Skip to main content

Full text of "Irish Glosses: A Mediæval Tract on Latin Declension"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

-y .r ,y 



VfT, CCLT. 11' i.'^l 





t # 



A medijEval tract 







priitttti at llw JAniitttitTi ^uf», 



•3MAYi9Jl g) 










patron : 

^rt8t)rtnt : 
His Grace the Duke of Leinster. 

The Most Noble the Marquis of Kildare, M. R. L A. 

The Right Hon. the Eabl of Dunbaven, M. R. I. A. 

The Right Hon. Lord Talbot de Malahidb, M. R. I. A. 

Very Rev. Charles Russell, D. D., President of Maynooth College. 

Aoxtmil : 

Eugene Curbt, Esq., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. Thomas Farrellt. 

Rev. Charles Graves, D.D., F.T.C.D., 

Rbv. James Graves, A.B. 
Thomas A. Larcom, Major-General R.E., 


Patrick V. Fitzpatrick, Esq. 

John C. O'Callaghan, Esq. 

John O'Donovan, Esq,, LL.D., M.R.I.A. 

Geo. Petrie, Esq., LL.D., M.R.LA. 

Rev. William Reeves, D.D., M.RLA. 

Wm. R- Wilde, Esq., F.RC.S.L, M.RLA. 

Sitmtmta : 
Rev. J. H. Todd, D.D., Pres. RI.A. | J. T. Gilbert, Esq., M.R.I.A. 




HE foUowing tract on Latin declension is taken 

from a volume of parchment MSS. marked H. 2. 1 3, 

and preserved in the Library of Trinity College, 

Dublin. The volume is unpaged, but the tract 

commences at the back of the 35tb, and ends at 

the back of the 38th folio from the be^nning. 

Dr. O'Donovan thinks the tract in question was written about 

the year 1 500. Mr. Curry conwders it somewhat older. I do not 

venture to decide on its age. It is clear, however, that the scribe 

^ was a copyist, not a composer; and that his original was produced at 

a period considerably before the transcription. 

The chief, inde^ the only, value of the tract lies in the large 

I number of Irish words (about 1 100) which are placed as glosses to 

1 the Latin vocables exemplifying the different declensions. Many 

of these words are unregistered in our dictionaries ; of others, the 

! B meaning 

2 A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

meaning has hitherto been guessed at rather than known. Still, 
some persons may ask, why should the Irish Archaeological Society 
expend its funds in publishing a document which merely illustrates 
the Irish language ? Let such persons try to understand that every 
contribution to a more accurate knowledge of this Irish language is ul- 
timately a contribution to Irish history. For this can never be written 
until trustworthy versions are produced of all the surviving chroni- 
cles, laws, romances, and poetry of ancient Celtic Ireland. Moreover, 
immediate results of high historical importance may be obtained by 
comparison of the words and forms of the Irish with those of the other 
Indo-European languages. Chronicles may, and often do, lie ; laws 
may have been the work of a despot, and fail to correspond with the 
ethical ideas of the people for whom they were made ; romances may 
misrepresent the manners and morals of their readers and hearers ; 
and poetry may not be the genuine outcome of the popular imagina- 
tive faculty. But the evidence given by words and forms is conclu- 
sive — evidence of the habitat, the intellectual attainments, the social 
condition of the Aryan family before the Celtic sisters journeyed to 
the West — evidence of the period at which this pilgrimage took place 
as compared with the dates of the respective migrations of their kin- 
dred — evidence of the connexions existing between the Celts and 
other Indo-Europeans after the separation of languages. I trust that 
the subjoined commentary will be found to have done somewhat 
towards the attainment of the objects here indicated ; and have now 
only to acknowledge the helpful kindness of my friends, the Rev. 
Dr. Todd, Mr. Eugene Curry, Dr. O'Donovan, Dr. Siegfried, and the 

Rev. R. F. Littledale. 

W. S. 

Gabaio Breacc, Howth, 
Augttst i6. i8c8. 


A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

[It was at first my intention to have printed the following tract exactly as it stands 
in the codex. But so corrupt did this appear on closer investigation, that it seemed 
preferable to correct the text wherever it was likely to embarrass the reader, always, 
however, giving in a foot-note the lection of the MS. This I have done. Proper 
names have been spelled with initial capitals. Marks of punctuation have been intro- 
duced. The letters Q. and R. have been inserted before the Questions and Answers re- 
spectively. The examples have been numbered. All other interpolations have been 
enclosed in brackets.] 

Q Prima declinacio quot literas terminales^ habet ? R. Tres. 
• Q.Quas? R. a,s,m. Q. Quot terminaciones habet ? R. Qua- 
tuor. Q. Quas ? R« a, as, es, am. Q. Da exempla. R. a ut poeta, 
as ut Eneas, es ut Anchises^, am ut Adam. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio .a. in prima declinacione ? 

R. Quinque, que sunt masculinum, ut hie poeta, femininum ut 
hec regina, neutrum, ut hoc pascha', commune, ut hie et hec avena, 
epicenum ut hie et hec aquila. 

Q. Quot genera habet haec terminacio as in prima declinacione ? 

R. Unum genus, ut hie Eneas. 

Q. Quot genera habet terminacio es in prima declinacione ? 

R. Unum genus, ut hie Anchises*. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio am in prima declinacione ? 

R. Unum genus ut hie Adam. Unde regula* — 

Rectius as, es, a, dat declinacio prima, 

Atque per am proprie quedam ponuntur Ebrea, ut supra. 

Q. Que est agnicio prime declinacionis nominum? 
R. Hec est : cujus genitiuus^ et datiuus singulares, nominatiuus 


■ MS. tirmSnales. ' ansises. ' pasca. ^ ancisses. ^ r. ' genetiuus. 

B 2 

A MeduBVcd Tract an Latin Declension. 

et vocatiuus plurales in se diphthongo* desinunt, accusatiuus singu- 
laris in am productum desinit^, accusatiuus pluralis in as productum 
desinit, exceptis nominibus prime declinacionfs que non decli- 
nant[ur], sic : — 

I hie poeta j. pili6. 
hie propheta .1. pdic*. 
hie psalmista .1. pailmcer- 

hie scriba .1. paf. 
5 hie citharista^ j. cpuicipe. 
hie timpanista .1. cimpanac. 
hie organista j. opjanaiD. 
hie sophista.i. pophipcibe^ 
hie partista .i. pannaipc'. 
10 hie lanista j. lucraipe. 

hie legista .1. lepcaipe. 
hie deeretista .i. oecpeoec. 
hie patriareha.i.uapalaraip. 
hie scurra .i. cpopan. 
15 hiequestionista^[quaestiona- 

rius] .1, cepcunac. 
hie archimandrita^ j. apo- 

hie auriga .k giUa cinn cic. 
hie birria .i. bippac. 
hie geta .1. ^eib. 

Feminina haee sunt : — 

20 haee regina .1. pfjan^®. 

haee duxista. bancoipec". 

haee abatissa .1. banab. 

haee priorissa. banppioip. 

haee saeerdotista. banpa- 
25 haee ancilla. mnilc. 

haee galea, ar cluic. 

haee alea. caipbp. 

haee mitra'^ baipfn. 

haee tunica", map. 
30 haee maniea. muincille. 
haee allea [allium]. 501 p- 

haee lacerna. plepcan. 
haee cirra [cirrus], ciab. 
^haee chirotheca. Idmann". 
35 haee spiea. oiap. 

haee laseiuia. bpaipe*^. 
haee falinga. pallain^. 


' diptongo. ' desinuiit. ' faidh. * sailmcedaid. ^ eitarista. ' sophistighi. ^ ri 
* qonista. * arcimantrica. '^righaii. " bantaisech. '' mittra. " tonka. ^* ciratheca. 
amann. " h. lassiua braisi. 

A MeduBval Tract an Latin DedensUm. 

haec camisia^ I6ine. 

haec gena. ^puam. 
40 haec lingual rengao. 

haec pera. cmc. 

haec trolla, lof ao. 

haec decima. oechnnaD. 

haec candela. coirmilL 
45 haec gelima. punnann. 

haec fistula, peodn. 

haec barba. pefog*. 

haec nouerca. lepmdcaip*. 

haec carruca. peppac. 
50 haec phoca. pon*. 

haec caphia .1. cennbapp^ 

haec claua lop^. 

haec penna penn^ 

haec poena^ pian. 
55 haec iolla [jula ?]. mapoc. 

haec oUa. cpocan. 

haec vesica, pmcaipe*. 

haec creta cailc. 

haec caustoria [icawmjpiov'i'], 
60 haec plumba [plumbum]. 

haec norma. pia;^ail. 


camisa. * linga. 'feoog. * lesmathair. *foca.roiL 'cenbar. 'pend. 'peoa. 
' fessica. siadaire. '* laaidhL " candal^na oanntairecht. " h. limpausci .i imill. 
" naueola taeman eallaigh 1. comla. ^' comma. "Aiilt. ^* tethologia. ^'gramatica. 

haec tabella rabaill. 

haec cantilena canraipecc'^ 

haec mitreta cuipeog. 
65 haec parra meoap. 

haec parricula ];ocan. 

haec tabula cldp. 

haec ancora ancoipe. 

haec lympha j. uipce lYnill". 
70 haec aptempna [en&eiivta ?] 
pep no capp. 

[haec] trabecula caebdn eel- 
laij no comlaD^^ 

haec caUga .1. appan. 

haec ligula. lainoep. 

haec corrigia. cpai^le. 
75 haec corona, copom. 

haec clerica. copom. 

haec coma", pole. 

haec glabella, oeip^ec in 

haec palpebra. pabpa. 
80 haec pupilla mac impe- 

haec theologia^^ Diabacc. 

haec grammatica. spamma- 


A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

haec dialectical oilcccac. 

haec ystoria. roa,p. 
85 haec mechanica. colap 061 p^ 

haec patena. oi^en. 

haec rhetorica*. oliji. 

haec pantera naraip*. 

haec maxilla, leca in Duiiii\ 
90 haec mala, lerail^. 

haec bucca. dil. 

haec gula. cpdep . 

haec mataxa. ulbu. 

haec palma. baf p. 
95 haec alapa. bapog. 

haec plannta. bono. 

haec mentula peam .1. ppiu. 

haec emenda .1. cam. 

haec vena, cuple. 
100 haec mamma, cich. 

haec mammilla. C1chfn^ 

haec mammula^. urh. 

haec Stella, pecla. 

haec ethera [aether], aofp. 
105 haec aera. aiep. 

haec cratera. pcala. 

haec cretella ^peioell. 

haec terra, calam*. 

haec tribula [tribulum]. 
puifc no fjiuppe'^ 
1 1 o haec villa, baile. 

haec villula .1. apcdn". 

haec via. plijc'^ 

haec vita. becu^*. 

haec herba. lub". 
1 1 5 haec silua. coill. 

haec virga". p lac. 

haec virgula. plaicfn**. 

haec grunna. mom. 

haec gleba'^ poD. 
1 20 haec casa^^ borhan. 

haec cassula. cocall. 

[haec casula]. cpo**. 

haec camera, campa no pe- 

haec porta. Dopup. 
125 haec valua. comla. 

haec creta [crates] cliach. 

haec digma^^ mapcac na 

haec flamma^^ lapaip. 

haec cloaca, campab. 


' dileta (with a hook over the ^) * L mecanica. eal. doe. (undulating line over the 
last e), • rethorica. * nathari. • duine. • leth ail. ' cichin. • mamnla. • talum. 
*• sust L BgiursL " villola .i. urtan. " slighi. " beta. '* Inibh. " virga '• virgola. 
slaitin. '^ gleba " cassa. ** h. cassula cochall no cro. "* or perh. drigma. *' flama. 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

130 haec auia. fcnrndcaip^ 

haec deuia. f ccpdn*. 

haec scama [trKafifia]. lano. 

haec gemma, leg lojmap*. 

haec fenistra. puinneo5*. 
135 haec fiirca. jabal. 

haec sportula. pellec. 

haec treuga*. op pa6. 

haec uma. milan. 

haec guerra* cogao. 
140 haec alauda. puipeo^. 

haec garga^ baipjen. 

haec quarta .i. cecpamab. 

haec merenda. ppuban. 

haec buccella ppubdn mapa 
no speini. 
145 haec susurra [susumis]. co- 

haec tibia®, colpa. 

haec festucula*®. caip. 

haec honplata [^v/xoTrXan;?]. 
mong mc plinoem". 

haec junctura". ccnjal. 
150 haecgiiigiua.peoilnapiacal. 

haec uvula" pine peam. 


haec biturria vel biturrea 

haec tectiira^*. oioean. 

haec lorica. luipec. 
1 55 haec antiquula. airleme'*. 

haec mica, mip^*^, 

haec vaghina. paijin. 

haec famula. caile oabca. 

haec vacca". bo. 
160 haec aqua, uipce^®. 

haec idiogina. a6b[ap]. 

haec binna. calpcac. 

haec benna. jamam apmn. 

haec juvenca'*. calpac. 
165 haec mulctrella^®. cumocog. 

haec mulcra. eopar. 

haec opa^^ coppog. 

haec tunica sclerotica*^, ge- 
alan na p6V^ 

haec tabema. caibepne. 
170 haec rectoria. pepponacc". 

haec vicaria. bicaipecc. 

haec capillanfa. cabiUanacr. 

haec abbatia^*. aboame. 

haec vaccaria^^ buaile. 


* ana. Bemnathair. * sechran. ' gema. l^b loghmar. * Mndeog. * treoga. * geira. 
'leg. quadra? * bucealla. * tipia. '* pestacula. ." in q«lint)6in. " iuntnra. 
" ugola. " dectura. " anticula aithleiiiL " mir. " vaca. *• uisci. '• iuv^ncca. 
** mudedla. '' oba. ** h. tonica scilarotica. ** soL ** persunacht ** abacia. 



A MedicBval Tract en Latin Declension. 

175 haec prouincia. ppoumpc. 

haec raetrop[o]litica ca- 
chaip aipoeapbuig. 

haec basilica, eaglaif \ 

haec mellifolia [millefolium]. 

haec testa, blaepc. 
1 80 haec sabribarra bporpacan. 

haec uolua [valva?]. cen- 

haec artemi8ia^ buacballan 

haec ferina. lup na pia6. 

haecbrecia [braflsica?]. bipop. 
185 haec genista, peclu^. 

haec ea. s^pbo^. 

haec ganea. mepopec. 

haec concha^ paeco^. 

haec gletealla [ditellae ?]. 
1 90 haec 8olea^ bonn. 

haec urla [orlus] .i. bile. 

haec impedica. uaccap. 

haec medulla, pmip. 

haec coquilla®. paecog beg. 
195 haec grangia. gpainpec. 

haec gallina. cepc. 

haec aquila. ilup. 

haec area' apg. 

haec cista C1p^e^ 
200 haec merula. ciappec. 

haec monedula^ caog. 

haec philomena^^. ppioeog. 

haec columba. colum. 

haec lucifugia .1. cpebap. 
205 haec capreola. pepbog. 

haec rostigola". copcac ina- 



haec aurigola. opeolan. 

haec urtica. nenncog". 

haec arista .1. connlac. 
210 haec stipula coinnlin. 

haec fistula", peinun. 

haec moneta Tnonaoan. 

haec glaneta. glacapba. 

haec pharetra^.glacpaijeo**. 
2 1 5 haec sagitta*^ paijeo**. 

haec hasta. ga. 

haec flabella. peiocb jaicc 
no bulga**. 

haec fabrica. ceppca*^ 

219 haec massa. mepgan. 


' bacilica eaglas. ' athair talman. ' artimesia. ^ conca. * Bolia. ' coquima. 

' archa. • sista ciatL • monetola. *• pilomena. " leg. msticula ? " m&ra. 

tog. " festula " farotra. " Boiged. " sagita. " aeideth gdibnlga. " cerdca 


A MedioBval Tract an Latin Declension. 

220 haec baudaca [balducta ?]. 

haec ceruisia*. IfnD. 

haec urina. pual. 

haec fabula. f gel*. 

haec purpura, copcaip. 
225 haec cera. ceip*. 

haec serra*. jlarr- 

haec rota. poch. 

haec fauilla. 

haec cauicula [cavemula] .i. 
230 haec litera. licep, 

haec syllaba. pllaioi [?]. 

haec pagina^ Icrcnac. 

haec chiragra*. cpupan na 

haecluna. efga. 
235 haec panca [pantex] me6al. 

haec aruina*^ blonac. 

haec monipicina [?]". monaD. 

haec comprisura. papcan. 

haec troclia cancaip. 
240 haec eripica [rastrum], cliar 

haec situla'". p iceal. 

haec pista. caep. 

haec glassia [yaXa^la] mul- 

haec prissura. 15a. 
245 haec pensa [pensum] cocan. 

haec lapifiilta. lecc in dpai n''. 

haec presena, bancoig. 

haec rula. luc ppancac. 

haec talpa. luc oall. 
250 haec lactura. lachc. 

haec amusca. amaipc. 

haec ascia". cdl. 

haec scindula". capnoi&i. 

haec scupa [scopae]. epcapc. 
255 haec pustula. juipfn^^ 

haec onesta. nup. 

haec grbnaga bameachlac. 

haec picuta. meall. 

haec mustella. edp. 
260 haec muscipula. pibcac*^ 

haec decipula .1. concpo". 

haec sagena. ppacap. 

haec biga. capp. 

haecantela [antilena]«ucrac. 


^ blathack ' eeruisia. ' sgel. * ceir. * sera. * h. fauilla. fochluidh .L cauicula. 
' pagena. ' sirogra. * crupan na lam. ^* asugia. " monififna (a hook rising out 
of the f ). " citola. " lee in arain. " assia. " sindola. " guirin. " musipula. fidh- 
cat. ** decipola .i. con cro. 



A MedicBval Tract en Latin Dedension. 

265 haecpostella[postilena].na- 

haec crapula^ laichipr. 
haec uva. cdep pfnemnac*, 
haec lepra, lubpa. 
haec fragella. cndimpiac' no 

cop pan. 
270 haec parma. corun. 

haec pyromantia^ nellaoo- 

haec chiromantia^. oopnaoo^ 

haec pcupna [?] clap ^uail. 
haec catapulta. pblf nac^ 

275 haec edibulta. cpoicinn mao- 
pa allaio. 

haec offa. co1nmfp^ 

haec cavea^. oabac. 

haec calopeda. puipce®. 

haec trica. 16 upcumaiP, 
280 haec parvispendia. cepacr. 

haec ophthalmia, ^alap pu- 

haec pupina. cailleac li^eoc. 

haec coquina. coccaip. 

haec babana. cappach. 
285 haec creatura coippea^ao. 

lata sunt propria nonuna uirginum : — 

haec Maria, 
haec Catarina. 
haec Margareta. 
haec Anna, 
haec Lucia, 
haec Brigada. 

haec placenta, apan ^eal. 
his dominabus. bainngep- 

haec Elina. 
haec Petronilla. 
haec Alathia. 
haec Osanna. 
haec Melea. 
haec Tegea. 

his animabus. cmim*'. 
his deabus. baihoea in co- 


' capula ' ma. caerfinemaeh. ' cnaimfiach. * piromanzia. ' ciromancia. * ca- 
dibulta. ' coinxnir. * caba. * callidiba. snisti. '* uicumaiL " obtolmia. galar sula. 
" baiimtigenia. " ainfm. 

A MedicBnai Tract on Latin Declension. 


290 his filiabus. 1nsen^ 

his natabus. in^en. 

his libertabus. banp6ep'. 

his amicabus. bancapa'. 

his equabus. ld1p^ 
295 his mulabus. mdV. 

his asinabus. appal. 

his lupabus. po^ alloio. 
Hoc paschal caipc. 
hoc manna^ mainn. 
300 hoc mammona. bopluai^eo*. 
hoc alL a [alacrinioiiia ?]. pu- 

Communia^ sunt haec: — 

hie et haec idiota. amaoan'^ 

hie et haec aduena. oeopao. 

hie et haec indigena. uppaiD. 

305 hie et haec Hibemigena. eip- 

hie et haec Scotigena". alba- 

hie et haec AngeUgina. jalU 

hie et haec Normanigina. 

hie et haec Franeigena. 

310 hie et haec Komanigena. po- 

hie et haec romipeta". oilir- 


hie et haec Ahnanigina aU 

hie ethaee cristigina.cpipcin. 
hie et haec alienigena^^ co- 

315 hie et haec hermita [ere- 

mita]. oirpebac. 
hie et haec homicida. Dun- 

hie et haec parricida. achap- 

hie et haec matricida. mach- 

hie et haec fratrieida bpdch- 

320 hie et haec sororidda piup- 



' ingin. ' banahaer. ' baocara. * lair. * mul. * pasca, ' maniu ' h. ma- 
mona. bo sLuaiged. * commonia. '* amadan. " ibemfgina. eiiindach. " Scatdgena. 
'' galldacbt '* romipida. " almaneacb. ^ alinigena. '' mathar. m. '* brathar. m. 



A MeduBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hie et haec uxoridda. bean- 

hie et haec genericida. cli- 

amuinmapbrac. 345 

hie et haec uerbigina. cpip- 

hee bracce* cpibup. 
325 hee insidie*. cealj, 
hee nuptie*. bamoe cic. 
hee nundine mopmapjao*. 350 

hee rixe p^PS^** 

hee tabe inaoa. 
330 hee atene [Athenae?]. ac- 

hee tenebre. oopcaoup. 

hee latebre. oopcaoup. 355 

hee diuicie. inmupa. 

hee diuine oiaoacc. 
335 hee none. T)ofnc^ 

hee calende^. caillri6. 

hee nebule. nell*. 360 

hee schole*®. pcola. 

hee mine, bagcnp. 
340 hie Andreas, anopiap. 

hie Thomas, comap. 

hie Eneas, aenjup. 

hie Bamubas. apostoli. 

hie Lucas. 

hie Nemias. gilla na naom. 

hie Malaeias maolpech- 

hie Ysayas. c^pac. 
hie Tobias, 
hie Elyas. elq.. 
hie Jermias. pair'^ 
hie Annanias. pdir^^ 
hie Sacarias. pdic**. 
hie Boreas", an gaec acu- 

hie Ancises. ppimaioecc. 
hie Nestorides". en. 
hie Peliades. en. 
hie Fetomsiades. en. 
hie Latoniades. en. 
hie Tebaydes. en. 
hicEneades. en. 
hie Adam. e. 
hie Joram. e. 
hie Abraham, e. 
hie Cayn. e. 

Q. Seeunda declinacio quot** literas terminales habet ? R. Tres. 

Q. Quas? 

^ cristaiglu. ' brace. ' incidia * nubtie. baindi. cich, ' mormargad. 
^ nonne ndfne. ■ callende. • nelL " Bcole. " maolechl. " faith. 
" Nastorrades. " quat. 

■ fergach. 
" borias. 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Dedenmn. 1 3 

Q. Quas ? B. r, s, m. 

Q. Quot terminaciones habet ? R. uf. 

Q. Quas? R. er, fr, ur, us, ^lis, um. Q. Da exempla. . R. 
er, ut magister, ir, ut uir, ur ut satur, iis ut dominus eus, [ut] Ta- 
theus, um, ut templum. Q. Quot genera habet secunda declinacio ? 
R. uf. Q. Quas ? R. ut supra. 

Q. Quot genera babet bee terminado er m secunda declinacione ? 
R. unum ut hie magister. 

Q. Quot genera habet terminado ir in secunda declinacione? 
Q. Unum ut hie uir. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio us in secunda declinacione ? 
R. quatuor. 

Q. Que sunt ? R. masculinum, ut hie dominus ; femininum [ut] 
hec domina vel hec mains ; neutrum, ut hoc vulgus ; promisc[u]um 
sine epicoenum* ut hie [et haec] milgus, 

Q. Quot genera habet terminacio eus in secunda declinacione ? 
R. unum, ut hie Tatheus. 

Q. Quot genera habet terminacio um in secunda declinadone ? 

R. duo. 

Q. Que sunt ? R. femininum, ut hec dorcium, philorsium, glice- 
rium; neutrum, ut hoc templum, simitherium. 

Q. Que est agnicio nominum secimde declinacioms ? R. hec est: 
cujus genitiuus singularis, nominatiuus et uocatiuus plurales in f 
productum desinunt, datiuus et ablatiuus^ singulares in 6 productum 
desinit, [et genitiuus pluralis in orum] nisi sincupacio [i. e. syncope] 
fiat, ut duum pro duorum, datiuus et ablatiuus^ plurales in is pro- 
ductum desinunt ; accusatiuus pluralis in os productum desinit, ex- 
ceptis alls nominibus secunde declinadonis que non sic faciuntur. 


' episcenum. ' oblatiras. 


A MedicBval Tract on Latin Dedensian. 

365 hie magister. TnagipDep. 

hie arbiter, bpeiceam. 

hie presbyter*, f ajajic. 

hie minister cimcipi^. 

hie faber. 5abann^ 
370 hie puer. Tnacam. 

hie liber. Icabap. 

hie eaper. jabap, 

hie aper. cope. 

hie eaneer. papcdtn*. 
375 hie fiber. Dobpan. 

hie linter. labap no f linncpi- 

hie gener. cliaTnuin. 

hie soeer* companac. 

hie liber .a. um. neac p aep. 
380 hiepuleher* 

hie niger .a. um. Dub. 

hie piger .a. um. lef c. 

hie maeer .a. um. cpuaj;. 

hie aeer .a. um. ^^puamoa. 
385 hie aeer .a. um. a^apb. 

hie dexter oeap. 

hie sinister*^, cle. 

hie anser. jeio. 

hie onager^ a6 allai6. 

390 hie ager. pepant). 

hie suber. p namac*. 

hie in[s]eimagister ma^p- 
oep aimpepac. 

hie eger a. um. epldn. 

hie tener .a. um. maer. 
395 hie uir. pep. 

hie semiuir. lecpep*. 

hie leuir. pep elf. 

hie duum. uir cigepne"® 
oeipe". • 

trium vir. cigepne cpip. 
400 hie quadrum uir. ccnpec cer- 

hie quinetum uir. caipec 

hie satur. patrac. 

hie semisatur. letrpacac". 

hie dominus. cijepnc". 
405 hie deus. oia. 

hie animus, anum. 

hie filius. mac. 

hie natus. mac. 

hie libertus. paep. 
410 hie famulus^MKiclac. 

hie molossus. mflcii^^ 


' prespiter. ' gaban. ' partaiL * soces. ' puplican (sief). * aenester. ' on 
ag (sie), ' snamach. ' semuir. lethfer. '* tigerna. " deisL " cetrdir. '' leth hsa- 
thach. '* tigema. " famalus. ** malosns. tw1o(l 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Dedensim. 


hie buftdus. bacl[ac] bpe- 

hie amicus, capa. 

hie equus^ eac. 
415 hie mulus. mixV. 

hie asinus'. appal. 

hie lupus cu allaiD. 

hie ursus. Tnargamain. 

hie auus^ penacaip. 
420 hie proauus^ a acaip pin. 

hie atauus^. a araip pin. 

hie elericus. cleipeac. 

hie laicus^ cuara. 

hie vitulus. l6e5^ 
425 hie oculus. puil^ 

hie monoculus. ler[h]caec. 

hie cecus. oall. 

hie cetus. mil mop no puain- 
mech Dubai p*®. 

hie orbus. mac oilecca. 
430 hie luscus. mmcpuilec'*. 

hie lippus maerpuilec". 

hie aduocatus. abcoioe*'. 

hie juridicus**. olijcincc. 

hie eausidicus. pep ciiipi 00 

435 hie monachus**. manac. 

hie homunculus*' oume beg. 

hie eanonicus. cananac. 

hie diseipulus Oipcibul. 

hie legitimus. olipcinac. 
440 hie cnipulus. Y^ow. 

hie cutellus. pjian. 

hie ungulus [ungula]. cpub*' 

hie dauus [davis]. caipnjc*'. 

hie eamus bpai^oec. 
445 hie baietus. paipci bpog^. 

hie tegulus. pcolb cijc''. 

hie archiepiscopus. aipoeap- 

hie episeopus. eapbo^. 

hie arehidiaeonus. aipcin- 
450 hie legatus. ceaccaipe. 

hie deeanus. oeganach. 

hie prelatus. ppelaic. 

hie propositus, cijepne^'. 

hie diaconus. oecdin. 
455 hie subdiaconus. puboecain. 

hie acolytus. aclaibe^*. 

hic chorus", mcopaib. 


' eqns. ' muL ' assmas. ^ aus. ' proana. ' ataua. ' lacius. ' laegh. ' suil. 
** roaimnech dubain. " mintsuilech. " lipus msethsuilecL " abhcoidf . '^ iuriti- 
cta **oondinaiL "monacnB. " honumculua. "cni. "tairmgi. ••brog. " tigi. 
" airohindecb. " tigema. ** aoolitus. aclaidhL * coma. 


A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hie populus. m pupul. 
hie agnus. uan. 
460 hie angelus. ain^eV. 
hie gladius. cloioeam. 
hie areangelus. apcamgel. 
hie pilus. puainoc no poiU 


hie eapillus. poilcmV. 
465 hie digitus. Tnepldime. 
. hie artieulus. mep coipe*. 

hie psalmus. palm. 

hie uirsieulus peppdn*. 

hie sonus po^up. 
470 hie tonus, com®. 

hie semitonus^ [semitSnium] 

hie ditonu[s]. oicoin. 

hie pumnatus [prognatus ?] 
inacam jence®. 

hie punetus. punc. 
475 hie eireulus. cepcall. 

hie mums. mup®. 

hie eibus. bia6. 

hie diseus. in gaiUmiap*". 

hie eupus. copdn". 

480 hie eepus [eippus?]. ccp. 

hie leetus. lebaiD. 

hie fimus. orpac. 

hie poreus. rope. 

hie uannus pjaijncn. 
485 hie tignus [tignum] clear. 

hie eoUactaneus^^ comalra. 

hie deeius. 

hie phaselus^'. cupac. 

hie forulus. pace. 
490 hie iDantelIus^\ macal. 

hie floseulus. blarmap. 

hie agnellus. uainin". 

hie poreellus. oipcnfn*^ 

hie pullus. peppac no gep- 


495 hie palus. cuaillc". 

hie talus, oiple. 

hie eaUus. 

hie eatulus. cuilen. 

hie murilegus^^ cac. 
500 hie dolus, ccalg. 

hie pedieulus. mfl eDaig*®. 

hie manipulus. oopndn** 


' angiluB. aingil. ' roaindi L fuiltin. ' fbiltnin. * merlaime-mer coisL * fena. 
• toin. ' Bemtonua. • genntL • mur. " ingaill. mias. " cipua copan. " coUaca- 
nfus. "facelloB. '^ mancellus. "uainiiL '*oircniiL " serrac L geircaoh. "cuailli. 
** morelins. ** peticnlos. mil edaigh. " dornaiL 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Dedensum. 


hie corellas. cnoimpac*. 

hie eolumbus. colum. 
505 hie eureolus [eurlegius ?]. 

copcac mapa 530 

hie gallujB. coileac. 

hie milgas [milvus]. ppecdn^. 

hie figulus. cepD. 

hie cygnuB*. in ela. 
510 hieeorus. coilec jaicc*. 535 

hie foeus. reallac, 

hie sotus. oinmit). 

hie mimus ^ocac. 

hie loeulus. f bopan. 
515 hie pelliearius rsinjfooip. 540 

hie locus, inab. 

hie diuersarius. aibippeoip. 

hie ioeus. clu1^e^ 

hie Tartarus*, ippeapn. 
520 hie infemus. ippcpn. 545 

hie eatholieus. catrol1ca^ 

hie loeanus. locan. 

hie xpianus. f;\\Xa cpipr. 

hie Persianus. pepfcn^ 
525 hie Donatus. Donncab. 550 

hie Martinus. ^illa TDap- 

hie Maleus ombul. 

> cnaimfiach, and leg. corvelluB ?. ' prechan. 
*tartura6. ^ cathholioa. ' preeen. * augenius. 
'* sinatoB. 


hie Petrus. perap no pe- 

hie Bobertus. RoibepD. 
hie Valterus. Uacep. 
hie Uilliahnus, Uill[iaTn]. 
hie Gillialmus ^illiam. 
hie Uirgilius. pepgal. 

hie Gillibertus. ^'^''^^P^- 
hie Kuarieus. Puaiopj. 
hie Ouidius. oocrop. 
hie Patrieius. ^illa pdcpicc. 
hie Laureneius. Caupinr. 
hie Clemeneius. Clemenr. 
hie Diannieius. Oiapmaio. 
hie Lodauieus. Coclann. 
hie Maurieius. TDupchao. 
hie Eugenius*. Gogan. 

hie Grigorius. Sp^S^^P- 
hie Cornelius. Concubap. 
hieThitheus. mac na hoibce'^ 
hie Orp[h]eus Uaicne. 
hie Thateus. Uab;^. 
hie Matheus. TTIarha. 
Hee diphthongus". oeoip. 
hec synodus". penab naorii. 
hee cristallus. [crystallum]. 

cloc cpipoail. 


' cignuB. * coilec gaithi. * cluithi. 
'* mach na hoidhchL " diptunguB. 


A MedicBixd Tract en Laim Dedension. 

hec paradisus. papprup. 

hec quercus. oaip. 
555 hec maliis. aball. 

hec corylus\ coll. 

hec firaxinuB. puinopeo^. 

hec alnus^. pepno^. 

hec pranus*. opoi^in. 
560 hec buxus. beice*. 

hec taxus. ibop. 

hec ficus. picabalP. 

hec pinu8\ cpomo ^lup. 

hec laurus. cpanD laufp. 
565 hec brucus. Fpdec^ 

hec comus. cpano mucop. 

hec colus. cui^el. 

hec fusus. peppaio*. 

hec domu8. reach. 
570 hec socrus. bean oobpacap 
[rectS mdchaip 00 mna]. 

hec nu^as^ bean Donleic. 

hec penus. cu^an. 

hec jacinthus. le^^^ lo^map. 

hec carbaasus. lon;^ luar. 
575 hec abyssus". in paipge". 

hec aulus. bpu na hoi^e*'. 

hec byssus. ppoll". 

hec humtiB. in uip. 

hec papyrus'^, paipep. 
580 hec porticus. oopup lip. 

hec Egiptus. 6151 pc. 

hec adruB. peopup • 

Hic bubulcus. bnacaill W*. 

hie subulcus. buacoiU mucc^^ 
585 hic rubus. muine. 

hic remulus. oip^eac. 

hic dumus". opip. 

Hec sunt nomina adiectiua que non comparantur :< 

hic primus .a. um ceO 

hic secundus .a. um moapa 


590 hic tercius .a. um. an cpep 
hic quartus .a. um. in cech- 
puma neac. 


* corrolus. * anl&s. ' bninus. * broxus. beitbL * fichus. fidhabhalL * pizmus. 
' fraeoh. * fersad. * muruB. '* iaoingtus. leg. " abisus. *' infhairgbi. ^' hoighi. 
'* bissus. '* papiras. '* bo. *' mac. " tomus. 

A MeAvomd Tract on Latin Declension, 


hie quinctus in cui- 6io hie stanneus" .a. urn. fcana- 

^eb neac. 
hie sextus in peipeb neac, 
hie eaptus .1. ^abdilcec. 
595 hie euculatus .a. um« cuppa- 

hie eapueiatus .a. torn, aca- 


hie aereus^ .a. urn. umaThail. 
hie fundatus punoanmncec. 
hie fessuB .a. um. pcitec on 

hie laflsus .a. um. pcicec 6 

hie tonieatos* .a. turn, ma- 615 hiefestiiiosus.a.Tim.[festinu8] 

hie manieatus. mumcillec. 
hie falingatus .a. turn, pal- 

600 hie braeatus' .a. turn, rpi- 

hie eoronatus coponra. 

cinnipnec no cmmpnac. 
hie libidinosus .a. unL palac. 
hie infestinosus nemnnoip- 

hie proeus .a. um. puip;^ec. 
hie fomicarius .a. um. aball- 


hie inuidus' .a. dum. poipm- 620 hie famelieus .a. um.soprac. 


hie blaesus^ .a. um. ;^od. 
hie surdus . a. um. bo6ap^ 
605 hie elaudus .a. um. baccac. 
hie auratus .a. um. 6p6a1^e^ 
hie argenteus' .a. um. aipge- 

hie strabonus .a. um. piap- 

hie orbatus .a. um. oallpui- 

hie eecus .a. um. oall. 
hie monoeulosus ler- 



hie ferreus .a. um.iapnai5C®. 625 hie linguosus^'* .a. um. cenj- 

hie plumbeus^luaibeaThaiV®. cac. 


' ordhaighe. 

* tooicatoB. ' braxatus. ' inuidoB. * blesus. 
'^ ai^teos. * iam. i. * plumpeuB. *^ Inaigbeam. 

" obair. 

' bogbar. 
11 staneus. 



»' on flhl. i. 
*' lethcaecb. 

'* struboeuB .a. um. siadBbuilecb. 

*• dall sbuilecb. 


A MedicBval Tract an Latin Dedenaum. 

hie bilinguosus^ .a. urn. [bi- 

linguis] oocengcac, 
hie earitatosus .a. urn. o6p- 


hie uerbosus .a. urn. bpiar- 

hie aglossus [irfXtmnrois] .a. 

um. pbegac. 
630 hie redieulosus .a. um. pona* 

hie egenus .a. um. pail^eac. 
hie erispus .a. um. oaf ca. 

hie sanus .a. um. plan, 
hie insanus .a. um. eplan'. 
635 hie zelotypus .a. um. 60- 

hie densus .a. um. oluich. 
hie aeidus' .a. um. 501 pc. 
hie urbieulatus .a. um. bal- 

hie lubrieus .a. um. plcTnain. 
640 hie amplus .a. um. paippin^. 
hie neruosus^ .a. um. luar- 


Nunc de nomiuibus signifieautibus plenitudinem :• 

hie formosus .a. um. oealbba. 
hie strumossus [ventosus] 
.a. um. uccapo. 

hie p^dieulosus .a. um. mf- 
hie lendosus" pnecac. 

hie gulosus' .a. um. cpaep- 650 hie peditentosus^ coi- 
pac. pinec. 

hie phlegmosus .a. um. cpo- 

hie rugosus" .a. um. ^epbac. 
hie maeulosus .a. um. bocoi- 

hie animosus .a. um. anmac. 

645 hie barbosus .a. um. pepo- 

hie uentossus [ventosus] .a. 

um. jaecmap. 
hie uentriosus .a. um. bponn- 



* bilmgoBus. * caritatiniifi .a. um. d. each. ' slazL eslan. * celopidus .a. um. 
edmur. ' accidus. ^ neurosus. ^ g^ulossus. ^ barboBsua a. um. fesogach. ' uentri- 
0SSU8 .a. um. brondm. ^° milech. " lentoesuB. *' pedidendua ^ flegmosus .a. um. 
croindtilli. ^* rugossus. 

A MedicBocd Tract on Latin Declension, 


655 hie famosus .a. um. clu- 
hie difamosus .a. um. mfclu- 

hie spadosus .a. am. bpeaU 

hie retrocosus .a. am. ppe- 

Nomina adjectiua que eomparautur :• 

hie albus .a. um. geaL 
660 hie doctus' cegairse. 

hie bonus .a. um. mair. 

hie malus .a. um. olc. 

hie magnus .a. um. mop^ 

hie paruuus .a. um. be^. 
665 hie claruB .a. tun. |*olu|*. 

hie eandidus .a. um. cairne- 

hie auarus .a. um. panncac. 

hie dignus^ omgbala. 

hie indignus .a. um. mfoins- 
670 hie multus .a. um. im6a. 

hie purus .a. um. ^lan. 

hie rarus' .a. um. ceipc. 

hie paueus .a. um. beg. 

hie durus .a. um. Dampen* 

no cpuam. 

675 hie madidus .a. um. pliuc. 


* dumar. ' midemar. ' dectos .a. um. tegaiBgl * mor. ^ dingnus. 
« midingbala. ^ rarros. ^ daingin. * iguana .a. um. docinelaoh. *® edaingen. 
" firenachy ainfirenach. *^ fetitos. " taibemi 

hie ignauus .a. um. oocene- 

hie longus .a. um. paoa. 
hie eurtus .a. um. cumaip. 
hie firmus .a. um. oainsen^. 
680 hie infirmus .a. um. eoain- 

hie iustus .a. um. pfpenac. 

hie iniustus .a. um. ainpfp6- 

hie fetidus^^ .a. um. bpen. 

hie sordidus .a. um. p alac. 
685 hie gnarus .a. um. 

hie ignarus .a. nm. 

hie gnauus .a. um. 

Hoc templimi. rem poll. 

hoe tabemaeulum. caib- 
690 hoe pennaeulum. 


A Mediaeval Trad on Latin Declension. 

hoc simitherium [iroi/xi^i/- 

pioy], peilic, 
hoc feritrum [ebcpum hod. 


hoc sepulcrum. ablucab. 

hoc lucrum, eoail. 
695 hoc miraculum. mipbail. 

hoc monaculum. baclog. 

hoc ciinabulum. cliban. 

hoc sinabulum. 

hoc jentaculum'. oinep. 
700 hoc cribnim. cpmcap. 

hoc molendinum'. muilino. 

hoc atrium, jappsa. 

hoc torritorium*. cipa6. 

hoc uestibulum*. oplap. 
705 hoc stirpidivortium. pcoc- 

hoc lumbarium. cpif cpi- 

hoc epiglotum. pgop- 

hoc gemonum. cpoTnbeol«. 
hoc cha^taceum^ pjeoca. 
710 hoc sacritegium. pgeora. 
hoc pistrinum*. muilleano. 

hoc cla[u]8tram. clmrac. 

hoc prostibulum. cech na 

hoc redimiculum in bpaic- 
7 1 5 hoc silintrum. 

hoc uentUogium. bile. 

hoc 8tragulum^ m ccip. 

hoc lolium Dicen. 

hoc plectrum cpano. jlep ca. 
720 hoc igniferrium. cemf 
[ceine] cpeapa. 

hoc scrupulum. oubpuoan. 

hoc teretorium. cuaipjin. 

hoc herbagium. cluain 5a- 

hoc caldarium. coipe". 
725 hoc castrum. lonjpopc". 

hoc monasterium. mainir- 

hoc 8uffi*agium. popcacc". 

hoc refectorium. ppoinocec. 

hoc dormitorium. cooalccc. 
730 hoc coopertorium. ppeilp. 

hoc dolium**. cunna. 

hoc corium. peice". 


' gentaculum. * mulindiiiiiin. ■ tritoriom. * ueecibnluin. • stipiforti- 
fartiuin. stoc ronna. • gemoodnm. cromoeol. ' carteaiunL • prostrinum. 

• strauliuin. ^ .gabUa. " colldarium. coin. " longport » sufiragium. fiir- 
tacht. ** doleom. '* ooreum. seichf. 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Dedension. 


hoc cotiuiQ. 

hoc ing^nium inulecc^ 
735 hoc senium, f cndip^ 

hoc ymagium. 

hoc incendium. lofcab. 

hoc martyrium*. mapupa. 

hoc salarium. ualle^ 
740 hoc solarium, poilep. 

hoc seUarium. p eallao. 

hoc equitium. jpoij*. 

hoc palatium 

hoc collum. muiTiel^ 
745 hoc dorsum, optum. 

hoc g3n'gyrium'. ceilebpab 
eom. no cpano cocap- 

hoc cerebrum. ^nc1Tln^ 

hoc scamnum^^ p col. 

hoc firmamentum. pipma- 

750 hoc rubigorium. mip pluc. 
hoc inuentorium. luac paip- 


hoc exilium. mnapbao. 
hoc alhnentum. oil[eTnain]. 
hoc armentum. aipge^^ 

755 hoc crementum. ropmac. 

hoc incrementum [decre- 
mentum]. micoprhac'^ 

hoc indumentum, eoac. 

hoc iumentum. ogOarh. 

hoc monumentum. ablacao. 
760 hoc testamentum. cimna. 

hoc instrumentum. inpcpu- 

hoc tegmentum, oioin. 

hoc augmentum. meou^uo^. 

hoc fragmentum. ppuipec. 
765 hoc folium, ouillen. 

hoc psalterium. palraip. 

hoc pulmentum. lice. 

hoc dipodium". uaicne. 

hoc pavementum. bibgao**. 
770 hoc lamentum. oaf. 

hoc sementum. 

hoc centum, ceo. 

hoc ducendum [ducenti]. od- 


' inntieeht. ' eeonoir. ' martirixiDi. * tail{. * gioidh. ' mi&iiieL 
* .dochartaigk ' cerebnuxL incind. ^ soaanm. " airgi. '* mitoimaoh. 
dug. " ffodium. vaithne. ** pavfmentum. "• da .c. " tri .c. " ceithri. 

hoc tricendum [tercentum]. 

cpf ceo'^ 
hoc quatricentum [quadrin- 

genti]. ceichpe" .c. 


gioidh. ' mi&iiieL ^ ggium 


A MedicBVcd Tract on Latin Dedenmn. 

hoc quincentum [quingenti] 

c6ij5 .c. 
hoc sexcentum [sescenti] f e^ 

hoc finimentum. cpuirnecr. 
hoc hordeum^ eopna. 
780 hoc [a]mersiamentuin. in6ip- 

hoc stagnum. loc. 

hoc mulsum. lemnacc. 

hoc serum, meb^. 

hoc butyrum. im [imm]. 
785 hoc unguentum. umniTninc*. 

hoc aurum. op. 

hoc argentum. cnp^eo. 

hoc plumbum. luaiDe^. 

hoc stannum. f oan. 
790 hoc ferrum. lapunn*. 

hoc metallum^ mirall. 

hoc praesumpticium' luac 

hoc alministrum. bealac. 

hoc nuchum. f pcBan^ 
795 hoc gladiolum. poilcpcap. 

hoc p^opheticum^ pjap* 

hoc falcastrum. pi6bo. 

hoc bonum. inair. 

hoc malum, olc. 
800 hoc candidus. (^) rairnea 

hoc album, ^eal. 

hoc nigrum. ouB. 

hoc flauum. bui6e^®. 

hoc fuscum. piabac. 
805 hoc multum. imDa. 

hoc paruum. be^. 

hoc modicum, mep up6a. 

hoc minimum, pobe^. 

hoc magnum, mop. 
810 hoc porrum. lup. 

Nunc dicendum de nominibus heteroclitis :" — 
fnleman. hoc rafitrum. pafcail. 

hoc coelum et plur. hi coeli" 8 13; hoc epulum "] plur. hee epule. 

ncm. P<>iS^* 

hoc castrum. lon^popu'^ hoc delidum h6e. cie. 


* ee. ' ordinnu ' viimiimnt. * luaighi. * iarond. * mifhullnwi 7 proseometi- 
cum. ^srebhand* ^profeticmn. "^buidhL " ereodediiB. .^'koelamnplnrhdoeK. 
" longpoit. 

A MedicBval Tract an Latin Dedenmn* 


hoc filum uel fila f ndire'* 
hoc daustrum .rL ra. clauf- 

hoc frenum .nl. na. rpian. 
820 hoc capistrum .rl. ra. a&of- 

hoc scarletum. 
hoc balneum .e. ueLa. por- 

hoc nasturtium^ bipup. 
hoc admidulum. 

825 Hie Tartarus haec .ra. ip- 

hie sibilus est hominis^^sibela 
feminae prius in peo pope 

hie infemus. na. ipeapnaba 

hie menalus .a. 

hie dindimus .a. 
830 hie avemus .a. 

hie pelleus [pileus] ar pill 

hie intimus .a. ibpac 

Q. Tereia declinaeio quot literas terminales habet? R. xi. 

Q. Quae sunt ? R. a, e, o, c, 1, n, d, r, s, t, x. 

Q. Da exempla. R. a, ut poema : e, ut sedile : o, ut uirgo : 
c, ut lac: 1, ut mel: n, ut nomen: d, ut Dauid: r, ut pater: s, 
ut eiuitas : t, ut caput : x, ut felix. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec termf nacio a in tereia deelinacione ? 
R. unum genus, scilicet neutrum, ut hoc poema. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio e in tereia deelinacione? 
R. unum, scilicet neutrum, ut hoc sedile. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio o in tereia deelinacione ? 

R. sex. Q. Quae ? R. masculinum, ut hie ordo, femininum, ut 
hec duleedo, commune, ut hie et hec homo, omne [i. e. omnigenum], 
ut centripondio^, promiseuum sine epicoenum®, ut uespertilio, du- 
bium, ut hie veP hec margo. 

Q. Quot 

' snaithL ' nastorsitun. * ifern. * cebelus .e. hois. * oe. ut cento psto. * epi- 
flennm. ' et. 


26 A Medicmd Tract on Latin Declension. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio c in tercia declinacione ? 

R. unum, scilicet neutrum, ut hoc lac. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio 1 in tercia declinacione ? 

R. quatuor. Q. Quae? R. masculinum, ut hie sol: femini- 
num, ut hec Micol : neutrum, ut hoc mel : commune, ut hie et hec 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio n in tercia declinacione ? 

R. tria. Q. Quae? R, masc. ut hie Titan: fem, ut hec siren': 
neut. ut hoc nomen. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio d in tercia declinacione ? 

R. Unum, scilicet masc. ut hie Dauid. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio r in tercia declinacione ? 

R. Sex. Q. Quae? R. Masc. ut hie pater: fern, ut hec ma- 
ter : neutr. ut hoc cadauer : commune, ut uber : omne, ut par : pro- 
m[i]scuum sine epicoenum^, ut turtur. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio s in tercia declinacione ? 

R. Septem. Q. Quae ? R. masc. ut hie abbas : fem. ut hec 
caritas : neutr. ut hoc uas : commune, ut hie et hec sacerdos : omne 
genus, ut sapiens : prom[i]scuum sine epicoenum^, ut phoenix', ut 

Q. Que est agnicio tercie dedinacionis nominum? R. hec : cuius 
genitiuus singularis in is correptum^ desinit, datiuus in i productum 
desinit, accusatiuus sing, in km uel in Im correptum desinit^: uocatiuus 
similis suo nominatiuo : ablatiuus desinit in e correptum [uel i] pro- 
ductum desinit excepto^ fame et nocte : nom. et ace. et uoc. plur. in es 
productum desinunt®, genitiuus pluralis in um uel in ium correptum* 
desinit : datiuus [et] ablatiuus plurales in bus correptum'^ desinunt'^ 


* sciren. ' episenum. ' fenix. * corcortex. * ooruptum. * coruptum desinit fn L 
"' acepto. ' desiniunt. * correbtum. ** desinit. 

A Medioeval Tract on Latin Dedension. 


Nunc de nomiuibus tercie declinacionis, ut sequitur : — 

Hoc poema. pili&ecc. 

hoc dindyma'. ^eman. 
835 hoc prolemma*. aobapoacc. 

hoc cataplasma. c6ipfn'. 

hoc dogma, poipccoal. . 

hoc doma. rnullac n^e^ 

hoc ^nighma. popfjac no 
840 hoc chrisma*. cpif mal. 

hoc nomisma^. mona6. 

hoc sophissma. f oipipu. 

hoc apostema'. nepcoio. 

hoc phlegma^ cpomocille. 
845 hoc anathema, coinoealbrao. 

hoc fantassma. cabbaip. 

hoc sperma. coimpcpc. 

hoc idfoma. a6bapDacr. 

hoc thema®. aobap. 
850 hoc sedile. puibcocan. 

hoc ouile. cpo cacpac*^ 

hoc monile vel mtinile. ppo- 

hoc missale. lebap air- 

hoc gredale. ypeodil. 
855 hoc trobiale. cpoibel. 

hoc lect6rie. p cuioip. 

hoc manuale. Idmcua j. 

hoc cubile. Icabaio in Daim 

hoc corporale. coppopap. 
860 hoc mare. muip. 

hoc praesepe". mamopep. 

hoc cepe'^ uinneamam. 

hoc rete. Ifn'* uipcf. 

hoc gausape. pcapaio. 
865 hoc cete. mil mop'*. 

hoc tempe. macaipe. 

Hec locucio. uplabpab. 

hec lectio, aicecc. 

hec accio. acpa. 
870 hec oracio. guiDe'^ 

hec construction*, cumcac. 

hec preposicio. pemceccap^^ 

hec coniunctio. compocuV*. 

hec Interjectio*®. incepiacc. 
875 hec comparatio. compa- 


' dindima. ' prolema. ' ceirin. * tighL ^ criBma. ' momfssma. ^ apastema. 
* fethma. • t^ma. " caeirack " p. cepe. " aepe. " lin. " mil. mor. " guidhL 
'• construccio. " remtosc. " comfoccul. " (nterdeccio. " comparafd. 

E 2 


A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hec intencio. inncinoeac. 

hec opinio, bapamail. 

hec electio. coga. 

hec racio. obgeb. 
880 hec consecratio. coipfC5pa6. 

hec omacio. cumoac. 

hec famiilacio. mu jpaine. 

hec fornicacio. a&allcpap. 

hec consolacio. compoldp* no 
885 hec nominacio. ainmneacaD. 

hec dominado. cijcpnap. 

hec generacio. seinemain. 

hec correctio. cepcacab. 

hec operacio. oibpiuguD. 
890 hec planacio. pe16e^ 

hec castigacio. cepcu5u6. 

hec associacio'. compancuf . 

hec supplicacio. ^uibe^ 

hec monstracio^ caipbenab, 
895 hec annunciacio. poill[fiu- 

hec coUacio. compapdio. 
hec comInunlcacio^ comain- 

hec ministracio. cimcipecc. 
hec procuracio. Denaiii'. 

900 hec fictio^ Doilbciuguo. 

hec pericio [peritia]. eolap^. 

hec adulacio. molab. 

hec coequalio. comcpomu- 


hec simulacio. copmailiup. 
905 hec disimulacio. egcupmai- 

hec sequestracio. uplamap. 

hec prolongacio. paiDiu^uo. 

hec satisfaccio. lop^nf m'^. 

hec remuneracio accumi- 
910 hec deduccio". oipliugub. 

hec compilacio. cental. 

hec reuolucio. eicellab. 

hec computacio. comaipem. 

hec benedicdo^^. bcnnachc. 
915 hec malediccio. Tnallacr. 

hec remigacio [reptatio ?]. 

hec mitigacio. ail5inec[c]. 

hec talliado. comma. 

hec caro. coluno. 
920 hec fortitudo. laiDipe". 

hec multitudo. imao. 

hec magnitudo. m6io. 


1 oomBbolas. * reidhi. ' asociado. * eiaplicacio gaidhi ' mostracio. ' oomiinf- 
cacia ^ forcuracio denamh. ' fizio. ' eolus. '* lorgnim. " dedicacio. " benndic- 
cacio. '' laidiri. 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 


hec paruitudo. loi^eo. 

hec raritudo. ceipce. 
925 hec latitude. Icirne, 

hec celsitudo. aipoe. 

hec pulchritudo. maippe. 

hec egritudo. e plane. 

hec longitudo. paiDe\ 
930 hec triplicacio. cpipulca. 

hec quadruplicacio. cerap- 

hec limpitudo. uipgemlacc. 

hec arundo. cupcuplac* no 

hie hirundo*. painleoc. 
935 hec hirudo*. ndic. epcuing 


Propria nomina : — 

hie. Odo Q06. 

hie Catto. cam. 
950 hie Plato, piaic, 

hie Uato. [Pluto?] ploic. 

hie Apollo, gpmn. 

hie et hec homo ouine. 

hie et hec uirgo. 65h^ 
955 hie et hec nemo, nemoume. 

hec ymago. oealb. 

hec indago. lopjapecc. 

hec uorago. pdebcoipe^ 

hec rubedo'. oepje. 
940 hecsangissuga[8anguisuga]. 

hec fuligo. puiche. 

hec calido [calor]. cep. 

Hie ordo. opo. 

hie cardo. meplac na com- 
945 hie carbo. pTnep610^ 

hie mango, ^illa naneac. 

hie uel hec margo bpuac. 

hie et hec latro placaibe*". 
hie et hec Brito bpecnac. 
hie et hec pseudo. pdic bpe- 

hie et hec praesto. piab- 

960 hie et hec par. comcpom. 


* In the MS. teirci, leithnl, airdf, maissl, odanf, feidL • curcuslaclL » erundo. 
* (rondo. • nrcoidech. • nrago. eaebhcoiro. ' rubido. dergi. ' smeroid. » ogh. 
" dataidhL " ceudo [over which is the gloBS " .1 longa fallsa"] faith bregach. 
" peto. fiadhnaisi. 


A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Dedension. 

hie et hec impar* ejcom- 

hie et hec dispar. e^com^ 

lata sunt nomina :• 

hie Issac. 

hie Melehisedech. 
965 hie [hee] ambago^ 

hoe lae. bainne^ 

hoc allec. f^aoan. 

hie Daniel. 

hie Michael. 
970 hie Raphael. 

hie UrieL 

hie Samuel, mascula sunt. 

hie sol .1. spian. 

hoc mel. mil. 
975 hoc feL Domblap de. 

hoc animal ainmiDe'. 

hoc s&l et dicitur hie sal .1. 

hie tribunal. 

hoc ceruical*. cepcaiU. 
980 hie AnibaL ainm ouini^. 

hie et hec consul cornaip- 

Propria [communia ?] sunt nomina : — 

hie et hee praesul. eafpog. 985 hie et hec [im]provi^. 

hie et hec exul. innapbcac. nempuipecdip. 

hie et hee uigil. pupacaip. hie et hec pugil. glecaipe. 

Nomina indeclinabilia : — 

hoc nil neimchnf. 
hoe nul. neimchnf. 

hoc Pean. '^y(xn. 
990 hoc Titan, spian. 


' ambaca. * bainda * ainm .i. ^ seraical. * ainmidhi daine. 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 


Hoc nomen. ainm. 

hoc praenomen^ pemainm. 

hoc cognomen, cofnainm. 

hoc stramen. rui;;e^ 
995 hoc tegimen. oiom. 

hoc pronomen. app on an- 

hoc flamen. p6an. ^aeire. 

hoc lumen, f oilly^c*. 

hoc flumen. ppuc. 
1 GOO hoc Umen. caipf ec*. 

hoc pollmen. rlipeoj. 

hoc carmen pilioecc. 

hoc agmen. f luaj. 

hoc fragmen. f bpuilcac. 
1005 hoc trolliamen. mapog. 

hoc odomen. [abdomen] 

hocculmen. mullac. 

hoc cacumen. pmo. 

hoc semen, pfl*. 
1010 hoc geminen®. emnab. 

Hie r^n. dpa. 

hie splen. pealj no opeap- 

hie lien, incmnc lachra- 

hie pecten plino. 
1015 hiclyricen^ cpuicipe. 

hie tubicen®. poocaipe. 

hie fidicen. ceoaipe*^. 

hie comicen. jilla abaipce. 

hie lamen [flamen?]; [-ei- 
1020 hie siren, muipouchu'^ 

hie Caton. 

hie Simon. 

hie Samson. 

hie Phaethon. 
1025 hie Lycaon^*. 

Propria nomina viUarum : — 

Hec Calidon. 

hec Babilon .1. confosio. 

hec Elic6n. 

hie delphin*^. mucc mapa. 
1030 hie Cayn colach. 
hie iubar. oeallpao. 


> iinrn h. pronomen. • tuighi. * soillsL * tairraech. 
^iasachtarach. •lirieen. •tibicen. *« tedaire. " s^ideagh. 
" feton hie licaon. '* delipin. muc. 

' siL ' genf men. 
'* cir^n. muruchii. 


A MedicBvcU Tract on Latin Declension. 

hie hepar^ ae. 
hie sutolar. bpocc. 
hie lar. iccap na comlab. 
1035 hie Cesar, pf. 
hie Lastar. pi. 

hie Nar. rP^'^* 

hoc far. ic in apba. 

hie naris (para corporis) 

f pon (if fluuii Naris). 
1 040 hie sequester [sequax] len- 

munac^ (extat hie se- 


hoc calear. fbop an cic. 

hoc pluuinar. ppur. 

hoc torcular, cldp*. capca. 

hoe bostar. buatle oam. 
1 045 hoc nectar .c. ^pmof poilcf. 

Hie pater, achaip. 

hie frater. bpachaip*. 

hie imber. bpaen aimpipc. 

hie cucumer. culapan. 
1050 hie September*, mf. 

hie October, mi. 

Feminina® hee sunt : — 

hee mater, macha1p^ 
hee muUer bean. 

hee linter. plinn cpiab. 

Communia sunt : — 

1055 Hie et hee puber caecap- 

^ [ac]. 
hie et hee uber. uch. 
hie et hee degener. oocine- 

hie et hee et hoc pauper. 


hoe uber pmc occa®. 

1 060 hie campester \ 

hee eampestris > macaipe. 

hoc campestre / 

hie siluester \ ,. 

u •! .^ fcaillcca- 

nee siluestns \ . 

i_ M ^ 1 mail, 

hoe siluestre / 


' epar. ' '< hoo nariB aron .is. fluL ndris Hie sequester lenmunach. p4rs ooiporis ex- 
tat. hie sequestris hoo calear sbor an eich hoo sequestre." ' toroulcar. clar. * brathair. 
^ aeptimb. ^ feminea. ^ mathair. * docinelach. ' apparently senextw. 

A MedioBval Tract on Latin Dedenmn. 




Hoc polyandrium. uai6^. 
1070 hoc uer eappac. 

hoc cadauer. copp lejap. 

hoc piper, pipup. 

hoc iter, pec plijeb, 

hoc spinter. oeal^. 
1075 hoc ruter. cac. jabap. 

hoc iuger, la otppci. 

hoc uesper. noin*. 

hie nutritor. aioe*. 

hie honor, onoip'. 
1080 hie lector, lejroip*. 

hie amor. sp<i6« 

hie doctor. Doccuip. 

hie decor, mairc. 

hie dedecor. mfTnaipe®. 
1085 hie labor, paechap. 

hie calor. rep. 

hie color*®, oach. 

hie odor, bolcanab". 

hie fetor. bpeTlcup*^ 
1090 hie factor. Denmupac". 

hie fictor. ooilbccoip. 

hie emptor, cennaibe". 

hie protector, oionigce- 



' hoc acris eithidemail Hie volucer. etechail hec uolacris, hoc volacre. ' gstham. 
^ alfce eathideam. h. alicris h. alicre. * poliandrium. * nodi. * oidL ' onar. anoir. 
• leg. l^gtoir? • maisL dedicor. mdnaisi. '^ colar. " bolltanadh. " brentus. 
*^ denmnsach. ^* cend.i 


hie pedester 

hec ped6stris 

hoe pedestre 

hie celeber 

hec Celebris 

hoc celebre 

hie saluber 

hec salubris 

hoc salubre 

Video larem (.1. &miliam) 

per larem (.1. per fami- 

liam) circa larem (.1. 

ignem) in lare (.1. in 

1 065 Hic acer 
hec acris 
hoe acre 
hic volucer' 
hec volucris 
hoe volucre ) 
hie paluster \ 
hec palustres > goiramail*. 
hoe palustre ) 
hic alacer 
hec alacris 
hoe alacre' 





A Mediasval Tract en Latin Declension. 

hie tenor [tener]. boc. 
1095 hie textor. pipooip^ 

hie nitor. rpmllacoip. 

hie liquor^ pliucioecc. 

hie eonditor*. cumoaijcoip. 

hie reetor*. Tnaijircep. 
1 100 hie senior, pcnoip. 

hie auditor, cif ciooip. 
Hoc eor. cpoibc*. 
hoe equor. paipse®. 
hoc marmor. mapTnup. 
1105 hoe eastor. alnm^6e^ 
hoe ador ao*. 

Nomina communia'^ : — 

hie et hee autor. u^oup. 
hie et hee deeor. maif 1. 
hie et hee dedieor. mimai- 

1 110 hie et hee memor. cuim. 
hie et hee immemor. micu. 

Nunc de nominibus eomparatiuis tereie deelinaeionis : — 

hie et hee doetior*® et hoc 

.ius. nipcecoipce. 
hie et hee fortior et hoc 

,ius. nfaplaioipi". 
hie et hee maior" et hoc 

.iu8. nfipmo''. 
1 1 1 5 hie et hee minor et^*. 

hie et hee melior et hoc 

.ius. nfppepp. 

hie et hee peior et hoc .ius. 

hie et hee durior et hoc .ins. 

hie et hee moUioret hoc .ius. 

nfp" buip. 
1120 hie et hee auarior et hoc .ius. 

hie et hee carior et hoc .ius. 



* figidoir. * licor. • cnmdaightoir. * retor. • croidhi. ^ faircf. "^ ainmidhL 
*adorad. 'indecLe. '•doctor, "nisalaid. "magior. '*mo. **.iu8. "nia. "ni. 

A Mediaval Tract on Latin Declension. 


hie et hec clarior et hoc .iiis. 

hie et hee debelior et hoe 

.ins. nPapmeaca. 
hie et hee albior et hoe .ius. 

1 1 25 hie et hee amabilior et hoe 

.ius. niippoca|icanai5[i]. 
hie et hec legibilior et hoe 

.ius. nfaf f olejca. 
hie et hee laudabilior et hoc 

.ius. niip|H)Tnolca. 
hie et hee felieior* et hoc 

.ius Tifapconaichi. 
hie et hec sapientior^ et 

hoe .ius. nfaj'jlica. 
1130 hie et hec benignior et hoc 

.ius nfifcainp uapaiji* 

hie et hee audacior* et hoc 

.ius. nfipoana. 
hie et hec amarior et hoc 

.ius. nfifpeipbe. 
hie et hee loquacior" et hoc 

.ius. niiplabapcaije. 
hie turibulus .i. fairec na 

1135 hoc orologium .i. upyialaip- 

hoc collistrigium* .1. piloip. 
hoc equicium .1. com pap no 

pain5 ancpaip. ' 
hoc equilibrium .1. com- 

hoc manubrium .1. maioe 


* nisaineata, ' felitorum. * cnidelior. * csenshuaraighi. * audatorum. ' loca- 
tonmL ' saithec na tuisi. ^ colosdrigium. [I have placed a mark of length over the 
ni in Nos. 1 1 24, 1 1 28, 11 29.] 



A MedicBVcd Tract on Latin Declension* 


[In the following CommenUiy I have made nee of certain abbreviationfl, which, if not explained, might 
cause obscurity. Thus, "A.S." for Anglo-Saxon; "Bdtr." for iheBntrage tur vergkUhendm tpraeh- 
fortehung aufdemg^ieU der arUchm^ keitiaehen wtd alavttehm tpraeKm^ herauegegeben von A. Kohn 
und A. Schleicher, toI.I. Berlin, 1858; '^GoTm.** for Cormac's Glossary; ''gL** for '<the gloss on;" 
" Gluck" for 0. W. Gliick^s Keltiaehs Kamm (Miinchen, 1857); «' Ubl Hymn." for the liber Hymno- 
rum ; " 1. w.» for " a Uvlng woM ;" " 0. H. G." for Old High German ; " 0. Ir." for Old Irish ; " 0*R." 
for O'Reilly's Irish Dictionary (Dublin, 1 8 1 7) ; " 0. W." for Old Welsh ; " r." for root ; " Skr." for Sans- 
krit; ''W." for Modern Welsh; <*Z." forZenss, or Zeuss*s Orammatiea Celtiea (UpAm, 1853); *<Zeit8.*' 
for the ZfiUchrift fur v«rgl$iehmde tpraehforsehung u. s. w. Berlin, now edited solely by Dr. Knhn. 
Finally, I trust that Dr. O'DonoTan and Mr. Curry will not be offended at finding their honoured names 
reduced to "O'D." and "C" reepectively.] 

1-5. — I. I^tdh (gL poeta), in 0. Ir. fill gen. filed, a maac. d-stem, may perhaps be 
connected with the W. r. gwel, " to see;'' cf. Yelleda ? Fili is declined in 0. Ir. as 

follows : — 

MaSC. d-STSK. 

Stem, JUid, 




N. fili 



a. filed 

da filed 

filed (n) 

D. filid 



Ac. filid (n) 



V, a fili 



Kencejilidecht (gL poema, gl. carmen), Nos. 853 and 1002, infra. The .1. which so 
frequently occurs is for id6n, "to wit," "namely." 2. Fdtth (= vatis) gen. f&tha 
(= vatayas?) cognate with Lai yates, a masc i-stem, declined in 0. Ir. thus : — 

MAsa f-8TEv. 

Stem, fdthu 





N. f^ith 



G. fltha 

d4 faithe 

fiLithe (n) 

D. f4ith 

dib faithib 


Ac fdith (n) 



V. afdith 

a dd fkith 


3. SaUmekitlaid, 

A MedioEval Tract on Latin Dedension. 


3. Sailmehitlaid, from salm « psalmus, is also an i-stem, as is c^tlaid, which is 
not found in O'E., hut must mean *' singer/' cf. erochairch^tlaid gL tihicen Z. 198 
(eiochuir, aerachair gl. crus Z. 744). 4. Sai, leg. sdi? a masc. t-stem? of ohscure 
origin, — unless we assume that a p has dropped out. It occurs, spelt Mit, in 
lih.Hymn. 3' (p. 72, ed. Todd), "roleg [read rol^g] iarsein i Corcaig corho ««♦" (he 
afterwards studied in Cork till he hecame a 9ui, a learned man, sage) ace pi. seems to 
occur in the same MS. in the pref. to S. Cuchuimne's hymn, fo. 6': rol^g wths 
codruimne^ 5. Cruitire (leg. cruittire, gl. citharista, gl. lyricen, infra), a masc. ia- 
stem = crottarias, formed from crott - crotta, W. crwth, a fem. &-stem. cf. chrotta 
Britanna, Tenant. Fortun. 7, 8, cited hy Z. 77, crottichther gl. citharizatur Z. 77. 
Note in cruitire the vowel-change (umlaut) of the of the root into «», effected 
by the % of the penultima ; note also the non-aspiration of the t, though flanked by 
vowels, in consequence of its origiual duplication. Engl, crowd-er (fiddler) is from 
W. crwth, where tt has, according to rule, become th, cfr. 0. H. Q. hrotta, Ang. Sax. 
r6t (fem.). 

6-10. — 6. Timpanaeh, *], Organaidh. S. Sophistidhe. AH formed by adding Irish 
terminations to foreign roots. 9. Hannaire (gl. partista), a personal noun (masc. 
ia-stem) from rann (a part) a fem. a-stem « W. rhan : cf. 0. W. rannam (gl. partior) 
Z. 1078. In 0. Ir. rannaire was thus declined : — 

N. rannaire 
G. rannairi 
D. rannairiu 
Ac. rannaire (n) 
y. a rannairi 

Masc. »a-STEM. 
Stem, ranndrta^ 

da rannaire 
da ranoaire 
dib rannairib 
da rannaire 
a di rannaire 

rannaire (n) 
a rannairiu 


1 Sathe may here be a derived abstnct &ahtL wldch ooenrs, spelt siUthe, in the Amm Choloim ChQle 
(Ltb. na kmidn, 10 a, «) : Bfri sab Mthe Geodind (gl. 910 uas, no in .t. ba [gab] 8uithe m each dmdienehat) 
.L roba aab damffm ntmad ceeh nimnmua. No robotuiabb, Xo $M eeeh denna .i. eeeha aireehta cobw 
rieeed Colum eUle, No baaoabb wtthemlaeht eeehberlai eoeUthi, No robon$rtmar mnt[)i]mthe eoriaeht 
eoekthi, "He was a chief of sdenoe io every hUl Cgl. or above, or in, i. e. he was [a chief] of science in 
every hlU-sdence), i. e. he was a firm chief who used to return every wealth [of knowledge]. Or he was a 
sage-abbot Or a chief of every hill, i. e. of every assembly to which Columcille came. Or he was a good abbot 
in the knowledge of every tongae to perfection. Or he was mighty in the science to perfection** (cocleithe, 
lit aoooiding to C. "to the ridge or the top of anything"). In H. a. 16 (T. C D.) C0L691, the passage and 


A MedioBval Tract en Latin Dedension. 

And rann was thus declined : — 

Pex. d-SlEM. 

Stem, rannd. 




N. rann 

df rainn 


G. rainne 


rann (n) 

D. rainn 



Ac. rainn (n) 

df rainn 


V. a rann 

a df rainn 

a ranna 

luchtaire (gl.lanista) not inO'E., who, howeyer, has luchdaire, ''whirlpool/' as to which 
meaning, qnsere. Perhaps we may compare the name of Lncterius, chief of the Oadnrciy 
also spelt LTXTHPios. 

I i-i $. — 1 1. L$xaire (gL legista), a hybrid firom lex, as 1 2, deeredeeh firom Lat. decre- 
tum, medializing the tennis t. In 0. Ir. we should probably have had erchoilidech. 
13. UasoMihavr (patriarch), a maso. stem, declined in 0. Ir. like cathir (which, ac- 
cording to Ebel, is a stem in r taking the determinative suffix c — c£ Goth, brothrahans — 
but should, perhaps, like Ainmire, ruiie, Fiachra, Eiacha, Lugaid, Echaid, c4era, 
nathir, &c., be rather considered a stem in e) ; cathir was thus declined : — 

N. cathir 
G. cathrach 
D. cathraig 
Ac. cathraig (n) 
V. a chathir 

df chathir 
da cathrach 
dib cathrachaib 
df chathir 
a df chathir 

cathrach (n) 
a chathracha 

If uasalathair be a stem in r, it is compounded of uasal ^ oxala (oxaUa?) high 
(cf. ITxellodunum) and athair = Skr. pitar, Gr. irar^p, Lat pater, £ng. father, with loss 
of the initial j9 as is common in Irish and Welsh : cf. ldn(fall)=W.llawn, Lat pl^iis, 
Skr. root par ; lear (many) with plerus, vXi^pfff ; iaso » W. p^sg ^ joscis = fish ; lia 
= wXmiwv ; lethan (broad) with wXarvi, Skr. prthu ; the 0. Ir. intensiye particle and 
verbal prefix ra-, ro- = Skr. pra, Lat. pro ; the prefix il- = roXv, Skr. pum, Goth, filu ; 
ire (ulterior) = wepatoi, ath (ford) = araTo*, and other instances brought forward by 
Ebel, Beitr. i. 307. Athir was thus declined in 0, Ir. : — 

glon above quoted eland thus: Bai aaph aaithi each dind .L robai eor6a$ai 1 eorbo hap taitheamlachta 
dindMomhoB X iter tena f JUideeht -| fiUUim (wisdom aa veU aa phUosophy and prophecy). 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Dedensian. 


Masc. t-Stem (Nouk of RsiATioirsHip). 

Stem, athar. 




N. athir 

di athir 


G. athar 

di athar 


D. athir 

dib nathraib 


Ac. athir (n) 

da athir 


V. athir 

adi athir 


14. Cratan (gL scmra), W. croesan (buffoon), primarily a cross-bearer in religious pro- 
cessions, ''who also/' says Dr. Todd (Irish Kennins, p. 182), '' combined with that 
occupation the profession, if we may so call it, of singing satirical poems against those 
who had incurred Church censure, or were for any other cause obnozious." The ex- 
ercise of this profession was sometimes not unattended with risk — Muirchertach mac 
Erca haying been e2q>elled from Ireland ar na eroaaana do marbad (after having killed 
the Grossans, Ir. Nenn., uhi supra). In the Cornish yocabulary, printed by Z., acurra 
is glossed by barth, ie. bard. 1$. Cestunach, apparently formed from the base of 
the Lat. questio. 

16-20. — 16. Ardeaspoe (archbishop), 0. Ir. ardepscop, where the first element 
ard (high) e Lat. arduus, Gh:. ip069 for opOfof, Skr. iirdhva : epscop is of course from 
episcopus. 17. GiUa ctnn etch (gl. auriga), '' a servant {gillie) at a horse's head;" 
gitta = 0. W. name Oildas, apparently a stem in b (Dauid in giUa dana, Colman's 
hymn, "D. the bold youth"); einn the locative of cenn (head), W. penn* a masc. 
a-stem, and thus declined in 0. Ir. : — 

Masc. o-Stex. 

Stem, einna. 




17. cenn 

d4 chenn 


6. cinn 


cenn (n) 

D. dann 

dib cennaib 


Ac. cenn (n) 

d4 chenn 


y. achinn 

a d4 chenn 



eiek s eci a akvai, gen. of ech, a masc. a-stem = ecas « akvas, cf. Skr. a^vas, 6r. mro? , 
Lat. equuB, 0. H. O. ehu, &g. v. infira. 18. Birraoh, says C, is '' a heifer between 

40 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Dedenaion. 

the ages of one and two yean ;" the Lai birria is obBcnre to me. FestoB (sub v. bur- 
rum, ed. Mueller) has "burra," a heifer with a red muzzle. O'R. has "biorrach," a 
boat, a cot, a currach (which word I have never met in a MS.). This reminds one of 
bans, a flat Egyptian rowboat, in Propertius, 3, ii, 44, fiapt9 in Herodotus. 19. 
Geidh (gL geta), leg. ^iidh, is afterwards the gloss on anser (goose). 2a Rkghan 
(queen), a fem. a-stem. C£ Skr. rajnt, Lat. r^gina. Skr. root, raj, reg-ere. 

21-25. ^^ hant6i9ech (duchess), hanah (abbess), hanpriair (prioress) (leg. banphrioir), 
hamagart (priestess), the first element is ban (woman, female), W. bun (Myvyr. Arch, 
i. J75) = gvana, Gr. tvviJ, Boeotian fiava (see Ebel, Beitr., i. 160), toisech (princeps 
Z. 61), a derivative from tus (initium), out of which a v has certainly Mien (c£ 0. W. 
touyssogion principes Z. 6) as in dia (God) ^ Skr. devas, nue (new) » navias; cf. the 
Gaulish base novio in Noviodunum and Noviomagus, Yedic navya, noi (a ship) « Lat. 
navis, Boind, the Boyne = Bovinda {Bovovivha^ PtoL) &c. ; »agart is of course from 
sacerd-os, with the provection of the medial frequent in derived words (cf. apgitir 
[alphabet] = abecedarium). 2$. Innilt (gl. ancilla), '' a handmaid." — 0*E. 

26-30. At cluie (gl. galea), " hat of (the) skull," cf clogad, " helmet," O'R. We 
should, I suspect, read atchluic; cf. atanaehy gl. caputiatus, infra, 27. Taiplis{jBl&&\ 
perhaps nothing but the English " tables" (backgammon, or some such game with dice), 
with the provection of the medial above alluded to. 28. Bairkn (gl. mitra) leg. hair- 
rin ? and cf. barr gL cassis, gl. frons, frx)ndis Z. j i. 29. Inar (gL tunica) inaraeh (gL 
tunicatus) tnfra, loc. sing. : Senoir broit buide (leg. buidi ?) ttuiir glais go glanm^t (1^. 
glanmdit), '' an old man in a yellow cloak, in a blue tunic of frdl size." Harleian 
1802, foL 5^ (tunica is glossed by fuan in Z., W. gwn, £ng. gown). 30. MuineilU (gL 
manica), afterwards muineillech (gl. manicatus), ** a sleeve, cuff," O'B. 

31-35. Gairleog, from Eng. garlick, A. S. garleac, garlec. 32. /S^/M^an (gL lacema) 

not in O'B., is apparently a deriv. from sliassit (gl. poples Z. 22), of which the dat. pi. 

sliastaib is glossed by femoribus in the Leabhar Breacc copy of Gildas' Lorica : slestan, 

therefore, is probably a cloak, covering the thighs and hams. With the connected 

0. Lr. sliss, cf. W. ystlys (side, flank). 33. Ciahh, " a lock of hair," O'R., 1. w. Cirrhus 

is glossed by mong in Z. 34. Zdmann (a glove) ; cf. W. Uawes, deriv. from lam (hand) 

= lama, lab^ ? and this, perhaps, from the root lab (Skr. labh), cf. Xafifiapa — ^the 

root-vowel being lengthened (vriddhied ?). 35. Dias (gLspica, ''an ear of com," O'R., 

probably W. twysen, although W. t^lr.dis irregular), occurs in Z. 577 : nin (leg. 

n(n) dia8 biis archiunn focheirt (non 7 spica est antequam seminas). Oengus c^le 

d^ (F^lirc, Nov. 24) caUfl Cianan of Daimliac '' cairi'diaa diar tuirind" (a fine ear to our 


36-4a Braise, 

A MeduBval Tract on Latin Declension. 4 1 

36-40. Braise J '' hastmess, rapidity, intrepidity, boldness/' O'R., which does not 
agree very well with lascivia (playfulness, licentiousness). The dat. sing, of the word 
occurs in the Leabhar Breacc copy of the F^lire of Oengus (June 19) : — 

Laid aAiil fbroenn {a. forcmeJuUri) 
fiadaliiagaib oomBRAflsi : (.1. eotkUra no eotolam) 
donrig batar niasi (.1. Hatar uiss no umla no itmraiee no eomadaii) 

Gemaasi Protassi (.1. duos [dvtojjratrea eranl, et in Eleidie sunt religuia iuo qui [reliquiae suae quae] 

per aomnium AmbroMto oatenta [ostenaae] mmt). 

Their blood flowed at the same time (L e. at the one aceontion) 
Before hoeta, with boldness (i e. strongly or qnlckly) : 

Jnst onto the King [of heayen] were (1. e. they were obedient, or humble, or fit, or suitable). 
Gervaasi [and] Protassi. 

C£ W.brysiaw, "to hasten, huny." 37. Fallaing, 1. w. (mantle) a fern, i-stem, fal- 
iaingech (gL falingatus), infra, occurs in Gtiraldus Cambrensis, Topogr. Hib., 3, 10, 
" gens ista, hibemica, vice palliorum phdlingis laneis (al. falangis nigris) utitur," 
cited Z. 95 ; fallaing is perhaps coiinected with pallium. C£ the W. adage, mal y 
Gwyddyl am y ffalingy <<like the Irishman for the cloak." 38. Leine (gl. camisia^ 
s chemise), gen. leined, Gorm. y. Lendan, a shirt, probably connected with Ifn (flax), 
W. llin, lin*seed, lin-um, \£v'Ov. 39. Gruaidh (a cheek), occurs in Cormacan feces' 
Circuit of Ireland, ed. O'D., v. 23. (I have restored the ancient spelling) : — 

rob imde d^r dar gruaid ngrinn 
oc bantracht Ailig foiltf ind. 

(There was many a tear over a comely cheek among the fair-haired women of Ailech), 
cf. 0. Ir. gruad, gl. mala, Z. 28, Com. grud. 40. Tmgad (tongue), whence infra 
Ungtaehj doiengtach. In 0. Ir. this was tenge gen. tengad, a d- (or t- ?) stem, but 
identical in root with the Lat lingua = dingua, 0. H. G. zunga, Engl, tongue, 
Skr. jihva. Very remarkable is the irregular representation of a Latin medial {d) 
by the Irish tenuis (Jt) ; cf., however, ithim = admi, eda The W. form tafod (Com. 
tavot, tongue) is to me altogether obscure ; it seems to occur in the corrupt Gaulish 
plant-name Tapp^XohaOtov^ which Z. reads rapfiorapdrtop (ox-tongue). 

41-44. IHach (jgLi^ra), ''abag, pouch, wallet," O'R. The word seems to occur in an 


I " Volo pro legentis (kdlitate abntl sermono vnlgato : solent militantes habere Hneat qnas eaminas 
Tocant** — Jerome, cited by Diez, Etymolog. W6rterbuch, 82. 


42 A Medkeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

obscure passage in the St. Oall Prucian (Z. prȣ xr.), " Tiach didiv mad ferr lat i. 
d. 0. 0." 42. Zosadj leg. losaid ? Corm. losait, a '' kneading-trough/' gen. loisde, O'D. 
Gram. 90. If losad be the modem form of losait, it was a fern* i-stem, the declension 
of which is in the oldest Irish identical with that of the masc. i-stem. 43. Dechmadhf a 
tithe, tenth, identical with the ordinal (dechma-d « da(n)kama-thay formed by adding 
the superl. suffix tha to the ordinal?). 44.. CoinniUy Com. cantuil » oandela, and 
probably borrowed from the Lat., a fem. d-stem, gen. coinnle, O'D. 90, for cainnle, 
caindle; cf. caindloir, gl. acoluthum, i. e. candelarium, Z. 1060. 

4$-50. Funnann, pun&n in O'lL, gelima is a '' corn-sheaf;" and O'D. informs me 
that in his boyhood the word was used in this sense in the county of Kilkenny ; the 
primary meaning, however, is ''load," and the word seems borrowed from the Lat 
pondus — like W. pwn, pyniaw. 46. Feddn (gl. fistula), perhaps derived from fid (arbor) 
= vidu (wood), gen. feda, W. and Com. gulden, Breton, gwezen. C£ 0. Sax. widu, 
Aug. Sax. wudu, 0. H. G. witu, the Gaulish Yiducasses, and the name of the Irish 
river Ovliova (vidv&) in Ptolemy (see Gliiok, 1 16). 47. FM<f (a beard), fi^soc, Corm. 
v; Crontsaile, apparently a diminutive. 48. Leimdtkair (stepmother), cf. W. llysfam, 
Bret, lesvamm; so Ir. lessmac (stepson) « Bret lesvab : lessathair (stepfather), Com. 
W. llysdad, Bret lestad : lesaiimi (nickname), W. llysenw. I am not sure i^t Z. is 
right (p. 1 104) in identifying this lea with the Cornish 02«(privignus). 49. Sesrach (gl. 
carruca, a plough, Fr. charme), fem. a-stem, absurdly derived by O'E. (who spells the 
word seisreach) from seisear each. 5a £dn (gL phoca) Com. W. moel-ron (sea-calf^ sealX 

5 1-55. Cennharr (gL caphia), by which the scribe probably meant some kind of co- 
vering for the head. jz. Zorg (a club, cudgel). Com. lorch, gl. baculus, Breton, lorchen 
(temo). 53. Penn, obviously from penna, as is — 54. Fian (= pena) from poena. In — 
$§, MoTOC (leg. maroc), gl. iolla, the Irish and Latin are equally obscure; maroc once 
seemed to me connected with W. myv (emmets), Engl, pismire, Zend, baevaiS maoirinam, 
decem miUia formicarum (Spiegel), &c. (see Kuhn, Zeitschr., iii. ^S ; Forsteman, ih, 80 ; 
Pictet, ih, V. 349). And if so, iolla might well be consid^^ a blunder for iulus, AwXov 
(centipede). But Dr. Todd has pointed out in I>u Cange the word jula, '' pisds genus," 
which comes nearer to iolla; the gen. sing, maroci for maroce occurs in a passage from 
Mac Conglinni's Dream cited by Dr. Petrie (Bound Towers), but the context affords 
no assistance in determining t&e meaning of the word. Is maroc identiqal with marog 
(gL trolliamen) infra*^ 

j6-6o. CrocaUy gl. olla (leg.croccan, W. crochan, boiler, pot), now crogan, "a pitcher'* 
— O'B., seems a different word from crooann, gen. crocainn, which occurs in a gloss 
on fd. Z. 740 ,' ainm in ehrocainn im bf bills, i. e. name of the membrane [the gall- 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 43 

bladder] wherein is the bile, and of which crocenn gL tergus (Z. 80) aeems a by-fonn 
=» W. croen (a skhiy hide) ; crocann ia certainly not oUa, but teigus, in the poem of 
Connacan ^cces above quoted : — 

rob Ut ar taigi oen ninn 

ar oochaill chom (?) eroeamn. 

And on the whole we may safely say that Z. erred in comparing (p. 740) Ir. crocann 
with W. crochan. $7. Siataire (gL vesica, if I am right in so reading ''fessica. 
siadaire") seems connected with siataim, O'E., ''I puff, swell up," c£ W. chwythu, 
"to blow, to breathe." 58. Caile (gL creta), "chalk, lime," O'R., W. calch, 
perhaps a deriv. from calx, calciBb 59. Adharc (gen. adhairce, infra) is "a horn, 
trumpet," O'E., the adj. adarcde, gl. cometa is in Z. 78a Here adharc probably 
means "a drinking-horn." With caustoria compare "Costarium, Costerium, utCos- 
trellus^ Poculum vinarium," Du Cange. What is the adhare Uaga (comu medici) of 
Irish medical MSS. ? A substitute for a cupping-glass ? 60. Luaidhe = Engl. lead. 

61-65. Riagkail, gl. norma, c£ regula, whence, of course, it is derived, but ap- 
parently with a change of declension, regula being a fenu a-stem, whereas the umlaut 
in liaghail points to a stem in % (in Z. 22, riagul, riagol, are exactly «= regula). A si- 
milar remark applies to— 62. TahhailL 63. Cantairecht, apparently a hybrid from the 
Lat. cantor, but possibly a pure Irish word from the root can, Skr. 9ans; though the 
first t is hard to account for. 64. Tuireo^, gL mitreta: here both Irish and Latin are 
obscure to me. 65. Medar (gL paira) : parra is said to be a wheat-ear ; I have not met 
medar elsewhere. 

66-70. Chean (gL parricula): gogan is "cackling, prating," according to O'E., 
but I suspect gocan to be the name of some small bird, cf. goean na cubhaig, " avicula 
quae cuculum comitatur" (Highland Society's Diet, i 500). 67. Cldr {gL tabula) in 
Z, daar (W. claur, clawr, O.W. o cloriou, tabellis, Z. 170), abL : hi elaar cridi (in tabula 
cordis), Z. 1082. 68. Anmre'^eaicoTa is from the Latin ; ingor is the pure 0. Ir. form, 
see Z. I X07, W. angar, Ck)m. ancar, Bret eor. 69. Ume imill (lympha), " water at the 
edge" (uiscedn, gL aquula, Z. 281 ; Idn di uUeiUy "full of water," Z. J95); uisce is 
perhaps an example of the rare derivative suffix -scia ; cf. the man's name Muirsce 
= moriscias ; but may possibly be connected through the Vedic form utsa, " a well," 
with the root und (vand), to which belong vhwp^ iidus, water, &c ; imiUf nom. {mell, 
in O'E. imeal, W. ymyL 70. Seat no carr (seat or car). Sess from the root sad, Lat. 
sed-eo, ^fo/uu, &c.; of. fiss and fid, &c.; sess ethar in Corm. is the thwart of 
a boat (elhar, gl. stlata, Z,); perhaps the abL may be in that obscure passage in 
FatneVs hymn, Crist illius, CiiBtisttfW, Crist ineniB ; <mrr, whieh subsequently glosses 

G 2 biga. 

44 -4 MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

biga, is the well-known Oaulifih carruB. The four-wheeler of Cesar and Livy is now 
represented by the Irish carracutiiun. What aptempna can be, is to me exceedingly 

71-76. Taebhdn, which I have written for taeman (aspirated m for aspirated h is 
not uncommon in 0. Ir.), C. explains to be the cross-beam between each pair of 
rafters ; teallaigh is gen. sing, of teallach, which glosses focus, infra ; taebh&n teailaigh 
may therefore mean the little beam (trabecula) over a fire, from which pots are hung; 
taebhan eamladh would mean the bar of a door (comla, gl. yalva, infra), 72. A9$an 
(caliga), in 0*E., asdn s. f. " a stocking or hose," W. hosan. 73. Lainder (a shoe-strap, 
shoe-string) ; O'D. suggests that this may be connected with the Engl, lanyard. It 
seems identical in meaning with — 74. Traighle; neither word is in O'E. Can traighle 
be connected with 0. Ir. traig (foot), ace. pl.traigid, a neuter t-stem = Com. truit, 
0. W. traet (plur.), and cf. fp^x'^i Goth, thragja, Skr. trksh, and the Scythian name 
Ta/»7t-Too» mentioned by Herodotus (Ebel, Zeits. vi. 400) ? The Celtic root teao 
occurs (as Z. 6, has shown) with the intensive particle ver in the Gaulish vertragi : 
ai Se iroSu>Kei9 Kvve9 ai xeXriKal KoKovirrai fiAv o^pTpapfot Kvvev <f>wv^ ttj KeXruc^, 

Arrian. de Venat. c. 3. 75, 76. Coroin, gl. corona, gl. clerica (leg. coroin?), from 
corona, apparently with change into the fem. i-declension ; but probably an instance 
in the sing, of that usurpation by the ace. of the place of the nom. which is com- 
mon in the plur. The ace. plur. occurs in the Book of Armagh, 180, a. 2 — coimea, gl. 
coronas — ^which shows that the word belonged to the a-declension. Com. curun. 

77-80. FoU (gl. coma), fait, Z. 251, abL o folt, Z. 65, = W. gwallt. Com. gels, 
gl. caesaries, Z. i loi, occurs in a quatrain concerning the Norsemen, quoted by Z. 928, 
from the St. Gall Priscian [Z.'s reading of the last line is dondlaechnddlainn oaloth 
lind] :— 

Is acher in g&ith innocht, Uitter is the wind to-night : 

Fufiuuna fidrgge find-/o/^ ; The white-haired sea is enraged : 

Ni frgori reimm mora minn The passage of a dear sea is not undertaken 

Dond laechraid lainn oa Lochlind. By the fierce heroes from Locbland. 

The gen. sing, in — 78. Deirgech in fuilt^ stripping (?) of the hair, i. e. baldness (for 

deirgech I suspect we should read deirgecht) ; in 0. Ir. ind. gen. sing. masc. of the 

article, which was thus declined : — 


1 A'gor (for agthar s agitur? cf. agat clesamnaig ** agant joculatores,^ SeirgL Gone) is probably the 
Q. Ir. form of aghary which is thus explained in 0*Dayoren*s Glossary (Mus. Biit Egerton, 88) : ** Aghar 
.1. gatbther no innsaighther, ut ett Athgabidl agar a ilai[th]che neme[d] Is c6ii dia ditla." AgAoTy 
i. e. is taken or is advanced, tU at, tL^ distrsss that is taken from a privileged person's green ooght to be 
protected. Ki agor might be rendered non timeo. Cf. agathar, Gr. dx^TM, Z. 45. 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 45 

Stem, SiLi!i(D)A. 

Maac Fern. Neat 

Sing. N. int, in : ind* • an, a (= sanad ?) 

G. ind*, in' innar^na: ind*, in* 

D. (b) ind', (b) in' (b) ind', (a) in' (s) ind', (s) in' 

Ac. (b) in (n), (a) in (n) (a) an, (b) a (= sanad ?) 

Plur. N. ind', in' inna:, na: inna:, na: 

Q. inna(n), nan \ 

D. (8)naib, (b) nab > in the three genders. 

Ac. inna:, (8)na: ) 

In the dual in appears in every case, and for all genders. 

79. Fahra^ accordii^; to O'R., is not only "eyelidfl" and "eyelasheB" — ^both which mean- 
ings may be attributed to palpebra — ^but also " eyebrows ;" of. 0. H. G. prawa, p0/>vt, 
Skr. bhrii. 8a Mae imresan (pupil of the eye), mac « 0. W. map » maqvas (gen. maqi, 
in two of Dr. Graves' Ogham inscriptions), originally son, is here obviously in a trans- 
ferred sense like pupUla, primarily an orphan girl. In Early Middle Irish mac imresan 
was mac imlesm (leg. immlesen), lit. " son of exceeding light" ? Is h6 tene na sula in 
mac ifnhten, " the fire of the eye is the pupil ;" Seii^lige Conculainn, edited from 
Lebar na huidre, by Mr. Curry, Atlantis IE. 383.' 

81-85. i^*^A^A^ (gl* theologia), a fem. &-8tem, firom dia(God), gLdeus, infra, a 
maac a-stem = dSvas, which was thus declined in 0. Ir. :— ^ 

Sing. N. dia : «= dSvas Dual. Plur. d^' = d^vi 


G. d^i', d^' = d^vi d^a(n) = dev&n 

D. dia' = d6vu(devai?) deib : = dev&bis 

Ac. dia (n) = devan d^o : (for d4u)=d^v^(d6van8)» 

V. a d^' =» deve a deo : 


1 The tuzoed comma (*) indicates that aspiration (of the initial letter of the word following) is canaed 
by the forme to which it is added, and which therefore moat have ended in a voweL The mark (:), which 
has been suggested by the Skr. viaarga^ represents a lost final «. The forms to which viaarga is added do 
nol aspirata N. B. — ^The « in brackets is fomid after the non-aspirating preposltioDS, and certainly belongs 
to the article. Dr. Siegfried was the first to make this important observation. This article in 0. W. was 
tir, in Com. and Bret. an. 

s •* In the Hebrew Bible,** writes Dr. Todd, '' the pupil, or * i^ple of the eye,' is literally * Daughter 
of the eye.'— Ps. xviL 8." 

* Compare Goth, vulfans, Gr. iirirovc (Ahrens, Dial!. IL { 14, 1), 0. Pruss. daivana and Skr. forms 
like kttm&r&h^-cha (pnerosqne) Nalas, 8, where the dental a of Ans (» -a + ans) has regularly become 9 

46 A MedioBval Tract on Latin Dedension. 

Cframmatachf dileehtach, adatr, are obviooBly fremdwQrtw (granmiatica, dialectica, his" 
toria). 85. EoIm ddir — ^if I read aright — (''an ignoble art"); ^olas occurs in Z. 42, spelt 
henlas : the nom. pi. masc. of the related adjectiTe ^olach (gnaros) in Z. 252 ; ammi 
n^ulig (where the so-called prosthetic n is nothing hut the old termination of the ist 
pers. plur. of the verb subst ammi (n) = ifffi€P, W. ym, asmasmi) ; doir is the opposite 
of soir (free, noble), which words are produced by prefixing the inseparable particles 
of quality do (= Skr. dus, Gr. dvt ?) and so (» Skr. su, Gr. m), to a root which remains 
obscure to me\ Perhaps we should read ealadan doenna, ''scientia humana." 

86-90. CHghen (a pan) seems to stand alone ; O'B. spells it oigheann. 87. DUghi 
(gl. rhetorica) : here there is either an omission (? labradha, i e. of speaking) or a blun- 
der : for dlighi must stand for 0. Ir. dliged, lex, regula (c£ W. dleet, Z. 166, pi. dile- 
hedion, Z. 293, 0. Sloven, dlugu, debitum), passing into the consonantal declension, 
like the Mod. Ir. pearsa, gen. pearsan a 0. Ir. persan, gen. persine (a person). 
8^. NathaiTy gL panthera, is surely a blunder, nathair (0. Ir. gen. nathraoh), de- 
clined like cathir, tuprd «= W. nadr, being '' a snake, adder, Tiper, serpent" — ^O'R., 
perhaps originally a water-snake, ftc. « Lat. natrix. 89. Leea in dutm (maxilla), leaca 
in 0*E. (gen. leacan), is, however, not jaw-bone (maxilla, the mobile os), but ''cheek;" 
duini, gen. s. of duine (homo), n. plur. in 0. Ir. doini, a masc. ia-stem, originally, per^ 
haps, as Br. Siegfried conjectures, related to Zend daena faith, and the root dhtai 
(think, meditate), as Skr. manu (homo), EngL man, is from the root man (think). 
9a Lethail (gl. mala), apparently one of the class of compounds noticed by O'D. 
(Grammar, p. 338), who, after quoting in his text leathcluas (one ear), leathchos (one 
foot), leathldmh (one hand), leathsuil (one eye), gives the following note : — " When 
leath, which literally means half, is thus prefixed, it signifies ' one of two,' such as one 
ear, one eye, one leg, one hand, one foot, one shoe, one cheek. It is never applied except 
where nature or art has placed two together; but in this case it is considered more ele- 
gant than aon, one." We shall find lethchaech (gL monoculus), infra: leth retains its ori- 
ginal meaning in the following words : lethchil (half-biassed). Conn. v. Oil; lethfer 
(gL semivir), infra; lethgute (a semivowel, Z. 968); lethmaethail (half a cheese), 
Conn. Prull; ledmarb (half-dead), Z. 825, lethom (half raw, Adamndn's Yision, 6m » 
Skr. &m&, Gr. wfi6i)\ lethsathach (gL semisatur), infra; mala is glossed by gruad in Z. 28. 

91-95. An 

befoito the palatal ch. The h3rpothet!ca] dat d&vUbU is to be compared with a Japetie instmixiental 
daiy&bhis, for which we ahonld find in the Veda dialect dgydbhia, and in clasflica] Skr. dgy^ 

1 My reason for hesitating to identify do with dm and ^vc is, that do aspirates (cf. dochmd gl indeoor 
docfanudigther gL turpator, Z. 833) ; and should therefore haye originally ended in a vowel. The « may, 
however, have dropt off at so early a period that its former presence was onreoognised when the practice of 
aspiration was introdaced. 

A Mediaval Tract on Latin Dedenmn. 47 

91-9$. Ail (gL bncca) is probably connected with the root al, nourish, Lat. Sl-o 
(eL lim from r. lab, Skr. labh) ; ail gL esca occurs in Z. 996, and of. irail (nom. iral ?) 
in the following gloss : hi precept 806[celi] ecus in irdil hirisse, " in preaching the 
Gospel, and in nurturing (?) Mth", Z. 996. 92. CrdM, gL gula; eraewaeh, gL gulosus, 
infra, ako means '' gluttony," as in the following passage cited from the Leabhar Breacc 
by Dr. Todd (Jr. I^ennius, pp. 170, 171): is^ focuinn malarta dona tuathaib 1 dona 
cellaib icambft na rfg 1 na aircindig atta (?) dilsi do crae* -] do raebaidecht int saegail ; 
and in Z. 41, where the word is spelt crois; cf. W. croesaw, to welcome ? 93. Ulhu 
(g^ mata9A), I hare neyer found elsewhere; mataxa (jUra^) means in Martial 
''raw flilk;" it also meant ''a cord or line." W. ulw (cinders) is the only Celtic 
word I know resembling ulbo. 94. Bms (gL palma), aca pL bassa, gL palmas, 
Leabhar Breacc copy of Qildas' Lorica. 9$. Basog (gL alapa) is obviously a deriva- 
tkm from bass. 

96-101 . Band (gL planta), bonn gl. solea, infra, « W. bon (base, sole), found in most 
Indo-European tongues : Skr. budhna, G(r. wvOfi^¥, Lat fundus for bundhus, 0. H. Gr. 
bodam, Engl, bottom^ 0. Norse botn (Kuhn, Zeitschr., iL 320), Huzvaresh and Parsi 
bunda, ''ground, root" (Spiegel, Zeitschr., v. 320). 97. Feam(jgL mentula), "a tail," 
0*R., who also hasfeamach, "dirty," which adjective Pictet (Zeitschr., v. 348) compares 
with the Skr. root vam, vomere, ifuw, &c. As to priv, I doubt if I read the contrac- 
tion (pu) rightly, and cannot explain it, unless x>erhapB as a derivative from the Lat. 
privua. 98. Cdin (gL emenda, i. e. " damni reparatio," " satis&ctio de jure laeso vel 
de iUata injuria," Du Gauge) a fem. i-stem ; " rent, tribute, a fine, amercement," O'B., 
c4in seems to occur in Z. 592 : Is tac4ir dunn, schdin fochell asarchorp. 99. Cusle (gL 
vena), with the u infected, cuisle, O'R. The voc. sing, is frequently heard in the con- 
versation of the Irish peasantry : achusbla (i« & a chuisle) mochridi, " vein [or pulse] 
of my heart !" Cuisle is a fem. stem in n, and perhaps derived (by the frequent change 
ofp into c) from Lat. pulsus. The W. word for vein, gwyth, must on no account be 
compared with 0. Ir. f^ith, gL rien, gL fibra, which, as Dr. Siegfried remarks, is the W. 
gwden, Eng. withe, Lat. vitis, vieo, Irea^ 0. H. 0. wida, Skr. vitika, a tie, fastening (Kuhn, 
Zeits., ii. 133). 100. Cieh (gl. mamma), dat. pL cichib (gl. mamillis), Leab. Breacc. 
(Hid. Lor. I OK Cichin (gL mammilla) should probably be written cfch, cfchfn, as the 
present Irish is cioch, " a woman's breast," 0*E. 

xo2>io5. Uth (gl. mammilla), leg. uth ? « (W. uwd pap, i. e. pulmentum ?), if con- 
nected with Skr. iidhas, Gr. oZOap, uber, udder, M. H. G. enter, is an instance of an Ir. 
tenuis irregularly representing a Skr. aspirate mediaL 103. JRetla (gL stella), gen. 
rethm (Vis. Adamn.), in O'E.; " readhlann, a. m. a star." 104. Aoir (aether) is W. 



A MedioBval Trctct on Latin DecUnsion. 

awjT s Lat. aer » 0. Ir. a^r, Z. 114: dat. sing. reiptmHt mulm', las atcondairc faismd 
aeur 1 ni aocai hi talmain a leitheid '] atb^lsa no ab^la ingein fil imbroind no ab^lam 
diblfnaib mani thomliur inlnsdn. '* The woman answered, ' the herb thou perceiTeBt 
in the air, and on earth thou seest not its like, and I shall perish, or the child in mj 
womb will perish, or we shall both perish, unless I eat that herb."^Trip. Li& of 
Patrick, iiL ^6. Cf. r. var, to suiround. Whether in — 10$. Ater (gl. aera), the aera 
is for aer, or whether ater is era, is to me obscure. 

106-110. Seala {gi cratera), "a great bowV* O'R. ; Com. scala (gl. patera), Z. 
1122, GotL skalja, £ng. shell,' 0. H. G. scala (0. French jale, jalon, galon, Eng. gal- 
lon?). If Z. is right (G. 0. 1 122) in thinking scala a German word, when and how 
could it have come into Irish ? 107. Cfreidell, '* a gridiron," 0. W. gratell (gl. graticula, 
Z. 1094), ItaL gradella, Fr. greille, EngL grill, from oraticula (Mart 14, 21), Med. 
Lat. graticula, a dimin. of crates (see Diez, £. W. 180). 108. Talam (gl. terra), gen. 
talman (« talmanas), a fem. n-stem, perhaps identical withW. talm, the m of which, 
by the phonetic laws of Welsh, must stand for mn, mm, or mb. Talam has nothing to 
do with Skr. dhanyan, which Kuhn (Beitr., i. 368, 369) has identified with the Lat. 
tellus for telriis ; talam was thus declined in 0. Ir. : — 

FsM. w-Steh. 

SUm, talaman. 




N. talam 

df thalam 


G. talman 

da talman 

talman (n) 

D. talmain 



Ac. talmain (n) 

df thalam 


v. athalam 

adf thalam 


109. Suiste no sgiurBe (tribulum), '' a flail or a scourge," suist ^ flistis, W. ffust as 
srian « fr^num, W. flfrwynn, seib = faba (Skr. r, bhaksh, Gr. 0a7), W. plur. £Pa, 
srogeU « flagellum, W. fi&owyll, &c. Sgiwrse seems taken from the EngL scourge. 
The etymology of — 1 10. Baile (gL villa), the Bally so common in Irish topography, is 
obscure to me. If, notwithstanding the singleness of its /, we connect it with the Med. 
Latin ballium, we are only led from one difficulty to another — ^for who shall explain 
ballium ? The earliest instance I have met of the occurrence of baile is in the Trip. 
Life of Patrick, iii. 1 2 : tanic victor do ingabail (leg. imgab&il ?) patricc asin port 
corraboi immuiniu draigin boi i toeb in haiU, ''To avoid Patrick, Victor went 
frt)m the house till he was in the brake of thorns at the side of the iai%." 

111-115. Arti% 

A Medioeval Tract en Latin Declension. 49 

1 1 1-11$. Artdn, as I yenture to read the urtan of the MS. (gl. yillula), Ihave not 
met eLaewhere. It is a dimiiL of art, '' a house, tent, tabernacle," O'E. 112. Slighe 
(gl. yia), a base in ^, if sligthib, gL naribus, in Gildas' Lorica be correctlj spelt Says 
Connac : 8lige^ din, do scuchad charpat sech araile, doronta fri himcomarc dd caipat .i. 
caipat rfg ecus carpat epscoip, con dechaid each 4e dfb sech araile. '' Slige^ then, for 
the passage of chariots by each other : made for the passage of two chariots, to wit, a 
king's chariot and a bishop's chariot, so that each of them may pass by the other." 
113. Bethu (gl. vita), a masc. t-stem = 0. W. bywyt, Bret, buez, 0. Ir. gen. sing, 
bethad ace. bethid (n) « bivataten (or -tin ?). The root is b)v (the adj. bin = blvas) ; 
c£ Skr. jlva for glva, Goth, qvins, Eng. qxdck, Gr. /8«o«, Lat vlvns. 114. Luhh 
(gl. herba), gen. lubae, lube, Z. 18, 777 ; abL dind luib (gl. de rosa), Z. 232, ^ £ng. 
leaf, GotL laufs : lub-gartoir (gL olitor), Z. 45 ; lub-gort (a garden), in the so-called 
Annotations of Tirechan preserved in the Book of Armagh ; c£ the Com. luworch guit 
gL virgultum, Z. 8 1 7. 115. Caill (silva), a fern, i-stem, W. cell, pL ceUi, Com. kelli, 
gen. coille in Cormac y. Ana : — Ba bind gair ehoUU loinche TJm r&ith Eiachach maic 
Moinche, i. e. '' Sweet is the voice of the wood of blackbirds [ad v. vox silvae merolo- 
sae] round the r&th of Fiacha son of M." €k>ill in Z. is always spelt caill, and only 
occurs in compounds : mirtchaill, gL myrtetum, escalchaill, gL esculetum, olachaill, 
gL olivetum, gen. pL innan olachaille, gl. olearum, Z. 82 1 . May we identify this word 
with Lat. collis ? 

1 1 6- 1 20. Shu (gL virga), a fem. a-stem = slatti, is, with its diminutive tlaitini to be 
compared with the W. llath, yslath. Compare — 118. M6%n (gL gninna, a bog), ap- 
parently a fem. i-stem, with W. mawn (turves). In W. mign (masc.), migen, 
mignen (fem. a bog, quagmire), the g must have been a e, which could hardly have 
Mien out in Irish. 119. Fod (gl. gleba), leg. fod, ''a dod of earth, sod, soil, 
land." — O'E. 120. Bothan (gL casa); perhaps we should read bothdn (''a little 
tent," according to O'R.), from both (house), W. bod, cf. Eng. booth ; both seems to 
occur in composition in Cormac : tic iarum Find don taar-'hoith deog lai, con faca in 
colainn cen cenn: "colann sund cen cenn," ol Find; [afterwards Find came to the 
hut in the evening, and he saw the body without the head : '' a body is here without a 
head !" said Find]. 

121-126. Coco^ (gL cassula). Cf. ''The cuoulla, sometimes called casula and capa, 
consisted of the body and the hood, the latter of which was sometimes specially termed 
the casula." In a note, Dr. Beeves, from whose noble edition of the Yita Columbee I 
have made this quotation, spells the word cassnla. Cocall is one of those Celtic words 

H which, 

50 A Mediaeval Tract an Latin Declension. 

which, by the influence of the Church, has become univenal. Diefenbach (Celtica, 

i. 122) quotes Martial: — 

GallU Santonieo yestet te haidoeueuUo ; 
Ciroopitheoonun penula nnper erat 

And compares Bret kougoul, Conn, cngol, Engl. cowl. 122. Cro (leg. cro ?), before 
which I have ventured to put casula, the dimin. of casa, occurs injra (cro c&erach, gL 
ovile), and is explained " a hut, hovel, pen, cottage, fortress" (?) by O'E. 123. Camra 
no aeomra (gl. camera) ; the former is from the Latin, the latter from the Anglo-Norman. 
1 24. Dorus (gL porta), W. drws, Com. darat [w in Z., but daraz in Lhwyd] (ostium), 
Lithuanian durrys, Skr. dvara, Gr. Ovpa, Lat fores, Goth, daur, Slav, dver, Engl, door, 
dat plur. dinaib doirsib (gl. de portis), Z. 749. 125. Comla (gL valva), gen. comladh, 
infra, occurs in the Leabhar Breacc, cited by Petrie, R. T., 400 : eanUa gered friss t 
gerrcend maroci (leg. maroce ?) furri (a gate of suet to it, and the short head of a 
marde upon it). 1 26. (Jliath (" crates, hurdle), Med. Lat. cleta, 0. W. and Com. duit 
= cletd, mod. W. dwyd, occurs in the Lish name of Dublin, Baile an atha cliath (the 
town of the ford of hurdles), also in Z. 21, 1 14. Fr. claie, Proven(;al cleda. 

127-13 1. Mareaeh na eomladh (gl. digma) is altogether obscure to me ; marcach is 
literally horseman — W. ; '' marchauc (equestris) ortum e Gkdlico vetusto marca {fMpKo, 
rpifiapKuria, ap. Fausan.),'' Z. 47. 128. Zasair (gL flamma), gen. lassrach, marg. gloss 
on Fatrick's hymn in Lib. Hymn. The 3rd pers. sing, pret act. of the verb lasaim 
occurs in Ffac's hymn : — 

DolUth &deB 00 Victor, ba hh AridrtOMtar: 

ZtfMou in mnine im htd, aain ten adgl&dastar. 

He went eonthirards to Victor, he it was that spoke to htm : 

The bramble-bnah irherein he [Victor] was flamed — from the fire he called. 

The word is probably connected with loscad, Z. 143, W. llosg, Com. lesld. 1 29. Cam- 


radh (gl. cloaca). 0*R. cites from Shaw, camrath, *' a gutter, sewer, jakes ;" I have not 
met the word elsewhere. 130. Smmdthair, " a grandmother" (0. W. henmam), from 
sen (old) » ginas, W. hen ; c£ Zendhana (Spiegel), Gaulish senomagas, Lat. sen-ex, 
Sen-e-ca (compar. siniu, Z. 283, and sinithir [Lib. Hymn, gloss on the Altus Frosi- 
tor]), 0. W. superL hinham, leg. hinam, Z. 305, and mdthair = p-^TiiPt mater, mother, 
Skr. m&tr (matar), from the root ma (to create ?), was declined in 0. Ir. like athir 
(v. »uprd), except in the gen. plur., which was mdthar (n). 131. Seehrdn (gl. devia, i. e. 
dcviatio), 0*E. seachr&n, " an error, straying," has been taken into the Anglo-Lish 
dialect in the phrase, " going on the shaughraun." 

1 32-1 36. Zand (gl. scama), if we take scama to be for soamma, an arena = cxd/ifia, 

" a place 

A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 5 1 

'< a place dug out and sanded"*, land is the W. Han, '' area, yard, churdu" It oocun 
as the last element of a compoond in Z. 168 : isind Hk-laind, gL in area (i. e. in the 
threshing-floor). If, however, as is more likely, scama is for sqnama, we may quote 
O'B. : *' lann, a nu a scale of a flsh." 133. LS^ Ugmar (a precious stone), l^g (stone), 
0. Lr. Uaoc, W. Uech ; cf. the liyer-name licca in Venant. Fortun. Z. 174, and the 
O. 8az. leia, L e. leja for lea^ leha lapis, Gliick, 19. In 0. Ir. liacc is a cc-stem, 
and either masc. or neut, I have not ascertained which. Ldgmar is an adjective, 
formed by adding the common suffix *mar to 16g (merces, pretium) : gen. sing. '' bU- 
pmdium ainm ind I6ge doberr do mfledaib ar milte" (stipendium is the name of 
the price that is given to soldiers for military service), Z. $77 ; hjUtuuf mo saethir 
{** in reward of my labour"). Book of Dimma mace Nathi ; log, W. Uog, is per- 
haps connected with Lat. Ificare, loc-arium. May we also venture to adduce Goth, 
lann, EngL loan? 134. Fuindeog^ "fdinneog, s. f. a window," O'B., reminds one 
of the 0. Norse vindauga (wind-eye), Engl, window ; Ir. seinistir, W. ffenestyr, 
Com. fenester, Bret, fenestr, are directly firom the Latin. 135. Oahhal, gL forca, 
(W. gafl, hardly gebel, a pickaxe), in Z. 731 is gabul (gL furca, gl. patibulum), 
which spelling is strange, as the Med. Lat is gabalus, gabala, gabalum, 0. H. G. 
gabala, EngL gavelock. 1 36. Fellee (gL sportula, a small basket) is " a basket made of 
imtanned hide," as O'D. considers. It occurs in €k>rmac's Glossary, and comes, 
of course, from pelliceus (made of skins), and this firom pellis ^ Eng. fell, &c. 

137-141. Oasadh (gL treuga = truce). 138. Milan (gL uma), not in O'B., is one 
of a long series of names of different-sized water-vessels, of which we shall hear more 
when G. publishes his invaluable glossaries. 139. Cogad (war), gen. cogaid, n. plur. 
cogtha, O'D. Gr. 87, like some other nouns of his first declension (a-stems) is, I strongly 
suspect, a neuter. How else can we account for the vowel-ending in the nom. plur. of 
aonach, ualach, muUach, eddach (0. Ir. ^tach, a neut. a-stem), bealach, orlach, sg^al 
(0. Ir. sc^l, a neut a^stem), &c ? Neuter a-stems were thus declined in 0. Ir. : — 

A Neutkk a-SiEM. 

Stem, farcitala. 




N. forcetal(n) 


dd forcetal 


G. forcitil 

dd, forcetal 

forcetal (n) 

D. foTcitul 

dib forcitlib 


Ac. forcetal (n) 


dd forcetal 


V. a forcitil 

a da forcetal 


a forcetla 

> See an interesting note by Dr. Todd, Lib. Hymn., 75. 



52 A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

With cog-ad Oliick compares the GauliBh name Cog-i-dnmnns, mI j^u. as the ^ is nnas- 
piiated in Mod. Irish. Cf. Marti eoddio f hardly the Lat. pugna. 140. FutMog (gL 
alauda), " s. f. a lark"- O'R ; cfl W. guichell, " a bird," Pugha The Welsh name 
for a lark is uchedydd, Com. evidit, Bret, echouedez. 141. Bairgm (gL gaiga) = W., 
Com., and Bret, bara (panis), Z. 1122* ; in 0*R. bdirghean, "a cake;" gen, sing, fer 
d^nma hairgins, gL pistor, i. e. Tir faciendi panis, Z. 462. The word often occurs in 
the conversation of Anglo-Irish children, bambrack (0. Ir. bairgen brecc, speckled 
cake) being one of their favourite comestibles. Garga I have been nnable to find in 
any Lat. dictionary. 

142-146. Cethramadh (fourth, 0. W. petguared, now pedwyryd, m. petguared, 
now pedwared fem.). The -ma- here seems inorganic, and introduced from the false 
analogy of sechtm-ad, ochtm-ad, noim-ed, dechm-ad. A similar remark applies to 
oenmad » W. unvet, Z. 330. 143. Sruhan (gl. merenda, a luncheon) I have not met 
with elsewhere. O'E. has sriibog, '' a mouthful of any liquid ;" and srubhog, ** a 
cake baked before the fire." With the latter our sruban is probably connected. 
145. Sruhdn mara (bucealla, L e. buccinula?), is apparently a ''cockle" (smbdn, O'B.). 
Gfretm (gL buccella, a morsel), stem in n; cf. 0. Sax. gruomon (mica). 14$. Co^or, 
'' s. m. a whisper," O'E. 146. Colpa (gl. tibia, the shinbone) does not agree very well 
with 0'E.'b ** calpa, s. m. the calf of the 1^." The word occurs in Conn. v. Ferend. 

147-15 1. Tarr (gL festucula, a little stalk or straw), now means ''the Iowct part 

of the belly," and is still found in a phrase used in reference to a childless man, viz., 


uii^ fas dadam assa tharr. 1 48. Mong intsUndein (gL honplata), " hair of the shoulder," 
L e. mane, which meaning does not agree well with that of dtfioTrkamf (shoulder-blade), 
for which word I am indebted to one of my friend Littledale's ingenious conjectures. 
Observe the form of the gen. sing, masc of the article before aspirated «• In 0. Ir. <^ 
before an «, or sr, or «/, which has been flanked by vowels, regularly becomes t. The 
proof of this proposition, which would occupy overmuch room here, may be found 
in Part iv., vol. i., of the "Beitrage" before referred to. It is enough here to say 
that int slindein may be proved to have been sandislindeni ; and that the Mod. Ir. 
ant ech, " the horse" (phonetically written an t-ech) was of old san(d)a8 akvas. 
149. Cmgal (gl. junctura), W. cengl, both probably from Lat. dngulum. ijo. Fwil 
nafiaeolf "fiesh of the teeth," i. e. gums; feoil, a fem. i-stem inZ. 23, ind/<fm7, "the 
flesh ;" fiacal, gen. pi. of flacail, a fem. i-stem', which occurs in one of the St Oall 


^ Bara and gonin (wine) compose the Fr. word bazmgooin (gibberish). 

' In the gen. pL Mod. Ir. has lost aU declensional distinction between fem. stems in 4 andt ; in the old 
language the gen. pi. of fiacail would have ended in e. Thus nime^ dAIe, caille, are respectiTely the geni- 
tives plur. of nem or nim (heaven), diiU (a thing), caill (a wood). 

A MedicBval Tract en Latin Declension. 53 

incantations, Z. 926: ind el&Jlaeail airthir a chinn (one of the two teeth in the front 
of his head), the adj. fiaelaich gl. dentatam, ace. eing. fern, of fiadach, is in Z. 22. 
151. Sine Main, the uvula, lit. John's teat; sinsean in O'E. 

152-156. Butun (biturrfa); hutun, according to O'D. and C, is now used for a 
blacksmith's paring-knife. The Lat. bitorria is obscare ; perhaps it may be for bitor- 
rius, bitorius, Fr. butor (bittern) ; if so, we should probably read the Irish word hutur, 
which word, however, is not known. Batura (patena in Diefenbach's valuable col- 
lection of Med. Lat.-Grerm. glosses) is the only other Med. Lat. word I know like 
bitmrfa. 153. Didean, "protection, defence," O'E., which corresponds well enough 
with teotura, occurs infra in the form didin (gl. tegmentum, gl. tegimen). In 0. Ir. 
tiie word is dUiu (gL teges, gL velare, Z. 79), gen. diten, dat ditin. 154. Luireeh, 
W. Uuryg, from Lat. lorlca (a corslet of thongs), which alone furnishes the etymon, 
viz., lorum. The earliest instance of the occurrence of this word is in Flac's hymn, 

V. 26 : — 

Ymmon doroega it' bia bid liireeh diten do c&ch : 

Immat 11 laithiu in messa r6gat fir hereon do br&th. 

The hymn thoa hast choaen in thy lifetime shall be a corslet of protection to evmy one : 
Aroimd thee on the Day of Doom the men of Ireland shall come for judgment 

(Here luireeh is used in its secondary signification of a religious composition supposed 
to protect the soul in the same way that a corslet guards the body.) In the poem com- 
mencing '' Oris finnain," Z. 933, we find the word with its primitive meaning : Iwreeh 
d^ dum' indegail ota [leg. 6t4] m' ind gom' bond, "Gbd's corslet to protect me from my 
crown to my sole." 155. Aithleine (gl. antiquula, if I read the Latin rightly) means, 
according to C, ''a shirt cast-off" (on account of its age); cf. aithlSf ** an old cloak" 
— Gorm. "Aith, or a^A,*' says O'D. (Gram. 272), "has a negative power in a few 
words, as aithrioghadh, 'to dethrone;' aththaoiseach, 'a deposed chieftain;' aitk" 
eUeireaehf * a superannuated or denounced clergyman ;' atklaoeh, * a superannuated 
warrior, a veteran soldier past his labour.' " I have not met examples of this power 
of aith- in Z., where aith^ (« Skr. ati, beyond) generally has the force of the Latin re-. 
156. Mir (mica, offula) occurs in Z. 25 (with the neut. article), as the last element of 
a compound : a eonmir (gl. medicatis frugibus ofiam), " the dog's-bit." 

1 57-1 61. Faighin, "W. gwain, Com. guein, Bret, gauin » vagina; whence Ital. 
guaina, Fr. gaSne. 158. Caile dahhea (gl. famula), '' girl of (the) tub;" eaile, a fem. 
ia-stem, occurs in Conn., and is compared by Bopp with Skr. kanyS., Z. kaine 
(maiden), as aile (another) « anya. Hence the diminutive oailin, so often heard in the 
conversation of the Irish peasantry. Caile was thus declined in 0. Ir. : — 


54 ^ MedicBval Tract on Latin Dedensim. 

A FSX. fd-STEX. 

Stem, ealid. 




N. caile 

df chaili 


G. caile 

d4 caile 

caile (n) 

D. CAili 

dib cailih 


Ac. caili (n) 

di chaili 


y. a chaile 

a di chaili 

a chaili 

Dahheay gen. of dabhaehf which subsequently glosses caba ; cf. Eng. tub ? 1 59. JB6 (a 
cow), 0. W.hou (in hmUig, gl. stabulum, i. e. domus yaccanun, Z. 1079) » /3ov*, Lat. 
bosy boY-iSy Skr. gaus, gen. sing. " monasteiium quod Latine Campulus Bovis dioitnr, 
Scotice vero Ached-bou" Vita Cohmha, ed. Eeeves, p. 121, where two other readings of 
the Irish are given, viz., aehethhoUf achadh 16 : gen. dual, mace dk h6, Conn, sub y. Deal, 
160. Uisee, ''water" (whence ''whiskey/' i. e. uisee heathadh, aquavitse), has been con- 
sidered supra. 161. Adhhar, gl. idiogina (ideogina?), afterwards glosses thema, and 
is, according to 0*R., "a cause or motive; a subject or matter to be converted into 
some other form." Tordelbac[h] a mac, adhur ardrfg erend : " Tordelbach his son, 
mat&rtes of a monarch of Ireland" (i. e. crown-prince), Annals of Boyle, cited and 
translated by O'D., Gram. 445. Adbar occurs in Z. 337 : rotbia adhar &ilte "exit 
tibi causa lastitiae." 

1 62-1 66, Calptach (gL b(nna) ; Ir. and Lat here equally obscure to me. O'D. thinks 
ealptaoh an unfledged bird, sed qu. ; binna is explained prsesepe in the Hed. Lat. Dic- 
tionaries. 1 63. Gamain arain (gl. benna) is also obscure to me; O'D. says that^amafii is a 
yearling calf; but what is arain, and what is benna ? 1 64. Calpaeh, gl. juvenca (spelt 
colpach by O'E.) is, according to C, a heifer from her second to her third year. 165. 
Cuindeag, O'E., eunneag, " s. £ a chum, a pail" = W. eunnawg, milk-paiL 166. £drath 
gl. mulcra, or, perhaps, mulca), is, according to O'D., " milking-time ; but we may 
also read the Ir. word edradh, and compare 0. Ir. ^trad (libido), the dat. and ace. sing, 
of which are found in Z. 433, 452. 

167-172. Corrog (gL oba, for which I have put opa, is obscure, opa, i. e. a hole) 
seems connected with 0'B.'s corr, " a pit of water." 168. Oealdn na M, " the white 
of the eyes;'* gealdn, from gel, white; 0. Ir. comp. gilither, O'D., Gr. 120. Christ 
is called by Oengus c^le d^, " the white sun that iUuminates heaven with much of 
holiness" (y^-grian forosna riohed cu m^it noibe) ; M gen« pL of »kil, of which more 


A MedioemL Tract m Latin Declension. 55 

mjra, 169. Thihems, from Lat. tabema, as— 170. Fersonaeht from persona, JBicai- 
reekt, from vicarins, Mft — 171 and 172. CabtllanaeM, from Med. Lai capellanus. 

173-176. Ahdaine, better ahhdaine (abbey), a fern: ia-stem; gen. eing. occurs in 
Leab. Breacc, cited by Br. Petrie (Tara, 76), isin nomad (leg. noi maid ?) bliadain dec 
ahhdaine Cormaic (in the nineteenth year of the abbotship of Cormac), whence it ap- 
pears that ahhdaine is applicable to the office as well as the place. 1 74. Buaile (gl. 
vaccaria, a cow-house), spelt huaili, huailidh, in O'E., occurs infra in htaile dam, gl. 
bostar. It is from the Lat boyile, with loss of the v between to wels, according to rule in 
Irish. 17$. Proitinse (proyince) is proibhinnse in Keating, who calls the Vdleproihk- 
innse Oaittda; it is, of course, from the Lat. provincia. 176. Cathair airdeaahuig 
(oppidum archiepiscopi) : cathair has been considered su^a, No. 13. Note in airdeas- 
buig the transposition (p) s-b-g for p-s-c-p ; and compare cengcedais with flrern^icoimy, 
coisreachad {infira) with consecratio, eisdeacht » 0. Ir. ^tsecht, and beurla » 0. Ir. 

177-181. Eaglaie, 0. Ir. eelais^ gen. eeaiUwy eeoho, a fem. i-stem, from ecclesia, 
with change of declension. 178. Athairtalmhan, yarrow, milfoil; literally /?a/^ tel- 
lurii; wrongly spelt by O'E. atairtahnhuin. Athair and talmhan — ^gen. sing, of talam 
— ^have already been noticed. Observe the non-aspiration of the t in talman, in conse- 
quence of athair being a consonantal base. 179. Blaese (gl. testa) is hlaosc, a shell in 
O'E. 180. Brothraehan (gL sabribarra). Brotbrachj according to O'D., is a royal gar- 
ment. 181. Cenbaran (gL uolua); here again the Ir. and Lat are equally obscure to me. 

182-186. Buaihbhdttan liath (gL artemisia, wormwood, mugwort) is, according to 
C, ''the great thistle;" according to O'D., "the gray ragweed;" Hath (gray) = 0. 
Welah luit (Aiscus), now llwyd. 183. Zub na fiadh (herb of the deer); /tM, W. 
Uy^imyn, pi. Ihfsiau; fiadh gen. pi. of fiadh (s. m. gem^fiaidh) ; W. hf^dd? though cer- 
tainly Irish/can never be ^W.h. 1 84. Biror, afterwards spelt hirur (gl. nasturtium), 
W. hencTf Com. beler, is now biolar (cresses), with change of r to /. Biror is fanci- 
Mlj derived by Cormac from hir, edge, and or, hair, the cresses being, as it were, 
the hair on the edges of wells and rivers. 185. Feelug (gl. genista, broom), not in 
O'E. 186. Garhog (gL ea) is ''the coarse brassica," according to C. 

187-191. Merdrech = merctrix, from which it is derived. 188. Faechog, a shell, 
cockle ? occurs infra (194). 1 89. Marelach, " a h<»«e*load," according to C. (marclach 
cruithnechta occurs in the Trip. Life of P.), from mare (horse) — ^W. and Cora, march, 
which we hare met above in mareach, 1 90. Bonn (gL solea) = bond, v. aupra, 191. Bile, 
masc ia-st«n, correctly explained " a border" by O'E. ; W. byl, masc " brim, edge." 
The word occurs in a beautifdl old poem attributed to Columbcille, and quoted in full 

56 A MedicBval Tract an Latin Dedensum. 

by Dr. Beeves. (Vita Coluinb®, 285, 288.) Unfortimatdy the spelling has been mo- 
deinized. I will try to restore the pure orthography, and adopt Mr. Gurry's trans- 
lation : — 

DUmbad lim Alba nUe Were all Alba mine^ 

O th& hrik 00 & hiUf From its centre to its border, 

Bop ferr Umaa ait taige I would prefer to have the site of a honse 

Occam ar l&r caem-Daire. In the middle of fair Derry. 

Is aire caraim Daire The reason I lore Derry is 

Ar & reide, ar & glaine For its quietness, for its purity, 

'Sar imad k aingel find And for the mnltitade of its white angels 

On chiunn 00 roich araile. From the one end to the other. 

192-196. Udehtar (gl. impedica); nachtar is the npper part, O'R's uaehdar ; but 
impedica is altogether obscure to me. Uaehtar also means " oream ;" and uachtar go 
toin, '* cream to the bottom/' is, according to C, *' a plant supposed to possess the 
property of taming all the milk into cream when the milk-pail is scoured with it." 
193. Smir (marrow); W, mer, c£ 0. Norse smior (butter), Eng. smear, occurs in the ex- 
ceedingly old tale of the ''Fled duin nan g^d,** ed. O'Don. p. 70 : — 'Ni roan sum din 
CO tardad cn&im for m^is do . • . ecus toimlid k «f»f>, ecus k feoil asdaithli ; ''he stopped 
not tiU a bone was brought on a dish to him, . . . and afterwards ate [eats] its marrow 
and flesh." 194. Faeehag beg, a periwinkle, lit " a Uttle shelL" 195. Grainseeh (gL 
grangia), ^ratW^oe^A ; 0*R "a grange, a fjEom." 196. Cere, O'B. eeare, a hen; cf. 
e&redae, gl. gaUinaceus, Z. 765 ; the resemblance to the Gr. KipK09 seems accidental. 

197-201. Ilwr (eagle); W. eryr\ Com. gL er; Bret, erer, er ; Goth, ara, gen. 
arins ; O.H. G. aro. 198. Arg (from area), " a chest, coffer,"0'E. ; so 199 — Ciste is from 
cista. 200. Ciarseeh, a hen blackbird, perhaps connected with ciar (fiiscus), whence 
the name Ciaran, which occurs in an old obituary notice (Z. praef. xzzii.), b&s Muir* 
chatho maic MaHeduin hi Cluain maccunois & imda- Ckiarain (death of Muirchad, son 
of Maileduin, in Clonmacnois, from Ciaran's bed). With ciar s c^ra, we might, per- 
haps, compare KcXaivot, Skr. kala, Lat cal-iga 201. Caog (gL monedula, a jackdaw); 
of. W. coeg-fran » coeg + bran. Engl, chough. 

202-206. Spideog (gL philomena), " a nightingale," O'K ; generally applied to 
the robin redbreast 203. Colum, for columb = colmnba; cf. Lat. palumba; dadcho- 
luim, gL palumbes, Z. 752; cf. Com. eohm; gL colmnba^ cudon; gl. palumba, Z. 
1 1 1 3 ; W. eohmen ; Bret kaulm, klom. The final h is still retained in Cokmh dlle 
(Book of Armagh, 156, 2), gen. sing. " eductio martirom, L e. ossuum Coluxmh eiU^* 
(ib. 16 a, i), " Columh crag" (Yita Col., ed. Beeves, 19, 20) ; and in the tenth century 
inscription on the case of the Book of Durrow (see Yita Col. ed. Beeyes, 327), which 
Bod. O'Flaherty has copied on a fly-leaf at the beginning of that MS. : — 4* Oroit 


A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. ^j 

«cys bendacht eholvimh chille do flaynd mace mailseclmaill dorig herenn lasan- 
demad actunddachso ([the] prayer and blessing of Colnmb of [the] Chnrch for Fland, 
son of Mailsechnally for [the] King of Ireland, by whom this case was made). 204. 
Crehhar (gL lucifagia) ; creahhar is a woodcock, according to O'R. ; c£l W. creyr, a 
heron. 205. Ferhog (gl. capreola, a roebuck), in G'^fearhoCy earb, earhoe; Gael, earh, 
earhag, Com. yorch, gL caprea, Z. 1 1 1 5 ; W. iwrch, Bret iourc^h. The unaspirated h 
in ferbog is a medialized |? ; cf. heirp (gL dama, gl. capra), Z. 78. May we also com- 
pare Lat. hirpns, hircns, Sabine fircns, with which Weber (Zeits. vi 320) connects 
Tacitus' alces, A. 8. elch (Eng. elk) ? 206. Coreaeh mora (gL rostigola, infra gl. 
curiolus), some kind of sea-bird, perhaps the curlew. The nearest thing I know to 
rostigola is rusticula, but this is a heath-cock. 

207-21 1. Dreolan (leg. dreolan?) ; "W. drjrwyn, a wren, = Ir. drean, " the king of 
all birds ;" the " avis regulus," for which auiigola seems to stand. 208. Nenntdg (gL 
urtica, a nettle), spelt with two n's — O'D. Gr. 19; O'R. neantdg, neanta; nenaid (net- 
tles) occurs in Cormac, but I omitted to note where. 209. Connlach (gL arista), a col- 
lective, "stubble," "straw" — O'R. ; appHed in Clare, according to C, to BtalJcs of rape ; 
arista, however, is the beard of an ear of grain. 210. Ooinnlin (gl. stipula, a corn-stalk), 
applied, according to C, to a iingle stalk of rape ; cf. connall, gl. stipulam, colligendo, 
Z. 731 ; "W. cynnvU yd, "ingathering of com." 21 1. Seimin (gL fistula, reed), "a 
bubrush" — O'D. ; " blackheaded bog-rush," O'R. ; probably a deriv. fix)m s^im (gl. 
macer; gL tenuis, Z. 23, 261). 

212-216. Monadan (gl. moneta), bogberry, leg. monadan, 1. w., perhaps connected 
with moin, a bog. 213. Qlacarha (a handftil of com); glac (hand, palm); arha (for 
arhan?) 0'R.'s " arhhay s. f. com" (he is wrong as to the gender, for ith in arba, gl. 
far, occurs infra) ; cf. W. erfin. 214. Qlae saiged (gL pharetra) ; here glae must mean 
a quiver-like receptacle ; soiged, better saiged, := sagittan ; gen. pL of saiged, anciently 
saiget ; W. saethy from Lat. sagitta ; for if the word were Celtic, the initial 9 would 
have become h in Webh. Thus, in Colm&n's hymn (Lib. Hymn. foL 5 h) : — 

Cech martir, cech dithrulMch, cech n6eb zobai in genmoai, 
Rop sciath dum diarn imdegail, rop saiffet nan tn denmaL 

Let every martyr, every hermit, every saint wlio llyed in parity, 

Be a shield to ns, to defend ns ; be an arrow from ns against demons ! 

216. Oa (gL hasta) = gaisas; gaide (gl. pilatus, Z. 64) = gaisatias, the 8 being lost 
between vowels, as in siur (sister) ; faran (Isam = iron) ; giall (a hostage) « O. H. 6. 
kisal; iach « esox, esucius, W. eawg (salmon). Com. ehog, &c. Cf. with gaisatias, n. pL 
masc gaisatii, gaisat), the Oaulish tribe-name Tauraroi, Polyb., which, however, 

I seems 

58 A Medicsval Tract on Latin Dedensian. 

seems a Btem in a, not in ia. See Z. 64, note ; W. gwaew, pi. g:wewyr, Z. 1 19, Conu 
gew, Z. 152, seem the 0. Ir. faebur (edge), Corm. v. DimeM. 

217-221. Seidedh gdithe no hdgay gL flabella (a blast of wind — cf. flabr»— or a 
bellows; cf. flabellnm); seideadh, O'R; W. chwythiad, Ir. siataim = Bret c'hou^zaf 
Corn, huethaf ; gdithe, gen. & of gdtth, a fern, i-stem, which we have already found in 
the quatrain quoted from the St. Gall Priscian ; bulga (bellows?) must be connected 
with holg (bag) ; 0. Ir. bole, gl. uter ; bulgas Galli saccules scorteos vocant, Festus, 
Z. 17; Goth, balgs, and Aeol. /30X70? (= /10X70?, hide). 218. Cerdcha (gL fabrica), a 
smithy, forge, occurs twice in Gonnac (sub vv. Ca and Nesedit). In Z. 70 it is spelt 
cerddchae, and glosses offlcina; cerd (foimator, faber), gen. eerda (cerdcha, .i. teg 
cerda, Corm.) ; ace. eeird (Brogan's hymn, 79) is a mase. i-stem, from the root cab, 
Skr. kr, to make, whence also cerd (art), a fern, i-stem; gen. dual; mic da cerda^ 
pseudo-Oengus, cited by Dr. Todd, Lib. Hymn, p. 85. Cae, ca (W. cae, caiou, gL 
munimenta, Z. 291), has probably lost ag; cf. 0. H. G. hag (stadt), N. H. G. gehege, 
Fr. haie, £ng. hedge* 219. Meegan (gL massa), 1^. mesgdn, now, I believe, applied 
to a lump of butter, shaped like a sod of turf. 22a Bldthaeh (gl. baudaca) is buttei^ 
milk; gen. hldthaigh. 221. Lkind^ leg. Iknnf (gL cervisia), ale; O'B., linn, liann, s. f. 
Gael, leann, W. llyn. 

222-226. Ikuil (gL urina), stem, vola; c£ Skr. var, vari (water); ovpop, ham?; 
gen. fuailj occurs in one of the St. Gall incantations (Z. 926). ''Ar gelarfudiP* (against 
disease of the urine, strangury?). ''Dumesurcsa diangalar [mo] fudU-ee^* (I save 
myself from great disease of my urine). *' Focertar inso dogres i maigin hi tabair 
tMLoT* [thual s do fual]. (Let this be placed continually in [the] place wherein thou 
makest thy water). 223. Sgel (gL fabula), 0. Ir. seel (narratio, nuntius), nom. and 
ace. plural sc^la; a neuter a-stem*; gen. plur. sc^l (n), which before h becomes sc^l 


1 The mod. Irish nom. and mc. pi. is egMta (tgiaUt-^^ as in aeoH-t-a (stils) ; ceol^Ua (melodies) ; 
neal^Ua (clouds), where the < is what Bopp would term an inorganic addition to the base, but what 
Curtius would call a determinant. Another inexplicable t is found in some dialectical yerbal forms : thus, 
biomma-i (let us be), in S. Ldnster and E. Munster (O'B. Gram. 169) ; glanamuis-t (let us cleanse), in 
Kilkenny (ib. 180); fflanfamuia-tf ghmfabhtM-t (we would, you would, cleanse), Kilkenny (ib. 182). 
All through Ireland this i occurs (sometimes medialized) in the ist and 2nd pers. plur. pres. acL, and ist 
pers. sing. fut. act, as glanamai-d (we deanse) ; gUm-t-aidh (ye cleanse) ; gUmfo'd (I will cleanse). Cf. 
ar sein hera-UM einech do sgena [lb.], ** on him I will take revenge (?) of daggers'* (Rumann, Petrie, 
K. T.); compare also t&nais-t-e (second), O'D., Gram., 123, for Z.'s tanise. The so-called determinant 
is not used in the O. Ir. declension, but a t occurs in two or three conjngational forms. Thus, guidmi-t, 
Z. 143 (we pray) ; logmai-t (we foigive) ; proHnJlmi-t (we ahaU prove) ; in perfects like mtmhur^ (I 
said), turobar-t (he said), and in the third pers. plur. of the secondary present, e. g., dofnel-Uii (they were 

A Meduxval Tract on Latin Declension. 59 

(m), 86 in a Terse in a poem on the characteristic virtues of the saints of Ireland 
(Kev. Dr. KeUy's " Calendar of Irish Saints") :— 

Caraa Scnithin na aeil mbinn (bendacht ar ch&ch doroinne !) 
Aindre &ilne uchtgela, etarrn dognl oige. 

Scmthin of the sweet legends loved (a blessing on every one who hath done so !) 
Maidens beantifnl, white-bosomed, {and] among them preseryed his chastity. 

The long e seems to indicate the loss of a consonant. 224. Corcair (leg. eoreuirf gl. 
purpura), from which it seems formed by changing the p*B into e's (as in case, from 
pascha ; cengcedais from pentecoste ; cf. necht = neptis (W. nith, Skr. naptri, N. H. G. 
niftel) ; secht (n) = saptan ; fescor = vespera = a Skr. divas-para, Bopp), and altering 
the declension. Perhaps, however, corcuir is not a foreign word. Z. 744, has dub- 
ekoreur, gl. ferrugo, and compares Ihe name of the Dalmatian island, KopKovpa, Cor- 
cyra. The Welsh iBparphor. 225. CSir (wax) ; "W. cwi/r = c^ra; hut the Irish eiir 
seems an i-stem. The Cornish and Bret, are coir, hoar. 226. GltMs (gL serra), a lock, 
manacle, occurs in the poem of Cormacan ^cces (ed. O'D.), v. 57 : — 

Ocas nS thardad air gUu And there was not put upon him a manacle, 

Ka geimel alainn amnas. Kor polished tight fetter. 

The dim in. glasan (gL semila) occurs in Z. 281. 

227-231. Both = Lat. r5ta (a wheel) ; Z. 82, the t being aspirated between the 0, 

and the a which originally ended the word. Under such circumstances in Welsh t 

always becomes d. We find, accordingly, that the Welsh for wheel is rhod; cf. Lith. 

ratas, 0. H. G. rad. We may also compare Skr. ratha (waggon), Zend, ratha^sta. 

229. FocUaidhj '' a cave" in Cormac, occurs in the Irish Nennius, p. 1 16 : int ochtmad 

ingnad, foclaid fil i tir Guent ecus gaeth tribith ass (the eighth wonder, a cave which 

is in the land of G., and wind for ever [blowing] out of it). Ct 0. W. claud (fossa), 

Z. 622, W. goglawdd, Ir. claidim (I dig), W. cloddiaw. 230. Liter (a letter) = Lat. 

littera. Double t becomes ^A in Welsh ; we find, accordingly, Uythyr-en. 231. SU" 

laidh* (if I read the word rightly) seems a curious hybrid, consisting, as it does, of the 

first syllable of syllaba, plus an Irish termination. C£ siolUtj O'E. ; W. n% In Z. 


(Mting) ; atber-i-ia (they were saying). The declensional t oocnrs frequently in the plnrals of O. Welsh 
noons, ct atin-ei [now edited], brotmbreith-et (volucres ventre variegataB), merch-et (filiae, now mer^ 
eKed). I do not find a f in the British conjngation, except in perfects act., like a ffont (cecinit), ae gwant 
(feriit). In this t(^dd .?), and in that of the corresponding Irish perfects, I am inclined to recognise the 
reduplicating root dha. 


6o A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

968, the word is, as might he expected, sillab, fern. ; sillaid occurs in Leah. Breacc in 
the nom. pL of sillad, Gael, siolladk, 

232-236. Lethenach (gL pagina, a page of a hook); the gen. lethinig (leg. lethenig?) 
occurs in Harl. 1 802, 13 a; line moite [0. Ir. m* aite] hf tus ind lethinig sea. Eoh cen- 
nais dia for anmain maelissu, '^ a line of my tutor's [written hy him] is at the hegin- 
ning of this page. God he gentle to Maelissu's soul !" Is Uthenaeh weakened from 
lethanach? 233. Crv^an na Idm (gl. sirogra, L e. chiragra, x^^P^lP^* ^^^ ^ ^® 
hand) ; crupan I have not met elsewhere. O'R. has criipadh (contraction, Gael, cf^- 
padh) ; criipaim (I contract) ; erupog (a wrinkle), to which it seems allied. 234. Esga 
(gl. luna); in 0. Ir. aescae, Z. 247; gen. ^sci, Z. 1074, s. n. The adj. esca, which 
occurs in the F^lire of Oengus, is glossed hy cain no alaind no lucida in the Leahhar 
Breacc copy of that (philologically ) valuahle composition. Note neph-^scide, unmoonlit 
(gl. oKoTOfi'^vfi), isin nep[h]-8e8caidiu (gl. in <ricoTo/i^i/i^), Z. 830. 255. Medhal (gl. 
panca = paunch ?) though the unaspirated d in G'lL's tnaodal, '' a helly, a paunch," is 
certainly correct. GaeLmtfa<^^»7 is ''mirth,'' ''joy.'' z^6. Blonae(Laid); ctW.hlo" 
neg (lard, grease). Com. hloneg; gL adeps. 

237-241. Mbnadh (suhsequently glossing momissma, i. e. vofiurfta, coin), seems 
here to mean a mint. In Gaelic manadh means a mountain ; cfl W. mynydd, di-minid 
sursum, lit ad montem, Z. 571, and also a heath. 238. Farcan (gL comprisura), 
(leg. farcdn ?), is " a knot in wood," according to C. ; O'R. has ^^farcdny s. m., a com 
or welt on hands or feet." 239. Cantair (gL troclia), "cantaoir, a press" — O'R. ; 
" into which wood is put to he straightened," adds Mr. Curry. In Gaelic /tfrrA^n is 
" a little mallet." 240. Cliath fuiraidh (gL eripica, a harrow) ; as to cliathy r. supra : 
fuirsidh seems the gen. sing, of fuirse, harrowing, O'R. 241. Sitheal (gL situla, hucket) 
is *' a howl, a cup," according to O'R. ; W. hidl, a cullender? 

242-246. Toes (=> dough, Goth, daigs, N. H. G. teig?), W. toes, 243. Mulcan (gl. 
glassia, i. e., faXa^ia? a kind of milk-frumety) is 0'R.'s mulaehdn; s. m., " a kind of 
soft cheese ; cheese curds pressed, hut not in a vat." Cf. Goth, miluks, Eng. milk, 
(). H. G. miluh, mulgere, mulcere, ap^'^to, 244. Igha (gl. prisura), perhaps O'K's 
iodha, "the cramp, rheumatism, any kind of pain;" "a stitch in the side," according 
to C. 245. Cocan (gl. pensa, a day's ration) is euean (gl. penus, store of food, provi- 
sions) in Z. 80. This is a different word from eucann, gl. pistrinum, gl. coquina, gl. 
culina, Z. 740, though they come from the same root, viz., cax, or pax. Cf. 0. W. 
coc, gl. pbtor; Cornish eogy gl. coquus; whence keghin^ (gL coquina), Z. 1095, n^^ ; 
cf. Skr. pacami ; Lat coquo, coqu-in-o, andpopina; Lithuanian kepu; Gr. afnovowo^^ 
afnoKoiro'V (hread-haker), which last word Messrs. Liddell and Scott derive frx>m aprof 


A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 6 1 

and Kovruf. See Curtiiis, Zeitschr. iii. 40 j\ 246. I^ee in drain (calculus in the 
kidney); as to l^cc v. supra; drain, abL of am; gl. rien, Z. 20; Welsh arm, perhaps 
connected with Lat. rSn ; sed qu. Lapifulta is, perhaps, a blunder for lapiUula. 

247-251. Bancoig, gL presena. Both words obscure, and probably corrupt. Shall 
we read hanehaigU and proseda, a prostitute ? Banchaigle occurs in 0*B., with the 
meanings, '< a female companion, a cup gossip." Banchoigreach in Graelic is *' mulier 
aliena." 248. Lueh francaeh (lit. French mouse) is certainly a rat (cf. Welsh llygod 
ffrengig, rats), but what is rula? With luck (O'R. s. f. a mouse), cf. W. logod, Z. 82, 
Uyg (a field-mouse). 249. Lueh doll (gl. talpa, a mole), lit. blind mouse ; doll (blind), 
which glosses csbcus, infra, and occurs in composition with Mleeh, in dalUiLiUeh (gl. 
orbatus), infra, is the Welsh doll, pL deillion, Z. 296. 250. Zacht (gl. lactura), in 
in O'R lacd, "milk;" Conu lait (leg. laith); W. llaeth = Lat lact (lac, lactis) is, 
perhaps, as Bopp has suggested, an old passive participle formed by the Skr. suffix ta'. 
On this word, and on the interesting identification of Ir. bliocht, W. blith, with rfaXaxr 
(7Xarro0a7O9, 7X0709), where the Celtic h and the 70 are the last remnant of the word 
for cow (Skr. gav, Ir. bo), see Grimm, Gesch. d. d. Sprache, n., p. 1000. 251. Amaisc 
(gL amusca) I cannot explain. 

252-256. Tdl (gL ascia, adze), ct Lat talea (a cutting for planting); inter-taliare, 
and the crowd of words connected therewith ; ItaL taglia ; Span, tajo ; Pr. taille, tail- 
leur ; Engl, tailor, and fee tail (feudum talliatum) ; and M. H. G. teller (a plate), Diez, 
^ ^* 339- 25 3- Casnoidhi (gL scindula, shingle), leg. casnaidhi? is ''chips, or 
shavings of wood," according to O'D. and C. The nom. sing, casnaidh is in 0*R 
254. Eaeart (gl. scupa, i. e. scopfld, a besom ?), probably from es (= Lat ex), and the 
root SCAB, whence etarscar-tha (separationis), Z. 254-5. But scupa is probably a 
blunder for stupa, and we may compare the Gaelic eascard, or aaeart, s. m. " tow," 
" coarse lint." 255. Guirin (gL pustula), GaeL guirean, W. goryn, from gur (pus) ; 
Conn. V. Nescoit; W. gor; cf. French gour-me, and perhaps 0. Norse gor (dung), 
gor-m-r (sKme). 256. Nits (gl. onesta, i. e. colostra?) is, says O'D., the beestings or 
new milk of a cow after calving : " nus quasi novus," says Cormac ; and though it is 


> Dr. Smith, in his Lathi Dicdonary (sub y. coquo), is wrong m indndhig the English hake in this 
class of words. Bake, u Cnrtius points out, is the Greek fttyuv. 

'This suffix (Lat -tos, Gr. t6c) is found (without addition) in Irish, not, as might be expected, 
hi the part. perf. pass., but hi the pret. pass, in -d, plur. -tha (Ebel. Bdtr. i. 162). Ebel here speaks 
niffoeaUc yeib-stems. The tenuis is preserved in the sing, of the pret. pass, of eonsonantal verb-stems : 
e. g. rocet (was snng) = pra-can-ta, tairchet (was prophesied), ad-ra-nac-t (was boried), &c. The termination 
of the part pert pass. O. Ir. -the, te, mod. Ir. -^Aff, -to, really stands for ta -f- ya (see Ebel, Bdtr. i. 162). 

62 A MedicBVoi Tract on Latin Declension. 

of course absuid to identify nus with noTus, the word may really come from the root 
noY, which in Irish would lose the v, GaeL niu^ nd»^ gen. sing. nUit. 

257-261. Bain&achlaeh (gL grimaga), a female servant, a she-post-boy! if O'B. 
be right in his explanation of eachlach. 258. Meall (gl. picuta, L e. picota), a mound, 
hillock, a masc. a-stem, with which Gliick, 138, has connected Mellodunum and Mel- 
losectum. W. moel (a conical hill) is represented by the Mod. Ir. fnaol, 259. £6$ (gl. 
musteUa, weasel), a dimin. form in O'E., viz., easog ; another mod. word for this animal 
is 9UU, which is nes in Z. 60. 260. Fiihchai (gl. muscipula), literally wood-cat, a hu- 
morous word for a mouse-trap. 261. Conero (gl. decipula, a snare, a trap), ** a wolf- 
trap," conjectures C, from eon, base of cu (dog, a wolf is called eu aUaidh), and ero, gL 
casula {supra), 

262-265. Srathar (gl. sagena, a fishing-net or seine), Gael, trathair (cliteUft). I 
su^ect the scribe has blundered here, for srathar is certainly '' a straddle," as O'R. 
explains the word ; W. ystrodyr, £ from Med. Lat. stratora. It occurs (with its a as- 
pirated by the nom. sing, of the fern, article) in the St Gall Friscian, Z. 929 : — 

Galb do chuil isin chafcair : Take thy comer in the dungeon : 
Ni r62fl chlnim na oolcaid : Thon getteet neither down nor flockbed : 

Tmag insin, anail bacbal. That wretduid one ! like a ilave, 

Rot ginll ind 9rathar dodcaid. The muerable fraM«r sticka to thee. 

This, however, does not enlighten us much as to its meaning. 263. Oarr (gL biga, 
a two-horsed chariot) has been noticed »upra. 264. Uehtach (gL anfcela), a poitrel, or 
breast ornament for horses, from ueht, breast (also the brow of a hill, as in conrici hueht 
noinomne, "to nine-oaks' hill," Book of Armagh, 17 «, i), mod. gen. ochta, a masc. 
u-stem. The following is a paradigm of these stems : — 

Masc. «-Stem. 
Stem, hithu. 

Sing. Dual. Plnr. 

K bith dibith betha 

G. betha d4 betha betha (n) 

D. biuth dib bethaib bethaib {for bithuib) 

Ac. bith (n) da bith bithu 

V. a bith a da bith a bithu 

In — 265. Tiaraeh (gL postella, L a postilena = W. pffstyltcyn), a crupper, may, I sus* 
pect, be found the tiar conjectured by Z. 567, as a designation for the western regie 
mundi. In Ireland the west is the back ; the east, die front (airthir a chinn, in the 


A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 63 

front (east) of hk head) ; the south is the right hand (des) (cf. Dekkhan, from the 
Skr. dakshma) the north, the left (tuath). In Kerry I have heard an English-speak- 
ing x>easant talk of a tooth in the wsiht side of his jaw, meaning the back part. 

266-270. ZaitMrt (gl. capnla, L e. crapula, drunkenness, debauch, also the head- 
ach resulting therefrom) is pleasantly derived by Gormac from laith (ale), and ort 
(killed) thus: Zaithoirt .1. laith ron art .1. ol oormae, ^'hiitJioirt, that is, laiihy which 
killed us, i. e. a drink of ale {carm dat. s. cormaim » W. ewrw, xovpfu, Dioscor., see 
Bie£ Celt., i. 123). 267. Cder finemnach(gl. uva), literally baccavitea: caer, gl. bacca, 
Z. 37 ; W. cair : finemnaeh^ an adj. formed from ftnemainf a Tine, which is found in the 
Leabhar Breacc Sermon on S. Brigit, cited by Dr. Todd (Lib. Hymn. 6^): Is aire sin 
ise k samail etir dulib, colum eter ^naih, finemain eter fedaib, grian uas rennaib. 
(« Hence it is that her type among created things is the Dove among birds, the Vine 
among trees, the Sun aboTe the stars.'') 268. Lubra (gl. lepra, leprosy), c£ W. Uyfrith, 
'' eruptive, pimpled." 269. Cnaimfiach no torpan (gL frtigella, Qonnx. frugiUgaf) i 


enaimfiaeh (which glosses curellus, infra, No. 503) means, according to C, '' the great 
eagle," and is also applied to a raven {iic O'R.) ; to a rook in Scotland. It is hard to 
say what the first element of the compound can be : if we read endimfiach, we might 
compare cndm, bone, a masc. i-stem, chnaim gL ex esse, Z. 1002, n. pi. in chnamai, 
Z. 237, ace. pi. cnami, Z. 609, cf. Kvjfi^fi, andfiach, gl. corvus, Z. 1030; cf, K. H. G. 
weihe, 0. H. G. wiho, wigo (milvum), uuiio (milvus), Torpan is a crab (cancer), ac- 
cording to C, GaeL torpan, 270. Cotun (gl. parma, a small round shield) I have not 
met elsewhere. 

271-275. NeUadoraeht (gl. piromanxia, pyromantia ?) is, according to C, ''astro- 
logy," Gael, neuladaireachdf from neuladair (astrologer). The first element of the word 
seems n^U, a cloud. I know not if the Irish practised vc^eXo/ufi/rca. 272. Doma- 
doraeht (gl. ciromancia, leg. chiromachia, pugilism ?), Gael, ddmadaireachd, from doma- 
ddir (a boxer) : cf. dam, W. dwm (fist, hand) : whence domdn, infra : nom. dumi (gL 
ut me colaphizet), Z. 336. 273. Clas guail (gL stuma ?), " the place on which char- 
coal was made," C. ; clas here seems = the W. elas (a space, region). Its usual 
meaning is " furrow," " trench." Guail, gen. sing, of gual = Eng. coal, W. glo. 274. 
Shlknaeh, gl. catapulta (if I read this rightly), seems connected with splhiy ** a sharp 
dart of the eye;" splincin, "one who gives a sharp glance out of the comer of his 
eye;" and ipline, "a point of rock," "an overhanging cliff," O'D. 275. Croieinn 
madra allaid is "hide of a wolf," lit. " of a wild dog." What edihulta can be, or be 
put for, I cannot conjecture. 

276-280. Cainmkr (gl. offa), conmir in Z., v, mpra, No. i$6. 277. Bahaeh (gL 
caba, i e. cavea), gen. dabhea, iupra, I^o. 158. 278. Sui9t0 (flail), a lengthened form 


64 A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

of 9uist s fuBtis. Calopeda (if this be what the scribe's callidiba meant) seems a bar* 
barons hybrid formed from koXov (wood), and pes (foot). 279. Idh urchumail (gl. 
trica, i. e. trie®, hindrances) is a spanceling-chain : idhy a collar, chain ; urchumail 
for Urchumail, and this » eumail (holding), with the intensive particle Sr «= Gaulish 
ver, Lat. per, 6r. irepi, prefixed. 280. CeMocht (gl. parvispendia, penuriousness). 
The adj. CMsaehtaeh occurs in 8. Brogan*s poem on Brigit :^ 

KS pu for aeotn SAntach ; ernaif cen netm, oen mathim : 
Nil' bu chaladfi e$uaehtaeh : oi ear in domnin cathim. 

281-285. Galar Ma (gl. obtolmia, i. e. ophthalmia), ''disease of the eye;" galarj 
gen. galair in 0. Ir., a neut. a-stem = W. galar (mourning, grief), siday gen. sing, of 
Hiiil, No. 425, infra. 282. Cailleaeh ligeoeh (gl. pupina) is nearly unintelligible to me ; 
cailleachy anciently eaillechf has the meanings of " old woman" and ''nun :" in Gaelic, 
ligea<ih is " sly," ligheaehy "flooded." 283. Coehtair (gl. coquina = cuisine), vide su- 
pray No. 245. 284. Tarrach (gl. babana) ; of these two words I can make nothing as 
they stand. Hay we read torrach (pregnant), and babdna, an Hibemo-Latin fem. 
Bubst. formed from babdn (baby), and meaning a pregnant woman ? In Gaelic tarraeh 
is " the belly-thong of a pack-saddle, a girth." 285. Coiweagad (gL creatura, i. e. the 
consecrated wafer ?) ; for coisegrad » consecrata : the n being lost before t as in mis « 
mensis, cis » census, miat ^ mensa, &c. 

286-298. Aran [leg. ar&n] geal (gl. placenta, a cake), " white bread." 287. Bain- 
tigema (gL dominabus). Here, and in the following twelve articles, the Latin words 
arc in the dat or abL pL, the Irish being in the nom. sing. In baintigema (lit female- 
lord), note first the non-aspiration of the f, though originally between vowels, the Irish 
X^honetic laws not admitting the combination nth (cf. banterismid, gl. obstetrix, Z. 
820; chaintaidUuch, gl. satisfactione, Z. 826, and verbs in the 3rd sing. pres. pass., 
such as frisduntar, gL obstruitur, Z. 464) ; secondly, the change of the 0, Ir. final € 
(=e ia) to a; thirdly, the change of the a of han to at, which is owing to the influence 
of the vowel in the following syllable, viz., f , which has the x>ower of changing a pre- 
ceding a into ai; so e changes a preceding a to i (ai); but causes no vowel-change. 
See Ebel, Beitr. 288. Ainimy in Z. anim (Com. enef ; Armor, ^n^) » anima, and de- 
clined like a fem. &-stem*, but also declined as a stem in n' (= a Latin animo, -onis, if 
there were such a word), which curious fact Ebel (Zeits. vL 2 1 3) was the first to notice. 
289. Baindea in toraid (goddess of the fruit, Pomona? or growth, Ceres?); baindea, 


1 = Goth, hardiu, Eng. hard. 

s Gen. anme, dat anim ; cf. aiMifi-chalrtea, gL doctofea, lit miil-friends, Z. 10 (s a n a m aca n mt-i«ana). 

' Dat. ftmg. anmiD, aoc. aniiiis(h), pL aomin, aii2iian(n), anmanaib. 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 65 

bandea, Z. 279 (not baiidia) ; where the ban seems superfluons, as dea » dey& » Lat 
dea; toraid^ gen. s. of torad; dat torad (fruotni), Z. 231; n. pL tatrthe, O'D. 88, for 
toitha, whence it would seem to be a nent. a-stem. Ebel (Beitr. 428) wonld connect 
this word with the root kab; bnt consider the t in Unrthe and in the adj. toirthech 
(froitfdl), which occurs in Z. 778. 290, 291. Ingen (filia, nata), a daughter, girl; 
now inghean^ GaeL nighen, which Bopp and Pictet, I yenture to think, erroneously, have 
compared with the Skr. angana, is literally, I suspect, ** one who does not bring forth," 
from the neg. particle in (Z. 829), and the root qas^ (Skr. jan), to produce. G£ the 
word ingenas in the following gloss (Z. 492), ma eterroscra fri a fer, ni teit co fer naile, 
act bed tngenas, which I render literally thus, ** if she have separated from her hus- 
band, let her not go to another husband, but let there be not-bringing forth" — ^imparti- 
tudo, impartura, if I may coin a Latin word. Z. translates bed tngenas by sit innupta, 
obviously taking tngenas for an adj., or a concrete subst ; but the termination -as is only, 
80 far as I know, used to form abstract substantives ; see Z. 759 (curchas, gL arundo, has 
yet to be explained). Ingen may, however, be for andegena (adgnata), c£ Cintu^^na. 
292-295. Banehara, a female friend ; eara ^ W. earant, pi. ceraint (0. Ir. gen. 
carat = carantas, as Skr. bharatas » fpdpovro^), is a stem in ant, like n&ma (hater, 
enemy), gen. ndmat (= na + amantas) ; fiadu (God) ; df nu (ewe-lamb) ; brdge, throat 
(s Welsh breuantj windpipe) ; loche (lightning) ; Nuada (a man's name) ; Brega (?) 
plur. B/9<7ayT69 (= in the Irish of Z.'s glosses, Bregait, Skr. brhantas), an Irish clan 
mentioned by Ptolemy. This class of nouns represents the Gr. participles in »v, 
ovTo?. Cara was thus declined in 0. Ir. : — 

Masc. oh^-Stem. 

Stem, earat from earanl. 




N. cara 

(Not yet observed) 


G. carat 

carat (n) 

D. carait 


A. carait (n) 


V. achara 


294. Ldir 

1 The root oah, when it means to be bom, redaplicates in Irish (cf. no gigned, gl. nascebatnr, Z. 417), 
sa well as when it means to produce (nis gignetar tola, Oingns, Fdlixe). 

s The loss of the » before i in Irish is, however, purely the result of a phonetic law ; the same loss in 
the Skr. gen. bharatas, and in the other weak cases, is the consequence of what may be called the dffnamie§ 
of the language. 


66 A Medicevcd Tract on Latin Declension. 

294. Zdir (a mare) ; gen. lAracfa (declined like cathir, supra, No. 13). 295. M{lI (after- 
wards glossing mulns, W. mul, N. H. G. maul); cognate with Lat mCda, a she-mule. 
The adj. muldae^ gl. mulionicus, is in Z. 30, where also are quoted the 0. British name 
Epomulus B equomulus, and mulu, the 0. Ir. ace. pL of mul « mulua. 

296-301. Aisal, glossing, infra, asinus (W. asyn, he-ass ; asen, a she-ass), I can- 
not helieve to be a Celtic word. The vowel-flanked s would have been lost in Irish. 
Assal (O'B. asal) I believe to stand for asan, and to have been taken fix>m the 
Lat asinus : cf. Gaul. Ep-om-actusy Gr. ovot for oavot, Goth, asilus, 0. H. G. esil, 
Lith. asilas. 297. Soffh aUaid, she-wolf, lit. a wild bitch ; as eu allaid, lit. wild dog, 
is lupus (v. infra) ; %ogh, also iogh, saidh, saith, O'E., Gael. »aigh. Hence sai^hkn, 
"a little bitch," O'R. ; saigir, "a bitch's heat," O'D. 298. Caisc = pascha, from 
which it is taken. Note, however, that it has become a fem. i-stem. In the 0. Ir. 
the nom. is case, which is declined like a c-stem; gen. case » cascas; dat. caisc *» 
casci ; ace. caisc (n) » casein (or -en ?). So — 299. Mainn (manna) is mann in Z. 593 ; 
ni pu imdu do (leg. do) in mann cid tr^n oc tecmallad ; " non fiiit abundantiuB ei 
manna quamvis soUerti in ooUectione ;" whence it appears that the word was either 
masc. or fem., which is curious, as the 0. Ir. foreign- words generally follow the gender 
of the original vocables. 30a Bo%luaiged (gl. mammona, riches), leg. bosluaiged, a 
deriv. from bosluag, ** cow-host ;" cf. Goth, faihuthraihns {fuifkftMvai), originally 
'^ cattle-throng," ''/^-throng," v. infra, No. 1003. 301. Suhachua (gl. all. a, leg. 
alacrimonia ?), glossed by Isetitia, Gorm., and ilaritas (sic) in Egerton, 88, fo. 70 : from 
Bubach (cheerM), opposed to dubach (v. supra, No. 85). 

302-304. Amaddn (gl. idiota, here a fool, idiot, omadhaun), which Pictet (Zeits. v. 
325) rightly connects with Skr. a-mati, stupidity — ^mati is understanding — and Lat 
amcns. The root is han (think), whence Skr. manu, Eng. kak, quasi thinker. 
303. Deorad (gL advena, a stranger, alien - the Scottish name Bewar, Gael, dedradh) 
also means a pilgrim, an exile, a stranger settling in an Irish chieftain's territory. 
See a valuable note by Dr. Beeves (Vita CoL, 366), and one by O'D. (Battle of Magh 
Kath, p. 163), in which page the nom. pi. deondd occurs. 304. Utraidh (gL indigena), 
a native, also meant *' a solvent yeoman," C. 

305-310. Mrinnaeh (gl. Hibemigena), from the old name of this island, which 
is declined in the Book of Leinster and Lib. Hymn. nom. h^rinn (Maelmura Othna's 
poem) dat dond erinn, gen. and ace. h^renn (see Ffacc's Hymn, w. 7, 8, 10, and the 
orthain at the end, and the quatrain frx)m Marianus Scotus, Z. 944). The origin of this 
name, notwithstanding the labours of Z. (G. C. 67) and Pictet (Beitr. 87), still remains 
obscure. One of Z.'s ideas is, that it is compounded of the intensive ^r and rind 

(a star), 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 67 

(a star), which he thinks may also have signified an island, ''quasi signum maris." 
Another conjecture of his is, that ^rrend is for iar-rend ('' insula oocidentis''). There 
are three ohjections to these theories: 1°, as Fictet observes, we never find the r 
doubled ; 2^, the gen. of rind is renda, but the gen. of herinn is h^renn ; 3% rind never 
means an island, though it certainly has the meanings of " star," '' headland," and 
" point." Pictet, citing the Teutonic names for the Irish — ^Norse Irar (Irishmen), 
Anglo-Sax. ira, ire (Irishman), asserts that Eirinn is derived '' ohne zweifel aus dem 
altesten volksnamen der Iren, der etwa Er oder Eir gelautet haben muss." The fol- 
lowing theory has been suggested to me : Herinn, which certainly is a stem in nn, 
iver-inn being the base in the nom. gen. and dat, iver-ann in the ace, represents a 
petrified avara.sma (c£ Skr. avara, posterior, western, declined with the pronominal 
-sma, Ir. iar, after, aniar "In the west," Pictet, Beitr. i 89). By weakening the vowels*, 
dropping the final a, and changing m into n (cf. sni, " we," ex aski) we obtain ivarisn. 
From ivarisn herinn may have arisen, by the assimilation of the s (cf. immunn = Skr. 
abhyasman = N. H. O. um ims) the passage of v into a spiritus asper, the shifting 
of this breathing, and the drawing together of the i-a thus produced (cfl erthuaiscer- 
tach (gl. euroaquilo. Book of Armagh, 188, h. 2) = iarthuaiscerddach (gl. etesiarum, 
Z. 777) ; naueirchinniuch = naui-airchinniuch) : — 

Nom. Sing, herinn «= hiarinn » iharinn = ivarinn, 
G. h^renn = hiarinn-as = ivarinn-as 
D. and Loc. herinn e= hiarinn-i = ivarinn-i 
A. h^renn = hiarann-en (-in ?) = ivarannen (-in ?)•. 

31 1-3 14. The only words here calling for remark are — 311. OiUthreeh (gL romi- 
peta, i. e. Eome-seeker), " a pilgrim" in O. Ir., alither, ailither, and — 314. Comaighteeh 
(gL alienigena, foreigner), now written eoimhtheaeh, Qael. catrnhMch, 

315-325. Bithrehach 

iGf. Ptolemy's Iver-n-iol, Iver-n-ifl, lyer-n-iA ('lovcpvla), and theW. Ewjrrdonic (hiberniciis, " west- 
maaiah"), Z. 814. But for these forms with r, H6rimi might be oomiected with Skr. apara. 

s The most'imlbrtimate droamstanoe in the investigatioiiis respecting the etymology of " H6rinn" is, 
that Prod P&cleit, to whom Oeltie philology is much indebted, should have been deluded by onr wretched 
(yBoUy, who actually has the fbllowing : — ^ Ibh, s. a oonntiy, a tribe of people." 

inil it be betiered that this ibh is nothing bat the matilated dat plnral of the Mod. Jr. 6 oriM(gnuid- 
son, descendant, in O. Ir. haue^ Z. 1029, hoa, Fiaoc, ▼. 2, nom. pL h&ui, 2.^39, dat. pi. anib, ibid,) ? See 
0*0. Or. 108. Izish districts were often called after the tribe thatpoesessed them : thus, la auucensdich, 
in the Book of Annagh (Uterally apud nepotes Gensakd), is conectly translated by O'D. (Gr. 436) "in 
Hy-KinseUagh;" aim (teg. h&nu) is here the aocus. pL Dat. pL : mac ind [f]irdaoa do ib Bimn, i. e. 


68 A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

3 15-32 J, Dithrehaeh (hermit), supra, dithmbach ; cf. W. didryfwr from dithiab, 
" a desert," as di-trab : cf. A(d)trebate8 (possessores), from trab = W. treb (vicus), Lat. 
tribus, €k)th. thaurp, Eng. tborp, N. H. G. dorf (Ebel, Zeits., vi. 422). Marhtaeh 
(slayer), in the following compounds, is frx>m marb, '^ dead," := maitva s Lat. mortuns? 
root MAK, Skr. mr. 320. Siurmarhtaeh (gl. sororicida), "sister-slayer:" siur = W. 
chwaer, chwi'awr » svasar, N. H. G. schwester, occurs in Z. in the dimin. siumat, gL 
Bororcula, p. 282, ace. sing. : connargaib focetoir in mir, '' he straightway lifted up 
the sister** (Trip. Life of Patrick). A second form, sethair (?), occurs in sethar-oircnid 
(gl. sororicida), Z. 767 : a third form, pethair (?)— the (Gaelic piuthair — in the Tain 
bo OuaUgne (Leb. na huidre); mac dechtere do phethar-sa ; and a fourth form, fiar, fiur 
(Lib. Hymn. ed. Todd, p. 72), ace. sing, in the Trip. Life of Patrick : roboi bara do 
patricc fnfiair (lit. fuit ira Patricio contra sororem). 322. Cliamhum, gen. cUmhna, 
** son-in-law," in the plur. commonly signifies, in the Highlands, '* any near relations 
by marriage." 324. D^ihw (gl. braccse), = W. trws, trows-ers. 

326-330. Cealff (gl. insidise, infra, gl. dolus); cf. W. celc (trick). 326. Nubtie. 
haindi. cich, is very obscure ; bainne cfch would be '^ breast-milk** (bainne, a drop) ; 
but this hardly agrees with nubtie, which can scarcely be for anything but nuptiae. 
Dare we read hanais eaieh nuptisB cujusvis — hanats, a deriv. frt)m ban, as to which vide 
supra, and eaich, the gen. sing. m. of each? 327. Mdrmargad (gl. nundinse, market- 
day), great-market, margad. Com. marhaz, is perhaps not derived from Engl, market 
(mercatus). 328. Fergach, leg. fergacht (gl. rixae, quarrels), Grael. fsargachd, Fer- 
gach is "angry," in Z., fercach for fergach, from ferg, anger, s. f., which Z. 71, com- 
pares with 0. W. guerg, gL efficax, and Gaulish Yergobretus, and Gliick and Ebel 
(Beitr., i. 160) with Gr. fefy^ov, fopf^i^. Hence fairge, foirge, "the sea," Oveprfioutot 
(Vergivios) utxeavof, Ptol., and perhaps W, gweilgi (torrent, ocean). 329. Inada (gl. 
tabe), and — 330. Athfiana (gl. atene), are obscure to me. Perhaps we should read 


("Son of the poet of Hy B."* as GUla mac Uacc is called in HarL 1802, last page), literally *'of the 
descendants of B." And yet the Professor compares ivith this fragment of the termination of a fragment 
(ib = h&oib = ftyavllbo ? Cfl Vedic ftyn proles, Dr. Siegfried), the non-existing Skr. root ibh, ibha (ele- 
phant) 701, t0(oc, and placing it before an imaginary "ema,** soberly sets down *Mbhema das land dor 
Emen oder Iren, oder Tielleicht ibh-erin, mit hinzngesetzter griechisch-lateinischer endong," Beitr. L, 89). 
I cannot believe that the h which occurs in oar MSS. so constantly at the beginning of H^rinn, bfrne 
(grandson), hnile (all), ha§dr (hour), huasal (high, vif^i|X6c)i &G., is merely a freak of the scribe's. In 
H6rinn I am inclined, as above suggested, to attribute its presence to a shifting of the spiritus asper into 
which V has passed. C£ in Greek c^riroc for !jcf oc, Skr. a9vas. A similar displacement has been remarked 
by Dr. Siegfried in hiaim (" of iron"), mfra^ where the A has arisen from a vowel-flanked ». So, as Kuhn 
remarks, Up6Q sYed. ishirlu 

A Mediasval Tract on Latin Declension. 69 

Athenae for atene ; if so, the glossariflt absurdly meant to derive the city-name from 
ath fiana, '' champion's ford." 

331-364. Dorehadus (gL tenebrss, gL latebrae) : dorchae, obscnrus (Z. prsef xv., 
84); na dorche (tenebrae), Z. 237; cf. sorcha, "bright" (so-r'ch-a), Skr. r. ruch, 
and f^. 9upra^ No. 85. 333> Inmasa (gl. divitisB), pi. of inmas, O'lL's ionmas, ionmus, 
• "treasure, riches." 337. Mil (for nebl = neblas?), " a cloud," hod. neul, W. nifwl, 
niwl, N. H. G. nebel, Lat. nebula, vetpiXii, 338. Seola, "schools," from sch61a: gen. 
sing, in Colman's Hymn, v. 40 (Lib. Hymn., 5 h) : — 

Robet macc&ini flatha d6 itimchaairt tULaeuleie ! 
May the little children of God^s kingdom be around this school ! 

339. Bagair (gl. minae), n. sing, hagar^ " threat," O'R. ; dare we compare W. bwgwth, 
bygyHaeth (minatio), 0. W. bicoled, yecordia, Z. 802 ? 342. Aengm (Oingus, Book 
of Armagh, 13, 3. i, 19, a. i, 19, a. 2), gen. Oingusso, ib, 18 3. 2, oingos, leg. Oin- 
gosso, %hid,y a masc. u-stem, like Doilgus, gen. Doilgusso, Z. 18; Fergus, gen. Fer- 
gusso, Book of Armagh, 15, a, 2, fergosso, ih. 16 h. 2 (» W. Gwrwst?), Muirg^s, 
Congus, Uarghus, and other nouns in -gus, = gustu ? as Dr. Siegfried suggests to me'. 
345. C^lla na naom, "servant of the saints:" naom in 0. Ir. is noib, an adjectival 
o-stem. 353. An gaeth atiLaidh (gl. Boreas), "the wind from the north," Gael. 
gaoth d tuath ; an gaeth, 0. Ir. in gaith (Z. 929), a (from) 0. Ir. 4 ; tiiaidh, cf. 
antuaid, " in the north ;" anfartuaid, " in the north-west ;" anairtuaid, " in the north- 
east ;" fa dess no fa thuaith, "to the right or the left," Z. 566. 354. Primaidhecht 
(gl. anchises), inexplicable by me: primaidecht would be "prime- tutorship," vide 
oide, oite, eupra, 

365-389. Magisder, W. meistyr. Com. maister, all, of course, from the Lat. magis- 
ter : 0. Ir. ace. pL magistru, Z. 61 5. 366. Breitheam (gl. arbiter), Z.'s brithem judex, 
a masc. n-stem, gen. brithemon, in a mutilated gloss preserved in the Book of Armagh, 
187 3, I, yi2., suide bri[th]emon, gl. tribunal: dat. s. brithemain, Z. 269; cf. breth 
judicium, and the Gaulish Yergobretus (judicium exequens). A sister-form is found 


1 If 3. maccan. 

* Dr. Beeves has faTonred me with a list of names in -gas, which he has collected from the Annals, 
CakndarSi and Pedigrees. From this I select the following, in hopes that some may be Identifled with 
Gaulish or Cymmric names : Alldghos, Artgus, Baothghns, Cuangos, Doedbghns, Donnghus or Dongus, 
Eachtgns, Faelgus, Fiangus, Fianngos, Flathgos, Lergos, Miodhgos, Nialgus, Saergus, Snedgus. If Dr. 
Siegfried*B conjecture be established, we have here the Celtic representative of the Skr. r. jush, yfvw, Lat. 
gttstus, Eng. choose, Goth, kinsan. Cf. l&imtech a des, diglach a yiw, Seirgl. Cone. Atlantia iL p. 382. 

JO A Medicevcd Tract on Latin Declension. 

in 0. Ir. bra thy 0. W. braut, an u-Btem, and is contained in the Oaulish ^ra^ttspantium. 
Cf. A. S. bra'Bean (sententiam dicere). 367. Sagart (gl. presbyter), from sacerd-os. 
368. Timthirigh (gl. minister), leg. timthiridh ? and cf. timthir-thid, servus, Z. 256 ; 
timthir-echt servitium, Z. 237 ; gl. ministratio, infra. 369. Gahann (gl. faber) ; cf. the 
Gaulish man*B-name Gbbannitius, Bret. Com., and W. gof, all perhaps etymologically 
connected with fab-er ; 0. Ir. nom. goba, gen. gobann. Patrick invokes divers virtues 
fri brichta ban ocus gobann [MS. goband] ecus dmad (against the incantations of 
women, and smiths, and dniids). 370. Macam (gl. puer), a deriv. from mac, as to 
which vide supra. 371. Leahar (gL liber, **a book"), W. Uyfyr, Com. liuer, is here 
apparently spelt according to " leathan re leathan," but the vowel-change in the penult 
is either owing to umlaut or assimilation ; in 0. Ir. either lebar or libur, a masc. 
a-stem. A Mid. Ir. gen. sing, occurs in a gloss on afolaire (leg. a pholaire), H. 3, 18, 
p. 523, viz., ainm do teig liuhair^ ** a name for a book-satchel," where, by the way, note 
Uig, dat. sing, of tiach (gl. pera, supra. No. 41)1 a fem. a-stem, obviously from th^ca, 
OrjKfi. A dimin. of lebar occurs in a quatrain which the scribe of the St. Ghdl Priscian 
seems to have extemporized while producing his invaluable MS. (see Z. 929) : — 

Dom'farcai fidbaidei f61, The grove makes a festival for me, 

Fom'chain 16id loin Itiath, nad c61 — A blackbird's swift lav siDgs to me — I will not hide it — 

Uas mo lebrdn indllnech Over my many-lined booklet 

Fom'chain trirech inna n^n. A trilling (?) of the birds sings to me. 

372. Gabhar, gabor, gl. caper, Z. 744, W. gafr (pi. geifr), a masc. a-stem, irregularly 
= Lat. caper. (I say irregularly, because the Lat. and Gr. tenues {e, t, k, t) are, as a 
rule, represented by the same letters in Irish : so the Lat. and Greek medials (d^ g, h, 
^9 1j P) ^y Irish medials, which last (as in Gothic, Slavonic, and Lithuanian) regu- 
larly represent the aspirates : 3 = 0, Lat. /, ^ = ^, ^ « x> I^^- ^0 ^^^ ^7 Benary's 
important law, the Lat cap-er might be regarded as arising frt)m a r. gabh, and 
thereby the Celtic form with two medials would become intelligible ; c£ Gaulish Gabro- 
magus (goat-field), 0. Brit. Gabrosentum (goat's-path), Gliick, 43. 373. Tore (gl. 
aper), ace. sing, torcc, Book of Armagh, 18 h, 1, hence torcde, gl. aprinus, Z. 85. 
Tare = W. twrch, Bret, tourc'h, " a hog," Com. torch, gL magalis. 374. Parian (gL 
cancer, '^a crab"), etymologically inexplicable by me. The W. is crane = cancer? 
375« Dobhran (gl. fiber), masc. a-stem, is now an ''otter" (^wBpiv), not a ''bea- 

^ Ct Leab. Breacc, 121 oo, cited 0*D., Gr. 370: is liiiu fsoir no folt fidhuide illratha in marbnnda 
noibsea; literally, lis more nomeroas than grass or a grove*s hair, the many-blessings of this holy elegy 
(marbnud = W. marwnad). 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. y i 

yer," from dobur (water), which Pictet compares with dabhra, said to be Skr. for 
"ocean." The W. for "otter" is dufrgi, i. e. dufr + ci, "water-dog;" of. W. river- 
name, Camdubr, and the Gaulish Yemo-dabram, Dubra, Dubris. 376. Labor no 
$Hnnoriadh (gLlinter), "an ewer (?) or a clay-tile." 378. Companach (gl. soces, i. e. 
socer, Bocius ?), formed from Lai compaganus, the g being lost between vowels, as 
ahoay» in W., and sometimes in 0. Ir. [vide infra, 550). 380. Socruidhe (pulcher), i. e. 
evfiop^t: cniidhe from cruth (forma), an u-stem: gunated gen. sing, in 0. Ir. crotha 
= cratavas, non-gunated, crutto » crutvas. 381. Dubh (gl. niger) dub ia Z., is in 
W. and Bret du, Com. gl. duv ; cf. the river-name Dubis ; and perhaps Lat. fuscus 
(blackish), for fribiscus ? Engl, dusk ? Dub also meant ink : is tana an dub, " thin is 
the ink" (Z. prae£ xv.) : c£ Danish blsBL 382. Zese (gl. piger), n. pi. m. neh-leiaccy 
gl. non pigri, Z. 830 ; vide leisg, 0*R., W. llesg, Lat. laxus ? 383. IVuagh (gL macer), 
« trog, "miser," Z. 28; trogdn (gl. miseUus), better spelt in the Book of Armagh, 
38, 0. I, trogan, a marg. gloss on "Judas scariothis," W. truan 384. Gruamda (gl. 
acer) cf. W. grwm?, "surly, sour," O'R. 385. ^^or^ « acerbus, as aagart, 0. Ir. 
sacart «= sacerdos, which shows that the Lat. e before e was pronounced like k by the 
Irish. 386. J>ea8 (gl. dexter), 0. Ir. des, = W. deheu. Com. dyghow, dex-ter, l^^io^y 
Skr. dakshina; c£ the GauL goddess-name, Dexsiva, Dexivia. 387. Cle (gL sinister), 
leg. el4, is obviously a mutilation of a eledhy W. cledd, Bret, kleiz, which Diefenbach 
and J. Grimm have compared with Goth, hlei-duma (-duma - -timu, in Lat. dex- 
timus). A sister-form di occurs in the dat. sing, for laim chli (gl. a sinistris), Z. 67 ; 
Axxehli (gl. ad sinistram). Book of Armagh, 1 84, b. This comes close to Goth, hlei, 
and also to Skr. 9ri, which Bopp equates with hlei ("Vergl. Gramm." ii 30, 2te 
aufl.). " Wenn ich recht habe," says the Master, " den goth. primitivstamm hlei auf 
das Skr. 91I = kri, gliick zuriickzufiihren, mit der ausserst gewohnlichen vertauschung 
des r mit /, so sehen wir in der gothischen benennung des linken einen euphemismus, 
gleich dem worauf die griechischen ausdriicke apiaTcpoi und evufw/Aos sich stutzen." 
389. Adh dUaidh (gL onager), leg. agh allaidh : agh, " a beast of the cow-kind," O'R., 
gen. iHghe, masc. and fem. : in QaeL " a hind," " a heifer," " often applied to cattle 
two years old, without regard to gender." If gh here stands for ch, we may compare 
agh with Skr. paqu, pecus, Goth, faihu. 

390-394. Ferand (gL ager), glosses iathmaige in the orthain after Ffacc's Hymn ; 
ferann, which Dr. Reeves (Yit Col., 449) explains as "jurisdiction of a monastic 
order," is perhaps the same word : induxit niuem supra totum agrum pertinguentem 
fereim, Book of Armagh, 5 a. 2 ; cf. W. grwn, pL gryniau, " a ridge, a lay, or land in 
afield." 391. Sndmach (gL suber, "the oork-tree"), something, apparently, that 


72 A MediomaL Tract on Latin Declension. 

swims or floats; cf. Skr. sni, W. nawf. Odran is called abb sder ntdmaeh, *' a noble, 
swimming abbot/' by Oingus, F^L, Oct. 27. 392. Magiider aimfesach, "an ignorant 
master;" aimfesach from the neg. prefix am (Skr. s&mi, ^fu, semi ?), and the root fis, 
the connexion of which with fid, Skr. yid, FiB^ wit, seems to rest on a desiderative 
formation. Only a gnnated base TiYAirs would explain 0. Lr. forms like f^sur, fiasur 
(scio), fiastar(8cit),fdsid (scitis), fiasmais(sciebamu8), fiastais(sciebant); and perhaps we 
should read aimfesach. 393. JEsldn (leg. essl&n), from es ^ GauL ex, W. eh and sldn, 
with which W. llawen may be identified, if we assume the existence of an original 
slavana. 394. Maeth (gl. tenor, i. e. tener), irregularly = W. mwyth ; compar. moithiu, 
gl. moUiorem, Z. 283. 

395-409. F&r (= vira-s, a masc. a- stem) = Lat. vir, Gk)th. vair, Lith. wyras, Skr. 
vara. 397. Fer cli seems to mean not levir (husband*s brother), but a left-handed 
man {supra, No. 387), as if levir (for devir = Bafjp, Skr. devara) were a compound of 
Isevus and vir. 398-401. Deise, Mr, cethrair, ciiigir^ respectively the genitives sing, 
of dias (fem.), triur, cethrar (dunaib chethrairib, gL quatemionibus. Book of Armagh, 
178 &. 2), cuigur, 0. Ir. coicur (which respectively mean a combination of 2, of 3, 
of 4, of 5 persons) ; four of those numeral substantives which form so remarkable a fea- 
ture in Irish. O'D. and Z. suggest that the numeral substantives in -r are compounded 
with fer. If so, the original a is preserved unweakened in nonbar (a combination of 9 
persons). Conn. v. Nos » Skr. navanvara-m, hod. nonhhar, and in deichcnbar, a combi- 
nation of 10 persons, (gen. sing, deichenboir occurs in one of the inscriptions copied by 
my revered friend Dr. Petrie) now deiehneahhar. Others, I may observe, compare fer, 
&c, with Skr. vira (hero), 9ed qu. on account of the long f. 402. Sathaeh (gL satur). 
403. Lethiathach (gl. semisatur) ; cf. Lat sat-is. 404. Tigemey dia (0. W. duw, Com. 
duy), anum (anam) mac (0. W. map. Com. mab), saer (soir), have been already consi- 
dered. Lihertus is glossed by soirmug, i. e. fr^ servant, in Z. 825. 

410-418. BaeMaeh (gl. famulus, a slave) is "a herdsman, a rustic," according to 
O'R. 411. Mklehk (gl. malosus, L e. moloasus, i e. kvujv MoXorriicoff, a wolf-dog, 
guitter in the Cornish Yocab.*) is explained '^ greyhound'' by O'R, who spells the word 
miolchu; plur. mflchoin occurs in Lebar na Cert, 252, W, milgi, pL milgwn. 412. 
BaeMaeh hrealldn (gL bufrdus) is obviously a term of great reproach ; but what breal- 
Idn is exactly, I know not; " a lubberly fellow with a hanging under-lip," says C. ; 
perhaps it is connected in meaning with spado; cf. hreallachy gL spadosus, infra^ hreall, 
" foreskin," L w. 418. Mathghamain (a bear), of uncertain derivation. 

419-423. Senathair(gLa,YaB, grandfether), literally "old-father," v, suprd. No. 13. 
420. A athair sin (gL proavus, great-grandflEither), " his father," i e. the father of the 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 73 

avu9 : BO tlie same words at No. 42 1 mean the father of the proavus. A^ 0. Lr. A (the 
gen. sing, of the masc, and neut. pronoun of the 3rd pers. sing.) aspirates, must, there- 
fore, have ended in a vowel, and has long since been identified by Bopp with Skr. asya. 
As to «in (for 0. Ir. som, sem. Mid. Ir. sium, now 9ean, «an), it is here placed as an 
emphasizing particle. The 0. Ir. som has been compared by Bopp and Pictet with Skr. 
svayam ; and their view is confirmed by the fact that the % in som is unaspirable (cf. 
dosfiom, ei, Z. 334)^ and must, therefore, represent a combination of consonants. 
TvMta (gl. laicns) ; cf. tovtious in what, up to the recent appearance of M. de BeUo- 
guet's work, was presumed to be the oldest monument of the Celtic language, the 
Gaulish inscription, found at Vaison (D^partement Drome) :— CErOMAPOC OYIA- 
which Dr. Siegfried has thus translated : — " Segomaros Villoneos, a citizen of Nemausus 
(Nimes), dedicated (?) this temple to Belesama"^ Cf. also Toutio-rix (a Gaulish name for 
Apollo) from tuath (people), 0. Brit, tut, Z. 39, now tud, a widely scattered word. Oscan 
tovto, Umbrian tuta, tota (urbs), Goth, thiuda, 0. H. G. diota, Lith. Tauta (Germany), 
all from the root tu (to grow, to be strong), as Aufrecht and Kirchhoff, Grimm and 
Euhn have shown. 424. L6eg\ (gl. vitulus, calf) = W. Ho, pi. Uoi, Com. loch, Bret, 
lue; cf. ucnierunt ad fontem loiglea in scotica nobiscum vitulus ciuitatum. Book of 
Armagh, 10 i, i, and perhaps the man's-name, Loiguire, ib., j a, 1 (but see Z. 126). 
The nom. and gen. sing, occur in Brogan's poem on Brigit, 1. 52 : — 

In loeg lia dam i carput, in b6 indiAid ind I6iff, 
The calf with her leper in the chariot, the cow behind the calf. 

425-428. sail (gL oculus), " eye,'* frequent in Z. It is also found in the Book 
of Armagh, 219, h, i, where a grotesque profile occurs, opposite to which is written : 
[f ]eccid in[8]r6in Ml bel, " behold ye the nose, eye, mouth-" Suil is a fem. i-stem : 
its etymology is obscure to me. 426. Letheaeeh (leg. lethchaech, gl. monoculus, '' blind 
of an eye") j here, if caech be not a foreign-word (Com. cuic, gL luscus), we have a 
trace in Irish of aksha, oculus, auge, eye, &c., for caecti is = Lat. caecu-s = ca-icu-s, 
Skr. ka-aksha (Pott, E. F. L 126, Benfey, Zeits. ii. 222). But I suspect caech is taken 
from the Lat, as Skr. ksh would have become s in Ir., as in Gr. cf. akshi with occ€^ 
Sffaofuii. ^z-j. Ball (gl. caecus), r. 9upray No. 249, and cf. the adj. dallbronaoh (blind, 


1 Is not VUlomoi the gen. ting, of ViUoneuB, goyeroed by a mapot (filius), nndcntood ? Compare 
Correiu, Abareua. Eiobou in the other Gaulish inacriptiona seems always isvbv (ienru). See De 
Bellogaet, Ethnog6nie gauloise, p. 197, ss. 


74 ^ MedioBval Tract en Latin Declension. 

•ad), of wMch the gen. sing. m. oocon in the Book of Aimagh, ii «. i, as a man's 
name : super foesam (io^ionig. 428. Mil (leg. mil) mAr, Bmainmech duhair, gL 
oetns (if I lead the two last Irish words aright) are names for a whale, mfl. mor, 
" great beast," mainmech dubair, L e. r. of the water; ra-ainmech, great-animal? ra 
being an intensiye prefix (= Skr. pra), and ainmech being probably, like ainmidhi, gL 
animal, infra; anim, Lat animal, &c., a deny, from the root Air, to breathe. I have 
only once fonnd ainmech, yic, in a poem attributed to Bumann (BibL BodL Land, 
610, fo. 10): — 

BoU conii in gaeUi gamiiech TIm aandftil wind sent circles 

Im inber na da ainmseh. Round the estnaiy of tbe two a inm eekg. 

Perhaps, indeed, the reading of the MS., ruaimnech dubain, "the hair-line of a fish- 
hook," may be correct. Ruaim is '^ the long hair of a horse's or cow's tail," O'D. ; 
<< cetos," would, accordingly, stand for seta. 

429-439. Mae dUeehta (gL orbus, orphan, properly ''bereaved"), "sonof milkless- 
ness," according to C, wd qu, GkieL dUleaehdan. 430. Mintkuileeh (gL luscus, here 
** purblind"), leg. mlntsuHech, is 0'B.'s mionsnilech, *' weak-eyed" (the t in mia-t 
has yet to be explained). Min « W. mwyn, main, Bret moan, Or. fiAvo^, Gliiek, 
K. N. 99. 451. Maethkuilech (gl. lippus, blear-eyed, which is fliuchderc in Z.), maeth, 
gL tener, infray W. mwyd. 432. Ahhcoide, taken from advocatus. Note the bh = dv, 
as in aibhersoir, v. infra, =■ adversarius, and c£ the Lat bellum, bis = dveUum, dvis. 
433. Dlightinech (gl. juridicus), the guttural assibilated in the sister form dlistinach 
(gl. legitimus), infra, from the root dlio (dligim, debeo, Z. 431, Goth, dulg, v, supra, 
No. 87). 434. Fer eiiisi do chonghail (gL causidicus), " a man to maintain causes ;" 
cuisi ace. pL of cuis, from causa, with change of ded., ace. sing, cols, Z. 443. With 
congbail « con-gab-ail, cfl 0'E.'s cungbhailim, 0. Ir. congaibther, Z. 842 ; congbhalas, 
" stay, help, support," O'E. 435. Manaeh (CoriL manach) — ^437. Cananach, and — 
438. Discibul (W. dysgybl, Com. discibel), respectively from monachus, canonicus, 
discipulus. 439. JDuine leg (gl. homunculus, ad v. homo parvus), heg, in Z. becc, bee ; 
gL paulum, Z. 281, be[c]ca, gl. modicas, Book of Armagh, 183, a, 2, is the W. bach, 
cc always becoming ch in Welsh. 

440-444. Sgian (gL cnipulus, gl. cutellus), a knife, dagger, gen. sgine, infra : 0. 
Ir. Bcian, gen. seine; W. ysg'ien fern, (''a slioer, cymetar"), a fern, a-st^m ; cf. W. 
ysg{aw, Bret sk^ja, to cut. Note, that ia here does not stand for an original ^ (if it 


> Cnrn (gl. gyios, Z. 1072) = Lat ennrdt. 

A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 75 

did, the WeUh would hare been ysgwyn, and the Irish gen. sing, serine). Perhaps 
the original base was skidyanH, from which first d and then y may have fallen. K so, 
we might compare scindo, scidi, ^X'^'^y 3^* chhid, &c. 442. Crulh etch (gl. nngulus), 
''a horse's hoof;" eich, gen. of ech. 443. Taimgey ^'a nail, pin, peg/' O'R. 444. 
Braigdeeh (gl. camns, horse-coUary home) ; 0. Ir. braigtech, from brUge, gen. brdgat, 
neck, throaty « yf, brenanty an ant-stem, Htpra, No. 292. 

445-456. Pauti hr6g (gl. baietns), a patch on a shoe ; paisti (leg. paiste ?) is, 
perhaps, taken from Eng. patch ; brog, fem. according to O'R., 0. Ir. brocc ; c£ the 
Gaulish bracca. 446. SeoJh ttge (gl. tegnlos) ; scolb is a wattle (" scollop''), pointed 
at both ends, used to bind down straw-thatch. Tige, gen. of teg (house), a neut. 
i-stem s tagi; cf. tegere, et v, infra, No. 446. 449. AircKinnech (gl. archidiaconus), prin- 
oeps in Z., has been before noticed : dat. sing, naueirchinniuch (gl. nauiclero). Book of 
Armagh, 188, h. 2. 450. Teaehtaire (gL legatus), messenger, envoy, 0. Ir. techtaire, 
tectaire, a personal noun, from techt, tect (venire), of. Zend, tac (ire), Lith. teku 
(curro), W. taith (journey), the Gaulish tribe-name, Tectosages, 0. Lr. man's name, 
Techtmar. Techtaire is wrongly explained dispensator, gubemator in Z. 743, 888, 
though one would have thought the gloss in Z. 888 was decisive as to the word's 
not meaning gubemator : is h^ in tecttaire maith condaig indocb4il dia thigemi, '' he 
is the good teetaire (ambassador), who obtains glory for his lord." At p. 78 Z. pro- 
bably mis-read tecttaire, gl. dispensator, for recttaire, which word is better spelt 
rectaire (ond rectairiu, gl. a viUico, Z. 743), and rectire (gL praepositus, Z. 245). 
451. Ikganaeh — ^452. Prehit — ^454. Deehdin — 455. Subdeehdtn — ^456. Aelaidhe — 
458. Pypul — 460. Aingel — 462. Areaingel, all from the Latin* Note, however, in 
pupul (Com. pepel) the assimilation of the of populus to the succeeding «, and note 
also that the stem of aingel, a masc. a-stem (Com. ail) seems in 0. Ir. to be extended 
in the aoc. pL, which is always aingl-i-u, not angelu, anglu. Cf. Lagn-i-u (Leinster- 
men), Z. 944 : ooim-e-a (coronas), a fem. &-stem : Boind-e-o, gen. sing, of Boind (Bo- 
vinda, Boyne), Book of Armagh, 16 a, 2, 16 5, i : ins-e-o, gen. sing, of inis (island), 
ibid. 18 a, I : ailichth-i-u, gl. altemationes, Z. 256, an u-stem : cairt-e-a, friends, and 
niimt-e-a, haters, enemies, both ant-stems in the aoc. pL 

4$7-464. Coraidh, a choir, is, like W. cor, from ohor-us, or x^P^^i ^^^ ^^ ^^ 
Ir. termination. 459. Uon (lamb), W. oen. Com. oin, Bret, oan, a maso. a-stem, 
whence uainfn, infra, has certainly lost a g, v. supra. 461. Chideam (sword), W. 
eleddyf^ in 0. Ir. claideb, Z. 442. 469. Euainde (leg. ruainne?), a single hair; 
fiMty^, a dimin., and — ^464. Foiltnkn, a double dimin. of folt, hair, as to which v. su- 
pra, No. 77. 

L 2 4^5'~479« Mirldime, 

y6 A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

465-479. MirlaifiMy a jSinger (lit. digitus manus, as toe is — ^466. Mir ehoise, digi- 
tus pedis), m^r (digitus), ace. dual ; imber in dd m^r (infer duos digitos), Z. 926 ; abl. 
pi. in e meraib (in digitis ejus), Z. 347. M^r seems to have lost a letter (t f) before r; 
ef. W. motrwj, a finger-ring ; coise^ gen. sing, of cos, a fern, i-stem « Lai coxa. 
467. Salm — 468. Fersdn — 470. Toin — 471. Lethtoin — 472. Ditoin — 474. Pune — 
475* Cercall, all taken from the corresponding Lat. words : fersdn, with the addition 
of the Ir. dimin. suffix an. 469. Foghur, gen. foguir (sonus, pronuntiatio), frequently 
in Z., see pp. 964, 965 ; root oak, whence gair (vox), gairim (voce), &c., Skr. gir 
(vox). 473. Macam gente, a child begotten; gente, part. perf. pass, of geinim, root 
OAN, as to which v, supra, No. 291. 476. Mkr, W. mur = mCirus, is probably taken 
from the Lat *' Mur," says C. (Cath Maighe L^na, 78, note *), *' means simply a cir- 
cular* wall, bank, or mound of earth ; but it does not imply a dwelling, except for the 
dead." It sometimes meant a mound only, as in the passage to which the note is ap- 
pended. 477. Biadh (gl. cibus) ; biad = bivata, fiiForo-^, in 0. Ir. is neuter, like the 
Skr. jlvita (Lat. vita = vivita is fem.) ; cf. arbiathim, gl. lacto, gL nutrio, Z. 431, gen. 
sing, in 0. Ir. biith (Z. 250) = bivati, in Mod. Ir. Udh = W. bwyt, Com. buit. 478. 
Gaillmias (gl. discus), i. e. gall + mias ; gall, foreigner (v. G^dach, supra), mias 
= mensa, 0. W. muis, Z. 137. 479. Copan (gl. cupus), a deriv. from Eug. cup? 

480-493. Cep (gl. ccpus) I can hardly explain, unless as = Lat. cippus : eeap occurs 
in O'R., with many meanings, of none of which, save two, do I feel certain (ceap is a 
shoemaker's last, and isna ceapaibh is certainly ^* in the stocks"). Cf. icip, gl. in ligno 
(Book of Armagh, 181, 3. 2 ; Acts, xvi. 24). 481. Lehaid (gl. lectus, a bed), 0. Ir. 
lepaid : the abl. sing, occurs in the Leabhar Breacc (pref. to Secundinus' Hymn, Lib. 
Hymn, ed. Todd, p. 28) : batar in oen lepaid, 'Hhey were in the same bed," and the 
gen. sing, at the beginning of the Tdin h6 euailgne : Feet noen do ailell 1 do meidb 
iam dergud a rigleptha doib i cruachan rdith chonrach arrecaim comrad chindcher- 
caiUe eturru, '' once upon a time, after Ailill and Medv had spread their royal couch 
in C. R C, a pillow-conversation took place between them." 482. Otrach (gL fimus, 
dung), O'R., also a dunghill, Qael. dtrach, 483. Tore (gl. porcus), v. supra. 484. 
Sgaignen (gl. vannus, a winnowing-van), also a cullender^ according to O'D. ; in O'K 
sgaighnean. 485. death (tignum, a log, beam) is explained '' a rib, rod, stake," by 
O'R 486. Comalta (gl. coUactaneus — o/*o-7aXajcT-off — a foster-brother), com-al-ta, in- 
volves the root al nourish (Lat. al-o), -ta, perhaps for -tava. Comalta occurs in the 
Seii^glige Conculainn: fobith ba haite do Fergus ecus ba comalta ConaU Cemach, 

1 Cf . Skr. r. mur, circnmdAre, restire ; Bopp. 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 77 

*' because F. was his foster-father, and C. C. was his foster-brother," Atlantis, ii. 372. 
488. Curach (gl. phaseliis, " a kidney-bean-shaped vessel, made (sometimes) of wicker- 
work," which answers tolerably well to the Irish curragh, W. cwrwg-l, whence Eng. 
corac-le. 489. Sacc (gl. forulus), W. sach = Lat. saccus, Gr. caxicovy Groth. sakkus, 
Eng. sack (sacc is incorrectly spelt sac in O'R.). 490. Matal = Lat. mant^lum ? 
whence it is probably derived, the » being lost before t, as in s^t, a road, W. hint, 
Goth, sinths, Eng. send, etar (between), Lat. inter, Skr. antar, and in the termination 
of the third pers. plur. pres. and ftit. active of verbs (-at [= Lat. ant], -et, -it : -fet, 
-fit = Lat -bunt). W, mantell (pL mentyll, Z. 787) = Lat. mantellum. 491. Bla- 
thmar is "flowery" (W. blodeuog), not " floweret" (flosculus), from blath, flower = 
W. blawd. Com. blez, Lat. flos, N. H. G. bliite. 492. Uainin (gl. agnellus), dimin. 
of uan = agnus. 493. Oirenin (gL porceUus), double dimin. of ore = porcus, W. porch, 
with loss of initial p. 

494-5 14. Serrach nogercctch (gl. puUus, " a foal or a chicken") ; gercach, " an un- 
fledged bird," ** a squalling child," C. 495. CuailU (gl. palus, W. pawl), a pole, stake. 
496. DtBk (gl. talus), a die, W. dls. 498. Cuilen (gL catulus, whelp), leg. cuilenn ? 
(QXijleTmhoeCy gl. cynyps, Z. 740), W. colwyn. Com. gL coloin, Bret kolen, compare Eng. 
whelp. 499. Cat (murilegus, cat, lit* mouse-catcher), for catt, W. cath. Com. kat, Bret 
kaz, amasc. a-stem; cf. Med. Lat cattus, catta. 500. Cealgy v, supra, No. 326. 501. 
MU idaigh (gl. pediculus, louse), lit. beast of the clothes; ^daigh = 0. Ir. ^taig (setig, 
Z. 857), gen. of etach, a neut. a-stcm. 502. Domdn huana (gl. manipulus, small hand- 
ful of hay), dom, W. dwm, a fist : buain, gen. buana, " s. f. cutting, reaping, shearing," 
O'R. 506. Caileach (gl. gallus) sW. ceiliawg, Com. chelioc 508. Prechdn (gl. milgus, 
i. e. milvus), a kite ; cf. Gr. KipKo^ ? note in the Lat g for t?, as in ugula {supra) for 
uvula. 508. Cerd (gl. figulus), v. supra. (In the MS. the letters eg are just visible 
before cerd, but the scribe has evidently tried to efface them.) 509. Ma (swan), 0*R 
eaila : W. alarch, pL eleirch, Lat olor. But who can account for ela ? Can it have 
lost a g before the liquid? cf. ^A7\i;, 6 kvkvo9 vtto 'SkvOwv, Hesych. 510, Cailech 
gatthe (W. ceiliog gwynt), i. e. gallus venti, weathercock ? 511. Teallach (gl. focus, 
fire-place, hearth), perhaps for tenlach, tened-lach. 512. Oinmid (gl. sotus), an oaf, 
W. ynfyd. The -mid = 0. Ir. mit = manti, and probably involves the root man. 
513. Geocaeh (gl. mimus), apparently from jocu-s (sed c£ N. H. G. geek), now ''a 
strolling player." 514. Shoran, " a purse," O'R. sporan, W. ysbur. 

5'S~S33» Sgingidoir {leg. Bgrn^doix? gL pellicarius, "a furrier"), is, according 
to C, a "packsaddle maker;" cf. W. ysgin (fiir) = Eng. skin, scing, O'B., "part of 
the trappings of a horse." 516. Inadh, a place, 0. Ir. inad, frequent in Lib, Hymn. 

517. Oihhirseoir 

yS A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

517. Oibhirneoir = adverBarius. 518. Cluithe (gl. jocub), also clmche, game, sport, an 
ia-stem. The dai sing, occurs in the Trip. Life of Patrick : Fecht aili do patricc io 
eluithiu iter a comaistiu (.i. a eamaltud)^ '* at another time P. was playing amongst his 
coevals" (L a his fost&r'hrotherS'and-nsterg). With clniche cf. cluichech (gl. ladibun- 
dos), Z. 778. 519, 520. Ijfeamy iffem = infemum, W. nffem, Com. iffam, gen. sing, 
of iffem, viz. ifflmn in Z. 5 1 . 522. Locanns (Lucanus), here identified with the Irish 
man's-name, Lochan; see O'D., Four Masters, A. D. 606. 533. Fergal is connected 
with ferg (anger), fairge (sea), Ove/Kyioviov (orccavov) PtoL '^ The proper meaning of 
the word [ferg] is," says Gliick (K, N. 131), "motio, agitatio (compare Gr. ^p^ov for 
fepf^ovy ofrpi for Fo/>7iJ, jfrom the root varg. Germ, werk)." C£ Zend verez (agere). 
If Fergal be the W. Gwral-deg and = a Gaulish Virogalos, the elements are fer '' man" 
(8kr. vara), and the root gal, as to which see Z., 993 n, 

534-548. Of the rest of the proper names note doctor, glossing Ovidius. Hence 
there would seem to have been some Irish word resembling this name, and correspond- 
ing with "W. ofydd, with which, however, Z. 3, would connect the Irish ogham. 
540. Diarmaid seems = Derbomantis. 54 1 . Zoehlann is curiously like the old name for 
Scandinavia, Lochland, of which the dat. sing, occurs in one of the S. Gall quatrains 
above quoted. 542. Murchad, leg. muirchad, gen. mufrchatho, Z. xxxii. s moricatus, 
a masc. u-stem. 543. Eogan is from ev7€vi79. 54J. Concubar, leg. Conchubar, the 
Anglo-Irish Connor ; c£ Conchubumensium (Book of Armagh, 9 a, 2), Conchobor, 
Z. 1 133, Gliick, 66, where note the aspiration of <;. Does Con- stand for Cono- (cf. 
Cono-maglus, Cunobelinus), or is c aspirated in the combination n^, as in sancht (Bro- 
gan's Hymn, 1. 23) = sancta; conchoimnucuir (efficit), Z. 853 ; conchechrat (amabunt), 
Z. 495 ; and perhaps tenchor (gl. forceps), Z. 84? 546. Mae na hoidhehe means ''son of 
the night;" oidehe^ 0. Ir. aidche, a fem. ia-stem, Z. 257; didchide, "nocturnal," 
Leab. Breacc, cited Lib. Hymn. ed. Todd, 27. In the h prefixed to oidchs here, and 
to oighe, infra. No. 576, Bopp would see a relic of the b which terminated the fem. 
article in the gen. sing. 547. Uaithne is placed opposite orpeus, i. a Orpheus, because 
Faithne is said to have been the inventor of music, under the singular circumstances 
described in a legend, which C. tells me is preserved in the Book of Leinster. 548. 
Tadhg (the "Teague" of English writers) is said to mean " poet." 

550-554. Dedir (gl. diphthongus), in Z. deoger tr defoger (gair, sonus), the ^ being 
dropt between vowels, as is the rule in Welsh, and as sometimes occurs in Irish. 
551. Senadh naom (''holy synod"), cf. W. senedd. Com. sened, from synodus. 552. 
(Jloch crisdail, '* stone of crystal." 553. Parrtus, leg. partus from paradisus, W. para- 
dwys, the medial d being provected, as sometimes happens in foreign words : cf. alp- 


A MedioBvai Tract on Latin Declension. 79 

gitir B abeoedariuin. Perhaps, however, the t may be owing to the practice pursuant 
to which h, df ff eae written respectiyely ^, t, c, when preceded by either / or r : see Z. 
70, 71. 554. Dair (gl. quercus, oak-tree), gen. darach « daracas, a c-stem; c£ daur, 
gL qaercus, Z. 8 ; dairde, daurde, gl. quemus, Z. 764 ; daurauch, gl. quercetum, Z. 
779, derucc, gl. glans: W. derw-en. C£ Bpvn^ Bofw, Gk)th. triu, A. S. treov, tr^, Eng. 
tree, Skr. dam (timber), ^apovept^otf (Britanniae oppidum), Z. 8. 

555-566. Aball, 0. W. aball-en, Com. auall-en ^ apple, apfel, Aballum, &c. 
UbuU quasi ahull ; abaU, imorro, burgg Etale dianid ainm AbeUum .i. is ass tucad 
sil nan abaU pnus (Cormao's Glossary, Book of Leinster), **AhaU, now, from a town of 
Italy called AbeUum, i. e. it is thence that the seed of the apples was brought formerly." 
556. Coll (W. coll-en, Com. col-viden, Bret kel-v^zen) = coslas = hasel, corylus, 
whence Ko/niko9. Z. 1 1 1 8 compares the name Coslum, hod. Kusel, and the Slav. 
sheol, virga, baculus, ** primitus columns ?" whence, he says, the names of places 
Schesla and SchesUtz. The adj. collde, gl. columns, in Z. 81. 557. Fuindseog (gl. 
firaxinus, ash-tree), leg. frdnnseog? and c£ 0. Ir. huinnius (gL fraxinus, Z. 751), 
uinsenn (Irish Kennius, 116); and, perhaps, Lat. omus for osnus: Com. onnen, 
Bret ounn-en. 558. Femog (gl. alnus, alder), W. and Bret, gwemen, f., Com. guemen, 
" gall. vet. vem [vema] in ncypine fluvii Yemodubrum ;" cf. Vemosole (Gliick, 35, 
125). 559. Droighin (gL prunus, blackthorn, sloe-tree), leg. draighen; dndgen is 
used to gloss pirus in Z. 738 ; cf. W. draen, pi. drain, sed vide Z. 139 ». 560. Beithe 
(gL buzus^ box-tree), bethe, gl. buxus, Z. 728, apparently « W. bedw, birch, Lat. 
betula. The word occurs in a note on Christ's cross (lib. Hymn. 7 &. in marg.) : cedir a 
00s "] cupris a tenga 1 gius in geind doratad trethe 1 hethe in dar in roscribad in titul, 
L e. '' Cedar its shaft, and cypress its tongue [the upper segment], and deal the piece (?) 
that was put across it, and box the board whereon was written the title." 561. Tbhar 
(yew), ibar in Corm. Another Irish word for yew, w, is the "W. yw, Com. hiuin, Bret, 
ivinen, 0. H. G. twa, N. H. G. eiben-baum, Fr. if, Sp. and Port. iva. 562. liehahhM 
(as I read for the senseless fidhabhall, wood-apple), a fig-tree, from ficus and aball 
(mains), No. 555; cl Com. ficbren, gl. ficus, Z. 11x8. 563. Crand gkus (pine-tree). 
564. Crand hMkr, laurel-tree (leg. crandgiiis, crandlauir), with gius, perhaps c£ bi, gL 
pix, Z. 25, 764. 565. Fraeeh (gl. bracns, heather), 0'K.'s/rao(;A, nom. pi. neut. inna 
^sssrcad fr6ichy gl. vaccinia, i. e. mbrse ericse, Z. 890, which Z. calls a solitary example 
of the occurrence of flexion in an adjective preceding a substantive* C£ however, 
doadbadar sunt atd ixili d4na in spirto et as noinde in spimt (Z. 360), '^ here is shown 
that there are many gifts of the Spirit, and that the Spirit is single." With fraeeh c£ 
W. griig. 566. Grand mueor (gL comus, cornel-cherry, dogwood-tree), ** dogbriar," C. 

567-568. Cuigel 

8o A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

567-568. Cuigel (gL coIub, distaff) = W. c<^ail. Com. Idgel, Bret Idgel, kegel = 
O. H. G. cuncla, N . H. G. knnkel, all, like Fr. quenouille, It. conocchia, from Med. Lat 
conucula, for colucula, from colas. 568. Fermid (gL frisus, spindle) cf. W. gwerthyd, 
CoiTL gurhthit, Bret, gwerzid, and Lat. Tert-o, Terticillus, Tenatilis, Med. Lat. Terte- 
brum, verteoluB, " Et coIhb et fiisi digitis cecidere I" 

569-575. Teach, tech in Z. 73, house (cf. coitchen communis = con-tech-en ? Z. 73 ; 
tcc-natc, gL domesticus, Z. 769; cum-tach, ledificatio, Z. 843; daltech (gL fonim), 
Book of Armagh, 189 h. z), apparently a sister form of teg, Z. 73 (gen. ind idul- 
taigay gL feni, Z. 822 ; dat. i Uiig Hg, gl. in prsetorio, Z. 280), which last is W. ty, 
pL tai, Com. and Bret, ti, tc^o?, thatch (Skr. r, sthag?). 570. Bean do hrathar, "thy 
brother's wife ;" bean do nmc, gl. nurus, " thy son's wife ;" as to bean v. infra, I?^o. 
1053. Brathar, leg. brathar, gen. of brathair, a stem in tar, declined like athair, tu- 
pra, No. 1 3 ; and = Skr. bhratr, Goth, brothar, Lat frater, Gr. 4>pifr^p9 i^cX^o*, 
IleHyclt, ; do — 0. Ir. du, do^the possess, pron. of 2 pers. sing. ; W. dy, Bret da, = 
Skr. tava, the original t having been worn down to a medial in this frequently used 
word. The d of this pronoun, however, becomes t when the vowel is elided. Ct 
teserge, " thy resurrection," Book of Armagh, 18 ^, i ; conicim tanacul, "I am able to 
save thee," ibid,, 186 a, Note that no word corresponding to Skr. snusha, Gr. yvdt, 
Lat nurus, Goth, snur, has yet been found in Celtic. Skr. ^vacjru, Gr. Ixvpa, Lat so- 
cms, Goth, svaihro (mother-in-law), are represented by the W, chwegr, but no such 
Irish word can be quoted. It would, however, be rash to draw conclusions frt)m cir- 
cumstances like this, till we make more progress in collecting our ancient words and 
names, of which, perhaps, scaree one-third is accessible to the philologer. 572. Cugan, 
gL penus, Z. 80, cucan, gl. penus. 573. LSg loghmar (read loghmar), a precious stone 
s= 0. Ir. liacc logmar, liacc = W. llech, a flag, a flat stone. Liacc is a fem. &-6tem : 
is[ed] b^ss didu ind liacc : berir ilbeim friss et intf dothuit fjEur conboing a chndmi ; 
intf for a tuit som, imorro, atbail side : '^ It is this, now, that the stone is: many a 
blow is given to it, and he that falls on it breaks his bones ; but he on whom it falls 
he perishes," Z. 609 : gen. in aecclesia magnd aiidlicee. Book of Armagh, g b, 2: dat 
for leiee luim, Ffacc, 16, "on a bare stone." 574. Long luath (gL carbassus), "a 
swift ship ;" long, gen. luinge (W. Uong, fem., whence llynghes, a fleet), a fem. 
a-stcm : is hng from the Lat navis longa, or may we refer it to the Skr. root langh 
(salirc, ire)? The ace. sing, loing glosses vas in the Book of Araiagh, 177 ^, i ; 
carbasus, " eyn schiff das keyn bodem hat" — Dief. Med. Lat Diet 575. Fairge (sea), 
r. iupra, No. 328, a fem. ia-stem, 0. Ir. fairgge, Z, 928 ; feirggaB, foirgg®, Z. 1125. 

576-579. Bru na hoighe (gL aulus), "the virgin's womb," leg. W* na hdighe (gl. 


A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 8 1 

alTUs). 577. 8roU (gL byssns, fivaaoi) is spelt srol, and explained " silk, satin, gauze, 
carape," by O'E., but byssos is a yellowish linen. With — 578. Uir (gl. humus, the 
ground), Pictet compares ehp^t, 8kr. uru (large), fem. urvi (earth); gen. liiire, Conn. 
V. Gaire ; Conn. t. Mur, glosses ur by talam : so also sub v. Ur, Ur. tr^ide fordingair, 
ur chetamus .i. talam, 1 ur cech nuae amail asmberar imb ur; \ir dana cech nolo, inde 
dicitur isna br. n. [brethib nemed] Idn dosiathach each nur .i. cech nolc. '' TJr : 
three things it means ; iir, in the first place, i. e. the earth ; and ur, everything new, 
as is said, tut^ itr [fresh butter] : ur, then, is everything bad. Hence is said in the 
Bretha nemed, "fully doAathaeh (?) is everything Ar, i. e. everything bad.' " Adj. hiirde, 
" ad humum pertinens," Z. 764. 579. Paiper, of course from papyrus, irairvpo9, 

580-587. DoruslUy "doorofa ^««," now spelt lies, ana-stem, c£Lissus: "a Dun, 
pronounced Doon [ddn, cf. Eng. town] is an elevated, circular, enclosing wall or bank, 
within which a dwelling-house was erected. A Dun required to be surrounded by a wet 
fosse or trench [a moat] to distinguish it firom the Bath which had not a trench . . . 
lios was another name for the Dun, but that it often contained within it more than 
one dwelling-house/' (C. Cath Maighe Lina, 78, 79.) Cf. W. llys, a court, hall. 
The dat. sing, of less occurs in the Book of Armagh, 1 7 ^, i : Dirrogel . . . ochter 
nachid con a seilb it[ar] fid -| mag 1 lenu con al/tW 1 allubgort ; also in Patrick's 
Hymn : Crist il /um, Crist is sius, Crist in ems, '' Christ in the court, Christ in 
the chariot-seat, Christ in the poop," i. e. Christ be with us while at home, or 
travelling by land or sea ; the gen. pL occurs in loig-/^^, before cited : in Qaelic, 
Uo9, gen. Use, is fem., and means *^ a garden." 582. Feorue (gl. acirus), feorM is ex- 
plained " the spindle-tree, prick-wood," by O'B. (on whom, of course, no reliance can 
be placed), which reminds one of W. grwysen, gooseberry. Should we read acinus 
for acirus, or is it for acerus, galingale, sweet flag ? 583. Buachaill h6, ad v. bubul- 
cus bovum; buachaill (gen. muine huaehatlh, Book of Armagh, 17 3, i) is bochaill 
in Z. 28, 67 ; cf. W. bugail. Com. bugel, gl. pastor. 584. Buachaill muee (swineherd) 
is lit. bubulcus porcorum ; buachaill, like bubulcus and fiwKokot, merging its special 
meaning of cowherd in that of herdsman; cf. imropovKoXot, horseherd, and see Max 
MiiUer, Oxford Hesays, 1856, p. 17. $85. M&tne (gl. mbus, bramble-bush) occurs, as 
we have seen, in Fiacc, 24, and in the Book of Armagh. 586. Airgeaeh (gl. remulus, 
a small oar), but airgeaeh is a plunderer, O'B., also an owner of herds (nirbu airgech air 
sl^be^ Brog. 1 1 ; c£ airge, gl. armentum, infra, No. 754), and there is probably some 
mistake here. 587. Drie (gl. tomus, i. e. dumus, bush, bramble); cf dris-tenach, gl. 
dumetom, Z. 777, driss, gL vepres, Z. 139, Com. dreis, gL vepres, Z. 1118, W. drys- 
sien (frutex), Z. 301. 

M 5SS-593. As 

82 A MedicevcU Tract an Latin Declension. 

588-593. As to these ordinals, dd (c^d neach, '* first anyone") is only found in 
Z.'s glosses in fochetoir, leg. foch^toir, statim, illico, lit. sub prima hora. The length- 
ened form c^t-ne is used instead. But we find the adverbs c^tu, ciatu, c^ta (primum), 
and Conn, has c^tamus (imprimis), c^t-aidche (first night), Ffaoc, 32 ; c^tbliadain, 
first year, Z. xxviii. The t is unaspirated, owing to n haying been lost before it; 
this n is found in W. kentaf, kyntaf, Z. 230; Gaulish C7V»^genus, '< first-bom," 
B 0. Ir. Cetgen, Book of Armagh, 11 h, t. Indara nsaeh seems simply the old indala 
nech (the second anyone), the liquid / beconung r, as in imlesen, Hipra, &c ; ala » W. 
eil, alter, secundus; ala occurs in Z. 313, with the meaning of '< second," in con- 
nexion with the numeral deac, 10 : oethar brottae, 7 ala rann deac brotto (4 moments, 
and the 12th (2 + 10) part of a moment) : with the meaning of '* one of two :" indala 
fiaoail, Z. 926. With ala we may, perhaps, connect the prep, al, gl. ultra, Z. 602, which 
occurs with a sufibced pronoun in Colm&n*s Hymn, 50 : Benedacht for Columcille eon 
noebaib Alban alia, ** blessing on Columcille, with the saints of Scotland besides him." 
IVei, third, 0. Ir. triuss, tris, gen. tres, Z. 316, is not easily explained : can it have 
been a distributiye = Zend thrishva ? or an old superlative in -istha ? But how is gen. 
tres to be accounted for? A passing over to the ^-declension is possible, but un- 
likely. Cethruma, 0. Ir. cethramad, r. supra, Ko. 142. The dat. sing, neut occurs 
in the Book of Armagh, 177 &, 2 : i^ cethramad laithiu (gl. a nudus [nudius] quar- 
tana die). Cuigedh, 0. Ir. coiced » 0. W. pimphet, Lat. quinctu-s : Seit-ed » 0. W. 
chuech-et - svecs-a-ta, Lat. sextu-s. 

594-604. Oabdiltech (gl. captus), firom gab&il, W. ca£Ael, cavail, Z. 160, capere. 
595. Curracach (gl. cuculatus, i. e. cuckolded?), lit crested. Home Tooke was not so 
original as he supposed when he wrote, '^ In English we do not call them cuculi, but 
cuculati (if I may coin a word on this occasion)." 596. Atanaeh (gl. capuciatus), cfl 
Com. hot, gl. caputium, W. hotan, hotyn (a cap). 597. Inaraeh — 598. Muineillech — 
599. Fallaing$eh — 600. Tribhusach, adjectives, and — 601. Conmta, a participle, from 
bases considered Mfpro. 602. /btrm^A (gl. invidus). The subst format, 0*B.'s /ormtfi^ 
(envy, ex man, like fiijvK)\ ace s. appears in the pre£ to Patrick's hymn, lib. Hymn., 
cited in Petrie's Tara, 32 : bid ditin do ar cech neim -| format, ''it will be a protec- 
tion to him against every poison and envy ;" cf. W. gorfynt 603. Qod (gl. blaesus, 
lisping, speaking indistinctly), '' stammering," according to C, who teUs me that the 
Danes were called by the Irish na Oaill guit ; of. W. gyth (a murmur). 604. Bodhar, 
deaf, W. byddar. Com. bothar, Bret, bouzar, Skr. badhira. (Hence Eng. bother?) 

605-614. Baecaeh (gl. claudus, limping, halting, kme, W. bachawg, ** crooked") 


A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 83 

ocooTB in the aoo. pi. masc., spelt bacachn, as a gloss on the word lusca, in the second 
Une of the 17th conplet of f^acc's hymn : — 

Iccaid luBca la traacu, mairb doflfinscad do bethn. 

He used to heal the halt, with the lepers ; the dead he used to raise them to life. 

606. Ordaighe (gl. anratns), dr, gl. anrum, infra, gen. oir, from the Lai aurom for 
ausnm (Skr. root nsh, nrere). If the word were Celtic^ the 9 would have been lost 
between the vowels. 607. Airgedaek (gL argentens), from airged, gl. argentom, tnjra, 
in O. Ir. argat (gen. arggait, argit, Book of Armagh, 1 7 6, i) » W. ariant, Bret, arc'hant, 
Com. arhanz, Old Keltic Argento-ratum, Argento-magus, &c, Zend erezata, Lat. ar- 
gentum, Osc arageto, Skr. rajata. 608. lamaighe (leg. famaidhe ?), gl. ferreus, from 
tarn, for Isam (iron), W. haeam, Com. hoem, Z. 120; cf. the Ghiul. Isamodurom (iron 
door ?), iarunn, gL ferrom, infra; the gen. sing, seems to occnr in Z. 926, ar friilib hka4m 
for (haim = Isamiy the aspirate being displaced as in the W. and Com. forms) ; c£ Skr. 
ayas, Eng. ore, Gfoth. eisam (ferreus), from which the Celtic stem isamo can hardly 
be taken, the deriv. suffix -am being common in Celtic, but rare in Gothic. 609. 
Luaidheamhail (gl. plumbeus), fromluaidhe, gl. plumbum, infra (cf. Eng. lead, load?), 
and samhail = samalis « W. hafal, Lat. similis, Gr. o^iaXds, &c. 610. Stanamhail (gl. 
stanneus), from stan (sdan, gL stannum, infra). 611. Umamhail (gl. aereus), from 
ume {humae fogrigedar, ''aes quod dat vocem, sonat, Z. 445), 0. W. emed, Mod. W. 
efydd. 612. Fundaminteeh (gL fundatus), from ftmdamentum. 613. Seitheeh 6n kligi 
(gL fessus, "wearied from tiie way," i. e. journey). 614. Seitheeh 6 ohair (gL lassus, 
''wearied from work"), leg. seitheeh, and compare scfth, Z. 26, sciith, Z. 669 : ni 
confil bas eeiith lim act rop ar Christ, *' death is not a burden to me if only it be for 

615-621. Tinniineeh (O'E. tinneasnach), *^ speedy, hasty." 617. NemhtindiMecK 
" unspeedy, unhasty." 616. Salaeh (salacious, lustftil), perhaps borrowed from salax, 
root sal (sal-io, akXofjuUf for aoKjofULi), Salach subsequenUy glosses sordidus, dirty 
« W. halawg, c£ halou, gL stercora, Z. 1095 (the man's name Cennsalach, gen. sing. 
CeixaiMUehj Book of Armagh, 18 0, i, comes from cennsal, imperium), and hence 
would seem connected with 0. H. G. sale, not clear, troubled, Er. sale. 618. Suirgeeh, 
gl. procus, wooer (in O'E. suireach), perhaps connected with moprfti^ atipffw ; cf. sercc, 
amor, W. serch, with the $ preserved {H at the beginning of a word in Welsh, as a rule, 
loses the ty not the <). 620. Goriaeh (gL fameHcus, famished, starred), 0. Ir. gorte (fa* 
mine), a fem. ia-stem, Z. 1006 » gardh-ti-tl, Skr. r. grdh (avidum esse). 621. Fuw- 
iiiil&eh (if I read the word aright), gL strabonus, squint-eyed; £iar, crooked s W. 

M 2 gwyr. 

84 -A. MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

gwyr. Bopp may be right in comparing fiar with Lat. yaros, Skr. vakra cnrvnsy flezu- 
06U8. So Oaolish maros seems Gr. fuucpoi, 

62 S-629. T&n^tach (gL linguosus), dotengtach (leg. dothengtach ?), gL bilingaosafi, 
hypocritical, double-tongued, from tenge (tongue), gen* tengad, v, supra, which, from 
these adjectiyes, would seem to haye been a t-stem. 626. Direaeh (leg. d^ircach ?), 
charitable, from d^irc, alms, desercc (amor), Z. 78. 628. Briathraek (gL yerbosus), 
from briathar (word), a fem. ^-stem. 629. Shsgaeh (JL^fXtacao^^ eUnguis, not glib of 
tongue), not in O'B. 

650-634. Fofumaideaeh (gl. ridiculosus, facetious, droll), 0*E. has femamhad, ridi- 
cule, and fonamadach, which he translates by '< contemptuous;'' '< making game," is, 
O'D. tells me, the meaning now attributed to the word; cf. £ng./tiiif 631. FtUl- 
geaeh (gl. egenus, needy, indigent). 632. Casta (gl. crispus, curled, crisped), from 
easaim. 633, 634. Sldn (gl. sanus) ssldn (gl. insanus), haye been connected, mpra^ 
with W. llawen. 

635-639. JEdmur (gL zelotypus), 0. Ir. ^tmar [» Gaulish lantumarus, Gliick, 78], 
from ^t zelus, Z. 22, aeet, Z. 343 (fom it fri saibapstalu darmchensa, ''yestra 
lemulatio pro me contra pseudoapostolos," Z. 607, Skr. r. yam(niti) ? 636. Dluith 
(gL densus), an adjectiyal i-stem; glosses dense in Gild. Lorica. Z. seems to haye 
mistaken for the adj. dluith the subst. dluthe, wrongly rendered <*apertus" in Z. 30, 
notwithstanding his glosses contain tri beulu tUutaif gl. fixis labris, Z. 1015, dluihe 
in tinf[id] donaib conso[naib], Z. 1021 ; literally, connexion (coherence) of the 
aspiration to [L e. with] the consonants (in Xi ^> 0)* Dluithe also means a chink : 
huand dliiithi seim, gL tenui rima, Z. 261 ; and cf. dluth, gl. stamen (the warp in a 
loom), Z. 30 ; tre chomdluthad, gL per synffiresin, Z. 985, rundluth, gl. densayerat, 
Z. 435. 637. Ooirt (gl. acidus), perhaps connected with the yerb in " ma garith loch 
dth in e chuis nu in e laim," which Z. renders (p. 1006) " si dolct locus yd in ejus 
pede yel in ejus maniu" 638. Ballaeh (gl. urbiculatus) is now not ''rounded, circu- 
lar," but " freckled," from ball (spot). Cf. W. hall, " eruption, plague." In Z. baU, 
a masc. a-stem, always means membrum, and agrees in form, declension, and gender 
with (paXkof, 639. Slemain (gl. lubricus, slippery, smooth), an adj. i-stem: a sister- 
form, of the a-declension, is slemon, which occurs in a marginal gloss on the lib. Hymn« 
copy of the Altus Prositor ; nom. pi. neut. : is airi asbertar ^trumma 1 slemna huare 
n&d techtat tinfed, Z. 1022 (L e. therefore are they called light and smooth, because 
they haye not aspiration) ; slemna, gL leyia, Z. 737, slemon - W. Ui/fn, fem. Uefn, 
Cf. N. H. G. Bchleifen, Eng. slip. 

640-649. Fairsing (gL amplus, spacious, roomy), farsinge, the subst. from this, 
ooours in lib. Hymn., 5 h, Colman's Hymn, line 43, as a gloss on lethu : — 


A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 85 

Bobbem cen ea illetha la alnglin imbitfabethn. 
May W6 be without age, in spaoei, with angels in eternal life ! 

641. Luathgaireeh (gl. nervosna), generally means "rejoicing/' '^exulting/' from 
luath (swift), and gdire (joy), W, gware (play). Here it seems equivalent to energetic, 
vigorous in expression (quis Aristotele nervostor? Cic). 642. Bealhhdha (gl. formo- 
bub), 0. Ir. delbde, from delb (forma, figura, imago, paradigma), fem. W. delw, Z. 99, 
and c£ doilbthid figulus, Z. 987, indoilbthid, gl. figurate, Z. 984, dolbud (figmentum), 
Z. 768, leads one to think the root dai. which is, perhaps, etymologically connected 
with Lat. forma, Skr. r. dhr. 643. Uchtard (gl. strumosus, wenny) rather seems 
** high-breasted/' from ucht and ard. 644* CroMsach — 645. FMgach — 646. Oaeth- 
tnar — 648. Milech, all from nouns noticed, ntpra, 647. BronnnuMr, from bru, gen. s. 
bronn, W. bra (womb) : a dimin. from bru occurs in the dat. sing. : his hrannait (gl. 
infra yentriculum), Z. 593. 649. Snethach, leg. snedhach (nitty), W. neddog, is in- 
teresting, famishing, as it does, a hint as to what must have been running in the heads 
of the European Aryans at an early period, for sued, Z. 11 26 (W. nedd-en, Bret, niz) 
is Slav, gnida, Gr. kovi^, k6viB-09, N. H. G. nisse, Lith. gli(n)da, Lat. le(n)8, le(n)dis. 

650-653. Coiskneeh (if I read the word rightly) means, I presume, taking short 
steps, going pedetentim, step by step, slowly. 651. CroindtilU is probably a blunder 
for crointsilech, an adj. formed from crontsaile, phlegm, spittle, derived by Conn, from 
grant (grey), and saile - saliva. 652. Gerhach (gL rugosus, wrinkled, shrivelled) is 
now ''scabby." 653. Boeoideeh (gl. maculosus, spotted), leg. bocoidech? from bo- 
coid, a spot, 0*B. 

654-659. Anmach, from anim, v. suprtu 655. Clitmar — 656. MicMiimar, from 
clu (gl. rumor, Z. 68, also &ma), W. clyw ; c£ Slav, slovo (verbum, sermo), slava 
(gloria), Gr. cX^o9, Skr. 9ravas, rumor. The W. for famosus is clodfawr = clotom&ros 
(the 0. H. G. Hlodomar, Gliick, 81); cf. with clod, Ir. cloth (fame, praise) » cluta-s, 
Gr. cXtrro9, Lat. in-clytus, £ng. 'loud; Ir. cluas (ear) « W. clust (c£ Eng. *li8t). The 
root reduplicates in Celtic. Thus in Irish : rot-che-chlad-ar (hears thee), Z. 496 ; ce- 
chluista .L noduinfithea (auditum erit, Brehon Law gloss). And in Welsh : ciglif 
(audivi), Z. 420 « Skr. Qu^rava. 657. Breallach (gL spadosus) I cannot explain with 
any certainty ; spadosus is, perhaps, a med. Lat. adj., from spado {a7rahwv\ an impo- 
tent person. 658. Frehaeh, kicking (preabaim, I kick, O'E..). Is retrocosus for cal- 


1 Perhapa we ahonld rather translate " in greatneas," "in grandeur;" lethe and faiiainge, like ampU- 
tado, may weU have attained to this seoondaiy signification. 

86 A MedicBval Tract on Latin Dedenaian. 

citroBas? or a barbarous hybrid from retro and the Irish oos (« coxa), leg firom knee 
down, foot ? 659, Geal (white), 0. Ir. gel, v. iupra. 

660-669. Tegaisge (gL doctos), teeotsee, gl. doctior, infrd : c£ sochoiae, gL doci- 
bilem, Z. 832 ; cose (institatio) Z. 53 ; cosscc, ih, 61 ; coscc, %b. 78 : coieittr ind fir et 
doairbertar for^ir dsS, *' the men are taught and brought under the will of Gk)d," Z. 
618. I know not if 0. Ir. ^cosc (habitus, forma), Z. 832, 135, or W. dangawt, de- 
monstration; arddangoB^ to demonstrate, be connected with this word. 661. Maith, 
good, 0. Ir. nom. pL maithi, Z. 883 (an i-stem), W. mad ; cf. the Ghnilish name Teuto- 
matus. 662. Ole (bad), n. pi. masc. uilc, uilcc, Z. 252 ; ace pi. masc ulcu, Z. 457. 
In the nom. and ace. pL neut., when followed by m, this adjectiye drops its proper 
termination : inna o2r-sa, Z. 3 $4, 676. 663. M6ry 0. Ir. mdr, m6r (W. mawr), great 
» fumpoi ? (the guttural was lost even in Ghiulish ; cf . Virdomams, Brogi marus [W. 
bro, country], Segomaros [Skr. sahas, strength], lantumams [Ir. ^tmar], Nertomarus 
[Ir. nertmar']) ; cf. /t€7av, mag-nus, Skr. mah-at, for maghant, Goth, mik-ils, ftcf^akov, 
664, Beg (small), 0. Ir. becc, W. bach, c£ Gaul. V Beeco Mocconis fil.," Z. 77. 665. 
Solus, V. supra. 666. Taitknemhach (gl. candidus), from do + aith + nemh ; c£ W. 
ednyf, ednyw (purity, vigour), with which we may, perhaps, connect Adnamatius, Na- 
matius (Gliick, 39), namkain, and Namnetes (Gliick, 140). 667. Sanntaeh (greedy, 
avaricious, covetous) occurs in Z. 78, from sant, with which Z. wrongly compares the 
Gaulish tribe-name Santones, for W. and Bret chwant (invidia, desiderium) points to 
an Old Celtic svanataka. C£ Suanetes, Consuanetes (Gliick, 28, 64). 668. Dtnghala 
— 669. Midinghala (worthy, unworthy), I can in nowise explain, unless, indeed, ding- 
bala be frx)m do-ind-gab41 (acceptabilis). 

670-674. Imdha (gl multus), in Z. 75, imde (multus, abundans) == ambitias, imda, 
gl. opulentus, %b, = ambitvas ? c£ Ambitui, a GhtuHsh tribe-name ; imbed (gL ops 
copia, Z. 75), all from the prep, imm, W. amm, (Gaulish ambi (circa) - Lai amb, Gr. 
<lfi0i', Skr. abhi, £ng. um (in umstroke - circumference, Fuller), which has often an 
intensive meaning. 671. Glan (purus, mundus, clams), mod. W. gl&n, with inor- 
ganic lengthening of the vowel (Gliick, 187, justly compares the Keltic river-name 
Glana), act ranglana, gl. siquis emundaverit se, Z. 454, glantar as (eHditur, Z. 985), 
boi nf roglante and, Z. 1060; cf. Eng. dean, N. H. G. klein? 672. Teire (gl. rarus), 


I Cmioiuly enough, we find many O. Qennan names formed with thia a^J. and identical with Celtic 
appellationa, e. g., Hadnmar (s a Oanliah CatomAroe), W. catmoFi Hlodomar (« a Gaoliah Glotom&roe), 
W. dodliiwr, &a, Qliidc, 78, 81. So Hincmar a Ex-cinoomarna, Signmar, Segimema, hod. Sl^gmar 
s Segomaroe. 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 87 

whence teirce, infra (gL raritudo), thin, scanty. 675. Begy v. supra, 674* Daingen 
no cruaidh (gL duros), daingen glosses firmus, infra, idaingen (infirmus), O'E.'s dain- 
geen, "strong, secure, close;" ism dnn daingen, Z. 30, ''in the strong fort;" daing- 
nigim (gl. moenio), Z. f^. Apparently donjon, £ng. dungeon, are Celtic words, 
perhaps cognate with 0. H. 0. dwingan, Eng. twinge, tongs, tack (Zwecke) : eruaidh, 
"hard, callous, severe," O'B. 

67 j-694. Fliuch, moist, wet = W. gwlyp (= vlicvas ?) ; d, fiiuchidheeht (gl. liquor), 
infra, fliuchaide (humidus, Z. 272 ; fliuchaidatu hnmiditas, Z. 66 ; fliuchaigim, gl. 
lippio, Z. 65 ; fliuchderc, gL lippus, Z. 65 ; cf. Com. glibor (moisture) = W. gwlybwr 
[= Lat liquor], and 0. W. rogulipias, gL olivavit, Z. 420. If fliuch, gwlyp, be, as 
conjectured, from vlicyas, we may be correct in comparing the word with Lat. 
lippus for ylLppus (where pp may have sprung from ^, as in ino^, from akoa, 
Skr. a^va), 0. SIoy. ylugukii, humidus. 676. Doehenilaeh, low-bom, ignoble; cen^l 
genus, gen. ceneiuil » 0. W. cenitol, Z. 172. The dat. sing, of cen^l occurs in 
the following passage in the Book of Armagh, 170, 2, now for the first time cor- 
rectly printed : Conggab patricc iamaid puirt indruimm daro .i. druim lias, Fdcab 
patricc adaltae .n. and benignus aainm 1 fuitinse xuii. annis. Gabais caille lapatricc 
lassar ingen anfolmithe dlehenitU caichdin. Baiade and tar^si .m. benigni triflchtea 
bliadne, ** Patrick afterwards abode at a place [or house— observe the locative of j^or^] 
in Druimm Daro, i. e. Druimm Lias. Patrick left his pupil ther& Benignus was his 
name, and he was therein for 1 7 years. Lassar, a daughter of Anfolmid (?), of the race 
of Caichin, took the veil from Patrick [lit. cepit velum apud Patricium]. Three scores 
of years was she there after Benignus." 677. Fada (long), 0. Ir. fota, Z. 942 ; fote, 
Z. 966, n. pL bithfotai, semper longi, Z. 824. The subst. is fot, Z. 230, gen. fuit, Z. 
66. 678* Cumair (short, brief), 0. Lr. cumbair, whence cumbre (brevitas) ar ehumhri, 
Z. 1074; c£ W. byr, Lat. brevis. 681. Firinaeh — 682. AinfirSnach (just, unjust); 
cf. firi&n (verax, Justus), Z. 115, &c. ; gen. pL/hignimaib ferfirean (Patrick's hymn), 
firianugud (justice, justification), Z. 53, 346; firianigedar (justifies), Z. 445. Cf. 
W. gwirion, from gwir-iawn: iawn is "equity," "just," "meet;" cf. 0. Lr. in 
(" wealth," nom. pi. and gen. pL ane, dat. pi. dnib, ace pi. anu, Z. 934, a masc. 
u-stem), with which Dr. Siegfried is inclined to connect the Zend yana (see Haug, 
Die &dthdU, p. 42). 683. Brin (gl. fetidus), br^naim (puteo), br^ntu (foetor), Z. 
1085; c£ W. braen (rotten), braenu (to moulder); perhaps connected with braigim 
pedo, Z. 43 1 , the g being lost before i», as in the instances quoted eupra, 684. Scdaeh 
(gL sordidus), t^. No. 616. 688. TempoU, from templum, 88-^689. Taibeme, from ta- 
bema, and— -691. Beilie (gL simitheiium, a cemetery), from reliquis (observe the hard 

e = qv, 

88 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

c =^ qVf as in mac), gen. sing, tunchell na relgi, " round the cemetery" (Leah. Breacc. 
cited Lib. Hymn. ed. Todd, 51). 693. AdMueadh (gl. sepnlcliram), Adhlaead (gL mo- 
numentum), infra, No. 759, are etymologically obscure to me. Can they be a cor- 
ruption of adnacul (sepulcrum), Z. 731 (i slebti adranact cremthann, ** C. was buried 
in Sletty/' Book of Armagh, 17 &)? with which, perhaps, vecvv, Zend. na9U, Skr. r. 
nag, "to die," Lat. nex, nox, Ir. nocht, may be connected. 694. Edail (gl. lu- 
crum), O'E. eadail, leg. eadail, W. ennill (masc.) a antalli ? (gain, profit, acquired 
wealth). GkieL eudail, ''treasure," cattle, feudail, ''cattle," "herds," (with inorganic 
prefixing of/?). 

695-^99. Mirhail (gl. miraculum, wonder), an i-stem, ace. pL dogni in noemog-sa 
na mirbul* mora (this holy virgin performed the great miracles), Leabhar Breacc, cited 
by Dr. Todd, Lib. Hymn. 65. This word is taken from mirabile. 696. BaeMog (gL 
monaculum, i. e. monaculus ?) ; should we read bachlog, and is this a playful dimin. 
fi*om bachal = baculus, crozier ? Or is this word connected in meaning with bachlach 
(famulus), supra f and is monaculum a contemptuous word for servant, slave, a mean- 
ing often attributed to manach (monachus) in Irish, as will be seen from a note on 
S. Hilary's hymn in Dr. Todd's ed. of Lib. Hymn. 699. Diner (gl. jentaculum), from 
the English dinner, 

700-708. Criathar (gl. crlbrum, sieve) = cr^tara, Com. croider, Bret, krouezer : 
glosses cerebrum in Z. 22 (the scribe having obviously mistaken cerebrum for cribrum) : 
Skr. root krl, to pour out. C£ Kfnicepa, Benfey, G. W. ii. 171. 701. MuiUnd (gl. 
molendinum), Muileand (gl. pistrinum), infra, No. 711, mulenn (gl. pistrinum), Z. 740, 
is probably, like W. Com. and Bret, melin, frx)m the Latin mdlendlnum (m51o) ; cf. 
muilneoir, a miller, O'D., Gr. xxxiv. Though the word for mill may be a foreign 
word, the root is certainly in Celtic : cf. Jr. meilim (I grind), W. malu (to grind) ; and 
c£ f^vKnif 0. H. G. muli, Lith. malunas, Eng. mill. 703. Garrga (gl. atrium, hall), 
said to be " court-yard," "enclosure" (but read garga, and c£ Skr. grha, house?). 
703. Tiradh (gl. torritoriunif if this be what our careless copyist had before him), leg. 
tfradh (kiln-drying), for tirsadh? tirme (ariditas), tfrim (aridus), both in Z. 1070, gl. 
1 5, ho tirmai .i. co na bf tirim (from dryness, i. e. that it be not dry), tfr (terra), all 
from Skr. r. trsh (tars), to thirst, " urspriinglich offenbar trocknen, vgL gr. rdpc-o^ 
fuu. Das goth. thaursja ich trockne, euphonisch fiir thursja (und dieses fur tharsja) 
stiitzt sich wie das lat. torreo (aus torseo) auf die skr. causalform tarshdy&mi" (Bopp, 
vergl. gramm. 2te ausg. i. 105). One would have expected the r doubled as in earr 
{iuprd), Skr. karaha, " dragging." 704. Orlar, leg. orldr ? (gL vestibulum, a fore- 
court), lir, W. llawr is solum. Can the or be » wa/^a ? cf. Ar-morica, wapaKia, or is or 


A MedicevcU Tract on Latin Declension. 89 

for our, and this for air, Gaul, are, as in doatirchanim (gL sagio), Z. 10. 705. Stoe- 
ranna (stirpidivortium, separation of a stock), from stoc (stirps) — of. Com. stoc, gl. 
stirps — ^and ranna (leg. rannadh ?), a division, parting, ^ote the assimilation of the first 
a in ranna to the of stoc, and cf. ocond, ocon, oco, Z. 594. 706. Cns trihhuU (gL lum- 
barinm), "belt of the trowsers" (tribhus, v. aupra). 707. Sgomachan (gl. epiglotum, 
the epiglottis) : sgomachan, says C, is now " a long-necked fellow/' cf. Gael, sgdmach, 
" throat, neck." 708. Crombeol, gL gemonum (if I read the words rightly), a mous- 
tache (cf. with gemonum 0. Fr. grignon, grenon, guemon, " bart sowohl der oberHppe 
wie des kinnes," Diez, E. W. 182, and 0. H. G. granl (plur.), M. H. D. gran, 0. N. 
gron, there cited. I know not if there ever was such a word as granni, " long hair," 
O'B., but it is possible there was, as grannaidh (hair) occurs in Gaelic. I have never 
met crombeol, except in the Anglicised form crommeal : — 

" They tell me the stranger has given command 
That erommeal and ooolon shall cease In this land." 

S. Frrqusox. 

709-719. Sgeota (gL cartesium), spelt — 710. Sgeotha (gL sacritegium) seems to be a 
bag or waUet for carrying ecclesiastical books or utensils. C. quotes : Scedta nan aid- 
bheadh ar muin chleirig riachois, Book of Fermoy, SSh,h, 711. MuilUand, leg. mui- 
leann (gl. pistrinum, a pounding-miU), v, supra, No. 701 . 712. Cliathach (gl. clastrum) 
seems to be an enclosure made of hurdles, from cliath, as to which v, attpra. In Gaelic 
this word means "the fr^me of the ribs," "the chest." 713. Teeh na merdreaeh (gL pros- 
tibulum), "the harlots' house." 714* Braicein (gl. redimiculum, a band, girdle), is, 
perhaps, a garter (frx)m bracc-a?). 716. Bile (gL ventilogium, a weathercock, Dief.) 
seems a blunder ; hiky so far as I know, has in Ireland only the two meanings : 
"border," and "old tree" (such, e. g., as grows by a holy well or in a fort). In 
Scotland it also means "leaflet," "blossom." 717. Cm (gl. stragulum, covering, 
mg, horse-cloth) is the Com. peis, gL tunica, pows (tunica), Z. 123, peus gruec, gl. 
toral, Z. 124, W. pais, pL peisiau, Z. 1121. Cf. cass-ock? 718. Dithen (gL lolium, 
darnel), 0'R.*s dithein, W. Uys dyn. 719. Grand gleata, leg. gUsta (gL plectrum, the 
stick for striking the chords of a harp or other stringed instrument) ; crand ( W. pren), 
0. Ir. crann, has occurred frequently, suprd, : gliata, gen. sing, of glesadh ; cf GaeL 
gleusadh, " a tuning," " act of tuning," &c O'R has gleusaim, " I prepare, tune, 
arrange ;" gl^us, " key or gamut in music." C£ W. glwys, " pure, pleasant." 

720-724. Teine creasa (gl. igniferrium), fire of [the] girdle, i. e. flint-steel-and- 
tinder ; as to teine (MS. teinf), r. supra, and compare Zend ta&u (hot) ex tapittj, as 
Ir. suan (sleep), W. hun is from svapna ; creasa, gen. of oris, which occurs supra in 

N cris 

90 A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

cris tribhuisy gl. Imnbarium. 721. Dubhradan (gL Bcmpulum), leg. dubhradAn? I have 
never met elsewhere ; perhaps it is a dimin. of dubhradh, '^ shade, eclipse/* O'R., and 
may mean '' trouble/' '' anxiety/' figurative meanings of scrupulus, properly a pointed 
pebble. 722. Tuairgin (gl. teretorium, i e. tritura). The 0. Ir. verb and subst. 
occur in Z. 853 : doftiaircc (triturat) : ar is b^s leosom in daim do tMutreuin (''for 
it is a custom with them for the oxen to thresh") ; and pistor is glossed by fer d^nma 
bairgine tiMrcain, dofuaircitis inna gran la arsidi, '' a man who makes bread [lit. a 
man of making of bread] by pounding : among the ancients they used to pound the 
grains/' and tuarcun glosses tribulatio, comthuarcon, contritio, Z. 738. 725. Cluam 
gahdla (gl. herbagium) : cluain, of which the dat. occurs in Z. xxxii. hi cluain mac- 
cunois, is a meadow, a lawn, in Scotch Gaelic also " a bower/' ^ cloni, W. clyn, 
" brake/' " thicket :" cf. Cluni^um, hocL Clugny ; gabdla, gen. of gabail (capere, 
captio), and cluain gabala is, according to C, an Irish legal term for '' an appropriated 
field, a field not held in common." 724. Caire (gl. caldarium, " a vessel containing 
warm water for bathing"), W. pair (caldron), Com. per, Fr. pair-ol, generally means 
caldron (as in Coire Breccdin, Conn., now Corryvreckan). It also means '' a hollow 
or cul de sac in the mountains," Reeves, Yit. CoL 88, where Coire Salchain occurs, 
and in this sense has been adopted into the English language as ''corry/' coire 
~ KAKBiA or PAKBiA, r. KAX, PAK (No. 240, mprd\ as der = haxpy, Goth, tagr ; fiar, 
W. gwyr = vakra, varus ; sar = Skr. 9akra, Lat sacer ; mar = /uajc/>dv. 

725-729. Longport (gl. castrom), leg. longphort - W. llongborth (ship-harbour) ; 
hngport glosses Bosad in H. 3, 1 8, p. 523. It is not easy to see how its elements — 
long ship {v. 9upra) and port (a house, place, harbour) — can when combined express 
the idea of castrum. Fort, gen. and loc. sing, puirt, dat sing, purt (Lib. Hymn. ed« 
Todd, 13) is, perhaps, connected with Zend peretu, Eng. ford. Dief. G. W. iL 365. 
726. MainUter^ gen. manestrech, Z. xxviii., from monasterium, but with a remarkable 
change to the (^-declension. 727. Fortaeht (gl. sufGragiom), here ''a favourable 
decision /' cf. fortachtid, gl. fautor, Z. 766, 845 ; ace. s. fortachtain, Z. 270, a fem. 
n-stem, generally ''assistance." The verb occurs in Leab. Breacc (cited by Todd, 
L. H. 65), is hifortaiges9 da [leg. dona, dna ?] cech oen bis cumca ecus in guasacht 
(she it is, then, that helps every one who is in anguish and ia danger) ; fortaeht, Z. 
195 : CO fordumth^sidse, "that ye may help me," Z. 335 : fortiag (gl. conniveo), 
Z. 438. 728. Proindteeh (gl. refectorium), and — 729. Coddlteeh (gl. dormitorium), 
are, respectively, compounds of tech, house, with proind, W. prain, from Lat, pran- 
dium, and oodal, whence eodlaim, I sleep, O'B. The 0. Ir. contul (?) dormio (ma eonatH 
si dormis, Z. 1053, cantuil each uadib fors^t, Eiacc, 31) appears connected with this. 


A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 9 1 

Proinditeeh (spelt prainiech) occurs in the Book of Armagh, 18 }, i : ainn ifiiirBitis in 
toroc arimbad and fdrmimtis a,praintech. 

730-739. Speilp (gL coopeitoriumy i. e. cooperimentnm? cooperculnm ?) is ex- 
plained "a belt, armour," by O'R, but by C. " a girdle or swathe of linen." 731. 
ISmna (gL dolium, a large jar), exactly 0. Norse tunna, is '' a cask" in O'B. ; hardly 
a Celtic word; c£ W. tynell, Com. tonnel, Bret tonel, French tonneau, M. H. G. 
tonne, £ng. tun, &c. 732. 8e%ehe (gl. corium), '' a hide, or skin," O'R., GaeL seiche, 
•eieh^ setc, 734* IntUeht (gl. ingenium), in 0. Ir. intliucht, intsliucht (» andeslictus ?), 
intellectus, sensus, Z. 42, 849, 230, gen. intliuchta, Z. 63 : sliucht, Z. 970, a masc. 
u-stem, compounded with the prep, ind (= Gaulish ande) which aspirates, and the d 
of which becomes i before aspirated 9. 735. Sendis, old age, from sen (old) » sena-s 
(Gtaulish Seno-magus, Zend, hana), and &is (age), a masc. i-stem, which Ebel would 
connect with Skr. ayus, but this would be a solitary instance of the preservation of an 
original final 9. Ais, perhaps, stands for ^issi-s ex aivs-i-s: c£ 0. W. %n om oisoudh^ the 
mod. W. yn oes oesoedd, Z. 298 : Com. huis. 737. Lo9cad (gL incendium, burning) ; 
dat sing, do lo9eudy Z. 768, loiscdib (gL essis), f^. forloiscthe (gl. igne exanimatus), 
Z. 845 ; c£ Com. lose (arsura, ustulatio), W. Uosg, Bret. losk. 738. Martra (gl. mar- 
tyrium), like martir, a martyr, Colm. 19, W. merthyr) is a foreign word. 0. Ir. 
martre : filus trechenelsD nuvrtre daneu adrimiter ar cruich da duiniu^ mad esgre baan 
martie ocus glas martre ecus derc martre, *' now there are three kinds of martyrdom 
which are considered as man's cross, that is to say [lit. if thou sayest], white mar- 
tyrdom, and green martyrdom, and red martyrdom," Z. 1007 ; dul martre tarfarcennsi, 
Z. 61 8, ''to Bufier martyrdom for your sake;** hence martre appears to be a fern* i&-stem. 
739. TaiU (gl. salarium, wages), cf. W. ^, pL talion (payment), tcXo?, tcXciu. 

740-744. Soiler (gL solarium, sun-dial? house-top? Gterm. soller). Com. soler 
(Z. iii) ; solarium is glossed by solam in Z. 733, which looks a genuine Irish word, 
and gives a favourable idea of the material civilization of the Irish ecclesiastics in the 
eighth and ninth centuries, especially when we consider their native words for napkin 
(lambrat Us tar glune, gl. mappa, gl. mantile, i. e. a napkin that is over the knees, 
Z. 613 ; limbrat (gL gausape), Z. 820), for canal, or, perhaps, water-pipe (lothur, gl. 
canaliB, lothor, gL alveal, Z. 744, for bath : fotharcud, Z. 893, infra fothragad) ; but, 
above all, for usury (fogbaidetu for fogaibthetu, Z. 844). 741. SeaUad (MS. sealL), 
(gl. sellarium) a pantry, eidUadh, ''a cell, O'B. 742. Qroigh (gL equitium), a stud 
of horses, GaeL greighj s. f., an i-stem » gragi-s, cf. Lat. greg (grex), W. gre (herd, 


1 lit. are counted for a croflB to a haman being : glas s glasta : cf . glastnm, woad. 

N 2 

92 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

stud). 744. MuinSl (gl. coUunii neck), Gbel. muinealy gen. -eil = W. mwnwgl; cf. 
muinde, gl. coUarium, muinntorc, gl. torques, Z. 764, where is also muinse, which 
I suspect is a misreading or misprint for muince (necklace) ; cf. mong, W. mwng, 

745-749. Druim (back, ridge) : gen. sing, drommo, dat. druimm, occur in the Book 
of Armagh, 170, i : Issf inso coibse f^tho fio -| acdocht dibliadin rembas dau duman- 
chuib drommo lias "] dumaithib callrigi it[er] crochaingel -| altoir drommo lids nadconfil 
finechas fordruimm leas act cen^l fetho fio ma beith nech besmaith diib bescraibdech 
beschuibsech dinchlaind manip^ du^castar dds inetar dimuintir drommo lids 1. diaman- 
chib Manietar dubber decrud dimuintir patricc inte . . . [" This is the commimication 
of F^th Fio and his bequest, two years before his death, to the monks of Druim Lids 
and to the nobles of Callrige, as well the chancel as the altar (L e. as well the lay- 
men as the clerics) of Druim Lids : Let there not be finechas (inheritance of kindred, 
fine ?) on Druim Lias (L a let it not devolve according to the law of finechas) but the 
race of Feth Fio, if any one of them be good — if any one of the clan be pious and 
decent. If there be not, let it be seen if there be one of the family of Druim Lids, or 
of its monks. Unless one be found, place a member of Patrick's family into it."] 
Druim occurs in Z. in composition with the numeral noin (9) : mochoe noia-drommo, 
" Mochoe of Nendrum" (Nine-ridge), now Mahee Islaad, in Strangford Lough (Todd, 
L. H., 100). 746. Ceilehradh eotn is " a bird's warbling," eeilebradh, firom celebratio : 
the verb ceilebraim means " I bid farewell;" lase celebirsimme (gl. cum ualefecissemus). 
Book of Armagh, 1 84 i. ; mleahhar, " chirping like birds," O'E. ; coin gen. sing, of 
en (Z. 82 : gen. ind^i^in, Z. 24) = atina, W. edyn. G£ 0. W. tf^n-coilhaam (gl. au- 
Rpicio), Z. 130; setinct (volucres), Z. 169 ; Cohl idne (auceps), Z. 784. Has an initial 
p been lost by these words, and dare we compare (with Dr. 8iegMed) Terofiai, ve- 
T€ijva, Lat. penna (for petna — W. adan), Eng. feather (0. W. eterinn, avis, sin- 
gularis, Z. 300 : atar, aves : collect, ih,), Crand toehartaigh is ^' a reel ;" c£ tocha- 
raim, "I wind up, I reel," O'R., Gael tachras, "winding, act of winding yamj" 
gyrgyrium (if I read the word rightly — ^in Med. Lat. generally girgillus) seems formed 
by reduplication from gyrare. (See Pott as to this word, Zeits. L 309.) 747. Inchinn 
(gL cerebrum), the brain, Qael. eanehainn, W. emennyd, Com. impinion, Bret, empenn: 
gen. inchinne : La sodain doU^ci dia feraib fidchilli don techtaire com boi for Idr a 
inehinne (Tdin bo Cuailgne in the Lebar na Uidre), thus rendered by O'D., Lebar na 
Cert bdv. : "With that he cast [one] of his chessmen at the messenger, so that it 
pierced to the centre of his brain :" inchinn is an i-stem, from in (= ande ?), and eenn, 
head. The word is formed like c^ce^aXov. 748. Stol, leg. etdl (gL scanum, i. e. 


A Mediasval Tract on Latin Declension. 93 

scamnum), W. ystawl, fern. : both, no doubt, from Eng. stool, A. S. stoL 749. Fir- 
mamintf like Com. fiimament, W. ffurfafen, of course from firmamentum. 

750-758. Mir pluCf gL rabigorium, is altogether obscure to me. Possibly it may 
mean " the (top) red part of the cheeks." Cf. GaeL wtr, '* the top or summit :" pluc^ 
pluie, ploe, "cheek," 0*R. 751. Luach faisfUise^ (if I read the last word aright) is 
" reward of information," ; inventorium from invenio, in the sense of discover (" scis, 
Pamphilam meam invmtam civem?"). 752. Innarhad (gl. exilium), for indarbad; 
cf. indarpe (ejectio), Z. 591, gen. -pi, dat. -pu, Z. 246; indarbad expulsus est, 0*D. 
Or. 291 ; isan indarhe, gl. in repulsam, Z. 247 ; aren indarhe analchi ood (that he 
banish vices from him), Z. 1003 ; tre indarpae .de. asin mascul (per ablationem syl- 
labee de a masculine), Z. 848 ; nachimr'indarpai-se quod non me repulit, Z. 848 ; 
nachitr'indarpither (ne sis exheredatus) ; innarhar hires dam trf drochgnimu, " Faitli 
also is banished by evil deeds" (note the assimilation of the d) ; the ind (Gaulish ande, 
8kr. adhi) here signifying motion from something (Z. 848), which something is, in the 
present instances, arbe, orpe, heritage (gen. orpi), Z. 234, a neut ia-stem, which 
s N. H. G. erbe, Ang. S. yrfe neut, as in Beowulf, 6093, ed. Thorpe. Cf. also na berat 
an erpther doib, " let them (slaves) not take away what is committed to them," Z. 458 : 
nom^tm^m (me trade, confide), Z. 43 1 : nobirpaid (confiditis) ro atr^tha (commissum 
est), Z. 7. 753. Oilemain, gl. alimentum, root al, as to which v. supra, 754. AirgCj 
" a herd," O'R., «?. suprd, 755. Tormach (increase). 756. Mithormach (decrease), tor- 
machy leg. tormach » do-for-mac-a, Z. 1051, gl. 26; tormachtaid (auctor), Z. 766; 
tormachtai (aucta), Z.983 ; doformgat (augent), Z. 854; doformagar, tormagar (augetur), 
doformmagddar (augentur), Z. 854. Here again we find the Skr. root mah. 757. 
£daeh (clothing), 0. Ir. ^tach, Z. 442, ^itach, Z. 1050, geu. setig, Z. 857, aetich, Z. 
105 1, a neut. a-stem, as in Z. 235, gaibid immib anetaeh mace coimsa, ''put around 
ye the raiment of sons of mercy." 758. Ogdhamh (gl. jumentum, a beast of burthen), 
Ut. young ox ; c£ ogbho, leg. ogbho, O'K ; 6g = 0. Ir. 6c (oclachdi, gl. juvenilia, 
ocmil (s yavanca-mllit), gl. tyro, Z. 60 ; ocmiledu, gL athletas, Gildas). Oc « 0. W. 
iouenc, W. ieuane « Eng. young = juvencus, which shows that our Irish word has 
not only lost v and n in the middle of the word, but j (y) at the beginning. The 
original is ta-vavka., the a in the first syllable being found in the Skr. comparative 
and the super! yavishtha, and in 'laoi'ev, which Lassen has equated with juvenes. The 
stem has been recognised by Dr. SiegMed in the 0. Ir. comparative 6a, '' less" (= W. 
iau s Skr. yaviyans), and superlative oam (gl. minimus, Z. 286) = W. ieuaf. Z., p. 


I In the MS., faini, with an oval mark over ai, and a mark like a long s between n and i. 

94 -A MeduBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

60, points out another word in 0. Ir. which has lost initial/, viz., aig (gl. cristaUuB, 
Z. 60), the corresponding W. word ia («= yag), ice, and the Breton adj. yen (= yagin), 
icy, still retaining the semi-yowel. C£ also uisse with Lai Justus, from which, how- 
ever, I do not think it taken. Consider A. Weher's remark (Ind. Stud. iv. 598), 
" yos for yavas, from ^ja, to join : cf. Lat. jus, Zend yaos, in the verb yaozhda." 
In other words, such as fsu (Jesus), ice (salus), W. iechyt, fth (gl. puis, Z. 60), W. 
iot, the j has blent with the following rowel, and produced 1. Damh will be consi- 
dered infra. No. 858. 

760-769. Timna (gl. testamentum), 0. Ir. timne : ''is taschide timns d6e do cho. 
malnad," Z. 897 (''it is necessary to fulfil God's commandment''). This timne is a 
ncut. ia-stem. 761 . Inttrumint, like^766. Saltair (gL psalterium) is a foreign word. 
762. Didin (gL tegmentum), 0. Ir. dftiu, gen. dften, v, supra, 763. Midugud (gl. 
augmentum), from miidy gl. magnitude, infra, 764. Spuireeh (gL fragmentum), from 
the same root, probably, as W. ysbwrial, sweepings, ysborion, refuse, SpruilUaeh, gL 
fragmen, infra, 765. Duillen (gl. folium), W. dalen, deilen. Com. delen, Bret, delien, 
pi. deliou, Gaulish dula in vef»treBov\a quinquefolium : frevraffivWop 'FtM>ft<uoi c<7cc- 
(p6\iovfif TaWot weforihovXa [alia lectio vofiiraihovXa] ^aicoi wpaireBovXd, Dioscorides, 
4, 42, cited Z. 324. Z. thinks that dula « folium, b-l-at. Celtic d may certainly some- 
times be s Lat. /, because we know that at the beginning of a word the latter often 
represents bh. The double / in duillen seems due to an original semi-vowel. Cf. 
</)v\\ov s fpvkjov, fol-i-um. But what is the -en ? A trace in Irish of the singulative 
forms of her Celtic sisters ? 767. Liii (gl. pulmentum), GaeL lit, lite, is porridge. 
Cf. W, llith, " meal soaked in water." 768. Uaithne (gL dipodium, if I rightly read 
this strangely contracted word, ff =^ di f i. e. two fs) is a kind of rhyme in Irish 
verse, discussed in O'D. Gr. 418. Our scribe does not seem to have been veiy deep 
in Greek, hiroBui being " two feet combined into one metre." 769. Bidhgadh (gl. 
pavementum), O'R.'s hiodgadh, "stirring, rousing, startling;" Gael, hiodhgaih, "a 
stirring up, sudden emotion." 

770-777. Cai (gL lamentum, " wailing, weeping") occurs in Conn., but I omitted 
to note where, also (spelt coi) in Lib. Hymn. (fol. 3, a, and p. 72, ed. Todd, where 
the mark of length is omitted). 772. Ced (gl. centum), 0. Ir. c^t, Skr. qata-m, 
Zend 9atS-m, k-Karo-v, Lat. centu-m, Goth, and 0. H. G. themes, hunda, hunta. 
Here the Welsh and Bret., as usual, surpass the Irish and Cornish in retaining 
intact the combination nt; W. and Bret cant. Com. cans. In composition c^t 
aspirates. Thus Conn c^tchathach " loo-battled Conn." 773. Dd (2), in 0. Ir. in- 
flected with dual-endings, nom. masc. andn. dau for dv&v (originally dvam?), gen. da 


A MeduBvcd Tract on Latin Declension. 95 

not aspirating = Skr. dvayos? dat dib(n)' (= Skr. dyabhyam?), ace. da for dvav. 
The fern, was nom. di = dva), Skr. dye, Lat. duae, gen. da, dat. dib(n), ace. df. In 
oompoaition this numeral was d^, which is curious, as the Skr. is dyl, and 6r. 6i, Zend 
and Lat bi-, A. S. ivL In 0. W. dou masc. dui fem. 774. 2H, masc. and neut. (3) 
does not aspirate, having ended in the nom. originally in s; the 0. Ir. forms for the 
feuL of this numeral are teoir, teora, gen. teora (n), dat teoraib, ace. teora. Of 
these, teoir is obscure to me ; teora, teora (n), seem to be formed &om an extended 
theme. In 0. Welsh, tri masc. teir fem, which last is the mod. tair. 'j'j^. Ceithre 
(4), I have never met in 0. Ir., though cethri occurs in the Lib. Hymn, (a MS., I 
should say, of the eleventh century). The 0. Ir. forms are cethir, masc. and neut. 
(= W. petuar, Skr. nom. masc. chatvaras, neut chatvari, Gk)th. fidvor), and ce- 
theora fem. CJorm. (We may expect to find a cetheoir = W. peteir, Skr. chatasral) 
776. Ciiig (5), 0. Ir. coic = Lat. quinque, Skr. panchan, Zend, panchan, arci/Te, ^ol. 
irdfiire^ Goth. fimf, £ng. five. The non-occurrence of what may be called a trans- 
ported f^ after coic before vowels and medials (except of course in the gen.) might 
be regarded as confirming Bopp's assumption that the final nasal in the Indo-Zend 
pancha-n is a later addition, were it not that the Welsh pump nasalises an initial 
medial, and should therefore, according to Aufrecht, Beitr. i. 105, have ended in n. 
However, this phenomenon seems quite modem (cf. pump gwraged, 5 women, not 
pump ngwraged, Z. 325, quoting the Mabinogion, iiL 101), and is probably owing 
to the infiuence of the m, 'j'j'j. Se (6), W. chwech = svecs, originally ksvaks, Zend, 
khsvas, the final s (= Lat. x, Gr. f , Skr. sh, Goth, hs) is retained in the ordinal «^«-e-d, 


1 As in the foUowing ezAmples: for deib fidillib (according to two declensions), Z. 277 ; indib hxuaib 
detc, Z. 312 (in 12 [2+10] hours); in an dib fiairechtaib dennandb (in their two vast assemblies), 
Adaam&n*s Vision, and with the n changed to m before b : Doluid Oengos con did mbuidnib aracheud 
dia marbnd (O. went with two troops before him to slay him), Trip. Life of Patrick. 

* A curious Celtic (Pictish ?) form of this numeral is found in composition in the name CbMtr-thiacus, 
given to S. Patrick, " because he served four houses (households ?) of druids.** It occurs in the foDowing 
passage (Book of Armagh, 9, a, 2): — ** Tlrech&nepiscopus hec scripsit ex ore uel libro ultani episoopi cuius 
ipse alompnns uel discipulus ftiit Inueni .1111. nomina in libro scripta patricio apud ultanum episcopum 
ooadrabumensinm sanctus magonns qui est clarus [cf. "Apollini Granno Moffovno"'] suocetus qm est [dens 
belli 860 the gloss on the Lib. Hymn, copy of Fiaoc's Hymn, v. 2, where this name is spelt sueeai] 
patridus oothirthiacus quod seruiuit .1111. domibus magorum et empsit iUnm onus ex eis cui nomen erat 
milinc maocuboin magus." (See Lib. Hymn. ed. Todd, p. 27.) 

> Z. calls this a prosthetic n, which conveys an erroneous idea. Irish grammarians call it an eclipsing 
n. I have, I believe, proved that this n has almost always originally belonged to the termination of the 
word iaimediately preceding that to which it seems prefixed. 

g6 A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

W. chweched. A remarkable form of this numeral is involved in mor-fes-er, seven 
persons, literally great-six-persons. I incline to the opinion that here, as in the fonns 
fiur, fiar (= Skr. svasr), above quoted, the /was unaspirable, and stands for sv (of. 
¥€^icovTa^ FefaKanoi^ Fcjctov, on the Tabulffi Herad.) — ^that for this /we sometimes 
find ph written (of. mo phethar-BVi for mo /(^/mtt-bu, urphaisiu, gL cancer, for ur- 
faisiu) ; but that there is no good ground for regarding a form like the Gaelic piu- 
thair as ancient. 

778-788. Cruithnecht, gl. frumentum ; gen. sing, cruithnechta, Z. 193 ; cruith- 
nechtide, gL ceritus, Z. 765. 779. Uoma (gl. hordeum), barley: here, as in 6c 
(= young), perhaps both y and v have been lost ; and, if we assume the addition of the 
Celtic derivative syllable -am-, we may compare Skr. and Zend yava, Gr. feo. 780. 
Jfeirse (gl. merciamentum), cf. Fr. merci, Lat merces. 781. ZorA, gl. stagnum » lacu-s, 
gen. sing. : otha crich drommo .nit. cuglais tamlachtae dvhlocho, Book of Armagh, 
17 a, 2, a stem in u, gen. dual: dun dd lacha (Fled duin nan ged, 80) = lac(u)a8? 
Loch = Lat. lacus, Bret and Com. lagen. 782. Lemnachty gl. mulsum, i. e. wine mixed 
with honey (lemnach, gL mulsum, Z. 777), is 0'R.'s leamnachd, "sweet milk," et sic 
hodie, 783. Medhg (gL serum, whey), W. maidd, 0. Fr. m^gue, Germ, matten. 
784. Imj leg. imm (gl. butyrum), in Conn, imb (0. W. emmeni, Z. 130, W. ymenin, 
Bret, amann). Imm occurs in the nom. sing, with the masc. article in a MS. of T. C. D. 
(H. 3, 18, p. 433), cited in Petrie's Tara, 190: ni ba leghtha inttVn, "the butter 
was not dissolved;" gruth "| imw, pre£ to Secundinus* hymn (Todd, Lib. Hymn, 
p. 32), " cheese and butter" (grath = Eng. curd). Gen. sing. : Fecht naile luid 
rechtaire rfg bretan do chuinchid chfsa grotha "] imme comuime patricc, " at another 
time the steward of the King of the Britons came to Patrick's nurse to demand tribute 
of cheese and butter." — Trip. Life of Patrick. Dr. Siegfried has acutely suggested 
that the l of imb may be for g (c£ bo « Skr. g&us, brobn [gl. molae. Book of Armagh, 
10, a, 2 j = Goth, qvaimus, bfu = Skr. j)va), and that the word may, accordingly, be 
connected with the Skr. anji, ointment, ungere, &c Cf. Germ, anke, butter, and see 
Grimm, Gesch. d. d. Spr. iL p. 1003. 785. Utnnimint (gL unguentum), seems derived 
from a Med. Lat ungimeutum, or perhaps from Eng. ointment, dr, Airged, Luaidhe, 
Sdan, la/ran^ have been noticed 9i^a (606-610). 791. Mitall, from metallum. 
792. Luaeh lesa is, says C, " the reward paid by a pupil to his tutor ;" fer lesa, he 
says, is "a guardian." C£ leamghadh, " education," 0*R. ; Gael, kasachadh, improv- 
ing : Ittach seems a sister-form of 16-g, lua-g, gen. logo, Z. 432, dat. luag, supra. The 
root seems lav, found in Lat. Lav-ema, Ki-cru-m, Skr. 16-ta (booty, loot), Xi^-l^v, Xa- 
rpi'V (hired servant), Goth, lau-n, anda-launi, Curtius, G. E. L 329. 793. Bealach (gl. 


A MedicBvcd Tract on Latin Declension. 


alministram) I cannot explain : alministrum is like almnnicium (amice ?), Die£ Lat.- 
Gbrm. Gloss. : bealach generally means ''a road/' or ''a mountain-pass/' ** defile." 
Beoladh is " anointing." 794. Srehhan (gL nuchtun, a membrane) : 9rebhan na 
hinchinne, ''membrane inclosing the brain," C; cf. sreibnaide, gL membranaceus, 
Z. 765. 

795-808. Soihstar (gl. gladiolum), sedge, flaggers, flenr de lis, O^E.'b feleastar, 
feleastrom, seilistrom^ sileastar, seilisdeir, and 8(>ilea»tar ! The last form comes nearest 
to the Lat salicastram, " bitter-sweet," and if this be the etymon, we should write 
•aiUstar: TV. and Com. elestren. 796. Sgartach (gl. propheticum) is "roaring out," 
according to O^D., GaeL sgairteaeh (clamosos), firom spairf (exclamatio). 797. Fidhba 
(gl. falcastrum) is the TV. gwyddif, " a hedging-bill," 0. W. gadif, gudhyf scalprum, 
from fid = wood, and the root ben, be, Z. 44. With gudif I should be inclined to 
compare a word utidimm, which Z. gives as a gloss on lignismus (a woodman's axe, 
lignicisimus, Ducange). But in the facsimile, published by Vicomte H. de la Ville- 
marqu^, of the part of the MS. (BibL Bodl. 572, fo. 42) from which Z. purports to take 
this form, it stands distinctly undtminK Maith, Ole, Taithneamaehy Oeal, Dubh, Imdha, 
Beg, Mdr, have been noticed supra (from 659 to 673). 803. Buidhe (yellow), buide, 
gl. flavus, Z. 727, an adjectival ia-stem. Such stems were thus declined : — 







Sing. N. nue 


nue (n) 





G. niii 



nue (n) 

nue (n) 

nue (n) 

D. nuu 






Ac. n^e (n) 

nui (n) 

ntie (n) 



nui (nue) 

V. niii 





nui (nue) 

And adjectival a-stems were thus declined : 

: — 







Sing. N. mall 


mall (n) 





G. maill 



mall (n) 

mall (n) 

mall (n) 

D. maull 






A. mall(n) 

maill (n) 

mall (n) 




V. maill 






Adjectives agreeing 

with nouns in the dual are always put in 

the pluraL 

804. Rtahh- 


1 In the "Archives des MisBions ScientifiqneB et LittSnires," t« vol., laesimile No. iv., Paris, 1856. 


98 A Afedictval Tract an Latin Declension. 

meh ^gL fiL^cum, swarthy): etjmologicallj obscure to me. S07. MtMuHka (gL mo- 
dicam), from menxura, with the nsoal loss of n before t. Cf. mesraigthe ^gL modestos), 
Z. 743, O. W. doga0mi<mr (gL geo, L e. mensuro), Z. 1076. 808. Roheg (gL mini- 
mom), from beg, by prefixing the intensive particle r6,ro- Lai. pro, Skr. pra. 

810-816. Lu9 (gL pomim) = leek. Com. les, W. Uysiau, "herbe." What (811) 
tnleman can he, I know not. 812. Nem (hearen) also once fNm, in Z. nf aita ni mm 
ni domna ni muir ar noibbriathraib rolabrastar Crist assa chroich, " neither height nor 
hearen, nor depth nor sea Barpaseea* the holy words that Christ spoke from his croas," 
Z. ; W. and Com. nef, Bret ^nv : oil Slav, nebo, *' heayen." l^em (gen. sing, nime, 
gen« pL a choimdin secht nimef ** Lord of seven heavens," Oingos) — ^is a fern, i-stem 
• namiy perhaps for nabi, originally a stem in t, like 8kr. nabhas, Or. re0o« — (m finom 
bhf as in 14m, fhmi r. labh). Original stems in t have, with the exception of mf, 
month, gen, mis, invariably ceased to be inflected according to the consonantal declen- 
sion. Thus, clii, '^ glorjr" = Skr. ^ravas, cXclFot. The following have gone over to the 
vocalic declension : geine, Lat. genus, 7eyot : Uge, " bed" » Xexot: snide, " seat," Skr. 
sadas, tiof: corp, Lat corpus: ucht, Lat. pectus. With the suffix am — h(am, iarann 
(Chiulish Isamo-), Skr. ayas, Lat aes. What the t in 4is, ois {" age," which Ebel 
compares with Skr. &yus) can be, is not easy to say, r. fii/r«, No. 1071. 814. RaitmU 
(gL rastrum), rastal in Conn., O'lt's rasdal (a rake), perhaps from the Lat rastrmn ; 
cf. W. rhasgl, 0. W. rhascl, gL sartum, Z. 1093. 815. Foighi (gL epolum), 1^. foigh- 
dho? and cf. Z. 1059: leiscc na pronn .1. fri fognam gr^ssich/oi^ilf, ad v. ''pigri wy 
prandiorum, sciL in servitio continuo epuli," ace. sing, inn ais d^ed cBiaBfot^di cdich, 
Z. 457 ; dat. sing, nfrbommar utmuill oc foigdd, Z. 481. In the last two quotations 
foigde seems to have the meaning of the Oaelic faighe, faighdke, " begging, a public 
iKjgging from hoiuse to house ;" '^ an asking of aid, in com, clothing, or other stufl^ 
usual with young persons newly married, or about to stock a farm." 

817-825. Sndithe (a thread), sn&the, gL filum, Z. 20; dat sing, sndthiu, Z. 232; 
Com. snod-en, W. ysnoden (vitta), snood, W. and Com. noden, filum, Bret, neud, 
nouden. Cfl also 0. W. notuid, "needle," Bret, nadoz. 0. Ir. verbal forms, appa- 
rently connected with these words, are : co atomsnassar (gL uti ego inserar), Z. 472 ; 
insnastis (gL consuemnt exserere), Z. 452; nach nastad [leg. nasead: cf. ronaisc, Ir. 
Nennius, Ixxii., Mod. Ir. nasgaim] in cretmcch 1 na com^itged do, '* Let him not 
bind the believer, and let none accompany him," Z. 599. — i Corinth. viL 1$. The 
connexion of these words with Skr. r. nah, Lat nectere ; ve-w, Lat ne-o ; t^Ow^ vadh-, 


1 Lit. O] over. 

A MeduBval Tract on Latin Declension. 99 

no doubt exkts, but is not easily made out 819. Srian, a bridle - fr^num, W. ffirwyn, 
all perhaps connected with the Skr. root dhr tenere (see Pott, Zeits. i. 120). But 
whether srian, ffirwyn, are taken from the Lai, we shall not be able to decide till the 
nature of initial Welsh ff is more thoroughly understood. 820. Adhastar (halter), 
0*B.'s adhastair, c£ W. eddestr, eddestl, eddestlawr, a steed. 822. Fothra^adh (gl. 
balneum), gen. sing, a cenele^ fothairctheBJn, Z. 893, ** this kind of bath," dat pL 
fothaircthib, Z. 238, an u>stem. 823. Birur (cress). Mod. Ir. hiolar, W. berwr, berw, 
berwy. Com. and Bret, beler. 825. ^em (gl. Tartarus), v. supra, 

826-832. In/ed/otc I cannot explain, unless we read in fid fosclatdh, ** the whist- 
ling (sibilus) of a chink ;" fid » W. chwyth, blast, chwythell, whistling : cf. sitieth- 
chaib, flatibus, Z. 856. 827. Ifeamadha seems a neut adj. plur., formed from iffem 
B infemum. ^^i. At piU (gL pelleus, pileus, 9-1X09, hat of felt ? But indeed pill may 
be an hibcmisation of the Latin pellis. ^^ is of course from the English hat « Lat. 
stem (Mw-sid, from ead-M<l (Lottner, Zeits. vii. 180), v. supra, at cluio. 832. Ibraeh — 
if I read the word rightly — (gL intimus) is obscure to me ; the only word I know 
resembling it is iuhraehf which C. and O'D. say is a wooden drinking- vessel, broad at 
bottom and narrow at top. 

833-841. Filidhecht, v, supra, No. i. 834. Oeman (or perhaps gemen, gemin), gl. 
didyma, Bi^/Aa, apparently from Lat. geminus, as W. gefell from gemellus. 835. Adh- 
bardaeht, rpoKtffifMi (afterwards glossing idioma), rpoktffifia, literally ** what is taken 
beforehand," here apparently equivalent to " advantage" (w/>o\iy^/4o vouiv 7ipi, " to 
give one an advantage"), a formation frY>m the prep, ad and the r. bab, Skr. r. bhr (bhar), 
06/Hitf, fer-o. 836. Ciirin, KaravXeurfia^ a plaster, probably from c^ir, wax ; cf. W. 
cwyren, a cake of wax. 837. Foircedal, gL dogma, 0. Ir. forcetal, forcital (doctrina), 
gen. *til, a neut. a^stem^ The verb forchun, forchanim, preecipio, frequent in 0. Ir., 
oocuTB in Z. 195, 440, frit. part. pass, forcanti (leg. forcantf), Z. 84; forcitlid, preceptor, 
Z. 85; forcitlaidecht (magisterium), Z. 771. The root oak (Skr. Qans, Lat. can-ere, 
oens-ere, Goth, han-a, mav-at^w), also occurs in doarchet, doairchet, tairchet, " it was 
predicted," Z. 468 ; doaurchanim (gl. sagio), Z. 440 ; foacanim (gL succino), Z. 440 ; 
dorencanas, perspexit, Z. 856; isdo fordoncain, Z. 1060, leg. ised do fordoncain, "this is 
what it teaches us." The root in question reduplicates : fordubcechna (-ce-ch'n-a), gl. 
qui vofl commonefaciat), Z. 496: tairchechuin, gL predixit, tairchechnatar predixerunt, 

ibid, ; 

I For (the Gaulish ver-, as foirge b to be compared with Fi^vios) has been compared with Skr. 
upari (Ebel, Beitr. L 309). Sed quare, for Celtic v never (so fkr as I know) is s Skr. p. And as 
Ganliab exhibits no tendency to eject p^ the theory that ver arose from uari [u(p)ari] is untenable. 


loo A MedicBvcU Tract on Latin Declension^ 


ihid.; rochacbain, cecinit, Leb. na Cert, 136; doairrcecbnatar .i. rotainmgestary Brebon 
Laws, 0*D.* 838. Mfdlaeh tighe (gl. doma), mullacb (gl. culmen, tn/ro, gl. verticir 
Gildas' Lorica), generally means top, summit, bead. Here ''roof^*' a meaning wbicb 
doma bas in Eccl. Latin. 839. Forsgath no ingar (gL enigma). I can tbrow no ligbt 
on tbese Ir. words (wbicb I bave never met elsewbere), unless we read tbe first fors- 
gatb, and connect it witb sgatb » sbade, sbadow, aivi^fta being a dark saying. Cf. 
furastar (= ftirasctar?), gL fuscetur, Z. 472. Tbe Gael iongaracb is "purulent" 
84.0. Crtsimd (gl. cbrisma, anointing, unction), a bybrid &om Eccl. Lat. cbiisma, or 
perbaps Gr. xP^afia. 841. Manadh (vofiurfui, a coin), from Lat. moneta, generally 
means "money," wbence W. mwnai. 

842-850. Soiphtst (sopbisma) is certainly a foreign word, and perbaps involves a 
blunder. 847. Nescoid (gL dwoanf/ia » impostbume, abscess) is nescoit in Conn. Its 
etymology is obscure to me. 844. Croindtille, v. aupra^ Ko. 651. 845. CoindeM- 
thadh (gL anatbema), cursing witb bell, book, and candle, 846. Tadhhais (gl. 
pbantasma) is O'K's tadbbbas, "a spectre." Taidbsiu, a stem in tian (s dU'&H'hhdt" 
tian?) occurs in Z. 581, 196, 233, 456, 1016, witb tbe meanings of manifestation, 


' 1 Other reduplicating roota in 0. Ir. are ba (die), bebaia, F^lire, 23rd April: rorobebe, Z. 496 (where 
several inatances are collected) : beba Flacc, 12. bab (bear, Skr. bhr) dabbert, **he gare,** Book of Ar- 
magh, 18 bf I : atr6pert {^p for Mi] flaith 1 aithech inao hoile itoanch iar tabuirt baithia dftaib, ** prince 
and peaaant granted all this immediately after the adminiatration of baptiam to them,** ibid,^ i? ^y >• ^^ 
(bhay), **be:" is airi doroigu dia geinti bore nkc^bube la ludein creitem, "for this cauae it is that God 
chose the Gentiles, because the Jews had not faith*' (ad v. " quia non fuit apud Judaos fides,** Z. 602) : 
robbu (fuit), Z. 481, is, according to Lottner, an imperfect, and ia for ro-bv-n, not (as one would think at 
first) for a Skr. prababhCLTa. oaho, **go :** cechaing (.L roching) F^lire : dacheachaing, " he advanced,*' 
Fled d. n. g6d 66, oab, ** love,** conchechrat " they will love,** Z. 495 (for conchecharfat). clu, "hear,*' 
rotchechladar, "hears thee,** Z. 496. club, "hear:** cechluista .L rochloinfithea, O'D. Da, "give," 
adcho-ifa^oesa, Z. 852; adcotedae [ad-cont-iiM^ae], "he granted,** Book of Armagh, 18 a, i : cf. laprai 
.... WavotTaKOQ iidt fiarpifio va/iaviriKapo /Sparov^f, in the Nismes inscription (i2fr. ArehM.i%si, 
p. 44), translated by Professor Siegfried, " lartai .... Uanoitacus [Illanoitads JUius"?'] dedit Hatribus 
Nemaosicia ex imperio [ipaanxm].** oa, ^'go:** bit he magistir don^^a^ inhl (leg. indi) asindiaset a 
tola feiane doib, Z. 1057, "these are the masters to whom they will go, those who preach their own 
wiabes to them.** oah, v, tupm^ No. 290, note i. oss, "beseech:** gigestesi dia linn ara fulaam ar 
fochidi, Z. 496, "Te used to beseech God that we might endure our tribulations.** obanh, "follow:** 
adroigegrannatar, "they were persecuted,** Z. 496 (cf. in^r^itted, persecutor, Z. 265 ; ingrimmim ingraim- 
maim [in-grann-man-bi] persecutioni, Z. 268 ; ingramman, ingremmen, persecutionea, Z. 266, 463). sta, 
"sUnd:** aesaimm = "lortini for aiartin^ Skr. tiahth&mi (Zend hl^tslmi). r. athfl, Lat ai-at o, Bopp, 
GI088. 387. Whence ia siasair .i. roeaideetar, Brog. i ? 


A Mediawal Tract on Latin Declension. i o i 

proof. The related verb is also of frequent occurrence : doadbat, tadbat^ demonstrate 
Z. 852, 360, for tadbad'd; doadbadar, taidbadar, demonstratur, ibid,; taidhdid fom 
deeeirc friss, Z. 458, ''show your love to him;" doaidbdetar f fsi doib, ''visions are 
revealed to them/' Z. 521 ; an donaidbdem, "when we shall demonstrate/' Z. 670; 
from these forms it would seem that the root was b-d. The n, however, may repre- 
sent a later formation (cf. <f>ar-4-0t»)f and 0a -ov) ; perhaps the root dha agglutinated. 
847. Coimpert {awepfia, seed, semen genitale, ofEspring), obviously a compound of co- 
imb-bert (r. bar, Skr. bhr). the bb becoming p. as in idpart. oblatio, &c The geni- 
tive singular of coimpert, in the sense of " conception/' occurs in the following 
passage from the Wanderings of the Curach of Maelduin, cited and translated in 
Dr. Fetrie's Bound Towers, 378 : gabais Ailell a laimh lals 1 dodatrascair, 1 dogni 
ooibligi fria 1 asbert an caillech fris: "ni segda," ol si, "ar comruc, ar is aimsir 
comperta dam." 848. Adhhardacht, and — 849. Adhbar have been already noticed. 
850. Suidheoean, leg. suidhechan (a seat, bench), an extended form of suide (seat), 
Z. 60, 140. 

851-855. Cro eaeraeh (gl. ovile, sheepfold), as to cro, v. supra; eaeraeh, leg. cae 
rach, gen. pi. of caera, a c-stem = cairax, v. supra, No. 13: cf. cairchuide, oviniis, 
Z. 37, 235, and the Oaulish tribe-name, Caeracates, Gaerosi. This curious word 
may, perhaps, be connected with cpiov. 85a. Froiste (gl. monile, vel munile, a neck- 
lace) is said by C. to mean "a goad, a spike," which agrees well with the Cornish 
gloss on monile : sciL dele, leg. delch = Ir. delg spina. Proiste is probably taken from 
the Fr. broche, and this, according to Diez (£. W. 71), frt)m Lat brocchus, broccus, a 
projecting tootlL 853. Lebhar aitkffrind, a missal, lit. liber offerendse : aithffiind, leg. 
aiSrind, gen. of aifirend, now aifrin, from the Lat. oiferenda, with change of declension 
and gender, as scrfbent, scrfbend, frt>m scribenda, and legend, gen. -ind, from legenda, 
Z. 462. 854. Oredhdil, gL gredale, i. e. gradale, Eng. grail, "that book which con- 
taineth all that was to be sung by the quire at high mass ; the tracts, sequences, hal- 
lelujahs ; the creed, offertory, trisagium ; as also the office for sprinkling the holy 
water," Bum, EccL Law, iL 303. 855. Traibel, gl. trobiale, i. e. troperium? "the 
book which containeth the sequences, which were devotions used in the church after 
reading the epistle," ibid, iii. 799. 

856-860. Stuidis (gl. lectorie, leg. lectoriale), a deriv. frt>m the base of Lat studium, 
studeo, here, perhaps, having the meaning of the Eng. "lectureship." 857. Ldmtuagh 
(gL manuale), lit hand-axe or hand-bow, tuagh (axe), 0'&, tuag nime "arcus coeli," 
Z. 28. 858. Zeabaid in daim allia {gL cubile), lit bed of the wild ox, daim, gen. sing, 
of dam, ox; dat sing, daum, Z. 250; n. pi. ar is b^s leosom in daim do thuarcuin, " for 


I02 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

with tlicm there is a CTutom for the oxen to thresh/' Z. 853. Dam would also appear 
to mean a deer : cf. the adj. damde, gl. cervinns, Z. 764 ; hut perhaps this is fixm 
the Lat dama (fallow-deer), and we should read ddmde. I know not if W. da&d, 
pi. defeid, sheep, dafates, a flock of sheep, can he connected with dam, 859. Carpanu, 
gl. corporale, I cannot explain. 860. Ifuir = Gaulish mori, W. and Com. mor, Lat. 
m&-e, which I cannot think Bopp is right in comparing with Skr. vari, water (Ir. Aial?). 
Rather hold with Curtius (Zeits. i. 33) in referring it to the Skr. root mr (mar), " welche 
in der hedeutung sterhen am gelauflgsten, in /lapalvu) und dem mit c waiter gehildeten 
marceo die allgemeinere hedeutung des welkens hat (vgl. Skr. mrin). In Skr. mam, 
die wueste, so wie in marut, wind, tritt noch bestimmter der hegriff des verwuestens 
hervor ; mare bezeichnete demnach das meer als das unfruchtbare, als den tod der 
vegetation, wie nach der gangbaren erklaerungsweise dT/>v76Toff." Curtius also com- 
pares 'Afi(/k'-/iapo-9, Lith. mar-ioB, Goth, mar-ei. Muir in Z. is a fem. (or neut. ?) 
i-stem (gen. s. mora, Z. 1000), as appears from the termination of the adj. agreeing 
with its nom. pi. in Mora son nftat lora [leg. lora] sidi leu, which Z. (1000) correctly 
translates maria hie, non sunt sufficientia ipsa eis. But note here, if muir be fem., 
the anomaly of an i-stem passing over to the a-declension in the nom. pi. 

861-865. ^(iif^^r (gL praesepe) is of course from the £ng. manger. 862. Uin' 
neamain (gL cepe, onion), Gtiel. utnnean, W. wymoyn^n. These forms remind one of 
the Lat linio, whence Pr. oignon, &c., are said to be taken. Perhaps the name ot 
the vegetable is originally Gaulish (oinnio ?), which the Romans may have assimi- 
lated to their (inio, "a single large pearl.*' The word foltchep is, I may ohserve, glossed 
by barr utndtuin (leg. uinniuin) in H. 3, 18 (MS., T. C. D.), p. 526. 863. Lin uuei 
(gl, rete), fishing-net, water-net, lit. "net of [the] water:" lin, gL retis, Z. 25 : isbed 
insin sllinn ingaib diabul peccatores (gL laqueum diaboli), Z. 1052, ''this is the net 
in which the devil takes sinners." 864. Sgaraid (gL gausape), O'R.'s scoraid, sca- 
roid, table-cloth. 865. Mil m6r, v. tuprOy No. 428. 

866-870. Maehaire (gl. tempe, i. e. feld, anger, awe [aue], Dief.), afield, plain : — 

Adaig diliim nil! mallei 

Immachaire (leg. machairiii?) h&ne Caipri. — Corm. Ecces, w. 119, 120. 

gen. sing, fo diamraib in macairi moir minscothaigsin ; Cogad Oaedil re GaUaib (ed. 
Todd, 76), a masc. ia-stem : Gael, maehaire gen. macharach, s. f. maehaire bdn, is still a 
living expression for a grass-field : W. magwyr, '' wall, enclosure, field," Bret, moger, 
"wall" =f Lat. m&ceria, "wall, enclosure." 867. Urlahradh (gL locutio), Com. lauar, 
W. llafar. Another form of this word is erlahra, which occurs in Lib. Hymn. (pref. to 


A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 1 03 

the Magnificat) : oeus is inti doratad erlahra do Zachar^ {** and it was there that speech 
was given to Zachaiias''), and, apparently with a transitiYe meaning, is an infin. in 
Ffttrick's noble hymn : cluas D6 dom' ^stecht, briathar J>6 dom' erlahrai lim Be 
domm' immdegail '' Grod's ear to hear me, God's word to plead for me {erldbraidhe ad- 
vocate, O'E.), Gkxi's hand to protect me." 868. Aiceoht (gL lectio), I have never met 
elsewhere. It seems to occur in the **Uraiceeht nan Eiges," O'D. Gram. p. Iv., but 
this is, perhaps, a corruption of the Lat. prsBceptum. 869. Acra (gl. actio), is a law- 
suit, pleading, perhaps from the prep, ad, aith, and oab ; c£ adgaur, gL consentio, i. e. 
addioo, Z. 987, adobragart, ''he addressed you,*' Z. 838. 870. Guidhe (gL oratio), 
in Z. guide is sometimes a fem. ia-stem ; tri guidi aoc. sing. Z. 258 : and sometimes 
masc. or neut ; oc du guidiu-^u a dse, ''in supplicating thee, Grod," Z. 346. The 
verb gttidim occurs at pp. 55, 993, guidimBe Dia nerutsa' (I pray God for thee), gui- 
dimm vel adjure (gl. tester), Z. 1050, gl. 21 ; nosiiguid som " he asks them," Z. 441. 
Can this be connected with gaid in the gloss con dartin do ar rogdid dom, Z. 450, 
" that I should give him what he asked of me/' rogad (rogavi) : ist pers. plur. pret. 
act rogadammar, Z. 442, 443 ; 3rd plur. in Piacc's Hymn, 9 : — 

Gadatar co tiasad in noeb, aimn imthieed lethn 
Am tintarrad o chlden tnatha herenn do betha. 

They beaoaght that the saint should come, that he should joorney far and wide, 
That he should toni the tribes of Ireland from evil unto UCb ; 

for the latter forms seem referable to the Skr. r. gad, to speak, of which, however, 
Bohtlingk and Both give no Yedic examples. The W. gweddi seems connected with 
the Skr. r. vad. 

871-875. Cumtach (gl. constructio) is generally used in the spiritual sense of edi- 
ficatio in Z. (cumtach necolso, Z. 229), sometimes in that of stricture, and glosses 
fabrateria, Z. 777'. I agree with Z. in regarding the word as a compound, cum-tach ; 
the cum being a frequent form of the prep, con, and tach (= taca), being radically con- 

1 In the Leabhar Breacc this passage rons : ocoa is indte thncad hirrlabra do Zach. 

' Obaenre the so-called prosthetic n here : it is nothing but the n of the old accasative termination, 

* In the Book of Armagh : dnbbert P&trice ewiUach da Fiace idon docc ^ menstir i baehaH i pooHre, 
L «. Patiidc gave a eumtaeh to Fiaoo [containing] to wit, a bell and a meiutvr and a crozier and a book- 
mtcheL This comtach, a neat a-stem, seems a deriv. from the root of cam-main, box, or basket, Lib. 
Hymn. 3 0, caimln, ** a little chest or box,** 0*R. O'D. Gram. 437, derives it " from the verb oomhad or 
eoimead [0. Ir. coimet arfaacht, " a defence against cold," Corm. cited 0*D. 294] to keep or preaerre." 

1 04 A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

nt^ied with, tech (honae) : cf. Foiitchemn (Book of Armagliy 16 «, 1) = Ver-<*^-€nia-«, 
Vortigeniy cnimtgim (gl. architector, gl. constmo), Z. 439, oomrotgatar, Z. 843. Is 
this root TiK, in the Vedic tak-mA-s, " child," with which Curtiiis connects TeK^^», 
roK'4>9f rex'^f '^^^X'^f '^^*X'^ tvk-os, and of which Skr. r. taksh, to &bricate (whence 
takfihan » rcrraip*), seems an intensive. But indeed there are three roots, t-o, t-oh, 
T-K, the relations of which I am unable to settle. 872. Bemthechtas (gl. prepositio), 
see Z. 750; rem, a form of ren (before), and techtas, an abstract from techt, renire 
^cf. W. taith, QmL Tecto-sagi, ** march-sustaining :" and Skr. and Zend r. tanch, 
ire), Ecmthcchtas also meant antoposition : alaaili diib hf rmnthechtas ; alaili dam it 
coitchena eter remthechtas et tiarmoracht, ** some of them are in anteposition ; others 
also are common between anteposition and postposition," Z. 985. As an infinitive, 
the word occurs in Patrick's Hymn : Intech de dom remthechtas, '^ €k)d's way to come 
iK'forc me." Cf. tairm-^A^A^M (transgressio), Z. 750. 873. Comfoeul (gL conjunc- 
tio), com -I- focul : focul dictio, Z. 968, taken frx>m the Lat vocabulmn (focbhnl, 
focvul), which would account for the non-aspiration of the r. Focul occurs in the 
nom. of the sing., dual, and plural in the following passage, from a fr'agment of Cor- 
mac's Glossary, preserved in the Book of Loinster : Trcfocls .i. trifoocuil bfte ind .i. 
dafoccul dimolud dobrith forculu indimderggtha dofeffci antress (leg. in tress) foceul 
.i. foceul indimdergtha -| aire; " lyefocla, i. e. three words that are in it, i. e. two 
words of praise it gives behind the reproach, which makes the third word, i. e. a word 
of reproach and satire." From which curious definition it would seem that trefocke 
was a composition apparently satirical, but really laudatory. 874. IfUsriacht, and — 
875. Campardtdy from the Latin. (The 0. Ir. words for preposition, conjunction, in- 
terjection, and comparison, were remsuidigud, comaccomal, interiecht, and condelgg, 
Z. 982.) 

. 876-880. Inntindeachf like — 880. CotBsegradh, a hybrid frx>m the Latin. 877. Ba- 
ramail (gL opinio), baramhuil, O'R, Gkiel. harail, an opinion, conjecture, supposition, 
apparently a compound of samail, but what bar stands for I cannot conjecture. 878. 
To^ha (gl. electio), 0. Ir. togu, a stem in d (or tf) = du-VAon-ad (or -at?) : is dich^in 
immunr'ordad condan maicc togu, lit. it is long ago we were ordained that we should 
bo sons of election, Z. 475 : Gael, tughadh. 879. JDUghedh (gL ratio), r. tupra. 
880. CoUsegradh (gL consecratio), like W. cysegriad, a hybrid from the Latin consecro 
(the n being lost before «, as usual), 0. Ir. coisecrad : Asbert fiacc frisinaingel nan- 


1 Cf. tlie Ganliah oon-^-to-s (in the inscription of Antnn), and perhaps 0. Ir. Taaaach (St Patrick's 
artificer) = Tax-aea-s. 

A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 105 

drigad contf sed patricc dothoorand a laic leis 1 dia ehnseerad -] combed huad nuggtfbad 
[gg, 77 s ng, Z. 282] alocc Dxdluid iarsuidiu patricc cnf face 1 durind alocc les *] cut- 
Becar [leg. cu-t-secar], *' Ffacc said to the angel that he wotdd not go till Patrick came 
to measure his place with him, and to consecrate it, and bo that it might be from him 
he should receiTe his place. Patrick afterwards went to Place, and measured his place 
with him, and consecrated it," Book of Armagh, 18 ^. i. 

881-885. Cumdach (gl. omatio)— so O'B. eitmhdach, "an ouch, an ornament;" in 
Z. 1046, eumtaeh has uisse £ri hiriss (gl. cum verecundia et Bobrietate omantes se), 
** an adornment that is fitting to faith." 882. Mugh$aine (gL famulatio, service, ser- 
vitude), from mughy 0. Ir. mug, gen* moga, a masc. u-stem (» Goth, magus), and 
»aine^ which teimination, forming abstract substantives from other substantiyes, occurs 
twice in Z. 739, viz., in coc^ilsine (gl. societas, c^le, socius), and in faithsini (gL pro- 
phetisB, ^ith, propheta). The termination is probably = -ss-an-ia, st-an-ia. 883. Ad- 
hatttras (gl. fomicacio), adhaltras, Z. 750, a hybrid from adulter. 884. Comkdldi no 
eomairU (gl. consolatio), " consolation or counsel :" comsolas, soUs, from Lat. sola- 
tium, which the Irish of old probably pronounced sol&tsium*. (N. B,— I doubt if 
this be a different word from solds, happiness, the opposite of dol&s, grief, which latter 
may either be derived from dolere, or have been produced on the erroneous hypothesis 
that the first syllable of solas was the well-known particle of quality) : eofnairle, in 
putting down which the glossarist evidently took consolatio for consultatio, occurs in 
Z. ace. sing, tre dageomatrUf Z. 826, nom. pi. ni rubtar gaitha for comairli, Z. 481, 
'' your counsels were not wise," whence the word appears to be a fern, ia-stem. The 
ace. sing, of the airle in com-airle occurs in the following gloss (Z. 1060): ama erbar- 
thar ochretsit nintd airli armban, ad v. ** ne dicatur ex quo crediderunt non-est-nobis 
animus nostrarum mulierum," and the nom. sing, (compounded with dag, " good") in 
"ban buidich, is sf ar dagairh" Z. 1051, where I suspect Z. should have read amda- 
gairle. Comairlle (with two Ts), occurs in Z. 51, and he explains it by voluntas. I 
hove never found the word with this meaning : but if Z. be correct, we might, per- 
haps, regard it as « com-are-vali^, and recognise therein (with Dr. Siegfried) the Skr. 
r. vr (ex vab), to choose, taaley tciU, velle, cf. W. ewyll (du-valya), to will, Bret, ioul, 
Ir. tol (du-Tal4). Gf. airlam (paratus, promtus), Z. 733 : irHthe (obediens), Z. 766 : 
irladigur (obedio), Z. 839. 885. Ainmneaehadh (gL nominatio), a deriv. from ainm, 
a name, declined infra, No. 991. 


> C before t'l in Latin words, was probably also pronounced U: cf. comlxsire, Z. 233 = oommerc-i-ari, 


1 o6 A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

886-890. I^henuM (gl. dominatio), W. teymas, '* kingdom," from tigeme, as to 
which V. supra. 887. Geinemain (gl. generatio), from r. gak, '' to produce/' as to 
which V. 9upra, OaeL gineamhuinn; cf. Yedic jaoiman, janman, "birth." 888. Cer- 
iaehadh (gl. correctio), GaeL ceartachadh (W. ceryddu, corrigere, seems for cerythu, 
and connected with correctus) ; cf. Lat certus. The element oert enters into the 
composition of many words in 0. Ir. Thus, cocert (mendatio), cocart, conige, cocarti, 
emendandum, Z. xiv. ; conaicertos (emendavi), iboeirt deponit, &c. 889. Oihriugudh 
(gl. operatic), from ohair (in Conn, opair, gen. oibrey a fem. i-stem » from Lat. opera 
(not opus, Skr. apas); cfl oipred, Z. 80, 476, gen. oipretho, Z. 766: dat (sensu ob- 
scosno) oc iud oipred, Z. 593, ace amal rongab comadnacul duun ata comeiss^irge act 
rocretem oipred dsB, Z. 1040, gL 15, "as we have co-burial there is co-resurrection, 
if we believe in the working of Gk>d." 89a Meidhe (gL planatio), leg. rdidhe, level- 
ling, smoothening, frt>m riidh^ " plain, level, smooth," which occurs in Z. 1067 (with 
the meaning of " easy"), is reid foglaim in besgnai, "easy is the learning of morality;" 
and in Colman's Hymn, v. 33 : — 

Amal foedes In aingtl tanlaoc Petrum a slabreid 
Doroiteri dun diar fortacht, rop reid remmm cech AamreiiL 

As He sent the angel that delivered Peter from his chain, 

Let him be sent to na to help ns, let everything onsmooth be smooth before os. 

Cf. Bret. rei%, " ais^, facile." 

891-896. Ceatugadh (gl. castigatio), W. cystwyad, is, I suspect, a foreign word, 
as certainly is — 892. Compantus (gL associatio), from compagan-u-s ; cfl however, 
0'R.'s eiamugadh, which suggests a connexion with cesad (W. cystudd?), roc^, 
pertulit, passus est, Z. 434. 893. Quidhe (gl. supplicatio), v, $upra. 894. TaMetiodh 
(gl. monstratio), GaeL taisheanadh, "act of revealing, showing, or disclosing," 0. Ir. 
taispenad : 6 ruscaith tra do Sechnall in moludsa do denam, luid dia timpenad do 
patraic, i. e. "now when Sechnall had finished making this hymn [Ht this praise] he 
went to show it to Patrick" (Pref, to Secundinus' Hymn, cited from Leabar Breacc, 
by Dr. Todd, lib. Hymn. 31) ; gen. sing. 6 dochotar imorro icenn taitpmta ind 
immnin do griguir, " when, however, they had done showing [lit. come into the end 
of showing] the hymn to Gregory" (lib. Hymn. pre£ to Altos Prositor). Taispenad 
for taipsenad (taid-bs-ten-ad) f^. supra, No. 846. 895. FoUlsiug^udh (gL anmmciatio), 
rather manifestatio : this word occurs, spelt foilsigud, in Z. 16, the gen. sing, foil- 

1 Bead dorfoiter, i. e. do-ro-foid-ther. 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 1 07 

sichtho, Z. 85, foilsigthe, 255, and is deriyed from follus, Z. 664., folus, Z. 748, 751, 
''plain/' ''manifest." Sailhittghadh is, perhaps, a sister-form (soillse, light, Z. 51, 


896-900. Camparaid (gl. coUatio, cf. comparit, Z. 973, W. cymhani, to compare), 

and — 897. Comatneaohadh (gl. oommnnicatio), both appear foreign words ; compare, 

however, with the latter comnactar: anf nad eomnaetar doini trian ecne, "that which 

human beings do not comprehend (or conceive of) by their understanding," Z. 447, 702 : 

comain occurs in Cormac, and also in Z. 1050, gL 18, with the sense of " obligation," 

" debt." Comman occurs in Ffacc's Hymn, y. 27, with the meaning of " communion," 

" the Lord's Supper :"— 

AnaU tassach di[a]&i8, intan dobert eomnum d6 : 
Aabert monicfedi p&tricc : brfathar taasalg nirbn gjfA. 

Tassach remained after him, when he had administered the communion to him : 
He aaid that Patrick would come : Taasach's word was not false. 

The cognate "W. words are cymyn, "bequest, testament," cymanfa, "congregation" 
(m a mm). C£ Lat communis from commoinis, Goth, gamains, 0., M. and N. H. G. 
gemein. 898. Tijnthirecht (gl. ministratio), c£ timthirighy supra, occurs in Z. 260: 
Hmtherecht each a dulo " servitus omnis creatura^," and also spelt timthirect, tim- 
threcht, at pp. 771, 237, timdirecht (ace. sing.), p. 777 (do-imm-tir-echt). The root 
seems tab, Skr. tr, to go ; compare dfKf>iwo\o9 and Skr. parichara, " servant," lit. " one 
who goes about." 899. Binamh (gL procuratio), 0. Ir. d^nom, denum, gen. sing, 
d^nmo, Z. 733, means " a doing," " to do" (cf. denmusach, gl. fieuitor, infra), a stem 
in «. Cf. denim (facio), Z. 430 ; dene (fac), Z. 457 ; dened (facite), Z. 458 (leg. 
denim, dene, d^nid) ; d^ntf (faciendum), Z. 473 ; denmid, gen. denmada (gL factoris), 
Z. 766. 890. Boilbtiugud (gL fictio), from delb, as to which v. supra, 

901-906. JSolas (peritia), leg. edlasf etf. supra, 902. Moladh (gL adulatio) laus, 
cf. molor (I praise), Z. 444; Bret meulct laudatus, Z. 107, W. ma/wl. The etymon 
may be maoala, cfl /te^aXov, and the Gaul. Magalus, Magalius, Gliick, 50, as moidim, 
another verb for I praise, is to be compared with Gaulish Mogit-marus. Molad occurs 
in Z. 989 : Is bees donaib dagforcitlidib molad in gni innan^tside ara carat an rochlui- 
netar, " it is a custom of [lit. "to"] the good teachers to praise the intelligence of the 


1 Gloss: .L cosabull itemm, *'that is to Sabull [Saul, in the county of Down, lit. ''bam**] again." 
Note the interesting form mo-n-icfed wherein mo, also spelt mo, is a yerbal prefix, only occarring four 
times in Z. See Z. 419. Tassach was Patrick's artificer, and Bishop of R&ith-Cholptha, now Baholp. 

* Gloss : quia nenit patridns iterum 00 sabull. 


io8 A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hearers, in order that they may like what they hear :" is huisse a molath (gl. lau- 
dandus), dat. sing, molud, tupra, No. 873, Z. 459. 903. Comtromugud (gL cose- 
quatio), leg. comtrummugud, equalization, balancing, lit " making-equally-heaTy/' 
firom trumm, tromm, W. trwm (nipsa trdm — leg. trom — for nech, gl. nulli onerosas 
fid, Z. $85); iromm occurs subsequently in composition: tromchride (gl. jecur), Z. 
825, L e. heavy-heart; cf. ^trumma, ''non gravia," Z. ^$^\ etrumme '' dissimilis," 
Z. 843 ; cutrummus, similitude, Z. 751 ; hi cutrumus, ad instar, Z. 451 ; cutrummi, 
similes, Z. 843 ; fortrumme, opportunitas, Z. 843. 904. Cosmhailitu (gL simulatio), 
cosmilius in Z. (cf. ^csamlus, diyersitas, Z. 751, 831), from the adj. cosmail (W. 
cyfal, cyhafal), i. e. co-samail con-samali-s, the simplex of which Bopp has justly eom- 
pared with Lat. similis (an i-stem, as in Irish), to which we may add W. hafal, Gr. 
ofia\o9 (an o-stem) ; ct also Skr. sama, Groth. sama, Eng. same, Slav. samu. Observe 
in — 905. I!gco9fna%l%u% (gl. dissimulatio) an example of the mod. Ir. practice of writing 
the so-called eclipsing letter before the original tenuis. It need hardly be said that all 
the phenomena of eclipsis (amongst which I by no means count the apparent change of 
8 into t) are explicable by reference to the medializing influence of n on r, j9, t, and /, 
and to the tendency of h, d, and y, respectively, to become assimilated to a preceding 
m, n, and ng. EgcosmailiuBy however, seems merely an example of the ordinary sink- 
ing of the 0. Ir. tenuis to the corresponding medial. 

906-910. Urlamas (gl. sequestratio, properly "a depositing of money, &c., in dis- 
pute'') is wildly guessed at by O'B. "possession, supreme power and authority; cap- 
tivity," but is correctly explained by C. (who spells the word urldnuu) " the placing 
anything in the custody of a person ; as in the laws urldmas eoitcenn means the placing 
of contested property in the hands of an indifferent custodian, until its true owner is 
defined by law." Cf. irlam (paratus), Z. 252 ; erlam, Z. 7 ; compar. erlamu, Z. 284. 
907. Faidiugud (gL prolongatio), from fot, length, r. supra. 908. L6rgnim is exactly 
satis-factio. With lor, lour, laur, Z. 123, 309, 607, 889, 1000 (enough), cf. W. Uawer 
multus, multitude, Z. 123. Hence 0. Ir. loure, sufficientia, and Z. 30, compares Lauro, 
Lauriacum, Laurentius. (?nii», gen. gnfmo, is of fr^uent occurrence in Z., and is 
connected with the root of do-gnfu, fEu^io (» du-gen&iii ?). 909. Atheumiledh (gL remu- 
neratio) seems from aith « ati (Gaulish ate)^ which stands for the Lat re-, and cutnal 
(a fem. &-stem), said to mean the value of 3 cows, which occurs twice in the following 
passage : dig^ni cummen c^taig rfth» fri^ladach m[acc]maile odrse tigeme cremthinnse 
arech* .n. donn rithce intedudn fricolm&n. nam bretan ^nehumil .n. arggit' Luid in 

I Obaarye the transported n of the aoc. siiig. of ecb, Tiz. ech (n). 

' Obierre the tnnsported 91 of the aoc. aiiig. of cmnal, viz. cnmil (n). Hie paaeage above qooted is 

A Mediceval Tract an Latin Declension. 1 09 

ehumakan doforlog ochtir achid: "Caxnmen made a mantle, whieh was given to 
£ladachy son of Mael Odrse, lord of Cremthinne, for a brown horse. This horse 
was given to Colmin of the Britons for a cumal of silver. This cumal went in 
addition to the price of Ochter Achid" (Book of Armagh, 17 h), 910. DuUugudh 
(gl. deductio), if I read the word aright, seems literally ** a leading away from the 
road, or path," di-slig-ud, v, slige, 9upra^ and cf. didigeaeh^ ''deviating," O'R., Gael. 
tUsUaeh, "straggling." 

91 1-9 1 6. Cental (gl. oompilatio), v. 8upra, No. 147. 9x2. EiteUadh (gl. revolutio, 
leg. evolatio ?) I have never met elsewhere. O'E. has eataladh, a flight, eiteaUaehy 
"flying, bouncing," Gaelic, iteaiaich, 913. Camairemh (gL computatio), Gael, co* 
maireamh, apparently a weakened form of oomaram, W. cyMf nnmeratio, from aram, 
numems, W. eirif, rhif, A. Sax. rfm, gerfm (cf rhyme?), see Z. 912. 914. Bmnacht 
(gL benedictio), 0. Ir. benedact, bendacht, W. bendithio, "to bless." 915. MaUacht 
(gl. maledictio), 0. Ir. maldacht, maldact, gen. maldachtan, ace. maldactin, Z. 584, 
from maledictio, Z. 270, W. melldith (et always becoming th in Welsh, eht in Irish). 
916 Zamaeean, leg. Idmagdn, which, according to O'E., means "groping," Gaelic, 
Idmhoffon, "handling." 

917-921. Ailgineeht (gL mitigatio), connected with O'R's ailghean, soft, smooth, 
kindly; dlgenaigim, algenigim (gL lento, gl. tardo), Z. 431. 918. Comma (gL tal- 
Hatio) ; there is probably some blunder here (leg. eamam^ remuneratio ?). I have never 
met " comma" elsewhere. 919. Colund (gL caro), in Z. 740, colinn, gen. colno, colna, 
perhaps connected with kravya, r/>ea9, caro, 0. H. G. hr^o, gen. hrewes, cadaver. 
C£ the "W. calaned, " carcasses;" perhaps, also, calon, " heart." 920. Laidire (gl. for- 
titude), deriv. from Ididir (fortis), of which the compar. occurs infra. 921. Imad (gl. 
multitudo), 0'E.'s iomad, for immad, imbad, imbed, gl. ops, copia, Z. 75 (cf. Ambitui), 
a deriv. from imb « Gaulish ambi == Skr. abhi, Gr. ipjfpt, Lat amb-, N. K. G. um, 
£ng. um-, in Fuller's tmistroke, circumference. 

giz-giG. Miid (gl. magnitude), in Z. m^it ^W. maint^ Com. myns, a fem. i-stem 
e maganti ? 923. Loighedh (gl. parvitudo), lagety Leab. Breacc, cited Lib. Hymn. ed. 
Todd, 30, W. Ueiad (diminution) ; cfl laigiu minor, Z. 283, W. llai (= iKaccwv for 
iKax"ov, and levior, Skr. laghlyans), superL lugimem, Z. 1 128, W. lleiaf. 924. Teiree 
(gl. raritudo), from teirc, gl. rams, mpra = duseirg; c£ seirg-lige, " bed of consump- 
difficult. Rltha seems the 3rd siiig. imperf. pass, of an irregalar verb, the 3rd plur. imperat. act of 
which occurs in Z. 238 : ni riot na d&no diadi arao indeb domunde (gL non turpe lucrum sectantes, slut 
diaconi), '* let them not give the divine gifts for worldly advantage,** 3rd pi. pret. pass. lo-raiha^ Fiacc, 25. 
Gt tha Cornish ry, r«y, '*to give** (Norris* Oomiih Drtma^ iL 282), W. rhoL 

no A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension, 

tion/' ar ni aill seirge oc ciirsagad, ''for no loss (?) is weakness in reproaching/' 
Z. 1056. 925. Leithne (gl. latitado), W. Uydanedd, from the adjectives lethan, lljdan 
(Z/s lethit, p. 770, ace. sing, is from leth), 926. Airde (gL altitude), deriyatiyes frt>m 
hthan, broad, and ardy high, as to which v. supra. 

927-931. Maisse (gL pnlchritudo), 0'E.'s maise, main (gl. decor), Mimaisi (gl. 
indecor), infra, 1083, 1084, 1108, 1109. Maisse occurs in Z. with the intenBive er- 
prefixed: is friasnad dut' menmainsiu tuisled ho ermausiu firinne trimrechtrad na 
tintathach, Z. 1064, gl. 4, ''It is a disturbance to thy mind to fall from, the love- 
liness of truth, owing to the variance (trimrechtrad = tri in-brechtrad ?) of the inter- 
preters." Hence maisse in 0. Ir. must have been either a masc. or a neut. ia-stem ; 
cf. W. maws, ** pleasant." 928. Esldne (gl. aegritudo). 929. Faide (gL longitudo), 
from sldn and/o^, as to which !?. svpra. 930. Tripulta (gL triplicacio), W. triphlygiad, 
a deriv. from tripul, triplex, threefold, not met elsewhere. Dtabtd, of which the dat. 
sing, occurs in Z. 968 : a buith ar consain diahuil (gL pro dupHci consonante digamma 
positum, L e< '* its being for a double consonant"), has, perhaps, lost the guttural (but cf. 
avKdo9, hnrXoof), which is preserved in the W. plygu, to double, root flax, Skr. prch, 
fl-Xfix-w, plic-o, plec-t-o, 0. H. G. fleh-t-an. 93 1 . Cetharduhhladh (gl. quadrupHcatio), 
W. pedwardyblyg (c£ Ir. dublaighim, I double), the Ir. and W. -dubladh, dyblyg, 
losing their primitive meaning of " two-folding" in the general idea of " folding." 
Cf. coicdfabail, "five-folded," infra, note on No. 1053. 

932-936. Uisffemheht (gl. limpitudo), a deriv. from uisgemail (uisce-samail). 
933. Curehuslach no gilcach (gl. arundo) : for curchuslach perhaps leg. curchaslach, 
the middle syllable being represented by a contraction which may be read either m 
or fM (curchas, gL arundo, Z. 84). The syllable *lach, perhaps originally a subst, 
occurs frequently in Z. : teglach, "family;" goithlach, "swamp;" matharlach, "ma- 
trix;" mimasclach, "hinge;" oclach, "a body of youths;" aslach, "persuasion;" 
ellach, "union," &c. Here, perhaps, the scribe mistook arundo for arundinetum. 
Z.'s curchas seems derived from a stem identical with that of the Lat. carex. 933. 
Gikach (0'R.'s giolcach, " reed," " broom," also a place where reeds grow : Gael. 
euilceamach), occurs in Conn., and also in a passage frx)m the Brehon Laws, cited by 
Dr. Fetrie, B. T. 62 . losa feada, raith, aiteand, dris, fraech, eideand, gileaeh, spin, 
which he thus translates : " The Losafeada [shrubs] are fern, fiirze, briar, heath, 
ivy, broom, thorn." 934. FainUoc (gl. hirundo), leg. fainleoc, a dimin. of fannall 
(=: W. gwennol. Com. guennol, Bret, gu^nn^li), which glosses hirundo in Z. 731, 
Gael, ainleag. Cf. vanellus cristatus, the lapwing. Does the diminutival suffix eoc 
stand for yavanka? 935. Ndit, escuing urcoideeh (gL hirudo, horseleech): ndit (cf. 


A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 1 1 1 

<< naidi sf. a lamj^y,'' 0'K.)i Beems = nanti. Eseuing erehoideeh is lit., according to 
O'D., '' noxious eel." Escuing (« 0'B.'s bmcu^ ewga easganf GaeL easgann) I have 
not seen elsewhere; urchoidech is Z.'s erchoitech, gL nocens, Z. 199. 936. Dealhh 
(gl. imago), W. delw, a fcm. a-stem - a Graulish delva. 

937-941. Lorgarecht (gl. indago, investigation, tracing from), lorg, m. track, W. 
Uyr, which occurs in Conn., and also in Z., spelt lore, gl. trames, whence also lor- 
gainm, I track, inyestigate ; lorgaire, tracker, investigator ; lorgair, a dog (cf. Eng. 
lurcher) ; lorgad » W. Uyriad. Compare also ^nlorg, which word I have only met in 
Bishop Sanctain's hymn, 1. 2 : dia dam finlorg [.i. darmesi] dia tuathum [.L frim 
atuaith] dia dom thuus [.i. remum] dia dessam [.L frim asoer], '' Grod to follow me, 
God at my left hand, God to precede me, €k)d at my right hand." In Com. and Bret 
we have lerghy lerc^h: see iNorris, C. D. ii. 428, where the old Cornish trulerch (gl. semita) 
is ingeniously explained as >= trmi-Urchy ** foot-trace." 938. Sdehchoire (gL urago, 
i e. vorago, whirlpool) is spelt in Z. 37, s4ehohore, in Z. 827, siibchore, and glosses 
Byrtium. The first element of the word is obviously sdeb, soib, fedsus ; the last, 
coire, core, Z. supposes to mean *' places" (c£ coor, gl. locus, Z. 29), but perhaps 
it is the eoire, gL caldarium, supra: cf. Corryvrecan, L e. Coire Bhreccain. 939. 
B^^e (gl. rubedo), rust, Ht. " redness," from derg, 0. Ir. derc (cf. derc martrc, supra), 
whence the diminutive adj. dercaide (gL rubrenus), Z. ioo8^ 940. Oerrguin (gl. 
sanguisuga, leech, ** bloodsucker") is 0'R.'s gearrghuin, '' a horseleech." The deriv. 
is obscure, but cfl Gael, geiirr, '' cut," '' bite," Irish gearradh, '' cutting :" guin seems 
an i-stem from r. gonaim, vulnero, gonas, who wounds, Conn, niram^ona^ fir, ''let 
not men wound me," Z. 933 ; gerrguin may therefore be lit. " that which wounds by 
biting. Oedl thoU, a GFaelic word for leech, seems connected with W. gel, gelen, 
gelue, Com. ghel, Bret, gwelaouen, gweleounen : Fictet compares Skr. jaluka. 941. 
Suithe (gL fiiligo, soot) » W. swta, where the sibilant and tenuis are preserved, be- 
cause swta is from the Eng. soot. 

942-946. Tes (gl. calido, infray gl. calor), " heat ;" so in 0. Ir. : gen. in tesa, gl. 
caloris, Z. 231, Com. tes, gL fervor, Z. 1 1 12, W. tes, Bret. tez. Can tes be = tepsu ? 
Skr. r. tap, Lat. tep-ere, the ultimate connexion of which with Skr. dah, Yedic dabh, 
Ta0, is not yet clearly understood. 943. Ord (gl. ordo), W. urdd, is ord, ordd in Z. : 
nf pu libsi bMrd-eo act ba la amiresschu (this order was not with you, but with the 
unbelievers), Z. 666, gen. uird, Z. 70. Hence it appears that the word is a masc. 

a- stem 


1 Other adjectives fonned by this suffix are rotaide, ** reddish," Vit. Adamn., and fliacbaide, " moist," 
" damp," from flinch, ** wet" 

112 A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

a-stem = arda, and cognate with, but not, like N. H. G. ordn-ung, taken fix>m Lat. ordo, 
a stem in n. Orddan, a deny, from this word, occurs in Eiacc*B Hymn, v. 25 : — 

Asbert \i^orddan do mache : do ciist atUigthei boide : 
Docham nime mosrega : roratha doit du guide. 

He said, '* Thy dignity ahaU he at Armagh : to Christ offer thanks: 
To bearen thon shalt come : thy prayers have been granted to thee." 

The dat. sing orddain occurs in TJltan's Hymn to Brigit. Cf. also with ord the Gaulish 
Ordo^yices. 944. Merlach na comla (gl. cardo, hinge), ** the merlaeh of the door." I 
have never met tnerlach elsewhere ; shall we read merlach, and connect it with m^r, 
*' finger" ? 945. Smerdid (gL carbo), O'B.'s *^ »mear6id, s. f. a burning coal, an em- 
ber ;" cf. perhaps, W. marwydos and Germ, schmoren. 946. Gilla naneach (gL man- 
go), ** servant of the horses :" in the MS. the article is written along with its subst. 
{naneach), and in Mod. Ir. nan each would be written phonetically na n-each, but this 
transportation of the termination of the gen. plur. of the article must be of very recent 
origin, as in Scottish Gaelic it is preserved at the present day with the na. In 0. Ir. 
there can be no question that the final n of the longer form " innan" was transported 
to the following substantive beginning with a vowel or medial ; but I never find any 
indication that this was the case with the short form " nan." 

947-951. Bruaeh (gL margo), sie in Z. 28 ; a word still used by Lowland Scotch 
curlers; cf. the Gaulish Ande-brocirix, Brocomagus, £ng. brink? 948. Aodh^ in the 
Book of Armagh, Aed, a man's name, 0. Ir. gen. Aedo, Aeda, Aido (connected with 
the Gkiulish tribe-name Aedui, for &idvi). Aed, Z. xzzu. means "fire" (aed .i. 
tene, dorm. W. aidd), and is related to Gr. ai$ia, al0o9, alOio-^, lOaiyeaOai, Hesych., 
Lat. sedes, »stuB, sestas (Curtius, Griech. EtymoL 215), Yed. ^dha, m. ^dhas, n. 
"fiiel;" vriddhi-form aidh, f. or aidha, m. 0. H. G. eit, "fire," Ang.-Sax. ad, &c. 
The name Aed is either an i- or an u-stem, I cannot say which : it is formed by vrid- 
dhation from a root idh p= Skr. indh, to kindle. The name in question occurs in the 
following passage from the Book of Armagh, 18 h, i : Epscop aed boi isl^ibti luid 


1 ObserTe this interesting form of the 2nd pert. sing, imper. It also ocean In Z. 840, atlig-the 
buide, and in the Book of Armagh, 178 &, a : nntasigthe (na-t-adgthe) du gallaan (gl. calda te gallicas 
tuas), which gloss should have been dted n^a, No. 72. Compare the Mid. Ir. forms notgebtha darah^ai ol 
p&traicc, ** put thyself in his place, said Patrick.**— Pref. to Fiaoc*s H3nnn. Gaibthi doich isin tailm, a 
Loig ! " Pat a stone into the sling, Loeg !" SeirgL Cone Dr. Lottner regards these forms as taken from 
the 2nd pers. sing, of the secondary present, which in the indie, ended in 'the (noscomalnithe, Z. 1054, 
gi 29). 

A MedicBval Tract an Latin Declension. 1 1 3 

daarddmachsB birt edoct cusegene duarddmachae dubbert segene oitberroch aidacht 
da<ifV^ 1 adopart ded aidaoht 1 achen^l 1 a eclis dupatricc cubbratb Eaccab ded aidacht 
la conchad luid conchad du art maduB oontubart fland feblse acheill doo 1 gabsi ca- 
deflsin abbaith. ** Biahop Aed was in Sl^ibte (Sletty) : he went to Armagh : he gave 
a bequest to Seg^ne of Armagh. Seg6ne gave another bequest to Aed, and Aed gave 
a bequest and his race and his church to Patrick for ever [lit. "to the Judgment'']. 
Aed left a bequest with Conchad. Conchad went to Armagh. Hand Peblae granted 
his church to him, and he himself (cadessin » fadessin) took the abbey." Coilboth 
mao oingusso maic eogin, brec4n mac aido, Md. 18 ^, 2. 951. Ploit (gl. uato) seems 
for Phit (gL Plato). 

952-956. Orion (gl. Apollo, infra, gL sol, gl. Pean, gl. Titan), sun = grena, 
gen. sing, gr^ne, gr^ine, a fem. &-Btem, and possibly connected with the name of 
the Gaulish Apollo, Grannos, which Dr. Siegfried compares with the Yedic ghrans, 
or ghransa, ul '' sun-glow, sunshine, light." This is referred by Bohtlingk and Both 
to the root ghar, whereto also belong Bkr. gharma, " heat," ghrni, *' sun ;" Oepfio^, 
fervere, Ir. garaim, and Eng. warm. The Gaulish Grannos appears in many Latin in- 
scriptions along with Sirona (= SeXi^yi^ ? or perhaps, with Gliick, goddess of long life, 
Ir. str, W. hir) ; c£ also ApoUini Granno Mogouno, with which Dr. Siegfried has com- 
pared Skr. maghavan, gen. maghonas, an epithet of Indra, &c As to — 953. Duine 
(gl. homo), W. dyn. Com. den, and — 954. Nemduine (gL nemo), r. »upr6, 955. Ogh 
(gL virgo) s oga, is apparently connected with 6g integer, uge integritas, virginitas, 
Z. 28, and occurs in Ult&n's Hymn in praise of Brigit, line 7 : — 

Dorodba innnim ar oollai clsu 

In chroeb com bl&thaib, in m&thur Isn : 

Ind t\f-6g inmain, con orddain adbail (leg. aidbil ?) 

Biam 86er oeeh inbaid lam' n6eb do laignib. 

She has aboliahed within ns our flesh's taxes, 

The branch with blossoms, the mother of Jesus : 

The beloved tme-yiig^, with yast glory — 

I should be safe at every time with my saint of Leinster. 

The abL plur. in Colm&n's Hymn, line 48 : 

Bendacht for 6rlam Brigit con dgwb h^renn imps, 

A blessing on Patron Brigit with Ireland's virgins around her ! 

> Note here an instance of the governed preceding the governing substantive. 


114 A Mediasval Tract on Latin Declension. 

Sometimes in the nom. eing. the 6 is resolved, and we find wtg, gen. uaige : feil mar 
Mtiire uaige (the great festival of Mary the Virgin), Hlire OingusM, May 3. 956. 
Slataidhe (gl. latro), apparently from slat (gl. virga), r. supra, Gael. tHadaidh, 

957-966. Bretnaeh, from Bretan (Colmannam hretan, supra, No. 909), for Brettan » 
Britt-ana. Zeuss thinks that 0. W. brith (gl. pictos) is connected with this name, 
W. th arising from tt. But W. th may also represent an original eU Cfl 0. W. setinet 
bronn-^^YA^^, "volucria pectore variegata," Z. 1087, and 0. Ir. mrecht, varius, 
mrechtrad, varietas, flmrechtrad, multavarietas, Z. 822. The following forms connected 
with a word so famous as Briton will probably interest: D. M. Phileti Brittae (Momm- 
sen Rom. inschriften der Schweiz, 124). Com~bretonium (Gliick, 66). Marti Britauio 
(Orelli, No. 1358). Matribus Brittis (from -SrtY^burgum, in Bavaria, Orelli, 2094). 
The Greeks write "Bperrayia, "Bperravoi a W. Brython. 958. Fdith hrigach, lit. 
'* lying prophet," 0. Ir. br^cach, from br^c, a lie, ace s. br^ic dolum, Z. 79, breic, 
gL mendacium, Z. 23 ; im brecairccht (gl. in astutia), Z. 580. 999. Fiadhnaise, inZ. 
fiadnisse, a neut. ia-stem, '' witness, testimony," root vn>, gunated ; cf. nuiadnisse (no- 
vum testamentum), Z. 823, 824, for nufiadnisse. Fiadh = W. gwydd. As to— 960. 
Comtrom (gl. par), and — 961, 962. H^camirom (gl. impar, gl. dispar), v, supra, No. 
903. 966. Bainns (gl. lac), milk, occurs in Cormac v. Arg, and is probably con- 
nected with banna ''drop" (ni contesbad hanna ass, Brogan, 1. 88), and the Com. 
banne, gl. gutta vel stilla, Bret, bannec'h, Z. 1 1 19, from bann, a jet ? 

967-976. Sgadan (gl. alloc), in Conn, scatan, is a herring, W. ysgadan, c£ £ng. 
shad, N. H. G. schade ; probably a foreign word. 968. Mil (gl. mel), honey, cf. Lat 
mel, mollis, for melt-is, Gr. fU\i, fUkn-o^, Goth, milith : Mod. Ir. gen. m&ala, a fern, 
i-stem, W. Com. and Bret mel. Neither in Irish nor in Greek does the I stand for 
d; cf meadh » W. medd » fiiOv, Skr. madhu, 0. H. G. metu. Lit. med-u-s, " honey" 
(in the Mid. Ir. mesce, " drunkenness" (= med-scia), d has been lost). 995. Bomblas de 
(gl. fel), lit. " bitterness of the liver ;" do-mhlas, opposite of so-mblas, gen. somblais, 
'' sweetness, sweet," which occurs in the Ir. Nonnius, 196, tipra uisoe somblais i taeb 
in corainn, " a weU of sweet water in the side of the Corann ;" bias s W. bias, 
** taste :" the -m- perhaps for -imm. As to de, v. infra. No. 1032. 976. Ainmide (gl. 
animal), beast, brute; hence ainmidheach, brutal, brutish, O'R. 977. Salann (gl. sal), salt, 
sic in Z. 740, ace sing, dinchloich dorigne saland (leg. salann), ** of the stone she made 
salt,'* Brogan*s poem on Brigit, 40: sailti, " salted," lib. Hymn. ed. Todd, 20; cf 5Xf 
(masc), sal, sSle, Goth, and Engl, sal-t, Lett, sahls, Slav. solu. ''In Greek,** says Lott- 
ner (Zeits, vii. 24), " SX9, as is weU known, also means ' sea' [it is then feminine], and 
is radically connected with iXXojMu [from oiyo^i], Lat. salio, which we find again 


A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 1 1 5 

in Saofikrit in the forms sal, sar (sr), 'to go.' Thence salila, ' water/ sarit, 'riyer,' 
saras, ' lake' « eXov. Hence it clearly results that water is denoted by all these words 
as the *■ bounding, leaping, billowing/ just as this meaning also lies in the Greek aaKo9, 
Lat salum, * the (leaping) sea-flood.' The passage from this fundamental idea {grund- 
amehauung) to that of the ' salty/ could only take place on becoming acquainted with 
a great salt sea. And so there can be no doubt that the European peoples were still 
unsevered when they reached the sea, whilst the primeval abodes {ursitze) of the stem 
lay remote therefrom /' W. halen, Com. haloin, halein, Bret, hal, halen, holen ; Z. 
compares the Gkiulish name Salusa. 

979-981. Cereaill (gl. cervical), and no doubt taken from the Latin, which, 
of course, is from cervix, neck or nape. Note the lengthening of the 0, produced by 
way of compensation for the loss of the r, and c£ fritures like taicc^ra, dog^na, asb^ra, 
dob^rat (Z. 11 26), for taiccerfo, dogenfa, asberfa, dober&t. 980. Anihal (Annibal), 
Ainm duini, "nomen hominis." 981. Camairleach (gl. consul), from comairle consi- 
lium, r. iupra. 

982-986. JSattpog B 0. Ir. epscop, from episcopus ; cf. 0. W. pi. escip, Z. 684, 
Com. ispak. 983. Innarhtaeh (gl. exul) « indarbtach, v. supra. 984. Furaehair (gl. 
vigil). 985. Nemfuireaehair^ ''unwary." O'R. has Jktraehar, "watching, watchful, 
wary/' Gael, furaehail, careful, /tfro^Arotf, vigilance. Cf. W. gwarchad, " a guarding," 
gwarchadw, " to watch," gwarched, " to ward, to watch," &c 986. Olecaire (gl, 
pugil), cf. O'lL's gleic, "wrestling, jostling, combat, conflict, contest/' Gael, gleach- 
dair: pugil is glossed by cuanene in Z. 27. 

987-996. Neimthni (gl. nil, gl. nul), leg. neimhni; nem, nemh, is a mod. form of the 
0. Ir. neb, neph (pronounced nev ?), and nf is a thing : cf. do nephni, gl. ad nihil, 
Z. 830. The ace. sing, ni occurs in Z. 584, 586 ; and the nom. (or perhaps the ace.) 
pi. in Z. 442 ; na ni ararogartsom (res quas mandavit). This is one of the stems in t 
(like Hf, " lona," lit. " humilis") noticed in the Beitr. 462. 991. Ainm (gl. nomen), 
name, W. enw, has been noticed mpra. It may here be further observed that ainm 
seems « dgnamant « Or. o-voftary the -gn&mant, -vofiar being the Lat. gnomen in co- 
gnomen, agnomen (for ad-gn6men)\ If, however, ainm was originally an an^stem, 
it is, so far as I know, the only one in which the t has been medialized, and then 


1 It is weU known that the Gr. stems in fiar represent Skr. bases in man, Latin, in men. To identify 
these we most assnnie a common prototype mant Curioos, if a trace of this prototype be preserred in the 
second n of anmann. 

1 1 6 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

assimilated to the preceding n (c£ clann, eland = W. plant). At all events, in the 
oldest Irish, aimn is a neuter ofm-stem, and thus declined : — 





ainm (n) 

da nainm 



anma, anmae 

6& anmaP 

anmann (n) 



dib nanmannaib 



ainm (n) 

da nainm 



ainm (n) 

a da nainm 

a anmann 

992. Remainm (gl. preenomen), W. rhagenw, and — 993. Conutinm (gl. cognomen), 
W. cyfenw, are compounds with r^n, com. 994. Tuighe (gL stramen, i. e. stratum), 
*' straw-thatch," O'R.; cf. W. to, pi. toau, "hiyer, roof;" toad, "roofing," Z. 163, 
874; comtoou, gl. stemicamina, Z. 291 ; cf. the Gaulish names Togirix, Togidia, To- 
giacus, TorfoSovfivo9 (leg. To^ioBovfivo9 ?), Togius, Togitius, &c., and 0. Ir. Toignire, 
Book of Armagh, 2 a, 995. I>idin (gl. tegimen), 0. Ir. ditiu, g. diten, r. supra. 
996. Arson anma (gl. pronomen), a pronoun, lit. "in lieu of a noun." 

997-1001. Sidhan gaeithe (gl. flamen), "a blast of wind," leg. Man y., and cf. 
Gael, siideag. 998. SoiUse (gl. lumen), r. stupra, 999. Sruth (gL flumen, gL pluui- 
nar, No. 1042), a river, gen. srotha, srotho, W. ffirwd, in 0. Ir. a masc. u-stem. Fictet 
compares Skr. srotas, river, from sktj, fluere (from sbhrav ?). Cf. the Gaulish river- 
name ^povri9 (Erutis), as Gliick, 35, reads Ptolemy's ^povBi9, Ct also the Gr* r. 
fiv in pew pev-eiVf e-ppv/f-Vf pev-ftn, pv-rov, &c. Lat. ru-0, riv-us, ru-mis (mamma), 
Lith. srov-e, srav-a. Curtius, G. E. i. 318, 319. The 0. H. G. strou-m, Eng. stream, 
have a t which I do not understand. 1000. Tairsseh (gL limen), threshold; so in 
Cormac : tdirssek, O'R., perhaps a deriv. from the prep, tars, Skr. root tar, to stride 
over or across, an old participle of which Bopp finds in the Lat. trans : cf. W. trothwy, 
and trawB, tros; Bret, tre^zou, from treiiz. looi. Sliseog (gl. polimen), Gktel. «^'- 
ssag, " a chip, shaving ;" cf. the Eng. " slice," The glosser seems altogether to have 
mistaken the meaning of polimen. 

ioo2~ioo6. Filideeht (gl. carmen), r. supra, No. i. 1003. SUutgh (gl. agmen) 
«= sloga, W. llu. Com. luu : so in Z. 27, who justly compares the Gaulish (Belgic) Catn< 
slogi, "battle-hosts." He also compares Xox^S ^ troop, which seems a different word 
from X.OX09, an ambush, childbed. Bare we compare 0. H. G. slahan, Eng. slay, slaugh- 
ter ? 1004. Shruihach (gl. fr'agmen), in O'R. spruilUaehy " a small scrap, crumbs, frag- 
ments, ofBal," cf. W. ysbwriaL 1005. Mardg (gL trolliamen). I now feel convinced 
that mar6g (Gael, marag, "gut of an animal, '^ "sausage," "pudding") is the modem 


A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 117 

fonn of maroc, gl. ioUa, L e. hilla, Htpra, No. 55. Trolliamen is obsotire to me. 
1006. Bhmaee (gL odomen, i. e. abdomen), the same as Blonae, which glosaes arvina, 
No. 2361 So in A. 8., we have the same word for lard and pannch. Blonacc : W. 
bloneg : : sebocc : hebawg. Perhaps the ee (W. g) stands for anoa. G£ the Gaulish 
derivatives in anco, enco, inco, unco, Z. 773, 774. 

1007-101 1. MMach (gl. cnlmen), v. 9upra, No. 838. 1008. Rind (gl. oacnmen), fre- 
quent in Z., nom. s. ar rt^u^siu, 2 $4, generally a neut i-stem, gen. s. renda, rendo, ace. 
firisa rindf Z. 236, nom. pL n. rind, Z. 257 : na rind astoidet (gl. signa radiantia), but 
renda (masc.) in Adamn4n*s Vision (early middle Irish) : Isat lana rmda nime ocns red- 
landa ocns firmamint ocns ind uli dul don xiallgaba dermair dogniat antnanTia na pec- 
dach fo Idmaib ocas glacaib inna n4mnt nemmarbdasin, '' Fall are the constellations of 
heaven, and the stars, and the firmament, and the whole world of the mighty lamentation 
which the sinners' sools make under the arms and hands of those immortal enemies/' 
The following is a paradigm of the 0. Ir. declension of neuter i-stems : — 

Nkitt. ••Steh. 

Stem, Jim, 
Sing. Dual. Plnr. 

Nom. and Ace fiss da f iss fess 

G. fessa, fesso d4 fisse P fisse (n) ? 

D. fiss dib fissib fissib 

• • . 

V. a fiss a dk fiss a fess 

Bind is always rendered signom coeleste, constellatio, by Z., and anqaestionally this 
most be its meaning in "ainm renda, gl. pisces," Z»i$si ^^t its primary meaning 
seems "point," "mark" (cote in rinnd, gL ubi . . . aculeas? Z. 361, where note the 
0MI90. article, in da errend, gL stigmata, Z. 254, and in this sense it is connected with 
the verbs tornther, Z. 595 (leg. tornder) ; dofoimde, Z, 974 ; toimdet (do-fo-rindet), 
dofoirndet, Z. 433, significant, tororansom, gl. signavit (do-fo-ro-rand-som), Z. 854 ; 
trimirothomdiassa (gl. transfigoravi), Z. 850 (where the d of the root is dropt or as^ 
nmilated: in dofoirde, dofoirdet, Z. 56, the n of the root is lost). Henoe it came to 
mean "the point of a weapon," "a headland" (W. rhyn), "the top of anything," 
" a star." 1009. 8U (gl. semen), W. hiL (There is another Welsh form, sil, where 
the 8 is unexplained.) Z. compares the names Silo, Bilus, SiHus ItaHcus. 1010. JBm- 
nad (gL geminen, a doubling), 0*IL*s eamhnadh; c£ emon, " a couple, twins," Conn. 
Mac na tr£ find^iftiui, " son of the 3 fair twins," Seirglige Cone, Atlantis^ iL 386 ; mat 

1 1 8 A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

anmann adiechta emnatar, and is ^cen comacomol hi soidib (''if nouns adjectiTe 
are doubled, there a conjunction is necessary between them/' lit, in them), Z. 671. 
C£ Skr. yama, " twins," unless we regard (e. g.) emnatar as an early corruption of 
geminantur. 101 1. Ara (gl. ren), 0. Ir. 4ru, gl. rien, Z. 20, gen. 4ran, W. aren, pi. 
eiryn, Com. aeran (Lat. rien, renes ?). 

10 1 2- 1 01 6. S&alp no dreassan (gl. splen, the spleen) would be in 0. Ir. selg no dies- 
san, but I have never met either gloss elsewhere, except in O'R. (who has sealg, but 
not dreassan), and in O'D. Gram« 397, '* mor cosmhaiHus risint seilg," " great resem- 
blance to the spleen.'' Selg (Bret, ffelc'h) seems to stand for s(p)lega ; cf. <nrXa(7)x* 
vo'V, airXjv, Skr. plihan, Lat lien. 1014. Int-inne iaohtaraeh (gL lien), the milt or 
spleen, certainly a blunder, for the Irish words mean ** the lower gut" — inne, " a 
bowel, entrail," O'R., iachtarach, an adj. from iachtar (O'E.'s iachdar), the lower part of 
anything, 0. Ir. ichtar, Z. 147 n., 592, which seems connected with the prep, is, ''infra." 
The suffix -tar (as in echtar « W. eithyr, uachtar « W. uthr, &c., Z. 823) seems iden- 
tical with the Skr. comparative saffix, -tara. 10 14. Slind (gl. pecten) a weaver's reed 
or sley), so Z. 723. 1015. Cruitire (gl. lyricen), v. supray l^o. 5. 1016. Sdoeaire (gl. 
tubicen, a trumpeter), from gdoe, a trumpet, O'E., Gael, stoc, " trumpet," " sounding- 

loi 7-1030. Tidaire (gL fidicen, lute-player), from tidy GaeL teudy string of a mu- 
sical instrument, in 0. Ir. t^t, gl. fidis, Z. 79 - W. tant, pi. tannau, Skr. tantu, pi. 
tantavas, Skr. r. tan, Lat. ten-d-o, rawfiai, tciVoi. The n of this root seems preserved 
in BeioL'tanay gL exilem, Z. 23, cf Eng. thin, raw, tenuis, &c 1018. Gtlla adhaire$ 
(gl. comicen, horn-blower), lit. " lad of [the] horn ;" adhairce, gen. sing, of adharc, 
"horn, trumpet," O'R., whence the dimin. aderc^ne, Z. 282, and the adj. adarcdae, 
gL cometa, Z. 780; cf. also adirdiu (gl. comix), Z. 727. 1019. Siideadh (c£ seidedh 
gdithe, supra), "blowing, blast," O'R. 1020. Muirduchu (gl. siren), lit. sea-music? 
The nom. pL occurs in a passage from Keating, cited in O'D. Gr. 177 : trialluid for 
muir agus teagmhaidh murdhuehainn doibh, " they put to sea, and sirens met them;" 
cf. duchann, "i. e. ceol, music," O'R., with which our -duchu seems connected: cf. 
also "W. dyganu, " to chant." Siren is glossed by muirmoru in Z. 28 « "W. morfor- 
wyn, "sea-girl" (morynyon pueUse), Z. 202. 1029. Muee mora (gL delphin), lit. 
"pig of [the] sea" (cf. "W. morhwch, Com. morhoch, Bret, morhouc'h, lit. sus maris), 
mucc mora, gl. dolphinus, Z. 1 1 14; c£ muccfoil, gl. hara, Z. 198 : mucc = W. moch, 
and c£ meichat, meichiat, "swineherd," Z. 106, 806, and the Gallo-Latin inscrip- 
tions, DEO. MERCYR. MOCCO (Muratori, L 51, OreUi, 1407) MAR. ET SVI, 
HER. ET iSF7(de Betouw, J)e oris et lapidibua ad Neomagum et Santmum effossis, 


A Mediosval Tract on Latin Declension. 1 1 9 

&c., Neomagiy 1783). 1030. Colaeh (gL cayn) ia explained " incestnons, impious, 
wicked." It occurs in the gen. sing. masc. in a citation from Leah. Breacc. (Petrie, 
B. T. 369) : ba mor tra diumns 1 addos, 1 bocasach in Hg eholaig (leg. colaig?) sin, 
and its root occurs in Patrick's Hymn, where Patrick speaks of cech fiss a T&ehutliu 
anmain duini, ''every knowledge that hath depraved man's soul." Cf. cuil (gL 
piaculi), Muratori, Antiq. Hal, iii. 891, cuilech (gl. prostibulum, Z. 431, gl. profanus, 
Z. 834), cuiligim (gl. prosto), Z. 431 ; SBrchuilecha (gl. tarn nefarii ausus), Z. 838; 
W. cwliawg. 1030. DeaUrad (gl. jubar, radiance, splendour, brightness), Gael. 
dealradhy masc. 

1032-1036. Ai (gL hepar, liver), leg. de, gen. sing, su^a^ No. 975, gen. pi. in Gael. 
dineany 0. Ir. 6a (gl. jecur), Z. 28 « W. afu. Com. aui, Bret, avu, may all, notwith- 
standing their great dissimilarity, be connected with ^vap, jecur, and Skr. yakrt. 103 3 . 
Brdee (gL sutolar), a shoe, " brogue," in Hiberno-English, is the W. brycan, where I 
do not understand the c ; Gaulish bracca seems Bret, bragez. 1034. Ichtar na eomladh 
(gL lar), " the lower part of the door." 1036. M (gL Cesar), a king = 0. Ir. rig, a 




N. rig 



G. rig 

d4 rig 


D. rig, rii 

dib rigaib 


Ace. rig (n) 



Voc a rig 

add rig 


The word occurs frequently in Gaulish proper names : nom. sing, reix, rix (= rig-s, 
n. pi. riges, cf. Lat. reg (r^x), Goth, reik-s, Skr, rSj, in samr&j, svardj (Xuhn, Ind. 
Stud. i. 332)). 

1037-1041. Sruth, a river, r. iupra, No. 999. 1038. lih in aria (gl. far, spelt, 
meal, grits). Ith, gen. etho, etha, Z. 15, differs from ith (gl. puis), Z. 26 = 0. W. 
iot (gL puis), Z. 60, now uwd, Z. 1 122, CoriL iot. Ith (0. "W. t'Maur, gl. area, now 
ydy Com. hit, Z. 1109) has been compared by Kuhn (I. S. 358) with 0. !N. aeti. 
Arha, O'R.'s arhhay com, perhaps connected with "W. erw, ** acre," Lat. arvum. 
1039. ^^^ (g^ naris), a fem. &-stem, ace. s. sroin, supra, sr6nbennach, gL rhinoceros, 
Z. 28. Sr6n glosses nasus, Z. 28, and, like W. &oen, seems to have lost a guttural 

1 C£ O. W. don rig, Habren, "dao reges Sabriiue,'* Z. 157. 

1 20 A Mediceval Tract en Latin Declension. 

before n : cf. Corn, fruc, Z, 89, where Norris would read /nw, Gr. pvefxot. The « in the 
Irish form is put for/ as in srian, W. fi^rwyn, Lat. fraenum, &c., and the resemblance 
of aron to srenim (gl. sterto, Z. 14 « stemuo, vrdpw/iai) is therefore accidental. 1040. 
Lenmunaeh (gl. sequester), from lenamain, 0'B.'s Uanamhtiin, " following, pursuing." 
The root len in Z. 1022, gl. 14 : lenaid din gutai thoisig, gl. ex superiore pendens 
Yocali, Z. 1051, gl. 25, ar mad peothad inti for a taibre grad, ^1^ a pecthe dindi 
dobeir an grad, ''for if he be a sinner on whom thou conferrest a holy-order [lit. a 
degree], his sins depend £k?om him who confers the order" (1020). 1041. Shot an 
etch (gL calcar), lit spur of the horse ; shar, perhaps not from the £ng. spur. C£ W. 
yspar, yspardun (^p^ron), Bret, spem, ''thorn." JSick, gen. sing, of edu 

1042-1046. Sruth (gl. pluvinar), 9. supra. 1043. Cldr casta (gL torcular, a wine- 
press or oil-press), lit. a board of twisting (a mangle ?), cldr, 9. supra ; casta, gen. of 
casad, 0'B.'6 casadh, "a bending> twisting," &c. 1044. JBuaiU dam (gl. bostar, a 
cow-house), huailCf gl. yaocaria, supra; dam, "ox," p. supra. 104$. C. grindifsM 
(gL nectar), I cannot explain, unless the Irish be put for c\_eannach'] grinds nofoike, 
"reward of baptism, or washing." I am indebted to C. for the following curious 
glosses: Biathad grinds no crinde .1. biadh cretme .i. bathais .i. log in baistithi 
(H. 2, 15, MS. in the Library of T. C. D., p. 61, h), " food of belief, i. e, baptism, i, e. 
the reward of the baptized one." Crinns JL ainm do baisti, ut est biathad crinne .L logh 
na baisti intan imliTiTi -| imbiadh doberar .i« 6 nf is credintibus bautisium [.i.] in 
baithis creidmedhe (O'Davoren's (llossary)* "a name for baptism, ut est 'biathad 
crinne," L e. reward of the baptism when much ale and food are given, i. e. since there 
is credentihus haptisma, i. e. the baptism of belieTers." With foilee cL folcaim, gl. 
humecto, gl. lavo, Z. 78, Gaulish Yolcatius, Yolcse, Z. 66, W. golchi, lavare, Z. 151. 
1046. Athair (gl. pater), 0. Ir. athir, is declined supra, No. 3, and has, as before ob- 
served, lost the initial J? (the root is p&, " to protect, to support, to nourish") : hence 
aitherrechtaigthe (gL patronymicum), Z. 972. Welsh has lost the word corresponding 
with athatr (W. tad = Skr. t&ta, carissime). The Breton cOmpizrien (compatres) is, 
perhaps, a loan-word, but cLW. athrach, "relationship," cy&thrach, "affinity" (ach, 

I047-IOJI. Brdthair (gL frater) «= brotl||r, 0. W. brawt, pL brodyr, Com. brand, 
broder, declined like athir, and found in all the Indo-European languages; Skr. 
bhratr (ace bhratar-am), Zend, bratar, st v. supra, "So. 570. The root, according to 
Bopp (Gloss. 253), is uncertain. Fro£ Max Miiller, however, says that "the original 
meaning of bhratar seems to have been he who carries or assists" {Oxford Essays, 
1856, p. 1 6). In accordance with this view we may suppose br&thair to stand for an 


A Medicevcd Tract on Latin Declension. 1 2 1 

original bhr&tar, root bhra, from bhar (bhr, Ir. ba£, rohar-ty tulit, Z.). In Old Irish 
this noun in the nom. sing, and gen. and dat. pi. (br&ithre, braithrib) seems to have 
gone over to the t-declension. Cf. the decl. of the LLth. stems dug-ter, mo-tcr, gen-ter, 
seser, Schleicher, Sdndhueh der Lit. Spraehe, i. 193. 1048. Braen ainmre (gL im- 
ber, rain-shower). Bram (leg. brien) seems broen, " pluvia," in Z. 41 ; so in Colmdn's 
Hymn, 1. 53 :— 

In spirnt n6eb ron&rofMO, crist rons^era, rons^na. 

The Holy Spirit rain upon us ! Christ deliver us (and) bkes us ! 

Braen is explained ** a drop" by O'E. ; so, Gael, hraon, and this certainly seems its 
meaning in Ir. Nennios, ed. Todd, 206 : foMth fer morulcach ind -| hraena fola derge 
tairis, '' a great-bearded man was found therein, with drops of red blood over him.'' 
It is perhaps radically connected with W. bwrw, to cast, to throw : bwrw gwlaw, to 
rain. Aimsire, gen. of aimser, "time," "season," "W. amser. 1049. Cularan (gl. 
cucimier, cucumber) is cularain in O'K ; cf. W. cylor, "earth-nuts," Bret, keler. 
105O9 1 05 1. Mi (gl. September, gL October), W. mis, a month. The gen. sing is mfs, 
» iiia(n)s-as, one of the few stems in « remaining in Irish, if^ indeed, there be an- 
other. Cf. mfs-tae, gl. mensumus, gl. menstruus, Z. 256; and Skr. mas, "moon," 
" month," Zend. mS,onh-, fi'^v, fietv, Lat me (n)s-iB (from mans, as can-is from xyait). 
1 052-1 056. Mdthair and Bean have been noticed sttpray but with respect to md- 
thair » mlltar-i, I may here quote Prof. Max Miiller {Oxford Essay 8 ^ 1856, p. 15) : 
"Among the early Arians m&tar had the meaning of maker, from ha, to &shion ; and 
in this sense, and with the same accent as the Greek /iV'"IP* i^^tar, not yet determined 
by a feminine affix, is used in the Veda as a masculine. Thus we read, for instance, 
Bv» YuL 41 , 4 : — Bih mata purvyam paddm. He, Yaruna (Uranos), is the maker of the 
old place." 1053. Bean (gl. mulier), 0. Ir. ben, must have had some curious irregu- 
larities in its declension. I have not yet found all the 0. Ir. forms, but the following 
list will probably prove correct so far as it goes : — 

Sing. Dual. Plnr. 

N. ben mnda 

G. mnaa ban (n) 

D. mn4i mnaib 

Ace. mnai (n) (di mndi ?y mnia 

y. a ben a mna 

1 Doth&et eiichalaimi iarsin co tard a draim ftiainliic "] baholc amenma leis *] dofoit ootlnd fair conaccai 


122 A Mediceval Tract en Latin DecleMton. 

Here tiiere seem to be three bases : i% baai (ben) « gTani* 6kr. jazii; 3^ bazia (ban) 
s gvaai a yv^t Bceot fiava, Yedic gn&, for gaii& ; and 3^, a lengthened form mn&T&y 
for bn&T&, for ban&y& (W, benyw, ConL mennyw) ^ gvanftvl What is the form hdn- 
dsD, ''goddesses/' Z. 280? Perhaps a double plural (nont sing, bandea, Md., gen. 
sing, bandeae, Z. 1029). 1054. Slitm ^adh (gl. linter, i. e. later), "a brick, tile;'* 
cf. W. pridd-faen, pridd-lech, lit ''clay-stone/' where pridd s erxadh. 105$. Caih^ 
raeh (gl. puber) = W. cedorawg, cfl W. caitoir, gl. pubes, Z. 48, hod. cedor, ** hair of 
pubescence," Bret kezonr, pubertas. 1056. Uih (gL uber), leg. uth« gen. utha, see 
ittpra, No. 102. I think now that uth may have lost an initial p : cf. W. piw, *' dug," 
" udder." 

1 057- 1 06 1. Doetnelaeh (gl. degener), leg. doehinilaeh, from do, the particle of 
quality before mentioned, and oin^lach, an adj. formed firom een^, as to which v. 
supra. io$8. Boekt (gl. pauper), gen. sing. masc. ind aisso haiehi, Z. 250; dat pL 
donaib boehtatb, Z. 823 : c£ boctio, gl. pauperculus, Z. 1 1 r, and perhaps W. byoho- 
dawg (» boz&tioo ?), Com. bochodoc, gL inops, Z. 295. Cf. 8kr. bhiksh, "to ^," 
bhikshn, ''beggar." 1059. Sine oehta (gl. uber), if this be what the scribe meant, 
tine, nipple, has occurred si^ifra, No. 151, No. 1039 : ochta, gen. sing, of ucht, breast : 
V, eupra, No. 813. 1060. Maehaire (leg. machairech ?), gL campester, 9, eupro^ No. 
866. 1 06 1. Caittteamhail (gl. Silvester), from caill and amaal (» samail, samali), 
apparently with the insertion of t before aspirated » (caill-t-seamail), as in mln-t- 
suilech, Na 430 : however, eoHl makes its nom. pi. eaillte in modem Irish. 

1 062- 1 065. Uaehthnaidhe (gl. celeber), Uaehlan (gl. saluber), have each the pecm- 
Har mark which the scribe seems to have placed where he was not sure of the correct- 
ness of his Irish gloss. Certainly he was right in putting this mark here. Celeber is 
glossed by erdairc in Z. ; saluber in O. Ir. would be slan, sleinech, or sl&intech. 
1065. Oruamda (gl. acer), from grttaim^ surliness, Corm. v. Groma. Cf. W. grwm, 
Eng. grwn. 

1 066- 1 074. Mechail (gL volucer), in O'R. eiteaeeail, "volatile;" c£ eite, quill, 
feather (=pettia?). 1067, Gdithamhail (gl. paluster), cf. goithlachde (gl. paluster), 
Z. 41 ; isin goitUuch (gL in palude), Z. 822. 1068. Eithidemail (gL acris, leg. ala- 
cris?), eithideamail (gl. alacris), apparently formed from a perscmal subst. eithid, 


indMmdi [O. Ir. indimn&i ?] eucai indaUiud bmt tk$in» impe alaili brat corcra o6ied(alMUl imtode (" then 
Cucholainn went and pat bis back against the rock, and his heart was lofw, and sleep came upon him. He 
saw the two women [coming] towards him — one of them [with] a green cloak aronnd her, the other [with] 
a red, five-folded cWak round her**). — Siirglig^ OoncyUtum, 

A Medieval Tract en Latin Dedenmn. \ 23 

"goer," which I haye not met, though eathamy " I go/' eathadh, " going/' occur in 
O'R. With eathaim Bopp compazes the Skr. r. at, ire. 1069. Uaidh (gL polyan- 
drinm), wokumvhpiO¥^ a common hurial-place) should prohably be read uaighy "graves." 
1070. Earraeh (gL ver), 0. Jr. enach, gen. erraig (it luathider gdith terraig, " they 
are swifter than the wind of spring ;" Seii^. Cone. Atlantis^ "No. iiL p. 1 10). This 
interesting word (stem (y)erraka, for yesraka ? root vas, to clothe) seems to have lost 
the initial t?, like urde, yiridis, W. guyrdd, Z. 66, uisoe « yad-scia? water. Mrach 
ia detiyed by Cormac from the Lat. ySr, but y^r, though it may come from the same 
root, is formed differently. YSr is a yerer s yes-era, the yowel-flanked 9 becoming r 
as usual, and the thematic a being lost, as in iap « Fe^cy, and as is usual when r pre- 
cedes it See Benfey, Q. W. L 309. 107 1. Corp leghas (gL cadayer), " a corpse that 
dissolyes" (decomposes, decays) ; eorp, gen. ouirp, now a masc. a-stem, like W. eorfi', 
pi. cyrflf : both corp and corff, no doubt, were originally «-Btems, but have gone over 
to the vocalic declension: v. supra, No. 812, and seem taken from the Lat corpus. 
LeghoM, 3rd sing. pres. relative of Ughaim, the verbal subst. of which occurs in Z. $80, 
614, iUobad et Ugai (in corruption and dissolution) ; cf. also lechdacha, liquids (in 
grammar), Z. 968. Leghorn (c£ W. Uiaw, IHad) is etymologically obscure to me, unless 
indeed Bopp be right in comparing it with a Skr. layami, r. li (Hquefacere, solvere). 
As to the forms legh-as (pi. l^h-ate), fiit legh&s, pi. legh&te, Schleicher, Beitr. i. 503, 
would regard them as the participles present and future active, only preserved in the 
ntmi. form of the sing, and plur. The form in 9, he thinks, expresses the Lat m (the 
loss of n before 9 being common in Irish), while that in ^, in the noio. pL m. and f., 
would correspond with the Lat nti9. It must, however, be observed that both these 
forms aspirate : thus, ar cech duine mid^u thrsaixx dam (" against every one that me- 
ditates evil to me," Patrick's Hymn): cid druailnide m^ <?Aechtar in da rann, 
Z. 472, " quamvis sit corrupta utraque duarum partium :" he9 ehmheech., Book of 
Armagh, 17 a, i. Fixa. faiUigdde phenm "qu» significant personam," Z. 198; beta 
^Auicsi "qui sunt electi," Z. 197. Hence, when thepractice of aspiration was intro- 
duced, these forms must have ended in a vowel, not in «; and I follow Professor Sieg- 
fried in regarding them as having arisen from the agglutination of pronouns, the rela- 
tive construction being originally an inverted one. 1072. Fipur (gL piper), from the 
Lat 1073. S^t tUghedh (gL iter) : mt^mit bite hi each crich (paths that are into 
every country, lit boundary), Z. 237. Hence, s^t appears to have been a masc. 
a-stem s senta. Gluck has compared the 0. Brit name Ckibro-sentum, which in Mod. 
Ir. would be Odbharkid, "goat-path;" G£ also W. hynt, f. Bret hennt, m. Gom. eun- 
Atnric, just, Z. 145 ; 0. W. dnguohintUiat (inoedens), Z. 149; tidoihinto (?) per avia, 

R2 Z. 

1 24 -4 MedicBvcU Tract on Latin Declension. 

Z. 866. The Irish seitche (=s sintada), "wife," originally an abstract noun, like 
aipche, has been referred by Dr. Siegfried to s^t. So much for Celtic cognates. In 
Gothic we have '' finths m. (Schulze) Mai, z. B. in ainamma sintha, tvaim nntham 
einmal, zweimal, yrm. eigentHch Gang, Reise {- Mai in mehreren deutschen Sprachen) 
ffoaintha, gannthja m. Gef ahrte, ffvvetc^fiov ; pi. genossenschaft, avvohUy Dief. Goth. 
Worterbuch, ii. 2to, 2 1 1, where hynt and Betid (= 0. Ir. s4t) are also compared, as weU 
as 0. H. G. sind (iter, trames), M. H. G. gesende (comes), A. S. gesiS, sendan, £ng. 
send, &c. Sligedh, gen. sing, of sligi,gl. via, wpra, 1074. Bedlg (gl. spinter), O. Ir. 
delg, gen. deilg, thorn, pin, A. S. dale, has been compared 9upra with Com. delc(h). It 
occnrs in the St Gall incantations, Z. 926, imm an delg (around the thorn), manibe an 
delg and (unless the thorn be there). Hence, it appears to have been a neut. a-stem. 

1075-1079. Cacgahhar(gL niter), "goats* dung" (excrement), leg. eaccg.-y^. 
each; cf. Lat. caco, Gr. icaicicaii;, cocin;, Skr. qakrt, in the weak cases qakan, lith. 
Bzeku : the German kacken infringes Grimm's law. Gahhar, W. gafar. As to gabhar, 
V, supra, No. 372. 1076. Za otrrthi (gL juger, an acre) I cannot explain, unless the 
Irish be for Id-airthe, " a day's ploughing" (airthe, from aratio?), i. e. as much land 
as can be ploughed in a day ; cf. W. aradu, to plough. There is probably some blun- 
der in the gloss. 1077. N6in (gL vesper, evening), from the Lat. nona (the third 
hour before sunset), with change of declension ; W. nawn, A. S. non, Eng. noon, Dan. 
noen. 1078. Oide (gL nutritor), 0. Ir. aite, which occurs in a gloss in Z. 1066, air- 
danimmart greim & aite, '* his rearer's influence constrained him." (Note the geni- 
tive's identity with the nom., aite, not aiti. Perhaps, however, aite is the gen. plur.) 
The word also occurs in the Leabhar Breacc Sermon on Brigit, cited by Dr. Todd, Lib. 
Hymn. 65 : Is^ a hathair na noemoigise intathair nemda, ise a mac Isu Grist, is^ a 
haite in Spirit noeb, ** this holy virgin's father is the heavenly Father : her son is 
Jesus Christ, her nurturer is the Holy Ghost." The non-aspiration of the t in aite 
can hardly be explained, except by assuming its original duplication (as in cruitire 
= crottaria) ; aite would then represent a primitive attia, which may be compared 
with Skr. atta, mother; Lat. atta, Fest. Gr. aTra, Gbth. atta, Either; aithei, mother; 
0. Bohem. ot. 1 079. Onotr = honor, whence it is taken, but with change to the i- de- 
clension, as in preceptoir, &c. 

1080-1084. Leghtoir is from the Latin lector [lego], which would regularly be- 
come lechtoir : the Irish root leo, read ; in roUg fanacc, did he read or not ? Z. 1434, 
exhibits a strange lengthening of the vowel : c£ W. magu'yr « mac^ria. Leg enters 
into composition : act arroilgither (ar-ro-l^g-flther) ind epistilse duibsi berthir uaib 
Laudocensibus et doberthar ind sepistil scrfbther do suidib con arlsegthar (= ar-leg-atar) 


A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 1 25 

duibsi^ *^ when this epistle shall have heen read to you, let it be brought from you to 
the Laodiceans ; and let the epistle that is written to them be brought so that it may 
be read to you/' Z. 1044, con arl^gidsi, gl. vos legatis, Z. 1044. In legai-s, the 3rd 
sing, pret, the verb in question seems to have passed over to the ai (e) conjugation : 

Inn insib mara torrian ainia, innib addmi, 

Legait canoin la germao, iaed adfiadat linL — Fiaee, 6. 

In the iales of the l^hene sea he remained, in them he meditated : 
He read the canon with Germanos ; this historieB make known. 

SoUghta^ soleghta, gL legibilior, infra. The root scBfs has also been borrowed, and 
we find it in what is supposed to be the oldest MS. containing specimens of the Irish 
language, viz., the Book of Dimma (Library of T. C. B.). Thus, at the end of St 
Matthew's Gospel : or6it^ dodimmu ro^erib [" pray ye for Bimma who wrote it"] pro 
deo 1 benedictione ; at the end of S. Luke's : oroit dodianchridiu ^oxoBcribad ['' pray 
ye for Dianchride, for whom was written"] hie liber et dodimmu ["for Dimma"] 
scribenti, amen . . . (Dimma is supposed to have written this A. D. 6zo). io8 1. Gradk 
(gL amor). Bopp (Gloss. 107) refers this to the Skr. r. grdh desiderare appetere, with 
which gorte (famine, Goth, gredus, hunger) has been connected 9upra : cf. also 0. K. 
grad, Eng. greed. 1082. Jhctuir, from the Lat Anamchara, lit ** soul-Mend," is the 
beautiful 0. Ir. word for doctor, teacher. 1083. Maisi (gL decor) — 1084. Mkmaisi (gl. 
dedecor), leg. maise, mfmaise, et v, supra, 

1 08 5- 1 089. Saethar (gl. labor), in Z. saithar (n. ?), gen. s^ithir: is uisse log a 
sdithtr do chach (just is the reward of his labour to every one), Z. 105 1 ; astorad 
sadthir do (Book of Armagh, 184 h, top margin), ace. sing, cen saithar, Z. 251. 
1086. TSs (gL calor), gen. tesa, Z. 12 = W. tes, "sun-heat;" perhaps » tepsu, Skr. r. 
tap. 1087. Dath (gl. color), dat. pi. secht muir gloinidi con dathaih examlaib in 
a timchell, "seven chrystal walls, with various colours around it," Vis. Ad. 1088. 
BoUanadh (gL odor), cf. ni holtigetar side holad^ ** non odorem &ciunt hi," Z. 447. 
1089. Brinttu (gL fetor), v. supra, 

1 090- 1 094. Dinmusach (gl. factor) from d^nmus, O'R deanmas, an effect, and this 
from d^num, "to do." 1091. Doilhthsoir (gL fictor) has been noticed supra. 1092. 


1 The Lat. ordte^ bibemidsed. Oratio was also imported : I have not met the nom. sing., which most 
hare been orathe, oirthe (cf. ooibse, from confessio), but the ace sing, ortham occurs in the Lib. Hymn., 
p. 3a : Nfnlne ^eas doiine iaaorthaitui^ no flac sldbte, ** N. the sage made this prayer, or ^0 of Sletty." 

126 A Mediavai Tract en Latin Dedension. 

CennaidhB (gL emptor), 0'R.*8 oeannaidhe, *' a merchant, any dealer :" cetbrar un(»TO 
TQBemnaigam p&traic, '* now four peraonB purchased Patrick" (Pref. to Secandiniu' 
Hymn). 1093. Did/i^ighUow (gL protector), 0*R.'6 dideanoir, '' protector, guar- 
dian," from ditu, gen. diten, as to which «• »upra, 1094. Boe (gl. tener), hod. bog, 
"soft, tender, penetrable,'* O'R., ct buiffi (gl. moUior), infra, Bret, bouk, "soft;" 
hence the Engl. " bog." 

1 095-1 099. Fiffiddir (gl. teztor), figheadoir, O'R., "a weaver," from the causal 
verb figim, I weave, Gorm. (W. gwan, gweu, Bret gw^a, to weave). Bopp (Gloss. 
335) refers to the Skr. r. v£, tezere, suere, and compares Lat vieo. Or. ff-rptop, lith. 
udifl, textura; see also Diefenbach, G. W. L 148, 431 ; Benfey, Gr. W. i 287. To the 
EngL " weave," web, 0. H. G. web-an, &c. (see Curtius, G. E. i. 261), we cannot yet 
quote the corresponding forms in Old Irish and Welsh. 1096. 7Hallat6ir (gl. nitor, 
attempter). The stem from which this noun is formed occurs in the lib. Hymn, 
(pref to Place's Hymn) : " dentar trial [mo] berthasa, ol Dubthaoh, con aocadar 
Piac, " Let an attempt be made to tonsure me," said Dubthach, '' so that Piao may 
perceive it." 1097. Fliuehideet (gl. liquor), from fliuchaide humidus, Z. 272, r. 
supra, 1098. Cumdaight6ir (gL conditor), cf. cumtach, ssdificatio, Z. 229, 777, 1046. 
1099. Ifaigister (gL retor, leg. rector), from Lat. magister. 

1 1 00- 1 1 04. Sendir, from the Lat. senior (which would, I think, more regularly 

have become sinoir); W. henwr » hen-gwr, a Gaulish senoviro-s. 11 01. Eistiddir 

(gL auditor), cf. O'R's eistim, "I hear;" by metathesis for 0. Lr. ^tsimm, cf. h^itsidi 

(auditores), ^itset (audiunt), Z. 23, 87; fo^itsider (subintelligitur), Z. 34; fo^tsecht, 

BubinteUectio, Z. 771 : the preservation of the t suggests the loss of an n. 1102. 

Crddhe s cradia, cridio, in 0. Ir. an ia-stem, neuter like Skr. hrdaya, Zend zeredha-ya, 

Goth, hairto, and Slav, srudlce, while Gr. maphia^ and Lith. szirdis, are fem. The 

gen. and dat. of cride occur in the following gloss frx>m Cormac : Tare, .i. nomen 

do ehridiu ut etan dixit Ni fo* in dam dom mo thuircc .i. mo ehridi im chHab cofil 

forcrith. *' Tore, i. e. a name for the heart; as Etan said, ' not good is the throbbing 

of my toree, L e. of my heart in my bosom which is trembling.' " Cf. also luathf Artitiff, 

gL cardiacus in the Leyden codex of Priscian ; Dian^ArMfo, 9upra, No. 1080. What 

is the crid in fomcArieiichfidersa (gl. accingar), Z. 475 ; fo^Artefigedar (gl. accingit), 

Z. 476 ? Perhaps we may connect with this cris, gen. ereM, a girdle : Bret, dsx-freiz, 

'' the girdle or the middle of the body." Croidhe is always spelt cride in Z. (the in 

croidhe being introduced to mark the broad pronunciation of ther). I know not if W. 

& F6 (fl boing lott betwwo vowela, and «m bMoming 6) s Skr. tmo, Zend vohn. 

A MedicBvcd Tract on Latin Dedenmn. 127 

enddd were ever a stem in ia. 1 103. Faiirg0 (gl. equor), v. 9upra, 1 104. Ma/rmur^ 
marble, from Lai marmor. 

1 1 05-1 109. Ainmidhd (gl. castor), an animaL 1 106. Ad, hoc ador ad should, per- 
haps, be read (as 0*D. suggests) hoc ador torad: torad is " fruit" in 0. Ir., dat sing, 
trarud, Z. 231. 1 107. Ughdur (gl. autor), from auctor : cf. 0. Ir. augtortis ^ auctori- 
tas, W. awdur. 1 108, 1 109. Mam, Minam, v. Hipra. 

I1IO-III2. Cuimnsaeh (gL memor), oo-m'n-ech. iiii. MieuinmMeh (gL im- 
memor), root xak, as to which v. supra : ef. ni euman lim, gl. nescio ; cuimnigedar 
(gl. reminiscentis), Z. 843. 1 1 1 2. Teooi$ee (gL doctior), ct tegaUgt, supra, would have 
been in 0. Ir. tecaisciu. The -iu, -u in the 0. Ir. comparatives from i^, and this from 
ias a Skr. ly&ns (strong theme), 0. Lat -ids, Qoth. isa, Or. iwv. The nU (spelt niiM, 
niw, nm, infra) preceding the adj., is » nf is, nf as, ''a thing which is," m, a«, being, 
as I conjecture, respectiyely the third sing, indie, of the roots as, as, the principal frag- 
ments of which remaining in 0. Ir. are as follows : — 

Sing. Plor. 

Pres, indie, z. am, amm^ ammi (n)' 

2. at adib', ada 

3. is, it* hit, it 
as, at (at) 

Pres. subj. 3. asu, aso atu. 

Impenonil Flezioo. 

1. ism^, asmm^^ issnisni 

2. istu ississi, itsib. 

I cannot explain these forms solely by the root as and the actiye voice. The itmane- 
forms of as given by the grammarians are fictions. One is therefore thrown upon the 
root AS and the middle voice, of which last there are, I think, clear traces in the Celtic 


1 Arnamtomiuid ndmm (« na + smm) in chdDc, Z. 70s. 

* Ammi nMig, Z. 253. 

*Adib6i8miiiiitire, Z. 478; sdib itrab do dia, iMdl AtKb innidi, Z. 252. Before m the ^ is aaaimi- 
lated : Mlimiiudcc, Z. 25 1. What is Uie form oM in Z. 1043, gl. 18 : quasi diximet obi mogasi dam at& 
tax e6imdiu in nim, ** as if he had said that ye are servants: your lord also ia in heaven?** A misreading 

* Itsib ata cliomarpi, Z. 894 : iUi6 ciatn mehnitset, Z. 570 : roftss U f&s infeneebua icondelg ferb 
nd4, **it is known tliat the Fenechns is void in comparison with the words of God,'* Corm. v. F<trb, 

> Z. 434, -mm6, from m6 + m6 ? Cf. Lat memo. 

128 A Medioeval Tract on LcUin Dedension. 

dialects. In the first person sing, am, amm is the Skr. asmi, Gfr. ^fifu, el/U, Lat. sum, 
Lith. es-miy Goth, im, Eng. am. Here Irish has retained the old form better than her 
Celtic sisters, the W. being wyf. Com. of, Bret. off. The plur. ammi (n) is start- 
lingly like the Gr. iafUv, both, perhaps, standing for an original as-masmi That the 
n is part and parcel of the Celtic form seems proyed by the uninfected m (= m + n) in the 
corresponding W. ym, Com. on, Bret om^, as well as by the fact that ammi does not 
aspirate, and must, therefore, have ended in a consonant. In the 2nd person sing, a-t^, 
like the W. ictf-t. Com. o-s, is formed by suffixing the pronoun of this person. But 
the ain a-t points to the Skr. ase, Gr. fjtnu, the 2nd pers. of the root is, to sit, to be, 
'' from which," says Bopp, Gloss. 35, ''the root of the verb subst. as is, perhaps, 
shortened." Whereas the try in tvy-t rests on ^, at, Skr. asi, Gr. €?. For the agglu- 
tination of the pronoun c£ 0. !N. er-t, Eng. ar-t, €k>th. vas-t = Eng. was-t, 0. N. rar-t. 
The plural ada* seems from adih, which ms.j^adai-^-iih the pers. pron. of the 2nd pers. pi. : 
of. the Skr. &dhve for as-dhvai, Gr. i^cr^e. In the 3rd person is of course is = Skr. asti, 
Gr. e0r-T/(v), Lith. es-ti, Eng. is. But, like the Lat es-t, Goth, ist, it must have lost its 
terminal vowel at an early period, for it never aspirates. Indeed, in one instance (is 
nuissc, Z. 370) it seems to take a transported n, which would point to an old Celtic 
form ASTiN. But here, perhaps, Z. misread n for A. The forms it, a^, in the sing, 
are obscure to me. Can they have passed over from the plur. ? There hit (note the 
metathesis aspiratianis, h-i-t « i-h-i(n)t), or it is «= Skr. santi (for asanti), Zend, henti, 
Gr. {ir)cv7i, eiai, Lat. s-unt, Goth, sind : other Celtic forms are W. and Bret ynt, Com. 
yns, ens. As aspirates, and must therefore have ended with a vowel at a compara- 
tively recent period. It is generally used in dependent or relative sentences ; and was, 
I believe, originally identical with the Skr. ast^ : at seems to point to ^tnai, Skr. 
asate, for ^santai, the nasal of plurality being omitted, as in dadat^ « U^o-viai. The 
subjunctive forms asu^ {mo\ and atu, only occur in connexion with the conjunctions 


> Z. 1129. s Ada baill, Z. 351. 

3 Ib and at gnim tengad iaind hnilia labramami, **e8t offidnm lingaaB In omni qnod loqnimnr,*' 
Z. 446. This is an example of the use of 0/ aa a Hngutar fonn. Bnt there can be no donbt that it will be 
found in the plnral. I can, however, aa yet only qnote Middle-Iriah ezampleB, such as "o^bnide do l&ma 
at brecca do beoil at Hatha do siiile/' Leab. Breaoc, cited ODon. Gr. 350. Aa is often found in an 
absolute position. Thus Aa dn Christ as immaircide in ealm-so, **f< %$ to Christ this psalm is in- 
scribed," Z. 473 : Sancti et justi it h^ as chorp dosom. Cliristuji aa chenn ind noib aa chorp, ** Sancti 
et Justi, it is they who are his body. Chriatua is head, the saints are body," Z. 197, where note the use 
of aa in the plur. 

« M-OMtfthol, Z. 671. 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 1 29 

ma, "if," and eta, ee, '^ although/' Z. 671, 673. Am {aso), the i of which is some- 
times doubled, appears to me identical with the Skr. imperative istam; and atu 
(the t of which is unaspirable, and must, therefore, have lost a preceding n) seems 
the Indo-European asant&m. 11 13. Laidiri (gL fortior), positive laidir: laidiri, 
gl. fortitude, supra, 1 1 14. M6 (gl. major). This form occurs in Z. 28 j, as well as 
moo, moa, m&, mdo, mda, "W. is mwy. Com. moy, Bret, muy (where note the pre- 
servation of the primitive «). One thing is tolerably clear about these forms, that 
they have lost a vowel-flanked g : cf. Skr. mahiyans, Zend, maqyehim zam » fkei^ova 
T^y, Bopp ; Osc. mais, Lat. major, for mag-ios, Gk>th. maiza, fi^l^ojv, from fieyjuv. So 
in the superl. 0. Ir. maam. 

1 1 1 5-1 1 1 9. Zugha (gl. minor), in Z. 283, 284, lugu, laigiu, W. Uei « i'Xaairwv 
(e-Xoj^W), Lat levior, Skr. laghly&ns, Eng. less. 11 16. Ferr (gL melior) = W. 
Com. and Bret. gueU, Z. 286 : cf. Skr. varlyins, ipeiwv. The second r in ferr, / in 
guell, represent the assimilated y : W. superL goreu stands for varama. 1 1 17. Misa 
(gl. pejor), messa, Z. 285. The positive is the prefix mf- (Ebel) « Goth, missa (Dief 
G. W. iL 76) = Eng. mis : c£ Skr. mithya, "falsely." There are two other 0. Ir. com- 
paratives in '»a, viz., nesa, nessa, or nesso, " nearer," and tresa, or tressa, " firmer, " 
" stronger." Nessa, W. nes, if connected with the Zend nazdista (proximus) = Skr. 
n^dishtha, may stand for nasdias: cf. Skr. nedlyas, (With the superl. Ir. nes- 
sam, W. neeaf, Ebel has compared Umbr. Osa nesimo.) Tressa, W. trech, Bret, 
tr^c'h, seems to point to a Gaul, trexias, but this leaves its connexion with the posi- 
tive tr^n unexplained, unless, indeed, this be >= trexna. 

1 1 20-1 124. Sanntaigi (gL avarior), sanntach, supra, No. 667, 1 121. LiU (gL ca- 
rior), posit, dil; is dil laee maid [leg. maith] do d^num duibsi, "she likes (lit. est gratum 
ei) to do good to you," Z. 283 : nimdil, Z. 942 ; compar. diliu, Z. 283 ; superL dilem : is 
hed as dilem Hum rath precepte, " It is this that is dearest to me, the grace of teach- 
ing," Z. 604. 1 122. S(nllsi{gl, clarior), pos. sollus, solus« 1 123. Meata (gl. debilior) 
« O. Ir. mettu, from O'R.'s meata, " cowardly, fearful, timid," reminds one of the 
Goth, gamaid^, Eng. mad, but perhaps the resemblance is accidental Cf. W. meth, " a 
miss," methiant, failure, decay. Com. meth, pudor, Z. 223, meza, "timide," "honteux.'' 
1 124. Gile (gl. albior), pos. gel (= gila), geal (gl. albus), supra, No. 659. C£ Lat. gil- 
vus = 0. H. G. gelo, Eng. yellow. " The stem," says Lottner (7 Zeits. 1 84), "is widely 
spread, but with other suffixes : Gr. x^*^P^*9 Skr. had, SI. zlutu, Lith. geltas." 

1 125-1 1 29. Socarthanaighi (gL amabilior). 1 126. SoUghta (gl. legibilior). 1 1 27 . 
SomoUa (gL laudabilior), all formed by prefixing the particle so (^ ev) to adjectives 
formed respectively from the roots CjUi, leg, and mol, as to which r. supra, and com- 
pare with socarthanaighi cairddine, for cairtine, " of friendship," Z. 740, cairddioigther 

S (amari). 

1 30 A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

(amari), Z. 1129, which, however, are formations from the participial stem, carant. 
1 128. Conaiehi (gL felicior), cf. 0'B.'s condch, "prosperity, affluence." 1129. GUea 
(gl. sapientior), 0. Ir. gliccu : ar ni pa glieeu felsub olambieidsi si in Chiisto estis, 
Z. 1040, " for no philosopher is wiser than ye will be," &c. : the abstract derived from, 
it occurs in a gloss on '' sapientes in astutia," Z. 257, viz., isin tuaichli isin glied^ i 
foili, 1 130 : cf. Goth, glaggvus, 0. N. gloggr, A. S. gleav, N. H. 6. klug, Dieffenbach, 
G. W. iL4ii. 

1 1 30-1 133. Cainiuaraighi (gL benignior), read cdtnjuarraighif compar. of edin-* 
fuarachy voc. sing., cain[f Juarraig, occurs in Gildas Lorica. 1 1 3 1 . JDana (gl. audacior), 
leg. d4na : the positive of this is ddna, cited supra from Golman's Hymn, 1 2, and gloss- 
ing davus in Z. 20. With ddna, Gliick, 92, connects the river-name Dinuvius (N. H. G. 
Donau, £ng. Danube), often wrongly written Danubiu& Cf. also d&natu (audacia)i 
Z. 769. The dat. sing of dana occurs in the Felire, Jan. 23 : — 

C^sad oebriani The sufiering of Cebrianiu 

dementi cons&da : And of Clement I celebrate : 

ronsnadnt dondriga ICay they oonroy na to the Kingdom, 

conandiinad ddnu. With their daring hoet 

1 1 32. Seirhs (gL amarior), pos. serb, G'R's searbh « W, chwerw, 0. BL G. sueran 
(dolere) cf. the Eng. service tree; cf. the adverb int«^^ (gl. amarius), Z. 563. Z. has 
also the subst. serbe, a fem. i^stem : gen. sing. cech cen^lu serhe, Z. 257, *' ab omni 
genere amaritudinis,'' ace sing, cen eerhi pectho (gl. azymi), '* without the bitterness 
of sin." 1133* Zabartaighe (gl. loquacior), pos. labartach, an adj. formed from the base 
labar, frequent in Celtic : cf. Com. guir-leueriat, veridicus, gou-leueriat, falsidicus, 
Z. 98, W. llafaru, llefaru, to speak ; afla&ur, dumb (= Ir. amlabar, Z. 743), and in 
Irish, labrad loqui, sermo : combad an dede sin im' lahrad-BSLf Z. 460, rolabrastar, 
supra, " he spoke," which comes from a deponent labra-r, Z. 444. Bopp, in his Glos- 
sary, p. 297, has referred the Mod. Ir. labhraim, I speak, labhradh, speech, to the 
Skr. r. lap loqui, sed qu. ; cf the Gaulish name Labarus. A form, apparently taken 
from the Lat. labrum, occurs in 0. Ir., but unfortunately I am as yet only able to 
quote its ace. pi. : — 

86n, a Christ, mo labra Bless, O Christ, my llpe (?) 

a choimde secht nime ! Lord of seven heavena I^ 


1 Verses prefixed to the Leabhar Breacc copy of the Fdlire of Oingns c^le D6 (** Ck>d*a companion"). 
In a MS. preserved in the Bodleian, however (Bawlinson, F, 95, fo. 59), this passage runs : Sto a christ 
mo labrat^ a choimdiu secht nime, — and this I believe to be the true reading. 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 1 3 1 

Before leaying the subject of the Celtic comparatives, I take the opportunity of refer- 
ring to a paper on the subject by Dr. Ebel in the Beitr., voL ii., pp. 78-80, and of 
printing a note with which I have been favoured by Prof. SiegMed : " I was long 
doubtful whether the Old Irish comparative in iuy «, was from -iin (like Greek) or 
-i&s (like Latin). I am now convinced it is from -ias, whence by weakening, iiis, iu. 
We have the analogy of the ace. pL of masc. a-stems, which ended in -ds, not -ihi (ex 
-&nB) ; this we know, because that case never appears with the transported n, as in 
the sing, fer (n). The Welsh termination of the comparative -aeh, the Breton -oehy 
one would wish to explain likewise from -i&s. But 1 believe that this syllable (the Indo- 
European idm) is totally lost in Welsh, as it is almost in Irish. No one will find this 
unnatural who knows that the original accent of the comparative was on the radical 
syllable. The termination -ach must then be some agglutinated word or particle, 
though such seems at first not offered by the Welsh lexicons. I would point to a possible 
connexion with cf , Ij^w, efoxa, W. eh-, Ir. as-, and especially with the unexplained 
aesa, which occurs with the Old Ir. comparative in Z. 286. Gf. also the Welsh ' ech- 
doe, day before yesterday, eeh-noB, night before last' " 

1134-1139. Saithech na tuise (gl. turibulus, thurible, censer), '' vessel of the in- 
cense :** iaitheeh, occurs, spelt soitheach in the Zehar na Cert, p. 236. Dare we com- 
pare the W. saig ? Tuise, gen. of tus (which occurs in composition in ^tMlestar, gL 
turibulum, Z. 1 120) ; tui is from the Lat tus, and from the inflection of the adjective 
dimor in the following lines, it appears to have been feminine (Lib. Hymn. 7 a) : — 

Melchar tidnachtaid ind6ir Melchar, giver of the gold : 

Caspar tuoc \ntU8 dimdir Caspar brought the excellent firankiacense : 

Patifarsat tuoc inmlrmaith Patifarsat brought the good myrrh ; 

Conastarat^ doiidrig[f ]laith. He gave them to the kingly Lord. 

The ace. is more correctly spelt tuis in Harl. 1802, 5 h (tuts dodia dod^gtidnaic). 
1 135. Urralatstt (gl. horologium, w/)o\o7toy) I have never met elsewhere. It is iden- 
tical with the W. ortais, horloge. Of. prdiste, cdtste, from broche, coche. 1 1 36. 
Piloir (gl. colosdrigium, L e. collistrigium, collum, stringo), French pilori, ''Engl, 
pillory, aus dem deutschen pfilare?" (J. Grimm, Eechtsalterthiimer, 725). 1137. 
Compos no raing antsair^ " a compass, or the carpenter's (or mason's) divider," O'D. ; 
saiTj gen. sing, of sder « W. saer, a masc. a-stem. G£ «(itird^nmidecht, gl. artificium, 
Z. 771 ; sder oc suidigud siUab, Z. 1018, ''an artist in placing syllables;" n. pi. nitat 
s6ir huili oc saigid for sunu, Z. 460, "aU are not artists in disputing respecting 

i Cf. contarat, Z. 360 (4). 


132 A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

sounds/' Com. sair artifeZy faber, Z. 142. How is it that the initial s is retained in 
Welsh? Ciaran mace mUdir (" C^ranns filius arttficis" Book of Armagh) is a well- 
known person in Irish hagiology, as is also the GK)bhan Sder in Irish tradition. The 
Highland name Macintyre » mac intsair. 1 1 39. Maide sgine (gl. manubrium), handle 
of a knife; maide^ lit. ''wood," '' stick," occurs in Corm., and Bopp compares it with 
Skr. manthana (rudis) ; sgine^ gen. of sgian, as to which r. supra. No. 440, 

In conclusion, I have to repeat the expression of my great obligations to my Mend 
and teacher, Professor Siegfried. To his genius or guidance are due all the noTel 
truths brought forward in this Commentary, and he is in nowise responsible for the 
mistakes which it contains. I have also to request that my readers will, before form- 
ing an opinion on the contents of any of the preceding paragraphs, see whether the 
statements made therein have been corrected, completed, or modified in the Corrigenda 
and Addenda at the end of the Tolume. 



It has been thought that the following Hymn, with the glosses thereon, would form 
an appropriate supplement to the foregoing Tract and Commentary. The poem in ques- 
tion is taken from the copy preserved in the so-called " Leabhar Breacc/* or " Speckled 
Book" of the Mac Egans (fol. 1 1 1, 0, 5), a manuscript in the Library of the Eoyal Irish 
Academy. In the opinion of Br. Todd, this manuscript was produced in the latter part 
of the fourteenth century. It is a large and well-written codex, and contains many 
Irish tracts and poems, of which some (such as the ''Vision of Mac Conglinni/' and the 
'' Calendar of Oingus") are of considerable antiquity. 

I know nothing certain about the Gillas (or Gillus — ^the MS. aUows of either reading) 
to whom the scribe attributes our poem. Ab, however, Laidcenn, son of Baeth the Yicto- 
rious (who would seem from the preface to have brought Gillas' production to Ireland), 
died in the year 66 1 \ we may perhaps presume that our Gillas was the celebrated Welsh- 
man, S. Gtildas Badonicus, whose death is recorded in the Annals of Ulster, at the year 


1 «* This ecclesiastic was a pnptl of S. Lactao, at Clonfert-Molaa, now Clonfert-Molloe, or Kyle, in the 
Qaeen*s Coonty, and died 00 the 12th of Jannary (at which day he is commemorated in the Irish calen- 
dars), in the year 661.** — Reeves, Jhroeeedingt R. L A,, Nov. 8, i858, where also may be foond the obi- 
tuary notices of Laidcenn, contained in Tigemach and the Annals Of Ulster. In the latter he is called 
Laidggenn sapims. In the Bodleian Annals of Innisfallen we find at the year 651, Qoies Laidcenn mc 
Baith bannaig. For this quotation, as well as for the following extracts from the calendars, I am indebted 
to Dr. Reeves: — 

Crist asriinaid rindaig Chrisfs acute mysteiy- explainer is 

Laidcend mace Baith bandaig. Laidcend son of Baeth the Victorious. 

F^lire OtnffuuOj Jan. 12. 

(rindaig is glossed by ffUe in the Zeabhar Breaee^ and the first line by "is rinnaith irr6nib crist, i. e. he is 
sharp-pointed in the mysteries of Christ" Bandaig, gen. sing. m. of handach, is translated " Tictorious" 
on the authority of Colgan). Laidhgenn mace Baoith Cluain ferta molua et as ann ata a adhnacul, Aois Cr. 
660, "L. son of B. of C. F. M. and there is his tomb, A D. 660." — Calendar of Donegal, Jan. 12. So 
the scholiast on Marian Gorman at Jan. 12 : Laidcenn 6 dnain ferta' molua 1 is ann rohadnacht som 
.L Laidcenn mac b6ith,." from C. F. M. and it is there he was buried, i. e. L. son of B." Denis mentions 
a Ladkenas Hibemtensis who made an abstract from the " Moralia" of Gregory the Great. Bat I am 
doubtful if this were the same as L., son of Baeth. 

134 Appendix. 

569. This Gildas was the son of Caw, a disciple of Iltut, and, in the opinion of his 
countrymen, an "egregius scolasticus et scriptor optimus" (Rees* Camhro-BritUh 
Saintt; Llandovery, 1853, pp. 120, 343 n). The Welsh origin of the hymn is indi- 
cated by its Latinity. Thus gibra (homo), cona (oculus), sena (dens), gigra (leg. 
gogra ? caput), are, so far as I know, only found in the Folium Luxemburgense (see 
Zeuss, G. C. 1096, 1097, where the forms gibras, conis, sennarum, gugras, are quoted 
from Mone's edition in his Die galliache Spraehe ; Karlsruhe, 185 1). If Gildas Bado- 
nicus were the author, and if, as is possible, the martaUtas hujus anni mentioned in 
the fifth and sixth lines were the Yellow Plague, we might attribute the composition 
of our hymn to the year 547, when that visitation was first inflicted on Britain, and 
when Gildas was 3 1 years of age. Dr. Beeves, indeed, has thought (Proeeedings of 
the Royal Irish Academy ^ November 8, 1858) that the composer of our hymn was a 
later writer. But I understand that this eminent scholar has recently found reason to 
alter this opinion, which rested, no doubt, on the statement that Gillas was a contem- 
porary of Laidcenn, involved in the assertion that the latter ** venit ab eo [sciL GtiUa] 
in insolam Hibemiam." However this may be, I do not think it desirable to go far- 
ther into the question, agreeing, as I do, with Denis (CataL Codd. TheoL Yindob., 
i. 3, p. 2932), who prints from a Yiennese MS. of the fifteenth century some verses of 
the hymn in question, and observes thereon : — '' Hymnus sat mendose scriptus, rudis 
et superstitiosus, quo quis omnes vel minimas partes corporis sui partes Deo protegendas 
prorsus avaTofknUa^ adnumerat, ubi ad membrorum censum delabitur, Plautinum te 00- 
cum aut Merlinum Coccajum audire credas.'' 

Herr Mone, the learned Director of Archives at Carlsnihey has published the 
text of the following hymn from a Darmstadt M& of the end of the eighth cen- 
tury, which attributes the composition to ''Lathacan Scotigena." Mone's edition 
("Hymni Latini Medii Aevi," Friburg, 1853, vol. i. p. 367), is followed by a com- 
mentary in German, frt>m which I translate the following passages : — ''As an example 
of Irish hymn-poetry of the seventh century, the above song is not without interest, for 
one perceives in it a national style of treatment which differs greatly frx)m that of the 
other peoples. In minuteness of detail it agrees with the drawing of the ancient Irish 
figures (Bildwerk), particularly with that of the illuminations in the MSS., and this 
particularity (Specialisiren) is accordingly a national trait. See the ' Contributions of 
the Antiquarian Society in Ziirich,' voL vii., p. 73-75, 92"'. 

" The song rests on Bom. xiii. 12, 2 Cor. x, 4, especially Ephes. vi. 1 1, i Thessal. 

V. 8. 

> Hence it will be seen that Mone oondden the author to have been an Iriahman. And certainly the 
anthoritj of a MS. of thd ei^th oentmy ia not to be deepiBed. But I repeat that the peculiar Latinity of 

The Lorica of Gild as. 135 

V. 8. Hence also x*''"'" '"j^ w$arei)9 in the Mensea, July 29. Quibus prq lorica 
Christas est, vim non metuunt. Ennod. pro syn. prsef. Since the Fall, inasmuch 
as man's body became mortal, it has been capable of injury, and will remain so until 
he shall again receive an immortal body through the resurrection. And inasmuch as 
he has lost the garment of the original innocence, the stola prima, he needs against the 
perils of the earthly life, a defensive garment, as it were, an armour. The song moves 
in these ideas, to which allusion is made in other places. For example : veKpwaewi 

rov9 j(^trS>va9 Be^afievo^ wpowerret^ t^v iKpaatai, a\\a av fie evBvoop v<€ rov Oeov, 
cToXijv if>wreivijy t^« avaf^evvi^<f€W9» Triodion, E. I. Gregor. Naz. Orat xlii. p. 68 1, 
says : — *ABafik rovt hepfiarivovi afitfiUvwrai "xy^^^^^i Aro;* trjv waxvr^pav aapxa koX 
OvriTTJu ical airrtTVTTOvJ'' 

With regard to the Irish glosses which are foimd between the lines or in the mar- 
gin of the Leabhar Ereacc copy of our hymn, and for the sake of which alone such 
hymn is here printed, I am of opinion that they are middle-Irish, some of them early 
middle-Irish, but I can see no evidence that any of them were produced before the 
eleventh century. Thus we find m for Old Irish h (noemaib = 0. Ir. noibaib) ; d for 
t (augdar = 0. Ir. augtor) ; nd for 0. Ir. nn (adbronda, coitchind, colaind, brond, cend). 
A is written for s in sean, 0. Ir. sen, for t in an " in," at " in thy," and for o in mora, 
0. Ir. mora. lu has become i in cind (capiti, W. and Com. pyn), anciently ciunn. In 
declension the feminine article has in the nom. pL masc. usurped the place of the forms 
proper to the masc., and we find na sloig, na hescarait, na baill, which in Old Irish would 
be respectively tn^sloig, tiMiescarait, mbailL In the dat. pi. the article and adjectives 
have dropt their labial ending, and we have dona hainglib, cusna haimib, cumachtaib 
nemtruaUnide, for the Old Ir. donaib ainglib, cusnaib aimib, cumachtaib nebthruail- 
nidib. The noun, too, has suffered serious changes : thus all distinction seems lost 
between the nom., gen., and voc. sing, of ia-stems, and we find cride for the 0. Ir. 
oridi (cordis) and a thigema for a thigemi (domine). In the dat. pi. of mace, a 
masc. a-stem, the old accusative termination seems to have taken the place of the 
dative-ending, and we find maccu for the 0. Ir. maccaib. In a consonantal stem, 
mil (= mint), we observe in the ace. pL a passing over to the vocalic declension, and 
thus ocmiled-u appears for the ancient ocmiled-a. Other such instances will be men- 
tioned in the notes. In the verb the only remarkable form presented by the glosses is 
ingerrtha (gl. lacerandum) for the Old Irish gerrthf. The practice of thus forming the 


the hjinn leads me to believe in its Cambrian origin. Tlie metre, too, is on-Irisii. It seems to be vbat 
Welsh writers call y gyhydedd lae$. 

1 36 Appendix. 

fut part. pass, by prefixing in to the pret. part. pass, has lasted down to the present 
day. It is noticed in O'MoUoy's Grammatica Zatino-Mihernica, Bximm, 1677, pp. 99, 
100, where we find the following : — " Particnla autem in addita Tocnlse facit voculam 
importare participium finiens in du8 apud latinos, ut fac%endu$, ut koe nan ett facien* 
dam, hibemic^ ni hhfuil so indeunta.*^ This, in Old Irishy would be ni ddnti tnsoK 

The text of the hymn is printed as it stands in the MS., save that I haye expanded 
the contractions, severed the prepositions from the words they govern, punctuated, and 
invariably commenced the lines and the proper names with capitals. The glosses have 
been placed under the text, their numerous contractions expanded, and such expan* 
sions represented by italics. 

Gillas banc loricam fecit ad demones expellendos eos qui adversaverunt illL Per- 
u[enit] angelus ad ilium : et dixit illi angelus. Si quis homo firequentauerit illam 
addetur ei secul[um] septimm annis: et tertia pars peccatorum delebitur. In quacunque 
die cantauerit banc orationem, oratores, homines uel demones et inimici non possunt 
nocere : et mors in illo die non tangit. Laidcend mac Buith Bannaig uenit ab eo in 
insolam Hibemiam: transtulit et portauit superaltare sancti Patricii episcopi sauos 
noB facere, amen. Metrum undecaisillabum quod et bracicatelecticon dicitur quod 
undecem sillabis constat, sic scanditur, 

[S]uffi:agare^ trinitatis unitas, unitatis miserere trinitas, 

et sic disponitur : 

Suffiragare', quaeso*, mihi possito^ 


Gi/Ms. — 1 Fot^gaire ata hlc onbrethir chmtchind asb^rar soAragor .1. foriaehttAgim , gnfragare .i. 
Uriaehtaigimj "thia U an imperatiTe from the common verb, which is called wffragw \. I aasisty 
aufixtgare^ L e. I asalst.'* ' INni tra atb^rt intangdar [in nuirg.'] hie .i. sufragare dobeth fbrigaire 
onbr^/Air choitcAtW aab^rar snfragor .L dotoet nad ifus conidinfinit gnima on brethir gneith^; asb^rar 
[sofrago] .1. sufragor. foit snfrago lecnndnm veteres. *' Now what the author has said here, L e. that 
auffragare is an imperatiye from the common verb which is called soifragorf i. e. it came from it here, [or] 
it may be an infiniCire active, from the active verb which is called tuffragoy i. e. tujragw. Foit, &c. 
* .L deos. * .L iannidingad, '* having been placed," lit ** after placing." 

1 Ebel (Beitr. i, 162) has equated the -ti of the 0. Ir. part, ftit pass, with Skr. -tavya, Gr. -rfo-^, Lat 
-tiva-8. Z. has compared the Old Breton -tot^ the Mod. Welsh -<^iiy. Cf. also the Cornish '•4ovd in car- 
a-dow, casa-dow, (amandos, abominandos). 

The Lorica of Gildas. 137 

4. Magni^*^ mariB" uelnt in pericnlo*. 

Ut non secum trahat^ me mortalitaa" 

Hnjus anni' neque mundi uanitas'^ 

Et hoc" idem peto a sublimibus*' 
8. Celesti8"miHt[i]e"imtutibiis"j 

Ne me linqnant'* lacerandum^' hostibus^S 

Sed defendant" me iam** aimis'^ fortdbuB**, 

Ut me illi pnecedant in acie^' 
12. CelestiB** exercitus** m[i]litie* 

Cenibin** et cerupihin*' cum millibns*, 

Gabriliel'* et Michsel" cum similibus" ; 

Opto tronos", uirtuteB**, archangelos", 
16. Principatus"*, potestatesP', angelos". 

Ut m[e] denso* defendentes** ag;mine" 

Inimicos** uale[a]nt** prostemere**. 

Dtmi deinde ceteros agonetetas^, 
20. Patriarchas^ quatuor quater profetas*' ; 


Gloos. — ^('^ .L mor, ** great/' ^ .L inman "of the sea.** ' .L angnaaacht, "in danger.** ' .i. na- 
romaraine inbaa, "that the mortality may not defSoat me.** * X diabul iarforba mobethad, "the devil 
after the completion of my life^** * .i. nahamainsea, " of this time.** *^ nadimainea intaoegail, " nor 
the world's vanity." * * .i. allatnm .L impide, " a supplication.*' i* onahardaib» " from the heights.** 
1* .L nemdai, '* of heavenly." ^* .1. cafandocA^, "sddieiy." i> .i nasnalalg, "the virtues.** i< na- 
romfiMbat, " that they should not leave m&** ^^ .L ingerrtha, " about to be mangled.*' *^ esca- 
rait, "enemiea.** i* .L corumditnet, "that they defend me.** ><> .L cohairithe, "particularly." '^ .i. 
arm. " .L calma, " braveu** '* .L cor6remtn8aigit remumm isnacathaib, " that they may precede me 
in the battlea.** '^ nemda, "heavenly.'* *> .L nasloig, "the hosts.** '* .i. nacrodoMte .{. comthinol 
nanaingdy "of the soldiery, L e. a congregation of the angels.** '^ .L sciende multitude. '* .i. adntesi 
" burning heat" '* cnsnahilmilib, " with the many thousands.** ^ X fortitude deL *> .L qui sicut dens. 
» .i. coiiiacosmailsib, "with the like persons." » .L sedes dd interpreUtnr. ** .1 innauhrtute. >» .i. 
Bummos nuntios. ^ naprindpate. "^ .L napotestateu ^ X nundos 1. ministroa. ** .1. ontsluag 
dlnith, "with the dense host" *^ X cwraditnet, " that they may defend." «i .L oaluag, "with a 
host." *> nabesearait, "the enemiea." «■ X eiirafedat, "that they may be able."' ** adod, "to 
overthrow them." *^ X unde dicitur agonithetas? prindpes belli .1. nahanachdn. Uode didtur 
agon .L anach. agon .L oath L cuimleng. Unde didtur liber de agone Christianonim? ex quo fit agonia 
.i. brug L athgOi " Unde didtur agonitheiaa f prindpes belli, i. e. the preddeuts of the assembly. 
Uode didtur agon / L e. an assembly ; agon^ L e. a contest or conflict Unde dicitur liber de agone ChHe- 
tiunorum f ez quo fit agonia^ L e. anguish or struggle." ^' patres ezcelsos. ^' X ueros nuntios. 


138 Appendix. 


Apostolos" navis Ch[riBti] proretas* 

Et martires" omnes peto athletas**, 

Atque adixiro" et uirgines" omnes'*. 
24. Uiduas**^'^ fideles** et profesores** 

TJti me per illos" salus^ eepiat* 

Atque omne malam a me pereat". 

Christus** mecum pactum^* finnum feriat**, 
28. CuitLS tremor** tetras'* turbas terreat**. 

Finit primus prologus graduum angelorum et patriarcharom, apostolonim et mar- 

tirum cum Christo. INcipit prologus secundus de cunctis membris corporis usque 

ad genua. 

Deus, inpenetrabilis tutela**, 

TJndique*' me defende*® potentia®. 

Mei' gibre''* pemas'' omnes^ libera'*, 

32. Tuta'* pelta'* protegente'* singula'', 

Ut non [t]etri'® demones in latera" 

Mea uibrent^ ut soleant iacula^^ 


Globs. — *^ .i. miasofi. *^ .1. bruinecha L nastiurasmaind. A prora .1. onbroine, onchuirr thassi^ 
naluinge, arite nomina ada corr : prora. pupiss, ** prow-men, or the steersmen : a prwa .i from 
the proW| I e. from the foremost end of the ship; for these are the ftomina of its two ends, proret, 
puppit." ^ .i. credentes. ** .1. na hocmileda .1. principes belli. *• .i. atchimm, "I adjore." *• oga, 
*' virgins." "W nafedba, "the widows." " X indraoca, "faithfuL" " nafaismedaig, "the confes- 
sors." " gnathugfid trithu, "to use through them." *' .1. slanti, "safety." ** .L coro[m]lmme, 
" tliat it may sarround me." '^ .i. condecbat nam forcnla ulca bite foriarair chuirp ^ anma cechoein, 
"that back from me may go the ills that are behind the body and soul of every one." *^ nnctns. 
^' .i. cairdes L dluthad, "friendship or compact" *' .1. cMrabena, "that he strike" [cf. foedns ferire]. 
«3 .1. in anima et in bono .1. in corpure (sic). •* .i. grana, " hideous." •* ctirauaimnige, " that it may 
terrify." *' ininillius nemthremeta L nemthroeta, " tlie security Impenetrable or unconquered." " .i. di 
cech leith, "from every side." <* dltin, "defend thou." <^ .i. dotchumachtaib nemtruailnide, "with thy 
incorruptible powers." '^ .1. hominis. gibre. '» .i. artus .i. compur inchleib, "trunk (?) of the cheat." 
7« .i. na huUe, " all the." " .1. snr, " free thou." '* .1. inill, " safe." " .1. sciath, " shield." '« .i. ditnet, 
"they protect" " .1. membra .i. nabaill, "the members." '^ .i. granna, "hideous." '* .L donatoebaib, 
"to the sides." ^® .L narob^rtnaiget, "that they may not brandish." *i .1. unal decbtait anurcham, 
" as they are used, their darts." 

« In the MS. Mee. 

The Lorica of Gildas. 139 

Gigram**, cephale®* cum iaris^, et conas®*, 
36. Patham", lignam®', senas* atque micenae^ 

Cladum**, carsimi®*, mandianum", talias'*, 

Patma*^, exugiam^ atque binas idumas^. 

Meo ergo cum capillis'^ uertici* 
40. Galea** salutis*'* esto*°* capiti*", 

Fronti**®, oculis*** cerebro triformi*®*, 

Rostro*", labio**"^, faciei**, timpori'**, 

Mento"*, barbae" *, Buperciliis"*, auribus"*, 
44. Genis"*, bucis"*, intemaso"*, naribus"', 

Pupillis"^ rotis"*, palpebris**®, tutonibus"*, 

Gingis*", anele"^ maxillia"*, faucibus"*. 

Dentibus"*, lingue'*', ori*" et guturi***, 
48. Uue**, gurgulioni***, et sublingue'", ceruici***, 


Gloss. — *' .i. indoicend L inoeindetaii, " the skull or the top of the forehead.** ** .i. inbaithes, ** the 
crown." *« .L capillis. ^» .i. ocnloe. ^« .L inteUn, '* the forehead." ^^ .i. dontengaid, *< to the tongue.'* 
«« .L dentes. »* .1 etlucto fiaccal, " etiucta (?) of teeth.** so .i. collum. *> .i. pectus. *> .i. latus. *» .i. 
nahinneda, " the bowels.*' ^* .L nasliasta .i. infnathroic, " the loins, i. e. the waist.** *^ .i. intarb sliasta 
1. infothoin, ^*the buU of the loin, or the buttock.** *^ X manus. *^ .i. cusnafoiltnib, *'with the hairs." 
»« .1. mullach, "crown" (of the head). »• .i. cathbarr, "helmet" ^oo .i. slanti, "of safety." »«>» .i. 
Christe. ^^* .1 donchind, "to the head.** i^s j. doneUn, "to the forehead." i*« .i. donasuilib, "to 
the eyes.** io& j. donincfaind tredelbdai, "to the triform brain." io« .{. dongulbain, "to the bilL" 
>w .L donbel, "to the lip." **« .i. donagaid, "to the face." »*• .i. donaraid, "to the temple," "o .i. 
donsmeich, "to the chin." "» .i. donulchain, "to the beard." »** .i. donamailgib, " to the eyebrows." 
>'* .i. donaclnassaib, "to the ears." ^^* I donagmadib, **to the cheeks." ^^^ .L donah6ilib, "to the 
lower cheeks." ' *" .i. donetarnoin, " to the internasui* (the gristle between the nostrils). * *^ .i. dosligtib 
.1. na srona, " to (the) passages, L e. of the nose." * *^ .i. dona moccu immlesaib, " to the pupils." ^ '^ .i. 
donarothib, "to the irides (?)." i<o .i. donahabra«Ataib, "to the eyelashes." ^^i x donahimmchosnib, 
"to the eyelids.** *" .i. donamennanib* 1. donsmech, "to the double-chin (auz deux mentons], or to 
the chin." »* .i. donan&il, " to the breath." i*^ .i. donagruadib, " to the dieeks." i*» .1 dongiall, " to 
the jaw." >** .i. dona fiaclaib, " to the teeth." ^'^ .i dontengaid, " to the tongue.*' ^^^ .1. donbeol, 
"to the mouth." >«* .i. donbragait, " to the throat." "« .i. dontengaid, "to the tongue." '^i j. jon 
uball bragat, " to the apple of the throat." ^^ .L dof^ith bic bis fontengaid this, " to the little sinew that 
is under the tongue below" (the frenum). ^'^ .1. donchuirr bragat, " to the nape of the neck." 

* MS. donamennanibus. 


1 40 Appendix^ 

Capitali'**, oeutro**, cartdlagizd'** 
CoUo*"' Clemens** adesto*" tutamini*^. 

Obsecro'^* te*^, domine*^ Jesu Ohmte, propter noTem ordines'^ sanotorom*** ange- 

Domine esto lorica tutisima'^ 

£rga membra, erga mea uiscera'^, 

Ut retundas** a me*"* invisibileB**' 
54. Sndum*"* claaos*^, quos fingunt*^ odibiles*^. 

Tege*", ei^, deiw**', forti**' loricoa** 

Cum Bcapolifi*^ bomeros*** et bracia, 

Tege** ulnae** cam cubis et manibns**, 
58. Pugnas**, palmas**, digitos*^ cum ung^ibnB^ 

Tege** spinas** et costas*'* cum artibus, 


OLoaB.-***« .i. donchoDdflicidl, ** to the foretooth" (?) **> .L dondibechan, " to tbe thnftt'* !*• a. 
donloing brond, ^*to the oartilage (?) of the belly** (the encifonn cartiUige?). ^^ JL donmoiiMo], **to 
the neck." *>* .L achainiuirraig, **0 gentle one.** i>* .i. aratorta, '* do thoo give." *««.L doninilliiis, <'for 
the aecnritj." *<> .i. altchimm, " I adjope." »" .L to, "thee." **> X athigerna, " O Lord." »** .i. 
treana .ix. nordaib, "by the nine orders." **^ .L donanoemaib, "of the saints." *** .L donahainglib, " of 
the angels." *^' .i. athigerna hi atlair[i]g roinill oeandmdegail aramainsib inchentair ^ arphein inalltair, 
" Lord, be thou a very secure corselet, protecting me frtMn the wiles of this world, and from the fNmieb- 
meat of the other.** **" J. illeith remba]laii& 1 illeth remindib, " orcragainst my limbs and overagainst my 
entndls.** *** .t curathnairge, "that thoa mayest hammer.** *^ .L naimm, "from me.** *^> .L dofaicisana, "in* 
visible.** *u.Linna[m]bir, "ofthestakea." *M.i.naclu, "the nails." >M.i.delbait,"th^form.** i» .L 
diabolL »" .t ditin, "protect." »» .i. dia, "O God." »*• .L calma, "brave." i»» .i. lidrech, "corslet." 
i<o .L cosnadassaib dromma, " with the shooldei^blades,** lit " with the tranches of the back." ><> .L nn- 
Ibrmnai, "the shoulders." ** .L ditm, "protect" *<> .i. na rigthe 1. nahnille, "the radii, or theelbows." 
!•« .L cnsnarigthib 1. eosnasliastaib 1. [leg. -|] cnsnadoitib^ "with the radii, or with the thighs, or [leg. 
and] with the hands." ><» .L nadnmn, «*the Iftts." *«< .L nabassa, "the palms." >«' .1 namem 1. 
nareai, "tha fingers, or the spans." >•* .L ditfai, "protect" *•* .L naloigdromma, "the baokbonea" 
(the spinous prooeoes?). ^^^ JL donamach, " to the riba." 

* In the Leabhar Breaoc this nnmetrical ejacnlation is written as if it comprised two lines. It does not 
oocnr in the Darmstadt MS. 
^ MS. nnginibos. 

The Lorica of Gildas. 141 

Terga^S donam'^ neraoB[que] com ossibus. 

Tege'^' cutem'^^ Banginem, cum rembll8^'^ 
62. Gatas'^' crinasy nates*^, cum femoribus^. 

Tege*'* gambas*^, Buraa***, femoralia^^ 

Cum geuudifl'^ poplites*^ et genua^^. 

Tege'* talos"' cum tibiis*" et calcibus*, 
66. Crura**, pedes** plantarnm*^^ cum bassibus**. 

Tege** ramos ooncreeoentee*^ decies'*, 

Cum mentagris'*, unges'^ binos quinquies'*. 

Tege** pectuB^*, jugulum**, pectuBculum"*", 
7a Mamillai^y fltomacum** et umbilicum** 

Tege^ uentrem"', lumbo^, genitalia**, 

£t aluum'><^ et cordis et uitalia'". 

Tege^" tri£dum jacor**' et ilia"'% 

74. Maroem'*^ renioulos'^^ fitrem"*' cum obligia'". 

Tege^*' dc^Uam**, toraoem**^'^ cum pulmone**, 


Globb.^1'1 X iiAdroiiiand, "tho b^ks.** i^' JL lndra2iiiMi]g, **the bAck-spleen." I's .j. ^tin 
•'protect" i'« .L donchoUdnd, *«to the bodj.** i'» .i coanaluuniili, ''with the kidoexflu" i'* J. 
Miena, "the hamKhea." i^' X natona, ''the bottooka." i^" .L coanasliaataib, "with the thigfaa" 
(ftom hip to knee). >'» .1. ditin, " pzvtect." i^o .L coanaheacata, "to the hama." i^i X 
aahorcni, "the calvea of the kg.** i» X natarbsUaata, "the upper thighs (?)." i« .L cnmahaixnib 
toH L enanalhrclib ghm, "with the reiiia of desire, or with the kneecaps." ^^^ .i. nahescata, " the 
hona." >»» X dona^onib, " to the knees." >^< .L ditin, " protect" i^' .L nahadbronda, " the ankles." 
^^ X eosnacolpthaib, " with the calvea." i** .L donalniignib, " to the shin-bones.** i>o .i. donacosaib, " to 
tfaefiMt** 1*1 .L nabnind, "theades.** i»> X cnsnaaalaib, "with the heels.** i*> .L ditin, "protect" 
^** .i nagqga cfaomforlvit, " the branches that grow together.** ^^^ X dona .z. meraib, " to the ten fin- 
gers.** >•< J. eosnaladraib, "with the toes.** i»' .L donahingnib, "to the naila.** i»> .i. dona .x. ning- 
nib, " to the toi nails.** !>• X ditin, " protect** *<>« X donbrninde, " to the cheat** >oi .i. donalt, " to 
the joint** ><».tdoachtnaderaainde, "tothebreaat ofthepalm.** s<^* .L donacichib, " to the paps.** >o«.L 
dongaile, " to the stomach.** so> .i. animmlind, " the navel** 'o< .i ditin, " protect" ^^^ X donmedon, 
"to the middle.** ><>» X donahainiib, "to the reins.** ><»• X nahai[r]ge, " the geaitala.** 'lo.Ldon- 
fanind, " to the atomach.** *" .L doospiroi^ beothaig inchride, " to the living spirit of the heart.** si> .i. 
dOm, "protect** "* .L innuwc hoe tndluigthe L innuMc hoe trenillech, '* the j-deft liver, or the 3-cor- 
nerod Uvw.** >!« .L naUoingi, " of the lard (?)." *!» X aelg, " spleen.** "< nalocha ochsal, " the arm- 
pits." "' X mdriscain, " the . . . (?)." "M. Ingkis, "the. .. (?).** ^^X dftiw, "protect,** .i. ingaUe, 
"the stomach.** >*<»M X indraip (indrapp?), "the chest (?). "i .L cnsinscaman, "with the longs.** 

• Ma calidboa. 

142 Appendix. 

Uenas"", fibras"', fel cum bucliamine''^ 

Tege"* camem, inginem"* cum medullis"', 
78. Spplenem"* cum tortuosifl intestinifi^. 

Tege"* uesicam"* adipem et pantes^" 

Compaginum*'* innumeros*** ordinei^'*, 

Tege"* pilos** atque membra** reliqua"* 
82. Quorum forte prseterii*" nomina'V. 

Tege"" totum"*" me cum quinque sensibus"*, 

Et cum decem fabrefactis' foribu^". 

TJti**** a plantis**' usque ad uerticem'** 
86. NuUo»« membr6»*» fori8»«X'J intusF" egrotem««. 

Ne de meo posit*" uitam*** trudere*** 

Pestis*", febris**', langoi*", dolor corpore*". 

Donee iam deo dante seniam*^ 

90. £t peccata mea bonis factis deleam**'. 

Et de came lens"" labi^ caxeam 


Gloss. — *'* .1. aah6te ocbU, L na cmdwina, " the iU (?) of the breast or the veioa." *** .1. nafethi, 
" the sinews." *** .i. casint6in .1. coelan nageraine I. mnine. **' .i. ditin, " protecC "^ .i. inbleoiiif 
'* the groin." **' .i. cnana hindib, "with the entrails." >*» .L inla leith, "the spleen.** "* .L eosna- 
findchoelanaib cammaib, "with the tortnous intestines" (Ut "white guts"). "<> .1 ditm, "protect" 
"I .1. lamannan, "bladder." "> .i. omnes. "> .i. nacomdhita, "of the joints." "* .i. dirim, "famu- 
rneraWe." «" .L innahuird, " the orders." "« .L d«w, " protect" "' .i. nafoilt, " the hairs." "« .i. 
nab&ill, " the Umbs." >'* .L coholide, " entirely," " altogether." >«<> .L asarsechmaiUius, " of which I have 
passed by." '^> .L ananmand ("their names") .i. praeterii per concisionem cansa metri '** .L ditin, 
" protect** ■*' .1. imlan, " the whole." •** .L cosna .u. 8ians[aib], " with the 5 senses." •♦* .i. cnsna .x. 
ndoirsib dentieib .L qninqoe sensibos anma, "with the 10 doors of . . . i. e. qoinqne sensibos of the aouL" 
*«• .1 gnath[ngnd], "to use." >«7 .i. nabnind, "the soles." >«> .t inbaithis, "the top of the head." 
**• .1. cenni, "without anything." «w .i. sic. **«(•) .L allamuig, "abroad, without" "*» .i. allaaatig, 
" at home," " within." «*• .i. nasroin, " that I may not be sick" (?> «*» .i. nafeda, " that it may not 
be able." •** .L betha, "life." "* .1 curasroena, "that it may defeat" •*« .L plag, "plague." "' X 
fiabras "fever." •*■ .i. indiangalur, "the lethargy." •*• .L incorp, "the body." ««o .1 cnraoen- 
taige dia dam curbamsean friforba mobethad ind etlai 1 indendgai, "that God may grant to me that 
I may be old at the end of my life in purity and in innocence." "* .i. curadichnirer mopeoda domdeggni- 
marthaib, " so that I may displace my sins by my righteous doings." "' .L inategim, '*in which I ga" 
>«' uel himis .i. onabasaib, "from the deaths (?)." 

■ MS. fabrifisctia : m marff, vel fabricatis f. .L cnsna .x. ndoirsib ctnnda«Ataib. 

. Notes. 143 

Et ad alta euolare"** ualeam, 
Et miserto deo'** ad etheria*** 
94. Letus**' uehar** regni refrigeria'*. 

Fin. it. amen., 

Qloss. — '^^ .L curaetelaiger cuBnahardaib .L cnsnanemdaib, " that I may fly to the heights, i. e. to 
the beayenly (places).** **^ .i. curaerchisse dia dim, ** that God may have mercy on me.** '** .i. casna- 
nemdaib, " to the heavenly (places).** '^^ .L oofailid, " blithdy.** '^^ .L commimarchoirth^i " that I may 
be borne." *«> .1. etarf uarad, " coolness*' ? 


Preface. — Superaltare (sr. altare, MS.) **bifariam sami yidetnr, nempe pro Ciborio, qnod altari imminet, 
et Altaii portatilL*' — Da Cange. Savoa, L e. salvos. UhdeeainUabum, i. e. MtKaavWapop'. Bra- 
eieateUetieon, i. e. jSpaxVicaroXi^crov. 

Text. — ^V. 4. I take the following quotations from Mone (Hymni Lot. L 370) : — An non est mare hoc 
secalmn, nbi se invicem homines quasi pisces devorant? an parvs procells et fluctus tentationis pertur- 
bant hoc mare? an parva pericula sunt navigantium, id est in ligno cnicis patriam ccelestem qnsren- 
tium? S. ^M^fw/mii sermo 252, 2, C%ry«o«^ contra anom. 7, i. b ttiq BiKaiotrvvnQ VfKiOQ tovtov 
flliiv KartvQvvti rdv vXovv. Mins undsque mundialium nimborum Sidon, Apoll. Ep. 9, 4. Salnm 
jactantis sesculi, S. Cyprian, Ep. i, Tibi hoc sieculum mare est; habet diversos fluctus, undas 
graves, ssvas tempestates et tu esto pisds, ut s»culi te unda non mergat — Ambros, de sacram. 3, i. 

y. 19. Agonetetas, i. e. ayoivodcrac. 

T. 21. Says Mone : A similar putting together of the saints is often found in the Greek songs, e. g. Oiti- 
ySpot trpo^fjrai, 9fotidtic f^oprvpiCt Giioi /laOtjral rod ffcur^poc, tovtov dir^vavOt. — Trio- 
dioHj £. 3. 

T. 24. Atque tu^'uro. This and the next line are not given by Mone. 

y. 25. For ati (which, as in v. 85, the scholiast mistakes for uti) Mone gives ut 

y. 28. For eujU8 tremor^ Mone has timory tremor. Note the alliteration in this line. 

y. 29. InpenetrabUis tuUla, Mone. 

y. 31. 6ibr€B, L e. hominis (gybra in the Darmstadt MS.), gen. sing, of gibra, apparently a corruption of 
the Chaldee gabra (Syriac gabrO, Hebrew g^ber, Arabic gabnm). 

y. 31. lUri demone*. Again I quote Mone : " The devil has destroyed the divine order in the creation, 
and thb is expressed in his form, which is an image of the wildest distortion (verzerruny), neither 
human being nor beast, but a self-contradictoiy mixture of both. To this essentially belongs his black 
colour, for he is an enemy of the divine light ; he shines oidy as a destroying fire, and has fallen 


144 Appends. 

like a lightning-flaBh firom heareD, Luke, z. i8, Matt. zzr. 41. AD these rop r cMn tatiope rest on the 
Bevelatioa of John, ziL 3, 9, xiiL 2, and other placet. Strictly speakfaig, the devil shoiild only he 
named serpent, so far as regards the aforetime and the present, for only at the end of the worid does 
he appear as a dragon. Atifftutm. sermon, ined. ed. Denis, p. 39, calls him leo et draco ; qnando nt 
draco serpit non nt leo mgit. Tertullian, adv. Mardon, 4, 24, diaholns in seipentis et draoonis et 
emtnentissfang cajnsque hestis nomine deputatnr penes creatorem. Sever, Stdpit, epist 3, caUs him 
cnienta hestia." 

V. 34. Hone's MS. reads " mea librent, nt soknt, iacda.'* Here, of course, iacnla is a qmadris^bla 
(i-acola). " The darts of the devil," says Mone, " are called in the Men«a tol ^oxdXs9f>oi. Oct 1 1. 
Thereby is the heart poisoned : 4 capita /lov fapitaxOiTva If rov 6fimc, JnL 27. They avs a poi- 
sonons snake-bite : ipaKSvnov ^^y/ia, ibid. Irpav/i^rc^cy 6 5fit ^ ira|tar6yqpoc SXify fiov n|y 
^vxi^v irov^pwC* Triodumf H. 3." 

Vt. 35-38. These difficult lines stand thus in the Darmstadt liS. : — 

Gigram cepphale cum iaris et oonas 
patam liganam sennss atqne michi: nas 
chaladum chsrassum madianum taliaa 
batma ezugiam atque binas idumss. 

Oigram, better ffitgrtm (gngras, L Cb capita, Z. 1097), is possibly taken fhmi Hebr. gulgOleth, or 
Syriae gdgCUt& OepfuiU {eepphaU) is of course crfoXi). For laria (gl. capillisX Isg* sorii^ abL pi. 
of sera (-us, -um ?), formed from Heb. sS'ar, Arab. sha*run? This ingenious conjecture is due to 
Ptnftssor Wright. Oma^ " eye,** and paiha (.peOd) " forshead," have not yet been referred to their 
sources, whence Eng. pate f Ligna {l%gQna\ ** tongue," periiaps for lisna, Uzana, a corruption of ^yr. 
leshOnO (Heb. Ifishdn, Arab, lisfinun). Sena (mmd), ** tooth," obviously, as Dr. Todd remarks, from 
Syr. shennO, fern. (Hebr. shSn, Arab, sinnun). Mieenae (L e. etiucta iiaccal). JIImiwni must be some 
part of a tooth, the enamel, the fkngs? but unfortunately the meaning of eliueta is unknown, and mie e i ta 
is equally obscure. Cladmn (ehaladum), L e. coUnm. If this be not from Gr. cXcIc, gen. cXci^^c, 
the collsr-bone, we must regard it as for cadlum (cadalum), and compare the Arab, qadhilun (Syr. 
q'dbdlO), which, as Prof. Wright informs me, is " the back of the head end upper part of the neck." 
Carmm (eharetesum)^ gl. pectus. I suspect the scholiast has blundered here, for carsum is probably the 
Ghaldee harsa, " the loins.** Mandianum (madianumy, i. e. latnSb Perhaps from Hfebr. moiknaym, 
which, however, means lumbi. Taliaa (gl. na hinneda, ** the entrails, bowels**} is obscure to me. 
Hatma {hatma)f i. e. na sliasta .L in ftiathroic, " the thighs, i. e. the waist," is also obscnrsi JBgmpam 
(i. e. hi tarb sliasU no in fothofai, " the bull of the thigh or the buttock**). Ezugia is glossed by 
gihsmiga L geaeineo (shank ?). Die£ JElfric has ezuginm meegem. No one of these A. S. words do I 
understand. Idumae {edumae) seems formed from Hebr. yfidhayim. The abL sing, occurs in tlie 
Book of Hymns, AUue^ line 70, ** Suffulta del idtema omnipotentis valida," where the ertioliast says^ 
** .i. manu, idnma ebraioe, cirus [x'^p] S'VBce, menus latins*'*. 

V. 39- 

• I am ignorant of the Shemitic languages, and am indebted for the above Shemitic words to Professor 
Wright and Dr. Todd. 

Notes. 1 45 

V. 39. Mono's MS. has meo ergo com capillis tt yertid, which is bad metre and bad grammar. The con- 
stniction is obviously " Be therefore a helmet of safety to my crown (meo . . . vertici), head (capiti) 
forehead, eyes, and triple brain (right and left lobes, cerebellam), nose, lip, fkce, temple." 

y. 44. Intenuuo, ^fric has "intemasos, note-grifatie" 

V 45. For TuUmibuMy Mono's MS. has taatonibos, and tautonea is glossed by A. S. hruioa, ** eye-brows," 
in Diefonbach's Med. Lat Glossary. Boia (whence rotia) I take to be the drcolos papillsB, tfiss seo 
hringc of ^fric. 

V. 45. Oingia, I have been nnable to find this word elsewhere. .Anele, i. e. anhelse. 

y. 46. Mono's MS., has : — 

Dentibos lingnsB ori uv» gnttori 
gnrgnlioni et subling^ ceryicL 

Uva, "tongne," hence uvnla (cImv, colomella). Ourgulto^ "Adam's apple," is glossed by ^Ifric 
ihrotboUa (throat-hall). As to aublingua^ iElfric has aublingium huff which Bosworth explains as " a 
round spongy substance covering the glottis." 

y. 49. Capiialiy eeutro, with the meanings given in the gloss, are, so far as I know, llira^ XtySfiiva. 
With eeutroj we may, perhaps, compare chantmm, which .£lfric glosses by eal throtbolla. But what 
is eai here ? The ejaculation obaeero Uy &c., is not in Mono's MS. 

y. 51. For tfominej Mone gives deinde, 

y. 53. For retundasy Mone gives retrudaa, and in Illustration of the verse he cites Triodion^ L. 4, hgar&v 
KoX Aoparwv cx^pwv pvoai 17/iac, Kvpit. 

y. 57. Cubia (i. 0. rigthib). ^fKc glosses the nom. sing, euba by elboga. 

y. 6a. Bead eatiurinaa for eataa erinaa; first, because Mono's MS. has the former reading; secondly, be- 
cause ^Ifiic has '* catacrina hypeban,'* hip-bone, which comes tolerably near the meaning of the 
Irish gloss. 

y. 64. Genuelia. The gloss attributes two meanings to this word. The first is "reins of desire;" and 
here the word probably stands for gmialibua (though genialia properly means " marriage bed,** " mar- 
riage**). The second is '^knee-caps ;** and here it stands for genieulia (iElfric glosses. ^fffi^t by cneow- 

y. 68. Mmtagria (l e. ladraib, " toes**). This meaning suits in the following passage from Cummian*s 
Epistle {Uaher'a Wbrkaj iv. 436): "An Britonum Scotorumqne partlcnls qui sant pane extremi, et, 
ut ita dicam, mentagra orbis terrarum." Dr. Reeves has kindly referred me to a stoiy in the Acts 
of S. Baithene (^Aeta Sanetorumy Junil, tom. ii. p. 237, 3), where the devil says of a possessed man, 
" per mmtagram irrepsi in eum." 

y. 69. BaetuactUum. ^Ifric glosses this word by breoat-hany breast-bone. 

y. 74. Marcem and Tiirtm are to me &va\ \iy6/nva. Obligia occurs in .£lfric's glossary, explained by 
nytiey and Somner thinks it moans dxpofi^aXoVy i. e. the centre of the navoL 

y. 75. Dciiamy apparently for dolium, which property means a large Jar, but may well have got the 
secondary signification of " stomach" (jgaUe), 

y. 76. BudiamiM : budeamen is glossed by hiorthama (" midriff, covering of the hearty in an Anglo- 
Saxon MS. quoted by Diefenbach. 

U y. 81 

1 46 Appendix, 

V. 8 1. PicmUi, of conne iravrtc- This ooneeit of nfling Greek words wh«n Latm would baye doiM u well, 
or better, nuy be farther exemplified by the bymn to Abbot Comgill (Z. 1 138) : — 

Andite panUa ta erga (jr&vrtQ rd Ipya) 
allati ad angelica, &c. 

V. 91. XoKf (Ma iabU) is for Ubibne. 

Glosses. — No. i. Forgaire, **an imperatiye" (= Ter-garla): ct^firgair Imperat, Z. 440. In co forngamu 
apetil, ** with an apostle's authority,** Z. 1060 ; forhgarthaid, an imperatiTe, Z. 767, 853, 979 ; 
fonlgarti jossi, Z. 473, the preposition seems /om (/ar»i6endeflb, ybnf-6in ndeilb "secundum idem 
exemplar,** Z. 583) s Bret and Com. frarw, unless, indeed, this be the Ir. tarn = ivanu The root 
is OAR. See Commentary, No. 469, and compare yijpvCv ^ng* crow. 

Fortaehtaigim, I assist, a denominatiTO firom firiaehi^ or, as spelt in the Tract, No. 727 (Comni. 
p. ^),fitrtacht It may be interesting to put together here the yerbal forms found hi these glosses: — 

Active, Fres. indie ist. sing. (t-8tems),/ortoMta^i-m, i ; atehi-mnij 52; aitehi'mm, 141; tegim, 261. 

3rd pL ditnet, 76 ; t^, 49. 
Fret, act., ist sing, icehmailliut, 240. 3rd sing, atber't, 2 (an ^•stem) ; dotdet, 2. 
Imper. and sing, act, ditin passim ; 3/, 147. 

CcmjunctiTe ist sing., troin, 252 (leg. 8r6inam f) ; diehuirer^ 26 1 ; eUlaiger^ 264. 
2nd sing., toria^ 139; tkairge, 149. 
3Td sing., Una^ 62 ; fida^ 253 ; sroena, 255. 

„ erehiste, 265; tmm«, 58; ocntaige^ 260; sratW, 7; tfaiisMft^, 65. 
3rd plor., bertnaiget, 80; remtutaigit^ 23; ^Aom/^^rt^, 194; ditnet, 19 { i£U^i«^ 
40 ; /^rfa^ 43 5 <2MAal, 59. 
Belatiye present : bis, 133. 
Passive, 3rd sing. pres. : aaberar, i, 2 (an &-8tem), for asberthar ; imarehoirther, 268 (oonjunctlTe). 
Pret participle: nemtroeta (troeth-ta), 66 : fat participle: ingerrtkOf 19. 
Verbal noun: d6d, 44; imdegail, 147 ; gndthugud^ 56; Buidiugud, 4. 

No. 4. J«r tuidiugud (gL posito). This mode of making the pret part. pass, is common in Middle Irish \ 

see, for example, Leab. Breacc, 79 d (cited Petrie, R. T. 437)9 where coilech in choimded tama chmn- 

tach translates the **calix Domini scriniolo reconditus,** of what is said to be the Yen. Bede*s abstrsct 

of Adamn&n's work, Le Situ Terra San€t€B, &c. 
No. 6. Ottaaeaehtf danger; giuueacht, in Z. 28, 61. Cf. the man's name, G6sact {Ooeactum filium Mil> 

con Maocubooin, Book of Armagh, 11 a, i). 
Na 7. With eroene we may perhaps connect W. rhynod, ** agitation ;** ibynu, "to shiver, to shake:*' 

eroin, 252 ; eroena, 255 ; Mod. Ir. smomtift, " I defeat;** GaeL eraon, " make a fidse step,** " fall side- 

ways,** "stumble,** "rush forward with violence;** eroin, "deviate.** 
No. 8. Ibrba, ct forbe, Z. 15, dat sing, iar firbu in gmmo, "after the completion of the work/' 

Z. 1068. 
No. 10. Dimaines would now be diomhanae. Soegail, gen. sing, of soegal, 0. Ir. saigul, Z. 731. I know 


Notes. 1 47 

not if this be connnected with W. hoedd (vita), Z. 1 35, Bret hoal. The reaemblanoe to 8§-ciilam is, 
perhaps, deceptive. 

Ko. II. Impide is, perhaps, = imb-buh. Cf. Goth, bidjan, bidan, A. S. gebede, Eng. bidf beadtman, &c. 

No. 20. Oo-hairtthe for co-hidrigfathe, an adverb formed from the adjective airighthe (O. Ir. airegde, Z. 
233), by preflxing eo, wm go; connected are aireekat (prindpatns), Z. 233 ; aireeh (**primiis, ante- 
rior," Z. 67, note) = W. arg in arg4wydd? 

Ka 28. Adntesy apparently adan-tes; adhanaimt *M kindle" (W. en-ymi, root ak?). As to tee, v. 
Commentary, No. 5. 

No. 39. Dluith, V. supra, Commentary, No. 636. Cf. dlnthad, tn/ra, No. 6r, and W. dyludo, *'to 
adhere," from the W. word it wonld seem as if dlaith stood for du-luith : cfl dliged «= W. dyled. 

Na 43. Fddat (gl. valeant), feda, gl. possit, 89, read fddat, fida^ and compare nir fdUat a hescaine do 
forchOlo, ** they could not avert his malediction." Fled d6in naa ged, 28 ; ni f4dann fer fingaile a 
togluasacht, ** a parricide cannot more it," ibid. 82. 

Na 44. CUd - W. cludd, ** an overwhehning." C16d for oo-16d. Cf. 0. Ir. imcU^ud (imm-co-16ad), 
Z. 768, 847 : imehloud cenelnil na diil, ** change of gender or declension," Z. 664: timluad (da-imm- 
Idd) agitatio, Z. 847 : imluadad (gl. saltabat), ib. ; immluadi (gL exagiut), ib. 

No. 45. Ouimleng, cf. bid cmmkngaitM .i. bid confiechtaigthi (gl. congrediendus), Z. 474 : cdmpleanga, 
CR., *' a race," Skr. root, langh f With brug cf. the Mod. Ir. bndghedn, " strife." 

No. 49. JBnaehy anachdu, in Old Ir. 6inach, 6inachdn : in oinach 1. i taibdercc (gL in theathrum), Book 
of Armagh, 183 &. Oinach is derived from 6in, W. nn, Old Lat. oinos, Goth, ain-s, Eng. one, M. 
Pictet (the morning-star of CelUc philology) has compared the Mod. Ir. aon with the Skr. demonstrative 
§na. Bruinecha (gL proretas), bruine, broine, "prora," are CR-'s braine, "prow," brainsaeh .L 
taoioeach, a leader. (Cf. W. blain, blaenor, a leader; bhenUf to precede, and Com. brenniat, gL pro- 
reta?). Stiuraamaind is a Teutonic word, probably Old Norse, in which language there may have been 
itfrmnetm, n. pi. of styriamaSr, though I cannot quote either of these forms. Cf. A. S. ste6res man, 
L. JBffelb., for^sUbrda proreta Somn. The Danish styrmand means "a mate." In Breton we have 
at&r and tturia, Oorr fem. agrees in gender with Bret, ker^ a sharp edge. W. ewr (for ewrr) is 

No. 52. With atehimm ct itge, a prayer. Book of Armagh, 18 3, i. 

No. 53. Fedba, nom. f^ag.fedby L ^,fedv = W. gweddw, Com. gueden, Lat. vidua. 

No. 54. Indracca (gL fideles) cf. 0'R.'s ionnrticdn^ and perhaps the 0. Ir. inrieen 

No. 55. Faiamedaig : the gen. plur. of this word occurs in Patrick's hymn : in emaigthib huasalathrach, i 
tairoetlaib f&tha, hi praiceptaib apstal, in YdnaaXh fiiismedaehj for which we should read fbismedach : 
cf. f6isite (confessio), Z. 41 ; f&isitnib (professionibus), Z. 589. 

No. 58. Imme, apparently from a verb, immim, imbim, formed fh>m the prep, imm, imb = ambL 

No. 59. Beehat has here, perhaps, a transitive meaning; but in Z. 1129, ama deeha means ne veniat. 
Uku: this is the O. Ir. ace. pi. masc of ole (= Ulko-s, which is found on a Gaulish coin ?). larttir^ 
a derivation from the prep, iar : cf. rofersam ardtaratr, Oingus ; ar arntaratr. Conn. Eoc. 60. 

No. 62. Bena^ from benim^ Z. 933, 1 strike, now beanaim, Cf. Goth, ba^ja (irX^y^, IXcoi*)* RngL bane, 
Gr. ^voQ, The root is concealed in W. cyminedd, ** conflict," cyn-binedd. 

No. 64. OrdnnOy cf. perhaps W. graen, " rough." 

U 2 No. 65. 

148 Appendix. 

No. 65. Uaimnigey a deoominAti^e from 6inuD, fear ; cf . W. ofoi, to friglften ; Gaul Exobnos. 

No. 66. Inilliu* (gl. tutela, gL tutamini, in/ra^ No. 140), derived from mill (g1. tata, m/ro, No. 74) ; 

ro-inUl tatSasima, No. 147. Z, 'j^i^ has iniU (gl. tutor), but he says the reading is doabtfoL IV»- 

fMta (leg. tremetha?) iu nemthremeta (c!l neimhthreabhthe, 0*R.)| seems a deriv. from the prep^ 

iremij which occurs in composition (tremi-berar ** transfartar,** tremi-tiagat ** transgrediuntur,** Z. 850). 

Troeta in nemtroeta appears to be the part. prst. pass, of the verb troethaim (0'R.*s iraothaim)^ 

I sabdue. 
No. 69. With truailnide in nemthruaUnide^ cf. TO-trttailled, *' was corrupted,** Corm. ▼. Brdthaity Eng. 

truU^ Bret trulen, " femme malpropre,** are perhaps connected. 
No. 71. Compur^ 0*R.*8 eompuir^ ** body, chest, trunk,** is etymologicaHy obscure to me. 
No. 75. Sciath^ Z. 21 = W. ysgwyd, Old Bret, scoit, Z. 114 (= scdtft), the relations of which with sdi- 

turn, ffffvrof , if existing, I am unable to settle. 
No. 80. Bertnaiget (gl. vibrent), Z. 436, has ro-bertaifftet^ gl. vibraverunt Has he left out nf 
No. 81. With urchar, »*» dart,** cf. W. ergyr-waew, ** a flying spear." 
No. 82. Cloi-eend seems the W. pen-glog. 
No. 83. CUchtait (gl. soleant), from eleehtaim, now eleachdaim. The same form occurs in the Leab. 

Breaoc : 1 elechtait doine a thadull 1 a p6ocad, *' and men are used to touch it and kiss it** (Petiie, 

R. T., 437). This seems the W. preithiaw, " to praetm,"* 
No. 93. Jnneda, ace. pL of inne, O. W. engued, Z. 149 ; the Com. eneder-en (gL extum) is from Ivrtpov, 
Na 94. SliattOy nom. pL of tliaaait (now sliaaaid), tliasait, gl. poples, Z. 22 ; Mliastaib, gl. femoribua, gl 

cubia, infra. litathroie, fitathrog^ " girdle,** O'R., cf. W. gwregys, Com. gmgus. 
No. 95. FothoiHy I have not met elsewhere, and cannot say whether it is a nom. sing. fern, or a nom. pi. 

masc ; probably the former, as fia is used in these glosses for the nom. pi. masc. of the article. Kay 

we compare the W. gtaadn, ** foundation** ? Z. 261, has fotha (gl. crepido), dat. sing, fothu, Z. 999 

(rob-fothiged, ** ye were founded,'* ibid ; no-fothalged, " it was founded,** Lib. Hymn., ed. Todd, p. 73), 

which seems cognate. 
No. 99. Cath-barr, " battle- hat ;** barr (gL cassis, Z. 51) = O. W. barr (gL colomaticns). With these, I 

suspect, are connected Fr. harrette^ Ital. berretta, Diez, however, refers them to the late Latin 

No. 106. Gtdbain (gl rostro), cf. nom. gulba: cf. O. W. golbinoc(gL toetraUm), Z. iii; W. gylf, a 

bill, or beak, Corn, gelvin. 
No. 107. Btl, **lip,** c«l W. gwefl = vo-beL 
No. 109. Araid (gl. tempori) for araig, dat. sing, of are^ gen. arach. The ace. dual of this word occurs 

in the charm against cmngaiar (headache), Z. 926 : im dn da are -| fort chulatha, ^* round thy two 

temples and on the back parts of thy head*' (dais eulad, *' hollow of the poll,** C) ; Com. mm, gL tim- 

pus, W. ar-lais. 
No. 112. Malg, "eyebrow;** Bret mahm. 
No. 113. Clwusaib (gL auribus), from duas = W. clust. 
No. 114. Gruadib (gL genis), from gnMidy W. gmdd. 
No. 115. Otlib (gl. bucis), from 01/, now written ooiV, with which the W. aH may be connected, though 

this means " a brow.** 

No. 121. 

Notes. 1 49 

No. I a I. Jmchoanib (gl. tatombus) is to me an &iral Xeyofikvov: the root seema that of eoaanaim^ I 
defend. Though tautones, accordisg to an A. S. glosser, signifies eyebrows, I think that the Irish 
scribe understood it as meaning eyelids, especially as eyebrows (maUgib) occurs before, No. i la. 

No. 133. Anail (gl. anele), W. anadl^ Skr. r. ajx ; an-imus, dt^-ifiocj Skr. anila, wind. 

No. 135. Oiall(jgl. faudbos): cf. A. S. ceole, "Esig.jofelf 

No. 135. Dibeehan, throat : neascdid dibeacham (gL apostema gntturis), G. 

No. 137. Muineol (gl. coUo), W. mumwgl. 

No. 138. For edinuarraig read edinfuarraig^ and cf. foarrech (gL demons), Z. 778 ; foairrech, Z. 986. 

No. 147. Bl at luiriff, " be thou a corselet,*^ literally '* be thou in thy corselet," an idiom inexplicable by 
me. See O'Don. Gram., 165 : bhi s^ 'n a righ, " he was a king," lit '* he was in his king." The same 
idiom is found in the case of the verb subst. td : t& s^ 'n a sagart, ** he is in his priest," i. e. " he is a 
priest," ibid. ; imdegail^ protection, so in Patrick's hymn : l&m d6 domm imdegail ; and see Ck>lm&n's 
hymn, dted tuprtk, p. 57, eentair^ tUtair^ genitives sing, of formations from een^ ^^cis," and all = dWo^ 
by means of the suffix -tor = Skr. tara ; with amainsib cf. dinutinetf aupra^ No. 10. 

No. 149. Tuairge (gL retundas), y. supra. No. 732. 

Na 151. Dofaicssna (j^, invisibiles), apparently an adjectival nstem, nom. sing, do&icse, O'B., from the 
partide do and faicss, which I have not met, though faiesinaehy ** visible," occurs. Retla mongach 
... do faiesinf ** a bristly star was seen," Tighemach, cited O'Don. Gr. 44.3 ; faieji, 3rd sing, fut 
act. tdfaicim^ I see, occurs ibid.^ 179. With this verb U. Plctet (Bdtr; U. 87) compares Skr. pa^, 
W. paith, " glance (from pakti), ; Skr. spa9a, ** spier ;" Lat. specio, specto, &c. I have not found this 
form (with unaspirated e) in Old Irish. Z. 933 has a word, figadj which seems connected : — 

Mncholmoc ramcharastar sxfigad, ar fis 
Is airai ramcharastar uair is tend mo chris. 

" Mncholmoc (" my little Colum**) loved me, for (my) insight, for (my) knowledge. 
It is for this he loved me, since my girdle is strong." 

Oc fegad (f^gad), " seeing ;" figaid, ^* see ye ;" Seirgl, Cone. Aingil, apstall, ard fegad, " angels, 

apostles, a high vision I" Colm. 44. ; cf., too, the Mod. Jr. feuchaim. 
No. 153. Bir, gen. bera = Lat. Tern ; birdae, berach (gL verutus), Z. 46 ; W., Corn., and Bret ber. 

Benfey connects veru with the Skr. r. hvr ; and this would go far to explain the strange phenomenon 

of initial Celtic b = Lat v. 
No. 153. C7tf, cl6i (gl. clavi), Z. 67. 
No. 160. Classaib, cf. W. elais^ trench. 

No. 163. ITills (gL ulnas), W. and Com. elin. Cf. ul-na, <&\-lvi7, ellen bogen, Eng. eUbow. 
No. 166. Basso, from bos, ** palm of the hand," probably identical with W. bas, shallow, flat. 
Na 170. Asnaeh (gl. costas) : cf. W. and Com. asen (there is a W. plur. asen-au). Radically connected 

with Skr. asthi (by-theme asthan), barkovf os, oss-is. 
No. 177. Tdna, buttocks: cf. W. tin, **a tail, a bottom." 
No. 185. Olunib (gl. genua), from glAn, W. glin, Cora, (irregularly) din. 
No. 187. Adbronda (gl. tales): O. Ir. odbrann, gL tains, Z. iioa: Leyden Priscian, 37 b, GaeL aobrunn 

(where note the non-aspiration of the b), W. uffiirn. Probably a compound, the first element of which 


1 50 Appendix. 

has, as Dr. Siegfried snggeita, perhaps lost an Inillid p : cf. rod-^, pM-iSi 1^. pad (Eng. fooi^ Goth. 

fdtu u Skr. pada). 
No. 189. With luirgnih^ nom. ^^a, cf., perhaps, W. llorp, shank. 
No. 19a. ^a/ai& (gl. banibiu), from mi/ = W. ffal (or sawdl?). 
No. 194. Oegoy " bnuiches,'* frx)m g6g = W. caog, as d^ (10) s W. deng. Perhaps we may compare 

the Ir. (and Britiah) tribe^name, Gangani (rayyavoi). 
No. 196. Ladhar now means a forli, a prong, the space between two Angers or two toss. O'BdUy, how- 
ever, has ladhar, " a toe," and in Gadic the word means hoof as well as prong, folk. 
No. 198. Dona a, ningnib, read dona deich n-hignih, and note the oocnrranoe of the transported n after 

deieh (10), that number (Skr. da^n, Lat decern) baring originally ended hi a nasaL So we have 

8echt(^n) 7, and ocht (h) 8, tngnib, dat. of inga = W. ewin, Skr. nakha, 5vv^, Germ. n«g-<l, 

Eng. naiA. 
No. 200. Bruinde, "breast, bosom." St John is called Sean na bmfame; W. and Con. hitm. 
No. 203. Cich — W. cyg, flesh. 

No. 205. Immlindy navel. Radically connected with ^/i^aX^Ct nmUUcns^ nav«1, Skr. nftbhi. 
No. 216. Ochiol (which in form is almost identical with Lat axilla, O. H. G. ahsala) is, I sospect, by 

metathesis for oschal, aschal : cf. W. asgall, ** wing." 
No. aao. Raip (?) I have never met elsewhere. Can it be connected with A. 8. hrift, Eng. vad-rifff 

Bat the word may, perhaps, be indraipy or draip. 
No. 221. Seaman (gl. pnlmone), of. O. W. sMmnhcgint (gL levant), W. ysgyfrdnt, **tlie lights;" Bret. 

solvent, Com. skefana. 
No. 224. Cuain toin, "with the anus, i. e. eoelan na geraine no mume, the gnt of fkt or lard ;'* 1. e. the large 

intestine which is covered by the omentum: eoelan^ a deriv. fh)m c6il, "slender :" geraine^ gen. sing. 

of some word having the same root as geir^ tallow : muinf, " the lard which lines the intestines of a 

pigi** C The Highland Society*s Diet, has muin, " fat adhering to the entrails of an animal." 
No. 228. Zu leith " the spleen." Perhaps the mysterious Uwilioit (gl. splen) of the Comiah vocabulary, 

may be connected with this. 
No. 239. Find, " white," W. gwyn, Gaulish, Yindos ; root vid, for cvid, Skr. ^vid album esse, Goth. 

hveita, Eng. white. Cammaibj nom. sing, camm^ W. cam = cambo in Cambo-donom, &e., see Z. 75. 
No. 231. Zamannan, "bUtdder," perhaps connected with W, llafanog, "liverwort" 
No. 238. BdUl, nom. pL of b&ll, " a member" = 0aXX6c (Prof. Siegfiied> 
No. 240. AMra'echmaiUiuty i. e. asa-r'-scchmaillius , mh, " whose," (sing, and plnr.), I cannnot explain. 

It occurs at least twice in the Felire, and also, spelt lifa, in the Battk of Magh Bath, See 0*Doq. Gr. 

131,132. Seehmaillius is the ist sing, pret act of a verb which in Z. appean to belong to the A-cotgn- 

gation (the Latin first): nad aechmalla (gl. non omittit), Z. 849; ssfAmd^om-ni (praeteribimns), Z.437 ; 

sechmalfaider, Z. 1067. In Mod. Ir. the verb in question has passed over to the t-coigugatlon (the 

Latin fourth), as we see from the form waehmaill'i'^n ; and this change seems to have taken place 

when our gloss was written, aeehmaitt^i-ua being identical in form with rocinn-i-ns (gL definivi), Z. 434; 

baits-i-us, ibid. ; tocoir-i-ns (Patrick's Hymn), &c 
No. 245. I do not understand this gloss. Can denUeib be for ^6m^t6ih, " of one ride" ? 
Nos. 250, 251. Aiiamuigt "outside;" dUaaaUg^ "on the inside." I cannot explain these adverba. They 

occur in O'Don. Gr. 263, 369. 

No. 258. 


Notes. 1 5 1 

No. 358. IHangalur (gl. languor). This gloss enables me to correct mj reading and version of part of one 
of the S. Gall incantations, Commentary, Ko. 22a. IHangalar fiiaU (languor nrinae) is the ailment 
against which the charm is directed. 

No. 360. JSndffaif innocence, O. Ir eneaey fem., Z. 262 ; Innan ennac (gl. innooentum), Z. 1003. S. Brigit 
is said to have been endae, '* innocent," Leb. Breacc, cited Todd, lib. Hymn, 65. The true spelling is 
etmeae, ernnaCf and the words are probably cognate with in-nocens (noceo = Skr. n&qay&mi, " I slay**). 
SUaii dat. of eiUe, etla f an abstract from the adj. gtal, the gen. sing, neut of which occurs in H. 2, 15, 
fo. 64, a (T. C. D.) : co fortacht each eiail .i. co forithin each glain. 

No. 261. Deg-gnimarthaib. I have not met the nom. sing, of the simplex of this word, which must be 
gnimarady whence 0*R.'8 gniomharthaeh, '* actual, active." 

Na 265. JErehiMe^ better airektMe. Cf. airchisst (gl. parcit), Z. 199; airchissa, arce89ea, *'parcat," Z. 839 ; 
bond erchissecht (gl. propitiatione), Z. 839. Hie root is probably identical with that of eesaaehtf 
**8p«ringne8»,'* sujpnra, p. 64, No. 280. 

No. 267. Cofdaid(j^. lactus). Cf. f&ilte, **gaudium," Z. 94, which Z. connects with Goth, bleiths, 
O. H. G. blidi, A. S. blide, Eng. blithe. He also compares LaU laetue, which he supposes to stand for 

Na 268. Cb-ru-m-imarekoirther exemplifies the system of impersonal flexion which has attained such 
a development in the Celtic verb, in consequence of the early loss of the first and second persons in the 
tenses of the pastfve. Cf. do-chuiriur, gL asciaco, Z. 844; imm^ehuretar "qui tractant/' Z. 447 
(where the « is the infixed relative, changed firom a by progressive umlatU) \ erehuiretar., Z. 1016, 
467; "ponuntur,** adehuireddar, *' adbibentur," Z. 467; oitWter, "ponunt»" Z. 314; euire uait, 
"pone a te," Z. 457. The third sing. pret. act. of the verb in our gloss occurs in the Trieh Nennius, 
p. no : ro-imareor Artur delb [deilb ?] Muire for a gualaind *] ro-teilgiatar na Pagain, "Arthur car- 
ried the image of Mary on his shoulder, and cast out the Pagans.** 

No. 269. EUrfitarad (gl. refrigeria), ci.Juar, cold. I do not understand the force of etar^ here. 


152 Appendix. 


Page 2, for cailaio read cabbio (Old Ir. earrtc, Book of Armagh, 10 b, i ; Med. 
W. carrec, Z. 814). 

Page 4, note 15, /or amann read ^am^LrM^. 

Page 5, No. 5$, ioUa is for hilla : Bee Commentaiy, No. 1005, p. 116. 

Page 5, No. 57, /or piataipe read piacaipe. 

Page 7, No. 132, scama is for squama, and lant) is the 0. Ir. lann. " Cenni am. 
bloBCc am. lantM** is the gloss in the Book of Armagh, 176 h, z, on ''cecideront ab 
ocnlis ejus tamquam scamae." 

Page 7, No. i^Tffor caip read cxipp. 

Page 8, No. 21 1, /or fistula read festuca. 

Page 9, No. 237, for Tnompicma read monificina. 

Page 9, No. 254, scupa is certainly for stupa, not scopae. 

Page 10, No. 169, /or cndimpia6 read cnaimf^iab. 

Page 10, Nos. 272, 273, for chiromantia r^o^ chiromachia. -For pcupna r^o^ stuma. 

Page II, No. ^o^yfor eipinna6 read 6ipinna6. 

Page 12, No. 328, /or pepga read pep5a6c. 

Page 14, note 4, read merlaime, mer coisL 

Page 17, No. 503, read cnaiTn^ia6. No. 520, read Locanus, Lo6an. 

Page 18, No. 575, /or paipje read paip^e. 

Page 19, No. 621, /or piapf»uile6h read piapfuilech. 

Page 20, No. 643, delete [yentossus]. 

Page 24, No. 811, the MS. has '' ereodedus Meman." 

Page 25, No. 826, I should now read this as follows : '' hie sibilus est hominis (i. e. 
is of the masc. gender) sibela [est feminae '' is of the fem. gender*'] : sermo pri[m]u8 
in p6D pope. 

Page 25, No. 831, delete [pileus.] 

Page 27, No. 863, /or uipct read uipci. No. 872, read pemchedcap. 

Page 28, No. 890, read p6i6e. 

^age 31, No. 1 01 9, read p6it>ea6. 

Page 32, No. 1057, read t)0chin6lach. 

Page 37» 

Corrections and Additions. 153 

^age 37 f ^^' 4* *^** ^h seems the W. *ya? (Davies). The ace. sing, of the deriva- 
tive Mthe occurs (spelt suidi(n)) in the Oris Finndin (Z. 933) : — 

cris eoin mnchris ** May my girdle be the girdle of John, 

ral^g tiiidi figlan Who read pure science." 

Page 37, No. $, for crottarias read crottaria-s. As to emit, I am indebted for the 
following note to Mr. S. H. 0' Grady, who has read and annotated the foregoing Commen- 
tary with the kindness generally found among men of his wide and accurate attain- 
ments: — ** Figuratively <Ttt*^ at the present day means * a hump on the back' (from the 
shape of the Irish harp), and the word has been introduced into the Anglo-Irish 
dialect. He put a eritt on hitMelf (do l^ig s^ cruit air f^in) is applied to any one 
assuming a humpy attitude, as a jockey does when he works himself along in a 
race," &c. 

Page 37, No. 6, \het%mpan (gen. ttmpain), whence timpanaeh was a stringed instru- 
ment. See C.'s Battle of liagh Lina, p. 50, where occurs the expression an tiompan 
t^ad-bhinn, "the sweet-stringed timpan.** C£ also Girald. Topogr. Hib., "Hibemia 
quidem tantum duobus utitur et delectatur instrumentis cythara scilicet et tympano : 
Bcotia tribus, cythara, tympano et chore : Gwallia vero cythara, tibiis et chore." 

Page 37, No. 9, cf. the Cornish renniat, divisor, which is synonymous with par- 

Page 38, line 10, read 10, Luehtaire. I think this word is radically connected 
with the Latin lucta, ''wrestling," luctor, luctator. 

Page 38, No. 13, I have now no doubt that eathtr, &c., are stems in e. The stem 
of cathir (t a weakening of a) is catharae. With ttasal-athatr compare Com. huhel- 
tat, A. S. heahfae%er « ** high-father." In the second line from the bottom of p. 38 
read iihfor ath, and in the last line of the note /or philosophy read poetry. 

Page 39, No. 14, read crosdn. Hence the Mod. Ir. crosdntachd, which Mr. O'Grady 
explains as '' a kind of composition, part prose, part verse, generally consisting of very 
far-fetched jokes, and couched in the most difficult and out-of-the-way language at the 
command of the composer." 

Page 39, No. 15, cestunach, now ceisteamhnaeh, O'G. 

Page 39, No. 16, in 0. Ir. the a of ard is long. 

Page 39, No. 17, cinn I now regard as the gen. (cf. gilla nan each, gilla adairee). 
The locative sing, of masc. a-stems is in 0. Ir., as in Latin, identical with the gen. 
sing. Thus puirt, eupra. No. 676, is the loc. of port, gen. puirt. For examples of loca- 
tives sing, of other declensions, see Beitr. L 335, 336. 

X Page 40, 

1 54 Appendix. 

Page 40, No. 18, perhaps hirria stands for birrus, "a cloak for rainy weather;" 
unsme^e hraegel, ''unsmooth raiment," ^Ifric. 

Page 40, No. 19, W. gwyddy Com. gMh, See Diefenhach's Celtica^ i. 134, i jj. 

Page 40, No. 20; Rkghan should be Righain (W. rhtain), as it is in the modem 
language. In Old Ir. it seems declined like a fem. i-stem. Thus the gen. pL rkgnae 
occurs in an 0. Ir. poem to one Aed^ for a copy of which I am indebted to Herr 
Mone, of Carlsruhe : — 

" Is bun croinn m&ir miad soerda, fri ba!g is bnnad findae, 
is gaane aiggait arddbrigg, dl chlaind ch^t rig c^it rfgnaei" 

where, though Mone's copy has ph\nda and ignae^ the corrections are certain.' 

Page 40, No. 24, the ^ in sagart may be also explained by reference to the ordinary 
rise of rt from rd. See Z. 70. 

Page 40, No. 26, c£ the W. clopen, elopa, -pen-glog. 

Page 40, No. 27, read tdiplU. Of. A. S. tsefel (gl. alea) ^t, W. tafluy to fling. 
Perhaps tdtplis is a Celtic word. 

Page 40, No. 30, the Lat tnanu8^ 0. N. mund, should have been compared with 
mtt«n-cille. Cf. also W. mun, man. 

Page 40, Nos. 33,359 the genitives sing, of eiabh and diaa are respectively eiibh, diise. 

Page 41, No. 36, cl the Mod. Ir. prM^ ''hasty, quick, rash;" W. pr09 seems 
= praestus, presto, prSt, 

Page 41, line 1 1, for fit read faithful. 

Page 41, No. 37, I strongly suspect ih&tfallaing is cognate with palHum, though 
Zeuss seems not to believe that a Celtic /can ever represent a Latin j?. Cf.| however, 
con/btrem " comparamus," Z. 841, and M. Pictet's paper, Beitr. ii., 84. 

Page 41, No. 39, now gruadh, pi. gruadhna. Cf. also W. grudd. 

Page 42, No. 42, hence the Anglo-Irish lo8set, " the long wooden box, with a lid 
and lock, oft;en standing on trestleB in a farmer's bed-room, and in which he keeps bia 
linen and valuables," O'G. 

Page 42, No. 44, W. canwyl, where toy as usual = S. 

Page 42, No. 46, 1 have blundered here. The hard d in/eddn « an 0. Ir. ^ (« O. 
Celtic tt), and feddn is the W. ehwythu. 

Page 42, No. 47, the root may be vaks, to grow : c£ the line in Morte d' Arthur, 
** mixed with the manly gbowth that fringed his lip." 

Page 42, No. 48, c£ ^Mmac, which glosses privignus, in a ninth-century MS. of 

* Hie MS. from which this poem is taken is preaeryed in the monaateiy of S. Paul, Gaiinthia. 

Corrections and Additions. 1 55 

FrisciaD, fo. 30, a, written by one Dabthach, and preserved in tbe University Library 
of Leyden, No. 67. Por this and the other glosses in the same MS. I am indebted to 
Professor Siegfried. 

Page 42, Na 49, aaraeh now means ** a yoke of horses/' O'G. 

Page 42, No. 50. Can this r6n (gen. rdtn) be « the A. S. hrdn, " whale" ? 

Page 42, No. 51, of. the GaeL ceann-hhdrr-easpmg, ''a bishop's mitre." 

Page 42, No. 55, ioUa is hilla, see Na 1005, p. 117. Mardc = W. monochen. 

Page 43, No. 59, also adirc-Uu (gL comix), Z. 726 (is liu = Ganl. \ov^o9f). 

Page 43, No. 61, riaghail {ia from e) is the W. rA^/. 

Page 43, No. 64, perhaps mitreta is for m^treta. 

Page 43, No. 65, the Mod Ir. meadar means '' a vessel/' generally a chum. Hence 
the Anglo-Ir. mether. 

Page 43, No. 70, aeBS is now '' the board thrown out from the gunwale of a boat to 
the strand, to enable one to walk in dryshod," O'G. 

Page 44, No. 71, Gael, taohhan, ''rafter, beam." " Taaihhin means a small patch 
in the side {taohh) of a brogue/' O'G. 

Page 44, No. 73, lainniir is a living word along the Shannon, and means ''lan- 
yard," C. Perhaps both the English and Irish words are taken from the French lanihe. 

Page 44, No. 75, now eordinn, gen. cordinneaeh, O'G. 

Page 44, No. 77, the reading of the quatrain here given is justified by the fac-simile 
given by Dr. Ferdinand Keller in his Bilder und SchriftfUge u, 8. to., plate xi. : reimm 
should be riimm, and oa, 6a. 

Page 45, in the paradigm of the article the hypothetical stem is inaccurate. In the 
maso. it should be SAin>A (ex sank a, sa-sma (?)) ; in the fern, sai^da (ex sa-sxa (?)) : 
in the neut. nom. and ace. sing. sa. In lines 3 and 6, far sanad ? read sa-n ? 

In the dat. pL of dia read d^ib = devabo(?), and compare fiarpefio vafiavatxafioy p. 
100, the discovery of which forms overtums Ebel's theory (here followed) as to the 
origin of the Ir. dat. pL from an instrumental. 0. Ir. aih (-id), G^ul. aho - dbus (fem.), 
Skr. dhhyas. 

Page 46, No. 86, oigheann now means " a large caiddron," O'G., who quotes from 
an old song, " do thuit mo bhean a n-oigheann na feola." 

Page 46, No. 88, for panthera read pantera. Perhaps this is the French j?<m^f^tf, 
" a draw-net for partridges, &c.," Old Eng. paunter: — 

*' Pride hath in his paunUr kanht the heie and the lowe, 
So that unnethe can eny man God Almibti knowe." 

Pblitical Songa of England^ ed. Wright, p. 344. 
X 2 Page 46, 

1 56 Appendix. 

Page 46, No. 90, leth, W. lUd = Lat. IXtuB, Gr. rXdrot (Ebel). Other examples 
ofhth, meaning half-, are leathhhhtha, " half rotten," UathmheUge, *' half drunk," 

Note I. If doiros in the following Gaulish inscription on the handle of a patera 
(found in 1853 near Dijon) be = the 0. Ir. ddir, the opposite of «<5tr, the truth of the 
conjecture here made is established : doibos seoomabi ieyet ausant, " a slave of 
Sogomaros made (this) for Alisanos." 

Page 47, No. 92, *' craos na haotne," lit. " gluttony of the Friday," is a phrase now 
used of eating meat on that day, O'G. 

Page 47, No. 93, tnataxa yel corductum yel stramentum, 9tr€$l vel bedding, .£lfric. 

Page 47, Nos. 94, 95, the gen. of bos is baise, JRead basog. 

Page 47, No. 98, dare we connect edin with poena, roivtf ? 

Page 47, No. 99, with fiith cf. Conu guiden, gL cutulus, i. e. catulus, a kind of 
fetter; also Skr. yetasa, arundo. 

Page 48, No. 104. In the quotation from the Tripartite Life for ateondaire we 
should probably read ateondare, o£ adeondarc, '^ /perceived," Z. 930. 

Page 48, No. 106, read scdla, now '* a cup;" eaitheamh na sedla, '' oup-tosaing on 
HaUow-e'en," O'G. 

Page 48, No. 108, '* talamh, gen. talmhan, is now used by correct speakers for the 
earth « the world, as in drum na talmhan » dorsum terrse, the face of the earth. But 
talamhf gen. ialaimh, is earth in the sense of land, e. g. dd acra talatmh, two acres of 
land," O'G. (O'D. and C. do not recognise this distinction.) 

Page 48, No. no, an earlier instance is in the Book of Armagh, 11, a, t (top 
margin), " ie bdile ineo sis as ineerttts" ** there is a place here below that is ineertus,'* 

Page 49, No. 1 18, as to grunna, also gronna, gromna, see Z. 73$, note ^ 

Page 50, No. 1 22, <' An old saying is cr6 roimh oire, * stye before pigling' » ' count- 
ing your chickens before they are hatched,' " O'G. {cr6 roimh na horcaibh, C). 

Page 50, No. 128, lasair (= laxarac) is the W. llachar. 

Page 50, No. 129, eamradh is, perhaps, cognate with W. cafiu 

Page 50, No. 1 30, read sen (old) = sena-s, W. hen : cf. Zend hana. 

Page 50, No. 131, seeh^dn is obviously a deriv. from the prep, sech, W. hep. Lat. 
secus ; Zend, haca. 

^ag© 5*> No. 133, delete the statement that in 0. Ir. liaec is a cc-stem, into which 
I was led by a misreading of Zeuss's (corrected supra p. 80, No. 573) ; liaee was and is 
a feuL H-stem. As to I6gmar, v. No. 792, p. 96. 

Page 51, No. 137, ossadh is cognate with sossadh sudfossadh, the common root 
being stha. 

Corrections and A dditiona. 1 5 7 

Page 51, No. 138, c£ A. S. mele (patera), -^Ifr. 

Page 51, No. 139. I suspect cogad (0. Ir. coccad) is con-cata, the eata being cog- 
nate with Ghial. eatUy Ir. cath. 

Page 52, No. 141, the dat. sing, hairgin is in Z. 738. 

Page 52, No. 142, read 0. W. petguerid in the masculine. And in the third line 
rtfoJ nomad (Z. 1076) /or noim-ed. 

Page 52, No. 145, cogar is probably con-gar. See p. 76, No. 469. 

Page 52, No. 148, at the end read san(d)islindeni. 

Page $2y note 2, hliadne, Book of Armagh (cited supra, No. 676), nom. bliadain, is 
another example of the gen. plur. of a fem. i-stem. So Hatfochraiee, Patrick's Hymn ; 
nom. fochric : fochide^ Z. 992, 481 ; nom. fochaid: infinite, Z. 979; nom. infinit. 

Page 53, No. 152, c£ theEng. hutt&ris, Fr. boutoir. 

Page 53, No. 1 54, compare with liiirech, in its secondary sense, the Yedic charman, 
Ht. a hide. 

Page 53, No. 156, cf. W. m^r, a particle, Gr. fUpot, which Benfey connects with 
Skr. mrsh. C£ tir with tarsh. 

Page 55, No. 170, so biocon, from Viscount. 

Page 55, No. 173, abhdaine (abbacy) is solely applicable to the office. 

Page 55, No. 177, W. egltoye^ i becoming wy as usual. 

Page 55, No. 179, W. hliegyn, Blaese is now plaosg, ''pod," and, jocosely, the 
" head," O'G. 

Page 55, No. 180, for sabribarra read sarabara : *' sarabara sunt fluxa ac sinuosa 
Testimenta de quibus legitur in Daniele." Isidor. 

Page 55, No. 183, see, however, Ebel, Beitr. iL 82, on the Vertausehung der epi- 
ranten, /, a, h (eh), in Celtic. 

Page 55, No. 191, bile also means lip (of a jug, &c.), O'G. 

Page 56, No. igj^faechog is cognate with W. gwichiad, Com. guihan. 

Page 57, No. 207, read dreolan, now dreoilin, from derail, Conn., now deireoil, 

Page 57, No. 209, eonn = Lat. canna : W. cawn, conyn. 

Page 57, No. 211, read festuca /or fistula. 

Page 57, No. 216, ga also means ''beam:" ga griine, sunbeam; ga gealaighe, 
moonbeam, O'G. 

Page 58, No. 217. I think now that the right reading may be eeideth gdithbulga, 
the second word being the gen. of a gaithbuilg. 

Page 58, No. 220, for gen. Udthaig read gen. hldthaighe. 

Page 58, 

158 Appendix. 

Page 58, No. 222, diangalar is wrongly rendered here : a gloss in Gildas' Lorica 
shows that its meaning is languor. As to the note, I now see that the t in perfects like 
asmbur-t, &c., is nothing but the d (of the root dha), which, when following r or e, 
becomes t. This is proved by the occurrence of the form rodamito^ar, " they suffered," 
in the poem following the F^lire (Leab. Breaoc) : — 

iama techt don rigia after their coming to the kingdom 

rodamdatar B6etha they BoiTered paiDO. 

(The second line is glossed by " .L rodamsat soethu .L piana.") And I now beUeye 
that the unaspirated t in domeltis, &c, was preceded by n. Cf. dognitis, adsaitis, 

Page 59, No. 227, cf. in "bello Eoth,^^ where Adamn&n(Yit Col.) alludes to the 
battle of Mag-Eath (= Eotomagus). 

Page 60, No. 233, the spelling wrogra seems to show that chiragra was pronounced 

Page 60, No. 240, '' cliath fuirsidhe is a rude kind of harrow, made with a hurdle 
and stones to weight it, for light work like bush-harrowing. A regular harrow is 
hr&ca, or prdea,^* O'G. 

Page 60, No. 245, Schleicher thinks popina a loan-word from one of the other Italic 
dialects (Zcits. vii. 320). 

Page 61, No. 246, and lapillula, of course, for lapillulus. 

Page 61, No. 248, read lAeh franeaeh, "A rat is now called mm^lj firanneach^** 

Page 61, No. 251, C. says there is a phrase tug s^ ama%9c air, "he made a grab 

at him." 

Page 61, No. 254, readf possibly from es. 

Page 61, No. 256, for onesta read oueata^ ovesta, and c£ ohesta beost, M]fr. 

Page 62, No. 257, " haineachlach occurs in the sense of a female retainer (uncon- 
nected with horses) in the tale of Diarmid and Grainne," O'G. {ToruigheacU D, y G., 
p. 98). 

Page 62, No. 262, in the fourth Hue of the quatrain read has stuck. 

Page 62, No. 264, in the paradigm read dib mbethaib. 

Page 62, No. 265, is tiar = du-iar? 

Page 63, No. 266, 61 eormae would be better rendered " a drinking of ale." 

Page 63, No. 272, from dom comes duim(n, a small handle : read nomdumi. 

Page 63, No. 274, spline, "a sharp look;" splincfn, " a long splinter of bog -pine, 

used as a candle," O'G. 

Page 64, 

Corrections and Additions. 1 59 

Page 64, No. ^'l^tfor cumail read comal, and delete the words Gaulish ver. 

Page 64, No. 287, I think Ebel (Beitr. i. 163) errs in denying a Towcl-changing 
power to 0, u, for Imonmaib (gl. lituris), Z. 739, is surely from Itnomnaib, Lat lino, 
c^rcol = ctrculus, Z. 594 ; f^lsiib = phtlosophus ; and I believe that heiho, etho (fit)m 
bith, ith)y may also be quoted as examples of the power possessed by 0. Ebel says 
that in the latter instances the stands for a prior a ; and we certainly have hetha^ etha. 
But these are sorely mere instances of a for 0. Cf. the Ogamic genitive Atilogdo, 
which Dr. Graves reads Apilogdoy in Mr. Wilde's Catalogue of the Antiquities in the 
Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 1857, p. 136. 

Page 65 , No. 290. " Nighean is heard in Ireland, in names like Nora nighean Aodha, 
Nora Hays," O'G. (O'D. and C. say this should be written N. ni n-Aodlia). 

Page 66, No. 296. These words seem not Indo-European. '* Orientis partibus Ad- 
ventavit asintis** is probably true in more senses than one. 

Page 66, No. 300, c£ A. S. feohstrang (pecuniosus), feohhus (serarium), ^Ifr. 

Page 66, No. 303, cf. the Com. diures (gL exul). 

Page 66, No. 305, The theory here set forth is so extremely ingenious that I could 
not help inserting it. For my part, however, I believe that Mdrinn is nothing but 
Ivemya {^lovepvia), the v having passed into spiritus asper, which has then shifted, the 
i standing for i (Z. 25), the nn for ny, as in the Prakrit anna from Skr. anya, the 0. Ir. 
moirtchenn, from morticinium. Thus, Ivemia, hlemna ('Upvif), whence by metathesis 
h!renn, h^remL As to the irregularity in the ace, enn for inn, 1 have found the 
correct vowel in the Tripartite Life : dorat dia heirind duitsiu (" God has given Ire- 
land to thee"), Egerton, 93 (Mus. Brit.), fo. 16 0, 2. 

Page 68, line 4 from top. The h in marh (W. marw) is really a V| as in 0. Ir. 
tarh e Gaulish tarvos, W. tarw, fedh = Lat. vidua, W. gweddw, garh = Skr. garva, W. 
garw, nonhar = a Skr. navanvara-m. 

Page 6^, note 2, add: ind r^ta adgiisi optait, Z. 978, '' the things which the op- 
tative desires :" assa^iM«im ^n cechtar mo dd gualand, *' 1 wish a bird on each of my 
two shoulders." SeirgL Conculainn. 

Page 70, No. 370, now maeamh. 

Page 70, No. 372. The statement of the regular lautvertretung in Old Irish, and 
the other Indo-European languages, is here given with a brevity which, perhaps, may 
mislead. The following Table will be usefril, and may be relied on so far as it goes, 
being, with the exception of the Old Irish column, taken from Curtius' Orundziige 
der Oriechischen Mymologie (Leipzig, 1858) : — 


















c, ch (g)* 




t, th (d)<i 

loat^ c, f • 

n, lost?' 

m, n^ 

lOBt, h ?k 

8 or lost' 

f, v« 



t, th 






a, eh 


y before 

M» "^ 








V>, b« 















f, ▼ (b) 









k, f, C, B 

gf '» « 

g, al« 


8, ch, i 











' When e iA, or has been, flanked Ij vowela, It beoomet eh^ tat which ^ (L e. 0A) la fotmd. 
k At ttie beginning of a word (in emiaut). 

* In a word (in inMui). 

* When < is, or has been, flanked by vowels, it becomes IK, for which d (L e. (ft) is found. 

*0. Ir./ezj»isTenrrare. See p. lAi, addendum to No. ^. I have little doubt that jioccors in inZoM^ (probably in com- 
bination with some other letter), but cannot vet qnote a sure example. 
' In the combination n<*, so Ihr as I know, the nasal is always lost in 0. Ir. 
' In the combinations ni, nt. 

i> In autlaut, e. g. in the ace. sfaig., and gen. plnr. of o^tems, what I call the temnsported n represents a primitlTe m. 
I In ouiltnit. 

k I sospect that initial p is sometimes represented by A, it haTlnc (as often in Qreek) passed into the niirttiiaaaper. 
I Lost Dctween %'owcl0, as I belieTC, invariabhr : sometimes also m anlaut e. g. in the nom. and gen. of the artide. 

* Initial « always becomes/. In anlant and anslant e (written ft, sometimes /in Old Irish, M in Modem Irish' is pre-w 
senred tn combination yvith d,lyn,r. It also occurs in Tarn, " your" (cL Gkrth. izvara), written bark at/ath hi Q. Jr-tuorh 
in the Tripartite Life, Mar f»- in the modem language. 

Page 12, 

Corrections and Additions. 1 6 1 

Page 72, Na 397, a left-handed man is eiotaeh : ciotog, " the left-hand," O'G. 
Lhuyd has compared W. chwith, "left;" chwithig, "left-handed." 

Page 72, No. 41 iifor guitter read guilter. 

Page 72, I9'o. 412, *'hreaU is the glans pmU: also the round knob at the end of 
the huaiUedn, or striking part, of a flail, by which the thong is kept ^m flying 
off," O'G, 

Page 73, No. 423, line 8 from top, read, 423, Tuata(gL laicus); cf. Toumis; and 
in the translation of the (Gaulish inscription read made this temple for Belesama. Dr. 
SiegMed now explains eiobtt, isTTiirr by the Old Ir. root iint, found in MtammtWat 
"me adficiunt," fritammiorsa (gl. me adficiet), Z. 336; l^rad (gl. factum .est). Book 
of Armagh, 189 d, i. In the note delete the first sentence. M. Pictet is un- 
doubtedly right in identifying OviWoveow with Villonius (Gruter, 488-5). See his 
learned and ingenious Essai »ur quelques ImeripttOM en langue gaulotM. G^n^ve, 1 859. 

Page 74, No. 428. I haye no doubt now that the MS. is right in its ruaimnech 
dtthain. Cf. the Skr. roman horsehair (firom rohman), and the 0. Ir. ruanmae (gL lodix), 
Z. 27 ; W. rhawn, Bret, reiin, Ir. ruainne (No. 463) seem connected. 

Page 74, No. 429. I think diUcMa is the pret. part. pass, of a verb dileteim : cf. 
leicim = linquo. 

Page 74, No. 430, cf. aon-t-suim, " grand total," O'G. 

Page 74, No. 431, delete, gL tener, infra. 

Page 74, 1^0^ 434, O'G. thinks cuisi (for cuise) the gen. sing. 

Page 75, No. 446, read tige, gen. of tig. 

Page 75, No. 462, the ace. plurals here quoted seem (with the exceptions of cairtea, 
n&imtea) to be rather examples of metathesis rather than extension. 

Page 75, line 3 from hottom, far 469 read 463. 

Page 76, No. 465, cf. Pr. doigt de pied. 

Poge 76, No. 479, W. cwpan. 

Page 76, No. 482, perhaps W, od-n in eh-odn, " horse-dung," may be connected. 

Page 77, No. 484, sgagaim, "I strain, sift, winnow," O'G. ; c£ Eng. shake? 

Page 76, No. 498, delete, compare Eng. whelp. 

Page 77, No. 508, preachdn andprSachan are now " a crow ;" pr^achdn na ccearc, 
" a kite," O'G. 

Page 78, No. 545, c is not aspirated by the influence of n. In sancht the eht has 
regularly arisen from ei. Cf. 0. Persian Bakhtris, durukhta : A. S. teeh-te, vs&h-te, 
s6h-te, from tasc-an, w«c-an, s^c-an. Cbn^Aoimnucuir, conchechrat, are probably 
written in the MS. ochoim, ochecb, and should have been read cochoim, cochech. 

Y Page 79, 





Page 79, No. 561, cf. the N. H. G. ^^-esche. 

Pago 79, No. 565, hence fraochan, whortleberry, and cf. ipeixtf, erica. 

Page 80, No. 570, hrdthair now means cousin; deathhbhrdthair, "brother," pro- 
nounced drithdir, derbrdthir (gl. germane), Z. 834. 

Page 81, line 7, for the earth read earth. 

Page 81, No. 577, »roU now always means satin; sioda is silk, O'G. 

Page 81, No. 587, '^a bramble-brake is now driseamach, with the termination of 
which cf. sgealpamachj ''continued pinching" {sgedlpy a pinch); tiasamaeh, "con- 
tinued whispering," 0*G. 

Page 82, No. 595, the W. pyrehwyn^ "crest of a helmet;" pyrgwyn, "crest of a 
plume," may be connected. 

Page 83, No. 606, <5r is a neut a-stem in 0. Ir., and occurs in the nom. sing, with 
the transported n in the following verses, for which I am indebted to Herr Mone : — 

*' Is 6d immo niada a&s 
b naa thoU diant ealiim gtias, 
is lesUr fts, is craiin ciin 
[nach digni toil ind lig t(kM.] 

Is &r figlan, is nem im gr^in, 
is lestar narggit cu fin, 
is son, is alaind, is ii6eb 
each 6en digni toil ind lig.**^ 

He is a bird round which the trap is doong, 
He is a leaky ship in perilous danger, 
He is an empty Teasel, he is a withered tree, 
Whoso doth not the will of the King aboveu 

He is pare gold, he is heayen romid the sun, 
He is a vessel of silyer with wine [in it]. 
He is prosperous, is beantiftil, is holj, 
Eveiy one that doth the will of the King. 


Page 85, No. 641, read luathgdireeh. 

Page 85, No. 650, eoisinech would properly be " small-footed.' 

Page 85, No. 652, add, from gearh, a scab. 

Page 86, No. 660, for sochoise read sochoisc. I cannot but think the eosettir here 
quoted is cognate with the Lat. consequor. G£ madu coscedar (gL ipsa consequatur), 
Leyden Priscian, 1 7 d. 

Page 86, No. 666, taithneamh na griine^ "the shining of the sun," is a common 

Page 87, Na 674, delete line 5 as far as cruatdh. 

Page 88, No. 700, c£ 0. W. cruitr (gL pala, a winnowing-shovel). 

Page 89, 

1 This is from the before- mentioned MS. in the monasteiy of S. PaoL I have yentnred to correct Mone'a 
tar into s&s, his nan into nan, his tm into fin. Mr. Curry has foond a poem in the Book of Ballymote, in 
which the above verses are incorporated. 

Corrections and Additions. 163 

Pag^e 89, No. 709. I have now no donbt that sgeota and sg^otha are different words. 
Sgeota (gL cartesium, i e. chartaceum) seems a loan-word from scheda. As to sciotha, 
see Beeves' Yit CoL, 106. Du Cange, sub y. sceta. 

Page 89, No. 716, with bile, '' leaflet, blossom/' c£ the Gaulish ^^^tocanda, "Achil- 
lea millefolium." Is not this = folium, tpvWov ? 

Page 89, No. 717, eassoeh^ Fr. casaque, ItaL casaccia, Lat. casa (Diez, E. W., 91}, 
has nothing to do with ceis. 

Page 89, No. 720, in Sanskrit srapna sometimes means a dream : of. Old Eng. 
9wwen, somnium, mrvot. 

Page 90, No. 725. If O'E. be correct in explaining lon^ as enclosure, long-phort 
= castrum becomes intelligible. 

Page 91, No. TSSffor iivs-i-s read S.ius-ti-s? 

Page 91, No. 740, /or iii. read n i. No. 741, read Sealladh. 

Page 92, No. 744, Z.'s muina is right. Cf. myne, monile, ^Ifr., mene, Beowulf, 2403. 

Page 92, No. 745, druim (notwithstanding the irregularity ofd=t)ia the W. trwm; 
so dfas = W. twys. 

Page 93, No. 752, arbe (not arpe) is the right form. Cf. Gtoih. arbja, heir, and 
Skr. arbha, proles. 

Page 94, line 5, far yavas read yavas. 

Page 94, No. 769, read Bkdhgadh. 

Page 96, No. 782, now UamhnaehL Cf. "W. llefrith. 

Page 96, No. 792, Leoiughadh means, i, to improve ; 2, to manure, O'O. 

Page 97, No, 795. Two other forms aiefoileastromf oileastrom, O'G. 

Page 97, No. 796, c£ Do sgatrt si fk ghairidhe, '' she burst out into a roar of 
laughter," O'G. 

Page 97, No. 797, I feel sure that the true reading of Z.'s uudimm is vudimin. 

Page 98, No. 812, Dia (» divas), "day;" in the ace. sing, dei (M dei) is stUl de- 
clined like an s-stem. But in the dat diu (mdiu) it has gone over to the vocalic 

Page 99, note, /or Celtic v read Gaulish v ; see, however, p. 154* 

Page 100, line 12 from top, /or 847 read 843. 

Page 100, No. 845, for Coindealbthadh we should certainly read Coindealbhdthadk: 
eoindealy from candela; bdthadk, "destruction, extinguishment" Cf. bathach, leg. 
bdthach (gl. moribundus), Z. 777. 

Page 100, No. 846, Taidbsiu may be du-ad-voi^-s-ti&n. C£ W. gwedd^ ** shape," 
Z. 860 ; a-gwedd s adgwedd* 

y 2 Page 100, 

1 64 Appendix. 

Pago 100, note, line 1 1, read ad-coth-dM^ae ; coth « Gaulish eata, W. eyd. 

Page loi, No. 851, c£ W. (w-lan, "sheep-fold." 

Page loi, No. 853, /or now aifrin read now aiMonn : with aiffirend g£ W. offeren. 

Page loi, No. 854, gradale for gradnale; W. ym-ljfr, from gressiu; W. griaau, 
" steps." 

Page 102, No. 859, corporale is the napkin which coreis the sacred elements. 

Page 102, No. 864, now scoraid. 

Page 105, No. 884, read solas, happiness, the opposite of dolib. 

Page 106, No. 892, read eomp&ntus. 

Page 107, line 11, for di[a]^ read dia ^s (dom-h^M-se, "after me/' Z« 1053). 
No. 899, read denid (facite), Z. 458. 

Page 108, No. 903, read eomthromugud. Comhthiom now means "just, &ir." 

Page 108, No. 908, now Uoirghnkomh, 

Page 109, No. 913, now eomhdireamh (4ram » ad-ram ?)• 

Page 109, No. 916, now Idmhdgan (applied to a child's first attempt at ore^ing 
on all-fours), from Idmh, just as lapaddireaehtf "groping;" from lap and hpa^ "the 
hand," O'G. 

Page 109, No. 918. Comma is, perhaps, a loan-word; co/i^ taleatio (talea, a 

Page III, No. 937, for finlorg read fri lorg, " on (the) track" 

Page III, No. 940, cf. in^^rrtha, gl. lacerandnm, Gildas' Lorica. 

Page 1 12, No. 945, now sm^aroid: cf. sm^ar, " a blackberzy," O'O. 

Page 112, note, frecuirthe c^ill (gL reoole, i. e. repone sensnm), Z. 1 130. 

Page 1 13, No. 952, Ir. gree, W. gree^ seem likewise connected with ghians. 

Page 113, No. 955. In the last line of the quotation from Ultdn's hymn I should 
now render hiam by " may I be !" 

Page 1 14, No. 967. In his iu S. lexicon, p. 690, Ettmiillar gives " soeota -an m. 
tructos, trocta pisois." 

Page 114, line 1 1 from bottom, for 995 read 975. 

Page 114, No. 976, there is no such word as ainmidheaehj according to if J}, and C. 

Page 1 16, No. 999, delete (from sbhray ?). 

Page 1 17, No. 1006. In the dialect of Yannes, hlonec means graisse, abdomen. De 
Courson, HUt, dee origtnee, &c. Paris, 1843, p. 409. 

Page 1 18, No. 1017, add W. teneu. 

Page 1 18, No. 1029, muee mara is a porpoise. 

Page 119, line 8, read 103 1. 

Page 120, 

Corrections and A dditions. 1 6 5 

Page 120, No. 1040, cf. W. erifyn, " pursuit; dj4ynu^ "to adhere;" caa-h/n, "to 
follow;" glyn, "adhesion." 

Page 120, No. 1045. The e stands, I now belieye, for c^d, first; and I suspect that 
eid grindifoilei is some kind of warm lotion* The expression occurs in a passage from 
a medical tract with which C. has furnished me. Log in haistithi (nom. haistedh) 
should have been rendered "price of baptism." In the passage ^m O'Dayoren's 
Glossary read intan is i linn "] im bind doberar, " when it is in ale and id food it is 

Page 121, No. 1052, read mdthair = matar. The ai {%) is a weakened a. So is 
the ai {%) of hrdthair, athair. 

Page 125, note. I have erred in regarding and translating ordit as from orate. It 
is explained as a subsi in Gormac, and occurs unmistakeably as such in a piece follow- 
ing Sanctdin's hymn in lib. Hymn., Eombith ordit let a maire, " sit mihi oratio 
apud te, Maria !" See also the insoription on the case of the Book of Durrow, 
9upraf p. 56. 

Page 126, No. 1 102. In the quotation from Cormac, dam should have been ren- 
dered " suffering." See the quotation and gloss from the Leahhar Breaoc, suprd^ p. 1 58. 

Page 1 28y line 1 2 from top. I have erred in quoting er-t, var-t, &c, as instances 
of pronominal agglutination. The t here is the regular termination of the 2nd pers. 
sing, of the Teutonic preterite. The pronoun, however, is agglutinated in the 0. H. G., 
A. S., and Eng. termination of the 2nd pers. sing., a-L 

Page 1 29, line 8 from bottom, before m^za insert Bret. 

Page 130, note, /or Bawlinson read Laud. 

Page 1 34, line 20 fr^m top, read minimas corporis sui partes. 

Page 135, line 19 from top, the Welsh j?y» occurs in er-Jy», "against" (Norris). 

Page 145, line 8 from top, /or v. 45 read v. 46. Oingis (gL oslaicib, "openings") 
occurs in Cormac's Glossary, v. Oin (this word is not in the Academy copy). 

Page 146, to the verbal forms under the conjunctive ist sing., add eu-r-ham, 
No. 260. This, indeed, seems the only true form here given of the conjunctive in the 
ist pers. sing. 

Page 150, No. 220, the gen. plur. rap occurs twice in a medical MS. in the library 
of the Boyal Irish Academy (V)? ^ ^^^^ ^^ <^ <^o' ^ muine duib n[a] rap (p. 2) : 
Leges gair^ in gaile 1 na rap (p. 12). No. 245, dentaih is for dintaib, " fabrefeu^tis." 

Page i$i, No. 260, oentaige^ better dentuige, frx)m 6en-tuigim = 0, Ir. ointuccu, 
" I am of one mind with," " I assent," " I grant." Tuccu (an ia-stem ?) seems cog- 
nate with the 0. Latin tongSre, GotL thagkjan, Eng. think, 0. Norse thek^a, 0. H. G. 


1 66 Appendix. 

denchan. Can the Eng. slang-word twip (s understand) have been taken from the 
Mod. Ir. tuigim ? 

Page 151, No. 261, gnimarthaib is for gnlmradaib. For gnkmarad read gnkmrad. 
The dat. pL c^ daggnimrad occurs in the opening of the sermon in the Codex of Cam- 
bray (Z. 1003) : aire sechethar sclictu ar f^dot [nom. f^da, fiadu] in dagnimrathib, 
** ut sequatur vestigia dei nostri in bonis operibus/' C. Cfniomh now makes its nom. 
pL gniomha and gniomhartha. 


[The following selection from the Old Irish glosses scattered through the Book of 
Armagh, may fitly fill a spcuse which would otherwise remain vacant. Of these glosses, 
as well as of the other contents of that invaluable MS., we may soon expect a complete 
edition from the Eev. Dr. Beeves.] 

Ochm (gL benignus), 9, ft. i ; totmdel (gl. aurigam totum), 13, ft. 2; enga (gl. 
aqua supra petram, i. e. fons), ibid. ; duferti martur (gL ad sargifagum mortyrum), 
21, ft* 2; gahdl ohlann (gL acceptis autem v. panibus et iL piscibus), gabis ailU (gL 
benedixit illis), eomhach (gL fregit), fodil (gL distribuit), 77, a. 1 ; diledu (gl. ster- 
cora), 81, a. i; indloingtis (gL disecabantur), ddnsit h congabsat (gl. continueront, 
aures suas), 175, ft. i ; cuimte (gL ionuchus), 176, a. 2 ; tarsende (gl. Tarsensem), 176, 
ft. 2 ; etalacda (gl. Italica, nom. sing.), 177, a. 2 ; ootbdelig (gl. necessariis amicis), 177, 
ft. 2; tecehtd (gL acceptor, personarum), 178, a, i; nudehthi[^tis]t (gL disceptabant), 
178, a, 2; rechtire form (gL regerent[ur], 179, a. i ; formuichthih .i. moirtchenn (gl. 
subfdcatis, i. e. suffocatis), 181, a. i ; huaaakichire (gL ariopagita), huasalt&rchom- 
rietid (gL archisinagogus), 182, ft. 2; immact (.L jecit), 183, a. i; saehilli (gl. sau- 
daria), debai (gl. simicintia), 183, a. 2 ; et I, indeb I. iarsiehid {gl. adquaBsitio), 183, 
ft. 2 ; berensdoB (gl. Beroeneis), derbensde (gl. Derbius), <Mrunn\^f^ethitis (gl. sustinebant 
nos), 184, «• I ; \_ad]sluindim (gL appello), 187, ft. i ; arbir (gL co[h]ortis), 188, 
ft. I ; muiride (gL civitas Thalasa), dugaimigud (gL ad h[i]emandum), 188, ft, 2; din- 
muirdgu (gL cum sustulissent), erus (gl. pupi), mnalua (gl. juncturas gubemaculorum), 
189, a, 2 ; femn sUlU I, sedl (gL artimone), dmbidi (gl. custodias), dlHthsit .i. infige- 
runt, navim, 189, ft. i ; dindirect .L rithfolo (gL disintiria), 189, ft. 2. 

GEifTSBAL Index. 


( i67 ) 


ITke numbers refer to ike paragraphs of the Commentary^ exeept when the letter "p." is prefixed; then 

they refer to thepa^^es of this book."] 


J weakened to ai, p. 155 ; a weakened to at (i). 

Acta Sanctorum cited, p^ 145. 

Adamndn^s Vision (in the Leabhar Breaoc and the 
Lebar na haidre), dted or referred to, 90, 103 ; 
P- 95$ note ' ; 1008, 1087. 

Adverbs formed b7 the prefix 00 (^0), p. 147. 

Agglotination, pronominal, 1071 ; p. 165. 

ABijfrids Glossary cited, p. 144, p. 145, && 

Amra Choluim Chiile, cited, p. 37, note. 

Archives des Missions ScientiJIques et ZitteraireSj 
▼oL Y,. referred to, p. 97, note. 

Armagh^ Book of. See Manuscripts, 

Article, Old Irish, declined, 78; and see Addenda, 
p- 155 I Dom. pL maec of article in Mid. Irish, 
p. 135 ; article in Old Welah, Coiniah, and Bre- 
ton, p. 45, note K 

Aarimilation, retrogrea e ive, 458 ; progresrive, 705. 

Aspiration, 5, p. 45, note >; p. 46, note * ; 139, 
287, 1071. 

Anfrecht, Dr. Tbeodor, referred to, 423, 776. 

Anton, Gaolish inscription off p. 104, note. 

B in Old Irish corresponds with Skr. b, Or. jS, Lat. 

b; and also with Skr. bh, Gr. ^, Lat /(at the 

beginning of a word), 6 (in a word), 372 ; p. 

160; Indo- European ^, see p. 160 ; b sometimes 

for ^,784; apparent instance of Ir. b s Lat v, 

p. 149 (No. 15a). 
Benar}r*s law, 372. 
Benfey, Theodor, referred to, 426. 
his Qrieehisches Wurtellexicon referred to, 

700, 1070, 1095. 
Beowulf See 7%orpe, 
Bh, Indo-European, p. 160. 
Bohtlingk and Roth, thdr Skr. Dictionary referred 

to, 870, 952. 

Bopp, Franz, cited or referred to, 158 ; p. 58, note; 

224, 250, 290, 420, 546, 621, 776, 860, 904, 

1000, 1068, 107 1. 
his Feryleickende Grammatik, quoted, 387, 

his Olossarium Sanseriticum referred to, 1047, 

1081, 1133, 1005. 
Brog&n*s hymn (JLiber Mymnorum^ dted 2x8, 280, 

424, 966, 977. 
Bum's Bcelesiastieal Law, cited, 854, 855. 

CL Stems in «. See Declension, and p. 153. Old Irish 
e corresponds with Gr. c, Lat «, g, Skr. k, kh, 
ek, f , 37 2, p. 160 ; ee in Welsh becomes eh, 439 ; 
ct in Irish becomes eht (sancht = sancta, 545, 
see Addenda, pp. 161-162), but th in Welsh, 915. 

e (in inlaut^ lost in combination ^r, 621, 724; 

in combination en, 118, and Addenda. 

Cianan of Daimliac (Duleek), 35. 

Ciaran, St, 11 37. 

Gvilization, material, of Irish eodesiastics, 740. 

Colm&n's hymn (Liber Hymnorum), dted, 214, 338, 
588, 640, 738, 890, 955. 

Columdile, p. 37, note. 

Comgell, hymn to Abbot, p. 146. 

Comparatives, formation of some Old Irish, 11 12, 

"'J» "33- 
Conjugation. See Verb, 

Cormac^s Glossary cited or referred to, 38, 42, 70, 

90, 112, 115, lao, 136, 146, 155, 159, 184, 216, 

ai8, 255, 256, 266, S5S^ 5781 588. 651, 814, 

843» 873, 889, 897, 933, 966, 1065, 1102; p. 

127, note *\ p. 148, p. i6c. 


Cormacan 6cces, dted 39, 56, 226, 866; p. 

Ct becomes eht in 0. Irish, pp. 161-162. 

Cummian*s Epistle, cited, p. 145. 

Curry, Professor Eugene, dted or referred to, pas- 


General Index. 

aim; his Cath Maigh$ Ldna dtod, 580; and 
Seirglige Coneuiainn, 
CurtiuSf 6., referred to, p. 58, note ; 345, 860, 871 ; 
his Orundziige dw Orieehischen Etymologie dted 
or referred to, 792, 948, 999, 1095 ; p. 159. 

D becomes i before aspirated «, 148, 734 ; stems in 
d^ see Declension ; Old Irish d corresponds with 
Skr. and Lat d, Gr. S, and also with Skr. dA, 
6r. 0, Lat. / (at the beginning of a word), <f, b 
(in a word), 372, p. 160 ; d assimilated to ft, 
914 ; to /, 915 ; ffh written for dh, 604 (bogkar 
for bodhar) \ Indo-European <^ see p. 160. 

Dative plural in Irish, origin of, p. 155. 

De Belloguet, Baron, his Ethnoginie Oatdom le- 
ferred to, 423, and note. 

De Betouw, his De arit^ &c, referred to, 1029. 

Declension, Old Irish : — 

I. Vocalic: . . . i. maac. a-stems, 17, 81; neat. 

a-stems, 139 ; masc ia- 
stems, 9 (there are neat ia^ 

2. fern, ft-stems, 9 ; fem. i&- 
stems, 158. 

3. masc. and fom. {-stems, 2, 
42 ; p. 52, note «, p. 157 5 
neut. i-stema, 1008. 

4. masc. n-stema, 264 (there 
are also neat n-stona, but 
no fem. a-stems). 

II. Consonantal : i. Guttural stems : o-stems, 

13; g-Btem, 1036. 
a. Dental stems: t-stema, 4; 
ant-stems, 292, 444; ent- 
stems (Jtoehe^ gen. I6chet); 
d-stems, i ; n-stems, 108; 
mann-stem, 991. 

3. Liquid stems: r-stems, 13. 

4. S-stems, 812; p. 163; na- 
stems, 1 1 15. 

III. Monosyllabic stems in f, 987. 

IV. A^ectival: ar stems, 803; ia-stema, 803; 

i-stems, 06 1 (Ui, nom. pi. 
of SI, 565; and see Seitr. L, 

V. Pronominal. See I'hmomis, Article, 
Flexion in adjectives preceding the nouns with 

which they agree, 505 ; passage over from one 
declension to another, 87, 736, 1047; p. 135, 
p. 163 ; extension of stems, 462, bat see p. 
161 ; loss of labial ending in daL pL, p. 135. 
See Artide^ Pronoun, 

Declension in Welsh and Cornish, trace of, p. 135 
(pyn, dat of pen). 

De Courson, his HUt dee OrigineSf &c., cited, p^ 164. 

Denis, dted or referred to, p. 133, note; 134. 

DA, Indo-Eoropean, seep. 160. 

DittTenbach, Dr. Lorenz, referred to, 387 ; hia CW- 
t*0a referred to, 121, 266; p. 154; WMGlouaHum 
Med, Lai. Qerm,^ dted or referred to, 152, 574, 
793, 866 ; p. 145 ; hia Oothieckee JTorUtiuch 
quoted, 1073; referred to, 1095. 

Dies, his Etymologiechee Worterbuek dted or re- 
ferred to, 107, 708, 852 ; p. 148. 

Dimma mace Nathi, 133, 1080. 

Diminatival suffixes, 934; p. iiz» note. 

Diosooridea, cited, 765. 

Dual in Iriah, 773. 

Dubthach, his MS. of Prisdan, p. 155. 

Du Cange, his Oloeaarittm dted or ieferred to» 59, 
9*1 797 » P- H3- 

Ebel, Dr. Hermann, cited or referred to, 74; p. 61, 
note*; 287, 288, 289, 3i5i 3*8, 735; P 99» «»to; 
1117 ; p. 136, note; p. 156, p. 157, p. 158. 

Eclipeis, t^enomena o^ 005. 

Ettmiilleri )i^B Lexicon Anglonuomeumdi\/tA^ p. 164. 

^B sr, 777 ; initial ftrom v, 157, 468 ; from p, 

P- 154- 
Filire Oingueso, dted or referred to, 35, 36, 168, 

234; p- 65, note^; 391, 812; p. 100, note; 

"3ii "33- 
Ferguson, Mr. Samuel, quoted, 708. 

Festos, referred to, 18. 

Fermoy, Book of. See Manuteripts, 

Fiacc^a Hymn {Liber Jffymnorum), dted, 154, 588, 

^05, 729, 870, 897, 943, 1080 ; Prefiuie to, dted, 

p. 112, note. 
Foratemaxm, referred to, 55. 

O, loss dtf between vowels, 378, 1 1 14 ; in eombina- 
tion ^ 459, 683. Stems in ^, see i>f«{m«tVM. Old 
Irish g corresponds with Skr. ^, j\ Gr. y, L^t. g ; 
and dbo with Skr. gh, A, Gr. x> Lat. h (at the be- 
ginning of a word), ^ (in a word), 372, and p. 
1 60 ; ^^ for M^, 87 9 ; Indo-European ^, see p. 1 60. 

Gaalish Inscriptions. See Ineeriptiom. 

derivatives in tmco, &c., 1006. 

Oh, Indo-European, see p. 160. 

Gildas, 17. 

Badonicua, p. 133, 

Loriea^ p. 136, et Beq, 

Giraldus Cambrensis, his Ibpogr. Jffib, dted, 37; 

p. 153. 
Gluck, C. W., his Keliitehe Ntmm dted or referred 

to, 4^1 i33» «39» »58» 3^8, 43O1 J33f SS^* ^5^t 
666, 667, 957, 999, 1073, 1 131. 

Gothic A O7) = O. Ir. e\ Goth. k = 0.lT,g; Goth. 

^ = O. Ir. gi Goth, th (d) ^ O. Ir. d\ Goth. 

t = 0.1r.d; Goth. d=0. Ir. d. See Addenda, 

p. i6o« 

General Index. 


Greek « = 0. Ir. c; y, x = ^' ^* ^ J ^ ^ = ^* ^'* ^\ 
/3, s O. Ir. d| 37a ; and see Addenda, p. 160. 

Graves, Rev. Dr., mentioned, p. 159. 

Grimm, Jacob, referred to, 387,423; YoBGetehichU 
der deuUehen Spraehe referred to, 250, 784. 

bis Beutaehe MeehUalUrthiimer cited, 1 136. 

Gnnation in Old Iriab, 380, 39a, 959. 

IT in Old Irish, p. 68, note. 
Hang, his DU Odthd^s referred to, 682. 
Highiaod JSociety*s IHetionarium Seoto^CeUieum 
died or referred to, 66, et passim. 

Imperative active, Old Irish rare form of 2nd pers. 

sing., p. I J 2, note, and Addenda, p. 164. 
Indo-European consonants, how represented in Old 

Irish and other sister languages, p. 160. 
. Inscriptions, Old Irish, on the ease of the Book of 

DurroWt 203 ; copied by Dr. Petrie, 398 ; Gaa- 

lish, Yalson, 423, p. 161 ; Nismes, p. 100, note ; 

Dijon, p. 156. See Opham, 
Irish Nmnius, See Todd, 

J (= y) lost at beginning of Old Irish words, 758 ; 
assimilated to preceding ^, 765, 884; to n, p. 159 ; 
to r, 1116 ; passing into spiritas asper, p. 160. 

JT, Indo-Enropean, how represented in the O. Ir. 

and sister languages, p. i6oa 
Keller, Dr. F., his BUder und SehriJUUge, n. s. w., 

referred to, p. 155. 
Kelly, Rev. Dr., his Calendar of Irish Sauits cited, 

Kirchhoff referred to, 423. 
Kohn, Dr. A., cited or referred to, 108; p. 68, note, 

4»3i 1036, 1038. 

X, Indo-European, p. 160 ; O. Ir. /, ibid. 

assimilating a following d, 915. 


Laidcenn mac B&ith Bannaig, p. 133, and note. 

Lassen, referred to, 758. 

Latin <?, y = O. Ir. e ; Lat.^ = O. Ir. 9 ; Lat h (at 

the beginning of a word) = O. Ir. g ; Lat ^ = O. 

Ir. t'y Lat. rf=0. Ir. d\ Lat. /(at the beginning 

of a word) = O. Ir. rf, h ; Lat. rf, * (in a word) 
• = O. Ir. rf (and ft?), p. 160. 
LeabharBreaee, mentioned, p. 1 32. ^^Manuseripts, 
Lebar na huidre cited, see Manttser^is. 
Lithuanian consonants, correspondence of, with those 

of the O. Ir., and other sister-languages, p. 160; 

declension of Lith. stems in -ter^ xo47« 
Locative sing, in O. Irish, p. 153 (and cf. the Mod. 

Ir. eois na habhann, Idimk re fairge). 
Lottner, Dr. Carl, dted or referred to, 831 ; p. 100, 

note ; 97 7, 1 1 24 ; and see Verb. 

Mf Indo-European, p. 160; m in amUtut weak- 
ened into n in O. Ir., p. 160, note ; m in Welsh 
represents mm, mn, mft, 108. 
Madntyre {Mae ini sdir), 1 137« 
BCanuscripts dted : — 

Book of Armagh (T. C. D.), dted, 75, 114, 203, 

264, 342, 366, 383, 387, 390i 3981 4a4.425» 

4*7* 439* 58o» 583, 588, 607, 616, 676, 693, 

7»9» 745* 746; P- 95. note«; 781 ; p. 100, 

note ; p. 103, note S; 87 1, 879, 909, 948 ; p. 

112, note; 994, 107 1, X085; p. 146, p. I47» 

p. 152 (bis), p. 150, p. 166. 
Book of Dimma (T. C. D.) dted, 133, 1080. 
Book of Fcrmoy (Dr. Todd) quoted, 710. 
Book of Ldnster (T. C. D.) dted, 555. 
Egerton, 88 (Mus. Brit.), referred to, 301. 
Harl., 1802 (Mus. Brit), dted, 232; p. 68, 

note; 1134. 
H. 2, 16 (T. C. D.), p. 37, note. H. 2, 15, 

(T. C. D.), 1045. H. 3, 18 (T. CD.), 371, 

Laud, 610 (Bibl. Bodl.) cited, 428; Laud, 

F. 95 (Bibl. Bodl.), p. 1 30, note. 
Leabluir Breacc (B.L A.), p. 103, note. See 

Lebar na huidre (B. I. A.), dted, p. 37, note. 
Liber Hymnorum (T. C. D.) dted or referred to, 

128, 130, 560, 639, 770, 775 ; p. 95, note*; 

867, 894; p. 125, note; 1096, 1134. See 

Fiace's hymn, Brogdn's hymn, Oilmdn's 

hymHy Fatrielfs hymn, Sancidin*s hymn, 

Ultdn*s hymn, 

MediealMS. (7), (S. LA.) p. 165. 
O'Davoren's Glossary (Egerton, 88, Mns.Brit), 

p. 44, note. 
Tripartite Life of St Patrick (Egerton, 93, 
Mus. Brit.) dted, 104, no, 189, 320, 518, 
784, p. 159; and see Oormads Glossary, 
Felire Oingusso, Mone, Priscian, 
Medials, Irish, 372, and Addenda, p. 160; and see 

in this Index, B^ D, G, 
Metathesis aspirationis. See Spiritus asper: Meta- 
thesis vocalium, p. x6i. 
Middle-Irish, some characteristics of, p. 135. 
Middle voice, traces of, in Cdtic, 11 12. 
Mommsen, Theodor, his Romisehs Inschriften der 

JSehweiz dted, 957. 
Mone, Franz, his edition of the Lorica of Glides, 
p. 134 ; his commentary thereon cited, ibid., and 
PP* i43i '44i 145 i ^^ copies of poems from a 
Carinthian MS. cited, p. 154, p. 161. 
Miiller, Professor Max, quoted or referred to, 584, 

1047, 1052. 
Muratori, Thesaurus Veterum Inseriptionum cited, 
X029; his^ft^t^. Ital, dted, 1030. 


General Index. 

Myvyrian AreJtaiology referred to, ix. 

Nt stems in, see BecUntion, The so-called prosthe- 
tic n, 85 ; the combination nth^ 287 ; n lost before 
tf, 285, 807, 880 ; before ^ 292 and note *, 490, 
1017; before/, 519; n from m, 305, p. 160, 
note ^ ; the combination nt preserved in Welsh and 
Breton, 772; the transported n, 776 and not«; p. 
103, note *; p. xo8, notes; 946; p. zjo; this n 
becomes m before 6, p. 95, note 1 ; » assimilates a 
following <f, 914, and y, p. 159; Indo-European 
,n, p. J 60. 

N Indo-European, p. 160. 

Nasalization of initial medials, 776. 

Nennios, the Irish translation of his Hittoria Brito- 
num. See Todd 

Kismes, Gaulish inscription of, p. 100, note. 

Norris, Mr. Edwin, his Cornish Drama referred to, 
p. 109, note, 937, 1039, p. 165. 

Namerals, Cardinals, 772-777; Ordinals, 588-593; 
andt»ee930, 931. 

possesses nmlanting power, p. 159. 

O'Davorcn's Glossary, See Manuscripts. 

O' Donovan, Dr. John, cited or referred to, passim ; 

his JmA GVomnMr quoted or referred to, 90, 139, 

155, 161, x68, 208, p. 58, note; p. 70, note; 

868; p. 103, note'; p. 128, note'; pp. 149; 

his Fled dkin nan 04d quoted, 193, 78X, p. 100, 

note ; p. 147 ; his Battle of Magh Bath, 303 ; his 

Xe^r na Certy 747, 837 ; and see Cormaedn ^cees. 
Ogham, 534. 

— inscriptions referred to, 80 ; p. 159. 
O^Oradj, Mr. S. H., his assistance acknowledged, p. 

Oingns Cele Di, See Filirs, 
Old High German, correspondence of its consonants 

with those of the O. Ir.,and other Indo-European 

languages, p. 160. 
0*MoUoy, his GrammatieaZatin<hHibemiea quoted, 

p. X36. 
O'Reilly, his Irish Dictionaiy cited or referred to, 

Orelli, 957, 1029. 
Oicford Essays. See Miiller, 

P, loss of initial, 13, 493, 746; p. 150; change of 
initial 1? to/, p. 154; change of i) to c, 224; loss 
of inlautcndp in the combination pn, 720 ; Indo- 
European j9, see p. 160. 

Participles in wv, -ovroC) represented by Irish ant- 
stems, 292 ; future participle passive, how formed 
in Old Irish, p. 135, p. 136, note; how in Middle 
and Modem Irish, p. 1 36 ; pret part, passive, how 
formed in Middle Irish, p. 146. 

Patrick's hymn (Liber Hymnomm) dted, 369, 580, 
867, 872, 107 1 ; p. 147. p. 149; Patrick's altar, 
p. 1 36 ; Lassar takes veU from Patrick, 676. 

Petrie, Dr. George, referred to, 398 ; his Botrnd 
Tbwers referred to, 55, 125; p. 58, note; 847, 
933 ; P' '4^ ; P- 148 ; his Essay on Tan cited or 
rdlerred to, 173, 602, 784. 

Pictet, M. Adolphe, cited or referred to, 97, 290, 302, 

305* 57*» 940. 999; P- H7» P- '49» P» »6» ; hM 
Essaisur quelques Inscriptions^ &c, p. 161. 

Fblitieal Songs of England^ ed. Wright, dted, p. 

Pott, cited or referred to, 746, 8x9 ; his EtynuAo- 

gisehe Forsehungen referred to, 426. 
Prefixes, do, so, 85 ; mo, p. 107, note K 
Priscian, Leyden Codex of, cited, 1 102 ; p. 162. 
Pronoun, possessive, of 2nd pers. sing., 570 ; of 3rd 

pers. sing., 420 ; relative, Mid.-lr. gen., p. 150. . 
Pronunciation o( Cjt before S ^Mi <uid note. 

By Indo-European. See p. 160. 

Reduplication in Old Iridi verb, p. 65, note > ; p. 
100, note; in the Welsh verb, 655. 

Reeves, Dr., referred to, p. 133, p. 134, p. X45 ; hUa 
edition of Adamn6n's Vita (Doiuwjw dted or re- 
ferred to, X2X, 159, X91, 203, 303, 390, 724; 
p. 163 ; his list of names in -^im, p. 69, note * ; 

P- i33» P- 134- 
Rdative verbal forms in Irish, 107 1. 

Resolution of ^ into ia« 61 ; of ^ into «a, 955. 

Bevue Areh^ologiquSy referred to, p. 100, note. 

Bumann dted, 428. 

S between vowels lost, 296 ; $n beoomes^im, 305 ; 

sv becomes r,^p. 160, note^^; s from Xy Skr. kshy 

386, 466; 426; storfy 1039; s assimilated to 

following /, 556 ; stems in «, p. 163 ; Ind^-Auo- 

pean«,p. 160. 
Sanct&in's hymn {Liber ffymnonm), dted, 937. 
Sanskrit consonants corresponding with those of the 

O. Ir., and other Indo-European languages, p. 160. 
Schldcher, Professor A., referred to, 107 x; p. 158. 
his jffandbueh der Liiauisehen Spraehe refeired 

to, 1047. 
Seirglige Cbncuiainny ed. by Mr. Cony {AUantiSy 

Nos. 1, 3), cited, p. 44, note ^o • p. 69, note • ; 

486, 1010; p. 121, note; 1070; p. 159. 
Semitic words latinized, p> 144- 
Siegfried, Professor R. T., dted or referred to, 89, 

99; p. 68, note; 342, 682, 746, 758, 784; p. 

100, note; 884, 952, 1071, 1073, 1133; the 

editor's great obligations to him, p. 132. 
Singulative forms, 765. 
Slavonic consonants, correspondence of^ with those of 

General Index. 


the 0. Ir., and other Indo-European languages, 

p. 160. 
Spiegel cited or referred to^ 55, 96, 130. 
Sinritns aeper, shifting of in Old Irish, 305 ; p. 68, 

note ; in Welsh and Cornish, 608. 
Suffixes, superlative, 43 ; -tar, 10 14; p. 149; Skr. 

suffix, -tOy Lat. tu-ty 6r. ro-Ci found in Irish, 

p. 61, note>; 0. Ir. -^Ae, -U = -taja, ibid. 
Syntax* curious construction with bhi and id, 

p. 149. 

jT, use of^ in Mod. Ir. declension, p. 58, note; in 
verbal forms, ibid, (but see Addenda^ p. 158) ; 
stems in ^, see DeeUntion; i between vowels, 
227 ; tt becomes th in Welsh, 230, 957 ; Old 
Irish i corresponds with Skr. f, M, 6r. r, Lat f, 
Goth, th (d), 372, see Addenda, p. 160; Mn 
composition, 430, 1061 ; loss of t before r, 466 ; 
t worn down to £f in the possess, pron. of 2nd pers. 
sing., 570 ; final t becomes 8 in Cornish, 772 ; me- 
dialization of t by ft, and subsequent assimilation, 
991 ; Indo-European t, p. 160. 

Tdin B6 Ouailgne cited, 481, 747. 

Tennes, Old Irish, 372 ; and see in this Index, 
C, P, T. 

Thorpe, Mr. Benjamin, his edition of Beouadf re- 
fierred to, 752, p. 163. 

Todd, Rev. Dr. J. H., his IrUh Nennius cited or 
referred to, 14, 229, 557, 817, 975, 1048 ; p. 151. 

^—^ his edition of the Liber Hymnonun cited or 
referred to, p. 51, note; 218, 267, 320, 481, 
^9«. ^95» 7>7, 74J. 77o; P- 95i note«; 784, 
8941 9»3» 977, 1078, 1092; p. 148, p. 151. 

his 0>gad OaedU re Oailaib cited, 866. 

' his help acknowledged, p. 2, p. 144. 

Tooke, Home, cited, 595. 

27 possesses umlanting power, p. 159. 
Ult&n*s hymn {Ziber Hymnorum) referred to, 943 ; 
cited, 955. 

Umlaut, 5, 287 ; p. 159 ; progressive umlaut, p. 15 1. 
Usury, Old Irish word for, 740. 

V between vowels lost, 174, 477 ; passing into spi- 

. ritus asper, 305 ; found in Irish (written b') in 

the combinations dt\ /1;, nv, and rf , p. 159, p. 160 ; 

also as representing dv (aibberseoir, abhcoide, 

432); Indo-European r, p. 160. 

Vaison, Gsulish inscription of, 423 ; p. 161. 

Verb. Old-Irish conjugations : ^-sterns, p. 150, No. 
240 ; ai-stems, 1080 ; &-8tems and i-stems, p. 146 
(these were first pointed out by Dr. Lottner) ; ia- 
stems, p. 165 ; the i in the perf. act, of a-stems, 
p. 158 ; pret. part, pass., formation of, p. 146 ; 
and see Imperative^ Middle Voiee^ Fartieipiety 
Eeduplicationy Itelative Verbal Forma. 

Verbal forms in the Loricarglosses, p. 146 ; imper- 
sonal flexion in passive, p. 151. 

Yillemarqu^, Yicomte H. de la, referred to, 797. 

Yocalism, 5, 287 (but see Addenda, pp. 15 1, 159). 

Yriddhation, 34, 948. 

Weakening of d and a into ai^ p. 164; p. 153. 

Weber, A., cited or referred to, 205, 758. 

Welsh, see C, if, N, Reduplication, Spiritus aeper^ T; 

Welsh Latinity, p. 1 34 ; trace of declension in 

Welsh (pyn in ^xbyn is the dat of pen), p. 1 35. 
Wilde, Mr., his Catalogue referred to, p. 159. 
Words and forms, historical value of evidence given 

by, p. 2. 
Wright, Professor William, his help acknowledged, 

p. 144. 

Jj Indo-European, p. 160; sometimes passes into 
apiritua aaper, ibid., note ^ See JV, T. 

I Zeitachrift fiir vergl, aprachforaehunffy dted or re- 
ferred to, paaaim. 
Zeuss, his Grammatica Celtica cited or referred to, 

( »72 ) 


[I%e numerali refw to the paragraphs. of the foreffoin^ Oommentarf/, except when the letter **p/' ie pre- 

Jlxed; then they refer to the pagee of thie bookJ] 

AD-namatiiu, 666. 
Aedttii 948. 
Alisanofl, p. 156. 
ambi, 670. 
Ambittd, 911. 
ande, 734. 
Andebroclriz, 947. 
are, 704. 

Argento-ratmn, 607. 
Argentomagaa, 607. 
Ar*morica, 704. 
asno-8, 296, p. 159. 
Atilogdo (gen. aing.), p. 159. 
Atrebat^ea, 315. 

Beoco, 664. 
Beleaama, 423. 
belinna, 545. 
belio-canda, p. 163. 
Bovinda, 21. 
brftto-de, p. 100, note. 
Brdta-apantinm, 366. 
bretos, 328. 
Brettaiiia, 957. 
Brettanos, 957. 
Brigantea, 292. 
Britovittfl, 957. 
Britta, 957. 
Britte-buigam, 957. 
broci-rix, 947. 
Brittaa, 957. 
Broco-magua, 947. 
Brogi-m&nia, 603. 
balgkt 217. 


Cambodonam, p. 150. 
caMC8| 46. 
cata-, p. 164. 
catn, p. 157. 
Cata-aldgi, 1003. 
dnco (stem), p. 86, note. 
Cinta-geQixa, 588. 
Clanidcuni 723. 
Coddiua, 139. 
Cogidnmnna, 139. 
Com-bretonium, 957. 
CoDo*magtaa| 545. 
Con-aaanetes, 667. 
GoB-textos, p. 104, note. 
Codom, 556. 
crotta, 5. 

Cnno-belinns, 545. 
cunnenf ctmnii 266. 

Dfbmyina, p. 130. 

Darvemon, 554. 

dede, p. 100, note. 

Dexaiva, Dexiyia, 386. 

Doiroa, p. 156. 

Dubia, 381. 

Dubra, Dubri-8, dubron, 375. 

dnla, 765. 

damnoa, 994. 

dCLnon, 21, p. 150. 

dmon, 608. 

eidru, 423. 
EpasnactuB, 296. 
Epo-miUos, 295. 

Ez-cinco-m&rtiB, p. 86» xMie. 

Oabro-magna, 372. 
Gabro-sentttm, 372, 1073. 
Oaisati, 216. 
Gangani, p. 150. 
genos, 588. 
Glana, 671. 
glaatam, p* 91, note. 
Gobannitliu, 369. 
Grannoe, 952. 

lantn-mdrna, 6€%, 
lartai : : p. 100, note, 
lerne, p. 159. 

ieuro, p. 73, note; pp. 156, 161. 
Isarno-daram, 608. 
Ivemio-8, Ivemi-a, lYemia, p. 67, 
note * ; p. 159. 

Labama, 1133. 
Laurentina, 908. 
Laari&cnm, 908. 
Laoro, 908. 
Llcca, 133. 
LucterioBy 10. 
logoa, p. 155. 

MagaliiUi 902. 
MagaliUf 902. 
magloa, 545. 
magna (mago-a), 21. 
mAro8,423, 621, 663, 902. 

Old-Irish Index. 


matoA, 66i, 
m&trebo, p. loo, note. 
MeUo-donnm, 258. 
MeHoflectum, 258. 
Moccon (stem), 664. 
Moccns, 1029. 
Mogit-m^rns, 902. 
Mogounus, 952. 
morif Soo. 
miiloe, 295. 

namatios, 666, 
namausatif, 423. 
namaosic&bo, p* too, note, 
nemeton, 423. 
Nerto-m^uSy 663. 
novioB, 21. 

pemp6-dtila(n, 765. 
pompai-dii]a(f), 765. 

raton, 607. 
rlz, 423. 
Botomagns, p. 158. 

sages, 450; sagi, 872. 

Salosa, 977. 

Santones, 667. 

secton, 258. 

Sego-maros, 423 ; p. 156. 

senton, 372. 

Silina, 1009. 

Silo, 1009. 

Silos, 1009. 

Sirona, 952. 

sldgoSf 1005. 

sole, 558. 

sosin, 423. 

spantion, 366. 

Suanetes, 667. 

tarbelodathion (taiY»-taba4lo-n), 

40; taryos, p. 159. 
Tecto-sages, 450. 
Tecto-sagi, 872. 
Teuto^nutiis, 661. 
teztos, p. 104, note. 
Togiacus, 994« 
Togidia, 994. 
Togius, 994. 

Togitios, 994. 
Togi-rix, 994. 
Tog^-dumnos, 994. 
Toutio-rix, 423. 
toutios, 423; Pi 16 f. 

Ulkos, p. 147. 

Yelleda, i. 
ver, 74; p. 99, note. 
Vergiyios, 328. 
Veigo-bretoS) 328, 366. 
Vemo-dubfum, 375. 
Yerno-sole, 558. 
ver-tragi, 74. 
vido, 46. 
Vidua, 46. 
Yidu-cassiBS, 46. 
Yilloneos, 423. 
Yillontos, p. 161. 
Yindoa, p. 150. 
YiidoDuUris, 663. 
YoloB, 1045. 
Yolcatias, 1045. 


k (prep.), 200, (proii.) 420. 
a (interject), p. 165. 

»b«U, 555- 
abbaith, 948. 

ached, 159, 580, 909. 

acber, 77. 

act, 6 14, 745. 

acos, 203. 

adaltras, 882. 

adarcdae (-de), 59, 1018. 

adbail, 954. 

adbar, loi. 

adchodadossa, p. loo^ note. 

adcondarc, p. 156. 

adooteds, p. 100, note. 

adchairiur, p. 151. 

ade, 676. 

aderc6ne, 1018. 

adfiadat, io8a 

adgaur, 869. 

ad^&dastar, 128. 

adg^simm, p. 150. 

adib, adim, abi(?), p. 127. 

adiecht, xoia 

adircUo, 10x8; p. 155. 

adnacol, 693. 

adopart, 948. 

ad-ra-nact, p. 61, note; 693. 

adrimiter, 738; adrimi, 1080. 

adroigegnumatar, p. 100, note. 

adslaindimm, p. 166. 

A'ed (Aid), 948. 

fegor, 77. 

aidacht, 948. 

aidche, 546. 

Hig» 758- 
ail, 91. 

die, 158. 

&iledii, p. 166. 

ailigad, 462. 

aill, 924. 

aille, p. 166, 

ainis, 1080. 

ainm, 56, 991. 

Ainmire^ 13. 

Mr, 873. 

airchissim, p. 151. . 

Airdliaoc, 573. 

aireeb, p. 247. 

airechasi p. 147. 

aiigech, 586. 

airegde, p. 147. 

airi, p. 100, note; 639. 

airlam, 884. 

airle, 884. 

airm, 729. 

airthir, 150. 

Ws, 735, 812. 

aith, 155. 

aithech, p. 100, note. 

aithle, 155. 

ala, 150. 

alaile, 872. 

Uaind, p. 162. 

Ugenaigim, 9x7. 

alt6ir, 745. 

am-, 392. 

am, IX 12. 

amail, 262. 

amiressach, 943. 

amlabar, 1x33. 

ammi(u), 85, 11 12. 

amr^id, 890. 

an (neut. art), 78. 

ka, 682. 


Indices Verhorum. 

anacul, 570. 
anairtdaid} 353. 
anaiB, 897. 
analchi, 753. 
anamchara, 1082. 
and, 676. 
asfolmithe, 676. 
anlar, 305. 
anSartdaid, 353. 
antaaid, 353. 
apgitir, 31. 

ar (prep.), 9S, 608, 614. 
ara (d), p. 100, note, 
araile, 112. 
&ram, p. 164. 
arbar, p. 166. 
arbe, p. 163. 
arbiathim, 477. 
archinnn, 35. 
Ard-machaB, 948. 
ardbrig, p. 154. 
ard-f6gad, p. 149. 
are, p. 148. 
aren, 752. 

ar-nnn-fethitia, p. 166. 

argat, 607 ; argget, p. 162. 

ar-id-r&lastar, 128. 

arm, 729. 

arbe, pi 163. 

ar(n), 884. 

araidi, 722. 

arta, 812. 

6m, 346, loii. 

aa(n),565, in 3. 

aabinr, 639. 

asbert, 879. 

aabertar, 639. 

aaigthe, p. 113, note. 

asin, 138. 

aaindiflset, p. 100, note. 

<^^ch, 933. 

•8-m-berar, 578 (aabiar). 

•». SSS- 
aasa, 813. 
aasagiisBini, p. 159. 
m-aso, m-asa, ma. 
aatoidet, xoo8. 
at, III3. 

athair, athir, 13, 1046. 
atlaigthe, 943. 
atomsnaasar, 817. 
atnb, p. 127, note *. 
atr6pert, p. 100, note, 
m-atu, 1 1 13. 
b&ne, p. 67, note >. 

aiigtort6fl, 1 107. 

b&, 115. 

bachal, 363. 

bachall, p. 103^ note *. 

bad, 730. 

bfid, 138, 676. 

baig, p. 154. 

baile, p. 156. 

bainne, 966. 

bairgen, 141, 733; p. 157. 

baithes, p. 100, note. 

baitaimm, p. 150. 

ball, 638. 

b&n, 738. 

bandach, p. 133, note. 

bandea, 389, 1053. 

banna, 966. 

banteriamid, 387. 

bar(n), p. 160, note*". 

barr, 38. 

baa, 881. 

b&a, 300, 614, 745, 

b&tliach,p. 163. 

batar, 36. 

bebaia, p. 100, note. 

bebe, p. 100, note. 

bccc, 439, 664, 

bed, 390, 880. 

beith, 745. 

b61, 435, 636. 

b^lre, 176. 

ben, 369, 884, 1053. 

bendacht, benedacfat, 203, 914. 

beranade, p. 166. 

bertaigimm, p. 148. 

b^a, 733 r= bias): 745, 107 1. 

b^agnae, 89a 

bethu, 605, 87a 

bl, 56. 

biad, 477. 

biam, 954 ; p. 164. 

bid, 154. 

biia, 35. 

bind, 115. 

bir, 284. 

bla, 740. 

Uthbethn, 640. 

bite, X071. 

bin, 154. 

bliadain, 676, 745 ; p* 157. 

blith, 954. 

bloacc, p. 152. 

b6, 434. 

b6chaiU, 583. 


bocht, boctiin, 1058. 
b6i, 948. 
Boind, 31, 463. 
bolad, 1087. 
bole C^lgX 317. 
bolUgnr, 1087. 
bommar, 815. 

borg, SSS^ 
boo, 159. 
br&ge, 393. 
braaae^ 36. 

br^th, 154, 366, 948. 
br&thair, 1047 ; p. 165. 
br6c, 958. 
br^cairecht, 958. 
br^naim, 683. 
br^nta, 683. 
Bretan, 909. 
bretha nemid, 578. 
bilathar, 813, 807. 
brichta (aoc. pL), 369. 

BfWi 954- 
biithem, 366. 

ron-broena, 1048. 

br6y 7^4* * 

br6nach, 427. 

bronnait, 647. 

b(iacbaill, 583. 

bube, p. 100, note. 

bnlde, adj. 803 ; aubat. 943. 

bnidech, 884. 

boith, 93a 

ban, p. 154. 

bnnad, p. 154. 

c6ch, 154, 739, 815. 
cadeasin, 948. 
cae, 3x8. 
c&er, 367. 

c&era, cliira, 13, 851. 
Caich&n, 676. 
caill, X15. 
caille, 676. 
cftindiaa, 35. 
caindl6ir, 44. 
caingel, 745. 
o&intaidlech, 387. 
c6irchaide, 851. 
calrtine, 1x37. 
cairtinigther, 1x37. 
Callrige, 745. 
calad, 380. 
canoin, io8a 
car, 380. 
cara, 393. 
I oaninii 280^ 815. 

Old-Irish Index. 


caroar, 26a. 

carpat, 112, 424. 

carric, p. 152. 

oathim, 2S0. 

cathir, 13. 

oech, 214. 

oeohaiog, p. 100, note. 

oechladar, p. 100, note. 

oechtar, 107 1 ; p, 159. 

c^l (oelaim), 37 1. 


celebirrimme, 746. 

cell, 203,948. 

oen, 120, 640. 

cenel, 676, 745. 

oeneln, 822. 

oenn, 17, 120. 

oenngalar, p. 148* 

Cennsalach, p. 67, note ' ; 616. 

cepi 480^ 

oerodae, 196. 

oerool, p. 15^ 

oerd, 218. 

oerd-chae, 218. 

o^aad, 892, 1 131. 

c^, 892. 

oeaBacfat, p^ 151. 

oesBachtadi, 28a 

o6t, 772 J p. 154. 

o^tamua, 578. 

outlaid, 3. 

G^tacb, 909. 

oethir, 775. 

oethrar, 398. 

ciad-cholomb, 203. 

Ciaran, 2qp. 

datu, p. 127, note *. 

dd, 107 1. 

dl, 90. 

dmbidi (ace pL), p. 166. 

dmiim, p. 150. 

CIS, 954- 

dth (dd), 637. 

daar, 67. 

dam, 424. 

dand, 745, 991 ; p. 154. 

di, 387. 

diabf 1x02. 

dooc, p. 103, note '. 

d6en, 870. 

d6, 8x2. 

d6ain, 200, 723. 

dnas, 867. 

dilaidiecb, 518. 

ro-duinetar, 902. 

dam, 262. 

cn&m, 269. 

00, 128. 

coc^iUine, 882. 

cocert, 888. 

cofil, 1x02. 

odbdeladi, p. 166. 

coibee, 745. 

c6ic, 776. 

c6icar, 398. 

coiUrcaill), XX5. 

c6imdiu, 8x2; p. 127, note '; 

coimet, p. 103, note '. 

c6imaa (gen. sing.}, 757. 

coire, 724. 

coimea (ace. pL), 75. 

c6iB (ace aing.), 434. 

ooiaecrad, 880. 

coitchenn, 872. 

col, X030. 

colann (ooUnn), 1 20. 

oolcaid, 262. 

collde, 556. 

oolinn, 919. 

Colm&n, 909. 

Colomb, 203. 

colpa, X46. 

comacomol, xoio. 

comadnacol, 889. 

Gomain, 897. 

Gomairle, oomairUe, 884. 

Gomalnad, 760. 

Gomarpe, p. 127, note ^. 

oombacb, p. 166. 

comdl6tbad, 636. 

comeias^irge, 889. 

com^itged, 8x7. 

comirsire, p. 105, note. 

comman, 897. 

comnactar, 897. 

oomtbCiarcon, 722. 

con (oonj.), X20 ; (prep.) 580. 

conaioertna, 888. 

Gon-a-til, 729. 

Concbad, 948. 

concbecbrat, p. xoo, note; p. x6i. 

concboimnnctiir, p. i6x. 

Concbabor, 545. 

condaig, 450. 

conddg, p. X27, note *. 

confil, 6x4, 745. 

conflecbtaigimm, p. 147. 

confoirem, p. 154. 

congabaimm, 676 ; p. 166, 

contarat, p. X3X, note. 

contubart, 948. 

conidm, 570. 

conmlr, 156. 

cona&du, xx3X. 

oonsan, 930. 

contuil, 729. 

eonteabad, 966. 

co6r, 938. 

corcor, 224. 

core, 938. 

corp, 98, 812 ; p. 128, note K 

COB (= coxa), 637. 

coac, 660. 

coscedar, p. X62. 

coscitir, 660. 

cotb(?), p. 164. 

crag, 203. 

cr&ibdech, 745. 

crann, 719; p* X54, p. 162. 

creitem, p. 100, note. 

Cremtbann, 693. 

CremtbinnsB, 909. 

cretim, p. X27, note *. 

cretmech, 817. 

criatbar, 700. 

cricb, 78X, 1073. 

cride, 67, X102. 

crin, p. 162. 

ciia, XX02. 

crith, XX 02. 

crocb, 738, 8x2. 

cro-chaingel, 745. 

crocann, 56. 

CToceim, s^' 

croeb, 955. 

crottichther, 5. 

cruitbnecbt, 778. 

cmitbnecbtide,^ 778. 

cratb, 380. 

cu(co), x68. 

cuauene, 986. 

cucan, 245, 572. 

cucann, 245. 

coibaecb, 745, 107 1. 

cuil (ace aing.}, 262. 

cuilecb, X030. 

cuilennbocc, 498. 

cuiligim, X030. 

ra-chuiliu, X030. 

caimlengaimm, p. 147. 

cuimnigor, iixx. 

cnimte, p. x66. 

caimtgim, 87 x. 

cuirimm, p. 15X. 

cniriur, p. 15 x. 

ciiirm, 266. 

culatba (ace. pL), p. X48. 


Indices Verborum. 

Gomali 909. 

canian, iiii. 

cnmbre, 678. 

Cammen, 909. 

comtach (carnddach), loji 569, 

871, 881, 1098. 
corchas, 933. 
ciinsagad, 924. 
corn (ace. pi.), p. 74, note. 
caaecratmiD, 879. 
cutrumme, 903. 
cutrommuB, 903. 

dft,ii2, 773. 

dagairle, 884. 

dagcomairle, 884. 

dagforcitlid, 902. 

daggnimrad, p. 166. 

daingen, daingiiigim, 674. 

dairde, 554, 

Dallbrdnacb, 427. 

d&ltech, 569. 

dalts, 676. 

dam (mihi), 1071 ; (etiam), 752. 

dam rbos), 722, S58. 

dam Qdolor), 11 02. 

ro-damdatar, p. 158. 

damde, 858. 

con-dan, 878. 

d&n, 565 ; p. 109, note. 

d&ni^ d&natu, 1x31. 

daneo, 738. 

darmchennsa, 635. 

daro (gen. sing., nom. dairf)^ 676. 

dartinn, 870. 

da6(ei), 745; d&u(2), 773. 

daur, daurde, 554.- 

dauranch, 554. 

d6-, 773. 

dea, 289. 

debai, p. 166. 

debtbimm, p. 166. 

d6cnid, 745. 

d6ed, 815. 

deicfaenbar, 398. 

d6ircc, 626. 

delb, 642 ; p. 146. 

demnai (ace. plur.), 214. 

d^nmid, 899. 

d^nim, 899. 

dcnmnaach, 899. 

d6nom, 141, 722, 899. 

de6gl&i, 120. 

derbbrkthair, p. 162. 

derbensde, p. 166. 

derc (oculna), 675, 

derc (ruber), 565, 738, 939. 

dercaide, 939. 

demad, 203. 

derucc, 554. 

des, 386. 

desercc, 626. 

deasam, 037. 

di (prep.3, 676. 

di (2), 745» 773- 
dia (suo), 450. 
dia (dena), 21, Si. 
dia (dies), p. 163. 
diabul rdiabolos), 863. 
diabol (duplex), 93a 
diade, p. 109, note, 
diall, p. 95, note >. 
Dianchride, 1080. 
diangalar, 222; p. 151. 
dianid, 555. 
diant, p. 162. 
diar(n), 284, S90. 
dias, 35. 

dib(n), 773- 

dich^in, 878. 

didiu, 41. 

dig^ni, 909. 

digni, p. 162. 

diib, 745. 

dil, Xiao. 

Dimma, 1080. 

din, 112. 

dind (L dinn ?), p. 37, note. 

dindirect, p. x66. 

dino, 2Q2. 

diiT6gef, 580. 

dithrubach, 214. 

ditin, 153, 762. 

dliged, 87. 

dimth, 636. 

dl(ith, 6t6. 

dl6the, 636. 

dl6thait, p. 166. 

do- Cpreifl), 85; {prep.), X12. 

do rprep.), 605. 

do (pron.;, 570. 

d6, d6o, 8x7. 

doadbadar, 565. 

doadbat, 846. 

doairbinr, 660. 

doaarchanim, 704, 837. 

dobiur, 133, 745. 

dochuirior, p. 15 1. 

docbum, 943. 

dodcaid, 262. 

dofaitb, 128. 

dofarci, 873. 

dofinrnde, 1008. 
dof6rmgat, 756. 
doftiairoG, 722. 
dogegat, p. 100, note, 
dognin, 908. 

dogr^S, 222. 

doilbthid, 64a. 

Doilgus, 342. 

d6ir, 85 ; p. 156. 

dolbnd, 642. 

do-m-brcai, 371. 

domnn, 8x2. 

domnn, 280. 

domunde, p. 109, note. 

donn, 909. 

drochgnim, 752. 

dor&t, p. 159. 

doTchiB, 331. 

dofoega, 154. 

dorencanas, 837. 

dorodba, 954. 

doroign, p. 100, note. 

doroiter, 890. 

dor6nta, 112. 

do-s-finsead, 605. 

dofliathacb, 578. 

<i™igen, 559. 

drise, 587. 

diistenach, 587. 

dnxaibiide, 1071. 

draid, 360. 

druimm, 676, 745. 

du (pron.), 570. 

du (prep.), 738. 

dtiaib, pb 100, note. 

dub, 381. 

dubbeor, 745. 

dubchorcuT, 224. 

Dobloch, 781. 

du6castar, 745. 

dtiibsi, 1080. 

d^l, p. 52, note. 

dnine, 89, 738. 

duit, 943. 

duUuid, 879. 

da-m-esarcaa, 222 (tesoxt}. 

d(!in, 674. 

dunad(d6nad?), 1x31. 

d(inn, 98. 

dtinsit, p. 166. 

durind, 880. 

dumi, 272. 

dtis in, 745. 

h^ 128. 

Old'Irish Index. 


ech, 17, 909. 

Ecfaaid, 13. 

6oen, 10 10. 

ecUuB, 177 ; ecU«, 948. 

6go6c, 660. 

^Gsamlos, 904. 

edocht, 745 ; edoct, 948. 

heiipi 205. 

6itach, 757. 

eitset, iioi. 

h^itad, 1 101. 

EUdach, 909. 
ellacb, 933. 
enmatar, 10 10. 
emon, loxo. 
en, 371,746; p. 162. 
encae, p. 151. 
eii|^, p. 166. 
ennaCfp. 151. 
^las, 85. 
epistU, 1080. 
epecop, 948, 982. 
erchiaaecht, p. 15 1. 
erchoitech, 935. 
erchuizinr, p* 151. 

liErinii, 154, 305, 870 ; p. 159. 

erlabrai, 867. 

erlam, 906. 

6rUun, 955. 

ennaiase, 927. 

emaigthe, p. 147. 

ernaifl, 280. 

archoilech, 1030. 

erochairch^Uaid, 3. 

erochoir (-air), 3. 

eroe, 70, 580 ; p. 166. 

^rpimm (airbimm), 752. 

errach, 1070. 

errend, 1006. 

erthnaucertach, 305. 

^8, dia ^8, dom h6is-se, p. 164. 

4aea, 234- 

^acae, 234. 

escalchaill, 115. 

^sdde (-caide), 234. 

e^gre, 738- 

eslinn, p. 162. 

gstecht, 867. 

6t, 635 ; p. 166. 

fetach,5oi, 757; 6tacht, 757. 

etalacda, p. 166. 

etbar, 70. 

Etan, 1 1 02. 

6tar, 745. 

etarscarad, 254. 

6tmar, 635. 

etrad, 166. 
^trumm, 639. 
6tsecbt, 176, IIOI. 
^tnunine, 903. 
^tflid, 902, IIOI. 

faca, 120. 

f&cab, 676 ; fl&ccab, 948. 

fa-des, 128. 

fyite, 161 ; p. 151. 

foirgge, 77. 

f&itb, 2 ; p. 147. 

f&ithsme, 882. 

fanacc, 1080. 

fannall, 934. 

far(h}, p. 127, note '; p. 160. 

fiui, p. 127, note ^; p. 162. 

febliB, 948. 

f(§da, p. 166. 

feisne, p. 100, note. 

f(&ith, 99. 

fel, 371. 

felflub, 1 1 29; p. 159. 

fenecbiu, p. 127, note ^. 

fer, 841. 

ferb, p. 127, note'. 

ferenn, 39^* 

ferg, 328. 

Fergua, 342. 

fergach (fercach), 328. 

feron, p. 166. 

ferr, 41, 11 16. 

ferte, p. 166. 

feacor, 224. 

f686c, 47 ; p. 155. 

fess, p. 127, note *. 

f<68ur, 392. 

f(6ail, 150. 

Fab, 745. 

fiach, 269. 

Fiacba, 13, 115. 

fiacail, 150. 

Fiacc, 880. 

fiaclach, 150. 

Fiachra, 13. 

fiad, 36. 

fladniaae, 959. 

fladu (feda), 292 ; p. 166. 

fiaanr, 392. 

fichtea (ace. pi.), 676. 

fid, 58a 

fidbaide, 371. 

figim, 1095. 

fill, I. 

filua, 738. 

fin, p. 162. 

a A 

Find, 120. 
findae, p. 154. 

findfolt, 77. 

finecbaa, 745. 

Fio, 745. 


firi&ntgedar, 682. 

flri&Ducpid, 682. 

flrinne, 927. 

f ir-6g, 954. 

fls, 846. 

fiaa, 1008. 

flaitb, 338 ; p. 100, note. 

Fland, 203, 948. 

fliacbaidatu, 675. 

fliacbaide, 675. 

fliucbaigim, 675. 

fliucbderc, 431, 675. 

f6, 1 102. 

foacanim, 837. 

focbaid, p. 100, note; .p. 157. 

focbeirt, 35, 888. 

fooertar, 222. 

focli£t6ir, 588. 

fochlaid, 229. 

focbric, p. 157. 

focbridigor, 1102. 

fochun, 371. 

fodil, p. 166. 

foedea, 890. 

fo^taecht, fo^itaimm, iioi. 

fogbaidetu, 740. 

foglaim, 890. 

fognam, 815. 

fogrigur, 611. 

fogur, 469. 

foig^e, 815. 

foile, II 2 9. 

foilaignd, 895. 

Foirtcberan, 871. 

folcaimm, 1044. 

follua, 895. 

fo-m-cbain, 37 1. 

for, 387 ; p. 99, note; 729, 745. 

forcbanim, 837. 

furoetal, 139. 

focbeU, 98. 

forcital, 837. 

fordtlaidecht, 837. 

forcitlid, 837. 

focal, 873. 

f6iaite, p. 147. 

forbe, p. 146. 

forcula, 873. 

forcbun, 837. 

fordingair, 578. 


Indices Verborum. 

for^ir, 660. 

forgair, p. 146. 

forl6g, 909. 

formuichthe, p. 166. 

for(n), pron. 635. 

fom, prep., p. 146. 

forngaire, p. 146. 

forhgarthaid, p. 146. 

for-6eiiu, x6, 

forosna, 108. 

forru, p. 166. 

fortacht, 727, 890. 

fortachtid, 727. 

fortiag, 727. 

fortrniDme, 903. 

fot, 677. 

fota, 677, 

fotha, p. 148. 

fothaigim, p. 148. 

fotharcud, 740, 82 a. 

fri, 112, 369,635, 815. 

flrisdiiDaim, 287. 

friss, 846. 

frithidraim, p. x6i. 

fr6icli, ^6$, 

foach^ p. 103, note *. 

f(ia], 222. 

f(ian, 29. 

fuar-both, 120. 

Aiarrech, foairrecb, p. 149. 

fuasnad^ 927. 

fufaasna, 77. 

fuilib (dat. pi.), 608. 

fainitis, 729. 

foismedach, p. 147. 

fiiUam, p. 100, note. 

ftirruiintia, 729. 

gabaifl, 676; gabis, p. 166. 

gab&l, p. 166. 

gabor, 372. 

gabsi, 948. 

gabul, 135. 

g&datar, 870. 

gaib, 262. 

gUd, 870. 

gaide, 216. 

gaimigad, p. 166. 

gair, 115. 

gfrith (subst), 77. 

g&ith (adj.), 884. 

galar, 222. 

galla (ace pL), , p. i z 2, note. 

gasne, p. 154. 

geinti (ace. pi ), p. 100, note. 

gelgrian, 168. 

genmnai (dat. sing.), 214. 

German, 1080. 

giall, 216. 

gigedtesi, p. 100, note. 

gilcach, 933. 

gilither, 168. 

giuil, 262. 

glaia, 781. 

glan, p. 162. 

glanaim, 671. 


glas&n, 226. 

glicc, gliocn, 11 29. 

glicce, 1 1 29. 

gl(ine (ace. pi.), 740. 

gni (ace. sing.), 902. 

gnlm, 682, 908 ; p. 128, note '; 

p. 146. 
g6, 897. 
gobann, 369. 
g6ithlach, 933, 1067. 
gonaa, 940. 
gorith, 637. 
gorte, 620. 
gr&d, 1040. 
gr&n, 722. 
grant, 651. 
gres, p. 164. 
gr^ssich, 815. 
grian, 952 ; p. 162. 
gruad, 90. 
g6ala, p. 159. 
g(ias, p. 162. 
guide, 870, 943. 
guidimm, 870. * 
gutae, 1040. 

hi, 91. 

iach, 216. 

iada, p. 162. 

lar, 305 ; p. 100, note. 

hiarn, 216, 608, 812. 

lariiaid, 676. 

iarsichid, p. 166. 

iar-snidin, 879. 

laram, 120. 

iasc, 13. 

iathmaige, 390. 

larthnaiscei-ddach, 305. 

ibar, 561. 

ice, 758. 

Iccaid, 605. 

icfed, 897. 

ichtar, 10 14. 

id6n, I ; page J03, note '. 

idal, 569. 

iffem, 5 19. 

Slar, p. 157. 

llmrechtiad, 957. 

im, 128. 

imb, 578, 784. 

imbed, 670, 921. 

imber, 465. 

imchomarc, Z12. 

imch]6ad, p. 147. 

imda, 200. 

imdegail, 2x4, 867 ; p. 149. 

imdergad, 873. 

imdu, 299. 

imm, 670. 

immact, p. 166. 

immairdde, p. 1 28, note '. 

immchniriur, p. 151. 

immib, 757. 

immlaadi, p. 147. 

immofn), p. 162. 

imm-rordad, 878. 

immiinn, 305. 

Immut, 154. 

imorro, 555. 

impe, 954. 

imthiaed, 870. 

in rprep.), 637. 

in (art.), 78. 

inad, 516. 

iabaid, 954. 

ind (art), 78. 

ind (prep.), 734. 

indarbe, 752. 

iodeb, p. 109, note; p. 166. 

indiaid, 424. 

indlinech^ 371. 

indluDg, p. 166. 

indocb&il, 450. 

indoilbthid, 642. 

infinit, p. 157. 

ingen, 676. 

ingenaa, 290. 

iugor, 68. 

ingraimmim(dats.),pu 100, note. 

ingrented, p. 100^ note. 

inill, p. 148. 

inis, 462, Z080. 

inmain, 955. 

inna, inna(u), 78. 

innocht, 77. 

innunn, 954. 

insin, 262. 

injsnastis, 817. 

inso, 222, 745 ; p. 156. 

int, 78. 

Old-Irish Index. 


intan, 897. 

inte, 745. 

intech, 872. 

intaerbo, 11 33. 

intsliacht, 734. 

irtdl (er&i], hodLfwdU), 91. 

ire, 13. 

lnw«i 9»» 75*; P« '47- 
iressach, p. 127, note '. 

irladigar, 884. 

iriam, 906. 

irlithe, 884. 

is, 1 1 12. 

iflin, 26a. 

I'so, 758, 954. 

if, 154. 

it, ma. 

ith, X038. 

Ith, 758, 1038. 

itge, p. 147. 

ithim, 40. 

i-timchoairt, 338. 

ithland, 133. 

iudda (ace. pi.), p< 100, note. 

itirad, pw 161. 

la, p. 100, note; 605. 
labiad, 1x33. 

labrar, 8x2 ; p. 138, note '. 
ro-labrastar, 8xa. 
laechraid (dat. sing.), 77. 

L"gen» 954- 

laigin, 923. 

Udth, 266. 

laithe, 154. 

laithoirt, 366. 

l&m, 34, 387, 637, 867. 

l&mbrat, 740. 

l&n, 13. 

land, 132. 

lann radj.), 77. 

lann (subst), p. 152. 

lasan, 203. 

Use, 746. 

lassais, 128. 

Laasar, 676. 

lat, 41. 

laor, 908. 

lebar, 371. 

lechdach, 1071. 

ledmarb (recti lethmarv), 90. 

legad, 107 X. 

legend, 853. 

roT(§g, 1080. 

ISine, 38. 

leis, 879. 

lenaimm, 1040. 

lendan, 38. 

lenomun, p. 159. 

leno, 580. 

leosom, 722, 858. 

les, 424, 580. 

lesc, 382, 8x5. 

lesmac, p. X55. 

lestar, p. 162. 

let, p. 16^. 

leth, p. 156. 

lethan, 13, 925. 

lethchil, 90. 

lethgute, 90. 

lethit (aoc. sing.), 925. 

lethmaetbail, 90. 

Ieth6m, 90. 

lethu Tdat. sing.), 640. 

lethn (adv. ?), 870. 

Ha, 13. 

Ha, 424. 

Hace, X33, 573; p. 156. 

Lififl, 676, 745. 

libur, 37 X. 

lige, 8x2. 

lim, 6x4. 

lin, 863. 

line, X080. 

linn, p. 100, note. 

lobad, X07X. 

loc, 879. 

locb, 637, 78 X. 

16che, 292 \ p. x68, 

Lochlaxid, 77. 

16eg (16ig), 434. 

16g, i33» 79*1 1085- 
16id, 37 X. 
L6ig-les, 434. 
Loigtdre, 434. 
Ion, 371. 
lonach, 1x5. 

long, 574- 
16r, 860, 908. 
lorg (lore), 937. 
losait, 42. 

loseud rdat sing.), 737. 
16thor (-nr), 740. 
loure, 908. 

laiB(acc. pi.), p. 166. 
ICiath, 37 X. 
Idathchride, xxo2. 
lab, 1x4. 
lal^rtoir, X14. 
lut^rt, XX4. 
Lngaid, X3. 
lugimem, 933. 

2 A 2 

luid, 36, 948. 

Kirech, X54. 

lusca (ace. pL), 605. 

ma, 637, 745. 

mac, X X5, 300, 757. 

macc&n, 337. 

macca, 200. 

maccu-Noia, 723. 

Machae, 943, 948. 

mad, 41, X040. 

mado, p. 163. 

maethail, 90. 

mag, 580. 

magister, 365. 

maigen, 323. 

M&ildtiin, 200. 

M&il Odne, 009. 

M&iUechnaiU, 203. 

Maire, p. X65. 

maiaae, 927. 

maith, 450, 661, 745. 

maldacht, 9x5. 

manach, 745. 

manestrech (gen. s.), 726. 

mani, 745. 

mann, 299. 

m&r, 663 ; p. X54. 

marb, 90, 605 ; p. X59. 

martir, 2x4. 

martre (gen. s.), 738. 

martur, p. x66. 

m&thair, 954. 

m&tharlacb, 933. 

mathtm, 280. 

meit, 168, 922. 

menme, 927. 

menn, 77. 

menstir, p. 103, note K 

mer, 465. 

mesraigthe, 807. 

mess, 154. 

messa, 11 17. 

xnl-, 11x7. 

xniad, p. X54. 

midna, X071. 

mil, X33. 

milte, 133. 

mimaaclach, 933. 

mlr, X56. 

mirtchaill, 1x5, 

miatae, 105a 

mo(pron.), 371 ; (pref.), 897. 

Moehoe, 745. 

moirtcbeim, p. 159, p. t66. 

moitbia (oompar.), 394. 


Indices Verborum. 

molad, 873. 
molor, 902. 
Monach, 115. 
ni6r, 663. 
m6rf(^r, 777. 
m6ra, 1020. 
mrecht, 957. 
mrechtrad, 927, 957. 
mu, p. 107, note, 
mace mora, 1029. 


muccfoil, 1029. 

mag, 403, 882; p. 127, note'. 

muiniB, 744, p. 163. 

muinde, 744. 

maine, 128, 583 

mttinntorc, 744. 

muinter, 745 ; p. 127, note *. 

mair, 77, 8i2} 860. 

mair{Lga (dat. sing.), p. 166. 

Mairchad, 200. 

moiride, p. 166. 

mairm6ra, 1020. 

Muinoe, 69. 

malenn, 701. 

m(df mtildae, 295. 

na, na(u), 78. 
nach, "not," 817. 

n&d, 37i» 6391 745- 

n&ma, 292. 

nand, 879. 

nascad, 817. 

nathir, 1 3 ; nathair, 88. 

nan (nani ?), p. 162. 

naaarchinnecb, 449. 

neb-, 987. 

neblesc, 382. 

nech, 745. 

necht, 224. 

neim, 280. 

nem, p. ^2, note*; 812, 943; 

p. 1 27, note '. 
nenaid, 208. 
neph-, 987. 

neph68cide (-caide), 234. 
ne8c6it, 847. 
neasa, nesaami i x 17. 
ni, 77, 614. 
ni (res), 987. 
nim, 812. 

Ninine, p. 125, note, 
nit (gen. sing.), 781. 
n6eb, 214,954; p. 162. 
n6i, 21. 

n6ib (nom. pi), p. 128, note >. 
n6ibe, 168. 

n6ib-brlathar, 812. 
n6in, 262. 
N6indraimm, 745. 
n6nbar, 400. 
N08, 200. 
no, 637. 
n68B, 578. 
Noada, 292. 
n6e, 21, 803. 
na8(n(!u?), 256. 

6t 555' 

6a, 77- 

6a ^mittor), 758. 

6a (jecor), 1032. 

oblann, p. 166. 

oc, 299, 815. 

6c, 758. 

ochen, p. 166, 

6c]ach, 933. 

6clachde, 758. 

6cmi1, 758. 

ochter, 580, 909. 

odbrann, p. 149. 

6g. 954- 

6inach, p. 147. 

6ind», 565. 

OingaB, 342. 

oipred, 889. 

6is, 812; p. 127, note*. 

oitherroch, 948. 

61, 266, p. 158. 

olambieidsi, 11 29. 

olc, 578, 662, p. 147. 

olachaill, 115. 

6m, 90. 

omne, 262. 

ood, 752. 

optait, p. 159. 

or, 184* 

6r, p. 162. 

6rd, 943. 

6rddan, 943. 

h6re, p. 100, note. 

or6it, 203, 1080; p. 165. 

ort, 266. 

oeUidb (dat pL), p. 165. 

P&tricc, 676, 745. 

pet 745- ^ 
pellec, 136. 

peocad, 1040. 

pecthad, 1040. 

perean, 87. 

p61ire, p. 103, note *. 

1 port, 676, 725. 

praiotech, 729. 
precept, 91. 
pronn, 815. 

ra-, 13. 
r&lth, 115. 
rann, 9, 107 1. 
ro-ratha, p. 109, note, 
rechtaire, 450; p. x66. 

r^g*i 943- 
r6gat, 154. 

r^id, 890. 

r6imm, 77 ; p. 155. 

rem, 745. 

remthechtas, 87a. 

remonn, 890. 

ret, p. 159. 

riagol(>gal), 61. 

riat, p. 109, note. 

ricbed, 168. 

rici, 264. 

rig> 36. ao3, 1036; p. 154, 

p. 162. 

rigad, 879. 

rigain, p. 154. 

rige, 1131; p. 158. 

rind, p. 67 ; 1008. 

rindug, p. 133, note. 

rith folo, p. 106. 

rlth», 909. 

ro-, 13. 

ro-bai, 214. 

robbem, 640. 

ro-bet, 338. 

ro-cet, p. 61, note. 

r6ia, 262. 

ro-m-bith, p. 165. 

ro-p, 214, 614, 890. 

rotb, p. 158. 

ro-t-diechladar, 656. 

ro-t-bia, 161. 

roamnae, p. 161. 

raire, 13. 

r(inaid, p. 133, note. 

rn-n-dKith, 636. 

•*^> P* 37> note, 
sachilli, p. x66. 
8&ebchore, 938. 
8&er, 1137. 
8&etbar, 133. 
s&ibapstal, 635. 
aaiget, 2x4. 

aaigid (dat. sing.), 11 37. 
saigal, p. 146. 
saile, 651. 
sfrird^nmidecht, 1137. 

Old-Irish Index. 


s&ithar, 1085. 

Balann, 977. 

Salduui, 724. 

Balm, p. 128, note'. 

-Ban, -8a, 78. 

aancht, p. 161. 

atntach, 280, 667. 

86a, p. 162. 

scataD, 967. 

8c6], 223. 

8cUtb, 214. 

sdth, 614. 

8clictti, p. 166. 

acol, 338. 

acrlbend, 853. 

scacluid, 112. 


aech, 112. 

sechethar, p. 166. 

aechmall, p. 150. 

8eeht(n)T 224. 

Seg^ne, 948. 

Bdb, 109. 

B^im, 636. 

s^imtana, 1017. 

seiige, 924. 


aem, 420. 


s^n, 1 1 32. 

ron-86na, 1048. 

8661, p. 166. 

serbe, 1132. 


aesaimm, p. 100, note. 


a^t, 280. 

86t(iter), 490, 729, 1073. 

aetharoircnid, 320. 

s^tfetbcbaib, 826. 

aiasair, p. 100, note. 

sib, 1 1 12. 

aide, 1088. 

•il. 555- 
-flind, -Bin, 78. 

ainio, 130. 

-Bin(n), 78. 

Sifl, p. 156. 
siasi, IX 12. 
Bior, 216. 
Binmat, 320. 
alabieid, 890. 
al6be, 586. 
Sl^ibte, 693, 948. 
slemon, 639. 
aUassit, p. 148. 

alige, 112. 

sliBB, 32. 

alOag, 36, 1003. 

aliucht, 734. 

ron-an&dut, 1131. 

Bn&the, 817. 

sned, 649. 

sni, 305; aniani, 11 12. 

B0-, 85. 

Bocboiflc, 660. 

8^1*1 954* ro-n-866i«, 104S. 

Boerda, p. 154. 

86eth, p. 158. 

B6ir (B6er), p^ 156. 

B6iniing, 404. 

Bolam, 740. 

Bom, 420. 

Bon (aonua), 1137. 

Bon, p. 162. 

apirnt, 565, 1048. 

Brathar, 262. 

anidigud, xi37. 

areibnaide, 794. 

arenim, 1039. 

Brian, 109, 1039. 

Br6n, 1039. 

arntb, 999* 

Buide, 360, 8x2. 

Buide (pron.), xoio. 

Biiil, 425. 

annt, $6^* 

Btiithe, p. 37, note 

t', 570- 

tabuirt, p. 100, note. 

tac&ir, 98. 

tadbat, 846. 

taibdercc, p. 147. 

taibre, 104a 

taidbfliu, 844. 

taidlech, 287. 

taircbecbnin, 837. 

tairdiet, p. 6i,note{ 837. 

tairchetal, p. 147. 

tairmtbechtas, 872. 

taispenad, 894. 

talam, 108, 578. 


tana, 10x7. 

tanise, p. 58, note. 

tar, 740. 

tar68i(n), 676. 

tarfarcennsi, 738. 

tanende, p. 166. 

tanlacc, 890. 

taacbide, 760. 

Taasach, 897, p. 104, note. 

tech, 569. 

teoelsid, p. 166. 

tecmallad, 299. 

tecnate, 569. 

techt, 450, 872; p. 158. 

techtaire, 450. 

techtat, 639. 

teglach, 933. 

ten (dataing.), X28. 

tenge, p. X28, note '. 

teoir, 774. 

teora, 774. 

teriamid, 287. 

t^t, 1017. 

tea, 942. 

tiach, 41, 371. 

tiarmoracht, 872. 

tic, 120. 

tigeme, 450, 909. 

timload, p. 147. 

timue, 760. 

timtheracht, 808. ) 

timthirecht, 308. j 

timthirthid, 368. 

tintarrad, 87a 

tintathach, 927. 

tir, 703. 

Tirech&n, p. 95, note '. 

tlrim, 703. 

tinne, 703. 

tlBed, 879. 

tissad, 870. 

tochuirimm, p. 150. 

toga, 878. 

Toigoire, 994. 

toirtbech, 289. 

t6i8ecfa, 21, 1040. 

tol, p. 100, note ; p. 162. 

toll, p. X62. 

torad, 289, X085, XX06. 

tdrand, 880. 

tore (oor), xxo2. 

tore, 744. 

toroc, 373, 729. 

torcde, 373. 

t6nnach, 756. 

t6rmachtae, 756. 

t6nnachtaid, 756. 

t6rAther, 1006. 

Torrian, xo8o. 

tosacb, p. 100, note. 

totm&el, p. 166. 

traig, 74. 

traatar, X07X. 

trefocIsB, 873. 


Indices Verbortim. 

tr^ide, 578. 

tremibior, p. 148. 

tremitiagat, p. 148. 

tr^n, 299, 1 1 17. 

treas, 873. 

treflsa, 1 1 17. 

tii, 676. 

trl (prep.), 636, 752. 

trian, 897. 

trimi-ro-thomdiiuaB, ioo8. 

trirech, 371. 

tr6g (truag), 383. 

tr6g&n, 383. 

tromchride, 903. 

tromm, 903. 

tniag, 262. 

tnisca (aoc. pi.), 605. 

ttiy 1 1 12. 

taaichle, 11 29. 
ttiarcan, 722, 858. 
t(iath, 423, 870. 
t6athain, 937. 
tucad, 555. 
tuoca, p. 165. 
tnirind (dat sing.), 35. 
tnisled, 927. 
t68 (tnus), 21. 
tAsIestar, 11 34. 
tuuBy 21,937. 

htiad, 879. 
fiadibi 729. 

^^h P- 95* Bote '• 
uan(uainii), 214. 

bAare, 639. 

Cum, 371. 

biiaaalatbair, 13 ; p» 147. 

bfiaaalflichire, p. 166. 

biiasalterchomiictid, pi. 166. 

ucht, 262, 812. 

huile, p. 100, note. 


aiaoe, 69. 

uifloelm, 69. 

niaae, 36, 758, 881, 1085. 

Ult&n, p. 95, note '• 

humae, 611. 

6r, 578. 

b6rde, 578. 

nrfaisiii, 777. 

ntmall, 815. 

ymmon, 154. 


[ IFhere there it no eommentary on a toordy the numerals in thie Index refer to the artidea in the text., pp, 
4-35- N%m»rQle with "gl" prefixed to them refer to the Oloeeee on the Lorioa^ euproy pp. 136-143.] 

a ^proQ.), 420, 421. 
a Qinterj.), p. 112, note, 
abb, tee baniab. 
abball, 555. 
abdaine, 173; p. 157. 
abhcoide, 432. 
abbracht, gl. 120. 
accai, 104. 
aocadbar, 1096. 
adaidbi, 456. 
acra, 869. 

adb ^agb) alUudb, 387. 
adhaig, 866. 
adballtrach, 619. 
adballtras, 883. 
adharc, 59, ioz8; p. 155. 
adbaatar, 820. 
adhbhar, 161, 849. 
adhbhazdacht, 835, 848. 
adbrond, gL 187 ; p. 149. 
ad[b]clos, 1030. 
adhlacadb, 759, p. 23. 
adhlacadh, 693. 
adntes, gl. 28 ; p. 147. 

fee, 975, '032. 

anach, nnachde, gL 45 ; pb 147. 

Aengns, 342. 

agaidb, gt 108. 

agarb, 385. 

aghat, p. 44, note. 

aibbineoir (oibhineoir), 517. 

aioecht, 868. 

aidbbeadh (geo. pi.), 709. 

aidhchidhe, 546. 

aier, 105. 

aiffrend, 853 ; p. 164. 

&il, 91. 

Ailech, 39. 

Ailell, i^x. 

ailghinecht, 917. 

aimfesacb, 392. 

aimair, X048, gt 9 ; 847. 

ainder, 223. 

ainfir^nach, 682. 

aingil, 460 ; -gel, gL 26, gl. 146. 

ainim, 288. 

ainm, 991 ; gL 241. 

ainmech, 428. 

ainmidhi, 976. 

ainmneachadh, 885. 

air, 226. 

airaifp. 149. 

airchindech, 44^ 

airdi (-de), 92^ 

airdeasbog, 447. 

aire,gL 109; p. 14.8. 

airecht, p. 37, note;' p. 95, note ^ 

^^ (-g«)i 58^* 754- 
airgeach, 586. 

airged, 787. 

airgedadi, 607. 

ait, 191. 

aitchimm, gL 141. 

aiteand, 933. 

aithleini, 155. 

alaind, 226, 234. 

Alba, 1 01. 

albanacn, 306. 

allaastigh, gL 251 ; p. 150. 

allaidh, 297, 417. 

allamoigh, gL 25o(*)i p. 150- 

AlldghoB, p. 69, note. 

alltar, gL 147 ; p. 149. 

almanach, 312. 

alt(= artoa), gL 201. 

amad&n, 302. 

aroainaibh (dat. pL), gL 147. 

amaiac, 251; p. 158. 

Middle-Irish Index. 


amhal, g1. 81. 
amhnaa, 326. 

an (prep.), p. 135? 8^-^' 

ro-an, 193. 

ao&], gl. 123; p. 149. 

ancoire, 68. 

anmach, 654. 

anmain (dat slug.)* 232. 

anoir (onoir), 1079. 

anixm, 406 ; gt 59. 

Aodh, 948. 

aolr, 104. 

ar (pron.), 847. 

ar(oonj.), 847. 

ara (d-ara), 589. 

&ra, ion ; gl. 175, gL 208. 

Mmibh toU (dat. pi), gl. 183. 

arachend, p. 95, note ^ 

arain, 163. 

ar&n gaal, 286. 

arbha, 213, X038. 

archainge], 462. 

ard, 16; gl. 12, gl. 264, 

ardeaapoc, 16. 

ardxig, 161. 

arg, 108. 

ann, gl 2t. 

arrecaim, 481. 

anon anma, 996. 

art&n(?), in. 

ArtghaA, p. 69, note. 

asa, gL 240 ; p. 150. 

a»-a-aithli, 193. 

asnach, gl. 170; p. 149. 

«86er, 937. 

aasal, 296, 416; p. 159. 

assan, 72. 

atanach, 596. 

at cluiCf 20 ; p. 154. 

at pill, 831. 

at ("in thy"), p. 149; gl. 147. 

atbair, 3, 1046. 

athair-talmhan, 178. 

atharmarbhthach, 317. 

atb^l-sa, 104. 

atcondairc, Z04; p. 156. 

athchamiledh, 909. 

athflana, 330. 

atchimra, gl. 52, gL 141 ; p. 147. 

athghabhMl, p. 44, note. 

athge, gl. 45. 

atoailh, 937. 

augdar, gl. 2. 

ba, p. 37, note, 
baccach, 605. 

bacUach, 410. 

bacblach breall&n, 412. 

bachl6g, 696. 

*>agar, 339. 

baile, no; p. 156. 

bainde, 966. 

baihdea in tonudb, 289. 

baindi cich, 326. 

baineachlach, 257 ; p. 158. 

bainlighema, 287. 

bairin, 28. 

bairghen, 141 ; p. 157. 

baiatedh, p. 165. 

baithes, gL 83, gL 248. 

^^^ g>- 77» gl* »48» gJ- 238 ; p. 

ballach, 638. 

bam, gL 260 ; p. 165. 

banab, 22. 

bancoig, 247. 

banchara, 293. 

bannach, p^ 133. 

banphriotr, 23. 

baosagart, 24. 

ban^aer (-86ir), 292. 

bantaisech (-tdisech), 21. 

bantracht, 39. 

Baothghus, p. 69, note. 

bara, 320. 

baramhail, 877. 

bfta, gL 7, gl. 263. 

ba»6g, 95. 

bass, 94; gL 166 ; p. 149, p. 156. 

b&thadh, p. 163. 

bathais, 1045. 

batar, 36. 

bealach, 793. 

bean, 1053. 

bean do bbrCtthar, 570. 

bean do mheic, 571. 

beanmbarbhthach, 321. 

bee, gL 132. 

beitbi, 560. 

beg, 194, 664, 673, 806. 

bel, gL 107 ; p. 148. 

benim, gl. 62 ; p. 147. 

bennacht, 914. 

beol, gl. 128; p. 128, note '. 

be6tliach, gL 211. 

b^rla, p. 37, note. 

berradh, 1096. 

bertnaighim, gL 80; p. 148. 

betha, n3; gL 8, gL 254, gL 260. 

bi, gL 147. 

biadh, 1045; p. 165. 

btathadb, 1045. 

bicairecht, 171; p. 157. 

bidhgadh, 769. 

bile Torlas), 191 ; p. i C7. 

bile (veDtilogiom), 716; p. 163. 

binn, 223. 

bir, gL 152 ; p. 149. 

biror, 184. 

birracb, 18; p. 154. 

biror, 823. 

bis, gL 132; bite, gL 59. 

blaesc, 179; p. 157. 

U&thach, 220; p. 157. 

bl&thmhar, 491. 

bleoin, gl. 226. 

bliadain, 173. 

bloiogi (aoc pL ? die weichen ?), 

gL 214. 
blooac, 236, X006 ; p. 164. 

boc, 1094. 

bocasach, 1030. 

bocht, 1058. 

bocoidech, 653. 

bodhar, 604. 

boUtanadh, 1088. 

bond, 96 ; gL 191, gL 247. 

bonn, 190. 

b6-8luaigbedh, 300; p. 159. 

bothdn, 120. 

braen aimsire, 1048. 

br&ghe, gL 129, gL 131. 

braiodn, 714. 

br&igUdecli, 444. 

braise, 36. 

brat, 29. 

br&tbair, 1047 ; p. 162. 

br&thannarbhthach, 319. 

breallacb, 657 ; p. 161. 

brecc, p. 128, note '. 

bregacb, 958. 

breitheamh, 366. 

br^n, 683. 

brentos, 1089. 

bretnach, 057. 

briatbar, 628 ; gl. i. 

briathrach, 628. 

br6€c, 1033. 

l>«'6g, 445- 

broine, gL 49 ; p. 147. 

brondmar, 647. 

brothracban, 180. 

bruach, 947. 

brQ, gl. 210 ; b. na hdighe, 576. 

brugh, gL45; p. 147. 

bruinecb, gL 49 ; p. 147. 

bruinde, gL 200 ; p. 150. 


Indices Verborum. 

boachaill b6, 583. 

bnachaill mucc, 584. 

boaile, 174. 

biiAile dam, 1044. 

bnAin, 50a. 

buathbhall&n lUth, i8a. 

baidhen, p. 95, note ^ 

boidbe, buidhi, 803; p. ia8, note'. 

boigi, 1 1 19 (see boc). 

baton, 152 ; p. 157. 

ca, 218. 

cabilUnacht, 17 a. 

cac gabbar, 1075. 

e&cb, p. 37, note. 

caech, 426. 

caemh-Dbaire, 191. 

caenauaraighi, 11 30. 

c&er finemacb, 267. 

caera, 851 ; p. 164. 

cietharacb, 1055. 

cai, 770. 

Catd, 949. 

cailc, 58. 

caile dabbca, 158. 

caiUech, 847 ; c. ligbeoc, 282. 

calling, 336. 

caillteamhail, 106 1. 

c&in, 08, p. 156. 

cain (adj.), 234. 

cainuarracb, 1 1 30, gl. z 38 ; p^ 149. 

cairdea, gL 61. 

caire, 36. 

caisc, 298. 

calma,gl. 22; gl. 158. 

calmdacht, gl. 14. 

calpacb, 164. 

calptacb, 162. 

camm, gl. 229, p. iso. 

camra, 123. 

camradb, 1 29 ; p. X56. 

cananacb, 437. 

cantalr, 239. 

cantairecbt, 63. 

caog, 201. 

caor, p. 165. 

cara, 293, 413. 

caraiir, 191. 

la-m-charastar, p. 149. 

carr, 70, 263. 

casadb, 1043. 

casnoidhi, 253. 

casta, 632. 

cat, 499. 

cath, gl. 23. 

cathair aiMeasbnig, 176. 

catbbbarr, gL 99, p. 148. 

catbolica, 521. 

cealg, 325, 500. 

cech, p. 37, note ; gl 59. 

c(;d (primos), 588; (100), 771. 

cM grindi foild, 1045 ; p. 165. 

cedir, 560. 

ceilebbradh eoin, 746. 

ceindetan, gl. 82. 

c^ir, 225. 

c6!rin, 836. 

ceia, 717; p* 163. 

ceithri, 775. 

oenbaran, 181. 

oend, gL 102. 

cendaidhi (oennaidhe), 109a. 

oend-fiacail, gl. 134. 

cengal, 149, 911. 

i-cenn, 894. 

ceoDaighim, 109a. 

oennais, 232. 

cennbhaiT, 51; p. 155. 

oentar, gL 147, p. 149. 

cep, 480. 

cere, 106. 

ceicaill, 979. 

oercall, 475. 

cerd, 218, 508. 

cerdeba, 218. 

cernach, 486. 

certachadb, 888. 

cessacht, 280. 

cestogadh, 891. 

ceetunacb, 15 ; p. 153. 

cethardubbladb, 931. 

c6t-bhliadhain, 588. 

c^t-cbathach, 772. 

cethrambadb, 142. 

cethrar, 400, 1092. 

ccthri, 775. 

oethnima, 591. 

ciabh, 33 ; p. 154. 

cianecb, 20a 

cich, 100, gL 203, p. 150. 

cicliln, 1 01. 

cindcb^rcaill, 481. 

cis, 784. 

ciati (ciata), 199* 

claifl diomma, gL 160, p. 149. 

clkr, 67, 560, 

d&r casta, 1043. 

daa guail, 273. 

claostni, 818. 

death, 485. 

clecbtaim, gl. 81, p. 148. 

cldireach, 423, 710. 

Gement, 539. 
clesamnadi, p. 44, note, 
oo^dethi, p. 37, note, 
cliabh, gL 71. 
cliamhuin, 377,322. 
cliamhoinmharbbthach, 322. 
cliathy 126. 
diathacb, 71a. 
cllath fiiinidh, 240, p. 158. 
clibh&n, 697. 
doc, 26. 

doch, 552 ; p. iia, note. 
cl6dh, gL 44, p. 147. 
cloicend, gl. 82, p. 148. 
cloidbeamh, 461. 
du^accpL), gL 153; p. 149. 
cloain gabhUa, 723. 
duas, gL 113, p. 148. 
daithi (-the), 518. 
dAmbar, 655. 
cn&imh, 193, 296. 

cnaimfiach, 269, 503. 

cobairithe, gL 20, p. 147. 

cocball, 121, 56. 

cocan, 245. 

cochtair, 283. 

oodaltech, 729. 

ood&n, gL 224, p^ 150. 

oofyiidb, gL 267, p. 151. 

cogadb, 139, p. 157. 

cogar, 145, p. 157. 

ool, 770. 

coibhlighe, 847. 

ooileach, 506. 

coilecb g&ithi (-the), 510. 

ooill, 115. 

coimpert, 847. 

coindealbb&thadh, 845, p. 163. 

ooin-mir, 276. 

coinnill, 44, p. 154. 

ooinnlln, 210. 

c6ir, p. 44, note. 

ooire(-ri), 724. 

coielnecb, 650; p. 162. 

coisreagadh, 285. 

ooiffiegradh, 880. 

coitchend, gL u 

colach, 1030. 

colaind (dat sing.), gL 174. 

coll, 556. 

oolpa, 146, gL 188. 

colam, 203, 504. 

ColumdUe, p. 37, note. 

colund, 919. 

oomhadas, 36. 

oomhaightecb, 314. 


Middle-Irish Index. 


coBiluuneachadh, 897. 
Gomhamm, 993. 
oomhairle, 884. 
oomhuremh, 913. 
comhaiBtlo, 518. 
oomhalta, 486. 
oomhBltadh, 518. 
GomhdhKita (gen. pL), gl. 233. 

oomhfooculf 873. 

chomhforbrit, gl. 194. 

comhla, 71, 125. 

oomms, 918. 

oompaQacb, 378. 

oompantuB, 892. 

coaparaid, 875, 896. 

oompas, 1 137, 1138. 

oompur, gl. 7 X, p. 148. 

oomhiudh, 481. 

oomhruc, 847. 

oomh^l&s, 884. 

comhthio61, gL 26. 

comhthrom, 960. 

Gomhthromugndli, 903. 

conaichi, 2x28. 

ConaU Cemach, 486. 

concr6| 261. 

Conchubhar, 545. 

oonidh, gL 2. 

conn, 209; p. 137. 

CouDi 772. 

ooonlach, 209. 

coQoaigaibh, 320. 

cop&n, 479. 

ooraidh, 457. 

00-r-bo, 4. 

oorcach maia, 206, 505. 

Corcaigh (dat. aing.), 4. 

oorcair, 224. 

Connac, 173. 

oor6fai, 75, 76. 

oor6ota| 601. 

oorp, 812; fgi. 259; c. leghas, 

eorporaa, 859; p^ 164. 
ooiT, gL 4Q ; coir brtghat, gl. 1 3 3. 
oorr6g^ 167. 
00a, 466, 560 ; gL 190. 
codatra, 36. 
ooamhailiua, 904. 
oonnhailsibh (dat. pL), gL 32. 
GOiolamh, 36. 
ootnn, 270. 
oohnlidhe, gL 239. 
er&eB, 92 ; p. 156. 
crfiiesflacb, 644. 
crand giiUi 563. 

crand gldsta, 7 19. 

cxand laair, 564. 

crand macor, 566. 

crand tdthartaigb, 746. 

crebhar, 204. 

criadh, 1054. 

criathar, 700; p. 162. 

cridhe, gL 211. 

crifl, 720, 1 102; p. 149; P- '53- 

oris tribboiB, 706. 

crisdal, 552. 

crismal, 840. 

crifttaigbi (-e), 323. 

crifltin, 313. 

cr6, 122, 261; p. 156. 

cr6 caerach, 851. 

crocan, 56. 

crodhachty gl. 26. 

croicinn madra alta, 275. 

croidhi (-e), 1 102. 

croindtille, 651, 844. 

croindtillech, 651. 

cromb^ol, 708. 

cro8&n, 14. 

Cmachan R&ith Chonrach, 48 1 . 

crnaidb, 674. 

cruaidbi, 11 18. 

crubb eicb, 442. 

c™>t> P- *53« 
cmitire, 5, 1015. 

craithnecht, 778, 189. 

cmp&n na l&mh, 233. 

cti allaidb, 417. 

cnailli (-e), 4^5. 

Coangns, p. o^ note. 

cngan, 572. 

c6ig, 776. 

c6igedb, 592. 

cuigel, 567. 

cfiigur, 40 X. 

cnilenf 498. 

cuimbleng, gL 45 ; p. i\T. 

cuimbneadi, ixxo. 

cuinchidh, 783. 

cninde6g, 165. 

enisle, 99; gL 222. 

cnlaran, X049. 

cnmbadit, gl. 69. 

cumair, 678. 

cnmca, 727. 

cnmdach, 881. 

cnmdaightoir, 1098. 
cnmtacb, 871. 
cupria, 360. 
cniach, 4^^* 


cnrchuBlach, 933. 
cnrracacb, 59c. 
cnm (ace. pL5f 428. 
cusle, 99. 

dft, 773. 

dabhacb, X58, 277. 
daingen, p. 37, note, 
daingin, 674, 679. 

da»r» 554- 
Daire, 191. 

dall, 249, 427, 623. 

dallitiilech, 622. 

damh, 758, 858, 1044. 

d&Da, 1 131. 

daraheai, p. 112, note; darmesi, 

dath, 1087. 

dea, 289. 

dealbbf 642, 936. 

dealbbdba, 642. 

dealg, X074. 

deaUradh, 103 1. 

deaa, 386. 

d6c, X73. 

dech&in, 454. 

dechmbadb, 43. 

Dechtere, 32a 

decredech, 12. 

deganach, 451. 

degh-ghnixnbxadh, gl. 261 ; p. 

X51, p. 166. 

deirgech, 78. 

delbhait, gl. 154. 

d^namh, 899. 

d^nmbuaadi, X090. 

dcnta,gL 245; p. 165. 

dentar, 1096. 

de6ir, 550. 

deoradb, 303 ; p. 159. 

d6r, 39, 724. 

d6rcach| 627. 

dei^i X048. 

<i«f«i (-ge). 939- 
dergndb, 481. 

dermh&r, p. 95, note ^ ; 1008. 

das, p. 69, note. 

dl, gL 67. 

dia, 405, 232 ; gL 157, gL 265. 

diabhul, 527. 

diadbacbt^ 81, 334. 

dianghalor, gL 258; p. 151. 

Diarmaidy 540. 

dias, 398. 

diaa, 35. 

dibechan, gL 135 ; p. 149. 


Indices Verborum. 

dibhllnaibh, 104. 

dibh(n), p. 95, note *. 

dichuirar, gl. 261. 

didean, 153. 

didin, 762, 995. 

didnighte6ir, 1093. 

dighlach, p. 69, nota 

diI6, 1 121. 

dilechta. 420 ; p. 161. 

dilechtach, 83. 

dim, gl. 265. 

dimainea, gl. 10; p. 146. 

din, 193. 

dindaendiaa, p. 37, not& 

dinoTf 699. 

dingbbala. 668. 

diiimh, gl. 234. 

dithen, 718. 

ditoin, 472. 

diadbal, 438. 

disliugudh, 910. 

disle, 496. 

ditin (ace. sing.), 602. 

ditin, gL 68; ditnet, gl. 19, gl. 


dithrebhachf 315. 
diamns, 1030. 
dlighedb, 87, 879; p. 147. 
dligbi, 87. 
dlightioech, 433. 
dlistinach, 433, 439. 
dl6ith,636; gl. 39; p. 147. 
dl(ithadh, gl. 61. 
d6, 193. 
dobeth, gl. 2. 
dobhran, 375. 
dochin^lach, 676, 1057. 
dochotar, 894. 
doctuir, 1082. 
Doedhghua, p. 69, note, 
ddenna (= O. Ir. d6inde), 85. 

dofaicsena, gL 151 ; p. 149. 
dogni, 847 ; dognlat, 1008. 
doib, 481. 
doilbhthe^ir, 1091. 
doilbhthiugudb, 900. 
d6it, gL 164. 
doll6ci, 747. 
domblas ke, 975. 
Donncbadh, 525. 
DonnglTus, p. 69, note, 
dor&tadb, 560, 867. 
dorchadhus, 331, 332. 
dorine, p. 1 25, note. 
dornad6racht, 272. 
dora&n buana, 502. 

doros, 124; gL 245. 

dorus lia, 580. 

dot, gl. (S9. 

d6thengtach, 626. 

dotb6et, gl. 2. 

do-da-traacair, 847. 

dreaasan, loia. 

dreol&n, 207. 

dria, 587, 933. 

dridcatn, gl. 217. 

droighin, 559. 

dromand, gL 171. 

druim, 745 ; dniimMilg, gL 172. 

co-dniimne, 4. 

dubb, 381, 802. 

dubh&n, 428. 

dubhrudan, 721. 

Dabhthach, 1096. 

dachu, 1020. 

d6il (d61), 267. 

duillen, 765. 

duine, 89, 953. 

duine beg, 436. 

dtil, 1008. 

dunmbarbhthach, 316. 

durau (ace. pL), gl. 165. 

each, 17, 414, 442. 
Eachtghus, 69, note, 
eaglaa (eaglais), 177. 
ealadan, 85. 
eallach (?), 71. 
earrach, 1070. 
e&8, 259. 
easbog, 448. ) 
easpog, 982. ) 
ecas (eccaa), p. 125, note. 
6cna, p. 38, note. 
6dach, 501, 757. 
cdail, 694. 
6daingen, 680. 
edratb, 166. 

egcomhtbrom, 961, 962. 
egcasmbailius, 905. 
eideand, 933. 
Eighipt, 581. 
einech, p. 58, note, 
^irindach (eirinnach), 305. 
eiatidh6ir, iioi. 
eitelladb, 912. 
eithidheamhail, 1068. 
ela, 509. 
emhnadh, loio. 
endac, p. 151. 
endgae, gL 260. 

Eoghan, 543. 

dolus, 85, 901. 

eoma, 779. 

erlabhra, 867. 

erchiasim, gL 265; p. 151. 

escaine, p. 147. 

escara, gL 18. 

eacart, 254; p. 158. 

escata, gL 180, gL 184. 

escuing orchoidech, 935. 

eaga, 234. 

esl^, 393» ^34* 

esl&ni (-e), 928. 

etal, p. 151. 

etan, gl. 86, gL 103. 

etarfuaradh, gL 269. 

etarar6in, gl. 116. 

die ochtai, gL 222. 

etecbail, 1066. 

etelaigber, gl. 264. 

etiacta, gl. 89. 

etlae (?), gL 260 ; p. 15 1. 

etorru, 481. 

examail, 1087. 

fabhra(0. Ir. a^ra^ gen. -at\ 79. 

f&cbat, gl. 16. 

fada, 677. 

faechdg, 188, 194. 

Faelghoa, p. 69, note. 

faicim, p. 149. 

faidi (-e), 929. 

faidiugudb, 907. 

faighin, 157. 

failgheach, 631. 

fainle6c, 934. 

fairci (fairge), 1 103. \ 

fairge, 575, 1103. f 

fairsiiig, 640. 

faiatnedhach, gL 55 ; p. 147. 

faisneis, 751. 

f&iatiue, p. 38, note. 

ftuth. 2, 350, 351, 35a, 9j8, 

falking, 37; p. 154. 

fallaingech, 599. 

fnrcfin, 238. 

farcli gKm, gL 183. 

farsinge, 640. 

feam, 97. 

feclug, 185. 

fecbt, 481. 

fedfosc[laidh], 826. 

fedaim, 1. 43, gL 253; p. 147. 

fed&n, 46 ; p. 154. 53*; p. 159. 

fcgadh, p. 149. 

Middle-Irish Index, 


foith, gl. 132, gl. 223 ; p. 156. 

fe6i], 193. 

fe6il nafiacal, 150. 

feoroB, 582. 

for, 395, 1048. 

fer clS, 397. 

fer caifli do condnuil, 434. 

f6r, p. 70, note. 

ferand, 390. 

ferb6g, 205. 

fergadit, 328. 

Ferghal, 533. 

Ferghns, 4^6. 

fero6g, 558. 

ferr, 11 16. 

fersad (-said), 568. 

fers&D, 468. 

fesacbj 392. 

«86g, 47 ; p. 154. 

fe86gach, 645. 

f^taim, p. 147. 

fiabhnu, gl. 257. 

Fiac, p. 125, note. 

fiacail, 150, gl. 89, gl. 1 26. 

fiadh, 183. 

fiadhnaisi (-e), 959. 

Flanghna, p. 69, note. 

flar, 621. 

fiariCiilech, 621. 

fichabhall, 562. 

fidh, 46, 267. 

fidhbha, 797. 

fidhbhuidhe, p. 70, note. 

fidhchat, 260. 

fidbchilli (gen. sing.), 747. 

fighid6ir, 1095. 

fil, 104. 

filidh, I. 

filidhecht,833; p. 38,note; 1002, 

flnd-choel&D, gL 229. 

find-emhon, loio. 

flnemacb, 267. 

finemain, 267. 

flnghaile, p. 147. 

fir^nach, 681. 

finnamint, 749, 1008. 

fis, p. 149. 

FlathgbuB, p. 69, note. 

flinch, 675. 

fliachaidhe, p. iii, note. 

flinchidhecht, 1097. 

fobitb, 486. 

foch6t6ir, 320. 

fochloidh (-aidh), 229. 

f6d, 119. 

fofrith, 1048. 

foghnr, 469. 
foighi, 815. 
foilci, 1045. 
foillsiugudh, 895. 

foiltfind, 39. 

fotltnibh (dat pi.), gl. 97. 

foiltnin, 464. 

foircedal, 837. 

foinntech, 602. 

folt, 77, 78; p. 70, note; gl. 237. 

fon, gl 132. 

fonamhaideacb, 630. 

forba, gL 8, gl 260 ; p. 146. 

forculu, gl 59. 

forgaire, gl. i ; p. 146. 

foriarair, gl 59 ; p. 147. 

forithin (dat. sing.), p. 151. 

format, 602. 

fonnnai (ace. pi), gl 161. 

forsgath, 839. 

fortachtaighim, gl i ; p. 146 ; 727. 

fortaighim, 727. 

fotholn (ace. sing.), gl 95 ; p. 

fothragadh, 822. 
fraech, 565, 933; p. 162. 
francach, 248. ) 
frangcacb, 309. j 
fria, 847 ; frim, 937. 
friss, 125, 847. 
fual, 222. 

fuatbroic, gl 94 ; p. 148. 
full, 1048. 
fuiltin, 463. 
fulnde6g, 134. 
fuindse6g, 557. 
fiiise6g, 140. 
fondamintech, 612. 
fhrachair, 984. 
fortacht (fort-), 727. 

ga, 216, p. 157. 

gabh&iltech, 594. 

gabhal, 135. 

gabhann, 369. 

gabhar, 372. 

gaethamhail (g6ith-), 1067. 

gaeth, 428 ; g. atiiaidh, 353. 

gaethmhar, 646. 

gaibhthi, p. 112, note. 

gaUe, gl 219, gl 220, p. 165. 

gaill-mhias, 478. 

gaire, p. 165. 

gairle6g, 31. 

g&ith, 1070; g&ithbhuilg? p. 157. 

galar, 281. 

2 B 2 

gall, 478. 

galldach, 307. 

gamain arain, 163. 

ganmhech, 428. 

garbog, 186. 

garrga, 702. 

geal, 168, 286, 801, 659, 1124. 

gealan na 861, 168. 

no-t-gebhtha, p. 112, note. 

geg, gl 194; p. 150- 

geidh, 19; p. 154. 

geiinbel, 226. 

gein, 104. 

geind, 560. 

geinemhain, 887. 

gemhan, 834. 

geocacb, 513. 

geraine (geu. sing.), gl 224; p. 

gerbach, 652. 
geredh (gen. sing.), 1 25. 
gerrcach, 494. 
gerrchend, 125. 
gerrghuin, 940. 
in-gerrtha, gl 17; p. 135. 
giall, gl 125; p. 149. 
gilcach, 933. 
gile, 1 1 24. 
gilla adhairce, 1018. 
gilla cinn etch, 17 ; p. 153. 
gilla Crist, 523. 
gilla MartaiD, 526. 
gilla na uaomh, 345. 
gilla nan- each, 946. 
gilla Pktricc, 537. 
Gilliam, 532. 
Gilliberd, 534. 

giu8» 563* 560- 

glac, 1008; glac-arbba, 213. 

glac saighed, 214. 

glaine, 191. 

glais, gl 218. 

glan,67i,p. 153; glan-mhet, 29. 

glaa, 29; p. 9it note. 

gla8s(serra), 22<S. 

glecaire, 986. 

glic, 1 1 29. 

gloinidhe, 1087. 

gl6n, gl 183, gl 185 ; p. 140. 

gn&thughudh, gl 56 ; gl 240. 

gn^thigh (dat sing, fem.), gl 2. 

gnlmh, 908, gl 2. 

gnimhradh, p. 151, p. 166. 

gocan, 66. 

god, 603. 

goirt, 637. 


Indices Verborum. 

gortach, 620, 

gr&dh, 108 1. 

grainsech, 195. 

gnunatacb, 8 a. 

granna, grana, gi 78, gL 64. 

gredh&il, 854. 

greidell, 107. 

greim, 144. 

grian, 95 a, 973. 989, 990. 

Grighoir, 544; -ghuir, 894. 

grinn, 39. 

grindi (-e), 1045. 

groigh, 74a. 

gniaidh, 39; gl. 114, gl. ia4; p. 

gruamdhaf 384, 1065. 
gruth, 784. 
gual, a73. 
guala, p. 151. 
guasacht, 727 ; gl. 6. 
guidhi (-e), 870, 893. 
guirin, 255. 

gnlban, gL 106; p. 148. 
gua, p. 69, note. 

iachtarachf 10 13. 

iarnaighi (-e), 608. 

ianmd, 790. 

iar-9ein, 4. 

ibhar, 561; p. 163. 

ibrach (?), 83a. 

ichtar na comhladh, 1034. 

idh nrchamaO, 279. 

ifearaadha, 827. 

iffern, 519,520, 825. 

ifiis, gL 2. 

ic^ha, 244. 

i]inhile,gL29; ilr&tha, p. 70, note. 

ilar, 107. 

imad (-adh?), 921. 

imarchnirim, imarchor, gL 268 ; 

p. 151. 
imdha, 670, 805. 
irodheghail, 154; gL 147; p. 149. 
imell, 69. 
iml&n, gL 343. 
imm, 784. 
immchofmibh (dat pL), gL lai ; 

p. 149. 
imme, gL 58 ; p. 147. 
immlefl, gL 118. 
immlind, gl. ao5 ; p. 150. 
immuo, 894. 
iropidhe, gL 1 1 ; p. 147. 
in (prep.)* p. 37 1 note, 
inadb, 516. 

inada, 339. 

inar, 39. 

inarach, 597. 

inbher, 428. 

iDchinn, 747 ; inchind, gL 105. 

ind ^prep.), gL a6o. 

faid (sabst), 154. 

indibh (dat pL), gL 148. 

indracc, gL 54; p. 147. 

indte, p. 103, note ^ 

infinit, gL a. 

ingar, 839. 

iDghin, 390; inghen, p^ 150; 291, 

ingnadh, 229. 

inga, gL 197, gL 198; p. 150. 

inUL gL 74. 

inilliua, gL 66, gL 140; p. 148. 

inmhus, 333. 

innarbadh, 752. 

innarbthacb, 983. 

inne, gL 93, gL 227. 

inne iachtarach, 10 13. 

innilt, 25. 

innraice (nom. pL), 36. 

inntindeach, 876. 

instnimint, 761. 

int, 78, 1013. 

interiacht, 874. 

inti, 867. 

inntlecht, 734. 

iniabhra, p. 103, note. 

isat, 1008. 

ith in arbha, 1038. 

iiixnmns, p. 37, note. 

la (prep.), 722. 

ro-la, 428. 

labhar, 376. 

labhartaighe, 1133. 

lacht, 250. 

ladhar, gL 196; p. 150. 

Uegh, 424. 

l&idire, 920. 

l&idiri, 1 113. 

l&imtech, p. 69, note. 

laind^r, 73; p. 155. 

I&ir, 294. 

laithirt, 266. 

14mh, 34, 233, 465; p. 128, 

ntite '. 
l&mhaocan, 916 *, p. 164. 
l&mhann, 34. 

lamhannan, gL 231 ; p. 150. 
l&mh-thaagh, 857. 
l&n, 1008. 
land (lann), 132 ; p. 152. 

l&-oi]Ttb], 1076. 

l&r, 747. 

lasair, ia8 ; p. 156. 

laoir (gen. aing.), 564. 

Lanrint, 538. 

leabaidh in daimh aUti, 858. 

leabhar, 371. 

lear, 13. 

lebaidh, 481. 

lebhar aiffiind, 853. 

leca, 80. 

16c in 4rain, 346. 

%. 133, 573- 
ra-16gh, p. 153. 

leghaim, 107 1. 

leghea, p. 165. 

I6ght6ir, Jo8o. 

l^ine, 38. 

leitheid (ace sing.), 104. 

leithni (-e), 935. 

lembnacht, 78 a. 

lenmhunach, 1040. 

lepaidh, 481. 

Lerghoa, p. 69, noteu 

lesc, 382. 

lesmh&thair, 48. 

less, 580. 

leasa (aoc. pL), gL 176. 

leth, 90 ; gl. 67 ; p. 156. 

leth-aiL 90. 

lethchaech, 426, 624. 

lethenach, 232. 

lethfer, 396. 

Ieth6mh, 90. 

leths&tha^ 403. 

lethtdn, 471. 

lexaire, 11. 

liath, 182 ; p. 128, note '. 

Iighe6c, a 8 a. 

lin uisd, 863. 

lind, aai. 

line, 232. 

linn (lind), p. 165. 

lirin, p. 70, note. 

liter, 23a 

lit6, 767. 

linbhar, 371. 

lubhra, a68. 

locha ochaal, gL a 16. 

loch, 781. 

Lochan, 52a. 

Lochlann, 54r. 

L6^h, p. iia, note. 

16ghmhar, 133. 

loigfaed, 923. 

long, gl. 49i lo°« l»**hi 574- 

Middle-Irish Ind^x. 


longbrondfgL 136. 

longphort, 725, 813; p. 163. 

16rf 908. 

lorg, 52. 

lorgarecbt, 937. 

16r-ghiiSinh, 908. 

lorgdromma, gL 169. 

loia feadha, 933. 

loflad, 42. 

lodcadh, 737. 

In leith, gl. 228 ; p. 150. 

luach fl^n^Ui, 751. 

loach lesa, 792. 

luaidhe, 60, 788, 609. 

laaidheamhail, 609. 

luath, 574; luathidher, 1070. 

luatbghftirech, 641. 

Inch dhall, 249. 

loch francach, 248. 

luchtaire, 10; p. 153. 

lagha, inc. 

lidbh (lubh), 1 14. 

loidh, 894. 

Kiirech, 154 ; gl. 147, gl. 159. 

laiTgnibh (dat. pL), gL 1 89 ; p. 150. 

Ins, 810, 104, 933. 

losna fiadh, 183. 

mac, 407, 408. 

mac dUecbta, 429; p. 161. 

mac immlesen, 80 ; gL 118. 

mac imreBan, 80. 

maccu imroloBaib (dat. pL), 

gL 118. 
mac na hoidhchi (-e), 546. 
mac-h66, gl. 213. 
mac&mb, 370. 
mac&mh gennti, 473. 
raacbaire, 866, 1060. 
madair, 275. 
M&el-lasa, 232. 
maeth, 394. 
maethatiUddi, 431. 
maghiflder, 365, 392. 
maideagine, 1139. 
maighister, X099. 
mai^bh(datpl.),gL 112; p. 148. 
mainds6r, 861. 
mainister, 726. 
mainn, 299. 

maiae, 1083, 1108. 1 
maiasi, 027. ) 

maith, 061, 798, 1134. 
mallacht, 915. 
mallei, 866. 
manacb, 435. 

mani, 104. 

Maoliechlainn, 346. 

marbhadb, 14. 

marbbnadh, p. 70, note. 

marcacb na comhladh, 127. 

mardach, 189. 

niar6c, 55, 1005 » P- ^SS- 

roar6g, 1005. 

martra, 738. 

marmur, 11 04. 

Matha, 549. 

m&thair, 130, 1052. 

matal, 490. 

m&tharmarbhthach, 318. 

mathghamhain, 41 8. 

mealL 258. 

meata, 1123. 

medal, 235. 

Medhbh, 481. 

medhg, 783. 

medh6n, gl. 207. 

m6daghudh, 763. 

m6id, 922. 

m^irsi (-e), 78a 

m6r, 465; gL 167, gL X95. 

m^r-coiae, 466. 

m^r>l&imhe, 465. 

merdreeh, 187. 

merlach na comhladh, 944. 

m^aa, 11 17. 

meag&n, 219. 

mesurdha, 807. 

mi, 1050, 1 05 1. 

mias, 478, 193. 

michl(imhar, 656. 

michnimbneach, 11 11. 

midbingbhala, 669. 

mil, Q74- 

mil edaigh, 501. 

mil m6r, 428, 865. 

milan, 138. 

milchti, 411. 

roilech, 648. 

mimhaiae (-i), 1084, X109. 

min, 430. 

mintafiilech, 430. 

lliodbghna, p. 69, nota. 

mir, 156; p. 157; DL ph2C,750. 

mlnr, 11 34. 

mirbhail, 695. 

mitall, 791. 

mitbormach, 756. 

m6, 1 1 14. 

ro6in, 118. 

moladb, 902 ; -ladh, 894. 

Molna, p. 133, note. 

monadh, 237, 841. 

monadan, 212. 

mong in-t-alindein, 148. 

m6r, 428, 663, 809; gl. *^. 

m6nnha]^ad, 327. 

m6r-ulchach, 1048. 

mace, 584. 

muccmara, 1029; p. 164. 

Mocholm6c, p. 149. 

mncor, 566. 

mnghaaine, 882. 

mnilleand, 711. \ 

muilind, 701. ) 

muime, 784. 

muin, 709. 

muincbille, 30; p. i54> 

muinchillech, 598. 

muine, gL 224; p. 150, p. 165. 

maine, 585. 

mnine dralghin, 1 10. 

mnin^l, 744; mulneol, gl. 137. 

muir, 144, 860 ; gL 5. 

m(il, 295, 415. 

mulc&n, 243. 

mullach, 1007 ; gL 98. 

moUach tighi (-e), 838. 

m(ir, 476. 

Murchadh, 542. 

murdbachn, 102a 

n«t, 93J. 

n&mba, xoo8. 

naomh, 345. 

nathari (nathair?), 88. 

neach (0. Ir. nech), 379. 

neimbni, 987, 988. 

neimh, 602. 

nell, 337. 

n6Ilad6racht, 271. 

nemh, 812. 

nembdba, gl. I3f gL 24, gl. 264. 

nemhdbuine, 954. 

nemhftirecb&ir, 985. 
nemhmharbhdba, 1008. 
nemhthindianecb, 617. 
nemhtbremeta, gL 66 ; p. 148. 
nemhthroeta, gL 66 ; p. 148. 
nennt6g, 208. 
nertmhar, p. 37, note. 
ne8c6id, 843. 
ni, 987, II 12; gL 249. 
Nialghoa, p. 69, note, 
noemh, gL 145. 
n6in, 1077. 
n6lne, 335. 
n6inhadh, 173. 


Indices Verborum. 

normanacb, 308. 
litis, 256. 

6, gl. 41. 

ochtmhadh, 229. 

6en, gl. 59. 

nibriugudh, 889. 

oidhche, 546. 

oidi (-e), 1078. 

oighen, 86. 

oilembain, 753. 

oilithrech, 311. 

oinmhid, 512. 

oircnin, 493. 

obair, 614. 

ocmbil, gl. 51. 

ocam, gl. 147. 

6entaiglum, gl. 260; p. 165. 

6gli. 955 i g^-53- 

ngdhamhf 758. 

oite, 232. 

ol, 847, 1096. 

olc, 662, 799; gl. 59. 

6mh, 90. 

6n, 613. 

6r, 606, 786, 1 1 34. 

orciil (ace. pi.), gl. 181. 

ord, 943; gl. 144, gl. 235. 

ordhaighe, 606. 

organaidbf 7. 

orlkr, 704. 

ortba, p. 125, note. 

oeaadh, 137 j p. 156. 

otracb, 482. 

pag&n, p. 151. 
paiper, 579. 
pabti br6g, 445. 

P<"^°i 374 (^^ torpan). 
pecadh, gL 261. 
pell, 831. 
pellec, 136. 
penn, 53. 
penunacbt, 170. 
pethAir(?), 320. 
Petar, 528. 
plan, 54; gl. 147. 
piloir, 1 1 36. 
pipur, 1072. 
plag, gL 256. 
Plait, 950. 
Ploit, 951. 
pluc, 750. 
p6ocadh, p. 148. 
p61aire (f61aire?), 371. 

port, no. 
prebach, 658. 
prech&n, 507. 
prelait, 452. 
presen (persen), 524. 
primaidecbt, 354. 
prioir, gee banpbrioir. 
priv, 97. 
proindtech, 728. 
proistd, 852. 
pr6viiifle, 175. 
punc, 474. 
punnann, 45. 
popul, 458. 

raing ant-sair, 1137. 

raip(rapp?), gl. 22o(0; p. 165. 

raith, 933. 

rannaire, 9. 

rastail, 814. 

rechtaire, 784. 

redla, 1008. 

rdldbi T-e), 890, 191. 

reilic, 091. 

rem. gl. 148. 

remhainm, 992. 

rembthecbtas, 872. 

rembthtisaigbit, gl. 23. 

remhom, 937 ; remhnmm, gl. 23. 

resi (ace. pL), gl. 167. 

retla, 103. 

rf, 1035, 1036. 

riabbach, 804. 

co-riacht, p. 37 1 note. 

riagbail, 61 ; p. 155. 

riccedb, p. 37, note. 

rigban, 20 ; p. 154. 

rigflaitb, 1134; rig-lepaid, 481. 

rigbthe(aoc. pL), gl. 163, gl. 164. 

rind, 1008 ; rinn, 267. 

robbeg, 808. 

Roiberd, 529. 

roinill, gL 147. 

r6mb&iiach, 310. 

r6n, 50. 

rotb. 227; gL 119. 

rotaidbe, p. in, note. 

Ruaidbri, 535. 

roaimnecb dabb&in, 428 ; p. 161. 

roaindi, 463. 

sab, p. 37, note. 
SabbulL p* 107, note ^ 
sacc, 489. 
s&ebfachoire, 938. 
"»! ^92, 379i 409- 

saer (libera), gL 73. 
saer (artifex), X138. 
Saerghus, p. 69, note, 
saetbar, 1085. 
sagart, 24, 367 ; p. 154. 
sai, 4. 

iiaighcd, 215. 
sailmcbedaidh, 3. 
saithecb na tuiae, 1 134. 
8&1, gL 192 ; p. 150. 
salacb, 616, 684. 
salann, 077. 
salm, 467, 3. 
saltair, 766. 
sanntach, 667. 
sanntaigbi, 11 20. 
8&thach, 402. 
sbegacb, 629. 
sblinacb, 274. 
Bbor, 1 04 1, 
sbor&n, 514. 
sbruileadi, 1004. 
ra-8caitb, 894. 
K&la, 106; p. 156. 
scamhan, gL 221; p. 150. 
Bckraidb, 864. 
sciath, gl. 75 ; p. 148. 
scithech, 613, 614. 
scola, 338. 
ecolb tigbe, 446. 
edair, 84. 
sdan, 789. 
edocaire, 1016. 

86, 777. 

Bealladb, 741. 

Se&n, 151. 

secbmailliro, gL 240; p. 150. 

Secbnall, 894. 

secbr&n, 131 ; p. 156. 

seghdba, 847. 

seichi (-e), 732. 

s^ideadb, 1019. 

s^idetb g&itbbbolga, 217 ; p. 157. 

B^imin, 211. 

seirbe, 11 32. 

s^iaedb, 593. 

B^itche, 1073. 

selg, gL 215 ; sealg, 1012. 

sen, 130; Bean, gL 260. 

senadh naomb, 551. 

Ben&iB, 735. 


senmh&tbAir, 130. 

8en6ir, 29, iioo. 

Beomra, 123. 

Boirach, 494. 

Middle-Irish Index. 


868,70; p. 155. 

sesrach, 49. 

86t sligbedh, 1073. 

Bgadan, 967. 

flgaigneo, 484. 

sgartach, 796. 

8g6l, 223. 

•geota, 709; p. 163. 

sgeotba, 710; p. i6j^. 

agian, 440, 441, 11 39. 

8gingid6ir, 515. 

Sgiursi (-e), 109. 

agornach^, 707. 

•i, 847. 

siadaire, 57. 

sians, gl. 244. 

adhaa gaeithe, 997. 

ail, 1009. 

sillad, 231. 

rillaidhi, 231. 

sin, 420, 42 1 . 

sine ochta, 1059. 

sine Se&in, 151. 

sitheal, 241. 

siur-marbhthach, 320. 

slaitin, 117. 

sl&n, 303, 633. 

Bl&nti (-e), gl. 57. 

slat, 116. 

dataidhi (-e), 956. 

Sleibte, p. 125, note. 

slemain (8lemoD)| 639. 

slest&n, 32. 

sliasit, gl. 94, gl. 164, gl. 178. 

slighe, 112, 613; gl. 117. 

Blind, 1014. 

8lind6n, 148. 

slinnchriadhr 376. 

sliae^g, 1 00 1. 

slnagb, 1003 ; gl. 25, gl. 39, &c. 

smech, gl. no, gL 122. 

8mer6id, 945. 

smir, 193. 

sn&itbi(-e), 817. 

sn&mbach, 391. 

Snedbghns, p. 69, note. 

snethacb, 649. 

8o-abb, p. 37, note. 

no-86adb, p. 37, note. 

aochartfaanaigbi, 1125. 

sochnddhe, 380. 

sodain, 747. 

soegal, gl. 10; p. 146-7. 

sogh allaidh, 297. 

soifist (soipblst), 842. 

soiler, 740. 

Boilestar, 795. 

soillsi (-e), 998, 1 1 22. 

aologhta, 1126. 

solus, 665 ; tee follus. 

soinbolta, 11 27. 

sophistighi (tidhe?), 8. 

speilp, 730. 

spide6g, 202. 

«pin, 933. 

spirait, gl. 211. 

spuirech, 764. 

sraine. gl. 7 ; p. 146.* 

sratbar, 262. 

srebhand (-bban), 794. 

srian, 819. 

srucnaim, gl. 255. 

sroin (?), gl. 252. 

8r611, 577. 

8r6n, 1039; gl. 117. 

srubhan, 143. 

aruban mara, 144. 

sruth, 999, 1037, 1042. 

stanambail, 610. 

stiuraamand, gl. 49; p. 147. 

stoc-rounadb, 705. 

8t61, 748. 

atuidia, 856. 

aabhacbua, 301. 

subdech&in, 455. 

aualach, gL 15. 

aui, 4. 

sui abb, p. 37, note. 

atiidbe, p. 153. 

auldbeocan, 850. 

aaidhioghudh, gL 4. 

aCiil, 168,425; gL 104; p. 128, 

note '. 
aiiilech, 430, 431. 
snirgecb, 618. 
auiati (-te), 278. 
aiiithe (sapientia), p. 37, note, 
auithe, 941. 
sust, 109. 
atithemlacbt, p. 37, note. 

tabhaill, 62. 
tadhbhaia, 846; p. 163. 
Tadhg, 548. 
tadhuU, p. 148. 
taemhan, 71. 
taea, 242. 
taibherne, 169, 689. 

t«ili (-0» 739- 
tailin (ace. a.), p. 112, note. 
t&ipliH, 27 ; p. 154. 
tairia, 1048. 

tairrage, 443. 

tairreech, 1000. 

taisbenadli, 894, 846; p. 163. 

taiaech, see bantaiaecb. 

taiaecb cethrair, 400. 

taiaecb cuigir, 401. 

taitbneambnach, 800. ) 

taithnemach, 666. j 

t&I, 252. 

talumb, 108. 

tanic, no. 

tarbh-aliasta, gl. 05, gl. 182. 

tardadb, 193, 226. 

tarr, 147. 

tarracb, 284. 

teacb, 569. 

teachtaire, 450. 

teallach, 511. 

tech na merdreach, 7 1 3. 

techat, gl. 59. 

tecoiace, 11 12. 

techtaire, 747. 

tcdaire, 1017. 

tegaiage, 660. 

tegbim, gl. 262. 

teilgim, p. 151. 

tdine creasa, 720. 

toirc, 672. 

teirci (-e), 924. 

tempoll, 688. 

tend, p. 149. 

tcnga, 560; gl. 87, gl. 127, gL 

1 30 ; tengadh, 40. 
tengthacb, 625. 
tea, 942, 1086. 
tiach, 41, 371. 
tiarach, 265. 
tidh>iacbtaidh, 11 34. 
tigh, 446; p. 161. 
tighema, 287, 404, 453 ; gl. 143, 

gL 147. 
tigherna d6ise, 398. 
tigherna trir, 399. 
tighernaa, 886. 
timchell, 691, 1087. 
timna, 760. 
timpanach, 6 ; p. 153. 
timthlrigfa, 368. 
timthirecbt, 898. 
tiimianech (-nach), 615. 
tiradh, 703. 
tia, gl. 132. 
(ituL 560. 
tochaitaigb, 746. 
toebh, gL 79. 
togba, 878. 


Indices Verborum. 

(oghlduacht, p. 147. 

toin, 470. 

tombtior, 104; toimhlid, 193. 

t6n, gl. 177, gl. 224. 

toradh, 289. 

tore, 373, 483. 

Tordhelbacb, 161. 

torroacb, 755. 

torpan, 269 (tee partan). 

torta, gl. 139. 

tra, 1030. 

tredhelbhdha, gL 105. 

tredhlaighthe, gL 213. 

tres, 590. 

treuillech, gl. 213. 

trethe, 560. 

tri, 774. 

tria], triaIlAt6ir, 1096. 

tri-bhith, 229. 

tribhoa, 324. 

tribhusach, 600. 

tripallA, 930. 

tritfau, gL 56. 

triur, 398. 

troethidin, p. 148. 

tioibel, 855. 

tniagh, 383. 

t(iaidh, 353. 

tmaihiidhe, gL 69 ; p. 1 48. 

id, gL 142. 

tosixgin, 722 ; tuaiigim, gL 149. 

tuata, 423. 

tacadh, p. 103, note ^ 

tnoc, 1 1 34. 

tnighl (-e), 994. 

tuire6g, 64; p. 155. 

tnnna, 731. 

tua, 1 134. 

ttis, 232. 

t^asigh (dat. a. fem.), gl. 49. 

aachtlan, 1064. 
nachtlanaidhe, 1063. 
nachtar, 192. 
aadh, gL 2. 
aaigb, 1069. 
iiaimm, gL 150. 
UAimhxiighim, gl. 65. 
uainln, 492. 
Uaithne, 547, 768. 
naUgbubha, 1008. 
nam, gL 59, 
nan, 459. 
uas, p. 37, nota. 
uaaalathair, 13. 
Uater, 530. 

nbhall briighat, gL 131. 
Qcbt, 1059; n. nademainde, gl. 

nchtach, 264. 
nchtard, 643. 
nchtgbel, 223. 
ngbdur, 1107. 
nile, gL 72. 
nille, gL 163 ; p. 149. 
Uilliam, 531. 
ninneamhiiin, 862. 
uinnimint, 785. 
nir, 578. 

uirge (= 5pvic), gL 209. 
idaci (-e), xoo, 863. 
niace imiU, 69. 
niagemhlacfat, 932. 
niaa (nom. pL m.), 36. 
nlbu, 93. 
ulcha, gL III. 
nmbail, 36. 
unbamhail, 611. 
nraioecbt, 868. 
nrcbar, gL 81. 
nTchddecb, 935. 
nrcbumail, 279; p. 159. 
nriabhradb, 867. 
nriambaa, 906. 
niraidh, 304. 
nxralaiati, ii35- 
nrtan (art&nr), iii. 
nth, 102, 1056. 


IThe Old' JFelsh words m this Index are marked with an asterisk.'} 

•abaUen, 555. 

adan, 746. 

ad, p. 148. 

*»tinet, p. 59, note ; 746. 

aflafar, 11 33. 

afd, 1032. 

agnedd, p. 163. 

aidd, 94^. 

amnii 670. 

alarcb, 509. 

amaer, X048. 

anadl, p. 149. 

angor, 68. 

aradtt, 1076. 
arddangos, 660. 
aren, 246, loix. 
arglwydd, p. 147. 
ariant, 607. 
arlaia,p. 148. 
aaen, p. 149. 
aaeo, aajn, 296. 
atar, 746. 
athrach, 1046. 

bach, 439, 664. 
bachawg, 605. 

ball, 638. 

bara, 141. 

*baiT, p. 148. 

baa, p. 149. 


beodithks 914* 

benyw, 1053. 

ber, p. 149. 

berw, benrr, berf, 823. 

•biooled, 339. 

blaa, 975. 

blain, blaenor, blaena, p. 147. 

blawd, 491. 

Welsh Index. 


bliagyn, p. 157. 

blodeuog, 491. 

bloneg, 236. 

bod, 120. 

♦bou, 158. 

*boutigy 158. 

braen, braenn, 683. 

•brawt, 1047. 

•braut, 366. 

breuant) 292. 

•brith, 957. 

broD, p. 150. 

^bronnbreithetf p. 59, note ; 957. 

bnx, 647. 

brjcan, 1033. 

biysiaw, 30. 

Brython, 957. 

bngaU, 583. 

bun, 21. 

bwgwth, 339. 

bwrWf 1048. 

bwyt, 477. 

bychodawg, 1058. 

byddar, 604. 

bjgyliaeth, 339. 

b3rr, 678. 

•bywyt, 113. 

each, 1075. 

*cae, 218. 

cafacd, 594. 

cafi], p. 156* 

cair, 267. 

♦caitoir, 1055. 

calaned, 919. 

calch, 58. 

calon, 919. 

cam, p. 150. 

cang, p. 150. 

canlyn, p. 165. 

cant, 772. 

canwyll, p. 154. 

carant, 292. 

cath, 499. 

cawn, p. 157. 

oedor, cedorawg, 1055. 

oeiliawg, 506. 

ceiliog gwynt, 510. 

celc, 325. 

cell, 115. 

cengl, 149. 

^oenito], 676. 

ceryddn, 888. 

cesail, p. 150 (No. 216). 

cig, p. 1 50 (No. 203 ; correct cyg /). 

ciglif, 655. 

clais, p* 149. 

cla8, 273. 
*claud, 229. 
•claur, clorion, 67. 
cledd, 387. 
cleddyf, 461. 
cloddiaw, 229. 
clodfawr, 655. 
dopa, p. 154. 
dopen, p. 154. 
dadd, p. 147. 
dust, p. 148. 
clyn, 723. 

cly^t 655. 
•coc, 24c. 
cogail, 567. 
co^fran, 201. 
collen, 556. 
colomen, 203. 
colwyn, 498. 
conyn, p. 157. 
cor, 457. 
corff, 107 1, 
corlan, p. 164. 
craidd, 1102. 
crane, 374. 
creyr, 204. 
crochan, 56. 
croen, 56. 
croesan, 14. 
croesaw, 92. 
•cruitr, p. 162. 
crwth, 5. 
eunnawg, 165. 
cwUawg, X030. 
cwpan, p. 161. 
cwr, p. 147. 
cwrw, 266. 
cwrwgl, 488. 
ewyr, 225. 
cwyren, 836. 
cyd, p. 164. 
cyfathrach, 1046. 
cyfenw, 993. 
eyfrif, 913. 
cylor, 1049. 
cymanfa, 897. 
cj-mhani, 896. 
cyminedd, p. 147. 
cymyn, 897. 
cynnull yd, 210. 
cysegriad, 879. 
cystudd, 892. 
cystwyad, 891. 

chwaer, 320. 

chwant, 667. 
chwech, chweched, 777. 
*chuechet, 588. 
chuiawr, 320. 
chwegr, 570. 
chwerw, 1132. 
chwith, chwithig, p. 161. 
chwyth, 826. 
chwvthiad, 217. 
chwythu, 57; p. 154- 

dafad, da&tes, 858. 
dalen, deilen, 765. 
dall, 249. 
dangaws, 660. 
delw, 642, 936. 
dehea, 386. 
deng, p. 150. 
derwen, 554. 
didryfWr, 315. 
delehedion, 87. 
*dimimd, 237. " 
dieet, 87. 

^doguomianr., 807. 
*dou, •dui, 773. 
^duguobintiliat, 1073. 
draen, 559. 
drws, 124. 
drywyn, 207. 
dryssien, 587. 
da, 381. 
daw, 404. 
dwm, 502. 

^71 570- 
dyfrgJ, 375- 
dyled, p. 147. 

dyludo, p. 147. 
dylyna, p. 165. 
dyn, 953; llysdyn, 718. 
dyagj'bl, 438. 

eawg, 216. 

ebodn, p. 161. 

eddestr, eddestl, eddestlawr, 820. 

e<!nyf, 666. 

ednyw, 666. 

edyn, 746. 

efydd, 610. 

eglwya, p. 157. 

eirif, 913. 

eithyr, 10 14. 

din, p. 149. 

*emed, 61a 

emennydd, 747. 

*eiiimeni, 784. 

^engned, p. 148. 



Indices Verhorum. 

ennill, 694. 

enw, 991. 

enjDQ, p. 147. 

erbyn (= O. Ir. archiann), p. 165. 

erfin, 213. 

ergyrwaew, p. 148. 

erlyn, p. 165. 

erw, 1038. 

eryr, 197. 

^escip, 982. 

"eterinn, 746. ^ 

*etncoilhaam, 746. 

ewin, p. 150. 

ewyll, 884. 

ewyrdonic, p. 67, note *. 

ffa, 109. 

ffat p. 150. 

ffaling, 37 ; p. 154. 

ffroen, 1039. 

ffrowyll, 109. 

ffrwdf 999* 

ffrwyn, 109, 819, 1039. 

ffar&fen, 749. 

ffiiBt, 109. 

gafl, 135- 

gafr, 372; gafar, 1075. 

galar, 281. 

garw, p. 159. 

gebel, 135. 

gefell, 834. 

gel, 94a 

Gildas, 17. 


glin, p. 149. 

glo, 273. 

glwys, 719. 

glyn, p. 165. 

gof| 369- 
goglawdd, 229. 

*golbinoc, p. 148. 

golchf, 1045. 

goren, mo. 

gorfynt, 602. 

gorjn, 255. 

graen, p. 147. 

*gratell, 107. 

gre, 742. 

gres, p. 164, 

grisiau, p. 164. 

grisly fr, p. 164. 

grudd, p. 148, p. 154. 

gnlg, 565} p. 162. 

grwm, 384, 1065. 

grwn, 390. 

grwysen, 582. 
•gudif, •gndhyf, 797. 
*guell, II 16. 
gwadn, p. 148. 
gwaew, 216. 
gwain, 157. 
gwarchad, 984. 
gware, 641. 
gwau, 1095. 
gwedd, p. 163. 
gweddi, 870. 

gweddw, p. 1 47 1 P- U9- 
gwefl, p. 148. 
gwel, I. 
gwennol, 934. 

gwernen, 558. 

gwerthyd, 568. 

gwea, 1095. 

gwichell, 140. 

gwichiad, p. 157. 

gwirion, 681. 

gwlybwr, 675, 

gwlyp, 675 ; •rogulipiaa, 675. 

Gwraldeg, 533. 

gwregya, p. 148. 

Gwrwst, 342. 

gwydd, 959. 

gi^dd, p. 154. 

gwyddif, 797. 

gwyn, p. 150. 

g^yr, 621, 724. 

gwyth, 99. 

gylf, p. 148. 

gyth, 603. 

faaearn, 608. 
hafal, 609, 904 
halen, 977. 
hebawg, 1006. 
hen, p. 156. 
*henmam, 130. 
henwr, 11 00. 
•hep, p. 156. 
hidl, 241. 
hil, 1009. 
•hinham, 130. 
•hint, 490. 
hoedel, p. 147. 
hosan, 72. 
hotan, botyn, 596. 
hun, 720. 
hydd, 183. 
hjTit, 1073. 

i&, 758. 

iao, 758. 
iawn, 681. 
•iechyt, 758. 
ieuaf; 758. 
ieoanc, 758. 
*iot, 758. 
•iouenc, 758. 
•itlaar, 1038. 
iwicb, 205. 

kentaf; kyntaf, 588. 

nachar, p. 156. 
llaeth, 25a 
Ilafanog, p. 150. 
llafaru, 11 33. 
llai, 923. 
llan, 132. 
Hath, 116. 
llawen, 393. 
Ilawer, 908. 
llawn, 13. 
llawr, 704. 
Uech, 573. 
lied, p. 156. 
llefiuii, 1 133. 
Ilefiith, p. 163. 
lleiad, 923. 
lleiaf, 923. 
Iliad, lUaw, 1071. 
Uin, 38. 
mth, 767. 
•logod, 248. 

llong» 574- 
llongborth, 725. 

llorp, p. 15a 

lloag, 128, 737. 

llu, 1003. 

•luit, 182. 

Uuiyg. 154- 
llydanedd, 925. 

llyfh, 639. 

Uyfrith, 268. 

iiyfyr» 371- 

Uygf 248. 

llygod ffrengig, 248. 
Uyn, 221. 
Uynghee, 574. 
Ilyriad, 937. 
Uys, 580. 
llysdad, 48. 
llysenw, 48. 
llysian, 810. 
llysienyn, 183. 
j llythyren, 230. 

Welsh Index. 

mad, 66 1. 

nef, 812. 

serch, 618. 

magwjTf 866. 

nes,nesaf, 11 17. 

sil, 1009. 

maidd, 783. 

nifwl, niwl, 337. 

sill, 231. 

maiii, 430. 

nith, 224. 

swta, 941. 

maint, 92a. 

*notaid, 817. 

«yw, p. 153. 

maluy 701. 

man, p. 154. 

oen, 459. 

tad, 1046. 

mantdl, 490. 

offeren, p. 164. 

taflu, p. 154. 

*map, 80. 

ofni, p. 148. 

tafod, 40. 

marcb, 189. 

•oia, *oisoQ9, 735. 

tair, 774. 

*marchaiiC| 127. 

orlaU, 1135. 

taith, 450, 87 a. 

marw, p. 159. 

tal, 739. 

marwydos, 945. 

pair, 724. 

talm, 108. 

mawl, 90a. 

paith, p. 149. 

tant, 1017. 

mawn, 118. 

paradwys, 553. 

torw, p. 159. 

mawr, 663. 

pawl, 495. 

tes, 942, 1086. 

maws, 927. 

pedwardyblyg, 931. 

teyrnas, 886. 

•mdchat (-iat), 1029. 
melstyr, 365. 

penglog, p. 148, p. 154. 

•tig, 159- 

•petguerid, p. 157 ; ♦petgaared, 

tin, p. 149. 

mel, 968. 


to, 994. 

melin, 701. 

♦petuar, 775. 

toes, 242. 

melldith, 915. 

•pimphet, 58S. 

•traet, 74- 

mer, 193. 

piw, 1056. 

traws, tros, 1000. 

m^r, p. 157. 

piyga. 930- 

•treb, 315. 

*merchet, p. 59, note. 

porch, 493. 

trech, XI 17. 

merthjr, 738. 

porphor, 224. 

•tri, teir, 774. 

meth, m«thiant, 11 23. 

prdtbiaw, p. 148. 

triphlygiad, 930, 

mign, 118. 

pren, 719. 

trothwy, xooo. 

mi]gi, 411. 

pres, p. 154. 

tman, 383. 

mla, 1050. 

priddfaen, 1054. 

trwm Tadj.), 903. 
trwm (snbst), p. 163 

mocb, 1029. 

priddlech, 1054. 

moel, 258. 

pump, 776. 

trws, 324. 

mod-Ton, 50. 

pwn, pyniaw, 4«. 
pjrrchwyn, p. 162. 

♦tat (tud), 423. 

monochen, p. 155. 

twrch, 373. 

mor, 860. 

pjn^wyn, p. 162. 

twyaen, 35 ; p. 163. 

morforwyn, 1020. 

pysg. 13- 

tyneU, 731. 

morhwch, 1029. 

pystylwyn, 265. 

ty, 569. 

•motrwy, 466. 

mQrynyon, 1020. 

rhagenw, 992. 

ncbedydd, 140. 

mul, 295. 

*rannam, rhan, 9. 

nffarn, p. 149. 

mnn, p. 154. 

^rhaad, rhasgl, 814. 

nffem, 519. 

mnr, 476. 

rhawn, p. i6z. 

♦onyet, 142. 

mwnai, 841. 

rhiain, p. 154. 

urdd, 943. 

mwng, 744. 

rhif, 913. 

nthr, 10 14. 

mwnwgl, 744; p. 149. 

rhod, 227. 

uwdy 1038. 

mwjd, 431. 

rheol, p. 155. 

mwy, 1 1 14. 

*ro-gulipias, 675. 

•▼udimln(?), 797; p 

mwyn, 43a 

rhoi, p. 109, note. 

mwyih, 394. 

rhyn, 1008. 

wyf, ma. 

rojnydd, 237. 

wyt, zzia. 

myr» SS- 

sach, 489. 

saer, 11 37. 

ym, 85, Ilia. 

nadr, 88. 

saeth, 214. 

ymenin, 784. 

nawf, 391. 

sawdl, p. 15a 

ynfyd, 51a. 

nawn, 1077. 

«Bcamnhe^t, p. 150. 

ynt^ Ilia. 

nedden, neddog, 649. 

senedd, 551. 


ysborioD, 764. 



Indices Verborum. 

Tsbwrial, 764, 1004. 
ysgadAD, 967. 
yBgien, 440. 

ysgiDf 515- 

yag^d, p. 148. 
ysgyfaint, p. 15a 
yslath, I id. 
ysDoden, 817. 

ystrodjrr, 26a. 
jsparduo, 1041. 
yspar, 1041. 

yw, 561. 


aeran, loii. 
ail, 460. 
aDcar, 68. 
arhanz, 607. 
aaen, p. 149. 
avallen, 555. 
ayi, 103a. 

banne, 966. 
bara, 141. 
bartli, 14. 
beler, 833. 
ber, p. 149. 
bloneg, 336. 
bochadoc, 1058. 
bothar, 604. 
braud, 1047. 
brenniat, p. 147. 
bron, p. 150. 
bngel, 583. 
buit, 477. 

cans, 77a. 
caDtail, 44. 
keghin, 345. 
chelioc, 506. 
kelli, 115. 

kigeli 567- 
clin, p. 149. 

oogi 245- 
coir, 235. 

coloio, 498. 

oolviden, 556. 

croider, 700. 

CUgol, 131. 

coic, 436. 
conm, 75. 

darat (-raz), 114. 

hoem, 608. 

dele, 853. 

hnethaf, 317. 

delen, 765. 

haheltat, p. 153. 

den, 953. 

liaw» 735- 

discibel, 438. 

diareft, p. 159. 

idne, 746. 

drelB, 587. 

iffam, 519. 

duT, 381. 

impinion, 747. 

duy, 404. 

ispak, 98a. 

dyghow, 386. 


ehog, 316. 

lerg^ 937- 

elin, p. 149. 

leski, 138. 

enedfflren, p. 148. 

leTeriat, 1133. 

enef; 388. 

lewilloit, p. 150. 

end, 1 1 13. 

liTer, 371. 

er, 197. 

locb, 434. 

erieu, p. 148. 

lorch, 53. 

loBC, 737. 

ficbren, 563. 

luo, 1003. 

fruc(friic?), 1039. 

luworch gidti 114. 

firmament, 749. 

malster, 365. 

ghel, 940. 

manach, 435. 

gelvin, p. 148. 

march, 189. 

glibor, 675. 

marhas, 337. 

gof, 3^9- 

mel, 968. 

grod, 39. 

melin, 701. 

gCLdh, p. 154. 

mennyw, X053. 

guedeo, p. 147. 

meth, 1 1 33. 

guein, 157. 

mor, 860. 

guell, 1 1 16. 

morhoch, 1039. 

guennol, 934. 

moy, 1 1 14. 

gnemen, 558. 

gniden, p. 156. 

nef, 813. 

guihan, p. 157. 

noden, 817. 

gnrhthit, 568. 

0^ Ilia. 

haloin, halein, 977. 

oin, 459. 

hivin, 561. 

on, ma. 

Breton Index. 


onnen, 557. 

acala, 106. 

(onnel, 731. 

ofl, Ilia. 


torch, 373. 

skefans, p. 15a 

trait, 74. 

pels, pent, pows, 717. 

uiodftn, 817. 

tralcrdi, 937 

pepel, 458. 

soler, 740. 

per, 7*4- 

stoc, 705. 

warn, pt 146 

ramUt, p. 153. 

tavot, 40. 

yns, ma. 

tee, 94a. 

yorch, 305. 

Mir, II 37. 

ti, 569. 


amann, 784. 
arc^hant, 607. 
avo, 103 a. 

bannecli, 966. 
bara, 141. 
beler, 833. 
ber, p. 149. 
blonec, p. 164. 
bonzar, 604. 
bragez, 1033. 
baes, 113. 

cant, 77 a. 
c*hoa6zaf, 317. 
chwant, 667. 
Gompizrieii, 1046. 

da, 570- 
dargreiz, iioa. 

ddien, 765. 

du, 381. 

emponn, 747* 
6d^ a88. 
eny, 81 a. 
eor, 68. 
6rar, or, 197* 

Mcli, loia. 

got, 369. 
gouin, 157. 
gnell, 1 1 16. 
gu^nn^li, 934. 
gw6a, 1095. 

gwelaoaen, 940. 

m^za, 1133. 

gwernen, 558. 

moan, 430. 

gwerzid, 568. 

morhoacli, 1039. 

may, 11 14. 

hal, halen, holen, 977. 

hennt, 1073. 

nados, 817. 

hoal, p. 147. 

nend, neuden, 817. 

niz, 649. 

foul, 884. 

ionrc'h, ao5. 

oan, 459. 

ivinen, 561. 

off, ma. 

omp, ma. 

kaz, 499. 


oonoen, 557. 

k61er, 1049. 

reCbi, p. 161. 

kelv^zen, 556. 

reiz, 890. 

ker, p. 147. 

kezonr, 1055. 

sc6yent, p. 15a 

kleiz, 387. 

scoit) p. 148. 

klom, koalm, 303. 

skeja, 44a 

koar, aa5. 

spern, 1041. 

kolen, 498. 

stilr, storia, p. 147. 

kOOgOol, 131. 

krouezer, 700. 

tes, 943. 

lercli, 937. 

tonel, 731. 

leatad, 48. 

tocirc*b^ 373. 

lesvab, 48. 

trdoli, 1117. . 

lorchen, $2. 

trsiizoa, looQ. 

losk, 737. 

tmlen, pb 14& 


wam, pb 146. 

malven, p. 148. 

mel, 968. 


melin, 701. 

ynt, ma. 

menleC, 90a. 


Indices Verbarum. 

aedes, 948. 

aer, 104. 

aes, 812, 216. 

aestaa, 948. 

aeetna, 948. 

agnomenf 991. 

agniu (= avigniis?), 492. 

ago, p. 44, note. 

alo, 486. 

amb-, 670, 921. 

aiicora, 68. 

animal, 428. 

animna, p. 149. 

ardaus, 16. 

argentum, 607. 

arvum, 1038. 

asinus, 296 ; p. 159. 

atta, 1078. 

aunim, 606. 

axilla, p. 150. 

betola, 560. 

bi-, 773- 
boa, 159. 
brerifl, 678. 
brocchoa, 852. 
babolciu, 583. 

caoo, 1075. 

caecQS, 426. 

calx, 58. 

canis, 411, 1050. 

canua, p. 157. 

cano, 837. 

caper, 372. 


cayea (= O. Ir. cae ?), 218. 

cenaeo, 837. 

ocnaoB, 285. 

centnm, 772. 

cera, 225. 

certus, 888. 

cognomen, 991. 

cdumba, 203. 

commnnifl, 897. 

comparo, p. 154. 

oonseqnor, p. 162. 

coquino, 245. 

coqno, 245. 

corpna, 812. 

corylua, 556. 

coxa, 466. 


cratea, 126. 
cribrum, 700. 
crotta, 5. 
CQCollnfl, I a I. 

dama, 858. 
dea, 289. 
decern, p. 150. 
dens, 81. 
dexter, 386. 
duo, 773. 

edo, 40. 
eqana, 17. 
erica, p. 162. 
eaox, 216. 
eat, ma. 
eBiftdaa, 216. 

faba, 100. 
faber, 309. 
fero, 835. 
fbrverer 95^* 
fircns (Sabine), 205. 
flagellom, 109. 
floa, 491. 

folinm, 765; p. 163. 
fores, 124. 
forma, 64a. 
frater, 570, 1047. 
firenum, 109, 819. 
fundus, 96. 
furvus, 381. 
fuscus, 381. 
fustis, 109. 

genus, 8x2. 
gilvus, Z124. 
grex, 742. 
gustus, p. 69, note '. 

hirpus, 305. 
hircus, 205. 

indytus, 655. 
innooens, p. 151. 
inter, 49a 

Jecnr, 1032. 
Justus, 758. 
Juvencus, 758. 
Juvenis, 758. 

lac, 250. 
lacua, 781. 
laetus, p. 151. 
Ifttus, p. 156. 
l&tus (irXarvc)i 1 3* 
Lavema, 79a. 
laxus, 38a. 
lens, lendis, 649. 
leyior, 933, 11 15. 
lerir, 397. 
lien, loia. 
lingua, 40. 
lino, p. 159, 
linquo, p. i6z. 
lippus, 675. 
liquor, 675. 
lorica, IJ4. 
lucrum, 79a. 
lucta, p. 153. 

magnus, 663. 
major, 1 1 14. 
mantcdlum, 490. 
manus, p. 154. 
marceo, 860. 
marey 860. 
mater, 130, 1052. 
mel, 968. 

meme, p. 127, note ^ 
mensa, 478, 285. 
menais, 285, 105a 
molendinum, 701. 
molo, 701. 
mors, 315. 
mulceo, 243. 
mulgeo, 243. 
mulus, 295. 

natrix, 88. 
navis, ai. 
nebulk, 337. 
necto, 817. 
neptis, aa4. 
nex, 693. 
nooeo, p. 151. 
nomen, 991. 
nox, 693. 

opus, 889. 
ordo, 943. 
omus, 557. 
OS, oasis, p. 149. 

MedicBveU Latin Index. 


paUiom, p. 154. 
palnmba, 203. 
pater, 13, 1046. 
pectus, 8 1 a. 
pecus, 389. 
penna, 746. 

pea, p. 150- 
pisda, 13. 
plecto, 930. 
pleniiB, 13. 
pl^roa, 13. 
plico, 930. 
poena, 98 ; p. 156, 
popina, 245 ; p. 158. 
porouB, 493. 
pro, 13. 
pulsus, 99. 
purpura, 224. 

quatuor, 775. 
quinctua, 588. 
quinque, 776. 

rastrnm, 8x4. 
regina, 20. 
ren, 246. 
rex, 1036. 
rien, loii. 
rivus, 999. 
rota, 227 ; p. 158. 

ramis, 999. 
TOO, 999. 

sacer, 724. 
saocuA, 489. 
sagitta, 214. 
sal, 977. 
salax, 616. 
salicastmm, 795. 
aalio, 616, 977. 
salum, 977. 
scutum, p. 148. 
seculum, p. 147. 
secus, p. 156. 
sedeo, 70. 
semi, 392. 
Seneca, 130. 
senex, 130. 
septem, 224. 
sex, 777. 
sextns, 588. 
similia, 609, 904. 
sisto, p. 100, note, 
socrus, 570. 
somnium, p. 163. 
soror, 216, 320. 
specio, specto. p. 149. 
stannum, 610. 
sum, sunt, 11 12. 

talea, 252. 

tauru8(= Gaulish tarvoti)^ p. 159. 

tellus, 108. 

tendo, 10 1 7. 

tepere, 942. 

theca, 41, 371. 

tongeo, p. 165. 

torreo, 703. 

trans, xooo. 

tres, 774. 

tribns, 315. 

ulna, p. 149. 
umbilicus, p. 150. 
unguis, p. 150; No. 198. 
unio, 862. 
unus (oinos), p. 147. 

vagina, 157. 
varus, 621. 
vates, 2. 
veru, p. 149. 
vespera, 224. 
vieo, 99, 1095. 
vidua, p. 147, p. 159. 

▼«■» 395- 
vita, 477. 

vitis, 99; p. 156. 

vivos, 113. 


[Numerals to which the letter " L.** is prefixed refer to the lines of the Zoriea, pp. 136-143.] 

abacia, 173. 
admidulum, 824. 
aglossus, 629. 
agoneteta, L. 19 ; p. 143. 
aUea, 31. 
alministrum, 793. 
amusca, 251 ; p. 158. 
anl&s, 558. 
antela, 264* 
anticttla, 155. 
aptempna, 7a 
ardmantrica, 16. 
asugia, 236. 

babana, 284. 
batma, p. 144. 

baudaca, 220. 

benna, 163. 

berrus, p. 148. 

binna, 162. 

birria, 18; p. 154. 

biturrea (-ia), 152. 

braxatus, 600. 

brecia, 184. 

brucus, 565. 

brunus, 559. 

bucealla, 144. 

bncliamen, L. 76; p. 145. 

caba, 277. 
cadibulta, 274. 
callidiba, 278. 

camisa, 38. 

candal^na, 63. 

capital! (dafc. s.), L. 49. 

capbta, 51. 

capula, 266. 

carsuro, L. 37 ; p. 144. 

cartesium (= cfaartaoeum), 709. 

cartilago, L. 49. 

catacrina, L. ^ ; p. 145. 

caustozia, 59. 

cavicula, 229. 

oelopidus, 635. 

cephale, L. 35 ; p. 144. 

cepus, 480. 

ceiitro (dat. s.), L. 49 ; p. 145. 

chautrum, p. 145. 


Indices Verborum. 

chorus, p. 153. 

dpiis, 479. 

ciratheca, 34. 

cironumcia (chiromtchU)| 272. 

cirra, 33. 

citola, 241. 

cladom, L. 37 ; p. 144. 

clerica, 76. 

collacanius, 486. 

colomatictia, p. 148. 

colosdrigiam, 1136. 

comprisura, 238. 

cona, L. 35 ; p. 144. 

corductum, p. 156. 

corporale, 859; p. 164. 

corrolos, 556. 

creta. 126. 

cretella, 107. 

Cuba, L 57 ; p. 145. 

dectura, 153. 
delipin, 1029. 
digma (?), 127. 
doHa, L. 75 i p. 145. 
dncendum, 773. 

ea, 186. 
edibolta, 275. 
emenda, 98. 
episcenum, pw 13. 
ereocledufl, p. 24. 
eripica, 240. 
erundo, 934. 
ethera, 104. 

fallnga, 37. 

fasellos, 488. 

ferina, 183. 

feasica, 57. 

festola (featuca?), 211. 

fethma, 844. 

fifrem (ace. s.), L. 74. 

fixio, 900. 

forcuratio, 899. 

gamba, L. 63. 

ganea, 187. 

garga, 141. 

gelima, 45. 

genimen, 10 10. 

genaclts (aU. pi.), L. 64; p. 145. 

gemoodum, 708. 

geira, 139. 

geta, 19. 

gibra,L. 31; p. 143- 

gigra, L. 35 ; p. 144. 

gingis (dat. pi.), L. 46 ; p. 165. 

glabella, 78. 

glassia, 243. 

gletealla, 189. 

graogia, 195. 

gredale, 854. 

grimaga, 257. 

grunna, 118; p. 156. 

gugra, p. I44« 

gurgulio, L. 46 ; p. 145. 

gjrgyrium, 746. 

honplata, 148. 
honamccdoa, 436. 

iaris (abL pi.), L. 35 ; p. 144. 
iduixia, L. 38 ; p. 144. 
igniferrioin, 720. 
impedica, 192. 
internaaus, L. 44 ; p. 145. 
iolla (= hilla), ss^ 1005. 
ionuchaB(s= eanudiaB), p. 166. 
»™ndo, 935. 

jacor, L. 73. 
juntura, 149. 

lapifnlta, 246. 

lectorie, 856. 

Iic6r, 1097. 

ligna, L. 36 ; Ugana, p. 144. 

limpa, 69. 

luciAigia, 204. 

malosun, 41 x. 
mancellua, 490. 
mandiannra, L. 37 ; p. 144. 
manuale, 857. 
marcem (ace. a.), L. 74. 
mataxa, 93 ; p. 156. 
mentagra, L. 68 ; p. 145. 
meraiameRtam, 780. 
micena, L 36; p. 144. 
milgus, 507. 
mitreta, 64; p. 155. 
monetola, 201. 
monificina, 237. 
morelius, 49a. 
xniicledlii, ib$, 
malcra, 166. 

naneala, 71. 
Dachum, 794. 

oba, 167. 
obesta, p. 158. 

obligim, L. 74. 
obtolmia, 281. 
odomen, 1006. 
oneata, 256; p. 158. 

panca, 235. 

pantera, 88 ; p. 155. 

pantes, L. 79 ; p. 146. 

partiata, 9. 

patha, L. 36 ; pata, p. 144. 

patma, L. 38 ; p. 144. 

pavimentum, 709, 

pectasculum, L. 69 ; p. 145. 

pensa, 245. 

pestucala, 147. 

picata, 258. 

pUomoia, 202. 


plumba, 60. 

plompeua, 609. 

postella, 265. 

presena, 247. 

preapiter, 307. 

priasora, 244. 

profeticum, 796. 

prosenmeticum, 792. 

prostrinum, 711. 

pumnatus, 473. 

qnadricentnro, 775. 
qainc«Dtiixn, 776. 

retor, 1099. 
romipeda, 311. 
roatigola, 206. 
rotia (dat pi.), L. 45. 
rula, 248. 
rater, 1075. 

aabribarra, 180; p. 157. 
aargifagum (= aaroophagom), p. 

Bandarium (= sudarium), p. 166. 
scama (= squama), 132; p. 152. 
scanum, 748. 
scilarotica, 168. 
sdren, p. 26. 
acupa (= atnpa), 254. 
aena, L. 36 ; Bama, p. 144. 
seneater, 387. 
sepe, 862. 
sera, 226. 
sezoentum, 777. 
aimicintium, p. 166. 
sindola, 253. 
ilrogra, 233. 

Greek Index. 


stuma, 273. 
Bbta, 199. 
sitaiista, 5. 
stipifortifkrtium, 705. 
straulinm, 717. 
subfticatiu, p. 166. 
subliogua, L. 48 ; p. 145. 
saperaltaie, p. 136; p. 143. 
BOBiuTa, 145. 

talia, L. 37. 
tempe, 866. 
tethologia, 81. 
tignua, 485. 
Upia, 146. 
tomfis, 587. 
treoga, 137. 
tribula, 109. 
trica, 379. 
tricendum, 774. 

troclia, 239. 
trobiale, 855. 
troUa, 43. 

tutones, L. 45 ; p. 145. 
tympanum, p. 153. 

ugnla, 151. 
uolua, x8i. 
urla, 19 1, 
uva, L. 48 ; p. 145. 

dvXw, 509. 

<ii0ioif/, al9oQt alOtit, 948. 
/(XXo/iai, 616, 977. 
dXXoc, p. 149. 

fiXc, 977. 

AftiXyw, 243. 
d/i^l, 670. 
'AfA^lliapog, 860. 
Afi^iTCoXot^ 898. 
dvtfioc, P* 149* 
dvftf/i^Ci 324- 
dirX^oCi 930. 
apyvpos, Son. 
dptiuVf mo. 

dproic6iroCt ^45* 

AproirSTro^, 245. 

Arra, 1078. 

a^pov = 0. It. 6r(n)f p. 162. 

dxcraiy p. 44, note. 

Pdva, 1053. 
iSfoc, 113. 
ploTo^y 477. 
po\y6Ci 217. 
povs, 159. 
jSovK^XoCt 584. 
Ppax^fC, 678. 

ydXa, 250. 

yivog^ 812. 

yt^w, p. 69, note '. 

yXacro^dyoC) yXdyoc, 250. 

yvvrif 1053. 

^aiip, 397. 
ddxpv, 724. 
^c(uSc» 386. 
^tirX^oc, 930. 


^<5pw, 554. 

^pvc, 554- 

ivicl^aXoCi 747. 

^dog, 812. 

c7, c//il, c/ffi, 1 1 12. 

Utoc, 777- 
licwpd, 570. 
iXdiTffuv, 923, II 15. 

fXoc, 977« 
l/ie<tf, 97. 

l/l/il, 1 1 13. 

iCaicdrioi, {(^Kovrai 777. 
ipiucrif p. 162. 
Ipyov, 328, 533. 
ifffiivj iffTi{p)f 1 112. 
^w-, 85. 
<*PVC. 578- 

Zia, 779, 

f|ira/o, 1033. 
i^vac, iiffBt, II 13. 
ffTptov, 1095. 

0<pfi(5c, 953. 
Qifpa^ 134. 

'Idoiv, 758. 
lOaiviaBai^ 948. 
lTrTro/3ovic6Xog, 584. 
iirflTOf, 17 ; p. 68, note; 675. 
larTifit, p. 100, note. 
Iriaf 99. 

jcacicdw, ffdjcjcii, 1075. 
KavdZfity 837. 


Kavoo^, 373. 

KapCiOf II03. 

««P«0C, 507. 

JcXIof, KXvr($Cf 6561 813. 

KV^firjy 369. 

cdviCt Kovidoct 649. 

jc(5pi/Xoc, 55^- 

Kprjirkpay 700. 

Kp*<5f, 158. 

ffvoiv (= d<i gen. eon), 411. 

Xafipdvta, 34. 

Xdrpic, 793. 

Xf liTfe), of. 0. Ir. leieim. 

Xcvcofi cf. O. Ir. /6«A^ 392. 

X(yog, 812. 

Xijtc, 793. 

^0X*^C» ^003. 

/laicpScy 621, 724. 
>iavog, 430. 
/lapaiviitf 860. 
/fcyaXoVf 663, 903. 
/ilvaci 663. 
/iidv, 968. 
fitiZutVf 1114. 
/ilXc, 968. 
/«lpoc, p. 157- 
fi^ytCy 603. 

M^'-'Ipt i30« 
ftoXyofj 317. 

fiifXri, 701. 

vavc, 31 ; p. 163. 
vcjcvci 693. 
w^Xif, 337- 
vl0oc> 813. 
vso;, 817. 


Indices Verhorum. 

vrfBtii, 817. 
vv6Qi 570. 

oic = O. U. 61, 

6/ia\6t, 609, 904. 

6fji^a\6g, p. 150. 

ovofia, 901. 

dvoci 290. 

5vw|, p. 15a 

6pyii, 328, 533. 

6p96ct 1^* 

SpX*C (= «>rg«)» g^- 209- 
6<rriov, p. 149. 

od0ap, I02. 

irapd, 704. 

waroc, 13- 
irs^trc, irivn, 776. 
narrip^ 13. 
YTfpaioCf 13* 
frtTfijv&t iriTouai, 746. 
TrXaroCi p» 15^. 

irXar^Ci >3« 
9r\e/aiv, 13. 

nXsKtiif 930. 

9rX4pf}Ci 13- 
noivrji 98 ; p. 156. 

iroXv, 13. 
irdpKoc = ore, 492. 
irovC) p* 150. 
irrapvv/iat, 1039. 
irvOfiriVf 96. 

/Dcv^ia, 999. 
pifitj 999. 
pvyxoc, 1039. 
pVTdc, 909* 

(T^SjckoCi 489. 
ScX^vfi, 95a. 
<rjrvroc> p* 148* 
<nrXd;^voy, 1012. 
airXriVf loia. 
<rrfipy(«», 618. 
ffTOpyri, 618. 

»X •?'*'» 44'- 


ravv/Aai, 10 17. 

ravVy ravaoCi 10 17. 

ravpoc ^ Gatd. tarvos, p. 150. 

ra^j 943. 

riyog, 569. 

rctva», 1 01 7. 

rfTxoc, 871. 

riffoc, 871. 
rtXiuf rsXoQ, 739. 
rkpirofAat, 703 
roixoci 871. 
r6jeoc» 871. 
»"P*X«» 74- 
rvjcoCt ^7'* 

O^wp, 69. 

v^ifX^Cf P* ^^» i^^y^ 

^aiOut^ fdoCf 846. 
^ay, 109. 
f^aXX6c, P- 150b 
0«/>«f 835. 
06voc, p. I47« 

^(tWov, 765 ; p. 163. 
^wyciV) p. 61, note. 

xXwp^Cf "24- 

i!»Xlvif, p. 149. 

&fi6Cf 90. 

aipa = 6mr, p. 95, note 1. 


akaha, akahi, 426. 

Ema, 90. 

aidh, &idha, 948. 

angand, 290. 

Hyn, p. 68, note. 

anji, 784. 

II7US, 812. 

kanyft, 158. 

at, 1068. 

da, IIX2. 

karsha, 703. 

atl, 155. 

klUa, 200. 

atta, 1078. 

indh, 948. 

kf, 700. 

adhi, 752. 

ishira, p. 68, note. 

kravya, 919. 

an, 428 ; p. 149. 

anila, p. 149. 


gad, 870. 

antar, 490. 

and, 69. 

ganra, p. 159. 

abhi, 670. 


go» i59» 784- 

amati, 302. 

unrt, 578. 

grdh, 620. 

ayasi 608. 

ash, 606, 

grha, 702. 

arbha, p. 163. 

s^ 1053. 

avara, 305. 

iidhas, 102. 

a^va, 17 ; p. 68, note. 

ilzdbva, 16. 

ghanna, ghmi, 952. 

aa, IIX2. 

ghrans, ghranaa, 952; p. 164. 

asthi, p. 149. 

edha, edhas, 948. 

asmad, 305. 

ena, p. 147. 

chatur, 775. 

Sanskrit Index. 


cbamum, p. 157. 

chhid, 441. 

jan, 390. 

jani, 1053. 

juuman, jannaan, 886. 

jaloki^ 940. 

jlva, 113,784. 

jlvita, 477. 

takma, 87 1. 


tanch, 873. 

tan, 1017. 

tantu, 1017. 

tap, 943, 1986. 

tava, yuBhmad, 570. 

tiahtbami, p. looy note. 

tu, 423. 

tf, 898. 

trkah, 74. 

trah, 703. 

dakshi^a, .265, 386. 
da^an, p. 150. 
dah (dabh), 942. 
dd, p. 100, note, 
daru, 554. 
dns-, 85. 

dr9 (P*9)» P- H9- 
diva, 21, 81. 

ddvara, 397. 

dy&ra, 124. 

dvi-, 773. 

dhanvan, 108. 
dhit, p. 158. 
dhr, 642, 819. 

nakha, p. 150. 
naptii, 224. 
nabhaa, 812. 
navya, 21. 
na9. 603. 
na9a7ami, p. 151. 
nab, 8x7. 
n&bbi, p. 15 a 
n^tyas, 11 17. 

pacb, 245. 
pancban, 776. 
pad, pdda, p. 150. 

paricbara, 898. 

P*9 (<*r9)i P- '49- 

pHtbas, pathin = O. Ir. dM, 13. 

P»tr, 13- 

poru, ved. pain, 13. 
prch, 930. 
prtbu, 13. 

P? (paO. «3- 
pra, 13, 428. 

plihan, 1012. 

badbira, 604. 
bndbna, 96. 
brbat, 292. 

bbaksb, 109. 
bbikab, 1058. 
bb<i, p. 100, note. 
bbr.835, 1047. 
bbratr, 570, 1047. 
bbr{i, 79. 

magbavan, 952. 
mati, 302. 
madbn, 968. 
man, 302, iizo. 
mano, 302. 
mantb&na, 1139. 
mab. 756. 
mabat, 663. 
mabijaa, 11 14. 
m^ 1052. 
matr, 130, 1052. 
mstSf 1050. 
mitbjd, 1 1 17. 
mar, p. 76, note, 
mr, 860. 
mrin, 860. 

yam, 635. 
yama, loio. 
yava, 779. 
yaviyas, 758. 

yu, 758. 

yuvan, 758. 
yusbmad, 570. 
yos, 758. 

rajata, 607. 
ratba, 227. 
r&j, rijnt, 30. 
ruch, 331. 
rdman, p. 161. 

laghiyas, lagba, 923. 
langb, p. 147. 
Idta, 792. 

▼akra, 621. 
▼ad, 870. 
Tarn, 97. 
vara, 397. 
▼arama, 11 16. 
▼ariyas, 11 16. 
vas, 1070. 
▼aao, p. 126, note, 
▼dr, yari, 222, 86a 
vid, 392. 
vifikl, 99. 
vira, 397. 

vr, 884. 
ve, 1095. 
vetaaa, p. 156. 

<jana, 63, 837. 
9«krt, 1075. 
9akra, 724. 
^atam, 772. 
^ravaa, 655, 812. 
9ri, 387. 
9ya9r(l, 570* 
9vid, p. ISO. 

sad, 70. 
aadas, 8x2. 
sama, 904. 
sarit, 977. 
salila, 977. 
sabaa, 663. 
s&mi, 392. 

sr, 977- 
stbag, 569. 

Btb&, p. 100, note. 

6n&, 391. 

snusbli, 570. 

spa^a, p. 149. 

■ru, 999. 

BTotas, 999. 

syapna, p. 163. 

svaar, 320. 

bari, 1134. 
brdaya, 1 102. . 
bvr, p. 149. 



Indices Verhorum. 


kaine, 158. 
kb^vafl, 777. 
tafnn, 720. 
Unch-, 872. 
thrishya, 588. 
daeruif 89. 
nazdista, 11 17. 
na<^Q, 693. 
panchan, 776. 

peretn, 725. 

bi-, 773- 
ma<^ehim, 11 14. 

maoirinam, 55. 

maooh, 1050. 

yava, 779. 

yaos, 758. 

y&na, 681. 


vdhn, pw 126, note. 

^Um, 772. 

hacha, p. 156. 

hMi*, 735; P- '5^- 
hi^t&mi, p. 100, note. 

zeredhaya, 1102. 


aihus, 17. 
ains, p. 147. 
aithei, 1078. 
andaUttni, 792. 
ara, 197. 

a^bja, 752; p. 163. 
a^ilus, 296. 
atta, 1078. 

balgs, 218. 
banja, p. 147. 
bidjan, bidan, p. 147 
bleitbs, p. 151 

brdthar, 570, 
hanB, 13. 

daigs, 242. 
daur, 124. 
dulg, 433- 

1047 ; brdthra- 



faihu, 389. ' 
faibuthraUmSi 300. 
fldv6r, 775. 
filii, 13. 
ftmf, 776. 
fiaks = ioMCj 1 3. 
fulla = Idn^ 13. 
fotUf p. Z50* 

gamaida, 1122. 
gamaina, 897. 
gasiotha, -thja, 1073. 
glaggTna, 1129. 
gredua, 1081. 

hairtd, 1102. 
hana, 837. 
hardus, p. 64, note 1. 
hleidama, 387. 
hunda, 772. 
hyeita, p. 150. 

im, iat, 11 12. 
izvara, p. 160, note ■*. 

j6r = dair^ p. 95, note ^ 

kiusan, p. 69, note. 

laaft, 114. 
Uun, 133, 792. 

magoBi 882. 
maiza, 11 14. 
marei, 860. 
miktla, 663. 
miloka, 243. 
miasa, 11 17. 

qvairnna, 784. 
qyina, 113. 

reika, 1036. 

salt, 977. 
aama, 904. 
Bind, 1 1 12. 
amtba, 4901 1073. 
akalja, 106. 
annr, 570. 
svaihro, 570. 

trio, 554. 

vair, 395. 

valdan, ztjlaitk^ 338. 
vast, 1 1 12; p. 165. 
Yiljan, 884. 

thagkjan, p. 165. 
thaurps 3 1 J. 
thaorsja, 703. 
thiuda, 423. 

thnigj«i 74- 

English Index. 



fid, 948. 

b]ide,p. 151. 

brat^ean, 366. 

oeole, p. 149. ' 

dale, 1074. 

deb, 205. 

feobstrang, p. 159. 

garleac (0. N. geirlaukr), 31, 

gebedc, p. 147. 

gerim, 913. 

gesW, 1073. 

gleav, 1&19. 
beabfot^er, p. 153. 
beado = eatK 
blsBden, 126. 
brife, p. 1^0. 
br6ii, 50; p. 155. 
lagu =:loehy 781. 
mele, p. 157. 
mone, myne, p. 163. 
naca, 21. 

n6n, 1077. 
rim, 913. 
Bce6ta, p. 164. 
sendan, 1073. 
tafel, p. 154. 
treov, 554. 
tvi-, 773. 
Yudu, 46. 
yrfe, 752. 


am, 1 1 1 2. 

*PPle, 555- 

art, 1 1 12, p. 165. 

bake, p. 61, note K 
bane, p. 147. 
beadsman, p. 147. 
bellowa, 217. 
bid, p. 147. 
blithe, p. 151. 
booth, 120. 
bother, 604. 
bottom, 96. 
Briton, 957. 
brooch, 852. 
brogue, 1033. 
brother, 570, 1047. 
batterifl, p. 157. 

car, 70. 
cat, 499. 

choose, p. 69, note, 
dioagh, 201. 
clean, 67 1. 
coal, 273. 
corade, 488. 
com ^grdn^t 722. 
cony, 724. 
cow, 159. 
cowl, 121. 
crowder, 5. 
curd, 784. 

door, 124. 
dough, 242. 
dusk, 381. 

elk, 205. 

ewe = O. Ir. 6u 

farrow = ore^ 492. 
father, 1046. 
feather, 746. 
fell, 136. 
five, 776. 
ford, 725. 
four, 775. 
ftm, 630. 

gallon, 106. 
garllck, 31. 
gavelock, 135. 
grail, 854. 
greed, 620. 
grill, 107. 
grum, X065. 

hame, 444. 
hard, p. 64, note ', 
hat, 831. 
hazle, 556. 
hedge, 218. 
hound, 261, 41 X. 
hundred, 772. ^ 
hurdle, 126. 

iron, 216, 608. 

18, 1 1 12. 

Jowl, p. 149. 

lanyard, 73; p. 155. 
lead, 609. 
less, 1 1 15. 
Unseed, 38. 
list, 655. 
load, 609. 
loan, 133, 792. 
loud, 655. 
lurcher, 937. 

man, 89. 
maricet, 327. 
midri£^ p. 150. 
milk, 243. 
mill, 701. 
mis-, 1 1 17. 
mother, 130. 

nail, p. 150. 
navel, p. 150. 
nit, 649. 
noon, 1077. 

one, p. 147. 
onion, 862. 
ore, 608. 


Indices Verborum. 

paunter, p, 155. 
pillory, 1 1 36. 
piBmire, 55. 

quern (Goth. qTaimiiB), 784. 
quick, 113. 

rhyme, 913. 

Bait, 977. 
■ame, 904. 
aeod, 490, 1073. 
lervioe-tree, 11 32. 
Bhake, p. 161. 
Bhell, 106. 
Bbter, 320. 
Blaaghter, slay, 1003. 
Bix, 777. 
Bmear, 193. 

stream, 999. 
spur, 1 041. 
Bweven, p. 163. 

tailor, 252. 
thin, 1017. 
think, p. 165. 
thirst, 703. 
thorp, 315. 
three, 774. 
tongs, 674. 
tongue, 40. 
tree, 554. 
trowaers, 324. 
truce, 137. 
trull, p. 148. 
tun, 731. 
twinge, 674. 
two, 773. 

udder, 102. 
imi-, 670. 

warm, 952. 
wast, Ills; p. 165. 
weave, 1095. 
white, p. 150. 
wiU, 884. 
window, 134. 
wit, 392. 
withe, 90. 
wood, 46. 
work, 328, 533. 

3reIlow, 11 24. 
yew, 561. 
young, 758. 


blidi, p. 151. 
bodam, 96. 
chno, 159. 
cuncla, 507. 
denchan, p. 166. 
diota, 423. 
dwingsn, 674. 
ehu, 17. 
eit, 948. 
esil, 296. 
fSuah = oTtf, 492. 
flehtan, 930. 
gelo, 1 124. 
Hadumdr, p. 86, note, 
hafr, 372. 

hag, 218. 

Hincmar, p. 86, note. 

Hlodomiir, 655 ; p. 86, note. 

hlCLt, 655. 

hrdo, 919. 

hrotta, 5. 

hunta, 772. 

iwa, 561. 

jftr = 6<wr, p. 95. 

kisal, 2x6. 

kom =yrdfi, 722. 

meri, 860. 

metu, 968. 

milnh, 243. 

muli, 701. 

nacho, 21. 
prawa, 70. 
salo, 616. 
Bcala, 106. 
Bind, 1073. 
dahan, 1003. 
stroum, 999. 
sueran, 1132. 
umbi = imtHf 670. 
war =/7r, 954. 
weban, 1095. 
wida, 99. 
wiho, 269. 
witu, 46. 


[The following lutye been noticed during the xMasage of the Indices through the press.] 

P. 49, line 4,/or carpat read cbaipat 

P. 63, Uneie^/or 145 read 144. 

P. 06, note «, delete the latter port of this note i nitgiffnetar Ma means " desires (Huts) did not wonnd them," and we 
hare hero the 8rd pers. plor. prei active of the root ooir. The 8rd pers. sing, of the same tense— ^(M'l'—occurB in the 
Fatre, Oct. 38. 

P. 107, line 30,;l)r tr read tf. 

P. 108, In the paradigm, nonL and voc. Ang., for rig read ri 

P. Ill, line 6, /or tracing from), lorg read tradngX from loig. 

P. 114, line 11 from bottom, /or 996 read 976. 

P. 120, line 4 fhnn bottom, for bhritr read bhritf. 

P. 181, lino 11 from bottom, /br Inmlnnalth read Imnir maith. 

P. 144^ line 16, A>r lens read lens. 

P. 166, line 11 from bottom, for dftribo read d^raba 

P. 160, note ", for anlant read Inlant 

P. 166, line 13, /w anriram totmn read totnm calvmn. 

P. 166, line 14. and p. 179, f)r roartor read martar. 

P. 167, coL 3, line 6^ for Sanacriticum read Sanscritum. 

P. 168, ool. a; line8fhnn bottom, for O. Ir. d read 0. Ir. L 

P. 170, ooLS, at /*r^;^x« insert fx>(ni,ra), 18, 428, 806. 

P. 174, at barr insert a reference to p. 148L 

P. 181, insert tarb, p. 169. 






Thb Most Noblb the Mabqukss of TTif/nA^g^ M. R. I. A. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Dukraven, M. R. I. A. 

The Right Hon. Lord Tausot Db Malahioe, M. R. I. A. 

Ybbt Rev. Chablbs W. Russell, D. D., President of Maynooth College. 


Eugene Cubrt, M. R. I. A. 
Rbt. Thomas Farrellt. 
Bbv. Charles Graves, D.D., 

F. T. C. D., M. R. I. A. 
Rkv. James Graves, A. B. 
Thomas A. Larcx>m, Major- General, 

R. E., M. R* I. A. 

Patrick V. Fitzpatrick, Esq. 
John C. O'Callaghan, Esq. 
John O'Donovan, LL. D., M. R. I. A. 
George Pbtrie, LL. D., Y. P. R. L A. 
Rev. Wm. Reeves, D. D., Y. P. R. I. A. 
W. R. Wilde, F. R. C. S. L, M. R. LA 

SitattsmtB : 

J. H. Todd, D. D., Pres. R. I. A. | J. T. Gilbert, M. R. I. A. 

THE materials for Irish history, although rich and abundant, have 
hitherto been but to a small extent available to the student. 
The few accessible authorities have been so frequently used, and the 
vrorks compiled from them are so incomplete, that the expectation 
of any accurate history of Ireland has been generally deferred, under 
the conviction that vast additions must be made to the materials at 
present available before any complete work of that nature can be 
produced. The immediate object of this Society is to print, with 
accurate English translations and annotations, the unpublished do- 
cuments illustrative of Irish history, especially those in the ancient 


( « ) 

and obsolete Irish language, many of which can be accurately trans- 
lated and elucidated only by scholars who have been long engaged 
in investigating the Celtic remains of Ireland; and should the publi- 
cation of these manuscripts be long delayed, many most important 
literary monuments may become unavailable to the students of his- 
tory and comparative philology. The Society will also endeavour 
to protect the existing monumental and architectural remains of 
Ireland, by directing public attention to their preservation from the 
destruction with which they frequently are threatened. 

The publication of twenty-one volumes, illustrative of Irish his- 
tory, has been completed by the Irish Archsdological Society, founded 
in 1840, and the Celtic Society, established in 1845. '^^^ present 
Society has been formed by the union of these two bodies, under the 
name of the ** Irish Archaeological ' and Celtic Society," for the 
preservation of the monuments illustrative of Irish history, and for 
the publication of the historic, bardic, ecclesiastical, and topogra- 
phical remains of Ireland, especially such as are extant in the Irish 
language. Since the union of the two Societies, two important vo- 
lumes have been published. 

The Books of the Society are published solely for the use of its 
Subscribers, who are divided into two classes : Members, who pay 
three pounds admission, and one pound per annum ; and Associates, 
who pay an annual subscription of one pound, without any entrance 
fee. The Fundamental Laws of the Society regulate the privileges of 
each class of Subscribers, who can also obtain the publications of 
the two former Societies, at the rates, and under the conditions 
specified in the present Prospectus. 


I. The Society »hAll consist of Members and Associates. 

II. The affairs of the Society shall be managed by a Council, consisting of a Pre- 
sident, five Yice-Preeidents, Treasoier, two Secretaxios, and fimrteen oCbei8, to b« 
elected annaally by the Society from the Members. 

IIL All Members and Associates shall be elected by the Council, on being pr«H 
posed by a Member ; and no person shall be elected either a Member or an Associate 
of the Society until he has made the requisite payments. 

IV. Each Member shall pay four pounds on the first year of his election, and 
one pound erery subsequent year. Associates shall pay one pound per amutm only, 
without any entrance fee. All subscriptions to be paid in advance, and to beooBw 
due on the flzst day of January, annually. 

y. Such Members as desire it may become Life Members, on payment of the sum 
of thirteen pounds, or ten pounds (if they have already paid their entrance fee), in 
lieu of the annual subscription. 

( s ) 

VI. Every Member whose subscription is not in arrear shall be entitled to receive 
one oopy of each publication of the Society issued subsequently to his admission ; 
and the books printed by the Society shall not be sold to the Public 

VIL Associates may become Members, on signifying their wish to the Council, 
and on payment of the entrance fee of three pounds. 

VIIL Associates shall receive a copy of all publications issued by the Society 
during the year for which they have paid a subscription ; but shall not be entitled to 
any other privileges. 

IX. No Member who is three months in arrear of his subscription shall be en- 
titled to vote, or to any other privileges of a Member, and any Member who shall be 
one year in arraar shall be considered as having resigned. Associates who are in 
arrear shall cease, ipso facto, to belong to the Society. 

X. The Council shall have' power to appoint ofiicera, and to make By-Laws nut 
inconsistent with the Fundamental lsrK9 of the Society. 




1 841. 

I. Tracts rklatuio to Ibelabd, vol. i., containing : 

I. The Circuit of Ireland; by Muircheartach Mac Neill, Prince of Aileach; 
a Poem written in the year 94a by Cormacan Eigeas, Chief Poet of the 
North of Ireland. Edited, with a Translation and Notes, and a Map of 
the Circuit, by John O'Donoyan, LL. D., M. R. I. A. 
a. " A Brife Description of Ireland, made in the year 1589, by Robert Pa3me, 
▼nto zzv. of his partners, for whom he is vndertaker there." Reprinted 
from the second edition, London, 1590, with a Preface and Notc«, by 
Aquilui Smith, M. D., M. R. I. A. (Out of print.) 
IL The Aknals of Ireland, by James Grace, of Kilkenny. Edited from the 
MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublhi, in the original Latin, with a Trans- 
lation and Notes, by the Rev. Richard Butler, A. B., M. R. I. A. Price 8«. 


I. Cach TTluishi Hoch. The Battle of Magh Rath (Moh«), from an ancient 
MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Edited in the original Irish, with a 
Translation and Notes, by John 0*Donovan, LL.D., M. R. I. A. Price io«. 

II. Tracts relating to Ireland, vol 11. containing : 

I. ^* A Treatise of Ireland; by John Dymmok.*" Edited frt>m a MS. in the 
British Museum, with Notes, by the Rev. Richard Butler, A. B., 

3. The Annals of Multifeman ; from the original MS. in the Library of Tri- 
nity College, Dublin. Edited by Aquilla Smith, M. D., M. R. L A. 

3. A Statute passed at a Parliament held at Kilkenny, A. D. 1 367 ; from a 
MS. in the British Museum. Edited, with a Translation and Notes, by 
James Hardiman, Esq., M. R. I. A. Price io«. 

( 4 ) 


I. An Account of the Tiubes and Custous of the District of Ht-Man r 
commonly called O'KeUy^s Country, in the Comities of Qalway and Roscommon. 
Edited from the Book of Lecan in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy, in the 
original Irish ; with a Translation and Notes, and a Map of Hy-Many, by Joror 
OT>oNovAN, LL. D., M. R I. A. Price 1 1*. 

II. The Book of Obitb and Marttbolooy of the Cathedral of the 
Holt Trinity, commonly called Christ Church, Dublin. Edited from the original 
MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. By the Rev. John Clarke 
Crosthwaitb, a. M., Rector of St. Mary-at-Hill, and St. Andrew Hubbart, London. 
With an Introduction by James Hknthorn Todd, D. D., V. P. R. I. A., Fellow of 
Trinity College, Dublin. Price ia». 


I. Rkcustrum EccLEsiB Omnium Sanctorum juzta Doblin; fit>m the ori- 
ginal MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Edited by the Rev. Richard 
Butler, A.B., M.R.I.A. Price 7«. 

II. An Account of tr^ Tribes and Customs of the District of Ht- 
FiACHRACH, in the Counties of Sligo and Mayo. Edited from the Book of Lecan, 
in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy, and from a copy of the Mac Firiiis MS. 
in the possession of the Earl of Roden. With a Translation and Notes, and a Map 
of Hy-Flachracli. By John O'Donovaw, LL.D., M. R. I. A. Price I5#. 


A Dbscripi'ion of West or H-Iar Connaught, by Roderic O'FIaherty, 
Author of the Ogygia, written A.D. 1684. Edited from a MS. in the Library of 
Trinity College, Dublin ; with copious Notes and an Appendix. By James Har- 
DiMAN, EHq., M.R.I.A. Price 15*. 


The Miscellany of the Irish Arcxlaolooical Society: voL i. con- 
taining : 

I. An ancient Poem attributed to St Columbkille, with c Translation and 

Notes by John 0*Donovan, LL. D., M. R. I. A. 
3. De ConcUio Hibemi«B ; the earliest extant record of a Parliament in Irdand ; 
with Notes by the Rev. R. Butler, M. R. I. A. 

3. Copy of the Award as concerning the Tolboll (Dublin) : contributed by 

Dr. Aquilla Smith, M. R. I. A. 

4. Pedigree of Dr. Dominick Lynch, Regent of Uie Colledge of St Thomas of Aqmn, 

in Seville, A.D. 1 674 : contributed by James Hardiman, Esq., M. R. I. A. 

5. A Latin Poem, by Dr. John Lynch, Author of Camhrentu Evertut^ in 

reply to the Question Cur in patriam non redis f Contributed by Jam£8 
Hardiman, Esq., M. R. I- A. 

6. The Obits of Kilcormick, now FranlLfort, King^s County ; contributed by 

the Rev. J. H. Todd, D. D., M. R. I. A. 

7. Ancient Testaments; contributed by Dr. Aquilla Smith, M. R. LA. 

8. Autograph Letter of Thady O'Roddy : with some Notices of the Author by 

the Rev. J. II. Todd, D. D., M. R. I. A. 

9. Autograph Letter of Oliver Cromwell to his Son, Harry Cromwell, 

Commander-in-Chief in Ireland : contributed by Dr. A. Smith, M. R. I. A. 


( 5 ) 

10. The Iriah Charters m the Book of Kells, with a Trandation and Notes, by 

John O'Dokoyan, LL.D., M. K. I. A. 

1 1. Original Charter granted by John Lord of Ireland, to the Abbey of Melli- 

font : contributed by Dr. A. Smitu, M. R. I. A. 

1 2. A Journey to Connaught in 1709 by Dr. Thomas Molyneux : contributed 

by Dr. A. SMrm, M. B. I. A. 

13. A Covenant in Irish between Mageoghegan and the Fox ; with a Transla- 

tion and historical Notices of the two Families, by John O'Donoyan, 
LL.D., M. R. I. A. 

14. The Annals of Ireland, frt>m A.D. 1453 to 1468, translated from a lost 

Irish original, by Dudley Firbise ; with Notes by J. O'Donovak, LL.D., 
H.R.I.A. Price 8«. 

The Irish Version of the Historia BRrTONUM of Neunius, or, as it is called in 
Irish MSS. teabap bpeCnad, the British Book. Edited from the Book of Balli- 
mote, collated with copies in the Book of Lecan and in the Library of Trinity 
College, Dublin, with a Translation and Notes, by James Hknthobn Todd, D. D., 
M. R. I. A., Fellow of Trinity College, &c ; and Additional Notes and an Intro- 
duction, by the Hon. Algernon Herbert. Price i5«. 


The Latin Annausts of Ireland ; edited with Introductory Remarks and 
Notes by the Very Rev. Richard Butler, M. R. I. A., Dean of Clonmacnois, — 
viz. : 

I. The Annals of Ireland, by John Clyn, of Kilkenny ; from a MS. in the 
Library of Trinity College, Dublin, collated with another in the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford, 
a. The Annals of Lreland, by Thady Dowling, Chancellor of Leighlin. From 
a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublm. Price 8«. 

1 849-50. 

Macarla Excidium, the Destruction of Cyprus; being a secret History of the 
Civil War in Ireland, under James II., by Colonel Charles O^Kelly. Edited in the 
Latin from a MS. presented by the late Professor M^Cullagh to the Library of the 
Royal Irish Academy ; with a Translation from a MS. of the seventeenth century; 
and Notes by John C. 0*Calijiohan, Esq. Price i^ 


Acts of Archbishop Colton in his Visitation of the Diocese of Deny, A. D. 
1397. Edited from the original Roll, with Introduction and Notes, by William 
Reb\'E8, D. D., M. R. I. A. (Not sold.) 

[Presented to the Society by the Rev. Dr. Reeves.] 


Sir Wiluam Petty 's Narrative of his Pkockedings in the Survey of 
Ikeiand; from a MS. iu the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Edited, with 
Notes, by Thomas A. Larcom, Esq., B. E., V. P. R. I. A. Price i5#. 

( 6 ) 

Cambrbmsis Eversus ; or, ReftxUtion of the Authority of Giraldoa Cambreiuds 
on the History of Ireland, by Dr. John Lynch (1662), with some Aoconnt of the 
Affairs of that Kingdom during his own and former times. Edited, with Transla- 
tion and copions Notes, by the Rev. Matthkw Kkllt, Roya] College of St. Patriclc, 
Maynooth. Three volumes. Price, l/. 100. 



Leabap tiq 5-Ceapc, or, The Book of Rights; a Treatise on the Rights and 
Privileges of the Ancient Kings of Ireland, now for the first time edited, with 
Translation and Notes, by John ODomovan, LL. D., M. R I. A. Price io«. 


Cambbxhbib Evkrsus, &C. as above. Three volumes. 

[Given to Members of the Celtic Society for 1848, 1850-52; and to Members 
or Associates of the United Society for 1853.] 


Miscellany of the Celtic Society, containing : 

A Treatise from the Book of Leacan on Oli-Eidirseoeoirs (O'Driscors) 
Country, in the County of Cork. 

A Historical Poem on the Battle of Dun (Downpatrick), A.D. 1 260. 

Sur Richard Binf^m*s Aoconnt of his Proceedings in Connacht, in the reign 

A Narration of Sir Heniy Docwra's Services in Ulster, written A.D. 1 6 1 4 ; toge- 
ther with other original Documents and Letten illostrative of Irish History. 
Edited by Johh O'Dohotak, Esq., LL. D., M. R. L A. Price lot. 

Cath Muighe Lena : The Battle of B£agh Lena ; an aadent historic Tale, edited 
by Eugene Cubby, Esq., M. R. I. A., i^m original MSS. Price 100. 

A few complete Sets of the foregoing Publications (with the ezoeptloo of that 
of the Archnological Society for 1851), can still be had by Members and Associates. 
Application to be made to Edward Clibbobn, Esq., Royal Irish Academy, Daw* 
son-street, Dublin. 

( 7 ) 





LiBBK Htmnoruii : The Book of UymiiB of the Ancient Church of Irelimd ; from 
the original MS. in the libnnr of Trinity CoUege, Dublin. Edited by the Rev. 
Jajibs Hbkthobh Todd, D. D., Free. R. I. A., Senior Fellow of Trinity College. 
Part I. Containing the following Latin Hymns, with Irish Scholia and Gloss : — 

I. The Alphabetical Hymn of St Sechnall, or Secnndinns, in praise of St. Pa« 
trick. 2. The Alphabetical Hymn in praise of St Brigid, attributed to St. Ultan, 
Bi»hop of Ardbceocan. 3. The Hymn of St. Cammain Fota. 4. The Hjmm or 
Prayer of St. Mugint. 

1855 and 1856. 

Thk LiFB OF St. Columba, by Adamnav, Ninth Abbot of Hy [or lona]. 
The Latin text taken from a MS. of the eariy part of the eighth centmy, preserved 
at SchatThansen ; accompanied by Yarions Readings from nx other MSS., fonnd in 
different parts of Europe; and illustrated by copious Notes and Dissertations. By 
the Rev. VFujaam Rebvks, D.D., M.B., V. P. R. I. A. With Maps, and coloured Fac- 
similes of the MSS. 

The two Parts are bound in one Volume, for the convenienee of Members. 


A Medisval Tract on Latin Declension, with examples explained in Irish. 

From a Manuscript in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Together with the 

Loriea of Gildas, and the Middle Irish Gloss thereon, from the Leabhar Breae. 

Edited, with a Commentary, Notes, and Indices Verborum, by WHrrLBY Stokes, 



Three Fragments of Ancient Irish Annals, hitherto unpublished. Edited, from a 
MS. in the Buiigundian Library, Brussels, with a Translation and Notes, by John 
0' Donovan, LL. D., M R. I. A., Professor of Irish Literature in the Queen's Col- 
lege, Belfast. (Aear/y ready,) 


LiBBB Hthnorux : The Book of Hymns of the Ancient Chnrch of Ireland ; fttnn 
the original MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Edited by the Rer. 
James Hemthorn Todd, D. D., Pres. R. I. A., Senior Fellow of Trinity College. 
Part n. (/n the Preu.) 


The Topographical Poems of Seaan 0*Dubhagain and Gilla na-naomh O'Huidhrin, 
enumerating the principal Families and Territories of Ireland, and their Chiefs, at the 
period of the Anglo-Norman Invasion. The Irish Text edited, with Translation and 
copious illustrative Notc^ by John 0*Donovan, LL. D. {In preparation.) 

( 8 ) 


Ancibnt Irish ; from a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin ; with a 
Transktion and Notes, and Prdiminaiy Dinertation, by the Bev. Chasles 
GrayeSi D. D., M. R. I. A., Fellow of Trinity College, and Professor of Mathematics 
in the University of DubUn. (/ii the Pregg.^ 

II. The Annals of Tighemach, and Chronicon Scotorum, from MSS. in the Bod- 
leian Library, and that of Trinity College, Dublin. Edited by the Rev. W. Reeyks, D. D. 

III. The Martyrdlogy of Donegal. 

lY. Cormac's Glossaiy. Edited by J. H. Todd, D. D., with a Translation and 
Notes, by J. 0*Donovan, LL. D., M.R. I. A., and Evoene Curbt, Esq., M.R.I.A. 

y. The Annals of Ulster. With a Translation and Notes. Edited firom a MS. 
in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, collated with the Translation made for Sir 
James Ware by Dudley or Duald liac Firbis, a MS. in the British Museum. 

YI. The Annals of Innisfallen ; firom a MS. in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

YII. The Genealogy and History of the Saints of Ireknd : from the Book of 

YIII. An Account of the Firbolgs and Danes of Ireland, by Duald Mac Firbis, 
from a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. 

IX. bopama. The Origin and History of the Boromean Tribute. Edited from 
a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, with a Translation and Notes, by 
Eugene Currt, Esq., M. B. I. A. 

X. Leabap 5^^^^) ^^> "^^ History of the Invasions of Ireland, by the Four 

XL Popup peapo op 6ipinn, or, The History of Ireland, by Dr. Geoffrey 


XII. ieabap Dnm SeaTi6up, or, History of the Noted Places in Ireland. 

XIII. The Works of Giraldus Cambrensis relating to Ireland. 
XIY. Miscellany of the Irish Ardueological and Celtic Society. 

The Council will receive Donations or Subscriptions to be applied especially to any 
of the above Publications. 

Subscriptions are received by Edward Clibborx, Esq., Royal Irish Academy, 
Dawson-street, Dublin. Persons desirous of becoming Subscribers to the Society 
are requested to communicate, by letter, with the Hon. Secretaries, at Na 19, Dawson- 
street, Dublin. 


ta Duit«ch cam Clochaip. — Fiilire of^Sngu; Ninth Ccntwry. 





OX DE XALAHIDE. M.l«llld«. 

H. DAHLEY, ESQ. NewgiOTe, RibHi)', I CImrdi 
W. F, amPE. M. D^ SI. Douliuli'i, f Wanlau. 
CloBdtert, ind Pitcanun' of St. PttrtEk-i. 

KEv! WILLIAM kEE^ES, D.tL. M.'b., V.P.B.LA. 



REV. RICHARD BARTON, Pl¥«DIor of Chrilt'I 

Cliunti. iDd Patron of SL Doulagb'i Bnieflce. 
BEV. WILLIAM DE BURGH. ai>, Sudymount. 
D.H. KELLY, ESIi^L.,J.P,M,ILLA.,Clinle 

"j^ttmbaiim Commiltu : 

■ ■ REV. W, SLOANE EVANS, TotM^ Deron. 

E.H.CASEY.D.L., • - - ■ 
REV. WILL£ah Bl 


REV. WILLLUf fi. ADAUS. hectory, Clodii 

~"V. D. B. ELRINGTON. Vlamue, SwoiSi. 

^.J.H.U0NAHAN,Pn1).St.ll)^~- '^■- 

2,0. ABBOTT. li«Uirur».llu7XDnIilln. 

JDIf. ALLEY, E3a..Sp[|Eic UUi, St. Dvslarii-L 

L5TUDDERT. ESQ.,Ei.-S.T.C.II.. Bu.4t-Law. 
REV. C. B. KNOX. fUtMtUud, omoty ofDown. 
BEV. J. C. FLOOD, Hollywood, connly of Down. 
REV. J. SUYTHE, A. M., Rwlor DTBllVcliig. 

■""■ " ' KENNEDY, SI— 

., Hountrmtta. 

Crtasnm ; 





:>Y, A. II.. Conte ofBt. TWnluh^ 
., V. P. B. L A., VlGV of Lu£. 

6,RI(lui>a(ia«.,HoiUL I 

( 2 ) 

The work they have imdertaken is, to collect, and apply money for the 
preservation of the ancient hoildings at St Donlagh's, so far as those ve- 
nerable remains are in the possession of the Incumbent. 

It would be vain to attempt, by written description, to convey an ade- 
quate idea of this curious structure. The view given above of the exterior 
is, necessarily, partial ; whilst the interior, to be appreciated, must be the 
subject of actual examination. 

The Chapel commemorative of St Duilech of Clogher, who flourished, 
it is said, about the year 600, has been visited by Antiquaries and Eccle- 
siologists, the most learned and careful, from various countries ; and all 
these, though agreeing as to its great antiquity, differ, and are in some 
measure at fault, when they attempt to explain its original design and sub- 
sequent use and history. 

It exhibits the strangest incongruities of style ; and every period of 
Church Architecture — from the primitive square-headed doorway and win- 
dow to the ornate Perpendicular — ^has some representative in the building. 
The outer walls are in excellent preservation, and the stone roofis^ perhaps, 
without an equal in these kingdoms ; although, according to some of our 
antiquaries, it must now be at least seven centuries old. 

The building contains seven apartments, to which different names have 
been given by writers anxious to advance different theories. Archdall, for 
instance, describes it as an abbey ; others, as an anchorite's cell. But set- 
ting aside theories, one fact remains, and that is, that this building, in 
danger of being lost to the world, is unique, and, as an architectural enigma, 
unmatched in Europe. 

The simple task which the Committee propose to themselves is to pre- 
serve and hand down for future study the conditions left of this unsolved 
problem. To accomplish this, they appeal to the general Public ; they seek 
the sympathy and assistance of those who love to study the History and 
Monuments of Ireland ; and they remind all, in the concluding words of 
Dr. Reeves's "Memoir," that "just as England has inherited her noble 
cathedrals from a religion which she now disowns, so we may blamelessly, 
nay, laudably, cherish so precious an architectural gem as St Doulagh's 
Chapel, though it be diverted from its original use ; and, without sacrifice 
of principle, or misapplication of money, admire and preserve it." 

The Committee will present to each Subscriber of £1, or Collector of 
£2, a Copy of the beautiful Photograph of the building, lately taken by 
Mr. Allen, together with Dr. Reeves's " Memoir of the Church of St Dui- 
lech," containing a Paper read before the Royal Irish Academy, on the 
nth April, 1869. 

( 3 ) 

Subscriptions will be tbankfiilly received by the Treasurer, Lobd 
Talbot de Mauchide, Castle, Malahide ; or at the Eoial Bank, Foster- 
place, Dublin ; or by any Member of the Committee. 


The following is the Eeport of the Architect, Mr. Sloaite, as read before 
the meeting held in August at the Boyal Irish Academy : — 

^^ At the rec^uest of the Rev. W. S. Kennedy, I visited the ancient building of St. 
Doulagh*B, m this county, on the 2nd of June last, and made a survey of same, 
with the view of laying before you a statement of what is required to place the 
building in a state of repair sufficient to insure its preservation for many years 
hence ; and I have prepared drawings to exhibit the appearance of the buildine 
externally, when those repairs shall have been made. Commencing with the ceU 
in which is the supposed tomb, I find that there are eight openings, now wholly 
or in part blocked up with masonry : those I propose to have filfed with metal 
sashes, glazed in quarries with moderately strong glass. I propose to repair the 
tomb by restoring the cavetto moulding, a portion of which remains, and nagging 
over the top ; I would hack off the plastering, which appears modem, and wedge up 
the vaults with slates in Portland cement, giving the whole a thorough cleansing. 
I propose to adopt the same course with the next apartment, which I call the Ora- 
tory ^uiOTOxx^y repairing the vault and cementing it with Portland cement ; and, 
to impart extra strength, I woi^ld tile the floor of the apartment over it with a 
layer of fire-clay tiles, laid in cement. I would also repair the stairs in this part 
of the building, and rebuild the parapet wall to a height of about two feet nine 
inches, which would not interfere with the light from the principal south window ; 
the hagioscope to be glazed with ribbed ^lass. The diderent recesses I would have 
repaired, and the Pucina restored to its original niche in the south walL In 
the long apartment over the Oratory, I propose plastering the vault with Port- 
land cement, and forming the curve, as far as possible, to its original shape ; the 
pieces of concrete with which it is composed affording an excellent key for the 
plaster. I would repair the seat of the south window, and restore the west window 
to correspond with the east ; repairing its seat also, and restoring the steps that 
lead up to the floor of the west end, over the small mezzanine cell which is over 
the tomb cell. As for the exterior, I propose raking out all the old joints carefully, 
and re-pointing with cement. The only portion that is at all ruinous is the western 
comer, and that I would have shored up, each stone carefully removed, and re- 
set exactly in its proper position. The battlements of the tower should be all re- 
paired, the stone roofs re-pointed in cement, and all vegetation carefully removed.** 

The amount of Mr. Sloane*s estimate for these necessary repairs is under 

He concluded his Report thus: — 

^^ It may be perceived that I have avoided any attempt at restoration^ except- 
ing, as in the parapet of the tower, I could do so without any doubt of its propriety. 
I have thus, in a general way, endeavoured to show what I would propose to efiect 
in the way of repairs. These repairs completed, and the whole finished, I could not 
consistently recommend the building to be locked up and left to its fate; but, for 
the preserving of it, I would suggest that it be used as a school, for which I believe 
it is amply extensive ; and very little beyond what I have recommended as neoes- 

( *) 

»axj repairs for its preserradon voOld make it aTailable for that purpose. I further 

bes leave to state, that I hare examined this subject in Tarious ways, and thoucht 
of it for yeare, and the pleasure I would otherwise have enioyed in contemplating 
• ■ ■ . - . ■ . .. ■ . ■. cturalai ' ■■ ■ 

n architectural and antiquanan point 
aTways been marred by the existence of the modern structure adjoin- 
ing, which is calculated to offend the experienced and practical eye ; and while 
I Uiink of the comparatively easy task of removing this deformity, and erectine 
ft ciiapel more in keeping with the building which we all wish to preserve, I feel 
the matter has only to be brought under the notice of euch a meeting as this to 
have the desired ends accomplished. Of the former existence of some boilding 
that was removed to make way for the present church, I have no doubt ; and it 
is ou the supposed site of that building I would erect the chapel or nave, using 
the cell in which the tomb standa as a vestiy. The expense of such a chapel 
would be under £500." 

Mr. Sloane produced tlie ground plan and a full design of such a naro, 
to give onehuiidredBittiiigBuitTenty-flTeopenpewH, extending north the 
tower, liaving the reading-deiik and polpit at the end next the hagiotcope, 
the Bide slant of which would then again transmit to the congr^ation the 
light of the old east window. 

Abstuci of Mk. Smars's Ebiiiutb, KCBiirrrED to UsETIKa. 

Exterior, £61 17 6 

CeU, 16 11 6 

Oratory, 2fl 17 

Chamber over Cell, 7 2 6 

Chamber over Oratory, 16 16 6 

Staircwea, S 10 

130 16 

CoDtingenoea, at 10 per Gent., .... 13 1 

Total, £113 16 

St Douiajha Wall, 



' 'it 

9t).'d ^4. 

%o^ \