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Full text of "Irish glass : an account of glass-making in Ireland from the XVIth century to the present day"







V PELAND 



M.R.LA- 



IRISH GLASS 

AN ACCOUNT OF GLASS-MAKING 
IN IRELAND FROM THE XVI th 
CENTURY TO THE PRESENT DAY 



PLATE I 




Large bowl on separate stand, cut in large shallow diamonds and hollow flutes. 
Probably Dublin or Cork. Late i8th century. 19 inches high. 



IRISH GLASS 

AN ACCOUNT OF GLASS-MAKING IN IRELAND 
FROM THE XVI th CENTURY TO THE PRESENT DAY 
By M. S. DUDLEY WESTROPP, M.R.I.A., OF THE 
NATIONAL MUSEUM OF IRELAND. ILLUSTRATED 
WITH REPRODUCTIONS OF 188 TYPICAL PIECES 
OF IRISH GLASS AND 220 PATTERNS AND DESIGNS 



HERBERT JENKINS LIMITED 
3 YORK STREET SAINT JAMES'S LONDON S.W. i 



A 

HERBERT 

JENKINS' 

BOOK 





The Mayflower Press, Plymouth. England. William Brendon & Son. Ltd. 



PREFACE 

WHEN some twenty years ago I first took up the study of 
Irish glass I found that I could obtain little or no reliable 
information, not even the dates of the Waterford or Cork 
factories. Accordingly I set to work to look up the matter 
for myself, spending a great deal of time in research, 
which involved the examination of many documents, old newspapers, etc. 

Comparatively little is now to be found out about the products of the 
different Irish glass manufactories. The history of the glass-houses them- 
selves, their period, proprietors, etc., is fairly well known, but when we 
come to the actual glass itself we find nothing but a few lists, with no details 
as to form, cutting, or colour. 

With the exception of a few drawings of some of the patterns used in 
the Waterford glass-house, no others belonging to Irish glass works are, 
as far as I am aware, known to exist. As a result of my studies I was, some 
time back, able to point out that Waterford glass has not the blue tint that 
has hitherto been ascribed to it. This in itself stamped as spurious hundreds 
of pieces that had been accepted as genuine Waterford. 

If all the alleged Waterford glass in existence to-day were genuine, 
despite the output of the factory and the vast amount that has been broken, 
it would have taken probably two or three glass-houses to produce it. 

In selecting the illustrations I have included only those pieces in my 
own small collection, or elsewhere, that bear the marks of Irish glass works, 
or pieces which from cutting, colour, etc., I consider indubitably Irish. 

I have been fortunate in having exceptional opportunities of examining 
very many pieces of Irish glass, and making comparisons ' with those that 
have an authenticated history. 

The study of Irish glass is like that of any other manufacture that has 
long ceased to exist. The more that is learned about it the more there is 
still to learn. Some theory may be evolved which it is fondly hoped is 



vi IRISH GLASS 

\ -* 

correct, then the next day something turns up that knocks the whole fabric 

to pieces. 

Let us hope that some definite information will be found which will 
enable us to detect Irish glass from among its closely connected contem- 
poraries. 

So little evidence is now forthcoming with regard to Irish glass that 
it is very difficult to separate the products of the different glass works one 
from the other and in consequence it is impossible to be dogmatic. The 
saying, I believe of Huxley, that an assertion which outstrips the evidence 
is not only a blunder but a crime, should be taken to heart by those who 
are so sure of their own opinions, particularly when they have no evidence 
to support them. 

Some may cavil at the number of advertisements that I have given in 
the following pages. The fact, however, must not be lost sight of that, but 
for these advertisements we should know very little at all about old Irish 
glass. I have thought it best, in most instances, to give the advertisements 
just as they appear in the original, as I have found from experience that an 
abstract generally omits points of importance. 

Another criticism that may be levelled at me is that there is little in- 
formation telling how to identify or differentiate between the products of 
the various Irish factories. I consider it as well, however, to make public 
the little that can now be gathered concerning the different Irish glass-houses, 
and to endeavour to claim for other Irish glass works, and even for some of 
English origin, the honours nowadays almost always accorded to Waterford. 

The facts here set out are put in rather a concise way, but in a book 
of this kind I, personally, do not see the advantage of reading through a 
page of flowery language, and being no wiser at the end of it than at the 
beginning. 

The information here given has been gleaned from contemporary 
records, old newspapers, the Journals of the Irish House of Commons, 
Proceedings of the Dublin Society, old account books and letters of the 
Waterford glass-house, etc. I am indebted to the late Mr. William Miller, 
son of Samuel Miller, foreman cutter at the Waterford glass works, for the 
loan of the drawings of the patterns used in the glass-house, and from which 
the illustrations are taken. 

I have also to express my best thanks to my colleagues in the National 



PREFACE vii 

Museum, Dublin, to Mr. J. J. Buckley, the Keeper of the Art and Industrial 
Division, for the use of photographs of pieces in the National Collection, 
and to Mr. A. McGoogan for his invaluable assistance in producing with 
such artistic skill the drawings of the various patterns of cutting. Without 
his cordial help I am afraid these necessary illustrations would not have 
been included. 

I would express the hope that this small work may be of some use to 
those who are interested in old Irish glass, and induce others, abler and 
more learned on the subject, to make good the deficiencies which are here 
apparent. 

M. S. DUDLEY WESTROPP. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

PREFACE .......... v 

\ 

CHAPTER 

I. GLASS-MAKING IN IRELAND PRIOR TO THE END OF THE 



CENTURY ......... 19 

II. DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES ....... 37 

III. THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES ... 68 

IV. DRUMREA AND BELFAST GLASS-HOUSES ..... 99 

V. CORK GLASS-HOUSES . ....... 115 

VI. NEWRY, BALLYCASTLE, AND LONDONDERRY GLASS-HOUSES . 130 

VII. IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL ....... 137 

INDEX .......... 205 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Large bowl on separate stand. Probably Dublin or Cork. Late i8th century. 

19 inches high ........... Frontispiece 

PLATE Facing Page 

II. Two examples of Dublin engraved glass made by Pugh, about 1870. The tumbler 

engraved by Franz Tieze. National Museum, Dublin. 
Jug made by Pugh, Dublin, about 1870. Engraved glass. Engraved below, 

" Manufactured by T & R Pugh, Potter's Alley, Dublin." 
Hyacinth glass or " Flower Root Glass." Cut glass. Probably Dublin. Early 

igth century. Both in the Collection of Lady Moore, Dublin ... 22 

III. i. View of Irwin's Glass-House, Potter's Alley, Dublin. From an advertisement, 

1845. This Glass-House formerly belonged to Charles Mulvany and Co. and 

afterwards to the Pughs. 
2. View of Whyte's Glass Shop, Marlborough Street, Dublin, and Glass-House at 

Ringsend, which he probably took over. From an advertisement, 1845. 
Trade circular of Jonathan Gatchell, dated, Waterford, 1811 .... 28 

IV. Trade circular of Gatchell, Walpole and Co., Waterford, 1830. 

Page from one of the Account Books of the Waterford Glass-House, 1812 . . 34 

V. Illustrations of the glass exhibited by George Gatchell at the London Exhibition 

of 1851. Made at the Waterford Glass-House. 

Interior of a glass-house, showing the furnace with openings to the pots, workmen 
at the chairs making glass objects, blowing glass, mavering glass on the maver 
in the foreground, the various tools used, and, to the left, the annealing oven . 38 

VI. i . Portrait of George Gatchell, proprietor of the Waterford Glass Works 1835 to 185 1 . 
2. Belfast Glass-House. View of Edwards' Glass-House, Ballymacarrett, Belfast. 

From a newspaper advertisement. 
Waterford Billhead. Billhead used in the Waterford Glass Works 1830 to 1835 . 40 

VII. Three objects of bubbly green glass, made by glass blowers after the factories ceased 
work. About 1850-60. The two decanters Belfast, and the tumbler Waterford. 
Author's Collection. 

1. Cork Glass-House. Chimney of Hanover Street Glass-House, Cork. Erected 
1782. Pulled down 1915. 

2. Battycastle Glass-House. Chimney of Ballycastle Glass-House. Erected 1755. 
Pulled down 1877 or 1878 44 

VIII. Front and back view of Waterford glass scent bottle, made for Susannah Gatchell 
about 1790. Of good white glass. The property of Mr. Samuel H. Wright, 
grandson of Susannah Gatchell. 

Three scent bottles. Waterford. The one to the right late i8th century, and the 
other two probably about 1820 or 1830. National Museum, Dublin ... 48 

xi 



xii IRISH GLASS 

PLATE Facing Page 

IX. Four decanters showing the bases with names in cameo letters. The letters have 
been slightly heightened with white for photographic purposes, but they are quite 
distinct on the pieces. Author's Collection. 

Examples of glass made at the Cork Exhibition of 1902 from Muckish Mountain 
sand ............. 5Z 

X. Drawings of decanter patterns used in the Waterford glassworks about 1830. All the 
drawings formerly belonged to Samuel Miller, foreman cutter in the Waterford glass 
works. Note that almost all the decanters have perpendicular sides, this pattern 
being in use from about 1830 to 1845. 

Drawings of decanter, tumbler, and celery glass patterns used in the Waterford glass 
works about 1830. 

The following explanation of the cutting of the tumblers to the right is given on 
the page of patterns : 

1. Large f-pint tumbler 9 splits, round flutes between, turned out at top and 
bottom, 2 hollows over and under, i flat ring at top turned up, 2 bands of fine 
splits across the flutes, and new star at bottom, is. 6d. each. 

2. Large f-pint do., 8 strong splits to centre of bottom, and with small points so 
as to form the new star shell flutes between f the way up. 

3. 10 strong hollow flutes round, and the new star at the bottom, the flutes to be 
the way up. 

4. Large |-pint. i flat ring turned up at top and 2 rings under, stuck flutes, 14 
from that to bottom, and star 32 points. 

5. Do. Pillars half-way up and 2 rings over and star at bottom. 

6. 10 splits and flutes between, turned out at top and bottom, hollows under, 
and the new J star, cut to an inch of the top. 

7. 14 flutes, not starred ........... 56 

XI. Decanter, sugar bowl, and dish patterns used in the Waterford glass works about 

1830. 
Decanter patterns used in the Waterford glass works about 1830 .... 60 

XII. Decanter, wine glass, and sugar bowl or butter cooler patterns used in the Waterford 
glass works about 1830. 

Referring to the wine glasses the following notes are given on the back of the page : 

1. 5 arches round, new star between, 24 points. 133. Starred bottoms only. 

2. Sloping splits, i ring, diamond border, 3 rings, stuck flutes. 2s. ud. 

3. 3 rings, stuck flutes. 

4. Broad and narrow shell flutes, 4 of each, cut shanks and stands. 53. 6 unequal 
flutes, do. 53. 5 large and 5 small do. only, 2s. 2d. 

7. Stuck in flutes, is. 

8. Feather flutes, is. 

26. Hollow flutes, 3 rings and split border. 2s. id. 

27. Hollow flutes, 3 rings and 5 rows of diamonds. 33. 2d. 

28. Hollow flutes, i ring, 5 rows X diamonds and i pillar ring, cut bottom and 
star. 6s. 

29. 2 rings and split border, is. 2d. 

30. 2 rings and blazes, is. 4d. 

31. Hollow flutes, 2 rings and blazes. 

Decanter and dessert plate patterns used in the Waterford glass works about 1830. 
To the right of the jar at the top is written " 16 flutes at bottom, band of check* 
diamonds round boddy, 2 stars, 2 rows of strawberry diamonds & 3 rings " . 64 



ILLUSTRATIONS xiii 

PLATE Facing Page 

XIII. Bowl, decanter, sugar bowl, and custard cup patterns used in the Waterford glass 

works about 1830. Below the two decanters to the left is written the following : 

1. 7 panels of diamonds round, 6 prismatic rings deep under neck, 2 round do. 
sunk under, 12 strong neck flutes round, i deep sunk barrel ring at bottom, i do. 
dividing neck from body, lip round, pounted out neck polished out for stopper. 

2. Upright hollows and broad slips between, coming into a point at the top, hollow 
round the neck and split rings between, half-round flutes under the lip. 

Below No. 3 of the " sugars " to right is written : 3 pillars and + diamonds, 6 

panels of each, small arch scallops, and i ring under. 
Decanter, tumbler, dessert plate, and jug patterns used in the Waterford glass works 

about 1830 ............ 70 

XIV. Salad bowl, tumbler, dish, and sugar bowl patterns used in the Waterford glass 

works about 1830. To the right of No. 5 of the salad bowls is written : " i8s. if 
shank is fluted and flat diamonds, but if bottom only cut 155. or 143. if fan 
scallops." 

Salad bowl or " kettledrum " patterns used in the Waterford glass works about 
1830. On back of the sheet is written : " 10 inch kettledrum, pillars and panels 
of X diamonds, 2 pillar rings and 3 mitred rings and fan escallop, cut bottom and 
stand. 12/6 each." This appears to apply to No. 4 on the upper sheet. To the 
right of No. 9 is written : " Height, Bowl 4 inches, stand 6 inches. Diameter, 
Bowl io inches, stand 6| at bottom & 3^ at top " . 72 

XV. i. Cut glass decanter, engraved SUCCESS TO THE CORK YEOMANRY. Cork, about 
1796. 

2. Decanter, lower part exhibiting mould marks. Marked underneath WATERLOO 
Co CORK. About 1820. 

3. Flask, probably Waterford, early igth century. National Museum, Dublin. 

1. Water-bottle, Cork, about 1830. 

2. Octagonal decanter. Very blue metal. Cork, about 1830. 

3. Decanter with band of plain diamonds. Cut rings. Cork, about 1830. 

4. Decanter cut in " hollow prisms." Good white glass. Probably Waterford, 
about 1850. Author's Collection. 

Nos. i and 3 and also Nos. 2 and 3 upper illustration Plate XXIV, and No. i lower 
illustration Plate XXV, were purchased in the King's County about 1830 by the 
author's grandmother from itinerant glass vendors who visited the various Irish 
country towns annually selling glass made in the Cork glass-houses. In this way 
a good deal of glass was distributed through the country . . . 76 

Notice of dissolution of the partnership of Gatchell, Walpole and Co., Waterford, 
1835 . 79 

Letter of George Gatchell, dated 1851 81 

XVI. i. Plain decanter, showing mould marks at base. Two triangular rings. Marked 

underneath B. EDWARDS BELFAST. Early igth century. 
2. Decanter partly cut, mould marks at base. Marked FRANCIS COLLINS DUBLIN. 

Early igth century. Author's Collection. 

Three cut glass decanters, No. i with plain diamonds, No. 3 with strawberry 
diamonds, and No. 2 with large diamonds, and splits. Probably Cork. About 
1820-30. National Museum, Dublin 84 



XIV 

PLATE 
XVII. 



XVIII. 



XIX. 



XX. 



XXI. 



86 



88 



IRISH GLASS 

Facing Page- 

Goblet, two decanters and small water jug of moulded and engraved glass. Cork, 
early igth century. No. 3 marked WATERLOO Co CORK. Author's Collection. 
Note the conventional flower with criss-cross centre, and leaves issuing from it. 
A favourite Cork design. 

Four cut, engraved, and moulded decanters. Nos. i, 2, and 3 cut, No. 4 engraved. 
Probably all Belfast. Early iQth century. Note the small lips and the two 
triangular rings. No. 2 marked B. EDWARDS BELFAST. Author's Collection 

Four cut and moulded decanters. Note the various rings and thevesica cutting on Nos. 
3 and 4. Each marked CORK GLASS Co. Early iQth century. Author's Collection. 

Four cut and moulded decanters. Waterford, early igth century. Triple rings on 
each. Nos. 2 and 4 have the arched cutting, and No. i the pendent semicircles 
of fine diamonds. Nos. i, 2, and 3 marked PENROSE WATERFORD. No. 4 with 
cut splits below, the other three with moulded flutes. Author's Collection 

Four cut, engraved, and moulded decanters. Nos. 1,3, and 4 cut, No. 2 engraved. 

Nos. i, 2, and 3 marked WATERLOO Co CORK, about 1820, and No. 4 CORK 

GLASS Co, about 1810. Author's Collection. 
Two claret jugs. No. i with " printies " cut on the body, and prismatic cutting 

on neck. No. 2 cut in large pillar flutes. Probably Waterford, about 1820. 

National Museum, Dublin .......... 92 

Two " salad " bowls. Dark coloured glass. Probably Dublin or Cork, early igth 

century. National Museum, Dublin. 
Two " salad " bowls and decanter. No. i with the diamond cut lozenge, a variant 

of the vesica. No. 2 and the decanter with the sunburst cutting. Probably Cork. 

No. i perhaps late i8th century, and Nos. 2 and 3 early igth. The two bowls 

in the collection of Mr. H. Grandy ........ 96 

Two stands for bowls. No. i cut in diamonds and prismatic rings, to fit a 
circular bowl. Probably Waterford, about 1830. No. 2 to fit an oval bowl. 
Probably Dublin or Cork, early igth century. Similar objects are often 
erroneously called " Potato Rings." 

Three celery glasses. No. i with strawberry diamond cutting divided by split 
bands. Waterford, about 1820-30. Nos. 3 and 4 with shallow diamonds and 
facet cutting respectively. Probably Dublin or Cork, early i9th century. 
National Museum, Dublin . . . . . . . . 100 

XXII. Celery glass with cross-cut diamond cutting, panels divided by split bands, and fan 
escallop edge. Waterford, about 1830. Author's Collection. See patterns of 
celery glasses on Plate X. 

Water jug. Engraved and moulded glass. Marked WATERLOO Co CORK, about 
1820. Author's Collection. Note the conventional flower so often found on 
Cork glass. ............ 102 

XXIII. Four finger bowls, moulded and engraved glass. No. i marked B. EDWARDS 
BELFAST ; No. 2 MARY CARTER & SON 80 GRAFTON ST DUBLIN ; No. 3 FRANCIS 
COLLINS DUBLIN ; No. 4 Cork glass. Cut and engraved. Early igth century. 
Author's Collection. 

Three dessert plates. No. i with plain diamond cutting. No. 2 with alternate 
panels of cross-cut diamonds and flutes. No. 3 with strawberry diamonds. 
Probably Cork, early igth century. Author's Collection. 

Four pickle jars. Cut and engraved, showing various types. Nos. i and 2 
probably Dublin or Cork. Nos. 3 and 4 probably Waterford. National 
Museum, Dublin ........... 104 



PLATE 
XXIV. 



XXV. 



XXVI. 



XXVII. 



XXVIII. 



XXIX. 



XXX. 



ILLUSTRATIONS xv 

Facing Page 

Three pickle jars. Cork, about 1820-30. Author's Collection. 

Three water jugs. Cut in large, shallow diamonds and hollow flutes. Nos. i 

and 3 of uncommon shape. Probably Dublin or Cork, early igth century. 

No. 2 probably Cork, about 1820-30. In the possession of Mr. F. C. Cowper. 108 

i. Water jug with strawberry and cross-cut diamonds. Probably Waterford, 

early igth century. No. 2. Claret jug with strawberry diamonds and splits. 

Probably Dublin or Cork. Late 1 8th century. No. 3 . Water jug on hollow base. 

Probably Dublin or Cork. Late i8th century. National Museum, Dublin. 
Five wine glasses with engraved patterns. Cork glass. Nos. i to 4 early igth 

century. No. 5 late i8th. Note the vesica cutting on Nos. 3 and 4, and the 

conventional flower on No. 5. Author's Collection. 
Three water jugs. Cork. No. i with diamond cutting and flanged base, about 

1830. Nos. 2 and 3 with variants of the vesica cutting so often found on 

Cork glass. No. 3 with mould marks at the base. Early igth century. 

Author's Collection. . . . . . . . . . .112 

Three dishes. Nos. i and 3 with plain diamonds and strawberry diamonds 
respectively. Probably Waterford, early igth century. No. 2 with large 
shallow diamonds. Note the varying thickness of the glass at the edge. 
Probably Cork. Author's Collection. 

Moulded glass dish, edges cut. Marked underneath in centre "C M & Co.," 
Charles Mulvany and Co., Dublin. About 1820. Author's Collection . 

Four salt-cellars. No. i plain, Nos. 2 and 4 cut, and No. 3 moulded. Probably 

Dublin or Cork glass, early igth century, 
i. Egg-cup, probably Waterford. Nos. 2, 3, and 4 salt-cellars, probably 

Waterford, early iQth century. No. 5 salt-cellar, moulded glass, probably 

Irish, late i8th century. Author's Collection. 
Three candlesticks. Nos. i and 2 moulded glass with cup-shaped nozzles. No. 

3 cut glass with removable nozzle. Probably Waterford, early igth century. 

Author's Collection .......... 

Three candlesticks. No. i moulded and slightly cut, with removable nozzle. 
No. 2 plain with cup-shaped nozzle. No. 3 moulded, with removable nozzle. 
Irish, early igth century. Author's Collection. 

Mirror, with double row of faceted pieces of glass. The outer row of clear 
glass, and the inner of alternate pieces of dark blue and opaque white with 
gold flutes. Chandelier suspended in front. The imitation candles were 
added for electric light. Made by a looking-glass maker, probably in Dublin 
or the South of Ireland. Late i8th century. National Museum, Dublin 

Five cruet bottles. No. i cut in printies, No. 2 with fine diamonds and slant- 
ing blazes, No. 3 with strawberry diamonds, No. 4 with pillar flutes, 
5 engraved. Most probably all Waterford, early igth century. 



Probably Dublin or Cork, early 



handle. 



and No. 

Author's Collection. 

1 . Butter cooler with plain diamond cutting, 
igth century. National Museum, Dublin. 

2. Piggin with large pillar flutes, pillar band and fan escallop 
Perhaps Belfast, igth century. Author's Collection ..... 

Pair of butter coolers. Moulded glass. Marked " FRANCIS COLLINS DUBLIN." 
Early igth century. National Museum, Dublin. 

Three butter coolers. No. i probably Dublin or Cork. Nos. 2 and 3 probably 
Waterford. No. 2 of a very good white glass. National Museum, Dublin 



116 



1 20 



124 



128 



134 



xvi IRISH GLASS 

PLATE Facing Page 

XXXI. Four cream ewers. Probably Cork or Dublin glass. Nos. i and 3 early igth 
century. Nos. 2 and 4 about 1830. Nos. 2, 3, and 4 National Museum, 
Dublin. No. i Author's Collection. 

Two salvers. No. i with edge projecting above and below the plate, moulded 
Silesian stem and domed base, about the middle of the i8th century, and 
No. 2 with cut edge and hollow foot, early igth century. Most probably 
Irish. Author's Collection. 

Four goblets. No. i with plain flat cutting, No. 2 with zigzag splits, No. 3 
with blazes, and No. 4 with alternate panels of plain diamonds and pillar 
flutes. No. i probably Newry, Nos. 2, 3, and 4 probably Waterford. No. 2 
early igth century, Nos. i, 3, and 4 about 1830. Author's Collection . 140 

XXXII. Two views of a cut and engraved glass goblet. Formerly belonging to an 
Orange Lodge. Dublin, made by T. and R. Pugh, about 1870. National 
Museum, Dublin .......... 144 

XXXIII. Four wine glasses. Probably Waterford. About 1830. Nos. i and 4 have 

upright blazes, and Nos. 2 and 3 plain diamonds. Author's Collection. 
Four wine glasses. No. 2 engraved, the rest cut. Nos. i, 2, and 3 probably 
Cork, No. 4 probably Waterford. About 1820-30. National Museum, Dublin. 
Three tumblers. No. i probably Waterford. Nos. 2 and 3 perhaps Cork. 
About 1830. National Museum, Dublin . . . . . -150 

XXXIV. Three sugar bowls. Nos. i and 2 with strawberry diamonds divided by split 
bands, and fan escallop edges. Most probably Waterford. About 1830. 
No. 3 with flat cutting and prismatic bands. Probably Irish. Late i8th 
century or early igth. National Museum, Dublin. 

Four pieces of moulded and cut glass of uncertain denomination. Nos. i, 2, 
and 3 perhaps mustard pots. Moulded glass. No. 4 use unknown, being 
too thick for a drinking glass. Cut glass. Probably Irish, early igth 
century. Author's Collection . . . . . . . .156 

XXXV. Cut glass bowl, with large geometric design, and solid base. This class of 
glass is usually of a slightly greenish metal, and is of English or continental 
make. It is constantly being passed off as Waterford. 

Iron cutting wheel used in one of the Cork glass-houses. Early igth century. 
In author's possession . . . . . . . . . .160 

XXXVI. Illustrations of various kinds of cutting : 

1. Prismatic cutting. Erroneously called " step cutting." 

2. Alternate prisms. 

3. Pillar flutes. Erroneously called " lustre cutting." 

4. Large hollow facets. Very often used on salad bowls, decanters, etc. 

5. Large shallow diamonds. 
Illustrations of various kinds of cutting : 

1 . Single row of strawberry diamonds. 

2. Chequered diamonds. 

3. Strawberry diamonds. 

4. Fine diamonds. 

5. Cross-cut diamonds. Erroneously called " Hob-nail cutting." 

6. Plain sharp diamonds. 

7. Perpendicular blazes. 

8. Slanting blazes IO 6 



PLATE 
XXXVII. 



XXXVIII. 



XXXIX. 



ILLUSTRATIONS xvii 

Facing Page 

Illustrations of various kinds of cutting : 

1. Leaf festoons, splits below, and star cutting above. 

2. Printies. Very often used on the late decanters, claret jugs, goblets, etc. 

3. A combination of strawberry diamonds, plain diamonds, and prisms. 
Fan escallop edge with intervening spaces cut in fine diamonds. 

Four examples of moulded glass. Thin glass moulded to represent diamond 
cutting and flutes. Nos. i, 2, and 3 probably Cork, No. 4 probably 
Waterford. Early it)th century. Author's Collection 



Neck of a decanter showing 7 varieties of rings ...... 

Three pieces of coloured glass : 

1. Dark green cut glass butter cooler. Probably Waterford, igth century. 

2. Plain purple glass hyacinth glass. Made by Pugh, Dublin, about 1870. 

3. Dark blue glass finger bowl. Marked PENROSE WATERFORD. Author's Collec- 
tion. 

1. Goblet used on the occasion of the visit of George IV to Dublin in 1821. 
Probably Dublin glass. 

2. Williamite glass. Bowl engraved with vines and inscribed " The Glorious 
Memory of King William." Probably Dublin, about the middle of the i8th 
century. 

3. Williamite glass. Bowl engraved with King William on horseback, and in- 
scribed " The Glorious Memory of King William July ist 1690." Probably 
Dublin, first half of i8th century. 

4. Williamite goblet. Bowl engraved with King William on horseback, and 
inscribed " The Glorious Memory of King William," also G R crowned. 
Probably Dublin, about 1820-30. National Museum, Dublin . 

1. Goblet on square pressed foot. Bowl cut with leaf festoons and stars. 
Probably Waterford, early iQth century. 

2. Tripod bowl. Turn over edge cut in alternate prisms. Probably Dublin 
or Cork, late i8th century. 

3. Candlestick with diamond and flat cutting. Star cut base. Probably 
Dublin or Cork, about 1820. National Museum, Dublin. 

Four custard glasses : 
i. Probably Irish, early igth century. 

*, 3, and 4 probably Waterford, about 1820. National Museum, Dublin. See 
also plate 13 ........... 



172 
179 



182 



188 



XL. Hookah base. Probably Cork, early igth century. These were made for the 

Indian trade. Author's Collection. 

Double bottle. Engraved with a harp and shamrock leaf crown. Probably 
Belfast, early igth century. Author's Collection ..... 198 



IRISH GLASS 

CHAPTER I 

GLASS-MAKING IN IRELAND PRIOR TO THE END OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

IF any glass were made in Ireland in early times, the history of it 
appears to have been lost. Even in England it has not been ascer- 
tained definitely if glass were made there during the Middle Ages, 
though it is thought that possibly coarse window glass may have been 
manufactured. 

It is not, however, until about the middle of the fifteenth century that 
any positive evidence of glass-making in England occurs. In 1447 John 
Prudde, on undertaking to execute the windows of the Beauchamp chapel 
at Warwick, engages to use no glass of England, which proves that, although 
glass was made in England at that period, it was of an inferior quality. The 
first definite evidence of an attempt to manufacture glass of a superior quality 
in England is probably the petition in 1550 of eight Murano glass makers, 
who had come to England a short time previously, to carry on their art. 

The art of making a vitreous enamel and applying it to metal work 
appears to have been practised in Ireland as early as the La Tene period 
(about 400 B.C. to about the commencement of the Christian period in 
Ireland), and from about that time down to about the twelfth century it 
seems to have flourished. Coloured enamels are to be found on the Tara 
brooch and the Ardagh chalice, of about the ninth century A.D., and on 
other objects of Irish art of later periods. During the thirteenth, fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries several references to glass makers, glass workers, 
glazewrights and glaziers occur, but as to what particular objects they 
produced no mention is made. 

In the year 1258 the name of William the glass worker appears as a 

19 



20 IRISH GLASS 

witness to a grant of land in the parish of St. Brigid, Dublin, and among 
others, the following names also occur William de Kemesye, glass worker 
(vitrarius) in 1309 ; Richard the glazewright in 1409 and 1434 ; William 
Cranch and Simon Hobelthorne, glaziers, in 1576 ; and Richard Daioben, 
glazier, in 1579. 

In the Pipe Rolls of 6 Edward III, 1332-3, amongst the accounts for 
works at Dublin Castle it is mentioned that the sum of 5 135. 6d. be paid 
for " Wages for a glazier working on divers occasions, and for divers colours 
bought for making the glass windows in said Castle." 

Probably these glass workers, glazewrights, etc., were simply what we 
would call glaziers, and never actually made any glass. Indeed it is very 
probable that no glass was made in Ireland at this period, and it is not 
until towards the end of the sixteenth century that any definite records are 
to be found of glass works having been erected in the country, and even 
in these the information is very scanty. 

The earliest record I have found of any idea of setting up glass works 
in Ireland occurs in the English State Papers Domestic under the year 1567, 
where the following petition is recorded : August 9th, 1567, Pierre Briet 
.and Jean Carre from the Low Countries wrote to Cecil from Windsor asking 
for a licence to set up a glass-house in London, and also asking for a privilege 
for thirty years, in order that furnaces might be erected at their discretion in 
convenient places, namely, twelve in England and six in Ireland, near the 
woods for fuel, the sea for sand or seaweed, or the rivers for pebbles. 

Nothing more appears to be known concerning this project, and prob- 
ably neither Briet nor Carre set up any glass-houses in Ireland. 

In the year 1575, Giacomo Verzelini, a Venetian, obtained a licence for 
twenty-one years to make glass like that of Murano in England and Ireland, 
but, so far as is at present known, none appears to have been made by him 
in Ireland. 

Probably about the year 1585 the manufacture of glass in Ireland may 
be said to begin. 

In the State Papers, Ireland, 1586-8, mention is made of Captain 
Woodhouse's suit for the privilege of making glass in Ireland, and also his 
assistance to George Longe and Ralph Pillyng in erecting and maintaining 
two houses for making glass. Also in the Patent and Close Rolls, Ireland, 
the following is to be found : 



GLASS-MAKING IN IRELAND PRIOR TO 17 CENTURY 21 

" Elizabeth R. The Queen to the Lord Deputy and the Lord Chan- 
cellor informing them that Captain Thomas Woodhouse has lately erected 
certain glass-houses for making glass for glazing and drinking, likely to 
prove beneficial to him, and therefore he has made humble suit for the 
especial privilege in that behalf. Her Majesty, considering that the making 
of glass might prove commodius to both realms, and that Woodhouse was 
the first that with any success had begun the art in Ireland, is pleased to 
condescend to his petition, and therefore orders that a grant should be made 
to him, his exors, and assigns of the privilege of making glass for glazing 
and drinking or otherwise ; and to build convenient houses, for the term of 
eight years, the glass to be sold as cheep or better cheepe than similar glass 
in foreign parts ; prohibiting all other persons from the manufacture during 
the period marked in the patent. Richmond, January nth, 1588." 

In the State Papers, Ireland, under the date November 6th, 1589, it is 
recorded that a patent was granted to Captain Thomas Woodhouse for the 
sole making of glass in Ireland for eight years. 

Woodhouse does not appear to have made much use of his patent, for 
in the following petition it is stated that he sold it to George Longe. 

Petition of George Longe to Lord Burghley (Lansdowne Manuscripts) , 
October 3rd, 1589 : 

" In the ninth year of Elizabeth the first privilege of making glass in 
England was granted to Anthonye Beckue, alias Dollyne, and John Carye, 
strangers born in the Low Countries, but Dollyne and Carye being merchants 
and having no skill in the mystery had to lease out their patent : asks to 
have a patent granted to him and agrees to pay an annual rent for every 
glass-house continued in England, but at no time to continue above four 
glass-houses in England, where there are now fourteen or fifteen, but to 
set up the rest in Ireland, and to find twelve men at every glass-house 
sufficiently furnished to serve Her Majesty within twenty miles of their 
abode. States that he has spent his time wholly in the trade and has found 
stufTe meet and brought to perfection the making of glass in Ireland, keep- 
ing at least twenty-four persons for the space of two years to his charges 
in the trial above 500. Also states that he had spent at least 300 in 
procuring the patent for England and buying the patent in Ireland from 
Captain Woodhouse." 

In another letter in the Lansdowne Manuscripts, from George Longe to 



22 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE II 

Two examples of Dublin engraved glass made by Pugh, about 1870. The 
tumbler engraved by Franz Tieze. National Museum, Dublin. 



Jug made by Pugh, Dublin, about 1870. Engraved glass. Engraved below, 
" Manufactured by T & R Pugh, Potter's Alley, Dublin." 

Hyacinth glass or " Flower Root Glass." Cut glass. Probably Dublin. 
Early igth century. Both in the Collection of Lady Moore, Dublin. 



PLATE 1! 





GLASS-MAKING IN IRELAND PRIOR TO lyxn CENTURY 23 



Burghley under the date 1589, he again mentions the patent to Dollyne and 
Carye and asks for a patent for himself, as he does not intend to continue 
the making of glass in England, but if requested he would not keep more 
than two glass-houses in England, but set up the remainder in Ireland, 
whereby the woods in England would be preserved and the superfluous 
woods in Ireland wasted, which in time of rebellion Her Majesty has no 
greater enemy there. The country, he says, will be much strengthened as 
every glass-house will be as good as twenty men in garrison. He also says 
that if he gets the patent he will repair Burghley 's buildings with the best 
glass. 

Longe appears to have carried on the manufacture of glass in Ireland, 
for in the Manuscripts of the Marquis of Salisbury the following petition 
of about the year 1597 is to be found : 

" Petition of George Longe who first brought to pass making of glass 
in Ireland. In the ninth year of the reign of Elizabeth certain strangers came 
to England, and obtained a privilege for making Normandy glass, Burgundy 
glass, and coarse drinking glass, on condition that they should pay custom 
as if it were transported, and teach Englishmen the mystery. These con- 
ditions were in no part performed, and besides, the privilege being for 
twenty-one years only, is expired. Ever since, certain strangers no subjects 
and not denizened, neither licensed nor forbidden, have and do (as it were 
by intrusion) continue the trade to the great prejudice of the realm, wasting 
timber for want of underwood in divers parts of the realm, Her Majesty nor 
any subject reaping commodity. His suit is that it may please Her Majesty 
to perform the humble suit of George Stone her footman concerning a 
privilege for Ireland, as also to suppress such strangers in England as are not 
licensed. This will be beneficial : To Her Majesty, who for thirty years 
has had no custom for an infinite number of glass made and used here, 
whereas being made in Ireland and transported hither it will yield custom. 
To the Commonwealth : in this that the timber and woods in England shall 
be preserved and the superfluous woods in Ireland to better use employed, 
being now a continual harbour for rebels. Many idle people will be set to 
work to cut wood, burn ashes, dig and carry sand, clay, etc., and much 
trade and civility will increase in that rude country by inhabiting those great 
woods, and the passage to and fro of ships for transportation of the glass. 
It shall not be prejudicial, for England may be served of better glass than 



24 IRISH GLASS 

can be made here at so low a price, or rather cheaper ; neither in Ireland 
shall any timber be wasted, there being such mighty places and underwoods 
that impossible it is to spoil them, continually growing again. 

" For example I have kept ten years in the end of Drumfenning woods 
a glass house. There is no sign of waste, only the ways more passable. In 
the end of the Desmond's woods the Seneschal lay in it when five hundred 
men durst not attempt to pass that way. Patrick Condy can witness it. By 
difference of the price of wood, farm victuals, etc., honest gains may be 
had to perform this without preying upon the commonwealth." 

Drumfenning Woods, mentioned in the above petition, extended from 
Dungarvan to beyond Tallow, and the glass-house is said to have been 
situated in the neighbourhood of Curryglass, Co. Cork, at the western end 
of the woods. 

There is a townland still called Glasshouse about a mile to the south 
of Curryglass, and as it bears the name, it seems to indicate that a glass 
works existed on the townland at some former period. The exact site of the 
glass-house has not as yet been ascertained. Large quantities of a bluish 
slag have, however, been found on the townland, but this slag is more 
probably the refuse from one of the many iron works set up in that part of 
the country by the great Earl of Cork in the early part of the seventeenth 
century. 

With the exception of the mention of this one glass-house nothing more 
appears to be known about any glass manufactured in Ireland by George 
Longe (or Stone). 

Licences were granted to Sir Jerome Bowes in 1592, to Sir Percival 
Hart and Edward Forcett in 1607, and to Sir Robert Mansell in 1636 and 
1638 for making glass in England and Ireland, while in 1634 Sir Percival 
Hart obtained a new licence for the sole making of black glass drinking 
vessels and pots in Ireland, similar to those made in Murano in Italy, and 
commonly called Venice drinking glasses, he to have the monopoly for 
twenty-one years at the annual rent of fifty marks. 

So far as is at present known, none of them appears to have manu- 
factured any glass in Ireland, although in Boate's Ireland's Natural History 
it is stated that early in the seventeenth century several glass-houses were 
set up in Ireland by the English. 

In the Patent Rolls, Ireland, 5 James I, Part I, it is recorded that " a 



GLASS-MAKING IN IRELAND PRIOR TO 17 CENTURY 25 

license be granted to Adam Whitty of Arklow in Wicklow to manufacture 
glass within Leinster Province for ten years on paying the yearly rent of 
one pound Irish. 23d February, i6o|." 

No other reference to this licence appears to be forthcoming, so it is 
uncertain if any glass-house was erected. 

In the Lismore Papers there is an entry that in the year 1618 Dr. John 
Boyle wrote to his brother Richard Boyle, first Earl of Cork, mentioning a 
Venetian who wished to set up glass works in the south of Ireland. Whether 
or no this Venetian came over to Ireland and erected a glass-house is un- 
certain, but we know that a glass-house for window glass was set up shortly 
after this, probably in County Waterford. The original manuscript account 
of this glass works is preserved in Marsh's Library, Dublin. The name of 
the founder is not given, but from internal evidence it is not at all im- 
probable that the glass works was one of the many industrial projects of the 
great Earl of Cork. In the manuscript it is stated that the glass-house was 
at Ballynegery, which is most probably Ballynagerah in the south of Co. 
Waterford. The manuscript consists of about twelve pages and contains 
items relative to the cost of setting up the glass-house and of the materials, 
and also accounts of some of the glass sold. The following transcript is set 
out in the same order as in the manuscript : 

" Glasswork 

The projects of the weekly charge as also the receipts and profits per 
week of the glass-house to make 18 case. 
Per Davy the glassmaker (ist) 

Per Mr Sayer (afterward) but with much addition of charge and less making 
of glass, and yet by his letter (Jan. i2th 1621) assuring that as beneficial 
(besides the furtherance of my plantations) as my ironworks. If I may 
have rent for it. 
25 corde of small cleft wood 

at i2d the corde 255. 

20 Bushels of ashes at 3d. 55. 

5 Bushels of sand 

The consore or founder his 75 agreed but 

wages per week is more projected 

by them 

i Tezers or men to tend the fire i8s. 

3 other man 6s 



26 IRISH GLASS 

Davy the glassmaker his wages 
for making 18 case of glass per 
week at 33 per case 54 s 

E. Contra 

Received by me (if God bless it) for the said 18 case of glass per week at 

2os per case 



A summary note of the whole charge (according my agreements) of the 

glasshouse with the appurtenances before it blow and make glass. 

To Tipton in gross for the glasshouse itself viz : all the timber frame, 

boarding, doors, ladders, stairs and shindling and other workings 

To Rd. Jorden for the nine ovens 

and main furnace making, and carriage 

of the materials in gross 

Item, to Mr Pitts for 600 weight of 

fine white clay to make the pots for 

the glass metal. Item more for 500 

of the same clay ics. 

Item, necessary implements bought beforehand for the 

glasshouse viz : 

For canvas (March . . 1621) to make .... 

sacks and bags to carry ashes, viz. yards 

and half 6s 

To Ashworth the baker for 8 sacks 143. 

For . . Bushel measure to measure ashes by. 

For carriage of all the timber to the 

glasshouse per estimate, if it had 

not been by own wains. 

Given in kindness to the rearers of 

the house frame 33 4d 

Item, To Mr Hacket for a ton of 

fine white or sky colour clay from 

Fethard to make the pots for the 

glass metal, March 2yth 1621. 

thereof already sent me 200 weight and 200 weight. 

Item. To Everett for a barrel of feme 

ashes March ult. 1622. 

Item. To .... for a hewn square stone 35. 

Item, For 2 sieves of hair, one fine 

for sand, the other somewhat coarser 



GLASS-MAKING IN IRELAND PRIOR TO zyra CENTURY 27 

for ashes 2od 

Item. For one fine hair sieve more iod 

Item, for two Losstels iron 2S 6d 
Item. To .... for pound weight of 

Saphyr at 3d per Ib. 

Item. For 6 pipe handles 2S 

Brief notes of all the stock or materials bought and brought into the glass- 
house beforehand and in store, afore and on the .... of April 1622, on 
which day the furnace began to blow. 
Bushels of ashes 

besides those from the Castle and Tanyard. 
Bushels of sand 
Bushels of Kelp 
Bushels of little marble stones 
Bushels of fern ashes 
Cordes or wayn loads of small cleft wood 
Lendings to the workmen before the aforesaid 

... of April, to be defalked by me out of their first weekly wages after the 
blowing begins, viz : 

To Davy the glassman at several times by myself i6s. 6d, yd and I2d. 
I am to charge him 155 towards the ton of kelp. 
To the said Davy by Th. Coney 
viz. per Coney i2d, and i2d per Stafford. 

To H. Osborne (consore) by myself at several times, and i8d and us for 
shirt, and 8d and 2s for breeches. 
9d, i2d, 6d, 6d, and for hat 35. 
To the said Osborne per Coney 2s 6d, I2d, and i2d. 
To Davy per imprest for cutting 

and cleaving wood 33, i2d, i8d, 2s 6d, 

and 45 6d, and 2s and shoes. 

April . . . 1622. A note of the first week's charge in making of .... 
case of Broad window glass viz : 
To Darby the glassman 
To Osborne the founder 
To .... for tending the fire 
For . . . bushels of ashes at i2d per bushel 
.... Bushels of ashes which came from the Castle gratis. 
.... Bushels of ashes from the tanhouse gratis 
, Bushels of ashes from .... 



28 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE III 

View of Irwin's Glass-House, Potter's Alley, Dublin. From an 
advertisement, 1845. This Glass-House formerly belonged to Charles 
Mulvany and Co. and afterwards to the Pughs. 

View of Whyte's Glass Shop, Marlborough Street, Dublin, and Glass- 
House at Ringsend, which he probably took over. From an advertise- 
ment, 1845. 



Trade circular of Jonathan Gatchell, dated, Waterford, 1811. 



PLATE III 








Watcrford, 5lh Month (May) 20/A, 131 f 



PERMIT me to lake the Liberty of informing 
that the Partnership lately subsisting under the Firm of Rjaser, 
and B.IRCROFT, in the established Fiint-Glass Manufactory, in this City, Aas 
been dissolved on the \ 9lh lust, the Term having expired : In Consequence, I 
have purchased the Slock of my late Partners, engaged the whole of the Concerns, 
and am now carry ing on the Business, in the same extensive Manner as hereto' 
fore, intending to use my best Endearours to give Jull Satisfaction, 



The Favour of 



Commands will much oblige, 



^ 







CLASS-MAKING IN IRELAND PRIOR TO zyra CENTURY 29 

A note of the Broad glass or window glass sold since my first setting up of 
my Glass house at Ballynegery, 1622. 

Sold to .... Stephens the glazier of Limerick ten case and half a case of 
glass at 305 per case delivered at Limerick, except one case and a half cut in 
quarrells at 35 per case, the cutting over and above the said 303. 15. 19. 6 
Sold to ... Parker the merchant or glassman who carried it to Cork at 
his own charge, viz. at 255 per case at the Glass house itself five case 6.5.0 
Sold to John Bickford the glazier of Ballynekill one case of glass at 255 at 
the Glass house i. 5. o 

Sold to him at the Glass house another case of glass at 255 i. 5. o 

Sold to him also per James the glassman one case more of glass at 253 

fr-5-o 
Sold to Mr Durant the merchant and glazier of Youghal at the Glass house 

seven case at 255 per case 8. 15. o 

Sent to Dublin (Oct. 1622) sixteen case of glass 21. 6. 8 

Given to Sir H. Perse Baronet one case of glass Sept .... 1622. 

Given to my Lady Vicountess Mountgaret two half cases of glass, Oct. 24!! 

1622. 

Sold by Hector the glassman Oct. iQth 1622 .... bunches of glass at 

255. 

Sold Oct. . . . 1622 at the Glass house to the glazier of Connaught .... 

case of glass at 255 per case. 

Sold to Mr Stanes Oct. . . . 1622, at the Glass house three case of glass 

at 253 per case 

Sold to Mr Byrd the merchant of Philyptown .... case of glass at the 

Glass house at 255. Oct .... 1622. 

Sold to Mr Byrd of Ballynekyll, lawyer, for the Lord Esmond Sept . . . 

1622 two case of glass at the Glass house at 255. 2. 10. o 

Agreed the ... of February 1621 with Davy Francois for making of good 

clear broad window glass at the rate of 35 per case, either in money or the 

same glass itself in the value of ... the case, at my choice from time to 

time. He undertaking to put me to no dead charge at all, either in the time 

of my erecting the work or after, and covenanting to make (by himself 

only and . . . . ) the quantity of 18 case every week (which after the price 

of 2os the case will amount in my receipts to 18 per week, and in his own 

and the above named other helpers pay to wages weekly. Besides 

ten or eleven cases more to be made weekly (with the same wood and in 
the same house and furnace and ovens) with the help of one glassmaker 
more. 

Agreed the .... February 1621 with William Tipton for erecting, fram- 
ing and finishing of the whole Glass house as also shindling it. The said 



3 o IRISH GLASS 

house to be forty or forty-two feet square every way and thirty-six feet high, 
at the price of 8. 

Agreed with Richard Jourden the i2th February 1621 for making and 
finishing of the nine ovens and the main furnace, and he to carry up and 
bring in place all the stones, clay or mortar and other materials himself or 
at his charge except my cart carriage of about four, five or six load of free- 
stone. I say agreed for all as aforesaid for the sum of 4 and I2d. 
Agreed with the aforesaid Davy for his payment to me in money or abate- 
ment of wages towards my buying of a ton of kelp at 155 February i2th 
1621. 

Agreed likewise with Mr Bevice Prideaux for his bestowing on me the 
carriage of the said ton of kelp from Cork or Kinsale to Waterford or By 
(PBallynegery) which he says will cost him 155, February 9th 1621, and the 
ton of kelp itself will cost 405. 

Agreed with Hugh Osborne (founder, consore or maker of the matter and 
metal of the glass) at ys wages per week during twenty-four or ... weeks 
if the furnace fire or work keep in so long, and afterwards at 8s per week 
if I like well of him and his work, and he to have no dead wages before or 
without working or after. I say agreed as aforesaid the present i5th of 
March 1621 and given a yd piece in earnest in the presence of Davy the 
glassmaker. 

Agreed with the burners or gatherers and bringing in of ashes at i2d the 
barrel February .... 1621. I say i2d the barrel. 
Agreed for a little house for the ashes or for Davy for the sum of 155. 
Agreed March .... 1621 with Bond, Darby etc, for cutting, cropping 
and cleaving small of sufficient cordes of wood to serve my glass furnace 
and ovens there at i2d the cord. 

Agreed April i3th 1622 with Copland . . . for cleaving small for the Glass 
house the . . . cord of long wood formerly cut close above the Glass 
house, at four pence the corde the cleaving small." 

As far as we know no other reference to this glass-house has been found,, 
consequently it is not known how long the manufacture lasted. 

The next record we have of glass-making in Ireland relates to a glass- 
house erected near Birr in the King's County about the year 1623. In 
Ireland's Natural History, by Gerard Boate, published in 1652, it is stated 
that early in the seventeenth century several glass-houses were set up in 
Ireland by the English, and among the more important was that near Birr, 
which was said to have supplied Dublin with drinking glasses and window 
glass. 



GLASS-MAKING IN IRELAND PRIOR TO 17 CENTURY 31 

Boate also states that at this period no glass-houses were erected in 
Dublin or other towns, but all in the country ; (on account of the wood for 
fuel in the latter) and that the sand for glass-making came from England, 
the alkali was obtained locally from the ash tree, and that the clay for the 
glass-house pots came from the north. 

About the year 1620 Sir Lawrence Parsons obtained a grant of land at 
Birr, and shortly afterwards granted leases to several persons. 

Among the leases of Sir Lawrence Parsons preserved at Birr Castle 
the following is to be found : 

Lease No. 22. " A lease dated gth October, 1623, made by me unto 
Abraham Bigo of the Castle town and part of the plowland of Clonoghill 
with all the woods there, to be spent and employed on the premises (all 
royalties excepted) for the term of ninety-nine years from our Lady Day 
next, (if Hester Bigo his wife and Abraham and John Bigo his sons or any of 
them live so long) at the yearly rent of 24!! sterling at Michaelmas and our 
Lady Day equally, with a fat hog at all Saints, two capons at Christmas and 
two hens at Shrovetide, his best beast for a herriat, and i2li sterling for a 
fine of alienation, all payable at the Castle of Birr, and also to do suit of 
court and suit of mill to my court and mills at Parsonstown, and to provide 
two English or French footmen with muskets or callivers, sufficiently ap- 
pointed to attend me and my heirs in His Majesty's service at all times upon 
two days' warning, with a clause of distress for non-payment of the rent 
within twenty days after the gales, and if unpaid forty days the lease to be 
void. Wherein is inserted a proviso to reside by himself or his sufficient 
tenants upon the premises and within one year to build a stone or brick 
chimney in the castle of Clonoghill, and not to alyen his whole estate in the 
premises or any part thereof without my license ; and not to set up any 
glass house or glasswork on any other land, or buy wood of any other for 
his glasswork but only of me, And a covenant to keep all the houses built 
or to be built on the premises in good repair, and so to yield up the same 
at the end of his terme." In the margin of the lease is written, " Sur- 
rendered to me at Easter 1627." 

It is not known if the glass-house was carried on by anyone else after 
Abraham Bigo surrendered the lease. 

Remains of an old glass-house, which may have been that erected by 
Abraham Bigo, were discovered about forty or fifty years ago at Clonbrone 



3 2 IRISH GLASS 

near Clonoghill, outside Birr, and there is a place still called Glasshouse in 

the vicinity. 

An Abraham Bigo is said to have carried on the manufacture of glass 
at the Isle of Purbeck about 1623, and Sir Robert Mansell is also stated to 
have had, at the same period, a glass-house there, besides others at London, 
Milford Haven, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. All these appear to have failed 
except the last named. 

Perhaps the failure of these glass-houses may have been owing to the 
introduction of the use of lead in the manufacture, and to the want of know- 
ledge in the mixing of the ingredients in their proper proportions. 

Possibly Abraham Bigo, on the failure of the work at the Isle of Purbeck, 
came over to Ireland to try his fortune. 

Besides the glass-house near Birr carried on by Abraham Bigo, Philip 
Bigo, in the reign of Charles II, obtained grants of land at several places, 
including Ballyneshragh, Carrowmore, and Newtown in Lusmagh, and is 
said to have established glass works in some of them. No traces, however, 
of them have been found. 

A Proclamation, dated February i2th, 163$, prohibited the export of 
glass from, and the manufacture of glass in, Ireland, after August, 1639, but 
it seems that not much attention was paid to it, as in the next year, in the 
Egmont Manuscripts, we find the following reference to a licence for 
making glass in County Cork : 

" Thomas Bettesworth to Sir Philip Percival, July 2ist 1640, Moallo. 
I wrote to you, about ten days since, of an expedient which did relate to the 
good Lord President about procuring a license for making glass from the 
patentee. I beseech you, Sir, be studious about the glass license, or else 
there falls to the ground a strong and sublime project unto which nothing 
probably can give impediment but the want of a moderate compensation, 
and, if such an one may not be had, the Lady of Doneraile will be pro- 
hibited of a spacious expectation and I myself also blurrefied (sic), who dare 
presume to call myself the projector." 

About the year 1665 it was proposed to set up a glass-house somewhere 
in the vicinity of Lisburn, Co. Antrim, but whether or not the project ever 
materialised does not appear to be known. 

The following references to be found in the Calendar of State Papers, 
Ireland, seem to be the only ones touching on the subject. 



GLASS-MAKING IN IRELAND PRIOR TO 17 CENTURY 33 

Sir George Rawdon to Viscount Conway and Killulta. Lisburn, 
July 4th, 1665. " The proposition I received by yesterday's post concern- 
ing glass making occasions this sudden answer to your Lordship's of the 
27th of June, that if you be of my opinion and your other servants here, 
there be no further treaty of this kind tending to so great and certain an 

expense upon such uncertain hopes of getting it in again ; and as 

your Lordship observes other charges, besides the computation of 15 a 
week (which itself is high), may be as much more, and where is the rent or 
how long ere any return be made of the commodity transported ; and we 
are not sure of the goodness of the sand here and other materials. But if 
any will upon their own account come over and make their own work, 
from Stourb ridge or any other place where ordinary glass for bottles, 
window glass etc. is made, and give some small rent for woodleave etc 
I think that may be far more advisable than to run the adventure of a quarter 
of that charge Sennior Mallyo expects." 

Sir George Rawdon to Viscount Conway and Killulta. Lisburn, 

September 2nd, 1665. ' It seems your Lordship is resolved and 

concluded for setting up a glasswork, which I heartily wish may prove 
according to your expectation ; but much I doubt it, having been so burnt 
in the hand with projecting the setting up of manufactures here and particu- 
larly the stocking trade of late." 

Sir George Rawdon to Viscount Conway and Killulta. Lisburn, 

September 3rd, 1665. " you mention Glenavy for the glasswork, 

but we cannot have it there as there is no wood near, and the carriage of 
it is very costly." 

About the year 1670, a glass-house was set up near Portarlington in 
the Queen's County by one Ananias Henzy. The following reference to 
this glass-house is found in the State Papers, Ireland : 

' Letter from Robert Leigh enclosing one from Mr. A. Henzy to 
Secretary Arlington, November I4th, 1670. I write according to my duty 
though I have nothing to do but to send the enclosed from a glassworker at 
Portarlington. After some small progress in his undertaking, he is it seems 
at present at a stop by occasion of some disappointment in the melting of 
his metal. He therefore makes his application to your Lordship for your 
favour, which I suppose he means by forbearing to call for the rent due 
from him. Your Lordship may grant this without prejudice for half a year 



34 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE IV 
Trade circular of Gatchell, Walpole and Co., Waterford, 1830. 



Page from one of the Account Books of the Waterford Glass-House, 1812. 



PLATE IV 



d * 



1 1 

1 1 

2 s -e s 



1 i 1 



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GLASS-MAKING IN IRELAND PRIOR TO 17 CENTURY 35 

longer in hopes that his work may yet thrive. He has laid out much money 
upon your land and occasioned the coming of several families to dwell there, 
and if he prove not very unlucky or failing in his art of making glass (which 
he has practised in another place these twenty years past) I do not doubt 
but he will be a great means to plant that part of your Lordship's estate, 
especially in the new town, in a short time. 

Enclosure. A Henzey to Robert Leigh. I have used all the best ways and 
means I could hitherto to make glass but cannot as yet do it. This is a 
great damage to me and disheartens the new inhabitants of the corporation. 
I am disabled by it, and unless my Lord Arlington will encourage me I 
shall impovrish myself and do no good. I have sent to Dublin for things 
to make a further trial which I hope will do some good, and shall not leave 
off until every expedient has been tried. I shall devote all my efforts and 
those of my people to it and all the money I can procure. If the next trial 
do not succeed, I shall have to put out the fire till next summer to get some 
things that cannot be had at this time of the year. A great rent is now due 
to my Lord and will increase and I do not know how I shall discharge it 
without making of glass, which is the only way I hope to do so. I must 
bow to his Lordship's pleasure but hope he will give me encouragement to 
go on, for which I shall ever be thankful. Pray acquaint his Lordship with 
my losses. 

Dated at Gragneefine loth November 1670. To my esteemed friend 
Robert Leigh at Mr Hackett's living on the Merchant's Quay Dublin." 

This is the only reference to this glass-house which I have been able 
to find, consequently it is impossible to say if the venture succeeded. 

The name Glasshouse still pertains to a place a short distance to the 
west of Portarlington, and probably this was the site of Henzy's glass-work. 
Ananias Henzy is said to have come from Stourbridge, a great glass-making 
centre, and an Ananias Henzy, probably the same, obtained a grant of lands 
in the King's County, but no mention was made of the land he rented at 
Portarlington. The Henzys (de Hennezel) were, like the Bigos (de Bigault), 
the Tyzacks (du Thisac), and the Tytterys (du Thietry), originally Lorraine 
glass makers who came over to England about the middle of the sixteenth 
century. The de Hennezel family are first mentioned in connection with 
England about the year 1568, when Thomas and Balthazar de Hennezel, 
of the glass-houses of Vosges in Lorraine, were brought over by John Carye. 



36 IRISH GLASS 

The family seems to have settled at first in Sussex, and afterwards to have 
wandered to Buckholt Wood near Salisbury, and later on to the neighbour- 
hood of Stourbridge ; while in 1695 Peregrine Henzell, John Henzell, Jacob 
Henzell, and Peregrine Tizack petitioned the English House of Commons 
for aid to carry on the manufacture of glass near Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

The Henzy and Bigo families appear to have intermarried both in 
England and Ireland. In the will of Philip Bigo, who is stated to have had 
a glass-house in the King's County, and who died in 1668, the sum of three 
hundred pounds is left to the children of his eldest daughter Catherine 
Henzie, deceased, formerly wife of Ananias Henzie. 

All the early glass works in Ireland appear to have been in the country, 
on account of the facility of obtaining wood for fuel. In the year 1641, 
however, a Bill was introduced to stop the felling of trees for fuel for burn- 
ing glass, iron, lime, etc., and after about the last quarter of the seventeenth 
century almost all the glass-houses were erected in, or near, towns. 



CHAPTER II 

DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 




HE earliest record, we know of at present, of a glass-house in 
Dublin refers to one in St. Michan's parish in the latter part 
of the seventeenth century, though exactly when the manu- 
facture commenced is not known, but probably about the year 



In the Dublin Chronicle for September nth to i3th, 1788, the follow- 
ing short account of glass-making in Dublin is given : 

" Captain Philip Roche, a gentleman of good family, accepted a com- 
mission from James II, and, by being included in the Articles of Limerick, 
preserved his estate. He followed, however, the fortunes of James, but 
taking some disgust he quitted France, and visited a great part of the Conti- 
nent. After some years he returned to Ireland, and being incapacitated as 
a Roman Catholic from seeking a military or civil appointment, he turned 
his attention to trade, at the instance of his brother-in-law Thomas Woulfe, 
who soon after figured as the most eminent merchant in this city." 

" Captain Roche had, by some means, acquired on the Continent a con- 
siderable insight into the mystery of making flint glass, and conceived it 
might be advantageously pursued here. He made the attempt, and suc- 
ceeded to his wish ; his first essay was on a small scale, but he projected 
extensive and convenient works at Mary's Lane. In erecting them he met 
with much disappointment, they twice fell to the ground when nearly 
completed, and in the latter accident he was buried in the ruin as he was 
pointing to a defect in the upper work ; the circumstance luckily saved his 
life, for the tip of his cane appearing through the rubbish, he was speedily 
freed. His persevering spirit was not to be subdued, he set forward his 
works for the third time in the form of a cone, which remained unimpaired 
until very lately pulled down. The warehouses and offices which still remain 
prove the capaciousness of his ideas." 

37 



3 8 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE V 



Illustrations of the glass exhibited by George Gatchell at the London Exhibi- 
tion of 1851. Made at the Waterford Glass-House. 



Interior of a glass-house, showing the furnace with openings to the pots, 
workmen at the chairs making glass objects, blowing glass, mavering 
glass on the maver in the foreground, the various tools used, and, to the 
left, the annealing oven. 



PLATE V 





DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 39 

" Captain Roche lived to enjoy the fruits of his spirited exertions ; he 
died rich, and still more beloved and regretted ; he bequeathed legacies to 
every one of his customers, who, indeed, were mostly hawkers, for the 
poverty of the country threw this branch into the hands of itinerant traders. 
A considerable share of his fortune devolved to his brother-in-law, who, 
endeavouring to fulfil the trust imposed upon him by securing a perpetuity 
of relief for poor widows, imprudently purchased long and valuable leases 
in trust, but being a Papist, the severity of the Penal laws transferred to a 
Protestant discoverer what was intended for the relief of indigent and 
helpless old age. Mr Fitzsimons succeeded to the business which he carried 
on with reputation ; to his son it devolved, but proving injurious to his 
health, it declined in his hands, and at length he discontinued to work and 
became simply an importer of English glass." 

From this account it would appear that Roche did not set up his glass 
works until some time after 1690. He presumably left Ireland with James II, 
and, it is stated, spent some years on the Continent. In the Parish Registers 
of St. Michan's Church, Dublin, however, there are several entries from 
the year 1677 relating to glass makers. It is evident, therefore, that there 
must have been a glass-house in the vicinity before Roche established the 
manufacture. 

The statement, in the Dublin Chronicle, that the glass-house fell down 
is corroborated by an entry in the St. Michan's registers, for in March, 1697, 
there is a record of the burial of the following seven persons who were either 
burnt to death or killed by the fall of the glass-house : William Loecraft, 
Daniel Smith, Charles Wheaton, Bartholomew Rivers, John Robinson, 
William Leasy, and Lawrence Hughes. 

The names of several other glass makers also occur in the church 
registers down to about the year 1735. 

Captain Philip Roche appears to have had as partners the brothers 
Richard and Christopher Fitzsimons. 

In his will Richard Fitzsimons, who died in 1711, bequeaths to the 
children of his late brother Christopher his one-third part in the glass- 
house and stock which he bought from said Christopher. Captain Philip 
Roche, who lived at Finglas, near Dublin, died in December, 1713, and by 
his will left 5 to those who cry about glasses, and travel into the country 
to sell glass ; 20 to the widow Fitzsimons' son who lives at the glass-house ; 



4 o IRISH GLASS 



PLATE VI 

i. Portrait of George Gatchell, proprietor of the Waterford Glass Works 
1835 to 1851. 



2- Belfast Glass-House. View of Edwards' Glass-House, Ballymacarrett, 
Belfast. From a newspaper advertisement. 



Waterford Billhead. Billhead used in the Waterford Glass Works 
183010 1835. 



PLATE 










-.i Sc -p' 



DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 41 

to Philip Hudson at the glass-house, and to Mrs. Fitzsimons for the use 
of her children the first hundred pounds coming to him out of the glass- 
house. 

The Fitzsimons family seem to have carried on the glass works after 
Roche's death, and in the year 1755 a Christopher Fitzsimons petitioned 
Parliament for aid to carry on the manufacture of flint glass in Dublin, 
Christopher Fitzsimons' name appears in Dublin directories from about 
1760 to 1779 as that of a glass merchant at No. i George's Hill. 

The manufacture of glass was carried on in Mary's Lane until probably 
about 1760, but, after this, Fitzsimons appears to have sold only imported 
glass. 

It is said that the proprietor became bankrupt in 1785, and that in 1787 
the site was sold and the glass-house pulled down. 

By an Act of Parliament of 1783-4 (23 and 24 George III, c. 31) it was 
made lawful for the wide street Commissioners to pay as a compensation 
to the proprietors of the glass-house in Mary's Lane any sum not exceeding 
four hundred pounds, in case said glass-house shall be pulled down by 
their orders. 

Roche's glass-house appears to have been situated on the piece of 
ground bordering on Mary's Lane, between George's Hill and Bradogue 
Lane (now Halston Street). It is marked on maps of Dublin of 1756, 1773, 
and 1787, but no mention of it occurs in Dublin directories of these 
dates. 

There are numerous advertisements of this glass-house in old Dublin 
newspapers from about 1713 to 1759, and as several of them give lists of the 
various articles made, they are worth recording. 

Lloyd's News Letter, October and November, 1713 : 

" At the Round Glass House in St Mary's Lane, Dublin, (the fire being 
now in) is made and sold the newest fashion drinking glasses and all other 
sorts of flint glasses as good as any made in England at very reasonable 
rates." 

Faulkner's Dublin Journal, November, 1729 : 

" At the Round Glass House in St Mary's Lane, Dublin, the fire being in, 
are made and sold all sorts of fine flint drinking glasses, salvers, baskets with 
handles and feet for desserts, fine salts ground and polished, all sorts of 
decanters, lamps etc. and for encouragement to dealers 'tis proposed to sell 



42 IRISH GLASS 

them much cheaper than they can import them from England or elsewhere. 
N.B. The warehouse is now kept on George's Hill." 

Faulkner's Dublin Journal, December, 1743 : 

" All sorts of fine double flint drinking glasses are made and making at the 
Round Glasshouse in Mary's Lane, and sold at nine pence per Ib. that 
exceed eight ounces." 

Faulkner's Dublin Journal, January, 1746 : 

" This is to give notice, at the Round Glass house in St Mary's Lane, 
Dublin, the fire being now out, after working a considerable time, and the 
warehouse being full of all sorts of the newest patterns of drinking glasses, 
decanters etc., fine large globe lamps for halls for one to four candles, bells 
and shades, mounted of the newest fashion with brass, all kinds of specia 
glasses for apothecaries, several sizes of jars for confections, with salvers, 
baskets, sweetmeat and jelly glasses etc., As it is the only art or work of its 
kind in this Kingdom carried on, great encouragement is given to all city 
and country shopkeepers, dealers in glass etc., N.B. All the double flint 
wine glasses, decanters, water glasses and saucers at seven pence per Ib. 
weight, the single flint at two shillings and four pence, fourteen to the dozen, 
dram and whiskey glasses at one shilling and six pence, fourteen glasses to 
the dozen. In exchange will be allowed for double flint broken glass two 
pence halfpenny per Ib., and for single one penny halfpenny per Ib., At 
the same place is a great quantity of saltpetre to be sold by the bag or ton." 

Faulkner's Dublin Journal, December, 1746 : 

; ' At the Round Glass House in St Mary's Lane are making all sorts of the 
newest fashion drinking glasses, water bottles, decanters, jugs, water glasses 
with saucers plain and moulded, all sorts of jelly glasses, sillybub glasses, 
sweetmeat glasses for desserts, salvers, orange glasses, covers for torts, bells 
and shades, hall lanthorns for one to four candles, barrel lanthorns, globe 
lamps, etc., all mounted with brass after the newest fashions from London. 
All sorts of apothecaries' bottles, specia glasses of all sizes, rounds, urinals, 
breast and sucking bottles, cupping glasses, funnels etc. All sorts of tubes, 
globes etc. for electrical experiments, weather glasses, receivers for air 
pumps, and all sorts of philosophical instruments. As it is the only art and 
work of its kind carried on in this kingdom the proprietor hopes to meet 
with the encouragement such an undertaking deserves. N.B. The under- 
takers of the said work are making the necessary dispositions for carrying 



DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 43 

on likewise the making of black bottles, melon glasses, gardevines etc., for 
the use of chemists etc." 

Faulkner's Dublin Journal, January, 1752 : 

" At the Round Glass House on George's Hill, near Mary's Lane, Dublin, 
are made and making all sorts of the newest fashioned drinking glasses, 
water bottles, claret and Burgundy ditto, decanters, jugs, water glasses with 
and without feet and saucers, plain, ribbed, and diamond moulded jelly 
glasses of all sorts and sizes, sillybub glasses, comfit and sweetmeat glasses 
for desserts, salvers, glass plates for china dishes, toort covers, pine and 
orange glasses, bells and shades, hall lanthorns for one to four candles, 
glass branches, cut and plain barrel lanthorns, globe lamps, etc. all in the 
most elegant and newest fashioned mounting now used in London, chamber 
ditto ; all sorts of apothecaries' bottles, spaecia glasses of all sizes, rounds, 
urinals, breast and sucking bottles, cupping glasses, funnels etc. All sorts 
of tubes, globes etc. for electrical experiments, weather glasses, receivers for 
air pumps, and all sorts of philosophical experiments. All sorts of cut and 
flowered glasses may be had of any kind to any pattern, viz : wine glasses 
with a vine border toasts or any flourish whatsoever ; beer ditto with the 
same, salts with and without feet, sweetmeat glasses and stands, cruits for 
silver and other frames all in squares and diamond cut, gardevins, tea 
cannisters, jars and bakers for mock china, mustard pots, crests and coats of 
arms, sweetmeat bowls and covers etc. N.B. As no pains or expense have 
been spared by the proprietor to procure the best workmen and newest 
patterns from London, he hereby hopes (that as his is the only manufacture 
of glass in the Kingdom, and that he is determined by his own personal 
inspection and application to support it in the highest perfection) to deserve 
the encouragement and approbation of all who shall honour him with their 
commands, and further promises them the greatest satisfaction in regard to 
colour and workmanship, beside the advantage of purchasing the above 
goods at much cheaper rates from him than those imported from England 
or elsewhere can be sold. Constant attendance will be given from eight 
o'clock in the morning until 9 o'clock at night at the glass warehouse on 
George's Hill." 

About the year 1725 John Pratt, deputy Vice-Treasurer of Ireland, is 
said to have set up a bottle glass works, probably in Dublin. Practically 
nothing is known of the glass-house, and from a notice in The Toast, pub- 



44 



IRISH GLASS 



PLATE VII 

Three objects of bubbly green glass, made by glass blowers after the 
factories ceased work. About 1850-60. The two decanters Belfast, 
and the tumbler Waterford. Author's Collection. 



1. Cork Glass-House . Chimney of Hanover Street Glass-House, Cork. 

Erected 1782. Pulled down 1915. 

2. Ballycastle Glass-House. Chimney of Ballycastle Glass-House. Erected 

1755. Pulled down 1877 or 1878. 



PLATE VII 






DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 45 

lished in 1747, it seems evident that very little was done in the way of glass- 
making. The notice in The Toast states that " all the instruments used by 
his workmen, such as bars, paddles, rakes, procars, ladles, strocals, forks, 
sleepers, fenets, faucets, pipes, pontee stakes, shears, scissors, crannies, 
towers etc. were excellently made, having been forged by himself, or made 
under his inspection, but that his pots or pans in which the manufacture 
was contained were wrought with such bad clay that they would not resist 
the fire, and cracked after the first or second trial." 

About the year 1730 a glass-house for making bottles and window glass 
was erected on the Bachelor's Quay, and the manufacture appears to have 
been carried on by some of the original partners until about 1741. In 
March, 1741, the following advertisement appeared in Faulkner's Dublin 
Journal : 

" This is to give notice that the surviving partners and the representa- 
tives of the partners deceased of the Glass house on the Bachelor's Quay 
Dublin, will sell the said Glass house, which was built, and is very convenient 
for, either bottle or window glass work, and is thoroughly vaulted, together 
with all the materials and utensils thereunto belonging. Applications may 
be made to William Maple Esqre, at Parliament House, Dublin, to the Revd. 
Mr Richard Stewart at Belfast, or to Mr Edward Shanley at his house in 
Chancery Lane, Dublin. N.B. There are one hundred pots well made 
and fit for immediate use." 

It is uncertain if the manufacture ceased at this period, but in the year 
1747 the interest in the ground on Bachelor's Quay, and also the glass-house 
erected on portion of the ground was advertised for sale. The glass-house 
was stated to be then untenanted. Perhaps this glass-house was taken by 
John Bradshaw, Edward Ford, and Edward Shanley, for in November, 1747, 
they petitioned Parliament for aid to carry on the glass manufacture, and 
stated that they had lately set up a bottle glass-house in Dublin. 

In August, 1752, the following advertisement appeared in the Dublin 
Journal : 

' To be let for a long term of years a large lot of ground at the lower 
end of Abbey Street, with two fronts, one on the Bachelor's Walk and the 
other on Abbey Street, together with a bottle glass house, warehouse, vaults 
etc. Said glass house is allowed by the most experienced persons in the 
profession to be at least as large and commodious, and as well situated for 



46 IRISH GLASS 

the business of bottle making as any in England. Apply to Alderman 
Hans Bailie, or to Mr Hugh Darley, in Abbey Street." 

Early in 1754 William Deane and Co. purchased the glass-house from 
Alderman Bailie for 1200, and carried on the bottle-making industry, the 
concern being known as the Square Glass House. William Deane was a 
solicitor and officer in the Court of Chancery, and, consequently, like most 
of the other Irishmen who established glass works in Ireland, probably knew 
nothing about the actual manufacture of glass. 

About the year 1753, a company, consisting of Hugh White, Annesley 
Stewart, Thomas Hawkshaw, and George Boyd, was formed for the pur- 
pose of carrying on the manufacture of glass bottles. A glass-house, known 
as the Round Glass House, was erected in Abbey Street, near the Ship 
Buildings, and bottle-making was started in August, 1754. In July, 1754, 
it is stated in the Dublin Journal that Mr. William Gordon had just brought 
over from England a complete set of as good workmen as any in the country, 
for the new glass-house at the Ship Buildings. 

The firms of Deane and Co. and Hawkshaw and Co. were amalgamated 
in August, 1757, and the combined glass-houses carried on the manufacture 
of bottles. In 1755 both Deane and Hawkshaw petitioned Parliament for 
aid to carry on the glass manufacture, and in 1756 the former received 2000 
and the latter 1500. In 1767 the combined firms obtained from Parliament, 
through the Dublin Society, 150 for window glass valued at 2000, and in 
1769 200 for window glass and bottles valued at nearly 10,000. 

When Deane started the bottle-making industry in 1754 some of his 
initial expenses were stated, including 800 for Stourbridge clay, 30 for 
Irish clay, 15 for colouring, 10 for sand and 410 to fifty-four persons- 
from abroad to settle and carry on the manufacture. 

In 1758 Deane and Hawkshaw, besides the ordinary bottles, advertise 
that gentlemen and gardeners may now be supplied with large glass bells 
for gardens, as now used in London, also glass vessels for all kinds of 
picklings and sweetmeats, and also particular kinds of bottles for preserving 
orange and lemon juice ; gardevins, rounds for apothecaries, and any green 
or bottle glass ware desired, cheaper than imported. In 1761 it is stated in 
The Dublin Journal that " the manufacture of glass bottles at the Round 
Glass house at the lower end of Abbey Street opposite the Ship Buildings 
is arrived to such a degree of perfection that not a single bottle has been 



DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 47 

imported by any merchant in this kingdom for several months past, either 
from Bristol, Liverpool, or any other part of England. The proprietors 
have now brought it to such great perfection that they can afford to and do 
sell their bottles for eighteen shillings per gross, being six shillings cheaper 
than formerly imported from England." 

In May, 1767, it is stated in the Dublin Journal that at the round bottle 
houses at the lower end of Abbey Street there is now ready a large quantity 
of very good crown window glass, melon and cucumber glass bells, chemical 
glasses and pickle jars ; also bended window glass at reasonable rates. 

Deane's name appears as that of a glass manufacturer in Lower Abbey 
Street in Dublin directories until his death in 1793. In 1785 William 
Mossop, the well-known Dublin medallist, struck a fine portrait medal 
of William Deane, the original steel die for which is in the author's 
possession. 

In i784 r Deane's name appears in the Irish House of Commons Journal 
among those protesting against the pulling down of the glass-houses in the 
city of Dublin. By an Act of Parliament of 1783-4, entitled " An act to 
prevent the pernicious practise of erecting glass houses within the city of 
Dublin, or a certain distance thereof," it was provided that no glass-house 
be erected contiguous to the North Wall nearer than eight hundred yards 
from the off side of the circular road, nor nearer than Ringsend on the 
south side of the Liffey, nor nearer to the circular road than three-quarters 
of a mile in any other part round said city. No chimney of a glass-house 
to be under fifty feet, and any glass-house erected within these limits can 
be pulled down and no compensation given. 

Probably in the year 1734 a glass-house was established in Fleet Street, 
Dublin, nearly opposite Price's Lane. In an advertisement in the Dublin 
Journal of October, 1734, it is stated that " At the new Glass house in 
Fleet Street, Dublin, the fire being now lighted, there is made, all sorts of 
fine drinking glasses, salvers, decanters, branches of several sorts, etc., 
where gentlemen and ladies may be furnished with all sorts, likewise city 
and country merchants. N.B. Any persons that have broken glass may 
have money or glasses in exchange according to value." 

Another advertisement of December, 1737, states that, " At the Glass 
house in Fleet Street are made glasses of all sorts for beauty of metal and 
workmanship equal to those made in London, also globes for lamps, phials, 



48 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE VIII 

Front and back view of Waterford glass scent bottle, made for Susannah 
Gatchell about 1 790 . Of good white glass . The property of Mr . Samuel 
H. Wright, grandson of Susannah Gatchell. 



Three scent bottles. Waterford. The one to the right late 1 8th century, and 
the other two probably about 1820 or 1830. National Museum, Dublin. 



PLATE VIII 





DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 49 

glasses for confectioners, green glass phials for apothecaries, green glasses 
for chemists, gardeners, etc. and pint bottles or any other sizes as bespoke." 

In the Dublin Evening Post of February, 1735, the following advertise- 
ment relative to the engraving of glass is to be found : 

' Whereas several gentlemen and ladies whose curiosity led them to 
have their arms, crests, words, letters or figures carved on their glass ware, 
and as several have had cause to complain of the extravagant prices, these 
are therefore to advertise the public that Joseph Martin living in Fleet 
Street, Dublin, opposite the Golden Ball, is the only person that was em- 
ployed by the managers of the glass house in Fleet Street in carving said 
wares, and that there is no other person in the kingdom that does profess 
to do the like work. He therefore having broken off with the said gentlemen 
does propose to deal more candidly with those as are pleased to employ him 
by working at such moderate rates as none hereafter may have reason to 
complain." 

In 1741 the proprietors appear to have had some trouble with the glass- 
house fire, as in an advertisement they state that at the glass-house in 
Fleet Street they have now imported the greatest quantity of glass of all 
sorts from London, and will sell at the old prices to accommodate their 
customers until they can light the fire. They also say they sell green vials, 
bells for gardeners, and superfine crown glass for glaziers. Again in 1751 
and 1752 the proprietors advertise that they are still importing English 
glass, including all sorts of wine glasses, champagne and beer glasses cut 
with any pattern or foliage, green bells for gardens, vials, and funnels for 
apothecaries. There is no mention in these notices of the years 1741, 1751, 
and 1752 of any glass having been made at this glass-house, and in an 
advertisement of the year 1756 headed " Glass Ware house, Fleet Street " 
a Hugh Henry states that he has purchased all the stock-in-trade at the said 
house and has laid in a large quantity of the best glasses of all kinds. The 
highest price would be given for broken glass, and all who are indebted to 
said glass-house are requested to pay their debts to Ephraim Thwaits, 
attorney, Big Ship Street. 

As no mention is made of glass-making after the year 1741, it seems 
probable that no glass was made in the Fleet Street house after that date. 
No glass-house is marked in Fleet Street on Rocque's map of Dublin dated 
I756- 



50 IRISH GLASS 

In January, 1746, in the advertisement of the Mary's Lane glass-house, 
it was stated that this glass works was the only one of its kind in the king- 
dom, consequently the Fleet Street one must have ceased work before that 
date. 

The next glass-house in Dublin was one erected in 1747 on the North 
Wall, for making bottles. It was situated a little below the present Custom 
House, the site being known as the Foot Lots Nos. i, 2, and 3. According 
to Exshaw's Magazine for 1748 bottles were first blown at this glass works 
on April 7th, 1748. From the first this glass-house appears to have been 
attended by ill-luck, for on September 8th, 1747, the wall was thrown down 
by floods, and on July i7th, 1748, the glass-house was burnt down. By 
September, however, it was repaired and the fire again lighted. 

The following notice referring to the fire is to be found in the Dublin 
Courant for July i6th to iQth, 1748 : 

" Sunday, about 10 o'clock at night, a fire broke out in one of the 
funnels at the glass house lately erected on the North Strand, which con- 
sumed the roof and all the materials ; and as the undertaking of making glass 
bottles in this kingdom must tend greatly to the advantage of it, so does 
the unhappy accident add more to the loss of the Public, as it does in a 
particular manner to the proprietors, whose spirit in carrying on so useful 
a trade makes their misfortune the more to be regretted." 

The manufacture was carried on probably until about 1754, but in that 
year the following notice appears in the Dublin Journal : 

" To be sold the three Lots, part of the Lots called Foot Lots, Nos. i, 
2, and 3, bounded on the south by the North Wall, on the East by Foot Lot 
No. 4, on the North by Mayor Street and on the West by the city ground, 
on which are built a glass house with -dwelling house and offices, let on a 
term of ninety nine years from March 25th, 1747." 

The Lots do not seem to have been sold, as again in 1760 they were 
advertised for sale, but whether or not the glass-house was working at this 
period is uncertain. Probably some years before 1768 the manufacture 
definitely ceased, as in that year it is stated that Henry Roche, stone cutter, 
took the large and commodious premises where the glass bottle manufactory 
formerly was, at the first house on the North Wall. A glass-house is marked 
on this site in maps of Dublin dated 1773 and 1787, but no other mention 
of it occurs. 



DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 51 

There are two notices in the year 1748 of a glass-house on the North 
Strand ; one in September states that the roof of the new glass-house on 
the North Strand was torn off by a hurricane, and the other in November 
that a gentleman left some clay with Mr. Minty at the glass-house on the 
North Strand to make trial of. No other record of a glass-house on the 
North Strand appears to be known. The notices refer probably to the 
bottle glass-house on the North Wall. 

About the year 1749 another glass-house was established by Rupert 
Barber at the lower end of Lazar's Hill. Rupert Barber was a Dublin artist 
who flourished from about 1736 to about 1772. He practised as a miniature 
painter and also worked in oils. 

The following notice appears in the Dublin Journal for June Qth, 1750 : 

" The Public are requested to take notice that the fire being now in at 
the new glass house at the lower end of Lazar's Hill, where they may be 
supplied with the following goods : wide-mouthed quart or pint Goose- 
berry bottles suitable for pickles etc., gardevins of any size ; pint, quart, 
pottle or gallon rounds for druggists, distillers etc., round and square can- 
nister bottles for snuff or flower of mustard, small garden bell glasses ; 
taverns and public houses supplied with quart, pint and half pint decanters 
for wine, cider or ale. All the above goods of bright green glass, better of 
their kind cannot be." 

In the Proceedings oj the Dublin Society for June i4th, 1750, we find 
this minute : " Mr Rupert Barber having of late erected a small glass house 
for making vials and other green glass ware at the end of Lazar's Hill, and 
has had before the Society specimens of decanters, bottles, vials and many 
other sorts of green glass ware ; he being the first that has made that manu- 
facture in the kingdom which before was imported from abroad, ordered 
that twenty pounds be given to Rupert Barber." This factory appears to 
have been only a small one and did not last very long. It is not marked on 
Rocque's map of Dublin of 1756. 

In February, 1759, three Englishmen, Thomas Smith Jeudwin, John 
Landon, and Henry Lunn, appear to have taken over Deane's square glass- 
house in Abbey Street. Presumably Deane continued the bottle and window 
glass manufacture at the round glass-house previously mentioned. Jeudwin ,. 
Landon, and Lunn took this glass-house for the purpose of carrying on the 
manufacture of window glass, and in the year 1760 we find these notices 



52 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE IX 

Four decanters showing the bases with names in cameo letters. The letters 
have been slightly heightened with white for photographic purposes, 
but they are quite distinct on the pieces. Author's Collection. 



Examples of glass made at the Cork Exhibition of 1902 from Muckish 
Mountain sand. All of a good white metal. 



PLATE IX 




DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 53 

concerning this factory, in the Dublin Journal : " Irish crown window glass. 
Whereas the proprietors of the Square Glass House in Abbey Street have 
at much expense and trouble established and brought the art and manu- 
facture of window glass (which was before unknown in this kingdom) to 
great perfection, and have now a large quantity of all kinds of window glass 
made by them (as good as any imported) to dispose of." They also stated 
that persons from England were trying to spoil the Irish manufacture, and 
that they had obtained the premium of 50 from the Dublin Society. 

" At the crown glass manufactory in Abbey Street the proprietors 
have now a sufficient stock of crown glass by them to supply their customers, 
and as good as any imported, at the following prices best 3. 12. o per case, 
seconds 3 per case. The said company have erected a house for all kinds 
of flint glass phials and green glass, adjoining their other house. Henry 
Lunn for self and company." Jeudwin, Lunn and Co. petitioned the Irish 
Parliament in 1761 and 1765 for aid to carry on the glass manufacture, and 
stated that they were all Englishmen, natives of London, and undertook to 
carry on the manufacture of window glass in Ireland which they understood 
was not known there. In February, 1759, they came over to Ireland, and 
took concerns in Abbey Street, and on bringing artists from abroad and on 
materials had expended the sum of 12,000, and carried on the manufacture 
for three years ; they were obliged to drop it from that time owing to the 
employees doing damage to the glass-house pots. They also stated that 
they had set up a flint glass-house near their other one. 

In the evidence given before the Dublin Society in 1762 relative to the 
petition of 1761, Jeudwin stated that great loss was occasioned by the 
villainy of the workmen brought over from England, and that men were sent 
over from Newcastle-upon-Tyne to destroy the work, and that the glass- 
house pots were broken. That Irish clay was used for some purposes but 
not for the glass-house pots, these being all of Stourbridge clay. That they 
imported no kelp, but obtained it all from Galway, which was next best to 
that of the Orkneys, the best in the world. That they employed about sixty 
workmen, of whom about fifty were English ; and that they could manu- 
facture about 5000 worth of glass in the year. 

In March, 1768, Jeudwin and Lunn again petitioned the Irish Parlia- 
ment for aid, and stated that they were natives of London and commenced 
making glass in Dublin in August, 1759, and had built a house for making 



54 IRISH GLASS 

flint glass phials, retorts and chemical glass and also glass bottles ; that 
they had brought skilled artists from abroad and had spent money in search- 
ing for and providing necessaries of the produce of Ireland for the manu- 
facture ; that they had instructed Irish hands and trained Irish apprentices, 
but that the foreign artists refused to work with the Irish, which stopped 
the manufacture of window glass, and that some evil-minded persons had 
destroyed the pots and metal. That in the year 1764 Hugh Boyd of Bally- 
castle applied to them to take a lease of the Ballycastle glass-house at the 
rent of 1000 per annum. This they did, but on Boyd's death in June, 
1765, his acting executor, Jackson Wray, behaved very badly and threatened 
to imprison them for an alleged debt of over 1700. Owing to Wray's 
persecution, Lunn said he would have to give up the manufacture of flint 
glass. 

Lunn probably returned to Dublin some time after Boyd's death, as 
he obtained a premium from the Dublin Society for glass made between 
November ist, 1786, and May ist, 1787, valued at 969, and his name 
appears in Dublin directories as that of a glass manufacturer, 113 Abbey 
Street, until 1793. 

Jeudwin seems to have continued the connection with Ballycastle, for 
in 1766-7, together with John Macauly, he obtained a premium for bottles 
made at Ballycastle and valued- at 1930. No other mention is made of 
Jeudwin's lease of the Ballycastle bottle works, but in 1771 these works were 
advertised to be let, applications to be sent to Jackson Wray at Ballycastle 
or to John McAllister, Abbey Street, Dublin. 

About the year 1785 another glass-house was erected by Charles 
Mulvany and Co., probably near the North Strand. Mulvany's name 
appears as that of a glass merchant in Capel Street in Dublin directories 
from the year 1784, and in the Dublin Courant for March 22nd, 1788, he 
advertises that, " Glass lustres, girandoles, globe lanterns, hall and staircase 
bells, and patent lamps for passages, glasses, decanters, goblets, etc. for the 
sideboard, epergnes, bowls, fruit dishes, butter coolers, etc. for dinner and 
supper tables are to be had at Mulvany's wholesale and retail warehouse, 
56 Capel Street. He manufactures all the above goods from first process to 
finishing." 

Probably Mulvany had some connection with Lunn's glass-house in 
Abbey Street. Lunn's name appears in Dublin directories until 1793 as that 



DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 55 

of a glass manufacturer at 113 Abbey Street, and in 1794 Mulvany's name 
replaces Lunn's at the same address. 

In 1798 Mulvany states in the Dublin Journal that the warehouse in 
Capel Street is to be given up and removed to his glass-house in Abbey 
Street, where the wholesale and export business will be carried on, as it 
has been for the last five years. 

In 1 80 1 Mulvany and Co. advertise that they had adapted one of their 
furnaces for making window glass, and it is now at full work. They hope 
to establish this useful branch of business completely, as they have already 
the manufacture of white flint glass, which is confessedly the most extensive 
in Ireland. 

Mulvany at this period had a partner Charles Fisher, but the partner- 
ship was dissolved in 1810, and Charles Mulvany carried on the business 
alone. Fisher's name appears in Dublin directories from 1813 to 1829 in 
partnership with a man named Hornidge. as Hornidge and Fisher, glass 
manufacturers, 4 Lower Abbey Street. 

Mulvany is stated to have become bankrupt in 1818, but appears to have 
still carried on the manufacture. In the notice of his bankruptcy in April, 
1818, it was stated that there was to be sold his interest in several lots of 
ground situate on the North Strand ; the lots being known as the Acre Lots 
Nos. 85, 86, 87, 88, and 103, containing over thirteen acres, held for a term 
of 999 years from September, 1815. Upon these premises Mulvany had 
lately expended several thousands of pounds in erecting a most extensive 
glass-house and other buildings. About the year 1820 Mulvany appears 
to have built another glass-house at Ringsend, further down the river. In 
1828 this concern, stated to have been built but a few years since by Mulvany, 
was advertised to be let, and was said to have an eighty foot frontage to the 
street, and the same at the rear, bounded by the River Dodder, and a depth 
of two hundred feet, the ground being almost entirely covered with 
buildings. 

About 1831 Mulvany took as a partner Edward Simmons Irwin, and 
in a notice in the Dublin Evening Post of May 7th, 1833, Mulvany and Irwin 
state that they have removed their warehouse and counting house business 
from Lower Abbey Street to the manufactory, Potter's Alley, off Marl- 
borough Street, and that the premises in Lower Abbey Street were to be 
sold. It appears that at this period Mulvany transferred his glass-making 



56 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE X 

Drawings of decanter patterns used in the Waterford glass works about 1830. 
All the drawings formerly belonged to Samuel Miller, foreman cutter in 
the Waterford glass works. Note that almost all the decanters have per- 
pendicular sides, this pattern being in use from about 1830 to 1845. 



Drawings of decanter, tumbler, and celery glass patterns used in the 

Waterford glass works about 1830. 

The following explanation of the cutting of the tumblers to the right is 
given on the page of patterns : 

1. Large -pint tumbler 9 splits, round flutes between, turned out at 

top and bottom, 2 hollows over and under, i flat ring at top turned 
up, 2 bands of fine splits across the flutes, and new star at bottom, 
is. 6d. each. 

2. Large -pint do., 8 strong splits to centre of bottom, and with small 

points so as to form the new star shell flutes between f the way up. 

3. 10 strong hollow flutes round, and the new star at the bottom, the 

flutes to be f the way up. 

4. Large -pint. i flat ring turned up at top and 2 rings under, stuck 

flutes, 14 from that to bottom, and star 32 points. 

5. Do. Pillars half-way up and 2 rings over and star at bottom. 

6. 10 splits and flutes -between, turned out at top and bottom, hollows 

under, and the new \ star, cut to an inch of the top. 

7 . 14 flutes , not starred . 



PLATE X 








an 3 

y/rv 










f 



\ 
I 





rm LLU 1 km 



ojj. 




D 



DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 57 

business from Abbey Street to No. 3 Potter's Alley, where the Williams* 
had carried on the same kind of manufacture until 1829. 

The partnership of Mulvany and Irwin was dissolved July 2nd, 1835, 
and Edward S. Irwin took over the factory. Mulvany appears to have kept 
a glass warehouse in Marlborough Street for a short time, and then to have 
gone to a glass-house at St. Helens, Lancashire, owned by Mr. Bishop. 

E. S. Irwin and Charles Irwin continued the glass manufacture at 
Potter's Alley. E. S. Irwin died in January, 1846, and from then until 
about 1855 Charles Irwin carried it on alone. Charles Irwin seems to have 
had another glass-house at Fitzwilliam Street, Ringsend, known as the 
Tobacco Box Glass House, from about 1847. 

The Irwins' glass-house in Potter's Alley was afterwards taken over by 
the Pughs, who will be referred to later on. 

In 1755 a new glass-house was erected near Marlborough Green. A 
notice in Pue's Occurrences of October 28th, 1755, states that " the new 
bottle glass house which was building in Marlborough Street fell down." 

In 1764 a notice in the Dublin Journal states that " the glass house at 
Marlborough Green is now enlarged and the furnaces rebuilt in the com- 
pletest manner, where any quantity or kind of flint or green glass, cut, 
flowered or plain is now made, as bespoke, by James Donelly and Co., 
workmen from London." 

The Williams family (Richard, William, Thomas, and Isaac), who came 
from England, were connected with this glass-house and afterwards appear 
to have been the proprietors, as in June, 1764, Williams and Co., Marl- 
borough Green, obtained a premium from the Dublin Society for flint 
glass valued at 1600. 

The name of Richard Williams and Co. appears in Dublin directories 
from about 1772 until 1829 as tnat f glass makers in Marlborough Street 
and Potter's Alley. 

In September and October, 1770, the following advertisement appears 
in the Belfast News Letter and in the Limerick Chronicle : 

" At the glass house on Marlborough Bank opposite the South Wall of 
Marlborough Bowling Green, Dublin, are now making and made by Richard 
Williams and Co. all the newest fashioned enamelled, flowered, cut and plain 
wine, beer and cyder glasses, common wines and drams, rummers, decanters, 
water glasses and plates, epergnes and epergne saucers, cruets, casters, cans,. 



58 IRISH GLASS 

jugs, salvers, jellies, sweetmeat glasses, salts, salt linings, hall bells, globes, 
shades, white and green phials, mustard and perfume bottles, glasses for 
chemists, druggists and confectioners, or to fit any line or goldsmith's work 
etc., and all kinds of glass goods for any purpose, or of any shape or fashion 
equal to any imported in quality of metal and workmanship. Also window 
glass in cribs, or cut in squares, for windows, hot houses, frames or pictures. 
This glass house has no connection with the glass warehouse of Mr Lunn 
at the corner of Marlborough Street and Abbey Street." 

In the Dublin Journal of May gth, 1771, Richard Williams and Co. 
advertise drinking glasses of the newest fashion and equal to any imported, 
and all other glass goods, common, plain, enamelled, flowered or cut, also 
green glass goods for any use and crown or window glass equal to London 
or Bristol. 

About 1773 Richard Williams and Co. opened what they termed the 
Irish Flint Glass and Paris or Queen's Ware Warehouse at 15 Lower Ormond 
Quay, and in October, 1774, advertised the following goods for sale which 
they stated were equal to any imported : glass lustres, girandoles, chandeliers, 
candlesticks and candlemolds, pyramids, salvers, bowls, decanters, water 
glasses, drinking glasses and smelling bottles, and every other article that 
can be made of flint glass, cut, engraved, and plain ; also dishes, plates, 
tureens, flower pots, etc., of Queen's Ware. He also says that this 
undertaking will be a great saving to the nation, as much money is 
spent on imported goods, and that he has been at great expense in 
bringing the manufacture of glass to as great perfection as carried on 
abroad. 

In 1777 and 1781 they advertise lustres, chandeliers, epergnes, hall and 
staircase bells, and an elegant assortment of cut, engraved, and plain glass, 
ornamental and useful of every denomination ; also plate glass for looking 
glasses, coaches, and windows, all of their own manufacture. 

Richard Williams appears to have built a new glass-house in Marl- 
borrough Street in 1777. Two slightly different notices of this glass-house 
appear in Dublin newspapers of December, 1777. In the Dublin Journal it 
is stated that, " when taking down the scaffolding of a new glass house in 
Martin's Lane a great part fell in and killed eight men and buried several 
others." In the Hibernian Journal we find, " The new glass house built by 
Mr Williams in Marlborough Street, lower end of Abbey Street, near the 



DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 59 

Dry Dock, fell to the ground when the scaffolding was taken away and eight 
men were buried and four killed." 

These two notices refer probably to the same glass-house. 

In February, 1785, William and Richard Williams petitioned Parlia- 
ment against the proposal to pull down the glass-houses in Dublin and to 
erect them outside the city, and stated that they had carried on the glass 
manufacture in the one place for nearly thirty years and employed about 
seventy persons. 

In the year 1768 Isaac Williams appears as a petitioner before the 
Dublin Society for aid to carry on the flint glass manufacture. This Isaac 
Williams was one of the partners with Richard Williams, and in 1773 William 
Williams, also another partner, advertised that garden glasses of all sizes, 
window glass in cribs or cut in squares, pickling jars of all sizes, gardevins 
and any article and of any colour that is made of glass were made at the 
manufactory at the lower end of Abbey Street. 

Richard Williams and Co. are stated to have made bottle, flint, plate, 
and window glass, and they obtained several premiums from the Dublin 
Society for flint and plate glass. 

In 1784 Messrs. Williams received a premium for glass valued at 9000 ; 
in 1786-7 William Williams received one for glass valued at 2897 ; in 
1787-8 Richard Williams one for flint glass valued at 5426 and plate glass 
valued at 446 ; in 1788-9 Richard Williams one for plate glass valued at 
jiooo ; and in 1793 and 1794 for flint glass valued at 7251 and 3571 
respectively. 

William Williams died in 1788, and in the announcement of his death 
it was stated that he was the first person who brought to perfection in 
Dublin the manufacture of white flint and plate glass. 

The Williams family appear to have carried on the glass manufacture 
until about the first quarter of the nineteenth century. In June, 1827, tne 
death is recorded of Thomas Williams, " proprietor of the glass manufactory 
Marlborough Street," and in the same month also that of Richard 
Williams. 

It is somewhat difficult to locate exactly the sites of the various glass- 
houses mentioned as being in the lower end of Abbey Street, Marlborough 
Street, the Strand, and Potter's Alley. All these streets are quite close to 
one another, but the only glass-houses in this vicinity marked on the maps 



60 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XI 

Decanter, sugar bowl, and dish patterns used in the Waterford glass works- 
about 1830. 



Decanter patterns used in the Waterford glass works about 1830. 



PLATE XI 










DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 61 

of Dublin are placed to the south side of Marlborough Green and between 
it and the Strand. 

A notice in the Dublin Journal for September 23rd, 1783, mentioning 
the looking-glass manufacture, states that " an artist from England intends 
settling in Dublin for making plate looking-glass after the French method, 
(that is, by rolling the metal while hot with a brass cylinder, by which sheets 
of any size can be made), as all the materials are on the spot, and it will effect 
a great national saving." 

Some little time before 1785 an iron foundry was established by Messrs. 
Carrothers and Wilson at Ballybough Bridge, but in the year 1786 it was 
advertised for sale, and it was stated that the foundry was removed to 
Thomas Street. In the Dublin Journal for September 28th we find this 
advertisement : " The concerns at Ballybough Bridge lately in the posses- 
sion of Mr Carrothers are taken by a company for the purpose of carrying 
on the flint glass manufacture. From the ability and patriotic spirit of a 
gentleman and the industry and talent of another there is every reason to 
expect success." 

The proprietors of this glass-house were Thomas Chebsey and John 
Chebsey and other partners. 

In the Dublin Chronicle of October 4th, 1787, an advertisement states 
that " at the white flint glass house near Ballybough Bridge that manu- 
facture is successfully carried on by an opulent company. Plate glass for 
coaches etc. is also made and polished near the North Strand. Another 
glass house is erecting on a very extensive scale near the North Wall." 

In the Dublin Journal for September i3th, 1788, we find this notice: 
' Last week the Custom House announced a record considerable exporta- 
tion of flint glass to Cadiz by Chebsey and Co., proprietors of the new works 
on the North Wall near Ballybough Bridge." 

In 1787 Chebsey and Co. opened a warehouse at 62^ Jervis Street, 
near Strand Street, " where they kept an extensive assortment of flint glass 
made at the new works ' Venice ' on the North Wall near Ballybough 
Bridge, which for excellence of workmanship and elegance of metal is at least 
equal to any imported. They confine themselves to the wholesale trade." 

In 1788 Chebsey's glass-houses were visited by the Lord Lieutenant 
and the Marchioness of Rockingham, accompanied by a number of the 
nobility, for the purpose of ordering a set of magnificent lustres for St. 



62 IRISH GLASS 

Patrick's Hall and the new rooms at the Castle. In 1790 a large quantity 
of plain and cut flint glass from Chebsey's glass works was advertised for 
sale in Kilkenny. 

Chebsey and Co. obtained premiums from the Dublin Society from 
1787. The value of the glass made in 1787 was 1996 ; in 1788, 4000 ; 
in 1789, 6000 ; in 1790, 6680 ; in 1791, 7000 ; in 1792, 6400 ; and 

in 1793, 5773- 

Thomas Chebsey died in 1798, and in the Hibernian Journal for October 

the 24th, 1798, it is stated that " the partnership of the late firm of Thomas 
Chebsey and Co. being dissolved by the death of Mr Chebsey, the surviving 
partners and Mr John Chebsey will dispose of the stock-in-trade, the ware- 
house at 62^ Jervis Street, and the concerns at Ballybough Bridge. A large 
amount of every article in the flint glass trade, and a great quantity of green 
and flint phials, round and tincture bottles for apothecaries, etc. The 
concerns at Ballybough Bridge, on which are erected two glass houses with 
the necessary appendages and a convenient dwelling house, contain about 
two acres, having two fronts of considerable length, one to Annesley Bridge 
and the other to the North Strand." 

This glass-house does not appear to have continued working after 
1798, but the warehouse in Jervis Street was kept on for a couple of years. 

John Chebsey apparently was connected, about the year 1800, with the 
glass-house in Newry, formerly belonging to Samuel Hanna. The name 
of Peter Chebsey appears in a Dublin Directory for 1822 as proprietor of 
the Cork Glass Warehouse, 25 and 28 Lower Sackville Street. 

Early in the nineteenth century vitriol works were erected on the site 
of Chebsey's glass works. 

In August, 1787, a notice appears in the Dublin Journal stating that 
' the demand for crown glass for the French market has encouraged a 
wealthy company from England to erect a glass house at the foot of Rings- 
end Bridge." 

No other mention of this glass-house appears to be forthcoming until 
in the Dublin Evening Post for March ist, 1798, we find the following adver- 
tisement : ' ' The public are informed that window glass of a large size and 
good colour is now ready for sale at the Ringsend crown glass factory. It is 
hoped that an impartial trial will be given to this infant manufactory, and it. 
is presumed that it will be found, if not superior, at least equal, to the 



DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 63 

majority of the glass imported into this city. Any commands for the glass- 
house received at John Raper's window glass warehouse, 21 Lower Exchange 
Street." 

This John Raper is mentioned in 1789 as selling London and Bristol 
crown glass, and also Dumbarton and Belfast glass. 

No other reference to this glass-house at Ringsend has been found, but 
it may have been taken over by some of those who had glass works there 
during the first half of the nineteenth century. 

According to the Dublin Journal the glass manufacture in Ireland was 
not in a very flourishing condition in the year 1788, for in April of that year 
this reference is found : 

' We lament the slow progress of the glass manufacture in Ireland, 
especially when every material of that great art is to be found in abundance 
in every part of the kingdom bordering on the sea. There is some increase 
especially in bottle and window glass, 12,000 feet of window glass having 
been exported from Dublin this month." 

The name of J. D. Ayckboum appears in Dublin directories from 
about 1783 to 1820 as proprietor of a glass warehouse in Grafton Street, 
Dublin. He was originally a London cut-glass manufacturer who came over 
to Ireland, and seems to have sold cut glass in different towns in the country, 
being mentioned as selling it in Limerick in 1774. 

About 1799 he apparently established a glass works in Dublin, for in 
the Dublin Evening Post of January 4th we find this advertisement : " New 
Venice glass and chrystal manufacture. J. D. Ayckboum and Co. are now 
ready to take orders for town, country and export in the different branches 
of that extensive business. Their warehouse 15 Grafton Street will be 
constantly supplied with the greatest variety of lustres and table and drinking 
glasses. Blackrock Road near the canal." Ayckboum did not continue the 
manufacture very long, for in the Dublin Gazette for March 4th to 6th, 1802, 
it is stated that " The partnership under the firm of John D. Ayckboum and 
Co. is by mutual consent dissolved from this date, and the business will in 
future be conducted by the firm of John Lynn Rogers and Co., New Venice 
Glass House, Canal Bridge, Baggot Street, Dublin. March 5th, 1802." 

The firm of John Lynn Rogers and Co., Glass Manufacturers, Lower 
Baggot Street, appears in Dublin directories until 1808. 

Ayckboum and Co. appear to have kept on the warehouse in Grafton 



64 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XII 

Decanter, wine glass, and sugar bowl or butter cooler patterns used in the 

Waterford glass works about 1830. 

Referring to the wine glasses the following notes are given on the back 
of the page : 

1. 5 arches round, new star between, 24 points. 135. Starred bottoms 

only. 

2. Sloping splits, i ring, diamond border, 3 rings, stuck flutes. 2S. nd. 

3. 3 rings, stuck flutes. 

4. Broad and narrow shell flutes, 4 of each, cut shanks and stands. 53. 

6 unequal flutes, do. 55. 5 large and 5 small do. only, 2S. 2d. 

7. Stuck in flutes, is. 

8. Feather flutes, is. 

26. Hollow flutes, 3 rings and split border. 2S. id. 

27. Hollow flutes, 3 rings and 5 rows of diamonds. 33. 2d. 

28. Hollow flutes, i ring, 5 rows x diamonds and i pillar ring, cut bottom 

and star. 6s. 

29. 2 rings and split border, is. 2d. 

30. 2 rings and blazes, is. 4d. 

31. Hollow flutes, 2 rings and blazes. 



Decanter and dessert plate patterns used in the Waterford glass works 
about 1830. To the right of the jar at the top is written " 16 flutes 
at bottom, band of check d diamonds round boddy, 2 stars, 2 rows of 
strawberry diamonds & 3 rings." 



PLATE XI 




f*1' 



w 



r 

or 




- Kvyw" ; . / 



^H 

3S5 







IH 




iANf 

^14^ 

! { S I 

iJil 

m 





DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 65 

Street, and to have had a partner named Murphy. This partnership was 
dissolved in 1817, and M. Ayckboum and Co. carried on the business until 
about 1820. 

The name of James Donovan is to be found in Dublin directories from 
about 1770 as a glass and china merchant on George's Quay and in Poolbeg 
Street, and from 1818 to 1829 J ames Donovan, junior, had a glass-house in 
Richard Street, Ringsend. The name Donovan, impressed and painted, is 
often found on pieces of various kinds of pottery. This pottery he had 
made in Staffordshire, but some of the decorations may have been fired in 
the glass-house at Ringsend. I possess a plate, on the back of which is 
painted " Donovan, Irish manufacture," but this probably refers to the 
decoration only, which consists of a wreath of green leaves rather poorly 
fired. In the Proceedings of the Dublin Society for June 2nd, 1814, it is 
recorded that a letter was received from Mr. Donovan accompanying three 
specimens, to show the progress made by him in enamelling on china, and 
expressing thanks for the attention shown to some of his apprentices. 

About the year 1852 or 1853 the brothers Thomas and John Pugh 
established a glass works at 13 Lower Liffey Street, Dublin. The father of 
these Pughs originally came over from Stourbridge and worked in Foley's 
Waterloo Glassworks in Cork. 

Thomas and John Pugh had as partners in Liffey Street George Collins 
from Cork, and Joseph Marsh from Bristol, all of them having been formerly 
employees of the Irwins of Potter's Alley, previously mentioned. Marsh 
died about 1860, and John Pugh shortly afterwards, and in 1863 Thomas 
Pugh and his son Richard, who was first employed by the Irwins in 1849, 
left Liffey Street, and with a Mr. Leech, who had a glass shop in Dame 
Street, took over the concerns in Potter's Alley. These concerns had been 
closed since the Irwins retired from business about 1855. George Collins 
carried on the glass-house in Liffey Street until about 1865, when the factory 
was closed. 

Thomas and Richard Pugh continued the manufacture of glass at 
Potter's Alley, and after Thomas Pugh's death it was carried on by Richard 
Pugh until about 1895, when the manufacture of flint glass in Ireland ceased. 

The Pughs, both in Liffey Street and in Potter's Alley, manufactured 
large quantities of fine flint glass, both plain, cut, and engraved, and for the 
latter work they employed four German glass engravers. 



66 IRISH GLASS 

Besides the white flint glass they made large quantities of coloured 
glass amber, purple, blue, and green, and also white opal glass, made by 
the addition of arsenic and burnt bones. Large numbers of the glass lamps 
for the Great Southern and Western Railway and the Midland Railway of 
Ireland were made by the Pughs. 

Examples of some of Pugh's glass are illustrated on Plates II and XXXII. 

In maps of Dublin made in 1819 and 1823 a glass-house is marked on 
the East Wall not far from Annesley Bridge. In the map of 1819 it is marked 
" Fort Crystal," but no other notice of it appears to be forthcoming. There 
were two other glass works in the vicinity called the Glass Bottle Company 
and the Dublin Glass Bottle Company, both in Upper Sherriff Street, the 
latter of which in 1832 advertised quart and pint wine bottles, porter bottles 
and every description of green glass bottles, and in the Royal Dublin Society's 
Exhibition of 1850 exhibited half-gallon, quart, pint and oval pint bottles 
and egg-shaped and flat-bottomed bottles in black, green, and amber glass. 
The names of several glass manufacturers, mostly in Ringsend, appear in 
Dublin directories of the first half of the nineteenth century. Crean and 
Kelly are entered as flint glass manufacturers at 6 Lower Abbey Street, 
with their factory at Ringsend from about 1821 to 1824. ^ n tne latter year 
the partnership was dissolved. Martin Crean and Co. seem to have carried 
on the business until about 1834. Thomas Kelly also appears as a glass 
manufacturer at 3 Lower Abbey Street from 1824 to 1838, and in the former 
year advertises that the new glass-house, 3 Lower Abbey Street, is estab- 
lished for the sale of superb cut glass of every description ; goblets, glasses, 
and tumblers warranted to stand hot water. The Revd. Dr. John Prior is 
mentioned as proprietor of a glass works at Fitzwilliam Quay, Ringsend, in 
1838 ; Elijah Pring at 3 Marlborough Street from about 1838 to 1842, and 
also at Fitzwilliam Quay, Ringsend, in 1843 ; Samuel Davis, window glass 
maker, had Pring's glass-house for a short time about 1848. From 1844 
the name of William Whyte, who is said to have been Pring's clerk, appears 
in directories as a glass manufacturer, but according to Richard Pugh he never 
made any glass, being simply a seller. Richard Pugh had at one time a partner 
named Munkettrick, a son-in-law of Whyte, and through him Whyte had a 
small interest in the Potter's Alley glass works. In the directories of 1845 
and 1846, however, advertisements of Whyte's are to be found with a 
picture of his shop in Marlborough Street and a glass-house at Ringsend. 



DUBLIN GLASS-HOUSES 67 

Perhaps he took over one of the factories in Ringsend, as in his advertisement 
he thanks the public for support since he purchased this old establishment. 

Pring's glass-house was afterwards known as the Ringsend Bottle 
Company, and in the Cork Exhibition of 1883 exhibited black and white 
bottles. Three other glass bottle factories also had exhibits, viz. : The 
Irish Glass Bottle Company, Charlotte Quay, Ringsend ; The Dublin 
Glass Bottle Company, North Lotts, and Alexander Brown and Son, 175 
Church Street. 

At the present day there are four glass bottle works in Dublin, viz. : 
The Hibernian Glass Bottle Works, The Irish Glass Bottle Works, and 
the Ringsend Bottle Company, all at Ringsend, and Alexander Brown'a 
Bottle Works, Church Street. 



CHAPTER III 

THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 

THE earliest record of a glass-house connected with the city of 
Waterford belongs to the year 1729. Probably a year or so 
before this one was erected within two or three miles of the 
town on the banks of the River Suir, at a place called Gurteens. 
Although practically belonging to Waterford, the glass-house 
was actually in County Kilkenny. The first notice of the glass-house is to 
be found in the Dublin Journal for May 24th, 1729, and is as follows : 
" These are to give notice that The Glass-house near Waterford is now at 
work, where all persons may be supplied with all sorts of flint glass, double 
and single, also garden glasses, vials and other green glass ware. Sold at 
reasonable rates by Joseph Harris at Waterford, Merchant." In the same 
newspaper for November 2nd, 1731, we find this advertisement : " The 
Glass-house near Waterford belonging to John Head Esqre. has been at 
work for some time, where all gentlemen and others may be supplied with 
bottles, with or without marks, or at the warehouse in Waterford. There 
will also soon be made there best London crown and other glass for windows, 
and sold at reasonable rates." 

John Head died on October 3ist, 1739, and in the Dublin Journal for 
February 5th, 1740, the following advertisement appears : " To be let for 
a term of years the glass-house at Gurteens and twenty-one acres of land, 
with a good quay and slips, warehouse, sheds and a malt house, situated 
close to the river Suir, within two miles of Waterford. Apply to Michael 
Head at Mr George Backas's in Waterford. N.B. There are several 
materials belonging to the glass works to be disposed of with the said 
premises, as pots, iron tools, a large parcel of ingredients for crown glass, 
kelp, etc." No other reference to this glass-house has been found, but as 
the pots, tools, and ingredients were to be disposed of, most probably it 
ceased to work about this period. In November, 1762, " the glass-house 

68 



THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 69 

lands " at Gurteens were advertised to be let, but no mention was made 
of the glass-house. The lands are still marked " Glass house " on the 
Ordnance map. 

In a History of Waterford, by the Rev. R. H. Ryland, published in 
1824, it i mentioned that a glass-house for bottles, now in ruins, existed 
opposite Bally carvet. This was probably the glass-house established about 
1728. 

The Gurteens glass works possibly made a certain amount of flint 
glass, but, towards the end, bottles seem to have been the chief item of 
manufacture. No cut glass would probably have been made at this glass- 
house, as it is not until some years after 1740 that we first hear of what 
would now be called cut glass being made in Ireland. No glass appears to 
have been made in or near Waterford between 1740 and 1783. In the latter 
year the now celebrated Waterford factory was established, which, as is 
usually said at the present day, produced almost all the old glass now found 
in England and Ireland ! 

The first notice of it to be found in the newspapers is the following 
which appeared in the Dublin Evening Post of October 4th, 1783 : 

' Waterford Glass House. George and William Penrose having estab- 
lished an extensive glass manufacture in this city, their friends and the 
public may be supplied with all kinds of plain and cut flint glass, useful and 
ornamental. They hope that when the public know the low terms they will 
be supplied at, and consider the vast expense attending this weighty under- 
taking they will not take offence at their selling for ready money only. 
They are now ready to receive orders, and intend opening their warehouse 
the first of next month. September 22nd, 1783." 

On November 5th, 1783, George and William Penrose, merchants, 
petitioned Parliament for aid to establish a manufacture of flint glass at 
Waterford, and it was resolved that they deserve the aid of Parliament. 
Under the date January 24th, 1786, the following petition is also to be found 
in the Irish House of Commons Journal : 

" Petition of George and William Penrose of Waterford stating that 
they had with great difficulty, and at the expense of nearly 10,000 estab- 
lished a complete flint glass manufactory. The works employ from fifty to 
seventy manufacturers, who have mostly been brought from England at 
heavy expense. Since the factory was erected, the imports of flint glass 



70 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XIII 

Bowl, decanter, sugar bowl, and custard cup patterns used in the Waterford 
glass works about 1830. Below the two decanters to the left is written 
the following : 

1. 7 panels of diamonds round, 6 prismatic rings deep under neck, 2 round 

do. sunk under, 12 strong neck flutes round, i deep sunk barrel ring 
at bottom, i do. dividing neck from body, lip round, pounted out neck 
polished out for stopper. 

2. Upright hollows and broad slips between, coming into a point 

at the top, hollow round the neck and split rings between, half-round 
flutes under the lip. 

Below No. 3 of the " sugars " to right is written: 3 pillars and + diamonds, 
6 panels of each, small arch scallops, and i ring under. 



Decanter, tumbler, dessert plate, and jug patterns used in the Waterford 
glass works about 1830. 



PLATE XIII 








THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 71 

into that part of the kingdom had entirely ceased, and therefore ask for aid 
to carry on the manufacture." 

In the evidence given before the Committee appointed in 1785 to 
inquire into the commercial relations between Great Britain and Ireland, 
Mr. John Blades, cut glass manufacturer, Ludgate Hill, London, stated 
that a Mr. Hill, a great manufacturer at Stourbridge, had lately gone to 
Waterford, and had taken the best set of workmen he could get in the county 
of Worcester, and that English glass workers were constantly going back- 
wards and forwards to Ireland, six a short time ago, and four or five quite 
recently. This Committee was one of the whole House of Commons ap- 
pointed to consider of so much of His Majesty's speech to both Houses of 
Parliament on January 25th, 1785, as relates to the adjustment of the commer- 
cial intercourse between Great Britain and Ireland. The Committee began 
to sit in London on March i5th, 1785, and the minutes of the proceedings 
are to be found in the appendix of the Journals of the Irish House of 
Commons for 1785. 

In the Leinster Journal of October 27th, 1784, the Penroses again 
advertised that they had established a complete flint glass manufactory, 
and were enabled to make all kinds of useful and ornamental flint glass of 
as fine a quality as any in Europe, having a large number of the best manu- 
facturers, cutters, and engravers. 

In the Dublin Chronicle of August 2ist, 1788, it is mentioned that " a 
very curious service of glass has been sent over from Waterford to Milford 
for their Majesty's use, and by their orders forwarded to Cheltenham, where 
it has been much admired and does great credit to the manufacturers of this 
country." 

In the Hibernian Magazine for November, 1790, it is stated that on 
October i6th, the Countess of Westmoreland, the Marquis and Marchioness 
of Waterford, the Bishop of Ossory, etc. arrived in the city (Waterford) 
from Curraghmore, and went to see the beautiful manufactory belonging 
to Messrs. George and William Penrose. Her Excellency took great pleasure 
in looking at all the various branches of this curious business, and was 
highly delighted with the elegance of the various articles in the warehouse, 
and complimented the proprietors on bringing the manufacture to such 
perfection. 

William Penrose appears to have died in 1796, but the manufacture 



?2 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XIV 

Salad bowl, tumbler, dish, and sugar bowl patterns used in the Waterford 
glass works about 1830. To the right of No. 5 of the salad bowls is 
written : " i8s. if shank is fluted and flat diamonds, but if bottom only 
cut 155. or 145. if fan scallops." 



Salad bowl or " kettledrum " patterns used in the Waterford glass works 
about 1830. On back of the sheet is written : " 10 inch kettledrum, 
pillars and panels of x diamonds, 2 pillar rings and 3 mitred rings and 
fan escallop, cut bottom and stand. 12/6 each." This appears to apply 
to No. 4 on the upper sheet. To the right of No. 9 is written : " Height, 
Bowl 4 inches, stand 6 inches. Diameter, Bowl io inches, stand 6| 
at bottom & 3! at top." 



PLATE XIV 




ELI 



% 













THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 73 

was carried on by the family until 1799. In the New Cork Evening Post of 
March nth, 1797, an advertisement announces that " the interest in the 
Waterford glass manufactory as now carried on under the firm of George 
and William Penrose, is to be disposed of, application to be made to George 
or Francis Penrose." 

In 1799 the glass works were purchased by a company, the partners 
being James Ramsey, Jonathan Gatchell, and Ambrose Barcroft, and the 
following notice appears in the Waterford Chronicle for December i2th, 
1799 : 

" Ramsey, Gatchell and Barcroft respectfully inform their friends and 
the public that they have purchased the establishment of the Waterford 
Flint Glass Manufactory from George and William Penrose, and have 
opened a shop on the Quay in said concern where they intend to be supplied 
with an extensive assortment of plain and ornamental glass ware, and hope, 
by their attention, moderate prices and the quality of their glass, to merit 
the approbation of their customers. At the same time they hope that no 
offence will be taken by their refusing to send goods out until paid for. 
This mode they are obliged to adopt from a knowledge of the many losses 
sustained by the late proprietors by retailing on credit. Every encourage- 
ment will be given to wholesale dealers and exporters as usual. Waterford > 
December 5th, 1799." 

Ramsey, Gatchell and Barcroft carried on the manufacture on the Quay 
until about 1802, when they erected a new glass-house, and in the Water- 
ford Mirror of March 5th, 1 803 , advertised that " the concerns on the Quay are 
to be let for seventy years or upwards, Messrs Ramsey, Gatchell and Barcroft 
having lately erected a new house and offices on the ground called the Old 
Tan Yard, in order to carry on the Flint Glass manufactory more extensively, 
and will let from the i st of June the entire concerns on the Quay at present 
occupied by their glass works." 

Although the entire concerns were advertised to be let, a warehouse 
on the Quay for retail business appears to have been retained. 

The glass-house is later put down in directories as at No. 7 Ann Street r 
and the retail warehouse at No. 14 Merchant's Quay. 

A notice in the Dublin Gazette of November 2Oth to 22nd, 1810, 
announced that " The partnership lately subsisting between James Ramsey, 
Jonathan Gatchell and Ambrose Barcroft of the city of Waterford, glass 



74 IRISH GLASS 

makers will be dissolved on the igth day of May next, and the business will 
be in future carried on by the said Jonathan Gatchell, of which all persons 
concerned are to take notice." James Ramsey died either late in 1810 or 
early in 1811, and in the Dublin Gazette for July i3th to i6th, 1811, the 
dissolution of the partnership was announced as follows : 

" The partnership lately subsisting between James Ramsey jun. de- 
ceased, Jonathan Gatchell and Ambrose Barcroft of the city of Waterford 
is this day dissolved, the term having expired. All persons to whom the 
said firm stand indebted are desired to furnish their accounts that they 
may be speedily discharged, and all those that are indebted to them are 
requested to discharge their accounts to the said Jonathan Gatchell, who 
is legally authorised to receive the same. 
Waterford (5th month) May iQth, 1811. 
Witness, William Allen. (Signed) Jonathan Gatchell." 

In 1811 Jonathan Gatchell issued a trade circular which is repro- 
duced on Plate III from one in my possession. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Samuel Hudson Wright, the grand- 
nephew of Jonathan Gatchell, I was enabled to acquire several of the old 
account books, ranging from 1812 to 1841, belonging to the Waterford 
glass works ; many letters, dating from 1783, of Jonathan Gatchell and 
other members of the family ; notes made by Mr. Wright's uncle, Jonathan 
Wright, who in reality carried on the glass works for some time ; and also 
the original recipes for making the glass. 

Here and there, through the account books and letters, are many items 
referring to sales of glass, purchase of materials, payments to workmen, etc., 
but unfortunately none of the books gives any details of the glass such as 
patterns, shapes, etc. 

Jonathan Gatchell, who in 1811 became sole proprietor of the glass 
works, was a descendant of John Gatchell who came over from Somerset- 
shire in the latter half of the seventeenth century and settled in the Queen's 
County. He was born in 1752, and when old enough was apprenticed to a 
Joshua Beales, and later on opened a shop in Mountrath. This he soon gave 
up, and went to Waterford about 1781, and in 1783 he obtained a clerkship 
in the Penroses' glass works. The Penroses themselves had no knowledge 
of glass-making, so engaged a set of workmen from England, under John 
Hill, a Stourbridge glass maker. One of the Penroses married a Miss 



THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 75 

Nevins from near Edenderry in the King's County, and she accused John 
Hill of some misdemeanour, which, being innocent, so affected him, that 
he determined to leave Waterford, and it is said went to France. In a letter 
of John Hill's which I have, written in 1786, he says that his mind is so 
hurt that he scarcely knows what he is writing. 

Jonathan Gatchell was a clerk in the glass works with John Hill, and a 
great friendship seems to have subsisted between them. Before John Hill 
left in 1786, being grateful for Jonathan Gatchell's kindness and pity, he 
gave him his recipes for compounding the glass. 

Jonathan Gatchell, now being the sole possessor of the secret of mixing 
the glass materials, was at once snatched up by the Penroses in their dilemma, 
as their compounder. In a letter of Joshua Gatchell to his brother Jonathan, 
dated June loth, 1786, he says he is very much pleased to hear of his agree- 
ment with William Penrose. Jonathan Gatchell worked as compounder 
with the Penroses until 1799, when they sold the business to Ramsey, 
Gatchell, and Barcroft. James Ramsey and Ambrose Barcroft had capital, 
and Jonathan Gatchell the knowledge of glass-making. According to 
Jonathan Wright's account, Barcroft spent more than his profits, and got 
into pecuniary difficulties, and, as stated, Ramsey died in 1810 or 1811, so 
the partnership was dissolved in the latter year. 

Jonathan Gatchell, to keep on the business, had to mortgage the glass 
works and also a plot of ground in Waterford known as the Willow Gardens, 
to the Newport family, at an annual rent of 300. Jonathan Gatchell re- 
mained as sole proprietor of the Waterford glass works until 1823, when he 
formed a partnership for seven years with his brothers James Gatchell and 
Samuel Gatchell and his son-in-law Joseph Walpole, son of William Walpole, 
who had married Jonathan's sister Sarah. The firm was now styled Gatchells 
and Walpole , and the original deed , which I possess , is dated January 23 rd , 1 823 . 

According to the agreement Jonathan Gatchell's share of the capital 
was fifteen hundred pounds, and James and Samuel Gatchell's and Joseph 
Walpole 's five hundred pounds each. 

In the Waterford Mirror of April 5th, 1820, Jonathan Gatchell adver- 
tised that he was selling by auction at the house of the late John Dart on 
the Quay, a collection of cut and engraved glass. He also stated that the 
glass works had for thirty-six years given daily employment to nearly two 
hundred persons, and in 1822 he announced that orders for cut and en- 



76 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XV 

i. Cut glass decanter, engraved SUCCESS TO THE CORK YEOMANRY. Cork r 

about 1796. 
2- Decanter, lower part exhibiting mould marks. Marked underneath* 

WATERLOO Co CORK. About 1820. 
3. Flask, probably Waterford, early igth century. National Museum,, 

Dublin. 



1. Water-bottle, Cork, about 1830. 

2. Octagonal decanter. Very blue metal. Cork, about 1830. 

3. Decanter with band of plain diamonds. Cut rings. Cork, about 1830, 

4. Decanter cut in " hollow prisms." Good white glass. Probably 

Waterford, about 1850. Author's Collection. 

Nos. i and 3 and also Nos. 2 and 3 upper illustration Plate XXIV, and No. i 
lower illustration Plate XXV, were purchased in the King's County about 
1830 by the author's grandmother from itinerant glass vendors who 
visited the various Irish country towns annually selling glass made in 
the Cork glass-houses. In this way a good deal of glass was distributed 
through the country. 



PLATE XV 




THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 77 

graved glass from the Waterford Flint Glass Manufactory would be received 
at the old warerooms on the Quay. Jonathan Gatchell died in 1823 shortly 
after the partnership was formed, but the firm of Gatchells and Walpole 
was continued. 

In Jonathan Gatchell's will, dated March 3Oth, 1823, he leaves the 
house on the Quay where the retail glass business was carried on, to his wife, 
Sarah Lynan Gatchell, and after her death to his three children, George, 
Frances, and Isabella. He authorises the continuance of the term of the 
partnership between himself, Samuel and James Gatchell, and Joseph 
Walpole from and after the original term of seven years until his son George 
shall attain the age of twenty-one years, and he appoints his brother-in-law, 
Nehemiah Wright, as trustee in charge of all the remainder of his property. 
Joseph Walpole died in 1824, Samuel Gatchell in 1825, an d James Gatchell 
in 1830. 

On Joseph Walpole's death his widow Elizabeth became one of the 
partners, and on Samuel Gatchell's death, his brother Nathan appears to 
have become a partner, having put about three or four hundred pounds into 
the concern. 

When James Gatchell died in 1830, Nehemiah Wright, who had married 
Jonathan Gatchell's sister Susannah, entered the firm, which was thence- 
forward known under the title of Gatchell, Walpole and Co., the Co. being 
Nehemiah Wright, who had a good deal of the clerical work to do, but 
received no remuneration. It appears that at first it was decided to style 
the firm Gatchells, Walpole, and Gatchell, for in a printed circular dated 
November ist, 1830, which I possess, signed by Nehemiah Wright and 
Nathan Gatchell, it is stated that " the Flint Glass Manufacture in Water- 
ford will in future be conducted under the firm of Gatchells, Walpole and 
Gatchell." (See Plate IV.) 

On November ist, 1830, a deed, which I possess, was drawn up by 
Nehemiah Wright of Skinner Row, Dublin, Elizabeth Walpole of Water- 
ford, and Nathan Gatchell of Mountmellick, appointing Jonathan Wright, 
son of Nehemiah, joint agent and manager of the glass works at Waterford. 
Nehemiah Wright and Nathan Gatchell not residing in Waterford, and 
Elizabeth Walpole taking no active part in the business, Jonathan Wright 
in reality became sole proprietor, the whole working of the glass-house 
falling on his shoulders. 



7 8 IRISH GLASS 

Jonathan Wright's brother John went to Waterford in 1817, and super- 
intended the retail glass warehouse on the Quay, which, when the partner- 
ship was formed in 1823, was retained by Jonathan Gatchell, and became a 
distinct business apart from the glass-house. John Wright remained at the 
warehouse until 1835. 

On Plate VI is illustrated a billhead of Gatchell, Walpole and Co. used 
from 1830 to 1835. 

On the ist of September, 1835, an indenture, in my possession, was 
made between Nehemiah Wright, George Gatchell, Sarah L. Gatchell, and 
George Saunders, granting to the last named a lease of the land on which the 
glass-house was built, for the term of one year four months and eighteen 
days, at the yearly rent of 200. In this indenture the boundaries of the 
glass-house ground are given, viz. : on the North side, Anne Street, on the 
South side, the Glynn of Ballybricken, on the East side, James Street, and on 
the West side, Clinker or Cinder Lane. What the object of this curious 
lease was is uncertain, as George Gatchell came of age on the 2ist of April,, 
1835, and under his father's will he was to take over the glass-house in that 
event. 

The firm of Gatchell, Walpole and Co. was dissolved on October i4th, 
1835, and the following notice, of which I have the original, appeared in the 
Dublin Gazette of October i5th, 1835 : " Dissolution of Partnership. Notice 
is hereby given that the Partnership heretofore subsisting between Nehemiah 
Wright of Dublin, Elizabeth Knott, late Walpole, of Exeter, and Nathan 
Gatchell of Acragar, Queen's County, Glass manufacturers, trading under 
the firm of Gatchell, Walpole and Co. in Waterford, is this day dissolved by 
mutual consent, and all debts owing to and due by the late firm will be 
received and paid by Jonathan Wright of Number seven Christchurch 
Place, Dublin, our agent whom we have appointed to receive and pay same.. 
Given under our hands this fourteenth day of the loth month (Oct') 1835. 
(Signed) Nehemiah Wright, Elizabeth Knott late Walpole, Nathan Gatchell." 
A facsimile of this deed is given on page 79. George Gatchell appears to 
have taken over charge of the glass works in 1835, and in 1836 George 
Saunders, who had been an employee of the firm for a number of years, 
became partner with him. This partnership was dissolved in 1848, the 
following announcement appearing in the Waterford Evening News of Decem- 
ber 22nd, 1848 : " The Partnership of George Gatchell and Co. (George 



THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 79 





Notice of dissolution of the partnership of Gatchell, Walpole and Co., Waterford, 



8o IRISH GLASS 

Gatchell and George Saunders) is this day dissolved. George Gatchell will 
carry on the flint glass business, which has been going on for over half a 
century and carried on by his late father Jonathan Gatchell." 

In 1842 George Gatchell and Co. opened a warehouse in Limerick as 
a branch establishment for the sale of their glass, and in the Limerick 
Chronicle for July 23rd, 1842, the following notice is to be found : 

" George Gatchell and Co. beg to state that they have taken 103 George 
Street, Limerick, as a branch establishment for the sale of their glass, in- 
cluding cut and plain glass of every description, and every article made of 
glass for use, luxury and ornament ; also chandeliers, lustres, lamps, hall 
bells and candelabra in bronze, ormolu and glass. Medical establishments 
supplied." 

On May 2ist, 1849, it was announced in the Waterford Evening News 
that owing to alterations to be made in the Waterford Flint Glass Works, 
Samuel Fitzhenry was ordered to sell by auction a quantity of cut glass, 
including decanters, claret jugs, water jugs, liqueur bottles, caraffes, pickle 
urns, salad, celery and sugar bowls, butter coolers, cream ewers, custard 
and jelly glasses, together with three hundred dozen tumblers, goblets, and 
wine glasses. 

After the dissolution of the partnership with George Saunders in 1848, 
George Gatchell carried on the business for about three years, but at the 
end of the year 1851 the factory was closed, thus terminating the manu- 
facture of flint glass in Waterford. 

In a letter I have of George Gatchell 's, dated Waterford, August 6th, 
1850, he says that " if he is to carry on the works he must look for further 
capital as he has not enough to work the concerns efficiently ; that he does 
not like to abandon the old concern, which, (although suffering as regards 
remunerative power from the general depression and from want of capital,) 
is still in full vigour and activity ; that he must now either get a partner 
with adequate capital, sell, or stop work finally, and that really he is now 
compelled to contemplate the abandonment of the business as a probable 
and almost immediately impending event, as it has been a losing concern 
for the last year ending September last." In another letter, dated April 
2ist, 1851, he says, " I have quite concluded on giving up the business as 
soon as I possibly can, as I find it quite useless to strive against adverse 
circumstances any longer. I have tried several expedients to place the 



THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 81 




^*^^ /Ay^4*U^/ 






2-e-M 




&*> 



J^t^e^.^~ f /l^, */^i<} 4e*u, A+u* 4p m 
Sjrt* S '4*J rffc Jie^^t fo"*- 

&***iU. * rffcr &**<&;, 



A* 




Letter of George Gatchell, dated 1851. 



82 IRISH GLASS 

business on a better footing, by getting additional capital, but in vain." In 
the Waterford Evening News of October loth, 1851, we find this announce- 
ment : " Waterford Glass Works. The above well known manufactory 
being about to close, the proprietor, George Gatchell, orders to be sold on 
Wednesday, October 2Oth, 1851, by Samuel Fitzhenry, the entire stock of 
glass including dinner and table lamps, gas chandeliers, one crystal chandelier 
for six lights, and also beautiful specimens of Bohemian and Venetian glass." 

On February i3th, 1852, it was announced that a seven horse-power 
steam engine, a variety of glass materials, tools, fixtures, office furniture, 
etc., were to be sold on Monday, February 23rd. 

The steam engine here mentioned was used for the glass-cutting 
business, and was set up in the glass works in 1826. 

George Gatchell left Waterford in December, 1851, as in a letter dated 
Waterford, December 22nd, 1851, thanking John and Jonathan Wright for 
their kindness to him, he says, " we leave this at 7 o'clock to-morrow morn- 
ing for Bristol and Exeter." He resided in several places in England, 
finally settling in Torquay, where, probably, he died in the early eighties. 
The latest letter I have of his is dated Torquay, September nth, 1878, in 
which he encloses his photograph to Jonathan Wright. 

George Gatchell and Co. exhibited specimens of their glass at several 
of the Royal Dublin Society Exhibitions from 1834 to l8 5- In a ^ etter f 
Jonathan Wright's, dated April 27th, 1834, he mentions that he expects to 
have a vase ready for the Exhibition of Manufactures in Kildare Street, 
Dublin. 

In the Exhibitions of 1835 an< ^ l8 3^ tne Waterford glass works obtained 
silver medals for cut flint glass, including a richly cut-glass flower vase and 
dish. In the Society's Exhibition of 1850 George Gatchell exhibited a 
massive crystal centre bowl with tripod stand ; a centre bowl and stand, 
two liqueur bottles and six caraffes and tumblers all opaque blue and white 
on crystal ; two sugar bowls richly cut and twelve caraffes and tumblers 
richly cut. 

Probably this blue, white, and crystal glass was the kind referred to as 
Bohemian glass in the advertisement of 1851. 

In the London Exhibition of 1851, George Gatchell exhibited an orna- 
mental centre stand for a banqueting table, consisting of forty pieces of cut 
glass, so fitted to each other as to require no connecting sockets of any other 



THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 83 

material ; quart and pint decanters cut in hollow prisms ; a centre bowl on 
detached tripod stand ; and vases and covers, all designed and made at the 
Waterford Glass Works. An illustration of these pieces, shown on Plate V, is 
taken from the Illustrated Exhibitor of the Exhibition of 1851, where they 
are described as " a candelabrum of pure white glass about three feet high 
consisting of forty pieces, put together without any metal joint, for eight 
lights ; one decanter of a set of four and two vases in the German style." 

The Waterford glass works had a warehouse in Dublin, and the name 
of John Kennedy appears in Dublin directories from about 1789 to 1811, 
as proprietor of the Waterford glass warehouse, and in 1804 he advertises 
in the Belfast News Letter that he has for sale at the Bank House, Castle 
Street, Belfast, Waterford glass hanging lustres of eight lights, shop lustres 
of four lights, rich cut lustres and reflectors, a variety of standing chandeliers, 
candlesticks, and every article in cut glass. 

In the old Waterford letters and account books which I possess, there 
are scattered items of interest, and the following rather mixed collection of 
pieces of information relative to the glass factory is taken from them. 

The number of workmen in the glass-house appears to have averaged 
between sixty and seventy ; a letter of 1832 mentions sixty-two at that 
period. 

The wages varied in different years, but seem to have been higher in 
the earlier period. In 1815 the workmen's wages averaged 240 a month, 
while in 1835 they had fallen to 120 a month. 

In a notebook of Jonathan Wright's he has made out an account show- 
ing the leading weekly expenses of the glass-house in 1834, which came to 
a little over 114. This included duty, workmen's wages, and salaries, 
coal at two shillings and four pence per barrel and proportion of rent. In 
1825 the weekly wages to the workmen averaged about 50, and in 1829 
about 40. 

The excise duty, which was first imposed on Irish glass in 1825, varied 
at Waterford between that year and 1830 from about 300 to ^600 every 
six weeks ; this six weeks' duty being called a round. From January, 1831, 
to January, 1835, the total duty amounted to 11,936 i8s. 5d. During the 
first complete year (1826) that the excise regulations were in force the 
Waterford glass house paid 3910 75. 5d. in duty. 

The gross profits of the glass-house varied a good deal in different 



84 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XVI 

Plain decanter, showing mould marks at base. Two triangular rings. 

Marked underneath B. EDWARDS BELFAST. Early iQth century. 
Decanter partly cut, mould marks at base. Marked FRANCIS COLLINS 

DUBLIN. Early igth century. Author's Collection. 



Three cut glass decanters, No. i with plain diamonds, No. 3 with strawberry 
diamonds, and No. 2 with large diamonds, and splits. Probably Cork. 
About 1820-30. National Museum, Dublin. 



PLATK XVI 




THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 85 



years. In 1823 an( ^ I ^ 2 4 they were somewhat over 2000, while in 1825 
they dropped to a little over 900, and between 1826 and 1834 they varied 
between 550 and 1000. In 1836 the dividends obtained from Jonathan 
Gatchell's share in the concern amounted to over 60 per cent on his 
capital. 

The stock of glass and materials on the premises between 1823 an ^ J ^34 
were valued at between 1440 and 4736 annually. 

The amount of manufactured goods made annually must have varied 
at different periods, but the only years I have any information about are 
those between 1830 and 1840. At that time the yearly output was about 
fifty tons, an average of over two thousand pounds a week. 

The prices of some of the Waterford glass, taken from the old account 
books, are interesting in comparison with those prevailing at the present 
day. The following items have been picked out here and there in the 
account books of the years stated : 

1812 

> s - d - 

3 gross green vials i : 17 : i 
76 gross and 6 dozen Tumblers 

and 41 gross and 8 dozen drams 142 : 8 : 8 

12 best Tumblers 5 : 3 

42 dozen tale half pint Tumblers 4 : 16 : 3! 

3 Butter Coolers i : 17 : 2 

2 Moulded Goblets i : o 

6 Patent lamp tubes 2 : 3 

2 3 -pint squares 5 : 5 

2 dozen drams 4 : i 

1815 

6 dozen tale Tumblers 13-8 

i Pair of Candlesticks 15 : 2 

i round Pickle Jar 8 : 1 1 

i dozen light quart Decanters 9 : i 

i Hall Lamp 5 : o 

6 dozen cayenne bottles 15 : 

38 Street Lamps 5 : 7 : J 4 

i Paget Lamp 4 : 10 

Cutting 13! dozen Rodney goblets 3 : 12 : o 



86 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XVII 

Goblet, two decanters and small water jug of moulded and engraved glass. 
Cork, early igth century. No. 3 marked WATERLOO Co CORK. Author's 
Collection. Note the conventional flower with criss-cross centre, and 
leaves issuing from it. A favourite Cork design. 



Four cut, engraved, and moulded decanters. Nos. 1,2, and 3 cut, No. 4 en- 
graved. Probably all Belfast. Early iQth century. Note the small lips 
and the two triangular rings. No. 2 marked B. EDWARDS BELFAST. 
Author's Collection. 



PLATE XVII 





THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 87 

1816 

s. d. 

6 fingered rummers 10 : o 
4 Mustard cruets 6 : 2 
12 doz. i oz. green vials 10 : o 
4 quart squares 10 : o 
i doz. 2 oz. white vials i : 2 
i doz. best mason Tumblers 5 : 5 

7 goblets, leaf borders 7 : o 

1 graduated measure 2:8^ 

2 gross of Thumbs 1:4:9 
2 flint squares 4 : 4 

2 ladles i : 8 
4 doz. Tale half pint Tumblers 9 : i 
6 dozen ditto 13 : 7 
6 Flower root glasses 3 : 4 
12 Street Lamps i : 16 : o 
21 ditto 3:6:3 
4 3-pint jugs i:H : 3 

1 gross of Tumblers i : 16 : 5 
42 doz. Tale half pint Tumblers 4:12:5 

3 Salad Bowls and 2 Jugs 1:15:5 

2 decanters 5 : 8 
Mess of 1 6th Regiment supplied with glass 44 : o : 10 

1817 

2 gross of green vials 1:1:3 

2 Deck Lights 18 : o 
6 dozen Egg cups 1:1:7 
i pint croft and tumbler i : 4 

6 doz. half pint printie jugs 13 : 6 

1818 

i salad bowl 16 : 3 

7 J u g s i : 14 : 4 
12 oblong square salts i : 5 : n 
i 6-light lustre 16 : 14 : 9 

1 8 Finger basins 15 : 3 

4 quart decanters 10 : 10 

3 doz. soap linings u : n 



IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XVIII 

i 

Four cut and moulded decanters. Note the various rings, and the vesica 
cutting on Nos. 3 and 4. Each marked CORK GLASS Co. Early 
century. Author's Collection. 



Four cut and moulded decanters. Waterford, early igth century. Triple 
rings on each. Nos. 2 and 4 have the arched cutting, and No. i the 
pendent semicircles of fine diamonds. Nos. i, 2, and 3 marked 
PENROSE WATERFORD. No. 4 with cut splits below, the other three 
with moulded flutes. Author's Collection. 



PLATE XVIII 





THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 89 

1823 

s. d. 

60 Street lamps 10:2:9 

1 6 gross of Thumbs 7:4:0 

4 goblets and 4 wines 3 : 8 

5 lamp tubes 5 : 5 

2 Ringed decanters 10 : 3 
i cut jug 1 1 : 6 
i mustard and i liqueur 2 : 2 

3 gross of Thumbs i : 10 : o 

5 green squares 4 : 5 

4 Tumblers 2 : 3 
36 Footed Salts i : 10 : 10 

1 cut goblet i : i 
14 lamp tubes 14 : o 

2 Ringed decanters 5 : 2 

2 3rd size dishes 18 : n 

1827 

i doz. Lamp Tubes 7 : 6 

i gross of tumblers 1:9:3 

i Fountain n 

6 doz. Tale Tumblers 1:4:9 
Icicles and spangles i : 10 : o 
i gross of drams 1:7:0 

1 gross of Thumbs 16 : o 

3 pair of salts 15 : o 

1829 

2 8-light lustres 45 : 9 : o 
i doz. cut tumblers 7 : i 

1 best goblet, bordered i : i 

2 doz. lamp tubes 9 : o 

1830 

2 lustres 60 

1835 

Tale wine glasses 2/9 per doz. 

Best wine glasses 3/3 per doz. 

Best Tumblers 9d per Ib. 

Best Rummers 6/- per doz. 

Tale Rummers 4/4 per doz. 

Drams 237- per gross 

Deck lights 2d per Ib. 



o 
6 
o 
o 
o 



9 o IRISH GLASS 

Dandy Tumblers 2/9 per doz. 

Tale half pint tumblers 3/3 and 3/6 per doz. 

Finger cups i/5i per Ib. 

Tale wine glasses fluted 4/8 per doz. 

Tale Rummers fluted 8/6 per doz. 

2 Services of glass 30 : o o 

3 dozen tumblers i : 4 
i Plate 7 
6 Rummers 12 
6-light lustres, each, 10 : 10 

and 14 : 10 
Cruet bottles 5 1 per Ib. 

Peppers and Mustards 6| and y| per Ib. 

The following are miscellaneous notes taken from the old letters, 
mostly written by members of the Gatchell family. 

In a letter of Joshua Gatchell's dated 1784, he asks for a small smelling 
bottle with the stopper ground well in to hold aqua fortis. 

In 1799 Jonathan Gatchell's niece, Martha Barnes, writes to him from 
Edenderry saying that several of her customers wish to get some Waterford 
glass, and asking him to send her six dozen best flint tumblers, six dozen 
egg cups, six dozen best and most fashionable wine glasses, two dozen 
vinegar cruets, two dozen mustard pots, two dozen salt cellars, one 
dozen decanters not too high priced, six dozen middling wine glasses, 
four dozen beer glasses, one dozen small pickle glasses, and two dozen 
smelling bottles. 

On the outside of the letter Jonathan Gatchell has made notes of glass 
for customers 80 three-ring decanters, 28 two-ring ditto, 128 stoppers, 
20 Rodney decanters and stoppers, and 12 blue oval fluted sugars. 

In 1800 Ambrose Barcroft, one of the partners in the firm, writes from 
London that he was advertising there for a fitter up of lustres, but that 
none of the applicants could turn or lacquer brass. He also says he has 
ordered about a ton of saltpetre at 735. per cwt., and that he saw some one 
at Bristol about lead. 

In another of Barcroft's letters dated Cork, 1805, where he was evidently 
selling glass, he said he offered lustres at 40 guineas and candlesticks at 
2S. 3d., but could not get a buyer, but sold about thirty-five double dishes 



THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 91 

at 25 per cent discount, which made a firm named Savage " so savage that 
they, then and there, bought 100 worth." 

In 1819 Jonathan Gatchell, referring to the export trade, says that he 
has received no payment for thirteen hogsheads of glass sold in Charles- 
town, and that he is still owed 1100 from Philadelphia, 760 from 
New York, 300 from Halifax, 600 from Newfoundland, and 150 from 
Quebec. Also that he is sending twenty-one hogsheads of glass to Phila- 
delphia. This debt, amounting to over 3000, would have represented a 
large quantity of glass, considering the prices obtained at this period. 

In a letter of John Wright's, dated 1823, ne mentions the formation of 
the new company of Gatchells and Walpole, and says that the retail ware- 
room on the Quay, which was his department, now becomes a separate 
establishment quite distinct from the glass-house, and is to be supplied 
with glass ware by the company like any other customer. Jonathan Wright, 
writing to his brother Nathan in 1824, asks him to find out how they prepare 
the sulphate of copper which is used in making the green glass. 

George Saunders writes from Quebec in 1826, saying he is disappointed 
at not receiving a consignment of glass, that he is completely out of fluted 
tumblers and pint decanters, and that he disposed of a service of glass for 
the use of the Governor's yacht. 

In a letter, dated 1829, from Thomas Cooke, a customer in America, 
he asks for 150 worth of cut glass the same as before, but adding more pints 
to the decanters, more wine glasses, about ten dozen more water crofts, six 
dozen finger cups, ten dozen claret glasses, and a greater proportion of 
small tumblers to match the water crofts ; twenty pounds' worth of assorted 
glass, but more tumblers and less wines than before, three dozen toilet 
bottles of different shapes, two dozen glasses with teats for nurses to feed 
infants from, four dozen quart and pint squares, one dozen two-gallon large- 
mouthed bottles with tin covers, one dozen of gallon bottles with glass 
covers and wide mouth for powders, three dozen quart bottles for liquids, 
with stoppers, one dozen quart bottles with large mouths for powders, six 
large globes, shape for windows, or for a lamp in the centre of a shop, with 
spangles ; one large oil lamp, two small ones for counter, one dozen cruet 
stands with six bottles complete, and one dozen with eight bottles, but the 
stands to be plated. 

John Wright, writing from Waterford in 1829, complains of the de- 



92 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XIX 

Four cut, engraved, and moulded decanters. Nos. i, 3, and 4 cut, No. 2 
engraved. Nos. i, 2, and 3 marked WATERLOO Co CORK, about 1820, 
and No. 4 CORK GLASS Co, about 1810. Author's Collection. 



Two claret jugs. No. i with " printies " cut on the body, and prismatic 
cutting on neck. No. 2 cut in large pillar flutes. Probably Waterford, 
about 1820. National Museum, Dublin. 



PLATE XIX 





THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 93 

-plorable state of the glass business, and says that the glass-houses in the 
north and in Dublin are selling at prices so ruinously low as never could be 
afforded were they paying the Excise duty fairly, and that the fair manu- 
facturer cannot expect to compete with those who have no scruples to re- 
strain them from smuggling ; this, in addition to the general depression of 
the times, makes business at the glass-house extremely bad, and presents a 
dull prospect to look forward to. 

The quality of the glass metal evidently varied from time to time, for 
Jonathan Wright states in a letter of 1830 that " the metal this week has been 
full as good as for many weeks past." 

In August, 1830, the fire was put out, as a new furnace was to be built, 
the furnace builder coming from Birmingham, and it was expected that the 
works would be idle for about six weeks. According to a letter of Jonathan 
Wright the furnace builder said the furnace was of quite an ancient style 
and proposed many improvements, which would effect a great saving in 
coal. In the same letter he mentions the arrival in Waterford of a large 
quantity of silver and plated goods with cut glass, which were to be 
auctioned. 

In a letter of October i5th, 1830, he says the furnace and cone are now 
complete, the latter sixty-five feet high from the ground, and that " last 
night I lit the first fire that went up through it, which cost my pocket five 
shillings to the men for drink ; in two weeks' time we shall be making glass, 
I expect, and not sooner, as the fire must be increased gradually." 

On October 2Oth, 1830, he says that the furnace has been heating for 
the last few days, and that the entire expense of putting it up will not exceed 
250, and that the saving in coal will amount to 150 or 200 a year. In 
the same letter he complains of the expense of the steam engine, and says 
that the cut glass is accumulating so that it is evident a sale for it must be 
forced. 

From a letter of Jonathan Wright's of December 23rd, 1830, it is evident 
that all the glass sold in the wareroom was not made in the factory, for he 
says, " the alterations are now nearly complete on the Quay, and they have 
the finest shop in Waterford, a door in the centre, and the two windows ten 
feet in length ; they are also getting in some coloured glass and other 
Birmingham goods." Jonathan Wright, in a letter of 1831, to his brother 
Nathan, mentions a prism which he hopes will answer, but if too small he 



94 



IRISH GLASS 



will get one made, and says Samuel Miller, the foreman cutter, told him 
that he had two very large ones made for the Cork Institution. 

In 1832 he mentions Follett Osier of Birmingham " a nice kind of man 
in the drop, business, he makes those glass seals, and is to send the shop 
some when I will forward two, they are forty-eight shillings per gross." In 
another letter he again mentions Follett Osier as the person from 
whom John Wright gets lamp drops and glass seals for the wareroom,. 
and states that Osier's father was the eminent manufacturer of babies* 
eyes. 

In the summer of 1832 there was an outbreak of cholera in Waterford,. 
and Jonathan Wright remarks that out of the sixty-two employed daily in 
the glass-house, he is afraid some one will fall a victim. 

In August, 1832, Jonathan Wright and George Saunders went to 
Southampton with what was called a venture of glass, that is, they brought 
over a consignment of glass to sell by auction. A letter of Jonathan Wright's 
of October, 1832, gives the following details of the auction : On the third 
day after arrival at Southampton, they got possession of the rooms where 
they were to hold the auction, and began to open the cases, and had every- 
thing ready by the next morning which came with a deluge of rain. The 
next day being finer, they attempted an auction, but without effect. 
Numbers called and admired the goods, but would not buy, and some 
hearing they were Irish said they could not be good. The local dealers 
appear to have opposed the auction, and it was only by private sales they 
were able to dispose of any of the goods. The remainder of the glass they 
decided to send to Chichester. 

There are several references in letters to these ventures, some members 
of the glass-house staff taking goods for sale in different towns in England and 
Ireland. 

Elizabeth Walpole, one of the partners in the glass works, writing from 
Exeter in 1832, says that " there are but two persons of any consequence in 
the china and glass business here Eardley and Osborne. I have been to 
Eardley and so far as I am able to judge of the glass it is not what I would 
call superior to ours. There are some patterns rather different such as cut 
dishes and richly cut butter coolers, but in the general I think we could 
supply as good an assortment as he appears to have got. For a pair of 
heavy claret jugs such as our new ones, Eardley asks five guineas, cut 



THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 95 

decanters in proportion. Indeed all the glass is in my view very dear. I 
find they have most of their glass from Birmingham and Stourbridge. I 
think you might send two or three pair of richly cut decanters, two or three 
pair of knife resters, a dozen of reflecting tumblers, a few sugars all richly 
cut in different style and of different patterns, with other fancy articles, 
which your own knowledge of the business will point out to you as necessary 
to show the colour and other perfections of our manufacture. There are 
glass articles here for placing on silver and plated candlesticks, they are 
round, moulded diamond pattern. In our country (Ireland) they would 
not be so much used as our candlesticks are entirely glass. They are sold 
at Eardley's for three shillings a pair." 

In a letter also from Elizabeth Walpole dated Exeter, December yth, 
1832, talking of the cut glass, she says, " if the steam engine pour out such a 
flood of goods so that there is no room, and that sales cannot be effected in 
self-defence, it would seem desirable that the engine should be stopped en- 
tirely ; but why, with this in view, incur the expense of a new boiler costing 
32, if the cutting is to be done by hand in future, at least while the 
partnership lasts ? Considering the circumstances under which two of 
the partners are placed would it not be better to get rid of the engine 
altogether ? I am quite satisfied as to the employing of turners in the 
old way." 

A letter of 1834 re f ers to a visit to the neighbourhood of Stour- 
bridge, " where our clay merchants reside, one of them being James 
Holland." 

Jonathan Wright writing to his brother in Dublin in 1834, says that, 
" I was thinking of sending you a venture (to sell for us) of a cask of cruet 
frames, being an article which sells well at Waterford and at a good profit, 
those which cost four shillings and sixpence sell for seven shillings and are 
thought cheap. If you consent to try them, we will order a cask from 
Birmingham to be sent you, which we will pay for, and send you the 
invoices and moulded bottles for you to fill them." In 1835 R. Walpole 
orders " an octagon black 3-hole liqueur frame and five bottles to match." 
Referring to an order, J. Wright says to tell the customer that " our caster 
place hand having taken ill, we were not able to get the ringed carafts 
made to pattern, but have sent those we have in stock, we shall have the 
custards and pickles made and sent in a few days." 



96 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XX 

Two " salad " bowls. Dark coloured glass. Probably Dublin or Cork, 
early igth century. National Museum, Dublin. 



Two " salad " bowls and decanter. No. i with the diamond cut lozenge, a 
variant of the vesica. No. 2 and the decanter with the sunburst cutting. 
Probably Cork. No. i perhaps late i8th century, and Nos. 2 and 3 early 
The two bowls in the collection of Mr. H. Grandy. 



PLATE XX 





THE GURTEENS AND WATERFORD GLASS-HOUSES 97 

The term " caster place hand " here mentioned refers to the method 
of working the metal of the several pots of the furnace. Each glass blower 
had a chair with long arms on which he rotated the blowing iron with the 
gathering of glass. The four or five chair system was the one usually adopted. 
For a ten-pot furnace four or five sets of workmen would be engaged in 
making the glass objects while the other four or five rested. 

The first chair was termed the caster hole chair, consisting of a blower 
and three assistants, known as servitor, footmaker, and taker-in, or boy, 
and was used for large pieces, jugs, decanters, etc. This chair had an empty 
pot heated with dried beechwood, for reheating the glass. 

The second chair, consisting of four workmen, made fancy articles, 
goods required for cutting, chemical apparatus, etc. This chair reheated 
the glass at the mouth of one of the pots containing fluid metal. The 
third chair, also consisting of four workmen, made almost exclusively wine 
glasses, goblets, tumblers, lamp chimneys, etc. 

The fourth chair, consisting of four or five workmen, did not require 
such skilled operators as the other three, and made chiefly phials and small 
articles. See Plate V. 

In 1835 J. Wright orders a 9-inch bronze lamp-mount with oblong 
links from Mooney of Dublin, and says his prices are considerably higher 
than in Birmingham, and that if he does not come down he will not continue 
with him. This lamp-mount refers probably to the hanging glass dishes for 
lamps. A letter of the same year speaks of the fear of George Gatchell that 
the Wrights might carry on the glass business elsewhere, " for he must 
know that we have the receipts." These " receipts " are those previously 
mentioned, which I now possess. 

J. Wright asks his brother, in a letter of 1835, if he requires a few wine 
glasses, rummers, good plain tumblers, crofts, etc., and asks if the gardevin 
case is not supplied with squares, to send the height, etc. (here follows a 
small drawing of a square decanter). He also states " we have got three very 
nice half pint flasks made of beautiful blue glass." 

Isaac Warren, one of the firm's best customers in Dublin, when order- 
ing glass in 1835 mentions plain decanters, plain butter coolers, plain glass 
stands, green pickle pots, glass salad bowls, and blue butter coolers. Ship 
lights or deck lights at two pence per lb., and hollow-head and mushroom 
stoppers are mentioned in a letter of 1835. 



98 IRISH GLASS 

The last letter I have, referring to the glass works, is one from George 
Saunders dated Waterford, April i8th, 1857, in which he says, " the old 
glass works are yet standing and have never been taken since George 
Gatchell forsook his old establishment where thousands were made in 
times gone by." 




CHAPTER IV 

DRUMREA AND BELFAST GLASS-HOUSES 

BOUT the year 1771 a glass-house was set up at Drumrea, a few 
miles north of Dungannon, in County Tyrone. This factory 
was superintended by Benjamin Edwards, a Bristol glass 
maker, probably brought over by the proprietors of the 
Tyrone Collieries, who perhaps thought that pecuniary 
advantage might be gained from the glass manufacture, as coal and, appar- 
ently, also sand and fire clay were to be found on the spot. 

In 1772 the glass-house was evidently at full work, or in the Dublin 
Journal of July 25th, 1772, and subsequent dates, this advertisement is to 
be found : 

" At the new glass house lately erected at the Tyrone Collieries all 
sorts of the newest fashioned wine, beer and cyder glasses ; enamelled, cut, 
flowered and plain decanters ; water glasses and plates ; epergnes and 
epergne saucers ; candlesticks ; cans ; jugs ; cut, flowered and plain 
salvers ; jelly and sweetmeat glasses ; hall bells, globes and shades ; con- 
fectioners' jars ; with all kinds of glass fit for chemists and mathematicians ; 
salts and salt-linings ; mustard casters ; white phials ; and all kinds of 
bottles for perfumes ; retorts and receivers ; green phials ; green and white 
mustard bottles, and every other article in the glass way are made. The 
glass house is very convenient to all the Province of Ulster and parts of 
Connaught. Letters, etc., to be addressed to the Clerk of the Glass House, 
Drumrea, near Dungannon." 

The manufacture does not appear to have been continued for very long, 
as in the Dublin Journal for June igth, 1773, we find the following notice : 
" The Tyrone glass house from the first of July to be set. Fire clay fit 
for pot making, sand and coals are to be had on the spot, which for a year 
past have been found to answer as well as any in England, and there is no 
doubt but that as good flint glass can be made as that imported. No person 

99 



ioo IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXI 

Two stands for bowls. No. i cut in diamonds and prismatic rings, to fit a 
circular bowl. Probably Waterford, about 1830. No. 2 to fit an oval 
bowl. Probably Dublin or Cork, early i9th century. Similar objects are 
often erroneously called " Potato Rings." 



Three celery glasses. No. i with strawberry diamond cutting divided by split 
bands. Waterford, about 1820-30. Nos. 3 and 4 with shallow diamonds 
and facet cutting respectively. Probably Dublin or Cork, early 
century. National Museum, Dublin. 



PLATE XXI 





DRUMREA AND BELFAST GLASS-HOUSES 101 

need apply unless one who is determined to carry it on in the best manner. 
For further particulars apply to Mr Benjamin Edwards, glass manufacturer, 
or to Davis Dukat, at the Tyrone Collieries, near Dungannon." 

No other reference to this glass-house appears to be forthcoming. 
The manufacture may have been carried on for two or three years, but 
even if it were, it must have ceased about 1775, for in 1776 Benjamin Edwards 
had removed to Belfast and established a glass-house there at the end of the 
Long Bridge. 

As Benjamin Edwards was a Bristol glass manufacturer, it is very 
probable that the Drumrea glass and also the early Belfast glass, if any is 
now to be found, would be very similar in form and decoration to that 
made in Bristol. 

The earliest advertisement I have found of Edwards' Belfast glass 
works occurs in the Belfast News Letter of January Qth, 1781, and is as 
follows : ' Belfast glass Manufactory. Benjamin Edwards at his Flint 
Glass Works in Belfast has now made, and is constantly making, all kinds 
of enamelled, cut and plain wine glasses ; cut and plain decanters with flint 
stoppers ; crofts ; common, dram and punch glasses ; flint and green 
phials ; flint and green gardevins ; retorts ; receivers and all kinds of 
chemical wares ; cruets ; salts ; goblets ; etc. The above Manufactory 
has been completed at a very considerable expense, and is equal to any in 
England, and there are vast quantities of goods of all sorts now on hands. 
The proprietor has brought a glass cutter from England, who is constantly 
employed, and hopes to merit the continuance of the favour of all the friends 
of Ireland, which he has already received." In 1783 Benjamin Edwards 
erected an iron foundry adjacent to his glass works ; and had as a partner a 
man named Shaw, who, however, retired in 1789. 

In 1784 Edwards and Shaw advertised that they were making all kinds 
of machinery, also engines for grinding glass materials, and bottle moulds, 
round, square, or fluted. In 1811 Edwards retired from the foundry, 
which was then carried on by John Chaine and John Young until 1818, 
when the partnership was dissolved. By 1787 the glass business had evi- 
dently increased, as an advertisement appeared for two or three apprentices 
to the glass-cutting and engraving, and in December of the same year, 
Edwards returns his most grateful thanks to his friends and customers 
for their favours since his commencement in establishing the Flint Glass 



102 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXII 

Celery glass with cross-cut diamond cutting, panels divided by split bands, 
and fan escallop edge. Waterford, about 1830. Author's Collection. 
See patterns of celery glasses on Plate X. 



Water jug. Engraved and moulded glass. Marked WATERLOO Co CORK, 
about 1820. Author's Collection. Note the conventional flower so 
often found on Cork glass. 



PLATE XXII 




DRUMREA AND BELFAST GLASS-HOUSES 103 

Manufactory at the end of the Long Bridge. He also says that as he is now 
so established, he is enabled and determined to lower the price of all cut, 
flowered, and plain glass ; no bit of his manufacture being sold at either 
of the glass and china shops. 

In 1788 he opened a warehouse on Hanover Quay, Belfast, for the sale 
of his glass and foundry goods, and stated that he had a complete assort- 
ment of cut, plain, and figured glass, and also pots, pans, griddles, saucepans, 
etc., all made at his new foundry, Bridge End. 

In 1800 Benjamin Edwards took his sons John, Hugh, and Benjamin, 
and his son-in-law, William Ankatell, into partnership, and stated that in 
future the firm would be known as Benjamin Edwards and Sons, and that 
they had opened a warehouse on the Canal Quay, opposite the Sugar House, 
Newry, for the sale of cast metal and glass. 

In the following year an advertisement appears in the Belfast News 
Letter of November iyth, announcing that they have erected an iron foundry 
on the Merchant's Quay, Newry, and that they have for sale at their flint 
glass-house in Belfast and at their warehouse in Newry all descriptions of 
flint glass, cut, flowered, enamelled, and plain, all of their own manu- 
facture, also first, second, and third window glass. This reference to 
enamelled glass is the latest one I have found connected with Irish glass 
works. Probably the window glass advertised was not of their own manu- 
facture, as only flint glass seems to have been referred to in any of their 
advertisements . 

The dissolution of the partnership is announced in the Belfast News 
Letter of November iyth, 1803, as follows : 

" The partnership hitherto carried on by John Edwards, Hugh Edwards, 
Benjamin Edwards jun., and William Ankatell, under the firm of Benjamin 
Edwards and Sons, is now dissolved. The business will in future be carried 
on by Benjamin Edwards sen., Hugh Edwards, Benjamin Edwards jun., and 
William Ankatell, under the firm of Benjamin Edwards. Foundries at 
Belfast and Newry. Flint glass as usual." 

John Edwards, who retired from the partnership, established a new 
flint glass-house at 79 Peter's Hill, Belfast. This will be described later. 

In the Belfast News Letter of June i8th, 1804, and November 8th, 
1805, Benjamin Edwards and Sons advertise that they still continue to manu- 
facture all descriptions of decanters, wine glasses, goblets, tumblers, salad 



104 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXIII 

Four finger bowls, moulded and engraved glass. No. i marked B. EDWARDS 
BELFAST ; No. 2 MARY CARTER & SON 80 GRAFTON ST DUBLIN ; No. 3 
FRANCIS COLLINS DUBLIN ; No. 4 Cork glass. Cut and engraved. 
Early igth century. Author's Collection. 



Three dessert plates. No. i with plain diamond cutting. No. 2 with alter- 
nate panels of cross-cut diamonds and flutes. No. 3 with strawberry dia- 
monds. Probably Cork, early igth century. Author's Collection. 



Four pickle jars. Cut and engraved, showing various types. Nos. i and 2 
probably Dublin or Cork. Nos. 3 and 4 probably Waterford. National 
Museum, Dublin. 



PLATE XXIII 




DRUMREA AND BELFAST GLASS-HOUSES 105 

bowls, etc., cut and engraved to the newest patterns, and equal to any in the 
kingdom, and also that they have at the glass works an elegant assortment 
of fine flint glass, cut, flowered, and plain, manufactured and finished in the 
first style ; also a variety of liqueur, cruet, and other stands in silver and 
plated ware, Grecian and other lamps, lustres and girandoles. 

Probably the silver and plated stands were imported, and, as at Water- 
ford, were fitted with bottles at the glass works. 

Early in 1807 Benjamin Edwards, sen., retired from the firm, and in 
the Belfast News Letter of February i3th, 1807, it was announced that in 
future the business would be carried on by Hugh and Benjamin Edwards, 
jun., and that at the glass works were to be had cut and plain glass ; cruet, 
liqueur and other stands ; lustres ; girandoles ; staircase, Grecian, and 
other lamps of the purest flint glass. 

In 1811 the partnership was again dissolved and Benjamin Edwards, 
sen., resumed the business of founder and glass maker at Belfast and Newry. 
In July of the same year he advertised that he would take into partnership 
one, two, or more partners of property, or he would dispose of his entire 
interest in the business. 

Benjamin Edwards, sen., died at his residence, Bridge End, Belfast, on 
September 29th, 1812, aged 72, and in December the lease of the glass- 
house with buildings and offices was offered for sale by auction. 

Apparently Benjamin Edwards, jun., purchased the lease, as in the 
Belfast News Letter of September i4th, 1813, he advertises that he intends 
carrying on the old-established glass works, Bridge End, Belfast, in all its 
numerous branches, in the same extensive manner as heretofore. 

In 1815 he appears to have got into financial difficulties, as it is stated 
that in December of that year there was to be a meeting of the creditors of 
Benjamin Edwards, deceased, Hugh and Benjamin Edwards, jun. ; and in 
1816 the foundries at Ballymacarrett (Bridge End), Belfast, and at Newry 
were advertised for sale. 

Benjamin Edwards appears to have got over his difficulties, as in 
September, 1824, ne advertises that in order to supply his customers, he has 
taken that large concern (Smylie's Glass House) adjoining his present 
establishment, and will be supplied with every article in the glass line, 
manufactured by himself and under his own inspection. 

In this venture he does not seem to have been very successful, as in 



io6 IRISH GLASS 

November, 1826, the glass-house premises of Benjamin Edwards and Co. 
were advertised to be sold, and it was stated that at the concerns the late 
Mr. Edwards carried on the glass manufacture on an extensive scale, and 
the same have been carried on ever since his decease, and that upwards of 
five thousand pounds had been spent in improvements to the property. In 
August of the following year the concerns were purchased by Thomas J. 
Wright and Co. (Thomas Joseph Wright, Robert M'Crory, and A. J. 
M'Crory) who announced the reopening of the Ballymacarrett glass works, 
late Benjamin Edwards and Sons, and state that the proprietors will be 
constantly supplied with an assortment of flint glass. 

On January izth, 1829, ^e partnership of T. J. Wright and Co. was 
dissolved by mutual consent, and on January iQth, and following days, the 
entire stock of the Ballymacarrett glass works, comprising every article of 
cut and plain flint glass ; glass-house pots ; sand and a variety of utensils, 
was to be sold by auction at the warehouse in front of the concern. 

Probably the manufacture ceased about this period, but in 1836 A. J. 
M'Crory advertised to be let the old-established flint glass manufactory in 
Ballymacarrett with the warehouses, offices, houses, and other buildings, 
and stated that the cone is forty feet in diameter and capable of being en- 
larged, and that the wareroom is extensive and fronts the street. 

No further notice of this glass-house appears, as far as I have been 
able to ascertain. 

In 1784 another glass-house was erected in Belfast, also at the end of 
the Long Bridge. 

In Benn's History of Belfast it is stated that thirteen persons subscribed 
jioo each for starting the glass bottle manufacture in the town, and among 
these were Cunningham Greg, James T. Kennedy, Charles Brett, Robert 
Hyndman, Hugh Hyndman, John Cunningham, and John Smylie, the firm 
being known under the name of John Smylie and Co. 

In the Belfast News Letter of August iQth, 1785, we find this notice : 

' On Saturday last (i3th) the new glass-house at the end of the Long 
Bridge was finished. It is erected for the purpose of making window glass 
and glass bottles. Its diameter in the clear is sixty feet, and in the height 
about one hundred and twenty feet, being the largest of any in Great Britain 
or Ireland." 

On April i7th, 1786, it was advertised that " this day the new glass 



DRUMREA AND BELFAST GLASS-HOUSES 107 

house began to work. The House opened with making black bottles, and 
will be ready to make window glass in about three months " ; also on April 
2ist, John Smylie and Co. stated, that " Glass bottles equal to any imported 
here are now ready for sale at the new glass-house Belfast, at twenty-two 
shillings per gross for twelves, thirteens and fourteens, and twenty shillings 
for pints. Vitriol bottles, bell glasses of all sizes ; gooseberry bottles; 
bottles for Gardevins, and every other article in the black glass way to be 
had. Gentlemen may have their initials stamped on their bottles for an 
additional four shillings and four pence per gross, besides paying for the 
stamp, or their name in full at a reasonable rate in proportion to its length. 
The proprietors beg to inform the public that in a short time they will 
make window glass." In accordance with this promise, though not in a 
' short time," they stated that the Glass-House Company began to make 
window glass on January i4th, 1788, and in March the price was forty-two 
shillings per side for good quality and forty shillings for second quality. 
In March, 1789, Smylie and Co. advertised that they have ready crown 
glass at much lower rates than imported, and that it is now (though not at 
first) superior to any Bristol glass and 14 per cent cheaper. 

In 1792 Smylie and Co. erected a second glass-house near their other 
one, and in June of that year, it is said the foundation-stone was laid. 

In January, 1794, they advertised that, having erected a new glass-house 
for the purpose of making glass bottles, they have now ready for sale an ex- 
tensive assortment of superior quality to any formerly made in this kingdom. 
Window glass supplied as usual. Bottle blowers, soaper's waste, and broken 
bottles wanted. 

This new glass-house was used only for making bottles, and the first 
one retained for window glass. 

From 1787 to 1794 the value of the window glass made annually by 
Smylie and Co. varied between 1377 and 9512. 

The manufacture of bottles and window glass appears to have been 
carried on by Smylie for some years, but shortly after 1800 it ceased, though 
for what reason is not at present known. 

In June, 1809, the joint proprietors of the old glass-house concern at 
the end of the Long Bridge informed the public " that they are ready to 
receive proposals, and to treat with any persons who may wish to be accom- 
modated with either the entire of the concern, on which two glass-houses 



io8 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXIV 
Three pickle jars. Cork, about 1820-30. Author's Collection. 



Three water jugs. Cut in large, shallow diamonds and hollow flutes. Nos 
i and 3 of uncommon shape. Probably Dublin or Cork, early iQt 
century. No. 2 probably Cork, about 1 820-30. In the possession of Mr 
F. C. Cowper. 



PLATE XXIV 




DRUMREA AND BELFAST GLASS-HOUSES 109 

are erected with all suitable offices, or they will let it in divisions to suit 
purchasers." It does not appear that anyone purchased the concern in order 
to carry on the glass business, for in September, 1823, the whole of the 
ground with extensive buildings erected thereon, adjoining the east end of 
the Long Bridge, formerly occupied as a manufactory of glass, was adver- 
tised to be let. It was also stated that the buildings consisted of a conical 
chimney one hundred and eighty feet in circumference and one hundred 
and fifty feet high, being the largest in Ireland, and storehouses, vaults, 
offices, etc. 

The chimney here referred to must be that of the first glass works erected 
by Smylie and Co., the second chimney having evidently been pulled down 
before this date. 

There were originally three chimneys, two belonging to Smy lie's glass 
works and one to Edwards'. One, as we see, was pulled down before 1823, 
a second probably about the middle of the nineteenth century, and the third 
still remains standing. It is uncertain, however, whether this one belonged 
to Smy lie's glass works or to Edwards'. 

As previously mentioned Smy lie's glass-house was taken over by 
Benjamin Edwards, jun., in 1824. Smylie and Co. appear to have had a 
warehouse in Dublin after the closing of the glass-house, for in Dublin 
directories from 1800 to 1820 the name of " John Smylie and Co., Belfast 
glass merchants," is to be found. 

As stated on page 103 John Edwards, when he retired from the firm of 
Benjamin Edwards and Sons in 1803, established a new flint glass-house at 
79 Peter's Hill, Belfast. Previous to this, in 1789, he had set up a tobacco 
pipe manufactory, adjoining the glass-house at the end of the Long Bridge. 

He did not retain the glass works long, as in 1804 he became bankrupt, 
and the concern was purchased by Joseph Wright, who stated that he handed 
it over to a company without " a farthing profit." No profiteering in those 
days ! John Edwards ceased to have any connection with this glass-house, 
but his name appears in a Belfast directory of 1820, as proprietor of a glass 
works at Ballymacarrett, probably with his brother Benjamin. The glass- 
house on Peter's Hill was known as the Belfast Glass Works, and was carried 
on under the firm of Geddes, McDowell and Co. In an advertisement, 
dated December 2Oth, 1806, in the Belfast News Letter, they return thanks 
to the public for encouragement since their commencement, and inform 



no IRISH GLASS 

them that they have now enlarged their works so -as to execute any order 
they may be favoured with. They have now for sale an extensive assort- 
ment of flint glass, plain, cut, and engraved ; cruet and liqueur stands ; 
lustres ; candlesticks, etc. ; Grecian, hall and staircase lamps fully mounted 
on the shortest notice. 

On August 1 5th, 1807, the partnership of Geddes, McDowell and Co. 
was dissolved, James Geddes retiring, and in future the business was to be 
carried on by Robert McDowell, Henry McDowell, John McConnell, 
Joseph Wright, and John Martin. 

On July loth, 1809, they advertised that they were well supplied with 
plain, cut, and engraved glass ; lustres ; girandoles ; chandeliers, etc., and 
also stated that from recent discoveries and improvements they could supply 
goods equal, if not superior, to any hitherto manufactured in any part of 
Ireland. 

This advertisement appears to have greatly annoyed the Edwards' who 
had the glass works at the end of the Long Bridge, consequently on July 
28th they also inserted a notice in the newspaper as follows : 

" Old Established Flint Glass Works, Long Bridge, Belfast. Hugh 
and Benjamin Edwards, jun., continue to manufacture at the above works, 
flint glass of every denomination of a most superior quality. Their thorough 
knowledge of the business, acquired during a practice of upwards of twenty 
years, and under the guidance of their father, a professional Glass maker, 
enables them to assure their friends and the public that they have a great 
variety of cut, plain and engraved glass that cannot be surpassed by the 
recent discoveries of persons totally unacquainted with the nature of any 
kind of glass." 

Notwithstanding this want of knowledge the Belfast Glass Works 
continued the manufacture. In 1813 it ceased work for a time owing to 
repairs being necessary, but in May, 1814, the proprietors stated that they 
had recommenced work, and had now ready flint glass of every description 
equal to any made in Great Britain or Ireland ; also that glass was cut and 
engraved to any pattern. 

In 1823 they again ceased working for a short time on account of 
having to build a new furnace, but by December it was finished and they 
were at full work. The numbers of the street appear to have been changed 
about this period, for in 1828 the number is given as 14 Peter's Hill, and 



DRUMREA AND BELFAST GLASS-HOUSES in 

the proprietors advertised that they would reduce the price of all plain 
glass 30 per cent for ready money. In October, 1829, they said that on 
account of the large quantity of glass on hands they would reduce it 40 
per cent. 

In March, 1833, the partners stated that, as they were intending to 
relinquish the business on May ist, they would let or sell the interest in the 
concern, which was in complete repair and at full work. 

It is uncertain if the glass-house changed hands at this period or not, 
but in February, 1836, " The Belfast Glasswork Company " state that they 
have now commenced manufacturing, and offer for sale on the most moderate 
terms every article of flint glass at their works, Peter's Hill. They also state 
that they want good glass blowers, and that the highest price will be given 
for broken glass. 

In October, 1838, in consequence of the death of one of the partners, 
the Belfast Glass Works was offered for sale. In the advertisement it is 
stated that " the concern consists of a six-pot furnace put up within the last 
six months, and capable of manufacturing four thousand pounds of goods 
weekly ; with all other requirements, and is at full work. That there are 
extensive warehouses and show rooms. The entire premises are held on 
lease for thirty-three years at a rent of 69. 18. 6, and have been established 
for about thirty years. Any person treating for the concern can have the 
entire stock-in-trade consisting of cut and plain glass, utensils, coals, sand, 
pots, moulds, etc." It is not certain if the Belfast Glass Works ceased at 
this time, but about 1840 it appears to have been purchased by John Kane, 
who will be mentioned later. 

About 1822 John Wheeler, who had been in the employment of Benjamin 
Edwards and Sons, erected a new glass-house for making flint glass at the 
end of the Long Bridge, Belfast. In the Belfast News Letter of June 24th, 
1823, he states that his new established glass works, Bridge End, are now 
completed, and in full operation. From his long experience in the 
manufacture of glass, he says he is enabled to supply glass of a superior 
quality. 

In the next year Wheeler appears in partnership with J. Stanfield, jun., 
and John Kane, a brewer and wine merchant. In December, 1825, ** was 
stated that the warehouse of the late Ballymacarrett glass-house was burnt 
on October 27th, and that Kane, Stanfield, and Wheeler, proprietors of the 



ii2 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXV 

i . Water jug with strawberry and cross-cut diamonds. Probably Water- 
ford, early iQth century. No. 2. Claret jug with strawberry 
diamonds and splits. Probably Dublin or Cork. Late i8th century. 
No. 3. Water jug on hollow base. Probably Dublin or Cork. 
Late 1 8th century. National Museum, Dublin. 



Five wine glasses with engraved patterns. Cork glass. Nos. i to 4 early 
1 9th century. No. 5 late i8th. Note the vesica cutting on Nos. 3 
and 4, and the conventional flower on No. 5. Author's Collection. 



Three water jugs. Cork. No. i with diamond cutting and flanged base, 
about 1830. Nos. 2 and 3 with variants of the vesica cutting so often 
found on Cork glass. No. 3 with mould marks at the base. Early 
century. Author's Collection. 



PLATE XXV 




DRUMREA AND BELFAST GLASS-HOUSES 113 

late glass-house company, offered a reward of two hundred pounds for the 
capture of whoever set it on fire. 

It seems from the use of the word " late " here, that the partnership was 
dissolved, and evidently Wheeler and Stanfield retired, for in October, 
1827, Kane alone advertises that he has enlarged his glass-house at Bally- 
macarrett, which enables him to be constantly supplied with an extensive 
assortment of plain and cut glass. 

In 1829 the concern was known as the Shamrock Glass Works, and in 
September Kane advertises for an experienced workman at the caster, 
cutting, and bye-places. In 1833 he opened a warehouse at 40 North Street, 
Belfast, for the sale of his glass, and stated that he was making rich cut 
glass ; patent deck lights ; heavy, light, and lunette watch glasses ; figure 
shades, oval and round, etc. 

In 1840 Kane, as mentioned on page in, purchased the Belfast Glass 
Works on Peter's Hill, as in a Belfast directory of 1840 his name appears as 
that of a glass manufacturer, " Works, Peter's Hill and Ballymacarrett." 

He carried on both concerns until about 1850, when the Peter's Hill 
glass-house seems to have ceased work. The Ballymacarrett glass-house 
appears to have been purchased by Anthony O'Connor and William Ross, 
who are entered in a directory of 1852 as glass manufacturers and watch 
glass makers, Short Strand, Ballymacarrett. 

In 1854 tne name of Christopher O'Connor appears as a glass manu- 
facturer, Ballymacarrett, and from 1858 to 1868 that of William Ross. 

Between 1865 and 1878 the names of William McCormick, Robert 
Boyce, and John Edwards appear in Belfast directories as those of glass 
manufacturers, but probably only bottles were made. 

The manufacture of flint glass ceased probably about 1868, having 
lasted for nearly one hundred years. 

In the Dublin Exhibition of 1853 W. A. Ross and Co., glass manu- 
facturers, Belfast, exhibited epergnes made from Irish sand, also a pillar 
showing eight different descriptions of watch glasses. The Irish sand here 
mentioned came most probably from Muckish Mountain, Co. Donegal. 

In the Belfast News Letter for December 28th, 1813, this advertisement 
is to be found : " Glass Manufacture, Queen Street, Belfast. Wallace 
Tennant intimates that his works being now completed, he will about 
January ist, 1814, begin to manufacture every description of flint glass. 



ii4 IRISH GLASS 

He has general and particular knowledge of the business." In a Belfast 
directory of 1819 his name occurs as that of a glass cutter ; probably the 
works did not pay and he became simply a cutter of glass manufactured 
elsewhere. 

In the Cork Mercantile Chronicle of April lyth, 1805, Wallace Tennant 
advertises that he will open his fancy and useful glass warehouse on the 
Grand Parade, Cork, and solicits patronage for Cork manufacture, as he 
has no doubt of producing articles of equal merit to those imported. In 
this case, as later on in Belfast, he probably was simply a glass cutter. 

Although glass was made in large quantities in Belfast, it was also 
imported from Dublin, Cork, and Waterford. A notice on page 83 refers 
to Waterford glass being sold in Belfast, and in 1821 a supply of richly cut 
glass from Cork was imported into Belfast and sold by auction. 

Between 1870 and the present day the names of proprietors of glass 
bottle works in Belfast are to be found in directories. These include John 
Edwards and W. J. Edwards ; Dixon and Sons, Belfast bottle works ; and 
D. Wright, Queen's Bridge glass bottle works. 

I was informed by Mr. Richard Pugh, the last of the flint glass makers 
in Ireland, that on the closing of the Waterford factory in 1851, some of 
the workmen went to the Belfast glass works, and it is said that some also 
went to the United States. 



CHAPTER V 

CORK GLASS-HOUSES 

PREMIUMS were offered by the Dublin Society as early as 1753, 
to anyone erecting a glass-house in Cork. It is not, however, 
until the year 1782 that we find any information regarding the 
establishment of glass works in Cork. 
On November 6th, 1783, Atwell Hayes, Thomas Burnett, 
and Francis Richard Rowe presented a petition to Parliament for aid to 
establish the manufacture of glass in Cork, and stated that, in the month 
of May, 1782, they had, at great expense and under a variety of difficulties, 
embarked on the undertaking by sending a proper person to England to 
take plans of all the most complete and extensive works of that kind carried 
on there, and also to employ experienced hands, and procure the best 
materials ; the accomplishment of which had been attended with heavy 
expense and great inconvenience. Also that they had surmounted all 
difficulties, and procured the most ample set of materials and implements, 
and a set of the most able artificers England could afford ; which they had 
in their employ for several months past at a great expense ; and that they 
had erected two glass-houses, one for bottle and window glass, and the 
other for plate and flint glass of all denominations, which were allowed to 
be as good as any in Europe. The establishment had already been attended, 
they said, with an expense of upwards of six thousand pounds. From this 
petition we see that all the workmen and materials were brought over from 
England, just as they were for the Waterford glass works. 

In the Hibernian Chronicle for May 6th, 1784, we find this notice refer- 
ring to the factory : " Thomas Burnett and Glass House Company take this 
opportunity of informing the public that they have now ready for sale at 
their Glass manufactory in Hanover Street, Cork, a great variety of plain 
and cut flint glass, with black bottles of every denomination, which for 
excellence of quality is equal to any made in England. They now flatter 

"5 



n6 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXVI 



Three dishes. Nos. i and 3 with plain diamonds and strawberry diamonds 
respectively. Probably Waterford, early iQth century. No. 2 with large 
shallow diamonds. Note the varying thickness of the glass at the edge. 
Probably Cork. Author's Collection. 



Moulded glass dish, edges cut. Marked underneath in centre " C M & Co.,"' 
Charles Mulvany and Co., Dublin. About 1820. Author's Collection^ 



PLATE XXVI 




CORK GLASS-HOUSES 117 

themselves that after upwards of two years' perseverance through a variety 
of difficulties they have established this useful branch of business on such a 
footing as must render the greatest satisfaction to those who favour them 
with their commands, not doubting the support of their fellow citizens and 
countrymen. N.B. John Bellesaigne next door to said glass-house retails 
the glass of said manufactory only." This John Bellesaigne had a glass 
shop on the Long Quay in 1773, and afterwards must have moved to 
Hanover Street. In 1787 he again moved, this time to Patrick Street, 
where, he stated, he had a great variety of cut and engraved flint glass, which 
he himself saw made in Waterford. 

In February, 1785, another notice appears in the Hibernian Chronicle 
stating that " the Proprietors of the Cork Glass-house have now ready for 
sale every kind of bottles and squares, and will engage the quality to be as 
good as any ever imported or made in this kingdom." In 1785 Francis 
Richard Rowe became bankrupt, and in August of that year an advertise- 
ment appeared in the Dublin Evening Post stating that there was to be sold 
by auction at the Exchange of Cork, on Thursday, September 28th, the 
bankrupt F. R. Rowe's interest in the one-third share of the two new capital 
glass-houses, one for making white and the other for making black glass, in 
the city of Cork, both in complete order and in full working. 

Rowe probably left at this time, and after about 1787 Thomas Burnett 
appears to have ceased to have any connection with the firm. In 1787 
Atwell Hayes and Co. received a premium from the Dublin Society for 
their glass made during the year ending in March, and valued at 1600. 

Shortly after this Philip Allen appears as one of the proprietors with 
Atwell Hayes. From the following advertisements in the New Cork Evening 
Post of July 2nd, and August 3oth, 1792, it would appear that perhaps the 
factory ceased work for a time after 1787. No premiums were claimed 
from the Dublin Society between the years 1788 and 1792. The advertise- 
ments read : 

" Atwell Hayes and Philip Allen proprietors of the Cork Glass House 
beg to acquaint their fellow citizens and the public in general that they are 
now at full work, and are ready to receive all orders for flint glass, which 
they will be particular to have executed with accuracy and despatch and on 
such terms as to ensure them a preference. N.B. Glass cut to any pattern 
for country orders." 



ii8 IRISH GLASS 

" As the flint glass house is now established, the proprietors mean to 
set trie crown and bottle house to work, for which purpose they will take 
in one or two partners." 

In 1793 and 1794 they received premiums from the Dublin Society for 
flint glass valued at 2304 and 500 respectively. 

In 1793 another partner named Hickman joined the firm, and in 
January of that year Allen, Hickman, and Hayes, proprietors of the New 
Cork Glass House, advertise that they will sell by retail as well as wholesale. 
In this year they opened a shop in Patrick Street, Cork, for the sale of their 
flint glass. 

The exact date when Atwell Hayes and Co. ceased to be proprietors 
of the Cork glass-house is not known. A notice in the Cork Advertiser 
states that they exported twenty-four hogsheads of glass from Cork in 1799, 
but probably shortly after 1800 they retired. 

In 1803 the proprietors were Joseph Graham and Co., who in June 
advertised that, owing to the high price of materials and labour, they had 
been compelled to raise the price of wine bottles from twenty-four shillings 
to twenty-six shillings, British, per gross. 

The partnership of Joseph Graham and Co. (William Kellock, Joseph 
Graham, and Joseph Salkeld) was dissolved on October ist, 1804, when 
William Kellock retired. Joseph Graham and Co. carried on the business 
for a few years, but in 1810 it had again changed hands, Smith, White and 
Co. being the proprietors. 

In January, 1812, a notice appears in the Cork Mercantile Chronicle 
stating that the Cork Glass House Company will in future be carried on 
under the firm of William Smith and Co. 

There seems to have been some friction between the partners, Smith 
and White, for in May, 1812, White inserted the following notice in the 
same newspaper : 

" The public and all those dealing with the Cork Glass House Com- 
pany are requested to take notice that the undersigned William White is a 
partner in the above mentioned concern ; that the firm was changed without 
his concurrence ; that in consequence of the other partners he had been 
lately prevented from interfering in the management of the business. The 
said W. White also cautions all persons against purchasing the concern or 
the stock without his consent, and requests that the tenants to whom he, as 



CORK GLASS-HOUSES 119 

one of the partners, has executed leases, may not pay their rents, except to 
such persons as shall have authority from him, as he is about to proceed in 
a Court of Equity to obtain relief against his partners for their unjust pro- 
ceedings. 

Cork, May 3rd, 1812. (Signed) William White." 

It is not known if White retired from the concern at this period, but 
shortly afterwards, and until about 1818, the business was carried on under 
the firm of William Smith and Co. 

In April, 1817, a one-third share in the Hanover Street Glass House, 
which was then stated to be at full and constant work, was offered for sale. 

Possibly no one purchased this share, for in the next year the whole 
concern was advertised for sale. There does not seem to have been much 
demand for it, as the following notice appears in the Cork Southern Reporter 
from April 23rd to August nth, 1818 : 

" To be sold with the consent of all concerned the old Hanover Street 
Glass House, Cork. The premises extend from Hanover Street to Lamley's 
Lane, and have a quay on the south side of the river. The glass house 
contains every accommodation for making flint glass and black bottles. 
The glass cutting machinery is modern, and of the best description, and 
has as a moving power a steam engine lately erected. Apply to Pope and 
Besnard, Thomas Carey, or to Johnson and Swiney, South Mall, Cork." 

This sale was objected to by John Graham and Edward Brown, who 
said that they had an interest in the Hanover Street glass-house, but during 
May and June, 1818, the stock of glass belonging to the factory was sold by 
auction by William West, and included cut lustres, Grecian lamps, four- 
light Grecian lamps richly cut with patent drops, hall globes, side bells, 
candlesticks, dessert sets, butter coolers, pickle glasses, sugar bowls, cream 
ewers, jelly glasses, salt cellars, jugs, decanters, rummers, wine and finger 
glasses, wine coolers, etc. 

Graham and Brown, mentioned above, had a glass-cutting establish- 
ment at Glanmire, close to Cork, and in May, 1820, they advertised that as 
efforts were being made to introduce glass ware into Ireland, but not of the 
manufacture of the country, they would open a warehouse in the Grand 
Parade, Cork, for the sale of their own glass. 

This glass was made probably at the Hanover Street glass-house 



izo IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXVII 

Four salt cellars. No. i plain, Nos. 2 and 4 cut, and No. 3 moulded. 
Probably Dublin or Cork glass, early igth century. 



i. Egg-cup, probably Waterford. Nos. 2, 3, and 4 salt-cellars, probably 
Waterford, early iQth century. No. 5 salt-cellar, moulded glass, 
probably Irish, late i8th century. Author's Collection. 



Three candlesticks. Nos. i and 2 moulded glass with cup-shaped nozzles. 
No. 3 cut glass with removable nozzle. Probably Waterford, early 
century. Author's Collection. 



PLATE XXVII 




CORK GLASS-HOUSES 121 

when they had an interest in it, and afterwards it was cut at Glanmire. 
Apparently when the stock was exhausted they went to Dublin, for in 
directories of 1823 an d 1824 their names occur as proprietors of a cut-glass 
warehouse, 48 Lower Sackville Street. 

No later notice of the Hanover Street glass-house is to be found, and 
probably it ceased work in 1818. The site of the glass-house is now occu- 
pied by Messrs. Beamish and Crawford's brewery, on whose premises the 
old glass-house chimney stood, until pulled down in 1915. A view of the 
chimney appears on Plate VII. 

A new glass-house was established in Cork a few years before the 
Hanover Street one ceased work. About the year 1810 the name of Daniel 
Foley appears in Cork directories as the proprietor of a glass wareroom in 
Hanover Street, and in 1815 he erected a glass-house on Wandesford Quay, 
on the opposite side of the south channel of the River Lee from, and a little 
above, the Hanover Street concern. 

This glass works he called the Waterloo Glass House Company, and it 
was established for making both flint and bottle glass. 

In the Overseer, a Cork weekly newspaper, for December 24th, 1816, 
we find the following notice : " Waterloo Glass House. By his forming the 
Waterloo Glass House Company, which is now at work, Mr Daniel Foley 
is giving employment to more than one hundred persons. His workmen 
are well selected, from whose superior skill the most beautiful glass will 
shortly make its appearance to dazzle the eyes of the public, and to outshine 
that of any other competitor. He is to treat his men at Christmas with a 
whole roasted ox, and with everything adequate. They have a new band 
of music with glass instruments, bessons (sic) serpents, horns, trumpets, 
etc., and they have a glass pleasure boat, a cot and a glass net, which when 
seen will astonish the world." 

In the same paper for February nth, 1817, it is stated that " Sir John 
Doyle, commanding the Cork district, had bespoken a large glass trumpet 
from the Waterloo Glass House Company, the sound of which will reach 
to the shores of Seringapatam ! ' 

Daniel Foley appears to have retained his shop in Hanover Street, as 
in 1819 he advertises lustres and fancy glass at his warerooms there. The 
number in Hanover Street is put down sometimes as 14, and at other times 
as 16. 



122 IRISH GLASS 

In 1821, in addition to glass, he states that he sells china, having been 
appointed agent in Cork for Mason's Ironstone china, and Grainger and 
Lee's Worcester china. 

In 1824 Foley opened a warehouse for the retail sale of his glass at 48 
Lower Sackville Street, Dublin, the same place as occupied by Graham 
and Brown, who possibly took on the sale of the Waterloo Company's glass. 
In the advertisement announcing the opening of this warehouse Foley 
states that, owing to the amount of labour and machinery at the Waterloo 
Works, he can execute orders quicker than other firms, and can supply 
glasses for medical purposes, phials, gallipots, etc. In 1825 Geoffrey 
O'Connell became partner with Foley, and in October of that year a notice 
appeared in the Cork Constitution stating that in future the Waterloo Glass 
Works Company would be under the firm of Foley and O'Connell. 

In the same paper for June 27th, 1829, Foley and O'Connell, Waterloo 
Glass Works, Hanover Street, Cork, and 48 Lower Sackville Street, Dublin, 
state that they have reduced the price of glass 20 per cent, and by a 
recent improvement in the process of annealing they are enabled to warrant 
the glass hot- water proof. The firm of Foley and O'Connell carried on the 
business until 1830, when Daniel Foley retired, and in May of that year the 
whole stock of Foley and O'Connell, late partners in trade, was advertised 
to be sold at reduced prices to clear the partnership accounts. When Foley 
retired from the glass-making business he appears to have set up as an agent 
for selling glass and china, and as such his name occurs in Cork directories 
until 1845 ; his place of business being 21 South Mall. 

In January, 1831, the premises were advertised to be sold by auction 
by J. McDonnell, together with the stock of cut glass belonging to the late 
firm of Foley and O'Connell. The sale to be continued until the entire stock 
was disposed of, consisting of decanters, claret jugs, crofts, tumblers,, 
rummers, butter coolers, pickle urns, chimney lustres, chandeliers, ceiling 
lustres, etc. 

Geoffrey O'Connell appears to have purchased the whole concern, for 
in the Cork Constitution of November 24th, 1831, we find the following 
notice : 

" The Waterloo Glass Manufactory is re-established by Geoffrey 
O'Connell who respectfully solicits his old friends for a renewal of their 
business. The warehouses in Hanover Street and Wandesford Quay will 



CORK GLASS-HOUSES 123 

be extensively supplied with cut and plain glass, china, earthenware, lamps, 
lustres, etc., all new and excellent. Cork, November lyth, 1831." 

O'Connell continued the manufacture of glass, and in The Comet, a 
Dublin newspaper, he states in March, 1832, that he has restored the 
Waterloo Glass Works to life and one hundred families to employment ; 
and also that the glass works since their establishment in 1816 had enjoyed 
military patronage. 

In October, 1833, however, he states that he is retiring from business 
and that a great sale of splendid cut glass, ceiling lustres, china, lamps, etc., 
will take place at the Waterloo Glass Works, on Monday, October 28th, and 
following days, until the entire of the magnificent stock is disposed of. He 
says he will sell by auction a matchless collection of property of the newest 
and most fashionable description, selected within the last three years, con- 
sisting of dinner and dessert services, tea and coffee equipages, ceiling 
lustres, lamps, etc. These articles were evidently mostly china, for the sale 
of which he appears to have been an agent. The cut glass consisted of pint 
and quart decanters ; water crofts ; tumblers ; wine, claret, and liqueur 
glasses ; claret and water jugs ; pickle, celery, and jelly glasses ; dessert 
services ; toilet ornaments, and a large collection of miscellaneous property. 

The auction seems to have been continued at intervals until December, 
1833, for advertisements occur up to that period announcing the sale of 
splendid cut-glass decanters, salad bowls, celery glasses, sugar bowls, 
pickle urns, rummers, and wine glasses. 

Notwithstanding that he stated he was retiring from business, he 
advertises in the Cork Constitution of October Qth, 1834, that he has recom- 
menced glass-making, and will be supplied with glass ware, cut and plain, 
of the best quality. The warehouse and stores in Hanover Street are, at the 
same time, announced to be let. 

Owing to the heavy excise duties on glass Geoffrey O'Connell became 
bankrupt in 1835, and in the newspaper there is a notice that there will be 
" an auction, for non-payment of excise duties, of splendid cut and plain 
glass at the Waterloo Glass Works, Clarke's Bridge, on Thursday, June i8th> 
until the entire of the splendid stock is disposed of, consisting of rich cut 
decanters ; jugs ; salad bowls ; celery and pickle glasses ; dessert plates 
and dishes ; tumblers and wine glasses of every description ; hall and 
staircase globes ; side lights ; water crofts and tumblers, etc., after the stock 



i2 4 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXVIII 



Three candlesticks. No. i moulded and slightly cut, with removable nozzle. 
No. 2 plain with cup-shaped nozzle. No. 3 moulded, with removable 
nozzle. Irish, early iQth century. Author's Collection. 



Mirror, with double row of faceted pieces of glass. The outer row of clear 
glass, and the inner of alternate pieces of dark blue and opaque white 
with gold flutes. Chandelier suspended in front. The imitation 
candles were added for electric light. Made by a looking-glass maker, 
probably in Dublin or the South of Ireland. Late i8th century. 
National Museum, Dublin. 



PLATE XXVI! I 





CORK GLASS-HOUSES 125 



is sold, the household furniture of a house in Mardyke Parade is to be 
auctioned." 

Evidently the stock of glass was sold off, as in a Cork newspaper of 
July 2ist, 1835, this announcement occurs : 

' For non-payment of excise duties. To be sold by auction on Wednes- 
day, July 22nd, on the premises situated at Wandesford Quay, in the City 
of Cork, all the fittings-up ; glass cases ; tables ; moulds and working 
implements, together with a steam engine and the fittings-up of the cutting 
shop ; ten excellent pots, a quantity of fireproof clay and bricks, coal, sand, 
cullet, beams and scales, with a variety of other property, all useful in the 
manufacture of glass, such as old timber, lumber, a quantity of arsenic etc., 
also office desk and fittings. John McDonnell auctioneer." 

The Waterloo Glass Works evidently ceased work in 1835, as all the 
fittings and materials were sold, and in February and March, 1836, we find 
this notice in the newspaper : 

' In the matter of Geoffrey O'Connell, a bankrupt, To be sold at 
the Commercial Buildings, Cork, on Tuesday, February i5th, all the bank- 
rupt's interest in the concern known as the Waterloo Glass Works and 
warerooms situated on Wandesford Quay and in Hanover Street. The 
glass house is allowed to be the best adapted for that purpose in the king- 
dom, and requires a very trifling outlay. The premises on Wandesford Quay 
are subject to a rent of 105 per annum, and the Hanover Street ones to 
90 per annum, one and a half years arrears and a mortgage. Full particulars 
from McCarthy and Murphy, 25 South Mall. William Marsh, Auctioneer." 

The last notice regarding Geoffrey O'Connell is an announcement of 
the sale of his debts in June, 1836. The site of the Waterloo Glass Works 
is now occupied by timber stores, and not a trace of the old concern 
remains. 

In the year 1818 a third glass-house was set up in Cork by the brothers 
Edward and Richard Ronayne. This glass-house, which apparently made 
only flint glass, was situated at the western end of the South Terrace and 
was known as the Terrace Glass Works. 

In May, 1819, the brothers Ronayne announce that their glass-house 
is now at work, where glass, plain and cut, of superior quality and newest 
patterns, is on sale at as low prices as at any house in the Empire. 

In 1821 they advertise lustres, Grecian lamps, etc., and state that their 



126 IRISH GLASS 

glass, cut and plain, is superior to any heretofore exhibited in the city, and 
equal to any in the United Kingdom. 

The firm had a shop at No. 25 Patrick Street, Cork, for the retail sale 
of their glass, but in December, 1833, tne Y removed to No. 121 Patrick 
Street, and stated that they had no further connection with No. 25, Mr. 
Norris' shop, and that they were selling glass of all descriptions at the 
factory, South Terrace, 25 per cent under prices hitherto charged, and 
will continue to sell at the establishment they are about to open at 121 
Patrick Street. 

In 1832 they opened a shop for the sale of their glass at No. 2 Dame 
Street, Dublin, the manager being J. Griffin, formerly of Foley's glass shop 
at 48 Lower Sackville Street. The Ronaynes, in 1835, stated that they were 
enlarging their premises in Patrick Street, Cork, and were going to exhibit a 
stock of richly cut quart and pint decanters, claret jugs, dessert services, all 
descriptions of table glass, also plain glass. 

In the Cork Constitution for October 5th, 1837, we find this notice 
referring to the Terrace Glass Works : 

" Flint Glass Manufactory, South Terrace, and at 121 Patrick Street. 
Ronayne Brothers having completed the new arrangements and repair of 
their furnace and engines, are prepared to receive and execute orders for sets 
of glass ware to pattern. The factory and warerooms are now well stocked. 
In the cutting department they employ none but the best hands under the 
superintendence of a first rate artist. They offer goods finished in the most 
splendid style. Military services of glass engraved to order or pattern." 

In 1838 the partnership between Edward and Richard Ronayne was 
dissolved, and the business was carried on by Edward Ronayne alone, who 
announced that he would make glass of the most perfect and brilliant metal, 
ornamentally cut and engraved to order or pattern. He did not continue 
the manufacture very long, as in September, 1841, the Terrace Glass Works 
were advertised to be let. In the Cork Southern Reporter of September 
i4th, 1841, the following notice is to be found: "The old established 
Terrace Glass Works, Cork. Thomas Jones, lessee of John Cotter and the 
Revd. Archibald Robert Hamilton and others, and Joseph Ronayne. To 
be let the old established glass works, warerooms and concerns at the South 
Terrace, in the City of Cork, subject to redemption ; with the following 
articles the exclusive property of the lessors, namely : Steam engine, tools 



CORK GLASS-HOUSES 127 

and apparatus for turning for forty glass cutters, an excellent clay mill 
attached thereto, and a large quantity of pot clay, fire brick, from fifty to 
sixty glass-house iron pans, and all other necessary materials for the im- 
mediate working of the concern. Cork is decidedly the best position in the 
United Kingdom for a glass manufactory, by reason of its long known 
character for superior glass, and the vast extent of home trade, and its large 
exports to foreign markets. Besides these reasons, the small capital neces- 
sary to work the concern, and its quick returns, are inducements to capitalists 
very rarely to be met with. For further particulars apply to Kyrl Allen 
Deane solicitor, offices, Commercial Buildings, Cork, and No. 2 Upper 
Ormond Quay, Dublin." No further notice of this factory occurs, so 
apparently no purchaser came forward to carry on the business of glass- 
making. With the closing of the concern the manufacture of glass ceased 
in Cork, having lasted nearly sixty years. 

No trace of the Terrace Glass Works remains at the present day, the 
site being now occupied by timber stores. 

In his account of the Cork Exhibition of 1852, J. F. Maguire states 
that in 1825 the export orders of Cork would have kept a glass-house with 
eight pots in constant employment ; and also that the Waterloo and Terrace 
Glass Works each employed twenty-four glass blowers, thirty cutters, and 
sixteen apprentices, besides clerks, labourers, etc. 

In Cork, as also in Waterford and Belfast, after the manufacture of 
glass had ceased, some of the glass workers eked out a precarious existence 
for a short time, making small objects in glass, such as tumblers, decanters, 
wine glasses, etc. These are usually of a very poor greenish metal, full of 
small air bubbles, and were hawked about the streets and sold for a few 
pence each. Illustrations of one or two pieces of this glass are given on 
Plate IX. 

The small tumbler I obtained many years ago in Waterford from an old 
man who remembered the glass-house when it was working. He obtained 
the piece from one of the glass workers who tried to make a living, after the 
works were closed, by making and selling such wares. 

In the account of the Cork Exhibition of 1852 noticed above, Maguire 
mentions some of these poor glass makers, and says, " A few weeks since 
my attention was directed to the fact that there were two or three poor 
fellows, journeymen glass blowers, then trying to establish themselves and 



128 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXIX 

Five cruet bottles. No. i cut in printies, No. 2 with fine diamonds and 
slanting blazes, No. 3 with strawberry diamonds, No. 4 with pillar flutes, 
and No. 5 engraved. Most probably all Waterford, early igth century. 
Author's Collection. 



1. Butter cooler with plain diamond cutting. Probably Dublin or Cork, 

early iQth century. National Museum, Dublin. 

2. Piggin with large pillar flutes, pillar band and fan escallop handle. 

Perhaps Belfast, igth century. Author's Collection. 



PLATE XXIX 




CORK GLASS-HOUSES 129 

their trade by hard industry. I went with a friend to visit them, and in a 
remote corner of a smith's yard, under a shed whose roof was pervious to 
the weather, I saw in a kind of twilight, now and then flashed in upon by the 
lurid glare from the opened door of a small furnace, the figures of two 
smoked and toil-grimed men, actively engaged in the manufacture of glass. 
These were men who had worked, twenty years before, in the fine concern 
of Ronayne Brothers ; whose splendid factory and noble warerooms rose 
to my memory, as I beheld the various rude contrivances of this miserable 
shed the naked walls, the broken roof, the little heap of fuel, the scanty 
stock of broken glass, and the couple of hampers in which the entire produce 
of their hard toil was contained. Some little attention has been called to 
their case, and they have received small assistance in fuel and cullet as well 
as orders." 

Maguire also says, " I can remember the time when the glass cutters 
and the glass blowers of Cork took the foremost rank in every public demon- 
stration ; and how as a boy I often listened with delight to the strains of the 
" Glass house Band " a company of musicians consisting exclusively of 
the workmen of one local house. Many of these men earned wages from 
two pounds to five pounds a week, and were remarkable for their intelligence 
and refinement of taste. Unhappily all that is gone, and scarcely more than 
a tradition remains to recall the memory of former industry." 

An old saying in Cork was " as sure as there is a glass cutter in Cork." 



CHAPTER VI 

NEWRY, BALLYCASTLE, AND LONDONDERRY GLASS-HOUSES 

NEWRY 

THE manufacture of flint glass was introduced into Newry 
probably shortly after 1780, when the export of Irish manu- 
factured goods was allowed. The earliest notice, however, as 
yet found referring to glass-making in Newry occurs in the 
year 1792. In the Newry Chronicle of October 22nd to 25th, 
1792, we find the following notice : 

" Newry Flint Glass Manufactory. Emanuel Quin and Co. have 
pleasure in acquainting their friends and the public that they have now 
ready for sale at their glass-house in William Street a great variety of flint 
glass work, both cut and plain, which they are determined to sell at the 
most reduced prices, and will give every encouragement to those who buy 
to sell again. They will have a constant supply of tobacco pipes of their own 
manufacture." 

In the Irish Custom House books glass is entered as having been ex- 
ported from Newry to Carolina in 1785 and 1790, but of course we cannot 
tell if this glass was manufactured in the town. 

In 1795 the proprietors of the William Street glass-house were Michael 
Dunbar and Co., who in the Belfast News Letter of August 7th, 1795, stated 
that at the Newry glass-house, and at their warerooms on the Merchant's 
Quay, they had for sale an extensive variety of flint glass of their own manu- 
facture, which would be found equal in quality to any manufactured in this 
kingdom. 

Michael Dunbar and Co. had a pottery manufacture for black ware and 
tobacco pipes on the Merchant's Quay for some time prior to taking over 
the glass works. In 1793 they advertise black ware and sugar moulds, floor 
and kiln tiles, garden pots, fire bricks, etc., all made at their manufactory 
on the Merchant's Quay. 

130 



NEWRY, BALLYCASTLE & LONDONDERRY GLASS-HOUSES 131 

In 1796 Samuel Hanna and Co. appear as proprietors of the Newry 
glass-house, and in August of that year they advertise for " a person of 
experience and knowledge in a glass-house who would take a share in, and 
undertake the management of, the business." 

Apparently John Chebsey, one of the partners in the Ballybough Glass 
Works, Dublin, either took over the management, or became a partner, as 
in March, 1801, there was advertised to be let " the concern near the Dublin 
Bridge (William Street) whereon the glass-house is built, and lately in posses- 
sion of J. Chebsey, held by lease of lives renewable for ever." Most prob- 
ably the William Street glass-house ceased working about this period. In 
the first volume of the Newry Magazine, published in 1815, it is stated that 
' a manufacture of glass formerly existed in Newry, but for several years it 
has been discontinued." 

No other notice referring to this glass-house occurs until, in the Newry 
Telegraph of August 5th, 1845, this advertisement appears : 

" To be sold the interest in the lease of those extensive premises known 
as the Old Foundry and Glass Works in the town of Newry, county of 
Armagh, situate within a few perches of the terminus of the intended Newry 
and Enniskillen Railroad, and bounded by Needham Street, the Monaghan 
Road, Ruddell's Row and Mrs Magee's gardens." 

No glass appears to have been made in Newry from shortly after 1800, 
until 1824, when a new glass-house was established at No. 16 Edward 
Street. 

In the Belfast News Letter of October 28th, 1824, this notice occurs : 

" Newry Glass works. John R. Watt and Co. have commenced the 
above business and have engaged an experienced foreman, and purchased 
their materials of the best quality. Edward Street, Newry." 

The Newry Telegraph of July nth, 1826, calls attention to the excel- 
lence of Messrs. Watt's glass and says : 

" We are uncertain whether or not we have before now called the 
attention of the public to the beauty of the glass manufactured by Messrs 
Watt and Co. at their glass-house Edward Street, Corry Square. As a proof 
of the excellence of the manufacture, we have been shown some claret 
glasses ordered by His Excellency The Marquis of Wellesley." 

About 1827 J nn Kirkwood became a partner with John R. Watt, and 
in February, 1828, the Newry glass works were advertised for sale ; applica- 



i 3 2 IRISH GLASS 

tion to be made to John Kirkwood, Belfast, or to John R. Watt on the 
premises. 

Watt retired shortly after this, as in the Newry Telegraph of May 2nd 
of the same year a notice was published saying that " the firm of John R. 
Watt and Co. having been dissolved, John Kirkwood, late partner, takes 
into partnership Isaac McCune, and that the business will in future be 
carried on under the firm of Kirkwood and McCune, in Edward Street." 
This partnership was carried on until 1837, when Isaac McCune retired and 
went to the glass works at Bally macarrett, Belfast. 

John Kirkwood, then sole proprietor, in January, 1838, offered the 
Newry glass works for sale, saying that he wished to remove to his exten- 
sive flint glass manufactory at Rainhill, nine miles from Liverpool. In April 
of the same year a notice appears in the Newry Telegraph announcing that 
as he has failed to dispose of the concern, he will continue to conduct the 
Newry glass works. 

The name of Robert Stephen, " Flint Glass Establishment, 16 Edward 
Street," occurs in 1839, but he was probably the retail seller at the factory. 

Kirkwood continued the manufacture of glass in Edward Street until 
1847, but in October of that year the concern was closed, and it was an- 
nounced that the stock-in-trade of the Newry glass works was being sold 
off. This terminated the glass manufacture in Newry, which had been 
carried on altogether for about thirty or forty years. 

Up to the present it has been found impossible to trace any piece of 
Newry glass bearing a mark. The writer has been shown decanters, wine 
glasses, etc., which he was assured were made in Newry, but not having 
been given any definite proofs he was inclined to take the assurance for what 
it was worth. The glass mentioned was of a good white metal, cut in 
rather large flat surfaces. 

Although glass was made in some quantities in Newry, it was imported 
from Cork and Waterford, even during the time it was being made in the 
town. The following notice appears in the Newry Examiner both in 1830 
and 1833 : 

;< Anne Savage, china and glass warehouse, is supplied with an elegant 
assortment of cut flint glass received direct from the manufactories in Cork 
and Waterford." 

In the Report of the Commissioners of Excise Inquiry in 1835, William 



NEWRY, BALLYCASTLE & LONDONDERRY GLASS-HOUSES 133 

Kilpatrick, collector of Excise, Dundalk, stated that the glass works at 
Newry were small and that the glass was sold mostly in the towns round 
about, but that a good deal was sent to Dublin and some was exported. 

No trace remains at the present day of either of the glass-houses formerly 
working in Newry. 

BALLYCASTLE 

In the year 1754 a glass-house was erected at Ballycastle, Co. Antrim, 
and in PUB'S Occurrences, a Dublin newspaper, of June 8th and nth of that 
year, it is stated that " there is a glass house erecting at Ballycastle by a 
company for the making of bottles, window glass, plate glass, etc., which 
when finished will be as complete a building of the kind as any in Europe." 

There was a colliery at Ballycastle working for many years previous to 
this, and having fuel on the spot may have induced the proprietors to 
establish the glass manufacture. 

Ballycastle coal appears to have been used for other glass works in 
Ireland, for in a petition of William Deane, glass maker of Dublin, in 1762, 
he says that he used 1500 worth of coal a year, but if Ballycastle coal were 
used he would require 2000 worth. 

Hugh Boyd, proprietor of the colliery, appears to have been the lead- 
ing partner in the Ballycastle glass-house, and with him were associated 
Jackson Wray, Laurence Cruise, James Urch, and John Magawly. 

On November ist, 1755, Jackson Wray and Laurence Cruise, Esqrs., 
and James Urch, merchant, petitioned Parliament for aid to carry on the 
glass manufacture at Ballycastle, and on February 28th, 1756, it was resolved 
that they deserve encouragement. 

In awarding the premium for manufactures, in June, 1755, the Dublin 
Society stated that the Ballycastle glass-house was not working yet, but by 
October of that year it appears to have been finished, as in the Dublin 
Journal of October i4th, 1755, this notice is to be found : 

" The Ballycastle Glass-house and warehouse and all the materials 
thereto belonging, being now finished and ready to go to work, the public 
both in Dublin and in all the seaports in the Kingdom may be served with 
any quantity of bottles they please to bespeak, as vessels with coal from 
thence may bring bottles to any seaport in the Kingdom, and as said glass 
house is sixty feet in diameter in the clear, capable of carrying on said 



i 3 4 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXX 

Pair of butter coolers. Moulded glass. Marked " FRANCIS COLLINS 
DUBLIN." Early iQth century. National Museum, Dublin. 



Three butter coolers. No. i probably Dublin or Cork. Nos. 2 and 3 
probably Waterford. No. 2 of a very good white glass. National 
Museum, Dublin. 



PLATK XXX 





NEWRY, BALLYCASTLE & LONDONDERRY GLASS-HOUSES 135 

manufacture in all its branches, the proprietors in time intend to make 
window glass and other plate glass which must be of great advantage to the 



nation.' 



Laurence Cruise, one of the partners, appears to have died in 1756, for 
in the Dublin Journal of August 24th, 1756, there was advertised " to be 
sold the third part of the Ballycastle glass-house lately erected for the manu- 
facture of bottles, with all necessary tools, furnace, pots and all materials for 
carrying on for one year. Proposals to be sent to Mrs Cruise, Oxmantown, 
Dublin, or to John Magawly, Ballycastle." 

Hugh Boyd and the other partners appear to have carried on the bottle 
manufacture until 1764, when, at the instance of Boyd, Henry Lunn and 
Thomas Smith Jeudwin, proprietors of a crown glass works in Dublin, 
took a lease of the Ballycastle glass-house at a rent of ,1000 per annum. 

Hugh Boyd died on June i5th, 1765, and Lunn, Jeudwin, and Magawly 
appear to have carried on the manufacture of bottles until about 1766, when 
owing to disagreements between Jackson Wray and Jeudwin and Lunn, 
Lunn appears to have returned to Dublin. Jeudwin and Lunn were awarded 
70 by the Dublin Society in 1765 for glass manufactured by them at Bally- 
castle, and in 1767 Jeudwin and Magawly received 61 for quart bottles 
made by them at Ballycastle, and valued at 1930. 

The last mentioned seem to have continued the business until 1771, 
but on October i2th of that year there is a notice in the Dublin Journal 
stating that there was to be let from the ist of November next the bottle 
house at Ballycastle, with stores, yard, offices, and a parcel of land. Pro- 
posals in writing to be received by Jackson Wray at Ballycastle, or by John 
McAllister in Abbey Street, Dublin. 

No mention is forthcoming as to whether anyone took a lease of the 
concern or not, but apparently it was working until, at least, the early eighties 
of the eighteenth century. In 1781 it was mentioned that a stratum of clay 
had been discovered at Ballycastle which was found to answer very well for 
the glass-house pots, and in 1782 a notice occurs of the arrival in Belfast of 
a ship with glass from Ballycastle. 

Possibly the manufacture ceased shortly after this. The Ballycastle 
colliery was advertised to be let in 1795, but no mention was made of the 
glass-house. Although in the earlier advertisements the proprietors state 
that they intend to make window glass, apparently nothing but bottles was 



136 IRISH GLASS 

manufactured, and at the present day only broken pieces of black bottle glass 
are to be found in the refuse heaps near the site of the glass works. 

The old chimney of the Ballycastle glass-house remained standing until 
December, 1877, or January, 1878, when it was demolished. See 
Plate VII. 

LONDONDERRY 

The only reference, as yet forthcoming, regarding glass-making in 
Londonderry occurs in the year 1820. In the Ordnance Survey of the 
County of Londonderry, published in 1837, it is stated that, in the above- 
mentioned year, a Joseph Moore converted the sugar establishment in 
Londonderry into a glass-house, and with his son carried on the manufacture 
on a small scale until 1825, when it was abandoned owing to the imposition 
of the heavy excise duty on glass. It is not known for certain what kind of 
glass was made at the Londonderry glass-house, but from the statement that 
the manufacture was abandoned owing to excise duty, it is most probable 
that flint glass was produced, as black bottles would not have been liable to 
this heavy duty. 

Small exports of glass from Londonderry to North America are entered 
in the Irish Custom House Books in 1790 and subsequent years, but at 
present we have no information concerning any glass manufacture in the 
town at that period. 



CHAPTER VII 
IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 

DUTY ON IRISH GLASS 

Act of Parliament of 1746 (19 George II, c. 12) placed a duty 
of nine shillings and fourpence on every hundredweight of 
materials for crown, plate, flint, and all white glass, and two 
shillings and fourpence on each hundredweight of materials 
for bottle and green glass made in Great Britain. Section 
XIX of the Act reads : Whereas the importation of glass into Ireland may 
be of great prejudice to the manufacture of glass in Great Britain, it is 
enacted that from the ist of May, 1746, no glass of any kind, except glass of 
Great Britain, be imported into Ireland ; and Section XXI reads : After 
May ist, 1746, no glass of any kind is to be exported from Ireland under a 
penalty of ten shillings for every pound so exported. 

From the drastic prohibitions of this Act it is apparent that at this 
period there was little incentive to make glass in Ireland, and consequently 
few glass-houses existed. 

The restrictions on the exportation of glass from Ireland, imposed by 
the Act of 1746, were removed in 1780 ; but, although the export of glass 
from Ireland was allowed, Acts of Parliament were passed in 1781-2 and 
1787 prohibiting the importation of any glass into Ireland, except that of 
Great Britain or the European dominions of France, under the penalty of 
forfeiture and payment of treble the value of the glass imported. This re- 
striction was, however, removed in 1792. 

Owing to the ability to export glass, and also on account of excise 
duties being placed on glass made in Great Britain, new glass-houses were 
set up in Ireland at Cork, Waterford, Belfast, Dublin, and Newry, shortly 
after 1780. 

An Act of 1781-2 provided that the additional duty on coal imported 

137 



i 3 8 IRISH GLASS 

into Ireland was not to be imposed when the coal was used for the manu- 
facture of glass, sugar, or salt. 

No duty was placed on Irish glass until 1797. By an Act of Parliament 
(37 George III, c. 28) it was provided that from May ist, 1797, upon every 
glass bottle manufactured in Ireland of common or bottle metal, not being 
phials, a duty of one farthing for every quart bottle, and so in proportion 
for any greater or less quantity, not less than one pint, was to be paid by 
the maker ; and also that a licence of twenty shillings a year was to be 
paid by all sellers of glass bottles. 

A licence of twenty pounds a year to be paid by the proprietors of 
glass-houses was imposed by an Act of 1825 (6 George IV, c. 81). 

Various Acts of Parliament were passed between the years 1800 and 
1825 imposing countervailing duties on glass made in Ireland and 
exported. 

This countervailing duty was a duty imposed on articles imported 
from Ireland, the Isle of Man, and other places in the British Dominions, 
into Great Britain, to equalise the charges imposed on them with those im- 
posed on articles manufactured at home or imported from abroad. 

In the year 1825 the first excise duty was placed on glass made in 
Ireland, and according to the Act of Parliament (6 George IV, c. 117) it was 
declared that, on and after July 5th, 1825, on every thousand pounds' weight 
of glass metal for flint or phial glass made in Great Britain and Ireland a 
duty of twelve pounds ten shillings was to be placed ; and on every pound 
of manufactured goods in excess of 50 per cent of the weight of metal 
already paid duty, a duty of sixpence. A drawback of twenty-nine pounds 
three shillings and fourpence on every thousand pounds' weight of flint 
glass exported was allowed, and no glass was to be entitled to the drawback, 
unless worth at least elevenpence per pound. 

This act enforced most exacting conditions with regard to the payment 
of the duty, so that not a pound of glass should evade the tax. The glass- 
house pots were to be sealed up and only to be opened in the presence of an 
excise officer ; no extra materials were on any account to be put into a pot 
once it had been measured, under penalty of a heavy fine ; several hours! 
notice was to be given before a pot was filled or opened, and before glass 
was put into the lear or taken from it, and many other details were to be 
observed. One of the Waterford letters mentions that the excise officers 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 139 

were always in the glass-house, night and day, to see that the provisions of 
the Act were strictly carried out. 

In the report of the Commissioners of Excise Inquiry in 1835, it is 
stated that the duty paid on glass made in Ireland for the year ending 
January 5th, 1833, was as follows : 

Geoffrey O'Connell, Cork 1958 

Ronayne Brothers, Cork 2917 

Martin Crean, Dublin 2491 

Charles Mulvany, Dublin 3476 

George Forbes, Dublin 546 

Costello & Co., Dublin 339 

Isaac McCune, Newry 1269 

John McConnell, Belfast 1651 

John Kane, Belfast 1694 

Gatchells, Waterford 3002 

It was also stated that between 1830 and 1834 tne average annual output 
of glass made in Ireland was between two hundred and three hundred tons. 

In 1835 the excise duty was reduced, and by an act of that year (5 and 6 
William IV, c. 77) it was provided that there was to be a duty of six shillings 
and eightpence on every hundred pounds' weight of glass metal for flint 
glass made in Great Britain and Ireland, and also a duty of twopence per 
pound on every pound of manufactured goods in excess of 40 per cent 
of the weight of metal already paid duty. A drawback of eighteen shillings 
and ninepence was allowed on every hundred pounds' weight of glass 
exported, but no glass was to be entitled to the drawback unless worth 
at least fivepence per pound. 

In one of the Waterford notebooks are some pages with columns of 
figures compiled by Jonathan Wright, manager of the factory, giving details 
of the excise duty for several years between 1830 and 1840. The columns 
are headed " manufactured goods," " laded metal," " excess," " number 
of pots," etc., but these figures I am unable to make anything of. 

During the period of the excise duty, most of the glass was sold by 
weight, and care had to be taken to ensure that each article was made of 
the requisite amount of metal. In the evidence given before the Excise 
Commissioners in 1835 there is the following list of a few articles of Irish 
glass, together with their weight and price : 



i 4 o IRISH GLASS 

PLATE XXXI 

Four cream ewers. Probably Cork or Dublin glass. Nos. i and 3 early 

century. Nos. 2 and 4 about 1830. Nos. 2, 3, and 4 National Museum, 
Dublin. No. i Author's Collection. 



Two salvers. No. i with edge projecting above and below the plate, 
moulded Silesian stem and domed base, about the middle of the i8th 
century, and No. 2 with cut edge and hollow foot, early iQth century. 
Most probably Irish. Author's Collection. 



Four goblets. No. i with plain flat cutting, No. 2 with zigzag splits, No. 3 
with blazes, and No. 4 with alternate panels of plain diamonds and 
pillar flutes. No. i probably Newry, Nos. 2, 3, and 4 probably Water- 
ford. No. 2 early iQth century, Nos. 1,3, and 4 about 1830. Author's 
Collection. 



PLATE XXXI 




IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 141 

Weight Present price Price per dozen 

per dozen. per dozen. before 1825. 

Best Rummers 7^ Ibs. 86 55 

Best Wines 3! Ibs. 4 6 31 

Best Tumblers i Ib. i/- per Ib. lod. per Ib. 

Tale Tumblers 5 Ibs. 2 10 24 

Dram Glasses 2 Ibs. i 10 i 



From about the year 1825 the glass manufacture in Ireland seems to 
have begun to decline. In 1828 the tax on Irish glass produced 26,972, 
while in 1833 the amount had fallen to 17,652. The excise duty was 
removed in 1845, but by that time some of the Irish glass-houses had 
ceased working, and the output from the remaining ones had greatly de- 
creased. 

It is surprising how the flint glass works existed at all under the hard 
and unjust conditions imposed by the excise regulations. The output of 
all the factories was reduced, and some of the glass works had to close down 
altogether. The Ronaynes of Cork said in 1835 that they were then making 
only half of what was produced before the duty was imposed, and Mulvany 
of Dublin stated that wine glasses were then selling at four shillings and 
sixpence a dozen, which before the duty was imposed sold for three shillings 
and a penny. 

A hardship complained of by the flint glass makers was the making of 
phials, and oil, pickle, and drug bottles by the bottle glass makers. Mulvany 
stated in 1835 that the bottle glass makers could produce these of practically 
the same materials as those used by the flint glass manufacturers, but that 
the latter had to pay 563. per cwt. duty, while the former paid only js, 
per cwt. 

During the period the excise regulations were in force numerous illicit 
glass furnaces were set up in various towns in Ireland. These small furnaces, 
known as " little-goes," were erected in out-of-the-way places and produced 
phials, perfume and druggist's bottles, etc. The metal was generally poor, 
being composed of any cullet the makers could obtain. 

In 1785 it was stated that there were nine glass-houses working in 
Ireland, viz. six for flint glass, one for window glass, and two for bottles ; 
and in Observations on the Manufactures, Trade, and Present State of Ireland, 
by John, Lord Sheffield, published in 1785, he says that " nine glass houses 



i 4 2 IRISH GLASS 

have suddenly arisen in Ireland, that the best drinking glasses are sold three 
or four shillings a dozen cheaper than English ones, that most of the drinking 
glasses exported in 1783 went to Portugal, and that previous to 1780 there 
was no glass exported from Ireland." 

In his account of the Cork Exhibition of 1852, J. F. Maguire states, that 
in 1825 there were eleven glass-houses in Ireland ; in 1833, seven two in 
Dublin, two in Cork, one in Belfast, one in Waterford, and one in Newry, 
while in 1852 there were only three two in Dublin for flint glass and 
bottles, and one in Belfast. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

Immense quantities of glass were imported into Ireland from England, 
and some from the Continent, during the eighteenth century, and earlier, 
but, notwithstanding all this, and, also, what was made in the country, 
comparatively very few indeed of the old drinking glasses and wine bottles 
are to be found in the country at the present day. In fact, in Ireland, pieces 
of glass, either English or Irish, dating from even the first half of the eigh- 
teenth century are very seldom to be met with. 

The average imports of glass into Ireland for different years, extracted 
from various sources, are here given. From about 1719 to 1727 the average 
yearly imports of drinking glasses amounted to about 133,000, and of bottles 
to nearly 35,000 dozens, besides other glass ware valued at about 4000. 

In 1737 the average value of the imports for the previous three years 
was as follows : 

> 8. d. 

Glass bottles at 1/4 per dozen 5 2 5 2 J 8 5 

Drinking glasses at 2/- per dozen 846 8 1 1 

Other glass ware, value I 9 I 9 J 8 8 

Rhenish glass, 3 per webb 318 13 4 

Cases at 307- per piece J 94 2 n o 

Vials, 6/8 per 100 359 12 3 



Total 10,640 2 7 

What a difference there is in the price of drinking glasses between 1737 
and now ! Little did the owners in 1737 think that their twopenny glasses 
would ever fetch 20 and more ! 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 143 

In 1740 the average imports were about 60,700 dozens of bottles , 
110,420 drinking glasses, and 1455 cases of glass, and in 1747 the value of 
the imports was a little less than in 1737. The prices of the various articles 
were the same, except that bottles had risen to one shilling and sixpence 
per dozen. 

The imported bottles at this period do not appear always to have been 
satisfactory, for in 1739 one John Sherigley complained that wine was sold 
in bottles named quart bottles, and that merchants had sent for bottles 
beyond the seas, fifteen of which contain only twelve quarts. 

Between the years 1755 and 1761 the imports of bottles varied between 
33,000 and 111,000 dozens annually, the total number of bottles imported 
during these seven years being over four and a half millions. In 1766 
330,454 drinking glasses, 75,000 dozens of bottles, and 281,174 vials were 
imported. 

After about 1770 the imports appear to have declined a little, for in 
1773 about 40,000 dozens of bottles and 210,000 drinking glasses came into 
the country, while about 1783 the drinking glasses had fallen to about 22,000. 

There must have been an enormous amount of breakage in the old days, 
as out of these millions of bottles and drinking glasses, comparatively very 
few remain at the present time. 

Numerous advertisements appear in the eighteenth century Irish news- 
papers, announcing the importation of English glass, chiefly from London, 
Newcastle, Stourbridge, and Bristol. From about 1730 to 1800 the imports 
include : Decanters, branches, sillybub and jelly glasses, beer and wine 
glasses, vials, bottles and glasses (1731) ; English double flint wine glasses, 
eightpence per pound ; single flint wine glasses, two shillings and fourpence 
per dozen (1745) ; flowered and plain wine glasses, beer glasses, water glasses 
and saucers, and diamond cut salts and cruets (1747) ; all sorts of wine 
glasses, champagne and beer glasses cut with any pattern or foliage, green 
bells for gardeners, vials, etc. (1751) ; cruets mounted with Stourbridge 
glass imported into Belfast (1754) ; diamond cut and scalloped bowls and 
dishes, flowered decanters, beer, cyder, and wine glasses diamond cut (1759) ; 
plain, cut, and flowered drinking glasses, cut and plain salad bowls, decanters, 
water plates, candlesticks and salt cellars (1765) ; plain, flowered, enamelled, 
cut and gilt drinking glasses ; sweetmeat and jelly glasses with salvers for 
them (1769) ; gilt, cut, flowered and plain decanters, drinking glasses, 



144 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXXII 

Two views of a cut and engraved glass goblet. Formerly belonging to an 
Orange Lodge. Dublin, made by T. and R. Pugh, about 1870. 
National Museum, Dublin. 



PI.ATK XXXII 





IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL i 4 5 

water glasses and curious cut salts (1773) ; cut glass girandoles by Hand- 
cock, London (1776) ; flowered, plain, and enamelled wine glasses, dram 
and beer glasses, flowered and plain decanters with cut stoppers, wine 
funnels, breast pipes and fountains, nipple shells, urinals, garden bells, ink 
fountains and stands, pomatum pots, jelly glasses, tumblers, cruets, and 
salts (1774) ; festooned and labelled decanters ; wine, water, and hob-nob 
glasses, and flowered tumblers (1776) ; large quantities of girandoles, 
lustres, and cut glass imported into Cork (1791). 

In 1834 a large consignment of rich cut glass was advertised to be sold 
by auction in Belfast, having been " imported from the first English and 
Scotch manufactories." 

After 1780 increasingly large quantities of glass were exported from 
Ireland, and the following lists, giving the towns from which the glass was 
sent and its destination, are taken from the Custom House books preserved 
in the National Library of Ireland : 

Drinking Bottles, Value of other 

glasses. dozens. glass ware. 

I78l 

To West Indies 850 

1782 

Cork to America 488 

Dublin to America 363 

1783 

Cork to Portugal 7>5 I o 120 62 

Belfast to Nova Scotia 2,400 468 

1784 

Cork to Barbadoes 4,800 41 12 o 

Newfoundland 4,800 27 

,, Pennsylvania 1,200 

,, Quebec 2,400 
Dublin to Carolina 



1785 

Waterford to Spain 

West Indies 29 

Cork to Nova Scotia 68 12 

St. Eustatia 24 



146 IRISH GLASS 

Drinking Bottles, Value of other 

glasses. dozens. glass ware. 

Cork to West Indies 1,200 31 10 

Dublin to Pennsylvania 2,802 204 10 

1786 

Cork to Portugal 120 

,, Pennsylvania 1,200 22 

Belfast to Barbadoes 672 

Newry to Carolina 6 

Waterford to New York 215 

1787 

Waterford to Newfoundland 33 

Dublin to New York i ,200 

Belfast to New York 12 

1788 

Waterford to Newfoundland 17 8 

Dublin to New York 8,240 567 

Cork to New York 3 

Cork to Virginia and Maryland 17,280 vials 25 

1789 

Waterford to France i ,440 

Dublin to Spain 8,244 I 53 

Isle of Man 1,728 
Larne to Carolina 

Dublin to New England 4,416 10,656 vials 

1790 

Dublin to Spain 850 240 

Antigua 7,920 216 

New York 10,693 585 

,, Pennsylvania 21,928 

,, Jamaica 1,080 

Waterford to Jersey i ,464 25 

Jamaica 3,744 152 

,, Newfoundland 1,200 49 

Belfast to Carolina , IO 

,, New England 3, 600 vials 67 

New York 422 

,, Virginia and Maryland ^455 

Larne to Carolina ,52 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 



1791 

Dublin to France 

,, Spain 

,, Antigua 

Barbadoes 

,, Jamaica 

,, New England 

,, New York 

,, Pennsylvania 

,, Madeira 
Waterford to Madeira 
Portugal 

,, Newfoundland 

Newry to Carolina 

,, New England 
Londonderry to Carolina 

,, Pennsylvania 

Belfast to New York 
Cork to Virginia and Maryland 

1792 

Waterford to Madeira 
,, Barbadoes 

,, Newfoundland 

Newry to Spain 

,, New England 
Dublin to Barbadoes 
,, New England 
,, New York 

Virginia 

,, West Indies 
Belfast to Carolina 
,, Jamaica 
,, Pennsylvania 
Cork to Pennsylvania 
St. Kitts 

1793 

Dublin to Spain 
Antigua 



Drinking 
glasses. 


Bottles, Value of other 
dozens. glass ware. 


222 




942 
3,600 
I,2OO 

2,592 
19,604 


36 
527 

i, 728 vials 354 


12,479 

1,200 
1,728 


15,264 vials 392 
120 
,3 18 




130 


i,545 


8 




45 10 




&5 1 




111 10 


1,728 


168 15 
81 6 8 



5,760 

72 

4,044 



,55 



2,000 






21,881 


794 4 


6 


26,200 


1,200 1137 ii 


9 




16,848 vials 




4,356 








906 




8,879 






3,000 








250 





2,525 

2400 



80 



148 



IRISH GLASS 



Dublin to Barbadoes 
Jamaica 
,, New England 
Pennsylvania 
Waterford to Hudson's Bay 
Newfoundland 

New York 

Belfast to New York 

,, Virginia and Maryland 
Cork to New York 
,, Pennsylvania 
Virginia 
Newry to Virginia 

1794 

Cork to Jamaica 

,, Newfoundland 
,, New England 
West Indies 
Waterford to New York 
Dublin to New England 
,, Pennsylvania 
Belfast to New England 
,, Pennsylvania 
,, Virginia 

1795 

Cork to Denmark 
Portugal 
,, Spain 
Jamaica 
Pennsylvania 
West Indies 
Dublin to Jamaica 

New England 
,, New York 
,, Pennsylvania 
Waterford to Newfoundland 
New York 



Drinking 
glasses. 

2,OOO 

7,052 
20,970 
45,048 
11,520 
6OO 
36,OOO 



Bottles, 
dozens. 



2,832 

24,250 

144,000 

10,080 



120 



1 2O 



14400 vials 
1,000 



1,224 



Value of other 
glass ware. 

13 
224 17 

970 

64 16 

,73 4 
290 
438 6 8 



6 
9 6 



200 
,5 

832 16 



160 



144 
480 

19,082 
78,920 
28,800 


600 
720 

72 


492 

271 
669 



5,000 



1091 13 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 



149 



Drinking 
glasses. 



1796 

Cork to Africa 
,, Spain 
,, Antigua 
,, Jamaica 
,, New York 
,, West Indies 
Newry to Italy 
Dublin to Madeira 
Spain 
,, Antigua 
,, Jamaica 
,, New England 
,, New York 
,, Pennsylvania 
Waterford to Portugal 
,, Pennsylvania 
,, West Indies 
Belfast to New England 
,, Denmark 

1797 

Dublin to Denmark 

Barbadoes 

,, New England 

New York 

Virginia 
Cork to Jamaica 

,, Pennsylvania 
Belfast to New England 
Waterford to Newfoundland 
New York 

1798 

Dublin to Barbadoes 
,, Jamaica 
,, New York 
West Indies 

Waterford to Newfoundland 
New York 



Bottles, Value of other 

dozens. glass ware. 



480 



5,000 

76,404 

240,404 

80,000 



154,980 

6,812 

25,382 

2,000 

2,028 
20,000 

7,583 
30,000 



720 
324 





20 


4,109 




M97 

784 

20,600 


9,000 
I >S3 


23,93 




95,240 

32,556 
864 


349 
1,895 


45,000 




7,200 
360 
i, 080 


2,500 



1,200 



1, 800 



5 
207 

988 12 



23 8 4 



412 5 5 

9 18 
287 10 o 

216 



"4 

"55 
7 2 4 



^43 
88 



i 5 o IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXXIII 



Four wine glasses. Probably Waterford. About 1830. Nos. i and 4 have 
upright blazes, and Nos. 2 and 3 plain diamonds. Author's Collection. 



Four wine glasses. No. 2 engraved, the rest cut. Nos. i, 2, and 3 probably 
Cork, No. 4 probably Waterford. About 1820-30. National Museum, 
Dublin. 



Three tumblers. No. i probably Waterford. Nos. 2 and 3 perhaps Cork. 
About 1830. National Museum, Dublin. 



PLATE XXXIII 








,, 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 

Drinking Bottles, Value of other 

glasses. dozens. glass ware. 

Cork to New York 1580 

West Indies 35 

1799 

Cork to Africa 5 

West Indies 4,000 

Waterford to Jersey 5 

,, New York 40,000 

Dublin to Barbadoes 1,212 

,, Jamaica 1,898 

,, New England 13,000 

West Indies 6,361 

Belfast to New England i ,400 

Newry to New York , 1 S 

1800 

Cork to Africa 3 12 

Virginia 6,960 276 

West Indies 264 

Waterford to Portugal 2,000 

Newfoundland 3,ooo 113 

Dublin to Straits 1,900 

Jamaica 3,822 

New England 2,660 

Pennsylvania 6,000 

West Indies i,9 2 7 

Belfast to New York 7,9 2 

New England 19,560 

1801 

Cork to Jamaica 104,720 3,451 937 

New York 38,183 47 

Virginia i3 IO 4 374 

West Indies 7,7 

Waterford to Newfoundland 6,600 99 3 

1802 

Cork to Africa 1,44 

England 720 

Straits 2,520 

Jamaica 19,640 &H3 



1 52 IRISH GLASS 



Drinking Bottles, Value of other 

glasses. dozens. glass ware. 



Cork to Montseratt 2,400 

New England 3,900 94 

New York 55,399 488 

,, Virginia 12,000 

,, West Indies 19,780 

Belfast to Georgia T 3,3 2 4 

,, New York 19,080 j5 O1 

,, Virginia 8,064 

Waterford to Pennsylvania 57,74 47 

Virginia 73> 

Newry to Virginia 3,240 

Dublin to Surinam 617 

1803 

Cork to Madeira 250 

,, Portugal 6,129 

,, Jamaica 20,600 577 

,, New York 960 

,, West Indies 18,308 

Dublin to Barbadoes 2,038 

,, Carolina 3, 600 

Waterford to Newfoundland 21,224 

,, New York 72,000 

Belfast to New York 40,656 20,799 

1804 

Cork to Portugal 444 

,, Straits 1,224 

Antigua 554 

Jamaica 256 380 

New York 1,200 

,, Pennsylvania 2,298 

,, Trinidad 88 

Waterford to Jersey 1 ,944 

,, Newfoundland 5,220 212 

,, Pennsylvania 46,080 4 

Dublin to Antigua 2,829 

Jamaica 3,738 

Belfast to New York 9,648 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 



i8o 5 

Cork to Portugal 

,, Guernsey 

,, Antigua 

,, Barbadoes 

,, Jamaica 

,, New York 

,, Pennsylvania 
Waterford to Jersey 

,, New England 

Belfast to Carolina 

,, Maryland 

,, New York 
Dublin to New York 

,, Jamaica 

1806 

Cork to England 

,, Portugal 

,, Straits 

,, Guernsey 

Antigua 

,, Barbadoes 

,, Jamaica 

Trinidad 
Belfast to Straits 

,, Demerara 

New York 
Waterford to Jersey 

,, Newfoundland 
,, Pennsylvania 
Dublin to Barbadoes 
,, Jamaica 

1807 

Cork to England 

,, Guernsey 

,, Barbadoes 

,, Jamaica 

,, Maryland 



Drinking 
glasses. 



14,880 

1 1 ,400 

17,568 

3,600 
864 

17,280 

588 
83,994 

4,959 



240 

400 

170 

5,328 

1,200 



Bottles, 
dozens. 



5,120 
661 



114 





4,119 




400 




364 




53 


1,220 




480 


2,014 


10,000 


690 


480 




432 




10,080 




8,544 




1,224 




1,636 




82,080 





6,262 



729 
2,652 



Value of other 
glass ware. 

^4 

^34 i5 6 
1078 10 
123 10 

545 H 3 

5 I0 
246 7 6 

307 i 8 



18 o 
1069 16 5 



539 4 9 



44 I0 
499 8 9 
^375 J 5 



322:6 8 
909 12 5 



IRISH GLASS 



Cork to St. Thome 

,, Trinidad 
Belfast to Straits 

Buenos Ayres 

,, Carolina 

,, Maryland 

,, New York 
Dublin to Antigua 

,, Buenos Ayres 

,, Dominica 

,, Jamaica 

New York 

Italy 
Waterford to Newfoundland 

1808 

Cork to England 
,, Barbadoes 
,, Buenos Ayres 
,, Canada 
,, New York 
Trinidad 
Dublin to Portugal 
,, Barbadoes 
,, Jamaica 
New York 
,, St. Vincent 
Belfast to Demerara 
New York 
Waterford to New York 

,, Newfoundland 

1809 

Cork to England 

,, Madeira 

Straits 

,, Barbadoes 

,, Brazil 

Surinam 
Belfast to Straits 



Drinking 
glasses. 



2I,6OO 

3,400 

7,200 

62,820 



2,772 

480 

2,500 

3,609 

12,000 



3,000 



2,400 



7,776 



Bottles, 
dozens. 



552 



1,269 

763 
2OO 

2,501 
418 



2,476 



252 

i,593 
263 

7H 



3,156 
26 

150 



100 

150 



Value of other 
glass ware. 

320 17 9 
109 2 6 



13 



2866 10 5 
290 2 4 



120 

136 6 ii 

257 13 7 



260 7 2 
1895 7 6 



1831 3 7 
1082 10 



4 5 
1104 6 6 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 



155 



Dublin to Barbadoes 
,, Honduras 
Waterford to Newfoundland 

1810 

Cork to England 
,, Madeira 
,, Barbadoes 
New York 
,, Trinidad 
Belfast to Portugal 
,, Carolina 
,, New York 
Dublin to Straits 
,, Barbadoes 
,, Carolina 
,, Jamaica 
,, Maryland 
,, New York 
,, St. Croix 
Waterford to Maryland 

,, Newfoundland 

New York 

Newry to New York 

1811 

Belfast to Africa 

,, Carolina 
Waterford to Jersey 

,, New England 

,, Newfoundland 

,, New York 

Dublin to Barbadoes 
,, New England 
New York 
,, Pennsylvania 
Cork to Barbadoes 
,, New England 
New South Wales 
,, England 



Drinking 
glasses. 

I, OO8 



69,792 

340 
17,856 



14,400 
16,608 



Bottles, 
dozens. 

2,357 

. 52 

40 



i,944 
500 



345 





1, 200 




3,860 


144,414 


3,301 




2,747 


20,160 




205,200 




7,416 





2,579 
6,972 

2,381 



Value of other 
glass ware. 



1166 14 



^367 iS 
968 5 2 



8 4 

54 
1691 3 2 

10 



835 ii 4 
1147 16 10 

724 i7 



3 2 
2269 15 

91 18 8 

436 18 6 



900 i 8 5 

67 13 9 

^3444 H 5 

685 4 8 

1241 9 6 



1,020 



156 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXXIV 

Three sugar bowls. Nos. i and 2 with strawberry diamonds divided by split 
bands, and fan escallop edges. Most probably Waterford. About 1830. 
No. 3 with flat cutting and prismatic bands. Probably Irish. Late i8th 
century or early iQth. National Museum, Dublin. 



Four pieces of moulded and cut glass of uncertain denomination. Nos. i, 
2, and 3 perhaps mustard pots. Moulded glass. No. 4 use unknown, 
being too thick for a drinking glass. Cut glass. Probably Irish, early 
1 9th century. Author's Collection. 



PLATE XXXIX' 




IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 157 

After about the year 1812 the number of drinking glasses exported 
seems to have decreased, but a large number of bottles and other glass 
ware was sent from Dublin, Cork, Waterford, and Belfast to the same places 
as enumerated in the foregoing lists. The totals for a few succeeding years 
are as follows : 

1812. 4,800 drinking glasses, 8,319 dozen bottles, glass ware, value 

4,196 i 7 

1813. 11,534 dozen bottles 8,672 15 n 

1814. 1,954 drinking glasses, 4,549 dozen bottles ,5>9 l % 17 n 
!8i5- 577 6,215 7>774 5 8 

1816. 4,320 8,683 , 27,962 16 5 

1817. i, 600 4,386 22,991 2 8 

1818. 8,596 20,651 4 9 

J 8i9- 4>3 J 7 9> 6 92 13 8 

1820. 5,373 11,128 o 9 

1821. 4,490 7*200 4 7 

1822. 6,644 6,098 19 I0 

DIFFICULTY OF TELLING IRISH FROM ENGLISH GLASS, AND THE DIFFERENT 

IRISH GLASSES FROM EACH OTHER 

There are many people at the present day who imagine that they can 
tell the exact place where a particular piece of glass was made, though upon 
what grounds it is often difficult to ascertain. Some will even go so far 
as to tell the year of manufacture also, and in statements which have been 
made to me, I have often been surprised that these very cocksure people 
did not also state the month and the day. From many years' experience 
in examining glass, I could not, and would not, state definitely, except 
in a very few instances, the exact place of manufacture of any piece 
of old glass. I can imagine the numerous learned collectors of glass saying 
well, he cannot know much about glass ! I think it would be just as diffi- 
cult for a botanist, if shown a daisy plant, to tell in what exact spot of the 
British Isles it grew. 

We have practically nothing to go on with regard to metal, cutting, or 
shape peculiar to Irish glass. No details of these are to be found in any 
contemporary records, if we except the few Waterford patterns. 

I am afraid it is now almost impossible, in most cases, to tell the differ- 



158 IRISH GLASS 

ence between Irish and English glass, although many profess to find it 
quite easy, and it is still more difficult to differentiate between the products 
of the various Irish glass-houses. 

It must be remembered that most of the glass works erected in Ireland 
were set up by Englishmen, who would naturally introduce English forms 
and cutting, and who would also use the same materials that they had been 
accustomed to employ in England. 

In the report of the committee appointed in 1785 to inquire into the 
commercial relations between Great Britain and Ireland, John Holmes, 
flint glass manufacturer, Whitefriars, London, stated that three-quarters of 
the glass workmen in Ireland were emigrants from England, and that the 
masters of four of the Irish glass-houses were Englishmen. 

Glass is a material which varies comparatively so little that it is almost 
impossible to locate a piece on account of its colour. The colour, in old 
glass, of course, varies somewhat, but then, even in a particular factory 
every pot of metal would not necessarily be of exactly the same quality. 
Even in a single pot of metal, what were known as the " tale " goods, made 
from the upper portion of the metal, would not be of as good quality as 
those made from that taken from the middle of the pot, which was always 
considered the best. In one of the old Waterford letters it is stated that 
the " tale " glass was of inferior quality (not necessarily in colour), and that 
the residue was the best for the fine cut goods. 

In the old days, owing to the impurity of the ingredients, a scum called 
sandiver rose to the surface of the fused metal, and this had to be skimmed 
off before the operation of glass blowing could commence. There does not 
appear to be any hard and fast rule to go by with regard to colour, as to 
whether a piece of old glass is English or Irish. The colour varies a good 
deal from a fairly good white to a decided bluish tint. 

Some say that the old glass with the dark or blue tint is all Irish, simply 
because glass with that peculiarity is found in Ireland. A good many, how- 
ever, of the glass fittings of epergnes and other Sheffield plated wares, have 
a decidedly dark tint, and these are mostly, if not all, of English make. 
During the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth Ireland imported 
vast quantities of these Sheffield goods. 

One reason perhaps for the different tints in old glass is the use of 
cullet, or broken glass, from various localities. For instance, the Waterford 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 159 

glass-house obtained cullet from various towns in Ireland Belfast, Dublin, 
Cork, etc., from England, and even from North America. This cullet was 
the product of glass-houses situated in widely separated localities and so 
would vary in quality and colour. Thus it is evident that a certain proportion 
of the metal made in one factory was produced originally in others. Glass 
made with a certain percentage of cullet added to the raw materials, which 
cullet may have been made in the same way, is usually of inferior quality to 
that made solely of raw materials. 

It seems to be a generally accepted idea now that Waterford glass is at 
once known by the blue tint of the metal. This theory was put forward in 
Hartshorne's great work Old English Glasses published in 1897, and since 
then appears to have spread everywhere, until at the present day no glass is 
considered to be " genuine Waterford " unless the blue tint is apparent. 

Several books on glass have been written recently, containing a chapter 
or a few words on Irish glass, and all of them invariably insist on the blue 
tint being a distinctive characteristic of all Waterford glass. Many of the 
books and articles dealing with Irish glass have derived most of their in- 
formation from the little guide on the subject which I prepared in 1913, 
for the National Museum, Dublin, but usually no acknowledgment is given. 
The blue tint is, however, always ascribed to Waterford glass, notwithstand- 
ing the conclusive evidence to the contrary which I brought forward. 

In a recently written book on Irish glass it is stated that after about 
1820 the metal of Waterford glass became much whiter. The two scent 
bottles illustrated on Plate VIII, one dated 1794 and the other made in 
the glass works for Susannah Gatchell, previous to her marriage in 1793, 
are both of a good white metal with no trace of blue. 

I would wish now, once for all, to state that the glass made in Water- 
ford has not the decided blue or dark tint always ascribed to it. 

In my possession are several pieces of glass, and I have seen many 
others, such as jugs, decanters, and ringer bowls, each marked under- 
neath, as illustrated on Plate IX, with PENROSE WATERFORD. Now, every 
one of these pieces is of a good white clear glass, with no trace of the blue 
or blackish tint always associated with Waterford glass. Of course the 
whiteness of this authentic Waterford metal is not as good or as brilliant 
as modern glass, but compared with the old glass having the dark tint, 
it appears white. Some will say, how do you know these marked pieces 



160 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXXV 

Cut glass bowl, with large geometric design, and solid base. This class of 
glass is usually of a slightly greenish metal, and is of English or 
continental make. It is constantly being passed off as Waterford. 



Iron cutting wheel used in one of the Cork glass-houses. Early iQth century. 
In author's possession. 



PLATE XXXV 





IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 161 

are not fakes ? Well, those that I possess were purchased many years ago 
when little was thought of old glass, and at prices varying from sixpence 
to five shillings, which amounts would hardly tempt the faker. The whole 
appearance of the pieces, also, would indicate that they are not modern 
glass. 

The examples I have were picked up at various places, and at different 
times, and could not possibly have come out of the same pot of metal, so 
that it is apparent that the blue tint is not a peculiarity of Waterford glass. 
As far as I can judge from examining many authentic pieces, the metal of 
Waterford glass is much whiter than that of any other of the old Irish glass- 
houses. 

I have placed marked pieces of Cork, Dublin, and Belfast glass beside 
marked pieces of Waterford manufacture, and the difference of colour was 
at once apparent. 

Dublin, and especially Cork, glass, often has the blue or dark tint. 
On some decanters I have, marked CORK GLASS Co and WATERLOO Co CORK, 
the metal is quite bluish, but again, some of the marked Cork pieces are 
of a whiter metal, but not as white as that of Waterford. I have never seen 
a marked Waterford piece with the blue tint. I was told by Richard Pugh, 
the last of the Irish flint glass makers, that the blue tint in the old glass 
metal was caused by impure oxide of lead having been used in the manu- 
facture. The old flint glass contained a large percentage of lead, about 
36 per cent, so that if this was not of good quality, it would probably affect 
the colour of the metal. 

In the reports to the British Association in 1865 there is an article 
on Red Lead, in which it is stated that the principal supply was, at one time, 
obtained from Derbyshire. The quality was inferior, and imparted to 
the glass an objectionable shade of colour, known in the trade as the " Derby 
blue." On the subject of the blue or dark tint in old glass my friend 
Mr. H. J. Powell of the Whitefriars Glass Works, London, writes to me as 
follows : 

" The bluish tint in old glass is not exclusively Irish, and I believe it 
to be purely accidental. After very many experiments, I had some success 
in imitating the slight black tint of old glass. This result I obtained by a 
balance of oxide of nickel and oxide of cobalt, but it was a question of grains 
to hundredweights of glass. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth cen- 



162 IRISH GLASS 

turies the sand, lead and alkali contained traces of iron, and the glass mixture 
had to be doctored to neutralise the yellow or green colour due to iron. In 
some cases arsenic trioxide was used, which, in excess, gave the milky effect 
noticeable in some glass. The arsenic was used as a source of oxygen. 
Oxide of manganese was used for the same reason. Oxide of manganese 
was used in the form of powdered ' hand picked ' pyrolusite. Pyrolusite 
varies considerably in quality ; in some cases being practically pure oxide 
of manganese, in others containing impurities as iron, nickel, cobalt and 
copper. The ore was merely ' hand picked,' and crushed and sold as ' best 
manganese.' Does it not therefore seem probable that the material added 
to the glass mixture to neutralise the effect of iron, produced the black or 
blue tint ? If cobalt and nickel were present in the oxide of manganese the 
-effect would be blue, and the colour is a question of grains." 

The Waterford manufacturers appear to have been always very careful 
as to the quality of the glass ingredients, and, at the time it was being made, 
the glass was spoken of as of very good quality, equal, if not superior, to 
English glass. 

In 1813 Carey and Co., china and glass merchants, Cork, advertise 
that they sell Waterford glass, and state that it is superior to that of any 
other factory in Ireland. 

In one of the Waterford letters it is stated that it was regretted that 
glass ordered could not be sent immediately as the colour was not up to the 
usual standard, consequently the pieces were broken, and fresh ones were 
to be made. 

In a letter from Exeter dated December yth, 1832, Elizabeth Walpole, 
one of the partners in the Waterford glass works, says that she had a con- 
versation with Edward Eardley, a glass merchant of Exeter and Plymouth, 
about some glass she was getting over from Waterford, with a view of selling. 
She says that Eardley stated that all the Irish glass he had ever seen was dark 
coloured, but she told him she had sent for some Waterford glass so that 
he might see for himself. This statement seems to imply that Waterford 
glass had not the dark colour. 

I have seen it stated that the bluish tint of old glass is due to oxide of 
cobalt having been used as one of the ingredients. Cobalt was certainly 
not employed in the manufacture of flint glass at Waterford, for the original 
recipes give all the ingredients, and cobalt is not mentioned. 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 163 

As previously stated, a very large percentage of the glass makers in 
Ireland were Englishmen, and in the Waterford and Cork glass-houses, when 
they were established, all the workmen and materials were brought over 
from England. The proprietors of the Cork glass works consisted of brewers, 
etc., and the Penroses who set up the glass factory at Waterford were general 
merchants, consequently the owners of neither of the concerns knew any- 
thing of the art of glass-making. 

The Cork proprietors sent people over to England to obtain men and 
materials, and the Penroses of Waterford obtained materials and a complete 
set of workmen, with a John Hill as compounder, from Stourbridge in 
Worcestershire. 

In the evidence taken before the Committee in 1785 to inquire into the 
commercial relations between Great Britain and Ireland, Mr. John Blades, 
cut glass manufacturer, Ludgate Hill, London, stated that a Mr. Hill, a 
great manufacturer at Stourbridge, had lately gone to Waterford, and had 
taken the best set of workmen he could get in the County of Worcester ; 
and, later on, he said that Mr. Hill took eight or ten men to Waterford, and 
that numbers of skilled glass workers went to Ireland and France. John 
Holmes, flint glass manufacturer, London, said that English workmen were 
constantly going backwards and forwards to Ireland, that six went some 
time ago, and four or five recently. 

The glass-house set up at Drumrea, near Dungannon, and also the one 
at Belfast, were both carried on by Benjamin Edwards, a Bristol glass maker, 
and, as we have seen, the Cork and Waterford factories were worked by 
Stourbridge glass makers, and obtained all their materials from England. 
Thus the glass made, during the early period at least, at Cork and Water- 
ford, would be simply Stourbridge glass made in these towns, and that 
made at Drumrea and Belfast would be very similar to Bristol glass. The 
Drumrea glass-house used local sand, which may have caused a slight differ- 
ence in the metal, but for the Belfast glass works the sand used during the 
eighteenth century would probably have been obtained from the same source 
as that for the Bristol works. 

The workmen who came over to Ireland to carry on the manufacture 
would naturally employ the same materials and designs which they had 
been accustomed to use in England ; though after a time when Irish 
workmen began to be employed, and to learn the art, the patterns may 



164 IRISH GLASS 

have changed, but the materials were still obtained from the same 
sources. 

Because a piece of glass is obtained in Ireland at the present time it 
does not follow that it was made there ; or even if a piece is purchased now 
in Waterford it is just as likely as not that it may have been made in England. 

Probably a very large percentage of the old glass now found in Ireland 
is of English origin. In Wallace's Essay on the Manufactures of Ireland, 
published in 1798, speaking of the glass manufacture, he says that " at 
present we are able not only to supply our own consumption, but to export 
very considerable quantities to America and elsewhere. Much of the glass 
ware consumed in Ireland is imported, for our houses find the supply of the 
American market so much more lucrative, and have so much of that trade > 
that they think lightly of supplying the home consumption. The houses of 
this city (Dublin) which are in the American trade have generally orders for 
New York sufficient to occupy them entirely for two years. The principal 
materials are imported from England, though we are able to undersell the 
British Manufacturer." Also in The Account of Ireland Statistical and 
Political, by Edward Wakefield, published in 1812, he says that the use of 
English glass is very prevalent in Ireland, and in 1785 it was stated that 
Williams' glass-house in Dublin had as many orders from New York as 
would keep the factory working for at least a year. 

Coming to later times, Martin Crean, giving evidence before the Excise 
Commissioners in 1835, stated that all the richly cut decanters and very 
heavy articles came from England, and that great quantities of English glass 
came into Ireland. In the Ulster Times it is stated that in the early forties 
of the nineteenth century large quantities of English cut glass were im- 
ported into Belfast. 

As we have seen from the lists of exports of glass from Ireland that a 
very great deal went to North America and the West Indies, it is possible 
that these countries would perhaps have more Irish glass at the present day 
than even Ireland herself. 

It is just as difficult to tell the difference between the old drinking 
glasses made in Ireland and those made in England. In the old newspaper 
advertisements, the glass goods made in Ireland are generally stated to be 
of the latest fashion used in London, and the materials would probably have 
been obtained from the same sources as for the English glass. The glass- 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 165 

house in Mary's Lane, Dublin, that in Fleet Street, Dublin, and possibly 
that near Waterford, would have been the only Irish sources of supply for 
the drinking glasses made during the first half of the eighteenth century. I 
have often been told by people that they could testify to the locality of manu- 
facture of this or that piece of glass, as it had been purchased at a particular 
factory's warehouse, by an ancestor. Even purchasing a piece of glass at a 
glass-house wareroom, does not guarantee that it was made in the particular 
glass-house, for one glass-house may have sold glass to another. For 
instance, one glass-house may have a surplus of uncut glass, while another 
may have their cutters idle for want of glass, consequently the latter would 
buy from the former. In one of the Waterford account books there is an 
entry in 1823 f tne Ronaynes, proprietors of the Terrace Glass Works, 
Cork, purchasing glass from the Waterford factory, and in one of the Water- 
ford letters, mention is made of the purchase, for the glass wareroom, of 
coloured glass and other Birmingham goods. 

If any possessors of old glass are fortunate enough to have the original 
bills for glass purchased, and can identify the pieces, that would go some way 
towards settling the question as to place of manufacture, but unless a piece 
is marked with the name of the factory we cannot be absolutely certain. 

From the foregoing remarks it will be seen how very difficult it is to 
state with any certainty from what particular factory a certain piece of glass 
emanated. The term " Waterford " is now applied to a large proportion of 
the glass, new and old, found in the British Islands. We must remember 
that there was only one factory working in Waterford, while in Dublin, 
Cork, and Belfast there were several, some of them working longer than the 
Waterford one. It seems curious that out of the vast quantities of old Irish 
glass that has been broken, such a very large amount of the Waterford glass 
should have escaped destruction ! 

The dates assigned to pieces of so-called Waterford and Cork glass are 
rather amusing. Notices are to be found at the present time advertising 
specimens of Cork and Waterford cut glass dating from 1750 and 1760, 
which is over thirty and twenty years respectively before any glass was made 
in either town. 

Too early a date is very often assigned to a large proportion of Irish glass, 
for it must not be forgotten that in the case of Cork, Waterford, Belfast, 
Newry, and some of the Dublin works, there were not quite twenty years of 



166 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXXVI 

Illustrations of various kinds of cutting : 

1. Prismatic cutting. Erroneously called " step cutting." 

2. Alternate prisms. 

3. Pillar flutes. Erroneously called " lustre cutting." 

4. Large hollow facets. Very often used on salad bowls, decanters, etc. 

5. Large shallow diamonds. 



Illustrations of various kinds*of cutting : 

1. Single row of strawberry^diamonds. 

2. Chequered diamonds. 

3. Strawberry diamonds. 

4. Fine diamonds. 

5. Cross-cut diamonds. Erroneously called " Hob-nail cutting.' 

6. Plain sharp diamonds. 

7. Perpendicular blazes. 

8. Slanting blazes. 



PLATE XXXVI 









IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 167 

the eighteenth century during which glass was produced, while in some 
instances there were over fifty years of the nineteenth. Thus we see that 
there must have been a far larger quantity manufactured during the latter 
period. 

MATERIALS FOR IRISH GLASS 

To ensure the making of good flint glass, the greatest care must be 
taken in the selection of the various materials, the slightest impurity, or 
the smallest quantity of any foreign substance, causing the metal to become 
discoloured ; for instance, it is said that ^uiW part of gold will give a rose- 
coloured tint to flint glass. The sand, the chief ingredient, must be of the 
best quality, and before being mixed with the other materials must be 
thoroughly cleaned, so as to extract iron and other deleterious matter. The 
clay of the glass-house pots must be of such a quality that it will stand the 
great heat of the furnace, and indeed, generally speaking, the utmost cleanli- 
ness must be observed in all matters connected with the mixing of the 
materials. Nowadays the melting of the ingredients does not take long, but 
formerly this took about fifty or sixty hours. The glass-house pots were 
filled but once a week, usually on Friday or Saturday morning, Saturday 
and Sunday being the days when the furnace required the greatest heat. 
The glass-blowing began on Monday morning, and generally ended on 
Friday. Constant attention had to be paid to the fire, for if it were not kept 
up to the required heat the glass would be spoilt ; thousands of pounds' 
worth of glass having been lost owing to the carelessness of workmen. 

In melting the materials, the best results are to be obtained by an 
intense and continuous fusion. Too little heat will fail to refine the metal, 
and drive off air bubbles and the colouring matter of the manganese, which 
gives a purplish tint. Too long continuance of intense heat will destroy the 
manganese, and cause the glass to attack the pot and become striated and 
greenish. Thus the moment the metal is fully fused, the great heat of the 
furnace should be reduced to a working temperature, this being known as 
the crisis. When flint glass is kept in fusion at the intense heat, beyond the 
crisis, it usually assumes a greenish tint. 

The process of annealing or gradually cooling the glass articles, is a 
matter of the utmost importance in the manufacture. If glass were not 
annealed it would be so brittle that it would fracture from a slight knock 



168 IRISH GLASS 

or even from atmospheric conditions, and cutting would be impossible 
owing to the vibration. Glass is annealed by being gradually passed through 
a heated oven, in which the heat becomes gradually less and less. 

The lear is the term applied to the oven, which is open at both ends. 
Each lear has a small furnace at the receiving or heated end, which keeps 
it at a temperature just short of a melting heat. The glass articles are placed, 
at once, when finished, and as hot as possible, on iron pans which travel 
slowly on a miniature railway downward from the heated end to the cooler 
end, a distance of about sixty feet. 

The time for annealing varied from about six to sixty hours, the heavier 
articles requiring the most heat and time. 

Kilns were formerly used for annealing glass, but differed from the 
lears in being closed at the further end. When the kiln was filled with goods, 
it was closed with the burning fuel also, and in this case the annealing was 
slow, it being generally a week before the glass was cool enough to be placed 
out in the sorting room. 

The materials employed in the manufacture of Irish flint glass appear 
to have been mostly obtained from England and abroad, and were derived 
from the same sources as those used for English glass. 

The sand, the chief ingredient, was obtained from England, and prin- 
cipally from the Isle of Wight and Lynn in Norfolk. In the Birr glass-house, 
working in 1625, ^ ^ s mentioned in Boate's Natural History of Ireland that 
the sand came from England ; and Isle of Wight sand is mentioned at the 
end of the seventeenth century as having been used in the glass-houses in 
England. 

In the old Waterford account books there are several entries of the 
purchase of sand . For instance, in 1 8 1 5 sixty tons of sand were obtained from 
Blain and Saunders, shippers of Liverpool ; in April, 1823, nineteen tons 
of sand were paid for, having arrived by the ship Lovely, Captain James ; 
on May 25th, 1825, eighty-two tons of sand were entered as having arrived 
by ship (name not given), Captain McGrath ; and on May 5th, 1829, about 
one hundred and sixty tons of sand were paid for, having arrived by the 
ship Navarino, Captain Playford. Unfortunately, in these entries the name 
of the place where the sand came from was not given, but on looking up the 
shipping news in old Waterford newspapers of the above dates I find the 
following notices : " Ship Swan, Captain McGrath, arrived in Waterford, 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 169 



May i8th, 1825, with a cargo of sand from Lynn " ; and " Ship Navarino, 
Captain Playford, arrived in Waterford, April 26th, 1829, with a car g f 
sand from Lynn." 

This seems to settle the question as to the source from which the 
Waterford glass-house procured its sand. Cork probably obtained its sand 
from the same locality. 

Various theories have been put forward as to where the sand was 
obtained from, some saying that it came from France as ballast in ships 
trading between that country and the south of Ireland, others that it was 
obtained locally. When in Waterford some years ago I inquired as to 
where the sand was obtained for the glass works, and was shown a limestone 
quarry just outside the town, and told that this stone was crushed and used 
for making the glass ! 

In a recent book on glass it is stated that the Waterford glass was made 
from flint which was obtained from pits in the vicinity. First of all, flint 
was not employed for making Waterford or any other Irish glass, and 
secondly, no flint is found in the vicinity of Waterford. 

In Wallace's Essay on the Manufactures of Ireland, writing in 1798, he 
says that " the principal materials for glass making are imported from 
England, the sand, which mixed with red lead, and now used as a substitute 
for flints, is taken principally from the Isle of Wight. The sand used for 
bottle glass is obtained in Ireland, that for the Dublin glass-houses 
being taken from the North Bull." Also, in the evidence taken by 
the Committee in 1785, John Blades, glass manufacturer of London, 
stated that some of the sand for Irish glass was obtained from the Isle of 
Wight. 

Probably some of the sand used in Waterford came from the Isle of 
Wight, as in one of the Waterford notebooks there is an entry about 1830, 
noting the address of Joseph Squires, Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, in connec- 
tion with sand. Joseph Squires appears to have been one of the owners of 
the property where sand deposits were situated. Some of the sand used 
in the manufacture of Irish flint glass was, however, obtained locally. The 
glass-house at Drumrea, near Dungannon, working about 1772, employed 
sand which the proprietors stated was found on the spot, and in the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century, the fine sand from Muckish Mountain, Co. 
Donegal, was used in the Belfast glass works. In the Statistical Survey of 



1 70 IRISH GLASS 

Co. Donegal, published in 1802, we find the following reference to the 
Muckish sand : 

" On Muckish Mountain within four miles of two safe and deep har- 
bours, namely Sheephaven and Dunfanaghy, silicious sand is there in in- 
exhaustible abundance. It has been for some time sent to the Belfast glass 
manufactory. There is now in the Bay of Ards a brig almost ready freighted 
with a cargo of it for Mr Edwards of Belfast, who has already proved and 
approved of it. He now imports none from England and uses no other but 
this. William Brenan of Ards supplies it at the Bay of Ards for two guineas 
a ton. Next year by means of roads which are to be made, and a trough to 
run the sand from the top to the bottom of the mountain, he will be enabled 
to sell it at half that price." 

In the Cork Exhibition of 1902, a small quantity of glass was made 
from Muckish Mountain sand. The metal which was clear and white 
showed well to advantage when cut. Goblets, wine glasses, etc., were among 
the objects made and some are illustrated on Plate IX. 

Martin Crean, a Dublin glass manufacturer, giving evidence before the 
Excise Commissioners in 1835, stated that Irish glass makers had to import 
all their materials, that the lead and Stourbridge clay were very expensive, 
that the potash from Quebec was the only ingredient which they could 
obtain as cheaply as the English manufacturers, owing to its being directly 
imported, and that the sand was brought from Lynn in Norfolk and from 
the Isle of Wight, but that the Lynn sand was the best. 

In an article on glass in the Weekly Account of the Dublin Exhibition 
of 1853, it is stated that the sand used for flint glass made in Ireland was 
obtained from the Isle of Wight and from Lynn in Norfolk, and mention 
was also made of good sand from near Omagh in Co. Tyrone, and that 
from Muckish Mountain. 

Mr. Richard Pugh informed me that some of the sand used in his glass- 
house in Dublin in the second half of the nineteenth century was obtained 
from Fontainebleau near Paris, and some also from Germany, but that the 
Fontainebleau sand was preferred. 

Sand for bottle glass made in Ireland was usually obtained locally, that 
for the Dublin glass-houses from the North Bull, a sandy stretch of ground 
to the north of Dublin, for Cork, probably, from Youghal or Tramore, and 
for Ballycastle from the immediate neighbourhood. 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 171 

In March, 1784, the crown glass and bottle manufacturers of Dublin 
petitioned Parliament against a duty on sand for glass-making, stating that 
' they were obliged to import both sand and fire clay, as there had not been 
any of either kind yet discovered in the kingdom sufficiently fine, and that 
for some time sand was not considered as merchandise, but came in as 
ballast, but of late years the Customs Officers had insisted that both sand 
and clay must be entered and an ad valorem duty paid." 

Although sand, pearlashes, etc., for glass-making were imported into 
Ireland, it appears that some of the ingredients employed in English glass- 
houses were derived from Ireland, for in 1785, Robert Hurst, a Bristol 
crown and bottle glass manufacturer, stated that most of the materials for 
his glass were obtained in Ireland. 

The clay for making the glass-house pots was also almost entirely 
obtained from England and principally from Stourb ridge. For the Birr 
glass-house, about 1625, however, the clay was stated to have come from 
the north, probably the north of Ireland ; for the Ballynagerah glass-house, 
about 1622, the clay was obtained from Fethard (probably Fethard in Co. 
Wexford), and for the Drumrea glass works in 1773, it was stated that fire- 
clay fit for pot-making was to be had on the spot. 

Jeudwin, one of the proprietors in the Square Glass-House in Dublin, 
giving evidence before the Dublin Society in 1762, stated that Irish clay 
was used for some purposes, but not for the glass-house pots, these being 
all of Stourb ridge clay. 

In John Angel's A General History of Ireland, published in 1781, he 
states that " there is recently discovered at Ballycastle a stratum of clay over 
the coal which is found to be as strong in the glass-house pots as the 
clay of Stourbridge and to endure the heat as well." This clay may 
have been used at the Ballycastle glass-house, but not generally in 
Ireland. 

In response to the offer of a premium by the Dublin Society, a George 
Minty of Molinroe Colliery, Kilkenny, exhibited in 1758 a sample of new 
fire-clay. 

The clay for the glass-house pots in the Waterford glass works was 
always obtained from Stourbridge, several entries occurring in the old 
account books of clay having been purchased from Littlewood, King and Co. 
of Stourbridge. 



i 7 2 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXXVII 

Illustrations of various kinds of cutting : 

1. Leaf festoons, splits below, and star cutting above. 

2. Printies. Very often used on the late decanters, claret jugs, goblets, etc. 

3. A combination of strawberry diamonds, plain diamonds, and prisms. 

Fan escallop edge with intervening spaces cut in fine diamonds. 



Four examples of moulded glass. Thin glass moulded to represent diamond 
cutting and flutes. Nos. i, 2, and 3 probably Cork, No. 4 probably 
Waterford. Early igth century. Author's Collection. 



PLATE XXXVII 






IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 173 

In 1816 they were paid 76 i2s. 5<i. for thirty-two casks of Stourbridge 
clay, and in 1823 ^57 5 s - ld - f r twelve tons. 

The greatest care had to be taken in making the glass-house pots, as if 
not of the best materials, they would crack owing to the intense heat of the 
furnace, and thus, in many cases, all the fused metal would be lost. 

It was found that a mixture of old pots ground down and new clay in 
the proportion of about one to three, was the most serviceable. The pots 
when made had to be very carefully dried, this operation sometimes taking 
six months, but a good pot would occasionally stand the heat of the furnace 
for six months or more. 

The potash, or pearlash, or simply ashes, as it was usually called, an 
ingredient of flint glass, was also mostly obtained through England from 
abroad. 

Kelp made from seaweed was obtained largely from Galway, and the 
Orkneys also produced great quantities. James Keir, a glass manufacturer, 
stated in 1785, that Ireland had kelp and coarse sand for bottles, and that a 
great quantity of the kelp used in England came from Ireland. Kelp was 
not, however, used in the manufacture of flint glass. 

A good deal of the potash used in the Waterford glass-house came from 
Quebec ; an entry in one of the account books of 1816 is for the payment 
of 48 55. 8d. for " three casks of pearlashes from Quebec." 

The coal used in the Waterford works and also in most of the Irish 
glass-houses appears to have been obtained chiefly from South Wales, and 
at times during the first half of the nineteenth century varied in price from 
five shillings and sixpence to seven shillings and sixpence per ton. Tempora 
mutantur ! 

The saltpetre and lead for the glass were obtained from England ; 
Newcastle, in former days, being the chief source of supply for the latter. 
In a letter, dated 1800, of James Ramsey's, one of the partners in the Water- 
ford glass works, he mentions purchasing saltpetre in London at seventy- 
three shillings per hundredweight, and lead at Bristol. In 1817 the lead 
appears to have been about thirty shillings per hundredweight. 

As previously mentioned, I possess the original recipes for making the 
glass produced in the Waterford glass-house. These recipes were used by 
John Hill, who came over, as compounder of the glass material, from Stour 
bridge in 1783. In 1786 he left Waterford, but before his departure he 



i 7 4 IRISH GLASS 

gave the recipes to Jonathan Gatchell. These are in Gatchell's handwriting, 
having been probably given to him orally by John Hill. 

The recipes are headed " Receipts for making Flint, Enamel, Blue and 
Best Green Glass, always used by John Hill. May lyth, 1786." 

For flint glass the proportions of sand, lead, ashes, saltpetre, and 
manganese are given, and also it is said " if the colour be too high use a 
little arsenic and if too low add more manganese." 

The manganese is used to counteract the green discolouration produced 
by even a small quantity of iron in the sand, and the arsenic to correct the 
tendency the manganese has to give a purple tint to the glass. 

For enamel glass the proportions are also given, but no mention is 
made of any oxide of tin being used. For blue glass, the flint materials 
were used, together with a small proportion of " Saphora," which is prob- 
ably oxide of cobalt, and for green glass the flint materials also, with a small 
addition of calcined copper. 

I have also the recipes used at Waterford in 1828, and at that period 
the proportions of the ingredients varied somewhat from those employed 
in 1786. No mention at all, at either date, is made of red glass, so that 
most probably coloured glass, other than dark green and blue, was not made 
at the Waterford glass works. 

In the book of recipes dated 1828, there are instructions for filling the 
pots for different kinds of glass, which are as follows : 

" To fill a pot with best metal. Put into the tray about one hundred- 
weight of best fine metal or chest metal, fill it up with batch, and put a pinch 
of manganese into the bottom of the pot with the first strockall full, and 
likewise put about four pinches more in each tray until the pot is full. To 
fill a pot with tale. Fill the tray nearly full with skimmings or chest metal 
or washed tale, and put about eight shovels full of batch. Put in a pinch 
of manganese at bottom, and likewise about eight or ten pinches of man- 
ganese, and so till full. To fill a pot with ordinary. Fill your tray with 
ordinary cullet or blacks, and put in about two shovels full of batch, and a 
patty pan full of manganese in each tray." 

Richard Pugh informed me that, in his glass works in Dublin, about 
the third quarter of the nineteenth century, the materials used were Fontaine- 
bleau or German sand, oxide of lead, pearlashes (from Montreal), saltpetre, 
black oxide of manganese, a little borax, and a small percentage of arsenic. 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 175 

The old Irish flint glass appears to have all been made of the same 
materials, the only difference in the various factories being the altering of 
the proportions of the several ingredients. The chief aim was to obtain a 
good white clear glass, and probably most of the factories made experiments 
by altering the proportions, as we have seen in the case of Waterford, to 
attain this end. 

Flint glass, of which the products of a large number of the Irish glass- 
houses, at least those dating from about the end of the seventeenth century, 
were made, derives its name from having originally been composed of ground 
flints. The Venetians made their " cristallo '" from crystalline pebbles 
obtained from the beds of Italian rivers, but when the Italian glass makers 
came to England it is said that they replaced these pebbles by the native 
flints. After a time silicious sand was used instead of the flints, but the 
term " flint glass " was still retained. 

Flint glass is composed of different ingredients from those employed for 
crown or window glass, plate glass, and bottle glass. For flint glass the 
usual proportions were : 

Sand 3 cwt. 

Lead 2 cwt. 

Potash i cwt. 

Saltpetre 14 to 28 Ibs. 

Manganese 4 to 12 oz. 

FOR CROWN GLASS 

Sand 5 parts. 

Ground chalk 2 parts. 

Carbonate of soda i part. 

Sulphate of soda i part. 

FOR PLATE GLASS 

Sand 400 Ibs. 

Carbonate of soda 250 Ibs. 

Ground chalk 30 Ibs. 

FOR BOTTLE GLASS 

Sand ioo parts. 

Soaper's waste 80 parts. 

Gas lime 80 parts. 

Common clay 5 parts. 

Rock salt 3 P arts - 



176 IRISH GLASS 

The making of flint or lead glass has been carried on in the British Islands 
from some time in the seventeenth century. Before this period the glass 
would have been somewhat similar to the Venetian glass, which was a soda- 
lime glass, containing no oxide of lead. The use of lead in English glass- 
making was not exactly a new discovery, for clear glass of the Roman period 
containing lead has occasionally been met with. England, however, was the 
first country to bring this glass to perfection. 

The exact period when the use of lead in English glass-making was 
introduced has not been ascertained. It is mentioned in 1665 that lead 
glass was not made in the English glass-houses on account of its brittleness, 
which proves that the use of lead was then known. Within about ten years, 
however, it was being employed in the London glass-houses. 

Notwithstanding the mention in 1665, it is thought that perhaps it 
was introduced about 1620, or a little earlier, when coal was first used for 
fuel instead of wood. 

The use of coal necessitates the employment of pots closed at the top, 
thus in some degree protecting the materials to be fused from the heat of 
the furnace ; consequently it becomes desirable to increase the proportions 
of the more fusible ingredients. In this case oxide of lead would answer 
the purpose. 

The peculiarities of flint glass, notwithstanding its comparatively slightly 
dark tint, are its transparency, brilliancy, and its powers of dispersing the 
rays of white light. This latter property is, however, only fully brought out 
by means of angular and faceted cut surfaces. Flint glass is also softer and 
more easily fusible than those glasses which have no lead in their composi- 
tion. 

FORM, CUTTING, ETC., OF IRISH GLASS OBJECTS 

The various shapes of the glass articles made in Ireland, and the cutting 
employed on them, during the eighteenth century at least, must have been 
very similar to those in fashion in England, on account of the large number 
of English glass makers working in Ireland. 

Most of the earlier Irish glass appears to have followed much the same 
lines as that made in England, for, as previously stated, the old advertise- 
ments generally emphasised the fact that many of the articles were of the 
latest London fashion. 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 177 

There are probably no glass objects so distinctive in shape or cutting 
that we can at once point to them as having been made in Ireland. In fact 
there is very little to go on with regard to form or decoration, as it is certain 
that English designs were carried out in Ireland by English glass workers. 

With the exception of the drawings of some of the patterns used at the 
Waterford glass works, no others belonging to Irish glass-houses appear to 
be known. Probably all were destroyed years ago, in fact Richard Pugh 
informed me that all the pattern drawings used by his firm in Dublin were 
burnt shortly after the factory was closed. 

The Waterford patterns, previously mentioned, were prepared by 
Samuel Miller, foreman cutter in the glass works, in the twenties and thirties 
of the nineteenth century. 

The patterns illustrated on Plates X to XIV are drawn in pen and 
pencil, some on quarto size pages stitched together, and some on loose leaves. 
Those in book form are headed " English, Irish and Scotch patterns," which 
seems to indicate that English and Scotch forms were copied at Waterford. 
Following this heading is a list of the following articles which were manu- 
factured in Waterford : Baskets, butter coolers, candlesticks, cans, cruets, 
cream ewers, decanters, dishes, egg cups, jelly glasses, mustards, pickle 
jars, salts, salad bowls, smelling bottles, sugar bowls, squares, tumblers, 
wines and rummers, celery glasses and jugs. After each item is a number 
and certain letters, the significance of which is not known, but which prob- 
ably referred to prices or to individual cutters. 

Some of the paper on which the drawings are made is water-marked 
with the date 1795, some with 1820, and one sheet with 1825, but from the 
style of the decanters, almost all having perpendicular sides, about 1830 
or so may be taken as the approximate date of the patterns. There are in 
some instances a few particulars describing the cutting, and these are given 
with the patterns. 

It will be better perhaps to take the various glass objects separately, 
and endeavour to tell what little is now known about any peculiarities of 
Irish glass. We will begin with decanters, which are probably more fre- 
quently met with now than any other pieces of late eighteenth or early 
nineteenth-century glass. 

The earlier decanters have rather globular bodies and long slender necks, 
but probably few, if any, of these are now to be found of Irish manufacture. 



M 



i 7 8 IRISH GLASS 

Towards the end of the eighteenth century one form of the decanter is that 
illustrated on Plate XV, No. i of the upper illustration. It has straight 
sloping sides, gradually contracting to a narrow neck which has no rings. 
The one illustrated would date from shortly after 1796, the year in which 
the Irish Yeomanry were raised. 

Many of the decanters of the late eighteenth century and of the early 
nineteenth up to about 1820 or 1830, are either barrel shaped, or with 
gradually expanding bodies, the lower part of which is perpendicular and 
not contracted. These almost always have rings round the neck, two, three, 
or four, most commonly three. 

These rings vary somewhat in pattern, but there are at least seven 
distinct forms, viz : the double ring, the triple ring, the plain rounded ring, 
the triangular ring, the feathered ring, the square ring, and the cut ring. A 
rough sketch of the neck of an imaginary decanter having all the seven 
varieties of rings is shown on page 179. 

The rings were for the purpose of ensuring a firm grip of the decanter. 
In the days of the three-bottle men this precaution was perhaps necessary, 
as a smooth-necked decanter might easily have slipped through the fingers. 

The rings were put on in the following manner : When the pontil iron 
had been attached to the base, and the mouth heated and shaped, another 
workman gathered on a pontil iron a small piece of glass which was dropped 
on the part of the neck where the ring was required. By rotating the decanter 
on the arms of the chair the ring was formed, and became welded to the 
piece. The surplus was tapered off, and then torn suddenly away. The 
ring thus formed would be plain, but if double, triple, or other shaped rings 
were required, the pucellas, an instrument somewhat like a spring sugar 
tongs, but in this case, with two dies affixed to the prongs, was pressed upon 
the ring while hot. The decanter was rotated, and thus the required form 
was given. The succeeding rings were put on in the same way. 

The triple ring was the one usually employed on Waterford decanters, 
and also on some made in the Waterloo Glass Works, Cork. Many of the 
decanters made in the Hanover Street factory, Cork, have plain rounded, or 
feathered rings, while any authentic Belfast examples I have seen have two 
triangular rings. Dublin also used rounded rings. Most of the old decanters 
have three rings, but I have seen Waterford examples with four, and many 
of the later Irish ones have only two, very often the double ring. 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 



179 



The lip of decanters appears to vary also. On marked specimens we 
find that in the Waterford examples the lip is comparatively large in diameter 
and distinctly flat, while in Cork, though still generally large, it is more 




/. Triple Rinq . 2 . Do vible R ing . 3 , Feathered Ring. 
4. Triangular Ring. 5, Sy^o-r* Ring 6. Cu.t Riruy . 
7. Pla,in. Rounded Ring. 

Neck of a decanter showing 7 varieties of rings. 

sloped towards the interior of the neck. In Belfast decanters the lip is usually 
very small, and in Dublin ones intermediate between these latter and those 
of Cork make. 

In one decanter, of rather champagne bottle shape, I possess, marked 



i8o IRISH GLASS 

CORK GLASS Co., the lip is small, though not quite as small as that of Belfast 
examples. Plate XVIII, No. 4, upper illustration. 

Of course these various rings and lips are not an infallible test, as in any 
factory the ring and lip could be made to any pattern according to the fancy 
of the workman. 

I have heard the theory put forward that if you find a decanter in which 
the measurement of the circumference of the lip is exactly the same as that 
of the height of the piece, you may know at once that it was made in Water- 
ford. This, I may point out, is utter nonsense. In decanters the measure- 
ment of the circumference of the lip may be greater or less than, or equal 
to, the height of the object, but the two being equal does not prove that the 
decanter was made in Waterford or in any particular factory. 

The later decanters, after about 1830 or so, usually have perpendicular 
sides, such as most of those illustrated in the Waterford patterns. Some 
few have rings round the neck, but generally these are absent, the neck being 
often cut in prisms or other patterns. 

Square decanters, or " squares " as they were usually called, appear to 
have been made in most of the Irish glass-houses, the later ones being finely 
diamond cut. These squares were made in large quantities to fit into the 
mahogany gardevins. 

Occasionally we find decanters octagonal in form with perpendicular 
sides ; most of those I have seen have rather a bluish tint, and probably 
emanated from the Cork or Dublin glass-houses. See Plate XV, lower 
illustration. 

What are known as ships' decanters are also to be found, but not in 
any great numbers. These have a broad cone-shaped body, flat base, and 
narrow neck. The cutting on the body is often of the horizontal prismatic 
design, though occasionally diamond and flat cutting are found. 

About the middle of the nineteenth century decanters with straight 
slightly tapering sides and long narrow necks appear to have been the 
fashion. These were made in Waterford shortly before the factory closed, 
and also in Dublin. The cutting on these decanters, especially on those 
made in Waterford, is often what was known as hollow prisms, as if a piece 
of glass had been cut out by a tool V-shaped in section. Decanters of this 
style were exhibited in the London Exhibition of 1851 by George Gatchell. 
One is shown on Plate XV, No. 4, lower illustration, and one on Plate V. 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 181 

Many of the decanters we now find are those, probably the cheaper 
quality, which have been blown into shallow fluted iron moulds. These 
moulds were in many cases impressed with the name of the glass works, 
and sometimes also with the name of the proprietor. Hence many of these 
partly moulded decanters bear the factory mark in cameo on the base, usually 
in a ring as shown on Plates IX, XVI, and XVII to XIX. Besides decanters 
we find water jugs and finger bowls with this raised mark. Often the mark 
is very difficult to decipher, and occasionally wholly obliterated, owing to 
the glass being in a soft state when removed from the mould, and, more 
especially, to reheating the piece for finishing. 

Some decanters and finger bowls bear the names FRANCIS COLLINS, 
DUBLIN and MARY CARTER & SON, DUBLIN, in circular rings on the base. 
These two firms were not, I think, glass manufacturers, but simply dealers 
who had the articles made for them at one of the Dublin glass-houses. 

In the Dublin Evening Post of November 4th, 1783, Francis Collins, 
China, Delft, and Irish Glass Warehouse, 5 Lower Ormond Quay, adver- 
tises that he " has an elegant assortment of Irish cut and plain drinking 
glasses, decanters, etc." 

In one of the Waterford account books of 1820 is an entry of a pay- 
ment of 4 i os. for moulds, and in letters from Jonathan Wright in 1832 
and 1834 he says, " We want the moulds from Aldritt," and, " we send a 
pattern from which a mould is to be made by Mooney." Both letters are 
addressed to Dublin, where it is evident that the moulds were made. In a 
Dublin directory of 1823 Joseph Aldritt, 20 Stafford Street, is entered as 
lathe, tool, and steam engine maker ; and Thomas Mooney, 41 Pill Lane, 
as ironmonger, hardware, and steel merchant. 

Some of the moulds used in Waterford were obtained from Christy of 
London, as entries in the old account books testify. 

The claret jugs followed much the same forms as the decanters, except 
that the former have handles and spouts. The earlier ones are found barrel 
shaped, and the later with perpendicular sides, the spouts being sometimes 
short and rounded and sometimes long and very pointed. Flat cutting and 
" printies " or concave circles, are common designs on the late examples .. 
Plate XIX, No. i, lower illustration. 

The " salad " bowls, which have recently been bringing such high 
prices, seem to have been made in fairly large numbers in most of the Irish 



IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXXVIII 

Three pieces of coloured glass : 

1. Dark green cut glass butter cooler. Probably Waterford, igth century. 

2. Plain purple glass hyacinth glass. Made by Pugh, Dublin, about 1870. 

3. Dark blue glass finger bowl. Marked PENROSE WATERFORD. Author's 

Collection. 



1 . Goblet used on the occasion of the visit of George IV to Dublin in 1821 . 

Probably Dublin glass. 

2. Williamite glass. Bowl engraved with vines and inscribed " The 

Glorious Memory of King William." Probably Dublin, about the 
middle of the i8th century. 

3. Williamite glass. Bowl engraved with King William on horseback, and 

inscribed " The Glorious Memory of King William July rst 1690." 
Probably Dublin, first half of i8th century. 

4. Williamite goblet. Bowl engraved with King William on horseback, and 

inscribed " The Glorious Memory of King William," also G R 
crowned. Probably Dublin, about 1820-30. National Museum, 
Dublin. 



I'l.ATK XXXVIII 







IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 183 

glass-houses. Although all termed " salad bowls " now, many of them, 
especially the very large ones, were probably used for fruit, etc. 

If we could only foresee events we could make fortunes in a compara- 
tively short time. Who was to know fifteen or twenty years ago that these 
little thought-of pieces of glass would bring such high prices ? Yet I have 
been offered in Dublin beautiful boat-shaped and circular bowls for thirty 
shillings a piece and refused them. I have heard of far cheaper salad bowls ; 
for instance, two were sold years ago in an auction in Ireland for two 
shillings, and the owner seemed disappointed, saying he thought at least he 
should have got five shillings ! A year or two ago these two might have 
brought 200. 

Although I refused the salad bowls for thirty shillings I made one 
glass purchase upon which I still congratulate myself, and this was 
a pair of beautiful Bristol candlesticks of translucent white glass, for 
the sum of 2. They are worth somewhat more than that at the present 
day ! 

To return to the salad bowls ; a good many now called " Waterford," 
or even Irish, probably never saw Ireland until many years after their birth, 
which took place in England. Cut and plain salad bowls are advertised as 
having been imported into Ireland from England as early as 1765, so it can- 
not be possible that these objects were peculiar to Ireland, although I have 
been informed that the large boat-shaped bowls do not occur in England 
among the so-called native-made glass. 

The form of the Irish bowls was based probably on that of those in 
fashion in England, and as time went on slightly different shapes may have 
been evolved. 

Salad bowls are not mentioned in any of the early lists of Irish-made 
glass. The earliest notice of them, as far as I have been able to ascertain, 
occurs in a list of 1789. 

The stock of a Dublin glass seller in 1771 included enamelled, flowered, 
cut, and plain wine, beer, and cider glasses ; cut, flowered, and plain de- 
canters ; water glasses and plates ; tumblers ; cruet casters ; cans ; jugs ; 
salvers ; jelly and sweetmeat glasses ; flowered, cut, and plain salts ; hall 
bells, etc., but no mention was made of salad bowls. 

The Irish bowls appear to have been made both circular and oval, either 
with upright or turned over edges. The earlier ones are generally attached 



1 84 IRISH GLASS 

to a solid foot, either square, oval, or diamond shape, of glass pressed into 
a mould, though in some cases the foot is hollow and circular. 

Occasionally the circular bowls of the earlier period are found with 
three plain cylindrical feet attached to them instead of the central stem and 
pressed foot. These three feet are more commonly found on the bowls 
with the turn-over edge, though rarely they occur on the straight-edged 
ones. Plate XXXIX, No. 2, upper illustration. 

The bowls with turned-over edge were made commonly in England, 
and those without foot, which fitted into Sheffield plated stands, were ob- 
tained from Birmingham and other English glass-houses. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Frederick Bradbury of Sheffield, I am 
enabled to give a few particulars of the sources whence the old Sheffield 
plate manufacturers obtained their glass. The following extracts are taken 
from the old ledgers of Messrs. Thomas Bradbury and Sons, one of the 
oldest firms in the plating trade in Sheffield. The entries ranging from 1779 
to 1813 give the localities of the glass-houses, their proprietors and the 
amounts paid for glass, viz. : John Dixon, Whittington glass-house, 1779 
to 1807 ; Isaac Hawker and Son, Birmingham, 1784 to 1794 ; James Smart, 
Birmingham, 1794 to 1799 ; Jones, Smart and Co., Birmingham, 1799 to 
1805 ; William Beatson and Co., Rotherham, 1801 to 1803 ; John Benson, 
Dudley, 1803 to 1812 ; Lee and Large, William Large, and Large and 
Hodgetts, Dudley, 1804 to 1808 ; Brueton Gibbons, Birmingham, 1806 to 
1812 ; Hughes and Harris, Hughes and Fearon, Daniel Hughes and Co., 
and Fearon, Collins and Co., all of Birmingham, 1798 to 1812, and John 
Withey and George Nichols of Sheffield, 1800 to 1813. The amount of 
glass purchased by this one firm for fittings of the Sheffield plated articles 
was considerable. In some years it amounted to over one thousand 
pounds, which in those days would have purchased a large quantity of 
glass. 

From these particulars it will be seen that the Sheffield plate glass 
fittings were not purchased from Irish glass-houses, though at the present 
day epergne and other glass fittings are constantly said to be Irish, usually, 
of course, Waterford. It is scarcely likely that the Sheffield manufacturers 
would send to Ireland for glass when they had glass-houses near at hand from 
which they could obtain supplies. 

Many of these English bowls, dishes, etc., have the dark or bluish tint 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 185 

usually attributed to, and considered an exclusive characteristic of, Irish 
glass. Some of the glass fittings of Irish silver epergnes now extant may 
have been made in Ireland, for epergnes and epergne saucers are advertised 
in lists of Irish glass towards the end of the eighteenth century. Of course, 
glasses belonging to epergnes, stands, etc., of Sheffield plated ware were 
probably broken from time to time, and most likely the owners, if in Ireland, 
would possibly have had them replaced from the nearest glass works. It 
would, however, be difficult now to tell the Irish copies from the English 
originals. 

Some of the salad bowls, both in the earlier and later examples, have 
the stand in a separate piece from the bowl. The base in this case is usually 
hollow. The earlier stands are often cone shape or cylindrical with a circular 
or oval cup to receive the bowl, and the later generally circular with diamond 
or prismatic cutting. Examples are illustrated on Plate XXI, upper 
illustration. 

I have frequently been told by people that they possess a glass Dish 
Ring, but these Dish Rings invariably turn out to be these stands for bowls. 
I have never come across a stand in glass similar in shape to the Irish silver 
Dish Rings, though of course the silver rings and the glass stands served the 
same purpose, viz., to support a bowl. The Irish silver rings are always 
circular, while the glass stands are often oval. 

The later salad bowls of about 1830 and after, are almost always circular, 
with straight edges occasionally fan cut, and have a stem with a knop, and a 
circular flat base often star cut. Illustrations of this type are to be found 
among the Waterford patterns on Plate XIV. 

The star cutting on the underneath part of the base of an object almost 
always denotes a late period, as also does the presence of the knop on the 
stem. Probably from about 1820 or so these ornaments were used. They 
are both to be found on salad bowls, celery glasses, pickle jars, goblets, wine 
glasses, etc., and the star base alone, on jugs, tumblers, etc. 

The celery glasses followed much the same style as the salad bowls, 
except that they were all circular, and taller and narrower. We find them 
with straight and turned-over edges, the earlier ones on a square pressed 
foot, and the later on a circular foot usually star cut, and having a knopped 
stem. Plate XXI, Nos. 2 and 3 show the earlier form, and the later forms 
are to be seen among the Waterford patterns on Plate X and also on Plate 



186 IRISH GLASS 

XXII. Celery glasses do not appear to be mentioned in eighteenth-century 
lists of Irish-made glass. 

Finger bowls, or finger cups as they were sometimes called in former 
times, vary somewhat according to age. The earlier ones have usually 
perpendicular sides, sometimes with two lips, sometimes with one, and 
sometimes they are lipless. Upright flat cutting running from the base is 
the most general form of decoration, though many have diamond and leaf 
cutting, and some are engraved. A large number of the old straight-sided 
finger bowls were moulded with upright fluting to a height of about one 
and a half inches from the base, and these were often marked underneath 
with the name of the factory. In my possession are several of these bearing 
the Dublin, Waterford, and Belfast marks. These are illustrated on Plate 
XXIII. 

The later finger bowls have generally rounded or pear-shaped sides, 
with the upright cutting and also a band of small diamonds, or other design, 
round the body. As time went on the sides became slightly incurved at 
the top. Both the perpendicular and curved-sided finger bowls were made 
in dark blue and dark green glass. 

The pickle jars, pickle urns, or pickle glasses are somewhat similar in 
design to the celery glasses, but the bodies are often globular in shape and 
there is always a lid. 

The older pickle jars usually have straight sides often turned over at 
the edge, and stand on a square pressed base. The lid is sometimes turned 
in at the lower edge and fitted inside the bowl, but often the edge is curved 
outwards and rests on a flange inside the edge of the jar. 

The later examples sometimes have the body globular, a knopped stem 
and circular star-cut base. 

The earlier cutting was often the leaf design, while the later was mostly 
diamonds. Engraving was also employed as was moulding in imitation of 
diamond cutting and flutes. Examples of various pickle jars are given on 
Plates XXIII and XXIV. 

Water jugs are generally low and rather squat, but occasionally we find 
them tall and comparatively narrow, sometimes on a circular hollow foot. 
The low broad form of the early nineteenth century is the most common, 
and these are found finely cut in diamonds, leaf designs, flutes, etc., and also 
moulded and engraved. An example of the latter is shown on Plate XXII. 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 187 

The earlier jugs usually have the base continued round in an unbroken 
line, and just polished off in order to make them stand, but in a good many 
of the later examples of about 1820 and 1830 there is a flanged base pro- 
jecting outwards a short distance. Some of the later jugs have a short con- 
stricted stem below the body, and a circular star-cut base. 

The handle of the old glass jugs is almost always larger at the upper end 
where it joins the body than at the lower. Here it tapers, and is either cut 
off or finished in a wavy or curled end. In modern jugs the lower part of 
the handle joins the body in a comparatively large blob, and if this feature 
be found on cut-glass jugs it is pretty certain that they are not very old. 
Various types of jugs are illustrated on Plates XXIV and XXV. 

The blob on the lower part of the handle of the modern glass jug is 
simply a return to an early fashion, as in many pieces of old Roman glass 
we find exactly the same characteristic. 

From a common-sense point of view the handle of a glass water jug 
should be thicker and stronger at the upper part of contact with the body 
than at the lower. One of these jugs filled with water is fairly heavy, and when 
held by the handle, the strain is outwards at the upper connection and 
inwards at the lower, therefore the greater strength should be above. 

Dessert services were made of glass in Ireland during the first half of 
the nineteenth century, being mentioned in lists of glass of that period, but, 
apparently, do not seem to have been made much earlier. They appear to have 
consisted of dishes oval, octagonal, and circular and plates. The earlier 
sets appear to be those with rather shallow-cut leaf designs, etc., while the 
later ones usually have deep diamond cutting. The glass in the old dishes 
is generally very unequal in thickness ; on one side at the edge it may be 
quite thin, and on the other perhaps more than double as thick. Dessert 
dishes and plates are illustrated on Plates XXIII and XXVI. 

In modern times the glass is found to be very equal in thickness all 
round, hence the inequality in the thickness of a piece is a point in favour 
of its antiquity. See Plate XXVI, No. 2, upper illustration. 

Oval dishes are occasionally found fitted to a hollow, separate stand, 
and the octagonal ones sometimes have a separate stand with four short 
feet. Some of these may be of Irish make, but probably the greater number 
are English, and belong to the nineteenth century. 



1 88 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XXXIX 

Goblet on square pressed foot. Bowl cut with leaf festoons and stars. 
Probably Waterford, early igth century. 

Tripod bowl. Turn-over edge cut in alternate prisms. Probably 
Dublin or Cork, late i8th century. 

Candlestick with diamond and flat cutting. Star-cut base. Probably 
Dublin or Cork, about 1820. National Museum, Dublin. 



Four custard glasses : 

i. E f Probably Irish, early igth century. 

2, 3, and 4 probably Waterford, about 1820. National Museum, Dublin. 
See also Plate XIII. 



PLATE XXXIX 



rv^wttnitftfna 










IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 189 

Scent bottles seem to have been made in fair numbers in the glass- 
houses in Ireland, being occasionally noticed in lists of glass. Mention is 
made of them in one or two of the Waterford letters. A good many were 
made of a flat vesica shape. Two Waterford specimens are illustrated on 
Plate VIII. The one with the initials S.G. was made about the year 
1790 for Susannah Gatchell, sister of Jonathan Gatchell, afterwards pro- 
prietor of the Waterford glass works. It is now in the possession of her 
grandson, Samuel H. Wright. 

The salt cellars of about the end of the eighteenth century are often 
like miniature salad bowls, being found circular and oval, often with turned- 
over edges, and on a square, oval, or diamond-shaped pressed foot. Others 
have a rectangular bowl, often moulded, on similar feet. The later ones are 
mostly cup-shaped and diamond cut, resting on small cut saucers. Plate 
XXVII. 

Cut-glass candlesticks of the baluster stem type with domed base were 
probably made in some of the earlier Irish glass-houses, but those made in 
Cork, Waterford, and the other later works, appear to have been mostly of 
the moulded type, sometimes with a small amount of cutting. These often 
have the lower part of the stem in the shape of an inverted cone, moulded 
in a fluted design, and stand on a square pressed glass foot. There is a 
flange round the base of the nozzle which in some cases may have held in 
place a radiating disc from which hung glass drops. Some of these candle- 
sticks, however, which have this flange have also a cup-shaped or turned- 
over edge to the nozzle, which would effectually prevent the glass disc from 
being put over the nozzle on to the flange. 

Glass candlesticks with diamond-cut stems and nozzles, on circular 
star-cut bases of the first half of the nineteenth century are also to be found 
and were probably made in the Irish glass-houses. Specimens of the 
moulded and slightly cut candlesticks are illustrated on Plates XXVII and 
XXVIII, and a later diamond-cut example on Plate XXXIX. 

Many of the large chandeliers which are now said to be Waterford are 
most probably of English make. 

Chandeliers and girandoles, however, are often mentioned in the lists 
of glass stated to have been made in Irish glass-houses, but a large per- 
centage of the cut-glass drops appears to have been imported from England. 
In one of the Waterford letters dated October 23rd, 1832, it is stated that 



190 



IRISH GLASS 



the drops were purchased from Follet Osier of Birmingham, and in 1835 
Martin Crean, a Dublin glass maker, stated that there were no manufacturers 
of drops for lustres in Ireland. There are several entries in the Waterford 
account books of the sale of cut-glass chandeliers, the price varying from 
10 to 30. In the Town Hall of Waterford is a very fine chandelier, which, 
according to tradition, was presented to the town of Waterford by the Water- 
ford Glass Works. When in Waterford I inquired about this chandelier, but 
was given to understand that there was no documentary evidence of the gift 
having been made. 

The oval mirrors with frames of coloured cut glass, frequently found 
in Ireland, were probably made by the looking-glass manufacturers in 
Dublin and the South of Ireland. The clear, dark blue, opaque white and 
green faceted pieces forming the frame were made and cut probably in the 
various glass works and then fitted up by the looking-glass makers. Many 
of these mirrors have a cut-glass chandelier, suspended from a hook above, 
in front. A very fine example is shown on Plate XXVIII. 

Cruet bottles appear to have been made in most of the Irish glass 
houses, numbers having been made in Waterford. They are usually straight- 
sided, with sloping neck very often with one or two rings. The cutting 
varies a good deal, fine diamonds, blazes, and flutes or pillars being found, 
while engraving was also employed. Plate XXIX. 

Pillared peppers and mustards are mentioned in the Waterford books 
in 1822. Plate XXIX, No. 4. The frames for these bottles were mostly 
imported from England. 

Glass butter coolers vary a good deal in shape and design. Some are 
oval, others circular or octagonal, each having a domed lid and usually a 
stand or dish. The oval ones appear to be the earlier, and these are often 
found partly moulded and partly cut. Some of the later examples are very 
similar to finger bowls, having the upright moulded flutes. Plates XXIX 
and XXX. Butter coolers were also made in green and blue glass. 

Some of the curved-sided bowls with fan-shaped or other kinds of 
handles, often called butter coolers at the present day, appear to have been 
really sugar bowls. Two are illustrated among the Waterford patterns on 
Plate XIII, and " Sugars " is written below in the original drawing. 

Glass piggins for butter, sugar, etc., seem to have been made in fairly 
large numbers in Ireland. The wooden piggin, from which the glass one was 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL i 9 r 

copied, was formed like a barrel cut in half, with one stave left a little longer 
than the rest, which served as a handle. These piggins were commonly 
used in Ireland for ladling milk, etc. The glass ones very rarely have two 
handles. The edge of the glass piggin is cut and has not the fire finish 
usually found on glass. Probably the sides could not be cut while hot so 
as to leave the handle, consequently both handle and edge were cut on the 
wheel. The purchaser of the glass piggins should be on his guard, as 
many are now made from old decanters cut down to the required shape. 
Plate XXIX, No. 2, lower illustration. 

A short time ago when very high prices were being obtained for old 
Irish glass the following advertisement was inserted in an Irish newspaper, 
by some one who evidently failed to grasp what a piggin really was : " Water- 
ford Glass ! Waterford Glass ! Wanted two Piggetts or Pig Buckets." The 
ignorance here displayed is perhaps on the same level as that shown by 
those who will call the Irish silver Dish Rings, Potato Rings, though what 
potatoes had to do with them no one appears to know. During the period 
in which they were made, they were always called Dish Rings. 

Salvers are other objects often mentioned in lists of old Irish glass. 
The earlier ones, with circular flat top having a narrow gallery projecting 
above and below the edge, moulded stem and domed base, appear to have 
been used for jelly and sillabub glasses ; while the later ones, of the late 
eighteenth century and early nineteenth, have the gallery projecting above 
only, and rest on a hollow spreading base. These later ones appear to have 
been used for liqueur glasses. Plate XXXI, middle illustration. 

Rummers, large size drinking glasses on foot, were probably made in 
most of the Irish glass-houses. Rummer is a corruption of the German 
word Roemer, which was applied to the old drinking glasses with hollow 
stem, so that the liquid went dow r n as far as the top of the base. The Irish 
rummers have convex-sided, pear-shaped and conical bowls ; pear-shaped 
rummers being mentioned in the Waterford letters. Those on square pressed 
foot are much more uncommon than those with the .circular foot. See 
Plate XXXI, No. 2, lower illustration, and Plate XXXIX, No. i, upper 
illustration. 

The square, diamond, or oval pressed foot to be found on salad bowls, 
celery glasses, pickle jars, salt cellars, and rummers appears to have been in 
fashion from late in the eighteenth century until about 1820 or so. Rummers 



i 9 2 IRISH GLASS 

on square pressed foot and also those on circular tool-formed base seem both 
to have been made during the first two decades of the nineteenth century. 
After that the circular base alone was used. Star cutting, as previously 
mentioned, on the circular foot and also on the base of decanters, etc., is, 
however, characteristic of a late period. 

Pieces of glass, such as bowls, pickle jars, covered jars, etc., are often 
found with the stem and square foot decorated with flat cutting. These 
pieces are, in my opinion, English and very often modern. I have never 
seen any glass, purporting to be old Irish, with this feature. The square, 
oval, and diamond-shaped pressed foot on Irish glass objects appears to 
have been only trimmed off and polished at the edges, and in many cases 
even this amount of cutting was not done. 

Irish wine glasses of various sizes with rectangular, conical, and rounded 
bowls are to be found in large numbers belonging to the early part of the 
nineteenth century. The earlier glasses usually have a plain cylindrical 
stem, but from about 1820 or so the stem with knop is generally found, as 
is also the star-cut base. 

Both the rummers and wine glasses were ornamented with cutting, 
such as bands of diamonds, leaf festoons, blazes, etc., and also with engraved 
designs. 

Various names were applied to the different patterns of drinking 
glasses used in the early part of the nineteenth century, the following occur- 
ring in the Waterford books : Regents, Nelsons, Masons, Rummers, Hob- 
nobs, Flutes, Drams, Thumbs, and Dandies. The last-named were small 
half-tumblers holding quarter of a pint. Illustrations of a few drinking 
glasses and tumblers are to be found on Plates XXV, XXXII and XXXIII. 

The sugar bowls that were made in the Irish glass-houses are those we 
find with rounded bowl on a flat circular base. The cutting is usually some 
form of the diamond pattern. These bowls are the later ones, the earlier 
are probably those with no foot, either with round or straight sides, and 
sometimes with handles in prolongation of the sides. Plate XXXIV, 
upper illustration. 

Cream ewers are somewhat like small water jugs, though often oblong 
in shape. Occasionally they are found with concave sides tapering towards 
the base, which is flat and without a foot. Plate XXXI. 

Toddy fillers or punch servers are found fairly often in Ireland, and 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 193 

were made probably in the Irish glass-houses at the end of the eighteenth 
century and during the first half of the nineteenth. The filler was used in 
place of a ladle to fill the glasses from the punch bowl, being plunged into 
the punch until the bulb was filled through the hole in the base. It was 
then lifted out, with the thumb pressed to the hole at the top, and trans- 
ferred to the glass, when, by removing the thumb, the liquid ran out at the 
hole below. Sometimes these fillers have a triple or other ring round the 
neck a short distance from the top, to catch the first and second fingers 
when stopping the upper hole with the thumb, and often the neck and bulb 
are cut in flat surfaces. 

Custard glasses, or custard cups, seem to have been made in some 
numbers in the later Irish glass-houses. The earlier ones are probably 
those somewhat wine-glass shape, but without stem. The later are usually 
cup-shaped, both with and without a handle, and often with a cover. 
Examples are shown on Plate XXXIX, and also among the Waterford 
patterns on Plate XIII. 

Many other objects such as egg-cups, knife rests, ladles, whisky measures, 
flasks, etc., were made in the Irish glass-houses, though in some cases it is 
difficult to determine what certain pieces were used for. The pieces, for 
example, illustrated on Plate XXXIV may be mustard pots, but it is not 
certain. 

In a trade circular in verse of about the year 1790 of Marsden Haddock 
of Cork, formerly in the possession of the late Mr. Robert Day, and pub- 
lished by him in the Cork Archaeological Journal for 1901, is found amongst 
other items the following list of glass objects : 

His shop is now completely stored 

With choicest glass from Waterford 
Decanters, Rummers, Drams and Masons, 
Flutes, Hob Nobs, Crofts and Finger Basons, 
Proof bottles, Goblets, Cans and Wines, 
Punch Juggs, Liqueurs and Gardevins ; 
Salts, Mustards, Salads, Butter Keelers, 
And all that's sold by other dealers, 
Engraved or cut in newest taste, 
Or plain whichever pleases best ; 



194 IRISH GLASS 

Lustres repaired or polished bright, 
And broken glasses matched at sight ; 
Hall globes of every size and shape, 
Or old ones hung and mounted cheap. 



I would like to call attention to the cut-glass bowls often of a very 
slightly greenish metal, with solid truncated cone-shaped base, and usually 
having rather shallow geometric cutting. 

These are very often said to be of Irish manufacture and especially of 
Waterford, but on what grounds I have never been able to ascertain. As 
far as my experience goes I have never found them among any old glass 
that has any pretensions to be Irish, and I do not consider them to have 
been made in Ireland at all. The older ones are probably English, but the 
modern fakes, of which a goodly number are passed off as Waterford, are 
generally continental. Plate XXXV. 

A large percentage of old Irish glass of the late eighteenth century, 
and a still larger amount belonging to the first half of the nineteenth, was 
ut and engraved, while some during the earlier period was enamelled, 
and probably a small quantity was gilt. 

The earliest notice I have found referring to actual cut glass in Ireland 
occurs in the year 1747, when it was announced that diamond cut-glass 
salts and cruets were imported into the country. It was probably not until 
some years later that cut glass was produced in any quantity in Ireland. 
Diamond cut salts, cruets, etc., are advertised in 1752 as having been made 
in the Mary's Lane glass-house in Dublin. 

" Fine salts ground and polished " are, however, mentioned as having 
been made in the Mary's Lane glass-house in 1729. Possibly these were 
simply plain pieces finished off by polishing, and would hardly be considered 
what we now call cut glass. Also the names of Dublin glass grinders are found 
mentioned from the year 1689, and onwards during the eighteenth century. 

The carving of arms, crests, figures, etc., on glass, referred to in Joseph 
Martin's advertisement in 1735, although in a sense cutting, would not 
enable the pieces so carved to be classed as cut glass. 

As to the patterns cut on the Irish glass, probably most of them were 
copied from English and Scottish designs. As mentioned above, the Water- 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 195 

ford patterns are headed " English, Irish and Scotch," so that it would be 
very difficult now to tell the difference by the cutting between English and 
Irish glass. 

As far as can be ascertained the cutting on the older glass is less in 
quantity, shallow, and consisting more of festoon leaf design and rather 
large diamonds ; while the later glass often has the deep sharp diamonds, 
and the surface of the piece is more covered with the cutting. 

There is, however, no hard and fast rule with regard to the different 
kinds of cutting, for even on some of the nineteenth-century objects we 
find the shallow cutting. 

The usual cutting consists of large and small diamonds cut into points ; 
strawberry diamonds, that is the diamond cutting with the points cut flat, 
and then very fine diamond cut ; chequered diamonds, which are similar to 
strawberry diamonds, but having four diamonds cut on each flat surface 
instead of the fine diamonds ; cross-cut diamonds, similar to the straw- 
berry diamonds, but a single cross cut on the flat surface ; fine diamond 
cutting, usually in bands ; upright fluting or pillars, which, it is said, was 
the most difficult cutting to produce, and various designs in angular geometric 
patterns. Small angular grooves known as splits, were also extensively used 
in old Irish glass, being usually placed in the angles of the other cutting. 
Examples of various kinds of cutting are shown on Plates XXXVI and 
XXXVII. 

Many varieties and combinations of the different kinds of diamond 
cutting are to be found. For instance a piece may have a band of cutting 
composed of strawberry and cross-cut diamonds, each row being divided 
by two or more lines of prismatic cutting. 

A very favourite pattern used in Cork, especially in the Hanover Street 
factory, is a band of vesica-shaped panels, the enclosed part variously 
treated, either joined end to end, or separated by a lozenge often containing 
a star. This general pattern with numerous variations is to be found on 
Cork glass salad bowls, jugs, decanters, pickle jars, etc. Pieces with this 
design are illustrated on Plate XVIII, Nos. 3 and 4, upper illustration, and 
Plate XIX, No. 3, upper illustration. 

Another design frequently found on Cork glass is somewhat similar to 
this, but the vesica is replaced by a lozenge enclosing diamond or star cut- 
ting. Plate XXV, lower row, Nos. 2 and 3. 



196 IRISH GLASS 

Two patterns commonly employed in the Waterford glass-house are a 
continuous arched design, consisting of two pillars and a connecting arch, 
all in fine diamond cutting, generally with splits between the angles of the 
connecting arches, and a star within the arch ; and secondly a continuous 
semicircular pattern pendent from a straight horizontal line ; the semi- 
circles filled with fine diamond cutting, generally with two or three splits 
between. 

These patterns are also found on decanters, pickle jars, wine glasses, 
etc. A salad bowl with the semicircular cutting is shown in the Waterford 
patterns on Plate XIII, and decanters with the arched design on Plate 
XVIII, Nos. 2 and 4, lower illustration. 

Another pattern often used in Waterford and probably in other Irish 
glass-houses, is that known as " blazes," either upright or slanting. This 
pattern occurs in some of the Waterford patterns, and is also illustrated on 
Plate XXXVI, Nos. 7 and 8. 

Bands of chequered diamonds were also frequently cut on Waterford 
glass. Plate XXXVI. 

A feature of most of the old Irish, and probably also of some of the 
old English, cut glass, is the unevenness of the cutting. In a large number 
of pieces which have the design cut horizontally, we find that the lines of 
the cutting, which should be parallel, are anything but such. Take a salad 
bowl, pickle jar, or any old piece with this horizontal cutting, and hold it 
on the level of the eye, and you will find that the lines round the body, which 
should be straight and parallel to the edge of the piece and to each other, 
are often quite undulating. This unevenness is generally a point in favour 
of the piece being old, although the modern faker will probably soon copy 
this peculiarity. On the other hand, a piece of glass with the horizontal 
lines exactly correct should be carefully examined, as very possibly it is 
a modern production. 

Probably the unevenness of the early cutting was due to the method 
employed. Before steam power was used for glass-cutting it took two men 
to do the work by hand. One stood at the side of the cutting table and 
turned a wheel connected by a band with the actual cutting wheel, while 
another sat at the table and held the piece of glass to the edge of the rapidly 
revolving cutting wheel. 

Possibly the man turning the wheel may not have been always very 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 197 

regular in the turning, unlike the even motion of the steam-driven wheel, 
and this may have caused irregularities in the cutting. An illustration of 
one of the old iron cutting wheels, formerly used in one of the Cork glass- 
houses, is shown on Plate XXXV. 

In the census of 1821 the occupation of a man named Mason in Dublin 
is entered as " turns the wheel for his father the glass cutter." 

A good many of the old water jugs, decanters, etc., are decorated with 
a rather rough engraving. This was done by slightly grinding the surface 
on the wheel so as to obtain the required pattern, the rough surface being 
left so and not polished. The designs are usually festoons, knots, vine leaves 
and grapes, etc. In Cork engraved glass we frequently find a conventional 
flower filled with criss-cross lines, and having leaves springing from it. 
See Plate XVII, Nos. i, 2, and 4, upper illustration, and Plate XXII, 
water jug. 

This engraved glass, generally styled flowered glass in the old advertise- 
ments, appears to have been produced in all the later Irish glass-houses. 
The glass in these pieces is nearly always much thinner than in those that 
are cut. An engraved jug made in the Waterloo Glass Works, Cork, is 
shown on Plate XXII. 

Besides the cut and flowered glass, a good many pieces are to be found 
which have been blown into moulds which produce imitations of diamond 
cutting and upright fluting. Celery bowls, decanters, pickle jars, salt-cellars, 
etc., are found with these moulded patterns, some of which are illustrated 
on Plate XXXVII. Most of these moulded pieces appear to belong to the 
early nineteenth century. 

Some people appear to differentiate the cut and plain glass as cut 
and blown glass, quite forgetting that practically all the old glass had 
first to be blown. Decanters, jugs, pickle jars, celery bowls, goblets, 
etc., are all blown glass, no matter how much cutting they have, but dishes, 
butter coolers, etc., are, what is termed, " pressed " into a mould, and 
either left plain, or afterwards cut. 

Although dishes, etc., are said to be " pressed " into a mould, they are 
in reality blown into it. There were two methods of making dishes, called 
" blowing off " and " blowing over." In the former, the gathering of glass 
on the blowing iron was made roughly square, and then pressed into the 
brass mould, being inflated by blowing through the iron. This expanded 



198 IRISH GLASS 



PLATE XL 

Hookah base. Probably Cork, early iQth century. These were made for the 
Indian trade. Author's Collection. 



Double bottle. Engraved with a harp and shamrock leaf crown. Probably 
Belfast, early igth century. Author's Collection. 



PLATE XL 





IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 199 

the upper part of the dish, called the blow-over, until it became so thin as 
sometimes to explode. A piece of wood was used to knock off the part not 
required for the dish. 

' Blowing over " was much the same process, but the upper part of the 
gathering was less expanded and was therefore thicker. This surplus, not 
required for the dish, had to be cut off when cold by the glass cutter, and 
this often incurred great risk of fracturing the piece. 

The term " blown " for plain or moulded glass as distinct from cut 
glass is misleading. In all the contemporary advertisements the glass was 
always said to be plain or cut. 

All the old cut glass was cut from the solid, that is, the thick glass was 
blown quite smooth, and then cut to the required design. At the present 
day, however, especially in the United States, the piece is blown or pressed 
into a mould to give it a rough design, which is afterwards slightly ground 
and then polished, thus saving a very large amount of labour. 

With the exception perhaps of the two or three recognised designs 
employed in Cork and Waterford, it is very difficult to tell, from the cutting, 
the glass of a particular factory. One reason for this is that English and 
Scotch designs were freely copied, and probably one glass-house copied 
the patterns used in another, while a second is, that the glass which was 
made in one town in Ireland was often cut in another. Possibly even English 
glass may have been cut in Ireland. Large quantities of Waterford glass 
were cut in Cork and Belfast and other towns in Ireland, while Limerick 
possessed glass cutters and engravers who cut and decorated glass, made 
probably in Cork and Waterford. 

The following advertisements prove that Irish glass was cut in other 
towns than those in which it was made. In the Cork Evening Post of January 
i yth, 1793, Marsden Haddock of Cork states that " he supplies Cork and 
Waterford glass, does the cutting himself, and also employes a cutter from 
England." Thus English designs would most probably have been em- 
ployed. In the Hibernian Journal for December 3ist, 1777, James Arm- 
strong, glass cutter, Dublin, states that he has " for sale cut, flowered, and 
plain drinking glasses, decanters, salts, sweetmeat, and water glasses, and 
that as he cuts his own glass, he is enabled to sell cheaper than any shop in 
the city." This may have been English glass. 

John Kennedy, glass cutter, and proprietor of the Waterford glass 



200 IRISH GLASS 

warehouse, 50 Stephen Street, Dublin, advertises in 1789 that he has lustres, 
chandeliers, girandoles, epergnes, oval and round glass dishes, salad bowls, 
etc., and that he gets all the glass cut under his own inspection. 

In the Belfast News Letter of December 4th, 1786, James Cleland, of 
Belfast, advertises that he " has the greatest variety of the best flint glass of 
almost every denomination cut and engraved to the newest patterns by 
workmen from England in his employ here." Yet again English influence 
would be apparent. 

In the same newspaper for October 3ist, 1815, Jane Cleland states that 
" she has imported from Waterford a quantity of plain flint glass, which she 
has got cut to the newest and richest patterns." 

Both James and Jane Cleland obtained large quantities of glass from 
Waterford, their names constantly occurring in the old Waterford account 
books as purchasers of glass. 

Occasionally we hear of a wonderful and " unique " piece of glass, 
such as a salad bowl, which has not been cut, nor have the rough edges of 
the moulded foot been removed. This is simply a piece of glass just as it 
left the annealing oven, and is probably part of a consignment of glass 
received by one of the country glass cutters, who never decorated it, nor 
ground off the rough edges. 

I have frequently come across pieces of perfectly plain glass, such as 
salad bowls, celery glasses, pickle jars, salt cellars, etc., which have still the 
rough edge that had been squeezed out on the pressed foot. These pieces 
were evidently intended to be cut, but have never been touched by the 
cutting wheel. 

It is certain that dark blue, dark green, and enamel glass was made in 
Waterford, and probably coloured glass was made in most of the Irish glass- 
houses of the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth. 

In one of the advertisements in 1772 of Williams' glass-house in 
Dublin, it is stated that any article and of any colour that is made of glass 
was made at his factory. 

In a letter from Isaac Warren mentioned on page 97 ordering glass 
from Waterford, he asks for green pickle jars and blue butter coolers ; and 
in another letter written from the glass works mention is made of half-pint 
flasks of a beautiful blue colour. In my possession is a dark blue ringer 
bowl marked underneath PENROSE, WATERFORD, and in the old Waterford 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 201 

account books there are numerous entries of payments for green cullet. 
Plate XXXVIII. 

Enamelled glass also seems to have been made in some of the Irish 
factories. This glass, which is probably that decorated with some design 
in white enamel, was advertised as having been made at the Drumrea glass- 
house, at Edwards' glass works in Belfast, and at Richard Williams' glass- 
house in Dublin. Edwards advertised enamel glass as late as the 
year 1800. 

The proprietors of these glass-houses all came from England, where 
this kind of glass was made to some extent. 

It is uncertain whether the drinking glasses with the white spirals in the 
stem were made in Ireland or not. Possibly some may have been manu- 
factured at the Drumrea glass-house, and perhaps also at Belfast during the 
early years of the glass works. 

Glass, somewhat in the Bohemian style, was made at Waterford down 
to the closing of the factory. In the Royal Dublin Society's Exhibition of 
1850, George Gatchell, of Waterford, exhibited a centre bowl and stand, 
two liqueur bottles, and six caraffes and tumblers all " opaque blue and 
white glass on crystal glass." I have seen pieces of this kind of glass in 
which the blue and white layers are cut away so as to form a design. 

Possibly a little of the glass made in Ireland during the late eighteenth 
century may have been gilt. Gilt glass was often imported, and naturally 
the Irish manufacturers would have endeavoured to copy it. 

In November, 1785, John Grahl, a native of Saxony, petitioned the 
Dublin Society for aid, and at the same time exhibited some specimens of 
cut glass curiously gilt by him, and among the premiums awarded by the 
Society in the year 1786, it was " ordered that thirty-five guineas be given 
to John Grahl for gilt glass, he having disclosed all the secrets for gilding 
glass, and fifteen guineas to Richard Hand for ditto, but he declining to 
give his receipt for copal or wine spirit varnish, a necessary article in his 
method of gilding." 

This gilding was simply a kind of oil gilding and would not have been 
very lasting. 

Richard Hand also practised the art of staining glass. He exhibited 
pictures in stained glass in Dublin in 1781 and 1785, and in 1793 the Dublin 
Society purchased a stained-glass window executed by him. Hand went 



202 IRISH GLASS 

to London about the beginning of the nineteenth century, and died about 
1816. 

As previously mentioned, the early drinking glasses made in Ireland 
would not have differed very much from those made in England, as the 
English fashions appear to have been copied. Very few, comparatively 
speaking, of these old drinking glasses are to be found in Ireland at the 
present day, notwithstanding all that were made in the country, and also 
the hundreds of thousands of English ones imported. 

Some try to make out that the old tall stem glasses with very small 
bowls were made in Ireland, but, as far as can be ascertained, there is no 
evidence to substantiate this theory. Probably many of the commemorative 
Williamite glasses were made in the country. Glasses inscribed " The 
Glorious Memory," etc., and with equestrian portraits of King William 
are found as late as the first half of the nineteenth century. Some of the 
Williamite glasses are shown on Plates XXXII and XXXVIII. 

Possibly many of the eighteenth-century Irish glasses were engraved 
with vine borders, mottoes, coats of arms, etc., but alas ! how few are now 
to be found ! 

The collector should examine most carefully drinking glasses, decanters, 
and other pieces bearing engraved mottoes, inscriptions, etc., as many 
genuine pieces of old glass have been engraved at the present day. A con- 
temporary inscription, motto, or date greatly enhances the value of a piece 
of old glass, consequently unscrupulous persons have turned this to account, 
and have recently engraved pieces of old glass. In many cases, however,, 
the whole piece is new. I have seen some of these latter engraved by the 
sand-blast method, but, of course, these can easily be distinguished. 

Like the marks of wear on glass mentioned on page 203 the new en- 
graving is of a more silvery grey colour than the old, which has a dusty 
yellowish appearance. 

Some of the Jacobite glasses, although made in the British Islands, 
may probably have been engraved on the Continent. 

Within recent years, large quantities of cut glass have been made in 
England, America, and on the Continent, many pieces being very fair copies 
in form, cutting, and even in the colour of the old glass. Modern glass, at 
least that not intended as a fake, is generally much more brilliant than the 
old, and is usually lighter in weight. Some of the modern pieces have been 



IRISH GLASS IN GENERAL 303 

produced with the dark or bluish tint peculiar to a good deal of the old Irish 
and English glass, so that with regard to these it often takes a practised eye 
to tell that they are not old. In some cases, however, the faker has rather 
overdone it and made the metal too blue, or has not quite got the tint. 

The base of pieces of modern glass is often scratched to give them the 
appearance of age, but the wear produced by time is different from that 
done in a few moments with the aid of emery paper or some other abrasive 
substance. The latter effect is generally to be distinguished, when examined 
under a lens, by many of the scratched lines going in the same direction, 
while in the genuine wear caused by time practically no lines are seen, but 
the abraded surface presents a kind of granular appearance. If the worn 
part is washed, the scratches will appear of a dusty yellowish colour if the 
wear is that produced by time, but if new they appear of a greyish colour. 

Taking the modern fakes all round, some few of them are so well done 
that they would almost deceive the very elect. 

An essential point to be noticed in all old blown glass is the presence 
of the pontil mark. This was caused by the iron pontil having been attached 
by a piece of molten glass to the base of the article in order to hold it while 
the opposite end was being finished. When the upper end was completed > 
the pontil, together with the blob of glass, was snapped off, leaving a small 
portion of broken surface on the piece. The actual broken surface is not 
always to be found on old pieces of cut glass, as in many cases it has been 
ground down and polished. The presence of a pontil mark on a piece of 
glass is not necessarily a guarantee that it is old, as false pontil marks are 
placed on modern glass. The broken surface of an old pontil mark usually 
exhibits a clean break with an undulating fracture, while on many of the 
modern fakes the mark looks as if a piece of glass had been stuck to the 
piece and then pulled away. 

The absence of a pontil mark on what purports to be early glass, and 
in cut glass, the absence of the mark, or the absence of the grinding off of 
the mark, denotes the fairly recent manufacture of the object. In many 
pieces of cut glass the pontil mark is left untouched, while often it is found 
ground down. 

The pontil iron is still used for glass objects not blown in moulds and 
for odd sizes of wine glasses, but about 1860 the spring pontil or punty was 
introduced which obviated the necessity of fastening the iron pontil to the 



204 IRISH GLASS 

piece of glass. In the spring pimty the foot of the wine glass is received in 
a recessed head having a horse-shoe shaped clip above. This latter is so 
formed in order to admit the stem of the glass. 

When the spring is released the foot of the glass is pressed between the 
head and the clip, thus giving it the required shape. The glass does not 
adhere to the head or the clip, hence there is no trace of any broken surface 
as is the case when the iron pontil is used. 

Pieces of glass, such as water jugs, decanters, etc., having on the base 
a broad flat ring on which they stand, which is very highly polished, are 
generally to be regarded with suspicion. The base of these pieces would 
be perfectly flat across, were it not for a circular depression in the centre 
which is put there to make one believe that the rough pontil mark has been 
ground off. The whole base of old jugs and decanters is generally slightly 
concave, often left with the fire finish, except where the pontil mark has 
been ground off. Where these pieces have been polished one can usually 
detect the marks of the wheel, somewhat like a badly planed board, but they 
never have the beautifully polished even surface to be found on modern 
articles. 

Old glass has generally what is known as a good " ring." The old 
wine glasses, goblets, bowls, etc., if flicked with the finger nail give out a 
fine sonorous tone a clear true ring ; that coming from the larger pieces 
lasting for some moments and gradually dying away, while in many modern 
pieces the ring is quite different, being sharp and thin and of very short 
duration. Some modern glass, however, has a fairly good ring. The ring 
depends on many things, the shape perhaps being the most important. 
Wide-mouthed pieces like bowls, finger glasses, goblets, etc., even though 
of present-day make, sometimes have a good ring. 

So much modern glass and also old continental glass is, at the present 
day, passed off as old Irish, or as " Waterford," that the collector must be 
on his guard, and carefully examine each piece if he has the slightest doubt 
as to its genuineness ; and as so many of the old-fashioned drinking glasses 
and also large quantities of cut glass are now faked, I will conclude this 
short and very incomplete account of Irish glass-making with the words 
" Caveat Emptor." 

THE END. 



INDEX 



Annealing, 167, 168 

Bigo, Abraham, 31, 32 
Blue tint in glass, 159-62 
Bohemian glass, 82, 201 
Bottle glass, 175 
Butter coolers, 190 

Candlesticks, 189 

Celery glasses, 185 

Chairs in glass-houses, 97 

Chandeliers, 189 

Circumference of decanter lip, 180 

Claret jugs, 181 

Clay for pots, 171 

Cobalt, 162 

Coloured glass, 97, 200 

Cork glass in Newry, 132 

Cream ewers, 192 

Crown glass, 175 

Cruet bottles, 190 

Cullet, 158, 159 

Custard cups, 193 

Cutting on glass, 194-6 

unevenness of, 196 

Dating glass, 165 
Decanter lip, 179 
Decanters, 177 

moulded, 181 

square, 180 
Designs, English, 177 
Dessert services, 187 
Dish rings, 185 

Dishes, pressed in mould, 197-9 
Drinking glasses, 164, 201, 202 
Drops, glass, 94, 189, 190 
Duty on glass, 137-41 



Enamelled glass, 200, 201 
English glass makers in Ireland, 158 
Engraving on glass, 197, 202 
Excise duty at Waterford, 83 
Exports of glass, 145-57 

Fakes, 202 
Finger bowls, 186 
Flint glass, 175, 176 
Foot, cut glass, 192 
pressed glass, 191, 192 

Gilt glass, 201 

Glass-house, Ayckboum, Dublin, 63, 65, 

Bachelor's Quay, Dublin, 45, 46 

Ballybough, Dublin, 61, 62 

Ballycastle, 133-6 
- Ballynegery, 25-30 

Barber's, Dublin, 51 

Birr, 30, 31 

Dean's, Dublin, 46 

Drumfenning, 24 

Drumrea, 99, 101 

Edwards, Belfast, 101 

Edward Street, Newry, 131 

Fleet Street, Dublin, 47-49 

Gurteens, 68, 69 

Hanover Street, Cork, 115-21 

Hawkshaw and Co., Dublin, 46 

Irwin's, Dublin, 57 

Jeudwin and Lunn, Dublin, 51, 54; 

Kane, Belfast, 113 

Londonderry, 136 

Mary's Lane, Dublin, 37-43 

Mulvany, Dublin, 54-57 

North Wall, Dublin, 50, 51 

O'Connor, Belfast, 113 

Peter's Hill, Belfast, 109, 



205 



206 



IRISH GLASS 



Glass-house, Portarlington, 33, 35 

Pratt's, Dublin, 43, 44 

Pugh, Dublin, 65, 66 

Ringsend, Dublin, 66 

Smylie's, Belfast, 106 

Terrace, Cork, 125 

Waterford, 69 

Waterloo, Cork, 121-5 
- Wheeler, Belfast, in 

Williams, Dublin, 57-59 

William Street, Newry, 130 
Glass, uncut, 200 

Greenish glass, 127 

Handle of jugs, 187 
Imports of glass, 142-5, 164 
Jacobite glasses, 202 

Lead in glass, 176 

Little-goes, 141 

Longe, George, petition, 23 

Martin, glass engraver, 49 
Materials for glass, 167 
Mirrors, 190 
Moallo, glass licence, 32 
Moulded glass, 197 
Moulds, 181 

Osier, Birmingham, 94 

Patterns, Waterford, 177 
Pickle jars, 186 
Piggins, 190, 191 



Plate glass, 175 

Pontil mark, 203, 204 

Potash, 173 

Pots, making of, 173 

Pribe of Waterford glass, 85-90 

of glass in 1835, 141 

Recipes for Waterford glass, 174 
Ring of glass, 204 
Rings on decanters, 178 
Rummers, 191 

Salad bowls, 181-4 

Saltcellars, 189 

Salvers, 191 

Sand for Irish glass, 168-70 

Sandiver, 158 

Scent bottles, 189 

Sheffield plate, glass for, 184-5 

Star cutting on glass, 185 

Stourbridge glass makers, 163 

Sugar bowls, 192 

Tale glass, 158 
Tennant, Wallace, 113, 114 
Thickness of glass, inequality of, 187 
Toddy fillers, 192, 193 

Wages at Waterford, 83 

Water jugs, 186 

Waterford glass cut in other towns, 199, 200 

Wear on glass, 203 

Weight, glass sold by, 139 

Williamite glasses, 202 

Wine glasses, 192 

Woodhouse's patent, 21 



Westropp, Michael Seymour 
5146 Dudley 
W4 Irish glass 






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CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY