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Full text of "Irish glosses. A mediaeval tract on Latin declension, with examples explained in Irish. To which are added the Lorica of Gildas, with the gloss thereon, and a selection of glosses from the Book of Armagh"

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irV? 1 






A medij:val tract 









^rintel) at ii)t JKnibetsttg ^kbs, 







W . F S K K N K , E S U 













^rtsibent : 
His Grace the Duke of Leinster. 

Wue-'^xtsibtnts : 
The Most Noble the Maequis op Kildare, M. R. I. A. 
The Right Hok. the Earl of Dunraven, M. R. I. A- 
The Right Hon. Lord Talbot de Malahide, M. R. I. A. 
.Very Rev. Charles Russell, D. D., President of Maynooth College. 

Council : 

Eugene Curry, Esq., M.R.I.A. 

Rev. Thomas Faerelly. 

Rev. Charles Graves, D.D., F.T.C.D., 

Rev. James Graves, A.B. 
Thomas A. Larcom, Major-General R.E., 


Patrick V. Fitzpatrick, Esq. 

John C. O'Callaghan, Esq. 

John O'Donovan, Esq., LL.D., M.R.I.A. 

Geo. Petrie, Esq., LL.D., M.R.LA. 

Rev. William Reeves, D.D., M.R.I.A. 

Wm. R. Wilde, Esq., F.R.C.S.L, M.R.I.A. 

Smttarus : 
Rev. J. H. Todd, D.D., Pres. R.I.A. | J. T. Gilbert, Esq., M.R.LA. 

A medij:val tract 



I HE following tract on Latin declension is taken 
from a volume of parchment MSS. marked H. 2. 1 3, 
and preserved in the Library of Trinity College, 
Dublin. The volume is unpaged, but the tract 
commences at the back of the 35th, and ends at 
the back of the 38th folio from the beginning. 
Dr. O'Donovan thinks the tract in question was written about 
the year 1500. Mr. Curry considers it somewhat older. I do not 
venture to decide on its age. It is clear, however, that the scribe 
was a copyist, not a composer ; and that his original was produced at 
a period considerably before the transcription. 

The chief, indeed the only, value of the tract lies in the large 
number of Irish words (about iioo) which are placed as glosses to 
the Latin vocables exemplifying the different declensions. Many 
of these words are unregistered in our dictionaries ; of others, the 

B meaning 

2 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

meaning has hitherto been guessed at rather than known. Still, 
some persons may ask, why should the. Irish Archaeological Society 
expend its funds in publishing a document which merely illustrates 
the Irish language ? Let such persons try to understand that every 
contribution to a more accurate knowledge of this Irish language is ul- 
timately a contribution to Irish history. For this can never be written 
until trustworthy versions are produced of all the surviving chroni- 
cles, laws, romances, and poetry of ancient Celtic Ireland. Moreover, 
immediate results of high historical importance may be obtained by 
comparison of the words and forms of the Irish with those of the other 
Indo-European languages. Chronicles may, and often do, lie ; laws 
may have been the work of a despot, and fail to correspond with the 
ethical ideas of the people for whom they were made ; romances may 
misrepresent the manners and morals of their readers and hearers ; 
and poetry may not be the genuine outcome of the popular imagina- 
tive faculty. But the evidence given by words and forms is conclu- 
sive — evidence of the habitat, the intellectual attainments, the social 
condition of the Aryan family before the Celtic sisters journeyed to 
the West — evidence of the period at which this pilgrimage took place 
as compared with the dates of the respective migrations of their kin- 
dred — evidence of the connexions existing between the Celts and 
other Indo-Europeans after the separation of languages. I trust that 
the subjoined commentary will be found to have done somewhat 
towards the attainment of the objects here indicated ; and have now 
only to acknowledge the helpful kindness of my friends, the Rev. 
Dr. Todd, Mr. Eugene Curry, Dr. O'Donovan, Dr. Siegfried, and the 
Rev. R. F, Littledale. 

W. S. 

Caeaig Beeacc, Howth, 
August 1 6, 1858. 


A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

[It was at first Tax intention to have printed the following tract exactly as it stands 
in the codex. But so corrupt did this appear on closer investigation, that it seemed 
preferable to correct the text wherever it was likely to embarrass the reader, always, 
however, giving in a foot-note the lection of the MS. This I have done. Proper 
names have been spelled with initial capitals. Marks of punctuation have been intro- 
duced. The letters Q. and R. have been inserted before the Questions and Answers re- 
spectively. The examples have been numbered. All other interpolations have been 
enclosed in brackets.] 

Q Prima declinacio quot literas terminales' habet ? R. Tres. 
• Q. Quas? R. a, s, m. Q. Quot terminaciones habet? R. Qua- 
tuor. Q. Qua.s ? R. a, as, es, am. Q. Da exeinpla. R. a ut poeta, 
as ut Eneas, es ut Anchises^, am ut Adam. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio .a. in prima declinacione ? 

R. Quinque, que sunt masculinum, ut hie poeta, femininum ut 
hec regina, neutrum, ut hoc pascha\ commune, ut hie et hec avena, 
epicenum ut hie et hec aquila. 

Q. Quot genera habet liaec terminacio as in prima declinacione ? 

R. Unum genus, ut hie Eneas. 

Q. Quot genera habet terminacio es in prima declinacione ? 

R. Unum genus, ut hie Anchises*. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio am in prima declinacione ? 

R. Unum genus ut hie Adam. Unde regula^ — 

Rectius as, es, a, dat declinacio j)rinia, 

Atque per am proprie quedam ponuntur Ebrea, ut supra. 

Q. Que est agnicio prime declinacionis nominum? 
R. Hec est : cujus genitiuus* et datiuus singulares, nominatiuus 


' MS. tirminales. ' ansises. ' pasca. * ancisses. * r. " genetiuus. 

B 2 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

et vocatiuus plurales in se diphthongo' desinunt, accusatiuus singu- 
laris in am productuin desinit^, accusatiuus pluralis in as productuni 
desinit, exceptis nominibus prime declinacionis que non decli- 
nant[ur], sic : — 

I hie poeta .1. piliD. 
hie propheta .1. pdir^ 
hie psalmista .1. pailmcec- 

hie scriba .^. paf. 
5 hie eitharista' ,1. cpuinpe. 
hie timpanista .1. cimpanac. 
hie organista .1. opjanaiD. 
hie sophista.i. pophipcibe^ 
hie partista .1. jiannaijie'. 
10 hie lanista .1. luccaipe. 

hie legista .1. le;raipe. 
hie decretista .1. DecpetJec. 
hie patriarcha.i.uapalacaip. 
hie scurra .1. cpopan. 
hie questionista*.[quaestiona- 

rius] .1. ceprunac. 
hie archimandrita' .1. apD- 

hie auriga .1. jilla cinn eic. 
hie birria .i. bippac. 
hie geta .1. jeib. 


Feminina haee sunt 

20 haee regina .1. pijan'". 
haee duxista. banroipec". 
haee abatissa .i. banab. 
haee priorissa. banppioip. 
haee sacerdotista. banpa- 

haee ancilla. innilc. 
haee galea, ar cluic. 
haee alea. caipbp. 
haee mitra'-. baipfn. 


haee tunica", inap. 
haee manica. muincille. 
haee allea [allium]. 501 p- 

haee lacerna. plepcan. 
haee eirra [cirrus], cmb. 
haee chirotheca. Idmann'^ 
haee spiea. Diap. 
haee lasciuia. bpaipe'*. 
haee falinga. pallainj. 


' diptongo. ' desinunt. ' faidh. 
' qonista. ' arcimantrica. '" righan. 
amann. " h. lassiua braisi. 

' sailmoetlaid. ' sitarista. ' sophistighi. ' ri 
" bantaisecli. " mittra. " tonioa. " ciratheca. 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

haec camisia'. leine. 

haec gena. 5]iuai6. 
40 haec lingual cengao. 

haec pera. ciac. 

haec troUa. lopao. 

haec decima. Dechmab. 

haec candela. coinnill. 
45 haec gelima. pnnnann. 

haec fistula, peodn. 

haec barba. pepog^. 

haec nouerca. lepmaraip*. 

haec carruca. peppac. 
50 haec phoca. ponl 

haec caphia .1. cennbapp*. 

haec claua lopg. 

haec penna penn'. 

haec poena' pmn. 
55 haec iolla [jula ?]. mapoc. 

haec oUa, cpocan. 

haec vesica, piacaipe^. 

haec creta cailc. 

haec caustoria [/raiioTT/ptoi/?]. 
60 haec plumba [plumbum], 

haec norma, pmjail. 

haec tabella rabaill. 

haec cantilena cancaipecr". 

haec mitreta cuipeog. 
65 haec parra meoap. 

haec parricula gocan. 

haec tabula clap. 

haec ancora ancoipe. 

haec lympha .1. uipce imill'^ 
70 haec aptempna [l-nilefivia ?] 
pep no capp. 

[haec] trabecula caeban cel- 
lai5 no comlab'^ 

haec caliga .1. appan. 

haec ligula. lamoep. 

haec corrigia. rpaijle. 
75 haec corona, copoin. 

haec clerica. copoin. 

haec coma'^ pole. 

haec glabella. Deipsec in 

haec palpebra. pabpa. 
80 haec pupilla mac impe- 

haec theologia'". DiaDacr. 

haec grammatica. jpamma- 



camisa. * linga. ' fesog. * lesmathair. * foca. ron. ' cenbar. ' pend. • pena. 
' fessica. siadairo. '» luaidhi. " candalena canntaireclit. " h. limpauscf .i. imill. 
" naueula tajman eallaigh 1. comla. '* comma. " fuilt. " tethologia. " gramatica. 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

haec dialectica'. nilecrac. 

haec terra, calam". 

haec ystoria. poaip. 

haec tribula [tribulum]. 


haec mechanica, eolap Doipl 

puipc no pj^iuppe'". 

haec patena. oijen. 

1 10 haec villa, baile. 

haec rhetorica'. oil 51. 

haec villula .1. apcdn". 

haec pantera naraip*. 

haec via. plije'^. 

haec maxilla, leca in ouini*. 

haec vita. beru". 


haec mala, lerail^. 

haec herba. lub'*. 

haec bucca. dil. 

115 haec silua. coill. 

haec gula. cpdep. 

haec virga'*. plac. 

haec mataxa. nlbu. 

haec virgula. plaicm'^ 

haec palma. bapp. 

haec grunna. moin. 


haec alapa. bapoj. 

haec gleba'^ poo. 

haec plannta. bono. 

120 haec casa'l bochan. 

haec mentula peam .1. ppiu. 

haec cassula. cocall. 

haec emenda .i. cdin. 

[haec casula]. cpo'^ 

haec vena, cuple. 

haec camera, campa no pe- 


haec mamma. c]ch. 


haec mammilla, cichi'n". 

haec porta. Dopup. 

haec mammula^ uch. 

125 haec valua. comla. 

haec Stella, pecla. 

haec creta [crates] clmch. 

haec ethera [aether], aofp. 

haec digma-". mapcac na 


haec aera. aiep. 


haec cratera. pcala. 

haec flamma-'. lapaip. 

haec cretella gpeioell. 

haec cloaca. campaD. 


' dileta (with a hook over the t) ' h. mecanica. eal. doe. (undulating line over the 
last e). ' rethorica. ' nathari. ° duine. ' leth aU. ' cichin. ' mamula. ' talura. 
'° sust L sgiursi. " villola .1. urtan. " slighi. " beta. " Inibh. " virgo. '" virgola. 
slaitin. " glebo. " cassa. " h. cassula cochall no cro. '° or perh. drigma. " flama. 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

130 haec auia. fenmacaip'. 

haec deuia. f ecpdnl 

haec scama [ffA-a'/iiua]. lanD. 

haec gemma, lej lojmapl 

haec fenistra. puinneog*. 
135 haec furca. jabal. 

haec sportula. pellec. 

haec treuga'. oppa6. 

haec urna. milan. 

haec guerra® 00500. 
140 haec alauda. puipeo^. 

haec garga' baipjen. 

haec quarta .1. cerpamab. 

haec merenda. ppuban. 

haec buccella ppubdn mapa^ 
no 5peim. 
145 haec susurra [susurrus]. co- 

haec tibia^. colpa. 

haec festucula'". caip. 

haec biturria vel biturrea 

haec tectura'*. oioean. 

haec lorica. liiipec. 
155 haec antiquula. aicleine'*. 

haec mica, niip'^ 

haec vaghina. pai^in. 

haec famula. caile oabca. 

haec vacca". bo. 
160 haec aqua, inpce". 

haec idiogina. 06b [op]. 

haec binna. calprac. 

haec benna. jatnain apairi. 

haec juvenca'^ calpac. 
165 haec mulctrella^". cuinoeoj. 

haec mulcra. eopar. 

haec opa-'. coppog. 

haec tunica sclerotica'^ je- 
alan na pul". 

haec taberna. caibepne. 
haec honplata [oi/xoTrXaT?;?]. 170 haec rectoria. pepponacc". 

mong inc plinDein". 

haec junctura'^ cental. 

150 haecgingiua.peoilnapiacal, 

haec uvula'' pine peain. 

haec vicaria. bicaipecr. 
haec capillaiiia. cabillanacr. 
haec abbatia". oboaine. 
haec vaccaria-". buaile. 


' aua. senmathair. ' scchran. ' gema. legh loghmar. * fuindcog. ' treoga. ' gerra. 
'leg. quadra? ' bucealla. ' tipia. '" pestucula. " in cplint)6m. '^ iuntura. 
" ugula. " dectura. '* anticula aithleini. " mir. " vaca. " uisci. " iuvencca. 
'" mucledla. ^ oba. " h. tonica scilarotica. "' sul. " persunaclit. " abacia. 
■' uacaria. 


A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

175 haec prouincia. ppouinpe. 

haec raetrop[o]litica ca- 
chaip aijioeapbuig. 

haec basilica, eajlaip'. 

haec mellifolia [millefolium], 

haec testa, blaepc. 
180 haec sabribarra bporpacan. 

haec uolua [valva?]. cen- 

haec artemisia^. buarballan 

haec ferina. lup na pmD. 

haec brecia [brassica ? ] . bi p op . 
1 85 haec genista, pecluj. 

haec ea. gap bog. 

haec ganea. mepopec. 

haec concha^, paecoj. 

haec gletealla [cliteUae ?]. 
190 haec solea'. bonn. 

haec urla [orlus] .1. bile. 

haec impedica. uacrap. 

haec medulla, pmip. 

haec coquilla". paecog beg. 
195 haec grangia. gpainpec. 

haec gallina. cepc. 

haec aquila. ilup. 

haec area' apg. 

haec cista clp^e^ 
200 haec merula. ciappec. 

haec monedula" caog. 

haec philomena'". ppioeog. 

haec columba. colum. 

haec lucifugia .1. cpebap. 
205 haec capreola. pepbog. 

haec rostigola". copcac ina- 



haec aurigola. opeolan. 

haec urtica. nenncog^^ 

haec arista .1. connlac. 
210 haec stipula coinnlm. 

haec fistula'*, peimin. 

haec moneta monaDan. 

haec glaneta. glacapba. 

haec pharetra'^.glac paigeo'*. 
2 1 5 haec sagitta". paigeo'^. 

haec hasta. 5a. 

haec flabella. peioeb gaice 
no bulja'^ 

haec fabrica. cepDca'^ 

219 haec massa. mepgar. 


' bacilica eaglas. ^ athair talman. • artimesia. * conca. ' solia. ' coqiiima. 
' archa. ' sista cisti. ° monetola. " pilomena. " leg. rusticula ? " mara. " nenn- 
tog. " festula. " faretra. " soiged. " sagita. " seideth gaibulga. " cerdca. 

A Medkeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

220 haec baudaca [balducta ?]. 

haec ceruisia^. lino. 

haec urina. pual. 

haec fabula. fseP. 

haec purpura, copcaip. 
225 haec cera. ceip*. 

haec serra'. jlapp. 

haec rota. poch. 

haec fauilla. 

haec cauicula [cavernula] .i. 
230 haec litera. licep. 

haec syllaba. pillaiDi [?]. 

haec pagina'. lerenac. 

haec chiragra*. cpupdn na 

haecluna. epga. 
235 haec panca [pantex] me6al. 

haec aruina'". blonac. 

haec monipicina [?]". mona6. 

haec comprisura. papcan. 

haec troclia cancaip. 
240 haec eripica [rastrum]. cliar 

haec situla'^. piceal. 

haec pista. caep. 

haec glassia [ydKa^ioi] mul- 

haec prissura. 15a. 
245 haec pensa [pensum] cocan. 

haec lapifulta. lecc lna]laln'^ 

haec presena. bancoij. 

haec rula. luc ppancac. 

haec talpa. luc Dall, 
250 haec lactura. lachc. 

haec amusca. amaipc. 

haec ascia'"*. cdl. 

haec scindula'^ capnoibi. 

haec scupa [scopae]. epcopc. 
255 haec pustula. juipfn'". 

haec onesta. nup. 

haec grimaga baineachlac. 

haec picuta. meall. 

haec mustella. edp. 
260 haec muscipula. piocac". 

haec decipula .1. concpo'^ 

haec sagena. ppacap. 

haec biga. capp. 

haec an tela [antilenaj.uccac. 


' blathach. ' seruisia. ^ sgel. ' ceir. ' sera. ' h. fauilla. fochluidh .i. cauicula. 
' pagena. ' sirogra. ' crupan na lam. " asugia. " monifina (a hook rising out 
of the f). " citola. "lecinarain. " assia. "sindola. "guirin. " musipula. fidh- 
ciit. " deoipola .i. con cro. 


A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

265 haec postella [postilena] . n a- 

haec crapulaK laicliijic. 
haec uva. caep pfnemnac^ 
haec lepra, lubpa. 
haec fragella. cndimpmc' no 

cop pan. 
270 haec parma. cocun. 

haec p5Toraantia*. nellat)o- 

haec chiromantia'. oopnaoo- 

haec prupna [?] clap guail. 
haec catapulta. pblfnac". 

275 haec edibulta. cpoicinn nriao- 
'pa allaio. 

haec offa. coinmfp'. 

haec cavea*. Dabac. 

haec calopeda. puipce". 

haec trica. 16 upcumaiU". 
280 haec parvispendia. cepacc. 

haec ophthalmia, galap pu- 

haec pupina. cailleac lijeoc. 

haec coquina. coccaip. 

haec babana. cappach. 
285 haec creatura coippeagaD. 

Ista sunt propria nomina uirginum :^ 

haec Maria, 
haec Catarina. 
haec Margareta. 
haec Anna, 
haec Lucia, 
haec Brigada. 

haec placenta, apan geal. 
his dominabus. baincijep- 



haec Elina. 
haec Petronilla. 
haec Alathia. 
haec Osanna. 
haec Melea. 
haec Tegea. 

his animabus. anim". 
his deabus. bainoea m co- 


' capula. ' vna. caer finemach. ' enaimfiach. ' piromanxia. ' ciromancia. ' ca- 
dibulta. ' coinmir. ' caba. ' callidiba. Buisti. '° urcumail. " obtolmia. galar sula. 
" bainntigerna. " ainim. 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 


290 his filiabus. insen'. 

his natabus. injen. 

his libertabus. banf^oep'. 

his aniicabus. bancapa^ 

his equabus. Idip*. 
295 his mulabus. mul*. 

his asinabus. appal. 

his lupabus. poj allaiD. 
Hoc pascha". caipc. 
hoc manna', mainn. 
300 hocmammona. bopluaigeD*. 
hoc all. a [alacrimonia ?]. pu- 

Communia' sunt haec: — 

hie et haec idiota. amaDdn"'. 

hie et haec aduena. Deopao. 

hie et haec indigena. uppaiD. 

305 hie et haec Hibernigena. eip- 

hie et haec Scotigena'l alba- 


hie et haec Angeligina. jall- 

hie et haec Normanigina. 

hie et haec Francigena. 

310 hie et haec Romanigena. po- 

hie et haec romipeta". oilic- 



hie et haec Almanigina al- 

hie ethaee cristigina.cpipcin. 
hie et haec alienigena'" co- 

hie et haec hermita [ere- 

mita]. Dicpebac. 
hie et haec homicida. t)un- 

hie et haec parricida. achap- 

hie et haec matrieida. marli- 

hie et haec fratricida bpctch- 

320 hie et haec sororieida piup- 



' ingin. " banshaer. ' bancara. ' lair. ' mul. ' pasca. ' maun. ' h. ma- 
mona. bo sluaiged. ° commonia. " amadan. " ibernigina. eirindach. " Scatigena. 
" galldacht. " romipida. " almaneach. " alinigena. " mathar. m. " bratbar. m. 



A Medkeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hie et haec uxoricida. bean- 

hie et haec generieida. cli- 

hie et haec uerbigina. cpip- 

hee bracce^ cpibup. 
325 hee insidie^ cealg. 

hee nuptie*. bainoe cfc. 

hee nundine mopmapgao*. 

hee rixe pep 5a''. 

hee tabe inaoa, 
330 hee atene [Athenae?]. ac- 

hee tenebre. Dopcaoup. 

hee latebre. oopcaoup. 

hee diuicie. inmupa. 

hee diuine Diabacc. 
335 hee none, noine^ 

hee calender cai line. 

hee nebule. nell". 

hee schole'". pcola. 

hee mine, bajaip. 
340 hie Andreas, anopiap. 

hie Thomas, romap. 

hie Eneas, aen^up, 

hie Barnubas. apostoli. 

hie Lucas. 
345 hie Nemias. gilla na naom. 

hie Malacias niaolpech- 

hie Ysayas. ^.pac. 

hie Tobias. 

hie Elyas. elq.. 
350 hie Jermias. pair''. 

hie Annanias. pdic'^. 

hie Sacarias. pdic'^. 

hie Boreas'^, an saec acu- 

hie Ancises. ppimaibecc. 
355 hie Nestorides". en. 

hie Peliades. en. 

hie Fetomsiades. en. 

hie Latoniades. en. 

hie Tebaydes. en. 
360 hicEneades. en. 

hie Adam. e. 

hie Joram. e. 

hie Abraham, e. 

hie Cayn. e. 

Q. Seeunda declinacio quot'^ literas terminales habet ? R. Tres. 

Q. Quas? 

' cristaighi. ' brace. ' incidie. ' nubtie. baindi. cich. ' mormargad. ' fergach. 
' nonne ndine. ' callende. • nelL " scole. " maolechl. " faith. '^ borias. 
" Nastorrades. '* quat. 

A Medioeval Tract on Latin Declension. 13 

Q. Quas ? E>. r, s, m. 

Q. Quot terminaciones habet ? R. uf. 

Q. Quas? R. er, ir, ur, us, eus, um. Q. Da exempla. R. 
er, ut magister, ir, ut uir, ur ut satur, us ut dominus eus, [ut] Ta- 
theus, um, ut templum. Q. Quot genera habet secunda declinacio ? 
R. uf. Q. Quas ? R. ut supra. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio er in secunda declinacione ? 
R. unum ut hie magister. 

Q. Quot genera habet terminacio Ir in secunda declinacione ? 
Q. Unum ut hie uir, 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio us in secunda declinacione ? 
R. quatuor. 

Q. Que sunt ? R. masculinum, ut hie dominus ; femininum [ut] 
hec domina vel hec malus ; neutrum, ut hoc vulgus ; promisc[u]um 
sine epicoenum' ut hie [et haec] milgus. 

Q. Quot genera habet terminacio eus in secunda declinacione ? 
R. unum, ut hie Tatheus. 

Q. Quot genera habet terminacio um in secunda declinacione ? 
R. duo. 

Q. Que sunt ? R. femininum, ut hec dorcium, philorsium, glice- 
rium; neutrum, ut hoc templum, simitherium. 

Q. Que est agnicio nominum secunde declinacionis ? R. hec est: 
cujus genitiuus singularis, nominatiuus et uocatiuus plurales in i 
productum desinunt, datiuus et ablatiuus^ singulares in 6 productum 
desinit, [et genitiuus pluralis in orum] nisi sincupacio [i. e. syncope] 
fiat, ut duum pro duorum, datiuus et ablatiuus^ plurales in is pro- 
ductum desinunt ; accusatiuus pluralis in os productum desinit, ex- 
ceptis alls nominibus secunde declinacionis que non sic faciuntur. 

' episcenum. ' oblativus. 


A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

365 hie magister. magipoep. 

liic arbiter, bpeiceam. 

hie presbyter', y^ajajic. 

hie minister cimciiiij. 

hie faber. gabann^ 
370 hie puer. macam. 

hie liber, leabap. 

hie caper, sabap. 

hie aper. cope. 

hie eancer. papcdn'. 
375 hie fiber, oobpan. 

hie linter. labap no plinncpi- 

hie gener. cliamuin. 

hie socer* companac. 

hie liber .a. um. neac paep. 
380 hicpuleher^ 

hie niger .a. um. Dub. 

hie piger .a. um. lepc. 

hie macer .a. um. cpuaj. 

hie acer .a. um. jpuamoa. 
385 hie aeer .a. um. agapb. 

hie dexter Deap. 

hie sinister^, cle. 

hie anser. jeib. 

hie onager'. a6 allaib. 

390 hie ager. pepanD. 

hie suber. pndmac*. 

hie in[s]eimagister magip- 
t>ep aimpepac. 

hie eger a. um. eplan. 

hie tener .a. um. maec. 
395 hie uir. pep. 

hie semiuir. lecpep*. 

hie leuir. pep elf. 

hie duum. uir rigepne'" 

trium vir. njepne cpip. 
400 hie quadrum uir. caipec cec- 

hie quinetum uir. caipec 

hie satur. parac. 

hie semisatur. lerpacac'^. 

hie dominus. cigepne'*. 
405 hie deus. Dia. 

hie animus, anum. 

hie filius. mac. 

hie natus. mac. 

hie libertus. paep. 
410 hie famulus'^ baclac. 

hie molossus. mflcu'*. 


' prespiter. ' gaban. ' partan. * soces. ' puplican {sic!). ' senester. ' on 
ag {jsic). ' snamaeh. ° semuir. lethfer. " tigema. " deisi. " cetxair. " leth hsa- 
thach. " tigema. " famalus. " malosus. milcu. 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 


hie bufulus. bacl[ac] bpe- 

hie amicus, cajia. 

hie equus'. eac. 
415 hie mulus. muP. 

hie asinus*. apf-al. 

hie lupus cu allaib. 

hie ursus. marsamain. 

hie auus*. ]^enaraip. 
420 hie proauus^ a acaip pn. 

hie atauus®. a araip pm. 

hie clericus. cleipeac. 

hie laicus' cuara. 

hie vitulus. loej'. 
425 hie oculus. puiP. 

hie monoculus. ler[h]caec. 

hie cecus. t)all. 

hie cetus. mil mop no puain- 
mech Dubaip'". 

hie orbus. mac Dilecca. 

hie luscus. raincpuilec". 

hie lippus maerpuilec'^ 

hie aduocatus. abcome". 

hie juridieus'*. olijcinec. 

hie eausidieus. pep cuipi do 

435 hie monaehus'". manac. 

hie homunculus'' Duine be5. 

hie eanonicus. cananac. 

hie discipulus Dipcibul. 

hie legitimus. olipcinac. 
440 hie enipulus. pgian. 

hie cutellus. psian. 

hie ungulus [ungula]. cpub'* 

hie elauus [elavis]. caipnge'^ 

hie eamus bpaijoec. 
445 hie baietus. paipci bpoj^". 

hie tegulus. pcolb cige^'. 

hie archiepiscopus. aipoeap- 

hie episeopus. eapboj. 

hie archidiaconus. aipcin- 




450 hie legatus. ceaccaipe. 
hie deeanus. Dejanach. 
hie prelatus. ppelair. 
hie prepositus. cijepne^'. 
hie diaconus. oecdm. 
455 hie subdiaconus. puboecdiri. 
hie aeolytus. aclaiOe^*. 
hie chorus^', incopaio. 


' equs. ' muL ' assinus. ' aus. ' proaus. ' ataus. ' lacius. ' laegh. ' suil. 

'° ruaimnech dubain. " mintsuilech. " lipus mffithsuilech. " abhcoidi. " iuriti- 

cus. " condmail. " monacus. " honumculus. " eru. " tairmgi. ^° brog. " tigi. 

" airchindcch. ^ tigema. ^ acolitus. aclaidM. ^ corus. 


A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hie populus. in pupul. 

hie agnus. uan. 
460 hie angelus. a^njeP. 

hie gladius. cloiDeam. 

hie areangelus. apcaingel. 

hie pilus. puainoe no poil- 

hie capillus. poilcniV. 
465 hie digitus, meplmme. 

hie artieulus. mep coipe^. 

hie psalmus. palm. 

hie uirsiculus peppdn'. 

hie sonus pojup. 
470 hie tonus, coin". 

hie semitonus' [semitSnium] 

hie ditonu[s]. oicoin. 

hie pumnatus [prognatus ?] 
TTiacani jence^ 

hie punctus. punc. 
475 hie cireulus. cepcall. 

hie murus. mup". 

hie cibus. biab. 

hie discus, in jaillmiap"'. 

hie cupus. copdn". 

480 hie cepus [eippus?]. cep. 

hie leetus. lebaiD. 

hie fimus. orpac. 

hie poreus. rope. 

hie uannus pjai^nen. 
485 hie tignus [tignum] clear. 

hie eollaetaneus'^ comalca. 

hie deeius. 

hie phaselus". cupac. 

hie forulus. pace. 
490 hie mantellus'''. macal. " 

hie flosculus. blacmap. 

hie agnellus. uainfn'*. 

hie porcellus. oipcnfn'^ 

hie pullus. peppac no gep- 
495 hie palus. cuaille'*. 

hie talus. Diple. 

hie callus. 

hie catulus. cuilen. 

hie murilegus'^ cac. 
500 hie dolus, cealj. 

hie pedieulus. mil 60015^". 

hie manipulus. Dopndn'" 


' angilus. aingil. ' ruaindi L fuiltin. ' foiltnin. ' merlaime-mer coisi. ' fersa. 
• toin, ' semtonus. * gennti. ' mur. " ingaill. mias. " cipus copan. " coUaca- 
nius. " facellus. " mancellus. '^ uainin. '° oircnin. " serrac L gerrcach. " cuailli. 
" morelius. '" peticulus. mil edaigh. " doman. 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 


hie curellus. cndimpac'. 

hie Columbus, colum. 
505 hie cureolus [curlegius ?]. 

copcac mapa. 530 

hie gallus. coileac. 

hie milgus [milvus]. ppecan^. 

hie figulus. cepD. 

hie cygnus'. in ela. 
510 hie eorus. coilec jaice*. 535 

hie foeus. reallac. 

hie sotus. oinmit). 

hie mimus ^eocac. 

hie loculiis. ];^bopan. 
515 hie pelliearius y^jingiDoip. 540 

hie locus, inab. 

hie diuersarius. aibippeoip. 

hie iocus. cluice'. 

hie Tartarus", ippeapn. 
320 hie infernus. ippepn. 545 

hie eatholicus. carolica". 

hie locanus. locan. 

hie xpianus. ^illa cpipc. 

hie Persianus. peppen*. 
525 hie Donatus. OonncaD. 550 

hie Martinus. ^illa TTlap- 

hie Malcus Diabul. 

' cnaimfiach, and leg. corvellus ?. ^ prechan. 
' tarturuB. ' cathholica. ' presen. ' augenius. 
'* sinatos. 


hie Petrus. perap no pe- 

hie Robertus. Roibepo. 
hie Valterus. Uacep. 
hie UiUialmus. Uill[iam]. 
hie Gillialmus ^illiam. 
hie Uirgilius. pepjal. 
hie Gillibertus. ^illibepo. 
hie Ruaricus. Ruaiopi. 
hie Ouidius. Docrop. 
hie Patrieius. gilla pdcpicc. 
hie Laurencius. Laiipinr. 
hie Clemencius. Clemenc. 
hie Diarmicius. Oiapmaio. 
hie Lodauieus. Loclann. 
hie Maurieius. TTlupchaD. 
hie Eugenius". Gogan. 
hie Grigorius. 5P'5°'P- 
hie Cornelius. Goncubap. 
hieThitheus. mac na hoioce'". 
hie Orp[h]eus Uaicne. 
hie Thateus. Caoj. 
hie Matheus. TTlacha. 
Hec diphthongus". oeoip. 
hee synodus'l pena6 naorh. 
hec eristallus. [crystallum]. 

cloc cpipoail. 


' cignus. ' coilec gaithi. ' cluithi. 
" mach na hoidhchi. " diptungus. 


A Medkeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hec paradisus. pappcup. 

hec quercus. Daip. 
555 hec malus. aball. 

hec corylus'. coll. 

hec fraxinus. puinopeoj. 

hec alnus^ pepnog. 

hec prunus^ Dpoi^m. 
560 hec buxus. beire*. 

hec taxus. ibap. 

hec ficus. picabalP. 

hec pinus". cpano 5 m p. 

hec laurus, cpano laufp. 
565 hec brucus. ppdec'. 

hec cornus. cpano mucop. 

hec colus. cuigel. 

hec fusus. peppaio". 

hec domus. reach. 
570 hec socrus. bean Dobpacap 
[rectS mdrhaip 00 mnd]. 

hec nurus". bean oomeic. 

hec penuF. cujan. 

hec jacin thus, leg'" lojmap. 

hec carbassus. long luac. 
575 hec abyssus". in paipje'l 

hec aulus. bpu na hoije". 

hec byssus. pp oil'*. 

hec humus, in uip. 

hec papyrus'^ paipep. 
580 hec porticus. oopup lip. 

hec Egiptus. Gigipc. 

hec acirus. peopup. 

Hic bubulcus. btiacaill bo'^ 

hie subulcus. buacaill mucc'\ 
585 hic rubus. muine. 

hic remulus. aipjeac. 

hic duraus''. opip. 

Hec sunt nomina adiectiua que non comparantur : — 

hic primus .a. um ceo 590 hic tercius .a. urn. an cpep 

neach. neac. 

hic secundus .a. um inoapa hic quartus .a. um. m cech- 

neac. puma neac. 


' corrolus. ^ anliis. ' brunus. ' bruxus. beithi. " fichus, fidhabhall. ' pinnus. 
' fraech. * fersad. ' murus. '" iacingtus. leg. " abisus. " infhairgbi. " hoighi. 
" bissus. " papirus. " bo. " muc. " tomiis. 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 


hie quinctus .a. um. in cui- 

jeb neac. 
hie sextus in peipeb neac. 
hie captus .1. gabailcec. 
595 hie euculatus .a, um. cuppa- 

hie eapuciatus .a. turn, ara- 

hie tunicatus' .a. tum. ina- 

hie inanicatus. muincillec. 
hie falingatus .a. tum. pal- 

600 hie braeatus" .a. tum. cpi- 

hie coronatus coponca. 
hie inuidus' .a. dum. poipm- 

hie blaesus* .a. um. 50D. 
hie surdus . a. um. bobap^ 
605 hie elaudus .a. um. baccac, 
hie auratus .a. um. opbaije*. 
hie argenteus" .a. um. aipge- 

hie ferrous .a. um. lapnaije**^ 
hie plumbeus^'luaiDearhail'". 

' tonicatus. '^ braxatus. ' inuidus. 
' argeteos. ^ iam. i. ' plumpeus. 
" on shl. i. '■' o obair. " strubosus 

' ' lethcaech. '* lingosus. 

610 hie stanneus" .a. um. pcona- 
hie aereus'^ uTnariiail. 
hie fundatus punDamincec. 
hie fessus .a. um. pcicec on 

hie lassus .a, um. pcicec 6 
6 1 5[festinus] 
cmnipnec no onmpnac. 
hie libidinosus .a. um. palac, 
hie infestinosus nerhcmoip- 

hie proeus .a. um. puipsec. 
hie forniearius .a. um. oball- 
620 hicfamelieus .a. um.^opcac. 
hie strabonus .a. um. piap- 

hie orbatus .a. um. oallpui- 

hie eecus .a. um. oall. 
hie monoeulosus lec- 
625 hie hnguosus'* .a. um. cenj- 


' blesus. ° boghar. * ordhaighe. 

'" luaigheam. " staneus. "* aureus. 

.a. um. siadshuilech. " dall shuilech. 



A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hie bilinguosus' .a. um. [bi- 

lingiiis] Docengcac. 
hie caritatosus .a. um. Dep- 

hie uerbosus .a. um. bpiar- 

hie aglossus [a'^Xwaao^] .a. 

um. pbesac. 
630 hie redieulosus .a. um. pona- 

hie egenus .a. um. pailjeac. 
hie crispus .a. um. cap ca. 

hie sanus .a. um. plan. 

hie insanus .a. um. epldn^ 
635 hie zelotypus .a. um. co- 
rn up*. 

hie densus .a. um. oluich. 

hie acidus* .a. um. 501 pc. 

hie urbieulatus .a. um. bal- 

hie lubrieus .a. um. plemam. 
640 hie amplus .a. um. paippinj. 

hie neruosus^ .a. um. luac- 

Nunc de nominibus significantibus plenitudinem : — 

hie formosus.a. um. oealbba. 
hie strumossus [ventosus] 

.a. um. uccapD. 
hie gulosus' .a. um. cpaep- 

645 hie barbosus .a. um. pepo- 

hie uentossus [ventosus] .a. 

um. jaermap. 
hie uentriosus .a. um. bponn- 


hie pedieulosus .a. um. mf- 

hie lendosus" pnecac. 
650 hie peditentosus''^ coi- 

hie phlegmosus .a. um. cpo- 

hie rugosus" .a. um. gepbac. 
hie maeulosus .a. um. bocoi- 

hie animosus .a. um. anmac. 

' slan. eslaa. ■* eelopidus .a. um. 

' bilingosus. ^ caritatinus .a. um. d. each, 
edmur. * acoidus. ° neurosus. ' gulossus. " barbossus a. um. fesogach. ' uentri- 
088U8 .a. um. brondm. "> milech. " lentossus. "^ pedidendus. " flegmosue .a. um. 
croindtilli. " ragossus. 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 


655 hie famosus .a. um. clu- 
hie difamosus .a. um. mfclu- 

hie spadosus .a. um. bpeal- 

hie retrocosus .a. um. ppe- 


Nomina adjectiua que comparantur : — 

hie albus .a. um. seal. 
660 hie doctus' cejaiy^ge. 

hie bonus .a. um. mair. 

hie malus .a. um. olc. 

hie magnus .a. ura. mop*. 

hie paruuus .a. um. beg. 
665 hie clarus .a. um. i^olup. 

hie eandidus .a. um. caicne- 

hie auarus .a. um. panncac. 

hie dignus* Dingbala. 

hie indignus .a. um. miDing- 
670 hie multus .a. um. iiri&a. 

hie purus .a. um. jlan. 

hie rarus' .a. um. ceipc. 

hie paucus .a. um. bej. 

hie durus .a. um. oaingen* 
no cpuaiD. 
675 hie madidus .a. um. pliuc. 

' clumar. 
* raidingbala. 
" flrenach, ainfirenach. 

^ miclemar. ' dectus 
' rarrus. * daingin. 

hie ignauus .a. um. Docene- 

hie longus .a. um. paoa. 
hie eurtus .a. um. cumaip. 
hie firmus .a. um. Dainjenl 
680 hie infirmus .a. um. eoain- 

hie iustus .a. um. pfpenac. 
hie iniustus .a. um. ainpfpe- 

hie fetidus'^ .a. um, bpen. 
hie sordidus .a. um. palac. 
685 hie gnarus .a. um. 
hie ignarus .a. lun. 
hie gnauus .a. um. 
Hoc templum. rem poll, 
hoe tabernaeulum. caib- 

690 hoc pennaeulum. 

" fetitus. 

.a. um. tegaisgi. * mor. 
' ignaus .a. um. docinelach. 


' dingnus. 


A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hoc simitherium [/fO£/x»/T»/- 
piov\. peilic. 

hoc feritrum [elicpum hod. 

hoc sepulcrum. ablucao. 

hoc lucrum, eoail. 
695 hoc miraculum. tin ip bail. 

hoc monaculum. bacloj. 

hoc cunabulum. cliBan. 

hoc sinabulum. 

hoc jentaculum'. Dinep. 
700 hoc cribrum. cpiarap. 

hoc molendinum^ muilino. 

hoc atrium, gappsa. 

hoc torritorium^ cipab. 

hoc uestibulum*. oplap. 
705 hoc stirpidivortium. pcoc- 

hoc lumbarium. cpip rpi- 

hoc epiglotum. pgop- 

hoc gernonum. cpombeol^. 

hoc chartaceum'. pgeoca. 
710 hoc sacritegium. pgeora. 

hoc pistrinum*. muilleanD. 

hoc cla[u]strura. cliacac. 
hoc prostibulum. rech x\a 

hoc redimiculum in bpaic- 

7 1 5 hoc silintrum. 

hoc uentilogium. bile, 
hoc stragulum". in ceip. 
hoc lolium Dicen. 
hoc plectrum cpanD. glepca. 
720 hoc igniferrium. ceinf 

[ceine] cpeapa. 
hoc scrupulum. ouBpuDan. 
hoc teretorium. cuaipjm. 
hoc herbagium. cluain 5a- 

hoc caldarium. coipe". 
725 hoc castrum. longpopc'^ 
hoc monasterium. mainip- 

hoc suffragium. popcacr'^ 
hoc refectorium. ppoinDcec. 
hoc dormitorium. coDalcec. 
730 hoc coopertorium. ppeilp. 
hoc dolium'*. cunna. 
hoc corium. pelce'^ 


' gentacxilum. " ' mulindinum. ' tritorium. * uescibulmn. " stipiforti- 
fartium. stoc ronna. * gernoodiun. cromceol. ' cartesium. * prostrinum. 

" straulium. '" .gabala. " colldarium. cdiri. " longport " sufragium. fur- 
tacht. " doleum. " coreum. seiehi. 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 


hoc cotium. 

hoc ingenium inrlecc'. 
735 hoc senium, pendiy^l 

hoc yraagium. 

hoc incendium. lof cab. 

hoc martyriuml mapciia. 

hoc salarium. caile*. 
740 hoc solarium, foilep. 

hoc sellarium. y'eallao. 

hoc equitium. 5P015'. 

hoc palatium 

hoc collum. mumel". 
745 hoc dorsum. Dpuim. 

hoc gyrgyrium'. ceilebpab 
eoin. no cpanD cocap- 
• hoc cerebrum, incinn^. 

hoc scamnum'". pcol. 

hoc firmameutum. pipma- 
750 hoc rubigorium. mip pluc. 

hoc muentorium. luac paip- 

hoc exilium. jnnapbao. 

hoc alimentum. oiI[emain]. 

hoc armentum. aipje". 


755 hoc crementum. copmac. 

hoc incrementum [decre- 
mentum]. micoprriac'^ 

hoc indumentum, eoac. 

hoc iumentum. ogbarri. 

hoc monumentum. a6lacaD, 
760 hoc testamentum. cimna. 

hoc instrumentum. inpcpu- 

hoc tegmentum. oiDin. 

hoc augmentum. meDuguD". 

hoc fragmentum. ppuipec. 
'jd^ hoc folium. ouiUen. 

hoc psalterium. palraip. 

hoc pulmentum, lire. 

hoc dipodium'^ uaicne. 

hoc pavementum. bl65a6'^ 
770 hoc lamentum. caf. 

hoc semen turn. 

hoc centum, ceo. 

hoc ducendum [ducenti]. oa- 

hoc tricendum [tercentum]. 
cpf ceo". 
"j^s^ hoc quatricentum [quadrin- 
genti]. ceichpe"* .c. 



' inntleoht. ' seonoii 
' .dochartaigh. ' cerebrum, incind. '" scanum. 
dug. " ffodium. vaithne. '* pavimentum. '^ da .c. 




airgi. '^ mitormach. 
" tri .c. " ccitliri. 


A Medieval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hoc quincentum [quingenti] 

CU15 .c. 
hoc sexcentum [sescenti] f e' 

hoc frumentum. cpuicnecc, 
hoc hordeum^ eopna. 
780 hoc [ajmersiamentum. meip- 


hoc stagnum. loc. 

hoc mulsum. lemnacc. 

hoc serum, meog. 

hoc butyrum. im [imm]. 
785 hoc unguentum. umnimiric'. 

hoc aurum. op. 

hoc argentum. aipget), 

hoc plumbum. Iuai6e*. 

hoc stannum. poan. 
790 hoc ferrum. lapunn^ 

hoc metallum". mi call. 

hoc praesumpticium' luac 

hoc alm'mistrum. bealac. 

hoc nuchum. ppeBan*. 
795 hoc gladiolum. poilepcap. 

hoc propheticum". pjap- 

hoc falcastrum. pi&ba. 

hoc bonum. maic. 

hoc malum, olc. 
800 hoc candidus, (sic) caicnea- 

hoc album, geal. 

hoc nigrum. DuB. 

hoc flauum. buioe'". 

hoc fuscum. pmbac. 
805 hoc multum. imDa. 

hoc paruum. beg. 

hoc modicum, mepup&a. • 

hoc minimum, pobej. 

hoc magnum, mop. 
810 hoc porrum. lup. 

Nunc dicendum de nominibus heteroclitis:" — 
fnleman. hoc rastrum. papcail. 

hoc coelum et plur. hi coeli" 815 hoc epulum -\ plur. bee epule. 

nem. F°'5'* 

hoc castrum. lonspopc". hoc delicium bee. cie. 


' se. ' ordium. ' vinnimint. * luaighi. ' iarund. ^ mithallum. ' proseumeti- 
cum. '* arebhand. ' profeticum. '" buidhi " ereocledus. " h. celum q plur hii cell. 
" longport. 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 25 

hoc filum uel fila ynaire'. 825 Hie Tartarus haec .ra. ip- 
hoc claustrum .ri. ra. claup- pepn'. 

cpa. hie sibilus est hominis*, sibela 

hoc frenum .ni. na. f pian. feminae prius in peo pope 

820 hoc capistrum .ri. ra. a6ap- hie infernus. na. ipeapnaba 

cap. hie menalus .a. 

hoc scarletum. hie dindimus .a. 

hoc balneum .e. ueLa. per- 830 hie avemus .a. 

pajoD. hie pelleus [pileus] ac pill 

hoc nasturtium^ bipup. hie intimus .a. ibpac 

hoc admidulum. 

Q. Tercia declinacio quot literas terminales habet? R. xi. 

Q. Quae sunt ? R. a, e, o, c, 1, n, d, r, s, t, x. 

Q. Da exempla. R. a, ut poema : e, ut sedile : o, ut uirgo : 
c, ut lac: 1, ut mel: n, ut nomen: d, ut Dauid: r, ut pater: s, 
ut ciuitas : t, ut caput : x, ut felix. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio a in tercia deelinacione ? 
R. unum genus, scilicet neutrum, ut hoc poema. 

Q. Quot genera habet hee terminacio e in tercia deelinacione? 
R. unum, scilicet neutrum, ut hoe sedile. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio o in tercia deelinacione ? 

R. sex. Q. Quae ? R. masculinum, ut hie ordo, femininum, ut 
hec dulcedo, commune, ut hie et hec homo, omne [i. e. omnigenum] , 
ut centripondio^, promiscuum siue epieoenum", ut uespertilio, du- 
bium, ut hie veF hec margo. 

Q. Quot 

' snaithi. ^ nastorsium. ' ifem. * cebelus .e. hois. * oe. ut cento psto. ' epi- 
Benum. ' et. 


26 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio c in tercia declinacione ? 

R. unum, scilicet neutrum, ut hoc lac. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio 1 in tercia declinacione ? 

R. quatuor. Q. Quae? R. masculinum, ut hie sol: femini- 
iium, ut hec Micol : neutrum, ut hoc mel : commune, ut hie et hec 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio n in tercia declinacione ? 

R. tria. Q. Quae? R. masc. ut hie Titan: fem. ut hec siren': 
neut. ut hoc nomen. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio d in tercia declinacione? 

R. Unum, scilicet masc. ut hie Dauid. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio r in tercia declinacione ? 

R. Sex. Q. Quae ? R. Masc. ut hie pater : fem. ut hec ma- 
ter : neutr. ut hoc cadauer : commune, ut uber : omne, ut par : pro- 
m[i]scuum sine epicoenum^, ut turtur. 

Q. Quot genera habet hec terminacio s in tercia declinacione ? 

R. Septem. Q. Quae ? R. masc. ut hie abbas : fem. ut hec 
caritas : neutr. ut hoc uas : commune, ut hie et hec sacerdos : omne 
genus, ut sapiens: prom[i]scuum sine epicoenum^, ut phoenix', ut 

Q. Que est agnicio tercie declinacionis nominum? R. hec : cuius 
genitiuus singularis in is correptum^ desinit, datiuus in i productum 
desinit, accusatiuus sing, in em uel in im correptum desinit": uocatiuus 
similis suo nominatiuo : ablatiuus desinit in e correptum [uel i] pro- 
ductum desinit excepto' fame et nocte : nom. et ace. et uoc. plur. in es 
productum desinunt*, genitiuus pluralis in um uel in ium correptum* 
desinit : datiuus [et] ablatiuus plurales in bus correptum** desinunt'". 


' sciren. " episenum. ' fenix. * corcortex. ' coniptum. ^ coruptum desinit fn i. 
' acepto. * desiuiunt. " correbtum. " desinit. 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 


Nunc de nomiuibus tercie declinacionis, ut sequitur : — 

Hoc poema. pilibecc. 

hoc dindyma'. jeman. 
835 hoc prolemma''. a&bapoacc. 

hoc cataplasma. ceipfn'. 

hoc dogma. poiyiceDal. 

hoc doma. mullac cije*. 

hoc enighma. poppgar no 
840 hoc chrisma^. cpipmal. 

hoc nomisma*. monab. 

hoc sophissma. poipipr, 

hoc apostema'. nepcoio. 

hoc phlegma*. cpoinocille. 
845 hoc anathema. coinoealbcaD. 

hoc fantassma. cabbaip. 

hoc sperma. coimpejic. 

hoc idioma. abbapoacc. 

hoc thema". abba p. 
850 hoc sedile. puibeocan. 

hoc ouile. cpo caepac'". 

hoc monile vel munile. ppo- 

hoc missale. lebap aic- 

hoc gredale. ^pebdil. 
855 hoc trobiale. cpoibel. 

hoc lectorie. pcuiDip. 

hoc manuale. Idmcuaj. 

hoc cubile. leabaiD in Daiin 

hoc corporale. coppopap. 
860 hoc mare. muip. 

hoc praesepe". mainopep. 

hoc cepe*^ uinneamain, 

hoc rete. Ifn" uipcf. 

hoc gausape. pcapaio. 
865 hoc cete. nnl mop'*. 

hoc tempe. macaipe. 

Hec locucio. u]ilabpab. 

hec lectio, aicecc. 

hec accio. acpa. 
870 hec oracio. juibe". 

hec constriictio'^. cumrac. 

hec preposicio. pernceccap". 

hec coniunctio. compocul"*. 

hec interjectio'^ mcepiacc. 
875 hec comparatio. compa- 


' dindima. * prolema. ' ceirin. * tighi. ' crisma. « momissma. ' apastema. 
"fethma. Uema. '"caeirack " p. cepe. "sepe. " lin. " mil. mor. "guidhi. 
" construccio. " remtosc. " comfoecul. " I'ntcrdeccio. * comparaid. 



A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hec intencio. inncinDeac. 

hec opinio, bajiamail. 

hec electio. coja. 

hec racio. olijeo. 
880 hecconsecratio. coippespaD. 

hec ornacio. cumDac. 

hec fanmlacio. mujpaine. 

hec fornicacio. aballcpap. 

hec consolacio. comi^olap' no 
885 hec nominacio. ainmneacaD. 

hec dominacio. cijepnap. 

hec generacio. jeinemain. 

hec correctio. cepcacao. 

hec operacio. oibpiujub. 
890 hec planacio. peibe^. 

hec castigacio. cej'cugub. 

hec associacio'. compancup. 

hec supplicacio. guibe^. 

hec monstracio'. raipbenab. 
895 hec annunciacio. poill[piu- 

hec collacio, connpapdiD. 

hec communicacio". comain- 

hec ministracio. nmripecc. 

hec procuracio. Denarh'. 

900 hec fictio' DoilbciuguD. 

hec pericio [peritia]. eolap^. 

hec adulacio. molab. 

hec coequatio. comcpomu- 


hec simulacio. copmailiup. 
905 hec disimulacio. egcupmai- 

hec sequestracio. uplamap. 

hec prolongacio. paiDiuguo. 

hec satisfaccio. lopgnfm'*. 

hec remuneracio arcumi- 
910 hec deduccio". Dipliujub. 

hec compilacio. cengal. 

hec reuolucio. eirellab. 

hec computacio. comaipem. 

hec benediccio'^. bennachr. 
9 1 5 hec malediccio. tnallacc. 

hec remigacio [reptatio ?]. 

hecmitigacio. ail5inec[c]. 

hec talliacio. comTTia. 

hec caro. coluno. 
920 hec fortitudo. laioipe'^ 

hec multitudo. imao. 

hec magnitudo. mem. 



' comsholas. '^ reidhi. ' asociacio. < suplicaeio g^idhi. ' mostracio. " comunf- 
* fixio. ' eolas. '" lorarnim. " dedicacio. " benndic- 

' forcuracio denamh. 
" laidiri. 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 


hec paruitudo. loijeo, 

hec raritudo. ceipce. 
9^5 hec latitude, leicne. 

hec celsitudo. aipoe. 

hec pulchritudo. nriaippe. 

hec egritudo. eplane. 

hec longitude, paioe'. 
930 hec triplicacio. cpipulca. 

hec quadruplicacio. cecap- 

hec limpitudo. uipgemlacc. 

hec arundo. cupcuplac^ no 

hie hirundo^ painleoc. 
935 hec hirudo*. ndic. epcuing 

Propria noraina : — 

hie. Odo Qob. 

hie Catto. caiD. 
950 hie Plato, piaic. 

hie Uato. [Pluto?] ploir. 

hie Apollo. 5pinn. 

hie et hec homo Duine. 

hie et hec uirgo. ogh^ 
955 hie et hec nemo, nemouine. 

hec ymago. oealb. 

hec indago. lopjapecc. 

hec uorago. pdebcoipe^ 

hec rubedo'. oep^e. 
940 hec sangis suga [sanguisuga] . 

hec fuligo. puirhe. 

hec calido [calor]. cep. 

Hie ordo. opo. 

hie cardo. meplac r.a coui- 
945 hie carbo. pinepoiD*. 

hie mango, gilla naneac. 

hie uel hec margo bpuac. 

hie et hec latro plarame"*. 
hie et hec Brito bpecnac. 
hie et hec pseudo. pdic bpe- 


hie et hec praesto. pia6- 
960 hie et hec par. comrponi. 


' In the MS. teirci, leithnf, airdf, maissi', eslanf, faidL ' curcuslach. ' enmdo. 
*'(rundo.i f » urcoidech. « urago. saeblicoire. ' rubido. dergi. « smeroid. » ogk 
•° slataidhL " ceudo [over which is the gloss " .i. longa fallsa"] faith bregach. 
" psto. fiadhnaisL 

30 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hie et hec impar. ejconn- hie et hec dispar. ejcom- 

cpom. cpom. 

Ista sunt nomina ; — 

hie Issae. hoc mel. mil. 

hie Melchisedech, 975 hoe fel. Domblap de. 
965 hie [hec] ambago'. hoe animal. ainmiDe^. 

hoe lae. bainne^ hoe sal et dieitur hie sal .1. 

hoe aUec. pjaoan. palann. 

hie Daniel. hie tribunal. 

hie Michael. hoc ceruical*. cepcaill. 

970 hie Eaphael. 980 hie Anibal. ainm Duini*. 

hie Uriel. hie et hec consul comai|i- 

hic Samuel, mascula sunt. leac. 

hie sol .1. 5]iian. 

Propria [communia ?] sunt nomina : — 

hie et hec praesul. eappog. 985 hie et hec [imjprovigil. 

hie et hec exul. innapbcac. nempuipecdip. 

hie et hec uigil. pupacaip. hie et hec pugil. jlecaipe. 

Nomina indeclinabilia : — 

hoc nil neimchni. hoe Pean. jpian. 

hoc nul. neimchnf. 990 hoc Titan, gpian. 

' ambaca. ' bainde. ' ainm .i. * seruical. ' ainmidhi duine. 


A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 



Hoc nomen. amm. 

hoc praenomen'. pemainm. 

hoc cognomen, comainnn. 

hoc stramen. cuijel 

hoc tegimen. oiDin. 

hoc pronomen. a|ipon an- 

hoc flamen. p6an. jaeire. 
hoc lumen. poiUi-e^ 
hoc flumen. fpuc. 
I ooo hoc limen. caippec*. 
hoc polimen. plip eog. 
hoc carmen piliDecc. 
hoc agmen. fluaj. 
hoc fragmen. pbpuileac. 
hoc trolliamen. mapog. 
hoc odomen. [abdomen] 

hoc cuhnen. mullac. 
hoc cacumen. pmo. 


hoc semen. pfL*. 
1010 hoc geminen^ emnat). 

Hie ren. apa. 

hie splen. pealg no Dpeap- 

hie lien, incinne lachca- 

hie pecten plino. 
1015 hie lyricenl cpuicipe. 

hie tubicen". poocaipe. 

hie fidieen. ceDaipe'". 

hie cornicen. gilla aoaipce. 

hie laraen [flamen?]. fei- 
1020 hie siren, muipouchu'^. 

hie Caton. 

hie Simon. 

hie Samson. 

hie Phaethon. 
1025 hie Lycaon". 

Propria nomina villarum : — 

Hec Calidon. 

hec Babilon .1. confusio. 

hec Elicon. 

hie delphin'*. mucc mapa. 
1030 hie Cayn colach. 
hie iubar. oeallpao. 


' ainm h. pronomen. « tuighi. ' soillsi. * tairrsech. ' sil. " genimen. 
' .iasachtarach. * liricen. ' tibicem '» tedaire. " seideagh. " ciren. muruchu. 
^ feton hie licaon. " delipin. muc. 


A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hie hepar\ de. 
hie sutolar. bjiocc. 
hie lar. iccap na comlat). 
1035 hie Cesar, pf. 
hie Lastar. pf. 
hie Nar. ppuc. 
hoc far. ic m apba. 
hie naris (pars eorporis) 
ppon (ip fluuii Naris). 
1040 hie sequester [sequax] len- 
munac" (extat hie se- 

hoe calcar. pbop an eic. 

hoe pluuinar. ppuc. 

hoc torcular. clap', capca. 

hoc bostar. buaile Dam. 
1045 hoc nectar .c. 5piTiDf poilcf. 

Hie pater, achaip. 

hie frater. bparhaip*. 

hie imber. bpaen aimpipe. 

hie eucumer. culapan. 
1050 hie September^ m''. 

hie October. m\. 

Feminina^ hee sunt : — 

hee mater, machaip' 
hee mulier bean. 

hee linter. plinn cpiab. 

Communia sunt : — 

1055 Hie et hee puber caecap- 
, [ac]. 
hie et hee uber. urh. 
hie et hee degener. Docine- 

hie et hee et hoe pauper, 

hoc uber pine occa^. 

1060 hie campester \ 

hee campestris > macaipe. 

hoc campestrej 

hie siluester ) ,, 

( caiUcea- 

j mail. 


hee siluestris 
hoc siluestre 

epar. ' " hoc naris sron .is. flui. naris Hie sequester lenmunach. pars corporis ex- 

tat. hie sequestris hoc calcar sbor an eich hoc sequestre." ^ torculcar. clar. 
' septimb. * feminea. ' mathair. * docinelach. ' apparently senextus. 


A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 





hie pedester 

hec pedestris 

hoc pedestre 

hie celeber 

hee Celebris 

hoc celebre 

hie saluber 

hee salubris 

hoc salubre ] 

Video larem (.1. fannUam) 

per larem (.i. per fami- 

liam) circa larem (.1. 

ignem) in lare (.1. in 

Hic acer 
hec acris 
hoc acre 
hic volucer* 
hec volucris 
hoc volucre 
hic paluster 
hec palustres 
hoc palustre 
hic alacer 
hec alacris 
hoc alacre' 





Hoc polyandrium. uai6^ 
1070 hoc uer eappac. 

hoc cadauer. copp lejap. 

hoc piper, pipup. 

hoc iter, pec plijeo. 

hoc spinter. nealj. 
1075 hoc ruter. cac. jaBap. 

hoc iuger. la oippci. 

hoc uesper. noin*. 

hic nutritor. ame^ 

hic honor, onoip'. 
1080 hic lector. lej;coip*. 

hic amor. 5pa6. 

hic doctor. Doccuip. 

hic decor, maipe. 

hic dedecor. mfmaipe'. 
1085 hic labor, paechap. 

hic calor. cep, 

hic color'", each. 

hic odor, bolcanab". 

hic fetor, bpencup'l 
1090 hic factor. Denmupac". 

hic fictor. Doilbceoip. 

hic emptor, cenname". 

hic protector. Dionijce- 



' hoc acris eithidemail Hie volueer. ctccliail hec uolacris, hoc volacre. ^ gffitham. 

' alice eathideam. h. aliens h. alicre. ' poliandrium. 
• leg. legtoir ? * maisi. dcdicor. mimaisi. '" colar. 
" denmusach. " cend.i. 

' noin. * oidi. ' onar. anoir. 



34 A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hie tenor [tener]. boc. hie auditor, eipciooip. 

1095 hie textor. pijjiooip'. Hoc cor. cpoioe^ 

hie nitor. cpmllacoip. hoe equor. paipje^ 

hie liquor', pliucibecc. hoe marmor. mapmup. 

hicconditor'.cutnDaijcoip. 11 05 hoe castor. ainmiDe'. 

hie rector*, maigifcep. hoc ador ao^ 
1 1 00 hie senior, penoip. 

Nomina communia^ : — 

hie et hee autor. u^Dup. 1110 hie et hec memor. cuun- 

hic et hec decor, maipi. neac. 

hie et hec dedicor, mimai- hie et hec immemor. micu- 

fi. imneac. 

Nunc de nominibus comparatiuis tercie deelinacionis : — 

hie et hee doctior'" et hoc hie et hec peior et hoc .ius. 

.ius. niYcecoiy^ce. nfpmepa. 

hie et hec fortior et hoc hie et hee durior et hoc .ius. 

.ius. ni'aplaiDipi". nip"cpuai6i. 

hie et hec maior" et hoe hie et heemolliorethoc .ius. 

.ius. nfipmo'^ nip" buiji, 

1 1 15 hie et hec minor et hoe. us". 1120 hicethecauariorethoc.ius. 

nfapluja. ni'ppanncaiji. 

hie et hec melior et hoc hie et hee earior et hoc .ius. 

.ius. nfppepp. ni'^apoile. 


' figidoir.  licor. ' cumdaightoir. * re tor. ' croidhi. "" fairci. ' ainmidhi. 
* adorad. ' indecl.e. '" doctor. " nisalaid. '* magior. " mo. '* Smb. " nis. " ni. 

A MedicEval Tract on Latin Declension. 


hie et hec clarior et hoc .ius. 

hie et hec debelior et hoc 

.ius. ni'apTTieaca. 
hie et hec albior et hoc .ius. 

1125 hie et hec amabilior et hoc 

.ius. nfippoca)iranai5[i]. 
hie et hec legibilior et hoc 

.ius. nfaf polejca. 
hie et hec laudabilior et hoc 

.ius. niipyomolra. 
hie et hec felicior- et hoc 

.ius nfapconaichi. 
hie et hec sapientior' et 

hoc .ius. nfapglica. 
1 1 30 hie et hec benignior et hoc 

.ius nfipcairp uapai^i^ 

' nisameata. ^ felitorum. ^ crudelior. 
torum.  saithec na tuisi. ^ colosclrigium. 
?m' in Nos. 1 1 24, 1 128, 1 1 29.] 

hie et hec audacior' et hoc 

.ius. nfipoana. 
hie et hec amarior et hoc 

.ius. nfippeipbe. 
hie et hec loquacior* et hoc 

.ius. nfiplabapcmje. 
hie turibulus .i. paicec na 

1135 hoc orologium .1. uppalaip- 

hoc coUistrigium* .1. piloip. 
hoc equicium .1. com pap no 

painj ancpaip. 
hoc equilibrium .1. com- 

hoc manubrium .1. niaioe 


■* ccenshuaraighi. ' audatorum. *loca- 
[1 have placed a mark of length over the 

F 2 

36 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 


[In the following Commentary I have made use of certain abbreviations, which, if not explained, might 
cause obscurity. Thus, "A. S." for Anglo-Saxon; " Seitr." (or the Beitrciffc zur vergkichenden sprach- 
forschung auf dem gebiete der arisch&n, keltisc/wn and alavkchen spracJien, herausgegeljen von A. Kuhn 
und A. Schleicher, vol. i. Berlin, 1858; "Corm." for Cormac's Glossary; "gl." for "the gloss on;" 
"Gliick" for C. W. Gliick's KeltiscJie Namen (Miinchen, 1857); "Lib. Hymn." for the Liber Hyrano- 
rum ; "1. w." for " a living word;" " O. H. G." for Old High German ; " 0. Ir." for Old Irish ; " O'R." 
for O'Reilly's Irish Dictionary (Dublin, 1817); "0. W." for Old Welsh; "r."forroot; " Skr." for Sans- 
krit; "W." for Modern Welsh ; "Z." forZeuss, or Zeuss's Grammatica Clsftjco (Lipsiaj, 1853); "Zeits." 
for the Zeitschrift fur vergleichende sprachforsehung u. a. w. Berlin, now edited solely by Dr. Kuhn. 
Finally, I trust that Dr. O'Donovan and Mr. Curry will not be offended at finding their honoured names 
reduced to "O'D." and "C." respectively.] 

1-5. — I. Filidh (gl. poeta), in 0. Ir. fill gen. filed, a masc. d-stem, may perhaps be 

I in 0. Ir. as 

connected with the W. r. 


"to see;" cf.VeUeda? 

Fill is dec] 

follows : — 

Masc. (^-Steh. 
Stem, filid. 




N. fiJi 



G. filed 

da filed 

filed (n) 

D. filid 

dib filedaib 


Ac. filid (n) 

da fill 


V. afUi 

a da fill 

a fileda 

YLence filidecht (gl. poema, gl. carmen), Nos. 853 and 1002, infra. The .i. which so 
frequently occurs is for idon, " to wit," " namely." 2. Faith (= vatis) gen. fatha 
(= vatayas?) cognate with Lat. vates, a masc. i-stem, declined in 0. Ir. thus : — 

Masc. «-Stem. 

Stem, fdthi. 




N. faith 

da faith 


G. fdtha 

da faithe 

faithe (n) 

D. faith 

dib faithib 


Ac. faith (n) 

da faith 


V. af4ith 

a da faith 

a faithi. 

3. Sailmchitlaid, 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 


3. SailmcMtlaid, from salm = psalmua, is also an i-stcm, as is cetlaid, which is 
not found in O'R., but must mean "singer," cf. erochairchetlaid gl. tibicen Z. 198 
(erochuir, aerachair gl. cms Z. 744). 4. Sai, log. sai ? a mase. t-stem ? of obscure 
origin, — unless we assume that a p has dropped out. It occurs, spelt sui, in 
Lib. Hymn. 3' (p. 72, ed. Todd), "roleg [read roleg] iarsein i Corcaig corbo sui" (he 
afterwards studied in Cork till he became a sui, a learned man, sage) ace. pi. seems to 
occur in the same MS. in the pref. to S. Cuohuimne's hymn, fo. 6": roleg suthe 
codruimne'. 5. Cruitire (leg. cruittire, gl. citharista, gl. lyricen, infra), a masc. ia- 
stem = crottarias, formed from crott = crotta, "W. crwth, a fern, a-stem. cf. chrotta 
Britanna, Tenant. Fortun. 7, 8, cited by Z. 77, crottichther gl. citharizatur Z. 77. 
Note in cruitire the vowel-change (umlaut) of the of the root into ui, effected 
by the i of the penultima ; note also the non-aspiration of the t, though flanked by 
vowels, in consequence of its original duplication. Engl, crowd-er (fiddler) is from 
W. crwth, where tt has, according to rule, become th. cfr. 0. H. G. hrotta, Ang. Sax. 
rot (fem.). 

6-10. — 6. Timpanach. •]. Organaidh. S. SophistidJie. All formed by adding Irish 
terminations to foreign roots. 9. Eannaire (gl. partista), a personal noun (masc. 
ia-stem) from rann (a part) a fem. ii-stem = W. rhan : cf. 0. W. rannam (gl. partior) 
Z. 1078. In 0. Ir. rannaire was thus declined : — 

N. rannaire 
G. rannairi 
D. rannairiu 
Ac. rannaire (n) 
V. a rannairi 

Masc. aa-SiEM. 

Stem, ranndria. 
da rannaire 
da rannaire 
dib rannairib 
da rannaire 
a da rannaire 

rannaire (n) 
a rannairiu 

1 Suthe may here be a derived abstract subst. which occurs, spelt sdithe, in tlie Amra Choloim Chille 
(XeS. na huidre, 10 a, a) : Bii sab skithe cecdind (gl. no tias, no in J. ba \_sab'] mithe in each dindsenchas) 
A. roba aab daingen nosoad eech niummus. No robosiuabb, Ko sabb cech denna .i. cech(f' airechia cosa- 
riaed Colum elite. No bamabb iauthemlaeht cechberlai coclethi. No robonertmar isint\j\iiithe coriacht 
eocUthi. " He was a chief of science in everj- hill Cgl. or above, or in, i. e.' he was [a chief] of science in 
every hill-science), i. e. he was a firm chief who used to return every wealth [of knowledge]. Or he was a 
sage-abbot. Or a chief of every hill, i. e. of every assembly to which Coluracille came. Or he was a good abbot 
in the knowledge of every tongue to perfection. Or he was miglity in the science to perfection" (cocleithe, 
lit. according to C. "to the ridge or the top of anything"). In H. 2. 16 (T. C. D.) col. 691, the passage and 


A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

And rann waa thus decUned : — 

Fem. d-SlEM. 

Stem, rannd. 






di rainn 




da rann 

rann (n) 



dib rannaib 



, rainn (n) 

di rainn 




a di rainn. 

a ranna 

luchtaire (gl. lanista) not in 0' E. , who, howerer, has luchdaire, ' ' whirlpool, " as to which 
meaning, quaere. Perhaps we may compare the name of Lucterius, chief of the Cadurci, 
also spelt LvxTiiPios. 

11-15. — II. i«:ra«>e (gL legista), a hybrid from lex, as 12, (:?«tfr«rf«cA from Lat. decre- 
tum, medializing the tenuis t. In 0. Ir. we should probably have had erchoilidech. 
13. Uasalathair (patriarch), a masc. stem, decUned in 0. Ir. like cathir (which, ac- 
cording to Ebel, is a stem in r taking the determinative suffix c — c£ Goth, brothrahans — 
but should, perhaps, like Ainmire, ruire, Fiachra, Fiacha, Lugaid, Echaid, caera, 
nathir, &c., be rather considered a stem in c) ; cathii- was thus declined : — 

Dnal. Plur. 

di chathir cathraig 

' da cathrach cathrach (11) 

dib cathrachaib cathrachaib 

N. cathir 
G. cathrach 
D. cathraig 
Ac. cathraig (n) 
Y. a chathir 

di chathir 
a di chathir 

a chathracha 

If uasalathair be a stem in r, it is compounded of uasal = oxala (oxalla?) high 
(cf. UxeUodunum) and athair = Skr. pitar, Gr. Trarr}/), Lat. pater, Eng. father, with loss 
of the initial p as is common in Irish and "Welsh : cf. Ian (fuU) = W. llawn, Lat plenus, 
Skr. root par ; lear (many) with plerus, TrXrjprf^ ; iasc = "W". pysg = piscis = fish ; lia 
= irXeiuiv ; lethan (broad) with ttXotws, Skr. prthu ; the 0. Ir. intensive particle and 
verbal prefix ra-, ro- = Skr. pra, Lat. pro ; the prefix U- = vo\v, Skr. puru, Goth, filu ; 
ire (ulterior) = irepaw^, ath (ford) = TraTov, and other instances brought forward by 
Ebel, Beitr. i. 307. Athir was thus declined ia 0. Ir. : — 

gloss above quoted stand thus : Bai saph saithi each dind .i. robai corbasai 1 cm-bo /top saitlteamlachta 
dindseanchas .i. iter ectia -\ Jilidecht ■\ faistine (wisdom as well as philosophy and prophecy). 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 


Masc. r-SiEM (NoiiN OF Eelationship). 

Stem, athar. 






da atliir 




da athar 

athre (n) 



dib iathraib 



. athir i 


da athir 




a da athir 

a athra 

14. Crosan (gL scurra), W. croesan. (buffoon), primarily a cross-bearer in religious pro- 
cessions, "who also," says Dr. Todd (Irish Nenrdus, p. 182), " combined with that 
occupation the profession, if we may so call it, of singing satirical poems against those 
who had incurred Church censure, or were for any other cause obnoxious." The ex- 
ercise of this profession was sometimes not unattended with risk — Muirchertach mac 
Erca having been expelled from Ireland ar na crossana do marbad (after having kiUed 
the Crossans, Ir. Nenu., uli supra). In the Cornish vocabulary, printed by Z., scurra 
is glossed by barth, L e. bard. 15. Cestunach, apparently formed from the base of 
the Lat. questio. 

16-20. — 16. Ardeaspoc (archbishop), 0. Ir. ardepscop, where the first element 
ard (high) = Lat. arduus, Gr. op06i for opOpo^, Skr. urdhva : epscop is of course from 
episcopus. 17. Gilla cinn eich (gl. auriga), " a servant {gillie) at a horse's head;" 
gilla - 0. "W. name Gildas, apparently a stem in s (Dauid in gilla dana, Colman's 
hymn, "D. the bold youth"); cinn the locative of cenn (head), "W. penn. a masc. 
a-stem, and thus declined in 0. Ir. : — 

Masc. a-SiEM. 

Stem, cinna. 




N. cenn 

da chenn 


G. cinn 

da cenn 

cenn (n) 

D. cinnn 

dib cennaib 


Ac. cenn (n) 

da chenn 


V. a chinn 

a da chenn 

a chiunnu 

Loc. cinn 

eich = eci = akvai, gen. of ech, a masc. a-stem = ecas = akvas, cf. Skr. a9vas, Gr. iirno^, 
Lat. equus, 0. H. G. ehu, &c. v. infra. 18. Bvrrach, says C, is " a heifer between 

40 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

the ages of one and two years ;" the Lat. birria is obscure to me. Festas (sub v. bur- 
rum, ed. Mueller) has "burra," a heifer with a red muzzle. O'E. has "biorrach," a 
boat, a cot, a currach (which word I have never met in a MS.). This reminds one of 
baris, a flat Egyptian rowboat, in Propertius, 3, 11, 44, papfs in Herodotus. 19. 
Geidh (gl. geta), leg. giidh, is afterwards the gloss on anser (goose). 20. Righan 
(queen), a fom. a-stem. Cf. Skr. rajnJ, Lat. regina. Skr. root, raj, reg-ere. 

z 1-25. In hantduech (duchess), hanai (abbess), hanprioir (prioress) (leg. banphrioir), 
han'sagart (priestess), the first element is ban (woman, female), "W. bun (My\'yr. Arch, 
i. 575) = gvana, Gr. ''ivvij, Boeotian fiavn (sec Ebel, Beitr., i. 160), toisech (princeps 
Z. 61), a derivative from tus (initium), out of which a v has certainly fallen (cf. 0. W. 
touyssogion principes Z. 6) as in dia (God) = Skr. devas, nue (new) = navias ; cf. the 
(xaulish base novio in Noviodunum and Noviomagus, Vedic na\-ya, noi (a ship) = Lat. 
navis, Boind, the Boyne = Bovinda {JiovovlvSa, PtoL) &c. ; mgart is of course from 
sacerd-os, with the provection of the medial frequent in derived words (cf. apgitir 
[alphabet] = abecedarium). 25. Innilt (gl. ancilla), "a handmaid." — O'E. 

26-30. At cluic (gl. galea), " hat of (the) skull," cf. clogad, " helmet," O'E. We 
should, I suspect, read atchluic; cf. atanach, gl. caputiatus, infra. 27. Taiplis (alea), 
perhaps nothing but the English "tables" (backgammon, or some such game with dice), 
with the provection of the medial above alluded to. 28. Bavr'm (gl. mitra) leg. bair- 
n'n ? and cf. barr gl. cassis, gl. frons, frondis Z. 5 1 . 29. Inar (gl. tunica) inarach (gl. 
tunicatus) infra, loc. sing. : Senoir broit buide (leg. buidi ?) inair glais go glanmet (leg. 
glanmeit), " an old man in a yellow cloak, in a blue tunic of full size." Harleian 
1802, fol. j"* (tunica is glossed by fiian in Z., W. gwn, Eng. gown). 30. Muincille (gL 
manica), afterwards muincillech (gl. manicatus), "a sleeve, cuff," O'E. 

31-35. Gairleog, from Eng. garlick, A. S. garleac, garlec. 32. jSfo«<rt« (gl. lacema) 
not in O'E., is apparently a deriv. from sliassit (gl. poples Z. 22), of which the dat. pi. 
sliastaib is glossed by femoribus in the Leabhar Brcacc copy of Gildas' Lorica : slestan, 
therefore, is probably a cloak, covering the thighs and hams. With the connected 
0. Ir. sliss, cf. W. ystlys (side, flank). 33. Ciahh, " a lock of hair," O'R, 1. w. Cirrhus 
is glossed by mong in Z. 34. Ldmann (a glove) ; c£ W. Ilawes, deriv. from lam (hand) 
= lama, laba ? and this, perhaps, from the root lab (Skr. labh), cf. \aftfiavw — the 
root-vowel being lengthened (vriddhied ?). 35. Dias (gl.spica, "an ear of com," O'E., 
probably W. twysen, although W. t = It. d is irregular), occurs in Z. 577 : nin (leg. 
nm) dias biis archiunn focheirt (non y spica est antequam seminas). Oengus cele 
de (Felire, Nov. 24) caUs Cianan of Daimliac " caia-dias diar tuirind" (a fine ear to our 


36-40. Braise, 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 41 

36-40. Braise, "hastiness, rapidity, intrepidity, boldness," O'R., which does not 
agree very well with lascivia (playMness, Kcentiousuess). The dat. sing, of the word 
occurs in the Leabhar Breacc copy of the Felire of Oengus (June 19) : — 

Luid afuil foroenu (.1. foroenchaire) 

fiadslaagaib coitibrassi : (.1. coslatra no cosolani) 
donrig batar uissi (.1. batar tiiss no umla no innraice no comadais) 

Geruassi Protassi (.1. duos [daojfratres erant, et in Elcidie sunt reliquia sua qui [reliquiae suae quae] 
per aomnium Ambroaaio ostensa [ostensae] aunt). 

Their blood flowed at the same time (i. e. at the one accusation) 
Before hosts, with boldness (i. e. strongly or quickly) ; 

Just unto the King [of heaven] were (i. e. they were obedient, or humble, or fit, or suitable). 
Gervassi [and] Protassi. 

Cf. W. brysiaw, "to hasten, hurry." 37. Fallaing, 1. w. (mantle) a fern, i-stem, fal- 
laingech (gl. falingatus), infra, occurs in Giraldus Cambrensis, Topogr. Hib., 3, 10, 
" gens ista, hibemica, vice palliorum phalingis laneis (al. falangis nigris) utitur," 
cited Z. 95 ; fallaing is perhaps connected with pallium. Cf. the W. adage, mal y 
Gwyddyl am y ffaling, "like the Irishman for the cloak." 38. Leine (gl. camisia' 
= chemise), gen. leined, Corm. v. Lendan, a shirt, probably connected with Im (flax), 
W. llin, lin-seed, lin-um, \iv-ov. 39. Gruaidh (a cheek), occurs in Cormacan ecces' 
Circuit of Ireland, ed. O'D., v. 23. (I have restored the ancient spelling) : — 

rob imde der dar gruaid ngrinn 
oc bantracht Ailig foiltfind. 

(There was many a tear over a comely cheek among the fair-haired women of Ailech), 
cf. O. Ir. gruad, gl. mala, Z. 28, Com. grud. 40. Tengad (tongue), whence infra 
tengtach, dotengtach. In 0. Ir. this was tenge gen. tengad, a d- (or t- ?) stem, but 
identical in root with the Lat. lingua = dingua, 0. H. G. zunga, Engl, tongue, 
Skr. jihva. Very remarkable is the irregular representation of a Latin medial (rf) 
by the Irish tenuis (t) ; cf., however, ithim = admi, edo. The W. form tafod (Com. 
tavot, tongue) is to me altogether obscure ; it seems to occur in the corrupt Gaulish 
plant-name lapfitfKohaOiov, which Z. reads TapPo7apd7tov (ox-tongue). 

41-44. Tiach (gl.-pera), "abag, pouch, wallet," O'R. The word seems to occur in an 


I " Volo pro legentis facilitate abuti sermone vulgato : solent militantes habere lineas quas crnnisian 
vocant." — Jerome, cited byDiez, Etymolog. Worterbnch, 82. 


42 A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

obscure passage in the St. Gall Priscian (Z. praef. xv.), " Tiaoh didiv mad ferr lat. i. 
d. 0. 0." 42. Zosady leg. losaid? Corm. losait, a "kneading-trough," gen. loisde, O'D. 
Gram. 90. If losad be the modern form of losait, it was a fern, i-stem, the declension 
of which is in the oldest Irish identical with that of the masc. i-stem. 43. Dechmadh, a 
tithe, tenth, identical with the ordinal (dechma-d = da(n)kama-tha, formed by adding 
the superl. suffix tha to the ordinal?). 44. Coinnill, Com. cantuil = candela, and 
probably borrowed from the Lat., a fem. a-stem, gen. coinnle, O'D. 90, for cainnle, 
caindle; cf. caindloir, gl. acoluthum, i. e. candelarium, Z. 1060. 

45-50. Punnann, punan in O'R., gelima is a " corn-sheaf;" and O'D. informs me 
that in his boyhood the word was used in this sense in the county of Kilkenny ; the 
primary meaning, however, is "load," and the word seems borrowed from the Lat. 
pondus — like W. pwn, pyniaw. 46. Feddn (gl. fistula), perhaps derived from fid (arbor) 
= vidu (wood), gen. feda, "W. and Com. gulden, Breton, gwezen. Cf. 0. Sax. widu, 
Aug. Sax. wudu, 0. H. G. witu, the Gaulish Viducasses, and the name of the Irish 
river Ovi&ova (vidva) in Ptolemy (see Gliick, 1 16). 47. Fh6g (a beard), fesoc. Conn. 
V. Crontsaile, apparently a diminutive. 48. Leamathair (stepmother), cf. W. Uysfam, 
Bret, lesvamm; so Ir. lessmac (stepson) = Bret, lesvab : lessathair (stepfather), Com. 
W. Uysdad, Bret, lestad : lesainm (nickname), "W". llysenw. I am not sure that Z. is 
right (p. 1 104) in identifying this les with the Comish efo(privignus). 49. Sesrach (gl. 
carruca, a plough, Fr. charrue), fem. a-stem, absurdly derived by O'E. (who speUs the 
word seisreach) from seisear each. 50. R6n (gl. phoca) Com. W. moel-ron (sea-calf, seal). 

51-55. Cennbarr (gl. caphia), by which the scribe probably meant some kind of co- 
vering for the head. 52. Lorg (a club, cudgel), Corn, lorch, gl. baculus, Breton, lorchen 
(temo). 53. Penn, obviously from penna, as is — 54. Plan (=pena) from poena. In — 
55. Maroc (leg. maroc), gl. ioUa, the Irish and Latin are equally obscure ; maroc once 
seemed to mo connected with W. myr (emmets), Engl, pismire, Zend, baevare maoirinam, 
decem nullia formicarum (Spiegel), &c. (see Kuhn, Zeitschr., ui. 66 ; Forsteman, tb. 80 ; 
Pictet, ib. V. 349). And if so, ioUa might well be considered a blunder for iulus, lovXot 
(centipede). But Dr. Todd has pointed out in Du Cange the word jula, " piscis genus," 
which comes nearer to ioUa; the gen. sing, maroci for maroce occurs in a passage from 
Mac Conglinni's Dream cited by Dr. Petrie (Round Towers), but the context affords 
no assistance in determining the meaning of the word. Is maroc identical with marog 
(gl. trolliamen) infra ? 

5 6-60. Crocan, gl. olla (leg. croccan, "W. crochan, boiler, pot), now crogan, "a pitcher" 
— O'E., seems a different word from crocann, gen. crocainn, which occurs in a gloss 
on fel. Z. 740 ; ainm in chrocainn im bi bilis, i. e. name of the membrane [the gall- 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 43 

bladder] wherein is the bile, and of which crocenn gL torgus (Z. 80) seems a by-form 
= W. croon (a skin, hide) ; crocann is certainly not olla, but tergus, in the poem of 
Cormacan ecces above quoted : — 

rob iat ar taigi ceu rainn 

ar cochaill chorra (?) crocainn. 

And on the whole we may safely say that Z. erred in comparing (p. 740) Ir. crocann 
with "W. crochan. 57. Siataire (gl. vesica, if I am right in so reading "fessica. 
siadaire") seems connected with siataim, O'E., " I pulT, swell up," of W. chwj-thu, 
"to blow, to breathe." 58. Cailc (gl. creta), "chalk, lime," O'E., W. calch, 
perhaps a deriv. from calx, calcis. 59. Adharc (gen. adhairee, infra) is "a horn, 
trumpet," O'E., the adj. adarcde, gl. cometa is in Z. 780. Here adharc probably 
means "a diinking-horn." With caustoria compare "Costarium, Costerium, ut Cos- 
trellus, Potulum \-uiarium," Du Cange. What is the adharc leaga (comu medici) of 
Irish medical MSS. ? A substitute for a cupping-glass ? 60. Luaidhe = Engl. lead. 

61-65. Riaghail, gl. norma, cf. regula, whence, of course, it is derived, but ap- 
parently with a change of declension, regula being a fem. a-stem, whereas the umlaut 
in riaghail points to a stem in i (in Z. 22, riagul, riagol, are exactly = regula). A si- 
milar remark applies to — 62. Tahhaill. 63. Cantairecht, apparently a hybrid from the 
Lat. cantor, but possibly a pure Irish word from the root can, Skr. gans ; though the 
first t is hard to account for. 64. Tuireog, gl. mitreta: here both Irish and Latin are 
obscure to me. 65. Medar (gl. parra) : parra is said to be a wheat-ear ; I have not met 
medar elsewhere. 

66-70. Gocan (gl. parricula) : gogan is "cackling, prating," according to O'E., 
but I suspect gocan to bo the name of some small bird, cf. gocan na cubhaig, " avicula 
quae cuculum comitatur" (Highland Society's Diet., i. ;oo). 67. Cldr (gl. tabula) in 
Z. claar (W- claur, clawr, O.W. o cloriou, tabeUis, Z. 1 70), abl. : hi claar cridi (in tabula 
cordis), Z. 1082. 68. -4»w«>« = ancora is from the Latin ; ingor is the pure 0. Ir. form, 
see Z. 1 107, W. angor. Corn, ancar, Bret. eor. 69. Uisee imill (lympha), " water at the 
edge" (uiscean, gl. aquula, Z. 281 ; Ian di uisciu, "fuU of water," Z. 595); uisce is 
perhaps an example of the rare derivative suffix -scia ; cf. the man's name Muirsce 
= moriscias ; but may possibly be connected through the Vedic form utsa, " a well," 
with the root und (vand), to which belong vSwp, udus, water, &c. ; imill, nom. imcU, 
in O'E. imeal, "W. ymyL 70. Sess no carr (scat or car). Sess from the root sad, Lat. 
sed-eo, e^o/iat, &c. ; cf. fiss and fid, &c. ; sess ethar in Corm. is the thwart of 
a boat (othar, gl. stlata, Z.); perhaps the abl. may be in that obscure passage in 
Patrick's hymn, Crist illius, Crist is«2««, Crist inerus; co/-/-, which subsequently glosses 

G 2 biga. 

44 -4 Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

biga, is the -well-known Gaulish carrus. The foiir-wheeler of Caesar and Livy is now 
represented by the Irish carracutium. What (iptempna can be, is to me exceedingly 

71-76. Taelhdn, which I have written for tasman (aspirated m for aspirated I is 
not uncommon ia 0. Ir.), C. explains to be the cross-beam between each pair of 
rafters ; teallaigh is gen. sing, of teallach, which glosses focus, infra ; taebhan teallaigh 
may therefore mean the little beam (trabecula) over a fire, from which pots are hung ; 
taebhan comladh would mean the bar of a door (comla, gl. valva, infra). 72. Asmn 
(caliga), in O'R., asan s. f. " a stocking or hose," "W. hosan. 73. Lainder (a shoe-strap, 
shoe-string) ; O'D. suggests that this may be connected with the Engl, lanyard. It 
seems identical in meaning with — 74. Traighle; neither word is in O'R. Can traighle 
be connected with 0. Ir. traig (foot), aco. pl.traigid, a neuter t-stem = Com. truit, 
0. "W. traet (plur.), and cf. t/)€'x<u, Goth, thragja, Skr. trksh, and the Scythian name 
Ta/)7t-Taos mentioned by Herodotus (Ebel, Zeits. vi. 400) ? The Celtic root teag 
occurs (as Z. 6, has shown) with the intensive particle ver ia the Gaulish vertragi : 
al he irohwKei^ Kvvei at KeXriKai KaXovinai /lev oveptpa'^oi Kvve^ (pwvn rij KeXiiKn, 
Arrian. de Venat. c. 3. 75, 76. Coroin, gl. corona, gl. clerica (leg. coroin ?), from 
corona, apparently with change into the fem. i-declension ; but probably an instance 
in the sing, of that usurpation by the ace. of the place of the nom. which is com- 
mon in the plur. The ace. plur. occurs in the Book of Armagh, 180, a. 2 — coimea, gl. 
coronas — which shows that the word belonged to the a-declension. Com. curun. 

77-80. Folt {g\. coma), fait, Z. 251, abl. o folt, Z. 65, ='W". gwallt. Com. gols, 
gl. caesaries, Z. i loi , occurs in a quatrain concerning the Norsemen, quoted by Z. 928, 
from the St. Gall Priscian [Z.'s reading of the last line is dondlaechraidlainn oaloth 
lind] :— 

Is acher in giith innocht, Bitter is the wind to-night : 

Fufuasna fairgge find-/o/i .* The white-haired sea is enraged : 

Ni &gor ' reimm mora minn The passage of a clear sea is not undertaken 

Dond laechraid lainn oa Lochlind. By the fierce heroes from Lochland. 

The gen. sing, in — 78. Beirgech in jfuilt, stripping (?) of the hair, i. e. baldness (for 

deirgech I suspect we should read deirgecht) ; in 0. Ir. ind. gen. sing. masc. of the 

article, which was thus declined : — 


> A'gor (for agthar = agitur? cf. aijat clesamnaig "agant joculatores," Seirgl. Cone) is probably the 
O. Ir. form of aghar, which is thus explained in O'Uavoren's Glossary (Mus. Brit. Egerton, 88) : " Aghar 
.i. gaibther no innsaighther, ut est Athgab&il agar a fai[th]che neme[d] is coir dia ditiu." Aghar, 
i. e. is talien or is advanced, ut est, a distress that is taken from a privileged person's green ought to be 
protected. Ni agor might be rendered non timeo. Cf. agathar, Gr. a^erai, Z. 45. 

A Medkeval Tract on Latin Declension. 45 

Steu, San(d)a. 
Masc. Fem. Neut. 

Sing. N. int, in : ind' ' an, a (= sanad ?) 

G. ind', in' inna :, na : ind', in' 

D. (s) ind', (s) in' (s) ind', (s) in' (s) ind', (s) in' 
Ac. (s) in (n), (s) in (n) (s) an, (s) a (= sanad ?) 

Plur. N. ind', in' inna:, na: inna:, na: 

G. inna (n), nan \ 

D. (s) naib, (s) nab > in the three genders. 
Ac. inna:, (s) na : j 
In the dual in appears in every case, and for all genders. 

79. Fabra, according to O'R., is not only "eyelids" and "eyelashes" — both which mean- 
ings may be attributed to palpebra — but also " eyebrows;" cf. 0. H. G. prawa, o<{)pm, 
Skr. bhru. 80. Mac imresan (pupil of the eye), mac = 0. W. map = maqvas (gen. maqi, 
in two of Dr. Graves' Ogham inscriptions), originally son, is here obviously in a trans- 
ferred sense like pupilla, primarily an orphan girl. In Early Middle Irish mac imresan 
was mac imlesen (leg. immlesen), lit. " son of exceeding light" ? Is he tene na sula in 
mac imlesen, "the fire of the eye is the pupU;" Seirglige Conculainn, edited from 
Lebar na huidre, by Mr. Curry, Atlantis IT. 383.' 

Si-S^. Diadhacht (ghtheologia), a fem. a-stem, from dia(God), gl. deus, infra, a 
masc. a-stem = devas, which was thus declined in 0. Ir. : — 

Sing. N. dia:= devas Dual. Plur. de' = devi 

(Not yet obaerred.) 

G. dei', de' = devi dea(h) = devan 

D. dia' = devu (devai ?) deib : = devabis 

Ac. dia (n) = devan deo : (for deu)=devus(dSvan8)' 

V. ade' = deve a deo : 


1 The tamed comma (') indicates that aspiration (of the initial letter of the word following) is caused 
by the forms to which it is added, and which therefore must have ended in a vowel. The mark (:), which 
has been suggested by the Skr. visarga, represents a lost final s. The forms to which viaarga is added do 
not aspirate. N. B. — The « in brackets is found after the non-aspirating prepositions, and certainly belongs 
to the article. Dr. Siegfried was the first to make this important observation. This article in O. W. was 
ir, in Corn, and Bret. an. 

2 " In the Hebrew Bible," writes Dr. Todd, " the pupil, or ' apple of the eye,' is literally ' Daughter 
of the eye.' — Ps. xvii. 8." 

' Compare Goth, vulfans, Gr. 'i-rntov^ (Ahrens, Dial), ii. § 14, i), 0. Pruss. daivans and Skr. forms 
like kumarahf-cha (puerosque) Nalas, 8, where the dental s of Sua (=: -a + ans) has regularly become <; 

46 A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

Orammatach, dilechtach, sdair, are obviously fremdworter (grammatica, dialeetica, his- 
toria). %$. Eolas d6ir — if I read ariglit — ("an ignoble art"); eolas occurs in Z. 42, spelt 
heulas : the nom. pi. masc. of the related adjective eolach (gnarus) in Z. 252 ; anuni 
lieulig (where the so-called prosthetic n is nothing but the old termination of the ist 
pers. plur. of the verb subst. ammi (n) = eafiev, W. ym, asmasmi) ; doir is the opposite 
of soir (fee, noble), ■which words are produced by prefixing the inseparable particles 
of quality do (= Skr. dus, Gr. Sv^ ?) and so (= Skr. su, Gr. ev), to a root which remains 
obscure to me'. Perhaps wo should read ealadan doenna, "scientia humana." 

86-90. 0«^A«» (a pan) seems to stand alone ; O'R. spells it oigheann. Sj. DUffhi 
(gl. rhetorica) : here there is either an omission (? labradha, L e. of speaking) or a blun- 
der : for dlighi must stand for 0. Ir. dliged, lex, regula (cf. W. dleet, Z. 166, pi. dile- 
hedion, Z. 293, 0. Sloven, dlugu, debitum), passing into the consonantal declension, 
like the Mod. Ir. pearsa, gen. pearsan = 0. Ir. persan, gen. persine (a person). 
88. Nathair, gl. panthera, is surely a blunder, nathair (0. Ir. gen. nathrach), de- 
clined like cathir, sripra = "W. nadr, being " a snake, adder, viper, serpent" — O'R., 
perhaps originally a water-snake, &c. = Lat. natrix. 89. Zeca in duini (maxilla), leaca 
in O'E. (gen. leacan), is, however, not jaw-bone (maxilla, the mobile os), but "cheek;" 
duini, gen. s. of duine (homo), n. plur. in 0. Ir. doini, a masc. ia-stem, originally, per- 
haps, as Dr. Siegfried conjectures, related to Zend daena faith, and the root dhyai 
(think, meditate), as Skr. manu (homo), Engl, man, is from the root man (think). 
90. Lethail (gl. mala), apparently one of the class of compounds noticed by O'D. 
(Grammar, p. 338), who, after quoting in his text leathcluas (one ear), leathchos (one 
foot), leathlamh (one hand), leathsuil (one eye), gives the following note: — "When 
leath, which literally means half, is thus prefixed, it signifies ' one of two,' such as one 
ear, one eye, one leg, one hand, one foot, one shoe, one cheek. It is never applied except 
where nature or art has placed two together; but in this case it is considered more ele- 
gant than aon, one." "We shall find lethchaech (gl. monoculus), infra; leth retains its ori- 
ginal meaning in the following words : lethchil (half-biassed). Conn. v. CU ; lethfer 
(gL semivir), infra ; lethgute (a semivowel, Z. 968) ; lethmaethaU (half a cheese), 
Corm. PruU; ledmarb (half-dead), Z. 825, lethom (half raw, Adanman's Vision, 6m = 
Skr. ama, Gr. iJ/to's); lethsathach (gl. semisatur), «»/ra; mala is glossed by gruad in Z. 28. 

91-95. Ail 

before the palatal ch. The hypothetical dat devabia is to be compared with a Japetic instrumental 
daivabhis, for which we should find in the Veda dialect devebhis, and in classical Skr. devais. 

' My reason for hesitating to identify do with dm and Svq is, that do aspirates (cf. dochrud gl. indecor 
dochruidigther gl. turpatur, Z. 833) ; and should therefore have originally ended in a vowel. The « may, 
however, have dropt off at so early a period that its former presence was unrecognised when the practice of 
aspiration was introduced. 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 47 

91-95. Ail (gl. bucoa) is probably connected with the root al, nourish, Lat. Sl-o 
(cf. him from r. lab, Skr. labh) ; ail gl. esca occurs in Z. 996, and cf. irail (nom. iral ?) 
in the following gloss : hi precept sos[celi] ecus in irdil hirisse, " in preaching the 
Gospel, and in nurturing (?) faith", Z. 996. 92. Crdes, gl. gula; craessach, gl. gulosus, 
infra, also means " gluttony," as in the following passage cited from the Leabhar Breacc 
by Dr. Todd (Ir. Nennius, pp. 170, 171) : ise focuinn malarta dona tuathaib i dona 
ceUaib ioambi't na rig -\ na aircindig atta (?) dilsi do craes ■) do raebaidecht int saegail ; 
and in Z. 41, where the word is spelt crois; cf. W. croesaw, to welcome? 93. Ullu 
(gL mataxa), I have never found elsewhere; mataxa (/laTa^a) means in Martial 
"raw silk;" it also meant "a cord or line." W. ulw (cinders) is the only Celtic 
word I know resembling ulbu. 94. Bass (gl. palma), ace. pi. bassa, gL palmas, 
Leabhar Breacc copy of Gildas' Lorica. 95. Basog (gl. alapa) is ob\iously a deriva- 
tion from bass. 

96-101 . Bond (gl. planta), bonn gl. solea, infra, ='W. bon (base, sole), found in most 
Indo-European tongues : Skr. budhna, Gr. irvO/ijv, Lat. fundus for bundhus, O. H. G. 
bodam, Engl, bottom, 0. Iforse botn (Kuhn, Zeitschr., ii. 320), Huzvaresh and Parsi 
buiida, " ground, root" (Spiegel, Zeitschr., v. 320). 97. Femn (gl. mentula), " a taU," 
O'R., who also hasfeamach, "dirty," which adjective Pictet (Zeitschr., v. 348) compares 
with the Skr. root vam, vomere, ifiew, &c. As to priv, I doubt if I read the contrac- 
 tion (pu) rightly, and cannot explain it, unless perhaps as a derivative from the Lat. 
privus. 98. Cain (gl. emenda, i. e. " damni reparatio," " satisfactio de jure laeso vel 
de illata injuria," DuCange) a fem. i-stem ; " rent, tribute, a fine, amercement," 0'E.> 
cain seems to occur in Z. 592 : Is tacair diinn, nchdin fochell asarchorp. 99. Cusle (gl. 
vena), with the u infected, cuisle, O'E. The voc. sing, is frequently heard in the con- 
versation of the Irish peasantry : achushla (L e. a chuisle) mochridi, " vein [or pulse] 
of my heart !" Cuisle is a fem. stem in n, and perhaps derived (by the frequent change 
of J? into c) from Lat. pulsus. The W. word for vein, gwyth, must on no account be 
compared with 0. Ir. feith, gl. rien, gl. fibra, which, as Dr. Siegfried remarks, is the W. 
gwden, Eng. withe, Lat. vltis, vieo, «t6o, 0. H. G. wida, Skr. vitika, a tie, fastening (Kuhn, 
Zeits., ii. 133). 100. Cich {gl. manana), cichib (gl. mamillis), Leab. Breacc. 
Gild. Lor. loi. Cicliin (gl. mammilla) should probably be written cich, cichfn, as the 
present Irish is cioch, " a woman's breast," O'E. 

102-105. CiiA (gl. mammula), leg. uth ? = ("W". uwd pap, i. e. pulmentum ?), if con- 
nected with Skr. udhas, Gr. ovOap, uber, udder, M. H. G. euter, is an instance of an Ir. 
tenuis irregularly representing a Skr. aspirate medial. 103. Retla (gL stella), gen. 
retlan (Vis. Adamn.), in O'E.; " readhlann, s. m. a star." 104. Aoir (aether) is W. 



A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

awjT = Lat. aer = 0. Ir. aer, Z. 114: dat. sing, responsit mulier, lus atcondaire hisind 
aeur i ni accai hi talmain a leitheid 1 atbelsa no abela ingein fil imbroind no abelam 
diblfnaib man! tbomliur inlussin. " The woman answered, ' the herb thou perceivest 
in the air, and on earth thou seest not its like, and I shall perish, or the child in my 
womb will perish, or we shall both perish, unless I eat that herb." — Trip. Life of 
Patrick, iii. 36. Cf. r. var, to surround. Whether in — 105. Aier (gl. aera), the aera 
is for aer, or whether aier is era, is to me obscure. 

106-110. Scala {gl cratcra), "a great bowl," O'E. ; Com. scala (gl. patera), Z. 
1 122, Goth, skalja, Eng. shell, 0. H. G. scala (0. French jale, jalon, galon, Eng. gal- 
lon ?). If Z. is right (G. C. 1 1 22) in thinking scala a German word, when and how 
could it have come into Irish ? 107. Greidell, " a gridiron," 0. W. grateU (gl. graticula, 
Z. 1094), ItaL gradeUa, Fr. greille, Engl, grill, from craticula (Mart. 14, 21), Med. 
Lat. graticula, a dimin. of crates (see Diez, E. "W. i8o). 108. Talam (gl. terra), gen. 
talman (= talmanas), a fem. n-stem, perhaps identical with W. talm, the m of which, 
by the phonetic laws of "Welsh, must stand for mn, mm, or mb. Talam has nothing to 
do with Skr. dhanvan, which Kuhn (Beitr., i. 368, 369) has identified with the Lat. 
tellus for telyus ; talam was thus declined in 0. Ir. : — 

Fem. w-Stem. 

Stem, tdlaman. 






di thalam 




da talman 

talman (i) 



dib talmanaib 



. talmain (n) 

di thalam 



a thalam 

a di thalam 

a thalmana 

109. Suiste no sgiurse (tribulum), " a flail or a scourge," suist = fustis, W. ffust as 
srian = frenum, W. fifrwynn, seib = faba (Skr. r. bhaksh, Gr. 007), W. plur. ffa, 
srogell = flagellum, "W. ffrowyll, &c. Sgiurse seems taken from the EngL scourge. 
The etymology of — 1 10. Baile (gl. villa), the Bally so common in Irish topography, is 
obscure to me. If, notwithstanding the singleness of its I, we connect it with the Med. 
Latin ballium, we are only led from one difficulty to another — for who shall explain 
baUium ? The earliest instance I have met of the occurrence of baile is in the Trip. 
Life of Patrick, iii. 12: tanic victor do ingabail (leg. imgabail ?) patricc asin port 
corraboi immuiniu draigin boi i toeb in haile. " To avoid Patrick, Victor went 
from the house tiU he was in the brake of thorns at the side of the baile." 

111-115. Artdn, 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 49 

111-115. Artdn, as I venture to read the urtan of the MS. (gl. villula), Ihave not 
met elsewhere. It is a dimin. of art, " a house, tent, tabernacle," O'E. 112. Slighe 
(gl. via), a base in <, if sligthib, gl. naribus, ia Gildas' Lorica be correctly spelt. Says 
Cormac : Slige, din, do scuchad charpat sech araile, doronta fri himcomarc da carpat .i. 
carpat rig ocus carpat epscoip, con dechaid each ae dib sech araile. " Slige, then, for 
the passage of chariots by each other : made for the passage of two chariots, to wit, a 
king's chariot and a bishop's chariot, so that each of them may pass by the other." 
113. Bethu (gl. vita), a masc. t-stem = 0. "W. bywyt, Bret, buez, O. Ir. gen. sing, 
bethad ace. bethid (n) = bivataten (or -tin ?). The root is biv (the adj. bin = bivas) ; 
cf. Skr. jiva for giva, Goth, qvius, Eng. quick, Gr. yS/os, Lat. vivus. 114. Lubh 
(gl. herba), gen. lubae, lube, Z. 18, 777 ; abl. dind luib (gl. de rosa), Z. 232, = Eng. 
leaf, Goth, laufs : lub-gartoir (gl. olitor), Z. 45 ; lub-gort (a garden), in the so-called 
Annotations of Tirechan preserved in the Book of Armagh ; cf. the Corn, luworeh guit 
gl. virgultum, Z. 817. 115. Coill (silva), a fern, i-stem, "W. cell, pi. colli. Corn, kelli, 
gen. coiUe in Cormac v. Ana : — Ba bitid gair choille loinche Um raith Fiachaoh maic 
Moinche, i. e. " Sweet is the voice of the wood of blackbirds [ad v. vox silvae merulo- 
sae] round the rath of Eiacha son of M." Coill in Z. is always spelt caill, and only 
occurs in compounds : mirtchaill, gl. myrtetum, escalchaill, gl. esculetum, olachaill, 
gL olivetum, gen. pi. iunan olachaille, gl. olearum, Z. 82 1 . May we identify this word 
with Lat. collis ? 

1 1 6-1 20. Slat (gL virga), a fem. a-stem = slatta, is, with its diminutive daitm, to be 
compared with the W. llath, yslath. Compare — 118. Jfdw (gl. grunna, a bog), ap- 
parently a fem. i-stem, with "W. mawn (turves). In "W. rnign (masc), migen, 
mignen (fem. a bog, quagmire), the g must have been a c, which could hardly have 
fallen out in Irish. 119. Fod (gl. gleba), leg. fod, "a clod of earth, sod, soil, 
land." — O'E. 120. Bothan (gl. casa); perhaps we should read bothan ("a little 
tent," according to O'E.), from both (house), "W. bod, cf. Eng. booth; hoth seems to 
occur in composition in Connac : tic iarum Find don ixxax-hoith deog lai, con faca in 
colainn cen cenn: "colann sund cen cenn," ol Find; [afterwards Find came to the 
hut in the evening, and he saw the body without the head : "a body is here without a 
head !" said Find]. 

1 2 1 - 1 26. Cocall (gl. cassula) . Cf. " The cuculla, sometimes called casula and capa, 
consisted of the body and the hood, the latter of which was sometimes specially termed 
the casula." In a note, Dr. Eeeves, from whose noble edition of the Vita Columbae I 
have made this quotation, spells the word cassula. Cocall is one of those Celtic words 

H which, 


A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

which, by the influence of the Chxirch, has become universal. Diefenbach (Celtica, 

i. 122) quotes Martial: — 

Gallia Santonico vestet te haxioeucullo ; 
Circopithecorum penula nuper erat. 

And compares Bret, kougoul, Conn, cugol, Engl. cowl. 122. Cro (leg. cro?), before 
which I have ventured to put casula, the dimin. of casa, occurs infra (cro caerach, gl. 
ovile), and is explained " a hut, hovel, pen, cottage, fortress" (?) by O'E. 123. Camra 
no seomra (gl. camera) ; the former is from the Latin, the latter from the Anglo-Norman. 
1 24. Dorus (gl. porta), "W. drws, Com. darat [»w in Z., but daraz in Lhwyd] (ostium), 
Lithuanian durrys, Skr. dvara, Gr. Ovpa, Lat. fores, Goth, daur, Slav, dvcr, Engl, door, 
dat plur. dinaib doirsih (gl. de portis), Z. 749. 125. Comla (gl. valva), gen. comladh, 
infra, occurs in the Leabhar Breacc, cited by Petrie, E. T., 400 : comla gered friss ■) 
gerrcend maroci (leg. maroce ?) furri (a gate of suet to it, and the short head of a 
maroe upon it). 126. Gliath (= crates, hurdle), Med. Lat. cleta, 0. W. and Corn, cluit 
= clSta, mod. W. clwyd, occurs in the Irish name of Dublin, Baile an atha cliath (the 
town of the ford of hurdles), also in Z. 21, 114. Fr. claie, Provencal cleda. 

127-13 1. Mar each na comladh (gl. digma) is altogether obscure to me ; marcach is 
literally horseman — W. ; " marchauc (equestris) ortum e GaUico vetusto marca (ftapxa, 
Tpi/xapKiata, ap. Pausan.)," Z. 47. 128. Lasair (gl. Qajama), gen. lassrach, marg. gloss 
on Patrick's hymn in Lib. Hymn. The 3rd pers. sing. pret. act. of the verb lasaim 
occurs In Fiae's hymn : — 

Dofaith fades co Victor, ba he aridr&lastar : 
Lassais in muine im bai, asin ten adgl&dastar. 

He went southwards to Victor, he it was that spoke to him : 

The bramble-bush wherein he [Victor] was flamed — from the fire he called. 

The word is probably connected with loscad, Z. 143, "W. llosg. Com. leski. 1 29. Cam- 
radh (gl. cloaca). O'E. cites from Shaw, camrath, " a gutter, sewer, jakes ;" I have not 
met the word elsewhere. 130. Senmathair, "a grandmother" (0. "W. henmam), from 
sen (old) = sinas, W. hen ; cf. Zendhana (Spiegel), Gaulish senomagus, Lat. sen-ex, 
Sen-e-ca (compar. siniu, Z. 283, and sinithir [Lib. Hymn, gloss on the Altus Prosi- 
tor]), 0. W. superl. hinham, leg. hinam, Z. 305, and mathair = /*)Jt?//), mater, mother, 
Skr. matr (matar), from the root ma (to create ?), was declined in 0. Ir. like athir 
(v.mprd), except in the gen. plur., which was mathar(n). 131. (S'wAra«(gl.devia, i.e. 
deviatio), O'E. seachran, " an error, straying," has been taken into the Anglo-Irish 
dialect in the phrase, "going on the shaugliraun." 

1 32-136. Land (gl. scama), if we take seama to be for scamma, an arena = aKafi/ia, 

" a place 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 51 

" a place dug out and sanded"', land is the "W. llan, " area, yard, church." It occurs 
as the last element of a compound in Z. 1 68 : isind ith.-laind, gl. in area (i. e. in the 
threshing-floor). If, however, as is more likely, scama is for squama, we may quote 
O'E. : " lann, s. m. a scale of a fish." 133. Ziff Idgmar (a precious stone), l^g (stone), 
0. Ir. liacc, W. Uech ; of. the river-name Licca in Venant. Fortun. Z. 174, and the 
0. Sax. leia, i. e. leja for lea = leha lapis, Gliick, 19. In 0. Ir. liacc is a cc-stem, 
and either masc. or neut., I have not ascertained which. Ldgmar is an adjective, 
formed by adding the common suffix -mar to log (merces, pretium): gen. sing. "«<«'- 
pendium ainm ind I6ge doberr do mi'ledaib ar milte" (stipendium is the name of 
the price that is given to soldiers for military service), Z. 577 ; 'hTlluag mo saethir 
("in reward of my labour"), Book of Dimma mace Nathi; log, W. llog, is per- 
haps connected with Lat. locare, loc-arium. May we also venture to adduce Goth, 
laun, EngL loan? 134. Fuindeog, " fuinneog, s. f. a window," O'R., reminds one 
of the 0. Norse vindauga (wind-eye), Engl, window ; Ir. seinistir, W. fienestyr. 
Com. fenester, Bret, fenestr, are directly from the Latia. 1 3 5. Gabhal, gL furca, 
(W. gafl, hardly gebel, a pickaxe), in Z. 73 1 is gabul (gl. furca, gl. patibulum), 
which spelling is strange, as the Med. Lat. is gabalus, gabala, gabalum, 0. H. G. 
gabala, Engl, gavelock. 1 36. Pellec (gL sportula, a small basket) is " a basket made of 
untanned hide," as O'D. considers. It occurs in Cormac's Glossary, and comes, 
of course, from peUiceus (made of skins), and this from pellis = Eng. fell, &c. 

137-141. Ossadh (gl. treuga = truce). 138. Milan (gL uma), not in. O'R., is one 
of a long series of names of different-sized water-vessels, of which we shall hear more 
when C. publishes his invaluable glossaries. 139. Cogad (war), gen. cogaid, n. plur. 
cogtha, O'D. Gr. 87, like some other nouns of his first declension (a-stems) is, I strongly 
suspect, a neuter. How else can we account for the vowel-ending in the nom. plur. of 
aonach, ualach, muUach, eadach (0. Ir. etach, a neut. a- stem), bealach, orlach, sgeal 
(0. Ir. seel, a neut. a-stem), &c. ? Neuter a-stems were thus declined in 0. Ir. : — 

A Netjtee «-8tem. 
Stem, foreitala. 
SiDg. DuaL Plur. 

N, forcetal (n) da forcetal forcetla 

G. forcitU da forcetal forcetal (li) 

D. forcitul dib forcitlib forcitlib 

Ac. forcetal (n) da forcetal forcetla 

V. a forcitU. a da forcetal a forcetla 

' See an interesting note by Dr. Todd, Lib. Hymn., 75. 



A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

With cog-ad Gliick compares the Gaulish name Cog-i-dumnus, sed qu. as the 51 is unas- 
pirated in Mod. Irish. Cf. Marti coeidio? hardly the Lat. pugna. 140. Fuiseog (gl. 
alauda), " s. f. a lark"- O'E. ; cf. W. guicheU, " a bird," Pughe. The Welsh name 
for a lark is uchcdydd, Com. evidit, Bret, echoucdez. 141 . Bairgen (gl. garga) = W., 
Com., and Bret, bara (panis), Z. 1122' ; in O'E. hdirghean, "a cake;" gen. sing, fer 
denma hairgine, gl. pistor, i. e. vrr faciendi panis, Z. 462. The word often occurs in 
the conversation of Anglo-Irish children, bambrack (0. Ir. bairgen brecc, speckled 
cake) being one of their favourite comestibles. Garga I have been unable to find in 
any Lat. dictionary. 

142-146. Cethrumadh (fourth, 0. W. petguared, now pedwyryd, m. petguared, 
now pedwared fern.). The -ma- here seems inorganic, and introduced from the false 
analogy of sechtm-ad, ochtm-ad, noim-ed, dechm-ad. A similar remark applies to 
oenmad = W. unvot, Z. 330. 143. Sruban (gl. mcrenda, a luncheon) I have not met 
with elsewhere. O'E. has snibog, "a mouthful of any liquid;" and srubhog, "a 
cake baked before the fire." With the latter our sruban is probably connected. 
145. Sruhdn mara (bucealla, L e. buccinula?), is apparently a "cockle" (sruban, O'E.). 
Greim (gl. buccella, a morsel), stem in n; cf. 0. Sax. gruomon (mica). 145. Cogar, 
" 8. m. a whisper," O'E. 146. Colpa (gl. tibia, the shinbone) does not agree very well 
wthO'E.'s "calpa, a.m. the calf of the leg." The word occurs in Corm. v. Ferend. 

147-151. Tarr (gl. festucula, a little stalk or straw), now means "the lower part 
of the belly," and is stUl found in a phrase used in reference to a chUdless man, viz., 
niV fas dadam assa tharr. 148. Mong intslindein (gl. honplata),"hairof the shoulder," 
i. e. mane, which meaning does not agree well with that of wftkoirKa-rrj (shoulder-blade), 
for which word I am indebted to one of my friend Littledale's ingenious conjectures. 
Observe the form of the gen. sing. masc. of the article before aspirated s. In 0. Ir. d 
before an «, or sr, or si, which has been flanked by vowels, regularly becomes t. The 
proof of this proposition, which would occupy overmuch room here, may be found 
in Part IV., vol. i., of the "Beitrage" before referred to. It is enough hereto say 
that int slindein may be proved to have been sandislindeni ; and that the Mod. Ir. 
ant ech, " the horse" (phonetically written an t-ech) was of old san(d)as akvas. 
149. C««^aZ (gl. junctura), W. cengl, both probably from Lat. cingulum. 1^0. Feoil 
nafiacal, "flesh of the teeth," i. e. gums; feoU, a fem. i-stem inZ. 23, mAfeuil, "the 
flesh;" flacal, gen. pi. of fiacaU, a fem. i-stem', which occurs in one of the St. Gall 


' Bara and goiiin (wine) compose the Fr. word baragouin (gibberish). 

2 In the gen. pi. Mod. Ir has lost all declensional distinction between fem. stems in & and > : in the old 
language the gen. pi. of fiacail would have ended in e. Thus nime, dule, caille, are respectively the geni- 
tives plur. of nem or nim (heaven), dilil (a thing), caill (a wood). 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 53 

incantations, Z. 926: ind ala,_fiacail airthir a chinn (one of the two teeth in the front 
of his head), the adj. fiaclaich gl. dontatam, ace. sing. fcm. of fi'aclach, is in Z. 22. 
151. Sine seain, the uvula, lit. John's teat; sinscan in O'R. 

152-156. Butun (biturria); hutun, according to O'D. and C, is now used for a 
blacksmith's pai-ing-knife. The Lat. biturria is obscure ; perhaps it may be for bitur- 
rius, bitorius, Fr. butor (bittern) ; if so, we should probably read the Irish word butur, 
which word, however, is not known. Batura (patena in Diefenbach's valuable col- 
lection of Med. Lat.- Germ, glosses) is the only other Med. Lat. word I know like 
biturria. 153. Bidean, "protection, defence," O'R., which corresponds well enough 
with tectura, occurs infra in the form didin (gl. tegmentum, gl. tegimen). In 0. Ir. 
the word is ditiu (gl. teges, gl. velare, Z. 79), gen. dUen, dat. ditin. 154. Luirech, 
W. Uuryg, from Lat. lorica (a corslet of thongs), which alone furnishes the etymon, 
viz., lorura. The earliest instance of the occurrence of this word is in Fiac's h3Tnn, 

V. 26 : — 

Tmmon doroega it' biu bid Ihrech diten do cuch : 
Imraat il laithiu in messa regat fir herenn do brath. 

The hymn thou hast chosen in thy lifetime shall be a corslet of protection to every one : 
Around thee on the Day of Doom the men of Ireland shall come for judgment. 

(Here luirech is used in its secondary signification of a religious composition supposed 
to protect the soul in the same way that a corslet guards the body.) In the poem com- 
mencing " Oris finniiin," Z. 933, we find the word with its primitive meaning : lurech 
de dum' indegail ota [leg. ota] m' ind gom' bond, "God's corslet to protect me from my 
crown to my sole." 155. AitMeine (gl. antiquula, if I read the Latin rightly) means, 
according to C, "a shirt cast-off" (on account of its age); cf. aithle, " an old cloak" 
— Corm. "Aith, or ath," says O'D. (Gram. 272), "has a negative power in a few 
words, as aithrioghadh, 'to dethrone;' aththaoiseaeh, 'a deposed chieftain;' aith- 
ehleireach, 'a superannuated or denounced clergyman;' atklaoch, 'a superannuated 
warrior, a veteran soldier past his labour.' " I have not met examples of this power 
of aith- in Z., where aith- (= Skr. ati, beyond) generally has the force of the Latin re-. 
156. Mir (mica, offula) occurs in Z. 25 (with the neut. article), as the last element of 
a compound : a eonmir (gl. medicatis frugibus offam), " the dog's-bit." 

157-161. Faighin, "W. gicain, Com. gwein, Bret, gouin = vagina; whence Ital. 
guai'na, Fr. gaine. 158. Caile dahhca (gl. famula), " girl of (the) tub ;" caile, a fern. 
ia-stem, occurs in Corm., and is compared by Bopp with Skr. kanya, Z. kaine 
(maiden), as aile (another) = anya. Hence the diminutive cail'in, so often heard in the 
conversation of the Irish peasantry. Caih was thus declined in 0. Ir. : — 

A Fem. 

54 -4 Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

A Fem. «d-STEM. 

Stem, calid. 




N. caile 

di chaUi 


G. caile 

da caUe 

caile (n) 

D. caili 

dib cailib 


Ac. caili (n) 

di chaili 


V. a chaile 

a df chaili 

a chain 

Dabhca, gen. of dabhach, ■which, subsequently glosses caba ; cf. Eng. tub ? 1 59. .5(5 (a 
cow), 0. "W". hou (in. houtig, gl. stabulum, i. e. domus vaccarum, Z. 1079) =y3o{)s, Lat. 
bos, bov-is, Skr. gaus, gen. sing. " monasterium quod Latine Campulus Bovis dicitur, 
Scotice vero Ached-hou," Vita Columhee, ed. Reeves, p. 121, where two other readings of 
the Irish are given, viz., achetlhou, achadh h6 : gen. dual, mace da 16, Conn, sub v. Deal. 
160. Uisce, " water" (whence "whiskey," i. e. uisce heathadh, aqua vitae), has been con- 
sidered «m^«. 161. Adkhar, gl. idiogina (ideogina?), afterwards glosses thema, and 
is, according to O'E., "a cause or motive; a subject or matter to be converted into 
some other form." Tordelbac[h3 a mac, adbur ardri'g erend: " Tordelbach his son, 
materies of a monarch of Ireland" (i.e. crown-prince). Annals of Boyle, cited and 
translated by O'D., Gram. 445. Adbar occurs in Z. 337 : rotbia adlar failte "erit 
tibi causa Isetitise." 

162-166. Ca^^tecA (gL btnna) ; Ir. and Lat here equally obscure to me. O'D. thinks 
calptach an unfledged bird, sed qu. ; binna is explained prtesepe in the Med. Lat. Dic- 
tionaries. 163. Gamain arain (gl. benna) is also obscure to me; O'D. says that^awam is a 
yearling calf; but what is arain, and what is benna? 164. Calpach, gl. juvenca (spelt 
colpach by O'E.) is, according to C, a heifer from her second to her third year. 165. 
Cuindeog, O'E., cunneog, " s. f. a chum, a pail" = W. cunnawg, mOk-paU. 166. Edrath 
gl. mulcra, or, perhaps, mulca), is, according to O'D., " milking-time ; but we may 
also read the Ir. word edradh, and compare 0. Ir. etrad (libido), the dat. and ace. sing, 
of which are found in Z. 433, 452. 

167-172. Corrog (gL oba, for which I have put opa, is obscure, opa, i. e. a hole) 
seems connected withO'R'scorr, " a pit of water." 168. Gealdn na sul, "the white 
of the eyes ;" gealdn, from gel, white ; 0. Ir. comp. gilither, O'D., Gr. 1 20. Christ 
is called by Oengus cele de, " the white sun that Uluminates heaven with much of 
holiness" (^eZ-grian forosna riched cu meit noibe) ; siil gen. pi. oisicil, of which more 


A Medkeval Tract on Latin Declension. 


infra. 169. Taiherne, from Lat. tabema, as — 170. PersonacM from persona, Bicai- 
recht, from vicarius, and — 171 and 172. Cahillanacld, from Med. Lat. capellanus. 

173-176. Ahdaine, better ahhdaine (abbey), a fem. ia-stem; gen. sing, occurs in 
Leab. Breacc, cited by Dr. Petrie (Tara, 76), isin nomad (leg. noi maid ?) bliadain dec 
abldaine Cormaic (in the nineteentb year of the abbotship of Cormac), whence it ap- 
pears that abbdaine is applicable to the office as well as the place. 1 74. Buaile (gl. 
vaccaria, a cow-house), spelt buaili, luailidh, in O'E., occurs infra in buaile dam, gl. 
bostar. It is from the Lat. bovile, with loss of the v between vowels, according to rule in 
Irish. 175. Prouinse (province) is proibhinnse in Keating, who calls the 'Sale proibh- 
inme Gallda; it is, of course, from the Lat. provincia. 176. Cathair airdeasbuig 
(oppidum archiepiscopi) : cathair has been considered supra, No. 1 3. Note in airdeas- 
buig the transposition (p) s-b-g for p-s-c-p ; and compare cengcedais with irevTHjKoaTq, 
coisreachad {infra) with consecratio, eisdeacht = 0. Ir. etsccht, and beurla = 0. Ir. 

1 77-1 8 1. Eaglais, 0. Ir. eclais, geru ecailhe, ecolso, a fem. i-stem, from ecclesia, 
with change of declension. 178. Athairtalmhan, yarrow, mUfoil; literally ^a^er tel- 
luriB ; wrongly spelt by O'E. atairtalmhuin. Athair and talmhan — gen. sing, of talam 
— ^have already been noticed. Observe the non-aspiration of the t ia talman, in conse- 
quence of athair being a consonantal base. 1 79. Blaesc (gl. testa) is blaosc, a shell in 
O'K 1 80. Brothrachan (gL sabribarra). Brothrach, according to O'D., is a royal gar- 
ment. 181. Cenharan (gl. uolua); here again the Ir. and Lat. are equally obscure to me. 

182-186. Buathhhallan liath (gl. artemisia, wormwood, mugwort) is, according to 
C, "the great thistle;" according to O'D., "the gray ragweed;" liath (gray) = 0. 
"Welsh luit (fuscus), now llwyd. 183. Lus na fiadh (herb of the deer); lus, W. 
lli/sieui/n, pi. llysiau ; fiadh gen. pi. oi fiadh (s. m. gen. fiaidh) ; W.hi/dd? though cer- 
tainly Irish/can never be = W. h. 184. Biror, afterwards spelt birur (gl. nasturtium), 
W. berwr, Com. beler, is now liolar (cresses), with change of r to I. Biror is fanci- 
fully derived by Cormac from bir, edge, and or, hair, the cresses being, as it were, 
the hair on the edges of wells and rivers. 185. Feeing (gl. genista, broom), not in 
O'E. 186. G'a/io^ (gl. ea) is " the coarse brassica," according to C. 

1 87-191. Merdrech = meretrix, from which it is derived. 188. Faeehog, a shell, 
cockle ? occurs infra ( 1 94). 1 89. Marclach, " a horse-load," according to C. (marclach 
cruithnechta occurs in the Trip. Life of P.), from mare (horse) — ^W. and Com. ma/rch, 
which we have met above in marcach. 1 90. Bonn (gl. solea) = bond, v. mpra. 191. Bile, 
masc. ia-stem, correctly explained " a border" by O'E. ; W. byl, masc. " brim, edge." 
The word occurs in a beautiful old poem attributed to Columbcille, and quoted in full 

56 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

by Dr. Reeves. (Vita Columbae, 285, 288.) Unfortunately the spelling has been mo- 
dernized. I wiU try to restore the pure orthography, and adopt Mr. Curry's trans- 
lation : — 

Diambad lira Alba oile Were all Alba mine, 

0' tbi br(i co k bile, From its centre to its border, 

Eop ferr limsa ait taige I would prefer to have the site of a house 

Occam ar Var caem-Daire. In the middle of fair Derry. 

Is aire caraim Daire The reason I love Deny is 

At k reide, ar k glaine For its quietness, for its purity, 

'Sar imad k aingel find And for the multitude of its white angels 

On chiunn co roich araile. From the one end to the other. 

192-196. Uachtar (gl. im]^edaca,) ; uachtar is the upper part, 0'Ji.'s uachdar ; but 
impedica is altogether obscure to me. Uachtar also means " cream ;" and uachtar go 
toin, " cream to the bottom," is, according to C, " a plant supposed to possess the 
property of turning aU the milk into cream when the milk-pail is scoured with it." 
193. Smir (marrow); W. mer, of!, 0. Norse smior (butter), Eng. smear, occurs in the ex- 
ceedingly old tale of the "Fled duin nan ged," ed. O'Don. p. 70 : — 'Ni roan sum din 
co tardad cnaim for meis do . . . ocus toimlid a smir, ocus a feoil asaaithli ; " he stopped 
not till a bone was brought on a dish to him, . . . and afterwards ate [eats] its marrow 
and flesh." ig\. FaecJwg leg, a periwinkle, lit, " a little shell." 195. Grainsech {^ 
grangia), grainseach; O'E. "a grange, a farm." 196. Cere, O'E. cearc, a hen ; cf. 
cercdae, gl. galUnaceus, Z. 765 ; the resemblance to the Gr. Ki'pKo^ seems accidental. 

197-201. Ilur (eagle); W. eryr; Com. gL er ; Bret, erer, er ; Goth, ara, gen. 
arins ; 0. H. G. aro. 198. .4r^(from area), " a chest, cofi'er,"0'E. ; so 199 — C««<eisfrom 
cista. 200. Ciarsech, a hen blackbird, perhaps connected with ciar (fuscus), whence 
the name Ciaran, which occurs in an old obituary notice (Z. praef. xxxii.), has Muir- 
chatho maic Maileduin hi Cluain maccunois a imda- CMarain (death of Muirchad, son 
of Maileduin, in Clomnacnois, from Ciaran's bed). With ciar = cera, we might, per- 
haps, compare KeKatvo^, Skr. kala, Lat. cal-igo. 201. Caog (gl. monedula, a jackdaw); 
cf. W. eoeg-han. = coeg + bran. Engl, chough. 

202-206. Spideog (gL philomena), " a nightingale," O'E. ; generally applied to 
the robin redbreast. 203. Colum, for columb = colmnba ; cf. Lat. palumba ; ciadcho- 
luim, gl. palumbes, Z. 752 ; cf. Com. colom ; gl. columba, cudon ; gl. palumba, Z. 
1 1 1 3 ; W. colomen ; Bret, koulm, Mom. The final b is still retained in Colomb cille 
(Book of Armagh, 15 J, 2), gen. sing. " eductio martirum, i. e. ossuum Coluimh cille" 
(ib. 16 a, i), " Columb crag" (Vita Col., ed. Eeeves, 19, 20) ; and in the tenth century 
inscription on the case of the Book of Durrow (see Vita Col. ed. Eeeves, 327), which 
Eod. O'Flaherty has copied on a fly-leaf at the beginning of that MS. : — "f" Oroit 


A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 57 

acvs bendacht eliokimb chille do flavnd mace mailsechnaill dorig herenn lasan- 
demad acumddachso ([the] prayer and blessing of Columb of [the] Church for Fland, 
son of Mailsechnall, for [the] King of Ireland, by whom this case was made). 204. 
Crebhar (gl. lucifugia) ; creahhar is a woodcock, according to O'R. ; cf. W. creyr, a 
heron. 205. Ferbog (gl. capreola, a roebuck), in O'Ti. fearboe, earb, earboc; Gael, earb, 
earbag. Com. yorch, gL caprea, Z. 1 1 1 5 ; "W. iwrch, Bret iourc'h. The unaspirated b 
in ferbog is a medialized ^ ; cf. heirp (gL dama, gl. capra), Z. 78. May we also com- 
pare Lat. hirpus, hircus, Sabine fircus, with which "Weber (Zeits. vi. 320) connects 
Tacitus' alces, A. S. elch (Eng. elk) ? 206. Corcach mara (gl. rostigola, infra gl. 
curiolus), some kind of sea-bird, perhaps the curlew. The nearest thing I know to 
rostigola is rusticula, but this is a heath-cock. 

207-21 1. Breolan (leg. dreolan?) ; "W. drywyn, a wren, = Ir. drean, " the king of 
all birds ;" the " avis regulus," for which aurigola seems to stand. 208. Nennt6g (gl. 
urtica, a nettle), spelt with two n's — O'D. Gr. 19; O'E. neantdg, neanta; nenaid (net- 
tles) occurs in Cormac, but I omitted to note where. 209. Connlaeh (gl. arista), a col- 
lective, "stubble," "straw" — O'R. ; applied in Clare, according to C, to stalks of rape ; 
arista, however, is the beard of an ear of grain. 210. Coinnlin (gl. stipula, a corn-stalk), 
applied, according to C, to a single stalk of rape ; cf. connall, gl. stipulam, colligendo, 
Z. 731 ; "W. cynnulljA, "ingathering of com." 211. Seimin (gl. fistula, reed), "a 
bulrush" — O'D. ; " blackheaded bog-rush," O'R. ; probably a deriv. from seim (gl. 
macer; gl. tenuis, Z. 23, 261). 

212-216. Monadan (gl. moneta), bogberry, leg. monadan, 1. w., perhaps connected 
with moin, a bog. 213. Glacarba (a handful of com); glac (hand, palm); arba (for 
arhan?) 0'R.'8 " arbha, s. f. com" (he is wrong as to the gender, for ith in arba, gl. 
far, occurs infra) ; cf. "W. erfin. 214. Olac saiged (gl. pharetra) ; here glac must mean 
a quiver-like receptacle ; soiged, better saiged, = sagittan ; gen. pi. of saiged, anciently 
saiget ; "W. saeth, from Lat. sagitta ; for if the word were Celtic, the initial s would 
have become h in Welsh. Thus, in Colman's hymn (Lib. Hymn. fol. 5 b) : — 

Cech martir, cech dithnibach, cech noeb robai in genmnai, 
Rop sciath dunn diarn imdegail, rop saiget uan fri demnai. 

Let every martyr, every hermit, every saint who lived in purity, 

Be a shield to as, to defend us ; be an arrow from us against demons ! 

216. Ga (gL hasta) = gaisas ; gaide (gl. pilatus, Z. 64) = gaisatias, the s being lost 
between vowels, as in siur (sister) ; iaran (isam = iron) ; giall (a hostage) = 0. H. G. 
kisal; iach = esox, esucius, "W. eawg (salmon), Com. ehog, &c. Cf. with gaisatias, n. pi. 
masc. gaisatii, gaisati, the Gaulish tribe-name Taiaaroi, Polyb., which, however, 

I seems 

58 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

seems a stem in a, not in ia. See Z. 64, note ; W. gwaew, pi. gwewyr, Z. 1 19, Com. 
gew, Z. 152, seem the 0. Ir. faebur (edge), Conn. v. Dimem. 

217-221. Seidedh gdithe no lulga, gl. flabella (a blast of wind — of. flabra — or a 
bellows; cf. flabellum); seideadh, O'E. ; "W. chwythiad, Ir. siataim = Bret, c'houezaf 
Com. huethaf ; gdithe, gen. s. oi gdith, a fem. i-stem, which we have abeady found in 
the quatrain quoted from the St. Gall Priscian ; bulga (beUows ?) must be connected 
with bolg (bag) ; 0. Ir. bole, gl. uter ; bulgas GaUi sacculos scorteos vocant, Festus, 
Z. 1 7 ; Goth, balgs, and Aeol. ^oXr/ov (= /toX7o's, hide). 2 1 8. Cerdcha (gl. fabrica), a 
smithy, forge, occurs twice in Cormac (sub vv. Ca and Hescdit). In Z. 70 it is spelt 
cerddchae, and glosses officina; cerd (formator, faber), gen. cerda (cerdcha, .i. teg 
cerda, Conn.) ; ace. ceird (Brogan's hymn, 79) is a masc. i-stem, from the root cab, 
Skr. kr, to make, whence also cerd (art), a. fem. i-stem; gen. dual; mic da cerda, 
pseudo-Oengus, cited by Dr. Todd, Lib. Hymn, p. 85. Cae, ca ("W. cae, caiou, gl. 
munimenta, Z. 291), has probably lost a, g; ef. 0. H. G. hag (stadt), N. H. G. gehege, 
Fr. haie, Eng. hedge. 219. Mesgan (gL massa), leg. mesgan, now, I believe, applied 
to a lump of butter, shaped like a sod of turf. 220. Bldthach (gl. baudaca) is butter- 
milk; gen. Mdthm'gh. 221. Zind, leg. linn? (gl. cervisia), ale; O'E.., linn, lionn, s. f. 
Gael, leann, W. Uyn. 

222-226. Fual {gl. urina), stem, vola; cf. Skr. var, vari (water); ovpov, ham?; 
gerhfuail, occurs in one of the St. Gall incantations (Z. 926). "Ar galar fudil" (against 
disease of the urine, strangury?). "Dumesurcsa diangalar [mo] /Ma47-se" (I save 
myself from great disease of my urine). " Focertar inso dogres i maigin hi tabair 
thual" [thiial = do fual]. (Let this be placed continually in [the] place wherein thou 
makest thy water). 223. 8gel (gL fabula), 0. Ir. seel (narratio, nuntius), nom. and 
ace. plural scela; a neuter a-stem'; gen. plur. seel (n), which before I becomes scdl 


' The mod. Irish nom. and ace. pi. is agialta (ageal-t-a), as in seol-t-a (saUs) ; ceol-t-a (melodies) ; 
tteal-t-a (clouds), where the t is what Bopp would term an inorganic addition to the base, but what 
Curtius would call a determinant. Another inexplicable t is found in some dialectical verbal forms : thus, 
biomuis-t (let ua be), in S. Leinster and E. Munster (O'D. Gram. 169) ; glanamuis-t (let us cleanse), in 
Kilkenny (ib. 180); glanfamuis-t, glanfabhuis-t (we would, you would, cleanse), Kilkenny (ib. 182). 
All through Ireland this t occurs (sometimes medialized) in the ist and 2nd pers. plur. pres. act, and ist 
pers. sing. fat. act., as glanamai-d (we cleanse) ; glan-t-aidh (ye cleanse) ; glanfa-d (I ivill cleanse). Cf. 
ar sein bera-t-sa einech do sgena [ib.], " on him I will take revenge (?) of daggers" (Rumann, Petrie, . 
R. T.); compare also t&nais-t-e (second), O'D., Gram., 123, for Z.'s tanise. The so-called determinant 
is not used in the 0. Ir. declension, but a t occurs in two or three conjugational forms. Thus, guidmi-t, 
Z. 143 (we pray) ; logmai-t (we forgive) ; prohnfimi-t (we shall prove) ; in perfects like asrubur-t (I 
said), asrobar-t (he said), and in the third pers. plur. of the secondary present, e. g., domel-t-is (they were 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 59 

(m), as in a verse in a poem on the characteristic virtues of the saints of Ireland 
(Rev. Dr. Kelly's " Calendar of Irish Saints") :— 

Caras Scuithin Da seel mbinn (bendacht ar cb&cb doroinne !) 
Aindre Mine uchtgela, etarra dogni oige. 

Scuithin of the sweet legends loved (a blessing on every one who hath done so!) 
Maidens beautiful, white-bosomed, [and] among them preserved his chastity. 

The long e seems to indicate the loss of a consonant. 224. Corcair (leg. corcuir? gl. 
purpura), from which it seems formed by changing the ^'s into c'% (as in case, from 
pascha ; cengcedais from pentecoste ; cf. necht = ncptis ("W. nith, Skr. naptri, N. H. G. 
niftel) ; secht (n) = saptan ; fescor = vespera = a Skr. divas-para, Bopp), and altering 
the declension. Perhaps, however, corcuir is not a foreign word. Z. 744, has dub- 
ehorcur, gl. ferrugo, and compares the name of the Dalmatian island, Kopxavpa, Cor- 
cyra. The "Welsh is porj>hor. 225. Ceir (wax) ; W. cwyr = cera; but the Irish ch'r 
seems an i-stem. The Cornish and Bret, are coir, hoar. 226. Glass (gL serra), a lock, 
manacle, occurs in the poem of Cormacan ^cces (ed. O'D.), v. 57 : — 

Ocus ni thardad air glas And there was not put upon him a manacle, 

Na geimel alainn amnas. Nor polished tight fetter. 

The dimin. glasan (gL serrula) occurs in Z. 281. 

227-231. Roth = Lat. rota (a wheel); Z. 82, the t being aspirated between the 0, 
 and the a which originally ended the word. Under such circumstances in "Welsh t 
always becomes d. "We find, accordingly, that the Welsh for wheel is rhod ; cf. Lith. 
ratas, 0. H. G. rad. "We may also compare Skr. ratha (waggon), Zend, rathaesta. 
229. Fochlaidh, " a cave" in Cormac, occurs in the Irish Nennius, p. 1 1 6 : iut ochtmad 
ingnad, foelaid fil i tir Guent ocus gaeth tribith ass (the eighth wonder, a cave which 
is in the land of G., and wind for ever [blowing] out of it). Cf. 0. "W. claud (fossa), 
Z. 622, "W. goglawdd, Ir. claidim (I dig), W. cloddiaw. 230. Liter (a letter) = Lat. 
littera. Double < becomes <A in "Welsh ; we find, accordingly, llythyr-en. 231. Sil- 
laidhi (if I read the word rightly) seems a curious hybrid, consisting, as it does, of the 
first syllable of syllaba, pltis an Irish termination. Cf siolla, O'll. ; "W. sill. In Z. 

eating) ; asbcr-t-is (they were saying). The declensional t occurs frequently in the plurals of 0. Welsh 
nouns, cf. cetiii-et [now edned], bronnbreith-et (volucres ventre variegatse), mcrch-et (filiae, now mer- 
chei). I do not find a < in the British conjugation, except in perfects act., like a gant (cecinit), ae gwant 
(feriit). In this t(=d<l .?), and in that of the corresponding Irish perfects, I am inclined to recognise the 
reduplicating root dhS. 


6o A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

968, the word is, as might be expected, sillab, fern. ; sUlaid occurs in Leab. Breacc in 
the nom. pi. of sUlad, Gael, siolladh. 

232-236. Letlienach (gl. pagina, a page of a book); the gen. lethinig (leg. lethenig?) 
occurs in Harl. 1 802, 13 a; line moite [0. Ir. m' aite] hf tus ind lethinig sea. Bob cen- 
nais dia for anmain maelissu, " a Une of my tutor's [written by him] is at the begin- 
ning of this page. God be gentle to Maelissu's soul!" Is lethenach weakened from 
lethanach ? 233. Crupan na Mm (gl. sirogra, L e. chiragra, x*'/"'7/'«) gout in the 
hand) ; crupan I have not met elsewhere. O'E. has criipadh (contraction, Gael, cru- 
padh); crjipam (I contract) ; crM^o^ (a wrinkle), to which it seems allied. 234. Esga 
(gl. luna); ia 0. Ir. aescae, Z. 247; gen. esci, Z. 1074, s. n. The adj. esca, which 
occurs in the Felire of Gengus, is glossed by caiu no alaind no lucida in the Leabhar 
Breacc copy of that (philologically) valuable composition. Note neph-escide, unmoonlit 
(gl. uKoTOfiyprj), isin nep[h]-8escaidiu (gl. in aKorofi^i/y), Z. 830. 235. Medhal (gl. 
panca = paunch ?) though the unaspirated d ia CR's maodal, " a belly, a paunch," is 
certainly correct. Gael. »8ea(?Afle7 is "mirth," "joy." 2j6. Blonac (lard); of. W. Wo- 
neg (lard, grease). Com. hloneg ; gl. adeps. 

237-241. Monadh (subsequently glossing momissma, i. e. vofiiafia, coin), seems 
here to mean a mint. In Gaelic monadh means a mountain ; cf. "W". mynydd, di-minid 
sursum, lit. ad montem, Z. 571, and also a heath. 238. Farean (gl. comprisura), 
(leg. /arcdre ?), is "a knot in wood," according to C. ; O'R. has ^'farean, s. m., a com 
or welt on hands or feet." 239. Cantair (gl. troclia), "cantaoir, a press" — O'E.; 
"into which wood is put to be straightened," adds Mr. Curry. In Gaelic /arcAaw is 
" a little maUet." 240. Cliath fuirsidh (gl. eripica, a harrow) ; as to cliath, v. supra ; 
fuirsidh seems the gen. sing, oifuirse, harrowing, O'R. 241. Sitheal (gl. situla, bucket) 
is " a bowl, a cup," according to O'R. ; "W. hidl, a cullender? 

242-246. Taes (= dough, Goth, daigs, N. H. G. teig?), "W. toes. 243. Mulcan (gl. 
glassia, i. e., ^aXa^ia'j a kind of milk-frumety) is O'E.'s mulachdn; s. m., " a kind of 
soft cheese ; cheese curds pressed, but not in a vat." Cf. Goth, miluks, Eng. milk, 
O. H. G. miluh, mulgere, mulcere, a/teX^iu. 244. Igha (gl. prisura), perhaps 0'R.'s 
iodha, "the cramp, rheumatism, any kind of pain;" "a stitch in the side," according 
to C. 245. Cocan (gl. pensa, a day's ration) is cucan (gl. penus, store of food, provi- 
sions) in Z. 80. This is a diiferent word from cucann, gl. pistrinum, gl. coquina, gl. 
culina, Z. 740, though they come from the same root, viz., cak, or pak. Cf. 0. W. 
coc, gl. pistor; Cornish cog, gl. coquus; whence Iceghin, (gl. coquina), Z. 1095, 1122 ; 
cf. Skr. pacami ; Lat. coquo, coqu-in-o, and popina ; Lithuanian kepu ; Gr. a/>Ton-oVos, 
aproKOTTo-i (bread-baker), which last word Messrs. Liddell and Scott derive from apyos 


A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 6 1 

and Ko-inw. See Curtius, Zeitschr. iii. 403'. 246. Lice in drain (calculus in the 
kidney); as to lecc v. supra; drain, abl. of aru; gl. rien, Z. 20; Welsh aren, perhaps 
connected with Lat. ren ; sed qu. Lapifulta is, perhaps, a blunder for lapUlula. 

247-25 1 . Bancoig, gL presena. Both words obscure, and probably corrupt. Shall 
we read banchoigle and proseda, a prostitute ? Banchoigle occurs in O'R., with the 
meanings, " a female companion, a cup gossip." Banchoigreach in Gaelic is " mulier 
aliena." 248. Lueh francach (lit. French mouse) is certainly a rat (cf. Welsh llygod 
ffrengig, rats), but what is rula? With luch (O'E. s. f. a mouse), cf. W. logod, Z. 82, 
llyg (a field-mouse). 249. Luch dall (gl. talpa, a mole), lit. blind mouse ; dall (bHnd), 
which glosses csecus, infra, and occurs in composition with siiilech, in dallsuilech (gl. 
orbatus), infra, is the Welsh dall, pL deillion, Z. 296. 250. Laclit (gl. lactura), in 
in O'R. lacd, "milk;" Com. lait (leg. laith); W. llaeth = Lat. lact (lac, lactis) is, 
perhaps, as Bopp has suggested, an old passive participle formed by the Skr. suffix ta^ 
On this word, and on the interesting identification of Ir. bliocht, W. blith, with "loKaKT 
(^\aKTo(payo9, 7X0705), where the Celtic b and the 7a are the last remnant of the word 
for cow (Skr. gav, Ir. bo), see Grimm, Gesch. d. d. Sprache, 11., p. 1000. 251. Amaisc 
(gl amusca) I cannot explain. 

252-256. Tdl (gl. ascia, adze), cf. Lat. talea (a cutting for planting) ; inter-taliare, 
and the crowd of words connected therewith ; Ital. taglia ; Span, tajo ; Fr. taiUe, tail- 
leur ; Engl, tailor, and fee tail (feudum talliatum) ; and M. H. G. teller (a plate), Diez, 
E. W. 339. 253. Casnoidhi (gl. scindula, shingle), leg. casnaidhi ? is "chips, or 
shavings of wood," according to O'D. and C. The nom. sing, camaidh is in O'K 
254. Eicart (gl. scupa, i. e. scopas, a besom ?), probably from es (= Lai ex), and the 
root SCAB, whence etarscar-tha (separationis), Z. 254-5. But scupa is probably a 
blunder for stupa, and we may compare the Gaelic eascard, or ascart, s. m. "tow," 
"coarse lint." 255. Gfuirin (gL pustula), Gael, guirean, W. goryn, from gur (pus) ; 
Corm. V. Nescoit ; W. gor ; cf. French gour-me, and perhaps 0. Norse gor (dung), 
gor-m-r (slime), 256. Nus (gl. onesta, i. e. colostra?) is, says O'D., the beestings or 
new milk of a cow after calving: "nus quasi no^nis," says Cormac; and though it is 


' Dr. Smith, in his Latin Dictionary (sub v. coquo), is wrong in including the English bake in this 
class of words. Bake, as Curtius points out, is the Greek ^uyeiv. 

'This suffix (Lat. -tus, Gr. toq) is found (without addition) in Irish, not, as might be expected, 
in the part. perf. pass., but in the pret. pass, in -d, plur. -tha (Ebel. Beitr. i. 162). Ebel here speaks 
of vocalic verb-stems. The tenuis is preserved in the sing, of the pret. pass, of consonantal verb-stems ; 
e. g. rocet (was sung) = pra-can-ta, tairchet (was prophesied), ad-ra-nac-t (was buried), &c. The termination 
of the part, perf pass. 0. Ir. -the, te, mod. Ir. -tha, -ta, really stands for ta + ya (see Ebel, Beitr. i. 162). 

62 A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

of course absurd to identify nus witt novus, the word may really come from the root 
nov, which in Irish would lose the v. Gael. wA«, nds, gen. sing. 7iilis. 

257-261. Baineaehlach (gl. grimaga), a female servant, a she-post-boy! if O'R 
be right, in his explanation of eaohlach. 258. Meall (gl. picuta, i. e. picota), a mound, 
hiUock, a masc. a-stem, with which Gliick, 138, has connected MeUodunum and Mel- 
losectum. "W. moel (a conical hUl) is represented by the Mod. Ir. maol. 259. Eas (gl. 
mastella, weasel), a dimin. form in O'R., viz., easog ; another mod. word for this animal 
is nas, which is nes in Z. 60. 260. Fidhchat (gl. muscipula), literally wood-eat, a hu- 
morous word for a mouse-trap. 261. Concro (gl. decipula, a snare, a trap), " a wolf- 
trap," conjectures C, from eon, base of cu (dog, a wolf is called cu allaidh), and cro, gL 
casula {supra). 

262-265. Srathwr (gl. sagena, a fishing-net or seine), Gael, srathair (clitellee). I 
suspect the scribe has blundered here, for srathar is certainly "a straddle," as O'E. 
explains the word ; "W. ystrodyr, f. from Med. Lat. stratura. It occurs (with its « as- 
pirated by the nom. sing, of the fern, article) in the St, Gall Priscian, Z. 929 :^- 

Gaib do chuil isin chareair : Take thy comer in the dungeon : 

Ni rois chluira na colcaid : Thou gettest neither down nor flockbed : 

Truag insin, amail bacbal, That wretched one ! like a slave, 

Rot giuil ind srathar dodcaid. The mi^rable srathar sticks to thee. 

This, however, does not enlighten us much as to its meaning. 263. Carr (gl. biga, 
a two-horsed chariot) has been noticed supra. 264. Uchtach (gl. antela), a poitrel, or 
breast ornament for horses, from ucht, breast (also the brow of a hill, as in conrici hucht 
noinonme, "to nine-oaks' hUl," Book of Armagh, 17 a, i), mod. gen. ochta, a masc. 
u stem. The following is a paradigm of these stems : — 

Masc. m-8tem. 

Stem, hithu. 




N. bith 

da bith 


G. betha 

da betha 

betha (n) 

D. biuth 

dib bethaib 

bethaib {for bithuib) 

Ac. bith (fi) 

da bith 


V. a bith 

a da bith 

a bithu 

In — 265. Tiarach (gl. postella, L e, postilena = "W. pystylwyn), a crupper, may, I sus- 
pect, be found the t'lar conjectured by Z. 567, as a designation for the western regio 
mundi. In Ireland the west is the back ; the east, the front (airthir a chinn, in the 


A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 63 

front (east) of his head) ; the south is the right hand (des) (cf. Dekkhan, from the 
Skr. dakshina) the north, the left (tuath). In Kerry I have heard an EngKsh-speak- 
ing peasant talk of a tooth in the wesM side of his jaw, meaning the back part. 

266-270. Laithirt (gl. capnla, i. e. crapula, drunkenness, debauch, also the head- 
ach resulting therefrom) is pleasantly derived by Cormac from laith (ale), and ort 
(killed) thus: Laithoirt a. laith ron art .1. ol cormae, "laithoirt, that is, laith, which 
killed us, i. e. a drink of ale {corm dat. s. cormaim = W. civrw, Kovp/ii, Dioscor., see 
Dief. Celt., i. 123). 267. Cder finemnach (gl. uva), literally bacca vitoa: caer, gl. bacca, 
2. 37 ; W. cair : finemnach, an adj. formed from fine main, a vine, which is found in the 
Leabhar Breacc Sermon on S. Brigit, cited by Dr. Todd (Lib. Hymn. 65) : Is aire sin 
ise a samail etir duHb, colum eter enaib, finemain eter fedaib, grian uas rennaib. 
(" Hence it is that her type among created things is the Dove among birds, the Vine 
among trees, the Sun above the stars.") 268. Lubra (gl. lepra, leprosy), cf. "W. ll)rfiith, 
"eruptive, pimpled." 269. Cnaimfiach no torpan (gl. frageUa, comvs. friigilega?) : 
cnaimfiach (which glosses curellus, infra, No. 503) means, according to C, " the great 
eagle," and is also applied to a raven {no O'E.) ; to a rook in Scotland. It is hard to 
say what the first element of the compound can be : if we read cnaimfiach, we might 
compare cnAm, bone, a masc. i-stem, o chnaim gl. ex esse, Z. 1002, n. pi. in chnamai, 
Z. 237, ace. pi. cnami, Z. 609, cf. icvrjft,r), and fach, gl. corvus, Z. 1030; cf. N. H. G. 
weihe, 0. H. G. wiho, wigo (milvum), uuiio (milvus). Torpan is a crab (cancer), ac- 
cording to C, GaeL tarpan. 270. Cotun (gl. parma, a small round shield) I have not 
met elsewhere. 

271-275. NetladoracM (gl. piromanxia, pyromantia?) is, according to C, "astro- 
logy," Gael, neuladaireachd, from neuladair (astrologer). The first element of the word 
seems nill, a cloud. I know not if the Irish practised v6<pe\ofiav7ia. 272. Borna- 
dorackt (gl. ciromancia, leg. chiromachia, pugilism ?), Gael, ddrnadaireachd, from dorna- 
ddir (a boxer) : cf. dorn, W. dwrn (fist, hand) : whence dorndn, infra : nom. durni (gl. 
ut me colaphizet), Z. 336. 273. Clas guail (gl st\xnm?), " the place on which char- 
coal was made," C. ; das here seems = the "W. clas (a space, region). Its usual 
meaning is "furrow," " trench." Guail, gen. sing, oi gual = Eng. coal, W. glo. 274. 
SMinach, gl. eatapulta (if I read this rightly), seems connected with spl'in, " a sharp 
dart of the eye;" splinc'in, "one who gives a sharp glance out of the comer of his 
eye;" and spline, "a point of rock," "an overhanging cliff'," O'D. 275. Croicinn 
madra allaid is "hide of a wolf," lit. " of a wild dog." What edibulta can be, or be 
put for, I cannot conjecture. 

276-280. Coinmtr (gl. oifa), conmfr in Z., v. supra. No. 156. 277. Balach (gl. 
caba, i. e. cavea), gen. dabhca, supra, No. 158. 278. Suiste (flail), a lengthened form 


64 A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

of Buist = fastis. Calopeia (if this be what the scribe's eallidiba meant) seems a bar- 
barous hybrid formed from Kokov (wood), and pes (foot). 279. Idh urchumail (gl. 
trica, i. e. tricse, hindrances) is a spanceling-chain : idh, a collar, chain ; urchnmaU 
for erchumaU, and this = cumail (holding), with the intensive particle er = Graulish 
ver, Lat. per, Gr. ttc^j, prefixed. 280. Cessacht (gl. parvispendia, penuriousness). 
The adj. cessachtach occurs in S. Brogan's poem on Brigit : — 

Ni pu for seotu santach ; ernais cen neim, cen mathim : 
Nir" bu chalad,! cessathtach : ni car in domuin cathim. 

281-285. Crolwr sida (gl. obtolmia, i. e. ophthalmia), "disease of the eye;" galar, 
gen. galair in 0. Ir., a neut. a-stem = W. galar (mourning, grief), sula, gen. sing, of 
Huil, No. 425, infra. 282. Cailleach ligeoch (gl. pupina) is nearly unintelligible to me ; 
cailleacli, anciently caillech, has the meanings of " old woman" and "nun :" in Gaelic, 
ligeach is "sly," ligheach, "flooded." 283. Cochtair (gl. coquina = cuisine), vide su- 
pra, No. 245. 284. Ta/rrach (gl. babana); of these two words I can make nothing as 
they stand. May we read torrach (pregnant), and babana, an Hibemo-Latin fem. 
subst. formed from baban (baby), and meaning a pregnant woman ? In Gaelic tarrach 
is " the belly-thong of a pack-saddle, a girth." 285. Coisreagad (gl. creatura, i. e. the 
consecrated wafer ?) ; for coisegrad = consecrata : the n being lost before « as in mk - 
mensis, eis = census, mias - mensa, &c. 

286-298. Aran [leg. aran] geal (gl. placenta, a cake), " white bread." 287. £ain- 
tigerna (gl. dominabus). Here, and in the following twelve articles, the Latin words 
are in the dat. or abL pi., the Irish being in the nom. sing. In baintigema (lit. female- 
lord), note first the non-aspiration of the t, though originally between vowels, the Irish 
phonetic laws not admitting the combination nth (cf. banterismid, gl. obstetrix, Z. 
820; o chaintaidUuch, gl. satisfactione, Z. 826, and verbs in the 3rd sing. pres. pass., 
such as frisduntar, gl. obstruitur, Z. 464) ; secondly, the change of the 0. Ir. final e 
(= ia) to a; thirdly, the change of the a of han to ai, which is owing to the influence 
of the vowel in the following syllable, viz., i, which has the power of changing a pre- 
ceding a into ai; so e changes a preceding a to i (ai) ; but causes no vowel-change. 
See Ebcl, Beitr. 288. Ainim, m Z. anim (Com. enef ; Armor, ene) = anima, and de- 
clined like a fem. a-stem', but also declined as a stem in w' (= a Latin animo, -onis, if 
there were such a word), which curious fact Ebel (Zeits. vL 2 1 3) was the first to notice. 
289. Baindea in toraid (goddess of the fruit, Pomona? or growth, Ceres?); baindea, 


' = Goth, hardus, Eng. hard. 

2 Gen. anme, dat. anim; cf. a«««j-chairtea, gL doctores, lit. sonl-friends, Z. io(=anamacarant-i-an8). 

3 Dat. sing, anmin, ace. anmin(ii), pi. anniin, anmaD(n), anmanaib. 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 


bandea, Z. 279 (not bandia) ; where tbe ban seems superfluous, as dea = deva = Lat. 
dea; toraid, gen. s. of torad; dat. torud (fructui), Z. 231; n. pL toirthe, O'D. 88, for 
tortha, wbence it would seem to be a neut. a-stem. Ebel (Beitr. 428) would connect 
this word with the root rad; but consider the t in toirthe and in the adj. toirthech 
(fruitful), which occurs in Z. 778. 290, 291. Ingeti (filia, nata), a daughter, girl; 
now inghean, Ga«l. nighen, which Bopp and Pictet, I venture to think, erroneously, have 
compared with the Skr. angana, is literallj-, I suspect, " one who does not bring forth," 
from the neg. particle in (Z. 829), and the root G.uf' (Skr. jan), to produce. Cf. the 
word ingenas in the following gloss (Z. 492), ma eterroscra fri a fer, ni teit co fer naile, 
act bed ingenas, which I render literally thus, " if she have separated from her hus- 
band, let her not go to another husband, but let there be not-bringing forth" — imparti- 
tudo, impartura, if I may coin a Latin word. Z. translates bed ingenas by sit innupta, 
obviously taking ingenas for an adj., or a concrete subst. ; but the termiaation -as is only, 
so far as I know, used to form abstract substantives ; see Z. 759 (curchas, gl. arundo, has 
yet to be explained). Ingen may, however, be for andegena (adgnata), cf. Cmbigena. 
292-295. Banclwra, a female friend ; ca/ra = W. carant, pi. ceraint (0. Ir. gen. 
carat = carantas, as Skr. bharatas = (pepovjo^''), is a stem in ant, like nama (hater, 
enemy), gen. namat (= na + amantas) ; fiadu (God) ; dinu (ewe-lamb) ; brage, throat 
(= Welsh Ireuant, windpipe) ; loche (lightning) ; Nuada (a man's name) ; Brega (?) 
plur. Bpt'^ai/Tes (= in the Irish of Z.'s glosses, Bregait, Skr. brhantas), an Irish clan 
mentioned bj- Ptolemy. This class of nouns represents the Gr. participles in wv, 
ovToi. Cara was thus declined in 0. Ir. : — 

MaSC. «»i-STEM. 

Stem, carat from carant. 




N. cara 

(Not yet observed) 


G. carat 

carat (h) 

D. carait 


A. carait (n) 


V. a chara 


294. -Lair 

' The root gan, when it means to be born, reduplicates in Irish (cf. no gigned, gl. nascebatur, Z. 41^, 
as well as when it means to produce (nis gignetar tola, Oingus, Felire). 

' The loss of the n before t in Irish is, however, purely the result of a phonetic law ; the same loss in 
the Skr. gen. bharatas, and in the other weak cases, is the consequence of what may be called the dynamics 
of the language. 


66 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

294. Lair (a mare) ; gen. larach (declined like cathir, swpra, No. 1 3). 295. MM (after- 
wards glossing mulus, "W. mul, N. H. G. maul); cognate with Lat. mula, a she-mule. 
The adj. miildae, gl. mulionicus, is in Z. 30, where also are quoted the O. British name 
Epomulus = equomulus, and mulu, the 0. Ir. ace. pi. of mul = mulus. 

296-301. Assal, glossing, infra, asinus ("W. asyn, he-ass; asen, a she-ass), I can- 
not beliere to be a Celtic word. The vowel-flanked s would have been lost in Irish. 
Assal (O'E. asal) I believe to stand for asan, and to have been taken from the 
Lat. asinus : cf. Gaul. Ep-osw-actus, Gr. ovos for oo-fos, Goth, asilus, 0. H. G. esil, 
Lith. asilas. 297. Sogh allaid, she-wolf, lit. a wild bitch ; as cu allaid, lit. wild dog, 
is lupus (v. infra) ; sogh, also sagh, saidk, saith, O'E., Gael, saigk. Hence aaighin, 
"a little bitch," O'E.; saigir, "a bitch's heat," O'D. 298. Caisc = pascha, from 
which it is taken. Note, however, that it has become a fern, i-stem. In the 0. Ir. 
the nom. is case, which is declined like a c-stem ; gen. case = cascas ; dat. caisc = 
casci ; ace. caisc (ri) = casein (or -en?). So — 299. Mainn (manna) is mann in Z. 593 ; 
ni pu imdu do (leg. do) in mann cid tren oc tecmallad ; " non fuit abundantius ei 
manna quamvis sollerti in collectione;" whence it appears that the word was either 
masc. or fem., which is curious, as the 0. Ir. foreign- words generally follow the gender 
of the original vocables. 300. Boduaiged (gl. mammona, riches), leg. bosluaiged, a 
deriv. from bosluag, " cow-host ;" cf. Goth, faihuthraihns {/la/ifuovas), originally 
"cattle-throng," "/ue-throng," v. infra, No. 1003. 301. SuhacJms (gl. all. a, leg. 
alacrimonia ?), glossed by laetitia, Corm., and ilaritas (sic) in Egerton, 88, fo. 70 : from 
subach (cheerful), opposed to dubach (v. supra, No. 85). 

302-304. Amaddn (gl. idiota, here a fool, idiot, omadhaun), which Pictet (Zeits. v. 
325) rightly connects with Skr. a-mati, stupidity — mati is understanding — and Lat. 
amens. The root is man (think), whence Skr. manu, Eng. man, quasi thinker. 
303. Beorad (gl. advena, a stranger, alien = the Scottish name Dewar, Gael, deoradh) 
also means a pilgrim, an exile, a stranger settling in an Irish chieftain's territory. 
See a valuable note by Dr. Eeeves (Vita CoL, 366), and one by O'D. (Battle of Magh 
Eath, p. 163), in which page the nom. pi. deoraid occurs. 304. Urraidh (gl. indigena), 
a native, also meant " a solvent yeoman," C. 

305-310. Mrinnach (gl. Hibemigena), from the old name of this island, which 
M declined in the Book of Leinster and Lib. Hymn. nom. herinn (Maelmura Othna's 
poem) dat dond erinn, gen. and ace. herenn (see Fiaco's Hymn, w. 7, 8, 10, and the 
orthain at the end, and the quatrain from Marianus Scotus, Z. 944). The origin of this 
name, notwithstanding the labours of Z. (G. C. 67) and Pictet (Boitr. 87), still remains 
obscure. One of Z.'s ideas is, that it is compounded of the intensive er and rind 

(a star), 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. Sy 

(a star), wliich he thinks may also have signified an island, "quasi signum maris." 
Another conjecture of his is, that errand is for iar-rond ("insula occidentis"). There 
are three objections to these theories : i°, as Pictet observes, we never find the r 
doubled ; 2° the gen. of rind is renda, but the gen. of herinn is herenn ; 3°, rind never 
means an island, though it certainly has the meanings of " star," " headland," and 
" point." Pictet, citing the Teutonic names for the Irish — Norse irar (Irishmen), 
Anglo-Sax. ira, ire (Irishman), asserts that Eirinn is derived " ohne zweifel aus dem 
altesten volksnamen der Iren, der etwa Er oder Eir gelautet haben muss." The fol- 
lowing theory has been suggested to me : Herinn, which certainly is a stem in nn, 
iver-inn being the base in the nom. gen. and dat, iver-ann in the ace., represents a 
petrified avaeasma (c£ Skr. avara, posterior, western, declined with the pronominal 
-sma, Ir. iar, after, aniar "in the west," Pict«t, Beitr. L 89). By weakening the vowels', 
dropping the final a, and changing m into n (cf. sni, " we," ex asmi) we obtain ivarisn. 
From ivarisn herinn may have arisen, by the assimilation of the s (cf. immunn = Skr. 
abhyasman = K H. G. um uns) the passage of v into a spiritus asper, the shifting 
of this breathing, and the drawing together of the i-a thus produced (cf. erthuaiscer- 
tach (gl. euroaquilo. Book of Armagh, 188, J. 2) = iarthuaiscerddach (gl. etesiarum, 
Z. 777); naueirchinniuch = nani-airchinniuch) : — 

Nom. Sing, herinn = hiarinn = iharinn = ivarinn, 
G. herenn = hiarinn-as = ivarinn-as 
D. and Loc. herinn = hiarinn-i = ivarinn-i 
A. herenn = hiarann-en (-in ?) = ivarannen (-in ?)'. 

31 1-3 14. The only words here calling for remark are — 31 1. Oilithrech (gl. romi- 
peta, i. e. Rome-seeker), " a pilgrim" in 0. Ir., alither, ailither, and — 314, Comaightech 
(gL alienigena, foreigner), now written eoimhtheach, Gael, coimheach. 

315-325. Bithrehach 

'Cf. Ptolemy's Iver-n-ioi, Iver-n-is, Iver-n-ia ("loufpyia), and theW. Ewyrdonic (hibernicus, "west- 
manish"), Z. 814. But for these forms with f, Herinn might be connected with Slir. apara. 

» The most unfortunate circumstance iu the investigations respecting the etymology of " Herinn" is, 
that Prof. Pictet, to whom Celtic philology is much indebted, should have been deluded by our wretched 
O'Reilly, who actually has the following : — ■" Ibh, s. a country, a tribe of people." 

Will it be believed that this ibh is nothing but the mutilated dat. plural of the Mod. Ir. or tea (grand- 
son, descendant, in 0. Ir. haue, Z. 1029, hoa, Fiacc, r. 2, nom. pi. haui, Z. 39, dat. pi. auib, Hid.') 1 See 
O'D. Gr. 108. Irish districts were often called after the tribe that possessed them : thus, la auu censelich, 
in the Book of Armagh (literally apud nepotes Censalaci), is correctly translated by O'D. (Gr. 436) " in 
Hy-Kinsellagh ;" auu (leg. h&uu) is here the accus. pi. Dat. pi. : mac ind [f ]irdana do ib Birnn, i. e. 

K 2 

68 A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

315-325. Dithrehack (hermit), supra, dithrubach ; cf. W. didryfwT from dithrab, 
" a desert," = di-trab : cf. A(d)trebates (possessores), from trab = W. treb (vicus), Lat. 
tribus, Goth, thaurp, Eng. thorp, N. H. Gr. dorf (Ebel, Zeits., vi. 422). MarUach 
(slayer), in the following compounds, is from marb, " dead," = martva = Lat. mortuus? 
root JIAE, Skr. mr. 320. Siurmarhtach (gl. sororicida), "sister-slayer:" siur = W. 
chwaer, chwiawr = svasar, N. H. G. schwester, occurs in Z. in the dimin. siumat, gL 
sororcula, p. 282, ace. sing. : conuargaib focetoir in siair, "he straightway lifted up 
the sister" (Trip. Life of Patrick). A second form, sethair (?), occurs in sethar-oircnid 
(gl. sororicida), Z. 767 : a third form, pethair (?) — the Gaelic piuthair — in the Tain 
bo CuaUgne (Leb. na huidre) ; mac dechtere do phethar-sn ; and a fourth form, flar, fiur 
(Lib. Hymn. ed. Todd, p. 72), ace. sing, in the Trip. Life of Patrick : roboi bara do 
patricc infiair (lit. fuit ira Patricio contra sororem). 322. Cliamhuin, gen. elemhna, 
" son-in-law," in the plur. commonly signifies, in the Highlands, "any near relations 
by marriage." 324. Tribus (gl. braccoe), = "W. trws, trows-ers. 

326-330. Cea^y (gl. insidisc, infra, gl. dolus); cf. "W. celc (trick). 326. Nubtie. 
haindi. cwh, is very obscure; bainne cich would be "breast-milk" (bainne, a drop); 
but this hardly agrees with nubtie, which can scarcely be for anything but nuptiae. 
Dare we read hanais caieh nuptiae cujusvis — hanais, a deriv. from han, as to which vide 
supra, and caich, the gen. sing. m. of each? 327. Mdrmargad (gl. nundinae, market- 
day), great-market, margad, Corn, marhaz, is perhaps not derived from Engl, market 
(mercatus). 328. Fergach, leg. fergacht (gl. rixae, quarrels), Gael. feargacM. Fer- 
gach is "angry," in Z., fercach for fergach, from ferg, anger, s. f., which Z. 71, com- 
pares with 0. "W. guerg, gl. efflcax, and Gaulish Vergobretus, and Gliick and Ebel 
(Beitr., i. 160) with Gr. Fep^ov, Fopr^^. Hence fairge, foirge, " the sea," Ovep^wvtot 
(Vergivios) (ojceavos, Ptol., and perhaps W. gweilgi (torrent, ocean). 329. Inada (gl. 
tabe), and — 330. Athfiana (gl. atene), are obscure to me. Perhaps we should read 


("Son of the poet of Hy B." as Gilla mac Liacc is called in Harl. 1802, last page), literally "of the 
descendants of B." And yet the Professor compares with this fragment of the termination of a fragment 
(ib = h&uib = fiyavabo ? Cf. Vedic ayu proles, Dr. Siegfried), the non-existing Skr. root ibh, ibha (ele- 
phant) ?0i, i^iof, and placing it before an imaginary " ema," soberly sets down " ibhema das land der 
Ernen oder Iren, oder vielleicht ibh-erin, mit hinzugesetzter griechisch-lateinischer endung," Beitr. i., 89). 
I cannot believe that the h which occurs in our MSS. so constantly at the beginning of Herinn, haue 
(grandson), huile (all), huiir (hour), buasal (high, itpijXog), &c., is merely a freak of the scribe's. In 
Herinn I am inclined, as above suggested, to attribute its presence to a shifting of the spiritus asper into 
which V has passed. Cf. in Greek 'iinroQ for isFoc, Skr. acjvas. A similar displacement has been remarked 
by Dr. Siegfried in biairn ("of iron"), infra, where the h has arisen from a vowel-flanked s. So, as Kuhn 
remarks, ttpoc = Ved. ishir&. 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 6g 

Athenee for atene ; if so, the glossarist absurdly meant to derive the city-name from 
ath fiana, " champion's ford." 

331-364. Dorchadus (gL tenebrae, gl. latebrae) : dorchse, obscurus (Z. prasf. xv., 
84); na dorche (tenebrae), Z. 237; of. sorcha, "bright" (so-r'ch-a), Skr. r. ruch, 
and V. supra, 'So. 85. 333. Inmam (gl. divitiai), pi. of inmas, O'E.'s ionmas, immus, 
"treasure, riches." 337. Mil (for nebl = neblas?), " a cloud," hod. ne'ul, W. nifwl, 
niwl, N. H. G. nebel, Lat. nebula, ve<jie\-rf. 338. Scola, "schools," from schola : gen. 
sing, in Colman's Hymn, v. 40 (Lib. Hymn., 5 V) : — 

Robet macc^ni flatha de itimchuairt n&smleii ! 
May the litde children of God's kingdom be around this school ! 

339. Bagair (gl. minas), n. sing, lagar, " threat," O'R. ; dare we compare "W. bwgwth, 
bygyliaeth (minatio), 0. W. bicoled, vecordia, Z. 802 ? 342. Aengus (Oingus, Book 
of Armagh, 13, h. i, 19, a. i, 19, a. 2), gen. Oingusso, ih. 18 h. 2, oingos, leg. Oin- 
gosso, ibid., a masc. u-stera, like Doilgus, gen. Doilgusso, Z. 18; Fergus, gen. Fer- 
gusso. Book of Armagh, 15, a. 2, fergosso, ih. 16 b. 2 (= W. Gwrwst?), Muirgus, 
Congus, TJarghus, and other nouns in -gus, = gustu ? as Dr. Siegfried suggests to me^. 
345. Gilla na naom, "servant of the saints:" naom in 0. Ir. is noib, an adjectival 
a-stem. 353. An gaeth atuaidh (gl. Boreas), "the wind from the north," Gael. 
gaotk d tuath; an gaeth, 0. Ir. in gaith (Z. 929), a (from) 0. Ir. a; tuaidh, cf. 
antuaid, " in the north ;" aniartuaid, " in the north-west ;" anairtiiaid, "in the north- 
east;" fa dess no fa thuaith, "to the right or the left," Z. 566. 354. Primaidhecht 
(gl. anchises), inexplicable by me: primaidecht would be "prime- tutorship," vide 
oide, oite, supra. 

365-389. Magisder, W. meistyr. Com. maister, all, of course, from the Lat. magis- 
ter : 0. Ir. ace. pi. magistru, Z. 6I5. 366. Breitheam (gl. arbiter), Z.'s brithem judex, 
a masc. n-stem, gen. brithemon, in a mutilated gloss preserved in the Book of Armagh, 
187 h, I, viz., suide bri[th]emon, gl. tribunal: dat. s. brithemain, Z. 269; cf. breth 
judicium, and the Gaulish Vergobretus (judicium exequens). A sister-form is found 


> MS. maccan. 

* Dr. Keeves has favoured me with a list of names in -gus, which he has collected from the Annals, 
Calendars, and Pedigrees. From this I select the following, in hopes that some may be identified with 
(Gaulish or Cymmric names: AUdghus, Artgus, Baothghus, Cuangus, Doedhghus, Donnghus or Dongus, 
Eachtgus, Faelgu.i, Fiangus, Fianngus, Flathgus, Lergus, Miodhgus, Nialgus, Saergus, Siiedgus. If Dr. 
Sie^ried's conjecture be established, we have here the Celtic representative of tlie Slvr. r. jush, ytuu>, Lat. 
gustus, Eng. choose, Goth, kiusau. Cf. laimtecli a des, diglach sli/ks, Seirgl. Cone. Atlantis ii. p. 382. 

70 A Medioeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

in 0. Ir. brath, 0. "W. braut, an u-stem, and is contained in the Gaulish i?r«<««spantium. 
Cf. A. S. braSean (sententiam dicere). 367. Sagart (gl. presbyter), from sacerd-os. 
368. Timthirigh (gl. minister), leg. timthiridh? and cf. timthir-thid, servus, Z. 256; 
timthir-echtservitium, Z. 237 ; gl. ministratio, «'«/ra. 369. ff«J(7»w (gl. faber) ; cf. the 
Gaulish man's-name Gobarmitius, Bret. Com., and W. gof, all perhaps etymologicaUy 
connected with fab-er ; 0. Ir. nom. goba, gen. gobann. Patrick invokes divers yirtues 
fri brichta ban ocus gobann [MS. goband] ocus druad (against the incantations of 
women, and smiths, and druids). 370. Macam (gl. puer), a deriv. from mac, as to 
which vide supra. 371. Leabar (gl. liber, "a book"), "W. llyfyr, Com. liuer, is here 
apparently spelt according to " leathan re leathan," but the vowel-change in the penult 
is either owing to umlaut or assimilation ; in 0. Ir. either lebar or libur, a masc. 
a-stem. A Mid. Ir. gen. sing, occurs in a gloss on afolaire (leg. a pholaire), H. 3, 18, 
p. 523, viz., aiam do teig Imbair, " a name for a book-satchel," where, by the way, note 
teig, dat. sing, of tiach (gl. pera, supra, 'Eo. 41 ), a fern, a-stem, obviously from theca, 
OriKTi. A dimin. of lebar occurs in a quatrain which the scribe of the St. Gall Priscian 
seems to have extemporized while producing his invaluable MS. (see Z. 929) : — 

Dom'farcai fidbaide' fel, The grove makes a festival for me, 

Fom'chain loid luin ICiatb, uad eel — A blackbird's swift lay sings to me — I will not hide it — 

Uas mo lebrdn indlinech Over my many-lined booklet 

Fom'chain trirech inna nen. A trilling (?) of the birds sings to me. 

372. Gabhar, gabor, gl. caper, Z. 744, W. gafr (pi. geifr), a masc. a-stem, irregularly 
= Lat. caper. (I say irregularly, because the Lat. and Gr. tenues {c, t, k, t) are, as a 
rule, represented by the same letters in Irish : so the Lat. and Greek medials (d, g, b, 
^. 7> P) t>y Irish medials, which last (as in Gothic, Slavonic, and Lithuanian) regu- 
larly represent the aspirates : b = cp, Lat. /, d = 0, g = %> Lat. h.) But by Benarj-'s 
important law, the Lat cap-er might be regarded as arising from a r. gabh, and 
thereby the Celtic form with two medials would become inteUigible ; cf. Gaulish Gabro- 
magus (goat-field), 0. Brit. Gabrosentum (goat's-path), Gliick, 43. 373. Tore (gl. 
aper), ace. sing, torcc, Book of Armagh, 18 b, i, hence torcde, gl. aprinus, Z. 85. 
Tore = W. twrch, Bret, tourc'h, "a hog," Com. torch, gL magahs. 374. Parian (gL 
cancer, "a crab"), etymologically inexplicable by me. The "W. is crane = cancer? 
375. Dobhran (gl. fiber), masc. a-stem, is now an "otter" (iwBpci), not a "bea- 
ver," . 

1 Cf. Leab. Breacc, 121 aa, cited O'D., Gr. 370: is liriu feoir no toM, fidbuide illratha in marbnuda 
noibsea ; literally, 'Tis more numerous than grass or a grove's hair, the many-blessings of this holy elegy 
( marbnud = W. marwnad). 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 7 1 

ver," from dobur (water), which Pictet compares with dabhra, said to be Skr. for 
"ocean." The W. for "otter" is dufrgi, i. e. dufr + ci, "water-dog;" cf. W. river- 
name, Camdubr, and the Gaulish Vemo-dubrum, Dubra, Dubris. 376. Laba/r no 
dinncriadh (gl.linter), "an ewer (?) or a clay-tile." 378. Companach (gl. soces, i. e. 
socer, socius ?), formed from Lat. compaganus, the g being lost between vowels, as 
always in "W., and sometimes in 0. Ir. {vide infra, 550). 380. Socruidhe (pulcher), i. e. 
evfiop(l)09 : cruidhe from cruth (forma), an u-stem: gunated gen. sing, in 0. Ir. crotha 
= crutavas, non-gunated, crutto = crutvas. 381. Dtihh (gl. nigor) dub in Z., is in 
W. and Bret, du, Com. gl. duv ; cf. the river-name Dubis ; and perhaps Lat. fuscus 
(blackish), for fubiscus ? Engl, dusk ? Dub also meant ink : is tana an dub, " thin is 
the ink" (Z. praef, xv.) : cf. Danish blaek. 382. Zese (gl. piger), n. pi. m. neh-leiscc, 
gl. non pigri, Z. 830 ; vide loisg, O'E., W. Uesg, Lat. laxus ? 383. Truagh (gl. macer), 
= trog, "miser," Z. 28; trogan (gl. miseUus), better spelt in the Book of Armagh, 
38, a. I, trogan, a marg. gloss on "Judas scariothis," "VV. truan. 384. Gruamda (gl. 
acer) cf. W. grwm?, "surly, sour," O'R. 385. Agarb - acerbus, as sagart, 0. Ir. 
sacart = sacerdos, which shows that the Lat. c before e was pronounced like k by the 
Irish. 386. Deas (gl. dexter), 0. Ir. des, = W. deheu. Com. dyghow, dex-ter, Se^iot, 
Skr. dakshina; of. the GauL goddess-name, Dexsiva, Dexivia. 387. Ch (gl. sinister), 
leg. cle', is obviously a mutilation of a cledk, W. cledd, Bret, kleiz, which Diefcnbach 
and J. Grimm have compared with Goth, hlei-duma (-duma = -timu, in Lat. dex- 
timus). A sister-form cli occurs in the dat. sing, for laim chli (gl. a sinistris), Z. 67 ; 
 duchli (gl. ad sinistram), Book of Armagh, 1 84, b. This comes close to Goth, lilei, 
and also to Skr. grl, which Bopp equates with hlei ("Vergl. Gramm." ii 30, 2te 
auil.). "Wenn ioh recht habc," says the Master, "den goth. primitivstamm hlei auf 
das Skr. §ri = kri, gliick zuriickzufiihren, mit der ausserst gewohnlichen vertauschung 
des r mit I, so sehen wir in der gothischen benennung des linken einen euphemismus, 
gleich dem worauf die griechischen ausdriicke aptoTepos und evuiwfioi sich stiitzen." 
389. Adh allaidh (gl. onager), leg. agh allaidh : agh, " a beast of the cow-kind," O'R., 
gen. aighe, masc and fem. : in Gael. " a hind," "a heifer," "often applied to cattle 
two years old, without regard to gender." If gh here stands for ch, we may compare 
agh with Skr. pagu, pecus, Goth, faihu. 

390-394. Ferand (gl. ager), glosses iathmaige in the orthain after Fiacc's Hymn ; 
forann, which Dr. Reeves (Vit. Col., 449) explains as "jurisdiction of a monastic 
order," is perhaps the same word : induxit niuem supra totum agrum pcrtinguentem 
ferenn. Book of Armagh, 5 «. 2 ; cf. W. grwn, pi. gryniau, " a ridge, a lay, or land in 
afield." 391. Sndmach (gl. suber, "the cork-tree"), something, apparently, that 


72 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

swims or floats; cf. Skr. sna, W. nawf. Odran is called abb saer sndmach, " a noble, 
swimming abbot," by Oingus, Fel., Oct. 27. 392. Magisder aimfesach, "an ignorant 
master;" aimfesacli from the neg. prefix am (Skr. sami, »}/tt, semi ?), and the root fis, 
the connexion of which with fid, Skr. vid, fii, wit, seems to rest on a desideratire 
formation. Only a gunated base vivaits would explain 0. Ir. forms like fesur, fiasur 
(scio), flastar(8cit),fesid (scitis), fiasmai8(sciebamus), fia8tais(8ciebant); and perhaps we 
should read aimfesach. 393. Esldn (leg. esshin), from es = Gaul, ex, W. eh and shin, 
with which W. llawen may be identified, if wc assume the existence of an original 
slavana. 394. Maeth (gl. tenor, i. e. tener), irregularly = W. mwyth ; compar. moithiu, 
gl. molUorem, Z. 283. 

395-409. Fer (= vira-8, a masc. a- stem) = Lat. vir, Goth, vair, Lith. wyras, Skr. 
vara. 397. Fer cli seems to mean not levir (husband's brother), but a left-handed 
man {supra, No. 387), as if levir (for devir = BaFJp, Skr. devara) were a compound of 
Isevus and vir. 398-401. Deise, trir, cethrair, cuigir, respectively the genitives sing, 
of dias (fern.), triur, cethrar (dunaib chethrairib, gl. quatemionibus, Book of Armagh, 
178 b. 2), cuigur, 0. Ir. coicur (which respectively mean a combination of 2, of 3, 
of 4, of 5 persons) ; four of those numeral substantives which form so remarkable a fea- 
ture in Irish. O'D. and Z. suggest that the numeral substantives in -r are compounded 
with fer. If so, the original a is preserved un weakened in nonbar (a combination of 9 
persons). Conn. v. Nos = Skr. navanvara-m, hod. nonlhar, and in deichenbar, a combi- 
nation of 10 persons, (gen. sing, deichenboir occurs in one of the inscriptions copied by 
ray revered friend Dr. Petrie) now deichneaihar. Others, I may observe, compare fer, 
&c., with Skr. vira (hero), sed qu. on account of the long i. 402. Sathach (gl. satur). 
403. Lethsathach (gl. semisatur) ; cf. Lat. sat-is. 404, Tigerne, dia (0. "W. duw. Com. 
duy), anum (anam) mac (0. "W. map, Com. mab), saer (soir), have been already consi- 
dered. Lihertus is glossed by soirmug, i. e. free servant, ia Z. 825. 

410-418. Bachlach (gl. famulus, a slave) is "a herdsman, a rustic," according to 
O'E. 411. Milchu (gl. malosus, i. e. molossus, i. e. kviov MoXor-rtKo^, a wolf-dog, 
guitter in the Cornish Vocab.) is explained " greyhoimd" by O'R, who speUs the word 
miolchu; plur. milchoin occurs in Lebar na Cert, 252, W. milgi, pi. milgwn. 412. 
Bachlach brealldn (gl. bufulus) is obviously a term of great reproach ; but what breal- 
lan is exactly, I know not; " a lubberly fellow with a hanging under-lip," says C. ; 
perhaps it is connected in meaning with spado ; cf. breallach, gl. spadosus, infra, breall, 
"foreskin," Lw. 418. ir«%A«mfl«w (a bear), of uncertain derivation. 

419-423. Senathair (gl. avus, grandfather), literally "old-father," v. suprd, No. 13. 
420. A athair sin (gl. proavus, great-grandfather), "his father," i. e. the father of the 

avm ; 

A Medioeval Tract on Latin Declension. 73 

avus ; BO the same words at ISo. 42 1 mean the father of the prowcus. A, 0. Ir. a (the 
gen. sing, of the masc, and neut. pronoun of the 3rd pers. sing.) aspirates, must, there- 
fore, have ended in a vowel, and has long since been identified by Bopp with Skr. asya. 
As to sin (for 0. Ir. som, sem, Mid. Ir. slum, now sean, san), it is here placed as an 
emphasizing particle. The 0. Ir. som has been compared by Bopp and Pictet with Skr. 
svayam ; and their view is confirmed by the fact that the s in som is unaspirable (cf. 
dossom, ei, Z. 334), and must, therefore, represent a combination of consonants. 
Tuata (gl. laicus) ; cf. tovtious in what, up to the recent appearance of M. de Bello- 
guet's work, was presumed to be the oldest monument of the Celtic language, the 
Gaulish inscription, found at Vaison (Departement Drome) : — CErOMAPOC OYIA- 
which Dr. Siegfried has thus translated : — " Segomaros Villoneos, a citizen of Ifemausus 
(Nimes), dedicated (?) this temple to Belesama"'. Cf. also Toutio-rix (a Gaulish name for 
Apollo) from tuath (people), 0. Brit, tut, Z. 39, now tud, a widely scattered word. Oscan 
tovto, Umbrian tuta, tota (urbs), Goth, thiuda, 0. H. G. diota, Lith. Tauta (Germany), 
all from the root tu (to grow, to be strong), as Aufrecht and Kirchhoff, Grimm and 
Kuhn have shown. 424. L6egh (gl. vitulus, calf) = "W. llo, pi. Uoi, Corn, loch, Bret, 
lue ; cf. uenierunt ad fontem loig\o% in scotica nobiscum vitulus ciuitatum. Book of 
Armagh, 10 b, i, and perhaps the man's-name, Loiguire, ih., "] a, \ (but see Z. 126). 
The nom. and gen. sing, occur in Brogan's poem on Brigit, 1. 52 : — 

In loeg lia clam i carput, in b6 indiaid ind loig. 
The calf with her leper in the chariot, the cow behind the calf. 

425-428. Siiil (gl. oculus), " eye," frequent in Z. It is also found in the Book 
of Armagh, 219, h, i, where a grotesque profile occurs, opposite to which is written : 
[f Jeccid in[s]r6in siiil bel, "behold ye the nose, eye, mouth." Suil is a fem. i-stem : 
its etymology is obscure to me. 426. Lethcaech (leg. lethchaech, gl. monoculus, " blind 
of an eye") ; here, if caech be not a foreign-word (Com. cuio, gl. luscus), we have a 
trace in Irish of aksha, oculus, auge, eye, &c., for caech is = Lat. caecu-s = ca-icus, 
Skr. ka-aksha (Pott, E. F. i. 126, Benfey, Zeits. ii. 222). But I suspect caech is taken 
from the Lat., as Skr. ksh would have become s in Ir., as in Gr. cf akshi with oaae, 
oaaoftai. 427. Ball (gl. caecus), r. supra, No. 249, and cf. the adj. daUbronach (blind, 


' Is not Villoneos the gen. sing, of Villoneus, governed by a mapoa (filius), understood? Compare 
Correos, Abareus. EiOROu in the other Gaulish inscriptions seems always ievbv (ieuru). See De 
Belloguet, Ethnogenie gauloisc, p. 197, as. 


74 -4 Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

sad), of which the gen. sing. m. occurs in the Book of Armagh, ii a. i, as a man's 
name : super fossam dall\>vom%. 428. Mil (leg. mil) m6r, JRuainmech duhair, gl. 
cetus (if I read the two last Irish words aright) are names for a whale, mil mor, 
" great beast," ruainmech dubair, i. e. r. of the water; ru-ainmech, great-animal? ru 
being an intensive prefix (= Skr. pra), and ainmech being probably, like ainmidhi, gL 
animal, infra ; anim, Lat. animal, &c., a deriv. from the root an, to breathe. I have 
only once found ainmech, viz., in a poem attributed to Eumann (Bibl. BodL Laud, 
610, fo. 10) : — 

Rola curu' in gaeth ganmech The sandfal wind sent circles 

Im inber na da ainmech. Boond the estuaiy of the two ainmech). 

Perhaps, indeed, the reading of the MS., ruaimnech duhain, " the hair-line of a fish- 
hook," may be correct. Ruaim is " the long hair of a horse's or cow's taU," O'D. ; 
" cetus," would, accordingly, stand for seta. 

429-439. Mac dilechta (gl. orbus, orphan, properly " bereaved"), "son of nulkless- 
ness," according to C, sed qu. Gael, dilleachdan. 430. Mint'suilech (gl. luscus, here 
" purblind"), leg. mintsuilech, is O'R.'s mionsuUech, " weak-eyed" (the t in min-t 
has yet to be explained). Min = W- mwyn, main, Bret, moan, Gr. /lavos, Gliick, 
K. N. 99. 43 1 . MaeMuilech (gl. lippus, blear-eyed, which is fliuchdcro in Z.), maeth, 
gl. tener, infra, W-mwyi. 432. Abhcoide, taken bora advocatuB. Note the bh = dv, 
as in aibhersoir, v. infra, = adversarius, and cf. the Lat. beUum, bis = dvellum, dvis. 
433. Bligldinech (gl. juridicus), the guttural assibilated in the sister form dlistinach 
(gl. legitimus), infra, from the root dug (dligim, debeo, Z. 431, Goth, dulg, v. mpra, 
Kg. 87). 434. Fer c&isi do chonghail (gL causidicus), " a man to maintain causes;" 
cuisi ace. pi. of cuis, from causa, with change of decl., ace. sing, cois, Z. 443. With 
congbail = con-gab-ail, cf. O'R.'s cungbhailim, 0. Ir. congaibther, Z. 842 ; congbhalas, 
"stay, help, support," O'E. 435. Manach (Com. manach) — 437. Cananach, and — 
438. Discihul (W. dysgybl. Com. discibel), respectively from monachus, canonicus, 
disoipulus. 439. Duine leg (gl. homunculus, ad v. homo parvus), leg, in Z. becc, bee ; 
gl. paulmn, Z. 281, be[c]ca, gl. modicas, Book of Armagh, 183, a, 2, is the "W. bach, 
cc always becoming ch in Welsh. 

440-444. Sgian (gl. cnipulus, gl. cuteUus), a knife, dagger, gen. sgine, infra ; 0. 
Ir. Bcian, gen. seine; W. ysgien fem. ("a sUcer, cymetar"), a fem. a-stem ; cf. W. 
ysgiaw, Bret skeja, to cut. Note, that ia here does not stand for an original e (if it 


' Cum (gl. gyros, Z. 1072) = Lat. curves. 

A Medieval Tract on Latin Declension. ye 

did, the "Welsh would have been ysgwyn, and the Irish gen. sing, sceine). Perhaps 
the original base was skidyana, from which first d and then y may have fallen. If so, 
we might compare scindo, scidi, ffX't*". Skr. chhid, &c. 442. Crubh etch (gl. ungulus), 
"a horse's hoof;" eich, gen. of ech. 443. Tairnge, "a nail, pin, peg," O'E. 444. 
BraigdecJi (gl. camus, horse-collar, hame) ; 0. Ir. braigtech, from brage, gen. bragat, 
neck, throat, = "VV. breuant, an ant-stem, supra, No. 292. 

445-456. Paisti brdg (gl. baietus), a patch on a shoe; paisti (leg. paiste?) is, 
perhaps, taken from Eng. patch ; brog, fern, according to O'E., 0. Ir. broco ; of. the 
Gaulish bracca. 446. Scolb tige (gl. tegulus) ; scolb is a wattle (" sooUop"), pointed 
at both ends, used to bind down straw-thatch. Tige, gen. of teg (house), a neut. 
i-stem = tagi; cf. tegere, et v. infra, No. 446. 449. Airchinnech (gl. archidiaconus), prin- 
ceps in Z., has been before noticed : dat. sing, naueirchinniuoh (gl. nauiolero), Book of 
Armagh, 188, h. 2. 450. Teachtaire (gl. legatus), messenger, envoy, 0. Ir. techtaire, 
tectaire, a personal noun, from techt, tect (venire), cf Zend, tac (ire), Lith. teku 
(curro), "W. taith (journey), the Gaulish tribe-name, Tectosages, 0. Ir. man's name, 
Techtmar. Techtaire is wrongly explained dispensator, gubemator in Z. 743, 888, 
though one would have thought the gloss in Z. 888 was decisive as to the word's 
not meaning g-ubernator : is he in tecttaire maith condaig indocbaU dia thigemi, " he 
is the good tectaire (ambassador), who obtains glory for his lord." At p. 78 Z. pro- 
bably mis-read tecttaire, gl. dispensator, for recttaire, which word is better spelt 
rectaire (6nd rectairiu, gl. a viUico, Z. 743), and rcctire (gl. praepositus, Z. 245). 
451. Beganach — 452. Prelait — 454. Dechdin — 455. Suhdechdin—4.^6. Aclaidhe — 
458. Pupul — 460. Aingel — 462. Arcaingel, aU from the Latin, Note, however, in 
pupul (Com. pepel) the assimilation of the o of populus to the succeeding u, and note 
also that the stem of aingel, a masc. a-stem (Com. ail) seems in 0. Ir. to be extended 
in the ace. pL, which is always aingl-i-u, not angelu, anglu. Cf. lagn-i-u (Leinster- 
men), Z. 944 : coim-e-a (coronas), a fem. a-stem : Boiud-e-o, gen. sing, of Boiud (Bo- 
vinda, Boyne), Book of Armagh, 16 a, 2, 16 4, i : ins-e-o, gen. sing, of inis (island), 
ibid. 18 a, I : ailichth-i-u, gl. alternationes, Z. 256, an u-stem : cairt-e-a, friends, and 
naimt-e-a, haters, enemies, both ant-stems in the ace. pi. 

4S7-4<54- Cm-aidh, a choir, is, like W. cor, from chor-us, or x<'/'-°'*, but with an 
Ir. termination. 459. Van (lamb), W. oen. Com. oin, Bret, oan, a masc. a-stem, 
whence uainin, infra, has certainly lost a g, v. supra. 461. Cloideam (sword), W. 
cleddyf, in 0. Ir. claideb, Z. 442. 469. Puainde (leg. raainne ?), a single hair^ 
foiltin, a dimin., and— 464. Foiltnin, a double dimin. of folt, hair, as to which v. su- 
pra. No. 77. 

L 2 465-479. MMdime, 

'jS A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

465-479. Merlaime, a finger (lit. digitus manus, as toe is — 466. Mer choise, digi- 
tus pedis), mer (digitus), ace. dual ; imber in da mer (infer duos digitos), Z. 926 ; abl. 
pi. in e meraib (in digitis ejus), Z. 347. Mer seems to have lost a letter (t ?) before r; 
cf. W. motrwy, a finger-ring ; coise, gen. sing, of cos, a fern, a-stem = Lat. coxa. 
467. Salm — 468. Fersan — 470. Toin — 471. Lethtoin — 472. Ditoin — 474. Punc — 
475. Cercall, all taken from the corresponding Lat. words : fersan, with the addition 
of the Ir. dimin. sufiix an. 469. Foghur, gen. foguir (sonus, pronuntiatio), frequently 
in Z., see pp. 964, 965 ; root gab, whence gair (vox), gairim (voco), &c., Skr. gir 
(vox). 473. Macam gente, a child begotten; gente, part. perf. pass, of geinim, root 
GAN, as to which t\ supra, No. 291. 476. Mlir, W. mur = miirus, is probably taken 
from the Lat. " Mur," says C. (Cath Maighe Lena, 78, note '), " means simply a cir- 
cular' wall, bank, or mound of earth ; but it does not imply a dwelling, except for the 
dead." It sometimes meant a mound only, as in the passage to which the note is ap- 
pended. 477. Biadh (gl. cibus) ; biad = bivata, /S/Foto-j, in 0. Ir. is neuter, like the 
Skr. jivita (Lat. vita = vivita is fem.) ; cf. arbiathim, gl. lacto, gl. nutrio, Z. 431, gen. 
sing, in 0. Ir. biith (Z. 250) = bivati, in Mod. Ir. lidh = "W. bwyt, Com. buit. 478. 
Gaillmias (gl. discus), i. e. gall + mias ; gall, foreigner (v. Galldach, supra), mias 
= mensa, 0. "W. muis, Z. 137. 479. Copan (gl. cupus), a deriv. from Eng. cup? 

480-493. Cep (gl. cepus) I can hardly explain, unless as = Lat. cippus : eeap occurs 
in O'R., with many meanings, of none of which, save two, do I feel certain (ccap is a 
shoemaker's last, and isna ceapaibh is certainly " in the stocks"). Cf. icip, gl. in ligno 
(Book of Armagh, 181, h. 2 ; Acts, xvi. 24). 481. Lebaid (gl. lectus, a bed), 0. Ir. 
lepaid : the abl. sing, occurs in the Leabhar Breacc (pref. to Seoundinus' Hj-mn, Lib. 
Hymn, ed. Todd, p. 28): batar in oen lepaid, "they were in the same bed," and the 
gen. sing, at the beginning of the Tain 16 cuailgne : Feet noen do ailell I do meidb 
iam dergud a rigleptha doib i cruachan raith chonrach arrecaim comrad chindcher- 
caille cturru, " once upon a time, after Ailill and Mcdv had spread their royal couch 
in C. R. C, a pillow-conversation took place between them." 482. Otrach (gl. fimus, 
dung), O'E., also a dunghill, Gael, dtrach. 483. Tore (gl. porous), v. supra. 484. 
Sgaignen (gl. vannus, a winnowing-van), also a cuUendcr, according to O'D. ; in O'R. 
ggaighnean. 485. death (tignum, a log, beam) is explained "a rib, rod, stake," by 
O'R. 486. Gomalta (gl. collactaneus — b|A,o-fa\aK^-o^ — a foster-brother), com-al-ta, in- 
volves the root al nourish (Lat. al-o), -ta, perhaps for -tava. Comalta occurs in the 
ScirgUge Conculainn: fobith ba haite do Fergus ecus ba comalta ConaU Cemach, 

" because 
' Cf. Skr. r. mur, circumdare, vestire ; Bopp. 

A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 77 

"because F. was his foster-father, and C. C. was his foster-brother," Atlantis, ii. 372. 
488. Curach (gl. phaselus, " a kidney-bean-shaped vessel, made (sometimes) of wicker- 
work," which answers tolerably well to the Irish curragh, "W". cwrwg-1, whence Eng. 
corac-le. 489. Sace (gl. forulus), W. sach = Lat. saccus, Gr. auKKo^, Goth, sakkus, 
Eng. sack (sacc is incorrectly spelt sac in O'R.). 490. Matal = Lat. mantelum ? 
whence it is probably derived, the n being lost before t, as in set, a road, "W. hint, 
Goth, sinths, Eng. send, etar (between), Lat. inter, Skr. antar, and in the termination 
of the third pcrs. plur. pres. and fut. active of verbs (-at [= Lat. ant], -et, -it: -fet, 
-fit = Lat -bunt). W. mantell (pi. mentyll, Z. 787) = Lat. mantellum. 491. Bla- 
thmar is "flowery" (W. blodeuog), not "floweret" (flosculus), from blath, flower = 
"W. blawd. Com. blez, Lat. flos, N. H. G. bliite. 492. Uainm (gl. agnellus), dimin. 
of uan = agnus. 493. Oircn'm (gL porcellus), double dimin. of ore = porous, "W. porch, 
with loss of initial^. 

494-5 14. Serrach no gercach (gl. pullus, " a foal or a chicken") ; gercach, " an un- 
fledged bird," " a squalling child," C. 495. Cuaille (gl. palus, W. pawl), a pole, stake. 
496. Bisk (gl. talus), a die, W. dis. 498. Cuilen (gL catulus, whelp), leg. cuilenn ? 
(cuilennioctf, gl. cynyps, Z. 740), W. colwyn, Corn. gl. coloin, Bret, kolen, compare Eng. 
whelp. 499. Cat (murilegus, cat, lit. mouse-catcher), for catt, W. cath. Com. kat, Bret, 
kaz, amasc. a-stem; cf. Med. Lat. cattus, catta. 500. Cealg, v. supra, No. 326. 501. 
Mil edaigh (gl. pediculus, louse), lit. beast of the clothes; edaigh = 0. Ir. etaig (eetig, 
Z. 857), gen. of etach, aneut. a-stem. 50Z. Dorndn huana (gl. manipulus, smaU. hand- 
ful of hay), dom, "W. dwm, a flst : buain, gen. buana, " s. f. cutting, reaping, shearing," 
O'E. 506. Coileach (gl. gaUus) = W. ceiliawg. Corn, chelioc. 508. Prechdn (gl. mUgus, 
i. 6. milvus), a kite ; cf. Gr. Kt'pKo^ ? note in the Lat. g for v, as in ugula (supra) for 
uvula. 508. Cerd (gl. figulus), v. supra. (In the MS. the letters eg are just visible 
before cerd, but the scribe has evidently tried to eflace them.) 509. Ula (swan), O'R. 
eala : W. alarch, pL eleirch, Lat. olor. But who can account for ela ? Can it have 
lost a g before the liquid? cf. "A^Xu, 6 kvkvo^ hiro 'S,kv9£)v, Hesych. 510. Coilech 
gaitlie (W. ceiliog gwynt), i. e. gallus venti, weathercock? jii. Teallaoh (gl. focus, 
fire-place, hearth), perhaps for tenlach, tened-lach. 512. Oinmid {gl. sotus), an oaf, 
W. jmfyd. The -mid = 0. Ir. mit = manti, and probably involves the root man. 
513. Geocach (gl. mimus), apparently from jocu-s (sed cf. N. H. G. geek), now "a 
strolling player." 514. Sboran, "a purse," O'E. sporan, W. ysbur. 

515-533. Sgingidoir (log. sgia^doii? gL peUicarius, " a furrier"), is, according 
to C, a "paoksaddle maker;" cf. W. ysgin (fur) = Eng, skin, scing, O'E,, "part of 
the trappings of a horse." 516. Inadh, a place, 0. Ir. inad, frequent in Lib. Hj-mn. 

517. Oibhirseoir 

78 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

5 1 7. Oihhirseoir = adversarius. 518. Cluithe (gl. jocus), also cluiclie, game, sport, an 
ia-stem. The dat sing, occurs in the Trip. Life of Patrick : Fecht aili do patricc ic 
cluithiu iter a comaistiu (.i. a comaltud), " at another time P. was playing amongst his 
coevals" (i. e. hisfoster-hrothers-and-sisters). With cluiche cf. cluichech (gl. ludibun- 
dus), Z. 778. 519, 520. Iffearn, iiFem = infcmum, W. uffem. Com. iffam, gen. sing, 
of iffem, viz. iffimn in Z. 5 1 . 522. Locanus (Lucanus), here identified with the Irish 
man's-name, Lochan; see O'D., Four Masters, A. D. 606. 533. Fergal is connected 
with ferg (anger), fairgo (sea), Oheprfiovio's {joKeavo'i) PtoL " The proper meaning of 
the word [ferg] is," says Gliick (K. N. 131), "motio, agitatio (compare Gr. Sprfov for 
Fepr^ov, oprjy for Fopfr), from the root varg. Germ, werk)." Cf. Zend verez (agere). 
If Fergal be the W. Gwral-deg and = a Gaulish Virogalos, the elements are fer "man" 
(Skr. vara), and the root gal, as to which see Z., 993 n. 

534-548. Of the rest of the proper names note doctor, glossing Ovidius. Hence 
there would seem to have been some Irish word resembling this name, and correspond- 
ing with "W. ofydd, with which, however, Z. 3, would connect the Irish ogham. 
540. Diarmaid seems = Derbomantis. 541. Lochlann is curiously like the old name for 
Scandinavia, Lochland, of which the dat. sing, occurs in one of the S. GaU quatrains 
above quoted. 542. Murchad, leg. muirchad, gen. muirchatho, Z. xxxii. = moricatus, 
a masc. u-stem. 543. jEogan is from evr^evyn. 545. Concuiar, leg. Conchubar, the 
Anglo-Irish Connor ; cf. Conchubumensium (Book of Armagh, 9 a, 2), Conchobor, 
Z. 1 133, Gliick, 66, where note the aspiration of c. Does Con- stand for Cono- (cf. 
Cono-maglus, Cunobelinus), or is c aspirated in the combination nc, as in sancht (Bro- 
gan's Hymn, 1. 23) = sancta; conchoimnucuir (efflcit), Z. 853 ; conchechrat (amabunt), 
Z. 495 ; and perhaps tenchor (gl. forceps), Z. 84? 546. Mae na hoidhche means "son of 
the night;" oidche, 0. Ir. aidche, a fem. ia-stem, Z. 257; aidchide, "nocturnal," 
Leab. Breacc, cited Lib. Hymn. ed. Todd, 27. In the h prefixed to oidche here, and 
to oiglie, infra, No. 576, Bopp would see a reUc of the s which terminated the fem. 
article in the gen. sing. 547. Uaitlme is placed opposite orpeus, i. e. Orpheus, because 
Uaithne is said to have been the inventor of music, under the singular circumstances 
described in a legend, which C. teUs me is preserved in the Book of Leinster. 548. 
Tadhg (the " Teaguo" of English writers) is said to mean " poet." 

550-554. Dedir (gl. diphthongus), in Z. deoger = defogor (gair, sonus), the ^ being 
dropt between vowels, as is the rule in Welsh, and as sometimes occurs in Irish. 
551. Senadh naom ("holy synod"), cf. W. senedd. Com. sened, from synodus. 552. 
Cloeh crisdail, " stone of crystal." 553. Parrtus, leg. partus from paradisus, W. para- 
dwys, the medial d being provected, as sometimes happens in foreign words : cf. aip- 


A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 79 

gitir = abecedaiium. Perhaps, however, the t may be owing to the practice pursuant 
to -which h, d, g are written respectively^, t, c, when preceded by either I or r : see Z. 
70, 71. 554. Dair (gl. quercus, oak-tree), gen. darach = daracas, a c-stem; cf. daur, 
gL quercus, Z. 8 ; dairde, daurde, gl. quemus, Z. 764 ; daurauch, gl. quercetum, Z. 
779, deruce, gl. glans: W. derw-en. Cf. ipvi, Sopv, Goth, triu, A. S. treov, tryv, Eng. 
tree, Skr. dilru (timber), Aapovepvov (Britanniaj oppidum), Z. 8. 

555-566. Aball, 0. "W. abaU-en, Corn. auaU-en = apple, apfel, Aballum, &c. 
Ubull quasi abull ; aball, imorro, o burgg Etale dianid ainm Abellum .i. is ass tucad 
sil nan abailprius (Cormac's Glossary, Book of Leinster), "Aball, now, from a to^vn of 
Italy called AbeUum, i. e. it is thence that the seed of the apples was brought formerly." 
556. Coll (W. coU-en, Com. col-viden, Bret kel-vezen) = coslas = hasel, corylus, 
whence KopvXo^. Z. 1 1 1 8 compares the name Coslum, hod. Kusel, and the Slav, 
sheol, virga, baculus, " primitus columns ?" whence, he says, the names of places 
Schesla and Scheslitz. The adj. coUde, gl. colurnus, in Z. 81. 557. Fuindseog (gl. 
fraxinus, ash-trce), leg. fainnscog ? and cf. 0. Ir. huuinius (gl. fraxiniis, Z. 751), 
uinsenn (Irish Nennius, 116); and, perhaps, Lat. omus for osnus : Corn, onnen, 
Bret, ounn-en. 558. Fernog (gl. alnus, alder), "W. and Bret, gwemen, £, Com. guemen, 
"gall. vet. vem [vema] in nomine fluvii Vemodubrum ;" cf. Vernosole (Gliick, 35, 
125). 559. Broighin (gl. prunus, blackthorn, sloe-tree), leg. draigJien; draigen is 
used to gloss pirus inZ. 738 ; cf. W. draen, pi. drain, sed vide Z. 139 n. 560. Beithe 
(gl. buxus, box-tree), bethe, gl. buxus, Z. 728, apparently = W. bedw, birch, Lat. 
betula. The word occurs in a note on Christ's cross (Lib. Hymn. 7 h. in marg.) : cedir a 
cos -| cupris a tenga -[ gius in geind doratad trethe i hethe in clar in roscribad in titul, 
i. e. " Cedar its shaft, and cypress its tongue [the upper segment], and deal the piece (?) 
that was put across it, and box the board whereon was written the title." 561. Ihliar 
(yew), ibar in Conn. Another Irish word for yew, eo, is the "W. yw, Com. hiuin, Bret, 
ivinon, 0. H. G. iwa, N. H. G. eiben-baum, Fr. if, Sp. and Port. iva. 562. Fichalhall 
(as I read for the senseless fidhabhall, wood-apple), a fig-tree, from ficus and aball 
(malus). No. 555; cf. Com. ficbren, gl. ficus, Z. in8. 563. Crand gius (pine-tree). 
564. Crand lau'ir, laurel-tree (leg. crandgius, crandlauir), with gius, perhaps cf. hi, gl. 
pix, Z. 25, 764. 565. Fraech (gl. brucus, heather), O'R.'s/raoe/i, nom. pi. neut. inna 
daercas /r<5jcA, gl. vaccinia, i. e. rubrae ericae, Z. 890, which Z. calls a solitary example 
of the occurrence of flexion in an adjective preceding a substantive. Cf. however, 
doadbadar sunt ata n«7j dana in spirto et as noindae in spirut (Z. 360), " here is shown 
that there are many gifts of the Spirit, and that the Spirit is single." "With fraech cf. 
"W. grug. 566. Grand taucor (gL comus, comcl-cheny, dogwood-tree), " dogbriar," C. 

567-568. Cuigel 

8o A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

567-568. Cuigel (gl. colus, distaff) = W. cogail, Com. kigel, Bret, kigel, kegel = 
0. H. G. cuncla, N. H. G. kunkel, all, like Fr. quenouille, It. conoocMa, from Med. Lat. 
conuciila, for colucula, from colus. 568. Fersaid (gl. fusus, spindle) of. "W". gwerthyd, 
Corn, gurhthit, Bret, gwerzid, and Lat. vert-o, verticillus, versatilis, Med. Lat. vert«- 
brum, verteolus, "Et colus et fusi digitis cecidere !" 

569-575. Teach, tech in Z. 73, house (cf. coitchen communis = con-tech-en ? Z. 73 ; 
tec-nate, gL domesticus, Z. 769; cum-tach, aedificatio, Z. 843; daltoch (gl. forum), 
Book of Armagh, 189 h. 2), apparently a sister form of teg, Z. 73 (gen. ind idul- 
taigm, gL fani, Z. 822 ; dat. i taig rig, gl. in prsetorio, Z. 280), which last is W. ty, 
pi. tai. Com. and Bret, ti, T6705, thatch (Skr. r. sthag?). 570. Bean do hrathar, "thy 
brother's wife;" bean do meic, gl. nurus, "thy son's wife;" as to lean v. infra, No. 
1053. Brathar, leg. brathar, gen. of brathair, a stem in tar, declined like athair, su- 
pra, No. 1 3 ; and = Skr. bhratr, Goth, brothar, Lat. frater, Gr. (ftpr/Typ, aSe\(^6<t, 
Hesych. ; do — 0. Ir. du, do — the possess, pron. of 2 pers. sing. ; W. dy, Bret, da, = 
Skr. tava, the original t having been wom down to a medial in this frequently used 
word. The d of this pronoun, however, becomes t when the vowel is elided. Cf. 
tesergc, "thy resurrection," Book of Armagh, 18 5, i ; conicim tanacul, "I am able to 
save thee," ibid., 186 a. Note that no word corresponding to Skr. snusha, Gr. vi/o's, 
Lat. nurus, Goth, snur, has yet been found in Celtic. Skr. 9va9ru, Gr. cKvpa, Lat. so- 
crus, Goth, svaihro (mother-in-law), are represented by the W. chwegr, but no such 
Irish word can be quoted. It would, however, be rash to draw conclusions from cir- 
cumstances like this, tiU we make more progress in collecting our ancient words and 
names, of which, perhaps, scarce one-third is accessible to the philologer. 572. Cugan, 
gl. penus, Z. 80, cucan, gl. penus. 573. Leg loghmar (read loghmar), a precious stone 
= 0. Ir. liacc logmar, liacc = "W. Uech, a flag, a flat stone. Liacc is a fern, a-stem : 
is[ed] bess didu ind liacc : berir ilbeim fiiss et inti dothuit fair conboing a chnami ; 
inti for a tuit som, imorro, atbail side : " It is this, now, that the stone is: many a 
blow is given to it, and he that falls on it breaks his bones ; but he on whom it falls 
he perishes," Z. 609 : gen. in aecclesia magna wcAlicce, Book of Armagh, 9 i, 2 : dat. 
for leicc luim, Fiacc, 16, "on a bare stone." 574. Long luath (gl. carbassus), "a 
swift ship ;" long, gen. luinge (W. Uong, fem., whence Uynghes, a fleet), a fem. 
a-stem : is long from the Lat. navis longa, or may we refer it to the Skr. root langh 
(salire, ire)? The ace. sing. Icing glosses vas in the Book of Armagh, 177 h, 1 ; 
cai-basus, " eyn schiff das kejni bodem hat." — Dief Med. Lat. Diet. 575. Fairge {sea), 
V. supra. No. 328, a fem. ia-stem, 0. Ir. fairgge, Z, 928 ; fairggae, foirggae, Z. 1 125. 

576-579. Brti, na hoighe (gl. aulus), "the virgin's womb," leg. brv, na hiighe (gl. 


A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension, 8 1 

alvus). 577. Sroll (gl. byssus, pvaao^) is spelt srol, and explained " silk, satin, gauze, 
crape," by O'E., but byssus is a yeUo-wish linen. With — 578. Uir (gl. humus, the 
ground), Pictet compares evpv^, Skr. uru (large), fern, utti (earth); gen. tiire, Conn. 
V. Gaire ; Conn. v. Mur, glosses ur by talam : so also sub v. Ur, TJr. treide fordingair, 
ur chetamus .i. talam, -\ ur cech nuae amaU asmberar imb ilr ; ur dana each nolo, inde 
dicitur isna br. n. [brethib nemed] Ian dosiathach each nur .i. cech hole. " Ur : 
three things it means ; ur, in the first place, i. e. the earth ; and lir, everything new, 
as is said, imh iir [fresh butter] : ur, then, is everything bad. Hence is said in the 
Bretha nemed, "fuUy dosiathach (?) is everything ur, i. e. everything bad.' " Adj. hurde, 
"ad humum pertinens," Z. 764. 579. Paiper, of course from papyrus, irairvpo^. 

580-587. Dorus lis, "door of a less," now spelt lios, an a-stem, cf. Lissus : " a Dun, 
pronounced Doon [dun, cf. Eng. town] is an elevated, circular, enclosing wall or bank, 
within which a dweUing-house was erected. A Dun required to be surrounded by a wet 
fosse or trench [a moat] to distinguish it from the Rath which had not a trench . . . 
Lios was another name for the Dun, but that it often contained within it more than 
one dwelling-house." (C. Cath 3Iaighe Lena, 78, 79.) Cf. "W. llys, a court, hall. 
The dat. sing, of less occurs in the Book of Armagh, 1 7 J, i : Dirrogel . . . ochter 
nachid con a seilb it[ar] fid t mag -\ lenu con Mrns -\ allubgort; also in Patrick's 
Hymn : Crist il lius, Crist is sius, Crist in cms, " Christ in the court, Christ in 
the chariot-seat, Christ in the poop," i. e. Christ be with us whUe at home, or 
travelling by land or sea ; the gen. pi. occurs in loig-?«s«, before cited : in Gaelic, 
lios, gen. Use, is fern., and means " a garden." 582. Feorus (gl. acirus), feoras is ex- 
plained "the spindle-tree, prick- wood," by O'll. (on whom, of course, no reliance can 
be placed), which reminds one of "W". grwysen, gooseberry. Should we read acinus 
for acirus, or is it for acerus, galingale, sweet flag ? 583. Buachaill 16, ad v. bubul- 
cus bovum ; buachaill (gen. muine luachaille, Book of Armagh, 1 7 J, i ) is boehaill 
in Z. 28, 67 ; cf. "W. bugail. Com. bugel, gl. pastor. 584. Buachaill mucc (swineherd) 
is lit. bubulcus porcomm ; buachaill, like bubulcus and /SofKo'Xos, merging its special 
meaning of cowherd in that of herdsman ; cf. IvTro^ovKoXos, horseherd, and see Max 
MiiUer, Oxford Assays, 1856, p. 17. 585. Miiine (gl. rubus, bramble-bush) occurs, as 
wc have seen, in Fiacc, 24, and in the Book of Armagh. 586. Airgeach (gl. remulus, 
a small oar), but airgeach is a plunderer, O'E., also an owner of herds (nirbu airgech air 
slebe, Brog. 11; cf. airge, gl. armentum, infra, No. 754), and there is probably some 
mistake here. 587. Dris (gl. tomus, i. e. dumus, bush, bramble); cf. dris-tenach, gl. 
dumetum, Z. 777, driss, gl. vepres, Z. 139, Com. dreis, gl. vepres, Z. 1118, "W. drys- 
sien (frutes), Z. 301. 

M 588-593' As 

82 A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

588-593. As to these ordinals, cid (ced neach, " first anyone") is only found in 
Z.'s glosses in foclietoir, leg. fochetoir, statim, illico, lit. sub prima hora. The length- 
ened form cet-ne is used instead. But we find the adverbs cetu, ciatu, ceta (primum), 
and Corm. has cetamus (imprimis), cet-aidche (first night), Fiaec, 32 ; cetbliadain, 
first year, Z. xxviii. The t is unaspirated, owing to n having been lost before it ; 
this n is found in "W. kentaf, kyntaf, Z. 230 ; Gaulish Cintu-genus, " first-bom," 
= 0. Ir. Cetgen, Book of Armagh, 11 h, 2. Indara neach seems simply the old indala 
nech (the second anyone), the liquid I becoming r, as in imlesen, supra, &c. ; ala = W. 
eil, alter, secundus; ala occutb in Z. 313, with the meaning of "second," in con- 
nexion with the numeral deac, 10 : cethar brottae, 7 ala rann deac brotto (4 moments, 
and the 1 2th (2 + 10) part of a moment) : with the meaning of " one of two :" indala 
flacail, Z. 926. With ala we may, perhaps, connect the prep, al, gl. ultra, Z. 602, which 
occurs with a sufiixed pronoun in Colman's Hymn, 50 : Benodacht for ColumciUe con 
noebaib Alban alia, " blessing on Columcille, with the saints of Scotland besides him." 
Trei, third, 0. Ir. triuss, tris, gen. tres, Z. 316, is not easily explained: can it have 
been a distributive = Zend thrishva ? or an old superlative in -istha ? But how is gen. 
tres to be accounted for? A passing over to the s-declension is possible, but un- 
likely. Cethruma, 0. Ir. cethramad, v. supra, No. 142. The dat. sing. neut. occurs 
in the Book of Armagh, 177 J, 2 : iar cethramad laithiu (gl. a nudus [nudius] quar- 
tana die). Cuigedh, 0. Ir. coiced = 0. W. pimphet, Lat. quiactu-s : Seis-ed = 0. W. 
chuech-et = svecs-a-ta, Lat. sextu-s. 

594-604. Gahdiltech (gl. captus), from gabaU, W. cafael, cavail, Z. 160, capere. 
595. Curracach (gl. cuculatus, i. e. cuckolded?), lit. crested. Home Tooke was not so 
original as he supposed when he wrote, " In English we do not call them cuculi, but 
cuculati (if I may coin a word on this occasion)." 596. Atanach (gl. capuciatus), cf. 
Com. hot, gl. caputium, "W". hotan, hotyn (a cap). 597. Inara^ih — 598. Muincillech — 
599. Fallaingech — 600. Tribhwach, adjectives, and — 601. Coronta, a participle, from 
bases considered supra. 602. Foirmtech (gl. invidus). The subst. format, O'R.'s/wwjarf 
(envy, ex man, like fiijvi^)  ace. s. appears in the pref. to Patrick's hjinn, Lib. HjTnn., 
cited in Petrie's Tara, 32 : bid ditin do ar cech neim ■] format, "it wiU be a protec- 
tion to him against every poison and envy;" cf. W. gorfynt. 603. God (gl. blaesus, 
lisping, speaking indistinctly), " stammering," according to C, who tells me that the 
Danes were caUed by the Irish na Gaill guit ; cf. "W. gyth (a murmur). 604. Bodhar, 
deaf, "W. byddar. Com. bothar, Bret, bouzar, Skr. badhira. (Hence Eng. bother?) 

605-614. Baccach (gl. claudus, limping, halting, lame, W. baohawg, " crooked") 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 83 

occurs in the ace. pi. masc, spelt bacaehu, as a gloss on the word luscu, in the second 
line of the 17th couplet of Ffaco's hymn : — 

Icciud luscu la truscu, mairb dosfiuscad do bethu. 

He used to heal the halt, with the lepers ; the dead be used to raise them to life. 

606. Ordaighe (gl. auratus), 6r, gl. aurum, infra, gen. oir, from the Lat. aurum for 
ausum (Skr. root ush, urere). If the word were Celtic, the « would have been lost 
between the vowels. 607. Airgedach (gL argenteus), from airged, gl. argentum, infra, 
in 0. Ir. argat (gen. arggait, argit. Book of Armagh, 1 7 J, i) = W. ariant, Bret, arc'hant, 
Com. arhanz. Old Keltic Argento-ratum, Argento-magus, &c., Zend erezata, Lat. ar- 
gentum, Osc. arageto, Skr. rajata. 608. larnaighe (leg. I'amaidhe?), gl. ferreus, from 
iarn, for isam (iron), W. haeam, Com. hoem, Z. 120; cf the Gaul. Isamodurum (iron 
door?), iarunn, gL ferrum, infra; the gen. sing, seems to occur in Z. 926, ar friilib h'lairn 
for ihairn = isami, the aspirate being displaced as in the W. and Com. forms) ; cf. Skr. 
ayas, Eng. ore, Goth, eisam (ferreus), from which the Celtic stem Isarno can hardly 
be taken, the deriv. suffix -am being common in Celtic, but rare in Gothic. 609. 
Lmidhsamhail (gl. plumbeus), from luaidho, gl. plumbum, infra (cf Eng. lead, load ?), 
and samhail = samalis = W. hafal, Lat. similis, Gr. 6/1,0X69, &o. 610. Stanamhail (gl. 
stanneus), from stan (sdan, gL stannum, infra). 611. Umamhail (gl. aereus), from 
ume (Jiumae fogrigedar, " aes quod dat vocem, sonat, Z. 445), 0. "W. emed. Mod. W. 
efydd. 612. Fundamintech {g\, fanAaini), from fundamentum. 613. Scithech 6n sligi 
(gl. fessus, " wearied from the way," i. e. journey). 614. Scitheeh 6 ohair (gL lassus, 
"wearied from work"), leg. scitheeh, and compare scith, Z. 26, sciith, Z. 669 : ni 
confil has sciith lim act rop ar Christ, " death is not a burden to me if only it be for 

615-621. Tinnisnech (O'R. tumea,, " speedy, hasty." 617. Nemhtindisnech, 
"unspeedy, unhasty." 616. Sa^flcA (salacious, lustful), perhaps borrowed from salax, 
root sal (sal-io, aWo/tat, for aaXJo/iai). Salach subsequently glosses sordidus, dirty 
= W. halawg, cf halou, gL stercora, Z. 1095 (the man's name Cennsalach, gen. sing. 
Cemnselich, Book of Armagh, 1 8 «, i , comes from oennsal, imperium), and hence 
would seem connected with 0. H. G. salo, not clear, troubled, Fr. sale. 618. Suirgech, 
gl. procus, wooer (in O'K. suireach), perhaps connected with aTop<^j, aTepo{w ; cf. sercc, 
amor, W. serch, with the s preserved {d at the beginning of a word in "Welsh, as a rule, 
loses the t, not the «). 620. Gortach (gl. famelicus, famished, starved), 0. Ir. gorte (fa- 
mine), a fem. ia-stem, Z. 1006 = gardh-ti-a, Skr. r. grdh (avidum esse). 621. Fiar- 
niiilech (if I read the word aright), gl. strabonus, squint-eyed; fiar, crooked = W. 

M 2 gwj^r. 

84 -4 Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

gwyr. Bopp may be right in comparing fiar with Lat. varus, Skr. vakra eurvus, flexu- 
08US. So Gaulish maros seems Gr. fiaKpo^. 

625-629. Tengtach (gl. linguosus), dotengtach (leg. dothengtach ?), gL bilinguosus, 
hypocritical, double-tongued, from tenge (tongue), gen. tengad, v. mpra, which, from 
these adjectives, would seem to have been a t-stem. 626. Bircach (leg. deircach ?), 
charitable, from deirc, alms, desercc (amor), Z. 78. 628. Briathrach (gl. verbosus), 
from briathar (word), a fem. a-stem. 629. Shegach (u^Xwaaoi, elinguis, not glib of 
tongue), not in O'R. 

630-634. Fonamaideach (gl. ridiculosus, facetious, droU), O'R. has fanamhad, ridi- 
cule, and fonamadach, which he translates by " contemptuous;" " making game," is, 
O'D. tells me, the meaning now attributed to the word; cf. Eng./ww? 631. Fail- 
geach (gl. egenus, needy, indigent). 632. Casta (gl. crispus, curled, crisped), fi^m 
casaim. 633, 634. Sldn (gl. sanus) esldn (gl. insanus), have been connected, supra, 
with "W. Uawen. 

635-639. Edmur (gL zelotypus), 0. Ir. etmar [= Gaulish lantumarus, Gliick, 78], 
from ^t zelus, Z. 22, aeet, Z. 343 (forn et fri saibapstalu darmchensa, " vestra 
aemulatio pro me contra pseudoapostolos," Z. 607, Skr. r. yam(niti) ? 636. Bluith 
(gL densus), an adjectival i-stem; glosses denso in Gild. Lorica, Z. seems to have 
mistaken for the adj. dliiith the subst. dliithe, wrongly rendered "apertus" in Z. 30, 
notwithstanding his glosses contain tri beulu dlutai, gl. fixis labris, Z. 1015, dluthe 
in tinf[id] donaib conso[naib], Z. 102 1 ; literally, connexion (coherence) of the 
aspiration to [i. e. with] the consonants (in X; ^> 0)- Dluithe also means a chink : 
huand dluitki seim, gL tenui rima, Z. 261 ; and cf. dluth, gl. stamen (the warp in a 
loom), Z. 30 ; tre chomdluthad, gL per synaeresin, Z. 985, rundluth, gl. densaverat, 
Z. 435. 637. Goirt (gl. acidus), perhaps connected with the verb in " ma gorith loch 
cith in e chuis nu in e laim," which Z. renders (p. 1006) "si dolet locus vel in ejus 
pede vel in ejus manu." 638. Ballach (gl. urbiculatus) is now not "rounded, circu- 
lar," but " freckled," from baU (spot). Cf. W. ball, " eruption, plague." In Z. baU, 
a masc. a-stem, always means membrum, and agrees in form, declension, and gender 
with (paXXo^. 639. Slemain (gl. lubricus, slippery, smooth), an adj. i-stem: a sister- 
form, of the a-declension, is slemon, which occurs in a marginal gloss on the Lib. Hymn, 
copy of the Altus Prositor ; nom. pi. neut. : is airi asbertar etrumma -\ slemna huare 
nad techtat tinfed, Z. 1022 (i. e. therefore are they called light and smooth, because 
they have not aspiration); slemna, gl. levia, Z. 737, slemon = W. llyfn, fem. llefn. 
Cf. N. H. G. schleifen, Eng. slip. 

640-649. Fairsing (gL amplus, spacious, roomy), farsinge, the subst. from this, 
occurs in Lib. Hymn., 5 h, Colman's Hymn, line 43, as a gloss on lethu : — 


A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 85 

Robbem cen es illethu la ainglia inibithbethu. 
May we be without age, in space', with angels in eternal life! 

641. Luathgaireoh (gl. nervosus), generally means "rejoicing," "exulting," from 
luath (swift), and gaire (joy), W. gware (play). Here it seems equivalent to energetic, 
vigorous in expression (quis Aristotele neroosior? Cic). 642. Bealhhdha (gl. formo- 
sus), 0. Ir. delbde, from delb (forma, figura, imago, paradigma), fem. "W. delw, Z. 99, 
and of. doilbthid figulus, Z. 987, indoilbthid, gl. figurate, Z. 984, dolbud (figmentum), 
Z. 768, leads one to tbink the root dai. which is, perhaps, etymologically connected 
with Lat. forma, Skr. r. dhr. 643. Uchtard (gl. strumosus, wenny) rather seems 
" high-breasted," from ucht and ard. 644. Craessach — 645. Fes6gach — 646. Oaeth- 
mar — 648. Milech, all from nouns noticed, supra. 647. Bronnmar, from brii, gen. s. 
bronn, W. bru (womb) : a dimin. from brii occurs in the dat. sing. : his hronnait (gl. 
infra ventriculum), Z. 593. 649. Snethach, leg. snedhach (nitty), "W. neddog, is in- 
teresting, furnishing, as it does, a liint as to what must have been running in the heads 
of the European Aryans at an early period, for sued, Z. 11 26 ("W". nedd-en, Bret, niz) 
is Slav, gnida, Gr. kovi-s, KoviS-ot, N. H. Gr. nisse, Lith. gli(n)da, Lat. le(n)s, le(n)dis. 

650-653. Coisinech (if I read the word rightly) means, I presume, taking short 
steps, going pedetentim, step by step, slowly. 651. Croindtilli is probably a blunder 
for crointsilech, an adj. formed from crontsaile, phlegm, spittle, derived by Corm. from 
grant (grey), and saile = saUva. 652. Gerhach (gl. rugosus, wiinkled, shrivelled) is 
now "scabby." 653. Bocoidech (gl. maculosus, spotted), leg. bocoidech? from bo- 
coid, a spot, O'E. 

654-659. Anmach, from anim, v. supra. 655. Clumar — 656. Michlimar, from 
clu (gl. rumor, Z. 68, also fama), W. clyw ; cf. Slav, slovo (verbum, sermo), slava 
(gloria), Gr. icXe'Fo?, Skr. gravas, rumor. The W. for famosus is clodfawr = clotomaros 
(the 0. H. G. Hlodomar, Gliick, 81); cf with clod, Ir. cloth (fame, praise) = cluta-s, 
Gr. kXvto's, Lat. in-clytus, Eng. 'loud; Ir. cluas (ear) = "W. clust (cf. Eng. 'list). The 
root reduplicates in Celtic. Thus in Irish : rot-che-chlad-ar (hears thee), Z. 496 ; ce- 
chluista .i. nocluinfithea (auditum erit, Brehon Law gloss). And in Welsh : ciglif 
(audivi), Z. 420 = Skr. quqrava. 657. Breallach (gl. spadosus) I cannot explain with 
any certainty; spadosus is, perhaps, a med. Lat. adj., from spado (avabuiv), an impo- 
tent person. 658. Prehach, kicking (preabaim, I kick, O'E.). Is retrocosus for cal- 

eitrosus ? 

' Perhaps we should rather translate " in greatness," "in grandeur;" lethe and fairsinge, like ampli- 
tudo, may well have attained to this secondary signification. 

86 A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

citrosus ? or a barbarous hybrid from retro and the Irish cos (= coxa), leg from knee 
down, foot ? 659. Geal (white), 0. Ir. gel, v. supra. 

660-669. Tegaisge (gl. doctus), teeoisce, gl. doctior, infra : cf. sochoise, gL doci- 
bilem, Z. 832 ; cose (institutio) Z. 53 ; cosscc, ib. 61 ; coscc, ib. 78 : coscitir ind fir et 
doairbertar foreir dae, " the men are taught and brought under the will of God," Z. 
618. I know not if 0. Ir. ecosc (habitus, forma), Z. 832, 235, or "W. dangaws, de- 
monstration; arddangos, to demonstrate, be connected with this word. 661. Maith, 
good, 0. Ir. nom. pL maithi, Z. 883 (an i-stem), W. mad; cf. the GrauHsh name Teuto- 
matus. 662. Olc (bad), n. pi. masc. nilc, uilcc, Z. 252 ; ace. pi. masc. ulcu, Z. 457. 
In the nom. and ace. pi. neut., when followed by sa, this adjective drops its proper 
termination : inna oZc-sa, Z. 354, 676. 663. M6r, 0. Ir. mar, mor (W. mawr), great 
= fiuKpo^ ? (the guttural was lost even in Gaulish ; cf. Virdomarus, Brogi marus [W. 
bro, country], Segomaros [Skr. sahas, strength], lantumarus [Ir. etmar], Nertomarus 
[Ir. nertmar']) ; ctfie^a^, mag-nus, Skr. mah-at, for maghant, Goth. mik-Us, fier/oKov. 
664, Jieg (small), 0. Ir. becc, W. bach, cf. Gaul. " Becco Mocconis fil.," Z. 77. 665. 
Solus, V. supra. 666. Taithnemhach (gl. candidus), from do + aith + nemh ; cf. W. 
ednyf, ednyw (purity, vigour), with which we may, perhaps, connect Adnamatius, Na- 
matius (Gliick, 39), namhain, and Namnetes (Gliick, 140). 667. Sanntaeh (greedy, 
avaricious, covetous) occurs in Z. 78, from sant, with which Z. wrongly compares the 
Gaulish tribe-name Santones, for W. and Bret, chwant (invidia, desiderium) points to 
an Old Celtic svanataka. Cf. Suanetes, Consuanetes (Gliick, 28, 64). 668. Bingbala 
— 669. M'ldingbala (worthy, unworthy), I can in nowise explain, unless, indeed, ding- 
bala be from do-ind-gabal (acceptabUis). 

670-674. Imdha (gl multus), in Z. 75, imde (multus, abundans) = ambitias, imda, 
gl. opulentus, ib. = ambitvas? cf. Ambitui, a Gaulish tribe-name; imbed (gL ops 
copia, Z. 75), aU from the prep, imm, W. amm, Gaulish ambi (circa) = Lat amb, Gr. 
a/1,0/, Skr. abhi, Eng. um (in umstroke = circumference. Fuller), which has often an 
intensive meaning. 671. Glan (purus, mundus, clarus), mod. "VY. glan, with inor- 
ganic lengthening of the vowel (Gliick, 187, justly compares the Keltic river-name 
Glana), act ranglana, gl. siquis emundaverit se, Z. 454, glantar as (eliditur, Z. 985), 
boi ni roglante and, Z. 1060; cf. Eng. clean, N. H. G. klein? 672. Teirc (gl. rarus), 


1 Curiously enough, we find many 0. German names formed with this adj. and identical with Celtic 
appellations, e. g., Hadumar (= a Gaulish Catumaros), W. catmor, Hlodomar (= a Gaulish Clotomaros), 
W. clodfawr, &c., Gliick, 78, 81. So Hincmar = Ex-oincomarus, Sigumar, Segiraerus, hod. Siegmar 
= Segomaros. 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 87 

whence teirco, infra (gL raritudo), thin, scanty. 673. Beg, v. supra. 674. Baingen 
no eruaidh (gl. durus), daingen glosses firmus, infra, edaingen (infirmus), O'R.'s dain- 
gean, "strong, secure, close;" ism divm. daingen, Z. 30, " in the strong fort ;" daing- 
nigim (gl. moenio), Z. ih. Apparently donjon, Eng. dungeon, are Celtic words, 
perhaps cognate with 0. H. G. dwingan, Eng. twinge, tongs, tack (Zwecke) : eruaidh, 
"hard, callous, severe," O'R. 

675-694. Fliuch, moist, wet = W. gwlj'p (= vlicvas ?) ; of. fliuchidhecM (gl. liquor), 
infra, fliuchaide (humidus, Z. 272; fliuchaidatu humiditas, Z. 66; fliuchaigim, gl. 
lippio, Z. 65 ; fliuchderc, gl. Uppus, Z. 65 ; cf. Com. gUbor (moisture) = W. gwlybwr 
[= Lat. liquor], and 0. "W. roguHpias, gl. olivavit, Z. 420. If fliuch, gwlyp, be, as 
conjectured, from vlicvas, we may be correct in comparing the word with Lat. 
lippus for vlippus (where pp may have sprung from kv, as in 'iinro%, from ahoa, 
Skr. aqva), 0. SIov. vlugiikii, humidus. 676. Doehenilach, low-bom, ignoble; cenel 
genus, gen. ceneiuil = 0. W. cenitol, Z. 172. The dat. sing, of cenel occurs in 
the following passage in the Book of Armagh, 17 a, 2, now for the first time cor- 
rectly printed : Conggab patricc iamaid puirt indruimm daro .i. druim lias, Eacab 
patricc adaltae .n. and benignus aainm 1 fuitinse xuii. anni's. Gabais caille lapatricc 
lassar ingen anfohnithe dicheniul caichain. Baiade and taresi .m. benigni trifichtea 
bUadne, " Patrick afterwards abode at a place [or house — observe the locative oi porf] 
in Druimm Daro, i. e. Druimm Lias. Patrick left his pupil there. Benignus was his 
name, and he was thereia for 1 7 years. Lassar, a daughter of Anfolmid (?), of the race 
of Caichan, took the veil from Patrick [lit. cepit velum apud Patricium]. Three scores 
of years was she there after Benignus." 677. Fada (long), 0. Ir. fota, Z. 942 ; fote, 
Z. 966, n. pi. bithfotai, semper longi, Z. 824. The subst. is fot, Z. 230, gen. fuit, Z. 
66. 678. Cumair (short, brief), 0. Ir. cumbair, whence cumbre (brevitas) ar chumbri, 
Z. 1074; cf. "W. byr, Lat. brevis. 681. Firenach — 682. ^m/tre'wffcA (just, unjust) ; 
cf. firian (verax, Justus), Z. 115, &c. ; gen. pi. hignimaib i&c firean (Patrick's hymn), 
firianugud (justice, justification), Z. 53, 346; firianigedar (justifies), Z. 445. Cf. 
W. gwirion, from gwir-iawn : iaien is "equity," "just," "meet;" cf. 0. Ir. an 
(" wealth," nom. pi. and gen. pi. ane, dat. pi. anib, ace pi. anu, Z. 934, a masc. 
u-stem), with which Dr. Siegfried is inclined to connect the Zend yana (see Haug, 
Die Odthd's, p. 42). 683. Bren (gl. fetidus), brenaim (puteo), brentu (foetor), Z. 
1085; cf W. braen (rotten), braenu (to moulder); perhaps connected with braigim 
pedo, Z. 43 1, the g being lost before n, as in the instances quoted supra. 684. Salach 
(gl. sordidus), ». No. 616. 688. Tempoll, irova. tew^hiva., as — 689. Taiherne, horn ta.- 
bema, and — 69 1 . Eeilic (gl. simitherium, a cemetery), from reliquiae (observe the hard 

88 A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

e = qv, as in mac), gen. sing, timchell na relgi, " round the cemetery" (Leab. Breaec. 
cited Lib. Hymn. ed. Todd, 31). 693. Adhlucaih (gl. sepulchram), Adhlacad (gl. mo- 
numentum), infra, No. 759, are etymologically obscure to me. Can they be a cor- 
ruption of adnacul (sepulcrum), Z. 731 (i slebti adranact cremthann, " C. was buried 
in Sletty," Book of Armagh, 17 i)? with which, perhaps, vIkv!, Zend, naqu, Skr. r. 
naq, " to die," Lat. nex, nox, Ir. nocht, may be connected. 694. Edail (gl. lu- 
crum), O'R. eadail, leg. eadail, "W. ennill (masc.) = antalli ? (gain, profit, acquired 
wealth). GaeL eudail, "treasure," cattle, feudaU, "cattle," "herds," (with inorganic 
prefixing of/?). 

695-699. Mithail (gl. miraculum, wonder), an i-stem, ace. pi. dogni in noemog-sa 
na mirluli mora (this holy virgin performed the great miracles), Leabhar Breaec, cited 
by Dr. Todd, Lib. Hymn. 65. This word is taken from mirabile. 696. Bachlog (gl. 
raonaculum, i. e. monaculus ?) ; should we read bachlog, and is this a playful dimin. 
from bachal = baculus, crozier ? Or is this word connected in meaning with bachlach 
(famulus), supra? and is monaculum a contemptuous word for servant, slave, a mean- 
ing often attributed to manach (monachus) in Irish, as will be seen from a note on 
S. Hilary's hymn in Dr. Todd's ed. of Lib. Hymn. 699. Diner (gl. jentaeuhim), from 
the English dinner. 

700-708. Criathar (gl. cribrum, sieve) = cretara. Com. croider, Bret, krouezer : 
glosses cerebrum in Z. 22 (the scribe having obviously mistaken cerebrum for cribrum) : 
Skr. root krl, to pour out. C£ Kptfaipa, Benfey, G. W. ii. 171. 701. Muilind (gl. 
molendinum), Muileand (gl. pistrinum), infra, No. 711, mulenn (gl. pistrinum), Z. 740, 
is probably, like W. Com. and Bret. meUn, from the Latin molendinum (molo) ; cf. 
muilneoir, a miller, O'D., Gr. xxxiv. Though the word for mill may be a foreign 
word, the root is certainly in Celtic : cf. Ir. meiUm (I grind), "W. malu (to grind) ; and 
cf. fiv\i), 0. H. G. muli, Litli. malunas, Eng. mill. 702. Garrga (gl. atrium, hall), 
said to be " court- yard," "enclosure" (but read garga, and cf Skr. grha, house?). 
703, Tiradh (gl. torritorium, if this be what our careless copyist had before him), leg. 
ti'radh (kiln-drying), for tirsadh? tirme (ariditas), ti'rim (aridus), both in Z. 1070, gl. 
15, ho tirmai .i. co na bi tirim (from dryness, i. e. that it be not dry), tir (terra), all 
from Skr. r. trsh (tars), to thirst, " urspriinglich oflfenbar trocknen, vgl. gr. Tepa-o- 
fuu. Das goth. thaursja ich trockne, euphonisch fiir thursja (und dieses fiir tharsja) 
stiitzt sich wie das lat. torreo (aus torseo) auf die skr. causalform tarshayami" (Bopp, 
vergl. gramm. zte ausg. i. 105). One would have expected the r doubled as in carr 
{supra), Skr. karsha, "dragging." 704. Orlar, leg. orlar ? (gl. vestibulum, a fore- 
court), lar, W. llawr is solum. Can the or be = Tupa ? cf. Ar-morica, vapaXla, or is or 


A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 89 

for aur, and this for air, Gaul, are, as in doflMrchanim (gl. sagio), Z. 10. 705. Stoc- 
ronna (stirpidivortium, separation of a stock), from stoc (stirps) — cf. Com. stoc, gL 
stirps — and ranna (leg. rannadh?), a division, parting. Note the assimilation of the first 
a in ranna to the of stoc, and cf ocond, ocon, oco, Z. 594. 706. Oris trihhuis (gl. lum- 
barium), "belt of the trowsers" (tribhus, v. supra). 707. Sgornachan (gl. epiglotum, 
the epiglottis) : sgornachan, says C, is now " a long-necked fellow," cf. Gael, sgdrnaeh, 
"throat, neck." 708. Cromheol, gl. gemonum (if I read the words rightly), a mous- 
tache (cf. with gemonum 0. Fr. grignon, grenon, guemon, "bart sowohl der obcrlippe 
wie des kinnes," Diez, E. W. 182, and 0. H. G. grani (plur.), M. H. D. gran, 0. N. 
gron, there cited. I know not if there ever was such a word as granni, "long hair," 
O'E,, but it is possible there was, as grannaidh (hair) occurs in Gaelic. I have never 
met crombeol, except in the Anglicised form crommeal : — 

" They tell me the stranger has given command 

That crommeal and coolun shall cease in this land." 

S. Feeguson. 

709-719. Sgeota (gl. cartesium), spelt — 710. Sgeotha (gL sacritegium) seems to be a 
bag or wallet for carrying ecclesiastical books or utensils. C. quotes : 8ce6ta nan aid- 
bheadh ar muin chleirig riachois. Book of Fermoy, 88 J, J. 711. Mtdlleand, leg. mui- 
leann(gl. pistrinum, a pounding-miU), «;. supra,'No. 701. 712. Cliathach {gl. clastrum) 
seems to be an enclosure made of hurdles, from cliath, as to which v. supra. In Gaelic 
thiswordmeans "the frame of the ribs," "the chest." 713. Tech na merdreach (gL -pros- 
tibulum), "the harlots' house." 714. Braiccin (gl. redimiculum, a band, girdle), is, 
perhaps, a garter (from bracc-a?). 716. Bile (gl. ventilogium, a weathercock, Dief.) 
seems a blunder ; hile, so far as I know, has in Ireland only the two meanings : 
"border," and "old tree" (such, e. g., as grows by a holy weU or in a fort). In 
Scotland it also means "leaflet," "blossom." 717. Ceis (gl. stragulum, covering, 
rog, horse-cloth) is the Com. peis, gl. tunica, pows (tunica), Z. 123, peus gruec, gl. 
toral, Z. 124, W. pais, pL peisiau, Z. 1121. Cf. cass-ock? 718. Bithen (gl. lolium, 
darnel), O'lL's dithein, "W. Uys dyn. 719. Grand glesta, leg. glesta (gl. plectrum, the 
stick for striking the chords of a harp or other stringed instrument) ; crand (W. pren), 
0. Ir. crann, has occurred frequently, suprd : glesta, gen. sing, of glesadh ; cf. Gael, 
gleusadh, "a tuning," "act of tuning," &c. O'E. has gleusaim, "I prepare, tunc, 
arrange ;" gleus, " key or gamut in music." Cf. W. glwys, " pure, pleasant." 

720-724. Teine creasa (gl. igniferrium), fire of [the] girdle, i. e. flint-steel-and- 
tinder ; as to teine (MS. teini), r. supra, and compare Zend tafhu (hot) ex tapntj, as 
Ir. suan (sleep), "W. hun is from svapna ; creasa, gen. of oris, which occurs mpra in 

N oris 

go A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

cris tribhuis, gl. lumbarium. 721. Dulhradan (gl. scrupulum), leg. dubhradan? I have 
never met elsewhere ; perhaps it is a dimin. of dubhradh, " shade, eclipse," O'E., and 
may mean "trouble," "anxiety," figurative meanings of scrupulus, properly a pointed 
pebble. 722. Tiiairgin (gl. terotorium, L e. tritura). The 0. Ir. verb and subst. 
occur in Z. 853 : dofuaircc (triturat) : ar is bes leosom ta daim do thuarcuin ("for 
it is a custom with them for the oxen to thresh") ; and pistor is glossed by fer denma 
bairgine tuarcain, dofuaircitis inna gran la arsidi, "a man who makes bread [Ut. a 
man of making of bread] by pounding : among the ancients they used to pound the 
grains;" and tuarcun glosses tribulatio, comthuarcon, contritio, Z. 738. 723. Cluain 
gabdla (gl. herbagium) : cluain, of which the dat. occurs in Z. xxxii. hi chiain mac- 
cunois, is a meadow, a lawn, in Scotch Gaelic also " a bower," = cloni, W. clyn, 
" brake," " thicket :" cf. Cluniacum, hod. Clugny ; gabdla, gen. of gabiiil (capere, 
captio), and cluain gabdla is, according to C, an Irish legal term for " an appropriated 
field, a field not held in common." 724. Caire (gl. caldarium, " a vessel containing 
warm water for bathing"), W. pair (caldron). Com. per, Fr. pair-ol, generally means 
caldron (as in Coire Breccain, Corm., now Corryvreckan). It also means "a hollow 
or cul de sac in the mountains," Reeves, Vit. Col. 88, where Coire Salchain occurs, 
and in this sense has been adopted into the English language as " corry ;" coire 
= KAKBiA or PAKEiA, r. 3L1K, PAK (No. 240, suprd), as der = caKpv, Goth, tagr; fiar, 
W. gwyr = vakra, varus ; sar = Skr. qakra, Lat sacer ; mar = fiaicpo^. 

725-729. Longport {^. castrum), leg. longphort = "W. Uongborth (ship-harbour); 
longport glosses sosad in H. 3, 18, p. 523. It is not easy to see how its elements — 
long ship {v. supra) and port (a house, place, harbour) — can when combiaed express 
the idea of castrum. Port, gen. and loe. sing, puirt, dat. sing, purt (Lib. Hymn. ed. 
Todd, 13) is, perhaps, connected with Zend peretu, Eng. ford. Dief. G. "W. ii. 365. 
726. Mainister, gen. manestrech, Z. xxviii., from monasterium, but with a remarkable 
change to the c-declension. 727. Fortacht (gl. suffragium), here "a favourable 
decision;" cf. fortachtid, gl. fautor, Z. 766, 845; ace. s. fortachtain, Z. 270, a fern, 
n-stem, generally "assistance." The verb occurs in Leab. Breacc (cited by Todd, 
L. H. 65), is hi fortaigess da [leg. dona, dna ?] cech oen bis cumca ocus in guasacht 
(she it is, then, that helps every one who is in anguish and in danger) ; fortacht, Z. 
195: CO fordumthesidse, "that ye may help me," Z. 335: fortiag (gl. conniveo), 
Z. 438. 728. Proindtech (gl. refectorium), and — 729. Codaltech (gl. dormitorium), 
are, respectively, compounds of tech, house, with proind, W. prain, from Lat pran- 
dium, and codal, whence codlaim, I sleep, O'R. The 0. Ir. contul (?) dormio (ma conatil 
si dormis, Z. 1053, contuil each uadib forset, Fiaee, 31) appears connected with this. 


A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. g i 

Proindtech (spelt praintecli) occurs in the Book of Armagh, 1 8 J, i : airm ifuirsitis in 
torce arimbad and furruimtis apraintech. 

730-739. Speilp (gL coopertorium, i. e. cooperimentum ? cooperculum ?) is ex- 
plained "a belt, armour," by O'E., but by C. " a girdle or swathe of linen." 731. 
Tunna (gl. dolium, a large jar), exactly 0. Norse tunna, is " a cask" in O'R ; hardly 
a Celtic word ; c£ "W. tyneU, Com. tonnel, Bret, tonel, French tonneau, M. H. Q. 
tonne, Eng. tun, &c. 732. Seiche (gl. corium), " a hide, or skin," O'E.., GaeL seiche, 
seich, seic. 734. Intlecht (gl. ingenium), in 0. Ir. intliucht, intsUucht (= andeslictus ?), 
intellectus, sensus, Z. 42, 849, 230, gen. intliuchta, Z. 63 : sliucht, Z. 970, a masc. 
u-stem, compounded with the prep, ind (= Gaulish ande) which aspirates, and the d 
of which becomes t before aspirated s. 735. Sendis, old age, from sen (old) = sena-s 
(Gtaulish Seno-magus, Zend, hana), and ais (age), a masc. i-stem, which Ebel would 
connect with Skr. iiyus, but this would be a solitary instance of the preservation of an 
original final «. Ais, perhaps, stands for aissi-s ex aivs-i-s : c£ 0. "W. in ois oisoudh, the 
mod. W. yn oes oesoedd, Z. 298 : Com. huis. 737. Loscad (gl. incendium, burning) ; 
dat. sing, do loscud, Z. 768, loiscdib (gl. essis), ib. forloiscthe (gl. igne exanimatus), 
Z. 845 ; c£ Com. lose (arsura, ustulatio), "W. llosg, Bret. losk. 738. Ifartra (gl. mar- 
tyrium), like martir, a martyr, Colm. 19, "W. merthyr) is a foreign word. 0. Jr. 
martre : filus trechenelse martre daneu adrimiter ar cruich du duiniu' mad esgre baan 
raartre ocus glas martre ocus derc martre, " now there are three kinds of martyrdom 
which are considered as man's cross, that is to say [lit. if thou sayest], white mar- 
tyrdom, and green martyrdom, and red martyrdom," Z. 1007 ; dul martre tarfarcennsi, 
Z. 618, "to suffer martyrdom for your sake;" hence martre appears to be a fern, ia-stem. 
739. Taile (gl. salarium, wages), cf. W. tal, pL talion (payment), Te'Xos, -reKiw. 

740-744. Soiler (gl. solarium, sun-dial ? house-top ? Germ, sollcr). Com. soler 
(Z. iiL) ; solarium is glossed by solam in Z. 733, which looks a genuine Irish word, 
and gives a favourable idea of the material civilization of the Irish ecclesiastics in the 
eighth and ninth centuries, especially when we consider their native words for napkin 
(lambrat bis tar gliine, gl. mappa, gl. mantile, i. e. a napkin that is over the knees, 
Z. 613 ; lambrat (gl. gausape), Z. 820), for canal, or, perhaps, water-pipe (lothur, gl. 
canaUs, lothor, gl. alveal, Z. 744, for bath : fotharcud, Z. 893, infra fothragad); but, 
above all, for usury (fogbaidctu for fogaibthetu, Z. 844). 741. Seallad (MS. seall.), 
(gl. seUarium) a pantry, sealladh, " a cell, O'E. 742. Groigh (gl. equitium), a stud 
of horses, Gael, greigh, s. f., an i-stem = gragi-s, cf. Lat. greg (grex), W. gre (herd, 

' Lit. are counted for a cross to a human being : glas = glasta : cf. glastum, woad. 

N 2 

92 A Med'weval Tract on Latin Declension. 

stud). 744. MiiMl (gl. coUum, neck), Gael, muineal, gen. -eil = W- mwnwgl; of. 
muinde, gl. collarium, muinntorc, gl. torques, Z. 764, where is also muinse, which 
I suspect is a misreading or misprint for muince (necklace) ; cf. mong, "W. mwng, 

745-749. Druim (back, ridge) : gen. sing, drommo, dat. druimm, occur in the Book 
of Armagh, 1 7 a, i : Issi inso coibse fetho flo -\ aedocht dibliadin rembas daii duman- 
chuib drommo lias 1 dumaithib callrigi it[er] crochaingel 1 altoir drommo liiis nadeonfil 
fineohas iordruimm leas act cenel fetho fio ma beith nech besmaith diib bescraibdech 
beschuibsech dinchlaind manipe duecastar diis inetar dimuintir drommo Uas 1. diaman- 
chib Manietar dubber decrud dimuiatir patriec rate . . . [" This is the communication 
of Feth Fio and his bequest, two years before his death, to the monks of Druim Lias 
and to the nobles of Calbige, as weU the chancel as the altar (i. e. as weU the lay- 
men as the clerics) of Druim Lias : Let there not be finechas (inheritance of kindred, 
fine ?) on Druim Lias (i. e. let it not devolve according to the law oi finechas) but the 
race of Feth Fio, if any one of them be good — if any one of the clan be pious and 
decent. If there be not, let it be seen if there be one of the family of Druim Lias, or 
of its monks. Unless one be found, place a member of Patrick's family into it."] 
Druim occurs in Z. in composition with the numeral noin (9) : mochoe nova.-drom,mo, 
"Mochoe of Nendrum" (Xine-ridge), now Mahee Island, in Strangford Lough (Todd, 
L. H., 100). 746. Ceilelradh eoin is "a bird's warbling," ceilehradh, from celebratio : 
the verb ceilebraim means " I bid farewell;" lase celelirsimme (gl. cum ualefecissemus), 
Book of Armagh, 184 i.; ceileabhar, "chiri)ing like birds," O'R. ; eoin gen. sing, of 
en (Z. 82 : gen. mAeiuin, Z. 24) = atina, W. edyn. Cf. 0. W. «^w-coilhaam (gl. au- 
spicio), Z. 130; aetinet (volucres), Z. 169; Com. idne (auceps), Z. 784. Has an initial 
p been lost by these words, and dare we compare (with Dr. Siegfried) ireTOfiat, sre- 
reTjud, Lat. penna (for petna — W. adan), Eng. feather (0. W. eterinn, avis, sin- 
gularis, Z. 300: atar, aves : collect, ih.). Crand tochartaigh is " a, reel ;" cf. tocha- 
i;aim, "I wind up, I reel," O'R., Gael, tachras, "winding, act of winding yam;" 
gyrgyrium (if I read the word rightly — in Med. Lat. generally girgillus) seems formed 
by reduplication from gyrare. (See Pott as to this word, Zeits. i 309.) 747. Inchinn 
(gl. cerebrum), the brain, Gael, eanchainn, W. emennyd. Com. impinion, Bret, empenn: 
gen. inchinne : La sodaiu dolleci dia feraib fidchiUi don techtaire com boi for lar a 
inchinne (Tain bo Cuailgne in the Lebar na Uidre), thus rendered by O'D., Lebar na 
Cert. Ixiv. : "With that he cast [one] of his chessmen at the messenger, so that it 
pierced to the centre of his brain :" inchinn is an i-stem, from in (= ande?), and cenn, 
head. The word is formed like £^K4(pa\o9. 748. Stol, leg. stdl (gL scanum, i. e. 


A 3Iediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 93 

scamnum), W. ystawl, fern. : both, no doubt, from Eng. stool, A. S. stol. 749. Fir- 
mamint, like Com. firmament, W. jfurfafen, of course from firmamentum. 

750-758. Mir plttc, gl. rubigorium, is altogether obscure to me. Possibly it may 
mean " the (top) red part of the cheeks." Cf. Gael, mir, " the top or summit :" pluc, 
pluic, ploe, "cheek," O'R. 751. Luach faisnehe^ (if I read the last word aright) is 
" reward of information," ; inventorium from invenio, in the sense of discover (" scis, 
Pamphilam meam inventam civem?"). 752. Innarlad (gl. exilium), for indarbad; 
cf. indarpe (ejectio), Z. 591, gen. -pi, dat. -pu, Z. 246; indarbad expulsus est, O'D. 
Gr. 291; isan indarhe, gl. in repulsam, Z. 247; aren indarbe analchi ood (that he 
banish vices from him), Z. 1003 ; tre indarpae .do. aaia mascul (per ablationem syl- 
labae de a masculine), Z. 848 ; nachimr'indarpai-se quod non me repulit, Z. 848 ; 
nachitr'indarpither (ne sis exheredatus) ; innarhar hires dam tri drochgnimu, " Faith 
also is banished by evil deeds" (note the assimilation of the d) ; the ind (Gaulish ande, 
Skr. adhi) here signifying motion from something (Z. 848), which something is, in the 
present instances, arbe, orpe, heritage (gen. orpi), Z. 234, a neut. ia-stem, wliich 
= JT. H. G. erbc, Ang. S. yrfe neut, as in Beowulf, 6093, ed. Thorpe. Cf. also na berat 
an erpther doib, " let them (slaves) not take away what is committed to them," Z. 458 : 
nomerpimem (me trado, confide), Z. 43 1 : nobirpaid (confiditis) ro airptha, (commissum 
est), Z. 7. 753. Oilemain, gl. aUmentum, root al, as to which v. supra. 754. Airge, 
" a herd," O'E.., v. suprA. 755. Tormach (increase). 756. Mithormach (decrease), tor- 
mack, leg. tormach = do-for-mac-a, Z. 1051, gl. 26; tormachtaid (auctor), Z. 766; 
tormachtai (aucta), Z.983 ; doformgat (augent), Z. 854; doformagar, t6rmagar(augetur), 
doformmagddar (augentur), Z. 854. Here again we find the Skr. root mah. 757. 
Edach (clothing), 0. Ir. etach, Z. 442, eitach, Z. 1050, gen. jetig, Z. 857, aStich, Z. 
1051, a neut. a-stem, as in Z. 235, gaibid immib Knetach mace coimsa, "put around 
ye the raiment of sons of mercy." 758. Oydhamh (gl. jumentum, a beast of burthen), 
lit. young ox; cf. ogbho, leg. ogbho, O'K. ; 6g = 0. Ir. 6c (oclachdi, gl. juvenilia, 
ocmil (= yavanca-mllit), gl. tyro, Z. 60 ; ocmUedu, gl. athletas, Gildas). Oc = 0. W. 
iouenc, W. ieuanc = Eng. young = juvencus, which shows that our Irish word has 
not only lost v and n in the middle of the word, but j (ij) at the beginning. The 
original is yavanka, the a in the first syllable being found in the Skr. comparative 
and the superl. yavishtha, and in 'looses, which Lassen has equated with juvenes. The 
stem has been recognised by Dr. Siegfried in the 0. Ir. comparative 6a, "less" (= "W. 
iau = Skr. yaviyahs), and superlative oam (gl. minimus, Z. 286) = W. ieuaf. Z., p. 

> In the MS., faini, with an oral mark over ai, and a mark like a long z between n and 1. 

94 . A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

60, points out another word in 0. Ir. which has lost initial/, -m., aig (gl. cristaUus, 
Z. 60), the corresponding "W. word ia (= yag), ice, and the Breton adj. yen (= yagin), 
icy, still retaining the semi-vowel. Cf. also uisse with Lat. Justus, from which, how- 
ever, I do not think it taken. Consider A. "Weber's remark (Ind. Stud. iv. 398), 
" yos for yavas, from \/yu, to join : cf. Lat. jus, Zend yaos, in the verb yaozhda." 
In other words, such as isu (Jesus), Ice (salus), "W. iechyt, ith (gl. puis, Z. 60), "W. 
iot, the j has blent with the following vowel, and produced 1. Lamh wiU be consi- 
dered infra, No. 858. 

760-769. Timna (gl. testamentum), 0. Ir. timne : "is taschide timne dee do cho. 
malnad," Z. 897 ("it is necessary to fulfil God's commandment"). This timne is a 
neut. ia-stem. 761 . Instrumint, like — 766. Saltair (gl. psalterium) is a foreign word. 
762. Didin (gL tegmentum), 0. Ir. di'tiu, gen. diten, v. supra. 763. Medugud (gl. 
augmcntum), from meid, gl. magnitude, infra. 'j6^ Spuirech (gl. fragmentum), from 
the same root, probably, as "W. ysbwrial, sweepings, ysborion, refuse, Spruilleach, gl. 
fragmen, infra. 765. JDuillen (gl. folium), "W. dalcn, deilen, Com. delen, Bret. deUen, 
pi. deliou, Gaulish dula in ire/iireiovXa quinquefolium : irevTaxpvWov 'Vuifiatoi Ki^/Ke- 
(p6\iov/ii, TaWot TrefiTTtBovKa [alia lectio iro/nwailovXa^ AaKoi irpoireiovKa. Dioscorides, 
4, 42, cited Z. 324. Z. thinks that dula = folium, b-l-at. Celtic d may certainly some- 
times be = Lat. /, because we know that at the beginning of a word the latter often 
represents dh. The double I in duillcn seems due to an original semi-vowel. Cf. 
<lsv\\ov = (j)vXjov, fol-i-um. But what is the -en ? A trace in Irish of the singulative 
forms of her Celtic sisters ? 767. Lite (gl. pulmentum), Gael, lit, lite, is porridge. 
Cf. W. llith, " meal soaked in water." 768. JJaithne (gL dipodium, if I rightly read 
this strangely contracted word, ff = dk f, i. e. two f 's) is a kind of rhyme in Irish 
verse, discussed in O'D. Gr. 418. Our scribe does not seem to have been very deep 
in Greek, hnroila being " two feet combined into one metre." 769. Bidhgadh (gl. 
pavementum), O'R.'s hiodgadh, " stirring, rousing, startling ;" Gael, hiodhgadh, " a 
stirring up, sudden emotion." 

770-777. Cat (gh lamcntum, " waQing, weeping") occurs in Corm., but I omitted 
to note where, also (spelt coi) in Lib. Hymn. (fol. 3, a, and p. 72, ed. Todd, where 
the mark of length is omitted). 772. Ced (gl. centum), 0. Ir. cet, Skr. ^ata-m, 
Zend qate-m, I-kuto-v, Lat. centu-m, Goth, and 0. H. G. themes, hunda, hunta. 
Here the Welsh and Bret., as usual, surpass the Irish and Cornish in retaining 
intact the combination nt ; W. and Bret, cant. Com. cans. In composition cet 
aspirates. Thus Conn cetchathach " loo-battled Conn." 773. Dd (2), in 0. Ir. in- 
flected with dual-endings, nom. masc. and n. dau for dvav (originally dvam ?), gen. da 


A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 95 

not aspirating = Skr. dvayos ? dat dib(n)' (= Skr. dvabhj^ani ?), ace. da for dvav. 
The fem. was nom. di = dvai, Skr. dve, Lat. duao, gen. da, dat. dib(n), ace. di. In 
composition this numeral was de, which is curious, as the Skr. is dvi, and Gr. Bi, Zend 
and Lat. bi-, A. S. tvi In 0. W. dou masc. dui fem. 774. Tri, masc. and neut. (3) 
does not aspirate, having ended in the nom. originally in s ; the 0. Ir. forms for the 
fem. of this numeral are teoir, teora, gen. teora (n), dat. teoraib, ace. teora. Of 
these, teoir is obscure to me ; teora, teora (h), seem to bo formed from an extended 
theme. In 0. "Welsh, tri masc. teir fem, which last is the mod. tair. 775. Ceithre 
(4), I have never met in 0. Ir., though cethri occurs in the Lib. Hymn, (a MS., I 
should say, of the eleventh century). The 0. Ir. forms are cethir, masc. and neut. 
(= W. petuar, Skr. nom. masc. chatvaras, neut. chatvari, Goth, iidvor), and ce- 
theora fem. Corm. (We may expect to find a cetheoir = W. peteir, Skr. chatasra*.) 
776. Ciiig (5), 0. Ir. coic = Lat. quinque, Skr. panchan, Zend, panchan, irivie, ^ol. 
irifiire, Goth, fimf, Eng. five. The non-occurrence of what may be called a trans- 
ported V? after coic before vowels and medials (except of course in the gen.) might 
be regarded as confirming Bopp's assumption that the final nasal in the Indo-Zend 
pancha-n is a later addition, were it not that the Welsh pump nasalises an initial 
medial, and should therefore, according to Aufrecht, Beitr. i. 105, have ended in n. 
However, this phenomenon seems quite modem (cf. pump gwragcd, 5 women, not 
pump ngwraged, Z. 325, quoting the Mabinogion, iii. loi), and is probably owing 
to the influence of the m. "jj"]. Se (6), W. chwech = svecs, originally ksvaks, Zend, 
khsvas, the final s (= Lat. x, Gr. f , Skr. sh, Goth, hs) is retained in the ordinal ses-e-d, 


' As in the following examples: for deib «dillib (according to two declensions), Z. 277 ; in dib «uarib 
deac, Z. 312 (in 12 [2 + 10] hours); in an dili nairechtaib dermaraib (in their two vast assemblies), 
Adamnin's Vision, and with the n changed to m before b : Doluid Oengus con dib mbuidnib aracheiid 
dia marbud (0. went with two troops before liim to slay him), Trip. Life of Patrick. 

- A curious Celtic (Pictish ?) form of this numeral is found in composition in the name Oothir-thiaeus, 
given to S. Patrick, " because he served four houses (households ?) of druids." It occurs in the following 
passage (Book of Armagh, 9, a, 2): — " Tirechin episcopus hec scripsit ex ore uel libro ultani episcopi cuius 
ipse alumpnus uel discipnlus fuit Inueni .1111. nomina in libro scripta patricio apud ultanum episcopum 
conchnbumensiura sanctus magonus qui est clams [cf "ApoUini Granno J/o^owio"] succetus qui est [deus 
belli — see the gloss on the Lib. Hymn, copy of Fiacc's Hymn, v. 2, where this name is spelt mccat] 
patricius cothirtbiacus quod seruiuit .1111. domibus magorum et empsit ilium nnus ex eis cui nomen erat 
miliuc maccuboin magus." (See Lib. Hymn. ed. Todd, p. 27.) 

' Z. calls this a prosthetic n, which conveys an erroneous idea. Irish grammarians call it an eclipsing 
«. I have, I believe, proved that this « has almost always originally belonged to the termination of the 
word immediately preceding that to which it seems prefixed. 

gS A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

W. chwcohed. A remarkable form of this numeral is involved in mor-fes-er, seven 
persons, Hterally grcat-six-persons. I incline to the opinion that here, as va. the forms 
fiur, fiar (= Skr. svasr), above quoted, the / was unaspirable, and stands for sv (cf 
fe^r/Kovra, Fe^aKaTtoi, Fc'ktos, on the TabulsB Heracl.) — that for this /we sometimes 
find ph written (cf. mo phethar-sn for mo fehar-m, urphaisiu, gl. cancer, for ur- 
faisiu) ; but that there is no good ground for regarding a form like the Gaelic piu- 
thair as ancient. 

778-788. Cruithnecht, gl. frumentum ; gen. sing, cruithnechta, Z. 193; cruith- 
nechtide, gL ceritus, Z. 765. 779. Eorna (gl. hordeiun), barley: here, as in 6c 
(= young), perhaps both y and v have been lost ; and, if we assume the addition of the 
Celtic derivative syllable -am-, we may compare Skr. and Zend yava, Gr. fe'o. 780. 
Meirse (gl. merciamentum), cf. Fr. merci, Lat. meroes. 781. Loch, gl. stagnum = lacu-s, 
gen. sing. : otha crich drommo .nit. cuglais tamlachtae HvAilocho, Book of Armagh, 
17 a, 2, a stem in «, gen. dual : dun da lacha (Fled duin nan ged, 80) = lac(u)a8 ? 
Loch = Lat. lacus, Bret, and Com. lagen. 782. Lemnacht, gl. mulsum, i. e. wine mixed 
with honey (lemnach, gl. mulsum, Z. 777), is O'R.'s leamnachd, "sweet milk," et sic 
hodie. 783. Medhg (gL semm, whey), "W. maidd, 0. Fr. megue, Germ, matten. 
784. Im, leg. imm (gl. butyrum), in Corm. imb (0. W. emmeni, Z. 130, W. j-menin, 
Bret, amann). Imm occurs in the nom. sing, with the masc. article in a MS. of T. C. D. 
(H. 3, 18, p. 433), cited in Petrie's Tara, 190: ni ba leghtha intm, "the butter 
was not dissolved ;" gruth 1 imm, pref to Secundinus' hymn (Todd, Lib. Hymn, 
p. 32), " cheese and butter" (gruth = Eng. curd). Gen. sing. : Fecht naile luid 
rechtaire rig bretan do chuinchid chi'sa grotha -\ imme comuime patricc, " at another 
time the steward of the King of the Britons came to Patrick's nurse to demand tribute 
of cheese and butter." — Trip. Life of Patrick. Dr. Siegfried has acutely suggested 
that the h of imb may be for g (cf. bo = Skr. gaus, broon [gl. molae, Book of Armagh, 
10, a, 2] = Goth, qvaimus, biu = Skr. jiva), and that the word may, accordingly, be 
connected with the Skr. anji, ointment, ungere, &c. Cf. Germ. anl:e, butter, and see 
Grimm, Gesch. d. d. Spr. iL p. 1003. 785. Uinnimint (gl. unguentum), seems derived 
from a Med. Lat. ungimentum, or perhaps from Eng. ointment. Or, Air ged, Luaidhe, 
8dan, laran, have been noticed supra (606-610). 791. Mitall, from metaUum. 
792. Luach lesa is, says C, "the reward paid by a pupil to his tutor;" far lesa, he 
says, is "a guardian." C£ leasughadh, "education," O'R. ; Gael. Jeasachadh, improv- 
ing: luach seems a sister- form of 16-g, lua-g, gen. loge, Z. 432, dat. luag, supra. The 
root seems lav, found in Lat. Lav-ema, lu-cru-m, Skr. 16-ta (booty, loot), Xij-t-i, Xo- 
T/)t-v (hired servant), Goth, lau-n, anda-launi, Curtius, G. E. i. 329. 793. Healach (gl. 


A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 


alministrum) I cannot explain : alministrum is like almimicium (amice?), Dicf. Lat.- 
Germ. Gloss.: bealach generally means "a road," or "a mountain-pass," "defile." 
Beoladh is " anointing." 794. Srehhan (gl. nuchum, a membrane) : srebhan na 
hinchinne, "membrane inclosing the brain," C. ; cf. sreibnaide, gl. membranaeeus, 
Z. 765. 

795-808. Soilestar (gl. gladiolum), sedge, flaggers, fleur de lis, O'E.'s feleastar, 
feleastrom, seilutrom, sileastar, seilisdeir, and soileastar ! The last form comes nearest 
to the Lat. salioastrum, "bitter-sweet," and if this be the etymon, we should write 
sailestar : W. and Com. elestren. 796. jS^artecA (gl. propheticum) is "roaring out," 
according to O'D., Gael, sgairteach (clamosus), from sgairt (exclamatio). 797. Fidhla 
(gl. falcastrum) is the "W. gwyddif, " a hedging-biU," 0. "W. gudif, gudhyf scalprum, 
from fid = wood, and the root ben, be, Z. 44. With gudif I should be inclined to 
compare a word uudimm, which Z. gives as a gloss on lignismus (a woodman's axe, 
lignicisimus, Ducange). But in the facsimile, published by Vicomte H. de la Ville- 
marque, of the part of the MS. (Bibl. Bodl. 572, fo. 42) from which Z. purports to take 
this form, it stands distinctly undimin}. Maith, Olc, Taithneamach, 6eal, Bubh, ImdJia, 
Beg, Mor, have been noticed supra (from 659 to 673). 803. Buidhe (yeUow), buide, 
gl. flavus, Z. 727, an adjectival ia-stem. Such stems were thus declined : — 







Sing. N. niie 


nue (h) 





G. nui 



niie (n) 

nue (ii) 

niie (n) 

D. niiu 






Ac. nue (n) 

niii (h) 

niie (n) 



niii (niie) 

V. nui 





niii (niie) 

And adjectival a-stems were thus declined : 








Sing. N. mall 


mall (n) 





G. maUl 



mall (n) 

mall (n) 

mall (h) 

D. maull 






A. maU(n) 

maill (n) 

mall (n) 




V. maiU 






Adjectives agreeing with nouns in the dual are always put in the plural. 804. Riahh- 

' In the "Archives des Missions Scientifiques et Litteraires," y vol., facsimile No. rv., Paris, 1856. 


98 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

ach (gl. fuscum, swarthy) : etymologically obscure to me. 807. Memrdha (gl. mo- 
dicum), from mensura, with the usual loss of n before s. Cf. mesraigthe (gl. modcstus), 
Z. 743, 0. "W. doguomisur (gl. geo, L e. mensuro), Z. 1076. 808. Roheg (gl. mini- 
mum), from beg, by prefixing the intensive particle r6, ro = Lat. pro, Skr. pra. 

810-816. Lu8 (gl. porrum) = leek, Corn, les, W. llysiau, "herbs." What (811) 
mleman can be, I know not. 812. Nem (heaven) also once nim, in Z. nf artu ni nim 
ni domnu ni muir ar noibbriathraib rolabrastar Crist assa chroich, "neither height nor 
heaven, nor depth nor sea surpasses' the holy words that Christ spoke from his cross," 
Z. ; W. and Corn, nef, Bret, env : cf. Slav, nebo, " heaven." Nem (gen. sing, nime, 
gen. pi. a choimdiu secht nime! " Lord of seven heavens," Oingus) — is a fem. i-stem 
= nami, perhaps for nabi, originally a stem in «, like Skr. nabhas, Gr. vi^o% — (m from 
hh, as in lam, from r. labh). Original stems in « have, vnth the exception of mi, 
month, gen. mis, invariably ceased to be inflected according to the consonantal declen- 
sion. Thus, clu, " glory" = Skr. gravas, kXcFos. The following have gone over to the 
vocalic declension : geine, Lat. genus, 761/05 : lige, "bed" = \€'xos: suide, " seat," Skr. 
sadas, eSos: corp, Lat. corpus : ucht, Lat. pectus. With the suffix arw — Warn, iarann 
(Gaulish isamo-), Skr. ayas, Lat. aes. What the « in ais, ois ("age," which Ebel 
compares with Skr. ayus) can be, is not easy to say, i'. infra, No. 1 07 1 . 814, liastail 
(gl. rastrum), rastal in Corm., 0']il.'8 rasdal (a rake), perhaps from the Lat. rastrum ; 
cf. W. rhasgl, 0. W. rhascl, gl. sartum, Z. 1093. 815. FoigM (gl. epulum), leg. foigh- 
dhe? and cf. Z. 1059: leiscc na pronn .1. fri fognam giesmih foigde, ad v. "pigri rwv 
prandiorum, scil. in servitio continue epuli," ace. sing, inn ais deed cai&sfoigdi caich, 
Z. 457; dat. sing, nfrbommar utmuill 00 foigdi, Z. 481. In the last two quotations 
foigde seems to have the meaning of the Gaelic faighs, faighdJie, " begging, a public 
begging from house to house;" "an asking of aid, in corn, clothing, or other stuff, 
usual with young persons newly married, or about to stock a farm." 

817-825. Sndithe (a thread), snathe, gl. filum, Z. 20; dat. sing, snathiu, Z. 232; 
Com. snod-en, W. ysnoden (vitta), snood, AY. and Com. noden, filum, Bret, neud, 
neuden. Cf. also 0. W. notuid, "needle," Bret, nadoz. 0. Ir. verbal forms, appa- 
rently connected with these words, are : co atomsnassar (gl. uti ego inserar), Z. 472 ; 
insnastis (gL consuerunt exserere), Z. 452; nach nastad [leg. nascad: cf. ronaisc, Ir. 
Nennius, Ixxii., Mod. Ir. nasgaim] in cretmech -| na comeitged do, " Let him not 
bind the believer, and let none accompany him," Z. 599. — i Corinth, vii. 15. The 
connexion of these words with Skr. r. nah, Lat. nectcre ; ve-w, Lat ne-o ; v-^Ow, nadh-, 

1 Lit [is] over. 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 99 

no doubt exists, but is not easily made out. 819. Srian, a bridle = frenum, "W. ffrwj-n, 
all perhaps connected with the Skr. root dhr tenere (see Pott, Zeits. i. 120). But 
whether srian, tfrwyn, are taken from the Lat., we shall not be able to decide till the 
nature of initial Welsh ff is more thoroughly understood. 820. Adhastar (halter), 
O'R's adhastair, cf. W. eddestr, eddestl, eddestlawr, a steed. 822. Fothragadh (gl. 
balneum), gen. sing, a cenelee fothaircthesxn., Z. 893, " this kind of bath," dat. pi. 
fothaircthib, Z. 238, an u-stem. 823. Birur (cress). Mod. Ir. Molar, "W. berwr, berw, 
berwy. Corn, and Bret, beler. 825. Iffhrn (gl. Tartarus), v. supra. 

826-832. Infedfose T cannot explain, unless we read in fed fosclaidh, " the whist- 
ling (sibilus) of a chink ;" fed = W. chwyth, blast, chwytheU, whistling : cf. «etfeth- 
chaib, flatibus, Z. 856. 827. Ifearnadha seems a neut. adj. plur., formed from iifem 
= infemum. 831. At pill (gl. pelleus, pileus, irTXo^, hat of felt ? But indeed pill may 
be an hibemisation of the Latin pellis. At \s, of course from the English hat = Lat. 
stem <!a«-sid, from esrf-tid (Lottner, Zeits. vii. i8o), v. supra, at cluic. 832. Ihrach — 
if I read the word rightly — (gl. intimus) is obscure to me ; the only word I know 
resembling it is iuhrach, which C. and O'D. say is a wooden drinking-vessel, broad at 
bottom and narrow at top. 

833-841. FilidhecM, v. supra, No. i. 834. Geman (orperhaps gemen, gemin), gl. 
didyma, SiSvfia, apparently from Lat. geminus, as "W". gefeU from gemellus. 835. Adh- 
bardaeht, irpoXjjfi/ia (afterwards glossing idioma), jrpoXijfi/ia, literally "what is taken 
beforehand," here apparently equivalent to " advantage" (TrpoXri/ifia Troietv tipc, " to 
give one an advantage"), a formation from the prep, ad and the r. bab, Skr. r. bhr (bhar), 
(pep-u), fer-0. 836. Ciirin, KaTUTrXaafia, a plaster, probably from ceir, wax ; cf. W. 
cwyren, a cake of wax. 837. Foircedal, gl. dogma, 0. Ir. forcetal, forcital (doctrina), 
gen. -til, a neut. a-stem'. The verb forchun, forchanim, praecipio, frequent in 0. Ir., 
occurs in Z. 195, 440, fut. part. pass, forcanti (leg. forcantf), Z. 84; forcitlid, preceptor, 
Z. 85; forcitlaidecht (magisterium), Z. 771. The root can (Skr. qans, Lat. can-ere, 
cens-ere, Goth, han-a, icav-a^oi), also occurs in doarchet, doairchet, tairchet, " it was 
predicted," Z. 468 ; doaurchanim (gl. sagio), Z. 440; foacanim (gL suocino), Z. 440; 
dorencanas, perspexit, Z. 856; isdo fordoncain, Z. 1060, leg. ised do fordonoain, "this is 
what it teaches us." The root in question reduplicates : fordubcechna (-ce-ch'n-a), gl. 
qui VO8 commonefaciat), Z. 496 : tairchechuin, gl. predixit, tairchechnatar predixenint, 

Hid. ; 

I For (the Gaulish ver-, as foirge is to be compared with Fergivios) has been compared with Skr. 
npari (Ebel, Beitr. i. 309). Sed qu(ere, for Celtic v never (so far as I know) is = Skr. p. And as 
Gaulish exhibits no tendency to eject p, the theory that ver arose from uari [u(p)ari] is untenable. 


1 oo A Medioeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

ibid.; rocliacliain, cecinit, Leb. na Cert, 136; doairrcechnatar .i. rotaimngestar, Brehon 
Laws, O'D.' 838. Mullach tighe (gl. doma), mullach (gl. culmen, infra, gl. vertici, 
Gildas' Lorica), generally means top, summit, head. Here "roof," a meaning which 
doma has in Eccl. Latin. 839. Forsgath no ingar (gl. enigma). I can throw no light 
on these Ir. words (which I have never met elsewhere), unless we read the first fors- 
gath, and connect it with sgath = shade, shadow, aUvf^fia being a dark saying. Cf. 
furastar (= furasctar?), gl. fuscetur, Z. 472. The GaeL iongarach is "purulent." 
840. Crismal (gl. chrisma, anointing, unction), a hybrid from Eccl. Lat. chrisma, or 
perhaps Gr. xP^"!^'^- 841. Monadh (vo/ntafia, a coin), from Lat. moneta, generally 
means "money," whence W. mwnai. 

842-850. Soiphist (sophisma) is certainly a foreign word, and perhaps involves a 
blunder. 847. Neseoid (gl. airoaTrifia = imposthume, abscess) is nescoit in Corm. Its 
etymology is obscure to me. 844. Croindtille, v. supra, No. 651. 845. Coindealb- 
thadh (gL anathema), cursing with beU, book, and candle. 846. Tadhbais (gL 
phantasma) is O'R.'s tadhbhas, "a spectre." Taidbsiu, a stem in tian (= du-ati-Mds- 
tian?) occurs in Z. 581, 196, 233, 456, 1016, with the meanings of manifestation, 


1 Other reduplicating roots In 0. Ir. are ba (die), bcbais, Felire, 23rd April ; rombebe, Z. 496 (whei« 
several instances are collected) : beba Fiacc, 12. bar (bear, Skr. bhr) dubbert, " he gave," Book of Ar- 
magh, 18 i, I : atropert [^ for bl>] flaith ■) aithech inso huile itosuch iar tabuirt baithis dCiaib, "prince 
and peasant granted all this immediately after the administration of baptism to them," ibid,, 17 a, 2. BU 
(bhav), "be:" is airi doroigu dia geinti hore n'ir'bi/be la ludeiu creitem, "for this cause it is that God 
chose the Gentiles, because the Jews had not faith" (ad y. " quia non fuit apud Judaeos fides," Z. 602) : 
robbu (fuit), Z. 481, is, according to Lottner, an imperfect, and is for ro-bv-u, not (as one would think at 
first) for a Skr. prababhiiva. cang, "go:" cechaing (.i. roching) Felire: dacheachaing, "he advanced," 
Fled d. n. god 66. cae, " love," conchechrat " they will love," Z. 495 (for conchecharfat). ciAj, " hear," 
rotchechladar, "hears thee," Z. 496. clus, "hear:" cechluista .i. rochluinfithea, O'D. da, "^ve," 
adcho-(forf-ossa, Z. 852; adcotedae [ad-cont-(fe(^ae], "he granted," Book of Armagh, 18 », i : cf. laprai 
.... WavoiTuKOs Side fiarpijio vafiavaiKafio PparovSi, in theNismes inscription (Sev. Archeol.iS^S, 
p. 44), translated by Professor Siegfried, "lartai .... Uanoitacus [lUanoitacis^/iW?] dedit Matribus 
Nemausicis ex imperio [ipsamm]." ga, "go:" bit he magistir Aongcgat inhi (leg. indi) asindisset a 
tola feisne doib, Z. 1057, "these are the masters to whom they will go, those who preach their own 
wishes to them." gan, v. supra. No. 290, note i. ges, "beseech:" gigestesi dia linn ara fulsam ar 
fochidi, Z. 496, "Ye used to beseech God that we might endure our tribulations." gbann, "follow:" 
adroigegrannatar, " they were persecuted," Z. 496 (cf. in^r«Kted, persecutor, Z. 265 ; ingrimmim ingraim- 
maim [in-grann-man-bi] persecutioni, Z. 268 ; ingramman, ingremmen, persecutiones, Z. 266, 463). sta, ~ 
" stand :" sesaimm = 'iarr/iii for aiarrini, Skr. tishthimi (Zend hi(|tami). r. stha, Lat. si-st 0, Bopp, 
Gloss. 387. Whence is siasair .i. rosaidestar, Brog. i ? 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. loi 

proof. The related verb is also of frequent occurrence : doadbat, tadbat, demonstrat, 
Z. 852, 360, for tadbad-d; doadbadar, taidbadar, demonstratur, ihii.; taidhdid iom. 
deseirc friss, Z. 458, "show your love to him;" doaidbdetar f isi doib, "visions are 
revealed to them," Z. 521 ; an donaidbdem, "when we shall demonstrate," Z. 670; 
from these forms it would seem that the root was b-d. The r, however, may repre- 
sent a later formation (cf. (pa-e-6w, and (pa-oi) ; perhaps the root dha agglutinated. 
847. Coimpert {airepfta, seed, semen genitale, offspring), obviously a compound of co- 
imb-bert (r. bar, Skr. bhr), the hh becoming p, as in idpart, oblatio, &c. The geni- 
tive singular of coimpert, in the sense of " conception," occurs in the following 
passage from the Wanderings of the Curach of Maelduin, cited and translated in 
Dr. Petrie's Eound Towers, 378 : gabais AUeU a laimh lais -\ dodatrascair, -[ dogni 
coibligi fria -\ asbert an caiUech fris: "ni segda," ol si, " ar comruc, ar is aimsir 
comperta dam." 848. Adhhardacht, and — 849. Adhhar have been already noticed. 
850. Suidheocan, leg. suidhechan (a seat, bench), an extended form of suide (seat), 
Z. 60, 140. 

851-855. Cro caerach (gl. ovUe, sheepfold), as to ero, v. supra; caerach, leg. cae 
rach, gen. pi. of caera, a c-stem = cairax, v. supra, No. 13: cf. cairchuide, ovinus, 
Z. 37, 235, and the Gaulish tribe-name, Caeracates, Caerosi. This curious word 
may, perhaps, be connected with xpioi. 852. Proiste (gl. monile, velmunile, a neck- 
lace) is said by C. to mean "a goad, a spike," which agrees well with the Cornish 
gloss on monile : scU. dele, leg. delch = Ir. delg spina. Proiste is probably taken from 
the Fr. Iroche, and this, according to Diez (E. W. 71), from Lat brocchus, broccus, a 
projecting tooth. 853. Lehhar aithffrind, a missal, Ut. liber offerendae : aithffrind, leg. 
aiffrind, gen. of aifirend, now aifrin, from the Lat. offerenda, with change of declension 
and g^^ider, as seribent, scribend, from scribenda, and legend, gen. -ind, from legenda, 
Z. 462. 854. Gredhdil, gl. gredale, i. e. gradale, Eng. grail, "that book which con- 
taineth all that was to be sung by the quire at high mass ; the tracts, sequences, hal- 
lelujahs ; the creed, offertory, trisagium ; as also the office for sprinkling the holy 
water," Bum, Eccl. Law, ii. 303. 855. Troibel, gl. trobiale, i. c. troperium? "the 
book which containeth the sequences, which were devotions used in the church after 
reading the epistle," ibid. iii. 799. 

856-860. Stuidis (gl. lectorie, leg. leetoriale), a deriv. from the base of Lat. studium, 
studeo, here, perhaps, having the meaning of the Eng. "lectureship." 857. Ldmtuagh 
(gl. manuale), lit. hand-axe or hand-bow, tuagh (axe), O'R., tuag nime "arcus coeli," 
Z. 28. 858. Leahaid in daim allta (gl. cubile), lit. bed of the wild ox, daim, gen. sing. 
of dam, ox; dat sing, daum, Z. 250; n. pi. ar is bes leosom in daim do thuarcuin, " for 


102 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

with them there is a custom for the oxen to thresh," Z. 853. Bam would ako appear 
to mean a deer : of. the adj. damde, gl. cervinus, Z. 764 ; but perhaps this is from 
the Lat. dama (fallow-deer), and we should read damde. I know not if W. dafad, 
pi. defeid, sheep, dafates, a flock of sheep, can be connected with dam. 859. Corporas, 
gl. corporale, I cannot explain. 860. Muir = Gaulish mori, W. and Com. mor, Lat. 
mare, which I cannot think Bopp is right in comparing with Skr. van, water (Ir. fual?). 
Rather hold with Curtius (Zeits. i. 33) in referring it to the Skr. root mr (mar), " welche 
in der bedeutung sterben am gelaufigsten, in /lapaiuto und dem mit c weiter gebildeten 
marceo die allgemeinero bedeutung des welkens hat (vgl. Skr. mrin). In Skr. mam, 
die wueste, so wie in marut, wind, tritt noch bestimmter der begriff des vcrwuestens 
hervor ; mare bezeichnete demnach das meer als das unfruchtbare, als den tod der 
vegetation, wie nach der gangbaren crklaerungsweise aTpvyeTov." Curtius also com- 
pares 'Afi(i)i'-/iapo-t, Lith. mar-ios, Goth, mar-ei. Muir in Z. is a fem. (or neut. ?) 
i-stem (gen. s. mora, Z. 1000), as appears from the termination of the adj. agreeing 
with its nom. pi. in Mora son ni'tat lora [leg. lora] sidi leu, which Z. ( 1 000) correctly 
translates maria hie, non sunt sufficientia ipsa eis. But note here, if muir be fem., 
the anomaly of an i-stem passing over to the a-declension in the nom. pi. 

861-865. Xaindser (gl. praesepe) is of course from the Eng. manger. 862. Uin- 
neamain (gl. cepe, onion), Gael, uinncan, "W". wynwyn-in. These forms remind one of 
the Lat. unio, whence Fr. oignon, &c., are said to be taken. Perhaps the name 01 
the vegetable is originally Gaulish (oinnio ?), which the Romans may have assimi- 
lated to their unio, "a single large pearl." The word foltchep is, I may observe, glossed 
by barr uindiuin (leg. uinniuin) in H. 3, 18 (MS., T. C. D.), p. 526. 863. Lin uisci 
(gl. rete), fishing-net, water-net, lit. "net of [the] water :" lin, gl. retis, Z. 25 : ished 
insin alltnn ingaib diabul peccatores (gL laqueum diaboli), Z. 1052, "this is the net 
in which the devil takes sinners." 864. Sgaraid (gL gausape), O'R.'s scoraid, sca- 
roid, table-cloth. 865. Mil m6r, v. supra, No. 428. 

866-870. Machaire (gl. tempe, i. e. feld, anger, awe [aue], Dief.), a field, plain : — 

Adaig d(inn uili mallei 

\mmachaire (leg. machairin?) h&ne Carpri Corm. Ecces, vv. 119, 120. 

gen. sing, fo diamraib in macairi moir minscothaigsin ; Cogad Oaedil re Gallaih (ed. 
Todd, 76), a masc. ia-stem : Gael, machair, gen. macharach, s. f. machaire ban, is still a 
living expression for a grass-field : W. magwyr, " waU, enclosure, field," Bret, moger,  
"wall" = Lat. maceria, "wall, enclosure." 867. Urlahradh (gl. locutio). Com. lauar, 
W. Ilafar. Another form of this word is erlabra, which occurs in Lib. Hymn. (pref. to 


A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 


the Magnificat) : ocus is inti doratad erlabra do Zaehar' (" and it was there that speech 
was given to Zach arias"), and, apparently with a transitive meaning, is an infin. in 
Patrick's noble hymn : cluas De dom' estecht, briathar De dom' erlabrai lam De 
domm' immdegail " God's car to hear me, God's word to plead for me {erlahraidhe ad- 
vocate, O'R), God's hand to protect me." 868. Aiceeht (gl. lectio), I have never met 
elsewhere. It seems to occur in the "Uraicecht nan Eiges," O'D. Gram. p. Iv., but 
this is, perhaps, a corruption of the Lat. prajceptum. 869. Acra (gl. actio), is a law- 
suit, pleading, perhaps from the prep, ad, aith, and gab ; c£ adgaur, gl. consentio, i. e, 
addico, Z. 987, adobragart, "he addressed you," Z. 838. 870. Gnidlie (gl. oratio), 
in Z. guide is sometimes a fem. ia-stem ; tn. guidi ace. sing. Z. 258 : and sometimes 
masc. or neut. ; oc du guidiu-wx a da;, "in supplicating thee, God," Z. 346. The 
verb guidim occurs at pp. 55, 993, guidimse Dia nerutsa' (I pray God for thee), gui- 
dimm vel adjuro (gl. tester), Z. 1050, gl. 21 ; nosnguid som " he asks them," Z. 441. 
Can this be connected with gilid in the gloss con dartin do af rogdid dom, Z. 450, 
" that I should give him what he asked of me," logad (rogavi) : ist pers. plur. pret. 
act. rogadammar, Z. 442, 443 ; 3rd plur. in Fiacc's Hymn, 9 : — 

Gadtttar co tissad in noeb, aran imthised lethn 
Aru tintarrad chloen tuatha herenn do bethn. 

They besought that the saint should come, that he should journey far and wide. 
That he should turn the tribes of Ireland from evil unto life ; 

for the latter forms seem referable to the Skr. r. gad, to speak, of which, however, 
Bohtlingk and Roth give no Vedic examples. The W. gweddi seems connected with 
the Skr. r. vad. 

871-875. Cumtach (gl. eonstructio) is generally used in the spiritual sense of edi- 
ficatio in Z. {cumtach wecolso, Z. 229), sometimes in that of striacture, and glosses 
fabrateria, Z. 777'. I agree with Z. in regarding the word as a compound, cum-tach ; 
the cum being a frequent form of the prep, con, and tach (= taca), being radically con- 

' In the Leabhar Breacc this passage runs : ocus is indte thucad hirrlahra do Zach. 

' Observe the so-called prosthetic « here: it is nothing but the n of the old accusative termination, 

' In the Book of Armagh : dubbert Patrice cumtach du Fiacc idon clocc 1 menstir 1 bachall -\ poolire, 
i. e. Patrick gave a cumtach to Fiacc [containing] to wit, a bell and a menstir and a crozier and a book- 
satchel. This cumtach, a neut. a-stem, seems a deriv. from the root of cum-main, box, or basket. Lib. 
Hymn. 3 a, cuimin, "a little chest or box," O'R. O'D. Gram. 437, derives it "from the verb comhad or 
coiraead [0. Ir. coimet arfuacht, " a defence against cold," Corm. cited O'D. 294] to keep or preserve." 

104 -4 Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

nected with tech (house) : cf. roirtchemn (Book of Armagh, 16 a, 2) = Ver-%-ema-8, 
Vortigem, cuimtgim (gl. architector, gl. construo), Z. 439, comrotgatar, Z. 843. Is 
this root TAK, ia the Vedic tak-ma-s, "child," with which Curtius connects teV-os, 
roK-oi, Tex-^Vt '^'^'■X'°^> To7x-os, tvk-o9, and of which Skr. r. taksh, to fabricate (whence 
takshan = Te'/cTiov'), seems an intensive. But indeed there are three roots, t-g, t-gh, 
T-K, the relations of which I am unable to settle. 872. Eemthechtas (gl. prepositio), 
see Z. 750; rem, a form of ren (before), and techtas, an abstract from techt, venire 
(cf W. taith, GauL Tecto-sagi, " march-sustaining :" and Skr. and Zend r. taneh, 
ire). Remthechtas also meant anteposition : alaaUi diib hi remthechtas ; alaili dam it 
coitchena eter remthecMas et tiarmoracht, " some of them are in anteposition ; others 
also are common between anteposition and postposition," Z. 985. As an infinitive, 
the word occurs in Patrick's Hymn : Intech de dom remthechtas, " God's way to come 
before me." Cf. i&ircsi-theoMas (transgressio), Z. 750. 873. Comfocul (gl. conjunc- 
tio), com + focul : focul dictio, Z. 968, taken from the Lat. vocabulum (focbhul, 
focvul), which would account for the non-aspiration of the c. Focul occurs in the 
nom. of the sing., dual, and plural in the following passage, from a fragment of Cor- 
mac's Glossary, preserved in the Book of Leinster : Trefoclae .i. trifoccuil bite ind .i. 
dafoccul dimolud dobrith forculu indimderggtha dofarci antress (leg. in tress) foccul 
.i. foccul indimdergtha -| aire; " Trefoclm, i. e. three words that are in it, i. e. two 
words of praise it gives behind the reproach, which makes the third word, i. e. a word 
of reproach and satire." From which curious definition it would seem that trefocla 
was a composition apparently satirical, but really laudatory. 874. Interiacht, and — 
875. Conipardid, from the Latin. (The 0. Ir. words for preposition, conjunction, in- 
terjection, and comparison, were remsuidigud, comaccomal, interiecht, and condelgg, 
Z. 982.) 

876-880. Inntindeach, like — 880. Coissegradh, a hybrid from the Latin. 877. Ba- 
ramail (gL opinio), baramhuil, O'R., Gael, harail, an opinion, conjecture, supposition, 
apparently a compound of samail, but what har stands for I cannot conjecture. 878. 
Togha (gl. electio), 0. Ir. togu, a stem in d (or t?) = du-VAGH-ad (or -at?) : is dichein 
immunr'ordad condan maicc togu, lit. it is long ago we were ordained that we should 
be sons of election, Z. 475 : Gael, tughadh. 879. Blighedh (gl. ratio), v. supra. 
880. Coissegradh (gl. eonsecratio), like W. cysegriad, a hybrid from the Latin consecro 
(the n being lost before s, as usual), 0. Ir. coisecrad : Asbert fiacc frisinaingel nan- 


' Cf. the Gaulish con-to-to-s (in the inscription of Auton), and perhaps 0. Ir. Tassach (St Patrick's 
artificer) = Tax-aca-s. 

A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 


drigad contiscd patricc dothoorund a luic leis -\ dia clioisecrad -\ combed huad nuggabad 
[gg, 77 = ng, Z. 282] alocc Dulluid iarsuidiu patricc cufiacc 1 durind alocc les "| cut- 
secar [log. cu-t-secar], "Piacc said to the angel that he would not go till Patrick came 
to measure his place with him, and to consecrate it, and so that it might bo from him 
he should receive his place. Patrick afterwards went to Pi'acc, and measured his place 
with him, and consecrated it," Book of Armagh, 18 i. i. 

881-885. Cunidach (gl. omatio) — so O'E. cumMach, "an ouch, an ornament;" in 
Z. 1046, cumtach has uisse fii hiriss (gl. cum verocundia et sobrietate ornantes se), 
" an adornment that is fitting to faith." 882. Mtighsaine (gl. famulatio, service, ser- 
vitude), from nmgh, 0. Ir. mug, gen. moga, a masc. u-stem (= Goth, magus), and 
saine, which termination, forming abstract substantives from other substantives, occurs 
twice in Z. 739, viz., in coceUsiae (gl. societas, cele, socius), and in faithsini (gl. pro- 
phetise, faith, propheta). The termination is probably = -ss-an-ia, st-an-ia. 883. Ad- 
halltras (gl. fomioacio), adhaltras, Z. 750, a hybrid from adulter. 884. Comkdlds no 
comairle (gl. consolatio), "consolation or counsel:" comsolas, solas, from Lat. sola- 
tium, which the Irish of old probably pronounced solatsium". (N. B. — I doubt if 
this be a diflferent word from solas, happiness, the opposite of dolas, grief, which latter 
may either be derived from dolere, or have been produced on the erroneous hypothesis 
that the iirst syllable of solas was the well-known particle of quality) : comairle, in 
putting down which the glossarist evidently took consolatio for consultatio, occurs in 
Z. ace. sing, tre iagcomairli, Z. 826, nom. pi. ni rubtar gaitha for comairli, Z. 481, 
"your counsels were not wise," whence the word appears to be a fern, ia-stcm. The 
ace. sing, of the airle in com-airle occurs in the following gloss (Z. 1060): ama erbar- 
thar ochretsit ninta airli armban, ad v. " ne dicatur ex quo crediderunt non-est-nobis 
animus nostrarum mulierum," and the nom. sing, (compounded with dag, "good") in 
" ban buidich, is si ar dagairle," Z. 105 1, where I suspect Z. should have read arnda- 
gairle. Comairlle (with two I's), occurs in Z. 51, and he explains it by voluntas. I 
have never found the word with this meaning : but if Z. be correct, we might, per- 
haps, regard it as = com-are-valia, and recognise therein (with Dr. Siegfried) the Skr. 
r. vr (ex vae), to choose, icale, will, velle, cf. W. ewyll (du-valya), to will, Bret, ioul, 
Ir. tol (du-vala). Cf. airlam (paratus, promtus), Z. 733 : irlithe (obediens), Z. 766: 
irladigur (obedio), Z. 839. 885. Ainmneachadh (gl. nominatio), a deriv. from ainm, 
a name, declined infra. No. 991. 


' C before t, in Latia words, wa3 probably al8o pronounced t) : cf. comireire, Z. 233 = commerc-i-ari, 


1 o6 A Medim^al Tract on Latin Declension. 

886-890. Tighernas (gl. dominatio), W. teymas, "kingdom," from tigeme, as to 
which V. supra. 887. Geinemain (gl. generatio), from r. gan, " to produce," as to 
which V. supra, Gael, gineamhuinn; cf. Vedic janiman, janman, " birth." 888. Cer- 
tachadh (gl. correctio), Gael, eeartachadh (W. ceryddu, corrigere, seems for cerythu, 
and connected with correctus) ; cf. Lat. certus. The element cert enters into the 
composition of many words in 0. Ir. Thus, cocert (mendatio), cocart, corrige, cocarti, 
emendandum, Z. xiv. ; conaicertus (emendavi), foceirt deponit, &c. 889. Oihriugudh 
(gl. operatic), from olair (in Conn, opair, gen. oibre, a fern, i-stem = from Lat. opera 
(not opus, Skr. apas); cf. oipred, Z. 80, 476, gen. oipretho, Z. 766: dat. (sensu ob- 
scoeno) oc ind oipred, Z. 593, ace. amal rongab comadnacul diiun ata comeisseirge act 
rocretem oipred due, Z. 1040, gl. 15, "as we have co-burial there is co-resurrection, 
if wc believe in the working of God." 890. Reidhe (gl. planatio), leg. riidhe, level- 
ling, smoothening, from reidh, "plain, level, smooth," which occurs in Z. 1067 (with 
the meaning of " easy"), is reid foglaim in besgnai, "easy is the learning of morality;" 
and in Colman's Hymn, v. 33 : — 

Amal foedea in aingel tarslacc Petrum a slabreid 
Doroiter' dun diar fortacht, rop reid remunn cech n&mreid. 

As He sent the angel that delivered Peter from his chain, 

Let him be sent to us to help us, let everything tmsmooth be smooth before us. 

Cf. Bret. rei%, " ais^, facile." 

891-896. Cestugadh (gl. castigatio), "W. cystwyad, is, I suspect, a foreign word, 
as certainly is — 892. Compantus (gL associatio), fi-om compagan-u-s ; c£ however, 
O'E.'s ciasnugadh, which suggests a connexion with cesad ("W". cystudd?), rocess, 
pertulit, passus est, Z. 434. 893. Guidhe (gl. supplicatio), v. supra. 894. Taisbenadh 
(gl. monstratio), Gael, taisleanadh, "act of revealing, showing, or disclosing," 0. Ir. 
taispenad : 6 ruscaith tra do Sechnall in moludsa do denam, luid dia taispenad do 
patraic, i. e. "now when SechnaU had finished making this hymn [Ut. this praise] he 
went to show it to Patrick" (Pref. to Secundinus' Hymn, cited from Leabar Breace, 
by Dr. Todd, Lib. Hymn. 31) ; gen. sing. 6 dochotar imorro icenn taispenta ind 
immuin do griguir, "when, however, they had done showing [lit. come into the end 
of showing] the hymn to Gregory" (Lib. Hymn. pref. to Altus Prositor). Taispenad 
for taipsenad (taid-bs-ten-ad) v. supra. No. 846. 895. Foillsiugudh (gl. annunciatio), 
rather manifestatio : this word occurs, spelt foilsigud, in Z. 1 6, the gen. sing, foil- 

' Read dorfoiter, i. e. do-ro-foid-ther. 

A Medioeval Tract on Latin Declension. 1 07 

sichtho, Z. 85, foilsigthe, 255, and is derived from follus, Z. 664, folus, Z. 748, 751, 
"plain," "manifest." Soillsiughadh is, perhaps, a sister-form (soillse, light, Z. 51, 


896-900. Comparaid (gl. collatio, cf. comparit, Z. 973, "W. cymharu, to compare), 
and — 897. Comaineachadh (gl. communicatio), both appear foreign words ; compare, 
however, with the latter conmactar : ani nad comnactar doini trian ecne, " that which 
human beings do not comprehend (or conceive of) by their understanding," Z. 447, 702 : 
comain occurs in Cormac, and also in Z. 1050, gl. 18, with the sense of " obligation," 
" debt." Comman occurs in Fiacc's Hymn, v. 27, with the meaning of " communion," 
" the Lord's Supper :" — 

Anaia tassach di[a]Eus, intan dobert eomman do : 
Asbert monicfed' patricc : briathar tassaig nirba g6». 

Tassach remained after him, when he had administered the communion to him : 
He said that Patricli would come : Tassach's word was not false. 

The cognate "W. words are cymyn, "bequest, testament," cymanfa, "congregation" 
(m = mm). C£ Lat. communis from commoinis, Goth, gamains, 0., M. and N. H. G. 
gemein. 898. Timthirecht (gl. ministratio), cf. timthirigh, supra, occurs in Z. 260 : 
timtherecht cacha diilo " servitus omnis creaturae," and also spelt timthirect, tim- 
threcht, at pp. 771, 237, timdirecht (ace. sing.), p. 777 (do-imm-tir-echt). The root 
seems tab, Skr. tr, to go ; compare afi<pi7ro\os and Skr. parichara, " servant," lit. " one 
who goes about." 899. Ddnamh (gL procuratio), 0. Ir. denom, denum, gen. sing, 
denmo, Z. 733, means " a doing," " to do" (cf. denmusach, gl. factor, infra), a stem 
in u. Cf denim (facio), Z. 430 ; dene (fac), Z. 457 ; dened (facite), Z. 458 (leg. 
d^nim, dene, denid) ; denti (faciendum), Z. 473 ; denmid, gen. denmada (gl. factoris), 
Z. 766. 890. Boilhtiugud (gl. Actio), from delb, as to which v. supra. 

901-906. Eolas (peritia), leg. edlas? etv. supra. 902. Moladh (gL adulatio) laus, 
cf. molor (I praise), Z. 444; Bret, meulet laudatus, Z. 107, "W. mawl. The etymon 
may be magala, cf. /ler^akov, and the Gaul. Magalus, Magalius, Gliiok, 50, as moidim, 
another verb for I praise, is to be compared with Gaulish Mogit-marus. Molad occurs 
in Z. 989 : Is bees donaib dagforcitlidib molad in gni innanetside ara carat an rochlui- 
netar, " it is a custom of [lit. "to"] the good teachers to praise the intelligence of the 


1 Gloss : .L cosabuU itenim, " that is to Sabull [Saul, in the county of Down, lit. " bam"] again." 
Note the interesting form mo-n-icfed wherein mo, also spelt mu, is a verbal prefix, only occurring four 
times in Z. See Z. 419. Tassach was Patrick's artificer, and Bishop of B&ith-Cholptha, now Baholp. 

2 Gloss : quia uenit patricius iterum co sabull. 


io8 A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

hearers, in. order that they may like what they hear :" is huissc a molath (gl. lau- 
dandus), dat. sing, molud, mpra, No. 873, Z. 459. 903. Comtromugud (gl. coae- 
quatio), leg. eomtrummugud, equalization, balancing, lit. " making-equally-heavy," 
from trumm, tromm, "W. trwm (nipsa trdm — leg. trofii — for nech, gl. nulli onerosus 
fui, Z. 585); tromm occurs subsequently in composition: tromchride (gl. jecur), Z. 
825, i.e. heavy-heart; cf. etrumma, "non gravia," Z. 252; etrumme " dissimilis," 
Z. 84.3 ; cutrummus, simUitudo, Z. 751 ; hi cutrumus, ad instar, Z. 451 ; cutrummi, 
similes, Z. 843 ; fortrumme, opportunitas, Z. 843. 904. Cosmhailius (gl. simulatio), 
cosmUius in Z. (cf. ecsamlus, diversitas, Z. 751, 831), from the adj. cosmaU (W. 
cyfal, cyhafal), i. e. co-samaU con-samali-s, the simplex of which Bopp has justly com- 
pared with Lat. similis (an i-stem, as in Irish), to which we may add "W. hafal, Gr. 
o/iaXos (an o-stem) ; cf. also Skr. sama, Goth, sama, Eng. same, Slav. samu. Observe 
in — 905. Egcosmailius (gl. dissimulatio) an example of the mod. Ir. practice of writing 
the so-caUed eclipsing letter before the origiual tenuis. It need hardly be said that aU 
the phenomena of eclipsia (amongst which I by no means count the apparent change of 
s Lato t) are explicable by reference to the medializing influence of n on c, p, t, and /, 
and to the tendency of h, d, and g, respectively, to become assimilated to a preceding 
m, n, and ng. Egcosmailius, however, seems merely an example of the ordinary sink- 
ing of the 0. Ir. tenuis to the corresponding medial. 

906-910. Urlamas (gl. sequestratio, properly " a depositing of money, &c., ia dis- 
pute") is wildly guessed at by O'E. "possession, supreme power and authority; cap- 
tivity," but is correctly explained by C. (who spells the word urlamas) " the placing 
anything in the custody of a person ; as in the laws urlamas coitcenn means the placing 
of contested property in the hands of an indifferent custodian, imtil its true owner is 
defined by law." Cf. irlam (paratus), Z. 252; erlam, Z. 7 ; compar. erlamu, Z. 284. 
907. Faidiugud (gl. prolongatio), from fot, length, v. supra. 908. Ldrgn'im is exactly 
satis-factio. "With lor, lour, laui, Z. 123, 309, 607, 889, 1000 (enough), cf. "W. llawer 
multus, multitudo, Z. 123. Hence 0. Ir. loure, sufiicientia, and Z. 30, compares Lauro, 
Lauriacum, Laurentius. Gn'im, gen. gnimo, is of frequent occiurence in Z., and is 
connected with the root of do-gniu, facio (= du-genaiu ?). 909. Athcumiledh (gL remu- 
neratio) seems from aith = ati (Gaulish ate), which stands for the Lat. re-, and cumal 
(a fern, a-stem), said to mean the value of 3 cows, which occurs twice in the following 
passage : digeni cummen cetaig ritha3 frieladach m[acc]maile odrse tigeme cremthinnas 
arech' .n. donn rith* intechsin fricolman. nam bretan wchumil .n. arggit^ Luid in 

' Observe the transported « of the ace. sing, of ech, viz. ech (n). 

' Obse;ve the transported n of the ace. sing, of cumal, viz. cumil (n). The passage above qaoted is 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 109 

ehumahm duforlog oclitir acliid : "Cummen made a mantle, which was given to 
Eladach, son of Mael Odrse, lord of Cremthinne, for a brown horse. This horse 
was given to Colman of the Britons for a cumal of silver. This eumal went in 
addition to the price of Oehter Achid" (Book of Armagh, 17 h). 910. Dkliugudh 
(gl. deductio), if I read the word aright, seems literally " a leading away from the 
road, or path," di-slig-ud, v. slige, sitpra, and of. disligeach, "deviating," O'E., Gael. 
disleach, " straggling." 

91 1-916. Cengal (gl. compilatio), v. supra, No. 147. 912. Eitelladh (gl. revolutio, 
leg. evolatio?) I have never met elsewhere. O'E. has eataladh, a flight, eiteallach, 
"flying, bouncing," Gaelic, itealaich. 913. Comairemh (gl. computatio), Gael, co- 
maireamh, apparently a weakened form of comaram, "W. cyfrif numeratio, from aram, 
numerus, W. eirif, rhif, A. Sax. rim, gerim (of. rhyme?), see Z. 912. 914. Bennacht 
(gL benedictio), 0. Ir. benedact, bendacht, "W. bendithio, "to bless." 915. Mallacht 
(gl. maledictio), 0. Ir. maldacht, maldact, gen. maldachtan, aoc. maldaotin, Z. 584, 
from maledictio, Z. 270, W. melldith {ct always becoming th in Welsh, cht in Irish). 
916 Lamaccan, leg. lamagdn, which, according to O'E., means "groping," Gaelic, 
Idmhagan, " handling." 

917-921. Ailgitiecht (gL mitigatio), connected with 0'E.'s ailgjiean, soft, smooth, 
kindly; algenaigim, algenigim (gl. lento, gl. tardo), Z. 431. 918. Comma (gl. tal- 
liatio) ; there is probably some blunder here (leg. comain, remuneratio ?). I have never 
met " comma" elsewhere. 919. Colund (gL caro), in Z. 740, colinn, gen. colno, colna, 
perhaps connected with kravya, Kpea^, caro, 0. H. G. hreo, gen. hrewes, cadaver. 
Cf the W. calaned, " carcasses;" perhaps, also, calon, " heart." 920. Laidire (gl. for- 
titudo), deriv. from Ididir (fortis), of which the compar. occurs infra. 921. Imad (gl. 
multitude), O'E.'s iomad, for immad, imbad, imbed, gl. ops, nopia, Z. 75 (cf. Ambitui), 
a deriv. from imb = Gaulish ambi = Skr. abhi, Gr. a/t04', Lat. amb-, N. H. G. um, 
Eng. um-, in Fuller's umstroke, circumference. 

922-926. Meid (gl. magnitude), in Z. meit =W. matnf, Com. myns, a fern, i-stem 
= maganti? 923. Loighedh (gl. parvitudo), laget, Loab. Breacc, cited Lib. Hymn. ed. 
Todd, 30, "W". Ueiad (diminution) ; cf. laigiu minor, Z. 283, "W. llai (= ekdaawv for 
eXax""", andlcvior, Skr. laghiyans), superl. lugimem, Z. 1 128, "W. Uciaf. 924. Teirce 
(gl. raritudo), from teirc, gl. ranis, supra = duseirg; cf. scirg-lige, "bed of consump- 
difficult. Rithas seems the 3rd sing, imperf. pass, of an irregular verb, the 3rd plur. iniperat. act. of 
which occurs in Z. 238 : ni rial na danu diadi aran indeb domunde (gl. non turpe lucrum sectantes sint 
diaconi), "let them not give the divine gifts for worldly advantage," 3rd pi. pret. pass, ro-ratha, Fiacc, 25. 
Ct the Cornish ry, rey, "to give" (Norris' Cornuh Drama, ii. 282), W. rhoi. 

no A MedicBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

tion," ar ni aill seirge oc cursagad, " for no loss (?) is weakness in reproaching," 
Z. 1056. 925. Leithne (gl. latitudo), "W. llydanodd, from the adjectives lethan, llydan 
(Z.'slothit, p. 770, ace. sing, is from leth). 926. Airde (gL altitude), derivatives from 
lethan, broad, and ard, high, as to which v. supra. 

927-931. Maisse (gl. pulchritude), O'R.'s maise, maisi (gl. decor), Mimaisi (gl. 
indecor), infra, 1083, 1084, 1108, 1109. Maisse occurs in Z. with the intensive er- 
preflxed: is fuasnad dut' menmainsiu tuisled ho ermaissiu flrinne trimrechtrad na 
tintathach, Z. 1064, gl. 4, "It is a disturbance to thy mind to fall from the love- 
liness of ti'uth, owing to the variance (trimrechtrad = tri in-brechtrad ?) of the iater- 
preters." Hence maisse in 0. Ir. must have been either a masc. or a neut. ia-stem ; 
cf. "W. maws, "pleasant." 928. ^«?d«« (gl. aegritudo). 929. i^««W« (gl. longitude), 
from sldn saAfot, as to which v. mpra. 930. Tripulta (gl. triplicacio), "W. triphlygiad, 
a deriv. from tripul, triplex, threefold, not met elsewhere. Diahul, of which the dat. 
sing, occurs in Z. 968 : a buith ar consain dialuil (gl. pro duplici consonante digamma 
positum, i. 6. " its being for a double consonant"), has, perhaps, lost the guttural (but cf 
affXoos, ^tjrXoos), which is preserved in the W. plygu, to double, root plak, Skr. prch, 
vXeK-u), plic-o, plec-t-o, 0. H. G. fleh-t-an. 931. Cetliarduhhladh (gl. quadruplioatio), 
W. pedwardyblyg (c£ Ir. dublaighim, I double), the Ir. and W. -dubladh, dyblyg, 
losing their primitive meaning of " two-folding" in the general idea of " folding." 
Cf coicdiabail, "five-folded," infra, note on No. 1053. 

932-936. Uisgemlacht (gl. limpitudo), a deriv. from uisgemail (uisce-samail). 
933. Curchuslach no gilcach (gl. arundo) : for curchuslach perhaps leg. curchaslach, 
the middle syllable being represented by a contraction which may be read either as 
or MS (curchas, gL arundo, Z. 84). The syllable -lach, perhaps originally a subst, 
occurs frequently in Z. : teglach, "family;" goithlach, "swamp;" matharlach, "ma- 
trix;" mimasclach, "hinge;" oclach, "a body of youths;" aslach, "persuasion;" 
eUach, "union," &c. Here, perhaps, the scribe mistook arundo for arundinetum. 
Z.'s curchas seems derived from a stem identical with that of the Lat. carex. 933. 
Gilcach (0'R.'s giolcach, "reed," "broom," also a place where reeds grow: Gael. 
cuilceamach), occurs in Corm., and also in a passage from the Brehon Laws, cited by 
Dr. Petrie, R. T. 62 . losa fcada, raith, aiteand, dris, fraech, eideand, gilcach, spin, 
which he thus translates : " The Losafeada [shrubs] are fern, furze, briar, heath, 
ivy, broom, thorn." 934. Fainleoc (gl. hirundo), leg. fainleoc, a dimin. of fannall 
(='W. gwennol. Com. guennol, Bret, guenneli), which glosses hirundo in Z. 731, 
Gael, ainleag. Cf. mnellus cristatus, the lapwing. Does the diminutival suflx eoc 
stand for yavanka? 935. Ndit. escuing urcoidech (gl. hirudo, horseleech) : ndit (cf. 

" naid, 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 


"naid, sf. a lamprey," O'll.), seems = nanti. Escuing erchoidech is lit., according to 
O'D., " noxious eel." Escuing (= O'R.'s eascu, easga eisgan, Gael easgann) I have 
not seen elsewhere; urchoidech is Z.'s erchoitech, gl. nocens, Z. 199. 936. Bealbh 
(gl. imago), W. delw, a fcm. a-stem = a Gaulish delva. 

937-941. Lorgarecht (gl. indago, investigation, tracing from), lorg, m. track, "W. 
Uyr, which occurs in Conn., and also in Z., spelt lore, gl. trames, whence also lor- 
gairim, I track, investigate ; lorgaire, tracker, investigator ; lorgair, a dog (cf. Eng. 
lurcher) ; lorgad = "W. Uyriad. Compare also iaxhrg, which word I have only met in 
Bishop Sanctain's hymn, 1. 2 : dia dam finlorg [.i. darmesi] dia tuathum [.i. frim 
atuaith] dia dom thuus [.i. remum] dia dessam [.i. frim asoer], " God to follow me, 
God at my left hand, God to precede me, God at my right hand." In Com. and Bret, 
we have l&rgh, lerc'h: see If orris, C. D. ii. 428, where the old Cornish trulerch (gl. semita) 
is ingeniously explained as = truit-fcrc^, " foot- trace." 938. Sdelchoire (gl. urago, 
i. e. vorago, whirlpool) is spelt in Z. 37, saebchore, in Z. 827, saibchore, and glosses 
syrtium. The first element of the word is obviously saeb, soib, falsus ; the last, 
coire, core, Z. supposes to mean "places" (cf. coor, gl. locus, Z. 29), but perhaps 
it is the eoire, gl. ealdarium, supra: cf. Corryvrecan, L e. Coire Bhreccain. 939. 
Derge (gl. rubedo), rust, lit. "redness," from derg, 0. Ir. derc (cf. derc martre, supra), 
whence the diminutive adj. dercaide (gl. rubrenus), Z. 1008'. 940. Gerrguin (gl. 
sanguisuga, leech, " bloodsucker") is O'R.'s gearrghuin, " a horseleech." The deriv. 
is obscure, but cf. Gael, gearr, "cut," "bite," Irish gearradh, " cutting:" guin seems 
an i-stem from r. gonaim, vulnero, gonas, who wounds. Conn, nkramgonat fir, "let 
not men wound me," Z. 933 ; gerrguin may therefore be lit. " that which wounds by 
biting. Geal tholl, a Gaelic word for leech, seems connected with "W. gel, gelen, 
gelue, Corn, ghel, Bret, gwelaouen, gweleonnen : Pictet compares Skr. jaluka. 941. 
Suithe (gL fuligo, soot) = W. swta, where the sibilant and tenuis are preserved, be- 
cause swta is from the Eng. soot. 

942-946. Tes (gl. calido, infra, gl. calor), " heat ;" so in 0. Ir. : gen. in tesa, gl. 
caloris, Z. 231, Com. tes, gl. fervor, Z. ii 12, "W. tes, Bret. tez. Can tes be = tepsu ? 
Skr. r. tap, Lat. tep-ere, the ultimate connexion of which with Skr. dah, Vedic dabh, 
Ta0, is not yet clearly understood. 943. Ord (gl. ordo), "W. urdd, is 6rd, ordd in Z. : 
m pu libsi mtdrd-so act ba la amircsschu (this order was not with you, but with the 
unbelievers), Z. 666, gen. uird, Z. 70. Hence it appears that the word is a masc. 


• Other adjectives formed by this suffix are rotaide, " reddish," Vit. Adamn., and fliuchaide, "moist," 
" damp," from fliuch, " wet." 

112 A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

a-stem = arda, and cognate with, but not, like N. H. G. ordn-ung, taken from Lat. ordo, 
a stem in n.. Orddan, a deriv. from this word, occurs in Fiacc's Hymn, v. 25 : — 

Asbert [t]orddan do mache : do crist atlaigthe' bnide : 
Docham nime mosrega : roratha duit du guide. 

He said, " Thy dignity shall be at Armagh : to Christ offer thanks: 
To heaven thou shalt come : thy prayers have been granted to thee." 

The dat. sing orddain occurs in Ultan's Hymn to Brigit. Cf. also with 6rd the Gaulish 
Ordo-vices. 944. Merlach na comla (gl. cardo, hinge), " the merlach of the door." I 
have never met merlach elsewhere ; shall we read merlach, and connect it with mer, 
"finger" ? 945. Smerdid (gl. carbo), O'R.'s " smeardid, s. f. a burning coal, an em- 
ber ;" cf. perhaps, W. marwydos and Germ, schmoren. 946. Gilla naneach (gl. man- 
go), " servant of the horses :" in the MS. the article is written along with its subst. 
(nmieach), and in Mod. Ir. nan each would be written phonetically na n-cach, but this 
transportation of the termination of the gen. plur. of the article must be of very recent 
origin, as in Scottish Gaelic it is preserved at the present day with the na. In 0. Ir. 
there can be no question that the final n of the longer form " innan" was transported 
to the followiag substantive beginning with a vowel or medial ; but I never find any 
indication that this was the case with the short form "nan." 

947-951. Bruach (gL margo), sic in Z. 28 ; a word still used by Lowland Scotch 
curlers; cf. the Gaulish Andc-brocirix, Brocomagus, Eng. brink? 948. Aodh, in the 
Book of Armagh, Aed, a man's name, 0. Ir. gen. Aedo, Aeda, Aide (connected with 
the Gaulish tribe name Aedui, for aidvi). Aed, Z. xxxii. means "fire" (acd .i. 
tone, Conn. W. aidd), and is related to Gr. oi'(9(u, al0o^, atOiof-, I0ai'vea0ai, Hesych., 
Lat. sedes, aestus, sestas (Curtius, Griech. Etymol. 215), Ved. edha, m. edhas, n. 
"fuel;" vriddhi-form aidh, f. or aidha, m. 0. H. G. eit, "fire," Ang.-Sax. ad, &c. 
The name Aed is either an i- or an u-stem, I cannot say which : it is formed by vrid- 
dhation from a root idh = Skr. indh, to kindle. The name in question occurs in the 
following passage from the Book of Armagh, 1 8 J, i : Epscop aed boi isleibti luid 


' Observe this interesting form of the 2nd pers. sing, imper. It also occurs in Z. 840, atlig-the 
buide, and in the Booli of Arraagli, 178 i, 2 ; nutasigthe (nu-t-asigthe) du gallasu (gl. calcia te gallicas 
tuas), which gloss sliould have been cited supra, No. 72. Compare the Jlid. Ir. forms notgebtha darahesi ol 
p&traicc, " put thyself in his place, said Patrick." — Pref. to Fiacc's Hymn. Gaibthi cloich isin tailm, a 
Loig I " Put a stone into the sling, Loeg !" Seirgl. Cone. Dr. Lottner regards these forms as taken from 
the 2nd pers. sing, of the secondary present, which in the indie, ended in -t/ie (noscomalnithe, Z. 1054, 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. \ 1 3 

duarddmachoB birt edoct cusegene duarddmachae dubbert segene oitherroch aidacht 
Undid "I adopart ded aidacht "| achenel 1 a eclis dupatricc cubbrath. Faccab ded aidacht 
la conchad luid coachad du art machas contubart fland feblae acheill doo -[ gabsi ca- 
dessin abbaith. " Bishop Aed was in Sleibte (Sletty) : he went to Armagh : he gave 
a bequest to Segene of Armagh. Segene gave another bequest to Aed, and Aed gave 
a bequest and his race and his church to Patrick for ever [lit. "to the Judgment"]. 
Aed left a bequest with Conchad. Conchad went to Armagh. Fland Feblae granted 
his church to him, and he himself (cadessin = fadessin) took the abbey." Coilboth 
mac oingusso male eogin, brecan mac aido, ibid. 18 i, 2. 951. Ploit (gl. uato) seems 
for Plait (gL Plato). 

952-956. Grian (gl. Apollo, infra, gl. sol, gl. Pean, gl. Titan), sun = grena, 
gen. sing, grene, greine, a fern, a-stem, and possibly connected with the name of 
the Gaulish Apollo, Grannos, which Dr. Siegfried compares with the Vedic ghrans, 
or ghransa, m. " sun-glow, sunshine, light." This is referred by Bohtlingk and Roth 
to the root ghar, whereto also belong Skr. gharma, " heat," ghrni, " sun ;" Oep/io^, 
fervere, Ir. garaim, and Eng. warm. The Gaulish Grannos appears in many Latin in- 
scriptions along with Sirona (= "S-ekijurj ? or perhaps, with Gliick, goddess of long life, 
Ir. sir, W. hir) ; cf. also ApoUini Granno Mogouno, with which Dr. Siegfried has com- 
pared Skr. maghavan, gen. maghonas, an epithet of Indra, &c. As to — 953. Duine 
(gl. homo), W. dyn. Com. den, and — 954. Nemduine (gL nemo), v. stiprd. 955. Ogh 
(gl. vargo) = oga, is apparently connected with 6g integer, oge integritas, virginitas, 
Z. 28, and occurs in Ultan's Hjrmn in praise of Brigit, line 7 : — 

Dorodba innunn ar colla' cisu 

In chroeb com blithaib, in m&thair isu: 

Ind {'n-og inmain, con orddain adbail (leg. aidbil ?) 

Biam soer cech inbaid lam' noeb do laignib. 

She has abolished within us our flesh's taxes, 

The branch with blossoms, the mother of Jesus : 

The beloved true-virgin, with vast glory — 

I should be safe at every time with my saint of Leinster. 

The abL plur. in Colman's Hymn, line 48 : 

Bendacht for erlam Brigit con ogaib herenn impe, 

A blessing on Patron Brigit with Ireland's virgins around her ! 


' Note here an instance of the governed preceding the governing substantive. 


114 -4 Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

Sometimes in the nom. siag. tlie 6 is resolved, and we find uag, gen. uaige : feil mar 
Muiro uaige (the great festival of Mary the Virgin), Felire OingusBO, May 3. 956. 
Slataidhe (gl. latro), apparently from slat (gl. virga), v. supra. Gael, sladaidh. 

957-966. Bretnach, from Bretan (Colmannam bretan, supra, No. 909), forBrettan = 
Britt-ana. Zeuss thinks that 0. W. hrith (gl. pictus) is connected with this name, 
"W. th arising from tt. But "W. th may also represent an original ct. Cf. 0. "W. setinet 
"broim-breithet, "volucria pectore variegata," Z. 1087, and 0. Ir. mrecht, varius, 
mrechtrad, varietas, ilmrechtrad, multa varietas, Z. 822. The following forms connected 
with a word so famous as Briton will prohahly interest : D. M. Phileti Br Mae (Momm- 
sen Eiim. inschriften der Schweiz, 124). Com bretonium (Gliick, 66). Marti Britouio 
(Orelli, No. 1358). Matribus ^n'^iis (from 5/-»#«burgum, in Bavaria, Orelli, 2094). 
The Greeks write B/jeTTov/a, BpeTravoi = W. Brython. 958. Faith hregach, lit. 
" lying prophet," 0. Ir. brecach, from brec, a lie, ace. s. breic dolum, Z. 79, breic, 
gl. mendacium, Z. 23; im brecairecht (gl. in astutia), Z. 580. 959. Fiadhnaise, inZ. 
fiadnisse, ancut. ia-stem, "witness, testimony," root vid, gunated; cf. nuiadnisse (no- 
vum testamentum), Z. 823, 824, for nufiadnisse. Fiadh = "W. gwydd. As to — 960. 
Comtrom (gl. par), and — 961, 962. Egcomtrom (gl. impar, gl. dispar), v. supra, No. 
903. 966. Bainne (gl. lac), milk, occurs in Cormac v. Arg, and is probably con- 
nected with banna "drop" (ni contesbad hanna ass, Brogan, 1. 88), and the Com. 
banne, gl. gutta vel stilla, Bret, bannec'h, Z. 11 19, from bann, a jet? 

967-976. Sgadan (gl. allec), in Corm. scatan, is a herring, W. ysgadan, cf. Eng. 
shad, N. H. G. schade ; probably a foreign word. 968. Mil (gl. mel), honey, cf. Lat. 
mel, mellis, for melt-is, Gr. fieXi, /x,e\n-09, Goth, milith : Mod. Ir. gen. media, a fern, 
i-stem, W. Com. and Bret mel. Neither in Irish nor in Greek does the l stand for 
d; cf meadh = "W. medd = filOv, Skr. madhu, 0. H. G. metu. Lit. med-u-s, " honey" 
(in the Mid. Ir. mesce, " drunkenness" (= med-scia), d has been lost). 995. Domblas de 
(gl. fel), lit. "bitterness of the liver;" do-mblas, opposite of so-mblas, gen. somblais, 
" sweetness, sweet," which occurs in the Ir. Nennius, 196, tipra uisce somblais i taeb 
in corainn, " a well of sweet water in the side of the Corann ;" bias = "W. bias, 
" taste :" the -m- perhaps for -imm. As to de, v. infra, No. 1032. 976. Ainmide (gl. 
animal), beast, brute; hence «mm!'a!Aefl(!A, brutal, brutish, O'E. 977. /S«/aw« (gl. sal), salt, 
sic in Z. 740, ace. sing, dinchloich dorigne saland (leg. salann), " of the stone she made 
salt," Brogan's poem on Brigit, 40: sailti, " salted," Lib. Hymn. ed. Todd, 20; c£ oXs 
(masc), sal, sale, Goth, and Engl, sal-t, Lett, sahls, Slav. solu. "In Greek," says Lott- 
ner (Zeits. vii. 24), " aX.s, as is well known, also means ' sea' [it is then feminine], and 
is radically connected with SXKofiai [from aaXjofnai], Lat. salio, which we find again 

A Medieeval Tract on Latin Declension. 1 15 

in Sanskrit in the forms sal, sar (sr), 'to go.' Thenco salila, 'water,' sarit, 'river,' 
saras, ' lake' = e Xos. Hence it clearly results that water is denoted by all these words 
as the 'bounding, leaping, bUlowing,' just as this meaning also lies in the Greek <rdX,os, 
Lat salum, ' the (leaping) sea-flood.' The passage from this fundamental idea {grund- 
anschauung) to that of the ' salty,' could only take place on becoming acquainted with 
a great salt sea. And so there can be no doubt that the European peoples were still 
unsevered when they reached the sea, whilst the primeval abodes (ursitze) of the stem 
lay remote therefrom;" W. halen. Com. haloin, halein, Bret, hal, halen, holen; Z. 
compares the Gaulish name Salusa. 

979-981. Cercaill (gl. cervical), and no doubt taken from the Latin, which, 
of course, is from cervix, neck or nape. Note the lengthening of the e, produced by 
.way of compensation for the loss of the v, and cf. futures like taiccera, dogena, asbera, 
doberat (Z. 1 1 26), for taiccerfa, dogenfa, asberfa, doberfat. 980. An'ibal ( Annibal), 
Ainm duini, "nomen hominis." 981. Comairleach (gl. consul), from comairle consi- 
lium, f. supra. 

982-986. Easpog = 0. Ir. epscop, from episcopus; cf. 0. W. pi. escip, Z. 684, 
Com. ispak. 983. Innarhtach (gl. exul) = indarbtach, v. supra. 984. Furachair (gl. 
vigil). 985. Nemfuireachair, "unwary." O^'R.'haa furachar, " watching, watchful, 
wary;" Gael, furachail, caxnivl, furachras, vigilance. Cf. W. gwarchad, " a guarding," 
gwarchadw, "to watch," gwarched, "toward, to watch," &c. 986. Glecaire (gl. 
pugil), cf. O'lL's gleic, "wrestling, jostling, combat, conflict, contest;" Gael, gleach- 
dair: pugil is glossed by cuanene in Z. 27. 

987-996. Neimthni (gl. nil, gl. nul), leg. neimhni; nem, nemh, is a mod. form of the 
0. Ir. neb, neph (pronounced nev ?), and nf is a thing : cf. do nephni, gl. ad nihil, 
Z. 830. The ace. sing, ni occurs in Z. 584, 586 ; and the nom. (or perhaps the ace.) 
pi. in Z. 442 ; na ni ararogartsom (res quas mandavit). This is one of the stems in i 
(like Hi, "lona," lit. "humilis") noticed in the Beitr. 462. 991. Ainm (gl. nomen), 
name, "W. enw, has been noticed supra. It may here be further observed that ainm 
seems = agnamant = Gr. o-vofiar, the -gnamant, -vofiar being the Lat. gnomen in co- 
gnomen, agnomen (for adgnomen)'. If, however, ainm was originally an ant-stem, 
it is, so far as I know, the only one in which the t has been mcdiaHzed, and then 


' It is well known that the Gr. stems in itar represent Skr. bases in man, Latin, in men. To identify 
these we must assume a common prototype nmnt. Curious, if a trace of this prototype be preserved in the 
second n of anmann. 


1 16 A Medioeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

assimilated to the preceding n (of. clann, eland = W. plant). At all events, in the 
oldest Irish, aimn is a neuter own-stem, and thus declined : — 

Sing. DnaL Plur. 

N. ainm (h) da naimn anmann 

G. anma, anmae da anma ? anmann (ii) 

D. anmaimm dib nanmannaib anmannaib 

Ace. ainm (n) da nainm anmann 

Voc. ainm (n) a da nainm a anmann 

992. Remainm (gl. prsenomen), "W. rhagenw, and — 993. Comainm (gl. cognomen), 
W. cyfen-w, are compounds with rem, com. 994. Tuighe (gL stramen, i. e. stratum), 
"straw-thatch," O'E. ; cf. "W. to, pi. toau, "layer, roof," toad, "roofing," Z. 163, 
874; comtoou, gl. stemicamina, Z. 291 ; cf. the Gaulish names Togirix, Togidia, To- 
giacus, ToyoSovfivo^ (leg. To'^jtoSovfivo^?), Togius, Togitius, &c., and 0. Ir. Toiguire, 
Book of Armagh, 2 a. 995. Didin (gl. tegimen), 0. Ir. ditiu, g. diten, v. supra. 
996. Arson anma (gl. pronomen), a pronoun, lit. "in lieu of a noun." 

997-1001. Sidhan gaeithe (gl. flamen), "a blast of wind," leg. sidan g., and cf. 
Gael, seideag. 998. Soillse (gl. lumen), v. supra. 999. Sruth (gl. flumen, gl. pluui- 
nar, No. 1042), a river, gen. srotha, srotho, "W". ffrwd, in 0. Ir. amasc. u-stem. Pictet 
compares Skr. srotas, river, from sku, fluere (from sbhrav ?). Cf. the Gaulish river- 
name <^povTK (Frutis), as Gliick, 35, reads Ptolemy's $/>oi)£«s. Cf. also the Gr. r. 
pv in peiu pev-aw, i-ppvrj-v, pev-pa, pv-TOi, &c. Lat. ru-o, riv-us, ru-mis (mamma), 
Lith. srov-e, srav-a. Curtius, G. E. i. 318, 319. The 0. H. G. strou-m, Eng. stream, 
have a t which I do not understand. 1000. Tairsech (gL limen), threshold; so in 
Cormac : tairsech, O'R., perhaps a deriv. from the prep, tars, Skr. root tar, to stride 
over or across, an old participle of which Bopp finds in the Lat. trans : cf. W. trothwy, 
and traws, tros; Bret, treuzou, from treuz. looi. Sliseog (gl. polimen), Gael, sli- 
. seag, " a chip, shaving ;" cf. the Eng. " slice." The glosser seems altogether to have 
mistaken the meaning of polimen. 

1002-1006. FiUdecht (gl. carmen), v. supra, l^o. 1. 1003. Sluagh (gl. agmen) 
= sloga, "W. llu. Com. luu : so in Z. 27, who justly compares the Gaulish (Belgic) Catu- 
slogi, "battle-hosts." He also compares X6-xp^, a troop, which seems a different word 
from \6xoi, an ambush, childbed. Dare we compare 0. H. G. slahan, Eng. slay, slaugh- 
ter? 1004. Shruileach (gl. fragmen), in O'R. spruilleach, " a small scrap, crumbs, frag- 
ments, ofial," cf. W. ysbwriaL 1005. Mardg (gl. trolliamen). I now feel con%-inced 
that mardg (Gael, marag, "gut of an animal," "sausage," "pudding") ia the modem 


A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 117 

form of maroc, gl. iolla, i. e. hilla, mpra, No. 55. Trolliamen is obscure to me. 
1 006. Blonacc (gL odomen, i. e. abdomen), the same as Blonac, which glosses arvina, 
No. 236. So in A. S., we have the same word for lard and paunch. Blonaco : "W,. 
bloncg : : sebocc : hehawg. Perhaps the cc (W. g) stands for anca. Cf. the Gaulish 
derivatives in anco, enco, inco, unco, Z. 773, 774. 

1007-101 1. Mullach (gl. culmen), v. supra, No. 838. 1008. Hind (gl. cacumen), fre- 
quent in Z., nom. s. ar rind-siu, 254, generally a neut i-stem, gen. s. renda, rendo, ace. 
frisa rind, Z. 236, nom. pi. n. rind, Z. 257 : na rind astoidet (gl. signa radiantia), but 
renda (masc.) in Adanman's Vision (early middle Irish) : Isat lana renda nime ocus red- 
landa ocus firmamint ocus ind iili dul don uallguba dermair dogniat anmanna na pec- 
dach fo lamaib ocus glacaib inna namut nemmarbdasin, "Full are the constellations of 
heaven, and the stars, and the firmament, and the whole world of the mighty lamentation 
which the sinners' souls make under the arms and hands of those immortal enemies." 
The following is a paradigm of the 0. Ir. declension of neuter i-stems : — 




1, fasi. 




Nom. and Ace. fiss 

da fiss 


G. fessa, fesso 

da fisse ? 

fisse (n) ? 

D. fiss 

dib fissib 


V. a fiss 

a da fiss 

a fess 

Rind is always rendered signum coeleste, constellatio, by Z., and unquestionally this 
must be its meaning in "ainm renda, gl. pisces," Z. 255; but its primary meaning 
seems "point," "mark" (cote in rinnd, gl. ubi . . . aculeus? Z. 361, where note the 
masc. article, in da errend, gL stigmata, Z. 254, and in this sense it is connected with 
the verbs tornther, Z. 595 (leg. torhder); dofoimde, Z. 974; toLmdet (do-fo-rindet), 
dofoLrndet, Z. 433, significant, tororansom, gl. signavit (do-fo-ro-rand-som), Z. 854; 
trimirothomdiussa (gl. transfiguravi), Z. 850 (where the d of the root is dropt or as- 
similated : in dofoirde, dofoirdet, Z. 56, the n of the root is lost). Hence it came to 
mean " the point of a weapon," " a headland" ("W. rhyn), " the top of anything," 
" a star." 1009. SU (gl. semen), W. hiL (There is another "Welsh form, sil, where 
the » is unexplained.) Z. compares the names Silo, Silus, Silius ItaHcus. 1010. Mn- 
nad (gl. gemincn, a doubling), O'R.'s eamhnadh ; cf emon, "a couple, twins," Corm. 
Mac na tri &Diemna, " son of the 3 fair twins," SeirgUge Cone, Atlantis, ii. 386 ; mat 


1 1 8 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

anmann adiechta emnatar, and is ecen comacomol hi suidib ("if noims adjective 
are doubled, there a conjunction is necessary between them," lit, in them), Z. 671. 
C£ Skr. yama, " twins," unless we regard (e. g.) emnatar as an early corruption of 
geminantur. ion. Aru (gl. ren), 0. Ir. aru, gl. rien, Z. 20, gen. aran, "W. aren, pi. 
eiryn. Com. aeran (Lat. rien, renes ?). 

1012-1016. Sealff no Areassan (gl. splen, the spleen) would be in 0. Ir. selg no dres- 
san, but I have never met either gloss elsewhere, except in O'E. (who has sealg, but 
not dreassan), and in O'D. Gram. 397, " mor cosmhaiHus risint seilg," " great resem- 
blance to the spleen." Selg (Bret, ffelc'h) seems to stand for s(p)lega; cf. air\a{'{)x- 
vo-v, oTfkxjv, Skr. plihan, Lat. lien. 1014. Int-inne iachtarach (gl. lien), the milt or 
spleen, certainly a blunder, for the Irish words mean " the lower gut" — inne, " a 
bowel, entrail," O'E., iachtarach, an adj. from iachtar (O'R.'s iachdar), the lower part of 
anything, 0. Ir. ichtar, Z. 147 n., 592, which seems connected with the prep, is, "infra." 
The suffix -tar (as in echtar = W. eithyr, uachtar = W. uthr, &c., Z. 823) seems iden- 
tical with the Skr. comparative suffix, -tara. 1014. Slind (gl. pecten) a weaver's reed 
or sley), so Z. 723. 1015. Cr««YiVe (gl. lyricen), «?. «Mpra, No. 5. 1016. Sdocaire (gl. 
tubicen, a trumpeter), from sdoc, a trumpet, O'E., Gael, stoc, " trumpet," " sounding- 

loi 7-1030. Tedaire (gl. fidicen, lute-player), from ted, Gael, teud, string of a mu- 
sical instrument, in 0. Ir. tut, gl. fidis, Z. 79 = W. tant, pi. tannau. Ski-, taiitu, pi. 
tantavas, Skr. r. tan, Lat. ten-d-o, Tcivvfiai, relvto. The n of this root seems preserved 
in seua-tana, gl. exilem, Z. 23, cf. Eng. thin, lavv, tenuis, &c. 1018. Gilla adhairee 
(gl. comicen, horn-blower), Ht. " lad of [the] horn ;" adhairee, gen. sing, of adharc, 
"horn, trumpet," O'E., whence the dimin. adercene, Z. 282, and the adj. adarcdae, 
gl. cometa, Z. 780; cf also adircliu (gl. cornix), Z. 727. 1019. Seideadh (of seidedh 
gaithe, si^ra), "blowing, blast," O'E. 1020. Muirduchu (gl. siren), Ut. sea-music? 
The nom. pi. occurs in a passage from Keating, cited in O'D. Gr. 177 : trialluid for 
muir agus teagmhaidh murdhuchainn doibh, " they put to sea, and sirens met them;" 
cf. duchann, "i. e. ceol, music," O'E., with which our -duchu seems connected : cf. 
also W. dyganu, " to chant" Siren is glossed by muirmoni in Z. 28 = W. morfor- 
wyn, "sea-girl" (morynyon pueUje), Z. 202. 1029. Mucc mara (gL dolphin), lit. 
" pig of [the] sea" (cf. W. morhwch, Corn, morhoch, Bret, morhouc'h, Ut. sus maris), 
mucc mora, gl. dolphinus, Z. 1114; cf. muccfoil, gl. hara, Z. 198 : mucc = "W. moch, 
and cf meichat, meichiat, "swineherd," Z. 106, 806, and the Gallo-Latin inscrip- 
tions, DEO. MEllCVE. MOCCO (Muratori, i. 51, Orelli, 1407) MAE. ET SVI, 
MEE. ET /Sr/(de Betouw, Be oris ei lapidibus ad Neomagum et Santenum effossis, 


A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 1 19 

&c., Neomagi, 1783). 1030. Colach (gl. cayn) is explained "incestuous, impious, 
wicked." It occurs in the gen. sing. masc. in a citation from Leab. Breacc. (Petrie, 
R. T. 369) : ba mor tra diumus -[ adclos, -\ bocasach in rig cholaig (leg. colaig?) sin, 
and its root occurs in Patrick's Hymn, where Patrick speaks of cech fiss a rachuiliu 
amnain duini, " every knowledge that hath depraved man's soul." Cf. cuil (gL 
piaculi), Muratori, Anfiq. Ital. iii. 891, cuilech (gl. prostibulum, Z. 431, gl. profanus, 
Z. 834), cuUigim (gl. prosto), Z. 431 ; serchuilecha (gl. tarn nefarii ausus), Z. 838; 
W. cwliawg. 1030. Deallrad (gl. jubar, radiance, splendour, brightness), Gael. 
dealradh, masc. 

1032-1036. ^e'(gl. hepar, liver), leg. &e, gen. sing, supra, No. 975, gen. pi. in Gael. 
dinean, 0. Ir. 6a (gl. jeeur), Z. 28 = W. afu. Com. aui, Bret, avu, may all, notwith- 
standing their great dissimilarity, be connected with 75ra/>, jecTir, and Skr. yakrt. 1033. 
Br6cc (gL sutolar), a shoe, " brogue," in Hiberno-English, is the "W. brycan, where I 
do not understand the c ; Gaulish bracca seems Bret, bragez. 1034. Ichtar na comladh 
(gl. lar), " the lower part of the door." 1036. Ri (gl. Caesar), a king = 0. Ir. rig, a 
masc. g-stem, and thus declined : — 




N. rig 

da rig' 


G. rig 

da rig 

rig (n) 

D. rig, rii 

dib ri'gaib 


Ace. rig (n) 

da rig 


Voc. a rig 

a da rig 

a riga 

The word occurs frequently in Gaulish proper names : nom. sing, reix, rix (= rig-s, 
n. pi. ri'ges, cf. Lat. reg (rex), Goth, reik-s, Skr. raj, in samraj, svaraj (Kuhn, Ind. 
Stud. i. 332)). 

1037-1041. Sruth, a river, v. supra, No. 999. 1038. Ith in aria (gl. far, spelt, 
meal, grits). Ith, gen. etho, etha, Z. 15, differs from ith (gl. puis), Z. 26 = 0. "W. 
iot (gL puis), Z. 60, now uwd, Z. 1 122, Com. iot. Ith (0. "W. it-laxa, gl. area, now 
yd. Com. hit, Z. 1109) has been compared by Kiihn (I. S. 358) with 0. N. aeti. 
Aria, O'R.'s arlha, com, perhaps connected with W. erw, "acre," Lat. arvum. 
1039. Sr6n (gL naris), a fem. a-stem, aec. s. sroin, supra, sronbennach, gl. rhinoceros, 
Z. 28. Sron glosses nasus, Z. 28, and, like "W. ffrocn, seems to have lost a guttural 

1 Cf. 0. W. dou rifi, Habren, "duo reges Sabrinse," Z. 157. 


A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

before n : cf. Com. fruc, Z. 89, where Norris would read friic, Gr. pv<^x°^- The « in the 
Irish form is put for/, as in srian, "W. firwyn, Lat. fraonum, &c., and the resemblance 
of sron to srenim (gl. sterto, Z. 14 = stemuo, ■Tnapw/iai) is therefore accidental. 1040. 
Lenmunach (gl. sequester), from lenamain, O'R.'s hanamhain, " following, pursuing." 
The root len in Z. 1022, gl. 14: lenaid din gutai thoisig, gl. ex superiore pendens 
vocali, Z. 1051, gl. 25, ar mad pecthad inti for a taibre grad, knit a pecthe dindi 
dobeir an grad, "for if he be a sinner on whom thou conferrest a holy -order [lit. a 
degree], his sins depend from him who confers the order" (1020). 1041. Shor an 
etch (gl calcar), lit spur of the horse ; sbor, perhaps not from the Eng. spur. Cf. "W. 
yspar, yspardun (eperon), Bret. sperU, "thorn." JSich, gen. sing, of ech. 

1042-1046. Sruth{g\. ■phrvinsi), V. supra. 1043. CWr ca«<a (gl. torcular, a wine- 
press or oil-press), lit. a board of twisting (a mangle ?), cldr, v. supra ; casta, gen. of 
casad, O'E.'s casadh, "a bending, twisting," &c. 1044. Buaile dam (gl. bostar, a 
cow-house), i««»7«, gl. vaccaria, supra; dam, " ox," v. svpra. 1045. C. grindifoilei 
(gL nectar), I cannot explain, unless the Irish be put for c\eannacK] grinde no foilce, 
" reward of baptism, or washing." I am indebted to C. for the following curious 
glosses: Biathad grinde no crinde .i. biadh cretmo .i. bathais .i. log in baistithi 
(H. 2, 15, MS. in the Library of T. C. D., p. 61, h), " food of belief, i. e. baptism, i. e. 
the reward of the baptized one." Crinne .i. ainm do baisti, ut est biathad crinne .i. logh 
na baisti intan imlinn -[ imbiadh doberar .i. 6 nf is credintibus bautisium [.i.] in 
baithis creidmedhe (O'Davoren's Glossary), " a name for baptism, ut est ' biathad 
crinne," i. e. reward of the baptism when much ale and food are given, i. e. since there 
is credentihus haptisma, i. e. the baptism of belie-vers." With foilee cf. folcaim, gl. 
humecto, gl. lavo, Z. 78, Gaulish Volcatius, Volca;, Z. 66, W. golchi, lavare, Z. 151. 
1046. Athair (gl. pater), 0. Ir. athir, is declined supra, No. 3, and has, as before ob- 
served, lost the initial^ (the root is pa, " to protect, to support, to nourish") : hence 
aitherrechtaigthe (gL patronymicum), Z. 972. "Welsh has lost the word corresponding 
with athair (W. tad = Skr. tata, carissime). The Breton compizrien (compatres) is, 
perhaps, a loan-word, but c£ "W. athrach, "relationship," cyfathrach, "affinity" (ach, 

1047-105 1. Brdthair (gl. frater) = brother, 0. W. brawt, pi. brodyr, Com. braud, 
broder, declined like athir, and found in all the Indo-European languages; Skr. 
bhratr (ace. bhratar-am), Zend, bratar, et v. supra. No. 570. The root, according to 
Bopp (Gloss. 253), is uncertain. Prof. Max Miiller, however, says that "the original 
meaning of bhratar seems to have been he who carries or assists" {Oxford Essays, 
1856, p. 16). In accordance with this view we may suppose brathair to stand for an 


A Medlceval Tract on Latin Declension. 1 2 1 

original bliratar, root bhra, from bhar (bhr, Ir. bae, roJor-t, tulit, Z.). In Old Irish 
this noun in the nom. sing, and gen. and dat. pi. (braithre, braithrib) seems to have 
gone over to the i-declension. Cf. the deal, of the Lith. stems dug-ter, mo-ter, gen-ter, 
seser, Schleicher, Handluch der Lit. Sprache, i. 193. 1048. Braen aimsire (gl. im- 
ber, rain-shower). Braen (leg. braen) seems broen, " pluvia," in Z. 41 ; so in Colman's 
Hymn, 1. 53 :— 

In spirut n6eb lonbroena, crist ronsoera, ronsena. 

The Holy Spirit rain upon us I Christ deliver us (and) bless us ! 

Braen is explained " a drop" by O'R. ; so, Gael.- braon, and this certainly seems its 
meaning in Ir. Nennius, ed. Todd, 206 : fofrith fer morulcach ind -\ hraena fola derge 
tains, "a great-bearded man was found therein, with drops of red blood over him." 
It is perhaps radically connected with W. bwrw, to cast, to throw : bwrw gwlaw, to 
rain. Aimsire, gen. of aimser, "time," "season," W. amser. 1049. Cularan (gl. 
cucumer, cucumber) is cularain in O'B. ; cf. W. cylor, " earth-nuts," Bret, keler. 
1050, 1051. Mi (gl. September, gL October), "W. mis, a month. The gen. sing is mis, 
= ma(n)8-a8, one of the few stems in « remaining in Irish, if, indeed, there be an- 
other. Cf. mis-tae, gl. mensumus, gl. menstruus, Z. 256; and Skr. mas, "moon," 
" month," Zend, maonh-, fi-qv, fueU, Lat. me (n)s-is (from mans, as can-is from kvan). 
1 052-1 056. Mdthair and Bean have been noticed supra, but with respect to md- 
thair = mkiax-i, I may here quote Prof. Max Miiller {Oxford Essays, 1856, p. 15): 
"Among the early Arians matar had the meaning of maker, from ma, to fashion ; and 
in this sense, and with the same accent as the Greek /»5/ti/^, matar, not yet determined 
by a feminine affix, is used in the Veda as a masculine. Thus we read, for instance, 
Rv. viii. 41,4 : — Sa^ mata purvyam padam. He, Varuwa (Uranos), is the maker of the 
old place." 1053. Bean (gl. mulier), 0. Ir. ben, must have had some curious irregu- 
larities in its declension. I have not yet found all the 0. Ir. forms, but the following 
list will probably prove correct so far as it goes : — 

N. ben 

Dual. Plur. 


G. mnaa ban (n) 

D. mnai nmaib 

Ace. mnai (n) (di mnai ?)' mnaa 

V. a ben a mna 

' DotbEiet c&chnlainn iarsin co tard a draim frisinliic ■\ baholo amenma leis -\ dofuit cotlud fair conaccai 


122 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

Here there seem to be three bases : i°, bani (ben) = gvani, Skr. jani; 2°, bana (ban) 
= gvana = r^vvr), BcEot. fiava, Vedic gna, for gana ; and 3°, a lengthened form mnava, 
for bnava, for banava ("W. benyw, Com. menny-w) = gvanava. What is the form Idn- 
dffi, "goddesses," Z. 280? Perhaps a double plural (nom. sing, bandea, ihid., gen. 
sing, bandeae, Z. 1029). 1054. SUnn criadh (gl. linter, i. e. later), "a brick, tile;" 
cf. W. pridd-faen, pridd-lech, lit. "clay-stone," where pridd = criadh. 1055. Catha- 
rach (gl. puber) = W. cedorawg, cf. "W. caitoir, gl. pubes, Z. 48, hod. cedor, " hair of 
pubescence," Bret, kczour, pubertas. 1056. Uth (gL uber), leg. iith, gen. utha, see 
swpra, No. 102. I think now that uth may have lost an initial p ; cf. "W". piw, " dug," 
" udder." 

1057-1061. JDocinelach (gl. degener), leg. dochinelach, from do, the particle of 
{juality before mentioned, and cinelach, an adj. formed from cenel, as to which v. 
supra. 1058. Bockt (gl. pauper), gen. sing. masc. ind aisso boicht, Z. 250; dat pL 
donaib bochtaib, Z. 823: cf. boctan, gl. pauperculus, Z. ni, and perhaps W. bycho- 
dawg (= boxataco ?), Com. bochodoc, gl. inops, Z. 295. Cf. Skr. bhiksh, "to beg," 
bhikshu, "beggar." 1059. Sine ochta (gl. uber), if this be what the scribe meant, 
sine, nipple, has occurred supra. No. 151, No. 1039 : ochta, gen. sing, of ucht, breast : 
V. supra, No. 812. 1060. Machaire (leg. machairech ?), gl. campester, v. supra. No. 
866. 1061. Caillteamhail (gl. Silvester), from caill and amail (= samaU, samali), 
apparently with the insertion of t before aspirated s (caill-t-seamail), as in min-t- 
siiilech, No. 430 : however, coill makes its nom. pi. coillte m modern Irish. 

1 062- 1 065. Uachtlanaidhe (gl. celeber), Uachlan (gl. saluber), have each the pecu- 
liar mark which the scribe seems to have placed where he was not sure of the correct- 
ness of his Irish gloss. Certainly he was right in putting this mark here. Celeber is 
glossed by erdairc in Z. ; saluber in 0. Ir. would be slan, sleinech, or slaintech. 
1065. Gruamda (gl. acer), from gruaim, surliness, Conn. v. Groma. Cf. "W". grwm, 
Eng. grum. 

1066-1074. Etechail (gl. volucer), in O'E. eiteaccail, "volatile;" cf. eite, quill, 
feather (= pettia?). 1067. Gdithamhail (gl. paluster), cf. goithlachde (gl. paluster), 
Z. 41 ; isin goithluch (gl. in palude), Z. 822. 1068. Eithidemail (gL acris, leg. ala- 
cris?), eithideamail (gl. alacris), apparently formed from a personal subst. eithid, 


minmndi [0. Ir. indimnai ?] cucai indalanai brat (ialne impe alaili brat corcra coicdiabail imsude (" then 
Cuchulainn went and put bis back against the rock, and his heart was low, and sleep came upon him. He 
saw the two women [coming] towards him — one of them [with] a green cloak around her, the other [with] 
a red, five-folded cloak round iieT").—Seirgli(/e Conculainn. 

A MedicEval Tract on Latin Declension. 123 

"goer," which I have not met, though eathaim, " I go," eathadh, " going," occur in 
O'R. With eathaim Bopp compares the Skr. r. at, ire. 1069. Uaidh (gl. polyan- 
drium), woKvavipiov, a common burial-place) should probably he read uaigh, "graves." 
1070. Emrrach (gl. ver), 0. Ir. errach, gen. erraig (it luathider gaith iierraig, "they 
are swifter than the wind of spring;" Seirg. Cone. Atlantis, No. iii. p. no). This 
interesting word (stem (v)erraka, for vesraka ? root vas, to clothe) seems to have lost 
the initial v, like urde, viridis, W. guyrdd, Z. 66, uisce = vad-scia ? water. Errach 
is derived by Cormac from the Lat. ver, but ver, though it may come from the same 
root, is formed differently. Ver is = verer = ves-era, the vowel-flanked « becoming r 
as usual, and the thematic a being lost, as in eap = Feaap, and as is usual when r pre- 
cedes it See Benfey, Q. W. i. 309. 107 1. Corp leghas (gl. cadaver), " a corpse that 
dissolves" (decomposes, decays) ; corp, gen. cuirp, now a masc. a-stem, like W. corft', 
pi. cyrff : both corp and corff, no doubt, were originally «- stems, but have gone over 
to the vocalic declension: v. supra, No. 812, and seem taken from the Lat. corpus. 
Leghas, 3rd sing. pros, relative of leghaim, the verbal subst. of which occurs in Z. 580, 
614, Ulobad ct legad (in corruption and dissolution); cf. also lechdacha, liquids (in 
grammar), Z. 968. Leghaim (cf. W. Uiaw, Uiad) is etymologically obscure to me, unless 
indeed Bopp be right in comparing it with a Skr. lay ami, r. 11 (liquefacere, solvere). 
As to the forms legh-as (pi. legh-ate), fut. leghfas, pi. leghfate, Schleicher, Beitr. i. 503, 
would regard them as the participles present and future active, only preserved in the 
nom. form of the sing, and plur. The form in s, he thinks, expresses the Lat. ns (the 
loss of n before s being common in Irish), while that in te, in the nom. pi. m. and f., 
would correspond with the Lat. ntes. It must, however, be observed that both these 
forms aspirate : thus, ar cech duine midus ^Arastar dam (" against every one that me- 
ditates evil to me," Patrick's Hymn) : cid druailnide inbes cAechtar in da rann, 
Z. 472, " quamvis sit corrupta utraque duarum partium :" les t^Auibseoh, Book of 
Armagh, 17 a, i. VhiT. foilsigdde pherwa. "quae significant personam," Z. 198; beta 
Muicsi "qui sunt electi," Z. 197. Hence, when thepractice of aspiration was intro- 
duced, these forms must have ended in a vowel, not in «; and I follow Professor Sieg- 
fried in regarding them as having arisen from the agglutination of pronouns, the rela- 
tive construction being originally an inverted one. 1072. Pipur (gL piper), from the 
Lat. 1073. SH slighedh (gl. iter): xai-seuit bite hi each crfch (paths that are into 
every country, lit. boundary), Z. 237. Hence, set appears to have been a masc. 
a-stem = senta. Gliick has compared the 0. Brit, name Gabro-sentum, which in Mod. 
Ir. would be Oahhar'sid, "goat-path;" Cf also "W. hynt, f. Bret, hennt, m. Com. eun- 
hinAa, just, Z. 145 ; 0. W. duguohintUiat (incedens), Z. 149; tidoihinto (?) per avia, 

R2 Z. 

1 24 ^ Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

Z. 866. The Irish seitche (= sintacia), "wife," originally an abstract nouii, like 
aipche, has been referred by Dr. Siegfried to set. So much for Celtic cognates. In 
Gothic "we have " sinths m. (Schulze) Mai, z. B. in ainamma sintha, tvaim sintham 
einmal, zweimal, vrm. eigentlich Gang, Reise (= Mai in mehreren deutschen Sprachen) 
gasintha, gminthja m. Gef iihrte, aweKSyfios ; pi. genossenschaft, awoSia." Dief. Goth. 
■Worterbuch, ii. 210, 2i i, where hi/nt and seud (= 0. Ir. set) are also compared, as well 
as 0. H. G. sind (iter, trames), M. H. G. gesende (comes), A. S. gesi^, sendan, Eng. 
send, &c. Sligedh, gen. sing, of 8ligi,gl. via, supra. 1074. Lealg (gl. spinter), 0. Ir. 
delg, gen. deilg, thorn, pin, A. S. dale, has been compared supra with Com. delc(h). It 
occurs in the St Gall incantations, Z. 926, imm an delg (around the thorn), manibe an 
delg and (unless the thorn be there). Hence, it appears to have been a neut. a-stem. 

1075-1079. Cac galhar {^ ruter), "goats' dung" (excrement), leg. caccg. = W. 
each; cf. Lat. caco, Gr. icaKKaw, kukkt), Skr. gakrt, in the weak cases qakan, Lith. 
szeku : the German kacken infringes Grimm's law. Galhar, W. gafar. As to galhar, 
V. supra, No. 372. 1076. La oirrthi (gL juger, an acre) I cannot explain, unless the 
Irish be for la-airthe, " a day's ploughing" (airthe, from aratio?), i. e. as much land 
as can be ploughed in a day ; cf. "W. aradu, to plough. There is probably some blun- 
der in the gloss. 1077. N6in (gL vesper, evening), from the Lat. nona (the third 
hour before sunset), with change of declension ; W. nawn, A. S. non, Eng. noon, Dan. 
noen. 1078. Oide (gl. nutritor), 0. Ir. aite, which occurs in a gloss in Z. 1066, air- 
danimmart greim a aite, " his rearer's influence constrained him." (Note the geni- 
tive's identity with the nom., aite, not aiti. Perhaps, however, aite is the gen. plnr.) 
The word also occurs in the Leabhar Breacc Sermon on Brigit, cited by Dr. Todd, Lib. 
Hymn. 65 : Ise a hathair na noemoigise intathair nemda, ise a mac Isu Crist, ise a 
haite in Spirit noeb, "this holy virgin's father is the heavenly Father: her son is 
Jesus Christ, her nurturer is the Holy Ghost." The non-aspiration of the t in aite 
can hardly be explained, except by assuming its original duplication (as in cruitire 
= crottaria) ; aite would then represent a primitive attia, which may be compared 
with Skr. atta, mother ; Lat. atta, Fest. Gr. utto, Goth, atta, father ; aithei, mother ; 
O. Bohem. ot. 1079. Onoir = honor, whence it is taken, but with change to the i- de- 
clension, as in preceptoir, &c. 

1080-1084. LegUoir is from the Latin lector [lego], which would regularly be- 
come lechtoir : the Irish root leg, read ; in roleg fanacc, did he read or not ? Z. 1434, 
exhibits a strange lengthening of the vowel : cf. "W. magwyr = maceria. Leg enters 
into composition : act arroilgither (ar-ro-leg-fither) ind epistilse diiibsi berthir uaib 
Laudocensibus et doberthar ind sepistil scribther do suidib con arlsegthar (= ar-leg-atar) 


A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 125 

duibsi, ' ' when this epistle shall have been read to you, let it be brought from you to 
the Laodiceans ; and let the epistle that is written to them be brought so that it may 
be read to you." Z. 1044, con arlegidsi, gl. vos legatis, Z. 1044. In legal -s, the 3rd 
sing, pret., the verb in question seems to have passed over to the ai (e) conjugation : 

Inn insib mara torrian ainis, innib adrimi, 

Legais canoin la german, ised adfiadat I'lni. — Fiacc. 6. 

In the isles of the Tyrrhene sea he remained, in them he meditated : 
He read the canon with Germanus ; this histories make known. 

Soleghta, soleghta, gl. legihilior, infra. The root sceib has also been borrowed, and 
we find it in what is supposed to be the oldest IfS. containing specimens of the Irish 
language, viz., the Book of Dimma (Library of T. C. D.). Thus, at the end of St. 
Matthew's Gospel : oroit' dodimmu rod«mJ [" pray ye for Dimma who wrote it"] pro 
deo "I benedictione ; at the end of S. Luke's : oroit dodianchridiu disnoscrilad [" pray 
ye for Dianchride, for whom was written"] hie liber et dodimmu ["for Dimma"] 
scribenti, amen . . . (Dimma is supposed to have written this A. D. 620). 1081. Gradh 
(gl. amor). Bopp (Gloss. 107) refers this to the Skr. r. grdh desiderare appetere, with 
which goi^e (famine, Goth, gredus, hunger) has been connected supra : cf. also 0. Jf. 
grad, Eng. greed. 1082. Boctuir, from the Lat. Anamchara, lit. " soul-friend," is the 
beautiful 0. Ir. word for doctor, teacher. 1083. Maisi (gl. decor) — 1084. M'lmaisi (gl. 
dedecor), leg. maise, mi'maise, et v. supra. 

1085-1089. Saethar (gl. labor), in Z. saithar (n. ?), gen. saithir : is uisse log a 
sdithir do chach (just is the reward of his labour to every one), Z. 1051 ; astorad 
mithir do (Book of Armagh, 184 h, top margin), ace. sing, cen saithar, Z. 251. 
1086. Tes (gl. calor), gen. tesa, Z. iz = "W. tes, " sun-heat;" perhaps = tepsu, Skr. r. 
tap. 1087. Dath (gl. color), dat. pi. secht miiir gloinidi con dathaih examlaib in 
a timcheU, "seven chrystal walls, with various colours around it," Vis. Ad. 1088. 
Boltanaih (gl. odor), cf. ni loUigetar side lolad, " non odorem faciunt hi," Z. 447. 
1089. Brentus (gl. fetor), v. supra. 

1 090- 1 094. Denmusach (gl. factor) from denmus, O'E. deanmas, an effect, and this 
from denum, "to do." 109 1. Doilbtheoir (gl. fictor) has been noticed supra. 1092. 


' The Lat. orate, hibemicised. Oratio was also imported : I have not met the nom. sing., which must 
have been orathe, oirthe (cf. coibse, from confessio), but the ace. sing, orthain occurs in the Lib. Hymn., 
p. 32 : Ninine ecas dorine maorthainsi no fiac sleibte, " N. the sage made this prayer, or Fiac of Sletty." 

126 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

Cennaidhe (gL emptor), O'E.'s ceannaidhe, " a merchant, any dealer :" cethrar imorro 
Toscennaigsim patraic, " now four persons purcliased Patrick" (Pref. to Secundums' 
Hymn). 1093. Bidnighteoir (gl. protector), 0'R.'8 dideanoir, "protector, guar- 
dian," from ditu, gen. diten, as to ■which v. supra. 1094. Boc (gl. tener), hod. bog, 
"soft, tender, penetrable," O'R., of. buigi (gl. moUior), infra, Bret, bouk, "soft;" 
hence the Engl. " bog." 

1095-1099. Figiddir (gl. textor), flgheadoir, O'R., " a weaver," from the causal 
verb figim, I weave, Conn. (W. gwau, gweu, Bret, gwea, to weave). Bopp (Gloss. 
335) refers to the Skr. r. ve, texere, suere, and compares Lat vieo, Gr. ^-Tpiov, Lith. 
udis, textura; see also Diefenbach, G. W. i. 148, 431 ; Benfey, Gr. "W. L 287. To the 
Engl. " weave," web, 0. H. G. web-an, &e. (see Curtius, G. E. i. 261), we cannot yet 
quote the corresponding forms in Old Irish and "Welsh. 1096. Triallatdir (gl. nitor, 
attempter). The stem from which this noun is formed occurs in the Lib. Hymn, 
(pref. to Fi'acc's Hymn) : " dentar trial [mo] berthasa, ol Dubthach, con accadar 
Fiac, "Let an attempt be made to tonsure me," said Dubthach, " so that Fiac may 
perceive it." 1097. Fliuchidect (gl. liquor), from fliuchaide humidus, Z. 272, v. 
mpra. 1098. Cumdaightdir (gL conditor), cf. cumtach, eedificatio, Z. 229, 777, 1046. 
1099. Maigister (gl. retor, leg. rector), from Lat. magister. 

1 1 00- 1 104. Sendir, from the Lat. senior (which would, I think, more regularly 
have become sinoir); W. henwr = hen-gwr, a Gaulish senoviro-s. iioi. Eiatid6ir 
(gl. auditor), cf. O'R's eistim, "I hear;" by metathesis for 0. Ir. etsimm, cf. heitsidi 
(auditores), eitset (audiunt), Z. 23, 87; foeitsider (subintelligitur), Z. 34; foetsecht, 
subintellectio, Z. 771 : the preservation of the t suggests the loss of an «. 1102. 
Croidhe = cradia, cridio, in 0. Ir. an ia-stem, neuter like Skr. hrdaya, Zend zeredha-ya, 
Goth, hairto, and Slav, sriidice, while Gr. Kaphla, and Lith. szirdis, are fem. The 
gen. and dat. of cride occur in the following gloss from Cormac : Tore, .i. nomen 
do chridiu ut etan dixit. W\ fo' in dam dom mo thuircc .i. mo chridi im chliab cofil 
forcrith. " Twc, i. e. a name for the heart; as Etan said, ' not good is the throbbing 
' of my torcc, i. e. of my heart in my bosom which is trembling.' " Cf, also luathfAr«(^«, 
gl. cardiacus in the Leyden codex of Priscian ; 'Yihsxicliride, supra. No. 1080. What 
is the crid in fom(;Ar«(^ichfidersa (gl. accingar), Z. 475 ; foeAr*'</igedar (gl. accingit), 
Z. 476 ? Perhaps we may connect with this oris, gen. cresa, a girdle : Bret, dar-^rew, 
" the girdle or the middle of the body." Croidhe is always spelt cride in Z. (the in 
croidhe being introduced to mark the broad pronunciation of the r). I know not if W. 

1 F6 (« being lost between vowels, and au becoming o) = Skr. vasu, Zend vobu. 

A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 127 

craidd were ever astern in ia. 1103. Fairge (gl. equor), v. supra. 1104. Ilarmur, 
marble, from Lat. manner. 

1 105-1 109. Ainmidhe (gl. castor), an animaL 1 106. Ad, hoc ador ad should, per- 
haps, be read (as O'D. suggests) hoc ador torad : torad is " fruit" in 0. Ir., dat. sing, 
torud, Z. 231. 1 107. Ughdur (gl. autor), from auctor : cf. 0. Ir. augtortas = auctori- 
tas, W. awdur. 1108, 11 09. Maisi, Mtmaisi, v. supra. 

1110-1112. Cuimneach (gl. memor), co-m'n-ech. iiii. Micuimneach (gL im- 
memor), root man, as to which v. supra : cf. ni cuman lim, gl. nescio ; cuimnigedar 
(gl. reminiseentis), Z. 843. 1 1 1 2. Tecoisee (gl. doctior), cf. tegaisge, supra, would have 
been in 0. Ir. tecaisciu. The -iu, -u in the 0. Ir. comparatives from ius, and this from 
ias = Skr. lyans (strong theme), 0. Lat. -ios, Goth, iza, Gr. tuiv. The nis (spelt nias, 
niis, niis, infra) preceding the adj., is = nl is, ni as, " a thing which is," is, as, being, 
as I conjecture, respectively the third sing, indie, of the roots as, as, the principal frag- 
ments of which remaining in 0. Ir. are as foUows : — 

Sing. Plur. 

Pres. indie, i . 

am, amm' 

ammi (n)' 



adiV, ada 


is, it* 

hit, it 

as, at 


Pres. subj. 3. 

asu, aso 

Impersonal Flexion. 



isme, asmme' 




ississi, itsib, 

I cannot explain these forms solely by the root as and the active voice. The atmane- 
forms of AS given by the grammarians are fictions. One is therefore thrown upon the 
root AS and the middle voice, of which last there are, I think, clear traces in the Celtic 


' Arnamtomnad ndmm (= na + amm) in duine, Z. 702. 

' Ammi neulig, Z. 252. 

' Adib 613 muintire, Z. 478 j adib atrab do dia, ibid. Adib ireseich, Z. 252. Before m tlie h is assimi- 
lated : ai^mmaicc, Z. 251. What is the form obi in Z. 1043, gl. 18 : quasi dixisset abi mogasi dam atu 
far c6imdiu in nim, " as if he had said that ye are servants ; your lord also is in heaven ?" A misreading 
for »di, i. e. adim ? 

• Itsib ata chomarpi, Z. 894 : ithe ciatu ruchreitset, Z. 570 : rofess it fis infenechus icondelg ferb 
nde, " it is known that the Fenechus is void in comparison with the words of God," Corm. v. Ferb. 

' Z. 434, -mme, from me + me ? Cf. lat. meme. 

128 A Mediceval Tract on Latin Declension. 

dialects. In the first person sing, am, amm is the Skr. asmi, Gr. e/i^i, eifii, Lat. sum, 
Lith. es-mi, Goth, im, Eng. am. Here Irish has retained the old form hetter than her 
Celtic sisters, the "W. heing wyf, Com. of, Bret. off. The plur. ammi (ri) is start- 
lingly like the Gr. ea/iev, both, perhaps, standing for an original as-masmi. That the 
n is part and parcel of the Celtic form seems proved by the uninfected m(=m-{ n) in the 
corresponding W. ym, Com. on, Bret, om-p, as well as by the fact that ammi does not 
aspirate, and must, therefore, have ended in a consonant. In the 2nd person sing. a-t\ 
like the W. wy-t, Com. o-s, is formed by suffixing the pronoun of this person. Tt"tfmfr 
the a in o-t points to the Skr. ase, Gr. ffaai, the 2nd pers. of the root as, to sit, to be, 
" from which," says Bopp, Gloss. 35, "the root of the verb subst. as is, perhaps, 
shortened." Whereas the wy in wy-t rests on e, ai, Skr. asi, Gr. e7. For the agglu- 
tination of the pronoun cf. 0. N. er-t, Eng. ar-t, Goth, vas-t = Eng. was-t, 0. N. var-t. 
The plural ada' seems from adih, which may = a(?«j+ sih the pers. pron. of the 2nd pers. pi. : 
cf. the Skr. adhve for as-dhvai, Gr. rjaOe. In the 3rd person is of course is = Skr. asti, 
Gr. ea-Ti{v), Lith. es-ti, Eng. is. But, like the Lat. es-t, Goth, ist, it must have lost its 
terminal vowel at an early period, for it never aspirates. Indeed, in one instance (is 
nuisse, Z. 370) it seems to take a transported n, which would point to an old Celtic 
form ASTiN. But here, perhaps, Z. misread n for k. The forms if, ai^, in the sing, 
are obscure to me. Can they have passed over from the plur. ? There hit (note the 
metathesis aspirationis, h-i-t = i-h-i(n)t), or it is = Skr. santi (for asanti), Zend, henti, 
Gr. (a)evTc, elai, Lat. s-unt, Goth, sind : other Celtic forms are W. and Bret, ynt, Com. 
ym, ens. As aspirates, and must therefore have ended with a vowel at a compara- 
tively recent period. It is generally used in dependent or relative sentences ; and was, 
I believe, originally identical with the Skr. aste : at seems to point to rjv^ai, Skr. 
asate, for asantai, the nasal of plurality being omitted, as in dadate = Si'do-vTai. The 
subjunctive forms asu' (aso), and atu, only occur in connexion with the conjunctions 


' Z. 1129. » Ada baill, Z. 251. 

' Is and at gnlm tengad isind huiliu labramami, "est officium lingnse in omni quod loqnimur," 
Z. 446. This is an example of the use of ai as a singular form. But there can be no doubt that it will be 
found in the plural. I can, however, as yet only quote Middle-Irish examples, such as " at buide do l&ma 
at brecca do beoil at Hatha do sdile," Leab. Breacc, cited O'Don. Gr. 350. As is often found in an 
absolute position. Thus As dn Christ as immaircide in salm-so, "it is to Christ this psalm is in- 
scribed," Z. 473 : Sancti et justi it he as chorp dosom. Christus as chenn ind noib a« chorp, " Sancti 
et justi, it is they who are his body. Christus is head, the saints are body," Z. 197, where note the use 
of as in the plur. 

« M-OMU thol, Z. 671. 

A MedicEval Tract on Latin Declension. i ig 

ma, "if," and cia, ee, "although," Z. 671, 673. Asu (aso), the « of which is some- 
times doubled, appears to me identical with the Skr. imperative astam; and atu 
(the t of which ia unaspirable, and must, therefore, have lost a preceding n) seems 
the Indo-European asantam. 11 13. Laidiri (gl. fortior), positive laidir : laidiri, 
gl. fortitudo, supra. 11 14. M6 (gl. major). This form occurs in Z. 285, as well as 
moo, moa, ma, mao, maa, W. is mwy. Com. moy, Bret, muy (where note the pre- 
servation of the primitive i). One thing is tolerably clear about these forms, that 
they have lost a vowel-flanked g : cf. Skr. mahiyaiis, Zend, maqyehim zam = fiet^ova 
'/rjv, Bopp ; Osc. mais, Lat. major, for mag-ios, Goth, maiza, fiei^wv, from fieyjivv. So 
in the superl. 0. Ir. maam. 

1115-1119. Lugha (gl. minor), in Z. 283, 284, lugu, laigiu, W. llei = e-Xanawv 
(i-Xaxji^v), Lat. levior, Skr. laghiyahs, Eng. less. 11 16. Ferr (gl. mclior) = "W. 
Com. and Bret, gaell, Z. 286: cf. Skr. variyans, apeltcv. The second r in ferr, / in 
guell, represent the assimilated y : "W. superl. goreu stands for varama. n 17. Ilisa 
(gl. pcjor), messa, Z. 285. The positive is the prefix mi- (Ebel) = Goth, missa (Dief. 
G. W. ii. 76) = Eng. mis : c£ Skr. mithya, "falsely." There are two other 0. Ir. com- 
paratives in -sa, viz., nesa, nessa, or nesso, "nearer," and tresa, or trcssa, "firmer," 
" stronger." Nessa, "W. nes, if connected with the Zend nazdista (proximus) = Skr. 
nedishtha, may stand for nasdias: cf. Skr. nediyas. ("With the superl. Ir. nes- 
sam, "W. nesaf, Ebel has compared TJmbr. Osc. nesimo.) Tressa, V. trech, Bret, 
trec'h, seems to point to a Gaul, trexias, but this leaves its connexion with the posi- 
tive tren unexplained, unless, indeed, this be = trexna. 

1120-1124. Sanntaigi (gl. avarior), sanntach, supra, No. 667, 1121. Dili (gl. ca- 
rior), posit, dil; is dil laec maid [leg. maith] do denum diiibsi, ' ' she likes (lit. est gratum 
ei) to do good to you," Z. 283 : nimdil, Z. 942 ; compar. diliu, Z. 283 ; superl. dilem : is 
hed as dilem Hum rath precepte, " It is this that is dearest to me, the grace of teach- 
ing," Z. 604. 1 122. iSo}W«j(gl. clarior), pos. soUus, solus. 1123. JfMia (gl. debilior) 
= O. Ir. mettu, from O'li.'s meata, "cowardly, fearful, timid," reminds one of the 
Goth, gamaids, Eng. mad, but perhaps the resemblance is accidentaL Cf. W. meth, " a 
miss," methiant, failure, decaj, Com. meth, pudor, Z. 223, meza, "timide," "honteux." 
1 124. Gile (gl. albior), pos. gel (= gila), geal (gl. albus), supra, No. 659. Cf. Lat. gil- 
vus = 0. H. G. golo, Eng. yeUow. " The stem," says Lottncr (7 Zcits. 184), "is widely 
spread, but with other suffixes : Gr. x^'^P"^, Skr. hari, SI. zlutu, Lith. geltas." 

1125-1129. Soearthanaighi {gl. umahUior). 1126. iSo%A<a (gl. legibilior). 1127. 
Somolta (gl. laudabUior), aU formed by prefixing the particle so (= ev) to adjectives 
formed respectively from the roots car, les, and mol, as to which v. supra, and cova- 
T^aievn&isocarthanaighi cairddine, for cairtine, "of friendship," Z. 740, cairddinigther 

S (amari), 

1 30 A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 

(amari), Z. 1129, which, however, are formations from the participial stem, carant. 
1128. Co»«ec!A« (gl. felicior), cf. O'E.'s conach, " prosperity, affluence." 1129. GUca 
(gl. sapientior), 0. Ir. gliccu : ar ni pa gliccu felsnb olambieidsi si in Christo estis, 
Z. 1040, " for no philosopher is wiser than ye will be," &c. : the abstract derived from 
it occurs in a gloss on " sapientes in astutia," Z. 257, viz., isin tuaichli isin fflicci, i 
foili, 1 1 30 : cf. Goth, glaggvus, 0. N. gloggr, A. 8. gleav, N. H. G. klug, Dieffenbach, 
G. W. iL4ii. 

1130-1133. Cain'suaraighi (gl. benignior), read cdinfuwrraighi? compar. ot cdin- 
jua/rach, voc. sing., cain[f Juarraig, occurs in Gildas' Lorica. 1 1 3 1 . Bana (gl. audacior), 
leg. dana : the positive of this is dana, cited gwpra from Colman's Hymn, 12, and gloss- 
ing davus in Z. 20. With iana, Gliick, 92, connects the river-name Danuviua (N. H. G. 
Donau, Eng. Danube), often wrongly written Danubius. Cf. also danatu (audacia), 
Z. 769. The dat. sing of dana occurs in the Felire, Jan. 23 : — 

Cdsad cebriani The suffering of Cebrianua 

dementi consadu : And of Clement I celebrate : 

ronsnadut dondrigu May they convoy us to the Kingdom, 

conandfinad ddnu. With their daring host. 

1 132. Seirle (gl. amarior), pos. serb, O'R's searbh = "W. chwerw, 0. H. G. sueran 
(dolere) cf. the Eng. iervice tree; cf the adverb mUerlu (gl. amarius), Z. 563. Z. has 
also the subst. serbe, a fem. ia-stem : gen. sing. cech cenelu serhe, Z. 257, " ab omni 
genere amaritudinis," ace. sing, cen serli pectho (gl. azymi), " without the bitterness 
of sin." 1133. Labartaighe {^. loquacior), pos. labartach, an adj. formed from the base 
labar, frequent in Celtic : cf. Com. guir-leueriat, veridicus, gou-leueriat, falsidicus, 
Z. 98, W. llafani, Uefaru, to speak ; aflafar, dumb (= Ir. amlabar, Z. 743), and in 
Irish, labrad loqui, sermo : combad an dcde sin im' lalrad- Ba, Z. 460, rolahrastar, 
sitpra, " he spoke," which comes from a deponent labra-r, Z. 444. Bopp, in his Glos- 
sary, p. 297, has referred the Mod. Ir. labhraim, I speak, labhradh, speech, to the 
• Skr. r. lap loqui, sed qu. ; cf. the Gaulish name Labarus. A form, apparently taken 
from the Lat. labrum, occurs in 0. Ir., but unfortunately I am as yet only able to 
quote its ace. pi. : — 

Sdn, a Christ, mo Utbra Bless, Christ, my lips (?) 

a choimde secht nime ! Lord of seven heavens !' 


• Verses prefixed to the Leabhar Breacc copy of the Felire of Oingus cele D6 (" God's companion"). 
In a MS. preserved in the Bodleian, however (Eawlinson, F, 95, fo. 59), this passage runs; Sen a christ 
mo labrad, a choimdiu secht nime, — and this I believe to be the true reading. 

A MedioBval Tract on Latin Declension. 1 3 1 

Before leaving the subject of the Celtic comparatives, I take the opportunity of refer- 
ring to a paper on the subject by Dr. Ebel in the Beitr., voL ii., pp. 78-80, and of 
printing a note with which I have been favoured by Prof. Siegfried: "I was long 
doubtful whether the Old Irish comparative in iu, u, was from -ian (like Greek) or 
-ias (Uke Latin). I am now convinced it is from -ias, whence by weakening, ius, iu. 
"We have the analogy of the ace. pi. of masc. a-stems, which ended in -us, not -un (ex 
-ans) ; this we know, because that case never appears with the transported n, as in 
the sing, fer (n). The Welsh termination of the comparative -ach, the Breton -och, 
one would wish to explain likewise from -ias. But 1 believe that this syllable (the Indo- 
European Idns) is totally lost in "Welsh, as it is almost in Irish. No one will find this 
unnatural who knows that the original accent of the comparative was on the radical 
syllable. The termination -ach must then be some agglutinated word or particle, 
though such seems at first not ofiered by the Welsh lexicons. I would point to a possible 
connexion with e'f, e'foi, e^oxa, W. eh-, Ir. as-, and especially with the unexplained 
ag8a, which occurs with the Old Ir. comparative in Z. 286. Cf. also the Welsh ' ech- 
doe, day before yesterday, eeh-nos, night before last' " 

1 1 34- 1 139. Saithech na tuise (gl. turibulus, thurible, censer), " vessel of the in- 
cense :" saithech, occurs, spelt soitheach in the Lebar na Cert, p. 236. Dare we com- 
pare the W. saig ? Tuise, gen. of tus (which occurs in composition in <««lestar, gl. 
turibulum, Z. 1 120) ; tus is from the Lat. tus, and from the inflection of the adjective 
dimor in the following lines, it appears to have been feminine (Lib. Hymn. 7 a) : — 

Melchar tidnachtaid indoir Melchar, giver of the gold : 

Caspar tucc \ntus dimoir Caspar brought the excellent frankincense: 

Patifarsat tucc inmirmaith Patifarsat brought the good myrrh ; 

Conastarati dondrig[f]laith. He gave them to the kingly Lord. 

The ace. is more correctly spelt tiiis in Harl. 1802, 5 S (twis dodia dodegtidnaic). 
1 135. Vrralaisti (gl. horologium, wpoKorjiov) I have never met elsewhere. It is iden- 
tical with the W. orlais, horloge. Cf. prdiste, cdiste, from broche, coche. 11 36. 
Piloir (gl. colosdrigium, L e. coUistrigium, coUum, stringo), French pilori, " Engl, 
pillory, aus dem deutschen pfilare?" (J. Grimm, Eochtsalterthiimer, 725). 1137. 
Compas no raing antkair, " a compass, or the carpenter's (or mason's) divider," O'D. ; 
sair, gen. sing, of saer = W. saer, a masc. a-stem. Cf. «a«Vdenmidecht, gl. artificium, 
Z. 771 ; saer oc suidigud siUab, Z. 1018, "an artist in placing syllables;" n. pi. nitat 
s6ir huili oc saigid for sunu, Z. 460, "aU are not artists in disputing respecting 

1 Cf. contarat, Z. 360 (4). 

132 A Mediaeval Tract on Latin Declension. 

sounds," Com. sair artifex, fabcr, Z. 142. How is it that the initial s is retained in 
Welsh? Ciaran mace intsa»> (" Ceranus fiUus arti/icis" Book of Armagh) is a weU- 
known person in Irish hagiology, as is also the Gobhan Sder in Irish tradition. The 
Highland name Macintyre = mac intsair. 1 1 39. Maide sgine (gl. manubrium), handle 
of a knife; maide, lit. "wood," " stick," occurs in Conn., and Bopp compares it with 
Skr. manthana (rudis) ; sgine, gen. of sgian, as to which v. supra, No. 440. 

In conclusion, I have to repeat the expression of my great obligations to my friend 
and teacher, Professor Siegfried. To his genius or guidance are due all the novel 
truths brought forward in this Commentary, and he is in nowise responsible for the 
mistakes which it contains. I have also to request that my readers will, before form- 
ing an opinion on the contents of any of the preceding paragraphs, see whether the 
statements made therein have been corrected, completed, or modified in the Corrigenda 
and Addenda at the end of the volume. 



It has been thought that the following Hymn, with the glosses thereon, would form 
an appropriate supplement to the foregoing Tract and Commentary. The poem in ques- 
tion is taken from the copy preserved in the so-called " Leabhar Breacc," or " Speckled 
Book" of the Mao Egans (fol. iii, a, b), a manuscript in the Library of the Eoyal Irish 
Academy. In the opinion of Dr. Todd, this manuscript was produced in the latter part 
of the fourteenth century. It is a large and well -written codex, and contains many 
Irish tracts and poems, of which some (such as the "Vision of Mac Conglinni," and the 
" Calendar of Oingus") are of considerable antiquity. 

I know nothing certain about the GUlas (or GiUus — the MS. allows of either reading) 
to whom the scribe attributes our poem. As, however, Laidcenn, son of Baeth the Victo- 
rious (who would seem from the preface to have brought GUlas' production to Ireland), 
died in the year 66 1 ', we may perhaps presume that our GiUas was the celebrated Welsh- 
man, S. GUdas Badonicus, whose death is recorded in the Annals of Ulster, at the year 


' "This ecclesiastic was a pupil of S. Lactan, at Clonfert-Molua, now Clonfert-Mulloe, or Kyle, in the 
Queen's County, and died on the 1 2th of January (at which day he is commemorated in the Irish calen- 
dars), in the year 661." — Reeves, Proceedings S. I. A., Nov. 8, i858, where also may be found the obi- 
tuary notices of Laidcenn, contained in Tigernach and the Annals of Ulster. In the latter he is called 
Laidggcnn sapiens. In the Bodleian Annals of Innisfallen we find at the year 651, Quies Laidcenn mc. 
Baith bannaig. For this quotation, as well as for the following extracts from the calendars, I am indebted 
to Dr. Reeves : — 

Crist asrflnaid rindaig Christ's acute mystery- explainer is 

Laidcend mace Baith bandaig. Laidcend son of Baeth the Victorious. 

Felire Oingusso, Jan. 12. 

(^rindaig is glossed by glie in the Leabhar Sreace, and the first line by "is rinnaith irrdnib crist, i. e. he is 
sharp-pointed in the mysteries of Christ" Bandaig, gen. sing. m. of bandach, is translated " victorious" 
on the authority of Colgan). Laidhgenn mace Baoith Cluain ferta molua et as ann ata a adhnacul, Aois Cr. 
660, "L son of B. of C. F. M. and there is his tomb, A. D. 660." — Calendar of Donegal, Jan. 12. So 
the scholiast on Marian Gorman at Jan. 12: Laidcenn 6 cluain ferta molua"] is ann rohadnacht som 
.i. Laidcenn mac boith, " from C. F. M. and it is there he was buried, i. e. L. son of B." Denis mentions 
a Ladkenus Iliberniensis who made an abstract from the "Moralia" of Gregory the Great, But I am 
doubtful if this were tlie same as L., son of Baeth. 

1 34 Appendix. 

569. This Gildas was the son of Caw, a disciple of Iltut, and, in the opinion of his 
countrymen, an " egregius scolasticus et scriptor optimus" (Eees' Camhro- British 
Saints ; Llandovery, 1853, pp. 120, 34.3 n). The "Welsh origin of the hymn is indi- 
cated by its Latinity. Thus gibra (homo), cona (oeulus), sena (dens), gigra (leg. 
gagra ? caput), are, so far as I know, only found in the Folium Luxemburgense (see 
Zeuss, G. C. 1096, 1097, where the forms gibras, conis, sennarum, gugras, are quoted 
from Mone's edition in his Die gallische Sprache ; Karlsruhe, 1851). If Gildas Bado- 
nicus were the author, and if, as is possible, the mortalitas hujus anni mentioned in 
the fifth and sixth lines were the YeUow Plague, we might attribute the composition 
of our hymn to the year 547, when that visitation was first inflicted on Britain, and 
when Gildas was 3 1 years of age. Dr. Reeves, indeed, has thought {Proceedings of 
the Royal Irish Academy, November 8, 1858) that the composer of our hymn was a 
later writer. But I understand that this eminent scholar has recently found reason to 
alter this opinion, which rested, no doubt, on the statement that Gillas was a contem- 
porary of Laidcenn, involved in the assertion that the latter " venit ab eo [scU. GUla] 
in insolam Hibemiam." However this may be, I do not think it desirable to go fur- 
ther into the question, agreeing, as I do, with Denis (Catal. Codd. Theol. Vindob., 
i. 3, p. 2932), who prints from a Viennese MS. of the fifteenth century some verses of 
the hymn in question, and observes thereon : — " Hjinnus sat mendose scriptus, rudis 
et superstitiosus, quo quis omnes vel minimas partes corporis sui partes Deo protegendas 
prorsus avayo/itKw's adnumerat, ubi ad membrorum censum delabitur, Plautinum te co- 
cum aut Merlinum Coccajum audire credas." 

Herr Mone, the learned Director of Archives at Carlsruhe, has published the 
text of the following hymn from a Darmstadt MS. of the end of the eighth cen- 
tury, which attributes the composition to "Lathacan Scotigena." Mone's edition 
("Hymni Latiui Medii Aevi," Friburg, 1853, vol. i. p. 367), is followed by a com- 
mentary in German, from which I translate the following passages : — "As an example 
of Irish hymn -poetry of the seventh century, the above song is not without interest, for 
one perceives in it a national style of treatment which differs greatly from that of the 
other peoples. In minuteness of detail it agrees with the drawing of the ancient Irish 
figures (BUdwerk), particularly with that of the illuminations in the MSS., and this 
particularity (Specialisiren) is accordingly a national trait. See the ' Contributions of 
the Antiquarian Society in Ziirich,' vol. vii., p. 73-75, 92"'. 

"The song rests on Rom. xiii. 12, 2 Cor. x. 4, especially Ephes. vi. 11, i Thessal. 

V. 8. 

' Hence it will be seen that Mone considers the author to have been an Irishman. And certainly the 
authority of a MS. of the eighth centuiy ia not to be despised. But I repeat that the peculiar Latinity of 

The Lorica of Gildas. 135 

V. 8. Hence also x'™"* "^V^ iria-rew^ in the Menaja, July 29. Quibus pro lorica 
Christus est, vim non metuunt. Ennod. pro syn. preef. Since the Fall, inasmuch 
as man's body became mortal, it has been capable of injury, and wiU remain so until 
he shall again receive an immortal body through the resurrection. And inasmuch as 
he has lost the garment of the original innocence, the stola prima, he needs against the 
perils of the earthly life, a defensive garment, as it were, an armour. The song moves 
in these ideas, to which allusion is made in other places. For example : vexptiaewi 
T0V9 ^nwvav he^a^ievo^ TrpoTreTeta jjj^ anpaala^, uKKa av fie evhvaov vte 7ov 0€ov, 
aToXrjv <j)u)7etvrjv t^« avai^evvijaeio^. Triodion, E. I. Gregor. Naz. Orat. xlii. p. 681, 
says : — 'Ktajt tovi hep/iativov^ afx(pi€vvvTai ■x^nuiva^, iaw9 fyv waxv^pav aapxa Ka'i 
6vJjT)jv Ka'i aVTiTViroi'," 

"With regard to the Irish glosses which are found between the lines or in the mar- 
gin of the Leabhar Breacc copy of our hymn, and for the sake of which alone such 
hymn is here printed, I am of opinion that they are middle-Irish, some of them early 
middle-Irish, but I can see no evidence that any of them were produced before the 
eleventh century. Thus we find m for Old Irish b (noemaib = 0. Ir. noibaib) ; d for 
t (augdar = 0. Ir. augtor) ; nd for 0. Ir. nn (adbronda, coitchind, colaind, brond, cend). 
A is written for e in aean, 0. Ir. sen, for i in an " in," at " in thy," and for in mara, 
0. Ir. mora. Tu has become i in cind (capiti, W. and Com. pyn), anciently ciunn. In 
declension the feminine article has in the nom. pi. maso. usurped the place of the forms 
proper to the masc, and we find na sloig, na hescarait, na baill, which in Old Irish would 
be respectively m^sloig, iw(fescarait, iVibaUl. In the dat. pi. the article and adjectives 
have dropt their labial ending, and we have dona hainglib, cusna hairnib, cimiachtaib 
nemtruailnide, for the Old Ir. donaib ainglib, cusnaib airnib, cumachtaib nebthniail- 
nidib. The noun, too, has suffered serious changes : thus all distinction seems lost 
between the nom., gen., and voc. sing, of ia-stema, and wo find crido for the 0. Ir. 
cridi (cordis) and a thigema for a thigemi (domine). In the dat. pi. of mace, a 
masc. a-stem, the old accusative termination seems to have taken the place of the 
dative-ending, and we find maccu for the 0. Ir. maccaib. In a consonantal stem, 
mil (= milit), we observe in the ace. pi. a passing over to the vocalic declension, and 
thus ocmiled-u appears for the ancient 6cmiled-a. Other such instances will be men- 
tioned in the notes. In the verb the only remarkable form presented by the glosses is 
ingerrtha (gl. lacerandum) for the Old Irish gerrthi. The practice of thus forming the 


the hymn leads me to believe in its Cambrian origin. The metre, too, is un-Irish. It seems to be what 
Welsh writers call y gyhydedd laea. 


1 2 6 Appendix. 

fut. part. pass, by prefixing in to the pret. part. pass, has lasted down to the present 
day. It is noticed in O'Molloy's Grammatica Latino-Hibermca, Eomae, 1677, pp. 99, 
100, where we find the following : — " Particula autem in addita vociilae facit voculani 
importare participium Aniens in dus apud latinos, ut faciendus, ut hoc non est facien- 
dum, hibernice ni hhfuil so indeunta." This, in Old Irish, would be nl de'nti insoK 

The text of the hymn is printed as it stands in the MS., save that I have expanded 
the contractions, severed the prepositions from the words they govern, punctuated, and 
invariably commenced the lines and the proper names with capitals. The glosses have 
been placed imder the text, their numerous contractions expanded, and such expan- 
sions represented by italics. 

Gillas banc loricam fecit ad demoncs expellendos eos qui adversaverunt illi. Per- 
u[enit] angelus ad ilium : ct dixit illi angelus. Si quis homo frequentaucrit illam 
addetur ei sccul[um] scptimm annis: et tertia pars peccatorum delobitur. In qua^nque 
die cantauerit banc orationcm, oratorcs, homines uel demoncs et inimiei non ^ssunt 
nocere : et mors in iUo die non tangit. Laidcend mac Biiith Bannaig uenit ab eo in 
insolam Hibemiam : transtulit et portauit superaltare sancti Patricii episcopi sauos 
nos facere, amen. Metrum undeoaisiUabum quod et bracicatelecticon dicitur quod 
undecem sillabis constat, sic scanditur, 

[SJuffragare' trinitatis itnitas, unitatis miserere trinitas, 
et sic disponitur : 

Suffragare-, quaeso', mihi possito* 


Gix>9s. — ' Forgaire ata hie onbrethir choitchiud asbcrar sufragor .i. fortacAtoigim . sufragare .i. 
fortacAiaigim, "this is an imperative from the common verb, which is called suffragor .i. I assist, 
suffragare, i. e. I assist." ' INni tra atbert intaugdar [/» marg.'\ hie .i. sufragare dobeth foigaire 
onbrc^Air choitchind asb«rar sufragor .i. dotoet uad ifus conidinfinit gnima on brethir gneithiV; a&herar 
[sufrago] .i. sufragor. fuit sufrago secundum veteres. "Now what the author has said here, i.e. that 
suffragare is an imperative from the common verb which is called suffragor, i. e. it came from it here, [or] 
it may be an infinitive active, from the active verb which is called mffrago, i. e. sufragor. Fuit, &c. 
' .i. deus. ' .i. iarsuidiugud, "having been placed," lit. "after placuig." 

• Ebel (Beitr. i, 162) has equated the -tl of the 0. Ir. part. fut. pass, with Skr. -tavya, Gr. -rio-Q, Lat 
-tivu-3. Z. has compared the Old Breton -toe, the Mod. Welsh -duy. Cf. also the Curiiish -dow in car- 
a dow, casa-dow, (amandus, abomiuandus). 

The Lorica of Gildas. 


4. Magni'''J maris' uelut in periculo*. 

Ut non secum trahaf me mortalitas* 

Hujus anni' neque mundi uanitas", 

Et hoc" idem peto a sublimibus" 
8. Cclestis"milit[i]e"uirtutibus"; 

Ne me linquant" lacerandum" hostibus", 

Sed defendant" me iam" armis" fortibus", 

Ut me iUi praecedant in acie" 
12. Celestis" exercitus" m[i]litie®' 

Cerubin" et cerupihin'' cum mLllibus", 

Gabrihel" et Micha;?' cum similibus'* ; 

Opto tronos", uirtutes", archangelos", 
16. Principatus", potestates", angelos". 

Ut m[e] denso" defendentes" agmine" 

Inimicos'* uale[a]nt" prostemere". 

Dum deinde ceteros agonetetas*', 
20. PatriarchaB" quatuor quater profetae*' ; 


Gloss. — *(•) .i. mor, "great." * .i. inmara "of the sea." ' .i. anguasacht, "in danger." ' .i. na- 
romsraine inbas, "that the mortality may not defeat me." ' .i. diabul iarforba mobethad, "the devil 
after the completion of my life." ' .i. nahamsiresea, "of this time." '" nadimaines intsoegail, "nor 
the world's vanity." " .i. allatum .i. impide, "a supplication." '* onahardaib, "from the heights." 
" .i. nemdai, " of heavenly." '* .i. calmd«cA<, "soldiery." " .i. nasualaig, "the virtues." '* na- 

romfacbat, " that they should not leave me." 

ingerrtha, " about to be mangled.' 

rait, "enemies." " .i. corumditnet, "that they defend me." ^^ .i. cohairithe, "particularly." " .i. 
arm. *' .i. calma, " brave." ^' .i. cororemtusaigit remumm isnacathaib, " that they may precede me 
in the battles." ^^ nemda, "heavenly." ** .i. nasloig, "the hosts." ^^ .i. nacrodsc/i^a .i. comthinol 
nanaingel, "of the soldiery, i.e. a congregation of the angels." " .i. sciencie multitudo. ** .i. adntes, 
" burning heat." '^ cusnahilmilib, " with the many thousands." ^'' .i. fortitude dei. ^ ' .i. qui sicut deus. 
" .i. cusnacosmailsib, " with the like persons." " .i. sedes dei interpretatur. '* .i. innanirtute. " .i. 
snmmos nuntios. '^ naprincipate. '' .i. napotestate. '* .i. nuntios I. ministros. " .i. ontsluag 
dluith, "with the dense host." '" .i. cuiaditnet, " that they may defend." *' .i. osluag, "with a 
host." '2 nahescarait, "the enemies." *' .i. c!<rafedat, "that they may be able." ** aclod, "to 
overthrow them." *^ .i. undo dicitur agonithetas? principes belli .i. nahsenachdu. Undo dicitur 
agon .i. aenacli. agon ,i. cath 1. cuimleng. Unde dicitur liber de agone Christianorum ? ex quo fit agonia 
.i. brug 1. athge. " Unde dicitur agonithetas ? principes belli, i. e. the presidents of the assembly. 
Unde dicitur agon 1 i. e. an assembly ; agon, i. e. a contest or conflict. Unde dicitur liber de agone Ckrit- 
tianorum ? ex quo fit agonia, i. e. anguish or struggle." ** patres excelsos. *' .i. aeros nuntios. 

138 Appendix. 

Apostolos" navis Cli[risti] proretas" 

Et martircs*' omnes peto atliletas", 

Atque adiuro" ct uirginos" omnes'*. 
24. Uiduas^'*'''' fidoles'* et profesores" 

Uti me per illos^ salus*' sepiat^ 

Atque omne malum a me pcreaf. 

Christus*'' mecum pactum*' fimmm feriat"*, 
28. Cuius tremor"' tetras"' turbas terreat®*. 

Finit primus prologus graduum angelorum et patriarcliarum, apostolorum et mar- 

tirum cum Christo. INcipit prologus secundus de cunctis membris corporis usque 

ad genua. 

Deus, inpenetrabilis tutela^, 

Undique*' me defende** potential". 

Mei" gibro'" pemas" omnes"* libera'', 

32. Tuta" pelta" protegente'" singula", 

Ut non [t]etri'* demones in latera" 

Mea uibrent'" ut soleant iacula". 


Gloss. — *' .i. missos. *' .i. brainecUa 1. nastiurasmaind. A prora .i. onbroine, onchuirr tbussig 
naluiuge, arite nomiua ada corr : prora. pupiss, " prow-men, or the steersmen : a prora .i. from 
the prow, i. e. from the foremost end of the ship ; for these are the nomina of its two ends, prora, 
puppie." ^^ .i. credeutes. " .i. na hocmiledu .i. principes belli. *^ .i. atchimm, "I adjure." *' oga, 
"virgins." *'(*' nafedba, "the widows." '' .i. indracca, "faithful." " nafaismedaig, "the confes- 
sors." *s gnathugtid trithu, "to use through them." *' .i. slanti, "safety." *' .i. coro[m]imme, 
" that it may surround me." ^' .i. coudechat uam foreulu ulcu bite fonarair chuirp -[ anma cechoein, 
" that back from me may go the ills that are behind the body and soul of every one." *" unctns. 
*' .1. cairdes 1. dluthad, "friendship or compact." ^* .i. cw/abena, "that he strike" [cf. foedus ferire], 
*' .i. in anima et in bono .i. in corpure (s«). ^* A. grana, "hideous." "* cto-auaimnige, "that it may 
terrify." "^ ininillius nemthremeta 1. nemthroeta, "the security impenetrable or unconquered." *' .1. di 
cech leith, "from every side." ^' dltin, "defend thou." ^' .i. dotchumachtaib nemtruailnide, "with thy 
incorruptible powers." '" .i. hominia. gibre. " .1. artus .i. compur inchleib, "trunk (?) of the chest." 
",i. nahuile, "allthe." '» .i. sser, "free thou." '< .i. mill, "safe." " .i. sciath, " shield." " .1. ditnet, 
"they protect." " .i. membra .i. nabaill, "the members." '* .i. granna, "hideous." " .i. donatoebaib, 
"to the sides." *" .i. narob«tnaiget, "that they may not brandish." " .i. ama^ clechtait anurcharu, 
" as they are used, their darts." 

> In the MS. Mee. 

The Lorica of Gildas. 139 

 Gigram**, cephale*' cum iaris*', et conas*', 

36. Patham*", lignam^, Senas'* atque micenas*' 
Cladum'", carstun", mandianum*', talias'', 
Patma", exugiam'' atque binas idumas*'. 
Meo ergo cum capillis*' uertici*' 

40. Galea*" salutis"" esto"" capiti'"^, 

Fronti"", oculis"" cerobro triformi""', 
Eostro'"*, labio"", faciei"*, timpori'"", 
Mento"", barbae'", superciliis"% auribus'", 

44. Genis"*, bucis"^ intemaso"", naribus"^ 
Pupillis'", rotis"», palpebris'*", tutonibus'", 
Gingis"', ancle'", maxilHs'", faucibus'". 
Dentibus'^", lingue'", ori'^* et guturi'^', 

48. Uue"°, gurgulioni'", et sublingue'^, ceruioi"'. 


Gloss. — '* .i. incloicend 1. inceindetan, "the skull or the top of the forehead." *' .i. inbaithes, "the 
crown." ®* .i. capillis. ** .i. oculos. *^ .i. Intetan, " the forehead." *' .i. dontengaid, " to the tongue." 
88 .i. dentes. »' .i. etiucta fiaccal, " e^HWto (?) of teeth." '<> .i. collum. ^'.i. pectus. '^ .;. latus. *' .i. 
nahinneda, " the bowels." '* .i. nasliasta .i. infuathroic, " the loins, i. e. the waist." ** .i. intarb sliasta 
1. infothoin, "the bull of the loin, or the buttock." "^ .i. manus. '^ .i. cusnafoiltnib, "with the hairs." 
«« .i. mullach, "crown" (of the head). "^ .i. cathbarr, "helmet." ""> .i. slanti, "of safety." "" .i. 
Christe. "•* .i. donchind, "to the head." "" .i. donetan, "to the forehead." '"* .i. donasuilib, "to 
the eyes." '<"" .i. doninchind tredelbdai, "to the triform brain." '"^ .i. dongulbain, "to the bill." 
"" .i. donbel, "to the lip." "•* .i. donagaid, "to the face." '"" .i. donaraid, "to the temple." "" .i. 
•Jonameich, " to the chin." "' .i. domilchain, "to the beard." "^ .i. donamailgib, " to the eyebrows." 
'" .i. donaclnassaib, "to the ears." "* i. donagniadib, "to the cheeks." "^ .i. donahoilib, "to the 
lower cheeks." "^ .i. donetarsroin, " to the internasus" (the gristle between the nostrils). ' " .i. dosligtib 
.i. na srona, "to (the) passages, i. e. of the nose." "* .i. dona mMcu immlesaib, "to the pupils." '" .i. 
donarothib, "to the irides (?)." '2° .i. donahabra«/>taib, "to the eyelashes." '^' .i. donahimmchosnib, 
"to the eyelids." '** .i. donamennanib* 1. donsmech, "to the double-chin (aux deux mentons), or to 
the chin." '" .i. donanMl, " to the breath." '^* .i. donagruadib, "to the cheeks." '** .i. dongiall, "to 
the jaw." "* .i. dona fiaclaib, "to the teeth." '*' ,i. dontengaid, "to the tongue." '*' .i. donbeol, 
" to the month." '*' .i, donbragait, " to the throat." "" .i. dontengaid, "to the tongue." '^' .i. don 
uball bragat, "to the apple of the throat." "'•' .i. dofeith bie bis fontengaid this, "to the little sinew that 
is under the tongue below" (the frenum). "' .i. donchuirr bragat, "to the nape of the neck." 

 MS. donamennanibua. 


I40 Appendix. 

Capitali"*, ceutro"*, cartilagini'" 
Collo'" Clemens'^ adesto'** tutamini'*". 

Obsecro'" te'", domine'" Jesu Chiiste, propter noTem ordines'** sanctorum'" ange- 

Domine esto lorica tutisima"' 

Erga membra, erga mea uiscera"', 

Ut retundas"' a me'^ invisibiles'" 
54. Sudum'^ clauos"^, quos fingunt"'* odibiles'**. 

Tege"*, ergo, deus'", forti"* loricca"' 

Cum scapulis'*" humeros"" et bracia, 

Tege"® ulnas"" cum cubis et manibus'", 
58. Pugnas"", palmas"*, digitos'^ cum unguibus*. 

Tege'^ spinas'^" et costas''" cum artibus, 


Gloss.—"* .i. donchendfiacaU, " to the foretooth" (?) '" .i. dondibechan, " to the throat." '" .i. 
donloing brond, "to the cartilage (?) of the belly" (the ensiform cartilage?). "' .L donmuineol, "to 
the neck." "* .i. achainuarraig, " gentle one." "' .i. aratorta, " do thou give." i*" .i. doninillius, " for 
the security ." '<■ .i. aitchimm, " I adjure." 1 « .i. tu, " thee." '" .i. athigerna, " Lord." '" .i. 
tresna .ix. nordaib, "by the nine orders." '*' .i. donanoemaib, "of the saints." '** .i. donahainglib, "of 
the angels." '*' .i. athigema bl atluir[i]g roinill ocumimdegail aramainsib inchentair T arphein inalltair, 
" Lord, be thou a very secure corselet, protecting me from the wiles of this world, and from the punish- 
ment of the other." '*' .i. illeith remball««5 "] illeth remindib, " overagainst my limbs and overagainst my 
entrails." ' *' .i. cwrathuairge, " that thou mayest hammer." '^^ .Luaimm, "from me." '*' .i. dofaicsena, "in- 
visible." "2 .i. inna[m]bir, " of thestakes." '^' .i. naclu, "the nails." '** .i. delbait, " they form." '''.i. 
diabuli. ' ^^ .i. ditin, " protect." '" .i. dia, "0 God." '** .i. calma, "brave." '*' .i. luirech, "corslet." 
"" .i. cusnaclas,saib dromma, " with the shoulder-blades," lit. " with the trenches of the back." '*' .i. na- 
formnai, " the shoulders." '^' .1. ditin, "protect." '*' .i. na rigthe 1. nahuille, "the radii, ortheelbows." 
'*' .i. cusnarigthib 1. cusnasliastaib 1. [leg. ■]] cusnadoitib, "with the radii, or with the thighs, or [leg. 
and] with the hands." '** .i. nadumu, "the fists." '** .i. nabassa, "the palms." '*' .i. namera 1. 
naresi, "the fingers, or the spans." '^' .i. ditin, "protect." '" .i. nalorgdromma, "the backbones" 
(the spinous processes?). "" .i. donasnach, " to the ribs." 

* In the Leabhar Breacc this onmetrical ejaculation is written as if it comprised two lines. It do«s not 
occur in the Darmstadt MS. 
*> MS. unginibus. 

The Lorica of Gildas. 141 

Terga"', dorsum"'* neruos[que] cum ossibuB. 

Tege"' cutem"'', sanginem, cum renibus'", 
62. Catas''^ crinas, nates'", cum femoribus"'. 

Tege"' gambas"", suras"*', femoralia'** 

Cum genuclis"' poplites'*' et genua"*. 

Tege"* talos'*'' cum tibiis"' et calcibus*, 
66. Crura'*', pedes'"" plantariim'"' cum bassibus"'. 

Tege"' ramos concrescentes"* decies"*, 

Cum mentagris"*, unges"' binos quinquies'". 

Tege"^ pectus*"', jugulum*"', pectusoulum*"*, 
70. Mamillas*"', stomacum*"* et umbilicum*"' 

Tege*"^ uentrem*"', lumbos*"*, genitalia"", 

Et aluum*"" et cordis et uitalia*". 

Tege*'* trifidum jacor*" et ilia"*, 
74. Marcem*'*, reniculos*'", fitrem*" cum obUgia"'. 

Tege*'' doliam**", toracem**"'"' cum pulmone*", 


Gloss — '" .i. nadromand, "the backs." '^* .i. indruimseilg, "the baek-spleen." "' .i. ditin 
"protect." "* .i. doncholaind, "to the body." "' .i. cusnahairnib, "with the kidnej's." "« .i. 
nalessa, "the haunches." "' .i. natona, "the buttocks." "' .i. cusnasliastaib, "with the thighs" 
(from hip to knee). "' .i. ditin, " protect." '*" .i. cusnahescata, " to the hams." "' .i. 
nahorcni, "the calves of the leg." "* .i. natarbsliasta, "the upper thighs (?)." '^^ .i. cusnahairnib 
toli 1. cusnafarclib glun, "with the reins of desire, or with the kneecaps." "* .i. nahescata, "the 
hams." '** .i. donaglunib, " to the knees." '^^ .i. ditin, "protect." '*■' .i. nahadbronda, "the ankles." 
'*' .i. cusnacolpthaib, " with the calves." "' .i. donaluirgnib, " to the shin-bones." "" .i. donacosaib, " to 
the feet." '" .i. nabuind, "the soles." "* .i. cusnasalaib, "with the heels." "' .i. ditin, "protect." 
"* .i. nagega chomfoi-brit, "the branches that grow togetlier." "* .i. dona .x. meraib, "to the ten fin- 
gers." "^ .i. cusnaladraib, "with tlie toes." "•' .i. donahingnib, "to the nails." '"* .i. dona .x. ning- 
nib, "to the ten nails." "' .i. iitin, "protect." *"" .i. donbruinde, "to the chest." 2"' .i. donalt, "to 
the joint." *"* .i. doucht nademainde, " to the breast of the palm." *°'.i. donacichib, "tothe paps." "•< .i. 
dongaile, " to the stomach." ^"^ .i. animmlind, " the navel." '"* .i. iitin, "protect." *"' .i. donmedon, 
"to the middle." *"' .i. donahaimib, "to the reins." *"' .i. nahui[r]ge, "the genitals." *'".!. don- 
broind, " to the stomach." *" .1. donspiraii beothaig inchride, " to the living spirit of the heart." "* .i. 
iitin, "protect" *" .i. inmacc hoe tredluigthe 1. inmacc hoe treuillech, "the 3-cleft liver, or the 3-cor- 
ncred liver." *'* .i. nabloingi, "of the lard (?)." *" .i. selg, "spleen." *'^ nalocha ochsal, "the arm- 
pits." *".i. mdriscain, "the. . .(?)." *'8.i. inglais, "the.. . (?)." ^'^.i. di7m, "protect," .i. ingaile, 
"the stomach." ^^OW .i. Indraip (indrapp?), "the chest (?). **' .i. cusinscaman, "with the lungs." 

* MS. calicibus. 

142 Appendix. 

Uenas'", fibras'", fel cum bucliamine'". 

Tege'"' carnein, inginem''' cum medullis^^'', 
78. Spplenem'^' cum tortuosis intestinis*'*. 

Tege'** uesicam''^' adipem et pantes*'* 

Compaginum*'' innumeros"'' ordines''^*. 

Tege*'* pilos*'' atque membra''® roliqua"* 
82. Quorum forte pncterii*" nomina"'. 

Tege"' totum*" me cum quinque sensibus*", 

Et cum decem fabrefactis* foribus'". 

Uti'*'" a plantis^'" usque ad uerticem*** 
86. Nullo"' membro'^" foris""'' intus"' egrotem'". 

Ne de meo posif-' uitam*" trudere*" 

Pestis'**, febris"', langor*=*, dolor corpora*^. 

Donee iam deo dante seniam'^'"' 

90. Et pecoata mea bonis factis deleam'*'. 

Et de came lens^'^'' labis*^' caream 


Gloss. — **^ .i. nahete ochta, 1. na cuislenna, "the ete (?) of the breast or the veins." *'^ .i. nafethi, 
" the shiews." ''* .i. cusintoin .i. coelan nageraine 1. muine. ''* .1. di7m, " protecC '^^^ .i. inbleoin, 
" the groin." '2' .i. cusna hindib, " with the entrails." **' .1. inlu leith, " the spleen." **' .i. cusna- 
flndchoelanaib cammaib, "with the tortuous intestines" (lit. "white guts"). *'" .i. iitin, "protect" 
2'' .i. lamannan, "bladder." '^' .i. omnes. *" .i. naeomdluta, "of the joints." *'* .i. dirim, "innu- 
merable." 225 ,i. innahuird, " the orders." '36 .;. d!7m, "protect." *" .i. nafoilt, "the hairs." ^'^ .i. 
nabMll, " the limbs." *'' .i. cohuUde, " entirely," " altogether." '^^ .i. asarsechmaillius, " of which I have 
passed by." **' .i. ananmand ("their names").!, prseterii per concisionera causa metri. '*' .i. ditin, 
"protect." **' .i. imlan, "the whole." *•* .i. cusna .u. sians[aib], "with the 5 senses." 2** .i. cusna .x. 
ndoirsib dentseib .i. quinque sensibus anma, "with the 10 doors of . . . i. e. quinque sensibus of the soul." 
''^^ .1. gnath[ugud], "to use." ^" .i. nabuind, "the soles." **' .i. inbaithis, "the top of the head." 
'*' .i. cenni, "without anything." **" .i. sic. 2si)(«) .i. allaranig, "abroad, without" *5' .i. allaastig, 
" at home," " within." ^'''^ .i. nasroin, " that I may not be sick" (?). ^^^ .i. nafeda, " that it may not 
be able." "* .1. betha, "life." ''* .i. curasroena, "that it may defeat" *'" .i. plag, "plague." *'' .i. 
fiabrus "fever." *'* .i. indiangalur, "the lethargy." **^ .i. incorp, "the body." '*" .i. curaoen- 
taige dia dam curbamsean friforba mobethad ind etlai -[ indendgai, "that God may grant to me that 
I may be old at the end of my life in purity and in innocence." 2^' .i. curadichuirer mopecda domdeggni- 
marthaib, "so that I may displace my sins by my righteous doings." '^^ .i. inategim, "in which I go." 
'6' uel himis .1. onabasaib, "from the deaths (?)." 

* MS. fabrifactis: in marg. vel fabricatis f. .i. cusna .x. ndoirsib CMmdacAtaib. 
»■ MS. utii. 

Notes. 143 

Et ad alta euolare^^* ualeam, 
Et miserto deo*" ad etheria^'^ 
94. Letus^" uehar*** regni refrigeria"". 

Fin. it. amen., 

Gloss. — ''* .i. c«/"aetelaiger cusnahardaib .i. cusnanemdaib, " that I may fly to the heights, i. e. to 
the heavenly (places)." ^^^ A. curaerchisse dia dim, "that God may have mercy on me." ^^^ .i. cusna- 
nemdaib, "to the heavenly (places)." ^*' .i. cofailid, "blithely." *^' .i. corumimarchoirther', "that I may 
be borne." '*' .i. etarfuarad, "coolness"? 


Preface. — Superaltare (sr. altare, MS.) " bifariam sumi videtnr, nempe pro Ciborio, quod altari imminet, 
et Altari portatili." — Du Cange. Savos, L e. salvos. Undtoaisillabum, i. e. evSiKaavWajiov. Bra- 
cicatelecticon, i. e. (3pax»icaroX)))croj'. 

Text V. 4. I take the following quotations from Mone (Hymni Lat. i. 370) ; — An non est mare hoc 

sieculum, ubi se invicem homines quasi pisces devorant? an parvfB procelte et fluctus tentationis pertur- 
bant hoc mare ? an parva pericula sunt navigantium, id est in ligno crucis patriam coclestem quseren- 
tium? S. Augustini, sermo 252, 2. Chryaoat. contra anom. 7, i. o tjjj SiKaioavvr)g >;\ioj roiJT'Ov 
i)li~iv KartvBvVH tov irXovv. Minae undseque mundialium nimborum Sidon. ApoH. Ep. 9, 4. Salum 
Jactantis saeculi, S. Cyprian. Ep. i. Tibi hoc sseculum mare est; habet diversos fluctus, undas 
graves, saevas tempestates et tu esto piscis, ut saeculi te unda non mergat. — Ambros. de sacram. 3,1. 

V. 19. Agonetetm, i. e. dywvoStraf. 

V. 21. Says Mone : A similar putting together of the saints is often found in the Greek songs, e. g. 9iJi- 
yopoi irpo^iJTatj OsotiSt'ic fidpTVptgy Gtioi fiaGijTui tov ffwr^poc, Tovrov diTTjtratrQs. — Trio- 
dion, E. 3. 

V. 24. Atque adjuro. This and the next line are not given by Mone. 

V. 25. For iiti (which, as in v. 85, the scholiast mistakes for iiti) Mone gives ut. 

V. 28. For cujtis tretnor, Mone has timor, tremor. Note the alliteration in this line. 

V. 29. Inpenetrabilia tutela, Mone. 

V. 31. Gibroe, i. e. hominis (jiybrte in the Darmstadt MS.), gen. sing, of gibra, apparently a corruption of 
the Chaldee gabra (Syriac gabro, Hebrew geber, Arabic gabrun). 

V. 31. Tetri demmtea. Again I quote Mone ; " The devil has destroyed the divine order in the creation, 
and this is expressed in his form, which is an image of the wildest distortion iyerzcrruni/), neither 
human being nor beast, but a self-contradictory mixture of both. To this essentially belongs his black 
colour, for he is an enemy of the divine light ; he shines only as a destroying fire, and has fallen 


144 Appendix. 

like a lightning-flash from heaven, Luke, x. i8, Matt. zxv. 41. All these representations rest on the 
Revelation of John, xii. 3, 9, xiii. 2, and other places. Strictly speaking, the devil should only be 
named serpent, so far as regards the aforetime and the present, for only at the end of the world does 
he appear as a dragon. Atigustin. sermon, ined. ed. Denis, p. 39, calls him leo et draco ; quando ut 
draco serpit non ut leo rugit. Teriullian. adv. Marcion, 4, 24, diabolus in serpcntis et draconis et 
eminentissimse cujusque bestiae nomine deputatur penes creatorem. Sever. Sulpit. epist. 3, calls him 
cruenta bestia." 

v. 34. Mone's MS. reads " mea librent, nt solent, iacnla." Here, of course, iacula is a quadrisyllable 
(i-acula). " The darts of the devil," says Mone, " are called in the Mensea I'oi ^vxoKtOpoi. Oct 1 1. 
Thereby is the heart poisoned : 17 Kaptia fiov fapfiaxStXaa lif row o^ewf, Jul. 27. They are a poi- 
sonous snake-bite : ipaKovTwv dijyua, ibid. irpav/iaTiaev opii jra/ijrovijpoe bXijv /lou ri)>' 
^vxvv ■Kovt]puii. Triodion, H. 3." 

Vt. 35-38. These difficult lines stand thus in the Darmstadt MS. : — 

Gigram cepphale cum iaris et conas 
patam liganam sennas atque michi : nas 
chaladum charassum madianum talias 
batma exugiam atque binas idnmas. 

Gigram, better gtigram (gngras, i. e. capita, Z. 1097), is possibly taken from Hebr. gulgoleth, or 
Syriac gogulto. Cephah (cepphale) is of course KfipaXtj. For Iaris (gl. capiUis), leg. saris, abl. pi. 
of sara (-us, -iim ?), formed from Heb. se'ar, Arab, sha'run? This ingenious conjecture is due to 
Professor Wright. Cona, " eye," and paiha {pata) " forehead," have not yet been referred to their 
sources, whence Eng. pate 9 Ligna (ligana), "tongue," perhaps for lizna, lizana, a corruption of Syr. 
leshono (Heb. lashon, Arab, lisanun). Sena (senna), "tooth," obviously, as Dr. Todd 'remarks, from 
Syr. shenno, fem. (Hebr. shen, Arab, sinnun). Micenas (i. e. etiucta fiaccal). Micena must be some 
part of a tooth, the enamel, the fangs? but unfortunately the meaning of etiucta is unknown, and micena 
is equally obscure. Cladum {chaladum), i. e. collum. If this be not from Gr. ic\«i£, gen. icXei^of, 
the collar-bone, we must regard it as for cadlum (cadalum), and compare the Arab, qadhalun (Syr. 
q'dholo), which, as Prof. Wright informs me, is " the back of the head aud upper part of the neck." 
Oarsum (clmrassum), gl. pectus. I suspect the scholiast has blundered here, for carsum is probably the 
Chaldee harsa, " the loins." Mandiamim (madianum), i. e. latus. Perhaps from Hebr. mothnayim, 
which, however, means lumbi. Talias (gl. na hinneda, " the entrails, bowels") is obscure to me. 
Patma (batma), i. e. na sliasta .i. in fiiathroic, "the thighs, i. e. the waist," is also obscure. Exugiam 
(i. e. in tarb sliasta no in fothoin, " the bull of the thigh or the buttock"). Exugia is glossed by 
gihsunga 1. gescinco (shank ?). Dief. .ffilfric has exugium mecgern. No one of these A. S. words do I 
understand. Idumas (edumas) seems formed from Hebr. yadhayim. The abl. sing, occurs in the 
Book of Hymns, Altm, line 70, " Suifulta del iduma omnipotentis valida," where the scholiast says, 
" .i. manu, iduma ebraice, cirus [x^'p] grsece, manus latine"'. 

V. 39- 

• I am ignorant of the Shemitic languages, an^ am indebted for the above Sbemitic words to Professor 
Wright and Dr. Todd. 

Notes. 1 45 

V. 39. Mone's MS. has meo ergo cam capillis et vertici, which is bad metre and bad grammar. The con- 
struction is obviously " Be therefore a helmet of safety to my crown (meo . . . vertici), head (capiti) 
forehead, eyes, and triple brain (right and left lobes, cerebellum), nose, lip, face, temple." 

V. 44. Internaso. .ffilfric has " internasus, Hose-^rys^fe." 

V 45. For Tutonibus, Mone's MS. has tantonibus, and tautonea is glossed by A. S. bruwa, "eye-brows," 
in Diefenbach's Med. Lat. Glossary. Rota (whence rotia) I take to be the circulus pupillse, fSses seo 
hringc of iElfric 

V. 45. Gingis. I have been unable to find this word elsewhere. Anek, i. e. anhelse. 

V. 46. Mone's MS. has: — 

Dentibus linguae ori uvse guttnri 
gorgulioni et sublingua cervici. 

TTva, "tongue," hence uvula (ki&iv, columella). GurguUo, "Adam's apple," is glossed by iElfric 
throtboUa (throat-ball). As to sublingucc, iElfric has aublingium huf, which Bosworth explains as "a 
round spongy substance covering the glottis." 

V. 49. Capitali, cetitro, with the meanings given in the gloss, are, so far as I know, «?ral Xiyo/iiva. 
With ceutro, we may, perhaps, compare chautrum, which iElfric glosses by eal throtbolla. But what 
is eal here ? The ejaculation obaecro te, &c., is not in Mone's MS. 

V. 51. For domine, Mone gives deinde. 

V. 53. For retundaa, Mone gives retrudaa, and in illustration of the verse he cites Triodion, L. 4, bparH'V 
Kal dopariov t;^0pwv pvaai yfia^^ Kvpu. 

V. 57. Cubia (i. e. rigthib). jElfric glosses the nom. sing, ciiba by elboga. 

V. 62. Read eatacrinaa for cataa crinas; first, because Mone's MS. has the former reading ; secondly, be- 
cause iElfric has "catacrlna hypeban" hip-bone, which comes tolerably near the meaning of the 
Irish gloss. 

V. 64, Gemiclia. The gloss attributes two meanings to this word. The first is "reins of desire;" and 
here the word probably stands for genialibua (though genialia properly means " marriage bed," " mar- 
riage"). The second is "knee-caps j" and here it stands for geniculia (iElfric glosses genicuU by cneow- 

V. 68. Mentagria (i. e, ladraib, " toes"). This meaning suits in the following passage from Cummian's 
Epistle (^XTaher'a Worka, iv. 436): "AnBritonum Scotorumque particulse qui sunt pene extremi, et, 
ut ita dicara, mentagrm orbis terrarum." Dr. Reeves has kindly referred me to a story in the Acts 
of S. Baithene {Acta Sanctorum, Junii, torn. ii. p. 237, J), where the devil says of a possessed man, 
" per mentagram irrepsi in eum." 

v. 69. Pectusculnin. ^Ifric glosses this word by breoat-ban, breast-bone. 

v. 74. Marcem and Fitrem are to me Uirai Xiyo/itva. Obligia occurs in iElfric's glossary, explained by 
nytte, and Somner thinks it means aKponfaXov, i. e. the centre of the navel. 

V. 75. Doliam, apparently for dolium, which properly means a large jar, but may well have got the 
secondary signification of " stomach" (^gaile). 

v. 76. Bucliamine : bucUamen is glossed by heorthama (" midriff", covering of the heart") in an Anglo- 
Saxon MS. quoted by Diefenbach. 

U V. 8, 

1 4-6 Appendix. 

V. 8i. Pantes, of course ■KavrtQ. This conceit of using Greek words when Latin would have done as well, 
or better, may be further exemplified by tlie hymn to Abbot Comgill (Z. 1 138) : — 

kvLiMe pantes ta erga {vavTiq ra ipya) 
allati ad angelica, &c. 

V. 91. Labia (MS. iabis) is for labibus. 

Glosses. — No. i. i%)yaiV«, "an imperative" (=ver-garia): cf. /ori/air imperat,, Z. 440. Xncofor'ngairiu 
apstil, "with an apostle's authority," Z. 1060; forhgarthaid, an imperative, Z. 767, 853, 979; 
for»igarti jussi, Z. 473, the preposition seems /or» (/arKoendeilb, fom-6'm udeilb "secundum idem 
exemplar," Z. 583) = Bret, and Corn, warn, unless, indeed, this be the Jr. iarn = ivam. The root 
is GAR. See Commentary, No. 469, and compare ynpvQ, Eng. crow. 

Fortachtaigim, I assist, a denominative imm fortaeht, or, as spelt in the Tract, No. 727 (Coram, 
p. ()o),furtacht. It may be interesting to put together here the verbal forms found in these glosses: — 
Active, Pres. indie, ist. tiivtg. {i-&tems), fortachtaigi-m, i; atchi-mm, $2; aitchi-mm, 141; tegim, 261. 
3rd pi. ditnet, 76 ; it, 49. 
Pret. act., ist sing, sechmaillius, 240. 3rd sing, atber-t, 2 (an S-steva) ; dotoet, 2. 
Imper. 2nd sing, act., ditin passim ; bi, 147. 

Conjunctive ist sing., sroin, 252 (leg. sroinam ?) ; dichuirer, 261 ; etelaiger, 264. 
2nd sing., torta, 139; tiiairge, 149. 
3rd sing., bena, 62 ; fe'da, 253 ; sroena, 255. 

„ erchisse, 265; imme, 58; oeniaige, 260; sraine, 7; iaimnige, 65. 
3rd plur., bertnaiget, 80; remtUsaigit, 23; clwmforbrit, 194; ditnet, 195 didtiet, 
40 ; fedat, 43 ; dechat, 59. 
Relative present : bis, 133. 
Passive, 3rd sing. pres. : asberar, i, 2 (an a-stem), for asberthar ; imarchoirther, 268 (conjunctive). 
Pret. participle : nemtroeta (troeth-ta), 66 : fut. participle : ingerrtha, 1 9. 
Verbal noun: rfo(?, 44; imdcgail, 147; gndthugud, $6 ; siiidiugud, 4.. 
No. 4. Tar suidiugud (gl. posito). This mode of making the pret. part. pass, is common in Middle Irish ; 
see, for example, Leab. Breacc, 79 b (cited Petrie, R. T. 437), where coilech in choimded ianm chum- 
tach translates the "calix Domini scriniolo reconditus," of what is said to be theVen. Bede's abstract 
of Adamnan's work, J)e Situ Terra Sancta, &c. 
No. 6. Guassacht, danger; giiassacht, in Z. 28, 61. Cf. the man's name, Gosact {Gosactum filium Mil- 
con Maccubooin, Book of Armagh, 11 a, 1). 
No; 7. With sroene we may perhaps connect W. rhynod, "agitation;" rhynu, "to shiver, to shake:" 
sroin, 252 ; sroena, 255 ; Mod. Ir. sraoinim, " I defeat;" Gael, sraon, " make a false step," "fall side- 
ways," "stumble," "rush forward with violence;" sroin, "deviate." 
No. 8. Forba, cf. forbe, Z. 15, dat. sing, iar forbu in gnimo, "after the completion of the work," 

Z. 1068. 
No. 10. Dimaines would now be diomhanaa. Soegail, gen. sing, of soegal, 0. Ir. saigul, Z. 731. I know 


Notes. 147 

not if this be connnected withW. hoedel (vita), Z. 125, Bret. hoal. The resemblance to se-culum is, 
perhaps, deceptive. 

No. II. Impide is, perhaps, = imb-bide. Cf. Goth, bidjan, bidan, A. S. gebede, Eng. bid, beadsman, &c. 

No. 20. Co-hairithe for co-hairighthe, an adverb formed from the adjective airighthe (0. Ir. airegde, Z. 
233)1 ^y prefixing CO, now go; connected are airechas (principatos), Z. 233 ; airech ("primus, ante- 
rior," Z. 67, note) = W. arg in arg-lwydd? 

No. 28. Adntea, apparently adan-tes; adhanaim, "I kindle" (W. en-ynu, root an?). As to tes, v. 
Commentary, No. 5. 

No. 39. Sluith, V. supra, Commentary, No. 636. Cf. dluthad, infra, No. 61, and W. dyludo, "to . 
adhere," from the W. word it would seem as if diuith stood for du-Iuith : cf. dliged = W. dyleti 

No. 43. Fedat (gl. valeaut), feda, gl. possit, 89, read fidat, feda, and compare nlr fitsat a hescaine do 
forchtilu, "they could not avert his malediction." Fled dflin nan ged, 28 ; ni fedann fer tingaile a 
togluasacbt, "a parricide cannot move it," ibid. 82. 

No. 44. Clod = W. cludd, " an overwhelming." Clod for co-16d. Cf. O. Ir. imchloud (imm-co-16ud), 
Z. 768, 847 : imchloud (^eueimi na diil, "change of gender or declension," Z. 664; timfearf (du-imm- 
lOd) agilatio, Z. 847 : imlimda.i (gl. saltabat), ib. ; \mmluadi (gl. exagitat), ib. 

No. 45. Cuimleiig, cf. bid culmlengaithi .i. bid conflechtaigthi (gl. congrediendus), Z. 474: coimpleanga, 
O'R., " a race," Skr. root, langh ? With brtig cf. the Mod. Ir. brtiigheun, " strife." 

No. 49. ^nach, tenaehdu, in Old Ir. 6inach, oinachdu : in oinach 1. i taibdercc (gl. in theathrura), Book 
of Armagh, 183 b. Oinach is derived from 6in, W. un. Old Lat. oinos, Goth, ains, Eng. one. M. 
Pictet (the morning-star of Celtic philology) has compared the Mod. Ir. aon with the Skr. demonstrative 
ena. Bruinccha (gl. proretas), bruine, broine, "prora," are O'R.'s braine, "prow," braineaeh .i. 
taoiseach, a leader. (Cf. W. blain, blaenor, a leader ; blaenu, to precede, and Corn, brenniat, gl. pro- 
reta?). Stiurasmaind is a Teutonic word, probably Old Norse, in which language there may have been 
stgrtsmenn, n. pi. o{ stgrisma^r, though I cannot quote either of these forms. Cf. A. S. steores man, 
L. JEifSelb., foresteorda proreta Somn. The Danish styrmand means "a mate." In Breton we have 
ntH-r and sturia. Corr fem. agrees in gender with Bret, ker, a sharp edge. W. cv>r (for cwrr) is 

No. 52. With atchimm cf. iige, a prayer. Book of Armagh, 18 b, i. 

No. 53. Fedba, nom. siag.fedb, i. e.fedn = W. gweddw. Corn, guedeu, Lat. vidua. 

No. 54. Indracca (gl. fideles) cf. O'R.'s ionnracdn, and perhaps the 0. Ir. inricc. 

No. 55. Faiamedaig : the gen. plur. of this word occurs in Patrick's hymn : in eniaigthib huasalathrach, 1 
taircetlaib fatha, hi praiceptaib apstal, in hiresaib fuismedach, for which we should read f6ismedach : 
cf. foisite (confessio), Z. 41 ; foisitnib (professionibus), Z. 589. 

No. 58. Imnu, apparently from a verb, immim, imbim, formed from the prep, imm, imb = ambi. 

No. 59. Deehat has here, perhaps, a transitive meaning; but in Z. 1129, arna decha means ne veniat. 
XJlcu ; this is the O. Ir. ace. pi. masc. of ole (= Ulko-s, which Is found on a Gaulish coin .'). larair, 
a derivation from the prep, iar : cf. rofersam &miarair, Oingus ; ar arhiarair, Corm. Ecc. 60. 

No. 62. Bena, from bcnim, Z. 933, I strike, now beanaim. Cf. Goth, banja (nXiiyf/, tX/cuf), Engl, bane, 
Gr. ^oi/of. The root is concealed in W. cyminedd, " conflict," cyn-binedd. 

No. 64. Grdnna, cf. perhaps W. graen, " rough." 

U 2 No. 65. 

148 Appendix. 

No. 65. TJaimnige, a denominative from omun, fear ; cf. W. ofni, to frighten ; Gaul. Exobnus. 

No. 66. Inillius (gl. tutela, gL tutamini, infra, No. 140), derived from inill (gl. tuta, infra. No. 74) ; 

ro-inill tutissima, No. 147. Z. 731, has inill (gl. tutor), but he says the reading is doubtful. Tre- 

tneta (leg. tremetha?) in nemthremeta (cf. neimhthreabhthe, O'R ), seems a deriv. from the prep. 

tremi, which occurs in composition (tremi-berar " transfertur," tremi-tiagat " transgrediuntur," Z. 850). 

Troeta in nemtroeta appears to be the part. pret. pass, of the verb troethaim (O'R.'s traotJmini), 

I subdue. 
No. 69. With truailnide in nemihruailnide, cf. to-truailled, "was corrupted," Corm. v. Brdthmr, Eng. 

trull, Bret, trulen, " femme malpropre," are perhaps connected. 
No. 7 1 . Oompur, 0'R.'8 compuir, " body, chest, trunk," is etymologically obscure to me. 
No. 75. Sciatk, Z. 21 = W. ysgwyd, Old Bret, scoit, Z. 114 (= sceta), the relations of which with scu- 
tum, CTKurof, if existing, I am unable to settle. 
No. 80. Bcrtnaiget (gl. vibrent), Z. 436, has ro-bertaigset, gl. vibraverunt Has he left outM? 
No. 81. With iirchar, "a dart," cf. W. ergyr-waew, "a flying spear." 
No. 82. Cloi-cend seems the W. pen-glog. 
No. 83. Clechtait (gl. soleant), from elechtaim, now clcachdmm. The same form occurs in the Leab. 

Breacc : ■] clechtait doine a thaduU "] a p6ccad, " and men are used to touch it and kiss it" (Petrie, 

R. T., 437). This seems the W. preithiaw, ^^ io practise." 
No. 93. Inneda, ace. pi. of inne, 0. W. engued, Z. 149 ; the Corn, eneder-en (gl. extum) is from tvrepov. 
No. 94. Sliasta, nom. pi. of sliasait (now aliasaid), sliassit, gl. poples, Z. 22 ; sliastaib, gl. fcmoribiis, gl. 

cubis, infra. Fuathroic, fiiathrog, " girdle," O'R., cf. W. gwregys. Corn, grugus. 
No. 95. Fothoin, I have not met elsewhere, and cannot say whether it is a nom. sing. fern, or a nom. pi. 

moM. ; probably the former, as na is used in these glosses for the nom. pi. masc. of the article. May 

we compare the W. gwadn, " foundation" ? Z. 261, has fotha (gl. crepido), dat. sing, fothu, Z. 999 

(rob-fothiged, " ye were founded," ibid; no-fothaiged, "it was founded," Lib. Hymn., ed. Todd, p. 73), 

which seems cognate. 
No. 99. Cath-barr, "battle-hat;" barr (gl. cassis, Z. 51) = O. W. barr (gl. colomaticus). With these, I 

suspect, are connected Fr. barrette, Ital. berretta. Diez, however, refers them to the late Latin 

No. 106. Gulbain (gi. rostro), cf. nom. gulba : cf. O. W. golbinoc (gl. rostratam), Z. in; W. gylf, a 

bill, or beak. Corn, gelvin. 
No. 107. Bel, "lip," cf. W. gwefl = vo-bel. 
No. 109. Araid (gl. tempori) for araig, dat. sing. o{ are, gen. arach. The ace. dual of this word occurs 

in the charm against cenngalar (headache), Z. 926 : im du da are "] fort chulatha, " round thy two 

temples and on the back parts of thy head" {clais culad, " hollow of the poll," C.) ; Corn, erieu, gl. tim- 

pus, W. «r-lais. 
No. 112. Malg, "eyebrow;" Bret, malven. 
No. 113. Cluassaib (gl. auribus), from cluas = W. clust. 
No. 1 14. Gruadib (gl. genis), from gruaid, W. grudd. 
No. 1 15. Oilib (gl. bucis), from oil, now written aoil, with which the W. ael may be connected, though 

this means " a brow." 

No. 121. 

Notes. 149 

No. 121. Imchosnib (gl. tutonibus) is to me an a.Tca% Xtyo/iivov: the root seems that o{ cosanaim, I 
defend. Though tautones, according to an A. S. glosser, signifies eyebrows, I think that the Irish 
scribe understood it as meaning eyelids, especially as eyebrows (inailgii') occurs before, No. 112. 

No. 123. Anail (gl. anele), W. anadl, Skr. r. an ; an-imus, dv-ifioq, Skr. auila, wind. 

No. 125. Giall (g\. faucibus): cf. A. S. ceole, Eng. /ow^? 

No. 135. Dibechan, throat: neascoid dibeachain (gl. apostema gutturis), C. 

No. 137. Muineol (gl. collo), W. imcnwgl. 

No. 138. For edinuarraig read cdinfuarraig, and cf. fuarrech (gl. clemens), Z. 778 ; fuairrech, Z. 986. 

No. 147. Bi at luirig, " be thou a corselet," literally " be thou in thij corselet," an idiom inexplicable by 
me. See O'Don. Gram., 165 : bhi se 'n a rlgh, " he was a king," lit. " he was in his king." The same 
idiom is found in the case of the verb subst. td : ta se 'n a sagart, " he is in his priest," i. e. " he is a 
priest," ibid. ; imdegail, protection, so in Patrick's hymn : lam de domm imdegaU ; and see Colm&n's 
hymn, cited supra, p. 57, eentair, altair, genitives sing, of formations from cm, " cis," and all = aWo, 
by means of the suffix -tar = Skr. tara ; with amaimib cf. dimaines, supra. No. 10. 

No. 149. Tiiairge (gl. retundas), v. supra, No. 722. 

No. 151. Dofaicsena (gl. invisibiles), apparently an adjectival nstem, nom. sing, dofaicse, O'E., from the 
particle do and faicse, which I have not met, though faiesinach, " visible," occurs. Retla mongach 
. . . Ao faicsin, "a bristly star was seen," Tighernach, cited O'Don. Gr. 443; faicfi, 3rd sing. fut. 
act. oi faieim, I see, occurs ibid,, 179. With this verb M. Pictet (Beitr. ii. 87) compares Skr. pa<;, 
W. paith, " glance (from pakti), ; Skr. spa9a, " spier ;" Lat. specie, specto, &c. I have not found this 
form (with miaspirated c) in Old Irish. Z. 933 has a y/ord, fegad, which seems connected : — 

Mucholmoc ramcharastar ax figad, ar fis 
Is airai ramcharastar uair is tend mo chris. 

" Mucholmoc (" my little Colum'') loved me, for (my) insight, for (my) knowledge. 
It is for this he loved me, since my girdle is strong." 

Oc /«(7a(^ (fegad), "seeing;" fegaid, "see ye;" Seirgl. Cone. Airigil, apstail, mifegad, "angels, 

apostles, a high vision !" Colm. 44; cf., too, the Mod. li. feuehaim. 
No. 152. Sir, gen. bera = Lat. veru ; birdae, berach (gl. verutus), Z. 46 ; W., Corn., and Bret, ber, 

Benfey connects veru with the Skr. r. hvr ; and this would go far to explain the strange phenomenon 

of initial Celtic b = Lat. v. 
No. 153. Clu, cloi (gl. clavi), Z. 67. 
No. 160. Classaib, cf. W. dais, trench. 

No. 163. Uille (gl. ixlnas), W. and Corn. elin. Cf. ul-na, i)\-kvr], ellen bogen, Eng. el-bow. 
No. 166. Bassa, from bas, " palm of the hand," probably identical with W. bas, shallow, flat. 
No. 170. Asnach (gl. costas): cf. W. and Corn, asen (there is aW. plur. asen-au). Radically connected 

with Skr. asthi (by-theme asthan), oariov, os, oss-is. 
No. 177. Tona, buttocks: cf. W. tin, "a tail, a bottom." 
No. 185. Gliinib (gl. genua), from gldn, W. glin, Corn, (irregularly) clin. 
No. 187. Adbronda (gl. talos) : 0. Ir. odbrann, gl. talus, Z. 1 102 : Leyden Priscian, 37 b, Gael, aobrunn 

(where note the non-aspiration of the A), W. uflfarn. Probably a compound, the first element of which 


1 5© Appendix. 

has, as Dr. Siegfried suggests, perhaps lost an initial p : cf. jroJ-of, ped-is, Skr. pad (Eog. foot, Goth. 

fotu is Skr. pada). 
No. 189. With luirgnib, nom. lorga, cf., perhaps, W. llorp, shank. 
No. 192. Salttib(g\. bassibus), from »»/ = '\V. ffal (or sawdl?). 
No. 194. Ge'ffa, " branches," from gcg = W. cang, as deg (lo) = W. deng. Perhaps we may compare 

the Ir. (and British) tribe-name, Gangani (Tdyyavoi). 
No. 1 96. Ladhar now means a fork, a prong, the space between two fingers or two toes. O'Beilly, how- 
ever, has ladhar, "a toe," and in Gaelic the word means hoof as well as prong, fork. 
No. 198. Dona .x. ningnib, read dona deich n-iugnib, and note the occurrence of the transported « after 

deich (10), that number (Skr. da(;an, Lat. decern) having originally ended in a nasal. So we have 

8echt(h) 7, and ocht (h) 8, ingnib, dat. of inga = W. ewin, Skr. nakha, ovuf, Germ, nag-el, 

Eng. nail. 
No. 200. Bruindf, "breast, bosom." St. John is called Sean na bruinne; W. and Com. bron. 
No. 203. Cich = W. cyg, flesh. 

No. 205. Immlind, navel. Radically connected with o/j0aX6e, umbilicus, navel, Skr. nabhi. 
No. 216. Ochsal (which in form is almost identical with Lat axilla, 0. H. 6. ahsala) is, I suspect, by 

metathesis for oschal, aschal : cf. W. asgall, " wing." 
No. 220. Iiaip(?) I have never met elsewhere. Can it be connected with A. S. hrife, Eng. mid-n^.' 

But the word may, perhaps, be indraip, or draip. 
No. 221. Scanmn (gl. pulmone), cf. O. W. scamnhegint (gl. levant), W. ysgyfaint, "the lights;" Bret. 

sc event, Corn, skefans. 
No. 224. Ciisin tain, "with the anus, i. e. coelan na geraine no muine, the gut of fat or lard ;" i. e. the large 

intestine which is covered by the omentum: coelan, a deriv. from c6il, "slender:" geraine, gen. sing. 

of some word having the same root as geir, tallow : muine, " the lard which lines the intestines of a 

pig," 0. The Highland Society's Diet, has mttin, " fat adhering to the entrails of an animal." 
No. 228. Lu kith " the spleen." Perliaps the mysterious lewilloit (gl. splen) of the Cornish vocabulary, 

may be connected with this. 
No. 229. Find, "white," W. gwyn, Gaulish, Tindos; root vid, for cvid, Skr. ^vid album esse, Goth. 

hveita, Eng. white. Cammaib, nom. sing, camm, W. cam = cambo in Cambo-dunum, &c., see Z. 75. 
No. 231. Lainannan, "bladder," perhaps connected with W. llafamg, "liverwort," 
No. 238. Bdill, nom. pi. of b&.ll, " a member" = 0a\Xof (Prof. Siegfried). 
No. 240. Asars'echmaillius, i. e. asa-r'-sechmaillius , asa, " whose," (sing, and plur.), I cannnot explain. 

It occurs at least twice in the Folire, and also, spelt isa, in the Battle of Magh Rath. See O'Don. Gr. 

131, 132. Sechmaillius is the jst. sing. pret. act. of a verb which in Z. appears to belong to the a-conju- 

gation (the Latin first): nad sechmalla (gl. non omittit), Z. 849; sechmalfam-m (praeteribimus), Z. 437 ; 

sechmalfaider, Z. 1067. In Mod. Ir. the verb in question has passed over to the i-conjugation (the 

Latin fourth), as we see from the form seachmaill-i-m ; and this change seems to have taken place 

when our gloss was written, seehmaill-i-us being identical in form with rocinn-i-us (gl. definivi), Z. 434 ; 

baits-i-us, ibid. ; tocuir-i-us (Patrick's Hymn), &c. 
No. 245. I do not understand this gloss. Can deniaib be for d'oen-toib, " of one side" ? 
Nos. 250, 251. Allamuig, "outside;" allaastig, "on the inside." I cannot explain these adverbs. They 

occur in O'Don. Gr. 263, 269. 

No. 258. 

Notes. 1 5 1 

No. 258. Diangalur (gl. languor). This gloss enables me to correct my reading and version of part of one 
of the S. Gall incantations, Commentary, No. 222. Biang alar f kail (languor nrinae) is the ailment 
against which the charm is directed. 

No. 260. Endgai, innocence, 0. Ir encae, fem., Z. 262 ; innan ennac (gl. innoccntum), Z. 1003. S. Brigit 
is said to have been endac, "innocent," Leb. Breace, cited Todd, Lib. Hymn, 65. The true spelling is 
enncae, ennac, and the words are probably cognate with in-nocens (noceo = Slcr. na^'aySmi, " I slay"). 
Etlai, isA. oi etlae, etla? an abstract from tlie adj. eto?, the gen. sing. neut. of which occurs in H. 2, 15, 
fo. 64, a (T. C. D.) : co fortacht each etail .i. co forithin each glain. 

No. 261. Lcg-gnimarthaib. I have not met the nom. sing, of the simplex of this word, which must be 
gnimarad, whence 0'U.'3 gn!oinhartfiac/i, "actual, active." 

No. 265. Erchisse, better airchisse. Cf. airchissi (gl. parcit), Z. 199; airchissa, arcessea, "parcat,"Z. 839; 
bond erchissecht (gl. propitiatione), Z. 839. The root is probably identical with that of cesaaeht, 
" sparingness," supra, p. 64, No. 280. 

No. 267. Cofdilid (gl. lactus). Cf. fiiilte, " gaudium," Z. 94, which Z. connects with Goth, bleiths, 
0. H. G. blidj, A. S. blide, Eng. blithe. He also compares Lat. laetm, which he supposes to stand for 

No. 268. Co-ru-m-imarchoirther exemplifies the system of impersonal flexion which has attained such 
a development in the Celtic verb, in consequence of the early loss of the first and second persons in the 
tenses of the passive. Cf. do-e/iuiriur, gl. ascisco, Z. 844; imm-e-churetar "qui tractant," Z. 447 
(where the e is the infixed relative, changed from a by progressive mnlaiU) ; erchuiretar, Z. 1016, 
467; "ponuntur," adchuireddar, " adhibentur," Z. 467; euiretar, "ponunt," Z. 314; cuire nait, 
"pone a te," Z. 457. The third sing. pret. act. of the verb in our gloss occurs in the Irish Nennius, 
p. 1 10 : TO-imarcor Artur delb [deilb .'] Muire for a gualaind -\ ro-teilgistar na Pagain, " Arthur car- 
ried the image of Mary on his shoulder, and cast out the Pagans." 

No. 269. Utarfuarad (gl. refrigeria), ci.fuar, cold. I do not understand the force of etar- here. 


152 Appendix. 


Page 2, for caeaig read caemg (Old Ir. carric, Book of Armagh, 10 h, 1 ; Med. 
"W. earrec, Z. 814). 

Page 4, note 15, for amann read lamann. 

Page 5, No. 55, iolla is for hilla : see Commentary, No. 1005, p. 116. 

Page 5, No. SI, for pmcaipe read piacaipe. 

Page 7, No. 132, scama is for squama, and lanb is the 0. Ir.' lann. " Cenni am. 
bloscc am. lanna" is the gloss in the Book of Armagh, 176 b, 2, on " ceciderunt ab 
oculis ejus tamquam scamae." 

Page 7, No. i^iJor caip read capp. 

Page 8, No. 21 i,for fistula read festuca. 

Page 9, No. 2-1,1, for moTiipicina read monificina. 

Page 9, No. 254, scupa is certainly for stupa, not scopae. 

Page 10, No. T.6g, for CTidimpia6 read cnaimpia6. 

Page 10, Nos. 272, 273,/or chiromantiar«a«?chLromachia. i^o^-pcupna rearfstuma. 

Page II, No. 305, /or eipmnac read 6ipinna6. 

Page 12, No. 328, /or pepga r«a(? pepsabc. 

Page 14, note 4, read merlaime, mer coisi. 

Page 17, No. 503, read cnaimpiac. No. 520, read Locanus, Lo6an. 

Page 18, No. 575, /or paipge read paipje. 

Page 19, No. 621, /or piappuilech rea<? piapf uilech. 

Page 20, No. 643, delete [ventossus]. 

Page 24, No. 811, the MS. has " ereocledus fnleman." 

Page 25, No. 826, I should now read this as follows : " hie sibilus est hominis (i. e. 
is of the masc. gender) sibela [est feminae "is of the fern, gender"] : sermo pri[m]u8 
m p6o pope. 

Page 25, No. 831, delete [pileus.] 

Page 27, No. 863, /or uipcf read uipcT. No. 872, read peniche6cap. 

Page 28, No. 890, read p6i&e. 

Page 31, No. 1 019, read p6ibea&. 

Page 32, No. 1057, read Dochm^lach. 

Page 37. 

Corrections and Additions. 153 

Page 37, No. 4, sdi, s-ki, seems the W. syio (Davies). The ace. sing, of the deriva- 
tive siiithe occurs (spelt sui(ii(n)) in the Cris Finndin (Z. 933) : — 

cris eoin mncbris " May my girdle be the girdle of John, 

raleg aiiidi nglan Who read pure science." 

Page 37, No. 5, for crottarias read crottaria-s. As to eruit, I am indebted for the 
following note to Mr. S. H. 0' Grady, who has read and annotated the foregoing Commen- 
tary with the kindness generally found among men of his wide and accurate attain- 
ments: — " Figuratively cruit at the present day means ' a hump on the back' (from the 
shape of the Irish harp), and the word has been introduced into the Anglo Irish 
dialect. He put a critt on himself (do leig se cruit air fein) is applied to any one 
assuming a humpy attitude, as a jockey does when he works himself along in a 
race," &c. 

Page 37, No. 6, the timpan (gen. timpain), whence timpanach was a stiinged instru- 
ment. See C.'s Battle ofMagh Lena, p. 50, where occurs the expression an tiompan 
tead-bhinn, "the sweet-stringed timpan." Cf. also Girald. Topogr. Hib., "Hibernia 
quidem tantum duobus utitur et delectatur instrumcntis cythara scilicet et tympana : 
Scotia tribus, cythara, tympano ct choro : Gwallia vero cythara, tibiis et choro." 

Page 37, No. 9, cf. the Coniish renniat, divisor, which is synonymous with par- 

Page 38, line 10, read 10, Luchtaire. I think this word is radically connected 
with the Latin lucta, "wrestling," luctor, luctator. 

Page 38, No. 13, I have now no doubt that catJiir, &c., are stems in c. The stem 
of cathir (»" a weakening of a) is catharae. With uasal-athair compare Corn, hiihel- 
tat, A. S. heahfae^er = "high-father." In the second line from the bottom of p. 38 
read ath/or ath, and in the last Hue of the note /or philosojAy read poetry. 

Page 39, No. 14, read crosdn. Hence the Mod. Ir. crosdntacM, which Mr. O'Grady 
explains as " a kind of composition, part prose, part verse, generally consisting of very 
far-fetched jokes, and couched in the most difficult and out-of-the-way language at the 
command of the composer." 

Page 39, No. 15, cestimach, now ceisteamhnach, O'G. 

Page 39, No. 16, in 0. Ir. the a of ard is long. 

Page 39, No. 17, cinn I now regard as the gen. (cf. gilla nan each, gilla adairce). 
The locative sing, of masc. a-stems is in 0. Ir., as in Latin, identical with the gen. 
sing. Thus ptdrt, supra, No. 676, is the loc. oi port, gen. puirt. For examples of loca- 
tives sing, of other declensions, see Beitr. i. 335, 336. 

X Page 40, 

1 54 Appendix. 

Page 40, N"o. 18, perhaps hirria stands for hirrus, "a cloak for rainy weather;" 
unsme^e hrajgel, "unsmooth raiment," ^Ifric. 

Page 40, No. 19, W. gwydd, Com. gMh. See Diefenbach's Celtica, i. 134, 135. 

Piige 40, No. 20, Righan should be Righain ("W. rhiain), as it is in the modern 
language. In Old Ir. it seems declined like a fern, i-stcm. Thus the gen. pi. rignae 
occurs in an 0. Ir. poem to one Aed, for a copy of which I am indebted to Herr 
Mone, of Carlsruhe : — 

" Is bun cruinn m&ir mlad soerda, fri baig is bonad f indae, 
is gasne arggait arddbrigg, di chlaind cheit rig ceit rignae," 

where, though Mone's copy has phinda and ignae, the corrections are certain." 

Page 40, No. 24, the t in sagart may be also explained by reference to the ordinary 
rise of rt from rd. See Z. 70. 

Page 40, No. 26, of. the W. clopen, clopa, ■pen-glog. 

Page 40, No. 27, read tdiplis. Cf. A. S. tffifel (gl. alea) ^]L, W. taflu, to fling. 
Perhaps tdiplis is a Celtic word. 

Page 40, No. 30, the Lat. manus, 0. N. mund, should have been compared with 
»«Mm-ciUe. Cf. also "W. mun, man. 

Page40,Nos. 33, 35, the genitives sing, of waJA and rfias are respectively c^«M, diise. 

Page 41, No. 36, cf. the Mod. Ir. pras, "hasty, quick, rash;" "W. pres seems 
= praestus, presto, pret. 

Page 41, line 11, for fit read faithful. 

Page 41, No. 37, I strongly suspect th.a.t fallaitig is cognate with paUium, though 
Zeuss seems not to believe that a Celtic/can ever represent a Latin jp. Cf., however, 
con/oM-em " compai-amus," Z. 841, and M. Pictet's paper, Beitr. ii., 84. 

Page 41, No. 39, now gruadh, pi. gmadhna. Cf. also "W. grudd. 

Page 42, No. 42, hence the Anglo-Irish losset, " the long wooden box, with a lid 
and lock, often standing on trestles in a farmer's bed-room, and in which he keeps his 
linen and valuables," O'G. 

Page 42, No. 44, "W. canwyl, where wy as usual = e. 
• Page 42, No. 46, I have blundered here. The hard d mfeddn = an 0. Ir. t (= 0. 
Celtic tt), and feddn is the W. chwythu. 

Page 42, No. 47, the root may be vaks, to grow : cf. the line in Morte d' Arthur, 
"mixed with the manly growth that Mnged his lip." 

Page 42, No. 48, cf. lesman, which glosses privignus, in a ninth-century MS. of 

' The MS. from which this poem is taken is preserved in the monastery of S. Paul, Carinthia. 

Corrections and Additions. 


Prisciati, fo. 30, a, written by one Dubthach, and preserved in the University Library 
of Leyden, No. 67. For this and the other glosses in the same MS. I am indebted to 
Professor Siegftied. 

Page 42, ISo. 49, sesrach now means "a yoke of horses," O'G. 

Page 42, 'So. 50. Can this r6n (gen. r6in) be = the A. S. hr6n, " whale" ? 

Page 42, No. 51, of. the Gael. eeann-lhd,rr-eas^\xig, "a bishop's mitre." 

Page 42, No. 55, ioUais hiUa, see No. 1005, p. 117. Marie ='W. monoclien. 

Page 43, No. 59, also adirc-liu (gl. comix), Z. 726 (is liu = Gaul, \ovyos '■''). 

Page 43, No. 6i, riaghail (ia from e) is the "W. rheol. 

Page 43, No. 64, perhaps mitreta is for m«treta. 

Page 43, No. 6j, the Mod. Ir. meadar means "a vessel," generally a chum. Hence 
the Anglo-Ir. mether. 

Page 43, No. 70, sess is now " the board thrown out from the gunwale of a boat to 
the strand, to enable one to walk in dryshod," O'G. 

Page 44, No. 71, Gael, taobhan, "rafter, beam," " Taoibhm means a small patch 
in the side {taohh) of a brogue," O'G. 

Page 44, No. 73, lainneir is a living word along the Shannon, and means "lan- 
yard," C. Perhaps both the English and Irish words arc taken from the French laniero. 

Page 44, No. 75, now cordinn, gen. cor6inneach, O'G. 

Page 44, No. 77, the reading of the quatrain here given is justified by the fac-simile 
given by Dr. Ferdinand KeUer in his Bilder und Schriftzilge u. s. w., plate xi. : reimm 
should be riimm, and oa, 6a. 

Page 45, in the paradigm of the article the hypothetical stem is inaccurate. In the 
masc. it should be sanda (ex sanh^a, sa-sma (?)) ; in the fern, sanda (ex sa-sma (?)) : 
in the neut. nom. and ace. sing. sa. In lines 3 and 6, for sanad ? read sa-n ? 

In the dat. pi. of dia read deib = devabo (?), and compare fiarpefio vafiavatxapo, p. 
100, the discovery of which forms overtums Ebel's theory (here followed) as to the 
origin of the Ir. dat. pL from an instrumental. 0. Ir. aib (-«'i), Gaul, abo = dbita (fem.), 
Skr. dbhjas. 

Page 46, No. 86, oigheann now means " a large cauldron," O'G., who quotes from 
an old song, " do thuit mo bhean a n-oigheann na feola." 

Page 46, No. 88, /or panthera read pantera. Perhaps this is the 'Srenc^i pantiire, 
" a draw-net for partridges, &c.," Old Eng. paunter: — 

" Pride hath in h.\a paunter kauht the heie and the lowe, 
So that unnethe can eny man God Almihti knowe." 

Political Songa of England, ed. Wright, p. 344. 
X 2 Page 46, 

156 Appendix. 

Pago 46, No. 90, leih, "VV. lied = Lat. latus, Gr. jrXoTos (Ebel). Other examples 
oNeth, meaning half-, are leathlohhtha, "half rotten," leathmheisge, " half drank." 

Note 1 . If cbiros in the following Gaulish inscription on the handle of a patera 
(found in 1853 near Dijon) be = the 0. Ir. ddir, the opposite of s6ir, the trath of the 
conjecture here made is established : doibos segomaei ievhv alisant, " a slave of 
Segomaros made (this) for Alisanos." 

Page 47, No. 92, " craos na haoine," lit. " gluttony of the Friday," is a phi-ase now- 
used of eating meat on that day, O'G. 

Page 47, No. 93, mataxa vel corductum vel stramentum, strcel vel bedding, ^Ifric. 

Page 47, Nos. 94, 9;, the gen. of has is laise. Read basog. 

Page 47, No. 98, dare we connect cdin with poena, tto/i/j; ? 

Page 47, No. 99, with feith cf. Corn, gulden, gL cutulus, i. e. catulus, a kind of 
fetter; also Skr. vetasa, arundo. 

Page 48, No. 104. In the quotation from the Tripartite Life for atcondairc we 
should probably read atcondarc, cf. adcondarc, "/perceived," Z. 930, 

Page 48, No. io6, read scala, now " a cup ;" caitheamh na sedla, " cup-tossing on 
HaUow-e'en," O'G. 

Page 48, No. 108, " talamh, gen. talmhan, is now used by correct speakers for the 
earth = the world, as in drulm na talmhan = dorsum terra;, the face of the earth. But 
talamh, gen. talaimh, is earth in the sense of land, e. g. da acra talaimh, two acres of 
land," O'G. (O'D. and C. do not recognise this distinction.) 

Page 48, No. no, an earlier instance is in the Book of Armagh, 11, a, 2 (top 
margin), " is bdile inso sis as incertus," " there is a place here below that is incertus." 

Page 49, No. 118, as to grunna, also gronna, gromna, see Z. 735, note '. 

Page 50, No. 122, "An old saying is cr6 roimh oirc, ' stye before pigling' = ' count- 
ing your chickens before they are hatched,' " O'G. {cr6 roimh na horcaibh, C). 

Page 50, No. 128, lasair (= laxarac) is the "W. Uachar. 

Page 50, No. 129, camradh is, perhaps, cognate with W. cafii. 

Page 50, No. 1 30, read sen (old) = sena-s, W. hen : cf. Zend hana. 

Page 50, No. 131, sech-rdn is obviously a deriv. from the prep, sech, W. hep. Lat. 
secus ; Zend, haca. 

Page 51, No. 133, delete the statement that in 0. Ir. liacc is a cc-stem, into which 
I was led by a misreading of Zeuss's (corrected supra p. 80, No. 573) ; liaec was and is 
a fem. a-stem. As to Ugmar, v. No. 792, p. 96. 

Page 51, No. 137, ossadh is cognate with sossadh ajid fossadh, the common root 
being stea. 

Page 51, 

Corrections and Additions. 157 

Page 51, No. 138, cf. A. S. melo (patera), ^Ifr. 

Page 51, No. 139. I suspect cogad (0. Ir. cocoad) is con-cata, the cata being cog- 
nate with Gaul, catu, Ir. oath. 

Page 52, No. 141, the dat. sing, hairgin is in Z. 738. 

Page 52, No. 142, read 0. W. petguerid in the masculine. And in the third line 
read nomad (Z 1076) /or noim-ed. 

Page 52, No. 145, cogar is probably con-gar. See p. 76, No. 469. 

Page 52, No. 148, at the end read 8an(d)islindeni. 

Page 52, note 2, hliadne, Book of Armagh (cited supra, No. 676), nom. bliadain, is 
another example of the gen. plur. of a fem. i-stem. So ilar/ochraice, Patrick's Hymn; 
nom. fochric : fochide, Z. 992, 481 ; nom. fochaid : infinite, Z. 979 ; nom. infinit. 

Page 53, No. 152, cf the Eng. bufteris, Fr. boutoir. 

Page 53, No. 154, compare with luirech, in its secondary sense, the Vedic charman, 
lit. a hide. > 

Page 53, No. 156, cf "W". mer, a particle, Gr. fi^pos, which Benfey connects with 
8kr. mrsh. Cf. tir with tarsh. 

Page 55, No. 170, so bi'ocon, from Viscount. 

Page 55, No. 173, alhdaine (abbacy) is solely applicable to the office. 

Page 55, No. 177, W. eglwys, 4 becoming ipy as usual. 

Page 55, No. 179, "W. blisgtjn. Blaesc is now plaosg, "pod," and, jocosely, the 
" head," O'G. 

Page 55, No. 180, for sabribarra read sarabara : " sarabara sunt fluxa ac sinuosa 
vestimenta de quibus legitur in Daniele." Isidor. 

Page 55, No. 183, see, however, Ebel, Beitr. ii. 82, on the Vertauschung der spi- 
ranten, f, s, h (ch), in Celtic. 

Page 55, No. 191, bile also means lip (of a jug, &c.), O'G. 

Page 56, No. ig^, faechog is cognate with "W. gwichiad, Com. guihan. 

Page 57, No. 207, read dreoldn, now dreoiltn, from derail. Conn., now deireoil, 

Page 57, No. 209, conn = Lat. canna: W. cawn, conyn. 

Page 57, No. 211, read festuca /or fistula. 

Page 57, No. 216, ga also means "beam:" ga greine, sunbeam; ga gealaighe, 
moonbeam, O'G. 

Page 5 8, No. 2 1 7. I think now that the right reading may be seideth gdithbulga, 
the second word being the gen. of a gaithbuilg. 

Page 58, No. 220, for gen. bldthaig read gen. bldthaighe. 

Page 58, 

158 Appendix. 

Page 58, No. 222, diangalar is wrongly rendered here : a gloss in Gildas' Lorica 
shows that its meaning is languor. As to the note, I now sec that the t in perfects like 
asrubur-t, &c., is nothing but the d (of the root.dha), which, when following r or c, 
becomes t. This is proved by the occurrence of the form vo^amdatar, " they suffered," 
in the poem following the FeUre (Leab. Breacc) : — 

iama techt don rigia «after their coming to the kingdom 

rodamdatar s6etha they suffered pains. 

(The second line is glossed by " .i. rodamsat soethu .i. plana.") And I now believe 
that the unaspirated t in domeUis, &c., was preceded by ». Cf. dognitis, adsaitis, 

Page 59, No. 227, cf. in "bello Roth" where Adamnan (Vit. Col.) alludes to the 
battle of Mag-Eath (= Eotomagus). 

Page 60, No. 233, the speUing «»Vojfra seems to show that chiragra was pronounced 

Page 60, No. 240, " cliath fuinidhe is a rude kind of harrow, made with a hurdle 
and stones to weight it, for light work like bush-harrowing. A regular harrow is 
hrdea, ot prdca," O'G. 

Page 60, No. 245, Schleicher thinks ^o^ma a loan-word from one of the other Italic 
dialects (Zeits. vii. 320). 

Page 61, No. 246, and lapiUula, of course, for lapiUulus. 

Page 61, No. 248, read Luch francach. "A rat is now called sim^lY franncach," 

Page 61, No. 251, C. says there is a phrase tug se amaisc air, "he made a grab 
at him." 

Page 61, No. 254, read, possibly from es. 

Page 61, No. 256, for onesfa read ouesta, ovesta, and c£ ohesta beost, ^l&. 

Page 62, No. 257, " haineachlach occurs in the sense of a female retainer (uncon- 
nected with horses) in the tale of Diarmid and Grainne," O'G. {Toruigheacht J), "j G., 
p. 98). 
• Page 62, No. 262, in the fourth line of the quatrain read has stuck. 

Page 62, No. 264, in the paradigm read dib iabethaib. 

Pago 62, No. 265, is tiar = du-iar? 

Page 63, No. 266, 61 cormae would be better rendered " a drinking of ale." 

Page 63, No. 272, from dom comes duimm, a small handle : read nomdurni. 

Page 63, No. 274, spline, "a sharp look;" splincin, " a long splinter of bog pine, 

used as a candle," O'G. 

Page 64, 

Corrections and Additions. 159 

Page 64, No. 279, for cumail read comal, and delete the words Gaulish ver. 
Page 64, No. 287, I think Ebel (Beitr. i. 163) errs in denying a vowel-changing 
power to 0, u, for Isnomnaib (gl. lituris), Z. 739, is surely from b'nomnaib, Lat. lino, 
c«rcol = cwculus, Z. 594 ; MsMb = phj'losophus ; and I believe that b«tho, eiho (from 
bith, ith), may also be quoted as examples of the power possessed by 0. Ebel says 
that in the latter instances the stands for a prior a ; and we certainly have het\a, etha. 
But these are surely mere instances of a for 0. Cf. the Ogamic genitive Atilogdo, 
which Dr. Graves reads Apilogdo, in Mr. Wilde's Catalogue of the Antiquities in the 
Museu7n of the Royal Irish Academy. Dublin, 1857, p. 136. 

Page 65, No. 290. " Nighean is heard in Ireland, in names like Nora nighean Aodha, 
Nora Hays," O'G. (O'D. and C. say this should be written N. ni n- Aodha). 

Page 66, No. 296. These words seem not Indo-European. " Orientis partibus Ad- 
ventavit asinus" is probably true in more senses than one. 

Page 66, No. 300, c£ A. S. feohstrang (pecuniosus), feohhus (aerarium), ^Ifr, 
Page 66, No. 303, cf. the Com. diures (gl. exul). 

Page 66, No. 305. The theory here set forth is so extremely ingenious that I could 
not help inserting it. For my part, however, I believe that Hirinn is nothing but 
Ivernya (^lovepvta), the v having passed into spiritus asper, which has then shifted, the 
e standing for i (Z. 25), the nn for ny, as in the Prakrit anna from Skr. anya, the 0. Ir. 
moirtchenn, from morticinium. Thus, Ivernia, hiernna {"lepv^), whence by metathesis 
htrenn, herenn. As to the irregularity in the ace, enn for mw, I have found the 
correct vowel in the Tripartite Life: dorat dia heirind duitsiu ("God has given Ire- 
land to thee"), Egerton, 93 (Mus. Brit.), fo. 16 a, 2. 

Page 68, line 4 from top. The h in marh (W. marw) is reaUy a v, as in 0. Ir. 
tarh = Gaulish tarvos, W. tarw, fedh - Lat. vidua, "W. gweddw, garl = Skr. garva, AY. 
garw, nonbar = a Skr. navanvara-m. 

Page 69, note 2, add: ind reta adgiisi optait, Z. 978, " the things which the op- 
tative desires :" assagussim. en cechtar mo da gualand, "I wish a bird on each of my 
two shoulders." SeirgL Conculainn. 
Page 70, No. 370, now macamh. 

Page 70, No. 372. The statement of the regular lautvertretung in Old Irish, and 
the other Indo-European languages, is here given with a brevity which, perhaps, may 
mislead. The following Table will be useful, and may be relied on so far as it goes, 
being, with the exception of the Old Irish column, taken from Curtius' Grundzilge 
der Griechischen Etymologie (JjUv^t^q, 1858): — 














■a w 




c, ch (g)» 



c, q 



k, e, c, 8 




g> J 





g. '.2 

g. z 



gh, b 





g. z. z 

g, z 


t, th (d)^ 














z, sz 













lost'', c, f« 

p, ph 




f, V (b) 








: BH 




fb, b" 






D, lost?' 


y before 






n, orlostK 

n, n 








m, nh 


/i, J/' 

























lost, h ?!■ 










8 or lost' 

s, sh 





s, ch, 8 










*■ When c is, or has been, flanked by vowels, it becomes eft, for which g (t e. gli) is found. 

*> At the beginning of a word (in anlaut). 

' Tn a word (in inlaut). 

<> When ( is, or has been, flanked by vowels, it becomes th, for which d (i. e. dh) is found. 

" O. Ir. / ex ^ is very rare. See p. 154, addendum to No. 37. I have little doubt that p occurs in mtatU (probably in com- 
bination with some other letter), but cannot yetjjuote a sure example. 

' In the combination nc, so far aa 1 know, thenasal is always lost in 0. Ir. 

« In the combinations nt, ns. 

»» In anslaui, e. g. in the ace. sing., and gen. plur. of a-stcms, what I call the transported n represents a primitive m, 

< In autlaut. 

^ I suspect that initial y is sometimes represented by h, it having (as often in Greek) passed into the spiritus asper. 

1 Lost between vowels, as I beUeve, invariably : sometimes also in anlaut, e. g. in the nom. and jjeii. of tlie article. 

" Initial v always becomes/. In anlaut and auslaut v (written 6, sometimes /in Old Irish, bh in Modem Irish^ is pre- 
served in combination with d,7,n, r. It also occurs in varn, "your" (cf Goth, izvara), written 6ant or/arw in 0. It, uarh 
in the Tripartite Life, bhar it- in the modem language. 

Page '72, 

Corrections and Additions. i6i 

Page 72, 1^0. 397, a left-handed man is ciotach : ciotog, " the left-hand," O'G. 
limjd has coarpaxedW. chwith, "left;" chwithig, "left-handed." 

Page 72, No. 41 1, for guitter read gullter. 

Page 72, ISo. 412, "Ireall is the glans penis: also the round knob at the end of 
the huailtean, or striking part, of a flail, by which the thong is kejit from flying 
off," O'G. 

Page 73, No. 423, line 8 from top, read, 423, Tuata(gl. laicus) ; of. TauTius; and 
in the translation of the Gaulish inscription read made this temple for Belesama. Dr. 
Siegfried now explains eioeu, xeueit by the Old Ir. root ruR, found in £ritamm»Mrat 
"me adfieiunt," fritammwsa (gl. me adficiet), Z. 336; ihrad (gl. factum est). Book 
of Armagh, 189 i, i. In the note delete the first sentence. M. Pictet is un- 
doubtedly right in identifying OvOCKovnot with Villonius (Gruter, 488-5). See his 
learned and ingenious Hisai sur qitelques Inscriptions en langue gauloise. Geneve, 1 859. 

Page 74, No. 428. I have no doubt now that the MS. is right in its ruaimnech 
dubain. Cf. the Skr. roman horsehair (from rohman), and the 0. Ir. ruamnae (gL lodix), 
Z. 27 ; W. rhawn, Bret, reun, Ir. ruainne (No. 463) seem connected. 

Page 74, No. 429. I think dileehta is the pret. part. pass, of a verb dileicim : cf. 
leicim = Hnquo. 

Page 74, No. 430, cf. aon-t-suim, " grand total," O'G. 

Page 74, No. 431, delete, gl. tener, infra. 

Page 74, No. 434, O'G. thinks ciiisi (for cuise) the gen. sing. 

Page 75, No. 446, read tige, gen. of tig. 

Page 75, No. 462, the ace. plurals here quoted seem (with the exceptions of cairtea, 
naimtea) to be rather examples of metathesis rather than extension. 

Page 75, line 3 from bottom, /or 469 read 463. 

Page 76, No. 465, cf. Fr. doigt de pied. 

Poge 76, No. 479, "W. cwpan. 

Pago 76, No. 482, perhaps "W. od-u in eb-odn, " horse-dung," may be connected. 

Page 77, No. 484, sgagaim, " I strain, sift, winnow," O'G. ; cf Eng. shake? 

Page 76, No. 498, delete, compare Eng. whelp. 

Page 77, No. 508, preachdn preachan are now " a crow ;" preachan na ccearc, 
" a kite," O'G. 

Page 78, No. J45, c is not aspirated by the influence of n. In sancht the cht has 
regularly arisen from ct. Cf. 0. Persian Bakhtris, durukhta : A. S. ta;h-te, vseh-te, 
s6h-te, from taec-an, wsec-an, sec-an. Cowe^oimnucuir, conchechrat, are probably 
written in the MS. ochoim, oehech, and should have been read cochoim, cochech. 

Y Page 79, 

1 62 Appendix. 

Page 79, No. 561, cf. the N. H. G. eher-esche. 

Page 79, No. 565, hence fraochan, whortleberry, and cf. epeiKi), erica. 

Page 80, No. 570, hrdthair now means cousin; dearhhhhrdthair, "brother," pro- 
nounced drithdir, derbnithir (gl. germane), Z. 834. 

Page 81, line 7, for the earth read earth. 

Page 81, No. 577, sroll now always means satin; sioda is silk, O'G. 

Page 81, No. 587, "a bramble-brake is now drisearnach, with the termination of 
which cf. sffealparnach, "continued pinching" {sgealp, a pinch); siosamach, "con- 
tinued whispering," O'G-. 

Page 82, No. 595, the "W. pyrchwyn, "crest of a helmet;" pyrgwyn, "crest of a 
plume," may be connected. 

Page 83, No. 606, 6r is a neut. a-stem in 0. Ir., and occurs in the nom, sing, with 
the transported n in the following verses, for which I am indebted to Herr Mone : — 

" Is en immo liiada s&s He is a bird round whicli the trap is closing, 

is nau thoU diant eslinn gfias, He is a leaky ship in perilous danger, 

is lestar fas, is crann crin He is an empty vessel, he is a withered tree, 

[nach digni toil ind rig tdas.] Whoso doth not the will of the King above. 

Is or Bglan, is nem im grein, He is pure gold, he is heaven round the sun, 

is lestar narggit cu fin, He is a vessel of silver with wine [in it], 

is son, is alaind, is noeb He is prosperous, is beautiful, is holy, 

each 6en digni toU ind rig."' Every one that doth the will of the King. 

Page 85, No. 641, read luathgdirech. 

Page 85, No. 650, coidnech would properly be " small-footed." 

Page 85, No. 652, add, from gearh, a scab. 

Page 86, No. 660, for sochoise read sochoisc. I cannot but think the coscitir here 
quoted is cognate with the Lat. consequor. Cf. madu coscedar (gl. ipsa consequatur), 
Leyden Priscian, i"] h. 

Page 86, No. 666, taithneamh na griine, "the shining of the sun," is a common 
 Page 87, No. 674, delete line 5 as far as cruaidh. 

Page 88, No. 700, cf. 0. W. cruitr (gL pala, a winnowing-shovel). 

Page 89, 

' This is from the before- mentioned MS. in the monastery cf S. Paul. I have ventured to correct Mone's 
sar into i'is, his nan into nan, his sin into fin. Mr. Curry has found a poem in the Book of Ballymote, in 
which the above verses are incorporated. 

Corrections and Additions. 163 

Page 89, No. 709. I have now no doubt that sgeota and sgeotha are different words. 
Sgeota (gl. cartesium, i. e. chartaceum) seems a loan-word from scheda. As to sdotha, 
see Eeeves' Vit. Col., 1 06. Du Gauge, sub v. sceta. 

Page 89, No. 716, with hile, "leaflet, blossom," of. the Gaulish ^«Zwcanda, "Achil- 
Isea millefolium." Is not this = folium, (jivXkov ? 

Page 89, No. 717, cassock, Fr. casaque, ItaL casaccia, Lat. casa (Diez, E. "W., 91), 
has nothing to do with ceis. 

Page 89, No. 720, in Sanskrit svapna sometimes means a dream : of. Old Eng. 
sweven, somnium, fevos. 

Page 90, No. 725. If O'R. be correct in explaining long as enclosure, long-phort 
= castrum becomes intelligible. 

Page 91, No. 735, /or aivs-i-s read aius-ti-s? 

Page 91, No. 740, /or iii. read iii. No. 741, read Sealladh. 

Page 92, No. 744, Z.'s muince is right. Cf. mi/ne, monile, ^Ifr., mene, Beowulf, 2403. 

Page 92, No. 745, druim (notwithstanding the irregularity o{d=t) is the "W. trwm; 
80 dias = W. twys. 

Page 93, No. 752, arbe (not arpe) is the right form. Cf. Goth, arbja, heir, and 
Skr. arbha, proles. 

Page 94, line 5, for yavas read yavas. 

Page 94, No. 769, read Bidhgadh. 

Page 96, No. 782, now leamhnacht. Cf. W. llefrith. 

Page 96, No. 792, Leasnghadh means, i, to improve ; 2, to manure, O'G. 

Page 97, No. 79J. Two other forms axefoileastrom, oileastrom, O'G. 

Page 97, No. 796, cf. Do sgairt si fa ghairidhe, " she burst out into a roar of 
laughter," O'G. 

Page 97, No. 797, I feel sure that the true reading of Z.'s uudimm is vudimin. 

Page 98, No. 812, Dia (= divas), "day;" in the ace. sing, dei (fri dei) is still de- 
clined like an s-stem. But in the dat. diu {indiu) it has gone over to the vocalic 

Page 99, note, for Celtic v read Gaulish v ; see, however, p. 154. 

Page 100, line 12 from top, /or 847 read 843. 

Page 100, No. 845, for CoindealWiadh vre should certainly read Coindealhhdthadh : 
coindeal, from candela ; hdthadh, " destruction, extinguishment." Cf. bathach, leg. 
bathach (gl. moribundus), Z. 777. 

Page 100, No. 846, Taidlsiu maybe du-ad-»«(?-s-tian. Cf. W. givedd, "shape," 
Z. 860 ; a-gwedd = adgwedd. 

Y 2 Page 100, 

1 64 Appendix. 

Page 100, note, line 11, read aA-coth-ded-ae ; coth = Gaulish cata, "W. cyd. 

Page loi, No. 851, cf. W. cor-lan, "sheep-fold." 

Page 101, No. 853, for now aifrin read now aifrionn : with aiffrend c£ "W. offeren. 

Page 1 01, No. 854, gradale for graduale; W. gris-\jir, from gressus; W. grisiau, 
" steps." 

Page 102, No. 859, corporale is the napkin which covers the sacred elements. 

Page 102, No. 864, now scoraid. 

Page 105, No. 884, read solas, happiness, the opposite of dolds. 

Page 106, No. 892, TQa.dLCompantus. 

Page 107, line 11, for di[a]ais read dia es (dom-h^»s-se, "after mc," Z. 1053). 
No. 899, read denid (facite), Z. 458. 

Page 108, No. 903, read comthromugud. Comhthrom now means "just, fair." 

Page 108, No. 908, now leoirghnwmh. 

Page 109, No. 913, now comhdireamh (aram = ad-ram ?). 

Page 109, No. 916, now Idmhdgan (applied to a child's first attempt at creeping 
on all-fours), from Idmh, just as lapaddireacM, "groping;" from lap and lapa, "the 
hand," O'G. 

Page 109, No. 918. Comma is, perhaps, a loan-word; Ko/t/ia taleatio (talea, a 

Page III, No. 937, for finlorg read fri lorg, " on (the) track." 

Page III, No. 940, cf. mgerrtha,, gl. lacerandum, Gildas' Lorica. 

Page 112, No. 945, now smearoid: cf. smear, " a hlackberry," O'G. 

Page 112, note, frecuirthe ceiU (gL recole, i. e. repone sensum), Z. 1 1 30. 

Page 1 13, No. 952, Ir. gres, W. gres, seem likewise connected with ghrans. 

Page 113, No. 955. In the last line of the quotation from Ultan's hymn I should 
now render Ham by " may I be !" 

Page 114, No. 967. In his A. S. lexicon, p. 690, EttmiiUer gives "sceota -an m. 
tructus, trocta piscis." 

Page 114, line 1 1 from bottom, /or 995 read 975. 

Page 1 14, No. 976, there is no such word as ainmidheach, according to O'D. and C. 

Page 116, No. 999, delete (from sbhrav?). 

Page 117, No. 1006. In the dialect of Vannes, hl<mee means graisse, abdomen. De 
Courson, Hid. dts origines, &c. Paris, 1843, p. 409. 

Page 118, No. 1017, add "W". teneu. 

Page 118, No. 1029, muco mora is a porpoise. 

Page 119, line 8, read 1031. 

Page 120, 

Corrections and Additions. 165 

Page 120, No. 1040, cf. "W. erlyn, "pursuit; dj-lt/nu, "to adhere;" can-h/n, "to 
follow ;" glyn, " adhesion." 

Page 120, No. 1045. The c stands, I now beliere, for ced, first ; and I suspect that 
c^d grindi foilci is some kind of warm lotion. The expression occurs in a passage from 
a medical tract with which C. has furnished me. Log in haistithi (nom. haistedh) 
should have been rendered "price of baptism." In the passage from O'Davoren's 
Glossary read intan is i linn 1 im bind doberar, "when it is in ale and in food it is 

Page 121, No. 1052, read mdthair = mktax. The ai (i) is a weakened a. So is 
the ai ((') of brdthair, athair. 

Page 1 25, note. I have erred in regarding and translating ordit as from orate. It 
is explained as a subst. in Cormac, and occurs unmistakeably as such in a piece follow- 
ing Sanctiiin's hymn in Lib. Hymn., Rombith ordit let a maire, " sit mihi oratio 
apud te, Maria !" See also the inscription on the case of the Book of Durrow, 
supra, p. 56. 

Page 126, No. 1 102. In the quotation from Cormac, dam should have been ren- 
dered " suffering." See the quotation and gloss from the Leahhar Breacc, suprd, p. 158. 

Page 128, line 12 from top. I have erred in quoting er-t, var-t, &c., as instances 
of pronominal agglutination. The t here is the regular termination of the 2nd pers. 
sing, of the Teutonic preterite. The pronoun, however, is agglutinated in the 0. H. G., 
A. S., and Eng. termination of the 2nd pers. sing., s-t. 

Page 1 29, line 8 from bottom, before meza insert Bret. 

Page 1 30, note, for Bawlinson read Laud. 

Page 1 34, line 20 from top, read minimas corporis sui partes. 

Page 135, line 19 from top, the Welsh pgn occurs in cT-tgn, "against" (Norris). 

Page 145, line 8 from top, /or v. 45 read v. 46. Gingis (gl. oslaicib, " openings") 
occurs in Cormac's Glossary, v. Gin (this word is not in the Academy copy). 

Page 146, to the verbal forms under the conjunctive ist sing., add cu-r-bam, 
No. 260. This, indeed, seems the only true form here given of the conjunctive in the 
ist pers. sing. 

Page 150, No. 220, the gen. plur. rap occurs twice in a medical MS. in the library 
of the Royal Irish Academy (V); is ann bis an caor ar muine duib n[a] rap (p. 2) : 
Leges gair# in gaile "| na rap (p. 12). No. 245, dentceih is for dentaih, " fabrefactis." 

Page 151, No. 260, oentaige, better ientuige, from 6en-tuigim = 0. Ir. ointuccu, 
" I am of one mind with," " I assent," " I grant." Tuccu (an ia-stem?) seems cog- 
nate with the 0. Latin tongere, Goth, thagkjan, Eng. think, 0. Norse thekkja, 0. H. G. 


1 66 Appendix. 

denchan. Can the Eng. slang-word twig (= understand) have been taken from the 
Mod. Ir. tuigim ? 

Page 151, No. 261, gnimaxthaib is for gnfmradaib. For gnimarad read gnimrad. 
The dat. pL of daggnimrad occurs in the opening of the sermon in the Codex of Cam- 
bray (Z. 1003) : aire sechethar sclictu ar fedot [nom. feda, fiadu] in dagnimrathib, 
"ut sequatur vestigia dei nostri in bonis operibus," C. Gniomh now makes its nom. 
pL gniomha and gniomhartha. 


[The following selection from the Old Irish glosses scattered through the Book of 
Armagh, may fitly fill a space which would otherwise remain vacant. Of these glosses, 
as well as of the other contents of that invaluable MS., we may soon expect a complete 
edition from the Eev. Dr. Keeves.] 

Ochen (gl. benignus), 9, J. i; totmdel (gl. aurigam totum), 13, i. 2; enga (gl. 
aqua supra petram, i. e. fons), ibid. ; duferti martur (gL ad sargifagum martyrum), 
21, 5.2; gabdl ohlann (gl. acceptis autem v. panibus et ii. pisoibus), galis ailli (gl. 
benedixit illis), eombach (gL frcgit), fodil (gl. distribuit), 77, a. 1 ; diledu (gl. ster- 
cora), 81, a. i ; indloingtis (gl. disecabantur), diinsit I. congaisat (gl. continuerunt, 
aures suas), 175, b. 1 ; euimte (gl. ionuchus), 176, a. 2; twrsende (gl. Tarsensem), 176, 
b. 2 ; etalacda (gl. Italica, nom. sing.), 177, a. 2 ; coibdelig (gl. necessariis amicis), 177, 
b. 2; tecelsid (gl. acceptor, personarum), 178, a. i; nudebthil_tis], (gl. disceptabant), 
1 78, a. 2 ; rechtire form (gl. regerent[ur], 1 79, a. i ; formuichthib .i. moirtchenn (gl. 
subfucatis, i. e. suifocatis), 181, a. i ; huasahichire (gl. ariopagita), huasalterchom- 
rictid (gL archisinagogus), 182, b. 2; immact (.i. jecit), 183, a. 1 ; sachilli (gl. sau- 
daria), debai (gl. simicintia), 183, a. 2; et I. indeb I. iarsichid {gl. adquaesitio), 183, 
b. 2 ; berensdce (gl. Beroensis), derbensde (gl. Derbius), arumi\_f'\ethitis (gl. sustinebant 
nos), 184, a. i; [ad'\sluindim, (gL appello), 187, b. i; arbir (gL co[h]ortis), 188, 
b. I ; muiride (gL ci vitas Thalasa), dugaimigud (gL ad h[i]emandum), 188, b, 2; din- 
muirdgu (gL cum sustulissent), erus (gl. pupi), innaluce (gl. juncturas gubernaculorum), 
189, a. 2; fernn siuil I. se6l (gL artimone), cimbidi (gl. custodias), dlkthsit .1. infige- 
runt, navim, 189, b. i ; dindirect .L rithfolo (gL disintiria), 189, h. 2. 

Genekal Index. 

( i67 ) 


[^TAe numbers refer to the paragraphs of the Commentary, except when the letter ' 

they refer to the pages of this book.'] 

p." is prefixed; then 

A weakened to ai, p. 155 ; a weakened to ai (i), 

_/Ji p. 153, p. 165. 

Acta Sanctorum cited, p. 145. 

Adamndn's Vision (in the Leabhar Breacc and the 
Lebar na huidre), cited or referred to, 90, 103; 
p. 95, note ' ; 1008, 1087. 

Adverbs formed by the prefix co (^go"), p. 147. 

Agglutination, pronominal, 1071 ; p. 165. 

^Ifric's Glossary cited, p. 144, p. 145, &c. 

Amra Choluim Chille, cited, p. 37, note. 

Archives des Missions Scientifiques et Litteraires, 
vol. V,. referred to, p. 97, note. 

Armagh, Book of. See Manuscripts. 

Article, Old Irish, declined, 78; and see Addenda, 
p. 155 ; nom. pi. masc. of article in Mid. Irish, 
p. 135 ; article in Old Welsh, Cornish, and Bre- 
ton, p. 45, note '. 

Assimilation, retrogressire, 458 ; progressive, 705. 

Aspiration, 5, p. 45, note ' ; p. 46, note ' ; 139, 
287, 1071. 

Aufrecht, Dr. Theodor, referred to, 423, 776. 

Autun, Gaulish inscription of, p. 104, note. 

B in Old Irish corresponds with Skr. b, Gr. /3, Lat, 
b ; and also with Skr. bh, Gr. ^, Lat / (at the 
beginning of a word), b (in a word), 372; p. 
160; Indo-European b, see p. 160; i sometimes 
for g, 784; apparent instance of Ir. b = Lat. v, 
p. 149 (No. 152). 

Benary's law, 372. 

Benfey, Theodor, referred to, 426. 

his Oriechisches WurulUxican referred to, 

700, 1070, 1095. 

Beowulf. See Thorpe. 

Bh, Indo-European, p. 160. 

Bohtlingk and Roth, their Skr. Dictionary referred 
to, 870, 952. 

Bopp, Franz, cited or referred to, 158 ; p. 58, note; 

224, 250, 290, 420, 546, 621, 776, 860, 904, 

1000, 1068, 107 1. 
his Vergleichende Orammatik, quoted, 387, 

his Olossarium Sanscritxcum referred to, 1047, 

1081, 1 133, 1095. 
Brogin's hymn {Liber Hymnorum), cited 218, 280, 

424, 966, 977. 
Bum's Ecclesiastical Law, cited, 854, 855. 

C. Stems inc. See i)«c?e«s«o«, and p. 153. Old Irish 
e corresponds with Gr. k, Lat. e, q, Skr. k, kh, 
ch, f, 372, p. 160; cc in Welsh becomes c/(, 439 ; 
ct in Irish becomes eht (sancht = sancta, 545, 
see Addenda, pp. 161-162), but (/« inWelsh, 915. 

c (in inlaut) lost in combination cr, 621, 724; 

in combination en, 118, and Addenda. 

Cianan of Daimliac (Duleek), 35. 

Ciaran, St, 1137. 

Civilization, material, of Irish ecclesiastics, 740. 

Colman's hymn (Liber Hymnorum), cited, 214, 338, 
588, 640, 738, 890, 955. 

Columcille, p. 37, note. 

Comgell, hymn to Abbot, p. 146. 

Comparatives, formation of some Old Irish, 11 iz, 

1115, "33- 

Conjugation. See Verb. 

Corraac's Glossary cited or referred to, 38, 42, 70, 
90, 112, 115, 120, 136, 146, 155, 159, 184,216, 
218, 255, 256, 266, 555, 578, 588, 651, 814, 

843. S73. 8891 897, 933. 966, 10651 "02; P- 

127, note*; p. 148, p. 165. 
Cormacan ecces, cited 39, 56, 2 26, 866 ; p. 147. 
Ct becomes cht in 0. Irish, pp. 161—162. 
Cummian's Epistle, cited, p. 145. 
Curry, Professor Eugene, cited or referred to, i;as- 


General Index. 

sim ; his Cath Maighe L4na cited, 580 ; and see 
Heirglige Conculainn. 
Curtius, G., referred to, p. 58, note ; 245, 860, 87 1 ; 
his Grunihiige der Gricehischen Etymohgie cited 
or referred to, 792, 948, 999, 1095 j p. 159. 

2) becomes ( before aspirated «, 148, 734 ; stems in 
d, see Declension ; Old Irish d corresponds with 
Skr. and Lat d, Gr. S, and also with Skr. dh, 
Or. 8, Lat. / (at the beginning of a word), d, b 
(in a word), 372, p. 160; d assimilated to «, 
914 ; to Z, 915 ; gh written for dh, 604 (hoghar 
for bodhar~)\ Indo-European (?, see p. 160. 

Dative plural in Irish, origin of, p. 155. 

De Belloguet, Baron, his Eihnoginie Gauloiae re- 
ferred U>, 423, and note. 

De Betouw, his De ark, &c., referred to, 1029. 

Declension, Old Irish : — 

I. Vocalic: . . . i. masc. a-stems, 17, 81; neut. 

a-stems, 139 ; masc ia- 
stems, 9 (there are neut. ia- 

2. fern, a-stems, 9 ; fem. ia- 
stems, 158. 

3. masc. and fem. i-stems, 2, 
42; p. 52, note^ p. 157; 
neut. i-stems, 1008. 

4. masc. u-stems, 264 (there 
are also neut. u-stems, but 
no fem. u-stems). 

II. Consonantal: i. Guttural stems: c-stems, 

13; g-stem, 1036. 
a. Dental stems: t-stems, 4; 
ant-stems, 292, 444 ; ent- 
stems {luche, gen. lochet) ; 
d-stems, i ; n-stems, 108; 
mann-stem, 991. 

3. Liquid stems: r-stems, 13. 

4. S-stems, 812; p. 163; ns- 
stems, 1 1 15. 

III. Monosyllabic stems in 2, 987. 

IV. Adjectival: a-stems, 803; ia-stems, 803; 

i-stems, 661 (Hi, nom. pi, 
of il, 565; and see Beitr. i., 
, V. Pronominal. See Pronouns, Article. 

Flexion in adjectives preceding the nouns with 
which they agree, 565 ; passage over from one 
declension to another, 87, 726, 1047; p. 135, 
p. 163 ; extension of stems, 462, but see p. 
161 ; loss of labial ending in dat pi., p. 135. 
See Article, Pronoun. 
Declension in Welsh and Cornish, trace of, p. 1 35 

(pyn, dat. of pen). 
De Courson, his Hist, dcs Origines, Sec, cited, p. 164, 
Denis, cited or referred to, p. 133, note; 134. 

Dh, Indo-European, seep. 160. 

Diefenbach, Dr. Lorenz, referred to, 387 ; his Cel- 
<«;« referred to, 121, 266; p. 154; his Glossariiim 
Med. Lai. Germ., cited or referred to, 152, 574, 
793, 866; p. 1455 his Gothisches Tf^brUriucA 
quoted, 1073; referred to, 1095. 

Diez, his Efymologisches W'orterbuch cited or re- 
ferred to, 107, 708, 852; p. 148. 

Dimma mace Nathi, 133, 1080. 

Diminutival suffixes, 934; p. in, note. 

Dioscorides, cited, 765. 

Dual in Irish, 773. 

Dubthach, his MS. of Priscian, p. 155. 

Du Cange, his Glossarinm cited or referred to, 59, 
98, 797 ; p. 143. 

Ebel, Dr. Hermann, cited or referred to, 74; p. 61, 
note^; 287, 288, 289, 315, 328, 735; p. 99, note; 
1 1 17; p. 136, note; p. 156, p. 157, p. ij8. 

Eclipsis, phenomena of, 905. 

Ettmiiller, \iia Lexicon AnglosaxonicumiMsA, p. 164. 

JF'= sv, 777 ; initial /from v, 157, 468; from p, 

P- 154- 
Felire Oingtisso, cited or referred to, 35, 36, 168, 
234; p. 65, note'; 391, 812; p. 100, note; 

"3'. "33- 
Ferguson, Mr. Samuel, qupted, 708. 
Festus, referred to, 1 8. 
Fermoy, Book of. See Manuscripts. 
Fiacc's Hymn {Liber Eymnorum), cited, 154, 588, 

605, 729, 870, 897, 943, 1080; Preface to, cited; 

p. 112, note. 
Forstemann, referred to, 55. 

G, loss of, between vowels, 378, 1 114 ; in combina- 
tion y«, 459, 683. Stems in ^, seei'cc/t^ws^'&n. Old 
Irish g corresponds with Skr. g,j, Gr. 7, Lat. g ; 
and also with Skr. gh, h, Gr. x, Lat. h (at the be- 
ginning of a word), 17 (in a word), 372, and p. 
160; y^for«(7, 879; Indo-European ^, see p. 160. 

Gaulish Inscriptions. See Insoriptions. 

derivatives in anco, &c,, 1006. 

Gh, Indo-European, see p. 160. 

Gildas, 17. 

Badonicus, p. 133. 

Lorita, p. 1 36, et seq. 

Giraldus Cambrensis, his Topogr. Bit. cited, 37; 
p. 153. 

Gliick, C. W., his Keltische Namcn cited or referred 
to, 46, 133, 139, 258, 328, 430, 533, 558, 656, 
666, 667, 957, 999, 1073, 1 131. 

Gothic h {g) = O. Ir. c ; Goth. k = 0.lT.g; Goth. 
g = 0. Ir. g; Goth, ih (rf) = 0. Ir. d ; Goth. 
< = 0. Ir. rf ; Goth. d= O. Ir. d. See Addenda, 
p. 160, 

General Index. 


Greek k = 0. Ir. c\ y, x^; S, e^O.Jr.d; 

f3, (p — 0. Ir. b, 372 ; and see Addenda, p. i6o. 
Graves, Eev. Dr., mentioned, p. 159. 
Grimm, Jacob, referred to, 387,423; Ma Geschichte 

der deutschen jS^raeAc referred to, 250, 784. 

his Deutsche RechtsaUerthiimer cited, 1136. 

Gunation in Old Irish, 380, 392, 959. 

H in Old Irish, p. 68, note. 
Haug, his Die G&thu's referred to, 682. 
Highland Society's Bictionarium Scoto-Celticum 
cited or referred to, 66, et passim. 

Imperative active. Old Irish rare form of 2nd pers. 
sing., p. 112, note, and Addenda, p. 164. 

Indo-European consonants, how represented in Old 
Irish and other sister languages, p. 160. 

Inscriptions, Old Irish, on the case of the Book of 
Durroio, 203 ; copied by Dr. Petrie, 398 ; Gau- 
lish, Vaison, 423, p. 161 ; Nismes, p. 100, note ; 
Dijon, p. 156. See Ogham. 

Irish Nemiius. See Todd. 

J (= y) lost at beginning of Old Irish words, 758 ; 
assimilated to preceding I, 765, 884; to «, p. 159 ; 
to >•, 1116 ; passing into spiritus asper, p. 160. 

K, Indo-European, how represented in the 0. Ir. 

and sister languages, p. 160. 
Keller, Dr. F., his Bilder und Schriftziige, u. s. w., 

referred to, p. 155. 
Kelly, Kev. Dr., his Calendar of Irish Saints cited, 

Kirchhoff referred to, 423. 
Kuhn, Dr. A., cited or referred to, 108; p. 68, note, 

423, 1036, 1038. 

L, Indo-European, p. 160; 0. Ir. I, ibid. 

assimilating a following d, 915. 

-lach, 933. 

Laidcenn mac Baith Bannaig, p. 133, and note. 

Lassen, referred to, 758. 

Latin c, q = 0. Ir. c ; Lat. g =, g ; Lat. h (at 

the beginning of a word) = 0. Ir. g ; Lat. / = O. 

Ir. t; Lat. d= d; Lat. / (at the beginning 

of a word) = O. Ir. d, b ; Lat. d, b (in a word) 

= 0. Ir. d (and J?), p. 160. 
Leabhar Sreacc, mentioned, p. J 32. Sm Manuscripts. 
Lebar na huidre cited, see Manuscripts. 
Lithuanian consonants, correspondence of, with those 

of the 0. Jr., and other sister-languages, p. 160 ; 

declension of Lith. stems in -fer, 1047. 
I..ocative sing, in 0. Irish, p. 153 (and cf. the Mod. 

Ir. coia na habbann, Idimh re fairge). 
Lottner, Dr. Carl, cited or referred to, 831; p. 100, 

note ; 977, 11 24; and see Verb. 

M, Indo-European, p. 160 ; «j in auslaut weak- 
ened into « in 0. Ir., p. 160, note; m in Welsli 
represents mm, mn, mb, 1 08. 
Macintyre (Mac int kiir), 1137. 
Manuscripts cited : — 

Book of Armagh (T. C. D.), cited, 75, 114, 203, 
264, 342, 366, 383, 387, 390, 398, 424,425, 
427. 439. iSo, 583,588, 607, 616, 676, 693, 
729. 745. 746; P- 95. note!; 781 ; p. 100, 
note; p. 103, note 3; 871, 879, 909, 948 ; p. 
112, note; 994, 107 1, 1085; p. 146, p. 147, 
p. 152 (bis), p. 156, p. 166. 
Book of Dimma (T. C. D.) cited, 133, jo8o. 
Book of Fermoy (Dr. Todd) quoted, 710. 
Book of Leinster (T. C. D.) cited, 555. 
Egerton, 88 (Mus. Brit.), referred to, 301. 
Harl., 1802 (Mus. Brit.), cited, 232; p. 68, 

note ; 1 1 34. 
H. 2, 16 (T. C. D.), p. 37, note. H. 2, 15, 
(T. C. D.), 1045. H. 3, 18 tT. CD.), 371, 
Laud, 610 (Bibl. Bodl.) cited, 428; Laud, 

F. 95 (Bibl. Bodl.), p. 130, note. 
Leabhar Breacc (R. I. A.), p. 103, note. See 

Lebar na huidre (R. I. A.), cited, p. 37, note. 
Liber Hymnorum (T. C. D.) cited or referred to, 
128, 130, 560, 639, 770, 775 ; p. 95, note2; 
867, 894; p. 125, note; 1096, 1134. See 
Fiacc's hymn, Brogdn's hytnn, Colmdn's 
hymn, Patrick's hymn, Sancidin's hymn, 
Uitdn's hymn. 

Medical MS. (7), (R. I. A.) p. 165. 
O'Davoren's Glossary (Egerton, 88, Mus. Brit), 

p. 44, note. 
Tripartite Life of St. Patrick (Egerton, 93, 
Mus. Brit.) cited, 104, no, 189, 320, 518, 
784, p. 159; and see Cormac's Glossary, 
Ftlire Oingusso, Mone, Friscian. 
Medials, Irish, 372, and Addenda, p. 160; and see 

in this Index, B. D, O. 
Metathesis aspirationis. See Spiritus asper: Meta- 
thesis vocalium, p. i6r. 
Middle-Irish, some characteristics of, p. 135. 
Middle voice, traces of, in Celtic, 11 12. 
Mommsen, Theodor, his Romische Imchriften der 

Sch'.ceiz cited, 957. 
Mone, Franz, his edition of the Lorica of Gildas, 
p. 1 34 ; his commentary thereon cited, ibid. , and 
pp. 143, 144, 145 ; his copies of poems from a 
Carinthian MS. cited, p. 154, p. 161. 
Miiller, Professor Max, quoted or referred to, 584, 

1047, 1052. 
Muratori, Thesaurus Veterum Jnscriptionmn cited, 
1029; his Antiq. Ital. cited, 1030, 


General Index. 

Myvyrian Archaiology referred to, 21. 

N, stems in, see Declension. The so-called prosthe- 
tic n, 85 ; the combination nth, 287 ; n lost before 
», 285, 807, 880 ; before t, 292 and note 2, 490, 
1017; before/, 519; n from m, 305, p. i6o, 
note '' ; the combination nt preserved in Welsh and 
Breton, 772 ; the transported n, 776 and note; p. 
103, note'; p. io8, notes; 946; p. 150; this » 
becomes m before b, p. 95, note ' ; n assimilates a 
following d, 914, and 1/, p. 159; Indo-European 
K, p. 160. 

N Indo-European, p. 160. 

Nasalization of initial niedials, 776. 

Nennius, tlie Irish translation of his Sistoria Brito  
num. See Todd. 

Nismes, Gaulish inscription of, p. 100, note. 

Norris, Mr. Edwin, his Cornish Drama referred to, 
p. 109, note, 937, 1039, p. 165. 

Numerals, Cardinals, 772-777; Ordinals, 588-593; 
and see 930, 931. 

possesses umlauting power, p. 159. 

O'Davoren's Glossari/. See Manuscripts. 

0' Donovan, Dr. John, cited or referred to, passim ; 
his Irish Grammar quoted or referred to, 90, 139, 
155, 161, 168, 208, p. 58, note; p. 70, note; 
868; p. 103, note 3; p. 128, note'; pp. 149; 
his Fled diiin nan Ged quoted, 193, 781, p. 100, 
note ; p. 147 ; his Battle of Magh Rath, 303 ; his 
Lebar na Cert, 747, 837 ; and see Cormacun e'cces. 

Ogham, 534. 

inscriptions referred to, 80 ; p. 159. 

O'Grady, Mr. S. H., his assistance acknowledged, p. 

Oingus Cole Dii. See Felire. 
Old High German, correspondence of its consonants 

■with those of the 0. Jr., and other Indo-European 

languages, p. 160. 
O'Molloy, his GrammaticaLatinoSiberniea quoted, 

p. 136. 
O'Keilly, his Irish Dictionary cited or referred to, 

Orelli, 957, 1029. 
Oxford Essays. See Miiller. 

T, loss of initial, 13, 493, 746; p. 150; change of 
initial p to/, p. 154 ; change of ^ to c, 224 ; loss 
of inlautendp in the combination pn, 7 20 ; Indo- 
European p, see p. 160. 

Participles in wv, -ovtoq, represented by Irish ant- 
stems, 292; future participle passive, how formed 
in Old Irish, p. 135, p. 136, note; how in Middle 
and Modern Irish, p. 1 36 ; pret. part, passive, how 
formed in Middle Irish, p. 146. 

Patrick's hymn (Liber Ilymnorum) cited, 369, 580, 
867, 872, 107 1 ; p. 147, p. 149; Patrick's altar, 
p. 136 ; Lassar takes veil from Patrick, 676. 

Petrie, Dr. George, referred to, 398 ; his Sound 
Towers referred to, 55, 125; p. 58, note; 847, 
933 ; p. 146 ; p. 148 ; his Essay on Tara cited or 
referred to, 173, 602, 784. 

Pictet, M.Adolphe, cited or referred to, 97, 290, 302, 

305. 578. 9+°' 999; P- '47. P- '49. P- 161 ; 1"3 
Essaisur qtiel^ues Inscriptions, &c., p. 16 r. 
Political Songs of England, ed. Wright, cited, p. 

Pott, cited or referred to, 746, 819; \ai EtymcHo' 

gische Forschtmgen refeiTed to, 426. 
Prefixes, do, so, 85 ; nw, p. 107, note '. 
Priscian, Leyden Codex of, cited, 1102; p. 162. 
Pronoun, possessive, of 2ud pers. sing., 570; of 3rd 

pcrs. sing., 420; relative, Mid.-Ir. gen., p. 150. 
Pronunciation of c, t before i, 884, and note. 

R, Indo-European. See p. 160. 

Reduplication in Old Irish verb, p. 65, note ' ; p. 
100, uote; in the Welsh verb, 655. 

Reeves, Dr., referred to, p. 133, p. 134, p. 145 ; his 
edition of Adamnan's Vita Columbce cited or re- 
ferred to, 121, 159, 191, 203, 303, 390, 724; 
p. 163 ; his list of names in -gus, p. 69, note * ; 

P- 133. P- '34- 
Relative verbal forms in Irish, 107 1. 
Resolution of e into ia, 61 ; of o into Mfl, 955. 
Revue Arc/ieologique, referred to, p. 100, note. 
Bumann cited, 428. 

5 between vowels lost, 296 ; sn becomes'ww, 305 ; 
sv becomes v, p. 160, note™ ; s from x, Skr. fcsh, 
386, 466; 426; s (or f, 1039; s assimilated to 
following I, 556 ; stems in s, p. 163 ; Indo-Euro- 
pean s, p. 160. 

Sanctain's hymn {Liber Symnonmi), cited, 937. 

Sanskrit consonants corresponding with those of the 
O. Ir., and other Indo-European languages, p. 160. 

Schleicher, Professor A., referred to, 107 1; p. 158. 

his SandbMh der Litauischen Sprache referred 

to, 1047. 

Seirglige Concidamn, ed. by Mr. Curry {Atlantis, 
Nos. 2, 3), cited, p. 44, note '" ; p. 69, note ' ; 
486, 1010; p. 121, note; 1070; p. 159. 

Semitic words latinized, p. 144. 

Siegfried, Professor R. T., cited or referred to, 89, 
99; p. 68, note; 342, 682, 746, 758, 784; p. 
100, note; 884,952, 1071, 1073, 1133; the 
editor's great obligations to him, p. 132. 

Singulative forms, 765. 

Slavonic consonants, correspondence of, with those of 

General Index. 


the 0. Ir., and other Indo-European languages, 
p. 160. 

Spiegel cited or referred to, 55, 96, 130. 

Spiritus asper, shifting of in Old Irish, 305 ; p. 68, 

note ; in Welsh and Cornish, 608. 
Suffixes, superlative, 43 ; -tar, 1014; p. 149; Skr. 

suffix, -ta, Lat. tu-s, Gr. to-q, found in Irish, 

p. 61, note 2; 0. Ir. -the, -te = -taya, ibid. 
Syntax, curious construction with Mi and td, 

p. 149. 

T, use of, in Mod. Ir. declension, p. 58, note; in 
verbal forms, ibid, (but see Addenda, p. 158); 
stems in t, see Declension; t between vowels, 
227 ; tt becomes th in Welsh, 230, 957 ; Old 
Irish t corresponds with Skr. t, th, Gr. r, Lat. t, 
Goth, th (d), 372, see Addenda, p. 160; t in 
composition, 430, 1061 ; loss of t before r, 466 ; 
t worn down to d in the possess, pron. of 2nd pers. 
sing., 570 ; final t becomes s in Cornish, 772 ; me- 
dialization of t by n, and subsequent assimilation, 
991 ; Indo-European t, p. 160. 

Tain Bo Cuailgne cited, 481, 747. 

Tenues, Old Irish, 372 ; and see in this Index, 
C, P, T. 

Thorpe, llr. Benjamin, his edition of Beowulf re- 
ferred to, 752, p. 163. 

Todd, Eev. Dr. J. H., his Irish Kennius cited or 
referred to, 14, 229, 557, 817, 975, 1048 ; p. 151. 

' his edition of the Liber Hytmiorum cited or 

referred to, p. $1, note; 218, 267, 320, 481, 
691, 695, 727, 745, 770; p. 95, note 2; 784, 
894. 923. 977, 1078, 1092; p. 148, P- 151- 

his Corjad Oacdil re Gallaib cited, 866. 

his help acknowledged, p. 2, p. 144. 

Tooke, Home, cited, 595. 

JT possesses umlauting power, p. 159. 
Ultin's hymn (^Liber JHytnnoriini) referred to, 943 ; 
cited, 955. 

Umlaut, 5, 287 ; p. 159 ; progressive umlaut, p. 15 1. 
Usury, Old Irish word for, 740. 

V between vowels lost, 174, 477 ; passing into spi- 
ritus asper, 305 ; found in Irish (written i) in 
the combinations dr, Iv, nv, and rv, p. 159, p. 160 ; 
also as representing dv (aibherseoir, abhcoide, 
432); Indo-European f, p. 160. 

Vaison, Gaulish inscription of, 423 ; p. 161. 

Verb. Old-Irish conjugations : a-stems, p. 150, No. 
240; ai-stems, loSo; a-stems and i-stems, p. 146 
(tiiese were first pointed out by Dr. Lottner) ; ia- 
stems, p. 165 ; the f in the perf. act. of a-stems, 
p. 158; pret. part, pass., formation of, p. 146; 
and see Imperative, Middle Voice, Participles, 
Heduplication, Relative Verbal Forms. 

Verbal forms in the Lorica-glosses, p. 146 ; imper- 
sonal flexion in passive, p. 15 1. 

Villemarque, Vicomte H. de la, referred to, 797. 

Vocalism, 5, 287 (but see Addenda, pp. 151, 159). 

Vriddhation, 34, 948. 

Weakening of iJ and a into ai, p. 164; p. 153. 

Weber, A., cited or referred to, 205, 758. 

Welsh, see C, M, N, Heduplication, Spiritus asper, T; 

Welsh Latinity, p. 1 34 ; trace of declension in 

Welsh (jyy« in crbyn is the dat. of pen), p. 1 35. 
Wilde, Mr., his Catalogue referred to, p. 159, 
Words and forms, historical value of evidence given 

by, p. 2. 
Wright, Professor William, his help acknowledged, 

p. 144. 

Y, Indo-European, p. 160; sometimes passes into 
spiritus asper, ibid., note K See iV, T. 

Zeitschrift fir vcrgl, sprachforschm>g, cited or re- 
ferred to, passim. 
Zeuss, his Grammatica Celtiea cited or referred to, 


( 172 ) 


[The numerals refer to the paragraphs of the foregoing Commentary, except when the letter "p." is pre- 
fixed; then they refer to the pages of this book.'\ 


AD-namatius, 666. 
Aedui, 948. 
AUsanos, p. 156. 
ambi, 670. 
Ambitui, 921. 
ande, 734. _ 
Audebrocirix, 947, 
are, 704. 

Argento-ratum, 607. 
Argentomagus, 607. 
Ar-morica, 704. 
asno-s, 296, p. 159. 
AtUogdo (gen. sing.), p. 159. 
Atrebat-es, 315. 

Becco, 664. 
Belesama, 423. 
belinus, 545. 
belio-canda, p. 163. 
Bovinda, 21. 
bratu-de, p. 100, note. 
Bratu-spantium, 366. 
bretos, 328. 
Brettania, 957. 
Brettanos, 957. 
Brigantes, 292. 
Britovius, 957. 
Britta, 957. 
Britte-burgum, 957. 
broci-rix, 947. 
Brittus, 957. 
Broco-magus, 947. 
Brogi-marus, 663. 
bulga, 217. 

Cambodonum, p. ijo. 

casses, 46. 
cata-, p. 164. 
catu, p. 157. 
Catu-slOgi, 1003. 
cinco (stem), p. 86, note. 
Cintu-genus, 588. 
Cluniacum, 723. 
Cocidius, 139. 
Cogidumnus, 139. 
Com-bretonium, 957. 
Cono-maglu3, 545. 
Con-suanetes, 667. 
Con-textos, p. 104, note. 
Cesium, 556. 
crotta, 5. 

Cuno-belinus, 545. 
curmen, curmi, 266. 

Danuvius, p. 130. 

Darvernon, 554. 

dede, p. 100, note. 

Dexsiva, Dexivia, 386. 

Doiros, p. 156. 

Dubis, 381. 

Dubra, Dubri-s, dubron, 375. 

dula, 765. 

dumnos, 994. 

dunon, 21, p. 150. 

duron, 608. 

eioru, 423. 
Epasnactus, 296. 
Epo-mulus, 295. 

ex, 393. 

Ex-cinco-m&nis, p. 86, note. 

Gabro-magua, 372. 
Gabro-sentum, 372, 1073. 
Gaisati, 216. 
Gangani, p. 150. 
genos, 588. 
Glana, 671. 
glastum, p. 91, note. 
Gobannitius, 369. 
Grannos, 952. 

laQta-mSrus, 663. 
lartai : : p. 100, note, 
lerne, p. 159. 

ieuru, p. 73, note; pp. 156, 161. 
Isarno-durura, 608. 
Ivernio-s, Ivemi-s, Ivemia, p. 67, 
note ' i p. 159. 

Labarus, 1133. 
Laurentius, 908. 
Lauriacum, 908. 
Lauro, 908. 
Licca, 133. 
Lucterios, 10. 
luges, p. 155. 

Magalius, 902 . 
Magalus, 902. 
maglos, 545. 
magus (mago-s), 2 1 . 
maros, 423, 621, 663, 902. 

Old-Irish Index. 


matos, 66 1. 
matrebo, p. lOO, note. 
Mello-dunum, 258. 
Mellosectum, 258. 
Moccon (stem), 664. 
Moccus, 1029. 
Mogit-maru3, 902. 
Mogounus, 952. 
mori, 860. 
mulos, 295. 

namatios, 666. 
namausatis, 423. 
namausicabo, p. 100, note, 
nemeton, 423. 
Nertomarus, 663. 
novios, 21. 

pempe-dula (?), 765. 
pompai-dula (?), 765. 

raton, 607. 
rix, 423. 
Rotomagas, p. i$%. 

sages, 450; sagi, 872. 

Salusa, 977. 

Sanfones, 667. 

secton, 258. 

Sego-maros, 423 ; p. 156. 

senton, 372. 

Silius, 1009. 

Silo, 1009. 

Silus, 1009. 

Sirona, 952. 

slogos, 1003, 

sole, 558. 

sosin, 423. 

spantion, 366. 

Suanetea, 667. 

tarbelodathion (tarvo-tabatio-n), 

40 ; tarvos, p. 159. 
Tecto-sages, 450. 
Tecto-sagi, 872. 
Teuto-matus, 661. 
textos, p. 104, note. 
Togiacus, 994. 
Togidia, 994. 
Togius, 994. 

Togitius, 994, 
Togi-rix, 994. 
Togo-dumuus, 994. 
Toutio-rix, 423. 
toutius, 423; p. 161. 
tragos, 74. 

Ulkos, p. 147. 

Velleda, i. 
ver, 74; p. 99, note. 
Vergivios, 328. 
Vergo-bretus, 328, 366. 
Verao-dubrum, 375. 
Vernosole, 558. 
ver-tragi, 74. 
vidu, 46. 
Vidua, 46. 
Vidu-casses, 46. 
Villoneos, 423. 
Villonius, p. 161. 
Vindos, p. 150. 
Virdomarus, 663. 
Volcse, 1045. 
Volcatius, 1045. 


a (prep.), 200, (pron.) 420. 

a (interject.), p. 165. 

aball, 555. 

abbaith, 948. 

ached, 159, 580, 909. 

acher, 77. 

act, 6 14, 745. 

acus, 203. 

adaltras, 882. 

adarcdae (-de), 59, ioi8. 

adbail, 954. 

adbar, 161. 

adchodadossa, p. 100, note. 

adcondarc, p. 156. 

adcotedse, p. 100, note. 

adchuiriur, p. 151. 

ade, 676. 

adercene, 1018. 

adnadat, 1080. 

adgaur, 869. 

adgludastar, 128. 

adgusimra, p. 159. 

adib, adim, abi(?), p. 127. 

adiecht, loio. 

adircliu, 1018; p. 155. 

adnacul, 693. 

adopart, 948. 

ad-ra-nact, p. 61, note; 693. 

adrimiter, 738; adrimi, 1080. 

adroigegrannatar, p. 100, note. 

adsluindimm, p. 166. 

A'ed (A'id), 948. 

&gor, 77. 

aidacht, 948. 

aidche, 546. 

aig, 758- 
ail, 91. 
aile, 158. 
ailedu, p. 166, 
ailigud, 462. 
aill, 924. 
aille, p. 166. 
ainis, 1080. 
ainm, 56, 991. 
Ainmire, 13. 
&ir, 873. 

atrchissim, p. 151. 
Airdliacc, 573. 
airech, p. 147. 
airechas, p. 147. 

airgech, 586. 

airegde, p. 147. 

airi, p. 100, note; 639. 

airlam, 884. 

aille, 884. 

airm, 729. 

airthir, 150. 

Ws, 735, 812. 

aith, 155. 

aithech, p. 100, note. 

aithle, 155. 

ala, 150. 

alaile, 872. 

Maiud, p. 162. 

aigenaigim, 917. 

altoir, 745. 

am-, 392. 

am, 1 1 12. 

amail, 262. 

amiressach, 943. 

amlabar, 1133. 

amml(u), 85, 11 12. 

amreid, 890. 

an(neut. art.), 78. 

iiD, 682. 


Indices Verborum. 

anacul, 570. 

anairttiaid, 353. 

auais, 897. 

analchi, 752. 

anamchara, 10S2. 

and, 676. 

anfolmithe, 676. 

aniar, 305. 

aniartCiaid, 353. 

ant&aid, 353. 

apgitir, 21. 

ar (prep.), 9S, 608, 614. 

ara (n), p. 100, note. 

araUe, 112. 

ftram, p. 164. 

arbar, p. 166. 

arbe, p. 163, 

arbiatliim, 477. 

archiunn, 35. 

Ard-machaj, 948. 

ardbrig, p. 154. 

ard-fegad, p. 149. 

are, p. 148. 

aren, 752. 

ar-unn-fethitis, p. 166. 

argat, 607 ; argget, p. 162. 

ar-id-riilastar, 128. 

arin, 729. 

arbe, p. 163. 

ar(n), 884. 

arsidi, 722. 

artu, 812. 

&ru, 246, loii. 

as(fi), 565, 1 1 12. 

asbiur, 639. 

asbert, 879. 

asbertar, 639. 

asigthe, p. 112, note. 

asio, 128. 

asindisset, p. 100, note. 

aslach, 933. 

as-m-berar, 578 (asbiur). 

ass, 555. 

assa, 812. 

assagussim, p. 159. 

ih-aso, m-asu, 11 12. 

astoidet, 1008. 

at, II 12. 

ati(h), 565. 

athair, athir, 13, 1046. 

atlaigthe, 943. 

atomsnassar, 817. 

atrab, p. 127, note '. 

atr6pert, p. 100, note. 

m-atu, 1 1 1 2. 

liEiue, p. 67, note *. 

augtortks, 1107. 

ba, 115. 

bachal, 262. 

bachall, p. 103, note '. 

bad, 729. 

b&i, 128, 676. 

baig, p. 154. 

baile, p. 156. 

bainne, 966. 

bairgen, 141, 722; p. 157. 

baithes, p. 100, note. 

baitsimm, p. 150. 

ball, 638. 

ban, 738. 

handach, p. 133, note. 

bandea, 289, 1053, 

banna, 966. 

banterismid, 287. 

bar(n), p. 160, note"". 

barr, 28. 

bas, 881. 

b&s, 200, 614, 745. 

b&thach, p. 163, 

batar, 36, 

bebais, p. 100, note. 

bebe, p. 100, note. 

becc, 439, 664. 

bed, 290, 880. 

beith, 745. 

bel, 425, 636. 

belre, 176. 

ben, 369, 884, 1053. 

bendacht, benedacht, 203, 914. 

berensde, p. 166. 

bertaigimm, p. 148. 

bes, 722 (= bias): 745, 107 1. 

besgnae, 890. 

bethu, 605, 870. 

bi, 56. 

biad, 477. 

biam, 954 ; p. 164. 

bid, 154. 

biis, 35. 

bind, 115. 

bir, 184. 

bis, 740. 

bithbethu, 640. 

bite, 1 07 1. 

bill, 154. 

bliadaia, 676, 745 ; p. 157. 

blith, 954, 

bloscc, p. 152. 

bo, 424. 

bochaill, 583. 

bocc, 498, 

bocht, boctfin, 1058. 
b6i, 948. 
Boind, 21, 462. 
bolad, 1087. 
bole (bolg), 217. 
boltigur, 1087. 
bonimar, 815. 

borg. 555- 

bou, 159. 

brige, 292. 

brasse, 36. 

brath, 154, 366, 948. 

brfithair, 1047 ; p. 165. 

brec, 958. 

brecaireclit, 958. 

brenaim, 683. 

brentu, 683. 

Bretan, 909. 

bretha nemid, 578. 

briathar, 812, 897. 

brichta (ace. pi.), 369. 

Brigit, 954- 

brithem, 366. 

ron-broena, 1048. 

br6, 784, 

bronach, 427. 

bronnait, 647. 

btiachaill, 583. 

bube, p. 100, note. 

buide, adj. 803 ; subst. 943. 

buidech, 884. 

buith, 930. 

bun, p. 154. 

bunad, p. 154. 

cich, 154, 729, 815. 
cadessin, 948. 
cae, 218. 
cier, 267. 

c&era, caira, 13, 851. 
Caichan, 676. 
caill, 115. 
caille, 676. 
c&indias, 35. 
caindloir, 44. 
caingel, 745. 
c&intaidlech, 287. 
c&irchuide, 851. 
cairtine, 1127. 
cairtinigthcr, 1127. 
CaUrige, 745. 
calad, 280. 
canoin, 1080. 
car, 280. 
cara, 292. 
caraim, 280, 815. 

Old-Irish Index. 


carcar, 262. 

carpat, 112, 424, 

carric, p. 152. 

cathim, 280. 

cathir, 13. 

cech, 214. 

cechaing, p. 100, note. 

ccchladar, p. 100, note. 

cechtar, 107 1 ; p. 159. 

eel (celaim), 37 1. 

cele, 882. 

celebirsimme, 746. 

cell, 203, 948. 

cen, 120, 640. 

cenel, 676, 745. 

cenelse, 822. 

cenn, 17, 120. 

cenngalar, p. 148. 

Cennsalach, p. 67, note ^ ; 616. 

cep, 480. 

cercdae, 196. 

ccrcol, p. 159. 

cerd, 218. 

cerd-chae, 218. 

cesad, 892, 1131. 

cess, 892. 

cessacht, p. 151. 

cessachtach, 280. 

eet, 772; p. 154- 
cetamus, 578. 
cetlaid, 3. 
cetach, 909. 
cethir, 775. 
cethrar, 398. 
ciad-cholomb, 203. 
' Ciaran, 200. 
ciatu, p. 127, note *. 
cid, 1071. 
cil, 90. 

cimbidi (ace. pi.), p. 166, 
cinnim, p. ijo. 
cis, 954. 
cith (cid), 637. 
claar, 67. 
clam, 424. 

oland, 745,991 ; p. 154- 
cli, 387. 
cliab, 1 102. 
clocc, p. 103, note '. 
cloen, 870. 
cUi, 812. 
cUtain, 200, 723. 
cluas, 867. 
chltiichech, 518, 
ro-cluinetar, 902. 
clum, 262. 

cn&m, 269. 

CO, 128. 

coceilsine, 882. 

cocert, 888. 

cofil, 1 102. 

coibdelach, p. 166. 

coibse, 745. 

coic, 776. 

coicur, 398. 

coill(caill), 115. 

coimdiu, 812; p. 127, note ' j 

coimet, p. 103, note '. 
c6imsa (gen. sing.), 757. 
coire, 724. 

coirnea (ace. pi.), 75. 
cois (ace. sing.), 434. 
coisecrad, 880. 
coitclienn, 872. 
col, 1030. 

colann (colinn), 1 20. 
colcaid, 262. 
coUde, 556. 
colinn, 919. 
Colman, 909, 
Colomb, 203. 
colpa, 146. 
comacomol, loio. 
comadnacul, 889. 
comain, 897. 
comairle, comalrlle, 884. 
comalnad, 760. 
comarpe, p. 127, note *. 
combach, p. 166. 
comdlCithad, 636. 
comeisseirge, 889. 
comeitged, S17. 
coniirsire, p. 105, note, 
coniman, 897. 
comnactar, 897. 
comthfiarcon, 722. 
con (conj.), 120; (prep.) 580, 
conaicertus, 888. 
con-a-til, 729. 
Conchad, 948. 

conchechrat, p. 100, note; p. i6r. 
conchoimnucuir, p. 161, 
Conchubor, 545. 
condaig, 450. 
condelg, p. 127, note *. 
confil, 614, 745. 
couflechtaigimm, p. 147. 
confoirem, p. 154. 
congabaiinm, 676; p. 166. 
contarat, p. 131, note, 
coutubart, 948. 

conicim, 570. 

conmir, 156. 

considu, 1131. 

consan, 930. 

coutuil, 729. 

eontesbad, 966. 

coor, 938. 

corcur, 224. 

core, 938. 

corp, 98, 812 ; p. 128, note  

co3(= coxa), 637. 

cose, 660. 

cosc«dar, p. 162. 

coscitir, 660. 

coth (?), p. 164. 

crag, 203. 

craibdech, 745. 

crann, 719; p. 154, p. 162. 

creitem, p. 100, note. 

Cremthann, 693. 

Cremthinnae, 909. 

cretim, p. 127, note *. 

cretmech, 817. 

criatliar, 700. 

crich, 781, 1073. 

cride, 67, 1 102, 

crin, p. 162. 

cris, 1 1 02. 

crith, 1 102. 

crocli, 738, 812. 

cro-chaingel, 745. 

crocann, 56. 

crocenn, 56. 

croeb, 955. 

crottichther, 5. 

cruithnocht, 778. 

cruithnechtide, 778. 

cruth, 380. 

cu (co), 168. 

cuanene, 986. 

cucan, 245, 572. 

cucann, 245. 

cuibsech, 745, 107 1. 

cuil (ace. sing.), 262. 

cuilech, 1030. 

cuilennbocc, 498. 

cuiligim, 1030. 

ra-chuiliu, 1030. 

cuimlengaimm, p. 147. 

cuimnigur, iiii. 

ciiimte, p. 166. 

cuimtgim, 871. 

cuirimm, p. 151. 

cuiriur, p. 151, 

ciirm, 266. 

culatlia (ace. pL), p. 148. 


Indices Verborum. 

cumal, 909. 

cuman, 11 11. 

cumbre, 678. 

Cummen, 909. 

cumtach (cumddach), 203, 569, 

871, 881, 1098. 
ciirchas, 933. 
cfirsagad, 924. 
curu (ace. pi.), p. 74, note, 
cusecraimm, 879. 
cutrumme, 903. 
cutrummus, 903. 

d'd, 112,773. 

dagairle, 884. 

dagcomairle, 884. 

dagforcitlid, 902. 

daggnimrad, p. 166. 

daingen, daingnigim, 674. 

dairde, 554. 

DallbronacU, 427. 

daltech, 569. 

daJtse, 676. 

dam(mihi), 107 1; (etiam), 752. 

dam (bos), 722, 858. 

dam (dolor), 1102. 

ro-damdatar, p. 158. 

darade, 858. 

con-dan, 878. 

d&n, 565 ; p. 109, note. 

dana, d&natu, 1131. 

daneu, 738. 

darmchennsa, 635. 

daro (gen. sing., nom. dairf), 676. 

dartinn, 870. 

dala(ei), 745; diu(2), 773. 

daur, daurde, 554. 

daurauch, 554. 

de-, 773. 

dea, 289. 

debai, p. 1 66. 

debthimm, p. 166. 

decrud, 745. 

deed, 815. 

deicbenbar, 398. 

deirec, 626. 

delb, 642; p. 146. 

demnai (ace. plur.), 2 1 4. 

denmid, 899. 

denim, 899. 

denmusach, 899. 

denom, 141,722, 899. 

de6g Ifii, 1 20. 

derbbrathair, p. 162. 

derbensdc, p. 166. 

derc (oculus), 675. 

derc (ruber), 565, 738, 939. 

dofoimde, 1008. 

dercaide, 939. 

doformgat, 756. 

demad, 203. 

dofuaircc, 722. 

derucc, 554. 

dogegat, p. 100, note. 

des, 386. 

dogniu, 908. 

desercc, 626. 

dogres, 222. 

dessam, 937. 

doilbthid, 642. 

di (prep.), 676. 

Doilgus, 342. 

•li (2), 745, 773- 

doir, 85 ; p. 156. 

dia (suo), 450. 

del bud, 642. 

dia (deus), 21, 8i. 
dia (dies), p. 163. 

do-m-farcai, 371. 

domnu, 812. 

diabul (diabolus), 863. 

domun, 280. 

diabul (duplex), 930. 

domunde, p. 109, note. 

diade, p. 109, note 

donn, 909. 

diall, p. 95, note • 

drochgnim, 752. 

Diancbride, 1080. 

dorit, p. 159. 

diangalar, 222 ; p. 


dorcbsE, 331. 

dianid, 555. 

doroega, 154. 

diant, p. 162. 

dorencanas, 837. 

diar(n), 284, 890. 

dorodba, 954. 

dias, 35. 

doroigu, p. 100, note. 

dib(n), 773. 

doroiter, 890. 

dichein, 878. 

doronta, 112. 

didiu, 41. 

do-3-fluscad, 605. 

digeni, 909. 

dosiathacb, 578. 

digni, p. 162. 

draigen, 559. 

diib, 745. 

driss, 587. 

dil, H20. 

dristenach, 587. 

Dimma, 1080. 

druailuide, 107 1. 

din, 112. 

druid, 369. 

dind (1. dinn ?), p. 

37, note. 

druimm, 676, 745. 

dindirect, p. 166. 

du (pron.), 570. 

dinu, 292. 

du (prep.), 738. 

dirrogel, 580. 

dfiaib, p. 100, note. 

dithrubach, 214. 

dub, 381. 

ditiu, 153, 762. 

dubber, 745. 

dliged, 87. 

dubchorcur, 224. 

dldith, 636. 

Dublocb, 781. 

dlutb, 636. 

duecastar, 745. 

dlllthe, 636. 

dfiibsi, 1080. 

dKithsit, p, 166. 

duil, p. 52, note. 

do- (pref.), 85 ; (prep.), 112. 

duine, 89, 738. 

do (prep.), 605. 

duit, 943. 

do (pron.), 570. 

duUuid, 879. 

do, d6o, 817. 

du-m-esurcsa, 222 (tesurc). 

doadbadar, 565. 

dun, 674. 

doadbat, 846. 

dunad(dllnad?), 1131. 

doairbiur, 660. 

diinn, 98. 

doaurchanim, 704, 


dtinsit, p. 166. 

dobiur,_i33, 745. 

durind, 880. 

dochuiriur, p. 151. 

durni, 272. 

docbum, 943. 

dUs in, 745. 

dodcaid, 262. 

dofaitb, 128. 

e, 637- 

dofarci, 873. 

he, 128. 

Old-Irish Index. 


ech, 17, 909. 

Echaid, 13. 

ecen, 1010. 

eclais, 177 ; eclia, 94S. 

ecosc, 660. 

ecsamlus, 904. 

edocht, 745 ; edoct, 948. 

heirp, 205. 

eitach, 757. 

eitset, 1 1 01. 

heitsid, iioi. 

Eladach, 909. 

ellach, 933. 

emnatar, 1010. 

emon, loio. * 

en, 371.746; p. 162. 

encae, p. 151. 

enga, p. 166. 

ennac, p. iji. 

eolas, 85. 

epistil, 1080. 

epscop, 948, 982. 

erchissecht, p. 151. 

erchoitech, 935. 

erchuiriur, p. 151. 

hErinn, 154, 305, 870; p. 159. 

erlabrai, 867. 

eriam, 906. 

6rlam, 955. 

ermaisse, 927. 

ernaigthe, p. 147. 

ernais, 280. 

erchuilech, 1030. 

erochairchetlaid, 3. 

erocbuir (-air), 3. 

eros, 70, 580 J p. 166. 

erpimm (airbimm), 752. 

errach, 1070. 

erreud, 1006. 

erthuaiscertach, 305. 

es, dia es, dom heis-se, p. 164. 

esca, 234. 

escae, 234. 

escalchaill, 115. 

^scide (-caide), 234. 

esgre, 738. 

eslinn, p. 162. 

estecht, 867. 

et, 635 ; p. 166. 

eUch, 501, 757; etacht, 757. 

etalacda, p. 166. 

etbar, 70. 

Etan, 1 102. 

star, 745. 

etarscarad, 254. 

etmar, 635. 

etrad, 166. 
£trumm, 639. 
etsecht, 176, IIOI. 
etrumrae, 903. 
etsid, 902, IIOI. 

faca, 120. 

ficab, 676 ; f&ccab, 948. 

fa-des, 128. 

f&ilte, 161 ; p. 151. 

fairgge, 77. 

fiith, 2 ; p. 147. 

f&lthsine, 882. 

fanacc, 1080. 

fannall, 934. 

far(h), p. 127, note '1 p. 160. 

f&8, p. 127, note *; p. 162. 

febise, 948. 

feda, p. 166. 

feisne, p. 100, note. 

feith, 99. 

fel, 371- 

felsub, 1 129 ; p. 159. 

fenechus, p. 127, note *. 

fer, 841. 

ferb, p. 127, note^ 

ferenn, 390. 

ferg, 328. 

Fergus, 342. 

fergach (fercach), 328. 

ferun, p. 166. 

ferr, 41, 11 16. 

ferte, p. 1C6. 

fescor, 224. 

fesoc, 47 ; p. 155. 

fess, p. 127, note *. 

f^sur, 392. 

feuil, 150. 

Feth, 745. 

tiach, 269. 

Fiacha, 13, 115. 

fiacail, 150. 

Fiacc, 880. 

fiaclach, 150. 

Fiachra, 13. 

fiad, 36. 

fiadoisse, 959. 

fiadu (feda), 292 ; p. 166. 

fiasur, 392. 

fichtea (ace. pi.), 676. 

fid, 580. 

fidbaide, 371. 

figira, 1095. 

fill, I. 

filu8, 738. 

fin, p. 162. 

2 A 

Find, 120. 

findae, p. 154, 

findfolt, 77. 

finecliaa, 745. 

Fio, 745. 

firian, 681. 

firianigedar, 682. 

flrianugud, 682. 

firinne, 927. 

fir-^g, 954- 

fis, 846. 

fiss, 1008. 

fiaith, 338 ; p. 100, note. 

Flaud, 203, 948. 

fliuchaidatu, 675. 

fliuchaide, 675. 

fiiuchaigim, 675. 

fliuchderc, 431, 675. 

f6, 1 102. 

foacanim, 837. 

fochaid, p. 100, note; p. 157. 

focheirt, 35, 888. 

focertar, 222. 

fochetoir, 588. 

fochlaid, 229. 

fochric, p. 157. 

fochridigur, 1102. 

fochun, 371. 

fodil, p. 166. 

foedea, 890. 

foetseclit, foeitsimm, iioi. 

fogbaidetu, 740. 

foglaim, 890. 

fognam, 815. 

fogrigur, 611. 

fogur, 469. 

foigde, 815. 

foile, 1 129. 

foilsigud, 895. 

Foirtciieriin, 871. 

folcaimm, 1044, 

follus, 895. 

fo-m-chain, 371. 

for, 3S7 ; p. 99, note; 729, 745. 

forchanim, 837. 

furcetal, 139. 

focliell, 98. 

forcital, 837. 

forcitlaidecht, 837. 

forcitlid, 837. 

focul, 873. 

f6i8ite, p. 147. 

forbe, p. 146. 

forculu, 873. 

forchun, 837. 

fordingair, 578. 


Indices Verhorum. 

foreir, 660. 

forgair, p. 146. 

forlog, 909. 

formuichthe, p. 166. 

for(n), pron. 635. 

forn, prep., p. 146. 

foriigaire, p. 146. 

forngartliaid, p. 146. 

for-oenu, 36. 

forosna, 168. 

foriu, p. 166. 

fortacht, 727, 890. 

fortachtid, 727. 

fortiag, 727. 

fortrumme, 903. 

fot, 677. 

fota, 677. 

fotha, p. 148. 

fothaigim, p. 148. 

fotharcud, 740, 822. 

fri, 112, 369,635, 815. 

frisdilnaim, 287. 

friss, 846. 

frithi&raim, p. 16 1. 

froicli, 565. 

fuacht, p. 103, note '. 

fiial, 222. 

fuan, 29. 

fuar-both, 120. 

fuarrech, fuairrech, p. 149. 

fuasnad, 927. 

fufiiasna, 77. 

fuilib (dat. pi.), 608. 

fuirsitis, 729. 

fuismedach, p. 147. 

ftilsam, p. 100, note. 

furruimtis, 729. 

gabaia, 676; gabis, p. 166. 
gabdl, p. 166. 
gabor, 372. 
gabsi, 948. 
gabul, 135. 
g&datar, 870. 
gaib, 262. 
• gaid, 870. 
gaide, 2 1 6. 
gairaigud, p. 166. 
gair, 115. 
gaith (subst.), 77. 
gaith (adj.), 884. 
galar, 222. 

gaUa (ace. pi.), , p. 112, note, 
gasne, p. 154. 

geinti (ace. pi ), p. 100, note, 
gelgrian, i68. 

geumnai (dat. sing.), 214. 

German, 1080. 

giall, 216. 

gigestesi, p. 100, note. 

gilcach, 933. 

gilither, 168. 

giuil, 262. 

glais, 781. 

glan, p. 162. 

glauaim, 671. 

glas, 738. 

glas&n, 226. 

gliec, gliccu, 1 1 29. 

glicce, 1129. 

glftne (ace. pi.), 740. 

gni (ace. sing.), 902. 

gnini, 682, 908 ; p. 128, note '; 

p. 146. 
g6, 897. 
gobann, 369. 
goithlach, 933, 1067. 
gonas, 940. 
gorith, 637. 
gorte, 620. 
gr&d, 1040. 
gran, 722. 
grant, 651. 
gres, p. 164. 
gressich, 815. 
grian, 952 ; p. 162. 
gruad, 90. 
gdala, p. 159. 
guas, p. 162. 
guide, 870, 943. 
guidimm, 8lo. 
gutae, 1040. 

hi, 91. 

iacb, 216. 

iada, p. 162. 

iar, 305 ; p. 100, note. 

hiarn, 216, 608, 812. 

iarnaid, 676. 

iar&ichid, p. 166. 

lar-suidiu, 879. 

iarum, 120. 

iasc, 13. 

iathniaige, 390. 

iarthuaiscerddach, 305. 

ibar, 561. 

ice, 758. 

iccaid, 605. 

iefed, 897. 

ichtar, 1014. 

id6n, I ; page 103, note'. 

idul, 569. 

iffern, 5 1 9. 

S'. 13,565. 

ilar, p. 157. 

llmrecbtrad, 957. 

im, 128. 

imb, 578, 784, 

imbed, 670, 921. 

inaber, 465. 

imchomarc, H2. 

imehl6ud, p. 147. 

imda, 200. 

imdegail, 214, 867 ; p. 149. 

imdergud, 873. 

imdu, 299. 

imm, 670. 

immaet, p. 166, 

immaircide, p. 128, note '. 

immehuiriur, p. 15 1. 

immib, 757. 

immluadi, p. 147. 

immo(n), p. 162. 

imra-r'ordad, 878. 

immunn, 305. 

immut, 154. 

imorro, 555. 

impe, 954. 

imthised, 870. 

in rprep.), 637. 

in (art.), 78. 

inad, 516. 

inbaid, 954. 

ind (art.), 78. 

ind(prep.), 734. 

indarbe, 752. 

indeb, p. 109, note 1 p. 166. 

indiaid, 424. 

Indlinecli, 371. 

indlung, p. 166. 

indocbail, 450. 

indoilbthid, 642. 

infinit, p. 157. 

ingen, 676. 

ingenas, 290. 

ingor, 68. 

ingraimmim(dat. s.),p. 100, note. 

ingrented, p. ico, note. 

inill, p. 148. 

inis, 462, 1080. 

inniain, 955. 

inna, inna(i'i), 78. 

innocht, 77. 

innunn, 954. 
insin, 262. 
insnastis, 817. 
inso, 222, 745 ; 
int, 78. 

p. 156. 

Old-Irish Index. 


intan, 897. 

inte, 745. 

intech, 872. 

intserbu, 1132. 

intsliucht, 734. 

ir&il (erkil, hoii-furuit), 91. 

Ire, 13. 

hires, 91, 752; p. 147. 

iressach, p. 127, note '. 

irladigur, 884. 

irlam, 906. 

irlithe, 884. 

is, 1 1 12. 

isin, 262. 

I'su, 758, 954. 

it', 154- 

it, 1 1 12. 

ith, 1038. 

ith, 758, 1038. 

itge, p. :47. 

ithim, 40. 

i-timchaairt, 338. 

ithland, 132. 

iudeiu (ace. pi.), P- looi note. 

Itirad, p. 161. 

la, p. 100, note ; 605. 
labrad, 1 133. 

Ubrar, 812 ; p. 128, note '. 
ro-labrastar, 812. 
laechraid (dat. sing.), 77. 
Laigen, 954. 

laigiu, 923- 

laith, 266. 

laithe, 154. 

laithoirt, z66. 

1km, 34, 387, 637, 867. 

limbrat, 740. 

1^, 13. 

land, 132. 

lann (adj.), 77. 

lann (subst.), p. 152. 

lasan, 203. 

Use, 746. 

"-.~~. — I - — 

Lassar, 676. 

lat, 41. 

laur, 908. 

lebar, 37 1. 

lechdach, 107 1. 

ledmarb (recti letUmarv), j)0. 

legad, 107 1. 

legend, 853. 

roleg, 1080. 

leine, 38. 

leis, 879. 

lenaimm, 1040. 

lendan, 38. 

lenomun, p. 159. 

lenu, 580. 

leosom, 722, 838. 

les, 424, 580. 

lesc, 382, 815. 

lesmac, p. 155. 

lestar, p. 162. 

let, p. 165. 

leth, p. 156. 

lethan, 13, 925. 

lethchil, 90. 

lethgute, 90. 

lethlt (ace. sing.), 925. 

lethmaethail, 90. 

lethom, 90. 

lethu (dat. sing.), 640. 

lethu (adv. ?), 870. 

lia, 13. 

lia, 424. 

liaec, r33, 573; p. 156. 

Li&s, 676, 745. 

libur, 371. 

lige, 812. 

lim, 614. 

lin, 863. 

line, 1080. 

linn, p. 100, note. 

lobad, 107 1. 

loc, 879. 

loch, 637, 781. 

16che, 292 ; p. 168. 

Lochland, 77. 

16eg (loig), 424. 

16g, 133. 79^1 '°^5- 

loid, 371. 

Loig-les, 424. 

Loigiure, 424. 

Ion, 371. 

lonach, 1 15. 

long, 574- 

16r, 860, 908. 

lorg (lore), 937. 

losait, 42. 

loscud (dat. sing.), 737. 

lothor (-ur), 740. 

loure, 908. 

luse (ace. pi.), p. 166. 

Ifialh, 371. 

luatbehride, 1102. 

lub, 114. 

lubgartoir, 114. 

lubgort, 1 14. 

Lagaid, 13. 

lugimem, 923. 

2 A 2 

laid, 36, 948. 

Kirech, 154. 

lusca (ace. pi.), 605, 

ma, 637, 745. 

mac, 115, 200, 757. 

maccan, 337. 

maccu, 200. 

maecu-Nois, 723. 

Macbae, 943, 948. 

mad, 41, 1040. 

madu, p. 162. 

maetliail, 90. 

mag, 580. 

magister, 365, 

maigen, 222. 

Miildttin, 200. 

M&il Odrse, 909. 

Miilsechnaill, 203. 

Maire, p. 165. 

maisse, 927. 

maith. 450, 66 r, 745. 

maldacbt, 915. 

manacb, 745. 

manestrech (gen. s.), 726. 

mani, 745. 

mann, 299. 

m&r, 663 ; p. 154. 

marb, 90, 605; p. 159. 

martir, 214. 

martre (gen. s.), 738. 

martur, p. 166. 

mSthair, 954. 

matharlach, 933. 

matbim, 280. 

meit, 168, 922. 

menme, 927. 

menn, 77. 

menstir, p. 103, note '. 

mer, 465. 

mesraigthe, 807, 

mess, 154. 

messa, 11 17. 

ml-, 1 1 17. 

miad, p. 154. 

midos, 107 1. 

mil, 133. 

milte, 133. 

mimasclach, 933. 

mir, 156. 

mirtcbaill, 115. 

mistae, 1050. 

mo(pron.), 371; (pref.), 897. 

Mochoe, 745. 

moirtcbenn, p. 159, p. 166. 

moithiu (compar.), 394. 


Indices Verborum. 

molad, 873. 

molor, 902. 

Monach, 115. 

nior, 663. 

mdrfeser, 777. 

raoru, 1020. 

mrecbt, 957. 

mrechtrad, 927, 957. 

mu, p. 107, note. 

mucc mora, 1029. 

muccfoil, 1029. 

mug, 403, 882; p. 127, note 3. 

muinse, 744, p. 163. 

muinde, 744. 

niiiine, 128, 583 

muinntorc, 744. 

muinter, 745 ; p. 127, note ^. 

muir, 77, 812, 860. 

muiragu (dat. sing.), p. 166. 

Muircliad, 200. 

muiride, p. 166. 

muirm6ru, 1020. 

Muirsce, 69. 

mulenn, 701. 

mul, mtiidae, 295. 

na, tia(u), 78. 

nach, "not," 817. 

nad, 371, 639, 745. 

nima, 292. 

nand, 879. 

nascad, 817. 

nathir, 1 3 ; nathair, 88. 

nau (naui?), p. 162. 

naueirchinnech, 449. 

neb-, 987. 

neblesc, 382. 

nech, 745. 

necht, 224. 

neim, 280. 

nem, p. 52, note*; 812, 943; 

p. 127, note', 
nenaid, 208. 
neph-, 987. 

.nephescide (-caide), 234. 
ne3c6it, 847. 
nessa, nessam, 11 17. 
ni, 77, 614. 
ni (res), 987. 
nim, 812. 

Ninine, p. 125, note, 
nit (gen. sing.), 781. 
noeb, 214,954; p. 162. 
noi, 21. 

noib (nom. pL), p. 128, note 3. 
noibe, 168. 

noib-br'iathar, 812. 
noin, 262. 
Noindruimm, 745. 
nonbar, 400. 
Nos, 200. 
nu, 637. 
nCise, 578. 
Nuada, 292. 
nfte, 21, 803. 
nu3(n(ia?), 256. 

6, 555- 
6a, 77. 

6a (minor), 758. 
6a (jecur), 1032. 
oblann, p. 166. 
oc, 299, 815. 
6c, 758. 
ochen, p. 166. 
oclach, 933. 
6clachde, 758. 
6cmil, 758. 
ochter, 580, 909. 
odbrann, p. 149. 

6g. 954' 

6iuach, p. 147. 

6ind83, 565. 

Oiugus, 342. 

oipred, 8S9. 

6i3, 812 ; p. 127, note '. 

oitherroch, 948. 

61, 266, p. 158. 

olambieidsi, 11 29. 

olc, 578, 662, p. 147. 

olachaill, 115. 

6m, 90. 

omne, 262. 

ood, 752. 

optait, p. 159. 

or, 184. 

6r, p. 162. 

6rd, 943. 

6rddan, 943. 

h6re, p. 100, note. 

or6it, 203, 1080; p. 165. 

ort, 266. 

oslaicib (dat. pi.), p. 165. 

P&tricc, 676, 745. 

pe, 745- 
pellec, 136. 
peccad, 1040. 
pecthad, 1040. 
persan, 87. 
p61ire, p. 103, note •'. 
port, 676, 725. 

praintech, 729. 
precept, 91. 
pronn, 815. 

ra-, 13. 

rMth, 115. 

rann, 9, 1071. 

ro-ratha, p. 109, note. 

rechtaire, 450; p. 166. 

rega, 943. 

regat, 154. 

reid, 890. 

reimm, 77 ; p. 155. 

rem, 745. 

renithechtas, 872. 

remunn, 890. 

ret, p. 159. 

riagol (-gul), 61. 

riat, p. 109, note. 

riched, 16S. 

rici, 264. 

rig, 36, 203, 1036; p. 154, 

p. 162. 
rigad, 879. 
rigain, p. 154. 
rige, 1131; p. 158. 
rind, p. 67 ; 1008. 
rindaig, p. 133, note, 
rith folo, p. 166. 
rithse, 909. 
ro-, 13. 
ro-bai, 214. 
robbem, 640. 
ro-bet, 338. 
ro-cet, p. 61, note, 
rois, 262. 
rom-bith, p. 165. 
ro-p, 214, 614, 890. 
roth, p. ij8. 
ro-t-chechladar, 656, 
ro-t-bia, 161. 
ruamnae, p. 161. 
ruire, 13. 

rftnaid, p. 133, note, 
ru-n-dllith, 636. 
sab, p. 37, note. 
sacbiUi, p. 166. 
saebchore, 938. 
saer, 1137. 
sfiethar, 133. 
saibapstal, 635. 
saiget, 2:4. 

saigid (dat. sing.), 1137. 
saigul, p. 146. 
saile, 651. 
sairdenmidecht, 1137. 

Old-Irish Index. 


s4ithar, 1085. 
salann, 977. 
Salcban, 724. 
saltn, p. 128, note', 
-san, -sa, 78. 
sancht, p. 161. 
santach, 280, 667, 
sas, p. 162. 
scatan, 967. 
scel, 223. 
sciath, 214. 
scith, 614. 
sclictu, p. 166. 
scol, 338. 
scribend, 853. 
scuchad, 112. 

se, 777- 

sech, 112. 

sechethar, p. 166. 

sechmall, p. 150. 

secht(ri), 224. 

Segene, 948. 

seib, 109. 

seim, 636. 

seimtana, 1017. 

seirge, 924. 

aelb, 580. 

sem, 420. 

sen, 735. 

s^n, 1 1 32. 

ron-sena, 1048. 

seol, p. 166. 

serbe, 1132. 

ses, 580. 

sesaimm, p. 100, note. 

aess, 70. 

set, 280. 

set (iter), 490, 729, 1073. 

setharoircnid, 320. 

setfethcbaib, 826. 

siasair, p. 100, note. 

sib, J 1 12. 

side, 1088. 

S'l. 555- 
-sind, -sin, 78. 
siniu, 130. 
-3in(h), 78. 
sis, p. 156. 
sissi, II 12. 
siar, 216. 
siurnat, 320. 
slabreid, 890. 
slebe, 586. 
Sleibte, 693, 948. 
slemon, 639. 
sliassit, p. 148. 

I slige, 112. 
sUss, 32. 
sluag, 36, 1003. 
sliucht, 734. 
ron-sn&dut, 1131. 
sn&the, 817. 
sned, 649. 

sui, 305; snisni, 11 12. 
so-, 85. 
sochoisc, 660. 

soer, 954; ro-n-86era, 1048. 
soerda, p. 154. 
aoeth, p. 158. 
s&ir (soer), p. 156. 
soinnug, 404. 
solam, 740. 
som, 420, 
son (sonus), 11 37. 
son, p. 162. 
spirut, 565, 1048. 
srathar, 262. 
suidigud, II 37. 
sreibnaide, 794. 
srenim, 1039. 
sriau, 109, 1039. 
8r6n, 1039. 
sruth, 999. 
suide, 366, 812. 
snide (pron.), loio. 
suil, 425. 
sunt, 565. 
stiithe, p. 37, note 

t', 57°- 

tabuirt, p. 100, note, 
taciir, 98. 
tadbat, 846. 
taibdercc, p. 147, 
taibre, 1040. 
taidbsiu, 844. 
taidlech, 287. 
tairchechuin, 837. 
taircbet, p. 61, note; 837. 
tairchetal, p. 147. 
tairmtbecbtas, 872. 
taispenad, 894. 
talam, 108, 578. 
tamlacht, 781. 
tana, 10 17. 
tanise, p. 58, uot«. 
tar, 740. 
tare3i(n), 676. 
tarfarcennsi, 738. 
tarsende, p. 166. 
tarsi ace, 890. 
taschide, 760. 

Tassach, 897, p. 104, note. 

tech, 569. 

tecelsid, p. 166. 

tecmallad, 299. 

tecnate, 569. 

techt, 450, 872 ; p. 158. 

tecbtaire, 450. 

techtat, 639. 

teglaeh, 933. 

ten (dat. sing.), 128. 

tenge, p. 128, note '. 

teoir, 774. 

teora, 774. 

terismid, 287. 

tet, 1017. 

tes, 942, 

tiach, 41, 371. 

tiarmoracht, 872. 

tic, 120. 

tigerne, 450, 909. 

timluad, p. 147. 

tirane, 760. 

timtherecht, 898. ) 

timthirecbt, 368. ] 

timthirthid, 368. 

tintarrad, 870. 

tintathaeh, 927. 

tir, 703. 

Tirecbin, p. 95, note *. 

tirira, 703. 

tirme, 703. 

tised, 879. 

tissad, 870. 

tochuirimm, p. 150. 

togu, 878. 

Toiguire, 994. 

toirthech, 289. 

toisech, 21, 1040. 

tol, p. 100, note ; p. 162. 

toll, p. 162. 

torad, 289, 1085, 1 106. 

torand, 880. 

tore (cor), 1102. 

tore, 744. 

torcc, 373, 729. 

torcde, 373. 

torraacb, 756. 

tormachtae, 756. 

tormacbtaid, 756. 

t6ruther, 1006. 

Torrian, 1080. 

tosach, p. 100, note. 

totmael, p. 166. 

traig, 74. 

trastar, 107 1. 

trefoclss, 873. 


Indices Verborum. 

treide, 578. 

tremibiur, p. 148. 

tremitiagat, p. 14S. 

tren, 299, H17. 

tress, 873. 

tressa, 11 17. 

tri, 676. 

tri (prep.), 636, 752- 

trian, 897. 

trimi-ro-thomdiu9sa, 1008. 

trirech, 371. 

trog (truag), 383. 

trogin, 383. 

tromchride, 903. 

tromm, 903. 

truag, 262. 

trascu (ace, pi.), 605. 

tix, 1 1 12. 

tuaichle, 1129. 
tAarcun, 722, 858. 
t<iath, 423, 870. 
tCiathum, 937. 
tucad, 555. 
tuccu, p. 165. 
tuirind (dat. sing.), 35. 
tuisled, 927. 
t(is (tuus), 21. 
tflslestar, 11 34. 
tuus, 21, 937. 

hflad, 879. 
fiadib, 729. 
(iair, p. 95, note '. 
uan (uainn), 214, 
h(iare, 639. 
das, 371, 

hllasalatliair, 13; p, 147. 

hllasalsichire, p. 166. 

hiiasalterchomrictid, p. 166. 

ucht, 262, 812. 

huile, p. 100, note. 

huinnius, 557. 

uisce, 69. 

uisce&n, 69. 

uisse, 36, 758, 881, 1085. 

Ultfin, p. 95, note ^. 

humae, 611. 

fir, 578. 

h(irde, 578. 

urfaisiu, 777. 

Qtmall, 815. 

ymmon, 154- 


[ Where there is no commentary on a word, the nwrnrcUs in this Index refer to the articles in the text, pp. 
4-35. Numerals with "gl." prefixed to them refer to the Glosses on the Lorica, supra, pp. 136-143.] 

a (pron.), 420, 421. 
a (iuterj.), p. 112, note, 
abb, see banab. 
abhall, 555. 
abdaine, 173 ; p. 157. 
abhcoide, 432. 
abhracht, gl. 120. 
accai, 104. 
accadhar, 1096. 
aclaidhi, 456. 
acra, 869. 

adh (agh) allaidh, 387. 
adhaig, 865. 
adhalltrach, 619. 
adhalltras, 883. 
adharc, 59, 1018; p. 155. 
adhastar, 820. 
adhbhar, 161, 849. 
adhbhardacht, 835, 848. 
adbrond, gl. 187 ; p. 149. 
ad[b]clo3, 1030. 
adhlacadh, 759, p. 23. 
adhlucadh, 693. 
adntcs, gl. 28 ; p. 147. 

&e, 975, >03i- 

senacb, eenacbde, gl. 45 ; p. 147. 

Aengus, 342. 

agaidh, gl. 108. 

agarb, 385. 

aghat, p. 44, note. 

aibhirseoir (oibhirseoir), 517. 

aicecht, 868. 

aidbheadh (gen. pi.), 709. 

aidhchidhe, 546. 

aier, 105. 

aifFiend, 853 ; p. 164. 

&il, 91. 

Ailech, 39. 

Ailell, 481. 

ailghineckt, 917. 

aimfesach, 392. 

aimsir, 1048, gl. 9 ; 847. 

ainder, 223. 

ainfirenach, 682. 

aingil, 460 ; -gel, gl. 26, gl. 146. 

ainim, 288. 

ainm, 991 ; gl. 241. 

ainmech, 428. 

ainmidhi, 976. 

ainmneacbadh, 885. 

air, 226, 

airai, p. 149. 

airchindeeh, 449. 

airdi (-de), 926. 

airdeasbog, 447. 

aire, gl. 109; p. 148. 

airecht, p. 37, note j p. 95, note '. 

airgi (-ge), 586, 754. 

airgeach, 586. 

airged, 787. 

airgedach, 607. 

ait, 191. 

aitchimm, gl. 141. 

aiteand, 933. 

aithlcini, 155. 

alaind, 226, 234. 

Alba, 191. 

albanach, 306. 

allaastigh, gl. 251; p. 150. 

allaidb, 297, 417. 

allamuigb, gL 25o(») ; p. 150. 

AUdghus, p. 69, note. 

alltar, gl. 147 ; p. 149. 

almanach, 312. 

alt(= artus), gl. 201. 

amadlin, 302. 

amainsibh (dat. pi.), gl. 147. 

amaisc, 251 ; p. 158. 

Middle-Irish Index. 


amhal, gl. 81. 

amhnas, 226. 

an (prep.), p. 135; S^- ^• 

ro-an, 193. 

anil, gl. 123; p. 149. 

ancoire, 68. 

anmach, 654. 

anmain (dat. sing.), 232. 

anoir (onoir), 1079. 

anum, 406; gl. 59. 

Aodh, 948. 

aoir, 104. 

ar (pron.), 847. 

ar(conj.), 847- 

ara (J-ara), 589. 

ara, loii ; gl. 175, gl. 208. 

kirnibh toli (dat. pi.), gl. 183. 

arachend, p. 95, note '. 

arain, 163. 

arfin geal, 286. 

arbba, 213, 1038. 

archaingel, 462. 

ard, 16; gl. 12, gl. 264. 

ardeaspoc, 16. 

ardr'ig, 161. 

arg, 198. 

arm, gl. 2T. 

arrecaim, 481. 

arson anma, 996, 

artin (?), in. 

Artgbus, p. 69, note. 

asa, gl. 240 ; p. 150. 

as-a-aithli, 193. 

asiiacb, gl. 170; p. 149. 

as6er, 937. 

assal, 296, 416 ; p. 159. 

assan, 72. 

atanach, 596. 

at cluic, 26; p. 154. 

at pill, 831. 

at ("in thy"), p. 149 > g'- "47- 

atbair, 3, 1046. 

athair-talmhan, 17 8. 

atharmarbbtliacb, 317. 

atbel-sa, 104. 

atcoadairc, 104; p. 156. 

atbchumiledb, 909. 

atlifiana, 330. 

atchimm, gl. 52, gl. 141 ; p. 147. 

athghabhiil, p. 44, note. 

athge, gl. 45. 

atiiailh, 937. 

atigdar, gl. 2. 

ba, p. 37, note, 
baccach, 605. 

bacblach, 410. 

bachlach breallan, 412. 

baclilog, 696. 

bagar, 339. 

baile, no; p. 156. 

bainde, 966. 

baindea in toraidh, 289. 

baindi cich, 326. 

baineachlach, 257 ; p. 158. 

baintigherna, 287. 

bairin, 28. 

bairghen, 141 ; p. 157. 

baistedh, p. 165. 

baithes, gl. 83, gl. 248. 

ball, gl. 77, gl. 148, gl. 238 ; p. 

ballach, 638. 
bam, gl. 260; p. 165. 
banab, 22. 
bancoig, 247. 
bauchara, 293. 
bannach, p. 133, 
bauphrioir, 23. 
bansagart, 24. 
bausaer (-soir), 292. 
bantaisecli (-toisech), 2r. 
bantracht, 39. 
Baothghus, p. 69, note, 
bara, 320. 
barambail, 877. 
btis, gl. 7, gl. 263. 
basog, 95. 

bass, 94; gl. 166 ; p. 149, p. 156. 
bJithadli, p. 163. 
batliais, 1045. 
batar, 36. 
bealacb, 793. 
bean, 1053. 

bean do bhruthar, 570. 
bean do mheic, 57 i. 
beanmharbhthach, 321. 
bee, gl. 132. 
beithi, 560. 

beg, 194, 664, 673, 806. 
bel, gl. 107 ; p. 148. 
benim, gl. 62 ; p. 147. 
beunacht, 914^ 

beol, gl. 128; p. 128, note '. 
btothacli, gl. 211. 
berla, p. 37, note, 
berradh, 1096. 
bertnaighim, gl. 80; p. 148. 
betba, 1 13; gl. 8, gl. 254, gl. 260. 
bi, gl. 147. 
biaiih, 1045 ; p. 165. 
biathadh, 1045. 

bicairecht, 171; p. 157. 

bidhgadh, 765. 

bile (orlus), 191 ; p. 157. 

bile (ventilogium), 716; p. 163. 

binn, 223. 

bir, gl. 152 ; p. 149. 

biror, 184. 

birracb, 18 ; p. 154. 

birur, 823. 

bis, gl. 132; bite, gl. 59. 

blaesc, 179; p. 157. 

blithach, 220; p. 157. 

blathmhar, 491. 

bleoin, gl. 226. 

bliadain, 173. 

bloingi (ace. pi. ? die wekhen .'), 

gl. 214. 
blonac, 236, 1006 ; p. 164. 
bo, 159, 583. 
boc, 1094. 
bocasach, 1030. 
bocht, 1058. 
bocoidech, 653. 
bodhar, 604. 
bolltanadb, 1088. 
bond, 96 ; gl. 191, gl. 247. 
bonn, 190. 

bo-sluaighedh, 300; p. 159. 
bothiui, 120. 
braen aimsire, 1048. 
bn'igbe, gl. J29, gl. 131. 
braiccin, 714. 
braighdech, 444. 
braise, 36. 
brat, 29. 

bralbair, 1047; p. 162. 
britharmarbiithach, 319. 
breallacli, 657; p. 161. 
brecc, p. 128, note '. 
biegach, 958. 
breitlieanih, 366. 
bren, 683. 
brentus, 1089. 
bretnach, 957. 
briatliar, 628; gl. i. 
briatbrach, 628. 
brocc, 1033. 
brog, 445. 

broine, gl. 49 ; p. 147. 
brondmar, 647. 
brothrachan, 180. 
bruach, 947. 

bru, gl. 210 ; b. na hoighe, 576. 
brugb, gl. 45; p. 147. 
bruinecb, gl. 49 ; p. 147. 
bruinde, gl. 200; p. 150. 

1 84 

Indices Verborum. 

buachaill b6, 583. 

buachaill mucc, 584, 

buaile, 174. 

buaile dam, 1044. 

bnain, 502. 

buathbhall-in liath, i8i. 

buidhen, p. 95, note '. 

(juidhe, buidhi, 803 ; p. 1 28, note '. 

buigi, 1 1 1 9 (see hoc). 

butun, 152; p. 157- 

ca, 218. 

cabillanacht, 172. 

cac gabhar, 1075. 

each, p. 37, note. 

caech, 426. 

caemh-Dhaire, 191. 

caensuaraighi, 1 1 30. 

c&er finemach, 267. 

caera, 851; p. 1 64. 

cajtharach, 1055. 

cai, 770. 

Caid, 949. 

cailc, 58. 

caile dabhca, 158. 

caillech, 847 ; c. ligheoc, 282. 

calling, 336. 

caillteamhail, 1061, 

c&.in, 98, p. 156. 

cain (adj.), 234. 

cainuarrach,ii30,gl.i38; p. 149. 

cairdes, gl. 61. 

caire, 36. 

caisc, 298. 

calraa, gl. 22; gl. 158. 

calmdacht, gl. 14. 

calpach, 164. 

calptach, 162. 

camm, gl. 229, p. 150. 

camra, 123. 

camradh, 129; p. 156. 

canaiiach, 437. 

cantair, 239. 

cantairecht, 63. 

caog, 201. 

c'aor, p. 165. 

cara, 293, 413. 

caraim, 191. 

ra-ra-charastar, p. 149. 

carr, 70, 263. 

casadli, 1043. 

casnoidhi, 253. 

casta, 632. 

cat, 499. 

cath, gl. 23. 

catliair airdeasbuig, 176. 

catlibharr, gl. 99, p. 148. 

catholica, 521. 

cealg, 325, 500. 

ccch, p. 37, note ; gl. 59. 

ced (primus), 588 ; (100), 772. 

ctd grind! foilci, 1045 > P- '^5' 

cedir, 560. 

ceilebhradh eoin, 746, 

ceindetan, gl. 82. 

ceir, 225. 

ciiirin, 836. 

ceis, 717; p. 163. 

ceithri, 775. 

cenbarau, 181. 

cend, gl. 102. 

cendaidhi (cennaidhe), 1092. 

cend-fiacail, gl. 134. 

cengal, 149, 911. 

i-cenn, 894. 

cennaighim, 1092. 

cennais, 232. 

cennbharr, 51 ; p. '55- 

centar, gl. 147, p. 149. 

cep, 480. 

cere, 196, 

cercaill, 979. 

cercall, 475. 

cerd, 218, 508. 

cerdcha, 218. 

cemach, 486. 

certachadh, 888. 

cesaacbt, 280. 

cestugadb, 891. 

cestunach, 15 ; p. 153- 

cethardubhladh, 931. 

cet-bbliadhain, 588. 

cet-chathach, 772. 

cethraichadh, 142. 

cethrar, 400, 1092. 

cethri, 775. 

cethruma, 591. 

ciabli, 33 ; p. 154. 

ciarsech, 200. 

cicli, 100, gl. 203, p. 150. 

cicbin, loi. 

cindchercaill, 481. 

CIS, 784, 

cisti (ciste), 199. 

clais dromma, gl. 160, p. 149. 

clir, 67, 560. 

clar casta, 1043. 

clas guail, 273. 

claustra, 818. 

death, 485. 

clechtaim, gl. 81, p. 148. 

clcireach, 422, 7 10. 

Clement, 539. 

clesamnacb, p. 44, note. 

co-clethi, p. 37, note. 

cliabh, gl. 71. 

cliambuin, 377,322. 

cliamhuinmharbhtbacb, 322. 

cliath, 126. 

cliathach, 712. 

cliath fuirsidh, 240, p. 158. 

clibhan, 697. 

cloc, 26, 

cloch, 552; p. 112, note. 

clodh, gl. 44, p. 147. 

cloicend, gl. 82, p. 148. 

cloidheamh, 461, 

clu (ace. pi.), gl. 153; p. 149. 

cluain gabhMa, 723. 

cluas, gl. 113, p. 148. 

cluithi (-the), 518. 

cldmbar, 655. 

cnfiimh, 193, 296. 

cnaimfiach, 269, 503. 

cohairithe, gl. 20, p. 147. 

cochall, 121, 56. 

cocan, 245. 

cochtair, 283. 

codaltech, 729. 

coelan, gl. 224, p. 150. 

cofMlidh, gL 267, p. 151. 

cogadh, 139, p. 157. 

cogar, 145, p. 157. 

coi, 770. 

coibhiigbe, 847. 

coileach, 506. 

coilech gfuthi (-the), 510. 

coin, 115. 

coimpert, 847. 

coindealbbithadh, 845, p. 163. 

coin-niir, 276. 

coinnill, 44, p. 1 54. 

coinnlin, 210. 

coir, p. 44, note. 

coire(-ri), 724. 

coisinech, 650; p. 162. 

coisreagadh, 285. ) 

colssegradb, 880. ) 

coitchend, gl. i. 

colach, 1030. 

colaiud (dat. sing.), gl. 174. 

coll, 556. 

colpa, 146, gl. 188. 

colum, 203, 504. 

ColumciUe, p. 37, note. 

colund, 919. 

comhadas, 36. 

comhaightech, 314. 

Middle-Irish Index. 


comhaineachadh, 897. 

comhainm, 993. 

comhairle, 884. 

comhairemh, 913. 

comhaistiu, 518. 

comhalta, 486. 

comhaltudh, 518. 

comhdhU'ita (gen. pi.), gl. 233. 

comhfoccul, 873. 

chomhforbrit, gl. 194. 

comhla, 71, 125. 

comma, 918. 

companach, 378. 

compautus, 892. 

comparaid, 875, 896. 

compas, 1137, 1138. 

oompur, gl. 71, p. 148. 

comhradh, 481. 

comhruc, 847. 

comhsolas, 884. 

comhthin61, gl. 26. 

comhthrom, 960. 

comhlhromugudh, 903. 

conaichi, 11 28. 

Conall Cernach, 486, 

concro, 261. 

Conchubhar, 545. 

conidh, gl. 2. 

conn, 209; p. 157. 

Conn, 772. 

connlach, 209. 

conuargaibh, 320. 

cop^n, 479. 

coraidh, 457. 

co-r-bo, 4. 

corcach mara, 206, 505 . 

Corcaigh (dat. sing.), 4. 

corcair, 224. 

Cormac, 173. 

coroin, 75, 76. 

coronta, 601. 

corp, 812; gl. 259; c. Icghas, 

corporas, 859; p. 164, 49 ; eorrbraghat, gl. 133. 
corr6g, 167. 
cos, 466, 560; gl. 190. 
coslatra, 36. 
cosmhailius, 904. 
cosmhailsibh (dat. pi.), gl. 32. 
cosolamh, 36. 
cotnn, 270. 
cohulidhe, gl. 239. 
cr&es, 92 ; p. 156. 
craessacb, 644, 
crand gius, 563. 

crand glcsta, 719. 

crand lauir, 564. 

crand mucor, ^66, 

crand tochartaigh, 746. 

crebhar, 204. 

criadh, 1054. 

criathar, 700; p. 162. 

eridhe, gl. 211. 

cris, 720, 1 102; p. 149; p. 1^3. 

cris tribbuis, 706. 

crisdal, 552. 

crismal, 840. 

cristaighi (-e), 323. 

cristin, 313. 

cro, 122, 261 ; p. 156. 

cr6 caerach, 851. 

crocan, 56. 

crodhacht, gl. 26. 

croicinn niadra alta, 275. 

croldhi (-e), 1 102. 

croindtille, 651, 844. 

croindtillech, 651. 

crombeol, 708. 

crosin, 14. 

Cruacliau Raith Chonrach, 48 1 . 

cruaidh, 674. 

cruaidhi, 11 18. 

crubh eich, 442. 

cruit, p. 153. 

cruitire, 5, 1015. 

cruithnecht, 778, 189. 

crup^ na l&mh, 233. 

cCi allaidh, 417. 

cuailli (-e), 495. 

Cuangus, p. 69, note. 

cugan, 572. 

c6ig, 776. 

cdigedb, 592. 

cuigel, 567. 

ciigur, 401. 

cuilen, 498. 

cuimhleng, gl. 45 ; p. 147. 

cuimbncach, 1 1 10. 

cuincbidh, 783. 

cuindeog, 165. 

cuisle, 99; gl. 222. 

cularan, 1049. 

cumhacbt, gl. 69. 

cumair, 678. 

cumca, 727. 

cumdach, 881. 

cumdachta,p. i42,note. ( , „ 

cumdaightoir, 1098. ><^>"°1-' 

cumtach, 871. 

cupris, 560. 

cnracb, 488. 


cnrchuslach, 933. 
curracach, 595. 
curu (ace. pi.), 428. 
cusle, 99. 

(i&i 773- 

dabhach, 158, 277. 

daingen, p. 37, note. 

daingin, 674, 679. 

dair, 554. 

Daire, 191. 

dall, 249, 427, 623. 

dallsllilech, 622. 

damh, 758, 858, 1044. 

d&na, 1 131. 

darahesi, p. 112, note; darmesi, 

datb, 1087. 

dea, 289. 

dcalbb, 642, 936. 
 dealbhdha, 642. 

dealg, 1074. 

deallradb, 1031. 

deas, 386. 

dec, 173. 

decb^n, 454, 

decbmbadh, 43. 

Dechtere, 320. 

decredech, 12. 

deganach, 451. 

degh-gbnimhradh, gl. 261 ; p. 

151, p. 166. 
deirgecb, 7 8. 
delbbait, gl. 154, 
denamb, 899. 
denmbusach, 1090. 
denta, gl. 245 ; p. 165. 
dentar, 1096, 
deoir, 550. 

deoradh, 303; p. 159. 
der, 39, 724. 
dercach, 627. 
derg, 1048. 
dergi (-ge), 939. 
dergudb, 481. 

dermbir, p. 95, note ' j 1008. 
des, p. 69, note. 
di, gl. 67. 

dia, 4051 232; gl- 157, gli65. 

diabhul, 527. 

diadbacht, 81, 334. 

diangbalur, gl. 258; p. 151. 

Diarmaid, 540. 

dias, 398. 

dias, 35. 

dibecban, gL 135; p. 149. 


Indices Verhorum. 

dibhlinaibh, 104. 
dibh(n), p. 95, note '. 
dichuirer, gl. 261. 
didean, 153. 
didin, 762, 995 
didnighteoir, 1093. 
dighlach, p. 69, note, 
dilfi, 1 1 2 1 . 

dilechta. 429 ; p. 161. 
dilechtach, 83. 
dim, gl. 265. 
dimaiiies, gl. 10; p. 146. 
din, 193. 

dindsenchas, p. 37, note- 
diner, 699. 
dingbhala. 668. 
dirinili, gl. 234. 
d'then, 718. 
ditoin, 472. 
discibul, 438. 
disliugudh, 910. 
disle, 496. 

ditin (ace. sing.), 602. 
ditin, gl. 68 ; ditnet, gl. 19, gl. 

dithrebhach, 315. 
diumiis, 1030. 
dlighedh, 87, 879; p. 147. 
dlighi, 87. 
dlightinech, 433. 
dlistinacli, 433, 439. 
diaith,636;"gl. 39; p. 147. 
dluthadh, gl. 61. 

do- 193- 
dohcth, gl. 2. 
dobliran, 375. 
dochinelacli, 676, 1057. 
dochotar, 894. 
doctuir, 1082. 
Doedhghus, p. 69, note, 
doenna (= O. Ir. doinde), 85. 
dofaicsena, gl. 151; p. 149. 
dogn'i, 847; dogniat, 1008. 
doib, 481. 
. doilbhthe6ir, 1091. 
doilblithiugudh, 900. 
d6it, gl. 164. 
dolled, 747. 
domblas ue, 975. 
Donnchadh, 525. 
Donnglius, p. 6g, note, 
doriitadh, 560, S67. 
dorchadhus, 331, 332. 
dorine, p. 125, note. 
domad6racht, 272. 
dornan buana, 502. 

dorus, 124; gl. 245. 

dorus lis, 580. 

dot, gl. 69. 

dothengtaeh, 626. 

dotlioet, gl. 2. 

do-da-trascair, 847. 

dreassan, 1012. 

dreolan, 207. 

dris, 587, 933. 

driscain, gl. 217. 

droighin, 559. 

dromand, gl. 171. 

druim, 745 ; druimseilg, gl. 172. 

co-driii;nne, 4. 

dubh, 381, 802. 

dubhan, 428. 

dubhrudan, 721. 

Dubhthaeh, 1096. 

duclm, 1020. 

diiil (dul), 267. 

duillen, 765. 

duine, 89, 953. 

duine beg, 436. 

dul, 1008. 

dunmharbhthach, 316. 

dumu (ace. pi.), gl. 165. 

each, 17, 414, 442. 

Eachtglius, 69, note. 

eaglas (eaglais), 177. 

eaiadan, 85. 

eallacli (?), 71. 

earrach, 1070. 

eaa, 259. 

easbog, 448. ) 

ea.spog, 982. ) 

ecas (cocas), p. 125, note. 

ccna, p. 38, note. 

edach, 501, 757. 

edail, 694. 

edaingen, 680. 

ednihur, 635. , 

edratli, i66. 

egcomhtlirom, 961, 962. 

egcusmhaijus, 905. 

eideand, 933. 

Eigbipt, 581. 

einech, p. 58, note. 

eirindach (eirinnach), 305. 

eistidboir, iioi. 

eitelladb, 912. 

eithidheanihail, 1068. 

ela, 509. 

embnadh, loio. 

endac, p. 151. 

endgae, gl. 260. 

Eoghan, 543. 

^olus, 85, 901. 

eorna, 779. 

erlabhra, 867. 

ercliisfiiin, gl. 265; p. 151. 

escaine, p. 147. 

escara, gl. 18. 

escart, 254; p. 158. 

escata, gl. 180, gl. 184. 

escuing uichoidech, 935. 

esg^i 234. 

eaU'in, 393, 634. 

eslani (-e), 928. 

etal, p. 151. 

etan, gl. 86, gl. 103. 

etarfuaradh, gl. 269. 

elarsroin, gl. 116. 

ete ocbta, gl. 222. 

etechail, 1066. 

etelaigher, gl. 264. 

etiucta, gl. 89. 

etlae(?), gl. 260; p. 151. 

eturru, 481. 

examail, 10S7. 

fabhra(0. Ir. abra, gen. -af), 79. 

facbat, gl. 16. 

fada, 677. 

faecliog, 188, 194. 

Faelgbus, p. 69, note. 

faicim, p. 149. 

faidi (-e), 929. 

faidiugudh, 907. 

faighin, 157. 

failgheach, 631. 

fainleoc, 934. 

fairci (fairge), 1 103. ) 

fairge, 57,5, 1103. ) 

fairsing, 640. 

faiamedhacb, gl. 55 ; p. 147. 

faisneis, 751. 

faistine, p. 38, note. 

faith, 2, 3io, 35 1, 352, 958. 

fallaing, 37 ; p. 154. 

fallaingech, 599. 

fa lean, 238. 

farcli glun, gl. 183. 

farsinge, 640. 

feam, 97. 

feclug, 185. 

fecht, 481. 

fed fosc[laidh], 826, 

fedaim, 1. 43, gl. 253; p. 147. 

fedan, 46 ; p. 154. 53* ; p. 159. 

fegadh, p. 149. 

Middle-Irish Index. 


feith, gl. 132, gl. 223; p. 156. 
feoil, 193. 
fe6il na fiacal, 150. 
feorus, 582. 
fer, 395, 1048. 
fer cli, 397. 

fer cuisi do condmail, 434. 
fer, p. 70, note, 
feraiid, 390. 
ferbog, 205. 
fergacht, 328. 
Ferghal, .533. 
Ferghus, 4S6. 
fernog, ,558. 
ferr, 11 16. 
fersad (-said), 568. 
fersdii, 468. 
fesach, 392. 
fesog, 47 ; p. 154. 
fesogacU, 645. 
fetaim, p. 147. 
tiabbrus, gl. 257. 
Fiac, p. 125, note, 
flacail, 150, gl. 89, gl. 1 26. 
fiadh, 183. 
tiadhnaisi (-e), 959. 
Fianghas, p. 69, note. 
Har, 621. 
fiariililech, 621. 
tichabhall, 562. 
fidh, 46, 267. 
fidhblia, 797. 
fidbbbuidhe, p. 70, note, 
fldbchat, 260. 
fidhcbilli (gen. sing.), 747. 
 fighidijir, 1095. 
til, 104. 
filidh, I. 

filiJbecht, 833; p. 38, note; 1002. 
fiiid-choelau, gl. 229. 
find-embon, loio. 
fineniacb, 267. 
finemain, 267. 
finghaile, p. 147. 
fircnach, 681. 
firmamint, 749, lOoS. 
6s, p. 149. 

Fl^thgbus, p. 69, note, 
fiiuch, 675. 

fliuchaiclbe, p. ill, note, 
fliuchidbecht, 1097. 
fobitb, 486. 
fi.)chet6ir, 320. 
focbluidh (-aidb), 229. 
fod, 119. 
fofritb, 1048. 

foghiir, 469. 

foigbi, 815. 

foilci, 1045. 

foillsingudh, 895. 

foiltfind, 39. 

foiltnibb (dat. pi.), gl. 97. 

foUtnhi, 464. 

foircedal, 837. 

foirmtech, 602. 

folt, 77, 78; p. 70, note ; gl. 237. 

fon, gl. 132. 

fonambaideach, 630. 

forba, gl. 8, gl. 260 ; p. 146. 

forculu, gl. 59. 

forgaire, gl. 1 ; p. 146. 

foriarair, gl. 59; p. 147. 

foritbin (dat. sing.), p. 151, 

format, 602. 

fonnnai (ace. pi.), gl. 161. 

forsgatb, 839. 

fortacbtaighim, gl. i ; p. 146 ; 727. 

fortaigbim, 727. 

fothoin (ace. sing.), gl. 95 ; p. 

fothragadh, 822. 
fraecli, 565, 933; p. 162. 
francach, 24S. 1 
fiangcacb, 309. / 
fria, 847 ; frim, 937. 
friss, 125, 847. 
fual, 222. 

fuathroic, gl. 94 ; p. 148. 
fuil, 1048. 
fuiltln, 463. 
fuindeog, 134. 
fuindseog, 557. 
fuise<>g, 140. 
fundamintecb, 612. 
furacliair, 984, 
furtacht (fort-), 727. 

ga, 216, p. 157. 

gabh'iiltech, 594. 

gabbal, 135. 

gabhann, 369. 

gabhar, 372. 

gaetbamhail (goith-), 1067. 

gaetb, 428 ; g. at6aidb, 353. 

gaethmhar, 646. 

gaibhthi, p. 112, note. 

gaile, gl. 219, gl. 220, p. 165. 

gaill-mbias, 478. 

gaire, p. 165. 

gairleog, 31. 

giith, 1070; giithbhuilg? p. 157. 

galar, 281. 

2 B 2 

gall, 478. 

galldacb, 307. 

gamain arain, 163. 

ganmliech, 428. 

garbog, 186. 

garrga, 702. 

geal, 168, 286, 801, 659, 1 124. 

gealan na sul, 168. 

no-t-gebhtha, p. 112, note. 

geg, gl. 194; p. 150. 

geidli, 19; p. 154. 

geitnbel, 226. 

gein, 104. 

gemd, 560. 

geinembain, 887. 

gombau, 834. 

geocacb, 513. 

geraine (gen. sing.), gl. 224; p. 

gerbacb, 652. 
geredh (gen. sing.), 125. 
gL^rrcach, 494- 
gerrchend, 125. 
gerrg-liuin, 940. 
in-gerrtha, gl. 17; p. 135. 
giall, gl. 1 25 J p. 149. 
gilcacb, 933. 
gile, 1 124. 
gilla adbairce, 10 18. 
gilla ciiin eicb, 17; p. 153. 
gilla Crist, 523. 
gilla Martain, 526. 
gilla na uaomh, 345. 
gilla nan- each, 946. 
gilla I'itricc, 537. 
Gilliam, 532. 
Gillibenl, 534. 
gii's, 563, 560. 
glac, 1008; glac-arbba, 213. 
glac saigbed, 214. 
glaine, 191. 
glais, gl. 218. 

glan, 67i,p. 153; glan-mhet, 29. 
glas, 29; p. 91, note. 
glas8(serra), 226. 
glecaire, 986. 
glic, 1 1 29. 
gloinidbe, 1087. 
glun, gl. 183, gl. 185; p. (49. 
gnathughudb, gl. 56; gl. 246. 
gnctbigh (dat. sing, fem.), gl. 2. 
gnimli, 908, gl. 2. 
gnimhradh, p. 151, p. 166. 
gocan, 66. 
god, 603. 
goirt, 637. 


Indices Verborum. 

gortach, 620. 
gr&rth, 108 1, 
grainsecli, 195. 
gramatach, 82. 
granna, grana, gl. 78, gl. 64. 
gredhftil, 854- 
greidell, 107. 
greim. 144. 

grian, 952,973,989, 990. 
Griiihoir, 544; -ghuir, 894. 
grinn, 39. 
grind! (-e), 1045. 
, groigh, 742. 

gruaidh, 39; gl. 114, gl. 124; p. 

graamdha, 384, 1065. 
gruth, 784. 
gaal, 273. 
guala, p. 151. 
guasacht, 727 ; gl. 6. 
giiidhi (-e), 870, 893. 
guirin, 255. 

gulban, gl. 106; p. 148. 
gua, p. 69, note. 

iachtarach, 1013. 
iarnaighi (-e), 608. 
. iariind, 790. 
iar-sein, 4. 
ibhar, 561 ; p. 162. 
ibrach (?), 832. 
ichtar na comhladh, 1034. 
idh urchumail, 279. 
ifearnadha, 827. 
iffern, 519,520, 825. 
ifus, gl. 2. 
 igha, 244. 
ilmhile, gl. 29; ilr&tha, p. 70, note, 
ilur, 197. 

imad (-adh?), 921. 
imarchuirim, iniarchor, gl. 268 ; 

p. 151. 
imdha, 670, 805. 
imdheghail, 154; gl. 147; p. 149. 
|mell, 69. 
inil4n, gl. 243. 
imm, 784. 
immchosnibh (dat. pi.), gl. 121 ; 

p. 149. 
imme, gl. 58 ; p. 147. 
imrales, gl. 118. 
immlind, gl. 205 ; p. 150. 
immun, 894. 
irapidhe, gl. 11; p. 147. 
in (prep.), p. 37, note, 
inadh, 516. 

inada, 329. 

inar, 29. 

inarach, 597. 

inbher, 418. 

inchinn, 747 ; inchind, gl. 105. 

ind (prep.), gl. 260. 

ind (subst), 154. 

indibti (dat. pi.), gl. 148. 

indracc, gl. 54; p. 147. 

indte, p. 103, note '. 

infinit, gl. 2. 

ingar, 839. 

ingbin, 290; inghen, p. 150; 291. 

ingnadb, 229. 

inga, gl. 197, gl. 198; p. 150. 

inill. gl. 74. 

inilliuj, gl. 66, gl. 140; p. 148. 

inmhus, 333. 

iunarbadh, 752. 

innarbtbach, 983. 

inne, gl. 93, gl. 227. 

inne iachtarach, 1013. 

innilt, 25. 

innraice (nora. pi.), 36. 

inntindeach, 876. 

instrumint, 761. 

int, 78, 1013. 

interiacht, 874. 

inti, 867. 

inntlecbt, 734. 

irrlabhra, p. 103, note. 

isat, 1008. 

ith in arbha, 1038. 

iummus, p. 37, note. 

la (prep.), 722. 

ro-Ia, 428. 

labhar, 376. 

labhartaighe, 1133. 

lacht, 250. 

ladbar, gl. 196; p. 150. 

laegh, 424. 

laidire, 920. 

laidiri, 11 13. 

Kiimtech, p. 69, note 

kinder, 73; p. 155. 

l&ir, 294. 

laithirt, 266. 

lamh, 34, 233, 465; p. 128, 

note '. 
lumhaccan, 916; p. 164. 
l^imhann, 34. 

lambannan, gl. 231 ; p. 150. 
lamh-tlmagh, 857. 
Ian, 1008. 
land (lann), 132 ; p. 152. 

li-oirrthi, 1076. 

lar, 747. 

lasair, 128 ; p. 156. 

lauir (gen. sing.), 564. 

Lanrint, 538. 

leabaidh in daimh allta, 858. 

leabhar, 371. 

lear, 13. 

lebaidh, 481. 

lebhar aiffrind, 853. 

leca, 89. 

lec in &rain, 246. 

'eg. '33. 573- 

ra-legh, p. 153. 

leghaira, 107 1. 

leghes, p. 165. 

leghtoir, 1080. 

leine, 38. 

leitheid (ace. sing.), 104. 

leithni (-e), 925. 

lemhnacht, 782. 

lenmhunach, 1040. 

lepaidh, 48 1 . 

Lerghus, p. 69, note. 

lesc, 382. 

lesmh&thair, 48. 

less, 580. 

lessa (ace. pi.), gL 176. 

leth, 90 ; gl. 67 ; p. 156. 

leth-ail, 90. 

lethchaech, 426, 624. 

lethenach, 232. 

lethfer, 396. 

Ieth6mh, 90. 

lethaathach, 403. 

lethtoin, 471. 

lexaire, 11. 

liath, 182 ; p. .28, note '. 

Iighe6c, 282. 

lin uisci, 863. 

lind, 221. 

line, 232. 

linn (lind), p. 165. 

liriu, p. 70, note. 

liter, 230. 

lite, 767. 

liubhar, 371. 

lubhra, 268. 1 

locha ochsal, gl. 216. 

loch, 781. 

Lochan, 522. 

Lochlann, 541. 

Loegh, p. 112, note. 

loghmhar, 133. 

loighed, 923. 

long, gl. 49 ; long loath, 574. 

Middle-Irish Index. 


longbrond, gl. 136. 

longphort, 725, 813; p. 163. 

16r, 908. 

lorg, 52. 

lorgarecht, 937. 

lor-ghnimh, 908. 

lorgdromma, gl. 169. 

losa feadha, 933. 

losad, 42. 

lo.scadh, 737. 

lu leith, gl. 228 ; p. ijo. 

luach faisneisi, 751. 

luach lesa, 792. 

luaidhe, 60, 788, 609. 

luaidlieamhail, 609. 

luath, 574; luathidher, 1070. 

luathghUrccb, 641. 

luch dhall, 249. 

lucli francach, 248. 

luchtaire, 10; p. 153. 

liigha, 1 1 15. 

luil)h (lubh), 1 14. 

luidh, 894. 

luirech, 154; gl. 147, gl. 159. 

Iuirgnibh(,gl.i89; p. ■5°' 

lus, 810, 104, 933. 

lus na fiadh, 183. 

mac, 407, 408. 

mac dilechta, 429; p. 161. 

mac imnilesen, 80 ; gL 118. 

mac imresan, 80. 

maccu imirlesaib (dat. pi.), 

gl. 118. 
mac na hoidhchi (-e), 546. 
mac-h6e, gl. 213. 
macamh, 370. 
maciimh gennti, 473. 
machaire, 866, 1060. 
madair, 275. 
Miiel-issu, 232. 
maeth, 394. 
maethsCiilech, 431. 
maghisder, 365, 392. 
maide sgine, 11 39. 
maighister, 1099. 
mailgibh (dat pi ),gl. 112; p. 148, 
maindser, 861. 
mainister, 726. 
mainn, 299. 

maise, 1083, 1 108. \ 
niaiijsi, 927. / 

maith, 661, 79S, 1 134. 
mallacht, 915. 
mallei, 866. 
manach, 435. 

mam, 104. 

Maolsechlainn, 346. 

marbhadh, 14. 

marbhnudh, p. 70, note. 

marcach na comUadh, 127. 

marclach, 189. 

maroc, 55, 1005; p. 155. 

marog, 1005. 

martra, 738. 

marmur, 11 04. 

Hatha, 549. 

mithair, 130, 1052. 

matal, 490. 

matharmarbhthach, 318. 

raathghamhain, 41 8. 

meall, 258. 

meata, 1123. 

medal, 235. 

Medhbh, 481. 

medhg, 783. 

medhon, gl. 207. 

medughudh, 763. 

meid, 922. 

meirsi (-e), 780. 

mer, 465; gl. 167, gl. 195. 

mer-coise, 466. 

mer-laimhe, 465. 

merdrech, 187. 

merlach na comhladh, 944 

mesa, 11 17. 

mesg&n, 219. 

mesurdha, 807. 

mi, 1050, 1 05 1. 

mias, 478, 193. 

michlfimhar, 656. 

michuimhneach, nil. 

midliingbhala, 669. 

mil. 974. 

mil edaigh, 501. 

mil m6r, 428, 865. 

milan, 138. 

milchli, 411. 

milech, 648. 

mimhaise (-i), 1084, 1109. 

min, 430. 

mintstiilech, 430. 

Miodhghus, p. 69, note. 

mir, 156; p. 157; m.pluo, 750. 

mirr, 1 134. 

mirbhail, 695. 

mitall, 791. 

mithormach, 756. 

m6, 1 1 14. 

m6in, 118. 

moladh, 902 ; -ludli, 894. 

Molua, p. 133, note. 

monadh, 237, 841. 

monadan, 212. 

mong in-t-slindein, 148. 

m6r, 42S, 663, 809; gl. **. 

m6rmliargad, 327. 

m6r-ulchach, 1048. 

mucc, 584. 

mucomara, 1029; p. 164. 

Mucholm6c, p. 149. 

mucor, 566. 

mughsaine, 882. 

muilleand, 711. i 

rauilind, 701. ) 

muime, 784. 

muin, 709. 

muinchille, 30; p. 154. 

muinchillech, 598. 

muine, gl. 224; p. 150, p. 165. 

muine, 585. 

muine draighin, 1 10. 

muinel, 744; muijieol, gl. 137. 

miur, 144,860; gl. 5. 

mill, 295, 415. 

mulcan, 243. 

muUach, 1007 ; gl. 98. 

mullach tighi (-e), 838. 

mflr, 476. 

Murchadh, 542. 

murdhucbu, 1020. 

nMt, 935. 

n&mlia, 1008, 

naomh, 345. 

nathari (nathair?), 88. 

neach (0. Ir. nech), 379. 

neimhni, 987, 988. 

neimh, 602. 

nell, 337- 

nellad6racht, 271. 

nemh, 812. 

nemhdlja, gl. 13, gl. 24, gl. 264. 

nemhdhuiue, 954. 

nenihfurech&ir, 985. 

nemhmharbhdba, 1008. 

nemhthindisnech, 617. 

nemhihreraeta, gL 66; p. 148. 

nembthroeta, gL 66; p. 148. 

nennt6g, 208. 

nertmhar, p. 37, note, 

nesc6id, 843. 

ni, 987, 1 1 12; gL 249. 

Nialghus, p. 69, note. 

noenih, gL 145. 

n6in, 1077- 

n6ine, 335. 

Ii6mhadh, 173, 


Indices Verhorum. 

normanach, 308. 
lifts, 256. 

6, gl. 41. 

ochtinhadh, 229. 

6en, gl. 59. 

oibriugudh, 889. 

oidhche, 546. 

oifli (-e), 1078. 

oighen, 86. 

oileinhain, 753. 

oilithrech, 311. 

oinmhid, 512. 

oircnin, 493. 

obair, 614. 

ocnihil, gl. 51. 

ocum, gl. 147. 

6entaigliim, gl. 260 j p. 165. 

6gh, 955! gl-53- 
6gdhamh, 758. 
olte, 232. 
ol, 847, 1096. 
olc, 662, 799; gl. 59. 
omh, 90. 
on, 613. 

or, 606, 786, 1 1 34. 
orcni (ace. pi.), gl. 181. 
ord, 943 ; gl. 144, gl. 235. 
ordhaighe, 606. 
organaidh, 7. 
. orlar, 704. 
ortha, p. 125, note, 
ossadh, 137; p. 156. 
otrach, 482. 

pagin, p. 151. 

paiper, 579. 

paisti brog, 445. 

parrtus, 553. 

partan, 374 (see torpan). 

pecadh, gl. 261. 

pell, 831. 

pellec, 136. 

penn, 53. 

persunacht, 170. 

pethair (?), 320. 

Petar, 528. 

plan, 54; gl. 147. 

piloir, 1 1 36. 

pipur, 1072. 

plag, gl. 256. 

Plait, 950. 

Ploit, 951. 

pluc, 750. 

poccadh, p. 148. 

p61aire (f61aire ?), 371. 

port, no. 
prebach, 658. 
prechun, 507. 
prelait, 452. 
presen (persen), 524, 
primaidecht, 354. 
prioir, see banphrloir. 
priv, 97. 
proindtech, 728. 
proistc, 852. 
provinse, 175. 
pane, 474. 
pnnnann, 45. 
pupul, 458. 

raing ant-sair, 1137. 

raip(rapp?), gl. 22o(»); p. 165. 

raith, 933. 

rannaire, 9. 

rastail, 814. 

reclitaire, 784. 

rcdla, 1008. 

rcidhi (-e), 890, 191. 

reilic, 691. 

rem. gl. 148. 

remhainm, 992. 

remhtliechtas, 872. 

remlithusaighit, gl. 23. 

remhnm, 937 ; reinhumm, gl. 23. 

resi (ace. pi.), gl. 167. 

retla, 103. 

r'l, 1035, 1036. 

riabhach, 804. 

co-riacht, p. 37, note. 

riaghail, 61 ; p. 155. 

riccedh, p. 37, note. 

rjglian, 20 ; p. 154. 

rigflaith, 11 34; rig-lepaid, 481. 

righthe(acc. pi.), gl. 163, gl. 164. 

rind, 1008 ; rinn, 267. 

robheg, 808. 

Eoiberd, 529. 

roinill, gl. 147. 

r6mhiinach, 310. 

ron, 50. 

rotb, 227 ; gl. 1 19. 

rotaidhe, p. in, note. 

Ruaidhri, 535. 

ruaimnech dubhyn, 428; p. 161. 

rualndi, 463. 

sab, p. 37, note. 
SabhuU, p. 107, note '. 
sacc, 489. 
Siiebhchoire, 938. 
saer, 292, 379, 409. 

saer (libera), gl. 73. 

saer (aitifex), 1 1 38. 

Saergbus, p. 69, note. 

saethar, 1085. 

sagart, 24, 367 ; p. 154. 

sal, 4. 

saighed, 215. 

sailmehetlaidh, 3. 

saithech na tuise, 1 134. 

sal, gl. 192; p. 150. 

salach, 616, 684. 

salann, 977. 

salm, 467, 3. 

saltair, 766. 

aanntach, 667. 

sanntaigbi, 11 20. 

siitbacb, 402. 

sbegacb, 629. 

sblinacb, 274. 

sbor, 1 04 1. 

sbor&n, 514. 

sbruileach, 1004. 

ru-scaith, 894. 

scala, 106 ; p. 156. 

scamhan, gl. 221; p. 150. 

scfiraidh, 864. 

sciath, gl. 75 ; p. 148. 

scithecii, 6 r 3, 614. 

scola, 338. 

scolb tighe, 446. 

sdair, 84. 

sdan, 789. 

sdocaire, 1016. 

se, 777. 

sealladh, 741. 

Sean, 151. 

sechmaillim, gl. 240; p. 150. 

Sechnall, 894. 

sechruu, 131 ; p. 156. 

seglidlia, 847. 

scicbi (-e), 732. 

seideadh, 10 19. 

seideth gaithbhulga, 217 ; p. 157. 

seimin, 211. 

seirbe, 11 32. 

scisedh, 593. 

seitche, 1073. 

selg, gl. 215; sealg, 1012. 

sen, 130; scan, gl. 260. 

senadh naomh, 551. 

senilis, 735. 

senatbair, 419. 

senrab&thair, 130. 

sen6ir, 29, 1100. 

seomra, 123. 

serrach, 494. 

Middle-Irish Index. 


ses, 70 ; p. I jj. 
sesrach, 49. 
set sligliedh, 1073. 
sgadan, 967. 
sgaignen, 484. 
sgartach, 796. 
sgel, 223. 

sgeota, 709 ; p. 163. 
sgeotha, 710 ; p. 163. 
sgian,440, 441, 11 39. 
sgingidoir, 515. 
sgiursi (-e), 109. 
sgornachin, 707. 
ai, 847. 
siadaire, 57. 
sians, gl. 244. 
sidliaii gaeithe, 997. 
sil, 1009. 
sillad, 231. 
sillaidlii, 231. 
sin, 420, 421. 
sine ochta, 1059. 
sine Seiin, 151. 
sitheal. 241. 
8iur-marbiitliach, 320. 
slaitln, 117. 
slan, 393, 633. 
sianti (-e), gl. 57. 
alat, 116, 
slataidtii (-e), 956. 
Sleibte, p. 125, note, 
.slemain (slemon), 639. 
slestfin, 32. 

sliasit, gl. 94, gl. 164, gl. 178. 
• slighe, 112, 613; gl. 117. 
slind, 1014. 
slindon, i 4.8. 
.alinncliriadh, 376. 
sliseog, looi. 

sluagli, 1003 ; gl. 25, gl. 39, &c. 
smech, gl. no, gL 122. 
smen'jid, 945. 
smir, 193. 
snaitld (-e), 817. 
snambach, 391. 
Snedhghus, p. 69, note, 
snethacb, 649. 
so-abb. p. 37, note. 
no-96adh, p. 37, note, 
socharihanaighi, 1 1 25. 
sochruidbe, 380, 
sodain, 747. 

soegal, gl. 10; p. 146-7. 
sogh allaidb, 297. 
soitist (soiphist), 842. 
soiler, 740. 

soilestar, 795. 

soillsi (-e_), 998, 1 1 22. 

soleghta, 11 26. 

solus, 665 ; sec fullus. 

somholta, 11 27. 

sopldstighi (tidhe?), 8. 

speilp, 750. 

spideog, 202. 

si'in, 933. 

spirait, gl. 211. 

spiiirech, 764. 

sraine. gl. 7 ; p. 146.* 

sratbar, 262. 

srebliand (-bhan), 794. 

sriaa, 819. 

sroenaim, gl. 255. 

sroin (?), gl. 252. 

sroll, 577. 

srou, 1039; gl. 117. 

srublian, 143. 

sriiban mara, 144. 

snub, 999, 1037, 1042. 

stanamhail, 610. 

stiurasmand, gl. 49; p. 147. 

stoc-rounadh^ 705. 

stol, 748. 

stuidis, 856. 

subhachus, 301. 

subdechuin, 455. 

sualach, gl. 15. 

sui, 4. 

sui abb, p. 37, note. 

suidUe, p. 153. 

suidheocan, 850. 

suidhiughudh, gl. 4. 

suil, 168, 425; gl 104; p. 128, 

note '. 
sdilech, 430, 431. 
suirgech, 618. 
suisti (-te), 278. 
sfiithe (sapieutia), p. 37, note, 
suitbe, 941. 
sust, 109. 
sdthemlacht, p. 37, note. 

tabhaill, 62. 

tadhbhais, 846; p. 163. 

Tadhg, 548. 

tadhull, p. 148. 

taembao, 7 1. 

taes, 242. 

taiblieme, 169, 689. 

taili (-e), 739. 

tailm (ace. s.), p. 112, note. 

t&iplis, 27 ; p. 154. 

tairis, 1048. 

tairruge, 443. 

tairrsech, 1000. 

taisbenadb, 894, 846; p. 163. 

taisecli, see bantaisech. 

taisech cetlirair, 400. 

taiseoh eidgir, 401. 

taitbneamhnacb, 800. ) 

taithnemach, 666. ) 

til, 252. 

talumb, 108. 

tanic, no. 

tarbh-sliasta, gl. 95, gl. 182. 

tardadb, 193, 226. 

tarr, 147. 

tarrach, 284. 

teaeh, 569. 

teachtaire, 450. 

teallach, 511. 

tecb na merdrcach, 713. 

techat, gl. 59. 

tecoisce, 1 1 1 2. 

tecbtaire, 747. 

tedaire, 1017. 

tegaisge, 660. 

teghini, gl. 262. : 

teilgim, p. 151. 

teine creasa, 720. 

teire, 672. 

teirci (-e), 924. 

terapoll, 688. 

tend, p. 149. 

tenga, 560; gl. 87, gl. 127, gl. 

130; tengadh, 40. 
tengthach, 625. 
tes, 942, 1086. 
tiach, 41, 371. 
tiarach, 265. 
tidhnacbtaidh, II 34. 
tigh, 446; p. 161. 
tigherna, 287, 404, 453 ; gl. 143, 

gl- 147- , 
tigbeiTia dcise, 398. 
tigherna trir, 399. 
tighernas, 886. 
timchell, 691, 1087. 
timna, 760. 
timpanach, 6 ; p. 153. 
timthirigh, 368. 
timthirecbt, 898. 
tinnisnech (-nach), 615. 
tiradh, 703. 
tis, gl. 132. 
titul, j6o. 
tochartaigh, 746. 
toebh, gl. 79. 
togha, 878 


Indices Verborum. 

toghluasacht, p. 147. 

toin, 470. 

tomhliur, 104; tciirahlid, 193. 

t6n, gl. 177, gl. 224. 

toradb, 2S9. 

tore, 373, 483. 

Tordhelbach, 161. 

tormach, 755. 

torpan, 269 (^see partan). 

torta, gl. 139. 

tra, 1030. 

tredhelbhdha, gl. 105. 

tredhluighthe, gl. 213. 

tres, 590. 

treuillech, gl. 213. 

trethe, 560. 

tri, 774. 

trial, triallat6ir, 1096. 

tri-bhith, 229. 

tribhus, 324. 

tribhusach, 600. 

tripulta, 930. 

trithu, gl. 56. 

triur, 398. 

troetbaim, p. 148. 

troibel, 855. 

truagh, 383. 

tdaidh, 353. 

truailnidhe, gl. 69 ; p. 148. 

tfi, gl. 142. 

tuairgin, 722; tuairgim, gl. 149. 

tuata, 423. 

tucadh, p. 103, note '. 

tucc, 1 1 34. 

tuighi (-e), 994. 

tuire6g, 64; p. 155. 

tunna, 731. 

tus, 1 134. 

t&s, 232. 

tfissigh (dat. a. fern.), gl. 49. 

nachtlan, 1064. 
uachtlanaidhe, 1063. 
uachtar, 192. 
uadh, gl. 2, 
uaigli, 1069. 
uaimm, gl. 150. 
uaimhnighim, gl. 65. 
uain'm, 492. 
Uaithne, 547, 768. 
uallghubha, 1008. 
uam, gl. 59. 
uan, 459. 
uas, p. 37, note, 
nasalathair, 1 3. 
Uater, 530. 

ubhall braghat, gl. 131. 
ucht, 1059 ; n. na demainde, gl. 

uchtach, 264. 
uchtard, 643. 
uchtghel, 223. 
ughdur, 1107. 
ulle, gl. 72. 
uille, gl. 163 ; p. 149. 
Uilliam, 531. 
uinneamhain, 862. 
uinnimint, 785. 
uir, 578. 

uirge (= opxtf), gL 209. 
uisci (-e), 160, 863. 
uisce imill, 69. 
uisgemhlacht, 932. 
uisa (nom. pi. m.), 36. 
nlbu, 93. 
nlcha, gl. III. 
umhail, 36. 
umhamhail, 611. 
uraicecht, 868. 
urchar, gU 81. 
urcholdech, 935. 
urchumail, 279; p. IJ9. 
urlabhradb, 867. 
urlambas, 906. 
urraidh, 304. 
urralaisti, 11 35. 
virtan (art&n ?), in. 
uth, 102, 1056. 


IThe Old- Welsh toorda m this Index are marked with an asterisk.'} 

•abaUen, 555. 
adan, 746. 
ael, p. 148. 

*8etinet, p. 59, note ; 746. 
aflafar, 1133. 
,afu, 1032. 
aguedd, p. 163. 
aidd, 948. 
amm, 670. 
alarch, 509. 
amser, 1048. 
anadl, p. 149. 
angor, 68. 

aradu, 1076. 
arddangos, 660. 
aren, 246, ion. 
arglwydd, p. 147. 
ariant, 607. 
arlais, p. 148. 
asen, p. 149. 
asen, asyn, 296. 
atar, 746. 
athracb, 1046. 

bach, 439, 664. 
bachawg, 605. 

ball, 638. 

bara, 141. 

•barr, p. 148. 

bas, p. 149. 

bedw, 560. 

bendithio, 914. 

benyw, 1053. 

ber, p. 149. 

berw, berwr, bery, 823. 

♦bicoled, 339. 

bias, 975. 

blain, blaenor, blaenn, p. 147. 

blawd, 491. 

Welsh Index. 


blisgyn, p. 157. 

blodeuog, 491. 

bloneg, 236. 

bod, 120. 

*bon, 158. 

•boutig, 158. 

braen, braenu, 683. 

•brawt, 1047. 

•braut, 366. 

breuant, 292. 

•brith, 957. 

broD, p. 150. 

*bronnbrcithct, p. 59, note ; 957. 

bru, 647. 

brycan, 1033. 

brysiaw, 36. 

Brytbon, 957. 

bngail, 583. 

bun, 21. 

bwgwth, 339. 

bwTW, 1048. 

bwyt, 477. 

bychodawg, 1058. 

byddar, 604. 

bygyliaeth, 339. 


•bywyt, 113. 

each, 1075. 

•cae, 218. 

cafael, 594, 

cafn, p. 156. 

cair, 267. 

•caitoir, 1055. 

calaned, 919. 

calch, 58. 

calon, 919. 

cam, p. 150. 

cang, p. 150. 

canlyn, p. 165. 

cant, 772. 

canwyll, p. 154. 

caraut, 292. 

cath, 499. 

cawn, p. 157. 

cedor, cedorawg, 1055. 

ceiliawg, 506. 

ceiliog gwynt, 510. 

celc, 325. 

cell, 115. 

cengl, 149. 

•cenitol, 676. 

ceryddu, 888. 

cesail, p. 150 (No. 216). 

cig,p. i5o(No. 203; correct «yy/). 

cigl'f, 655. 

clais, p. 149. 
clas, 273. 
•claud, 229. 
*claur, cloriou, 67. 
cledd, 387. 
cleddyf, 461. 
cloddiaw, 229. 
clodfawT, 655. 
clopa, p. 154. 
clopen, p. 154. 
cludd, p. 147. 
clust, p. 148. 
clyn, 723. 
clyw, 655. 
•coc, 245. 
cogail, 567. 
coegfran, 201. 
collen, 556. 
colomen, 203. 
colwyn, 498. 
conyn, p. 157. 
cor, 457. 
corff, 107 1, 
corlan, p. 164. 
craidd, IJ02. 
crane, 374. 
creyr, 204. 
crochan, 56. 
croen, 56, 
croesan, 14. 
croesaw, 92. 
*cruitr, p. 162. 
cnvth, 5. 
cunnawg, 165. 
cwliawg, 1030. 
cwpan, p. 161. 
ewr, p. 147. 
ewrw, 266. 
ewrwgl, 488. 
cwyr, 225. 
cwyren, 836. 
cyd, p. 164. 
cyfathrach, 1046. 
cyfenw, 993. 
c}-frif, 913. 
cylor, 1049. 
cymanfa, 897. 
eymharu, 896. 
cymiiiedd, p. 147. 
cymyn, 897. 
cynnull yd, 210. 
cysegriad, 879. 
cystudd, 892. 
cystwyad, 891. 

cliwaer, 320. 

chwant, 667. 
cliwech, chweched, 777. 
•chuechet, 588. 
chwiawr, 320. 
chwegr, 570. 
chwenv, 11 32. 
chwltli, ehwithig, p. 161. 
chwyth, 826. 
chwythiad, 217. 
chwytho, 57 ; p. 154. 

dafad, dafates, 8j8. 
dalen, deilen, 765. 
dall, 249. 
dangaws, 660. 
delw, 642, 936. 
dehen, 386. 
deng, p. 150. 
derwen, 554. 
didryfwr, 315. 
delehedion, 87. 
*diminid, 237. 
dleet, 87. 

*doguomisur., 807. 
*dou, •dui, 773. 
•duguohintiliat, 1073. 
draen, 559. 
drws, 124. 
diywyn, 207. 
dryssien, 587. 
du, 381. 
duw, 404. 
dwrn, 502. 
dy, 570- 
dyfrgi, 375- 
dyled, p. 147. 
dylado, p. 147. 
dylynu, p. 165. 
dyn, 953; llysdyn, 718. 
dysgybl, 438. 

eawg, 216. 

ebodn, p. 161. 

eddestr, eddestl, eddeetlawr, 810. 

ec'nyf, 666. 

ednyw, 666. 

edyn, 746. 

efydd, 610. 

eglwys, p. 157. 

eirif, 913. 

eithyr, 1014. < 

elin, p. 149. 

*emed, 610. 

cmennydd, 747. 

•emmeni, 784. 

•eng-ued, p. 148. 

2 C 


Indices Verhorum. 

eraiili, 694. 

enw, 991. 

enynu, p. 147. 

erbyn (= 0. Ir. archiunn), p. 165. 

erfin, 213. 

ergyrwaew, p. 148. 

erlyn, p. 165. 

erw, 1038. 

eryr, 197. 

•escip, 982. 

"eterinn, 746. 

•etncoilhaam, 746. 

ewin, p. 150. 

ewyll, 884. 

ewyrdonic, p. 67, note '. 

fia, 109. 

ffal, p. 150. 

ffaling, 37 ; p. 154, 

firoen, 1039. 

ffrowj'll, 109. 

ffrwd, 999. 

ffrwyn, 109, 819, 1039. 

ffurfafen, 749. 

ffust, 109. 

gafl, 135., 372 ; gafar, 1075. 

galar, 281. 

garw, p. 159. 

gebel, 135. 

gefell, 834. 

gel, 940. 

Gildas, 17. 

glan, 671. 

glin, p. 149. 

glo, 273- 

glwy 8,719. 

glyn, p. 165. 

gof. 369- 
goglawdd, 229. 
*golbinoc, p. 148. 
golchi, 1045. 
goreu, 1 1 16. 
gorfynt, 602. 
 goryn, 255. 
graen, p. 147. 
•gratell, 107. 
gre, 742. 
^gres, p, 164. 
'grisiau, p. 164. 
grisly fr, p. 164. 
grudd, p. 148, p. 154. 
g™gi565i P- 162. 
grwm, 384, 1065. 
grwn, 390. 

grwysen, 582. 

•gudif, *gudliyf, 797. 

•guell, II 16. 

gwadn, p. 148. 

gwaew, 216. 

gwain, 157. 

gwarcbad, 984. 

gware, 641. 

gwau, 1095. 

gwedd, p. 163. 

gweddi, 870. 

gweddw, p. 147, p. 159. 

gwefl, p. 148. 

gwel, I. 

gwennol, 934. 

•guerg, 328. 

gwernen, 558. 

gwerthyd, 568. 

gweu, 1095. 

gwichell, 140. 

gwichiad, p. 157. 

gwirion, 681. 

gwlybwr, 675. 

gwlyp, 675 ; •rogulipias, 675. 

Gwraldeg, 533. 

gwregys, p. 148. 

Gwrwst, 342. 

gwydd, 95^. 

g^dd, p. 154, 

gwyddif, 797. 

gwj-n, p. 150. 

gwyr. 621, 724. 

gwyth, 99. 

gj'lf, p. 148. 

gyth, 603. 

haeam, 608. 
hafal, 609, 904 
halen, 977. 
hebawg, 1006. 
hen, p. 156. 
*henmam, 130. 
henwr, iioo. 
•hep, p. 156. 
hidl, 241. 
hil, 1009. 
•hinbam, 130. 
*hint, 490. 
hoedel, p. 147. 
hosan, 72, 
hotan, hotyn, 596. 
bun, 720. 
hydd, 183. 
hynt, 1073. 

ia, 758. 

iau, 758. 
iawn, 681. 
*iechyt, 758, 
ieuaf, 758. 
leuanc, 758. 
*iot, 758. 
*iouenc, 758. 
*itlaur, 1038. 
iwrch, 205. 

kentaf, kyntaf, 588. 

llachar, p. 156. 
Uaetb, 250. 
Uafanog, p. 150. 
Uafaru, 1133. 
llai, 923. 
Han, 132. 
Uatb, 116. 
llawen, 393. 
Ilawer, 908. 
llaivn, 13. 
Uawr, 704. 
ilecb, 573. 
lied, p. 156. 
llefaru, 11 33. 
Uefrith, p. 163. 
Ueiad, 923. 
Ueiaf, 923. 
Iliad, lliaw, 1071. 
Uin, 38. 
llitb, 767. 
Uo, 424. 
*logod, 248. 

llong. 574- 
lloDgborth, 725. 
Uorp, p. 150. 
Uosg, 128, 737. 
11 u, 1003. 
*luit, 182. 
lluryg, 154, 
llydanedd, 925. 
llyfn, 639. 
llyfrith, 268. 
llyfy. 371- 

iiyg, 248. 

Uygod ffrengig, 248. 
Uyn, 221. 
llynghes, 574. 
llyriad, 937. 
llys, 580. 
llysdad, 48. 
llysenw, 48. 
llysiau, 810. 
Uysieuyn, 183. 
llythyren, 230. 

Welsh Index. 


mad, 66 1, 
magwyr, 866. 
raaidd, 783. 
main, 430. 
maiot, 922. 
malu, 701. 
man, p. 154. 
mantell, 490. 
*map, 80. 
march, 189. 
•raarchauc, 127. 
marw, p. 159. 
marwydos, 945. 
mawl, 902. 
mawn, 118. 
mawr, 663. 
maws, 927. 
•meichat (-iat), 1029. 
meistyr, 365. 
mel, 968. 
melin, 701. 
raelldith, 915. 
mer, 193. 
mir, p. 157. 
•merchet, p. 59, note, 
merthyr, 738. 
meth, methiant, 11 23. 
mign, 118. 
milgi, 411. 
mis, 1050. 
moch, 1029. 
moel, 258. 
moel-ron, 50. 
monoclien, p. 155. 
mpr, 860. 
morforwyn, 1020. 
morhwch, 1029. 
•motrwy, 466. 
morynyon, 1020. 
mnl, 295. 
mun, p. 154. 
mar, 476. 
mwnai, 841. 
mwng, 744. 
mwnwgl, 744; p. 149. 
mwyd, 431. 
mwy, 1 1 14. 
mwyn, 430. 
mwy til, 394. 
mynydd, 237. 
myr, 55. 

nadr, 88. 
nawf, 391. 
nawn, 1077. 
nedden, neddog, 649. 

nef, 812. 
nes, nesaf, 11 17. 
nifwl, niwl, 337. 
nitti, 224. 
•notuid, 817. 

oen, 459. 
oiferen, p. 164. 
ofni, p. 148. 
•ois, *oi30uS, 735. 
orlais, 11 35. 

pair, 724. 

paith, p. 149. 

paradwj-s, 553. 

pawl, 495. 

pedwardyblyg, 931. 

penglog, p. 148, p. 154. 

*petguerid, p. 157 ; *petguared, 

•petuar, 775. 
•pimphet, 58S. 
piw, 1056. 

piygu. 93°- 

porch, 493. 
porphor, 224. 
preithiaw, p. 148. 
pren, 719. 
pres, p. 154. 
priddfaen, 1054. 
priddlech, 1054. 
pump, 776. 
pwn, pyniaw, 45. 
pyrchwyn, p. 162. 
pyrgwyn, p. 162. 

pysg, 13- 

pystylwyn, 265. 

rhagenw, 992. 
•rannam, rban, 9. 
*rhascl, rhasgl, 814. 
rbawn, p. 161. 
rhiain, p. 154, 
rhif, 913. 
rhod, 227. 
rheol, p. 155. 
•ro-gulipias, 675. 
rhoi, p. 109, note, 
rhyn, 1008. 

sach, 489. 
saer, 1137. 
saeth, 214. 
sawdl, p. 150. 
•scamnhegint, p. 150, 
scnedd, 551. 


serch, 618. 
sil, 1009. 
sill, 231. 
swta, 941. 
8yw, p. 153. 

tad, 1046. 
tafla, p. 154. 
tafod, 40. 
tair, 774. 
taith, 450, 872. 
tal, 739. 
talm, 108. 
tant, 1017. 
tarw, p. 159. 
tes, 942, 1086. 
teyrnas, 886. 

•tig, 159- 
tin, p. 149. 
to, 994. 
toes, 242. 
*traet, 74. 
traws, tros, 1000. 
•treb, 315. 
trech, 1 1 17. 
*tri, teir, 774- 
tripblygiad, 930. 
troth wy, 1000. 
truan, 383. 
trwm (adj.), 903. 
trwm (subst.), p. 163. 
trws, 324. 
*t(it (tad), 423. 
twrch, 373. 
twysen, 35; p. 163. 
tynell, 731. 
ty, 569. 

uchedydd, 140. 
uffam, p. 149. 
ufFern, 519. 
•nnvet, 142. 
urdd, 943. 
nthr, 1014 
uwd, 1038. 

*vudimin(?), 797; p. 163. 

wyf, 1 1 12. 
wyt, 1 1 12. 

ym, 85, nil. 
ymenin, 784. 
ynfyd, 512. 
ynt, 1 1 12. 
ysborion, 764. 


Indices Verborum. 

ysbwrial, 764, 1004. 
ysgadan, 967. 
ysgiaw, 440. 
ysgien, 440. 
ysgin, 515. 

ysgwyd, p. 148. 
ysgyfaint, p. 150. 
yslath, 116. 
ysnoden, 817. 
ystlys, 32. 

ystrodyr, 262. 
yspardun, 1041. 
yspar, 1041. 
yw, 561. 


acran, loii. 
ail, 460. 
ancar, 68. 
arhanz, 607. 
asen, p. 149. 
avallen, 555. 
avi, 1032. 

banne, 966. 
bara, 141. 
barth, 14. 
beler, 823. 
ber, p. 149. 
blez, 491. 
bloneg, 236. 
bocbadoc, 1058. 
bothar, 604. 
braud, 1047. 
brenniat, p. 147. 
bron, p. 150. 

bugel, 583. 
btiit, 477. 

cans, 772. 
cantuil, 44. 
kat, 499. 
keghin, 245 
chelioc, 506. 
kelli, 115. 
kigel, 567. 
cliu, p. 149. 

cog. 245- 
coir, 225. 
coloin, 498. 
olviden, 556. 
croider, 700. 
cugol, 121. 
cuic, 426, 
curun, 75. 

darat (-raz), 1 24. 
dele, 852. 
delen, 765. 
den, 953. 
discibel, 438. 
diures, p. 159. 
dreis, 587. 
duv, 381. 
duy, 404, 
dyghow, 386. 


ehog, 216. 
elin, p. 149. 
enederen, p. 
enef, 288, 
ens, 1 1 12. 
er, 197. 
erieu, p. 148, 

flcbren, 562. 
fruc (friio ?), 1039. 
firmament, 749. 

ghel, 940. 
gehin, p. 148. 
glibor, 675. 
gof, 369- 
grud, 39- 
gudh, p. 154. 
guedeu, p. 147. 
guein, 157. 
guell, 1 116. 
guennol, 934. 
guerneu, 558. 
guiden, p. 156. 
guihan, p. 157. 
gurhthit, 568. 

baloin, halein, 977. 
hivin, 561. 

hoern, 608. 
huethaf, 217. 
huheltat, p. 153. 
huis, 735. 

idne, 746. 
iffarn, 519. 
impinion, 747. 
ispak, 982. 

lait, 250. 
lergh, 937. 
leski, 128. 
leveriat, 1133. 
lewilloit, p. ijo. 
liver, 371. 
loch, 424. 
lorch, 52. 
lose, 737. 
luu, 1003. 
luworch guit, 114. 

maister, 365. 
manach, 435. 
march, 189. 
marhaz, 327. 
mel, 968. 
melin, 701. 
mennyw, 1053. 
meth, 1 1 23. 
mor, 860. 
morhoch, 1029. 
moy, 1114. 

nef, 812. 
noden, 817. 

of, IIIZ. 
oin, 459. 
on, 1 1 12. 

Breton Index. 


onnen, 557. 

scala, 106. 

OS, 1 1 12. 

sened, 551. 

skefans, p. 150. 

pei3, peas, pows, 717. 

snoden, 817. 

pepel, 458. 

soler, 740. 

pgr, 724. 

stoc, 705. 

renniat, p. 153. 

tavot, 40. 

tea, 942. 

sair, 1 1 37. 

ti, 569- 

tonnel, 731. 
torch, 373. 
tniit, 74. 
trulerch, 937. 

warn, p. 146. 

yns, 1 1 12. 
yorch, 205. 


amann, 7S4. 
arc'hant, 607. 
avu, 1032. 

bannec'h, 966. 
bara, 141. 
beler, 823. 
ber, p. 149. 
blonec, p. 164. 
bouzar, 604. 
bragez, 1033. 
buez, 113. 

cant, 772. 
c'houezaf, 217. 
ihwaat, 667. 
compizrien, 1046. 

da, 570. 
dargreiz, 1102. 
delicn, 765. 
du, 381. 

empenn, 747. 
6ne, 288. 
env, 812. 
eor, 68. 
erer, er, 197. 

felcli, loii. 

gof, 369. 
gouin, 157. 
guell, 1 1 16. 
guenneli, 934. 
gwea, 1095. 

gwelaouen, 940. 
gwernen, 558. 
gwerzid, 568. 

hal, halen, holen, 977. 
hennt, 1073. 
hoal, p. 147. 

ioul, 884. 
iouTc'h, 205. 
ivinen, 561. 

kaz, 499. 
kegel(kigel), 567. 
keler, 1049. 
kelvezen, 556. 
ker, p. 147. 
kezoar, 1055. 
kleiz, 387. 
klom, koulm, 203. 
koar, 225. 
kolen, 498. 
kougoul, 121. 
krouezer, 700. 

lercTi, 937. 
lestad, 48. 
lesvab, 48. 
lorchen, 52. 
losk, 737. 
lae, 424. 

malren, p. 148. 
mel, 968. 
melia, 701. 
meulet, 902. 

meza, 11 23. 
moan, 430. 
morhouc'h, 1029. 
muy, 1114. 

nadoz, 817. 
neud, neuden, 817. 
niz, 649. 

oan, 459. 
off, I 1 1 2. 
omp, 1 1 12. 
ounnen, 557. 

reiin, p. 161. 
reiz, 890. 

scevent, p. 150. 
scoit, p. 148. 
skeja, 440. 
spem, 1041. 
stiir, sturia, p. 147. 

tez, 941. 
ti, 569. 
tonel, 731. 
tourc'h, 373. 
trec'h, II 17. 
treuzou, 1000. 
tmlen, p. 148. 

warn, p. 146. 

yen, 758. 
ynt, II 1 2. 

1 98 

Indices Verhorum. 


aedes, 948. 

aer, 104. 

aes, 812, 216. 

aestas, 948. 

aestus, 948. 

agnomen, 991. 

agnus (= avignus?), 492. 

ago. P- 44. note. 

alo, 486. 

arab-, 670, 921. 

aucora, 68. 

animal, 428. 

animus, p. 149. 

arduus, 16. 

argentum, 607. 

arvum, 1038. 

asinus, 296; p. 159. 

atta, 1078. 

aurum, 606. 

axilla, p. 150. 

betula, 560. 

bi-. 773- 
bos, 159. 
brevis, 678. 
brocchus, 852. 
bnbulcus, 583. 

caco, 1075. 
caecus, 426. 
calx, 58. 
canis, 41 1, 1050. 
canna, p. 157. 
cano, 837. 
caper, 372. 
carex, 933. 

cavea (= O. Ir. cae?), 2i8 
censeo, 837. 
census, 285. 
centum, 772. 
cera, 225. 
eertus, 888. 
. cognomen, 991, 
columba, 203. 
communis, 897. 
compare, p. 154. 
consequor, p. 162. 
coquino, 245. 
coquo, 245. 
corpus, 812. 
corylus, 556. 
coxa, 466. 

crates, 126. 
cribrum, 700. 
crotta, 5. 
cucullns, 121. 

dama, 8j8. 
dea, 289. 
decem, p. 150. 
deus, 81. 
dexter, 386. 
duo, 773. 

edo, 40. 
equus, 17. 
erica, p. 162. 
esox, 216. 
est, 1 112. 
esucius, 216. 

faba, 109. 
faber, 369. 
fero, 835. 
fervere, 952. 
fircus (Sabine), 205. 
flagellum, 109. 
flos, 491. 

folium, 765; p. 163. 
fores, 124. 
forma, 642. 
f rater, 570, 1047. 
frenum, 109, 819. 
fundus, 96. 
furvus, 381. 
fuscus, 381. 
fastis, 109. 

genus, 812. 
gilvus, 1 1 24. 
grex, 742. 
gustus, p. 69, note '. 

hirpus, 105. 
hircHS, 205. 

inclytus, 655. 
innocens, p. 151. 
inter, 490. 

jecnr, 1032. 
Justus, 758. 
juvencus, 758. 
juvenis, 758. 

lac, 250. 
lacus, 7S1. 
laetus, p. 151. 
latus, p. 156. 
latus (TrXoTiic), 13. 
Lavema, 792. 
laxus, 382. 
lens, lendis, 649. 
levior, 923, 11 15. 
levir, 397, 
lien, I0I2. 
lingua, 40. 
lino, p. 159. 
linquo, p. 161. 
lippus, 675. 
liquor, 675. 
lorica, 154. 
lucrum, 792. 
lucta, p. 153. 

magnus, 663. 
major, 11 14. 
mantellum, 490. 
manus, p. 154. 
marceo, 860, 
mare, 860. 
mater, 130, 1052. 
mel, 968. 

meme, p. 127, note '. 
mensa, 478, 285. 
mensis, 285, 1050. 
molendinum, 701. 
molo, 701. 
mors, 315. 
mulceo, 243. 
mulgeo, 243. 
mulus, 295. 

natrix, 88. 
navis, 21. 
nebula, 337. 
necto, 817. 
neptis, 224. 
nex, 693. 
noceo, p. 151. 
nomen, 991. 
nox, 693. 

opus, 889. 
ordo, 943. 
omus, 557. 
03, ossis, p. 149. 

MedioEval Latin Index. 


pHlliiim, p. 154. 
palumba, 203. 
pater, 13, 1046. 
pectus, 812. 
pecus, 389. 
penna, 746. 
pes, r- 15°- 
piscis, 13. 
plecto, 930. 
pleDus, 13. 
plerus, 13. 
plico, 930. 
poena, 98 ; p. 156. 
popina, 245 ; p. 158. 
porcus, 493. 
pro, 13. 
pulsus, 99. 
purpura, 224- 

qnatuor, 775. 
quinctas, 588. 
quinque, 776. 

rastnim, 814. 
regina, 20. 
ren, 246. 
rex, 1036. 
rien, ion. 
rivas, 999. 
rota, 227 ; p. 158. 

rnmis, 999. 
ruo, 999. 

sacer, 724. 
saccus, 489. 
sagitta, 214. 
sal, 977. 
salax, 616. 
salicastrum, 795. 
salio, 616, 977. 
salum, 977. 
scutum, p. 148. 
seculum, p. 147. 
secus, p. 156. 
sedeo, 70. 
semi, 392. 
Seneca, 130. 
senex, 130. 
septem, 224. 
sex, 777. 
sextus, 588. 
similis, 609, 904. 
sisto, p. 100, note, 
socrus, 570. 
somnium, p. 163. 
soror, 216, 320. 
specie, specto. p. 149. 
stannum, 610. 
sum, sunt, 11 12. 

talea, 252. 

taurus(= Gaulish tarvoi), p. 159. 

tellus, 108. 

tendo, 1017. 

tepere, 942. 

theca, 41, 371. 

tongeo, p. 165. 

torreo, 703. 

trans, 1000. 

tres, 774. 

tribus, 315. 

ulna, p. 149. 
umbilicus, p. 150. 
unguis, p. 150; No. 198. 
unio, 862. 
unus (oinos), p. 147. 

vagina, 157. 

varus, 621. 

vates, 2. 

veru, p. 149, 

vespera, 224. 

vieo, 99, 1095. 

vidua, p. 147, p. 159. 

vir, 395. 

vita, 477. 

vitis, 99 ; p. 156. 

vivus, 113. 


INumerals to which the letter "L." is prefixed refer to the lines of the Lorica, pp. 136-143.] 

abacia, 173. 
admidulum, 824. 
aglossns, 629. 
agoneteta, L. 19; p. 143. 
allea, 31. 
alministrum, 793. 
amusca, 251 ; p. 158. 
anlfis, 558. 
antela, 264. 
anticula, 155. 
aptempna, 70. 
arcimantrica, 16. 
asugia, 236. 

babana, 284. 
batma, p. 144. 

baudaca, 220. 

benna, 163. 

berrus, p. 148. 

binna, 162. 

birria, 1 8 ; p. 154, 

biturrea (-ia), 152. 

braxatus, 600. 

brecia, 184. 

brucus, 565. 

brunus, 559. 

bucealla, 144. 

bucliamen, L. 76 ; p. 145. 

caba, 277. 
cadibulta, 274. 
calUdiba, 278. 

camisa, 38. 

candalena, 63. • 

capitali (dat. s.), L. 49. 

caphia, 51. 

capula, 266. 

carsum, L. 37 ; p. 144. 

cartesium (= chartaceum), 709. 

cartilage, L. 49. 

catacrina, L. 62 ; p. 145. 

caustoria, 59. 

cavicula, 229. 

celopidus, 635. 

cephale, L. 35 ; p. 144. 

cepus, 480. 

ceutro (dat. s.), L. 49 ; p. 145. 

chautrum, p. 145. 


Indices Verborum. 

chorus, p. 153. 

cipus, 479. 

ciratheca, 34. 

ciromancia (chiromachia), 272. 

cirra, 33. 

citola, 241. 

cladum, L. 37 ; p. 144. 

clerica. 76. 

collacanius, 486. 

colomaticus, p. 148. 

colosdrigium, 11 36. 

cotnprisura, 238. 

cona, L. 35 ; p. 144. 

corductum, p. 156. 

corporale, 859; p. 164. 

corrolus, 556. 

creta, 126. 

cretella, 107. 

Cuba, L. 57 ; p. 145. 

dectura, 153. 
deHpin, 1029. 
digma (?), 127. 
dolia, L. 75 ; p. 145. 
ducendum, 773. 

ea, 186. 

edibulta, 275. 
emenda, 98. 
episconum, p. 13. 
ereocledus, p. 24. 
eripica, 240. 
crundo, 934. 
ethera, 104. 

falinga, 37. 

fascllus, 488. 

ferina, 183. 

fessica, 57. 

festnia (festuca ?), 21 1. 

felhma, 844. 

fi'rem (ace. s.), L. 74. 

fixio, 900. 

forcuratio, 899. 

gamba, L. 63. 

ganea, 187. 

garga, 141. 

gelima, 45. 

genimen, 10 10. 

genuclis (abl. pi.), L. 64 ; p. 145. 

gernoodum, 708. 

gerra, 139. 

geta, 19. 

gibra, L. 31 ; p. 143. 

gigra, L. 35 i p. I44- 

gingis (dat. pi.), L. 46 ; p. 165. 

glabella, 78. 

glassia, 243. 

gletealla, 189. 

grangia, 195. 

gredale, 854. 

grimaga, 257. 

grunna, 118; p. 156. 

gugra, p. 144. 

gurgiilio, L. 46; p. 145. 

gyrgj-rium, 746. 

honplata, 148. 
honumculus, 436. 

iaris (abl. pi.), L. 35 j p. 144. 
iduma, L. 38 ; p. 144. 
igniferrium, 720. 
impediea, 192. 
jnternasus, L. 44; p. 145. 
ioUa (= hilla), 55, 1005. 
ionuclius(= eunuchus), p. 166. 
irundo, 935. 

jacor, L. 73. 
juntura, 149. 

lapifulta, 246. 

leetorie, 856. 

lii^or, 1097. 

ligna, L. 36 ; ligana, p. 144. 

limpa, 69. 

lucifugia, 204. 

inalosus, 41 1. 
manefllus, 490. 
mandiamira, L. 37 ; p. 144. 
nianuale, 857. 
marcom (ace. s.), L. 74. 
mataxa, 93 ; p. 156. 
mentagra, L. 68 ; p. 145. 
Diersiamer.tum, 780. 
micena, L 36 ; p. 144. 
Diilgus, 507. 
mitreta, 64; p. 155. 
monetola, 201. 
monifieina, 237. 
morelius, 499, 
mftcledia, 165. 
niulera, 166. 

naueula, 71. 
nuchum, 794. 

oba, 167. 
obesta, p. 158. 

obligia, L. 74, 
obtolmia, 281. 
odomen, 1006. 
onesta, 256; p. 158. 

panea, 235. 

pantera, 88; p. 155. 

pantes, L. 79 ; p. 146. 

partista, 9. 

patha, L. 36 ; pata, p. 144. 

patma, L. 38 ; p. 144. 

pavimcntum, 769. 

pectuseulum, L. 69 ; p. 145. 

pensa, 245. 

pestucula, 147. 

picuta, 258. 

pilomena, 202. 

piromanxia, 271. 

plumba, 60. 

plumpeus, 609. 

postella, 265. 

presena, 247. 

pre.spiter, 367-* 

prissura, 244. 

profeticum, 796. 

proseumeticum, 792. 

prostrinum, 711. 

pumnatus, 47 3. 

quadricentum, 775. 
quincentum, 776. 

retor, 1099. 
romipeda, 311. 
rostigola, 206. 
rotis(dat. pi.), L. 45. 
Tula, 248. 
rater, 1075. 

sabribarra, i8o; p. 157. 
sargifngcim (= sarcophagum), p. 

saudarium (= sudarium), p. 166. 
scama (= squama), 132; p. 152. 
scanum, 748. 
scilarotica, 168. 
sciren, p. 26. 
scupa (= stupa), 254. 
sena, L. 36 ; senna, p. 144. 
senester, 387. 
sepe, 86 2. 
sera, 226. 
sexcentum, 777. 
simicintium, p. 166. 
sindola, 253. 
sirogra, 233. 

Greek Index. 


stuma, 273. 
sista, 199. 
sitarista, 5. 
stipifortifartium, 705. 
straulium, 717. 
subfucatus, p. 166. 
siiblingua, L. 48 ; p. 145. 
superaltare, p. 136; p. 143. 
sasorra, 145. 

talia, L. 37. 
tempe, 866. 
tethologia, 81. 
tigiius, 485. 
tipia, 146. 
tomds, 587. 
treoga, 137. 
tribula, 109. 
trica, 279. 
tricendum, 774. 

troclia, 239. 
trobiale, 855. 
trolla, 42. 

tutones, L. 45 ; p. 145. 
tympanum, p. 153. 

ugula, 151. 
uolua, 181, 
uria, 191. 
uva, L. 48 ; p. 145. 

a-^Xv, 509. 

aiQioi\i, aWog, diOat, 948. 

aWofiai, 616, 977. 

aWog, p. 149. 

aXf, 977. 

dftiXyw, 243. 

a/i^i, 670, 

' Afttpifiapog, 860. 

a^^iTToXoc, 898. 

avijioQ, p, 149. 

avii^iog, 224. 

uTrXoof, 930. 

apyvpos, 607. 

dpfitov, IZ16. 

dproKOVos, 245- 

dproTTOTTog, 245. 

&TTa, 1078. 

avpov = O. Ir. 6r{>i), p. 162. 

antral, p. 44, note. 

liava, 1053. 
Pioc, 113- 
l3ioTog, 477. 
poXyOQ, 217. 
[iovKoXoQ, 584. 
fipaxvs, 678. 

yiXa, 250. 

ytvof, 812. 

ytv<o, p. 69, note *. 

yXaxTOipdyog, yXayog, 250. 

yvvTi, 1053. 

^aijp, 397. 
Sdxpv, 724. 

;f?crfe, 386. 

^urXdof, 930. 


iopv, 554. 

^P"i> 554- 

^yicl^aXof, 747. 

ctiof, 812. 

£?, c(/t(, ct(Ti, 1 1 12. 

e'lcroc, 777. 

Iri/pa, 570. 

^Xatrtrwv, 923, 1115. 

eXof, 977. 

I^Ew, 97. 

ifilii, 1 1 12. 

iKaKoiTtoi, i^fiKOvra, 777. 

ipiixri, p. 162. 

tVyov, 328, 533. 

iffjiiv, loTiiv), 1 1 12. 

'"-, 85- 

eypyj;. 578. 
?«<«, 779. 

ijirap, 1032. 
»}<rat, »;ff6f, 1112. 
ijrptov, 1095. 

9spp,6c, 952. 
6vpa, 124. 

'laMV, 758. 
lOaiveaBai, 948. 
t;r7ro/3oi'KoXoc, 584. 
'iiTTrog, 17 ; p. 68, note; 675. 
'tart) fit, p. 100, note. 
tr«a, 99. 

KaKKClii), KCIKKI), IO75. 

Kavat^o), 837. 


KavooQ, 372. 

KapciOf 1 102. 

cipKOf, 507. 

icXeoj, icXwrdg, 656, 812. 

KPti/iri, 269. 

xrdvtf, Kovt^oc, 649. 

Kopi/Xoe, 556. 

Kpijaipa, 700. 

Kpidf, 158. 

Kuoji/ (= cii, gen. (»»), 41 1. 

Xafi^avia, 34. 

Xarpic, 792. 

XfiVw, cf. O. Ir. leieim. 

XtvKog, cf. 0. Ir. loefte, 292. 

Xsvog, 812. 

X^iC, 792. 

Xojjof, 1003. 

/laKpog, 621, 724. 
/tavof, 430 
fxapaivw^ 860. 
/ifyaXou, 663, 902. 
Iieyag, 663. 
/if6«, 968. 
fieiZhiv, 1 1 14. 
/isXt, 968. 
/jtpof, p. 157. 
/ii)ViQj 602. 
/•^ri/p, 130. 
^oXydg, 217. 
HiiXti, 701. 

vavg, 21 ; p. 162. 
vkKVg, 693. 
V£0£X»), 337. 
vk(poc^ 812. 

VE(U, 817. 


Indices Verhorum. 

vfiBu), 817. 
vv6s, 570. 

oi'c = 0. Ir. 6i. 

6/toXof, 609, 904. 

b^tpaXoQ^ p. 150. 

ovojia, 991. 

ovof, 296. 

ovv%, p. 150. 

igyij, 328, 533. 

6p96c, 16. 

opxjs (= uirge), gl. 109. 

dariov, p. 149. 

ovOap^ 102. 

irapa, 704. 
■niniTi, Trivre, 776. 
■trarrip, 13. 
rrepntos, 13. 
irtrfijva, viTOfiai, 746. 
jrXarof, p. 156. 
TrXaruf, 13. 
jrXci'wy, 13. 
irXi/cio, 930. 
irXrjprig, 13. 
■aoivt], 98 ; p. 156. 

jroXu, 13. 
TTopi-oc = ore, 492. 
TToiif, p. 150. 
•Jtrdpvvfiai, 1039. 
wOfiiiv, 96. 

p£5/»n, 999. 
plw, 999. 
^uyXOC. 1039- 

pVTOQ, 909. 

ffaKKOC, 489. 
StXfivri, 952. 
(T/ciirof, p. 148. 
(TTrXaxvor, 1012. 
(TttXiji', 1012. 
<rr£pyw, 618. 
ffTopyr/i 618. 
<rxi?<u, 44' • 

rdwixai, 1017. 

raru, ravaoj, 1017. 

raupos = Gaul, tarvos, p. 150. 

Ta<p, 942. 

riyos, 569. 

rctvbi, 1017. 

Ttixot, 871. 

rleof, 871. 
rfXIw, reXof, 739. 
repaoiiai, 703 
rolxof, 871. 
T(5lC0f, 871. 
'■P^X'^1 74. 
TVKoe, 871. 

fijwp, 69. 
Ottvoc, p. 163. 
v^t]\6e, p- 68, note. 

^al9bi, ^doc, 846. 
0ay, 109. 
ipaXXSc, p. 150. 
0«pw, 835. 
<ji6vos, p. 147. 

ippv^np, 57°- 
ipiXKov, 765 ; p. 163. 
ijKoyttVt p. 61, note. 

xXwpof, 1 1 24. 

(alXEfi;, p. 149. 

d)fl6s, 90. 

(Spa = iJaiV, p. 95, note '. 


aksha, akshi, 426. 

angana, 290. 

anji, 784. 

at, 1068. 

ati, 155. 

atta, 1078. 

adhi, 752. 

an, 428 ; p. 149. 

anila, p. 149. 

antar, 490. 

abhi, 670. 

amati, 302. 

ayas, 608. 

arbha, p. 163. 

avara, 305. 

acjva, 17 ; p. 68, note. 

as, iiiz. 

asthi, p. 149, 

asmad, 305. 

ama, 90. 
Syu, p. 68, note. 
^yu3, 812. 
as, 1112. 

indh, 948. 
ishira, p. 68, note. 

ntsa, 69, 
and, 69. 
nru, 578. 
urvi, 578. 
ush, 606. 

(idhas, 102. 
ilrdhva, 16. 

edha, edhas, 948. 
ena, p. 147. 

aidh, aidha, 948. 

kany&, 158. 
karsha, 703. 
kala, 200. 
kr, 700. 
kravya, 919. 

gad, 870. 
garva, p. 159. 

go, 159. 7^4- 
grdh, 620. 
grha, 702. 
gna, 1053. 

gharma, ghrni, 952. 
ghrans, ghransa, 95 2 ; p. 

chatur, 775. 


Sanskrit Index. 


charman, p. 157. 

chhid, 441. 

jan, 290. 

jani, 1053. 

janiman, janman, 886. 

jaluk^, 940. 

jiva, 113, 784. 

jivita, 477. 

takma, 87 1. 

taksh, 87 1. 

tanch, 872. 

tan, 1017. 

tantu, 1017. 

tap, 942, 1986. 

tava, yushraad, 570. 

tishthami, p. 100, note. 

tu, 423. 

tf, 898. 

trksh, 74. 

trsh, 703. 

dakshina, 265, 386. 
da9an, p. 150. 
dah (dabh), 942. 
da, p. 100, note, 
daru, 554. 
dus-, 85. 

■Jr"; (pa9), P- •49- 
deva, 21, 81. 
devara, 397. 
dvara, 124. 
dvi-, 773. 

dhanvan, 108. 
dha, p. 158. 
dhr, 642, 819. 

nakha, p. 150. 
naptrt, 224. 
nabhas, 812. 
navy a, 21. 
nac;, 693. 
na^ayami, p. 151. 
nah, 817. 
nabhi, p. 150, 
nediyas, 1H7. 

pach, 245. 
panchan, 776. 
pad, pada, p. 150. 

parichara, 898. 

pa? (drv). P- 149- 

patbas, pathin = O. Ir. dth, 13. 

pitr, 13. 

puru, ved. pulu, 13. 

prch, 930, 

prthu, 13. 

Pf (par). 13- 
pra, 13, 428. 
plihan, 1012. 

badhira, 604. 
budhna, 96. 
brhat, 292. 

bhaksh, 109. 
bhiksh, 1058. 
bhu, p. 100, note, 
bhr, 835, 1047. 
bhratr, 570, 1047. 
bhru, 79. 

maghavan, 952. 
mati, 302. 
madhu, 968. 
man, 302, mo. 
manu, 302. 
mantbana, 1139. 
mah, 756. 
mahat, 663. 
mahiyas, 1114. 
ma, 1052. 
matr, 130, 1052. 
raSs, 1050. 
mithya, 1117. 
mtir, p. 76, note, 
mr, 860. 
mrin, 860. 

yam, 635. 
yaraa, loio. 
yava, 779. 
yaviyas, 758. 

yu. 75^- 
yuvan, 758. 
yushmad, 570. 
yos, 7j8. 

rajata, 607. 
ratba, 227. 
raj, rajni, 20. 
ruch, 331. 
roman, p. 161. 

laghiyas, laghu, 923. 
langh, p. 147. 
labh, 34. 
lota, 792. 

Takra, 621. 
vad, 870. 
vam, 97. 
vara, 397. 
varama, 11 16. 
variyas, 11 16. 
vas, 1070. 
Tasu, p. 126, note, 
var, vari, 222, 860. 
vid, 392. 
vitika, 99. 
vira, 397. 
vr, 884. 
ve, 1095. 
vetasa, p. 156. 

qaiis, 63, 837. 
9akrt, 1075. 
^akra, 724. 
9atam, 772. 
(jravas, 655, 812. 
9rl, 387. 
9va(;ru, 570. 
ijvid, p. 150. 

sad, 70. 
sadas, 812. 
sama, 904. 
saras, 977. 
sarit, 977. 
salila, 977. 
sahas, 663. 
sami, 392. 

sr. 977- 
sthag, 569. 
stha, p. 100, note, 
sna, 391. 
snusha, 570. 
8pa(;a, p. 149. 
sni, 999. 
srotas, 999. 
svapna, p. 163. 
evasr, 320. 

hari, 11 24. 
hrdaya, 1102. 
hvr, p. 149. 



Indices Verhorum. 


kaine, 158. 
khavas, 777. 
tafnu, 720. 
tanch-, 872. 
thrishva, 588. 
dacna, 89. 
nazdista, 11 17. 
na<;n, 693. 
panchan, 776. 

peretu, 725. 

bi-, 773- 
ma(;yeliim, 11 14. 
maoirinam, ^^. 
maonh, 1050. 
yava, 779. 
yaos, 758. 
ydiia, 681. 

rathaestS, 227. 
verez, 533. 
vohu, p. 126, note. 
(jatSm, 772. 
hacha, p. 156. 
hana, 735 ; p. 156. 
hi^tSmi, p. 100, note, 
zeredhaya, 1102. 


aihus, 17. 

ains, p. 147. 

aithei, 1078. 

andalauni, 792. 

ara, 197. 

arbja, 752; p. 163. _ 

asilus, 296. 

atta, 1078. 

balgs, 218. 
banja, p. 147. 
bidjan, bidan, p. 147. 
bleiths, p. 151. 

brothar, 570, 1047 ; brothra- 
faans, 13. 

daigs, 242. 
daur, 124. 
dulg, 433. 

eisarn, 608. 

faibu, 389. 
faihuthraihns, 300. 
fidvor, 775. 
fila, 13. 
fimf, 776. 
fiska = iasc, 1 3. 
fulls = Idn, 13. 
fotu, p. 150. 

gamaids, 1122. 
gamains, 897. 
gasintha, -thja, 1073. 
glaggvos, 1 129. 
gredus, 1081. ' 

hairto, 1102. 
hana, 837. 
hardus, p. 64, note '. 
bleiduma, 387. 
bunda, 772. 
hveita, p. 150. 

im, ist, n 1 2. 
izvara, p. 160, note '". 

jer = iiair, p. 95, note '. 

klusan, p. 69, note. 

laufs, 114. 
laun, 133, 792. 

magus, 882. 
maiza, 1 1 14. 
marei, 860. 
mikils, 663. 
miluks, 243. 
missa, 11 17. 

qvairans, 784. 
qvius, 113. 

reiks, 1036. 

sakkns, 489. 
salt, 977. 
sama, 904. 
sind, 1 1 1 2. 
sinths, 490, 1073. 
skaija, 106. 
snur, 570. 
svaihro, 570. 

triu, 554. 
tnggo, 40. 

vair, 395. 

valdan, ef.Jlaith, 338. 
vast, 1 1 12; p. 1(55. 
viljan, 884. 

thagkjan, p. 165. 
thauip, 315. 
thaursja, 703. 
thiuda, 423. 
thragja, 74. 

English Index. 



&i, 94S. 
blide, p. 15 1 . 
braSean, 366. 
ceole, p. 149. 
dale, 1074. 
elch, 105. 
feohstrang, p. 159. 
garleac (0. N. geirlaukr), 31. 
gebede, p. 147. 
gerim, 913. 

gleav, 1 1 29. 
heahfsBSer, p. 153. 
heado = cath. 
hlseden, 126. 
hrife, p. 150. 
hr6n, 50 ; p. 155. 
kgu = loch, 781. 
mele, p. 157. 
mene, myne, p. 163. 
naca, 21. 

n6n, 1077. 
rim, 913. 
sceota, p. 164. 
sendan, 1073. 
tffifel, p. 154. 
treov, 554. 
tvi-, 773. 
vudu, 46. 
yrfe, 752. 


am, 1 1 1 2. 

apple, 555' 

art, 1 1 12, p. 165. 

bake, p. 61, note '. 
bane, p. 147. 
beadsman, p. 147. 
bellows, 217. 
bid, p. 147. 
blithe, p. 151. 
booth, 120. 
■bother, 604, 
bottom, 96. 
Briton, 957. 
brooch, 852. 
brogue, 1033. 
brother, 570, 1047. 
butteris, p. 157. 

car, 70. 
cat, 499. 

choose, p. 69, note, 
chongh, 201. 
clean, 67 1. 
coal, 273. 
coracle, 488. 
com = gran, 722. 
corry, 724. 
cow, 159. 
cowl, 121. 
crowder, 5. 
curd, 784. 

door, 124. 
dough, 242. 
dusk, 381. 

elk, 205. 

ewe = 0. Ir. 6i. 

(uTow = ore, 492. 
father, 1046. 
feather, 746. 
fell, 136. 
five, 776. 
ford, 725. 
four, 775. 
fun, 630. 

gallon, 106. 
garlick, 31. 
gavelock, 135. 
grail, 854. 
greed, 620. 
grill, 107. 
grum, 1065. 

hame, 444. 
hard, p. 64, note '. 
hat, 831. 
hazle, 556. 
hedge, 218. 
hound, 261, 411, 
hundred, 772. 
hurdle, J26. 

iron, 216, 608. 
is, 1 1 12. 

jowl, p. 149. 

lanyard, 73; p. 155. 
lead, 609, 
less, 1 1 15. 
linseed, 38. 
list, 655. 
load, 609. 
loan, 133, 792. 
loud, 655. 
lurcher, 937. 

man, 89. 
market, 327. 
midriff, p. 150. 
milk, 243. 
mill, 701. 
mis-, 1 1 17. 
mother, 130. 

nail, p. 150. 
navel, p. 150. 
nit, 649. 
noon, 1077. 

one, p. 147. 
onion, 862. 
ore, 608. 


Indices Verborum. 

paunter, p. 155. 
pillory, 1 136. 
pismire, 55. 

quern (Goth, qvairuns), 784. 
quick, 113. 

rhyme, 913. 

salt, 977. 
same, 904. 
send, 490, 1073. 
service-tree, 1132. 
shake, p. 161. 
shell, 106. 
sister, 320. 
slaughter, slay, 1003, 
six, 777. 
smear, 193. 

stream, 999. 
spur, 1041. 
sweven, p. 163. 

tailor, 252. 
thin, 1617. 
think, p. 165, 
thirst, 703. 
thorp, 315. 
three, 774. 
tongs, 674. 
tongue, 40. 
tree, 554. 
trowsers, 324. 
truce, 137. 
trull, p. 148. 
tun, 731. 
twinge, 674. 
two, 773. 

udder, 102. 
um-, 670. 

warm, 952. 
wast, 1 1 1 2 ; p. 
weave, 1095. 
white, p. 150. 
will, 884. 
window, 134. 
wit, 392. 
withe, 99. 
wood, 46. 
work, 328, 533 

yellow, 1 124. 
yew, 561. 
yonng, 758. 



blidi, p. 151. 

bodam, 96, 

chuo, 159. 

cuncla, 567. 

denchan, p. 166. 

diota, 423. 

dwingan, 674. 

ehu, 17. 

eit, 948. 

esil, 296. 

farah = ore, 492. 

flehtan, 930. 

gelo, 1 124. 

Hadumar, p. 86, note. 

hafr, 372. 

hag, 218. 

Hincmar, p. 86, note. 

Hlodomar, 655 ; p. 86, note. 

hhlt, 655. 

hrco, 919. 

hrotta, 5. 

bunta, 772. 

iwa, 561. 

jar = uair, p. 95. 

kisal, 216. 

korn = gran, 722. 

meri, 860. 

metu, 968. 

milub, 243. 

muli, 701. 

nacho, 21. 
prawa, 79. 
salo, 6 1 6. 
scala, 106. 
sind, 1073. 
slahan, 1003. 
stroum, 999. 
sueran, 11 32. 
umbi = imm, 670. 
war =fir, 954. 
weban, 1095. 
wida, 99. 
wiho, 269. 
wltu, 46. 
zunga, 40. 



[The following have been noticed during the passage of the Indices through the press.] 

P. 49, line 4,/or carpat read charpat. 

P. 62, line 16, /or 145 read 144. 

P. 65, note 8, delete the latter part of this note : nisgignetar tola means " desires flusts) did not wound them," and we 
have here the 3rd pers. plur. pret. active of the root gon. The 3rd pers. sing, of the same tense— crecfwfji — occurs in the 
F61ire, Oct. 23. t~ b 

P. 107, Une 20, for tr read tf. 

P. 109, in the paradi^, nom. and voa 8ing.,^or rig read ri. 

P. Ill, line 5, for tracing from), lorg read tracing), from lorg. 

P. 114, line 11 from bottom, /or 9i»5 read 975. 

P. 120, line 4 from bottom, for bhratr read bhratr. 

P. 131, line 11 from bottom, /or Inmirmaith read inmir maith. 

P, 144, line 16, /or lens read iens. 

P. 155, line 11 from bottom, for dfivSho read d6vabo. 

P. 160, note ™, for anlaut read inlaut. 

P. 166, line 13, /or aurigam totum read totimi calvunu 

P. 166, line 14, and p. 179, for martur read martar. 

P. 167, col. 2, line 6, for Sanscriticum read Sanscritum. 

P. 168, col. 2, Une 3 from bottom, for 0. Ir. d read O. Ir. t. 

P. 170, col. 2, at Prefixes insert ro (ru, ra\ 13, 428, 808, 

P. 174, at barr insert a reference to p. 148. 

P. 181, iimrt tarb, p. 159. 



^Hlron : 

^rtsibtnt : 

The Most Noble the Maeqcess of Kildake, M. R. I. A. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Dunraven, M. R. I. A. 

The Right Hon. Lord Talbot De Malahide, M. R. I. A. 

Very Rev. Charles W. Russell, D. D., President of Maynooth College. 

fiounxil : 

EcGESE Curry, M. R. I. A. 

Rev. Thomas Fabrelly. 

Rev. Charles Graves, D. D., 

F. T. C. D., M. R. I. A. 
Rev. Jasies Graves, A. B. 
Thomas A. Labcom, Major- General, 

R. E., M. R. I. A. 

Patrick V. Fitzpatrick, Esq. 
John C. O'Callaghan, Esq. 
John O'Donovan, LL. D., M. R. I. A. 
George Petrie, LL. D., V. P. R. I. A. 
Rev. Wm. Reeves, D.D., V.P.R.LA. 
W. R. Wii.DE, F. R. C. S. I., M. R. I. A 

S!a«tarieB : 
J. H. Todd, D. D., Pres. R. I. A. | J. T. Gilbert, M. R. I. A, 

THE materials for Irish history, although rich and abundant, have 
hitherto been but to a small extent available to the student. 
The few accessible authorities have been so frequently used, and the 
works compiled from them are so incomplete, that the expectation 
of any accurate history of Ireland has been generally deferred, under 
the conviction that vast additions must be made to the materials at 
present available before any complete work of that nature can be 
produced. The immediate object of this Society is to print, with 
accurate English translations and annotations, the unpublished do- 
cuments illustrative of Irish history, especially those in the ancient 


( z ) 

and obsolete Irish language, many of which can be accurately trans- 
lated and elucidated only by scholars who have been long engaged 
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literary monuments may become unavailable to the students of his- 
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Ireland, by directing public attention to their preservation from the 
destruction with which they frequently are threatened. 

The publication of twenty-one volumes, illustrative of Irish his- 
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in 1840, and the Celtic Society, established in 1845. The present 
Society has been formed by the union of these two bodies, under the 
name of the " Irish Archsological and Celtic Society," for the 
preservation of the monuments illustrative of Irish history, and for 
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( 3 ) 

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Founded MDCCCXL. 

—  — 


I. Tracts kelatiso to Ikeland, vol. i., containing : 

1. The Circuit of Ireland ; by Muircheartach Mac Neill, Prince of Aileach ; 

a Poem written in the year 942 by Cormacan Eigeas, Chief Poet of the 
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2. "A Brife Description of Ireland, made in the year 1589, by Robert Payne, 

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II. Tracts relating to Ireland, vol. 11. containing : 

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2. The Annals of Multifeman ; from the original MS. in the Libraiy of Tri- 

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( 4 ) 


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( 5 ) 

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( 6 ) 

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Founded MDCCCXLV. 

Ieu5ap nci g-Ceaiic, or. The Book of Rights; a Treatise on tlie Rights and 
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A Historical Poem on the Battle of Dun (Downpatrick), A.D. 1 260. 

Sir Richard Bingham's Account of his Proceedings in Connacht, in the reign 
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( 7 ) 




LiBEK Hymnorum: The Book of Hymns of the Ancient Church of Ireland; from 
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James Henthorn Todd, D. D., Pres. R. I. A., Senior Fellow of Trinity College. 
Part I. Containing the following Latin Hymns, with Irish Scholia and Gloss : — 

I. The Alphabetical Hymn of St. Sechnall, or Secundinus, in praise. of St. Pa- 
trick. 2. The Alphabetical Hymn in praise of St. Brigid, attributed to St. Ultan, 
Bishop of Ardbreccan. 3. The Hymn of St. Cummain Fota. 4. The Hymn or 
Prayer of St. Mugint. 

1855 and 1856. 

The Life of St. Columba, by Adamnan, Ninth Abbot of Hy [or lona]. 
The Latin text taken from a MS. of the early part of the eighth century, preserved 
at Schaff hausf-n ; accompanied by Various Readings from six other MSS., found in 
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The two Parts are bound in one Volume, for the convenience of Members. 


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From a Manuscript in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Together with the 

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Edited, witli a Commentary, Notes, and Indices Verborum, by Whitley Stokes, 

A. B. 


Three Fragments of Ancient Irish Annals, hitherto unpublished. Edited, from a 
MS. in the Burgundian Library, Brussels, with a Translation and Notes, by John 
O'DoNOVAN, LL. D., M. R. I. A., Professor of Irish Literature in the Queen's Col- 
lege, Belfast. (AVar/y ready.) 


Liber Hymnorum : The Book of Hymns of the Ancient Church of Ireland ; from 
the original MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Edited by the Rev. 
J.tMES Henthokn Todd, D. D., Pres. R. I. A., Senior Fellow of Trinity College, 
Part II. {In the Preit.) 


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period of the Anglo-Norman Invasion. The Irish Text edited, with Translation and 
copious illustrative Notes, by John O'Donovan, LL. D. (In preparation.) 

( 8 ) 


I. A Treatise on thb Ogham or Occult Forms of Writino of the 
Ancient Irish ; from a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin ; with a 
Translation and Notes, and Preliminary Dissertation, by the Rev. Charles 
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IX. boiiama. The Origin and History of the Boromean Tribute. Edited from 
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Eugene Curry, Esq., M. R. I. A. 

X. l/eabap Jolia^Q, or. The History of the Invasions of Ireland, by the Four 

XI. Popup peapa ap Gipinii, or. The History of Ireland, by Dr. Geofirey 

XII. Leabap Dmn Seanovip, or. History of the Noted Places in Ireland. 

XIII. The Works of Giraldus Cambrensis relating to Ireland. 

XIV. Miscellany of the Irish Archseological and Celtic Society. 

The Council will receive Donations or Subscriptions to be applied especially to any 
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Subscriptions are received by Edward Clibborn, Esq., Royal Irish Academy, 
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Lq Duilecli coin Clochaip. — Feilire ofMngus, Ninth Century. 




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BEV. ^V^LLIAM REEVES, D. D., M. B. , V. P. B. I. A., Vicar of Lusk. 

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THE EOYAL BANK, Foster-placc, Dublin. 

This Committee, with power to add to their number, was appointed at a Meeting 
bold in the Board- room of the Eoyal Irish Academy on the 19th of August, 1859. 

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The work they have undertaken is, to collect, and apply money for the 
preservation of the ancient buildings at St. Doulagh's, so far as those ve- 
nerable remains are in the possession of the Incumbent. 

It would be vain to attempt, by written description, to convey an ade- 
(j^uate idea of this curious structure. The view given above of the exterior 
is, necessarily, partial ; whilst the interior, to be appreciated, must be the 
subject of actual examination. 

The Chapel commemorative of St. Duilech of Clogher, who flourished, 
it is said, about the year 600, has been visited by Antiquaries and Eccle- 
siologists, the most learned and careful, from various countries ; and all 
these, though agreeing as to its great antiquity, diifer, and are in some 
measure at fault, when they attempt to explain its original design and sub- 
sequent use and history. 

It exhibits the strangest incongruities of style ; and every period of 
Church Architecture — from the primitive square- headed doorway and win- 
dow to the ornate Perpendicular — has some representative in the building. 
The outer walls are in excellent preservation, and the stone roof is, perhaps, 
without an equal in these kingdoms ; although, according to some of our 
antiquaries, it must now be at least seven centuries old. 

The building contains seven apartments, to which different names have 
been given by writers anxious to advance different theories. Archdall, for 
instance, describes it as an abbey ; others, as an anchorite's celL But set- 
ting aside theories, one fact remains, and that is, that this building, in 
danger of being lost to the world, is unique, and, as an architectural enigma, 
unmatched in Europe. 

The simple task which the Committee propose to themselves is to pre- 
serve and hand down for future study the conditions left of this unsolved 
problem. To accomplish this, they appeal to the general PubHc ; they seek 
the sympathy and assistance of those who love to study the History and 
Monuments of Ireland ; and they remind all, in the concluding words of 
Dr. Eeeves's "Memoir," that "just as England has inherited her noble 
cathedrals from a religion which she now disowns, so we may blamelessly, 
nay, laudably, cherish so precious an architectural gem as St. Doulagh's 
Chapel, though it be diverted from its original use ; and, without sacrifice 
of principle, or misapplication of money, admire and preserve it." 

The Committee will present to each Subscriber of £ 1 , or Collector of 
£2, a Copy of the beautiful Photograph of the building, lately taken by 
Mr. Allen, together with Dr. Reeves's " Memoir of the Church of St. Dui- 
lech," containing a Paper read before the Royal Irish Academy, on the 
11th April, 1859. 

C 3 ) 

Subscriptions will be thankfully received by the Treasurer, Loed 
Talbot de Mal.uiide, Castle, Malahide; or at the Eotal Bank, Foster- 
place, Dublin ; or by any Member of the Committee. 


The following is the Eeport of the Architect, Mr. Sloane, as read before 
the meeting held in August at the Eoyal Irish Academy : — 

" At the request of the Rev. W. S. Kennedy, I visited the ancient building of St. 
Doulagh's, in this county, on the 2nd of June last, and made a survey of same, 
with the view of laying before you a statement of what is required to place the 
building in a state of repair sufficient to insure its preservation for many jears 
hence ; and I have prepared drawings to exhibit the appearance of the building 
externally, when those repairs shall have been made. Commencing with the cell 
in which is the supposed tomb, I find that there are eight openings, now wholly 
or in part blocked up with masonry : those I propose to have filled with metal 
sashes, glazed in quarries with moderately strong glass. I propose to repair the 
tomb by restoring the cavetto moulding, a portion of which remains, and flagging 
over the top ; I would hack ofi'the plastering, which appears modern, and wedge up 
the vaults with slates in Portland cement, giving the whole a thorough cleansing. 
I propose to adopt the same course with the next apartment, which I call the Ora- 
tory^ thoroughly repairing the vault and cementing it with Portland cement ; and, 
to impart extra strength, I would tile the floor of the apartment over it with a 
layer of fire-clay tiles, laid in cement. I would also repair the stairs in this part 
of the building, and rebuild the parapet wall to a height of about two feet nine 
inches, which would not interfere with the light from the principal south window ; 
the hagioscope to be glazed with ribbed glass. The diflferent recesses I would have 
repaired, and the Piscina restored to its original niche in the south wall. In 
the long apartment over the Oratory, I propose plastering the. vault with Port- 
land cement, and forming the curve, as far as possible, to its original shape ; the 
pieces of concrete with which it is composed affording an excellent key for the 
plaster. I would repair the seat of the south window, and restore the west window 
to correspond with the east ; repairing its seat also, and restoring the steps that 
lead up to the floor of the west end, over the small mezzanine cell which is over 
the tomb cell. As for the exterior, I propose raking out all the old joints carefully, 
and re-pointing with cement. The only portion that is at all ruinous is the western 
corner, and that I would have shored up, each stone carefully removed, and re- 
set exactly in its proper position. The battlements of the tower should be all re- 
paired, the stone roofs re-pointed in cement, and all vegetation carefully removed." 

The amount of Mr. Sloane's estimate for these necessary repairs is under 

He concluded his Report thus: — 

" It may be perceived that I have avoided any attempt at restoration, except- 
ing, as in the parapet of the tower, I cohld do so without any doubt of its propriety. 
I have thus, in a general way, endeavoured to show what I would propose to effect 
in the way of repairs. These repairs completed, and the whole finished, I could not 
consistently recommend the building to be locked up and left to its fate; but, for 
the preserving of it, I would suggest that it be used as a school, for which I believe 
it is amply extensive ; and very little beyond what I have recommended as neces- 

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sary repairs for its preservation would make it available for that purpose. I further 
beg leave to state, that I have examined this subject in various ways, and thought 
of it for years, and the pleasure I would otherwise have enjoyed in contemplating 
the interesting object in question, both in an architectural and antiquarian point 
of view, has always been marred by the existence of the modem structure adjoin- 
ing, which is calculated to offend the experienced and practical eye ; and while 
I think of the comparatively easy task of removing this deformity, and erecting 
a chapel more in keeping with the building which we all wish to preserve, I feel 
the matter has only to be brought under the notice of such a meeting as this to 
have the desired ends accomplished. Of the former existence of some building 
that was removed to make way for the present church, I have no doubt ; and it 
is on the supposed site of that building I would erect the chapel or nave, usinjr 
the cell in which the tomb stands as a vestry. The expense of such a chapel 
would be under i£500." 

Mr. Sloane produced the ground plan and a full design of such a nave, 
to give one hundred sittings in twenty-five open pews, extending north the 
tower, having the reading-desk and pulpit at the end next the hagioscope, 
the side slant of which would then again transmit to the congregation the 
light of the old east window. 

Absteact of Me. Sloane's Estimate, submitted to Meeting. 

Exterior, £61 17 6 

Cell, 16 11 6 

Oratory, 25 17 

Chamber over Cell, 7 2 6 

Chamber over Oratory, 15 16 6 

Staircases, 3 10 

130 1.5 

Contingencies, at 10 per Cent., .... 13 1 

Total, £143 16 

St Doulagh"8 Well. 


Stokes, IJhitley 
Irish glosses 










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