, separation, or divi- 
sion ; also a distinction. 

^ab and e;b;^-beo.- 
, to separate or divide, to 

6;b;^b;l^;n, a devastation, ravag- 
ing, &c. ; as, e;b;;tb;lTjn n<x 
cu;^e u;le eaton^a, tlie ra- 
vaging or devastation of the en- 
tire province between them. 

CJb;^-gleo, a decree, or judg- 

C;b;rt-jle6bajm, to judge, or de- 

ejbjplen, captivity; 51x^1 jr/ijc a 
ne;b;;tten, that he was made a 
prisoner ; vid. C<xjt;te;m Cbo;/t- 
bel, an. 1311. 

banac, mediately, indirectly. 
ejb);t-meob<x/7t6;;t, a mediator ; 
also an interpreter. 

, interpretation. 

C J 

C J 


j;m, to interpret. 
C;j:euct, effect, sense, conse- 
quence ; n;b gan ejjreact, a 
thing of no effect. 
Cjreacbcic, effectual; also sensi- 


C;j:e<xcbam<x;l, the same. 
C;j:ea/-ac, serious. 
Cjg-cea/it, iniquity, injustice. 
ejTc;aU<xb, dotage ; also stupidity, 


C;-c;<xUb<x, or e;;z;-c;<kU<xjb, irra- 
tional; 6<xt;<x;beac e;jc;ttllba, 
an irrational animal. 
C; -c;nnte, innumerable ; also un- 
decreed, unresolved upon ; also 
not to be comprehended or con- 

C;5-cne<ty-b<x, impolite, rude. 
;5-cne<ty-bacb, frowardness, rude- 

, imprudent. 

, imprudence, folly. 
C;ge<xn, force, violence, compul- 
sion; bob ejgean b<xm, I was 
constrained ; fie be;gean, by 
compulsion; e;je<xn ma;jb;ne, 
the rape of a virgin or maiden. 
;gean, lawful, rightful, just ; e;- 
gean and <x;/t e;gean, scarcely, 

necessary, indispen- 
sable; pj.oc<x/i e;geant<xc, hard 

^, a learned man ; pi. ejg^e. 
eam, a crying, or roaring ; gen. 
e;jme; e;^b /ie me;gme, hear 
to my cry. 
e<xmt6;;i, a crier. 

), to cry out, to grieve, to la- 
ment, to bawl. 
C;g;n, some, certain. 
e;j;n, truly, surely, or certainly. 
6;gl;be, mean, abject. 
eacc, abjectncss. 
, a salmon. 

no, to force, to compel ; na 
, do not compel me ; 

also to ravish, or commit a rape. 

gnjjce, forced, ravished, com* 


jn;u j<xb, a forcing, or compel - 

ing ; also a rape. 

c, a school, a study. 
, art, science, learning. 

6;lc;m, to rob or spoil. 

6;le, other, another ; rectius <x;le, \ 
ex. <x;le; Lat. /i//5. 

C;le u; pboju/it;<x and C;le u; 
Cbea/t|t<xb<x;l, two districts in 
the County of Tipperary, north 
and north-east of Cashel, the 
ancient estates of O'Carrol and 

G;le, a prayer or oration. 

ejle<xcbo.;m, to alienate, to part 
with, to pass away. 
eojK, a creditor. 
and e;l;b, genit. e;lte, a 
deer, a hind; Gr. eXAoc, a fawn. 

C;l;u j<xb, accusation, charging, 
calling to an account. 

and e;l;jjm, to charge 
upon a person, to accuse ; ejtj j- 
bj^ j:e;n <x cejle, let them ac- 
cuse each other; <x ta;m bom 
e;l;u j<xb <xju;5 ft, I am called 
in question by you. 

and ;all, a thong ; jo bejlt <\ 
b/i6;je, to his shoe-lachet. 

Cjll, an ell or eln. 

G;Ugeo.b, burial, interment. 

C;lne and e;lneb, uncleanness, 
pollution ; ;io gl<xn ^);<x an re- 
ampul on u;le e;lneb, a^u^- 
a;t/ieab beaman ba /i<x;b <xnn, 
i. e. God cleansed the temple 
from all uncleanness and dia- 
bolical assemblies, or from being 
the habitation of devils. L. U. 

C;ln; j;m, to corrupt, to spoil ; also 
to violate or profane. 

C;m, quick, active, brisk. 

C;me, a cry. 

e;me<xcb, obedience, compliance. 

Cjmjltr, dilatory, slow. 

or e; j;m, to cry out. 

C J 

, a dead coal, 

, or can, one, the same; e;n- 
cjne, of the same family. 

C;neac, a face or countenance. 

C;neac and e;ne<xcaf, bounty, 
.goodness; also courtesy, affa- 

C;neaclan, protection, defence, or 

Cjnjreacb, at once ; bo cu<xb<X;t <xn 
e;nj:e<xcb, they went together. 

jn )n, only begotten. 

C;nme;b, of equal size. 

C;n;te<xb, any thing. 

;pel<xb, to die or perish; aju/- 
ejpettvjb fe (Jacob) b& cum<x 
round. ;t;A <in <xono.ft /-leu) cir/ge, 
and he (Jacob) will die through 
sorrow, if he alone (Benjamin) 
does not return home safe to 

him. L. B. 

G;pj^-rjt, an epistle, a letter. 

G)/ttJe<X;tn<xm, to transgress. 
ic, a wasp. 
, a heretic. 
, a burden. 

jonn, ;;t;nn, the name 
of Ireland. 

ejfteceac, a heretic. 

Cj/teceacb, or e;/t;ce<xcb, heresy. 

C;/ije, a rising; e;^je n<x 5/te;ne, 

, assistants ; coif)-e;/t je, aux- 

, to rise, to mutiny, to pass 
on or advance. 

Jj a viceroy, or chief governor ; 
n<x be; ^; je 5ab<x^ jro^i t;^t Jubo. 
fo <(.a-0fcaf ^ie l;nn Cbftjo^b, 
i- e. the governors of Judea, un- 
der Augustus, who were cotem- 
poraries with Christ. L. B. 

;?v;c, an amercement, or fine for 
bloodshed, a ransom or forfeit ; 
also a reparation. 

C;^S e ^ a command or government ; 

bo ;i<xb poa;t<xob ;<xjy;n ej/tjge 

e;j;pce bo Jo^-ep, i. e. Pharaoh 

afterwards committed to Joseph 


the government of Egypt. 
Z. B. 

e;/t;5e<xctr, idem. 

C;/i;m, to ride, to go on horse- 

6j-t;m, a summary or abridgment. 

Cjftjn, rather Cfvjn, is the name of 
Ireland in the Irish language. 
The names of countries, rivers, 
mountains, and other great ob- 
jects of the creation, had origi- 
nally some meaning founded in 
the nature of things, and gene- 
rally derived from some property 
or quality inherent to the object, 
which distinguished it in the 
eyes of the people, who gave it 
its name. This maxim is appli- 
cable to all such names of coun- 
tries as have not been borrowed 
from the national name of the 
people that inhabited them. 
Camden's derivation of the word 
C/i;n, the name of Ireland, from 
the Irish word j<x^, the west, 
seems absurd for two reasons : 
first, because the Irish word ;<x;t, 
strictly and properly means only 
after, (Lat. post and posted,) or 
behind, as behind one's back ; 
and does not signify the west 
but relatively to the position of 
persons facing towards the east 
at public prayers and sacrifices 
offered to the Deity, according 
to the practice of all antiquity, 
both sacred and profane. ^ id. 
>e<xr sup. In this position the 
south is called by the name of 
the right hand in Irish ; and the 
north by that of the left hand ; 
and as the Irish word ja/t signi- 
fies behind, so it also means the 
west, relatively to the position 
now explained, and not other- 
wise; for if a person turns his 
face towards any other point, 
the word j<x/t is applied to what 
is beliind his back, even when it 

is turned to the east. Secondly, 
Ireland is not properly to be 
counted a western country, but 
relatively to Britain and the 
lower parts of Gaul and Ger- 
many, and so on in that line ; 
but we do not find that the word 
ja/i was ever used by any of the 
people of those parts to signify 
the west. And as to the old 
natives of Ireland, among whom 
this word signifies the ivest, in 
the improper and relative sense 
above explained, it seems con- 
trary to the propriety of language 
and common sense that they 
should have formed the name of 
their country from its western 
position, which was only relative 
to others, and not to them who 
were the inhabitants; nor is it 
natural to think that they would 
have given it a name of so insig- 
nificant an import as that of its 
being situate in the west of Bri- 
tain, or the Lowlands of Gaul 
and Germany. The name is cer- 
tainly of the pure Iberno-Celtic 
dialect, and must have had some 
meaning founded in the nature 
of things, in its original and ra- 
dical formation, which indeed 
has been somewhat altered by 
vulgar pronunciation, but not 
very materially, as we shall see. 
As to Bochart's Phoenician deri- 
vation of the name of Ireland 
from Ibernae, i. e. ultima habi- 
tatio, the remotest habitation, to 
show its insufficiency we have 
but to observe, that though this 
Phoenician word Ibernae may 
plausibly pass for the original of 
Ibernia, the Latin name of Ire- 
land, yet it would be a very 
awkward and unnatural origin 
for epjn or Cj/vjn, the genuine 
Celtic name given it by the old 
natives, which in its primitive 

form afforded a very plain origi- 
nal both to the Greeks for their 

/, Itpvig, and to the Romans 
for their Ibernia, as we shall see 
by and by. Nor is it certain 
that the Phoenicians of Carthage 
and Gades did not know any 
habitation or land more remote 
from them, even to the west, than 
Ireland ; since all readers of an- 
tiquity must allow that Pytheas 
of Marseilles, (of the fourth cen- 
tury before the Christian era,) 
whose city was never so famous 
for remote navigation as Car- 
thage and Grades were in ancient 
times, discovered the island of 
Thule, which, according to the 
most probable opinion, is that 
we now call Iceland, situate in a 
meridian considerably more west- 
ward than that of Ireland. 

But to return to the original 
Irish name of Ireland, and to 
show that it was the true arche- 
type of the words lerne and 
Ibernia, I shall first observe, 
that I am strongly inclined to 
the opinion that the word C;^;n 
or C/vjn is but a contraction of 
the words J-j<x/iu;n, more pro- 
perly written J-e;tu;n or J-e/i;n, 
compounded of;, an island, and 
;<xpiu;fl, e/iu;n, or e/ijn, the ge- 
nitive case of ;<i;tun, e/tun, or 
e^tn, Engl. iron, Lat. ferrum ; 
so that J-;<x/iujn, )-epujn, or 
J-e/tjn, literally signifies an is- 
land of iron, or a land abounding 
with mines of iron, copper, and 
tin, such as Ireland is well known 
to have been at all times; for 
which most useful productions 
it well deserved the first rank 
amongst the islands called Cas- 
siterides, especially as its tin and 
iron excelled those of all other 
countries in quality as well as in 
quantity. The plural of this 

compound word 7-e/vjn is jb- : 
e^jn, also jb-e^ijon, signifying 
lands of iron mines; upon the 
former of which writings the 
Latin word Ibernia, used by 
Caesar, Plinius, Solinus, Tacitus, 
and Orosius, hath been formed, 
as that of Iberione used by An- 
toninus in his Itinerary, and by 
St. Patrick in his Epistle to Co- 
roticus, hath been struck off 
from the latter. But the Greek 
name Ispvfj, as it is written by 
Strabo, Claudian, and Stephen 
of Bizantium hath been visibly 
copied from the original Irish 
name in its singular number ; I 
mean from J-e^u;n, or J-e/t;n. 
And a much more ancient au- 
thor than any of the three now 
mentioned, uses the same word 
Je;tne for the name of Ireland, 
I mean the writer of the book 
De Jfundo, addressed to Alex- 
ander the Great, either by Aris- 
totle, according to some critics, 
or by his cotemporary, Theo- 
phrastus, according to others. 
Hd. Usher. Antiq. Brit, p. 378. 
But the author of the Argonau- 
tics, who calls Ireland by the 
name of Icpvtc, being either the 
old Thracian Orpheus, who is 
personated in that very ancient 
work, or at latest Orpheus of 
Crotona, a favourite of Pisistra- 
tus, the Athenian tyrant, cotem- 
porary of Darius, the deliverer 
of the Jews, as Suidas informs 
us by the authority of Asclepia- 
des ; it follows that, inasmuch as 
this ancient author's Itoviq, hath 
manifestly been formed upon the 
Irish name J-e/tjn or J-e/tn, or 
its contract Cfvjn, this name, and 
the country' which bore it, as 
well as the inhabitants whose 
language it belonged to, must 
have been known, at least bv 

historical report, to the Greeks, 
as early as the sixth century be- 
fore the Christian era ; that be- 
ing the age of the three cotem- 
poraries above-named : an anti- 
quity (says Usher, ibid.) which 
far surpasses the earliest men- 
tion the very Romans could 
show of their name in any known 
author. I am grossly mistaken 
if any mention of the Roman 
name can be found in Herodotus, 
whose writings are by a whole 
century later than those of Or- 
pheus of Crotona. 
)n-)f, an era, or account of years ; 
Gitff clajnne uj G0b<x6jl-Cbon- 
n<x;ne, the chronological history 
of the Mul-Connerys. 
-, a friend. 
, mistrust. 
C;/tle, a fragment. 
C;nl;oc, destruction. 
C;/tne, a fragment. 

, a gift, present, or favour. 
to require or call for ; 
jofG, Connect, the 
rents of Connaught were called 
for ; also to give liberally ; Lat. 
largior ; gu;t<xb <xml<x fjn 710 
e;ftne<xb cjopi Cxxe^ajn, for 
thus Caesar's tribute was paid. 
L. B. 

, a shield. 

or e<x/t;t, the end ; vid. 

6;/t;t, snow; hence leac-gMffc ice, 
or congealed snow : it is com- 
monly written dbAff, which ap- 
pears to be an abuse, inasmuch 
as the Welsh have eira, the Cor- 
nish er and irch, the Armoric 
erch, to signify snow. 

and c;^t^-ce, a trunk or 

, a band or troop. 
, a footstep, a trace, or track. 
the genit of ;a^-c, fish; 

also in the plural. 
jrcedct, exception or exclusion. 
jfcjm, to cut off; also to except 
or exclude. 

ct:, hearing, attention, 
and e;^be<xb, to hear, to 
listen, to be silent and attentive. 
, a seeking, or hunting af- 
ter, a research. 

, or ej^;on, him, himself; 
. e. e jn. 

;/i, he prayed. 
;/t je, resurrection. 

and ejfg-ljnn, a fish- 

Cjftj;;! and e^c^i, a ridge of high 
lands or mountains ; ejfjjft fija- 
b<x, the bounds of North and 
South Ireland. 
C;;-;b;m, to drink. 
Cb;m, to sit. 

l, ejj-eolac, rude, ignorant, 
m, to trace. 

m, near, close at hand. 
C;pnn;l, weak, infirm. 
Cjpob<xn, unclean. 
C;pom<xl, valour, courage, bra- 

jf-jom&W and ejpompl&^i, a 
pattern, model, or example. 

t, debate, discord, disagree- 

;^l;nn, weak, infirm; ca^lecnn 
e;^-l;nne<xc, a pregnable fortress. 
jfljf, neglect, mistake, or forget- 

c, lying, false. 
C;pneac, unready. 
Cj^/ietfict;, an orphan. 
C;piebe<xb, to loose or untie. 
Cj^teact, death. 
C;^-t;m, or ej^b;m, to hear. 
C;te, and dirninut. e;ceo^, a quill, 
a feather; also a wing; <vj;t 
e;t;5 ;ol<X7;t, on eagles' wings ; 
ejte<xc e;^, fishes' fins ; hence 
ejtjpieac, winged ; oncon be;/t- 
zejtjneoic, a flag variously co- 


Cjce, an addition, a wing put to 
the ploughshare when worn ; 
hence e;t;/ie signifies a ridg^ 
Cjte<xcc<xjl, volatile. 

c, a refusal. 

jteatldc and e;t;oll<xc, flying, 

c, a lie or untruth, a mis- 

,c, an oak. 

t:; jjm, to abjure ; also to falsify, 
also to refuse or deny. 
Cjt/ie<xc, a wilderness. 
Cjt/te, an end, conclusion, &c. 
C;t;in, danger, hazard. 
Cjtledb, flight ; e^leojdct, idem. 
Cjtteog, a bat; e;tl;m, to fly ; bo 
eflew; com-lu<xt <x^u^ 
<xn ol<xi, as swift as 

the eagle flies. 
e;tleo/i<xcb, flight or flying. 
C;c/te, a trench, a furrow; <x ne;- 

c/i;b <xn mac<x;/ie, in the furrows 

of the field. 

o/KXc, feeble, weak, un- 

Ct<x, a swan. 
Clc, or e<xlc, bad, naught, vile, 

malicious; vid. ealc. 
Clca^ie, grief, sorrow, pain. 
Cte<xt;i<x;m, an election. 
Cle<xt/i<x;n, a bier; ~Lat feretrum. 
Clc<xc;i<xc, one that carries a bier, 

a bearer. 

CU, or ;<vll, a flock, a multitude. 
Git, hazard, danger. 
Gil, a battle ; 50 bjruaj/i C;/te 

;om<xb ell, that Ireland under- 

went many battles. 
Cllea, elecampane. 
eite<x;-&;be<xcb, warmth, heat ; el- 

tre<xml<xcb, idem. 
Clton, steep, up hill; Lat. nc- 


Cn, a bird ; vid. eojn. 
Cn, e<xn, and e;n, in compound 

words signify of one, or of the 

same ; as lucb e;nt;ge, men oi 

e o 

e 17 

the same house, the household ; 
e;nc;/ieab, of the same family ; 
^;nme;b, of the same bigness; 
also with the word g<x6 pre- 
mised, it signifies each or every ; 
5<xc eanbujne, every man ; g<xc 
ean c^ealb, each drove or herd. 

Cneeanajj, the comb of a cock or 
other bird. 

Cne<xc and enec, a shirt or smock. 

Cneackwn, a reparation or amends. 

Cnne, behold, see ; Lat. en. 

Co, a salmon ; Wei. eog. 

Co, a peg or pin, a bodkin, a nail, 
a thorn ; eo-<x /Hejg, the sharp 
end or point of his spear. 

Co, praise ; also good, worthy, re- 

Co, the yew-tree ; also any tree. 

Co, a grave, or place of interment, 
a tomb. 

Cobfuxtr, head-clothes, a coif, or 

Coc<x, the proper name of a man ; 
Lat. Eochadius. 

Cocajfi, a key; plur. eoc^<xc<x. 

Coc<x;/t, a brim, a brink, or edge. 

Cocajft, a tongue. 

Coc<vjfi, a young plant, a sprout. 

Cocajft GQajje, an old name of 
Brury, the chief regal house of 
all Minister in ancient times. 

Cojdn, the proper name of several 
great men among the old Irish. 

Cojan-mo/t, surnamed GQo jnaagab, 
was king of Minister in the se- 
cond century. During his mi- 
nority his kingdom was invaded 
and possessed by three usurpers, 
who enjoyed it by equal shares. 
They were supported in their 
usurpation by Con-ce<xb-Ocvt- 
dc, king of Meath, and his allies 
in the northern provinces ; not- 
withstanding whose power, com- 
bined with that of the usurpers, 
the young Momonian hero not 
only recovered his kingdom, but 
forced Con-ce<xb-Coat<xc and 

the northern princes, whom he 
had defeated in ten successive 
battles, to come to an equal di- 
vision of all Ireland, whereof he 
possessed himself of the south 
moiety, by right of his :reat an- 
cestor Heber Fion, who had en- 
joyed the same half of the whole 
island, according to our histories. 
Eosan Mor's successors in the 
throne of Minister, who have 
been all of his posterity, were 
generally styled kings of Leat- 
mo j, i. e. Moth's moiety, which, 
as I have said, was the south- 
half of all Ireland. This prince 
has been the common stock of 
the O'Briens, the Mac-Cartys, 
the O'Mahonys, the O'Sullivans, 
the O'Haras," the O'Carols, the 
Macnamaras, the O'Kennedys, 
and many other noble families. 

Cojn, John; Sojfy-jeul an [Maori) 
Co;n, the Gospel of St. John. 

Co;n, ev\n, eun, and en, a bird ; 
r-u;be eojn, sessio aliti*. Vit. 
S. Brigid. 

Co;nf J<xb<xc, fowling, birding. 

Cojn-^ealjaj/ie, a fowler. 

Col, knowledge. 

C6l<xc, expert, knowing ; also a 
guide or director. 

Col<Xj~, art, science, knowledge. 

C6lc<xjfte, sorrow, mourning, grief, 

&c, sad, sorrowful, 
j, knowing, skilful. 

Colu;be, a guide or director. 

C6lu;~, knowledge, direction. 

Conaban, a cage or aviary. 

Conbft<xoj jjm, to divine, to conjec- 
ture future events by the flight 
or pecking of birds; eonpvjjjnn, 
the same. 

Coftbfuxt, a coif or head-dress. 

Co/in ci, barley. 

&0f, <xb eOf, it was said. 

C/t, great, also noble. 

C>icv. a denial. 

e c 

e u 

C;iajb, apparel. 
Cficeatlan, a pole or stake. 
C/tceannca;be, most certain, as- 


CfiCftete, transitory, not lasting. 
C/-tebe;ftt:, a burden or carriage. 
C/iennac, an Irishman; rectius 


/t;n and Gjjijn, Ireland. 
C/tnajl, a sign, or foretoken, a 

prognostication of some event; 

Vid. Tighern. 

the sign which marked out the 
passion of Christ. L. B. 

e / t0 3> JS/ te ?S> and e;iejac, ice. 
C/tlam, a saint or holy person. 


C/t/i, an end, vid. e;/tft, also the 
tail or fin ; ex. <x be;^ceo./t e;t/ie 
fie ne/i/i b/iaba;n, aju;" gac 
e;^c e;le, written also oiet/ie ; 
as oiec/ie b^tajab bftaba^n, the 
fins of a salmon. 
Annal. an. 1113. 

j an error, or mistake. 
af, opposing. 
C/7ie;meac, deviating. 


, a ship ; nj beaca;b <xon 
c/ie ^-an IDUJ/-I ;iua;b, any float- 
ing vessel ; potius ey or ejf. 
Ctenje, a mute. 
Ct;opeac, an Ethiopian. 
Ct^ecxcc, death. 
Ccte, age ; ;a/-i n)5ua;b <J.O;b 

ecte, i. e. ;a/t mbuajb OJTC 
<xo;^*e, after being vic- 

torious in youth and in old age ; 

vid. e<xt<\. 

Ctt;on<xc, an eunuch. 
ett/te;pf jm, to awake a person. 
Cttucic<x;I, unhandy. 
Cttualang, incapable, unable. 
Cub, e<xb, and e<xba, jealousy. 
Cubac, vid. e<xb<xc, cloth ; eubac 

lam, a handkerchief or napkin. 
Cubab and e<xba;m, to clothe or 

Cubal, lucre, advantage, profit ; 

vid. e<xba;l. 

Cuban, or eaban, the forehead. - 
Cugam and eajam, to die ; <x ta- 

maojb aj euj, we perish ; eujpa 

tu, thou wilt perish. 
Cujco;/i, wrong, injury. 
Cujco/iac, injurious. 
Cugc;iua;b, an infirm person. 
CujCftuor, sickness, infirmity ; 

eujc^ua^ na jreola, the infir- 
mity of the flesh. 

Cujna;b, or eucconajb, irrational. 
6urr&nMi;l) matchless, various. 
Culab and eutojab, escape ; bo 

eulajb /^e, he stole away. 
Culjra/i tab, slumbering; neuljca^i- 

tab, idem. 
Culo j, an escape. 
Gun, a bird, a fowl ; eunlajt, 


Cu/troajfteact, galloping, riding. 
Cu/tn and C;/ine, Loc C;^ne, the 

famous lake of Earn in Ulster. 
Cut/iom, light; rid. eab-t/iom. 


is the sixth letter of the Irish alphabet, and is called by our gram- 
marians Con^o;n i-aj, or a weak consonant. By fixing a full-point over 
it, or subjoining an 7?, it loses all force in the pronunciation, as bon p ea/i, 
or a. jr;;i, is pronounced bon ea/t, or <x j/i, to the man, O man ; <x f e;lc, 
his generosity, is pronounced a e;le, &c. It is called rea/in, from 



v ul go pea/tnoj, tlie alder-tree; Lat. alnus. It is the same with the He- 
brew i, because the figure and sound of both letters are very nearly the 
same ; this letter agrees in many words with the Latin v consonant, as 
pea/t, a man ; hence in the obliques and plural, p;;t, Lat. vir, pjo/t, true, 
Lat. verus ; p;on, wine, Lat. vimim ; poeal, a word, Lat. vocalis ; 
pe;;l, a vigil, Lat. vigilia. It often corresponds with the Greek ^, as 
pa;bj pronounced pa;j, a prophet, Gr. Cartes and Lat. rates ; peatl and 
pala, deceit, cheating, Gr. rf>au/\oc, Lat. i-ilis ; peaja, a beech-tree, Gr. 
<f>rryoz, Lat. fagus, &c. Wnen a clotted or aspirated b is prefixed to p, 
it is pronounced like v consonant ; as from paba, long, abpab, is pro- 
nounced a vad ; a bpua;/te is pronounced a vuaire. It is evident that 
the Greeks and Latins have also observed a close original affinity 
with regard to the letters /, b, v, and ph, b for v; Lat. cibica for 
civ tea; IT, bea/ta, a spit, Lat. re/- M/ and again v for b, as aveo for abeo, 
and sometimes b for f, as bruges forfruges, as Cicero relates, and Ir. ban, 
the bottom of arty thing, Gr. /Ssvfloc, andLat./wwf/w/H ; Ir. bne;m, fcr- 
n'6/e sound, Gr. /3pw*>, Lat. fremo, to sound or rattle: and again/" is 
used for &, as sijilare for sibilare, which the French call s/$?er , hence we 
commonly say suffero for subfero, &c. We find that |3 was anciently 
used among the Greeks for ; and Plutarch tells us that the Macedo- 
nians always said BtAtTTTrov for <Pi\tinrov ; and Festus says that they used 
aXjSoi/ for aX(/>oi', Lat. album. Note that in words beginning with the 
letter p it is quite eclipsed, and of no force in the pronunciation, when it 
happens by the course of speech that b, c, m, or b/), is prefixed to it ; ex. 
bjreojl, of flesh, bpea^t, of or to a man, are pronounced beo;t, bea/t, &c., 
tjrea/t, thy husband, tjreojl, thy flesh, are pronounced te<x/t, teojt ; 
mj:ea;i, my husband, mjreojl, my flesh, are pronounced meart, meo;l,&c. ; 
a^t Kp^t, our men, &;t bpedftdn, o;- /af/ or ground, are pronounced as it' 
written <i/t B;;t, or ar vir ; an 5ea/tcin, or ar vearan; so that the initial 
f is quite eclipsed, and taken no notice of in the pronunciation, though 
it always stands in the writing for preserving the radical frame of the 

pa, under; pan ccla/t, under the 
table : it is also written pe and 


pa, is sometimes the sign of an 
adverb ; as jra cul and pa b/tajm, 
backwards ; pa ^eac, apart, dis- 
tinctly, separately, also alter- 
nately ; pa cuajftjm, towards, to, 
about, as it were ; pa be;^e, at 
length; pa bo, twice; pa c/i;, 

pa, is sometimes a preposition, and 
signifies to, unto, into, also upon ; 


pan co;U, to the wood ; pan 
macajpe /tjb, into or on the 
open field. 

pa, answers in sense to bab, and 
means was, were, singular and 
plural ; as pa b; an r;ngean, 
she was the lady ; pa tea/ic 
<X,(if pa olc mo laete, few and 
evil have been my days; na mna 
pa fjnne:, of the elder woman, 
i. e. of the woman that was the 

pabal, a fable or romance; Lat. 

fabula; pi. 
al, an expedition or journey. 

^, jro jrajaltu/', profit, 
benefit, a return of gain, an in- 
come; <\n tre B<Xf luj<x fdj<J.l- 
Ccx;^, he that has the least in- 

t, favour, friendship. 

x, a veil, a curtain ; hence 

p<\b;ici, the hairs of the brow, and 
lids of the eye ; pi. r<xb/ia;be. 
, the month of P ebruary. 
, negligence. 

c, careless, negligent. 
, matter ; Lat. materia ; 
also a cause or reason, a mo- 

paco/n, a calling ; also a tempta- 

pacajn, a fighting or engaging. 

paca;ll, full of woods. 

pact, a battling or fighting. 

pab, long, either with respect to 
length of time, or the extent of 
any thing; ca jrdb, how long; 
db o f)n, long ago ; jrdb udb, 
far off; jrdbd bj/tedc, long or 
tall, and straight; fe m;le jrdba 
<xn /t;<xn, a road six miles long. 

pdb, length ; <x/t p<x;b, in length, 
also all along ; dn jrdb, whilst. 

pdbd, long, tall. 

pdbd jdb, or pdbu jdb, a lengthen- 
ing or prolonging; also a kind- 
ling; jrdbujdb dn te;ne, the 
kindling of the fire. 

pdbd; j)m, to lengthen or prolong, 
also to kindle ; written also pd- 
bdjm ; n} jrdjbeoctdo;, ye shall 
not prolong ; bo jrdbu; jedb 
ce;ne, a fire was kindled ; also 
to incite or provoke. 

pdbdjl, lingering, delay. 

pdbdldc, lingering, tedious, dila- 

pdb-cliidf<xc, long-eared, flap- 

C; spindle-shanked, long- 


pdb-pu;l;ngedc, long-suffering. 

Tdb-jruldng, longanimity. 

_db and pdbb, a mole. 

Tdb, cut. 

P<xbb, a question or enigma, a 

pdbb, a raven, or Royston crow. 

pdbb, a mole, a knob, bunch. 

pdbb, a fault ; also a widow. 

pdbbdn, a mole-hillock, 

pdbldjb, loosing. 

pdbld;m, to distinguish. 

pdbt, breath. 

pdetdb, to kill ; ex. pdetd^ le 
p/)d/tdob bd nbedcdjnn dnn, ol 
GOdO;^e, Pharaoh would kill me 
if I had c;one there, savs Moses. 

pdete and jrcvetedb, laughter; 
genit. and plur. jrdetbe, rather a 
disposition for laughing; pxe- 
tedb dn gd;/te, an appearance 
of laughter. 

pdfd, an interjection, O strange ! 

pdjdtD and jrdgbdm, to quit or 
leave, to forsake ; nd jrdj ^";nn, 
do not forsake us. 

and jrdgbdjl, a leaving be- 
liind, or abandoning, 
ijd, or pojd, a spear; hence an 
attempt or offer. 

pdjdjl and jrdjdjm, to get or pro 
cure, to gain, to receive ; d^m^/t 
;te cdjll dgu^ d^m^j/t le pdjdjl, 
a time to lose and a time to 

pd^dltdc and pd jdltd;^edc, jiro- 
fitable, advantageous. 

pdjdltdj", gain, profit, advantage. 

pd j;td;m, to favour or befriend ; 
rectius db/id;m. 

pd;c, a s{)arkle. 

rd;ce, a stitch ; as jrdn jrdjce boo 
lejne, without a stitch of the 

pdjcedldc, evident, plain, mani- 

pojcealacb, evidence. 
pajceamajl, of a moment, in a 

pojceall and pxjcjt, wages, _ re- 

ward, salary ; plur. go bjro.;cl;b, 

i. e. jo btuano-^bolajb. 
pdjceatlac, a lamp, a light, a can- 

dle; also luminous. 
po;ceob and jrajcjm, to see, to be- 

hold ; ndc po.jceo.nn, o.^u^ nac 

cclu;neann, which neither sees 

nor hears. 
po,;c^-;n, a seeing ; also sight ; jon 

f ajcyjn, without seeing. 
pa;cpon<xc, visible, that may be 

pojbe, longer, also length ; nj <\y 

jrtvjbe, longer, further. 
pdjbeoj, lot, chance. 
pojb, he went ; bo jrojb tan cflpa 

u;le, he passed beyond the Alps. 
. pd;b and jrajj, a prophet; Lat. 


pajbeabojft, a prophet. 
pd;be<xbo;, the gift of pro- 

phecy ; also prophecy. 
pdjbeamujl, prophetic ; also apt 

to criticise, also happy in ex- 

pressions, witty. 
pajbjm, to give up, to yield ; bo 

jrojb <x fpjOftob fa&f, he yield- 

ed up the ghost. 
pCxjj, a prophet; rid. jrdjb; oin 

jra,)5 >oronalt, Daniel the pro- 

phet; 'oeonpijg, a prophetess; 

pjle oju/- pa;^, rates. 
pa,} jle and po.; jleob, words ; also 


, a sheath or scabbard; Lat. 

poj jjm, to speak, to talk. 
pd;l, a ring, a wreath, a collar, an 
ouch; pi. fajt^e; pojl^e bo>, 
collars or ouches of gold. 
pa; I, a sty ; pa;l roujce, a pig-sty. 

!, company, society; o,n 
bob ei;t l;om bo clejt ; nj 

pjnn a bpajl ban, I would not 
tell a secret in the company of 

po.;t, the hickup ; o. ta pa;t 0;tm, 
I have the hickup. 

p&;t, liberal ; fd;l, fatal ; Jn^rdjl, - 
one of the old names of Ireland, 
supposed to have been derived 
from the LJojf d;l, or the fatal 
stone used at the coronation of 
the Scottish kings. 

pojtbejm, a blasting, as of corn. 

pdjtbe, lively, sprightly; also a 
man's name ; hence the family- 
name of the O'Falvys, anciently 
lords 9f Jbendca in Kerry. 

pojlbeab, vegetation. 

pd;tbeo^ and jrdjtbeacb, liveli- 

pd;l6; j;m, to quicken or enliven. 

po;tc, any gap or open, also a 
hair-lipped mouth; bo cu;t f& 
pvjlc ajpi, he broke his jaw. 

p4jleaba,b, death. 

pojteog and jrajl/ieoj, a hil- 

pojteog, the hickup. 

pcijlje, -Ct6;b pd;lje, a territory in 
the County of Kildare, the an- 
cient estate of O'Cono^t po/jlge. 

pajljjm, to beat. 

po;ll, a kernel ; also a hard lump 
of flesh; callus. 

pojtl, rcctitts <xjU| a cliff or preci- 
pice ; po.;ll o/tb, a high cliff. 

pajll, advantage, o]i])ortunity ; ex. 
bo JTUOJ^I fe jrojll <x;/i, he took 
an advantage of him. 

pa;ll, leisure. 

pojlleob and jajtljje, neglect, 
failure, omission ; jon j:a;ll;ge, 
without fail. 

pojll;jjm, to fail, to neglect, or 
delay; Gall.failir. 

pdjlre, welcome; cu;^t;m jpo;lte, 
I welcome ; also a salutation, or 

pajlreac, welcoming, agreeable. 

pa;lt; j;m, to welcome, to greet or 

pa;ltu; jab, a bidding welcome ; 
also a saluting or greeting. 

pajltjn, an intermeddler in other 
men's business. 

p<x;n and jrajnne, a ring ; rectius 
<x;n ; ajnne, a circle, a ring. 
Vid. Remarks on <. 

p<x;ne, a wart ; pxjtjone, idem. 

pa;ne, a weakening, or lessening; 
hence <*n-bj:a;ne, fainting, or 
great weakness. 

p<x;nj and pXflj, a piece of Irish 

or f<xnj, a raven. 
, a light, insignificant fel- 

pojnnab, the hair of the body; 
also the hair or fur of a beast ; 
rectius jrjonnab. 

p<v/nne, ignorance. 

p<xj/*> watch thou ; the second per- 
son singular of the verb j:ajft;m, 
to watch ; Gall, gar a. 

p<x;/i, the rising or setting of the 

, weeds ; pvj/ib 4%af f)n Q - 
, weeds and grass of a 
mossy nature. 

pajfibpie, a notch, or impression on 
a solid substance ; also a fault, 
a stain, a blemish. 

pa; /ice, extent. 

pa;/ice, a diocese, a parish, an 
episcopal see ; px;/ice Oludno, 
the diocese of Cloyne. 

pa;/tceall, a reward. 

pa;/tb/-ie;y , a bramble. 

pa j fie, a watching, also watchful- 
ness, also a watch; <xr po.;/te, 
watching ; tucb jra;/te,the watch- 
men ; jraj/ie n<x majbne, the 
morning watch. 

p<vj/teog and pxjleoj, a hil- 

*C&W> a spy ; c^; f WZfe- 
d/t 5<xc ;tob, three spies on 


each road. 
, a parish. 
, to watch, to guard. 

, a brave, warlike 
p<x;/tmeab, site, position, situa- 


p<x;/im;m, a train or retinue. 
, to obtain, to get. 
pge, the sea; plur. jTAj/t/t- 

WIZ* 5 ^ . r F^/ 1 F^/^5 e a 
seaman, a sailor. 

and p&wrjn-g, wide, 
arge, spacious. 

;/ipnje, plenty ; also largeness, 


I, to increase, to en- 
large or augment ; an uaj/t p<x;/t- 
reonjar r*e, when he shall ex- 

pa;/tte, a feast. 

pa;/ite, orab pxj/ite, soon, quick- 
ly, immediately. 

pa;rc/ie, violence, compulsion, 
force; abcoba tra^rc^e fio-pajy- 
c/ie, violence deserves violence, 
i. e. repel force by force. 

^, cheese : written also 

and p^ceab, a fold, a 
pound, or pinfold. 

ab, a squeezing or pound- 

jr^eo-ma;!, flat, compressed ; 
also spungy, yielding, that may 
be pressed. 

j^gm, to wring or press, to push 
or bear hard upon. 

, squeezed, compressed. 

a press. 
;m, to remain. 

, intelligence, relation, or 

j.;yv?e;j;ro and pa)ynejf)m, to 
certify, to evince or prove, to 
tell or relate. 

an augur, or sooth- 
sayer, a prophet. 

an omen, or prophecy ; 
a soothsayer; 
, a bad omen. 
, a wizard. 

and pajtcjof, fear, ap- 
prehension ; jan f^-jtcjOf, in 
safety, without apprehension. 
r<\;tre<xc, fearful, timorous. 
r<x;t and pxtd, a field, a green. 
r<x;t, heat, warmth. 
~a;t, apparel, raiment. 
?ajte, the hem of a garment. 
?<X}tr; QOf) reluctance, dread of 
bad consequence. 

the hem, or border of any 
cloth or garment. 
pci;t;olto;/i, a broker, 
pajrj/tleog, a lapwing, or a swal- 

a wardrobe. 

;t, the yeoman of the 
robes, or he that keeps the 

a liking. 

, the south, or the southern 

pajtyeac, southward, southern. 
put, a fold, a pinfold, &c. 
pal, a wall or hedge ; jral tof, a 

thorn hedge ; Lat. vallum. 
ral, a king or great personage. 
!?al, much, plenty. 
!?<xl, guarding or minding cattle. 
?ala, or palla, spite, malice, 
fraud, treachery ; Lat. falla- 

pd.lo.6, a veil or cover, a case, &c. ; 
r<xt<xc jljobac, a shag-rug, an 
Irish mantle. 

pal<xcb<x-j:;onn, according to Dr. 
Keating, are places in the open 
fields, where ppn Cftac Cuirxxjl 
and tlie other champions of them 
times used to kindle fires. 
P^la; tW> to hicte or cover, to keep 


m and jrolam, empty, void. 
mnu j<xb, dominion, sovereign- 
ty; pMAlfodjr, idem. 
p<vla;jte6;rt, who covers or hides. 
p<xl<x;nn, a mantle, or Irish cloak 
or covering. 

b, pacing, ambling, &c. 
, chastisement. 
^?<xlb<j.c, one troubled with the 

pale, barren, sterile. 
pale, frost ; also sterility proceed- 
ing from drought; ex. bo;nean 
mOft ajiyf jr<xlc be<x^mo.;t fan 
je^m^eab fQ, great rains and 
hard frost this winter. Fid. 
Annal. Tlghernachi. 

and pal<x;m, to hedge or 

, dominion, sovereignty. 
palla;n and Dalian, wholesome, 
healthy, salutary ; teagcyj j:al- 
la;n, wholesome instruction; also 
sound, safe, fast. 
pallctjne and falla;nea^, health, 


p<xllamn<xcb and ^ratlamnujab, 
rule, dominion. 

, to govern, to rule as 

, a kingdom or domi- 
an, sound, healthy, safe ; vid. 

patldn, beauh", handsomeness. 
p<xll;n or jrallajnn, a hood or 

mantle, a cloak ; Lat. pallium. 
pallia, deceitful, fallacious; Lat. 


pollracb, philosophy ; also deceit, 

, sweat ; rectius allay. 
, a hole. 

and pala^acb, pacing, 
ambling, &c. ; eac jral^ta, a 
pacing horse. 

a; j;m, to pace or amble. 
a, false ; also sluggish. 


, an occasion or pretence, 
a quarrel or enmity ; <x 
bjraltanaj/- jte Ceall<xcan, at 
enmity with Callaghan. 
palum<x;n, a sort of coarse gar- 


pam, under me, or mine; jrcm) 
cte;t, under my roof; jam co- 
yu;b, under my feet, i. e. jra 

p<x'n, pro p<\ an, per apostroph. ut 
apud Gr&cos ; into, or upon, or 
under; ^n bf<x;ftje, upon the 
sea, or by sea ; pn S co )^' ^ nto 
the wood; j&n jcta/t, under the 
pan and pan a, prone to, pro- 


pan and j&n<*, a declivity, an in- 
clined position, a descent; jie 
jranujb, down headlong ; bo jvjtr 
jron pan, he ran down. 
pan, a wandering or straying, also 
a peregrination, or pilgrimage ; 
cao;^e a;t pan, strayed sheep. 
pan, a church or chapel, a fane ; 
" Lat.fanum; as pan lob u;y, near 
Dunmanway, in the County of 
Cork, the chapel or church of 
St. Lobus. 

pan<x;cceac, mad, frantic, fanatic 
panajm, to remain, to stay, or con- 

tinue ; bo pan ye, he stayed. 
panajt, a territory in the County 
of Tyrconnel, anciently possessed 
by the Mac Swineys and the 
O'Doghertys ; mac yujbne pa- 
najt. -cCfibm;/! was more par- 
ticularly the estate of the O'Dog- 

panj and pajnj, a raven. 
TanT, a thin coin of gold or silver; 
gold foil, or leaf-silver; p;nj 
nbeajig 6; ft, a piece of red 

pan-leac, the same in literal mean- 
" ing, as qiom-leac, an altar of 
nide stone standing in an in- 
clined position. 


pann and 


panna, weak, infirm, 

pannpat, ignorant. 

pannta;y, weakness, languishing^ 

or propensity to faint. 
pannta;yeac, fainting, inclining 

to faint. 

pannu;b;beac, negligent, careless, 
paoba/t, an edge ; paoba/t clojbjm, 

the edge of the sword, 
paoba/tac, sharp or keen-edged; 

also active, nimble, supple. 
paoba/ta;m, to whet or sharpen, 
paocoj, a periwinkle, or sea-snail, 
paob, or paoj, the voice; hence 
paojjle, or cuj^le, words or 
expressions, language ; bpao; 
;onnama;l o/mvjn, your voice as 
melodious as the organs, 
paobbab, to shout, cry aloud, or 

proclaim, &c. 
pao j, punishment, 
pao;, below, underneath ; 

bun, underneath, 
pap;, Lat. vicis, Gall./oi* ; 
bo, twice ; Gall, deuxfois. 
paoj-yjn, i. e. po na jrtfMtfjl jr;n, 

for that reason. 
paojcea/tba;|te, or pao;-c;m;;te, 

an usurer. 
pao;cea/tbam, to lay out money at 


paojbearo, a messenger. 
pao;b;m, to sleep or rest ; ;to paojb 
ro/t le;c, he slept on a rock, 
speaking of a saint. 
paojb;m, to go; jto pao; ye, .he 
went, also to send ; bo paojb a 
ypjo/iab <x^ , his spirit left him ; 
paojte ce<xcba, messengers were 
p<\0jb, a voice, a noise, or sound ; 

vid. j:<xob. 
p<xo;le<xc and pcxojt;b, glad, joyful, 


?<xo;tj 5;m, to rejoice, or be g 
r<xo;tle<xn, a sea-gull. 
:ao;tt;b, the name of February. 


p<vo;m-c;al, interpretation. 
t?ao;nam, to indulge, 
paojnbleajan, mildness, gentle- 
ness, good-nature, 
paojnealac, foolish, silly, 
paojj-eab, aid, help, succour ; also 
mending in or after a sickness, 

pao;^;be and pao;^;b;n, a confes- 
sion or acknowledgment of a 
guilt ; majlle ;te pxoj^bjn 
acu^* rte leo/tbojljeciy', with con- 
fession and contrition. 

i, to confess ; ftacajb me 
mo peacajbe bon 
, I will go and 
confess my sins to the high 
p<xol, patience, forbearance ; also a 

prop or support, 
paol, wild ; jraotcu, a wild dog, a 

wolf, quod rid. 
paolab, learning, also learned ; 

ceannpxola, a learned man. 
paolcon, the falcon, or large kind 

of hawk. 

paotcu, a wolf, or wild dog; gen. 
jraolcon, plur. jraolcojn ; it is 
also used to signify a brave war- 
like man. 

paofy-cab, burning, setting on fire, 
paot^naro, swimming:. 
JTaomajbteac, submissive, hum- 
r ble. 

paom, consent, permission, 
paomab and jraomajm, to assent 
to, to bear with ; n;o/t paom fe 
ptea^abnab, he did not bear 
with opposition, 
paomaca^ft, a predecessor. 
~~;ion, void, empty; also feeble. 
iO^am, protection, relief. 
AM. Anglice, for ; as cat 

rs ' J ' 

wherefore, for what reason ; 
glice, what for ; from pi, a rea- 
son, and a/t, upon which, or 

and pa/tea, a mall, a mal- 

let, or beetle, 
/tall, a sample or pattern. 
!Tart<xU<x;m, to bear or carry; also 
to offer or present. 
nao-t or f6ft;;t, alas! an inter- 

f?a>t<x/-bd, or j*>ftu/~ba, solid, so- 

nca-tpnube, a flaming thunder- 

panbajl, the major part of any 

, the lintel of a door. 
, to kill or destroy; 50 
pxnjpxb <x ce;le, that they de- 
stroyed each other; 50 ptyja 
7'Ocujbe ba mu;ntr;/i, till a great 
number of his people were 

, that leaves behind, 
or bo^- px/tl<x;c, to cast. 
r<j./tnajc;m, to find. 

rt/Kie, or j:o/t/t<xc, violence, 

paft/t<xb, comparison; <x B^a^/t<xt> 
jie ce;le, in respect of them- 

p<X/t/t<xb, with, in company with, 
&c.; <xn tucb bob; no.bpxn/xb, 
the men that were with them ; 
bo j'-ujb am pa/i/tab, he sat by 
me; nu./t bj:a/t/tajbne, along with 

p<x/t;tun, force, violence, anger. 
, tombs. 

, great, stout, generous. 
, explication, 
, void, empty. 
, increase, growth; <xn b<x^a 

, the second growth. 
pa/~-n<x-beun-ojbce, a mushroom, 
i. e. a growth of one night. 

desolate, desert ; also a 
wilderness, also a road; fean 
trafujj, the old ways; also an 
edge or border; also stubble, 
waste grass. 

to grow, to increase ; 


ab, lest 

they increase. 
fy-amajl, growng or ncreasng ; 

also wild or desert. 
a^cojtl, a grove in its first, se- 

cond, and third years. 

a sconce ; also an um- 
rella, or small shadow. PI. 
pa/"jab, a shelter, or refuge ; maft 

a;t jra^jab on jao;t, as a place 

of shelter from the wind : written 

also pty-jab. 
p<x^jno.;m, to purge. 
papie and px^neoj, a wheal or 

pimple, a measle. PL 

and ptytu; j;m, rather 
m ; to stop or stay, to 

seize or lay hold on. PI. 
portujab, rather pYtujab, a 

fastening, securing, or seizing. 
pa/*u jab, a devastation, or laying 

pat, a cause or reason ; c/ieb jrat, 

pat, skill, knowledge ; also a 

rat, heat. 

?at, the breath, a breathing. 
?atac, prudence, knowledge. 
patac, or atac, a giant ; patac- 

tuata, a plebeian. 
patan, a journey. PL 
patpajm, the hem of a garment. 
pat-o;be, a schoolmaster. PL 
pe, under ; pe talam, under 

ground; the same as jra, quod 


pe, a rod for measuring graves. 
pe, a hedge, pound, or pinfold; 

j: e f;<xb, a park. 
pe<xb, good. 
peab, a widow. 
t?e<xb, as, as if, &c. 
peab, a conflict or skirmish ; plur. 
, ex. <x bjreabta bub 
an cunab, the champion 


behaved gallantly in all his en- 

peab, means, power, faculty. 

peabat, Loc peaba^l, an ancient 
name of Lough Foyle in the 
County of Derry. 

peaba/~, goodness; aj but a bjre- 
a.bafi, improving, growing better, 
also beauty ; vid. jreabu^, idem. 

peabba, goodness, honesty ; also 
/ta, February, 
a, rent. 

, cunning, skilful, 
beauty, comeliness, de- 
cency ; ba jreabity- bo b; <x ^ta;b, 
at his best state. 

peac and jreac, the handle or 
stick of a spade. 

peacab, a turning. 

peacejb, they put, or set. 

peacam, to bow or bend, to turn ; 
reacab <xn /-a; jjtto;/t a boja, 
let the archer bend his bow. 

_eacc and jrecc, a tooth. 

!Teac, see, behold; vid. piacajno. 

peacab, a pick-ax, or mattock, 
ft, a wizard, a seer. 

!Teaca;n, a view or sight : pro- 
nounced j:euca;nt, a glance. 

peaca;no, or jreucam, to look, to 
see, to behold; bjceac ^e, he 
looked ; aj jreacajn 50 p /t;oc- 
namac, looking steadfastly ; t;j 
bpeuca;n, he came to visit. 

peacb, time, turn, alternative ; 
Lat. vicis, vice; peacb naon, 
on a certain time, formerly ; an 
t^tea^ peacb, the third time ; 
jreac'b na;ll, another time, for- 
merly, jac a;le jreacb, every 
other turn. 

?eacb, a journey, an expedition. 
Teacb, danger. 

ea/t, they shall be sent. 
Teacta, was fought : the same as 
cu/ita; ceacta/t cat, a battle 
was fought; also set, put, pitched. 


peacna, idem. 

peab, to tell or relate ; amujl ab 
peab leab'an "QJnn ba Loc, as 
the book of Gleann da Loch re- 
lates : also written peat ; Greek 
dual, fya-ov, from ^rjjut, dico / 
Lat. fat us. 

peab, a whistle ; peabu; j;ol, /cfe/?z. 

peab, a bulrush. 

peab, a fathom ; pjtce p eab, 
twenty fathoms, 
ab, an island. 

Teabab, a relation or rehearsal. 

Teabajm, to be able ; peabmaojb, 
we can. 
abOfl, a pipe, a reed. 

Teabanac, a piper. 

^eabana;m, to pipe, or wliistle. 

jpeaba/ilajc, the old law, or the 
Old Testament; vetus lex, ve- 
teris lesis. 

*N- ! -T 

peaba/itact, possibility. 

peab-ja;le, lamentation. 

peab, extent ; a/t peab na r)a/-;a 
u;le, throughout the extent of 
all Asia ; a^i peab meota;^, 
through the extent of my know- 
ledge; peab <x jtae, whilst he 

. peab, or p;ob, a wood ; pi. peaba 
and pjobbu;be; hence Jnjf na 
bp^Obbujbe, the Island of 
Woods, or the Woody Island, a 
name of Ireland. K. bo cum 
peaba, ad silvarn. 

peaba;;teacc, a gift or present. 

peaba; /leact:, strolling, or idling. 

peabajm, to rehearse, or relate; 
rid. peab. 

peaban, a band, a troop, or com- 
pany ; gen. peabna, as cean pe- 
abna, a captain, or head of a 
troop or company of men. 

peaban and peabanpwac, wild, 

peab!>, a fault or defect ; also a 
widow ; vid. pabb. 

peab-cua, venison. 


peabmac, potent. 

peabmabo;^, he that hath the use 

of a thing. 
peabma;m, to make use of, to serve 

or administer to. 
peabmanac, a governor, or over- 

seer; also peabmanac trjje, a 

steward, also a servant; peab- 

mantac, the same. 
peabmantra^ and peabmantac, 

peabm-jlaca;m, to make his own 

by possession. 

peabm-^natu jab, usurpation. 
pea ja, a beech-tree ; Lat fagus, 

Greek Dor. (payog, pro 0i?yoc ; 

cajlead peaf a, a pheasant. 
peajab, an old verb : the same as 

peacab, to see, behold, &c. 
Teal, bad, naughty, evil. 
[Teal, vid. peall. 

alb, a kernel, or a lump in the 

flesh. . 
pealca;b, austere, harsh ; also de- 

ceitful, knavish. 
pealcojbeact, sharpness, sourness, 

pealcajbea^*, a debate or dis- 

peall, treason, treachery, conspi- 

racy, murder. 
peallam, to deceive, to fail, &c. ; 

rj pealla me o^c, I will not fail 

thee; also to brew mischief for a 

person, to conspire against ; Gr. 

philosophy; bob 
a bpeall^a, was skilled in 
?eall/~am, a philosopher. 
reall/-amnacb, philosophy. 
^ealmac, a learned man; also a 
monk or friar. 
al^amnac, a sophister. 
Teal to; /i, a traitor, or villain. 

, superfluity. 
Teamnac and peamujn, sea-ore, or 
sea- rack ; Lat. alga. 


peancab and jceanjccvb, wrestling 
or writhing, crookedness. 

peanca^, genealogy. 

peannoj, a Royston crow ; also a 

peannta, full of holes. 

pea/1, good; j:ea/t/t, better; jrea/i- 
/ta, zWewz. 

pea/t, a man, also a husband ; in 
the genit. and vocat. singular and 
nominat. plur. it makes jr;/t, Lat. 
vir ; in compound words it is 
generally written p/i in all 
cases, as /i-en and i-e- 

c, (Lat. virile genus,) cor- 
rupted into f ;;t;on and p/t;onac, 
a male, or of the male kind; 
and thus, by the by, bujnjonn 
and bujfljonac, a female, or of 
the female kind, have been cor- 
rupted from ben-^ejn and ben- 
?e;neac. In the Irish language 
me radical and primitive frame 
of the leading words in com- 
pounds is generally better pre- 
served in the conjunct than in 
their single state, though the 
subsequent word in the com- 
pound very frequently suffers 
either an alteration or an ampu- 
tation of some of its radicals, of 
which several instances are ob- 
servable in this dictionary. The 
above compounds, jr;;t-je;n and 
ben-je;n, show us that j:j/t and 
ben were the true original Celtic 
names of man and woman, upon 
which the Latins have formed 
their vir and venus : for Venus, 
though set up for a goddess, sig- 
nifies no more than mere woman, 
the emblem of all beauty, ac- 
cording to the Pagan mytlfology. 
The Irish having no v consonant 
in their alphabet, always used 
either an aspirated b or an p 
instead of it, which, by the by, 
was likewise the JEolic v conso- 
nant, called the Molic digamma, 


as they always pronounced it 
like an f. The words b;/tan 
and bj/ianac, changed sometimes 
into b;o;tan and b;o/tanac by 
the abusive rule of Leatan le 
Leatan, show us also that an- 
ciently this word was written b;/i 
as well as jrj/t. 

pea/1, jreu/t, or jre/i, green grass or 
verdure ; Gall, verdeur, Lat 
viridis, viride. 

pea/tab and jrea/ta;m, to act like 
a man, to fight ; ex. bo pea/tab 
cat: mo/i-pu;leac eato/-i/ia, a 
very bloody battle was fought 
between them. 

pea/t-a;/ino, a hay-loft, or hay- 

pea/tabactr and jrea/iamlacb, force, 
might, power. 

pea/tamalacb, manliness. 

pea/iama;l, manly, brave. 

pea/ian, a quest, or ring-dove; 
jrea/tan-b/ieac, a turtle. 

pea/ianba, a countryman, a boor, 
or farmer. 

pea/tann, ground, land, or coun- 
try; jrea/iann clo;b;m, sword- 

pea/iann-^ajnjjl, or ^ajngeat, a 
territory eastward of Limerick, 
the ancient estate of the O'Conu - 
ings, called Sajngeat, i. e. Sa;n- 
angeal, the apparition of an an- 
gel, where St. Patrick baptized 
Ca/ttan-.j:jonn, king of North 
Munster, ancestor of the O'Bri- 
ens, &c. 

, imitation. 

an ape or mmc. 
pea/tb, a cow. 

pea/ib, a word ; Lat. verbum. 
pea/tb, a wheal or pimple, any 

bunch or protuberance on the 

skin or flesh. 
pea/tb, goodness. 
pea/tbab and pea/tba;m, to kill, 

destroy, or massacre. 


, the herb crowfoot. 
rie, a herdsman. 

a scabbard or sheath; 
also a budget or bag, as pe<xn- 
fcolgo. px co;m go.c jrjn bjob, 
every man of them carried budg- 
ets under his arm ; rid. bolg. 
pe<Xrt66j, the roebuck. 
peaneeciU, a territory between the 
Counties of Kildare and Meath, 
which anciently belonged to the 
O'Molloys; in Irish O'Cl&olmu- 

pe<x/tcujb^e<xb, threefold. 
pe<x/tcuft, a champion ; also man- 

hood, courage. 
pe<x/tba, male, also manly. 
, manhood. 

-e<X;t, anger. 

, a champion or warrior. 
, angry, passionate. 
anger, passion. 
to vex or fret ; no. 
tu fe;n, do not fret 
thyself; bo peaftjajbeab e, he 
was angry or fretted. 

peaftmo;je, a territory in the 
County of Antrim, anciently the 
estate of 0'C;<x/ta;n and O'C; j- 
eftno. ; also a large and very- 
pleasant tract of land in the 
County of Cork, now called the 
Barony of Fermoy, and the half 
barony of Condons. In the old 
Irish it was distinguished by the 
name of p^-mo.) je e;ne, i. e. 
I iri Cam pi Phceniorum sen 
Phcenicum, from the people that 
were its inhabitants, who pro- 
bably were a party of the Gadi- 
tanian Phoenicians, for which 
opinion some reasons may pos- 
sibly soon appear in another 
work. This territory was pos- 
sessed from the third century to 
the tenth, by the D'Com^c^td; j, 
or Cosgras, and the O'Dugans. 
Of the former branch descended 

the Saint Malaga (vid. Colgan, 
Act. SS. in Vit. Mologae) and 
the great Cuano., son of Caficjn, 
Dynast of Cloc-ljtttmujn, near 
Mitchelstown, celebrated for his 
great hospitality and liberality 
in the seventh century. Of the 
latter branch there were two 
chiefs, each called O')ug<xn, one 
residing at C<xta;/t-buga.;n, near 
Doneraile, and the other at 
<Dunm<xn<x;n,now called Manain, 
near Kilworth. These families 
were the offspring of an Archi- 
Druid called OOojftutr, in the 
third century. The O'Keeffes . 
encroached upon these old pos- 
sessors towards the tenth cen- 
tury; and they again were dis- 
possessed by the Flemings, the 
Roches, and the Condons in the 
thirteenth century : the Roches 
obtained in process of time the 
dignity of Lord Viscount of 
Fermoy, now extinct since the 
death of the late Lord Roch, 
Lieutenant-General in his Sar- 
dinian Majesty's service, and 
governor of Tortona. 
cinmcijc, strong or able men, 
altogether courageous. 
, full of grass. 

, and genit cea/tnci, dimin. 
, the alder-tree; hence 
it is the name of the letter c in 

, good. 

, a shield. 

the town of Ferns, a 
bishop's see in the County of 

peanrxx, the mast of a ship; bo 
cu<x;b fojfeap. clanno, GDjleab 
7~an jre&ftna fjujl, the youngest 
of Milesius's sons climbed up 
the mast. Chron. Scot. 

peo.^na;be, masculine. 

, better ; <xr* cea.KK, best ; 


<\D cujb --.. r - 

best of the oil. 
pea/t/ib<x, manly, brave ; also of or 

belonging to a man. 
pe<x;t;tb<xct:,manhood ; rather good- 



., a verse. 

vid. jrejft/t^be, plur. a 
strand-pit ; hence it is the name 
of a place adjoining Rostellan, 
near Cork harbour. 
efyi^ab, a spindle ; pea/^ab n<x 
la;it)e, the ulna, or ell, or the 
lowest of the two bones of which 
the cubit consists. 

, a short verse. 

pe<x/t/-c<xt, a man ; cjonap 

fin, ol jrj, o;/-i n; pe<xba/i 

ba beo, how shall that come to 
pass, (says Mary to the angel,) 
ibr I know not and will not know 
a man while I live. Leaba/t 
b/te<xc. This explication of the 
ancient Irish Paraphrast is agree- 
able to that of St. Austin and 
other holy fathers, who from this 
answer inferred the blessed Vir- 
gin had made a vow of perpetual 
chastity ; Lat. quomodo fiet is- 
tud, quoniam virum non cog- 
nosco. Luc. 1. 34. 
a/if*ba, a pool, stagnant wa- 

, any good or virtuous act ; 
jre<x/it<x jrejle, acts of gene- 

pea/it;, a miracle; jrefyitdjb" tx/1 
ctjcxnrxx, the miracles of our 
Lord ; hence jrea^icama;l, mira- 

pe<Xfit, a grave, a tomb ; jrecx/it- 
l<xo;, an epitaph. 

?e<x/tt:, a country or land. 
l, miraculous. 

!?ea;ttoj jjm, to bury. 

, a funeral oration. 
rain ; corrupted from 


n, a word which is com- 
pounded of j:e<x/t or pe;t, green 
grass or verdure, and^Jon, wea- 
ther; so that feap-fjon lite- 
rally signifies grassy weather, 
i. e. weather productive of grass 
or verdure, for which effect rain 
or moisture is absolutely neces- 
sary. The opposite of this word 
jreufi-/"jon, is CftuAb-y-Jon, signi- 
fying a drying or scorching wea- 
ther ; j<x;nb';oo, corrupted from 
gOLfib-j'-JOfl, is rough, boisterous 
weather; and 3<x;ll;on, a cor- 
ruption of roll-fjon, means very 
severe weather, as if it blew from 
a strange country. 

peo.fttmol<xb, a funeral oration, an 

pea/1 tutlcxc, a territory in the 
County of Meath, which belong- 
ed anciently to the O'Doolys. 
^<xr and cior, genit. piy, know- 

' J ' O ^ j // y 

ledge ; nj jreoy bujnn, we know 

sapac, knowing, skilful ; 
md;l, the same. 

, late, in the evening, 
the evening; Lat. ves- ' 
per, Gr. itnrepog ; 70. /-i ^"u;be 
jrea^coft, after the setting of the 
evening star ; o m<xjb;n jo pedf- 
co;;t, from morning till evening, 
peoyco/tluc, the dormouse, or 
field-mouse ; also an insect that 
buzzes and flies about in the 

Ac, late. 

, a feast or entertainment. ^ 
<x^b<x, or jre<tyt<x, a festival, or 

^<x^b<x, hereafter, henceforward, 

ia^poc<x^g<xb, a gargarism ; 
pea/-jl<xn<xb, idem. 

a herald, 
a separation. 


, a beard. 

, , , - -c, a muzzle, 
peat, idem quod reab ; Lat. fari 

peat, music, harmony. 
Peat, learning, skill, knowledge. 
Peatab, the sight, 
-eatal, the face or countenance. 
" \, a bowl or cup. 

', fur or hair. 
. ^dojleab, the palsy, 
-eb, whilst, as long as. 
&ba;-a; jjm, to correct or amend 
Pec, weakness, feebleness, 
peb, a narrative or relation. 
p**;ro, to tell or relate ; ab reab, 
l ' e - *>)nnj r ; r ean6ar ab pe - 
}jm, I speak of genealogy- 

ccTa 7 * ^ ^ ab lcaba > x * 
/ ) as is related in thp 

book of Regal R ights . 
; eb, hard, difficult, 
-eban, flight. 
-e;b, as. 

: e;b, a long life. 
-e;b, good. 
:e;c, or F 6;t, a vein or sinew ; bon 

Pe;c bo c^ap, of the sinew which 

shrank; plur. p^jtQ and 


a debtor ; 


, ,- : , et nos dimittimus 
fteoitonbus nostris. 
pe;b;l, j us t, true, faithful, chaste 
^e;bl;be, a follower. 

^fe * 4 Continue * ^d 
amitul, m a r c^e;b;o m . banab 
n *v leat^-a, agu/~ reibliurab 
^, rlancabra tu, if you em- 
i, and persist true 
therein, I will cure 


a thing of nought; 6WL - p, ;om 
ejle, every other necessary busi- 

.ejbiD-cea^ano, to usurp. 
Pe;bm jl;c, provident 
pe;bm r ealbajr;m, to make a thin- 

your own by long possession. 
e;b;l, faithful, & c ; 

able, possible ; 

use, employment, neces- 
sity; ba 5 cu ; t a b f e;bm annra 
^campa, to empby them in the 
camn : tnn,< n ^ -,^ n 

v) 5^0 j:e;bn), as 


j r 1 /"-'oott//*, VtUKU. 

and answers all the persons sin- 
plar and plural, as F e;b;^ horn, 
teat, & c . 

, I do not know that 
loody, with effusion of 

sharpy ex. r ob ^jat ^o 
/ta f e; je, sit /taster clinmts 
contra anna acuta. 
pejie a warrior, champion, or 

slaughterer; plur. r e ;r;b. 
pe; 5 e, the top of a house, hill, or 

u> to catch or apprehend. 

-e;l, a b F e;l, secretly. 
pe;l and f 6;le, and j:5;j;I, the 
vigil of a feast ; sometimes the 
least itself; f 6;l 0?;c;l, rigttia, 

pejle and F 6;leac'b, generositv, li- 
berahh- ; cojne ^;le, a kind of 
furnace or chaldron that was 
formerly in constant use amon- 
he Irish b;ataj;b-, or open 
hoiise-keepers ; hence in the 
V> elshfelaig signifies a prince, 
pejle, arrant, bad in a hi-h de- 
gree ; ex. j:e;le b;teamna6, an 
arrant thief; f e;le b'/tea;^, an 
arrant her. 

>/-, the second sight 
', vanity, a trifle, 
c, frivolous, trifling. 

pywr^Sj/tj a whifler, a vain 

fellow tliat talks of trifles. 
pe;l;^e, a festilogimn, or a calen- 


dar of vigils and feasts of saints, 
or other solemnities. 

pe;lte<xcb, a feasting, or keeping 
of holidays ; bfiejt-pejlteacb, 
the solemnity of one's birth-day ; 
jre;tt;ugdb, the same. 

pejmbeab, denial, refusal. 

pe;me<x/7, the feminine gender. 

pe;m;neac, feminine, effeminate. 

pejn, self; tu pejn, thyself; e 
pejn, himself; ;<xb pejn, them- 
selves; also own, proper; jon<x 
<xm j:e;n, in its proper season. 

pe;ne, a farmer, or husbandman, 
a boor, or ploughman. 

pe;nne, or j:;cin<xjbe, the Fenii, or 
the famous old Irish militia. 

pe;/i, a bier, or coffin ; Lat. fere- 
trum ; oib concdba/t ba b<xm 
<xlla 50 jre;/-t e<xt<x/ita <xju^ <xr> 
co/ip <xnn, they saw two wild 
oxen and a bier slung between 
them, whereon a corpse was laid. 
L. B. 

pe;/i, the genit. of jre<x/i, or jreu/x, 
hay, grass; lucj:e;/i, a shrew, or 

, a bramble, or briar. 
, a ferret 
anger, indignation; gen. 

pe;/in feo;t tujnge, the lower end 
of a mast. 


LC;;!/^-;, strength, courage. 

pe;/ybe, plur. of jre<x/i^-<xb, the 
pits or lakes of water remaining 
on the strand at low water or 
ebb ; hence bet nd. jre;/t^be, the 
town of Belfast, in the north- 
east of Ulster, takes its name. 

, a convention, a convocation, 
or synod ; as pejf tearo/tac, the 
solemn convention of the princes 
and petty sovereigns of Meath 
atTara; jrejr Camrm, and pe)f 
C;iu<xcna, the parliament of 
Eamhan in Ulster, and that of 
Cruachan in Connaught ; ce;y- 

the parliament of 

an entertainment. 
', a pig, swine, &c. 
carnal communication. 

and j:e;^tea^, entertain- 
ment, accommodation ; pej/"- 
tecx^- o;bce, a night's lodging. 

pe;t, honey-suckle ; bujtleabAfi 
pe;te, the leaf of honey-suckle. 

pe;t, a vein, a sinew ; plur. j:e;te- 
<xc<x and jrejteanrxx. 

pe;c, tranquillity, silence. 

pe;team, or j:e;t;om, to wait, or 
attend, to oversee ; tu; fe <x 
b^rejtrecxm, he lies in wait; <xj 
pe;te<xm Qf cjonn, overseeing. 

pejteam, a taking care of, looking 
at ; j:e;team b;trcealtac, earnest 
expectation ; genit. jrejcroe, tucb 
jre;tme na fieuttan, star-gazei-s. 

pe;t;be, a beast. 

to gather, or assemble ; 
also to keep, or preserve; ^on 
tre;t;^~, i. e. ;to cojmeabu^, you 
kept or preserved. 

pejtteog, the husk or pod of 
beans, peas, &c. 

pe;tme6j/t, an overseer or stew- 

?et, strife, debate. 

!?ete<xcan, a butterfly. 

!Tete<x^t:<x/i and jrete^c/iom, or 
etert/iom, a water-plant called 
a flag; Wei. silastar and etc Kir. 

peljn and petoj, honey-suckle ; 
vid. pe;t. 

pern and Bremen, a woman or wife ; 
Lat. fcemina, Gall, fwninc.. 

/ ^ 

pen, a wain, a cart, or waggon, 

pen-cecxp, the ring of a cart- 

peneojft, a carter, or waggoner. 

peneut, fennel ; jrenneul <xca;b, 

peoba;b, hard. 

peob/mb, a manner or fashion. 

,, flesh-coloured, or car- 

r ' 


peo;/tljn;i, a farthing. 
-i peol and peojl, flesh meat. 

peolab6j;i, a butclier. 

peotba/i, fleshy,, full of flesh, fat. 

peolmac, flesh meat. 

peo/tdn, a green ; also a mountain- 
valley, or land adjoining to a 

peocab and jreotajm, to wither ; 
jreocta, dry, withered. 

peotdn and reotandn. or j:eot-<x- 

bdn, a thistle. 
?e/ten, a thigh. 
Te^, a mouth; also an entry. 
~ej-, to kill or destroy; pef <xn 
mjljb, he shall kill "the cham- 

pec, a sinew; rid. pejt. 

pec, science, knowledge, instruc- 

?et<x, fur or hair. 

Tetleog, honeysuckle. 

?euc, see, behold. 

?euc<xm and j:e<vcaro, to see, to 

peuc<x;n, or pjaca;n, a look or 
aspect ; peucujn uajb/teac, a 
proud, disdainful look. 

peubab and jreuba;m, to be able; 
)0na.f~ md peub<xm, so that if we 

peupijur, absence, want ; <i breuj- 
mcvty- bjb, without meat. 

peu/t, grass; pju/t t;/t;m, hay. 

peuftca, a hay-loft, or hay-yard; 
feu^-lan and peu/t-loc, the 

p;, fretting; also anger, indigna- 

pj, bad, naughty, corrupt; hence 
the English interjection fie ! 

p;d, land. 

pjab^a/-, or pab/tu;-, an ague, or 
fever; rj&b/tujr t;nnr;je, a hot 
fever ; Lat.febris. 

p;ac<v;l, a tooth ; ejb;n-p;Ac<xjl, 
the foreteeth ; pjaclot ponaj-. 


late grown teeth ; jrjacla ca;t- 
6a;b, cheek or jaw teeth ; co;n- 
^;<xcla, madness of dogs ; yt<x;n- 
jr;<xcla, tusks or gag-teeth. 

p;o.c, or jrjabac, hunting. 

pjac, a raven ; j:;<xc p<x;^;t5e, or 
|:;<xc-m<Xft<x, a cormorant. 

pjac, debt ; plur. pjaca and 

we ought, or are obliged, 
iaclac, having great teeth or 
tusks ; jrjaclcv cott<x;cc. boar's 

, a lord. 
, land. 

?;<xba, savageness, wildness. 
;<xb, meat, victuals, food; ubcil 
bo. f o p;<ib, an apple which was 
good food. 

p;<xb, a deer ; j:;ab ;tudb, red 
deer ; c<i;^;i-p;o.b, a stag or 
buck; jr;ab-ponn, a fallow deer; 
ge<X)trt-p;ab, a hare : hence the 
Sab. f<pdi(.<i,ibr hffdus of the Lat. 
^ id. Festus Antiq. and Varro : 
Hircus, says he, quod Sabini 
jircus ; et quod illic fcsdus in 
Lath rure hcedus. I have ob- 
sen-ed that the inhabitants of the 
Tyrrhenian valleys, near Tarbe 
and Bagnieres, pronounced the 
letter h like f in the beginning 
of words; thus, for Pierrc-fite 
they say Pierre-kite, the name 
of a village near Barege. 

pjaba, a testimony, or witness- 

pjaba, lao^ pjaba, a fawn. 

p;<xbac, venison; also hunting a 
deer: hence it is put for any 
hunting game. 

pjabac, hunting ; gen. jrjaba; j ; 
lucr paba; j, huntsmen or hunt- 

pjabac, detesting, hating. 

p;ab<vjm, to tell or relate; jrja- 
b<xjb <x bd^-, they relate his death ; 
fj<vb<x;b t;/ie, sicvt tes- 

tarttur historic?. 

abajje, or jrjajujbe, a hunts- 


n and pabu;n, wild, savage ; 
j:;<xba;r), the rock-goat. 
c, a wild boar. 
-;<xb j<xb, a hunting-spear. 

- ;<xb-lo/ij<x, a hunting pole. 

- Jcxbmuc, a wild boar or sow. 

<xbr)<v/^e, presence, witness, tes- 

timony ; <x bp;<xbnaj^e <xn bujne 

yo, before this man. 
p;abn<x;^eab, a bearing witness. 
CJ<xbntxj^;m, to bear witness, to 

p;<xb-/iO;b;^, wild radish; fjab- 

<ib<xt, a wilding, a crab-tree; 

a wild rose. 
inquisitive ; j:;<X):/i<vj j- 

and jrjapiajjjm, to 
ask, to inquire, or be inquisitive 
about; jcjaptoca tu bo^<xn, thou 
shalt ask him. 

p;<x;le, weeds. 

p;<x;l-t:e<xc, a house of office. 

p;<xl, the veil of the temple, which 
hung between the people and 
the sancta sanctorum, and was 
of a prodigious thickness; ex. 


tecunpu;U <x r)b;ble;t;b 5 ca a 
uacba^i 50 a ;ocb<x/i, aj^ /to 
cum^-cujjeab <xn talam, <iju^ 
;tob lu^jecxb^ na cloca, txju^- 
/tob bo^lajcce na ?)<xbnac<xjl, 
hereupon (at the death of Christ) 
the veil of the temple was rent 
in two from the top t;> the bot- 
tom, and the earth trembled, 
(was thrown into a confusion or 
convulsions,) and the rocks were 
burst asunder, and the tombs 
were opened. L. B. 
al, generous, liberal ; bu;ne pal, 
a generous person ; hence j:e;le, 
, a ferret. 



, consanguinity. 
c, a hero, a champion, a 
p;alm<x/i, bountiful. 
p;<xlmu;/ie and jrj<xlmu;/teacb, li- 
berality, bounty. 

^, a place where ferrets 
are bred; tjj t<ty"<xj/i bo/tb <xj- 
<x biacxb, au & <x 


out of his throat 
proceeded a great flame of fire, 
just as from a blazing furnace, 
which stunk like a ferret-fold. 
L. B. 

p^amcXfKXct, a glutton. 

p;<xm, a footstep, a trace, or track. 

^<xm, fear, reverence. 

?;<xm, ugly, horrible, abominable. 

C";<xm, a chain. 

r;am<xb, a tracing, or pursuing. 

pJ<X!Ti<vn, a heinous crime; jr;<xrr)' 
co;/i, the same. 

p;<in-bot, a tent, hut, or cottage. 

p;ann Cj;iean, a kind of militia or 
trained bands in Ireland ; amongst 
whom p;onn G0cxc-Cu;l was as 
much celebrated as Arthur in 

p;a/i, crooked; also wicked, per- 

p;a/i<xc, -cTo;b p;d/tac, a large ter- 
ritory comprehending the great- 
est part of the County of Gal- 
way, which anciently belonged 
to the O'Heynes and to the 

pjOftcxc, <To;b p;<X;tdc, now called 
Guam u; C0f;ea/i<x, in Tipperary, 
the estate of the O'Mearas, and 
of that sept of the O'Neills who 
descended from Coga/7 GOo/ie, 
son of OIljolol;m. 

p;d/t<xb and ^r;a/-ta;m, to twist or 
wreath, to bend; also to warp, 
as in a board that warps or bends. 
% a crookedness 



ta, wreathed or twisted. 
, <ib f )&f, I will tell or relate, 
i- id. jr;ab<xm. 
ja^ba-t, anger. 
p;<vtjajl, vetches. 
P; j, rectius jrjubuc, a portion of 

land, or a fee farm. 
pjc, a country village, or castle ; 
Lat. vie us rusticus ; ex. ba b;/-- 
t<x;n;j 6 Je/tu^alem 50- 
<xn pjc ba;t<xb <x;nm 
. L. B. Two disciples 
who came from Jerusalem unto 
the village called Emails. 
p;c;m, to put, or sell ; also to 

pjc;m, to fight ; ex. fjztfb cejt^e 
cac<x jTfij c^u;t-n;B, they fought 
four battles with the Picts. Tliis 
Irish word is of a Germano- 
Celtic origin, as appears by its 
close affinity and resemblance to 
the Anglo-Saxon wordjgA. It 
makes jr;ctrecin and pet in the 
third person singular of the per- 
fect; as fjcjc fe, he fought; 
jr;cre<x/t cat: i-jffe, &c., the 
liattle of the banks of the river 
Liffey was fought by, &c. fid. 
Chron. Sector, passim. 

. twenty. 

e0j, a small pipe, a whistle. 
, a spear or lance. 
, a custom, manner, or 

to weave or knit ; vid. 

P;b;t;n, a small fiddle. 
pj^e, of a fig-tree ; bujtleaba 

p; jecan, a garland, a wreath ; also 

a web, or weaving. 
pjgeab, a weaving or knitting. 
p; j;m, to weave ; ma p;jjor tu, if 

you weave. 
pjie<\b6;>t, a weaver. 


, the woof or weft, the 
set of threads that crosses the 
warp ; also the genitive case of 
the word jrj jecxboj/t, a weaver. 

pJceAll, a buckler. 

pjjpb, a fig ; f J^eaba u/ta, green 

p;lb;n, a lap-wing. 

pjte, a poet or bard ; j:;le jro j > - 
l<xiDC<x, a learned poet. 

pjleabacb, p >etry ; 

pjte<xb, a fillet. 

pjleoj/t, a spruce fellow, a cr 

p;l;m, I am ; jr;t tu, you are ; jr;l 
;-e, he is; jrjlmjb, we are; jr;l 
fjb, or jrjtrj, ye are; fjljb, tl 

pjUeab, a fold or plait. 

pjUjrn, to tuni or retuni ; bo p;l- 
leabd/t, they tumed ; 50 p ;lt;h 
tu, until your return ; jrjttjb 
bu;t njlun, bend your knee, also 
to wrap or fold ; <vj prjlte<xb a 
neuba;j, wrapping up their 

p;lljf, pro jrealla;/-, that be- 

pjtltre, folded, also a folding ; 
beaTCin pjtlce no. lajme, a little 
folding of the hand. 

pjm, drink; also wine; bo bA;- 
teab pm <x c/te;c;'t, wine was 
administered out of cups ; where 
note that c^ejc;it is of the same 
root with c/iOLtena.. 

p;m;neac, a hypocrite. 

pjmjneacb, hypocrisy. 

P;ne, a tribe or family; kindred 
or stock ; a nation or people ; 
c;ne j-cajt f\\0j\ <xn fjne ; n 
&f jrea/tbe pne ; alsa a soldier. 

p;ne<xt-cu^C<x. the herb sweet fen- 
nel ; Lat. fame id inn didcc. 

pjne<xt-fftcv}be, sow-fennel; Latin, 
jneciccty-, an inheritance. 

, a nation, 
and genit. 

a twig or osier, or any other 
small rod; ex. to. ce;t;m <x; f]- 
neamir/n ; Lat. in curru vimi- 
neo. Brogan ; also a vine or 
vineyard ; n; jobajb me bon to- 
;t<xb yo na jcjnearona, nonbibam 
ex hoc fructu vitis ; bo caj/i 
jab na j:;neamu;n, eZ wmY eos 
in vineam stiam. 

p;neu/t, a stock or lineage. 

p;n;be<xc, wise, prudent, &c. 

p;nn and p;onn, white; also milk. 

pjnnbaba; j, a counterfeit sigh. 

-;nne, attendance. 

-Jnne, testimony. Matt. 10. 18. 

~;nnell, a shield; jrjnnen, zWew. 

-jnniejnte, the Norwegians, or 
rather the Finlanders ; and bub- 
je;nte, the Danes. 

p;nn;beacb, care, vigilance. 

pjnn^real, a romance or story of 
the Fenii. and paoBa/t, an edge, or 
point, a whetting. 

j -Joe, wrath, anger, choler. 

?;oc, land. 

?;ocba and pocma/t, angry, per- 
verse, fierce, fro ward; yujl fj- 
ocba, an angry look. 

p;oc/i<x, anger. 

pjocujl, having twenty angles or 

pjobab, laughter. 

pjobab and jc;oba;m, to laugh. 
pjob, a wood or wilderness. 
, shrubs. 
, a witness. 
;, hollowness. 

b, a wood, a thicket, or wil- 
derness; pi. jrjobbajbe, as )nnjf 
TI<X bjrjObb<X)Se, a name of Ire- 
land, i. e. the Woody Island. 

r;ob-c<xt, a wild cat. 

?;obnac, manifest, plain. 

?;ob/i<xc, increase. 
, fashion. 


p;ob/iu5a, a wood or thicket. 
, a wall ; e/tejr <xn b 

through the wall. 

p;o j, a braid or wreath ; pole <*;~ 
<x p] je, the hair out of its braid- 


, a four-square figure. 
pjo j<x/t, a figure, a sign ; t/ie pjo- \ 

j<x;fi no. c/to;^e, through the 

sign of the cross ; jrjoj^ac, 


P?5 5 5' a fig-tree. 
p;on, wine ; Lat. vinum ; fjon \ 

p;onn, white wine. 
p;on and p;0nn, small, little, few ; 

also white. 

a grape, i. e. c<xo/t no. 

p;0nac, old, ancient. 

pjon<xj<x;U, the Fiugallians, inha- 

bitants of Fingal ; rid. j:;0njal. 
pjonbot, a tent, or booth. 
p;oncao/t, a grape. 
PJonblo^, a wine press. 
pjonbu;lle, a vine-leaf. 
pjon-pv^tean, a wine press. 
p;onpxb, the beard ; also fine hair 

or fur; rid. jr;onnab. 
p;onp}<x/t, cool, tepid. 
p;onpua;/te and pon pua;^ea^, a 

coolness, a gentle gale. 
p;on-pi;/ime<Xb, a maxim. 
p;on j<xt, or jrjngujle, treason ; but 

properly the murder of a rela- 

tion, a parricide; compounded 

of jrjne, a family or kindred, 

and g<xl or ju/le, slaughter, 

murder, &c. 
p;onT<xl<xc, a murderer, a parri- 

cide ; jrjon-jall, a Fingallian. 
pjong0;tt, a vineyard. 
p;on-]ab/iajm, to verify. 
pjbnmufi, abounding with wine, also 

a wine-bibber. 
p;onn, white, pale ; also fine, plea- 

p;onn, sincere, true, certain ; 50 

jr;onn ; verily, without doubt. 

pjonn, little, small ; <ty- c;u jrea/t 
p;onn, I saw a little man. 

pjonn Loclannac, a Norwegian. 

pjonnab, a waggon or chariot. 

pjonnab, hair, fur, &c. ; pjonnab 
t;at, grey hairs ; jr;onnab 50.; 
6a/t, goat's hair ; <x jeu;nneab 
an pjonnab, against the grain or 

pjonnabmac, hairy, having hair or 

pjonpj/ttean, called c Jo nt an, long 
coarse grass, usually growing in 
marshy or low grounds; px;fi!> 
aga/- nooj^N&ean ; rid. Cat- 
;tejm CbojM. bealb. 

pjonnam, to look upon, to behold, 
to see, also to pay for ; bj:;onn- 
pa;b;f na floj j fjn, the army 
would pay dear for it. 

pjonnaob, neat, clear, clean. 

pjonnaolta, white-washed 



wherewith vines are tied, 
pjonnjrabac, fine, smooth 


pjonn pua/tab, a cooling or refresh- 

E}onnco^-ma;l, probable, 
jonn-coprmlacb, a probability. 
p;onn-obta;b, sober, abstemious. 
pjoriflujf, a territory in the County 
of Tyrconnel, formerly the pa- 
trimony of the O'Forananes and 
the O'Carnahanes. 
a well. 
ic, a flower. 

white-shield, a sir- 

pjonnua, a grandson's grandchild. 

p;onu;/i, the vine-tree ; Lat. ritis. 

p;o/t, true, also notable ; Lat. ve- 

p;o^ab and jrjonam, to make cer- 
tain, to verify ; aju^ bo p;0;tab 
an pajf tr;ne, and the omen was 

p;Ofia;beacb. veracity. 

n, salutation, welcome. 

pjoft-coj-malacb, a probability. 

pjo/iba, sincere, true, righteous. 

p;0rt jlan, pure, clean, sincere ; 6 j 
p;o/tjlan, the immaculate vir- 

p;o/tilu;ne, sincerity ; also the 
quintessence of a thing. 

pjon-jocta/t, the lowest, or the 
bottom ; pjo/t joctaft an ua;m 
a;6^";je ub jojr^ujnn, the bot- 
tom of that stupendous furnace 
of hell. 

r;0ftmame;nt, the firmament. 

-;0ft-onba, illustrious. 

-;o;t^a;beac, frivolous, trifling. 

t?;o^;ta;beact:, truth, veracity. 

p;0;tfta;bteac, that speaks the 

the same, 
bon pjo^a, of necessity. 

?;0;tcan, long coarse grass growing 
in marshy places. 
' 3 justify. 


, art, science, knowledge, also 
vision, understanding ; pea;-, 
idem; genit. p;/-e; Lat. visus, 
risio ; tdjnjj bom p)Of, he came 
to see me. 

p;o^ac, knowing, expert ; pea^-ac, 

p;o^a;b;m, to know. 

P;o^rta;jceac and rjo^rtac, in- 
quisitive, busy, pryinir; percunc- 

|ta; j;m, to know 
mine, to inquire, 

r;otna;^e, sorcery, 
ornate, poison. 
;i, the genit. of pea/t, as lam no 
co^" an p;/i, the man's hand or 
foot ; also the nominat. plural, as 
p;/t c^toba, gallant men. This 
Irish word j:;;t or pea/t, a man, 
one grown up to man's ability or 
strength, is like the Hebrew 

; also to exa- 
or be busy 



word TUN* which signifies a 
strong or able man, robustus, 
potens, validus. Vid. Buxtorf. 
et Opitius Lexic. Hebr. p;^ or 
fe<x/i signifies the male sex, and 
answers exactly to the Lat. vir ; 
as bu;ne, which has a close affi- 
nity with the Greek Sura/ucu, 
possum, validus sum, 8fc. ; hath 
also the same signification with 
the Lat. homo, and is a common 
name to the human race, whe- 
ther male or female ; vid. bu;ne. 

p;/ib, swiftness. 

pj/ibolg, the third colony, accord- 
ing to Keating, that came into 
Ireland before the Milesians. 
There are yet, says he, three fa- 
milies in Ireland descended from 
the Firbolgs, viz. 
T^uca in Connaught, 
in Failge, and the 
Leinster. N. B. There were 
any other families of them, 
and perhaps are still subsisting 
in Ireland, such as the Martins 
of Galway and Limerick, and 
the following : 

p;/t C/7rt<*5;be, or p;/t na C/tcxojIie, 
a tribe of the Belgians in the 
province of Connaught. 
true, genuine, 
a bramble, 
and j:j/ie<xcb, truth. 

!T;;teab, a bottom, a floor. 

!?;/ie<xb, a ferret ; Lat. viverra. 
/te<xn and jr;/tea/iac, a true- 
hearted or just man, righteous. 

p;fte<xrm, male, masculine ; jp jne- 
xxnnac and jrj/teomnba, idwn ; 
vid. jreaft, sti^ra. 

Ejfteann, a chain, or garter. 
;;te<xnnac, one of the male sex, a 
boy or man. 
p;^e<xnn<xct, manhood. 
p;/teanta, true, just, righteous, 

integrity, righteous- 
230 * 

t- wtfh 
&y a 

ness, loyalty. 

pJfieu/Kxm, to justify, to verify. 
p;/i-;m;ol, the utmost coast or bor- 


p;/i;n, a despicable little fellow. 
p;;vjflne, the truth. 
p;/t;nne<xc, true, just, faithful ; 50 

j:;/r;r)ne<xc, truly, certainly. 
pjpjnfce, the masculine gender. 
/- % ;/t-jonab(Xc, a lieutenant. 
p;/t-ljona;m, to multiply. 
P;/tmeo;/t, a farmer. - 
p;/yj, strength, power. A 
p;/itecxn, bound, obliged. 
)f, colour, a dying, or tincture. 
p)f, a dream. 

f and fjf &, the genit. of pj 

knowledge, also a vision ; jrea/t- 
a seer rid' 

p;t, a collation, or low mess, a 

p;t, land. 
p;te, or pjjte, woven, wreathed, 

twisted, braided. 
p;te&n, a quill ; p;tean jr;o jbo/u\, 

a weaver's quill. 
pjtean, a hog. 
p)tc;ob, twenty; cxn pc;obm<xb, 

the twentieth. 
p;tc;ol, and genit. jrjtcjlle, a full 

or complete armour, consisting 

of corslet, helmet, shield, buck- 

ler, and boots, c. ; as, 

o ;t; <i;yj 50 ;tj Ceam/i<xc, 
the king of Cashcl presented to 
the king of Tara thirty coats of 
mail and thirty complete ar- 

pjccjll and jr;tcjlte, tables, or 
chess-board; <xj ;m;/tt: jrjtcjtlc, 
playing at tables, or chess. 

pjc;/t and j:e<xt<vj/i, a doctor or 

pjt/tecxc, that kind of sea-rack 
which is called bi/jlea^, or sea- 
grass, and is wholesome to be 
eaten in the morning, as some 

it is 
I n; 


p;u, worth ; <xy jrju <x;nj;b e 
worth silver, also worthy 
jrju roe, I am not worthy. 

p;u, like, alike. 

P;ubd^, dignity, worth. 

pjucac, boiling. 

pjucab and pjucajm, to boil up, to 
spring forth. 

pjucab, a boiling, or springing 
forth; Lat. scatebra. 

pjin and rjuna^", price or value. 

worthy, deserving ; 50 
,c, worthily : Lat. aigne. 
~, merit, worth, dignity. 

, sanguine or murrey, 
being a staynard colour in lie- 
raldry, used to express some 
disgrace or blemish in the fa- 

plaj/i-bea/tjtact, the bloody flux. 

plajt, a lord, also a prince or 
king; \rm.flach, and formerly 
a kingdom ; plat, idem. 

plajtr, a kind of strong ale or beer 
among the old Irish. 

L, a man s proper name ; 
whence O'pl<x;tbeanta, a fa- 
mily-name descended from the 
stock of the O'Connors of Con- 
naught, and whose ancient pro- 
perty was the territory called 
GOu;nt;;tiT)imcu, in that province 
of which thev were proprietary 

11 * 


la}r-cj^t:e, a royal treasure, 
plajteamajl, generous. 


;- and jrlajteammo.;-, sove- 
reignty-, rule, or dominion, a 
kingdom; pl<xjtea;~ CjnjOnn, 
the realm of Ireland, also the 
kingdom of Ireland; jrlajteo./* 
Oe, the kingdom of God; it 
likewise means a reign, as cl<xj- 
tea^ Cjb;t, the reign of Heber ; 
jrlajtea^ n<x bjrlajtea^, the 
Heaven of Heavens, or the king- 

dom of Heaven. 

, a heathen priest. 
, jrtann, blood ; also red. 

, the proper name of several 
sreat chiefs of the old Irish. 
pt<xnn, whence O'ptajn, English, 
O'Flin, a family-name of which 
I find four different chiefs de- 
scended from different stocks. 
One in Connaught, of the same 
stock with the O'Connors of that 
province, who was distinguished 
by the name of O'plajn-ljne, 
and whose estate was the district 
called Ckijn-iDoelfiuano.; ano- 
ther OTl<x;n, descended from 
Ccll<x-u<x;;-, king of Ulster and 
Meath in the fourth century, was 
dynast, or chief lord of Hytuir- 
tre, in Orgiala, of which district 
O'bon<xllajn had a share ; rid. 
6on<xllajn. A third O'pla;n, 
of the stock of the O'^onocu^, 
was proprietor and lord of the 
large district called OOu^c^tj-J- 
pbtajnn, extending from the ri- 
ver Dribseach, near Blarney, to 
Bally voorny ; his principal resi- 
dence was the old castle of Ma- 
croom, built by one of the 
O'Flins, and called Ca;/-lean-J- 
pbldjn/?, from the name of its 
founder. This family continued 
proprietary lords of that country 
until towards the beginning of 
the fourteenth century, when the 
Mac Cartys of Blarny over- 
powered them, and after putting 
their chief to an ignominious 
death, possessed themselves of 
all his lands and castles. A 
fourth O'pldjnn, of a more an- 
cient stock than any of those 
just mentioned, being of the 
old Lugadian race, was called 
O'plo.;nn-<l'/tba, from the place 
of his residence, which was the 
castle of Arda, near Baltimore, 
in the west of the County of 

Cork. He was lord of the dis- 
trict anciently called JS-batl;- 
amna, in whose centre is situated 
that castle whose ruins are still 
to be seen. 

planna;z;cvr>, whence OTlannagajn, 
a family-name, of which the To- 
pographical and Genealogical 
Poems of O'Dugan and Mac- 
Fearguil, mention five chiefs of 
different stocks and in different 
provinces of Ireland. First, 
O'Flannagan of Orgialla, who 
was proprietary lord of a large 
district called Cuat-/tat:a, in 
the County of Fermanagh, and 
descended from the same stock 
with the Maguires, lords of In- 
niskillin, and the Mac Mahons, 
all descendants of Colla-ba- 
Crrjoc, brother of Cotla-ua;^, 
king of Ulster and Meath, soon 
after the beginning of the fourth 
century. Fid. Cambren. Ever- 
sus, p. 26. The present here-, 
ditary chief of this family is 
Colonel John O'Flannagan, now 
an officer of particular note and 
merit in the Imperial service, 
whose younger brother, James 
O'Flannagan, Esq., is Lieute- 
nant-Colonel of Dillon's regi- 
ment in France. A second 
O'Flannagan, descended from 
the stock of the O'Connors of 
Connaught, was dynast, or lord 
of the country called Ctancatojt, 
jointly with O'Cfloel-COo/iba, 
b'Ca/ttajb, and 0'00o/t^e;n. 
Jiff. Canib. Erers. p. 27. A 
third O'Flannagan was dynast of 
of a district called Comar, in 
Meath. Fid. Camb. En>rs..\\ 
25. But his particular stock I 
am not enabled to point out. A 
fourth O'Flannagan of the same 
stock with O'Carol of Cjte-J- 
Cbeartbujt in the King's County 
and that of Tipperary, desoen- 

dants of Ca;bj, son of C;an, 
son of Oljoll-olum, king of the 
south half of all Ireland, in the 
beginning of the third century, 
was dynast, or lord of the ter- 
ritory formerly called Qneat- 
a/tja, in the King's County. 
And a fifth O'Flannagan, of 
what stock I cannot ascertain, 
was dynast of the territory called 
Uact<Xft-t;/ie, on the borders of 
the County of Tipperary towards 
that of Waterford. 

!?tan/~5ao;jleab, the bloody flux. 
-^ujleac, that has red eyes. 
r, or j: la;t, a prince. ^~- 
, a sitting, or session. 

pleab, a banquet, feast, or enter- 
tainment ; jrleaj, idem. 

ple<xba;m, to feast, or banquet. 

pleaboica^, a feasting or banquet- 
ing ; j:le<x j<xc<x^, idem. 
ea^g, a rod or wand; bo /tab 
(!);a an jrtea^g po/t ala;n <x 
la;m 0?ao;^e, i. e. God gave the 
wonder-working rod to Moses. 
L. B. 

a wreath, a rundle 

, moisture. 
, a sheaf; jrtea;'A 
u;le bo rteactajn bo 
)0fep, the sheaves of all the 
sons bent themselves before the 
sheaf of Joseph. L. B. 

ptea^ac, a fiddler ; also a clown, 
a rascally fellow. 

plea^racan, an ignoble fellow, u 

piea^lama, land, a field, farm, or 

pl;ce, phlegm, moisture ; also the 
comparative degree of fljuc, 
wet, moist. 

?l;ceacb, moisture, Doziness. 

Tljcnoeab, any measure for liquids. 

|?l;b and ptejb, chick-weed ; Wei- 




pl;r, the herb chick-weed; Lat. 

?l)0)r, idem quod plajt. 

?l;/team, to water. 

rl;uc, wet, moist, dank, oozy. 

?l;ucam, to wet, to water, to moist- 
en ; pl;uctan e, let it be wetted 
or moistened, &c. 

pl;uc-/-u;leacb, the disease of the 
eyes, when watering continually. 

ploc, lax, or soft ; Hispanice, 
ft oxo. 

ploca^, or ploccy, a lock of wool, 
a flock. 

plan, meal, flower ; otherwise 
and metaph. plu/t or plu/t 
bpea/t, the choice of men. 
- po, under, into, &c., like pa and 
pe; also to, towards, at, with, 
&c. ; vid. pa. 

*0, a king, prince, or sovereign. 

?5, good; vid. p;. 

To, easy, quiet, unconcerned ; poj 
IjOmya rno lu; jjob, I am uncon- 
cerned for my small stature, 
po, in compound words implies 
fewness or rarity, also smallness ; 
0-bu;ll;be, a lew strokes; po- 
bobajn, thin or little water; po 
bu;ne, a mean man. 
po, honour, esteem, regard ; jan 
po jan po;i;cjnt:, without honour 
or relief. 

. e. pjappuj e, nqurng, 
asking ; as poact ^eal bon 
beo/tujje, ask the stranger what 

tvjftn pojlcunca, swarms of learn- 
ed men. Kent. 
-oba;n, begun, commenced. 
-obajb, quick, swift, nimble. 
?o-?Mjlte, the suburbs of a city. 
, sick, infirm, weak. 
, a salve or ointment 
no. ^"ut, eye-salve. 
_ob;c, because, because that. 
, tawny, yellowish. 
a thistle. 




f?oc, obscure. 

>cal, a word; Lat tocalis ; a 
vowel, also a promise ; pocal- 
roaga;b, a scoff, a taunt, or by- 

-Ocal-pneumacr, etymology. 
rocal-p;teumu;je, an etymologist 

, profuse, prodigal. 
!?ocajbe, scoffing; vid. pocu^b. 
!?oca;be, a disease, a disorder. 
!?0cajn, a cause, a motive, or rea- 

poca;n, disturbance, quarreling, 
pocajn, along with; am poca; t, 
along with me, in my company ; 
ajt bpoca;^t, with us. 
pocall, dirt, filth, corrupt matter. 
pocan, food, fodder, provender, 
pocan, young and tender in the 


pocla, a den, or cave ; pocla leo- 
roan, a lion's den ; pocla po, the 
seat or mansion house of a lord. 
?ocmab, scorn, contempt. 
-Ocnac, a reward or recompense. 
?oc/tab, banishing, or routing ; a. 
bpocnab an u;lc bo iujt CaiDOn, 
in banishing iniquity Edmond 
lost his life. 

, happiness, bliss, felicity. 
, the bosom. 

, f a peant: ann, her grave 
was dug there. Chrou. Scot. 
poet:, interrogation, or asking a 


pocujbe, or pocujbmeab, a flout, a 
jeer; also derision, scorn, con- 
pocujbm;m, to scoff, to mock, to 

jeer, to deride, to scorn. 
pocu;bmeac, joking, deriding, jeer- 
ing; also a mocker, &c. 
pocla, a proposition, a maxim. 
poclo;n, a vocabulary, or dic- 

pob, art'or skill. 

pot), a clod of earth, glebe, soil, 
'2 G 

' land, &c. ; hence the Lat.fodio, 
to dig, andfeodum, orfeudum, 
a fief, or fee. 

pobac, wise, prudent, discreet. 

pobal<x;m, to divide, to distin- 

pobb/iu;b and pctocnufr,, fiends, fu- 

pob, knowledge, skill. 

poba;t, a division ; also releasing, 
or dissolving. 

pobcUl;m, to loose or untie; vid., to divide. 

pObb, a cutting down. 

pob^n. rid. -pdnn. 

pr,bo/ib, the humming or -murmur- 
ing of bees, -any loud noise; also 
a conspiracy or plot. 

pobujne, any man in low life, a 


, a yard, a park, or enclo- 

pogojl, to teach, or instrr.ct ; also 
to dictate; ;to jro^ajl fe jub 
u;le, he dictated them all (to 
his clerk. ) J7r/. Anal. Tig/tern. 
Vid. jrojab, infra. 

pojajft, bo jrogaj/t ^e, he com- 
manded ; -tid. jrog/KXb ; also to 

po j and jrogab, is the radix of the 
word po;z;la;m, and of the same 
signification ; as bo jrO ye bo;b 
y&c <x tufi&if, he instructed 
them with the intent of his ex- 
pedition; vid. C(x;t/te;m Cbo;/t- 

po j, entertainment, hospitality. 

po j<x, a dart, also an attack, a rapt ; 
hence jro j-rrxxfuxc, a sea-robber, 
or pirate. 

po j<x;t, an inroad into an enemy's 
country, robbery, &c. 

poi<xl<x;m, to plunder, to spoil; 
derived from poj, a rapt, quod 

, a robber ; 


the same. 
po jal, the whole. 
poj<xna;m, to do good, to suffice, 

to serve. 
poj<xnca and j:ojoint<xc, good, 

prosperous, serviceable. 
pojantacb, goodness, prosperity, 


po j<xoc, a gentle gale or blast. 
poia.ft, a sound, a noise, or voice ; 

also a tone or accent ; bap)g<x/t, 

or beagp? jajtac, a diphthong ; 

and t/ieo.j-j:oJ4/t<xc, a triph- 


c, echoing, resounding, 

loud, noisy, clamorous. 

^<x/iajm, to make a noise, to 


^bd.n&n, a thistle. 
[To jl(X;m, learning, instruction. 

^ldnr)teoic, a novice, an appren- 

tice, a scholar; trojlujnte, the 


^lama and jrojtamttx, learaed, 

ingenious ; cea;tb po jlam<x, skill- 

ful artists ; sometimes written 

, lo commit trespass, to 

rob ; vid. j:o j. 
po^la^am, to grow pale. 
po jtatTKXjm, to learn ; bejtcx 50 

bfolcxjmjreci olc, for fear you 

should learn vice. 
pojlujdb, a ransacking, or rob- 

bing, &c. 
po^lujnte, a scholar, or appren- 

tice, a novice. 
po^irm/t, the harvest. 
po jmo/tdc, a sea-robber, a pirate ; 

rid. jro j. 

pojna;b, enough. 
pojn<x;m, to suffice, to do good ; 

rid. jro jana;in ; also to serve, to 

be in slavery; bo ceatfta t/tebe 

jrojnajb, quotnor fini/iliis inser- 

riebat. Vit. S. l^atricii. 

T), servitude, slavery, i. o. 
'. \ it. S. 



poT,la;ro, to loose or untie. 
pSjjitxb, fO/tfOTjta, and j:5Ta;fit, 

a warning, charge, or caution ; 

also a proclamation or decree, 

an ordinance or declaration, 
pojftab and p)Tjta;m, to warn or 

caution, to order or decree, 
pojt-a/tta, a district in Leinster, 

Eossessed anciently by the O'Nua- 

-, near, at hand; a 
bo, near him; its comparative 
and superlative is fO;cj-e, or 
pyjf-je, nearer, or next. 

po;, i. e. Cnamco;tl, the name of a 
place near Cashel. 

pojceall, i. e. fOftma;l, a day's 
hire or wages, a salary, &c. 

po;cjll, to provide or prepare ; fto 
bdba/t tft; bl;ajana aj fojc;ll 
na fie; je fjn, they were three 
years preparing for that feast. 

po;bb;un, quick, smart, ready. 

po;bea^ra/t, is sent, gone, &c. ; 
an^;n ro;bea^raft ]5jla;b cu?t- 
p^ujft fo/t ceann )o^*a, TO rt;ab- 
j-ab ba ajallab, then Pilate sent 
a messenger for Jesus that he 
may come and speak to him. 

. Jj. 

?c;bneac, a little image. 

iro;b/teacba, likeness. 

?o;pb and fO;j;be, patience, for- 

po;j;beac, patient, forbearing. 

po; jjbeab and co;^;b;m, to bear 

P 5 JJP> a green plat, a mead. 

po;;j;^e and Ipoygfj, nearer, or 
next ; n; a/" f o; j^e, nearer ; bo 
b; ft poj-gfe bon ft; j, he was 
next to the kins. 

pojl, a while ; T,O f o;l, yet, as yet, 
also a little while ; pan TO coil, 

1 .-. J O | / s 

stay a wlnle. 

po;lbearna, fierce, cruel, terrible. 
po;lbejm, a blast, also a scandal 

or reproach ; jro;lBe;mnja jab, 

po;lceabftab, adjuration, conjur- 


[-o;lceabto;/t, a conjurer. 

-0;leaba, a truckle-bed. 

To;leab, a fillet, a woman's coif. 

_o;leana;m, to follow, to go after, 
to hang after. 

To;lea;tbab, death. 

?o;lea^an, an asp. 

?o;lleacbac, a research. 

ro;lleact, a track, a footstep. 

To; lie a^t, the bud of a flower. 

po;ll; jeac, negligent, sluggish ; 
written for f a;ll; jceac. 

po;ll; jeac and co;ll;iceac, pro- 
perly means hidden, latent, which 
does not exteriorly appear. Our 
old parchments of medicine use 
it frequently in this last sense. 

po;llp jjm and jro;Upujab, to re- 
veal or discover, to express, de- 
clare, or manifest ; 30 bpD;Ure- 
ocab ma;nm, that I may declare 
my name. 

, manifested, made plain. 
po;ll^-;ujab, a manifestation, or 

declaration, discovery. 
!To;lmean, a bad dress. 
|?o;meal, consumption. 
!To;mb;n, in expectation of, 
To;-neal, a little cloud. 
po;n/-e and pDjn^eoj, the ash- 


wells, springs, or foun- 


jnfjon, i. e. pojn^e-an)u;n, the 

name of a river in the County of 

Cork and barony of Fermoy. 

jft, help thou; ro;^ Oftt pejn, 

save thyself. Matt'. '27. 40. 
, a ship's crew, any number of 

people stowed in one place ; pi. 

ruj'tne ; \\ei\cc fi/trion. 
pojftbjm, to be present. 
p6;jtb;t;at:jtac, an adverb. 


poj/tb/vjOc, force, power. 
po;/ice<xb<xl, instruction, exhorta- 
tion, admonition, also a lecture 
&c. ; fO;;ice;beal, idem. 
po;;iceo.bcxla;ro, to teach, instruct, 

or admonish. 

po;,nceo,nn, the end or conclusion ; 
7,0 ro;/tceann no. talir)0.n, to the 
end of the earth ; also the front 
or forehead. 

po;^tc;ob<xl, a reinforcement. 
po;^ibe;/ic, more excellent. 
po;;ie<xm<!i;l, steep, headlong. 
po;|ieb;m, to prevent, 
poj/iegean, violence, constraint. 
po;;tj:e, old, ancient; also per- 

poj^eacb, old age ; also perfec- 

po;fi-p;<xcla, the foreteeth. 
po;/i jeallo., witness, testimony. 
po;/ij;ol, a declaration, manifesta- 
tion, &c ; ; fo;/t j;ol no. j:;;t;nne, 
the manisfestation of the truth. 
po;/tj;olo.;m, to prove, to declare. 
po;figl;be, nobility. 
po;/i^l;be, true, certain, 
poj/igljb;^, they used to swear, 
poj/ijneo.m, a building; po;;tgne- 

o. jo.b, a building, cedificium. 
poj/tjn; j;m, to build. 
po;;t;<x/i<xc, prejx)steroiis. 

f-QlMFJtfl** to perform, or exe- 

TrWJ&W' to sta y? to wait, or de- 
lay. f 

po;/i;jc;n, aid, help, relief, suc- 
cours; powjit;n bo lucb <xn 
y-6; j, a relief to the afflicted : 
also written pojpjn and fo;/t- 

, to bless or make happy, 
to relieve or assist ; also to 
heal, to save; p5;/t Oj\j\ujnn <x 
<-b;a/ina, help us, O Lord. 
po;/t;n)eat, the utmost part, the 
furthermost limit; also the cir- 
cumference of a circle ; ex. on 


roeobon TO po;^;meo.l, a centra 

usque ad circumferentiam. 
po;/t;noeal<xc, a front ; also extriiv 

sic, on the outside. 
pojjrjom/iab and j:o;ji;om/ia;bceab, 

a ceremony. 

po;fijom/ta;bt;e<xc, ceremonial. 
poj/ile<xt<xn, extensive, large ; 50 

jro;/tle<xt<xn, at large, in an ex- 

tensive ample manner : but in 

old parchments it signifies in 

general, universally. 
po;|tl;on, much, many. 
poj/il;0nab, a completion; also a 

po;/il;OrK\b and j:5;^ljonajm, to 

complete, to make perfect. 
po;/tl;ont<x, complete, perfect. 
poj/im, a form or manner, an 


po;;tne, dwellers, inhabitants; na 
the old inhabi- 

tants; the plur. of jru/t/i;on and 

po;;ine<j.b, inclination; <X 

necxb, headlong. 
po;/me<X;it, oppression, high hand ; 

xxg ;m;/tt: j:6;^nj^t; o/tftu;nn, op- 

pressing, or laying a heavy hand 

on us. 

po;/t/ie;t, manifest, apparent. 
po^t^*e<xb and pu;;t^e<xb, harrow- 


po;^itbe, a cut, or cutting off. 
poj;ttb;ieat:/7u j<xb, divination. 
po;/itc;, black, swarthy. 
poj/ttc;, i. e. fjo/tcu; j, a shoe. 
po);tto;n, enough. 

ajA^-j, rudiments, or intro- 


be, slaughter, massacre ; 

the massacre of the Delvins by 
the inhabitants of Ossory. 
Chron, Scot. 

?o;;tc;l, able, strong, hardy; Lsif- 
for Its. 

?o;/it;te, the comparat. and sit- 

perlat. of p);/tt;l, signifying more 
iiardy, and most hardy by pre- 
fixing /?; buf, or nj &f, to imply 
the comparative, and af to sig- 
nify the superlative ; n; bu^ jroj;t- 
t;le, more hardy or brave; <xn 
re<x ( K af rojfttjle, the hardiest, 
&c. N. B. The Irish have these 
particles rrj bar and 4.f, and no 
other, to distinguish and form 
their degrees of comparison, as 
the English more and most. 
po;;tt;le and jro; ncjle<vctr, pa- 
tience, greatness of soul, as in 
pain, sorrow, or even the agonies 
of death; also courage, hardi- 
ness, and intrepidity in dangers, 
labour, or difficulties, like the 
cardinal virtue fortitude. 

leisure ; o.^ fOjf , vacant, or 
free from business. 
ro;^cjonn<xc, backbiting, malice. 

to approach. 
to stop or rest. 
and jroj^cjne, a resting, 
or residing. 

po;^-te<xb, hire, hirin 
from the verb 

poj7te<j.n<xc, serious, also arranged, 
in good order; /"luaj prj^rea- 
nac, a well-ordered army when 
on their march. 
po;t, about. 

, hunger. 

a short day, a little while ; 
rid. jrojt. 
!?ota, a garment. 
!Tol<x, the genitive of pujl, blood. 
Tot<xbft<x, a good speech, pleading, 

or reasoning. 
pol<xc, a covering. 
pol<xc, hid, secret, private ; <x bj:o- 
tac, hidden ; Lat. clam, in oc- 
culto ; Goth.fulgin, occtdtum. 
pol<j.cca;n, toleration, forbearance. 
water-salad, water- 

wages ; 



potcib, a cover, or covering. 

polab, power, ability. 

polabtt, cattle. 

polajb, a wimple or mufler. Is. 
3. 23. 

pol<x; je<xc and pola; jteo.c, secret, 
private, hid. 

poldj jjm, to cover ; bo polu; j ^e 
;<xb, he covered them over ; bo 
jrojte<vb n<\ j-lejbte, the moun- 
tains were covered. 

pol<xm, empty, void, vacant. 

polcvftctjtp, to command ; also to 

offer, or proffer. 
!?olafitMT), or jrOficilcim, an offer. 
?ol<x^n<x;be<xcr, equality, parity. 
?olann<x;beac, equal. 
rola.ftcoj;t, an emperor. 
Tol<i;trno.;b, a sufficiency, enough. 

rola/ttna;bjm, to satisfy. 

, a shoe, sandal, or slipper. 
i, a cleansing of the hair by 
washing the head; jcolco-b c;nn, 

potcab and jrolcajm, to watei or 
moisten, to cleanse by water, to 
steep in water. 

poljrdjb, whole, entire. 

polj, active, nimble, quick. 

pollac, a kind of water-gruel ; also 
any covering or garment. 

pollab, government. 

Colla;n, rid. raltajn. Luke, 5. 

r 39. 

poltaman, a grace, ornament. 

poUamnug<xb, a ruling or govern- 
ing, as a prince. 

poUo.mnu;jjm, to rule or govern, 
to sway ; jf jonnac ge;n j:u;b;0;t 

<x poput fejn, in thee will a 
Chief be bom who shall govern 
his people. L. B. 
polt<X;~, or potlu^, plain, evident, 
manifest, public ; go p 
openly, in the day-time ; 


<xr jrollur, as is manifest. 
pollrc<xb, a scalding, 
pollrmm, to make apparent, or 

manifest, to discover, 
pollurjtan, clear, loud; le jut 

f oltu/-jlan, with a loud voice, 
polirxxc, that makes hollow or 

polmu; j;m, to make empty ; bo 

f olmu; jeab e, it was emptied. 
polo/-c<x;n, a tad-pole ; ranuncu- 


polorg, a burning of heath, 
pelt, the hair of the head ; 50 
nujge <xn jrolt: tjat, even unto 
hoary hairs ; also a tail ; ex. 
co/t/tuj jjb re <x polt, he moveth 
his tail. Job, 40. 17. 
poltcjb, a leek. 
polubab, to be active or nimble. 
polu<x;mne<xc, stirring, active, nim- 
ble; also prancing; rte<xb JTO- 
lucv;mne<xc, a prancing steed. 
poluamAp, a giddy motion ; also 
a running away or flying ; a skip- 
?olu<Xfi, a footstool. 

<xc, hid, secret. 
n, bad clothes. 

obeisance, humilia- 

p6m<x;i, harvest, autumn. 
!Tom<X;tb<x, autumnal. 

2, half drunk. 

and jrSmojtdc, a pirate. It 
is recorded in Irish Histories 
that a certain race of foreigners, 
distinguished on account of their 
piracy, by the name of poma- 
;i<x;j, formerly infested this na- 
tion, and were at last overthrown 
and banished by Lu;j Lam p*ba. 
This word is understood by some 
to mean a giant, for Clocan n<X 
poma/tajT, in the County of 
Antrim, is rendered the Giant's 
( 'iiuseway ; romo/tajj, or rather 


p)jmo;i<vj;z;, properly signifies 

sea-robbers ; from po j, rapt or 

plundering, and roo/t, mu;;-(, or 

ma/t, the sea ; vid. jro j. 
ponamab, jeering, or mockery ; 

jronoiTKXb, idem. 
ponam<xbac, a jeering person. 
poihMnaXKljn), to mock, to deride. 
ponn, land, earth. 
ponn, delight, pleasure ; a desire, 

or longing ; <x ta fOnn o^im, I 

long very much. 
ponn, a time or song; <x Bjronnujb 

b;<xba, in hymns. 
ponn, inclination, desire; jronn 

<x^ur f<x;t;jjor, inclination to 

act, accompanied with a dread 

of bad consequence ; vid.;- 

jjo^, supra. 
ponn<xb, a journey. 
ponndtTian and pDnnrnfyi, willing, 

inclinecl, or prone to. 
ponnatTKVj/ieacb, inclination, pro- 

pensity, willingness. 
a, a hoop. 
, a band. 

and jronrojft, a cooper. 
ronta5;t<\;m, to rejoice, or be 

po;t, before ; Angl. fore, in com- 

pound words, 
po/t, over, or upon ; jro/t p e<x/-xjb 

C;/-i;onn ;to c;nn <xn m<xcuom, 

the youth excelled all the Irish ; 

also beyond, into, &c. 
pOjt, discourse, conversation. 
2o/t, protection, defence. 
TO/-I, enlightening, illumination, ^ 
, a seat, or bench; I 

pO;i<\boijb, early, ripe, or before 

the time ; prci'cox. 
po/tOLCAjft, a watchman. 
po/t<xjbe<xc, fierce or cruel. 
po/t<xjbeo.c, fierceness, cruelty. 
pO|i<xj^)m, or pvj/vjm, to watch or 



pond.; %jf, or j&i\aojf, a forest ; 
also the kennel of a fox, or the 
haunt of any wild beast. 
po;t<j.}l, excess, superfluity, 
pojtdjlljm, to offer; bponajll fe 
bo;b fjt fat<\jn, he offered 
them an everlasting peace. 
po;t<xjm, a journey. 

.**~ po/Kijnm, a pronoun ; also a nick- 
name, an epithet. 

ponajne, a watch or ward ; <xnn^a 
bjro/KXjrte, in the ward ; <xn 
jonabajb jromxjrte, in the lurk- 
ins places; rt'ctitts jrOft pxj ne ; 
also those that lie in ambush, 
ponajrmeab, remembrance, 
ponan, ansrer, wrath. 
pOftan, a short verse, or versicle, a 


pomintd, angry, resolute, pre- 

pot<xo^-5jta6, old, ancient, an old 
man ; p);tao^bean, an old wo- 

ponty-, knowledge, understand- 

, a ford in a river. 
?o;t<jy, old, antique, ancient. 

, increase, or augmentation. 
, a law; also a foundation; 
&. a history ; po^to.;- - 
, an expositor or etymolo- 

, grave, sedate, sensible. 
ct:, grant}', sobriety. 
, illustrated. 
?ojtb, a landlord. 

2o,tba, land; Gr. ^.op/3n, Lat. 
herba ; also ^lebe-land, or tlie 
lands annexed to a church; 
hence the word comojtba, or 
comjrojtba., a successor in a see 
or church -living; ; coirronba 
patTftajj, St. Patrick's succes- 
sor in the see of Armaah ; it 
also signifies a lay possessor of 
part of the lands annexed to a 
church. Fid. War. cap. 17. 

Antiq. Hib. et Girald. Carnb. 
Itin. Camb. 1. 2. c. 4. Also a 
partner in a benefice, such as 
those laymen who enjoy part of 
the tithes of a parish by way of 
impropriation. Fid. comj:o;tba. 

portba, a tax, or contribution. 

po;tboc, i. e. cu;b n<x m<x-tb. 

, cutting, slaying, or slaugh- 


, to grow or increase ; 50/1 

b<x;/t jo/\t<\ bj;t;m <wn, n conse- 
quence a great famine increased 

po/ibojjtt, increase, profit, emolu- 

po/tb<x;^, a conquest; bo beanam 
popbajf fOj\ &}i\jnn, to make a 
conquest of Ireland. Fid. An- 
nal. Tighern. et Innisfallcn. 

po-tban, banns of marriage, any 
proclamation or edict. 

potiban, excess, extravagance. 

po;tb<x/~, a snare or ambush ; rid. 

0;tb/iat:, a cloak, the upper gar- 
ment ; ^cfltwx^ j<xrt<xro <\. ro^t- 
bfuxt, she afterwards spread her 
cloak. Brogan. 
'o/ibccxojteab, mirth, rejoicing. 
!?0;tc, firm, steadfast, 
iitcab, to teach, instruct, &c. ; 

ro/tcoib Jo^o. <x eA^bulo. jn n<x 
;tuno.jb b;<JLbd, it was in Galilee 
Jesus instructed his apostles 
fully in the divine mysteries. 

ponco.ii, violence ; also a wooden 

or .jro/tojna, a com- 
mand, an order, or decree. 
pcucaojn, a catch, or quirk; a 

caption in words. 

ponco/r??ta, persuasion, advice, in- 
stigation ; ex. 50 fto <xbrtAb ;-ab 
xn cojmbe jc-t; 


belli an paib, so 

f i *^t i / B / j J * 

that the Israelites adored God 
throughout the persuasion and 
solicitations of the prophet Heli. 
L. B. 

po^iconj/KX, a command. 
Po/iconj/tdjm, to bid or command. 
-Ofic/to;ceann, the foreskin. 
-Oftcm<x;b, superfluity, excess. 
-0;icom<xl, a binding together. 
!?OjtCfi<x;b, superfluity, excess. 
)/tc^<x;b, rising or dawning ; jro/t- 
c^t<x;b mcx;bne, the dawning of 
the day. 

c, the fore part of the head. 
, erring or straying. 
5, a lid or cover ; <x^i ^ro/ibu- 
bujb mo ful, upon my eyelids. 
pO;tba/ic, the light ; also plain, 


pOpib/iojn, a loin ; 6b pOftb^tojnjb, 
from thy loins ; also the womb 
of a woman. 
pOftbuloic:, erroneous, 
po/tejgeoin, force, a rape, violence ; 
but e;ge<xn is the common word 
for a rape. 

po/tejgneac, violent, ravishing, 

, a guard. 

:, a watch, or ward ; vid. 

po/ipx;rieac, watching ; also a 

po/tpa;/rjro, to watch or guard; 

also to lie in ambush. 
po/i-j:oc<xl, a by-word, a proverb, 
po/tjrujneog, a window-shutter; a 

wire or lattice before a win- 

po/ig<v;/im, a convocation. 
pO;tf<x;^;m, to provoke; also to 

call together, 
po/t j<xl and jro^aU, a lie, fable, 

or romance. 
pofii;al<x;m and JTO^U; j;t;m, to tell, 

relate ; nfyt po/i^u;l 30, that told 

or invented no lies. 


the fore part of the 

pofira^, a river in the County of 

Clare, which glides through 

Clonrod, Ennis, and Clare. 
po;tjl<xc<x;m, to prevent. 
po/rz;la, for the most part; plr- 


<x, election, choice. 
-O/i ju;n, a wound. 
70/150, i. e. yeb, jewels, or pre- 

cious things. 
po/tjge, sincere, true. 
pOfi;o/iT, a rudiment, or trial of 

p5;il<xn, force, power; hence <xn- 

j:6;il<xn is oppression, tyranny ; 

f o^tlan is also superfluity, excess 

of any thing. 

-0/ilu.;m, leaping or bouncing. 
, an increase, a swelling. 
, i. e. tout, envy, a mortal 


po/inoal<xc, a hireling. 
po/ttDdm<x;l, of good form or fi- 
^ gure. 

potman, a type or mould. 
po^mrxx, much, a great deal. 
po/ine<x/it, violence ; vid. p5;/t* 

, a command, an offer. 
, hardness. 
, a rudiment. 
ro/t-6/iba, renowned, famous. 
76;t-6/ibuj<xb, predestination. 
PO/I/KXC, an angling rod; also a 

po/i;ia;b, near to, hard by; also 

po/i;te;l;m, to shine forth ; also to 

manifest, or discover. 

po/i^ioje<xn<x, served, did service, 
or good. 

, fringes. 

, SCllt. 

, to shine. 
, divination. 



, fore-knowing. 
, or jr;;ttean, tied, or bound 

-, a strau-. 
, a seat. 

po/itan, plenty ; p5/ttan 
abundance of cattle ; 
T/tO;be, a stud or breed of 

pontjt, strong, hardy, patient ; 
fo/tt;l la fO^oi, strong for la- 
bour ; also courageous, brave ; 
ba f ott;l an ua;/t eaja, he had 
fortitude at the hour of death ; 
laoc j:d};ic;l, a courageous cham- 
pion ; L,a.t.forf>s:; vid. jro;pt;l. 

popt/ta; j, a rising ; jro/tt:nC\;b 
ma;bne, the dawning or rising of 
the day. 

po/tuab, a bastard red, reddish. 

pOrtU;-, knowledge ; fonuf jrea^a 
a-: C;/tj/?n, Notitia Hibernup. 

po^, yet, still, also; acb pof, but 
yet, but moreover. 

pOf and j:0;-ab, a delaying, stay- 
ins: or resting, fixing or pitching, 
also a prop or buttress, a wall or 
ditch ; Lat. fossa ; pO/--t; j, the 
wall of a house ; Wei./*?.?/ Yience 
the word po^-long-po/it, an en- 
campment, a camp; from pOf, 
pitching, and lonj-po/ttr, a tent ; 
which is again compounded of 
to.ij, any covering or tent made 
of timber or other matter; and 
pout, the area or surface of 
ground upon which the house or 
tent is drawn ; l;<x nwca jaba/- 
fOf, cum par 'cor urn gregejugi- 
ter permansit (Patriciiis puer.) 
o;-ab, an atonement. 

vb, a stopping or resting ; 

;"ab, without delay ; p 
com-b^a;c, a cessation of arms, 
or fihtin. 

po/-o.b and 

, to stav or rest, 


to pitch, or lodge, bo corujz y-e, 
he rested. 

pe;-cla;m, commonly said and 
written o^jla;m, to open, to un- 
lock ; po;^ceottu/t Bu/i rujle, 
your eyes shall be opened. 

pO;-cu;tt:e or jro^jajlce, opened, 
open; 50 pycujltre, publicly, 

po/^ab, a shadow, or shelter from 
heat or cold ; vid. 
Wei. kysgod. 

po;-to/7, a mansion, or dwelling- 

po^-lonjcoitr, an encampment, a 
camp ; vid. j&f, sujira ; bo ;t;n- 
neaba;t fOflong-popt, they en- 
camped ; aj be an am jro^-lonj 
poric. encamping; ag tne;jean 
<x bco^tonjpo/ttr, raising the 
siege, or decamping. 

por/ta, i. e. rtr/teatniijab, re^ 
leasing, dissolution. 

;, heavenly, superior ; pon 
.tujl fOfi\oia.jc, son us, 
seu concent us siiperiorum ci- 

, to hire; also to stop; bo 
fe <xn taoc, he stopped 
the champion. In contracts it 
is applied in engaging a house, 
a room, or the like, and has the 
same meaning with the French 
word arreter. 

poc, a giant. 

per, raging, storming, violent. 

po,ntra;tt:/id;beac, a glutton. 

-cca, a foundation. 

-Ota, taken away, or out of. 

2"otac, a cough. 

-Otac, a lake or pond. 

?6cannar), a thistle ; Lat. car- 

pocannan-beanbujce, blessed this- 
tle ; Lat. carduus benedictim. 

potcajc/ieaca, suburbs. 

potta;-iteac, a novice or appren- 

2 H 


, cleansing. 

, ^ a bath; <xm/ia b; an 
ab Centra ;mpe ba bea/t- 
b> prceclarum ipse quod bal- 
neum benedicendo vertit in cer- 


, a bath; pi. 

toba.j/i, idem, i. e. a well of puri- 
fication or cleansing. 
trji<xa;m, to bathe. 
-Ot/iom, a great noise or rustling. 
^otu jab, a beginning. 
ou/i, or j:oja;<i, diphthongs or 
triphthongs ; ri] /io;ntea/t <xn 
fojafi n<x cotu;b, the diph or 
triphthongs are not divided into 
different syllables or sounds. 
/-KXJ, a woman, or wife ; Ar. grak, 
and Wei. guraig, Ger.frau, or 

/KXJ, a hand. 

/KXJ, a shield or buckler, because 
worn on the hand to defend the 

!?/ia;bfiea j<xb, a floating. 
, a bush of hair. 
, the sea. 
r/i<x;nc, France. 

?/wmc<xc, a Frenchman, French ; 
boljcxc jr;t<xnc<xc, the French 
p;t<xnflCdc, or luc pt<xnnc<xc, a 

P/KXOC, heath, ling, ; Hisp. breco, 

and Lat. erica. 

p^aoc, hunger ; ptaoc jrjacat, 
fretting or hungry teeth; also 
rage, anger, fury. 
p/taoc<vjbe, fretful, furious; jr;ta- 

ocba, idem. 
p/t<xoc6j, wortleberry. 
p^i(XO-ce<x/ic, a heath-poult, or 
grousehen; pi. ce<Xftc<x j:fiao;c. 
, a shower. 
, ready, active. 
, fruitful, showery. 

and j:;te<xc<x/i, use, prac- 
tice^ frequency; le jr^eciccv;^ na 

Sac/iamejnte, by frequenting 
the Sacraments. 
p;teaca/i, witness, testimony. 
p/ieac<Xft<U7, a wrestling- school, or 

any place of exercise. 
p/ieo.cnuj<xb, exercise; jr/teac/tu- 

j<xb, idem. 

p/te<xc^a;j;m, to exercise or ac- 
custom, to discharge an office or 

ieacrKXjftc, the present time. 
, a pillaging or plundering, 
or jr^ieaj/iab, an an- 
p;ie;j;<x/t<vjm, to answer, to make 


p/teja/tccxc, answerable, account- 

p^eaT<x/ito;^(, a respondent or de- 

, to work or labour. 
, conversation. 
, labour. 

, to converse, 
and j:^eo.5/-i<x;m, to an- 
swer or reply ; bo pieaja;^ y-e, 
he answered. 
p^e<xm and pteairxxc, a root; also 

a stock, or lineage. 
p/te<xm<vb and pie<xmu;m, to _take 

root, to root; vid. p;ie<vmab. 
p/ieanc, to make crooked, to 

?/ieanc<xc, winding or turning. 

, medicine. 
!?/ie<xpcxb, a running, bouncing, or 
skipping away : otherwise writ- 
ten fieaboib. 
, upwards. 

, opposition, reluctance ; 
WJ S an F fiea^<xb/ia,a king with- 
out opposition ; ^; j jo bpi<X- 
y-<xb/i<x, rex cum reluctantia, aut 
cemulorum principum renitentia 
Vid. O'Flaherty's Ogyg. pag. 

p/iea^*bat, serving, waiting, at- 
tending ; bean p^ea^bajl, a 


waiting-woman, a nurse-tender, 
or charing-woman ; jrrte<tytal, 
pfte<x;-b<xla;m, to wait, to attend, 

or serve. 
p;te<ty"5U.5a;l, ascension into hea- 

p/iea^-gam and 

climb, to ascend. 
?^eco;meub, to reserve. 
r/iem<xc, fundamental. 
ie;-c;, a reflection, or suppo- 

, brittle, withered. 
, anger, resentment. 
, a foundation. 
, to found or establish. 
!?;*;, or p/t;a, in old Irish manu- 
scripts is the same as our mo- 
dern <x;/t or ;ie ; f^-Jf, the same 
as lejf, or pjf ; f /\/om, as Ijom, 
or jrjom ; f jtjot, as teat, or 
/teat ; f /iju, as leo, or /vju ; 
, as Ijnn, &c. 
., freed. 

, care, diligence, circum- 

pfi;ocoam<xc, diligent, careful, cir- 
cumspect ; TO trruocnaiTKXc, care- 

, to fry or parch. 
and pvjocta;!, a frying- 
pan ; pijo^-d; jean, idem. 
pfijo^, to answer. 
pftjot<xl, a word, interpretation ; 
jreout jr;-i;ocajl, an interpreter ; 
;oc:<xl, politeness. 
, a refusal or denial. 

,, recantation. 
p/t;otr-co;be<x^, antipathy. 
, a covenant. 
m, sendee, attendance. 
, to contradict. 
e<Xft, that shall be 

p/i;^-c<x/it, an answer. 
p/t;jrqm, to hope. 


J expectation. 
:, to betray or deceive, 
to kill or murder ; ex. ne<xc 

cv bu_jb je<xnn ; i. e. 
whoever shall betray his Lord, 
let his habitations be not nume- 
rous, let his enemies deprive him 
of his head, and of his horse, 
and of his sword. 
!T^i;^ne;b, he told or said. 
, attendance, 
ab, they stood up, or 

p/tjt, bo ]Tfi;c /*e, he was found, or 
he behaved or acted; bo pt;c 
50 ma;c l;om e, he behaved well 
to me. 

p/t;c, a wild mountainous place; 
pt<xo;c, heath, has an affinity 
with this word; hence ptjtne, 
quod vide. 
, profit, gain, advantage. 

n, to object, or con- 

pfi;tbua;lteac, is often used in 
old parchments which treat of 
medicine ; as lej j;o^ jr;rjtbu<x;l- 
te<xc, medecina repercussiva, a 
healing, or preserving remedy. 
pft;ccebj:<x;b, a witnessing, a tes- 

p/t;teo;lte, lucb jr/t;teo;lt:e, ser- 
vants, waiting men or women, 
attendants; rectius pi;teo;lt;e. 
p^i;t; jjb, attending, serving, wait- 

, earnest, eager, fervent. 

an uninhabited wood or 
mountain ; ex. -a bjr/tjcne oa 
ccona;^e, in the mountainous or 

, a frying-pan. 
, a return of love, a mu- 
tual regard. 

, a returning back. 


-|toja;m, wrong, or injury. 
., a whirl. 

and p-(OtT>a;m, to try, to 
taste, to examine, to inquire, 
pjtomab, a trial. 

p/tomta, tried, experienced ; bu;ne 
jr/tomta, an experienced man. 
, darkj obscure. 

, a whirl. 
?u, under, into, &c. ; like jro, jra, 

jre, ^Mf z^W. 
puac, a word. 

puaca;b, a jilt, a tricking, in- 
triguing harlot, 
puaca^, a cry, an outcry ; jruaca;-, 


puaca^ac, a den, a cave, a hole ; 
a to. puaca/-a;je ag na ^;on- 
nacajb, the foxes have holes, 
puacb, cold, chilness. 
puacba, an engraver, 
puacban, a sore on the heel occa- 
sioned by extraordinary cold, a 

puab, a bier ; Lat. feretrum. 
puabac, a running away with, a 
rape ; jruabac mna, the running 
away with a woman ; lucb pua- 
^ j, a press-gang. 
pu<xb<xcb, robbery, depredation. 
pu<xbd.;no, to snatch away, to sweep 
off, to run away with ; bo pua- 
ba;j an <xman ;ab, the river 
swept them away; jru&bu;j;m, 

Tu<xb and puctt, hatred, aversion. 
!?uab, i. e. c;toc<x/t, a bier. 
!Tuabma/i, odious, hateful. 
!?ud.bmd.;rte<xct;, abomination, de- 

, haste ; also a preparation 
to do a thing.<xc, active, diligent. 

to cross or hinder. 
?u<xbu; jeaj, ravenous. 
<xbu;jte, taken away, snatched 


pucxci;t, sewing or stitching. 

pua jala, a ring. 

pua jajm, to sew or stitch ; pla- 
jalam, idem; bo pia; jeaba/i 
bujtteoba pjje bcx ce^le, they 
sewed fig-leaves together. 

, proclaimed, published. 
, a proclamation. 

, to admonish, or pro^ 

puajb, a remnant. 

Pua;blean, anger, or fury. 

Puajb/i;mj to stagger or reel. 

pucxjljreab, to leap or skip. 

puajljreaban, the ureter. 

pua;m, a sound, a rebounding 

pucxjmeamajt, resounding, re- 

, the herb fumatory; 
. fumaria. 

pua;;t-c/ieata;m, to shiver with 

pua;;te, cold. 

pua;/-i- j/ieabab, a warming blast. 

pua;/i;m, to find, to discover. 

puat, urine, also water. 

pualactab, to boil; bo jn;b Ja- 
cob ama;l f)n, agu^ pualacta 
an m;ondn aju^ tu ba a;t;/t e, 
Jacob did so, and the kid being 
boiled, he gave it to his father. 

pualan, a chamber-pot. 

Tuala^", a tribe or family. 

!?u ala^cajbe, osiers, small twigs. 
ual-b/toprac, a diuretic, a medi- 
cine to provoke urine. 

pual;o^g, the strangury. 

pual-lo^-jab, difficulty of urine. 

[-uaman, a shade or shadow. 

puaman, whiteness. 

puanoan, a rebound. 

_uamna;m, to sound, to rebound. 
, under me. 

!?uan, cloth, veil, &c. 

, to cover, to clothe. 


pua/t, cold, chilly. 

pudrtdb, a cooling, or making 

pudntxb and p}<x/ta;m, to make 

cold, to cool ; bpudft d.n <xnb^uc, 

the broth is cold, to make cold, 

to cool, 
pud/tdjdm, to nourish, cherish, 

, &c - 

pud;taldc, cold, chilly ; jrudndntrd, 

pud/tan, a spring or fountain ; also 
any water wherein cattle stand 
to cool themselves. 

pudnd/-bd;/t, judicious; <x mb/te;t 
ujbd;/t fud'tdf-bd;/t, in the opi- 
nion of a judicious author. 

pud/tBdldb, an ungrateful scent, a 

pud/t-c/ta5db, hypocrisy, or in- 

pud;t-c^d;btedc, a hypocrite : it 
rather means tepid in acts of re- 
ligion and devotion. 

?udnbdcb, coldness. 

, a controversy. 
, fright, affrighting, or 

pucyc/td;m, to put to flight. 

pud;-jldb, a ransom ; also re- 
demption ; f udfjdlt:, idem. 
d/-ldb and p u<x^to.;n), to re- 
deem, to set at liberty, 
udfjlu; jteo; ; t, or fua^alto 
the Redeemer or Saviour ; 
jrudf-gdlto;;t <xn Cb;ne b 
Jesus, the Redeemer of man- 

.b, to astonish; bo jrua^- 
JU^ bo bjmeajldb <xn luce 
co;meab<x B; t;t <xn <xbn<xc<xl, 
i. e. the guards of Christ's se- 
pulchre were astonished and ter- 
rified. L. B. 

, tumultuous. 

hatred, aversion, abhor- 

pu<xc, an image, a spectre, or ap- 



udtdb and pudtd;m, to hate, ab- 
hor, or dislike. 

udCdb, a detestation, or abhor- 

, a den, or cave. 

an armour or coat of 

, or pubdl, a general's tent, 
or pavilion; Lat. pap'dio et prce- 

, a hurt, or scar, 
pubtdb, threats or menaces, 
pub, amongst; dft jrub nd ludtd., 

among the ashes, 
pug, j\0f jrur ba^, i. e. bo pJd;/t 

bd^, that died, 
pu 505, a thnim, a loose thread, or 

end in weaving cloth. 
pu;bjje, an argumentator, or dis- 
putant; b; db pu;b;je, nd t/te^j 
t^o;b, be a disputant, argue on. 
pujcedct, lust, leachery. 
pu;bb, a knob or bunch. 

2, with joy or thanks. 
-u;b;/t, gain, profit. 
, a word. 
, a veil. 
, a hireling. 
?u;bfie, attendants, servants, &c. i 

plur. of j:u;b;^. 
pujb/tedc, naked, or exposed. 
PU; jedl, ru; jjol and jrujjledc, a. 

relic, also a remnant, 
pu; jeu.ll, or p u jail, judgment, 
-u; jedll, a word. 

, to get or obtain. 
, to leave, or forsake, to 
abandon ; bp/J g a c;^t, he for- 
sook his country, 
pu; jle, words or expressions, lan^ 

pu;jl;m, to say or speak; to tell, 


pu;l, blood, gore. >* 
pu;leac, bloody, 
pujleab, increase, profit, gain. 


pu;l;at, bloody. 
pu;l;be, blood-red. 
pu;l;m, to be; ca;t a. bjru;l tru, 
where artthou? vid. jr;t;m. 
, enduring, patient. 
armed with a shield 

or spear. 

pu;lleab, a reward. 

pu;lt;e<xc, bloody, cruel. 

pu;lte<xcb, blood-shed. 

P";/i, the end or termination of 
anything; pujne l&o;, the end 
of the day or evening; also a 
bound or limit; Lat.^Vzw. 

pu;ne<nb and jrujnjm, to knead 
bread ; hence perhaps b<X;iuj jjon, 
i. e. b<x/i<i-j:ujne, a cake of bread, 
vid. b<vjfijj;n ; also to dress 
meat ; m<xibtai le<xt: 

bo Ifaac, here it means 
dressed and prepared. 
_ ujneab, a boiling. 
, an idiot. 

a window ; t/i;b <xn 
pujnneojj, through the window ; 
pi. jru;nneog<x. 

pu;nn;meb, foundation. Matt. 7. 

pujnfe&nn. an ash- 
tree ; alias o;nyeoj and o;n- 

co; lie, the herb called 
virga pastoris. 

pojntre, kneaded. 

pu;nteo;/t, a kneader, a baker. 

pujnteo/KXcb, the trade of knead- 
ing, or baking. 

pujfteac, delay ; <Lg j:u;/ie<xc, stay- 
ing, waiting, or expecting. 

pu;jte<xc<vjft, deliberate ; 50 fuj- 
7te<xc<vjft, deliberately, also vio- 
lent ; 50 jr/ioiocu; je jruj/teacdj/t, 
fretful and violent. 

ib, a preparation ; also a 

I, a chamber : rather 


pu;/t;bt:e, ready, prepared; also 
sensible, ancient, old. 

pu;/t;or, furniture ; also the crew 
of a ship; also any assembled 
body or association of people ; 
genit. u;/i;nne ; jrojfuie, pi. 

pu;/tmed.b, a travelling, or going. 

pu;/imeab, humiliation, lessening. 

pu;;tme<xb, a seat. 

pu;;ime<xl, tired, fatigued. 

puj/imjb, hard. 

pujpnejf, a furnace ; Lat. furnus, 
a stove. 

pu;^-, active, thrifty. 

pu;te, a sound, or reiterating 

?u;te, under her or it. 

_ u;t, a rag of cloth. 
OClrt> good land ; from p), good, 
and t;/i, land. 

is a verb impersonal; it 
has the negative nj or nac before 
it, and then signifies must; as 
nj jrut<x;|i b<xm, I must; ye nac 
cula;/i bo j<x;/tine<xb, he must 
be called : when fiob, bob for 710 
bd, or bo ba, &c., which are 
affirmatives, go before, it has a 
contrary meaning ; as, &f jrul&j/t 
bu;c, you are free, or at liberty ; 
so that when a negative conies 
before this verb, it implies a ne- 
cessity or obligation to do a 
thing; but an affirmative dis- 
penses with the obligation, and 
sets at liberty, like the Latin 
verbs caveo, timeo. 

pul<xng, patience, forbearance; pa- 
tang pxbcx, or pxb-rulanj ; Gr. 
fiaicpoSvfjiia, longanimity ; also a 
foundation, a prop, or buttress ; 
jrulang t; j, a prop or shore- 
post put under the weak parts of 
the wall or timber of a house to 
prevent its falling; also a stud 
or boss; le pul<xng<x;b <x;/tj;b, 
with studs of silver. Cant. 1. 


pulan<x;ro, to endure, to hear 
with ; also to prop or support. 

pulla, a lie, falsehood, or untruth ; 
<xn jrulla, truly, sincerely, cer- 

pulla, a leaping or skipping. 

pullon, an ornament. 

pullanjujbe, a sufferer ; _lucb 
f ullanjujbe, sufferers, patients. 

pul/tab and pulque, corruption, 
corrupt blood, or gore; jroll- 
Ttactr, idem. 

pum, under me ; i. e. pa me ; jru, 
p3, or jra, idem. 

pun, land or ground, earth. 

puftciccy, expectation. 

pu;ta;l and jruftajleam, an offering, 
a command ; also incitement, 


pu/tajn, plenty, abundance. 

punalajm, to offer, to incite, pro- 
voke, 6cc. 

punmuj/t, a prompting or excitinsz. 

Cunnajbe, a dwelling, resting, stay- 

c, civil, obliging, 
i, ease at the crisis of a dis- 
order ; also comfort, relief. 

pufita; j;m, to help or relieve ; 
bjrunta; j o-tnujnn jon a^ ne&f- 
bajbjb, he relieved us in our 

pupitajjceojft, a helper or com- 

puftca;n, satiety, sufficiency. 

puca, under them ; i. e. pu jab ; 
, underneath all. 


3 is the seventh letter of the Irish alphabet, and is ranked by onr 
grammarians in the number of heavy consonants, called by the Irish 
Con;-o;neaba Cftoma, but when it is aspirated, or marked with an fr 
subjoined to it, it is counted one of the light consonants, called Con- 
7-o;ne<xb<x Co-b^oma. In this aspirated state, 5 being the initial letter of 
a word, is pronounced like y in the English words, York, young, &c., or 
like the Spanish (j} consonant in the words Jesus, Joseph ; but g, aspi- 
rated by a subjoined b in the middle or end of a word, is rendered quite 
quiescent or suppressed in the pronunciation. Thus the words t:; je<Xftn<x, 
a lord, and ^; j, a king, are pronounced cjed^na and j\J ; but 5 in its 
unaspirated and natural state has always the same strong power with the 
Greek j. The very figure of the letter 5 in some of our old parchments 
is not essentially dissimilar to some of the cuts of the old Abrahamic and 
Phoenician J in the first alphabet or middle column of Dr. Bernard's 
table of old alphabets published by Dr. Morton. The Hebrews call 
this letter 3, as we are assured by grammarians, from its crooked figure 
bearing some resemblance to a camel, which in Hebrew is called ^Dj, 
and, to observe it, by the by, gamal, as well as camul, is the Irish for a 
camel. In the Cadmean and Ionic alphabet, to be seen in the eighth 
column of Dr. Bernard's Table, this letter (g) is called gamla, which is 
but a variated writing of the Hebrew J, or the Syrian .N. "as the y of the 


less ancient Greeks is likewise but a different utterance of the Ionic word 

Tt hath been observed in the remarks on the letter C, that it is natu- 
rally commutable with , both letters being of the same organ, and very 
nearly of the same power, and hence, in our old parchments they are 
written indifferently for each other ; of which practice some examples 
have been cited. I cannot, however, but be of opinion, that this indiffe- 
rence should be limited, and that the general and unlimited use of it 
should naturally be deemed abusive ; for the most ancient alphabets of 
the Hebrews, Phoenicians, Syrians, and Greeks have the J and D, or the 
y and K, as two distinct letters of different powers or functions, and con- 
sequently those letters are to be regarded as two different radicals of 
words, in the original elementary formation of all dictions. The same 
indifference, or interchangeable use of the letters g and c in the Latin 
tongue, and the latter being generally substituted in the place of the 
former, appears from ancient Roman inscriptions, and most particularly 
from that of the Columna Rostrata, erected in honour of Dulius the 
Consul, whereupon were engraved the words Macistraios, Leclones, 
pucnando, Carthacinenses copias, instead of Magistrates, Legiones,pug- 
nando, Carthaginenseft. From the manner of this inscription some 
writers have concluded that the letter g was not in the Roman alphabet, 
nor used in the Latin tongue till after the first Punic War; and Plu- 
tarch informs us that it was brought in by Sp. Carvilius, wherefore Dio- 
medes calls it Nova Consona. But there is this other foundation for 
judging that the Latins had the y, or g, from the beginning, as a quite 
different letter from the K : viz. that inasmuch as they received their 
alphabet from the Greeks, who had theirs from the Phoenicians ; and as 
the Phoenician alphabet had always the J, or g, different from the D, or 
c ; both which different letters were also from the beginning in the old 
Ionic alphabet, as appears by Dr. Bernard's 8th alphabet, column 9th ^ 
of his table t it follows that the Latins had also from the beginning both 
these letters with different powers or functions. Nor do I believe it will 
ever appear that the old Romans wrote cenus, ceneratio, caudlirm, for 
genus, generatio, gaudium, and other such words, which I cannot but 
think were always written with a y, or g, different from c. The primi- 
tive Latin alphabet, as well as the old Ionic, contained the letter k or K, 
which served for a c as well as for a k, in the same manner as the Ionic 
y served for a g and a c. But as the letter k was not agreeable to the 
genius of the Latin tongue, to serve instead of which the Latins changed 
the y into a c, and then made a separate letter of the y, or g, which they 
removed into the seventh place, with a figure or shape not much different 
from their c, which remained in the place of the primitive -y. 1'h is 
change of place was doubtless what gave occasion to Diomcdes to call 
the g a new consonant. The bare inspection of the old Latin alphabet 
derived from the Ionic, as it was used by the Romans about 714 years 
before Christ, to be seen in Dr. Morton's edition, column 17, will be 
sufficient to justify what hath been now advanced. In the meantime we 
should not have forgot to observe, that the name of the letter in Irish, 
is go/it, which signifies the ivy-tree, vulgarly called ejbneao, Lat. 

. Our grammarians commonly use cc, or double c, instead ot'j, 
especially when the radical word begins with c, as, <x cco^a, their feet, 
tx ccjnn," their heads ; which are pronounced <x gcya, <x j;nn : but the 
most correct manner of writing them and the like words is, <x j'co/-<x, <x 
'/?, &c. 

is sometimes put for <xj; as, 
50. ^mu<x;ne<xb, thinking, medi- 
tating ; go. ;-iab, saying, &c. 

, the same as ca ; as, ga 7)<x/~, 
whence ? ja pab, how long, how 
far ? 

, or gcxc, a spear or javelin. 

ba;^be, colewort, cauliflower, or 

, or ;z;obtx, a smith; njit p/i;t 
5<xba, there was no smith found; 
plur. gabdnn, jajbne, 7<x;bn;b ; 
hence jabajneact, smithery. 

, want, danger, need, occasion; 
<x njabajb <x;mne, in danger of 

to take, to make prisoner, 
to bind in fetters; hence gabdnn, 
a prison, is like the word btt, 
which in the Hebrew, Syrian, 
Chaldean, and Arabic languages 
signifies liga vit, constrinxit, com- 
pedicit. Vid. Henricus Opi- 
tius's Lexicon Hebraeo-Chaldaeo 
Biblicum. (Do jvxbab <xn taoc 
le b;obb<i;b, the hero was made 
prisoner by the enemies ; cum <v 
in order to take him ; 

!, spoil or booty ; plur. 
bal<x, also a conquest; leaba/t 
n<x g<xK\la, the book of con- 
quests; pea/i 5<xbcvta, a con- 

3<ib<vjl-cjne, the ancient law of 
Gavelkind, formerly used in Ire- 
land, by which the lands of the. 
chief house of a family were di- 
vided and subdivided among its 
branches or descendants ; hence 

the Gavelkind of the English, 
an universal custom amongst the 
Anglo-Saxons, as well as among 
the Britons and Irish. 

the fork, or groin ; gdbol 
pj/t, or mna, a man or woman's 
fork, as well as groin ; hence 
rablujcib jejnealrajj, the 
branches of a family. Note, that 
glun and glupe, the knee, is 
also used in Irish to express a 
generation, descent, or degree 
of consanguinity, as gabal, the 
fork, is used to express the col- 
lateral branches ; and this is 
agreeable to the style of the pri- 
mitive Hebrews, who expressed 
their descents or generations from 
those inferior parts of man, as in 
Gen. cap. 49. 10. Dux de fe- 

baltu^-, any land-property or 
possession obtained by conquest 
or otherwise. It is now used to 
signify a farm or piece of land 
rented from a landlord to his 

to take or receive, also to 
beat, also to pass, or go by; 
j<xbci;b <x;/tm, take ye up arms ; 
jabajb le;^, receive ye him ; bo 
gababa/t bo cloc<x;b <x;/x, they 
beat him with stones, or they 
stoned him ; an pea^ann <X;t 
jabama;/t c/ijb, the land we 
passed through ; bo jababa/t 
c/t<xnn, they landed ; gabam o.b- 
;ta;n, let us sing songs; bo ^a- 
bab<x/t /"e;lb, they took posses- 


a gaol or prison : it is 
now more commonly used to sig- 
nify a pound to confine cattle on 
account of trespass. 

A / 1 or c<xb<x/i, a goat ; < 
c;io, or 5<xba/t-lcxnn, a goat-fold, 
also a stable; ^abcx/i ulccx, a 
goat's beard; plur. j<xb/x and 
xjb ; Lat. caper et capri. 
c, skipping, bouncing ; Gr. 


a spear or lance, 
and 3<xbl&n<xc, forked, di- 

3<xbla;m, to spring or shoot out; 
go ngtxblocujb <x/ij^, that it will 
sprout out again. 
3<xblc\n, a branch, the fork of a 

tree or branch. 

3<xbl5r, any forked piece of timber 
used to support a house ; also a 
forked instrument used in making 

propagation, also ge- 
nealogy ; gtxblu j<xb clojnne ;- 
bj/x pnn, the genealogical branch- 
ing forth of the posterity of He- 

Goren, in the County of 
Kilkenny, anciently possessed 
by the O'Shillilanes and the 

taken ; grtbtd n<x pjijo^u- 
rxxc, taken prisoner. 

or g<xrou;n, a calf; hence 
<!ic and gabntxc, a stripper, 
. e. a cow that has a grown calf 
or heifer ; as the word Icxojl; j- 
e<xc, or tojlgeac, is a milch cow, 
or a cow that lately calved ; 
from Uo j, a young calf, and Ij- 
e<xc, a heifer, because the cow's 
first care is to lick her calf. 
, a cable. 

each, every; <xc nbu;nc, 
each man; <xc n&on, every one; 

ujle, all in general, 
si withe, or twisted twi: r , or 


3<xb and j<xb(Xb,a stealing or taking 

b and Tdbajm, to take away, 
to carry off by stealth, to steal. 

or jabsra, stolen, taken 
away ; gabajbte, zY/ewz. 

, a thief. 

, a voice, a noise. 
, or jdt, an arrow, a dart ; bo 
cu/t jdb jeafi tji; n<x C|io;be, he 
pierced his heart with a sharp 
dart; also a ray or beam; as, 
5<xb-5;-ie;ne, a sun-beam. 
b, a skirmish, fighting, 
ab, peril, want ; vid. gaba. 
xb<X)iD, or 3ujb;m, to pray, to en- 

xb<x;i, or <x; je<x/i, a dog, a mas- 

, a thief. 

and jojb;m, to steal, 
or <xpa, a hook, or any 
curved instrument; is like the 
Hebrew D, which means a crook- 
edness or curvature. Vid. Opi- 
tius's Le.ric. Hence the name 
of the letter p. 
, henbane. 
, a cleft or chink. 
c, leaky, full of chinks. 
, a cleft. 

and jaj<xjm, to split, 
tx}, or 50.0;, a lie, or untruth ; jo, 


3<xjbne, the plur. of r<xba, a smith. 
3<x;bne<xcb, the smith's trade. 
3a;bt:e<xc, a person in want ; also 
one that is constantly craving for 
relief; also complainant^queri- 
monious ; ex. bujne gajbteac, a 
querulous man. 

, a little study or closet. 
a P rou( l coxcomb. 
, stammering or stuttering. 
and g<xl, smoke, vapour, 

3<Xjle, or ju;le, the stomach ; ana- 
logous to the French s;ueiilc. 
throat; hence the Latin 


means gluttony. 

and ja;l;m, to evaporate. 
, a parasite. 

cb, flatter}-, soothing. 
3<x;ll, or <xbj<x;tl, he spoke to ; 

vid. ajalla. 

3<x;llcea/tc, a duck or drake. 
c, the gum. 

a strange or forein 

3<xjU;u.n, a dart, or arrow. 
3<x;lt;an, the name of a tribe of 
the Fir-bolgs, or Belgians, a 
colony that came to Ireland be- 
fore the Scots. From this tribe 
of Belgians, Co;ge "g&jlljan, the 
Irish name of the province of 
Leinster, is supposed to be de- 

3<x;lt;n), to hurt. 

3<*;U;m, Galway, the chief city of 
the province of Connaught. 

, an earwg, a very nm- 
ble insect, dangerous to come 
near persons' ears. 
3<xjme<xn, a skin or hide. 
3<x;mjjn, a skillet. 
3<vjn, gajnneac, and 5<vjn;m, sand. 
3<x;n, clapping of hands, applause. 
3<x?nce<xp, a pillory, a pair of 

, hunger, scarcity. 
, a shaft ; also sand. 

, a sandy-stone. 
K, an archer. 
;nj, jet, or agate-stone. 

, sandy ; le ctoc<x;b J<v;n- 
, with gravel stones. 
, poorer ; the comparat. of 
3<inn, poor, needy. 
3v;nne, a reed or cane, an arrow; 
com b;ne<xc te gdjnne, straight 
as an arrow. 
3a.;nne, scarcity ; from g<xnn, 

3&;nneac, a place where reeds or 

canes grow. 

3<U/t, an outcry, a rejoicing, also 
laughter ; bo /t;n jctjrte, lie 

laughed; gdj;t goto., a lamenta- 
ble weeping, or outcry. 

e and gaj/tbedct, roughii;. . 
harshness, tartness. 

, a coarse garment. 
, big-lipped. 

, rough weather, a tem- 
pest, or violent storm : Vv el. 

, pleasure, joyfulness ; 

<in, a guardian. 

r 5^/ lbu 5^ J a re - 

joicing, or congratulating. 
.;fib;rn and 3d;;\b;j;m,to rejoice, 
or be glad. 

, a garden ; jd/t/tbO, /a'ew. 
, laughter. 

, reparation, or amendment : 
also good luck or auspices; ex. 
7"en 5<x;^e jen<x;ft, ftelicibus 
auspiciis natus est. In \ it. S. 

^, a bawling or calling. 

, a vault. 

f ece, gdasimis, a dimple, or 
dent on the cheek. 
*;/i, a diver, or a cormorant; 
and 50.;tjije<\nn, idem. 
, a niece. 
dun & ordure. 

a djver - 
j r ,e, a pilgrim's habit ; 

, short, lately ; comparat. 
, sooner. 
, garlic. 

, to extoll, to rejoice, to 
laugh; Gr. xct/ow, gaudeo ; bo 
jd;;te<xbcirt <\/i pobut, the people 

, to call, to bawl, or shout ; 
<x;/t, I call upon him ; 
, let them shout ; also 
to invite ; ja^tjm-^co^le, a con- 
vocation; 3<x;tt;m-j;olla, a cri- 
,rt;iY), a title, a calling, or quali- 

, to call, to qualify, to 

a niece. 

o, a short form, or com- 

foc, a raven or vulture. 

, rocky, full of rocks 
or cliffs. 

V)t, wanton. 

lewdness, de- 

' a short life ; from 
gea/1/i, short, and fejcle, f<\o- 
, life; Lat. sceculum, Gall. 

, a narrow path. 
3<x;jtte;l, a garter. 

torrent, or stream ; plur. 
) rectius c and 

, a gin or trap to ensnare 
rats, deer, or any beast ; gdj^te, 
the same. 

, painting. 

, bravery, feats of arms ; 
lucb <vj;e, brave men. 

t, valiant, warlike, 

;^jeaml<xcb, the doing valiant 

^;^5;beac, a champion; rectius 
%<\f 7"c;at:ac, from ga^, a war- 
rior, and ^-cjdt, a shield; #/V/. 
and TA^KX, infra. 
, to now ; Angl.-Sax. gush. 
3a;;-re and gaj^teag, a snare, 
gin, or trap, a wile ; <x nga;r-t:)b 
v\n (!);ab<xjl, m insidiis Diaooli; 
vid. a^-t. 

, to trepan, or deceive. 
, a crafty fellow ; also in- 
genious, thrifty; Cdtytjn, Mfem," 
ca;/-cjnctoc, a little bird of the 
same size with a wren. 

, a brief, an abridgment. 
a d J<x;l, smoke, vapour, ex- 
halation; Lat. caligo. 
1, a puffj or gale, a steam, also 
heat; Lat. caleo, to be hot ; gat 

ce, a gale of wind. 

l, a blast, or flame ; go.1 /"Ujp, a 

blast or flame of straw. 

lj warfare, a battle, &c. ; 3<*toi 

<xo)njr;/i. a duel ; also courage, 


3<xl and gaol, kindred, relations. 
3^l<xb<x^, a parasite. 
3<*l<xc, valour, courage, fortitude ; 

also valiant, brave ; buac galac, 

bu<xcu/", the brave or valiant; 

3<xlann, an enemy ; Wei. gelyn. 
3<nta/i, a disease, or distemper ; pi. 

3<xl<x;~t<xjj'i, or <j.b jala^tajfi, they 

spoke to ; from xxg5<iU(Xb. 
3<xlb<x, rigour, hardness; Latin, 
chalybs, steel. 

), to be hot or warm. 
c, the French pox. 
, stout, valiant, a cham- 

i, a helmet, or military cap, a 
hat ; Lat. galea. 

I, according to the modern ac- 
ceptation of the word, signifies 
an Englishman ; as, ^e<xn-ja;ll, 
the old English, or Strongbo- 
nians. The Danes or any other 
foreigners are in Irish writings 
called 3^1 > but the true mean- 
ing of the word is 3^7? * ne 
Gauls, those from ancient Gaul, 
now called France. Vid. Re- 
marks on the letter it. 
3<xll, a rock, or stone ; plur. 3<x;l- 

[, a cock ; Lat. gallus ; also a 

.urnpa, a trumpet, or cla- 

t, brightness, beauty. 

-<X, a district in Meath, an- 
ciently belonging to a tribe <>l 
the 6'f)<xonju^a;b, or Hen- 
nessys ; it was called "^ajlijirgc- 
bej, to distinguish it from 3 a ^- 
novv the baron v of 

Galen, in the County of Mayo. 
anciently the estate of the O'Ha- 
ras, descended from Co/tmac 
3<xl;njac, great grandson of 
Ol;ol-otum, king of Munster and 
Lear GOoj in the beginning of 
the third century. 
3<xtluc, a rat. 
3<xtlunac, soap. 

$ alba, hardness, 

i, or Tallta6,aGaul. fid. 
Lhuyd ArchtxoL tit. 1. pag. 23. 
col. 3. 

3<*nia;r)eac, go jamajneac, scarce- 
ly, hardly. 

3<xm<vjn; je, scarcity. 
3amal, a fool or stupid person ; is 
the same in letters and sound 
with the Hebrew ^DJ, which 
means a camel, the most stupid 
of all beasts. fid. Isa. 21. 7. 

I, or camul, a camel. 
.m, winter ; Corn. guac. 
3<iiT)<xnn. a ditch. 
3<>'TKXr)p<X, the place called )j\p.uf, 

in the County of Mayo. 
3amn<xc, rid. g<xbu;n, a stripper, 

or unbulled cow. 

3amu;n, or gabirjn, a calf, a year- 
ling; maj-jabujn, a bear; <x- 
5a;n-ftudb, a yearling deer. 
3^n, without ; Lat. sine ; jan 6/t, 
sine auro ; jan m&c,sinefiUo; 
olim can and cean in old parch- 
3<*na;t, a rail, a fold. 

>, falsehood, deceit. 

.c, false, deceitful ; also 
pitiful, narrow-hearted, 
cxnjajbeact, craft, knavery, de- 
7, scarce, little, short. 

i, a gander. 
i, hunger, 
a swan. 

7, prudence, wisdom. 
;, or 56, an untruth, or lie. 

3<xo;becintrci, idle, slothful. 
3<xo;bean, a ialse colour, a counter- 

3<xojb;ol, an Irishman ; also a 

Highlander of Scotland. 
3<xo;l. a family or kindred ; fe<x/t 

g<XO]l, a kinsman ; bnAt:<Xj?t- 

5<xo;l, a man of the same tribe 

or clan. 

3<xo;leaj, the Irish tongue. 
3<xojne, good. 
3<io;ne, goodness, honesty. 

and jao^, wisdom, pru- 


t, from 5<xoc, wind. 

, a blast, or blowing. 
, to break. 
, a whirlwind. 
and jao^mu/t, prudent, 

skilful ; 5<xoc, yWe/. 
3<xot, a dart; also a stitch, or 

shooting pain. 
3<xoc, the wind; g<xot ;iu<xb, a 

blasting wind; g<xoc ^u<x;^be- 

^i;n, a whirlwind ; <xn jr<xb j<xo;te, 

a tempest. 
3<xotr, the sea. 
3<xor, wise, prudent. 
Jciotr, pains ; cxoc<x ;nmeoban<xca, 

interior pains. 
Jaoc, theft ; mna-jaojce, thievish 


Jd-oca, streams left at low water. 
3<3.oc;ac and jaocanac, windy ; 

, painful ; cne<xb. 
t, a painful wound. 

3&otm<x;;te<xct, pain or great an- 
guish proceeding from a sick- 
ness or wound. This word is 
common in old writings of me- 

3<xot/ia; j;m, to winnow. 

3<x/i, desert, merit, or commen- 

3fyt, near, nigh to; omga/t, near, 
at hand ; bo b/tu;b <\jmfjj\ <xn- 
j<x^t, the time drew near; ^5- 
jaM,ver\- nigh ; com- j<x/i, equally 

near, also short, not long since ; 
<x;mp/t ga/1, a short time, or 

<x/td and jfyttxc, useful, profitable, 
near, neighbouring. 
<x/i<xbaj?, bran ; Gr. KuprjjSta. 
<x/iaban and gea/i/taban, a re- 
gister, a note book. 
<*/td.b, a gratuity. 

<x/ta;leamat<j.;/t, the great grand- 
father's sister. 
, to gratify. 

and 5<x;i<xmu;t, near, 
neighbouring ; also useful, com- 

<t/tun, an underwood, a forest, or 
thicket ; ga/tji&n, idem., a grove, 
or wood. 

great grandfather; 
;g<x/iat:<x;i, proavus. 
rude, raw, inexpe- 

3<X;tb, rough, rugged, uneven, 
coarse : it is often used in com- 
positions, as ga/tb-tonn, a bois- 
terous wave; J^/tb-rjn, a tem- 
pest : hence the Celtic name of 
the river Garumna in Languedoc, 
composed of ja/ib, pronounced 
garv ; and <xiiiujn, river; Lat. 

3<x/tb<xc, a grandson. 
3fl.fib6.jt:, a rough place. 
3<*ribclubab, a coarse blanket, or 


3<x/tb-cul<x; j, a frize coat. 
3<x/tb-jajneam, gravel, 
gcx/tbtocc, a crag, a thicket. 

x, a guard ; also a garrison, 
and gajjtbjn, a garden; 

jr;necxmna, a vineyard. 
, austere, fierce, cruel; also 
rough, firm ; also sore. 

, rudeness, roughness, cru- 
elty ; also soreness. 
a/itac, an infant lately born ; so 
called from his screaming ; also 
any naked, idle, or starving 
child ; Scot, garlach, a bastard. 

, a mole. 
, a calling. 

, a crier, a proclaimer. 
, a post or pillar, a beam; 
coymujl c/i<xnn tig<xb le 
n pjje<xbo;toi, and the 
staff of his spear was like a wea- 
ver's beam; Tdftmiqn, idem. 

, a gallows; cu<xn Loc<x 
the haven of Loch 
Garman, i. e. the town of Wex- 

, a great grandmother. 
e, the next. 

cnn, a strong horse, a hackney , 
or work horse ; perhaps a dimin. 
of T<xb<*fi, a horse; pronounced 
ana written gea/i/ta/i, or gjo^t- 


, clamorous, noisy. 
, a garden. Jf 
joic, a glutton. 

, a crier, a bawler. 
, liberality, generosity, boun- 

, a head. 

, a bonnet, a cap, or hat. 
and gajt;tt<x, a shout or 
great cry, a bawling, or crying 

x/tu<x, a great grand-child's grand 
child, adnepos. 

x/~, the stalk or stem of an herb, 
a bough or sprout; hence j<ty~ 
signifies a growing boy or youth; 
also a military servant ; plur. 
g<X;-fi<x, or Jty'/uxb, signifying a 
band of domestic troops or at- 
tendants of a great man, and 
anciently all mercenary soldiers : 
it is of the same grammatical 
construction with trxxc, plur. ma- 
c/tcx. In Welsh and Armorir 
guas signifies the same thing ; 
and in French gonjat de Varmee, 
is a camp-servant. The above 
&f and jaf/ia is the radix of 
the word Gessatcp. and Gessi, of 

3 c 

the Gauls and Germans. 

, strength ; also anger, wrath : 
more commonly written guf. 
, at, to, into. 

, to sprout, or shoot forth. 

ta6, a midwife. 
, the plur. of ga^, quod 

, a snare, a wile ; go beagta, 
a angoj^re lej^, lest 
you should be ensnared thereby, 
also a blast ; g<tyt gao;te, a 
blast of wind. 

, an old woman ; Armor, gast, 
a whore. 

r"ta> or ga/-ba, ingenious, witty, 
skilful ; rrKXcam ga;~ta, an inge- 
nious youth ; noc fejnnjOf go 
gd/-ra a;n claj/i^eac, that plays 
very well, or judiciously, on the 
harp; like casta, femin. of cas- 
tns, chaste; just as agna, qd. 
vid. is like the Greek ajva and 
a-yvsm. This word is at present 
used in a bad sense, and means 
a tricking, cheat ing fellow; bujne 

b, ingenuity, skill. 
, a wile, a trick. 
j a spear or javelin ; also a ray 
or beam; gon a, with 
their javelins ; gat gnejne, a 

^? S^b, or geab, a goose; and 
plural gena, or geana;b, geese. 

^, pro ce, or c;a, who .' which ? 
what ? je ban mujnfj/t, who of 
our clan or people; ge <ty-,from 
what place. 

&, and 56 ?;o, although ; je ta;m, 
although I be. 

eabab an d ^ea.b<x;m, to be found, 
to behave, to be ; bo ie<ib<x;m;b 
ujle bfy-, we will all die ; jeob- 
ta/t m-)fj go m<xjc o;\r, I will 
deal well with you ; ma gejb- 
rean an gobaj je, if the thief be 
found ; bo je/6 ;-e locr, he 
findeth fault. 


, fear, dread. 
Jeocbajbeacb, a debate. 
, a buttock or haunch. 
, a spot ; a star in the fore- 

head of a horse or any other 


3eob, a small plot of ground. 
, rid. ge, a goose. 
u^-, a pike or jack. 
, or geuj, a bough or branch, 

a limb or member; jrao; jea- 

ga;b rju ja bo;ne mojne, under 

the thick boughs of a thick 


agac, or gejgeamajl, branched, 

having boughs or branches. 

ajam, to branch or bud, to 

sprout forth. 

, fair, white, bright; ojbce 

jeal, a bright night ; Gr. KO\OC, 


olocan, the white of an egg, or 

of the eyes. 

, and genit. geolujbe, the 

moon : it comes from geal, white 

or bright, as doth the gole of the 

Welsh, which means the light, 

also lunacy ; pea^i jealujb, a 

lunatic person. 
^eatab, whiteness, also the dawn ; 

jealab an loo;, the clearing up 

or dawning of the day. 
Jealajm and geola; jjm, to whiten, 

to make white, to blanch. 
3&atan, whiteness ; gealacan, the 

same : gealacan o;be, the white 

of an egg. 

geotbon, or gealun, a sparrow. 
3eoll and gjatl, a pledge, a mort- 

gage; bo cujfieamaft an bpean- 

;ia;nn a ngeall, we mortgaged 

our lands ; gan zeatl na b/tajg- 

be. without pledge or hostage ; 

lab, a promise ; rug fe geal- 
lab bo mnao;, he hath betrothed 
a wife. 

aUab and geallajm, to promise 
or devote ; man bo jealt j-e. as 

he promised. 

^eatlaiTjna, a promising, or pro- 
mise ; bo 7"te;/t <x jeallamna, ac- 
cording to his promise. 
3ealtarou;n, promise or vow; geal- 
lamtrjn po^* a, a marriage con- 
tract ; le jeallamu;/} anma bo, 
by promising him his life. 
Jealoj, salmon -trout, or a white 

gealta, whitened; jrea/t jealta 

euba; j, a fuller. 

^eattac, fearful, jealous, asto- 

je, jealousy. 
j;m, to dread or fear. 
, a g em ? or jewel. 

c, a servant, a lacquey, 
i, a blade of corn; also 
corn in grass or blade. 
, fondness ; also love. 
, a woman; jn-jean, a daugh- 

c, greedy, covetous, 
cb, chastity. 

, to deride. 
3eana;/t, January; call/on gea- 

na;/i, the calends of January. 
3eana;/i, was conceived or born ; 
from the verb geanajro, or j;- 
n;m, Lat. genitus, Gr. yivo/uai, 
nascor, gignor, sum; jeurxx^ 
patt/t<x;cc <x ^lempto;/i, St. 
JPatrick was born at Nempthur, 
in North Britain ; ^Ieamta/i, 
i. e. tru/t ^leamboi, turris ccsles- 
tis ; gen<x;/i po/t meobon ma^je, 
wato est in medio campo. Vid. 
Brogan in Vita S. Brigida?. 
^eanamlacb, grace, beauty, come- 

u;l, graceful, comely. 
, chastity. 
c, chaste, modest. 
, to strike or beat. 
ean menu, a chestnut. 
3e<xnmn<x;be, pure, chaste, incor- 

3eanmn<x;be<xct, chastity. 

^ea/x and gea/1/t, short, shortly. -* 
Jea/iajab and geu/iuiab, a soli- 
citing, or enticing ; also a sharp- 

3ea/ta;jjm, to sharpen. 
Jea/iajt, holy, a saint. 
3ea/ta;tr, wise, prudent. 
Jea/iajt, a virgin; vid. je/ia;t. 
Jea/tam and geu/tam, to whet or 


Jea/ian, a complaint, a supplica- 
tion, or remonstrance; a groan 
or sigh. 

gea/tana;m, to accuse, to com- 

3&a/ib, a scab ; pi. gea/iba, also 
the itch ; jej/tb, pi. 
, bran. 
2, scabby ; also rugged. 

, to grieve, to hurt, or 

3ea/tca;/*eab, smartness, brisk- 

2u;^*e, subtlety, sagacity. 

2, ingenious, subtle. 
, chickens. Matt. 23. 

, a blotch, or bile. 
, fierce, cruel, 
ja, a short dart or javelin, 
a/t-jlua;^, a gloss, or short 
Jea/t- leana;m, to pursue eagerly ; 

also to persecute. 
3e<J-fi-leanamu;n, persecution. 
Jeafi-magab, a sarcasm, or bitter 

jest. m 

3e<x/t/tab, _a tax or tribute ; co;m- 
gea/t/tab, a shot, share, or reck- 

Jea/iftab and jea/i/ta^m, to cut; 
also to Jjite or gnaw ; a/t na 
^ea/t;iab na p;o^-ajb, being rent 
in pieces. 

, a quail. 

an, a work-horse, a hack. 
i, a hare. 

m, an abstract, or 

3 e 

a horse-leech. 
, t'ortune, late, destiny. 

, severity. 
, milk. 

i, a carver, a hewer ; 
to;/t connujb, a wood-cutter. 
edMti] jeacb, railing, satirizing:. 
ea/tu; j;m, to whet or sharpen ; 
also to scold or exasperate. 
eoutu/i. a gerund. 
ea^-a an d S^/"^, a conjecture 
or guess ; gea^o. bnoma. O/ta- 
o/beacr<x, a nice kind of the 
Druidish sorcery, explained at 
large by Dr. Keating. 
, a shrub. 

t, a wizard, or charmer. 
xcb, divination, sorcery. 
, to divine, or foretell. 
-tO jab, superstition . 
or ^Ofc, barm. 
l, a deed, or fact. 
L want, need, necessity. 
, milk. 
' ^eata, a gate. 
Jeb, a goose ; vid, je. 
Jejbeal, and geatl, a pledge. 
3&jbeal or je;b;ol, and sometimes 
written ^ejmjol, chains, fetters, 
also confinement ; pi. ge;bleac, 
Jjbtjb, and gjbleacajb ; cean- 
jajlcre a njejbtjb, tied in fetters. 
Tin's word corresponds not only 
with the Hebrew, but also with 
the Chaldaean, Syrian, and Ara- 
bic languages, in the affinity of 
sound and letters, as well as in 
the identity of sense and mean- 
ing ; since in the said dialects it 
is written ^3D. compes, as in 
Psalm 105. 1. and Psalm 149. 
8. and in our Irish dialect e- 
beal, or cebeal; i-id. 

^e;bjm, to obtain, to set. 
3e;b;on, fetters, prison; also any 
great distress ; plur. 

, a valley. 


Se;bl;j;m, to fetter, or put in 
chains ; also to pledge, to mort- 

eal, a fan. 

teajrKXb, a stipulation. 
j~, traffic. 
, gives or fetters. 
, submission. 

, to serve, to obey, to do 
, idem. 

, kindness, friendship. 
3e;tl/-;ne, submission, homage ; a 
nje;U^;ne mjc ma;/te, i/t servi- 
tiojil'ii Mari(p. 
3e;l(T);n, a pilchard. 
Jejlc, or jnjejlt, pasture. 
Je;lt:, a wild man or woman, one 
that inhabits woods or deserts ; 
from the Irish cojlt and co;Ure, 
woods : Wei. guy I '/if, a wild 
man ; and Wei. gelhtydh. wood. 
This Irish word jejtc and cojU- 
te, and the Latin national word 
CeltfB, the Celts, have an affinity 
with the Hebrew word D^p, re- 
fug'unn^ because the Celtce fre- 
quented woods and groves either 
for their places of refuse and 
residence, or to perform their 
religious rites and other cere- 
monies. J'id. Tacit, de .Worib. 
Germ, et Ccpsar. Com mentor. 
, restraint, bondage. 
, a bond, or chain. 

3e;rime, winter ; fan nje;fc;ie, in 
the winter ; Gr. \eina, Lat. 
hyems, or hibernum tempus. 

Jejm/ieab and gejriifijm, to winter, 
to take winter quarters; ge;m- 
pieocujb, they shall winter. 

3e;meab and jejm/teab, to bellow, 
to low ; Lat. gemo, gemere. 

3e;mne(Xc, the lowing or bellowing 
of cattle. 

, a conception, an offspring; 
has an affinity with the Gr. -yc- 
voc, and Lat. genus ; as jejnjm, 
to beget, hath with 

9 r 

, a wedge. 

e<*b, generation ; also a spring- 
ing, or bringing forth. 
-;neal(Xc, a genealogy, a pedi- 
gree, a family. 

iroajfl, a birth; 5 nd jej- 
emujn go a bcv^, from his 
birth to his death. 

, general. 
a gem. 

or gjnjm, to beget chil- 
dren, to generate ; bo gejn 
Cf&fidbam J^aac, Abraham be- 
gat Isaac ; Jjnjrjb tu mjc <xju^ 
;n jetxrxx, thou shalt beget sons 
and daughters; Greek, yivo- 


c, a family ; vid. jejne<x- 

jnmcta, except, save only; ex. 
bo ma/ibo.b ujte ;&b jejnmota 
)omn<xll, they were all slain ex- 
cept Daniel ; vid. cejnmotra. 
, a sower or planter. 
, Paganism, idolatry ; 
em; hence gejrt- 
;l; je<xctr, and sometimes pro- 
nounced bjntrjtjjeact:, signifies 

, suet, tallow; Te;/-i-c<xo/i<xc, 
suet ; gejr-bam, tallow. 

, more sharp, more harsh. 

ness, sourness, or tartness. 
, greasy. 

and jej/ijjjm, to whet; 
also to grease. 

acb^ sagacity, subtlety. 

, a gloss or short 

a granary. 
, a brief, an abridgment. 

, a snare. 
, a girl. 

t, a short shield. 
, an order, or custom ; 

Ce<xm/t<xc, the customs of 

, a vow, or protesting against 

a thing, an indispensable injunc- 
tion or prohibition ; ex. <jy gejy 
bam^<x be;c <x mb/iu;j;n <xon- 
bo/iu;^, I am forbidden to live 
or be in a house of one door; 

a P ra Y er - 

a swan. 

that obtains the cattle of his 
foes by the power of his lances. 
jeab, entreaty. 

, as tuor-jejple, a terri- 
tory of the King's County, the 
ancient estate of the O'Hivir- 

3en, a sword. 

Jen, a hurt or wound ; jre<Xft bobo. 
geoina,a man that inflicts wounds. 
, a sword-belt. 
, to fence. 

, a fencer. 

, to fence, to scuffle. 
, general, universal. 
c, a Gentile, a Heathen. 
c, a stroller, a vagabond, or 
vagrant; also a low parasite. 
oco; jjm, to act the vagrant, to 

, strolling, vagrant. 
, a reveller, debauchee. 

a goose-pen. 
i, a hurt or wound. 

, a fan. 

, a confused noise. 
, a fool, a foolish person. 

a shaft or arrow ; also 
a small stalk ; Lat. arundo. 

, the belly. 
t, for g<xot, wind. 
t, the sea or ocean. 
, to hurt, or wound. 

, strict, rigorous. 
, a prostitute, or whore. 
, the cheek, or jaw; j;<xlt, 
Wei. kill. 

, a neck-cloth, a cravat. 
, the jaw. 
, softness. 


3; all, and jjalla, hostages: also 

a pledge. 
%filf and ge;5;y, a glen or val- 


3;bne, thread. 
3?bne, aba;tc leaga, a cupping- 

3;bne, a greyhound ; jjbne jo/t- 

tac, signifies a hungry hound. 
3jb, who. what; 5;O be a/t b;t, 
whoever. whatsoever. 

though or although, never- 
theless : but in this last sense it 
is generally written jjbeab. 
and raleab, a tickling. 
j to tickle. 
g;l, water. 

_e and jjleacb, whitenr -~. 
3jle, more white, more fair; the 
compar. of jeal, also whiteness. 
'U\. a servant: rid. j;olla. 
, a gelding, an eunuch. 

. a water-adder. 
, a wedge ; bjnn, /Vfcwi. 

c, or jejnaalac, a genea- 

3>neamujn, a bud or sprout. 

-ell, an order of battle in form 
. triangle or wedge-wise ; cu- 
- ; from g;n/7 or b;nn, a 

"&}njm, to bud or sprout forth ; bo 
jjn an tuafcart, pride hath 
budded. Ezek. 7. 10. Jjnpe 
ye jeuja, it shall bring forth 
3p-ac, rough or hair)', ragged; 

also a coarse rug. 

3)obal, canvas, cast cloth ; also old 
fur or hair ; a ras or clout. 
c, full of hair, ragged. 
, to tear. 

, a rag ; Ian bo j;ob6jajb, 
all ragged. 

, ragged. 
, dung, ordure. 
, although. 

, a barnacle. 
3;obt;tact ; or cjobc^act, never- 

theless, howbeit. This expres- 
sion is ver\' common in Irish, 
and is mostly used when the 
thread of a story is resumed, or 
when the historian returns to 
treat about the principal persons 
or actions of his discourse, and 
answers the Lat Jam rero, 
c, dutiful, officious. 

and gjOpxjneacb, offi- 

ne, a client 

, a female client ; officiosa. 
c, a bag, or budget 

, to follow or pursue. 
j'tam, a plain. - 

and jjolcac, broom, a reed 
or cane. 

3;olc<iiT)u;l, made of broom or 

, a reed. 
, a servant, a footman; b<x 

was the king's cup-bearer ; Tjolla 
/t; j Ula, the king of Ulster's 
page ; gjolla ca/tba;b, a coach- 
man ; Lat. calo ; Jjolla ;tab, a 
prince or nobleman's chief ser- 
vant of conBdence. 

jollaba an rll/a j, the baggage of 
an army, also the servants of the 

pllamajl, of or belonging to a 

, servce. 

, to solicit. 
3;omac, or jlpmac, a lobster. 
m, a lock of hair. 
n, will or desire. 
, the mouth. 

, a noise or tumult. 
c, talkative. 
3;o;taca;m, to chat, or prate idly ; 

Lat garrio. 

3jo/t/taban, jraocan, or jraocoj, a 
kind of periwinkle. 

, a hungry fellow. 
, reed. 

^jo/tamacb, greediness, covetous- 

i<x, shorter. 

ta;be, a buttock, or haunch. 

:a, idem. 

:ala;m, to patch or mend. 

~an, the noise of a wheel or 

/o^can, or bjorcan, a gnashing 
of teeth. 

~, barm. 

:<xj/tea^, old age. 
I, a fact, or deed. 
3jota, an appendage, or depend- 

and jujbanac, a fly ; Wei. 

jujljm, to follow; gu/i j;u;l ;ab, 
that he followed them. 
juiria^, a pine-tree; also a fir- 
tree ; ma;be gjumaj;", deal, 
i, a can or tankard, 
it, or 5 jumbal, the games or 
manly exercises formerly prac- 
tised by the Irish at their <xonac, 
or eunteact:, or public meet- 

lac, a hand ; genit. jlajce, as 
Ian mo jlajce, my handful ; 
glac to;m/~;be, a handful, 
lac and glacan, a prong, a fork, 
c and glactxnac, forked, 
.ban, a repository. 
>, acceptance, receiving, also 

3lac<xb and glaca;m, to take, to 
receive, or apprehend, also to 
feel; nac j:e;b;;t <x jlacab, that 
cannot be felt ; glacajm ta;/ibe, 
to enjoy the benefit, 
a receiver. 

3l<xc<xt<xc and gtacatlac, a bundle. 
5lac-lecxK<X;i, a pocket-book. 
, a bundle,' a faggot, 
and rlacaita, felt, han- 

Jlabajfte, a gladiator. 
3l<veb, or jlaob, a calling out ; 
Gr. yXo^w, ct.uH). 

b, broad. 

, a babbler, or prating 


noise or din, a prating or chat- 

and glAjjJn, a talkative 


<x, flowing. 

b, gluttony. 
^ jm and jlajm, a great noise or 
clamour, a pitiful complaint ;. 
also a common report; as, olc 
<xn jlajm <x to. <\ mu; j ajfi, there 
is a bad report spread abroad of 
him, or he has a bad character; 
also a yelling or yelping ; Lat. 

, a spendthrift, a glutton. 
j;tn, to roar, or cry out. 
, brightness, clearness; Wei. 
init also the comparative of 
, more bright. 
cb, clearness, neatness. 

, a glazier. 
, a glutton. 

and glaj^eacb, greenness, 
verdure ; also the comparat. of 

, an outcry, a great shout or 
noise; Lat. clamor. 

j a noisy, silly fellow. 

t, a constant babbling, 
or making a noise. 
airxxjm, to cry out, to bawl ; also 
to devour, to eat greedily. 
anijn, or glamujn, a spendthrift. 
an, clean, pure, sincere ; o c;to;- 
be jl<xn, from an unfeigned 
heart; le beal/tab gtoin, with a 
clear brightness; Or. KaXov. 

, to make clean, to purge ; 
jtdnpxm fjnn jrejn, 
how shall we clear, or acquit 

, a fence, a dyke. 

, to fence, enclose, or 


a lock, 
in fet- 

i. e. man gl<xn, clean 

a good head of hair ; 
bdpi;t is properly the top or sum- 
mit of any thing. but is here 
used for the hair of the head. 
, cleansing. 

jbfteab, clearness of ex- 
pression, evidence. 

, cleansing, weeding. 
, a call. 

and jlaobajm, to call, to 
bawl, or cry out ; bo gtaojb <xn 
c<x;le<xc, the cock crew. 

and jlaobu;^, crying or 

b, a heap, or pile. 

a wolf. 
and plur. 
hold, &c. ; <x 

, green, verdant ; 
a green tree ; also pale or wan ; 
also grey ; e<xc jl<x^, a grey 

fie, a prattler. 

to become green ; also 
to lock up, to fetter. 
lo^Anxijt, greenish; also some- 
what pale or wan, greyish. 

a sort of edible alga, or 
sea-rack ; any sallad. 
, pale. 

\t, a green plot. 
z, a green plain. 
or jluOLj-og, a water- 

greens to eat. 
jm, to make green. 

green ; and gla^pea;t, 

3le, pure, clean ; hence the com- 
pound gle-Teal, exceeding white, 
from gle, clean, and jevxl, fair. 
Jle, open, plain. 

3le, good ; ex. jle Ijom^-a <i co;m- 
be jan col: be<xta fcoct ir 

be;c mao/ian, i- e. poor life, with 
solitude, is my great good and 
Jledc, or gtejc, a fiijht, or con- 


3leac<xb and jldCA^m, to wrestle, 
to struggle ; aj gljc pjf, strug- 
gling with him ; jtejcjrjb ;";<xb, 
tliey shall wrestle. 
tetxccijbe, a combatant. 

ab, and plur. jleabna, tricks, 
sham, humour; Gr. js\aw, ri- 

e<x j<x;m, to bear leaves. 
le- jtan, bright, clear. 
leajjtac, or gleacaj/t, a loud 
cr\' or shout. 

, neat, clean, fair. 
, exceeding white, or clear. 
, to blanch, or whiten. 
m;-dc, tedious. 

, to adhere, to stick close to; 
bo jte<xn^ab <x lama bon co;^e, 
his hands clung to the chal- 

of or belonging to a valley; also 
steep, shelving. 

Jlean, a valley ; genit. jtjnn, and 
pi. gteannta ; Wei. cr/////, Angl. 

^leannajm, to adhere, or stick to. 

5lea/t<xm, to follow. 

3le<xnam<x;n, now called Glan- 
worth, in Roche's country in the 
County of Cork, anciently the 
patrimony of the O'Keefes, 
kinors of "&le<\r>narna-)n and its 
territory, but not in early ages ; 
rid. jreanamu; je. 

3le<xn-j:le;/~5, in the Count)- of 
Kerry, the patrimony of the 
O'Donoghues of 3te<xnnj:lej;'-g. 

3ted.nm<xt;<X;t, a district of <fo;b 
p<x;tje, in the County of Kil- 
dare, anciently the estate of the 
O'Dempsys and a tribe of the 

a territory of the 

County of Cork, between cf man 
tllla and glean Sulcon, which 
anciently belonged to the Mac- 

^lea/iam, to follow. 
2>lea/itac, flexible, pliant, 
glea/-, or gleu^", a manner or con- 
dition, a method or means ; a;/t 
gletty* ejle, by other means; a/t 
gleu^", so that, insomuch that; 
also any machine, the lock of a 
gun, &c. ; gleuf ma/tbta, a mur- 
dering instrument, 
glea^ab and gleu^am, to prepare, 
or make ready. 

i, a storehouse, 
i, provision ; also prepared, 
provided, in readiness; also di- 
gested, or set in order, 
glea^tact, neatness, prepared- 

glejcb, wrestling, justling. 
gl;-geal, exceeding white, very 

bright, or clear. 

glejle and glejleacb, whiteness, 

*, much, plenty, a great deal ; 

nna^tjO^a, much good, 
i, choice, election ; gle;/ie 
laoc, a choice hero. 

), a commissioner, 
c ana gle;t;m, to keep ; also 
to clear up, to manifest ; also to 

te, grazing ; baba/i na bejc 
ag gle;c an jreo;/t, the horses 
were grazing. 

and gle, pure ; also neat. 
3, a fight, an uproar, or tumult, 
disturbance, or squabble, 
gleob, a sigh or groan, 
gleob, cleansing, scouring, polish- 

), to cleanse; rid. glej- 

3teo;te, handsome, curious, tight, 

pretty, neat. 
Qeonann, cresses. 
i- ^leten, glue. 


Jtete, clean. 

, furniture, order ; vid. glea^*. 
, to prepare, to provide; 
bam, get me, prepare for 
me ; bo gteity* ye, he hath pro- 

leu^ta, prepared, ready ; on 56- 
ja jleu^ta, from the bent bow. 
and jl;atr, war, battle. 
a lock of hair. 
, cunning, artificial, crafty. 
a noise. 

, to prate, to make a noise. 
n, a generation; corrupt?, pro 

n, drunkenness. 
, to follow, to clin.u- 
, light; also the sky. 
"L)nn, a fort, or fortress, a gar- 

"$l)nn, clear, plain ; glJnn-K/tejt- 

njjeac, clear-sighted. 
3l;nn, from glean, a valley, vale. 
ne, a habit, or cloak. 

/i, le nea/it be bo 
jl;nnea^ta/t, hoc virtus Dei 
prcestiMt. Vid. Brogan in Vita 
S. Brigid. 

Jljnn; j and gljnn, manifest, plain, 

clear, evident ; go gl;nn, clearly. 

3l;nnjujab, to observe closely, to 

see clearly. 

^Ijnceac, flexible, pliant. 
3l;oca^ and gl;ocu^, prudence, 
ingenuity, cunning, wit in deal- 
ing ; jrea/t Tl;oca;^, a cheat. 
3l;oga^, a tinkling, or ringing 


3l;oga/i, slowness. 
3ljog/ta;m, to ring or tinkle. 
^Ijomac and gjomog, a lobster ; 
Scot, gimmach; gl;omac-nDa;- 
neac, crawfish. 

, a prating fellow. 
e, a glyster. 
u and gl;um, glue. * 
l;u^ta and gl;u^tac, slowness. 
loca/t and cloca/t, gloca/inac 
and cloca/inac, breathing, res- 


piration, snoring. 
lo;ne, glass ; <urw;l jlojne becil- 
lu;jed.c, as transparent glass; 
also brighter, or more clear ; 
also cleanness; from glow, clear,, 

lojft and gto^te, glory. * 
toj/tjjjm, to glorify. 
t6;fim;on<xc, ambitious, proud, 

, pomp, triumph. 

full-stuffed, cram- 
med, thick set. 
3lon<xjb, a multitude. 
3IOfiT)OL;t, loathing. 
"glonn, a fact, or deed. 
316-1, a noise, a voice, or speech ; 
nj <x njlo/t bOfico., not in a dark 
or mysterious speech ; bo to.;t;n 
an jlo/t jo roa;c /t;^, the saying 
pleased him well. 
\, clear, neat, clean. 
c, noisy, clamorous. 
, to sound or make a noise. 
t, or gto/tmojt, glorious, fa- 
mous, celebrated. 
lo/i-mao;b;m, to boast. 

, a bosom. 

wise, prudent, discreet. 
a veil or covering. 
i, pure, clear, clean. 

, brightness, neatness. 
a device, or invention ; 
m;n; je, glosses, or an ex- 

luajfQ, cleanness, neatness. 
luA;/"eo.b and gludjpno, to go, to 
pass, move, march; bo gludj- 
f eab<x/t, they marched, or they 
went on. 

luojTte, moved, stirred, pro- 

gesture, motion; glua- 
n<x mb<xll, the motion of 
the members. 

lu<x/-05 and gla^og, a waterwag- 

lujne, the knees ; also the genit. 
of jlun ; also a generation. 

b, the gout in the knee ; 
. e. gonagra. 

ujn-jreacajm, to bend the knee. 
, the shoulder. 
eAjac, full of sjreen leave-. 
, a knee, also a generation ; 
<xn t^tea/' jlun, to the third 
generation or degree. 
, to kneel. 
, bandy-legged. 
, light, brightness. 
, a man or woman, but more 
properly a woman, as -yui' ? ? in 
Greek is the name of woman. 

, cudweed. 

, a woman's privy parts. 
, a sea-snail, or periwinkle. 
, peculiar, proper. 
, the countenance. 
, pleasant, delightful. 
, a custom. 
<ir, a manner, fashion, or custom, 
a stature ; gnor-beu;ila, the vul- 
gar tongue, the common Irish; 
bo fte;/t <x njnattt, according to 
their custom ; bo jncic, always, 

^cac, common, continual, con- 

ac<x; j;m, to accustom, to inure, 
to exercise ; mo. jnatu; j ^e, if 
he were wont. 
aca/", experience. 
cic-cao;, a way much used, a 
beaten path. 
cic-cujmne, tradition. 
e, a kind or sort, a manner or 
form ; also a countenance, a spec- 
tre, shew or appearance ; ex. bo 
jne;t;b <xn bu;^- ; <xb cona/tc 
jne mna, i. e. of the different 
sorts of death; I saw the ap- 
pearance of a woman. 
e, an accident, or outward sen- 
sible sign; px jnejtjb <x^a;n 
CIT<X^ p;on<x, under the accidents 
of bread and wine. 

:, bo jneac, was born. 
a voice. 

Jn;a, knowledge. 

Jnja, a tree. 

Jnja, a servant ; as befytt U;cto/i 
jr/t; grya GO; Icon, dixit (Ange- 
luff) Victor, servo Milconis, (Pa- 
tricio puero.) Vit. S. Patric. 
bo ,i;j a;ngeat po gn;a, regi 
angelorum inserviendo. 

Jnja, a judge, or knowing person. 

Jnjab, a doing service. 

Jn;c, knowledge. 

Jn;b;m, to bring to pass, to effect, 
to do, to make. 

Jnjom, a parcel or division of land, 
which I think is the twelfth part 
of a ploughland. 

Jnjom, or gnjom, a fact or deed, an 
action ; plur. gn;oma/-it:a. 

Jnjomae, actual i also active, busy. 

Jnjomab, an action, an acting, or 
doing a thing. 

Jnjoma/tta, deeds, or facts. 

3r);oir)-cum<x^ac, powerful. 

Jn;om-to;/i, an actor, or agent. 

3 n Jr7 m > to bring to pass, to 

Jnjpm and gn;;~; j;m, to make, to 

Jnjte, transactions, deeds. 

3/70, business; taba;/i a;/ie bob 
gno, take care of your business ; 
plur. gnota and gnota; je. 

Jno, famous, remarkable, notable. 

Jno, jeering, or mockery. 

Jnoact, brave actions, bravery, 

Jnobujab, profit, gain in traffic; 
gnobujab nearo-;on/ia;c, dis- 
honest gain ; gno jab, ?'rfew. 

^nobuiab and gnoba; j;m, to get 
or obtain, to profit ; TO ngnobo- 
cu;nn, that I may gain ; also to 
appoint, or ordain ; bo jnocu; j 
^e, he hath commanded. 

^notac and jnoca; jeac, busy, ac- 

3fl5tu; je or jnocuj je<vb, the plur. 
of gno; t^ie jom<vb na njnctu;- 
be, for multiplicity of business ; 


o^ c;onn jnocujbe ncx Oab;to;r), 
over the affairs of Babylon. 
utxc, leaky. 
ujf, the face ; gen. 

, hazard, danger ; <x 
in jeopardy. 

7>nii)f, a notch. 

3nu;;"-meaUdno, to counterfeit. 

Jnum, a dent, or notch. 

3"LiiT), a heap, or pile. 

3 nu ^<xm, to heap up, to amass, to 

^"^ab, a notch. 

"&nufac; and ju^d; jjl, the grunt- 
ing of a cow. 

3) is sometimes used for the da- 
tive and sometimes for the ab- 
lative cases, and signifies to, 
unto ; as also with, together, or 
along with ; 50 b<xjle cxt<x-ct)<xt, /^/ 
to the town of Dublin ; jo i)Q)- 
pinn, to Ireland; jo btxlla, unto 
the palace; 50 ma;tjb La; jean, 
together with the chiefs of Leins- 
ter, also until ; go Oealtjne, 
until May ; 50 Ca;^j, till Eas- 

Jo, is a sign of the conjunctive 
mood; jo mbeannu; je an C; ja/t- 
na ^;b <xja^ 50 cco;meaba /-;K, 
may the Lord bless and pre- 
serve you. 

Jo, placed before an adjective, y 
makes it an adverb ; as, It/at, /i 
quick ; 50 luac, quickly ; go 
ceatrac, craftily ; 50 bana, 
boldly; 50 bo^-cu;tte, openly; 
a/t fdn go, although ; go be;t, 
and go gu^, until ; go ba;t, 
quickly, swiftly. Note, that co 
is often written for go in old 
Irish manuscripts. 

Jo, the sea. 

Jo, or ga, a spear. 

J6, a lie; \Vel. gay; Corn. gou. "' 

Job, a bill, beak, or snout. 

Jobam, to bud, or sprout forth, 

Joban, a muffle ; also any impedi- 
ment or obstruction of speech 


proceeding from an exterior 

l, the harbour's mouth. 
x, a smith. 

, to lessen or diminish ; ex. 
njf jo;b bo fi<xt <*. bo.o;b; j, non 
diminuit de prosperitate hos- 

3ob<x/t, or 5<xB<x/i, a horse, but now 
it commonly means a goat, (also 
the sgad fish.) 
Joba^, a periwig. 
Jogac* wavering, reeling. 
5o<x;lle<xcb, dotage. 
3oT<xll<xc, the cackling of a goose, 
duck, hen, &c. 

, to make much gesture. 


and gobag, a little bill ; 
also sand eel. 

a false colour. 
, a scoff, or taunt. 

the Irish tongue. 
to steal ; bo jo;b f& 
maj/t^eab, he stole 
gold and silver; cjonnuy 
fjn bo jojbjreiY);/", how then 
should we steal ? 
;jl;/*, a tickling ; Wei. goglais, 
and Gr. yiyy\iv[jiog, and Hisp. 
jlj prowess, chivalry ; j<x;l, zc/. 

, the stomach; also an appe- 
tite for eating. 
e<xm <x;n, grief, sorrow. 

to grieve, to cry ; bo jo;l 
fe ^o bjom<Xftc<ic, he cried ex- 
cessively ; Cor. guilvan. 

<x jojlljne, or j<x;l- 
l;ne, the devil. 
jm, anguish, vexation. 
, a hurt, or wound. 
, a chapter, or paragraph. 
, delusion. 
, to wound, to hurt. 
near; <xnjo;^e cin 
nigh the wall. 

, a short space. 

, or 5<V7/i;m, to call; bo 
jo;/t fe he hath called ; gO;;tjre 
tu, thou shalt call. 
, woad. 

andju;/tne<xb, agurnard. 
, a dolt, a fool. 
, a target. 
, genit. of jO^tt, a corn field. 


, salt; salsus. 
, jo/ttac, greedy. 

' misery, calamity. 
, saltness, sourness. 
, warm. 

a gossip. 
, a halter, or snare ; bo ;t<xb 

b be e ; irxx/t bo bl;j ; Judas 
(Iscariot) put a halter on his 
neck, and thus killed himself; 
as he deserved. L. B. 

, a lance or spear. 
, gluttony. 

3> with, along with. 

, a lancing or stinging, a 
stabbing, darting, piercing ; also 
a wounding. 
3on<xb<x;fie, the same; 

fjn, therefore. 
3oncib/t<xb;'-;n, therefore, from 
whence, whereupon. 

, wounded, hurted. 
, light. 

, advantage, profit. 
, short. Jr 
t, laughter, also pleasure. 
3o/i<xm, to heat or warm ; jO;<u;b 
b j:e;n, warm yourselves. 
, cruel, terrible. 

, to hurt or annoy. 

i, a weeder. 

, blue ; jfea/i jo/tm, a Moor. 

, noble, illustrious, excellent. 

, to make blue or red. 

, of an azure or blue co- 
lour; glaucus. 

fiirxxc, a brave sturdy servant or 

2 L 

go/tm/tob, a passage through the 

^o /m, a coal or ember, a fire- 


Zopn, the force of poison. 
^o^;-ijeac<xy and go;ifije<xcb, do- 

tage ; also peevishness, surli- 


, the ivy-tree ; also the letter 

j standing corn, a field, or 

and jo/ita, famine, hunger. 
jnn^e-jutxj/te, the regal re- 
sidence of the O'Shaghnassys in 
rf o;B p;<Xfto.c in the County of 

0ftt<xc, hungry, greedy, starving ; 
also sparing, stingy. 
, a hungry fellow. 
, a sour apple-tree, a crab- 

o^tujoib, hurt, wrong, oppres- 

o/itu j<xb and go/tt<v;gjm, to hurt, 
to wound, to oppress. 
o/tt; je<x^tn,the universal language 
before the confusion of tongues. 

6yb<x, a spirit, a ghost, or phan- 
tom ; plur. go^bcvjbe. 
, straight, even. 
a spear. 
, a vowel. 
c, opprobrious. 
a spear. 

, a spear to fight with ; 
from Tot, a spear, and ne;b, 
fight, battle. 
3ji<Jib<xc, notched, indented. 
^^<xbab, an impediment. 
3/id.baj/ie and gjiaboj, a jester, 
droller, scoffer; an impertinent 

Battler, or talkative person. 
jCnciboi ^J Devour, to cram. 
ZMC&dA'fr sculpture, engraving. 
Tn<xBU;be, an engraver. 

, a great fault, an error, 
' , the same. 

a blot ; Trt<xb - 

, or j/tob, sudden. 
ab, or rather j^a, love, charity ; 
^ab buc^i<icb<xc, tender love. 
ab, a degree, or gradation ; Lat. 
gradus ; j/taba eacctu^e, ec- 
clesiastic orders, because they 
are conferred by degrees and in- 

an, an expeditious way to 
make corn ready for the mill by 
burning the straw: its meal is 


, loving, also beloved, dear. 
, <xng/i<xb<xjj, of a sudden. 
icvbmu^, loving ; jcea/t jji&bmu/i, 
a loving man. 

i6.bmu;jtecicb, fondness, loving- 


to love affectionately, 
to have a regard or friendship 
for a person. 

bu; je and g/t&bu; jte, beloved, 

and 5fi<xj:<xjm, to write, to 
inscribe; mjf) eo^an bo g;iap 
an leaba/i rp, I, Owen, wrote 
this book. This Irish word gfioi- 
pab signifies also to grub or 
scrape up the earth, and is like 
the Greek verb -ypa^w, to write, 
to inscribe; and ^/i;ob<xb, to 
scrape up, also to write; Lat. 
scribo, to write : it is also writ- 
ten 3fi<xb<xb, which can be easily 
reconciled with the Greek verb, 
as b, with which gfi<xba.b is writ- 
ten, is the corresponding tenuis 
of its aspirate the Gr. 0. 

Knock Graflfan, or Raf- 
fan, in the County of Tippcrary, 
one of the regal houses of the 
kings of Minister in ancient 
times, where p;<xco. fl}u;lle<xt:<xn 
and other Momonian kings had 
their courts ; it was to that seat 
brought C0fim<xc GQ<xc- 
king of Le<xt-Co;nn, pri- 
soner. In after ages it was the 
estate, together with its annexes, 

of the O'Sullivans. A very re- 
markable mote yet remains there 
to be seen to this day. 

, to engraft 
aj, trie noise of crows, a croak- 
ing ; also a shout. 
, a glutton. 

i and jftajaojll, the 
clucking or hoarse crying of a 
hen, duck, or crow. 
tcig<xm, to cry out, to bawl, to 
squeal or shriek. 

t<X<xn, a manor, or village, a 

an, the bosom. 

|, or j/io; j, a stud of horses, 
or a breed of mares ; grex. 
~j, an almanack. 

^, the place where 
ancient records and charters are 
kept ; archives. 
i<Xjbjt;, a title. 

KXjb, a herd or flock ; rid. gn<x j. 
, a lover, a sweetheart. 

a rid- 

ing, also horsemanship, also an 

<xjge and gruvjgeacb, supersti- 

J/MJ to love, to regard, or 

> a glutton. 

> gluttony. 

, deformity, a loathing or 
abhorrence ; also reproach. 
, disdain, or loathing. 
, to disdain. 
;l, abominable, detest- 

cb, abomination. 
b, the glanders. 
, a hedge-hog ; cnua^uc 
no. 5^ajne5jje, an old proverb 
expressing the folly of worldly 
people, who part with all at the 
grave, as the hedge-hog doth 
with his crabs at his narrow- 


a grange. 
3.n<x;nte and jftajntreacb, hoari- 

,the common people ; 3^^- 
, the mob. 
. vulgar. 
, grammar. 

, the mob, or inferior set 
of people. 

a flock or company. 
, a buffoon, or jester. 
An, corn, a grain; Lat. gra- 

,n^n, hail, also shot ; le 5|tcin ]f 
le pteuK, with shot and with 
bali r 

;tanba, ugly, deformed, ill-favour- 

, the glanders. 
, corn, grain. 
, grey. 

, filthy, obscene. 
, obscenity. 

, grace, favour, aid, help, 

, gracious, merciful. 
, excellent, noble, distin- 

*ta/in<xc, bawling, clamorous. 
, grey. ^ 

, a stroke or blow ; plur. 
; ex. <x bo;tb- jneabajb, 
his terrible blows. 
3;te0.b<xro, to burn, or scorch ; also 

to torment, to whip severely. 
3rte<xban<J.c, babbling, chattering, 

clamorous, obstreperous. 
3/ l e<xbant<x, hot, warm, scalding. 
, a horse. 

i, drolling. 
rte, a stallion. 
, a griddle ; ^ne;be<xl. I 
a, scorched, parched, burn- 


, Greece; gen. 
, a Grecian ; plur. 
, dirty, filthy. 

3/teatl<x;r, clay, or loam. 
3/iecxmci; j;m, to hold, to fasten, to 
adhere, or stick to; bo j/te<x- 
m<x; j fe an b;t-t<xmrxxc, he put 
the thief into custody. 
3rte<xmann<x, the plur, of gfiejm, 

morsels, pieces, bits. 
3^eam<xnn<x, gripes or stitches in 

the side, belly, breast, &c. 
3fie<xmu j<xb, a fastening, or bind- 
ing, griping, also cleaving to. 
J^e<xmu;gte, fastened, clinched. 
3fie<xn, gravel ; Wei. graian, and 

Arm. gruan. 

3fte<Xfl-<xb<xl, a pomegranate. 
3;te<xn<xc, long-haired, crested ; 

Lat. crena, a crest. 
3ftecxn<xj<xb or j/ieanugdb, exhor- 

/ibe<x^, hairiness. 
, facetious, witty, lovely. 
, love, friendship. 
, a beard ; also fair hair. 
3;te<xnno.b, graving. 

, carved, engraved. 
, graving. 
, to defy. 
, a guest ; pi. j/iea/TX. 

genit. jpe;^; j^iejy co;- 
m;/ice, protection, preservation. 
ie<x;r, 50 /ie<ty-, usually, ordi- 

and genit. %pejf, fine 
clothes, embroidery; Oj/i-Tfte;^, 
gold embroidery, furniture ; 
hence j/iecx^oib signifies to 
dress, or adorn ; also to ac- 
coutre ; ex. bo j/ieoyoib OOaojl- 
Tjon an taoc, the champion 
Maolgin was accoutred or dress- 
ed in his military habiliments; 
ob<xjfi J/te;/-, embroidery, or any 

iea/"<xb and j^e<x^<xm, to dress, 
to order, to adorn; also to en- 
courage, promote, or urge on. 
, an inn, or tavern. 
, an innkeeper, 
a yreb. 


the distinguishing 
name of a shoemaker ; but pro- 
perly the maker of any furniture 
or embroidery. 

, a noise, cry, shout, &c., pi. 

c, a hound. 
3/iec, a nut. 
3/iec, salt; salsus. 
3;^e;ble, a gift or present. 
3/iejbe<xl, a gridiron ; also a grid- 
dle, or baking iron ; Brit, gra- 
3/ie;tlear>, a dagger, a sword, or 


3fte;m, a task, a hard word, or 
difficult expression ; also a hold ; 
bo pu-g ye ;ie;iD, he laid ahold, 
also a bit or morsel; b<xjnpb 
5/ie;m <x^-a;b, they shall bite 
you; plur. ^Heamannoi. 
, a stitch. 

, the herb samphire. 
, old garments, trash, or 
trumpery, old lumber. 
c, the zodiac. 
/ienn, the zodiac. 
, genit. of g;te<X;~, furniture, 
needle-\vork, any fine work ; also 
fine clothes; ex. nj hjnjfteap 
Ion no. b;a <xcu <xctr a bjr<xj<xb 
Joyep <x^( <x 7"<xo;/ye<xct;, <xju^ 
ma;/ie <x;/t <x gfte^*, they are not 
said to have any sustenance or 
food but what Joseph acquired 
by his trade of carpenter, and 
Mary by her needlework and 
embroidery. L. B. 
, protection. 

l, the sanctuary. 
ct>, a soliciting, or en- 


- j;oU<x, a client. 

6;pi, a carter, or wag- 

e;t, a champion, or warrior. 
e;c, a jewel, or precious stone ; 
plur. gftejt/ie ; jomab bo j/te;- 
c/t;b jeandmla, a store of va- 

luable jewels. 
t, grey hairs. 
, common. 

t, a guest, or present. 
/V<xb<x, a great warrior, a cham- 
pion, or hero. 

, the sun ; genit. gytejne. 
3/V<xn, the ground or bottom of a 
sea, lake, or river ; Wei. graian 
is ravel. 

, land; gfi;<xn-b;lle, glebe- 

warmed with the sun ; 

sunny, warm. 

, a summer-house ; also a 
walk arched or covered over on 
a high hill for a commodious 
prospect ; also a palace, or royal 
seat; gftjanan Ojl;j, the regal 
house of O'Neill in Ulster. 
c, a dial. 

, the shortest day 
in the year, mid-winter. 
, blackberries. 
, to dry in the sun. 
, the solstice. 
, an impediment. 
3/rjb, dirt, filth. 
3>tjb, a manger. 

jb, the feathers about the feet of 
hens, pigeons, &c. 
b, a griffin; sometimes figura- 
tively spoken of a fierce warrior ; 
g;i;b-;ngneac, a griffin ; it is 
also written g^vjoro. 
e<xc, a hunting-nag. 
i, war, battle. 

t, a covert made of hur- 
dles, used in sieges, a kind of a 
rude penthouse. 

l, valiant, martial, brave. 
m a pedlar, a broker. 
;n, a piece, or morsel. 
, workmanlike, artificial. 
, a fort, or garrison. 
, a beard. 

, neat, clean ; also decency. 
genit. of j^e<xnn, love, face- 


3 S^ nn ' seriously, delibe- 
rately, profoundly, to the bot- 
tom, i, e. 30 g;te<xn ; r/rf. j^e^n. 
3;tjnneac, a young man. 
3/tjnneab, to die, to perish. 
3;ijnne<xt and j^jnn;ol, the bot- 
tom of the sea or river ; j^jnojot 
n<x m<x^<x, the bottom or the sand 
of the sea. 

, closeness. 
, a constellation. 
, to strike or slap. 

, a herald, one that 
proclaims war or peace. 

m-c<X;tbab, an armed chariot ; 
the currus falcatus of the Bri- 

;6ti), a man's nail, a claw or ta- 
lon; 5^;6m pa./ttxx;n, a crab's 

ma; j;l, a slight motion ; Lat. 

c, hawk-nosed. 

sunny, wann- 
ed with the sun. 

vjongal and j^jonj^lacjb, care, 
assiduity, sorrow. 

c, industrious, careful. 
, the herb turnsol. 
and j^Jonacb, the 
warmth of the sun, sunrising. 
c, embers, or hot ashes ; 

, an encouragement, an in- 

t;o^-<xb and j^tjo^cim, to whet, to 
encourage, to provoke, or stir 
on ; also to rake up fire. 

-jtujtnjm, to grow red, to co- 
lour up, or be ruddy ; bo jftjo/"- 
^Ujtn;^ <x I;, his complexion 
grew red. 

t;o/~ta, stirred, moved, provoked. 
t;op^ab and 5;t;o^a;j;m, to 
kindle, to grow hot; bo jn;o- 

jj <x jrea/ijjhis anger grew hot. 
, the sun. 

, fire ; also pimples, blotches, 
or pustules appearing on the skin 

from the heat of blood. 

, broiled meat. 
t, knowledge, skill. 
ta;l, the noise or grunting of 

young pigs. 
3/iJted.c, learned, wise, discreet, 


3ft jun, a hedge-hog. 
3/iob, smart ; also proud. 
3^ob, the foam. 
3ftob, 50 5/tob, soon, quickly. 
3/ioban, a boat. 
3fiob-;<x/ta;nn, an iron bar, an iron 

3/iog, or ;i u<xj, the hair of the 

3/tO;ble<xc, long-nailed, having 

large talons. 
3fio; j, a stud of horses, or breed 

of mares ; Lat. grex, gregis ; it 

is often improperly written 

3/iOn, a stain or spot. 
3;iont<xc, corpulent. 
3;tot<xl, sand, gravel, rubble. 
3/tottac, gravelly; also a gravel 

on <xc, corpulent. 
, the cheek. 
, the hair of the head : mo 

t;at:^<x, my grey hairs. 
, a woman, a wife; Wei. 
gureig; genit. j/tudj. 
3ftu<xg<xc, a woman-giant; also a 
ghost or apparition, supersti- 
tiously thought to haunt certain 

<xe, hairy, full of hair. 
, from jfiu<xb. 
, ill-humour, dissatisfaction, 

, a sullen fellow. 
and j;tu<xm<xc, obscure, 
sullen, dark, cloudy, morose. 
3/iu<*m<xcb, gloominess, sternness, 

o, to engraft. 
, a wrinkle. 

, morose ; sour, fierce, cruel. 

, weak, feeble. 
, a lie, an untruth. 
c, wrinkled. 
, malt. 

, inhospitality, churlishness. 
, a cricket; Lat. grillus. . 
5' a truce, or cessation of 
", or go, a lie, or untruth. 

, a light, giddy, fantastical, or 
whimsical fellow, an unsettled, 
capricious person; its diminut. 
is 5u<x;5p ; the Welsh have 
guag eilyn and guag-ysprid for 
a phantasm or whim. 
3 u < J -jU;;z;e, a companion. 
3f <x;/ibeajn, a whirlwind. 
3"^;/te, noble, excellent, great ; 
hence guajfie was the proper 
names of some Irish princes. 
3"<V7fie, the hair of the head ; also 

the edge, or point of a thing. 
3uu;^, danger ; jua^-bea/ic<xc, 
enterprizing, adventurous. 

a coal, also fire; ppi nac- 
jraUan gnu;^ j:/i; ^ucxl, men 
whose complexions are altered 
by coal, (fires.) 

and gualann, a shoulder, 
and jola, gluttony. 
n, a firebrand. 
c, light, active, 
and jua;^, peril, hazard ; <x 
<n;, in jeopardy. 

, danger; also an adven- 

3"^/*<xcb<xc, dangerous, dreadful ; 
also painful; cne<xb jua^-<xcb<xc, 
a painful wound ; a common ex- 
pression in old parchments which 
treat of medicine. 
3uba, mourning; jol-jdj/t <XU/- 
gub, crying and wailing ; also 
complaint, lamentation. 
3"ba, a battle, or conflict. 
3btac, mourning, sorrowful. 
3"ba;im, pro gujbjm, to pray. 

, a study, or school-house ; 
also an armory. 


, studious, assidious. 
, false testimony ; ba 

no. pxjajfit <xj 
b jujru/tjojll _<xn<xj j Joya, 
beo; j bo be<xc<xb<x;t ba ju- 
jjlle, the high priests sought 
false witnesses against Jesus, at 
length two false witnesses ap- 
peared. L, B. 

^A/tnajj, the clucking of a hen; 
gujajl and jujollajj, the same. 
ojri, a governor. 
i. e. Saj^n, England. 
Jbe, a prayer, entreaty, or inter- 
cession; noo jujbe cum )e <Xft 
<x fOn, my prayers to God for 

, to pray, to beseech, to en- 
treat; bo jujb fe, he prayed; 
ju;b;m tu, I pray thee. 

, to weep, to cry, to bewail. 
ne, calumny. 
neac, calumnious. 

, to calumniate, to re- 

, a holy relic ; jon<x 
mjonn<x;B <XTU^ <x mb<xc< 
with their holy relics and crosiers. 
ap, a pillory. 

, to prick, sting, or wound. 
a scar. 

, a little scar. 

Loc %ujfi, a lake in the 
County of Limerick. 
pJf)*, to exulcerate. 
, a spot, a blain, or wheal, a 

, blueness ; also more blue. 
acb, blueness. 
, a gurnard. 
, leaky, full of chinks. 
, a stocking. 

> to flow ; hence 5<\)/-e, a 
stream ; Al. caise. 
, a gutter. 

denial, refusal ; <xb ju;- 
, I refused. 

, bashful. 
ul, a crying out, a lamentation ; 

also the perfect tense of the verb 
gu;l;m ; as bo jut ye, he cried, 
or wept. 

the mouth. 

a battle. 
Jun, the same as jdn, without. 
3unbu;nne, a spear or javelin. 
un, a breach. 

3unl<xnn, a prison, a gaol, or hold. 
^unn, a prisoner, a hostage. 
3unn<*, a gown ; also a gun. 
3unnc<x, a prison. 

, erring or straying. 
, wounded, also slain ; ^e;l;T 
n<x bj:e<Xft rrruntd, the burial 
place of the slain or of suicides. 
nta, an experienced, skilful, 
prying man. 
ncac, costiveness. 
/i and jujftjnn, a blotch, a pim- 
ple, a wheal. 

/t, that; jUfi be<xnna;j pcvt- 
t^ta;ce C;/te, that St. Patrick 
blessed Ireland ; so that ; Gr. 
yap, and Gall, car signify for ; 
Lat. enim. 
/t, brave, valiant. 
t, sharp. 

a pallisado. 

, a cave or den, a hole. 
weight, or force, strength ; 
bujne 5<xn ju^*, a man of no va- 

to, unto, until ; guy <xn Jv;e, 
to the place ; guy <x n;u j, unto 
this day; guy <x m<Xft<xc, until 
tomorrow; c;a ju/-, to whom. 

a desire or inclination. 
, valid, strong, powerful. 
a burden; Wei. guystil, 
a pledge ; also ability. 
, puddle. 
, the gout. > 

c, or cutr<xc, short, bob- 

a voice; <iu j^ac* jut 

and behold, a voice 
from heaven. 

ut, a bad name for inhospitality 
or incontinency ; bo pia;/t -f] 


jut, she was exposed. 
3"tol&;be, a cuckold-maker 
', confident. 


f) is not admitted as a letter into the Irish alphabet, nor otherwise 
employed in the Irish language than as a mere aspirate in the same man- 
ner as in the Greek. The Greeks anciently used h as a letter, and not 
merely as an aspirate. It was one of the characters of their most ancient 
alphabets, and it is well known that they wrote Oeog with the different 
letters t and h, instead of Btog, written with the single letter 0. In the 
Irish language h is prefixed as a strong aspirate before words beginning 
with a vowel, and having reference to objects of the female sex : as <x b<X)b, 
her face ; <x bo/t, her gold. And secondly, when such words are pre- 
ceded by the Irish prepositions le or fie, with, or by, which takes place 
not only in ordinary words, as le 7)0ft a%Uf le b<x;/t)0b, with gold and 
silver, but also in the names of countries, principalities, and particular 
clans ; as, le b'O^tu; jjb, le b'Ul<xb, with or by the people of Ossory, with 
Ulidia. It is now called U<xt, from Hat, the white thorn-tree. 


) is the eighth letter of the Irish alphabet, and the third of the five 
vowels, of the denomination of c<xol, or small vowels. It is called Jobd, 
from job<x, vulgo ;uba^t, the yew-tree ; Lat. taxus ; and is not unlike the 
Heb. ', and Gr. i, as to its appellative. The Irish language admits of no 
j consonant no more than the Greek ; and it seems to appear by the fol- 
lowing examples, that the Latins did not use it as a distinct character ; 
for they wrote, as Priscian tells us, peiius for pejus, and eiius for ejus, 
&c. In our old manuscripts e and ; were written indifferently one for 
another, as hath been observed in the remarks upon e. It is the preposi- 
tive vowel of those diphthongs which are called n<x cu;j Jfjne, or the 
five iphthongs, from ;pn, the gooseberry bush, Lat. grossularia, viz. ;a, 
;<x;, ju, juj, and ;o ; of which we find iu used among the Hebrews, as 
Heb. rVD, Lat. os ejus. 

J, an art or science. 
7, in ; j tjf , in a house. 

) <r 

J, an island ; hence ) Cbolu;m Cjile, 
the island of St. Columbus ; vid. 

J cf 

0.01, supra. 

Jac, a salmon ; jac-cnajm, the bone 
of a salmon ; co pnjt an jreub a 
meobon ;ac, reperitur sentis in 
venire salmon is. 

JacbaM, the bottom of any thing, a 
foundation, the lower part ; Jac- 
ban Connact, the country of 
Lower Connaught in Ireland. 

Jacba/t canity-, the bassus cantus 
in music. 

Jacbanujje, the lowest, lower, in- 

Jacbab, a noise, or cry. 

Jab, they, them. 

Jabal, a disease. 

Jabab, a shutting, closing, or join- 
ing ; a* n;abab bo bo/ia;^, when 
thou shuttest thy door ; bo frja- 
bab fu&f 50 ba;njean, it was 
close, shut up ; bo jababun a 
nbo;/tf-e, they shut their doors. 

Jabte, joined, close, shut up. 

Jaj, an island. 

^ann, the noddle ; Lat. occi- 

:eant, the west. 

Ja;ft-t;teaS, an habitation. 

Jail, a latchet, or thong ; plur. jal- \ 
laca ; jallaca a tenor a bo 
raojle, to loose the latcnets of 
us shoes ; jallac, a latchet, or 

Jail, a flock of birds. 

Jalla cnann, shoes. 

Jattog leatrajn, a bat. 

Jan, a weasel. 

Jan, after ; ;an fjn, after that, af- 

Jan, pro ajn, at, upon. 

Ja/t, or pan, back, backwards ; 
also the west ; Jan-CEuman, West 
Munster; on janta*, from the 

Jan, black, dark. 

Ja/iam, afterwards, postea ; and 
;anajn, idem ; also thenceforth, 
again, anew, fresh. 

Janan, or ;an;tann, iron ; Lat. fer- 

rum ; Suec. tarn ; Dan. iern ; 
Mont, iaain ; Wei. haiarn; and 
Ann. uarn; Hisp. hierro; Cim- 
brice,yara/ Goth, eisarn. 

Janbeo, still in beins:- 

Jan-bonn, a brownish black. 

Jan-briaoj, a remnant. 

Jaftpvjbe, ward, or custody ; ab 
coba otan janpajbe, a patient 
ought to be taken care of. 

Ja/i-jrlatr, a feudatory lord, or one 
depending of another greater 
lord ; from ja;t, after, and jrlat, 
a lord, i. e. a lord preceded by 
another lord; hence the Saxon 
word earl. 

Jan-cculta, churlish, backward. 

Ja-ijan, the groans of a dying 

Ja/i-jaot, the west wind. 

Ja^jujl, or jangal, a battle, a skir- 

Janjujleac, warlike, engaged in 

Janla, an earl ; vid. eapilam. 

Ja^lajt/tju^ab, a preparation. 

Janmant, riches. 

Ja^ma^tr, the issue or consequence 
of an affair. 

:, offspring. 

., a pronoun; also any 
particle that is not declined, as 
adverb, conjunction, &c. 

Ja^me;nje, matins, morning pray- 
er; ;an tteact on janme^je, 
after saying matins. Annal. 
Tighern. an. 1057, 

Ja/tna, a chain of thread ; also con- 

Ja/tnacan, an iron tool. 

Jannajbe. Irons ; plur. of ;a^t<xn, 
also of, or belonging to iron. 

Jannboe, a fawn. 

Janoj, a weasel. 

Janoj, anguish or grief. 

T and ;a/trt<it:<i^, a request, 
a desire, or petition. 

i, to seek, to request, or 

entreat, to demand or require ; 

;d/t <vjft e, require it from him ; 

;<Xfi/ia;m o/tt, I pray you ; jfyt/t- 

pJjb 7-6 bej/ic, he shall beg 

7<x/t/t<xto;/t, a beggar, or petitioner; 

also a surgeon's probe. 
Ja/tftatu;-, a petition, or request. 

, iron ; bja;in<xjb co/i/ianca, 

of barbed or hooked irons ; vid. 

), after ; }&/t;~< 
v, a relic, or remnant; as, 

pe<xc<xb, also an incumbrance or 
burden ; also a new year's gift. 

Jfyt^mac, beneficent, or generous. 

Ja^itajge, posterity, also descen- 
dants, also domestics ; 70 bt;- 
(Xja;n bo b; J^/t<xel ;ran mbab;- 
I6;n mart <\on te na clojrw <xgu/~ 
le <x/v ja^ic<xj^e, the people of 
Israel were 70 years in Babylon 
together with their children and 

Ja/ttxx/i, the west country; from 
ja/t, west, and tfyi, pro t;/t, a 
country ; ja/ita/t 6;/v)/?n, the 
west of Ireland. 

Jfy-<*cb, a loan, a thing lent. 

Jd;-acbajbe, a creditor. 

)&r<\l<xc, easy, feasible. 

Ju/"<xccxb, advantage, profit. 
: Ja^c, or jaf, fish, fishes; pi. 
and ;<jycujb ; Lat. piscis. 

Jcx^cab, to fish out. 

Jcxrcaj/ie, a fisherman ; 
c<xj/ineac, an osprey. 

Ja;"C<xj/ieacb, fishing, tlie art of 
fishing ; also a fishery. 

Jat, land ; pi. jCxcajb. 

Jat 6 neacac, the south part of the 
County of Waterford, anciently 
possessed by the O'Brics. 

Jtxtlu, a little feather ; i. e. e;te la 

no be<xg ; also a small fin. 
X Jb, a country ; also a tribe of peo- 

. T6, diink you ; from )b;m, to drink. 

)!5, you, ye; pb has the same sig- 

Jbea/1, marble. 

)b;m, to diink, to imbibe; bo ;b 
/"e, he drank. 

Jbteoic, soaking, that drinks or 
takes in wet. 

Jc, a cure, or remedy ; bcx lu;b )ce, 
i. e. ba lu;b le;ge;^; jce, the 
genit. of ;c. 

Jce, is rendered balm in the Eng- 
lish version of the Bible Ezek. 
27. 17. 

)ce<xb and ;cjm, to heal or cure ; 
jcajb tity-ca <xja^- t/iu^c<x, cu- 
rabat ccecos (Lvscos,) et Le- 
prosos. S. Fiechus in Vita S. 
Patricii. Also to pay for, to 
make restitution. 

Jceab, a healing or curing ; also a 
suffering, a paying for. 

Jclu^, or -jocluf, a healing by 
herbs ; from ;c and lu/", an 

Jc-lu/~a;m, to cure by the power of 

Jb, good, honest, just. 

Jbea/t-palam, a space or distance 
of time or place ; ;be<x^j:a^, the 

Jbe<Xfi-pot<xtri, the same. 

<xjlte, the space between 
the shoulders. 

and ;oba/t/-, towards. 
noy, a distance. 

Jb, a wreath or chain, also a ridge; 
it is written sometimes job. 

Jb, use. 

Jbo, or jobo., or joga, the yew-tree ; 
also the letter ; ; vid. ;oba. 

Jb;b, cold. 

i, betwixt, between ; and in old , 
books jnb;;t ; Lat. inter. 
^, distance. 

Jb;/i-be<xl<xb, a distinction, or dif- 

)b;/i-b/tear, distance. 

Jb;/ie;j, the change of the moon ; 
from jb;/x and eaj or 

J L 

} CO 

the moon. 

, to interpret. 
t-iT)jn; jte, interpreted, 
t-mjrij! jteojn, an interpreter. 

7b;ft-roeobant:o;/t, a mediator ; 
Cftjo^b ;b;/t-meobanto;;t ea- 
bno;/?n aju^ <D;a, Christ is me- 
diator between us and God. 

Jbjn-fijjeacb, an interregnum. 

^bjft-teonjtroj/t, an interpreter of 

Jjrea;tn, hell ; and sometimes writ- 
ten jppjonn and )pte;nn, is like 
the Lat. infer/) inn, the ; being 
equal to the Lat. in, as in S. 
Fiechus Hymn, de Vita S. Pa- 
tricii ; ba? ;-e blja jna j pognam, 
sex annis erat in servitvte ; and 
also; fjffi, in visionibus; Wei. 
yfern< and Corn, //a/vz / ;jrea/tn 
ana;- na bpjan nac fe;t>;;t 
bjra;p7e;/-, hell is the mansion- 
house of inexpressible pain. 

Jjr/tjonnbc,, hellish, of or belonging 
to hell. 

J j, a ring. 

Jl and ;le, much, many, great ; also 

Jt-be<x^<xc, arch; also of various 
ways and humours. 

Jl-ceanbac, Jack of all trades, of 
various trades. 

H-cecinbci; je, the same. 

Jl-beolbac, well-featured or coin- 

Jlbenndb, variation. 

Jlbetxnmucxb, an emblem. 

Jte, a great number of people. 

Jle and ;lea^, diversity, a diffe- 

Jleac, ordure, dung; senit. jljj; 
cann-jt;j, a dunghill; vid. <xo;- 

Jl-jnjtreac, of all sorts, diverse, 

c, very horrid and ugly ; 
jt-j/uvjneac, an ugly hor- 
rid beast or monster. 

Jl-jneac, skilful. 


Jl-j;iea/'ac, an inn or lodging, 

Jt-u;b;m, to vary or alter. 

, the very same people, 
themselves ; Lat. illi ipsi. Old 

Jt-lea'dan, a tome or volume con- 
taining many books. 

Jl-p;<xrb and jl-pe;^r, a serpent, a 
snake, an adder. 

)l-^Jnce, a ball, a dance where 
many dance together ; chorea. 

Jl-f e<x;*am, distance. 

)m, butter ; gen. jme ; <xg b;ol ;me, 
selling butter. 

Jm and urn, about, when it is pre- 
fixed to nouns of time, as ;m <x/i 
ArnfO <x ma^ac, about this time 
to-morrow ; it also signifies along 
with, at the head of, when pre- 
fixed to other nouns ; ex. bo ca;- 
n;c Co;^-beatb<vc an jm lao- 
c<x;B no. m;be, Turlogh came 
thither at the head of the heroes 
of Meath. 

7mabu jab, a multiplying ; 50 nbe- 
unajb ;m aba jab, that they may 

Jma;tr;j;b, use, custom, experience. 

Jmanba^, c;\ann an ;omanba;^, 
the tree of transgression ; a meo- 
ban laoj bo /t;<ir itbam ;omaft- 
ba/~; njl neac jan ;manba^, id 
est, at noon day Adam transgress- 
ed: there is no person without 
a fault, or all men transgress. 
Z. B. 

, strife, contention, dis- 
pute ; jomaftbajb, idem; joman- 
bajb Leat-cu;nn aju^ Leac- 
mora. the dispute of Leac-cu;nn 
and Leatr-mo ja, concerning su- 
periority or excellency. A poem 
thus entitled. 

, or jma; nee, plundering, 
devastation, ransacking. 

Jm-cejmn; j;m, to walk round. 

Jmcjan and 7mce;n, and vulgarly 
said ;m jgejn, far, remote, either 
with respect to time or place ; as, 

J 03 

6 &;t jmc;<xn, a people 
from a foreign country ; tranga- 
m<x;;t oy t;/t ;mce;n, we came 
from a remote coimtry ; <vjim;-;/i 
jmc;<xn o f]n, a long time since; 
<xm jmcejn ba e;^, a long time 

JfflcVjtl, about. 
Jmc;m, to go on, to march. 
JiDc;m, to force, to compel, to res- 

I, protection ; ^ob ;mbe<x- 
bci;t ccuj/ie, w s<! protec- 
trix nostris turmis. Brogan. 
Jmbetxl, a league, or covenant. 
Jmbe<x/ib<xb, a proof. 
.)mbe<kjib<xb and ;mbe<x/tb<x;m, to 


JiDbed/tbtcx, proved, maintained. 
Jmbe<Xfi;z;<xb, a reproof. 
Jnobe<x^j<xb and jmbea/igajm, to 
reprove or rebuke, to reproach 
or dispraise. 

Jmbe<x/-iTt;<x, reviled, reproved, re- 
buked; ex. lucb ;mbe<x/i2t<x, re- 

Jmb;oll, a feast. 
Jmbjol, guile, deceit, fraud. 
^meoictjKVj j, plough-bullocks. 
Jnoeab, jealousy. 
Jmecxbac, jealous. 
Jme<xba;/-ie, a zealot. 
Jme<xjt<xc, terrible, frightful. 

1, to fear. 

and ;m;ol, an edge or bor- 
der, a coast; o ;noeal<x;b n<x 
r)<xlb<xn, from the borders of 

ij<x;n, a striking on all 
Jmeocoim, we will go ; ;mteoc<xb 

fe, he will go ; vid. jmij j;m. 
Jmpe<xbOL;n, a draught. 

or ;mp;be<xc, a petitioner. 
, a marble. 

xj, a coupling or joining to- 

Jno;leab<xb, unction. 
)m;leaba;m, to anoint. 

Jm;l;m, to lick. 

Jm;/tce, vulgo jm;fi;je, a journey, 

or peregrination ; 50 ne;/i je r;- 

m;/ice leat, may your journey 

be prosperous to you. 
Jn);/tc;m, or ;m;/iceab, to remove, 

or change one's dwelling. 
Jm;nr>, I go ; Lat. immeo or remeo. 

je, an emigration, or chang- 
ing from place to place; Lat. 

Jmle<vba/t, a tome or volume. 
Jml;on, the navel. 
Jml;ocan, the navel. 

c tXjtbe, the name of one of 
the first episcopal churches in 
Munster,now called Emly, which 
is of late united to the see of 
Cashel. Its first bishop was 
tfjlbej who preached the Gospel 
in Ireland before St. Patrick's 
arrival in that kingdom. 

, bordering upon a lake. 
, thus. 

m, to bind, tie, &c. 
Jmn;be, or ;m/*n;om, care, dili- 

careful, uneasy about 
the success of an action ; anxious, 

, contention, disunion. 

, to yoke. 

Jmp;b, a twig or rod. 
Jmp;be, a prayer, petition, or sup- 
plication ; ;a/t<x;m ;mp;be o/tt:, I 
beseech or supplicate you ; cu;- 
;t;m b;inp;be, I beseech. 
Jmpjbeac, an intercessor, a peti- 


Jmp;b;m, to beseech, entreat, pray, 
request ; jimp;b;m o^ic <x j\j j 
rrio/t ncx njl bujte, I entreat you 
the great God of all the ele- 

Jmp;/ie, an emperor. 
Jmpj/teacb, an empire, 
Jm/ieaccu;b, it happened or fell 

and ;m/te<ty-uj, dispute, 


controversy, strife ; 4.f 
jnme<X n<x ua;jne<x^, a pro- 
verb, literally meaning that dis- 
pute is better than want of so- 

Jm;te<x}-am, to strive or contest, to 

Jm/te<ty-cin<3i}m, idem. 

Jmrte<X;~ar)u;be, a contending per- 
son, a disputant. 

Jmrte;inn;jm, to go about. 

Jmrtjnn, to play, or divert. 

Jro/vjro, a riding. 

Jnr^c;n, a bed-room, or closet. 
, rage, fury. 

a project, 
i, strife, contention. 
iT), heaviness, sadness. 

Jmpi;om, care, diligence. 

Jnty*n;omac, anxious, solicitous, un- 

Jnf)/~jubta;m, to walk about, to ram- 

-Jmteacb, a progress, or goin<. a 
departure; jmteacb <ut ^-lua; je 
no mjtl y;nn, it was the depar- 
ture of our army that ruined us. 

Jmteacb, an adventure, feat, or 
expedition ; px tne<xnn e n<x jno- 
ceo-crajb, clarus est in suis ges- 
tis.Vid. S. Fiech. in Vit. S. 

Jmteacbd;be, one that is departing, 
the goins: man. 

Jmt; j;no, to go, to march, to pro- 
ceed, to depart. 

Jmtne<x^cno.b, to wrestle; bo bj 
<xn tajnjjol agaf Jacob <x/t r<xb 
n<x bojbceaj ;mte/t<x^c>tci, (r/f/. 
Leaba^t b^ieac,) the angel wres- 
tled with Jacob all night. 

Jmtjupx, or ;omca^<x, adventures, 
feats ; rid. JOmtuf and jomtrupi. 

Jn, praep. Lat. //?, and Angl. in. 
This Irish preposition answering 
the Latin and English in, is 
always used in old manuscripts 
instead of <xnn used by the mo- 
dern writers to express the 

same; Gr. EV. 

Jn, fit, proper ; used always in com- 
pound words, as ;n-jreabmo, fit 
or capable of doing a manly ac- 
tion; p-nuabcajft, marriageable, 
fit to be married. 

Jn<X and jnaf, than ; Lat. quam ; 
used in our old manuscripts ; as, 
nj bpu;l pea;* <xn 6);^nn <^f 
fecirtrt ;nfy~ <xn pea/t^o jujr <x 
ctanja;^-, the man you visited 
is as good a man as can be 
found in Ireland ; ajalldb pbatr- 
trtajj <^ a f Cd;ltte me;c ??o- 

Jnbe, quality, dignity. 

Jnbeac, in place, of quality. 

Jnbeac, come to perfect health. 

Jnbeart, pasture. 

Jnbeart, a river; Jnbean Colpca, 
now the town of Drogheda, 
where the river Boyne discharges 
itself into the sea ; jnbean Sce;ne, 
the river of Kenmare in the 
County of Kerry : jnbeart n<x 
mbanc, the bay of Bantry ; ;n- 
beart Sla;ne, the river Slaney in 
Wexford. This word should be 
more properly written p-ma,n, or 
jn-majta, from ;n, and nfiu;i, or 
m<Xn<x, the sea, and accordingly 
signifies the mouth of a river, 
where it is received into the 

Jncean<x;j, that may be bought, 

)ncjnn, the brain. 

J/7Crte<xc<xb, blame, reproach; ex. 
roe b;nc/ trtjb, to re- 
proach me for it. P'id. Chron. 
Scotorum in introitu. 

Jncrte<xc<xb, gleaning or leasing 

Jnc;te<Xc<xro, to consider. 

Jnbeanca, lawful, practicable. 
Luke, 6. 2. 

Jnbjne, a fight, or engagement. 
, vendible, fit for sale. 
, a court ; 50 to/t<xct<v;r) bo 



go /;;nbl;^ a;/iceanna;cc na 
pxja/tt, till he arrived to the 
court of the high priest. 

c, the lining of cloth in weav- 

Jneac, hospitality, generosity, good 
housekeeping ; an te fjpjOf 
nji> a/i gac neac, rjj bt; jean bo 
be;t gan ;neac, he that desires 
the favour of others, ought to be 
liberal himself. 

Jneact/iea/~, a fair or pattern, a 
public meeting commonly called 

Jnjreatam, to meditate. 

marriageable, fit for a hus- 

band, as jon-mna, fit for a wife ; 

jon-a;/tm, fit to take arms. 

, choice, election. 
j, a swelling. 
)n 5, is one of the negatives of the 

Irish language. 
Jnj, a neck of land. 
Jng, force, compulsion. 
Jnja;/ie, herding; ;nj<x;/ie cae- 

;iac, the herding of sheep. 
.Jnjea/t, a level. 
Jngebte, of twins in the womb, 

that which comes to perfect 

Jng^jujt, consequence, or conclu- 


Jng-jla;n, uncleanness, filth. 
Jn-lan, dirty, filthy, unclean. 

, feeding, grazing ; ;n je;ttjb 

jab, feed them ; ca;t a n;ng;l- 

tjn tu, where feedest thou. 

Job. 1. 14. 

, or jngean, a daughter ; from 

jean, like the Lat. gentium ; 

and ;n per metathesin pro nj j, 

which signifies a daughter; ex. 

fDcx;/te nj j, or n; Comaj^, Mary, 

the daughter of Thomas ; GQaj/te 

n; Ob;t;a;n, Mary O'Brien, &c. 
Jnj;te;m, ravening; also persecu- 

ting; lucb m;n jfteama, they that 

persecute me ; a/t n; 

our persecutors. 


, a carpenter or mason's line. 

, an anchor. -* 

, affliction, grief, sorrow. 

Jnjte;b, a hook. 

Jn jne, the plur. of ;onja, nails, or 
talons, hooks, claws. 

Jngfiejm, persecution ; as, conac an 
trj pz;l;ngjOf- ;nT/te;m bo taojb 
an c;/it, blessed is he who suf- 
fers persecution for the sake of 
justice. Leaba/i b/teac. 

Jng/iejmteac, a persecutor; pot 
jnj/tejmteac na beajla;^e, 
Paul, the persecutor of the 

)n;ata/t, or jnujtea^i, a bowel or 

)n;b, Shrovetide; Wei. ynid. 

Jn;be, or jnnjbe, the bowels or en- 
trails; Lat. interiora. 

to feed, to graze; vid. 

, weakness, feebleness. 
ln)f, an island ; Lat. insula; plur. 

an ;nnpb G0a/-ia Uo/t- 

Z.S Maris Tyrrheni mansit, 
ut memoratur ; ]njf na bjrjob- 
bu;be, Insula Sylvatica, an old 
name of Ireland. 

Jnjf, Ennis, chief town of the 
County of Clare. 

Jn;^-cealt/iac, an island of pil- 
grimage in Loc <De;/tgea/tt:. 

)n;/~"Cata, an island in the river 

Jn;^-Cojana;n, Innishannon, a mar- 
ket-town between Bandon and 
Kinsale in the County of Cork. 

)n;/"-beaj, an island near Balti- 
more in the County of Cork. 

jn, Sherky island be- 
tween Baltimore and Cape Clear 
in Carbury. 

, on the river Feil in the 
County of Kerry; also a large 
island in the river Shannon, 
where there is a famous monas- 
tery, built by >o/jog Ca;/ib/teac 

) M 

0'6ft;en, king of Limerick and 

J/7j^-caort<xc, an island in the sea, 
near <Tojb Oftjc&n, in the west 
of the County of Clare. 
1njf-bo-pjnne, an island in the sea, 
in the west of the County of 

a garden ; jnnfjn ^ug- 
flOjleabd <vn 6;;i; j )of& leo 
i. e. ar <xn 

cujje u;te laaj no. njubuj j- 
eac, (Le<xb<x-t bneac.) then the 
soldiers of the Tetrarch convey- 
ed Jesus out of the garden, 
whereupon the entire multitude 
of the Jewish people assembled 
about him. 

Jnjte, edible, fit to be eaten. 

Jnleab, and ;nljm, to make ready, 
to prepare ; bo 7);nle<xb <x ca;t- 
bab bo, his chariot was made 
ready for him ; also to dispose, 
to set in order, to put in array ; 
bo bjnleab <J.n j<x bujtj, the 
Belgian dart was set in order ; 
also to contrive or project; bo 
bjnleab ce<xlj, an ambush was 
laicl; b;njlt fe ;ntlecuib, he set j 
his wits to work ; also to flourish 
or brandish ; as, <J.g jnjollu j 
<x <xbA^c, brandishing his horn. 

Jnme, an estate, or patrimony ; also 

Jnriiearba, commendable. 

Jnme6b<xncic, mean, moderate, also 
inward ; 50 bjnmeob<xn<xc, OUf 
50 po^;ni;ot<xc, inwardly and 

Jnmeobantx^, temperance. 

Jnmujo, affable, courteous, loving. 

^nmjonna., desirable. 

)nn, us, we; like 

)nn, or <xnn, therein. 

)nn, a wave. 

Jnne, a bowel, or entrail ; plur. 

c, the woof. 



J/ine<xl, restraint. 

Jnneatl, service, attendance. 

, or jnnjoll, mien, carriage, 
or deportment ; also a state or 
condition; also the order or dis- 
position of a thing; also dress 
or attire ; ex. ;nne<xt t; je Co;^- 
bealb<x; j, the order of Turlogh's 
house ; jnnjolt tr^obo. c<xtrajb 
Cujnn, the militar\~ order of the 
troops of Conn ; ;nn;olt <xgu;~ 
edjco^j na mna, the dress and 
visage of the lady, or her gait 
and visage ; nedc <ut jnn;ll. one 
who is well prepared. 

T), increase, augmentation. 

)nne;b;nf), to tell, to certify. 

Jnneo/n, an anvil ; it is sometimes 
given as an epithet to a brave 
soldier or patriot, whom no dan- 
ger or difficult) 7 can deter from 
maintaining an honourable cause, 
ex. jnneojn Cogdjb Cnjce-jraji, 
Ireland's brave defender ; Wei. 
e'mnion, and Com. aniian, sig- 
nify an anvil. i<>vC**| 

Jnneojo, the middle of a pool or 
pond of water. 

Jnneojn, in spite of; barn jnneo;/?, 
in spite of me. It is mostly 
written <x;ifibe6;n, and pronounc- 
ed ;nneo;n. _ It may be properly 
written jng-be6;n, from the ne- 
gative ;ng and beojn, qd. rid. 

Jnneonam, to strike or stamp. 

Jnnpe<xc<x;m, to think, to design, or 

Jnnjl and ;nn;ott;a, apt, prone to, 
ready, active. 

Jnnji, a gin or snare : also an in- 
strument ; jnn;l, or ;nne<xt c;u;l, 
a musical instrument. 

Jnnjle, cattle. 

)nn;ll, a fort or garrison ; as, j\5 
T-eajajb jnnjll, they besieged 
the garrison. 

Jnnjltr, a handmaid. 

, distress, misery, &c. 

and nnm to say, to 



to tell, to relate ; bjnnj;- f e, he 
said ; c;<x tojnn;/* bu;t, who told 
you of it ? jnnfte, told, related. 

Jnnjub, a telling or relating. 

Innijf, a candle ; <xb<xn jnnljf, the 
lighting of a candle. 

Jnnme, danger. Zw&e, 5. 7. 

, to kill or destroy; 50 
peab<x/t an e jnOfi- 
x <xju^ <x bd/~ bo c;n- 
jreab <xn ^xxga/tt, no <xn e <x le;- 
;on <v/~ 5<xn <x irxxU<x;;tc, Z. B. ; 
i. e. that Peter may know whe- 
ther the priest would resolve 
upon the death and murder of 
Jesus, or rather on setting him 
at liberty without any further 
question. This word jno/tcab, 
to kill or murder, and jno^c<vjn, 
murder, have a great affinity with 
the Lat. orcus, as these words 
are compounds of ;n, fit for, and 
and o/ic<x;n. 
, to be sold, vendible. 
, a pudding. 

J/}/I;OIT), i. e. tjn^geabal, prepara- 

1r>fce, a sign or omen. 

Jfl^ce, or yrtfcne, a speech ; also a 
gender, as rjji-jn^cne, the mas- 
culine gender; and bejn-jn^cne, 
the feminine gender; also the 
termination ea in verbs of the 
second person of the conjunctive 
mood, as, bo cjpe<\, ba mbua;l- 
jrea, &c. 

JnfCG, a battle, or fierce assault. 

Jnnte, in her, in it, therein ; ;nnte 
j:e;n, in itself. 

Jnnte, a nut-kernel. 

Jnntedc, a way or road. 

Inntjle, a budget, bag, or wallet, a 

Inntjnn, the mind, will, or plea- 
sure; 4f mjnfjnn jre;n, out of 
my own mind. 

Jnntrjnneac: and jntr/rmecxma;!, 
high-minded, sprightly, also sen- 
sible, also hearty, jolly, merry. 

Jnnt-l;om, treasure. 
Jnntijomca, a treasury. 
Jrifjoljol, passable. 
Jnte and ^nnte, therein. 
Jncleacb, ingenuity. 
Jntleacbdc and 

ingenious, witty, sagacious, sub- 

tle, artificial. 
Jnt/tu<xj, miserable, to be pitied, 

poor ; ba;c; j ;nt/iuo.; j, rustico 


Jobab, death. 
)oc, payment ; ;6c e;;tce, eiric, ot 

kindred money ; ;oc ^la;nce, 

balm, salve; vid, jc, gen. jce. 
Jocdjbe, a tenant, or farmer; ;o- 

c<xo;, zWe;w. 
^ocam, to pay ; also to suffer or 

endure ; also to heal, cure, &c. 
1oc&f, payment ; jocuo;, a tenant. 
Jocb, clemency, humanity, confi- 

dence, good nature. 
Jocb, children. 
Jocbcx/t, the bottom; but <in ;oc- 

bdft, to sink. 
Jocba^ac, lower; t;/t Jocba/^cxc, 

the Netherlands ; also lowest. 
locluf, a healing by herbs ; com- 

pounded of joc<xm, to heal, and 

luf, an herb. 

Joclu/-<x)m, to cure by herbs. 
c, an Italian. 
fi, an interjection. 
m, area, a court-yard. 
a, the space between the 


, towards. 
Joba/tt<xmcxl, a distance. 
Job, the cramp, or any sort of 


Job, a chain, or collar. 
Job-mo/iu;n, a collar or neck-chain, 

so called from the judge, Mo ran, 

who wore it. 
Job<x, the yew-tree : it is pronounc- 

ed ;0j<x, and is the name of the 

letter J ; Heb. >, and Gr. t. 
Jobdt, an idol. 
Jobal<xcb, idolatry. 


j o 

Jobal-ab/tab, idol-worship. 

Joban, sincere, pure, clean, un- 
defiled; hence e;y-;0ban, sig- 
nifies polluted, defiled ; 6 j ;o- 
ba;n, a chaste or virtuous virgin ; 
<x;/t alto;;t joba;n, on the pure 
and clean altar. 

Jobona, pangs or torments. 

Jobatr, diet. 

Jobbaj/tt, an offering or sacrifice. 

Job&ejjtjTO, to offer; Jobbuft tu, 
offer thou ; bo ;obb^<xb<Xfi, they 
sacrificed ; ;obb^<xjm, idem. 

Joblan, a leap, or skipping. 

Joblanab, a dancing, or skipping. 

jobna, a spear or lance. 

Jobna, protection, safeguard. 

Jobnac, valiant, warlike, martial. 

Jobnajbe, a staying or dwelling. 

Jobon and eabon, to wit, id. est, 
pitta, or utpote, seu videlicet. 

Jogan, a bird's craw. 

Jo jajle, the pylorus, or lower ori- 
fice of the stomach. 

Jo jtacta, tractable. 

;ojl<vjt/t; jeab, to consume ; no 
Uft b;ojta;t;i;jeab an ujle 
j;e;nealac, until all the genera- 
tion was consumed. Numb. 32. 

Jogfta^, uprightness. 

Joldc, mirth, merriment. 

Jolo.6, loss, damage. 

JolajdU, a dialogue. 

Mam and ;ol<x^<x;m, to van-, to 

)ol<xn, sincere., an eagle ; jokift t;mcjotl<xc, 
and pt<x/i jfieo-^c, a gier- 
eagle: f)ol<x f t is the radical 
word, but when its initial p is 
aspirated it is pronounced jo- 

Jola^t and ;ot<x^ib<x^, variety, diver- 

Jol<x/t, much, plent)-. 

Jola^iba, diverse, various, of ano- 
ther sort. 

c, victorious, all-conquer- 

ing, triumphant. 

Jolcftocac, comely, well-featured ; 
also inconstant, various. 

Jolbanac, ingenious. 

Jolbacac, of diverse colours. 

Jolbam^a, a ball, or a dance where 
many dance together. 

, or ;ol-jut, various tongues; 
<xn ;olj<x;b, with various 

Jotmaojn;b, goods and chattels in 

Jolmobac, manifold, various. ^ 

Jot/tab, plur. u;m;^ ;ot^<x;b, the 
plural number. 

JoltOficoLj-, variance, debate. 

Jom<xb, much, plenty, a multitude. 

Jom<xbac and ;omab<xir)ajl, nume- 
rous, infinite. 

Jomo.bamlo.cb, a multitude, abun- 

Jomaball, guilt, sin, iniquity. 

Jomagall, a dialogue. 

Jomagallajm, counsel, advice. 

Joma;b and pmab, envy. 

Joma; j, a border. 

Joma;^, champaign ground. 

Joma; j, an image. 

Joma;^eab, imagination. 

Jom a; Ue, together: sometimes writ- 
ten jmmajlle ; Lat. simul. 

Jomajnjm, to toss, whirl, &c. ; jo- 
manj:u;b ye "cu, he will toss 
thee ; also to drive. 

Joma;^;be, decent, becoming, fit, 

Jomajftgjbeacb, decency. 

Joma;c;m, to check; nj jomajtbe- 
tu, thou shalt not rebuke. 
, the centre. 
, a proverb. 
, a lie, an untruth, 
jb, a debate, or contro- 

Jomaftbajbe, comparison. 

Joma/ibay, sin, banishment ; ;o- 
maribay <fba;m, the banishment 
of Adam out of Paradise. 

)oma^c, a ridge. 




Joma/tc<xc, superfluous, abundant; 

jo bjom<x/ic<xc, exceedingly, too 

much. e 
Jom<Xfic<xb, abundance, superfluity; 

also arrogance. 
Jom<Xficu/i, rowing, steering with 

oars; jreaft ;om<Xjtcu;t, a rower. 
Jomo.ftcu/1, tumbling, wallowing. 
Jom<ty-cjt<xb, an inn, or lodging, 
Jomb<xt, the adjoining sea, or sea 

encompassing an island. 
Jombabtxb, an overwhelming; also 

to swoon, or fall into a swoon ; 

bo J5J mo ^p;o/i<xb <x/i na ;omb&- 

t<xb, defecit spiritus. 
Jombua;l;m,to hurt, to strike sound- 

, a looking or observing. 

, a question. 

ctXfimat, a tribute, custom, toll, 

)om-cto;bme(Xb, sword-fighting. 
Jom-clo;bmeoj/"i, a sword's man, a 


Jomcoma/ic, a petition, or request. 
Jomcoma/ic, a present, gift, or fa- 


Jomcomrxx/it, strong, able. 
Jomcom/iaj, a thesis : otherwise 

Jomc/ia;m, or ;ompc/i<i;m, to bear 
or carry, to deport or behave, to 
endure; b;omc;t<x/* roe jrejn, I 
behaved myself. 

Jomcfiog, a woman-porter. 

Jomcub<x;b, meet, proper, decent, 
also modest ; ma/t af ;omcubu;b, 
as it is meet. 

Jomba, a bed or couch; ^uf 
fljuca. me m;omb<x /tern be^fiajb, 
e^ lachrymis stratum meum ri- 

Jomba, much, many, numerous. 

Jomb<x, a shoulder. 

)ombo/t<x^, the lintel of a door. 

7omb/i<u>5, a drawing to. 

^ompo/ta;l, superfluity, excess, ex- 

ian, a battle, or skirmish. 

an, a comparson. 

Jomjrojc'etxb, a bawling or crying 

Jomj:o;cjm, to cry out, to bawl, to 

Jomjrutanj, patience, long suffer- 

JomTfl.b&;l, erring or straying, shun- 
ning or avoiding; also to take 
or reduce. 

Jom ju;m, a battle. 

Jom ju;n, pangs, agony. 

Jom<xb, envy. 

, knowledge, judgment, eru- 

, maturity, perfection. 

Jomlci;ne<xct;, a supply, a filling 
up, an accomplishment. 

Jomldjteab, a rolling, turning, or 

Jomlat, gesture. 

Jomlat, exchange ; <xj jomtat <x 
b/t<Xjt, exchanging his clothes; 
;omlao;b, idem. 

)omlaab<x;m, to talk much. 

Jomluag<x;l, wandering, straying 

Jomne and jmne, as this, thus. 

Jomo;ll and ;omco;;tne<xt<xc, full of 
corners, polygonal; ;omco;/tne- 
Oic, the same. 

)omolto;fi, an altar. 

JomOft, (prop.) between ; Lat. in- 

Jomo/-xc, jmmeal, a border. 

,Jomo/t<xnn, a comparison. 

.7om<x/ibab, a controversy, contest, 
or contention. 

JomO|tb<xb, a reproach ; also expos- 

Jomo;fte<x^c<x/< and ;omo;/tea^cu- 
;ta;l, (vulgo )0mo/t<x^c<x;t,) a 
wrestling, or throwing down each 

Jomo/i/io, or umo/t/io, commonly 
written uo and 00 in old manu- 
scripts, often serves more for or- 
nament than use in the speech, 
and is an expletive; it is some- 

times rendered by the Latin con- 
junction rerousedin transitions; 
ex. Cn;o;~ba; jre lucb na Cata- 
jtac, Dcijanujje ;omo^^io <xn 
lucb e;le, the citizens were 
Christians, and the rest were 
Pagans ; cives Christiani fue- 
rt'ttf, alii vero Pagani. 

Jon)0fita;b, a comparison. 

Jompojjeab, a turning, rolling; 
also a reeling or staggering. 

Jompo; jjm, to turn, or roll, to reel, 

Jompo; jte, turned, rolled. 

Jompoll, an error. 

Jom/tab, fame, report; also abun- 
dance, plenty, multitude. 

Jom;tabab, thinking, musing. 

Jom^ajbeac and ;omfiu;t:e<xc, re- 
nowned, famous, eminent. 

)om/ia;beab, to move or stir, to 
put in motion. 

Jom/ia;b;m, to publish, or divulge, 
to report ; also to repeat. 

Joro/tam and jomftaroab, a rowing, 
or plying to oars. 

Joro/uxrTKVjro, to row; ag jom/tamab, 

Jom/iaiT)<x;be, a rower. 

Jom/ioUab and ;om/iuUa;m, to go 
off or away, to depart, to err, or 

Jomftuilab, a going or setting off, a 

gab, an invasion, a routing 

to invade, to rout 
away, to disperse. 

, an invader, 
assign, or appoint. 
, superfluity, excess. 

Jomta, or jpnotac, envious. 

Jomt<x;ne<xb, a digression. 

Jomtaj^eaj, a getting or finding. 
Jomtnut^zeal, also envy; bu^t n;- 

omtnuco. f-o, your zeal. 
Jomtnutojp, a zealous lover. 

Jomco;ne<xb, or ;omto;njub, a di- 
gression ; also a year. 

Jomtolca;m, free, voluntarily. 

Jomtrocojb, wisdom, prudence. 

Jomtuf, departure, or going off; 
la <x ;omcu^a, the clay of his de- 
parture or death. 

, adventures, feats. 
a, in the Irish language is 
much the same with bala, and 
signifies as to, as for, with re- 
gard to ; Lat. quod atlinet ad, 
&c. ; ex. ;omcu^<x <xn ^lu<x j 
mu;mneac, with regard to the 
Munster troops, but as to the 
Munster forces. 

Jon, in compound words betokens 
meetness, fitness, maturity, &c. ; 
as, ;on-a;/tm, fit to bear arms; 
jon-^gfijobto., worth writing ; 
jon-p)]\ and jon-mna, marriage- 
, whereof, in which. 

, a place or room ; pedft 
;ona;b, a lieutenant, a vice- 

, the privity of a man or 
woman ; and a most decent word 
for the same. 

Jond.i7KXjl, as, alike, equal, well- 

, equal, alike, of the same 
length and breadth. 

, a kind of mantle; ;on<ift 
7~/t6jl, a satin mantle. 

Jon a/i, whither. 

Jonaftao and jona/iajm, to clothe. 

Jona/ibab or jona/tbab, banishment, 
exile, expulsion, a thrusting or 
turning out. 

Jona/tbab and jona/tbajm, to ba- 
nish, to expel, to exile, thrust 

Jona/ibra, banished, exiled. 

Jonanbjfibejl, a sluice or flood- 

Jonbajb, or ;onbub, the time or 
term of a woman's bearing; as, 
trap;5 ;onbu;b Clj^abec; bean 
<x nbej^e b;onbu;b, a woman to- 
wards the end of bearing time, 


i. e. that will be soon delivered; 
it is pronounced jonob. 

Jonbolgdb, a filling ; also a swell- 
ing or extention. 
, to fill. 
, usury, interest. 

Jonc<xroo;/i, an usurer. 

Joocojbce, saleable. 

.7oncoln<xb, incarnation ; joncotrxxb 
ci/t ^I&n<x;gt:e5;i<x, the incarna- 
tion of our Saviour; bo jre<x- 
fu] je<xb joncolnxxb Cb/tjo^b bu- 
;nn tfie te<xctA;ne<xct <xn <x;n- 
gjl, the incarnation of Christ 
was manifested to us by an an- 

Joncotn<xj jte, incarnate. 

Joncollnu jab, the incarnation, the 
becoming incarnate. 

Joncotlnujab and joncoUnajm, to 
become incarnate, to be made 
flesh ; &&Uf" bo bjoncotlnab <xn 

et verbum caro factum est et 
habitavit in nobis. 
loncowmif, comparable. 
Jonccyg, instruction, doctrine. 
)oncOfj<x;m, to teach. 
;/!, a teacher. 
l, an excrement. 
b, a bowel or entrail. 
Joncui/i, capable, comparable. 
Jon-bujle, desirable. 
Jon-bu;le<xiTKXjl, the same. 
Jonbuf , so that ; jonbu^ 50, or 

jonbu^ ju/i, so that. 
lon-pojnn, desirable. 
1on-pO)\i\an, a skirmish or battle. 

tx, a nail, a hoof; jongd, ejn, 
a bird's claw; pnj<x m<xct;/ie, a 
wolf's claw ; jongcx, or c/tub e;c, 
a horse's hoof. 

nj<xba;l, circumspection, pru- 

ngabajl, management, conduct, 
or regulation ; to manage, con- 
duct, guide, lead, regulate, also 
managing, conducting; mp/t jon- 
i; j : ;b;/t 

la;/t : jto boc<X);t e , r 
the conducting a king is an im- 
portant task: between the ex- 
tremes of impetuosity and weak- 
ness : his person must be always 
preserved : hence it becomes 
most difficult to direct him. 
ngcxbajl, to attack, also to sub- 
ject or reduce ; ex. 30 mo px;be 
<x y<xoT<xl o. njonjabdjt, that 
they would live the longer for 
attacking them. 

njab^ia^, without question, doubt- 


.. o j, wonderful, surprising, 

extraordinary, strange; n;b jon- 
gantoic, a wonder, or miracle. 
rrzantaf, a wonder, or surprise, 
a miracle. 

, gesture. 

, unclean ; from the negat. 
^ and gl<xn. 
Jon ju;jt, matter. 

Jonju;;ijro, to keep cattle, to act 
the herdsman or shepherd; also 
to feed, to browze. 
Jonjfldb and ;onjft<xb, a wonder, 
an astonishment; bob 
he wondered, 
the dead. 

i, washing ; <XT }0nt<xb 
ba; je, washing his clothes. 
Jonla; jce, washed. 
Jonl<x; jceo;/<, a washer ; also an 

accuser, informer, or adversary. 
Jor>t<x;m, to wash. 
Jont<xt, a washing; <x njOnl<xt<xjb 

,, in diverse washings, 
heaviness, fatigue, 

v , treasure. 

Jon-molcoi, commendable, praise- 

Jonmujn, kind, loving, courteous; 
Gal. debonnair; <x u<x^a;l ;on- 
mu;n, or ;to-;onniu;n, most loving 
or beloved sir. 


; o 

fonn, the head; 6 ;onn 50 bonn, 

from top to toe. 

Jonn<icl<xnn, protection, defence, 
safeguard; also satisfaction, or 
amends for an injury. 
Jonnab, in thee, in you, i. e. ;onn 
tu; ;onn<xm, in me, i. e. ;onn 
me; jonujnn, in us, i. e. ;onn 
jnn, or f")nn, &c. 

Jonn<x;t, wash ; jonn<x;t baj<V)b, 
wash thy face ; bo jqnna.1 fe, he 
washed, or bjonnlajb fe, idem. 
Jonn<vj/ie<xcb, a gift, or present. 
Jonnan, the same, alike, one of the 


Jonn<x/i<xb, a hire, or wages, a re- 

Jonn<x/", therefore, thereupon. 
Jonncu;/ie<xb, grafting. 

", negligence. 

,c, blame, or finding fault, 

JonnldJ jjm, to accuse. 
Jonnl<xj jteojft, an adversary. 
Jonnlat, washing, cleansing. 
Jonnogbajt, sprightliness. 
Jon/KXjc, or ;on^tu;c, continent, 
chaste, honest, faithful ; 6 j ;on- 
/t<x;c, virgo fidelis. 
Jonftac<xr, chastity, continency, fide- 

lity. ' 

Jon^i<xb, to ruin, hurt, or damage ; 
also devastation, spoiling, plun- 

xb<xc, laying waste, plunder- 

yj, a word, 
i, grief, sorrow, 
ic, sorrowful, fatal, 
njbe, or jonn^ujbe, an ap- 
proaching to ; ex. ;onn^<x;ie 
cu;pp <xn C;<xtn<x, the approach- 
ing to the Eucharist ; also visit- 
ing or visitation ; ex. jonnpijTe 
mu;/te 50 St. Ctjpxbet:, the vi- 
sitation of the blessed Virgin to 
St. Elizabeth ; ;onn^u;be jOb'cxt- 
t)t<vjcc pop ciejp- Ul<X)b, the 
visitation of St. Patrick to the 

clergy of Ulster ; also an attack 
or assault, a surprise. 
nnj-<x;b;iD, to approach or come 
to ; also to attack. 

, an aggressor. 
, such, like. 

a looseness of the 

, unawares. 

, long ; clojbeam jonnt- 
, a long sword. 

Jonnt6b<xjm, to roll, to turn, to 
tumble, or wallow, to wind; 
bjonnt<x; j <Xft;7", he returned. 

Jonnuf, that ; jonnuf 50, so that. 

Jon/i<xc, a tent for a wound. 

Jonp&cuf, fidelity, righteousness, 

Jonpan and ;on^<xndb, an account 
or reckoning. 

Jon/-<xm<Vjt, like, comparable. 

Jon^amala, idem. 

JonfOpcu-go.i), illuminating, en- 

Jon/"C/t<x;nienc, an instrument. 

lonfuj je and jon^u;ie<xb, an inva- 
sion, sudden assault, or attack ; 
;on^u;be majbne tuj<xb <x;/t 
650.0 006/t /te Conn jonn<\ tecx- 
ba;b, Conn of the 100 battles 
surprised Eogan Mor in his bed 
early in the morning and mur- 
dered him. 

Jontojojm, to slight, scorn, dis- 
dain ; also to turn, drive, or 
keep away. 

, or e<x/t-batt, the tail or 
rump; from e<X;^, the end or 
extremity of any thing, and b<vtl, 
a limb or part. 

c, bad, evil, naughty ; u/t- 
co;be<xc, idem, qd. vid. 

JOftcoj^e, posterity. 

Jo;tbalt<x, certain, sure, continual. 

Jo^iju;l, or j<x/tj<x;l, a skiiinish, 
scuffle, battle, or uproar. 

Jo/t ju;/-, a prayer or intercession. 
, a cellar, buttery, larder. 
, a hasp ; or spindle of yarn. 



~, the dropsy. 
)0ji;i-t;o.o;^e<xc, the captain of the 
rere guard. 

x, triarii. 

", down ; <xn ;o/~, up ; 
jOf, up and down. 
<k, Jesus, the name of our Sa- 
viour in the Irish language, as 
nearly as it can be adapted to 
the Hebrew: for our language 
having no j consonant, or > in it, 
which is the same in the Greek, 
cannot as fully express it as the 
Latins, who say Jesus, when the 
Irish say Jopa., and the Greeks 
ITJO-OVC, all from the Heb. yt#>, 
Salvator vel Salus, quod ipse sal- 
vum facer et populum suum a 
peccatis ipsorum, uti aitangelus. 
Vid. Sluna;jteo;;i. 
J<ty-<xb and ;o^<xm, to eat. 
Jopxb, an eating. 

Jo"c<xb, the ham, or ham-string ; 
t>o jea^/t f& ;cycaba <x ne;c, 
he houghed their horses. 

a, a house, an habitation ; 
jo^-ba n<x mboct, the poor-house ; 
rla;t-;o^b<x, a chieftain's house, 
a palace. 
ti&n, a cottage ; the diminut. of 

or pej^bjcy, entertain- 
ment, accommodation. 
ajl, convenient, meet. 

, a storehouse, larder, a 

Jofoj-pe, hyssop. 
Jota and jotan, thirst. 
Jot, corn. 

Jotc/iujn; j;m, to purvey or forage. 
Joc-l<xnn, a granary, or repository 

for corn, a barn. 
Jot-lo/-<xb, a blasting of corn. 
Jot-fio^, cockle. 
JottTxXfi, thirsty, dry. 
)pjn, the gooseberry-tree ; also the 

name of the diphthong ;o, &c. 
)/t, anger ; Lat. ira, and \Vel. 
iredh, Angl. ire. 


J/1, a satire, or lampoon ; vid. 

J/ic;lt, the side-post of a door. 

, scarcity, want ; J/tc/i<x <x^iajn, 
scarcity of bread. 

, an answer or reply ; also sa- 
lutation, greeting ; njop. c'ujpt f?-. 
;/i;<vl o/im, he did not so much 
as speak to me. 

n, a field ; also land, ground. 
, a curse, or malediction, also 
blame, anger; j/ij/te t)e, the 
curse of God. 

, brass; nj ^<x;n j^jf <y^uf 
, gold and brass are not 
alike ; <xpty*t, i. e. 5;t. 
, a friend, a lover. 
, a law ; also faith, religion. 
, an assignation, or appoint- 
ment for meeting. 

, a description, discovery ; also 
a record or chronicle ; as, jfijf 
clo^nne u; OObaojl-Cbona^-ie, the 
historical and chronological re- 
cords of the Mulconnerys ; plur. 

, records, annals. 
, an era or epoch; hence lea- 

, a chronology. 
, a present. 

, just, judicious, equitable; 
j:e<x/t -jftfeac ejfjon bo bej- 


c Cjnedt: A^U^ ba ua bon 
c -cTb/iam e oi/t y;ab, i. e. 
lie is a just man who passed true 
judgments, and makes peace be- 
tween every tribe and kindred : 
also, he was the heir of the just 
Abram, say they ; that is, he 
possessed Abram's equity and 
justice. L. B. 
\1ic, lawful. 

i, a diary, a day-book. 
Jjvty-ne<x/itu j<xb, a confirmation. 
Jftfi, an end or conclusion. 
J;t;i-pt:be, the commander ^ of the 
rere-guard ; ;^^ic/ieo/iu;be, the 


tyt, death. 

If, a copulative like azuf, and ; 
beo jf ma/tb, dead and alive. 

If, am, is ; jf mjfe, I am ; -jf tu, 
you are ; jf fe, he is ; jf jab, 
they are. 

Jf, under ; jf neallu;b, under 

Jj"a, or joyxx, but sometimes written 
f&, whose, whereof; as, C^JQfc 
]f& jrujl bo pu&j-gajl jnn, Christ 
whose blood redeemed us. It 
is never used in asking a ques- 
tion ; as, whose blood redeemed 
us ? which is rendered, c;a 


jnn . e. 

who is 

he, whose blood redeemed us '? 

J^ea/-, doubt. 

Jyj, she, herself. 

Ifjol, or jyeat, low; 67- J^jol, 
softly, privately ; 6^ a/tb <xju^ 
67" jfeal, publicly and privately. 

);~le, lower, inferior, lowest. 

Jflju jab, humiliation ; and ;yl;- 
jjm, to humble, to make low; 
Tyijb yjb pe;n, submit your- 
selves ; J^-leoca ( rt cu^a, thou shalt 
be humbled. 

J^fiaetba, of or belonging to the 
Israelites; <xn popal J^/taetba, 
the Israelitish people. 

JffiL, in that ; jf f& na;c, in that 

Jce, a feather, or wins, a fin. 

Jce, in like manner; Lat. item; 
also, to wit, videlicet; ex. jte 
na c;o^a bo luabma;/i fu&f, I 
mean, or that is to say, the rents 

Jtce, a petition, favour, or request ; 
ex. ^ac jtce jfOjwce&f b;a/t- 
^ia.b : <x ca <x b;a/i;tab ^an pa;- 
bj^i : abftac ; fO 50 ro;njc : jjbe 
le p^tcea^t <x;^e; i. e. every 
petition which is fit to be called 
for is made in the pater, and 
therefore let all those who be- 
seech any favour repeat it often ; 
.also a prayer; ex. non 

perducant nos 

sanctns ejus preces ad regnum 
coeleste liber at os a pcenis. 
Broganus in Vit. S. Brigidse. 

Jc, corn; Wei. yd, Cor. iz, and 
Gr. orroc. 

Jceab and jt;m, to eat; b;c fe,\ie 

Jceab, eating. 

Jtbjaf, an ear of com. 

Jtjren, a car or dray for corn. 

Jcjom/tab, a murmuring, or grumb- 
ling ; also slandering or back- 

Jc;om^taba;m, to slander, or back- 

Jtrjorflfiajbtreac, slanderous, abu- 
sive, backbiting ; teanjo. jtjoro- 
/tajbteac, a backbiting tongue. 

1t)p, a corn field ; also the soil of 
anv around. 
a head. 

jnn C nCx; j, Newry, a town 
in the County of Down in Uls- 

Juba/t, the yew-tree. 

Jub, day ; an jub, or a n;ub, to- 
day; Lat. hod ie, Gal. huy, Hisp. 

)uca;;t, fish-spauni. 
Jubjceact:, judgment ; tOajb;"e 
tjb e, aju^ beanajb jubjceact 

a;^i pjlajtr, Pilate said, take 
you him (Jesus) and pass judg- 
ment on him according to your 
own law. L. B. 

Jubu; je, a Jew, also Jewish. 

Jul and eol, knowledge, art, judg- 
ment, science. 

)ulmu;t, wise, judicious. 

Ju/i, the yew-tree ; ju/t talajm, the 
juniper ; ju/t c/te;je, or ua^t 
c/iejje, juniper. 

)uj\ and u/t, o^tgajn, plunder, 

Ju;tam, afterwards; 

Note. As it hath been forgotten 

to insert at the proper place in 
this letter the names of such ter- 
ritories and tribes as begin with 
the words jb or ;, it is judged 
expedient to mention the most 
remarkable of them here by way 
of an appendix to this letter. 
Such as 

Jb-eac<xe, a territory in the west of 
the County of Cork, anciently 
belonging to the O'Mahonys. 

Jb-laoj<x;;te, now Iveleary, a dis- 
trict in the same county, pos- 
sessed, till the late revolutions, 
by the O'Learys, a branch of the 
old Lugadian race, and whose 
first possessions were the ancient 
city of Ross-Carbury and its li- 
berties or environs. 

)B-contu<x, a territory in the same 
County, anciently belonging to 
a branch of the O'Mahonys, 
who were dispossessed in late 
ages by the Mac-Cartys of Mus- 


Jb-irxxc-cujtle, now a barony of the 
County of Cork, possessed very 
anciently, and until the 12th 
century, by different petty chiefs, 
or toparchs, such as 0'C<iolu;be, 
orO'Keily,0'0}<xct;fie, O'Jltx;- 
fjn, 0'C;d./iajn, and O'O/iegajn, 
all either extinct, or reduced to 
an obscure state. 

Jb-n<xn<xmcd., otherwise called Jb- 
l;<xta;n, now a barony of the 
County of Cork, whose chief 
town is Castlelyons, the seat of 
the Earl of Barrymore, anciently 
the estate of 0'L;<xta;n, from 
whom Cort;le-Lj<xt<Xfl, now Cas- 
tlelyons, derives its name. This 
family is now reduced to a state 
of obscurity. 

J'o-ccorxxjt-gabfux, now the baro- 
nies of Upper and Lower Con- 
nella in the County of Lime- 
rick, anciently possessed by the 
O'Connels, and afterwards, till 

the 12th century, by the O'Ci- 
nealys and the O'Cuileans : when 
the O'Connels were dispossessed 
of this large district, they settled 
in a considerable territory ex- 
tending from Sl;d.b Lu<xc/i<x and 
the river Feile, to Claenglis, on 
the borders of their former pos- 

, a large territory in Leins- 
ter, formerly possessed by the 
O'Connors Failge, jointly with 
0'0/ioja;/im, 0'Qn<xo;t, or 
O'Kenny, 0'6u;n, or O'Dun, 
, Engl. O'Dempsy, 
Engl. O'Hennessy, 
and O'GOu/taccijn. 
Jb-l<xoja;/ie, or Iveleary, a terri- 
tory in Meath, the ancient estate 
of O'C<xo;nbe<xtba;n, or O'Ken- 
dealvan, now, I suppose, a family 
of no great lustre, if not extinct. 

and )b-b;rju;n-^eota, three large 
territories in Connaught, an- 
ciently possessed by the posterity 
of Brian, son of Coca GOo; jme- 
bojn, king of Meath in the fourth 
century, from which Brian the 
kings of Connaught derived 
their origin. 

Jb-nr)cx;ne, or j-majne, a territory in 
Connaught, the ancient estate of 
the O'Kellys, descended from 
Colla-ba-c;t;oc', brother of Colla- 
u&jf, king of Ulster soon after 
the beginning of the fourth cen- 
tury. Vid. Ogyg. p. 366. 

J-mcijte, or lla-majle, a large ter- 
ritory in the County of Mayo, 
anciently the estate of the O'Mai- 

Jb-trJac/Ki-cijbne, a large territory 
in the County of Galway, the 
ancient estate of the O'Heynes. 

Jb-cjn^eoil<xc, a territory compre- 
hending a great part of the 
County of Wexford, anciently 
possessed by the O'Kinsealaghs. 


now a barony in the 
County of Carlow, anciently pos- 
sessed by a branch of the Mac- 
Murchas'or Kavenaghs. 

Jb-pij<igci;n, a territory in theQueen's 
Count)', now the barony of Tine- 
hinch, anciently the estate of the 
O'Regans, but possessed in lat- 
ter ases by the O'Duins or 

Jb-nejl, (south,) another name for 
the whole territory or province 
of Meath, after it was possessed 
by the posterity of fMj<xln<xo;jj- 
<xt<xc, king of that province in 
the fourth century. 

Jb-ne;l, (north,) a large territory 
in Ulster possessed by the great 
O'Neil, and different septs of 
that name, and divided into 
Tyrone, Tyrconnel, and other 

Jb-o-neac, a large territory in the 
County of Roscommon, wherein 

stands Elphin, a bishop's see, 
which was part of the country of 
O'Connor Roe and O'Connor 

It hath been also forgotten to in- 
sert at the word M/tflot, the 
name of an ancient family in the 
barony of Musgry and County 
of Cork, called 0'J<x/iplajte, or 
T)j A/itd; te, Engl. O'Herlihy. 
Tliey were first hereditary war- 
dens of the church of St. Gob- 
nait of Ballyvoorny, and were 
possessors for many ages of the 
large parish of that name. There 
are still several persons of this 
family existing in the light of 
gentlemen. They are descended 
from the Earnais of Munster. 
One of this family, who was 
Bishop of Ross, is mentioned 
among the sitting members of 
the Council of Trent. 


L is the ninth letter of the Irish alphabet, and the first of the three 
consonants I, n, jt, which admit of no aspirate, and are called by our 
grammarians co;n^o;ne<xbd eab-t^oma, or light consonants. It is called 
in Irish Lujf, from ia]f, vulgo ca/ttan, the quicken-tree, Lat. ornus. 
JThis letter being the initial of a word which has reference to the female 
sex, is pronounced double, though written singly, as, a tarn, her hand, is 
pronounced <xl lam ; as in the Spanish words Uamar and lleno. L be- 
ginning words referred to persons or things of the plural number, is also 
pronounced double, as, <x leaba^, tlieir book. 

La, otherwise to, l<xe, and l<xo;, the 

day ; pi. l<xen<i, laece, t<x;onn<x, 

laeceand, tcvojte, or lujte. 

N. B. I was for sometime at a 


loss how to find any analog}- or 
affinity in any other languages 
with these two words, ta, the 
day, and 0}ce, or rather uice. 
2 o 

the night , and the more, as 
none appears either in the Latin 
or in the dialects of the Celtic 
countries, Gaul, Spain, and Ger- 
many. From these Celtic na- 
tions we have received the word 
bja for day, as, bja-pil, dies so- 
lis ; bja-lua;n, dies lurue ; bja- 
jDaj /it, dies martis, &c., in which 
the affinity with the Gallic, 
Spanish, and German languages, 
as well as with the Latin, is 
plainly preserved ; and we have 
in like manner received from 
them our ancient word noct, the 
night, which is the same with 
the Spanish noche, the Gallic 
nuit, and the German night, as 
well as with the Latin noctis, 
node, from nox, and the Greek 
WKTog, WKTI, from vv%. But 
for the word la, the day, and 
o;ce, or u;ce, the night, cor- 
ruptly written o;bce, of the same 
pronunciation, after long exami- 
nation I found no analogy, not 
even in the Greek, though chiefly 
composed of the Celtic, I mean, 
when I only considered its sim- 
ple words for day and night, 
tlfitpa and vv%, (the same as the 
nox, of the Latin;) but in a 
compound word of the Greek, 
ajcpovvxm, i. e. intempesta nox, 
I find a plain affinity with our 
Irish word o;ce, or u;ce; and 
in the compound word ysveO- 
\iav, i. e. natalis dies, there ap- 
pears a strong affinity between 
the Gr. \iav, which here must 
necessarily signify dies, the day, 
and the Irish la or lao;, but 
mere especially with its plural 
lajonna, days. These instances 
show, that simple words which 
have been disused in the Greek, 
are preserved in the Irish ; as in 
general many words which are 
fallen into disuse in one lan- 

guage, are preserved in others. 

La, or Ija, in old Irish manuscripts 
is the same as le, with, along 
with ; as, le; jjo^ canojn la 
^eptinan, i. e. legit canones apud 
Germanum, speaking of St. Pa- 

Laban, lajbe, mire, dirt. 

Labanae, a vulgar man, a plebeian, 
a day labourer. 

Labanta, of or belonging to a ple- 

Labaonab, dissimulation. 

Labaj/tt, a speech; aj labaj/tt, 

Labapt and labe^t, a laver, a ewer. 

Laba/iab and labfia;m, to talk ; bo 
laba;/i beal fie beal ftp, he 
spoke to him face to face. 

Laba/tta, said, spoken, of or be- 
longing to speech ; ;t; jneay la- 
bafita, an impediment of speech ; 
jrea/i laba/tta, an interpreter. 

L<xbftab, speech, discourse. 

L<xb/ia;m, to speak. 

Lab ft a;-, a bay-tree. 

Laca, a duck or drake ; plur. l<x- 

Laca ceann/iuab, the herb celen- 

Lacabo;/i, a diver; laca;/ie, idem. 

Lacam, to duck or dive. 

Lacan, gen. and plur. of laca, a 
duck ; /to^lacan, the plant call- 
ed duckmeat; Lat. lens palustris. 

Lacb, a family. 

Lacb, milk ; Lat. lac, lactis ; gen. \ 
lacba ; hence leam-lact;, and 
corruptly leam-nact, sweet milk, 
or insipid milk ; from learn, in- 
sipid, and lact, milk ; bo bo 
ilacab aj/i a lact, to feed ano- 
ther man's cow for the profit of 
her milk. 

Lactna, a sort of grey apparel. 

Lacna, yellow. 

Lab, a sending, mission. 

Labam, to send. 

Laba/i, a fork or prong. 

;, a thigh, 

, rashness in demand or 

Labna, dumbness. 

Lab/tac, forked ; also hasty. 

Ldbu;lg/7e, a day's wages. 

Ldb/tonn, a thief, a robber, or 
highwayman ; Lat. latro, latrone, 
and Wei. lhadron; ann/-;n /io 
cnoc^at: bd ldb ( nan ma,n aon /te 
Oppi, then they hung two 
thieves along with Jesus. 

Laecamajl, daily ; a^t napan lae- 
trama;l, trabd;/t bu;nn a n;uj, 
give us this day our daily bread. 
, weak, feeble, faint ; Idg-bea- 
ta, low fare or diet; laj-c;to;- 
beac, faint-hearted ; laj-lamac, 
weak-handed; laj-b/t; jeac, dis- 
couraged, weak, 
iga, praise, fame, honour. 

LaTaJjjm, to weaken, lessen, or 
diminish ; na laga; jeab bu/t 
cc/to;bte, let not your hearts 

Laja;/ttr, a lizard. 

La ja^t and ta ja/toj, a prong. 

Lajbu jab, to lessen or diminish, 
to cut short; also a lessening, 

Lajbu; jte, lessened, abated. 

Lag^ajne, a diminishing. 

Laj^ajne, freedom, liberty, as of 
a slave, a relaxation or remis- 
sion; Lat. laxatio ; mo^ajne 
is the word opposite to it, which 
signifies servitude or slavery, 

Lajt:d;^be, an abatement in a bar- 
gain, a diminishing ; j\o tug ft 
lagtdjT'-be nooft bam, he abated 
me very much, 

ic, a coat of mail ; vid. 
Lat. lor lea. 

LCrjbeacan, or tujbeacan, a snare, 
or ambush, an ambuscade, or 
lying in wait. 

Ld;b;m, pro lu;b;m, to lie down. 

I a;bj/<, strong, stout. 

Lajbjfteacb and 

Lajbfie, stronger, strongest. 

La;b/tjjjm, to strengthen; also to 
grow strong. 

Lajje, weakness, infirmity; also 
more weak. 

Laj je, a spade, shovel, &c. 

La; jean, a spear or javelin, a hal- 
berd; plur. la;jne; ja 
jean mo/i jona Tajm, 50 
Cr\jofc Jona jrljf b;, _ 
^50; Ic;;- a c/tojbe a/t a bo, i. e. 
he took a great spear in his hand 
and wounded Christ in his right 
side, and severed his heart in 
two. L. B. 

Lajjean and Lajj;on, the Pro- 
vince of Leinster, so called from 
the spears used by the Gauls 
in assisting Lab/ta Lojnj-eac 
against his opponent Cobcac 
Cojllfyea ja, according to Keat- 

La;m, from lam, the hand; lajm 
;te, and la;ro ^f, near at hand, 
close to, hard by ; la;m ;t;u y*an, 
next to them; tajfi U\;m l;om, 
come near me; <x ta;m, in cus- 
tody; bo jiujabaft a la;m leo 
Jab, they took them into cus- 

Lajmba/-bam, to fence. 

La;m-cea/tb, handicraft, any me- 
chanic trade ; also a mechanic. 

La;m-beacu^, captivity. 

Lajm-b;a, a tutelar god of the Pa- 
gans ; bo jo;b ?7acel lajmbja a 
bata^t, Rachel stole the idol of 
her father. L. B. 

Lajmeab, or lajmjjjm, to handle ; 
also to take into custody ; also to 
dare or presume. 

Lajmjrojleab, a handkerchief; al- 
la/*an is another name of it. 

Lajm-/^;ar, a buckler; Lat. cly- 

Lajm/"Jjjm. to handle, or put into 

L t* 

care ; bo lajmpjeab a/? la- 

b/ton/?, the robber was put into 

La; mt;onac, desirous, eager; also 

given to chiromancy. 
La;n, fullness ; la;n ma/ia, the 

tide, high water; in compound 

words, fully, as la;n-t;/i;m, fully 


La;n-bl;a janac, perennial. 
La;n-ceata/ir), a guard. 
La;n-ce;mn;j;m, to wander or 

La;n-c/i;ocna;j;m, to perfect or 


La;n-beant;a, complete, finished. 
La;/?eac or lu;neac, glad, joyful, 


La;neac, armed with a spear. 
La;nne, the genit. of lann, a blade 

of a knife, sword, &c. ; bo cua;b 

an bo/incu/i <i fte&c anb;a;j 

rxx la;nne, the haft also went in 

after the blade. 
La;nne, or La;bne, Latin ; fan 

teangab La;bne, in the Latin 

tongue ; the genit. of la;tt;on, 

or la;b;on. 
La;nne, filling, swelling; an mu;rt 

aj la;nne, the sea swelling. 
La;nne, cheerfulness, merriment, 

La;nneo;;i, or La;bneo;/i, a La- 
tinist ; la;b;neo;nt; je, or la;n- 
neo;nt; je, the same. 

La;n-me;^leac, a sacrilegious son. 

La;n;ie;b;m, to complete. 

La;n^;obta;m, to traverse. 

La;/t, a mare; la;j-i-a^"a;l, a she- 

i;/ige, a leg, a thigh; a^a;n 
p/ia;^ a^ a lu;/iTn;15, greaves of 
brass upon his legs ; it is also 

, rather than ; 
the town of Waterford in Muns- 

, the same as lejf, with him ; 
la;*- re;n, with himself. Used 

in old parchments. 
a hand. 

Lajj-eab, to throw or cast ; 
/to lajffet ^e;ll;be 
Znujf, then they cast spittles in 
his face ; also to throw down, to 
destroy ; <x/i <xn ba ju jru/igojle, 
|io maojb <xn j:e<x;-i^-o (Jo^<x) /to 
ta/t ceann teampul 
bo be<xn<xb <x <xtcu- 
b ja/t t/tebepu^, this man, 
say the two false witnesses, 
boasted thus : overturn the tem- 
ple of God, and I will build it 
up again in three days. Le<xb<x/t 

L<x;t, a multitude. 

Lajt, milk ; Gall, lait, Cor. leath. * 

L<x;te, scales; l<x;te ojj\ no oijjt- 
j;b, silver or gold scales. 

L<x;team<x;l, daily. 

L<x;t je;/i, verjuice, &c. ; acetum. 

L<x;c; j, from l<xt<xc, dirt, mire, 

L<xjCfie, a cow. 

Lajt/te<xc, the ruins of an old 
house ; plur. la;t/te<3ic<x. 

La;tr;t;jjm, to appear, be present, 

Lajtjf, a lattice. 

Lama;^, a poet. 

L<xmant<x, ex. nona tano^nta ; mu- 
lieres menstruate ; jy <x;/ie bo 
;n, 6;^ n; 

zrfeo hoc fecerat Rachel, 

quoniam apud eos mos invaluit 

mulieres memtruatas non tan- 

gere. L. B. 
Lam, a hand ; lam-a/im, a hand- 

weapon ; la;m <x/t ta;m, hand by 

Lamac, of or belonging to the 

hand; lucb lama;j, bow-men, 

Lamac, a casting with the hand : 

now the word for shooting. 

, a gropng. 
Lama/7 and lama/?/?, a glove. 

L tt 

to handle, to take in 

Lamcoma/ttr, a clapping of the 

Lam -bean a^", a restraint. 

Lam-mujlean, a hand-mill. 

Lam-rt6b, a by-way, a foot-path. 

Lamu;, from lamac, shooting ; 
bo lama; j fe (Domnalb, he shot 
Daniel. More commonly spelled 

Lamam, to dare, to presume, &c. 

Lamna, a space of time ; 6 lamna 
<xon ujbce go lamna ba blja- 
jan, from the term of one night 
to the space of two years. 

Lamp/tog, a glow-worm. 

Lampu;be, lamps. 

L<xn, or lann,_a scale; pi. lanna ; 
bo bea/ij:ajb me a/t ;cy5 ba;m- 
n;b ^ea/"<xm a;n bo lannu;b, I 
will cause the fish of thy rivers 
to stick unto thy scales. 

Lan, a church ; vid. lann. 

Lan, full ; Wei. lhann, Lat. ple- 
num, Hisp. Reno. 

Lan, before, or in comparison of. 

Lana, a lane, or levelled walk; 
Lat. planum; her.ce Anglo-Sax. 
a lawn, or open place in a wood. 

tftmuhajn, a couple, a married 

Lan am n a/", carnal copulation. 

Lan-bu;bean, a garrison. 

Lan-coj/te, a great or large chal- 
dron.<xjm, to perform, finish, 
or accomplish. 

acb, perseverance. 
, falsehood, treachery. 
, the breast, 
-brui j<xb, the weasand. 
t, tetters, or chains, 
jn, a period. 

L<xnn, land. A Germano-Celtic 

Lann, a house, a repository or trea- 
sury ; also a church. 
, a veil ; also a vizard. 

, a sword or knife ; also a 
sword-blade or knife-blade ; Lat. 
lancea, Gr. Ao-yYTj. 
L<xnn, a gridiron, i. e. 
or ^6;^b;n. 
ft, a cow. 

tt, a partition. 

L<xnpunc, a period, or punctum. 
Lan^a;be, a pikeman. 
Lcintunba, a guard. 
Lan-toll<xb, perforation, a boring 

or piercing through. 
Laob, partial, prejudiced. 
Laobbd, bending, or inclining. 
L<xoc, an active youth, a soldier, a 

champion ; pi. lo.0c;ta, a militia, 

L<xob and lao j, a calf; tao j alu;n, 

a fawn ; Wei. Iho, Ir. lo, as to- 

, marrow, pith. 
Ltxoj, snow. 
Lo.0;, hire, wajres, &c. 
L<xo;, the day ; from la ; be;;te <xn 

Ido;, the evening. 
Lao; and l<xo;b, a verse, a poem ; 

<xn l<xo; bo ^i;nne jxjn, the poem 

he composed. 
Lao;, the river Lee, which takes 

its rise in the barony of cfo;b 

Lao jaj-te, in the west of Mus- 

gry, in the County of Cork, and 

divides its streams to embrace 

the city of Cork. 
Lao;beab, an exhortation. 
Lao;b;m, to exhort or advise. 
Lao;-leaba/i, a diary. 
Laoj-meoban, noon-tide, mid-day. 
Lao;-fiealt, the morning star, or 

the star of the day. 
Lao;;-eac, now the "Queen's Coun- 

ty, the ancient estate of the 


Laom, a blaze of fire. 
Laomba, bent, bowed, crookened. 
Laombact, curvature, crookedness. 
Laom^5u;;ie, great, prodigious. 
Lapab, a paw or fist. 
Lapabao, a kind of sea-fish. 

t e 

i e 

La/t, the ground or floor ; also the 
middle, the centre ; bo /ionn ye 
jon<x loft jab, he divided them 
in the midst; a la/i nafba/iaji, 
in the midst of the oak ; Wei. 
lhaur, Cantabr. lurra. 
' L<Xftum, an alarm. 

, a burning, lighting, or kind- 
ling ; also lust, concupiscence. 
yab and la/-a;no, to^burn, light, 
or kindle; bo layab an tre;/ie, 
the fire was lighted ; bo lay <x 
jrea/tg, his anger was kindled. 
, anger, passion. 
ta, subject to anger, pas- 

ct, the habitude of an- 
ger, the aptitude of being angry. 
, flames of light. 

Layb, ballast, lading. 

and lay/iac, a flame or 
flash; lar~a;/i tjnntjge, a flash 
of lightning. 
, a foot. 

Lat, a youth, a companion. 

Latac, dirt, mire, puddle ; genit. 
latajb, lataj j, and latujge. 

Lata;/i, presence ; bom la;t;;i, in 
my presence ; also near. 

Lata;/-ice orl<x;/tje, a thigh. 

Lata/1, an assembly ; also a place 
appointed; latajji an cata, the 
field of battle. 

Lata/i, any private story or account., strength, vigour. 

Lauba, an eyebrow. 

Le, with, through ; tajnjj le CDa;- 
^i;y, he came with Maurice ; te 
/)e<xjl<x, through fear. 

Leab and leaboj, a piece or frag- 

Leaba,abed; te<xb<xctu;m,afeather 

bed; le<xb<x jrloco.;/-, a bed of 

flocks ; in the obliques it makes 

leaped, teabaj j, and pi. leap- 


is also the name of several 
places in Ireland, which are by 
the common people called Le- 

abtaca na bi:e;nne, the monu- 
ments of the Fenii, or old Irish 
champions; but they properly 
were the Druidish altars, on 
which they offered sacrifices to 
their idol gods, and are yet to 
be seen in different parts of the 
kingdom ; as, teaba Cbajllj j, a 
very remarkable monument in 
Roche's country in the County 
of Cork ; Leaba (Db;a/-imaba ;y 
3;tajnne,near Bandrous in Sligo, 
also another of the same name 
at poll t;j L;aba;n, in the 
County of Galvvay. 

Leaba/i, smooth ; Lat. liber ; also 
free ; also broad. 

Leaba/i, a book; leaba/i bneac, 
the speckled book of Mac Egan ; 
leaba/t na ccea/it, the book of 
Chief Rents, &c. by S.Benignus; 
leabu/i na Cabala, the book of 
Conquests; leaba/i Lecan, the 
book of Lecan, a famous Irish 
monument, to be found at the 
college of Lombards in Paris; 
vid. ca;/it, supra. 

Leaba/t and Ijbea/tn, a ship. 

Leaba/tan, a little book. 

Leaba/i-lann, a library. 

Leac, a great stone, a flat stone ; 
a/i leaca;b loma,on bare stones; 
leac o;b/ie, a flake of ice ; gen. 
l;c ; Wei. l/iech, Lat. lapis. 

Leaca;n, the cheek. 

Leact, a grave, i. e. the bed of a 
dead man; Lat. lectum; also a 
pile of stones in memory of the 
dead; leacb,zWem/ ta;m-leact 
nou;nt;/te pa/itola;n, the monu- 
ments of the people of Parthalan, 
whence Tamlachtan Abbey near 

Leact, with thee ; leactya, thine, 
belonging to thee. 

Leact, a lesson. & 

Leacta, flattened; also molten. 

Leactam, to spread. 

Leacta/7, the diminutive of leact, 

i e 

a lesson, a lecture, or instruction, 
document; gona cu;mn;u jab an 
gnjorca /;/) fto /"j/vjb GQata an 
leactan naomta ^-o, so that in 
commemoration of that action 
Matthew wrote this holy docu- 

Leab, bo leab fe, he said. 

Leaban, teasel ; Lat. dipsacum ; 
leaban l;0fta, the herb clotes, 
orburrdock; Lat. persolana. 

Leab, an leab, or leat, alternate. 

leabm and leabman, a moth. 

Leab'tam, to tear, rend, mangle, 
maim ; chiefly said of the body ; 
leabnam lujtfieac, ^aobam fg}- 
<xt, let us cut down corslets, and 
smash shields ; cu;/ip leaba/tta, 
mangled bodies. 

Leagab and leajajm, to throw 
down ; also to fall. 

Leajab, a fall ; ^tOjme an leagab, 
before the fall ; also a throwing 
down, a spilling. 

Lea ju;b. physicians. Mar h, 5. 26. 

Led jc.b, a band, or bandage. 

Lea jam, or te;mm, to melt, to 
thaw, or dissolve; bo te<xj <xn 
t<xt<xm, _ the earth melted ; bo 
le; jeab e, it was dissolved. 

Le<xjam, to read; potius le;j;m, 
bo le; j fe, he read. 

Leajco;n, a reader, a lecturer. 

Leaglajb, a nish or rushes. 

Leajojm, to lick; also to clip or 

Learn, with me or mine, i. e. le me, 
or mo; learn jrejn, with myself; 
learn capal, with my horse : it is 
as commonly l;om. 

Learn, foolish, simple ; also insipid, 
without taste; ogajn learn, a 
simple, insipid youth ; bla/- 
learn, an insipid taste; leam- 
lacc, &c., rid. lact; 50 learn, 
indiscreetly : in the compar. and 
superlat. it is written leama. 

Learn, a rower, or oarer. 

Leaman, the inside rind or skin of 

a tree between the bark and the 
timber; also the elm-tree. 

Leamajn, the river Lein, which 
springs out of Lough Leune, 
near Killarney, and discharges 
itself into the ocean near Castle- 
main harbour. 

Leaman, a moth, or any sort of 
night butterfly. 

Leam-banact, tool-hardiness. 

Leam-nactr, pro leam-lacb, sweet 

Lean, or lean, sorrow, ruin, de- 

Leana, a meadow. 

Leanam, to follow, to adhere, to 
pursue ; bo lean jab, no o/iftta, 
he pursued them. 

Leanamajn, to follow or pursue, a 
following or pursuing ; gea^t- 
leanamajn, persecution ; lucb 
leanamna, followers or clients; 
Gr. 1. pers. plur. eXauvw/utv ab 
eXavw, sequor. 

leanamajn, goods, substance, or 
wealth; nj bjogajb <x leana- 
ma;n ; Lat. non diminuit sub- 
stantiarn ejus. 

Leanan, a pet or favourite; leandn 
yjje, a favourite spirit; also a 

Leanantacb, whoredom, fornica- 

Leanantuc, the plant called tor- 
rnentil; Lat. tormentilla. 

LeanB, a child, whether boy or 
girl ; plur. le;n;b or le;nb. 

Leanban, a little child, a voung 
child. m 

Leanba;be and leanbac, childish, 

Leanba;beactr, childishness. 

Leanma;n, emulation. 

Leann, ale, beer ; also any liquor ; 
Wei. Ihyn. 

Leann, rather lean and lejne, a 
coarse cassock worn outside the 
doublet ; also a coat of mail ; 
Lat. Icena. 

L e 

i e 

Leann, plur. leannta, the humours 
of the body; leanna buba, me- 
lancholic humours. 

Leapta, of, or belonging to a 

Lea/1, with our ; i.e. le ap. ; le <\j\ 
bjrea/iajb, with our men. 

Lea^t and le;;i, clear, evident, ma- 
nifest ; af lea/t bam, it is plain 
to me, I see ; vid. tej/i. 

Leap, much, a great deal ; <xn 
fao%al 50 lea/t, the whole 

Lea/i, the sea; ta/1 lea/i, over 
seas, to a foreign country. 

Lea/i-b/ioma;n, the ridge of a hill. 

Lea/ij, a plain ; genit. le;/ij ; also 
a road or beaten way. 

Lea/1-mabab, a dog-fish. 

Lea/i-taob, a spring tide. 

Lea/ito;b, a ball ; caman jf lea/i- 
to;b, a ball and hurley. 

Lea/i-u;n;un, a sea-onion. 

Lea^ and IjQf, a court; genit. 
leapx; LjOf-moj\, Lismore, in 
the County of Waterford. ^ 

, a glimpse; lea^ /iaba;/ic, 
a glimpse of light; rrj pa;c;m 
lea;" be, I have not so much as 
a glimpse of it. 

Le<ty-, a sore, a blotch, a bile ; leaf 
bon bolj<x;b, a mark or speckle 
of the small-pox. 

Leaf, profit, good ; bo jijn <x leaf, 
he did well. 

Leaf, a reason or motive; also a 

Leaf , the thigh ; genit. lejfe, qd. 

Leaf pa and leafpaca, the thighs. 

Leafaj jjm and leA^u j<xb, to cure, 
or amend; also to manure, or 

Leafajnm, a nickname. 

Leaf-atajp, a step-father; leaf- 
mcittx;/!, a step-mother; lecy- 
ITKXC, a step-son ; lea^-jn j)0n, a 
step-daughter ; le<ty--cl<xnn, step- 
children; le<iy--beoLrtb/t^c<x;^, a 

itep-brother ; and 
a step-sister. 
, idle, slothful. 

given to sloth or 

Leafluan, a step-son ; leafgot, 

Le<x^tu;b;m, to lean upon. 

Leafwac, a step-son. 

Le<x^-/-xc and teo.^t^<xc,the thigh, 
or groin ; <x/i a leaftpac, upon 
his groin. 

Leaf tap, a cup ; also stale butter. 

Le<x^tr<x/i, or lecyb<x/i, a small 

Leaftap, the vessels and furniture 
of a house ; 710 l;on tola u;^je 
jfjn teac gu/i batab an tjne, 
)f gu/t bata/i na lea^ta;^ aj 
fnari) : 6;/i b;b na lea^ta;^ 
to^ta a^am^a ; a flood of water 
filled the house, so that the fire 
was quenched, and the furniture 
floated on the waters: for you 
must know I have choice furni- 
ture L. B. 

Leap} jab, healing; also amends, 

to heal or cure ; bo 
fe, he amended; bo 
a c/teacca, his 
wounds were healed. 

Leatabac, wide, large. 

Leat, half: in compound words it 
sometimes answers to the Eng- 
lish word ward, as leat tea^, 
southward ; leat fjap, west- 
ward, &c. 

Leata, gain, profit. 

I eatac, divided, half. 

Leataba; j;m, to increase, enlarge, 

Leatan, broad, spacious ; Lat. la- 
turn, and Gr. irXarvv. 

Leatanac, a page of a book. 

Leata/i, leather; j:ea/t lea^u;je 
leata;/i, a tanner. 

Leat-c/iu;nne, a hemisphere ; also 
a semicircle. 

L e 

L e 

Leac-cu;b, a half share. 

I eatr-rtiabal, a farthing, or rather 
a halt penny. 

ieac-larra, somewhat weak or 

Leac-mCx/-. a buttock. 

Leatnujab and leacna;j;m, to 
spread abroad, or scatter ; to en- 

i eato^, the fish called plaice ; j 
Gall, pl/e ; leatoj ban, sole; 
leatog mu;;te, a large kind of 
turbot called talbot; a flounder 
is leatog beart, and lea-0 
|r;0rt-u;^e is a fluke. 

Leacponr, the weight of eight 

Ledt/td/i, half. 

leac^annac, partial. 

Leatfte, towards. 

Leac-n; j, a co-partner in govern- 

Leac-n6;b and l;ac/to;b, a ball to 
play with. 

?. eat:-fiuab, somewhat red. 

Leatyu;leac, having but one eye. 

Leat^jajltreann, a board, a plank. 

Leatr-romatta, half-eaten. 

i eat-Cftomac, oppressive ; also 

Lej;a;b, a legate, or ambassador ; j 
leja;b an papa, the pope's le- ' 

Lega;be, a legacy. 

Le;beann, a long stretch or stride. 

Le;beann. the deck of a ship; also 
a scaffold or gallery for people 
to stand on. 

Le;cc, neglect; bu;one le;cce, a 
slothful person. 

Lejcc. a precious stone. In Scot- 
land it is the name of a large 
crystal, most commonly of a 
figure somewhat oval, which is 
put into water for diseased cat- 
tle to drink over it. 

le;ceab, neat, elegant. 

Le;ceanta, precise, exact. 

Lejbmeac, strong, robust. 

Lcjbm; je, an appetite. 
Le;jun, a legion. 
Le;je<xb and tejjjm, to permit, let 
alone, or desist from doing a 
thing ; na/t tejjib bja. may not. 
God permit, or God forbid ; bo 
lejgedba't Onftta. they pretend- 
ed ; Gr. \tyio, r fa si no. 
.b, permission. 
b and le;^;om, a reading:. 

and lejjjm,to read; Lat. 
lego, Gr. Xs-yw, diro. 
Lejjean, instruction, erudition, 

and lej^jOf, medicine, 

cure, remedy ; also aid or help ; 

sen it. tej jjy, jrea/t te; j;^, a 

lejjea^-a^m and le; jjjr;om, _ t 

heal ; bo te; j;^- ^e mo c/ieaba, 

he healed my wounds. 
Le;^ea^ra, cured, healed. 
Le; jeo;K, a founder, a refiner. 
Le; j;on, gsnit. le; jjn, learning ; 

mac le;j;n, a scholar, a stu- 


Le;jteo;n, a reader. 
le;jtreo;^eacb, reading. 
Le;gtreal, any thing melted. 
Le;m, a leap. 
Lejm C/)ucullu;nn,nowLoop'sHead 

in the County of Clare, where 

the Shannon discharges itself 

into the ocean. 
Le;me, from team, folly, simpli- 

Le;m;m and le;mn; j;m, to leap or 


Le;mneac, leaping, desultory. 
Le;m-^;an, a razor. 
Le;n, Loc-Le;n, a celebrated lake 

of Kern' in the west of Ireland, 

near which was the ancient es- 

tate of the O'Donoghues of 


I e;nb-b/te;tr, childbirth. 
Le;nb-lua/-a, a cradle. 
Le;ne, a shirt, or smock. 
le;ri, sight, perception. 


go lej/t, together; jab go 
le;/t, all together. 
lej/t, wise, prudent; also manag- 

, a plain ; also a road. 
> a reason > a motive. 

, to counterfeit, to pretend. 
t, a mall or hammer; and 
the same. 

, utter destruction. 
Matt. 24. 15. 
le;/ipnu}ne, or lej/ipnuajne, con- 

sideration, reflection. 
Lejj-ite, earnestness. 

wherewith ; also with him ; 
bo cuajb tety- bon cat/iogg, he 
attended him to the city ; le;g- 
tea/i <xn t<xl<xm tj/tjm le;;-, let 
the dry land appear. 

, a thigh; gen. of leaf, pi. 
lea;7t<xc; <xbal mo le;^c, the 
knuckle of my thigh bone or 
hip; lej^be;/it;, a pair of trou- 

, a pair of trousers, or 

t, a step-daughter. 
, happiness. 

and le]y-ge, sloth, sluggish- 

I ejfgearrxxjl, slothful. 
I e;;"geul, an excuse, or apology. 
?. ej^jngean, a step-daughter. 
le;te, gruel. 

lejt and leat, half; te;t ^ecet, 
half a shekle ; also a side, a 
turn; <x le;t, distinct, apart, 
aside ; 5 yOjn <\ lejt, since ; 
5<xb <x lejc, draw nigl^; <x/-i te;t, 
by turns ; <Xft jdc te;t, on every 

1 ejtbe, partiality. 
Lejtbfiecb;m, to excuse. 
Le;te, grey, the genit. ; also grey- 


<Lejte, mouldiness. 
Le;te, the shoulder blade. 
le;ceac and tejteog, a plaice or 


lejteac, i. e. lopxb, a kneading- 


Lejteab, breadth. 
1 ejte;b, the like, a peer, a para- 
gon; <x le;te;b nac bjroica me 
^tj<xm, such as I never saw. 
I ejteolac, a novice, a smatterer. 
ie;c^l;n, l<xugl;;i, a cathedral in 

lejciljn, i. e. Locl;n, Denmark 

and Norway. 
Le;t;me<xl, the coast or border of 

a country. 

Lejt;meal<xc, bordering, super- 
ficial, external ; fyt nbujne le;- 
t;meal<xc, our outward man. 
Le;t-;n^e, a peninsula. 
le;tjc, or le;te;b, alike, or such. 
Le;tleac, partial, factious. 
le;tne<xct, breadth. 
ie;t/teacu^, separation. 
I ejt/ieab, of a side, together. 
Le;t/ie(Xc<x;~, unjust in dealing. 
<Le)t/t;be<xc, partial. 
lejtr^jjn), to appear, or be 
siht. ^ 

e<xt, or lejc-fgeul, 
apology or excuse ; n; 
mff) lejt-^jeut, I will not jus- 
tify, or excuse. 

<xla;m, to excuse, to apo- 
loize for. 

<x/t <xn te;t^e, on this 
tern, i. e. le mo, with my; tern , 

bata, with my staff. 
Lemne, fatness. 
Lenne, faces, or complexions. 
<Leo, a lion ; Lat. leo ; vid. leon. ? 
Leo, with them ; bo trojbab^^ leo 
e, they took him with them ; leo 
jrejn, by themselves. 
leob, a cutting or mangling. 
i.eoj<xm, to flatter or soothe. 
Leoj<xn, a moth. 
Leoj<xnt<xcb, inconstancy. 
leon, a lion. This word is im- / 
properly written by several Ir' h 
copyists sometimes leorrxxn, and 


I 1 

at other times leoia.i : 5 and m 
having no original title in this 
word. It is naturally Icon, agree- 
ing exactly with the Gr. Atwv 
and the Lat. leo, and in its in- 
flexions leonis and leone. The 
reason of this mistake proceeds 
from their often making out two 
syllables to answer the Irish 
verse, which would not be so 
easy if it had been written Icon. 

teonab, a sprain, or violent stretch- 
ing of the muscles. 

leonajm, to disjoint, or hurt; bo 
leonab mo co^, my leg was 

I contra, sprained, disjointed. 

?. eonta, lion-like, heroic. 

I contract, brave actions ; also keen- 
ness of morals. 

t eoi- jn;om, satisfaction, the third 
necessary disposition in penance, 
and teOft-bojljea/- is contrition ; 
ex. nea/itajb me a Cb;anna 
cum moceannabpiojpbjn roa;l- 
le ft;a leoft-bojtgea;-, strength- 
en me, O Lord, to confess my 
crimes with contrition. 

ieo^-, reproof. 

leo^*, light. 

Leopxm, to give light. 

m, a glow-worm. 
- ja, a ray of light, 
i. e. te a/t; tejt le;^- tu, 
whose thou art. 

Le/te, religion. 

i ef, light ; also illumination. 

Ce/~, a bladder; ley la^jtra, a 

I e/^mob, the ureter. 
Lece and teteacb, hoariness. 
, affliction. 
-, sight. 

, a spot, or speckle. 
IJandlJj, plur. Ijcc, colour; ui 
I; na ^u j, of the colour of the 
soot ; also the complexion or air 
of the face ; b;ompa; jeaba^ <x 
I;jtre ann, the colours of his 

countenance were changed. 
LJ, the sea. 

, the same anciently with our 
le or fte; Lat. cxm; fe&naf 
Ija bacutl, benedijrit cum ba- 

, more; b<x 1; a a Ion na u. 
^aojal, aju^" ba t;a a cajceam 
na a pa ja;l, his acquisition last- 
ed longer than his life ; he spent 
more than he acquired. 

, a hog, or pig. 

, hunger; njf ge'ceb tra^t na 
l;a, he was neither dry nor hun- 
i.;a, a stream or flood; nj bea- 

ca;b a/> tja a/- an ama;n. the 
stream did not forsake the river. 

L;a, any great stone ; Ija tra;t, the 
fatal stone, otherwise called doc 
na cjneamna, on which the Scot- 
tish kings were crowned. 

l.;afytc\n and l;ab/t;n, a little book. 

L;acac, hog's dung. 

Ljac, a spoon. 

I ;ac, bad news. 

Ljacb, a great many, a multitude. 

3L;aclan, a spoonful. 

L^ac/to, a hogsty. 

L;ab56j, a flounder. 

LJaj, a great stone ; l;0j, idem. 

Ljaj-bcatj, a bodkin, or rather a 
clasp or buckle, adorned with 
crystal or other stones of value. 

L;a|, a physician. 

Ijaputoj, a hog's pudding ; also 
a sausage. 

, a hut for calves or lambs ; 
x, idem. 

Ljatr, grey, grey-haired ; also 
mouldy ; a/tan l;at, mouldy 

L;at ja, a violent dart. 

L;ac-luaca;b, a hoar-frost. 

Lj<\t-[uf, the herb mugwort.