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THE IRISH NATURALIST; 

OF 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY, 



THE OFFICIAL ORGAN OF 



The Royal Zoofogical Society of Ireland ; The Dublin Microscopical Cluh ; 

The Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society ; 

The Belfast Naturalists' Field Club ; The Dublin Naturalists' Field Club / 

The Armagh Natural History and Philosophical Society ; 

The Cork Naturalists Field Club ; The Limenck Naturalists' Field Club. 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE H. CARPENTER, B.Sc, Lond. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.I.A. 



VOL. V- 



DUBLIN : EASON & SON, Limited, 
85 MIDDLE ABBEY STREET, and 40 LOWER SACKVILLE STREET. 

BELFAST : 17 DONEGALL STREET. 
LONDON : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & Co., Ltd. 

1896. 

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UWVERSfTY OF CALIFOkriA "^ 



PRINTBD BY ALEX. THOM A CO. (LlMITBD), 87, 83, A 89, ABBBY-STEEET, DUBLIN. 



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CONTRIBUTORS 

TO THB PRESENT VOI,UM«, 



G, E. H. BarrmT-Hamii^TON, B.A., New Ross. 

R. M. Harrington, i^i^b.. y.lr.S., Fassaroe, Bray. 

W. B. BarringTON, Cork. 

H. D. M. Barton, Antrim. 

J. BBifX^AS, Coleraine. 

B. Bi,akb-Knox, Bray. 

RBv. S. a. Brbnan, B.A., Knocknacary, Co. Antrim. 

Henry W. Broi«hmann, Paris. 

E. T. Browne, University College, London. 

H. Bui,ix>CK, Dundmm, Co. Dublin. 

D. C CampbbItIo Londonderry. 

Geo. H. Carpenter, b.sc., f.e.S., Science & Art Museum, Dublin. 
Prof. G. A J. Coi;e, f.g.s., m.r.i.a., R. College ofScience, Dublin. 
Nathaniei, Coi^an, m.r.i.a., Dublin. 
W. B. Coi,WNGE, F.Z.S., Mason College, Birmingham. 

E. V. Cooper, Killanne, Co. Wexford. 
R. H. Creighton,m.b., Ballyshannon. 

H. K. G. Cuthbert, Blackrock, Co. Dublin. 

J. H. Davies, Lisbum. 

Rev. A. H. Dei^ap, m.a., Strabane. 

J. E. Dubrden, A.R.C.SC., Kingston, Jamaica. 

G. P. Farran, Templeogue, Co. Dublin. 

Percy E. Freke, Borris, Co. Carlow. 

Rev. Hii^deric Friend, p.i,.s., Ocker Hill, Staffordshire. 

F. W. Gambia, m.sc., Owens College, Manchester. 
Rev. T. B. Gibson, m.a.. Ferns, Co. Wexford. 
Rev, W. S. Green, Dublin. 

J. N. Haxbert, Science and Art Museum, Dublin. 
W. A. Hamii,TON, Ballyshannon. 

G. V. Hart, q.c, irir.D., Dublin. 

H. C Hart, b.a., f.i^.S., Letterkenny. 

Miss R. Hbnsman, Dublin. 

R. F. Hibbert, Scariff, Co, Clare. 

C B. Horsbrugh. 

J. Hunter, Woodenbridge, Co. Wicklow. 

C. Herbert Hurst, ph.d., Dublin. 

H. Lyster Jameson, b.a., Castlebellingham. 

Prop. T. Johnson» D.sc, f.i,.s., Royal College of Science, Dmblin. 

Rev. W. P. Johnson, m.a., f.e.s., Poyntzpass. 

W. F. BE V. Kane, m.a., f.e.S., Drumreaske, Co. Monaghan. 

C. Lakoham, Enniskillen. 



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iv Contributors. 

Rev. H. W. LErp, m.a., Ivoughbrickland. Co. Down. 

H. C LBVinge, P.1,.9., Knockdrin Castle, Mullingar. 

C. J. Lilrl^Y, Lame. 

Rev. E. F, Linton, m.a., f.i^.S., Bournemouth. 

F. W. LOCKWOOD, Belfast. 

W. Macmii^i^an, Enniskillen. 

E. A. Martei., Paris. 

David M'Ardi^e, Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin. 

J. M. M*BridE, WestpOrt. 

Prof. E. J. McWeeney, m.a., m.d., Dublin. 

C. B. Moffat, Ballyhyland, Co. Wexford, 

Miss F. S. O'Connor, Ballycastle. 

J. E. PAI.MER, Dublin. 

R. A. Phii.i,ips, Ashburton, Co. Cork. 

Greenwood Pim, m.a., f.i,.s., Monkstown; Dublin. 

R. Lw>VD Praeger, B.A., B.E., M.R.I. A., Dublin. 

P. RAI.FE, Laxey, Isle of Man. 

Rev. Canon C. D. Russei,!,, m.a., Geashill, King's Co. 

T. Ryan, Csstlewellan, Co. Down. 

R. F. SCHARFF, B.sc, PH.D., M.R.I.A., Dublin. 

J. A. Scott, m.d., f.r.c.s.i., Dublin. 

W. Sinci^air, Strabane. 

W. F. S1NCI.AIR, London. 

R. Standen, Manchester. 

S. A. Stewart, Belfast 

A. P. Swan, f.i,.s., Bandon. 

R. J. USSHER, J.P., Cappagh, Co. Waterford. 

Rev. C. H. Waddei<i<, b.d., Saintfield, Co. Down. 

Miss A. Warren, Ballina. 

Robert Warren, J.P., Ballina. 

R. Wei^ch, Belfast. 

E. Wii,i,iAMS, Dublin. 

A. G. WlWON, Belfast. 

Harry F. Witherby, f.z.s., London. 



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INDEX. 



Acherontia atropos, 87, 191, 317. 
Acrocephalus naevius, 191. 
Aculeate Hjmenoptera, 39, 294. 
Adams' British Land and Fresh- 
water MoUusca ^Review), 285. 
Alchemilla viilgans, 296. 
.\lgaB from Belfast Lough, 252. 
Allis Shad, 191, 248. 
Allium triquetrum, 167. 
American Robin in Connaught, 214. 
Andesitic volcanic tuff, 245. 
Ascetta primordialis, 109. 
Asperococcus compressus, 244. 
Asteroscopus sphinx, 317. 
Alypus in King's Co., 213. 

Barrett-Hamilton, G. E. H.— Irish 
Hare going to ground, 119 ; Great 
Auk as an Irish Bird, 121. 

Barrington, R. M.- -Wasps catching 
flies on cattle, 272. 

Barrington, W. B. — Bird-notes from 
Cork, 320. 

Barton, H. D. M.— Razorbill on 
Lough Neagh, 214; Stock-dove 
in Co. Down, 214. 

Belfjwt Club and its work, 209. 

Belfast Natural History and Phi- 
losophical Society, 19, 82, 109. 

Belfast Naturalists* Field Club, 20, 
52, 82, 109, 138, 183, 209, 215, 245, 
2^295,314. 

Bellas, J — Stray Snake near Cole- 
raine, 168. 

Bird-notes, 55, 191, 192. 

Bird-notes from Co. Cork, 320. 

Birds of Connemara, i, 88, 299, 319. 

Black Guillemots, nesting, 117. 

Blake-Knox, E.— Wood-sandpiper 
in Co. Wicklow, 275. 

Bone pins, 81. 

Botanical Subdivision of Ireland, 

Botany at Dublin University, 105. 

Botany of Dublin School Play- 
ground, 377. 

Brambling in Vale of Avoca, 28. 

Brenan, S A.— Irish Hawk weeds, 
27 ; Notes from Cushendun, 166. 

Brolemann, H.W. — Lithobiusvarie- 
gatns, 12. 

Browne, E. T.— Medusae of Valentia 
Harbour, 179. 

Bullock, H.—Q*!^ i*i Co. Dublin, 
275. 



Campbell, D. C. —Spring Migrants, 
168; Crane at Inch, 214; Cato- 
cala fraxini at Londonderry, 318 ; 
Fork-tailed Petrel near Lon- 
donderry, 32a 

Camptogramma bilineata, 74. 

Canis Vulpes melanogaster, 178. 

Carabus clathratus, 191. 

Carex teretiuscula, 270. 

Carpenter, G. H. — Mingling of 
North and South, 57 ; Atypus in 
King's Go., 167 ; Spiders ofClon- 
brock, 225 ; Abundance of Acher- 
ontia atropos, 317. 

Carrion Crow in Co. Antrim, 319. 

Casuals in Go. Antrim, 3'^9. 

Catocala fraxini, 318. 

Cavan, Field Clubs in, 193. 

Cave, longest in British Islands, 
276. 

Cave at Westport, 320. 

Caves, Irish, 123. 

Caves in Go. Lei trim, 276. 

Caves of Enniskillen and Mitchels- 
town, 93, lor. 

Cephalozia Tumeri, 136. 

Chermes phaleratus, 215. 

Chlorochytrium inclusum, 51. 

Chromatium Okenii. 313. 

Clonbrock, Flora and Fauna of, 
217. 

Coccidium or i forme, 53. 

Cole, G. A. J.— Shell of Helix 
nemoralis, 47; Geological Studies 
in the North, 48; Oldhamia in 
America. 254 ; Alleged Eurite of 
Lisnamandra, 276. 

Coleoptera of Clonbrock, 230. 

Colgau, N.— Early flowering of 
Lathraea squamaria, 115; Scro- 
phularia unibrosa, 182 ; Flora of 
Ox Mountains, 301. 

Colliguaja odorifera, 51. 

CoUinge, W. E.— Slugs from N.W. 
Ireland, 144; Slugs of Ireland, 
318. 

Coluraba aenas, 1^2, 214. 

Cooper, E. V.— Pinguicula grandi- 
flora introduced iu Co. Wexford, 
212. 

Copepoda, 27, 298. 

Cork Cuvieriau Society, 26. 

Cork Naturalists' Field Club, 24, 
84, III, 164, 186, 216, 267, 317. 

Cormorants in Co. Donegal, 214. 



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VI 



Index* 



Corvus corone, 319. 

Crane on Lougn Swilly, 214. 

Qreighton, R. H. — Entomostraca, 

Cnthmum mantimum, 297. 

Crossbills, 28. 

Curlews, 117. 

Cuthbert,;H. K. G.—Carabus clath- 

ratns in Co. Wicklow, 191. 
Cyathns vemicosus, 55, 115. 

Davies, J. H. — Carex teretiuscula 
in Co. Down, 270; Casuals in Co. 
Antrim, 309. 

Death's Head Moth. 87, 191, 317. 

Delap, A. H. — Lathraea squaniaria 
167 ; Formica rufa, 167, 

Denudation of the Chalk, 56. 

Dilsea ediilis, 51. 

Directory of Irish Naturalists, 107. 

Dobson, G. E. — Obituary notice of, 

73- 
Donegal Plants, 298. 
Dryas octopetala, 269. 
Dublin Microscopical Club, 17, 50, 

8r, 108, 136, 183, 215, 244, 312. 
Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, 23, 

52, 83, no, 141, 185, 216, 266, 295, 

316. 
Duck, Longtailed, in Co. Clare, 28. 
Duerden, J. E. — Rock-pools of Bun- 

doran, 153. 

Early Emergence, 87. 

Early Hawthorn, 143. 

Earth-stars. 55. 

Earthworms, 69; of Clonbrock, 222. 

Entomological Notes from Poyntz- 

pass, 190; from N. E. Ireland, 

272. 
Entomosttaca, 89. 
Eurite of Co. Cavan, 276. 
Eurotium herbariorum, 183. 

Farran, G. P.— Grasshopper War- 
bler in Go. Dublin, 191 ; Asteros- 
copus sphinx in Co. Dublin, 317. 

Fauna ofBelfast Lough, 271. 

Fauna and Flora of Clonbrock, 217. 

Feathered Pensioners, 118. 

Field Clubs in Cavan, 193. 

Field Club News, 26, 54, 86, 113, 
142, 165, 181, 267, 300- _ 

Flora of N. E. Ireland, 188; of 
Clonbrock, 217; of Lough Derg, 
269; of Connemara Lakes, 292; 
of Ox Mountains, Co. Sligo, 301. 

Flowering Plants and Vascular 
Cryptogams of Clonbrock, 239. 

Formica rufa, 143, 167. 



Freke, P. E. — Irish H3rmen6ptera 
Aculeata, 39, 294, 

Freshwater Worms, 125, 189. 

Friend, H.— Earthworms of Ire- 
land, 69; Irish Fresh waterWorms, 
125, 189; Earthworms of CloD- 
brock, 222. 

Fringilla montifringilla, 28. 

Fungi from Brackenstown, Co. 
Dublin, 6; of Clonbrock, 234; 
New Irish, 268; of Brittas Bay, 
268. 

Gamble, F. W.-^hore-coUecting 
and dredcing at Valentia, 124. 

Geaster fimoriatus, 55. 

Geological Studies in the North, 48. 

Geology of the Curran, Lame, 120. 

Gibson, T, B.— Botany of School 
Playground in Dublin, 277. 

GlacialGeolog;^, 255. 

Gladiolus tristis, 108. 

Gonepteryx rhamni, 87. 

Grasshopper Warbler in Co. Dub- 
lin, 191. 

Great Auk, 121. 

Green, W. S.— Nesting of Black 
Guillemot, 118. 

Grus communis, 214. 

Gulls of Killala Bay, 169. 

Halbert, J. N.— Insects from Lug- 
naquiila and Glenmalur, 210; 
Hemiptera of Clonbrock, 229; 
Coleoptera of Clonbrock, 23a 

Hamilton,W. A.— Spring migrants, 
144. 

Hare, Insh, no. 

Hareldd glaciedis, 28. 

Hart, G. V.— Gonepteryx rhamni 
in Queen's Co., 87 ; An early emer- 
gence, 87 : Mixodia palustrana in 
Co. Wicklow, 318. 

Hart, H. C — Flora of N. E. Ire- 
laud, 188; Measurement of a 
Scotch Fir stump, 189. 

Hawkweeds, 27. 

Helix arbustorum, 213, 318; H. 
fusca, 318 ; H. nemoralis, 47, 

Hemiptera of Clonbrock, 229. 

Hensmau, Miss, and Johnson, T.— 
Algae from Belfast Lough, 252. 

Hepaticae of Co. Carlow, 200; of 
Clonbrock, 235. 

Hibbert, R. F.— Longtailed Duck 
in Co. Clare, 28 ; Stock-dove in 
Co. Gal way, 192. 

Hornblende- Schist, 137. 

Horsbrugh, C. B,— Night-heron in 
Co. Cork, 276. 



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Index. 



T« 



Hottonia palnstris, 115. 

Hunter, J.— Brambling in Vale of 

Ovoca, 28 ; Crossbills in do., 28, 
Hntst, C H.— Fauna of Belfast 

I/m^h, 271. 
Hydroids and Medusse, 298. 
Hjella nitida, 81. 
Hymenoptera aculeata, Irishi 39, 

116,294. 
Hjpersthene, 18. 

Iceland Onll, 192. 

Insects of Lngnaqnilla and Glen- 

malnr, 21a 
Irish Field Club Union, 215. 
Island- Flora of Connemara Lakes, 

292. 
Isopods of Clonbrock, 225. 
Ixwles marginatus, 17. 

Jameson, H. L. — Caves of Ennis- 
Idllen and Mitchelstown, 93 ; 
Caves in Co. Leitrim, 276. 

Johnson. T., and Hensman, Miss — 
Algse from north side of Belfast 
Uugh, 252. 

Johnson, W. F.— Irish Hymenop- 
tera aculeata, 116; Draba vema 
at Povntzpass, 188 ; Entomo- 
logical Notes from Poyntzpass, 
190 ; fix)m N.E. Ireland, 273 ; 
Acherontia atropos at Bessbrook, 
191 ; Spring Migrants at Po3mtz- 
pass, 191 ; vespa norvegica at 
Omeath, 213. 

Jongermannia exsecta, 245. 

Kane, W. F. de V.— Pine Marten in 
Ireland, 28; Melanism in Campto- 
gramma bilineata, 74. 

Kmala Bay Terns, 145 ; Gulls, 169 ; 
Skuas, 248. 

Kingfisher in Co. Dublin, 318. 

Land-locked Salmon, 16. 
Land-planarians and Leeches of 

Clonbrock, 221. 
land-rail, 168. 
Lan^am, C — Iceland Gull on the 

Shgo Coast, 192. 
Lams leucopterus, 192. 
Lathraea squamaria, 115, 166, 167. 
Lspidium I)raba, 212. 
Leptyphantespallidus, 51. 
Lett, H. W.— tathraea squamaria, 

156; Dryas octopetala in Co. 

Antrim, 2(59. 
Levinge, H. C — Plants of Wcst- 

meath, 44; Obituary notice of, 

107. 



Lilly. C J.— Flora of Lough Derg, 

269. 
Limerick Naturalists' Field Club 

Lmiosella aquatica, 297. 

Linton, E. F.—Alchemilla vulgaris, 

Litnobius variegatus, 12. 
Littorina obtusata, 248. 
Lockwood, F. W.— Geology of the 

Curran, Lame, 12a 
Loxia curvirostris, 28. 

M'Ardle, D.— Co. Carlow Hepati- 
cce, 200 ; Mosses and Hepaticse of 
Clonbrock, 235. 

M'Bride, J. M.— Cave at Westport, 
32a 

Macmillan, W. — Globe-flower in 
Co. Fermanagh, 188; Quail in 
Co. Monaghan, 214. 

M'Weeney, E. J. — Fungi from 
Brackenstown, 6 ; Fungi of Clon- 
brock, 234; New Irish Fungi, 
268 ; Fungi of Brittas Bay, 268. 

M'Weeney, E. J., and Praeger, R. 
LI.— Fauna and Flora of Clon- 
brock, Prefatoij Note, 217. 

Ma^ie in Isle of^Man, 168, 189. 

Manne Mollusca of Co. Galway,274 

Martel, E- A.—Mitchelstown Cave, 

lOI. 

Martens, 28. 

Matricaria discoidea, 290. 

Medicago sylvestris, 249, 298. 

Medusae of Valentia Harbour, 179. 

Melanism in Camptogramma bili- 
neata, 74. 

Melobesia confinis, 18 ; M. farinosa, 
82. 

Mercurialis perennis, 212. 

Meyrick's British Lepidoptera 
(Review), 290. 

Mildness of season, 87. 

Mingling of North and South, 67, 

Mitchelstown Cave, lor. 

Mixodia palustrana, 318. 

Moffat, C. B.— Mingling of North 
and South, 116; Migration of 
Curlews, 117; Formica rufa in Co. 
Wexford, 143; Our introduced 
species, 189 ; Quail in Ireland, 203. 

Mollusca of West of Ireland, 213. 
248 ; of Cavan Excursion, 274 ; 
of Clonbrock, 223. 



Molophilus ater, IJ7. 
Moss Exchange Club, <^5, 296. 
Mosses and Hepatics 01 Clonbrock, 
235- 



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'imi 



Index. 



Natural History Papers, Recent, 162. 
Nectria aurantium, 136 ; N. sangui- 

nea, 137. 
Night-Heron in Co. Cork, 276. 
Nitophyllum reptans, 51. 

Obituary Notices. — G.. E. Dobson, 

73 ; H. C Levinge, 107. 
Oceanodroma leucorrhoa, 320. 
O'Connor, Miss.— Spider carrying 

snail-shell, 299. 
Oldhamia in America, 254. 
Onesinda minutissima, 312. 
Opal-bearing rhyolite, 137. 
Ox Mountains, Flora of, 301. 

Palmer, J. B. — Birds of Connemara, 
88. 

Peziza sclerotium, 313. 

Phillips, R. A. — Ranunculus tripar- 
titus, an addition to the Irish 
Flora, 166; Allium triquetrum in 
Co. Cork, 167. 

Phonolite, 215. 

Phyllactinia guttata, 51. 

Phyllosiphon arisari, 137. 

Pirn, G. — Cyathus vernicosus, 115 ; 
Early Hawthorn, 143; Limosella 
aquatica in Clare, 297; King- 
fisher in (^o. Dublin, 318. 

Pinguicula grandiflora, 212. 

Plagiochila asplenioides, 51. 

Plants of Westmeath, 44; Irish, 188; 
of Co. Down, 142 ; of Inismurray, 

177. 

Prae^er, R. LI.— Botanical Sub- 
division of Ireland, 29; Birds- 
nest Fungus new to Ireland, 55 ; 
Earth-stars in Co. Tipperary, 55 ; 
Directory of Irish Naturalists, 
107 ; Early flowering of Hottonia 
palustris, 115; Raised Beach at. 
Fort Stewart, 119; Irish Caves, 
123 ; Submerged Pine-forest, 155 ; 
Plants of Inismurray, 177 ; Field 
Clubs in Cavan. 193; Teesdalia 
nudicaulis in Ireland, 212 ; Mer- 
curialis perennis in Co. Monag- 
han, 2 1 2 ; Flora and Fauna of Clou- 
brock, 217, 239; Veronica pere- 
grina in Ireland, 247; SCirpus 
parvulus,247; Medicago sylvestris 
m Ireland, 249 ; in Scotland, 298 ; 
Island-flora of Connemara lakes, 
292 ; Stachys Betonica in Antrim, 
297; Matricaria discoidea at 
Howth, 298. 

Praeger's Bibliography of Irish 
Glacial Geology (Review), 257. 

Puccinia Lapsanae, 136. 



Quail in Cork, 192 ; in Ireland, 203 ; 
in Co. Mona^han, 214; in Co. 
Dubliuj 275 ; m Co. Down, 299. 

Ralfe, P.— Magpie in Isle of Man, 

i6a 
Raised Beach at Fort Stewart, 119. 

Ramuliu^ 81. 

Ranunculus tripartitus, 166. 

Razorbill, 214. 

Reviews.— Geological Studies in 
the North, 48 ; Botany at Dublin 
University, 155 ; Witchell's Evo- 
lution of Bird-song, 160; Recent 
Natural History Papers, 162; 
Swann's Handbook of British 
Birds, 207 ; Proceedings of Belfast 
Naturalists' Field Club. 209 ; 
Sollas* Distribution of Eskers in 
Ireland, 255; Prae^er's Biblio- 
^aphy of Irish Glacial and Post- 
Glacial Geology, 257 ; Adams' 
Manual of British Land and 
Freshwater Mollusca, 285 ; Tutt's 
British Butterflies, 287; Mey- 
rick's British Lepidoptera, 29a 

Riccardia latifrons, i8. 

Rock-pools of Bundoran, 153. 

Rooks, feathers of, 18. 

Royal Irish Academy, 187. 

Royal Zoological Society, 17, 50, 80, 

, 108, 136, 164, 183, 215, 244, 263, 
294, 312. 

Russell, C. D.— Lathraeasquamaria 
in King's Co., 167. 

Ryan, T.— Lathraea squamaria in 
Co. Down, 142. 



Salmon, supposed land-locked, 16. 

Scapania compacta, 137 ; S. um- 
brosa, 183. 

Scharff, R. F.— Supposed land- 
locked Salmon, i6; Canis vulpes 
melanogaster in Ireland, 178; 
Land planarians and Leeches of 
Clonbrock, 221 ; Land and Fresh- 
water Mollusca of Clonbrock, 223; 
Isopods of Clonbrock, 225. 

Sciaena aquila, 275. 

Scirpus parvulus, 247. 

Scotch Fir stump, 189. 

Scott, J. A.— Death's-head Moth in 
Dublin, 87. 

Scrophularia umbrosa, 182. 

Seasonable Notes from Cushendun, 
166. 

SelagineUa oregana loS. 

Shade-fish, 275. 



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Index 



IX 



Irish 



Sinclair, W.— Allis shad in 

waters, 248. 
Sinclair, W. P.— Submerged Peat- 
bog in Ga Donegal, 192. 
Siaynnchium califomicnm, 269. 
Skuas of Killala Bay, 26a 
Slugs, 144, 318. 
Snakes, 28, 168. 
Sollas' Distribution of Bskers 

(Review), 255. 
Song of Birds, i6a 
Sphaerostilbe flayoviridis, 215. 
Sphagnum papillosum, 108. 
Spiders of ClonbrockT 225. 
Spider carrying snail-shell, 299. 
Spinalis retroversus, 248. 
Spring migrants, 144, 168, 191. 
Stachys Betonica, 297. 
Standen, R.— Cairion Crow in Co. 

Antrim, 319. 
Stewart, S. A.— Crithmum mariti- 

mum in Co. Down, 297 ; Prof. R. 

Tate's visit to Belfast, 308. 
Stockdoves, 28, 191, 214. 
Submerged Peat-bogs 192. 
Submerged Pine-forest, 155. 
Swan, A. P.— Quail in Co. Cork, 

192. 
Swann's Handbook of British Birds 

(Review), 207. 



Teesdalia nudicaulis, 212. 
Terns of Killala Bay, 145. 
Tetanus glareola, 275. 
Tribolium ferrugineum, 248. 
Trichoniscus roseus, 213. 
Trollius europceus, 188. 



Trumbull, J — Stockdoves in Co. 

Dublin, 28. 
Tuberculina persidna, 18. 
Turdus mieratorius, 214. 
Tutt's British Butterflies (Review), 

287. 



Ussher, R. J. — American Robin in 
Connaught, 214; Birds of Conne- 
mara, 319. 

Veronica perc^na, 247. 
Vespa norvegica, 213. 
Volcanic bomb, 81. 

Waddell, C H. -Scarcity of Land- 

rail. 168. 
Warren, Miss — Spirialis retroversus 

in Killala Bay, 24a 
Warren, R-— Terns Of Killala Bay, 

145; Gulls of Killala Bay, 169; 

Skuas of Killala Bay, 258. 
Wasps catching flies on cattle, 272. 
Welch, R.— Trichoniscus roseus, 

213 ; Helix arbustorum, 213, 318 ; 

H. fusca, 318; Marine Mollusca 

of Co. Gal way, 274 ; Mollusca of 

Cavan Excursion, 274. 
White Swallow, J19. 
Williams, E. — Insh Bird-notes, 55. 
Wilson, A. G. — Quartzite, 56; Lit- 

torina obtusata at Bunowen, 248. 
Witch ell's Evolution of Bird-song 

(Review), 160. 
Witherby, H. F,— Birds of Conne- 

mara, i, 29^. 
Wood-sandpiper, 275. 



PI.ATES AND II.I.USTRATIONS. 

Ireland divided into Counties and Vice-Counties (Plate i), To face p. 29 
Mitchelstown Cave (Plate 2), .... To face p. loi 

Section of glacial beds and submerged forest at Bray, . . p. 156 

Section of pc^t-glacial beds at Belfast, . . . .p. 157 

Pardosa herbigrada (Plate 3), • . . . To face p. 227 



ERRATA. 

Page 51, lines II and 13, for ** leaves ** read " hairs." 
„ 137, line 6, for *' March " read ** Aprii^" 
„ 179, line 21, for " H, allaria " read *« ff, alUariay 
« 231, line 23, for " Necordes " read " NecrocUs,'' 



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TO THE BINDER. 

Plate 2 (Mitchelstown Cave) was inserted m the number by error 
opposite page loo. It should face page loi. 



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VOLUME V. 



A FORTNIGHT WITH THB BIRDS OF 
CONNEMARA. 

BY HARRY F. WITHERBY, F.Z.S. 



On May iSth last, I arrived in the town of Galway intent on 
exploring Connemara. My sole object in so doing being to 
find out as far as possible what birds were there, and to note 
their habits and breeding-haunts. 

It may be as well to say at once that the following record is 
very incomplete as regards inland birds, chiefly because, 
finding the country uninteresting and the birds few, I made 
my way as quickly as possible to the coast Consequently 
this paper must not in any way be taken as a record of all the 
birds to be found in Connemara, but at the same time it is to 
be hoped that these few notes may be of some interest to Irish 
ornithologists. 

Birds are fairly numerous round Galway town. Yellow 
Hammers, Blackbirds, Thrushes, Robins, Wheatears, 
Chaffinches, Willow Wrens, Cuckoos, Corncrakes, Jackdaws, 
and Magpies abound. All through Connemara I was struck by 
the numbers of Corncrakes and Jackdaws. The absence of 
the Whinchat, and more especially of the Stonechat, and the 
omnipresence of the Wheatear, are also remarkable. 

After one day only in Galway I went on to Oughterard, but 
as I confined my attentions to Lough Corrib and its islands, 
which have alr^dy been explored by Mr. Ussher, there will 
be little important to say of my stay there. Of small birds I 
found the Reed, Common and Yellow Buntings, ChaflSnches, 
and Blackbirds tolerably common on the islands, and Sedge- 
warblers especially so. A Reed-bunting's nest with eggs 
several feet up a tree was peculiar. Some of the islands 
boasted a pair of Magpies, while others literally swarmed 
with nesting Wood Pigeons. On one island I came across a 

A 

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2 The Irish Naturalist. [ Jan. 

remarkable eccentricity, which has already been reported to 
the Zoologist, 

** The island to which I refer was thickly wooded with small 
firs, oaks, willows, and other trees and shrubs. Round the 
edges of the wood there was a line of high heather. Wood 
Pigeons were breeding in considerable numbers in the wood ; 
but as I was going round the edge of the island I almost 
stamped on a Wood Pigeon which rose from out of some high 
heather. Thinking that this was a curious place for the bird 
to be feeding, I looked down amongst the heather. In the 
midst of a thick clump of tall heather was a Pigeon's nest« 
composed of a few sticks placed literally on the ground. The 
nest contained one egg. This seemed very strange, but I 
thought it must be an accident. On the other side of the 
island, however, I flushed another Pigeon in the same way, 
and found another nest in exactly the same sort of position, 
but this nest contained quite a big young one. There seems 
no accounting for this curious fact. The birds must have 
nested in this position by deliberate intent. Yet there were 
plenty of good trees for their purpose, where other Pigeons 
were breeding." 

As regards sea-birds on Lough Corrib — the Black-headed 
and lesser Black-backed Gulls I found breeding on several 
islands, and the Merganser {Afergus serrator) was no doubt 
nesting, as I saw several pairs but found no'eggs. This bird is 
locally known on Lough Corrib as the Shield-duck. A number 
of Dunlin, some of which were singing beautifully, were fl3ring 
about in small flocks, and the Common Sandpiper was 
breeding fairly plentifully. A few Cormorants visit the lake 
every morning and evening to feed. The Wild Duck {Anas 
boschas) was breeding fairly numerously, but although I heard 
various rumours from the fishermen of Widgeon and Pochard 
I was unable to confirm them. 

Recess, in the centre of Connemara, was my next stopping 
place. A more barren country for birds I never came across. 
The scarcity of birds is no doubt due to the scarcity of food. 
The mountains — the celebrated Twelve Pins — are stony and 
barren, and can support nothing. The rest of the country is 
a flat plateau of bog, studded with small lakes. One would 
expect to find the bog swarming with Snipe, but not a single 
one could be seen, and I was told that even in the haidest 



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1896. 1 WiTHERBY.— AVwb of Cannemara. 3 

winters they were very scarce. A few pairs of Golden Plovers 
and innumerable Larks were nesting on this dreary expanse 
of miles and miles of flat bog, but beyond these, and now and 
then a Hawk sweeping by in the far distance, not a bird was 
visible All the bird-life seemed to be concentrated in the 
lakes, every one ofwhich has one or more islands, and, curious 
to say, in the midst of this treeless, shrubless waste, these 
islands are thickly covered with heather, willows, dwarfed 
oaks, and other trees. It would, no doubt, repay anyone who 
would take the trouble to explore these islands. It is, how- 
ever, no easy matter to get out to them, as most of the lakes 
are too deep to wade, and hidden snags make swimming to 
them dangerous* An india-rubber boat would be valuable as 
a means of reaching the islands. With no such adjunct I was 
able to explore but a few out of a gp-eat number. The only 
birds I found were Wild Duck and Teal, but my guide told me 
that Hooded Crows and Herons used to nest on the islands. 
I began to believe that an3rthing might be on the islands, 
which we could only view from a distance, as my guide's 
invariable answer to the question ** Does such and such a bird 
breed here ?" was, ** It moight be on the island, sor, but faith I 
don't know !** Otters seem very plentiful here from the 
number of their tracks, and doubtless the many underground 
channels connecting the lakes are much to their liking. A 
Corncrake rattled incessantly all night just under my 
window. 

At Clifden a fair absorbed my first day, and on the next I 
visited Cruagh and High Islands. I found a small colony of 
Great Black-backed Gulls on Cruagh, but nothing else of note. 
On High Island Black Guillemots were breeding, and I saw 
also a pair of both Peregine Falcons and Ravens. The latter 
had a young one, and a skirmish between the male Peregine 
and one of the Ravens was extremely interesting. The 
Peregine beat the Raven at all points, whirling up into the 
air and dashing down upon it like a stone. The Raven indeed 
only saved itself from the Falcon's savage onslaught by 
clinging closely to the cliflF, and thus sneaking away. For a 
kmg time the Falcon flew round crying shrilly as a guinea 
pig, and whenever the Raven showed itself it made its life a 
burden. That Raven would do well to shift its quarters. On 

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4 The Irish Naturalist. [ Jan. 

so small an island it must be difficult to keep the peace. It is 
the home of a good many Rabbits and Rock Doves, and they, 
no doubt, fbnn good food for the Peregine. 

At this part of the coast, and north as far as Clare Island I 
think, there are no convenient nesting-ledges for Guillemots 
and Razorbills, consequently one misses these birds ; but 
their genus is represented by the Black Guillemot, which is very 
fairly numerous. On both of these Islands (High and Cruagh) 
I found a great number of dead birds. They chiefly consisted 
of Starlings, but there were also a good many Snipe and a few 
Curlew. Would the exceptional gales and hard weather of 
last winter account for this ? Or may the birds have been 
driven out to the west by one of those inexplicable eruptive 
migration fevers only to return and die on the nearest land ? 
On some of the low flat islands off Renvyle (my next stopping 
place), the Black Guillemots seemed to be laying their eggs 
under the large boulders scattered about I saw several at 
different times fly out from amongst them, but could not reach 
the eggs. Another curious nesting habit I noted was, that 
the Oyster-catchers, which were numerous, invariably nested 
on the rocks or turf even on islands where there was shingle 
in every way suitable for them. This fact would seem to 
show that rock and not shingle is their original, or at all events 
their favourite nesting site, and yet one never finds their eggs 
without pebbles or some such substitute as rabbits' excrement, 
heads of Sea Campion, shells, or bits of wood underneath them. 
Terns, both Common and Arctic, were just commencing to lay 
on the lowest and smallest of the islands. It might be 
mentioned that off the west coast of Scotland, as here, the Terns 
seem to prefer the low islands for nesting. Cormorants and 
Shags, both young and old, were swarming everywhere. 

On Inishturk I came across a large colony of Sparrows 
breeding in an ivy-covered cliff by the harbour. Had it not 
been so far west one would have expected these to have h^^nPasser 
montanus, but they were all the homely domesticus, at least as 
far as I could see. It seems curious that there should be such 
a large colony of House Sparrows on this barren island con- 
taining but a score or so of houses, while throughout Con- 
nemara it is a comparatively uncommon bird. Indeed I saw 
more Sparrows in a day on Inishturk than I did in a fortnight 
in the rest of Connemara. On Inishturk the Wheatear and 

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iSs6.2 WiTHKRBY.— A'n& of Connemara. 5 

Sedge-warbler were common, very far west for these migrants. 
Yellow Buntings and Twites were also present, and of course 
the Rock Pipit I was surprised to find on the top of a small 
but fSsdrly high island a little fresh- water lake, and still more 
surprised to find it inhabited by a Moorhen. 

I will conclude these incomplete notes with an account of 
two interesting migrants which I found lingering in the south 
so late in the year. Curiously enough they were both on the 
same island (Inishdalla). The date of my visit to this island 
was May 30, and the two species I refer to were the Turnstone 
and the Purple Sandpiper. The first of these was represented 
by a small flock of six birds in nuptial dress. Since they are 
known to commence laying in the first part of June it seems 
strange that these birds should have been in a flock on May 
30. 

Before I landed on the island I had caught a glimpse of 
what I thought must be a Purple Sandpiper, and soon after 
landing I found two of them. Thinking that by some lucky 
chance they might be nesting on this island, I watched them 
for a long time, and then searched the whole island through, 
but without success. As I spent nearly the whole day in 
searching for their eggs, it is to be hoped that I shall be for- 
given for shooting the birds. By this I was able to find that 
they were a pair, and that the ovaries of the female were 
fairly advanced. The presence of a pair of these birds in full 
breoiing plumage in a place which was apparently in every 
way suitable for breeding purposes, seemed to me to be a 
hopeful sign that it might some day be added to the British 
list of breeding and resident birds. But this hope was damped 
when Mr. Harvie-Brown pointed out to me that in the Faroes 
this bird does not breed near the sea-level or on grassy holms, 
but on the tops of the highest hills. Therefore, if they do 
breed in Ireland, it would not probably be lower than 2,000 
feet altitude. 

Altogether Connemara is not in my opinion a tempting 
place for the ornithologist Bird-life there is woefully scarce, 
both in species and numbers. Even the Hooded Crow and 
the Redshank seemed to be absent from Connemara. 



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6 The IrUh Naturalist. C Jan- 

FiyNGI FROM BRACKENSTOWN, CO. DUBLIN. 

BY E. J. M'WEENEY, M.A., M.D. 

(Excursion of the Dublin Naturalists* Field Glub, 5th October, 1895.) 
When, after many hours of sorting and dissecting and mount- 
ing and gazing down through the microscope, and measuring 
of spores and comparing of authorities, there confronted me at 
last the repulsive-looking list herewith presented, I conceived 
the idea of writing something which might render it intelli- 
gible to the large majority of Irish field-naturalists, and 
prevent it from remaining a useless monument of cacophonous 
terminology. 

I am hardly entitled, however, to use the term cacophonous 
in connection with the first part of the list. For this com- 
prises the Agaricini, the most highly organised of all the 
Fungi — the division which has been classified by the illustrious 
Swedish botanist, EHas Fries, who was certainly one of the 
most skilful inventors of well-sounding generic names the 
world has ever seen. Fries' classification of the mushroom- 
tribe is a triumph of ingenuity. Taking as his criterion the 
colour of the spores, he divided the hundreds of toadstool- 
species, which had hitherto lain inextricably jumbled, into five 
series : — 

Those with white spores, or Leucospora, 

Those with pink spores, or Rhodospora. 

Those with brown spores, or OchrosportB. 

Those with purple spores, or Porphyrospora, and 

Those with black spores, or Melanospora. 

What is very remarkable about this curious division is that 
the species in each group run parallel, or nearly so, to the 
homologous species in the other groups, and that, generally 
speaking, there is a gradual ascent in the evolution of the 
type from the lowest, least well-organized forms, which are in 
the black-spored series, to the highest best organized ones in 
the white-spored division. Fries places the majority of 
mushroom-like plants in the one great genus Agaricus, which 
he then divides, as above stated, into series, and each series is 
then further split up by certain characters into a number of 
sub-genera, the names of which are placed between brackets 
after the generic name Agartcus and before the name of the 

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i896u] W^wsX(ii,H.— Fungi from Bracketistown, Co, Dublin. ^ 

species. An example will serve to show how this plan 
works. Let us take an agaric with the gills free from (i-e. not 
touching) the stem. If such a specimen had white spores it 
would be in sub-genus Lepiota^ if pink, then Chamaota, if brown, 
then Pholiota, if purple, then Psalliota, Again, an agaric with 
"sinuate *' gills is, if white-spored, in Tricholoma^ if pink, in 
Enioloma, if brown, in Hebetoma^ and if purple, in Hypholoma. 
Neither character is represented in the black-spored series. 
Thus we have explained the names in brackets with which 
most Fungus-lists commence. In the present case the species 
of Agaricus 2nd its allies are remarkably few, not a single 
specimen of the large genera Hussula, Lactaritis^ and 
Cortinarius having been found. The reason would seem to be 
that the warm wet weather in August brought these great 
toadstools to maturity six weeks earlier than usual, and that 
they had already ripened their spores and died by the com- 
mencement of October. That this is not mere supposition is 
shown by the fact that in mid- August, whilst cycling through 
the beautiful wood near Glenealy, having been compelled to 
dismount and shelter from a tremendous downpour, I col* 
lected twenty species of the largest Agarics within the 
sheltered space under my own and a few neighbouring trees, 
as well as such a host of smaller sorts that all the available 
pieces of letters, envelope-backs, &c, which I had about me, 
were insufficient to write down the names. I emptied the con- 
tents of the tool-bag into my pockets and filled it with the 
smaller species. The hour and three quarters I spent under 
these trees was well employed. 

Passing by Agaricus and its grimy poor relation Coprinus, a 
black-spored genus which, white and tender when placed in 
the vasculum, emerges from it next morning an inky mass of 
loathsome deliquescence — we come next to a couple of 
species of Tremella. Fungus-jelly they might be called, the first 
bright yellow, the second, as its name indicates, a dingy grey. 
We find them on dead branches, the tough bark of which they 
are able to crack, gelatinous as they are, in their efforts to 
expand. The puff-balls come next, Lycoperdon and Sclero<- 
derma. We found them in all stages, from a tiny nodule, not 
bigger than a pin's head) just emerging from the mycelial 
cord— fit research material for the student of development-* 

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8 The Irish Ifaiuratisi. [ Jan. 

up to over-ripe specimens ofZ. giganieum, larger than one's 
head, and by tiiistime fluffy, brown and dusty— very different 
to the creamy delicious specimens which some of us hoary- 
headed original members can still call to mind as they lay 
during a Club tea at the International Hotel in Bray. That 
was in 1886. I believe some enthusiastic mycophagist wanted 
to eat some then and there, and if my recollection serves me 
aright, our whilom Secretary, Mr. Pim, did actually remove 
the said specimens for the expressed purpose of feeding 
thereon. I have since repeated his experiment— on specimens 
found near Glensouthwell, and which were so big that my 
carrying them home on a Sunday afternoon excited comment 
— ^with most satisfactory results. The recipe for cooking them, 
however, I am under an honourable obligation to keep secret. 
Next we come to the Rusts and their allies (Uredinei) which 
grow parasitically on flowering plants. These are anything 
but well represented, and with them we need not stay long, 
pausing, however, an instant to glance at the curious 
Tuierculina, a parasite of a parasite. It covers the Coltsfoot- 
Cluster-cup with its brownish- violet spore-beds. The Cluster- 
cup fungus is a parasite on the Coltsfoot, and the Tuberculina 
is a parasite on the Cluster-cup. At Brackenstown, however, 
we found it, not on the Cluster-cup, which had long since dis- 
appeared, but on its relative and successor the ColeospoHutn — 
a fact which deserves to be noted. Synchytrium taraxact, next 
on the list, is also a parasite. It forms orange-red crusts on 
leaves of Dandelion, and is as far below those just named in 
point of structure as they are below the Agarics. The 
mysterious group Chytridieae, to which it belongs, have not 
even got the length of forming a mycelium, and if we exclude 
the Myxomycetes and Bacteria, stand at the very bottom of 
known Fungi, whilst their strange sporangia and tiny, active, 
flagellate swarm-spores possess a deep interest for the 
microscopist, whose command of high powers permits him to 
trace the developmental cycle of these intra-cellular para- 
sites. Four years ago, on Dalkey Hill, I found the first 
recorded Irish specimen of S. iaraxact, and to-day the species 
still remains the only one on our Irish list Will any ^arp- 
sighted reader find me the one on the Scabious ? or the species 
that inhabit Perennial Mercury, or Self-heal, or Chickweed ? 

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ifl96.] M'WeenBy.— /k»^*y^zw» BrackenstowHj Co. Dublin. 9 

We are now amongst the Mould-fungi, Hjrphomycetes, and 
the very first we come to, Oospora crusiacea, is only placed here 
provisionally, as the specimen does not quite agree with the 
description. It formed bright red patches the size of a pin's 
head on some old rotting cloth which I picked up and put in 
a bottle. The spots were not there when the specimen was 
collected, but developed whilst the contents of the bottle were 
awaiting examination. Several other strange organisms there 
were on this same old cloth, which I could not identify and 
whose development, from want of time, I had to leave untraced. 
Bactridium flavum — a new Irish record — puzzled me for long, 
and I had to appeal to the superior knowledge of my friend, 
Mr. Massee, of Kew, before finding a place for it. It has the 
largest spores of any fungus I have ever seen — about ^inch 
long, club-shaped, and divided by partitions into compart- 
ments. The fungus forms little yellow dots on rotten wood, 
and seems to be a speciality of this locality, for several 
members brought me specimens, including Mr. Jameson, 
who found it most abundantly on a fallen trunk in a swamp. 
The next species, Monotospora spJuerocephalay is like a tiny 
round-headed black pin ^ of an inch high. Htindreds of 
these stand up stiffly from the piece of rotten bark which they 
cover like bristles. 

The moulds finished, we pass, with Erysiphe, over into the 
Ascomycetes— fungi that produce their spores in little sacs 
called asci. The species first mentioned, together with its ally 
the PhyllcLCtinia^ collected on Hazel by Mr. Jennings, are good 
examples of those forms that grow parasitically on green 
plants, and are called mildews. We hardly sympathize with 
a strong coarse weed like the Hog- weed {Heracleuni) when it 
suffers from this disease; but many a cottage gardener has 
good reason to bewail the fate of his late peas when they fall 
victims to E, Martiu In early summer we see a sort of grey 
bloom overspreading the leaves. In autumn this is still there 
but covered with tiny black grains like gunpowder — the fruit 
of the fungus. These are like little brown spherical boxes, the 
wall of which is composed of hexagonal plates, and which are 
fastened on to the leaf by delicate mycelial threads which are 
often beautifully branched. Inside the boxes are the asd, each 
containing four to eight spores. The other ascomycetes must 
not delay us long. Hymenoscypha and MollUia are small disc* 

A3 

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to 7%f Irish tfaiuralisi. [Jan. 

shaped fungi, the former with a stalk, the latter without one. 
The next fungus is also a Pessiza — as these disc-shaped species 
are called — and is a much prettier object, its blood-red disc 
being surrounded with a circlet of brown bristles. It grew at 
Brackenstown more abundantly than I had ever seen it pre- 
viously, and was found on the fallen stumps by nearly every 
member of the party. The two Ascoboli, despite their lowly 
habitat, are also handsome objects. Their spores are large, 
violet, and adorned with a beautiful raised tracery, whilst there 
is besides the peculiar character that the ascus as well as the 
spores is ejected at maturity. The spore-bag, however, is 
not quite dislodged, but projects above the surface of the 
hymenium, and opens at the top by a dainty little lid, 
and so allows the spores to issue forth. Lastly, we have 
StemonitiSy a representative of that strange order intermediate 
between plants and animals, the Slime-fungi (Myxomycetes), 
which at one time appestr as shapeless, creamy, or foamy 
masses of living jelly — pure undiflferentiated protoplasm, the 
very naked and unadorned basis of life — ^whilst the next day 
they have turned into little spore-cases of various and dis- 
tinct shapes. Sow the spores in a drop of water, and you 
will see them presently burst. A tiny, shapeless mass of 
jelly will crawl forth, and, meeting another such '* amoeba," 
the two will flowtogether,and others will then join the company 
until ultimately a large mass of protoplasm, quite easily seen, 
is the result This crawls about, feeds, grows, becomes 
changed into spore cases, and thus the appointed cycle goes 
round. 

Before concluding this little paper, in which I hope to have 
said something to clothe the dry bones of our Brackenstown 
fungus-list with a living interest, I must express my warmest 
thanks to my friend Prof Johnson, whose liberality in giving 
me access to the fungus-literature at his disposal, has placed, 
me in a position to determine many of the species. 

Airarlcus (CollyDIa) radlcatuSf Relh.— One specimen had the 
stem 9 inches long, exclusive of the root, which was, unfortunately, 
broken ofif short. The pileus was 6 inches across. 

A. (Clltocybe) InfundlDullformlSt Sch. 

A. (Mycena) tlntlnnaDulutiit Fr. 

A. (M.) cortlcolay Schum. 

A. (M.) tenerrlmusy Bk. 

[Two oUier species of ^f^fl were collected, but not identified.] 

A. (Pi«urotus) cortioatuSf Fr. 

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189S.] M^Wvesfiv^.— Fungi from Brackemtown, Co. Dublin. 11 



A. (Plammula) lentuSp Pn-^hort-stemmed form. 

A, (PHollota) aureust Matt—A smaller fonn, with stem renr 

bulbous beneath. 
A. (Hyplioloma) velutlnus, Pers. 
A. (Psathyra) corrupts, Pers. 
Coprlnus pllcatllISp Fr. 
Tramella maaentarlca, Retz. 
T. Indecorata, Schum. 
Lycoperdon perlatum, Pers. 
L. bovlsta, limn.—l^oTm ^ganteum, 
L. pyrfformey Schaeff. 
Sclarodarma vul^araf Fr. 
Puoclnia veronlcarunif DC. 
Coleospoiium sonchly Pers.—On PetasUes, 
Tubercullna vlnosa, Sacc.^On the last species. 
Syncliytrluin taraxacly De By. 
Oospora crustaceai Sacc. ?— This cnriotts red mould on old rotting 

cloth may prove distinct. 
Cyllndrlum heteronemunif Sacc— On Beech mast 
Cyllndrlum sp. ?— On hymeninm of Lac Anea scutdlata, 
Cyllndrlum.— Another sp. as yet unidentified. 
Faslsporium sp. — Seemingly distinct 
Bactrldlum flavum* K. &S. 
■onotoapora sphoarocaphalay B. & Br. 
Ramularia urtlcsBy Pers. 
Torula expansa* Pers. 

PliolK>lu8 lonalpeSf Van Tiegh.— Mr. Jameson— on rat*s excrement 
EryslpHe umt>elilferarum, Uv. (=^. MarHi var. B.) On 

Heracleum, 
Ascochytaaramlnlcolay Sacc. 
Septorla veronlcsBy Desm. 
Hymenoscypha tuba* Bolt 
■olllala clnarea* Batsch. 
Laclinea scutellata* Linn. 
Aaoobolus furfuraceusy Pers. 
A fflabert Pers.— In company with the last 
DIatrype dlsclformiSf Hoffm. 
Xylarla poiymorphaf Grev. 
Hypoxylon multlformaf Fr. 
Stamonltia ferrualnea, Ehrb. 
Mr. Pirn has kindly supplied me with the following addi- 

tional species : — 
Phyllactlnla guttata, Uv.-On Ash leaves, plentiful, Mr. Jennings, 
Lachneastercoreap Fr. 
Helotlum cltrlnum, Hedw. 
SplMBrIa caneacensy P 
Valsa ap.— On beech mast 



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X2 



The Irish Naturalist 



a 



ftTi- 



UTHOBIUS VARIEGATUS, LEACH. 

BY HENRY W. BSOUMANK. 



Since Mr. R. I. Pocock's " Notes on some Irish M3rriapoda" 
appeared in the Irish Naturalist (voL ii., December, 1893) I 
do not know that any paper has been published on the matter, 
and the list, amounting to twenty-two species, given by him 
has not since been increased.^ 

Thanks to the extreme kindness of Prof. D'Arcy W- 
Thompson, of University College, Dundee, I have been 
enabled to examine the material collected by him in the 
County of Galway and was fortunate enough to find, amongst 
other species, four Myriapods, the presence of which in Ir^and 
has not been mentioned, which brings the number of known 
Irish forms up to twenty-six. 

Recapitulating briefly the species alluded to in Mr. Pocock's 
paper, I mark with a * the species which were not represented 
in Prof. Thompson's collection, and which I have not been 
able to examine, thus : — 



JMhohius forficatuif L< 
L. vcoiegatuSf I/cach. 
L. nielanops, Newport. 
*L. micrcps, Meinert. 
Cryptops hortensis, 

Leach. 
Geophilus Umgicomis, 

Leach. 
G. carpophagus, Leach. 
Scolicplanes crassipes, C* 

Koch. 



& mariimus, Leach. 
Stigmatogatter subter* 

raneus, Leach. 
*Po!yxenu8 laguftu, L. 
Glomeris marginata, 

Villiers. 
Polgdesmus comphnatuSy 

L. 
P. gallicus, Latzel. 
Brachgdesmus stqi)eru8, 

Latzel. 



*Atractosoina polgdes* 

moides, Leach. 
*Blamuiu8 fuscus. Am- 
Stein. 
luhu Mtaimieus, Ver- 

hoeflF. 
*/, piltmu, Newport 
*/, aUn'pes, C Koch. 
/. tahtdosus, L* 



To these I add :— 
Geophilus gracilis^ Meinert, 
G. proximus, C. Koch, 



Blaniulus guttulatus^ Bosc, 
lulus {Leptoiulus), sp. incerta. 



* Since the present paper was written, there appeared in the special 
number of the "Irish Naturalist," vol. iv., No. 9, September, 1895, Mr. 
George H. Carpenter's list of the Myriapoda collected in Galway during 
the excursion of the Irish Field Club Union, where Scolopmdrdla immacu- 
lata, l^ewport, was recorded. 



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1896-] Brolemann. — Liihobius varUgaius, Leach. 13 

The following is to be observed in reference to the 
Myriapods here mentioned : — 

Geophllus proximusv C Koch.—One specimen has very short 
maxillipedes, which, when closed, do not reach the point of the head. 
Whether this is accidental or not, I have not been able to ascertain. 

Polydesmus complanatust L.— The males I examined belong to 
the variety named angusius by Dr. R. LatzeL 

Polydesmus ffalllcust Latzel.—The Irish ^>ecimen8, though un- 
mistakably belonging to Dr. I^atzel's species, are much more narrow 
than the typ^ of the south of France, with which I have compared them, 
the former measuring! a mm. to 2-20 mm., while the latter reach 2 80 
mm. to 3 mm. 

lulus brItannicuSf Verhoefif— Certainly represents the form indi- 
cated by Mr. Pocock under the name of lulus luscus, Meinert. 

lulus (Leptolulus), sp. incerta.— Having seen no male, I do not risk 
& specific name for the female specimens of this form, owing to the diffi- 
culty of recognizing the species of this group, even when males are at 
hand. These probably belong to the same species which Mr. Pocock 
has called by Newport's name, I, pilosus ; but as Newport's description 
can equally well be applied almost to any of the species of the Leptolulus 
subgenus, his denomination has no meaning, and I find it unnecessary 
to retain it 

This paper, thus lacking in interest, would never have seen 
light, had it not been for the opportunity oflFered to me to 
examine specimens oi Liihobius vatiegahiSi Leach. 

Described for the first time in 1817 by Leach^ in a very 
abbreviated way, the species was mentioned afterwards by 
Newport and others, who added little to the knowledge we 
had of this, so far purely British form. Recently Mr. Pocock, 
in his above-mentioned pamphlet, reassuming the characters 
given by Leach, adds some particulars, but merely for the 
purpose of distinguishing it from the common species Litho- 
bins forficatus, L., and omits the main point, which throws 
some light on the place this species has to occupy in the 
numerous list of congeneric forms, viz., the fact that the 
posterior angles of the seventh dorsal plate are produced, 
causing L. variegaius to belong to the group of Lithobius 
termed Neolithobius by Stuxberg. However, the obtuse shape 
of the angles might, to a certain extent, account for this 
omission. 



^ For bibliographical indications, see description oiL, variegaius. 

A4 



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14 71h€ Irish NaiuralisL [ Jan 

It is therefore advisable to publish a new description, which 
will read as follows : — 

Genus, LITHOBIU8. 
Subgenus, Oi^igobothrus. 
Llthotolus varleffmtus, I«each, 1817. 
I^each^The Zoological Miscellany, iii, London, xiL, 1817, p. 4a 
Do.— Edinburgh Encyclop;, vii, p. 409. 
Gervais— Etudes p. servir k THist- Nat. des Myriapodes— Wnn. d, ScL NaL 

(2), vil, 1837, p. 49. 
Lucas — Hist Nat. des Animaux Articulte, i., Paris, 1840, p. 543. 
Walker— Notes on Myriapoda.*Ahcwiai»'/ Entomol.^ January, 1842, p. 

238. 
Newport— A list of the species of M3rriapoda, order Cbilopoda, &c 

Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, (i), ziii., 1844, p. 98. 
Do.— Monograph of the Class Myriapoda, Order Cbilopoda, &c. Tram. 

Linn. Soc,, London, xix., 1845, P- 3^3* 
Gervais —Hist Nat. des Insectes Apt^res, iv., Paris, 1847, P- ^3^* 
Newport and Gray— Catalogue of the Myriapoda in the collection of 

the B. M., London, 1856, p. 15. 
R. I- Pocock— Notes upon some Irish Myriapoda.— /rir^ Natnraiist, 
vol. ii, 1893, p. 3xa 

Length and width nearly as in L. forficatus. 

Robust, parallel-sided, flattened. 

Cephalic plate rounded anteriorly, posterior angles blunt, 
surface not punctate, but bearing two distinct longitudinal 
furrows near the posterior margin. Ocelli condensed, number- 
ing 16 or 17, disposed i + 4.5*4.3*» the posterior ocellus very 
large, eliptical in shape, the three first ocelli of the upper row 
large, more or less rounded, the rows somewhat curved and 
irregular. Antennae long, reaching the posterior border of 
the fifth dorsal plate, pilose, 36-42 jointed, the last joint alone 
as long as the two preceding joints, or even longer. Coxae 
of maxillipedes with anterior margin wide, almost straight, 
slightly notched in the. middle, armed with 6 + 7 or 7 + 7 
black, small, blunt teeth ; surface of coxae punctate, the 
punctures well marked and dense towards the anterior margin, 
becoming scattered and gradually fading away posteriorly, 
medial sulcus deep. 

Dorsal plates shiny, uneven in the sides ; plates no. 3, 5, 
8, 10, and 12, marked laterally with a transverse impression, 
almost equally distant from both angles, or nearer to the 
posterior angle ; 14th dorsal plate with two rough impressions 



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1896.] Broi^Bmann. — Lithobius variegatus^ Leach. 15 

near the posterior angles, posterior margin somewhat concave. 
The above-mentioned sculpture or roughness having often 
been noticed on immature specimens of L. forftcatus, cannot 
be considered as characteristic of Z. variegaHis. 

The posterior angles of the 7th dorsal plate, though not 
much developed, project somewhat on the line of the posterior 
margin, and the posterior angles of the 9th, nth, and 13th 
<lorsal plates are acutely produced. 

The two last pairs of legs are thin and long. The following 
details are to be observed as well on female as on male 
specimens, but are more marked on the 15th than on the Z4th 
pair of legs. The superior inside edge of the third joint is 
hollowed longitudinally, the furrow being wider at the back 
end ; also the superior outside edge is sulcate, the furrow 
being only noticeable on the posterior two-thirds of the joint ; 
the superior surface is thus reduced to a rounded ridge. These 
two furrows are continued on the following joint, the fourth, 
being narrow and deep ; on the fifth joint, only the inside 
farrow is to be found, being much attenuated. On the inferior 
surface of the third joint a rounded ridge runs longitudinally 
between two ftirrows, the outer of which is often shortened. 

The spines of the ist, 14th, and 15th pairs of legs are 
disposed as follows : — 

ist pair, 0'0'3''— Q'^— Q', double claw. 
0.0^. 2. I. 

14th pair, '•Q-3'i'i- ^ double claw. 
0.1.3.3.2. 

15th pair, ^•Q'3-^'Q- single claw. 
O.I.3.3.I. 

The spine of the fifth joint, below, occupies the medial 
position. 

Female genitalia armed with 2 + 2 strong spines, the outer 
pair of which \is the larger ; claw strong but narrow, with a 
blunt tooth on the inside edge. 

Cozal pores large, circular, disposed on one line, numbering 

^5.5-5» 5444- 

This species much resembles L. leptoptis, I^atzel, from which 
it is easily distinguished by the arrangement and number of 
cozal pores. 



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i8 The Irish Naturalist. CJ*n- 

them. These ticks are believed to live on plants of various kinds, bat 
wherever opportunity offers, they attach themselves to an animal body, 
and suck blood voraciously. The mouth-organs, adapted for this pur- 
pose, consisting of a pair of maxillse united to form a channeled 
rostrum with toothed edges, and a pair of retractile chelicerse with com- 
plicated barbed processes at the extremity, were shown under a high 
power. Mr. A. D. Michael has kindly confirmed the identification. 

Professor Grbnvii«i«s Coi^B showed rhyolite-obsidian from Sandy 
Braes, Co. Antrim, containing a crystal of hypersthene. The minute 
structure of the glassy ground shows a delicate intermingling of little 
rods, each formed of a row of globular oystallites. These are excellent 
types of what Vogelsang called " margarites," from their resemblance to 
strings of pearls. In this slide a strongly pleochroic rhombic pyroxene 
(hypersthene) occurs. This mineral has not previously been recorded 
from the Antrim rhyolites, and has possibly in this case been picked up 
from a more basic lava. 

Mr. Greenwood Pim exhibited Tuberculina persicina, a curious parasitic 
fungus growing on another fungus {CoUosparium tussilaginis) on leaves of 
TussUago at Brackenstown, near Swords. It forms compact little 
cushions, surmounted by minute spores, and these cushions are seated 
on the Coimporium pustules. In Plowright's book on the Uredines it is 
described as parasitic on the /Ecidium which occurs very abundantly on 
TussUago in spring, so that it also occurring on the CoUosporium is worth 
recording. The plant is very readily passed over as a specimen of the 
host fungus partially decayed. 

Prof. T. Johnson exhibited Mdobesia confinis, Cm., a calcareous red 
alga, growing on Corallina officinalis, on which, as also on limpet shells, it 
forms small slightly thickened hard swellings. A preparation showing 
the characteristic bisporous tetrasporangia and the vertically elongated 
thallus-cells was exhibited. The material was gathered by the exhibitor 
in 1891, at Frenchfort, Co. Mayo, when with Mr. Green in ss. 
" Harlequin " (R.D.S. Fishery Survey). M, confinis is recorded hitherto 
from the coast of Brittany only. 

Mr. M'ArdW exhibited a specimen of Riccardia UUifrons, Lindberg, 
bearing the large perianth and capsule, with the androecium at the base 
of the perianth, showing the paroecious character of the plant The 
specimens were collected in Lord Howth's demesne last March. This 
rare liverwort was first detected by Professor Lindberg, who collected 
it at O'Sullivan's Cascade, Killamey, in company with the late Dr. D. 
Moore, in 1873. It is an addition to the Co. Dublin list of Hepaticae. 

Mr. H. Lyster Jameson showed feathers from the base of beak of 
adult and immature Rooks, showing the frequent presence of unpig- 
mented feathers in the young bird, and the aborted or abraded feathers 
in this region in adult Rooks, which gives the well-known appearance of 
a bare patch round the base of the bill. Mr. Jameson referred to the 
theory that these feathers are mechanically rubbed away by the Rook 



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i89^ ] Proceedings of Irish Societies. 19 

in digging for worms, which was urged by Weismann as a case of an 
acquired character which is not transmitted. The meaning of the 
linpigmented feathers in the jonng Rook was discussed. The presence 
of these white feathers was first observed by Mr. T. H. Gumey, of 
N'orwich. 

Bbi«past Naturai, History and Phim>sophicai, Society. 

KovEMBBR 5th,— The opening meeting of the seventy-fifth session 
was held in the Museum. There was a large attendance of members 
and Mends. 

Mr. Robert Li*oyd Patterson, P.L.S., President of the Society, in 
opening the proceedings, said his thanks were due to his fellow-members 
of the Council for electing him again their President 

The Honorary Secretary (Mr. R. M. Young, B.A.), announced the 
receipt of several donations to the Museum, and a cordial vote of thanks 
was accorded the donors. 

The Prbsident then proceeded to deliver an address on the Migration 
of Birds, which was effectively illustrated by a large series of special 
photo-lantern slides, shown by Mr. A. R. Hogg. Mr. Patterson com- 
menced his paper by stating that of the large number of birds which 
have now — ^many of them, in his opinion, wrongly— been placed on the 
British list, some are mere accidental stragglers; and others, although met 
with regularly, do not occur with sufficient frequency to be called 
common ; so that the number of different species of our well-known 
every-day birds is probably considerably below 200. Of these some occur 
only in summer, and others again only in winter, these two sub-divisions 
going to form the division of migratory birds ; as compared with the 
other division, the permanent residents. The lecturer next proceeded 
to point out that even among our so-called permanently resident birds 
migration prevails to a large extent ; and he illustrated this by reference 
to the habits of the Curlew, the Starling, the Skylark, and others. The 
questions of what began the migration movement and what leads to its 
continuance were next discussed at some length, and the theories of 
different authorities on the subject alluded to in detail. He next pro- 
ceeded to give a comprehensive sketch of the great migratory movement 
— ** the mystery of migration,'* as he not inaptly termed it— as observed 
in various places, paying a high compliment to Mr. Seebohm and Mr. 
Rarvie-Brown for their investigations in this direction. Mr Seebohm 
he alluded to most particularly as having undertaken a journey of over 
15/XX) miles to the mouth of one of the great Siberian rivers — ^the 
Yenesay, falling into the Arctic Ocean — ^in his endeavours to track some 
of our migrants to their stmimer homes. The scenes witnessed by the 
intrepid travellers were graphically described, and were admirably 
iUostrated by the lantern-slides. Migration in the United Kingdom, 
but in Ireland in particular, and in Continental Europe, was next 
alluded to, the lecturer concluding with a description of the wonderful 

migration which occurs in Heligoland,as recorded in a recently-pub- 
liahed translation of the great work on the birds of that island by a 



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20 The Irish Naturalist CJan- 

veteran resident there, Mr. Giitke. The nesting habits of some of the 
birds were described, and views of some favourite nesting-pUces 
exhibited, these and the other views adding an artistic attraction to an 
interesting and instructive lecture, which was listened to with attention 
throughout by a most appreciative audience. 

Dr. R^DPBRN had pleasure in moving a very hearty vote of thanlcs to 
the President Mr. J. F. Shii,i«ington seconded the motion. Mr. 
PatTSRSON pointed out that it was not their custom to pass votes 
of thanks to their own members, but he was very grateful for the kind, 
words used by Dr. Redfern and Mr. Shillington. 

Dbcbmbsr 3rd.— Mr. George Coffey, B.I*., lectured to a large audience 
on the subject " From Egypt to Ireland : a chapter in the History of 
Ornament* 

B^i«PAST Naturai^ists* Fhci^d Ci,xtb. 

November 19th.— The opening meeting was held, when the Presi- 
dent (Mr. F, W. Ix>CKWOOD, C.E.), delivered his inaugural address. Mr. 
.Ix)ckwood took as his subject, " The Interdependence of the various 
Branches of the Club's Work.** The address first touched upon the in- 
creasing prosperity of the Club, as indicated by the activity of the various 
sections, and though some of the older members had doubts as to the 
wisdom of the recent changes, Mr. Lockwood himself felt none. The 
President then referred to the different nature of the work done now to 
what was open to the students of thirty years ago, which necessitated 
sometimes a change in method. He then went on to show the depen- 
dence the various branches had upon each other. To take an instance, 
that pursuit which has brought the Club a very considerable reputation, 
microscopy, and more especially that branch so successfully pursued by 
Mr. Joseph Wright, the foraminifera, he (the President) thought it 
certain that Mr. Wright little considered his investigations into tlie white 
chalk powder in the flints would ultimately lead to discoveries necessi- 
tating carefiil reconsideration of the theories as to the origin of boulder 
clay. Mr. Lockwood then referred to the careful and minute work 
required in tracing out the erratic blocks to their parent formation. 
Broad questions of meteorology are well worth working at in order to 
help to solve such problems as why Greenland should be covered with 
an ice-cap and Siberia quite dry. The President next touched upon the 
engrossing subject of botany, and pointed out that although such work 
as that done by Messrs. Stewart, Corry, and Praeger cannot be done over 
again, very valuable results, indeed, could be obtained from the almost 
unknown deposits of plant-remains between the lava-flows of the upper 
and lower basalts. Good work also remains to be done in tabulating 
these outflows, such as the rhyoHtes and pitchstones. Referring to the 
work done by the Duke of Argyll, Starkie Gardner, and some of the Club's 
members, Mr. Lockwood suggested that the fauna be especially searched 
. for in these old lake«bottoms. The Carboniferous period should also 
yield further results, from the Tyrone and Ballycastle coal-measures, and 



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1896-] Proceedings of Irish Societies. 21 

from the results of such exploration as this to form, perhaps, some idea 
of the andeut coast-lines, and whether or not the main continental out- 
lines have ever been much as they are now. The next point considered 
was archaeology, including ethnography and the Celtic department, and 
Mr. I/x:kwood suggested lines of work on the palseolithic remains and 
the ancient races of inhabitants of Ireland. Mr. I^ockwood concluded 
by saying that he trusted he had said enough to show that there was 
plenty of work to do still, and that all the branches of the Club were 
mutually interdependent 

Mr. Wright, F.G.S., in response to Mr. lyockwood, described his 
early experiences in searching for foraminifera, and concluded by criti- 
cising some of the arrangements with the Irish Field Club Union. 

Mr. Wm. Gray, M.R.I.A., gave a report on the meeting of the British 
Association at Ipswich, to which he went as a delegate from the Club. 
Mr. Gray described the mode of arrangement of the various sections, and 
pointed out the value of minute and detailed work in all subjects, even 
temperatures, rainfalls, floods, and tides, also such work as the Club 
is now busily engaged in, in tracking down the erratic blocks in the 
boulder clay. He then spoke strongly against the all too prevalent 
custom of digging up rare plants, and thus destroying them, and 
especially entreated everyone not to buy the ferns offered for sale by the 
peasantry. Mr. Gray then referred to the excursions made to the 
deposits of the Red Crag at Ipswich, with its extraordinarily numerous 
fossils, of which a considerable number were on view, including the 
peculiar left-handed spiral so rare now, and apparently so common then 
in Fusus, and also the modem flint works at Brandon, from which Mr. 
Gray had brought a number of very beautiful copies of old axes, celts, 
Bpesr-heada, and flakes made by the quarrymen. 

Mr. LocKWOOD briefly described some of his experiences in the Red 
Crag district, pointing out the layer of rolled fossils found below it, con- 
taining very numerous mammalian remains, and also the curious cutting 
down into the Crag by a recent stream, the bed of which is sometimes 
refilled with recent alluvium, forming a deceptive deposit unless care- 
lolly noticed. 

December nth.— The Geological Section met, when Mr. P. W. 
LocKwooD contributed some notes on the Tarns of the Mourne 
Mountains. He flrst described the action of running water in canons 
and deep gorges, and then the modification caused by the action of frost 
on the sides of valleys. Running water and frost are the cutting instru- 
ments of nature, ice in the mass is a planing and smoothing instrument 
Before the Glacial Epoch the hills were more rugged and the valleys 
deeper than at present Pour out of the five lakelets of the Mourne 
district are extremely small and shallow, the fifth. Lough Shannagh, is 
the only one of importance, but it also is small. They all lie upon 
ledges or shelves of rock a great height above the general level of the 
talleys, and have steep cliffs above them. There is no clear indication 
that they are true rock basins such as most of the tarns in Cumberland 



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22 The Irish Naturalist [ Jan. 

and Westmoreland undoubtedly are, but Lough Shannagh maybe in part 
The others are probably formed by dams of boulder clay squeezed up 
on the side of ^e ice-stream of the main valleys. A most interesting 
feature is the rugged character of the hill-tops generally in the British 
Isles above a level of something about 2,500 feet, showing that the ice, 
from whatever source derived, did not rise above that level. The sum- 
mits of Sea Fell, Helvelljrn, Ben Nevis, and Slieve Donard are all a mass 
of large boulders apparently the result of sub-aerial weathering, the 
lower hills have all been swept bare. In the course of the subsequent 
discussion, Mt. J. O. CAMPBEi^iy mentioned finding Ailsa Craig eurite as 
an erratic in the Spinkwee valley of the Moume mountains, also an 
apparently Antrim flint on the Aran Islands. A portion of the British 
Association " Erratic Blocks ** report, containing a reference to glacial 
work done by the Club, was followed by a paper on the Silurian rocks of 
Pomeroy, by Mr. R. Bbi#i:«, who also contributed erratics from boulder 
clay at an elevation of 1,300 feet between Divis and Black Mountain, 
including Ailsa and Tormamoney eurite. Rock specimens were pre- 
sented by the Hon. Sec. 

November 30th.— The opening meeting of the new Botanical Sec- 
tion of the Club was held in the Club Rooms at the Museum, on 
Saturday afternoon. It was decided to meet on the last Saturday in 
each month at four o'clock, and to devote the first hour to structural 
botany and practical work with the microscope, and the remaining time 
to the study of the natural orders of British plants. Some notes were 
then given by Rev. C. H. Waddell, on protoplasm and chlorophyll. 
Papers and short notes have been promised on "Sedges," "Hierada," 
" Alien plants," " Duckweeds," &c. The meetings are open to all who 
are interested in botany, and the names of any persons who wish to 
join should be sent in to the Secretary, Rev. C. H. Waddell, Saintfield. 

December 13th.— Microscopicai, Section.— Dr. Lorrain Smith lec- 
tured on " The Study of Bacteriology." 

December 17th.— The President (Mr. F. W. lyockwood) in the chair. 
The President read a short note on the gravels at Lame, Co. Antrim, 
which will appear in our next issue. 

Miss Nora Steen contributed a short paper on Craiganogh cave, 
Co. Antrim, which we hope to publish shortly. 

Mr. Robert Bei^It read a paper entitled '* A Day among the Silurian 
Shales of Pomeroy." The paper dealt with the results of a visit in last 
July. These shales are very interesting, being the nearest place where 
those characteristic Paleozoic crustaceans, the trilobites, can be 
obtained. Mr. Bell's experience in expending half the time at his dis- 
posal in searching for the beds, in spite of full instructions kindly given 
by Mr. M*Henry, M.R.I.A., is one common to many geologists. The 
rough fossilif€;;-ous grits, with marks resembling sea-weeds and worm- 
tubes, lie south of the granite hill at Bardahessiagh ; newer sandy beds 
have been deposited uncomformably upon them. The trilobites occur 
in a section cut by the river near Dickson's house and the slate quany. 
The fossils found were on view during the evening. 



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1896.] Proceedings of Irish Societies. 23 

Mr. Ai3C G. WuusoN described the geological features of the Galway 
Conference, illustrating his remarks by numerous fine lantern-slides 
from photographs taken on the excursion, by Messrs. Welch, Gray, and 
Fennell. A report on the geology of this excursion, by Miss S. M. 
Thompson, has already appeared in our September number. 

liiss S. M. Thompson, Secretary of the Geological Section, read a report 
on the Geological excursions of the past season. We hope to comment 
upon this paper in our next issue. On the table there was a fine display 
of rocks, fossils, and glacial erratics, collected on the excursions referred 
to, and microscopic sections of rocks were also shown. 

DUBUN NaTUIIAI«I8TS' FIBI^D CI^UB. 

NovBVBBR i9.~The first business meeting was held. The Presidbnt 
(Mr. G. H. Carpbntbr) in the chair. The Secrbtary exhibited on be- 
half of Mrs. Ross a number of prize chrysanthemums. Professor Johnson 
exhibited a beautifully dried series of alpine plants prepared by Lady 
Rachel Saunderson. Mr. F. W. Burbidgb and Mr. Prabgbr spoke in 
praise of the exquisite preservation of these specimens. The ViCB- 
Prbsidbnt (Professor Coi^B) having taken the chair, the PrbsidbnT 
delivered an address on the subject, " The Mingling of the North and 
South." He first referred to ^e recent formation of the Irish Field 
Gub Union, by means of which the members of the various Naturalists' 
Field Clubs were getting to know each other and to assist each other in 
their work. Reference was then made to the Field Club Conference 
held at Galway in July last, in which all the Irish Clubs and a number 
of English scientific societies took part The districts visited on that 
occasion, it was pointed out, furnished a very remarkable mingling of 
northern and southern types of animal and plants. The various hypo- 
theses that have been put forward to account for the strange overlapping 
of types were reviewed, and the evidence in support of various theories 
considered. The address, which was illustrated by zoological and 
botanical specimens and by many lantern slides of plants, animals, 
maps and scenery, will shortly appear in our pages. An interesting dis- 
cussion on the paper ensued. 

Prof. T. Johnson complimented the President on his address, and 
referred to the tradition that some of the Iberian plants had been intro- 
duced by the Spaniards. Mr. Prakgbr stated that he had been often 
struck by the way these western Irish species did not spread, in spite of 
their abundance in places, and the prevalence of strong winds. He 
thought this went against any theory of their introduction. Mr. 
M*Ardi.e referred to the peculiar tropical distribution of a number of 
the south-west Irish liverworts. Mr. F. W. Burbidgb also discussed 
the question of artificial introduction of species ; and remarked that it 
did not appear correct to assume that an ice age would sweep all vege- 
tation ofif the face of the country, since some of the species which flourish 
at sea-level in the west of Ireland had been found to grow up as far north 
M man has yet penetrated. Mr. H. Lystbr Jameson referred to the 
importance of studying these questions of past and present distribution. 



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24 7 he Irish Naturalist. t Jan- 

Mr. Hai^bBRT remarked that as the late A. H. Haliday had not found 
Otiorrhynchm auropunctaius, it might be thought by some that that beetle 
had been recently introduced. Dr. C. H. HURST said that the sncceas 
or failure of such attempts depended on a very large number of circum- 
stances, and that there were many inter-relations between plants and 
animals that had important bearing on the question. Prof. Coi^E pointed 
out that in considering the possible ancient routes by which migration 
had taken place, it must not be forgotten that North-western Europe 
was really the ancient Europe, and was dry land while the more southern 
tracts were again and again submerged. 

Mr. Pra^ger subsequently exhibited a number of additional photo- 
graphs taken on the Calway excursion. The following were elected 
members of the Club : — ^Miss Lilias J. Aimers, B.A. ; D. R. Alcock, J. J. 
Alcorn, F. H. R. Brady, Miss Ida Carolin, W. V. Coppinget, Alec Gray, 
M.A., C. Herbert Hurst, ph.d. ; A. Vaughan Jennings, F.G.S. ; Miss Laird. 
Geo. P. Mahon, ConoUy Norman, f.r.c.p.1.; Kenneth C, Ogilvie, A. 
Ward, c.K. ; and Rev. C. A. Williamson. 

Dbcbmbbr loth.— Mr. Wii^iOAM Gray, m.r.i.a., delegate firom the 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, lectured on *<The Physical Features and 
Scenery of County Antrim." The chair was occupied by the PRESiDBirr 
(G. H. Carpenter, B. Sc.), and there was a crowded attendance. Some 
formal business having been transacted, Mr. Gray proceeded with his 
lecture, which was illustrated by a magnificent set of lantern views. 
He first described the geology of the district, and dealt with the various 
formations in their order of succession. Special notice was taken of the 
basaltic rocks, which form the leading feature of Antrim geology and 
scenery. The Chalk, Greensand and Lias also came in for due attention. 
Afterwards the various headlands, bays and glens were described and 
illustrated. A vote of thanks to the lecturer was proposed by Prof. G. 
A J. CoiA, F.as., seconded by Grsbnwood Pim, m.a., and carried by 
acclamation. Frederick T. Eason and Wm. F. Henderson were elected 
members of the Club. 

Cork Naturai,ists* Fiki^d Ci,ub. 
NovBMB^R 28th. — ^A lecture was delivered by Mr. R. I«i/3YD PrabGKR, 
B.A., B.B., the President of the Club (Mr. W. H. Shaw, M.A.) in the chair. 
The lecture hall of the School of Science was crammed, and the 
lecture, which treated of the Galway Field Club Conference in 1895, 
and which was illustrated by an optical lantern, was followed with 
attention. Mr. Praeger first dealt with the visit of the members of the 
Conference, which included representatives from Belfast, Dublin, Cork, 
Limerick, and important centres in England, to Galway City, and pointed 
out the chief places of interest in that district Connemara, Burren and 
the Aran Islands were duly desciibed, and many views taken by members 
were shown. The peculiar flora of these districts was next described, 
and in conclusion the lecturer pointed out the important results of the 
Conference, and exhorted the members of the Cork Club to renewed 
exertions in their own sphere of work. At the close of the lecture a 
discussion took place, and seven new members joined the Club, 



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i856w] Proceedings of Irish Societies. 25 

Dkcbmbbr i3tlL— Mr. Wm. Gray, m.r.i.a., of Belfast, deliyered a 
lecture in the Ball Room, Imperial Hotel, to the members of 
the Cork literary and Scientific Society, and the Cork Naturalists* 
Field Clnb on "The Physical Features and Scenery of the County 
Antrim.** Mr. Wm. I^ane, j.p.. President of the Society, occupied the 
chair, and there was a full attendance of members. The lecturer, who 
is a prominent member of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, stated he 
attended under the auspices of the Naturalists* Field Clubs of Dublin, 
Belfast, Limerick, and Cork, as well as of the Literary and Scientific 
Society, to describe some portions of the field of investigation of their 
Clnb in Antrim. By means of lantern-slides the lecturer illustrated the 
geological strata of the county, and dwelt at length on the trap. Chalk, 
Gieensand, Lias, and New Red Sandstone— giving their origin, their 
characteristic features, and their action of the various natural influences 
on them. He pointed out in detail the formation of the Giant's Causeway, 
which was of volcanic origin, and the columns of which were naturally 
formed by a process of cooling under pressure, and amongst the other 
principal natural phenomena treated of were the Cave Hill, the columns 
at Pair Head, and the sea-stacks to be found round the coast. The 
address was delivered in a more or less conversational style, and the 
interest of the audience was quickened by a copious supply of lantern- 
slides. The Chairman, at the conclusion, conveyed the warm thanks of 
the Society to the lecturer. 



Limerick Natubai^ists* Fhcld Club. 

NovBMBSR 27th.— Mr. R. Li<OYD PRABGER.delivered a lecture under the 
Field Club Union Scheme, his subject being " The Galway Field Club 
Conference, 1895, with notes on the Flora of the districts visited.*' Dr. 
Pogerty occupied the chair, and there was a good attendance. Mr. Praeger 
first touched on the history of the various Field Clubs of Ireland, and the 
fonoation of the Field Clnb Union. The excursions carried out during 
the Galway conference were next described, illustrated by a large series 
of lantern-slides from photographs of the districts visited taken by 
members. The pectdiar flora of Connemara and Barren were considered, 
and a aeries of characteristic plants exhibited, and finally the part 
played by the Limerick Club was dwelt on, and the duty that rested with 
members of helping the growth and progress of their Club in every 
possible way. 

Decbmbbr iith.— Mr. WiLUAM Gray lectured on "The Physical 
Features and Scenery of County Antrim." He said he came as the 
representative of the Belfast Club, under the Field Club Union Scheme, 
to tell them of that part of the sphere of work of the Belfast Club which 
dealt with geology and physical geography. With the help of a large 
series of lantern-views, he described the structure of the county, and the 
characters and mode of origin of the Basalts, Chalk, Greensand, Lias, New 
Red Sandstone, and older rock& The peculiar features of the Giants' 
Causeway were treated of in detail The features of the coast were 
deacribed, with numerous illustrations of the headlands, bays, and 
valteyi. 



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26 The Irish Naturalist [ Jan. 



FIEI.D CI.UB NEWS. 

An amusing incident occurred at a recent meeting of the Cork Field 
Club. A speaker referred to the Cork Cuverian Society, which did 
much good work in the middle of the century, as being *' as extinct as the 
Irish Elk." Whereupon uprose a member of the said Society, to state that 
the Cork Cuverian Society was not dead, but hybemating; he had 
attended the last meeting which the Society held, some twenty years 
ago, which was adjourned sine die. He objected to be relegated to the 
Pleistocene period. As a consequence of the discussion which ensued 
there is talk of reviving the Cuverian Society, or of amalgamating it with 
the Cork Field Club. 

Lectures under the Pidd Club Union Scheme are being energetically 
carried out During the past month Mr. W. Gray, a veteran member 
of the Belfast Club, lectured before the Clubs at Dublin, Cork and 
limerick, and in November Mr. Praeger, as representative of the Dublin 
Club, lectured at Cork and Limerick 

The Committee of the Dublin Club have nominated Professor Cole, 
F.G.S., as President for 1896, and Mr. N. Colgan as Vice-President Mr. 
Colgan is well-known to Irish botanists by his papers on the flora of 
County Dublin. 

A party composed chiefly of members of the Belfast and Dublin Field 
Clubs intend visiting Connemara next spring, with the object of investi* 
g^iting the kitchen-middens along the coast 

The Belfast Club do not intend to let the stimulus given to the study 
of geology and botany by the recent courses of lectures by Prof. Cole and 
Prof. Johnson die away for want of encouragement. The geological 
section is holding frequent meetings, both in the field and in the cosy 
workroom, and with regard to botany, a series of informal meetings is 
being held under the direction of Rev. C. H. Waddell, for practical 
botanical work. 

The Rev. W. F. Johnson, so well known to all Irish naturalists through 
his work on the Goleoptera and other insects, has removed from Winder- 
terrace, Armagh, to Acton Rectory, Po3mtzpass, Newry. We have no 
doubt that Mr. Johnson's researches in this new field will largely add to 
our knowledge of Irish insects. Correspondents will please note the 
change of address. 

Prof. Johnson, D.Sc. has kindly offered to give a course of practical 
work to serve as an introduction to the study of sea- weeds, for the benefit 
of members of the Dublin Club. The course would be held during the 
spring months. 



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i896u] Notes. 27 

The next underUking of the Field Club Union will be a Directory of 
Irish Naturalists, the publication of which should do much to facilitate 
intercourse between Field Club members of similar tastes residing in 
different parts of the country. The preliminary steps are being now 
taken, and a printed form to be filled by persons wishing to be included 
in the Directory will be shortly sent to all Field Club members and sub- 
scribers to this JoumaL 



NOTES. 
CoL G. T. Pluakett, R.E., has been appointed Director of the Science and 
Art Institutions in Ireland. He will therefore take up the late Dr. Ball's 
work in I^einster House, and also continue his former duties as Secretary 
to the Royal College of Science. 

Prod Sollas, P.ILS., of Dublin, will leavein March for Sydney, to take 
charge of an expedition that is being despatched to make deep borings 
in a coral atolL The scheme, which is supported by a strong scientific 
committee, has been financed by the Royal Society to the extent of 
j£8oo; and the Government are placing a gunboat at the disposal of the 
party, to convey them from Sydney to Punifuti, in the Central Pacific, 
which has been selected as the scene of operations. 

BOTANY. 



PHANEROGAMS, 
Irish Hawkweeds, dcc^The following plants were collected by me 
daring the summer of 1895, and verified by Mr. F. J. Hanbury :— 

Hieradum ScMmidHi, Tansch, Ballintoy, Co. Antrim ; ff. ftmrorum, var. c, 
mcncUtdium^ Newtowncrommelin and Garvagh, Co. Derry; H. irUum, 
Fr., Lisonghter, near Recess, Co. Galway ; Carex Goodmcvii b. junctHa, 
Fr., aad Sdrpus rufus^ Schrad., Ballintoy, Co. Antrim. 

S. A. Brenan, Knocknacarry. 

ZOOLOGY. 

CRUSTACEA, 
Mew Species of Copepoda from tlie 8outti«west of Ireland. 

-In the Ann. Mag, Nat, Hist, for November, 1895, p. 359, &c., Messrs. 
T. and A. Scott describe with figures three new forms of parasitic 
crustaceans obtained at Valentia by Messrs. W. I. Beaumont and P. W. 
Gtmble. Two of these, found on ascidians, are referred with some doubt 
to the geaus Enterocola and named E, hibemica and E. Bmumontii. For 
the third, which was found as a parasite on the nudibranch Lomanotus 
pm, a new genus Loman^ticola is proposed, the species being designated 
L msolms. This last form shows great degradation, there being no 
apparent segmentation of the fore- body, and the antennules, antennae and 
Booth-organs being absent. Except for the hindmost segment of the 
ihiomm with its two curious egg-sacs, the parasite was completely 
boned in the body of the nudibranch. 



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28 The Irish Naturalist. [ Jan. 1896. 

REPTILES. 
A8tray Snate near Gork.— A recent issue of the Cork CtmsHhUicm 
records the occurrence of a snake near Blarney. The reptile was en- 
countered crossing a grass field and is said to have been at first mistaken 
for an eel ! It was promptly knocked on the head, a fitte which meets 
all the members of its order, which purposely or accidentally are let loose 
in Ireland. 

BIRDS. 
me BrambllnR (PrlnRllla montlfrlnRllla) In tlia Vala of 
Ovoca. — On December 8th, a specimen of this rare winter visitor was 
shot quite close to here by the Rev. J. M. Robinson, Rector of Ovoca, 
who kindly presented it to me ; it is now with Messrs. Williams a Son of 
Dame-street for preservation. 

J. Hunter, Wooden Bridge. 

Crossbills bresdlna In the Vale of Ovoca.~This year, 1895, 
Crossbills {Loxia curvirostris) bred in this neighbourhood. On April 1st 
I secured an old and young bird, which are in the collection of Mr. 
Barrington, Fassaroe, Bray. 

J. Hunter. 

Crossbills In Qusen's County.— The presence of a flock of these 
interesting birds in Queen's Co. is noted in the Field for November 16th. 

Stock-Doves In Go. Dublin.— On the 19th of November, my 
brother shot two Stock-Doves {Columba anas) at Carrick Hill near Mala- 
hide. They were first noticed in this district in November, 1893, when 
a flock of twelve remained for about a fortnight 

J. Trumbui.i«, Malahide 

Lonatallsd Duck In Co. Clare.— I shot an immature LongtaOed 
Duck {Hardda glacialis) on Lough Derg on Monday last, December and. 
The bird was one of a pair. I also ^ot two more out of three (also 
immature birds) on the 27th December, 189a These are the only two 
occasions on which I have seen them since I came here in 1888. As they 
are by no means common so far south \vide Seebohm) the £Eu:t seems 
worthy of record. 

R« P. HiBB^RT, Scariff, Co. Clare. 

Lona-talled Duck In Co. Wexfordt— Mr. H. R« Guineas records, 
in the Fidd of November i6th, an adult male of Harelda ^ladalis, shot on 
Tacumshin Lake. 

MAMMALS. 
Pine Martens recently taken In Ireland.— During the last 
twelve months I know of three specimens having been trapped or shot ; 
as follows :— One last winter in Lord Clonbrock's Demesne, Ca Gralway. 
One in the spring at Castle Taylor, Ardrahan, in the same county. 
One this autumn at Enuiscor, on the shores of L. Conn, by the game- 
keeper of Joseph Pratt, Esq., Co. Mayo. 

Wm. p. db V. Kan9> Monaghan, 
wmmmmmmmmmamammmmmmmmmm¥ 



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Irish Naturaust, Voi.. V.] 



[Plate I. 




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Fek 1896.] 29 

ON THB BOTANICAI. SUBDIVISION OP IREI^AND. 

BY R. IXOTD PSAEGKR, B.B. 
(PI^TB I.) 

Thikty-sevbn years have now elapsed since, at a meeting of 
the Dublin University Zoological and Botanical Association^ 
a paper by Charles C. Babington was read, entitled ** Hints 
towards a Cybele Hibemica/" In this communication, the - 
author put forward a scheme for the subdivision of Ireland 
into twelve provinces and thirty-seven counties and vice- 
comities, on the plan of Watson's Cybele Britannica ; and as 
the paper is not readily accessible to most botanists, the 
suggested division may be reprinted here : — 

XIX. SOUTH ATI^ANTIC— 113. South Kerry ; 114, North Kerry j 
115. South Cork. 

XX. BI^CKWATER.— 1x6, North Cork ; 117. Wexford ; xi8. South 
Tipperary. 

XXL BARROW.— 119. Kilkenny; X2a Carlow; I3i, Queen's Co. 
XXn. I^EINSTBR COAST.— 122. Wexford; 123. Wicklow. 
XXIIL UFFEY AND BOYNB— 124. KUdare; 125. Dublin; 126. 
Heath; 127. Louth. 

XXIV. LOWER SHANNON.— 12a Limerick; 129. Clare; X3a East 
Gtlway. 

XXV. UPPER SHANNON.— 13L North Tipperary; 132. King's Ca ; 
153, Westmeath ; 134. Longford. 

XXVL NORTH ATLANTIC— 135. West Galway; 136. West Maya 
XXVIL NORTH CONNAUGHT.— 137. East Mayo; 13a Sligo ; 139. 
leitrim; X4a Roscommon. 

XXVIII. ERNE.— 141. Fermanagh ; 142. Cavan ; 143. Monaghan ; 
144. Tyrone; 145. Armagh. 

XXIX. DONEGAL.— 146. Donegal 

XXX. ULSTER COAST— 147. Down ; 14a Antrim ; 149. Derry. 

Following Watson, Babington founded his twelve provinces 
as £bu: as possible on the principal river-basins of the country. 
Ireland does not readily lend itself to such a plan of division. 
The Shannon valley occupies about one-sixth of the entire 
island, and other river-basins are small in comparison. Also, 
the mountain-chains being mostly near the coast, considerable 
areas are drained by small rivers only. The consequence 
was that in many cases river-basin provinces were not 
practicable, and this gave an opportunity for the using of 

* AflA HUk ReineWi vi, pt 2» 1859. /Vw. Z>. U. ZO0U andBoU Astoc.^ i. 

A 

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36 fi^ /risk Naturatisi. ff eb. 

natural botanical divisions, such as Kerry and South Cork, 
Connemara and West Mayo, and Donegal. So that, although 
the partition of Ireland by river-basins is not satisfactory, 
nevertheless Babington's twelve provinces appear to be as 
good as could have been selected. 

Seven years after the publication of B4>ington's paper, 
Cybele Hibemica appeared, under the authorship of Dr. David 
Moore, and Mr. A. G. More. In this work the twelve pro- 
vinces suggested by Babington were adopted, the only 
alteration being that they were called "Districts," and 
were numbered i to 12, instead of XIX to XXX. — of which 
more ahbn. In his British Rubi^ published three years later 
(1869), Babington used the twelve provinces he proposed; 
indeed, it was for the purpose of showing the distribution of 
the Rubi that he first undertook the botanical division of Ire- 
land ; as he himself modestly says ' — " I should not have 
intruded myself into a work which seems especially Irish, 
had it not become necessary for me to subdivide the country 
for the purpose of recording the distribution of the Irish Rubi, 
as a part of my projected, and to a considerable extent com- 
pleted, treatise upon the Rubi of the United Kingdom." So 
much for the proposed twelve botanical divisions of Ireland ; 
they have been adopted by the leaders of Irish botany, and 
the large amount of botanical survey woric carried out since 
they were first suggested has not in any way shaken our faith 
in their scientific usefulness and practical convenience. 

Next, as regards the second part of Babington's scheme— 
the subdivision into counties and vice-counties. We have not 
yet in Ireland got so far as a Topographical Botany ; and, 
although the publication of Cybele Hibemica marked the com- 
mencement of a large amount of field-work, this was in most 
cases confined to small areas, and Babington's county list lay 
unused and apparently almost forgotten till 1884, when Prof. 
W. R. M'Nab read before the Royal Dublin Society, a " Short 
Note on the Botanical Topographical Divisions of Ireland" 
which is printed in their Proceedings.^ This paper purports 
to be a revision and extension of Babington's scheme, but 
the suggestions put forward — the Roman numerals for 

' Hints towards a Cybele Hibemica, /. (, 
\ Set. Prac. /i,D.S.,n.B., iv. 197 (1885). 



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i89^] pRAKGER. — Bofanicat Sui>divis%on of treland. 51 ' 

the provinces, the use of the word "province" instead of 
" district " (which was used in Cybele Hibeniicd)^ the giving 
of names to the provinces, and the numbering of the vice- 
comities— all these had been already published in Babington's 
paper ; and M'Nab's table of provinces and counties is iden- 
tiod with that of Babington, except that he commences the 
nmnbering of provinces and of counties with I., and that he 
does not subdivide the county of Kerry. 

No further reference to or use of Babington's county- 
division scheme appears until the year 1895, when Messrs. 
Gloves employed it in their valuable paper on " liie Dis- 
tribution of the CharacdB in Ireland,'" in which the distribution 
of the species and varieties is shown in list form, on the plan 
of Watson's Topographical Botany. 

For some time past, a sense of the importance of com- 
mencing the large amount of field-work that must be carried 
out before an Irish Topographical Botany become a possibility, 
has been steadily growing in my mind ; and this led me 
some months ago to go carefully into the question of the most 
advantageous subdivision of the country into counties and 
vice-counties. As regards about twenty-four out of the thirty- 
two Irish counties, I had the benefit of at least some personal 
knowledge, topographical and botanical ; and regarding others, 
I have had the great advantage of the opinions of botanists 
whose special acquaintance with the flora of these counties 
is well known. The first result of my enquiry has been the 
conviction that the subdivision of the larger counties as 
proposed by Babington can be now improved upon ; and 
indeed this is not a matter for surprise, when we consider the 
enormous advance made during the intervening period of 
thirty-seven years in our knowledge of Irish botanical topo- 
graphy (though that knowledge is yet very far from complete). 
I am also convinced that the order in which the counties and 
vice-counties are numbered in Babington's scheme is not the 
most convenient or useful one that can be devised : and in 
this view I am glad to have the support of several of the most 
practical Irish botanists. It is manifestly important that some 
scheme of county- division and county-numbering should 
be fixed once for all, according to which future records may 

* IrUh NtUuralists Jan. and Feb.» 1895. 

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be systematically noted. This is especially desirable at the 
present time, when there appears to be a distinct increase of 
activity as regards Irish botany, as shown not only by the 
work which is being done by home workers, but also by the 
welcome visits which we have had during the past two seasons 
from quite a number of the leading field botanists of England. 
And if any alteration is to be made in the only county-division 
scheme that has been put forward, then the sooner it is made 
the better. Since they were proposed thirty-seven years ago, 
the only published paper in which Babington's county-numbeis 
have been used is that of Messrs. Groves, already quoted. 
The scheme, in fact, has not been generally adopted, so that 
no great inconvenience can result from a revision of the county 
list : though if this scheme had already been used in a number 
of papers, it would be a question whether the inconvenience 
of any alteration of the county-numbering would not out- 
weigh the advantages of an improved subdivision. 

These considerations have led me to put forward without 
further delay the following revised scheme, not without a full 
enquiry as to the value of each of the alterations which is 
suggested, and careful consideration of its desirability. It 
will be most convenient to give the list first, and state the 
reason for the changes afterwards. — 





21. Dublin. 


3. North Kerry. 


22. Meath. 


3. West Cork; 


23. Westmeath. 


4. Mid Cork. 


24. Longford. 


5. East Cork. 


25. Roscommon. 


6. Waterford. 


26. East Maya 


7. South Tipperary. 


27. West Mayo. 


8. Limerick 


28. Sligo. 


9. Glare. 


29. Leitrim. 


10. North Tipperary. 


30. Cavan. 


II. Kilkenny. 


31. Louth. 


12. Wexford. 


32. Monaghan. 


13. Carlow. 


33. Fermanagh. 


14. Queen's County. 


34. South Donegal. 


15. South-east Galway. 


35. North Donegal, 


16. West Galway. 


36. Tyrone. 


17. North-east Galway. 


37. Armagh. 


18. King's County. 


38. Down. 


19. Kildare. 


39. Antrim. 


20. Wicklow. 


4a Derry. 




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189a] FRAnGnR.—BofanicaI Subdivinon of Ireland. 33 

It may be stated at once that this arrangement differs from 
that of Babington, first, as regards the subdivision of the 
comities of Cork, Kerry, Galway, and Donegal ; and secondly, 
in the renumbering of the cQunties and vice-counties according 
to a different plan. It will be seen that the figures ascend 
regularly from the extreme south-west of the country to the 
extreme north-east, the numbering following a backwards* 
and-forwards line, irrespective of the ** province " boundaries. 

In working out the above scheme, the following considera- 
tions influenced the subdivision of the larger counties:— 

Nahiral Baundaries.'—^htx^ clearly-defined natural bound- 
aries, botanical, geological, or physical, exist, it is manifestly 
advantageous that they should be followed ; but it is not always 
possible to follow them, on account of other considerations. 
The convenience of county-divisions is so great, that except 
in the subdividing of a large county, it does not appear 
desirable to forsake county boundaries. 

Equalization of Areas.—lt is also desirable that, so far as 
possible, the country should be divided into portions of 
approximately equal area ; but here again, the less the 
arrangement by counties is disturbed the better. 

Utilization of past or future botanical Work. — It is manifestly 
desirable that the scheme as regards subdivision of counties 
should harmonize with the subdivisions used, or to be used, 
in published or future county or local floras; since this will 
save a large amount of labour, when it comes to working out 
the flora of each vice-county. 

Nature of Boundaries. — ^Where a new boundary-line is re- 
quired, it is desirable that it should be something conspicuous 
—a railway, road, or river— in order that it may be easily found 
in the field ; an imaginary line, such as a straight line between 
two places, though it looks very well on a map, is often 
difficult to trace in the field. 

I^t me now take up in turn each of the cases in which the 
plan suggested differs from that proposed by Babington, ex- 
plain the nature of the change, and give the reasons. 

Cork.— Is now divided into three vice- counties (3, 4, 5), by two N.W. 
a]idS.B. lines. Babington divided it into two vice-counties, one much 
larger than the other, by the east and west course of the River Sullane 
and its continuation the River Lee. In that useful little flora. The 
FUmering Plonif and Ferns of the County Cgrk (1883), the author, Rev. 

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34 The Irish NaturalisL [Feb, 

Thomas Allin, departs from Babington's bonndary, and adopts instead 
" s line drawn along the Killamey Junction Railway from the border of 
Ca Kerry to Millstreet, thence ninning across the country in a straight 
line to Macroom, thence in a similar line to Bandon and flrom that town, 
following the Bandon River, to the sea. "' This line appears to have been 
wisely chosen, dividing the western mountainous portion of the county, 
with its Atlantic, Highland, and American plants, from the more level 
tract, with its calcicole and Germanic species. The latter district (1,747 
square miles) being still considerably larger than the largest of the 
counties which it is not proposed to subdivide, is conveniently divided 
into two by the Great Southern and Western Railway from Charleville 
to Cork, and thence by the western shore of Cork Harbour to the 
ocean ; this line forms approximately the western boundary of the 
Carboniferous limestone. The great county of Cork is thus divided into 
three parts of almost equal area, the size of each being about that of an 
average Irish county. As regards the division of Co. Cork, I have 
had the advantage of the hearty co-operation of Mr. R. A. Phillips, whose 
knowledge of the Cork flora is well-known, and who suggested to me 
the sub-division of the county adopted in this paper. 

Kbrry.— In Babington's scheme Kerry is divided into two vice- 
counties by a line following the River Plesk, the northern shore of the 
Lower Lake of Elillamey, and the River Laune. Mr. R. W. Scully, P.i«.s., 
whose researches in the Kerry flora readers of this Journal well know, 
has kindly favoured me with his views. He points out that the Dingle pro- 
montory, which Babington includes in North Kerry, belongs botanical! j 
to South Kerry ; and this, indeed, Babington himself admits in his 
paper. ^ Mr. Scully also kindly informs me that when his forthcoming 
/'ATfa^/'A^rr^is published, the distribution of species will probably be shown 
by baronies ; it will therefore be an advantage to use barony boundaries 
in fixing the Kerry vice-counties ; and the best division is evidently a 
line separating the baronies of Magunihy and Trughanacmy on the one 
hand from Glanarought, Dunkerron, Iveragh, and Corkaguiny on the 
other; this forms roughly a N.W. and S.E. line, and divides the county 
into a mountainous south-western part, composed of Silurian and 
Devonian rocks, intersected by deep bays, and rich in alpine and Atlantic 
plants, and a more level and less maritime north-eastern portion, com- 
posed of Carboniferous limestone, and Coal-measures. Mr. Scully agrees 
as to this being the best division of Kerry into two vice-counties. 

Gateway. — Connemara forms a division in every way distinct, and 
Babington's line correctly cuts off the mountainous metamorphic 
maritime district lying west of Lough Corrib, with its peculiar flora, 
from the inland limestone plain of East Galway. The latter area is so 
very extensive (1,613 square miles, twice the size of an average county), 
that there can be no doubt as to the desirability of forming it into two 
vice-counties, and a convenient east and west dividing line is formed by 



« Op, cit.^ Introduction, p. xii. » p. 536, line 1-3. 

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1^1 Praeger.— iff^/a»zfa/ Subdivision of Ireland. 35 

tite Midlaad Great Western Railway from Oramnore, at the head of 
Galwaj Baj, to Ballinasloe on the River Snck, the eastern boondary of 
the county. It may be remarked here that the Aran Islands, though 
part of Co. Galwky, belong botanically to Co. Clare, and are so treated 
in Cj^fde Hibemua ; and that Inishbofin, formerly included in Co. Mayo, 
is now a part of West Galway, to which it naturally belonga 

DoNEGAi^ — ^This large county (1,870 square miles) should evidently 
form two vice-counties, in order to keep the variation of fkut of our 
q ltimate divisions within r e aso n a b le limits, and thus ensure that a 
statement of the number of county-divisions in which a plant occurs in 
the country may be a tolerably correct indication of its area of distri* 
bation. 

The boundary which I suggest is the roughly east and west line which 
Mparates the baronies of Inishowen and Kilmacrenan on the north 
from Raphoe and Boylagh on the south. This line crosses the Inishowen 
uthmns at its narrowest point, follows the shore of Lough Swilly, and 
then the River Swilly almost to its source, and descends to the western 
ocean along the course of the Gweedore River ; and it divides the county 
into two almost equal parts. 

The whole of Ireland, 32,513 sqtiare miles, is thus divided 
into 40 portions of as nearly equal size as conditions will per- 
mit, the average area of these portions being 813 square miles. 
This size is almost identical with the average size of Watson's 
112 vice-counties of Great Britain, which is 804 square miles. 

Next, as to the order in which the counties and vice-counties 
should be numbered. Watson numbered the British provinces 
I. to XVIII., commencing with S.W. England and ending 
with the extreme north of Scotland. The vice-counties he 
numbered in the same order, those included in Province I. 
being numbered i to 6, those of Province II. 7 to 14, and so on. 
Babington proposed a similar method for Ireland, but the 
result is not satisfactory. The Irish "provinces" are not 
numbered regularly from south to north, but the numbering 
rans first up the east coast, and then drops back into the 
south-west ; and this absence of regular progression becomes 
accentuated if the vice- counties are numbered in the sequence 
of the provinces ; when, for instance, we suddently pass from 
Louth (127) 120 miles south-westward to Limerick (128). 
It will be generally admitted that the best scheme, and the 
most natural, is one which will show a regular progression 
from south to north — from a higher temperature to a lower : 
with such a system, the largeness or smallness of the numbers 
m the list showing the county-distribution of a species, will 



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36 



The Irish Naturalist. 



[Feb. 



themselves be a key to the northward or southward range ol 
the plant Thus, if out of say 40 vice-counties we find the 
range of a plant is from i to 20, we shall immediately know 
that it is confined to the southern half of Ireland. It appears 
to me that the practical advantages of such a plan are much 
greater than those which arise from a consecutive numbering 
for the vice-counties of each " province ;" and the scheme which 
I suggest therefore embodies this principle. A glance at the 
botanical map in Cybde Hibemica shows that the character- 
istic plants of Ireland are distributed according to lines which 
have a general trend north-west and south-east, rather than 
west and east ; this is also the course followed by the iso- 
thermal lines of winter and spring ; and I have adopted a 
system of numbering that follows these natural lines* and 
proceeds in a regular manner from the extreme south-west of 
the country to the extreme north-east. Such a plan does not 
preventthe vice-counties being grouped under the " provinces " 
if for any reason this is desired. We should then have the 
following table ; for the "provinces" I give the numbering 
used by Moore and More in Cybde Hibemica : — 
I. South Atlantic, 



XL Blackwater, . 

III. Barrow, 

IV. Leinater Coaat, 
V. Liifey and Boyne, 

VI. I/>wer Shannon, 

VII. Upper Shannon, 



I. 


South Kerry. 


3. 


North Kerry. 


3- 


West Cork. 


4. 


Mid. Cork. 


5. 


Bast Cork. 


6. 


Waterford. 


7. 


South Tipperary. 


II. 


Kilkenny. 


13. 


Carlow. 


14. 


Queen's County. 


13. 


Wexfoid. 


aa 


Wicklow. 


19. 


KUdare. 


31. 


Dublin. 


33. 


Meath. 


31. 


I/>nth. 


& 


limerick. 


» 


Clare. 


15. 


South-east Galway. 


17. 


North-east Galway. 


la 


North Tipperary. 


la 


King's County. 


23. 


Westmeath 


H^ 


I/>ngford. 


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1896.] VviKE^GNi.— Botanical Subdivision of Ireland, 37 



VIIL North Atlantic 


. 16. 


West Galway. 




27. 


West Mayo. 


IX. North Connaught, . 


. 26. 


East Mayo. 




2a 


SUgo. 




29- 


Leitrim. 




25. 


Roscommon. 


X. Erne, 


• 33. 


Fermanagh. 




30- 


Cavan. 




32- 


Monaghan. 




36. 


Tyrone. 




37. 


Armagh. 


XL Donegal, 


• 34- 


South Donegal- 




35. 


North Donegal. 


XIL Ulster Coast. 


. 38. 


Down 




39- 


Antrim. 




40. 


Derry. 



Lastly, a word as to the numerals used to denote the dis- 
tricts and county-divisions. Babington numbered his first 
Irish province (South Atlantic) XIX, being the number 
following that of the last province of Great Britain (North 
Isles), and similarly numbered the first vice-county (South 
Kerry) 113 ; and the sequence involved in the latter has been 
used by Messrs. Groves in their recent paper on Irish Characecs^ 
their reason* as given in a friendly note to the writer, being 
that the British Isles form a natural botanical district, of 
which Ireland is a part. Quite so; but let us look more 
closely into this matter. According to Watson's arrangement, 
as first put forward in Cybele Britannica, and now universally 
adopted, the vice-county numbering in Great Britain com- 
mences in the Atlantic counties of Cornwall and Devon, which 
in all Britain have botanically the nearest aflSnity to the 
characteristic flora of Ireland ; yet in the county list they are 
removed from the allied districts of Ireland by the whole 
length and breadth of England, Wales, and Scotland. The 
county-numbers in Great Britain led us gradually northward, 
from Cornwall right up to the Shetlands, and the largeness or 
smallness of the figures themselves thus afford a useful clue to 
the northern or southern range of a species ; but, according 
to this scheme of continuous numbering, the moment we pass 

112 we pltmge from the almost Scandinavian flora of Shetland 
into the luxuriant southern flora of Killamey, thence to 
proceed by degrees to the more northern flora of Derry. A 

A 3 

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SS The Irish Naturalist, [Feb. 

continuous numbering for the whole of the British Islands 
would be certainly a desideratum; but one which passes 
without a break or indication of a change from Shetland to 
Killamey is too unnatural to commend itself Botanists will 
form their own opinions on this point ; for my part, I prefer 
to follow the lead set by the careful and able authors of CybcU 
Hibemica, who numbered the Irish districts i to 12, not XIX 
to XXX ; and I have numbered the counties and vice-counties 
of Ireland i to 40. 

Another point requiring a passing notice is the use of the 
words "province" and "district." Babington, following 
Watson, called thetwelvelrish botanical divisions "provinces";' 
the authors of CybelcHibefnica used the term "district" in- 
stead ; M*Nab proposed to return to the word " province." 
Considering that Ireland is divided geographically into four 
provinces— Ulster, Munster, I^einster, and Connaught,— and 
that in Ireland the term " province " is invariably used in this 
sense only, I believe its use to signify the twelve botanical 
divisions of the country would lead to confusion ; and I follow 
Moore and More, who (probably on the same consideration ) 
called them " districts." 

In conclusion, I wish to acknowledge the ready and willing 
assistance which I received from many Irish botanists in the 
inquiries made for the purposes of the present paper ; and I 
would specially oflFer my thanks to Messrs. N. Colgan, m.r.i.a., 
R. A. Phillips, R. W. Scully, F.L.S., S. A. Stewart, F.B.S.E., and 
Rev. C. H. Waddell, b.d., for information and for useful 
criticism given in correspondence, or in conversation. 



». Babington's Irish ** provinces" correspond in size and importance 
to Watson's " vice-provinces," rather than to his " provinces,*' and might 
preferably have been numbered XXXIX to L. in continuation of the 
last British vice-province (Shetland), rather than XIX to XXX. 



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^^] 39 

A LIST OF IRISH HYMENOPTERA ACULEATA. 

BY PERCY E. FREKE. 



I OFFER the following paper on the Aculeate Hymenoptera 
of Ireland, not with any pretentions to its being a complete 
list of that part of our fauna, but as a first effort towards a 
more complete knowledge of the number and distribution of 
its members. 

When taking up lately the study of this subject I found no 
list of our Irish Aculeate Hymenoptera to guide me with 
reference to occurrences or the distribution of such insects as 
I obtained, and it is with a view to establishing some such 
record, and inducing others to aid us with more complete 
information, that I now propose the following list as a basis 
on which to commence. 

I regret that my notes cover but a part only of this country ; 
from much of the western side of Ireland I have no records ; 
and even the eastern side, with the exception of what might 
be termed the Dublin district, has hitherto been worked in a 
most casual manner. When others who have better 
opportunities than I have had, can be induced to record 
their captures, the number of species in my list will probably 
be very much increased, and many that I have met with but 
sparingly may be found abundant in other localities. 

I must here offer my warmest thanks to Mr. Edward 
Saunders, for the patience and kindness he has shown me in 
naming insects which I have sent for his determination ; to 
Mr. Carpenter and Mr. Halbert, of the Irish National Museum, 
for their unfailing kindness and courtesy in giving me on all 
occasions the benefit of their experience, and allowing me to 
inspect the insects in the National collection ; and to my 
coadjutor, Mr. H. G. Cuthbert, in freely furnishing me with 
records of his many captures, and in largely adding to the 
material of my collection. I have also to thank the Flora and 
Fanna Committee of the Royal Irish Academy for the records 
of specimens collected under their auspices. 

The letter (M) signifies that the specimen is in the Dublin 
Mnseum collection. The name of the collector or authority 
is added in all but the common species of general distribution. 



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40 The Irish Naturalist . [Feb. 

FORMICIDM. 
Formica rufa, Linn.--(Haliday, M.) Churchill, Co. Armagh (Rev. W. 

F. Johnson, M.) 
F. f uscay Linn. — Common and generally distributed. 
Laslus f lavusy De Geer.— Very common everywhere. 
L. fullflTlnosus, Latr.— Lismore (Halbert). 
L. niffery Linn.— Common in suitable localities. 
Leptothorax acervorum* Fab.— Carlingford (Rev. W. F. Johnson, 

M.); Oughterard (Carpenter). 
Myrmica rubra, Linn.— 

Race rugi$todis~-V ^ry common everywhere. 

lavinodis-^CooimoT^y Co. Donegal (Rev. W. F. Johnson, M.) ; 

Carrickmines, Lucan, Go. Dublin ; Dingle (Halbert). 
scabrinodis — Less common than ruginodis ; Castletown-Bere, Co. 
Cork (Carpenter, M.) ; Armagh (Rev. W. F. Johnson, M.); 
Oreystones (M.) ; Dalkey (M.) ; Courtown, Co. Wexftwrd, and 
Co. Dublin (Cuthbert). 
lobicomU—hxmdL'ga. (Rev. W. F. Johnson, M.) 

SPHEGIDyE, 
Pompllus ruf Ipesy Linn.— I took three specimens at Courtown, Co. 

Wexford, last year. This season I have looked for them in the same 

place in vain. 
P. plumbeusy Fab.— Very common in most sandy localities along the 

coast. 
P. niffer. Fab.— Glencullen, Co. Dublin (Cuthbert) ; Co. Kildare(Freke): 

common at Rosscarberry, Co. Cork (Cuthbert). 
P. fflbbusy Fab.— Common and generally distributed. 
Sallus fuscusp Linn.— (HaHday, M.); Aiteagh (Rev. W. F. Johnson. 

M.); Friarstown, Co. Dublin (Cuthbert). 
8. exaltatus. Fab.— (HaHday, M.) (Dr. A. W. Foot, in Proc. Nat. Hist. 

Soc, of Dublin, vol. vi., pt. I, p. 83). 
Ceropales maculatap Fab.— Fairly common in suitable localities on 

the sea-coast. 
Astatus boopsp Schr.— Donabate, Co. Dublin (Cuthbert). 
Tachytes pectlnlpesy Linn.— Very common in suitable localities on 

the sea-coast. 
Ammophlla hirsuta. Scop.— I took two specimens last season near 

Arklow, Co. Wicklow. 
Spllomena trofflodytesp V. de Lind.— (Haliday, M). 
Pemphredon luffubrlSp Fab.— Monkstown, Co. Dublin, and Conr- 

town, Co. Wexford (Cuthbert). 
P. Shuckardip Moraw.— Dundrum, Co. Dublin (Freke). 
P. Wesmaellp Moraw.— Monkstown, Co. Dublin (Cuthbert). 
P. lethlferp Shuck.— Courtown, Co. Wexford, and Laytown, Co. Dublin 

(Cuthbert). 
PassalOBCus monlllcornis, Dbm.— {Haliday, M.) 
Mimesa unlcolarp V. de Lind.— Laytown, Co. DubUn (Cuthbert). 
PMti palllpesp Panz.— Monkstown, Co. Dublin (Cuthbert) 
Qorytes mystaoeusp Linn.— (Haliday, M.) 
Nysson splnosusp Fab.— Glencullen, Co. DubHn (Freke). 
Melllnus arvensis, Linn.— Common in suitable localities on the sea 

coast. 



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*896.] Freke.— /w* Hymenoptera Aculeata. 41 

Oxylwliis ufilflTlumlSt Linn.— Bundoran (Rev. W. F. Johnson, M.); 

Lajtown, Co. Dublin ; near Drogheda ; and Roscarberry, Co. Cork 

(Cnthbert). 
Crabro tibialis* Fab.— (Haliday, M.) 

C. clavipesy Linn.— (Haliday, M.), Dundmm, Co. Dublin (Freke). 
€. toucostomusy Linn.— Not uncommon. 
€. paimipetfy Linn.— Not uncommon. Portmarnock and Glencullen, 

Co. Dublin; Arklaw, Co. Wicklow; and Courtown, Co. Wexford 

(Freke) ; Laytown, Co. Dublin (Cuthbert). 
C. TarluSy Lep. — Not unconmom on sandhills on the east coast. 
C. Wtemaellf V. de Lind.— Dundmm, Ca Dublin (Freke); Laytown, 

Co. Dublin (Cuthbert). 
C. Quadrl-maculatuSt Fab.— Courtown, Ca Wexford (Freke), an 

unusual dark form. 
C. dlmldiatust Fab.— Bruckless, Co. Donegal (Rev. W. F. Johnson) ; 

Sandyford, Co. Dublin (Cuthbert); Scalp, Co. Dublin (Freke) ; an 

unusual dark form. 
C. cepliaiotest Panz.— Not uncommon. 
C. vaflTUSy Linn.— Monkstown, Ca Dublin (Cuthbert). 
C. peitarluSff Schreb. — Common on sandhills on the sea-coast 

VESPIDM. 
V6spa vulffarlSff Linn. — ^Very common everywhere. 
V. ssrmanlcay Fab.— Very common everywhere. 
V. rufa, Linn.— Less common than the two preceding, but generally 

distributed, at least from Dublin southward. 
V. austrlaca, Panz.— Local and not very uncommon in the Dublin 

district. Females only recorded, 
V. syivestrls. Scop.— Common. 
V. norveffica. Fab.— Common. 

Odynerus spinlpes« Linn.—Killiney, Co. Dublin (Cuthbert). 
0. parletunif Linn.— Not uncommon. 
O. plctust Curt— Common. 
O. trfinarfflnatus. Zett— (Haliday. M.); Courtown. Co. Wexford 

(Cuthbert), Rosscarberry, Co. Cork ; a variety with spotted tibia 

(Cuthbert). 
O. parletlnuSy Linn. — Common. 

APIDyE, 
Coll«te8 su<»incta, Linn.— (Haliday, M.); Rosscaiberry, Co. Cork 

(Cuthbert), 
C. fodienst Kirb.— Courtown, Co. Wexford (Cuthbert). 
C. plclsUffma, Thoms.— Common at Courtown, Co. Wexford (Freke). 
C. daviesana* Sm.— Killiney, and Sandyford, and Laytown, Co. 

Dublin; Courtown, Co. Wexford; and Rosscarberry, Co. Cork 

(Cuthbert> 
Prosopis confusa, NuL— (Haliday, M., as punctatisnma) \ GlencuUen, 

Ca Dublin (Cuthbert) ; Gorey, Ca Wexford (Freke). 
Sphecodes «lbbus, Linn.— GlencuUen, Co. Dublin (Cuthbert and 

Freke). 
8. subquadratusy Sm.— Rosscarberry, Ca Cork (Cuthbert). 
8. splnulosus, Hag.-Kilkenny (Rev. T. B. Gibson, M.) 

A 4 



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4^ 1^ Irish Naturalist. [Feb. 

Spliecodes plllfrons. Thorns.— Kilkenny (Rev. T. K Gibson, M.); 
Rosscarberry, Co. Cork (Cuthbert). 

8. sImlllSy Westm.— GlencuUcn, Co. Dublin, and Courtown, Co. Wex- 
ford (Freke). 

8. varl0ff«tU8» Hag.— Sandyford and Glencnllen, Ca Dublin (Freke> 

8. ctlmldlatus. Hag — Sandyford, Ca Dublin (Cuthbert and Freke). 

8. afflnis* Hag.— Rosscarberry, Co. Cork (Cuthbert). 

Hallctus rublcunauSf Chr.— Common everywhere. 

H. sexnotatusy Kirb. — Saunders in his book on Briti^ Hymenoptera 

Aculeata, p. 214, states that it has been taken here by Haliday. I 

cannot trace the specimen in the Irish Nat Museum. 
H. cyllnarlcuSf Fab.— Common everywhere. 
H, alblpes, Kirb.— (Haliday, M.); Kilkenny (Rev. T. B. Gibson); 

Kildare ^Freke) ; Lucan, Co. Dublin (Halbert). 
H. subfasclatus, Nyl.— (Haliday, M.); Coolmore, Co. Donegal (Rev. 

W. F. Johnson); Kildare (Freke); Tallaght^Co. Dublin (Halbert> 
H. vlllosulusy Kirb.— (Haliday, M.); Courtown, Co. Wexford, and Ross- 
carberry, Co. Cork (Cuthbert) ; common in Kildare (Freke) ; Killaloe 

(Halbert). 
H. mInutuSf Kirb.— Courtown, Co. Wexford (Cuthbert). 
H. nitiaiusculus, Kirb.— (Haliday, M.) ; Dunsink, Co. Dublin (H. B. 

Rathbome, M.) ; Monkstown, Co. Dublin ; Courtown, Co. Weadbrd ; 

and Rosscarberry. Co. Cork (Cuthbert). 
H. tumulorum, Linn.— (Haliday, M.) ; Golden Ball, Ca Dublin, and 

Courtown, Co. Wexford (Cuthbert) ; Dundrum, Co. Dublin (Freke); 

Lucan and Tallaght, Ca Dublin (Halbert). 
H. smeathmanelluSf Kirb.— Tallaght, Co. Dublin (Halbert). 
H. morlOy Fab.— Common. 

H. leucopuSy Kirb.— Dundrum, Co. Dublin (Freke). 
Andrena albicans* Kirb. — Common everywhere. 
A. atrlcepsy Kirb. — Kilkenny (Rev. T. B. Gibson, M.) 
A. rosaBf var. trlmmeranay Kirb.— Common everywhere. 
A. cineraria* Linn.— Armagh (Rev. W. F. Johnson, M.) ; Rostrevor, 

Co. Down (W. Hooper, M.) 
A. tlioraclcay Fab.— Armagh (Rev. W. F. Johnson, M.) 
A. nitida* Fourc— Kilkenny (Rev. T. B. Gibson, M.); Courtown, Co. 

Wexford (Cuthbert). 
A. clarkellap Kirb.— " United Kingdom" (Smith, p. 40); "all ow 

our islands " (Saunders, p. 242). I have not hitherto met with it 

myself. 
A. nlflrroaeneay Kirb. — Common. 

A. ffwynana* Kirb. — Not uncommon and generally distributed. 
A. helveoia* Linn.— Blanchardstown, Go. Dublin (Halbert). 
A. f ucata* Smith. — Skerries, Co. Dublin ; and Courtown, Co. Wexford 

(Cuthbert) ; Portmamock, Co. Dublin (Freke). 
A. dentlculata, Kirb.— Rosscarberry, Co. Cork (Cuthbert). 
A. fuivlcruSf Kirb.— Dunsink, Co. Dublin (Rathbome, M.) ; near 

Dublin (Cuthbert). 
A. aiblcruSff ICirb. — Sandyford and Laytown, Co. Dublin (Cuthbert) ; 

Portmamock, Co. Dublin (Freke). 
A. analiSy Panz.— Ireland (Smith, p. 65). 
A. coltana, Kirb.— Limerick (Halbert). 
A. minutulay Kirb. — Common and generally distributed. 



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1896.] Freke.— /mA Hymenoptera Aculeata. 43 

Andrena nana, Kirb.— Rosscarbeny, Ca Cork (Cuthbert). 
A. afzellella, Kirb.— Killiney, Co. DubHn (Cuthbert). 

A. wllkella, Kirb. — Common and generally distributed; found 
stylopized by Cuthbert 

Nomada 80llcla«lnl8p Panz.— (Haliday, M.) 

M. succlncta* Panz.— (Haliday, M.); Dunsink, Co. Dublin (Rathbome) ; 

Dundrum, Co. Dublin (Freke) ; Portmamock, Ga Dublin (Halbert). 
N, altsrnataf Kirb. — Very common and generally distributed. 
N. rufleornis, I^inn.— Common and generally distributed . 
N. Ix>reall8, Zett— (Haliday, M.); Stillorgan Park, Co. Dublin 

(Cuthbert). 

N. bifldap Thoms.--Courtown, Co. Wexford, and GlencuUen, Ca 

Dublin (Cuthbert) ; Dundrum, Co. Dublin (Freke). 
N. ochrostoma, Kirb.— (Dr. A. W. Foot, U,) ; Stillorgan Park, Ca 

Dublin, and Rosscarberry, Co. Cork (Cuthbert) ; Howth, Santry, etc 

Ga Dublin (Halbert). 
N. obtuslfrons, NyL— <Haliday, M.) 

N. ferrufflnata, Kirb.— GlencuUen, Co. Dublin (Cuthbert). 
N. fabrtclana, Linn.— (Haliday, M.) 
M. flavoffuttata, Kirb.— (Haliday, M.) ; Courtown, Co. Wexford, and 

Monkstown, Co. Dublin (Cuthbert) ; GlencuUen, Go. Dublin (Freke) ; 

Santry and Tallaght, Go. Dublin CHalbert> 
If. furva, Panz.— (Haliday, M.) 
Ccelloxys elonsata* Lep. — Not very uncommon. Fermoy, Co. Cork 

(Halbert); Monkstown, Ca Dublin, and Rosscarberry, Ca Cork 

(Cuthbert) ; Counties Wexford, Dublin, Kildare, and King's (Freke). 

■esachlle centuncularlSy Linn. — Common and generally dis- 
tributed. 
Anthophora plllpea. Fab.—" United Kingdom " (Smith, p. 191, as 

Pilthyrus rupestrls* Fab.— Limerick (F. Neale, M.); Courtown. Co. 

Wexford (Freke) ; Rosscarberry, Co. Cork (Cuthbert). 
Pi vestalls, Foura— Dundrum and Tallaght, Co. Dublin, and Courtown, 

Co. Wexford (Freke) ; Sandyford, Co. Dublin, and Rosscarberry, Co. 

Cork (Cuthbert). 
P. barbutellusy Kirb.— Dundrum, Co. Dublin (Freke); Rosscarberry, 

Co. Cork (Cuthbert). 
P- campeatrlSy Panz.— (Dr. A. W. Foot, /.<:.) ; Rosscarberry, Co. Cork 

(Cuthbert) ; Ireland (Smith, p. 224). 
Bombus coffnatus, Steph — Very common and generally distributed. 

B. muscoruniy Linn.— Very common and generally distributed. 

B. latraelllellus, var. (ll8tlnffuenclu8,Mor.— CourtownandGorey, 

Ca Wexford, and Arklow, Co. Wicklow (Freke). 
B. hortorunit Linn. — Common and generally distributed. 
B. ichrtmsiilranus.Kirb.— Carrickmines and Dundrum, Co. Dublin 

(Freke); Rosscarberry, Co. Cork (Cuthbert). 
Bi «ylvaruni» Linn.— Port Ballintrae, Co. Antrim (Rev. W. F. Johnson) ; 

Courtown, Co. Wexford, and Rosscarberry, Co. Cork (Cuthbert> 
B. derhamellust Kirb.— Coolmorc, Co. Donegal (Rev. W. F.Johnson). 
B. lapldarlus, Linn. — Very common and generally distributed. 
B* terrestrlSy Linn.— Both forms lucorum and viriinalis are very 

conunon and genendly distributed. 



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44 Tht'Irish NaiuraKsL [Feb. 

THE PLANTS OF WESTMEATH. 

BY H. C. I^EVINGE, D.I^ 



During the past season a considerable number of species and 
varieties of plants not previously recorded from this county, 
or from District VII. of Cybele Hibemica, have been discovered, 
almost altogether by my friends the Revds. E. F. Linton^ 
W. R. Linton, and E. S. Marshall, who paid me a visit in 
July last, and to whom I am indebted for much valuable 
information kindly afforded. 

Among: the Rubi especially, as might be expected in a 
country which had not previously been examined for the 
genus in any but the most casual manner, many interesting 
discoveries were made by the Messrs. Linton, so much so 
indeed that several of the species collected have not as yet 
been finally determined. 

LIST OF SPECIES, 
Caltha palu8trl8» L., var. procumliensy Beck (VII.) fidt Ar. 

Bennett. — Shores of Brittas Lake, Knock Drin. This plant appears 

to be very near C, radicans^ Forster, rooting at the nodes of the 

branches, and with deltoid toothed leaves. 
AQUIleffla vulffarlSy L.--Shore of L. Derevaragh near Knock Body. 

This plant has been already recorded from the county ; but in the 

present locality it has every appearance of being indigenous, 

whereas in those previously mentioned it is doubtfully so.] 
Papaver dublunip L., var. LecoQll* Lamotte (VII.)— Shore of L. 

Derevaragh at Lake House. 
Viola Relchenbachlanay Bor. (VIL)— Knock Ross. 
VIcIa cracca, L., var. Incanap ThuilL (VII.)--N.W. end of L. OweL 
Prunus tnsltltlap Huds. (VII.)— Roadside hedge, Oararee, Knock 

Drin. 
P. cerasusp L (VII.)— Knock Drin wood. 
Rubus Idaeusp L., var. asperrlmusp Lees (VII.). Growing with the 

type, Knock Drin wood. 
R. pllcatusp W. and N., form with pink petals.— Drinmore and 

Crooked Wood— rather plentiful in the latter locality. 
R. opacus, Focke (VII.)— Crooked Wood. 
R. carplnlfollusp W. and N. (VII.)— Crooked Wood. 
R. vllllcaulISp Koehl., var. Selmerl, Lindeb. (VII.)— Clonave ; N.W. 

end of L. Derevaragh, also in boundary hedge between Ball3megall 

and Loughanstown. 
R. Iilrtlfollusp MuelL and Wirtz,, hairy form (VII.)— Knock Drin. 
var. danlcusp Focke (VII.)— Knock Drin woods. 



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1896.] tv:vwG^— The Plants 0/ Westmeath. 45 

R. leucostachyBf Schleich (VII.), form with spreading sepals. — 

Crooked Wood ^nd Knock Ross. 
[R. Drejerif G. Jansen, included previously among the Westmeath 

plants (Irish Naiuralisi for May, 1894, p. 98), must now be struck out 

of the list. It has been excluded from the 9th edition of the 

London Catalbgue, H, Leyanus, Rogers, having taken its place ; but 

careful examination of the Westmeath plant has satisfied Mr. 

Rogers that it is not his R. Leyanus^ and it must, for the present, 

remain undetermined.] 
R. radula^ Weihe, form tending towards var. echanltoldes (VII.) 

-Knock Drin — Var. echlnltoldeSp Rogers (VII.)— Knock Body. 
R.ollffoclados, Muell and Lef7.,var. Ncwl>oldll,Bab.(VII.)-Crooked 

Wood, a somewhat less glandular form than the type ; but otherwise 

not differing from it. 
R. scaber* W. and N. (VII.)— Crooked Wood, Knock Ross, and Knock 

Drin. 
R. fuscusv W. and N., var. macrostachysy P. J. Muell (VII.)— 

Knock Ross. 
R. fuscus X I ncurvatus.— Crooked Wood. A well-marked hybrid. 
R. thyrslffer* Bab. (VII.)— Knock Drin. Mr. Rogers remarks that this 

differs from the type in the want of hairy clothing, and in the 

slightly less irregular serrature of the leaves, and rather less 

armature. 
R. rosaceusy W. and N., var. sllvestrlSf R. P. Murray (VII.)— 

Knock Drin; this is considered to be only a shade-grown form 

of ^ kyttrix. 
N.B.— Besides the above-mentioned Ruhi^ about a dozen species were 
collected last summer in the neighbourhood of the Lakes, and at Knock 
Drin, including several of the hirtus-viridis group, which have not as yet 
been finally determined. 
Potentllla procumbens, Sibth. — Shore of L. Derevaragh near 

Knock Body wood. Not previoiisly definitely recorded from this 

county; but found in the Co. lyongford (Dist. VII.) by Messrs. 

Barrington and Vowell. 
P. procumbens x sylvestrls (VII.)— Same locality as, and growing 

with, the last. 
Rosa sepluin, Thuill. (VII.)— Shores of L. Derevaragh at Knock Eyon 

and Knock Body ; rather plentiful. 
R. canlna, L., var. urbica, Leman (VII.)— Shore of L. Derevaragh at 

Knock Body. 
R. canlna, L., var. dumalls (Bechst) (VII.)— Near the plantation at 

Gonave. Shore of L. Derevaragh. 
[l^hrum 8all<».rla, L.— Shoreof L. Owel at Oonhugh, all three forms 

—1./., with long, short, and intermediate length style— were collected, 

growing together.] 
Bplloblum obscurum x palustre (VII.)— Bog of Lynn. 
Aplum nodlf lorum, Reichb. fil., var. ochreatum, Bab. (VII.)— 

Shore of L. Owel at Clonhugh-and shore of L. Derevaragh at 

Bonore. Not tmcommoiL 



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46 The Irish Naturalist. [Feb. 

Galium palustre, L., var. WItherlnffll, Sm. (VII.)— Bog of Lynn 
and shore of Brittas L., Knock Drin. Not previously definitely re- 
ported from the county; but said to be common about L. Ree 
(Barrington and Vowell). 

Leontodon hispldus, L.— Shores of L. Derevaragh at Knock Ejon 
and Donore— new localities. Previously reported from Creggan 
lyough, near L. Ree, by Messrs. Barrington and VowelL 

Taraxlcum officinale, Web., var. udum, Jord. (VII.)— Knock Drin 

Scrophularia aquatlca, L., var. cinerea, Dum. (VII.)— Shore of 
I/. Derevaragh at Donore. 

Veronica anaflrallls-aquatica, L., var. anaflralllformls, Bor 
(VII.)— Knock Drin, and Scraw Bog, Loughanstown. 

Euphrasia ofTlclnalls, L., var. Rostkovlana, Hayne (VII.)— Bog 
of Lynn. 

Rhinanthus Grista-Galll, L., var. fallax, Wimm. and Grat (VII.) 
—Bog of Lynn. 

Melampyrum pratense, L., forma latlfolla, Bab.— Knock Byon. 
This is given as a variety in the London Catalogue ; but it appears 
to run into the type. 

Utrlcularia Intermedia, Hayne (VII.)— Tullaghan Bog— a very 
interesting discovery by Mr. E. F. Linton. 

Chenopodlum rubrum, L. (VII.)— Shore of L. Derevaragh near the 
mouth of the Yellow River, and shore of L. Drin. 

Polygonum maculatum. Trim, and Dyer (VI I.)— Shore of L. Dere- 
varagh near Knock Body. 

Rumex crispus x obtuslfollus (i?. acutusy L) (VII.)— Knock Drin 
—vide remarks in CybtU Hibemica^ p. 252. 

*Huniulu8 lupulus, L>— Naturalized and well established in hedges 
near Mayne— I^ady Katherine Pakenham. 

Sallx triandra, L. (VIL)— Roadside, Quarry Bog, Knock Drin. 

8. cinerea, L, var. oleifolla, Sm. (VII.)— Bog of Lynn. 

8. aurlta x cinerea {S. lutescens, A. Kern.) (VII.)— Near the mouth of 
the Yellow River, at L- Derevaragh. 

8. aurlta x oaprea {S. capreola, J. Keon) (VII.)— Shore of L 
Derevaragh at Donore. 

8. aurlta x repens {S, ambigua, Ehrh.) (VII.)— Scraw Bog, Loughans- 
town. 

Near the mouth of the Yellow 

River, L. Derevaragh. Were intro- 
duced by the Earl of Longford when 
[♦8. nigricans, Sm. (VIL), planting a strip of the foreshore of 

♦8. phyllclfolla, L. (VII.), . ^jj^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ lowered. This 

♦8. aurlta xnlfirrlcans (VIL),^ 

«8. nifirrlcans x phyllclfolla 



(VILji 



fact is mentioned here for the infor- 
mation of any botanists who may 
hereafter meet with these plants in 
this locality, and consider them to 
^be indigenous ] 



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1896.] \jzvmois.,^The Plants of Westmeath, 47. 

8. vlmlnalls x caprea (5. Smithiana, Willd.)— Roadside, Quarry Bog, 

near Mullingar. 
Eplpa<:tl8 media. Fries. (VII.)— Knock Drin wood. 
Orchis Inc^arnata, L. (VII.)— Bog of Lynn ; vide remarks regarding 

this plant in the Cyb, Bid,, p. 281. 
Spariranlum ramosuniy Huds., var. mlcrocarpunif Newni.(VII. 

— Quarry and Tullaghan Bogs. 
Potamoffeton rufescens. Schrad.— Drain from L. Drin. A new 

locality for this uncommon Westmeath plant It is recorded from 

L. Ennel (Belvedere Lake) in the Cyb. Ifib.sLnd was again found 

there this year ; also from near L. Ree by Messrs. Barrington and 

Vowell. 
P. declplens, Nolte. ( = P. lucms x perfoliatus) (VII.)— L. Derevaragh. 
P. Friesllf Rupr. (VIL)— In a dense mass in Lord Longford's boat 

harbour at L. Derevaragh ; also at L- Ennel. 
Carex divulsa (Good.) (VII.)— Knock Ross. 
C. Goodenovll, J. Gay., var. Juncella, T. M. Fries (VII.)— Bog of 

Lynn- 
Agrostls <»,nlna9 h.y forma mutlca* Doll. (VII.) — Drinmore. 
Phrairinltes communis, Trin., var. nifirrlcansy Gren. and Godr 

(VII.)— N.W. end of L. Owel. 
Poa pratenslSy h.,fomta sut>co0rulea, Sm. (VII.)— Bog of Lynn. 
Glyoerea pllcata* Fr. (VII.)— In drains. Knock Drin. 
Atliyrlum Flllx-fcemlna, Roth., var.convexumy Newman (VII.)— 

Knock Drin. 
La8trea Flllx-mas» Presl., var. afflnls, Bab. (VIL)— Knock Drin. 

var. paleacea* Moore (VII.)— Knock Drin. 
Chara vulffarls* L., var. lonfflbracteata, Kuetz. (VII.)— L. Ennel. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



The Shell of Helix nemoralls. 

Sir,— In the admirable issue of the Irish Naturalist for September, 1895, 
Mr. R. Standen describes (p. 270) the shells of the sub- fossil Helix 
nmoralis of Dog's Bay as being " not calcareous as in recent examples, 
but more of the nature of aragonite." We have passed out of the days, 
let us hope, when shells were commonly said to consist of " lime " ; but 
the above statement is so surprising that it should not remain without 
comment What is aragonite if it is not calcareous } And how can a 
substance be " more of the nature of" a well defined mineral species ? 
I presume that the shell of Helix nemoralis has been proved to consist of 
calcite in fresh specimens. 

Grbn\'ille a. J. Cole. 



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48 The Irish Naturalist. [Feb. 

GEOLOGICAL STUDIES IN THE NORTH. 
Messrs. R. Tate, Wm. Gray, Swanston, Wright, and Stewart, have 
always been known to their brother-geologists by their active researches 
in the field ; but the meeting of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club held 
on December 17th, 1895, deserves special comment, as affording so 
remarkable a proof of the spread of geological observation in the north. 
Miss Steen described the contents of a newly opened cave ; Mr. Robert 
Bell gave the results of his patient search among the Silurian shales of 
Pomeroy ; and Mr. A. G. Wilson detailed the geological features seen on 
the great Galway excursion. But the paper requiring separate attention 
is that by Miss S. M. Thompson, secretary of the geological section of the 
Club, in which the series of excursions held by that section were 
described, with the accompaniment of critical notes upon the districts 
studied. 

The area covered by the field-work of the section, from Annalong to 
Ballycastle, enabled the fourteen or fifteen excursions in themselves to 
form an admirable /r^w of geology. As one reads the report, one sighs 
to think of the hundreds of students to whom the subject is still one of 
diagrams and text-books, and who have to study in regions far removed 
from the enthusiastic guidance of Miss Thompson. On March 23rd, 
glacial and marine post-Pliocene beds were visited, in a new sea-swept 
exposure, at Ballyholme. The numerical work of the boulder-recorders 
was continued ; and the submerged peat, intermediate in age between 
the glacial and the " estuarine " clays, was found exposed on a second 
visit. This study of "post-Pliocene diastrophism,'* as our Califomian 
friends term it, was completed by an excursion to the fossiliferous 
boulder-clay on Divis, some 1,350 ft. above the sea. It is typical of the 
energy of these northern workers that one unsuccessful visit was made to 
this mountain-plateau during a storm, and was followed six weeks later 
by a fruitful one under the guidance of Mr. Stewart, the veteran dis- 
coverer of the deposit. Miss Thompson comments on the abundance of 
chalk boulders at these high levels, far above their parent masses. One 
would be glad to know how far the former chalk surface spread to east- 
ward ; was the eurite of Ailsa Craig intruded into a highland of Cretaceous 
rocks, on the lower and western slopes of which the basalt vents had 
already opened ? The hardened chalk and northern igneous rocks 
might then have come rolling down these slopes in glacial times, to 
become mingled in the boulder-clays on the denuded surface of the 
basalts. The frequent discovery of large blocks of the Ailsa rock in Co. 
Down and Co. Antrim points to its having at one time formed a moun- 
tainous and snow-covered mass comparable to the Moumes themselves. 
There is always the possibility, however, that some of the riebeckite- 
rocks have been derived from those in Skye : and the Belfast geological 
section should endeavour to obtain from the Survey Office in London a 
sample of the more northern variety, which should be kept, with a sec- 
tion, for purposes of close identification. As to the Upper and Middle 
Lias fossils, however, which form one of the most brilliant discoveries of 
Prof. Sollas and Mr. Praeger at Kill-o*-the-Grange near Dublin, I feel 



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1896.] Geological Studies in the North. 49 

by no means '* driven to the Hebridean islands " ^ for their source ; there 
seems no reason why higher Liassic beds should not have existed in Co. 
Antrim, and even, with a capping of Cretaceous strata, in Co. Dublin. 
We often lose sight of the fact that every fragment of detrital material 
found in one spot means that so much has vanished away from another 
spot ; occasionally, as in the case of the Inch conglomerate near Dingle 
and the diamonds of Golconda. it is only the detritus that remains. 

On Easter Tuesday, the geological section visited Tardree, and this 
interesting rhyolitic area has been subsequently attacked several times. 
Hr. J. J. Phillips's photographs of the quarries vie with the best successes 
of Mr. Welch as scientific works of art. Miss Thompson, in her paper, 
reviewed the controversy as to the relative ages of the rhyolites and the 
basalts. On Oct 26th, an expedition was made to Templepatrick quarry, 
to follow out the observations of Mr. M'Henry,* and a number of photo- 
graphs were taken, Miss M. K. Andrews securing a series of four, illus- 
trating the idiole north face. Changes at the east end were noted, due to 
quarrying since the date ( 1888) of Mr. M*Henry*s drawing. Miss Thompson 
showed how the surface of the Chalk falls northward, and allows the 
overljring rhyolite to thicken in that direction. The well to which she 
referred is, however, west, not north of the quarry, and the fact that the 
rhyolite is intrusive — in part, at any rate — may give it a very variable 
lower boundary with the Chalk. Miss Thompson was able, in perfect 
dedmess, to communicate the analysis of the rhyolite of Cloughwater, 
near Ballymena, made by Mr. A. P. Hoskins, P.I.C, as one of the out- 
comes of the geological activity of the Belfast Pield Club. Prom the 
determination of species of fossil foraminifera to original chemical 
work, it is clear that the geological section will soon be competent to 
form a " bureau " for the survey of the county. It is not often that 
government offices, for special purposes, are so well equipped with 
specialists. 

Another excursion described was that to Coalpit Bay, near Donagha- 
dee^ where Mr. Swanston worked in the earlier days of field-club enter- 
prise. Graptolites fortunately rewarded the expedition. The beautiful 
Httle sections in Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks at Woodbum, where the 
Greensand is so green that the term can be no longer scoffed at, occupied 
another good May day. On June 8th, the glacial beds near Ballycastle 
were examined; on the 22nd, Liassic fossils were being unearthed at 
Island Magee; and the week spent in the north of Ireland by the 
Geologists' Association owed much of its organisation and success to the 
experience of the geological section. The dykes of the Moume coast 
were visited on August aist, and Miss Thompson made some interesting 
notes on intrusive rocks at Castlewellan. 

Now that so much experience as to general geological features has been 
obtained, may I suggest, as an addition to the winter work, the collect* 
ing and, where necessary, the abstracting, of all papers relating to or 
bearing closely on the geology of Ca Antrim, so that this literature may 

* Irish Naiuralist, Dec, 1895, p. 328. « Gtohgical Maganne, June, 1895. 

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50 The Irish Naturalist, [Feb. 

be permanently accessible to the Club ? Chronological order need not 
be observed, provided that each pamphlet receives a number, and a 
triple index, arranged according to date, authors, and subjects, be kept 
going. Thus Jean Francois Berger's papers in the early Transactions of 
the Geological Society of London— containing, by-the-by, the best 
account hitherto published of the rocks of Sandy Braes— the works of 
Sir A. Geikie on Tertiary volcanic activity in our islands. Prof. Jndd's 
three papers on the Secondary rocks of Scotland, and separate copies of 
geological papers in the Field Club's own Proceedings, should be 
collected whenever opportunity occurs. Second-hand catalogues will 
help, in the case of authors who are no longer living or who are unable 
to spare copies of their papers. The Geological Section has now estab- 
lished its position ; every field-worker in our islands will be happy to 
assist in observations so brightly and energetically carried out 

Grenvii^ia a. J. Coi,E. 



PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



RoYAi, Zoor^oGiCAi, Society. 

Recent donations comprise a Squirrel and a Plover from Master I>es- 
pard ; a pair of Wolves and a pair of Storks have been purchased. 
3,170 persons visited the Gardens in December. 



Dubinin Microscopicai^ Ci,ub. 

DECEMBER I9th.--The Club met at Mr. MaTTHEW Hedi^EY'S, who 
exhibited a section of the intestine of a Lamb in which the presence of a 
large number of coccidia was evident. Coccidiosis or psorospermosis of 
the liver of the domestic Rabbit is comparatively common, and the disease 
is not rare among wild Rabbits. In that form in which the liver is at- 
tacked, the parasite has been designated Coccidium oviforme. Besides this 
there is another form, which attacks both Pheasants and Rabbits almost 
identical^ and which invades the intestinal epithelium, named Coccidium 
perforans. It is probable that the Lamb, in the instance under discussion, 
was affected by the C, perforcuis. The Coccidia belong to the class Sporozoa, 
and like the others of that class are reproduced by spores ; there is an 
absence of flagella, cilia or suckers. They are parasitic in habit, and in 
the adult stage possess a capsule or shell. Mr. Hedley laid on the table 
a large number of transparencies which illustrated the characteristics 
and life history, so far as such is known, of this interesting division of 
Sporozoa. For these transparencies and slides he expressed indebtedness 
to Professor M'Fadyean, of London. 



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i89^] Proceedings of Irish Societies. 51 

Mr G. H. Carpbntbr showed a female spider, Lepiyptantes pallidm, Cb., 
collected in the Mitchelstown cave in July last by Mr. H. L. Jameson. It 
is an addition to the Irish fauna. Although possessing well-developed 
eyes, this spider is stated b}- M. Simon to be, in Prance, an inhabitant of 
caves. It has been found in similar situations in Bavaria. Mr. Cambridge 
took the type specimen at roots of Heather in Dorset. 

Mr. MooRB exhibited root-hairs of a plant which had been received at 
Glasnevin, as CoUiguaja odorifera, but which was not this species. The 
plant produced slender green stems, bearing rather fleshy leaves. 
From the epidermal tissue around these leaves a dense cushion of 
imicellnlar delicate white root-leaves were produced, and later on from 
this cnshion, in the axil of the leaves, an adventitious root was developed. 
The appearance of this cushion of fine leaves was very remarkable. The 
hairs had protoplasmic contents. 

Mr. Greenwood Pm showed PhyUacHnia guUcUa, Lev., an interesting 
mildew which occurred in great abundance on Ash leaves at Brackens- 
town. 

Prop. T. Johnson exhibited a section of Dilsea edulis^ Stackh., a red 
alga to be found at low water all round the Irish and English coasts. 
The section showed growing, in the Dihea thallus, a small green alga, 
CUorockytnum indusum^ Kjell., and, on its surface, a red alga Nitophyllum 
reptans, Cm., which creeps over the Dilsea thallus, clinging to it by short 
multicellular crampons (sucker-like bodies). The endophyte, C inclusum, 
and the epiph3rte, N, rtptans^ are additions to the Irish marine flora. 
Both are recorded from Uie south coast of England, and N, reptans from 
the east coast of Scotland. The specimens (of which spirit material was 
also exhibited), were gathered in September, 1895, on the west coast of 
Shcrkin Island (Co. Cork). Judging from Kjellman*s remarks (" Algae of 
the Arctic Seas"), C inclusum should be found wherever D. edulis occurs. 
C. mdusum is a good illustration of a ' raum -parasite.' N, reptans was also 
foimd on Lamittaria stalk, its more usual anchorage. 

Mr. M'A&DI«E exhibited the reproductive organs of Plagiochila asple- 
nuida, L., which he collected recently in Howth demesne. This widely 
^stributed liverwort is rarely found in fruiting condition. One specimen 
noder the microscope showed the fully grown perianth, cut longitudi- 
nally and folded back, exposing several unfertilised archegonia at the 
base. The antheridia exhibited were large, obovate to sphaerical in shape, 
with a well-marked hyaline marginal ring, stalks or pseudopodia as long 
as the antheridia, of which there were three enclosed in the saccate base 
of each altered leaf, the whole amentee is formed of from four to seven 
paits, situated at the apex of each stem, which becomes incurved during 
growth in a remarkable manner. The male plant is much smaller than 
the female, and was growing apart from it, this may account in some 
measure for the scarcity of the fruit, although it has been reported to be 
found with both organs on the one plant (monoecious). 



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52 The Irish Naturalist [Feb. 

BBI.FAST NaTURAWSTS' FlEl,D Cl,UB. 

January 8th.— The Geological section met, when Alec G. XWlson, Hon- 
Sec of the Club, gave some notes on a recent visit to Dungiven. The 
Cretaceous rocks exposed there are specially interesting, being believed 
to represent a higher zone than is found in County Antrim ; and are 
noted for the numerous gastropods which they contain. A series of 
fossils obtained during the visit was exhibited. Much interest was 
aroused by some specimens of the porphyritic Rhyolite which occurs near 
Hillsborough, exhibited by Mr. Wilson, who succeeded in obtaining this 
rock, which is rather difficult to discover or obtain, as the quarry is 
flooded and no longer worked, and consequently overgrown with herbage. 
Extracts from an important pamphlet by P. F. Kendall, F.G.S., on the 
Glacial Geology of the Isle of Man, were idso read. Rock specimens were 
presented by A. G. Wilson and R. Bell, who also presented a rock section 
for the microscope of the dyke of basaltic Andesite found by him at 
Ballygomartin. 

January 21st— The President (Mr. P. W. Lockwood) in the chair. 
Mr. G. H. CarprnTER, delegate from the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, 
lectured on " Our Plants and Animals : Old Inhabitants and New Arrivals.' 
The lecture, illustrated by lantern slides of specimens and scenery, dealt 
with the problems of geographical distribution, and covered much the 
same ground as the address to the Dublin Club to be printed in full ia 
our next issue. 

The President expressed the pleasure it had given the Belfast Club 
to hear Mr. Carpenter's views on such an interesting subject. 

Mr. W. Gray was sure that Mr. Carpenter had not put forward his 
theories in a dogmatic spirit, but with a view to stimulate research. It 
was possible that the absence of records of a species from a certain dis- 
trict meant only that no one had looked for it there. 

Prof. Symington said that no laboratory worker could disparage the 
labours of a systematic or faunistic naturalist, with the example of Darwin 
in view. 

Mr. Carpenter, in reply, thanked the Club for their kind reception. 
He quite agreed with Mr. Gray that there was need for caution, and 
remarked that such speculations as he had put forward, must rest on the 
records of animsls and plants whose range had been fairly ascertained. 

Dubinin Naturawsts' Fiei«d Ci,ub. 
January I4th.--The Annual General Meeting was held at the Royal 
Irish Academy House. The President (G. H. Carpenter, B.Sc) occupied 
the chair, and there was a good attendance of members. The Secre- 
tary, in response to a call from the chair, read the Annual Report, 
which showed that during the year the membership had risen from 158 
to 194. Reference was made to the decease of two original members of 
Committee— Dr. V. Ball and Mr. A. G. More. During the jrear six busi- 
ness meetings and seven excursions were held, and a conversazione in 
addition. Special reference was made to the good work done on the 



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1*9^] Proceedings of Irish Societies. S3 

excursions, the results including many species of plants and animals 
not hitherto found in Ireland. The most important event of the year was 
the week's Conference and Excursion of all the Irish Field Clubs, held at 
Galway in July, which has been fully reported in the Irish Naturalist. 
Under the Field Club Union an interchange of lecturers between the 
different Clubs was carried out The Committee voted a sum of money 
towaids de&a3ring the expenses of the Union, and propose an addition to 
the Rules of the Club which will render membership of the diflFerent Clubs 
interchangeable. The Report of the Flora Committee showed good pro- 
gress during the year. The ommittee recommended a grant of £$ to the 
Irish A'aturalist, The Treasurer (Prof. T. Johnson, D.Sc.) next submitted 
his report, which showed an increase of £i^ in the balance on hand, 
and a thoroughly sound financial condition. The adoption of the 
report and accounts was moved by Prof. Haddon and seconded by 
Mr. W. F. DB V. Kane, and passed after a discussion in which Mr. J. J. 
Dowling, the President, Secretary, and Treasurer took part In accord- 
ance with the Rules, the following officers for 1896 were declared 
elected— President, Prof G. A. J. Cole, F.G.S. ; Vice-President, N. Colgan 
M.R.1^ ; Treasurer, Prof T. Johnson, D.Sc. ; Secretary, R. Lloyd 
Praeger, B.A., B.E. ; Committee, G. H. Carpenter, B.Sc, H. K. G. Cuth- 
bcrt, J. J. Dowling, Rev. T. B. Gibson, MA., Mrs. W. S. Green, Miss 
Hensman, H. Lyster Jameson, Miss E. J. Kelsall, D. M*Ardle, E. J. 
M*Weeney, M.A., M.D., Greenwood Pim, M.A., Mrs. J. T. Tatlow. 
Prof. Coi,b having taken the chair, a hiearty vote of thanks to Mr. 
Carpenter for his care and attention during the two years of his Pre- 
sidency was passed, on the motion of Mr. H. C Ramage, seconded by 
H. Lyster Jameson. The Secretary moved an addition to Rule V., 
providing " that Members of other Irish Field Clubs residing temporarily 
or permanently in or near Dublin may be enrolled members of the Club 
wi^out election or entrance fee on production of a voucher of member- 
ship of another Club, and without subscription for the current year on 
production of a receipt showing that such subscription has been paid to 
another Club. Failing the production of such receipt, the usual sub- 
scription for the current year to be paid to the Treasurer on enrolment* 
The names of members so admitted to the Club to be published with the 
notice of meeting following the date of their enrolment Mr. Carpenter 
seconded the motion, which was passed after a short discussion. The 
thanks of the Club were voted to the Council of the Royal Irish Academy 
for the use of the rooms, and to the press for their kindness in reporting 
the proceedings. A general discussion ensued on the improvement 
of the C lub, next Summer's excursions, and other matters Prof. Haddon 
subsequently addressed the meeting on the importance of studying the 
fresh-water fauna of Ireland, pointing out the interesting discoveries 
that have already been made, and the large field open for future research. 
The Secretary exhibited, on behalf of Mrs I^awrenson, a number of 
beautiful Christmas Roses of her own raising, which were much admired. 
Mr. H. Roycroft was elected a member of the Club. 



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54 The Irish Naturalist. fl^eb. 

FIELD CI<UB NEWS. 



The accounts of the Galway Conference are only now finally closed. 
They show a turn-over of over ;f 500 during the week, and, all charges bemg 
paic^ a balance of just idr. remains in the Secretary's hands. A still closer 
cut was made in the case of the Dublin Club's Excursion account for the 
past year, which, with a total turn-over of ;^2io, shows a balance on 
hands of 2^.! 

The Cork Field Club purpose holding a Conversazione on March loth, 
in conjunction with the Literary and Scientific Society. Arrangements 
are being made whereby all the Irish Field Clubs will be represented 
personally or by exhibits. 

When, two years ago, the Belfast Club decided to make a collection of 
specimens of the rocks of their district, a hope was expressed that 
microscopic sections of many of the rocks would also be presented. Mr. 
Robert Bell has given the first section as yet received, being a portion of 
the dyke of basaltic andesite which he recently discovered at Ballygo- 
martin, and other members have intimated their intention of bestowing 
similar gifts. The possession of a representative collection of rocks of 
their district will probably commend itself to all our Clubs, whose 
members recall the great advantage which they experienced during the 
Galway Conference in seeing the fine collection of local specimens in 
the Queen's College Museum. 

Arrangements are now complete for the course of lectures on Sea- weeds 
by Professor T. Johnson, d.sc., which we mentioned in our last issue. 
The lectures will be given on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons, 
commencing, on Saturday, March 7th, and several will take the form ol 
excursions for the study of Sea- weeds in their native haunts. Inquiries 
about the course (the fee for which is only lox. for the twelve lectures) 
should be addressed to Professor Johnson at the College of Science, 
Stephen's Green. 

Professor J. W. Carr, m.a., lectured to a large audience of the Notting- 
ham Naturalists* Society on January 14th, on the Field Club Union 
Excursion to Galway last July. The President (W. Stafford, m.b.) occu- 
pied the chair. The lecture was illustrated by the beautiful series of 
lantern views of the excursion by Mr. R. Welch, which most of our 
readers have already had an opportunity of seeing, and by a fine set of 
plants collected on the trip. The lecture was followed with deep 
interest, and very high praise was bestowed on the slides by experts 
who were present 

Dr. R. F. Scharff has contributed to the M^moires of the SocikJit 
Zoologiquede France a most valuable paper, Etude sur les Mammiftres dela Rtgum 
Holarctiqtu et leurs Relations avec ceuxdes Regions voisineSy for which the Czar's 
prize was awarded at the Moscow International Zoological Congress. 
The present and past distribution of each animal is dealt with in turn, 
and conclusions are drawn therefrom regarding the geological histoiy 
of Europe during Tertiary times. 



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NOTES. 

BOTANY. 

FUNGI. 
A Blrd*s-nttat Fundus new to Ireland.— Some few years ago, 
and again last month, I received from Mr. James Thompson, Macedon, 
Bel&st, specimens of a small Bird*s-nest Pnngus, which Dr. M<Weeney 
has identified for me as Cyaihus vemicosus, DC, of which, he remarks, he 
has no previons record from Ireland. Miss S. M. Thompson has kindly 
supplied particulars about its occurrence. The fungus comes up year by 
yearinpotsof Crassula^Pdunia^ Carnation, &c., in a cold house at Macedon ; 
and its occurrence there has been noticed for more than twenty years. 
As some interest attaches to this very curious group of Fungi, I have 
depodted the specimens in the Herbarium at the Science and Art 
Museum, where they may be examined. 

R. LlfOYD Prabosr. 

Eartfi-8tars In Co. TIppormry.— I#ast month Rev. J. W. ffrench 
Sheppard, ic.a., sent me from Rodeen, Borrisokane, three specimens of 
one of the strange-looking Earth-stars. They were found in a fir- wood. 
The specific characters of this group of I^ungi appear to be somewhat 
sU^t, but Mr. Greenwood Pirn, who has kindly examined the specimens, 
has little hesitation in referring them to Geaster fimbriatm^ Fries. 

R. Ll«OYD PRAB09R. 

MUSCINE^, 
■o98 Exchanse Club.— It is proposed to form an Exchange Club 
for Mosses and Hepaticse somewhat on the lines of those at present in 
cristence for exchanging and recording Phanerogams. Any persons 
interested in Bryology who would wish to become members are invited 
to send in their names to Rev. C. H. Waddell, Saintfidd, Co. Down. 

ZOOLOGY. 
BIRDS, 

Irish Bird Notes.— GrkBN Samdpipbr {Toianus ochropms),^X>VLnng 
the month of August several specimens of this bird have been obtained 
in difierent parts of Ireland, one so early as August 8th, shot at Kinnegad, 
Co. Heath, one on the aoth at Broadford, Co. Clare, and a third obtained 
at Mount Charles, DonegaL 

Bi,ACXTAii*BD GoDWiT {Limosa aioeephala). — Have been very numerous 
this antomn. A small flock frequented Baldoyle Estuary the latter end 
of September, but I fiadled to obtain a specimen ; one shot on 27th August, 
Kathangan, another at Clare Castle} several, Rosslare, Wexford, 24th 
August 

Ba&tau^ED GodwiT (Limosa lap>pmica),-'An individual of this species 
^ot at Dundalk, September 7, retaining a good deal of the red summer 
phtmage. 

AvocsT {JRecuroirostra av0C€tta),—-PL specimen of this exceedingly rare 
visitor to Ireland was obtained by Mr. Gibbon, junr., at Rosslare, 
Vedord, on the 27th August ; it was a young bird of the year. 



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S6 The Irish Naiuralui. t^eb. 48J6. 

HOOPOB (Upupa epops^-^mt from Rosslea, Co. Permanagli, i^tli 
September, a very carious date for the occurrence of this bird, as it it 
generally on the spring migration alid usually in the south of Ireland 
that it occurs. 

Richardson's Skua (JStercorarius €repidatus),-~AXL the specimens of this 
bird I have met this autumn belonged to the dark form ; one obtained 
Rathangan, 13th August, a good many from Gli£fbney, Sligo, during 
September ; amongst them a curious variety with patches of pure white 
on wings and breast 

POMATORHINB Skua (Jitercorarius pomcUorhinui^—^VLt, from Killamey, 
October loth, one on 14th, Ballinfull, Sligo, and another captured whilst 
eating a good-sized chicken at Ballinastragh, Gorey, Co. Wexford. 

Sj^UACCO Hbron {^Ardea ralloidei),^K beautiful specimen of this bird 
was shot at Waterville, Co. Kerry, 17th September, a young male in 
second year's plumage ; the stomach was filled vrith remains of small 
Crustacea ; I have heard of another shot in Co. Cork same time, but have 
not particulars. 

GrbaT Northern Divbr {Colymbus glacialis),^ln full summer plum- 
age. Obtained so late as i6th October, without a trace of the winter moult, 
Kylemore, Connemara. 

A variety of the Bai^d Coot (Fulica aira), with almost half the 
plumage pure white was obtained near Bnniskillen, and a Rock Pipit 
(Anthus obscurus) with head, wings, and part of breast white, was shot 
near Bray. 

Edward Wiuiams, Dublin. 

GEOU)GY. 
Quartzlt«.^It might, perhaps, be worth mentioning that on the 
occasion of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club excursion to Co. Donegal 
last year, I secured in the quartrite specimens of suncracks, ripple- 
marks, and raindrop marks, the two first being especially characteristic. 
All three are small hand-specimens chipped off large slabs of the 
formation, and were obtained in or close to the Seven Arches Cave, 
Portsalon. Should they be thought of sufficient interest either Mr. 
Watts or Mr. Kinahan are very welcome to examine them. Their 
general appearance, excepting, of course, the material, is wonderfully 
like the Triassic sandstones of Scrabo, near Newtownards, Co. Down, 
as the markings seem to occur chiefly on thin fine-grained bands, which 
are of mud, in the Triassic stones. A lucky chance might even hit on 
a fossil in some of these less altered deposits. 

Auc. G. Wii,soN» Belfast. 

The Denudation of th« Chalk*— Prof. Cole contributes a paper 
on this subj ect to the Gtological Magatine for December, 1895. Particular re- 
ference is made to the startling photograph, by Mr. R. Welch, showing 
the condition of White Park Bay, Co. Antrim, after the great storm of 
December, 18^— a chaotic expanse of great blocks of Chalk, resting on a 
floor of Lias, wher« on the previous day, and for years previously, an 
uninterrupted expanse of smooth sand had stretched. 



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ton*, 1896.] if 

THE MINGLING OF THE NORTH AND THE SOUTHv 

BY GBOR6B H. CAHFSKTBR, B.SC» 

(Presidential Address to Dublin Naturalists* Field Club, Dec, loth, 1895)* 

Thb last few years have been noteworthy in the annals of 
natural science in Ireland. Signs of renewed interest among 
the people in the studies which we hold dear, and the steady 
progress of zoological, botanical, and geological research in 
the country have combined to cheer us ; though we feel deeply 
how much more of this western land of scientific promise still 
remains to be possessed. But the one feature which helps to 
make the last two years memorable, is the realisation of fellow- 
ship among our workers in different parts of the country which 
has culminated in the establishment of the Irish Pidd Club 
Union. It is a hopeful sign that the differences, which in 
Ireland array province against province and race against race, 
have no power to hinder the mingling of the naturalists of 
the north with their brethren of the south. Mr. Praeger's 
series of papers on the Irish Field Clubs^ taught those societies 
each other's histories, and in his concluding remarks he pre» 
saged the foundation of the Union which this year has seen 
accomplished. In his history of our own Club, he reminded 
us how on several occasions we had enjoyed the privilege of 
a joint excursion with our elder sister of Belfast. I^ast year*, 
however, saw not only a most successful reunion of these two 
Clubs (and of a contingent of the North Staffordshire Club) at 
Drogheda, but a highly satisfactory gathering of the Dublin, 
Cork, and I^imerick Clubs at Permoy, where the Union was 
first proposed. During last winter, the Committees of all four 
Irish Clubs definitely constituted it by each appointing its 
President and Secretary to serve on a central Committee ; and 
this year* has seen the first conference of the federated Clubs 
held at Galway, the meeting being rich both in edifying dis- 
cussion and good practical work in the field. The pleasure 
and profit of the gathering were enhanced by the presence 
of many naturalists from England. How heartily they joined 
with us in exploring the natural treasures of the &x west, and 
what results followed from the united labours of our harmo- 

» /rM /Vif/uralisf, vol. iii., 1894. • J894. 3 1895. 

A 

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3? The Irish Naturalist. [ Mwdu 

nious party have been fully recorded.' Among the noteworthy 
utterances: al that conference, I would re^l and heartily wish 
fulfilment to thp hope ejqwressed by the Hon. R. E. Dillon — 
whose recent remarkable discoveries among the lepidopterawill 
be fresh in all our minds — ^that Galway may soon have a Field 
Club of its own. And I would also venture to echo Mr. F. J. 
jigger's hope that the Union may be the means of knitting 
the various Clubs even closer together, until there shall be 
but one Naturalists' Society for the entire country. The 
mingling of the north and the south in the west, last July will, 
Ive trust, have far-reaching and beneficial ^Qect^. None could 
be presient at such a gathering without realising the unity 
which binds together the naturalists of the . country, cheers 
them for renewed effort, and makes them feel that all are 
."Working towards the same great end. 

i But is the end which field naturalists set before themselves 
indeed great ? Who is the better or the wiser for knowing 
that some weed or beetle has been found iu a^ county:— or an 
island — where it had not been found before? Or for being 
able to decide whether the particles in a lump of clay were 
dropped from an ice-berg, left by a glacier, or carried by a 
current ? In a recent charming book' one of our most eminent 
English entomologists has expressed the wish that more field 
naturalists would leave their records of " parochial distribu- 
tion " and turn their attention to life-histories. It cannot be 
denied that such a rebuke is timely ; and yet it is not the 
study of parochial distribution, but the study of distribution 
in a parochial spirit that deserves rebuke. The result 
obtained by the man who, after years of patient research with 
scalpel and microscope, calls up for us, from the vanished 
.ages of the past, the image of the ancestor of the vertebrates 
or the arthropods " in fashion as he lived," appeals to the 
^dullest mind as a veritable " fairy-tale of science." But can 
.this be said of the product of the worker whose years of toil 
are rewarded by a list of long Latin names, meaningless to 
nine-tenths of the people who glance at them ? If the list 
were the end, perhaps not. But each worker however humble, 
at the flora or fauna of a district however small, may realise, 

« Irish Naturfdist, vol. iv. (Sept. 1895). 

« I;. C. Miall.— A^a/wm/ History ^f AquatU Insicts. London, 1895. 

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iS96k] CA^t:pvssrn^.— Afingling iff the N^rikimd South. 59 

if he wiU^ that the list is not the end : that each step^tof^ards 
a more complete knowledge of the geographical distribution 
of animals or plants is a step towards a more complete know- 
ledge of the past history of the species he has studied, of their 
original home, their emigrations and immigrations, their 
advances and retreats ; a more complete knowledge of the 
nature and positions of the old lands over which they passed, 
of the old seas, lakes, or rivers by whose margins they wan- 
dered. These are the problems which the combined work of 
the systematic and distributional naturalist and of the field 
geologist— may they ever work side by side — must help to 
solve. And when the problems have been solved, we shall 
see not only the hypothetical ancestor ; we shall restore in 
imagination the sunken continent wherein he lived, and the 
sev^-ed isthmuses which his descendants crossed. 

The members of our Galway Conference might have 
furnished material to the ethnographist for an interesting^ 
study. Gathered in that old western city were men and 
women representing varying types of race, and speaking with 
differing accents their common English tongue. A true 
Irishman whose ancestors have lived in the land since the days 
of the m3rthical heroes of the old folk-tales ; an Ulsterman 
whose name is evidence that his forbears came from the " land 
of the mountain and the flood " ; a member of one of those old 
Anglo-Norman families whose long sojourn in this island is 
said to have made them "more Irish than the Irish"; a 
Dubliner, settled since a few generations on Irish soil^ ^pugh 
his name and sympathies mark him for a Teuton ; an unmis^ 
takably English immigrant, who seems nevertheless to have 
come here to stay ; another Englishman who will return to 
his own country when the Conference ends : — all these types 
might have been noted by the Connemara roadside or on the 
deck of the Duras. And the thoughtful naturalist could i^ot 
fail to consider how this mixed assembly was typical of the 
fiauna and flora of Ireland, made up as they are of varying 
elements which have entered the country at different times 
and by different roads — at what times and by what roads it is 
our business to find out.' We might present each of these 
typical naturalists with an appropriate animal or plant, whose 

' C Kingsley— " On Bio-Geology " (1871) in " Scientific I^ectures and 
Bfisa^B." London, 1880, 

A a 

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6o The Irish Hmtumlisi. [Maith, 

place of origin roughly resembles his own, bnt whose age of 
family vastly exceeds his. The true Irish native who believes 
he came from Spain will be suited with St. Patrick's Cabbage ; 
the Ulsterman with the Var3ring Hare ; the Anglo-Norman 
with THfolium repens — clover in England, but shamrock in 
Ireland. To the settler from England of some generations' 
standing, the Common Frog (if we are to trust tradition) would 
be a happy zoological partner. The English immigrant who 
has recently come to stay may be compared to the Magpie, 
and the visitor who will flit back straightway across St 
George's Channel to the solitary Nightingale that once was 
seen on Irish soil — only that visitor was shot. 

This recognition of distributional types among Irish 
animals and plants calls us to remember famous men. We 
have this year mourned the loss of two naturalists who did 
much for Irish science. Of the value of Alexander G. More's 
work there is no need for me to speak, but it would be un- 
gracious not to recall the philosophical spirit in which he 
approached the study of distribution, and the importance of 
his work in appl3dng Watson's botanical distributional t3rpes' 
to two groups of animals, the Birds* and the Butterflies.' The 
name of Valentine Ball I would mention, not only as that of a 
hearty friend and original member of our Club, but as a direct 
link with the naturalists of a past generation. His father's 
house was the meeting-place of a group of men whose brilliant 
labours threw a halo round British science in the first half of 
this century. Prominent among these men was Edward 
Forbes, and no one who takes up this subject of distribution 
can afford to neglect his classical papef* in which the special 
features of the Irish flora are treated with so masterly a hand. 
Into the labours of such men — Forbes and Thompson, Haliday 
and Jukes, we have entered. May we be worthy of our trust. 

Of the various problems presented by the distribution of 
animals and plants in Ireland, I wish to dwell on the remark- 
able mingling of northern and southern forms, so well 
typified by the mingling of the northern and southern Clubs 
of the new Union. This mingling has been often alluded to 

« H. C. Watson—" Cybele Britannica.** I^ndon, 1847. 

• Ibis (2), vol. i, 1865. » Zoologist, voL xvi, 1858, p. 6oia 

* Mem, CeoU Surv, GU Brit^ vol. L, 18461 



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1896^] CARPBsrjiR.—MingliMg &f the North and South. 61 

by the originator of this Club. Prof. Haddon/ as chanctcriitic 
of the marine invertebrates of the west coast, and, as I have 
remarked in a recent paper,* the southern forms often range 
northwards up the coast as far as Donegal, the northern ones 
southwards as fiau: as Cork. Within the last few months has 
been issued by the Royal Dublin Society the fall report by 
Messrs. Holt and Calderwood^ on the rare fish found during 
the survey of the western fishing grounds in 1890-1. The 
mingling of the north and the south is most markedly shown 
here, so that the vertebrate and invertebrate marine faunas are 
seen to present similar characters. 

Such a mingling of northern and southern species is to be 
noted also among the land animals and plants, especially in 
the west. The wonderiul assemblage of Pyrenean and 
Spanish plants, found in Cork, Kerry, and Galway, and 
nowhere else in the British Isles — the Saxifrages, the Arbutus, 
the peculiar Connemara Heaths are doubtless familiar to us alL 
Mingled with such southern forms as these, our Galway 
party noticed growing on Gentian Hill and elsewhere, hardly 
above sea-level, such characteristically arctic and alpine 
species as Dty€L5 octopetala^ Arctostaphylcs uva-urst, and Lobelia 
iarlmanna. And it is well known that in the western counties 
are also to be found a few plants of North American origin— 
Emcaulon septangulare, Naias flexilis^ Sisyrinchium anceps, 
S^itnnthes romauMOviana, the two latter unknown elsewhere 
in Burope, the first-named occurring also in Skye and other 
isles of the Hebrides, and the second in Perthshire. Dis- 
coveries within the last few years by Mr. Praeger and Mrs. 
Uebody have extended the range of the Spiranthes northwards 
to Armagh^ and Derry.^ 

It will be of interest to see how Irish animals can be referred 
to distributional types corresponding with those of the plants 
jnst mentioned* Only this year has the assembly of North- 
American plants been matched among animals by Dr. 
Hanitsch's researches into our Freshwater Sponges,* showing 
that lakes in the west of Ireland possess three North- American 
sponges hitherto unknown in Europe* 

* Five. R.LA» (3), voL i., p. 42* * Irish Nat., vol. iv., 1895, p. 297. 
» Scu Trans. R* D. Soc. (a), voL V, 1895, pp. 361-512. 

* Iriih Nat, vol il, 1893, p 159. ' /.^., p 228. 

* Iriih NatartiiUp vqL iv., 1895, p. 122. 

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6d 'ITkeTn^h NUiumtUL [»fardi 

: Tanting to the group of southern or Pyreuean plants w 
find' a con^esponding group of animals. The Kerry slug- 
'.Geomaiacus nuuulostts, confined to a few square miles in th( 
south-west and only known elsewhere from Portugal ; MesiU 
7an(^abeetleof aMediterrianean and Atlantic Island genus 
distributed nearly all over Ireland, and occurring also at \ 
few points in the west of Great Britain ; the house-spide: 
(7>^;;fifarM hibefniai) of Dublin and Cork — unknown in Greai 
Britain and closely related to a Pyrenean species; and the 
new British weevil<C?/tit?frAj^n^^iMa«n^ii^i^i/f^)also aPyreneat 
species, discovered by Messrs. Halbert and Cuthbert along th( 
<:6ast north of Dublin, are a few examples of this group 
Striking additions to it have lately been made by Mr. Pocock*.* 
record of the millipede Palydesmus gallicus,^ and Mr. Friend'* 
discovery of two Mediterranean earthworms, AUolobophon 
veneta and A, Georgiiin Ireland."* It is remarkable and puzzling 
however, that while the Pyrenean plants keep strictly to the wesi 
of Ireland, most of these animals range to the east and some an 
not found in the west at all. There is a western species, 
however, which I have no doubt should be reckoned as be- 
longing to this southern group. Last year a former membei 
of this Club— Rev. R. M*Clean— took on a mountain behind 
Sligo a specimen of Erebia epiphron — a butterfly unknown it 
Ireland since Birchall took it thirty years ago on Croagl 
Patrick* As this is a Scottish and north of England insect, 
it has been believed that it came into Ireland from the north 
But when we consider that it is confined to the mountains o 
southern Burope: Pyrenees, Alps, Vosges, &c.,and is unknown 
in Scandinavia, we must believe that it came to us with Xhi 
Pyrenean flora and passed northward from us into Scotland 
But there is another and very distinct southern fauna ii 
western Ireland. In a study of the distribution of Britisl 
butterflies on which I am now engaged, I find that ail th< 
. species of southern range in Great Britain have a southen 
or western range in Ireland. Our collections made in Galwa} 
furnish some striking parallels in other groups to this obser 
vation. The Rose-chafer (Cetonia auratci) which we found ir 
numbers on Inishmore might not be seen in a walk pf twc 
hundred miles across Ireland. It seems only to be at all plen 

« Irish Nat.^ vol. il, 1893, p. 309. *See pp. 70 and 72 of current nombe) 

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1%^} CAS^WfttnSi.—Mtngiim of the tforth and Soutk. 63^ 

tifol along the south and south-west coasts. Yet on Axan,^ 
this insect — characteristic of the well- wooded and highly 
cultivated south of England — was abundant. On Arav too 
we got three species of Attida or jumping-spiders— a family 
which in tropical countries outnumbers all other spiders — 
though but seven species are, as yet, known in Ireland. Most 
striking of all however is the fact that some of the western 
Irish animals have a south-eastern r^ge in Great Britain, 
and would be confidently referred to Watson's Germanic type 
of distribution. Such are some of Mr. Dillon's most startling 
Clonbrock lepidoptera'— Zw<-sw^z pyrina, Macrogaster casiofua^ 
and JLinuicodes testudo. And it is possible that tiyo of th^ 
most conspicuous animals which attracted our attention around 
Galway — the large grasshopper:/t/<s^^5/^/Af^^r^x^2^, andthe great 
wolf-spider Dolcmedes fimbriatm^-'mM^i be reckoned as corre- 
sponding to these, though their continental range might 
indicate a northern origin* With little doubt we may place 
alongside them the Lough Corrib jumping-spider — Alius 
flaricola — ^perhaps the most remarkable zoological ^nd of the 
excursion, a German species, possibly occurring in France, but 
unknown in Great Britain. And here also belongs a discovery 
made by Messrs. F. Neale and J. N, Halbert near Limerick this 
year: Panagatis crux-major^ a handsome ground beetle con- 
fined in Great Britain to ^outh-eastern England, and ranging 
over Europe into the south of Siberia. 

So much for the south. What had the Galway excursion 
to tell us of northern animals ? On the summit of Ben Lettery, 
it was my good fortune to take a specimen of the rare alpine 
ground-beetle, Leishis monlanus, not occurring in Great Britain 
south of Cumberland. By Lough Corrib shore, Mr. Halberi 
found another mountain beetle of the same family'— Carabus 
ciaiAraHts-^wbich inhabits various localities in Scotland, is 
unknown in England, Wales, or eastern Ireland, but is found 
on the mountains of the west as far south as Bantry Bay^ 
But most striking of all was another ground-beetle which' Mr. 
Halbert took on Lough Corrib shore : Pelophila horealis. By 
many an Irish lake is this beetle to be found, from Killarney 
to Armagh and Donegd. On the mainland of Great Britain 
it is quite unknown ; but it reappears in the Orkneys, and 

" ■ I — ■ ' ■ ■ i 1 . t .1 ■ . > ■■ 

. , . . ■ / , . 

* MfUom^t 1894. 



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^ the irisk h^aiuraiist. [March, 

occurs all through the northern, sub-arctic regions of Europe 
and Siberia, another species of the genus being found in 
Alaska. This beetle yields in interest to no member of our 
fauna, and the occurrence of such a practically arctic animal 
within a few yards of Mesites Tardyi or Geomalacus maculosus 
is as striking an instance as can be found of the mingling of 
the north and the south which Ireland, presents. 

In our excursions of the year nearer home, we have also 
found examples of the mingling. The Braganstown expedi- 
tion in August will be remembered by us, not only because 
of Mr. Garstin's kind hospitality to our party, but on account 
of Dr. MWeeney's discovery of Stysanus ulmaria, a new species 
of fungus whose nearest relation is to be found in Ceylon. 
This recalls to mind the remarkable tropical affinities of many 
of the Irish mosses and liverworts' with which Mr. M'Ardle 
has made us familiar. And, on this same Braganstown ex- 
cursion, Mr. Halbert added to the Irish list of Hemiptera 
Teratocoris SaundersH^ a Russian and Scandinavian species, 
which in Great Britain is known only from Aberdeen, Nor- 
folk, and Kent. The continental range of this bug recalls 
that of the sedge Carex rhynchophysa^ which Mr. Praeger in his 
investigation of the flora of Ca Armagh' added to the British 
flora three years ago. 

Such are some of the facts which ask for an explanation 
from us, students of the natural history of Ireland. Is it 
wise, as yet, to attempt to explain them ? Not if our expla- 
nation be dogmatic, but surely research will be stimulated by 
our endeavours to get an inkling of how these things have 
come to be. Let us theorise, and then test our theories by the 
light of the fresh facts with which the labours of years to 
come will surely supply us. 

In the classical work of Forbes, to which reference has 
already been made, the group of southern plants characteristic 
of western and south-western Ireland was considered the 
oldest group in our flora, and was explained by the supposi- 
tion of a Miocene Atlantic continent reaching to beyond the 
Azores* The boreal and alpine flora was believed to be a 



1 A. R. WaUace--" Island Life," andBd* (p. 3^6). London, x892« 
* Irish Naturalist^ voL iL, 1893, p* 184^ 



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'896.] CAXPnirmiBi.— Mingling of the North and South. 65 

remnant of the Ice Age. The plants of Watson's British, 
English, and Germanic types were all referred by Forbes to 
one great Germanic invasion which, after the Ice Age, over- 
spread most of our islands. To decide the time of the 
incoming of the various groups of our animals and plants is 
however very difficult. Mr. A. G. More" considers our entire 
flora, including the Pyrenean species, to have come in since 
the Pleistocene cold period, while Dr. Scharff » believes that 
the whole of our fauna entered Ireland in Pliocene times. 

Forbes* theory of an Atlantis is now generally held to be 
beset with insuperable difficulties, though there is a very 
general belief in the former extension of the European con- 
tinent to the 100 fathom line to the west of our present 
Atlantic shore. Whatever view may be held as to the abso- 
lute ages of the three groups of our flora which I have 
mentioned, the comparative ages assigned to them by Forbes 
are highly probable. lyCt us see how they work with the 
corresponding groups of animals. It seems very likely 
that the Pyrenean animals are the oldest members of the 
British fauna, because they have been driven so far westwards, 
being almost confined to Ireland, a few occurring in the 
west of Great Britain. Most of the alpine and northern 
animals are less characteristically Irish than Scotch, and 
seem to have entered this country from Scotland. An 
apparent exception to the first of these statements we have 
seen in Erebia epiphron, a southern insect which, not rare in 
Scotland, is almost extinct in Ireland through which it must 
have passed northwards ; and to the second in Pelophila borealis, 
an arctic beetle not rare in Ireland, but apparently extinct in 
Scotland through which it passed southwards. 

If, as I consider well-nigh certain, the Pyrenean fauna at 
least must be supposed to have come to us from a time before 
the Ice Age, we are met with the question : how did the animals 
(and plants) survive ? It may be that they did not survive in 
any part of the present Irish area, but in some old land tract 
to the south or west where the conditions were less severe. 
But it must be remembered that in the highest north which 
explorers have reached an abundance of life marks the short 
summer.' 



' Sec aUo G. W. Bulman m Nat. Science, vol. m., p. 261 



'/wm. of Botany, vol xxxi, 1893, p. 299. 

! ^^^ ^'/'A. (3) iii.,^1894, p. 479 ; /^f^'- ^^^' ?<!^!' France, 1895, pp. 436-474- 

A3 

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(36 The Insh Naturalist. [March, 

In arranging a small museum case to show the comparative 
distribution of British animals/ I have applied the term Celtic 
to the combined older Northern and Pyrenean faunas, and 
Teutonic to the animals characteristic of eastern and south- 
eastern England, while recognising a general British fauna 
of more extended range over our islands, presumably 
older than the Teutonic, but more recent than the Celtic 
group. That this general British fauna was later than 
the Pyrenean or the Northern is admitted on all hands, as the 
existence of the older faunas in western districts, only or 
chiefly, is probably due to the pressure of new invaders 
having exterminated them in regions further to the east which 
there can be little doubt they once held. This consideration 
also gives us a clue to the mingling of the old northern and 
southern faunas in Ireland only. It seems to me that no 
peculiar climatic conditions are needed to explain how this 
can be. Both are with us because the eastern invasion was 
so largely kept out of Ireland by the breaking down of the 
land connection to our south-east. In North America Dr. 
Hart Merriam' has mapped the areas occupied by the Boreal 
and Sonoran faunas with a transition zone 300 miles wide in 
which they overlap. I would conceive of a time when a some- 
what similar state of things prevailed in Western Europe, 
when all along the tract to the south of the glaciated area 
there was such a mingling of the north and the south as we 
have only in Ireland to-day. The great eastern invasion then 
came in and drove like a wedge between the two. Over most 
of the common area which the two old faunas once occupied 
together, they were exterminated ; the one was driven to the 
north and to the Alps, the other to the south, while both 
were pushed to the west, where in Ireland they found some- 
thing of a protected area to which only part of the incoming 
host was able to pursue them. This thought suggests a 
return to our ethnographical illustration, for have not suc- 
cessive races of men been driven to north, south, and west I 
by invaders from the east ? Dun Aengus, that last strong- | 
hold of a vanished people on the ocean cliflf of Inishmore, 
has a lesson for the naturalist as well as for the antiquarian. 

' Rep, Museums Assoc,^ 1894 ; also Irish Nat,^ 1895, p. 215. 
' Proc, BioL Soc. Washineton^ vol. vii., 1891. 



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1896,] CarpBNTKR. — Mmglingof the North and South, 67 

There remains to be considered the newer southern fauna 
which we saw to be so unexpectedly represented round 
Galway, those animals of English or Germanic type which 
seem so strangely out of place in the west of Ireland. Forbes, 
as has been said, considered the plants of the British, English, 
and Germanic t)Tpes of Watson to form but one great flora ; 
and though many of our British animals have a range readily 
referable to one of these three types, others show a gradual 
transition from Germanic to English or from English to 
British. There is much reason therefore for considering 
these three types to be all sections of one great Central 
European fauna, some of which have attained in the British 
Isles a wider predominance than others. 

Most of the animals of the British type of distribution, 
being found all over Ireland, may be presumed to have come 
in from the east across the valley which now forms St. George's 
Channel. But this assemblage of animals we are specially 
considering, of English or Germanic type in Great Britain, 
are not found in the east of Ireland. It seems a general rule 
that members of this newer fauna which are confined to the 
south of Britain are confined to the south or west of Ireland. 
It should be remembered that Forbes separated, as distinct 
from the Germanic flora, a small group of plants characteristic 
of the Chalk districts of south-eastern England, thinking 
them much older, older indeed than the Northern flora. But 
even if we compare with these the western Irish animals that 
we are discussing, we must hold them to be more recent than 
the Pyrenean group. 

The explanation of the facts, which I now suggest, is 
that this section of the newer fauna broke through the line of 
the older, and, in the west of Ireland, was able to take the 
country of the latter in the rear, and spread from west to east. 
It will be generally admitted that the anilmas of this fauna 
would spread more rapidly over plains and along valleys than 
among hills. And the line of least resistance in our area was 
the wide-spreading valley which must at some time have led 
westward along the present area of the English Channel and 
to the south of Ireland. Down this valley, I suggest that 
this migration passed, and arrived at the south-west corner of 

A4 

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68 The Irish Naturalist [ March 

the present Irish area; thence a limestone plain stretche( 
west and north-west as far as the present loo- fathom line o 
the Atlantic. Established in this plain the colony invadec 
our present Ireland from the west. And so we have aroun( 
Galway, I^imerick, and Cork these animals, which are un 
known near Dublin, where we might rather expect to fini 
them. The Aran Isles are the remnants of the form^ ex 
tension of the limestone plain, and preserve for us som* 
survivors of this colony which made so gallant an invasion o 
the far west. 

I must, in conclusion, ask your pardon for having putbefor 
you at such length these tentative speculations. If they hav 
done anything to indicate the great questions which lie behin< 
the work of the humblest field naturalist, I shall be satisfied 
We doubtless all recall the noble passage at the close of th 
" Origin of Species,'* in which Darwin dwells on the intens 
interest of some bank, covered with tangled vegetation, people 
with singing birds, hovering insects, and crawling worms, ii 
the light of the descent of all these from ** the few forms or om 
into which life was first breathed." I/)oking back to a past 
distant though less remote, we may regard our animals an< 
plants as travellers which at different times and by variou 
roads have come to the spot where we now find them ; a 
members of armies whose battles for the possession of our fei 
land have been fought through ages, compared with whos 
length the duration of the struggle of Teuton with Celt ha 
been but as a day. 



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iS96b] 69- 

THE EARTHWORMS OF IRELAND. 

BY REV. HILDERIC FRIEND, F.L.S. 



During the past year we have witnessed the publication of a 
work on Oligochaeta which is of the first importance. Much 
fragmentary matter previously existed in sundry magazines 
and journals, but for a systematic treatment of the Order it 
was necessary for the student to consult the Continental 
memoirs of Rosa, Vejdovsky, or Vaillant. And even these 
did not attempt to cover all the ground. Now, however, the 
collector can consult Beddard's " Monograph of the Order 
Ougochaeta"^ — a work which merits the warmest com- 
mendation. 

It will naturally be asked — ^What does the latest work on the 
subject say on the question of Irish Earthworms? I will 
end^ivour to answer. Though I have received sundry speci- 
mens from Ireland which belong to other genera than Lum- 
bricHSy Allolobopkoray or Allurus, these have never been 
described, because the specimens were either solitary or 
immature, and science gains nothing by the rash publication 
of imperfect matter. Consequently to the three genera above- 
named alone we have to look for information. It is rather 
curious to find (p. 723) that Lumhricus papillosus, Friend, is 
still entirely unknown outside of Ireland. Mr. Beddard gives 
it an undisputed place in his list. His definition, quoted from 
my original account, is— 

"Length, 100 mm. ; diameter, 8 mm. ; number of segments, 130; colour, 
mddy brown ; clitellum, xxxiii.-xxxvii. ; tubercula pubertatis, xxxiv., 
XXXV., xxxvi., XXX vii. ; first dorsal pore, ix.-x. Hab. — Ireland." 

The most interesting point about this species is the fact that 
it exactly fills a gap in the graduated series based upon the 
numbers of the segments which bear the tubercula pubertatis. 
This is the only species of Lumbricus peculiar to Ireland. 

The number of species oi Allolobophora recorded by Beddard 
is fifty-two, as against seven of Lumbricus, Among these one 
only calls for special notice, namely, Allolobophora veneta^ Rosa, 
p- 713. It will, perhaps, be well to transcribe the whole 
account, which is prefaced by a list of synonyms. 

* Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1895. 

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70 The Irish I^aturalisL C Marcl^ 

"A. veneta* Rosa, Boli. Mm. Zool, Torino, 1886, No. 3. 

"^. subrMcunda^ forma hortensis, Michaelsen, /. B, Hamb, IViss, AnsU^ 
vii., 1890, p. 15. 

** A. (Notogamd) vme/a, Rosa, Bo/L Aftts, Zool. Torino, 1893, No. 160, p. 2. 

** A, hibemica, Friend, P, R. Irish Acad., 1893, p. 402. 

^ Definition. Length, 70 mm. ; breadth, 5 mm. ; number of segments^ 
153 ; clitellum, xxvi., xxvii.-xxxii., xxxiii. Setae paired, but not strictly, 
the setse of ventral pair more separated than those of dorsal pairs. 
Tubercula pubertatis on xxx., xxxi. Spermathecae, two pairs in ix., x-, 
opening posteriorly. Habitat— Venice ; Argentina; Portugal; Palestine, 

** This species comes very near to A. fatida, with which it agrees 
absolutely in colour. It is to be distinguished by the position of the 
tubercula pubertatis. The spermathecse open close to the dorsal middle 
line, as in the species mentioned. The Portuguese specimens form a 
variety which is marked by its smaller size, and by the more strictly 
paired setee. This same variety is found in Liguria and in the Argentine 
(whither it has been probably accidentally imported). It is not certain 
whether A. submontana of Vejdovsky is really different. The clitellum 
seems to have a different position (f>., xxiv.-xxxiii.), but the structure 
of the worm is not fully known." 

It will be observed that no allusion is made to its Irish 
habitat. Is this a pure oversight, or did the author not wish 
to commit himself to an opinion respecting its indigenous or 
imported character ? ^ I must point out that whatever may be 
said of Rosa's original specimens, those which he sent to me 
in spirits, and those which I received alive from Ireland, bore 
no colour-resemblance to A.fatida whatever, so that the strong 
affirmation of Beddard is misleading. 

Turning now to A/iurus, we find ourselves on debateable 
ground, owing to the fact that the diflferent species which 
have at various times been recorded are insufficiently described 
and figured. After discussing the views of Michaelsen and 
Rosa the author adds (p. 696) : — 

** Friend has added three other species, viz., A. Mragonurus, A. fiavus, 
and A. macrurus. Pending further information, A. macrurm seems to be 
a valid species, on account of the very forward position of the clitellum 
(xv.-xxiL). A, Mragonurus is probably, as Rosa thinks, merely a form 
of TetrcLgonurus pupa^"^ 

The difficulty arises from the fact that both A. macrurus 
and A. telragonurus are based upon solitary specimens. I 
have not the least doubt about the genuineness o(A. macrurus ; 

1 In studying the " Monograph " more carefully I find that, by an 
unfortunate oversight, Beddard has not been made aware of the pub- 
lication of my researches in the Irish Naturalist. Hence the absence of 
aU allusion to Irish worms not recorded in the Proc^ RJ.A. 



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1896.] Friend. — The Barihworms of Ireland, 71 

A. flavus is probably only a variety of A. tetraedrus^ while 
Rosa's supposition may or may not be correct respecting A, 
ictragonurus. 

On page 3 the writer calls attention to the " remarkable 
extension backwards of the prostomium (in Allolobophora 
ckion>Hca), which reaches as far as the end of the fourth seg- 
ment," to which I drew attention in Naturd^ on the strength 
of material received from Ireland. 

It may be well in conclusion to supply an amended list of 
Irish Worms' so far as known at the end of 1895, following the 
nomenclature adopted by Beddard, with such modifications as 
my judgment leads me to think necessary. 
Al lu ru8 tetrmed rus (Savigny ). --Tipperary. Also var . flmms (not noted 
by Beddard) from the same locality ; also found in Mitchelstown Cave. 
A. macruruSff Friend. — Dublin. 
AIIololK>phora callffnosAt (Savigny). 
A. turslda, Eisen. 

I cannot but think Mr. Beddard ill-advised in putting the 
two ver>' distinct species formerly known as trapezoides and 
turgida under one heading (A, calignosa). I have examined 
many hundreds of specimens from all parts of the country, 
and could tell at a glance the one from the other. The author 
makes a point of Michaelsen's discovery of an " intermediate 
form which showed on one side of the body the character of 
one species, and on the other the character of the other 
species." I have often observed the same thing, and wonder 
it has not occurred to Mr. Beddard to ask what bearing such 
facts have on the question of hybridity~a question which, 
though treated by Rosa and myself, seems to have been en- 
tirely overlooked in the present memoir. 

A. terrestrls (Savigny).— Takes the place of the old A. longa, Ude. 
It is, however, not given by Beddard as an Irish species. I have re- 
ceived it from Cork, Tipperary, and elsewhere. 
A. fcBtlda (Savigny). — Cork and Valencia. 
A. chlorotlca (Savigny). — Cork and Tipperary. 

A. ElflenI (Levinsen).— Takes the place of Deiuirobana Biseni. Pound 
in Dublin. The author has done well for the present, no doubt, to 
sink several of the generic terms which had been adopted by various 
authors, for this and other species. I think, however, that the genus 
will bear division into three or four sub-genera. 
A. subruOlcunday Bisen.— Tipperary. 

* Vol. xlvii., p. 316. . « See Irish Nat., vol. il, 1893. 

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i2 Tke Irish liaturalist, [ March, 

A. prof uffa* Rosa.— Not even entered as British by Beddard. I have 
recorded it for several English counties, and for North Wales It is 
abundant in my garden in Cumberland, and I had specimens iix>m 
Malahide in 1893, as well as written descriptions. I believe the Irish 
form differs from the continental in some particulars, but there is no 
doubt about the worm being Irish and English. 
A. veneUif Rosa.— Dublin and Louth. Not entered as British by 

Beddard, though he records my paper in Proc. RJ,A. 
At rosea (Savigny). — Formerly entered as A. mucosa, Tipperary and 

Malahide. 
A. Ceorffllp Mich.— Co. Clare.' (Not recorded as British by Beddard> 
Lumbrlcus rubellus* Hoffmeister.— Cork, Kerry, Tipperary. 
L. castaneus (Savigny).— Same as Z. purpureus. Cork, Kerry, Antrim, 

Tipperary. 
L. paplllosuSf Friend.— Unknown at present out of Ireland. Received 
first from co. Dublin. Later from Cork with spermatophores, Kerry 
and Tipperary. . 
L. herculeus (Savigny).— Takes the place of Z. terrestris. Received 
from Cork, Tipperary, and Kerry. 
Ireland, therefore, at present possesses seventeen well de- 
fined species of Earthworm, and I am convinced that at least 
two or three other species could be found if those parts of the 
country from which specimens have never yet been received 
were carefully worked. 

I have received specimens from the Mitchelstown Cave, but 
while it was easy to identify A Hums, the others were too small 
and immature for determination, though there did not seem 
to be any ground for supposing them to represent new species. 
From time to time there have reached me, among the many 
interesting consignments which I have received from a large 
band of willing co-workers, a number of specimens not usually 
classedas Earthworms, butstillbelongingto the great oligochaet 
order. The publication of Mr. Beddard's monograph having 
necessitated the searching up of old notes, records, and speci- 
mens, I have found some facts which have never yet been 
published relating to these lesser species of Worms. It is my 
wish and purpose, therefore, to work out this material, and I 
shall be grateful if collectors will supply me with specimens 
as before. They are to be found in the ooze of rivers, ponds, 
lakes, and ditches, in wells, reservoirs, and tanks, among 
decaying matter and debris, and generally distributed where 
there is moisture enough to enable them to live. They vary 

^ Irish Nai., voL iii., 1894, p. 39. 

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iS^] pRiEND.-rTil^ Eartktuorms of Ireland. 73 

in colour from white and cream to yellow, red, green, and 
dirty brown, and from a quarter of an inch to three or four 
inches in length, generally no larger round than a thread. 
They may be sent in wide mouthed bottles or tins with damp 
moss, but should not be packed in earth, as they are too 
delicate to endure the battering which results from their 
transit when so dispatched. If the specimens are decidedly 
aquatic, the moss may be well saturated with water when 
a well corked bottle is used. Here is an entirely new field 
for working naturalists, and one may reasonably hope that 
the present year will add many interesting species to the 
Irish fauna. 



OBITUARY. 

George Edward Dobsqn, m.d., f.r.s. 
We regret that presstire on our space has .so long delayed reference to 
the death of this distinguished zoologist of Irish birth, who passed away 
on November 26th, 1895, at the age of fifty-one. After an exceptionally 
brilliant coarse in arts, natural science, and medicine at Trinity College, 
Dublin, he entered the Army Medical Service in 1868, and after twenty 
years* activity, mostly spent in India, was obliged to retire on account of 
ill-health, with the rank of Surgeon-Major. He was the highest British 
authority on the small Mammals: — Rodents, Insectivores, and Bats 
In 1876 he published a monograph of the Asiatic Cheiroptera, and two 
jcan later the British Museum Catalogue of that order. He projected 
a magnificent monograph of the Insectivora in which anatomical and 
^stematic studies were to be combined, but, to the great loss of science, 
only the first two parts ever appeared (in 1882-3). Some years ago he 
presented some of his most valuable type specimens of Insectivores and 
Bats to the Dublin Museum. 



THE BOTANICAL SUB-DIVISION OF IRELAND. 

Mr. Praeger wishes it known that he has retained the block from 
which the map of Ireland divided into vice-counties was printed in our 
last issue, as it may be useful to naturalists working out the distribution 
of plants or animals in Ireland; and he will be glad to arrange for 
supplying any number of copies to those desiring them. 



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!^4 ^he Irish NaturalhU [iiarck, 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE DEVEU)PMENT OF 
MELANISM IN CAMPTOGRAMMA BIUNEATA. 



BY WII.I,IAM F. DE V. KANE, M.A., F.E.S- 
[Report to the R.I.A. Flora and Fauna Committee], 
Many species of lyepidoptera are polymorphic, and exhibit 
an instability of character in the imaginal stage which appears 
to arise from constitutional tendencies rather than immediate 
environmental influence. Their varieties are not restricted 
to locality, but occur in the same brood with the type, and in 
wide distribution. Luperina testacea and Apantea didyma may- 
be cited as typical examples of this heterogeneous poljrmor- 
phism. 

There are other species, however, which, while showing 
considerable instability of coloration and pattern in most 
localities, apparently respond more or less directly to external 
influences, and produce topomorphic varieties. These last 
offer peculiar opportunities for studying the influence of 
environment and natural selection in stereotyping aberrations 
into local races, or eliciting new forms. The Geometer Camp- 
iogramma bilineata is a notable example in point. It is one 
of the most widely spread and numerous of our common 
species. Feeding on low plants and grasses, it is in no way 
restricted to locality by the necessities of food supply, and 
its constitution apparently enables it to acclimatise itself over 
a wide distributional range, being found in North Scandinavia, 
as well as in Syria and Siberia. In almost every British 
locality the yellow ground-colour is variable in strength of 
tint in different specimens, and the pattern of dark waved lines 
is sometimes distinctly marked, but often almost obsolete, 
producing a rather unicolorous form. Similarly the white 
waved lines are sometimes strongly represented, and often quite 
absent. The median band often present, especially in the 
females, is also very variable in strength, and 4 well kno\v*n 
aberration occurs in which its exterior edge is darkly 
shaded, and defined sharply externally but suffused internally. 
The inner margin of the band in some examples is also 
similarly shaded. This form with its various phases I shall 
call the ** banded aberration." It occurs very widely, but is 
usually somewhat scarce* 



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i89^] ILanu.— Melanism in Camptogramma intineaia, 75 

A second form which I took some years ago at Dursey 
Island and Ballinskelligs Bay, Co. Kerry, has the whole ground- 
colour of the fore-wings, and in a less degree that of the hind 
wings darkened, closely approximating to suffused specimens 
described by the late Mr. Jenner Weir from Unst, one of the 
Shetland Islands, but more melanic. This I shall call ab. 
infuscala. Mr. G. H. Carpenter in a subsequent year got an- 
other specimen also at Dursey Island which confirms its local- 
isation there, and indicates that my specimens were not the 
result of any particular seasonal influence. In the year 1892, 
however, on the same coast I got 20 examples of a most 
remarkable local variety, with all four wings of a uniform 
sooty black, a trace of yellowish being perceivable on the 
hind wings of one or two only. No typical or intermediate 
forms were seen, and subsequent searches have proved that 
this melanic form has wholly superseded the type in that 
locality. It may be described as follows : 

Var. isolata. — ^With all the wings of a sooty black, upon which 
the waved strigse and median band are marked in darker tone. 
The hind wings in some instances are shot with a yellowish tone. 
The body and underside of the wings are also of a sooty black. 
The size is above the average, being in many examples 
i\ inches from tip to tip, which is a proof that the blacken- 
ing is not a result of dwarfing or diseased conditions. 

In 1893 I secured about forty examples, but in the following 
summer very few were to be had, but I got a batch of ova 
from some females. The larvae were healthy and fed freely 
on grass and I left them in the care of- a friend, but most 
unfortunately the experiment was not conducted to a successful 
issue, and no moths were bred. Through this misfortune I 
fear the opportunity of procuring good specimens has been 
lost, as the race seems to have come to an untimely end. 
The place of their occurrence is a small rock-islet oflFthe coast 
of Kerry. Formerly there were considerable tracts of sward 
between the rocky heights, and Silme maritima as well as a 
limited number of other maritime plants were to be found in 
the crevices and ledges. But the winter of 1893-4 was fear- 
fully stormy in those parts, and all the headlands of Kerry 
were perpetually swept by enormous Atlantic waves, which 
breaking on the cliflFs dashed floods of water high into the air ; 
the salt brine was carried by the fierce gales over heights 100 

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76 The Irish Naturalist, [ March, 

feet above the sea-level in some instances,, so that the islet in 
question must have been continuously soaked by the deluge 
of sea- water, and a hot dry season succeeding in 1894, the 
thrift and grass became brown and dead, and the Silene showed 
no signs of life. By careful searching only a few C. bilineata 
were to be found on the rocks, from some of which I secured 
ova, the fate of which I have already narrated. At the end of 
June, 1895, 1 could find no specimens ; and only in one sheltered 
nook a little grass had sprung up. Some Silene, however, had 
sprouted again from the roots and produced foliage and flowers, 
and a little Sea Camomile and other small sea-plants had also 
survived. It is therefore to be feared that this interesting 
race has been extirpated, unless perhaps a few individuals 
may have survived the famine by feeding on the plants above- 
mentioned. There is also a chance that on other larger 
islands the variety may exist It now remains for me to 
analyse the circumstances and environment which have given 
rise to this extreme case of melanism. The cliffs and islands 
which are found on this part of the coasts of Cork and Kerry 
are of a dark slate formation, and in some cases of dark con- 
glomerate. I have taken a considerable series of Campto- 
gramma bilineata from various points of this coast-line, and 
find the ordinary bright yellow type frequent, but among them 
unusual numbers of the banded form, and also numerous 
specimens with the dark scaling of the waved lines much in- 
creased, and an evident tendency toward darkened suffusion, 
producing a great variety of dingy and dark striated aberra- 
tions. 

The deepest mainland form, that of ab. infuscata^ is rare, 
and occurs with the rest, and not isolated, at Ballinskelligs 
Bay and Dursey Island. This shows a further advance toward 
melanism, and is in excess of any previously noted in the 
British Islands, as stated {in litt,) by Mr. Barrett, to whom I 
sent the first specimen taken. In it the yellow forewings of 
the type are darkened throughout by the mixture of dark 
scales, giving them a dark yellowish brown hue, with the 
central band and outer margin more darkly shaded ; the hind 
wings being either a dingy brown or dull yellow. In all the 
transitional aberrations taken (i.e., between the type and the 
V. isolata), the hind wings were variable and apparently 
responded partially only in a small number of instances to. the 

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1896.] Kane. — Melanism in Camptogramma bilineaia, 77 

melanic tendency. I have specimens from Unst which are 
similar to some of the Kerry coast forms, but are not so dark 
as ab. infuscata. No remarkable aberrations occur inland at 
Killamey or Ken mare, but on the shores of Dingle Bay, about 
Dingle and Slea Head, a large proportion of very striking 
banded and suffused forms are to be found. On the coast of 
Donegal and at Killary Bay clouded forms occur also. It 
would therefore appear that a tendency to dark suffusion shows 
itself in the vicinity of the dark rocky shores of the south-west, 
from Bantry Bay to Valentia on the mainland ; and when 
isolated the phenomenon becomes accentuated to an extreme 
degree, and a stable melanic variety arises and wholly super- 
sedes the type. It is not difficult to imagine the stress of the 
environment in an island such as I have described. The 
herbage is sparse and the turf close-shaven by the wind, 
affording little or no shelter for moths to hide in, and small in 
comparison with the rock-surface. It is haunted by bats and 
insectivorous birds such as Rock Pipits, Wheatears, and the 
smaller gulls, which are most active in pursuit of insects, both 
larvae and imagines. These no doubt thinned out the paler 
immigrants from time to time as they were conspicuous on 
the dark rocks, the darkest escaping in greater proportion, 
and surviving to continue the progeny. Probably also similar 
catastrophes to that of 1893, perhaps in less degree, occurred, 
by which the stock was almost eliminated, so that a close in- 
and-in breeding resulted in the selected race. The conclusion, 
therefore, I have arrived at is, that on the rocky portions of 
the mainland this species is acquiring a melanic tendency as 
a protective adaptation, and chat isolation on a small area out 
at sea, and a severe struggle to maintain their existence has 
brought about the survival of the most melanic forms. On the 
pale grey limestone tracts of the Co. Clare forming the shore 
of Galway Bay, and in the Aran Islands I noticed that this 
species had a.ssumed a very washed-out and pattemless form, 
a protective adaptation in the opposite direction. Those who 
lay much stress on moisture as a factor in the production of 
melanism, over and above its influence in temporarily 
darkening rock and tree surfaces, will doubtless be inclined to 
point to the great rainfall for which Kerry is notorious. And 
Meed no more crucial test could be produced than the results 



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78 The Irish Naturalist [ March, 

observable on the lepidopterous fauna of that county. Yet I 
found on the east slope of Mangerton, where the recorded 
annual rainfall often considerably exceeds 60 in. as against 
about 46 in Co. Cork and 41 in Co. SI igo, that the normal 
typical coloration prevailed, and likewise at Killamey ; while 
darkly clouded forms seem to be strictly localised on the coast, 
which militates strongly against the theory in respect of this 
unstable species. If we accept the view I have put forward as 
to the selective agencies at work in producing these melanic 
forms, the inquiry suggests itself whether in similar localities 
the same influences have affected other species in like manner. 
Owing to the dangers and difficulties which beset the 
collector in such rugged and inaccessible spots I have not very 
much evidence to produce. But remarkable examples are 
not wanting. We should remember however that the 
Geometridae from their habit of resting with outspread wing^ 
on rock faces are likely to be more pliable than Noctuae in 
assuming protective coloration, and of these I have been 
unable to secure any examples on the islands on the south- 
west coast, except a few Melanippe fluduata from Dursej', 
dark forms, but not numerous enough to be accepte \ as 
evidence. Probably very few immigrants would be able to 
survive the selective ordeal. Dursey Island is easily accessible, 
but being separated from the mainland by only a narrow 
sound, and being some three miles in length, and having 
a large proportion of grass and herbage in comparison 
to cliflF and rock, does not afford a field in which the selective 
agencies referred to exercise a very severe test. If it were 
possible to explore carefully the fauna of such places as Sher- 
kin Island off Baltimore, The Cow, The Bull, the two Hogs off 
Kenmare Bay, The Skelligs, Puffin Island, Inish-na-bro, 
Inishtearaght, Inishvickillaune, etc., the result would, I am 
sure, prove of the utmost scientific interest. I append a few 
results of my attempts in this direction on three of them. 
Agroiis lucemea is extremely black. Hadena oleracea, darker 
than usual, with the stigma reduced in size and dark yellow, 
and the white subterminal line attenuated. Diantkatcia ccesia, 
very dark, but D, nana (one specimen only taken) t5rpical. 
Dianihcecia capsophila, however, shows remarkable melanism 
in the three examples captured. The ground-colour is very 



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1896.] ' Kane. — Melanism in Camptogramma bilineata. 79 

black, with the usual white pattern obliterated excepting pale 
outlines round the stigmata, and greyish discontinuous traces 
on the costa, subterminal band, and nervures, not however 
inclining to ochreous as in D. carpophaga. This is a form of 
great interest, as in all my experience of this species hitherto 
I have found it but slightly variable in colour and markings 
round the Irish coast. That a purely maritime species (in 
Great Britain), maintaining a fairly constant character in its 
distribution over all varieties of our rock-formations and 
climatic conditions, should here develop well-marked melan- 
ism would suggest the operation of some special local 
influence. But on the cliffs of the mainland opposite, of 
similar rock, a few miles distant only, I have taken specimens 
of the type. Isolation therefore, as in the case of Campto- 
gramma bilineata, seems to be the chief probable factor at 
work. Xylophasia monoglypha also offers remarkable testi- 
mony in the same direction. Hitherto I have been unable 
to detect any topomorphism in the occurrence of the varieties 
of this polymorphic species. But on two of these islands I 
found no pale forms among over forty examples secured. 
Most belonged to the v. brunnea, Tutt, and varied to black 
forms. A few were of paler brown with the whitish markings 
usually present in the commonest forms reproduced in paler 
lone of the ground colour. The melanochroism is most ap- 
parent in the absence from this series of any grey marked 
specimens. 

Camptogramma bilineata shows a tendency to develop dark 
scaling not only on the cliffs of Kerry, but also in the vast 
tracts of bog and moor of Connemara. It is not found in the 
wet swamps, but occurs on the broken banks of cut-out peat, 
and on dry heather slopes of rising ground. Near Aasleagh 
and Glendalough the varieties of the banded form with black 
edges are very striking and numerous, and with them clouded 
and black striated forms are frequent, similar to those of Unst 
A parallel phenomenon is presented by the dark variety scotica 
of Melitaa aurinia^ which, in Ireland, I have only noticed to 
occur on the margins of heathery bogs of ample extent ; while 
the very brightly coloured v. prceclara affects green marshes 
and wet pastures. It therefore seems probable that a propor- 
tion of the variable species that occur in any dark moorland 



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8o The Irish Naturalist. \ Marcli 

district (if we exclude from our consideration such as are 
strickly confined to heathery habitats) may be expected tc 
assume dark characters for protection, as I have noticed is 
the case with Cidaria immanata. If this prove to be so, it 
would in part account for the greater abundance of cloude<i 
forms in Scotland, as compared with England (exclusive oi 
smoke-stained districts). 



PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



RovAi, Zooi«oGicAi, Society. 

Recent donations include a pair of Polecats from A. H. Cocks, Esq., a 
Tawny Owl from J. Boland, Esq., a monkey from Miss Meldon, a Kestrel 
from H. K. Richardson, Esq. 4,129 persons visited the Gardens in 
January. 

January 38th.— The Annual meeting was held at the Royal College 
of Ph3r8icians, when the Report and accounts for the past year were 
submitted. The financial condition of the Society is satisfiurtory, the 
income for 1895 being larger than that for any year since 1883. Reference 
is made to the loss sustained by the Society in the death of I>r. V. Ball, 
who acted for so many years as honorary secretary, and a hearty tribute 
is paid to the work which he did in improving the Gardens. During the 
year two islands have been built in the lake ; these will afford a welcome 
nesting-place for the water*fowl. In the excavation left on the lake shore 
by the removal of material for these islands, a rockery and goat-honse is to 
be formed. But one litter of Lion cubs (two males and a female) were born 
in the Gardens in 1895, but these are thriving. Ten Puma cubs, in three 
litters, were bom during the year ; of these, five have died and two are 
weakly, but the last litter (of three) are doing very well. The fine 
Burchell's Zebra, which had lived twenty-one years in the Gardens, died 
of old age in October. Another serious loss is that of the female Ostrich, 
which died of a ruptured aorta. Anthropoid Apes are at present repre- 
sented by a fine male Chimpanzee and a male Gibbon {^HylobaUs kacnaruiy 
The latter is an exceptionally rare and valuable animal, no European 
having ever studied it in its native haunts. A white-tailed Gnu, one ol 
the most interesting of South African Antelopes, has been obtained by 
exchange from the London Gardens. The appendix to the Repoiri 
contains some valuable suggestions for the further improvement of thd 
Gardens, such as the enlargement and ventilation of the Anthropoil 
house and the removal of the reptiles now housed there to new quaiteiij 
in the Aquarium. A new paddock for Marsupials and another foa^ 
Llamas and Camels are also contemplated at some future time. 



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1896.] Proceedings of Irish Societies. 81 

DUBIrIN MlCROSCOPICAI, Cl«UB. 

January 16th.— The Club met at Dr. Frazer's, who exhibited micro- 
scopic sections made from bone pins of large size found in a fragmentary 
state and bearing evidences of exposure to strong heat causing charring. 
They were obtained by E. Croflon Rotheram, Esq., in recent explora- 
tions of cairn R' at Slieve na Calliagh, Co. Meath. Some of these 
portions of bone are figured in th^ Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries 
oflrdandy vol. v., 1895, p. 313, by Mr. Rotheram. The bone implements 
had sharp points and blunt semi-conical heads, and may have been used 
for pins. Fragments of similar objects (three in number) were obtained 
by Colonel Wood-Martin some years since from a cairn in Ca Sligo, and 
are figured in his work on the ** Rude Stone Monuments of Sligo." Dr. 
Prazer had examined these, and was induced to believe they were of 
Cetacean origin, but the re-examination of his former preparations and 
sections made from the Co. Meath find demonstrated that they were all 
obtained from the antlers of the Red Deer, once so widely distributed in 
all parts of the country, and now almost extinct Dr. Prazer likewise 
exhibited careful drawings of all the fragments obtained in Sligo and 
Heath. No leas than eleven of the bone implements were found at 
Lough Crew cairn judging by that number of the blunt semicircular top 
portions discovered amongst the fragments. 

Prof. G. A. J. Coia showed a section of a remarkably unaltered and 
flcoriaceous volcanic bomb from the Silurian tuffii north of Clogher Head 
in the Dingle promontory. In this region a handsome series of bombs 
occurs, predaely resembling those of the Petit Puy-de-D6me,in Auvergne ; 
they have been preserved without infilling of their cavities, and present 
t remarkable contrast to the other volcanic rocks interstratified with 
them. 

PlOF. T. J0HH8ON exhibited Hydla niHda, Batt in lilLy a shell-perforat- 
uig alga, new to science, found on the Merrion strand this last Decem* 
ber, after the storm which caused the Kingstown life-boat disaster. The 
HyeUa mtida was shown accompanied by Conchocdis rosea^ Batt, both of 
which were gnawing away the Razor-shelL The differences between the 
two species were pointed out 

Mr. a. Vaughak JBNIONGS showed a specimen of the Poraminiferal 
Senus Ramulina growing within a chamber of the large Poraminifer 
CatpenUria rkaphidodendron Mdbius. The slide was from the collection of 
tbe late Dr. W. B. Carpenter, and had in 1880 been the subject of a paper 
in ihit Journal of the Royal Microscopic Society by the late Dr. Martin Duncan, 
idio described the Ramulina as a calcareous sponge and gave to it the 
name of Mobiusispongia parasitica. The specimen might be regarded as 
raising the question whether any of the Foraminifera have the power of 
boring through calcareous shells ; but in the case in question it is more 
^bable that the Ramulina was at first growing on the outside of the 
Carpmteria and was subsequently enclosed by the rapid growth of the 
latter. A note on the Mtbject was communicated to the linnean Society 
injnnc, 1895* 



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S2 Thdrish Naturalist. [Maj^ck 

Dr. C. Herbert Hurst showed preparations of the auditory oi^gan 
situated in the swollen basal joint of the antenna of the gnat (jCuiex) 
which he described and figured in the Tram, Manchester Micros. Soc.^ 1890 

Prof. A. C Haddon showed preparations illustrating the nauplius and 
cypris stages in the development oiBalanus balaturida. 

Mr. R. J. MiTCHKi«l/ exhibited a microscopic preparation and micro- 
photograph of Mdobesia farinosa f The distinction of some of the species 
of MdoUsia is based on minute characters in the structure of the 
thallus \ the use of microphotographs in indicating these microscopic 
differences was noted. 



Bei^fast Naturai, History and Phu^osophicai, Socibty. 

January 7th.— Mr. Joseph Barcroft lectured on •' The Properties of 
the Surface of Liquids." 

February 4th.— Mr. S. F. Mii,i«ican lectured on " Antiquities, Social 
Customs, and Folk-lore of Tory, Inismurray, and the South Islands of 
Aran." 



BEI.FAST NaTURAI,ISTS* PiEI4> Ci,UB* 

January 25th, BotanicaIt Section.— The proceedings commenced 
with nn account of the vascular structure of plants by Rev. C. H. 
Waddei*!*, who showed how the various forms of vessels formed the 
skeleton of plants, while at the same time serving as a system of 
circulation. 

Mr. R, LtOYD Praeger then gave a very complete account of the 
various species of British ferns, illustrated by a fine set of mounted 
plants, which were handed round. He pointed out the means of dis* 
tinguishing some of the closely allied species which are often mistaken 
by Amateurs. Among the most interesting were some plants of Adder's- 
tongue with several fertile spikes, and some fronds of Hymtnopk^^lum 
grown under glass, which had produced several yeSrs' innovations from 
the ends of the old fronds instead of dying down as usual 

Geoi^ogicai, Section.— Mr. Praeger gave an address upon "The 
Glacial Series at Belfast and Dublin— A Contrast" The subject was of 
special interest, as the Club is investigating the glacial geology of the 
district, whilst Professor Sollas and Mr. Praeger are working out the 
Dublin drift deposits. Mr. Praeger described the beds in Wexford as being 
of late Pliocene age, the ancient sea*beach at Ballynidder being onr 
earliest glacial beds, being overlaid by lower boulder clays. Marine shells 
arte much more abundant in the Dublin series than in the north; fossils, 
derived fix>m Lias, being also singularly plentiful in beds at Kill-o'-the- 
Grange. The splendid series of sands and gravels about Dublin were 
described, which overlie, and are intercalated with boulder clay, Mr. 
Praeger suggesting their being probably represented in the North by 
the sands and gravels of Neill's Hill and. the Dundonald Valley^ which, 
he thought) should be thoroughly investigated. The existence of an 
Tipper boulder clay, less hard and more sandy and earthy, with plenti- 
\^4narine sheila in places, was mentioned as beingnow accepted.in the 
metropolitan district, although local geologists fisdl to find sncji:^ jLift- 



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1896.1 Proceedings (^ Irish SoH^ties. 83 

tioctioii in the Belfast neighbourhood. This clay contains fewer large 
bonlders than the lower boulder clay beds. Mr. Praeger concluded by 
refjerring to an investigation into the historical succession of our northern 
£iinna, which indicated an almost arctic climate, ameliorating slightly in 
the boulder cla3rs, and showing a distinctly southern facies in the estuarine 
days and raised beaches, whilst dredgings in this century show a recur- 
rence of colder conditions. 

In the subsequent discussion Mr. Praeger mentioned that although 
perfect shells with the valves still united had been found near Dublin as 
well as in the north, yet they are very rare, the usual condition being 
much broken and worn. Specimens were handed round for inspection, as 
wcU as a selection of rocks found in the glacial beds about Dublin, which 
Mr. Praeger subsequently presented to the Club. Amongst them were 
a Cushendall rock and the well-known Ailsa Craig rock. Miss S. M. 
Thompson expressed a hope that rocks with riebeckite might even yet 
be found in Ca Down, as a series of very diverse-looking erratics 
recently submitted to Proil Cole all proved to contain that mineral ; 
some of these fragments were. found in the bed of boulder-clay in the 
banks of the stream between Divis and Black Mountain, mentioned in 
the January number of the Irish Naturalist^ whose elevation is found not 
to be as much as was at first supposed (1,300 feet), but whose precise 
height has yet to be determined. Mr. L. M. B^i^i, drew attention to the 
great difference between the boulder-qlays in Antrim and Down, the 
latter being much looser in tezttire, resembling the upper boulder-clay 
described by Mr. Praeger. A collection of rock-specimens was presented 
by Miss M. K. Andrews. 

January 31st.— A special meeting was held in the Museum —the 
President (Mr. F. W. Lockwood, O.K.) in the chair, when Mr. W. 
Gray, M.ILLA., delivered his lecture, *• To Galway by Sea and I*and," 
being an accotmt of the Excursion last summer of the Irish Field Clubs 
and the Royal Society of Antiquaries to Galway. 

FBB|tUA|LY i8th.— The President in the Chair. Mr. W. H. PaTXSRSON 
read a Pax)er on ** Gaelic Ghaniis, Incantations, ^nd Curses." 

DuBUN Naturawsts' Fiei,d Ci^ub. 
Fbbruary loth. — ^The Chair was taken by the President (Prof G. A. 
J. Cole, F.G.S.) There was a large attendance of members and friends. 
After the signing of the minutes, the Vice-President (Mr. N. Coi^gan) 
took the Chair, while Prof. Coi,B delivered his address on " Some 
Problems in the Geology of Co. Dublin and Co. Wicklow.*' He said 
that by indicating how many points of interest still remained unsettled 
in the geology of Co. Dublin and Co. Wicklow, he hoped to attract som6 
of the energy of the Club towards the study of these matters in the field'. 
He dwelt on the possibility of the discovery of fragmeutal, but service- 
able, organic remains in the slates of Bray or Howth ; on the dubious 
position of Oldhamia ; on the desirability of checking add adding to the 
old determinations of species from the Ordovician limestone of Portrane ; 
and on the paucity of graptolites hitherto discovered in the associated 
shales. The minerals of the contact-zone along the flanks of the 
I^efaistet granite ^ay attract other observers ; ^nd^h» su^fgestiDn, madfe 



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$4 the /risk NahutUisl (Haxdi, 

by Profl Sollas, that the granite is a laccolitic mass overlying the Howth 
and Bray series, requires further investigation. The zones in the Car- 
boniferous Limestone have yet to be indicated by a study of the fossDs 
on various horizons ; and attention was called to the blocks of older 
rocks found embedded in the limestone ; finally, the author referred to 
the difficulties taised by the abundant shelly gravels associated with the 
glacial epoch. He himself was inclined again to urge, as he had done 
in an early number of the IrisA Naturalistt that the shells in these gravels 
represent a late Pliocene (Astian) submergence, and that they were 
brought into their present positions by the action of glacial and other 
streams during the cold period that succeeded. 

Rbv. Maxwbi,!, H. Ci«osb, in a happy and effiective speech, reviewed 
the history of many of the controversies that had been touched on by 
the President He described the interesting discovery of well-roonded 
quartzite and granite boulders in the Carboniferous Limestone at 
Stillorgan, during the making of the reservoir there, the other records 
being granite boulders on the south of Dublin, and pieces of Ordovician 
schist, unrounded, at Blackrock. Mr. Close described himself as a 
sceptic, in the true sense of the word, with regard to the causes which 
had laid down the shelly gravels as we now find them. He was quite 
unconvinced, however, by Prof Carvill Lewis, who urged, when in the 
field with him at Ballyedmonduff, that the gravels had been pushed 
uphill before a gigantic glacier. Mr. Coi^Gan and Mr. Praeobr also 
discussed the paper, after which Prof. Coi«B replied. 

Mr. H. Lystbr Jameson then read his account of his explorations of 
the caves at Mitchelstown and Enniskillen, undertaken on behalf of the 
Royal Irish Academy Fauna and Flora Committee. The paper, which 
was of much interest, and will shortly be published in externa in our 
pages, was prefaced by some remarks on the animals obtained, by Mr. G. 
H. Carpenter; the subject-matter of his communication will appear in 
Mr. Jameson's paper. A short discussion ensued. The following were 
declared elected members of the Club :— Miss Dixon, Rev. C W. Pollis, 
B.A., Joseph Magnire, B.L»> Miss Sweeny. 



Cork Naturai^ists' Fiei.d Ci,ub. 

February loth.— The President ( W. H. Shaw) in the chair. A very in- 
teresting paper was read by Mr. Wm. Mii,i,er— "The Climate of Cork," 
and a lively discussion followed. 

Professor Hartoo read a note on Mr. Rousselet*s method of preserv- 
ing Rotifers. He pointed out the need of keeping specimens for 
comparison of microscopic organisms, as is done for larger animals and 
plants, in order to avoid the doubt due to imperfect descriptions and 
sketches. As examples he cited the cases of Hexarthra^ a Rotifer with 
six articulated limbs, so described by Schmarda as to render it impossible 
to say whether it is or is not identical with Hudson's genus Pedaiion^ and 
of Plasomoj a genus founded by Herrick twelve years ago, and since 
described under no less than jfiv€ other new generic names 1 The first 
requisite is to stupefy the active animals ; this is conveniently done bgr 



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iS^b] Proceedings #/ IrUk SccieHes. 85 

first fishing them out into dean water, and then adding drop by drop 
the following aolntion of cocain ; — 

A. Cocaine Hydrocblorate, i gram. 
Water, 50 cc. 

Methylated spirit (without petroleum), I3 cc. 
This solution keeps indefinitely. 

B. Solution A, 4 cc. 
Water, 6 cc. 

To be made as required. 
The solution must be added gradually at intervals of a few minutes. 
When the animals are sufficiently sluggish the addition of a drop or two 
rfosmic acid solution \ per cent fixes them. They must then be re- 
moTed by a medicine dropper to clean water, and thence to a cell 
containing a 2 to 2} per cent; solution of commercial formalin (also 
called " formol* and " formal" = a solution of 40 per cent formic aldehyde 
in water; or equal volumes of i\j per cent mercuric chloride and \ per 
cent sodium chloride). The cells used are the hollowed glass slides to 
be obtained from any optician. The cover is sealed down with Miller's 
caoutchouc cement, and finished with a ring of asphaltum, &c. (See 
Jonmal of the Qnekett Microscopic Club, vol. v., ser. ii, March, 1895), 
Five slides of Mr. Rousselet's preparation were 9\iowa i—^ A splatuhna 
BriiHweiiiif SyncM^tia tavina^ Cyrtattia Ma, Ptdalion mirum, and Ptas^ma 
Hwds9mL 

The Secrbtary called members' attention to Mr. Praeger's article in 
current number of the Irish Naturalist, and hoped it would prove a stimulus 
to the botanists itf the coming jrear, and also gave particulars regarding 
the conversazione, arrangements for which are progressing rapidly. 
Poor new members joined the Club, which has received substantial 
tncresse since the lectures under the auspices of the Field Club Union. 

LiMBRICK NaTURAUSTS' PiEI«D Gi«UB. 

Jakuary 23rd.— The annual meeting unanimously adopted a suggestion 
of the Committee, recommending that the Club should cease to hold its 
meetingB in a private room, and admit the public to membership, with 
the result that an immediate increase often members took place, and at 
least as many more are likely to be added by next meeting, which is to 
be held in the Board Room of the City Library, kindly given to the Club, 
free of all charges, for its future gatherings, by the Corporation library 
Committee. The Club now numbers upwards of sixty members, and 
under its new conditions should be capable of doing good work in its 
hitherto almost virgin locality. 

The report of Committee for 1895, mentioned the occurrence of 
several interesting records, amongst them being a male specimen of the 
Urge Footman (finophrin quadra) from Adare, an example of a ground 
beetle {Panagttus crux-major) from Finlough, Co. Clare, this insect being 
an addition to the Irish list ; a Red Squirrel {Sciurus vulgaris) from Cratloe 
Wood ; and amongst Lepidoptera the Secretary reported having taken 
the Holly Blue (JLycana argiolus) for the first time in May, 1895. 



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8$ The Irish Naturalist . [Biardi^ 

FIELD CLUB NEWS. ^ 

Mr. R. Welch, of the Belfast Field Club, sends us a second supplement 
to his Catalogue of Geological Photographs. We have had the advantage 
of examining this beautiful series, and can say that it includes many views 
of the highest interest and importance. First come some illustrations oi 
coast denudation, including the remarkable scene in White Park Bay, 
described by Professor Cole in the Geological Magazine for Dec., 1895, 
Then follow photographs of raised beaches, and of Palaeozoic and 
Meaozoic strata. The Roundstone kitchen-middens come next, and 
finally we have the beautiful series of mountain views taken in Coui 
tiemara^nd Clare on the Field Club Union Excursion, which most o^ 
bur ^readers have already seen and admired. 

The arrangements for the Cork Field Club Conversazione on Marcl^ 
loth, are rapidly progressing, and the function promises to be a very 
interesting one. A number of new members have lately joined this 
Club, which appears to have now firmly taken root, and to have a 
successful future before it 

in a course of five lectures on Ireland, at the Dublin Coffee Palace 
last month, three members of the Dublin Field Club have taken part 
Dr. M*Weeney lectured on ** Invisible Natives "— bacterii^ 5 Professor 
Cole on " The Land and the Landscape," and Mr. Carpenter on "Wild 
Life in Ireland." The other lectures of the course were "Ancient Irish 
Crosses" by Rev. D. Murphy ; and "The People of Ireland " by Rev, 
Canon Carmichael. 

In the Royal Dublin Society's course of aftemoqn lectures. Natural 
Science is represented by "The Bath Sponge" (Prof. SoUas), "The 
Glaciers of the Alps " (Rev. Monsignor Molloy), " Irish Animals Old and 
New " (G. H. Carpenter), "The r*ood of Plants'* and "The Making of 
Timber " (Prof. T. Johnson). 

The Limerick Field Club has now felt strong enough to forsake the 
protecting wing of the Young Men's Christian Association, and to start 
on an independent career. The result of this action is to tlirow the 
benefits of the Club open to all sections of the public, and as a conse- 
quence an immediate rise of membership has taken place. The Corpora- 
tion Library Committee has generously placed the BOard-rooni of the 
City Library at the disposal of the Club for its future meetings, free of 
charge. We have no doubt that on this wider basis the Club will con- 
tinue to prosper, and will increase in numbers and in activity. 

The Geological section of the Belfast Club are arranging for a con- 
tinuous week*s study of geology during the month of March imder 
Professor Cole, p.g.s. The forenoons are to be devoted to field geology, 
and each evening a class for the study of petrography will meet in the 
Club's rooms at the Belfast Museum. This new scheme should prove 
highly valuable, as geological students are well aware of the difficulty of 
recognising rocks in the field with which they are perfectly familiar in 
museum collections. This is the third year in which the Club have had 
the great advantage of studying undet Professor Cole. 



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NOTES. 



■Ildness of the Season.— Many reports reach ns illtistrating the 
remarkable mildness of the present season. Mr, E. A. Praeger reports 
a Blackbird's nest with two eggs found at Holjrwood, Co. Down, on 29th 
January ; at the same date the Rooks at Cultra rookery were busily 
engaged in building their nests. Vespa germanica was observed on the 
wing at Limerick, as early as nth February, a specimen having been- 
taken on that date by the Secretary of the Limerick Club. The weather 
had been very fine and tnild for some days previously. Among several 
reports of early flowers, we may mention that on 2nd February the 
Scurvy-gtass {Cochlearia ogkinaHs) was flowering abundantly on Howth, 
the blossoms set in luxuriant tufts of succulent glossy foliage. 



ZOOLOGY. 



INSECTS. 
Deatfi*^ Head Moth In Dublin.— A deiad but perfect specimen, 
except for the antennae, of the Death's Head Moth (Acherantia dtropos) Wais 
found by the children of the caretaker of the now disused Carmichael 
College of Medicine, Aungier St, Dublin. It lay on the floor of the 
former dissecting room, and from inquiries as to the dates on Which the 
room was swept, &c., I believe that earlier in this or last year it sought 
shelter in some cranny and was recently dislodged by the strong winds 
prevailing about Christmas. The windows are generally open, and in sum- 
mer the room is much frequented by the children looking for flies, bees, 
wasps, &a, constantly to be found there dead. Their father, a pensioner, 
who used to collect butterflies, &c., in the tropics when on service, recog- 
nised the specimen and saved it from destruction. 

J. Ai^FRED Scott, Dublin. 

GonepteryxrhamnllnQueen'sCounty.— -Miss Bewley captured 

a fine specimen of this butterfly about the end of August last at Dun- 
more in the Queen's County, which appears to be a new locality, as Mr. 
Kane in his catalogue only gives Kerry, Galway, and an island in Lough 
JLee, Co. Longford (Entomologist^ vol. xxvi., p. 120). Another specimen is 
said to have been seen on the wing at the same time and place. This 
discovery is interesting, as the Queen's County has been knowri as a 
habitat for this insect's food-plant, the Buckthorn i^Rhofntius caiharticus)^ 
which grows on the banks of the Barrow. 

Georgs V. Hart, Dublin. 

An Early Emergence.— A specimen oi Phlogophora meticulosa emerged 
at Howth on the ist January. The pupa was in a flowerpot in the 
open air. This bears witness to the mildness of the season. 

George V. Hart. 



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88 The Irish Naturalist. [ March. 189! 

BIRDS. 

Birds of Oonn«mara.^In Mr. Witberby'a account of Cosuiemai 
birda in the January issue of the Irish Naturalist he states that " a nitmbc 
of Dunlin, some of which were singing beautifully, were fiyvx% aboq 
in small flocks" on Lough Corrib. I should like to ask Mr. "^^therb 
whether it was beyond doubt the Dunlin {Tringa alpine^ that he refet 
to, and not the Ringed Plover (^Mgialitis hiaHcukt)^ which is locally callei 
the Dunlin in some parts of England. The islands of Lough Corrib ar 
hardly the kind of habitat for the Dunlin during the nesting oeasoc 
Several years ago I spent two days on Lough Corrib and its islands fo 
ornithological purposes at the middle of May, and I saw no Dunlins 
but on every island that had any shingly shore — ^and I landed on abou 
sixteen or eighteen such — there was at least one pair of Ringed Plovers 
Mr. Witherby's other observations relating to Lough Corrib coincidi 
Mrith mine to a remarkable degree ; and as the Ringed Plover is fairl] 
plentiful on the islands during the nesting season he can hardly hav^ 
failed to observe it,as he has noted nearly all the other birds to be expected 
but he makes no mention whatever of it Many who know the pleasing 
whistling notes of the Ringed Plover will probably agree that •* singini 
beautifully*' seems a not inappropriate description of them. Altogethet 
it rather looks as though it was the Ringed Plover Mr. Witherby re 
ferred to, not the Dunlin ; but should it prove to be the latter, it woul(! 
of course be an occurrence of interest to Irish ornithologists. 

Mr. Witherby also states that " on some of the low flat islands ol 
Renvyle the Black Guillemots seemed to be laying their eggs under th< 
large boulders scattered about," and that he "saw several at differeni 
times fly out from amongst them, but could not reach their egg&" li 
is well known that various birds occasionally nest in situations ver^ 
dififerent from the sites usually chosen ; and it would be interesting tc 
know whether Black Guillemots were really nesting in the situation 
described. Can Mr. Witherby or anyone else throw further light on the 
question? Mr. Witherby says: ''Another curious nesting habit ) 
noted was, that the Oystercatchers, which were numerous, invariabl) 
nested on the rocks or turf even on islands where there was shingle in 
every way suitable for them." Perhaps West of Ireland Oystercatcherl 
may have found that it is not always safe to nest on the shingle Mrithin 
possible reach of an unusually high Atlantic wave, and have conse* 
quently gone to higher and safer situations. At all events the site 
mentioned hardly seems an unusual one with these birds in the West oi 
Ireland. In 1894, during the first week of July, on Inishkeeragh'--the 
island between North Inishkea and Inishgloria— off the west coast ol 
Co. Mayo, I found two Oystercatchers' nests containing young birds on 
small patches of turf among the rocks, near where Arctic Terns weit 
nesting. I identified the nests and young as Oystercatchers by the 
broken fragments of egg shells about the nests. 

J. R. Pai^m^r, Dublin, 



->(• 



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April, 18961] 89 

NOTES ON COLLECTING ENTOMOSTRACA, 

WITH A UST OP THE IRISH SPECIES OF CUIDOCERA KNOWN 
AT PRESENT. 

BY R. H. CRBIGHTON, M.B. 



Entomostraca are found ever3rwhere; they are especially 
abundant in marsHes, the weedy pools on the outskirts of a 
bog, and in the bed of weeds which exists in most lakes where 
the deep and shallow waters meet. In the centre of the larger 
lakes a regular pelagic fauna exists ; it has been little studied 
in the United Kingdom, as it is impossible to collect it 
without the aid of a boat. The best time to obtain these 
pelagic forms is at night, when they crowd to the surface in 
large numbers, even in the middle of winter. 

For collecting in the smaller pools, the ordinary muslin 
net and glass bottle at the end of a stick about four feet long 
answer well. In larger ponds and in lakes of course they are 
of no use ; here I find Professor Birge's cone dredge (8) a great 
comfort, as the cone keeps out weeds, insects, larvae, &c. 
" It consists of four parts, the body, the cone, the net, and 
the screw-top. The body is a cylinder of stout tin, strength- 
ened by a wire at each end, four inches long, and four inches 
in diameter. On top of this is placed a cone of brass netting, 
Sve inches high ; this is attached below to a circle of tin so that 
it fits into the top of the body like the cover of a tin pail. 
The bail of the body is of stout brass wire, the ends passed 
through the side of the body and enlarged, and the loop of 
wire shaped so as to fit within the cone and project through a 
hole in its top, with an eye into which the dredge-line can 
be fastened. Two cones are provided, one of one-tenth inch 
mesh and one of one-twentieth inch. The net is of fine 
cheese-cloth, eighteen to twenty-two inches long, conical, 
large enough at the base to slip over the dredge-body to which 
it is tied. It is faced with stout muslin for a distance of two 
or three inches at each end. At the smaller end it is small 
enotigh to fit the screw-top, a tin cylinder one inch in diameter 
and one inch and a quarter long, with a wire in one end, and 
on the other a zinc screw-top such as is used on paraffin 

A 

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90 Tke Irish Naturalist [ April 

cans." This dredge can be thrown easily twenty yards froni 
the shore and hauled in by the line, thus collecting much tnor< 
extensively than it is possible to do with the ordinary hand 
net. It can be pulled through weeds, and can strain a large 
quantity of water without getting filled with vegetable debris 
When used as a surface net the cone is removed. 

Entomostraca are best examined alive in a drop of water, 
either in a hollow-ground slide or on an ordinary slide, the 
pressure of the coverglass being taken off by a pellet of -wax, 
or as Professor Hartog suggests, a frond of Duckweed. li 
unable to examine them at once, remember that they live 
much longer if kept in the dark. 

Mounting permanent specimens is very troublesome. I get 
the best results by killing with osmic acid, bleaching carefully 
with chlorate of potash and hydrochloric acid, g^ding 
through alcohol, staining with tincture of cochineal or with 
haematoxylin (the latter is very liable to overstain), and 
mounting in Canada balsam. Prof. Herman Fol advises 
killing with tincture of iron (steel drops) added to a small 
quantity of water in which the animal is swimming, and sub- 
sequent staining with gallic acid. I have not had much 
success with this method. Sometimes, more especially with 
the smaller Cladocera, the osmic acid alone gives suflGlcient 
differentiation. Kleinenberg's picro-sulphuric acid is useful 
for killing, and has the great advantage of being cheap. If 
you use it, remember to wash out with dilute alcohol, not 
water. 

For preserving specimens for future study glycerine does 
well for Copepods ; the following is a good formula : — gly- 
cerine one ounce, proof spirit two ounces, water one ounce, 
liquefied carbolic acid one dram, mix. They can be examin- 
ed in this solution without staining, and can be mounted out 
of it in glycerine jelly. Cladocera are much harder to deal 
with ; I get the best results by killing with osmic acid and 
grading carefully through 30, 50, 70 and 90 per cent, alcohol ; 
but it is much better, in fact almost essential, to examine 
specimens of this group alive. 

In the following list I have endeavoured to collect all the 
species recorded from Ireland ; they number only 23 ! In a 
synopsis of the British Cladocera published in i\iQ Journal oi 



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i*^^.] Creighton. — Notes on collecting Entomostraca, 91 

the Birmingham N. H. Society in February, 1895. Mr. Hodg- 
son gives a list of 64 British species, of which 31 have been 
found within 15 miles of Birmingham. In all probability the 
whole 64, if not more, are to be found in Ireland. 

Mr. J. D. Scourfield has given me great aid by kindly 
naming some of the more difficult species for me. Where no 
reference follows a locality in this list, the species has been 
taken there by myself. 

IRISH CLADOCERA. 



8lda crystalllnay O. P. Mullen This is by far the most widely dis- 
tributed and abundant Entomostracan in the lakes and ponds of 
the N. of Ireland; I have found it in all I have examined except those 
nrhich are liable to be completely dried up in hot weather. My 
experience is thus directly opposed to Baird's observations in England, 
viz. :— " They do not seem to be numerous in the localities in which I 
have found them, and indeed are of rare occurrence.*' (j); Scourfield 
has recently confirmed Baird's statement in researches conducted at 
Wanstead Park (2) and in Wales (3). Irish localities are L. Corrib (4), 
h. Erne (5), L. Melvin, lakes of Donegal, and near Galway (6). 

Daphnia pulex, MUller. Common in small ponds, ditches, and 
wells ; also near the shore in lakes ; L. Erne (5), Donegal, &c. 

D. lonfflsplnSr MUller. Near Galway (6); lakes of Fermanagh and 
Donegal. 

D. obtusav Kurz. Common in a pond in the townland of Dunmuckrim, 
near Ballyshannon. 

D. ffaleata* Sars. Only in L. Erne (5) and L. Melvin in this locality ; 
near Galway (6). 

Cerlodaphnia reticulata* Jurine. Scarce. L. Unshin, near Bally- 
shannon. 

C. pulctieliav Sars. Mr. Scourfield kindly identified this species for 
me; it resembles C. quadrangular Miiller, very closely. I have found 
it only in L. Nabrackalan, near Bf^llyshannon. 

C. meiralopSf Sars. Near Galway (6). 

ScaphoIeDerls mucronata, O. F. Mullen L. Corrib (4). 

Slmocephalus vetulus, O. F. MUller. Common in ponds ever>'- 
where. 

Bosmtna coreffonl, Baird. Upper L. Erne (5). 

B. lonfflrostrlSy O. F. MUller. Clonhugh Lake, near Mulling?ir (4). 

B. lonfflsplna, Leydig. L. Bollard, Connemara (7). L. Melvin. 

Latlionura rectlrostrls, MUller. L. Bollard, Connemara (7). 

■acrottirix latlcornlSf Leydig. Near Belfast, W. Thompson (7). 

M. rosea* Jurine, Lakes of Connemara (7). 

Acantholeberls curvlrostrlSf Muller. Bog pools near L. Corrib 
(4) ; Connemara (7) ; near Columbkille I^ake, Ballyshannon. 

Drepanothrlx hamatay Sars. L. Bollard, Connemara (7). 

A 2 



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92 



The Irish Naturalist 



[ April, 



Curyoercus lameliatus, Miiller. Common everywhere in weedr 

ponds. 
Acroperus harpa, Baird. Near Oalway (6). 

Alonopsls elonffata, Sars. L. Corrib and L. Clonhugh (4); Con- 

nemara (7). 
l^noeus costatuSf Sars. Connemara (7). 
L. testudlnarlust Fischer. Connemara (7). 
L. nanus, Baird. Connemara (7). 
L. afrinis, Kurz. Near Galway (6). 

QraptoIel>erl8 testudlnarla, Fischer. Near Oalway (6). 
Alonella nana^ Baird. Near Oalway (6). 
Pleuroxus trlffonelluSy Muller. Near Oalway (6). 
Chydorus sphaerlcus, Mtiller. Common all over Ireland. 
C. fflobosus, Baird. Connemara (7). 
Polyphemus pedlculus, De (^er. L. Corrib and L. Bay (4) ; Longh 

Columbkille, near Ballyshannon. This species is very local; it 

appears to swim in shoals usually within a few yards of the shore. 
Bythotrephes lonfflmanus, Lilljeborg. Very plentiful in Upper 

I/. Erne in 1886-7-8 (5). Rare in I<. Meh-in, and the individuals are 

smaller than in L. Erne. 
Leptodora hyallna, Lilljeborg. Common in Upper L. Erne (5); 

neighbourhood of Oalway (6). 



1. Baird. W. 

2. Scourfield, D. J., 



4. Andrews, A. 

5. Creighton.R. H. 

6. Hodgson, T. V. 

7. Norman & Brady. 

8. Birge, E. A 



R9FERKNCBS. 
Nat Hist of Brit Entomost; Ray Society, 1850. 
Entomost. of Wanstead Park. Journal of the Q. 

Micro. Club, Ser. 2, Vol. v. 
Prelim. Account of the Entomost of N.Wales, 

foumal of Q, Micro, Club, Ser. 2, Vol. vi. 
Irish Naturalist, Vol. ii., page 24. 
Irish Naturalist ^ Vol. ii., page 24. 
Irish Naturalist, Vol. iv., page 190. 
A Monograph of British Entomost.^ London, 1867. 
List of Cladocera from Madison, Winsconsin. 

Trans, of Winsconsin Acad, of Sc, &*c,y Vol. viii., 

page 397. 



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i^] 93 

ON THE EXPLORATION OF THE CAVES OF ENNIS- 

KILLEN AND MITCHEI^TOWN FOR THE 

R.LA. FLORA AND FAUNA COMMITTEE. 

BY H. I.YSTER JAMESON. 
(Read before the Dublin Naturalists* Field Club, Feb. loth, 1896.) 



Early in 1895 Dr. ScharflF informed me that Mr. E. A. Martel, 
the celebrated French explorer of caves, had determined to 
visit Ireland in July, with a view to investigating some of the 
numerous caverns with which our Carboniferous limestone 
is in places riddled. 

I at once expressed myself anxious to join him in his ex- 
plorations, and in due time was informed that the Fauna and 
Flora Committee of the Royal Irish Academy had done me 
the honour of making a grant to me for the purpose of further 
investigating the cave-fauna, already discovered at Mitchels- 
town by Dr. Wright and Mr. Haliday, and so ably described 
by Mr. Carpenter in his most interesting paper on the ** Animals 
found in the Mitchelstown Cave " (J fish Naturalist, February, 

1895). 

On July loth I left Dundalk for Enniskillen, where I hoped 
to meet Mr. Martel, whose investigations were to commence 
in that district. At Enniskillen I was met by Mr. Thomas 
Plunkett, M.R.I.A., who kindly made me his guest while I 
was there, and whose intimate knowledge of the geology and 
physical features of the district was of very great assistance 
to me in my work. 

On July nth I set ojBF for Bohoe, where I was met by the 
Rev. A. Knight, who acted as my guide. 

We iSrst proceeded to investigate the underground river- 
bed at Bohoe, a winding subterranean watercourse. Beside 
the outlet was a dry cavern which presumably was once con- 
nected with the present river-bed, and has for some reason be- 
come cut off. It was only accessible for a short distance, large 
angular blocks, falling from the roof and walls, having 
formed an impassable barrier. This grotto must have been 
inhabited by numerous bats, as the floor was strewn with their 



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94 The Irish NaiuralisL [ April, 

faeces, and also with the rejected wings of insects. The river- 
course itself, though at the time of my visit dry, is after heavy 
rains traversed by a mountain torrent, which evidently floods 
right up to the roof, as debris of all kinds, branches of trees, 
sods of turf, &c., were jammed into all crevices, even in the 
roof. Consequently no animals of the typical cave-fauna were 
to be found. 

We entered at the end of the cave where the stream dis- 
charges itself, and noticed that just inside the exit, where ex- 
posure to weather had enlarged the calibre of the cave, there 
were two colonies of Daubenton's Bat ( Vespertilio Daubentonit), 
clustered together in crevices in the roof like swarms of bees. 
I captured five specimens with some difiiculty ; they were all 
males, and two of them can now be seen in the Science and 
Art Museum, Dublin. 

The invertebrates found in this cave had evidently been 
accidentally brought in by floods, with the exception of two 
large spiders, Meta Menardii and Meta Meriana, which Mr. 
Carpenter, who has kindly identified the invertebrates col- 
lected, tells me often inhabit the entrances to caves. The 
other invertebrates were a water-bug, Velia currens, and two 
flies belonging to the genera Erioptera and Molophilus. 

On leaving this cave Mr. Knight invited me to lunch at the 
Rectory, and, when there, showed me a Bat that he had killed 
in his room on the previous night This proved to be the 
Whiskered Bat ( Vespertilio mystaci7ius), another of our rarer 
Irish species. This specimen, a male, is now in the Science 
and Art Museum, Dublin. Some time after I left Enniskillen 
Mr. Knight sent me a specimen of the Hairy-armed Bat 
( Vesperugo Leislen) taken in his house, a female Daubenton's 
Bat, and a Long-Eared Bat {Plecotus auritus) captured in the 
dry cavern to which I have already referred. 

After lunch we explored Coolarkin, a cave of considerable 
dimensions, and one which must once have been traversed by 
a river of large size. All that now remains of the river is a 
small stream that sinks into the floor of the cave close to the 
entrance, meeting no doubt some watercourse at a greater 
depth. But, from the presence of flood-rubbish further in, I 
infer that in floods a stream of some kind traverses it, though 
the greater part is always dry. Any stream rising in the neigh- 



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1896.] Jameson. — Caves of Enniskillen and Mitchelstown, 95 

bourhood could occupy but a small part of the vast capacity of 
this cave, which is in places fully forty feet high, and fifteen or 
twenty feet wide. Unfortunately a couple of hundred yards 
from the entrance further progress was prevented by a heap of 
fallen debris which completely blocked the way. At the 
inner end of the passage, where the heap of boulders stopped 
us, was a burrow, possibly belonging to a Badger, and Mr. 
Knight* s dogs which had accompanied us showed by their ex- 
citement that the animal was within. This further supports 
my belief that this cave is in great part dry at all seasons. 

The Invertebrates I found here are all species which occur 
above ground; they are —a spider, Porrhoma microphthalma, 
wliich Mr. Carpenter tells me has been found in a coal-pit, 
occurring also above ground ; Brachydesmus superuSy a blind mil- 
lipede, which also occurs above ground ; lulus pilosus, a 
typical millipede ; Tomocerus tridentiferus, a collembolan, found 
at Mitchelstown by Wright and Haliday ; recorded by Packard 
from North American caves, occurs under stones above 
ground;^ Velia currens, the water-bug found at Bohoe; a 
ftmgus-midge, Sciara Thomce ; and four beetles, Bembidium 
rufescms, Ancyrophona omalinus, Helodes marginata, and Co- 
pTophilus striatulus ; the last, Mr. Halbert tells me, I has not 
hitherto been recorded as Irish. All these beetles inhabit 
moist, marshy places, and were probably washed into the cave. 

After leaving Coolarkin cave we visited Bohoe church, 
where Mr. Knight informed me there was an immense colony of 
bats. We found a number of young Pipistrelles( Vesperugopipu. 
itrdlus) from a few days old to half-grown individuals, crawling 
about the floor of the church, having fallen through a hole in 
the ceiling. There must have been an immense colony in the 
roof, but unfortunately there was not a ladder at hand to 
enable me to inspect it Having collected a number of these 
young bats' I returned to Enniskillen, as darkness was already 
coming on. 

On July 1 2th, next day, I drove to the Marble Arch, at 
Florence-Court, and, after collecting a few invertebrates about 
the grounds, I was met by Mr. Bowles, the keeper, who accom- 



' Per this and other information respecting the invertebrates found I 
tm indebted to Mr. Carpenter. 



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96 The Irish Naturalist [ April 

panied me to the caves. In the Marble Arch cave, which is 1 
favourite resort for tourists, I collected a few invertebratei 
which, like those collected on the previous day, were specie! 
which occur above ground. 

This cave is, I may here remark, in its upper part dry, th< 
river that has carved it out having found a passage on a lowe! 
level, and appearing as a spring some distance in. Here ! 
took Porrhoma microphthalma, Brachydesmtis superus, Tomoce 
rus tfidentiferus, and Clivina fossor, a carabidous beetle. 

None of the other Florence Court caves were accessible 
without Mr. Martel's exploring apparatus, so I had to defei 
my visits to them till his arrival. 

On the 15th Mr. and Mrs. Martel and I drove to the Arcl 
Spring, and Noon's Hole, bringing with us in a cart Mr. MarteFj 
copious equipment of cave-exploring apparatus. Thij 
consisted of a canvas boat, some hundreds of feet of rope- 
ladders, a light portable folding wooden ladder, ropes, axes 
compass, barometer, telephone, maps, &c. 

We first proceeded to Noon's Hole, which is a vertical shafi 
or swallow-hole down which a stream precipitates itself. Mr. 
Martel sounded the shaft with a lead- line and found the depth 
to be 150 feet The rope ladders were then got ready and Mr 
Martel began his descent; he could not, however, descend 
more than about 60 feet, as the falling water, which at the 
time was unusually high, broke over the ladder and rendered 
further progress impossible. The descent of this chasm 
would be made possible if the stream could be for a time 
deflected. 

We also explored Poolaneflfaran, a pit formed partly by the 
falling in of the roof of an underground river-bed. 

The streams traversing Noon's Hole and PoolanefiFaran con- 
verge to form the Arch spring, where they discharge them- 
selves through a beautiful grotto, an^ form a waterfall. In 
the Arch spring I found Meta Meriatus. 

On the 1 6th we visited the Marble Arch, bringing the same 
equipment. Here we were met by Mr. Bowles and his son. 
who accompanied us to the caves. Several streams, meeting 
underground, flow out at the source, under the "Marble 
Arch," a beautiful natural archway, cut off from the cave. 



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189^1 Jameson. — Caves of Enniskillen and Mitchektown* 97 

The first cavern we explored we gained access to by means 
of an entrance at the bottom of a pit, formed evidently by the 
falling in of a part of the roof. After exploring several dry 
galleries and a vertical swallow-hole opening on the hiU 
above us, we found on a lower level the river itself. Further 
progress was impossible without the boat, as a large 
and deep pool, an expansion of the underground stream, 
barred our way. The boat was brought into the cave, its 
constituent parts filling two large canvas bags, and was put 
together; by this means we were able to investigate this 
hitherto unexplored river, A detailed account of this 
"voyage" would occupy too much space, and no doubt it 
will in due time be fully described by Mr. Martel. The stream 
was " navigable " for about 300 yards. 

We afterwards investigated some small swallow-holes which 
mark above g^und the course of these streams. The chief 
stream, the Monaster, as it is called, enters upon its subter- 
ranean course at Poolawaddy. 

Above this its course is through a deep narrow gorge, which 
ends in a cliff, into a cavern in which the stream falls. I was 
informed that in heavy floods the volume of water in this 
gorge is so much greater than the cave can quickly drain off 
that the valley becomes a deep lake. 

This day's work completed our Enniskillen explorations. 

From the 22nd to the 2Sth of July I was engaged exploring 
Mitchelstown Cave. I will not attempt any description of 
this underground labyrinth, as it has now been completely 
mapped by Mr. Martel, who is publishing in this number of 
the Iruh Naturalist a description and plan of it. It was dis- 
covered some sixty years ago by the grandfather of the 
present tenant of the land on which is the entrance ; he broke 
into one of the obstructed swallow-holes when quarrying. 
This is the only known opening. The so-called " river " is 
only a little pool of water in a basin of rock. I fully explored 
it, crossing over to the opposite side of it. I found that its 
high'Water line is marked all round by a calcareous deposit, 
and, when it is flooded up to this, it empties itself by a small 
opening, about a foot in diameter, into some deeper and 
unexplored chamber. 

A3 

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98 The Irish Naturalist [April 

Although no opening is known except the artificial one b] 
which we entered, the presence of a number of spedmenj 
of an above-gpround staphylinid beetle, Ancyrophorus omalinus^ 
all dead, and floating on the surface of another small pool o\ 
water (about eight or ten feet in diameter and a foot deep] 
points to the fact that water has access from the outer worl(j 
otherwise than by infiltration. 

In the passage called the " Mud Cave," which is the deepest 
part, is a vertical shaft, the walls of which are thickly coated 
with fine red extremely sticky mud, so that descent without 
ropes would be impossible ; I tried to get down, but the mud, 
sticking to my boots in large masses, threatened to pull me 
down more rapidly than would have been pleasant, so I had to 
leave it. This shaft has never been explored, but as it is in the 
deepest known part of thecave I feel pretty certain that if it 
could be followed it would be found to lead into some deeper 
passages, and perhaps to the bed of the river that must in 
former times have drained the cave. Mr. Martel, however, 
does not attach much importance to this pit, but he has very 
generously made me an offer that, if I wish to carry out further 
explorations, he will lend me some of his ladders. About four 
or five hundred yards west of the entrance is a swallow- 
hole, which opens on the side of a hill overlooking the valley 
north of the caves. This the guide informed me has once or 
twice been partly explored, but he could tell me nothing about 
it, except that he believed there was a river in some of the 
passages. It is not known to communicate with the other 
cave. The man who drove me from Mitchelstown to the caves 
informed me that there was a large spring a couple of miles 
south of the cave, but I could get no further information 
about it. The dip of the strata is towards the south. 

The invertebrates I collected at Mitchelstown have all been 
identified by Mr. Carpenter ; they are — 

MiTKS. 

Gamastcs attenuahis ; found in several parts of the cave, 
chiefly under paper and other refuse left by tourists. 

Spiders. 
Porrhoma myops; discovered by Mr. Carpenter in 1894 and 
recorded in his paper. 

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pjfiuj Jameson. — Caves of Enniskillen and Mitchekiown. 99 

L^typhanies pallidus : new to the Irish fauna ; Mr. Carpenter 
tells me it is a rare species which has been found by 
Pickard-Cambridge in Dorsetshire, at roots of heather ; 
also in caves in France and Bavaria ; unlike the former 
species it has large eyes. Both these species occurred 
in the driest parts of the cave, under stones, and one 
ortwo specimens (? species) in webs among the boulders, 

Myriapoda. 
Brachydesmus superus; found also in some of the Enniskillen 
caves. 

COUKMBOLA. 

Tomocerus tridmtiferus; see remarks on this species under 
Coolarkin Cave. 

Smella cavemicola; occurred ever3rwhere; on the whole 
I found this species frequenting drier spots than the 
Lipura. Mr. Carpenter tells me that my series of 
Sindla shows the species to be very variable in its an- 
tennal joints. 

Lipura Wrightii; in almost every nook and comer of the 
cave, dry or damp, outnumbering all the other species. 

Beeti.ES. 

Ancyrvphofus omalinus; mentioned before, probably washed 

in. 
Treckus micros ; taken alive under stones. 

Besides these "natives" of the cave, as with the exception 
(A Ancyrophorus they may all more or less be called, I found a 
frog, a specimen of Pterostichus vulgaris (beetle), and a fungus 
midge belonging to the genus Sciara ; these had evidently 
wandered in, and got lost in the darkness. 

A small mollusc, taken in some numbers, has been identified 
by Dr. ScharflF as Hyalina contracta, this is the second British 
record; first found at Killamey by Dr. ScharflF; occurs in 
Sweden, Germany, France, and Switzerland ; all the members 
of this genus live in concealed localities. 

When an attempt is made to group together the various 
animals collected at Knniskillen and Mitchelstown, in relation 
to the physical conditions of the caves they were found in, it 
appears that they fall into several divisions. 

A4 

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Into 

OaU 

aioii 

Boa 



roo The Irish Naturalist. \ 

to caves, m 



(I,) species inhabiting the entrances to caves, m 
light, using the cave as a convenient hiding-place ; s 
the two species o{ Meta, ^txh^cpsLeptyphantes pallidus^ 
bats. 

(ii.) Species which have wandered into the caves, w 
ally, perhaps, or have been washed in by floods, an< 
to speak ** fish out of water;** examples of such are thi 
bugs and crane-flies from Bohoe ; luliis, Velia, Sciara 
beetles from Coolarkin ; Clivinafossor from the Marbli 
and the frog, Pterostichus, Sciara, and Ancyropho\ 
Mitchelstown. 

(iii.) The Troglodytes ; only found in Mitchelsto^ 
Lipura, Sinella and Porrhoma myops. 

(iv.) Those species which do not fall under any of thei 
groups seem to me co form a division intermediate in 
between the last two, and in most cases inhabiting 
which present conditions intermediate between Bohi 
Mitchelstown caves, which I may safely take as the ea 
of my series. Such are Tomocenis tridentiferus. Brack 
supeius, and Porrhoma mictophthalma, which seem 
equally at home above gpround and underground, 
creatures seemed quite at home in Coolarkin, and i 
part of the Marble Arch cave, and I see no reason to 
that Brachydesmns and his companions in darkness ms -^ 
lived and multiplied there for many generations, undi 
by any such catastrophes as the floods that charfl 
Bohoe cave. 

While fully aware of the great gap that exists bei 
cave-fauna of this type and that of Mitchelstown, I 
reason to doubt that at one time the Mitchelstown 
was one somewhat of this type, consisting of a few 
animals which got into the cave and had to make the 
it ; the isolation and probably much greater age 
Mitchelstown fauna may account for their specializati 
if so, provided that among the many unexplored 
Ireland we can find some presenting conditions intei 
between those we find in Coolarkin and in Mitchelst 
may almost hope to fill up some of the gaps in the 
of the evolution of cave-faunas. 






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Irish, 



k 



C Plate 2 . 



MITCHBLSTOWN CAVE 

Suryeyed by E. A. Mabtbl, 
^\ 24th JULY, iSqs, 

Total Ungtii orer 1} mile. 
Inlet of perodlatinff waters ... ji^^ ('^^^ 
da do. . . -y^::!^^ 

1 BIqpm ... ... ... ^^^^ 

Booldani or narrow defts '^^iWM}^*^ 










W Broifdens Cave .urf) 




1 

a 

8 

4 



6 

7 

8 



10 

U 

13 

18 

14 



J. Vertical Sectiort of 
Bt O'Leary's Cave, &f, 




Th^wwlil^ Sf/r/nJjL 



Iwo transverse 
Sections of Sand 
CayeA Kingston 
OaUery. 




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1896.] XOI 

MITCHELSTOWN CAVE. 



BY E. A. MARTEL, 

President of the Soci^t^ Sp^tologique, Paris. 

Pl^TK 2. 

The most celebrated and the largest cave in Ireland is in the 
county of Tipperary, in the south of the island ; it is that of 
Mitchelstown, and is situated twelve miles east of this town. 

It was discovered on the 2nd of May, 1833, ^Y ^ stone- 
breaker, named Cowden : it is referred to in various descrip- 
tive works, and frequently visited by tourists; but it has 
never been completely described, and the plan of it remained 
unfinished.' It was supposed to contain a subterranean river, 
and many unexplored passages. 

On the 24th of July, 1895, I spent six hours visiting all the 
accessible comers, and drawing out the short topographical 
survey here given, which will prevent the necessity of a long 
analysis. My survey does not oflfer any new peculiarity, and 
I will confine myself to a brief indication of the principal 
features. Hollowed out under a hill which overlooks the 
aurrounding plains, this cave does not seem to be in connec- 
tion with any actual river. 

The cave of Mitchelstown has been formed, like others, by 
the drainage of superficial waters, at an epoch when they were 
much more abundant than they are in our days. In the inte- 
rior the galleries offer two different aspects ; some of them, 
the largest, have served and serve still as swallow-holes for 
the waters from without; they are — ist, the Entrance Gallery, 
which is the highest, being 13 yards in altitude at the mouth ; 
the orifice of this galler>' was discovered, by chance, in the 
working of a quarry ; 2nd, the double avenue, with parallel 
branches, of the Kingston Gallery and Sand Cave,' where the 
effects of the erosion and corrosion have produced the most 
curious sections (see the two transverse cuts of Sand Cave) ; 

*Apjohn : /ouma/ Geological Soc. of Dublin y vol. i., 1833, pages 103-111. 
Rev. Canon Courtenay Moore : Journal of the Cork Historical and ArchaoL 
■Sft, January, 1894. 
Duhlui Penny Journal, 27 Dec, 1S34. 

•Eighty yards long, and not forty-one, as stated by Rev. Courtenay 
Moow. 



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lo^ The Irtsk KaiurattsL [April, 

3rd, the west side of the hall called the House of Lords ; 4th, the 
long eastern corridor which retains, clearly marked, the traces 
of the passage of a subterranean stream (O'Callaghan's Cave 
and Brogden's Cave) ; 5th, and lastly, several fissures situated at 
the south-west angle, and near O'Leary's Cave. Each of these 
parts is terminated by an ascending slope, ruins of vaults, or 
rubbish washed in from the exterior, which obstruct them com- 
pletely, as I have already seen in the ancient draining passages, 
now stopped up, of Bramabiau, France, of Adelsberg, Austria, 
etc. They are fiUed-up swallow-holes. The other fissures, 
generally narrower, and situated in the lower parts of the 
cave, have conducted these waters no one knows where, either 
to some undetermined and distant outlet, or even into the 
depths of the terrestrial shell ; they are rendered impenetrable 
sometimes by broken pieces of stone, as at the extremity of 
Garret Cave, sometimes by the narrowness of the clefts, which 
become more and more contracted in the southern part of the 
cave ; this last disposition is exactly like that of the large 
grotto of Cro de Grandville, or of Miremont, in the Dordogne 
(see "Les Abimes,"' chap, xx.), and we ask ourselves if, like the 
latter, the cave of Mitchelstown has not served as a receptacle 
for some great lake of ancient times, which has emptied itself 
into it The lowest part of the cave is, at most, thirty-three 
yards below the level of the entrance, and not one hundred 
yards as is stated in the guide book. 

The checkered disposition of the diaciases (upright joints, 
generally perpendicular to the joints of stratification) is re- 
markable in the southern portion (see plan) ; three sets of 
fissures perpendicular to each other have there cut out large 
polyhedrons of rock, often quite cubic, the right-angled 
interstices of which have let out the waters that have gradu- 
ally widened them out ; in depth they get more contracted 
the more they branch out ; besides they have been in a great 
measure coagulated by the clay, which comes either from the 
outside or from the chemical decomposition of the interior 
rock which has become corroded. 

The Well (No. 8) marked in the Gallery of Distafis is 
impracticable on account of the glutinous mud with which 
it is covered. 

•E. A. Mattel: Les Alnnus, Paris: DelagravC) 1894, in 4to, 570 pp., 100 
engravings, 200 plans, and 20 plates. 



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1896.] yiASir&U—MiickelsiOwn Cave* 105 

The rock, according to Mr. Kinahan, is the same (Car- 
boniferous) as at Cong, where the actual waters probably 
circulate in a network of crevices of this kind. We compre- 
hend why the galleries of absorption are nearly all in the 
southern part of the grotto (except Garret Cave) when we 
remark that such is the general direction of the dip (at 40^) 
of the calcareous strata. 

Certain diaclases have been widened out into distaff shape 
and communicate with each other under the low strata which 
have not been carried away, as at the source of Marble Arch 
cave near Enniskillen, County Fermanagh. 

There are no longer any traces of running water in Mitchels- 
town Cave, at least in summer ; the so-called ** river" is a pool 
of stagnant water ten yards long by half a yard or one yard 
in depth and width, which has taken refuge in an impervious 
hollow ; there is another basin near the hall of the Four 
Courts ; both are produced by infiltration ; their temperature 
is 10^ Cent., the air of the grotto being (in two diflFerent points) 
105^ Cent. 

One will remark on the plan, and on the vertical section of 
O'Lear/s Cave, the indescribable entanglement of three stories 
of superposed galleries ; they communicate by a very narrow 
"chimney." The subterranean waters have accomplished 
there a singularly complicated work of mining. 

From a picturesque point of view the cave of Mitchelstown 
is much inferior to those of Adelsberg, Dargilon, Padirac, 
Han-sur-I^esse, etc. Its highest vault is only ten yards high ; 
the galleries of Kingston, Sand Cave, and the Cathedral are 
nevertheless very remarkable in form. The most part of the 
calcareous concretions do not deserve the attention that the 
guide-book demands for them ; and unfortunately, the pret- 
tiest stalactites, which would look well in any cavern, are 
situated in Brogden's Cave, the access to which being very 
di£5cult, is quite impracticable to tourists. At the cross-way 
marked on the plan ** difficult passage,'* the local guide who 
alone accompanied me, and who had only been there once, 
when a child, twenty-five years before, completely lost his 
way ; we were obliged to have recourse to the compass and 
to the plan I had drawn out, to find the passage again. It is 
a great pity, for the little lateral chamber in Brogden's C^ve 



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104 '^ ^^^ IfaiuralUh [April, 

which I name " the Chapel," is a real gem, provided with the 
thinnest of curtains, and the finest needles of brilliant white 
carbonate of lime. In spite of the restricted dimensions, 
there is a marvellous comer there, which has not its equal in 
all the rest of the cave, even in the hall called " Cust's Cave," 
which is also pretty well ornamented. It was supposed that 
this gallery of the ancient stream (O'Callaghan's and Brog- 
den's Caves) had never been explored to the end : this is not 
correct. I found, at a few steps from the extremity, on a 
ledge of the vault, three inscriptions : ** Raymond, May, 1840 " ; 
** Brogden (whose name has been given to the last corridor), 
5th October, 1868" ; the third was illegible. So that all the 
grotto was known (except some little clefts in the south-west, 
into which I crawled with great trouble and without any 
result). But it is very possible that the talus of broken stones 
which blocks up the end of Brogden's Cave, is not a real end, 
but that a partial falling in of the vault has only obstructed 
the gallery ; it would be very interesting to make a clearing 
there to seek if there does not exist a prolongation of the 
beautiful gallery of the dried-up stream. 

To sum up, three things are remarkable in Mitchelstown 
Cave : — 

1st. Its ramification in every direction, and the infinite sub- 
divisions of its central part. 

2nd. Its extent, which attains and even exceeds, including 
all the passages, one mile and a quarter ; this must be the 
longest cave, y^t known, in the British Isles. 

3rd. Its blind fauna. It is the only grotto in England, 
Scotland, or Ireland, where, up to the present time, there 
have been found animals peculiar only to caverns.^ Mr. H. 
I<yster Jameson occupied himself during several days in the 
month of July, 1895, in collecting specimens, and he has the 
intention of making a further study of them. 

The cave of Mitchelstown, even in the parts that are shown 
to the public, is not at all easy to go through ; the Chimney 
and all the parts round about it (O't^ary's Cave) are nearly 
impracticable to ladies^ 

^ See O. H. Carpenter 1 Animals found in Mitchelstown Cave, Irish 
Naturalist^ February, 1895, Dublin { and BuUittH de la SociiU de Spdeol^icy 
Noi 1, 1895, p. 44* 



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It appears that there have never been found in it any bones 
of animals no longer existing, and this fact is explained by 
remarking the absence of any known large natural opening. 
This is plausible ; nevertheless, for want of serious excavations 
the question cannot be considered as decided. 

Peasants told Mr. Jameson, that on a hill, situated at about 
400 yards from the entrance of the cave, there exists a natural 
well (abyss), which had only been insufl&ciently explored, but 
where, nevertheless, a current of water had been met with. It 
would be a good thing to verify and complete this indication. 

Finally, the cave of Mitchelstown may still be considered 
as a worthy object for interesting future work and research. 



BOTANY AT DUBLIN UNIVERSITY. 



NotMfrom the Botanical School of Trinity Colleffef Dublin 1 

Na I, February, 1896. Printed at the University Press. 

In this brochnre of thirty-four pages we have cheering evidence of the 
vitality of botanical studies in Trinity College. Two of the three items 
of which these Notts are made up are contributed by Mr. H. H. Dixon, B.A., 
Assistant to the Professor of Botany, and deal with some points of veget- 
able physiology which the author has made the subject of observation 
in the botanical laboratory of the College. The value of these contri- 
butions, entitled : ** On the Chromosomes of Lilium longijiorum" and 
"On the Nuclei of the Kndosperm of FfUiliaria imperialism'^ can only be 
appreciated by the advanced student who is skilled in tracing those 
mysterious stirrings of life which go on within the narrow confines of 
the vegetable cell. The third item in the Notes, entitled : " The Her- 
barium of Trinity College : a Retrospect '* is from the pen of Dr. E. P. 
Wright, University Professor of Botau}'. In this we find a strong human 
element; for the retrospect deals with the lives and labours of some 
three generations of Irish botanists, in so far, at least, as these lives and 
labours were effective in bringing together the important collection of 
^cd plants now preserved in the Trinity College Herbarium. After 
all, the lives of men, as Mr. Dixon himself will cheerfully admit, stir us 
more deeply than the lives of vegetable cells ; so that even a biologist 
may be excused for taking a warmer interest in the Retrospect than in the 
. laboratory observations. 



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lo6 The Irish NaturatisL [April, 

In the compass of a few pages Dr. Wright traces the history of the 
Herbarium and the Botanical School for upwards of a century, from the 
institution of the botanical professorship in 1785, to the foundation of 
the laboratory in 1893. The most prominent figures brought before us 
in this rapid survey are Dr. Edward Hill, first professor of the Botanical 
School ; Dr. William Allman, one of the earliest teachers of the Natural 
System in the Three Kingdoms; James T. Mackay, the well-known 
author of Flora Hibemica\ Dr. Thomas Coulter, who made botanical 
explorations in California and Central Mexico; and, last and most 
illustrious of all, Dr. William H. Harvey, facile pHnceps amongst British 
botanists of the century in knowledge of the sea-weeds of the globe. 
Harve/s indefagfitable zeal in building up the Trinity College Herbarium 
is well shown by some extracts given by Dr. Wright from the memoir 
published in 1869. No one can read this admirable memoir, almost 
entirely made up of selections from his wide correspondence, without 
conceiving a strong esteem, not to say affection, for the gifted Quaker 
botanist who has done so much to illustrate by his pencil no less than 
his pen, the flowering plants of the Cape and the marine algee of 
Australia and the South Seas. 

It would appear from an extract given us by Dr. Wright from Harvey's 
evidence before the Dublin University Commission of 1853, that the 
College herbarium then contained upwards of 45,000 species. Since that 
date the collection has grown considerably and still continues to grow ; 
but as lack of funds and consequent lack of skilled assistance has pre- 
vented the thorough arrangement of the herbarium, its actual extent 
can only be surmised. It is satisfactory to learn, however, that the 
department of algse contains all, or almost all the species described by 
Harvey in his classical works, Phycologia Britannica^ Nereis Americana, 
Nereis Australis and Phycologia Auslralis, and that the large collection of 
specimens brought together for the preparation of his Flora Capensis is in 
fairly good order. It is now thirty years since Harvey's death brought 
the Cape Flora to an abrupt close, at the end of the Composiia^ Is there 
no rich and patriotic South African to provide the funds for the com- 
pletion of this work, which it seems hopeless to expect either the 
imperial or the colonial government to take in hand ? The extent of 
the General Herbarium of Phanerogams in Trinity College is well 
shown in the rough geographical index given by Dr. Wright. Almost 
all quarters of the globe appear to be represented in the collection, the 
only striking blank being Siberia. 

In a future number of these Notes we trust tliat we may find a brief 
history of the College Botanic Garden at Ball's Bridge. 



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OBITUARY. 



UARItY CO&BYN I^BVINGE. 

The late Mr. H. C. Levinge, D.i^, j.p., who died at his residence, 
Knockdrin Castle, Mullingar, on March nth, in his 68th year, was the 
ninth and youngest son of Sir Richard Levinge, 6th Baronet, and a 
member of an oldWestmeath family, who have been identified with that 
connty for over two hundred years. Though but a comparatively recent 
recruit to the ranks of Irish botanists, Mr. Levinge did much to further 
our knowledge of the distribution of the flowering plants of this country. 
His three papers on the plants of Westmeath in this Journal, the last of 
which appeared so lately as last February, form highly important con- 
tributions to the flora of that beautiful and interesting county, previously 
almost unexplored ; and his wise encouragement of that remarkable self- 
taught botanist, Mr. P. B. O'Kelly, of Ballyvaughan, resulted in the 
publication of two plants new to Ireland — Poiamogdon lanceolatus and 
LiftMsMa aquatka — the discovery of both of which was due to Mr. O'Kelly's 
keen eye. To \h^ Journal of Botany he also contributed occasional notes 
of Irish plants, his most important paper being that on *' Neotinea intacta 
in County Clare," published in 1892. Among those who had the privi- 
lege of exchanging botanical specimens with him, Mr. Levinge*s 
plants were famous for the beauty and perfection of the drying, and 
his herbarium of British plants, to which he devoted much time, was a 
model of what such a collection should be. Mr. Levinge's devotion to 
Irish botany, which commenced but a comparatively few years ago, on 
his return to Ireland after a long period of labour in the Indian Civil 
Service, was, we believe largely due to the unobtrusive influence and 
enthusiasm of his friend, A. G. More, who did so much to quicken the 
activities of a whole generation of Irish botanists. 



Directory of Irish Naturalists.— A number of members of Irish 
Field Clubs well qualified for insertion in the new Directory have not yet 
returned the forms issued with the February number of the LN, They 
are requested to fill them in and return them without delay, as the list 
will shortly dose. Extra forms may be obtained from the undersigned. 

R. LirOYD Prakger, 

Sec Irish Field Club Union 



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Io8 TTie Irish Naiuratisl. [Ajiffli 

PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 

RoYAi, Zooi^ociCAi. Society. 
Recent donations comprise a Peregrine Falcon from J. C. Carter, Esq 
Two Black-backed Jackal cubs have been bom in the Gardena Seven 
Monkeys, two Turkey Vultures, twelve Pekin Nightingales, a pair of 
Penguins, a pair of Rose Cockatoos, a pair of Brazilian Caracars, a pair 
of Visachas, and a Coypu have been purchased. 
^)335 persons visited the Gardens in February. 



Dubinin Microscopicai* Ci,ub. 

February 20th.— The Club met at Mr. Arthur Andrews*. 

Mr. Greenwood Pim showed a leaf of Gladiolus trisHs. The transverse 
section is, in form, an almost perfectly symmetrical Maltese cross. The 
tips of the cross, which are somewhat convex, are covered witli a thick 
layer of sclerenchyma, beneath which are one large and two much 
smaller vascular bundles ; other small bundles are found in the parenchy- 
matous tissue of the leaf. The cuticle of the arms is covered with 
numerous wartlike processes. Towards the base, the leaf gradually 
expands, and becomes more flattened. This form of leaf if not unique 
is at any rate extremely rare, although some of the Irises exhibit a distant 
resemblance, being quadrangular with angles more or less marked. The 
plant is figured in BoL Mag, I., 578, under name of G. ncurvus, syn. G. 
tristis. 

Prof. T. Johnson showed a section of the stem of Sdagindla oi^ana, 
cut lengthwise. Vessels were pointed out, present in the xylem (wood) 
of the vascular tissue, in addition to the tracheides. 5*. oregana and 
S. ruptstris are two species in which Harvey Gibson has recently, in the 
course of an anatomical revision of the genus Selagindla^ discovered 
vessels (cell-fusions), the characteristic elements in the wood of Dicoty- 
ledons, and until his discovery not known to be represented in the wood 
of Ferns and their allies (except in a few cases), where trachejides are the 
normal elements. The section was made by Miss Sollas from material 
of a specimen grown in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin. 

Mr. McArdi«E exhibited the leaf cells oi Sphagnum papillosum, Lindb., 
var. confertum^ from plants which he gathered on Connor-hill, near Dingle, 
Co. Kerry, in July, 1894. It was very scarce, and grew on damp peat 
amongst rocks in short, dense tufts. Specimens were identified by Dr. 
Braithwaite. The inner cell-walls are furnished in a remarkable manner 
with rows of conical papillae ; in this way and by its large size it approaches 
closely the rare S, Atistiniy Sullivant, leaf -cells of which were also exhibited 
from specimens collected by Mr. McArdle on Ard bog, King's County, in 
September, 1890, and kindly verified by Dr. Braithwaite. The papillae in 
Auslini are larger, extending for some distance into the cells, forming 
pectinate rows. A drawing of the cells showing the papillae of both 
plants highly magnified and specimens of the plants with their peculiar 
branching were also shown. 



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i89&] Proceedings of /risk Societies. 109 

Dr. C. Herbert Hurst exhibited a pocket microscope made by Swift, 
with an addition by Aylward. The instrument is contained in a case 
measuring 6J inches by 2| inches by 2^ inches outside, and weighs, with 
the case, i lb. 9 oz. When set up inclined for use with a zoophyte-trough 
its area of support is a triangle, the sides of which measure 5 inches, 
5 inches, and 6 inches respectively, and the height being only 7 J inches, 
it possesses extraordinary stability and is particularly well adapted for 
use at sea. Aylward's addition is a folding foot with an equilateral 
triangular area of support, each side of which measures 4) inches, fitting 
the instrument for use in a vertical position for examining objects in a 
watch*gla88 or on a slide. The fine adjustment screw is good, and the 
instrument works well with powers from 4-inch to ^V-inch. 

Dr. Hurst also showed Ascetta primordialisj Haeckel, a specimen taken 
with the dredge in Rhoscolyn Bay, Holy Island, Anglesey, May 25, 1890. 
This exceedingly simple calcareous sponge, like another specimen taken 
the same day, was found attached to the base of a tuft of Antennuiaria 
antmnma, 

Mr. Moore exhibited a pseudo-bulb of a species of Angtdoa which 
had been attacked by a Fungus. The Fungus had not yet been identified, 
and the exhibit was to show the manner in which the pseudo-bulb was 
attacked and destroyed. The inner tissues were gradually disrupted, 
and at certain spots the hard epidermal tissues were burst outwards, 
small irregular yellow masses of fungoid growth coming through the 
openings. 

Corrigtndum. — In report of December meeting, p. 51, lines 11 and 13, for 
"leaves " read " hairs," 

Bkwast Naturai, History and Phii^osophicai, Society. 

March 3. — The President in the Chair. Mr, Conway Scott, C.E., 
lectured on " The Production of Ability." 



BEI.PAST NATURAI.ISTS' F1EI.D CI.UB. 

February 26. — Geowkjicai, Section. — Mr. F. W. Lockwood 
{PmidmC) in the Chair. Mr. J. O. Campbei.1*. b.e., gave an address 
on the polarisation of light, and its application to micro-petrography. 
After a short preliminary explanation of the undulating theory of light, 
the lecturer described the construction of the polariscope and the 
manner in which the phenomena of polarisation arise. The methods 
employed by petrologists to utilise polarised light in examining and 
^ermining minerals was illustrated by blackboard diagrams, and the 
practical application of the method to the study of cr>'stals in rock 
sections was explained. The paper was especially useful in anticipation 
of Professor Cole's approaching course on field geology, when the 
evenings will be devoted to a course on the study of rock-sections. 
Rock-specimens were presented by Messrs. ly. M. Bell, R, Bell, J, O. 
Campbell, and the Honorary Secretary. 



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I lo The Irish Naturalist. [ April. 

Fbbruary a9.-^BoTANiCAi, Section.— Rev, C. H. Waddbi«l described 
the dermal tissues of plants and the various kinds of hairs and glands. 
A number of spring flowers illustrating various genera which the 
members had brought in were then examined. 

March 5.— Microscopicai, Section.— The President of the section. 
Rev. John Andrew, opened the meeting by a few remarks dealing with 
the practical work connected with microscopy. Mr. Andrew introduced a 
practical lesson on the making of rock-sections for the microscope by a 
short paper, the points of which were illustrated by specimens of chips in 
the various stages of preparation. The paper and the practical illustrations 
of how to proceed were instructive, and may encourage some of our 
microscopists among the geologists to try their hand. After some conver- 
sational remarks, the President called upon Mr. W. B. Drumhond, m.b., 
CM., to read a short papet, entitled " Hints on collecting marine zoo- 
logical specimens.*' Marine field work naturally divides itself into three 
sections, viz.— The study of the littoral fauna, by shore-hunting ; of the 
surface fauna, by tow-netting ; of the fauna of the sea-bottom, by dredg> 
ing or trawling. The tow-net, dredge, and trawl, and their uses, were 
described. Also the processes of killing, fixing, hardening, staining, and 
mounting. In preparing delicate specimens the process of fixing is par- 
ticularly important, as, if not resorted to, changes in the microscopic 
appearances occur very rapidly. Less delicate specimens, such as the 
copepods, may be simply hardened in dilute spirit and mounted in glyce- 
rine jelly. The technique of mounting and staining will be foimd very 
fully described in Bolles Lee's " Microtomist's Vade Mecum." After the 
reading of the papers, the members present examined some fine rock- 
sections of Mr. Charles Elcock, shown by different instruments, but the 
centre of attraction was around the microscopes of Messrs. James Stelfox 
and W. S. M'Kee, who were showing working specimens of that very 
beautiful and interesting little artisan, the Melicerta^ and other living 
organisms. 

Dubinin Naturawsts* Fiei^d Ci^ub. 

March 9.— The President (Prof. Grenvii,i,e Coi^) in the chair. 

Mr. R. L^r. Praeger described a pine forest buried below marine clay 
on the foreshore near Bray. 

On the top of the Boulder-clay and glacial gravels is a bed of coarse 
grey sand, without marine organisms. Overlying this is the old forest 
bed, a peaty deposit about a foot thick, full of trunks, branches, and 
roots of the Scotch Fir, and yielding its cones in hundreds. Overlying 
this is fine blue clay full of marine shells such as are found on muddy 
shores between tide-mark& This clay is in one place over six feet deep. 
Above all is the coarse shingle of the existing beach. The various 
changes of level and conditions, which this series proves, were pointed 
out, and specimens of the different beds exhibited. The paper will 
shortly appear in our pages. 

A discussion ensued in which Mr. H. L. Jameson, Prof. Johnson, Mr. 
N. Colgan, and Prof. Cole took part, 



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1896.] Proceedings cf Irish Societies. Ill 

N(r. Greenwood Pim, m. a., then exhibited an attachment for taking 
photographs of objects vertically under or over the camera. Prof. T. 
Johnson showed slides illustrating Parasitic Flowering Plants. Mr. R 
Lu)Vi> Prabgkr exhibited a calcareous deposit from Brackenstown 
River. Mr. H. J. Srymour showed a micro^section of nepheline phono- 
lite from Blackball Head, Bantry Bay ; and Mr. Grgrnwood Pim ex- 
hibited a remarkably fine specimen of Pinguicula caudata^ a Mexican 
Butterwort ; Mrs. Ross exhibited named varieties of Daffodils, grown by 
Miss Curry, Lismore. 

Cork Naturai^ists* Firi;d Ci^ub. 
Conversazione. 

In the Ball Room of the Imperial Hotel an agreeable re-union, jointly 
promoted by the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society and the 
Cork Naturalists' Field Club, took place on the evening of March loth. 
The attendance was large, both bodies being influentially represented, 
while there were several visitors, including some from the Dublin 
Naturalists* Field Club. A musical programme was a feature of the 
Conversazione. Tea was served between 7 and 8. 

An excellent and varied series of exhibits occupied the walls and table 
of the halL They included the following items : — 

Professor G. A. J. Cole, i'\G.S.~i. Rhyolitic Lavas, including Natural 
Glass from the Volcano of Tardree, Co. Antrim : 2. Enlarged photographs 
of the higher Alps, by the late W. F. Donkin. Professor T. Johnston, 
D. Sc, Dublin N.F.C.— i. Alpine flowers, prepared by Lady Rachel Saun- 
derson; 2. Coloured drawings of Freshwater Algae, by M. C. Cooke; 3. 
Rare Irish seaweeds. G. H. Carpenter, B. Sc, Dublin N.F.C.— i. Set of 
Irish moths, illustrating variation; 2. Insects, illustrating protective 
coloration and mimicry. R, Lloyd Praeger— i. Flowering plants, Galway 
excursion, 1895 ; 2. Rare Irish flowering plants. W. H. Phillips, Belfast 
N.P.C.— Nature prints of rare varieties of British ferns. Robert Welch, 
Belfast N.F.C. — Photographs of Galway Field Club Conference and 
Excursion, 1895. Professor M. Hartog, m.a., D. Sc. Queen's College- 
Type specimens of Rotifers, prepared by C. Rousselet, f.r.m.s. ; 2. Live 
objects illustrating pond life. Miss H. A. Martin— Siamese flowers, 
pressed, mounted and named by Mrs. G. H. Grindrod, Bangkok. R. A. 
Phillips — I. Rare and characteristic plants of Co. Cork ; 2. Land and 
fresh-water shells. J. J. Wolfe, Skibbereen — Some British moths and 
butterflies. The Misses Chillingworth and Lester — Fifty botanical speci- 
mens from Crosshaven, pressed and mounted. W. B. Barrington—Some 
sea-birds* and waders' eggs. Mrs. J. H. Thompson — Microscopes — ^live 
objects. H. Lund— Photographic transparencies— Snapshots on the 
Field Club. F. R. Rohu— Rare specimens— Black rat, Squacco Heron, 
white Shrew, &c T. Farrington, m.a. — Some geological specimens. 
Telescopic speculums made in Cork in the last century. F. Neale, hon. 
sec Limerick N.F.C. — Specimens of Gnofhria quadra^ GonopUryx rhamniy 
Dtlmeda ftmbriata, &c. Robert Day, F.S.A.— The flags of the Cork Volun- 
teers, with the medals and regimental decorations of the Irish Volunteers 
of 1782 and 1796, and other exhibits. Herbert Webb Gillman, V. P.,C. H. & 
K Society— Colours of the Muskerry cavalry (lent by the owner, CapUin 

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112 The Irish NaturaltsL [April. 

R. Ton8<m Rye, of Rye Court)— Orderly book of the same corps, 1822- 
44 (lent by Sir Augustus Warren, Bart., of Warren's Court), and other 
exhibits. J. P. Dalton — Statue of William III (formerly in the Mansion 
House, Cork). Allan P. Swan, F.1,.8. — Photographs of Micro-fungi, 
including salmon disease. The Franciscan Fathers— The chalices of the 
Franciscan Abbeys of Shandon, Timoleague, Buttevant, and Ardfert 
A ciborium of Shandon Abbey. The Dominican Fathers— The chalice 
of the Dominican Abbey of YoughaL W. B. Haynes — Coat of an Irish 
Volunteer. J. H. Bennett— Galway rent-roll temp. Elizabeth j petition of 
Kinsale fishermen temp, Charles i. Miss Hutchens, Bantry-— Local Shells, 
&C. Cecil Words— Rare Books. Greenwood Pim, m.a., Dublin N.F.C— 
I. Facsimile of the Book of Kells ; 2. Illustrations of British Fungi by 
General Bland. The Munster Camera Club— Frames of photographic 
transparencies exhibited by Messrs. W. R. Atkins, J. Bennett, E. Scott, 
H. Schroter, and C. H. Pearne. 

At eight o'clock, 

Mr. Robert Dav ascended the platform, and formally opened the con- 
versazione amidst applause. He said by the very merest accident of 
birth his name had been placed first upon the programme, and that be- 
cause the society over which he had the honour to preside was a little 
older than its twin sister, the Field Club (laughter). He took no credit 
whatever to himself for the happy union of that evening, as he was away 
from Cork when all the arrangements were made, and when the idea was 
conceived by Mr. Copeman. On his having informed him of what had 
been done, his only regret was that the conversazione could not have 
been continued upon the second day, so that a larger number of the 
country members of both societies would have been afforded an opportu- 
nity of seeing the various collections which have been so generously 
lent to us for the occasion. In Belfast a Field Club had flourished for a 
quarter of a century. He was a member of it for quite that period, and 
he alluded to it because it embraced from its inception archaeology and 
the study of Irish antiquities. What that club had done for the North 
their dual clubs should do for the South. He feared that the name and 
claims of the Archaeological Society were not so attractive to the general 
public as were those of the Naturalists' Field Club. He knew a little of 
the enjoyment of the naturalist, the pleasure of the botanist, the patient 
study of the student of geology, and the fascination and delight that 
centred in the revelations of the microscope. But he could claim for 
the so-called dry subject of antiquities that the objects embraced by it 
were quite as varied and equally enjoyable. He trusted that the conver- 
sazione would be the forerunner of similar yearly gatherings, and that 
the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society and the Cork Naturalists' 
Field Club might travel hand-in-hand together for many years to come. 
He would now make way for one who was a master in the domain of 
science and natural history, Mr. William H. Shaw, President of the Cork 
Field Club. 

Mr. W. H. Shaw, b.K., President of the Cork Naturalists' Field Club, 
followed in an interesting speech, during the course of which he pointed 
out that owing to its peculiar position this district possessed a florm and 



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189^1 Proceedings of Irish SoaeHes. 1 13 

fauna of unique interest, and presented opportunities of research which 
shonld be more thoroughly availed of. He mentioned that the flora had 
been thoroughly gone into by Mr. Phillips, who was second to none in 
local botanical knowledge and the fauna had also interested him greatly, 
but the speaker was sorry to say with reference to the physical geography 
of the district that very little was being done. In conclusion he hoped 
that further interest would be manifested in the operations of the Cork 
Naturalists' Field Club, and with reference to the union of the various 
Field Clubs — Cork, Limerick, Galway, Dublin, and Belfast— mentioned 
that there were present that evening three visitors from Dublin — Pro- 
fessor Cole, President, Dublin N.F.C., and Messrs. Pim and Praeger. 

Professor Q 01,1s, also spoke, pointing out that large membership of Field 
Clubs was not so desirable as activity, and directing attention to the 
splendid field possessed by the Cork Club. Indeed, they in Ireland had 
several advantages over their brethern in England, where, owing to the 
large population, everything was practically worked out In Ireland 
the Field Clubs had a future, and with added active members their work 
would become more valuable. With Messrs. Pim and Praeger he was 
proud to be there that night to represent the Dublin Club, and in the 
name of that club he greeted the members of the Cork club, and in the 
name of that club also he should sincerely thank them. 

Mr. Shaw then declared the Conversazione open. 



FIEI.D CLUB NEWS. 



The Conversazione organized by the Cork Field Club, of which a 
report appears on another page, was a pleasant and highly successful 
fimction, and one well tended to increase the popularity of the Club. 
No trouble was spared to ensure success, and the spirit of enterprise 
which caused the electric light to be specially laid on for the occasion, 
producing brilliant illumination not only by means of large arc lights 
in the ceiling, but by numerous portable incandescent lamps among the 
exhibits on tiie tables, is deserving of the highest commendation. 

It is with feelings of much pleasure that we publish an accoimt of the 
proceedings which took place at the recent Annual Meeting of the Geo- 
logical Society of London, when Mr. Joseph Wright, of Belfast, was 
awarded a moiety of the proceeds of the Barlow-Jameson fund *' in recog- 
nition of the valuable services he has rendered to palaeontology.'* This 
honourable recognition of his industry and scientific attainments will 
cause gratification to Mr. Wright's large circle of scientific friends, and 
to his fellow-members of the Belfast Field Club, in whose Proceedings 
many of his most important papers have appeared. 

The practical course on Irish seaweeds recently undertaken by Prof. T. 
Johnson is well attended, the class of thirteen being mostly membeis of 



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1 14 The Irish Naturalist. [ April, 

the Dublin Field Club. The first excursion took place on March iTth. 
when, in a steady downpour, a party of nine did "shore-hunting" be- 
tween Skerries and Balbriggan. The most interesting find was PrastUa 
stipitata in quantity and in full reproduction. 

The Committee of the Dublin Field Club have arranged their snmxner 
excursion programme as follows .-—April 25, Bray and Killiney (geo- 
logical half- day); May 30, I^ambay Island; June 20, Bective and the 
Boyne; July 10, 11, and 13, Cavan; August 12, Kelly's Glen (half-day); 
September 5, Brittas Bay, Co. Wicklow; September 20, Woodlands 
(fungus foray, half-day). The excursion to Cavan. when three days will 
be spent exploring the many lakes, rivers, and woods of that beautiful 
county, should prove especially productive, as the district is one almost 
unworked by the naturalist The Dublin Club have invited their breth- 
ren of Belfast to join forces with them on this occasion, thus providing an 
opportunity for the renewing of many acquaintances formed last year 
at Galway. 

We extract the following from the official report of the Annual General 
Meeting of the Geological Society of London, held on February aiat: — 

" In handing a moiety of the Barlow -Jameson fund to Dr. G. J. Hinde, 
F.G.S. (for transmission to Mr. Joseph Wright, F.G.S., of Belfast), the 
President (Dr. Henry Woodward, F.R.S.), addressed him as follows; — 
Dr. Hinde, the council have awarded the sum of twenty pounds from 
the Barlow-Jameson fund to Mr. Joseph Wright, in recognition of the 
valuable services he has rendered to the palaeontology, not only of the 
Carboniferous rocks in the South, but of the Cretaceous and Post- 
Tertiary deposits in the North of Ireland, and the glacial deposits there 
and in Scotland. Mr. Wright is the author of numerous papers in the 
transactions of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club on the Irish I4as8ic 
and Cretaceous foraminifera and other microzoa ; he has also prepared 
and published many lists of foraminifera from the Scottish and Irish 
boulder-clay and other post-tertiary deposits. He has done much good 
work, extending over many years, when resident in the South of Ireland, 
in connection with the fossils of the Carboniferous limestone, and, both 
as regards these and the newer deposits of the North, his specimens 
have been always available to anyone engaged in writing on the fossils. 
To Davidson, Rupert Jones, Holl, Brady, myself, and others Joseph 
Wright's cabinet was ever accessible, and his specimens freely lent for 
study. I trust that this award will serve to express to Mr. Wright our 
appreciation of his services, and will act as an incentive to him to 
continue his useful geological work. 

Mr. Hinde replied as follows : — Mr. President, it gives me great satis- 
faction to receive this award on behalf of my friend Mr. Joseph Wright 
He is unfortunately unable to be present, and has sent the following 
letter for communication to you :— I desire to express my sincere thanks 
for the honour conferred upon me by the council of our society in recog- 
nition of my past work, and for their ass i stance in the further prosecutioii 



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1S96.] Field Club News, 115 

of my researches. Working so remote from the head-quarters of the 
society causes this award to be the more appreciated. I regret I am 
prevented from being present to receive it in person, but I hope the 
council will accept this expression of my feelings regarding their 
approval of my work in a somewhat neglected field. For some time 
past nearly all my spare time has been spent in microscopically ex- 
amining the glacial clays for foraminifera. My anticipation as to the 
occurrence of these organisms in clays laid down under glacial conditions 
has been fully confirmed, both as regards our local deposits and other 
British cla3rs, and I cannot avoid thinking that this fact must more or 
less influence our views on the origin of these drifts." 



NOTES 



BOTANY. 
FUNGI. 

Cyatlvus vemlcosus— a correction.— The note in the February 
niunber of the Itish Naturalist on this subject is scarcely accurate, inas- 
mnch as the plant will be found in the list of Fungi in the Handbook 
prepared for the meeting of the British Association in 1878. It occurred 
in a greenhouse in Dublin, and it is interesting to note that Mr. Praeger's 
specimens were found in a similar situation. This curious little plant 
may be an addition to the Mycologic Flora of the North of Ireland, as it 
is not mentioned in Mr. Lett's list published by the Belfast N. F. Club 
some years ago. 

Grebnwood Pim, Dublin. 



PHANEROGAMS, 
Early flowering of Lattiraea sauamarla.— On the 12th of last 
month (March) I received from Miss M, Chearnley, of Cappoquin, Co. 
Waterfordy some flowering plants of the Toothwort, which she had 
discovered the day before growing under a yew tree in the grounds of 
Tonrin, ^ear Cappoquin. Even alloMdng for the southern position of 
the station, this appears to be an exceptionally early record for the 
species, which in Ireland rarely flowers before mid-April. Miss 
Cheamley's specimens were quite mature, showing well formed capsules 
on some of the spikes. 

N. Coi,GAN, Dubhn. 

Early Flowering of Hottonia palustrls.— In a pond in a 
garden at Dundrum, Co. Dublin, Hottonia palustris is already in flower 
(March 22nd). This is a remarkable case of early blooming. The plants 
are aelf-sown, from stock introduced two years ago from the North of 
Ireland. 

R. I«U>YD PRA90Sa« 



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1 1 6 The Irish Nahiratist. [ April, 



ZOOLOGY. 

'' MInfflln of North and South."— On reading the extremely 
interesting address of the ex- President of the Dublin Naturalists' Field 
Club published last month, I feel constrained to question the strict appro- 
priateness of one of the animals selected for special dedication to 
" typical " members of the Gal way Gonference as reminders of their 
respective types of origin. I will not quarrel with the allocation of the 
Common Frog to the •* settler of some generations standing," inasmuch 
as the historical introduction of the Frog by Dr. Guithers was perpe- 
trated as far back as 1696. But is it not inconsistent in the next 
sentence to compare *' the English immigrant who has recently come to 
stay " to the Magpie, a bird which, ** if tradition is to be trusted," came 
to our coast to stay in the year 1670, and which was certainly a spreading 
though still scarce member of our avifauna in 1700, while in 1743 it had 
grown so common that war was waged upon it by Irish Statute Law ? 
I would suggest that a fitter ornithological partner for the recently 
arrived Britisher might be found in the Missel-thrush — "believed to 
have settled in Ireland (says Mr. More's invaluable List) since zSoo,'^ 
first authenticated as an Irish bird by Templeton in 1808, and unknown 
(as such) by sight to Thompson till a specimen was sent him from. 
Fermanagh in 1832. While on this subject I would add that in the 
Isle of Man, the fauna of which much resembles that of Ireland^ both 
the Frog and the Missel-thrush are, as in Ireland, held to be introduced 
or recently settled, species ; but I have never heard that the Magpie is 
so regarded there. 

C. B. MoFPAT, Dublin. 

INSECTS. 

Irish Hymenoptera Aculeata.^I was much pleased to see Mr. 
Freke's paper on our native Aculeate H3rmenoptera in the February 
number of the Irish Naturalist, His list will form a most useful basis for 
future work, and it is to be hoped will induce collectors to attend to these 
interesting insects. 

I am able to add two species to the Irish list, and a few additional 
localities. 

The species new to Ireland are Cttlioxys acuminata^ Nyl., and Bomhm 
soroensis, Fabr. The former I took in my garden in Armagh on July 6th 
at blossoms of Geranium pratense^ and the latter in Mullinure in May. 
The following are additional localities for the species named :— 

Myrmica Uxvinodis. — Armagh, and Scotstown, Co. Monaghan. 

Afellinus arvensis, Linn. — Tynan, Co. Armagh, on the canal bank. 

Halidtus albipesy Kirby.— Armagh and Loughgall, Co. Armagh. 

Andrena clarkella^ Kirby. — Armagh, in Mullinure and at Lowry*s Lough, 
fairly common at Sallows in April. 

A, fucatOy Smith.^Armagh. 

Nomada borealis^ Zett — ^Armagh. 



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1896.] Notes. 117 

Afl regards Formica rufa, L., I do not think that it is indigenons at 
Qmrchill, for as far as I can find out it was imported there some fifty 
years ago, possibly more. It has however taken most kindly to the place 
and mnltiplied to an extraordinary extent. I was standing one day 
looking at them when I noticed a curious crackling sound. After several 
Tain endeavours to discover the source of the noise I found it to be 
caused by the myriads of ants running over the dry pine needles. This 
win give some idea of their immense numbers. I should very much like 
to know if these ants are to be found elsewhere in Ireland and whether 
thej are indigenous or imported. 

W. F. Johnson, Poyntzpass. 



mtgrmtion of Curlews.— The wails of the host of curlews which 
pasted over Dublin on the night of the nth inst (March) must have 
greeted the ears of a large number of the residents. The night was 
wann and wet, and the curlews cried in chorus with but little inter- 
miflsion from about 9 p.m. until midnight, and probably for some hours 
longer. For several years I have taken notice of these nocturnal out- 
bursts of curlew music over our city, and I find that March is the 
month in which they most generally occur. For instance a very striking 
"nish" took place in March, 1893, on the nights of the 23rd, 24th, and 
S5th, as reported by me at the time in the natural history column of the 
IrisA Sportsman. On that occasion the wild cries of the birds were not the 
only evidence given of their passage, for at least one curlew was picked 
up dead in Sackville-street, having flown with violence against the tele- 
graph wires ; and simultaneously with these occurrences notes showing 
a general migration-movement of curlews were forwarded from Limerick, 
liTerpool, and other places. Again, in March, 1893, the nights of the 
18th and 19th were signalised by similar demonstrations, noticed in 
Dublin by my brother and myself and doubtless by many others. On all 
the nights referred to the' sky was thickly overclouded, — indeed, I have 
several times remarked that the breaking up of the clouds has put an end 
to the clamour, probably because on bright nights the birds fly too high 
to be easily heard ; for in the stillness of the country — and, for that 
matter, of the Phoenix Park—I have heard them in clear starlight, calling 
to one another from apparently a very great elevation. 

C. B. Moffat Dublin. 



N€stlnff of Black Guillemots.— Mr Palmer in the current 
manber of the Irish Naturalist^ asks whether any one else can throw 
further light on Mr. Witherby*s observation of Black Guillemots nesting 
"under large boulders scattered about.'* 

When I was in the Lofoden Islands some summers ago, where the 
Black Guillemot goes by^the name of Testhe and is particularly common, 



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1 1 8 The Irish Naturalist. [ April, 

breeding in large communities instead of in single pairs, as is so mnch 
the case on our western coasts, I invariably found their nests under 
boulders with which the low islets off the main islands were strewn. 
The high boulder-beaches were the favourite places, and in seeking the 
cgg9> which we had to do from a commissariat point of view, we fonnd it 
necessary to reach in arm's length between the boulders before reaching 
their nests. 

W. S. Green, Dublin. 

Feathered Pensioners.— Wintry weather with its accompani- 
ments of frost and snow always brings the needs of our birds specially to 
our notice, and a few notes upon our feathered pensioners and their ways 
ways may perhaps prove worth recording. The winter of 1894-95 was more 
trying upon our birds than any year since the bitter frost of 1878-9, when 
Blackbirds, a Gold-crest, and many Titmice came into our bedrooms, in 
addition to the Robin who habitually frequented the room, eating groats 
from a dish on the chimney-piece, and drinking out of the water-jug. 
Those long snowy weeks were very fatal to the songsters, and the 
diminution in Blackbirds and Song-thrushes was noticeable for years 
afterwards; Rooks turned carnivorous, and were seen to attack and 
devour the smaller birds at Camlough, and about Lisbum; an old 
nurse who had spent many years in America, saw what she believed 
to be a " Snowbird." Another day we saw a strange bird with a 
scarlet crest, which it could erect and depress at will, feeding on the 
balcony; it may have been an escaped Cardinal-bird. The general 
rejoicing when at last the thaw came, and gfreen gfrass was revealed 
once more, was wonderful. Curlews coming and feeding on our 
lawn, which no doubt was more rapidly cleared owing to the close 
proximity of the sea. Opposite our dining-room stands a Laburnum-tree 
covered with pods, the favourite winter resort of the Finches and Titmice : 
that winter it was frequented by a handsome Mountain-finch, or Bram- 
bling {Fringilla mmtifringilla) who remained for a couple of days only, 
but last winter we again had one or two of the^e beautiful birds feeding 
there for several days. I remember that bitter winter counting seventy 
Starlings crowded on the tree, shelling the pods, with a watchful eye on 
our windows, and a firm determination not to lose a moment in attacking 
any contributions from our table— for Starlings are more than a little 
greedy ! It is very interesting to split a cocoa-nut, and fastening it to 
the railing of a balcony watch the Coal Tits, Blue Tits, and Greater Tits 
hammering away at its contents. After some years the Robins ventured 
to try the unwonted food, and now Sparrows and Blackbirds dig away 
contentedly, also. We always provide plenty of groats and hemp, hut 
the most interesting study is to put out some new kind of food, and see 
in what order the. birds attack it Some years ago a whole loaf was tossed 
upon the snow, and it was ludicrous to watch the famishing Sparrows 
hopping anxiously round it, with outstretched necks and eager glances^ 
doubtful whether some trap were not intended, whilst the Rooks cawe<l 



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1896.] Notes. 1 19 

qnestioningly and sidled cantionsly towards it, anxious to be assured that 
all was right. Down came a brisk Blue Titmouse, spied the loaf, and 
without a moment's hesitation alighted upon it directly and commenced 
joyfully to attack the abundant supply ! I think when the next ** Glacial 
Period * descends upon our northern shores that Parus caruleus will be the 
last bird to be starved out of its present familiar haunts. 

S. M. Thompson, Belfast. 

MAMMALS. 
Irish Hare ffolnff to Ground.— A discussion on the subject of 
Hares going to ground has recently been going on in the pages of the 
Fidd newspaper, and among other interesting notes is the following,* 
which altough appearing over an anonymous signature ("Aquarius") I 
can well believe to be true : — " On many Irish mountains the Hares take 
to natural fissures in the rocks, or to natural water-courses, called by the 
natives water-brakes, formed by the percolation of the water through 
the peaty formation overlying the rock or other hard subsoil, often to a 
depth of several feet. In many localities, as for instance, in the Banner- 
more* chain in Donegal, where there is little covert, the Hares become 
nearly as subterranean in their habits as Rabbits. In these holes or 
crevices they seek safely from their enemies or shelter from bad weather, 
coming to the entrances of their " burrows," if such they may be termed, 
to bask in the sun, their "seats," as they are termed, being clearly 
marked. It is supposed that the Hares took to this habit to escape from 
their chief enemies, the eagles, formerly abundant in these mountains, 
but now pretty nearly extinct." It has not been my good fortune to have 
any experience of Hares in an open country like that described by 
"Aquarius," but my knowledge of them in wooded and cultivated dis- 
tricts, and of what has previously been written on the subject {vide 
Thompson's Natural History of Ireland^ vol. iv., p. 29, Field for Jan. 14, 
1882, July 18, 1891, and more recent numbers, and for Scotland, Mr. 
M^Uiam Evans* remarks in the Annals of Scottish Natural History, 
Oct, 91, p. 267), leads me to believe that the above remarks are perfectly 
true. It would be interesting, however, if some reader of the Irish 
Naturalist could confirm them from his own experience. 

G. E. H. Barrett-Ham I i,TON, London. 

GEOLOGY. 
The Raised Beach at Fort Stewart, Louffh Swiiiy.— a 

further examination of material from this raised beach shows the 
presence of the following shells, additional to those recorded in my 
paper on "The Raised Beaches of luishowen," in the J.N, for October, 
1895 (voL iii., pp. 278-285) : — Trochus umbilicatus, Littorina rudis, Rissoa 
membranacea, R* striata, Hydrobia ulva, Fusus antiquus. 

R. Li,OYD Prarger. 



1 Fidd, Feb. 8th, 1896 2 p Barnesmore, Eds. 

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1 20 The Irish Naturalist. [ April. iS^ 

Qeoloffy of the Currant Larne.— On the 12th December, 1895, 
Miss S. Thompson, Mr. R. Bell, and the writer visited the new bauxite 
works at Larne, to investigate the report that some of their foundations 
were sunk below the lower beds of the estuarine clays and gravels ex- 
amined and reported upon by a Committee of the Field Club during the 
Session i889-9a This report we fotmd misleading. The new siding to 
the works has been cut through, and the works themselves have been 
built, mainly upon a raised bank of boulder clay about 300 yards north- 
west of the Lame Harbour railway station. The boulder clay is of a 
particularly hard, stiff nature, full of large and beautifully striated and 
polished boulders mostly of basalt, and is covered by a layer of water- 
rolled pebbles and coarse stratified sand, almost three feet thick, upon 
which is a natural land surface with trees apparently from 50 to 100 
years old. The altitude of the surface of this bank is at a somewhat 
higher level than the beds on the Curran, from which it is separated by 
the two lines of broad and narrow gauge railway and the public road. 
Although the pebbles and sand are in all reasonable probability of the 
same age as the raised beach upon the Curran, yet, owing to the separa- 
tion mentioned above, their exact continuity cannot be absolutely traced, 
nor their precise position in the series definitely fixed, though in all 
probability the boulder clay was partly denuded before the gravels were 
laid down, and the portions of gravels, &c., at the bauxite works re- 
present the shoreward end of the series, deposited against and partly 
over the boulder clay. The works are now approaching completion, an<^ 
no exact record has been kept of the deeper foundations such as the tall 
chimney for instance, but we saw a pit sunk for part of the machinery 
at which place the boulder clay is about 11 ft. to 12 ft deep. 

A boring for a well is in progress, and has now reached a depth of 13Q 
feet. On being interrogated, the workmen regretted that a more accural^ 
record of the strata passed through had not been kept, but they reporte<1 
verbally as follows, in the order of descent : — 

1. Gravel with shells. 

2. Black clay (qy. Lias ?) 

3. Limestone (qy. a boulder }) 

4. White alabaster and clay. 

5. Red clay. 

6. Blue clay. ' 

We obtained a sample of the boring at 130 feet depth, and it is clearly i 
portion of the blue Triassic Keuper marl, a clay with gypsum veins. 

From the above noted results we may reasonably infer that the Fiel^ 
Club has had no very serious loss from not having had an earlier oppor 
tunity of inspecting the excavations at these works. 

F. W. LoCKWOOD, Belfast 

[Miss Thompson writes that " shells " from the black clay (bed No. j 
above) gathered by the workmen, have been sent up by Mr. Close, th* 
architect, and they turn out to be Lias fossils, including fine specimenj 
of Gryphxa incurva obtained eight feet down in the black mud ; showini 
that Mr. Lockwood's supposition is correct— Eds.] 



Keuper marls. 



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May, 189^] lai 

THE GREAT AUK (AlyCA IMPENNIS) AS AN IRISH 

BIRD. 

BY G. E. H. BARRBTT-HAMII.TON, B.A. 

So little is known of the past occurrences or status in Ireland 
of the Great Auk, that I think no apology is needed for 
bringing to the notice of readers of the Irish Naturalist the 
statement of Mr. W. J. Knowles in his " Third Report on the 
Pre-historic Remains from the Sandhills of the Coasts of 
Ireland"^ that he had obtained on the Antrim coast bones 
which had been identified by Mr. E. T. Newton, of the 
Geological Survey, as those of the Great Auk. These bones 
were obtained in the sandhills of Whitepark Bay, Co. Antrim, 
in conjunction with human remains which Mr. Knowles 
believes to be those of the earliest Neolithic inhabitants of 
Ireland. In accumulations of the same age were found bones 
of the Horse, and of the Dog or Wolf (whether wild or domesti- 
cated is uncertain), as well as remains of geese, ducks, and 
gulls. Mr. Knowles remarks that '' from the number of bones 
[of the Great Auk] which have been found, it must have been 
a common inhabitant of the North of Ireland at the time when 
the people of the Stone Age occupied Whitepark Bay and 
other parts of the coast." In a previous paper* Mr. Knowles 
recorded the finding, in the same locality, of two humeri of 
the Great Auk, besides bones of Bos longifrons, Cervus elaphus, 
Sheep or Goat, Fox, Pig, a small goose, a small gull, and cod. 
This statement is of such great interest, not only to Irish 
ornithologists, but to ornithologists in general, that it is a pity 
that it should be hidden away in a paper which deals with 
a subject other than natural history. 

The only localities given by Professor Newton* where bones 
of the Great Auk have been found are in the kitchen-middens 
of Denmark, and in similar deposits in Caithness and Oronsay, 
and in a cave on the coast of Durham. The Irish locality, 
therefore, makes an interesting addition to our knowledge of 
the distribution of this bird in past times. Mr. Knowles 
points out that the ** old surfaces of the sandhills, with their 
shells, broken bones, and implements, are really kitchen- 

» Proc, R.LA. {3), vol. iii., No. 4, pp. 650-663 (Dec, 1895). 

*Pr0t, RJ.A. (3), vol. i., No. 5 (i89i> 

* " Dictionary of Biids,'' article <* Extermination,'' p. 2aa 

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ti2 i%e Irish IfaturatisL t Miy, 

middens, and of the same nature as those of the continent, e.g., 
in Portugal, and also at various parts along the coast of 
Prance, as well as in Denmark. The fauna of the sandhills is 
wonderfully in line with that of the kitchen-middens of Den- 
mark, and the finding of the Great Auk, which is now extinct 
in Europe, among the Irish remains, makes the likeness more 
complete." 

As regards the occurrence of this bird on the Irish coasts in 
modem times, the last authenticated British example", and the 
last but two which is known to have lived, was taken alive 
near the entrance of Waterford Harbour, in May, 1834, by a 
fisherman named Kirby. It was kept alive for some little 
time by Mr. Jacob Gough of Horetown, in Co. Wexford, but 
eventually came into the hands of Dr. Burkitt of Waterford, 
and it is now in the museum of Trinity College, Dublin. The 
details of the capture of this bird, and of its subsequent 
history, as gpiven by Thompson*, appear to have been somewhat 
inaccurate, and have been corrected by Mr. J. H. Gurney, jun.,' 
on the authority of Dr. Burkitt. It was afterwards ascer- 
tained by Mr. Davies that a second specimen was procured 
on the Waterford coast at about the same time, but was not 
preserved. 

Besides the above, details of three other occurrences are 
given by Thompson*, but in no case was a specinjen forth- 
coming. One of these specimens was stated, in a note com- 
municated by Rev. Joseph Stopford, in February, 1844, to Dr. 
Harvey of Cork, no date being mentioned, to have been " ob- 
tained on the long strand of Castle Freke (in the west of the 
County of Cork) ; having been water-soaked in a storm." In 
the other case Thompson believed that two birds described to 
him by H. Bell, a wild-fowl shooter, as having been seen in 
Belfast Bay, on September 23rd, 1845, were of this species.^ 

' Newton, Op. ci^., p. 22a 

^ Proe. ZooL Soc.^ Lond,, 1835, p. 79; and " NaL Hist, of Ireland," III., p. 238. 

3 Zoologist, 1868, pp. 1449-1453. 

* Op, cit.^ p. 239 ; Zoologist, 1868, pp. I442-1453 ; 1869, pp. 1039-1043. 

•The statement in Sampson's **Survey of Londonderry** (1802) that the 
Aka Impmnist Penguin, "frequents the rocks of that county and of 
Donegal,** evidently refers to the Razorbill, which bird is not mentioned 
in his list. It is curious that Dr. Pocock describes " the Razorbill or Auk, 
as big as a Pheasant, with a parrot bill,** as breeding at Horn Head in 
1752— z«(/(f Dr. Stokes* edition of Pocock*s " Tour in Ireland in 1752,** p. 59. 

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IRISH CAVES. 

B7 lU LLOYD PRABGSR* B.E. 



In his "Notes on the Irish Caves'* (AM, iv., pp. 57-59, 1895), 
Dr. Scharff expressed a hope that readers of this Journal would 
add to the list of caves which he then published, and some 
additions were promptly made by Mr. Ussher and Mr. James 
Coleman (ibidi^ p. 94). And in the last issue of the Irish 
Naturalist^ Mr. Jameson has mentioned one or two others. 
In looking up the literature of this and kindred subjects 
recently, I met with some further references to caves, which 
are now given, arranged according to the plan adopted by 
Dr. Scharff. Only those caves are named which have not been 
mentioned in the papers quoted. I have not thought it 
necessary to give many additional references to caves which 
one or other of the writers named has already referred to. 

CaCLARS. 

Cave at Kiltannon near TuUa. 

White, Rev. P., " History of Clare," Dublin, 1893, p. 2. 
Caves of KUcomey. 
Foot, F. J., Geol, Suro^ Memoir to sheets 114, 122, 133, 1863, p. 18. 
Co. Cork. 
Cave at Cloyne. 
Brash, R. R*, *' Antiquities of Cloyne." Jmm. KUkmny and S.£. of 
Irelmut Archaol Soc., nui. II. l858-59» P- 258. 
Cave at Ballybronock near CasUemartyr. 
CrokcTi T. C, "Researches in the South of Ireland." 1824. 
Ussher, R. J., in "Second Report of the Committee . . . appointed 
for the Purpose of exploring the Caves of the South of Ireland." 
Brit. Assoc. Report for 1881, pp. 218-221. 
Cave at Carrigower. 
Ussher, R. J., in First Report, ditto, ditto. Brit, Assoc, Report for 
1880, pp. 209.211 ; and GeoL Mag. (2) VII., 1880, pp. 512-514. 
Co. Gai^way. 
The Pigeon Hole, Cong. 

Nolan, J., Ge^ Survey Menunr to sheet 70, 1877, p. 10, ft€., AC 
PoUduagh and cavern of Beagh River. 

gitiflhftti, G. H., Geot. Survey Memoir to sheds 124 ctnd 125, 1863, p. 1* 
Many caves about Coole, most of them still occupied by streams. 
Kinahan, G. H., loc, cit.^ pp. 7*9. 
Co. Leitrim. 
Templepatrick, in upper part of Glencar. 
Dermod and Graunia's Bed, Glenarriff. 
Wynne, A. B., Geol, Survey Memoir to sheets 42 and 43, 1885, p. 2& 

A 2 



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t24 it%€ Irish ifaturalisU t May, 

Co. Mayo. 

Caves of Aille. 
Symes, R. G., Geol Survey Memoir to sheet 75, 1872, p. 9. 
Co. MONAGHAN. 

Rock House, Carrickmacross, ftc 
Nolan, J., Geol, Survey Memoir to sAta 70^ 1877, p. la 
Co. SUGO. 
Keishcorran and others. 

Cruise, R. J., Geol, Survey Mer/ioir to sheets 66aHd6'j, 1878, p. 13. 
Caves on Ben Bulbeu. 
Caves at Lissadill. 

Wynne, A. B., Geol, Survey Memoir to sheds 42 and 4$, 1885, p. 38. 
Ktah Caves. 
Gleniffe Caves. 
Hardman, E. T., " Limestone Caves of Sligo," in Wood-Martin's 
" History of Sligo," First vol., 1882, appendix A. 
Co. Waterford. 
Cave at Nicholastown. 
Brown rigg,W. B., and Theodore Cooke, ** Geological Description 
of the District extending from Dungarvan to Annestown, County 
of Waterford." /oum. Geol. Soc. Dudlin, IX., i860, pp. 8-12. 

The caves at Anna-Clogh MuUon, Co. Cork, mentioned by 
Mr. Coleman, ioc, cit, are artificial, and should not therefore 
be included in the list of Irish caves. 

In certain districts in Ireland caves are so numerous that 
any attempt to list them would ^e futile. Such, for instance, 
is portion of Co. Fermanagh, concerning which Mr. Thomas 
Plunkett, in reply to a query, stated that the hills around 
Enniskillen are riddled with caves, and that he could not 
attempt a list of them. So also in Cos. Mayo and Galway, in 
the district that stretches along the eastern shore of Lough 
Corrib from Cong to Galway, and in portions of Co. Clare, 
subterranean passages abound, so that the streams are con- 
tinually disappearing into the earth and re-appearing at other 
places. But these caverns, being still occupied by the waters 
by which they were formed, are of course not so interesting 
to the student of either past or present cave-faunas as the 
older passages^ long since deserted by the streams which 
excavated them, and subsequently tenanted by troglodytic 
insects, or roving beasts of prey, or pre-historic man. 



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1%^] 125 

IRISH FRESHWATER WORMS. 

BY REV. HII.DERIC FRIEND, F.L-S. 

Aii true worms may be divided into two great classes or 
groups, based on the relative number of their bristles or setae. 
If they are very numerous they are known as polychaetous 
worms or Polychaeta; if few, they are called oligochaetous 
worms or Oligochseta. It is true that the rule has exceptions, 
and some worms belonging to the Oligochseta have more 
setae than are to be found in some species belonging to the 
Polychaeta ; but then there are other considerations. As a rule 
the worms with many bristles are marine, and being specially 
adapted for life in the ocean are quite distinct in form from 
those belonging to the land and fresh water. Hence generally 
speaking the Oligochaeta are terrestrial, the Polychaeta marine. 
Of the Polychaeta I shall for the present have nothing to say, 
further than this, that very rarely the Polychaeta and 
Oligochaeta meet, as one might expect in estuarine and salt- 
marsh habitats. The true Oligochaeta again are separable into 
two very distinct groups, and the order contains the ter- 
restrial forms and those which are found either in or near 
fresh water. The terrestrial forms or true earthworms have 
received considerable notice in these pages, and while we 
still hope to add a few further species to the Irish list, it may 
be said roughly that the earthworms of Ireland are well known. 
Of the limicolous and aquatic species, however, we have here- 
tofore been in absolute ignorance. They are small, not easily 
discovered, and when found are very difficult to determine, so 
that one need not wonder that they have been little studied. 
Now, however, thanks to the labours of Mr. Beddard, we have 
a Monograph' which contains much information for the 
guidance of the student, and it is to be hoped that before long 
the aquatic worms of Ireland will be as completely understood 
as the larger species are. 

Thanks to the kindness of my indefatigable correspondent, 
Mr. Trumbull of Malahide, I have already been able to make 
a start with the study, and I send a first instalment in order 
if possible to secure the interest and aid of the large and 
ready band of co-workers who so generously supplied me with 

* p. U. Beddard, " Monograph of the Qligochs^ta.*' Oxford, 1895. 

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1 26 The Irish tfainralUt. [ May. 

materials for my former studies. To these and to any new 
workers who would like to send me' material, a few hints may 
be permitted. Where, it may be asked, shall specimens be 
sought ? We answer, ever3nvhere ! The smaller worms are 
ubiquitous. Being in the neighbourhood of a village in Cum- 
berland the other day, I saw a little gutter flowing on to a 
piece of waste land. Here some dirty straw and vegetable 
matter was being saturated with the ooze, a handful of which 
I picked up, wrapped in paper, and carried home. To my 
surprise I found that the dirty straws were crowded with a 
beautiful little red worm new to science, hundreds of which 
crawled forth from their hiding-place or hunting-ground when 
the material was laid upon an old dish. The ooze on the 
margins of ponds, ditches, lakes, and estuaries should be 
examined, also the roots of grasses and plants in and near the 
water's edge, the moss and plants on damp rocks or dripping 
ledges, or wherever there is moisture. Mr. Trumbull has sent 
me a species, which is probably new to science, from a decay- 
ing elm tree, and I have found other species in decaying leaves, 
among debris, manure, and even in water- tanks, springs and 
wells. They are usually small, and may be easily overlooked* 
but a little practice will make collecting easy. 

Most specimens may be sent with a small quantity of the 
earth, or water, moss, leaves, or debris among which they are 
found, and should either be placed in tubes, bottles, or tin 
boxes with damp moss. Care should be taken so to pack them 
that they will not be subject to battering in transit, or the 
delicate creatures will probably arrive quite dead and un- 
recognizable. It is of the utmost importance that as many 
species as possible should be studied in a living condition, as 
it is only by this means that many of the difficulties relating 
to the aquatic species can be cleared up. 

I will now give an account of those worms which, through 
the kindness of Mr. Trumbull, I have been able to examine. 
They were collected at Malahide, April ist, 1896, and it is 
important to note the date when collections are made because 
all worms do not mature at the same time, and we are anxious 
to ascertain what season of the year yields the best results in 
the matter of adult forms. Take for example — 

Lumbrlculus varleffatus, Muller.— I have never yet seen this in 
its adult stage, and Beddard says that the reproductive organs have not 



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1896.] Friknd.— /w^ Freshwater Worms. 127 

yet been properly described, thougb the worm has long been under 
observation. This species is, among the aquatics, pretty much what 
Lumbricus Urrestris formerly was among the earthworms. If a water-worm 
was found it was formerly customary to call it Lumbriadusy and there 
was an end of the matter. Beddard gives but this one species, though I 
am certain we have at least two if not three species already discovered in 
Great Britain. I have no doubt about the Irish species belonging to 
Beddard's form (Monograph, p. 214). I had the good fortune to see one 
of the specimens throw off its tail, just as a crab or lobster will cast a 
claw, when in danger or irritated, and the question of its regeneration 
bas been the subject of special study by more than one biologist The 
Lwnhriadus is one of the largest and most active of our aquatic worms, 
being two or three inches long, and as large round as a piece of grocer's 
twine or a large pin. It wriggles violently if captured, and may be fre- 
quently met with in weedy ponds and lakes or wide ditches. It is quite 
aquatic in habit, and has the setae in four pairs on each segment. The 
most beautiful and striking feature is the blind contractile appendages 
to the blood-vessels, which can be readily seen through the transparent 
integument Mr. Beddard (p. 209) gives a figure after Clapar^e. The 
pharynx occupies the second, third, and fourth segments, then follows 
the cesophagus in the fifth and sixth segments, the intestine commencing 
in the seventh. The intestine can at once be recognized by the presence 
of special (chloragpgen) cells. The body usually appears of a greenish 
brown hue, and there are as many as 200 segments. In England a second 
species, nearly allied to this, but I believe as yet unnamed, is found under 
the strong growths of moss and waterweed which choke the streamlets 
flowing into our Cumberland lakes. I mention this in the hope that 
some one living near the lakes of Ireland may be induced to examine 
similar localities with a view to adding other species to the list 

Umnodrl lus Udekemlanus, Clap.— I am in doubt about the actual 
identity of this worm owing to the fact that Beddard's account is meagre, 
and I am unable to consult the original memoirs of Claparbde and 
Vaillant. It may yet prove a new species, and I therefore give my ob- 
servations without reference to Beddard's account. Unfortunately an 
accident with my specimens resulted in their being destroyed before I 
had completed my study or mounted a specimen for further reference. 
The setae, five or six (even up to eight) in each bundle of the anterior 
segments, are seated on papillae. About four setae in the posterior 
bundles, bifid, the outer tooth being much the larger of the two. 
Blood-vessel springing from segment 12, dilating in segment 9 (sometimes 
going back to segment 10 when the worm is in motion). I observed here 
and there a constriction of the large blood-vessel near the dilatations as 
if for a valve Penial setae wanting. The trumpet-shaped chitinous 
penis (or penis-sheath) not more than four times as long as broad 
(re^mbling that of my new species, Litnnodrilus Wardsworthianus). Dark 
chloragogen cells beginning immediately behind segment 5. Sper- 
mathecae with short, uncoiled tubes, little, if any, longer than the 
chamber. Should this eventually prove to be a new species I shall 
supply figures when I submit the account to the Royal Irish Academy. 



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128 The Irish Naturalist. [May, 

Hemltublfex Benedll (DTJd.).— Here again, owing to the imperfect 
atate of our knowledge, andtlie number of synonyms, I am somewhat in 
doubt. This is just the worm which I should have named TuHfexpapillosm, 
and such is the name given toa speciesby Claparbde which Beddard (p. 261) 
places under the above heading. It is a wonderfully interesting worm, 
with capilHform and forked setae, length about one inch, the first third 
of the body being about three times as thick as the posterior part Head 
very small compared with the segments containing the organs of genera- 
tion ; about 70 segments in all. The body entirely covered with papills. 
Beddard says the papillae are wanting on the clitellum of H. Baudiu I 
could not, however, find a girdle on my specimens, and as we find sets 
wanting on the girdle of many woims when they are adult which possess 
them invariably in a younger stage, possibly the girdle of this worm 
discards its papillae when it becomes adult This is a point for further 
observation. The capilliform and forked setae alike extend through the 
whole extremity of the worm's body, the capilliform seta being in the 
dorsal bundles only. As many as nine or ten capilliform setae in the 
anterior bundles, but six or eight is the most usual number, gradually 
decreasing till at the posterior extremity there is usually only one. 
Dilating hearts in segments 7 and 8 ; the dark cells of the oesophagus 
beginning in segment 5. The forked setae of the under-side sigmoid, 
much curved, the outer tooth being smaller than the inner one. . While 
the outer tooth goes almost straight forward, the inner tooth is greatly 
curved. Blood red ; body-segments composed of prominent annuli, three 
or more to each segment. 

In addition to the foregoing I found among the gleanings 
part of a very pretty lumbriculid about two inches in length, 
but as the head and important segments were missing I cannot 
be sure of the species. A later consignment included a white 
worm found in an old deca3dng elm tree, which I have no 
doubt is a new species of Fridericia. The brain, spermathecae, 
and setae are all so well-marked and characteristic that I pro- 
pose to describe it for the Irish Academy under the name of 
Ffiderida ulmicola. These preliminary remarks will, I trust, 
suffice to show how interesting a field lies open here for any 
one who wishes to pursue a new course of investigations. 



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1896.] 



129 



NOTES ON A ZOOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO 
VALENCIA ISLAND, CO. KERRY. 



SHORE-COLLECTING AND DREDGING, 

BY P. W. GAMBIA, M.SC, 

Demonstrator and Assistant lyccturer in Zoology, Owens College, 

Manchester. 



At the beginning of April, 1895, Mr. E. T. Browne (Univ. 
Coll., London), Mr. Wi I. Beaumont, and the author paid a 
visit to Valencia Island for the purpose of making further 
observations on certain groups of marine invertebrate animals, 
which we had severally investigated at Professor Herdman's 
Laboratory, Port Erin, Isle of Man, and also at the Marine 
Biological Association's Laboratory at Plymouth. 

Mr. Browne's object was to examine the composition and 
seasonal changes of the floating fauna by the aid of the tow- 
net. The present article is, however, confined to a record of 
the forms obtained by Mr. Beaumont and myself, by means 
of shore-collecting and shallow- water dredging in Valencia 
Harbour and the immediate neighbourhood during April and 
May of last year. The groups referred to are, chiefly, the 
Hydroids, Nemertea, Turbellaria, Gephyrea, Nudibranchiate 
MoUusca, and the Pycnogonida or ** Sea-spiders." Since 
these groups are, for the most part, composed of small and 
soft-bodied animals, requiring careful observation for their 
detection, and microscopical methods for their determination^ 
we resolved if possible to fit up a temporary laboratory in 
which we could examine our captures at leisure, and keep 
them under observation for some time. We were fortunately 
able to carry out this resolve successfully. 

It is to Prof. A. C. Haddon that we are indebted for sug- 
gesting Valencia Island as the base of operations. The 
advantages which it offers are, a rich fauna close at hand ; a 
well-sheltered harbour, enabling us to dredge under conditions 
of weather that would have rendered the use of a small boat 
in a more exposed situation out of the question ; and finally 
it is now easily accessible by the Great Southern and Western 
Railway. We were also greatly aided in discovering the most 

A3 

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1 30 The Irish Naturalist. [ May, 

favourable localities, and in many other ways, by the vicar of 
Valencia (the Rev. A. Delap) and his family, who contributed 
so largely in making our visit as successful as it was en- 
joyable. 

Accepting Professor Haddon's suggestion, we landed on 
Valencia Island last April, bringing sufl5cient apparatus, 
chemicals, and instruments to stock a small laboratory. Soon 
after our arrival we obtained the use of the greater part of a 
conveniently situated house close to the beach. One large 
room we forthwith fitted up as our laboratory; in another 
room we stored our tackle and gear ; and in a third we laid out 
the results of the day's dredging and shore-collecting in 
enamelled dishes. Dredging was carried on almost exclu- 
sively in the harbour itself from a small rowing boat. We 
hope on a future occasion to investigate the fauna of the 
deeper water outside. 

Valencia Island (5 miles long and 2 wide) is bounded by the 
Port Magee Sound on the south, by the extensive shallow 
harbour on the north and east, and is open to the Atlantic on 
the west. About 12 miles out to sea, in a south-westerly 
direction, lie the fine Greater and Lesser Skellig Rocks. The 
former is well-known on account of the intactness of the cells, 
once occupied by the anchorites of the 8th and 9th centuries, 
which occur upon it : the latter from the fact of its being the 
chief nesting-place of Gannets in the neighbourhood. 

The upper reaches of the harbour, especially that part 
known as I/)Ugh Mark, appear to be largely composed of 
submerged peat-bog. The harbour itself is shallow, having a 
depth of 8 or 9 fathoms only in certain spots. The bottom is 
chiefly mud, and with here and there collections of shells, 
but it becomes more sandy or gravelly as the mouth is 
approached. Church Island lies between the harbour and 
I/)ugh Kay to the north, and we found the shore of this 
island to be the most prolific locality for shore- work. Indeed 
at low springs, Valencia Harbour is an exceedingly favour- 
able district for the study of littoral animals, 

I will first give a description of the fauna between tide- 
marks according to the localities we examined, and will then 
proceed to detail the results obtained by dredging. In 
considering these notes it mu3t be remembered that pur visit 



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1896.] Gambia. — A Zoological ^xpediHon to Co. Kerry. 13 1 

followed upon an exceedingly severe winter, the eflfects of 
which could scarcely fail to thin the numbers of certain groups ; 
and secondly, that though we explored a portion of the district 
very carefully, a number of localities were either not examined, 
or insufficiently searched. 

Beyond the quay opposite our laboratory, a sandy spit is 
exposed at low tides. In the immediate neighbourhood of 
the quay and on this spit, Clava squamata occurred, the ova 
of which, at first pinkish in colour, become purple or bright 
blue when mature. Coryne vaginata (with gonophores) was 
found here, and generally from this point westward to the 
light-house at the harbour-mouth. Eolis papulosa was breed- 
ing on the spit itself, and was accompanied by Elysia viridis\ 
the Turbellaria, Leptoplana tremellaris, Fecampia erythro- 
cepkala^ Flagiostoma Girardi\ the Nemertea, Lineus obscurus^ 
L. longissimus, Amphiporus lacHfloreus^ Carinella annulata\ 
and lastly, Dinophilus taniatus. 

Westwards from the spit lies a long strip of collecting 
ground in the direction of Glanleam, terminating for practical 
purposes just beyond some pools, in which the purple burrow- 
ing sea-urchin {Strongylocentrotus lividus) occurs in numbers. 
At low spring tides, Zoslera-heds are here uncovered, and 
on these and under the loose boulders the following fauna was 
obtained : — Actinia equina, Anemoniu cerms, AcHnoloba dian- 
ikus, Sagartia bellis, S. troglodytes, 5. venusta, 5. nivea, Tealia 
cmssicomis, Bunodes gemmaceus, Corynactis viridis, and Cerean- 
thus Lloydil The Hydroids were not abundant, and had 
apparently suffered from the severity of the preceding winter. 
We obtained, however, on this ground small colonies of a species 
^iRhizogeton very similar to R, fusifonnis, Agassiz, a genus 
new to British seas, and hitherto only described from Massa- 
chusetts Bay. A number of the commoner species of Campanu- 
laria and Sertularia occurred here, together with Coryne puHlla 
and C. vaginata. In the ** lividus " pools the creeping medusa 
Clavatella prolifera was obtained, with young budding off from 
it The Polyclad Turbellaria, probably abundant here in a 
good season, were represented by Stylochoplana maculata^ 
L^toplana tremellariSy Stylostomum variabile, and Cycloporus 
pa^Ulosusi the Rhabdocoelida by Proxenetes flabellifer, Pro- 
mesostoma marmoratum, Macrorhynchus Nageliiy Monotus fuscus^ 



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132 The Irish Naturalist, [May, 

and M. lineattis. Several species of the Nemertine genus 
Tetrastemna were found, including 71 dorsale, 7". candiduniy T 
vermiculatum^ and 71 melanocephalum (var. diadema). The Anne- 
lids were extensively represented on this ground, and Siphono- 
stoma diploch(Btos, Halosydna gelatinosa, and a form, apparently 
Myrianida maxiilata (Clap.) ( = Myrianida pennigera of Montagu), 
were noted, the last bearing a chain of buds at its hinder end. 
A Gephyrean, Phymosoma papillosum, Thompson, was dug out 
of the tide-pools. It has been previously taken by Dr. Kinahan 
from the coast of Clare, by Dr. Norman in Birterbuy bay, and 
from Polperro by Laughrin. The Nudibranch Molluscs 
were abundant. Archidoris tuberculata was spawning, 
Acanthodoris pilosa (several varieties), Goniodoris nodosa and 
Jorunna Johnstoniy Polycera quadrilineata, Triopa claviger, 
/Egirus punctilucenSy Eo lis papulosa, a form identical with E* 
Peachiii A. and YL,,^olidella glatu:a,Fac€lina coronata,Favorinus 
albusy Coryphella gracilis, and perhaps best of all Antiopa 
hyalincL, occurred here. The last species has not, I believe, been 
previously recorded from this coast. In addition, Limapontia 
nigra, Actaonia corrugata and Elysia viridis, Pleurobranchus 
plumula, and very small Aplysia punctata, form the list of 
Opisthobranchiate molluscs. Of the Pycnogonida, the most 
interesting form on this shore was Anoplodactylus vircscens, 
Hodge, apparently a new species for Ireland, as Mr. G. H. 
Carpenter, who has kindly examined the collection of 
Pycnogonida, informs me. Ammothea echinata, and Pycno- 
gonum littorale also occurred in this locality. 

Below Glanleam, the seat of the Knight of Kerry, is a shore 
composed of boulders imbedded in sand. This, although not 
so prolific a locality as the last, yielded the following, in addi- 
tion to many of the foregoing species. Nkmertba: — I^emertes 
Neesii,Micrurafasciolata^ Linens longissimus\ Nudibranchia: — 
Fiuelina punctata, A Decapod (Xantho rivulosa) is abundant 
here, and Kinahan found it when collecting at Valencia 
{Not. Hist. Review, 1857, vol. iv). 

A short walk across the headland bounding the entrance 
to the harbour on the south, brings one near Murreagb 
Point to a bay, which at low water aflFords good collecting. 
Myriothela phtygia and Corynactis viridis are the most striking 
Coelentera, while Coryphella grctcilis and ^olideUa glauca are 



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1896.] Oma'Bi;b„— A Zoological Expedition io Co. Kerry, 133 

the most characteristic Nudibranchs. Church Island, how- 
ever, is the best locality for shore-collecting, particularly at 
the lowest spring tides. Myriothela is again abundant, Hali- 
clysttts aurictda clusters on the Zostera-h^Asy and Caryophyllia 
Smithii occurs under stones. The Polyclad Turbellaria occur- 
ring on the opposite side of the harbour are here also, and 
in greater numbers, together with Nemertes Neediy Cephalothrix 
hioculata and the other Nemertea. Acantkodoris pilosa and 
aspera^ Jorunna Johnstoni, Favorinus albus and Pleurobtanchus 
plumula again occur, with many of their congeners. The 
Annelids Polymnia nebulosa. Lattice conchilega and Siphonosioma 
diplochatos are fairly abundant. Lastly, there exists here a 
rich Echinoderm fauna which we did not thoroughly examine. 
Holothuria 7iigra, Cuaimafia cucumis, Ocnus brunnetis and 
X), lacteus were some of the more obvious forms. 

Very different from this fauna is that inhabiting the muddy 
shore of Lough Mark, which is largely a submerged peat-bog. 
In the wood a species of Pholas burrows, and the Gephyrea 
Thalassema Neptuni and Phascolosoma tenuicinctum^ McCoy 
{^Ph, elongatum, Keferstein) are present in the peat; the last, 
which was found originally by McCoy on this coast (/i«». Mag, 
Nat. Hist, vol. xv., 1845) being very plentiful. Lamellidoris 
hilamellata was found here accompanied by very large speci- 
mens of Facelina coronata (spawning) and one or two other 
Eolids, including a stranded specimen oi Lonianotus Genei, two 
inches long. Nymphon gallicum, Hoek (male with eggs), was 
the most interesting Pantopod. It is a southern form and 
was first described by Hoek from the coast of Brittany.^ In a 
patch of gravel off Reen glass Point, the purple urchin (Sir, 
lividus) occurs. On the shore of the Caher river at Ballycar- 
bery Castle, Myxicola infundibulum is plentiful. It may be 
mentioned that this is a locality for Bufo calamita, the 
Natterjack Toad. 

Turning now to the fauna obtained by dredging, it must be 
premised that as we only had the use of a rowing boat and 
were not able to dredge effectually outside the harbour, the 
results were in many hauls not unlike those of shore-collecting 
at low-springs. We discovered, however, two banks of shells 

* Hoek, Arch. Zool. Expt, et Gen, ix: 1881, p. 445. See also Carpenter, 
" Pycnogonida of Irish Coasts." Proc, Roy. Dub. Soc., vol. vii. (n.s.) pt-ii. 
1893. 

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134 The Irish NaHcmlist. Cl*«y, 

{Pecten maximtis^ P. opercularis, Mya truncaia^ &c.) whidi 
yielded excellent results. The rest of the bottom is covered 
with vast numbers of Ascidiella aspersa, and elsewhere with 
meadows of Zostera rooted in mud, except oflF Glanleam, 
where there is a bottom of sand and gravel, containing a 
limited but well-differentiated fauna. 

The Hydroids were not well represented. The abundance and 
small size of the Medusa of Corymorpha nutans in the water oi 
the harbour, argued the presence of the Hydroid in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood, but in spite of arduous labours we did 
not find it. In fact, notwithstanding the presence of several 
medusae with known hydroid stocks, none of the latter were 
obtained. Halecium Beanii was dredged once (with gonophores) 
in the harbour. The two species of Antennularia were com- 
mon, and upon these were young specimens oiLomanotus Gend, 
Doto coronata and Z?. fragilis, Doto pinnatifida occurred a 
couple of times on the shelly ground in company with the 
following: — Epizoanthus Couchii ; TuRBKi^LARiA : — Prosthe- 
ceraus vittatus, Oligocladus sanguinoUnttis, EuryUpta comuU 
and the other Polyclads taken in the littoral zone. Nemertea; 
— Amphiporus dissimulanSf Riches, Tetrastemmaflavidum (var^ 
longissimum\ Carindla aragoi, Limus bilineaitis, Micrwn^ 
fusca, M, fasciolata, M. purpurea* Annelida : — Pontobdei 
muricata, Phascolion strombi, Phascolosoma papillosum. Ok 
THOBRANCHiA: — Polyccra vcellata^ Eolis angulata^ Corypi 
Landsburghiiy Cratena amcena^ C. olivacea, Amphorina 
Embletonia pulchta, Galvina picta?- Pycnogonida : — Pho: 
chilus Icsvis, A. petiolatu^^^ PallenebrevirostriSyZxA great num 
of Ammothea echinata. 

On the muddy ground of the harbour Ascididla 
itself contains a small fauna. Its test was covered wi 
Antedon europaa and riddled by Crenella tnannorata^ whl 
amongst the mud of its attachment, the three species of i^/a^crw 
Siphonostoma diplochatos and Phascolosoma lenuicindum w 
found. The Turbellaria and Nemertea were identical 
those of the shelly ground. Amphiporus lactifloreu^ howe 



» Prof. Haddon in a list of forms from Valencia, July. 1887. which 
has kindly communicated to me, notes G, Farrani^ now, according to sol 
authors, a variety of G» tricolor Forbes. 

" Along with Anopl, petiolcUus^ Kr., we obtained specimens of -/<.^/»w 
Hodge. Canon Norman {Ann. Mag. Nat. HisU (6) xiiL, 1894, pp. ij 
considers the latter to be immature examples of A. peHoUOm. 



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i89fi.l Gambi^h. — A Zoohgicat Expedition to Co. Kerry. 135 

occarred here, but not A. dissimulans. Among the Annelids 
Ammotrypane aulogastra, Rathke, was common, and a species 
of Chatopterus occurred a few times. Philine aperta^ Ph. 
pundat€t^ Ph. catena were very characteristic Opisthobranchia. 

A word or two remains to be said concerning the occurrence 
of a species of Polygordius in fair numbers on patches of gravel 
off Glanleam. It is difficult to state which of the known 
species this approaches most closely, and we hope to in- 
vestigate the matter further. Comparison with M'Intosh's 
specimens of P. apogon from Bressay Sound in the Shetlands, 
seems to indicate that our specimens resembled this species 
more than the others, although the eyes, which are a 
diagnostic feature of the northern form, were absent. Since 
the discovery of Polygordius at Valencia, we have found it 
off Port Erin (Isle of Man), and also at Plymouth, associated 
tisually with Glycera capitata^ Embletonia puichra, and a few 
other forms which affect a gravelly bottom. 

In conclusion I may draw attention to some of the more 
interesting forms which fell to our lot while shore-collecting 
and dredging. In reference to these, previous Irish records 
have been consulted so far as the time at my disposal has 
permitted. But the publication of faunistic notes relating to 
the Irish marine Invertebrate fauna, in many often in- 
accessible journals and papers, renders this a matter of the 
greatest difficulty. 

Messrs. T. and A. Scott^ have published descriptions of a 
new genus (Lomafiticola insolens n.g. n.sp.) and two new 
species QAplostoma Beaumonti and A. hibemica n.spp.) of 
parasitic Copepoda which were found respectively vaLomanottis 
G«trf, Ver., and in Compound Ascidians, at Valencia. A species 
of a genus of Hydroidea (Rhizogeton sp.) new to the British 
seas is in Mr. Browne's hands for description. The Pycno- 
gonid Anopiodactylus virescens, Hodge, is apparently new to 
the coast of Ireland. Of the Nudibranchiate Mollusca, 
Amphorina cosrulea (Mont.), Antiopa hyalina^ A. & H., 
Lomanotus Genei^ Ver., and Embletonia pulchra, A. & H., are 
noteworthy forms, if not new to the coast. The abundance 
of species of Miaura, and the occurrence of Amphtporus 
dissumulans. Riches, are perhaps the more interesting 
results of Mr. Beaumont's work at the Nemertea. Among the 
^ 4mmals and Mag. Hat. ma.^ Ser. 6, vol zvi., 1895, p. 353. 

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13$ The Irish NatumlisL [ BUy, 

Turbellaria, the list of which I fully expect to increase 
very considerably, Prostheceraus viitatuSy Mont., Oligociadus 
sanguinotentuSt Lang, and, Stylochoplana fnaculata^ Quatref., are 
worthy of mention. Finally the occurrence of a species of 
Polygordius has', I believe, not before been signalised from the 
coast of Ireland. 



PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 

ROYAI, ZOOU»GICAi; SOCIKTY. 

Recent donations include a Badger from the Earl of Granard, a pair of 
Peacocks from A. Bell, Esq., a Macaw from V. W. Brown, Esq., and a 
pair of Herons from E. Blake Knox, Esq. Two St Kilda lambs, a hybrid 
calf, and a pigmy calf, have been born in the Gardens. 

8,070 persons visited the Gardens during March. 



Dubinin Microscopicai, Ci<ub, 

Mauch I9tli.— The Club met at Mr. W. N. Ai.i,en'& 

Mr. MOORQ exhibited Neclria aurantium^ Kick. At a previous meeting 
Mr. Moore had exhibited a pseudo-bulb of an unnamed species KiiAngui&a 
from South America, which was infested with a fungus. The ftingus 
was the species now exhibited. It is remarkable that several distinct 
species of Nectria have been found growing on Orchids in the houses at 
Glasnevin. The species in question is uncommon. It had previously 
been recorded as growing on the Laburnum and Aspen Poplar in 
Thuringia, and on the Ash tree in Belgium. 

Mr. G. PiM showed the aecidiospores of Puccinia Lapsana, Schultze, 
sent by Mr. Burbidge, from the Trinity College Gardens. The fungus 
produces crimson spots on the leaves on which nestle the clusters of 
pale yellow peridia, forming a very pretty low-power object 

Mr. McArdi^E exhibited fertile specimens of Cepkalozia Tumeri, Hook., 
which were sent to him by Mr. M. B: Slater, F.i,.s., of Malton, York- 
shire. They were collected in Maine Co., California, in May, 1894, by 
Professor Marshall A. Howe, of the University at Berkely. 

In Ireland it is one of the rarest liverworts ; it was first found by Misa 
Hutchins near Bantry, Co. Cork, who sent it to Sir William Hooker, 
and he named it to perpetuate the memory of his friend Dawson Turner ; 
an excellent description and figure of the plant is given in hia 
grand work on the " British Hepaticae." From the date 181 r, .? when it 
was collected by Miss Hutchins, we have no record that it was found 
again until 1873, when it was collected in small quantity at Cromaglown, 



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i89^] Proceedings of Irish Societies. 137 

Kfllarncy, by Professor Lindberg. In England it is known to grow in 
one station in Sussex, rare and local in France, found also in the Canary 
Islands (Webb) near Tangier, Africa (Salzman.) This curious and pretty 
plant is remarkable in having pectinato-dentate leaves, and in its close 
affinity to several genera, especially Anthdia 

March 16th.— The Clnb met at the house of Prof. Grbnvii^ia Cow, 
^o exhibited a large section, prepared for the Royal College of Science, 
from an opal -bearing rh3rolite occurring on Sandy Braes, Co. Antrim. 
Radial chalcedonic groupings occur in clear amorphous opal, the structure 
being, aa usual, well brought out by crossed nicols. 

Mr. PiH showed, on behalf of Canon Russbi«L of Geashill, a minute 
Nectria, probably N, sanguinfa. The perithecia are scattered, somewhat 
p>Tiform, papillate, and of a deep red colour ; the sporidia are uniseptate 
and uno-bi-seriate. 

Mr. M'Ardi^B exhibited a fertile specimen of the rare liverwort 
Scapama compacta^ Dumort., which he found last year amongst rocks on 
the bank of the River Barrow near Borris, Ca Carlow, when collecting 
for the Flora and Fauna Committee of the Royal Irish Academy. Dr. D. 
Moore, in his work on the Irish Hepaticse, states that the only specimens 
he collected of the true plant are from the neighbourhood of Brandon, 
Ca Kerry, which were sterile in both places where it was observed 
growing. 

Mr. A. Vaughan Jennings exhibited a leaf of ArUarum vulgate from 
Bordighera^North Italy, ccmtaining the endophytic dXfs^PhyUoHphon orisari^ 
Kohn, which is only known on that plant, and only from the Rivierm 
and West Italian coast. A preparation under a low power showed the 
unicellular (coenocytic) branching filament spreading through the leaf- 
tissues, and its contents breaking up in parts into very minute spores. 
Another slide showed these spores under a high power, when they were 
aeen to be oval bodies with a central nucleus and a bright spot toward 
each pole. The plant resembles closely a green siphonaceous alga such 
as Vamcheria, but it seems to live to a great extent parasitically on the 
leaf-tissues, which it destroys. No sexual organs are known ; and the 
method of asexual reproduction differs entirely from that of Vauehiria^ 
the immense number of minute spores having almost a fungoid aspect 

Mr. G. H. Cakpentsr showed specimens of the minute crane-fly 
MolophUus ater^ Mg., recently collected by Mr. J. N. Halbert, near 
Roundstone. This species, probably common in hilly and northern 
districts, is of interest on account of the great reduction of the wings in 
both sexes. 

Mr. Hknuy J. SSYMOUR showed sections of a hornblende schist from 
Eilliney. The rock occurs just north of the garden wall of Killiney 
Park, near the junction of the granite and slate. In the slides a 
achistose structure is clearly seen, and hornblende, a pjrroxene, some 
quartz and numerous plagioclase crystals can be identified. The 
rock may have been originally a diorite or a pyroxene aphanite. A 
photo-miciograph of the section taken by Mr. Mitchell was also fhown. 



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138 The Irish Naturalist. [ May, 



Bei:.fast Naturai^ists* Fiei.d Club. 
March 17th.— The Prbsidbnt in the chair. Prof. Coi^ F.G.S., 
read a short paper on the Rhyolites of Co. Antrim. Subsequently the 
Fifth Annual Meeting of the Microscopical Section was held, the even- 
ing being devoted to a display of microscopical objects, and to demon- 
strations of mounting, &c. The following exhibited — Rev, John Andrew 
(Chairman of the Section) ; J. J. Andrew, Miss M. K. Andrews, Miss S. M. 
Thompson, Mrs. Blair, J. O. Campbell, W. B. Drummond, P. F. 
Gulbrausen, W. A. Firth, Iv. Roscorla, James Murdoch, WilUatn Gray, 
A. M*J. Cleland, James Stelfox, W. S. M*Kee, J. Lorrain Smith, Cecil 
Shaw. H. M'Cieery, Joseph Wright, W. P. de V. Kane, and W. D. 
Donnan (Sec. of the Section). 

BoTANiCAi. Section.— March 28th.— Mr. J, H. Da vies read an in- 
teresting paper on Casuals. It was illustrated by a fine set of mounted 
plants, kindly lent for the occasion by an old friend of the writer, a 
Yorkshire botanist, Mr. William Foggitt, who has given considerable 
attention to this class of plants. Mention was made of the spread within 
recent years of Veronica Btixbaumiiy SUene noctiflora and Trifolium agnariutn. 
Silent dicKotoma, first noticed in our district two years ago by Mr. David 
Redmond, has been known to produce 330 capsules on one plant Many 
of these plants are brought in with foreign seed, and one cannot but 
speculate as to the future possibilities of their spreading. Mr. Richard 
Hanna, who contributed a remarkable list of these alien plants to the 
recent " Supplement to the Flora of N.E. Ireland," exhibited some which 
he had collected in the neighbourhood of Belfast distilleries and flour 
mills. 

Geoi^ogicai* Section.— a week of geological studies, conducted by 
Professor G. A. J. Cole, terminated on Tuesday, March 24. A paper on 
the structural details of the Antrim rhyolites, read at the Club's 
microscopical meeting, fitly commenced the course, lantern slides 
showing the microscopic characters of these lavas, varied by others 
of rhyolitic areas in other parts of Great Britain. The first 
field excursion was to Squire's Hill, where the series of Cretaceous 
quarries were visited, Professor Cole pointing out and explaining 
the methods in which the many dykes had intruded through the sedi- 
mentary rocks, also drawing the attention of his students to the differ- 
ence between our Cretaceous series and that of England. A visit to the 
basaltic quarry led the party across Carr's Glen to the Cavehill quarry, 
with its great dyke, showing horizontal columns, which traverses the 
Chalk and the overlying basalt. The second excursion made an early 
start for Stewartstown, involving a walk often miles through fine, rolling 
country, to Tullyconnell for the Permian strata that are so rare 
in Ireland, a block in siiUt nine or ten feet long, with stray fragments in 
an adjacent cottage garden, being all that here remains. The Castle 
Farm quarries at Stewartstown furnished fossils from the Carboniferous 
limestone, some pits in the lower Coal-measures being passed on the 



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i«96^] Prociidings of Irish SecieHes 139 

return drive to Dnnganaon. Friday saw the party walking from Dun- 
donald tbrongh the interesting esker of partially*cemented gravels fnll 
of travelled pebbles, by the old road to Scrabo. The intrusive sheets and 
drkes of Scrabo have acted as a protective skeleton, and preserved the 
hin and its capping of dolerite when the surrounding unprotected area 
WIS denuded away. Saturday was devoted to the rhyolitic area, which 
has been specially studied by Professor Cole for some years, and mag- 
nificent weather favoured the party as they drove from Doagh to Sandy 
Braes. 

After the welcome rest of Sunday, the geologists made a fresh start 
on Monday, the place selected being Barney's Point, near Magheramome, 
where an abundant store of lower Lias fossils was obtained, including 
Cavmya gibbostu Fragments of Rhsetic rocks led Professor Cole to point 
out that these Liassic beds had probably overridden the lower strata. 
Walking across the backbone of Islandmagee, the party inspected the 
fine cliA at the Gobbins. Yet more splendid weather favoured the final 
ezcursioii on Tuesday, and the 7.30 train saw ten members on their way 
to Newcastle. The dykes that traverse the uplifted Ordovician strata (in 
tome cases themselves traversed by later dykes) were inspected under 
r t ofc saor Cole's guidance. Professor Cole subsequently led the party 
up by Bloody Bridge and Glen Fofanny valley to the ridge above, which 
led to an explanation of the origin of tlie great detrital fans, which have 
hitherto been regarded as moraines. Mr. La Touche, of the Geological 
Survey of India, also mentioned the making of such fans in the Him- 
alayas in a few hours by a flood. An ascent of Thomas Mountain to 
inspect the Ordovician rock that overlies the granite — a reminder of the 
great sedimentary arch under which the latter molten rock accumulated 
—was the prelude of the final descent through the grounds of Donard 
Lodge. 

Aprii, ist— The Secretary's annual report of the section's work was 
read by Mr. P. W. LoCKWOOD, and, being passed, was sent on to the 
Committee of the Club. Miss M. K. Andrews subsequently gave a 
brief account of some of the investigations of the Swiss *' Gletscher- 
Kommisaion" into the results and cause of the remarkable glacier- 
rralanche Chat occurred at the Altels on the nth September, 1895. 

Apru, 6th.— An excursion to Murlough Bay on Easter Monday was 
carried out. A party of 15 started by the 6.30 train from Belfast, and 
drove firom BaUycastle to Murlough Bay, probably the most picturesque 
bit of coast in County Antrim. The geology is also of great interest, the 
most ancient rocks in the county (metamorphic), occurring near sea 
level, followed by the basal conglomerates of the Carboniferous period. 
Ascending in altitude and in geological line, the spectator admires the 
fine alopes of ruddy Trias, upon which rest the interesting pebble beds 
that indicate the western shores of the great Cretaceous ocean that once 
rolled between this and the Crimea. A considerable time was spent in 
searching for the fossils that occtir somewhat sparingly in this con- 
glomerate, which is not developed in Kngland. The homeward walk 
Along the noble clifis of Pair Head fitly introduced the period of volcanic 



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I40 The Irish Naturalist. [lUy, 

activitj, whose resulU have made Antrim what it it, preaervtng many 
rocks from denudatioii that have vanished in other parts of onr ialaad. 
The weather was splendid, and a glorious sunset gratified the trsvellers 
on the homeward journey. 

ApriIt 21.-— The annual meeting of the Club was held, the outgoing 
president (Mr. P. W. Lockwood) in the chair. Before the regular businest 
was proceeded with, Mr. Wii.i;iAM Gray, H.R.I.A., delivered the report of 
his visit to DubliUt Cork, and Limerick as the delegate of the Club under 
the auspices of the Irish Field Club Union. A few slight additions to 
the Club*s rules were then agreed to, after which the president called 
upon the honorary treasurer (Mr. W. H. Phiu«ips) to read the statement 
of accounts, which were satisfactory, a small balance being to the credit 
of the Society. The honorary secretary then read the annual report, of 
which the following is an abstract. The Committee of the Belfast 
Naturalists' Field Club now lay before the members the 53rd Annua] 
Report The work of the Club has been steadily carried on during the 
past year, some good results having been obtained especially by the 
different sections of the Club, whilst an interesting co-operation with 
the different other scientific Societies of Ireland has been maintained 
The Conference of all the Irish Field Clubs held in Galway durin^^ Julj 
under the auspices of L P. C. Union, was a hearty stimulus in this direc^ 
tion. The creation of an entrance fee has acted as desired in keeping 
the membership of the Club within working bounds without materiall} 
afiecting the finances of the Club. The membership now stands al 
480^33 new members having been elected during the year, and (A 
having been struck off. During July the London Geologists' Association 
visited Belfast, and were officially received and entertained by the Club 
During their stay different members of the Club acted as their guide 
during their excursions, and their programme and arrangements wen 
attended to by the Honorary Secretaries. The Home Reading Unioi 
was treated in a similar manner. During March a week's good geologies 
work was done in a systematic way under the instruction of Professo 
Cole, there being an excursion to different places of interest each day an< 
a class each evening. The Geological Section with Miss S. M. Thompsoi 
as Secretary has been most active during the Session. The Microscopies 
Section has also been fairly active. The Celtic Class having been nurtures 
to maturity under the sheltering care of the Club has now formed 1 
separate organization, "The Belfast Gaelic League/' which is botl 
active and prosperous. The Botanical Section formed during the yea 
under the guidance of the Rev. C H. Waddell, B.D., has made aatis&ctor 
progress, and will doubtless continue to keep this important study in thi 
forefront of the Club*s work. This section is the practical outcome € 
Professor Johnson's course of botanical lectures last session. You 
Committee trust that during the coming session more individual researcl 
will be done by the members. In conclusion, your Committee expres 
their satisfaction with the lengthened notices of the Club's proceeding 
given from month to month in the Irish NaturaiUU The officers were the 
elected, as follow :—-Lavens M. ^wart, M.R.I.A., President; Rev. C, B 



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iM-] ProceeHmgi of Irish Societies. 141 

Waddell, B.D., Vice-President; William H. Phillips, Treasttrer ; William 
Swanaton, p.os., labrarian ; P. J. Bigger and Alex. G. Wilson, Honorary 
Secretaries; with the following Committee :— Miss 8. M. Thompson, 
F. W. Lockwood, W. Gray, John Hamilton, W. J. Fennell, S. A. Stewart, 
R. J. Welch, Joseph Wright, John Vinycomb, and J. St. J. Phillips, 
Various suggestions in regard to the summer excursions were then taken 
up and considered. The following new members were then elected ; — 
Charles MacLorinan, itl^D., and Robert Ardill. 



DUBUN NaTURAMSTS' FIEI.D Cl^UB. 

Apui« 21. — The evening was spent in hearing reports on the scientific 
results of an Easter trip to Conuemara, in which a number of members 
took part. The chair was occupied by the PrksidSnt (Prof. Grbnviu«b 
CoLB). Mr. R. Li«OYD Prabgbr gave a general account of the week's 
work, describing the beautiful district of which Roundstone is the centre, 
and its scientific attractions. Specimens were shown illustrative of the 
botany of the district, and of the rich shell-sand of Port-na-fedog. Lantern 
illustrations of the district were also shown, taken from photographs by 
Mr. R. Welch, Belfast Dr. Hbrbbrt Hurst followed by exhibiting 
some frog's bones from Inis Mac Dara, a remote islet off the Connemara 
coast The opinion was expressed that the frog was not a native of the 
island, the bones having probably been brought by a bird. Mr. LysTBR 
Jambson spoke on the marine zoology of the district, and exhibited the 
results of dredgings carried out by the party. Mr. J. N. Hai;bbrT de- 
scribed the insect life of the district, and showed a number of rare beetles 
and moths. Prof. T. Johnson spoke on a large collection of sea- weeds 
which were on exhibition, gathered during the week by a lady member 
of the party. The various reports mentioned above will appear in our 
pages when completed. 

Subsequently Mr. Prabgbr showed, on behalf of Mr. A. Roycroft, 
bones, shells, &c, from a kitchen-midden at Lough Shinny, C9. Dublin. 
The Presidbnt exhibited in the lantern slides illustrating the esker of 
Greenhills, Co. Dublin. Rev. Maxwbi^i, Ci«osb discussed the origin of 
these remarkable gravel ridges. The following were elected members 
of the Club :— Miss L. Allen, Miss M. Allen J. C. Burlington, Mrs. Coffey, 
f . de W. Hinch. 

Aprh, 25.— The first exclusion took place. A party of 36, which 
iwelled to 57 «» rotOe^ took the 1.45 train to Bray, and passing the new 
barbour, examined the old forest-bed underl3ring marine clay on the 
ihore at low water, recently described before the Club by Mr. Pra^;er, 
who now pointed out on the ground the relations of this deposit to the 
leighbouring beds. After an hour's work examining the peat and clay, 
md shore-hunting, the party proceeded by the 4.0 o'clock train to 
Cilliney, while a few remained to collect seaweeds at Bray. At Killiney, 
mder guidance of the President (Prof. Cole) the famous junctions of 
iie OfdovidaiL and granite were visited, and Prof. Cole explained the 



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14^ TA^ Irish Naturalist. [iCay, 

geological phenomena displayed. Numerous specimens of the schist 
full of andalusite crystals were brought away for examination. The 
. party returned to town by the 6.11 train from Dalkey. 



FIELD CLUB NEWS. 



The Easter excursion to Roundstone, in which a number of members 
of the Belfast and Dublin Field Clubs, and others, took part, was an 
unqualified success. No rain marred the enjo3rment of the party, and 
investigations into the fauna, flora, and archaeology of Connemara pro- 
ceeded steadily. The scientific results, which were laid before the 
Dublin Club on April 21st, will appear duly in our pages. 

A better centre than Roundstone for those desiring a holiday in a 
beautiful district abounding in interest for the naturalist could not be 
found. Situated on a sheltered arm of the Atlantic, in the midst of 
lovely scenery, all sorts of ground are within easy distance for the ex- 
plorer—bays with a rich marine fauna, high mountains, sandy beaches, 
rock-pools, extensive bogs, innumeiable lakes, and an excellent little 
hotel. 

The Belfast Naturalists* Field Club has received the valuable gifl of a 
large box of geological specimens from Mrs. Sm3rthe, of Tobarcooran, 
Cammoney. The collection belonged to the late General W. J. Smythe, 
R.A., CB., formerly President of the Club. 



NOTES. 
BOTANY. 

PHANEROGAMS. 

Lathraea squamarla In Co. Down.— It may be of interest to 
some botanical readers to know that Lathnra squamaria is to be fouikf 
growing in the woods in Lord Annesley's demesne at CastleweUaa. I^ 
is most likely indigenous, as I have found it growing in several of the 
plantations nearly a mile apart, mostly under Portugal Laarefa 
{Cerasus lusitanicus) of great age, also I have fotmd it growing near th^ 
Bird-cheny {Prunmpadus) and under some Elms (Ulmus campestns\ 

It would be interesting to know if Laihnra squamaria has been found 
growing in other districts in Ireland, and where ? 

T. Ryan, Castlewellan, Ca Down. 



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1896.3 Notts. m 

Early Hawthorn.— On 19th April, near Cabinteely, Co. Dublin, I 
saw a large Hawthorn tree in almost full bloom ; there was nearly as 
much on the shady side as on that exposed to the sun. From the con- 
dition of the flowers, it was obvious that some must have been out at 
least on the 15th inst, if not sooner. Since then I have seen Hawthorn 
" Hay " isic \) in various other places, including Rutland-square. Is this 
not almost a record for earliness ? 

Greenwood Pnc, Dublin. 

ZOOLOGY. 

INSECTS, 

Formica rufa* L.f In Co. Wexford.— Though I am not a **for- 
micologist" I have been for many years familiar with the large Wood Ant 
[Formica ru/a) as a denizen of old Killoughrim Forest, in the County 
Wexford ; and I forward this note on seeing that the Rev. W. F. Johnson 
in the April number of the Irish Naturalist asks for information concerning 
its Irish localities, and expresses some doubt as to its indigenousness in 
this country. 

The great size of this ant, its wood-haunting habit, and the remarkable 
nest, resembling a hay-cock in shape, which it builds of sticks, grass, 
leaf-stalks, &c. (or pine-needles where these happen to be accessible to 
it) are sufficiently distinctive, I hope, to guarantee one who has not 
sdentiflcally studied the order against risk of erroneous identification. 

As to the question of its indigenousness, the character of the habitat 
is to my mind practically conclusive. Killoughrim Forest—the main 
remnant of the old naturalwoodof Oak, Birch, Hazel, Holly, Guelder-rose, 
and Broom, which in bygone years covered a great part of the county — 
is, so for as I have been able to observe, almost completely free from 
introduced vegetation, while several of our very local but undoubtedly 
native insects (as Theda betula and Nisoniades tages) are apparently con- 
fined to this wood, or occur outside its limits only in a few isolated spots, 
once part of the forest, that still retain the original sylvan character. It 
seems most unlikely that the ants would be so thoroughly at home as 
they are, in such a place as this if the species were an imported one. In 
lact it has grown into an axiom with me that whatever is in Killoughrim 
is indigenous. Even the Squirrel, now for six years established and 
common in all the woods of the adjacent parts, declines to be tempted 
by the only hazel-nuts the district offers to ground whereon he in- 
stinctively knows there is neither Beech nor Pine. 

I regret to add that the dense scrub which has sprungup in Killoughrim 
since the last felling of the oaks ten years ago has so obliterated many of 
the old pathways and open spaces that it is no longer the easy matter it 
once was to visit Formica rufa in her haunts. Spots where I have found, 
I should say, a dozen Wood Ant's hillocks in village-like juxtaposition 
are now difficult to identify, and besides the ants themselves shift their 
Stoand firom time to time. 



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144 The Irish Naturalist. [May, 1896. 

Despite their defenrive capabilities, not ineffective against Man, and 
stated to be infallible security against the Pheasant and Partridge (see 
remarks by " A Son of the Marshes " on " Our British Game Birds *'), thej 
have at least one formidable enemy in the Hedgehog, and ptobably, 
though I have no certain evidence of this, another in the Badger ; at any 
rate, even the former animal now and then gives them such a maulin^^ as 
to compel the abandonment of a site. 

I have found a few nests of Formica rufa outside Killoughrim Forest, 
under plantation timber at Ballyhyland, and in other woods not for off; 
and in these instances I took note of the fact that pine-needles, for 
obvious reasons lacking in Killoughrim, were largely used in the coo- 
struction of the tumuli. These outside colonies, probably formed by 
emigrants from the Forest, in every case have proved curiously short- 
lived, and last summer I searched all the localities (exclusive of the Kil- 
loughrim settlements) without finding a single nest of the Wood Ant 

I will see to securing a few " neuters ** of this Ant for authoritative 
inspection during the coming summer, but meanwhile I have very little 
doubt that other Irish localities for it will be readily forthcoming — enough, 
perhaps, to dispense with any special need for corroboration by specimen 
of my County Wexford record. So interesting and striking an insect is 
in all probability familiar by sight to many observers ignorant of its 
scientific name, who, when once attention is drawn to the subject, will 
be able to add largely to what is known of its distribution. 

C. B. Moffat, Dublin. 

MOLLUSCA, 
Some 8lu«s from North-west iroland.— I have recently re- 
ceived from Miss Amy Warren a small collection of slugs from Ballina, 
Go. Mayo, and as records from this district are very few, a note concern- 
ing the same may be of interest There are eight specimens referable to 
the following species : 
Arion empirUorum, Ffcr. (immature) (3). 

var. allied to Boca^eij Simr. (2). 
A, sudfnscus, Drap. (i). 
A. hort^nns, Fer. (i). 
^.yJwrttfftw, Nils.(i). 

The occurrence of forms of A, tmpirkorum allied to Simroth*s variety 
Bccagd is most interesting. 

WaItTERE. Cozxingb, 

Mason College, Birmingham. 

BIRDS. 
Sprlnff Migrants.— I saw two Sand Martins on the 20th March and 
a solitary Wheat-ear on the ist April. The latter are our first spring 
migrmnts here, and seem later in coming tlian usual. 

W. A. HAMiZfTON, BallyshannoB. 



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June, 1896. I46 

THE TERNS OF KVLhAUL BAY. 

BY ROBERT WARRBN. 



Op the tern family, four species are regular summer visitors 
to Killala Bay, and breed within the district — the Sandwich, 
Common, Arctic, and Little Terns ; while one, the rare Black 
Tern, has only once been known to visit the bay. 

Up to the summer of 185 1, very little was known of the 

Sandwich Tern (Sterna caniiaca) in Ireland, and was first 

mentioned as an Irish visitor by the late Wm. Thompson in the 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for 1833 from 

a specimen shot on the 14th of September, 1832, in Belfast 

Bay : again, on the 28th of July, 1838, an adult bird was shot 

opposite "The Grove" and several others were seen there in 

September, 1839, and during the same month in 1844 : while 

another specimen shot in Strangford Lough on the i6th of 

August that year was sent to Belfast for preservation ; the 

above being all that was known to Wm. Thompson of this bird 

on the northern coast. This writer, proceeding to speak of its 

occurrence on the Dublin coast, mentions a specimen having 

been shot near Clontarf in October, 1831 ; and in July, 1834, 

two more were obtained near the same locality. In September, 

1837, several were seen near Howth ; and one was seen at 

DoUymount strand on i ith May, 1842 ; while from that date up 

to 1850, individuals were seen every summer, in June and July, 

between Portmarnock and Malahide, and one was shot on 

15th June that year on Ireland's Eye. 

The late Mr. J. J. Watters was the first to discover that it 
bred on the coast, for on 17th June, 1850, when visiting that 
g;reat breeding-haunt of Terns on the Dublin coast, theRockabill 
[now long since deserted), he saw three birds flying about, and 
bund a broken tgg on the rocks, and although he saw 70 or 
io Roseate Terns, and at least twice that number of 
Common and Arctic Terns on the wing, he was unable to 
dentify nrore of the Sandwich Terns than the three individuals 
Iready mentioned, thus showing that these three birds were 
ttere chance stragglers from some larger breeding-haunt of 
he species, at that time unknown. 

The preceding information being all that was known of this 
sm in Ireland up to the date of the publication of Wm. 
Thompson's work in 1851, 1 had the great pleasure of adding 

A 

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146 The Irish Naturalist. [Jwic 

something to it ; for on 7th April the same year I met this 
beautifttl Tern near the island of Bartragh, Killala Bay. 
Having previously resided in the South of Ireland, it was 
quite unknown to me, and when the attention of my brother 
and myself was first attracted by its very peculiar cry (which if 
once heard can never be mistaken or forgotten), we were much 
puzzled, as for a long time we could not make out what had 
uttered it, or from what direction it proceeded. However, 
chancing after some time to look upwards, we were just able 
to perceive some birds, wheeling about, and soaring at an 
immense height, all the time screaming loudly. This wild 
flight and strange cry, so unlike that of any bird we 
knew, induced us to watch them closely, and after some time 
they gradually lowered their flight to the water. Seeing that 
they were some species of tern, we got into our boat, and 
having succeeded in shooting a couple, found that they 
were this lovely tern, and in such a periect state of plumage 
that their breasts and bellies had quite a rosy tinge almost as 
deep as that of Roseate Terns. This peculiar habit of soaring 
to such a height as. to be almost invisible, and wheeling in wide 
circles, occasionally chasing each other and screaming loudly, 
is most frequently seen early in the season before they begin 
to hatch, although occasionally in August and September, a 
pair may be seen acting in a similar manner, but almost in- 
variably on fine bright days. As these terns remained all 
the season feeding about the bay and estuary, we were most 
anxious to find their breeding-station, but although we made 
many inquiries and searches we quite failed, and what made 
the failure the more annoying was, that at the time the birdi 
were hatching the male birds were seen daily flying inland iti 
the direction of I/)ugh Conn, with Sand-eels in their bills td 
feed their sitting mates. J^ough Conn, however, was visiteci 
twice without our seeing any trace of the Sandwich Temi 
either on or about the lake, the only birds met with bein^ 
Blackheaded Gulls and Common Terns. Our search for thi 
breeding-haunt having thus failed, I gave it up for a time, bu 
in May, 1857, I was told of a small lough where a number c 
small gulls bred, and which was situated close to theresidenc 
of the late Mr. Gardiner of Cloona, two miles from the town c 
Ballina, and about four from the estuary. On visiting th 
lough I found it to be surrounded on two sides by a turf bo 



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1896.] Warren.— 731^ Tsms of KUldla Bay. 147 

and on other two by the fields of Mr. Gardiner. It was 
about 20 or 30 acres in extent and had a wooded island in the 
centre, having a large quantity of reeds and bullrushes on one 
end, extending out some distance into the water. A large 
colony of Blackheaded Gulls were breeding amongst the 
reeds, and on the tussocks of coarse grass along the margin, 
while a small colony of Sandwich Terns were located on a 
low flat mudbank, scarcely above the level of the water. 
Some of the terns had scarcely any nests, but laid their eggs 
in slight depressions of the soil thinly lined with a few dried 
blades of grass, and three, I think (as well as I can remember), 
was the average number of eggs in each nest When 
returning I took half a dozen eggs, and when attempting to 
blow them found that the greater number were so near being 
hatched that it was impossible to prepare them for my collec- 
tion, thus showing that this species breeds much earlier than 
the smaller species of terns, and in further proof of their 
early breeding I have seen young birds accompanying their 
parents about the river and estuary as early as the 24th of June. 

The following winter and spring being unusually wet, the 
level of the lake was raised so high, as to cover the mudbank 
npon which the terns had their nests, and as the bank con- 
tinued under water during the summer of 1858, the terns 
deserted the lake altogether, and removed to the little moor- 
land lough of Rathrouyeen, situated midway between Ballina 
and ELillala, and within 300 yards of, and in sight o{ the high 
road between these towns. 

This lough is considerably larger than Cloona, and is nearly 
surrounded by bog, with very swampy shores, except on the 
east side, and has a considerable quantity of reeds growing on 
the marg^, in some places extending to a small island in the 
middle of the lake. This island is nearly circular in form, 
and is about 25 or 30 yards in diameter, and has some tall 
bushes growing round the outer edge, while the middle of the 
island is bare, except where some long g^ass grows* 

A very large colony of Blackheaded Gulls have nests all 
over this island, and amongst the reeds, and on the tussocks 
along the boggy margin, while a smaller colony of Sandwich 
Terns breed together on a bare part of the island, as well as 
amongst the Gulls' nests. This lake and the adjoining land were 
the property of the late Sir Charles Knox-Gore, who, with the 

▲ 3 

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148 The Irish Naturalist. Qunc, 

spirit of 4 true naturalist, strictly preserved it, and did not 
allow either Gulls or Terns to be disturbed or molested, and 
had the long grass and weeds, and some bushes cleared oflF it 
to give more space to the birds for their nests, so that now 
from being so well protected, this beautiful tern has increased 
in numbers, so largely, that Miss Knox-Gore told me that 
when visiting the island in 1886, she counted 150 nests of 
Sandwich Terns, and as the present owner preserves the lake 
as strictly as the former, there is every probability of this 
breeding-haunt continuing for many years. 

This tern is the earliest of our spring visitors, sometimes 
appearing in the estuary as early as 20th March ; and appears 
to be little aflFected by cold, for during the unusually cold 
weather of March, 1892, they arrived in the estuary on the 
27th, when there were four inches of snow on the ground, and 
the thermometer indicated six degrees of frost. Up to the 
present date, Rathrouyeen is the only breeding haunt of this 
tern in Ireland, of which we have any record, except the 
deserted ones of Rockabill and Cloona, though of course there 
may be others unnoticed on some remote and unfrequented 
parts of the coasts or lakes. There is very probably one on 
the North Sligo coast, somewhere between Raughly and 
Mullaghmore, for when I visited Horse Island (that great 
haunt of the Arctic Tern) in July, 1894, I saw several Sand- 
wich Terns flying about, but saw no trace of their breeding 
on the island with the Arctic Terns. 

When the pairing season commences it is very amusing 
watching the absurd antics of the males trying to attract the 
attention of the females. When the tide is out, at low-water, 
the terns generally assemble on a sandbank to rest after 
fishing, and there the males strut about amongst the females, 
with their heads thrown back and wings drooping (almost 
touching the sand), but after a time if there is no response 
from the females, who generally look on the performance with 
the greatest unconcern, one goes oflF for a little and returns 
with a Sand-eel in his bill, and commences again strutting 
about with wings and head in same position and moves about 
amongst the females, oflFering the Sand-eel from one to'another 
as he passes along unnoticed, until at last he meets a hen who 
accepts his offering, and then sits down alongside of her to 
settle their future arrangements. 

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1896.] Warren.— The Terns of Killakt Bay. 149 - 

Common Tbrn (Sterna fluviaHlis).—K summer visitor, 
generally appearing in the bay and estuary about the first 
week in May, and sometimes delaying its visit if the weather 
is cold and stormy. It is an abundant species and widely dis- 
tributed during the breeding season amongst the freshwater 
lakes and sea-shores. I^arge numbers breed on a low gravelly 
island near Errew Abbey in I<ough Conn, and on another 
island at the Pontoon end of the lake, while lesser numbers are 
scattered about the lake, solitary pairs breeding on the stony 
points of many of the smaller islands. They al^ breed on 
islands in I/)ughs Mask and Carra, also in Mayo, while I have 
seen a small colony on an island in Lough Gill, near Sligo. 
Of their marine breeding-haunts the principal one on the 
North Mayo coast is that of the Inch, a low gravelly island in 
Killala Pool, where they breed in company of the Lesser and 
Arctic Terns ; a few pairs also breed on Horse Island, near 
Raughly, Sligo Bay, amongst the crowd of Arctic Terns. 

Arctic Tbrn (Sterna macrura) is not so numerous in the 
bay and estuary as the Common Tern, and although I had 
occasionally shot specimens in company of the Common Tern 
it was not until the past summer that I ascertained that they 
bred in this locality, when I found them breeding on the Inch 
with the Common and Lesser Terns. I had in previous years 
shot birds at the Inch, that from the darkness of their under 
plumage when seen in flight I took to.be Arctic Terns, but in 
every instance they proved to be the Common ; so that I find 
it impossible to identify an Arctic Tern on the wing by the 
colours of its plumage. Indeed my experience is, that unless 
seen close enough to discern the lake-coloured bill, the 
colours of plumage will not distinguish this bird from the 
Common Tern. Other means of distinguishing between the 
two species when flying are the much sharper cry, when 
alarmed, than that of the Common Tern, and the greater length 
of the tail feathers, but these are not always perceptible to 
the obseiven 

When visiting the Inch on 14th June, 1895, 1 remarked that 
several of the Terns emitted the same sharp cries that I had 
heard previously at breeding-haunts of the Arctic Terns, at 
other plaees, but still I could not perceive any difference in 
appearance between any of the large numbers of birds fl3ring 
about, until walking over to som^ nests of the Lesser Terns, 

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150 Tk€ Irish Nahiralist. t J«nci 

one of the larger species rose off eggs at my feet, and uttering 
the sharp cry, kept soaring round out of shot While doing 
so, the unusual length of its pointed tail feathers, and its ex- 
cessive wildness (so unlike the habits of the Arctic) caused 
me to think that it might be the rare Roseate Tern, and being 
very anxious to identify the bird, or shoot it, I lay down be- 
hind a little hillock, about 50 yards from where the eggs were 
laid on the bare sand, and though after a time the bird 
returned to her eggs, yet, whenever I attempted to move, or 
stand up, she always got up quite out of shot, soaring about 
in wide circles ; several times for over half an hour all my 
attempts failed in obtaining a shot, and her great wildness 
made me feel so confident that she was a Roseate, that I was 
more anxious than ever to shoot her. So trying another plan, 
I put her off the eggs, and then lay down behind the hillock 
on the chance of obtaining a shot as she circled round ; re- 
maining quite still, she lowered her flight, and in one of her 
circles, coming within range, I brought her down, and to my 
great disappointment she proved to be an Arctic Tern. 

When at the summer assizes of Sligo in July, 1894, a friend 
told me of a large breeding-haunt of terns on Horse Island, 
near Raughly, off Brown's Bay, about 12 miles from Sligo, 
and I gladly accepted his offer to drive me there. Reaching 
Raughly, we stopped on our way at Artarmon to call on Mr. 
C Jones Henry, who very kindly took us in his boat to the 
island. It is seven or eight acres in extent, and all in pasture. 
The terns lay their eggs all about the island on the grass, and 
on the rocks and stones above high- water-mark, all round the 
island. On landing we were soon surrounded and mobbed by 
the largest flock of terns that I ever saw. At the least esti- 
mation fully 500 to 700 pairs were flying about us, and from 
their sharp cries all were evidently Arctic Terns. I did not 
recognise the note of a single Common Tern, and all the 
specimens we shot were of the first-named species, and the 
only evidence we had of the presence of Common Terns, was 
two or three young birds we found running about the rocks* 
This great flock of Arctic Terns was to me one of the most 
interesting sights I had witnessed for a long time, and Mr. 
Henry told us that when he visited the island some three or 
four years before, the number of birds was far larger, and tliat 
when walking on the island, he found it almost impossible to 



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i«96.] Warren.— Zi^ Terns of Killala Bay. 151 

avoid treading on the eggs, so thickly were they scattered 
about We found that only about fifty or sixty pairs had eg^ 
on the short pasture, and on the rocks ; not more than half a 
dozen young birds were seen, although it was so late as the 
7th July, but the birds had been much harassed and dis- 
turbed by previous visitors taking the eggs out of mere wanton 
mischief, and leaving them in heaps on the grass. We found 
one heap of 50 or 60 eggs left near the landing-place, all nearly 
incubated, and this wanton destruction of the eggs easily 
accounted for the few nests found by us, and the small number 
of young birds seen. 

William Thompson was not aware of this tern having any 
inland breeding-haunts, but considered it strictly marine in 
all its habits, and both Mr. Yarrell and Mr. H. Saunders appear 
to have been of the same opinion, for neither in the last edition 
of "British Birds," nor in Saunders' ** Handbook," is there 
any mention of this bird breeding on fresh water within the 
British Isles. 

The first intimation I had of this tern breeding on fresh 
water, was from my old and valued friend, the late Mr. A. G. 
More, who, when botanising along the shores and islands of 
the Mayo lakes, met this bird breeding in company with 
Common Terns on an island on Lough Carra ; and I was also 
informed in 1891 by Mr. W. H. Good, of Westport, that he 
met with it breeding on islands, both on Loughs Mask and 
Cana : which statements I verified, when visiting these lakes 
in the company of my friend Mr. W. Williams, of Dublin, in 
Jane, 1893, for we obtained specimens on both lakes, and 
brought young and eggs from an island off Cushlough on 
Lough Mask. 

This tern is remarkable' for the great extent of its breeding 
range, which extends from the inland lakes of Ireland, to 
Smith's Sound in the Arctic regions, as far north as the foot 
of civilized man has trod ; Colonel Fielden of the late Arctic 
discovery expedition linder Captain Nares, having met with 
this bird near the Alert's winter-quarters on the i6th June, 
1876. In August of the previous year, he found eight pairs 
breeding on a small islet at the mouth of Discovery Bay, and 
a newly-hatched young bird in a nest surrounded by snow. 

The I<iTTi3 Tbrn {Sterna minuta) is a regular summer 
visitor, generally arriving in the estuary during the first or 



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15^ 'rht Irish Naturalist. t Ji»n«i 

second week of May, and although I have long observed 
them about the locality, it was only of late years that I have 
ascertained their breeding-haunt on the Inch, between Kil lala 
and Bartragh (their only breeding-haunt on the North Mayo 
coast). Here a small colony of ten or twelve pairs, used to 
breed in company with Common and Arctic Terns, until the 
past summer of 1895, when their numbers suddenly, and most 
unaccountably increased, and as they had not sufficient scope 
on the gravelly Inch, they spread over the adjacent sandy 
peninsula of Ross. When I visited the Inch on the 14th of 
last June, I was surprised at the large numbers of these terns, 
and estimated that at least 60 to 70 pairs were seen all about— 
both on the wing, resting on the sands,and sitting on their eggs, 
The birds had spread along the Ross shore for nearly half a 
mile lajring their eggs on the sandy flat, and round the gravelly 
base of some hillocks, from which the sand had been blown 
away ; no nests had been made ; the two or three eggs of each 
pair lay on the bare sand or gravel. Just across the narrow 
channel, on the extreme end of Bartra Island, I found four 
pairs hatching a little above high water mark, and below 
the line of Bent-grass, the eggs also on the bare sand, and 
where no birds had ever before been known to breed. 

The sudden increase of this tern is very interesting and 
mysterious, for it cannot be accounted for by any larger 
number than usual having been reared on the Inch the 
previous summer. Unless by the desertion of some distant 
breeding-haunt it is difficult to account for this influx of 
breeding birds to the Inch and neighbourhood. Besides this 
North Mayo breeding-haunt, there are several along theSligo 
coast ; one at Rosses Point, Sligo Bay, where a small colony 
of eight or ten pairs frequent a little sandy bay oflF the Rabbit- 
burrows, another on the northern side of the point in Drum- 
clifie Bay, where thirty to forty pairs breed on the wide ex- 
panse of sand-flat, which extends nearly across the upper end 
of the bay. This wide expanse of sand is generally bare all 
the summer, and apparently is only covered by the high spring- 
tides of spring and autumn ; so the terns can hatch and rear 
their young in safety, for as they lay near tie centre of the 
flat nearly a mile from the land, they are seldom molested, 
being quite out of the way of either cockle-pickers or bait- 
diggers« A third breeding-haunt is situated three or four 



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1896.] WAiatBN.~7A^ Tmts of Kitlald Bay. \%% 

miles further north, near Raughly, in Brown's Bay, ivhere fc 
dozen pairs frequent a flat at the base of the sandhills, and 
lay on the bare pasture between the tufts of bent grass. 

The Black Tbrn (Stefna nigra).^So rare a species in 
Ireland has only once come under my notice as a visitor tb 
Killala Bay, and it was by the merest chance I came acroft 
it as I was fishing for Sea-trout near Bartragh on the 12th rf 
October, 1859. 

My boat was anchored in the channel between Baunross and 
a wide stretch of sand-banks left bare by the ebb-tide, an^ 
while fishing I remarked a group of four or five small temi 
resting on the sand-bank dose to the channel, but at first; 
thinking they were young Common Terns, I paid no attention 
to them. However, after a while they rose from the sand, 
and began hawking after some flies, and the very sudden anil 
adroit twists and turns they made in the pursuit of theii: 
diminutive prey showed they were birds strange to me. I at 
once got up my anchor and rowed after them, and as they 
were not at all shy I easily succeeded in shooting a pair of 
Black Terns in the first season's plumage. This little party, 
a family of terns, were evidently on their way south from their 
breeding-haunt, but whether they were bred in this country 
on some remote bog or mountain lough, is difficult to say, fdr 
there is no record of the Black Tern having ever bred ill 
Ireland. 



NOTES ON THE ROCK POOl^ OP BUNDORAN. 

BY J. E. DUKRDEN, A.R.C.SC. (i:,OND.)i 
Curator of the Museum, Kingston, Jamaica. 

In addition to the notes in the IrtsA Naturalist for January^ 
1895, upon the ** Rock-pools of Bundoran," I find I have a few 
other observations which removal from Ireland has prevented 
£rom farther amplification . This latter occurrence may perhaps 
be considered sufficient apology for their disconnected nature ; 
while the fact that some of the specimens were collected and 
handed to me by Prof. Johnson renders it obligatory upon me 
to present them. 

In examining the Hydroids the greenish, somewhat flask^ 
shaped tests of the Protozoan Folliculina ampulla^ Mull., were 
met with on the stems in considerable numbers. 

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154 The Irish Nafufulist. [June, 

The sponge Hymeniacidon cdata^ Bowk. (Cliona celata. Grant), 
occurred perforating the hard Carboniferous limestone near 
the Fairy Bridge at the eastern end of Donegal Bay. 

The patches at the surface exhibited a very characteristic 
appearance, and upon splitting the rock it was found to be 
closely perforated by the sponge for a depth of two or three 
inchea A well-known boring sponge, Cliona is commonly 
found inhabiting oyster and other shells all round the 
coast, but only occasionally is it met with in limestone 
Bowerbank records it thus only from the limestone rocks 
around Tenby. 

Among the Crustacea, a single specimen of the small Isopod, 
Dynamene Mantagui, Leach, was obtained by Pro£ Johnson 
from amongst the sea-weeds. It has previously been recorded 
from Bantry Bay. 

Many specimens of the Sea-Hare, Aplysia punctata, Cuvier, 
were met with in the shallow rock-pools west of Bundoran, 
and also near Aughrus Point. Most were in the act of la3ring 
their strings of brown-pink spawn. The majority were of a 
uniformly dark olive green colour, while others were sprinkled 
with small opaque white patches over various parts of the 
body. Mr. Garstang has shown {Joum. Mar. BioL Assoc, (n.s.) 
vol. i.. No. 4, 1890, p. 403) that this species changes with 
growth from a violet, purplish, or rose-red colour, through 
brownish-red and brown to olive-brown or olive-green. The 
rock-surface of the pools in which the present specimens were 
found was coated with the pink Lithothamnion polymorphum to 
which the dark Aplysia offered a great contrast. 

Prof. Johnson found the rare Nudibranch, Hemusa bifida, 
Montagu, while examining the weeds collected at low-water. 
It was living upon Halurus {Grijffithsia) equisetefolius, to which 
the lake-red colour in its dorsal papillae presented a remarkable 
resemblance. This protective or warning resemblance to the 
objects upon which Nudibranchs live has lately been the sub- 
ject of various papers by Prof Herdman, Mr. Garstang, and 
others. Hermaa bifida has been the object of some of Mr. 
Garstang's experiments at Plymouth ijoum. Mar. Biol. Assoc 
(U.S.), vol. i., No. 2, Oct., 1889, p. 173) where it is interesting 
to find that the creature, which there was also collected by 
Prof. Johnson, lives upon the same Alga as at Bundoran. It is 
shown that its colour is purely adventitious, being determined 
mainly by that of the food within it undergoing digestion. 



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by Google 



1896.] Dotrdbn.— A^(?to on ike Rock Pools o/Bundoran. 155 

I obtained one specimen of the small greenish Nudibrdnch, 
Hermcea dendnHca, Aid. and Hane., living amongst the green 
Algae Bryopsis and Codium. Kept in captivity it laid a charac- 
teristic round mass of spawn. It refused to live upon the 
Codium, and in a few days lost most of its green colour, be- 
coming yellowish brown. Garstang's experiments show that 
this species entirely avoids the red sea- weeds, upon which its 
colour would render it conspicuous. 

Many examples of the Nudibranch, Eolis coronata^ Forbes, 
were found living amongst colonies of Tubularia larynx col- 
lected from the Fairy Caves, their colours harmonising with 
the light red of the polypites. 



A SUBMERGED PINE-FOREST. 

BY R. JJ/yrO PRABGKR, B.B. 
(Read before the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, March 9th, 1896.) 

One day in February last, Mr. R. Welch and I strolled along 
the beach northward of the new harbour at Bray, and just 
within the confines of the County of Dublin. At the verge 
of low water, where the slope of coarse shingle gives way 
to a more level stretch of fine sand and boulders, which is only 
left dry at spring tides, we noticed some stumps aud boughs 
of trees, and on examining them, found that they were em- 
bedded in a compact layer of peat, which dipped southward 
at a low angle. The peat was full of branches and roots, and 
of cones of the Scotch Fir. On the southern side it disappeared 
under a bed of fine blue clay containing sea-shells ; to the 
north, its broken edges overlay a stratum of coarse grey sand, 
with rounded fragments of granite. We had but cursorily 
examined the spot when the tide crept up again and soon hid 
it from view. 

Here evidently was a geological story to be unravelled ; a 
long history lay buried with this old peat-bed under the mud 
and shingle which the sea had heaped upon it ; and it was for 
us to read that history, if we could. Thus it came about that 
in two days' time we again visited the place, and Mr. Welch 
secured several excellent photographs of the deposit ; and a 
little later, selecting a spring-tide, Mr. I^yster Jameson and I 
went down and thoroughly examined the spot, and determined 
the extent of the different beds and their relative position and 

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ti6 The Irish Ifaiuralisi. U^^ 

thickness. What we found may be shown in the form of a 
section north and south along the beach (fig. i). The newest 

Fig. I. 

S. 



bed is the blue marine clay, which may be well seen in the 
sp2|ce lying inside of the crescent-shaped heap of large 
boulders which forms a conspicuous object on the shore at low 
wa^r about a quarter of a mile north of Bray Harbour. The 
clay is extremely fine and tough, and is full of the shell 
Scr^bicularia piperata^ a species whose habitat is between tide- 
majj^s on mud>flats and in estuaries. In most cases the pairs 
of Yalves are still in juxtaposition, and upright, showing that 
th^ shells are lying undisturbed in the place where they 
lived and died. With this shell was the well-known TeUina 
baHhica^ which lives in similar situations ; and a specimen of 
Litfjorina litorea, the Common Periwinkle, was also found. 
W^ had not brought excavating implements with us, but with 
the aid of a broken coal- shovel, kindly lent to us by the 
nearest resident, we found that towards the southern extremity 
of its area the bed of clay is at least six feet thick. Especially 
in i^s lower portion, the clay contains fir-cones and fragments 
of wood, washed out of the underlying peat. The peat-bed 
was next examined. Careful excavation round a selected 
stump, a large one standing almost upright, revealed the fact 
that it was firmly rooted in the peat ; the spreading branching 
roots so characteristic of the Scotch Fir could be clearly traced 
from their junction with the trunk to their interlaced ex- 
tremities. Although it was evident that various plants had 
contributed to the formation of this old forest-bed, no other 
Species could be identified in the short time at our disposal. 
The peat rested abruptly on a couple of feet of coarse grey 
sand, in which no organic remains were detected. A little 
further on, the glacial sands and gravels that form the upper 
part of the fine coast section between Bray and Killiney rose 
out of the shingle, cemented into a hard conglomerate, as they 
are at other places in the neighbourhood. Beyond this the 
strand was occupied by a denuded surface of boulder-clay, 
burrowed by that pretty shell Pholas Candida. 

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i89^] V^iAS,oil^^.^A Submerged Pine-Forest. 157 

Two facts in the above description deserve our special at- 
tention. Firstly, the trees were rooied in the peat, showing 
that they grew there, and were not drifted by currents or 
carried down by streams. Secondly, the marine shells in the 
overlying clay lived where we now find them. And thus we 
obtain the key to this little earth-story. Fir-trees do not grow 
in the sea, nor do marine shells flourish on dry land. These 
beds of peat and clay tell us clearly of changes in the relative 
level of land and sea. To appreciate these changes, and to 
confirm our interpretation of the phenomena before us, we 
turn to a locality where beds of this kind attain a more ex- 
tensive development, and can be better studied than on the 
storm-swept shore at Bray. The greater part of the City of 
Belfast is built on thick deposits of post-glacia lage, and the 
deep and wide excavations made from time to time in the con- 
struction of new docks, have afibrded golden opportunities for 
their investigation — opportunities which have not been al- 
together neglected. We will take a typical section from the 
Alexandra Dock Works^ (fig. 2). 

Pig. 2* 

. . Surface layers, 

L W. L, "". . ' : .••.;,.• .-.:•'.. :' • . Sand and Clay 



> Yellow Sand 2'— 0." 




^^-" ~2_^ — - ^ Upper Blue Clay 
Z Z- • «'— 0." 





Lower Blue Clay 




d'-O." 




Grey Sand 2'-^" 
Peat r-e." 
Grey Sand 2'-a." 


?.y':':\::-'c::\///.v.\ 


Bed Sand r-a" 


^^m- 


Boulder Clay. 



' See Praeger, '* The Estuarine Clays at the new Altxandra Dock, 
BeUart." Fhfc. BJ^.F.C. for 1886-87, Apptndix. 

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158 The Irish Naturalist. l]vai% 

Here, below some feet of sandy and muddy beds, the recent 
creation of the River I^agan, we find a bed 12 feet thick of blue 
clay, which examination shows to be clearly divisible into two 
zones — an upper clay, exceedingly fine and pure, full of a rich 
and luxuriant fauna characterized by species which live in from 
5 to 10 fathoms of water ; and a lower zone, more sandy, which 
yields in abundance remains of the Grass-wrack, Zostera 
marina^ and shells, such as Scrobicularia piperata, Tapes 
decussatus, and Tellina baltkica, that are usually found living 
with the Grass-wrack on muddy shores between tide-marks. 
Under these clays we see, intercalated between thin beds of 
grey sand, a layer of peat, which contains remains of Scotch 
Fir, Hazel, Alder, &c., as well as bones of the Red Deer, Wild 
Boar, and Irish Elk/ The next bed in order of descent is a 
fine red sand, a deposit that in many places in the neighbour- 
hood of Belfast attains an extensive development, and which, 
though its stratigraphical relations have not yet been worked 
out, there is good reason for supposing to correspond with the 
sands and gravels which form so important a ifeature in the 
glacial series about Dublin, And lastly, this bed of sand 
reposes on Boulder-clay. 

Comparing now this section with the beds on the foreshore 
at Bray, we will be immediately struck with the exact parallel- 
ism. The deep-water clay which forms the uppermost bed of 
the series at Belfast is indeed unrepresented at Bray, but the 
others correspond zone for zone, and the clay and peat are 
even characterized by the same fossils. And we may with 
advantage carry our comparison a little further. The peat- 
bed is to be found in many spots in the north-east ; and in 
other places at Belfast, and at Downpatrick, it is to be found 
underlying thirty feet or more of the blue clay. Again, at 
I^me, the Scrobicularia clay (as we may call the lower zone), 
which is also very persistent along the north-eastern shores, 
has, superimposed on it, 19 feet of stratified marine gravels, 
which contain flint implements of Neolithic age from top to 
base, though none are found in the clay. At Kilroot, mid- 
way between Belfast and I<ame, the beds present an appearance 
exactly like that seen at Bray, for here, near low water-mark, 



* Praeger, op, cif*, and Ftvc* B»/i,F,C for 1891-92, p. 416. 

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189S.] PaABOBR.— -4 Suimerged Pine-Forest. 159 

we have a patch of Scrobicularia clay which rests on peat, both 
lying in a shallow basin in the Boulder-clay, which crops out 
close at hand. At Ballyholme, again, on the opposite or 
southern shore of Belfast Lough, the peat may be seen on the 
shore between tides, with 15 feet of stratified marine gravels 
overljdng it, and Boulder-clay below. Similar instances might 
be multiplied.* 

The sections just described throw much light on the beds 
at Bray, and will assist us to form an idea of their age, and of 
the conditions under which they were laid down. The peat 
evidently represents a period when the land stood slightly 
higher than at present. The cold that characterized the 
glacial epoch appears to have quite passed away, for the plants 
and animals of the peat, so far as they are known, point to a 
climate resembling that which this country at present enjoys. 
Then came subsidence, and the accumulation of marine clays 
on the former land-surface. This may have been the period 
of Palaeolithic man ; we know at least that it is the zone under- 
lying the lowest which contains Neolithic implements at X^me. 
It may be noted that the characteristic shell of these clays — 
Scrobiculafia piperata, which is present in countless thousands 
both at Bray and in the many places where this deposit is found 
in Antrim and Down — while it still lives about Dublin, has 
become completely extinct in the north-east of Ireland, and 
many other shells of the clays have disappeared along with it 
The Bray series carries us no further, but the deep-water clay 
and extensive raised beaches that overlie the Scrobicularia 
clay in the North-east are evidence of a further period of 
depression before the land rose to its present level. 

And thus, as we stand on the sea-shore at Bray and gaze 
along the storm-swept edges of these old beds, we are, as it 
were, looking down the corridors of time — glancing at a tale, 
which, though long, occupies but the last page, nay, but the 
last sentence, of the great book of geological history. The 
peat tells us of a forest of dark fir-trees, under whose shadow 
wandered herds of stately Red Deer, and packs of Wild Boars 
and Wolves, and perhaps the great Irish Elk, while year by 



' See Praeger ; Report on the Bstuarine Clays of the north-east of 
Ireland. /V<v. R.LA* (3) ii., No- 2, 1892. 



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i6o The Irish Naturalist. [June, 

year the trees shed their cones and needles to form the firm 
brown mass at our feet A different chapter of the story is 
revealed by the fine blue clay, which points to a shallow muddy 
shore-line, like that which we still find on the Murrough of 
Wicklow. Immediately above the bed of clay, the broad 
shingle of the present beach catches our eye, recalling 
the never-ceasing wear and tear of the ocean, ever carving and 
levelling, and still making new land out of old ; while beyond 
all, and over all, we catch a glimpse of the villas and spires 
of Bray, and hear the rattle of vehicles and rumble of trains, 
to remind us that from the dim twilight of the past, we have 
emerged into the broad daylight of the present. 



THE SONG OP BIRDS. 

The Evolution of Blrd-Sonff with observations on the 
Influence of heredity and Imitation. By CBA&ifSS A. 
WlTCHEI,!;. London ; A & C. Black, 1896. 51. 



Mr. Witcheirsten years " scientific investigation of the various features 
of bird-song*' has borne fruit in a volume comprising less than 250 pages— 
a fact proving that the author possesses in full the faculty of judidooi 
compression. Besides making it his object to acquaint himself as far as 
possible with the notes of all his feathered neighbours, and to ascertain for 
each variety of bird-note the kind of occasion on which it is uttered, 
Mr. Witchell has addressed himself to the task of resolving the songs of 
birds into their component parts ; and his account, given in these pages, 
of the probable course of development of the phenomena of bird-song, is 
in the main, weU calculated to command general acceptance. Mr. 
Witchell's theory is not a very elaborate one. The most primitive bird- 
sounds he believes to have been combat-cries, which passed with more or 
less of modification into defiance-cries and alarm-cries, while the latter, 
as employed between members of a family, would form the origin of 
the call-note. The earliest and of course simplest songs were mere 
repetitions of the call-note, or sometimes " possibly" (p. 58) of the 
defiance-cry. (Mr. Witchell might surely, on his own showing, have 
laid more stress on this latter element ; and did he never hear a hen- 
whitethroat, frenzied with rage at some peril to her new-fledged brood 
burst into hysterical snatches of her lord's song ?) Simple songs would 
be varied by being more rapidly and ** forcefully" uttered, rivalry between 
tnale birds occasionally instigating other modificati(ms which, if 



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1896.] The Song of Birds. 161 

agreeable to the females, would tend to become hereditary. Finally, 
male birds excelling in range of voice would learn new notes from their 
en?ironment, and develop into more or less accomplished mimics. Mr. 
Witchell's chapter on the influence of imitation is the part of his book 
which is likely to be read with most suspense of judgment It contains 
some excellent remarks (pp. 192.3) on the difficulty of detecting 
mimicry— especially when imperfect— and on the general impossibility 
of subjecting to proof the statements of an observer who claims to have 
heard particular imitations. No one with the least susceptibility to Mr. 
Witchell^s evident love of nature would question for a moment the strict 
fidelity of his record — so far, that is, as his observations can be severed 
from his inferences. But are casuai resemblances so rare among natural 
sounds that mimicry may fairly be inferred or conjectured when a heron 
(p. 182) croaks like a frog (N.B.— the dead heron does this automatically) ; 
or a landrail (p. 189) salutes his bride in measured tones attuned like 
munches of a grazing cow ? The suggestion by the way of the proximity 
of the latter kind of animal would be a bit disquieting to the sitting 
female, and a display of doubtful tact on her mate's part. The following 
rendering of a thrush's song, in which ** a phrase without recognizable 
mimicry is indicated by an * 0' " will ser\e as a sample of Mr. Witchell's 
readiness in detecting what he deems imitative resemblances: — "Frocester, 
Glos., near the church, 17th May, 1892. Thrush singing :— Golden plover 
—golden plover— O — crow— corncrake — be quick — O— O— wood wai bier's 
sibiloos notes — cuckoo (in rough tones) — O— young starling's cry after 
leaving nest— O— butcher-bird— be quick— 0—0— whitethroat's alarm— 
great tit (cry)— O— O— end" (pp. 203-4.) 

That a few strains are here somewhat too willingly classed as imitations 
cannot, indeed, be proved but it can be fairly surmised. Sometimes, 
certainly, Mr. Witchell does make too much of mere similarities between 
aonnds. For instance, the resemblance of the wren's to the hedge- 
sparrow's song is quite superficial, and requires no such hypothesis as 
Mr. Witchell offers in explanation,— viz., that both were " derived from 
some persistent source" (p. 191)— as an alternative to the utterly absurd 
idea that one of these birds copied the other. The remark, too, that 
robins, even in winter, often " reproduce exactly ** the unique and beauti- 
fel song of the willow- warbler (p. 207) is startlingly questionable, though 
here again a slight similarity in cadence is frequently noticed. And 
•nrely it was riding a hobby to death to hint (p. 187) that the yellow- 
hammer's song is a mimicry of the grasshopper's, when o;i a previous 
psge (p. 48) the same well-known melody had been grouped among those 
inferior efforts which are obviously *' more or less repetitions of the call- 
note." C B. M. 



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i62 The Irish Naturalist. [June, 

SOME RECENT NATURAI. HISTORY PAPERS. 



The last-issued part of the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, (3) toL 
ill., No. 4, December, 1895, contains several natural history papers of 
considerable interest Prof. Sollas writes "On the Crystalline form of 
Riebeckite,'* the blue hornblende characteristic of the "micro-granite" 
of Ailsa Craig, pebbles of which have been found in Irish glacial drifts 
from Greenore to Greystones. A pebble from Portrane contained cavities 
large enough for well-formed crystals of riebeckite, whose angles Prof. 
Sollas was able to measure. The results were slightly but obviously 
abnormal, and the author suggests in explanation, that " the crystals 
are far from simple, and may best be regarded as cxystal complexes, 
simulating and making a close approximation to a simple crystal 
form." 

Mr. G. H. Kinahan contributes a paper on " Quartz, Quartz-rock, and 
Quartzite." His views on the origin of these rocks have been laid before 
the readers of the Irish Naturalist (vol. I., pp. 162, 184- ) At the end of the 
paper is the reference to Mr. W. W. Watts* examination of sinter from 
Iceland which led to some correspondence from that gentleman published 
in our last volume (p. 340.) 

The third of the local surveys undertaken by the Dublin Anthropo- 
metric Committee is described by Dr. C. R. Browne in his important 
paper on "The Ethnography of the Mullet, Inishkea Islands, and 
Portacloy, Co. Mayo." After describing the ph3rsiography of the 
districts which are most isolated, Dr. Browne deals with the 
anthropography, sociology, folk-lore, archaeology, and history of the 
inhabitants. It is needless to say that the information on these subjects 
is of the greatest interest, the people preserving many curious primitive 
customs. The original inhabitants seem never to have been driven out, 
though often conquered, but one or two recent immigrations are known 
to have taken place. The people of Inishkea differ in many respects 
from their neighbours of the mainland, and are probably the most 
unmixed representatives of the original population. 

Mr. W. J. Knowles' " Third Report of the Pre-historic Remains from 
the Sandhills of the Coast of Ireland" is of interest to naturalists for its 
reference to the abundance of bones of the Great Auk, referred to by Mr. 
Barrett-Hamilton in his paper in our last month's issue. 

Mr. John Hood, of Dundee, has communicated through the Flora and 
Fauna Committee an important paper " On the Rotifera of Co. Mayo,*' 
enumerating 220 species of those highly interesting microscopic animals. 
There are excellent figures of some of the rarer forms. Two q)ecics, 
Pterodina bidentata, Temitz, and Eosphora dongata^ Ehrb., are recorded as 
new to the British Isles. On account of the number of lakes and vast 
tracts of unreclaimed land, Mr. Hood considers that Ireland should fur- 
nish a rich harvest to the rotifer-collector. He gives a list of all the 
species found in Ireland by Miss Glascott and himself, amounting 
together to about 275, and suggests, in some cases, the identity of 
species described as new by Miss Glascott with forms described by 
previous authors. 



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i«56i] Some Recmi Natural History Papers. 163 

Mr. H. H. Dixon oontribtites two papers on the histology of the vegc- 
Uble celL The first, " On the Chromosomes of Liliuni Imiiflorum;* 
deals with the number of those bodies formed by the nuclear thread in 
mitosis. Investigations into the division of the pollen mother- and 
daughter-cells and of the cells of the embryo-sac are described. Varia- 
tions in the number of the chromosomes were noticed, a phenomenon 
which the author believes not to have been hitherto described as 
occurring in the gametophyte of flowering-plants, prior to the difleren- 
tiatiou of the sexual cella Mr. Dixon *s second paper is a '' Note on the 
Nuclei of the Endosperm oiFritillaria imperialis.'* Nuclear division, as ob- 
served here, was found to be extremely variable, and forms intermediate 
between normal karyokinesis and direct division are referred to as of 
special interest 

In the Ttansaciums of the Manchester CeologucU Society^ vol. xxiv., pt. 7, 
appears a paper by Mr. G. H. Kinahan, " On possible Land-Connections 
in Recent Geological Times between Ireland and Great Britain." This 
communication seems to have been suggested by Dr. Scharfl*s prelimin- 
ary report ** On the Origin of the Irish Land and Freshwater Fauna " 
(iV»f. R.I. A, (3), voL iii., p. 479, Irish Nat., vol. iii., p. 260). Mr. Kinahan main- 
tains that all the Irish plants and animals passed into the country in late 
Pleistocene times. Apparently he has not taken the trouble to read Dr. 
ScharfTs paper, as in each of the first two paragraphs he attributes to 
that naturalist the use of the term " Pliocene " in connections where 
** Pleistocene '* was really used, while, a little further on, Dr. Scharff is 
credited with the statement never made by him that all the lakes inhab- 
ited by varieties of the '* pollen " [sic) communicate directly with the Irish 
Sea. Mr. Kinahan asks why Dr. Scharff should found his argument on ten 
mammals only, and *' eliminate specially the rat, rabbit, bat, roebuck, 
and wild cat*' Dr. Scharff in his paper plainly said why, because the 
ten only are undoubtedly indigenous. What naturalist ever included the 
Roebuck among native Irish mammals ? Mr. Kinahan suggests that 
the land-connections across which the Irish animals and plants came 
consisted of shoals formed by tide-action, one at the north-east and the 
other at the south-east comer of Ireland, and adds that such frail bridges 
irould be rapidly washed away. He brings forward, in evidence of the 
aonthem drift, the startling statement that the Killiney gravels are largely 
composed of fragments of Wexford rocks. There is no attempt to answer 
Dr. Scharfl's argument for the Pliocene age of the Irish Fauna, from the 
existence in Great Britain in Pleistocene times of those animals which 
are British but not Irish, but which should have found their way to 
Ireland had Pleistocene land-connections existed. 



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164 The Irish NaiuralUt. t !«»«» 

PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 

RoYAi, Zooi^GiCAi, Society. 

Recent donations comprise a Hare from Master Ball, and a Hedgehog 
from Mr. W. McDonnell A very fine pair of Burchell's 2^bras, three 
Mona Monkeys, a Wanderoo Monkey, a Siamese Ape, a Nigger Monkey, 
a Siamese Civet Cat, a Bintnrong, three Virginian Opossums, a Wom- 
bat, a Golden Eagle, and two dozen small birds have been purchased. 

18,000 persons visited the Gardens in April. 

Cork Naturai^ists* Fiei^d Cwb. 

The Annual Meeting was held April 21st, when about 25 members 
attended. Mr. J. H. Bennett, V.P., occupied the chair. The Secretary 
read the fourth Annual Report, of which the following is an abstract:— 
We are glad to report an increase of membership — 46 paid-up members, 
as against 33 of the previous year. We believe this to be the result of 
increasing interest owing to the union of the Field Clubs, and their 
growing importance. 

The following places were visited during the summer of 1895 :— 

May II.— The Lee Valley, with the object of noting the physical geo- 
graphy of the district, under the able guidance of Prof. Hartog, D.Sc, 
V.P. May 25. — Fota, June 15. — Ballyedmund, Midleton. July la— 
Upton and Innishannon. August 5.— Doneraile Court and Buttevant 
Abbey. August 24.— -Warren's Court, by permission of Sir Augustas 
Warren, who entertained the party. September 7.— Castlemartyr, I/)rd 
Shannon's demesne. 

Ovring to the Gilchrist Lectures, which our Club, jointly with the 
Literary and Scientific Society, were instrumental in securing, being 
held, and also the Extension Lectures, it was deemed advisable not to 
multiply meetings, and accordingly only three Club meetings were held 
during the Winter Session: — 

November 27, 1895.— Lecture : **TheGalway Field Club Conference, 
1895," by R. Lloyd Praeger, Hon. Sec. D.N.F.C. and F. C. Union. 
December 12.— Lecture: "The Scenery of Co. Antrim,*' by W. Gray, 
B.N.F.C. February 11, 1896 — Paper by William Miller: "The 
Climate of Cork," which gave rise to an animated discussion, and is 
to appear in the Cork Historical and Archaologiccd Journal^ followed by 
" Notes on Rousslet's method of mounting Rotifers,'* by Prof. Hartog, 
D.Sc (which has already appeared in the Irish Naturalist). 

On November 5th, 1895, your Secretary attended the Conversazione 
of the Dublin Naturalists* Field. Club, and on March loth, 1896, a Con- 
versazione was held jointly with the Cork Historical and Archaeological 
Society in the Imperial Hotel, attended by members of the Dublin and 
Limerick Clubs, and which was most successful. The financesj including 
a few subscriptions since paid, just about balance for the year« 



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1896.] Field Club Ntws, 165 

The following Officers and Committee were elected :— 
W. H. Shaw, President ; Prof. M. Hartog, T. Farrington, Miss Martin, 
J. H. Bennett, J. Gilbert, Vice-Presidents ; J. L. Copeman, Hon. Sec. and 
Treasurer; R. A. Phillips, Curator; D. Franklin, H, Lund, Mrs. Peyton, 
E. B. Hughes, F. R. Rohn, Committee. 

May 2nd. — ^The first excursion took place to Fota, Mr. A. Smith- 
Barry's demesne, and proved a record one, about 50 members and 
friends attending. Under the guidance of Mr. W. Osborne Stewart, the 
grounds were viewed, and the various rare pines and palms with which 
they abound examined. Some specimens of larvae, &c., were taken in 
the ponds, including a " singing" CoHxa, which seems to have been the 
first noticed from near Cork, those noted by Mrs. Thompson all coming 
from the Fermoy district 



FIEIyD CI.UB NEWS. 



Lavens M. Ewart, the new President of the Belfast Field Club, is 
interested chiefly in the archaeological side of the Club's work. He is a 
well-known collector of local prints, &a, and his collection of old maps 
of the Belfast district is the finest in existence. Rev. C. H. Waddell, the 
new Vice-President, has for many years devoted himself to botany, 
particularly mosses and hepatics, and more recently to phanerogams 
alsa The formation of the new Botanical Section of the Club was laigely 
due to his influence. 

On the invitation of the Hon. R E. Dillon, a party of naturalists will 
^>end a week in June at Clonbrock, Co. Galway, exploring eastern 
Galway and Roscommon. This district is almost virgin ground to the 
naturalist, and Mr. Dillon's startling discoveries among the Lepidoptera 
there augur well for the success of the expedition. The publication of 
the results will be looked forward to with interest. 

The Secretaries of the Belfast Club desire us to make it known that 
a dredging excursion has been arranged for Saturday, July 4, of which 
they invite members of the various Field Clubs to take advantage. A 
paddle steamer from the Clyde has been engaged for the occasion. The 
marine fauna of the waters adjoining Belfast Lough is rich and 
interesting, and it is intended to plunder the treasures of the Turbot 
Bank, made famous by the explorations of Hyndman and Waller. 

Cheering news comes from Cork, where Mr. Copeman, at the annual 
meeting of the Field Club on April 21, was able to report a substantial 
rise of membership, and increased interest in the work of the Club, 
which he believed to be largely due to the formation of the Field Club 
Union, and to its influence. The Cork Club has now passed the some- 
what trying period of infancy, and naturalists in Ireland will watch with 
aatisfaction its continued progress. 



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i66 The Irish NaiuralUt [June, 



NOTES. 

Seasonable Notes from Cushendun.'-Swallows appeared 
here on April 2nd ; Wild Anemone in flower, sth ; Hawthorn in flower, 
19th; Cardatnine pratense in flower, 22nd; Orchis mascuia in flower, 22od; 
Cuckoo calling, 22nd ; small white Butterfly, 19th ; Corncrake calling, 
May 2nd ; Ficta sepiiun in flower, 3rd ; St Mark's Fly, 3rd ; Swift, May 
9th. 

Si,. Arthur Brenan, Cushendon. 



BOTANY. 

PHANEROGAMS. 
Ranunculus tripartltus, DG.y an Addition to the Irish 
Flora.— While botanizing on the 3rd of April last among the rocky hills 
which lie to the south of Baltimore, Co. Cork, I discovered in a small 
lake not far from the sea a distinct and pretty little Batrachian RcmitHoihu^ 
which Messrs. H. and J. Groves have kindly identified lor me as R* 
tripartiius, DC, type. This is certainly an addition to the flora of Ireland 
and possibly to that of the British Isles also, as, according to the London 
Catalogue^ 9th ed., it is represented in Great Britain only by the variety 
(or species) intfmudius^ Knaf, which occurs in a few of the southern 
Knglish counties. It is also an addition to the characteristic group of 
South-west European plants native in Ireland, its foreign distribution 
being limited to Portugal, Spain, France, South Italy, Belgium, and 
Germany. 

R. A. Phii,i,ips, Cork. 

Lathrssa squamarla In Co. Down.— I have within the last 
thirty years frequently found Laihraa squamaria growing in the Tolly- 
more Park woods of the Earl of Roden, a locality which is mentioned 
in Dickie's Flora of Ulster ^ and Stewart and Corrfs Flora of the Nortk-East tf 
Ireland, Mr. Ryan will find many Irish localities for this plant given in 
the above-named books, and also in Moore and More*s CybeU Hihemica 
I may mention two Co. Armagh localities that are known to me, Ard- 
more Glebe, on the shores of Lough Neagh, and the Lower Demesne, 
Tanderagee, where my daughter found it 7th May, 1896. 

H. W. Lett, Loughbrickland. 

Lathraea squamarla.— In reply to T. Ryan's note (/. A^., p. 142), 
Stewart and Corry's Flora of N. E. Ireland says the Toothwort is frequent 
in Antrim, Derry, and Down, and gives many localities. I have seen it 
in Tollymore Park. On account of its early flowering in April and May 
it is sometimes overlooked. In Kemer's Natural History of Plamis^ 
p. 137, an account is given with illustrations of the structure of this 
plant, from which it appears not only to be parasitic but also carnivorous 
in its habits. This interesting and splendidly illustrated work ou^ht to 
do much to promote a more general knowledge of the life of planta 

C. H. WA2>09IA, 



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1896.] Notes. 167 

Lathnea sauamarla In Klnar's Co*^Laihraa squamaria is found 
growing freely in this county. It is well developed on the lawn of 
Gcashill Rectory under Beech-trees, and quite lately I found it about 
nine miles from here on a ditch along the road through Clonad Wood, 
The plant fastens itself to the roots of the Beech by small attachments 
or discs ; but it also grows round the roots, forming a sort of envelope or 
outer sheath ; a section which I have prepared shows well the way in 
which the cellular tissue of the plant passes into that of the wood. 

C. D. Russ£ij«i Geashill. 



LathraBa sauamarla. — I see an inquiry in your May number as to the 
occurrence of Laihraa squamaria. It is found at Heywood, near Clonmel ; 
my impression is that it is parasitic upon Elm there. It also grows in 
Strabane Glen, Co. Tyrone, on the roots of Hazel. 

A. H. Dblap, Strabane. 

Allium thquetrum, L.f In Co. Cork.— This interesting South 
European plant occurs in at least two stations in this county. In 1890 1 
found it (about 20 or 25 plants) in a grassy hollow near Dunkettle on the 
northern side of Cork Harbour, where it has since continued to hold its 
own, and this year Surgeon W. G. Axford, R.N., has discovered it at 
Monkstown, some eight miles south and on the opposite side of the 
harbour. Though not a native, the occurrence of this species here in a 
wild state is remarkable, as its British distribution, like that of many 
other Cork plants, is limited to Cornwall, where it is thoroughly 
naturalized, and the Channel Islands, while on the continent it is found 
only in S. France, Spain, and Italy. 

R. A. Phii«i«ips, Cork. 

ZOOLOGY. 

SPIDERS. 
Discovery of the ffenus Atypus In Kinase Co.— A very interest- 
ing addition to our Irish list of spiders has been made by the discovery 
of the tubular nest of a female Atypus by Rev. Canon Russell of Geashill, 
near Tullamore. The specimen was kindly sent by him to the Dublin 
Museum and has been authenticated by Rev. O. P. Cambridge. Pending 
the discovery of the maker of the nest the species must remain doubtful, 
though it will probably be the less rare British form, Atyjms piceus, Sulz 
A/yfus is the only British genus of the Aviculariiday the family which 
contains the great " bird-eating " spiders of the tropics and the trap-door 
spiders of southern Europe. This spider constructs a long silken tube 
in the earth, but there is no trap-door ; the end of the tube protrudes for 
a few inches above the surface. The nest sent by Canon Russell con- 
tained a caterpillar of Hepialus Aumu/s, which may have been dragged in 
by the spider as prey. 

Geo. H. Carpbntor. 

INSECTS. 
Formica rufa.— This ant occurs sparingly in a wooded glen in the 
Ca Waterford, near Clonmel, about two miles south of the town. 

A. H. Demp, Strabane. 



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i6S The Irish Naturalist. [June, 2896 



REPTILES, 
A Stray Snake near Coleralne.— On the evening of April 22nd, a 
lady friend called to tell me tb&t she had killed a snake in her garden, 
which is in the immediate vicinity of Coleraine. It is upon the right bank 
of the river Bann, and about a quarterof a mile south of the town. She des- 
cribed the reptile's hiss and her own alarm in such a graphic way, that 
in spite of the legend about our Patron Saint and his expatriation of all 
Ophidians, the incredulity with which I at first regarded her story gave 
way, and I accompanied her to the spot and found upon a grass plot in front 
of her house the newly-killed snake. It is a Ringed Snake (Trofidonhts 
nalrix) measuring twenty-five and three-quarter inches in length. In 
depriving it of its supposed power to do harm she had not used it 
gently. Nevertheless, though somewhat mutilated, the specimen was 
well worth preserving, and so I committed it to a bottle o( spirits. It is 
not necessary to say that Ringed Snakes are not native here, but where 
this one came from, or how it came here, I have been as yet unable to 
make out 

JAM^ BEifi^AS, Cronbannagh, Coleraine. 

BIRDS. 
Scarcity of Land Rail.— For some reason the Corncrake is either 
very late to come or very scarce this year in this district While the 
Cuckoo has been here since 15th April, and is plentiful, I have only heard 
one Corncrake on 14th. May, where they usually abound. 

C. H. Waddbi^Io Saintfidd. 

Arrival of Spring Migrants In Londonderry District.— 

The Chiff-chafif was as usual our earlier visitant ; it reached us on 31st 
March. The Sandmartin and Swallow were much behind their usual 
time ; the former arrived on 12th April, and the latter on 13th ApriU 
The Willow Wren was also very late of coming ; I did not hear its song 
until 23rd April. The Cuckoo was first heard on 21st April, and the 
Corncrake on 22nd April. 

D. C. CAMPBEi.i;r, Ix>ndonderry. 

The MaflTPle In the Isle of Man.— Referring to Mr. C B. Moffiat's 
note in your April number (p. 116), I may mention that the Magpie is 
an introduced species in the Isle of Man. In the history of the Island 
by Bishop Wilson* (cp. 1698-1755) it is stated— "It is not long since a 
person, more fanciful than prudent or kind to his country, brought in a 
brood of Magpies, which have increased incredibly, so as to become a 
nuisance." 

P. Ralfe, Laxey, Isle of Man. 

1 In Manx Society's Publications, vol. xviii. The exact date of the 
work does not seem to be given. 



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July, 1896.J I^ 

THE GUI.LS OF KILLAI^A BAY. 

BY ROBERT WARRBN. 



Of the eight species of gulls met with in this locality, five are 
resident and breed — namely, the Great Blackbacked, Lesser 
Blackbacked, Herring, Common, and Blackheaded Gulls; 
one, the Kittiwake, is only a summer visitor, departing after 
the breeding season is over ; while two, the Glaucous and 
Iceland Gulls, are irregular winter visitors, only occasionally 
seen. 

The Great Bi^ackbacked Gtn.i. {Larus marinus), the 
largest of our native gulls, is common, but not numerous, a 
few pairs frequenting the estuary and sands of the bay in 
winter, while two or three pairs of non-breeding birds remain 
about the sands during summer. 

The nearest breeding-haunt to Killala Bay is Doonbrista, 
the pillar-like rock ofiF Downpatrick Head, near Ballycastle (six 
miles from Killala), where twelve or fifteen pairs have their 
nests on the flat, grassy summit, and rear their young in 
perfect safety, for the rock is quite inaccessible ; and strange 
to say, though perfectly safe from disturbance of any kind, 
their numbers do not seem to increase, for about the same 
number of breeding birds are now to be seen frequenting 
the rock as were observed thirty years ago when I first visited 
Downpatrick Head. The next breeding-station of this gull on 
the North Mayo coast is that on the Stags of Broadhaven, 
fifteen or twenty miles west of Downpatrick Head, where 
a few pairs breed on the largest of the rocks. 

The Stags of Broadhaven are situated about three miles 
from Portacloy, and are four huge isolated rocks, the largest 
about 300 feet in height, and give one the idea of four 
miniature Ailsa Craigs'with sharply triangular outline. A 
peculiarity of the rocks along that coast, especially at the base 
of the cliffs, is their broken shattered appearance and their 
sharp and rugged points and edges, seen appearing along 
the surface of the water when the tide is low, in some places 
extending for many yards beyond the cliff's base. 

Some years ago the Great Blackbacked Gulls of this 
locality were nearly exterminated by poison, laid by the tenant 

A 

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lyo The Irish Naturalist. LJuly, 

of Bartragh Island for the destruction of rats. A plague of 
rats destroying the young rabbits in the burrows, thinned 
them out considerably, and he, wishing to protect them, laid 
poisoned meat and fish amongst the burrows on the sand-hills, 
which the gulls (always on the look-out for dead or dying 
Rabbits) greedily devoured, and the result was that numbers 
of both Blackbacked and Herring Gulls were afterwards seen 
lying dead in all directions about the island ; and for three or 
four years after very few were seen about the sands. 

These great gulls always hovering over the sands and 
shores, are like vultures, on the look-out for carrion, dead 
fish, or weakly, or wounded birds. They become a perfect 
nuisance to the wild-fowl shooter, alarming the birds he is 
setting up to for a shot ; for the instant he lies down to his 
gun, the gull, seeing him in such an unusual position, begins 
to suspect danger, and flies over, and round the punt (out of 
shot), looking down on the shooter, and giving out his harsh 
alarm note, which immediately causes the ducks, or Widgeon 
to be so much on the alert, that the fowler is unable to 
approach within shooting distance. However, if he does 
succeed in coming within range, and obtain a shot, any of 
the dead or wounded birds that escape him are sure to be- 
come the prey of the gulls. I well remember on one occasion 
I knocked down fifteen Widgeon at a shot, while a ** dropper" 
fel^l dead some distance oflF, and while I was picking up the 
dead, and chasing the cripples, a Blackback, that had been 
watching, and trying to alarm the flock of Widgeon, on 
seeing the dropper fall, at once made for it, and settling down 
on the water alongside began tearing the breast, and by the 
time I had secured my dead and wounded birds, I reached 
the dropper only in time to find a • well-picked skeleton. 
A dead, or wounded bird is seldom (ip winter) found lying on 
the shore for any time without being clean picked, and many 
a rare specimen cast up by the sea is destroyed long before 
the naturalist finds it. I was one day so fortunate as to 
rescue two fine specimens of the Fulmar from being destroyed 
by these gulls ; they had been thrown up by the surf on the 
Bnniscrone sands, in so weak and exhausted a condition as to 
be unable to stand, when I came on the gulls just attacking 
them. 



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1896.] Warren.— The Gulls of Killala Bay. 1 7 1 

The Herring Gui.1. (Larus argentatus) is the most numerous 
of the large gulls on this part of the coast. They have many 
breeding-stations on the cliffs along the North Mayo coast, 
from Lacken Bay to Bunwee Head. Small colonies of a few 
pairs are to be seen scattered for miles along the cliffs, while 
the large colonies are located on the ledges and shelves of 
Doonbrista, and Downpatrick Head, at Keadue beyond Bally- 
castle, between Glenglosera and Belderig, Moistha Island, 
between the last-named place and Porturlin, on Pig's Island, 
west of the latter place, and also between it and Portacloy, 
while a few pairs also breed on the Stags of Broadhaven. In 
fact, there is scarcely a high cliff* anywhere between Down- 
patrick Head and Portacloy, without some Herring Gulls 
breeding there, being almost as widely distributed as the 
Kittiwakes. On the North Sligo coast there is a very large 
colony — one of the largest I have seen — on Aughris Head, 
about midway between Sligo and Killala Bays. 

The I^SSER Blackbacked Gui.1. {Larus fuscus) is not so 
numerous as the Herring Gull, and is seldom seen in the bay 
or estuary, for its chief breeding station in Mayo is at present 
on Lough Mask ; though at one time it bred on Lough Conn, 
as mentioned to the late Wm. Thompson by Mr, B. Ball, which 
statement was corroborated to me by my late friend, Mr. 
Henry Knox, of Palmerstown, Killala, who told me that when 
he was a young man and fishing on Lough Conn he found 
large numbers of these gulls breeding on islands in the lake. 
A pair have of late years been seen every summer about the 
lake, but the nest was not found ; and until last summer no 
good evidence of its breeding was had, when Mr. H. Scroope, of 
Ballina, saw a pair of young birds in the nestling plumage, 
following the old ones, showing that they had been bred some- 
where about that lake or the adjacent Lough CuUen. 

Mr. W. H. Good, of Westport, told me that this gull bred on 
Lough Mask in large numbers, on one of the islands, and that 
odd pairs were scattered about through the lake breeding on 
some of the smaller islands also, which statement I found 
correct when visiting Lough Mask with my friend, Mr. W. 
Williams, on the 19th of June, 1893. The gulls' island is 
situated on the western side of the lake, opposite the Partry 
Monastery, and is about 200 yards in length, quite low, and 
thickly covered with rocks and large loose stones, amongst 



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bfcioogle 



ifi The trish NaiuralisL [July, 

which a few bushes and patches of long grass are growing. 
The gulls make large nests of the dried grass thrown up by 
the winter's floods, under the bushes and between the stones. 
Most of the nests (about twenty) had been robbed a short 
time previous to our visit, and we found only three or four in 
which the birds had begun to lay, with one or two eggs in 
each. We also found on the terns' island two gulls' nests, 
in one of which there were three eggs, and our boatman 
informed us that throughout the lake many solitary pairs had 
nests on many of the small islands. In June, 1895, my friend, 
Mr. R. J. Ussher, visiting Lough Corrib, found this gull 
breeding in small numbers on the islands about the lake 
between Cong and Oughterard, and also found a few pairs 
breeding on Lough Erne, Co. Fermanagh. I have not myself 
found this bird breeding on the sea-cliffs of Mayo, although 
when visiting the north coast in May, 1893, I saw a solitar>' 
bird flying along the cliffs between Porturlin and Portacloy, 
but saw no trace of a nesting-place. 

The Common Gull {Larus canus) is not so numerous as the 
smaller gulls, though it is extending its breeding-range to 
places where a few years ago none were to be seen. I first 
met this gull breeding on a small island in Lough Talt, about 
twelve miles from the sea, in the heart of the Ox Mountains, 
Co. Sligo, in 1855 ; only two or three pairs bred on the lough. 
I saw the nests (one with an addled ^gg) on a Jittle rocky 
islet, and some young birds just able to fly, following their 
parents about the lake. Since that date the gulls have 
deserted Lough Talt as a breeding-haunt in consequence of 
boats having been placed on the lake for the convenience of 
trout fishers, who frequent the water during the breeding-time 
in May. They disturbed the gulls so much as to cause them to 
leave altogether. 

This was all I knew of the gulls breeding in this locality, 
until some years later, when I was told of their breeding on 
Lough-na-Crumpawn (the lake of the stumps) about ten 
miles from Ballina, between Glenraore and Crossmolina, but 
thinking the gulls mentioned must be the Blackheaded, I did 
not visit the lough until the 17th of May. 1882, when in the 
company of my friends, Dr. S. Darling and his brother James, 
we drove to Glenmore, and taking a boy as our guide walked 
to the bog, which was a wide expanse of low peat moor, with 

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1896] Warren.— 7%4? Gulls of Killala Bay. 173 

many little loughs and pools scattered all over it Many of 
these loughs had little islets, or rather clumps of turf covered 
with heath and coarse grass. On reaching the first of the 
loughs, we observed a gull resting on a clump in the middle, 
but seeing only a solitary bird that flew off at our approach, 
we had no idea of a nest being there. 

Dr. Darling and I went on ahead ; James Darling remaining 
to take another look round, and wading out to the dump of 
turf, found a nest of dried grass on it containing three eggs. 
This " find" was most encouraging, for not seeing any gulls 
about except the solitary one on the clump, we were beginning 
to fear that our journey would have proved in vain. We then 
walked on to a group of loughs a quarter of a mile further on, 
and there we saw two gulls resting on clumps, and in a few 
minutes we had three pairs of the Common Gull circling 
round us and screaming, plainly indicating by their anxiety, 
that at least three nests must be somewhere about the islets 
on the loughs ; but unfortunately for us, owing to the great 
depth of the soft black mud on the bottom of these loughs, it 
was quite impossible to wade out to the islands and search for 
the nests. While walking round the lough, vainly seeking 
for a passage to the islet, we disturbed a pair of Dunlins, but 
were unable to find their nest. 

Although so far fortunate in finding a breeding-haunt of 
the Common Gull, yet we had not found the particular lough 
reported to me, and of which we had come in search. We 
again questioned the boy, but he knew of no other loughs, nor 
of one where the gulls built their nests on the tree stumps of 
an old submerged forest, as had been described to me. So 
finding the boy of no further use as a guide, we decided on 
going in different directions over the bog, and, while time 
allowed, persevering in our search for the missing I/)ugh-na- 
Crumpawn, " the lake of the stumps," Dr. Darling and I then 
proceeded to examine some pools about a quarter of a mile 
away, while James Darling and the boy went off in the 
opposite direction to a little ridge, from which they could 
have a better view over the surrounding bog, and perhaps 
discover the particular lough of which we were in search. 
Soon after we heard the boy whistle, and saw James Darling 
run to meet him ; we afterwards learned that he had just then 
come on ^ Dunlin's nest with four eggs, 

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174 ^^^ f^^^ Naturalist [July. 

We then saw them walk to the top of the ridge, when 
James Darling whistled, and waving his hat to us, disappeared 
over the ridge. Not seeing him return we concluded that lie 
had found the lough, so we hastened after him, and on 
reaching the top, we saw to our great delight, in a hollow 
about half a mile oflF, the long-sought for lough easily identi- 
fied by the tree stumps studding its surface ; a number of gulls 
were flying over our friend, who was wading out through the 
muddy water to where the nests were. On reaching the lough 
we soon had eight pairs of Larus canus flying over us, and saw 
eight nests composed of dried grass on the tree stumps; 
James Darling visited seven of these, six contained eggs ; the 
eighth he was unable to reach, in consequence of the great 
depth of the black mud on the bottom of the lough. 

The foregoing was all the information I had of the breeding 
of this gull in Sligo and Mayo, until June, 1890, when my 
friend, Mr. R. J. Ussher, on his way from BelmuUet to Ballina, 
found a large colony of at least fifty pairs breeding on an 
island in Lough Dohybaun, near Corick, in the last named 
county. Since then I have met them breeding on Loughs Conn 
and CuUen, where they had not been seen until a few years 
ago. On Lough Conn some odd pairs breed on the stony 
points of the small islands at the upper end of the lake, near 
Enniscoe and Errew abbey, and are probably scattered all about 
the lake, for I met them also on the lower end, near Pontoon 
Bridge ; and in Lough Cullen they are scattered about also, 
while there is a colony of twelve to fifteen pairs on the shores 
of a small island close to the land, between Garrison Island 
and the bridge. I have also found the Common Gull breeding 
on the shores of islands in Lough Mask, but not so numerous 
as in Lough Cullen. 

There is no doubt that these Gulls are extending their 
breeding-range in this district, more especially to Lough 
Conn, where fifteen or twenty years ago none were to be seen, 
when I used to visit the lake in search of breeding birds, and 
particularly during my close search for the Sandwich Terns, 
at which time only Blackheaded Gulls, and Common Terns 
bred about the lake. This gull, during the breeding season, 
appears to have been more widely distributed throughout the 
north-west counties than was expected, previous to the visits 
of my friend Mr. R. Ji Ussher, who found them in pairs and 



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1896] Warren.— 714^ Giiils of Killald Bay. 175 

small colonies on the loughs in Connemara, as well as in 
N.W. Donegal, and Mayo ; and probably when Clare is ex- 
plored, they may be found breeding in that county also. 

The KiTTiwAKE Guix (Larus rissa) is very abundant round 
this coast in summer, but very few are to be seen in winter, 
aad then onl3r a bird in miserable condition is occasionally 
seen. I have sometimes found birds lying dead on the shore 
in winter evidently starved to death ; any I have shot at that 
time of year were always in the same miserable state, mere 
bundles of bones and feathers. This gull breeds in many 
small colonies along the cliffs extending from Lacken Bay to 
Downpatrick Head, where there is a very large colony breeding 
on the shelves and ledges of the head, as well as on those of 
Doonbrista, the rock on which the Great Blackbacked Gulls 
breed. The next breeding-haunt is about ten miles further 
west near Belderig, where many thousands breed on the cliflfe 
between that and Porturlin, and also on the range of cliffs 
between the latter place and Portacloy; while one of their 
largest colonies is on Pig's Island, near Porturlin. 

The numbers of Kittiwakes, and their numerous breeding- 
haunts along that line of coast, are really astonishing, and 
must be actually seen to be realized. 

There is also a great breeding-haunt of Kittiwakes on the 
Sligo coast, Aughris Head (about twenty-four miles from 
Ballina), where the gulls are in two large colonies, one on a 
range of cliff about 300 yards long, and the other on one about 
50 or 60 yards shorter, and as the shelves and ledges are very 
regular in their formation, the gulls sitting on their nests can 
be seen to great advantage, as they appear in long rows, 
tier above tier, on the face of the cliff. This is the largest 
colony of Kittiwakes I have yet seen, for although there are 
greater numbers on the Mayo coast they are more scattered, 
and not so many are seen at one colony as at Aughris. 

The Bi«ACXHEADED Guij, {Larus ridibundm) is the most 
numerous of our residents, and a few years ago had two large 
breeding-haunts within two and three miles of Ballina, Cloona, 
and Rathrouyeen, but the former has been deserted for some 
years, for after the death of Mr. Wm. Gardiner, who strictly 
preserved the lough, the new tenant neglected doing so, and 
in consequence the gulls were so disturbed and harassed by 
the countrjr bojrs robbing their nests year after year, that they 

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176 The Irish Naturalist. [July, 

left the lake altogether and shifted their quarters to Rath- 
rouyeen, where they now maybe seen in thousands. When I first 
visited Rathrouyeen, over thirty years ago, there were probably 
not more than between two and three hundred pairs of gulls 
breeding, chiefly on the small island, where I counted close 
on 200 nests, while perhaps there were 30 to 50 nests amongst 
the reeds and rushes about the lake. But now they have over- 
flowed so much that the nests are built everywhere amongst 
the reed-beds and Bullrushes, and all round the margin of 
the lake on the tussocks of coarse grass and bunches of 
rushes ; and when any one approaches the shore of the lake 
the noise of the screaming thousands is deafening. There is 
also a small colony breeding on a low gravelly island in Lough 
Conn near Errew Abbey and Enniscoe. 

These gulls are the first to suffer from a hard winter and a 
long-continued frost. In 1894 they suffered more than in any 
winter that I can remember, and they were so reduced that 
only a mere tithe of their numbers assembled at their breeding- 
haunt the following spring. During the severe frost of that 
winter the unfortunate birds were so hard-pressed for food 
that they came into the farmyards to feed with the pigs and 
the poultry ; large numbers came into my poultry-yard and 
piggery feeding on the potatoes and turnips. I fed them ever>' 
day while the frost lasted, but each morning their numbers 
lessened by death ; one day over a dozen came into the 
kitchen, and were so tamed by hunger as to feed close round 
the fire and almost to snatch the food out of the hands of the 
girl who was feeding them. They even came into the town 
of Ballina, feeding in the streets and yards of the houses. 

The G1.AUCOUS and Icki^and Guli^ {Larus glaucus and Z. 
leucopterus\ being irregular winter visitors, are only occasionally 
seen, and as I have given an account of those coming under 
my notice in the Irish Naturalist for October, 1892, there is 
no need of my now repeating the information given in that 
number. 



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1896.] 177 

THE PLANTS OF INISMURRAY, CO. SUGO. 

BY R. I.I.OYD PRAEGER, B.E. 



Ox June 8th, on the return of the Rockall expedition, the 
party landed for an hour on Inismurray, famous among 
antiquarians for its wealth of primitive edifices. Mr. R. M. 
Barrington and I spent the time in botanizing, and as no 
botanist has apparently examined this island previously, a 
short note on its flora may be interesting, even though that 
flora is poor and devoid of any special interest. The island 
is composed of Carboniferous sandstone, and is low and flat. 
Only a portion is cultivated. The rest consists of stunted 
heath, marshy in places. In the hour spent on the island, I 
listed 145 species, almost all of which are plants of universal 
distribution in Ireland. 

In the meadows and marshy spots, the Purple loosestrife 
{J^y thrum Salicarid) grew in enormous profusion. It was not 
yet in flower, but one could imagine the sheets of purple with 
which these green spots would soon be covered. Among the 
grass, and on the heaths, three Orchids brightened the ground 
by their abundance — O. maculata, O. latifolia (?), and Haben- 
aria bifolia. The quantity of the last-named plant, coupled with 
the almost complete absence of its ally H, chloroleuca, was a 
remarkable feature in the flora of Inismurray; for almost 
everywhere in Ireland these proportions are reversed. Along 
the edges of the meadows, and on banks, great masses of 
Royal Fern grew ; it was a surprise to us to find it in such 
luxuriance in a locality so bleak and wind-swept The other 
ferns observed on the island were Polypodium vulgare, Lastrea 
FiliX'tnas, L, dilatata, Athyrium Filix-fotniina, Pteris aquilina, 
and Asplenium marinum ; the last-named grew among boulders 
on the exposed western shore. A leaf of Sea-Kale, lying in a 
boggy meadow, made me watch for this plant on the stony 
shores, but it was not seen. The Golden Rod {Solidago 
virgaurea) grew on dry banks, and in wet places were tufts 
of CEnanthe crocata. The only plants that grew in the few 
pools and drains were Apium inundatum. Pot. polygonifolius, 
and Scirpus fluitans ; Peptis portula was straggling over 
muddy ground close at hand. The commonest weed in the 
corn-fields was Sinapis alba ; Verojiica Buxbautnii grew with it. 

A3 

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1 78 The Irish Naturalist. [ July, 

The only roadside plant worthy of mention was Sagina mari- 
tima. Perhaps the most curious plant of the island was a 
diffuse form of /uncus conglomeraius, the stems of which, 
instead of growing erect in a compact clump as usual, spread 
out at every angle, from horizontal to vertical, giving the 
plant a very strange appearance, and recalling the habit of 
Schoenus nigricans ; this curious rush was abundant in damp 
places with the typical form. Mr. Barrington found Radiola 
linoides and Carduus praiensis, two species which did not occur 
to me. 



CANIS VULPES MELANOGASTER, BONAP., IN 
IREI.AND. 

BY R. F. SCHARFF, PH.D. 



This variety of the Fox is characterised by having the under- 
parts of the body and tail black or dark brown instead of 
white. A specimen recently acquired by the Dublin Museum 
has all the underparts of the body and tail greyish black. It 
is a full-grown rather undersized female, and came from the 
County Kildare. I had never seen an Irish specimen before, 
but Mr. Ed. Williams, informs me that he has stuflfed several 
for people in the country. 

The chief interest of the occurrence of this variety of the 
Fox in Ireland lies in its geographical distribution. As far 
as I know, there is only one previous record of this variety 
having been observed in the British Islands, viz., in Warwick- 
shire (Beirs '* Brit. Quadrupeds," 2nd Ed., p. 231). 

Nilsson described it as existing in Scandinavia, and there is 
also a record from France. But it is distinctly a southern form, 
and has been observed in Greece, Southern Italy, Spain, 
Portugal, and in the Mediterranean Islands. We may suppose 
it to have originated in Southern Europe and then to have 
spread along the Atlantic shores in times long gone by, when 
the British Islands were still connected with the continent, 
for the Fox must be looked upon as probably the most ancient 
of the British Mammals. 

I should be glad if any readers of the Irish Naturalist would 
inform me if they have met with this variety of the Fox. 



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1896.] 179 

THE MEDUS.E OF VALENCIA HARBOUR, COUNTY 
KERRY. 

BY EDWARD T. BROWT^E- 
Zoological Research Laboratory, University College, London. 



My friend and colleague, Mr. F. W. Gamble, published in the 
May number of this Journal a preliminary account of the 
results obtained by dredging and shore-collecting in Valencia 
Harbour. It falls to my share to give a list of the Medusae 
collected during April and May, 1895. 

In selecting the locality on the West Coast of Ireland it was 
necessary to find a place not only suitable for dredging and 
shore-collecting, but also for tow-netting, a place well-pro- 
tected from the swell and storms of the Atlantic. For tow- 
netting I found Valencia Harbour an exceedingly good place, 
naturally well-sheltered, and with an excellent pelagic fauna. 
When the tide was flowing in from the ocean it was only 
necessary to anchor the boat and to cast the net overboard. 
By this method the lovely siphonophore Agalmopsis could be 
taken in perfect condition, without the loss of even a swim- 
ming-bell. Everyone who has worked on delicate pelagic 
animals, knows that it is not only important to catch them in 
perfect condition, but also to be able to examine them very 
soon after the net has been taken on board. A tow-netting 
not examined within an hour is usually of little use, as most 
of the delicate animals are either in a dying condition or dead. 
The examination of the specimens was greatly facilitated by 
the short distance of the laboratory from the place for tow- 
netting. 

Only a very few species of Medusae had been recorded from 
the West Coast of Ireland, and they conveyed only a vague 
idea of what might be expected to be found there. As many 
rare and interesting animals had been taken along the West 
Coast I naturally expected to meet with a few rare and interest- 
ing Medusae. The species which I collected were not very 
rare, and most of them I had already seen either at Port Erin, 
in the Isle of Man, or at Plymouth ; but some, even the 
commonest, were of great importance from a systematic point 
of view. I was able to collect many early stages and a few 
complete series showing the development of some of the 

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i8o The Irish Naturalist. [July, 

commonest Medusae, and to extend the area of distribution of 
many species in a westward direction. 

I have described in detail many of the specimens collected 
at Valencia in a paper on " British Hydroids and Medusae" 
which was read at a meeting of the Zoological Society of 
Irondon on March 17th, and will be published in the Proceed- 
ings of the Society in August. 

I intend here to give only a list of species taken, omitting a 
few doubtful ones which require the collection of more 
specimens to establish for a certainty their identity. 

HYDROMEDUSJE. 

ANTHOMEDUS^. 
Marffells britannica (Forbes) l=BougainvilUa britannicay ForbesJ.— 

Some very large adult forms taken in May. 
P jdocoryne carneap Sars. —Only a single specimen taken. 
t Corymorpha nutansp Sars.— Very abundant during April and 

May. The hydroid was not found. 
t Hybocodon prollferp Agassiz {:= Amphicodon fritillaria (Steen- 

strup)].— A few specimens found at the beginning of April. Some 

carried young hydrae in the umbrella-cavity. 

♦ Lar sabellarunif Gosse l^lVil/sia steliata, Forbes].— Fairly 

common during April and May. 

♦ DIpurena halteratap (Forbes) \=Slabberia haiterata^ Forbes.]— 

Only a single specimen taken in April Miss Delap sent me a 
specimen taken in the harbour on July 8th, and another on 
September 6th. 

* Euphysa aurata» Forbes.— Scarce during April, but increased in 

number during May. 

• Tiara plleata (Forskal) {^Oceania epUcopcdisy Forbes].— A few 

early stages seen and some splendid adult specimens taken at the 
end of May. 

• LIzzIa blondlnay Forbes. — A few taken at the end of May. 

* Marffelllum octopunctatum (Sars.) [=Zi<sia octopundaia 

(Forbes)].— Fairly common during April and May. 

LEPTOMEDUSyE. 

* Laodlce calcarata» Agassiz.— Three specimens taken in April. 

t Dlpleurosoma hemlsphaBrlcum (Allman) l=Am^traniia hcmi- 
j//J<er»Vtf, Allman].— A few taken in May. 

• TlaropslS multlclrrata (Sars.) {Thaumaniias nulanyps, Forbes}- 

Two early stages Uken at the beginning of April. 

• Euchllota pllosella (Forbes) [-Tkaumantias pUostlla, Forbes].— 

Three specimens taken in April and one in May. 

• New to the Irish Fauna. 

t Not previously recorded for the West Coast of Ireland 

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i^] Field Club News. i8i 

* Phlalldlum cymbaloldeum (Van Beneden) \_=Thaumaniias cym- 

balifidis^ Van Beneden]. — One of the commonest Medusae in the 
harbour during April and May. 

* Phlalldlum temporarluniy Browne.— Fairly abundant through- 

out April and May, specially the early stages. 

* Saphenla mlrabilis (Wright).-— Two specimens taken at the end of 

May. 
Specimens were also taken of Medusae belonging to the 
following genera — Sarsta, Cylaandra, Obelia and Aglantha, 



8CYPHOMEDUSJE. 

The complete absence of the Scyphomedusae during April 
and May at Valencia is an interesting case in the distribution 
of pelagic animals at diflFerent periods of the year. I did not 
see a single specimen, not even an eariy stage. The Misses 
Delap continued the tow-nettings during the summer. The 
Sc3'phomedus8e began to appear about June i ith ; some belong- 
ing to the genus Chrysaora measured a foot in diameter. 
Aurclia aurita appeared about a week later, and Cyanaa at 
the beginning of August ; the latter was verj' abundant. A 
specimen of Rhizost&ma pulmo was seen on October loth. 



FIELD CLUB NEWS. 



We have received from the Secretaries of the Belfast Club particulars 
of their Dredging Expedition fixed for the 4th July. The steamer will 
leave the jetty, Queen's Bridge, at 9.45 a.m., and return at about 7 p.m. 
All facilities will be given for studying the marine forms of life which 
may be collected, and tea will be provided on the steamer, which contains 
a comfortable ladies* cabin. As announced in our last month's issue, 
the Belfast Club generously invite members of other Field Clubs to take 
arlvantage of the opportunity. Those who wish to join should send 
immediate notice to the Secretaries, Rea's Buildings, Belfast. Tickets 
are 5s. each. 

The arrangements for the Field Club Union excursion to Cavau in 
July are completed, and have been announced to members. The party 
will reach Cavan at midday on July loth, and spend the afternoon in 
examining the Farnham district. July nth will be devoted to Lough 
Oughter, and Monday, 13th, to Slieve Glah. It is to be hoped that a large 
parly will take the opportunity of visiting a beautiful and little-known 
locality. 



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i62 The Irish Naturalist, [July, 

SCROPHULARIA UMBROSA (DUM.) IN IRELAND. 

BY NATHANIEI. COI.GAN, M.R.I.A. 



As this somewhat critical species has not hitherto been 
ascertained to occur in Ireland, the Flora of Ulster records for 
Antrim having been rejected by the authors both of the 
Cybele Hibemica and of the Flora of North-east Ireland, 
its discovery in the county Dublin will be of interest to Irish 
botanists. In August, 1894, I met with a few plants growing 
by the side of the Liffey in Lucan demesne, and on making 
further search in the September of last year, lower down the 
river, between Knockmaroon and Woodlands, it was found 
again, and in considerable quantity, on both the right and left 
banks, associated with its congeners, 5. aquatica and S. tiodosa. 
My suspicions as to the identity of the LifiTey plant with 
5. umbrosa (Dum.)=»S'. Ehrharti (Stev.) have been confirmed 
by Mr. Arthur Bennett, the Rev. E. S. Marshall, and the Rev. 
W. Moyle Rogers, who have kindly examined specimens. The 
occurrence of the three species in association on the I^iffey banks 
makes it easy to observe in the field the marked difiTerences 
which separate them. Intermediate in many points between 
S, aquatica and S* nodosa, S, umbrosa is yet separable at a 
glance from either by the peculiar form of its inflorescence. 
The rigid branches of the lax and widely-spreading cyme are 
almost filiform in their slendemess. By an error, which has 
no doubt caused much confusion amongst British botanists, the 
terms descriptive of the cymes of 5. umbrosa and S> aquatica 
have been transposed in the 3rd Edition of Hooker's Studmfs 
Flora, those of the first being set down as contracted and of the 
second as /OvT. Further search along the Irish rivers may be 
expected to extend to other districts, the range of this in- 
teresting plant, which seems fully entitled to take specific 
rank. 



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1896.] i83 

PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



RovAi, Zooi^oGiCAi* Society. 
Recent donations comprise a Rhesus Monkey from Mrs. Tisdall, a 
Herring Gull from Captain Boxer, a Hedgehog from J. Keegan, Esq., a 
Grey Parrot and an Angolan Vulture from A. H. Hanley, Esq., and a Jack- 
daw from \V. Williams, Esq. 

Dublin Microscopical Club. 

May 21st.— The Club met at the house of Mr. Greenwood Pim, who 
showed in the lantern photo-micrographs of various objects, including 
an ant, sections of basalt, sucker of Rhingia, portion of frond of 
UymmophyUum showing chlorophyll grains and nuclei, group of concep- 
tacles from, j^^idtum ranuncnlacearum^ CoscinosdiscuSyJungtnuanniay &c. The 
negatives were taken with a Leitz microscope, objectives from No. 3 to 
Na 7 (and in one case a Beck 3-inch). The ocular was used in every 
case, and the ordinary achromatic single lens of the camera left in 
situ, according to Mr. Mitchell's plan. No adjustment for difference 
between visual and actinic foci was made, and the definition left 
nothing to be desired. The Atcuiinm was taken as an opaque object with 
light condensed from aboVe. 

Mr. McArdlE exhibited male plants of Scapania umbrosay Schrader, 
one of the minutest of that group of liverworts, which he collected in 
some quantity at Anniscaul, Co. Kerry, in 1894. It is generally found 
in very small quantities amongst the larger Hepaticai. The Anniscaul 
plants were found growing in compact tufts on decayed wood. The upper 
portion of the shoots bear from one to three antheridia in the saccate 
base of each leaf ; the stems and the lower portion of the leaves which 
cover the antheridia are of a brilliant scarlet colour, which gives the 
plant a peculiarly handsome appearance ; in this way, and by its smaller 
size, truly serrated leaves which are recurved at the apex, and by the 
truncate and entire mouth of the perianth, it is easily known from all 
other Scapania, 

Dr. McWeeney showed a cultivation of the mould-fungus Eurotinm 
Maricrum^ showing the sexually produced reproductive bodies or peri- 
thecia- These are small yellow globular bodies containing a number of 
nearly globose asci, each of which has eight spores. The point of interest 
is that this mode of reproduction is seldom resorted to by the fungus, 
save under special circumstances, the usual mode being by asexual 
conidia produced in a globose head. 



Belfast Naturalists* Field Club. 
May 23rd. — Excursion to Annoy and Ballycastle. The party left the 
train at Annoy, and at once made for the Church, where the remains of 
the fine old round tower still stand in the graveyard. Leaving the 
church a short halt was made at the chapel to see a couple of rude crosses 
in the yard. 



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1 84 The Irish Naturalist, [July, 

The district is full of botanical interest, especially as regards the 
cryptogamic flora, but the find of the day was the rare Whitlow grass, 
Draba muraiis. This is rare as a British plant, and as regards Ireland 
still more rare. It is stated that one plant was found long since 
growing on the walls of Blarney Castle, in the south, and Dr. Dickie 
said it was naturalised on old walls near Belfast, but it does not seem to 
have been seen by any living botanist in either place. On the walls of 
an old bridge near Annoy, however, it is plentiful and luxuriant Draba 
muralis has also been found on walls of Glasnevin, where it was supposed 
to have escaped from the Botanic Garden. The occurrences in Ireland 
of this plant have all been attributed to accidental escapes from gardens, 
but, if not indigenous, it is more probable that they are still lingering 
relics of a more extensive cultivation at a remote period.^ 

The ruin of the old church locally known as Goban scurs was visited ; 
perched on an overhanging ridge, its rude, strong masonry afford evi- 
dence of its early building. The ruined fort of Dun Rainey, having been 
passed and the Mairge crossed, a halt was made at the ruins of the OM 
Franciscan Abbey of Bun-na-Mairge. In the old abbey the Rev. J. A S. 
Woodward, A.M., read a short paper descriptive of the ruins and their 
history. At five o'clock all assembled in the Antrim Arms, Ballycastle, 
where an excellent tea was provided by Mr. Hunter. 

June 6th. — The Club held their second summer excursion, and a fine 
afternoon brought the large number of over loo members together in 
time to catch the 2.15 train to Carrickfergus, from which station the 
whole party proceeded to the salt mines at Duncrue, some two miles 
distant. Here they were met by Mr. Pennall, the courteous representa- 
tive of the owners, who placed his services at the Club's disposal during 
the afternoon. The tedious business of lowering the large party into the 
pit was then begun by the two shafts, down each of which the buckets 
carried four persons at a time, one of the buckets being raised at the same 
time that the other was lowered and by the same engine. The depth of 
the shaft is about 750 feet, so that the mines are considerably below the 
sea-level. On arriving at the bottom each member was supplied with a 
candle, and when enough were collected a party was formed, under the 
guidance of some one of the miners and of one of the geological members, 
to explore the galleries. A number of Bengal and coloured lights were 
brought down, which gave an extremely good effect among the vast 
piers that have been left to support the roof— often forty or fifty feet 
above the floors— while the crowd of little twinkling lights seen at the 
far end of one of the numerous drives was most picturesque. So, 
numerous was the party that the first section was up again before the 



1 We have seen specimens of this plant recently collected at Newn- 
by Rev, H. W • Lett, on a wall near Messrs. Roger and M*Clelland's 
nursery — no doubt imported. — Ed3. 



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1896.] Proceedings of Irish Societies. 185 

last was down. At appropriate times Mr. William Gray and Mr. 
Alexander G. Wilson (Hon. Secretary) briefly described the geological 
features of the Triassic period and the salt-beds in particular, Mr. Gray 
explaining the lithological characters and Mr. Wilson giving a resumi of 
some of the recent discoveries of the fauna and flora of the period. 

The salt is here worked by being quarried from the matrix, often in 
an almost pure state, and when raised to the surface in buckets is tipped 
into a reservoir, from which the brine flows down to the evaporating 
pans near the town. The best thanks of the Club are due to Mr. 
Alexander Miscampbell, the Irish Manager of the Salt Union, for his 
courtesy in allowing the members to visit the mine. On reaching the 
surface the members walked back to Carrickfergus, some of them 
loitering in the neighbouring fields, the result of which was the discovery 
of the •* Water Soldier" {StratioUs aloides\ and the Wood Vetch {Vicia 
sykaiica). The former plant was a most interesting find, as in Stewart 
and Gorry's flora it is marked as '• now extinct " in the three recorded 
localities, and this is a new station for it, and therefore the only known 
one in Ulster. The vetch is also rare, but the station has been previously 
recorded. Those who were not able to go by the earlier train left 
Carrickfergus by the 8.5 train, thus giving them all time to visit the fine 
old Church of St Nicholas, where Mr. W.J. Fennell read a short paper 
on the architectural features of the building, which was illustrated by a 
most excellent series of photos and drawings. 

The Geoi^ogicai* Section held an Excursion on T6th May to Squire's 
Hill, for Cretaceous strata, and basaltic dykes and flows. A considerable 
number of the usual Chalk and Greeusand fossils were obtained, from 
various horizons, and several photos were taken of the remarkable dykes, 
from one of which was taken the beautiful junction of chalk and basalt 
recently exhibited at the Club's meetings by Mr. R. Bell. 

Another excursion of the section was held on the 13th June, to Wood- 
burn, for the lower betls of the Cretaceous series. A number of the 
usual Chalk and Greeusand fossils, such as lanira^ Pectetty TerebrcUula 
Exogyra, Rhynchonella, CatopyguSy &c., were taken, though none were new 
to the local list. Those who were also botanists were pleased to see the 
glen abundant in the Wood Veteh and Guelder-rose in full flower. The 
beautiful ^^i/w^ww sylvaiicum was also in quantity. 



DuBUN Naturawsts' Field Club. 
May 30th. — Excursion to Lambay Island. This excursion was of excep- 
tional interest. A party of 46 left Dublin at 10.0 a.m. on board the s.s. 
*• Erin's King," and, steaming round the cliffs of Howth, were soon close 
to the island of Lambay. The water was quite smooth, and the sky, 
which was cloudy at starting, speedily cleared, and a day of glorious sun- 
light ensued. The steamer passed close inshore right round the island, 
and the great colonies of sea-birds, the sheets of wild flowers on the slopes 
and cliffs, coupled with the brilliancy of sea and sky, formed a scene no^ 



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1 86 The Irish Naturalist. [July, 

readily to be forgotten. The party were soon ashore in the little harbour, 
and, under the leadership of Mr. J. E. Palmer, the steep slopes and difls 
of the eastern side of the island were visited. Here the Herring Gulls 
were breeding in great numbers among the herbage and stones, and care 
had to be taken not to tread on the dark-spotted brown eggs, or the young 
birds, equally inconspicuous in their coats of dark mottled down. On 
the steeper portions. Guillemots and Razorbills were perched in ro¥rs 
beside their large blue and brown eggs, which lay on the ledges of bare 
rock, and hundreds of Kitti wakes occupied every cranny with their 
nests of grass. Many of the grassy slopes were riddled with holes made 
by the Puffins, which, in their beautii^l black and white plumage and 
brilliant red beaks and legs, stood like sentinels at the mouths of their 
burrows, guarding their solitary large, whitish ^gg in the nest within. 
In a deep crevice a Cormorant's nest was visited, in which were three 
young birds, already nearly fledged. The botany of the island was 
interesting, and the masses of colour presented by certain species, such 
as Lychnis diurna^ Sedum acre^ and SiUne maritima were very striking^ 
Enormous groves of the Henbane, Hyoscyanms niger, were observed, four 
feet in height, and covering considerable areas. Close to the coastguard 
station a rare clover, Trifolium sttiaium^ was obtained. The beetles, of 
which Mr. H. K. G. Cuthbert kindly supplies a full list, included 
Badister bipusiulatus^ Brady cellos harptdinusy Pterostichtis striola^ A mora auHca^ 
Trechus minutus^ Philonthus variusy Stentis guttula^ Helodes marginatusy Cprym- 
bites cupreus (type and var. aeruginosus), Crammoptera ruficomiSy Crypticus 
quisquilius. As to Hymenoptera, in the Chrysis group, Mr. Cuthbert met 
Mrith Chrysis ignitay L., and Htdychrum lucidulumy Latr., and in the Aculeate 
group, Megachile maritima^ Kirb. (an addition to the Irish list), M. cetUun- 
cularisy Andrena fulvicrusy A. piinu/ula, Sphecodes ditrUdiatuSy Odynerus pietusy 
0. parietinusy O, tritnarginatus, and Vespa sylvestris. The last-named species 
was nesting in a bank, an unusual circumstance in the case of an arboreal 
wasp, an instance having been once before recorded by the late Mr. 
Frederick Smith. A very interesting find of another kind was the occur- 
rence of flint-flakes and cores in low mounds of clay and pebbles near 
the southern extremity of the island ; quite a large series was obtained. 
Messrs. Greenwood Pim and R. Welch obtained a number of photographs 
of the birds and their nests and eggs, which will no doubt dujy appear 
on the lantern screen at some winter meeting of the Club. All assembled 
at the harbour at 6.0, where Miss Gardiner had tea ready. Embarkation 
being safely effected, the " Erin's King " left at 7.45. The evening was 
dead calm, and lovely effects of light were enjoyed on the homeward run. 
The party reached Dublin at 9.45, delighted with all they had seen, and 
very grateful to Count Considine, by whose kindness they were permitted 
to explore the island. 



Cork Naturawsts* Fiei^d Ci,ub. 
May 30th.— The third excursion took place, the destination being 
Ballyphehane Bog and Vernon Mount. Owing to the prolonged drought 
the bog was practically dry and but few of the mpisture-loving plants 



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1896.] Proceedings of Irish Societies. 187 

for which it is esteemed, were observed. The Yellow Sedge {Canx flava) 
was seen well in fruit, Sparganium ramosum was in flower, and some luxuri- 
ant specimens of the smooth horsetail {Equisetum litnosum) 3-4 feet high 
were collected. In a neighbouring hedge the Guelder Rose {Viburnum 
tpalus) was found flowering handsomely. The excursion was well 
attended and much interest was shown in the collection of plants. 
Opportunity may be taken to record the presence of Btassica tenuifolia^ 
Boiss. {Diplotaxis Unuifolia ^ oi^^r botanists), at Haulbowline Island, where 
it has been found growing plentifully in waste ground by a member of 
the Club. This plant with a scanty distribution in the south of England 
has hitherto been only doubtfully recorded from Co. Cork. In the 
present case its identity has been verified by Mr. R. A. Phillips of Cork. 



RoYAi, Irish Academy. 
June 22nd.— The Earl of ROSSB, President, in the Chair. Rev. W. S. 
Green read a paper on a visit to the islet of Rockall, which lies in the 
Atlantic 220 miles from Tory Island, and 178 west of St. Kilda. On 
the night of the 6th inst., he and his companions reached the rock in 
theS. S. ** Granuaile," which had been placed at their disposal by the 
Congested Districts Board. The sea was then breaking heavily all around, 
and attempts made to dredge resulted in the loss of the gear. On the 
7th, the sea still running high, the ** Granuaile " steamed away eastward, 
and a trawling was made in 130 fathoma The gear was badly torn, but 
some specimens were obtained. The weather showing no sign of im- 
provement, the vessel steered for Killybegs, which was reached on the 
evening of the 8th. A fresh start was made on the night of the 13th, and 
on the 15th Rockall was again sighted. Dredgings were made in from 
50 to 100 fathoms. The ship remained close to the rock all night, and on 
the following morning the rock was approached to #ithin twenty yards, 
bnt landing was impossible. Every bird on the rock was recognised, 
and some were shot and picked up. The weather giving no promise of 
improvement, a course was steered for St. Kilda, a dredging being 
made on the Rockall Bank. The result of the dredging was very 
varied, and some valuable specimens were obtained. Over a dozen 
species of sea-birds were noted on the rock and in its vicinity. 



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1 88 The Irish Naturalist [July, I 

NOTES. 

BOTANY. 

PHANEROGAMS. 
Recent Notices of Irish Plants.— In the faurnal of Botany for 
June, Messrs. E. S. Marshall and W. A. Shoolbred publish an impor- 
tant list of plants observed by them during a fortnight's stey in July, 
1895, at Clonbur, near the S.W. comer of Lough Mask, and on the 
borders of Mayo and Galway ; a few notes from Kilkenny and Clare are 
also included. Of the more interesting plants recorded, the following 
may be mentioned '.^Ranunculus Drouetii, Subularia aquaticay Polygtua 
oxyptera, Agrimonia odoratay Filago minima •' not recorded from the West of 
Ireland 'YO'^--^'^^' UtriculaHa'i neglecta, Polygonum maadatum, Epipactii 
atrorubens.Potamogetonfiliformis.CanxaquaHlis.vM, elatior, Bab., C Pseudo- 
cyperus, Festuca Mynros, Lycopodium inundatum, PUularia globulifera. Some 
of the above furnish very important extensions of the known range of 
the several plants. In a long list of Rubi, the following are new records 
for Ireland— ^. erythrinus, R. dunmoniensis, R. argentatm, RSprtngaH^R. 

Bahingioniu 
TheTwelfth Annual Report x>f the Watson Botanical Exchange Cub, 

just issued, conUins references to a number of Irish plants, sent to the 
Club by the late Mr. H. C. Levinge. and the Revs. C. H. Waddell and: 
H. W. Lett. Few of these call for special remark, but we are glad tp 
see definite confirmation of the occurrence of Ranunculus Jtoribundus iq 
the North-east (see Flor, N.E, I. SuppL). Mr. Lett adds Anthriscus vuigarii 
to the Armagh Flora, and some interesting RuH are recorded- 

Flora of North-East Ireland.— On the 25th May I noticed on 
Slemish Mountain, County Antrim, the following plants :—raraifu<« VHii 
Idaa sparingly on the north face ; and Hieracium iricum.vfiih the Vaccinium \ 
and Habenana albida plentiful at the S.W. base. None of these are abundani 
plants, and the first is very rare in the north-east of Ireland. 
^ ' H. C. Hart, Portsalon, Letterkennji 

Draba verna at Poyntzpass.— I noticed this spring on one of thj 
walks in my flower garden a plant very like />. vima. In order to makj 
sure I sent it to Mr. Praeger who confirms my determination. It occmj 
also on the road between this and Poyntzpass and at the railway sUtion 
The only other locality in County Armagh is I believe the Sheep- wal] 
at Armagh, but Mr. Praeger thinks it has escaped notice elsewhere froi| 
its small size and early habit of flowering. ^^ ^ ^ _ I 

W. F. Johnson, Poyntzpass 

The Clol>e Flower In Co. Fermanafirh.— It may interest botanid 

readers to know that the Globe mo^ex {7 rollius mrupaus) grows in J 

unquestionably wild state on the shores of one of the larg^ 

Fermanagh lakes. Mr. Pike of Sydenham Hill, London, first btougl 

the circumstance under my notice. „^ ^, ^, ^ . , ^ 

^ W. MacM|i,i^n, ^nniskiUeq, 



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i^j Notes. 189 

■easurement of aScotch Fir Stump in Fanet* Co. Donegal. 

—In July, 1892, in company with the Rev. A. Delap, I took measurement 
of a trunk of a Scotch Fir, bared by recent drainage on the shore 
of Bally hork Lake, in the " Between Waters," Fanet The trunk was 
3 feet 6 inches in diameter. The root at base of trunk were in situ. 
Obviously the tree had been felled, and the stem was gone. The bark 
was still on, the peat having been but recently removed. Hazel nuts 
and oak-wood were in company with the fir. We counted the rings from 
the centre ; he made out 264, and I made them 234. 

H. Chichester Hart, Portsalon, Lctterkenny. 



ZOOLOGY. 

Our Introduced Species.— I am glad to see Mr. P. Ralfe's note on 
the introduction of the Magpie into the Isle of Man. I had not pre- 
Tiously heard of the fact, though Bishop Wilson is also the principal 
authority for the introduction (in his time), and rapid increase of the 
Frog. The marked parallelism between the recorded introductions in these 
two islands (Ireland and Man) is an interesting piece of circumstantial 
evidence in favour of the correctness of both records, and therefore 
strengthens the case for the opinion generally held, but to some extent 
disputed by Dr. Scharff, that the Frog was really unknown in Ireland 
tmi696. 

C. B. Moffat, Dublin. 



WORMS. 
PreshMfater Annelids i An appeal.— During a visit which I 
recently paid to the north of Ireland, I was fortunate enough to find 
some very interesting forms of freshwater worms. What I saw convinces 
me that the ponds, canals, and loughs of Ireland will yield many 
Talnable forms, if only they can be carefully worked. In order that I 
may make my forthcoming reports as full as possible, I want to appeal 
lo all who are interested in the progress of science in Ireland to help 
me The work I want my fellow-collectors to undertake is simple, easy, 
and not unpleasant. I ask all those who are living near, or visit places 
where there are ponds, lakes, canals, or other sheets of water, to send 
me wide-mouthed bottles filled with algae, pond weed, and decaying 
debris floating about, with just a little water, in the hope that some new 
forms of Neds and other microscopic annelids may be discovered. I 
foand at least one new species among such material in a small branch 
of Loch Erne, and have no doubt but that others will be forthcoming. 
Those who do not mind dredging, or putting their hands into the silt by 
the fflde of streams, ponds, and ditches or gutters, might also render 
good service by sending the material thus collected, either in tins or 
wide mouthed bottles, labelled Natural History Specimens. 

Hii,DBRiC Friend, Cockermouth, Cumberland. 



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IQO The Irish Naturalist. [July, 

INSECTS. 



Entomological Notes from Poyntzpass.— My earliest captures 
of lepidoptera were Phigalia pedaria and Hybemia tnarginaria^ which I 
took on February 13th in the glebe grounds. A nice specimen of Sdi^ia. 
illunaria was brought to me on March 13th. Bombus terrestris put in an 
appearance on March 20th, and Vanessa urlica on the 22nd, and on the 
evening of the same day there was a remarkable swarm of Dor Beetles 
{jGeotrupes stercorarius^ L.) at the railway station in Poyntzpass. They must 
have been in great numbers, for two boys brought me about seventy, 
and the next morning I saw numbers lying on the pathway where they 
had been trodden on by passers by. I can only suggest as the cause of 
their assemblage the quantity of cowdung left in that vicinity after the 
cattle fair. I have noticed these beetles particularly numerous this Spring, 
I think more so than I ever observed before. Of other early butterflies I 
noticed Pier is napi on April 17th, and Euchloi cardamines and Saiynu 
egeria on the 22nd. I saw the first wasp on the wing on April 23rd. 
Sallows are rather scarce here, and I only obtained the eommonei 
species of Taniocampa^ viz., gothica^ stabilis and incerta. 

Among coleopteral have not met with anything \ery remarkable in this 
immediate locality. On February 26, I gathered a bag of moss from one 
of my fields, the best species in which were — Bembidium Afannerfuimi,Emfp' 
halus cotfiplicanSy Megarthrus depressus^ Silpha opaca, Hister neglecttiSy Eupiectui 
ambiguusy and Miccotrogus picirosiris. In March I took Lithvcharis ochracea in a 
hot-bed at Acton House, and Olophtum piceum when digging in the side of a 
drain in one of my fields. On the shore of the lake at Loughbrickland on 
April 9th I took a single specimen of Enochrtts bicolor ; the only previous 
record for Ireland is Mr. Halbert's who took it in quarries near Rahen) 
(/. N.y 1894, p. 203). My specimen is lighter in colour than those I hav< 
from English localities, but not otherwise distinguishable. 

On May 6th I received from Rev. J. Hamilton of Coolmore, Co. Donegal 
a box of larvae, which, on examination, I found to be those of Mditdi 
aurinia. He kindly sent me a further supply, and mentioned that the) 
had appeared in the greatest profusion in that neighbourhood much t< 
the alarm of the country folk. It will be remembered that I reportd 
(/. iV., 1895, p. 161), a number of this butterfly being washed up on th< 
beach at Coolmore, and I then supposed that they had been blown across 
from the opposite side of the bay, but the present capture of larvae sho^l 
that my supposition was incorrect, and that they were in the immediate 
neighbourhood, probably somewhat further south towards the mouth o 
River Erne. The larvae have fed upon Honeysuckle, and pupated, an<l 
I hope soon to have a number of nice specimens. On May 7th, in th< 
I^wer Demesne at Tanderagee, I captured Leistotrophus nebulosus^ and Mrs 
Johnson picked up Geotrupes .sylvaticus^ in both cases only a single specima 
was met with. Lepidoptera are now (June) plentiful; and I have capture^ 
in my garden here Chocrocampa elpenor, Plusia festuca^ P. pulchrina, CucuIIii 
umbratica^ &c. 1 hope as I become better acquainted with this locality 
to be able to report more interesting captures. 

W. F. Johnson, Acton Glebei Poyntzpa». 



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1896.] Notes. 191 

Acherontia atropos at Bessbrook.— On September 26th, 1895, 
I received a specimen of the Death*s Head Moth which had been 
captured at Bessbrook, and was kindly forwarded to me by Mr. E. 
M'Gelland. It is a very fine example, measuring five inches across 
the expanded wings. 

\V. F. Johnson, Poyntzpass. 

Carabus elathratus* L. In Co. WIcklow.-In Mr. Carpenter's 
paper, lately published in the Irish Naturalist ^ on the "Mingling of 
the North and the South," I find the non-occurrence of Carabus 
daikraius in the East of Ireland is specially commented on. I may state 
that I captured some of these beetles on the Great Sugar-loaf in Co. 
Wicklow, in September, 1891, and October, 1892 

H. G. CuTHBERT, Dublin. 

FISHES, 
The Allls Shad In Irish waters.— A specimen of this rare fish 
{Ahiia communis) was caught at Donaghadee early this year, and has been 
presented to the Museum of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical 
Society. Londonderry is the only locality given for the species in 
Thompson's ** Natural History of Ireland." 



BIRDS, 

Irish Birds.— In the Zoologist for May, Mr. R. J. Ussher writes con- 
cerning the reported occurrence of the Gold- vented Thrush and Spotted 
Eagle Owl in Ireland. The writer gives full particulars, as far as known, 
of the history of the specimen of each of these birds alleged to have been 
shot in Ireland, and the evidence which he adduces is strongly in favour 
of the view that the records are perfectly bona fide^ and that these two 
African species were actually shot in this country. Mr. H. A. 
^lacpherson gives an extract from a letter from Major-General Vallancey 
to J. C Walker, dated from Cove, January 25th, 1794, and published in 
Thirteenth Report, Historical Commission, concerning a bird shot in 
Co. Cork, which from the description Mr. Macpherson suggests may 
have been the Buflf-backed Heron. Mr. H. Chichester Hart in the same 
number records the occurrence of three Wood Wrens at Carrablagh, 
Portsalon, Co. Donegal. 

Sprlnff Migrants at Poyntzpass.— In spite of the remarkable 
niildness of the season the arrival of these birds was not earlier than 
ttsual. The Chiflfchaflf came on March 24th, the Willow Wren April 8th, 
the Swallow April i8th, the Sand-Martin April 23rd, the Corncrake 
April 27th, the Cuckoo April 30th, the Swift May 9th, and the House 
Martin May nth. 

W. F. Johnson, Poyntzpass 

The Grasshopper Warbler In Co. Dublin.— On the 4th May I 

•aw aad heard a Grasshopper Warbler (^Acroctphalus n^emus^ near Tem- 
pleogue ; it was not at all shy, and allowed me to come within a few 
yards of it without stopping its song. It remained in the same spot for 
three days. 

G. P. Farran, Templeogue. 



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t92 The Irish Naturalist. U^Yf 1896- 

Stock- Dove In Co. Galway.— During the week ending April iSth, 
my steward, who is well acquainted with all local birds, told me several 
times that he had heard or seen what appeared to be a Wood Pigeon, 
which uttered an (to him) entirely strange note. It frequented a chain 
of fir plantations near the house, and in one of these I heard it myself on 
Monday, April 20th, and at once recognized the note as being that of a 
Stock- Dove {Columba cbhos). One morning early that week my steward 
had a good view of it as it sat " cooing " on an oak tree, and when it flew 
he could see no white bar on the wing. We heard it frequently until 
May 1st, on which day I first caught sight of it as it flew out of a tree in 
a wood. The bird was evidently alone. I see in Seebohm that it is 
"unknown in Ireland except in the N.E., where, however, it is very 
rare." 

R. F. HiBBERT, Scariff, Co. Clare. 

[The Stock-Dove has extended its range in Ireland during the last few 
years. It has been noticed in Co, Wicklow {Irish Naturalist^ voL ii., p. 202), 
and in Co. Carlow (vol. iv., p. 296). Its occurrence in the far west now 
noted is of great interest. — Eds.] 

Quail In COa Cork*— I heard the Quail near Bandon this evening 
(31st May). There were two of them crying to each other from opposite 
sides of a country road, and I have no doubt that they are nesting there. 
It is said that Quail were once common in the south of Ireland, but I 
never heard one here before. The unusually warm dry weather probably 
accounts for their settling. 

Ali^an p. Swan, Bandon. 

Iceland Gull on the 8ilffO Coast.—I picked up dead on the strand 
at Mullaghmore, Co. Sligo, on the 5th June, an adult Iceland Gull {Lotus 
leucopterus^ Fab.). It had evidently been shot at, as both legs were broken, 
and there were wounds in its neck and stomach. It was identified by 
Messrs. Williams of Dublin. 

Chari«£S Langham, Tempo Manor, Co. Fermanagh. 

GEOLOGY. 

Submerir^d Peat- boss in Co. Donefirai*— Among submerg* 
peat-bogs it may be worth while to note those of Inver Bay, County 
Donegal. The most conspicuous is on its N.W. shore, a little beyo« 
the old house and wood of Kilmacreddan (?) It is visible enough 
low water of springs, and I have found in it fragments of Phu 
sylvestris and entire Hazel-nuts. 

It may here be noted that a considerable depression of the opposi^ 
coast of North America seems to have been, geologically speaking, no 
far from contemporary. Farther away in Bombay Harbour, a forest < 
trees, of an existing species {Acacia catechu) of the Peninsula, was foua 
some years ago, in digging the Prince's Dock, many feet below low wati 
level The stumps stood upright on their roots, just as they do I 
many Irish bogs ; and the wood was good enough to make beautifl 
walking sticks. 

W. F. SiNaukiR, Ix>ndoii 



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August, 1896.] 193 

THE FIELD CLUBS IN CAVAN. 

BY R. hlOYD PRAEGER, 
Sec. I. F. C. Union. 

Cavan, according to the programme issued to all members of 
Irish Field Clubs, was selected for this year's joint excursion, 
on account of its being a promising county, which was almost 
unknown to the naturalist And, indeed, of all the counties of 
Ulster, Cavan, the most southern, was the one concerning the 
flora and fauna of which our knowledge was most incomplete. 
The party which assembled there on July loth, therefore, had 
before them the pleasure which ever pertains to the examina- 
tion of comparatively virgin soil, although, on account of the 
highly cultivated character of the greater part of the district, 
and the extensive draining that has been carried out, no dis- 
coveries of a startling nature were anticipated. 

It was a bright morning when we left Dublin and rapidly 
crossed the level limestone plain to the lake district of West- 
meath, and thence northwards through undulating ground, 
and then over the great bog which fills the valley of the 
Inny, to the rolling Ordovician hillocks of Cavan town. The 
Belfast party had meanwhile been travelling south-west to 
join us, and welcomed us on the railway platform, where were 
also congregated several country members and local friends who 
had converged towards our rendezvous. Thanks to the joint 
meetings of the last few years, and the almost constant inter- 
course between the different Clubs that the Field Club Union 
has fostered and brought about, the meeting of the Belfast and 
Dublin parties was no longer a meeting of strangers, as it was 
on the occasion of the first joint excursion to the Boyne some 
few years ago, but was more like a meeting of old acquain- 
tances, pleased with the prospect ofrenewing their friendships. 
The whole party, in number thirty-six, met without delay at 
early dinner at the Farnham Arms Hotel, which was head- 
quarters during our stay, and by 2 o'clock we were mounted 
in brakes m route for the woods of Lord Farnham's demesne. 
The vehicles took us through the deerpark, where under trees 
the Broad-leaved Helleborine {EpipacHs latifolid) grew in 
luxuriance, and I had the good fortune to spot the Bird's-nest 
Orchid {Ntoiiia Nidus-avis) below a great Beech ; the former 

A 

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194 'J^ I^h Naturalist. [August, 

plant proved to be common in the Cavan district A brief 
halt was made at Faraham House, where, by the kindness of 
the steward, Mr. Hamilton, we visited a mineralogical museum 
brought together by a former owner, in which there was a 
remarkably fine collection of ambers. Pushing on, we dis- 
mounted in Derrygid wood, with several pretty lakes flanking 
us on the right and left. The party soon scattered in pursuit 
of their different hobbies. The continued rains of the past 
week, which concluded with the torrential downpour of July 8 
and 9, had almost drowned the country, and we found all the 
lakes and streams risen several feet above their normal limit, 
rendering the search for aquatic and paludose species often 
difficult and sometimes impossible. The woods did not prove 
productive, but the stony and often-flooded margin of Pamham 
I/>ugh, fringed with a scrub of native Birch and Aspen, fur- 
nished excellent hunting-ground. There at many points the 
Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartictis) grew, loaded down with 
green berries. In wet ground the Purple and Yellow Loose- 
strife (JLythrum salicaria and Lysimachia vulgaris) brightened 
the thick growth of g^ass and sedges, among which the 
beautiful and local plant, Carex Pseudo-cyperus was conspicuous 
by its abundance. The Great Water-dock {Rumex Hydrola- 
pathuni) and Great Spearwort {Ranunculus Lingua) were 
also among the species noted. 

The conchologists were well pleased by finding abundance 
of the land shell, Clausilia laminata^ which in Ireland is con- 
fined to a very limited area in the central portion of the 
country. Lepidoptera also came in for a good deal of attention. 
The best species noted were Uropteryx sambucaria, Lasiocampa 
quercus van calluna, and larvae of Charocampa elpenor. 
Others took advantage of the picturesqueness of the scene and 
brilliant light for sketching, and got some pretty "bits," 
where the tall oaks and dark pines rose above the birchen 
thickets that fringed the calm waters of the lake. All spent a 
profitable afternoon, and met at 9 o'clock supper, well pleased 
with their first experience of Co. Cavan. 

Next morning the well-known whistle summoned the party 
to breakfast at 8 o'clock, and before 9.0 we were out in the 
brilliant sunshine and off for a long day's exploring. Driving 
south-westward, the first halt was made at Kilmore Cathedral. 
There the archaeologists came to the front, and discussed 



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1896.] Prakgbr. — The Field Clubs in Cavan, 195 

the wonderfully-preserved ornament of the beautiful old door- 
way, taken from Trinity Abbey on Lough Oughter, and now 
built into the wall of the recently- erected church, which was 
carefully examined and its graceful proportions admired. The 
tomb of the famous Bishop Bedell, in the old graveyard, was 
duly visited, and also a very fine earthen fort, with a deep 
fosse, in a meadow adjoining. There I noted the Rough 
Chervil {Chcerophyllum temulum), a rare plant in Ireland, 
When the party were once again brought together, and Mr. 
Welch had finished photographing the doorway and tomb, we 
proceeded towards Crossdoney . Near Lisnamandra the geolo- 
gists, under Prof Cole, found in a field by the roadside an 
interesting section, showing a dark andesitic intrusion, 
baking the overlying Carboniferous sandstones, which are 
here almost horizontal. Close at hand, a grey eurite appears, 
probably an offshoot from the pre-Carboniferous granite of 
Crossdoney. A larger rock-exposure occurs by the road- 
side close to Crossdoney, where excellent hand-specimens of 
the biotite-granite were obtained. Thence a short drive 
brought us to Bellahillan bridge and the Erne, where a 
brief halt was made. We turned northward now, and having 
surmounted a couple of steep hills on foot, a rapid drive, with 
lovely and ever-changing peeps of Lough Oughter, brought us 
to Killykeen cottage, and lunch, within three miuutes of the 
appointed time, 2 o'clock.* Killykeen cottage is situated on a 
long promontory among the mazy windings of Lough Oughter. 
Straight opposite a similar promontory, occupied by the woods 
of Gartnanoul, projects till the lake between is narrowed to 
the width of a stone-throw. To left and right, the water 
extends, branching on each side among a series of wooded 
points and grassy islands. Lunch was speedily disposed of 
on the grassy sward by the water's ^dg^, and then a movement 
was made towards the boats, which had been most kindly 
placed at the disposal of the party by Messrs. H. H. Moore, 
W. H. Halpin, and Samuel Jones. In these the majority of 
the party started southward to visit the ruins of Trinity Abbey. 
A second detachment crossed to the Gartnanoul side to col- 
lect in the woods and on the shores, while others elected to 
explore the woods of Killykeen. On the young Aspens that 
Mnged the water on the Gartnanoul shore Mr. Kane discovered 
the larvae of the rare moth, Cymaiophora or, and a band of 

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196 TTie Irish Naturalist, [August, 

willing helpers assisted him to collect the pairs of leaves 
between whose fastened- together edges the larvae were to be 
found. Almost the whole party eventually met at Clogh 
Oughter Castle, or Bedell's Tower, a mile to the north- 
ward — a massive circular keep, one-half of it now fallen 
down, standing on an islet in the centre of one of the 
reaches of the lake. The return to Killykeen was 
made in time to allow a half-hour's hunt over the 
bog at Derrywinny, where, on a preliminary visit to 
Cavan in May, I had noted several uncommon plants. These 
were all found, and some additional species of interest. The 
flora of the bog includes the Great Sundew {Drosera anglica), 
Marsh Andromeda (A, poti/otia), three species of Bladderwort 
( [/. vulgaris, U. intermedia^ U. minor), the Frog-bit {Hydro- 
charts Morsus-rance), White Beak-rush {Rhynchospora alba\ 
Cyperus S^Age^{Carex Pseudo-cyperus), and Spinulose Buckler- 
fern {Lastrea spinulosa). A drive along beautifully wooded 
roads brought us back to Cavan. In the evening the tables 
were cleared, and bottles, jars, collecting boxes, and drying 
paper took the place of knives and plates, and we had an 
exhibition and examination of the specimens collected on our 
first two days. Prof, Cole, Miss Thompson, and A. G. Wilson 
showed the rock-specimens obtained in the Crossdoney dis- 
trict. W. F. de V. Kane, Hon. R. E. Dillon, and Endymion 
Porter produced their entomological finds. H. I^yster Jameson 
had two species of bats, and the rare shell Clausilia laminata, 
W. D. Donnan and I had some flowering plants ; and others 
contributed according to their means. By request, the Dublin 
President (Prof. Cole) gave a brief general sketch of the 
geological construction and 'history of the district. He said 
that the geology of the vicinity afforded some contrasts, 
beneath the uniform scenery of rounded hills and intervening 
little lakes, which are such a feature of Co. Cavan. The floor 
of the country is formed of Ordovician shales and sandstones, 
finely seen upon Slieve Glah, and uptilted, as usual, by earth 
movements prior to the Carboniferous period. At Crossdoney, 
a biotite-granite, with associated veins of compact grey eurite, 
penetrates the Ordovician beds, probably as an accompaniment 
of these same movements. The alteration of the Ordovician 
shales along the junction had been well seen in several sections. 
To visitors from Dublin, the comparison with the muscovlte- 



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18961] PRAEGKR.— 7>4^ Field Clubs in Cavan. 197 

granite of the Leinster chain, which occurs similarly, made 
Crossdoney of especial interest. Unconformably on the 
Ordovicians, the Lower Carboniferous sandstone was laid 
down, and was succeeded by the great Carboniferous Lime- 
stone, which forms the country west of Cavan, and which 
includes the basin of Lough Oughter. The sandstone, which 
is only of local occurrence, had been seen below Lisnamandra. 
The relations of a small exposure of eurite to the adjacent 
rocks had not been determined in the short time available ; 
but there is little doubt that the eurite belongs to the Cross- 
doney series, and was cold and denuded before the grey 
quartzite, now seen close against it, was deposited as a sand- 
bed in the Carboniferous sea. The true position of this eurite 
is, however, a matter of much interest, as it may, after all, 
represent a post-Carboniferous intrusion, like the adjacent 
andesite. The glacial deposits consist of thick boulder- clay, 
with very little sand and gravel. The boulder-clay capping so 
many of the hills gives them and their slopes the typical dome- 
like contour, whether the underlying rock is Ordovician or 
Carboniferous ; but the limestone of the latter period has 
larger lakes upon its surface, solution doubtless aiding their 
formation ; and the broad hollow of the Erne lies in it, 
stretching away from Cavan to Enniskillen. 

Afterwards, I was called on to give a short account of the 
Bladderworts and their allies, as these interesting plants had 
been particularly in evidence that day. Then a pleasant 
function was performed as Prof Cole presented to Henry 
Hanna a prize recently awarded to him by the Committee of 
the Belfast Club for the best set of twenty-four microscopical 
slides showing general excellence. Afterwards we returned 
to our specimens, and until a late hour the crowd of town's- 
people round the hotel windows showed the interest that the 
inhabitants of Cavan took in our mysterious researches. 

Cavan is notoriously a wet county, and the statement made 
with some positiveness by local members, that there could not 
be more than two such fine days in succession, proved correct. 
Sunday morning was gloomy, and after breakfast heavy rain 
began to fall. But, indeed, if it had to rain, the weather was 
most considerate, for a less inconvenient time for rain during 
our stay could not have been found. The church-goers were 
in no way deterred, and a large party started oflF for Killykeen 



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198 The Irish Naturalist. [Aaguat, 

in excellent spirits in the very heaviest downpour. We had 
a six-mile drive in the rain, and a swim in the lake, and as we 
sat at lunch in the little tea-house, the clouds lifted, and soon 
the sun came out, and a brilliant and delightful afternoon 
succeeded. In three boats we rowed northward, and again 
visited Bedell's Tower, and explored the adjoining lake- 
shores; and then, leaving a contingent sketching on the 
margin, we rowed back by a narrow and tortuous channel, 
only navigable in flood-time, with splendid woods rising on 
either hand. On one small islet we found, submerged below 
about six inches of water, half a dozen terns' nests with eggs, 
showing how great was the flood. We re-assembled at 
Killykeen for tea, and on the way home had another hour 
on the bog at Derrywinny, and got further specimens of its 
interesting plants — including a large quantity of delicious 
wild Raspberries. Even the approach of darkness did not 
put an end to scientific enquiry, for long after our late dinner 
a bat-hunting party set out in the dusk, to scour the district 
for these little-known mammals. 

Our last day (Monday) was finer than ever, and in brilliant 
sunshine we left the " Famham Arms" at 9.0 a.m. and drove 
south-east to the base of Slieve Glah, and by ia30 our ad- 
vance guard had taken possession of the summit. Though 
only 1,057 feet high, this hill looks imposing from any point 
of view, on account of its isolated position ; and for the same 
reason a remarkably extensive view is obtained from its sum- 
mit. This day was not exceptionally clear, and yet we could 
clearly identify no less than fourteen counties. To the east, 
beyond the fertile fields of Cavan, stretched the plains of 
Meath and lyouth, with the ridge on which Tara stands, and 
the high ground about CoUon clearly distinguishable. To 
the north-east, a haze or shower hid the mountains of 
Moume; but beyond the undulations of Monaghan, Slieve 
Gullion in Armagh rose faint and blue. Tyrone was prob- 
ably in view, but we could not identify any particular 
point To the north-west stretched the valley of the Erne, 
and on its southern side the limestone mountains of Fer- 
managh and lycitrim rose clear and high, with Cuilcagh in 
the centre. Westward stretched the plains of Roscommon 
and Longford, with the moat and chapel spire of Granard to 
the south-west. Southward lay the valley of the Inny, witii 



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t^] pRAEG^ft.— 7%^ Puld Clubs in Cavati. I99 

Lough Sheelin spread in the foreground, and the limestone 
hills that overlook Lough Kinale and I/>ugh Derevaragh in 
Westmeath standing up conspicuously, and far beyond these 
lay the long blue outline of the Slieve Bloom Mountains, on 
die borders of King's and Qucen*s Counties. To the south- 
east we probably saw Kildare, though it could not be identified* 
but beyond it the high granite range of Dublin and Wicklow 
rose wonderfully clearly, its southern end fading into blue 
dimness, its northern end boldly standing out in the Two- 
rock and Three- rock Mountains. In the foreground the rolling 
liills and fertile fields of Cavan spread in every direction, with 
lakes and woods giving variety to the scene. 

The appearance of so large a party on the mountain had 
thrown the district quite into a commotion, and by this time 
most of the neighbours had joined us, one old fellow being 
particularly obliging in retailing information respecting the 
locality, giving due prominence to the giants, witches, and 
£uries of both past and present days. Descending the hill to 
the northward, our party scattered, and several finds were 
made. The Stag's-hom Club-moss, Lycopodiunt clavatum^ was 
found in considerable abundance, and already in fruit ; and 
Miss Kelsall obtained a single specimen of the Moonwort 
{fiotrychium Lunaria). The entomologists took Acronycia 
myriag var. moniivaga^ and larvae of Satumia carpini and 
Eupithecia nanata. After lunch it was time to return to Cavan, 
and the bustle of packing was succeeded by a final cup of tea* 
when many plans for future excursions were discussed, and 
many invitations exchanged between the members of the differ- 
ent Clubs. The northern party were the first to leave, amid 
friendly farewells, and they were accompanied to the train by 
several of the Dubliners, and by Messrs. H. H. Moore and S. 
Jones, who had been indefatigable in their efforts to assist the 
visitors, and whose local knowledge proved of the greatest ser- 
vice. An hour later the Dublin members departed, and all 
reached home delighted with their visit to Cavan, improved in 
health and spirits by their long days in the open air, and many 
of them bearing with them material for scientific papers, which 
will, no doubt, in due course find their way into these pages. 



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200 The Irish Naturalist, [August, 

HEPATIC.E COLLECTED IN CO. CARLOW. 

(For the R.I. A. Flora and Fauna Committee.) 
BY DAVID M'ARDLE. 



On the 30th of March last year I joined Dr. R. F. ScharfiFand 
Mr. J. N. Halbert/ of the Science and Art Museum, at Borris, 
where they were investigating the fauna ; and we were soon 
on our way to the banks of the River Barrow. In a small 
plantation amongst granite rocks near the bridge at Graigue, 
I was fortunate in gathering Scapania compacta in a fertile 
state. The late Dr. D. Moore considered it a very rare liver- 
wort, and the only specimens he collected of it were found in 
two localities in the County Kerry, in both places sterile. 
Scapania (Bquiloba and S- aspera also grew plentifully amongst 
the moist crumbling rocks. We returned through the demesne 
to Borris. The following day was spent collecting on both sides 
of the river between Ballyluglea Bridge at Borris, and Gores- 
bridge, distant about five miles. Amongst other liverworts I 
collected Lejunea flava, var., and/,, patens, and on damp rocks 
in a wood the rare Lophocolea spicata. Part of a day spent in 
Oakwood Park near Carlow concluded this interesting 
excursion. 

In the following list of Hepaticae I enumerate :^:^ species 
and 3 varieties, many of them rare and of botanical interest, 
such as fertile specimens of Metzgeria conjugata, Jungermania 
alpestris, &c. It may be of interest to note that we have no 
previous list or even a locality quoted for liverworts in the 
County Carlow that I am aware of. Had our visit been of 
longer duration I could have pushed on to the Blackstairs 
Mountains, and possibly I would have been enabled to further 
extend this list. Hepaticae are very scarce in the granite 
districts, but a few genera, such as Scapania, Nardia, &c, 
abound. On the limestone formation they are more abundant 
both in genera and species. 

Frullanla dllatata, Linu.— Wood by the roadside at Graiguena- 
managh, Goresbridge, Oak Park demesne, on trees, common. 

F. tamarlscl (Mich. L.)— Spreading in large patches on rocks and 
trees about Graigue, Goresbridge, Oak Park demesne, very common. 

Lejeunea serpylllfolla (Dicks.) Libert.— On a damp bank, Graigue. 
On trees in the wood near Goresbridge. 

* Mr. Halbert has published a list of the Coleoptera which he captured, 
in the Iriih Naturalist for December, 1895, p. 330. 

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1896.] M'Ardi^k. — HepaHca collected in Co, Carlow. 201 

L. patens ff Lindberg.— Wood by the roadaidey Graigue, and Gores- 
bridge, rare. There is an excellent figure of this plant in Moore's 
" Irish Hepaticae."' 

L. f lava* Swartz, var.— Damp places amongst rocks about Graigue, 
and on trees near Goresbridge, rare. 

Radula complanataf Linn.— Common on the trunks of trees about 
Graigue, Oak Park demesne, and Goresbridge. 

Lepldozla reptans, Linn.— Damp places near the River Barrow, 
Graigue. On decayed wood at Goresbridge, fertile. 

Bazzania trllobata, Linn. (Hook. Brit. Jung., tab. 76; MasH- 
iobryum tnlobaium, G L. et N. Syn. Hep,, p. 230).— Amongst rocks near 
the bridge at Graigue, rare. 

Cephalozla blcuspldatat Linn. —Damp places about Graigue 
and Goresbridge, very common. 

C. catenulatat Huben. (Hepaticol. German., 169; Carrington in 
Trans, Bot. Soc. Edin., vii, p. 449, t. 1 1., fig. 2).— Amongst damp rocks 
near the bridge, Graigue, rare. 

Lophocolea bldentatat Linn. — Common. 

L. splcatap Taylor.— Amongst damp rocks in the wood near Gores- 
bridge, very rare. 

Kantia trlchomaneSff Dicks. — Common. 

K. ariTUta (N.M.) Lindb. (Eng. Bot. tab. 1875).— Damp bank in 
wood by the roadside, Graigue, rare. 

Saccosyna vltlculosat Mich.— On a damp boggy place in wood 
by the roadside, Graigue. 

Scapanla com pacta, Dumort. (Jungennania cornpacta. Roth, 
Germ. 3, p. 375 ; Lindenb. Synop. Hep., p. 58 ; fungermania resupinata^ 
Hook. Brit. Jung., tab. 23, excellent fig. ; Sm. Eng. Bot, tab, 2498.)— 
Amongst granite rocks, bank of the River Barrow near Graigue (fertile), 
rare. Dr. D. Moore in his work on the Irish Hepaticse states this is a 
rare plant in Ireland ; the only specimens he collected were from the 
neighbourhood of Brandon, Co. Kerry, sterile in both places where it 
was found growing. 

8. 8BqulloX>av Dumort (Carrington, Brit Jung., p. 81, no. 3, pi. 8, fig. 
26). -On rocks near the River Barrow at the bridge at Graigue, plentiful. 

8. SBqulIobaf var. near .S. asf era,— On rocks near the bridge at Graigue. 

8. aspera, Muller and Bernet (Pearson in journal of Boi,, Vol. xxx. 
P- 353- plate 329, 1893).— Amongst damp rocks, side of the River Barrow 
near the bridge at Graigue, plentiful. 

8. nemorosav Dumort— Amongst damp rocks, side of the River 
Barrow at Graigue. 

8. undulatav Linn.— Margin of a stream near the bridge at Graigue. 

Dlplopnyllum alblcanSff Linn.— Damp banks in the plantations 
about Graigue, very common. 

Plaaioclilla asplenloldest Linn. — Damp banks in Borris demesne 
and plantations about Graigue, common. 

P. asplenloldesv Linn., var. minor (=7^. Dillenii, Taylor). On 
rocks, in damp wood, Graigue. 

P. punctata* Taylor.— Damp banks in a wood at Graigue, rare. 

' ? PrtH' K.LA, Ser. 2, vol. ii ' 

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20t Tlie Irish Naturalist [Anguat. 

Juns^rmanla (Lopnozla) alpestrlsv Schl. (Jtmg, alpcstris, 
Schleich, Exs., cent. 2, n. 59; Nees Europ. Lebcrm; 11., p. 104; G. L. ct 
N. Syn. Hepat., p. 113.) — Dioecious. Stem strong, creeping or erect 
from the upper half, simple or divaricately branched near the apex, 
clothed on the under side with white rootlets proceeding from the often 
▼iolet-coloured stem. Leaves in two rows, vertical, increasing in size 
from the base upwards, sub-quadrate, two-lobed, rarely three-lobed, 
segments ot various depths, acute or obtuse, often widely and shallowly 
notched at the apex, in some leaves sinus scarcely perceptible. Peri- 
chsetial leaves three or four times acutely divided, stipules none. Peri- 
anth obovate or obovate oblong, terminal or lateral. Antheredia 
remarkably large, placed singly at the base of each leaf, which are 
closely imbricated and saccate at the base, patent at the apex, recurved, 
of a pale violet colour. Amongst damp rocks near the side of the River 
Barrow at Graigue. Very rare. 

«l. (Qymnocolea) afflnlSf Wilson (in Hook. Brit Fl., 11., p. 128; 
Jung, turbinatOt Wils., in Eng. Bot Suppl., t. 2744, nee Raddi).— Quarry 
bank near Coresbridge. 

Nardla emarfflnata* Ehrh.— Amongst damp rocks, side of the River 
Barrow near the bridge at Graigue. Plentiful. 

N. scalarlSff Schrader. — Amongst damp rocks, side of the River 
Barrow at Graigue. 

N. Iiyallnap Lyell. — Moist bank in a plantation, Graigue. Rak^ 

Pel I la eplphylla« Dill. (L.)— ^amp places. Common. 

Conocephalus conlcuSf Neck.— Banks of the River Barrow. 
Common. 

M«tzfferla furcatap Linn. — On the trunks of trees about Graigue; 
Oak Park near Carlow. Common. 

in. furcatap Linn, van frutlculosap Dicks. (Lindberg*s Monogr. 
Metngeria ; Jungermania fruHculosa, Eng. Bot., Vol. 35, tab. 2514. /. furcata 
var. isrugincsa. Hook., Brit. Jung., 55 et 56). On the trunks of trees 
in the wood at Goresbridge. A very distinct form growing in compact 
crisped tufts not unlike some large alga. Fronds tapered near the apex, 
sharply forked, with the margins shallow and closely recurved, giving 
the ramuli the appearance of being reduced to the nerve. Colour 
near the apex a brilliant verdigris green, or blue green apex erect, bear- 
ing copious gemmae. 

in. conjuffatap fDill. (Lindberghs Monogr. Afe/zgefia\ Autoecious. 
Fronds robust, not much elongated, more or less dichotomous, irregularly 
pinnated or decomposite, linear, narrower in some parts than in 
others, in transverse section semilunar, hairs longish, stout, often 
in pairs on margin and divergent. The paucity of hairs and more solid 
substance of the frond with copious innovations, and above all the 
autoecious inflorescence abundantly distinguishes this species from 
MitEgeria furcata, which is dioecious, and all other known species of 
this singular genus. On granite rocks, banks of the Barrow at Graigue 
(ferHle), on the trunks of trees in the wood near Goresbridge {fertili^ 

Rtooardla pfnffuISp Linn.— Crevices of rocks in a quarry at Gores- 
bridge. 



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THE OUAIL IN IRELAND: 

ITS PRESENT AND RECENT VISITS. 
BY C. B. MOFFAT. 



The re-appearance in 1896 of the Quail has already been 
reported from the counties of Cork,^ Tipperary,* and Wicklow/ 
and doubtless observers in many other localities have, like 
myself in Co. Wexford, heard and seen the bird. 

The general conditions prevailing this year so strongly 
resemble those of 1893, when Quails excited attention in a 
number of localities throughout Ireland, that the return of 
the birds in 1896 will scarcely cause surprise ; but it would be 
a mistake to make too little of our erratic visitant, for whose 
next re-appearance on our shores we may have many yearis to 
wait 

At the time when the Irish Naturalist was founded in 1892 
the Quail was looked upon as practically lost to our fauna. 
There were still a few counties in which it could not be said 
to have ceased to breed, at least occasionally — (Donegal, 
touth, Dublin, Roscommon, and Wexford were those from 
which Mr. Ussher had recent notes of its nesting) ; but the 
localities were very few, and the records therefrom I believe 
rather meagre. At Ballyhyland (in the last-named county) it 
had been unknown for many years. In the first number of 
this periodical Mr. Ussher referred to the rapid decrease in 
Ireland of the Quail, Golden and Sea Bagles, and Marsh 
Harrier— all four species being then apparently on the verge 
of extinction. 

Rather curiously, it was in the summer of the same year 
that the Quail began to put in his appearance again, though 
the incursion of 1892 was little noticed at the time by or- 
nithologists in this country. I happened, that summer, to 
spend several whole nights in the fields in the neighbourhood 
of Ballyhyland, partly for the purpose of improving my 
acquaintance with a family of Nightjars ; and it was on one 
of these occasions that I first heard the cry of ** wet-my-lip" 
(or " quick- whip-it " as it rather sounds to mj' ear) with which 
the Quail is wont to enliven the cool hours. The moon being 

» See p. 192. ' Field, July nth. 3 i,and and Water, June 13th. 

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204 7^ Iris A NafuralisL [August, ' 

full, the Quail called incessantly from midnight till twenty 
minutes before sunrise, at which time, following the Fem-owlls 
example, he ceased ; though the Grasshopper- warbler, who had 
been similarly vociferous through the night, still reeled on 
unwearied. This was in July, and it seems to me more than 
probable that there was then a nest in the vicinity. 

A few months later a number of letters in the Field drew 
attention to the fact that 1892 had been decidedly a Quail-year 
in England ; but it was not till the next year, when a con- 
siderably larger incursion took place, that the return of the 
birds was at all generally noticed in Ireland. However, in 
reading the communications on this subject forwarded by 
different observers to the Irish Naturalist in 1893, I was 
struck by the. fact that several of them incidentally mentioned 
reports of the Quail's having also been heard the year before : 
so that the Quail- wave of 1892, if not a heavy one, would still 
appear to have been widely distributed over the British 
Islands. 

At Ballyhyland I found, as might have been expected, plenty 
of Quails in the summer of 1893 ; but as far as I could ascer- 
tain, they were strictly confined to the immediate vicinity of 
the ground on which I had heard them in 1892. The Quails 
were sometimes in grass-fields, sometimes in barley, and some- 
times in potatoes ; one night a pasture -field in which I stood 
seemed thick with Quails, emulously whistling all around me 
in the faint light ; in the day-time also a few were sometimes 
audible at the same spot ; but no other ground than that 
occupied in 1892 appeared to contain a Quail. This I think 
tends to show that our '93 visitation was merely a return in 
increased force of the wave of '92. 

It is to the same ground, again, after a two-summers' absence, 
that the Quail has returned in June, 1896. In fact it was in 
crossing the very field (half pasture and half furze-knock) 
where I first heard its note four years ago, that, as if again in 
response to the song of my old friend the Nightjar, who was 
strumming in the heath on one side, I heard in the grass on 
the other a gentle " quick- whip -it." It was an hour past sun- 
down, and the bird was of course quite invisible on the ground. 
I walked up to it, however, when it rose and skimmed for a 
short distance, to drop again in the dry, dewless grass. This 



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1896.) 



UowAt.—Tke Ot^it in Ireland, 



40S 



attachment to a particular spot seems singular in the case of a 
bird which comes to us only at irregular intervals. 

The general similarity which subsists between 1896 and 1893 
does not extend to 1892, but the three Quail-years resemble 
one another in the unusual dr3mess of their spring months — 
March, April, and May. I extract from ttie Ballyhyland 
r^ter the following figures, showing the rainfall here for 
each of the spring months for the past twenty years : — 



i 


1877. 


187a 


1879. 


i98o. 


1881 


1882. 


1883. 


i8ai. 


1885. 


1886. 


March, . 


359 
552 
3^ 


1-22 
376 
5-01 


1-68 


417 
3*91 
ix)9 


if 

2-98 


240 

587 
3*02 


1-92 
323 
252 


456 

IX)I 

2-61 


3-85 
412 
2H9 


3-99 


Total, . 

1 


13*08 


9-99 


6-85 


917 


879 


11*29 


767 


818 


IO-86 


10-60 






1887. 


188a 


1889. 


189a 


1891. 


•1892 


•1893 


1894. 


1895. 


•1896. 


March, . 

April, 

/ay,. 

Total, . 


176 
182 
1-36 


4-04 
251 
319 


1*32 
246 

385 


426 


3-99 


375 


0-56 
078 
2-17 


194 
4-67 
4-51 


3-81 
2*33 
045 


3*04 
0-72 
007 


4-94 


974 


7-63 


953 


8-17 


5-93 


3-51 


1112 


6-59 


383 



* Indicates the Qoail-yeorts. 

The above figures as they stand show that the springs of 
'93 and '96 were the driest of the series, and that,' with the sole 
exception of the Jubilee year (1887), the remaining Quail-year, 
'92, ranks next. On the whole, they favour the view that 
unusual drought in spring directs the flight of Cotumix com- 
munis towards this island ; but it may be objected that on this 
hypothesis we ought to have had Quails in the year of Her 
Majesty's Jubilee, when, if they came to us, they certainly 
attracted no special notice. 

The similarity in the rain-gauge results for my three Quail- 
years is, however, far from being fully brought out by the above 
table; for, on looking closer, I find that in each of those years 
the greater part of what rainfall we had was enjoyed either 
early in March or late in May. Now, supposing that the 
Quail, which crosses the Mediterranean in April, has to select 
its breeding ground in our latitude by about the middle of 



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2o6 The Irish Naturalist . [August, 

May, the fact of a continuous drought having characterized 
the preceding 8 weeks might in several ways do much towards 
influencing its choice. It appears, then, tiiat 

In 1892 the rainfall for 8 weeks ending May nth was 1*63 
„ 1893 .» t. »» May 15th „ 165 

„ 1896 „ „ „ May 17th „ 1-22 

and in nearly every other year of the series, including '87, the 
heaviest of these rainfalls was surpassed in April alone The 
only exceptions were 1884, when, however, the 6 weeks 
ending May 4th were sufficient to produce 2*45 inches, and 
1890, when the same 6 weeks produced 4*20. The three years 
in which I have found the Quail (apparently breeding) at 
Ballyhyland therefore easily distance dl\ other recent years in 
the severity of their droughts for the period precedent to the 
middle of May. 

I do not for a moment suggest that extraordinary drought 
attracts the Quails ; it appears to me far more probable that 
the consequent sparseness of vegetation in their Continental 
resorts may at such times drive the birds further afield in 
search of localities where cover and food are more obtainable. 
If Mr. Howard Saunders is right in including slugs' among 
the principal ingredients of the QuaiFs diet, an additional 
reason for its spreading further in dry seasons is at once 
apparent. 

One can scarcely suppose that any of the ordinary requisites 
of Quail-life are lacking in Ireland in a normal summer, con- 
sidering how common the bird formerly was here, many as a 
rule even staying the winter : during which season, as we 
learn from Thompson, seven-eighths of its food consisted 
of seeds of such invariably plentiful plants as Chickweed 
{Sidlaria media) and different species of Dock, Plantain, and 
Knot-grass. True, reclamation of waste land may have re- 
duced its facilities for enjoying this island as a winter home ; 
but the discontinuance of its summer visits remains an 
apparently insoluble puzzle. The diminished cultivation of 
wheat is sometimes assigned as the cause ; to this view, how- 
ever, there are several objections, besides the fact that in my 

* Thompson found slugs in only one of thirty Quails whose crops he 
examined ; these birds, however, had all been shot in winter or early 
spring. The one Quail had eaten 11 specimens of that highly mischie\piis 
slug, Jgrioiimojc agnstis. 

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iS96^] A New Bird-Book. 2&I 

(of course local) experience Quails show no partiality whatever 
for wheat-lands, but, if their distribution indicates a choice, 
prefer barley. In England, certainly, the Quail's decrease 
set in long before it did here ; and though wheat has never 
ceased to be extensively grown in that country. Quails, 
according to Mr. More {Ibis, 1865) had more than thirty years 
ago almost ceased to breed regularly in Britain, Moreover, 
Quails abounded in Elizabethan Ireland, scarcely a paradise of 
wheat-growers. The enormous numbers yearly netted on the 
Mediterranean passage have suggested another explanation, 
but apparently this cause had not, till quite recently, affected 
their abundance on the Continent ; in 1892 Mr. More (Irish 
Sportsman^ yLtcy 21) cited evidence to the negative. Still it is 
refreshing to learn that the French Government now strenu- 
ously combats this traffic ; giving us additional grounds 
for hope, that, should caprice of climate again fetch it to 
nest with us for a few successive seasons, the Quail's lost 
habit of annually visiting our shores may be re-acquired. 



A NEW BIRD-BOOK. 



A Concise HancllK>ok of Britlsli Birds. By H. Kirke Swann. 
London : J. Wheldon and Co., 1896. 31. 6d. 
The portableness and cheapness of this little volume fairly justify its 
claim to serve as a '* handy text-book for reference that has had as yet no 
rivals." It purports to give some account of every species occurring in 
the British Islands, defining the habitat, or range in the breeding season, 
of each, vritb brief descriptions (except where these are held to be un- 
necessaxy) of plumage, nidification, and general habits. To fulfil this 
task within the limits of 208 fcap. 8vo. pages was somewhat of a tour dt 
fme, and it must be added that the type of the book is good and not 
over cr owded. The principal shortcomings are such as might, under the 
circumstances, have been expected. Conciseness frequently degenerates 
into vagueness, as where a species is merely stated to nest in the 
" Northern Palaearctic region.*' The uselessness of this phrase becomes 
apparent when we find it applied without further detail to the breeding 
aieas of such a heterogeneous assortment of birds as the Merlin, Black 
Grouse, Lesser Spotted Woodpecker, Tengmalm*s Owl, and Jack Snipe I 
We should certainly be surprised to hear of the last named species nesting 
either with Tetrao tdrix, in the Apennines, or, with Demdrocopm minor, in 



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2o8 The Irish Naturalist. [August, 

the Azores. Again, the cnriously intercrossed Continental ranges of the 
Hooded and Carrion Crows deserved some delineation. It is disappoint- 
ing to find " Europe, excepting extreme north "~at once too little and 
too much — the sole definition of habitat accorded Corvus coronc To come 
nearer home, it is an encouraging fact that upon the subject of the Irish 
fauna our author has been at pains to compile his information from the 
best sources ; but here, too, it is to be feared that he has sacrificed too 
much to compression; ^^., we read that the Blackcap 'Mn Ireland 
breeds locally in nearly every county.'* Mr. Ussher in 1894 recorded it 
as known to breed regularly in four counties and occasionally in five 
others ; there was therefore a wide margin remaining to be filled. Mr. 
Swann's boiling-down process occasionally also mars his descriptions 
The male Crossbiirs plumage is described as *' suffused with light crim- 
son ** ; the fine clear yellow, which several ornithologists believe to 
indicate his full maturity, despite Mr. Seebohm*s conjecture that it 
belongs, perhaps, to " old and barren birds,*" is not mentioned. The 
Pheasant is likewise assumed to need no description ; although, as the 
author rightly observes that most of our Pheasants are of hybrid descent, 
it might have struck him that some mention of the distinguishing marks 
of a pure-bred Pkasianus colchicus could not be absolutely uncalled for. 
Nor would descriptions of Xheyotmg Pied Wagtail and Blue Titmouse, 
which differ much from the adult females, have been superfluous. The 
Black-headed Gull is said to breed *' all round our coasts.** This is mis- 
leading, for its breeding places are generally inland. Among the Jack- 
daw's nesting sites, rookeries and rabbit-burrows should have been 
mentioned (by an odd slip this bird*s habitat is stated to be the " Eastern 
Palsearctic region ^ ; and the description of the Willow-wren*s nest as 
" rarely on ground " vrill surprise many, and possibly puzzle not a few. 
The author's list of birds does not include Turdus migratorius or Chionis 
alba, both obtained in Ireland of late years under circumstances that 
seemed to indicate actual migration ; they might at least have received 
a place in the Appendix, in which thirty such doubtful '* Britishers' as 
the Golden-winged Woodpecker (Colapta auratus) are decorously shelved. 
Our author adopts *' trinominals ** for each of his seventeen sub-species 
Thus our indigenous Dipper is Cinclus cinclus aquaiicus (Bechst), and 
" Loxia curvirostra pityopsUtacus (Bechst)," is the Brobdingnagian title of the 
Parrot Crossbill, of which handsome bird it is fervently to be hoped that 
no new variety needing a quadrinominal appellative vrill be discovered. 

C. B. M. 



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1896.] 209 



THE BELFAST CLUB AND ITS WORK. 

Annual Report and Proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists* 
Field Club for the Year ending SIst March, 1896. Belfast : 
Printed for the Club, 1896. 
This, the narrative of the thirty-third year's work of the Belfast Field 
Club, has just been issued. It occupies sixty-six octavo pages, and fur- 
nishes interesting reading. From the annual report, we learn that " the 
creation of an entrance fee has acted as desired in keeping the member- 
ship of the Club within working bounds.'* As a matter of fact, it has had 
the effect of reducing the membership (which had been steadily rising 
for many years) from 516 to 480 — a result certainly not to be deplored, 
ibr, as we took occasion to remark last year, one of the weaknesses of 
this Society was the strength of its membership. The report contains 
several items which give evidence of the activity and width of scope of 
the Club's work. Thus, the Geologists' Association, London, and the 
Home Reading Union, had, during their visits to the North of Ireland, 
the hearty co-operation of the local Society, and this means a great deal 
where long excursions, often to somewhat inaccessible regions, are the 
order of the day. A hard week's work in geology was carried out under 
Professor Cole, each day being devoted to field work, each evening to prac- 
tical petrography. The Celtic Class has now forsaken the sheltering wing 
of the Club, and has started an independent existence as the Belfast Gaelic 
League. Nineteen pages are devoted to an account of the excursions 
of the year. These appear to have been uniformly successful, and we are 
glad to note at least a slight improvement on last year in the way of 
scientific results. The next fourteen pages go to the winter meetings, 
and brief, very brief, abstracts of the papers brought forward. Then 
follow reports from the Secretaries of the Microscopical, Geological, and 
Botanical Sections. The Geological Section has again a good deal to 
show for its year's work, and here, indeed, the energy of the Club appears 
to be centred. Glacial geology occupies the chief place, and if the listing 
of erratics, examination of boulder-clays, and general examination of the 
district is continued systematically, the results cannot fail to^throw much 
light on the Glacial Period in the North-east of Ireland. The " Pro- 
ceedings " are neatly printed on good paper, but we regret to notice not 
unfrequentmisprints—Burelythe Committee might avoid such a disfigure- 
ment of their publications. The volume is swelled by an 80 page appendix 
— •* A Bibliography of Irish Glacial and Post-Glacial Geology "—which 
will be noticed in our next number. 

R. Li*. P. 



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^lo The Irish Naturalist. CAvgnst, 

INSECTS COLLECTED ON LUGNAQUILLA AND IN 

GLENMALUR VALLEY, CO. WICKLOW. 

(For the R.I.A. Fanna and Flora Committee.) 

BY J. N. HAMBRT. 



Owing no doubt to the diflBculty of access, many of the most 
interesting parts of the highlands of Co. Wicklow are practically 
unknown as regards their insect fauna. Probably none of the 
old collectors possessed a greater knowledge of the county, 
exclusive of Lepidoptera, than the late A. H. Haliday, to 
whom, from certain evidence afforded by his collection^ it 
seems to have been a favourite hunting ground. Yet un- 
fortunately he left few systematic notes of his own experiences 
for the assistance of future workers, resting contented with 
the recording of a comparatively small number of his captures, 
as for example, his discovery of the most interesting ground- 
beetle Calathus nubigina, Hal., from the summit of Lugnaquilla. 
Accompanied by my friend Mr. M'Ardle, I paid a brief visit 
to this district at the end of last month. The day selected for 
the attempt seemed at first unfavourable, threatening clouds 
had gathered and mists hung about the hills, but as we 
approached Drumgoff the weather fortunately cleared and we 
succeeded in reaching the summit of the mountain, after a 
toilsome climb under a scorching sun. We made the ascent by 
the Clohemagh Brook, which seemed to be the readiest way 
from the Drumgoff side, although a safer route might be 
found in a wet season. On the following day we explored the 
fine old birch and oak wood clothing the eastern side of the 
valley for over a mile of its extent. This wood seemed to 
teem with larvae, and I have no doubt a collector of Lepidoptera 
would reap a rich harvest by a little hard work, as the pos- 
sibilities of finding rare species are undoubtedly great The 
following list contains the most notable of the Coleoptera and 
Hemiptera, excluding many common species. 

COLEOPTERA. 
Caratous catanulatusi Scop. — Slopes of Lugnaquilla. It was de. 

cidedly disappointing not to find either C. giabraim or C. clalhratus ; 

no doubt both occur \ the latter has been taken by Mr. H. G. Cuth- 

bert on the Great Sugar-loaf. 
Notlophllus palustrls» Duft.— Abundant Also on summit 



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1S96.] H ALBERT. — insects collected in County Wicklow. 21 1 

Nebrla Gyllenhally Sch.— Abundant, both the red and black-legged 
forms occurred on the summit. 

Calathus melanocephalus, L., var. nublffena, Hal.— Specimens 
of the variety occurred both on the summit and lower slopes, having 
the thorax entirely suflfused with black, and having the legs and 
antennae pitchy. The type seems to be extremely rare, or absent 
&om the district. 

Taplirla nlvall8» Panz.— Common in Glenmalur valley. 

Traclius mlnutuSy'P., var. oiytusus, Br.— Abundant on summit, 
where I found one example of the type ; all had the wings rudimen- 
tary, not exceeding one and a half mm. in length. Type specimens 
from the lowlands are said to be always winged- 

Patrobus asslmlllSf Chaud. — A fine series obtained on summit 

Phllonttiusaddendus^Sharp. \ Glenmalur Wood. 

Halyzia xvl-flruttata» L. S 

Byrrlius pi II u la* L.— Common under stones on the slopes and summit 
of Lngnaquilla. 

B. fasciatusv P.— One specimen. 

Phyllopertlia liortlcoIa« L— This insect, the well-known 'June-bug,* 
simply swarmed in the valley and over the hill-sides. It will 
probably be very abundant this season in Ireland. A few examples 
of the diark form were noted. 

Corymbltas queroust Gylt— Common with variety ochropterusv 
Steph. 

Dasclllus c«rvlnu8f L— Frequent on Bracken, 

Podabrus alplnu8« Payk.— Common in Glenmalur Valley by sweep- 
ing, also beaten off Larch, Broom, etc. All having the elytra black. 
A local species, has occurred near Dublin, in Tollymore Park, Co. 
Down, and at Rostrevor (Furlong). 

Teleptiorus p«IIucldu8« F.— With preceding, but rarer. 

T. f IffuratuSf Mann.— Taken by sweeping rushes at the edge of the 
Clohernagh Brook. Although never definitely recorded, this insect 
occurs in other localities, but has hitherto passed under the name of 
T. hamorrhoulalis, F. These Glenmalur specimens seem to be quite 
dark enough to pass for T. scoUcus, Sharp ; but as they do not agree 
m toto with the description of that variety, it is more satisfactory to 
refer them to the type. (I am indebted to Mr. G. C. Champion for 
verifying this identification.) 

T, paludosusy Mann.— In same locality as the foregoing. Not pre- 
viously recorded from Ireland. Mr. Haliday's collection contains a 
single example marked as Irish, but bearing no locality label. This 
is, in all probability, from the same place. The species is found in 
northern and moimtainous districts in Britain. 

Rtiaconycha pallida, F.— Abundant in Glenmalur Wood. 

Donacla discolor y Panz. — Common in swampy places on the lower 
slopes of Lngnaquilla. 

D#poraus iMtulSBfL. \ Both abundant on Birch in Glen- 

Polydrusus corvlnus, L. > malurWood. 



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212 The Irish Naturalist [August, 



HEMIPTERA. 
The following species were taken in Glennialur Wood : — Acamthosma 
futfiiorrhoidak^ Calocoris striaidlus off Oaks, Cyllocoris histrionicus^ Harpocera, 
thoracica^ Phylus melanacephalus, Psailus variatis. In the valley and on the 
lower slopes of Lugnaquilla occurred: — Vdia currens, Miris haisatus^ and 
Heterocordylm tibialis^ the last abundantly oflf Broom. The sub-alpine 
species Gerris costa^ H. S.» occurred on small bog-pools at a considerable 
altitude on Lugnaquilla in company with the common G, lacuslris. 



NOTES. 



BOTANY. 



Teesdalla nudlcaulls In Ireland.— On June 2dth I had the 
pleasure of receiving from Mrs. Leebody fine specimens of this plant 
which she had gathered on 26th inst. on the sandy shore of Washing 
Bay, on Lough Neagh, in Co. Tyrone. This locality is at the south-west 
corner of the lake, in a remote and unfrequented place, and Mrs. Leebody 
reports that the plant grows in abundance there. Although Teadalia 
is distributed all over England, and in Scotland as far north as 
Elgin, it has not hitherto been known in Ireland, and furnishes an in- 
teresting addition to our flora. 

R. LW)YD PraKCER. 

Lepldlum Draba* L — In the Journal of Botany for July, Mr. 
Britten notes the receipt of a specimen of this alien from roadside near 
Enniscorthy, Co. Wexford. The finder*s name is not stated. 

Plnffulculasrandlflora, Lam. , Introduced InCo. Wexford. 

—I think it may be of interest to record the successful establishment of 
a colony of IHnguicula grandiflora in Co. Wexford. About half-a-dozen 
roots were brought from Co. Cork in 1879, and planted in a bog at the 
foot of Blackstairs Mountain ; these have now increased to twenty-seven 
plants, and they bloom beautifully every year in May. The only butter- 
wort which is indigenous to these parts is Pinguicula lusitankcu 

E. V. Cooper, Killanne, Ca Wexford. 

Mercurlalls perennis In Co. Monaflrhan.— Mr. W. F. de V. 

Kane has sent me specimens of this plant from Bellanode near 
Monaghan, where it grows in a hedge-bank. It has long been known 
to grow in the adjoining county of Armagh, but is local and rare in 
Ireland. 

R. Li,0YD PraBGER. 



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1896.] Notes. 213 

ZOOLOGY. 

CRUSTACEANS. 

Trichonlscus roseus, Koch.— This very rare wood-louse I find 

fairly plentiful among damp cinders and old bricks in a comer of my own 

jard. Dr. Scharff, who verified the specimens for me, found it under 

similar conditions in Dublin in autumn (/.M, 1894, p. 26). 

R. Wei,CH, Belfast. 



INSECTS, 
Vespa norvefflca* F., at Omeath* Co. Louth.— I spent June 
25th at Omeath, and while searching for beetles on some young fir trees, 
I nearly ran against a wasp's nest hanging from the branch of a Larch. 
Having retreated to a safe distance, I watched my opportunity and suc- 
ceeded in capturing several specimens of the workers, and obtained a 
male from another nest which had been taken close by. The yellow base 
of the antennae showed me that I had got something different from 
V. vulgarisy and on my return home I found that the specimens I had cap- 
tured belonged to the above species. The wasps were too busy to be 
vicious, for I stood only about eight feet from the nest while catching 
them, and none attempted to attack me. 

W. F. Johnson, Poyntzpass. 

SPIDERS. 
Atypus In KInff's Co.— Rev. Canon Russell writes that the Afypus 
tube from King's Co., recorded in the Irish Naturalist for June, was found 
by Mrs. Reamsbotham. 



MOLLUSCS. 

Helix arpustorum.— During a short visit to Ballycastle, North 
Antrim, in May, I spent a day collecting at Murlough Bay, and was for- 
tunate enough to find some fine specimens of this beautiful shell among 
Nettles in the plantation, which I had often searched before without 
success. Thompson recorded it from Lame, and specimens collected by 
Waller about thirty years ago, are labelled Drumnasole (near Camlough). 
Dr. Scharff tells me that he does not know of any other finds later than 
those for this district The three other localities in which this shell was 
lately found, are in Donegal, Armagh, and Sligo, as recorded in the Irish 
Naturalist, 

R. Wei<ch, Belfast. 

West of Ireland Mollusca.— Messrs. Edward Collier and Robert 
Standen contribute to the April number of the Journal of Conchology 
a good paper on the mollusca collected on the Galway excursion 
of the Field Club Union last year. Mr. Standen contributed to this 
Journal a full list of the species found, which was published in the special 
" Galway Conference " number (Septembef , 1895). The present paper is 
aort detailed, and deals particularly with the apeciea and varietiea of 
Uad end frtih-WAter ahtlla collected on that ezcuraloa. 



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214 The Irish Naturalist. [Angust, 

BIRDS. 
Amerlcmn Robin In Connauffht.-— Duringa recentvisitto Carrick- 
on-Shannon, I was informed by Mr. C. C. Beresford Whyte that his 
keeper at Newtown Manor, near Lough Gill, had shot there and pre- 
served a strange thrush with a red breast. On visiting the place, I was I 
shown the bird by Mr. Robert West, whom I found to be a most ob- 
servant and careful man. I placed him in communication with Dr. 
Scharff, and the result is that the bird is now in the Science and Art 
Museum, Dublin, the second example obtained in Ireland ; the previous 
one, also in the Museum, having been shot in Co. Dublin on 4th May, 
1891. Mr. West writes about his bird — "The thrush was shot on or 
about 7th December, 1892, in a large water-meadow very near the shore 
of Lough Gill, Newtown Manor side, feeding with a similar bird, also 
with Snipe, Lapwing, Fieldfares, and Redwings. By my diary I find the 
heavy snow began to thaw on the 5th." Unlike the previous occurrence 
in May, this specimen was obtained at the end of a very severe period of 
frost and snow in December. 

R. J. USSHKR, Cappagh, Co. Waterford. 

Occurrenoe of the Crane (Qrus communis) at indi. 
Louffli 8wllly.— On 24th June, Mr. John M'Connell, of Bnrtslob 
House, brought me for identification a fine male specimen of the above 
species, which he had shot the previous evening on Inch Slobs. The 
following are particulars taken by me. Total length, 424 inches ; wing. 
224 inches; expanse from tip to tip, 6 feet 5 inches; bill, 4 inches; 
weight, 8 lbs. 12 ozs. The plumes were very slightly developed, the red 
brown warty patch on the top of head was very prominent. The plum- 
age was light gray, tinged very faintly with brown, primaries and 
secondaries black, latter tinged with gray. This is another rarity added 
by Mr. M*Connell to the list of Inch birds. 

D. C Campbbi^i,, Londonderry. 

The Quail In Co. Monaflrhan.— On 26th May I heard the Quail 
in the neighbourhood of Newtownbutler. 

W. MacMili^an, Enniskillen. 

Cormorants In Co. Donearal.— Mr. H, C Hart contributes to 
the Zoologist for June, a note on the nesting habits of the Great and Green 
Cormorants, as observed by him near Portsalon. 

Razorbill on Louffti Neaffli.— Whilst sailing on Lough Neagh 
yesterday a Razorbill passed flying close to the boat and alighted on the 

water some 200 yards further. ,x x> w « * . . 

H. D. M. Barton, Antrim. 

Qtock Doves In Co. Doufn. — Some years since I addressed a note 
to your paper on the subject of these birds being seen and nesting in Co. 
Antrim. Since that time I have frequcnUy seen them in this locality, 
but have only now learned that they breed in considerable numbers in 
the Moume Mountains, Co. Down. This year I have had reliable infor- 
mation of no less than five nests being found, all of them placed in 
rabbit holes on the face of a rather steep mountain and within a radios 

of less than half a mile. 

^ H. D. M. Barton, Antrim- 



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1896.] 215 

PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



ROYAi, ZoowKJiCAi, Society. 
Recent donations comprise a seal from L. Powell, Esq. ; a monkey 
from C S. Donnelly, Esq. ; a pair of Axolotls, and six Japanese Fantail 
Goldfish from J. B. 0*Callaghan, Esq., and a Squirrel from Sergt. Talbot. 
12,200 persons visited the Gardens in June. 

Dubinin Mickoscopicai, Ci^ub. 

Junk 18th.— The Club met at the house of Mr. F. W. Moork, who 
showed SpkarosHlbeJkttHhviridis, This species belongs to the same group 
of Pnngi as VoiuiellaBn^ Myrotheciuniy species of which had been exhibited 
by Mr. Moore on former occasions. The present species was found 
growing on the condensed sap which had exuded from a cut shoot of 
Bmanontia grandiflora in a stove house at Glasnevin. The peculiar stem- 
like structure, made up of a number of hyphse joined together, was well 
shown. The conidia-bearing ends formed a roundish structure of 
small dimensions, of a yellowish green colour. The species is scarce. 

Mr. G. H. Carpenter showed Chernes phaUraius, Simon, a false-scorpion 
new to the Irish feuna, taken at Woodenbridge, Ca Wicklow, by Mr. 
J. N. Halbert. The species occurs in the New Forest, England, and at 
Fontainebleau, France. 

Mr. Henry J. Seymour showed a thin section of the phonolite from 
Blackball Head, discovered by Mr. W. W. Watts, and mentioned in his 
Guide to the Geological Survey's Collection of Rocks (p. 91). This rock, 
which is very compact, and of a dark green colour, is the only recorded 
occurrence of a phonolite in Ireland. 



Irish Fiei»d Cr,UB Union. 
A general account of the joint excursion made to Cavan and Lough 
Oughter on July loth to 13th, appears on a previous page ojf the present 
nrnnber. 

Bei^past Naturai^ists* Fiei^d Ci,ub. 

June aoth.— Gi,enarm. On account of the inclement weather, only a 
very small number went to Glenarm, and little work was done. A couple 
of souterrains were visited at the Sallagh Braes and the old fort, and a 
few ordinary plants collected. The return was made by the coast road 
past Camcastle. 

Geoi,ogicai, Section, 24th June.— F. W. I/>ckwood in the chair. 
Miss S. M. Thompson exhibited specimens and sections of the riebeckite- 
bearing rocks of Skye and Ailsa Craig, obtained from the collection 
in Jcrmyn St., through the kind assistance of W. W. Watts, F.G.S., etc. 
Other rock specimens were shown, and twenty-four microscopic sections 
presented by the Rev. J. Andrew ; pamphlets by Prof. Coi,E ; erratics 
by R. Bei^i^ and a collection of Red Crag fossils by the Chairman. 



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2i6 The Irish Naturalist [August, 189^ 

An Excursion to Glenavy on the i8th July proved fruitless, owing U 
the flooded condition of Lough Neagh, which prevented access to X\x{ 
leaf-beds which formed the object of the expedition. 

Dublin Naturawsts' Field Club. 
June 27. — Bkctive and the Boyne.— A party of about twenty-fiv< 
members proceeded to Kilmessan by the 9.30 train, and walked thenc< 
to Bective, to explore the portion of the valley of the Boyne, The well 
known and picturesque ruin of Bective Abbey was first visited, and thel 
the members scattered, a botanical party making for the marshy margins 
of the rivers, while others proceeded to Trim, to examine the antiquitiej 
of that historic town. The botanists found the reedy margins of th^ 
Boyne highly interesting, and many rare plants were gathered, inclndinj 
the Meadow Rue {Thalietrtun flavum\ Spearwort (Ranunculus Lingua} 
Marsh Stitchwort {Siellaria glauca)^ Narrow-leaved Water Parsnip {Siut^ 
angustifolium), .Great Water- Dock {Rumex HydrolapcUhum\ Frc^-bi| 
{Hydrocharis Morsus^rancc\ Sweet Flag {Acorus Calamus), Lesser Bank SedgJ 
{Carex paludosa), and Reed Meadow Grass {Glyceria aquatua), while th^ 
great groves of reeds and bull-rushes, 9 or 10 feet in height, addd 
pictiiresqueness to the scene. On the dry banks overlooking th< 
marshes were the Gromwell (Lithospcmium officinale)^ Vervain {Verbem 
officinalis)^ Teazel {Dipsacus sylvesltis), and Goat's-beard {Tragopogoi^ 
pratensis). Entomology was not represented in the party, but th< 
botanists discovered in the stems of the Reed-mace the larvae oiNonagrii 
iypha. Subsequently the party returned to Kilmessan, where tea waj 
served by Miss Gardiner. Time was still left for a stroll, and in a gravd 
pit in the village the botanists again scored, finding among other planti 
the Henbane {Hyoscyamus niger), three of the four British species of poppj 
(P. Rhaasy dubiutn, Argemone), the pUrple Hempnettle {Galeopsis LadoMum) 
the Swine's Cress (Senebiira Coronopus), and other uncommon plants 
By roadsides and in fields during the walk there were noted the Fiel< 
Chamomile (^Matricaria Chamomilla), Wild Mignonette {Reseda luteal 
Toothed Corn-Salad (^ Fo/^ww/Az dentata). Good King Henry {Cfunopodiu^ 
Bonus- Henricus\ and Rough Chervil {Chcsrophyllum temulumy The partj 
returned to town at 8.45. 

Cork Naturalists' Field Club. 

June 10.— A small party visited the grounds of BallincoUig Powdej 
Mills and the Lee Valley. 

July i.— Carrigaline and Revine's Point were visited. Thirtee^ 
members went and had a most enjoyable drive of about twenty milej 
each way. Several stoppages were made to enable botanists and otheri 
to collect, and a good number of specimens were obtained, though n^ 
records were made. 

July it.— The glen between Waterfall Station and BallincoUig waJ 
explored by a good number, and jHelded a good supply of flowers an(] 
insects to collectors. 



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Sept, 1896.] 217 

NOTES ON THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF 
CLONBROCK, CO. GALWAY. 

PREFATORY NOTE. 
BY E. J. McWEENEY, M.D., AND R. I,I,OYD PRAEGER, B.E. 



Among the many results which have followed, directly or 
indirectly, the Galway Conference of the Irish Field Clubs in 
1895. and the gathering and intercourse of naturalists on that 
occasion, few will be looked back to with greater pleasure and 
interest by those who were so fortunate as to participate in it, 
than the week spent in June last by a representative party of 
the Dublin Naturalists* Field Club at Clonbrock, Co. Galway, 
[)n the invitation of our fellow-member, the Hon. R. E. Dillon. 
k very deep debt of gratitude is due to our host and hostess, 
the Right Hon. Lord Clonbrock and Lady Clonbrock, whose 
unfailing kindness was only exceeded by the interest they 
iisplayed in our researches, and the assistance they rendered 
IS in numberless ways. When to this is added the fact that 
ivery corner of the large estate was thrown open to us, and 
lU the resources of the estate placed at our disposal, it will be 
leen that we pursued our field work under circumstances of 
musual advantage and pleasure. 

It may be well to preface the scientific notes of the different 
nembers of the party with a general narrative of our doings. 

On Tuesday, June i6th, the party, consisting of R. F. Scharfi^, 
B.D., E J. McWeeney, m.d., David M*Ardle, and J. N. Halbert, 
eft Dublin by the 9.15 train for Ballinasloe, which was reached 
1 12.30. The party was met at the station by one of Lord 
Ilonbrock's carriages, into which M*Ardle and Halbert lost no 
ime in transferring themselves, whilst Scharff'and McWeeney 
lounted their machines, and the 8^ miles to Clonbrock were 
uickly negotiated. The party was received by Lord and 
.ady Clonbrock and the Hon. R. E. Dillon, and after lunch 
'ere accompanied round the ground and gardens, and through 
le more nearly adjoining woods. They visited the "Old 
tchard," a veritable jungle of densely packed plant-life, and 
assing into the open wood were shown the bank on which 
rows that most remarkable fungus Morchdla elata. This 
mk in Clonbrock Wood and its immediate neighbourhood 
re the only British localities for the " Tall-growing Morel." 

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2i8 The Irish Naturalist [Sept, 

Ocular demonstration of its existence here was afforded by 
the numerous shrivelled and dried-up specimens with which 
the slope was studded. 

After dinner Mr. Dillon conducted a party to examine 
the contents of an apparatus devised by himself for trapping 
moths, whilst the non-entomologists sat in the large drawing- 
room — converted, by the way, into an admirably commodious 
laboratory — and discussed plans for the morrow. 

Wednesday opened windy and wet. The enthusiasm of the 
party scorned such slight drawbacks, and it was not long after 
ten when they started, under the leadership of Mr. Dillon, for 
the western pine-wood and neighbouring boggy land. The 
chief botanical feature which was observed in the pine 
wood was the enormous abundance of the Tway-blade 
{Listera ovaia), which was here quite the commonest herb 
McWeeney observed a cluster-cup fungus growing abundantly 
on the back of its leaves, and betraying its presence by yello>« 
spots on the upper surface. It proved to be a stage in the lif< 
history of a "rust," Puccinia molinice, A rare ladybird beetle 
Chilocoris bipustulaiuSy was taken by Halbert, who also secure* 
on Sheep-pool Bog a crab-spider, Xysticus sabulosus^ new t< 
Ireland, and a rare and interesting wolf-spider, Pardos 
herbigrada^ also new to Ireland, figured in the current numbe 
(Plate 3). 

At two o'clock all were back at the house for lunch, an 
afterwards most of the party started off to explore the sot 
side of the river as far as the avenue ; others, having a 
siderable number of specimens to work through, remained j 
home. Mr. Dillon had occasion to go across the lawn to \ 
pheasantry, which he uses as a breeding-place for moths i 
butterflies, and returned in a few minutes with two fu^ 
that he had found in the pheasantry. One of them, a 
club-shaped specimen, about two inches long, was gro^ 
out of a huge chrysalis, and was none other than the fam j 
Cordyceps militarise which mysteriously originates from 
dopterous larvae. This carnivorous fungus, though 
absolutely uncommon in England, has been detected hith^ 
in Ireland only at Powerscourt {Irish Naturalist ^ Oct., ij 
The other specimen was a beautiful little agaric, Lt 
felina, Fr., which has not previously been recorded 
Ireland. 

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1896.] 'i/LcWnniimYSc'PtiAMGn^.^FafmaandFiora^C/ondfVck. 219 

The day concluded with a demonstration of specimens after 
dinner— and the usual moth-hunt, from which the enthu- 
siastic lepidopterists were in nowise deterred by the heavy 
rain. 

On Thursday the whole party went to the woods and 
separated, each collector going whithersoever his instinct led 
him to hope for booty. Lachnea hemisphccrica — a fungus new 
to Ireland — was found on the damp soil in the pine-wood ; 
while Halbert secured the rare ground-beetle, Calathus piceus, 
in the oak-wood, and Oreciochilus villosus in Clonbrock River. 
After lunch most of the party returned to the wood. The 
evening was spent arranging specimens and looking at 
microscopic preparations, M*Ardle's demonstration of the 
rotatory movements of the protoplasm in an intemodal cell of 
Chara being much appreciated. 

>0n Friday morning the party separated, Mr. Dillon proceed- 
ing on foot with M*Ardle and Halbert to Doon Wood, whilst 
Scharff and McWeeney cycled to near Mount Bellew, and did 
some collecting along the road. Doon Wood proved a good 
entomological locality, yielding a beetle, Phalacrus substri- 
afus, and two spiders, Comiaclaria vigilax and Teiragnaiha 
chlusa, all new to Ireland. Returning to Clonbrock at i.o, 
they picked up a well-stocked luncheon basket at the house, 
and rejoined their colleagues at Doon Wood. Some good 
work was done by M'Ardle in the domain of flowering plants. 
He had taken the Bee Orchis {Ophrys apt/era), and Marsh 
Helleborine {Epipaciis palustris) to preserve. A striking 
feature of Doon Wood is the enormous abundance oi Lisiera 
^^afa, and the luxuriant development of the plant. One 
specimen, which measured 27 inches in height, was brought 
home, but Praeger, on being shown the specimen later on in 
tthe evening, recollected having found this plant four feet high, 
fhich caused the Doon specimen to hide its diminished head. 
biting on the homeward journey, the party passed through 
lie deer-park. Here Mr. Dillon pointed out Iris fcetidissima. 
n turning over a large trunk, McWeeney came across a flufiy 
lingal mass which proved to be Botryosporium diffusum, Ca., 
>neofthe most exquisite of British moulds. At dinner the 
>arty was joined by Praeger, who had come through from 
^ndonderr>% ^^'^ Belfast and Dublin, since the previous 
^ening. 

I ^ - ^ 

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220 The Irish Naturalist. [Sept, 

On Saturday afternoon Scharff and McWeeney had to leave 
for Dublin, much to their regret, so they did not join the 
party which started at lo.o in a wagonette for some extensive 
bogs to the northward. We first examined a wood near 
Tycooly House, and then spread out over the adjoining bog. 
Here Praeger made an interesting find, the Brown Beak-rush 
{Rhynchospora fusca\ a very rare plant in the British Isles, and 
• in Ireland known previously only from stations much nearer 
the western ocean. It was subsequently found again growing 
in profusion on bogs at Killasolan, with its congener R. alba. 
Tramping over an extensive bog, we visited the banks of the 
Shiven River, which were ornamented with tufts of Royal 
Fern, and came back by the Killasolan bogs. A rapid drive 
brought us back in time for dinner, and a long evening among 
our specimens. 

Sunday dawned fine. At breakfast specimens of the Birds- 
nest Orchis {Neottia Nidus-avis) were produced by Praeger, 
gathered under beech-trees not far from the house. His 
morning ramble had a more important result, for a pondweed 
collected in the Clonbrock River, and at the time unknown, is 
believed by Mr. Arthur Bennett to be a new form of the rare 
Potamogeton lanceolatus ; study of the growing plant will, it 
is hoped, settle its identity. M'Ardle, Halbert, and Praeger 
were early afoot, and investigated the bog beyond the ** Lurgan 
Plantation" and the Clonbrock River adjoining. In the after- 
noon, accompanied by Lord and Lady Clonbrock, we explored 
the Deer-park, and pushed on to Doon, where the abundant 
Orchid-flora of that place — including the Bee Orchis, Marsh 
Helleborine, Sweet-scented Orchis, Butterfly Orchis, Frog 
Orchis, Tway-blade, and others — was again studied with 
admiration and interest. Specimen of Cholcva pimata^ a beetle 
new to Ireland, occurred in dead birds in the woods. 

On Monday morning we drove eastward to the River Suck, 
which here bounds the counties of Gal way and Roscommon, 
and spent some highly profitable hours collecting along its 
banks in the neighbourhood of Bellagill bridge. This place 
yielded a rich haul of flowering plants to the botanists, though 
l)oor in cryptogams; while the entomologists secured in 
Trechiis discus a ground-beetle new to Ireland, and in Erirrhinus 
athiops a very rare weevil. But our work was doomed to 
interruption in the afternoon. The rain, which had threatened 

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1896.] yLcWunNnY&1^BAnG^k.^FaunaandFlora,Oon6rocJk. 221 

all moniing, at last came down in earnest, and it was a 
drenched and bedraggled party that reached Clonbrock at 
about four o'clock. The rain continued, so we spent a very 
busy afternoon putting away specimens, and sorting and 
arranging the spoil of the last few days. 

The pleasantest time must have an end, and on Tuesday 
morning we bade a grateful adieu to our host and hostess, and 
drove to Ballinasloe, stopping for an hour at some gravel-pits 
by the roadside, which yielded a number of plants which we 
had not seen at any other place in the district — plants, such 
as the poppies, which love light soils. Ballinasloe was reached 
in good time, and in due course we once again glided under 
the familiar roof of firoadstone terminus. 



LAND PLANARIANS AND LEECHEa 
BY R. F. SCHARPP, PH.D. 



Several specimens of the only British land planarian, 
Rhyruhodemus terrcstris (almost all planarians being either 
• marine or freshwater species), was secured under dead tree- 
trunks in Clonbrock forest. This little worm, as I pointed out 
in Nature (vol. 50, p. 617), is exceedingly rare, and is only 
known from about a dozen European localities. This is the 
second Irish record, having been first discovered in Ireland 
at Blackrock, near Dublin, by Miss Kelsall. It is a very 
inconspicuous black slug-like worm, about half an inch in 
length, and it seems to love damp shady places. 

Halbert and I took several hauls in the Clonbrock river on 
the second day, and among other interesting objects, secured 
two species of freshwater leeches, viz., Glossiphonia complanata, 
L., and C heteroclita, I^ They are both about half an 
inch long when at rest, and are parasitic on water-snails. 
The former, which is the commoner of the two, is of a reddish- 
grey colour and semitransparent, so that its internal organs 
are plainly visible. Another curious feature about this leech 
is that it carries its young about with it, and one of the speci- 
mens taken had about a dozen very minute leeches fixed to 
the underside of the mother by their posterior sucker. The 
other leech is yellowish, and its six eyes are arranged in a 
triangle, so that with an ordinary lens only three are visible, 
though each of these is really composed of two. 

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i22 The Irish Naturalist. LSept, 

EARTHWORMS. 
BY RKV. HIU^ERIC FRIKND, F.IrS. 



Through the kindness of Dr. ScharflF I have been able to 
examine a typical set of Earthworms from Clonbrock, Co. 
GaJway, which contained several species already recorded 
for other parts of the country. I submit a full list of species 
received. 

Lumbrlcus herculeus, Savigny (Common Earthworm). Usually 
known as Lttmbrkus terrestris, A fine typical specimen, well developed, 
with j^irdle extending over segments 32-37. On one side of segments 
25, 26, there were ventral papillae such as often occur in adult forms. 
The specimen was placed in spirits and returned to Dublin. 

Lumbrlcus rubellus, HofFmeister (Red Worm). This worm hasthc 
good fortune to be without synonyms. It is known by the girdle ex- 
tending across segments 27-32. Sometimes it begins abnormally on 
segment 26. The colour is purple and iridescent It is much smaller 
than the last, and often twice as large as the next, which in other respects 
it very closely resembles. It has no papillae on segment 15 in connection 
with the male apertures. 

Lumbrlcus castaneus* Savigny (Purple Worm). Long known u 
L.purpureus, A small, clean, lively worm, with girdle on segments 28-33. 
There is here also an absence of glandular swellings on the fifteenth 
segment. ^ # 

Lumbrlcus rubescensy Friend (Ruddy Worm). Beddard regards 
this as synonymous with the Enterion festtvum of Savigny, and the 
Lumbrlcus fcstivus of Dug^. Though the accounts of the worm given 
by these two authors are brief and imperfect, I am prepared to accept 
the identification, in which case the worm will be known as Lumbricui 
festivtts (Savigny). I first described it in Nature, 189 1, p. 273. 

Allolobophora foetlday Savigny (Brandling). A well-marked 
species, abundant in old manure, and much sought after by the angler. 
It exudes a yellow fluid when irritated, and is known by its alternate 
yellow and ruddy-brown coloured bands. 

Al lolobophora subrublcunda, Eisen (Gilt-tail). A worm with a 
large list of names, first differentiated by Dr. Gustav Eisen, in 1S73. It 
is often no more then an inch in length, though it sometimes reaches 
three inches. The girdle covers segments 26-31, and it is a great 
favourite with certain kinds of fish. 

Allolobophora chlorotica, Savigny (Green Worm> There is 
usually little difficulty in identifying this species, first on account of its 
well-marked colour and habits, and next because of the three pairs oi 
pores {Juberciila) on alternate segments 31, 33, 35. It usually coils itsell 
up when disturbed, and is very sluggish. 



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LAND AND FRESHWATER MOLLUSCA. 
BY R. F. SCHARFF, PH.D. 



As one would expect from the abundance of wood, most oi 
the species of Hyalinia are abundant in the Clonbrock 
demesne, especially the otherwise rare Garlic Snail {Hyalinia 
alliaria). When writing my paper on the Irish Land and 
Freshwater MoUusca (Irish Naturalist, vol. i., 1892), I was 
under the impression that the European range of this species 
?ras much more restricted than it really is, having since taken 
it on the BrUnig Pass in Switzerland (see Nachrichtsblatt d. d. 
Malakolj Gesellsch. 1895). Another uncommon species which 
is known only from three or four Irish localities is Hyalinia 
Draparnaudu The commonest species were H nitidula, H 
cellaria, and H crystallina. Both H pura and H radiatula 
were noticed under decaying leaves and twigs, and also H 
fuiva. 

As regards slugs, they were not so abundant, not even the 
ubiquitous Agriolimax agrestis, whilst A^ Usvis was not to be 
seen anywhere. The only really common slug was Limax 
marginattis (arborum) which gracefully glided up and down 
the dripping tree-trunks after the heavy showers we had. 
Under leaves and dead wood were secured Arion ater. (the 
brown and black forms), A, subfuscus, A. hortensis (the bluish 
variety), A. circumscriptus f BourguignatiJ , and A, intermedins 
(minimus), also Limax maximus, but I was much surprised 
not to meet with a single specimen of the keeled slugs^ 
belonging to the genus Amalia. 

I was delighted to meet with such a ntimber of the rarer 
Helices at Clonbrock. The stems of the stately Beech-trees 
are tenanted by numerous H. fusca, one of the rarest species 
of British Helices, and which in other localities I had only 
observed among the leaves of Luzula sylvatica. Other rare 
species found among leaves on the ground were Helix 
lamellata, //. aaileata, and H. pygm^sa, whilst H, rupestris 
occurred among the crevices of old limestone walls. 
McWeeney was fortunate in discovering a scalariform monstro- 
sity of Helix rotundata among the small fungi he was examin- 
ing- I had never seen such a form before, and quickly trans- 
ierred it to my collection. H rufescens, our commonest 



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224 The Irish Naturalist, [Sept, 

Dublin garden snail, is exceedingly rare at Clonbrock. Other 
species of Helix observed were H. hispida^ H. ericetorum, and 
H. nemoralis. Not a trace anywhere of the common Helix 
aspersa, Cochlicopa lubrica and Clausilia bidentata abounded; 
indeed, as Mr. Dillon observed, the denomination bidentata 
seems somehow or other to have always been applied to very 
common species. » 

The rare Pupa anglica — a species confined to southern 
Europe and a few British localities— was abundant ; at any 
rate it was more common than P, cylindracea {umbilicatd). 
Vertigo was represented by the sylvan V. edentula, whilst V, 
pygmcea was noticed under stones at the roadside on the way 
to Mount Bellew. 

Near the river I found among the thickly-growing reeds 
Succinea Pfeifferi, which I think should be looked upon as a 
distinct species, and not as a variety of the South European 
S. eleganSy as I formerly thought. 

In the Clonbrock river itself were taken Limncea stagnalis, 
Physa fontinalis, Bythinia tentaculata, Valvata piscinalis, and 
Neritina fiuviatilis. In a cold spring near the house, I found 
numerous very fine examples of a form somewhat intermediate 
between the typical Limncsa peregra and L. ovata^ and on 
Doon Bog I secured specimens of Z. truruatula. 

The more remarkable absentees, besides those already 
referred to, include the following : Helix acutOy H. virgata, 
and H, intersecta, Balea perversUy Clausilia laminata, and the 
genera Planorbis, Ancylus, and Sphcerium, 

Altogether the demesne and the surrounding country of 
Clonbrock are thoroughly good hunting-grounds for the 
conchologist, and I am convinced that further search, 
especially along the river Suck, whence Halbert brought 
me Limnaa palustris^ would yield an additional number of 
species. 



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1896.] 325 

ISOPODS. 
BY R. P. SCHARPP, PH.D. 

Thb large grey Oniscus asellus is exceedingly abundant under 
logs of wood, under stones, and under all kinds of refuse. The 
very minute red woodlouse (Trichoniscus pusillus) is common 
in Cionbrock wood under moss, and indeed everywhere where 
there is sufficient dampness to suit its comfort. Philoscia 
ipfttw^rwiw, which swiftly darts about among the twigs and moss, 
and Porcellio scaber frequent much drier localities. All these 
are species which occur in almost all parts of Ireland, and, 
except MdopanorthuspruinosuSiXiO rare woodlice were observed. 
The latter occurs at Cionbrock only among garden refuse, 
and even there it is very scarce. 

The most striking feature is the absence of the ' Pill Wood- 
louse' (^fvyfa^t/Zx^iKi^ vulgare), a species which is so abundantly 
met with around Dublin. 



SPIDBRS. 

BY GBORGK H. CARPENTER, B.SC. 

Unabi«B to join the Cionbrock collecting-party myself, I looked 
forward eagerly to the examination of the spiders and harvest- 
men which Scharff and Halbert were so good as to secure for 
me from that now famous locality. The result proves most 
gratifying, as the thirty-three species of spiders collected 
comprise five which I had not before identified from any part 
of Ireland. Several of the other species are now recorded as 
Irish for the first time. This collection must represent but a 
small fraction of the spider-fauna of the district, and many 
other novelties and rarities doubtless await discovery there. 

I had some hopes that traces of Atypus^OMX only British 
genus of the Aviculariida^ whose nest has recently been dis- 
covered in King's Co.' — might have been found at Cionbrock. 
These expectations, however, were disappointed ; nor was a 
species of the Dysderida to be found in the colkction, though 
several probably occur in the district The large family of 
the Drassida was represented only by the ubiquitous Clubiona 
reclusa, Cb., and the more interesting Anyphana accentuatay 
Wick., a species not included in Workman's list^ but collected 

' 5« p. 167 of this volume. ' EntomologUt^ vol. xiil., i88q, p. 125. 

A 



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^26 The Irish Naturalist, [Sept, 

and received by me from many Irish localities, and apparently 
generally distributed. There were two species of Dictynida 
— IHdyna uncinata, Thor., and Z?. latens, Bl. ; I do not think 
that the latter has ever been recorded from Ireland, though Mr. 
Freeman first took it near Dublin several years ago. No 
representative of the Agelenida was secured. 

The small TheridiidcB, which comprise the majority of our 
spiders, are not numerous in June. Tkeridion sisyphium, CI., 
was common, as might have been expected. Linyphia mon- 
tana, CI., — a species that with us seems to be found in parks 
and gardens— was taken in the demesne, together with L, 
pusilla, Sund., L. hortmsis, Sund., Lahilla thoracica, Wid., 
Leptyphantes tmuis, BL, and L. Blackwallii, Kulcz. The com- 
mon species Erigone atra, Bl., and Gonatium bituberculalum, 
Wid., were also secured, as well as the tiny Maso Sundevalliiy 
Westr. The only other theridiid taken was one of the prizes 
of the expedition — Comicularia vigilax, Bl., a very rare species 
in the British Isles, found only in Dorsetshire and North 
Wales^, with a wide but discontinuous continental range from 
France to Galicia^, and occurring also in the United States. 
Both sexes of this species were secured by Halbert, a male at 
Doon and a female in the demesne. 

Six species of the Epeirida or orb-weavers were collected. 
Besides the common Tetragnatha extensa, ly., Halbert secured, 
by sweeping heather on Sheep-pool Bog, a female of T. obtusa, 
C. Koch, a species with less elongate abdomen, hitherto 
unknown as Irish. Since determining this spider, I have 
found another female in a collection sent me last year from 
Skibbereen, Co. Cork, by Mr. J. J. Wolfe. As might be 
expected, Meia segmentata, CI., Epeira diadeniata, CI, and £. 
comuia, CI., were common. The other epeirid taken, Singa 
sanguinea, C. Koch, is a valuable addition to the Irish list, 
being rare in Great Britain, and apparently confined to the 
southern counties^ 

There were three Thomisida or crab-spiders:— /%j7(7rfn?»iw 
aureolus, CI, and Xysticus cristatusy CI.— both common species 
everywhere — together with another addition to the Irish 
fauna, also found by Halbert on Sheep-pool Bog— A', sabulcsus, 

» O. P. Cambridge, " Spiders of Dorset," Sherborne, 1879 (p. 1x3). 
« E. Simon, " Arachnides de France." Tome v., Paris, 1881 (p. 848). 
• O. P. Cambridge, op. cit,, p. 248. 

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Irish Naturalist, Vox.. V.] 



[Plate 3. 




.^i^ 




M < » .m ■ -li i ' ' ^ 




Fig. I. Pardosa herbiorada, Bl., female, natural size. 
Fig. 2. „ M - magnified. 

Fig. 3. Epigyue, highly magnified. 



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1896.] Cai^pbntbr.— C/m^££ ExpedUion, Spiders. 227 

Hahn. This handsome species was known as a British spider 
only from the south of England^ until its recent discovery 
in Inverness-shire^. It is of interest to be able now to record 
it for one of the western counties of Ireland, its known range 
in the British Isles being thus strangely discontinuous, though 
it doubtless awaits discovery in intermediate localities. 

Coming lastly to the Lycosida or wolf-spiders, it was interest- 
ing to find several immature specimens of the great Dolomedes 
fimbriaiusy Wick., which attracted so much attention on the 
Galway expedition of last year*. The genus Lycosa was repre- 
sented only by two common species — L. pulverulenta, CI., and 
L ruricol(h DG. ; while there were five species of Pardosa. P. 
amentaia, CI., P.pullaia^ CI., and P. palmtris^ I^, are probably 
common species everjrwhere, while P. nigriceps, Thor., is 
generally distributed and not scarce. The remaining species 
represented by a single female taken by Halbert on Sheep- 
pool Bog running close to a drain, proves to be P. Aeriigrada, 
Bl, a very handsome addition to the Irish fauna. Since 
determining this specimen I have found aQOther female in a 
collection made by Prof. D' Arcy Thompson at Roundstone, it^ 
August, 1894. This spider has a peculiar discontinuous range. 
In Great Britain it has been found in Dorset*, Northumber- 
land^ and the Scottish Highlands^ On the continent it 
occurs in Norway, Sweden, and Galicia^ According to 
Simon", it has not been found in Prance ; but it probably 
inhabits at least the north-west of that country, as it has lately 
been discovered in Guemsejr*. 

This beautiful spider (see Plate 3) is remarkable among the 
species of Pardosa on account of the extensive area of the 
yellow markings on the cephalothorax, the dark lateral 
bands being generally, as in the present specimen (fig. 2), 
interrupted. Most species of the genus are predominantly 

* Carpenter and Evana, Ann. Scott. Nat. Hist., 1894, p. 233. 

* O. P. Cambridge, op. cit., p. 301. 
5 IrisA Nat. vol. It., 1895, p. 355. 

♦ 0. P. Cambridge, op, at. (p. 385.) 

* 0. P. Cambridge, Proc. Berw. Nat. Club, 1875. 

• Carpenter and Brans, /. c (p. 235). 

^ T. Thorell, " Remarks on Synonyms of European Spiders," Upsala, 
1870-3, (p. 282). 

* " Aradmides de France," Tome iii (p 323). 

• F. 0. P. Cambridge " Trans, Guems. Soc. Nat. Set., 1894. 

A4 



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i28 Thi' Irish Naturalist. [Sept, 

dark in colour, the yellow bands tending to become narrow 
tad broken up. The nearest ally of P, herbigrada is P. paiustris, 
I^, an abundant spider in which the cephalothorax is mostly 
of a black-brown colour, showing three narrow yellow bands, 
the central drawn out to a fine point in front. But in the 
specimen of P, palustris taken at Clonbrock the central band is 
somewhat widened behind the eyes. This form I have received 
from several Irish localities and the series goes far to bridge 
the gap between typical P, palustris and P, herbigrada. In 
the females of both these species the epigyne is very large 
and of a truncated triangular form. This structure in these 
and allied species has recently been carefully described and 
figured by Rev. F. Pickard-Cambridge'. In P. herbigrada it is 
relatively larger and more prominent than in P, palustris^ but 
it varies somewhat in different individuals of the same species, 
and in the present specimen the hind comers are extremely 
prominent and rugose (fig. 3). 

It is of interest to note that in some of the dusky species 
such as P. animtata, CL, and P. agricola, Thor., the yellow 
colour is predominant in the cephalothorax of very young 
specimens ; as the spider grows older, the amount of dark 
colour in the pattern increases. This suggests that/*, herbigrada^ 
with its broad expanse of yellow when adult, represents an 
old stage in the evolution of the genus, a suggestion supported 
by the rarity and discontinuous range of the species. Whik 
its dark-hued relation P. palustris is spread abundantly ovei 
our islands, and is found on the Continent from Lapland tc 
Italy, P. herbigrada is apparently absent from the greatei 
part of Central Europe, and almost restricted to northern and 
western regions in Scandinavia, Britain and Ireland. Il 
would seem, therefore, that P. palustris is the younger and 
more vigorous species, and has largely superseded P.herbigradc 
in the struggle for existence. The problem remains whethei 
the darkening of the cephalothoracic pattern has been itselt 
an advantageous factor in the conflict, or whether it is but 
the necessary accompaniment of other and deeper causes. 

» Ann. Mag, Nat, Hist, (6), vol. xv., 1895 (p. 34, pL iv.) 



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l^'i 229. 

HEMIPTERA 
BY J. N. HAI.BKRT. 



The Hemiptera or Plant-bugs are summer insects, though a 
comparatively few hibernate through the winter. A great 
number were in the immature state when we were at Clon-- 
brock, yet the early season had caused some species to appear 
in the adult condition before the usual time. There is little 
doubt that specimens of a large shield-bug, in the larval state, 
occurring on the heaths about Clonbrock, are referable to 
Podisus luridus. Fab., but as the species has not been recorded 
from the country it must be given with reserve until fully 
developed specimens are found. I swept several examples of 
Cymus grandicolor, Hahn. oflF Flags in marshy places. Micro- 
pkysa elegantula, Baer., was a rather satisfactory capture. It 
occurred freely by beating old lichen-covered Sloes near the 
Deer-park. I had not met with this species previously, the 
only Irish specimens that I know of being in Mr. Haliday's 
collection. Myrmedobia tenella, Zett., also occurred by general 
sweeping ; it is said to be rare, though from its small size it ift 
probably overlooked by collectors. I found Tetratocoris 
Saundersi, D.'and S., in a marshy field beside Doon wood, very 
similar to localities in which it had occurred on the east coast. 
Allodapus rufescens, H. S., has not been previously recorded 
from any Irish locality. A single macropterous specimen 
occurred by sweeping heather, at dusk, and it is apparently 
a rare species in Bngland. Several species of Psaiiuswere 
more or less common in the woods, the rarest being P. 
dhninufuSf Kb. now recorded as Irish for the first time. 
Amongst other captures were the following: — 
Nadis Jlavomarginatusy Scholtz., common ; N. ericetorum^ 
Scholtz., on heath: Salda sco/ica, Curt., river banks; Acompo- 
corispygmaeiis, Fall., Dicyphus stachydh. Rent., and Plesiocoris 
rugicotlis. Fall., the last in some numbers ofi" Willows at Sheep- 
pool Bog. I managed to secure a good many Homoptera, 
including several species I had not previously met with, but 
it is necessary to reserve these as they include many critical 
forms still in the hands of Mr. J. Edwards, F.E.S., awaiting 
further investigation. 



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230 The Irish Naturalist, [ Sept, 

COLEOPTERA. 

BY J. N. HAI3ERT. 



The g^eat success attending Mr. R. E. Dillon's researches 
amongst the lepidoptera of East Galway are now well known 
to all students of the order. This success is mainly due to 
the varied nature of the district, comprisingsome fine remnants 
of natural forest and extensive moorlands, and to no small 
extent also, to steady collecting in the same localities for the 
greater part of the year. In an order so numerous in species 
as the Coleoptera, we could only hope during our visit to 
obtain a general idea of the species occurring in the district, 
and as three-fourths of the collecting was done on boggy 
heaths, a general sameness in results to those obtained in many 
places in west and central Ireland, was to be expected. We 
managed, however, to secure a fair number of local forms. 
Mr. Dillon had preserved a small collection of beetles from 
the immediate neighbourhood ; amongst these were two or 
three rarities taken during the previous month, that all our 
efforts failed to refind, showing that on account of the abnor- 
mal earliness of the spring, many species were practically 
over at the time of our visit. The following notes refer only 
to the less common species. 

The Carabidcs or ground-beetles are rather poorly repre- 
sented at Clonbrock, as in such inland localities they are 
chiefly to be found on the stony margins of lakes and rivers; 
and it is to the scarcity of these conditions that the absence 
of such species as Carabus clathratus and Pelophila borealis 
may perhaps be attributed. 

The first species to be noticed in our list is Carabus arvensis, 
F., here of the usual shining bronze colour. Mr. Dillon 
found two specimens running on a pathway earlier in the year; 
it is widely distributed, though local, occurring chiefly on 
heaths. Calathus piceus, Marsh., was fairly common in damp 
mossy places in the Oak-wood, where also Dromius quadri- 
maculatus, ly., abounded under bark. Perhaps the best place 
for ground-beetles was along the banks of the Suck ; here I 
was fortunate enough to meet with Trechus discus, F., a very 
local species, not previously recorded from Ireland. Other 
notable captures in this locality were ChUenius nigricomis, F., 
Bembidium guttula, F., B, assimilt^ Gyll, and B. bipunctatim^ 

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i«9^] HAJjBMRT.-^Ciondrack Expedition, Coleoptera. 231 

L., the last occurring abundantly amongst shingle at the edge 
of the river. 

We were much too late to do any good with the water- 
beetles, the rivers seemed to produce very few species ; the 
best results were obtained in the pools and drains half choked 
by vegetation. There were amongst others Haliplus ftilvus, 
F., Hydroporus erythrocephalus, ly., and Agabus Siurmiit GylL 
I took a single Hydroporus memnonius, L., by sweeping at 
dusk, at some distance from water. Orectochilus viHosus^ Mull., 
a nocturnal beetle, occurred freely in the Clonbrock river, 
lurking amongst a thick growth of weed. 

The Slaphylinida or rove-beetles were not numerous in 
species. Aieochara brevipennis, Grav., is noteworthy, as it is 
one of those species, restricted, so far as we can at present 
judge, to a southern and western range in Ireland, though of 
wide distribution in Britain. I found Gyrophcma affinis, 
Mann., in Boleli, an addition to the Irish list, and Philonthus 
qtdsqddliarius, Gyll, a local southern species, occurred under 
stones on the banks of the Suck. 

We kept a careful look out for all dead animals for the 
Necrophaga or carrion-feeders. One of the less common 
black and orange burying-beetles, Necrophorus moriuorum, F., 
swarmed in a dead squirrel, while Dr. Scharff got Necordes 
littorulis, ly., in a rat. This species is of local occurrence 
inland, but it is much commoner in maritime localities. 

Numbers of a species of Choleva occurred in dead birds 
in the woods, proving to be C fumata^ Spence, as far as I 
can ascertain not previously recorded from Ireland. Mr. 
A. H. Haliday possessed Irish examples, bearing, however, 
no definite locality. I was very pleased to meet with Silpha 
dispar^ Herbst., when collecting on the banks of the Suck. 
This is one of the rarities so far monopolized by the Rev. W, 
F. Johnson, in the north of Ireland, where he has taken it on 
the south shore of Lough Neagh, and also near Armagh ; 
this extension of range is therefore of interest Several 
common species of Cocdnellidet abounded in the woods, the 
only one of interest being Chilocoris bipusiulatus, 111., found 
on willows in boggy places. This also seems to be a south- 
western species, at least it does not seem to have been recorded 
from any eastern locality. Near Doon Wood I found by sweep- 
ing in a marshy meadow two uncommon beetles, z>., Phalacrus 
suhtriatus, Gyll., and Antherophagu5j>allens^ Gyllv the former 

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232 The Irish NaiuralUL [Sept 

indeed being unrecorded from Ireland; a single example only, 
which is considerably larger than certain types in the museum 
collection, but agrees with them in every other respect ; and I 
may add that Mr. G. C Champion, P.i<.s., has kindly verified 
this identification. Epuraa deleta^ Er., was not uncommon in 
fungi on trees, and Elmis VolkmarU Panz., under stones on 
river-banks. 

Passing over many common insects, the next species of 
note is Elater pomorum^ Herbst., a handsome shining black 
click-beetle with deep red wing-cases ; Mr. Dillon found it 
commonly enough on birch in the beginning of May. 
Although said to be very local in England, it would seem to 
be not uncommon with us, as it has now been recorded from 
Co. Armagh\ the Bog of Allen near Tullamore^ and I have just 
seen a specimen taken by Mr. F. Neale in south Clare, close to 
a lake-shore, where he discovered the beautiful ground-beetle, 
Panagams cnix-major^ ly., that formed such an unexpected 
addition to our Irish list. Corymbites iessellcUus^ F., another 
large species, occurred occasionally on the heaths. The 
I/>ngicoms were singularly scarce at the time of our visit ; we 
really expected to meet with some novelties, seeing that the 
district is so suited to their habits, but unfortunately no new 
species rewarded our search. Mr. Dillon found Leiopus 
nebulosusy L., earlier in the year. The large and handsome 
Rhagium bifasciatum, F., is evidently not uncommon in the 
fir-woods, and a small black Grammoptera ruficomis, F., 
found on flowers, were all that were observed. 

In water-plants in the Clonbrock river several species of 
Donacia occurred, but all were common with the exception 
perhaps of D, impressa, Payk., a species that has now been 
recorded from at least three localities in the south and west. 
Other captures were D. discolor, Panz., frequent on the heaths, 
Chrysomela hypericin Forst., and Haltica oleracea, L. 

The Heieromera, a section of the Coleoptera containing such 
well known insects as the ** cellar-beetles" and " meal-worms," 
are very poorly represented in Ireland. One small species, 
Salpingus castaneus, Panz., occurred by sweeping at edge of 
a fir-wood ; all the previous records for this species are from 
the east The Oil-beetles {Meloe) also belong to this section, 
but search should be made for these very early in spring. 

1 W. W. Fowler. ** Coleoptera of British Inlands," vol. iv. (p. 91). 
" /. Nat.f voL iv., 1895, p. 173. 

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1896.] KAi^BHRT.'-CiondrocJk Expedition, Coleoptera. 233 

The Rhynchophora or weevils usually come last in beetle 
lists ; they are without exception vegetable-feeders, the greater 
number being extremely conservative in keeping to their 
respective food-plants. The first weevil deserving of notice 
in the Clonbrock list is Rhynchites minutus, Herbst, found on 
two occasions by sweeping near willows. This species was 
added to the Irish list last year by Mr. J. J. Walker, who found 
it at Queenstown.^ Apion Gyllmhali, Kirby, and A . marchicum, 
Herbst, were the best species of that extensive genus; 
although I had previously collected the latter, generally in 
marshy places, I have never succeeded in taking more than 
one or two specimens on any occasion. Sweeping large 
patches of Equiseium in drains produced Grypidius equisetU F., 
a queer beetle looking not unlike a seed-head of that plant, to 
which it is exclusively attached. One of the most satisfactory 
discoveries made on this excursion was the occurrence of 
Erirrhinus atkiops, F. I found a single specimen of this rare 
weevil under a stone, on the banks of the Suck. Up to the 
present it had been found only by the Rev. W. F. Johnson 
in Co. Armagh^. According to Canon Fowler, the species 
is of extreme rarity in England, but it occurs in several Scotch 
localities ; it will probably be found commonly enough when 
the midlands are better worked.* Amongst other captures 
I may mention the following : — Polydrusus cetvinus, L., 
Orchesies rtisci, Herbst., and O. ilicis, F., Dorytomus maailatusy 
Marsh., abundant ; D. pectoralis, Gyll., Cccliodes rubicundus, 
Herbst, and Poophagus sisymbrii, F. 

The beetles occurring on the banks of the Suck aflForded 
a rather typical example of the gathering of northern and 
southern forms, that adds such interest to collecting in Ire- 
land. In company with Erirkinus €Hhiops, which has a 
decidedly northern range, I found a ground-beetle {Trechus 
discus) having for its habitat the river- valleys of the midland 
English counties, while with both might be found a rove- 
beetle {Philonthus quisquiliarius), a species that has apparently 
Cambridgeshire for its northern limit in Britain. Examples 
of this mingling may be found in almost any part of Ireland, 
but they are undoubtedly most characteristic of the west 

* /. Ail/., voL iv., 1895, p. 209. ' W. W. Fowler, op, cit,, vol. v. (p. 270.) 

* I have just seen a fine series of this beetle in a collection made at 
Tempo, Enniskillen, by Mr. C. Langham. 



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234 



The Irish Naiuralisi. 



[Sept, 



FUNGL 
BY E. J. MCWEENEY, M.A., M.D. 



Hymenomycetes. 

Lepiota fiUna, Pers. Pheasantry. 
New to Ireland. 

Mycenajuncicofa^ Fr. Fir- wood. 

M, ienerrimaf Bk. 

OmphaUa fibula^ Bull. 

Pkurotus acerosus, Fr. New to Ire- 
land. 

Claudoptts dipluerUf Batsch. 

Hyphoioma sp. 

Irpex sp. immature. 

Exidia glandulosa^ Fr. 

TremeUa indtcoiata^ Somm. 

Dacryomycet sliUatus, Nees. 

MucEDiNES and Dematiei. 

MamKa aureOf Genel. New to Ire- 
land. 

Botryosporium diffusunit Ca. 

Rhinotrichum rejHns^ Preuss. 

Peronoapora parasitica, Pers, 

Stachylidium cycfosporum^ Grove. 
New to Ireland. 

Uredinei. 
Puccinia primuioSf D.C. Teleuto- 

spores much commoner than 

oecidia. 
P, fychnidearum, Link. 
P. moKnia, Tub. CEcidia abundant 

on Listera ovatcu 
P. $anicutat Grev. 
P. viola, Schum. 
P. caricis, Schum. C^cidia on Urtica 

dioica. 



VRUi>INm.— continued. 

Uromycea vaieriana, Schum. Sper- 

mogoniaonly, in fir- wood. New 

to Ireland. 
?(Ecidium sonehiy Johnst. New to 

Ireland. 
(K, sp. On Cardials pcdustris, 

DiscoMYCETES and Pyrenomy- 
CETES. 

Morcheifa thta, Fr. On a mossy bank 

in Clonbrock wood — the only 

British locality for this species. 
Pezixa atrobtunnea, PhiL New to 

Ireland. 
Lachnea heniisphcericaj Wigg. New 

to Ireland. 
Dasyscypha virgmeoj Fckl. 
Lachnelia cortioalis, Pers, Not 

hitherto recorded from Ireland. 
Propolis faginea, Karst Not 

hitherto recorded from Ireland. 
Phyllachora csgopodii, Fckl. 
Cordycept miHtaris, Fr. On buried 

lepidopterous larvse and pups in 

pheasantry. 
Bypoxylon multiforme, Fr. 
RoseUinia mastoidea, Fr. 
Sphoeria, Two sp. undetermined. 

Myxomycetes. 

(EthaJium s^ticum, Fr. 
Lycogala epidendiitm, Fr, 
Trichia sp. 



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1896.] 235 

MOSSES AND HEPATICS. 
BY DAVID M'ARDI.B. 



The number of species of Mosses found at Clonbrock is low, 
and there was a striking similarity of collections made on 
different parts of the estate. A peculiar feature on the Sheep- 
pool bog was the patches of Funaria hygrometrica^ yards in 
extent ; the brilliant red colour of the countless numbers of 
setae and sporangia of the matured plants at once attracted 
attention, and was visjble for a considerable distance. Most 
of the trees had their stems clothed with many forms of 
Hypnum cupressiforme, notably the vzx.filiforme, which hangs 
in long festoons. Orthdtrichum crispum selected the tips of 
branches and luxuriated in neat compact tufts. O. affine was 
common on the trunks near the base. The ground in the 
woods was carpeted with Hypnum triquetrum and/T. proliferum, 
with large patches of Dicranum palustre. On the bogs 
Leucobryum glaucum grew in large hassocks; Campylopus 
fragilis and C. setifoHus were very common ; and in wetter 
places Aulacomnion palustre. On the drain-banks Dicranella 
varia and Fissidens adiantoides were plentiful, in the streams 
the water-moss Fontinalis antipyretica was abundant. The 
Sphagnum s were plentiful, and large patches of S. cymbifolium, 
S.papillosum, and 5. rubellum, with many forms of 5. acuti/olium 
were collected, in the bog;-pools 5*. cuspidatum van plumosum 
was plentiful ; it is by no means a common plant. On Doon 
bog I found 5. papillosum var. confertum, a rare plant, only 
fowid by Professor Lindberg and myself on Connor Hill, Co. 
Kerry ; it is very close to the rarer »S. Austini, which I took 
it for at Clonbrock as I did in Kerry, but the microscopical 
difference is very marked. In the cell-walls the papillae 
are regular and conical. On Tycooley bog, near the banks 
of the Shiven River, I was fortunate in finding the rare 
5. Atistini, which differs in its peculiar branching, and in 
having the cell-walls of the leaves furnished with pectinate 
ridges. It was first found in Ireland by the Rev. H. W. 
Lett, in a bog at Glenariff, Co. Antrim, in 1889, and he 
afterwards collected it in a bog near Geashill, King's Co. 
(/.A^., vol. ii., p. 22), as did Rev. Canon. Russell and 
myself. These are the only known localities for this 
rare Sphagnum, There is an excellent figure and descrip- 
tien of the piajrt in the Monthly Microscopical Janmal, June 

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236 The Irish Naturalist. [ SepU, 

17th, 187 1, p. 215, by Dr. Brf^ithwaite, and the following 
account of its distribution ** Hab. swamps Farrago, Ocean 
county, New Jersey, United States {Austifi), In Europe only 
found in Sweden, Hunneberg Mountain, Westrogothia, 1859, 
{Lindberg). Viby, Nerike, i860 {Zctterstedt\ both sterile." 
He writes me that the Clonbrock specimen is referable to the 
var. imbricatunty and identical with specimens taken in Lewis 
by Dr. Moore. 

The investigation of the Hepaticae was the principal 
object of my visit. I endeavoured by every means to make 
as complete a collection as possible. In the Oak-wood alone 
I made thirty-three gatherings, and on Doon bog and adjacent 
woods thirty distinct gatherings. These and many others 
collected on other parts of the Clonbrock estate were subjected 
to a careful microscopical examination, with, I regret to sa)', 
verj* poor results, on account of the similarity between the 
specimens collected on different bogs and in different woods 
and plantations, although remote enough from each other. 
Out of all the material collected I enumerate only thirty 
species of Hepaticae. Of these the following eleven species 
only are local on the estate ; the remainder are widely distribu- 
ted there, and I may truly say through Ireland. 

Lejeunea hamaiifolia, Hook.—Ou trees, Tycooley wood. 

Lejeunea serpyllifolia, Lribert.— In the oak-wood. 

Lepidozia reptansy Linn. — Bog at Killasolan. 

Jungermania exsecia, Schmidel — Sheep-pool bog, oak-wood, 
Doon bog. A rare species. 

Jungermania affinisy Wilson. — Damp bank in oak-wood, 
Doon bog. 

Cephalozia divaricata, Smith. — Doon bog. 

Cephalozia catenulata, Huben. — Doon bog. 

Cephalozia Lammersianay Huben. — Doon bog. 

Astrella hemispharicay Beauv. — Doon bog. 

Riccardia latifrons, Lindberg. — Doon bog, rare. 

Scapania undulata^ Linn. -Doon bog. 

The small number of species of Lejeunea which were met 
with is remarkable. Out of the three which were collected 
L, hamatifolia only is rare in Co. Galway ; it was collected 
in the woods at Kylemore Castle demesne, by the late Dr. 
D. Moore, in 1874, and, in July, 1895, 1 found it sparingly on 
Carn Seefin in the same county. The commonest liverwort 
Ia the district is Lefeun^ minutissima. I collected it^on idl 



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iS9^] M'Ardi^. — ClonbrockExpeditian, Mosses 6^ Hepatics. 237 

parts of the estate ; it luxuriates on the trunks of the huge 
Beech-trees which dot the verdant lawn, and in the woods 
adjacent to the bogs, on almost every tree. 

Out of fourteen species oiLefeunea known to grow in Ireland 
the number of species collected at Cloubrock is very small. 
They are curious little plants in their structure and habits, 
and love the moist warm glens, and tell of climatal conditions 
in as marked a manner as the rare flowering plants do. 
Amongst some of the liverworts that were remarkable by their 
absence I may mention Lophocolea heterophylla. Z. bidentata 
was very common, but the former is a distinct plant, and I 
searched for it in vain on the decayed logs. It diflfers from 
the latter in having some of the leaves bidentate, others with 
the apex plane or slightly obtuse, and above all in having 
paroecious inflorescence, Le., the antheridia are in the axils of 
the leaves just beneath the perianth. By this character it is 
well separated from L. bidentata, which has the antheridia in 
spikes or amentae. 

Cephalozia sphagni was abundant on all the bogs, but no 
specimen of the rare C denudata was found, which grows so 
abundantly on the Hill of Howth, and Corslieve Mountain, Co. 
Mayo, also sparingly on Bear Island; these are the only 
localities known iii Ireland. The range of C sphagni is pro- 
bably wider than that of any other species belonging to this 
singular family of plants. It abounds in the north temperate 
zone, and luxuriates in the hot forest plains of the equator; it 
is always found on living plants of Sphagnum, Leucobryum, 
&c. C, denudata, on the contrary, is found mostly on decaying 
vegetable matter, such as rotting logs, peat, &c. ; and is a 
plant of the hills. C sphagni is found on the plains, and 
rarely at high elevations. Cephalozia curvi/olia, one of the 
prettiest of the genus, reported from Kylemore, was not to be 
found. I searched the drains and moist banks for any species 
of the curious genus Riccia, but without success. One of the 
commonest plants amongst the frondose section was Metzgeria 
conjugatOy which was first collected at 0*Sullivan's Cascade, 
Killamey, in 1873, by Professor Lindberg, who pointed out its 
remarkable autcecious character, i.e., its having the antheridia 
on one branch of the thallus, and the calyptra which contains 
the capsule and spores on a separate branch of the thallus, of 
the same plant; by this character it is separated from all the 



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2s8 The Irish NaiuraKsL [Sept 

other species of Metzgeria, which are dioecious, having the 
antheridia or male inflorescence on one plant, and the calyptra 
which contains the female inflorescence on another plant 
Recent researches of myself and others, show that the plant 
is to be found in almost every county ; it is as widely dis- 
tributed in Ireland as M, furcata. In specimens of both 
species collected at Clonbrock, I have been struck by the 
remarkable examples they exhibit of adventitious budding or 
branching, and it is obvious that they reproduce themselves 
more by this method than they do by spores. I shall quote 
one instance where this means must be adopted to reproduce 
the species. Metzgeria pubescens is a rare plant, confined to a 
few stations in Co. Antrim. We have only the male plant im 
Ireland ; the female has not been found, so far as I am aware. 
In the Irish Naturalist for April last year, from copious 
specimens I have been enabled to demonstrate the subject of 
adventitious branching or budding with a figure of Metzgeria 
conjugata bearing young plantlets, which I trust will serve to 
explain this singular mode of reproduction. 

Amongst the rarer species which I collected Jungermama 
exsecta, Schmidil, must not be forgotten. I found it once 
before, in Co. Wicklow. It is a curious plant, not like any 
other liverwort that I know. The leaves are in two rows, 
ovate in outline, the apex bluntly bi- or tridentate, and having 
about the middle on the upper margin a strong tooth, pointing 
obliquely upwards across each leaf. The specimens firom 
Sheep-pool bog are luxuriant ; they were growing amongst 
Jungermania incisa and bore gemmae, but no fertile specimen 
was found. The plant is beautifully figured by Sir J. W. Hooker, 
in his grand work on the British Hepaticae, at tab. 19, and 
supplement, p. i. In his description of the plant, he writes— 
" This singular species of Jungermania seems to be confined to 
the two most eastern counties in the Kingdom (Norfolk and 
Suffolk), at least I never heard of its being found in any other 
places, excepting indeed, very lately, near Bantry, by Miss 
Hutchins, of whom it may almost with truth be said, that she 
finds everything." It has since that time been found by Dr. 
Carrington at Killarney ; and at Gleniff; Co. Leitrim, and at 
Sallagh Braes, Co. Antrim, by the late Dr. D. Moore. We 
have no previous record for Co. Galway. 



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1856.] 23f 

FLOWERING PLANTS AND VASCULAR CRYPTOGAMS. 
BY R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.E. 



When the time arrived for our visit to Clonbrock, I was far 
out at sea, exploring that inhospitable islet of Rockall, in the 
N.R Atlantic; and a heavy gale oflF the Hebrides further 
delayed junction with my colleagues, so that I did not reach 
Ckmbrock till the pleasant week was half spent. My notes 
on the phanerogamic flora are, therefore, not so complete as 
might be desired ; but they will convey, nevertheless, a fair 
general idea of the botanical character of the district. 

The area in which Clonbrock is situated is composed 
entirely of the Carboniferous limestone formation, and is, in 
every particular, a characteristic piece of the great Central , 
Plain. The streams flow sluggishly in broad shallow basins, 
through pasture and marshy meadows. The only hills are 
gently-swelling and inconspicuous ridges. The rock is seldom 
seen. Kskers are wanting, though one or two mounds of 
gravel occur. The pasture and tillage is broken by great 
bogs, which stretch for miles ; their edges are often wooded, 
chiefly with Scotch Fir. I^arge areas are under timber, 
chiefly Oak, Beech, and conifers. Lakes there are none. 
From this description, it will be seen that the flora to be 
expected was that which characterizes the Central Plain, and 
that neither the lake or mountain rarities of Connemara, nor 
the limestone pavement flora of Burren, was likely to be 
represented, although both of these interesting districts lie 
within fifty miles. As a matter of fact, just one characteristic 
We^ Coast species turned up — Rhynchospora fusca^ furnishing 
an important extension of range of this rare plant, fifty miles 
east of its most easterly recorded station. In mentioning 
briefly the more interesting plants found, they will be dealt 
with in the natural order, for convenience of reference. 

Of Rauunculacea, the most conspicuous species was the 
Great Spearwort {Ranunculus Lingua), which grew abundantly 
on the marshy edges of the Shiven River, and on both the 
Galway and Roscommon banks of the 'Suck. The Marsh 
Ueadow'Rue(7%«/2^r/n^my2ozw/^) was seen on the Roscommon 
bank of the River Suck. 

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ft40 The Irish NaluralisL [Sept, 

Fumaria Borai grew on both sides of the River Suck in 
cultivated land ; with it was F, officinalis. F. muralis was 
gathered on the Roscommon bank. Viola canina was noted 
on old worked-out bog at Killasolan. 

The Poppies were well represented for a district so far to 
the westward. The Long Prickly-headed {P. Argemone) grew 
on roadsides and in gravel-pits a couple of miles on the 
Ballinasloe side of Ahascragh— the only gravel-pits in the 
neighbourhood; with it were the two smooth-headed species 
{P. Rhaas and P, dubiunt) in abundance, and these two 
occurred in many places south and east of that spot. 

Among cnicifers, the Marsh Cress {^Nasturtium palusire) and 
Water Radish {N. amphibium) grew by the River Suck, and 
in fields it was noticed that the White Mustard {Sinapis alba) 
in this district quite took the place of the usually all too 
common Charlock (5. arvensis), which was hardly seen at all, 
while its ally was most abundant 

Caryophyllacea had no representatives of much rarity, but 
the Three-nerved Sandwort {Arenaria trinervia) grew in many 
places, and was much more abundant than the commoner 
Thyme -leaved Sandwort {A. serpyllifolvi). 

Five species of St John's-wort were noted — Hypericum 
Andros^emum, perforatum^ dubium^ quadrangulum, pulchrum. 
The third is the only one which is not generally distributed 
in Ireland. 

The only Rosaceous plant of interest was the Bird-cherry 
(Prunus Padus), which grows in great profusion in one old 
wood at Clonbrock. A few brambles were collected, but have 
not yet been submitted to a specialist. 

The beautiful Grass of Parnassus {Pamassia palustris) was 
everywhere abundant in marshy land.. On the bogs all three 
species of Sundew {Drosera anglica, intermedia, rotundi/olia) 
grew in charming profusion, often brightening the wetter 
portions by the large patches of red-haired leaves, glistening 
as the sunlight caught the heads of viscous fluid with which 
all the hairs are copiously tipped. Two species of Millfoil 
were found — Myriophyllum verticillatum on the Galway side of 
the Suck, and the commoner M. altemiflorum in various 
places. 

Umbelliferous plants were not largely represented, the only 
uncommon species being the Broad^leaved Water-Parsnep 



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1896.] Prakger. — Clonbrock Expedition, FloweringPlanis,5fc, 241 

{Slum latifoliuri) which grew on the Gal way bank of the Suck. 
Of the Valerian tribe, the Toothed Corn-salad ( Valerianella 
deniatd) was one of several plants found only in the neighbour- 
hood of the gravel-pits already mentioned. 

To come now to the large order of Composite plants, the 
Mountain Cudweed {Antennaria dioica) was quite conspicuous 
by its abundance everywhere. The Bur-Marygold {Bidefis 
cemua) grew by the Shiven River. A much rarer plant, the 
Field Chamomile {Matricaria Chamomilla) occurred in many 
places on roadsides ; though possibly originally introduced 
with seed, as it certainly is sometimes, it appears in this 
district to have settled down as a resident. Among the 
Thistles, Carlina vulgaris occurred but sparingly. The 
Slender-flowered Thistle {Carduus tenuifiorus), a species 
usually found near the coast, grew in the gravel -pits ; the Bog 
Thistle (C pratensis) was one of the most abundant plants 
in the district. Among the Liguliflorce, or Dandelion-like 
plants, the Yellow Goats-beard (Tragopogon pratmsis) was 
found in one field halfway between Ballinasloe and Ahascragh. 
The Hairy Hawkbit (Leontodo7i hirtus) was common ; its 
ally, the Rough Hawkbit {L, hispidus) was not seen ; it 
appears to be a much rarer plant in Ireland, and I doubt if it 
has a wider range, as stated in Cybele Hibernica. 

Of that beautiful order of which the Heaths are the type, 
two interesting plants abounded on the bogs — the Cranberry 
{V<ucinium Oxycoccos) whose delicate pink flowers had in 
many places already given way to the large berries ; and 
the Marsh Andromeda {A, polifolid)^ its lovely pink bells 
still lingering on a few belated shoots. One gentian, G. 
Amarella, was found, though not yet in flower, still 
sufficiently advanced for determination. Its ally, the Yellow- 
wort {Blackstonia perfoliata) occurred sparingly. The Prim- 
rose ' order was represented by eight species — the Yellow 
I/)osestrife {Lysimachia vulgaris), which grew by the Suck, 
and with it tbe Brook-weed {Samolus Valerandi), and the 
tiny Bog Pimpernel (Anagallis tenelld) ; in the woods the 
Moneywort (Z.. nemorunt) was remarkably abundant; while 
the Scarlet Pimpernel, Cowslip, and Primrose made up the 
balance. 

Of Boraginacea^ the only uncommon species was the Field 
Gromwell (Lithospennum arvense) gathered in a potato-patch 



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242 The Irish Naturalist LS«pt 

on the Roscommon side of the Suck. Of Scrophulariaceoe^ thd 
Mullein (Verdascum Thapsus) flourished at the gravel pitsj 
and the Cow- wheat {Melampyrum pratensi) on Tycooly bog j 
of ten species of Veronica noted, the only one worth men^ 
tioning is V. polita, gathered on the Galway side of the Suck^ 

Two of these interesting carnivorous plants, the Bladder^ 
worts, grew in the bog-holes, both in blossom — the Com- 
mon (Utricularia vulgaris) and Lesser (£/. minor); that 
characteristic west coast species, U. intermedia, was not 
found. Of their equally interesting allies, the Butten«rorts,; 
two species were noted — Pinguicula vulgaris, the common 
species, and the rarer Pale Butterwort {P* lusitanica) usually 
a mountain plant, but here growing on an old worked-out bog 
at an elevation of only about 150 feet. The great Water Dock 
{Rumex Hydrolapathum) grew with other marsh-loving species 
on the Galway bank of the Suck. 

The native trees included both species (or varieties) of the 
Birch (Betula pubescens and B, verrucosa) which everywhere 
fringed the bogs, along with Willows, of which seven species 
were noted, all common except Salix pentandra and 5". pur 
purea. The remaining indigenous Amenti/eroe were the Oak, 
Alder, and Hazel. 

Orchids were well represented, and one of the prettiest and 
most interesting sights we saw was at Doon, where, on a 
rough piece of boggy land, sparsely dotted over with low 
stunted fir-trees, a remarkable variety of Orchids g^ew 
together. The large white or pinkish flowers of the Marsh 
Helleborine {Epipactis palustris) were perhaps the most 
conspicuous. M'Ardle found some, plants in which the whole 
flower was sufiused with a rich rose-red. With it grew the 
beautiful Bee Orchis {Opkrys api/era), and great abun- 
dance of the Sweet-scented {Gymnadenia conopsea)^ and 
Tway-blade {Listera ovata), and in less quantity the 
Smaller Butterfly Orchis {Habenaria bifolia\ Frog Orchis 
{H, viridis), Broad-leaved (^Orchis incamata), and Pyramidal 
{O, pyramidalis). The only species found in the district: 
which were not at Doon were the Early Purple (0. i 
mascula), gathered in fruit ; the Greater Butterfly {If. 
chlorantha) which was very rare, while H. bifolia was common ; I 
and lastly, the rare Bird's-nest {Neottia Nidus-avis), which | 
grew under trees at Clonbrock. 



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1S96.] pRAEGKR. — Clcnibrock Expedition, FloweringPlantSy dfc. 243 

Of Pondweeds, three species grew abundantly in the River 
Sack — Potamogeton lucens, P. Zizii, and P, hderophyllus var. 
^atninifolius. In the Clonbrock River, not far from the house, 
were gathered P. plantagineus, and another form of much 
interest, on which Mr. A. Bennett supplies the following 
note : — 

•• This plant is doubtless, in a wide sense, to be placed under P. 
latueoiatus, Smith, but differs from the Anglesea, Cambridge, or French 
specimens, as such supposed hybrids would do. It seems that these 
specimens may have been produced by P. hderophyllus, Schreb., v. 
praminifoliusy as the one parent, and P. pusillus, L., as the other. The 
difficulty of reference to any known form, causes one to wish that it 
could be cultivated ; the hybrid theory is an easy way out of a difficult 
problem, and yet it is not easy to suggest in this case any other. * Make 
a ncMT species of it,* would be another way, and easy enough from some 
views, but if eventually proved an error, is only adding to synonymy 
unnecessarily. As a supposed hybrid, it is an uncertain quantity, and 
leaves it open for experiment I consider all supposed hybrids that have 
not been actually produced by cultivation, as doubtful plants, although 
naturally the amount of faith or credence that may be placed in them is 
very variable. 

The present specimens, by their longer and broader (relatively) upper 
leaves, with a much smaller part of the leaf occupied by the chain-like 
areolation, so conspicuous in the Anglesea and Cambridgeshire speci- 
mens', bear the same proportion, as to shape and size, that the others 
do to their supposed parents. On these specimens the glands of the 
graminifolius section are very conspicuous. 

If a name is required for it, it might be called var. hibemicus (or f. 
kihemicus). characterized by its longer, and broader upper leaves, longer 
lower leaves, slightly longer flower-spikes, and the structure of the 
leaves." 

Among the Sedges and their allies, the most interesting 
find was the Brown Beak-rush {Rhynchospora fusca), which 
has been already referred to in the general account of our 
trip (p. 220). Of sixteen sedges collected, the best was Carex 
ierdiustulay which was found in marshes by bog-holes in many 
places. Mr. A. Bennett remarks of specimens submitted to 
him, " very near, if not identical with /3. Ehrhartiana'* The 
twenty-five grasses found offer nothing of special interest ; 
Bromus raceniosus, B. commutatus^ and Festuca loliacea, Huds., 
were gathered within the Galway area. 

^ In P, pusillus, L., when having spathulate upper leaves (as in A 
panormUanus, Bivona), the tendency is to produce this chain-like areo- 
lation. — ^A.B. 



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244 7%^ Irish Naturalist. [Sept 

Ferns were tolerably well represented. The abundance ol 
Lastrea spinulosa was remarked. The Scale Fern (CeteraA 
ojfficinarum) grew at Clonbrock, and the great rarity of thj 
Black Spleenwort (Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum) was noticed 
it is equally rare in King's and Queen's Counties, and perhap^ 
it shuns the Limestone Plain. The Royal Fern {OsmundA 
regalis) grew in several places ; the Moonwort (Botryckiun\ 
Lunaria) was gathered sparingly at Killasolan ; and the Adder*^ 
Tongue {Ophioglossunt vulgatum) grew in pastures at Cloni 
brock. The only Club-moss found was the little SelaginelU 
spinosa, which grew on worked-out bog at Killasolan, and 
abundantly on the gravel-ridge near Ahascragh. 

The total number of plants noted in the three days I had 
at Clonbrock was 360, but a number of critical plants wer^ 
also collected, which have not yet been determined; these 
will bring up the list to close on 400 species. 



PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



RovAi, Zooi«oGiCAi, Society. 

Recent donations comprise a Peregrine Falcon from L. PoweU, Esq. 5 
a Moose Deer from the Earl of Aberdeen ; a Sparrow Hawk frx>m Mastex 
Stubbs ; a pair of Cockatoos from V. W. Brown, Esq. ; a pair of Dovea 
from Miss Perry ; freshwater fish from F. Godden, Esq. ; a pair of Horse^ 
field's Tortoise from A. Jamrach, Esq. ; and some Rabbits from Mi3J 
Lennan. A pair of Siberian Cranes, a Brazilian Cariama, twenty 
Budgerigars, a pair of Ibex, a pair of Toggenburg Goats, and a Tibet 
Goat have been purchased ; while four Puma cubs have been bom in the 
Gardens. 

13,360 persons visited the Gardens during July. 

DUBUN MlCROSCOPICAI, Cl,UB. 

August 6th.— The Club met at the house of Prof. T. Johnson, who ex- 
hibited a section of Asperococcus compressus^ a brown alga, recently obtained 
by Miss Hensman and himself by dredging off Go Island (Co. Donegal) 
A, compressus was dredged by the exhibitor three years ago in Bantry Bay. 
It is now recorded for the first time as a member of the Irish marine 
flora ; a southern type of weed, its occurrence so far north is of interest 

Mr. Greenwood Pim showed sections of the petioles of Nymphaa 
alba and N, ftiorliaceay and drew attention to the curious internal haiis 
which occur in the air-canals in these and in other aquatic plants. They 
seemed especially numerous in N. fnarliacea, a hybrid raised by U, 
Marliac, and now common in gardens where water-plants are grown. 



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S96.] Proceedings of Irish Societies. 245 

Prop. Cou showed a section of andesitic Tolcanic tnff, as an example 
tf the series known as " pjrozenic rocks ** near the summit of Slieve 
yslHon, west of Lough Neagh. These rocks had hitherto been regarded 
5 metamorphic, but Pro£ Cole hoped to show that a considerable 
rolcanic series occurred as a capping above the granite of that area, 
rhich had intruded into it at a later date. 

3Ir. M'Abdi«B exhibited specimens oi Jungermania exsecta^ Schmidel» a 
are liverwort which he collected last June on Sheep-pool Bog, Clon- 
irock. The leaves are arranged in two rows, ovate in outline, with their 
tpez bluntly bi- or tridentate, and having about the middle of the upper 
oargins a strong tooth which points obliquely upwards. The plant is 
rwy local. Dr. Carrington found it at Killarney, and Dr. D. Moore 
•ecorded it from Gleniff, Go. Leitrim, and Sallagh Braes, Co. Antrim. It 
las not been previously found in the Co. Galway. 

Mr. W. HauGHTON showed specimens of Tribolium ferruginmm. Fab., 
rhich had been found on empty flour-sacks. These small beetles often 
Kcnr in large numbers in mills and warehouses among flour, and 
noltipljdng at a high rate, are very injurious and hard to exteiminate. 

Bbi^fast NaTurawsts' Fiei^D Ci,ub. 
Dredging Cruise. 
3n Saturday, 4th July, the Belfast Club held a somewhat unusual ex- 
mrsion : a dredging cruise having been arranged to Belfast Lough 
tnd adjacent bays. There has not been a dredging trip in this neigh- 
bourhood for some time, so that it was of some interest Unfortunately 
forthe enjoyment of the party, the morning proved very wet and drizzling, 
bat no way deterred a party of nearly fifty from assembling on board the 
Steam Tug " Storm Light " before ten o'clock ; at which time the whistle 
blew for the last time, and the vessel started for the day's work. The 
gniding genii of the day held a conference almost immediately, to settle 
the plans of action, following which the boat was headed for Carrick- 
fergus: on arrival at the desired locality, all the appliances having been 
previously made ready, the vessel was slowed down, and the first dredge 
lowered over the side. Ten minutes or so was allowed for the filling of 
the net, and on the signal being given, a number of willing helpers lent a 
hand, and soon had the first haul on board : a cast of the lead showing 
3i fathoms. The take proved to contain a large quantity of corallines of 
^ous species, with much other material, all of which was emptied out 
mto large flat trays and distributed about the after end of the vessel, for 
purposes of examination. Hitherto the weather had been getting 
steadily worse, until at this point the collecting of specimens was eagerly 
being carried on amid a downpour of rain. Meanwhile the "Storm 
light" proceeded at full speed to the second station, three quarters of a 
mile firom Whitehead, where a scrape in 9J fathoms brought up a most 
miscellaneous haul, which kept the collectors of ascidians, crustaceans, 
seaweeds, worms, &c., occupied until the vessel was well under the 
great cliffs of the Gobbins. Here, sailing close under the precipitous 
face, the steam whistle's blast raised from their ledges a cloud of sea- 
gulls, whose screaming cries and wheeling flight distracted the scientists' 



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246 The Irish NaiuralhU [ Sepd 

attention from the spoils of the deep, in order to gaze at the beautift 
picture, with the blue sky, now fast clearing of clouds, as a brckgronn^ 

No time was lost, however, but another haul was made in fourtee 
fathoms, at about a quarter of a mile from the clifi^, bringing up a ^fre^ 
mass of small pebbles, among which, however, two Terebraiulig wer 
found, to the delight of many (or indeed most) of the party, who hat 
never previously seen a living one. The hopes of getting more raritie 
in the deeper waters of this locality induced the party to try 
fisherman's mussel-dredge of large mesh, in twenty-five fathoms, clod 
by the last station. This appliance brought up very little in bulk, bi^ 
among its contents was a very large and perfect sponge, measnrinj 
nearly four inches across ; there were also two sea-urchins in splendij 
condition, whose movements in one of the large belljars on deck providd 
much interest to many of the members. Several crabs of different qnaint 
looking species iffy as, Portunus) also disported themselves in fm adjoin 
ing jar to the detriment of a fine worm, which rapidly disappeared, an^ 
to the amusement of the watchers. Meanwhile, the gallant little tuj 
was making all possible speed outwards towards the "Maidens," bii 
owing to the roughness of the water where unprotected by the land, thi 
project of taking a netful from the deep water of mid-channel had to b^ 
abandoned for fear of losing the tackle ; fate however was adverse, an^ 
on trying to make a haul off Larne, one of the dredges was carried awa] 
altogether, and the other, a brand new one of novel make, came up will 
its frame bent, and quite empty. This so disgusted members, that fill 
speed was at once made for Whitehead, under whose sheltering cliffs t« 
was quickly prepared and most thoroughly enjoyed. 

Clearance of tea-things having been made, it was suggested that th< 
next trial should be made off the centre of the mouth of the lough 
which proposal being acted on, resulted in another empty net. Th< 
increasingly rough water, on the southern side of the lough, made i1 
advisable not to risk the remaining dredges, so orders were given U 
return in Kilroot direction, where a haul resulted in an enormouJ 
number of dead Venus shells being brought up. 

Time now began to run short, and no time was lost in making 
for Belfast again. On neariug the jetty at Queen's Bridge, Mr. Alec 
G. Wilson (Hon. Sec.) proposed briefly that a hearty vote of thanks b^ 
given to Mr. Waterson, the owner of the '* Storm Light," for his invalu^ 
able assistance in making the trip the success it proved to be. This waa 
passed without further ceremony by a hearty round of applause. Thre€ 
new members were then elected. During the trip, the Club was pleased 
to entertain four members of the Dublin Club, who availed themselva 
of the invitation to the other Club, and whose services during the day 
proved of great value, Prof. Johnson and Dr. 0. H. Hurst being specialists 
in their respective lines of marine botany and zoology. Prof. Johnson's 
notes on the Algse collected and Dr. Hurst's list of the fltiimflla observed 
will be published next month. 



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1896.] 247 

NOTES. 

BOTANY. 



PHANEROGAMS. 
Veronica pere^rtna L. In Ireland. —This plant was recorded 
from Belfast in 1857 by Rev. W. M. Hind, who found it " folly established 
as a weed of the soil at The Lodge " (Phytologisty n.a ii. p. 47). It does 
not appear to have made headway in this district, as it has not been 
finind near Belfast by any subsequent botanist, and Mr. Stewart remarks 
{flor. N.E.I.) "perhaps extinct about Belfast." In Ca Tyrone it was 
observed so far back as 1836, according to Cyb€U Hibemica^ "growing 
abundantly within the demesne of Barnescourt " [Baron's Court], and 
sabsequently "in several localities between that place and London- 
derry," and in More's " Recent Additions," {foum. Bot.y 1872), three 
Donegal localities are added, two on the authority of Mr. Hart, the 
other on that of Mr. Hind ; also the more distant stations of Rockingham 
in Roscommon, and Hazelwood in Sligo, on the authority of Dr. Moore. 
In Donegal it would appear to have become quite naturalized, for Mr. 
Hart says of it in 1883 " in many places from east to west of Donegal 
this has become the commonest garden weed. Except in gardens I 
have not met with it" {Joum, Boi.^ xxi., p. 208.) In its head-quarters in 
the valley of the Foyle, it appears to have thoroughly established itself, 
as Mrs. Leebody has this season sent me fine specimens which she 
collected in abundance in gardens at Duncreggan near Londonderry, 
while she has also found it abundant in a nursery garden near the same 
town, and at Culmore (all these stations are on the Donegal side of the 
Foyle) ; also at Favor Royal and Donaghmore, both in Co. Tyrone. This 
plant, therefore, would appear to be thoroughly established in cultivated 
ground in the north-west of Ireland, and the fact is of interest, as, so far 
as I can find, it is unknown in England, and in Scotland is recorded 
from Perth alone. In the " London Catalogue " it does not find a place, 
being apparently treated as merely a casual, and unworthy of insertion, 
bnt the above records show that it merits recognition as a British plant 
qmte as much as, say, Camdina sativa or Coiula coronopifolia, Veronica 
pcregrina is an American species, now found, according to N3rman's 
Qmspectus, in Spain, France, Belgium, Holland, Germany, Italy, &c., and 
it appears to be one of the several American immigrants that has settled 
down as a colonist on European soil. 

R. Li*OYD PraBGER. 

Selrpus parvulust R. &8. (= 8. nanusp 8prenflr.)'Mr. R. M; 

Barrington sends fresh specimens of this very rare little plant, collected 
on July 14th at Arklow. It is interesting to know that, despite recent 
changes, the plant still survives in its only Irish station. 

R. LliOYD PRA^G^R. 



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248 TAc Irish Naiuralist. [ Sept., 1896. 

ZOOLOGY. 

MOLLUSCS, 

LIttorlnaobtusataat Bunowen, Connamara.— Onthe occasion 
of the Easter trip to Roundstone and district by a number of members 
of the Belfast and Dublin Field Clubs, many of those who were at Bun- 
owen Bay, near Slyne Head, noticed the great numbers of this common 
little shell, at one end of the strand. There is a small cove at the west- 
ward end, cut off from the main beach ; in this cove the surface of the 
sand above highwater mark was covered with shells. 

From the surface I collected at random as many shells as covered 
about two to three square yards, taking care not to select special patches. 
The following is the list of species thus gathered: — IMiorina odtusaia, 
509 individuals ; Trochus cinerariusy 57 ; T, umbilicaius, 55 ; Littcrina littorea 
16; Helix ericetorumy 15; Purpura lapUlus , 10 ; Trochus tizyphinus^ 2; Patella 
vulgaia, I ; Helix acutay I. In addition to these, which were all practically 
unbroken shells, were the following: — Small pebbles, 5; fragments of 
Cardium eduUy I ; fragment of Ostrea, I. This list seems so remarkable that 
I am sending it up for publication, in order to find out any parallel 
instances of great preponderance of one species. 

A. G. W1130N, Belfast. 
i Spinalis retroversus In Klliaia Bay.— During the recent neap 
tides and in fine calm weather I visited the Island of Bartra, lying across 
Killala Bay, and having a long range of sandy beach exposed to the 
Atlantic. I thought it would be a favourable day for shell drift, but the 
most interesting occurrence was the immense deposit of SpiriaJis 
retroversus. It lay along the water-mark in a broad band varying in 
width from three feet to a few inches, and heaped up in some places to a 
depth of two inches. This deposit extended along the beach for about a 
mUe, where it lay like froth. Though in colour a pale milky chocolate, 
the mass had evidently been wafted in alive, as the odour was most un- 
pleasant, and remained on those I brought away for some days. Besides 
this froth-like deposit, which extended for quite a mile, there was a 
smaller quantity mixed with the usual drift all along the beach. 

Once before I met with this shell in the froth -like masses, though not 
to such an extent The shells were, for the most part, very small. 

Amy Warrkn, Ballina. 
FISHES. 

The Aills Shad In Irish Waters.— The July number of the Irish 
Naturalist mentions that a specimen of the Allis Shad had been lately 
taken near Donaghadee, and quotes Thompson as an authority for saying 
that Londonderry is the only Irish locality where it has been found. 

Dr. Day on the other hand quotes this same Thompson as reporting 
that it is often abundant in some parts of Ireland, and specially men- 
tions two or three instances from Donegal, and I have myself seen 
two specimens taken in Inver Bay on the west coast of that county. 

W. SiNCi^AiR, Strabane, 

[Thompson {Nat. Hist, of Ireland , vol. iv., p. 178) gives Londonderry as 
the only Irish locality on the authority of the Ordnance Survey.— Uds.] 



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MEDICAGO SYLVESTRIS IN IRELAND. 

BY R. lX,OYD PRAKGKit, B.E. 



y June, 1894, on a dry sandy bank at the southern extremity 
r the Portmamock dunes, opposite the village of Baldoyle, I 
Dticed among the close-cropped herbage the leaves of a plant, 
>parently a Medicago or Trifolium, with which I was not 
imiliar. A search revealed the fact that it grew on several 
ther dry banks in the vicinity, but no trace of flower or fruit 
>uld be found. On looking up " Cybele Hibemica" and the 
British Association Guide," I could find no plant recorded 
om Portmamock with which the short leafy shoots of my 
lant appeared to correspond, so I went back at the end of 
aly, in hopes that it would then be in flower, but no appear- 
ice of blossom could be detected. Walking into Malahide, 
found a large patch of the same plant on the sand-dunes 
ear the Baths. Roots from Portmamock were brought away 
ad ctiltivated ; they grew vigorously, and in August of the 
ext year (1895) they came into blossom ; and at first sight, 
idging by its large size and clusters of purple flowers, I took 
le plant to be a form of Medicago sativa. But before the plant 
ad ripened its fruit, which in the Medicks furnishes the most 
itisfactory specific criterion, it was accidentally cut down to 
le ground, and the opportunity of critically examining it was 
)st. I visited Portmamock and Malahide again, but although 
iere was an abundance of leafy shoots, no flower or fruit had 
een produced, or if it had, had been eaten down by the 
ibbits. This year, however, the cultivated specimens shot 
p, and flowered sparingly at the end of July, and when the 
nit ripened in August I found it to cpnsist of a pod twisted 
1 the shape of a single flat or slightly spiral ring, thus 
orresponding exactly with Medicago $ylvestris, Fries, a very 
ire plant, known in Great Britain to grow only in sandy 
r gravelly places on one limited area, which extends into 
le counties of Suffolk, Norfolk, and Cambridge. A fortnight 
Iter, Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, f.r.s., sent me specimens of the 
lant in flower and fruit from Malahide for determination, 
uggesting the name Medicago sylvestris. I again visited 

A 

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^50 The Irish tJaiuralisL LOct. 

Portmamock and Malahide, and found the plant flowering 
and fruiting at both places. At Portmarnock it could be 
traced along the dry banks over a considerable area, butj 
flowering very sparingly. At Malahide it appeared to be 
confined to the limited area4n which I had first noticed it; 
here most of the flowers assumed the peculiar greenish- 
yellow colour that is characteristic of the plant, others 
being purple, while at Portmamock almost all the flowers 
were bright purple, a few only being greenish-purple. Though 
there could be no doubt as to the identity of the plant, 
specimens were sent to Mr. Arthur Bennett, who promptly 
confirmed my determination, adding the remark, "closely 
approaching in habit the wild Sufiblk plant as I havje 
gathered it." 

Two points in connection with this plant and its occurrence 
in Co. Dublin invite comment — its standing (i) as a good 
species, and (2) as a native. As regards its specific distinct- 
ness, and its relationships, botanists appear to be much at 
variance. Fries^ first described it as a species. Hooker and 
Amott* treated it as a variety of M, falcata ; Reichenbach', 
and Grenier and Godron*, considered it a hybrid betweeii 
M. falcata and Af. saliva \ Wallroth^ and Koch^ called it Mt 
falcata /3. versicolor, Syme^ states that he never saw the plant 
alive, and therefore " adopts the middle course " of giving it 
sub-specific rank under M. falcata, Babington treated it as a 
good species in the last edition of his ** Manual," and the 
same course is followed in the latest edition of "I/mdon 
Catalogue." 

Discussing the question of its hybridity, and Fries* emphatic 
denial of the possibility of this, Syme states that in Bngland 
it frequently occurs where M, saliva is absent. A similai 
argument against its hybrid origin might now be advanced 
as regards its Irish stations, for M, falcata is unknown in 
Ireland except as a rare casual, and the other supposed parent 
M. saliva, only occurs occasionally where sown. Indeed, the 
occurrence in some quantity of a hybrid where one parent vt 
absent, and the other is a fleeting plant of cultivation, strikes 
one as very improbable. 

« Mani. III. *Brit, Flora^ ed. 8. ^ /y. (7^;,^ Excun, « Fl^re dc Framu^ L 
• SckaL CriL • Synopsu FL Germ, ei Hetv,, ed, 2. » ^115^/. BoL, ed, > 



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i396i] PRAKG^R.— ^<!rfiai^ sytvesirts in Ireland. 351 

Again, there does not appear to be any reason for supposing 
the plant to have been introduced in its Irish stations.^ IVue, 
there are scattered cottages near its Portmamock home; but 
there is very little cultivation around or near these cottages. 
The close-cropped mossy grass extends on evety hand, and 
no other introduced plants accompany the Medick.. The 
Malahide statton is nearer the influences of agriculture and 
civilization, but the occurrence of the plant here, in a habitat 
exactly similar to the Portmarnock one, and at a distance of 
three and a half miles, is itself an argument against the theory 
of introduction. Portmarnock has long been known as pro- 
ductive of alien plants, it is true, but these appear to have 
their home among the cultivated fields around the head of the 
Portmamock inlet, and not among the natural sward at th4 
extremity of the promontory, where several rare native plants, 
such as Vtcla hirta^ Vicia lathyroidesy and Epipactis palustris^ 
have long been known to flourish. Another plea might be 
put forward in favour of its introduction— that so large a plant 
is not likely to have so long escaped notice in localities which 
have been thoroughly known to botanists for a century past. 
But as a matter of fact, M. sylvestris, growing stunted among 
short herbage along with Ononis, Trifolium, and other similar- 
leaved plants, is in reality quite inconspicuous, the more so on 
account of its sparse and late blossoming ; when it took me 
three seasons to discover its identity, it appears possible thai 
botanists have overlooked it, or, even if gathered, that it was 
passed by as an indeterminable fragment of probably a common 
species. 

When once studied, M. sylvestris may be easily recognised, 
even in the absence of flower or fruit The leaflets are smalle^r 
and narrower, and the stems thinner, more branched, and 
much more spreading than in M. saliva^ and the whole plani, 
even when fully developed (as it appears to never be in its 
Irish stations, thanks to rabbits and sheep) is smaller than 
that species. In blossom, the smaller . flowers, in shorter 
racemes, furnish an additional feature, not to mention their 
peculiar colour when typical. In fruit, the pod, coiled in a 
single plane or slightly spiral circle, supplies a character that 
cannot be mistaken. I have not had an opportunity of coni- 
paling it with M^ falcata in a living state. 

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dS2 Tk^ Irish Naturalist. [ Oct, 

ALGJe FROM THE NORTH SIDE OF BEI.FAST 

LOUGHS 

(Dredged by the B. N. F. C Expedition, 4th July, 1896.) 

BY PROP. T. JOHNSON, D.SC., AND MISS R. HENSMAN. 



To the request of the B.N.F.C. Secretaries, that we of the 
Dublin Field Club who happened to possess any special know- 
ledge of marine fauna and flora investigation, should go over 
and help them, there could be, having regard to the kindly 
welcome for which Belfast is noted, but one answer. Accord- 
ingly Dr. C. H. Hurst, H. Lyster Jameson, Miss Hensman, 
and I, joined the dredging excursion, of which some of the 
results are here recorded. 

Remembering that the weather was so rough the day the 
excursion took place that the Belfast Regatta was postponed, 
'the results of the excursion, as recorded below, must be con- 
sidered satisfactory. A little organization of the enthusiasts 
who faced the lough on the 4th of July should produce 
some good algologists. 

The Belfast Field Club would do a splendid piece of natural 
history work, if it would make such arrangements as would 
enable some of its members to examine thoroughly, by shore- 
hunting and dredging, the coast of Co. Antrim, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cushendall and Cushendun. Practically nothing 
has been added to the knowledge of the marine flora of the 
N. E. of Ireland since the time of Harvey, when, mainly 
through the work of W. Thompson and Dr. D. Moore, the 
district was as well known as any other. 

During the past few years a committee has been investigating 
the marine flora of the Clyde sea area, and, thanks more 
especially to E. A. L Batters (whose lists have been published), 
a better knowledge of this district is now possessed. Several 
competent members of the Club (whose names need not be 
mentioned) should be encouraged to do a similar piece of work 
for the N. E. of Ireland. 

So far as time has allowed the examination of the material 
collected to proceed, some sixty species have been identified, 
of which the more interesting are here given. 



* For a general account of the Dredging Excursion on which these 
al^ were obtained, see pp. 245-6. 



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1896.] Johnson & Hknsman,— /J/^^/n?w Belfast Lough. 253 



Names preceded by t are now recorded for the North-east 
of Ireland for the first time- Names preceded by ♦ are first 
records^ for Ireland. Perhaps the most interesting of all is 
Halicysiis ovalisy a green stalked alga, the size of a small 
pin-head. This alga, though known to occur on the French 
and Scandinavian coasts, has been only once before recorded 
for Britain — from the Clyde district by the late Prof. Schmitz 
and G. R. Murray, F.I..S. 



Cyanophyck-*. 

\Hyella caspitosa. 
"^ JHectonema terebrans, 
'\MastigpctUems testarum, 

Ch]X>&ophyck^. 

^Hedicystis ovaiis. 
^Pringsheimia scutata, 
\Epulcuita Fiustra* 
fGcmoniia polyrhtza* 

PH^OPHYCSiS. 

Artkrocladia vUlosa. 
Stikfpkora rhitodes, 
Sporochntu pedunculatus, 
\Agta<nonia repians. 



Rhodophycb^ 

\CoHchocelis rosea, 
\Brythrotrichia camea. 
^Scinaiafurcellatcu 
PhyUophora Brodiau 
^AcHnococcus suhttUaneus, 
Rhodophyllis bifida, 
\GonimophyUum Buffhami, 
Odonthcdia dentata, 
\RhodochorUm mcmbranaceum* 
*jR. mesocarpunt' 
Ceramium diaphanum, 
\Melobesia Lejolisii, 
\M, Corailma, 
^Lithophyllum Lemrmandu 
'\ Lithothamnion calcareum,^ 
fZ. corallioides. 



' It should be stated that though the records are new, many of the 
species have been already found by the writers at other points on the 
Irish coast. 

' It was interesting to find a coralline off* Carrickfergus, identical with 
the much discussed Melobesia compressa^ which M'Calla found in Dalkey 
Sound. 



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'^ * ' 'OLDHAMIA IN AMERICA. 

* BY PROP. GRENVILIvE A. J. C0I*E/ M.R.I.A., P.G.S. 



^ dldhamia, the obscure ridge-like and radiating marking 
that occurs in th^ shales of the Bray series, has made the 
county of Wicklow famous among geologists throughout the 
world. Continental text-books have figured these problematic 
objects, s£ddiiig, perhaps, even greater firmness to their out- 
lines, and greater symmetry to the disposition of their rays. 
The handsome specimens in the Survey collection in the 
Dublin Museum are, indeed, enough to stimulate curiosity, 
even if th^y are disappointing to those who look for distinct 
organic structure. The supporters of the organic view of 
Oldhamin will, however, receive much encouragement from 
the discovery of similar objects in America in strata of Cambrian 
or Lower Ordovician age. Mr. C. D. Walcott, Director of the 
U. S. Geological .purvey, has published {Proc, U. S. National 
Museum^ vol. xvii., p. 313) a valuable description of Oldkamia 
occidens Walcott, from shales nejar Troy, New York State. I 
am indebted to the author for kindly sending me a copy of a 
paper iiot easily accessible. 

Mr. Walcott throws doubt on Hall's Oldhamia fruticosa^ 
from the Trenton Limestone (Upper Ordovician) of Wisconsin, 
but accepts Lapworth's determination of an Oldhamia^ species 
uncertain, from the Cambrian slates of Farnham, in the 
province of Quebec. 

The specimens on which the new record are based were 
sent, with various indeterminable tracks and impressions, by 
Mr. T. N. Dale to his chief in 1893. Oldhamia occidens is 
placed under the sub-genus Murchisonites, proposed by Brady 
for O. antiqua in 1865 ; but it diflFers from that species by the 
fact that each fan-like tuft springs serially from the summit 
of that preceding it — or, as appears from the figure, from some 
point slightly behind the summit, so that the "fans" are 
grouped along a straight line, the broad edge of one just over- 
lapping on the point of origin of that following it. 

The description of the beds, which are " post I,ower Cam- 
brian and pre-Trenton," reminds one very strikingly of those 
of Bray. 



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i89fi^] CoiM.'^OldJkamfa in America. 2S5 

The Uteitittire Mdtiiig to the Irish examples was qtwted 
in the first tramber of the Irish Naturalist (vol. !., p. 13). 
Although the American specimens do nothing, as Mr. 
Walcott points out, to advance *' the position of Oldhamia in 
the classification of organic forms," yet the whole question is 
eridently still an open one; while the absence of the structure 
from post-Ordovician shales has still to be explained by those 
who regard it as inorganic 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO GLACIAI, GEOLOGY. 

A Map to show the distribution of Eskers In Irsland. By 

Ph)f. W. J. Sollas, l^l^D., F.R.S. {Set, Tram, Royal Dublin Society^ vol. v., 
partxiii. Price 2j.) 

In this paper we have another example of that excellent 83r8tem of 
publication, by which single metnoirs, read before a learned society* 
are made accessible to the outer world. As a review of the literatore of 
eskers alone, this part of the Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society 
should be in the hands of most geologists and of all '* glacialists.* Its title 
is misleading, for it is far more than a map; and the map given, by-the- 
bye, illustrates only a certain part of Ireland. In the north especially, 
sumerons fine eskers exist, which are not set down upon the maps of the 
Geological Survey, these sheets having been already hachured ; but in 
the region between Galway and Dublin, Longford and Roscrea, Prof. 
Sollas has been able to extract the eskers from the unshaded i-inch 
maps, and from the documents of the Geological Survey, and has 
bronght together a striking picture of their distribution and of their 
confluence. He sums up his own observations as telling strongly 
m favour of the subglacial origin of eskers ; the materials of the esker 
have been accumulated in the lower part of the ice-sheet, and have been 
left behind when the mass melted away. Hummel, in 1874, suggested 
that streams running beneath an ice-sheet, or beneath a local glacier, 
hollow out tunnels, which become choked with sand and gravel; the 
eskers are to be regarded as casts of these tunnels. Hoist, two or three 
years later, held that eskers originated in the gravel washed into the 
ravines and beds of rivers which were cut in the surface of the ice ; the 
glader, on melting, yielded up the drift which it contained at various 
levels within it, as well as that which lay upon its surface, and this 
material became arranged along the beds of the streams ; finally, the 
complete melting of the ice left these river- accumulations in the form 
of ridges, their sides having been, until then, banked up by the ice. Dr 
James Geikie adopted the englacial or subglacial view of eskers in 1877, 
and it is to him that geologists in the British Isles are indebted for an 
introduction to Hummers and Hoist's most suggestive papers. Prof. 
SoUas does justice to other independent workers, such as WincheU and 



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256 Tke Irish Naturalist [Oct 

Upham in America; but should not Mr. J. G. Goodidilld alao a{ 
pear prominently in this connexion ? Mr. Goodchild (i) put forwai 
in 1874 the somewhat curious view that drumlins andeskers accomnlate 
on rock-bosses and rock-ridges between the channels of subglacial stream 
f>., between the channels of greatest flow ; but, if he did not indepei 
dently proceed precisely on Hummel's lines of argument, his papei 
contain much that is strikingly original, and much that appears 1 
anticipate the work of Hoist. Had he been more familiar with Iris 
eskers, his theory would doubtless have widened, and he would have n 
longer demanded a r9cky boss as a base for every accumulatiofi* Hi 
papers contain consistent and valuable explanations of the form an 
inner structures of drift-mounds, as well as the suggestion that th 
occasional contortions are due to the settling down of ice-blocks in th 
glacier-mass (*). Prof. Sollas, after his review of the literature, gives 
topographical account of the principal esker-systems in the area aelccte* 
by him, showing how each *' presents a remarkable resemblance to 
map of a river-system. The narrow linear outlines, the meandering 
course, the branches converging like tributaries, or diverging like th 
channels of a delta, the loops and knots are singularly alike in each ' 
(p. 817). He ranges himself as an adherent of HummeFs view rathe 
than that of Hoist, the materials of the esker having *'been depoaito 
on the place where they are now found by the action of running water/ 
and not " precipitated in mass from the bottom of sinking ice-canons ' 
(p. 819). The striking observations of Russell on the Malaspina gladei 
certainly afford the strongest support to the subglacial rather than th< 
engladal theory. Where eskers run across the general direction 
glacial striae in the district, their origin is somewhat boldly at 
tributed to crevasses, at the base of which the gravel is held t< 
accumulate. 

Certainly, when we see an esker, like those in the romantic distnd 
west of Cookstown, running up and down across a valley, with the ai 
of the Great Wall of China, and breached at right.angles by the stream 
we feel that we have still a good deal to learn. But Prof. Sollas has dom 
for Ireland what has been done for parts of eastern America and 
Scandinavia, and has given us a comprehensive view which raises pro- 
bability a long way towards proof. The map is beautifully printed, ic 
four colours and a groundwork, and two portions are given in the texl 
on a larger scale. There is also a •' fig. 3," apparently showing the re 
lation of eskers to lines of bog ; but to this we have been unable U 
find a reference. As we have already hinted, the treatment of the sub 
ject in the text is even more important than the map; and tlw 
paper becomes a permanent work of reference upon eskers. 
G. A. J. C. 

(1) " On Drift" Geol. Mag., 1874, pp. 509 and 510. Also " The glacia 
phenomena of the Eden Valley, &c.'* [Read June 24, 1874]. QuarLjoum 
Geol. Soc. London, vol. xxxi. (1875), p. 95. 

(*) Geol, Mag. 1874, p. 508, and ^./. Geol Av., vol. xxxi., p. 96. 



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id^fit] Contributions to Glacial Geology. ^57 

A Bibliography of irisli Qiaclaiand Poat-Qlaclal Qeolosy. 

By R. Lloyd Praeger, B.«. (JProc, Belfast Nai, Fidd Club, vol. ii., Appendix 
6; 1896;. 

This work appears as one of the now well known series of appendices 
published by the northern Field Club ; but it is also issued in a separate 
form, so as to be accessible to all geologists. And, indeed, it is difficult 
to name the geologist to whom it might not prove useful; even the 
continental student of post-Pliocene faunas will find such a bibliography 
of constant service. 

Mr. Praeger brings to his task, involving the selection and cataloguing 
of 767 works and pamphlets, the knowledge and method of a librarian. 
But, unlike some bookmen who have essayed such duties, he has also the 
judgment of a naturalist, and is able to give us a note on every paper, 
briefly indicating its scope. The arrangement is alphabetical, according 
to authors, and two indexes follow, one grouping the papers under their 
geological aspects, while the other classes them under counties. 

No such list can ever be complete, for there must be passing references 
to Irish soils, or to discoveries of shells or bones, in works dealing with 
subjects far other than glacial geology. But Mr. Praeger has gone as far 
as he conld, short of reading every work in which Ireland is accor- 
ded prominence, and he has thus given us Young*s reference to 
Mitchelstown Cave in " A Tour in Ireland," and Parkinson's account of 
the great Irish deer in " Organic Remains of a former World." Even 
human bodies found in bogs, if sufficiently far down, come within his 
scope -, and he has found it very hard to draw the line between flint 
gravels and chipped flints, between post-glacial geology and human 
archaeology. Mr. Praeger*s tendency to give even trifling references is 
surely very much on the safe side, and he seems to have kept well clear 
of vain repetitions and purely second-hand sources of information. The 
handsome printing of the list will enable us to insert any later references 
as foot-notes, or in the margin ; but we shall hope for an appendix 
from Mr. Praeger himself every ten years or so, and a complete new 
edition about A.D. 1926. Were the present bibliography never touched 
or reproduced, its value to geologists would remain ; it is a pleasant 
gift from a busy worker to his fellows, and will vastly lighten the 
hbours of all who deal with recent deposits in the British Isles. As to 
those who call themselves " glacialists," they will do well to keep 
the list constantly at their elbow; and its comprehensive character 
may make us indeed hesitate, before we add one sheet of foolscap to 
the controversial side of glacial geology. May we look in time for a 
digest of the whole matter from Mr. Praeger, a history of Ireland in 
post* Pliocene times, which shall bring together the scientific results 
of his own observations, together with those of the authors whose works 
he has so carefully kept before us ? 

G. A. J. C 



A 3 

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258 ^he Irish Naturalht. [Oct, 

THE SKUAS OF KILLALA BAY. 

BY ROBERT WARREN. 



ONI.Y three species of the skua family have as yet been 
known as visitors to this bay and estuary — the Pomatorhinc, 
Richardson's, and the Longtailed or Buffon's Skua. 

The PoMATORHiNK Skua {Lcstris potnatorhinus) up to the date 
of Wm. Thompson's ** Birds of Ireland," was very little known 
as an Irish visitor, only nine specimens being recorded by 
him, of which two were obtained in Belfast Bay ; one in the 
autumn of 1834, ^^^ the second on the i6th of October, 1848, 
both immature birds. 

My first acquaintance with this skua began in 1862, when 
large numbers visited the bay on their way to the south. For 
several days previous to the 22nd of October the weather had 
been very stormy, the wind blowing in wild squalls from the 
south-west, accompanied by heavy showers of rain. On that 
morning I was standing at the parlour window of Moyview, 
looking down the estuary towards Bartragh, when suddenly a 
flock of ten or twelve dark-coloured birds appeared in view, 
fl3ring slowly up the river from the sea. I immediately took 
my gun and ran down to the shore, but only reached it in 
time to see the skuas pass out of shot My disappointment, 
however, did not last long, for a few moments after a flock of 
five birds passed, out of which I was so fortunate as to secure 
a fine specimen of the Pomatorhine Skua in almost perfect 
adult plumage. Several other flocks passed on afterwards, 
and I was able to obtain a second bird in a similar stage of 
plumage. But soon afler I had shot the last bird I was called 
away to attend to some business matters, which delayed me 
for some time, and when I returned to the shore found that 
the flight of skuas had ceased for that day. 

On the morning of the 23rd the g^e still continued, but had 
changed round to the west- north-west, and consequently the 
skuas in their flight up the river kept close to the eastern (of 
Mayo) side, and none came within shot of the Sligo side, upon 
which Moyview is situated. On both da5rs the skuas after 
keeping along the tidal course of the river for about two miles 
directed their flight across the country to the south-wesL 



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1896.] WAXXBH.—Tk€ Skuas of Killala Bay. 259 

I had an excellent opportunity for observing those that 
passed on the 22nd, and have little or no hesitation in con- 
sidering the greater part, if not all, to have been Pomatorhines ; 
the first flock that passed were undoubtedly of that species, 
their great size and clumsy-looking tails clearly pointing them 
out as such, and all exhibiting white underneath, and long 
tails which proved them to have been adults. 

When seen during flight the Pomatorhine Skua's tail pre- 
sents a very clumsy, awkward appearance, in contrast to the 
deg^antly pointed tails of the smaller skuas ; this is caused by 
the two elongated tail-feathers being bluntly rounded at the 
ends and twisted for nearly half their length at almost right 
angles to the plane of the short tail-feathers, so that when a 
side view of the bird is taken the full breadth of the long tail- 
feathers is shown, giving the tail that thick, clumsy appearance 
which so easily identifies this species of skua on the wing. 

Very few dark-coloured birds were seen on either day — 
probably not one to ten of the white-breasted ones. 

I could not be quite certain as to which species the birds 
seen on the second day belonged, for they passed at too great 
a distance for me to judge of their size and appearance ; but 
as the first day's flight was undoubtedly made up of Pomato« 
rhines, it may be safely inferred that the second day's was a 
continuance of the first, and therefore was of the same 
species. 

A very interesting letter from J. C. Neligan, of Tralee, was 
read at a meeting of the late Dublin Natural History Society, 
in March, 1863, describing his meeting with a large flight of 
skuas (many of them Pomatorhines) in Tralee Harbour on 
the 25th of October, 1862, just two days after the last of the 
skuas left this on the 23rd, and, I think, almost satisfactorily 
proving that the skuas after leaving this bay, and crossing 
the island, continued their flight along the coast to Tralee 
Harbour, where they took shelter and remained while the 
stormy weather lasted 

Since the above date, this skua, so far as I am aware of, has 
only occasionally occurred in this and the adjoining County 
of Mayo; four specimens only having come iinder my notice. 
An adult bird of the black variety was shot on I/)Ugh Conn by 
my friend, Mr. John Qarvejr, of B^llina, on the 24th of 



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26o The Irish Naturalist. [Oct. 

October, 1890; and on the 8th of November same year, 
the late Dr. Burkitt sent my friend, Mr. R. J. Ussher. of 
Cappagh House, Co. Waterford, an adult bird that he had found 
dead in a field close to his house, near Belmullet, County Maya 
Then, during the last week of November, 1890, Dr. Scott of 
Enniscrone gave me an immature specimen of the black 
variety, that was shot by his nephew, as, in company of two or 
three others, it was flying over a bog near Kilasser, twelve or 
fourteen miles from the sea. And a fourth specimen, a very 
fine adult, with long tail and white under-paits, was found 
lying dead (but quite fresh) on the Enniscrone sands by Miss 
Amy Warren on the 2nd October, 1892. 

Richardson's Skua (Lestris crepidatus) visits the bay and 
estuary much oftener than either of the other two species, 
some being observed nearly every autumn, during the migra- 
tory months of September and October. 

This skua first came under my notice in October, 1851, 
when residing with my brother, Mr. E. H. Warren, on the 
island of Bartragh. We observed the first of the skuas on the 
8th, when, as we were returning from Killala to Bartragh, two 
flocks of six and eight birds were seen at a great height coming 
from the open bay, and passing across the country to the south- 
west; but these were only the precursors of the large numbers 
that followed on the 15th and i6th. The wind had been blow- 
ing in wild squalls, with heav}^ showers of rain on the morning 
of the 15th, when my brother observed four skuas flying from 
the bay ; about half-past nine o'clock, nineteen birds passed, 
one of which I shot (an immature Richardson's). At eleven, 
I saw twenty- two pass ; about twelve, I saw ten, and at one 
o'clock, seventeen birds passed over ; all flying in the same 
direction, up the river to the south-west These flocks, to- 
gether with the stragglers that passed singly while we were 
watching, altogether made up the nun^ber to seventy- two birds, 
counted without mistake- On the morning of the i6th the 
flight still continued, the birds passing in small flocks, and up 
to eleven o'clock (we were unable to remain longer) upwardis 
of one hundred birds were seen. 

They appeared to be all Richardson's (I did not notice the 
large Pomatorhine amongst them), and the greater part were 
dark-coloured birds, and mostly immature, for very few long- 



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1896.] Warren.— The Skuas of Killala Bay, 26 1 

tailed, or white-breasted ones were seen ; some of the skuas 
appeared tired with their long flight against the wind, and 
would occasionally light on the water, resting for a few minutes, 
and then rise and follow their companions. Strange to say, 
though there were plenty of gulls about the sands on both days 
while the skuas were passing, yet we never saw any attempt 
to chase the gulls, though quite close to them. 

The next occasion on which I had the pleasure of seeing 
skuas on migration was on the i8th September, 1869 — a fine 
bright calm day, as I was in one of my fields looking on at 
some reapers at work, and chancing to look upwards, my 
attention was drawn to a flock of fifteen birds passing at an 
immense height on their usual course to the south-west, and 
if the day had not been so clear I could not have recognised 
them as skuas, for I was only just able to make out their dark 
long tails against the clear blue sky. Again on the 3rd of 
October, 1874, I was fortunate in witnessing a small flight of 
skuas migrating in the usual direction. The weather had been 
very stormy, with heavy showers for some days before : wind 
north-west on this day, when about ten o'clock I observed a 
flock of twenty birds flying up the river from the sea ; a short 
time afterwards four more passed ; then a little flock of three, 
which were followed by four, and in about a quarter of an 
hour, a solitary bird (which I think was a Pomatorhine) 
brought up the rear, and as far as I saw ended the flight for 
the day. 

I have frequently observed, and shot solitary birds of this 
species during the migratory months of September and October, 
but their spring visits are very rare. 

In May, 1877, a party of six birds accompanied a large flight 
of Common and Arctic Terns visiting the bay and estuary : 
three of the skuas were in light-coloured plumage, and three 
in the very dark, or black stage, and I imagined at the time, 
from seeing a light and a dark-coloured bird keeping company, 
that these colours marked the male and female, and in order 
to ascertain if my surmise was correct, I shot three birds, a 
light-coloured one, a bird in an intermediate stage of plumage, 
and a dark, or nearly black one, all three having long tails, 
showing that they were adults. However, much to my sur- 
prise, on skinning and dissecting them, they all three turned 

A4 



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262 The Irish Naturalist, [Oct, 

out to be females, the ovaries of each containing eggs vaiying 
in size from No. 8 to B shot. 

The LoNGTAii^ED or Buppon's Skua (Lestris parasiticus] 
is of very rare occurrence on this part of the coast, and has onlj 
on two occasions come under my notice — first, on the 24th o\ 
October, 1862, I was on the shore near Scurmore, looking out 
for any rare birds that might have been driven in by the gal€ 
of the two previous days, when a small skua flew past, which 
I fired at and wounded, but it escaped over the sandhills. On 
the following day when walking along the Enniscrone sands, 
on the bay side of the sandhills, and nearly in the same place 
where on the previous day I had found two fine specimens o( 
the Fulmar Petrel, I picked up a dead skua, and fancied il 
was the bird I had fired at the day before. After I got home 
I vSkinned the bird and found that it was wounded by No. € 
shot, the same that I had used, so felt pretty certain that it 
was the bird I had wounded. It proved to be an immature 
specimen of Buffon's Skua, 

The second specimen was given to me by the late Mr. X. 
Handy of Ballintubber, near Killala, on the i8th of October, 
1867, who told me he met it when out grouse-shooting, and 
shot it as it rose from the carcase of a hare, upon which it had 
been feeding. This was also an immature bird, but as it had 
been kept too long, I was unable to preserve it. 

The only instance that I am aware of this skua being seen 
on its spring migration in Ireland, is that mentioned by 
Lieutenant Crane, of the 67th Regiment, in a letter read at a 
meeting of the late Dublin Natural History Society on the 
7th February, 1862, in which he says : — 

"The specimens of Buffon's Skua were shot by me on the i6th of May, 
i860, on the Shannon, about ^vq miles south of Athlone. 

'* I was out with two brother officers shooting Land-rails, which are veiy 
plentiful on that part of the river. The day was very stormy, and cold 
for the season, the wind from north-west I was sitting in a boat at a 
place called Longisland, when a flock of about twenty skuas passed 
over. I saw at once that they were not common birds : the long tail 
feathers marked them at once ; but as I was sitting in the bow, the flock 
had nearly passed over before I saw them, but I succeeded in killing 
one. Sometime after another flock of about the same number 
passed, but I could not get a shot ; but a third flock came over, out oi 
which I killed one with each barrel, making three in all. I gave tivo 



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iSj^O Warren.— 7%^ Skuas of Killala Bay, 263 

of them to the late Mr. Glennon, and he then showed me another, which 
he told me had been killed from a flock in the Co. Donegal on the 17th, 
the day after I got mine. The birds were following the course of the 
Shannon, flying north. I gave the third specimen to Major Newton, 
R.A., who sent it to his brother, Alfred Nevrton, Esq., so well known 
for his work on eggs. I saw between sixty and seventy in all." 

From the foregoing notes on skuas seen on their southern 
migration, and from the fact that my brother, when residing 
on Bartragh island from February, 1851, to December, 1855, 
observed skuas every October passing over Bartragh, and 
crossing the country to the south-west, I think it may be 
safely inferred that the line of flight of a part of the southern 
migration is along our north-west coast until Killala Bay is 
reached, and then, to avoid the longer course round the rugged 
coast-line of Mayo and Galway, they enter Killala Bay, and 
taking the shorter and more direct course over Bartragh, con- 
tinue their south-west route across the country, and striking 
on the coast again, probably at Galway Bay, continue their 
flight to the south. 

It may also be noted that the skuas were never seen in 
any large numbers, unless during very stormy weather occur- 
ring in October : and that if the weather was calm and fine 
during that month, only a few straggling birds were seen, 
probably birds not strong enough to keep up with the main 
flight. 



PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



RovAi, Zooi^oGiCAi, Society. 

Recent donations comprise a magnificent pair of Crown Cranes from 
L. O. Hntton, Esq. ; a pair of Bibron*s Frogs from A. E. Jamrach, Esq. ; 
a pair of Wild Cats from Miss Cunningham ; a Merlin from Sir Douglas 
Brooke ; a snake from the Editor of the Irish Field \ two parrots from J. 
H. Davidson-Houston, Esq. ; an eagle from F. H. Young, Esq. ; a Merlin 
from C. J. Wisdom, Esq. : a Cape Canary from Mrs. Cannon ; and some 
Loach from Miss Phillipson. Two Lion cubs and two Capybaras have 
been bom in the Gardens, and a Somali Lioness has been purchased. 

19,928 persons visited the Gardens in August 



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264 The Irish Naturalist, [ Oct, 



Bei^fast Naturawsts' Fiei*d Ci^ub. 
August 15.— The Club held an excursion to Slieve Gallion, in County 
Derry. The party, numbering over twenty, left the Northern 
Counties Station at eight o'clock, arriving at Moneymore at 
ten. Cars were at once taken, and the long drive will be a pleasant 
recollection to all the party, the hedgerows being bright with black- 
berries and the brilliant scarlet of the honeysuckle-berries. Arriving 
at Lough Fea, a boat was kindly provided on the lake by Mr. Russell 
to explore the crannog showing so conspicuously in the centre. A 
short notice of the geology of the district was read, written by Professor 
Cole, who had been working out the local rocks, the main featiupes being 
the intrusion of granite in pre-Carboniferous times into the much older 
pyroxenic and hornblendic rocks, formerly supposed to have been altered 
shales and sandstones, but now recognised as being volcanic in origin, 
ashes and tuflfs having been found in considerable quantity, and vesicular 
structure being often seen. The melting up of the older rock by the 
intrusive granite seems to have produced a curiously mixed rock on a 
regional scale. This is described by the Geological Survey and elsewhere 
as diorite, and was supposed to have been of separate origin. It is also of 
considerable interest to see the small capping of our familiar basalt and 
Chalk, showing what a gigantic amount of denudation has gone on 
in geologically recent times in order to clear all the basalt and most of 
the Chalk from the great valleys on either side of the mountain. The 
members were then free to ascend the mountain or explore the lake; 
but the party decided to climb, so a start was at once made over the 
fields and by cart lanes until the open heath was reached. Investigating 
each crag and exposure of the rock, the party gradually reached the 
summit (1,623 feet), from which the view proved somewhat disappointing 
owing to the heavy clouds covering the sky. After a short rest the 
descent was undertaken, passing exposures of the mingled rock above 
referred to. Another long and lovely drive brought the members to the 
top of Camdaisy Glen. The little stream has cut down through gravels 
and sands until it now has got some way into the rock, the sides of the 
gorge rise steeply, beautifully timbered on either hand, while the carriage 
road runs down close by the stream. Leaving the vehicles, the 
members scattered in pursuit of their various avocations, the fungi being 
(though still early) especially noticeable. The Hedgehog Mushroom 
Hydnum repandum) was in considerable quantity, as were several species of 
Russula, Boletus (including the locally rare B, satanas), Anioftita and Pczisa. 
Halfway down the ^len the surprising sight was seen of the stream 
apparently rushing against the steep bank, and having cut through it, flow- 
ing at right angles to its old course, now quite dry. This has been caused 
by a second stream cutting its way from outside, till its bed was lower 
than the main one, thus, when cut far enough back, tapping the larger 
stream and producing the above eflfect. On arriving at the end of the ; 
glen cars were again mounted, and the few miles separating Camdaisy 
from Moneymore were soon covered, bringing the party quickly to the i 



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i89fi-] Proceedings of Irish Societies. 265 

Drapexs* Arms, where tea was in readiness. It should be mentioned 
that some members of the Gaelic League accompanied the Field Club, 
and succeeded in finding quite a number of Irish-speaking people, though 
even the magic key of silver failed to extract Gaelic from the younger 
members of the community. 

Sbptbmbkr 5.— The last long excursion of the season was held to 
BaUynahinch and Slieve Croob, where a pleasant and enjoyable day was 
spent amongst the rocks and mountains of what is, with the exception 
of the Moumes, the wildest portion of County Down. The party 
drove through Ballynahinch, past the historic height of Ednavaddy, to 
where the Belfast Water Commissioners are having a section made of 
their new Moume scheme. Here a short halt was called to allow the 
members to inspect a deep cutting through which a concrete tunnel has 
been made. Shortly after this, the little village of Dromara was reached, 
and then the mountain road was taken skirting the Lagan. A good 
climb up the beds of different streams, each party intent on discovering 
the real source of the Lagan, soon brought all the members to different 
little wells of limpid water, where lunch was taken. The sloping sides 
of Monahoor were then passed, and the heights of Cratlieve left behind, 
making it but an easy pull up to the topmost cairn, 1,755 feet high, of 
Slieve Croob itself. Here a halt was called, and some photos taken 
around the great cairn, which has been pulled down and erected into 
small modem piles. A little work would restore this cairn to its original 
conical condition — the covering and monument of some long-forgotten 
hero. From the cairn the descent was easy and rapid to the vehicles, 
which were soon mounted, and the road taken to the little chapel of 
Dunmore, high perched upon a rocky knoll. Here Father Quail, who 
had been the Club's local guide throughout the day, showed the members 
some geological specimens and other things of interest. Time did not 
permit of a long delay, so the road was once more taken to the Spa, 
where an excellent tea was provided by Miss Brelsford, after which the 
following new members were elected: — ^The Rev. G. Foster, Mrs. 
Stevens, and the Rev. Richard Cole. The President, Mr. Lavens M. 
Ewart, BC.R.I.A., in a few well-chosen words, then thanked Father 
Quail, on behalf of the members, for his great kindness and hospitality 
throughout the day. 

0^/oxjooiCAt, Section. — This section met in the Museum on the 29th 
July, when Mr. A. G. Wilson, Honorary Secretary, described a recent 
visit with Professor Cole to the Slieve Grllion district, illustrating his 
remarks by a collection of rock specimens, which he subsequently 
presented to the Club. Mr. R. Bell mentioned that the well-known 
Rhaetic beds in Colin Glen, which had been inaccessible for many 
years, are exposed by recent floods, exhibiting specimens of the bone 
bed. He also presented a series of rhyolites from Cloughwater, Kirk- 
inriola, Ballyloughan, and Eslerstown. After some discussion, the 
Pomeroy excursion was relinquished, as the section to be visited occurs 
in the bed of a stream. The recent excursion to Glenavy was also spoiled 
by the severe rain, which had made Lough Keagh unusually high. 



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266 The Irish Naturalist. [Oct. 

DuBWN Naturalists' Fibi^d Ci,ub. 

August 15. — Kei*i,y*s Gi,en. a party numbering close on thirty 
proceeded by car and cycle to Whitechurch, and thence on foot up Kelly's 
Glen. Some elected to search along the stream, where rough banks 
strewn with rocks invited the naturalist ; others struck up the heather- 
clad side of Tibradden Mountain, and along its high ridge to the summit, 
where, from the ruined sepulchral cam, a fine view of the Dublin and 
Wicklow hills was to be had. The party re-assembled at a whitewashed 
cottage at the head of the glen, where tea was spread on the grass. Close 
at hand rose the green slopes that covered a deposit of much geological 
interest — the highest of the celebrated series of Dublin high-level glacial 
gravels. The descent was made across the ridge to Ticnock, and thence 
to Dundrum. The season was rather advanced for flowering plants, bat 
Trifoiium medium was observed in one of its few Co. Dublin stations ; 
with it grew the Golden Rod {Solidago virgaurea). The Sweet-Scented 
Orchis {Gymnadenia conopsea) and Grass of Parnassus {Pamassia paiuUris) 
were still in flower in damp spots, and the mountain variety of the Cow- 
wheat {Melampyrum pratense var. montanum) was gathered both on Ti- 
bradden and Kilmashoge. Among the Liverworts collected by Mr. 
M*Ardle were Scapania tiemorosa^ S, Urttbrosa^ Nardia gracillimOj and Riccardia 
muUifida var. pinncUifida, 

Sbptbmbkr 5. — Brittas Bay. A rainy morning kept a few 
members away, but a party of close on twenty disembarked at Wicklow 
from the train leaving Dublin at 10.0. The day brightened as the party 
drove southward, through pretty undulating country and hedges laden 
with sloes, hips, haws, and blackberries. The sands of Brittas Bay were 
reached shortly after mid-day, and as the sun burst forth the party 
scattered among the dunes. Here that fine and rare rush, /uncus ooOms, 
grew plentifully. Specimens were measured seven feet in height. Other 
plants of the sand-hills were Carlina^ Cynoglossum, Euphorbia paralias^ and 
E, portlandica. On the sand-hills the entomologists noted a fair number 
of species. Amongst the beetles the following are noteworthy:— 
Denutrius airicapillus^ Dromius nigriventris, Otiorrhynchus avahis^ and a very 
white form of the common Pkilopedon geminaius. In the marshy ground 
behind the sand-hills Aphodius fatens occurred, a very local species in 
Ireland. Two uncommon plant-bugs were found on the sand-hills, 
Metacanthus punctipes and Nobis iativentris. The former occurred in abund- 
ance under Lotus comiculaius ; it had previously occurred only on Portmar- 
nock sands. The Spiders collected included Lycosa leopardus, Z. /f^to, 
Pardosa monticola^ and an immature Drassus (probably D, delinquens) new to 
the Irish Fauna. Along the rocks of Mizen Head were found Statice 
occidentcUis and Carex extensa, Fotniculum and Artemisia Absinthium grew on 
roadsides adjoining. A note on the fungi taken will be found on p. 268. 
At 3.30 a sumptuous tea was provided by Mrs. Johnson, and subse- 
quently the party drove back to Wicklow, and caught the mail train to 
town. Hon. R. E. Dillon and Brigade-Surgeon Wellington Gray wert 
fleeted members of the Club, 



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1896.] Proceedings of Irish Societies. 267 

Co&K Naturausts' Fibi^d Ci,ub. 

August 12.— Rostei^i^an and Casti^ Mary. Fifteen members 
left by 12. xo train, and proceeded by steamer to Aghada from Passage. 
Driving to Rostellan the grounds were explored, and along the' boggy 
margins of the lake were found the Common Skullcap {Scutellaria 
gaUriatlatd) in abundance, the Gipsywort {Lycopus europaus), the Mares- 
tail (Hippttris vulgaris)^ and the Marsh Willow-herb {EpUobium palusire). 
Crossing the fields to Castle Mary, the Dwarf Spurge (Euphorbia cxigua) 
was noted, a species local in Ireland. Two fungi were collected, Boletus 
tdulisy frequent in the moist woods at Rostellan, and Coprinus coniatus 
under the beeches at Castle Mary. The margins of the lake at Rostellan 
were evidently rich in insect life, but time prevented many captures. 
Numerous fine specimens of Argyntiis aglaia were seen. After tea at Cloyne 
the fine old cathedral was visited, and the round tower inspected. A 
drive of four miles back to Aghada, then steamer and train, and Cork 
was reached at 9.45, after a most delightful day's outing. 



PIEI.D CLUB NEWS. 

The Dublin Club has recently been elected a Corresponding Society 
of the British Association, and was for the first time represented at the 
Corresponding Societies' Conference at the recent meeting at Liverpool. 
Prof. Johnson, Treasurer of the Club, was the delegate on this occasion. 

Several English conchologists— Df. Chaster, Mr. R. Standen, and 
Hr. Hardy — have recently been collecting in North Antrim, under the 
able guidance of Mr. R. Welch. We trust some accoimt of their results 
will shortly appear in these pages. 

We note with pleasure that the Hon. R. E* Dillon, who initiated and 
otganized the recent week*s field-work at Clonbrock, the results of which 
filled our last issue, has been elected a member of the Dublin Club. 
Mr. Dillon's name is already well-known on account of his remarkable 
entomological discoveries in Co. Galway. 

Mr. Charles Elcock, long a member of the Belfast Field Club, and a 
microscopical manipulator of great skill, has been appointed Curator 
of the Art Gallery and Museum at the Free Public Library in Belfast, 
in place of Mr. J. F. Johnson, whose recent mysterious disappearance 
Caused some sensation locally. 

The Cork Club are losing a valued member by the removal of Surgeon 
W. G. Axford, R.N., F.i,.s., from H.M-S. Black Prince, Queenstown, to 
Devonport, where he has been appointed Surgeon to the Dockyard at 
Keyham. His presence on the various excursions this year have been 
most helpful to the members, and while congratulating him on pro* 
motion, Uiey much regret his removaL 



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266 The irisk NaiuralisL [ <ict, 

NOTES. 



BOTANY. 



FUNGI. 



Hew Irish FunRl.— Mr. Praeger has lately sent me the follow- 
ing specimens:— 67^<r^J!fl aqucUica affected with the long linear son of 
UstUago longissima. Sow., which ultimately cause the leaves to split up and 
die, and the stem to wither away without flowering. The spores are very 
small ; it would take sixty-four millions to cover a square inch ! The 
affected grass was gathered at Bective, and near Enfield, Co. Meath. 
UstUago caridsy Pers. (=3^7. urceolorutn^ Tul.), is a smut-fiingus which converts 
the fruit of sedges into a little mass like a grain of charcoal. Its spores 
are four times as large as those of U longissima. It was found on Canx 
panicea near Enfield by Mr. Praeger. From the same locality comes 
an inflorescence of Holcus sp., with a large-spored smut, TUleHa 
Rauwenkofiiy Fischer v. Waldheim, a species allied to the well-known 
** bunt " of wheat, and like it smelling of herring-brine when rubbed- 
All three fungi are new to Ireland, and the last-mentioned species has 
not to my knowledge been hitherto published as British, but Dr. 
Plo Wright, the British authority on the subject, informs me that he 
found it on Holcus mollis near Doncaster, in 1891. 

Ed. J. McWe^ney, Dublin. 

PunffI from Brlttas Bay Excursloiiy D.N.F.C.— The follow- 
ing were the rarest of the few agarics collected : — ClitopUus cameoaiims^ 
Wither ; Enioloma jubatutfty Fr. ; Stropharia inundtiSy Fr, ; Inocybe tiniosa^ 
Bull. (This common agaric is mentioned on account of the peculiar 
locality where it was found, viz., amongst the sand-hills on the seashore; 
the pileus was in many cases quite coated with sand). Of Uredimi and 
Ustilaginei one species was found (by Mr. Halbert) which I have not 
hitherto met with, though I have often sought for it, Ptudnia hydrocotyks^ 
Lk., forming pustules chiefly on the upper side of leaves of the Manh 
Pennywort. Mr. M'Ardle found Ptucinia calthay Lk., a decidedly rare 
species, within afewyards of Mr.Halbert's capture, on the marshy land west 
of the coast-road to Arklow and north of the cross-road at Brittas Bay. 
The other Fungi taken comprised Erimlla apala, Mass., an exceedingly 
beautiful tiny Peziza growing on dead culms of rush. It is covered with 
long hairs, whitish round the margin, fawn-coloured elsewhere, and its 
spores, resembling compact bundles of slender rods (40/1 x 2/*), form an 
interesting high-power object Cyphclla vilhsoy Karst, a minute woolly 
species, closely resembling a Pcziza^ was also found. It covered a con- 
siderable area of a dead herbaceous stem. This is the first occasion on 
which I have found this species. My measurements of the spores come 
(cmt a Httle smaller (9x7) than those given in Massee, but the agreement 
is otherwise perfect. 

E. J. McWeKNSV, Dublin. 



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1896.] Notes. 269 



PHANEROGAMS. 

Flora of Louffh Derff •— The following notes as to some of the rarer 
species which I observed in the neighbourhood of Lough Derg in June 
and July, 1895, maj- perhaps be of interest : — 

TkaUctrum coUinum.-^K few plants among rocks near mouth of Ross- 
more river {Co. Galway). Thalutrum flavum, — ^Abundant on banks of 
Borrisokane river (Co. Tipperary). AquUtgia vuli^aris. — Frequent in 
stony places throughout the district. Erysimum cMHranthoidcs. — One plant 
at Brocka (Ca Tipperary). Geranium samguinetim,'~'V\&i\M\x\ among rocks 
at Drominagh (Ca Tipperary.) Galium boreale> — ^Abundant at Brocka. 
Inula salicina — ^A fine clump of this striking plant found on rocky shore 
of Lough Derg at Curraghmore, seen also on Brynas Island, both on 
Tipperary shore of Lough. Carduus /r<z/ir/i^.— Abundant in bogs. 
Taurium scordium, — In profusion among rocks on shore of Rossmore 
river, and also at Drominagh. Ophrys i^(/^m.— Frequent in limestone 
pastures at Borrisokane. Epipactis palusiris. — Moderately abundant in a 
locky meadow at Bellevue, on the Tipperary side of Lough, Nabenaria 
amopua, — Frequent at Brocka. Sisyrinchium angusti/olium, — Growing 
freely on rocky shore at the mouth of Rossmore river. The district is a 
most interesting one to a botanist, as it yields some species not found 
elsewhere in the United Kingdom, and appears to be the only European 
habitat of the beautiful Sisyrinchium angusti/olium, 

C. J. L11.1.Y, Larue. 

Sisyrinchium callfornlcuniy Dryander, In Ireland.— To the 

Journal of Botar^ for August, Rev. E. S. Marshall contributes a note on 
the occurrence 6f this plant in marshy meadow-land north of Rosslare 
station, Co. Wexford, where he states it grows in abundance, among 
plants all of which are undoubtedly indigenous. S, calif omicum is a 
native of California and Oregon, and Mr. Marshall says he is " quite con- 
vinced that this plant has not been accidentally introduced'* in its Co. 
Wexford station. 

Dryms o<:topetala In Co. Antrim.— Among some plants which I 
gathered in 1884 at the Sallagh Braes, in Co. Antrim, and which had got 
astray among my papers, I have recently found a specimen of Dryas 
oetopoala. This discovery is interesting, as the only record of this plant 
from Co. Antrim is in Mackay*s Flora Hibernica (1836), without any locality 
being mentioned, t/ts. : — " County Antrim, Atr. TempUtm'* ; on which the 
editors of the Flora of the North-east of Ireland (1888), p. 48, remark : «* In 
FUra Hibcmka Mr. Templeton is erroneously credited with finding this 
plant in Antrim." I have since heard from my friend Mr. Stewart, the 
surviving editor, that neither he nor his coadjutor, the late Mr. Corry. 
found in Templeton's MSS. any note of /?. octopetala in Antrim, hence 
their reason for doubting the correctness of the statement in the Flora 
tiibemica, Mr. Stewart has seen my plant, which has come as a surprise to 



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270 The Irish NcUuralist. [OcU 

him. He has often searched the Sallagh Braes, but as my plant is an old 
barren one, it was probably overlooked from its habit of creeping close 
to the ground, and resembling Salix rcpens. To me it is very satisfactory 
to be able to verify Mr Templeton's record. 

H. W. Lett (in foum, Bot. for August). 

[We are not sanguine that the foregoing note will convince Irish bota- 
nists as to the occurrence of Dryas octopetala in County Antrim. The fact 
that a plant so striking and distinct was not recognised at the time, but 
should turn up long afterwards amongst papers admittedly mislaid, does 
not tend to inspire confidence or conviction. The remark that *' 9:^ 
my plant was an old barren one, it was probably overlooked from its 
habit of creeping close to the ground, and resembling Salix repms'^ strikes 
one as strange. The resemblance to Salix repens is surely fanciful, and 
our experience is that old plants do not creep closer to the ground, or 
fh>wer less than younger ones. It must be noted also that several records 
credited to Templeton by various writers, but not mentioned in his own 
notes, have already proved erroneous, Euphorbia hibtma and Chrysospienium 
aUemifolium for instance, and that the Sallagh Braes have been well 
searched by botanists ever since Templeton's time, notably so by the late 
Dr. Moore. From these considerations the desirability of Mr. Letfi 
verifying his specimen by the discovery of the plant in situ is manifest, 
and while we do not for a moment cast doubt on the bona fide nature of 
his communication, it appears to us that there are now two records which 
invite verification— Mr. Templeton's, and Mr. Lett's.— Eds.] 

Carex teretlusculay Good .9 In County Do^vn.- This sedge has 
just now been re-found, July, 1896, in a wet sphagnous bog near the 
Giant's Ring at Bally lesson, Co. Down, which was in all likelihood Orr's 
original locality, and it is thus a restoration to the county of a plant 
which was excluded by the authors of Flora N, £. Ireland as not now 
being found. Indeed, until it was lately discovered at Killelagh Ixmgh 
in County Derry, by Mrs. Leebody and Mr. Praeger, as recorded in the 
Supplement to the Flora, it was considered as probably extinct in the 
north of Ireland. The history of the occurrence of this species in the 
district, particularly as relating to County Antrim, is amusingly curious. 
It was believed that there was neither bog nor marsh at or near the 
Giant's Ring. The habitat in the case of Templeton's locality in County 
Antrim, given by him as " old moss holes " at Cranmore (which place 
was for a long time the residence of that careful and indefatigable 
naturalist) was, in transcription, changed to marl hole, and then from 
marl hole it was altered, in Flora Hibemiea^ to the marble h<^e, Cran- 
more, and again transformed in Cybde Hibemica to Marble Hall, Cara- 
money; but nobody seems to be aware of the existence of any Marble 
Hall at that place or elsewhere in the county, nor is the plant to be found 
in the neighbourhood of Cammoney. Possibly it may still exist at Cran- 
more, but since Templeton's time it does not seem to have been seen 
there. In conversation with my friend, Mr. Stewart, concerning this 
species, he told me that, as mentioned in the Floroy he did not know of 



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i^] Notes. 271 

any bog near the Giant's Ring, but stated that he had sought for it be« 
tveen that singular relic of antiquity and the River Lagan, where, as a 
matter of fieu^t, there is no bog. Recollecting that some years ago I had 
examined, bryolojg^cally, a bog at the foot of the eastern slope of the 
Giant's Ring, close by the roadside, the approach to which is by a lane 
directly opposite the Ballylesson National School, we concluded it to be 
highly probable that this might prove to be the spot, where, on the 
authority of David Orr, C teretiuscula had been detected b^ him more 
thin half a century ago; and I determined, though too late in the 
season to find the plant in perfection, to adventure in quest of it, if haply 
it might still be found there. The result showed our supposition to be 
correct. A very few specimens of a starved form of the plant were ob- 
tained in different parts of the bog, but for the most part it is confined 
to a catting running at right angles with the road, where it occurs, 
growing in the water, in considerable profusion and luxuriance. At the 
time of my visit, the latter end of July, the fruit was thoroughly ripened, 
and indeed most of it had disappeared, but sufficient was secured to 
^dlitate the accurate identification of the plant, in the examination of 
which I had the friendly assistance of Mr. Stewart The height of this 
ledge is given in Babington as one to two feet, which may be generally 
correct, but the Ballylesson plant is fully three feet high, and many 
specimens were found measuring very little under four feet. The re- 
discovery of the species in the county may not be without some interest 
to North of Ireland botanists. When Cj^beie HiUimica was published the 
plant could be recorded for only two counties, Down and Antrim, but 
it is more widely distributed than it was then known to be, and there 
are specimens to vouch for its occurrence in Tyrone, Derry, and Donegal. 

J. H. Davibs, I^isbum, 

ZOOLOGY. 

Fauna of Belfast Louflrh.— The following is a record of species 
Uken on a dredging expedition, on July 4th, 1896, organised by the 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. Names in parentheses ( ) are given on 
the authority of Dr. Hurst alone ; those in brackets [ ] on Mr. H. 
Banna's authority alone. Those without brackets on the authority of 
both:— 

Protozoa.— <Ceraft'«m, sp.) 

POEIFEKA. — \LeucMtUfda botryc^des.^ ISjfCon coronaiutH,'} lEugpongia, 

HYDROXOA^^^Pbtmularm^ sp. Tubuiana indivisa, \_ObeUa getucuiata,] 
Strtaiaria ahUtiML [Sertuhria pumUa,'] IFileUum serpens,] (^ClyUa Johnstoni,) 
ipalyetUa spinga,) (^Diphasia rosacea?.) {Garveia nutans.) ^Antennuiaria 
ramosa.) iCcryne, sp.) {HydraUmania fakata.) 

P01.YZOA. — Pedicel/ina (cenma). Fhistra (JoHacea). Fbutra (seeuri/rons). 
Crista ifibwrnm). (Kmm/orta spinosa.) {Amathia lemb'gera.) {Mucnmeita 
Ptaekn.) (^Gemmeiiaria hricoia.) {CeUaria sinuosa.) {ScnqHMxUaria scruposa.) 

Vaikeria uva.) {Eucratea chelata,) {Bugula phmosa.) (fiugula flabelitOa.) 



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272 



The Irish Naturalist I Oct, 



BrachiopODA— (TereAroiufe, sp.) 

CHi^TOPODA— [5fer/ja/a p«c«mato.] \SaiMa vesieuhsa.'] Hermone, sp. 
Nereis, sp.^ iPoIifnoe propinqua.'\ 

Crustacea.— (i/yo* coarctatus,^ {Porturms depurator.) {EbaHa PtmaMu.) 
(J'andalus amuliconm.) (Eurynome aspera.) iBakmus, sp.) 

PycnoGONIDRA-— <i4w»ioM€a lasvis,) 

ECHINODERMATA,— (^cAtnocyu»ii« pMi^— dead.) {Ophiactniha, sp.) 
(Ophioglypha idbida,) iEchinuB sjAcera.) {Spatangus purpuretu.) 

MOI,I.USCA.— (Teniw cosina.) (^atorte «Micata.) (idporrAoM pes^peHam.) 
(Detitaliutn, sp.— dead.) 

TUNlCATA.--[A»c«fci, sp.] [Ciona iW«ifiia&«.] [.IpWi um efcyow. J 
iLepidium, sp.] IPerophora Listeri.-] ClaveUina iepadifamas. 

This list is of course very far from being complete. 

Some species I have been unable to identify with certainty, and m such 
cases I have given Mr. Hanna's names, or no specific name at all, or 
indicated my doubt by a note of interrogation. 

No special comment is called for in the case of any of the above 
ffl)ecies: all are well known as occurring in British waters, and most, 
if not all, of them have been previously .recorded from the same 

^^^^^ C. Herbert Hurst, Dublin. 

INSECTS, 
wasps catchlnff Flics on Cattle.— On August 38th, about i p.m., 
I noticed a number of wasps buzzing about my cows, which were lying 
down quietly chewing the cud, and whisking their taUs now and then m 
a lazy fashion to remove the flies. It was a field between two woods, 
and the cows were lying far away from any bank or hole likely to con- 
tain a wasp's nest I could not therefore imagine what the wasps were 
doing— four to eight about each cow-and as the cows did not mmd 
them in the least, it was evident that the wasps were not stinging them. 
Closer inspection revealed a most interesting sight. The wasps were 
all busy catching flies-darting quickly hither and thither along the 
cows' flanks— and pouncing with the rapidity of hawks after birds on 
the flies as they tried to settle or rest on some favorite part of the cow. 
One white cow drew more wasps than any of the others, because the 
moment a fly alighted it was seen at once against the skin. I do not 
think, however, that wasps can see very well— because one litUe black 
speck' which looked like a fly (but was not) was pounced on by a 
disappointed wasp more than once. When a wasp catches a fly it 
immediately bites off both wings (this is the work of an instant)-9omc- 
times a leg or two, and I believe occasionally the head. I saw some of 
the wasps when laden with one fly catch another— without letting go 
the first, and then fly away with both. They were coming and going 
as long as I watched— there was a constant stream of wasps carrying 
away flies— I suppose to feed the larvae in their neste. and returning 
again to the cows to catch more. In about 20 minutes I estimate 
between 300 and 400 flies were caught, on two cows lying close to where 

^ ^^^' RjCHP. M. Barrincton, Bray. 

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1896.] Notes. 273 

Entomological Notos from N. E. Ireland.-^In a collection 
of insects made by the Rev. H. W. Lett, when a boy, n the neighbour- 
hood of Clongh, Co. Antrim, I found a specimen of Carabus clathratus. 
This appears to be the furthest N. E. record for this beetle. Mr. C. B. 
Moffat, who is preparing for publication the journals of the late Mr. A. 
G. More, found a note of the capture of C clathratus by Rev. G. Robinson 
on Deer's Island, in Lough Neagh Mr. Robinson frequently told me 
that he had taken C. clathratus at Tartaraghan, among turf. In fact the 
beetle seems particularly attached to tuif, for all the captures that I am 
acquainted with have been made where there was turf, or bog suitable 
fiir turf. 

The records given above are interesting, as showing the junction in 
the Hue of its distribution with its Scottish habitats. In Rev. H. W. 
Lett's collection were also Blethisa multipunctata^ PdophUa borccUis^ Chlamius 
nigruomis, Stomis pumiccUuSy Amara spinipes^ SUpha opaca^ a very narrow 
brown form of SUpha subrotundata^ and Harytwtus obscurus. 

Both BlHhisa and Pelophila thus like C. clathratus complete the line of 
connection with Scotland, though the former is by no means so northern 
a species as the latter. Mr. Lett had also some lepidoptera in his 
collection, of which I may mention the following : — Chrysophanus phlctas 
Tar. Schfuidtii, this is the only specimen of this form that I have seen in 
Ireland, and I do not know of any record of it from this country ; Chctro- 
coMpa dpencTy Snierinthus popttli^ Satumia pavtmia, Apamea didynia (a very 
black form), A, basalis, Xylocampa lithorrhua^ and Hybemia progenwtaria,. 
. I have two fresh localities for Sirex gigas^on July 22nd, a specimen 
was forwarded me from Caledon, Co. Tyrone, where it was found on a 
Larch, and two days later a specimen was found close to the glebe here, 
also on Larch. These captures would seem to indicate a spread of this 
Saw-fly in the country, a thing by no means to be desired, as it is very 
injurious to timber. 

On June 6, 1 paid a short visit to Greencastle, on the Co. Down shore, 
opposite Greenore. I had only about half an hour to search for insects, 
and confined my attention to the beach, where I met with Calathus fuscus^ 
Amara fuiva^ Heterothops leinotaia^ Lathrobium tricolor^ and Meciims pyraster^ also 
nnmbers of Otiorrhynchus cUroapterus, Lathrobium tricolor also occurred at 
Omeath when I was there on June 25th. I have captured a few 
Hymenoptera here, among them being Halictus rubicundm, Andrtna 
dwrana, Bombus agrorum^ B, lapidarius^ and B. smithianus ; of this last I 
fonnd a couple of very strong nests in my lawn when the hay was being 
cut. They were very fierce, and chased me a considerable distance when 
disturbed. This appears to be the first record of their occurrence in 
Ireland. Megachile emtuncularis I captured in my garden on July 21st. in 
the act of cutting a piece out of a rose leaf. Vapa norvegica occurred on 
July 27th. F. vulgaris is not as plentiful as I had expected after the mild 
ivinter and spring, but there is quite a sufficient supply. Among the 
butterflies I have noticed a great abundance of Pararge ageria here ; it 
quite swarms in my garden, and abounds along the roads and lanes. I have 
seen a couple of Vamssa atalanta^ but V. urtica has not been at all as plenti- 
fal as usual ; possibly the torrential rains of last month had something to 



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^74 ^^^ ^^^ UaiuiralisL [Oct, 

do with its scarcity. I may mention that the larvee of Mditma marma^ 
which I mentioned in a former note (/.A^., vol. v., 190) duly pupated and 
emerged, giving me a very handsome series of this pretty butterfly, sone 
being very dark. 

W. F. Johnson, Acton Glebe, Poyntzpais. 



MOLLUSCS, 

Marine Mollusca of Co. Qalway.— In April last, the following 
species were collected on the extensive strand between Bunowen sad 
Slyne Head, Connemara, in addition to the many commoner ones that 
characterize the shell«sand of Roundstone (see /.A^., 1895, pp. a64-5> 
The shells have been kindly determined by Dr. Chaster. 

Aclis minima^ l^?L \ A, supranitida ; A. unica ; Scalane cammums; S, 
clatkraiuta; Homalogyra atamus ; H, rota; Odostomia rissoides ; O. nwosa; 0. 
insculpta ; O, diaphana ; O, IVarreni ; O, niHdissima ; Eulima incmva ; 
CeriifUopiU concaienata {^=p$dchfllat Jeff.) ; Kissaa JtUgida ; R, obtusa {^saobtU^ 
Jeff.); CyclosiremaserftMda } C.nitens, 

R. Wrixh, Bel&sL 

Mollusoa of Cavan Bxcurslon.— Land and Freshwater Shells 
collected near Cavan, loth to 13th July, i^i—VUrina ptUucida^ Kilmorc 
graveyard ; HyaUnia ctllaria^ Kilmore graveyard ; H, Drapamamdi^ Kil- 
more graveyard; H, aUaria^ Kilmore and Famham woods; i7./M«, 
old quarry at Crossdoney ; H. crystallina^ Kilmore, on old mossy wall ; H. 
nitidula^ Kilmore graveyard ; Arum ater, Limax maximtts^ Agrioliwuuc agra- 
Hsy in woods and shore of lake near Killykeen ; Hdix rw t unda l a^ a few 
only under fallen trees in Famham demesne, and at Crossdoney aad 
Killykeen ; H* hispida^ H, rtrfescem^ almost everywhere ; If. n^mcndu, 
Killykeen ; IL nenufralis var. interrupta^ Famham demesne ; H, aspens 
Trinity Abbey; CocklUopa iuMca, cvtry'wheTe in damp moss and under 
stones, Kilmore ; Pupa eylindracta, everywhere on old mossy walls and on 
Beech trunks near Derrywinny bog, some very light>coloured specimens; 
Vertigo pygmxa^ on fiedlen leaves in old quarry near Crossdoney, plentiful ; 
K amiwertigoy on lake-shore, Killykeen ; Clamilia lamtMota^ common on 
Beech trunks in Ftoiham woods ; C bidentata^ damp walls and old trees 
almost everywhere; Succinea ptUris^ on shore of Trinity Island, and fine 
large specimens on small island near Killykeen; Caryckimm mmimmm, 
lake*shore near Killykeen, a few; Limmea stagnaUst a few on cause- 
way at Trinity Abbey ; L, peregra^ Trinity Abbey, and on lake-shore near 
Killykeen, and Lough Cuttragh ; L. palustris^ a few in rejactamenta on 
Lough Oughter shore ; Z. iruncaiula. Lough Oughter, and in old quarry, 
Crossdoney ; Pkysa fonttfudisi locality not noted ; PianorHs vortex^ cause- 
way at Trinity Abbey, very plentiful ; P, ccmiartus, P, a/hu, P. fmiamu. 
Lough Cuttragh; Bythimia tmtacnlaia^ Trinity Island shore, and 
rejactamenta at Killykeen ; Valvata piscinalis^ Trinity Island shore, and 
rejactamenta at Killykeen ; PUidium niiidumy Trinity Island. 

R. Wm«ca, Belfast. 



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FISHES, 

The Shade Fish or Malsre (SclSBna aqulla) on the Irish 
Coast. — Mr. Thomhill, of Castle Bellingham, recently obtained a speci- 
men of this rare fish in the salmon-nets, near Annagassan, in Dundalk 
Bay. He sent it in the first place to Messrs. Williams & Son, of Dame- 
street, to have it mounted for himself, but, at their suggestion, he 
has kindly presented it to the Dublin Museum, as there was no 
specimen of the species in the Natural History collection. It may be of 
interest to note that this is only the second record of this fish having 
been observed on the Irish coasts, a specimen having been once caught 
in the harbour of Cork. Maigre^ the French name of the fish, is some- 
times applied to it, and refers to the bloodless appearance of its flesh. It 
is a large fish, somewhat like a huge perch, and of great strength, the 
present specimen measuring over three feet in length, and weighing 
about 30 lbs. Its stomach, Mr. Williams tells me, was full of flat-fish. 

The genus Sciana has a very wide distribution, and though most of the 
species are marine, some of them inhabit the lakes and rivers of the 
United States. The fish known to Americans by the name of the Drum 
or Thunder-pumper on account of the peculiar noise it makes* is one of 
these. The Shade-fish has of all the species of Scuxna the widest range, 
since it has occurred at the Cape of Good Hope and on the south coast 
of Australia. 

R. B. SCHARPP, Dublin. 

BIRDS. 

Ouall In Co. Dutolln*— In the early part of June, this yeaf, a 

Quairs nest was found in a meadow near Dundrum by some farm boys, 

who unfortunately managed to break all the eggs (ten in number) except 

one, which they gave to me, Messrs. Watkins and Doncaster identified 

the egg, 

H. Bui,i,0CK, Dundrum, 

The Wood-Sandpiper (Tetanus fflareola) In the Co. Wick- 
low*— While out shooting on Calary bog (which is at least some half 
dozen miles from the sea) on the first of August, my dog sprang three 
birda of the sand'snipe appearance ; not recognizing what they were, I 
emptied my choke barrel on one of them, and got him—the others were 
so wild that I could not mark them. On more careful examination I 
found the bird obtained to be the Wood-sandpiper, a bird as far as I can 
make out only once before recorded to have been shot in Ireland. Sun- 
day being the following day I could not of course look out for theothers, 
but was up on the spot at dawn on Monday morning, and had the luck 
to see and obtain another, which was by itself, its mate probably being 
shot in the interval, and doing service for a snipe to some fellow sports- 
man. The two birds are being preserved by Mr. Williams of Dame- 
street. If any reader could give me information of the distribution of 
this bird in Ireland I should feel much obliged. 

Brnsst BirAK9 KnoZ) Bray. 



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276 The Irish tfaturalisL [ Oct., iSjd. 

Occurrence of the NIffht Heron In County Cork.— During 

a visit to my brother this summer, who was stationed near Kilworth for 
the manoeuvres, I made the acquaintance of a gentleman who kindly 
presented me with the skin of an immature Night Heron {N'yctkonx 
grisem), I regret to say he did not ascertain the sex after he had skinned 
it It was obtained by him in March, 1894, not far from the town of 
Fermoy, as it was feeding in company with a Common Heron on the 
River Blackwater. My friend did not know what it was, and it was 
quite a chance that he had taken the trouble to preserve it 

C. B. HORSBRUGH. 

GEOLOGY. 

Caves In Oo. Leitrlm.— I have received from Mr. O. B. Maffett 
a description of a cave recently explored in Co. l>itrim. The cave is 
known as Phoula-Dingdong, and is situated on the slope of a hill ** con- 
siderably above the level of I/>ugh Gill, which is about half a mile 
away." The entrance, a passage thirty feet long, leads to a drop of 
forty feet, at the bottom of which is a talus of boulders and a small 
pool ; from this chamber another passage runs for 300 feet No inver- 
tebrates of any kind were observed by Mr. Maflett but numerous bones 
of sheep and dogs, and the skeletons of a cow and a horse were found, 
and also part of a human skeleton which was supposed to be that of a 
woman who disappeared about 70 years ago. 

Mr. Maffett informs me that there are unexplored caves at Glenaniff 
near Lough Melvin, and also at Ballinturbeck, near Bundoran. 

H. Lystbr Jameson, Killencoole. 

The alleged Eurlte of LIsnamandrAy Co. Cavan.— In the/riri 
Naturalist for August, 1896, pp. 195 and 197, I am responsible for the 
statement that a grey eurite occurs in juxtaposition to the Carboniferous 
series at Lisnamandra. My notes were sent to Mr. Praeger from the 
country, in the absence of the specimens which had been collected. On 
unpacking the latter, the " eurite " at once proves to be merely a com- 
pact grey limestone, perhaps baked by the igneous intru^n in the 
neighbourhood. So little of the rock, however, was exposed in the field, 
that it may be questioned if the mass is truly in place. Its relation to 
the sandstones certainly suggests a fault I much regret the erroneous 
statement to which our hurried work in the field gave rise. | ^ 

Grbnvii«i«E a. J. C01.B, Dublin*^ f 

The Longest Cave In the British isles.— John Naughton, of 
Harrogate, writes as follows : — " At a village within three and a-half miles 
' of Westport, called Aglemore, there is a cave which is said to exceed two 
miles. This surpasses Mitchelstown cave. The Aglemore cave is well 
known in that part of Ireland. I cannot personally vouch for the 
accuracy of the length, but this I can at least say, that it is a most 
wonderful cave and well worth a visit" — The FHend^ 24th July, 1896^ 

[Can any reader of the LN, favour us with information .?— Eds.J 



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Nov., 1896.] vn 



THE BOTANY OF A SCHOOI. PLAYGROUND IN 
THE HEART OF DUBININ. 

BY SBV. THOMAS B. GIBSON, A.M* 



Perhaps no spot of earth could be considered less likely to 
interest the botanist than the playground of a boys' school in 
the heart of a city. And yet I have there found material for 
study ill my leisure moments ; so that, after eighteen years 
observations, I am disposed to show that even the most un- 
likely hunting-grounds may afford pleasure to the enthusiastic 
lover of nature's own process of carpeting. The school I speak 
of is that of the King's Hospital, more commonly known as the 
Bluecoat ; and when I say that the playground lies midway 
between Guinness's brewery and Jameson's distillery, and is 
adjacent to the Royal Barracks, besides being bounded on all 
sides by high walls, I think I have said enough to show that, 
at any rate, this plot of ground has no unusual capabilities for 
the reception, or perfection, of floral treasures. It may be 
that some few of the plants I shall mention have been 
introduced through my own agency; for it has been my 
costom, whilst enjoying my summer holidays in the country, 
to gather the seeds of such wild flowers as pleased me, and to 
scatter these seeds in the playground, on my return. No 
attempt has ever been made, however, to assist any growth 
by cultivation or protection ; and, therefore, though every- 
thing there may not be indigenous, everything is in a sense 
natural, or at any rate uncultivated. Of course, under the 
circumstances, there have been in these eighteen years 
changes of flora, and fluctuations of prosperity even in the 
plants that are permanent, but, all things considered, there is 
not much appreciable diffierence in the general character of 
the flora now to what it was in 1878. Therefore, I think I am 
jostifled in assuming that the careful observer will find it 
worth while to scrutinize even the waste spaces of the 
city, when he has no opportunity of going out into the 
country. 

A 

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arS Tke Irish NaturaluU X}iof4 

I might of course begin by an enumeration of the mosl 
plentiful species, and from that descend to notice the less 
numerous and robust inhabitants ; but, £9r purposes of classifi- 
cation, if not, indeed, as an aid to memory— writing as I do 
now, at a distance — it is, I think, well to follow the regular 
order of arrangement. 

First then, of the Buttercup family there are'to be found in 
more or less quantity /?a«««r«/ttj bulbosus, R. repens, zvlAR. acrisy 
that iis the Bulbous, Creeping, and Meadow Buttercups. I 
have also found R. hirsutus, but for the past two years it has 
not flowered, to my knowledge ; though, of course, it may 
have done so in my absence. The Green Hellebore {!/. viridis) 
and H.fxtidus are to be found there too ; but these I believe 
to have sprung from seed scattered there by myself. The 
Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis) I planted ; but after two 
or three years it was crowded out, as I gave it no assistance. 
Columbine {Aquilegia vulgaris), of course, grows here and 
there ; but the garden being near, it may be recruited ftom 
that source; and, indeed, it is, I think, doubtftil if this be 
ever, hi truth, a mid flower. The Common Poppy {Papavfr 
Rkaas), is also to be found there ; and, for a couple of years, 
the Honied Poppy {Glaucium flavutn), seeds of which I 
brought from Wicklow, maintained a precarious existence, 
without flowering. The Greater Celandine (Chelidonium majus) 
too, I introduced from the Zoological Gardens ; but its 
properties were too soon discovered by my pupils, who 
managed to get new bo3rs to rub their eyes, after having 
besmeared their fingers with its juice, and thus brought about 
its banishment. The Fumitory, with its beautiftil flowers, 
rose-coloured and tipped with purple, occasionally shows its 
heady especially if there be any waste top-dressing thrown 
out of the garden. Of Crucifera it is alwa3rs hard to say 
what is stray and what is indigenous ; but there is certainly 
no room for doubt that Shepherd's Purse {Capsella Bursa- 
pastoris) is of the latter character ; for it is here, there, and 
ever3nvhere, encroaching even upon the cricket crease to the 
despair of those who nurse that spot carefully. The Indies' 
Smock or Cuckoo Flower {Cardamine pratensis) is but an 
occasional visitor in plenty, and yet there have been few years 
that one flower stalk, at least, is not to be found ; but the 



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1896.] Gibson.— Boiany of a School Playground in Dublin. 279 

Hairy Bitter Cress (C hirsuia) is more comttLOii, and less 
welcomed. The Common Hedge Mustard {Sisymbriutn 
officinale) is there in force ; and there, too, Is the Garlic 
Mustard {S. Alliaria) ; though, on account of the dry nature 
of the soil, its leaves are seldom luxuriant The White 
Mustard {Sinafiis alia) and the Wild Mustard or Cherlock (5. 
arvensis) are always in evidence, as well as Rape {Brassica 
Rapd) ; but this may be from the refuse thrown out of my 
aviaries rather than that the plants are regular inhabitants. 
Of the Rocket family, Reseda lutea was introduced by me 
and still maintains an existence ; though, unfortunately for 
its dispersal, it flowers before the summer holidays commence. 
The Dog-violet ( Viola sylvaiica) may now and then be seen 
to rear its head, though not for long ; and three times have I 
found V. arvensis or Field Pansy ; but alas, that I did show it. 
The Common Milkwort (Polygala vulgaris), too, is not 
unknown ; and Soapwort (Saponaria officinalis)^ which I 
brought from the Dargle Road, has found a home in one of 
the comers, where it not only lives but also thrives. The 
Bladder Campion {Silene inflaia) and the Sea Campion {S. 
mariiima), though sometimes to be seen are, alas, only to be 
botanically denominated "common"; but the tiny Procumbent 
Piearl-wort (Sagina procumbens) is to be found on every wall, 
as well as infesting every path. Chickweed (JStellaria media) 
is to be found in every shady comer, I am thankful to say ; 
for my birds never tire of it ; and, though I have once, only, 
noticed a plant of Cathartic Flax (Linum catharHcum), it then 
appeared at home and not a visitor. With regard to this I may 
say that I have never been in the place from the middle of 
June till the middle of Aug^ust ; and, so, many plants may 
have escaped my notice. I introduced the Common, Dwarf 
and Musk Mallows (Malva sylvestris^ M, rotundifoHa^ M, tnoS' 
chala) ; and, with the exception of the last, they have indeed 
increased and multiplied exceedingly ; so much so that were 
it not for the fact that the seeds are eaten by the 
pupils under the name of cheeses, nothing else would 
have room to grow at one side of the playground. 
Two species of St. John's- wort grow and flower; but the 
Tutsan {Hypericum Androsamum) has not succeeded there, 
though I have sowed it more than once, and even intro* 

A 2 



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aSo Tke Irish tJaturalUt. tM«Vn 

duced a plant. Geranium sanguineum and the Erodium, 
or Stork's-bill, bloom profusely, having been introduced; 
but Herb Robert (G. Robertianum) and the Dove's Foot 
{G. tnolle) are older inhabitants than myself, while eveiy- 
where, even on the paths, the Common Balsam finds a 
home, till flowering time. The Wood-Sorrel {Oxalis AceU- 
sella) grows, but only where I planted it Trefoils and 
Medick (Medicago lupulina)^ however, abound on the sloping 
banks, with which the playground is surrounded ; and Rest- 
Harrow (Ononis arvensis) has lately obtained a footing, through 
planting a root which had chanced to come up in gathering a 
spray on one of our Field Naturalists* excursions. I brought 
seeds of the Spotted Medick {M. maculatd) from Bray, and of 
the White Melilot {Melilotus alba) from Wicklow ; and these 
have at once located themselves and spread. The Purple and 
White Clovers {Trifoltumpralense and T. repens), but especially 
the latter, grow luxuriantly ; and the fact that we always have 
one or more nests of Wild Bees in the playground may have 
something to do with this luxuriance. Lotus comiculaius^ too, 
spreads along the slopes^ and one or two of the vetches, but, 
except during the holidays, no legumes ever show. The 
Silver-weed, or Ooose-grass {Potentilla Amerina) is every- 
where, though its fleshy roots are eaten with relish ; and the 
Creeping Cinque-foil (JP. reptans), as well as the Strawberry- 
leaved Cinque-foil (P. Jragariasirum\ can be discovered. 
Here also you can see the Common Tormentil {P. TormenltUa), 
and in a comer the Blackberry sometimes preserves its fruit 
till it is quite green. The Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupaioria) 
I have only once seen ; though it grows quite freely on 
the esplanade ground of the Royal Barracks adjacent Of 
Willow-herbs there are no less than three kinds; and the 
Evening Primrose {CEnothera biennis) ^ though, of course, a 
garden escape, is quite a weed ; while Enchanter's Nightshade 
(Circaa lutetiana) is a terrible nuisance, though not so much 
so as Knot-grass, which ousts even the grass from the middle 
of the playground, especially where an old fly-pole once 
stood. The Cotyledon Umbilicus has lately located itself in a 
corner, though how, or why, I know not, for I did not bring it 
there ; but stone-crop has been near that same comer for many 
years. I planted some London Pride {Saxifraga umbrosa) 



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iSjS.] GxBSOHi.— Botany of a School Playground in Dublin. 281 

aiotmd the tennis pavilion some years ago, and, though the 
pavilion is gone, the Saxifraga remains, endeavouring to push 
its head between the Alexanders (Smymium), which love to 
congregate about a ruin. Here, too, a plant of Hemlock 
(Conium maculatum) grew this year, plainly distinguishable 
(though young) by its smooth and spotted stem ; while Wild 
Parsley (AnlAriscus sylvestris) and Gout-weed {/Bgopodium 
Podagraria)^ known as Bishop-weed, from the difficulty of 
uprooting it, are more plentiful than is desirable. Pool's 
Parsley {/Eihusa Cynapium), too, with its peculiar bracts, 
abounds; and the Common Pennel {Fceniculum officinale), 
grown from seed, is now domesticated. A few plants of the Cow- 
Parsnip {Heraclium Sphondylium) and Wild Carrot (Daucus 
Carota) — remarkable for the sheathing-base of the leaves in 
the one, and for the central purple flower in the other— have 
been allowed, by me, to grow, though I have no desire that the 
stock should increase. The Golden Blder grows luxuriantly ; 
bat it, of course, I have planted, as an ornament to the play- 
ground, and I only refer to it as being a specimen of an order 
which could not otherwise have been represented. Indies' 
Bed*straw (Galium vsrum) survives, because of its flowering- 
time, and Galium Aparine has an attachment to the place 
quite distinct from that with which it favours a pedes- 
trian's trousers; but Sweet Woodruff* {Asperula odorata) 
can scarcely be said to thrive, although there are, at least, 
two plants. Field Madder (Sherardia arvensis) I planted 
some years ago; and, though scarcely spreading, it is, 
at least, not declining. The Red Valerian {Centranihus 
ruber) g^ows upon a wall. Com Salad ( Valerianella olitoria) 
is certainly indigenous, for, in my garden, it is by no means 
encouraged, and yet it spreads amazingly. Both the Field 
and Small Scabious (Scabiosa arvensis and S. succisa) some- 
times show ; and a plant of Jasioru montana has not only 
established itself but started a colony. Of the Chicory group 
I introduced the Yellow Goat's-beard (JTragopogon pratensii)^ 
Salsafy {T.porrifolius)^ and Wild Succory {Cichorium Inly bus) ; 
and these have propagated themselves, unaided, for several 
years. But this Composite group is so involved, with Hawk- 
bits, Hawk's-beards and Hawk- weeds, that I shall not even 
attempt an enumeration, except to say that we have many 



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282 Tki Irish NaturaHsi. [No?^ 

different species and all of them in a flourishing condition. 
The Dandelion {Leontodon Taraxacum) and Elnapw^ed {Cat 
tauria nigra) are, of coarse, nbiquitous ; and the Bnr-dock 
(ArvHum), with the hooked scales of its involucre, affords 
infinite amusement when a boy with back-hair sufficiently 
long can be pounced upon unobserved. There are four 
species of Thistle, besides the Sow-thistle ; but I have not 
studied the class very closely, and shall not spediy. The 
Tansy {Tanaedum officinale)^ the Common Wormwood {Arte- 
misia Absinthium) and Mugwort {A. vulgaris) are all to be 
foundi especially the last, while even of the Common Cudweed 
(Filago germanica) I found a plant growing on the foot-paths. 
Peiasites fragrans I introduced ; and it has so grown that it 
is now nearly as plentiful as the Tussilago^ which needed no 
introduction. The Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) is naturally 
common; and we have four plants of Ragwort {S.Jac0baa\ 
which seem to supply food for numerous broods of cater- 
pillars of the Cinnabar Moth, as we are never without a 
swarm of these during the summer. Indeed with regard to 
Lepid<^tera, I may mention in passing that the Ghost Modi, 
the Yellow Underwing, the Herald Moth, and the Grey 
Arches are very plentiful, while I have even caught the 
Humming-bird Hawk and Convolvulus Hawk Moths: and, 
on one occasion, viz., nth February, 1885, I found such 
myriads of the Caterpillar of Aplecta nebtdosa, that they had 
to be swept out of the yards and thrown on the ash-heap. 
Of Daisies we have, in plenty, not only the Common Daisy 
{Bellis perennis), but the White and Yellow Ox-eye {Chrysan* 
themumLiucanthemum and C. segetum), and a few plants of the 
Common Feverfew {Matricaria inodora), while Yarrow (Achil- 
laa Millefolium) is rampant throughout, and the Sneezewort 
{Pulicaria dysenterica) effecting an entrance. Both species of 
Periwinkle ( Vinca major and V. minor) grow, having probably 
been planted or thrown out of the garden ; and there are two 
^>ecies of Convolvulus, viz., C, arvensis and C septum, 
growing plentifully, besides another which has dark rose 
stripes down the petal. There is a plant of Comfrey {Sym- 
phytum officinale), a few of Borage {Borago officinalis), and two 
of Hound's-tongue {Cynoglossum officinale); but all these 
have grown from Beed which I scattered, and may no more be 



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1896.] Gibson.— i?^/a«y of a School Playground in Dublin. 283 

counted natives than the small Bugloss {Lycopsis aroensis\ 
which sprung up on a heap of waste earth and died off in a 
year or sa A plant of the Common Bittersweet {Solanum 
Dulcamara) has found a home against one of the walls ; and, 
for several years back, in one comer, the Black Nightshade 
(5. nigrum) has grown up^ seeded, and died. Henbane 
{Jfyoscyamus niger) I tried to introduce, but it never survived 
the winter, though why I know not, as I have found it 
growing in an old stable-yard near Kilkenny. 

The Ivy-leaved Toad-flax (Linaria Cymbalaria) grows on 
every wall, and the Knotted Pigwort {Scrophularia nodosa) 
perfumes every comer ; but Yellow-rattle {Rhinanihts Crista- 
galli), Eye-bright (Euphrasia officinalis), and Bartsia Odontites 
barely survive, though long ago naturalized. The little 
Wall Speedwell ( Veronica arvensis) and the Germander Speed- 
well ( V. Chamadrys) are, however, plentiful, as is also the 
Great Mullein ( Verbascum Thapsus), which springs up every- 
where, though seldom allowed to flower, as boys love the 
flannel-like feel of the leaves. The Hemp Nettle {Galeopsis 
Tetruhit) and Self-Heal {Prunella tnilgaris)\art scattered all over 
the place, and Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) grows in one 
comer. I brought a plant of Vervain ( Verbena officinalis) from 
Bective Abbey some years ago ; but it has never flowered and 
is growing smaller every day, though, as it grows plentifWly 
at Old Connaught cross-roads, I don't see why it fails to grow. 
The Primrose {Primula vulgaris) is an introduction, but the 
tiny Scarlet Pimpernel {Anagallis arvensis) seems to flourish in 
being trampled on, for its petals expand, every fine day, along 
the very paths and walls. Of Plantains we have the Greater 
and Ribwort species {Plantago major and P. lanceolata), and 
each too abundantly ; for, always and ever, they come up before 
the grass, after our winter games, and spoil the appearance of 
the cricket creases. The Goose-foot {Chenopodium album) 
and the Atripiex (Orache) have found a footing in the un- 
trodden comers, while Docks, and Sorrel {Rumex Acetosa) and 
Knot-Grass {Polygonum aviculare) abound, as well as the 
Spotted Persicaria {P, Persicaria), and P. Convolvolus is only 
too plentiful. Of the genus Euphorbia, the Caper Spurge {E. 
Lathyris), having been sown in the garden, has spread to the 



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284 The Irish Naturalist. P^ov., 

playground, but the Sun-Spurge {E. Helioscopid) is every- 
wherci despite of its being so often crushed to show the " milk." 
As for Dog's Mercury {Mercurialis annua) it springs up in every 
shady comer, and the Nettle is not unknown. The Wall 
Pellitory (Parietaria officinalis) too, with its curiously elastic 
filaments, causes great amusement ; and one or two Orchids, 
now and then, appear spontaneously ; though of those I have 
transplanted there scarcely one has ever flowered, whilst 
preserving life enough to throw up leaves. A few Wild 
Hyacinths (Endymion nutans) and Cuckoo Pints {Arum 
maculatum) have survived, out of many which I planted; 
but the flowers of the former grow less every year, and the 
latter have never flowered at all. Thus after many years 
observation I find that some specimens of nearly all the 
great Natural Orders spring up spontaneously, in most 
unlikely places, while others can be domiciled without any 
trouble ; and even of those that require care to make them 
bloom profusely, it is possible to preserve the life, without 
undtily interfering to assist ; for to do this would, I contend, 
remove them from the category of wild flowers altogether. 
If these remarks, from which all mention of grasses is 
excluded, induce anyone to take more interest in the plant- 
life— though it be but of the commonest— around him, I 
shall be satisfied. 



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l89^] 285 



NEW BOOKS ON BRITISH ZOOLOGY. 



The Collector's manual of British Land and Freshwater 
Shells. By LiONBi. E. Adams. 2nd Edition; pp. 214; pis. x. ; 
8vo. Leeds : Taylor Bros., 1891. Price, 8j. (with coloured plates, lox.) 

The aim of Mn Adams' little book is to give a critical treatise on the 
British Land and Freshwater Mollusca, with concise descriptions and 
with an account of their habits. It contains also hints on the preserva- 
tion and arrangement of shells, and, as stated on the title-page, it 
purports to furnish us with the names and descriptions of all the varieties 
and with S3moptical tables showing the differences of species difficult of 
identification. 

The only work with which this can at all be compared is that by 
Lovell Reeve published in 1863, and now out of print, and though it 
shows a very considerable advance on it in some respects, it falls short 
of it in others. For instance, there is hardly any synonymy given by 
Mr. Adams, nor is there any mention of the distribution of the British 
laud and freshwater mollusca outside the British Islands. Then why 
should Paltidestrifta ulvw^ Otina otisy and the genera Melampus and Alexia 
be omitted, whilst Paludestrina similis and P. venlrosa are described 
in the work ? They are all more or less brackish forms, and all their 
nearest relations are typical freshwater species. 

It is to be regretted that Mr. Adams should have adopted the absurd 
custom of attaching Latin names to mere normal variations, whilst the 
system of bestowing varietal names should be carried out strictly in 
accordance to the law of priority. The variety roseolabiaia of HeUx 
nmoralis was described and named by Dr. Kobelt long before Mr. 
Taylor attached his name to it. 

In many other cases foreign authorities have not been sufficiently 
consulted. Dr. Bottger, the highest authority on Clausilia, has pointed 
out that the so-called varieties Everetti (Miller) and tumidula ( Jeffr.) of 
Clmsilia bidentata are type forms of that species, whilst all British forms 
of the latter may be grouped under the three varieties, graciliar, septem- 
tricnaiis, and exigna^ only one of which is referred to by our author. 
Helix costata and Hyalinia coniracta are now almost universally looked 
upon as distinct species, and not as varieties of H, pukhella and H, 
cryiuUlina, Of Helix sericea, which was identified as such from Yorkshire 
specimens sent by us to Drs. Bottger and Westerlund, there is no 
mention at all. The latter, moreover, thinks it very doubtful if the 
Helix itcUa of Linn< (p. 83) can really be referred to ff. en'cetorum, and 
before making such a sweeping change in a well -known old name, the 

A 3 



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286 The Irish Naturalist. [Nor^ 

opinion of the g^at modem Swedish conchological anthority should be 
carefully considered. Even if we should not all agree with the propriety 
of Dr. Westerlund*s applying the name of a distinct species {H. Ictmpra) 
to the Aran Island form of H, ericetorum^ some reference to it might 
have been made. 

Althongh some of the figures, such as that of Limnaa mvolutOj are 
poor, they are on the whole satisfactory, and no one can help admiring 
the beautiful plate X. containing the Pisidia^ a genus which is a sore 
trouble to the conchologist It would have been well to place the 
figures of the shells of Testacella haliotidea and T, Mattgei on plate IL, 
instead of moving them to plate VII., where they are apt to be 
overlooked. 

In speaking of the size of slugs (p. 2) it is misleading in the highest 
degree to say that they measure so many millimetres ^*from t)u nose to the 
extremity of the keel,"* since if slugs have an organ of smell at all, it certainly 
is not at the extreme anterior end of their body, whilst only few possess 
what may be called a keel. 

Mr. Adams has in many ways made it easier for students to identify 
the British species of slugs, but it is doubtful whether any one could dis- 
tinguish Arion ater from A. minimus, after reading the description on 
page 27. The latter cannot be at once identified, as Mr. Adams says it 
can, by its lateral bands, since it is more often without than with such ; 
and Arion ater is certainly not without bands ; during its youth, banded 
forms are the rule and bandless ones exceedingly rare. 

Before we conclude our criticism of Mr. Adams* work, we should like 
to say a few words on the list of the " authenticated " records of the 
distribution of British land and freshwater mollusca given at the end. 
It appears that records are ** authenticated " if the specimens have been 
seen by one out of the three following conchologists, viz., Mr. Taylor, 
Mr. Roebuck, and the late Mr. Ash ford. Apparently such records as 
even those of the late Dr. Jeffreys would be rejected as not authenticated. 
The great merit of this system of authentication is supposed to lie in 
the uniformity of value which it gives to the records, but it is certain 
that there are many conchologists in the British Islands who are just as 
capable of identifying most of the British species as the gentlemen above 
mentioned. Would it not be a better plan in order to quickly arrive 
at the distribution of land and freshwater mollusca throughout the 
British Islands to enlarge the body of referees, and ask them to select t 
few of the critical species which should always be submitted to specialists 
before entering them as authenticated records ? 

A few defects and deficiencies in special parts of this work cannot 
however, seriously detract from its value and importance. The print is 
excellent, and the book may be confidently recommended as the best 
existing collectpr*s manual on the British land and freshwater mollusca. 



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i89^] New Books on British Zoology. 287 



British Butterf llest belnff a popular Handbook for younff 
Students and Collectors. By J. W. Tutt, p.9.s. London: 
George Gill and Sons, 1896. Pp. 469, plates 11, and 45 figures in text 
Price ST. 

This work is an attempt to supply beginners in the study of our native 
butterflies with an introduction to the subject, which shall give due 
regard to recent work in morphology and classification. It cannot be 
denied that the books on British lepidoptera which issue in rapid 
succession from the press are, as a rule, too stereot3rped in treatment, and 
too conservative in arrangement. Entomologists who wish to see the 
advance of their favourite science in these countries will be grateful to 
Mr. Tutt for having produced the present volume. 

The author confesses in the preface that the book is '' utterly inadequate 
as a finished manual." Nevertheless the beginner will find in it enough 
information to serve as a foundation for his studies. It is a pity that 
there is nothing of the nature of a bibliography to direct the student to 
original sources for more advanced study. There are chapters on ^%g'^ 
laying and eggs, caterpillars and how to obtain them, and chrysalids, 
which give a good general idea of lepidopterous development We are 
glad to see that in writing of caterpillars, Mr. Tutt abandons the old, 
incorrect method of reckoning the head as a single segment and 
numbering the body-segments two, three, &c. ; he adopts a nomencla- 
ture that shows the correspondence of the segments in the larval and 
perfect stages. It is a pity however that he should write ** the homy 
biting jaws of the caterpillar give place to the spiral sucking tongue of 
the butterfly,** in a connection which might lead the student to regard 
the two sets of organs as homologous ; especially as he elsewhere states 
the correct homology of the sucking-tube of the imagine with the 
rudimentary mazillse of the larva. In describing the pupa, Mr. Tutt 
naturally draws largely on the recent important researches of Dr. 
Chapman, pointing out that, as development proceeds from lower 
lepidopterous families to higher, a greater number of pupal segments 
tend to become fused. We are surprised however that no acknowledg- 
ment to Dr. Chapman is to be found either in the text or in the preface. 
The paragraph on p. 47, in which the temperature-experiments, pre- 
sumably of such investigators as Weismann, Merrifieldand Standfuss, are 
referred to, seems to show that Mr. Tutt is apt to state too positively his 
opinions on points still under discussion. 

There are short chapters on hybernation and aestivation, and on 
variation, but in the systematic part of the work much space is devoted 
to the description and naming of varieties and aberrations. There are 
the usual chapters on catching, setting, and preserving insects ; we wish 
that Mr. Tutt had seen his way to recommend the abandonment of 
curved setting-boards. Very valuable is the chapter inculcating the 
careful labelling and recording of insects, and we hope Mr. Tutt*s readers 
will take it to heart 



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!2S8 



The Irish Naturalist, 



[Nov^ 



In the chapter on names and classification, Mr. Tutt makes the 
astonishing statement that " butterflies in common with all other insects 
have two names by which they are known all over the world." How 
devoutly soever we may wish this were true, it would perhaps be as 
correct to say that no two entomologists use the same two names for 
any species ! Mr. Tutt, doubtless quite correctly, has followed Con- 
tinental and American writers in breaking up several of our old genera, 
such as Vafussa, Lycana, and Ihecia ; as he points out, it is wrong to 
continue to "lump" species — however few — under the same generic 
name when they really deserve separation. But alas for uniformity in 
nomenclature ! Mr. W. F. Kirby' has recently published a popular book 
dealing with the same question, and here is a comparison of the nomen- 
clatures of the British Lycaenidse as given by these two authorities :— 



Tutt. 

Chrysophamis, 

dispar, 

phhcas. 
Lyctcfta, 

arion* 
Nomiades, 

temiargus 
Cupido, 

tninima. 
PolyommatHS. 

corydon. 

beiiargus. 

uartis. 

astrarche, 
Plebeius, 

iCgOlt' 

Evercs. 

argiadts, 
Cyaniris. 

argiolus, 
Lampides, 

Ixctica. 
Callophrys* 

rubi, 
Zephyrus. 

qtiercus. 

betnhe. 
Theda, 

walbum. 

prunu 



KlRBY. 

Lyctencu 

dtspar. 

phlaas. 
Nomiadts* 

an'oH. 

scmiargus. 
Zizera. 

minima^ 
Polyommatus, 

corydon, 

thdis, 

teams. 

aitxis 
Pkbeius. 

argtts, 
Cupido, 

argiades. 
Cyaniris- 

argiolus. 
Lampides, 

baticus, 
CaUophrys. 

rubi. 
Zephyrm. 

quercus. 

betula. 
Tkeda, 

iv-aUmm, 

prtmi. 



• A Handbook to the Order Lepidoptera (Allen's Naturalists* Library.) 



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1^3 New Books on British Zoology, iS9 

It will be seen that out of the eighteen British species in this family 
Messrs. Kirby and Tntt are in agreement only as to the names of ten. 
Whether Lyctma belongs to the " Large Copper " or the " Large Blue" is 
a matter of perfect indifference ; but this uncertainty in nomenclature 
will be used as an excuse by many conservatively-disposed naturalists for 
holding to the old familiar names. It is the more deplorable since, ex- 
cept in one instance, the two authorities are in entire agreement as to the 
generic divisions. 

In the systematic part of the work, Mr. Tutt arranges the families in a 
somewhat new sequence. The <^«/«f/7ia<?--undoubtedly the lowest 
group— naturally come first, and the ScUyrida are placed at the top. The 
Lyctsnida which, in Bates' scheme, come between the Purida and Lemofudct 
on account of the normal development of all three pairs of legs, are 
inserted by Mr. Tutt immediately after the Hesperiida^ so that the Nym- 
phalida may follow the Pierida^ these two last families showing much 
similarity in pupal structure. It is doubtful if Mr. Tutt's removal of 
Apatura iris from the Nymphalida to the Satyridc will meet with general 
acceptance. He points out that the caterpillar shows satyrid affinities, 
but it must be remembered that the larval stage in all lepidoptera must 
have undergone much adaptive modification. 

In spite of a tirade against the use of English names for species, Mr. 
Tutt heads his chapters with such titles as " Coppers, Blues, and Hair- 
streaks," * Swallow-tails, Whites, and Clouded Yellows." A decided flaw 
in these descriptive chapters is the want in several instances of definite 
diagnoses of the genera; the fact that many of the genera used are new 
to most British lepidopterists should have made their justification 
specially desirable. We could better have spared the long lists of named 
aberrations and varieties ; and with respect to these, nothing but con- 
fusion to the student can result from Mr. Tutt's frequent plan of giving 
a list of several varietal forms, and then, after a paragraph of general 
remarks, another list with a new series of numbers. The treatment of 
Colias edusa on p. 259 is a case in point. 

The tggf larva, and pupa of each species are described in detail. Irish 
naturalists will be glad to know that one of their most isolated brethren, 
Mr. J. J. Wolfe, of Skibbereen, has been able to supply Mr. Tutt with 
valuable information on the transformation of several species of butterfly. 
The time of appearance of each insect is, of course, given, and a set of 
valuable tables indicate the months occupied by the various stages of 
the life-cycle of each species, together with the food-plants and method 
of pupation. The distributional notes are in many cases imperfect 
We miss such recent Irish records as Mr. Dillon's captures oiArgynnis 
adippe and Polyommatus astrarche var. artaxerxcs at Clonbrock. And the 
statement that Vanessa poly chloros haunts the " outskirts of woods " will 
not help the student who wishes to trace its British range. 

We can heartily endorse the author's praise of the plates drawn by 
Mr. W. A* Pearce, and excellently reproduced. The figures are far more 
life-like than many coloured representations of insects. It is irritating 



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2^0 The Irish Naturalist. [Wot, 

to find eight pages of press-notices of Mr. Tatt's other works on natural 
history inserted between the explanation of the plates and the plates 
themselves. We hope that a new edition of the book will speedily be 
called for, when these advertisements may be relegated to their proper 
place at the extreme end of the volume. 

G. H. C 



A Handbook of British Lepldoptera. By Edward Mkyrick, 
B.A., P.Z.S., F.1S.S. Pp. 843. London : Macmillan & Co., 1895. Price 
lor. nett. 

Pressure on our space has prevented earlier notice of this book, which, 
like Mr. Tutt's, presents the British lepidoptera to the student in a new 
light. But, instead of being confined to the butterflies only, it deals with 
all the British species of the order, and consequently comes before us as 
a claimant to the place on our bookshelves long occupied by Stainton's 
time-honoured " Manual." 

That the arrangement adopted by Mr. Meyrick is revolutionary will 
be inferred when we state that he places the Arctiidte, or Tiger-moths, at 
the head of the series, and inserts the butterflies in the middle of his 
system, between the Lasiocanipida, or Bggar-moths, and the Pyralids 
The families of the old " Bombyces "—such as the cossids, hepialids, 
sesiids, &c., which are now well known to be closely related to the so- 
called " Microlepidoptera "—are, as might be expected, to be found in the 
place required by their true affinities. It seems to us, however, that the 
removal of the butterflies from the headship of the lepidoptera is not 
warranted, when we consider the very great specialisation of their most 
elaborated members ; while other eminent students of the order do not 
consider the Arciiida an extremely highly developed family. 

The families, genera, and species are differentiated by the help of 
tables, and there are phylogenies of the tribes, genera, and families. 
Though quite in sympathy with Mr. Meyrick*s desire to present the 
subject in the light of the doctrine of descent, we question the wisdom 
of genealogies which seem to indicate that existing genera of insects are 
the direct descendants of other existing genera. 

In his definition of genera Mr. Me3rrick is inclined to rely too exclu- 
sively on isolated characters, especially those drawn from wing-neuration, 
and the result is often a cumbersome assembly of species. We beheve, 
however, that wing-neuration, being probably little affected by adaptive 
modification, is a safe guide to family relationships. The separation of the 
Coppers and Blues by Mr. Me3rrick into only two genera, on the character 
of the eyes being hairy or glabrous, results in a most curious division of 
the insects, and we should not envy the naturalist who endeavoured to 
apply this method to the classification of the Lycanida o£ the world. Wc 
much regret to see that in the nomenclature of his genera, Mr. Meyrick 



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1896.] New Books on British Zoology. 291 

has disititerred a number of Hiibner's names published without descrip* 
tions, and substituted them for names familiar to entomologists for the 
last half century. And the superseded names are not even given as 
synonyms; the student, for instance, will not find Cidaria or Eupiihecia 
in the index. 

The descriptions of the species are naturally very condensed, but most 
of them give the salient points of the insect. The references to cater- 
pillars and pupae are, as a rule, meagre. The range of each insect is 
briefly indicated, but, so far as regards Irish localities, we can only 
marvel exceedingly whence Mr. Meyrick derived his information. In 
the preface he tells us that the records were tabulated for him by a lady 
from ** various entomological periodicals " and " reliable private corres- 
pondents." A few instances will suffice. Hylophila bicolorana is said to be 
found " E. and W. Ireland— not uncommon " ; according to the recent 
list of Mr. Kane, who certainly knows the Irish moths better than any 
other living naturalist, the species is unknown in Ireland. Halias prasi- 
nana is given as " N. and E. Ireland — common"; it ranges into the ex- 
treme south-western county of Kerry. Gnophria rubricollis appears as 
"N. and W. Ireland— common " ; it has not been found north of 
counties Dublin and Galway, and, though widespread, is ceilainly not 
common. Ldthosia complana — " N. and E. Ireland — local "; ranges round 
the coast from Derry to Cork. Mr. R. E. Dillon's Clonbrock records are 
omitted, but Mr. Meyrick tells us in the preface that all omissions are 
intentional, and imply disbelief. We cannot think that such misstate- 
ments as we have instanced are also intentional, but errors in matters of 
fact so easily verifiable, tend to shake confidence in Mr. Meyrick's 
opinions on other matters in which the difficulty in arriving at correct 
conclusions is much greater. 

The only illustrations are good figures of the wing-neuration, more 
rarely of other structural characters, in the various genera. It is satis- 
factory that the attention of the student should be so largely directed to 
the structure of moths, for collectors of the lepidoptera are too prone to 
thinkonly of comparing wing-patterns when identifying their insects. 
In spite of its defects, Mr. Meyrick's work will be welcomed as a real 
attempt to describe, in brief compass, the whole of our native lepidoptera 
in the light of modem knowledge. 

G. H. C. 



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J 



292 The Irish Naturalist [Nov., 

THE TSI.AND.FLORA OP THE CONNEMARA LAKES 

BY R. I.I.OYD PRAKGKR, B.E. 



Many of the Connemara lakes have in them rocky islets, and 
most of these are thickly covered with shrubs and stunted trees, 
in one or two spots undoubtedly planted, but usually indi- 
genous — the only native arboreal vegetation, excepting an odd 
bush on the mountain-cliflfs, that I have observed in Conne- 
mara. Lying between Roundstone and Clifden is an enormous 
stretch of bog and rock, so intersected with winding lakelets 
that without a map one might spend a day in trying to find one's 
way out of the labyrinth. Here, miles from any road, house, or 
field, the islands contain a strictly indigenous flora, not easy to 
investigate, as there are no boats. Wishing to see what plants 
grew on' these islets, my friend Frank M'Cormick and I left 
Roundstone one grey, chilly August day, and drove to Craigga 
More Lough, long famous as the head-quarters of that very 
rare heath, Erica Mackaiaiia, Bab. Here it grows in great 
abundance. Last year it was in full flower when I visited 
the place on July 17 ; this year, a remarkably early season, 
it was still blossoming in great profusion on August 22, 
so that its flowering period does not appear to be verj- 
restricted. In Craigga More there are several islets, thickly 
covered with low, tangled scrub. The intervening water is 
not more than waist-deep, so in discarding our clothes we 
were able to retain our jackets, for the sake of warmth, while 
boots and stockings were also retained, to ward ofi" brambles. 
These, with the addition of vasculum and stick, made a cool 
and business-like costume. We waded the lake, through reefs 
of rock, great boulders, and muddy patches, green with a 
luxuriant growth of Eriocaulon and Lobelia, and visited the 
islets. The vegetation was limited in variety, but interesting. 
The Yew was the prevailing species. With it grew the Moun- 
tain Ash, not more than three or four feet high, but spreading 
widely, and gloriously covered with scarlet berries. The 
Juniper was also present, and the Dwarf Gorse {Ulcx gallii) in 
full bloom. Stunted Hollies grew here and there, and bushes 
of Bog Myrtle. The Bear-Berry (Ardostaphylos Uva-ursi) 



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1896.] Prakgbr.— The Island' Flora of the Cannemara Lakes. 293 

spread luxuriantly among the Heather and I^ing, as did also 
the Ivy. In a sheltered nook Erica Mackaiana was gathered 
with stems three feet in length and abundance of flower. The 
Cow- wheat (il/<?/ai«/>yrMw/ra/^5^) grew among the tangle, and 
one bramble, its fruU already ripe.* The Royal Fern, Broad 
Buckler Fern, and Common Polypody represented the order 
Filices. 

From Craigga More we pushed southward several miles 
across the bog to Lough Bollard, following a very devious 
course, on account of the network of lakelets that intervene. 
Lough Bollard is a comparatively large lake — perhaps a mile 
across — and is very deep, with a number of high, rocky islets. 
This was a plain case of swimming, so, with a costume con- 
sisting of one vasculum between us, we explored island after 
island, with plenty of swimming between-times. The wind 
had risen, covering the surface of the lake with a nasty jabble, 
and it was raining heavily, so that we found the deep water to 
the lee of the islands the wannest and most comfortable place. 
The rocky sides, thoroughly glaciated, rose out of deep water 
so steeply and smoothly that landing was often impracticable. 
We found that the flora of these islands was almost exactly 
similar to that of the ones previously explored, with the 
addition of a few very common plants, including the Nettle, 
which does not often grow in a spot so thoroughly wild. The 
trees along the eastern margin rise to a height of 20 feet or 
more, and slope down almost to water-level on the exposed 
western side. A visit to an adjoining habitat of the Maiden- 
hair, a tramp up a valley filled with the rare Erica mediterranean 
now completely out of flower, and a climb over the mountain 
of Urrisbeg in thick, driving mist, brought us back to Round- 
stone, and concluded an interesting and particularly aqueous 
day. 



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494 The Irish NaturalUU [Nov- 

ADDITIONS TO THE UST OP IRISH ACUI^KATE 
HYMBNOPTERA. 

BT PKRCT K. PRBK9. 

Thb collecting season for Aculeate Hymenoptera being now 
practically over for this year, it may be well to sum up the 
results in a list supplementary to mine published last year. 
I regret that the records which have come to my knowledge 
are very few indeed. 

Hallctus punctatlsslmuSf Schenck.— Boms, co. Carlow. Freke 
Andrena rosa^* Panz. (not var. trimmerana),^^om^ co. Carlow. 

Freke. 
Mttsmolille marttlmav Kirby— Lambay and KiUiney, oo. Dublin. 

Cuthbert 
Ocalloxys acumlnatat NyL— Armagh. Rev. W. P. Johnson. 
Psitliyrus quadrlcolorf I^p.— Borris, co. Carlow. Freke. 
Bombus smlthlanusy White— Poyntzpasa, co. Armagh. Rev. W. F. 

Johnson. 
Bombus soro^nslSv Fabr.— Mnllinnre, co. Armagh. Rev. W. F. 

Johnson. 

I have also taken here at Borris a female of Bombus hor to ru m 
agreeing in coloration with var. subterranais, Auct, the only 
variation from the hortorum type that I have yet met with in 
Ireland. 



PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



ROYAI, ZOOI^OGICAI, SOCIWV. 

Recent donations include three Bleeding-heart Pigeons fixwn J. F. 
D*Arcy. Esq.; a Badger from J. F. Shackleton, Ksq. ; three Japanese 
longtailed fowl, a goat» and three Spinning Mice from J. B. O'Callaghan, 
Esq. ; a Parrot from D. P. C. Smyly ; two Otters and a Gannet from W. R. 
Joynt, Esq.; four Guinea-pigs from Col. Plunkett; ten Guinea-pigs 
from Messrs. J. and W. Robertson. Four lemurs, two Squirrel- 
monkeys, and a Gapuchin have been purchased. 

12,330 persons visited the Gardens in September. 



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i«56.] Pft>ce€dings of Irish Societies. 295 



BBU'AST NATXntAI^IStS' FiBIfD Ci«nB. 

SbpTBMBBK 12.— The Gbox^ogicai* Sbction on their last formal ex- 
cursion for this season went to Kilroot, studying the sections of Trias with 
abundant veins of gypsum, relics of the great lakes whose rock-salt is so 
imrahiable in the present day. A walk along the ooMt g»Te pkB^ of 
time to ransack the Cretaceous rocks about Whitehead, where abundant 
sponges and other characteristic fossils were obtained. An informal 
meeting waa held after tea, during which it waa suggested that at the 
monthly meetings in the museum small field excursions should from 
time to time be organised. 

Sbptbm BER 3a— The Gboi^ogicai, Sbction met Mr. P. W. I/>ckwood 
in the choir. A small collection of fossils, recently gathered in a chalk-pit 
in Kent, were shown by the secretary. Boulder clay deposits at Dromore 
and on Black Mountain, recently visited by members of the section, were 
described, in each of which two clays, differing in colour and texture, as 
well as in the nature of their stony contents, were observed. At Dromore 
the usual red boulder clay overlies a very tough blue clay, which rests 
tpon beautifully smoothed Ordovician rocks. At Black Mountain the 
Wwer stratum is brown, similarly overlaid with red clay. In both places 
the lower deposit is tough, and well filled with beautifully glaciated 
stones. A letter from Mr. Kilroe, of the Geological Survey, having been 
lead, arrangements for the expedition to Marino on the loth inst. 
tenninated the meeting. 

OCTOBBR la— In spite of somewhat inclement weather, a small geo- 
logical party visited the Triassic and Carboniferous beds at Cultra. 
After in^>ecting the well-known fault on the shore which has brought 
itp the Carboniferous rocks on a level with Triassic beds, the ardour of 
the geologists was rewarded by the acquisition of some good specimens 
fAMmSoia Macadami and scales of Uoloptychim Fortlockiu 



DUBUN NATURAUarS* FlBU> Cl,UB. 

Sbftbmbbr 26.— Woodi^wds.— The Club held the last excursion of 
Ae season. The i.o o'clock tram was taken to Lucan, and some hours 
were busily spent in collecting fungi. The larger sorts, such as agarics 
and Boldi^ were almost over, but a good harvest was obtained among the 
smaller forms. Tea at Lucan was followed by an hour's exhibition of 
the specimens collected, and a demonstration by Mr. Greenwood Km 
and Dr. E. J. M*Weeney, who will report in due course on the rarer 
species gathered. 



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296 7 he Irkh Naiuralist. [Nov 



NOTES. 

BOTANY. 

MUSCINEjE. 
Moss BxolMtnss eiuO — A proposal was made in Scia$e$ G^tsip foi 
December, 1895, and in the Irish NaturaHst and Journal cf B^Utmy Icm 
February, 1896, by Rev. C H. Waddell to organise a Club on the lines oi 
the Botanical and Watson Exchange Clubs, for the exchange of Mossei 
and Hepaticfe. The response proved that the want of such a Society was 
widely felt, and it has now been got into worldng order. Twenty-two 
members have joined, and the parcels sent in for the first distribution 
will soon be distributed. It has not been possible this term to do more 
than exchange the plants sent in. In future it is hoped to obtain the 
assistance of referees to name doubtful and difficult plants, also to pub- 
lish lists and an annual Report Its object is to help beginners in the 
study of these lowly but interesting forms of vegetation, as well as to 
prove a means of communication and help to more advanced students. 
In this way it may prove instrumental in preparing the way for the 
publication of a new edition of the I/>ndon Catalogue of British Mosses 
and Hepaticse, the want of which is a serious hindrance to the advance 
of Bryology in this country. 

PHA/TEROGAMS. 
Alohsmllla vulgaris L. and Its ssffrsffatss.— Very little 
progress has been made as yet in our knowledge of the distribution of 
the AlchfniUa vulgaris group in Ireland. The restricted form which is 
regarded as the type of this aggregate species extends in Great Britain 
from the south coast to the Orkneys, occurring in numerous counties ; 
in Ireland the counties from which I have seen specimens are three, 
Westmeath, Clare, and Antrim. It appears to be very scarce in the 
latter county, where Mr. S. A. Stewart informs me the other two forms 
are frequent The subglabrous plant A. alpistris, Schmidt, occurs in 
Antrim, and near L. Salt Donegal ; I have several notes of its occurrence 
in the former county ; and it must be found in many others, since it 
ranges in Great Britain from Cardigan and Derby (not to mention 
Sussex, for fear of some mistake in the label of the specimen which 
professedly comes from that county) northwards to Inverness and Mull, 
The other British form, A. filiauUis, Buaer, is known to me from Ca 
Waterford, Ca Cork (twice seen from Permoy), Kerry, and Antrim. In 
Great Britain this has been noted for many counties from the south coast 
northwards to Perthshire. The distribution of A, vulgaris forms, it will 
be seen, is very imperfectly known as yet for Ireland ; and I shall be 
pleased to have specimens sent me, on loan or otherwise, which may 
aid in extending the range of any of the segregates. 

Bpwaxp P» I411T011, Ciymlyn, Bonmemoiitb. 



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«9^3 Notes. 897 

Crmimum marnimum In County Dowtit^Utitiltliiajear no 

rtatiQii in the north-ettt of Ireland conid be certainly assigned to the 
Bimphire, though there have been several verbal reportsof its occurrence. 
Most of these referred to Salu&mia, which is often called Samphire, and 
none ivere based on actual specimens or other sufficient authority, 
lite, in preface to "Flora Belfastienms," referred to such reporU and 
rejected them as unreliable, and Dr. Dickie, in "Flora of Ulster/' could 
only cite Donegal localities. The authors of " Cybele Hibemica," in 
1866, included this spedes amongst the plants of disbict 13, but inasmuch 
IS no specific locality in Down, Antrim, or Derry was given, their 
reference was too vague to be accepted. It is a plant to be expected on 
the rocky coasts of Down and Antrim, but though these shores have 
been closely scrutinised from the time of Templeton until now, a 
period of over a century, it seems to have escaped d etection. I 
hive, therefore, much pleasure in recording its occurrence in Co. 
Down, having seen a specimen freshly gathered by Mr. Samuel 
Uoore, a member of the Belfast Naturalists* Field Club. The locality 
is Kearney Point, in the Ards, the most easterly point in Ireland. 
Mr. Moore informs me that he saw only one clump of the Samphire. 
It was situated so low that at high water it must be almost submerged. 
Since writing the foregoing, Mr. P. F. Gulbransen, another member of 
the Bel£ut Naturalists' Field Club, has informed me of a second station 
for the Samphire in County Down. This has come still more as a 
iorprise, the locality being not far from Bangor, on a shore which for 
botanical purposes was thought to be exhausted long since. Mr. Gul- 
bransen stated that a few plants occur clustered together in one spot, 
tnd availing myself of his directions I have seen them in the place 
iadicated. There is one little clump of about five roots growing with 
other maritime species in a crevice of the uptilted Lower Silurian Slates* 
and just about the high water mark of spring tides. A careful and 
protzacted, but fruitless search proved that the plant has not spread 
bc]rond this one spot S. A. Stbwa&T, Belfast 

ttaoliys Botonloa In Co* Antrim.— Rev. S. A. Brenan has 
lent me a specimen of this plant, gathered In July near Whitehall, 
Broughshane, Co. Antrim. He writes that the plant was growing on a 
roadside, no house near it, and had all the appearance of being native. 
The Betony is very rare in Ireland, and though previously recorded from 
Ca Antrim it has not been seen in the county for half a century, so that 
Hr. Brenan's find is important. R. Lix>yd Prasgsr. 

Umosslla aqumtica In Clare.— A few weeks ago, while searching 
(or AdioMtum CapUlus- Veneris on the limestone pavements about four miles 
Irom Lisdoonvama, I found this interesting plant growing in hollows in 
the rock in which mud had deposited. The only other note of its occur- 
rence in Ireland is that of Mr. lycyinge, who records it as found by Mr. 
O'Kelly in Inchiquin I^ough, Co. Clare, and near Gort, Co* Galway {Joum. 
Bm^ ^ryri. (1893), p. 309). The specimens, which were in full fruit, were 
kindly identified for me by Mr. Praeger. 

GimifwooD Puc, Monkstown, Dublin. 



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2g& The Irish Naturalist. [Vmr, 

DonciM Plantf^^In the /mrml tf Bolomy lor Beptesaber, JCr. H. C 
Hart records Cuscuta EpUkymumt Galium Afollugo, and BestdM tugrtUkaim 
from the vicinity of Rosapenna Hotel, and CochUaria granlandita froa 
several headlands of north-west RossguU. 

ll#dlcaffosylvestrls In Scotland*— With reference to my paper 
in last nnmber on the occurrence of this plant in Ireland, it is wortb 
giving prominence to the fact that at a meeting of the Natural History 
Society of Glasgow, held on Sept 30, specimens of M, sylvtsiris from Hesdt 
of Ayr, Maybole parish, were exhibited on behalf of Mr. Andrew Gil- 
christ and Rev. D. Landsborough, who found the plant growing theft 
abundantly in August last I have to thank Mr. A. Somerville, B.sa, for 
a copy of a local paper containing a report of the meeting. 

R. LltOYD P&ABGBK. 

Matricaria discoldca DCi at Howtli.— This curious raylen 
Matrkaria^ whose occurrence in several stations in Co. Dublin has lately 
been recorded by Mr. Colgan (/. AT., III., 215, 1894), has now made its 
appearance at Howth, where I observed it on Sept. 18 growing on waste 
ground by the new road between the police station and the chapeL if. 
discoidta has not yet been observed in any other Irish county : it b a 
native of North America, now naturalized in several countries of Northern 
Burope, though as yet very rare in Britain. 

R. L1.0YD Pbabgsa. 



ZOOLOGY. 

HYDROZOA. 
British Hytfrolds and medusse.— Readers of Mr. H. T. 

Browne's list of the Medusae ofValentia harbour in the July number 
of the Irish Naturalist will turn with interest to his paper "On British 
Hydroids and Medusae " in Proc, ZooL Soc. Lend, (pp. 459-500, pis. xvi, 
xvii.), in which several of the Irish forms are described in detail and 
figured. 

CRUSTACEA. 

Prea-swimmlnff Copepoda from the West Coast of Ire- 
land •— Under this title, Mr. J. C. Thompson contributes to the Tram. 
BioL Soc. Liverpool (vol. x., pp. 92-102) an account of the copepods 
collected at Valentia Island by Mr, E. T. Browne by tow-netting. 
Twenty-two species are recorded, of which the most noteworthy are 
Metridia armata, Candace peclitiata^ Pseudocalanus armatus^ Monstrilla rigida, 
Corycaus spcciosus^ and Oncaa mediterranean The two last are of special 
interest as distinctly southern forms. The Oncera has occurred.' at Ply- 
mouth, but the Corycceus appear new to British waters. Mr. Thompson 
also gives a list of the copepods taken on the west coast of Irdand by 
Pro£ Herdman in the ** Argo " in 1890. 



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1896.] tfotet. . 290 

SPIDERS. 
Spider oarrylnff Snail -shell.— On the warren near the sea here, 
one day several years ago, an ot>ject attracted my attention : some- 
thing white moving along rather qnickly. Looking closely I found that 
the object was a small bleached snail-shell {Helix virgaid) which a large 
spider was carrying along underneath its body ; supporting it by means 
of some of its fore-legs at one side, and hind legs at the other as it 
went. For the purpose of closer examination I deprived it of its burden, 
and found that the shell was packed with what appeared to be spiders' 
eggs. On placing the shell on the ground again near the spider, it took 
it up and walked off as before ; going at good speed considering the 
weight of its burden and the limited number of legs at its disposal for 
walking purposes. That some kinds of spiders carry their eggs about 
enclosed in soft silky cocoons is a well-known fact, but I have never 
heard of a shell being so used before. 

Prances Sarah O'Connor, Ballycastle, Antrim. 

BIRDS. 

Birds of ConnemarSa^As I do not see the Irish Naturalist regularly, 
Mr. Palmer's note in the March number referring to my article on the 
Birds of Connemara in the January number was not read by me until 
a little while ago, when my attention was drawn to it. I must therefore 
apologise to Mr. Palmer for not having answered his questions before. 
With r^^ard to Mr. Palmer's first point, viz. : — ^whether it was the 
Dunlin or the Ringed Plover which I saw on the islands of I/>ugh 
Corrib, I may say that I am perfectly satisfied that the birds were Dunlin 
(Tringa alpina), I quote my diary :—" May 20, 1895. Saw a number of 
Dunlin and noticed that they sang really nicely. Very short, but some- 
what like a lark." I dont remember seeing the Ringed Plover, and have 
no note of it, but I certainly could not have confounded the two birds 
as I know both of them perfectly ; moreover they are not easily con- 
founded. 

With regard to the Black Guillemots nesting amongst the boulders, I 
felt sure at the time that this was the case, and I now find that several 
anthorities mention it as a fact. 

Mr. Palmer's third point refers to the nesting habits of the Oyster- 
catcher. Of course it is well known that Oyster-catchers will nest on 
tmf and rock where no shingle can be found, but I have never before 
acen the eggs in such a position when there was plenty of shingle avail- 
able. Mr. Palmer's suggestion as to the cause of this peculiar habit is 
interesting, and is, perhaps, the correct solution. He says that " West 
of Ireland Oyster-catchers may have found that it is not always safe to 
nest on the shingle within possible reach of an unusually high Atlantic 

wave." 

Harry P. WiTHSRBY, Blackheath, Kent 

duall In Co* Down*— A correspondent of the/f;^if(8ept 8th) records 
he nesting of the Quail at Seaford, co. Down« 



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300 The Irish Naturalist. [Nov., 1896s 

FIELD CLUB NEWS. 

We have to congratnlate Rev. C. H. Waddell, Vice-President of th^ 
Belfast Club» on his successful establishment of an Exchange Club Un^ 
British mosses and hepatics, some particulars respecting which will b^ 
found in our Botanical Notes. 

The Belfast Club was recently honoured with a visit from its fotmder 
in 1863, Ralph Tate, then a science teacher under the South Kensington 
Department, now Professor of Natural History in the University of Ade- 
laide, Director of the Museum there, and the foremost naturalist in Aus- 
tralasia. He received a cordial welcome from the veteran members of the 
Club— S. A. Stewart, William Gray, William Swanston, W. H. Phillips, 
and others— and delighted them with the freshness of his recollections 
of the old days when they laid the foundation of the first Irish Field 
Club. 

It is pleasant to note the interchange of courtesies by which members 
of the Metropolitan Field Club were invited to take part in the Belfast 
Club Conversazione on 27th October, and members of the northern and 
southern Clubs to take part in the conversazione of the Dublin Club on 
loth November. A goodly party of members from Dublin attended the 
Belfast meeting, and no doubt the compliment will be returned at the 
forthcoming meeting in Dublin. Both will be reported in our next 
issue. 

It is a good sign to find our younger Field Club members appreciating 
the value of a scientific training in natural history work. H. Lyster 
Jameson, of the Dublin Club, having gained a studentship in the Royal 
College of Science, has gone to London for a six months course of bio- 
logical study. Miss Knowles, of the Belfast Club, has come to Dublin for 
a special course on Algs under Prof. Johnson. H.J.Seymour, of the 
Dublin Naturalists* Field Club, who goes to Belfast to study engineering 
at Queen's College under Prof. Fitzgerald, will be an acquisition to the 
Geological Section of the Belfast Field Club. 

We much regret to learn that the expedition organized by the Royal 
Society, under the leadership of Prof. Sollas, to make a deep boring 
into a coral atoll, has failed to fulfil its main object The island of 
Funafuti was selected as the scene of work, and it was found that at 
about 70 feet below the surface further boring became impossible, as a 
material like quicksand, which choked the borehole, containing great 
boulders of coral-rock, was reached. So far as the reef was pierced 
it appeared to be "a vast coarse sponge of coral, with wide inter- 
stices either empty or sand-filled.'* Prof. Sollas and his companions 
however made numerous highly interesting and valuable hydrographi- 
cal, ethnological, and biological observations, and though the failure to 
solve one of the most burning scientific problems of the day will cause 
general disappointment, it is satisfactory to know that our knowledge of 
man and nature has been largely increased by the laboufs of our DubUs 
professor and his colleagues. 



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Dec, 1896.] 301 

ON THE FLORA OF THE OX MOUNTAINS. 
CO. SUGO. 

BY NATHANIEL COLGAN, M.R.I.A. 



Towards the middle of July last, after a few days spent in 
botanizing along the cliflFs of Ben Bulben, it occurred to my 
friend the Rev. C. F. d'Arcy and myself that the remainder of 
our holiday in Sligo might be most profitably given up to a 
survey of the Ox Mountains. Whether viewed across the bay 
from the plateau of Ben Bulben or studied in its representation 
on the one-inch Ordnance maps, this line of mountains 
appeared to us anything but promising. Its elevation was 
too small and its contours too gentle to warrant any strong 
hopes that it would prove rich in alpine species. But we 
knew that it was almost virgin soil to the botanist, and 
that however poor the flora might appear on close examina- 
tion, it could hardly fail to afford materials for an interesting 
comparison with the exceptionally rich district we were about 
to leave behind us. 

We broke up from our very pleasant quarters in a farm- 
house by the waterfall in Glencar, on Monday, the 13th July, 
en route for the Ox Mountains. Sending on our baggage by 
road we took boat across Glencar lake, climbed the range 
forming the southern boundary of the glen, and descended 
to Sligo early the same evening. On our way we made a 
rather careful examination of this southern mountain flank 
of Glencar, as it appeared to us to lie outside the limits of the 
Ben Bulben district proper so thoroughly explored by Messrs. 
Harrington and Vowell in 1884 (^). Nameless on the Ord- 
nance map, three of the prominent points in this range, with 
heights varying from 1,450 to 1,500 feet, we found to be 
locally known as lyUg-na-Gall, Meenaphuill and Faughrey, 
the last being the most eastern and highest of the three. 
Along this line there is a considerable extent of limestone 
cliff with a due north exposure and reaching in some places 
to over 1,400 feet. The result of our examination of these 
difis was not altogether disappointing. We could find, indeed, 
no trace of what we most of all hoped to find. Armaria ciliata 

0) Report on the Flora of Ben Bulben, by R. M. Barrington and R. P. 
VoweU— /V(v. RJ.A., 1885. 

A 

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302 The Irish Naturalist pec, 

in a new station ; but we found the following alpines in pro- 
fusion : — Draba incana, Silene acaulis^ Saxifraga oppositifolia, 
S. aizoides, Sedum Rhodiola, Oxyria reniformis^ Aspknium 
viride, and Selaginella selaginoides. Specially interesting was 
Silene acaulis, which in the Ben Bulben district north of Glen- 
car is apparently restricted to tl^e western extremity or Ben 
Bulben proper. On the summit of lyUg-na-Gall, where the 
limestone rises into peculiar rounded knobs, unusual in this 
formation, the Silene studded the rocks with countless bright 
green cushions. Further eastward towards Faughrey it 
ceased abruptly, and, indeed, a vigorous stone-thrower could 
span its whole area here with a single cast. On the way up 
from Glencar lake Lotus pilosus and Carex pendula were 
gathered, and near the head of the lake Carex paludosa, all 
three in I^eitrim and additions to District IX. of Cybde 
Hibemica, And finally before taking leave of the Ben Bulben 
district it may be mentioned that we discovered a single plant 
of the rare Hypopithys Monotropa in a new station on Lough 
Gill, a hazel copse at Dooney Rock at the opposite side of the 
lake to Hazelwood, where the plant was found by Miss Wynne 
some twenty-five j'ears ago. 

Four days in all were spent in our survey of the Ox 
Mountains. The first day, July 14th, was given up to the 
ascent of Knockacree, which is easily accessible from Sligo 
by the Ballina mail-car. On Wednesday, the 15th, we moved 
our quarters some twenty miles westward from Sligo to Dro- 
more West on the Ballina mail-car route, where we found an 
excellent little hotel ; and here the day was spent examining 
the limestone tracts along the shore. On Thursday, the i6th, 
we drove from Dromore to lyough Easky, and tramped over 
the mountains north-eastward to the head-waters of the 
Owenduff, in the glen known as Lugdoon, examining several 
of the high-lying loughs on the way. On Friday, the 17th, 
we drove via Lough Easky and the Mass Valley to Lough 
Talt, explored the shores of the latter lake and part of the 
surrounding mountain-slopes, and driving on to Tubbercurry 
station returned by rail to Sligo the same evening. The 
southern or inland slopes of the range and its western 
extremity where it crosses the Mayo border we left almost 
altogether untouched ; and it need hardly be said that our 
four days of steady work were very far from exhausting the 

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1896.] CoLGAN. — Flora of the Ox Mountains^ Co. Sligq. 303 

flora of the district. It enabled us, however, to safely draw 
some conclusions as to its general character and to add some- 
thing to the existing knowledge of the county Sligo flora. 

Before proceeding to sum up the results of our hasty survey 
a few words may be said on the physical features of the 
district. The Ox Mountains stretch in a roughly north-east 
and sotitb-west direction for twenty-five miles, from Ballyso* 
dare in the nor{b-«ttSt to Aclare in the extreme south-west of 
Sligo, and have an average breadth of about eight miles. Prom 
their culminating point, Knockacree, which reaches to a height 
of 1,778 feet, six miles due south of the coast of Aughris Head, 
a wide and featureless table-land, covered with very wet bog, 
stretches N.E. and S.W. for a distance of some five miles, 
maintaining a general elevation of 1,600 feet. Towards the 
extremities the elevation becomes lower, averaging hardly 
1,000 feet for the five miles west from Ballysodare, and about 
1,200 feet for the eight miles N.W. from the neighbourhood of 
Aclare. At either end the range is more broken than near the 
middle, and on the northern slope of the central table land, as 
under Knockacree. where the drainage of the upper bogs 
rushing down to Lough Achree has ploughed a deep gully in 
the mountain flank, and, again, farther west, near lyUgdoon, 
some bold rock faces appear which, however, nowhere deserve 
the name of cliflFs. In the south-west, where the Owenaher, 
one of the chief affluents of the Moy, passes through the deep 
depression known as the Mass Valley, and at Lough Talt, where 
the hills rise rapidly from the water's edge, the scenery 
becomes picturesque. Elsewhere the range is monotonous. 

The great mass of the Ox Mountains is of non-calcareous 
rock, mica-schist, quartzite, and granite, which latter, in some 
places, as round the Cloonacool lakes, S.E. of Lough Easky, 
and in the hills above Lough Talt, exhibits the characteristic 
wavy foliations of gneiss. The limestone is confinedto thelower 
levels from about 400 feet downwards. Lakes are numerous, 
especially towards the south-west ; but with two exceptions, 
I<ough Talt and Lough Easky, which somewhat exceed a mile 
in length, they are of small size. The bog which caps the 
central plateau as with a vast saturated sponge sends down 
innumerable small streams to the north and south, those to the 
north reaching Sligo Bay after a short course, those to the 

A 2 

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304 The Irish Naturalist. [Dec, 

south uniting at one end to form the Moy river, which reaches 
the sea at Ballina, and at the other to form the Owenboy, 
which discharges at Ballysodare. Save for some thin native 
scrub of Oak and Hazel along the rocky flanks of the Mass 
Valley the range may be said to be bare of wood. 

It is hard to define precisely the limits of the Ox Mountains, 
and we made no attempt to do so in our four days' survey. 
Our observations were carried on within the following 
boundaries : the sea-coast from Ballysodare to Dromore West 
a line from that point south to Lough Talt, the high road 
thence to Tubbercurry, and the railway back to Ballysodare. 
Inside of these limits we gathered 366 species of flowering 
plants and higher cryptogams. Had our area been more strictly 
defined by taking for its northern boundary the high road from 
Ballysodare to Dromore West, and for the southern the high 
road from Lough Talt through Coolaney back to Ballysodare, 
the total of species would have sunk to about 350. 

The flora of the district is undoubtedly a poor one. Out of 
the total of 366 species observed by us no less than 307, or fully 
84^ per cent., belong to Watson's British type plants, common 
and wide-spread in Ireland no less than in Great Britain ; 22. 
or say 6 per cent, to the English type ; 15, or 4 per cent., to the 
Scottish and Highland types taken together : and 7, or 
less than 2 per cent., to the Atlantic type. The neighbourhood 
of the Ben Bulben district lying not more than fifteen miles 
to the northward, and the fact that it has been so thoroughly 
explored by Messrs. Barrington and Vowell, at once invites 
comparison of its flora with that of the Ox Mountains. 

This comparison brings out in the most glaring way 
the relative poverty of the latter district. But it must be 
borne in mind that as yet the Ox Mountains have been 
very imperfectly examined, and that the peculiar structure 
of Ben Bulben, with its miles of lofty flanking cliflfs, make 
it, perhaps, unique in Ireland as a congenial home for a whole 
group of alpine species. No less than twenty-two of Watson's 
Highland type plants were observed in the Ben Bulben district 
by Messrs. Barrington and Vowell in 1884, and to this total my 
friend, Mr. D'Arcy, was fortunate enough to add Vaccinium Vitis- 
Idcea, which he discovered at about 1,950 feet on the north-west 
slope of Truskmore during our few days' ramble in the district 



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tM-i (ioi^GAx. — Mora of the Ox Moufitains, Co. Sligo. 305 



Against this array of twenty-three alpines the Ox Mountains, 
so far as at present known, can only set the following five 
species of the same type : Saxifraga aizoides, Hieracium iricum, 
Vaccinium Vitis-Idaa, Salix herbacea, Selaginella selagin- 
oides; and inadequate as our survey was, we have no reason 
to expect that further search would add anything to this 
meagre total. 

In the Scottish type plants, which may be ranked next 
to the Highland type as imprinting 'a northern character 
on a flora, the contrast between the two districts is 
less glaring. Against a total of eighteen for Ben Bulben our 
lists show ten for the Ox Mountains, and in the latter total 
are included two species absent fron Ben Bulben, Prunus 
Padus and Lobelia Dorimanna^ to which may be added a third, 
Equisetum variegatumy if we hold this to be distinct from E. 
Mackaii, In types other than those indicating a northern or 
alpine character, the divergencies between the two floras are 
much less marked. The number of species observed by 
Messrs. Barrington and Vowell in the Ben Bulben district in 
1884, IS set down in their Report at 430. Adding to this some 
fifteen species, since observed, we have a total of 445, or an 
excess of 80 over our list for the Ox Mountains. But with 
this decided preponderance in favour of the limestone district, 
a large proportion of the Ox Mountains species, no less than 
41, or fully 9 per cent, are apparently absent from Ben 
Bulben. These species are set forth at length in the follow- 
ing list : — 

Ox Mountains species not recorded for Ben Bulben. 



Fumaria confuscu 
Viola aroemis. 
V. tricolor. 

Lepigonum tuglectum, 
Trifolium medium, 
T. procumbens. 
Laihyrus macrorrhiius. 
AUhemilla arocnsis, 
PoUntilla rrptans, 
Prunus Padus. 
Scandix Fecten- Vefuris, 
Sambucus Ebulus. 
Sherardia arvensis. 
Gnaphalium sylvcUicum* 



Pulicaria dysenierica. 
Lobelia Dortmanna. 
Jasione montana. 
Gentiana campestris. 
G. Amarella. 
Convolvulus arvensis, 
Veronica Buxbaumii. 
AnagcUlis arvensis, 
Utricularia minor, 
Nipeta Glechoma. 
Teucrium Scorodonia. 
Plantago Coronopus, 
Polygonum Convolvulus. 
Populus tremula. 



EpipcLCtis palustris, 
/uncus obtusiflorus, 
J, lamprocarpus, 
Sparganium affine. 
Typha latifolia. 
Lemna minor, 
Triglochin maritimum. 
Eleocharis mtdticaulis. 
Scirpus Savii, 
Carex arenaria. 
Asplenium marinum. 
Lycopodium clavatum, 
Equiselum variegatum. 



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306 The Irish Naturalist. [Dec, 

A scrutiny of this list might fairly be expected to show that 
the majority of the Ox Mountains plants absent from Ben 
Bulben are calcifuge species, that is to say, species which shun 
the limestone, while they appear in full development on non- 
calcareous soils. But we find that this is by no means the 
fact ; for out of the forty-one species just mentioned only two 
— Lathy rus macrorrhizus and Jasione montana — can be classed 
as decidedly calcifuge. When on the other hand we examine 
the catalogue of Ben Bulben plants we find the following 
twenty-two calcifuge species recorded for this eminently 
calcareous district : — 

Calcifuge species found in Ben Bulben District. 

Galium saxatiU, Rumex Acetosella, Carex piluii/era, 

Vaccinium Myrtiilus. Empetrum nigrum, C, Hnervis. 

Calluna vulgaris, Myrica Gale, AiraJUxuosa. 

Erica cinerta, Narthccium ossifragum, Nardus striata. 

E. Tetralix, . /uncus supinus. Lomaria Spicani. 

Digitalis purpurea, J, squarrosus, Lastraa dilatatcu 

Pedicularis sylvcUica. Scirpus cctspitosus, Athyrium Filix-fetrntHo, 
Polygonum Hydropiper, 

This full representation of the calcifuge group in a district 
where the formation is almost purely limestone, would appear 
at first sight to utterly discredit the classification of plants by 
their apparent aflFection for, or aversion to limestone soils. In 
reality, the constitution of the Ben Bulben flora furnishes no 
argument against the validity of this classification, which is the 
expression of a very well-grounded induction. The explanation 
of the apparent anomaly is not far to seek. Ben Bulben, in 
fact, even if we restrict the name to the great steep-scarped 
rock-mass lying between Glencar on the south, and Glenade 
and Gleniff on the north, so as to cut oflF all but the purely 
calcareous formations, is capped for some eight miles with a 
deep bed of peat ; and in this peat-cap the calcifuge species 
find that neutral or non-calcareous soil which appears to be a 
necessary condition of their healthy development. 

Having thus sketched the general features of the Ox 
Mountains flora a few details may be given as to the more 
interesting plants observed by us in our hasty survey. 

Trlfollum medium 9 Linn. — Frequent amongst Gorse,^ and in field 
borders and ou banks near Skreen and Dromore West 

Prunus PaduSp l«inn. — ^A single tree, apparently native, on the 
rocky shores of lyough Achree. 



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1896.] CoLGAN. — Flora of the Ox Mountains, Co, Sligo, 307 

Rubus saxatllISp Linn.— Sparingly on the northern slope of Knock- 

acree and at the head of Lugdoon. 
Potentllla reptans, Linn.— Roadside banks near the sea below 

Dromore West. A rare species in many parts of West Ireland- 
Saxlfra^a alzoldeSi Linn.— Abundant on Knockacree from about 

300 to 900 feet, but confined to the gully above Lough Acree and to 

the neighbouring rocks. First observed here by Miss Kinahan, in 

1893. 

Gnaphallum sylvatlcuniy Linn.— Gravelly places by the shore of 
Lough Basky, and luxuriant on dry banks in the Mass Valley. 

Hleraclum Irlcum* Fries.— Sparingly in rocky places above Lough 
Acree, at about 450 feet The only Hawkweed observed in the 
district except the ubiquitous H. Pilosella, 

Vacclnlum Vltls-IdaBa^ Linn.— On Knockacree at 1,400 feet, and 
abundant round Cloonacool lough to 1,350 feet. 

Sallx hemacea* Linn.— At Lugdoon, at Cloonacool lough, and on the 
mountain east of Lough Easky, descending to 1,200 feet. Very 
stunted where it clings to the wavy foliations of the gneiss, but well- 
developed when growing in the grassy or mossy capping of the 
rocks. 

Epipactis palustrlSy Crantz.— Abundant in one spot on the northern 
shore of Lough Talt. 

Juncus obtusif lorus, Ehrh.— In a marsh below Dromore West, and 
sparingly near the margin of Lough Acree. Apparently a new 
record for District IX. 

J. suplnus var. f lultanSf Lamk.— A characteristic plant of the lakes 
in this district, occurring in Lough Acree, Lough Easky, Lough 
Glendarragh, and Cloonacool lough, and also in many of the 
loughauns in the central plateau. The young shoots developed by 
this viviparous form in the deep water of these lakes are exquisite 
examples of extreme tenuity of leaf, and exhibit perhaps the nearest 
approach amongst the Irish phanerogams to truly capillary foliage. 
When detached from the parent and stranded on the lake shores 
the young plants are very puzzling, and easily mistaken for forms of 
Scirpus acuularis, 

Sparffanlum afflne* Schnzl.— In Lough Ramdufif near Lough Easky, 
and again in Lough Glendarragh, where it covers a large surface and 
flowers and fruits freely at a height of 1,332 feet. 

Osmunda reffallSy Linn. — Appears to be very rare in the district. 
Only one large patch observed, by a stream near Croagh» north of 
Lough Easky. 

Botryctilum Lunarlap Sw.— In pastures near the old tower below 
Dromore West 

Adlantum'^ Caplllus-Venerls, Linn.— Specimens of this species 
gathered on limestone rocks by the river below Dromore West were 
sent me near the end of July last, by Mr. John Quirk, who informs 
me that it grows in this station in considerable quantity. The plant 
was reported from this locality by Mr. R. Warren, in 1891. 



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3o8 The Irish NahiratisL [Dec. 

Equlsetum varleffatum var. majus, Syme.— Abundant on the 
stony shores of Lough Talt. 

Lycopodlum Selaflroy Linn. — ^This species, rarely met with in abund- 
ance in east Ireland, occurs in profusion in the high-lying wet bogs 
N.B. of Easky lough. 

L. clavatuniy Linn.— Sparingly on the grassy hill-slopes west of 
Lough Talt, at 600 feet. 

I am indebted to Mr. Arthur Bennett for assistance in 
determining some of the critical species observed, and to 
Messrs. H. and J. Groves for naming a few specimens of 
Ckara gathered. These latter all belong to the common 
species C.fragilis and C. vulgaris which occur in all twelve of 
the Irish botanical districts. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Prof. R. Tate's Visit to Belfast. 

Allow me to correct an erroneous impression which is conveyed by the 
note in November number of the Irish Naturalist respecting Prof. Ralph 
Tate's recent visit to Belfast. Prof. Tate did not honour Belfast Natural- 
ists' Field Club by a visit, or, to put it plainly, the Club did not seize 
the opportunity to honour itself by receiving its distinguished founder 
when he revisited Belfast. Prof. Tate was invited by a former President of 
the Club, Mr. John Anderson, j.p., f.g.s., one of the original members; 
but he had accepted the prior invitation of Mr. Joseph Wright, F.G.S., 
and was the guest of the latter gentleman during his stay here. To 
quote the words of the Professor, the visit was intended for • * • *' those 
who helped to make my sojourn at Belfast the most pleasant episode of 
my life." For the benefit of the younger members of the Belfast Club it 
may be well to mention that Prof. Tate's work in the Secondary rocks of 
Ireland, done over thirty years ago, gave us the most complete exposition 
of those rocks which has yet appeared. Subsequently appointed 
Professor of Geology and Natural History in Adelaide University, he has 
done an immense amount of work in South Australia, not only as a 
palaeontologist, but also as a conchologist and a botanist, and has risen 
to the foremost place amongst Australasian naturalists. He has occupied 
the position of President of the Royal Society of South Australia, and of 
the Adelaide Naturalists* Field Club, of which he also was founder. 
There has been much said of late as to inter-communication of 
naturalists, land it is not creditable to the Belfast Club that no advantage 
was taken of this, the final visit of its foremost member. 

S. A. Stewart, Belfast 



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1896.] 309 

NOTES ON SOME CASUALS IN COUNTY ANTRIM. 

BY J. H. DAVIES. 



Gauuh Moixugo, lyinn. — The usual English habitat for this 
plant is "hedges and thickets," whereas in Ireland it is 
principally ** grassy lawns/' which is exceedingly suggestive 
of the species having been introduced here with seed. It 
occurs in a large field at Glenmore, where there are several 
conspicuous patches of it, and where it is thoroughly well 
established, but although the field has not been disturbed for 
a long period of years, there would appear to be a possibility 
of its being an introduction. Mr. Stewart informs me that he 
has this year found it at Whitewell, Glengormley, in County 
Antrim. In this country it is decidedly rare, being absent 
from by far the larger portion of the island, and in the north, 
though it occurs in Down, Antrim, Derry and Armagh, it has 
not been observed in any of the other counties. There seems, 
however, to be some ground for regarding this Bedstraw as a 
casual, but it maybe indigenous. At Glenarm it has certainly 
held its place for about half a century. 

SoLANUM NIGRUM, I^inn.— The Black Nightshade, which is 
of rare occurrence in Ireland, having been found in only four 
of the twelve districts of Cybele Hibemica, has this year 
appeared as a weed in cultivated ground at Glenmore, near 
Usbum. It seems to be a very capricious plant and without 
permanence in any of its Irish localities. Like Hyoscyamus 
niger, which has also been seen at Glenmore, and is now lost, 
it springs up for one seasop, or it may be for two or three 
seasons in succession, and is not afterwards seen in the same 
place. In the Copeland Islands, and in the neighbourhood of 
Donaghadee, where it is recorded to have been noticed by 
Campbell, it has since been sought for by several observers, 
but cannot now be found. Rev. S. A. Brenan, who noticed it 
for five consecutive years, 1867 to 1871, near Cushendun, 
informs me that it has not subsequently been observed there. 
Mr. Richard Hanna met with it together with a goodly number 
of other out-of-the-way casuals on rubbish heaps near some of 
the Belfast distilleries and flour-mills, as noted in the remark- 
able list of plants supplied by him to the Supplement to the 

A 3 

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3IO The Irish Naturalist, [Dec^ 

"Flora N. E- of Ireland" (p. 141), but all these casuals were 
known to have been introduced with imported grain, and it 
IS not to be seen there now. 

In the Glenmore locality the plant did not appear until late 
in June, and its pretty white flowers, which close in the 
afternoon, were first seen in the latter part of July. The fruit 
of the earliest flowers attains its full growth by the end of 
August, but does not begin to assume the blackness character- 
istic of its maturity until about the first week in October. Of 
the enormous number of berries produced, only comparatively 
few have time to ripen before the plant dies ; but when it is 
considered that a single berry contains upwards of sixty seeds 
(more than three times as many as there are in a berry of its 
congener 5. Dulcamara), it seems remarkable that, with this 
possibility of reproduction, the Black Nightshade should be so 
fitful and inconstant in all its localities. The lower branches 
are procumbent (rooting at many of the joints), and those of 
one plant cover a space of about three square yards. A branch 
bearing the first flowers, that was cut off in July, and placed in a 
jar of water kept in the open air very soon threw out numerotts 
strong roots, produced fully formed fruit, continued to grow 
and flourish, and to put forth its flowers until the end of 
September. Notwithstanding this, it is rather a tender annual, 
and its leaves, which begin to fade early in October, are killed 
by the first frost. 

Polygonum sachai^inense, Schmidt. — ^This plant, an her- 
baceous perennial, native only in the Sachalin Islands,' and 
not previously recorded as occurring in Ireland, grows at 
Lisburn, in waste ground in an extensive enclosure between 
the old mill-race and the Lagan, where the river and canal 
are joined, and where there is an old dry dock which is used 
for the repairing of lighters that ply on the Lagan canal. 
The dock is mentioned, because, as will afterwards be seen, 
it seems not unlikely that it may have some bearing on the 
introduction of the plant to this place, where it is in some 
abundance, and though with every appearance of having been 
there for a long time, it was only first recognised at the end of 
September of the present year. It was found amongst a mass 
of tall-growing nettles ( Urtica dioica) from which at a short 

* '* Polygonum sacfuUifunse^ F. Schmidt, cx Maxim. Prim. FL Amur. 
233. — Ins. SachaHn." Index Kewensis. 



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i896l] Davies. — Notes on some Casuals in County Antrim. 311 

distance it was hardly distinguishable, but from its over- 
topping the surrounding growth my attention was specially 
attracted. A gentleman, one of the owners of the land, who 
was present on the occasion, when asked how it came to be 
planted there replied, " Planted ? Oh, no ! it was not planted ; 
it grows wild here." A Yorkshire botanist, Mr. William 
Foggitt, an old and valued friend, and one of my most 
frequent companions on botanical excursions so far back as 
the early fifties, in sending me a short time ago a collection 
of British casuals, sent also some dried specimens of this 
Polygonum as a plant, which, on account of its alleged 
economic value, was claiming the attention of North of 
England agriculturists. It would appear that the species was 
first brought into England, under the name of Sachalin, in 
1869, as a forage plant. It was said that it yields from eighty 
to one hundred and twenty tons of green fodder to the acre, 
and that horses are especially fond of it. Mr. Foggitt informs 
me also that it was stated in the newspapers that the farmers 
of Wensleydale, in Yorkshire, were planting it on the bare 
oozy hillsides where no serviceable herbage will grow, but so 
fiat he is without information as to the result of the experiment. 
Its beauty seems to have recommended it to horticulturists, 
and it is now to be seen in many gardens in Yorkshire. 
A magnificent bushy plant, attaining a height of from eight 
to ten feet, with long branched racemes of delicate greenish- 
yellow flowers, springing from the axil of nearly every leaf, it 
is not to be wondered that it should be prized as an additional 
ornament for borders and shubberies. On noticing the plant 
at Lisbum, the dried specimens received from my friend were 
at once brought to mind, and on comparison they were found 
to be identical. The most probable explanation of the occur- 
rence of the Sachalin here, seems to be that the seeds may 
have been brought by the lighters which carry, from Belfast 
to Lisbum, coal that has been shipped in the North of 
England; and that they have thus found their way to the 
ground near the canal dock which has been mentioned. 

PiANTAGO MEDIA, Linn. — Several plants in a lawn near 
Usbum. The grass of the lawn being usually kept closely 
shorn, there is little chance of the plant spreading from seed, 
and indeed I have only once seen it in flower at this place, 
but the leaves, lying flat on the ground, as is their habit, for 

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312 The Irish Naturalist. [Dec. 

the most part edcape uninjured the knives of the lawn-mower, 
so that this fragrant and most beautiful of British Plantains 
may survive. Mr. Praeger some years ago met with it on the 
Curran of Lame, where it has since been sought for, but it 
seems entirely to have disappeared from that locality. 



PROCEEDINGS OP IRISH SOCIETIES. 



RoYAi, Zooi^oGiCAi, Society. 

Recent donations include five crocodiles, a lizard, and a tortoise from 
Dr. E. G. Fenton ; a hawk from R. H. M. Orpen, Esq. ; a pair of Japanese 
Doves from J. B. 0*Callaghan, Esq. ; a Muscovy Duck from Mrs. Harford ; 
three Llamas from J. Nelson, Esq. ; a Hedgehog from W. C. Pim-Evans, 
Esq. ; an Otter from J. Clibbom, Esq. ; and a pair of Fan tail Pigeons 
from Miss O'Farrell. 

7,623 persons visited the Gardens in October. 



Dublin Microscopical Club. 

October 15. —The Club met at the house of Dr. R. F. Scharff. 

Prof. G. A. J. CoLK exhibited sections, accompanied by specimens, of 
the junctions of diverse igneous rocks at Oritor Quarry, Ca Tyrone- 
Considerable mingling of highly silicated and basic rocks seems to have 
occurred, but it is difficult to determine what the original types were. The 
highly silicated rock consists, when found in clean veins, almost entirely 
of a felspar, sometimes showing microcline-twinning, and these veins 
graduate into a true granite. 

Prof T. Johnson exhibited preparations of Prasiola stipUata^ Suhr., a 
green alga which is of interest in that it is generally regarded as a 
connecting link between the green vlgtei^Ulvacea, &c.) and the Bangiacta^ 
a group of red algae. Reference to the tetraspores, oospheres and 
spermatia of various authors was made. The material was gathered in 
March last, by a sea-weed party of the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, at 
half-tide on the coast north of Skerries. The only previous record of 
the species as Irish is in Jessen's monograph of Prasiola : — * Specimina 
Hibemica nominis Ulvae fiirfuraceae inscripta in collectione Binderi 
asservantur.' The preparations and illustrations shown were due to 
Miss Knowles. 

Mr. G. H. CarpENTBR showed Onesinda minuttssima, Cb., a spider of the 
family Theridiida, discovered at Ardara, Ca Donegal, by Rev. W, J. 
Johnson, and new to the Irish fauna. It does not seem to have yet bees 
observed out of the British Islands, but has occurred both in England 
(Dorset), and in Scotland (Balmoral). It is perhaps the smallest spider 



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1896. Proceedings dj Irish Societies, 313 

known, measuring only one mm. in length. In structure it is remark- 
able by the great convexity of the sternum. The palp of the female 
bears a claw ; this character separates it from the Erigoninct, according to 
Rev. O. P. Cambridge its true position is near Pholcomma. 

Dr. McWeeney showed the germinated sclerotia of Petiza sclerotiorum, 
also known as P. postuma (Berk.). This lives parasitically on potatoes in 
Ireland, especially along the Western seaboard, and causes a dangerous 
disease. The sclerotia were gathered in full germination in Co. Donegal 
last July. He also showed sclerotia artificially produced from the 
ascospores of the Peziza by planting them on sterilised half cylinders 
of potato in test-tubes. Reference was also made to a smaller, more 
adherent form of sclerotium, resembling mouse's excrement, also found 
on the plants affected by P. scUrotiorum. This smaller form did not 
produce a Peziza — only a conidial fruitification known as Botrytis. 
The potatoes suffering from Peziza disease were generally affected 
with Botrytis disease also; but there appeared to be no essential con- 
nection between the two maladies. 

Mr. A. Vaughan Jennings showed preparations of the peach-coloured 
Bacterium, Chromatium Okenii. This form is specially interesting on 
account of its large size, its distinctive colouring, and its habit of living 
in water containing sulphuretted hydrogen. Sulphur is liberated by the 
organism, and deposited in granules in the protoplasm, and the sulphur- 
etted hydrogen is regarded as due to its power of breaking up the sul- 
phates of lime and soda in solution . Apart from this physiological 
interest, the form is of value as illustrating the pleomorphism of the 
Schizomycetes. The motile flagellate type which, nearly half a century 
ago was named by Ehrenberg Monas Okenii^ is only a stage in a varied 
life-history. Other stages are the * sperillum ' form known as Ophidomonas 
sanguineum^ the filamentous form Beggiatoa rosco-pcrsicina, and the aggre- 
gations of * cocci' constituting the Clathrocystis roseo-persicinus of Cohn. 
The 'coccus' condition has been described as arising from the fila- 
mentous form; but the specimens exhibited indicate that after the 
motile forms have passed into the *zooglaea' stage, they too may break up 
into aggregates of cocci like simple forms of ** Clathorcystis." 

Dr. C. Herbert Hurst showed a section of the cochlea of a Rabbit 

Prof. A. C Haddon showed the Phyllosoma larva of the crustacean 
Scyllarus arctus. 



Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. 
October 27. — The winter session was inaugurated by a social meeting 
in the Exhibition Hall. The company was a large one, filling the available 
space in the main hall, and comprising a good representation of the mem- 
bership of the Club, with many friends. There was an mteresting exhibition 
arranged in the hall, comprising botanical, conchological, geological, and 
entomological collections; photographs, seals, and microscopic specimens. 
In the minor hall displays of the X-rays were given by W. J. Walker. The 
side hall was devoted to the lantern exhibition of a series of slides depicting 



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3 H The Irish Naturalist tD«^ 

botanical, geological, and arcbseological subjects, the photographs 
shown being the work of F. C. Bigger, Professor Cole, W. J. Pennell, 
W. Gray, A. R. Hogg, Dr. MacWeeney, J. St J. Phillips, and R. J. Welch. 
A collection of photos of wild flowers in their natural habitat by that 
capable artist, R. J. Welch, was much admired. The exhibits of the 
botanical section comprised British and exotic ferns, illustrated by fresh- 
cut fronds and growing plants, supplied by W. H. Phillips (honorary 
treasurer) and Charles M^Kimm (curator of Botanic Gardens Park); 
and recent additions to the Irish flora by R. Lloyd Pracger. Professor 
MacWeeney, of Dublin, exhibited some bacterial cultures and slides, and 
a select series of Irish fungi, including some that cause disease of the 
potato plant A compact collection under the departmental title of 
'•Marine Life " comprised a number of books illustrative of marine life, 
lent by the Free Library, and some models of marine life, lent by the 
Queen's College. Henry Hanna, a.m., showed a collection of inverte- 
brates and a series of slides, for which the Club's prize had been awarded, 
while seaweeds collected on last season's dredging excursions were 
exhibited by ProfI Johnston and Miss Hensman. Prof. A. C Haddon 
contributed some examples of commensalism and symbiosis from the 
marine fauna of Ireland and other countries ; and Mrs. J. T. Tatlow had 
a collection of seaweeds from Roundstone, Connemara, and a series of 
shells collected on Magilligan Strand, County Derty. The conchological 
section comprised the above, and a collection of land shells by R. J. 
Welch. A. G. Wilson, Hon. Sec, displayed rocks and miscellaneous 
objects of interest, including specimens of Irish fresh-water pearls and 
the pearl mussel (Unto niargaritifcra)^ and some primitive forms of lamps. 
The geological exhibits comprised photographs of features of the high 
Alps, by the late W. F. Donkin, from the geological department of the 
Royal College of Science, Dublin (Prof. Grenville A. J. Cole, President 
of the Dublin Field Club); crush conglomerates (with microscopic 
section) from the Isle of Man, Tertiary dykes from County Down (Miss 
M. K. Andrews) ; opal and chalcedony from the rhyolitic area of County 
Antrim, rhyolites from Kirkinriola and Clough water (Mr. Robert Bell); 
fossil wood perforated by insects, from the Gault of Ventnor, Isle of 
Wight (Mr. J. O. Campbell) ; microscopic sections of rocks and fossils 
(Mr. William Gray) ; rocks collected on Field Club excursion to County 
Cavan, rocks of Slieve Gallion, County Deny (Alec G. Wilson); junction 
of granite and Ordovician from the new waterworks tunnel at Newcastle 
(Leo M. Bell) ; microscopic section of riebeckite granophyre from Isle of 
Skye (J. St J. Phillips); Lias and Greensand fossils (C^orge MKHean); 
banded and altered shale from waterworks, Newcastle (Robert Young) ; 
fossils from Cretaceous rocks of Kent, Rhaetic fossils from Bath ; speci- 
mens from lead mines, Foxdale, Isle of Man (Miss S. M. Thompson). To 
the microscopic section the following contributed :— Rev. John Andrew 
(President of section), Henry Hanna, A. R. Hogg, W. S. M*Kee, Joseph 
Wright, Dr. Lorrain Smith, Dr. Cecil Shaw. 

In the entomological department J. T. Tatlow showed a collection of 
butterflies from the Austrian Tyrol. Among the miscellaneous attrac- 



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1896.] Proceedings of Irish Societies, 3^5 

tions, the great seals of England, exhibited by John Vinycomb, formed 
a distinctive feature. 

At eight o'clock the President, Lavens W. Ewart, took the chair. The 
President, who was received with applause, said—I have to oflfer a 
welcome on.behalf of the Club to our visitors, and hope they may have 
an enjoyable and profitable evening, and I have especially to express 
our thanks to those who have come to help us in the business of the 
present meeting. Many of them have come from afar, and we are 
grateful to all from far and near. I should like to say a few words on a 
subject of much importance at the present time, that of the Giant's 
Causeway, and it is surely a subject which concerns the Club. As most 
of those present must be aware, a few speculators have banded them- 
selves together to endeavour to exclude the public from free access to 
this truly gigantic creation in order to make money out of it for them- 
selves, and they have invoked the Court of Chancery to establish them 
in this undertaking. Three gentlemen, of whom, unfortunately, I am 
one, have been served with writs in respect of. so-called trespass, and the 
battle has begun. A committee had already been formed to protect the 
rights of the public, and they are defending the action. Owing to the 
fact that the Causeway Syndicate is a public company they cannot be 
required to give security for costs, and as their capital consists of, I am 
informed, but ^7, whether we win or lose we — that is to say, the Causeway 
defence committee— will have to pay our own costs. Our solicitors, 
Messrs. Greer and Hamilton, of Bally money, estimate that the costs may 
amount to ;f4oo, and this sum at least we must raise. We ask for help 
in the matter of collecting subscriptions, and collecting lists will be 
supplied to all who will take them. We earnestly ask all those who 
value liberty to take lists, and get their friends to take them, so that 
practical interest may be aroused on all sides in asserting the indepen- 
dence of the public. Large subscriptions, as a rule, are not asked for, 
but small sums given by the many, for it is a matter which concerns the 
many. Evidence is also wanted from those who have known of the 
Causeway as a public resort for forty or fifty years or more. I shall not 
occupy your time longer, but direct your attention to the different 
exhibits mentioned in the programme. 

The remainder of the evening passed quickly over. 

OcTOBBR 3 1 .— BoTANiCAi. Skction. A pleasing and interesting feature 
was the presentation of a set of mounted Huratia to Mr. S. A. Stewart 
This collection is being issued in four fascicles of twenty-five specimens 
each, by Messrs. E. F. and W. R. Linton. Rev. C. H. Waddei.Io in 
presenting the first fascicle to Mr. Stewart on behalf of the subscribers, 
read the following inscription :— ** Set of British Hitracia presented to 
Samuel Alexander Stewart, P.B.S.B., in recognition of his valuable ser- 
vices to Irish Botany, and especially in this genus, and as a mark oi 
their affection and esteem by Members of the Botanical Section of the 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club and other friends." Messrs. C. H, 
Waddell, J. H. Davies, and others, spoke of Mr. Stewart's great services 
to Irish Botany, and of the value of his ** Flora of N.E. Ireland," and 



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$i6 The Irish Naiuraiisi, [ftee., 

testified how willing he always was to place his wide experience and 
accurate knowledge at the service of any who were really interested in 
the science. Mr. Stewart replied, and said it would afford him much 
pleasure to help any of the members in their study of the Hieracia or in 
any way he could. Some recent additions to the local flora were then 
discussed, including Solatium nigrum which has been found near Lamb^ 
probably only as a casual. The rest of the time was given to the exam- 
ination and description of Compositoiy and especially the genus Huracium. 



Dublin Naturalists* Field Club. 

November io.— The Winter Session was opened by a Conversazione 
at the Royal Irish Academy, which was largely attended. The President 
(Prof. G. A. J. Cole) opened the meeting at 8 o'clock. In the name of 
the Club, he welcomed the representatives of the Belfast and Cork Field 
Clubs who were present, and also the many local visitors. At 8.15 and 
at 9.15 lantern displays were given in the lecture hall. The subjects 
illustrated included Prehistoric Remains of Co. Antrim, by Prof. Haddon 
and G. Coffey; rare Fungi, by Greenwood Pim; Sea-birds and their 
nests on Lambay Island, by R. Welch and Greenwood Pim ; the Field 
Club Union Excursion to Cavan, by R. Welch ; and Wild Flowers in 
their homes, by R. Welch. The scientific exhibits which covered the 
tables were as follows : — 

Prof. G. A. J. Cole (President)— Forms of Silica in Rocks, illustrated 
by specimens and microscopic sections; G. H. Carpenter— i. Some 
Curious Insect Larvae ; 2. New Irish Spiders ; Hon. R. E. Dillon — Irish 
Lepidoptera, illustrating protective coloration, &c. ; A. H. Foord— 
Specimens of Rocks from the Lava-flows and Geysers of Iceland; W. 
Gray (b.n.f.c.)— A fine Zeolite from Co. Antrim ; Mrs. W. S. Green- 
Sea- weeds collected in Co. Kerry, 1896; Prof. A. C. Haddon — Animal 
Partnerships : Examples of Commensalism and Symbiosis ; J. N. Halbert 
— Water Insects; Dr. C. Herbert Hurst — Microscopic Preparations, 
illustrating the structure of the Heads of Insects ; A. Vaughan Jennings- 
Flowering Plants and Fungi from the Eastern Alps ; Prof. T. Johnson- 
Irish Marine Algae collected with the collaboration of Miss Knowles and 
Miss Hensman in 1896 ; Miss M. C. Knowles— Flowering Plants from Co. 
Tyrone, 1896; D. M*Ardle — Some rare Mosses and Hepatics; A. R 
Nichols— Marine Shells collected on the Waterford Coast, 1896; Green- 
wood Pim— Restrepia striata and Ceropegia elegans in flower; W. H, 
Phillips (B.N.F.C.)— Varieties of British Ferns, illustrated by fresh and 
dried fronds ; R. Lloyd Praeger — Additions to the List of Irish Flowering 
Plants, 1894-96 ; Dr. R. F. Scharff— New Crustacea from the West Coast 
of Ireland; Mrs. J. T. Tatlow — i. Sea- weeds collected at Roundstone, 
1896; 2. Dried Specimens of alpine and other Plants grown at Dundmm, 
1896 ; J. T. Tatlow— Butterflies from the Austrian Tyrol, 1896; Miss S. M. 
Thompson (b.n.f.c.)— i. Scotch Erratics from Boulder-clays of Belfast 
District? 2. Microscopic Sections of Riebeckite Eurite from Ailsa Craig 
and Skye; R. Welch (b.n.f.c.)— i. Irish Land and Fresh-water Mollnsca; 
2. Photographs of Wild Flowers, etc 



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1896.] Proceedings of Irish Societies. 317 

Cork NaTurawsts* Fibi<d Club. 

August 22.— The month's excursion took place, a good party going to 
the Waterfall station and walking thence to Ballinhassig Glen, taking 
on the way some bogs, which yielded amongst other plants the Lesser 
Skull-cap {Scutellaria mznor\ Sneeze-wort (^Achillea Ptarmua\ Branched 
Bur-reed (JSparganium ramosum). Bog Pimpernel {Anagallis tenelid). Bog 
Asphodel {Nartfucium ossifragum). Pale Butterwort {Pinguicula lusilantca), 
in flower, and Pinguicula grandiflora. 

Large tracts of moor were crossed which were a magnificent sight, 
with the gorse and heather in full bloom. 

Mr. J. Porter, b.e., Bandon, who acted as guide, explained the geology 
of the district. Waterfall and Ballinhassig stations, on the Cork, Bandon, 
and South Coast Railway, are on the northern and southern sides 
respectively of one of the main east and west anticlinal hill- ranges. The 
core of the arching fold is formed of the Dingle Beds, which have been 
laid bare on the broad summit of the range, while the Carboniferous 
rocks cover the flanks. 

September 5. — ^The last excursion of the season came off, when the 
Club visited Rock Close, Blarney, by kind permission of Sir George 
Colthurst, and after exploring the curious rocks, &c., walked to St. 
Ann's Hydropathic, where tea was provided. 



NOTES 



ZOOLOGY. 

INSECTS, 
Abundance of Acherontla atropos. — Prom the British entomo- 
logical magazines it appears that caterpillars of the Death's-head moth 
have been more common than usual in England and Scotland this year. 
A similar visitation appears to have prevailed in Ireland, as during the 
summer months I received a number of specimens from different parts 
ofthe country— Cos. Dublin, Meath, and Wexford. 

Geo. H. Carpenter. 

Asteroscopus sphinx In Co. Dublin.— As Mr. W. F. de V. Kane 
in his recent list of Irish Moths, gives but two localities, Gal way and 
Westmeath, for Asteroscopus sphinx^ it may be of interest to note that my 
brother and I took a few specimens of this moth here in Co. Dublin, at 
light, early in November, 1893 and 1894 ; and this year, on November 
2nd, two specimens, one flying round ivy and the other at light. In 
every instance they were males. 

G. P. Farran, Templeogue. 

[We have recently heard of the capture of this moth at Dundrum, also 
in Co. Dublin, by Mr. George Low, and in Co. Waterford by Rev. W. W. 
Flemyng.— Eds.] 



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3 ' 8 The Irish Naturalist. [Dec., 

Mlxodla palustrana In Co. WlckIow.->On Whit Monday, May 
25th (this year) while ascending Lngnaquilla, Co. Wicklow, I took a few 
specimens of a tortrix, which turns out to be Mixodia palustrana, I can- 
not find any previous report of its occurrence in Ireland. M, schulsuma 
was on the wing at the same time and place. 

George V. Hart, Howth. 

Clifton Nonpareil (Catocala fraxinl) at Londonderry. ~A 

specimen of this very rare moth came into Mr. R. B. Thompson's house, 
Marlborough Street, Derry, by an open window during the night The 
date was about loth September last. Mr. Thompson brought the insect 
to me for examination. 

D. C. Campbei*!., Londonderry. 



MOLLUSCS. 
Helix arbustorum in Co. Derry.— It is interesting to find this 
shell turning up again so soon in another new locality. Mr. Robert Bell, 
a member of the B.N.F.C, while fossil-hunting in an old quarr> at 
Tamlaght, on the borders of the county (near Coagh, Co. Tyrone), found 
it fairly plentiful, and brought me a few specimens. 

R. WEI.CH, Belfast 

Helix f usca.— I have searched carefully for this rare shell for year, 
in likely places— mountain glens and damp woods— but without success 
till lately, when I got one specimen on river-bank at Newcastle, Co. 
Down, on rejectamenta after flood, and four specimens this month in 
the ravine of Glenariflf, Co. Antrim. Professor R, Tate found it manj 
years ago common in winter in certain damp woods near Belfast, usually 
on the Wood-rush (Luzula sylvatud), and it has also been recorded from 
several mountain glens in the same district Dr. Scharff noted it on 
Beech trees this summer at Clonbrock, Co. Galway. 

R. Wei^ch, Belfast 

8luff8 of Ireland.— Wanted living examples of the foUowing 
species:— Z^i WAX margtnatus, Agriolimax Iccvis^ Amalia gagaies^ Arim 
iniermediusy and Geomalacus maculosus. 

Wai^TER E. Coi^unge, V.Z.S., Mason College, Birmingham. 



BIRDS. 
KInRflsher In Co. Dublin.— When travelling on the D.W. and 
W. Railway last September I noticed a Kingfisher flying over the water 
between Williamstown and Booterstown. Some years ago I have seen* 
them where the Blackrock People's Park is .now, but till the occasion 
mentioned, I have not seen one for a long time. 

Greenwood Pim, Monks town, Dublin. 



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1*6.] Notes. 319 

A Wlilte 8wallow.~Having shot a perfectly white Swallow or 
Swift on my lands at Camass near Bruff, Co. Limerick, on the 25th inst. 
I should be glad if any of your readers could inform me if they ever have 
seen one. The common Swallows were hunting this bird as if they did 
not like it. 

J. V. Brvan. [In Limerick Chronicle, August 28,] 

[Mr. ^raiiams reports that this specimen is a Swallow (ffirundo rusfica) 
and a genuine albino, having pink eyes. He has received this year two 
other white Swallows, which, however, had eyes of the normal colour, 
and also an albino Sand martin {Cotyle riparia) from other Irish localities. 
—Eds,] 

Birds of Connemara.—Referring to Mr. Witherby's statement 
that he has met with the Dunlin, as Mr. Palmer has the Ringed Plover, 
in the breeding season on Lough Corrib, I beg to say that no one need be 
suprised at either, for both species have a wide breeding-range on the 
Irish inland lakes. 

I have a list of eighteen counties in which the Dunlin has either been 
found breeding or met with in June under circumstances denoting that 
it bred there. I have taken Dunlins' eggs in Londonderry, Donegal, 
and Westmeath, and seen it on many a lake in June, including the 
Shannon lakes and callows of the Shannon down to the Clare shores of 
Longh Dcrg. 

I have found a Ringed Plover's nest on Lough Sheelin under a willow. 
That Oyster-catchers should prefer the tops of islands to the shingly 
beach is nothing unusual. On the Donegal coast last June I saw many 
nests, usually in crannies or hollows of the rocks, far up above the tide. 
On the Saltees they breed more frequently in hollows of the turfy sod on 
the top of the great hill, 200 feet high, than on the shingly beach. I saw 
one Oyster-catcher's nest there among the beans in a bean-field. They 
nsnally select spots on the hill where knobs of rock surround the 
nesting-hollow, but sometimes breed on the flat turf among short 
bracken. 

In parts of Connemara, where there are no sea-cliffs, I should expect 
Black Guillemots to breed under the huge boulders, to be found in so 
many places, forming a chaos of rock. I have seen the birds there. At 
the Q^Sts of Moher I saw none, but Black Guillemots were seen evidently 
breeding about a low limestone island off* the little port of Fisherstreet, 
in the horizontal fissures of which they must have had their breeding 
nook. Fisherstreet is over a mile from the cliffs. 

R. J. USSHER, Cappagh. 

Carrion Crow (Corvus Corone) In Co. Antrim.— Whilst 

conchologising in the woods round Murlough Bay, during the early 
part of September last, my friend Mr. J. Ray Hardy picked up a recently 
dead specimen of this bird. It was a fully plumaged bird of the year and 
quite fresh. The incident would have passed without comment on our 
part, if a remark made by Mr. R. Welch (who was with us) to the effect 



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3 20 The Irish Naturalist. [Dec, 1896^ ■ 

that " the Crow fs a rare bird in Ireland," had not led me to think tlffit 
a record of the fact might interest Irish ornithologists. During the daf 
we more than once heard the (to us) familiar cry of the Crow, and saw 
the birds themselves, either flying singly or associated with parties of 
Rooks and Jackdaws ; and on a subsequent day we saw and recognised the 
cry of three individuals flying over the bog on the road between Ballj- 
castle and Balliutoy. We have both been familiar with the Crow in 
England since boyhood, and Mr. Hardy has observed it frequently in 
various parts of Co. Kerry, and has now in his collection skins and eggs 
taken by himself in the woods in Gap of Dunloe— so there is no pos- 
sibility of mistake. 

R. Standen, Manchester Museum. 

Fork-tailed Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorrhoa) near Lon- 
donderry.— About 2oth October Mr. Buckle, of Culmore, near 
Londonderry, shot a specimen of this species on the shores of Lrough 
Foyle. 

D. C Campbei,Io Londonderry. 

Bird Notes from Co. Cork.— A good specimen of the Squacco 
Heron {Ardea raHoides) was shot near Ballinacourty, County Waterford, on 
the I2th September, 1895 (no doubt the one referred to by Mr. E. 
Williams as having been shot in County Cork, see Vol. v.. No. 2, Irish 
Naturalist\ and a Ruflf {Machetes pugnax) near Blarney, on the 20lh 
February, 1896. The reports which I have received of Quail, Cotumix 
communis y from Co. Cork this year, show that the distribution has been 
pretty general over the county ; in the locality of Midleton they appear 
to have been more numerous than elsewhere 

W. Bennett Barrington, Cork. 



GEOLOGY. 
Cave at Westport.— Referring to the note in the Irish Naturalisi for 
October (page 276) as to the cave near Westport •* called Aglemore," I 
believe that the place specified is evidently Ailemore, and the cave is 
nothing more than the underground passage of a mountain-stream. As 
far as I can understand, it has never been explored, and I doubt very 
much if a man could push his way through. I have thought of trying 
it, but the idea quite escaped my memory when the season was most 
favourable. All the same, the place is well worth a visit ; and, thongh 
tourists will be disappointed of a three and a half miles walk underground, 
and though the Aile caves do not surpass those of Mitchelstoiim, a very 
pleasant day can be spent in the vicinity. The entrance to the under- 
ground passage is at the base of a limestone cliff of about thirty feet high, 
and concave in shape, formed of stratified limestone, which falls occa- 
sionally from the roof in huge square blocks. 

Joseph M. M'Bride, Westport. 



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THE IRISH NATURALIST: 

OF 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY, 



THE OFFICIAI^ ORGAN OF 

The Royal Zoological Society of Ireland ; The Dublin Microscopical Club ; 

The Belfast Natural History and Philosophical tSociety ; 

The Belfast Naturalists* Field Club; The Dublin Naturalists* Field Club ; 

The Armagh Natural History and Philosophical Society ; 

The Cork Naturalists* Field Club ; The Limerick and Clare Field Club. 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE H. CARPENTER, B.Sc, Lond. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.I.A. 



VOL. VI. 



DUBLIN : EASON & SON, Limited, 
85 MIDDLE ABBEY STREET, and 40 LOWER SACKVILLE STREET. 

BELFAST : 17 DONEGALL STREET. 
IX)NDON : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON KENT & Co., Ltd. 

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PBINTED BY ALEX. THOK & Ck). (LIMITED), 87, 88, ft 89, ABBET-STBEET, DUBLIN. 



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CONTRIBUTORS 

TO THE PRESENT VOI.UME. 



LiONKL E. Adams, b.a., Northampton. 

E. J. Ai^i^EN, B.SC , Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth. 

O. V. Aplin, Bloxham, Oxfordshire. 

Chari«bs G. Barrett, f.e.S., Nunhead, London, S.E. 

R- M. Harrington, i^jub., f.i<.s., Fassaroe, Bray. 

Rev. Chas. W. Benson, i.i,.d., Rathmines, Dublin. 

L. H. BonaparTE-Wyse, Waterford 

Rev. S. a. Brenan, b.a.. Knocknacary, Co. Antrim. 

E. T. Browne, University College, London. 
C W. BUCKI.E, Whitecastle, Co. DonegaL 

F. W. Burbidge, M.A., E.i^S., Trin. Coll. Botanic Gardens, Dublin. 
D. C. Campbei.1,, Londonderry. 

George H. Carpenter, b sc, p.E.S Science and Art Museum. 

Dublin. 
Prop. J. W. Carr, m.a., University College, Nottingham. 

G. W. Chaster, m.r.c.s., eng., Southport, Lancashire. 
Rev. Maxwei,!, H. CIvOSE, m.a., p.g.s., Dublin. 

Prof. Grenvu^i^e A. J. Coi,e, f.g.s., Royal College of Science, 

Dubli -. 
Nathaniei. Coi^gan, M.R.I.A., Dublin. 
H. K. Gore Cuthbert, Dublin. 
J. H. Davies, Lisbum. 
K- M. DuNl^P, Lucan, Co. Dublin. 
G. P. Farran, Templeogue, Co. Dublin. 
Rev. W. W. FlEMYNG, m.a., Coolfin, Co. Waterford. 
W. Frazer, F.R.C.S.I., Dublin. 
Percy E. Freke, Bonis, Co. Carlow. 
Rev. Hilderic Friend, Ocker Hill, Tipton, Staffordshire. 
H. and J. Groves, FF.ls., Brixton, London, S.W. 
J. N. Hai^berT, Science and Art Museum, Dublin. 
W. A. Hamii^Ton, Killeshandra. 
T. Ray Hardy, Owens College, Manchester. 
Prof. G. V. Hart, q.c, i^i^d., Dublin. 
Prof. M. M. Hartog, dsc , F.i^S , Queen's College, Cork. 
Samuei. Henry, Coleraine. 
H. Lyster Jameson, b a., Killencoole, Co. Louth. 
Rev. W. F.Johnson, m.a., f.e.s., Poyntzpass. 
W F. DE ViSMES Kane, m.a., F.E.a, Drumreaske, Monagha^. 
Rev. J. E. Kei^sali,, East Boldre, Southampton. 
Q. H Kinahan, m.r,i.a., Fairview, Dublin. 



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List of Contributors, 

Miss M. C. Knowi^rs, Ballymena. 

Ernest Bi^ake Knox, Bray. 

C. Lamgham, Tempo, Enniskillen. 

Rev. Edward S. Marshai,!,, m.a , F.i^s., Godalming, Surrey. 

Phiwp B. Mason, m.r.c.s., f.Iv.s., Burton-on-Trent 

Rev. R. M. Mii,i,er, M.A., Roscrea. 

C. B. Moffat, Ballyhyland. Co. Wexford. 

F. W. Moore, a.i, s., Glasnevin, Dublin. 

J. Noi,AN, M.R.I. a.. Geological Survey, Dublin. 
J. E PAI.MER, Dublin. 

G. H. Penti^and, Drogheda. 

R. A. Phii*i.ips, Ashburton, Co. Cork. 

R. L<i<oyd Praeger, b.a , B.E., M.R.I. A., National Library, Dublin. 

R. F. ScHARFF, PhD , B.sc, Science and Art Museum, Dublin. 

R. StandEN, Owens College, Manchester. 

J. SteIvFOX, Belfast. 

S. A. Stewart, f.b.s , ed., Belfast. 

J. H. Teesdai^e, Dulwich, lyondon, S.E. 

B. ToMWN, Llandaff, S. Wales. 

R. J. USSHER, J.P., Cappagh, Co. Waterford, 

Robert Warren, j.p., Ballina. 

R WeIvCH, Belfast. 

J. J. Woi,FE, Skibbereen, Co. Cork. 



ERRATA. 

Page 7, line 12, for ** fitted," read "pitted.** 
II 7» tt 15 from bottom, for " snail,** read " soil." 
„ 8, „ 22, for << 8ulOtrlata»" read << suDstrlata.*' 

» 57» f» 5* (or ** OHorrMncAus/* re&d ^* Barymhis.'' 

„ 171, „ 4 from bottom, for ** Typhotda ** read " Typhaa^ and for 

*'*nonfir,'^ read ^^ nodifer" 
„ 214, „ 5, for " sylvestre'^ read ^^erectum^ 
». 217, „ 5 from bottom, after '* rotundata" insert " var. o/Aj." 
„ 217, „ 2 „ „ **J/ya/inia,'* insert ''nt'tutulihvaT.l/e/mst,'' 

„ 218, „ 20 for ** were,** read ** was.** 

n 253, „ 6 from bottom, after "lichenologist,** insert " and Judge 
Porwick.** 



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INDEX. 



Achorion Schonleinii, 8a 

Achyla polyandra, 247. 

Adams, L. E., Mollusca of Bally- 
castle District, 179; Palndestrina 
Tenkinsi, 234. 

Adelanthus decepiens, 136. 

Adeo|:bis unisulcatus, 125. 

Aepophilns Bonnairei, 137. 

Agabus arcticus, 86. 

Aica impetmis, 208. 

Allen, E. J., Distribution of British 
Marine Plankton, 56. 

Amygdaloidal basalt, 277. 

Annelids of Belfast slobland, 61 ; 
of Antrim and Coleraine, loi ; 
new to Ireland, 206. 

Aplin, O. v., Icterine Warbler in 
Ireland, 222. 

Archer, W., Obituary notice of, 233, 

253- 
Ascocyclus orbicularis, 165 
Aspeudes hibernicus. 302. 

Bacillus typhosus, 48. 

Ballycastle, Land Mollusca, i, 179; 

Dredging, 120; Fauna, 173; Irish 

Field Club Union at, 216; Birds, 

223, 305 » Plants, 301. 
Ballyhalbert Post- tertiary beds, 306. 
Barrett, C. G.— Plume-moth new to 

British Islands. 43. 
fiarrington. R. M---Is the Frog a 

native of Ireland? 88; House 

Martins nesting in sea-cliffs, 224 ; 

Scarcity of Wasps at Bray, 251 ; 

Battle between Wasp and Spider, 

525. 

Bateman's Vivarium, reviewed, 298. 

Bats of Ireland, 34, 88, 135, 172. 

Battle between Wasp and Spider, 
325. 

Beetles, &c., from Ardmore, Co. 
Watefford, 87. 

Belfast Natural History and Philo- 
sophical Society, 21, 49, 81, 112, 

Belfast Naturalists* Field Club, 24, 
49, 81, III, 138, 248, 277, 307 

Benson, C W.— The Ictenne Warb- 
ler, 117- 

Bird-book, Popular, 163. 



Birds, Migration of, 10, 108 ; breed- 
ing in Ireland, 64; of Ireland*s 
Eye, 204, 252; Migration of, at 
Ivondonderry, 222; of Rathlin 
and Ballycastle, 173, 233 ; of Lam- 
bay Island, 273. 

Bites of Telephori, 251. 

Blackbird's Nest, 201. 

Blackcap Warbler breeding at 
Lucan, 252. 

Black -tailed God wit in Queen's Co., 
28. 

Bog-bursts, 141, 224, 

Bog-burst seven years after, 201. 

Bog-disaster in Cfo. Kerry, 60, 141. 

Boletus edulis, 250. 

Bombus smithianus, 303. 

Bonaparte-Wise, L. H.— Entomo- 
logical Notes from S.E- Ireland, 
220; CEnistis quadra in Co. 
Waterford, 252. 

Botany of a railway journey, 209. 

Boulder-clay, 112. 

Boulders (Granite) near Dublin, 
formerly abundant, 29. 

Breeding of Birds in Ireland, 64 j 
of Montagu's Harrier in Co. 
Kerry, 284. 

Brenan, S. A, — Plague of Rats at 
Cushendun, 60. 

British Association (Report of Irish 
Field Club Delegates), 22. 

British Marine Plankton, 56. 

Broom flowering in Winter, 1 16. 

Browne, E. T.— Hydroids of Va- 
lencia Harbour, 241. 

Buckle, C. W.— Fork-tailed Petrel 
on Lough Foyle, 60. 

Bupalus piniaria, 283, 2S4 

Burbidge, F. W. — A Hybrid 
Groundsel, 300. 

Callitriche truncata, 134, 219. 
Calonectria luteola, 1 10. 
Campbell D. C— Iceland Gull at 

Londonderry, 135 ; Mass-Migra- 
. tion of Birds at Londonderry, 

222. 
Carduus crispus in Co. Down, 85. 
Carex filiformis, 219. 
Carrion Crow in Ireland, 58. 



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VI 



tndtx. 



Carpenter. G. H. — Irish Animals in 
the Dublin Museum, 127; Col- 
lembola of Mitchelstown Cave, 
225, 257. 

Carr, J. W.— Among the Wild- 
flowers (Review), 27a 

Cephalozia hibemica, 80. 

Chaster, G. W. ~ Dredging off 
Bally castle, 120; Marine Mol- 
lusca of Rathlin Island, 184. 

Check-list of British Hepatics, 250. 

Chenopodium murale, 299. 

Christmas Primrose, 82. 

Circus cineraceus, 284. 

Cladium Mariscus, 219. 

Cladothrix dichotoma, 247. 

Close, M. H. — Former abundance 
of granite Boulders in S E. neigh- 
bourhood of Dublin, 29. 

Codium tomentosum, 137. 

Cole, G. A. J.— Geological j)hoto- 
graphic Survey of Dublin and 
wicklow, 125; Contributions to 
Irish Natural Histonr (Review), 
i^i ; Borderland of Europe (Re- 
view), 237. 

Coleoptera taken at Tempo, Ennis- 
killen, 57 : at Poyntzpass, 56, 85, 
171, J03; at Ardmore, 87; sup- 
posed American in Ireland, 134 
of Douce Mountain, 168; of Rath- 
lin Island, 187 ; of S.E. Ireland, 
22 J ; at Ferns, 279 ; at Avondale, 
308. 

Colias cdusa, 282. 

Collembola of Mitchelstown Cave, 
225, 257. 

Colgan, N. — Euphrasia Saliburgen- 
sis in Ireland, 105; Flora of 
shores of Lough Derg, 189. 

Cork Naturalists* Field Club, 113, 
169, 279. 

Cork, additions to County Flora, 
170. 

Corvus corone, 58. 

Crabro aphidum, 324. 

Crustacea, new Irish, 302. 

Cupido minima, 200. 

Cuthbert, H. K. G. —Beetles, &c. 
from Ardmore, 87 ; Bites of Tele- 
phori, 251 ; Abundance of Vespa 
austriaca, 251 ; Autumn scarcity 
of Wasps, 282 ; Mysterious Irish 
Wasp (Vespa austriaca), 285. 

Cuthbert and Freke.— Additions to 
list of Irish Aculeate Hymenop- 
tera, 324. 

Cylisticus convexus, 281. 

Cyphoderus Martellii, 228, 257. 



Davies, J. H. — Galium erectum and 

G. MoUugo in N.E. Ireland, 259; 

Trifolium agrarium a casual in 

Ireland, 2^ 
Determination of Fossils, 28. 
Distribution of Birds breeding in 

Ireland 64. 
Dryas octopetala in Co. Antrim, 133, 

ij8. 
Dublin Microscopical Club, 47, 4& 

79, no, 136, 165, 198, 246, 276, 

326. 
Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, 25, 

50. ii3» I39» 167, 199, 279, 307, 

32a 
Dunlop, K. M.— Blackcap Warbler 

breeding at Lucan, 252. 

Ectocarpus pusillus, 137. 
Entomological Notes, 56, 171, 220, 

303- 
Epipactis latifolia, 251. 
Euphrasia Saliburgensis in Ca 

Galway. 55 ; in Ireland, 105. 
European Fauna, Origin of, 237. 
Exuberant growth of a Bramble, 

84. 

Farran, G. P.— Mollusca from Ca 
Westmeath, 20a 

Field Club News, 9. 54, 114. 

Field-days in Ulster, 61, lor. 

Flemyng, W. W— Wasps in Co. 
Waterford, 282 ; CEnistis quadra 
in Co. Waterford. 282. 

Flints (worked) at Portrush, 23. 

Flora of Ox Mountains, 26 ; of Ca 
Tyrone, 83; of Co. Cork (addi- 
tions), 170 ; of Lough Derg. 
189 ; of Great Northern railway, 
209 ; of Cran field, 249 ; of Ferns, 
279 ; of Ca Down, 280 ; of 
Badlycastle, 301. 

Flycatcher in Co. Antrim, 223. 

Foraminifera of Portrush raised 
beach, 290. 

Fork-tailed Petrel on Lough Foyle, 
60. 

Fossombronia angulosa, 198; F. 
cristata, 327. 

Frazer, W. — Obituary Notice of VT 
Archer, 253. 

Freke, P. E.— Entomological Notes 
from S. E. Ireland, 220; Ody- 
nerus sinuatus in Co. Carlow, 
222; Bupalus piniaria in Co 
Kildare, 284 ; Colias ednsa ii 
Ireland, 302, 

Freke and Cuthbert. — ^Additions tc 
list of Irish aculeate Hyxnenop 
tera,324. 



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Index. 



vli 



French traveller in Ireland, 45. 

Fridericia Ratzeli, 206. 

Friend, Rev. H.— Field-days in 

Ulster, 61, loi ; Annelids new to 

Ireland, 206 ; Tube - forming 

Worms, 204. 
Frog a native of Ireland ?, 27, 58, 

88,116, 134. 
Fruit culture, 77- , ^ , j 

Fulchcr's Birds of our Islands, 

reviewed, 163. 
Fungi from Avondale, Co. Wick- 

low, 308. 

Galeomma Turtoni, 124. 

Galium erectum and G. MoUugo 

in N. E. Ireland, 259. 
Geological photographic Survey of 

Dublin and Wicklo w, 1 25. 
Godwit (Black-tailed) in Queen's 

Co-, 28. 
Granite boulders near Dubhn, 2^ 
Great Auk, discovery of bones in 

Co. Waterford, 20a . ,^ ,. 

Groves, H. and J.— Euphrasia bah- 

burgensis in Co. Galway, 55 ; the 

Record of Callitriche truncata in 

Co- Cork, 134. 

Halbert, J. N.-Agabus arcticu^ a 

water-beetle new to Ireland, 86 ; 

Blackcap Warbler breeding at 

Lucan, 252. 
Halicystis ovalis, 80. . 

HamUton, W. A — Cupido minima 

near Ballyshannon, 200. ^ ^ ^^ 
Hardy, J. R.— Coleoptera of Rath- 

lin Island, 187. 
Hart. G. V.— Introduction of alien 

species, 114; Lepidoptera in Co. 

Wicklow and Mayo, 283. 
Hartog, M Open-air Studies in 

Botany, 30'« , ^ , 

Helix ericetorum reversed, 324. 
Hemaris tityus, (caterpillars), 283. 
Hemiptera from Poyntzpass, 57; 

from Ardmore, 87 ; from Ferns, 

279 ; froni Avondale, 308. 
Henry, S.— White Swallow at Cole- 

raine, 200. 
HeterochseU cosUta, 63 
Homalogyra polyzona, 125. 
House-Martins nesting m sea-cliffis, 

224. 
Hyalinia excavata, 281. 
Hydroids of Valencia Harbour, 

241. 
Hymenoptera from Poyntzpass, 57, 
303 ; additions to Irish list m 
1897. 324- 



Hypolais icterina, 117; H. poly- 

glotta, 222. 
Hysterographium Fraxini, 136. 

Iceland Gull at Londonderry, 135. 
Icterine Warbler, 117,222. 
Ignorance and Introduction, 82, 

114. 
Insect Folk-lore, 86. 
Introduction of alien species, 82, 

114. 
Irish animals recorded, 27 ; m the 

Dublin Museum, 127. 
Irish Field Club Union, 216. 
Irish Plants recorded, 26, 89, 299. 

Jameson, H. L.— Bats of Ireland, 

34t >35- 

Johnson, T.— Seaweeds from S. E. 
Ireland (abstract), 139. - 

Johnson, W. F.— Entomological 
Notes, 56 ; a Christmas Primrose, 
82; Coleoptera at Poyntzpass, 
85; Insect Folk-lore, 86; Ento- 
mological Notes from Poyntz- 
pass, i7if 303 J Spring Migrants 
at Poyntzpass, 172. 

June and December, 324.; 

Jungermania barbata, 246. 

Kane. W. F. deV.— Is the Frog a 
native of Ireland ?, 27 ; Melanism 
in Moths, 44; Irish Bats, 88; 
Leucania unipuncta in Co. Cork, 
104. 

Kelsall, E. J.— Obituary notice of, 

Kelsall. J. E.— Irish Bats, 172. 

Kinahan, G. H.— Possible Organic 
Origin of Quartz-rock, 291. 

Knowles, M. C— Flowering-plants 
of Co. Tyrone, 83; Seaweeds 
from S. E. Ireland ^abstract), 139. 

Knox, E. B.— Notes from a Trip to 
Ireland's Eye, 204; "Shore-lark" 
in Co. Dublin, 252 ; Grouse Dis- 
ease, 252 ; Notes from a Trip to 
Lambay Island, 273. 

Lachnella echinulata, loo. 
Langham, C— Coleoptera taken at 
Tempo, Enniskillen, 57 ; Tachy- 

?us pallipes a beetle new to 
reland, 58. 
Lams leucopterus, 135, 
Leda pusilla, 124* 
Leinster, Plants collected in, 89. 
Lejeunea Holtii. 48, 326. 
Lepidoptera from Poyntzpass, 57, 

303 ; of SB. Ireland, 22a 
Lepidozia setacea^ 47. 



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vtii 



index. 



Lencania unipnncta in Co. Cork 
104. * 

Leucojum aestivum, 219. 
l/cucophasia sinapis, 220. 
Lima clliptica, 124. 
Ivimerick>ield Club. 25,52, 113, 308. 
ivimnoanlus udekemtanus, 207. 
Ivipura Wrightii, 230. 
Lough Dercf Flora, X89. 
Lumbricus herculeus, 8a 

Marked Pigeon, 284. 

Marshall, E. S.— Callitriche trun- 
cate and Leucojum aestivum in 
Ireland, 219. 

Martel's Irlande et Cavemes An- 
glaises, reviewed. 45. 

Martin, H. N.— Obituary Notice of. 
103. 

Mason, P. B.— Supposed American 
Beetles in Ireland, 134. 

Meconema varia, 53. 

Melanism in Moths, 44. 

Mesenchytraeus fenestratus, 207. 

Microphysa elegantula, 137. 

Migration of Birds, 10, 108; at Lon- 
donderry, 222. 

Miller, R. M.— White-fronted Goose 
near Roscrea, 8a 

Mitchelfltown Cave Collembola, 225, 
257- 

Moffiit. C. B— Bird Migration (Re- 
view), 108; Broom flowering in 
Winter, 116;. Frog in Ireland; 
116; Irish Bats, 135; a Popular 
Bird Book (Review), 163; Bupalus 
piniaria in Ireland, 283. 

Molluscaof Ballycastle and district, 
i» ^7i 179 ; of Rathlin Island, 184 ; 
of Co. Westmeath, 200; of Cran- 
field, 249; of Portrush raised 
beach, 290 ; of Killary and West- 
port, 304. 

Monoblepharis insignis, 48. 

Montagues Harrier breeding in 

Ireland, 284. 
Moore, F. W.— A book on Fruit- 
trees (Review), 77. 
Museum (Dublin), Irish Animals in, 
127. 

Nectria lagena, 136. 
Neolepton obliquatum, 186. 
New British Plume-moth, 43. 
Nodularia Harveyana, 48. 
Nolan, J.— Preservation of Erratic 

Blocks, 88. 
Nomada jacobseae, 324. 

Obituary Notices — H. N. Martin, 
103; E.J. Kelsall,233; W.Archer 
2331 253. 



Octhebius Lejolisii, 276."^ 
Odostomia truncatula, 125. 
Odynerus sinuatus, 222, 324- 
CEnanthe pimpi'nelloides, 25a 
C^nistis quadra, 252, 282. 
01pidioj)sis Saprolegniae, 327. 
Open-air Studies in Botany, 270. 

301. 
Organic Oricrin of Quartz-rock. 201. 
Ostracoda, List of Irish, 74. 
Ox Mountains, Flora of, 26. 



Pachydrilus verrucosus, 207. 
Pachygnatha Listeri, 308. 
Palmer, J. E.— Migration of Birds, 

la 
Paludestrina Jenkinsi, 234. 
Papulaspora sepedonioidS. 198. 
Parapleustes megacheir, 302. 
Patterson, W. H.^Worked Flints 

at Portrush (abstract), 23. 
Pentland, G. H.— Stock-dove at 

Drogheda, 59. 
Peziza auriflava, 165. 
Peziza sclerotiorum, 81. 
Phillips, R. A- —CEnanthe pirn- 

pinelloides in Ireland, 25a 
Plague of Rats at Cushendun, 60. 
Platyptilia tesseradactyla, 43. 
Poa palustris, 89, 99, 
Polygonum mite, 89, 97. 
Portrush raised beach, 287. 
Post-tertiary Beds at Ballyhalbert 

306. 
Praeger*s Open-air Studies in Bot- 
any reviewed, 270, 301. 
Praeger, R. LL— Exuberant growth 
ofa Bramble, 84; Carduus crispus 
in Co. Down, 85; Irish Plants 
collected in 1896, 89; Bog-bursts, 
with special reference to Co. 
Kerry, 141 ; Bog-burst seven 
years after, 201 ; Botany of a 
Railwajj journey, 209 ; Caiex 
filiformis and Cladium Mariscus 
in Co. Down, 219; a big Boletus, 
250; Epipactis latifolia in Co. 
Dublin, 251; Co. Down Plants, 
280; a marked Pigeon, 2^; Silene 
noctiflora and Chenopodium 
murale in Co. Antrim, 299; 
Ballycastle Plants, 301 ; Post- 
tertiary beds at Ballyhalbert. 
396 ; Expedition to Rockall, 309 
June and December, 324. 
Preservation of Erratic Blocks, 88, 
Prin^heimia scutata, 47. 
Puccmia Graminis, 246 
Pyrgostelis interupta, 185. 



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Index 



IX 



Quartz-rock, 291. 



Raised beach at Portrush, 287. 

Ramnlaria Rapee, 47. 

Rathlin Island, Fauna, 173; Marine 
Mollusca, 184 ; Coleoptera, 187 ; 
Birds, 223, 305. 

Reptiles as Pets, 298. 

Reviews. — MartePs Islande et 
Cavemes Anglaises, 45 : Wright's 
Fruit Culture for Amateurs, 77 ; 
Whitlock's Migration of Birds, 
108; Proceedings of the Royal 
Irish Academy, 131 ; Fulcher's 
Birds of our Islands, 163; Scharft*s 
Oririn of European Fauna, 237 : 
Waddeirs Catalogue of British 
Hepaticse, 250 ; Praeger's Open- 
air Studies in Botany, 270 ; Bate- 
man's Vivarium, 298. 

Rhincalanus comutus, 308. 

Rhizogeton fusiformis, 243. 

Riccardia latifrons, 276. 

Rockall, 48, 309. 

Royal Irish Academy, 131. 

Royal Zoological Society, 22, 46, 
78, no, 136, 165, 197, 216, 246, 276, 
W, 326. 



Saccharomyces membrancefaciens, 

0^98. 

Sarothamnus scoparius, 116. 

Scharff, R. F.— French Traveller in 
Ireland (Review), 45 ; Is the Frog 
a native of Ireland ?, 58 ; Carrion 
Crow in Ireland, 58 ; List of Irish 
Ostracoda, 74; Mollusca of Bally- 
castle District, 87 ; the Frog in 
Ireland, 116; Hyalinia excavata 
in Co. Antrim, 281; Cylisticus 
convextis in Co. Fermanagh, 281 ; 
Reptily as Pets (Review), 298. 

ScharfP^ Origin of European 
Fauna, reviewed, 237. 

Seaweeds fiom S.E. Ireland, 139 ; 
from Ballycastle coast, 176. 

Seira cavemarum, 257. 

Selaginella tezta, 165. 

Silene noctiflora, 299. 

Senecio squalidus x vulgaris, 300. 

Smynthums coecus, 227. 

Spherulitic rhyolite, 248, 

Spring migrants in Co. Cork, 135 ; 
at Poyntzpass, 172. 

Standen, R.— Mollusca of Bally- 
castle and district, i ; Fauna of 
Ratljlin and Ballycastle, 173: 



" Pied Flycatcher " in Co. Antrim. 

223; Bog-bursts, 224; Birds of 

Rathlin and Ballycastle. 305. 
Stelfox, J.— A Blackbird's Nest, 201. 
Stewart, S. A.— Dryas octopetala 

in Co. Antrim, 280; the Portru^ 

Raised Beach, 287. 
Stock-dove at Drogheda, 59, 
Streblonema minimum, 198. 
Surf-scoter in Killala Bay, 59. 
Swallow (white), 20a 

Tachvpus pallipes, 58. 

Teesdale, J. H. -Montagu's Harrier 

breeding in Ireland, 284. 
Templetonia caver nicola, 229. 
Tomlin, R— Helix ericetorum 

reversed, 324. 
Trichomycosis nodosa, 8a 
Trifolium agrarium, 299. 
Tubifex rivulorum, 296. 
Tubificidee, Irish, 61, 294. 
Tubularia larynx, 241. 
Tyrone, Flowering-plants of, 83. 

Uncinais littoralis, 63. 

Ussher, R J.— Black-tailed (k>dwit 

in Queen's Co., 28 ; Distribution 

of Birds breeding in Ireland, 64 ; 

Discovery of bones of Great Auk 

in Ca Waterford, 208. 

Vespa austriaca, 251, 285. 
Vibrissea truncorum, 168. 

Waddell's Catalogue of British 
Hepaticae, reviewed, 250. 

Warren, R.— Flora of Ox Moun- 
tains, 26 ; Surf-scoter in Killala 
Bay, 59; Birds of Rathlin and 
Ballycastle, 223. 

Wasp and Spider, J25. 

Wasps, Scarcity of; 251, 282. 

Welch, R.— Mollusca of Great 
Killary and Westport, 304. 

White-fronted Goose near Roscrea, 
88. 

Whitlock's Migration of Birds, re- 
viewed, 108. 

Wolfe, J. J.— Frog in Ireland, 134 ; 
Spring-migrants in Co. Cork, 135 ; 
Colias edusa in Co. Cork, 282 ; 
Caterpillars of Hemaris tityus 
283. 

Wright's Fruit Culture for Ama- 
teurs, reviewed, 77. 

Wright, J.— Boulder-clay a marine 
deposit (abstract), 11^. 

Yellow Wagtail in Ireland, 252^ 



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PI.ATES AND ILI.USTRATIONS. 



Map showing Kerry Bog-burst and flow of peat, . 
Sections through Knocknageeha Bog, 

Longitudinal and cross-sections of Bog and Ownacree Valley, 
Geological map of neighbourhood of Knocknageeha Bog, 
Neolepton obliquatum, 



A Blackbird's Nest (Plate i), . 

The Collembola of Mitchelstown Cave (Plate 2), 

William Archer, F.R.S., 

Vespa austriaca (Plate 3), . . 

Tubifex — Setal System and Parasitic Rotifers, 

Rockall, . . . , . 



To face 
To face 
To face 
To face 



p. 146 
p. 148 
P- 150 
p. 161 
p. 186 
201 
225 
253 
255 
297 
316 



TO THE BINDER. 



Plate I was inserted by error in the number with back to p. 201. In 
the volume it must face page 201. 

C 



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®ljje gtrtelj Haturaltet. 



VOLUME VI 



THE LAND MOLI.USCA OF BAI.LYCASTI.E AND 
DISTRICT, CO. ANTRIM. 

BY ROBERT STANDEN. 

(Read before the Conchological Society of Great Britain and Irelandi 

loth December, 1896.) 



Early in the month of September last I visited Ballycastle, 
Co. Antrim, in company with Dr. G. W. Chaster and Mr. J. 
Ray Hardy, and we were there joined by Mr. R. Welch, whose 
recommendation had induced us to choose this place as the 
scene of our investigations ; and to his hearty co-operation 
and prior knowledge of the district we are indebted for no 
small portion of the success and pleasure attending our trip. 
The Antrim Arms Hotel was chosen as our headquarters, and 
I would strongly advise any naturalists, who may feel in- 
clined to follow our footsteps, to put up at this comfortable 
old hostelry — ^which is just '* home" — where they will find the 
genial host and hostess, Mr. and Mrs. Hunter, most kindly 
disposed to wink at the various !* messes" inseparable from 
the cleaning and preliminary preservation of specimens, and 
oilier operations of the naturalist, which my brother-collectors 
must know the diflBculty of carrying out at an ordinary hotel. 
Our cWef object was to obtain as full and complete a 
knowledge as possible of the molluscan fauna of the 
district, both marine and non-marine, and during our 
week's stay most of our time, when not engaged in marine 
work, was devoted to searching the surrounding country for 
land-shells. By using a car to convey us quickly to any 
desired point, and then working across country to another 
point where our car caught us up, we were enabled to get 
over a considerable extent of ground during a day, and, 
altogether, we worked about sixteen miles of the coastline 
and intervening ground pretty thoroughly. Our researches 
extended on the one hand over the magnificent promontory of 



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2 The Irish Naturalist. [Jan., 

Fair Head, which marks the northern point of the Antrim 
coast ; and thence to the lovely wooded amphitheatre 
surrounding the Bay of Murlough, one of the most charming 
spots in the Kingdom ; and, on the other hand, to Whitepark 
Bay, the sand-dunes and cliff-talus of which we searched from 
Port Braddan to Ballintoy. The cliffs along the shore towards 
Sheep Island and Carrick-a-Rede ; the golf-links, sand-dimes, 
and riverside near Ballycastle, and delightful little glens on 
the right hand of the riverside road leading towards Glenshesk, 
and running therefrom into the high land, were all carefully 
examined, and yielded many good things. Wherever 
practicable, we made a point of bringing away bagsful of moss- 
shakings and rejectamenta, &c., for future examination at 
home, after drying and sie^ang. From the " pockets " of 
windblown shells on the dunes at Whitepark Bay we obtained 
a large quantity of exceptionally rich material. These 
** pockets " were found to contain an extraordinary^ accumu- 
lation of minute land-shells brought down by wind and rain 
from the herbage and bushes on the Chalk talus at foot of 
cliffs, or maybe washed over the cliffs from above. Most of 
the shells are " dead,*' and much worn by being blown to and 
fro amongst the sand, but many are in good condition, and 
some are alive — these probably live for a time upon the veget- 
able matter and plentiful supply of rabbits* droppings blown 
into the hollows along with them. It would require a vast 
amount of searching in the ordinary way to gain such an 
accurate knowledge of the molluscan fauna of a given locality 
as is afforded by the systematic investigation of material 
judiciously selected from such *' pockets." 

The geological features of the district are extremely diversi- 
fied and replete with interest, but an adequate description is 
quite beyond the scope of this paper, and I must refer my 
readers to Prof. G. A. J. Cole's " Scenery and Geology of Coimty 
Antrim,** where the subject is most lucidly dealt with. I may, 
however, notice one or two salient characters of the coastline 
The high basaltic cliffs are the most striking feature, but 
here and there they are replaced by fine Chalk cliffs, bounded, 
as at Whitepark and Murlough, by a sloping talus, the hum- 
mocky grassy slopes of which are formed by the Chalk having 
slipped in irregular masses over the soft Lias beds underneath. 



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1897O St Am>wx.— Land Mollusca of Bally castle. 3 

This talus is the place par excellence for land-shells of many 
species, and the varied vegetation growing thereon adapts it 
especially to the requirements of molluscan life — particularly 
when, as at Murlough, it happens to be well wooded, for here 
we get many forms of sUigs not met with in less sheltered and 
dryer situations. 

The various streams and small lakes examined were remark- 
ably barren, the only fluviatile mollusc found being a small 
form of LimncBa trtincatula in a swampy place on Fair Head. 
Mr. R. Welch has, however, taken Limncea peregra and L. 
palustris in a ditch on Lemanagh Mountain, above White- 
park, in 1889; and ^//ry/z^^y^wz'/flf/z/w in Portaleen Glen, just 
south of Murlough, in 1893. 

As regards previous conchological work in this district : 
although Thompson, the famous Irish naturalist, gives many 
records for Co. Antrim and North of Ireland generally, 
in his *' Natural History of Ireland,*' vol. iv., and presumably 
includes Ballycastle, he only mentions the place specifically 
as a locality for Helix virgata. His remark " generally dis- 
tributed" is often used, and usually refers to all Ireland. 
Probably he had so many Antrim records for any fairly 
common species that he confined his localities as far as pos- 
sible to those counties where he had to depend upon the 
co-operation of correspondents and friends. Mr. R. Welch 
has collected about thirty species in the district on various 
\isits during the past few years ; and by his fortunate dis- 
covery of Helix arbustorum at Murlough in May last, has 
added another to the very few recorded stations for it in 
Ireland. He has also collected several species on Rathlin 
Island (which we had not time to visit), and I note these 
records in the list. Miss O'Connor, of Ballycastle, kindly 
showed us her collection of exotic shells, and embodied 
amongst them I noticed a few nice examples of the larger 
species of Helices common to the district, and collected by 
her in the neighbourhood. 

The classifix^ation and nomenclature employed in the sub- 
joined list is that given in *' Irish Land and Freshwater 
Mollusca," by Dr. Scharff' 



» Irish Nat., vol. I., 1892. 

A 2 ^ 

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4 The Irish Naturalist, [Jan, 

(N.B.— Whenever *' Glenshesk" is used to indicate locality 

of any particular species, it must be understood as referring 

to the little glens, already mentioned, on road leading from 

Ballycastle to Glenshesk proper). 
Vltrlna pelluclda, MUller.— Good-eized dead specimens were fairly 

common at Murlough ; and many small living ones in the " pockets" of 
windblown shells at Whitepark. 

Hyallnia cellaria, Mailer.— Common at Murlbugh, and under stones 
on roadside going towards Glenshesk. Pound at Ballintoy by Mr. Welch 
in 1889. 

Hy. Draparnaudl, Beck.— At Murlough, along with many 
immature examples, we took a few exceptionally large specimens of this 
fine shell. Mr. Welch also got it there in 1894. Although not recorded 
for Antrim in Dr. ScharflTs list, this species will probably be found more 
commonly as research extends. Large adult shells are, in my experience, 
not very plentiful, and the strong resemblance borne by the immature 
shell to Hy, cellaria will doubtless account for its being often overlooked 
by collectors unfamiliar with the differential characteristics of the 
two species. 

Hy. alllaria, Miller.— Common throughout the district : at 
Murlough, Glenshesk, and in the "pockets" at Whitepark, the type and 
greenish-white var. viridula are about equal in number. Some of our 
specimens from Murlough bear a strong likeness to Hy, glaber, but Mr. 
Thomas Rogers, to whom I have shown them, doubts their identity with 
that species. Rathlin Island (Welch. 1894). 

Hy. nltldula, Drap.— Not uncommon at Murlough. One of my 
specimens has the last whorl pure white from the point where the 
second season's growth commences. One fine example of the white var. 
Helmi occurred on the wall of an old outbuilding near the path leading 
through the woods. 

Hy. pura. Alder.— We found this species sparingly at Murlough, 
Glenshesk, and Whitepark, along with the brown var. niiidosa^ F^r. 

Hy. radlatula, Alder.— This, along with var. viridescenti-cUba^ is very 
common at Murlough, Glenshesk, and in the *» pockets' at Whitepark. 
Mr. Welch took it at Torr Head, south of Murlough, and at Ballintoy. in 
1889. 

Hy. crystal Una, Mliller.— A few at Murlough, and plentifully in the 
" pockets'* at Whitepark. 

Hy. nltlda, Muller.— A very thin and pretty form occurs in a damp 
spot at foot of some rocks near the footpath at Murlough. 

Hy. f ulva, Muller.— A few rather large ones amongst moss>shakings 
from Murlough and Glenshesk ; common, but dead, in the Whitepark 
" pockets." 

Arlon ater, L.— Common everywhere. Var. brunnm at Muilougfa. 
Thompson does not mention a northern locality for this slug.* 

A. sulOf USCU8, Drap.— Three specimens under logs at Murlough. 

A. hortensls, 6r.— Two specimens at Murlough. 



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1897O Standen.— Za«fl? Mollusca of Ballycastte, 5 

A. clrcumscrlptust Johnston.— One characteristic full-grown ex- 
ample at Murlough, feeding on fungus. 

A* lntenn«€llU8, Normand. — Several specimens under logs, and on 
a rotten tree-stump in a dark part of the wood at Murlough. One on 
fungus at Glenshesk. 

Llmax maxim us, L.— Abundant, and very fine and well-marked, 
under some rotten timber at foot of a coppice on the roadside between 
Pair Head and Murlough. Some extremely large shells were obtained 
from these specimens. 

L. marfflnatus, Muller— Very plentiful on the trees in Murlough 
wood. Nearly all the tufls of Orihotrichum phyllanthemum^ which grows 
so abundantly there, contained the ** tree-slug " in all stages of growth, 
and its tracks could be seen high up on the tree-trunks. 

Airrloltmax aflrrestis, L. — This universally common slug was met 
with wherever we collected, but did not occur very plentifully, and 
little variation was noticed. 

A. laevls, Muller. — This species is not given for Antrim in Dr. 
Scharfi's list, but we found it rather common in damp parts of the woods 
at Murlough under moss-covered stones and old logs. 
~ Helix pyirmaBa, Drap.->Two specimens from moss-shakings at 
Murlough, and a few dead in the " pockets " at Whitepark. 

H. rotundata, Muller.— Murlough and Glenshesk, not very plentiful, 
but beautifully marked at the latter place, where the var. Turtoni also 
occurs. Obtained by Mr. Welch on Rathlin Island, and at Torr Head 
in 1889. 

H. pulcliellaf Muller.— At Murlough the var. costata only occurs, but 
is not common. In the sandhill *' pockets " at Whitepark it occurs dead 
in great profusion, along with a few alive ; but on the crumbling face of 
the Chalk cliffs, and amongst the talus at the Ballintoy end of the bay, 
it is living in myriads. I have carefully gone over some thousands, sorted 
out from the material brought home from this place, and find verj' few 
examples of the ribbed variety— not more than five per cent. Thompson 
says " the ribbed variety is more common than the smooth (type) on the 
sea-banks." Dr. Scharflf remarks that type and variety are generally 
found together, but this does not at all agree with my experience either 
in England, Scotland, or Ireland : indeed I have so often found the two 
forms living separate, and noted the absence of intermediate forms 
between type and variety, that I am strongly of opinion that the ribbed 
form — Helix costata, Mtiller — ought to rank specifically. 

H. aculeata, Mttller.— A few nice specimens obtained from moss- 
shakings from Murlough and Glenshesk; also dead in the Whitepark 
"pockets." 

H. latnellataf Jeflf.— This exquisite little shell appears to be generally 
distributed throughout the district, but we did not obtain more than 
eight or ten specimens from moss-shakings from any one locality. 

H. Iilsplclay L.— Very common, and variable in form. Var. concinna 
appears to predominate in the district. At Murlough a peculiar small 
dark flat form occurs— Jeffreys' var. subrufa. Along the walk on the cliff 
iiace, going towards Sheep Island^ a large, thin, globose, pale form 



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6 The Irish Naturalist. [Jan., 

occurs amongst the coarse grass growing in the clefts of the rocks. 
This is var. subghhosa, JeflF. 

Helix rufescensy Penn. — Amongst a heap of stones on theroad^de 
between Ballycastle and the harbour a large and distinct form was so 
abundant that it might be swept off the stones literally in handsfaL 
Scarce or absent elsewhere, being, as Thompson remarks, apparently 
replaced by H. coficinna. 

Hi fuscay Mont — Glenshesk: two specimens from moss-shakings. 
Mr. Welch took several specimens at Glenariff, to the south of the 
district, on his way to join us at Ballycastle on September 3rd, 1896. 

H. arlOu9toruiin» L.— There is a small colony of this at Murlough, 
near the old limekilns, where it was discovered in May of the present 
year by Mr. Welch. The shells are large, and mostly typical, but a few 
are var. mamiorata. This species occurs in so very few localities in 
Ireland that its discovery at Murlough is particularly interesting. 
Thompson records it for Larne, where he took many specimens. (See 
Mag. of ZooL and Bot., vol. ii., p. 436). We brought away only a few 
specimens, and hope the colony will increase and multiply. 

H. vlrflratay Da Costa.— On the sand-dunes by the Ballycastle golf- 
links there is an extensive colony of a small form of var. submaritima. 
Near the coastguard station at Ballintoy Mr. Welch took a few in 1894, 
and this year it is in profusion on a small bank by the roadside there, in 
company with H. ericetorunu He also took it on Rathlin Island in i836, 
and at Whitepark in May last. Thompson specially mentions its Bally- 
castle station, and remarks on its erratic method of occurrence in one 
place, and then its absence for 100 miles or so. 

H. erlcetorum, Mtiller.— Extremely abundant at Whitepark Bay in 
company with H, acuta. After a danip night we found both species out 
in myriads feeding upon the rabbits* droppings, with which the scanty 
herbage of the sand hills is strewed. Var. Uucozona and a white bandless 
form were equally common with the type, and some of the shells are 
unusually large. 

H. acutay Mtiller.— Abundant at Whitepark, where the principal 
varieties are bizona^ strigata^ articulaiay and flammulata. Taken by Mr. 
Welch at Ballycastle in 1889 ; but we did not find it there this year. 

H. nemorallSy Mtiller. — ^Th is beautiful species occurred nearly every- 
where in suitable localities, exhibiting the usual forms of band-variation, 
and some of the less common colour- varieties : notably at Murloug^h, where 
we took some very fine red and yellow bandless shells, some of them 
extre;nely thin and fragile, but rather above the average size. With them 
were some pretty albolabiate and roseolabiate forms ; also var. castanea and 
var, olivacea. At Whitepark the shells are more solid, well-coloured, and 
show considerable band- variation : the white-lipped form is not un- 
common. On the roadside, just above the Ballycastle workhouse, we 
got some pretty varieties, including var. undulaia. At Glenshesk some 
good examples of vars. auraniia^ rubella^ coalita^ and albolabiata occurred. 
In fact the district is in no way behind other places in its show of varietal 
forms of this attractive species. 



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1^7-] SrANii'EiJ.—Land Mo/iusca of Bally castle, 7 

H • aspersa, Muller.— The constancy of marking exhibited by this 
species throughout Ireland has often been noted, and the vast number 
of specimens observed in our district were, generally, no exception to the 
rule. At Whitepark nothing approaching any particular " variety *' was 
noticed amongst the thousands we saw. At Murlough a little less uni- 
formity occurred, and one good typical var. undulata was taken, along 
with a form approaching grista^ on rocks near the footpath. A very 
dark and almost unicolorous specimen was found in Miss O'Connor's 
greenhouse. Otherwise the shells everywhere looked much alike, and 
their good and unweathered condition was remarkable, considering the 
exposed places in which many were living. The Chalk cliffs at White- 
park presented a wonderful spectacle. In many parts they are fitted 
with regularly-shaped holes of different sizes, and in every hole rested 
a H. aspersa^ the dark shell showing up conspicuously against the white 
background. On one little bluff, about 4 yards by 2, we counted over 200 
specimens — and this did not include those far down in the crevices. 

The first impression was that the shells are resting in natural cavities 
caused by the weathering out of flint nodules or fossils, but a more 
critical examination shows all the holes to be fairly symmetrical : they are 
not anything like as irregular as flint-cavities, and, besides, there are no 
flints there. So far as I can ascertain there are no holes like these else- 
where in the county. Almost all the holes run up vertically, a few nearly 
so, none down, and most of them are underneath the little ledges left in 
the face of the cliff by weathering. Dr. vScharff alludes to this habit of 
H, aspersa in Irish Naturalist ^ vol. I, p. ii 8, and quotes M. Bouchard- 
Chantereaux's experiments, which point to the presence of an acid 
secretion in the animals which might have an influence in softening the 
hard chalk, and thus enabling the snail with its rasp-like tongue to 
remove the material. This is very probable, but from my own observations 
on some aspersas in captivity (*), which ate enormous quantities of chalk — 
so much so, that the pot in which they were confined was strewed with 
their excreta in the form of white pellets, covering the snail to a consider- 
able depth — I should say that the gradual gnawing away of the soft 
weathered chalk of the Whitepark cliffs by successive generations of 
aspersas would very well account for the remarkable holes tenanted by the 
shells there. The diameter of many holes is larger inside, and there is a 
general look of freshness immediately underneath the animals, which 
seems to point very conclusively to the holes being their own work. 

Coclillcopa IulOrlca» MUller.— In the Whitepark ** pockets *» 
thousands occur— living and dead together— and it is fairly plentiful 
everywhere, together with its varieties ovata and lubricoides. Var. hyalina 
occurred at Murlough and Glenshesk, Rathlin Island, and Ballintoy, 
1889 (Welch). 

Pupa ansllca* F^r. — A few very dark-coloured specimens at Mur- 
lough ; some nic^ examples of var. pallida at Glenshesk, and a few dead 
in "pockets," Whitepark. 

* fount, of Conck.t vol. vii., p. 33. 

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8 The Irish Naturalist, [^Mm 

Pupa cyllndracea. Da Costa.— Common at Murlough, along with 
var. curta ; fairly plentiful elsewhere ; at Glenshesk an elongated pellucid 
form occurs sparingly. 

P. muscorum, MUller— Abundant in the "pockets "at Whitepark, 
some alive. We here got two fresh dead and three living specimens of 
var. albina, 

Vertlffo edentula, Drap. — Amongst moss-shakings from Murlough 
and Glenshesk we obtained a good many specimens, most of them 
immature ; also a few fresh ones in the Whitepark " pockets." 

V. alpestrlSf Alder.— The occurrence of this rare alpine species in 
the "pockets** at Whitepark is especially noteworthy. Several dead 
and two living specimens were taken. One example was picked up on 
the spot, and we were much interested in watching its active movements 
in the tube, to which it was carefully transferred from Mr. Welch's 
muslin sieve. Dr. Scharflf says in his Irish list (1892) that the occurrence 
of this species practically rests on the record of a single specimen taken 
at Coleraine, and at time of writing he had not seen an Irish specimen. 
Since then, however, I have taken it at Portsalon, Co. Donegal, and sent a 
specimen to Dr. Scharff. 

V. pyffiriaea, Drap.— Common at Whitepark, dead; and a few 
living ones from moss-shakings from Murlough, and Glenshesk. 

V« sulOtrlatav Jeff. — Some pretty live shells amongst moss-shakings 
from Glenshesk and Murlough. Many dead in Whitepark "pockets." 

V« antlvertlffOy Drap Five living specimens in a damp part of 

Murlough wood, amongst leaves and wet debris. 

V. pusllla, MUller. — Another interesting and rare shell yielded by 
the examination of the "pockets*' at Whitepark, which have proved a 
veritable treasure-house for the Vertigines. Both dead and living 
specimens occurred, and we have no doubt the species is living in 
abundance amongst the talus at foot of the cliffs, where we should 
recommend careful search by future collectors in this conchological 
paradise. 

V, angustlor, Jeff.— Very abundant in the Whitepark "pockets." 
The extreme freshness of the majority of the shells indicates that it is 
living near at hand, but although we searched long and carefully, in the 
brambles and bracken ferns which grow densely in damp Ipw-lying places 
between the sand-hills, we were unsuccessful. 

Balea perversa, L— Abundant on the old trees in Murlough 
wood, and in the tufts of moss— Or/i4^/nVi5«w— growing luxuriantly on 
the trees. 

Clausula bldentata, Strom.— Common throughout the district 
and somewhat variable. At Murlough the form approaches var. tumiduU, 
and here, as elsewhere, some of the shells are covered with a dense con- 
fervoid growth, but this seems not to interfere with the epidennis of the 
shells, which is found quite intact, and richly marked, when the green 
growth is cleaned off. 

Succlnea putrlSy L.— A small pale form in a damp part near the 
brook in Murlough wood. 



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1897] STAKDHN.—Land Afollusca of Satlycastle. 9 

Carychlum minimum, Mttll.^Common at Murlough, and a few 
taken at Glenshesk and Whitepark. 

Acme llneata, Drap.— Pound in moss-shakings in a damp comer 
amongst the rocks on way from Fair Head to Murlough. One living 
specimen was found in a tuft of Orthotrichum taken from a tree in Mur- 
lough wood. This is, in my experience, a singular and unusual habitat 
for the species, but I have long had an opinion that the species might at 
certain seasons become somewhat arboreal in its habits. It would be 
interesting to look out for this where Acme is known to live in woods 
containing mossy trees. 



FIELD CLUB NEWS. 

We have pleasure in drawing attention to the action of the Committee 
of the Dublin Club in opening a subscription list on behalf of the Giants' 
Causeway Defence Fund. It would certainly be discreditable if the 
gentlemen who are contesting the case on behalf of the public — one of 
whom is the President of our premier Field Club — did not meet with 
ready support from all those who would like to see the Giants* Causeway 
open to all students of nature in the future, as it has been in the past. 
The Dublin Club's subscription-sheet will be on the table at the next 
two meetings, and contributions will be received at any time by the 
Treasurer, Prof. T. Johnson, 12 Gilford Avenue, Sandymount While on 
this subject we may mention the admirable lecture delivered by Mr. 
William Gray to the Belfast Club on November 17, on " The Origin and 
present Condition of the Giants* Causeway," which will no doubt stir up 
local interest in the matter. 

The Committee of the Dublin Field Club have accepted the invitation 
of their brethren in Belfast to join them in a three-day excursion next 
July to the beautiful North Antrim coast. Ballycastle will be the base 
of operations, and from there the combined Clubs wUl penetrate to the 
recesses of Murlough and White Park and Glenshesk. It is hoped that 
members of the Cork and Limerick Clubs will also take this opportunity 
of visiting one of the most beautiful and interesting districts in Ireland. 

Our warm congratulations to three members of the Dublin Club- 
Prof A. C. Haddon, on whom the degree of D.Sc. was conferred at 
Cambridge last month, Mr. A. H. Foord, who has taken the Ph.D. of 
Munich, and Mr. H. L. Jameson, who has just obtained his B.A. degree 
in Natural Science at Dublin University, with first class honours and a 
gold medal. 

Some changes are announced in the official staff of the Dublin Club 
for 1897. Mr. N. Colgan, Vice-President, retires, owing to pressure of 
work in connection with the new edition of CybeU Hibemica, His place 
is filled by Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger, whom Prof T. Johnson succeeds as 
Secretary, while Prof Johnson's post as Treasurer is filled by Mr. H. K. 
Gore Ctithbert 

■ A3 

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i6 The Irish /Naturalist . [Jan., 

THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 
Abstract of thb British Association Committbb's Report. 

BY J. E. PAI.MKR. 



The British Association Committee appointed to enquire into 
the subject of the Migration of Birds, after recording the 
observations made by the lighthouse and lightship keepers 
around our coasts for eight years, has now systematised and 
tabulated these observations in such a way as to give clear and 
good results. The labour has been enormous, for it was 
necessary to schedule more than one hundred thousand dis- 
tinct observations in five different ways. This task was 
undertaken by Mr. W. Eagle Clarke, to whom the other 
members of the Committee express their deep sense of obli- 
gation. The Committee also express their indebtedness to 
the lighthouse authorities, and especially to the lightkeepers, 
whose intelligent co-operation made the work possible. As 
it is nearly twenty years since the Committee was first ap- 
pointed, its personnel has undergone some change. It now 
consists of Professor Newton (Chairman), Mr. Jno. Cordeaux 
(Secretary), Mr. J. A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. R. M. Barrington, 
Mr. W. E. Clarke, and Rev. E- P. Knubley. The first 
four were original members of the Committee, as was the late 
Mr. A. G. More. As the Report is a long one it is necessary 
to omit here many details and minor points of interest I 
purpose giving its substance, omitting no fact or deduction of 
importance, and keeping to the language of the Report as far 
as is consistent with sufficient condensation. It is perhaps 
more convenient to explain that the wording of the Report is 
largely used than to overcrowd the pages with quotation 
marks. 

The Report states that the object of the enquiry was to 
obtain full and reliable data as to the migratory movements of 
birds observed on the coasts of the British Isles ; and that 
there is now established, as regards Great Britain and Ireland, 
a firm basis for. a sound conception of many of the phenomena 
of bird-migration, for it contains a plain statement of ascer- 
tained facts, and is free from theory or speculation. Much 
however yet remains to be learned from the observations 
collected ; and the subject of inland migration is still un- 

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1897] Pai^mer. — The Migration of Birds. 1 1 

touched. The records on which the Report is based were 
made from 1880 to 1887. 

The vast array of facts collected was arranged in a schedule 
showing for each species during each month (i) on what day, 
(2) coast, (3) station, (4) in what numbers, and (5) whether 
the occurrence was during the day or night. The results given 
are based on the whole of the information received from all 
the coasts. It is found to be impossible, at certain seasons, to 
distinguish between widely diflferent /^migratory and jfi'mi- 
gratory movements without consideration of the whole of the 
observations ; the non-realisation of which fact has hitherto 
lead to misconception. 

It is manifestly impossible to conduct anything approach- 
ing a really complete enquiry over the entire British area. 
Remembering the peculiar difficulties besetting such an 
investigation, the nature of the data obtained is satisfactory, 
and has proved surprisingly accurate and adequate for the 
purpose. It is often astonishing how observations made at 
one station are borne out by the records at others. 

As to the importance of the enquiry, such a voluminous set 
of observations, made from the most favourable situations for 
witnessing bird-migration, has never before been amassed. 
The special nature of the work can only be fully appreciated 
when it is realised that in order to study the phenomena of 
bird-migration in the British Isles, the data on which deduc- 
tions may be satisfactorily founded must be based upon 
observations taken synchronously at stations around the 
entire coasts. This cardinal condition has been accomplished 
for the first time in any country through the labours of the 
Committee. The results given are based absolutely upon the 
records obtained by the Committee, and the subject has been 
approached without preconceived ideas. The Daily Weather 
Reports of the Meteorological Ofl&ce have been consulted and 
correlated with the data relating to the migratory movements. 

Bird-migration, as observed in the British Isles, is perhaps 
more complex than in other regions, for our isles, lying be- 
tween south-western Europe and the Scandinavian peninsula, 
Iceland, and Greenland, are directly in the course taken by 
legions of birds which annually make a double journey be- 
tween their northern summer homes and their southern winter 

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12 Tlte Irish Naturalist, [Jan, 

quarters. Our shores form a main highway and convenient 
resting-places for these migrants. Our islands have a vast 
bird population of their own, and the majority of these birds 
belong to migratory species. Many species which are migra- 
tory are only partially so in our islands. Our variable climate 
causes much internal migration within Great Britain, and 
with Ireland. This occurs in winter. Migrations of a varied 
nature thus occurring, often through a combination of 
meteorological conditions, two or more distinct migratory 
movements are sometimes observed in progress simul- 
taneously. 

Although in passing from summer to winter haunts birds 
go from a northern to a more southerly clime, it does not 
follow that these haunts are reached by a simple movement 
from north to south. This is especially the case in Western 
Europe, where, with its irregular coast-line, more or less 
devious routes are followed. The situation of the British 
Isles is an important factor in this deviation. The distribu- 
tion of birds on our coasts during migration, and the routes 
traversed, naturally depend on the nature of the particular 
movement. The principal movements are the intermigra- 
tions between our islands and the Continent 

Between Britain and the Continent pass hosts of migrants, 
which are either birds of passage on, or winter visitors to, our 
shores. The former visit our east coast in spring when 
passing to their northern summer haunts to the north-east of 
Britain, and again in autumn when going to their winter 
haunts in the south. The winter visitors are chiefly indivi- 
duals from the ranks of migratory species which spend the 
winter in the British area, and go to the north-east of Europe 
for the summer. In autumn these numerous migrants arrive 
from the north-east on the eastern shores of Britain, from the 
Shetland Isles to the northern coast of Norfolk. During 
these movements the more southern portion of the east coast 
of England is reached after the arrival of the birds on the 
more northern portion. It is noteworthy that all the British 
birds of passage to northern Europe are either summer 
visitors to Scandinavia, or are regular migrants along the 
western shores of that peninsula ; and that they all occur 
during migration in the Orkney and Shetland Isles, but not 



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1897] Palmer. — The Migration of Birds. 13 

in the Faroes. After arriving on our east coast these immi- 
grants — some of them after resting for a while — move either 
down the coast en route for more southern winter quarters or 
to their accustomed haunts in the British Isles. The west 
coast do not receive directly any immigrants from Continental 
Europe. 

An East and West Migration Route is one of the discoveries 
of the enquiry. During autumn a stream of migrants, largely 
composed of certain species, passing from south-east to north- 
west, and from east to west, is observed at the lighthouses and 
lightships along the southern section of the east coast (from 
Kent to the Wash). This is called the "East and West 
Route." At the more northerly stations of this section of 
coast the birds are going from south-east to north-west, and at 
the southerly stations the direction is from east to west Of 
those going north-west some go beyond the Tees, many pro- 
ceeding inland as they go. Some of the birds following this 
east and west route pass to the west along southern England. 
Immigrations from the Continent by this route are renewed 
during winter when there is severe cold. 

Some remarkable features associated with these east to 
west movements are ; — (i) they are frequently observed for a 
Dumber of consecutive days ; (2) they often occur when there 
is an absence of migration on other parts of the coast ; (3) the 
movements appear to be confined to the daytime, and are 
usually timed as from soon after daylight to i p.m. ; (4) the 
flocks are chiefly composed of Larks, Rooks, and Hooded Crows, 
while Redbreasts, Goldcrests, Chafl&nches, Greenfinches, Tree- 
Sparrows, and Starlings are numerous ; there are Woodcocks 
occasionally, and during the winter Larks, Thrushes, and Lap- 
wings ; and (5) on some occasions these birds while passing 
northwards along the English east coast actually cross the 
migrants which are proceeding southwards. Whether this east 
to west stream is a branch of one that passes down the coast of 
Continental Europe, or whether it originates in central 
Europe, is not ascertained. 

The conclusions relating to these migration-routes are 
chiefly based on the autumn data, which are more voluminous 
and complete than the spring records. The spring records 
however show that the birds retrace their flight along the 

A 4 

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14 The Irish Naturalist, [Jan., 

lines taken in autumn. Records of the bird movements 
observed at Heligoland from 1883 to 1886 by Herr Gatke have 
been compared with the records of Eastern Britain for the 
same period, but they do not bear out the supposition of a 
direct migratory movement between Heligoland and Britain ; 
which places thus appear to draw their migratory hosts from 
different sources. Some species which make the Faroes, 
Iceland, and Greenland their summer homes (the Wheatear, 
White Wagtail, Whimbrel, &c.) are observed on passage on the 
western coast of Great Britain and on the Irish coasts. This 
movement is independent of the great stream of migrants 
arriving at and departing from the east coast of England in 
autumn and spring. 

The emigratory movements on the east coast are simple : 
when the coast is reached the birds follow it southwards, and 
quit our shores on the south of England. The movements 
down the west coast are less simple : the route followed is only 
partly by the coast, the coastline not forming a direct route. 
At various points the flights receive large accessions. In 
connection with these movements the coasts of Cumberland 
and Lancashire lie outside the route taken ; the north-east 
coast of Ireland is only occasionally touched; the contributory 
flights from Ireland are almost entirely from the southern, and 
particularly the south-eastern, coasts. The south-western 
coast of England seems to be especially affected when there 
are considerable movements on the south and south-east 
coasts of Ireland, implying that there is much intermigration 
between these particular portions of the English and Irish 
coasts. 

The Irish records have been excellently kept, and the re- 
turns of specimens killed against the lighthouse and lightship 
lanterns around the Irish coasts have been larger and more 
valuable than those received from the coasts of Great Britain. 
The Irish coasts do not in themselves constitute a main highway 
for birds, but they participate along with the western shores 
of Great Britain in movements on the part of some birds. 
Probably many of the birds observed on the Irish coasts are 
migratory members of the Irish avifauva. 

When the movements from the south-east Irish coast, 
already referred to, are occurring, there is often a movemen 



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1897.] Palmer. — The Migration of Birds, 15 

along the western coast from Slyne Head southwards. These 
Irish emigrations usually occur simultaneously with similar 
movements passing down the western coast of Great Britain, 
and the two streams of migrants meet and unite between the 
Bristol Channel and the Scilly Islands. Some of the Irish 
autumnal flights, however, are independent of these general 
movements. 

The observations collected show that not only do the autum- 
nal emigrants depart from the south-east coast of Ireland, but 
also that many migrants (e.g. Thrushes, Redwings, Black- 
birds, Chaffinches, Greenfinches, Linnets, Starlings, Larks), 
almost simultaneously arrive, by the same route, in Ireland, 
in order to winter there. These cross-channel flights are 
usually observed in the da)rtime, but at times some of these 
birds reach Ireland in the night. 

Independently of these main Irish migratory movements. 
Thrushes, Larks, and Starlings occur in October and 
November on the northern coasts of Ireland as immigrants 
from Scotland. Larks are recorded by this route in the day- 
time. There are also east and west autumnal movements 
between Ireland and Great Britain on the part of Starlings, 
Chaffinches, Greenfinches, Larks, and sometimes various 
species of Thrushes. Anglesea is the chief Welsh point, and 
Rockabill, County Dublin, the chief Irish station, where these 
departures and arrivals are observed. The migratory move- 
ments noted on the west coast of Ireland are neither many 
nor important, and consist chiefly of movements on the part 
of emigratory Irish birds. There are, however, remarkable 
immigrations from home sources witnessed on the west coast 
and its islands during great cold or snow. 

The records from the south coast of England are not as 
complete as from the other coast lines ; but they point to a 
considerable migration taking place between this coast and 
the south-west of Europe, and to important movements taking 
place along the entire line of coast. It is possible that 
British emigrants, after passing down the east coast of Eng- 
land, may turn to the westward and skirt the south coast ; 
but this is not shown with certainty. The continental 
immigrants strike the Kentish shore, and, as already stated, 
some pass up the east coast, while others go west, probably 



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i6 The Irish Naturalist. [Jan., 

to Ireland, on whose south-eastern shores the birds are 
recorded, almost simultaneously, as arriving from the south- 
east. Some of these birds, Skylarks especially, seem to go 
northwards towards the Outer Hebrides, being observed at 
a number of stations on the route thither. 

The first autumnal movements begin towards the end of 
July on the part of species which nest in the far north, such 
as the Whimbrel, Knot, Green Sandpiper, Curlew Sandpiper, 
Turnstone, and Bar-tailed Godwit. Probably these July im- 
migrants may be non-breeding birds. The; immigration 
during August includes twenty-six species whose summer 
homes are beyond the British area, and the northern represen- 
tatives of several British breeding species. September shows 
a marked increase in immigration both as regards species and 
individuals. Over forty species which do not spend the 
summer in Britain are recorded as migrants this month. 

In October the flood of immigrants reaches its greatest 
height, when prodigious numbers of birds arrive ,- but certain 
species appear to have ceased to occur, having already passed. 
After the middle of November immigration of birds which 
spend the summer in the north ceases, with the exception of 
marine species (Ducks, Gulls, Grebes, Swans) whose move- 
ments depend on severe weather. A few other species are 
recorded more numerously during November than earlier, 
namely, the l^apland Bunting, Ring Dove, Little Auk, and 
the winter Grebes. The immigrants arriving by the East and 
West Route come from September to November, and again 
during the winter when severe cold occurs. 

The emigration of our summer visitors begins towards the 
end of July, when Cuckoos and Swifts commence to ga 
About the same time small numbers of other species begin to 
move. It should be borne in mind in connection with this July 
movement that at this time many young birds, whose parents 
are busy with second families, are outcasts, and wander about 
until they reach the coasts, where they have been recorded. 
Some of the Plovers and Sandpipers also appear at the coast 
accompanied by their young at this time. During August 
much emigration among our summer visitors occurs, thirty- 
three species being recorded as departing. Thirty-four species 
which are partially migratory are recorded as emigratory in 



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1897. ] PAUSdER.— The Migration of Birds. 1 7 

Aag^t, though perhaps all are not necessarily passing beyond 
the British area. Both these classes of emigrants probably 
are increased in numbers by birds of the same species which 
pass the summer further north than the British Isles, and 
which, having reached our shores as immigrants, are also 
moving southwards along our coast line. 

September witnesses the height and the close of the emi- 
gration of the bulk of the smaller British summer visitors. 
Over forty of these are recorded as moving oflF in this month, 
and about the same number of partial migrants. There are 
often tremendous rushes of migratory birds towards milder 
climates in this month, due to outbursts of ungenial weather. 
The partial migrants are much on the move in October. 
Emigratory birds are observed passing southwards, and feeding 
as they go, during the daytime ; but their oversea flights 
are usually undertaken at night. 

After the middle of November, and through the winter 
during cold spells, movements of a different nature take 
place, due to severe weather. Birds specially affected then go 
either to warmer districts within the British Isles, or to more 
southern regions. When frost sets in, particularly if there is 
snow and sleet, it causes an immediate rush to the coast, and 
especially to the western coast of Ireland, where a milder climate 
almost always prevails, even when there is very cold weather 
in other parts of the British Isles. If the cold is severe and 
prolonged, the isles off the south-west coast of England and 
Ireland are sought. Occasionally, as in December, 1882, these 
usually safe retreats failed the refugees ; the hardy Snow 
Bunting perishing with the rest. The species which appear 
especially susceptible to cold, either constitutionally or from 
deprivation of food (most probably the latter), are the Missel 
Thrush, Song Thrush, Redwing, Fieldfare, Blackbird, Green- 
finch, Linnet, Starling, Lark, Water Rail, Lapwing, Curlew* 
Snipe, and Woodcock. Cold weather migration is performed 
in both the day and night time, the more extended flights 
appearing to be taken in the night 

The earliest spring migrants are recorded in February, 
when such partial migrants as the Pied Wagtail and Lapwing 
return to the Orkneys and other northern stations, and 
certain rock-breeding seabirds revisit their nesting haunts. 



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1 8 The Irish Naturalist. Qan., 

There is also a return movement of Thrushes in mild weather. 
In March there is a considerable return of partial migrants, 
and of a few summer birds ; but in April the latter mostly 
return. 

It is remarkable, in connection with the arrival of these 
earliest immigrants, that the great majority of them are 
recorded first at the south-west coasts of England and Ire- 
land. Thus in March, out of 94 observations, 71, or 75 per 
cent., were made in the south-west. In April, out of 157 
first records of the arrivals of summer visitors, 115, or nearly 
74 per cent., are recorded from the south-west coast and 
Ireland. These percentages should be higher, for it must be 
explained that there were no spring data for Ireland in 
18S0 and 1881, nor for the west of England in 1883, while the 
east coast has been credited, in the statistics quoted, with the 
observations made during all the years of the enquiry. It 
thus appears that spring migrants, not unnaturally, appear 
first in the warmest parts of our islands. 

In May the immigration of .summer birds continues. There 
are arrivals of Wheatears, Warblers, Swallows, Sandpipers, and 
Plovers up to the end of the month. These are undoubtedly 
on their way to summer homes further north than the British 
Isles, for our own birds of the same species are then busy with 
nesting operations. During June, especially in the first half 
of the month, several species whose breeding range extends to 
the Polar regions appear in considerable numbers on our 
shores. The chief among these are the Grey Plover and Knot; 
less numerous are the Snow Bunting, Wigeon, Barnacle Goose, 
Grey Geese, Swans, the Dotterel, Turnstone, Sanderling.. Ruff, 
Bar-tailed Godwit, Whimbrel, and a few Great Northern 
Divers. 

In connection with the spring immigration, the observations 
favour the theory that the earliest arrivals are British-breeding 
birds. This is borne out by the well-known fact that our 
summer birds appear in their breeding-haunts in our islands 
immediately after their first appearance on our coasts. 
Further corroboration is found in the fact that summer birds 
arrive in Britain earlier than in Heligoland, where nearly all 
the species observed are en route for more northern lands than 
ours. 



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i89^] Pai^HR.t-7>^^ Migration of Birds, 19 

The spring emigration from Great Britain to the Continent 
begins early. In February, in some seasons, Geese begin to 
move northwards, but the chief emigratory movement is the 
departure of Larks and Rooks to the Continent by the East 
and West Route. During March these movements increase, 
when the Hooded Crow is also seen returning to the Conti- 
nent. Emigration to the north also commences on the part of 
the Great Grey Shrike, Shore Lark, Swans, Geese, Gadwall, 
Scaup, Golden Eye, Long-tailed Duck, Red-throated Diver, 
and probably many others. In this month, too, the Green- 
finch, Chaffinch, Twite, &c., leave their winter retreats on the 
west coast of Ireland. .In April thirty-four species are 
observed to leave our shores for the north, and the emigra- 
tion by the East and West Route comes to an end. 

In May the emigration to the northern breeding-grounds 
reaches its maximum, when fifty-three species are recorded. 
Our emigrants from Britain are joined by others (some of the 
same species as those leaving us) which have wintered further 
south. The departure of our winter visitors and the spring 
birds of passage takes place from the eastern coasts of Britain 
and the northern isles. A few species only, such as the Red- 
wing, Wheatear, White Wagtail, Barnacle Goose, Swans, and 
Whimbrel pass up our western coasts, possibly en route for 
Iceland. 

Special attention has been given to the actual relation 
between migrational and meteorological phenomena. The 
data relating to the latter are taken from the *' Daily Weather 
Reports " issued by the Meteorological Office. Tliese reports 
are based on observations made at fifty-four stations distri- 
buted over Western Europe. It was necessary thus to con- 
sult the Continental as well as British weather- conditions, for 
it is essential that the weather prevailing where the migratory 
movements have their origin should be considered. An 
extensive series of comparisons between the two sets of 
phenomena shows that they are intimately associated. 

It is found that in both the spring and autumn migratory 
periods there are spells of genial weather without marked 
features other than those favourable to migration. During 
these the migratory movements are of an even-flowing nature. 
If the weather proves slightly unsettled during such periods 



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iO The Irish NaturatisL [Jan., 

it is a matter of indifference to the migrants ; but if more 
pronouncedly so, their movements are slightly quickened 
thereby. The duration of such favourable spells is sooner 
or later broken by the advent of a cyclonic period, which 
interferes, to a greater or lesser degree, with the progress of 
migratory movements. Unfavourable weather-conditions of 
a pronounced nature temporarily interrupt the ordinary 
movements. The weather incentives to migration are of 
different kinds. First, there may be favourable weather- 
periods immediately following unfavourable periods. 
Secondly, they may be due to unfavourable weather, such as 
lower temperature, which either compels the birds to move, 
or acts as a warning to them to do so. Thirdly, and on the 
other hand, genial spring weather is an incentive to a north- 
ward move. Temperature plays the most important part in 
the various seasonal movements. 

All the great autumnal immigrations coincide with favour- 
able weather-conditions in north-western Europe — namely, 
the presence of a large well-defined anticyclone over 
Scandinavia, with gentle gradients to the south-west On the 
other hand, cyclonic conditions may prevail west of the British 
area, with a low pressure centre off the west of Ireland. Under 
these conditions the weather is clear and cold, with light 
variable airs, over Norway and Sweden ; while in Britain the 
sky is overcast, with easterly winds, and frequently with fog 
on the east coast. These conditions usually follow the pass- 
ing away of a cyclonic spell from Scandinavia, during which 
ordinary migratory movements are interrupted. Movements 
from the east by the East and West Route are most pronounced 
during similar favourable weather-conditions. All the 
autumn movements are stimulated by a fall in the tempera- 
ture. In connection with spring immigration several 
unusually early appearances have been recorded, and the 
daily weather report shows that the localities where these 
early occurrences took place were at the time the warmest 
spots in Western Europe. 

A careful comparison made between the migrational and 
meteorological phenomena in connection with these move- 
ments from the Continent shows that all such movements, 
except those performed late in the season, are to be correlated 



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1897] Palmer — The Migration of Birds. 21 

with a rise of temperature in south-west Europe, which evi- 
dently induces the birds to start northwards. In not a few 
instances such movements are recorded for dates on which 
the temperature in Britain was lower than immediately before 
the immigration. This indicates that the increase of warmth 
at the seat of emigration is the main factor influencing the 
northward spring movement. This rise of temperature 
sometimes extends over the British Isles. Apart from this 
simple phenomenon no other peculiar meteorological condition 
appears to be associated with these spring movements. The 
spring migration from our islands to northern breeding- 
grounds is influenced by the weather-conditions prevailing at 
the time in the British area. This emigration, however, 
naturally takes place later than the corresponding movement 
into Britain from the south : it appears to commence in April 
and continues during May. It is embarked upon under the 
same type of pressure-distribution as that which is favourable 
to the autumn migration, namely, a high pressure centre over 
Norway and Sweden, with gentle gradients to the south-west. 
Under these circumstances there is fine weather over the 
North Sea. 

The anticyclonic, or fine-weather periods in April are 
favourable to migration if the temperature is fairly high. 
Cyclonic periods as a rule are unfavourable owning to their 
high winds and ungeniality; on the other hand, when they are 
mild and follow a cold spell they are favourable to a north- 
ward migration from Britain. In autumn marine species, such 
as Skuas, Petrels, Phalaropes, &c., are occasionally driven 
out of their course by gales, when the appear on our coasts 
in large numbers, and are sometimes driven inland. 

A careful study of the subject shows that the direction of 
the wind has no influence as an incentive to migration, but 
that its force is an important factor. The birds do not appear to 
be concerned by ordinary winds, but they do not migrate when 
the winds are exceptionally high. Particular winds usually 
prevail during the great autumnal movements. These, 
although favourable, are not an incentive to migration, 
but are the winds that accompany the high pressure centre 
over Norway, already referred to. 



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2i The Irish Naturalist. [JaiL, 

PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



ROYAI, ZOOI^OGICAI* SOCIBTY. 

Recent donations comprise a Great Cyclodus from the proprietor of 
the Irish Field ; a Sparrow-hawk from Mr. W. Russell ; a number of Irish 
birds from Rev. T. B. Gibson ; a Diamond Snake from Miss B. Fitzgibbon ; 
a Black Tortoise from Mr. A. E. Jamrach ; a Kestrel from Mr. K. M. 
Dunlop; a Nubian Goat from Master Moloney; a pair of Rabbits from 
Miss J. Bailey ; a Stoat from Mr. W. W. Despard ; a number of fish from 
Mr. J. Godden. A Somali Lioness, a Golden Cat, a pair of Wood Storks, 
a pair of Snow Geese, a Boa Constrictor, three African and three Indian 
Pythons, six Egyptian Snakes, four Monitors, and eight large Tortoises 
have been acquired by purchase. 

3,940 persons visited the Gardens during November. 



Bei^fast Naturai, History and Phu^osophicai, Society. 

December i. — The President (Professor Everett) presided. 

Mr. Alexander Tate first submitted his report of some matters con- 
sidered at the Brit. Assoc, meeting in Liverpool. He asked the special 
attention of the Society to two schemes affecting the working of Socie- 
ties like theirs which were discussed at considerable length at those 
meetings. The object of the first of those schemes was to promote 
the formation of district unions of natural history societies. It was 
drawn up and submitted by Mr. George Abbott, general secretary of the 
South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies, and it proposed the division 
of the United Kingdom into fifteen or twenty districts, in each of which 
the societies should be grouped together for mutual aid, counsel, and 
work, any existing unions to be taken advantage of and not disturbed, 
each union to have an annual congress, held year by year in different 
towns, and to be attended by delegates and members from the affiliated 
societies. A further suggestion was that each local society should have 
a corresponding member in each village in its district to look after its 
interests and forward in every way its objects. The working of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union had been very successful, one important 
result being the training of a number of skilful workers in the various de- 
partments of natural science. What had been done in regard to the Irish 
Union of Natural History Societies wasclearlystatedby Professor Johnson, 
the delegate from Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, and was corroborated by 
himself (Mr. Tate). The second proposal was made by Professor Petrie, 
its object being to provide a federal staff for local museums. He alleged 
that the main difficulty in the management of local museums was the 
securing of sufficient work for and means of paying for services of 
highly-trained and competent men as curators, and he considered that 
this would be obviated if there was co-operation. The opinion of 
speakers who took part in the discussion was generally favourable to the 
scheme. It appeared that a somewhat similar idea had been mooted 
some years previously, and had been reported on by a sub-committee of 
the Museums Association, without, however, leading to any definite 



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i897-] Proceedings of Irish Sdcieties. 23 

resalt A strong protest was made by Professor Johnson, of Dublin, 
against the suggestion that the curators of the local museums should be 
converted into mere caretakers; he referred in terms of high com- 
mendation to the abilities of a curator in the North of Ireland, but 
expressed his surprise that his services were not adequately remunerated. 

Dr. J. Lindsay, m.a., read an essay on the poet Dante. 

Mr. W. H. Patterson, m.r.i.a., then read an account of a recent 
discovery of worked flints in submerged peat at Portrush. He explained 
that the West Bay at Portrush had long been known as the site of an 
exposure of submerged peat. The winter storms of the last two years 
had, by washing away great quantities of sand, caused a much larger 
section of peat to be visible. The thickest masses of peat were at high- 
water mark, in one place forming a perpendicular face of nearly six feet 
high. In other places the peat showed an exposed face of three or four 
feet, and from that down to one foot or less, according to the extent to 
which the sea carried away the shelving sand which sloped from the 
peat down to the sea. There was also a good exposure of the peat and 
numerous remains of large trees between tide-marks. Here one walked 
on the top of the deposited beds, which were probably thinned away by 
marine denudation. The beds of compact peat higher up on the beach, 
and which present faces of various heights, as referred to before, were 
overlaid by banks of sand from fifteen to twenty feet high, and with vege- 
tation on their surface. The sand was fine, and seemed to be chiefly blown, 
but in some places a slight stratification showing pebbles was noticed. 
This sand had been deposited over the peat, but was now being removed 
by the action of the winds and waves. The peat was exceedingly com- 
pact, but contained sand, showing that it was formed within the 
influence of winds carrying sand, doubtless from some sea-strand. The 
peat could not possibly have been formed at its present level as regards 
sea ; the land here had probably experienced a downthrow, or possibly 
alternations of level had taken place, and thus the sea had been enabled 
to enqroach very considerably upon the land. The remains of the forest 
of large fir-trees between tide water-marks at a level where such trees 
could not be grown made the matter of the downthrow very evident. In 
many places around our shores submerged peat with tree-remains was 
found. On the occasion of a visit to Portrush in April, 1896, he was 
examining the exposed sections of peat at the West Bay, when he noticed 
the point of a piece of flint projecting from the weathered face, and on 
pulling this out it proved to be a well-formed flint-flake. A little exami- 
nation with the blade of a knife showed that there were more flakes 
behind the one first noticed, and the result was that in two visits he 
collected about eighty flakes, about twelve cores, and a considerable 
quantity of chips, but no axes, scrapers, nor any example showing 
secondary workmanship. With the exception of two or three outliers, 
the flints were confined to an area of not more than two feet square. 
They formed a flattened heap ; they rested on peat, and were overlaid by 
about one foot of exceedingly compact peat, and this in turn had been 
covered by about twenty feet of sand, now partially removed by sea-action. 



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24 The Irish Naturalist, [Jan.. 

The flints were firmly packed together ; in fact, they were interlocked one 
with another, so that when working into the face it was sometimes 
difficult to get one out until the adjoining one had been loosened and dis- 
lodged. The whole find was evidently the heap which the old flintworker 
had formed at his feet while he sat at his work on the hard surface of the 
ground before some of the changes of level took place, which enabled a 
later growth of peat to come and cover up the surface, including the heap 
of flints. The flints were quite un weathered and unrolled, and had their 
edges as sharp as if they had been just made. Their colour was quite un- 
changed, being the same dull black or dark grey that freshly-broken flint 
presented. Many of the flakes were of exceptionally large size, with 
great heavy butts, while others were thin and delicately formed, remind- 
ing one of the modern gun-flint makers* flakes. The cores also resembled 
those from which modern flakes were struck. On the whole, the flakes 
and cores were much like those found in the Lame gravels, with the 
marked difference that instead of being rolled and weathered they were 
perfectly sharp and fresh. The flakes measured from one inch to five 
inches long, most of them, however, being about three inches. He 
noticed that some of those flints were marked with spots or splashes of 
a clear vitreous glaze, exceedingly thin and transparent, as if liquid 
glass had been dropped or splashed upon them. This glaze reflected the 
light, but seemed to be without any appreciable thickness. He presumed 
that silica in solution must have come in contact with some of the sur- 
faces of the embedded flints, but further than this he could suggest no 
explanation of the matter. 

Bei^fast Naturawsts* Fiei^d (Xub. 

November 17.— The President (Mr. L. M. EwarT) in the Chair. Mr. 
Wii^UAM Gray delivered a lecture on *' The Origin and present Condition 
of the Giant's Causeway," which was discussed by F. W. Lockwood, J. 
M'Leish, Isaac Ward, R. M. Young, and S. F. Milligan. Replying, Mr. 
Gray reminded the members that their President was one of the defendants 
in the case now coming on, by which it was sought to exclude the public 
Irom the Causeway. He appealed to the members to assist the cause of 
the public by subscribing to the Defence Fund. 

October 21.— Geoi^ogicai, Section. The monthly meeting was held 
when rock- specimens from the Isle of Man were shown by Miss M. K. 
Andrews, including some " Crush Conglomerates,'* whose formation has 
recently excited considerable interest (see ♦' The Crush Conglomerates of 
the Isle of Man," by G. W. Lamplugh, F.G.S., and W. W. Watts, F.C.S., 
Joum. Geol. Soc, Vol. 51 (1895), p. 563, and Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S.. Pr&c. 
Geol Assoc,, 1893, pp. 92-3, and 170.) Similar rocks occur at Portraine, 
Lambay, and elsewhere in Ireland, resulting from earth-movements. A 
collection of English fossils was shown by Mr. G. M*I,ean, and Mr.R. Bell 
exhibited some interesting boulder-clay, with pebbles of Ailsa eurite and 
Cushendun conglomerate, from near Glenavy. 

December 15. —Rev. J. Andrew lectured on " The Elemental Basis 
and Progressive Build of the Inorganic World.'* 



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18970 Proceedings of Irish Societies. 25 

BoTANiCAi, Sbction, Novembbr 28.— The course of study arranged 
for this winter comprises the principal British Natural orders of Plants, 
Oliver's well-known " Lessons " being used as the text-book. Ranun- 
cul€uea to Papavertuea were discussed by the aid of fresh and dried 
specimens contributed by members. 

DUBUN NaTVEALISTS' FIELD CtUB. 

NOVBMBBR z?.— The Prbsidbnt (Profl Grbnvilu a. J. Cou) 
deliTcred an address on ''The Natural Rights of Scenery.'* It was 
illustrated by numerous lantern-views. The speaker urged that natural 
scenery should be treated with respect, if only on account of its mental 
and moral effect on our own lives. We ourselves, as races of men, are 
moulded by the lands in which we live ; and to use our surroundings for 
purposes of commercial gain or self-advertisement is to appropriate to 
ourselves, or to our own short generation, what is of world-wide and 
perpetual importance. Roads, railways, mills, could be established 
without permanent injury to scenery, if due care was taken by local 
authorities to preserve the rights of the landscape. The vagaries of the 
private owner were difficult to deal with, and the Scotch "Access to 
Mountains Bill*' failed to restore moorlands to public use. Nothing 
short of nationalisation of scenery, a large scheme of land-nationalisa- 
tion, could entirely safeguard such treasures as the Giants* Causeway. 
Mr. Lavens Ewart, President of the Belfast Field Club, is one of the 
defendants in the test-case now approaching. The charges for admission 
to natural scenery in Scotland and in Switzerland should be indeed a 
warning ; long might it be before Irishmen withheld the hand of welcome 
to the stranger until sixpence dropped into its palm. 

The paper was discussed by Rev. M. H. Close, m.a., R. Lloyd Praeger 
and Endymion Porter. 

Prof. T. Johnson, d.Sc, then presented a report as Delegate from the 
Qnb to the recent meeting of the British Association at Liverpool. He 
stated that at the Corresponding Societies Committee the question of 
local unions of scientific Societies was discussed, the subject being opened 
by a paper by Dr. Abbott, Secretary of the S.E. Union of Scientific 
Societiea A sub-committee was appointed to further consider the 
question, and the Club's delegate acted on the sub-committee. Prof. 
Flinders Petrie read a paper *' On a Federal Staff for Local Museums " ; 
in the discussion which ensued the Club's delegate took part. {See above 
under Belfast Nat. Hist and Phil. Society). 

J. G. Robertson showed a beautifully preserved fossil amphibian from 
the Jarrow colliery, the skeleton being quite complete ; also the jaw of a 
larger amphibian. 

Limerick Naturausts' Fiei.d Ci.ub. 
November 17.— Mr. F. Neai,e read a paper on ** Butterflies, when 
and where to find them,** dealing with the collection and preservation 
of specimens, and illustrating his remarks by a fine series of insects, 
mostly collected in the Limerick district 



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26 The Irish Naturalist, [Jan., 



NOTES. 

BOTANY. 
Irish Records In the Journal of Botany. 

Mr. F. Townsend contributes to the November number of the foumal 
of Botany a paper on Euphrasia Salisburgensis Funk, found last summer by 
Rev. E. S. Marshall on limestone rocks south of Lough Mask, Ca Mayo. 
This is a Scandinavian and alpine plant, not hitherto recorded from the 
British Isles. ** The plant is eminently alpine," and it is therefore of 
interest to find it not much above sea-level in Co. Mayo. ** It is dis- 
tinguished from all other British forms by its narrow leaves and br^icts^ 
with comparatively few lateral usually aristate teeth.*' The paper is 
accompanied by an excellent plate. 

In the December issue, Mr. H. B. Rendle publishes a description of 
Sisyrimhium califortiicum, from plants collected last June by Rev. B. S. 
Marshall in marshy meadows near Rosslare, Co. Wexford. To the same 
number, Mr. Marshall contributes a paper on the results of his collecting 
last summer at Clonbur, on the borders of Mayo and Galway, Claremorris, 
and Wexford. The paper contains a number of valuable records, among 
the species being Polygala oxypttra^ Picris echioidesy Cfunopoditun rubrum^ 
Polygonum maculatum, Zostera nana^ Eleocharis tmiglumiSy Chara conniveus 
(new to Ireland), and C. canescens. 

Flora of the Ox Mountains. 

It was with much pleasure that I read in the December number of the 
Irish Naturalist Mr. N. Colgan's very interesting notes of the Flora 
of the Ox Mountains, Co. Sligo, and especially where he mentions 
having received specimens of the rare Maiden-Hair Fern from Mr. 
Quirk, taken from the banks of the Dromore West River j also stating, 
that in 1891, I reported the Fern from that locality. However, wishing 
" to give honour where honour is due," the credit of the discovery rests 
with Miss M'Munn, of Easky, who long before 1891 found it ; bat 
hearing from a mutual friend of Miss M'Munn's discovery, I visited the 
river in June, 1891, and found the fern growing profusely on the per- 
pendicular face of the limestone rock, through which the river has cut a 
narrow passage eight or ten feet deep. The fern is growing on the 
eastern bank in two or three large patches, with smaller ones, and solitary 
plants, scattered along for a distance of twelve or fifteen yards ; the 
largest patch forms a thick growth covering a span about four feet square, 
growing in a soft calcareous deposit from the water dripping over the 
rocky face of the bank. This fern appears to be very rare in the Ca 
Sligo, for in the Cybele Hibemica only one localityj four miles from the town 
of Sligo, is mentioned. When at Lough Talt, Mr. Colgan docs not 
mention finding Polypodiwn Dryoptcris', it used to grow on the road 
side between some stones at the base ol the fence nearly opposite the 
Police Barrack, where I found it, and sent some fronds to my esteemed 



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1897.] Notes, 27 

and valued friend, the late A. G. More, and afterwards showed him some 
plants taken from that site, and growing in the garden here. The CybeU 
mentions this fern as growing only in the Counties of Antrim, Galway, 
Leitrim, and Kerry, and in the appendix, L. Talt, Co. Sligo, as reported 
by me. 

ROBBRT WaRRKN. 



ZOOLOGY. 
Irish Notes from the Zoologist. 

In the September number, Mr. Charles Langham records the capture 
of a Whiskered Bat in Co. Fermanagh last June. The same observer 
writes confirming his note on the occurrence of an Iceland Gull in Co. 
Sligo on June 5th. Mr. C. B. Horsbrugh writes in the October issue 
that he has examined a specimen of a Night Heron {Nycticorax griseus) 
shot near Fermoy in March, 1894. Mr. R. Warren states that he received, 
on September 4th, a RuflFshot near Easky, Co. Sligo, and remarks that 
there appears to have been a small flight of Rufls to Ireland last autumn, 
as Mr. E. Williams received three specimens for preservation, and Mr. 
Ussher had two sent him from Belmullet, Co. Mayo. In the same 
number mention is made of a large Pike, forty nine inches long and 
35 lbs. in weight, taken with a spoon-bait in Lough Conn. 



AMPHIBIANS, 

IS the Froff a native of Ireland ? 

It is curious that the question propounded by Dr. Scharfi'(/. NaL^ vol. ii.) 
relative to the introduction of the Common Frog into this country has 
not elicited more information. Mr. Ussher's explanation that the 
remains of frogs found in Ballynaraintra cave were found in the surface 
stratum, removes one possible evidence of their antiquity in this 
country. But no one has alluded to an attempt at colonisation made 
previously to the one mentioned by Thompson in the grounds of Trinity 
College — namely, that which is referred to by O'Halloran in his *' History 
of Ireland," published 1772. He gives the Latin verses in full, from which 
Dr. Scharff quotes (after Camden), headed *' An account of Ireland given 
by Donatus Bishop of Fesula^ (or Fiesoli), near Florence, above 1 100 
years ago" {sic.) After the lines 

" Nulla venena nocent, nee serpens serpit in herba 
Nee conquesta canit garrula rana lacu," 
he adds a note as follows : — '* We must here remark that we never had 
frogs in Ireland till the reign of King William. It is true some mighty 
sensible members of the Royal Society in the time of Charles II. 
attempted to add these to the many other valuable presents sent us from 
England, but ineffectually ; as they were of Belgic origin, it would seem 
they could only thrive under a Dutch Prince, and these with many 
other exotics were introduced at the Happy Revolution." 



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2$ The Irish Naturalist, [Jan-, J^ 

This testimony of a writer about seventy years after the undoubted 
introduction of a colony of this animal seems conclusive that at the 
period at which he wrote it was numerous in the country; while 
his assertion that at some date between 1663, when the Royal 
Society was founded, and 1685, when Charles II. died, a former 
attempt at colonisation was made (whether successfully or un- 
successfully), shows that the frog was at that time not known to be 
indigenous. Perhaps some one may be induced by this notice to search 
for some record of the futile attempt made by these '• mighty sensible " 
Fellows. The reference as to the animals being of '* Belgic origin** would 
seem to suggest that they were imported from Holland. Perhaps, 
therefore, they might have been the edible species Ratia esculenia ; and 
the failure, referred to by Dr. Scharflf, of Dr. Bimey's introduction, may 
have been paralleled by that of a similar importation to Ireland. 

W. F. DE V. Ranb. 



BIRDS. 
Black-tailed God wit In Queen's Co. 

Through the kindness of Lord Castletown, I have received, and sent 
to Messrs. Williams & Son for preservation, a specimen of the Black- 
tailed Godwit, shot near Granston Manor, Abbeyleix, on the 13th 
November inst 

R. J. USSHKR. 

GEOLOGY. 
The Determination of Fossils. 

All who have have attempted to determine a miscellaneous collection 
of fossils from any geological formation have soon discovered the 
difficulty of affixing correct names to all the specimens, and if they have 
been doing this work with the object of publishing some paper, either 
dealing with the stratigraphy of a district, or attempting to correlate 
geological horizons in diflFerent parts of the world, they have probably 
given the task up in despair. A few, no doubt, have been fortunate in 
possessing friends whose knowledge of particular groups of fossils could 
be drawn upon. But it is not always that one knows the best person to 
apply to, or that one can be certain of a favourable reception. Naturd 
Science, in its December number, has published a list of twenty-six 
specialists, who are willing to determine various groups of fossils from 
various strata, when requested to do so for purposes of publication, and 
this enterprising action will doubtless be welcomed by many local geolo- 
gists. We hope that this list is only a first instalment, for there certainly 
appear to be a large number of groups of fossils in which no one is 
prepared to pose as an authority. We should have thought, for instance, 
that some one might have been found for the Trilobites, for the Belem- 
nites, or for Palaeozoic Brachiopods. Obviously, if anyone wishes to take 
up the study of some special division of palaeontology, he need not be 
deterred by the lack of an opening. 



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THB FORMER ABUNDANCE OF GRANITE BOULDERS 
IN THE S.E. NEIGHBOURHOOD OF DUBUN. 

BT RKV. MAXWKIX H. CLOSE, M.A.» P.G.S. 

(Read before the Dublin Naturalists* Field Onb, 8th December, 1896.) 

The presence and distribution of boulders in a partictilar 
district is generally very interesting, and indeed often 
geologically significant and important, in various ways. But 
unfortunately in such a neighbourhood as that of Dublin they 
are specially liable to be removed for various reasons. When 
they interfere seriously with the cultivation of the land we 
cannot blame the farmers for getting rid of them, and when a 
great deal of building material is required we cannot wonder 
at the contractors breaking them up and carrying them off 
from rough wild uncultivable places where the farmers would 
let them remain. But the extensive removal of them may 
hereafter catise perplexity to geologists, and even lead them 
into error, if they should be not sufficiently aware of the 
former state of things. These remarks apply very specially to 
the southeast neighbourhood of Dublin, where there has 
been such extensive destruction of boulders. When the Geo- 
logical Survey were at work in this district they had not 
begun to pay as much attention to surface geology as they 
did afterwards, so that the Explanations of Sheet 112 say 
nothing on the limited subject of this communication ; it 
seems, then, desirable that the Dublin Field Club should 
record the facts with which we are now concerned. 

The granite boulders of this region do not generally belong 
to the bonlder-clay. They usually lie on it, though they are 
often partially buried in the drift. They are generally of 
later date than the detrital deposits on which they resti and 
have sometimes moved in a direction contrary to that in which 
the latter have been carried. This can be seen near the west- 
ward edge of the granite district, as, for instance, in the lower 
part of Glennasmole, where the deep deposit of limestone 
materials has come from the plain country on the west, and 
the overlying granite boulders from the eastward. 

The extensive disappearance of these boulders from the 
district now in question has doubtless been observed by 

A 

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36 fAe Irish ifaturatisi. [Feb., 

many persons. I happen to have been peculiarly well circum- 
stanced for being impressed thereby. In the years 1834-5 
my family was living at Beechwood, near the S.E. end of 
Rochestown Avenue, at the foot of Rochestown Hill, 
the most southward of the three KiUiney Hills. The 
ground from Beechwood on towards Ballybrack was thickly 
sprinkled with granite boulders, large and small. This was 
80 on both sides of the road to Ballybrack ; although some 
clearance was going on on the lower or westward side of the 
road. The speckled appearance of the district, owing to the 
contrast between the dark green furze and the light grey 
boulders, was very striking ; and there can be no doubt that it 
was this which gave name to the locality — "Ballybrack" 
meaning the ** speckled place." There is another place of 
the same name a few miles oflF, viz. : the upward, north-west 
ward continuation of GlencuUen behind the mass of the Three 
Rock Mountain. It doubtless received the same name for the 
same reason ; although the speckling is not there so strongly 
marked, being somewhat obscured by the heather and the 
peaty covering of the ground. Thirty-two years ago, although 
the fields on the lower, or westward side of the first-mentioned 
Ballybrack road, were perfectly cleared of boulders, a most 
interesting relic of the former state of things was preserved 
in a belt of plantation, near Blilbogget Farm, which is on a 
way or passage from near Cabinteely to the said Ballybrack 
road. That plantation had been made before the clearance 
of the land, and the contrast between the boulder-encumbered 
ground within it and the smooth fields on each side was most 
striking and interesting. I fondly hoped that, as the boulders 
were out of the way of the plough, they would remain there 
as a memorial of the past ; but, on visiting the place a few 
days before reading this paper, I was greatly disappointed to 
find that they had been taken away for building purposes. No 
signs of them now remain except the hollows showing where 
the larger or more deeply sunk ones stood. I happened to 
meet Mr. MacCormick, who now occupies the farm ; he was 
fiiUy aware of the former state of the ground about there, 
though it was before his time. 

Mr. O. H. Kinahan, of the Geological Survey, corroborates 
what I have said as to this locality, and speaks also of his own 

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jfi^'J CuosB.—Craniie Bouldeys in the S.E. of Dublin. 31 

recollection of a similar state of things in places about 
Killiney and Dalkey. Gabriel Beranger, who has left some 
▼aluable drawings depicting antiquarian and other objects, 
some of which have been destroyed since his time, expresses 
his delight at the '' romantick " rocks about Dalkey, and 
mentions that a wheeled vehicle could not pass along the 
street of the village. This was doubtless largely due to the 
boulders now in question. He gives drawings (both dated 
1776) of two of these, one a rocking-stone near the sea, about 
a musket-shot west of Bullock, measuring 10 ft. 9 in. by 6 ft. 
2 in. by 3 ft, at its thickest side. This was very conspicuous to 
every passer-by ; it was what glacialists call a perched block 
on the top of what his drawing shows to have been a roche 
moutonnie, which was weathered along some vertical joints. 
This stone, however, had ceased to rock a few years before he 
saw it ; and it has since ceased to exist, that is in its integ- 
rity. He gives also a drawing of a magnificent boulder " on 
the top of Dalkey Hill," not necessarily meaning at the very 
summit It covered a small well, and was called Clogh Tuhhcr 
Gileen — the Stone of Gileen's Well. Its dimensions were 
22 ft. 6 in. by 10 ft. 4 in. by between 11 and 12 ft. in height. 
Supposing it to have been rudely ellipsoidal in shape, with 
which the drawing is consistent, its weight must have been 
at least 140 tons. I made inquiry about this lately from 
several old people of the locality, but none of them had ever 
heard of it The cromlech, with its circle of large stones 
round it, which existed on Dalkey Common until it was 
broken up to build the nearest Martello tower, was of course 
composed of boulders which the cromlech-builders had at 
hand. By way of some small relief to the melancholy 
account just given, let us note the survival of a fine boulder, 
a perched block, still standing on a roche moutonnie near, 
and visible from, the public park near Sorrento Terrace. 
It is somewhat cuboidal, and measures 8 by 6 by 6 feet. Its 
effect, however, is sadly marred by the fact that it is now in 
the little parterre of a villa shut in by walls. It is evidently 
prized by the present occupants, who perhaps belong to the 
Field Club ; it stands, then, a good chance of being preserved. 
At the same time it reminds us too strongly of that melan* 
choly sight, a caged eagle ; and one is almost (not quite) 

A 2 

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3i • The trish NaturatUU L^el>, 

tempted to wish that some kindly building-contractor would 
blow it to pieces, and allow us to forget it 

A few respectable boulders can still be seen in favourable 
out-of-the-way places, and near the hills, in the country extend- 
ing from the Killiney Hills to Stillorgan, Whitechurch, &c. 
But it is easy to see what became of the great majority of the 
field-stones; they were used up to build the walls which 
enclose such a large proportion of the fields in that district 
Mr. Elinahan informs me that the numerous boulders lately in 
the valley between Enniskerry and GlencuUen have been 
nearly all taken away to build the Catholic church at Ennis- 
kerry. He informs me also that most of the large number of 
boulders about Ballinteer, beyond Dundrum, were used up for 
building purposes a few years ago. Much of the granite for 
the Science and* Art Museum, Kildare Street, was obtained 
from the boulders between Ballinteer and Dundrum. He 
speaks also of a great removal of boulders in late years from 
Redesdale on the S.E* of Dundrum, and from other places 
not far oflF. 

I must not omit to mention an interesting museum of 
boulders, as we may call it, at Newtownpark, about a mile 
inland from Blackrock. The obelisk there is of ashlar work 
rising from a very large rusticated base ; the stones of the 
latter are clearly all boulders gathered from the surface of the 
Surrounding land. Some show signs of blasting ; but these 
are only portions of much larger boulders which, in their 
integrity, would have been too difficult to transport to their 
present situation. Many of them are four feet in length. 
There can be no doubt that the squared blocks of the obelisk 
itself were cut from boulders. This structure was built in 
1703 ; it would be impossible to make the like of it in these 
days without having recourse to quarrying, so that it is a most 
interesting memorial of the state of things in by-gone days. 

The largest surviving boulder that I know of in this region 
is situated about a mile south of the cromlech and the ancient 
church of Kilterrian. Unfortunately, a new road was made 
passing close to it, and a great piece has been blasted off i1i 
Which interfered with the road. 

Perhaps I may be allowed to mention here the relation of 
the cromlechs to our present subject These are usually, but 



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i«97] ClpSSi.'^GranUe Bculdm in the S.E. of Dublin. 33 

it would seem not invariably, composed of boulders. Though 
we sorely grudge that our grand Dalkey boulders should be 
broken up by the building-contractors and made into prim 
villas and terraces, often with odious fashionable Italian 
names, yet I think we may agree more or less cordially to 
some of them being appropriated by the cromlech-builders. 
Those men prized them for their size, they did not destroy 
them ; though possibly, in a few cases, they may have interfered 
with their natural or geological interest There can hardly 
be any doubt that they have sometimes been the means of 
preserving some of the finest boulders for us. Notwithstand* 
ing that the ordinary Philistine would think nothing at all of 
blasting to pieces an unusually large boulder, though it were 
a most striking perched block, yet it is conceivable that he 
might relent if he saw the boulder playing the part of the 
covering-stone of a cromlech. The great probability is that 
the top stone of the Brennanstown cromlech and that of the 
Shanganagh cromlech escaped demolition in this way when 
the surrounding ground was cleared as we now see it 

I may here observe that the removal of the boulders from 
the ground about a cromlech heightens the eflFect of the latter ; 
it is however a factitious addition to the great interest that a 
cromlech must always have for us. It makes some persons 
imagine that the large covering-stone has been brought from 
some distant spot, where there were boulders, to its present 
position where none are now to be seen. But it is most reason- 
able to think that the cromlech-builders looked about for the 
largest boulder that they could find near enough to the desired 
site of their monument, and collected the smaller supporting 
stones around it, and then built their cromlech there. 

The boulders mentioned in this paper are all of granite and 
rest on granite ground, except those at the western edge of 
the granite alluded to above ; so that we have no means of 
knowing how far they may have travelled from their native 
site. 



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34 TTie Irish Naturalist. [Felx, 

THE BATS OF IRELAND. 
A Contribution to our Knowi^dge op thbir Distribution. 

BY H. LYSTER JAMESON, B.A. 



A FBW years ago I took up the study of the species of bats 
which occur in Ireland, intending to retain my information 
until I could present a fairly complete account of the dis- 
tribution of at least the commoner species, rather than to 
record my observations in a ntimber of scattered notes. My 
experience since then, and the consideration that this paper 
•may possibly draw out some data that are unknown to me, in 
the correspondence columns of the Irish Naturalist^ prompts 
me to publish this list of records in its present incomplete 
state, rather than to wait indefinitely for data that are not 
forthcoming. 

It is more than possible that some already published records 
may have been overlooked by me, but I have no doubt if such 
is the case, my omissions will be corrected by the readers of 
this Journal. 

It is much to be regretted that field naturalists have paid 
so little attention to this group in Ireland, for we can hardly 
boast of having advanced very much since Prof. Kinahan 
wrote' '* as a general rule every bat seen flying about is put 
down in the naturalist's book as the Pipistrelle." Records 
of this kind are apt to be misleading and should be strongly 
discouraged; to say nothing of the fact, pointed out by 
Kinahan, that the *' common bat " of parts of Clare seems to 
be the Lesser Horse-shoe Bat This careless method of 
naming species led to the formerly frequent descriptions 
and record of the Pipistrelle in Great Britain as '' Vesperiilio 
murinus,'' merely because V. murium is the common bat of 
some continental localities ! 

The difficulties of identification of species need not hinder 
any observing naturalist from having a clear idea of at least 
the generic distinctions, which would no doubt save many a 
rare Vespertilio from being thrown away, or, worse, recorded as 
Vesperugo pipistrelltis. Even on the wing a sufficient amount 
may often be seen to suggest to the collector that the specimen 
is worth capturing, while the flight of Vesperugo Leisleri and 
Vespertilio Daubentonii are almost unmistakable. 
» Proc. Dub. Nat. Hist. Soc.^ voi i, p. 154, 

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18^0 JAMB80H.-*7]|^ Bats of Ireland. 35 

I shall not say anjrthing about methods of capture and 
preservation, as I have already alluded to the most successful 
in a previous paper.^ 

It is to be regretted that the scanty information at hand 
permits of but little generalizing with regard to questions of 
distribution ; such data as I am able to put before the readers 
of the Irish Naturalist in these pages suggest that the three 
species of Vespertilio which have hitherto been regarded as 
extremely limited in their range, may be widely if not generally 
distributed ; as is the case with the better known species of 
mammals, except where locally exterminated by man. 

But what is likely to be the range of the I^esser Horse-shoe 
Bat? At present only recorded from Galway and Clare, it 
may possibly prove to have a limited range, and so form a 
marked exception to what seems to be the rule for Irish 
mammals generally. Further explorations alone can settle 
this question, as also whether or not Vesperugq Leisleri, now 
known to be fairly widely distributed in the North and East, 
and as far south as Cos. Wicklow and Kildare, occurs in the 
South and West. 

But a perusal of this paper will make it evident that we are 
far from having complete records of the range of even the 
Kpistrelle and Long-eared Bats, and I can only express once 
more the hope that this very incomplete list will call forth 
some of the data, published or unpublished, that may have 
escaped me. 

I must take this opportunity of expressing my gratitude to 
the many kind friends from whom I have received specimens 
and records, and particularly to Rev. D. C. Abbott, Mr. O. E. 
H. Barrett-Hamilton (for many notes collected by himself and 
his correspondents), Mr. R. M. Barrington (for records from 
Light Stations on the Irish Coast), Mr. C. Black, Mrs. Dunster- 
ville. Rev. R. M. P. Freeman, Mr. W. Garstin, Mr. W. F. 
De V. Kane, Miss Kelsall, Rev. A. Knight, Dr. W. R. 
MacDermott, Rev. F. W. Moeran, Mr. E. Porter, Dr. R. F. 
ScharfiF, Mr. R. J. Ussher, Mr. R. Warren, and others. 

Seven species of bats are known to inhabit Ireland, six of 
which belong to the family Vespertilionidcs, represented by 

' IHsh Nat., 18^ p. 69. 

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36 The Irish Naturalist PA., 

three genera Plecotus^ Vespertilio, and Vesperugo, the seventh 
to the family Rhinolophida 

Rhinolophus hlpposld^ros, Bechstdn. 
LESSBa HoRSB-SHOE Bat. 

Ca Clarb.— First recorded as Irish by Mr. P. J. Foot {Proc. IM. 
Nai, Hist Sac., voL ii., p. 152), who found it in Ballyallia cave near 
Ennis in 1857, and in a cave near Quin in 1859. Subsequently found by 
Professor Kinahan and Mr. Foot in 1861 in Vigo cave, Inchiquin ; and 
also in a small cave in a plantation on western shore of the lake. The 
entrances to both these caves were overhung by ivy and ferns. Also in 
three caves at Hdenvale near Ennis. 

Prot Kinahan regarded this species as the ^ Common Bat** of Ca 
Clare. [See Kinahan, /^vc. Dud. Nat, Hist, Soc,<t voL ii, p. 154. Also 
Zoologist^ l86i,p. 7617.] 

Prof Kinahan refers to a larger bat, known to the country people in 
Clare, of which he did not procure a specimen, and which consequently 
must remain unidentified until some enterprising naturalist can secure 
it 

Co. Gai,way.— A specimen was captured by Prof. King in June, 1858, 
in a house in Galway into which it had flown. It was exhibited before 
the Dublin University Zoological and Botanical Association in 18591 

There are two specimens in the Science and Art Museum, Dublin, 
taken at Cool Park, and presented by the late Mr. A. G. More. 

[I may here refer to an account of what appears to have been a Rkim- 
tophus from Co. Westmeath, mentioned by Mr. M^Coy in a paper before 
the Dublin Natural History Society, which paper was reported in 
Saunderis News-tetter^ Feb. 12th, 1845. The scanty description suggests 
R, fmrunuquinum^ which is not known to inhabit Ireland.] 

Pl#cotu8 aurltusp linn. 
I4ONG-BARBD Bat. 

Co. DON^GAir. — ^Mr. Barrett-Hamilton informs me that one was seen at 
the lantern at Arranmore Light-station in June, 1889, by J. P. Fortune. 
This species is recorded by J. V. Stewart {Loudon's Ma^. Nat, Hist., voL v., 
1832, p. 578). 

Ca LONDONDBRRY. — Colony discovered in June, 1835, " under slates 
of Foyle House, above the city." — ("Ordnance Survey of Co. Londondeny," 
by Lieut-CoL Colby. Dublin, 1835.) 

Co. Antrim.— Two specimens in Science and Art Museum, Dubtin, 
from Cushendun, presented by Rev. S. A. Brenan, July 24th, 1895. A 
female was sent to me by Mr. C. Black, from Langford Ixxige, Crumlin, 
in April, 1895. I received a specimen on July 22nd, 1896, with Antrim 
post-mark, but imaccompanied by sender*s name. 

Co. Down.—" Met with eveiywhere."— (Alex. Knox, M.D., ** Histoij 
of Co, Down**; 1875.) 



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x897.] Jameson.— The Bats of Ireland, 37 

Co. Armagh — LoughgiUy ; common ; I have found the species there 
myself, and have since received specimens. I have also received it from 
Poyntzpass (Dr. W. R. MacDermott) ; and from Drumbanagher (Rev. 
F. W. Moeran). 

Ca MoNAGHAN.— Mr. W. F. De V. Kane tells me that this species 
occurs at Drumreaske. 

Co. Cavaj?.— I found a large colony in the tower of Kilmore Cathedral, 
in July, 1896, during the Field Club's excursion to that district 

Co. PSRMANAGH.— Bohoe Caves ; Rev. A. Knight (recorded by me, 
Irish Nat,, April. 1896). 

Co. Tyrone.— Aughnacloy (Kinahan ; Proc. Dub. Nat, Hist. Soc., 
vol. it, p. 154). Mr. Barrett- Hamilton has been informed by Mr. C. 
Indne that this species is common in Tyrone and Fermanagh. 

Co. Louth. — There is a large colony in the roof of Charlestown church ; 
and I have also found specimens in Louth church, and Killencoole 
church. I have received specimens from Knockbridge and Stephens- 
town. 

Co. MeaTh. — A specimen in the Science and Art Museum, Dublin, is 
labelled "Nobber, Co. Meath.*' 

Co. Dubinin. — "Common in many localities, " (Kinahan ; Proc. Dub, 
Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. ii., p. 154) ; recorded as *• frequent " by Barrington 
{Brit. Association Guide to Cos. Dublin and IVicklow^ 1878). There is a 
specimen from Rathfarnham in the Science and Art Museum, two speci- 
mens labelled " Dublin " in Trinity College Museum, and specimens have 
been sent to Mr. Williams from Lucan and the city. 

Ca WiCKl^w.— ♦* Frequent" (Barrington, Brit. Assoc. Guide), Mr. C J. 
Patten has a specimen from Bray in his collection ; M*Coy records a 
large colony in the roof of Castlemacadam church (Report of Dub. Nat. 
Hist Soc^ in Saunders'' s News-letter, Feb. 12, 1845). 

Co. Wexford. —Mr. Barrett-Hamilton tells me this species occurs at 
Kilmanock, and at Ballyhyland. 

Co. KiLDARE. — Specimen taken by Mr. F. Haughton, formerly in 
Royal Dublin Society*s collection (Kinahan ; Proc, Dub. Nat. Hist* Soc,, 
vol. il, p. 154). 

Co. Cari^ow.— A specimen from Oak Park was sent to me by Mr. 
Barrett-Hamilton. 

King's Co. — ^Mr. Barrett-Hamilton informs me that this species occurs 
at Edenderry. 

Co. Longford. — Specimen in British Museum from this county, 
presented by the late Dr. Dobson. 

Co. Waterford.— Common at Cappagh (Mr. R. J. Ussher) ; a large 
colony in Cappagh church. There is a specimen in Science and Art 
Museum, Dublin, from Dungarvan, presented by Mr. Ussher. 

Co. Cork.— " Common " (Cusack ; History of Co. Cork)\ Thompson 
says {NcU. Hist. Ireland) " Dr. R. Ball considers it more common, than 
^e Pipistrelle about Youghal." Castlefreke (Darling, Zoologist, 1893, 
p. 294). 

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38 The Irish Naturalist. [Pcb^ 

Ca Kerry.— Thompson tells us that " Mr. F. J. Neligan is of opinion 
that the Long-eared Bat is more common than the Pipistrelle in Ca 
Kerry." A specimen was taken at Teraght Light-house, nine miles off 
the coast, on November 17th, 1891, and sent to Mr. Barrington. 

Co. TiPPERARY.— Mr. H. J. Charbonnier, of Bristol, informs me that he 
received a specimen from Carrick-on-Suir in September, 1893. 

Co. LiMBRiCK.— Mr. Barrett-Hamilton has received records of this 
species from Limerick. 

Co. Gai^way.— Hon. R. K. Dillon tells me that the Long-eared Bat 
occurs at Clonbrock. 

Co. Mayo.— Ballina; '* not common *' (Mr. R. Warren). 

Gbnsrai^ — It may be worth noting that there is a buff-coloured 
individual of this species in the Science and Art Museum, Dublin, 
labelled "Ireland." It is strange that in the "Guide to Belfast and 
adjoining bounties,'* published by the Belfast Naturalists' Field Gub, 
this bat is merely recorded as ** having been observed" in that district, 
"but the Pipistrelle alone is common." 

The partiality of this species for the roofs of churches should make it 
a matter of comparative simplicity to determine its exact range in 
Ireland. I have also found it in a hole in an old building, about four 
feet from the ground, and Mr. Knight took it in the caves at Bohoe. 

I am familiar with the Long-eared Bat on the wing at night, and have 
usually found it flying low down along hedge-rows or in old country 
lanes with high hedges on either side. Early in the evening it can oflen 
be identified on the wing, owing to its immense ears. 

Vespertmo mystaclnusy Leisler. 
Whiskered Bat. 

Co. Fermanagh.— A specimen was killed in Bohoe rectory on July 
loth, 1895, by Rev. A. Knight (see my paper /. Nat,y April, 1896). This 
specimen is now in the Science and Art Museum, Dublin. 

Another was sent to me from Bellisle, Lisbellaw, by Mr. E. Porter, in 
August, 1896. This specimen was captured in a room, and is now in my 
collection. 

Mr. Charles Langham records a specimen captured at Tempo Manor 
in June, 1^,— (^Zoologist, 1896, p. 350.) 

Ca Louth. — I have twice taken this species at Killencoole, where I 
have reason to believe it is not uncommon ; both specimens were captured 
in the summer of 1894 ; the first I knocked down with a carriage-whip, 
when on the wing, the second I captured a few days later in the roof of 
an outhouse. I have also received a young specimen from Braganstown, 
found clinging to the wall of the house by Mr. W. Garstin. It is mnch 
more darkly coloured than the adult specimens. These three specimens 
are in my collection. 

Co. ClfARE.— The first Irish record of this species is by Kinahan ; a 
specimen was brought to him by a cat, at Feakle, Co. Clare. This speci- 
men, first recorded as K Daubentmii and exhibited as such before the 



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I897-] 'Jameson.— The Bats of Ireland. 39 

DubHn Natural History Society in Feb., 1853, was subsequently dis- 
covered to be V, mystacinus and recorded under this name.— (/Vw. Dub. /V, 
iy:5W-.,voL i., p. 148.) 

VMperUllo Nattererif Kubl. 
Natterbr's Bat— Reddish-grey Bat. 

Co. DONEGAI,.— One found dead at Carrablagb, by Mr. H. C. Hart, in 
June, 1891, now in Science and Art Museum, Dublin (Zoologist^ 1891, p. 271}. 

Co. Fermanagh. — I found, on looking over some specimens of 
V. DaubentoHti, sent me from Boboe caves by Rev. A. Knigbt, two speci- 
mens of this bat; they were killed at dusk in the cave, in company with 
the specimens of Daubenton's Bat, and a PUcotus auritus. 

Ca Louth.— One captured at Dundalk in June, 1893, and recorded by 
me {Irish Nat,^ August, 1893). 

Co. WiCKlfOW.— A specimen was killed by Mr. G. Mangan at the Scalp 
in 1845.— (M'Coy, Ann, and Mag, Nat, Hist, (i), vol. xv., 1845, p. 27a 

The various records from •* Dublin," *• Wicklow," " Enniskerry," 
near the city," &c., evidently refer to this specimen. 

Co. Longford.— A specimen in British Museum, presented by Dr. 
Dobson, is from this country. 

[Co. Kn^DARE ? See under V, Daubentonii.] 

Vespertine Daul>entonll9 Leisler. 

DAUBENTON'S BaT. 

Co. DoNEGAi;r^Lydekker {BriHsh Mammals, p. 44) states that this 
species has been recorded from Co. Donegal. 

Ca Londonderry.— A specimen was obtained by the Ordnance collec- 
tors in 1838. (Thompson, "Natural History of Ireland.") 

Co. Down.— Knox records this species in his ** History of Co. Down'* 
as " very rare," not stating any locality. Possibly he refers to the Deny 
specimen. 

Co. Fermanagh.— I found two large colonies of this bat in Bohoe 
caves in July, 1895, and subsequently received other specimens from 
Rev. A. Knight from the same locality. Some of these are in the Dublin 
Museum. — {Irish Nat,, April, 1896.) 

Co. Louth.— I observed a number of specimens fl3dng over the river 
at Braganstown (River Glyde) and knocked one down with a carriage- 
whip ; this specimen I have in my collection. They came out early at first, 
flying fairly high, but even then the pale colour of the fur on the under- 
side made them appear quite distinct from other species. Later, when it 
became darker, they adopted their peculiar method of flight, skimming 
over the surface of the water and occasionally touching the surface, 
leaving a faint ripple behind them. Mr. W. Garstin, who was with me 
when I secured my specimen, told me he was familiar with this bat on 
the river at Braganstown, but had never suspected that it was a rare 
species. Possibly other observers ma^ have remarked it elsewhere, 
passing it by as a Pipistrelle. 

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40 The Irish Naturalist. [Feb,, 

Co. KiifPAJUS — A colony was discovered in June, 1853, ^7 the late 
Prof. Kinahan* at Tankardstown Bridge, between Kildare and Queen's 
County, in a hole in the masonry, about four feet above water-lcveL 
First observed by Mr. F. Haughton on the River Barrow. These speci- 
mens, collected by Prof Kinahan, were at first identified as V, Natttrtri 
{Dub. Nat. History Review^ voL i., p. 22), and the mistake was subse- 
quently corrected, pp. 148-9. The confusion about the identification, 
and the records of the discovery, suggest that Daubenton s Bat was 
accompanied by V. NattereH at Tankardstown, and it is definitely stated 
that one specimen had a fringe of bristles on the intertemoral membrane 
(p. 87), which could not, therefore, have been V, Daubentonii. There is 
nothing to prevent the two species having occurred in the same hole, as 
there were Pipistrelles along with them also ; and the discovery by Mr. 
Knight of the Reddish-grey Bat in company with V'espertUio Daubcntcmi 
at Bohoe supports this conclusion. 

Co. Wexford.— Mr. R. M. Barrington received a specimen from 
Lucifer Shoals Light-ship which was caught •* flying low over the 
deck" at 7.30 p.m. on April 21st, 1891. The Light-ship is nine miles from 
the mainland. 

Vesperuffo piplstrellus, Schreber. 
Common Bat— Pipistrki^i^e. 

Co. Donegal. — Ballyshannon, ** plentiful" (Alingham'S ••Bally- 
shannon," Londonderry, 1879.) ; I have observed it at Cloghan, near 
Stranorlar; there is a specimen in Dublin Museum labelled ''Ca 
Donegal," presented by Mr. Hart 

J. V. Stewart (" Mammals and Birds of Donegal," Loudon's Mag. Nat. Hist., 
vol. v., 1832) speaks of " Vespertilio murinus, the Short-eared BaC prob- 
ably referring to this species. 

Co. Antrim.— "The only common species" (Belfast Naturalists' Field 
Club •• Guide to Belfast and adjacent Counties") ; I have received speci- 
mens from Mr. C. Black, Langford Lodge. Crumlin, in June, 1894 ; and 
in August, 1895, I found three complete skulls of this species in pellets 
cast up by owls, also sent from Langford Lodge by Mr. Black. Mr. C J. 
Patten has a specimen from Antrim town in his collection. 

Co. Down.—" Met with everywhere " (Knox, Hist Co. Down) ; I have 
received this species from Crossgar. 

Co. Armagh.— At Lough gilly I found this species extremely plentiful; 
I have also seen it at Poyntzpass. 

Co. MoNAGHAN. —Mr. W. F. De V. Kane informs me that the Pipistrelle 
occurs at Drumreske ; and I have received a specimen from Rev. D. C 
Abbot, taken at Monaghan town. 

Ca Fermanagh.— On July nth, 1895, 1 found a large colony in Bohoe 
Church (/mA Naturalist, April, 1896) ; and Mr. E. Porter sent me, in 
July, 1896, a number of specimens taken in an old coal-house near the 
lake at Lisbellaw. Mr. Barrett- Hamilton has been informed of its 
occurrence at Castle Irvine. 



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1S97O Jameson.— Z4^ Bats of Ireland, ^t 

Ca Cavan.— When in Cavan with the Field Club excursion in July, 
1896, 1 found a colony of this Bat at Famham House, and secured several 
specimens. I have since received specimens from Killeshandra. 

Ca Tyuokb.— I have received a specimen from Dungannon, sent by 
Mrs. Dnnsterville. 

Co. Louth.— I have met with this species plentifully at Killencoole 
and Charlestown, and have received specimens from Dundalk (Mr. G. J. 
Garratt), and Collon (Rev. R. M. P. Freeman). 

Ca Dubinin.— (Common (Kinahan, Proc, Dub. Nat, Hist, Soc., vol. ii., 
p. 154 ; Harrington, " Brit. Association Guide to Cos. of Dublin and 
Wicklow,*^ 1878). Kinahan mentions a specimen from Dundrum. 

Ca WiCKi/JW. — See under Dublin. 

Ca Wexford.— Mr. Barrett-Hamilton informs me that this is the 
commonest species at Kilmanock, and that it occurs at Ballyhyland ; 
also that there is a stuffed specimen in White's Hotel, Wexford, which 
was caught in a room in the hotel. 

Co. Kii,DARE.— One captured at Levetstown in 1853 (J. R. Kinahan, 
Dub. N. H. Review, vol. i., p. 25). Found in company with V. Daubentonii 
at Tankardstown. 

Go. Carlow — Mr. Barrett- Hamilton tells me that he received a 
specimen from Mr. P. Beresford, taken at Fenagh in Sept, 1890. 

Ca Longford.— A male in British Museum, presented by Dr. Dobson, 
is from this county. 

Ca Waterford.— Common at Cappagh (Mr. R J. Ussher). 

Ca Cork.—" Common" (Cusack, Hist Co. Cork) ; Youghal, Thompson 
(see under PUcotus auriius). I received specimens from Mallow captured 
by Miss P. Massy in August and September, 1893. 

Ca KERRY.^Thompson (see under P. auriius) \ mentioned also by 
Kinahan {Proe. Dub. Nat. Hist, Soc, vol ii., p. 154). 

Ca LiMKRiCK.—" Plentiful'* (Mr. H. Martin, per Mr. Barrett' 
Hamilton). 

Ca Mayo. — Ballina, common (Mr. R Warren). 

Ca Sl«ioa — Ballymote, one captured by myself in June, 1892. 

Vesperuffo Lelslerl, Kuhl. 
Leisi^r's Bat— Hairy-armed Bat. 
"Co. Antrim. — First recorded as Irish by ProC Kinahan in Proceeding 
of Belfast Nat. Hi,st. and Phil. Society, April, i860, from specimens taken 
at Bel voir Park in 1848, and in Belfast in 1858. (See Kinahan, Proc, Dub. 
Nat, Hist: Soe., voL ii., p. 154.) I have received it from Langfofd I^dge 
(Mr. C Black). 

Ca Down.— I received from Mrs. Dnnsterville a specimen taken at 
Newry in August, 1894. (See under Antrim, " Bel voir Park.") 

Co. Armagh. — Found in numbers in 1868 and 1874 in demense at 
Tanderagee by Mr Barrington {ZcoU^'st, 1874, p. 4017); and at Tar- 
taraghan in 1875. by Rev. G. Robinson (J. Gatcombe, Zoologist, 1875, 
ji. 4419). I frequently observed this Bat at Loughgilly, and have in my 
collection a male which I shot there in June, 1891. 



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44 1%€ Irish I^aturalisL [*eb^ 

Co. Phrmanagh —Mr. Barrington found a colouy in the roof of a 
boat-house at Grum Castle in June, 1882 (Zoologist, 1883, p. iiQu Mr. C. 
J. Patten has in his collection a specimen taken at Derrylin in 1887. A 
specimen taken in a room in Bohoe Rectory was sent to me in July, 1896- 

Co. CAVAN.—While I was in Cavan with the Field Clubs in July, 1896, 
Mr. S. Jones brought me a specimen^ which he had picked up dead in 
the town of Cavan. Since then I have received specimens from KiUa- 
shandra. 

Co. I/>UTH. — I have shot this species at Killencoole and Braganstown, 
at both of which places it is very plentifui 

Co. Dubinin.-- Glasnevinjuly, 1874 0. D. O^Vay, Zooiogist^ 1874, p. 4336); 
there are specimens in the Dublin Museum labelled " Dublin," ** Pingias," 
and '* Dunsink ** ; a specimen was shot at Carrickmines by Mr. B. C. 
Barrington (Zoologist, 1893, p. 427); I have received a ^>ecimen from 
Blackrock (Miss £. J. Kelsall), and have observed it on the wing in the 
same locality. 

Ca WiCKi<ow.-— Passaroe, Bray (Barrington, Zoologist, 1875. p. 4532); 
Mr. Barrington has met with this species more than once since, and I 
have seen it on the wing at Fassaroe. 

Ca Kixj>ARB.— Specimen shot at Levitstown by Mr. P. Haughton in 
June, 1874. 

Co. Oai^way.— Hon. R. E. Dillon tells me he is familiar with a large 
bat at Clonbrock, but a specimen he sent me unfortunately never readied 
me ; and as we have so far no certain West of Ireland records of V. Loisleri, 
we must wait for specimens before assuming that this species occuis 
there. 

With regard to the reported occurrence of V. nociula in 
Ireland, and certain questions relating to V. Leisleri which 
are raised thereby, I hope shortly to publish another paper. 

Bats at Ijghthguses. 

The following records from the Irish I^ight-stations, as 
reported by Mr. Barrington's correspondents in the " Migra- 
tion" schedules, have been supplied to me by Mr. Barrington:— 

1884. Rockabill Lighthouse (5 miles o£F Dublin Coast): ** July 14th— 
Bats about light all night ; wind light, S. W.** This is the first entry of 
** bats" Mr. Barrington received from his correspondents. 

1886. Pastnet Lighthouse (8 miles from coast of Cork) : ** October 3rd 
one bat seen, sleeps in cleft on rock.** 

1889. Arranmore : see under PUcotus auritus, 

1891. Lucifer Shoals Lightship (9 miles off Wexford coast): "April 
2ist— Bat caught at 7.30 p.m., fl3ring low about ship, striking man on 
watch; it died next day. Wind N.E., moderate; weather clear." This 
specimen was sent to Mr. Barrington and proved to be V, Dau^onioiuL 

Blackrock, Mayo (lighthouse, 9 miles off shore): "August i8th— «iie 
bat about rock at night" 



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1 897.] jAMBSOit. — The Bats of Ireland. 4^ 

Tearaght Lighthouse (9 miles off coast of Kerry).— On 17th November, 
a Long-eared Bat flew into one of the houses at dusk. Mr. Barrington 
received this specimen on January 23rd, 1892. 

1892. Drogheda, N. light: May 13th— "Two bats in evening, flying 
<:lose to station ; wind light, S.W. ; fi»t seen here." June 9th—** Three 
l)ats flying about station at 10 p.m." (Lighthouse at end of sand-hilb 
near shore.) 

1894. Drogheda, N. : June 12th—" Sevetal bats flying about at 9.30 
p.m. Wind moderate, N. Weather gloomy. First seen for a longtime.'* 

I regret that I can procure no information as to the occur- 
rence of Bats on the islands off the Irish Coast ; possibly some 
readers of the Irish Naturalist can produce some such records. 



A PLUME-MOTH NEW TO THE BRITISH ISLES. 

BY CH4RLBS G. BARRKTT, F.E.S. 



Among some Micro-lepidoptera recently sent to me for 
examination by Mr. W. F. de V. Kane are several specimens 
of Platyptilia tesseradactyla, L. (Fischeri, Z.), a very pretty 
little "plume" moth not previously known to occur within 
the limits of the United Kingdom. It is much like Platyptilia 
gonodactylus — the species found among Tussilago farfara, but 
less than one-half its size, yet having a very similar form of 
wings and dark triangular blotch on the fore-wings before the 
fissure. Outside this blotch we find white transverse bars 
on the dark grey-brown ground-colour, and before it are two 
or three dark spots. The hind wings are dark smoky fuscous, 
with a yellowish dash in the cilia at the tip of each fissure, 
and a blackish spot on that of the hind lobe. 

These specimens were taken by Mr. Kane and the Hon. R. E. 
Dillon, near Clonbrock, and elsewhere in the County Galway, 
flying about a species of Gnaphalium on dry banks near bogs. 
The insect is widely distributed on the Continent, and it is 
somewhat remarkable that it has not yet been discovered in 
Great Britain. I think that the occurrence of so interesting a 
novelty in Ireland should be recorded at once in the Magazine 
conducted in Dublin, and beg therefore to forward this note 
at the same time as I record the discovery in \h^ Entomologists^ 
Monthly Magazine. 



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by Google. 



44 "i^he Irish MaiuralisL !Teb., 



FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT 
OF MEI.ANISM IN MOTHS. 

BY W. F. DE V. KANK, M.A., F.E.S. 



1 DESIRE to record a fur-ther corroboration of the arguments 
contained in my paper dealing with the remarkable instance 
of melanism ^n Camptogramtna bilineata {Irish Nat,, vol. v., p. 
74.) I referred therein to three examples of Dianthacia 
capsopkila taken on the same island oflf the Kerry coast, in 
which I discovered the variety isolata of the former insect, and 
stated that they also showed remarkable melanic tendencies. 
I desire now to record my success in breeding this summer 
seven examples of D. capsopkila from larvae there found. 
They all* are melanic also, one specimen especially being 
almost a unicolorous black, the hind wings somewhat paler at 
base. On the fore wings can be distinguished only partial 
traces of outlines round the stigmata, one or two minute dots 
on the costa, one on the inner margin, and the chequers of 
the fringe. It is, therefore, evident that, as I pointed out in 
the paper above referred to, the local environments other than 
climatic conditions (which are the same as those of the main- 
land a few miles distant) have influenced this noctuid as well 
as the geometer. And as I have bred specimens of D, capso- 
pkila from other islands off" the Irish coast— namely, from 
Inishmore (Aran), and one situated opposite Renvyle, Conne- 
mara, which are not melanic, it results that some especial 
peculiarity attaches to the rock-island in question off Kerry- 
As I have already discussed this, it is not necessary to enter 
upon it again. 



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1897-] 45 



A FRENCH TRAVELLER IN IRELAND. 

lrl«nd« et Cavemes Aiifflala^s. Par E. A. Martbi,. Paris, 1897. 
(I«ibrarie Ch. Dclagrave.) 

This book is the ontcome of the travels of its accomplished author 
during the summer of 1895. He states that he has been induced to write 
it, firstly by the successful issue of his explorations of the caves, and 
secondly, because of the ** admiration and interest which the natural 
beauties of Ireland and its archaeological treasures, both too little knoMrn 
by travellers " have given him. " Ireland," he aays, " has been called the 
land of the Great Elk, and of the Giant's Causeway,'' thus defining it by 
its two principal scientific curiosities : the majestic fossil deer, and the 
marvellous basaltic columns of the County Antrim. " But," he continues, 
''the definition is incomplete : Ireland is also the country of unequalled 
sea-cli£Fs, of charming lakes with hundreds of islets, of mysterious sub- 
terranean rivers ; of unexplained cromlechs and enigmatic round-towers, 
of enchanting and luxuriant parks and scenery, of heathen legends, 
mystical beliefs, and heroic traditions ! " 

It will be seen from these quotations that Monsieur Martel has carried 
away from his stay among us a rose-coloured impression of the country. 
Of the state of the people his conclusions are as cheerful. He deprecates 
the importance which former writers, especially Mile, de Bovet, in her 
•* Trois Mois en Irlande," have given to the political contests and dis- 
orders of the time. He finds everywhere he went, ** the aspect of the 
country, the animals and the people much less miserable than I had 
expected; innkeepers and drivers, fishermen and farmers, barge-men 
and labourers, all owned that for the past five or six years a universal 
reaction from the former state of misery had set in to relieve everyone.'* 
He proceeds to say that he does not wish to attempt to estimate the 
reasons for, or the extent of the change — he merely wishes to state its 
effect on the pleasure of the tourist. " Whatever may be said of the 
beggars, they are less persecuting than in too-hackneyed Italy— the 
reception met Mrith everywhere is more affable, the good humour and 
native cordiality of the worthy Irish make them eminently sympathetic ; 
the hotels of the larger towns, and those of the Causeway, Kilkee, 
Killamey, etc., lack nothing of the comfort and excel in charming 
simplicity those of SMritzerland," and even in the remote villages 
where the search for unknown caves led him« '* the inns were such as 
would be commended in Dalmatia and in Greece, or even (must it be 
owned ?) in many of the chief cantonal towns of the Cevennes or 
Dauphinfc." 

After this handsome testimony to the charms of travel in Ireland* 
Monsieur Martel describes the exploration of the Marble Arch cave in 
^nniskillen. He had here the assistance of Mr. Jameson, who had been 
deputed by the Fauna and Flora Committee of the Royal Irish Academy 
to accompany him. The curious underground river was explored by 



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46 The Irish ifaturalisL [t^el)., 

means of a portable boat It was found to be closed by the rock descending 
to or below the snrface, causing siphons whence the waters emerge. 
The plan of the different galleries and passages is most complicated. 
The connection between two of them was discovered by the finding on 
the sand of the riverside in one passage of a little wooden collecting-box 
dropped by Mr. Jameson some days before in another cave. 

After several days spent here, Monsienr Martel explored Arch cave, and 
then proceeded to the North and West of Ireland. We have not space 
to' follow his travels nor his appreciative notices of the interesting archseo- 
logical remains of Clonmacnois, the Aran Islands, and the Rock of Cashd, 
which latter he describes as one of the principal curiosities, not only of 
Ireland, but of Europe. Nor can we do more than mention his enthu- 
siastic admiration for Killarney, which, he tells, will more than bear 
comparison with the most renowned beauty-spots of Europe. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Dublin he finds much of interest 
and beauty. Especially he was interested in the wonderful tumuli of 
New Grange and Dowth, and in the remarkable discoveries which Mr. 
Coffey has made in them. He adds that it is impossible to avoid being 
impressed by the analogies of construction between these remains and 
those of Troy and Mycenae. 

The illustrations are not the least of the attractions of this apprecia- 
tive and entertaining book. Taken in great part from photographs, 
they have been selected with care, and show many varied aspects of the 
scenery and ruins of Ireland. Some have been supplied by Mr. Welch, 
who has done so much to add to our knowledge of picturesque Ireland. 

We can strongly recommend this book not only to intending tourists 
but to Irish people in general, and particularly to the Irish Tourists' 
Association, an account of the formation of which is given on page ii. 
A description of some of the English caves concludes the volume. 

R. F. S. 



PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



ROYAI, ZOOI^OCICAI^ SOCIRTY. 

Recent gifts comprise a Hooded Crow from Mr. Herbert Brown, two 
Capuchin Monkeys and four Ringed Snakes from Judge Boyd, a Bam 
Owl from Mr. H. Freith, a Pheasant from Mr. B. Ireland, and a monkey 
from Dr. Joy. Two Lion cubs were bom in the Gardens on December 
i6th, and five Cape Hunting Dogs on January 4th. A Teguexin and a 
pair of Shovellers have been acquired by purchase. 

3,380 persons visited the Gardens during December. 



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1897O Proceedings of Irish Societies. 47 

DUBUN Microscopical Ci«ub. 

N0V8MBSR 19,— The Club met at the house of Mr. G. H. C arpsnTSR, 
who showed specimens of the larva of the dipteron Simulium, taken at 
Carton, Maynooth. These highly interesting aquatic larvae are fully 
described by Prof. Miall in his recent book on the " Natural History of 
Aqnatic Insects." Fastened by a sucker at the hinder end of the body, 
they set up currents in the water and sweep food into their mouths by 
means of a pair of processes with long fringes situated on the head. 

Prof^ T. Johnson showed a preparation of a microscopic green disc- 
like alga, PHngskeimia scutata, Rke., which is found as an epiphyte on 
P^fysiphonioy Zostera, and other marine plants. It is closely related to 
Myc0uUa parasitica^ which causes a coffee disease, and to Phycopeltis^ of 
which Mr. Jennings recently described two new species before the 
Royal Irish Academy. P, scutata was added to the list of Irish marine 
algse on the B.N. P.O. dredging excursion in July last in Belfast Bay, and 
is recorded by Miss Hensman and the writer in the Irish Naturalist for 
October, 1896. 

Mr. Grsbnwood Pim showed a remarkable mould parasitic on leaves 
of Rape, sent him by Rev. Canon Russell from near TuUamore. 
It belongs to the genus Ramularia, Mr. Massee of Kew, to whom 
specimens were submitted, vrrites that he had no hesitation in stating 
it to be a typical Ramularia—'hvLt undescribed specifically. It is intended 
to publish a description of it in an early number of the Journal of Botany ^ 
under the name of Ramularia rapa, 

Mr. McArdxa exhibited a specimen oiLepidozia setacta^ Web. (I«indberg), 
bearing perianths on short lateral branches. The plant, though widely 
distributed in Ireland, is remarkable in the form of its leaves, which are 
transversely placed on the stem and divided into two or three setaceous 
segments, incurved and jointed by transverse septa ; those near the 
apex of a shoot become nearly verticiUate, which gives the plant a 
remarkable appearance; in this way it approaches closely one other 
liverwort, BUpharostoma trichophylla, I«inn. (Dumort). Sir Wm. Hooker 
states in his " British Jungermaniae "* that the resemblance of these two 
plants when under the microscope to Conferva verticillata is worthy of 
remark. 

Mr. R. J. MiTCHBlrl, showed several photo-micrographs of sections of 
rocks and plant-stems. 

Rev. Canon Russki^i, exhibited the wing of a Chalcid-fly, and called 
attention to four rings set in the fork of the stigma in which an offshoot 
from the subcostal vein terminates. These discs, so far as he can learn, 
have not been noticed heretofore. A fine nerve was observed passing 
near or through one or more of these rings, which the exhibitor believes 
may be traced all along the subcostal vein, to a row (or rows) of oval or 
round vesicles at the base of the wing, closely resembling the so-called 
otoconia or otoliths found in the halteres of the diptera. Mr. Russell 
showed a sketch from the pen of a correspondent of a balancer of 
Sarcophaga camaria, in which a similar arrangement is apparent 



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48 The Irish Naturalist [t'eb.. 

Whether these bodies are organs of smell or sound, Mr. Russell leaTcs 
to the judgment of those who know more about the matter than he 
does, to decide. 

Dbcbmber 17th.— The Qub met at the house of Dr. McWeenky, who 
showed Widal*8 method of diagnosing typhoid fever. The blood or 
serum of the patient is mingled with a pure living cultivation of 
Bacillus typhosus. Should the case be one of typhoid the bacilli quickly 
lose their motility and become agglomerated. If the disease be other 
than typhoid, or should the blood be derived from a healthy person, the 
active movements of the bacilli are not interfered with and agglutination 
does not occur. Bacilli other than typhoid fail to give the reaction with 
ty{>hoid blood. These points were successively demonstrated by means 
of serum of a typhoid patient contained in a capillary tube and cultures 
of B* typhosus and B. pyocyamus in broth. The test seemed likely to 
become one of the most valuable methods of diagnosing typhoid. 

' Prof. C013 showed a rock-section given to him by Prof J. W. Judd, 
cut from a specimen collected on Rockall by Capt Hoskyns in 1863. 
The rpck from this remote Atlantic islet was described by Prof Judd in 
a paper read before the Royal Irish Academy in November, 1896. 

■ Mr. Greenwood Pim showed an alga, Nodularia Harveyana, growing 
on a living and healthy palm leaf in the Trinity College Gardens. The 
very unusual nidus and the velvety appearance to the naked eye induced 
the exhibitor at first to regard it as a black mould resembling Sporouhlsma, 
Prof. T. Johnson showed a preparation of AfonobUpharis imignis^ R. 
Thaxter, an aquatic fungus found by Prof. Thaxter, to whom the exhibitor 
was indebted for the slide, on submerged tMrigs in ponds and ditches in 
Massachusetts and Maine. MonohUpharis is remarkable as being the only 
fungus possessing motile male organs or antherozoids, uniciliate and 
half the size of the biciliate zoospores. Thaxter's illustrations {Botanual 
Gasette, 8th Oct, 1S95), were shown. MonobUpharis is allied to the genus 
Saprolegnia^ One species of which is the salmon-disease fungus. 

-Mr. McARDl^E exhibited a specimen ot Lefeunea Holtii^ Spruce, which 
was gathered on shady rocks below Tore Waterfall, Killamey, by Mr. G. 
A. Holt, of Manchester, in 1885. The plant resembles L. flava^ Swartz, 
but differs from every other European Lejeuma in the perianths being 
borne on short branchlets which normally put forth no sub-floral inno- 
vations, such as more or less exist in all our other species. The speci- 
men exhibited showed perianths; and the pale reddish tinge^ofthc 
f<iliage, which is remarkable, and is not seen in any other species, was to 
be observed. The re-discovery would be of interest and botanical im- 
portance; it has not been found amongst the numerous gatherings 
made by Mr. McArdle, or by any person that he is aware of, since 1S85. 

Dr. C. Herbert Hurst exhibited preparations illustrating the struc- 
tnre of the larval gnat 

Mr. A. Vaughan Jennings showed a preparation made by Mr.Coppen 
Jones, F.i*.3., of Davos Platz, showing the branched or mycelial stage of 
the organism causing tuberculosis. It is now being recognized by 
baisteriologists that the so<alled Tubercle Bacillus may be only a stage 



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i«97] Proceedings of Irish Societies. 49 

in. the life*history of some higher fa]igas,.probably related to Actinomyces, 
and Mr. Jones' investigations and preparations seem to place the matter 
beyond doubt 

Mr. Jennings also exhibited a new genus of Bacteria of remarkable 
stellate form, probably related to the Pasteuria of Metschnikoff. 



Bei,fast Naturai, History and Phiwsophicai:, Society. 

January 5. — Mr. L. Lw Macassey, B.L., read a paper entitled '* A Run 
through the Moume Mountains." It was illustrated with a fine series of 
photo slides, by Mr. R. Welch. 



Bei^fast Naturawsts' Fiei,d Ci,ub. 

November 26.— The Geological section met, the principal attraction 
being a fine collection of Vesuvian lavas, recently presented to the Natural 
History and Philosophical Society, who kindly lent them for the occa- 
sion. Various forms of flint were also shown by G. M'Lean. The 
honorary secretary exhibited a specimen from near Annalong of that rare 
rock variolite,presented by Professor Cole,who recently rediscovered this 
very obscure dyke; also a copy of the new index-map of the Geological 
Survey of Ireland, received on behalf of the Club from Mr. Nolan, who had 
kindly coloured it by hand. A boulder of the famous Shap granite found 
in glacial drift in Yorkshire, obtained from Mr. Platnauer, of York 
Museum, by Miss M. K. Andrews (who also presented some Isle of Man 
rocks), was presented ; also specimens from Messrs. R. Bell and G. M'Lean. 
Mr. L. M. Bell exhibited and presented very fine examples of euxite, 
intruding in masses and veins into Ordovician rocks, from Newcastle 
Waterworks. A letter from the chairman of the Botanical section (Rev. 
C H. Waddell), suggesting a joint meeting of the sections later in the 
season, was read and approved. The desirability of acquiring apparatus 
for rock-slicing was also discussed, and a subscription started for the 
purpose. 

Dbcember 26.— The geological section had a successful excursion to 
Dromore. Rev. David Thompson met them on arrival, and conducted them 
to the cathedral, and to the fine old cross, which was successfully restored 
some years ago. A fine section of boulder clay in a brickfield shows a 
kwer layer of tough blue clay, capped by an almost equal depth of red clay. 
Special interest attached to the question whether this diflerence in colour 
indicated two different periods of deposition, but the conclusion arrived 
at was that there was no proof of such unconformability, the difference 
in colour being probably due to oxidation of the upper layer. Erratics 
from Ailsa Craig, Gushendall, and other distant localities, occur in the 
ligation. The splendid fort, finely placed in a protecting bend of the Lagan, 
was visited in a storm of wind and misty rain. 



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so The Irish Naturalist. tW>^ 

The section met again at the Museum on 31st inst, when Mr. W. J. 
Fennell showed some excellent photographs made at Dromore. Mr. R. 
Bell exhibited part of a fossil crab from the chloritic sands of Colin Gten, 
and ripple-marked Trias from Crow Glen ; Mr. A. G. Wilson, granites 
from Slieve Gallion (Derry), and Galway. 

Prof. SoUas' paper and map of the eskers of Ireland was exhibited bj 
the honorary secretary. Mr. G. MacLean presented specimens of steatite 
and lithomarge to the section. The suggestion that Professor Cole 
should again be invited to hold a class in Belfast in spring was cordisllj 
welcomed, and the secretary instructed to communicate with him ss to 
possible arrangements. After devoting half an hour to determining the 
specific gravity of some rocks, the meeting terminated^ 



Dubinin Naturai,ists' Fieu) Ci.ub. 

I>BCBMBBR8.— The Prbsidbnt in the Chair. The minutes having been 
read, the President called for nominations of officers and committee for 
1897, and read the following list of nominations made by the com- 
mittee :— President, Prof. G. A. J. Cole; Vice-President, R. Uoyd 
Praeger; Secretary, Prof T. Johnson; Treasurer, H. H. G. Cuthbert; 
Committee, G. H. Carpenter, J. J. Dowling, Rev. T. B. Gibson, Miss 
Hensman, C. H. Hurst, Miss Kelsall, B. J. McWeeney, R. J. Mitchell, 
G. Pim, H. J. Se3rmour, Miss Singleton, Mrs. Tatlow. 

Rev. IAkxwkuu H. Ci^sb read a paper '* On the Former Abundance 
of Granite Boulders in the Killiney District and elsewhere," which 
appears in our present issue. 

Rev. W. S. Grbbn, m.a.. Inspector of Fisheries, exhibited a series of 
lantern-slides of photographs taken on the expedition sent out last June 
to explore the vicinity of the islet of Rockall, in the North-east Atluitic, 
and briefly described the experiences of the party and the results of 
their cruise. The PrbsidbnT added some information relative to the 
geology of the Rockall plateau, and Mr. Praeger, as a member of the 
expedition, made a few remarks. 

Mr. GrBBNWOOD Pim exhibited the "Animated Oat** Avtma sUriHtt 
which possesses long kneed twisted awns, which are very sensitive to 
moisture, and by their twisting and untwisting force the seed into the 
ground. He also exhibited a new fungus disease of the Rape {Hmmmiarm 
sp.)t which will shortly be named and described. 

Mr. Prabgbr showed some rare Irish flowering plants collected ii 
1896, an account of which will appear in these pages. 

The Prbsidbnt announced that the Committee had had before thca 
the question of the proposed closing of the Giants' Causeway, and had 
decided to open a subscription list in aid of the Defence Fund, and thst 
contributions would be received at this and subsequent meetiagSL 
A number of members entered their names on the list dnrtng the 
evening. 



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1897O Proceedings of Irish Societies. 5 1 

January 12.— The Annual General Meeting was held.the President (Prof. 
Cole) in the chair. The minutes of the previous meeting having been 
read and signed, the Secretary (Mr. Praeger) read the annual report of 
the Committee, of which the following is an abstract :— the membership 
stands at 200, 23 new members having been elected during the year, and 17 
struck ofL Five winter meetings were held, and were well attended ; in 
addition a successful conversazione took place at the opening of the 
Venter Session. The seven summer excursions arranged by the Com- 
mittee were all carried out satisfactorily. The best thanks of the Club 
are due to Count Considine, Mr. Samuel Jones (Cavan), and Mr. J. G. 
Nutting, for facilities rendered on these excursions. The inter-Club 
work, for the development of which the Irish Field Club Union was 
founded, has been steadily carried on. The Committee charged with the 
investigation of the cryptogamic flora of Dublin and Wicklow report that 
progress is being made. The Committee of the Club recommend a grant 
of ;£^io to the Editors of the Irish Naturalist^ and another at the rate of 2<f. 
per head on the Club membership to the Field Club Union Committee^ 
to assist in defraying the expenses of the year 1896b The best thanks of 
the Committee are due to the Council of the Royal Irish Academy for 
continued permission to hold the Club meetings in their rooms. The 
Committee have opened a Club subscription-list in connection with the 
Giant's Causeway Defence Fund. 

Prof. Johnson then submitted his report and statement of account as 
Treasurer, which showed a balance of ^37 i8x. 11^. in the Club's favour. 
The adoption of the report and accounts was moved by Mr. A. Shackleton, 
seconded by Mr. J. E. Palmer, and passed after a discussion, and reso- 
lution referring to the Committee the drafting of a rule on the subject 
of new members depositing their entrance- fee prior to election* The 
Chairman declared the following office-bearers for 1897 elected according 
to the rules:— President, Prof. G. A. J. Cole, F.G.S.; Vice-President, 
R. Lloyd Praeger, BJL, B.E. ; Secretary, Prof. T. Johnson, D.Sc, F.L.a ; 
Treasurer, H. Gore Cuthbert ; Committee, G. H. Carpenter, B.Sc., J. 
J. Dowling, Rev. T. B. Gibson, M.A, Miss Hensman, C H. Hurst, Miss 
B. J. Kelsail, B. J. M*Weeney, M.D., R. J. Mitchell, Greenwood Pim, 
M.A., H. J. Seymour, Miss Singleton, Mrs. J. T. Tatlow. A grant oi £10 
to the Editor of the Irish Naturalist^ as recommended in the report, was 
proposed by Prof Johnson, seconded by Miss Kelsall, supported by Mr. 
A Shackleton, and passed ; as was also the grant recommended to the 
Field Club Union, on the motion of Dr. Hurst, seconded by Mr. J. F. 
Shackleton. On the motion of Mr. J.J. Dowling, seconded by Mrs. Ross 
the best thanks of the Club were voted to the Council of the Royal Irish 
Academy, for their courtesy in allowing the Club to meet in their rooms 
during the year. A vote of thanks to the press for regularly reporting 
the proceedings of the Club was passed at the motion of Miss M'Intosh, 
seconded by Mr. A. Roycrofl. Miss M. P. Johnson, Miss S. Paxton, and 
Miss E. Paxton, were elected members of the Club. 

A discussion ensued relative to places to be visited during the coming 
fommer, and other matters. Dr. Hurst stated that he was authorised by 



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5a The Irish Naturalist. [Feb., 

Prof. Herdman, President of the Liverpool Marine Biological Association, 
to invite members to Join that Society's Easter trip to Port Erin, Isle of 
Man, 



LiMKRICK NATURAI^ISTS' FlEl,P CXFR 

January i4.->The fourth annual meeting of the Limerick Naturalists' 
Field Club was held in the Board-room of the Sayings Bank. The 
attendance was very large, the Board-room being inconveniently over 
crowded. Mr. Archibald Murray, President of the Club, occupied the 
chair. 

The Chairman having opened the proceedings, 

Mr. Neale,.Hon. Secretary, read the annual report, of which the 
following is an abstract : — 

The Committee are pleased to be able to state that the record has been 
one of unbroken progress, not only in numbers, so far as the increase of 
mere membership is concerned, but also in the increased interest taken 
in its working, both as to meetings and excursions. This has been 
proved in regard to the former by the response to the proposal that a 
course of botanical lectures would be carried out in the now current 
session, should a sufficient number be found willing to attend them. 
No less than fifty entered their names within ten days after the 
announcement had been made, and almost four-fifths of these have 
attended the lectures held up to the present. 

The excursions of the Club during 1896 were successful, and the fonr 
carried out were well attended. The wet weather of the latter part of the 
summer and autumn compelled the abandonment of the other two, 
^uch. to the regret of all concerned. The thanks of the Club are due to 
E. J. Phelps, Esq., of Waterpark, Castleconnell, for his invitation to 
provide tea at Doon Island wood. The meetings and excursions of the 
Club during 1896 were— January 23rd, Annual Meeting; February i8th, 
adjournment of same ; March 3rd, Photomicrographic Demonstration, 
with hints on slide making, by Drs. W. A. and G. Fogerty ; March 24th, 
Microscopic Fungi, by Mr. W. Thorp ; April 14th, Lantern Exhibition by 
the Photo* Section; November 17th, Butterflies, how and where to find 
them, by Mr. F. Neale ; December nth, Irish Animals, old and new, by 
Mr. G. H. Carpenter. Excursions— May 14th, Caherconlish— Ahem^ 
Carboniferous Limestone Quarry, the Demesne, and the Poriphyritic 
Basalt exposure in the vicinity; June nth, Iniscaltra, or Holy Island, 
I^ough Derg; July 15th, Ciamaltha, or Keeper Hill, Co. Tipperaiy; July, 
31st, Glenomera Wood and Valley, Co. Clare. 

It is a matter for regret that we cannot yet say much actual field work 
has been done by our members in any department of natural science, 
the only botanical record of interest reported during the year being 
the occurrence of Viper's Bugloss {Echium tmlgare) found growing on 
the railway line near Foynes by Mr. R. D. O'Brien. In ornithological 
matters it may be well to note that the Nightjar was compatatiTelj 



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1897-J Proceedings of Irish Societies. 53 

abundant on the higher edges of Cratloe wood last summer, and that an 
albino example of the Common Swallow was taken near Croom. A new 
Irish insect has again been added to the list by your Secretary, who, in 
July, in Cratloe wood, took several examples of an interesting long-homed 
arboreal orthopteron, known to science as Meconema varia^ a veiy beautiful 
little creature of the grasshopper tribe, whose life appears to be spent in 
the pupa and imago stages, amongst the oak-trees of such woods as It 
frequents. The discovery of the ground-beetle Panageus crux-majcr, which 
was reported in 1895 as having been taken at Pinlough, Co. Clare, and 
made such a stir as a Germanic insect hitherto confined to the S.E. of 
Bngland, has again been taken at same place in fair abundance, thus 
demonstrating that it may be looked upon as a resident, and not a strag- 
gling casual or erratic member of the genus, which had lost its way, as 
the single specimen of 1S95 was supposed to be. A future is apparently 
before the Photographic Section of the Club, which was only estab- 
lished in February last It has already good work to show. 

The year has witnessed a gain in membership of 60. Starting a year 
ago with 50, there were on the 31st December last no names on the 
list Some mention has been made from time to time as to opening an 
Archaeological section, but no decision has so far been come to. A suit- 
able place of meeting has been a matter demanding the serious attention 
of the Committee during the year, and an arrangement has been made 
with the Trustees of the Savings Bank for the use of its board-room* 
The hearty thanks of the Club are due to the Committee of the Free 
Library for so kindly placing the use of its board-room, with gas, etc., at 
our disposal throughout the year and entirely free of charge. 

The report was put and adopted. 

Mr. Joseph Stewart, Treasurer, submitted the balance sheet, which 
was considered satisfactory, there being at present a credit balance of 
£1 17^' 5^« He moved that the financial statement be adopted. 

Mr. Neale seconded the resolution, which was passed unanimously. 

The Secretary nominated Dr. W. A. Fogerty as President for 1897, Mr. 
J. Greene Barry and Mr. B. Barrington as Vice-Presidents; Treasurer, 
Mr. Joseph Stewart ; Committee, Miss Ebrill, Mrs. R. Gibson, Mr. R. D. 
(^Brien, Mr. P. O'Meehan, Mr. E.Taylor; Secretary of the Photographic 
Section, Dr. George Fogerty; and General Secretary, Mr. F. Neale. 
These gentlemen had been recommended by the last meeting of the 
Club. 

The appointments as proposed were made unanimously. 

Mr. Barry proposed a resolution connected with an Antiquarian 
section, as follows :—" That it is desirable to have an Antiquarian 
section in connection with this Club, and that the same be, and is hereby, 
established.'* 

Mr. James Frost, J. P., seconded the proposition. 

The resolution was passed unanimously. 

This closed the ordinary business, and a magic-lantern display followed 
of photographic views taken by members of the Club, amongst whom 
were— Mr. F. B. Angley, Canon Hadyn, Mr. Griffith, Mr. Webb, Miss 
Bennis, Mr. Sams, Mr. Fogerty, Mr. B. Barrington, Miss ^rill, Miss 



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54 The Irish NaiuralUL [FA, 

Byans, Mr. Joseph Stewart, and Mr. Parker. Besides these, serenl 
photos by non-members were exhibited. Mr. R. Welch, of the Bel£ut 
Naturalists' Field Clnb, sent some photos of wild-flowers in their natnzal 
position, birds* nests, geological slides, and antiquarian remains^ 

The exhibits in the body of the room were as follow: — ^Natural History 
Exhibits— Birds, shells, fishes, insects, fossils, seaweeds, and dried plants; 
snakes, scorpions, etc., in spirit ; skull of Bos longifrons^ etc, etc. Irish 
Antiquities — Stone and bronze implements, celts, coins, ornaments, 
etc. Photo-micrographic apparatus, with prints and transparencies of 
botanical, zoological, and other subjects. Photographic Prints — ^Rock 
formations, sections, outcrops, etc ; also scenery, antiquities, Atiiw^aif! 
etc., etc 

In another part of the building. Dr. I^aird explained the powers of the 
RSntgen Rays. During the evening a' musical programme was gone 
through under the conductorship of Mr. Kendal Irwin, Mrs. Fogerty, 
and some other ladies and gentlemen kindly assisting. 



FIELD CLUB NEWS. 
On another page we publish a report of the Annual Meeting of the 
. Limerick Club, which took place on 14th inst The success of this 
meeting affords a striking proof of the rapidly-increasing popularity of 
this, the youngest, of the Irish Field Clubs. During the year the 
membership has risen by over 100 per cent., and on the present occasion 
the large attendance taxed to the utmost the capacity of the fine board- 
room of the Savings Bank, where the meeting was held. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Dublin Club, held on January 12, Ht, 
Hurst stated that he was authorised by Prof. Herdman, President of the 
Liverpool Biological Association, to invite members of the Club to take 
part in the Association's Easter excursion to Port Erin, Isle of Man. 
This is an excellent opportunity for students of Marine Biology. We 
feel sure that Prof. Herdman would extend the invitation to the Belfast 
Club, should any of the northern members wish to avail themselves of 
it 

Miss Thompson, Secretary of the Geological Section of the Bel&st 
Club, writes : — 

The Club has frequently had reason to acknowledge gratefully much 
kind assistance from the officers of the Geological Survey of Ireland. 
Since the formation of the Geological Section of the Club in 1893, Mr. 
M*Henry has rendered invaluable assistance by undertaking the 
laborious task of inspecting all unknown erratics and naming their 
place of origin, for publication in the Annual Report A copy of the 
new Index map just published by the Survey has been presented to the 
Club by Mr. Nolan, who has furthermore coloured the divisions 
included in each memoir, which greatly enhances its value for rapid 
reference. 



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1897.1 Fuld Club News. .35 

On December loth and nth, Mr. G. H. Carpenter, B.sc lectured, as 
delegate from the Dublin Clnb, before the Clubs of Cork and Limerick 
on the subject of ** Irish Animals, Old and New." In Limerick the 
meeting was held in the Town Hall, in Cork in the ball-room of the 
Imperial Hotel, and there was a large audience at both places. 

The Limerick Clnb has just inaugurated a course of lectures on botany 
by Dr. W. A. Fogerty which promises to be highly successfuL The number 
of applicants for tickets was almost inconveniently large, and if supple- 
mented by field work in the spring, the course should be of much service 
in arousing interest in the as yet imperfectly known flora of the district. 

The Cork Club also propose to hold courses oflectures early next year. 
Miss Martin has undertaken a botanical series, while the secretary, Mr. 
J. L. Copeman, will contribute discourses on insects. 

It is very desirable that our Clubs should possess herbariums easily 
available, for purposes of study or comparison, to all their members. 
The nucleus of such a collection was recently presented to the Belfast 
Club by Miss S. M. Thompson, to whom it was originally given by the 
late Mr. William Darragh, Curator of the BelfiEist Museum. The Collection 
comprises 433 species, and was made by his son, Mr. John Darragh, one 
of the original members of the Club, during the year ending March, 
1865. It has therefore a certain historical interest, dating from the 
second year of the Club's existence, when the presence and teaching of 
Pro£ Ralph Tate had aroused such a keen interest in the study of 
natural history about Belfast — an interest which resulted in the 
establishment of the first Irish Field Club. The practical value of such 
a collection is shown by the constant reference made to it during the 
monthly botanical meetings organized by the Rev. C. H. Waddell. 



NOTES. 

BOTANY. 

PHANEROGAMS. 
Euphrasia SallsburffenslSy Funk* In Co. Qalway. 

In August, 1892, while botauising in the rough limestone country by 
the south-eastern shore of Lough Corrib, near the little village of Men* 
lough, we noticed a curious-looking Euphrasia^ and collected a few speci- 
mens of it These were sorted away and forgotten until recently, when 
having occasion to turn through our Euphrasia cover, we were struck by 
their resemblance to Mr. Townsend's figure and description of ^. Salisbur-' 
gemii in the November number oi th.^ /oumal of Botany, We have for- 
warded specimens to Mr. Townsend, who writes :— **they are more typical 
than the Mayo plant gathered by Mr. Marshall, bracts narrower, teeth 
longer, more patent and aristate. The finding of this species in another 
county is a very valuable confirmation oi Euphrasia Saiisburgemis^ Funk, 
being a native of Ireland." H. & J. Groves. 



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55 Tk€ Irish NaturalisL tFdx, 

ZOOLOGY. 
Distribution of British Marine Plankton. 

Many of the organisms commonly found in the plankton of the sea 
around the British Coast exhibit remarkable variations in their relative 
abundance at particular localities from year to year, but little is known as 
to the extent and causes of such variations. As a number of naturalists 
make use of the tow-net at many places around the coast, especially 
during the summer, much valuable information would be obtained, if in 
all cases records were kept of the presence or absence of a limited num- 
ber of the commoner species, and these records subsequently brought 
together. 

In the hope that Irish naturalists may be willing to assist in obtaining 
such information, I send a short list of organisms, the presence or absence 
of which I would ask to have recorded at any locality and as often as the 
tow-net may be used during the year 1897. Halosphctra viridis, Noaiimes 
miliaris, Aurelia aurita ('including Ephyra), Agalmopsis^ Muggiaa atiantux^ 
ffomtiphora plumosa^ Beroe, Tomopteris, Arunnalocera PaUrsoni^ Doliolum^ Sclpa. 
Where the generic name only is given in the above list, the specific name 
of the specimens taken should be added. Should any doubt exist, pre- 
served specimens should be kept. 

In making a record the following should be stated :—Datb ; Hour; 
LoCAi^iTY. (With as much accuracy as possible). Depth, (depth of water 
and maximum depth at which net has been worked) ; Quantity— 
(o. Absent; i. Few only; 2. Moderately plentiful; 3. Exceptionally 
abundant.) Observations on the temperature of the sea, and notes on 
wind, tide, &c., will also be of value. Records should be sent in before 
January 31st, 1898, or forwarded from time to time to me at the Marine 
Biological Association, Plymouth. 

B. J. Aj:,i,bx. 

INSECTS, 
Bntomolofflcal Notes. 

CoifSoPTBRA. — In the canal between Po3mtzpass and Scarva I met with 
Coelambus v.'iineafuSf Noterus davitomis s.n^ Ilybius fuligincsMS, A young 
friend brought me some beetles which he had captured at Portntsh in 
August last, among these were Amara fiilvoy A, bifnms and A. ctmU; 
Anchonunus dorsalis^ CaUUhus micropierus^ Bembidium rufescens^ B, saxatile^ 
Cercyon littorcUis^ Ocypus morio^ O. cupreus^ Xantholinas glabratus^ X, disUau, 
Necrodes lUioralis (a small form), Geotrupcs vemalis and Otiorrhynckm mtrtop- 
Urus, The specimens had all been picked up on the sand-hilla. Mis. 
Johnson brought me a few beetles from the sand-hills at Newcastle, Ca 
Down. Her opportunities for collecting were unfortunately limited and 
she got but few; the following were her captures: — Broscus cepktdtits^ 
CaUUkusfuscus^ Btmbidium liUoraUy CoccincUa xu-punctata^ Aphodms scybtUttnm 
and Otiarrfynckus miuorum. 



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1897-3 . Notes. 57 

In moss from my own fields I took PUroitichus versicolor, Anchomenus 
dorsalisy Btmbidium obtusum^ Quedius fuHginosuSj Q, molochinm, Q, rufipes, 
Pkiianthus iniermediuSfStenus spectilator^S, latifronSyScydnianus coUaris^Anisoioma 
cakaraia^ Atomaria basalts, LongUarsus melanocephalus, De G., PsylliocUs 
napi, Apteropoda orbiculata, Cassida flaveola^ Apion dichroum, Otiorrhinchuss 
sch6nkerrtij Hypera punctata, H. polygoniy Sitones suturalis, &c. 

HbmlpTBRA. — I have made but few captures in the order and none of 
special note; the following are all I can record :—7>v/iVom rufipes, 
Stygnus rusttcus, S, arenarius apd Miris calcaratus. 

Hymbnoptkra— In this immediate neighbourhood in addition to 
those mentioned in my last note (Jrish Nat., vol. v., p. 273), I have met 
with HcUictus cylindricus making its burrows in a bank near a small lake, 
Meffachile ceniuncularis hard at work on rose-leaves in my garden, Myrmica 
sulcinodis in moss. On Bray Head in August I met with a working 
Bombus venustus on heather, and while clambering along the cliff captured 
a number of Vespa germanica which were evidently attracted by honey-dew 
on the leaves of the Coltsfoot, for I was able to box them with but little 
difficulty, and those which I saw to be K vulgaris, and consequently 
rejected, frequently fell down to the ground as if stupified by what they 
were imbibing. In the same locality I took Lasius flavus, Formica fusca 
and Leptothorax acervorum, I had no net with me, being only on a hurried 
visit, or I might have obtained other specimens. 

Lepiooptera — Sugar proved an utter failure, for scarcely any moths 
came to it, and those of the commonest description. — In my own dairy 
I took a nice Crocallis elinguaria, and on the way to Loughbrickland cap- 
tured it again and a specimen of Hyponomeuta cagnagellus. In the grounds 
here, I captured Triphana comes, a nice red form ; these were taken in July. 
August and September were practically a blank owing to the very wet 
iveather. Since then my only capture has been Cheimatobia brumaia, which 
was very plentiful in November. 

w. F. Johnson. 

Coleoptera taken at Tempoy Ennlsklllen. 

During the spring and summer of 1896 I secured a number of beetles, 
mostly by sweeping in a marshy meadow. A few were found under 
stones, bark, &c, and some among moss. I have to thank Mr. Halbert 
{or kindly identifying most of them for me, and I have furnished him with 
a list of the species taken (about 200 species) for use in compiling the 
Catalogue of Irish beetles on which he is engaged in collaboration with 
Rev. W. F.Johnson and Mr. Carpenter. The following are among the scarcer 
and more noteworthy species : — Carabus monilis, Pelophilaborealis, Coelambus 
quinquelineaius, Tachyporus obtusus, var. nitidicollis, Leistotrophus nebulosus^ 
Baptolinus altemans, Olophrum piceum, Nccrodes liiioralis, Halyzia conglobata 
SMiu^ha^us dispar, Dermestes lardarius, Geotrupes vemalis, Telephorus nigricans^ 
l.paludosus, Ptilinus pectinicomis, Chrysomcla fastuosa, Diporaus betulat^ 
Pfyliobius argmtatus, P. pomofug,' Barynotus SckonAerrii, Hylobius obietis^ 
Grypidius equisdi, Erirrhinus otAiops, Dorytomus maculatu