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THE IRISH NATURALIST; 



^, l^lcrnttihj Srmtvnal 



OF 



GENERAL IRISH xNATURAL HISTORY, 



THR OFFICIAI, ORGAX OF 

The Rot/al Zoological Society of Ireland ; The Duhlin Microscopical Club ; 

The Belfast Natural History and Pliilosophical Society ; 

The Belfast Naturalists' Field Club ; The Dublin Naturalists' Field Club ; 

The Annayh Natural History and Pliilosophical Society ; 

The Cork Naturalists' Field Club ; The Limerick Naturalists' Field Club. 



Editp:d by 

GEORGE H. CARPENTER, B.Sc, Lond, 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.LA. 



VOL. IV. 



DUBLIN : EASON & SON, Limited, 

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i^ 




CONTRIBUTORS \^ 

TO THE PRESENT VOI.UME 

G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton, b.a., New Ross. 

R. M. Barrington, I.I..B., F.L.S., Fassaroe, Bray. 

W. Bennett Barrington, Cork. 

F, J. Bigger, m.r.i.a., Belfast. 

Rev. S. a. Brenan, B.A., Knocknacary, Co. Antrim. 

D. C. Campbei.1., Londonderry. 

George H. Carpenter, b.sc, f.e.S., Science and Art 

Museum, Dublin. 
Prof. J. W. Carr, m.a., f.i,.s., f.z.s., Nottingham. 
Prof. G. A. J. Cole, f.g.s., m.r.i.a., Royal College of 

Science, Dublin. 
James Coleman, Southampton. 
Nathaniel Colgan, m.r.i.a., Dublin. 
Arthur J. Collins, Belfast. 
H. K. Gore Cuthbert, Blackrock, Co. Dublin. 
John H. Davies, Lisburn. 
J. E. DuERDEN, Kingston, Jamaica. 

E. C. Farran, Templeogue, Co. Dublin. 

Rev. W. W. FlEmyng, m.a., Coolfin, Co. Waterford. 

Percy E. Freke, Dundrum, Co. Dublin. 

Rev. Hilderic Friend, f.l.s., Cockermouth. 

E. A. Gibbon, Rosslare, Co. Wexford. 

Rev. T. B. Gibson, m.a., Dublin. 

Henry Groves, f.l.s., London. 

James Groves, f.l.s., London. 

J. N. HalberT, Science and Art Museum, Dublin. 

R. Hanitsch, PH.D., Liverpool. 

Prof. G. V. Hart, ll.d., q.c, Dublin. 

Miss Hensman, Dublin. 

T. V. Hodgson, Birmingham. 

H. Lyster Jameson, Castlebellingham. 

Prof. T. Johnson, d.sc, f.l.s.. Royal College of Science 

Dublin. 
Rev. W. F. Johnson, m.a., f.E.s., Poyntzpass, Co. Armagh. 
W. P\ de V. Kane, m.a., F.E.S., Drumreaske, Co. Monaghan. 
Richard J. Kelly, Dublin. 
G. H. KiNAHAN, M.R.I.A., Dublin. 

Robert J. Kirwan, b.a., b.e., Oughterard, Co. Galway. 
\V. J. KnowlES, m.r-la., Ballymena, Co. Antrim. 



iv Contributors. 

Rev. H. W. Lett, m.a., Loughbrickland, Co. Down. 

H. C. LEVINGE, D.iy., F.I..9., Knockdrin Castle, Mullingar. 

C. LONGFIELD, Enniskeane, Co. Cork. 

David M'ArdIvE, Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin. 

Prof. E. J. McWeeney, m.a., m.d., Dublin. 

James N. Mii.ne, Londonderry. 

C. B. Moffat, Ballyhyland, Co. Wexford. 

Miss More, Dublin. 

A. R. NiCHOivS, B.A., Science and Art Museum, Dublin. 

R. A. PHILI.IPS, Cork. 

R. Ll/OYD PraEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.I. A., Dublin. 

CI.EMENT Reid, fx.S., F.G.S., London. 

Rev. James Robertson, Cork. 

R. F. SCHARFF, B.sc, PH.D., M.R.I. A., Science and Art 

Museum, Dublin. 
REGINAI.D Scui^ivY, F.L.S., Dublin. 
M. Jose Simpson, Ballymena, Co. Antrim. 
W. SiNCi^AiR, Strabane. 
W. F. S1NCI.AIR, Chelsea. 

Prof. W. J. SolIvAS, i^L-d., f.r.s., m.r.i.a., Dublin. 
R. Standen, Owens College, Manchester. 
S. A. Stewart, f.b.s.e., Belfast. 
Mrs. Thompson, Cork. 
Miss S. M. Thompson, Belfast. 
Brockton Tomlin, Llandaff. 
R. J. USSHER, J.P., Cappagh, Co. Waterford. 
Rev. C. H. Waddei.1., b.d., Saintfield, Co. Down. 
James J. Walker, R.n., f.e.S., H.M.S. "Northampton." 
Miss Amy Warren, Ballina. 
Robert Warren, j.p., Ballina. 
W. W. Watts, f.g.s-, London. 
R. Welch, Belfast 

Prof. E. Perceval Wright, m.d., f.l-s., m.r.i.a., Dublin. 
Joseph Wright, f.g.s., Belfast. 



INDEX. 



•:o: 



Adeorbis imperspicuus, 348. 
Adventitious Branching in Liver- 
worts, 81. 
Aglaozonia reptans, 341. 
Algae, Perforating, 139. 
Algae of Galway Excursion, 241, 
Alien Plants, 20. 
AUurus flavus, 35. 
Antrim, Scenery and Geology of, 

338. 

Arachnids of Galway Excursion, 
254 ; of Londonderry, 105. 

Aranmore Flora, 249. 

Archaeology of Galway Excursion, 
271. 

Armagh Natural History and Phi- 
losophical Society, 346. 

Artemisia SteHenana, 77. 

Astacus fluviatilis, 50. 

Attus floricola, 348. 

Aviary, 286, 307, 336. 

Ball, v.— Portraits of Irish Men of 
Science, &c., 135 ; Obituary 
Notice of, 169. 

Barrett-Hamilton, G. E. H.— In- 
troduction of English Hares into 
Ireland, 224 ; Irish Mammals, 65, 
85, 167 ; Sabine's Snipe, 12 ; 
Stock-dove and Crossbill in Co. 
Carlow, 296. 

Barrington, R. M. — Obituary 
Notice of A. G. More, 109. 

Barrington, W. Bennett. — Rare 
Birds in Co, Cork, 166. 

Bass in Donegal Bay, 296. 

Beetle, new British, 213. 

Belfast Natural History and Phi- 
losophical Society, 23, 51, 75, 
108, 167. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, 24, 
52, 75, 107, 134. 187, 220, 293, 343 ; 
Review of Proceedings, 185. 

Bigger, F. J. — Archaeology of Gal- 
way Excursion, 271. 

Bipalium Kewense, 165. 

Birds, aviary, 286, 307, 336 ; of 
Coasts of Sligo and Mayo, 180, 
198; of Loughs Conn, Carra, and 
Mask, 117 ; of Donegal, Fer- 
managh, Sligo, and Roscommon, 
142 ; rare, near Wexford, 319 ; 
rare, in Co. Cork, 166. 

Bittern, Little, in Co. Carlow, 224. 

Bougainvillia ramosa, 74. 



Brambles, Irish, 20. 

Brenan, S. A. — Summer Visitants 
at Knocknacarry, 166. 

Buckthorn in King's Co., 165. 

Bundoran, Rock-pools of, i, 346. 

Burnet, Lesser, in North of Ire- 
land, 135. 

Bustard, Little, in Co. Longford, 105. 

Campbell, D. C. — Spring Migrants 
in Londonderry District, 167. 

Carex Buxbaumii in Scotland, 318. 

Carpenter, G. H. — Animals found 
in the Mitchelstown Cave, 25 ; 
Arachnida of Galway Excursion, 
254; Attus floricola, 348 ; Collem- 
bola and Thysanura of Galway 
Excursion, 257 ; Diptera of Gal- 
way Excursion, 253 ; Erebia epi- 
phron var. cassiope near Sligo, 
77 ; Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, 
and Neuroptera of Galway Ex 
cursion, 257 ; Lepidoptera from 
Sligo, 191 ; Myriopoda of Galway 
Excursion, 256 ; New British 
Pantopod, 297 ; Notes on a new 
British Beetle, Otiorrhynchus 
auropunctatus, 213. 

Carr, J. W. (witli R. Lloyd Praeger) 
— Phanerogams, Ferns, &c., of 
Galway Excursion, 246. 

Castagnia zosterae, 74. 

Cave-fauna of Mitchelstown, 25. 

Caves, Irish, 57, 92, 94. 

Cetonia aurata, 348. 

Chara canescens, 50. 

Characeae, Distribution of, in Ire- 
land, 7, 37; Irish, 77, 318. 

Chlamydococcus pluvialis, 22. 

Chthonius Rayi, 133. 

Ciconia alba, 166. 

Cladocera from West of Ireland, 
190. 

Clotenia conirostre, 292, 297. 

Clunio marinus, 73. 

Cole, G. A. J.— Geologist at the 
Luncheon-table, 41 ; Review of 
Guide to Geological Survey 
Collections, 314 ; on the Fenestil- 
lidae, with Reference to Irish 
Carboniferous Strata, 100; the 
Naturalist in the Mourne 
Mountains (Review), 105. 

Coleman, James. — Additional Irish 
Caves, 94. 



3y756 



vi 



index. 



Coleoptera: collected in Co. Car- 
low, 329 ; from Co. Dublin, 78 ; 
from North of Ireland, 79; in 
Ireland during the Spring, 1895, 
207, 289 ; Irish, 207 ; of Galway 
Excursion, 259. 

Colgan N. — Further Notes on the 
Flora of Co. Dublin, 53 ; Orchids 
of Co. Dublin, 193. 

Collembola of Galway Excursion, 

257- 
Collins, A. J. — Unusual Retreat 

for Grouse, 51. 
Columba aenas, 296. 
Corixa, Stridulation of , 79, 224, 

319- 
Cork Naturalists' Field Club, 108, 

168, 346. 
Crayfish, 50. 

Crossbill in Co. Carlow, 296. 
Cryptostemma alienum, 219. 
Cuthbert H. K. G.— Co. Dublin 

Hymenoptera, Captures in 1894, 

104 ; Insects from Rosscarbery, 
. 303 ; with the Wild Bees in 

Glencullen, 60. 

Davies, J. H. — Ephemerum ser- 

ratum in Co. Antrim, 164 ; 

Poterium Sanguisorba in the 

North of Ireland, 135. 
Diplophyllum minutum, 219. 
Diptera of Galway Excursion, 263. 
Disintegration of Shells 139. 
Donax vittatus var. truncatus, 18. 
Dublin Microscopical Club, 22, 72, 

106, 133, 167, 219, 292, 341. 
Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, 52, 

75, 108, 134, 168, 189, 221, 294, 

320, 345. 
Duerden, J. E- — Rock-pools of 

Bundoran, i. 
Dyschirius obscurus at Lough 

Neagh, 224. 

Earthworm, new Irish, 35. 
Ectocarpus secundus, 219. 
Ephemerum serratum in Co. 

Antrim, 164. 
Erebia epiphron var. cassiope, 

77- 
Erythraea pulchella, 20, 77. 

Eurotium repens, 133. 

Farran, E C. — Trichoniscus roseus 

near Dublin, 296. 
Fauna of Galway District, 252. 
Fenestellidae, 100. 
Field Club Union, 134, 225. 
Field Club Work in the North, 185. 



Flemyng, W. W. — Occurrence of 
the Marten in Co. Waterford, 
224. 

Flora of Aranmore, 249 ; of Cork, 
332 ; of Co. Dublin, 53 ; of Galway 
District, 238 ; of Howth, 174, 
318; of Westmeath, 64. 

Foraminifera of Galway Excursion, 

252. 
Freke, Percy E.— Irish Psythyri, 

166. 
Friend, Hilderic, — a new Form of 

Irish Earthworm, 35. 
Frullania dilatata, 342. 
Fungi of Galway Excursion, 238. 
Fungus, a new Irish, 273. 

Gallinago cailestis var. Sabinii, 12. 

Galway Field Club Conference, 
134, 225. 

Geological Notes from West Gal- 
way, 151. 

Geological Survey Collections, 
Guide (Review), 314. 

Geologist at the Luncheon-table, 
41. 

Geology of Antrim, 338 ; of Galway 
Excursion, 335 ; of Ireland, 314. 

Gibbon, E. A. — Rare Birds near 
Wexford, 319. 

Gibson, T. B.— My Birds, 286, ,'«o7, 

Giraudia sphacelarioides, 74. 
Glacial Deposits, 321 ; of Dublin 

and Bray, 80. 
Glenospora Curtisii, 219. 
Glaeosporium orchidearum, 167. 
Groves, H. and J. — Distribution of 

the Characese in Ireland, 7, 37. 
Gulls, Black-headed, 192. 

Halbert, J. N.— Coleoptera col- 
lected in Co. Carlow, 329 ; Cole- 
optera from Co. Dublin, 79 ; 
Coleoptera from the North of 
Ireland, 79 ; Coleoptera of the 
Galway Excursion, 259 ; Hemip- 
tera of the Galway Excursion, 
258; Insects collected at the 
Seagull Bog, TuUamore, 172 ; 
Insects collected in the Fermoy 
and Blackwater District, 45 ; 
Orthezia cataphracta, 104. 

Hanitsch, R. — The Fresh-water 
Sponges of Ireland, 122. 

Hares, English, i^n Ireland, 224. 

Hart, G. V.— Lepidoptera at Howth 
in 1894, 21. 

Hedgehogs in Captivity, 136. 

Helix arbustorum near Armagh, 
348. 



Index, 



Vll 



Hemiptera of Galway Excursion, 

258. 
Hensman, Miss— Some Causes of 

the Disintegration of Shells, 

139; (with T. Johnson) Algae of 

the Galway Excursion, 241. 
Herberta adunca, 22. 
Hodgson, T. V. — Cladocera from 

the West of Ireland, 190. 
Hullite, 133. 
Hymenoptera of Co. Dublin, 104 ; 

of Galway Excursion, 257 ; of 

Glencullen, 60. 

Ichneumons, new Irish, 319. 

Insects collected at Coolmore, 95, 
161 ; collected at Seagull Bog, 
172; from Rosscarbery, 303: of 
Fermoy and Blackwater District, 
45 ; of Galway Excursion, 257. 

Irish Field Club Union, 134, 225. 

Irish Moths, 19. 

Irish Plants in London Catalogue, 
190. 

Jameson, H. Lyster. — Irish Mam- 
malia, 296. 

Johnson, T., and Miss Hensman — 
Algse of Galway Excursion, 241. 

Johnson, W. F. — Dyschirius ob- 
scurus at Lough Neagh, 224 ; 
Primrose in November, 347 ; 
Report on Insects collected at 
Coolmore, Co. Donegal, 95, 161 ; 
Spring Lepidoptera at Armagh, 
223 -, Spring Migrants at Armagh, 
166. 

Jubula Hutchinsiae, 190. 

Jungermania bicrenata, 219. 

Kane, W. F. de V.— Irish Moths, 
19 ; Lepidoptera of Galway Ex- 
cursion, 263 ; New Irish Ichneu- 
mons, 319 ; Thecla betulae in Co. 
Wexford, 21. 

Kelly, Richard J. — Plague of Beetles 
in Galway in 1688, 190. 

Kill o'-the-Grange glacial beds, 
321. 

Kinahan, G. H.— Kitchen Middens, 
Co. Donegal, 21 ; Notes on Black- 
headed Gulls, 192. 

Kirwan, Robert J. — Geological 
Notes from West Galway : the 
Galway and Clifden Railway, 151. 

Kitchen Middens of Antrim, 80; 
of Donegal, 21, 80. 

Knotweeds, Irish, 303. 

Knowles, W. J. — Kitchen Middens 
of Antrim, 80 ; Kitchen Middens 
of Donegal, 8ov 



Labrax lupus, 296. 

Leeches, Irish, 165. 

Lejeunea calyptrifolia, 73 ; flava, 
167 ; patens var. cochleata, 133 ; 
serpyllifolia, proliferous, 74. 

Lepidoptera at Armagh, 223 ; at 
Howth in 1894, 21 ; from Sligo, 
191 ; Irish, 19; of Galway Excur- 
sion, 263. 

Lepton Sykesii in Killala Bay, 348. 

Lett, H. W.— Irish Rat at Lough 
Brickland, 80. 

Levinge, H. C. — Plants of West- 
meath, 64. 

Lias at White Park Bay, 192. 

Limerick Naturalists' Field Club, 

77- 
Lipura Wnghtii, sp. nov., 31, 342. 

Liverworts, adventitious Branching 

81 ; of Galway Excursion, 243. 

Longfield, C. — Smew in Co. Cork, 

105. 
Loxia curvirostra, 296. 



Machetes pugnax, 296. 

Macrosporium cheiranthi, 74. 

McArdle, D. — Adventitious Brandl- 
ing in Liverworts, 81 ; Mosses 
and Liverworts of Galway 
Excursion, 243. 

McHenry, A., and W. W. Watts- 
Guide to Geological Survey 
Collections (Review), 314. 

McWeeney, E. J. — A Curious Coin- 
cidence, 317 ; Fungi of Galway 
Excursion, 238; a new Irish 
Fungus, 273 ; Utility of noting 
Fungus-localities, 317. 

Mammals, Irish, 65, 85, 167, 296. 

Marten in Westmeath, 21 ; in Co. 
Waterford, 224. 

Megaceros marl, 131. 

Mergus albellus, 105. 

Metzgeria conjugata, proliferous, 

74- 
Micropeplus tesserula, 74. 

Microvelia pygmsea, 133. 

Migrants at Armagh, 166; at 
Knocknacarry, 166 ; in London- 
derry District, 167. 

Milne, Jas. N. — Helix arbustorum 
near Armagh, 348; New Irish 
Spiders from Londonderry, 104. 

Mitchelstown Cave Fauna, 25. 

Moifat, C. B.— Second Flowering of 
Artemisia Stelleriana, 77 ; Thecla 
betulae in Co. Wexford, 78. 

Mollusc, new Irish, 335. 

Mollusca of Galway Excursion, 
264 



I i « 

Vlll 



Index. 



More, A. G. — Bibliography of 

Writings, 113; Memoir of, 331 ; 

Obituary Notice of, 109. 
More, Miss,— Memoir of A. G. 

More, 331. 
Mosses of Aran, 317; of Galway 

Excursion, 243. 
Moths, Irish, 19. 
Mus hibernicus, 80. 
Myriopods of Galway Excursion, 

256. 

Naturalist in the Mourne Moun- 
tains (Review), 105. 
Nectria sanguinea, 73 ; sinopica, 

133- 
Neuroptera of Galway Excursion, 

257- 
Newts, Irish, 135, 166. 
Nichols, A. R. — Stridulation of 

Corixa, 79. 

Obituary Notices. — V. Ball, 169; A. 
G. More, 109. 

Orchids of Co. Dublin, 193. 

Ornithology of Loughs Conn, 
Carra, and Mask, 117 ; of Coasts 
of Sligo and Mayo, 180, 198 ; of 
Donegal, Fermanagh, Sligo, and 
Roscommon, 142. 

Orthezia cataphracta, 104. 

Orthoptera of Galway Excursion, 

257- 
Osprey in Co. Kerry, 105. 

Otiorrhynchus auropunctatus, 213. 

Otis tetrax, 105. 



Pandion haliaetus, 105. 
Pantopod, a new British, 297. 
Peronospora affinis, 317. 
Phanerogams of Galway Excursion, 

246. 
Phillips, R. A.— Waifs and Strays of 

the Cork Flora, 332. 
Phoma betse, 167. 
Pilularia in Connemara, 165,292. 
Pisidium hibernicum, 335. 
Plague of Beetles in Galway, 190. 
Plant Remedies, 318. 
Plants, aUen, 20 ; of Aranmore, 249 ; 

of Cork, 332 ; of Galway District, 

238 ; of Howth, 174, 318 ; of West- 

meath, 64. 
Plumatella repens, 223. 
Polygon a, Irish, 305. 
Polypogon monspeliensis, 20. 
Porcellio pictns, 166. 
Poterium Sanguisorba in North of 

Ireland, 135. 



Praeger, R. Lloyd— Aran Island 
Brambles, 318; Buckthorn in 
King's Co., a Correction, 165 ; 
Erythroea pulchella on North 
Bull, 77; pnora of Howth, 38; 
General Account of Galway Field 
Club Conference and Excursion, 
225 ; Irish Characese, a Correc- 
tion, 77 ; Notes on the Flora of 
Howth, 174; Notes on the Flora 
of Aranmore, 249 ; Review of Bot. 
Exch. Club Report and Watson 
Bot. Exch. Club Report, 339 ; 
Review of London Catalogue of 
British Plants, 163 ; Pilularia in 
Connemara, 165 ; Raised Beaches 
of Inishowen, 278 ; (with W. J. 
SoUas), Notes on Glacial Deposits 
in Ireland, II. Kill-o'-the-Grange, 
321 ; (with J. W. Carr), Flowering 
Plants, Ferns, &c., of Galway Ex- 
cursion, 246. 

Primrose in November, 347. 

Pseudopsis sulcata, 74. 

Psithyn, Irish, 166. 

Puccinia obscura, 317. 

Putorius hibernicus, 136. 

Pycnogon, a new British, 297. 

Quartz, Quartzites, and Quartz- 
rocks, 316, 340. 

Radula voluta, 106. 

Raised Beaches — Inishowen, 278 ; 
Portmarnock, 134. 

Rat, Irish, 80. 

Reid, Clement—Origin of Mega- 
ceros Marl, 13 1. 

Reviews. — Belfast Naturalists' 
Field Club Proceedings, 185 ; 
Botanical Exchange Club Re- 
port, 1894, and Watson Botanical 
Exchange Club Report, 1894-95, 
339 ; Cole's Scenery and Geology 
of Co. Antrim, 338 ; Newtown 
School Literary and Scientific 
Association, 39th Report, 339 ; 
McHenry and Watts's Guide to 
the Geological Survey Collec- 
tions, 314; London Catalogue of 
British Plants, 163. 

Rhamnus catharticus,i65; frangula, 
165. 

Riccia glaucescens, 296. 

Robertson, James— Stridulation of 
Corixa, 319. 

Rock-pools of Buodoran, i, 347. 

Rooks, Carnivorous Habits, 105. 

Rose-beetle in Ireland, 348. 

Royal Zoological Society, 22, 51, 72, 
io6, 133, 167, 187, 219, 292, 320, 341 



Index. 



IX 



Rubi, Irish, 20; of Aran, 318. 
Ruff in Co. Wicklow, 296. 

Scapania aspera, 73. 
Scharff, R. F.— Addition to the 
Irish Molluscan Fauna, 335 ; 
Bipalium Kewense, 165 ; Cave at 
Ballymote, Co. Sligo, 94 ; Fresh- 
water Crayfish in Co. Dublin, 50; 
Irish Newts, 135, 166; Porcellio 
pictus, 166 ; Plumatella repens. 
m Ireland, 223 ; Some Notes on 
the Irish Caves, 57 ; Some Notes 
on Irish lyeeches, 165 ; Testacella 
haliotidea in Co. Dublin, 80; 
Wanted, Live Newts, 105 ; Wood- 
lice of Co. Carlow, 319. 

Scully, R. W.— Chara canescens in 
Ireland, 50 ; Erythraea pulchella 
and Polypogon monspeliensis 
on the North Bull, 20 ; Some 
Cork Aliens, 20; Vicia lathy- 
roides in Co. Wicklow, 20, 

Simpson, M. Jose — Hedgehogs in 
Captivity, 136. 

Sinclair, W.— Bass in Donegal Bay, 
296. 

Sinclair, W. F.— Rock-pools of 
Bundoran, 347. 

Sinella cavernicola sp. nov., 30. 

Smew in Co. Cork, 105. 

Snipe, Sabine's, 12. 

Sollas, W. J., and R. Lloyd Praeger 
— Notes on Glacial Deposits in 
Ireland ; II. Kill-o'-the-Grange, 
321. 

Sphseria canescens, 341. 

Spirula Peronii in Co. Antrim, 348. 

Sponges, Fresh-water, of Ireland, 
122. 

Standen, R. — Mollusca of Galway 
Excursion, 264. 

Stewart, S. A.— Moss Flora of 
Aran, 317. 

Stoat, Irish, 136. 

Stock-dove in Go. Carlow, 296. 

Stork, White, near Athy, 166. 

Streptothrix nigra, 22. 

Stysanus ulmariae, sp. nov., 273. 

Taenia serrata, 342. 
Tanystylum conirostre, 292, 297. 
Testacella haliotidea in Co. Dublin, 
80. 



Thecla belulae, 21, 78. 

Thompson, M. — Stridulation of 

Corixa, 224. 
Thompson, Miss S. M. — Geology 

of Galway Excursion, 235. 
Thysanura of Galway Excursion, 

257. 
Tomlin, B. — Rose-beetle m Ireland, 

348; Spirula Peronii in Co. 

Antrim, 348. 

Trichoniscus roseus near Dublin, 

296, 

Ussher, R. J. — An Ornithological 
Exploration in Donegal. Fer- 
managh, Sligo, and Roscommon, 
142 ; Notes on the Irish Caves, 

92- 

Ustilago Vaillantii, 219. 

Verticillium latertium, 73. 
Vicia lathyroides, 20. 

Waddell, C. W.— Irish Knotweeds, 
305 ; Irish Plants in the new 
London Catalogue, 190 ; Jubula 
Hutchinsiae, 190. 

Walker, James J. — Captures of 
Coleoptera in Ireland during the 
Spring.of 1895, 207, 289. 

Warren, Miss Amy — Donax vitta- 
tus var. truncatus, 18 ; Lepton 
Sykesii in Killala Bay, 348. 

Warren, Robert — Breeding Birds 
of Loughs Conn, Carra, and 
Mask, 117 ; Birds observed breed- 
ing on the Coasts of Sligo and 
Mayo, 180, 198. 

Watts, W. W.— Quartz, Quartz- 
rocks, and Quartzites, 316, 340. 

Welch, R. — Exposed Lias at White 
Park Bay, Co. Antrim, 192 ; Wild 
Flowers in the Glynns of Antrim 
in Mid-winter, 50. 

Winter Flowering of Wild Flowers, 

Woodcocks nesting in Co. Wick- 
low, 21. 

Woodlice of Co. Carlow, 319. 

Wright, E. P. — Obituary Notice of 
V. Ball, 169. 

Wright, Joseph — Foraminifera of 
Galway Excursion, 252. 



PI.ATKS AND II.I.USTRATIONS. 



Rock-pool at Bundoran (Plate i), 

Donax vittatus, and var. truncatus, 

Animals from the Mitchelstown Cave (Plate 2 

Distribution of Caves in Ireland, 

Adventitious Shoots on Liverworts (Plate 3), 

Alexander Goodman More, F.L.S., 

Irish Fresh-water Sponges (Plate 4), 

Section at Oughterard, 

Section at Lough Shindilla, 

Section at Lough Oorid, . 

Valentine Ball, C.B., 

Otiorrhynchus auropunctatus, . 

Ballynahinch River and Ben Lettery, 

Teampul Benan, Aranmore, 

An Aran Field, 

Derryclare Lake and Mountain, 

Church of S. Nicholas, Galway, . 

Stysanus Ulmariae sp. nov. (Plate 5), 

Tanystylum conirostre (Plate 6), 

Pisidiuni hibernicum, 



To face p. 


I 


. p. 


iS 


To face p. 


25 


. p. 


58 


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81 


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109 


To face p. 


122 


. p. 


152 


. p. 


157 


. p. 


158 


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164 


• P- 


216 


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225 


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230 


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230 


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231 


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277 


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273 


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297 


• P- 


338 



ERRATA. 

Page i66,before note on Irish Psithyri, insert the sub-heading " INSECTS:* 

219, line 27, for " ovones," read " ovules," 
„ line 29, for " Dr. P. Wright," read " Dr. Plowright." 
„ line 31, for " Cw/^," read " Gagea." 
256, line 9 from bottom, for " Lithopius:' read " Lithobiusr 
258, line 6 from bottom, for " ArchotylusT read " Orlhotylus " 






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^Jje ^vi&lj Itattttraltet* 



Vol. IV. JANUARY, 1895. No. i. 



THE ROCK-POOI.S OF BUNDORAN. 

BY J. E. DUERDEN, A.R.c.SC. (London). 



Last summer, in connection with the Royal Irish Academy 
Fauna and Flora Committee, I had the opportunity, in com- 
panj' with Prof. Johnson and Mr. Mitchell, of spending a little 
over a week in and around Bundoran, a delightful watering- 
place, much frequented b}^ people from the North of Ireland. 
M)^ object was to collect representatives of all the Zoophytes, 
embracing under this popular term the Hydroids, Sea- 
anemones, and Polyzoa, at the same time not neglecting other 
forms of life which I might chance to come across. 

Bundoran lies at the south-east corner of Donegal Bay, 
about four miles from the historically interesting town of 
Ballyshannon. Taking the former as our centre, we made 
collecting excursions to different parts of the bay, and so ob- 
tained a good idea of the resources of the locality. 

West of Bundoran, cliffs of Carboniferous limestone face the 
sea, dipping to the south at an angle varying from five 
to ten degrees ; but at low water a considerable extent of shore 
is laid bare, diversified by numerous rock-pools, caves, and 
narrow inlets of the sea, the happy hunting-grounds of the 
naturalist. 

In the rock-pools the first object which attracts one is the 
Purple Sea-urchin Strongylocentrotus lividuSy Lamk., occurring 
in great numbers in little hollows, their dark colour con- 
trasting strongly with the light rosy-pink calcareous alga 
Lithotham7iio7i polymorpJmni} , which lines most of these pools. 
This interesting sea-urchin is one of the most striking faunal 
features of various localities along the west coast of Ireland, 



' For the name of this alga, and also for the others mentioned, I am 
indebted to Prof. Johnson and to Mr. Mitchell, 



2 The Irish Nahiralist. 

from Donegal Ba\' to Queenstown Harbour. It occurs 
nowhere else in the British Isles, but turns up again in the 
Channel Islands. It is capable of boring holes, probably by 
means of its teeth, in the soft limestone to a depth of one-half 
or more of its own height; where, however, the rocks, as at 
Dog's Bay in Connemara, consist of the harder granite, the 
urchin is incapable ofboringinto them, and simply rests upon 
the bottom of the pools. Many of them are partially covered 
by empty shells, such as those oi Patella, P2irpura, 2.r\6iLitto7ina. 
Considering the spin}^ nature of their skeleton it is very diffi- 
cult to conceive that this feature can be in any way concerned 
with protection to the individual. Again, they are almost 
invariably associated in the pools with luxurious growths of 
the light pink encrusting Lithothain7iion polymorphtwi, to 
which they offer the strongest contrast, almost suggestive of a 
warning combination. 

In some of the shallow pools, some distance above low- 
water mark, we found numbers of the sea-slug Aplysia ptmctata, 
Cuv., their dark olive-green colour also contrasting strongly 
w^ith the light Lithothamnion. A few minutes sufficed to 
obtain two or three dozen, many of them in the act of laying 
their strings of brown-pink spawn. 

On this part of the shore, and still more so on the rocks and 
cliffs north of Bundoran, are to be found more or less firm 
masses of sand and fragments of shells built into tubes by the 
worm Sabellaria alveolata, Linn., and almost resembling a 
honey-comb in appearance. These masses, no doubt, exer- 
cise a preservative geological influence on the rocks, the 
hollows and irregularities about forming also a protection for 
various forms of life. 

In one of the caves with a smooth floor covered by water, 
and with stalactitic and stalagmitic masses further in, we 
came across quite a crowd of small hermit-crabs, Fagunis, 
and very interCvSting it ^ was to watch their little battles over 
the bodies of some of their unfortunate companions who had 
been torn from their protective gastropod shell. Here also I 
met with a few specimens oi Anemonia siUcata {Anthea cereus), 
Penn., of the variety with iridescent green tentacles tipped with 
red. This species, not so abundant in Donegal Bay, I have 
met with in great numbers in Roundstone Bay, giving to the 
h^^s oi Zostera there quite a flower}^ appearance. Actinia 



The Rock-pools of Bimdoran. 3 

eq7ii?ia, lyinn., of the varieties hepatica, rubra, olivacea, and 
viridis was present everywhere. Under one of the ledges of 
rock I met w ith a large group, thirty or forty individuals, of 
the prett)' little Corynactis viridis, Allni. This anemone varies 
much in colour, although those belonging to the same colony 
are generally alike. In the present case the column was of a 
light brown colour, the margin a rich bright orange, and the 
tentacles green at the base, with greenish-brown stems and 
white knobs. At Roundstonel have met with colonies of the 
more typical green form. Specimens of Hcliactis bellis, E. 
and S. were present in the cavities of the rock-pools, and also 
the large Tealia crassicor^iis. Mull, in considerable variety 
of colour. A single example of Cylista imdata, MltU. was 
also obtained. 

The coast to the north of Bundoran is varied by steep 
precipices and sandy shores. Around Claddaghlagan not 
much was obtained, nor along the beach in front of the east 
portion of the towm. Rog>^ Bay, a narrow inlet, was the best 
locality for material washed up from the sea. Here were 
obtained stems of Laminaria with quite thick forests of 
Sertularia operailata, lyinn., growing on them, presenting 
almost the appearance of a fox's tail. The roots of the 
Laminaria also yielded several species of encrusting Polj'zoa. 
I may here record one fact in which I have alwaj^s found the 
west coast of Ireland to differ from the east coast, namely, in 
the amount of material from considerable depths washed 
ashore by storms. On such occasions we find suitable places 
on the east coast literally strewn with zoophytes and other 
treasures from the deep. Tangled masses are rolled about on 
the sand}^ shores, composed largely of Hydrallmania falcata, 
lyinn., Sertularia abietina, lyinn., Eudcndrium ramosum, Linn., 
various species of /'///^/r^ and Ciisiaf Vesicularia spinosa, Linn., 
and heaps of other smaller forms along with them or growing 
upon them, the whole forming a very rich and easily obtained 
harvest. On the west coast, however, I have never found any 
of the species mentioned above washed ashore. It has often 
been disappointing upon going to some strand, where, under 
similar conditions along the east coa.st, I should have obtained 
in a few minutes thirty or forty different species of zoophytes, 
to find practically nothing. Tullan Strand, extending a dis- 
tance of nearly two miles from the Fairy Bridge to the mouth 

A 2 



4 The Irish Naturalist, 

of the river Erne, was a good example. Even after a consider- 
able storm during the night there was nothing washed ashore 
to rejoice the collector. The Rev. W. S. Green, to whom I 
have remarked this difference, considers that it may be largely 
due to the fact that on the east coast the greater amount of 
trawling in the deeper parts disturbs and tears up the objects 
growing upon the sea-bottom, and then during storms they 
are washed up on the shore. 

The limestone forming the cliffs is very fossiliferous, this 
feature attracting even the most casual observer. The rock 
seems in parts entirely made up of crinoid stems, some of 
them exceptionally large in diameter. Other portions are 
almost entirely composed QiProd2icttis giganteus, while various 
fossil corals are in many places important components of the 
rock. In the limestone on the north side of Rogy Bay, 
towards Aughrus Point, the rock-pools are mostly deep 
vertical hollows, always full of water, and crowded at the 
surface with a great variety of red, brown, and green sea- 
weeds. On pulling these aside one is rewarded with a most 
lovely sight of variously and richl}^- coloured sea-anemones, 
covering the sides and crevices of the rock. Especially 
abundant were *' the Orange Disc Anemone," and " the 
Snowy Anemone," now both regarded as varieties oi Heliadis 
vemista^ Gosse ; also Bimodes gcniniaceus, E. and S., and in the 
darker corners large specimens of Tealia crassicornis , Mull. 
A few examples of Aplysia punctata, Cuv. were obtained here 
also in the .shallower pools. 

The rocks from Aughrus Point to the Fair}^ Bridge are too 
precipitous for any work to be done upon them ; but in the 
latter place one can easily collect along the base at low water, 
and also enter the Cathedral Cave near. We found this, 
exposed to the full force of the waters of the baj^ to be 
an extremely rich locality. The sand- tubes of Sabcllaiia 
alveolafa, lyinn. form, with the rocks, small hollows in which 
are little forests of zoophytes, such as Ttibiclaria larynx^ E. and 
S., Obclia flabellata, Hincks, Cavipanularia ftexuo^a, Hincks, 
and Flumularia setacca, Ell., and numerous smaller forms 
growing upon these. Here was obtained the rare Halccium 
te7iellum, Hincks, the first undoubted record for Ireland. 
The surface of the rock also serves for the attachment of 
crowds of yJ/^'/77?^^ cdidis, I^inn., and a search aniongvSt these 



The Rock-pools of Bu7idora7i, 5 

well rewarded us. On one of the ledges overhanging a pool, 
on the floor of which were abundant Plaice, almost undistin- 
guishable from their resemblance to the colour of the sand, 
we came across hundreds of the lovely Metridimn {Adinoloba) 
dia7ithus, Ell., of the brown and white varieties. Exposed at 
low water they hung vertically almost like so many shapeless 
masses of mucus, each with a drop of water at the distal end. 
Looping about amongst the Hydroids were numbers of the 
Amphipod Caprella linearis, Linn. Tubularia laryjix, E- and S., 
was especially the home of the Nudibranch Eolis coroiiata^ 
Forbes, its rosy hues harmonising well with the light red 
colour of the polypites. 

From the Fairy Bridge, Tullan Strand stretches for nearly 
a couple of miles to the mouth of the Erne, and yielded very 
little to us, but the sand-hills overlooking it would well repay 
the entomologist. The shore towards Kildoney Point we 
found unproductive, and then took our way to Coolmore, a 
place from which accounts of collections in other branches 
have already appeared in this Journal. Descending the Blue 
Stairs we were disappointed to find the shore composed 
largely of sandstone and limestone boulders derived from the 
cliffs, and presenting a very meagre fauna. Going a little to 
the south-west, however, we were again amongst the lime- 
stone rock-pools with a great abundance of life. The con- 
trast was most striking. Where the rocks were principally 
sandstone they presented quite a barren aspect, and life 
appeared impoverished, while a few yards further when we 
got on to the limestone, the rock-pools were replete with a 
luxuriance of animal and plant life, much as we had found 
west of Bundoran. 

Dredging in Donegal Bay with the trawlers did not yield us 
much. The bottom consists principally of sand, and the 
dredge and trawl brought up little of what the fishermen 
regard as refuse, but to the zoologist is a harvest. A day was 
spent on the east coast of the promontory stretching between 
M'Swyne's Bay and Inver Bay. Here the shore was again 
rich in deep vertical rock-pools filled with weeds, such as 
Fiictcs, Laminaria, Ulva, E^iteromorpha, Bryopsis, Codiuin, 
Cladophora, Chondrics crisptcs, Rhody??ie7iia, Coralli7ia offi- 
ci7ialis, Lithotha77i7iio7i polyi7iorphu7}i, and other rarer forms. 
Hundreds oi Metridiiuri {Acti7iolobd) dia7ithus, EH-, hung from 



6 The Irish Naturalist. 

the under surface of projecting ledges, and most of the other 
common forms of sea-anemones flourished luxuriously, 
sharing the decoration of the pools with numerous brightl}^- 
coloured sponges. Trawling around the shore our boatmen 
discovered for themselves a rich locality for Sole, Plaice, and 
Brill. The Laminaria brought up was coated with miniature 
forests of Obelia gcniadata, Linn, and other zoophytes. 
Numbers of shells of Peden 7naxiimis, I,inn. were obtained 
encrusted with various Polyzoa. In returning across the bay 
we were alarmed by the proximity of four or five large 
cetaceans following the shoals of herring along with flocks of 
gulls. From the rounded head, large, high dorsal fin, and 
white under-surface. there is no doubt that they were speci- 
mens of the Killer Whale {^Orca gladiatof, I,acpa). In a small 
interesting book on Ballyshannon' containing a chapter on its 
Zoology and Botany, it is recorded that in the last century 
whales were so numerous in Donegal Bay that a whale-fisher}^ 
was established, but owing to the general roughness of the 
sea it was unsuccessful, although aided b}^ a grant of £500 
from the Irish Parliament in 1736, and a grant of £1,500 
in 1763. 

We left Bundoran and its rock-pools feeling that our time 
had been most profitabh^ vSpent, and bearing away representa- 
tives of many of its marine treasures preserved in our jars for 
future stud3\ A more detailed list and description of these 
will shortly be published. 

Mr. Welch, of Belfast, has kindh^ allowed a reproduction of 
one of his splendid series of photographs of the shores at 
Bundoran. The portion represented on the accompanying 
plate (Plate i) is one of the rock-pools from which the water 
has been removed. At the bottom are seen many examples 
of the Purple Sea-urchin (^Stro7igylocent7'otits lividus, I,amk.) 
bristling with spines, but all more or less sunk in their self- 
made hollows, and in some cases with dead shells upon them. 
The pink-coloured " Nullipore," Lithothamnionpolyvw7'phu77i, 
coats the remainder of the bottom, and especially in the narrow 
ridges between the hollows rises into irregular botryoidal 
masses, often tending to enclose the sea-urchins. To the left 
of the plate are seen luxuriant bunches of another calcareous 

^AlHngliam : Ballyshaunoii, its History and Antiquities, Londonderry, 
J879. 



The Rock-pools of Btcndoran. f 

fed alga, Corallina officmalis. Along the side of the pool 
are agglutinated masses of sand and fragments of shells 
presenting the appearance of a honeycomb, each aperture being 
that of a tube, in which dwells the worm Sabellaria alveolata, 
I,inn. The limestone ledges above the pool (to the right) 
are quite light in colour owing to the great abundance of 
the common acorn-shell, Balaiius. Numerous conical shaped 
limpets. Patella viclgata, lyinn. are here present resting in the 
shallow scars excavated by themselves. It has lately been 
showni that the limpets quit their homes in search of food 
chiefly as the tide leaves them and when it is returning, the 
extent of their peregrinations being evidently limited to a dis- 
tance of between one and two feet. Many of the limpets have 
the exterior of their shells coated with Lithothamnion 'poly- 
inorphuin. Scattered about are also numerous specimens of 
the spindle-shaped Purpura lapillus, I^inn. 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE CHARACB^ 

IN IRKIvAND. 

BY H. AND J. GROVKS, FX.S. 



Thk large stretches of comparatively shallow water and the 
many peat-bogs render Ireland a particularly favourable 
country for the growth of Characece, and, although a considerable 
extent remains almost unexplored and but little has been 
thoroughly searched, the Chara Flora as at present known is 
a rich one. During the past year another species, C. canescens, 
has been discovered, and there is little doubt that when the 
Southern and Western districts have been more completely 
worked several others will be added to the list. 

Every piece of water should be searched, as CharacecB occur 
in rivers and streams as well as in the lakes, pools, pits, and 
ditches, which are their more usual habitats. We would 
especially recommend examining small loughs and pools near 
the sea, as likely to yield new species to Ireland. It is never 
safe to assume that there is no Chara in any piece of water 
until it has been dragged all over, as oftentimes they occur in 
only one part and are not visible from the shore. 

'^Nature, vol. xxxi., p. 200, and vol. li., p. 127, 



8 The Irish Nahcralist. 

We shall be pleased to examine any specimens sent to us for 
determination, but would impress upon collectors the impor- 
tance of obtaining fruiting specimens where possible. Often 
when the first "haul" is sterile, a further search will yield abun- 
dance of fruit. 

The object of this paper is to give a table of the County 
distribution on the lines of " Topographical Botan}^'' but in the 
case of the rarer species the separate localities are mentioned. 
We have endeavoured as far as possible to cite the earliest 
collected specimen we have seen from each County. 

In consequence of the unreliable character of the earlier 
determinations of Charace^s, we have thought it better in this as 
in our other papers, to record only those localities from which 
we have ourselves examined specimens. 

The varieties given are not intended to be regarded as sub- 
species, nor as being all of equal value, as it has been thought 
desirable to apply varietal names to the more extreme forms, 
although every intermediate state may occur. 

Chara frag^IIISf Desv. 

113. Kerry, S., - Sneem, 1883. H. A. Ridley. 

114. ,, N., - Brandon. D. Moore. 

116. Cork, N., - Fernioy. T. Chandlee. 

117. Waterford, - Dungarvan Bog, 1882. G. Nicholson. 

118. Tipperary, S., Croan, 1872. S. Grub1). 

121. Queen's Co., - Maryborough, 1893. R. LI. Praeger. 

123. Wicklow, - Murrough of Wicklow, 1849, D. Moore. 

125. Dublin, - - Howth, i860. D. Moore. 

128. Limerick, - R. Shannon, nr. Limerick, 1892. H. & J' G. 

129. Clare, - - Ennis, 1884. S. A. Stewart. 

130. Galway, E-, - Castle Taylor. A. G. More. 
133. Westmeath, - Ladiston. D. Moore. 

135. Galway, W., - Roundstone. Hb. J.Woods. 

136. Mayo, W., - L. Cullin. A. G. More. 

137. ,, E., - Cong, 1885. E. F. and W. R. Linton. 

138. Sligo, - - Lough Gill River, 1884 R. M. Barringtou. 

141. Fermanagh, - L- Erne, 1837. \V. Thompson. 

142. Cavan, - - Belturbet. D. Moore. 

144. Tyrone, - Arboe, 1891. S. A. Brenan. 

145. Armagh, - Bird Island, Lough Neagh, 1882. H. W. Lett. 

147. Down, - - Loughinisland, 1887. S- A. Stewart. 

148. Antrim, - - L- Neagh. D- Moore. 

var. barbata, Gant. 

114. Kerry, N., - Nr. Ventry, 1894. D. M'Ardle. 

123. Wicklow, - Murrough of Wicklow. D.Moore. 

132. King's Co., - Geashill, 1894. R. LI. Praeger. 

133. Westmeath, - Mullingar, 1877. D. Moore. 

147. Down, - - Holywood Hills, 1891. R. LI. Praeger. 

148. Antrim, - - Lough Beg, 1846. W. Thompson. 



The Distributio7i of the Charace(E in Ireland. 



113. Kerry, S., 

125. Dublin, - 

135. Galway, W., 

147. Down, 



125. 
135. 
137. 
138. 
147. 



Dublin, 
Galway, 
Mayo, E. 
Sligo, 
Down, 



W 



•> 



125. Dublin, - 

135. Galway, W., 

T37. Mayo, E., 

139. Leitrim, - 

145. Armagh, 

146. Donegal, 
148. Antrim, - 



var. caplllacea, Coss. and G. 

- Long Range, 18S7. R. W. Scully. 

- Howth, 1894, R. Ivl. Praeger. 

- Renvyle, 1832. Hb. Shuttleworth. 

- Holy wood, 1885. R. Ivl. Praeger. 

var. Hedwlgrll, Kuetz. 

- Lucan, 1894. R. LI. Praeger. 
_"> Cong, 1885. C.Bailey. 

- Lough Gill R. 1884. R. M. Harrington. 

- Holywood Hills, 1891. R. LI. Praeger. 

var. delicatula, Braun. 

Clondalkin, 1894. R. LI. Praeger. 

Recess, 1885. E. F. Linton.- 

Cong, 1885. C. Bailey. 

Glenade L. 1884. R- M. Barrington. 

Ardmore Glebe, 1880. Hb. R. LI. Praeger. 

L, Sessiagh, 1886. S. A. Stewart. 

L. Neagh, 1883. S. A. Stewart. 



The plants included by us under the var. delicatula are the smaller 
forms with somewhat connivent branchlets and a tendency to produce 
spine-cells. Braun employs the name for a sub-species, including all the 
forms having prominent primary cortical cells. 

A large proportion of the Irish specimens of C.fragilis show a tendency 
towards the vars. barbata and delicatula, while the larger forms approach- 
ing var. Ht'dwigii seem much less common. We collected a small much 
incrusted form in Westmeath, which could scarcely be distinguished 
from C. contraria without microscopic examination. 

C. fragilis is one of the most widely distributed species, occurring 
almost all over the world. It is frequent throughout Great Britain. 

[C.fragifera and C. comiivens, which occur in the West of Europe and 
in some of the south-western counties of England, may be expected to 
occur also in the South of Ireland, and should be searched for in shallow 
water near the sea. Both resemble C. fragilis, but maybe readily distin- 
guished by being'dioecious, as well as by the strongly incurved branchlets 
in the case of C. connivejis and the large compound bulbils on the under- 
ground stems of C.fragifera.l 



113. Kerry, S., 

114. ,, N., 

121. Queen's Co., - 

123. Wicklow, 

124. Kildare, 

130. Galwaj', E., - 

133. Westmeath, - 

135. Galway, W., 

136. Mayo, W,, 

137- " E., 

141. Fermanagh, - 

142. Cavan,. 
145. Armagh, 

147. Down, 

148. Antrim, 

149. Londonderry - 



C. aspera, Willd. 

Killarney, 1887. R. W. Scully. 

Castle Gregory LaTce, D. Moor 

Farmhill, 1890. R. W. Scully. 

Murrough of Wicklow. D. Moore. 

Near Monasterevan, 1893. R. LI. Praeger. 

Portumna, 1843, D. Moore. 

Belvidere, 1846. D. Moore. 

Oughterard, 1885. E. F. and W. R. Linton. 

L. Cullin. A. G. More. 

Foxford. A. G. More. 

L. Erne, 1883. S. A. Stewart. 

Belturbet. D. Moore. 

Near Navan Fort, 1892. R. Ll. Praeger. 

Clandeboye Lake, 1882. S. A. Stewart. 

Rathlin. Hb. D. Moore. 

L- Beg. 1894. R. Ll. Praeger. 

^3 



JO 



The Irish Naturalist, 



125. Dublin, 



Ci aspcra, var. caplllata, Braun. 

- Royal Canal, Blanch ardstown, 1889. 
Scully. 



130. Galway, B. , 



R, W. 



var. curta, Braun. 
L. Derg, 1881. B. King. 



135. Galway, W., 
136 Mayo, W., 

144. Tyrone, 

145. Armagh, 
148 Antrim, 



138. Sligo, 

139. Leitrim, 

148. Antrim, 

149. Londonderrj% 



var. lacustrlSf H. and J. G. 

- Roundstone. Hb., J. Woods. 
■ L,. Cullin. A. G. More. 

- Arboe, 1891, S.A. Brenan. 

- L. Neagh, Lurgan, 1890. R. LI. Praeger. 
• Iv. Neagh, Crumlin, 1894. S. A. Stewart. 

var. sublnermlSy Kuetz. 

- Lough Gill R., 1884. R. M. Barrington, 

- GlenadeL, 1884. R. M, Barrington, 

- Rathlin I. D. Moore. 
R. Bann, 1894. R, LI. Praeger, 



C. aspera is a common species in Ireland, occurring in the lakes and 
canals as well as in the peat-pits and pools, and is more generally distri- 
buted than in England. It occurs throughout Europe and in North 
Africa and North America. The plant we have referred to the var. 
(iirta has short incurved branchlets and many short spine-cells, but is 
not so extreme as some of the continental plants, which have the 
branchlets only from 2-3 mm. long. In L- Owel, Westmeath, we col- 
lected a plant with very long internodes and comparatively very short 
incurved branchlets, which resembled the Swiss plant much magnified. 
The var. capillaia from Co. Dublin is not so extreme as the Holyhead 
plant. Man)' of the Irish specimens approach this variety. 

[C. strigosa, Braun. In the Journal of Botany, May, 1887, we suggested 
the possibility of a specimen collected by Mr. R. M. Barrington in Lough 
Ree belonging to this species, but being sterile we were unable to deter- 
mine it. Since then we have not had any further light thrown on the 
subject, and having in view the curious forms of C. aspera which we have 
collected in the Westmeath lakes, we think the plant is possibly only a 
state of that species. It would, however, be very desirable for L. Ree to 
be searched in order to settle the question.] 



116. Cork, N., 
124. Kildare, - 
121. Queen's Co., 
123. Wicklow, 

130. Galway, E., 
133. Westmeath, 
135. Galway, W., 
137. Mayo, E., 
145. Armagh, 



C. polyacantha, Braun. 

Shanagarry Bog. I. Carroll. 

I Canal, near Monasterevan, 1893. R. LI. Praeger, 

Near Newcastle, 1892. R. M. Barrington and 

H. and J. G. 
Headford, 1832. Hb. Shuttleworth. 
Scraw Bog, near L. Owel, 1892. H. C. Levinge. 
Moycullen, 1892. H. and J. G. 
Foxford. A. G. More. 
Loughgall L., 1892. R. LI. Praeger. 



This species was figured by Plukenet in 1691 from a specimen collected 
by Sherard in " Turf Bogs in Ireland." It usually occurs in peat-pits and 
ditches. In Britain it is generally much incrusted, but we have had 



The Distribution of the Characece in Ireland, ri 

Several beautiful unincrusted forms from the Irish bogs. The distribution 
of C. polyacantha appears to be very limited. It is recorded from Sweden, 
Denmark, Germany, Switzerland, North Italy, and France. 



C. conti*ar!a, Kuetz. 
113. Kerry, S., - Caragh, 1888. R. W. Scull}'. ^ 

124. KUdare, -^ ' -i ^^^^^> Monasterevan, 1893. R. Ll. Praeger. .■ 

125. Dublin, - - Glasnevin, 1882. D. M'Ardle. 

130. Galway, E., - L. Derg, 1885. B. F. and W. R. Ivinton. 

133. Westmeath, - L. Ennel, 1892. H. and J. G. 

139. Leitrim, - - L. Allen, 1883. S. A. Stewart. 

145. Armagh, - - Croaghan I., L. Neagh, 1880. H. W. Lett. 

147. Down, - - Clandeboye Lower Lake, 1891. R. Ll. Praeger. 

149. Londonderry,- Limavadyjunc, 18S9. W. D. Donnan and R. Ll 

Praeger. 



var. hlspidula* Braun. 
133. Westmeath, - Brittas Lake, 1892. H. C. Levinge and H. and J. "G» 
\'l M^%7-' :} C-g. '««5. C. Bailey. 

A common species in Ireland, occurring in great quantity in the large 
lakes, and varying considerably from the commonest form, which is a small 
slender plant resembling C. fragilis, to the very large lax form in Brittas 
Lake, Westmeath, which grows three or four feet high and has branchlets 
\\ inches long, and to the stout compact form from Loughs Derg, EnneL 
andDerevaragh, with short, stout, incurved branchlets resembling the var. 
crassicaiilis of C. vulgaris. C. contraria is world-wide in its distribution, 
occurring in all five Continents and in Australia. 



C. denudata^ Braun. =C. dissoluiay Leonh. 

133. Westmeath, - Brittas Lake, 1892, H. C. Levinge. 

This plant resembles the large forms of C contraria from the same lake, 
but is almost entirel}^ destitute of cortex. The primary series of cortical cells 
are occasionally partially developed above the whorls, but are usually 
represented by a single cell above and below, each branchlet growing 
outwards instead of adhering to the internodal cell. C. demidata has 
been recorded from single localities in Switzerland and Italy, and from 
Cape Colony ; but the Irish form is more extreme than either of these. 
It is doubtful, however, notwithstanding the apparently important 
differences, whether these plants may not all be only degraded states 
of C. contraria. 

(TO BE CONCI.UDED). 



12 » The Irish Naturalist. 

SABINE'S SNIPE. 

GAI.I.INAGO COEI.ESTIS, VAR. SABINII. 
BY G. K. H. BARRETT- HAMII^TON. 



On August 2ist, 1822, a Snipe was shot near Portarliugton, 
Queen's County, by the Rev. Charles Doyne, and was described 
by N. A. Vigors as Scolopax Sabiiii {Trans. Limi. Soc, vol. 
xiv, p. 556). Vigors distinguished his bird from the Common 
Snipe {S. gallinago) by its colour, by its possession of only 
twelve (instead of fourteen) tail-feathers, by the two exterior 
toes being "united to the base for a short distance," by the 
tarsi being ^^^ of an inch shorter than those of 6*. gallinago, and 
by the greater stoutness of the tarsi. 

Subsequently, additional specimens of Sabine's vSnipe were 
obtained, chiefly in Ireland, so that in 1850, William Thompson 
(Nat. Hist, of Ireland, vol. ii, pp. 273 — 277) was able to give 
notes of ten Irish specimens, while a few others had been 
procured in England, but in Scotland none at all. The bird 
had now become, in the words of Thompson, "one of the 
greatest puzzles in Ornithology," since it was not known out 
of the British Islands, and there only as one of which a few 
individuals had fallen before the guns of snipe-shooters : of 
its breeding haunts absolutely nothing had been ascertained. 

Enough specimens had now been obtained to enable 
naturalists to suspect that the structural characters laid down 
by Vigors as distinguishing Sabine's from the Common Snipe 
were somewhat unreliable, and Thompson {pp. cit.), though he 
gave the bird rank as a species in his work, was compelled to 
confess that for some time past he " had not felt altogether 
satisfied respecting its distinctness as a species." After show- 
ing the invalidity of Vigors' structural characters, he remarks 
that in colour Sabine's Snipe " is peculiar and constant." 
Every specimen of S. Sabini that had occurred was coloured 
much alike, and was remarkable by " the total absence of white 
from its plumage, or of any of those lighter tints of ferruginous 
yellow which extend more or less in stripes along the head 
and back "of the other European Snipes." 

In the works of later writers, Sabine's Snipe is regarded 
merely as a melanic variety of the Common Snipe. I think, 
however, that it presents several points of interest, which 
are well worth the attention of naturalists. 



Sabine' s Snipe. 13 

in the first place tliere is its extremel}^ curious distribution. 
I have been at some pains to make a complete list of all 
recorded occurrences of Sabine's Snipe, with the result that I 
have notes of (in all) about fifty -five examples, v^^hich have 
been stated to have been either obtained or observed from time 
to time.' Probabl}' others have been obtained, but they have 
either been unrecorded or have escaped my notice, as Pro- 
fessor Newton informs me that when he was in Dublin in 
i860 there were about half a dozen Sabine's Snipes stuffed 
(infamously) and placed on a board in the Museum of Trinity 
College, not one of which had been recorded, nor did anyone 
seem to know their history. Of the odd fifty-five examples 
w^hose capture has been from time to time recorded, thirty- 
one (or about three-fifths) hail from Ireland, twenty-two from 
England, one from Scotland, and one from the Continent of 
Europe. The bird should, therefore, possess a peculiar 
interest for Irish ornithologists — whose country it favours so 
strangely in its appearances. The Irish examples have been 
recorded from sixteen out of the thirty-two Irish counties, 
and from almost every part of Ireland, except the south-east 
(the east coast can only claim one). In the North, Derry 
heads the list with five examples (some of them only seen, 
and not obtained), Donegal claims four, and Tyrone one. 
In the West, Mayo claims one, Galway one, Clare one, and 
Kerry two. In the South, Cork claims three, and Waterford 
one. Of the central counties (taking them from north to 
south) examples have been recorded from Cavan (one), West- 
meath (one). King's County (one), Kildare (one), Queen's 
County (one), and Tipperary (one). The interesting feature 
of the distribution of Sabine's Snipe in Ireland would appear 
to be its apparent absence (at least as far as can be ascertained 
from the available records) froni the eastern counties of 
Antrim, Down, Armagh, I^outh, Meath, Wicklow, Carlow, and 
Wexford. The only eastern Irish example of which I have 
any note is that recorded from Dublin by Mr. H. Blake Knox 
{Zoologist, 1866, p. 302). Several Irish examples can not be 
traced to any particular county. 



■■ Twenty-five occurrences have been collected by Mr. J. E. Harting 
in the Field, for Dec. 10, 1870, p. 521, and I have been much indebted to 
his list of occurrences up to 1870. 



14 The Irish Naturalist. 

As regards England, nearly all the occurrences of Sabine's 
Snipe have been in the south and east, and a line drawn 
across the map of England from the Wash on the east to the 
junction of the Counties of Gloucester and Somerset on the 
Severn on the west, would cut off on the north an area 
from w^hich Sabine's Snipe has only twice been recorded — in 
both cases in Yorkshire. In Wales it does not appear to have 
yet been seen or captured, and the solitary Scotch example is 
that recorded by Colonel Fielden in the Zoologist (ss. p. 3,188) 
from Montrose. 

The only continental example I can find any record of is 
" a light-coloured example now in the foreign collection of the 
British Museum," and " stated by the late Jules Verraux to 
have been shot near Paris" (Yarrell's "British Birds" 4 Ed., 
vol. iii, p. 349). The history of this specimen might well 
stand on stronger evidence.^ 

To sum up the distribution of Sabine's Snipe, it is confined 
(with the exception of one somewhat doubtful specimen) to 
the British Isles, and in them has occurred most frequently in 
Ireland. In the south and south-east of England it has 
/\A occurred .earl}^ as frequently as in Ireland, but in the north 
and in Scotland it is almost unknown.^ 

The distribution of Sabine's Snipe shows a curious resem- 
blance to that of another melanic animal, which was first 
recorded from Ireland, viz., the melanic variety of the Common 
Rat {JMus decunianus), which was described by Thompson as 
Mils hiberniciis. This equally interesting form has occurred in 
abundance (though sporadically) in man)^ parts of Ireland, and 

^ I have just examined this specimen. It is a very nice example, and 
rather lighter all through than Vigors' type, which is also in the British 
Museum collection. On the wooden stand on which it is fixed is a note 
in pencil that it was obtained in February, 1854, and that it is a male, 
but I could find no further details of its history at the Museum. 

- Since writing the above I have had the opportunity of examining two 
additional Scotch examples of Sabine's vSnipe, which are preserved in the 
collection of the British Museum of Natural History at South Ken- 
sington. One of these was obtained at Clackmannan, in December, 1890, 
and presented by Lord Balfour of Burleigh in 1891. The second, pre- 
sented by Captain Verner, was obtained on Tiree Island, in the Outer 
Hebrides, in January, 1887. It is more like a Common Snipe, especially 
in the head, than any of the seven examples in the collection at South 
Kensington— but it has no white on the under parts, and is certainly a 
Sabine's Snipe. 



Sabine's Snipe. 15 

also, although very rarely, in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland, and 
England. On the Continent I cannot find any record of its 
occurrence except that of A. Milne-Edwards, who reported 
black varieties of Mus decumanus from Paris {Ann. Sci. Nat., 
1871, XV, art. 7). 

It is hard, however, to speak with confidence of the distri- 
bution in Great Britain of Mus hibernicus, since there are three 
mammals which are reported indiscriminately as Black Rats, 
e.g. Mus rattus, the true black rat ; Mus hibernicus, a variety of 
Mzcs decumafius ; and (I believe, most frequently of all) the black 
variety of the Water Vole, Microtus aniphibius. 

The points of resemblance in the distribution of the two 
melanic animals, Sabine's Snipe and the Irish Rat, and the 
fact of their much more frequent occurrence in Ireland than 
in any other country, led me to inquire if in Ireland there 
might be a general tendency to melanistic forms. I cannot say 
however, that my investigations have hitherto met with much 
success. In Vertebrates I think the few cases which have 
come under my notice might have occurred in any country, 
and are certainly too meagre to bring forward here. In re- 
gard to Lepidoptera, Mr. G. H. Carpenter, of the Science and 
Art Museum, Dublin, has very kindly replied to ni}^ inquiries 
as follows : — 

"With regard to Irish I^epidoptera, among butterflies Meli- 
tcEa aurifiia and Puris 7iapi are more deepl}^ marked in Ireland, 
the latter on the west coast sometimes approaching the alpine 
var. bryo7iice. Noctuid moths are generally dark and rich in 
Ireland, and so are some Geometers. But all these dark var- 
ieties turn up in parts of Great Britain — mountains and 
northern districts, .specially the western Scottish Highlands, 
Hebrides, and Shetland." 

In regard to mollusca. Dr. R. F.- Scharfif, aLso of the Dublin 
Museum of Science and Art, has most obligingly replied in a 
very similar manner. He writes — "I once thought that there 
were instances among slugs of melanism confined to Ireland, 
or even to the British Islands, but similar cases have turned 
up in a number of places all over Europe." So far, then, I am 
unable to bring forward any support for the suggestion I put 
forward that melanism might be more common in Ireland 
than in Great Britain, but the question cannot yet be regarded 
as anything like fully worked out. 



1 6 The h'ish Natural ist. 

In time, Sabine's Snipe has been distributed sporadically 
since Vigors described it in 1822. From that year to the 
present time examples have been obtained one by one, seldom 
more than one in any single j^ear, and seldom more than 
three or four years have intervened between the individual 
occurrences. 

Sabine's Snipe has been shot in ever}' month of the shoot- 
ing season, that is from September to March, most numerouslj', 
perhaps, from October to January. No doubt, were snipe 
shooting customar}" all the year round, every month would be 
able to claim one or two examples. Of the spring, summer, 
and autumn months, August claims four examples, including 
two as early as the 5th. To September, however, I can only 
allot one, and that on the 28th of the month. One in Mr. J. 
H. Gurney's collection was shot on the 5th of May, but no 
specimens that I am aware of have been shot in the months of 
April, June, or July, except one obtained in the breeding 
season of 1831 or 1832 at Heron Court, Hants (E5'ton's ''Rarer 
British Birds," p. 160). 

Among the recorded instances of the occurrence of this bird 
I have been unable to find many allusions to the sex of the 
examples obtained, but several are stated to have been females, 
and at least one was a male. This form of plumage is, there- 
fore, not confined to either sex. 

It is nearly impossible to examine a series of examples 
of Sabine's Snipe, since there is no collection that I know of 
which contains a good series. I cannot, therefore, say much 
of the plumage of this bird, or to what extent individuals var)^ 
from the type. That they do vary to a certain extent is cer- 
tain, and two birds have been described as being intermediate 
in coloration between Sabine's and the Common Snipe. One 
of these was obtained near Waterford, on November 25th, 1883. 
It was examined by Mr. J. E. Harting, and by him described 
in the Zoologist (1884, p. 272). It was remarkable for its pale 
tone of coloration. The second was killed in the vicinity of 
Hastings, and examined by Mr. J. H. Gurney, jun., who 
remarked that it approximated more closel}^ to the Common 
than to Sabine's Snipe, but he had seen no variety of the 
Snipe exactly like it {Zoologist, 1884, p. 339). Other specimens 
have been recorded to vary in the shade of their plumage, 
thus the specimen, which is stated to have been obtained near 



Sabinds Snipe. 17 

Paris {vide supra, p. 14), was a light-coloured individual, 
while others have been recorded as ver^^ dark examples. 

Numerous other varieties of the Common Snipe have been 
from time to time obtained and recorded, and I believe some 
remarkable varieties are in the collection of Mr. John Mar- 
shall, of Taunton. Mr. Whitaker, of Rainworth, Mansfield, 
Notts, has kindly informed me that he has in his collection 
nine Snipe, running from Sabine's Snipe to examples with 
the body white and the wings brown, and with the body brown 
and wings white, as well as examples which are pale cream, 
pale brown, dark brown, and brown with white wings and 
cream back. 

It is possible that all the examples of Sabine's Snipe may 
be birds of the year, which supposition would account for the 
ovate shape of the dorsal feathers — a point formerly insisted 
on as showing its distinction from the Common Snipe. Pro- 
fessor Newton informs me that he has never seen an example 
of Sabine's Snipe which had the appearance of a really adult 
bird. 

The above remarks are a mere summary of the notes I have 
been so far able to collect on this interesting bird. They are 
not intended to give a complete account of it, but I think 
they have touchedupon some of the mere interesting features in 
its history. The number of examples killed is only approxi- 
mate, as it is impossible to trace the authenticity of every 
reported example. The addition, or subtraction, of one or 
two examples from the list would, however, in no way disturb 
the conclusions to be drawn from them. 



1 8 The Irish Naturalist, 

DONAX VITTATUS, var. TRUNCATUS (Marshall, ms.). 

BY MISS AMY WARREN. 



Mr. Marshall, of Sevenoaks, Torquay, to whom I owe much 
regarding shells, has drawn \\\y attention to a form oi Donax 
vittatus that I have sent him, and which is unlike the English 
form. He says : — " These Irish specimens partake of some of 
the characters of the var. turgida, which is * larger, ventricose, 
and longer,' but in addition the posterior end is abruptly 
truncate instead of being obliquely so. It is in reality an 
intermediate form between D. vittatus and D. truncuhis, 
having the proportions of the latter, but the typical charac- 
teristics of the former, to which it belongs without a doubt." 

In my district, Killala Ba}^ this truncated variety is the 
prevailing form, and the type the rarit3^ I have some speci- 
mens of D. vittatus from the North Bull, Dublin, and all 
belong to the type. It would be interesting if collectors along 
the coast would note where the truncated variety appears. 

Mr. Marshall adds that this form is peculiar to the south 
and west of Ireland, and he has given it the M.S. name of var. 
truncatus, the characters being : — ** Thick and solid, deeper or 
longer from the beaks, ver}^ convex, posterior slope short and 
abrupt. He adds, " the umbonal area inside the valves of all 
these Irish specimens is curiously fretted with deep pit-marks 
which may be caused by an internal parasite. Many j^ears 
ago in dredging the variety nitida on the Doggerbank I 
found that 50 per cent, of them contained a small parasitic 
crab, and the presence of parasites may also account for the 
convexity of both these varieties." 

Fig. I Fig. 2. 





In the accompanying drawing, kindly made by Dr. ScharfF, 
fig. I represents a characteristic specimen of the new variety 
gathered by me at Killala Bay ; while, added for sake of 
comparison, is an example of the type from Torbay (fig. 2), 
sent me by Mr. Marshall. 



[ 19 ] 
IRISH MOTHS. 



The notes on Irish INIoths which have appeared in the Irish Naturalist 
(vol. iii., pp. 217, 233), may perhaps be made slightly more complete and 
exact by publishing the following memoranda. The name of Hepiahis 
hipulitnis Hb., rightly recorded in Mr. Barrett's work as Irish and 
occurring in Galway, was referred to b}' me in its place in the list, on 
p. 13 of vol. xxvii. of the Entomologist, as " Abundant and similarly 
distributed as the former. I have noticed it flying in the sunshine." 
But by a typographical error the name was not inserted b}- the printer at 
the close of my notice oi H. velleda. This will be corrected in the reprint. 
Since publishing my notes on the Cymatophoridi^. I have seen a specimen 
oi Asphalia flaviconiis taken by Mr. Dillon at Clonbrock, and also received 
a letter from Mr. Campbell of Derry withdrawing his record of C. or 
published in the Irish Naturalist (vol. ii., 1S93, p. 22), and stating that the 
insect turns out to be A.Jlavicornis. This species will have therefore to be 
added. A second Stauropus fagi was taken by me in Kerry this summer 
and one at Clonbrock by Mr. Dillon's gamekeeper. Mr. E. Porter also 
writes that he met with some very small larvce of the same species on the 
shores of Upper L. Erne this summer, but failed to rear them. None of 
the larvae attributed to Pygccra curtula taken by me at Galway and Ros- 
common, and by Mr. Watts in Co. Down in 1893, survived the pupal stage, 
so that, as those of P. pigra are when full fed very similar, the record of 
P. curtula requires further authentication. The following species 
mentioned in the notice on " Irish Moths" as having been added by ]\Ir. 
Dillon to the Irish list, had been taken elsewhere in Ireland previously, 
namely — Luperina cespitis, Pericallia syringaria, Eupithccia fraxinata, and E. 
hidigafa. This summer however he has added to the extraordinary series 
of rarities already announced, single specimens each oi Leucawa tuna, and 
OphioJcs luiiaris ; which he tells me were part of the captures of a game- 
keeper, Frank Mason, at Clonbrock, in his (Mr. Dillon's) absence this 
summer. In reply to the comment on my having published a few of the 
earlier Clonbrock captures without giving the captor's name and exact 
localit}', I would here desire to mention that I know Mr. Dillon at first 
intended to send a list of them to an entomological journal ; but, on 
further consideration, decidednotto do so for fear of attracting undCvSirable 
collectors. Under these circumstances \ thought it better to announce 
the captures without making public the name of the captor, rather than 
suppress information of such interest. But when further remarkable 
additions to our fauna turned up, Mr. Dillon at once waived all objection, 
and sent a list, with full particulars of his most important captures up to 
date, for insertion in the Entomologist. 

The Editors of the Iiish Naturalist kindh^ give me credit for carefulness 
when identifying the Clonbrock specimens, and I can only say that I have 
used my utmost endeavours to assure myself that no accidental inclusion 
of continental specimens has taken place. Indeed my sceptical enquirers 
have occasionally verged on impoliteness, which has been condoned in a 
manner my own incredulity has not always experienced from other col- 
lectors. In answer to the stricture upon my having attempted to 



20 The Irish NaUcratist. 

acclimatise new species in Ireland, I beg leave to assure my brother 
entomologists that none of the three or four species of Lepidoptera experi- 
mented with by me from time to time are such as would be taken to be 
indigenous in Ireland. Particulars will be given in my Catalogue, and 
if any of these exotics should turn up at any time their origin will be at 
once traceable. But I cannot flatter raj-self that any success has been 
attained. No erroneous conclusions therefore are possible under these 
circumstances. All such experiments ought to be conducted with due 
precautions against such a contingency, and duly recorded to prevent 
error. I join heartily in reprobating, in the strongest manner, any 
careless introduction of British species into our island fauna. 

Wm. Francis de V. Kane. 



NOTES. 



BOTANY. 



PHANEROGAMS. 



Irish teramblcs. — In th.^ Journal of Botany for January, Mr. Praeger 
gives a further enumeration of Brambles collected by him in Ireland, 
and named by Dr. O. Focke and Rev. Moyle Rogers ; of these R, viicans 
and A', saxicolus do not appear to have been noted in Ireland hitherto, 
and most of the other notes form new district records. 

Vicia lathyroidcs, L., In Co. WIcklow.— In the early spring of 
this year I gathered this rare plant in some plenty growing on the flats 
amone the sandhills just south of Arklow. 

'^^ R. W. SCUI.I.Y, Dublin. 

Erythreea pulchclla, Fr., and Polypogon monspeliensis, 
Dcsf. on the North Bull. — I was glad to re-find this ^;ji'///;v?a last 
summer near the coastguard's garden. Mr. More tells me it has not 
been seen on the Bull for some years. One fine tuft of the Polypogon — a 
most beautiful grass— was growing in a neglected patch of the coast- 
guard's garden, no doubt introduced with seeds. 

R. W. SCQI.I.Y. 

Some Cork Aliens.— In the summer of 1891 I came across the fol- 
lowing aliens growing on an extensive rubbish heap beside the river 
Lee in the City of Cork. The rubbish heap was apparently derived from 
a lar""e distillery in the immediate neighbourhood. Alyssiini calyciniini, L., 
Sisy inln-iuiii pannonicum, ]2iC(\., E>ysitnnm oruntalc, R, Br., E. repandum, L., 
Camelina sativa, Cratz., Lcpidium perfoliatuni, L., Thlaspi arvense,!-,., Anthcmis 
arvensis, L., Brovius tecioriim, L. Of these Erysiimim repandtun, Sisymbrium 
pannonicvin and Brovnis tcctorum occurred in great abundance. Several 
other plants I have not yet been able to name. It will be interesting to 
note how long the above will hold their ground, and whether they will 
spread to neighbouring localities. 

R. W. Scui,i,Y- 



Notes. 21 

ZOOLOGY. 



INSECTS. 

Thccia betulds In Co. Wexford.— Mr. Moffat in t\\^ Irish Naturalist 
for October, 1894, comments upon my having omitted Killoughruni Forest 
as a locality for this interesting butterfly in my ''Catalogue of Irish 
Lepidoptera. " Nevertheless, if he will refer again to it he will find 
" Killoughrum Wood, Enniscorthy, Moffat," included in my notice of its 
distribution ! I was not therefore unmindful of his courtesy, and onlv 
\\ash that he would send me a local list of Heterocera also. I am much 
interested to hear oi Nisoniades tagcs having been taken there. 

Wm. F. de V. Kane, Drumreaske, Monaghan. 
Lepidoptera at Howth In 1894.— On Feb. 'jth^Phlogophora metiadosa 
and Phigalia pedaria came to light, one of each. At the end of the month, 
Larentia multisttigaria began to emerge in the breeding pots. The larvae 
were from eggs laid by a Howth moth in March, 1893, and were easily 
fed upon Galium of different species. On March 17th, I took Tceniocampa 
nmnda at Sallows, but not abundantly ; I had not observed it at Howth 
before, and in Birchall's list it is only down for Killarney. In April 
I took some larvae of Epunda lichenea which fed upon Primrose, and 
emerged in due course during September. The Dianthcecice seemed 
very scarce this year ; even D. capsophila was hardly to be found. 
On June 30th, I took Venusia canibrica, which is probably the first record 
from Howth ; Birchall gives but one locality — Powerscourt. In July, 
Aplecta nehulosa appeared at sugar amid swarms of Xylophasia nionoglypha. 
In September, A gratis precox and Cilix glaucata came to light. 

G. V. Hart, Dublin. 

BIRDS. 

Woodcocks nesting: in Co. Wicklow.— Lt.-Col. Bayly writes in 
Zoologist for November, that a note in his diary records that on August 
3rd, 1866, five Woodcocks, two old and three young birds, were seen by 
him in the woods at Ballyarthur. 



.MAMMALS. 

IVIarten In Co. Westmeath. — I have found an entry in an old 
game-book that has been kept at this house since the year 1814, to the 
effect that a Pine Marten was killed at Knock Drin, in the winter of 
1845-6. The exact date is not specified ; but it was on some day between 
October 23rd, 1845, and January 3rd, 1846. 

H. C. LEVINGE (in Zoologist for November). 



GEOLOGY. 

Kitchen Middens, Co. Doneg^al. — I think Mr. Harte, County 
Surveyor, was the first to draw attention to these in N. E. Donegal, in a 
paper read before the R. G.S.I. Afterwards they were recorded by Mr. 
Mahony, M.R.I. A,, of Ramelton, in a paper read before the Glasgow 
Society. But neither of the explorers recorded worked implements or 
pottery. Subsequently, when I saw them I concluded that, as in Antrim, 
the remains of some of the pots in which the water was loaded ought to 
be found. I carefully searched, but found none. It is therefore extremely 
interesting to me to learn that Mr. Welch has been more successful. I 
hope he will follow up his find with worked implements, as they ought 
to be there similarly as in the Kitchen Middens of S. W, Donegal, 

G. H. KiNAHAN, Fairview, Dublin. 



22 Thcbish Naturalist. 

PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



ROYATv ZOOLOGICAI, SOCIETY. 

Recent donations comprise a Chough from R. Brennan, Esq. ; a pair 
of Pigeons from Master W. Stubbs ; a Heron from H. C. Carey, Esq ; a 
Guinea-pig from J. Condon, Esq.; a I.ong-earcd Owl and a Sparrow-hawk 
from Captain Carpendale ; a Persian Cat from ]\Iiss Maher; a Pheasant 
from W. J. Williams, Esq. ; and a Herring-gull from R. V. Sinclair, Esq, 
A number of fish, including Gunfish, Catfish, Bass, Carp, Tench, &c., 
have been purchased for the aquarium. 

3,500 persons visited the Gardens in November. 

DUBTvIN MlCROSCOPICAI, Cl.UB. 

November 15th.— The Club met at Mr. G. H. CarpENTER'vS, who 
showed rows of teeth on the front tarsi of species of Corixa. These, 
drawn across the edge of the face of the insect, are believed to produce a 
stridulation. They were described and figured by exhibitor in the 
Irish Naturalist for December, 1894 (p. 253). 

Prof. Cole exhibited a section of a rock found in an old collection, 
labelled " Pyromerine, I. of Elba." The peculiarity of this specimen lies 
in the fact that the spherulites consist of a well-developed soda-horn- 
blende, the delicate needles of which spread outward from certain centres 
through a grovmd of minute micropegmatite, the latter being formed as 
usual of quartz and felspar. The spherulites in the old " pyromerides " 
of Corsica are, on the other hand, of the ordinary felspathic type, but 
developed on a large scale. 

Mr. Moore showed Chlaviydococats pluvialis, Br, a curious and interest- 
ing species of very varying nature, both as to size and shape as well as 
colour. Some of the individuals w-ere green, others red or brown, and 
partially green and partially red. It belongs to the Volvocineas and is 
closely allied to the "red snow" C/ila/nydococciis nivalis. The specimens 
had been found under the down-pipe from the roof of Roman Catholic 
Church near Glasnevin, the stones under the spout appearing as if they 
had received a coat of red paint. 

Mr. M'Ardle exhibited a specimen of llcrhirta adiinca, Dicks (B. Gr.), 
a liverwort which he collected last May on Connor Hill near Dingle, 
where it grows in large tufts. The leaves are arranged in four roM's of a 
bright yellow colour, ovate lanceolate in outline, secund, deeply divided 
into two attenuated lobes. Their structure is interesting ; the cells are 
well defined ; those at the base of the leaf and along the centre of its two 
segments are linear, and of a different shape from the others, and have 
thicker walls forming a pseudo-nerve ; the outer cells are crenated, with 
the surface raised into delicate stride. This distinct plant is held by many 
good authorities to be the Irish form of a Himala3'an liverwort collected by 
Sir J. D. Hooker, known under the name oi Sendtmra junipcrinay Swartz. 

Dr. M'WeENEY showed cultures and slides of Strt'p(olhrix nigra Gas- 
perini, a peculiar form intermediate in position between the Schizomycetes 
and the higher Eungi, found by him in a brownish stratum of clay about 
three feet below the surface at the Richmond Asylum, Dublin. The 
organism consists of tufted masses of branching threads resembling 
mycelium, were it not for their extreme tenuity (.5 — \\i). The colonies 
on various nutrient materials become surrounded by a very conspicuous 
brownish-black pigment. When they have attained a certain age they 
become whitish and flocculent at the periphery. This corresponds to 
the formation of aerial branches the apices of which swell up, and come 
to contain minute spores. The ray-fungus, to which the now well-known 
Actinomycosis is due, belongs to the genus Strepiothrix and is closely 
allied to the present species, which was first found in earth and soil about 
two years ago by Gasperini and subsequently rather abundantly in the 
air of Rome and other places in Italy by Rossi Doria. This is the first 
note of its occurrence in the British Isles, 



P7'oceedings of Irish Societies. 23 

BEI.FAST Naturai. History and PhiIvOSophicai. Society. 

November 13th. — The seventy-fourth session was opened in the 
Museum, College Square North, when the inaugural address was delivered 
by the President (Mr. Robert L1.0YD Patterson, j.p., f.i,.s.) 

Mr. Patterson said that, on assuming the presidential chair at that the 
opening meeting of the seventy-fourth session of their Society, he was 
pleased at being able to congratulate his fellow-members on its continued 
vitality and activity, notwithstanding its advancing years. To the 
thoughtfulness of a lady — a life-long friend andwell-wisher of the Society, 
the late Miss Thompson— they were indebted for the bequest of an 
admirable portrait of her brother, Mr. William Thompson, one of the 
most distinguished of their former Presidents. A member had presented 
a very good likeness of another former President, Mr. Robert Patterson, 
while to a valued and useful member, Mr. Swanston, they were much in- 
debted for the recent gift of a bust of one of the most eminent naturalists 
the century had produced — Professor Edward Forbes — a man of truly re- 
markable powers and brilliant genius. The three had been united in bonds 
of the closest friendship, cemented by a community of taste and of interest 
in certain branches of science, a pursuit which was to Forbes a profession : 
to Thompson — a man of means and leisure — an occupation ; but to 
Patterson — a man of business — merely a relaxation. It occurred to him 
(the President) that the acquisition by the Society almost simultaneously 
of these mementoes of the three friends might fittingly be made the 
occasion of a brief review of their lives. He could not recall Mr Forbes. 
He knew he had seen him ; but he remembered Mr. Thompson very well 
indeed. He was the first of the three to be called away. After speaking 
of the early life of Mr. Thompson, the President pointed out that his first 
contribution to the proceedings of one of the English learned societies 
seemed to have been in 1833 — a communication on the iVrctic Tern and 
other rare birds observed in Ireland, made to the Zoological Society 
of London. From that period up to the time of his premature and 
lamented death he was a frequent and valued contributor to the different 
English scientific journals. 

As to Robert Patterson, he should for obvious reasons say less. He 

survived his friend Thompson exactly twenty years. His was an uneventful, 

busy, happy life, passed in a business to which he had been brought up, 

which he inherited from his father, and left to his eldest son. With him 

literature and science, although a passion, were merely a relaxation, not 

an occupation. His books were written in the leisure of his evenings at 

home, and published with the hope of enlisting more general interest in 

the study of Natural History. He was one of the earliest, strongest, and 

most consistent advocates for the adoption of Natural History as a regular 

part of the education of our youth, and he lived to see the realisation of 

much of his dream. Mr. Patterson was one of the seven 

founders of the Society in 182 1. He passed through almost every 

minor office in it till 1852, when on Mr. Thompson's death he was elected 

President,an office which hesubsequently filledon more than oneoccasion. 

Referring to Professor Forbes, the speaker said he was an original and 

commanding genius, and a most interesting personality. He was born at 

Douglas. Isle of Man, on the 12th February, 1815, and died at Edinburgh 

on the i8th November, 1854, aged only thirty-nine years and nine months. 

During his short life he accomplished an enormous amount of work. 

Mr. Patterson then gave some very interesting particulars of Forbes's 

life, taken from his biography. Of him it was no exaggeration to say that 

his was a most original, versatile, and brilliant intellect of the highest 

order. His early death was an irreparable loss to the whole scientific 

world of the period. 

The President of the Belfast Queen's College (Rev. Dr. Hamii^Ton) 
moved a vote of thanks to the President for his address. 

Mr, Robert Young, j,p., seconded the motion, which was passed 
by acclamation, and the meeting then coucluded, 



24 -l-he Irish Nahiralist 

Bei^fast Naturai^tsts' Fiki,d Ci^ub. 

November 2oTh.— The President (Mr. F. W. Lockwood, C.E.) 
delivered his openiiif^ address. He congratulated the Field Club upon 
its continued prosperity and the recent great increase of zeal as indicated 
by the formation of various subsections, such as the Microscopical 
Committee, the Celtic Class, the Photographic Committee, and the 
Geological Committee, all of which were doing good work. He then 
went on to comment at greater length upon the investigations by the 
Geological Committee into glacial plienomena generally. The various 
changes of opinion on this question were commented upon, and the 
principal theories upon the Great Ice Age described at some length. In 
conclusion, the speaker remarked that it was singular how little use 
appears to have been made of the microscope in these investigations. 
Marine claj's almost invariably yield specimens of foraminifera and 
kindred forms, which are strictly sea- water genera, yet except by their 
fellow-member, Mr. Joseph Wright, the Boulder clays do not appear to 
have been systematically searched for them. So far as this section of the 
country was concerned the Geological Committee of the Club could not 
do better than in continuing the work they had so energetically com- 
menced, and if they could persuade a sufficient number of competent 
observers in Great Britain to take up the microscopic investigations of 
the Boulder clays there, the geologists of Britain would be in a fair way 
to solve the great glacial problem. 

Mr. Joseph Wright, F.G.S., mentioned that with geologists in the 
North of Ireland it had always been considered as a marine deposit, and 
so long ago as 1841 General Portlock, in his report on the geology of 
Londonderry, recorded the occurrence of marine shells in this drift. 
Subsequently Mr. S. A. Stewart published in the Club's Proceedings a 
list of the mollusca of the Boulder clay in which he recorded the 
occurrence of shells from a number of North ot Ireland localities, 
proving that the clay in question was fossiliferous. Some of the bivalve 
mollusca, especially two species of Ltda, were found by him having the 
valves united, showing that these species must have lived on the spot in 
which they were found. Mr. Wright made a microscopic examination 
of the same clays, and in every case he found them to contain foramini- 
fera. He also met with foraminifera in many samples of the clay which 
were devoid of molluscan remains, these tiny rhizopods being as perfect 
as when brought up by the dredge from our existing seas. From that 
time up to the present further examinations of the Boulder clay have 
been made and always yielded similar results. He also stated that, through 
the courtesy of a Scotch geologist, Mr. James Neilson, he received five 
samples of Boulder clay from the vicinity of Glasgow, in all of which 
foraminifera were present. In addition to these, he received from Mr, 
John Stears, of Hull, a packet of Boulder clay from that locality. This 
sample of English Boulder clay was also found to contain foraminifera. 
These results are interesting by reason of the common occurrence of 
these marine microzoa, most English and Scotch geologists having 
been hitherto of the opinion that the Boulder clay was the result of land 
ice, and had not a marine origin. 

Mr. A. Percy Hoskins, PM.C, F.C.S., read a carefully-prepared analy- 
tical paper on a sample of glauconite from Woodburn, Carrickfergus. 

Mr. R. LivOYD Praeger made some general remarks on the history 
and work of the different Irish Clubs, and brought forward a scheme for a 
union of all the Field Clubs of Ireland, and for a general conference 
next summer. 

The President and Mr. Joseph Wright spoke in favour of the 
scheme, and Mr. W11.1.IAM Gray, M.R.I. A., offered some criticisms. 

Mr. F. J. Bigger, Honorary Secretary, in supporting the scheme, said 
it was not contemplated that the individuality of the clubs, nor their 
power over their own work, should be interfered with in any way, but 
that a Central Committee of all the Clubs should be appointed for 
carrying on general work. 

Mr. W. H. Patterson, 1M.R.I.A., also spoke in favour of the scheme. 



Irish Naturai^ist, Voi,. IV.] 



[Pl,AT^ 2. 




ANIMALS FROM THE MITCHELSTOWN CAVE. 



©Ije ^vi^ij ^ainvali&t 



Vol. IV. FEBRUARY, 1895. No. 2. 

ANIMATES FOUND IN THE MiTCHElvSTOWN CAVE. 

BY GHORGK H. CARPENTER, B.SC. 
(Read before the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, December nth, 1894.) 

The joint meeting of the Dublin, Cork, and I^imerick Field 
Clubs, held at Fermo}' during the past summer, will remain a 
pleasant memory to all who were privileged to take part in it. 
Of the various excursions undertaken on that occasion, the 
most novel and fascinating to the majority of those present 
was, doubtless, the exploration, on the afternoon of July 6th, 
of the famous caverns situated in the Carboniferous lyime- 
stone, near Mitchelstown. An interesting account of the topo- 
graphy of these caves, illustrated by a map, has recently been 
published^ by Rev. Courtenay Moore, Rector of Mitchelstown. 
Upon the occasion of our visit, an early start was made from 
Fermoy,the distance to Mitchelstown being about fifteen miles. 
Before arriving at the entrance to the cave, our party made a 
circuit and drove a short distance up one of the gorges on the 
southern slope of the Galtees. This fine mountain-range 
rising to a height of 3,000 feet, is, like most of the ranges of 
southern Ireland which run from east to west, composed of 
sandstones, grits, and conglomerates, ascribed to the Old Red 
or basement- Carboniferous formation, and thrown into an 
anticlinal fold. The synclinal areas between the ranges are 
outcrops of the Carboniferous I^imestone, and it is on the face 
of a hill of this rock, opposite the Galtees, at a few miles' 
distance, and about 400 feet above sea-level, that the entrance 
to the cave is situated. The excavation of such caves in lime- 
stone through the chemical action of gases dissolved in subter- 
ranean streams, and their subsequent adornment with stalactites 
and stalagmites by the deposition of salts held in solution by 

\/ourn. Cork Hist, Arch> Soc. vol. iii., 1894, pp. 1-5. 

A 



26 The Irish Naturalist. 

waters percolating through the rock, are sufficiently familiar. 
The Mitchelstown Cave will not disappoint either geologist or 
artist in search of interesting or beautiful forms among its 
arches, pendants, and columns. 

To the zoologists of our party, however, the interest of the 
place centred in the fact of its being the only cave in the British 
Isles known to be inhabited by a member of the peculiar blind, 
subterranean fauna, which, through explorations of the 
European and North American caverns, now includes some 
hundreds of species. In 1857, I^i"- H. Perceval Wright and 
the late Mr. A. H. Haliday discovered here a minute insect of 
the order Collembola, which they described in a paper read 
before the British Association meeting at Dublin that year,' 
and identified doubtfully with Lipura stilicidii, Schiodte, in- 
habiting the Aldesberg grotto, Carniola. To re-find this species 
was therefore our object, and we hoped also that the discovery 
of some other inhabitants of the place might reward our 
searchr 

The hill in which the cave is situated forms part of a small 
farm, the occupiers of which are well acquainted with the 
passages, and act as guides. After an informal luncheon on 
the roadside, our part}^, provided with candles, descended the 
sloping passage, and ladder which lead to the depths below. 
The time at our disposal was only two hours — far too short to 
explore all the galleries and chambers — and we did not reach 
the underground river, in which Dr. Wright and Mr. Haliday 
sought vainly for blind crustaceans. The rate of progress was 
necessarily slow, so that we were able to examine the floor 
and sides of the passages with some thoroughness, in our 
search for insects. At no great distance from the entrance, I 
was delighted to find three small pale spiders (a male and two 
females) crawling over one of the large blocks of rock on the 
floor. I recognised them as belonging to the genus Porrho?nina, 
and hoped the}^ might prove to be referable to F. viyops, Simon, 
described from a cave in southern France, and with only the 
female known. Subsequent examination proved this hope 
well-founded. Collecting underground was somewhat difficult, 
the necessity for carrying a candle seriously reducing the 
number of fingers available for seizing and bottling specimens. 
Under these conditions we willingly came to each other's help 

W<2/. Hist, Rev.t vol, iv,, 1857, Proc. pp. 231-241, pi. xviii. 



Animals fou?id in the Mitchelstown Cave* 27 

in the matter of showing a light. My friends and colleagues, 
Messrs. A. R. Nichols and J. N. Halbert, were indefatigable in 
searching during the whole time of our stay below-ground, 
and their efforts were heartily seconded by several of the Cork 
members, and Mr. F. Neale from Limerick. Mr. Nichols took 
the single specimen of the interesting species of mite, Gama- 
sus attenuat2is, described below ; while it was Mr. Halbert 
who, in one of the large chambers at a distance from the 
entrance, found the first specimen of the Lipura discovered 
by Messrs. Wright and Haliday. A fair number of examples 
of this insect were secured. They occurred, mostly beneath 
stones, among the very fine, moist red clay which, in many 
places, carpets the floor of the chambers. OwXy a minority of 
the specimens proved to be adult — a similar experience to that 
of Dr. Wright. In the farthest chamber w^hich we reached, 
much amusement was caused by the discover}^ of an animal 
which was clearly not a member of the cave fauna, but, like 
ourselves, a visitor from the outer world. This was a common 
Frog, whose sojourn in darkness was brought to a startling 
end by the advent of our candle-bearing procession. On the 
way back, I was so fortunate as to find beneath a stone a fully- 
grown specimen of another blind Collembolan, readily differen- 
tiated from the Lipura by the possession of a well-developed 
*' spring." Subsequent examination revealed the presence of 
one or two young individuals of the same species among the 
specimens oi Lipura which had been collected. This **spring- 
tail"' is perhaps the most interesting animal which we found. 
It belongs to the genus Sinella, Brooks,^ though it is hard to 
find any good character by which to separate it from Degeeria 
caverna?2wi, Packard, described from specimens taken in 
various caves in the United States. The latter species, how- 
ever, according to Packard, has, on the feet, distinct clubbed 
(tenent) hairs which are never present in Sinella; so I feel com- 
pelled to describe the Mitchelstown insect as new to science. 



' In the preliminary report of the expedition (/rw/i NaL, 1894, p. 183), 
this insect was wrongly recorded as Te/iipL'tonia crystallina, Miill. I was led 
into this error, on a hurried examination, by the white colour and ringed 
terminal joint of the antenna. Subsequent study showed an entire 
absence of scales, effectually removing the insect from Templetonia. — 

* /ourn. Limi. Soc. (Zoo/.), vol, xvi., 1883, p. 541. 

A 2 



28 . The Irish Naluralisi, 

Near the entrance we found two or three earthworms, one of 
which I have sent to the Rev. H. Friend, who pronounces it 
to be Allurus JIaviis, a form described bj^ himself and not 
hitherto recorded from Ireland. He has kindly furnished a 
short account of this worm, which will be found at the end of 
the present paper (p. 35). 

I now proceed to describe in detail the four other animals 
which we found. 

ARACHNIDA. 



ARANEIDA. 



THEKIDIIDAi. 



Porrhomma myops, Simon. 

(Plate 2, figs. 1-3.) 
This species was described by M. Simon* from a female taken in the 
cavern of Espezel, Department Aude, in southern France Another 
female has since been found in Dorsetshire by Rev. O. P. Cambridge 
(probably in some underground locality), and this specimen has recently 
been recorded and (in part) figured by Rev. F. O. P. Cambridge.- One of 
my females hasbeen compared by Rev. O. P. Cambridge with his specimen 
(which was named by M. Simon), and he kindly informs me that he 
cannot differentiate them. It is possible, in this genus, that two indis- 
tinguishable females might have to be referred to distinct species, were 
their males known. I think it better, however, to consider the spider 
from Mitchelstown as P. myops until a male shall have been discovered in 
the French cave, and shown to be distinct from that now described. 

Length of male, 2 mm. ; of female, 2.5 mm. 

Cephalothorax and falces, pale orange ; head-portion high and convex, 
specially in the male, clothed with rows of hairs, which are longer in the 
male (fig. i). 

Eyes very small ; hind-centrals two diameters apart, fore-centrals 
nearly in contact ; laterals in contact, four or five diameters from centrals. 
In my male the centrals are almost obsolete. Clypeus twice the width of 
ocular area (fig. 2). 

Palpal organ of male with strong rounded prominence beneath falci- 
form process (more marked than in the nearly allied species P. egeria^ 
Simon); apex of bulb regularly conical, somewhatblunt (obliquely conical 
and sharp in P. egeria), with two strong curved spines (one bent in form 
of S, not present in P. egeria) (fig. i). 

Legs very pale straw colour, long and slender; metatarsi without 
spines. Femur of first pair with one dorsal spine about the middle, and 
one lateral towards the apex. Femur of second pair with one dorsal 
spine (female) ; without any spine (male). The femora of the male, 
specially the first pair, longer and more slender than those of the female. 

^ Les Arachnides de France, vol. v., p. 358. Paris, 1884. 

2 Ann' Mag, Nat. Hist. (6), vol. xiii., 1894, pp. 100, I07, pi. ii., fig. 6. 



Afiijnals found in the Mitchehtoivn Cave. 29 

Abdomen very pale greenish. Epigyue of female with large cavity, 
front margin rounded, hind margin straight, with small central pro- 
minence (fig. 3). 

M. Simon describes thirteen species of this genus, of which no less than 
five are inhabitants of caves, while most of the others are found under 
stones and in similar concealed situations. A colony of a British species, 
P. micropthhahman, Cb., was found in i860, by Dr. Meade, ^ established at 
the bottom of a Durham coalpit. Quite recently, ^ Rev. F. O. P. Cam- 
bridge has recorded P. egeria from the Somerset cavern known as Wookey 
Hole, and remarks that sometimes the hinder, sometimes the front pair 
of central eyes, are aborted. P. egeria has, however, been taken in 
numbers near Edinburgh, ^ running on railings in sunshine, and thus 
appears to live indifferently above or underground. P. myops, on the 
other hand, seems a true subterranean species. It is very nearly allied to 
P, egeria, but may be distinguished by the characters of the male palp, 
given above. Moreover, P. egeria has three spines on the first, and two on 
the second femur. It is also a somewhat larger spider than P. niyops, and 
decidedly less pale and washed out in appearance. Even the specimens 
from Wookey Hole (a pair of which Mr. F. Cambridge has generously 
sent me for comparison) do not show the sickly aspect which charac- 
terises P, 7nyops from the Mitchelstown cavern. 

The excessively small eyes of this spider, and their tendency to become 
altogether obsolete, are in accordance with the subterranean dwelling 
place. The small size of the eyes is, however, characteristic of the entire 
genus, even for those species which live in the open air. 

It is remarkable that the underground species oiPorrhomnia are omitted 
from the list of European cave animals given in Prof. Packard's exhaus- 
tive memoir upon the cave-fauna of North America.* There is, however, 
a spider described (by Mr. J. H. Emerton) in that memoir under the 
name of Linyphia incerta, which certainly belongs to the genus PorrhommUy 
and is, I believe, identical with our Mitchelstown P. jnyops. Mr. Emer- 
ton's figures of the male palpal organs of his species show the regular 
conical apex of the bulb and the two curved apical spines which charac- 
teirise those organs in P. myops. If a comparison of types should justify 
this opinion, Mr. Emerton's name, having been first published in 1875,^ 
will take priority of M. Simon's, and our species will have to be known as 
Porrhomma ijtcerta. This North American -spider — which, at any rate, is 
extremely near the Mitchelstown species — has occurred in the Fountain 
Cave, V'irginia, and in the Bat Cave, Kentucky. Mr. Emerton states that 
in different individuals a variable number of the central eyes may be 
wanting. 



1 Zoologist, i860. 



2 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), vol. xv., 1895, p. 36, pi. iv., fig. 13. 

2 Proc. R. Phys. Soc. Edin., 1894, p. 560. 

* Mem. Nat. Acad. Set. (Washington), vol. iv., 1888. 

^ Amer. Nat., vol. ix. 



JO- •' The Irish Naturalist, 

. AGARINA. 



GAMASIDJE. 



Camasus attenuatus (Koch), Berlese. 
(Plate 2, figs. 4-9.) 
My best thanks are due to Mr. A. D. Michael, F.LS., for kindly 

suggesting, from my rough sketches, this identification. He states the 

species to be not uncommon in England among dead leaves, &c. 

Length, 1*3 mm. Pale fawn colour. Body elongated. Epistome (fig. 6) 
terminating with three points, of which the central is the longest. Man- 
dibles (fig. 7) with evenly rounded fingers, the upper with a tooth near 
apex. Second pair of legs (fig. 5) greatly thickened, third joint with a 
long, curved blunt tooth beneath at base, and a shorter bifid process ; 
fourth and fifth joints with short, blunt processes at apex; sixth joint 
without any process. 

This mite is closely allied to G. magnus, Kramer^ with which the form 
of the epistome agrees almost exactly. It differs from that species 
however in the even shape of the mandibles, which have no projection 
above. From G. subkrrauens, Kramer-, it may be distinguished by the 
sides of the epistome being straight, not convex, as well as by the 
armature of the second pair of legs. In this last character, as well as in 
general aspect, our species agrees nearly with a Carniolan cave species, 
G. niveus, WankeP, but in that form the epistome is figured as ending in 
a single pointed process. 

All the Gamasidae are blind; several species are known from caves, 
and many live in concealment beneath stones, dead leaves, &c. 

INSECTA, 



COLIvEMBOLA. 



ENTOMOBR YIDyE. 



SInella cavernicola, sp. nov. 

(PI. 2, figs. 11-16.) 
Length of head and body, 2-5 mm. White. Eyes wanting. Antennae 

nearly twice as long as head ; terminal joint the longest, slender, ringe 
with clubbed hairs (fig. 12). Tarsal joints without tenent hairs, large 
claw of first pair of feet with small tooth (fig. 13a), others without 
distinct tooth (fig. 13). Fourth abdominal segment hardly as long as the 
three preceding. Spring two-thirds as long as body ; terminal claws 
evenly curved, with a small tooth as in S- curviseia, Brook, No clubbed 
hairs on thorax, but a large number of short ones on hindmost abdominal 
segments and on spring. 

The genus {Sinclla) to which this species evidently belongs, is distin- 
guished from Isotovia by the possession of clubbed hairs, from Enlomobrya 
{Degeeria) by the absence of tenent hairs on the feet. It is very vsimilar to 

* Arch, fur Nattirgeschichte, xlii., 1876, p. 91. pi. iv., fig. 9, pi. v., ff. 14,33. 
2 T. c, p. 92, pi. v., fig. 24. 

^ Siiz. Kaiserl. Akad. IVini, {Mat. -Aat, -Class), vol. xliii., 1S61, p. 262, pi. 
iv., fF. 8-10. 



Animals fozmd in the Mitchehtowji Cave. 31 

the tj'pe species .S". airviseta, Brook, but may be readily distinguished by 
the absence of eyes, of teeth to the hinder foot-claws, and of long clubbed 
ciliated thoracic hairs ; and by the possession of distinct rings of hairs on 
the terminal joint of the antennae. There are some long tapering 
finely-ciliated hairs (fig. 15) on the second and third abdominal segments. 
As in S. airviseta, there are a pair of long ciliated sheath-hairs at the apex 
of the spring (fig. 14). 

Simlla cu7-viseta has occurred both in the north and south of England, 
as well as on the Continent, but I do not think it has yet been recognised 
in Ireland. The presence of a cave-species so nearly related makes it 
likely that this or another open-air insect of the genus will be found here 
too. 

For a long time I was disposed to consider S, cavernicola identical with 
Degeeria cavernay-wn, Packard ; but the presence of a tenent hair on the 
feet in that species obliges us to consider it a true Entotnobrya. It is hard 
to find any other distinction which warrants the separation of our insect 
from the North American spring-tail. 

LIPURID^, 



Lipura Wrightll, sp. nov. 

(Z. stiliddii, Wright and Haliday). 

(Plate 2, fig. 10.) 

Length 2 mm. White. Antennae as long as head; terminal joint 
the longest, conical. No ocelli or post-antennal organ. Head longer 
thai: broad, with hind-margin sinuate. PronotuLn with a constriction 
on either side. Legs moderately long and stout. No anal spines. 

When recording the capture of this insect, and describing its 
structure, in Dr. Wright's paper already mentioned, the late Mr. A. H. 
Haliday referred it with doubt to Schiodte's species, and pointed out 
various particulars in which it differs from that form. The most striking 
of these is the entire absence, in the Mitchelstown insect, of the ocelli 
(according to Tullbergand Sir J. Lubbock, really the post-antennal organ), 
of which Mr. Haliday could find no trace. After so accurate an observer, 
it is needless to say that I have also failed to find the organ. The legs 
and antennae of our species, moreover, are not relatively so long and 
slender as those of L, stiliddii. I am quite inclined to agree with Mr. 
Haliday's suggestion that Schiodte was^mistaken in figuring all the 
thoracic segments in his form as divided into an anterior and a posterior 
part by a transverse constriction. When one is examining specimens 
by transmitted light, the lateral extensions of the thorax which bear 
the legs are readily to be mistaken for dorsal segments. There is on 
either side of the pronotum a constriction running in for a very short 
distance. This is shown in Haliday's figure, which represents the side 
view of the insect. I have drawn the dorsal aspect, which will enable 
comparison to be made with Schiodte's figure copied by Haliday. The 
Mitchelstown species in the length of antennae and legs seems to be 
intermediate between Lipira stiliddii and L. fimetaria, Lubb. — another 
white species common in damp mould. While not so slender as those of 



3^ The Irish Naturalist, 

the former, the appendages of Z. Wrightii are not so short and stumpy 
as those of the latter, which, however, our species resembles much in 
general structure, and in the absence of anal spines. It seems probable 
that it may be really an offshoot of L. fimetaria, modified for cave-life, 
the lengthening of antennae being a common occurrence in subterranean 
insects. These considerations have induced me to give the insect a new 
name, and none could be more suitable than that of the naturalist whose 
earliest paper announced its discovery, and who has since done so much 
to advance the knowledge of Irish Natural History. 

Reviewing these animals, we notice that (except the mite) 
they all present the characters of true troglodytes. All 
are more or less bleached, the two insects being perfectly 
white. The two insects are totally blind (the mite, of course, 
cannot be reckoned, as it belongs to a blind family), and the 
spider is clearly in process of becoming so. The peculiar 
modifications which cave animals have undergone have been 
variously explained, and have been much used by recent 
writers in discussions upon the factors of evolution. The 
bleaching and loss of eye-sight which these creatures exhibit 
are by some attributed solely to their life in total darkness, b}^ 
others to the action of natural selection with regard to some 
portions of their organization and its necessary cessation 
(panmixia) with regard to others, in the new surroundings. 

No naturalist doubts that these cave-dwellers are the modi- 
fied descendants of inhabitants of the upper air, which were 
provided with eyes, and coloured after the usual manner of 
their genus. There can be no doubt that the production of 
pigment is largely dependent upon the presence of light, and 
it seems very likely that a life in darkness is alone sufficient 
to account for the bleaching characteristic of cave-dwellers. 
Instances are given by Professor Packard of individuals belong- 
ing to the open-air fauna being quite bleached when found in 
caves, the loss of colour having here occurred during the life- 
time of the individual. On the other hand, colour must be 
absolutely useless to dwellers in total darkness, to conceal 
them either from enemies or prey, and would therefore tend to 
disappear through the cessation of selection of individuals 
coloured in any particular way. Similarly, the loss of eyes 
may be attributed either directly to disuse through a life in 
darkness, or to the cessation of selection with regard to those 
organs, since they can be no longer of use to their possessors. 
Professor Ray Lankester has suggested that animals with 



A7ii7nals found in the Mitchehtown Cave. 33 

defective vision would become segregated in caves, since those 
with the best eyesight, when carried in, would be most easily 
able to find their way back to daylight. There is another 
factor to be taken into account, that known as "economy of 
nutrition." There is a general tendency among cave-animals 
to a decrease in size, and their food supply is undoubtedly very 
limited. Hence, to get rid of any useless organ would seem 
to be of considerable benefit ; and this last factor would be 
more likely to produce some effect among cave-dwellers than 
among species living in the open air. 

A word as to the nourishment of these cave animals may be 
of interest. Springtails live on vegetable refuse. The food 
canal of every specimen of the Lipura which we collected 
was filled with the fine red earth already mentioned as lining 
the bottom of the cave. The species of Lipura are generally 
found in damp mould, &c., and with this their intestines are 
filled ; it appears therefore that they obtain their nutriment 
from the vegetable substances contained in the mould. But 
one would think that the amount of organic matter in the red 
earth of the cave must be excessively small. No doubt it is, 
but fragments of wood, &c., must be often carried in by water, 
while some of the lower fungi find in the caverns a congenial 
home. From the disintegration of these, diffused through 
the earth, the insects have to win their precarious livelihood. 
Dr. K. Perceval Wright has kindly told me that collectors in 
the Carniolan caves secure insects b}^ leaving pieces of wood 
as traps. The creatures must gladly leave their precarious 
nourishment for the opportunity of such a feast. The spiders, 
of course, live by prey, though it seems they can have but 
little to ensnare. The habit of the family to which Porrhomma 
wjj/^/5 belongs isto spin aweb of irregular, intercrossing threads. 
If the cave-dwelling spider has maintained this habit, it 
probably lives on insects which stray into its dark abode from 
the outer world. But the fact that the specimens taken were 
found walking on the rocks rather suggests that they hunt for 
the cave-insects. Gamasid mites are stated by Mr. A. D. 
Michaer to devour Lipuridae, so Gamasiis attemiatus must find 
suitable food in the Mitchelstown cave. 

The apparent geographical distribution of the animals 
demands a short consideration. The Lipura is hardly to be 

'^J'otirn, Linn, Soc. {Zool^ vol. xv,, 1881. 

A3 



34 Thi Irish Naturalist. 

separated from a species found in the caves of Carniola, and 
the Sinella is almost identical with one inhabiting the caves 
of North America ; while the spider is apparently the same as 
a cave-dweller from the Mediterranean district of southern 
France, which probably occurs in the North American caverns 
also. Had we to do with animals of the upper fauna, these 
results, though highly interesting, would not be without 
parallel in species alread}^ known. The identity of certain 
Irish animals and plants with south European (Pyrenean and 
Mediterranean) forms has long been one of the most marked 
peculiarities of our fauna and flora ; while we possess at least 
a few North American plants found nowhere else in Europe. 
But the occurrence of cave-dwelling species with so wide a 
range is a truly remarkable phenomenon. The caves cannot 
be of any great geological age. Any possible geographical 
connection which would permit the migration of subterranean 
animals between southern Europe and Ireland, or between 
Ireland and North America seems altogether out of the 
question within any period- during which the fauna can have 
been .specifically identical with that of the present da}^ The 
onl}" conclusion is that from ancestors, presumably of the 
same genus, which took to an underground life in such 
widelj^-separated localities, the similar conditions of the caves 
have evolved descendants so similar that when compared, 
they cannot or can hardly be specifically distinguished from 
each other. Should the identifications suggested in this 
paper stand the test of a comparison of t3'pes, we shall have 
proof that the independent development of the same species, 
under similar conditions, but in widely distant localities, has 
taken place. It must be granted, however, that cave-con- 
ditions are so marked and exceptional, that it might not be 
safe to argue from them as to what may have occurred in the 
upper world. 

With the exception of Mr. F. Cambridge's record of 
Porrhomina egcria from the Wookey Hole, I am not aware 
of the observation of members of the subterranean fauna in 
an}^ British cave except Mitchelstown. It seems almost 
certain that a careful search would reveal further localities 
and new species. The great development of the Carboni- 
ferous I,imestone area in Ireland, and the number of caverns 
known to exist in the formation, marks the country out as 



Animals foimd i?i the Mitchelstowji Cave. 35 

a speciall}^ fruitful field for a research into cave-life. If a 
couple of hours' collecting in one cave has yielded such 
interesting results, what may we not expect when w^e have 
adequately searched all the underground chambers which the 
streams of ages have hollowed out in the limestone of our 
great central plain ? 

EXPI^ANATIOM OF Pi, ATE 2. 

Fig. I. Porrlwtnma myops, Sim., - Male, side view, legs removed. 
„ 2. do. - - do., front view, showing eyes and 

falces. 
,, 3. do. - - Female, epigyne. 

4. Gamasics atteniiatus^ Koch, - Male, dorsal view. 
5- do. - - do., ventral view, with leg of 2nd 

pair. 

6. do. - - do., epistome. 

7. do. - - do., mandible. 

8. do. - - do., foot of leg of 2nd pair. 

9. do. - - do., „ ,, 3rd „ 

10. Lipura Wrighiii, sp.n., - Dorsal view. 

11. Sinella cavernioia, s-^Ai., - Side view. 

12. do. - - Portion of terminal joint of antenna. 

13. do. - - Foot of 3rd pair of legs. 
13A. do. - - ,, 1st pair of legs. 

14. do. - - Apex of spring. 

15. do. - - CiHated hair from 3rd abdominal 

segment. 

16. do. - - Ciliated hair from spring. 






)> 



J) 



A NEW I^ORM OF IRISH EARTHWORM. 

BY RKV. HII^DERIC FRIEND, F.I,.S. 



Through the kindness of Mr. Carpenter I have received a 
specimen of an earthAvorm which has not hitherto, I believe, 
been recorded for Ireland. It was found in Mitchelstown 
Cave, Co. Tipperar>% and being a perfectly developed adult 
form was readily identified. It is the golden AUurus, Allu7us 
flavus, Friend {Natziralist, Jan., 1893, p. 20), and is worthy of 
a brief notice. I first found this worm in the river Calder a 
couple of miles from Carlisle, Cumberland, where its colour 
was a rich orange yellow. It was abundant, and had the 
girdle extending over segments 22-27, while segments 23, 24, 
25 bore the clitellar papillae. I^ater on I found a solitary 
specimen in a little stream near Apperley (Calverley Woods), 



36 The Irish Naturalist. 

in Yorkshire. When preser^^ed in alcohol this specimen from 
segments 14 to 16 was darker in colour than the rest of the 
worm, which on dissection proved to be the result of a 
mixture of quartz granules and vegetable matter intermixed 
in the intestines, and showing through the semitransparent 
bod5\ I found an opening in the middle of segment 10 with a 
pair of penial setae, which differ widelj^ from those which are 
arranged in pairs on each segment of the ho^y. In other 
particulars it differed considerably from the type, and though 
it is difficult to specify any characters which entitle it to 
rank at present as a distinct species, it is undoubtedly a 
distinct form or variety. Kisen found specimens which he 
named var. hdcics, but from his brief description this differed 
from the present form. We do not yet know enough of the 
habits, habitats, structure and distribution of this interesting 
genus to determine the number of species which exist, as ever}^ 
writer finds some particular in which the specimens examined 
by him differ from the descriptions of others. Rosa's 
" Revisione dei I/Umbricidi " (Torino, 1893) contains (pp.71 
seq.) one of the latest summaries, but A. jflavus, Fr., is not 
included. The following are the external characters of the 
Mitchelstown Cave specimen, and to this account I shall be 
glad to add a further diagnosis if further specimens can be 
obtained for dissection and microscopic examination. 

Allurus flavus, Friend. 

Found at Mitchelstown Cave, July, 1894. Length in alcohol i incli, 
total number of segments 80, yellow in colour. Girdle extending from 
segment 22 to 26, with papillae on one side only of segments 28, 29. On the 
under side of the girdle the clitellar band extends over segments 23, 24, 
25 on either side. Perhaps to be regarded as only a well-marked variety 
of ^. tdraedrus, Sav., the variation being due to some peculiarity" of soil 
or habitat yet to be determined. 



[ Zl ] 



the: distribution of thk charack^ 

in irki.and, 

BY H, AND J. GROViJS, F.I<.S. 



{concluded from page U.) 



130. Gal way, B., 
133. Westmeath, 



Chara tomentosa, I^. 

R. Shannon, below Portumna, 1843. ^' Moore. 

Belvidere Lake (L. Ennel), 1841, D. Moore. Coosan 
Ivough, J 886, R. P. Vowell. L. Derevaragh 
and I/. Owel, 1892, H. C. Levinge and H. and 
J.G. 



This is perhaps the most interesting and characteristic of all the Irish 
Characece, and in the British Isles is apparently confined to Ireland.* 
All the localities cited above belong to the Shannon drainage, although 
L- Owel is now used as a reservoir for the Royal Canal. The small 
form with most of the joints of the branchlets uncoated and much 
vSwoUen, which was first discovered by Dr. D. Moore, and figured by 
Hooker as C. latifolia, Willd., is that occurring in rather shallow water 
with a comparatively hard bottom, but the large well developed form 
three or four feet high is plentiful in the deeper muddy bays of several 
of the lakes. We found a very curious slender form in L. Owel. 
C. to?nentosa is recorded from Sweden, Denmark, Germany (in many 
places), France (Normandy) Switzerland, Austria, Turkey, Russia, Persia 
and Algiers. 



113. Kerry, S., 

114- .> N., 
121. Queen's Co., 

123. Wicklow, 

124. Kildare, - 

125. Dublin, - 

127. Louth, - 

128. Limerick, 

129. Clare, 

130. Gal way, E., 
133. Westmeath, 
135. Gal way, W., 
138. Sligo, - 
140. Roscommon, 
145. Armagh, 
147. Down, 

149. Londonderry, 



C. hisplda, L. 

- Killarney, 1887. R. W. Scully. 

- Near Ventry, 1894. D. M'Ardle. 

- Near Farmhill, 1890, R. W. Scully. 

- Murrough of Wicklow, 1877. D. M'Ardle. 

- Below Athy, 1890. R. W. Scully. 

- Raheny, 1893. R. LI. Praeger. 

- Dundalk, 1883. J. F. Crofts. 

- Near Foynes, 1884. S. A. Stewart. 

- Near Ennis, 1884. S. A. Stewart. 

- L. Derg, 1881. Bolton King. 

- Belvidere L. D. Moore. 

- Roundstone, 1868. C. Bailey. 

- Coolgagh L.ri883. S. A. Stewart 

- L. Ree, 1886. R. M. Barrington. 

- Near Grange, 1892. R. LI. Praeger. 

- Downpatrick, 1891. R. IJ. Praeger. 
• R. Bann, Coleraine. D. Moore. 



*A curious sterile plant collected in Norfolk, in 1881, by Mr. Arthur 
Bennett, was referred by Dr. Nordstedt to this species and, at the time, 
we concurred in this view. It has not so far as we know been collected 
since, but in the same locality we have found some intermediate plants, 
which we think may be hybrids, and which in some characters approach 
closely to Mr. Bennett's specimen though they do not look so much like 
C. tomentosa. We are, therefore, inclined to doubt whether we were right 
in recording the Norfolk locality for the species. 

A4 



38 



The Irish Naturalist. 



123. Wicklow, 
125. Dublin, - 



C. hispida, var. macracantha, Braun. 

- Hb. Moore. 

- Maynooth, 1890. D. M'Ardle 



125. Dublin, - 
130. Gal way, E., 
^ZZ' Westmeath, 

135. Galway, W., 
140. Roscommon, 
145. Armagh, - 
147. Down, - 



var, rudis, Braun. 

■ Roval Canal near Lucan, 1889. R. W. Scully. 

• L. berg, 1S81. Bolton King. 

• Brittas Lake, 1892. H. C. Levinge and H, 

and J. G. 
. Arranmore, 1891. S. A. Stewart. 
. L. Ree, 1886. R. M. Barrington. 
Quarries near Navan Fort, 1892. R. LI. Praeger. 
. Loughinisland, 1887. S. A. Stewart. 



C hispida is a common European species, but outside Europe it has 
only been recorded from Tunis and Siberia. The var. rudis is a very 
well-marked plant and is more entitled to notice than most of the named 
forms ; indeed it has sometimes been regarded as a separate species. 
It is much commoner in Ireland and Scotland than in England. 



113. Kerry, S., 

114. „ N., 
T2I. Queen's Co., 

123. Wicklow, 

124. Kildare, - 

125. Dublin, - 

126. Meath, - 

128. Limerick, 

129. Clare, 

133. Westmeath, 
135. Galway, W., 
138. Sligo, . 
145. Armagh, - 
147. Down, 
149. Londonderry, 



var. 



114. Kerry, N., 

116. Cork, N., 

123. Wicklow, 

125. Dublin, - 

127. Louth, - 

130. Galway, E., 

138. Sligo, 

147. Down, 

148. Antrim, • 



113. Kerry, S., 
121. Queen's Co., 
133. Westmeath, 

or 
140. Roscommon, 

C. vulgaris though 
from the number of 
England. It seems 



C. vulgaris, L 

- Caragh, 1888. R. W. Scully. 

- Castle Gregory. Hb. Moore, 

. Near Farmhill, 1890. R. W. Scully. 

- Near Bray, 1866. R. M. Barrington. 
. Near Athy, 1890. R. W. Scully. 

. Sutton, 1871. W. T. T. Dyer. 

- Navan, 1879. C. Bailey. 

- Rinekirk, 1885. S. A. Stewart. 

- Bally vaughan, 1885. R. P. Murray. 

- Near Belvidere Lake, 187 1 W. T, T. Dyer. 

- Kilronan, Aran, 1890, J, E. Nowers, 

- Bartragh I., near Moyview, 1870, A. G, More. 

- Bird Island, 1882. H, V/. Lett, 

- Loughinisland Lake, 1887. S. A, Stewart. 

- Magilligan, 1892, M, J. Leebody, 

longibracteata, Kuetz. 

- Blennerville, 1888. R. W. Scully. 

- Middleton, 1872. T. Allin. 

- Base of Sugar Loaf Mtn,, 1894. R. lyl.Praeger. 

- Swords, 1848, D, Moore, 

- Dundalk, 1883. J. F. Crofts. 

- L. Derg, 1881. Bolton King. 

- Glencar Lake, 1884. R. M, Barrington. 

- Near Belfast, 1886. S. A. Stewart, 

- Springfield, 1857. W. M. Hind. 

var. paplllata, Wallr. 

- Ferry, Waterv-ille, 1889. R. W. Scully. 

- Near Farmhill, 1890. R. W. Scully. 



Lough Ree, 1886. R. M. Barrington. 



a fairly common species in Ireland is not, judging 
specimens we have received, so abundant as it is in 
to be a common plant almost throughout the world. 



The Distribution of the Characece hi Ireland* 39 

C. canescens* Ivoisel. 

114. Kerry, N., - - Castle Gregory Lake, 1894. R. W. Scully. 

A very interesting addition to the Flora of Ireland The plant from 
Co. Cork (Shanagarry Bog), circulated by Mr. Carroll as C. crinita, is 
C. polyacantha. C. canescens is recorded from various parts of Europe, North 
Africa, temperate Asia, and North America. In Britain it has only been 
found in Dorset and Cornwall. 

Tolypella grioinerata, Leonh. 

124. Kildare, - - - Maynooth, 1894. R. LI. Praeger. 

125. Dublin, - • - Canal, near Glasnevin, 1857. D. Moore. 
133. Westmeath, - - L- Bnnel, 1892. H. and J. G. 

138. Sligo, - - - Glencar Lake, 1884. R. M. Barrington. 
139 Leitrim, • - - Glenade Lake, 1884. R. M Bariington. 

T, glomerata is widely distributed in Europe, and occurs also in Algiers, 
Persia, India, Tasmania, and North America. Wei think it will probably 
be foundin many other localities in Irelandjbeingoften a very inconspicuous 
plant. 

{Tolypella nidifica, Leonh. Braun, in ''Fragmente einer Monographic 
der Characeen," p. 94, describes the plant collected in Lough Neagh, near 
Langford Lodge, by Dr. Moore in 1840, as the var. intervudia of this 
species ; but this appears to need confirmation ] 

T. prollfcra, Leonh. 

125. Dublin, - - - Canal near Glasnevin. D. Moore. 

Dr. Moore's specimen is the only one we have seen from Ireland. 
T. prolifera is recorded from a few scattered localities in Central and 
Southern Europe and in North and South America. In Britain it is 
apparently confined to a few counties in the East of England. 

T. Intrlcata, Leonh. 

125. Dublin, - - - Glasnevin. D. Moore. 

T. intricata occurs in many localities in Central Europe, from Sweden to 
N. Italy, in Algiers and in Canada. It has been found in the eastern 
counties of England from Durham southwards. 

Nitella Nordstedtiana, H. and J. Groves. 

113. Kerry, S., - - Caragh Lake, 1889. R. W. Scully. 

Killarney, Lower Lake, Muckross Shore, 1890. 
Near Swallow Island, 1892. R. W. Scully. 

This species is recorded from Finland, Sweden, Germany, France, 
Spain, and Italy, and from North America and Australia. In Britain it 
has only been found in the Outer Hebrides. The Caragh Lake plant is 
larger and laxer than that from Scotland, and we referred it in the first 
instance to N. gracilis. 



46 ' The Irish Naturalist, 



N. tenulssltna, Kuetz. 

130. Gal way, E., - - Near Ballindooley, 1892. H. and J. G. 
I33. Westmeath, - - Scraw Bog near L. Owel, 1892. H. C. 

Levinge, and H. and J. G. 

This occurs in Europe, Asia, North Africa, and North America. 
In Britain it has only been found in the widely separated counties of 
Cambridgeshire and Anglesey. It occurs in peat-pits and dikes, but on 
account of its dark colour and slender stem is often very inconspicuous. 
As we found it in the only two sets of peat-pits which we had the 
opportunity of examining during our short visit to Ireland, and as the 
country abounds in similar habitats, we have no doubt it will be found 
to be much more generally distributed. 



N. srracllls, Ag. 

123. Wicklow, - - L. Luggela and L. Dan, 1892. R. M. Bar- 

rington and H. and J. G. 
125. Dublin, - - Near Ballybetagh, Glencullen, 1872. D. Orr. 

The Luggela plant is a remarkably fine form with very longbranchlets. 
N. gracilis is found nearly throughout Europe, in Asia, Africa, and North 
and South America. 

. N. translucens, Ag. 

113. Kerry, S., - - L. Caragh, 1876. A. G. More. 

114. Kerry, N,, - - Mannabone Mtns. D. M'Ardle. 
135. Galway, W., - - Clifden, 1869. A. G. More. 

145. Armagh,- - - Cashel L., 1892. R, LI. Praeger. 

147. Down, - - - Derry L., 1887. R. LI. Praeger. 

148. Antrim, - - - Lissanorn Castle. D. Moore. 
149 Londonderry, - - Kilrea, 1836. D. Moore. 

N. trattsluceiis occurs principally in Western Europe, but reaches to 
Sweden in the north, and to Algiers, &c., in the south, and a variety or 
sub-species is found in New Zealand. It grows usually in ponds, lakes, 
and canals, but occasionally in running water. 



N. flexllls, Ag. 

113. Kerry, S., • - Caragh Lake and L. Acoose, 1889. R. W, 

Scully. 

115. Cork, S.,- - - Glengarriff. I.Carroll. 

J37. Mayo, E., - - Cong, 1885. E). F. and W. R. Linton. 

139. Leitrim, - - - L. Allen, 1883. S. A. Stewart. 

141. Fermanagh, - - Rossford Point, 1837. W. Thompson. 

148. Antrim, - - - Carnlough River, 1892. R. LI. Praeger. 

Probably a commoner plant than the above list would seem to indicate, 
but many specimens we have seen which may belong to this species are 
sterile and we have not been able to determine them, N. flexilis is widely 
distributed in Europe, and has been recorded from Siberia and North 
and South America, 



The Dishibuiion of CharacecB in Ireland. 41 

N. opaca, Ag. 

113. Kerr}', S., - - Killarney. Hb. Moore, 

114. ,, N., - - Mannaboiie Mountains. D. M'Ardle. 

116. Cork, N., - - Fernio}'. T. Chandlee. 

117. Waterford, - - Dnngarvan, 1S82, G. Nicholson. 
123. Wicklow, - - Kilmacurragli, 1884. F. W. Moore. 
125. Dublin, - - - Hill of Howth, i860. D. Moore. 
135 Galway, W., - - Kylemore Lake, 1870. D. IMoore. 
139. Leitrim, - - - L. Boffin, 1871. W. T. T. Dyer. 
141. Fermanagh, - - L. Erne, 1882. R. M. Barrington. 

145. Armagh,- - - L. Neagh, near Lurgan, 1874. S. A. Stewart. 

146. Donegal, - - Iv. Naminn, 1892. M. J. Leebod}'. 

147. Down, - - • Clandeboye Lake, 1883. S- A. Stevrart. 

148. Antrim, • - - Rathlin I. D. Moore. 

149. Londonderry, - Kilrea, 1839. W. Thompson. 

This is the commonest species oi Nitella in the British Isles, and is also 
common nearly throughout Europe. It is recorded from Asia, N. Africa, 
and North and vSouth America 

[N. capiiata, Ag., which occurs in the fenland of Cambridgeshire^ and 
N. syncarpa, Chev., which is common in the West of France, should be 
looked for in Ireland. Both resemble slender states of N, opaca, but have 
a gelatinous covering to the fruits ; and N. syncarpa is distinguished from 
A', opaca and N. capitata by its simple fruit-bearing branchlets.] 



THE GEOI.OGIST AT THE EUNCHEON TABLE- 

BY PROFESSOR GRENVILLK A. J. COLE, M.R.I.A., F.G.S. 



The Refreshment-Rooms organised by the Misses Gardiner, 
in a house that actually stands upon the demesne of Trinity 
College, Dublin, have long been recognised as a daily meeting- 
ground for the members of the staffs of adjacent institutions. 
In man}^ waj^s these rooms have played the part of the old 
London coffee-houses, not to say of the ever-famous ** Mer- 
maid " ; and the manuscripts and^proof-sheets of public and 
scientific journals, including those of the Irish Naturalist, have 
often derived an additional sparkle from the conversation 
carried on around their tables. The opportunity afforded by 
the reconstruction of the premises has been seized on by 
several of their confirmed habitues, and a New Year's gift ot 
seven ornamental tables has been the result. 

Naturally, the polished tops have been made of Irish marbles 
Under the care of Mr. E- S. Glanville, of Lower Erne-street, 
Dublin. A scientific committee of selection visited the works. 



42 



The Irish Naturalist. 



and the stones were chosen as if they were to ornament a 
museum. While literary and antiquarian visitors cannot fail 
to appreciate the artistic beauty of the slabs, naturalists will 
find many points of interest, even in their minuter details. 

Two of the slabs are from the lyissoughter quarry in 
Connemara, and show the unique serpentinous marble in all 
the perfection of its green and grey streaks and foldings. The 
highly metamorphosed character of the rock is at once ap- 
parent, and in one table the contortion of the bands can be 
traced, while in the other a more parallel structure has been 
set up by the continued deformation of the mass. The recent 
paper by Messrs. Lavis and Gregory (^) on eozoonal structure 
in limestones from around the vent of Vesuvius has given new 
interest to these similar altered limestones of Connemara. 
The green serpentine seems to result from the hydration of 
bands and knots of olivine, which developed in the heart of 
the Lissoughter limestone under the influence of an adjacent 
igneous mass. How far the silica and magnesia required for 
this change already existed in the limestone, or how far they 
were transferred from the invading igneous rock, is one of the 
vexed questions of contact-metamorphism. Messrs. Marr and 
Harker, working on the alterations round the granite of Shap 
in Westmoreland, conclude that such transference has only 
gone on over distances of about g^tb of an inch ; while Messrs. 
Lavis and Gregory, in their stud}^ of the blocks of Monte 
Somma, above cited, are forced to believe in a more extended 
process. 

These two handsome green slabs have as companions two 
from the red quarries of Co. Cork. These also show the 
effect of earth-movements in brecciating and streaking-out 
the constituents of a rock. In one, the remains of crinoid- 
stems are clearl}^ visible, and fragments of yellowish coralline 
limestone, probably true blocks broken by wave-action from 
adjacent reefs, lie in the fine red matrix. But pressure has 
already affected the whole mass, and it has begun to break up 
and to flow, as it were, under metamorphic influences. 

The second slab of ** Cork Red" is the tj'pical brecciated 
variety, with abundant traces of crinoids, in the form of little 
white circular sections, but with no good connected series of 



' Trans. Ro^xl Dublin Soc, 1 894. 



The Geologist at the Ltmcheon-table. 43 

ossicles. Veins of calcite traverse the mass, as in the well- 
known Devonian marbles of Plymouth, and more delicate 
thread-like veins, filled with a deep red material, run in the 
direction of the general movement of the breccia. 

The other three tables illustrate the fossiliferous Carboni- 
ferous marbles of this country. One is a little known and 
beautiful variety of " grey fossil" limestone, consisting almost 
entirely of fragments of crinoid stems. One or two small 
pieces of coral alone break the uniformit}- of the great area of 
encrinites ; these sea-lilies must have here grown as a veritable 
forest. Iron oxides have delicatel}^ infilled the hollows of 
the stems, and have even stained with tender browns and 
pinks the whole substance of some of the ossicles. This 
remarkable stone has been quarried in the neighbourhood of 
Lough Erne. 

Another slab comes from the famous quarries of black 
marble near Galway city. It has been chosen on account of 
its strong contrasts of effect, the fossils being grouped in it 
with a certain daring picturesqueness. From one angle, a 
great branching mass of the tubular coral called Syri7igopora 
spreads across the stone for a distance of some 25 cm. At the 
opposite angle is a vertical section of a valve of the brachiopod 
Prodtictus, while in between is a section showing the two 
valves as circles lying one within the other. The smaller 
valve, being concave, is thus often traversed by sections which 
also cut across the larger and convex valve. 

Nearer to the Syringopora in this table is a bold section of 
Pj'od7cctus, 10 cm. across, which largely influenced the selection 
of this particular slab. A fine simple coral can be seen 
growing from its exterior ; and here we at once have a picture 
of the floor of the Carboniferous sea in Co. Galwaj^ with large 
valves of dead brachiopods scattered upon it, their concave 
sides characteristically facing downwards, like those of 
lamellibranch shells on our own shores. Their upper surfaces 
furnished the abundant simple corals with a fairly stable basis 
of attachment, while the ramifying and more massive reef- 
building forms held together and even wrapped round and 
included other forms. Thus the example of Syringopora in 
this table shows one or two other corals, Zaphrentis in all 
probability^ entangled in its spreading meshes. 



44 The Irish Naturalist. 

The seventh table is also of black marble, but is relieved 
more uniformly by fossil-sections. It is from the Kilkenny 
quarries, the history of which is associated with that of the 
energetic famil}^ of Colles. Grey sections of detached and 
unbranching corals are seen everywhere, their septa being 
beautifully preserved ; they probably represent Zaphrentis 
rather than Cyathophylhim. One or two white remains of spiral 
gastropods, probabl}- Euomphahis, also occur, with a section 
of a turreted form. But the most interesting objects are the 
conspicuous sections of a brachiopod, evidently a form with 
external flutings, and with well-marked dental plates and a sep- 
tum in the larger valve. These sections provide a pleasant 
problem in reconstruction, such as will rejoice generations 
of zoologists and geometricians at the luncheon-table. I 
believe the shell to be a Cyrtiiia,'' many of the sections passing 
horizontally across the upper part of the larger valve. We 
thus have a convex and serrated line produced b}^ the section 
of the outer part of the shell, with an indentation corresponding 
to the external median furrow ; the internal median septum 
is seen running inwards, soon dividing into two portions, 
which are styled *' dental plates." These, however, are 
often traversed by the section in the region of the broad 
'* area," which runs from the beak to the hinge-margin 
of the shell ; and hence the white line formed by each dental 
plate is continued sharply awa}^ to right or left by the 
straight section of the area, which closes in the front of 
the shell and which unites with the edges of the serrated 
part of the section. Here and there a vertical section 
across the valve shows the median septum running on 
below, and its two diverging portions enclosing a sort 
of oval space above, the apex of which is in contact with the 
beak. 

The geologist, at an}' rate, will no longer feel solitary 
at his luncheon -table ; but, indeed, he is never likely to sit 
long alone in this favoured home of quip and countercheck, 
of wise saws and modern instances. 

■" Davidson, "British Fossil Brachiopoda ; Permian and Carboniferous 
species," p. 68, and plate xiv., fig. 8. 



[ 45 ] 

INSECTS COLIvECTED IN THE FERMOY AND 
BI^ACKWATER DISTRICT. 

BY J. N. HAI^BBRT. 
(Read before the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, November 13th, 1894.) 



On the recent joint excursion of the Dublin, Cork, and 
lyimerick Field Ckibs to the Fermoy and Blackwater district, 
I collected insects for the Royal Irish Academy Fauna and 
Flora Committee. Notwithstanding the short duration of the 
trip (5th, 6th, and 7th of July last), and owing, no doubt, to 
the productive localities visited, I was fortunate in taking more 
than one species of interest, and in making a few additions 
to our Irish records. There were in all over a hundred species 
of Coleoptera and forty of Hemiptera observed, and in the 
present notice it is intended to place on record the most note- 
worthy of these, giving the localities and circumstances of 
capture where necessar}'^, but not mentioning a large number 
that are of common occurrence everywhere. I am indebted to 
Dr. David Sharp, F.R.S., and E. Saunders, F.Iy.S-, for kind help 
in the identification of certain critical species, and also to those 
members of the different Clubs who assisted me in collecting 
specimens. 

Our headquarters were at Fermoy, consequently on arrival 
little time was lost in the anxiety to begin work. The route 
taken lay along the south banks of the Blackwater in the direc- 
tion of the extensive Castle Hyde woods ; all this proved to be 
admirable collecting ground. The river was first tried for 
Hydradephaga, but previous experience had shown, that mid- 
summer is not a good time of the year for water-beetles, when 
most of them are in larval condition. Amongst my captures 
were Oredochilus villostis, Mull., Deronedes depresstis, F., and 
Haliplus fluviatilis, Aube., all of theiH species peculiar to clear 
or running waters. The first mentioned is an insect of con- 
siderable interest, closely allied to the Gyrini or ' whirligig- 
beetles ' so well known to all observ^ers, but differing from these 
in some essential points. Oredochilus is nocturnal, coming 
out at night only and hiding during the day-time under banks 
in submerged logs and such like. My specimens were obtained 
by dragging the water-net about the roots of aquatic plants. 
Owing to this unusual habit the beetle has probably escaped 
observation in many localities. Numerous species of the 



46 I he Irish Naturalist. 

StaphylinidcBQiX 'rove-beetles' were common in the damp places, 
amongst these was a single Actobizis proceriihis, Grav. There is 
onl}^ one Irish example in the Museum collection, taken many 
years ago in the Mourne Mountains, by that veteran of Irish 
entomolog)', the late A. H. Halida}^ which, like many other 
captures of equal interest, he seems never to have recorded. 
The only other noteworth}^ representatives of this section 
taken, were Homalota elongatida, Bris., evidently common, and 
Tachyporus obtzisuSy var. nitidicoUis, Steph., a ver}^ well marked 
melanic variet}', which would seem to almost replace the type 
in Ireland, and, as we would expect, is much rarer in England 
where the normal pale-coloured form predominates. 

Quite a characteristic insect was Halyzia co?igIobata, ly-, a local 
'lady-bird' commonly obtained off the Alder bushes growing 
along the bank. In Britain it has a southern distribution, and 
as regards the north it has only been found in two localities, 
Belfast, and Ballj^haise, Co. Cavan, where I had the pleasure of 
taking a single specimen last autumn. By sweeping plants 
in a marshy place near the Castle Hyde woods, there occurred 
several examples of a Galeriicella which were mistaken for the 
common G. nymphace^ but which proved on subsequent ex- 
amination to be referrable to the rarer G. sagittarice, Gyll., an 
addition to the Irish list. The two species are closely allied, 
but when typical examples are compared, side by side, the 
differences are at once apparent ; in the last British catalogue 
they are evidently considered to be distinct. Amongst other 
captures I may mention Cyphon nitidulus, Thorns., Bruchus 
atomarius, L<., Lema lichenis, Voet., Afiaspis fnactdata, Fourc, 
Apion h2wmli, Germ., Sitones sidciffons, Thunb., Eyirrhinus 
acridiihis, L., Rhin incus peiicarpius, I,., and R. perpendicidaris, 
Reich. Mr. G. H. Carpenter found in a meadow, larvae of 
the long-horned grasshopper Leptophyes piindatissima, Bosc, 
which he tells me had been only previously recorded from 
Howth. 

The Heteroptera taken at Fermoy were not numerous ; the 
large green 'shield bug' Peiitatoma p^asiyia, I^in., was the most 
important, our knowledge of this species as Irish rested on 
two specimens without localitj-in the collection of Mr. Haliday ; 
the possession of definitely localised specimens is therefore 
satisfactory. Orthotylus flaviriervis, Kb., occurred on the Alders. 
Several of the members noticed the beautiful dragon-fly 



Insects Collected in the Fermoy and Blackwater District, atj 

Calopte7yx splendens busily ' hawking ' for prey along the river- 
bank. 

The following day was fixed for the visit to the renowned 
Mitchelstovrn Caves, and w^as generall}^ considered Wi^ piece de 
resistance of the excursion ; owing however, to a rather long 
drive, the time allowed was insufiicient for a thorough investiga- 
tion. The results, as can be seen in the pages of the present 
number, have been worked out by Mr. G. H. Carpenter, and 
the account which he furnishes of these curious cave-fre- 
quenting creatures is of high scientific value. We w^ere lucky 
in escaping the disappointment experienced by an observer in 
England, Mr. Murray, w^ho many 3'ears ago explored the 
extensive limestone caves of Derbyshire but was obliged to 
report that he could find nothing blind except the allej^s ! On 
the journe}^ to and from the caves onl}^ a few short interv^als 
were available for collecting, when the following were taken, 
chiefl}^ under stones on the low walls bordering the roads : 
Calathtis cisteloides, Panz., Barynotus obscurus, F.,and Otiorrhyn- 
chus ligneus, 01., the last not by any means a common species. 
Many of the members were anxious to see the magnificent 
pile of Mitchelstown Castle, so a brief visit w^as arranged ; the 
entomologists of the party found time for a short w^alk through 
the grounds, but though their beautj^ was evident, the chance 
of finding rare insects was questioned. Only a few weevils 
were beaten off the beech trees, i.e., Phyllobius argentatus, L. 
P. oblo7ig7is, ly., 2Md. Polydrusus ptergomalis. Boh., the latter is a 
very pretty species, covered with brilliant green scales ; I had 
previously collected it onl}^ near Lucan, Co. Dublin. 

Lismore formed a promising localit}- for the third and last 
day's excursion. In order to have a longer time for collecting I 
started on an early train from Fermo}^ with my friend ]\Ir. 
Frank Neale, Secretary of the Limerick Club. The scenery of 
the Blackwater Valley onl}^ needs mention, to recall it to those 
w^ho have been fortunate enough to have spent an}^ time 
investigating the beauties of the ' Irish Rhine,' more especially 
in the wooded portion surrounding the far-famed Lismore 
Castle, and indeed the district has many points in its favour 
as a centre for general natural history observations. All the 
former localities were rather unfavourable for collecting the 
Carabidae or ground beetles ; but here in a half dr^^ water- 
course that joins with the main river Harpalus rufibarbis, F., 



48 The Irish Nattiralist. 

Amara familiaris, V>vSX..,Bembidium decorum, Vdi\\z.,B.atrocceru- 
leiwiy Stepli., and B. punct2dat2Lvi, Drap., were more or less 
abundant. Some damp fields near at hand next claimed 
attention ; my first capture by sweeping was Hydrocyphoyi 
dejlexicollis, MiilL, a rare insect in England but evidently quite 
common here. I cannot find a more recent Irish record for 
this species than 1857 when it was recorded by Mr. Haliday 
from the river Vartry, and by Dr. Perceval Wright from the 
plantations about Newcastle, Co. Down. Another interesting 
find was Elmis volkmaj'i, Panz., a small insect measuring only 
3 mm. in length, and the largest of the six British species. 
They are all provided with very long tarsi by which they 
cling to the undersides of stones, etc., and although unable to 
swim like true water-beetles, they can thus retain their hold 
even in the swiftest rivers. As regards the distribution of 
E. volkmaii, there are some unlocalised Irish examples in Mr. 
Halidaj^'s collection, probably taken in the vicinity of Lough 
Neagh, and Dr. Power has recorded it from Waterford. 

We next searched the north bank of the Blackwater above 
the Castle ; the presence of so rich and varied a vegetation led 
us to expect good results, and in this we were not dis- 
appointed. Mr. Neale found a specimen of the very rare moth 
Gnophria quadra clinging to the rough bark of an Oak-tree. 
I was fortunate in securing two perfect specimens of the local 
Leiopus ncbulos7is,\^., swept from amongst long grass ; they had 
probably fallen from a neighbouring oak ; the Lo7igicor?iia are 
very poorly represented in Ireland, and with few exceptions 
are rare. In the hish Naturalist for September last I 
recorded a weevil Orchestes ilicis, F., from lyUcan which would 
seem to be the first record of the species; it also occurred 
here, and will probably be met with in other wooded localities. 
Many beetles are more or less peculiar to certain varieties ot 
Salix, particularly if growing in a wild state ; even young 
plantations will sometimes produce nice species. A small 
osier-bed near the '' hanging gardens ' yielded amongst 
others Do7iacia simplex, F., Galerucella lineola, F., Telepho7us 
thoracicuSj 01., Stcuus tar salts, I^5^nn., and Crepidodera hclxines, 
I/., etc. Of these the most notable is T. thoracicics, only pre- 
viously recorded from two of the Irish Counties, Armagh and 
Dublin. The T. fulvicollis mentioned in Mr. Haliday 's 
Belfast list, may refer to this species, but it might equally be the 



hiseds Collected in the Fernioy and Blackwater District. 49 

common T./lavilabris, as that name is a synonym for both. 
I find, however, that he did possess T. thoracicus, easily 
recognised from its allies by the clear red scutellum. Three 
species of the curious genus Cassida are represented in the 
district, i.e., Cassida viridis, F., C. equestris, F., and C. flaveola^ 
Thunb. Other captures were Anthobiiun ophthalmicuni, Payk., 
Adalia obliterata, L., Halyzia xiv. -guttata, ly., Athous niger, ly., 
PhcEdo7i ttimidulus, Germ., Lagria hirtay I^., Apion cruentatum^ 
Walt., Ceuthorrhy7icJnis litzira, F., etc., and a single Ceuthor- 
rynchus a?igulosus, Boh., one of our rarest British beetles ; only 
a few specimens appear to have been taken in Britain, in the 
Solway district and North of Kngland. Canon Fowler remarks 
that it is probably attached to some Cruciferous plant ; my 
specimen captured by geneial sweeping rendered it impos- 
sible to tell off what plant it came. The insect both on 
account of its rarity and distribution, forms an interesting 
addition to our Irish records. 

Some good Hemiptera were taken at I^ismore, in the Black- 
water. I noticed what looked like a minute and active water- 
beetle darting about amongst the stones, in the shallow water 
at edge, but which proved on capture to be the seldom-taken 
Sigara rnimitissima, L,in. Specimens of Pentatovia prasina, I<in., 
also occurred, and two additions to my list of Irish Hemiptera 
in Orthotylus viridinerius, Kb., and Labops viutabilis, Fall. 

There only remain to mention two notable insects belonging 
to the Neuroptera. Calopteryx virgo, L,., was noticed, especially 
about the wooded portions of the bank. This is a very brilliant 
dragon-fly of a beautiful green or blue with dusky wings, which 
in the male are suffused with a darker metallic colour. It bears 
a strong resemblance to the species taken at Fermoy, 
C. spleyidens, Harr. Curiously enough, although so closely 
allied, they apparently never inhabit the same locality. 
When searching for ground beetles in the bed of the stream 
above mentioned, I succeeded in taking, not however without 
some agility on my part, the large Stone-fly Pada maxima^ 
Scop. Although this fine insect is probably common, there 
would seem to be a scarcity of records from Ireland, and the 
genus Perla is unrepresented in the valuable list of Irish 
Neuroptera published by Mr. J. J. F, X. King^ P. maxima 
occurs in the river Dodder, Co. Dublin. 

^ Trans. Nat. His. Soc, Glasgow, vol. ii., 1888. 



^0 The Irish Naturalist, 

NOTES. 



BOTANY. 



CHARACE^. 

Chara canescens, Loisel, In Ireland. — I found this pretty 
Chara growing in the lake at Castlegregory, Co. Kerry, last August. 
This is a welcome addition to the range of the plant, hitherto restricted, 
I believe, to two localities in the S. W. of England. 

R. W. Scui,i.Y, Dublin. 



PHANEROGAMS. 

Wild Flowers in the Clynns of Antrim In IVI id-Winter.— 

Walking and driving through the Glens near Cushendall on the i6tli and 
17th of December, with some friends who were spending the week's end 
there, I collected the following plants in flower. In Glencarp and north 
side of Glendun the Red Campion {Lychnis diurnci) ; Dog Daisy {Matruaria 
inodora) ; and Sheep's Scabious [Jasione monlana). On Tornaniorey Point, 
or the old road to Torr, on a ver}- exposed bank facing east, the Bramble 
{Rubles friiticosus) ; Marsh Ragweed {Senecio aquaiicus) ; Marsh Thistle 
{Carduiis palustris) ; and Cat's ^2X {Hypochccris radicatd) ; on sheltered banks 
and ditches all over the district, the Primrose {Primula vulgaris) w^as in 
bloom, and the Gorse ( Ulex europceus') ; and I noticed a few plants of a small 
Umbellifer, which I did not collect, just opening. Owing to the mildness 
of the winters at Cushendall medical men in Belfast frequently send their 
patients there now, and few hotels in Ireland are so beautifully sheltered 
from the north and east or are such "Bomes from Home" as the 
" Glens of Antrim" Hotel there. I have to thank Mr. S. A. Stewart for 
verifying the plants for me. 



R. Wei^ch, Belfast. 



ZOOLOGY. 



CRUSTACEANS. 

The Freshwater Crayfish (Astacus fluviatilis) In Co. 
Dublin.— On the 3otli December last, Mr. Dunlop of Lucan and his 
sons pointed out to me some remarkable ponds at CoUierstown along the 
banks of the Grand Canal, about nine miles from Dublin. Anyone 
looking for a town there or even a village, Avill be disappointed, though 
large mounds of rubbish may mark the sites of former habitations. 
Anyhow zoologists and botanists will find this locality well worth a visit. 
We found the large freshwater Craj'fish {Astacus fluviatilis) in abundance, 
and although once before recorded from Co. Dublin, viz. : — from the 
Tolka near Finglas, yet it is such ararity that it is worth calling attention 
to this second locality. It had previously also been taken on the Royal 
Canal at Maynooth, by the late Dr. Ball, and in several other places in 
the Co. Kildare. 

It is surprising that, as far as I know, no attempt has ever been made 
in this country to utilize this source of wealth, as it is well known that 
Crayfish are occasionally imported from abroad, in order to be ground 
down for the famous " soupe d'ecrevisses," a dish greatly esteemed by 
connoisseurs. The supply from the CoUierstown ponds would hardly be 
large enough to start a commercial speculation, but I believe they are 
more abundant in Kildare, and Messrs. Pile, Powell and Mooney assure 
me that they could promote a trade for them. 

R. F. SCHARFFj Dublin, 



Notes, 54: 

BIRDS. 

Unusual retreat for Grouse. — A singular incident was recorded 
to me last week by a gentleman who had been shooting during the 
Christmas week, as showing the severity of the gales that recently visited 
the Irish coast. He mentioned that considerable numbers of living 
grouse had been seen along the sea-shore at Bally waiter and at the Warren 
at Donaghadee. The inhabitants in these neighbourhoods never 
remember a similar occurrence, and they think that the birds must have 
come from Donegal. The lighthouse-keepers on the Copeland Islands 
report the visit of strange birds not known to them as visiting the islands 
previously. Perhaps someone else may have similar occurrences to 
record, and, as far as I can find from inquiries, there are no grouse 
within a long radius of above-mentioned places. 

Arthur J. Coi,i.ins, Belfast. 



PROCEKDINGS OF IRISH SOCIKTIKS. 



RoYAi, Zooi<oGiCAi< Society. 
Recent donations comprise a rat, from C J. Patten, Esq. ; a weaver- 
bird, from Lady M'Kenna ; a Parrakeet, from Mrs. A. Hillas ; a Common 
Fox, from Mr. Reed; and three Guinea Pigs, from E). M. Solomons, Esq. 
• 3,870 persons visited the Gardens in December. 

BeIvFast Naturai, History and Phii,osophicai, Society. 

November 27TH.— An interesting illustrated lecture on "Sea Fish and 
Fishing off the West of Ireland " was given by Rev. W. S. Green, M.A., 
F.R.G.S., H.M. Inspector of Fisheries. The President (Mr. ROBERT 
IvIvOYD Patterson, J. P., F.Iv.S.) occupied the chair. 

Mr. Green proceeded wnth his lecture, which he prefaced by 
throwing on the screen a map of the British Isles, showing the depths 
of the sea frorn near the coast down to the profound abysses of the 
Atlantic. Fishing grounds were only found at moderate depths, these 
extending to a distance of from ten to twenty miles off the West of 
Ireland ; but in the North Sea immense fishing areas existed, each 
having a depth of about fifty fathoms ; indeed, these were amongst the 
finest fishing grounds in the world. While Mr. Balfour was Chief 
Secretary for Ireland he made an effort with the Royal Dublin Society 
to start an expedition with the view of developing the Irish fisheries. 
They had worked for. two years from the south of Cork to the north of 
Donegal and had done some good work. In addition to spring mackerel 
fishing there was an autumn mackerel fishing carried on by the natives, 
and the extent of it could be estimated froin the fact that last year as 
much as ^50,000 worth of mackerel had been sent to America, and that 
exportation had been going on for the -^past seven years. At several 
places stations had been established for the curing of fish, these 
numbering eighteen, and they had been successful on the west coast of 
Kerry. The next branch of the subject, which was of a highly in- 
teresting character, dealt with the development of several specie's offish. 
The eggs, he pointed out, floated in the sea near the surface, the swing 
of the sea being sufficient to keep them from coming to the surface 
w^here they would be made the prey of various kinds of little enemies. 
There was an exception to this in the case of the herring, which laid 
its eggs in the bottom. 

Professor Fitzgerai^d proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Green, which 
was seconded by Mr. John Bro^vn. 

January 8th.— An illustrated lecture on " Old Belfast ; the Origin and 
Progress of the City," w^as given by Mr, J. J. Marshai,i<, assisted by 
Messrs. Ai,i,en and Gray. The Secretary exhibited and described two 
sepulchral urns recently presented to the Society. 



52 The Irhh Naturalist. 

Bei^fast Naturai^ists' Fiei,d Ci^ub. 

December i8th.— The President (Mr. F. \V. Lockwood, C.E.) 
in the chair. A paper entitled " Notes on Moel Tr3-faen," was contributed 
by Miss Mary K. Andrews, in which it was stated that Joseph Wright, 
F.G.S , had found a large number of foranis in a small quantity of sand 
from the high level sands there. 

The next paper was entitled " A Bit of Foreshore," by Miss S. M. 
Thompson, Hon. Secretary to the Geological Section. The paper dwelt 
chiefly with changes on the shore opposite Macedon that have been 
observed by the writer during the last thirt}' years, especially record- 
ing that the well-known cross-dykes of basalt, opposite Macedon Point, 
have lost eighteen or twenty inches in height during that period, the 
result being the sweeping away of deposits of mud with their appropriate 
plant and animal life. The former condition of the shore was then 
described, with its predominantly sandy character, and contrasted with 
its present appearance when the erosion of the numerous dykes leaves 
free play to the waves, and bare tracts of Triassic marl have greatly taken 
the place of the old sandy surface. Similar differences further down 
shore were mentioned, and the influence of these geological changes 
upon the distribution of plant and animal life referred to, and the 
melancholy prediction made that another quarter of a century would 
probably completely level the familiar cross-dykes. 

The papers were criticised by Messrs. Wm. Swanston, F.G.S. ;Wm. 
Gray, M.R.I.A. ; John Hamieton, and Aeec. G. Wieson. 

Mr. Wm. Gray, M.R.I.A., then made a short report as the Club 
delegate to the British Association at Oxford, when the Club was 
accorded the thanks of the Association for their valuable contributions 
of photographs, &c., illustrating the geology of our district. 

In pursuance of the recommendation of the British Association, Mr. 
Gray proposed and Mr. Weech seconded the following resolution, which 
was unanimously passed : — " That the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club 
should place themselves in communication with the Belfast Corporation, 
with a view to extending scientific knowledge by means of lectures and 
demonstrations in our museums." 

Mr. Gray then proceeded with his lecture on the " Missing Beds of 
Cave Hill," using the geological features of Portland as apt illustrations. 
The lecture was well illustrated with lantern slides and diagrams shown 
by Mr. W. NichoU. the different organic remains being represented by a 
fine series of fossils on the table. 

The President, the Plonorary Secretary, and Mr. W. Swanston having 
complimented the lecturer on his admirable paper, the following new 
members were elected : — Miss Josephine Buchannan, M.A. ; Rev. Douglas 
Walmsley, B.A. ; George Smith, and Miss B. Corley. y ^ 

— r/ y 

DUBEIN NaTURAEISTS' FiEED CeUB. 

December iith. — The President in the chair. Miss R. Hensman 
read a paper on "Some Causes of the Disintegration of Shells." Mr. 
Carpenter lectured on "Animals found in the Mitchelstown Cave." 
Th€ latter of these papers appears in the present number. The former 
will shortly be published. Mr. Greenwood Pim described a method of 
preserving cut flowers in water, by splitting the cut end into four portions 
for a short length. He exhibited specimens of Clematis that had been 
treated in this manner, and pointed out how they were still quite fresh, 
while others gathered at the same time, in which the stem had not been 
split, were faded. Mr. R. Leoyd Praeger exhibited on behalf of a lady 
member a fungus Poly poms) — stated to have been found below twelve 
feet of peat in Switzerland. He also showed fine specimens of the 
Fragrant Coltsfoot or Winter Heliotrope {^Petasites fragrans) ^2i\.h.^rQ.(!i that 
day at Howth, the usual time of flowering being January to March. 

The following new members were elected ; — Michael J. Buckley, Mrs, 
S. I^owes, B. T. Patterson, CE)., J. C. Rea, B.A., A. L. C. Stuart, I,Iy.D. 



©Ijje ^vi&lj Jlatttralt^t. 



Vol. IV. MARCH, 1895. No. 3. 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE FI.ORA OF COUNTY 

DUBININ. 

BY NATHANIKI. COI.GAN, M.R.I. A. 



In compiling the following notes I have endeavoured to 
select from my memoranda of the past j-ear such items only 
as appeared likely to be of general interest to County Dublin 
botanists. Though no ver}^ striking results were obtained, 
only three more or less critical plants being added to the 
Count}^ flora in addition to the two already recorded in these 
pages (Vol. III., p. 202), the outcome of the year's work 
cannot be considered altogether disappointing. A large 
proportion of the rarer plants of the county have been 
extended to new stations, many of the older records have been 
verified, and not a few of those curious absences of common 
vSpecies from certain districts w^hich one is tempted to look 
upon as freaks of distribution have been detected or confirmed. 
The difficulty of proving a negative is admittedly so great 
that it seems wiser, for the present, to keep an open mind 
with regard to these conspicuous absences, and to defer any 
more particular mention of them until the systematic survey 
of the county flora shall have been fully carried out. 

These Further Notes then will contain nothing more than a 
selection from my memoranda of^the year of some items 
falling under the two headings : — I. Plants not previously 
recorded for County Dublin, and II. Rarer County Dublin 
Plants observed in new Stations. 

I. PLANTS NOT PREVIOUSLY RECORDED FOR COUNTY 

DUBLIN. 

Callitrlche hamulata, Kuetz. — (i). Quarry pools near Hollywood, 
Naul Hills, June, 1894. (2.) Pools at Loughlinstown, August, 1894. 
Apparently rare in the county. 

Lamium intermedium, Fries. — Abundant in sandy potato fields 
near Rush harbour, September, 1S94. 

A 



54 The Irish Naturalist. 

J uncus diffusus, Hoppe. — Kilakee Mountain at i,6oo feet, Sep- 
tember, 1894. A plant which has all the appearance of a hybrid, yet may 
be separated without any great difficulty from both of its reputed parents, 
J. glaucus and J, cffusns. 

II. RARKR COUNTY DUBLIN PLANTS OBSERVED IN NEW 

STATIONS. 

NyiYiphsea alba, Linn. — Very sparingly in pits at Portmarnock 
brick-fields, where there is no appearance of its having been intentionally 
introduced ; July, 1894. In the Brit. Ass. Gtiide, 1878, the species is 
entered " Royal Canal, &c., rather rare." I have never seen the plant 
there and can find no other definite county locality on record. 

Fumarla denslflora, DC— Potato field near the brink of the large 
quarry at Finglas, June, 1894. The only previous county record seems 
to be Mr. G. C. Druce's for Portmarnock (y. of Bot. 1891, p. 304). 

Alyssum calyclnum, Linn.— A few plants in a sandy field near 
Rogerstown coast-guard station, May, 1894. This interesting little alien 
has long held its ground in the county. Mackay records it from Port- 
marnock in 181 7 and 1837, and Mr. H. C. Hart from the same place in 
1867- 1872. My slender Rogerstown specimens range only from i to 2 
inches in height, so that the plant is not hard to overlook, and may be 
expected to occur in other similar stations. 

Thiaspl arvense, Linn. — (i) Sparingly in cultivation at Boherna- 
breena, October, 1893, and (2) abundantly in a sandy turnip field near 
Rush harbour, September, 1894. 

Silene con lea, Linn. — In considerable abundance, more than a 
hundred plants, on a bank by the sea, to the north of Portrane peninsula, 
September 24, 1894. The plant is well established here over a distance 
of more than 100 yards, but seems to be quite absent from the adjoining- 
sandy fields, whence it may be presumed to have spread. The only 
previous record for the county is Portmarnock, 1837 (6>^. Hib.^ p. 43). 

Scleranthus annuus, Linn. — Road track by the Rathmines Water- 
works, Castle Kell}', at the head of Glenasmole, August, 1S94, growing 
vigorously in " freestone," as the disintegrated granite is locally called. 

Geranium pusillum, Linn. — A single plant in a sandy field to the 
north of Portrane, September, 1894. The only other county station is 
Lambay Island, where it was found by Mr, H. C. Hart in 1882 {Fl. 
Lam bay'). 

Vicia tct rasper ma, Moench. — Sparingly on the railwa)^ bank 
between Rush and Skerries, Jul}-, 1894. Knockmaroon is the only other 
recorded station {Cyb. Hib.) 

Arctium Intermedium, Lange. — This sub-species or varietj-, 
sufficiently distinct in appearance from A. niimis, so common throughout 
the county, is apparently rare in Dublin. I found a single plant of it by 
the edge of a cultivated field above the sea at Malahide in September 
last. There is a specimen at Glasnevin Herbarium labelled, in the 
handwriting of the late Dr. Moore: " Arctiiiin intcrmcdiuin, near Baldoyle, 
1840." Though the plant is set down in the Brit. Assoc. Guide, 1878, as 
frequent in Dublin, I can find no definite records. 

Campanula rapunculoldes, Linn.— Well established, at intervals 
over a distance of 100 yards on a grassy bank by the roadside S,W. of 
Rush, where I gathered flowering specimens in July, 1893. A few plants 
were found by Mr. A. G. More near Bray Harbour, Co. Dublin, in 1872. 
No doubt introduced in both stations, yet well fitted by its creeping 
root-stock to effect a permanent settlement. 



Flirt her Notes on the J'lora of County Dublin. 55 

CuscutaTrifoIIly Bab. — (i.) Two large patches on Trifolium praiense 
between Ballyboghil and the Wren's Nest, August, 1894, and (2) abundant 
in a sandy field at the northern extremity of Portrane peninsula, 
September, 1894. In the second station the plant attached itself chiefly 
to Anthyllis Vulnerana which appeared to have almost completely driven 
out a sowing of Trifolhun pratense. The only previous county record is 
that of Dr. W. G. Smith for Ballybrack, 1868. {Dub. Nat. His. Soc. Proc, 
vol. v., p. 198). 

Orobanche minor, Sni. — Very abundant (1) in sandy fields to the 
north of Portrane peninsula on ^////^j'/ZzV and on Trifolium hybridum and 
T. pratense, September, 1894, also (2) abundant on T. pratense in a field 
above the hotel at Malahide, where I gathered spikes fully 18 inches in 
height at the close of September last. The only previous record for Co. 
Dublin is Shennick's Island, 1893 (/. Nat., Vol. ii., p. 283). This and 
the preceding species would appear to be spreading in the county. 

Mentha sativa, Linn. — (i) Watery places by the roadside near 
Cockle's Bridge, Garristown, August, 1894, and (2) by the Dodder near 
Newtown, Tallaght, September, 1894. Often confounded, no doubt, 
with M. aquatica, and perhaps frequent in the county. 

Calamlntha Acinos, Clairv. — A single well-grown plant in a 
stubble field by the Royal Canal, E. of Clonsilla, October, 1894. 
Previously recorded from three other county stations, Portmarnock, 
Portrane, and near Tulla Church, Carrickmines. Though the first 
published record is due to Mackay (^Additions, 1859- 1860), a specimen in 
Glasnevin Herbarium labelled: — "Portmarnock, October, 1854, Thomas 
Chandlee," seems to show that Mr. Chandlee was the first to observe 
the plant in the county. A rare species throughout Ireland. 

Stachys arvensis, linn. — This species, apparently spreading in the 
county, though still uncommon, I observed during the year at three new 
stations— (i) Garristown, (2) Rush, and (3) Ballyedmonduff. 

Anagrams arvensis, Linn., var. caerulea. {A.carulca, Schreb.) Of 
this pretty blue-flowered variety of the Scarlet Pimpernel, I gathered a 
single plant in September last in a corn-field near Raheen Point, Portrane. 
There appears to be no previous published record for the county ; but 
Mr. R. M. Barrington of Fassaroe, has shown me a specimen gathered 
by his uncle, the late Mr. Richard Barrington, at Seapoint in 1858. The 
variety seems to be very rare in Ireland. 

Chenopodium nriurale, Linn.— A few plants in waste ground at 
the angle of Oldcourt cross-roads south of Tallaght, 1893. Now very 
rare in the county, but once much more common if the older records 
may be trusted. 

Lemna g^ibba, Linn.— In great abundance in the old mill-pond in 
Balbriggan, August, 1894. The conspicuously buoyant masses of this 
species often rising distinctly above the surface of the water make it 
readilv distinguishable, by habit alone, from the common Z. minor. 

Ophrys apifera, Huds.— (i) Sparingly in dry pastures among the 
gravel eskers W. of Drimnagh Castle, June, 1894 ; (2) on the railway bank 
at foot of Killiney Hill, July, 1894. 

Juncus obtusiflorus, Ehrh.— (i) In a shallow drain at Garristown 
Bog, August, 1894 : (2) very abundant in marshy ground by the northern 
shore of Portrane, spreading for fully a quarter of a mile, September, 
1894 ; and (3) abundant in a marsh above Saggard, Sef)tember, 1894. The 
plant seems to thrive inland quite as well as in maritime stations. At 
Cxarristown, 11 miles from the nearest sea, I gathered specimens upwards 
of 5 feet in height, and those from the Saggard station, fully 13 miles 
from the nearest sea, seem quite as vigorous as the Portrane plant. 

Carex laevigrata, Sni.— In a marsh on the S.E. slope of Kilmashogue 
Mountain at 700 feet, July, 1894. 

A 2 



56 The Irish Naturalist. 

Festuca myurus, Ivinn.— A few tufts on a wall top near Lispopple 
cross roads, August, 1894. Very rare in the count}', the only other 
recorded stations being Howtli and Donnybrook, in the latter of which 
it was gathered by ]\Ir. A. G. More in 1878. 

Lastrea Orcopterls, Presl. — This fern, so abundant in parts of 
Wicklow, seems extremely rare in Dublin. A single plant only rewarded 
my search in the Dublin Mountains this j-ear (September, 1S94), and as 
this grew directly on the Dublin and Wicklow boundary S.W. of Glen- 
cullen Bridge, it is not without hesitation I give it a place here. M)' 
friend, Revd. C. F. d'Arcj% who is thoroughly acquainted v/ith the Dublin 
Mountains, and has made a close study of their ferns, tells me he found 
a single plant on Glendhu Mountain in or about 1880. 

Botrychlum Lunaria, Sw.— (i) Verj' abundant on the summit 
(1,250 feet), and down the northern slope of Montpelier at intervals to 
700 feet. May, 1894 ; (2) Pastures near the shore below the monument 
(round tower) at Portrane, April, 1894, Still frequent in Mackay's old 
station, Kelly's Glen or Glenasmole [Cat. 1S06) in the upper portion of 
which Mr. Greenwood Pim tells me he found it in 1889, while Dr. 
M'Weeney two years later gathered it lower down the-glen near Friars- 
town. 

Ophiogrlossum vulg-atum, Linn. — (i) Frequent in damp pastures 
above Gormanstown woods, April, 1894 ; (2) Marshy fields near 
Dunsoghly Castle, abundant. May, 1894 ; (3) Near the head of Crooksling 
Glen, above the Slade of Saggard, at 650 feet, June, 1894. Mr. W. H. 
Bloomer has shown me a specimen gathered by him near the monument 
at Portrane in April, 1894, and Dr. M'Weeney informs me that he found 
the plant abundant in 1891 along Glenasmole, from a little above 
Friarstown to the head of the valley. Near Friarstown, I found it in 
great profusion and luxuriance on the 24th June last. Appears more 
widelj' distributed in the county than the preceding species, as it is now 
on record from seven out of the eight districts into which I have divided 
the county for botanical purposes. 

Lycopodium clavatum, Linn. — In great abundance and fruiting 
freel}' on the flat mossy summit of Slieve Thoul, near the S.W. extremity 
of the county at a height of 1,300 feet, August, 1894. I'erhaps no 
observ'ation of last season was more satisfactory to me than this, as a 
25 years close acquaintance with the Dublin Mountains had failed to 
give me a single station for this interesting species. Loosel}^ and 
inaccurately set down in Mackay's Catalogue, 1824, as plentiful in the 
Dublin Mountains, and recorded in the Irish Flora, 1833, from Kelly's 
Glen and Ballynascorney. 

In concluding these Notes I wish to express my indebtedness 
to Mr. A. G. More and Mr. Arthur Bennett for assistance in 
determining some of the critical forms referred to. Information 
of further stations for any of the rarer County Dublin species, 
I shall be ahvaj^s glad to receive, as well as any reference to 
records, whether in the shape of manuscript, printed matter, 
or herbaritim plants, likely to throw^ light on the history of 
the county flora.-'' Notes of new stations for rare or critical 
plants vShotild, if possible, be accompanied by specimens. 

* Communications on the subject may be addressed to i, Bel grave- 
road, Rathmiues, Co. Dublin. 



[ 57 ] 
SOME NOTES ON THE IRISH CAVES. 

BY R. F. SCHARFF, PH.D. 



Mr. Carpf;ntfr's article in last month's Irish Naturalist, on 
the animals found in the Mitchelstown Cave, is one of the 
most interesting, and at the same time one of the most 
valuable contributions which has been published in this 
periodical. I fully agree with his remarks as to the desira- 
bility of further investigating the Irish caves. A few of them 
have been entered with a view to the discovery of bats, — others 
have been examined by archaeologists, but hardly any of them 
have been systematically worked. 

Mr. Carpenter's interest in the researches would be chiefly 
directed towards finding the living creatures which are hidden 
in the dark recesses of the caves, but of equal if not greater 
importance are the remains of extinct animals, which may be 
buried there. When we consider the vast amount of w^ork 
wliich has been accomplished in that direction by Prof. Boyd 
Dawkins in England, it seems surprising how little has been 
attempted in Ireland. The late Prof. I,eith Adams directed 
his attention to one or two caves in the South of Ireland, and 
in the exploration of the Bally namintra Cave he was joined 
by Messrs. Kinahan and Ussher. Their united labours were 
crowned with great success, but the number of extinct 
mammals hitherto obtained in Irish caves remains surpris- 
ingly small, when we compare them with those discovered in 
England and the South of Wales. Although a thorough 
exploration of caves is a somewhat costly undertaking, I 
venture to hope that a commencement will soon be made, as 
it is probable that it would lead to very important discoveries 
and additions to our extinct fauna. 

As a preliminary towards this exploration, I think we 
should obtain a complete list of all the Irish caves, with their 
exact localities and approximate dimensions. I have made a 
few notes on the position of some of the caves, and with the 
kind assistance of Dr. Wright I discovered records of several 
additional ones, but I feel sure that a very much larger 
number of them exist in Ireland. I therefore append a map 
on which all the caves known to me are marked, cliiefl}^ with 
a view of eliciting further information from country corres- 
pondents who may happen to read this note. I also add to 
the number referring to any particular cave a list of the 



58 



The Irish Naturalist. 




papers in which it has beeu mentioned. This list naturally is 
far from being complete, and I hope readers of the Irish 
Naturalist will send to the Editors any additional titles of 
papers they may come across. 

Co. Antrim. 

I & 2. Caves at Ballinto}'. 

3. Cave on Carrick-a-rede. 

Bryce, J. "On some caverns containing bones near the Giant's 
Cause^v•ay." Brit. Assoc. Report, 1834. 

4. Caves on RathUn Island. 

Andrews, T. "On some caves in Rathhn and adjoining coast." 
Brit. Assoc. Report ^ 1834, p. 660. 



Some Notes on the Irish Caves. 59 

Co, Civ ARE. 

5. Ballyallia Cave, 

Foot, V. J. Froc. Dublin Nai. Hist. Soc. Vol. ii. April, 1859, p. 152. 

6. Cave at Eden vale. 

Kinahan, J. R. Froc. Dublin Nat. Hist, Soc. Vol. iii. June, 1861, 

P-97. 

7. Glancrawne Cave, Castleton. 

Kinahan, J. R. Froc. Dublin Nai. Hist. Soc. Vol. iii. June, 1861, 
p. 104, 

8. Glenallia Cave. 

Kinahan, J. R. Froc. Dublin Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. iii. June, i86r, 
p. 99. 
9 & 10. Caves at Inchiquin Lough. \ Kinahan, J. R. Froc. Dublin Nat. 
II, 12, & 13. Caves at Ouin. > Hist. Soc. Vol. iii. June, 1861, 

14. Vigo Cave. ) p. 94. 

Co. Cork, 

15. Ovens near Kilumney. 

Liish Naturalist, 1894, p. 241. 

Co. Fermanagh. 

16. Knockmore Cave near Derrygonelly. 

Wakeman, W. F. Froc. Royal Irish Academy, Vol. x. 1870, pp. 229- 
232. 

17. Knockninny Cave. 

Plunkett, T. Froc. R. Irish Acad. (2). Vol. i. 1870-79, pp. 329-338. 

Co. GaIvWay. 

18. Caves at Coole Park, Gort. 

Scott. " Irish Fossil Mammalia." Gcol. Mag. Vol vii. 1S70, p. 416. 

Co. K11.KENNY. 

19. Dunmore Cave. 

Kinahan, J. R. Froc, Dublin Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. iii. June, 1861, 

P- 95- 
Mallet, R. '* On some stalagmites from the Cave of Dunmore." 

Quarterly J^ozir. Geol. Soc. Dublin. Vol. iii. 1849. 
Hardman, G. T. " On two new deposits of human and other 

liones in Dunmore Cave." Froc. Royal Irish Academy (2). Vol. 

ii. (Science). 1875-77, PP- 168-176. 
Foot, A. W. Joicr. Royal Hist, and Arch. Assoc. (4). Vol. i. 
Robertson, J. G. Natural History Review. Vol. i. 1854, pp. 169- 

174. 

Co. Tipperary. 

20. Mitchelstown Cave. 

Apjohn, J. " On the newly discovered Cave vsituate between 
Cahir and Mitchelstown." Jour^ Geol. Soc. Dublin. Vol. i. 1833, 
pp. 103-111. 

Co. Waterford. 

21. Bally namintra Cave, Cappagh. 

Ussher, Adams, and Kinahan. "Report on the Exploration of 
Ballynamintra Cave." Froc. Royal Irish Acadctiiy (2). Vol. ii. (Pol. 
Lit), pp. 73-78. 

22. Shandon Cave, Dungarvan. 

Dawkins, Boyd. " Cave Hunting." 

Adams, Leith. Sci. Froc. R. Dublin Soc. Vol. ii., pp. 45-86. 

Scott. Geolog. Mag. Vol, vii. 1870, p. 417. 

23. Cave at Whitechurch. 

Hull, E. Anniversary address Royal Geol. Society, Ireland, 
1877. four. Royal Geol. Soc, Ireland {N.S.). Vol. iv,, pp. 49-51. 



6o The Irish Naturalist. 

WITH THE WII.D BEES IN GI.ENCUIvI.EN. 

BY H. K. gore: CUTHBERT. 
(Read before the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, February i2tli, 1895.) 



GlknculIvEN, on the boundary between the counties of 

Dublin and Wicklow, might be described in the poet's phrase 

as '* A populous solitude of bees and birds, 

And fairy- formed and many-coloured things" ; — 

in soberer language it is a very interesting valley which the 
Cookstown river in recent, and more violent agencies in former 
times, have scooped out of the granite wall of South Dublin 
and the drift overlying its hollows. The geologist and the 
botanist ma}^ spend a profitable day in Glencullen. Let us 
visit it for the nonce as entomologists, and, rambling thither 
some sunny afternoon in June, take note of the wild bees that 
we meet. We can watch their doings, study their habits, and 
thereby teach ourselves something of their economy and the 
complex w^orkings of their instinct. 

At starting, leaving the woods at the Enniskerry end of the 
"len, we notice how the air seems full of bees. Their brisk hum 
is everywhere, they seem to hover over every bush and flow^er, 
and to rise up before us in protest as we brush through the 
grass. There is a mossy bank just before us where the com- 
motion seems keenest. This is the capital city of a humble-bee, 
Bombus vmsconim^ commonly called the Carder, and one of 
the best known of its tribe. The nest is not yet complete, 
for the season is still early, and, as its tenants are unwarlike, 
we can examine it in safety. Their dwelling, oval in shape, 
is entirely composed of moss, which the bees ingeniously 
heckle or card with their feet, afterwards working it up into a 
compact mass, resisting changes of weather. When possible 
these architects like to choose a site at the foot of a wall or 
base of a bank, this position giving them a certain security. 
Lifting the roof of the nest we find a series of cells of various 
sizes, connected by masses of coarse brown wax, somewhat 
in shape like pigeons' eggs, but longer and thinner. These 
cells are not made of wax, but of a silky material like rice- 
paper, and are really the cocoons spun by the bee-grubs. At 
this time of year they will not be very numerous, but towards 
the end of summer we may count between two and three score. 
Round about these cocoons, at the sides and base of the nest. 



With the Wild Bees in Glencidlen. 6i 

we shall find several masses of wax, very much resembling 
the queen-cells of the Hive-Bee, containing young grubs and 
bee-bread, or kneaded lumps of pollen and honey. These are 
the work of the queen-mother, the foundress of the colony, 
in the early .spring days. According as the grubs grow to 
maturity they spin up the egg-shaped cocoons we first noticed, 
wherein they undergo their changes, first into nymphs, after- 
wards into perfect bees. The empty cocoons are then 
strengthened by the workers with a rim of wax and used as 
store-pots for hone3^ The older writers on bees, such as 
Kirby, state that the latter is never stored by an}^ of our wild . 
bees in regular cells like those of the hive-bee ; but I have 
found, as we shall probably here find, in the nests of the 
I^apidary or Red-tailed Humble-bee, several roughly- shaped 
hexagonal cells of brown wax, partly sealed, and filled with 
honey. The queens and workers of the latter bee are very 
common objects at this time ; later in the season we shall meet 
with the males. Other humble-bees are in evidence, especially 
the White-tail, ^^?;/ ^2^^ terrestris; an allied species, B. hortonim; 
and we ma}'' meet a specimen of the less common B. sylvaiimi. 

There are other bees here too, in numbers on bramble 
flowers and white-thorn, or flying up and down the faces of 
the cla}^ banks. These are various members of the large 
genus Andi'ena, which, like the bulk of our wild bees, are 
" solitary " in their habits, and consi.st of two kinds of in- 
dividuals only, males and females ; or as we may put it, 
drones and workers, the untiring industry of the female 
being a characteristic feature of all the stinging Hymenoptera. 
The lad}^ Andrena constructs a tunnel or burrow in the face 
of a bank to a depth, varying with different species, of from 
eight to fourteen inches. These burrows are seldom straight, 
and often branch out into subsidiary tunnels. At the end of 
each the mother-bee places a ball of pollen and an q.%%. 
She then closes the burrow with a pellet of clay to prevent 
the invasion of ants and predacious beetles. 

The members of this genus we shall most likely meet are 

Andreyia Trimmerana, A. albicans, A. helvola, A. Wilkella 

(easily known even on the wing by its silvery pile), A. 

Gzvynana, A.viimitnla, and perhaps, though I have not taken 

it in GlencuUen, the handsome A, cineraria, 

A3 



62 The Irish Naturalist, 

In company with the A^idreucc we observe crowds of the 
brightly coloured Nomada: or wasp-bees, wath gaud}^ stripes 
of black and 3'ellow, belonging to the large group of inquiline 
or " cuckoo "-bees. Thej^ are so called because they do not 
make nests for themselves, but use the nests of other species, 
their young being reared upon the food stored up for the 
grubs of their hosts. Amongst them we notice the common 
Noviada altcniata, N'. rujico7'nis, and A^ siiccificta ; we may also 
meet A^. bijida and N". ftavoguttata. At the upper part of the 
glen I have taken an example ot the rare A', fcrntginata, a 
rather sober-coloured insect. 

Here upon a Hawkweed is a bee of curious appearance, 
dark-coloured, with a sharpl}^ pointed tailpiece, ringed with 
narrow greyish bands. This is another inquiline, Ccelioxys 
clongata, and we shall not have far to go for its host. There 
are several .species of the latter, but the commonest, Megachilc 
ccntunciilaris, is abundant in many places. It is about the 
size of a hive-bee, but stouter, and lines its burrow ver}' 
neatly with cuttings of Rose and Sweetbriar leaves. Nor does 
it confine its attention to the rose family only, for I have seen 
it cutting the leaves of such shrubs as Symphoricarptis. An 
allied species, M. lignisccca^ lines its nest with cuttings from 
the Elm and the Beech. 

Another genus of wild bee, Halictus, cannot possibly 
escape our notice, from the great abundance of some of its 
species. One of the commonest of these is a very pretty 
insect, Halictus mbicnndiis, the females being easil}- known 
by their ashy-grey banding and golden-yellow pile. The male 
Halicti have rather a peculiar appearance from their elongated 
bodies and slender antennae. The males of H. riibictrndtis 
and H. cylindricus often congregate in a common burrow 
where they pass the night, and spend the time when the day 
is wet or cloudy. We shall probably meet with some of these 
"bachelor's clubs" by exploring the cla}' banks as sunset 
approaches. Most of the Halicti ^.re small black or brassy 
insects, and all are remarkable for their fu.ssv activitv. 

Flying about the burrows of the Halicti, but of less active 
habits, we observe other little 1)ees, prettily marked with 
black and scarlet. These belong to the genus Sphccodes, 
fonnerly, but wrongly, thought to be inc|uiline like the 



With the Wild Bees in Glcnctdlen. 63 

Nomadce. We can distinguish at least two species, 5. gibbus 
and ^S*. dimidiatus? 

All the bees we have dealt with up to this belong to the 
long-tongued group, in scientific parlance A7ithophila 
aciitilingua. But there are a couple of the obtusilingual or 
short-tongued division we shall pretty certainl}^ notice near 
the Glendhu side of the valle}-. One of these, Piosopis con- 
fusa, is a small black insect, somewhat like Halictus subfaseiatzcs, 
but distinguished on closer inspection by its light yellow, 
face and the yellowish bands upon its legs. The female 
Prosopis constructs her tunnel in a bramble stem, lining it 
throughout with a whitish secretion ; the male seems to be a 
notably lazy insect, for he is usually found, even in the sun- 
niest part of the da}^ coiled up asleep in the cup of some 
flower. 

Our other short-tongued bees belong to the genus Colletes. 
Two species occur at Glencullen, C.f adieus and C. Daviesana. 
The latter is not uncommon, a small bee of compact shape, 
thinly clothed with light brown hair. Several of its colonies, 
with burrows crowded closely together, will be found in the cut 
banks near the mountain end of the glen. The Colletidce con 
struct a remarkably clean-cut tunnel, about five inches in 
depth, terminating in a cluster of cells. These are finished 
with peculiar care. In fact the more we examine their work 
the more we shall marvel at their method, and the anicunt of 
industry involved. Each cell is oval in shape, about the 
size of a linnet's Q:gg, made of fine mortar, and lined with a 
waxy enamel. When finished the}' are provisioned, as usual, 
with pollen. To dig them out intact requires some care, but 
we may accomplish it before the daylight fails us. 

We have now in our afternoon stroll taken a hasty glance 
at a few of the wild bees that may be met with any summer's 
day in Glencullen. There are certainly others we have not 
noticed, needing fuller observations to record. But using our 

' I may mention, however, that Mr. Edward vSaunders (" Ilymenoptera- 
Aculeata of the British Isles," p. 194), is incHned to adopt' the earlier 
opinion as to the inquiline nature of S^/iecodcs. The facts that it is 
always found in company with Halictus, the absence of any pollinigerous 
organs, and its listless habit of flight, would vseem to support this view ; 
but the question can hardly be considered settled. 

The researches and observations of vSmith, Shuckard, Bridgman, and 
Sichel, and the analogy of the structure of Ceratlna SinCi Prosopis supply 
the chief arguments against the quoted opinion of Mr. Saunders. 



64 The Irish Naturalist. 

ej^es as naturalists, and as naturalists seeking to gather the 
meaning of what we have seen, we have traversed Glencullen 
till we have reached the end of the valley, and with it the end 
of our ramble. The stars are beginning to twinkle overhead 
and a bluish mist to enwrap the tree-tops of the glen. Soon 
a turn of the path will hide from us the late scene of our 
inquiries ; but will not, I trust, so easily efface the recollection 
of the hours therein spent, and the knowledge we shall have 
derived from them. 



THE PI.ANTS OF WESTMHATH. 

BY H. C. I^KVINGE, D.L. 



During the past summer and autumn, the following plants 

were gathered by me in the Count}" Westmeath, additional to 

those recorded in the May and June numbers of the Irish 

Naturalist for 1894, thus bringing up the total number of 

species for the county to 572, and the total additions to the 

Cybele Hibernica, Dist. VII., to 77. The R^ibi were submitted 

to the Revds. E. F. I^inton and W. Moyle Rogers, who have 

kindly examined and named them : — 

Ranunculus circinatus, Sibth (vii.) — Brittas Lake, Knock Driii. 
Rubus rhamnifolius, Aiict. Aiigl. (vii.) — Knock Drin woods. 

R. Incurvatus, Bab. (vii.)— Knock Drin. A striking and handsome 
Briar with fine panicles of bright pink flowers and dark-green foUage, 
not previonsly recorded from Ireland, but by no means uncommon in the 
woods at Knock Drin. 

R. crythrinus, Genev. (vii.) — Roadside hedge, near the '' Longford 
gate," Knock Drin. 

R, nrsucronatus, Blox. (vii.) — Deer Park fence. Knock Drin. 

R. corylifolius, Sm. (=sublustris, Lees.) (vii.)— Knock Drin 
woods. 

R. Balfourianus, Blox.? (vii.) — Near "the vSupply " Bridge near 
Mullingar. Mr. K. F. Linton remarks that this is certainly Corylifolian 
or Caesian, and Mr. M. Rogers suggests it may be a form oi Ba/foitriantis, 
Blox., which is a very variable plant. 

Lactuca muralis, Fresen. (vii.) — Ballynegall roadside wall, between 
Portnashangan Church and School-house, also in the Ballynegall 
Demesne ; appears to be truly indigenous. 

Tragopogon prate n sis, L. (vii.)— Killua Demesne, near Clonmel- 
lon. 

*OrnlthogaIum umbellatum, L. (vii.)— Rockview, near Delvin, 
thoroughly established in ditch banks and meadows. 

tBromus commutatus, Schrad. (vii.) (fide Mr. A. Bennett). — 
Meadows at Knock Drin. 

Chara denudata, Braun. ( = C. dissoluta, Leonh.) — Brittas Lake 
Knock Drin. Not previously found in the British Islands — vide descrip- 
tion bv Messrs. H. and J. Groves, Irish Naltrralisi^ ^smwsiYy, 1S95, p. ii. 



• [ 65 ] 
IRISH MAMMAI.S. 

BY G. ^. H. BARRHTT-HAMIIv'TON, B.A. 



If, as Mr. Lydekker truly remarks in the preface to his recent 
work,' " no monograph of the British Mammals as a whole 
has been published since the second edition of Bell's ' British 
Quadrupeds' in 1874" and "since that date considerable 
advances have been made with regard to our knowledge of 
the geographical distribution of our native mammals," it was 
surely all the more incumbent upon the Editor and Publishers 
of the volume to procure the services of an author, vdio 
was known to have paid some attention to the study of British 
mammals. Mr. I^ydekker, on the contrar}^ starts with the 
humiliating confession that he " makes no claim to being an 
observer of the habits of British mammals," and he has, there- 
fore, filled his pages with quotations drawn largely from the 
writings of Macgillivray, as published in the original series of 
the " Naturalists' Library.'' To these he has added notes con- 
tributed by Mr. A. Trevor Battye and Mr. W. E. de Winton— 
gentlemen whose names have been until quite recently un- 
knov\m in connection with the study of our British Mammals — 
while he has almost completely ignored the older workers, 
with the exception of Mr. J. E- Harting. In his preface, the 
author does, indeed, tender his acknowledgments to Mr. A- 
G. More (whom he appears to think is still "of the Dublin 
Museum ") " for much important information kindly com- 
municated by letter on the subject of Irish mammals," but 
there is little trace of Mr. More's influence in the body of the 
work, and the general meagreness of the references to Ireland, 
and the quotations from Thompson's " Natural History of 
Ireland " with regard to the distribution of mammals whose 
whole status might well have been completely changed since 
the publication of that excellent work, leads us to the belief 
that the author has taken but little pains to make himself 
acquainted with the natural history of Ireland. 

It would take more than Mr. Lydekker' s pleasant style of 
writing and the prett}^ binding of the book to hide the haste 

^ Allen's Naturalists' Library, edited by R. Bowdler Sharp, LI/.D., 
F.Iv.S., etc. — A Handtsook to the British lYIammalia, by R. 

IvYDEKKER, B.A., F.R.vS., V.P.G.S., etc., Loudon; W. H. Allen & Co., 
Limited, 13, Waterloo-place, S,W,, 1S95. Price 6s. 

A 4 



66 The Irish Nahiralist. 

whicli is evident on almost all page.s of his volume, and which 
could hardly have been expected to have been absent from a 
work which appears to have been projected onl}^ about a year 
ago. 

In the present notice we propose to confine ourselves for 
the most part to that part of the book which refers to mam- 
mals found in Ireland, and, even then, w^ant of space will 
hardly permit us to notice all the omissions. 

We cannot compliment the publishers on the thirty-two 
plates. In our opinion Mr. lyydekker's book would have been 
much improved had they bee;i left out. These may have 
been good for the time w^hen the first edition of the Natura- 
lists' Library was published, but in these daj^s readers expect 
something more for their money than plates like No. 2 (the 
Long-eared Bat), which even the author is compelled to de- 
scribe as *' not quite true to nature." But if the plates are 
bad, the figures of the skulls are worse ; some of them indeed 
are hardly recognizable as skulls at all, w^ere it not that we 
are told so in the letter-press. That of the skull of the 
Squirrel on page 16S is almost the worst of a bad lot. 

The best parts of the book are the chapters on the ancient 
mammals of Britain, and the introduction, which are pleasantly 
written, but even these are by no means perfect. 

In the introduction (pp. 1-13) Mr. Lydekker discusses the 
origin of the British mammalian fauna. The British Islands 
come under the category of Dr. A. R. Wallace's " Continental " 
Islands, that is to say they were lands which have evidently 
been united with the neighbouring Continent of Europe at no 
ver}^ remote epoch, to wdiich fact the general similarity of the 
fauna and flora and of the geological formations, the shallow- 
ness of the intervening seas, and the absence of peculiar 
mammals testify. Among the proofs which exist that these 
islands formerly stood at a much higher elevation than at 
present is the case, not the least remarkable are the submerged 
forests which occur on several parts of the coast of Great 
Britain, in addition to which the author might have mentioned 
many which occur in Ireland, such as that on the coast of 
the Barony of Forth in the Count}' of Wexford. 

Mr. Lydekker credits Britain with forty-seven species of 
terrestrial mammals (including several doubtful species), which 
have been known to have inhabited the British Islands during 



. Irish Mammals. C>j 

the historic period. Of these tv/ent3^-six are Irish, but the 
Wolf, the Brown Bear, and the Wild Boar are now extinct, 
while the Black and Brown Rats, the Rabbit, the Fallow Deer, 
and the Squirrel are introduced as doubtfully indigenous 
species, so that our present list of truly indigenous Irish 
mammals fairly includes only eighteen species, and in historic 
times Ireland appears never to have had more than twenty- 
one species. Great Britain, on the contrary, has been inhabi- 
ted by about forty species, while the neighbouring parts of the 
Continent of Europe possess many more. 

In discussing the cause for this difference in richness of the 
fauna of countries lying so close to each other, Mr. I^ydekker 
brings forward three theories— (i.) That of Dr. Wallace, who 
attributes the disappearance of the ancient British Fauna to a 
submergence of comparatively late date ; (ii.) that wdiich 
attributes the disappearance of the greater part of the fauna to 
the ice-sheet of the Glacial Epoch, and (iii.) that of Mr. G. W. 
Bulman (expressed in a recent paper) that the ice-sheet did 
not extend further south than the latitude of I^ondon, if as 
far south as that, whence the fauna again spread northwards 
with the return of more favourable conditions, although with 
the loss of such forms as were unable to withstand a 
considerable amount of cold. On this latter view it is 
considered that Britain never was connected with the 
Continent after the passing away of the Glacial Period. 
On the two former views we must attribute our new fauna 
to a short connection with the Continent subsequent to the 
destruction by the ice of the Glacial Period. Of these theories, 
Mr. lyydekker is more inclined to agree with the second — 
indeed, Mr. Bulman's ingenious suggestion does not seem to 
account for the poverty of the mami;iaiian fauna of Ireland as 
compared wdth that of the rest of Britain. 

At this point we should have expected some attempt at an 
explanation of the peculiarities of our Irish mammalian fauna, 
but not a word have we on the subject, in fact the difficulty 
has been ignored by Mr. lyydekker in a manner similar to 
that in which he has ignored many others in his book. Not 
even is there a reference (we believe, in the whole book) to 
the work of the late Professor A. I^eith Adams, who wrote in 

^ Nalural Science^ Oct., 1S93. 



68 I he Irish Naturalist, 

one of his papers' that " The probabilitj' is, that the migra- 
tion came from Scotland, and that there was a land communi- 
cation between the two countries at the close of the Glacial 
Period, b}^ which the greater portion of the mammals that 
had found their way to Scotland crossed to Ireland." 
Professor Leith Adams was led to make this suggestion hy 
the fact that all the living and extinct mammals of Ireland, 
with the exception of the Grizzly Bear, have been recorded 
also from Scotland, while a large number of extinct English 
mammals are absent from both Ireland and Scotland. This 
suggestion has been .supported by the recent investigations of 
Scottish naturalists into the Fauna of the islands lying 
between Ireland and Scotland. 

In an ingenious paper lately published. Dr. R. F. Scharfif^ 
has stated his opinion, based upon the distribution of the 
Fresh-water Fish and the Mollusca that ''Ireland was in later 
Tertiary times connected with Wales in the South and Scot- 
land in the North, whilst a freshwater lake occupied the present 
central area of the Irish Sea. The Southern connection broke 
down at the beginning of the Pleistocene Period, the 
Northern connection following soon after. There is no 
evidence of an}- subsequent land connection between Great 
Britain and Ireland." There is much to be said in favour of 
this view, but it seems to us that perhaps an adaptation of 
Mr. Bulman's views to Ireland might account for the pecu- 
liarities of the flora and fauna of the south and west, such as the 
presence of the Mediterranean Heath and the Natter-jack toad. 

Passing on to the systematic part of the work — which 
commences with the Bats (pp. 13 — 53), of which seven 
species have been found in Ireland, we find the statement 
that " since Bats are, on the whole, less interesting than 
many other British mammals, our notices of the various 
species will be comparatively brief" Thus, Mr. I^ydekker 
again avoids a difficulty, and, while giving us anj^ quantity of 
quotations from writers on the habits of our more common and 
easil}^ observed mammals, contents himself with most meagre 
notes on the rarer, or less easily observed, and therefore, we 
should have thought, more interesting species. The list of 

1 '* Report on the History of Irish Fossil Mammals," Proc. Roy. Irish 
Acad. (2) Vol. iii., 1883. 

2 Pi'oc. R. Irish Acad, (3) Vol. iii., 1S94, No. 3. 



Irish Mammals. 69 

the localities where the rarer Irish Bats have been obtained 
is very meagre, and in very few cases has the author taken 
the trouble to give the references for his statements. The 
subject of the migration of Bats is barely touched upon (page 
27), the words "the fact that Bats do migrate, either occasion- 
ally or periodical!}', being well ascertained on the testimony 
of several trustworthy observers," being a very inadequate 
reference to so interesting a subject, with regard to which we 
may note that, though we once tried to obtain information on 
this subject by a correspondence with the light-keepers at 
the light-stations on the Irish coast, we entirely failed to 
obtain any valuable information as to the occurrence of Bats 
at these stations. 

On the distribution of the Hedgehog (in Ireland) (page 58), 
Mr. Lydekker has no more recent authority to quote than 
Thompson for the statement that it "is found everywhere in 
suitable localities." But, indeed, there is little w^ork to be 
done with regard to the distribution of Irish mammals. 
With the exception of the Bats, the Cetaceans, the Squirrel, 
the Black Rat, and the Red deer, all our mammals are found 
from north to south of the island, and many of the cases in 
which their distribution is curtailed are due to the direct 
agency of man. Referring to the depredations of Hedgehogs 
among game-birds and their egg-stealing propensities, he pre- 
sents us with the statements of two writers in the Field and 
La7id and Water, without giving either their names or a 
reference to the pages where their remarks occur, and then 
goes on to announce triumphantly that " this evidence, 
although circumstantial, appears to be pretty conclusive." 
Although, no doubt, the Hedgehog is, on the whole, a 
nocturnal animal, that this is not always the case we can testify 
from personal experience, having found a Hedgehog moving 
about in broad daylight in the Co. Wexford. It is a pity that 
Mr. Lydekker has not given us any notes on the habits of the 
Hedgehog in captivity — an omission which we have also to 
regret in the case of many other species. 

Passing over the Mole, the Water-Shrew and the Common 
Shrew, which are not found in Ireland, we find an exceed- 
ingly short account of the I^esser Shrew, an interesting and 
but little known mammal, which is the only representative of 
its genus in our country. It appears to be widely distributed 



7^6 The Irish Naturalist. 

and frequent, at least in parts of Ireland. Sir Douglas 
Brooke has an albino example, obtained in Fermanagh. 
Mr. L3^dekker's statement with regard to Shrews that " during 
the winter they retire beneath the roots of trees or bushes, to 
the deserted holes of other small mammals or other secure 
nooks, where they pass the cold months in a state of profound 
torpor" can hardly be regarded as a serious one in the face of 
the receipt b}^ the writer of several specimens of the I^esser 
Shrew from the Co. Wexford during the recent severe frost. 
Mr. Oldfield Thomas also writes that he has received four 
Common and one I^esser Shrew from Norway, caught on three 
feet of snow, with the thermometer below zero ! Among the 
synonj^ns of the I^esser vShrew we do not note that of Sorex 
hiber?iicus given to it by Jenyns. Quite recently a note has 
been published by Mr. Oldfield Thomas^ in which he shows 
that the correct names for the two British species of Shrews 
are Sorex araiietis, Linn., for the Common Shrew, and 6*. 
mi^iutiis, Linn., for the Lesser or Pygmy Shrew. Mr. 
Lydekker, however, retains the name of ^S. vulgaris, Linn., 
for the Common Shrew. 

The first of the Carnivora, in Mr. Lydekker's book, which 
has been found in Ireland, is the Wolf, and we are glad to be 
able here to give a word of praise to Mr. Lydekker for having 
included in his book notices of the extinct members of our 
fauna, which are undoubtedly entitled to their place beside 
their more fortunate survivors. As is so often the case in this 
book, Mr. Lydekker has given no reference for his statements 
with regard to the Wolf, and our readers ma}' be glad to refer 
for further details to Mr. Harting's article on the extinct 
British Wolf," also to an interesting note by Mr. G. H. 
Kinahan\ It is a pity that Mr. Lydekker has omitted any 
reference to the Wolf-dogs, for which Ireland Avas famous, and 
for accounts of which the writings of Prof. Leith Adams, 
Sir William Wilde, Dr. V. Ball and others should be consulted, 
as well as Captain Graham's work on the Irish Wolthound-'. 

As in the case of the Wolf, so with regard to the Wild Boar 
in Ireland (pp. 255-257) Mr. Lydekker's statements are not 
quite satisfactory, and he has given no reference to prove the 



^ Zoologist, Feb., 1895, pp. 62-4. ^ Popular Science Review, 1878, pp. 396-406. 
8 Land and Water, November 3rd, 1894. '^ Dursley, 1885. 



h'ish Manwtals. 71 

existence of this animal in historic times. Although the 
absence of pig-bones in the older Irish deposits has caused 
some doubt to be expressed as to whether this animal was 
trul}^ indigenous to Ireland,' there is no doubt that herds of 
pigs, either truly wild or feral, infested the woods and forests 
of Ireland in historic times. 

As to the Fox (pp. 98-104) Mr. Lydekker seems to have no 
more recent authorit}^ to quote than Thompson, and this is 
also the case with regard to the Badger and Otter, which 
animals all survive from north to south of Ireland, and in 
many parts of the country are plentiful. A reference to our 
packs of Foxhounds would not, we think, have been out of 
place, nor would a reference to the weight of this animal, an 
interesting note on which was published last 3'ear. 

On the distribution of the Marten Mr. I^ydekker has quoted 
the latest paper on the subject, but has again omitted to give 
the reference.^ Since that article was written we have 
obtained records of the occurrence of the marten in Roscom- 
mon, -* in Dublin in 1877,5 and from several other counties 
from which it had been already recorded. Interesting notes 
on Martens robbing bee-hives of the honey will be found in 
the Field.' 

That the Polecat ever existed in Ireland will be news to 
many Irish naturalists, and we should like to know on what 
authority Mr. Lydekker makes the statement (p. 114) that 
" although Thompson had doubts of its occurrence, there 
appears good evidence that the Polecat, in his time at least, 
was an inhabitant of the woods of Kerry, Down, and other 
parts of Ireland." 

"The Stoat," says Mr. Lydekker (page 1 19), "does not, accord- 
ing to Thompson, undergo a personal colour-change" in 
Ireland. Occasionally, however, Stoats undergo a partial 
change iu Ireland in the winter, and Mr. Kinahan' records 
examples from Dublin, Galway, Clare, and Mayo. Mr. More's 
experience is not in accordance with this, and after many years 



1 V. Ball, in Sci. Trans. Royal Ditblin Soc. (2), vol iii., No. x , p. 339. 

'- Fidd, March roth, 1894. =• Zoologist, April, 1894. 

* Field, April, 4, 1874. '^ Britisli Assoc. Guide to Dublin y part ii., p. 90. 

6 Feb. 10, 1877, May 17, 1873, and April 4, 1871. 

7 Land and Water, June 11, 1892, 



72 The IrisJi Nahu-alist. 

of close attention to Irish Natural History, he informed us 
that he had never met with a white Stoat in winter ; but such 
a specimen certainly exists, from Co. Wexford, in the Dublin 
Museum of Science and Art,' and Mr. R. M. Barrington has 
another from Meath.= In the County Cork there is a pack 
of hounds which are trained to hunt the Stoat in summer, 
when there is no Fox hunting, and they give excellent sport, 
but of course are followed on foot. 

Although Mr. J. K- Harting^ seems still to have a lingering 
hope that the Weasel may yet be found in Ireland, Mr. 
Iy3-dekker (p. 122) rightly states that " it appears tobe unknown" 
there, and indeed the question may now, w^e think, be fairly 
considered as settled that the Weasel does 7iot occur in Ireland. 
Often as the Weasel has been reported, no specimen has ever 
been produced, and such specimens as have been produced 
and submitted to competent naturalists have invariably proved 
to be Stoats. 

(TO be; concIvUdkd.) 



PROCKKDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



ROYATv ZOOI.OGICAI. vSOCIKTV. 

Recent donations comprise a porcupine from C. A. James, Esq ; a 
Peacock and a pair of White Guinea-fowl from J. Dah', Esq. ; and a 
cockatoo from Mrs. Paul. Three Great Eagle-Owls, an Axis D^er, two 
Peccaries, an Ocelot, three Paradoxures, a Viverrine Cat, a Prairie 
Marmot, two Armadillos, a hundred Java vSparrows, an Aoudad, and an 
Antelope have been acquired by purchase. 

2,060 persons visited the Gardens in January. 



Dubinin MicroscopicaIv Ci.ub. 

December 2oth. — The Club met at Dr. M'Weeney'S, who showed 
a series of serial sections of the human central nervous system prepared 
by Van Gehuchten's modification of Golgi's method. This consists in 
impregnating the ganglion cells and their processes with chromate of 
silver b}- immersion of the pieces of tissue in nitrate of silver solution after 
treatment of bichromate of potash and osmic acid. The finest rami- 
fications of the non-medullated protoplasmic processes of the nerve-cells 
can thus be followed, and the method maybe said to have revolutionized 
our ideas of the structure of the central nervous organs. A peculiarity 
is that the sections must be mounted without a cover-glass. Contrast 
sections by Weigert's method were also shown. 

^ Vide Land and IJ'afcv, May 28, 1892. 
'^ Op. Cii., June 4, 1892. ^ Zoologist, Dec, 1894. 



Proceedings of Irish Societies. 73 

Mr. F. W. Moore exhibited Verlid/Iivm latertiiim,'Etrt. It was found 
growing on a piece of decaying stem of Cattlcya Doiviana, which had been 
imported recently from Costa Rica, on which it formed bright red 
patches. Under the microscope the colour did not appear nearly so 
brilliant as in the growing condition. 

Mr. G. H. Carpenter showed preparation of the head of the sea-midge, 
Cliinio marimis, Halid., drawing special attention to the large size and 
circular shape of the eye-facets, and to the vestigial condition of the 
jaws. 

Dr. Scott showed sections of caries of teeth prepared by Dr. Baker, 
showing the micro-organisms filling the dentinal tubules— also photo- 
graphs of the sections coloured to represent the original sections. 

Proe. G. CoIvE showed a section of banded Gneiss from Cushendun 
Co. Antrim. It has been recognised that some gneisses result from 
parallel igneous intrusions. In this case a eurite has formed parallel 
veins in what appears to be an altered basalt, and granular crystals of 
quartz and felspar from the eurite appear scattered in the latter rock. 
Deformation of the mingled rocks, accompanied by re-arrangement and 
re-crystallisation of quartz and felspar, has gone on subsequently to 
the intrvision. 

Mr. M'Ardi^E exhibited specimens of Lejeunca calyptrifolia. Hook., in. 
fruit, which he collected last year at Auniscaul, Co. Kerry. On account 
of the small size and scarcity of the plant it is rarely met with in this 
condition. The perianth is large for the size of the plant, somewhat 
campanulate in ovitline, with five projecting angles or teeth at the apex, 
which are decurrent to the base. Cal3^ptra spherical, strongly reticulated, 
with a stalk or peduncle about twice its length, divided by transverse 
septa into a number of tubular-like cells. 

Mr. W. N. AivTvEN exhibited a drawing of Scapania aspera, Mull. ,. which 
he made from plants collected by Mr. M'Ardleinthe Co. Cavan. The 
plate shows a plant the natural size, portion of a branch, magnified 
leaves and leaf cells, bracts, perianth with spinose ciliated mouth highly 
magnified, a shoot wdtli gemmae at apex of leaves. Mr. Allen also 
exhibited a good figure of Metzgeria conjugata (Dill) Lindb., clearly showing 
the moncecious character of the plant. These excellent delineations 
with others are for Mr. M'Ardle's coming paper on plants collected by 
him in the Co. Cavan for the Flora and Fauna Committee of the Royal 
Irish Academy. 

Professor A. C. Haddon exhibited sections of a small sea-anemone 
commensal with a calcareous polyzoon which he had collected in Torres 
Straits. The actinian has not yet been determined, but it is probably the 
same as that recorded by Prof, W- A, Haswell, in the Proc. L. S., N. S. 
Wales, vol. vii., p. 608. 

January 17th.— The Club met at Dr. Frazer'S. 

Prof. G. C01.E showed the glassy edge of an oliviue-basalt dyke, S. of 
Annalong Port, Co. Down. This is a pleasing and transparent example 
of basalt passing into brown tachylyte, with very trifling development 
of magnetite, so that the glass resembles the modern examples from the 
Pacific islands far more than the well-known and darker types from the 
western isles of Scotland. 

Mr. F". W. Moore showed Ncdria sangtiinea, Fr. This pretty and 
interesting species was found growing on a decaying pseudo-bulb of an 
unnamed Eriopsis imported fiom Brazil. As seen growing, the colour was 
extremely bright, but under the microscope it was much duller. It 
belongs to Cook's fourth section '« Denudatse," and is characterised by 
having the perithecia ovate in shape, and blood red in colour, the 
sporidia being elliptical and colourless. 



74 The Irish Naturalist, 

Mr. Greenwood Pim exhibited Macrosporium cheiranthi from damp 
wall-paper, showing its peculiar muricate spores. 

Prof. T. Johnson exhibited Girandia sphacelarioides, a brown alga found 
growing on the leaves oi Zostera at Roundstone (Moynes) in Co, Galway. 
The plant is recorded from the south coast of England and is an addition 
to the Irish marine flora. The peculiar lateral wart-like sori of sporangia 
were shown, and Goebel's investigations on the mode of reproduction in 
the species were described. 

On the same Zosiera leaves were growing plants of Castagnea zostera;, Thin., 
showing plurilociilar zoosporangia. This brown alga was found growing 
on the leaves of the marine monocotyledon Zostera at Moynes near 
Roundstone, the only known Irish locality. Here it was discovered 
fifty years ago by McCalla, and is recorded in Harvey's Phycologia 
Britannica under the synonym Mesogloia virescens /3 Zoostericola. The 
species is also recorded from the south coast of England and the west 
of Ireland. 

Mr. McArdIvE exhibited a proliferous form oiLejeimea serpyllifolia^which. 
he collected last year in Mr. Hickson's wood at Lispoll, near Auniscaul, 
Co. Kerry. The adventitious shoots grew from all parts of the branch. 
Under a high magnifying power he showed a portion of the stem and 
attached leaf lobule, with young shoots arising from each. The leaves 
showed still more remarkable examples of adventitious shoots. The 
specimens showed the first stage, the outgrowth of a simple cell from 
the margin ; the second stage in which several additional cells were 
formed ; a perfect leaf with five adventitious .shoots in various stages of 
development, on some the leaves were well marked; and a further stage, 
a shoot with three leaves and two perfectly formed stipules or folioles, 
and at the attachment of the stem to the old leaf, root hairs ; the contents 
of the cells had disappeared, the walls near the attachment showing 
disintegration. 

Mr. McArdle also exhibited a drawing of five figures demonstrating 
the different stages of development of the young plantlets of Lejewiea, 
and a proliferous form of Meizgeria conjiigata, a specimen under the micro- 
scope showed secondary branching of an adventitious shoot from the 
thallus. This uncommon mode of re-production in Lejeimca will form the 
subject of an article on the vegetative propagation amongst Hepaticae, 
with plate, Avhich will shortly appear in the Irish Naturalist. 

Mr. G. H. Carpenter showed a slide (prepared by Mr. J, E. Duerden) 
of a hydroid, Boiigainvillia ramosa, in which some of the cups were much 
enlarged and thickened, forming a kind of " gall" inhabited by the 
parasitic embryo of a Pycno^on. Clinging to the stem of the hydroid 
was a larval Nymphon^ but it could not be definitely stated that the 
embryos in the cups belonged to the same species. Dohrn and others 
have described the embryos of Phoxichilidiiun as sometimes parasitic in 
the polyps of Podocoryne. 

Dr. M'Weeney showed j5ure cultures and a slide of the Bacillus 
diphtheria (Klebs-I^offler) obtained from a diphtheritic membrane sent to 
him for bacteriological examination by a Dublin physician. The micro- 
organisms were quite typical and were contained in pure cultivation 
from the membrane. The patient recovered. 

Mr. J. N. HAI.BERT exhibited two very rare Irish beetles, Micropeplus 
iesserula, Curt, and Pseudopsis sulcata, Newm., from the collection of Mr. A. 
H. Haliday, the former taken in a marsh near Holywood {Entomologist, 
vol. I., 1840), the latter also from Holywood, and Avoca. He was in- 
duced to bring these forward as both were entirely overlooked as Irish 
in Canon Fowler's " British Coleoptera." Judging from the records, both 
are rare in England, where Psetidopsis sulcata seems not to have been taken 
north of Yorkshire. 



Proceedings of Irish Societies. 75 

BEI,FAST NaTURAI^ISTS' FiEI^D CI.UB. 

January 15.— The President in the Chair.— Mr. Joseph Wright, 
F.G.S., stated that a few weeks ago he had visited Divis Mountain in 
company with Mr. S. A. Stewart to examine Boulder-cla}', which Mr, 
Stewart had observed high up on the mountain exposed in vSections 
by the side of a mountain stream. Two gatherings of this clay (about 
10 lbs. weight) were made at the height of about 1,300 and 1,400 feet respec- 
tively above the sea. These on being microscopically examined were found 
to contain two fry of mollusca, one Buccimwi imdatnvi, the other doubtfully 
referable to Littorina litomlis, also a foraminifer, Nonionina depressula, and six 
ostracoda too young to name with certainty. Through the courtes}- of 
Mr. Gray he had also received a few pounds weight of Boulder-clay from 
WolthilljSoo feet above the sea. In thissamplewerefoundthreespecimens 
oi Nonionina deprcssida. These discoveries are of interest on account of 
the great height at which the clay occurs and of the marine organisms 
found in it ; foraminifera and ostracoda have not hitherto been recorded 
from local Boulder-clay at such high elevations. Some discussion 
ensued, in which Messrs. William Gray, M.R.I.A. ; W. Swanston, F.G.vS. ; 
J. Templeton, and others took part. 

The President then called upon Professor A. C. Haddon, of the Royal 
College of Science, Dublin, to deliver his lecture upon "Modern Relics 
of Olden Time," which dealt with primitive means of transport, imple- 
ments, ornaments and ceremonies which still survive among the 
peasantr}^ in Ireland. The lecture was fully illustrated by a representa- 
tive series of slides of Irish and foreign subjects, the lantern being worked 
by Mr, R. Welch. Messrs W. H. Patterson, Wm. Gray, Richard Patter- 
son, and R. Welch having spoken, the wish being expressed that 
Professor Haddon would deliver a course of lectures next season under 
the auspices of the Club, the President conveyed to the lecturer the best 
thanks of the Club. The following new members were then elected ; — 
Miss M'Cutcheon, B.A., Messrs. J. M'Clelland Martin, W.J. Stewart, and 
Charles J. lyanyon. 

BeIvEast Natural, History and Phii^osophicai. Society. 
February 5th. — The following papers were read— John MacCormac, 
M.D., "Education and Innerv^ation." Illustrated by a special series of 
lantern photo-.slides. SeaTON F. Mii,i,igan, M.R.I.A.— " Antiquarian 
Collections in Ulster, with special reference to the forthcoming 
Exhibition in the L,inen Hall." 



Dubinin Naturai^ists' FieIvD Ci,ub. 
January 8th. — The Annual Meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Irish Academy House, the President (G. H. Carpenter, B.Sc.) in the 
chair. The Secretary (R. Li^oyd Praeger) read the annual report, of 
which the leading features were as follows : — The membership of the 
Club stands at 158, having risen by over 25 per cent, during the year. 
The summer excursions and winter evening meetings were all carried out 
as arranged, and the attendance of members and visitors at them was 
satisfactory. The winter session was opened by a conversazione, which 
was largely attended. A highly successful three-day excursion was made 
to Fernioy and Lismore, in conjunction with the Cork and Linierick 
Naturalists' Field Clubs. Very good natural history work was done on 
the excursions, the results including the male and female, respectively, of 
two animals of which the other sex alone had previously been known, 
and a number of plants and animals not hitherto known in Ireland, or 
very rare in that country. A successful course of lectures on Botany were 
given by Prof. Johnson during the spring. A committee has been 
appointed to investigate the flowerless plants of Dublin and Wicklow and 
the flowering plants of Wicklow. The Committee have taken part in the 
formation of an Irish Field Club Union, the objects of which are to bring 
about an increased intercourse between the Clubs, to furnish mutual 



76 The Irish Naturalist, 

assistance, and to look after matters of general Field Club interest. The 
proceedings of the Club have been regularly reported, and selected papers 
printed in full, in the Irish Naturalist. The Committee return thanks to 
the Royal Irish Academy for the continued loan of their rooms. The 
Treasurer (Prof. T. Johnson) subsequently submitted the statement of 
accounts, which showed a larger expenditure than usual, which was ex- 
plained by the Treasurer. The adoption of the report and accounts was 
moved by Prof. A. C. Haddon, M.A., and seconded by Mr, W. F. de V. 
Kane, M.A., and passed, after a discussion, in which Mr. J. J. Dowling, 
Prof. Cole, Miss Hensman, Mr, J. B, Palmer, the Treasurer, and the Sec- 
retary took part; the opinion was generally expressed that so much money 
should not be spent on the excursions and conversazione. The President 
next declared the officers for 1895, whose names had been submitted to 
the last meeting, duly elected, and referred to the regretted departure 
from Dublin of 'Mr. J. E- Duerden, a most useful member of Committee. 
A vote of thanks to the Royal Irish Academy for the use of their rooms 
for the purposes of the winter meetings was proposed by Miss Hensman, 
seconded by Mr. J. B- Palmer, and passed. A donation of ^^5 to the funds 
of the Irish Naturalist was proposed by Mr. J. J. Dowling and seconded by 
Mr. R. P. Vowell. The proposer and seconder spoke in complimentary 
terms of the good natural history work which is being done by this journal. 
Mr. Kane moved and Mr, M. J. Buckley seconded an amendment that, 
instead oi £'S, one-tenth of the gross receipts of the Club for the coming 
year should be devoted to the magazine ; this arrangement would slightly 
increase the proposed grant. After a discussion, in which Prof. Johnson, 
Mr. Dowling, and Prof. Haddon took part, the amendment was,_by per- 
mission, withdrawn. Mr. Carpenter,onbehalf of the editorsof the journal, 
thanked the Club for their continued support of this enterprise On the 
motion of Prof Haddon, seconded by Prof. Cole, a vote of thanks was 
given to the Press for their courtesy in reporting the proceedings of the 
Club. The following were then elected members of the Club : — E. P. 
Farran, Mrs. Merewether, Miss J. Orr, H. J. Seymour. 

Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger subsequently exhibited some curious varieties 
of the Mistletoe. In one of these the leaves and stem were variegated 
with yellow ; in the other the stem divided at each node into four or six 
branches, instead of the normal two. Prof. Johnson gave his views on 
the origin of this abnormalit3\ Mr. Praeger also showed some remark- 
ably overgrown specimens of plants found this year in Ireland. 

January 22nd.— The President in the Chair. Mr. Joseph Wright, 
F.G.S., of the Belfast Nat. Field Club lectured on " Foraminifera, 
Recent and Extinct. " The President, in introducing the lecturer, pointed 
out that was the first meeting held in Dublin under the Irish Field Club 
Union scheme, one object of which was to arrange for occasional inter- 
changes of lecturers among the Irish Clubs, that they might know more 
of each other's work. Mr. Wright proceeded with his lecture, which dealt 
fully with the classification and structure of the various forms of 
Foraminifera, and with their distribution, recent and fossil. The lecture 
was illustrated with a large series of diagrams, and with many microsco- 
pic slides. A vote of thanks to Mr. Wright was passed on the motion 
of Mr. W. S. Green, M.A., H.M. Inspector of Fisheries, seconded by 
Prof. Haddon, M.A. 

February, 12th. — Prof. C01.E, Vice-President, in the Chair. Mr. H. 
K. Gore CuThberT read a paper on ''The Wild Bees of Glencullen," 
which is published in our current issue. Prof. Sofi,i,AS, F.R.S., and 
Mr. R. IvEOYD Praeger contributed a paper on the Boulder-clay of 
Kill-o'-the Grange. This paper will shortly appear in our pages. In the 
discussion on each paper which ensued. Rev. T. B. Gibson, Mr. N. Colgan, 
Mr. Cuthbert, Mr. Praeger, Prof. J Johnson, and the Chairman took part. 
The following new members were elected : — Richard Burnett, Miss A. 
Jellett, Lieut. -Colonel Plunkett, J. R. Redding, Miss A. B. Stack, Miss 
Gertrude Webb. 



Proceedings of Irish Societies. 77 

Limerick Naturai,ists' Fiei<d CIvUB. 

Jan. 24th. — Dr. W. A. Fogerty, Vice-President, in the chair. Mr. Joseph 
Wright lectured on " Foraminifera, Recent and Fossil," examples being 
shown from varying strata— Chalk, Lias, esttiarine, and Boulder clays from 
the North ot Ireland, as well as recent specimens dredged in the Atlantic 
Ocean on some of the expeditions sent out by the Royal Irish Academj'. 
Besides these, the lecture was illustrated by a number of diagrams, 
photographic lantern slides, &c., exhibiting the marvellous beauty and 
complexit}^ of the shells formed by these very minute creatures. Mr. 
Wright's visit to Limerick marks a new departure in Field Club work in 
Ireland, he having come here by arrangement with the recently-formed 
Field Club Union as representing the Belfast Club, whereby an inter- 
change of lectures is to take place occasionally in future amongst the 
various Irish Field Clubs. On the motion of Mr. Robert Gibson, a 
hearty vote of thanks was unanimously passed to Mr. Wright for his 
interesting lecture. 



NOTES 



BOTANY. 



CHARACE.^. 

Irish Characeae. — A Correction. — In Messrs. Groves' paper, 
under Nitella Jlexilis (p. 40) " 148. Antrim — Carnlough River. 1892. R. 
LI. Praeger " should read " 145, Armagh— Camlough River. 1892. 
R. LI. Praeger." The mistake was mine, as I find that on the label 
of the specimen submitted to Messrs, Groves, " Antrim " was written by 
inadvertence for "Armagh." The fact that I had sent other specimens 
from Carnlough, explains the second alteration. .A^. flexilis is still a 
desideratum of the flora of North-east Ireland. 

R. Lt.oyd Praeger. 



PHANEROGAMS. 

Second Flowering of Artemisia stelleriana. -Mr. Praeger, in 
the Irish Naturalist for November, refers to the interesting fact of this 
Artemisia coming twice into flower on the North Bull in the summer of 
1894. It may be worth mentioning that it continued to flower into the 
second week of December, In the middle of October it was in profuse 
bloom, and to the best of my recollection I also saw it in flower in the 
autumn of 1S93. 

C. B. Moffat, Ballyhyland, Co. Wexford. 



Eythraea pulchella on the North Bull. — lean corroborate Mr. 
Scully's statement as to this plant's still growing on the North Bulk I 
gathered it there last summer, about a mile north of the station given 
by Mr. Scully. 

R. Li,OYD Praeger. 



ZOOLOGY. 



mSECTS, 

Erebia epiphron, var. casslope, near Sligro. — I am glad 
to be able to record the rediscovery of this mountain butterfly in 
Ireland. For forty years, since the late Mr. Birchall took " a fine series 
in June, 1854 . . . about halfway up Croagh Patrick on the Westport side 
in a grassy hollow," no entomologist has seen the species in this countr}-. 
The captor of the specimen now recorded is the Rev. R. A. M'Clean, 



78 The Irish Naturalist. 

late of Sligo, the greater part of whose valuable collection of lepidoptera 
has been secured by the Dublin Museum. He informs me that he took 
the insect on the edge of a wood at Rockwood near Sligo, at the height 
of about a thousand feet, during the summer of last year (1894). A high 
wind was blowing at the time, and he believes that the butterfly had 
been blown down from higher ground. The specimen is a female 
somewhat rubbed, the wings expanding ij inches, and with the fulvous 
markings and black spots rather clearer than in most of the British 
specimens of var. cassiope in the Museum collection. 

As this locality is about fifty miles from the previous station for the 
insect (Croagh Patrick, Co. Mayo), we may hope that the species has a 
fairly wide distribution among our western mountains, though it is 
doubtless excessively local. Like many other alpine insects, it ranges 
much further south in Ireland than in Great Britain, where it is known 
from the hills of Scotland and Cumbria, but not from those of Wales. 
On the continent it is found in the Alps, the Pyrenees, and the 
mountains of Hungary, Avhile the type of epiphron occurs in the 
mountains of German}^ and northern France. 

Geo. H. Carpenter. 

Thecia betulae in Co. Wexford. — I owe Mr. Kane an apology for 
having quoted him at second hand. It was not in his Catalogue, but in 
the resume of the first part of it given in the IrisJi Naturalist for March, that 
I saw the distribution of Thecia bet 11 'ae set down (p. 59) as " Munster ; 
Co. Galwa3%" I ought to have stated this when writing my note, the 
only object of which was to make it clear that the butterfly is not con- 
fined to those limits. 

C. B. Moffat, Ballyhyland, Co. Wexford. 

[We regret that we omitted the Co. Wexford locality for this butterfly 
in our review of Mr. Kane's Catalogue. — Eds.] 

Coleoptera from Co. Dublin, — Owing to many causes my collec- 
tingin Co. Dublin last season was not as successful as I should have wished, 
most of my rambles being spoiled as far as entomolog}' was concerned, 
by bad weather, and ever3thing considered, insects were in my 
experience, not nearly so plentiful as in 1893. Amongst others the 
following species were secured in addition to those given in the Ii-ish 
Naturalist for September last. Very few of the Geodcphaga were met with, 
the only novelty was Patrobius assi/fiilis, Chaud., a local highland form 
of P. excavatus taken in a fir plantation, Tibradden, Dublin Mountains, 
being a very critical species, Dr. Sharp kindly verified the identification ; 
Dyschiriiis salinus appears to be not uncommon on the shore near Sutton, 
whilst Homaliiimripariuni was in great numbers undersea-weed in the same 
locality. Drotniiis nigriventiis, Portmarnock sand-hills, and in a decayed 
tree-stump, Howth ; Taphria nivalis^ Bray river, near Bray. The old 
quarries near Raheny that yielded Enochrus bicolor, etc., also produced 
three beetles new to me, Lathrobium terminatiim (with yellow spots at apex 
of elytra very obsolete, approaching var. iminaciilatti?)i, Fowler.) Qiiedius 
inaiirornfns and KhampJu(s flavicornis, the two former were taken in 
damp moss at edge of pools and are additions to the Dublin list. 
Agabus Sttirmii, Hydroporus erythrocephalusyf'iih. other common water-beetles 
were fished from the pools. The Portmarnock and Donabate districts 
were tried on more than one occasion. The sand hills lying between the 
latter locality and Malahide Point, are very productive ; here an un- 
common burying-beetle Nrrodes littoralis with Choleva grandicollis and 
other things were shaken out of a dead rabbit. Heliopathes gibbiis and 
Otiorrhynchus ovatus occur, and what seems to be a new record for Ireland 
in Apion onopordi, Kirby. At Portmarnock Orchestes salicis plentifully off 
dwarf Salix growing on the sand-hills, Corticariafiiscula^ Apion seniculuni,A. 
hiunidi, A. a:neiij)i, A. radiolus, A. nthiops and Sitones pxmcticollis ; some of 
these are not as yet included in our Dublin list. Acalles ptinmdes in moss 
from Bray Head. Baryfeithes sulcifrons, Howth. Hype^^a plantaginis, North 
Bull ; also a ver}' puzzling Anisotoma which Dr. Sharp considers to be a 



Notes, 79 

very large specimen oi A. dubia, previously recorded by Professor McNab 
from same locality. Otiorrhynchtis ligneus, Alophus triguttattis and 
Bradycelhts harpalimis were almost the only species taken during a day's 
collecting on the hill near Carrickmines. In an old pond overgrown 
with vegetation in the Santry Demense, Bagons alismatis and Poophagns 
sisymbrii occurred in numbers. The following species, though unrep- 
resented in the Dublin and Wicklow list of 1878, are apparently common 
in suitable places, i.e. — Ocypus ater (sea-shore), Qiiedhis setnicsneus (coast sand- 
hills), Cercyon flavipes, C. pyginceiis, Conosoma lividiiin, Philonthus piidlus 
(Dublin Mountains, etc.), Stemis ossium, S. nitidi us cuius, S. pallitarsus, S. 
piibescens, ScydmcBUus collatis, Enicmus transverstts, Corticaria fusaila, C 
elongata (Drumcondra), Ceuthorrynchtts inarginatus, C. pimctiger. 

Mr. G. lyow collected some Coleoptera at Dundrum including three 
uncommon species, i.e. — Omosita discoidea, TrophipJioyjis viercuralis and 
Scaphisoina boleii. In the autumn of 1893 I was fortunate in retaking two 
local insects, Liosoma ovatului/i, var. collaris, and Laf/iprosana concolor at 
Woodlands near Lucan, where the first Irish examples were collected 
some years ago by Dr. Power. I have also a specimen of Cholrua agilis, 
taken in a damp place at Tibradden in the September of the previous 
year. There are probably more noteworthy species in my collection 
still awaiting identification, and a few, although named, I should prefer 
to get verified before recording. 

J. N. Hai^berT, Dublin. 

Coleoptera from the North of Ireland.— That successful 
observer, Mr. R. Welch of Belfast, was kind enough to send some 
Coleoptera collected by him in various localities in the north of Ireland 
during the past season. The best thing amongst these was Cercyon 
aquatiais, Muls., taken in damp moss on Cave Hill near Belfast. It 
has not, I think, been previously noted from Ireland. He also took 
on Cave Hill the following species : — Hypera trilineatus, Barypeit/ies 
stdcifrous, and Niptus hololaicus. At PORTSAI^ON, Co. Donegal, Anchoinenus 
marginaius, Oliorrhynchtis atroapterus., Cneorrhiftus gei/iitiatus, Gastrophysa 
polygoni and Serrica brunnea. At Woodburn G1.EN, Co. Antrim, one 
specimen of the rather local Choleva agilis and Phccdon tumidulus. Near 
BEIvFAST, Alophus triguttatus, Barynotus nicc7-ens, Bruchus atomarius, Exo7nias 
areneiforfnis ; and in the People's Park near Belfast, Ccclainbus inipressopunc- 
tatus, Philhydrus niariiinius, Deronectes xii-pustulatus, and D. depressus. 

J. N. Hai^berT, Dublin. 

The Stridulation of Corixa, — The stridulation ot Corixa having 
been seldom remarked, I think it may be interesting to relate that nearly 
fifty years ago the late Dr. Robert Ball brought under the notice of the 
Zoological Section of the British Association at the Cambridge INIeeting, 

1845, the fact that Corixa striata produced loud sounds while immersed 
in water. Dr. Ball stated that the sounds, which had been heard by 
Miss M. Ball a few years previously, had since been heard both by Miss 
M. Ball and himself A very interesting and more detailed account of 
the observations is given in a note from the original observer and 
communicated by Dr. Ball to the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 

1846. Miss M. Ball noticed two distinct sounds, which agrees with INIrs. 
Thompson's account of the stridulation of a Corixa {Irish Naturalist, 
1894, p. 114). One of the sounds is probably due to the movement of the 
teeth on the feet as shown by Mr. G. H. Carpenter {Irish Naturalist, 
December, 1S94), but further observations seem necessary to arrive at a 
satisfactory explanation of the other sound, which Miss M. Ball states to 
be accompanied by a movement of the body from side to side. 

A. R. Nichols, Dublin. 

[I am very grateful to my friend Mr. Nichols for having discovered 
this early Irish observation on the stridulation of Corixa. Like Mrs. 
Thompson, and Dr. Schmidt-Schwedt, as quoted in my paper. Miss 



So The h'isJi Naturalist. 

Ball observed the motion of the front feet across the face to accompany 
the chirping ; she suggests that possibly the transverse ridges on the 
face have a part in producing the note. The edge of the face seems, 
however, more probably the part concerned, as it would be more easily 
reached by the feet than would the front. — G.H.C.] 



MOLLUSCS. 

Testacella haliotldea, F. Big., in Co. Dublin.— Mr. Burbidge 
recently discovered this species in one of the greenhouses of Trinity Col- 
lege Botanic Gardens. The difference in the shell between T. haliotidea 
and T. scuiuht/n is so slight that an anatomical examination is necessary 
for a diagnosis of the species. As I was able to convince myself, this 
specimen is undoubtedly T. haliotidea, so that we have in it an addition to 
the fauna of Go. Dublin. Hitherto this species had been known only 
from Youghal, Cork, and Bandon. 

R. F. SCHARFi^, Dublin. 



MAMMALS. 

Irish Rat (IVIus hibernicus Thomps.) at Lougrh Brickiand, 
Co. Down. — Having been told that black rats lived in some fields on 
the north margin of Lough Brickland, which is close to my glebe house, 
I offered a reward for one, but none turned up in the course of several 
years. However, to-da}-, 5th February, 1895, when some members of ni}' 
family were returning from skating on the above lough a black rat, a 
male, was found on the road near their reputed haunt. It was just dead 
and bore no marks of how it had lost its life. Having been brought to 
me, I now enclose it. 

H. W. Lett, 
Aghaderg, lyougbrickland. 

GEOLOGY. 

On Saturday evening, 12th January, Prof. G. A.J. Cole commenced his 
second course of geological lectures delivered under the auspices of the 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. In spite of exceptionally inclement 
weather there was a large attendance. We hear that the number of ap- 
plications for the practical class which is held after each lecture has been 
in excess of the available accommodation. 

Kitchen lYIiddens of Donegal. — I think Mr. Kinahan and Mr. 
Welch have not observed my first and second reports to the Royal Irish 
Academy on " Pre-historic Remains from the Sandhills of the Coast of 
Ireland," read T4th January, 1889, and i2tli January, 1891. In these I 
report pottery from pre-historic sites at Buncrana, Dunfanaghy, Bunbeg, y^ 
and Bundoran. I have since found pottery at Ballyness and Portsalon. ^ 

W. J. Knoavi.KS, Ballymena, 

Kitchen IVIIddens of Antrim.— Among the various remains from 
the pre historic sites of Co. Antrim I reported to the Royal Irish Academy 
in January, 1891, the finding of bones of the Great Auk. I have since 
fonnd some more bones of that bird, which leads me to believe that it 
was a native of the north of Ireland when the people of the stone age 
lived there. I have not seen any notice of this find in the Irish Naturalist. 

W. J. Knowlks, Ballymena. 

Glacial Deposits of Dublin and Bray. — In the Proc. Liverpool 
Geol. Soc. (Vol. vii., pp. 183-206), Mr. T. Mellard Reade has an interesting 
paper on observations on the glacial deposits around Dublin, made 
during a visit in the summer of 1893. The conclusions which Mr. Reade 
has come to regarding the origin of these beds have been already set 
forth in a paper which he contributed to the Irish Naturalist (1894, pp. 
1 17-121, 150-153). The paper is illustrated by some excellent sketches and 
diagrams. 



Irish Naturai^ist, Voi,. IV.j 



[Pirate 3. 





ADVENTITIOUS SHOOTS ON LIVERWORTS. 

I, 2. Metzgeria conjtigata. 3—7- Lejeunea serpyllifolia. 



Vol. IV. APRII., 1895. No. 4. 

ADVENTITIOUS BRANCHING IN I.IVKRWORTS. 

BY DAVID M*ARDI,K. 
(Read before the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, March 12th, 1895). 



Vkgktativk propagation amongst Hepatics is well demon- 
strated by some of the species which are of frequent occurrence 
in Ireland, and good examples are to be seen in plants of both 
frondose and foliose groups. Marchayitia and Luyiularia have 
special receptacles on the upper side of the frond or thallus 
called gemmae- cups, from the floor of which cellular papillae 
arise, which grow into flat or spherical stalked bodies, the 
gemmae. In Lunularia the rim of the cup is partial or 
crescentic. In Marchantia, on the contrary, it is complete. 
The escape of the gemmae is facilitated by club-shaped hairs 
which grow between them. The cell-walls of these hairs are 
mucilaginous, swell up and force the gemmae out of the 
receptacle, when, under favourable circumstances, each one is 
capable of producing a perfect plant. 

In the genus Blasia these receptacles are flask-shaped ; the 
gemmae, floating in a transparent mucilaginous substance, are 
often found at this early stage furnished with a single root-hair 
before emerging from their mucous receptacle. 

The smallest portion of the frond oi Marchantia or Ltcmdaria 
broken off and placed in a favourable position, will grow. I 
have divided a number of plants of "the rare Codojiia Ralfsii, 
Gott (frequently cultivated at Glasnevin) bypassing the sharp 
blade of a knife through them as they grew ; after a few days 
I gently moved these parts a little distance and added soil 
between them, watered and covered the pot in which they 
were growing with a bell-glass, and in no instance did they 
show any bad effects from this treatment, but grew on rapidly 
and bore fruit. 

In the genus Metsgeria adventitious shoots frequently grow 
from the margin and other parts of the frond, notably in 

A 



82 The Irish Naturalist. 

Metzgeria conjugata of which a small portion is shown magnified 
in Plate 3, fig. i, bearing copious adventitious shoots. In fig. 
2, secondary branching of an adventitious shoot is shown. 
The normal branches of the plant proceed from the pseudo- 
nerve. 

Through the genera Btasia and Pellia^^ have the transition 
to the foliose group, which is well shown in Pellia calyci^ia 
and the variable Riccardia multifida. These plants are found 
growing in large patches in damp places, increasing year after 
3^ear by innovations, or young growths. Often a patch is 
found crisped and apparently dead in dry weather, but on close 
examination a few green shoots will be observed nourished by 
the detritus of the mother-plant ; these shoots are sufficient to 
reproduce the species. 

Amongst the foliose group, in the genera Ka?itia and 
Ccphalozia we have examples of the gemmae borne on the apex 
of attenuated branches. In Cephalozia Fjnncisci and C. denu- 
data, they are copious and remarkable, of a bright yellow colour 
when mature ; in Kantia they form bright pellucid clusters of 
a brilliant green or yellow colour at the apex of the branches, 
leaves, &c. Dr. Spruce very aptly calls these bodies 
"propagula." Of leaf-gemmae we have familiar instances in 
Jitngermania incisa and J. veiitricosa and species in the genus 
Scapania. In Radiila compla7iata and Madotheca platyphylla 
we have examples of simple cells becoming detached as gemmae 
from the margin of the leaves. Dr. Spruce records' an instance 
of shoots or branchlets growing from the leaves oi Jurigermaiiia 
juniperina, which he collected at Cromaglown, Killarne}^ when 
on a visit to Dr. Taylor. This interesting notice is illustrated 
by a woodcut showing two leaves with a branchlet on 
each. 

In his exhaustive work on the Hepaticae of the Amazon and 
Andes, Dr. Spruce notices the disintegration of the marginal 
cells in the genus Plagiochila ; the loosened cells hang awhile 
in little masses, then fall away, and are dispersed, some to 
renew their growth as distinct individuals. Sir William 
Hooker in his grand work on the British j2cngcrma7ii(B mentions 
a few species, now in the genus Lejeimea, on which he found 
gemmae, and these appeared to be produced on their stems. 



^ Phytologist, vol, ii., 1845, p. 85. 



A dven titious Branching in L iverworts. 83. 

lyast year I collected Lejeunea serpyllifolia in Mr. Hickson's 
wood at lyispoll near Auniscaul, Co. Kerry, and when exaniin- 
ingthe plant on the table of a dissecting microscope, I was struck 
with the unusual and abnormal branching of one of the 
specimens, and I proceeded to ascertain the cause of it. From 
copious material, I found that these shoots or branchlets came 
from all sides of the stem and elsewhere. Figure 3 represents 
a portion of the stem and attached leaf-lobule, with young 
shoots arising from each. The leaves of the plant exhibited 
still more remarkable examples of adventitious shoots. Figure 
4 shows the first stage of growth. It is from a portion of a 
leaf-margin highly magnified, and shows these shoots to be 
outgrowths of a simple cell. I noticed that the cells in these 
proliferous plants were more than usually chlorophylliferous. 
Figure 5 shows a further stage of development. Figure 6 
shows a leaf of Lejeunea serpyllifolia with six adventitious 
shoots, in some of which the leaves are well marked. Figure 
7 shows further development of a leaf-shoot with three leaves 
and two perfectly formed stipules, and, at the base of the stem 
a couple of root-hairs. The contents of the cells in the old leaf 
have disappeared, the walls near the attachment of the plantlet 
are beginning to disintegrate, and very shortly it would become 
independent from the mother-plant. 

The delegation of rooting apparatus called the flagellae to 
leafy branchlets, which occurs in some liverworts, is 
remarkable. These flagellae enable the plants to fix them- 
selves firmly where they grow, and assist them to resist 
drought or to start off on a separate existence and continue 
the life of the parent plant. That the reproduction of the 
species of Lejeimea by adventitious shoots is an unusual 
occurrence amongst those which grow in Ireland, there 
can be no doubt. I have examined .many specimens from all 
parts of the country during a number of 3^ears, and have not pre- 
viously found the vegetative budding in Lejeunea as now 
described. 

This mode of reproduction is important in a marked degree, 
as occurring in a genus of which we have tropical and sub- 
tropical species growing in Ireland, and is favourable to the 
views held by my late excellent friend, Dr. Spruce, in his 
treatise on an Irish Lejetmea^ : — " No existing agency is 

1 "On Lejeunea Holtii from Killarney." jottrnal of Bot., vol. xxv., 1887 
p. 72. 

A 2 



$4 The Irish Naturalist, 

capable of transporting the germs of our hepatics of tropical 
type, from the torrid zone to Britain, and I venture to suppose 
that their existence at Killarney dates from the remote 
period when the vegetation of the whole northern hemisphere 
partook of a tropical character." 

My own recent discovery of Radula vohita by the shores of 
I,ough Cultra in the County Cavan, remote enough from 
Killarney, its only other Irish habitat, further strengthens the 
opinion held by this gifted observer. My specimens received 
a searching examination at the hands of Mr. M. B. Slater, 
F.i,.s. The late Professor lyindberg considers that the 
Killarney plant is identical with specimens of Radida 
Xalapensis, a native of Mexico (New Granada), also found at 
Tullulah Falls, Georgia, United States. The late Dr. D. 
Moore in his excellent work on the Irish Hepaticse^ agrees 
with lyindberg and calls the plant Radula Xalape7isis. 

EXPI^ANATION OF Pl,ATE 3. 

Fig. I. Metzgeria conjugata, with adventitious shoots, x 150. 

Fig. 2. Metzgeria conjugata, showing adventitious shoots with secondary 
branching, x 150. 

Fig. 3. Lejetmea serpyllifolia^ portion of stem and attached leaf-lobule with 
young shoots, x 250. 

Fig. 4. Lejmnea serpyUifolia, portion of leaf-margin showing first stage in 
growth of shoot, x 700. 

Fig. 5. Lejetmea serpyllifolia, further stage of growth, x 750. 

Fig. 6. Lejeunea serpyllifolia, leaf with six adventitious shoots, x 250. 

Fig. 7. Lejeiinea serpyllijolia^ leaf shoot with leaves, stipules, and root 
hairs, x 400. 



^ Royal Irish Academy Proc. (2) Vol. ii., 1876. 



t 85 ] 

jm 

IRISH MAMMAI.S. 

BY G. E;. H. BARRBTl'-HAMII.TON, B.A. 



{Concluded /rom page 72). 



To the synonyms of the Otter Mr. I^ydekker^ might have 
added Lutra Roensis, a name given by Ogilby to the Irish 
Otter, chiefly on account of its beautiful dark fur. Some other 
IrivSh mammals have, at one time or other, been described as 
distinct species, e.g., the lycsser Shrew, as Sorex hibernicuSy by 
Jenyns,^ the Hare and the Rat, but the two latter are mentioned 
by Mr. I^ydekker. These names are of at least sufficient 
interest to Irish naturalists to deserve a passing notice. 
Another point not touched upon by Mr. lyydekker in regard 
to the Otter is its weight. In stating also that the female 
gives birth to her young '' in the month of April or March " he 
appears to have overlooked a paper, written by Mr. T. 
Southwell, 4 wherein the writer endeavours to show that in 
England the Otter almost invariably breeds in winter, but this 
does not seem to apply so well to Ireland, where young Otters 
have been met with in most of the summer months^ As far 
as we are aware there is at present only one recognised pack 
of Otter Hounds in Ireland, that of Mr. W. C. Yates, who 
hunts parts of the Counties of Wexford and Wicklow, where 
Otters are very plentiful. 

The last of the terrestrial carnivora treated of by Mr. 
lyydekker is the Bear, Ursus arctos, which, though said to have 
been exterminated in Great Britain in the historical period, 
does not appear to have survived so long in Ireland.^ 

Of the marine carnivora (pp. 142-164) the undoubtedly Irish 
species are the Great Grey Seal {Halichoerus grypus) and the 
Common Seal {Phoca vitulind). No other species can as yet 
with certainty be admitted to our list of mammals, although it 

^ Allen's Naturalists' Library, edited by R. Bowdler Sharp, LJ^.D., 
F.Iv.S., etc. ; A Handbook to the British lYIammalia, by R. 

Lydekker, B.A., F.R.S., V.P.G.S., etc., London ; W. H. Allen & Co., 
Limited, 13, Waterloo-place, S.W., 1895. Price 6s. 

^ P.Z.S., 1834, iii. ^ Annals of Nat. History, 1838. 

* Zoologist, 1888, p. 248. ^ Irish Sportsman, July 9th and 30th, 1892. 

6 V. Ball, Sci. Trans. Royal Dublin Society (2), vol. iii., pp. 334-5. 



86 The Irish Naturalist. 

is possible that the Harp Seal {P. grcenlandicd) and the 
Hooded Seal {Cystophora cristaia) have occurred (pages 158 
and 160). 

Pages 164 to 232 of Mr. Lydekker's work are devoted to the 

important order of the Rodentia, first among which we come 

to the Squirrel {Sciu7'tis imlgaris), and here we miss an 

allusion to Mr. R. M. Barrington's paper on the distribution of 

the Squirrel in Ireland,' an important paper, which should 

not have been passed over, though, since it was written, 

Squirrels, which have been introduced in many parts of the 

country, have considerably increased their range. On the 

changes of the colour of the Squirrel at different times of the 

year, Mr. L3^dekker quotes Macgillivray and Bell. A series of 

skins all collected at the same place and for each month of 

the year shows us, how^ever, that we cannot, like the former 

naturalist, lay down any fixed rule as to the exact time of 

year when the changes will occur. Probably the Squirrel 

moults twice in the year — roughly speaking, in spring and 

autumn, and before each moult the old coat becomes thin and 

faded, but we can lay down no special time for such change to 

take place — indeed some vSpecimens received during the late 

frost were already losing their winter coat. It follows from 

the amount of individual variation shown that the light 

cream-coloured tail may be observed at almost all times of the 

year, and this we have actually found to be the case. The 

statements of Bell- notwithstanding, w^e have notes of having 

seen Squirrels with cream-coloured tails in March, May, June, 

July, August, and December. The assertion that " the 

female produces three or four young ones about mid-summer" 

appears to have been adopted from Bell,^ and we must refer 

our readers to notes^ of newly-born Squirrels found in the 

second week of February, and in March. We ourselves have 

seen quite young and blind Squirrels taken from the nest on 

August 14th, 1891, in Ireland — a fact w^hich, perhaps, indicates 

the birth of two lots of 3^oung in the }'ear. 

Passing over the Beaver, the Dor-mouse, and the Harvest- 
mouse, which species do not appear to have ever occurred in 



^ Proc. R.I. A , n.s. vol. ii., 1880. 

2 " Hist, of British Quadrupeds," (Ed. ii.), p. 279. 

8 Op. cit. p. 278. * Field, March 6th, 1886. Zoologist, March, 1891. 



Irish Mani77ials. 87 

Ireland, we come to the L,ong- tailed Field-mouse {Mus 
sylvaticus), which Mr. Lydekker not inappropriately calls the 
Wood-mouse, to distinguish it from the Voles, which are 
usually known as "Field-mice." Among the characters 
of this species which distinguish it from the House-mouse are 
the mammae, which number six, as opposed to ten in M2is 
viusculus. The tail of this species is often quite as long as, or 
longer than, the head and body, and the skull is distinguish- 
able from that of the House-mouse. 

Mr. I^ydekker includes in his work a supposed species of 
Mouse, recently added to the British list by Mr. W. K. 
De Winton,' viz., the Yellow-necked Mouse {Mus flavicollis of 
Melchior). Although we do not wish to judge too hastily of 
Mr. De Winton's discovery, we are inclined to think that this 
supposed species is merely a very fine and handsome variety ^of 
M. sylvaticus, and we question Mr. I^ydekker's wisdom in 
hastening to include it in the British list. Mr. De Winton's 
characters laid down for this Mouse seem to us to be very 
insufficient, considering that it occurs everywhere with AIus 
sylvaticus ; although the case might, we admit, be different 
were the geographical area inhabited by Mus flavicollis clearly 
defined. We are indebted to Mr. De Winton for kindly per- 
mitting us to examine his fine series, and we have carefully 
compared them with those of specimens in our own collection, 
and we confess that we cannot see where Mus sylvaticus ends 
and M, flavicollis begins. 

The Black Rat {Mus rattus), says Mr. lyydekker, quoting from 
Mr. J. K- Harting, "must now be regarded as very rare" in 
Ireland. In fact it may be said to be confined entirely to the 
seaport towns, the Black Rats which are recorded from inland 
localities having invariably in our experience proved to be 
examples of Thompson's M21S hibernicus. We have seen 
specimens of the true Black Rat taken in recent years at 
Waterford and Belfast, but its presence at these towns is by 
no means constant, and appears to be entirely due to its having 
been brought there, sometimes in numbers, by foreign ships. 
The variety known as Mus Alexafidrifius has been taken in 
a corn ship at Belfast, and a specimen is in the Museum of that 
city.= As regards the introdiiction of the Black Rat into 



1 Zoologist, Dec, 1894, p. 441. * Irish Sportsman^ Dec. 19th, 1891. 



88 The Irish Naturalist. 

Britain from the Continent, which, we are told, " appears to be 
evident from the circumstance that it is not mentioned as 
occurring here previous to the fifteenth century, coupled with 
the fact that its remains are unknown in English cavern 
deposits," we very much doubt the application of this state- 
ment to Ireland, since Rats are certainly mentioned in Irish 
literature of much older date than the fifteenth century. 
Those who are curious on this subject would do well to con- 
sult Mr. David Comj^n's ''Irish Illustrations to Shakespeare " 
(p. 2i), recently published at the Ficemafi's Ofiice, in Dublin, 
where will be found much interesting information on this 
matter, as well as on the ancient Irish custom of rhyming 
Rats to death. ' The whole subject takes up more space than 
is at our disposal if gone into thoroughly, and we must con- 
tent ourselves with merely mentioning that Rats are alluded to 
by Giraldus Cambrensis' as having existed in Ireland in the 
6th century.^ Other allusions in Irish literature seem to show 
the existence of the common House-mouse in Ireland in very 
early times, and the date of its introduction, if it was 
introduced, is certainly shrouded in mystery. 

The Rat described by William Thompson in 1837 as Mus 
hibernicus is rightly placed by Mr. Lydekker under Mus 
decumanus as a variety of that species. Since the paper'*, 
in which that conclusion was finally come to, was written, we 
have been able to amass a great deal of additional information, 
all of which strengthens the position there taken up. 
Specimens have been examined which were intermediate in 
coloration between Mus hibernicus and Mus deciwiajiuSy and 
an interesting family of rats which was brought to our notice 
through the kindness of Mr. D. R. Pack Beresford, of 
Bagnalstown, Co. Carlow, consisted of an old female Mus 
decumanus and ten young ones, eight of which were Mus 
decumanus and two Mus hibernicus (one of the latter having the 
typical white breast-spot). In addition to the specimens 
alluded to in the above paper, we have now examined 
specimens from the following additional Irish counties, viz. : 



^ Vide, " As you Like it." Act iii., Sc, 2. 
'^ Top. D. Z., c. 6, and in other places. 

8 Vide also "The Proceedings of the Great Institute," published in 
i860 by the Ossianic Society. 
* Zoologist^ 1891, p. I. 



Irish Mavimals. ^9 

— Monaghan, Wicklow, and Tipperary. Its occurrence in 
England has also been proved in I^undy Island' ; in Surrey^ 
at Norwich^ ; almost certainly at I^ittle Whelnetham, in 
Suffolk-*, and quite recently at Cambridge. In Scotland it 
has occurred in North Uist^ 

Passing over the Voles (pp. 201-219), which do not occur in 
Ireland, we come to the Rabbits and Hares, and here Mr. 
I^ydekker must be commended for his support of a change in 
nomenclature, which, though certain to prove inconvenient 
at first to those who have used the older names, is undoubtedly 
a right one, viz. : — Lepus europcsus, Pallas, for the Common 
Hare of England, instead of Lepus timidus of many authors, 
and Lepus timidus, lyinnseus (formerly applied wrongly to the 
preceding species) instead of Lepus variabilis, Pallas, for the 
Mountain Hare (the common Hare of Ireland) the reasons for 
which are given on page 222. As Mr. I^ydekker has given 
an introduced species such as the Fallow-deer a place among 
our Irish mammals, he might have alluded to the fact that 
English Hares have more than once been introduced into 
Ireland, though we are not aware that any of the introductions 
have as yet proved a success. The introduced species is said 
to keep apart from the Irish Hare and to make no attempt 
to interbreed with it ; and in most of the instances which have 
come under our notice it has died out unless protected. Some 
instances of the introduction of English Hares into Ireland 
will be found collected^ where will also be found other notes 
on the Irish Hare, but the list is by no means perfect, and we 
possess notes of several other instances. Irish Hares have 
several times been introduced into Great Britain and have 
done well, notably at Vaynol, in North Wales^ and in Islay, 
off Argyleshire% where they are stated to have been dis- 
tinguishable from the Scotch Hare." 



^ Irish NaUiralist, September, 1892. 

^ Zoologist, February, 1893, p. 103. 

8 Described as hybrids in Zoologist, Sept., 1889. 

* Field, Jan. 24, 1891. 

^ Annals of Scottish Natural History^ April, 1891, p. 134. 

'° Irish Sportsman, September 19, 1891. 

' Field, August I, 1 891. 

^ Thompson's " Natural History of Ireland ". 

A3 



90 The Irish Naturalist. 

The Mountain Hare {Lepus tiviidus, Linn.) comes in for a 
very moderatel}^ liberal treatment at Mr. Lj^dekker's hands, 
and we could add considerably to his account of this species 
did space permit us. We must, however, be content to point 
out a few things which seem to have escaped Mr. Lydekker's 
attention. Thus, there is no allusion to the weight of this 
animal, which, according to Mr. J. E. Harting,^ in Scotland 
averages " probably between 5 lbs. and 6 lbs. ; the heaviest I 
have noticed weighed 7J lbs." In the South of Ireland we 
have found the average weight of the hares to agree very much 
with the above, but we have weighed hares in January (does) 
which turned the scale at 9 lbs. and ()\ lbs. Doubtless the fact 
that they were lowland hares had something to do with it. 
Although we have weighed hares which were heavier than 
these, we cannot at this moment find the note we made of it. 
It is certainly wrong to say of this Hare, as far as concerns 
Ireland at least, that ** instead of making a ' regular form' it 
skulks among stones or in the clefts of rocks, or hides among 
the heather or fern. " In the lowlands at least of Ireland this 
Hare makes a regular form, and in this and some other 
respects seems to have almost entirely adopted the habits of 
the English Hare. 

The date of the supposed introduction of the Rabbit into 
Ireland seems to be completely a matter of conjecture, but 
the animal would appear to have been well established during 
all the historical period. In 1741 Rabbit's fur was one of the 
exports of the city of Cork."" As regards the weight of wild 
Rabbits (a point not touched upon by Mr. Lydekker), we may 
refer to a note by Mr. Harting.^ In Irish Rabbits there does 
not seem to be any difference in weight from that of those 
killed in England. 

That the Red-deer, now confined as a wild animal to Kerry, 
was once widely distributed over Ireland, is proved by the 
numerous discoveries of its bones over the island, and by the 
historical allusions. An interesting paper on this species 
appeared in 1882, written by Mr. R. J. Ussher.'* This is the 



^ Field, September 5, 1891. ^Journal Cork Arch. Soc, 1893, p. 392. 

^ Field, Dec. 3, 1892. ^ Zoologist, March, 1882. 



Irish Mammals. 91 

only species of Deer now found in a wild state in Ireland, 
the Reindeer being long extinct, and the Fallow-deer an 
introduced species. 

Of the Cetaceans, or Whales, Dolphins, and their allies (pp. 
257 to 298) Mr. Lydekker has not very much to say, and he 
has evaded the trouble of looking up accounts of the habits 
and life-history of these interesting mammals by the use of 
sentences such as the following (applied in this case to the 
Sperm Whale (p. 276), but similar sentences will be found on 
pages 259, 261, 265) ; — '* In the case of such a casual visitor to 
our shores it will be unnecessary to say anything about 
habits" ! Time will not permit us to go through the whole 
list of Irish Cetaceans in detail, and we must be content with 
regretting that we found no allusions in Mr. Lydekker's book 
to several recent records of the occurrences of Cetaceans on 
the Irish coast, such as of the Hump-backed Whale {Megaptera 
boops) in Sligo' ; of Sibbald's Rorqual {Balcsnoptera Sibbaldt) 
in Wexford^ these two examples being the first and only 
one of their species which have been recorded from Ireland ; 
of the Lesser Rorqual {B. rostrata) in Kerry^ ; of the Sperm 
Whale {Physeter macrocephahcs) in Mayo'^ ; of the Bottle-nose 
{Hyperoodon rostrafus) in Wexford"^ ; and of the White-sided 
Dolphin at Portrush^ and Co. Wexford^ 

Far the best part of this book is the account of the ancient 
Mammals of Britain (pp. 298 to 328), but this, as we learn 
from a foot-note, is not new, having originally appeared in 
Knoivledge. In connection with the Gigantic Irish Deer, Mr. 
I^ydekker might have alluded to the evidence in favour of the 
view that this animal was contemporaneous with man as 
afforded by the discovery by Mr. R. J. Ussher of its long bones, 
split as though for the extraction of marrow, in connection 
with stone implements in Ballynamintra Cave, Co. Waterford.^ 

In conclusion, we regret that we cannot recommend Mr. 
lyydekker's book as one which may take the place of Bell's 



1 Zoologist, May, 1883, p. 188. - Zoologist, 1891, pp. 215 and 306. 

3 Irish Sportsman, Dec. 19, 1891. * Zoologist, 1890, p. 72. 

5 Zoologist (loc. cit.) 6 Zoologist, 1876, p. 5007. 

' Zoologist, 1890, p. 3S4. 8 S(i. Trans. R.D.S. (2), vol- iii., pp. 337-8. 



92 The Irish Naturalist. 

'* British Quadrupeds," a worthy successor of which has yet 
to be written. One thing we can commend him for is his 
refusal to introduce into his work the S co77iber sco77iber ^rinci^XQ, 
whereby, according to Dr. Bowdler Sharpe (vide Preface) " the 
correct title of the Badger should be Meles vieles (ly.) ; of the 
Otter, Ltctra lutra (ly.) ; of the Roe-deer, Capreolus capreolus 
(L-) ; of the common Porpoise Phoccz7ia phoccc7ia (ly.), and of 
the Killer, Orca orca (I..) " ! 



NOTES ON THE IRISH CAVES. 

BY R. J. USSHER, J. P. 



Referring to Dr. Scharffs paper on Irish Caves in the Irish 
Naturalist for March (p. 57), I am delighted that he has called 
attention to this subject, for there is no reason why this 
country, so rich in limestone, should not contain hoards of 
remains of extinct animals in its cavern-deposits like other 
countries, and like the two caves in this district (Dungarvan 
and Blackwater) at Shandon and Ballynamintra, whose animal 
remains have been reported on.' Dr. ScharfPs object in com- 
mencing a list of caves is evidently with a view to future 
searches in them for similar finds. It is well therefore to 
bear in mind that limestone caves alone have the property of 
preserving animal relics, and that it is vain to search caves in 
other rocks for them. Nor are all limestone caves by any 
means suitable places. Those that are large and open, such 
as are most likely to be known and visited, are as a rule un- 
promising, as well as those which contain a quantity of soft, 
wet cave-earth, for there the drip is too copious and rapid to 
form stalagmite. 

Nor again, can we hope for results from caves which, like 
those near Mitchelstown, have been until recently inaccessible 
from without, however intricate and extensive they may be. 

* Trans. RL Irish Academy^ vol. xxvi., part v., pp. 187-230, 



Notes 071 the Irish Caves. 93 

The lucky cave is one which having in past ages been open, 
and having become the resort of animals or primeval men, 
has received their remains as its deposits were being formed, 
and having entombed them beneath a stalagmite floor which 
formed over them, has remained undisturbed until the present 
time. 

Such a cave may now be wholly or partially choked. 
Thus when I discovered the Ballynamintra Cave and com- 
menced to open it with Professor I^eith Adams it was filled to 
within six inches of its roof with the strata which represented 
the several chapters in its history. It was then difficult to 
realize that we had found an orifice of any importance. I have 
recently had the pleasure of rearranging, with the permission 
of Dr. Ball, the collections from this cave in their new case in 
the annexe of the Science and Art Museum, Dublin. But it 
contains only a fragment of our pre-historic records. Bone- 
caves should be brought to light north, south, east, and west 
in Ireland. Not only caves but pitfalls (pits, and vertical 
fissures in limestone) may contain stores of bones of extinct 
animals. A series of such caves were explored by Professor 
Leith Adams in Malta and yielded exuviae of very specialized 
animals, e.g., the Pigmy Elephant. 

In many cases the roofs of our caves and rock-shelters have 
been quarried away, and the fossiliferous strata have probably 
been left undisturbed beneath the quarry rubbish. I have 
heard of quarry men saying ** When we came to the dirt we 
stopped," such dirt as would repay the most careful and 
laborious examination. 

It does not follow from what I have said that the presence 
of stalagmite is essential to the preservation of bones. The 
remains of Irish Klk in the refuse-heap of the early hunters at 
Ballynamintra were not covered with stalagmite, but were in 
limestone soil dry enough to prevent the bones from decom- 
posing. Still, a floor of stalagmite is the greatest safeguard to 
fossil bones beneath it, not only preserving them beautifully, 
but affording a guarantee that the newest object beneath it is 
more ancient than the oldest object above it. 

In proceeding to dig out such deposits, the most careful 
records must be kept of the exact position of each object, for 
unless the sequence of events is recorded, the history of the 
cave is broken up like the mixed letters in a spelling game, 

▲ 4 



94 ^^^^ Irish Naturalist. 

while the whole value of the fossils in most cases depends on 
the connection in which thej- are found and the objects with 
which they are associated. Accordingly, when a cave rich in 
suitable deposits is found, competent aid should be obtained 
in the removal of its contents. 

In the Report on the remains referred to above^ the follow- 
ing caves, not referred to by Dr. ScharfF, are mentioned : — 

Co. Waterford. 

1. (i, Ordnance Sheet 31). An additional cave at Shandon, which 
proves to be very extensive, and by no means quarried away, as believed 
when the above paper was written. 

2. (10, Sheet 30) Coolanav Cave, named Ooanagoloor, a vast cavern. 

3. (12, Sheet 30), Kilgreany Cave, at Mrs. Williams's farm. 

4. (16, Sheet 30), Bridgequarter, a cave north of Condon's house. 

5. (20, Sheet 30) Bridgequarter, cave in Whitechurch House Demesne. 
6-9. (23-26, Sheet 29), Bewley, four caves near the Dun of Bewley. 

Particulars, with a map showing the position of these caves, 

is given in the above paper, and the numbers in brackets 

denote the several caves on that map. Several others are 

mentioned but need not be quoted in connection with an 

enquiry into the number and position of caves likely to yield 

a subterranean terrestrial fauna or the remains of extinct 

animals. 

10. (Sheet 30) Ballynamintra Middle. In the rock called Carrigmurrish 
I discovered an extensive system of cave-galleries since the above report 
was written. The letter " B " on the map would correspond with the 
position of this spot. 



Cave at Ballymote, Co. Sllg-o.— With reference to my note on the 
Irish Caves in last month's Irish NatiiraUst, Dr. V. Ball mentioned to me 
that Mr. Somerset Ward had found a portion of a Bear's skull in a cave 
near Ballymote, County Sligo, in 18S7. 

R. F. SCHARFF, Dublin. 

Additional Irish Caves. — Having read Dr. Scharff's paper in the 
Irish Naturalist for March, I send the names of one or two not mentioned 
in his list : — 

Co. Cork. Anua-Clogh, Mallow, Archceologia, 1806. Carrigacrump, near 
Cloyne, stated in Windele's " Cork " to be of great interest, Pooleen 
Caves, four miles west of Berehaven, also mentioned in Windele's 
"Cork." 

Co. Kerry. Ballybunion. — W. Ainsworth, Dublin, 1834. 

James Coi^Eman, Southampton. 

^ Explorations in the Bone Cave of Ballynamintra, near Cappagh, Co. 
Waterford, by Leith Adams, G. H. Kinahan, and R. J. Ussher. Trans, 
Royal Dublin Society (2), vol. i. 1881, pp. 177-226. 



[ 95 ] 

REPORT ON INSECTS COIvI^ECTED AT COOIvMORE, 

CO. DONEGAI,, 

FOR THE ROYAI, IRISH ACADKMY FI,ORA AND FAUNA 

COMMITTKE, JUI.Y, 1894. 
BY RKV. W. F. JOHNSON, M.A., F.EJ.S. 



As I described Cool more and the surrounding district in my 
last report,' I need not repeat the description. This year I 
made expeditions to some neighbouring localities, those 
visited being Bruckless, Coxtown, Mervagh, and Templenew. 
Bruckless is on the opposite side of the bay to Coolmore and 
about four miles from Killybegs. The shore there is very 
different from that at Coolmore, the sand being replaced by 
coarse gravel and large boulders. It did not prove a very 
productive locality, though I obtained some nice specimens 
there. Coxtown is near the town of Donegal. I spent two 
afternoons there, and the grounds produced some interesting 
specimens, chiefly by beating Oak trees. Mervagh is near 
Ballintra on the lower course of the river that flows through 
that town. I was particularly anxious to visit it, as I had, last 
year, taken Siagara minutissima there, and wished to obtain 
more. My kind friend, the Rev. John Hamilton, of Coolmore, 
drove Mrs. Johnson and myself over to the spot. The afternoon 
turned out wet ; however being equipped with waterproofs 
we faced the weather, and were rewarded by capturing a large 
number of Siagara as well as some other insects. The 
Siagara were confined to one spot at the edge of the river, 
and seemed to rest on the mud at the bottom. Templenew 
is about two miles from Beleek on the River Erne. On a 
former occasion I had tried the river and found it barren of 
insects, so I turned my attention ta other parts, and in a pond 
took Donacia crassipes and D. versicolorea. 

On the day after my arrival at Coolmore the beach was 
strewn with numbers of insects. Where these came from I 
cannot tell, though it seemed most probable that they came 
from the opposite side of the bay, having been blown across 
by the strong north-west wind which prevailed at the time. 

I sugared diligently, but it was not a success, and melanic 
forms were entirely absent. I<ast year matters were quite the 
reverse, sugar was most productive, and dark forms abounded. 

* Irish Nat.f vol, iii., 1894, p. 83. 



96 The Irish Naturalist. 

In spite, however, of these drawbacks, I obtained a goodly 
number of Lepidoptera, among them some *' micros," most of 
which I picked up on a patch of meadow on the verge of the 
cliflf. 

The total number of insects collected amounted to 353 
species, exclusive of some unidentified Diptera, &c. They 

comprise — 

Coleoptera, 220 species ; new to district, 126 species. 

Hemiptera, 22 „ „ 14 „ 

Hymenoptera, 4 „ „ 2 „ 

Lepidoptera, 87 „ „ 60 „ 

Neuroptera, 18 „ „ 13 „ 

Orthoptera, 2 ,, 

I am indebted to Dr. D. Sharp, Mr. C. G. Barrett, Mr. K. 
Saunders, and Mr. J. Edwards for kind assistance in identifying 
insects with which I was not acquainted. 

I subjoin a detailed list, with notes, of those insects which 
are now recorded from the district for the first time. It will 
be seen that several are new to Ireland. 



COLEOPTERA. 
Carabldds. 

Nebi*Ia brevlcollls, F.— Coolmore. 

Pelophila boreal !s, Payk. — Coolmore, washed up on the beach. 

Loriccra pilicornis, F. — Coolmore. 

Clivina fossor, L. — Bruckless. 

Dyschirius impunctipennlSp Daws. — Coolmore, on the sandy 
beach in company with D. politus. It does not appear to have been 
previously recorded from Ireland, and is local in England and Scotland. 

Bradycellus verbasci, Duft. — Coolmore. 

Harpalus aeneus, F, — Coolmore, not at all as plentiful as on the 
east coast. 

H. latus, L. — Coolmore. 

Ptcrostlchus versicolor, Sturm. — Coolmore, numbers washed up 
on beach. 

Pt. vernalls, Gyll.— Coolmore, Bruckless. 

Amara plebela, Gyll. — Coolmore. 

Bembidium lam pros, Herbst.— Bruckless, Coxtown. 

B. aeneum, Germ. — Coolmore. 

Hallplldae. 
Hallplus obllquus, F. \ 

H. fulvus, F. f J ^j^g j^^gj. ^^ Mervagh. 

H. fluvlatllls, Aube. j ^^ 

H. lineatocollis, Marsh. ) 

Dytiscidae. 

Coelatnbus inaequalls, F.— Coolmore. I was unable to find either 
C. ix-lineatus or C vnpressopundatus in the locality in which they abounded 
last year, probably owing to the difference of the two seasons. 

Agabus paludosus, F. — Coolmore, Templenew. 

A. unguicularls, Thorns. 

Ilybius fuliglnosus, F. [ Coolmore. 

Rhantus blstriatus, Berg. 

Dytiscus punctulatus, F. 



Report on Insects collected at Coolmore, Co. Donegal. 97 

Hydrophilidae. 
Laccobfus alutaceus, Thorns.— Templenew. 
L. faipunctatus, F.— Coolmore. 
Limnebius truncatellus, Thorns.— Templenew. 
Cercyon depressus, Steph.— Coolmore, 
C. haemorrhoidalis, Herbst.— Templenew. 
C. unipunctatus, I^.— Coolmore. 

Staphylinidds. 

Aleochara nitida, Grav.J ^ , 
V. billneata, Gyll. \ Coolmore. 

MfcroiTlossa nidicola, Fairm.- -Coolmore, in nests of Sand-martin. 
The only other Irish record is Killiney (M'Nab). 

Homalota currax, Kr.— Coolmore. The only other Irish record is 
Powerscourt, Co. Wicklow, in shingle (G. C. Champion). 
H. eIong:atuIa, Grav.) ^ , 
H. sordida, Marsh \ Coolmore. 

Gnypeta labilis, Er.— Coolmore. An addition to the Irish list. 
Tachyporus nltidicollis, Steph.— Coolmore, Bruckless. 
T. solutusy Br.— Coolmore, Bruckless. 
T. Xirwwweiws, F. — Coolmore. 

IVIycetoporus longrulus, Mann. — Coolmore. 

Leistotrophus murinus, L. — Bruckless, a single specimen. 

Ocypus cuprcus, Rossi. — Bruckless. 

Philonthus varius, Gyll. — Coolmore. 

Ph. albipes, Grav. — Bruckless. Is not previously recorded from 

eland. 

Ph. sordldus, Grav. — Coolmore. 

Ph. quisquiliarius, Gyll. \ Coolmore. 

Xantholinus ochraccus, Gyll. j 

X. punctulatus, Payk. — Coolmore, Bruckless. 

Othius laeviusculus, Steph. \ 

Lathrobium multipunctatum, Grav. J Coolmore. 

Stilicus affinls, Er. ) 

Stenus fornicatus, Steph. — Coolmore, new to the Irish list, appears 
to be a southern species in England. 

Bledius crraticus, Er. — Coolmore, a very large colony occurred 
among the sandhills. This is an addition to the Irish list. Rare in 
England. 

Oxytclus laqucatus, Marsh— Coolmore. 

Omalium Allardi, Fairm. — Coolmore, also recorded from Waterford 
(Dr. Power) and Armagh. 

IVlegarthrus dcprcssus, Lac— Coolmore. 

Histeridds. 

Hlstci* ncglcctus, Germ. j 

Saprlnus nitidulus, Payk. > Coolmore, in carrion. 

S. aeneus, F. ) 

Cocclnellldae. 

Cocclnclla vM-punctata, L.) Coolmore. 
C. xxii-punctata, L. i 

Hyperaspis reppensis, Herbst.— Coolmore, a few specimens 
washed up on the beach. It has not been previously recorded from 
Ireland. 

Nltidulidas. 

Brachypterus pubescens, Er.— Bruckless. 
Bi urtlcae, F. — Coolmore. 



9^ The Irish Naturalist. 

Lathrldlldse. 
Cononlmus nodlfer, Westw. > ^ i 
Enicmus transvcrsus, 01. \ *-oolmore. 

Cryptophagrldae. 

Cryptophagus scanicus, L., v. patruells, Sturm. ) ^ , 
IVIIcratnDe vlni, Panz. j Loolmore. 

Byrrhldae. 
ByiThus fasclatus, F.) ^ , ^1,1.1, 

Cytilus varius, F. \ Coolmore, on the beach. 

Scarabaeldaei 
Aphodlus fossor, L.— Bruckless. 
A, rufesccns, F. — Coolmore. 

A, fCBtlduSy F. — Coolmore. The only other record is Bellurgan, Co. 
Louth. 
A. nitldulus, F. — Coolmore. I have also taken it at Greenore. 
A. punctato-sulcatus, Stm. — Coolmore, Bruckless. 
Serica brunnea, L. > r^^i^^^^o 

iviclolontha vulgaris, F.]" Coolmore. 

Phyllopertha horticola, L.— Coolmore, a number on the beach. 

Elateridae. 

Lacon murinus, L.— Coolmore, a large number washed up on the 
beach ; and I also took it on Amuiophila on the sandhills. 

Cryptohypnus quad riguttatus, Lap. — Bruckless. I took a good 
many under stones on the shore. I have also taken it at Ardara, and it is 
recorded from Dublin and Killiney. 

Attious hsemorrhoidalis, F. — Coolmore. 

Adrastus limbatus, F. — Coolmore, Coxtown. 

Agrfotes lineatus, L- ) 

Dolopius marginatus, L. [ Coolmore. 

Corymbitcscuprcus, F. ) 

C. tessulatus, F. — Coolmore, washed up on the beach in some num- 
bers. The only other Irish record is in M'Nab's list. " Dublin, taken by 
Mr. Tardy." 

C. Qucrcus, Gyll. > Coolmore. 
V. ochroptcrus, Steph.) 

Dascillidaa. 

Dascillus cervlnus, Latr. — Coolmore, numbers washed upon 
beach. 
Helodes minuta, L. — Coolmore, Coxtown. 

H. marglnata, F. I Coolmore. 

Cyphon coarctatus, Payk. / ^ '""'^ 

Malacoderinldae. 

Telephorus bicolor, F. — Coolmore, Bruckless, Templenew. 
T. flavllabris, Fall.— Bruckless. 

Chrysomelidas. 

Donacla crasslpcs, F. — Coolmore. 

D. vcrslcolorea, Brahm. — Templenew. 
D. sericca, L. — Coolmore, Templenew. 
Lema Ilchcnis, Voet. — Coxtown. 
Chrysomcia pollta, L.— Coolmore. 

C. fastuosa, Scop. — Coolmore, a single specimen on the beach, 
previously recorded from Courtown, Co. Wexford. 
Castroldea virldula, De G. \ 
Phaedon tumldulus, Germ. \ 
P. armoraclae, L. > Coolmore. 

Lochmea caprcae, L. I 

CalcrucellacalmarlensiSjL. / 



Report 071 insects collected at Coohnore, Co. Donegal. 99 

Haltlcaerlcetiy All. — Coolmore, a single specimen washed up on the 
beach. 
Phyllotreta nemorum, L. 1 r 1 
Crcpldodcra helxines, L. \ '-ooimore. 
Psylliodes plcina, Marsh.— Templenew. 
Casslda flaveola, Thunb.— Coolmore. 

IVIordellidae. 
Anaspls ruflcollis, F.— Coxtown. 

Anthlcidse. 
Anthicus floral ls» L.— Bruckless. 

CurcuIIonidae. 

Aplon aprlcans, Herbst. ? r^ 1 * 

A. carduorum, Kirby. \ '-oo^more. 

A.ervl, Kirby. — Coolmore, Coxtown. 

Polydrusus pterygromalis, Boh. ) ^a 1 r^ ^ 

Phyllotolus argcntatus, L. \ Coolmore, Coxtown. 

Phllopedon gretninatus, F.— Coolmore. 
Sitones Ilneatus, L. \ 
Hypcra nlgrirostrls, F. > Coolmore. 
Hylobiusabietis, Iv. ) 

Orchestes quercus, L. — Coxtown, a single specimen by beating 
Oaks ; also recorded from Cultra, Co. Down, and Dublin. 
O. fagrl, L,. — Coxtown. 

Ceuthorrhynchldlus troglodytes, F.) <- 1 
Phytoblus canal leu latus, Fahr. j ^oo^™ore. 



HEMIPTERA. 

Zlcrona coerulea, L. — Coolmore, a single specimen washed up on 
the beach. I can find no previous record from Ireland. It seems to be 
of southern distribution in England. 

Cerrls thoracica, Schum., H. S. — Coolmore. 

C. lacustrls, ly. — Templenew. 

Nabis flavomarglnatus, Scholtz,— Coxtown, 

Salda Ilttoralls, L. Icoolmore 

Anthocorls sylvestris, L, j ' 

A. ncmoralis, F,— Mervagh. 

IVIonalocorls flllcis, L.— Bruckless. 
Lygus pratcnsis, F.— Coolmore. 

Phylus melanocephalus, L.— Coxtown, beating Oaks. 
Psallus lepldus, Fieb.— Coxtown on Ash. 
P. varlans, H. S.— Coxtown on Oaks. 

lYIacropsls lanio, L.— Coxtown. I have also taken it at Loughgilly, 
Co. Armagh. 
Bythoscopus aim, Schr.— Mervagh. 

HYWIENOPTERA ACULEATA. 
Crabro dlmldlatus, F.— Bruckless. They had their nests in holes in 
a large boulder on the shore. 
Bombus hortuorum.— Coolmore. 

{To be concluded^ 



loo The Irish Naturalist. 

ON THE FKNKSTKIvIvID^, WITH REFKRKNCE TO 
IRISH CARBONIFEROUS STRATA. 

BY GRKNVII,I.E A. J. COLK, M.R.I. A., F.G.S. 

Professor of Geology in the Royal College of Science for 

Ireland. 



In the present preliminary paper, I can do little more than 
call attention to the beauty and variety of a family of fossil 
polyzoa, the remains of which are widely distributed across 
Ireland. The Fenestellids are among the commonest fossils 
wherever the great Carboniferous Limestone retains traces of 
organic remains ; members of the famil}^ are figured in almost 
every text-book of geology ; and the reticulated character of 
their funnel-shaped or spreading zoaria renders their detection 
easy, even on rough surfaces of the rock. 

The family, which was a favoured one in the days of Sir 
Richard Griffith and Frederick M'Coy, has suffered in recent 
years from the criticism of Mr. G. W. Shrubsole^, who has 
been able largely to reduce the number of species of the type- 
genus Fenestclla. His papers, we should note, do not deal with 
the '* Fenestellidse," as ordinarily understood, but with 
Fenestellc^ only ; and they show how species have been 
founded, not only upon imperfect specimens, but upon the 
characters of different portions of the same zoarium. 

However, Mr. Shrubsole's method of dealing with the super- 
ficial markings and accessory parts of the Fenestellid zoarium 
was, to say the least, drastic and indiscriminate, and formed 
a marked contrast to the careful observation expended upon 
these details on the other side of the Atlantic. It may fairly 
be said that Mr. H. A. Prout, Professor James Hall, and Mr. 
E. O. Ulrich have taught us much of the beauty of our own 
fossil polyzoa ; and the abundance of material in our 
Carboniferous strata is surely sufficient to rouse us now to 
emulation. 

The delicate outer structures of polyzoan colonies are bCvSt 
preserved in shales ; but a great deal can be learned from the 

^ " A Review of the British Carboniferous FenestelHdae," Quart, /ouj-n. 
Geol.Soc. London, vol. xxxv. (1879), p. 275; "A Review and Description 
of the various species of British Upper-Sihirian FenestelHdse," ibid., 
vol. xxxvi., p. 241 ; " Further Ncrtes on the Carboniferous Fenestellidae," 
ibid., vol. xxxvii., p. 178. 



Oil the Fe7iestellidcB — Irish Carboniferous Strata. loi 

weathered surfaces of fossiliferous limestones, and from the free 
use of sections. 

The general character of the Feyiestellidce is as follows : — 
The zoarium forms a delicate calcareous mesh-work, on one 
surface of which the cellules or zooecia occur. These are 
grouped along the main bars or colum^i^ of the mesh. The 
columns bifurcate as the zoarium grows broader from its 
base, and the adjacent ones either approach and join one 
another at intervals, then separating again, or are united by 
little cross-bars called dissepiniejits. In the former case, 
elliptical apertures, called fenestrules, are left between the 
sinuous bars ; in the latter case the fenestrules, elliptical or 
rectangular, are bounded on each side by the main columns, 
and above and below by the dissepiments. The fenestrules 
are far larger than the zooecial apertures. 

Ulrich^ admits the genus Thainniscus into the family, and is 
thereby forced to extend his definition to forms that possess 
no fenestrules ; but this seems an unnecessary complication. 
The genera included by different authors vary somewhat, but 
amount to about fourteen, and the greatest development of 
the family as a whole is in the Carboniferous period. For 
our purposes, the following genera are of immediate interest, 
and will be briefly discussed in order : — 

1. Phyllopora, King {Retepora auct.) The columns are rounded, and 
are sinuous in the plane of the zoarium, uniting with one another 
laterally and leaving practically circular fenestrules. The zoarium is 
funnel-shaped when perfect, as in so many of the Fenestellids, and the 
zooecia open on its outer surface, forming two or more rows on each 
column. Orduz'ician to Permian. 

2. Polypora, M'Coy ^ The columns are round, and connected by 
dissepiments. The zooecia are in 2 to 8 rows (Ulrich) on each column ; 
M'Coy observed 3 to 5 rows. There is no keel between the rows, but 
sometimes (Ulrich) a line of strong tubercles occurs along the column. 
Sihtrian to Permian. 

3. Fenestralla, Prout. lAke Polypora, hvLtvfith a. ridig&or keel a. long 
each column, on each side of which there are two rows of zooecia. Only 
one species is known, from the Lower Carboniferous of the United States. 

^ These were unfortunately styled " interstices" by M'Coy, Young, and 

others, a name more suggestive in the intervening apertures in the mesh. 

^"Palaeozoic Bryozoa," Geological Survey of Illinois, vol. viii. (1890), 

P- 395- 

' Synopsis of the Characters of the Carboniferous Limestone Fossils of 
Ireland (Dublin, 1844), p. 206, 



io2 *rhe Irish Naturalist. 

4. Fcncstella, Lonsdale. The columns are round, and are united by 
dissepiments, slighter than themselves, as in Polypora. There is a keel, 
as in Fenestralia ; but there is only one row of zooecia on each side of it. 
Silurian to Permian ; most abundant in Carboniferous. 

4a. Archimedes, Lesueur. IaIlq Fenestella, but wound spirally 
about a central axis, with the zooecia on the internal or upper face. 
Carboniferous, 

4b. Ptriopora (Ptylopora), M'Coy^ (Scouler MS.). Like Fen- 
cstella, but columns diverging pinnately on each side of a central 
and thicker axis. Carboniferous. 

5. Semlcoscfnium, Prout. (= Carinopora^ Nicholson). Two rows of 
zooecia, as in Fenesiella, but the dissepiments are thicker and shorter, and 
the keel on each column is greatly developed. This striking feature is 
often thickened near its crest or in its central portion, and its form can 
be well studied in sections.- Silurian to Devonian. 

6. Unitrypa, Hall. Like semicoscinium, but the crests of the prominent 
keels send out cross-bars which connect them. Sometimes there are 
two bars to each fenestrule, and sometimes there is one to each zocecium. 
Uppermost Silurian to Devonian. 

7. Isotrypa, Hall. Like Semicosciniiuii, but the keels are thin at first 
and then expand, the long plate-like summits that are thus produced 
being connected by bars at regular intervals ; these bars correspond to the 
dissepiments beneath them, and form a sort of outer mesh work. Silurian 
to DeiJ0)iia7i. 

8. Hem itry pa, Phillips.^ In this genus the correspondence of structure 
between the outer mesh and the inner fenestrated zoarium is carried 
farther than in Isotrypa^ and a delicate network, which may be styled the 
legmen,^ covers the face of the zoarium, and is supported by pillars rising 
from keels like those of an ordinary Fenesiella. Each row of pillars, in 
fact, bears a rod running parallel to the column of the zoarium which 
lies beneath it, and these rods give off bars, producing a network between 
each pair of rods. The circular apertures of this network correspond to 
the zooecia underlying them. Silurian to Carbonifei-ous. 

In the above synopsis the genera are arranged with an eye 
to their culmination in the exquisite details of Hemitrypa, 
which was at one time nearly consigned to oblivion by 
European palaeontologists, its tegmen being somewhat negli- 
gently regarded as a parasite/ The range of this genus makes 

1 Op. cit. p. 200. 

-See, for instance, Nicholson and Lydekker, "Manual of Palaeontology," 
vol. i., p. 625, fig. 469 G. 

3 " Palaeozoic Fossils of Cornwall, Devon, and West Somerset." 
(Ordnance Geological Survey, 1841), p. 27. 

^ G. A. J. Cole, " On Hemitrypa hibernica," Proc. Royal Dublin 80c., vol. 
viii. (1893), p. 137. 

^Ibid.^i^. 133-5. ....... 



0)1 the Feyiestellidce — Irish Carboniferous Strata. 103 

one hope that further research may show that some of its 
relatives also reached the Carboniferous period ; and the 
number of Fenestellids recorded by Sir R. Griffith' from the 
base of the Irish Carboniferous strata points to the shaly beds 
of the south as a possible field of observation. But Hemitrypa 
seems the natural survivor of the series that leads on up to it 
from Semico scinium, and this genus is fortunately already well 
known in Ireland. The great variet}^, however, of Fenestellid 
species now established in the United States makes a more 
thorough examination of our Carboniferous forms desirable. 
Specimens showing outer coats, even if these resemble parasitic 
crusts, are of especial value, and may possibly furnish new 
examples of the beautiful He^nitrypa series. Even in museums, 
a large number of Fenestellid specimens are merely casts of 
various parts of the zoarium ; and at any time some choice 
example may be discovered, which may largely improve our 
knowledge of a genus. The observation of the "eight radial 
denticles," pointing inwards from the mouth of the zooecia, in 
Actinostoma,- was a striking step forward in this direction, and 
similar structures may have existed in many Fcnestellce or 
Polyporce. The controversy, again, as to the nature of 
Patceocoryfie^ shows how even important appendages of these 
complex polyzoa may be lost from all . but the most 
exceptional specimens. Too often, moreover, workers have 
been glad to set aside such discoveries as "abnormalities" 
and "parasitic growths," without going to the length of sup- 
porting their assertions by a section. A great deal can be 
learned of the structure of a Fenestellid zoarium by merely 
grinding down two surfaces perpendicular to one another and 
to the face of the zoarium (vertical and horizontal sections), 
and examining these, when moistened, with a dissecting 
microscope or even with a hand-lens. 

The Fenestellidae have hardly yet revealed all their secrets 
to us. Their zooecia, as is now known, depart widely from the 
simple cyclostomatous type, and Ulrich,^ with great reason, 



1 "The Localities of the Irish Carboniferous Fossils," /^w^«- Geol. Soc. 
Dublin^ vol. ix. (1S60-62), p. 53. 

- Prof. J. Young and J. Young, " New Carboniferous Polyzoa," QuarL 
Jotirn. Geol. Soc. London, vol. xxx (1874), p. 681. 

^ Ibidf p. 684. Nicholson and Lydekker, op. cit., p. 624. 

* Oj>. cit.y p. 344. 



lo4 The Irish Naturalist. 

has adopted and extended Vine's suborder Cryptostomata for 
their reception. The cryptostomatous zooecium is typically 
ovoid, as in the Cheilostomata, with an aperture towards one 
end ; but, as growth proceeds, the rim of this aperture is pro- 
longed out into a calcareous tubular vestibule, the axis of 
which is oblique to that of the zooecium. I cannot help think- 
ing that, in the highlj^ keeled Fenestellids, the polypides per- 
manently protruded themselves even beyond their vestibules, 
and ultimatel}^ became surrounded by a membranous tube 
which extended as far as the tegnien. Enough has been said, 
however, to indicate the lines on which observation may 
profitably proceed ; and I need scarcely add that I should be 
grateful for the loan of any well preserved specimens from 
Irish Carboniferous strata. The surface cannot be too greatly 
** encrusted " by what may seem an outer sheath ; the zooecia 
and fenestrules may be entirely disguised by the meshwork of 
a rude or a more delicate tegmen. The forms, moreover, with 
well marked keels, or merely with lines of tubercles, all have 
an important bearing on the evolution of the more elaborate 
genera. 

NOTES. 



ZOOLOGY. 



ARACHNIDS. 

Nev\^ Irish Spiders from Londonderry. — During the latter lialfof 
1894, 1 sent Mr. G. H. Carpenter some spiders from Magilligan, Wahvorth, 
and Rathmullan. Among them he found specimens of eight species new 
to Ireland: — Zora spiuimana, Cryphoeca sylvicola, Hahnia clegans, Ltpiyphantes 
alacris, Tmeticus abnori/ns, Microneta viaria, Xysticiis ei-ratiais, and Hdiophaniis 
Jlavipes. 

Jas. N. Mii<ne, Londonderry. 

INSECTS. 

Co. Dublin Hymenoptera, Captures in 1894. — Last summer at 
Monkstown I found Pscii pallipes abundantly in burrows of Anobiuni and 
other wood-boring beetles. Crabro pdtarms I took in great quantity at 
Portmarnock, also C. ccphaJotcs and C. varius. C. dimidiahts, a new local 
record, also occurred at Monkstown. C. pdtarius I met with in numbers 
at Laytown, as likewise Oxybeliis jiitightinis, on the occasion of the joint 
excursion of the Belfast and Dublin P'ield Clubs in June. 

H. G. CuTHBERT, Blackrock, Dublin. 

Orthezia cataphracta, Shaw, in Co. Dublin. — When collect- 
ing at Howth on the 9th of last Marcli, I found several beautifully fresh 
examples of the female of the curious Coccid Orthezia cataphrada, Shaw, in 
moss, near the top of the cliffs, at the back of Lord Howth's demesne. 
This forms the first note of the insect from Co. Dublin. I have also 
taken specimens on Bray Head and near Dingle. As it has now been 



Notes. 105 

recorded from several localities ranging over the north, east, and south- 
west, we may assume that it is common in suitable places throughout 
the country. No examples of the very rare winged male have as yet 
been observed. The peculiarly northern distribution of this insect is 
interesting, as it has been found in Greenland, Lapland, Scotland, and 
the north of England. 

J. N HAI.BERT, Dublin. 

AMPHIBIANS. 

Wanted live Newts. — Some doubts have been expressed whether 
one or more species of newt inhabit Ireland. Readers of the Irish 
Naturalist who are interested in the question are herewith requested to 
kindly forward to me any newts which they may be able to secure. 

Three species of newts live in England, but only one species has 
hitherto been definitely authenticated in Ireland. It is chiefly from the 
south of Ireland and the County Galway that newts are wanted, as it is 
from there that others than the common form have been reported to 
occur. Specimens should be packed in moss and enclosed in a tin box. 

R. F. SCHARFF, Museum, Dublin. 

BIRDS. 

Osprey In Co. Kerry.— Mr. T. W. M'Cormick writes us that a week 
or two ago an adult specimen of Pandion halicBtiis was shot near the 
Railway Hotel, Killorglin, Co. Y^^xry.— land and Water, March 2. 

Smew in Co. Cork.— On the ist of March, 1895, a Smew {Mergus 
albelhes), was shot on the Bandon river, a few miles west of Bandon. The 
Smew is a rare bird in the south of Ireland, and this appears to be the first 
record of it occurring in the Co. Cork. 

C. LONGFiEivD, Enniskeane, Co. Cork. 

Little Bustard In Co. Longford. — Mr. L. Powell records in the 
Irish Times of March 2nd, that a Little Bustard (Otistctrax)-^2L^ shot in Co, 
Longford during February. 

Carnivorous habit of Rooks in Frost. — Mr. W. J, Thomas 
records in the Field of February i6th that, during the severe frost that 
prevailed in the early part of this year. Rooks were observed to attack 
and devour Starlings in the neighbourhood of Mullingar. 

GEOLOGY. 

The Naturalist In the IVIourne IVIountains. — An unusually 
practical wall-sheet, which is shortly to be issued in pamphlet form, 
has been recently published by the Belfast and County Down Railway 
Company. It is headed " Mountain-climbing in the Mournes," and gives 
details of six typical routes, by following which the finest scenery of this 
grand district may be explored. The tourist should be in possession of 
the hill-shaded i-inch ordnance map, to which a reference might well have 
been given ; but it would probably be worth while for the same competent 
climber who has prepared these concise notes to induce the Railway 
Company also to put on sale a lithographed map, say on the scale of two 
inches to one mile, on which the details acquired by his obviously wide 
local knowledge might be noted down. The typical visitor to sunny 
Rostrevor has very little knowledge of the Mournes. It is from the north, 
and west, from Newcastle, Bryansford, and Hilltown that their wilder 
features have been studied ; and we may now hope that some active 
walker will do for Slieve Gullion and the ridges around Carlingford 
I.ough what the County Down Railway has done for its especial district. 

G. A. J. Coi,E, Dublin. 



io6 The Irish Naturalist. 



PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



RoYAi. Z001.0GICA1, Society. 

The Sixty-third Annual Report of this Society, which is just issued, 
is one of considerable interest. From the Report of the Council we 
learn that the total number of visitors to the gardens during the past 
year (1894), was 115,031, being nearly 10,000 greater than the total of 
1893. The number of visitors (and, as a consequence, the receipts at 
gate) have been steadily increasing for the last six years. There is 
also a slight increase in Entrance Fees and Subscriptions. During the 
year nine Lion cubs have been born, five of these being males in one 
litter, an unusual occurrence. They have been exchanged for a fine 
pair of Ostriches, a monster Baboon, and other animals. Among the 
other items we note that three Pumas were born in the gardens, and that 
a pair of the curious South African Hunting Dogs were acquired by pur- 
chase. The Chimpanzee " Bella " unfortunately died on 15th November, 
but the purchase of an Orang-utan has secured to the gardens another 
representative of the Anthropoid apes. The Bovine animals include a 
Brahmin Bull, Pigmy Indian Cattle, Brahmin Dexter Crossbred Heifer, 
Ga3^al Cow, Chillingham Heifer, and Yak Cattle. The Aquarium 
has been greatl}' improved, and is now very attractive. The 
Report concludes with a catalogue of the animals now in the gardens, 
and the usual list of members, etc. We congratulate the Society on 
their flourishing condition. 

Recent donations comprise a Fallow-deer Fawn, from A. E. Goodbody, 
Esq. ; a Mongoose from C. A. James, Esq., and a pair of Foxes from S. 
Barkley, Esq. A young male Lion, sent by the governor of Harar to 
the Queen, has been graciously presented by Her Majesty to the Society. 
The animal has safely arrived at the Dublin gardens, and^has received 
the name of " Victor." A Barbary Sheep has been born in the gardens, 
and a pair of Mandarin Ducks purchased. 

4,350 persons visited the gardens in February. 



Dubinin Microscopicai. Ci^ub. 

February 14TH. — The Club met at Mr. A. Andrews'. 

Prof. G. Coi,E showed a section of Perlitic Obsidian, from Sandy 
Brae, north of Tardree Mountain, Co. Antrim. This rock is probably the 
most beautiful example of an unaltered perlitic glass in the British Isles. 
Mr. W. W. Watts has recently [Quart. Jotirti. Geol. Soc, vol. L., p. 367), 
given a detailed, description of its microscopic characters. It forms the 
glassy part of a rliyolite, which probably flowed from the great neck of 
Tardree Mountain. 

Mr. M'ArdIvE exhibited the perianth and capsule, with spores and 
elaters oi Radtila vohiia, Tayl., from specimens which he collected on the 
shores of Lough Cultra, Co. Cavan, in 1893. This is a new locality for 
the species. The Irish plant is held by good authorities to be the same 
as A". Xalapensis, N.M., from New Granada collected by Linding, and on 
Tullulah Falls, Georgia, U. States. 

Mr. H. J. Seymour showed sections of Silicified Oolite found as a 
pebble in the Glacial gravels of Glencullen, Co. Dublin. P'oraminifera 
form the centres of the Oolitic grains, which are purple-brown in the 
mass, cemented by white chalcedony. In section the grains appear 
pale brown. It would be interesting to trace the origin of this rock. 
Probably it is from some Oolitic zone in the Carboniferous system ; but 
it is just possible that it is from a Jurassic stratum, which has been 
entirely removed from Co. Dublin, 



Pfoceedings of Irish Societies, 107 



BKI,FAST NATURAI.ISTS' FIEI.D Cl,UB. 

FEBRUARY 19.— The President (F. W. Lockwood) in the chair. Rev. 
Denis Murphy, S.J., lectured on Irish Art as shown on Ancient 
Crosses. 

March 9. — A party of twenty-five, niostl}^ members of the geological 
class, visited the various deposits to be found at I.arne. The party left 
Belfast at 12.30, arriving in Larne Harbour at 1.40, where they were met 
by Professor Cole, who straightway led them down to the exposure of 
the New Red Sandstone : making this his text, he gave a ver}^ clear 
outline of the conditions of this country in these times. No find was 
made except a few pieces of gypsum. A little way further on was seen 
a large section of the Rhaetic Beds, towards the top layers of which Mr. 
William Swanston was lucky enough to hit on Putoi valoniensis, the type 
fossil of the stratum in which it occurs. 

Professor Tate has recorded no fossils from this part. A so-called 
oolitic structure was next discussed, but no decision was arrived at : 
Professor Cole, however, secured several of the knots and grains, of 
which we may hope to hear more. The Lias beds were now arrived at, and 
the zones of Psiloceras planorbis, yEgocerasJohnstoni a.ndi podacrinus were suc- 
cessfully crossed, each forming a halting-place for the collectors to whom 
the Professor explained the various features. Specimens of the above 
were obtained, and also of Lima giganfea, Gryphcea inciu-va, various Cardinias 
and others. Perhaps the best find was a Nautilus in which the septa 
were replacedby sulphate of iron, and of which about one third of the outer 
whorl was practically removed, showing the chambers, divided off by the 
gold-coloured layers of the sulphate. Another shift was then made to the 
Greensand, of which there is a large but sand-covered exposure, a great 
part of it being the reddened deposit, in which there were a vast number 
of fragments of Inoceranius, so much so that Professor Cole believes 
this bed represents the English Turonian, which is usually 
thought to be missing in our Irish strata. Close to this is the 
base of the Chalk, with Ananchytes ovattis, and Belemnitella mucrouata, of 
which specimens were secured, as also some impressions of spongy or 
polyzoan forms. Professor Cole believes our Chalk to correspond to the 
very topmost layer ot the English Ghalk, and this belief was 
strengthened by Mr Swanston drawing attention to the great develop- 
ment of marine gasteropods in the Limavady district. On the road 
back to Lame, another outcrop of Greensand was examined, yielding 
only a Rhynchonella robusla, and the party then headed for the Post- 
Pliocene gravel beds of the Curran, which have already been very fully 
described in the Proceedings of the Club. One or two members of the 
party were fortunate in discovering marine shells and worked flints 
side by side in the middle of the section Littorina litorea, L. litoralis, 
and Patella vulgaris were found. The estuarine clay was noticed only 
in passing, as time was short, and the party travelled back to Belfast 
by the 5.45 train. Tea in the Museum was followed by Professor Cole's 
lecture on the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene periods, in which by far 
the most important point raised was the discovery of worked flints in 
undoubted Miocene deposits in India. Fuller particulars are being 
anxiously watched for, but there seems no reason to doubt the 
authenticity of the find. If true, it will be a final blow to the theory 
that man sprang into existence in the last geological formation, and 
with all his modern powers of intellect. 

March 19. — The President in the Chair. The following papers were 
read : LT.-Coi.onei. Partridge—" Additional Lepidoptera from 
Enniskillen." J. R. P. ManfieTvD.— " Wild Bird Protection and Nesting 
Boxes." Subsequently the annual meeting of the Microscopicjd 
Section was held, and there was a display of microscopical apparatus 
and objects. 



io8 The Ifish Naturalist. 



BEI.PAST NATURAIy HISTORY AND PhII,OSOPHICAI< SOCIETY. 

March 5. — The President (R. L/I.OYD Patterson; in the chair. Mr, 
REDFern Kei^IvY lectured on " The Great Mystery of Stellar and 
Planetary Evolution." 

Dubinin Natur.\i,ists' FiEiyD Ci.ub. 

March 12.— The President (G. H. Carpenter, B.Sc.) in the chair. 
Prof. J. P. 0'Reii.i,y, C.E., read a paper entitled " The Possible Palaeonto- 
logical Reading of an Eastern Tradition." The reader drew attention to 
a statement taken from Bailly's " Lettres sur 1' Atlantic de Platon et sur 
I'ancienne Histoire de I'Asie " (Paris, 1779), ^^ which the statement was 
made that Huschenk, grandson of Caiumarath, first King of the Persians, 
conducted his expeditions on a horse having twelve feet, which, the 
reader endeavoured to show, might possibly have been one of the three- 
toed ancestors of the horse. Another tradition told how Tahamuruth, 
third King of Persia, had for a steed a great bird called Simorg-auka, which 
the reader suggested may possibly have actually been a bird allied to the 
Ostrich. Prof. Cole, criticizing the paper, pointed out that the suggestions 
made by Prof O'Reilly could not be met on the grounds of impossibility, 
as man was known to have been contemporaneous, for instance, with 
Hipparion, but he considered that the twelve-toed horse of the legend was 
more probably a retrogressive sport. Rev. Maxwell Close and the 
President also spoke. A letter was read from Dr. E. J. M'Weeney 
regretting his inability to attend and read a paper which stood in his 
name. 

Mr. D. McArdi^e read a paper on "Adventitious Branching in 
Liverworts,'' which appears in our present issue. 

Mr. R. lyi,. Praeger exhibited some rare British plants from the 
Boswell Herbarium. The species shown included Ranunculus reptans^ 
Elatine Hydropiper (from Belfast), Peucedanum officinale, Erythraa latifolia, 
Orobanche Picridis, 0. caryophyllacea, Primula scolica, Statice Caspia, Atriplex 
pedunculata, Carex frigida, Lastrea uliginosa. Professor JOHNSON exhibited 
a sea-weed, Epicladia Fhisine, Rke., new to Ireland, found on Flustra 
collected at Rush by Mr. J. E. Duerden. 

Messrs. J. Iv. Huddleston, and G. E. T. Greene, J.P., P\L.S , were 
elected members of the Club. 



Cork Naturai<ists' Fiei.d Ci,ub. 

November 21. — An Inaugural Address was delivered by the President 
(Prof. M. M. Hartog, D.Sc). Mr. J. N. Hai^bert's paper, " Insects 
collected on the joint Clubs' Excursion ofFermoy and Lismore," as read 
by him at the Dublin N.F.C., was read by the Secretary, after which an 
hour was pleasantly spent looking through the specimens and micro- 
scopes brought by members. 

January 23. — The first lecture was given in connection with the Irish 
Field Club Union by Joseph Wright, Esq., F.G.S., of Belfast, on 
*' Foraminifera recent and fossil, with special reference to those found in 
Ireland." The lecture was beautifully illustrated with photographic 
lantern slides and diagrams. "^ -. 

Miss H. A. Martin, V.P., having kindly consented to give four 
lectures on structural botany, a special class was formed, and two 
lectures up to the present have been given on the Morphology and 
Physiology of the Root and of the Stem. 





JC 



ALEXANDER GOODMAN MORE 

l-.K.S.l-:., K.L.S.. M.U.I. A. 



^\j^ gtrt^lj Jlaturalt^t* 



Vol. IV. MAY, 1895. No. 5. 



AI.BXANDKR GOODMAN MORE, 

F.R.S.E., F.I,.S., M.R.I.A. 



Irish Natural History has sustained the severest blow it could 
well receive in the death of Alexander Goodman More, for it 
may be truly said that no naturalist ever had the same reliable 
grasp of the flora as well as the fauna of this country as he 
possessed. 

A. G. More was born in London on Septembers, 1830. He 
was the son of Alexander More of Malvern, and grandson 
of Alexander More, Collector of Customs, Aberdeen, great- 
grandson of Gilbert More of Readen, Aberdeen, and on the 
grandmother's side of Alexander Innes of Breda and Cowie. 

From 1836 to 1841 he resided at Renens near Lausanne with 
his parents and also with M. Germond, who was his tutor at 
Yvonnand and Echallens. At Renens he became acquainted 
with the Shawe-Taylors of Castle Taylor, Co. Galway. This 
intimacy, which was continued through life, was probably the 
primary cause of his coming to live in Ireland. 

While in Switzerland his taste for Natural History early 
showed itself in the collection of butterflies. In 1841 he went 
to Mr. Bailey's school at Clifton, and there prepared for Rugby, 
to which he went in 1844, his parents residing in the Isle of 
Wight. Five years were spent at Rugby. More became head 
of his house (Rev. Charles Mayor's) and first Grecian 
Scholar. 

In 1846 he tells us in a brief private diary — which will, 
hereafter, be frequently quoted — ''Taste for birds first began 
from being anxious to know all about a Nuthatch I had shot, 
which I compared with, and found out in Bewick." In 1848 
Eyton's supplement to "Bewick," Selby's ''British Orni- 
thology," and St. John's "Highland Sports," were purchased, 
and More " began to study birds more carefully." 



no The hish Naturalist. 

He was now eighteen, and Westwood's *' Butterflies," 
Jenyns' " British Vertebrates," Temminck's ** Manual," and 
Turton's " British Land Shells " formed the nucleus of a well- 
read library which was rapidly enlarged by presents from 
friends who admired his ability and genius. 

In 1850 he says " Walter (Mr. Walter Shawe-Tajdor) carried 
me off to Ireland where I spent the summer and botanized for 
the first time." In the same year More entered Trinity College, 
Cambridge. The following summer, 185 1, was spent at Castle 
Taylor, and Viola stag7iina discovered in Ireland. He was 
introduced to Prof. Babington at Cambridge and elected 
Associate of the Ray Club. In 1852 he " began really to study 
botany," and purchased a number of valuable books dealing 
with the English and Continental floras. 

At Cambridge he took, a certificate in geology, but ill-health 
prevented his completing his college course and trying for 
the Natural Science Tripos — a circumstance always spoken of 
with keen regret in after life. Fond of shooting and fishing, 
he also steered the head boat at Cambridge in May, 1853. 
At this time he joined the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 
and progress in botany consisted chiefly "in the more careful 
comparison of plants with their descriptions," a study in which 
his critical eye subsequently excelled and in which he had few 
equals. Portions of 1854 and 1855 were spent in the West of 
Ireland, and his first botanical essay appeared, i.e. " Notes 
on the Flora of Castle Taylor." The following year he was 
elected F.L.S. In 1857, he was introduced to Mr. H. C. 
Watson, author of the " Cybele Britannica," and visited him 
subsequently at Thames Ditton. 

In 1858, in conjunction with Mr. T. Boyd, a paper " On the 
Geographical Distribution of Butterflies in Great Britain " 
was published, on the plan of Watson's " Cybele Britannica." 
At the same time he made an analysis of De Candolle's 
'' Naturalized Plants," and catalogued Dr. Bromfield's 
herbarium. 

In 1859 some suggestive remarks on the migration of birds 
appeared in the Zoologist, and More, with the natural pride of 
a young botanist, says, "Gained the confidence of CC.B." 
(Prof. Babington). This was his first year of critical work at 
botany. 



Alexander Goodman More. 



Ill 



In i860 the appendix to Venable's " Isle of Wight Guide " 
appeared, and the following summer he visited Waterton ; 
his stay at Walton Hall with all its curiosities was always 
remembered with pleasure. 

Watson's plan of the ** Cybele Britannica", already applied 
to the butterflies by More, was now made use of for illustrating 
the distribution of birds in Great Britain during the nesting 
season, and materials were diligently collected. So highly 
was his paper on the subject thought of that Prof. Newton 
alludes to it thus in his article on Ornithology in the ** Kncyc. 
Brit," 9th Kd., "Though contravening our plan we must for 
its great merits notice here Mr. More's series of papers in the 
Ibis for 1865." 

Not content with the Butterflies and Birds of Great Britain, 
More in 1864 again visited Ireland, and to quote the diary, 
''proposed an Irish Flora to D. M." (Dr. David Moore of 
Glasnevin). Watson's "Cybele Britannica" did not include 
Ireland, and we have here the first germ of the '•' Cybele 
Hibernica," a work which will always form a conspicuous 
landmark in Irish Botany. Dr. Moore had much of the 
material already collected ; the application of Watson's system 
to its arrangement was assisted by More, who, in order 
to be near his friend, came to reside at Glasnevin. The 
authors worked with diligence for two years, mutual esteem 
^nd harmony prevailed, and the "Cybele Hibernica" was 
completed in August, 1866. 

In 1867 he was appointed Assistant in the Dublin Natural 
History Museum, and for twenty years from that date his 
room there was the rendezvous of all naturalists who came to 
Dublin. Here introductions were made, jealousies dispelled, 
and friendships initiated and cemented. Every nerve was 
strained to encourage, stimulate, and assist the younger 
naturalists. More was their counsellor and guide, and the 
Natural History of Ireland had in him a most earnest advocate. 

In 1877, he was made an Honorary Member of the Zoological 
and Botanical Society of Vienna. 

By a gentle and gracious manner, unfailing courtesy, and 
wonderful tact, rare specimens were, over and over again, 
coaxed from the owners for the Museum, and difficulties 
overcome in their transfer by a sort of insidious persuasion 
which few could withstand. 

A 2 



112 The hish Na tu ; a list. 

In the old days, before the present National lyibrary was 
built, most of the works on Natural History were collected 
in a lofty square well-lighted room, and here More often spent 
hours working at some moot point for the benefit of a friend 
down in the country. The trouble he took was amazing. For 
a quarter of a century, scarcely a pamphlet, paper, or book 
was published on the flora or fauna of Ireland in which the 
author did not acknowledge his assistance or advice. It 
always gave him greater pleasure to help others to write than 
to undertake the task himself. There was no lack of mental 
energy, but ill-health frustrated many a plan which would 
have been carried out had he been more vigorous. 

In 1 88 1, on the death of Dr. Carte, he was appointed Curator 
of the Museum, and occupied this post till a protracted illness 
caused him to retire on pension in 1887. His residence at 
Rathmines now became the frequented resort of botanists and 
zoologists, with whom he kept up a constant correspondence, 
making systematic entries of their notes in the " Cybele 
Hibernica", and in other books and papers which he had in- 
terleaved and annotated. 

He was not a scientist of the modern type ; the correct 
identification of a species, its habits, and geographical distribu- 
tion were studied by him rather than its morphology and 
histology. He revelled in minute distinctions between well- 
marked varieties, and his critical opinion was respected in 
England and abroad. Familiar with every pamphlet and book- 
on his favourite studies, he held a unique position as a referee 
in the bibliography of Irish and English Natural History, for 
he knew both zoological and botanical literature. 

The short notes and papers which he has written are 
numerous, but, unlike many, he wrote less than he knew, 
rather than err by making unfounded statements. His " Out- 
lines of the Natural History of the Isle of Wight," the 
valuable papers in the Ibis for 1865, the Supplement to the 
'* Flora Vectensis", the *' Cybele Hibernica " and its Supple- 
ment, and last but not least his " List of Irish Birds " are the 
best known of his writings. From the Royal Irish Academy 
he received, from time to time, several grants for scientific 
purposes. 

The errors which he corrected and saved others from mak- 
ing are scarcely less numerous than those many additions to 



Alexander Good7na7i More. 113 

the Irish Flora and Fauna which are solely due to his activity. 
After the scientific exploration of any district, More was the 
traveller's first confidant, and the delight with which he hailed 
a discovery gave a zest and enjoyment to field work which 
will be sadly missed in Ireland. What areas deserved 
attention — who had been there previously, and what had been 
done and left undone— were at his fingers' ends. He suggested 
many expeditions, checked others, and was consulted in the 
arrangement of all. Nobody can hope to fill his place ; no one 
is equally familiar with birds, mammals, fishes, reptiles, flower- 
ing plants and ferns, a versatility which was happily combined 
with a sound judgment, great tact, and a suavity and gentleness 
of manner peculiarly attractive. His ability was perhaps best 
testified by the regard which was entertained for him by 
every one. He has left a blank which can never be filled, 
and which will be more vividly realized every day by those 
who had the privilege of his friendship. 

Richard M. Barrington. 



UST OF THE SCIENTIFIC WRITINGS OF THE I,ATE A. G. MORE. 



BOTANY. 

1855. On some uncommon Plants observed at or near Tunbridge Wells 
in Kent. Phytologist, (n.s.) vol. i., pp. 292-5, 345-8. 

1855. On the Flora of the neighbourhood of Castle Taylor, Co. Gal way. 
Proc. Edin. Bot. Soc, pp. 26-30. 

1857. Anemone Pulsatilla. Phyt. (n.s.) vol. ii., pp. 215-216. 

1858. Analysis of De Candolle's " Naturalized Plants." /.c, pp. 449-462. 

[Not signed by A. G. M., but mentioned in his diary.] 

i860. Remarks on the Violce of the coast sand-hills. Phyt. (n.s.), vol. iv. 
pp. 301-3. 

i860. Additional localities for some rare Hampshire plants, t.c, pp. 
80-82. 

i860. Remarks on Annual Addresses, t^c. pp. 103-4. [Not signed.] 
i860. VJh.a.t is Rammadus heterophylltts ? Ac, pp. 138-142. [Not signed.] 
i860. Remarks on Harrow Plants, t.c, pp. 170-2. [Signed, "A."] 
i860. Chickweeds. /.c, pp. 172-4. [Not signed.] 
i860. Sonchtis palustris. t.c, pp. 310 312. [Signed, "A."] 
i860. Outlines of the Natural History of the Isle of Wight, being a 
supplement to Venables' " Guide." (Also issued separately with 
fresh pagination. London, Spottiswoode & Co. ) 

i860. Localities for some rare Plants observed in Ireland. Nat. Hist. 

Review, vol. vii., pp. 434-443. 
1861. "QxiW-S^ Lepigona. /%jA (n.s.) vol. v., pp. 81-3. Also Thirsk Botanical 

Reports, 186 1, pp. 7-9. 

1861. On the occurrence of Festiua ambigua in the Isle of Wight. Trans. 
Linn. Soc (^Bot.), vol. vi., pp. 189-192. 



114 ^^^ Irish Naturalist. 

1861-3. A Comparative List of British Plants, showing synonymous species 
in Babington, Ivond. Cat, Hooker, Arnott, and Bentham. Phyt. 
(n.s.), vol. iv., pp. 321-330; vol. v., pp. 310 317 ; vol. vi., pp- 

101-9, 370-381- 
1863. The above, reprinted. London, Pamplin. 

1862. On the discovery of Gladiohis illyricus in the Isle of Wight. Journ^ 

Linn. Soc, {Bot), vol. v., pp. 177-8. 

1863. Unusually mild winter in the Isle of Wight. Journai of Botany^ 

vol. i., pp. 57-8. 

1865. Note on the discovery of Neolinea intada in Ireland. Trans. Edin. 

Bot. Soc, vol. viii.,pp. 265-266. 

1866. [Conjointly with David Moore]. Contributions towards a Cybele 

Hibernica, being Outlines of the Geographical Distribution of 
Plants in Ireland. Dublin and London. 

1866. [Conjointly with David Moore]. On the Climate, Flora, and 
Crops of Ireland. Proc. Bot. Congress, pp. 165-176. 

1868. Discovery of 6'«>/'^/.f/ar^'w/«^ in Ireland. Jonrn. of Bot. vol. vi., pp. 
254, 321-3, with plate. 

1868. Trifoliti77t subterraneiim in Ireland, i.e., pp. 208. 

1868. Note on Equisetum Moorei. t. c, pp. 253-4. 

1868. Hippophae rha?nnoides. t. c, pp. 255-6, 373. 

1869. Discovery of Aira uliginosa at Roundstone, Co. Galway. Journ. of 

Bot,, vol. vii., pp. 265-6. 

1870. Notes on Scirpiis parvulus. Trans. Edin. Bot. Soc-, vol. x., pp. 160-1. 

1870. On Callitriche obtnsangula as a British plant. Journ. of Bot., vol. viii., 

pp. 342-3. 

1871. A Supplement to the Flora Vectensis. Journ. of Bot., vol. ix., pp. 

72-6, 135-145, 167-172, 202-211. 

1871. On Acorus caia/nus as a. Native, t.c, -p. 246. 

1871. Cerastium pzimilwn in Jersey. Ar. , p. 371. 

1 87 1. On Spiranthes Romanzoviana, Brit. Ass. Rep., xli., p. 129. 

1871. On Eriophorum alpinuin as a British Plant. A c, p. 133. 

1873. Recent additions to Flora of Ireland. Proc. Roy. Ir. Acad. {Sc.) (2) 
vol. ii., pp. 256-293. 

1873. Abridgment of above with additions. Journ. of Bot., vol. xi., pp. 
115-T19, 142-148. 

1873. Panicum capillarexn^sseyi. t.c, p. 141. 

1874. New station for Erica Mackayana. Journ. of Bot., vol. xii., p. 306. 
1876. Lycopodiwn inundatum in Kerry. Journ. of Bot , vol. xiv., p. 373. 
1876. Report on the Flora of Inishbofin, Galway. Proc. R. I. A., vol. ii., 

PP- 553-578. 

1876. On the occurrence in Ireland of Nuphar intermeditini. \Brit. Ass. 

Rep., xlvi., p. 144. 

1877. Naias flexilis in Kerry. Journ. of Bot., vol. xv., p. 350. 

1878. [Conjointly withD. Moore.] Catalogue of the Flowering-plants and 

Ferns of Dublin and Wicklow, for Brit. Assoc. Guide. Reprinted 
with corrections in Sci. Proc. R. D. S. (n.s), vol. i., pp. 190-227. 

1880. Trifoliiwi maritinmm in Ireland. Journ. of Bot.,Yo\. xviii., pp. 233-4. 

1882. Sisyrinchitnn Bermudiatiuni in Kerry. Journ. of Bot., vol. xx., p. 8. 

1882. Aira atpina in Kerry. t.c.,-p. 87. 

1884. Pembroke and Glamorganshire Plants, fourn. of Bot., vol. xxii., 

pp. 43-6. 
1889. Erica mediterranea var. hibernica in Achil. fourn. of Bot., vol. xxvii., 

p. 118. 



Alexa7ider Goodman More. 115 

1892. Ciisctita epithymuni in Ireland. Jotirn. of BoL, vol. xxx., p. 14. 
1892. Trichomanes radicans in Spain, t. c.y p. 86. 
1892. Silene maritima growing inland, t.c.^ p. 87. 
1892. Vaccinium vitis-idcea at low level, t.c.^ p. 88. 

1892. Rubus chamxtnorus as an Irish Plant, t. <:., p. 217. 

1893. A Sketch of Irish Botany, in Guy's " South of Ireland Pictorial 

Guide" (pp. 142-6). Reprinted with corrections. Journ. of Bot., 
vol. xxxi., pp. 299-304. 

ZOOLOGY. 

1849. Regiclus ignicapilhis at Bembridge. Zoologist, vol. vii., p. 2526. 

1850. Uptipa epops at Bembridge. ZooL, vol. viii., p. 2800. 
1853. Sylvia tithys at Bembridge. ZooL, vol. xi., p. 3753. 

1853. Correction of Error respecting Regidus ignicapilhis. i.e., 4014. 

1853. Migratory Birds in the Isle of Wight, t.c, p. 4094- 

1854. Vespertilio serotinus in the Isle of Wight. ZooL, vol. xii., p. 4179. 
1854. Bartramia longicatida as a British Bird, t.c, p. 4254* 

1854. Zygoena jninos. — Note on, in Ireland, &c. t.c, p. 4435* 

1855. On three species of Divers. Zool., vol. xiii., p. 4628. 

1858. [Conjointly with T. Boyd.] On the geographical distribution of 
Butterflies in Gt. Britain. Zool., vol. xvi., pp. 6018-6027. 

1858. Migratory Birds in the Isle of Wight, t.c, p. 6270. 

1859. Remarks on the Migration of Birds. Zool., vol. xvii., pp. 6531-4. 
i860. Outlines of the Natural History of the Isle of Wight. London. 

(See also under Botany. ) 
i860. Rare birds observed in the Isle of Wight. Zool.., vol. xviii., 6849- 

6860. 
i860. Arctic Tern nesting on fresh water at Lough Carra, Mayo, /.c, 

6891. 
i860. Deilephila lineata on the Isle of Wight, t.c, p. 7107. 
i860. Calosoma sycophanta on the Isle of Wight, t.c, p. 7157. 
1865. On the Distribution of Birds in Great Britain during the Nesting 

Season. Ibis. (2), vol. i., pp. 1-27, 1 19-142, 425-458. 
1865. Colias ediisa on Howth, Dublin. Zool. (2), vol. i., p. 151. 

1869. Note on the Animal of Limncea involuta. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (4) 

vol. iv., p. 46. 

1870. Golden Eagle on Snowdon. Zool. (2), vol. v., p. 2381. 

1870. Report on the Collections made in Kerry. Journ. R. Dub. Sot\, 

vol. v., pp. 389-394- 
1870. Report on Experiments made in 1869 with the Japanese Silkworm, 

Bombyx Yatna-mai. t.c. pp. 486-9." 
1872. Food Plant of Taneocampa rubricosa. Zool. (2.), vol. vii., p. 3027. . 

1874. Salpa spinosa in the W. of Ireland. Zool. (2), vol. ix., p. 4202- 

1875. Dinoteuthis proboscideus, a gigantic Cephalopod stranded at Dingle, 

Kerry, 200 years ago. Zool. (2). vol. x., pp. 4526-4532. 

1875. Architeuthis dux,2. gigantic Squid recently captured at Innishboffin. 
t.c, pp. 4569-4571. 

1875. A gigantic Squid on the West Coast of Ireland. Ann. Mag. Nat. 

Hist., vol. xvi., pp. 123-4. 
1878. Lists of Fishes and Birds in the Fauna of Co. Dublin, for Brit. 

Assoc. Guide (pp. 71-90). Dublin. 

1878. Delphinus albirostris on the Irish coast Zool. (3), vol. ii., p. 292. 
1878. Blennius galerita, in Dingle and Connemara. t.c, p. 297. 



ii6 The Irish Naturalist. 

1880. Monticola cyanus (Blue Thrush) in Ireland, an error. Zool. (3). vol. 
iv., p. 67. 

1880. Does the Long-eared Owl Hoot ? t.c.^ p. 487. 

1881. On the alleged former existence of the Ptarmigan in Cumberland 

and Wales. Zool. (3), vol. v., pp. 44-47. 
1881. Hooting of the Long-eared Owl. t.c, p. 56-57. 
l88r. Puffirms griseus in Ireland, t.c, p. 334. 
1881. Sabine's Gull near Dublin, t.c, p. 472. 

1881. Falco islandus in Ireland, t.c, p. 488. 

1882. Porzana Bailloni in Waterford, erroneously supposed to be " Crex 

pusilla.'" Zool. (3), vol. vi., p. 113. 
1882. Uncommon variety of grouse from Maj^o. t.c, p. 148. 
1882. Echinorhimcs spinosus (Spinous Shark) in Dublin, i.e., p. 434. 

1882. Daption capensis (the Cape Pigeon) in Ireland. Ibis. (4), vol. vi., 

p. 346. 

1883. Snowy Owl in Donegal. Zool. (3), vol. vii., p. 80. 

1884. Greenland Falcon in Donegal. Bonito in Galway. Zool. (3), vol. 

viii., p. 31. 

1885. A List of Irish Birds, showing the species contained in the Science 

and Art Museum, Dublin. Dublin. 

1885. Ttirdtis variiis in Mayo. Zool. (3), vol. ix., p. in. 

1885. Echinorhimis spinosus in Galway. t.c, p. 311. 

1885. Wood Sandpiper in Wicklow. t.c, p. 438. 

1887. Science and Art Museum, Dublin. Guide to the Natural History 
Department. Series i, Vertebrate Animals (Recent), Mammals 
and Birds. Dublin. 

1882-8. [Conjointly with Richard M. Barrington.] Reports on the 
Migration of Birds, as observed at Lighthouses and Lightships on 
the Irish Coast. London, West, Newman & Co., 18S2 -5. Edin- 
burgh, McFarlane & Brskine, 1886-8. (Short Abstracts in Brit. 
Ass. Rep., lii., p. 283 ; liii., pp. 229-233 ; liv., pp. 266-270; Iv., pp. 
685-9; Ivi., pp. 264-7 ; Ivii., pp. 70-73 ; Iviii., pp. 146-9.) 

1889. Clupea finta at Killarney. Zool. (3), vol. xiii., p. no. 

1889. Motella maculata as an Irish fish, t.c, p. 154. 

1889. Livincea invohita probably a variety of Z. peregra. t.c, pp. 154-155. 

1889. Parrot Crossbill in Ireland, t.c p. i8i. 

1889. Athamis nitcscms\Vi\x€i.2>xA. A<r., p. 236. 

1890. A List of Irish Birds. 2nd edition. Dublin. 

1890. The so-called " Martinico gallinule " in Ireland. ZooL (3), vol. xiv., 

p. 24. 
1890. Porphyria smaragnotus and P. cceruleus in Ireland, t.c, p. 24. 

1890. Sylvia nisoria in Ireland, t.c, p. 310. 

1891. Falco cenchris in Ireland. Zool. (3), vol. xv., p. 152. Ibis (6), vol. iii., 

pp. 297-8. 

1891. Localities for Natterer's Bat in Ireland, t.c, p. 304 

1892. Alleged former nesting of the Osprey in the E)nglish lake district 

Zool. (3) vol. xvi., pp. 1-3. 

1892. Parrot Crossbill in Ireland, t.c, p. 76. 

1892 Recent additions to the List of Irish Birds, Irish Nat., vol. i., 

PP- 3-4- 

1893. Mammals, and Freshwater Fishes, in Guy's " South of Ireland 

Guide" (pp. 134, 138-40). [2nd edition of this is now in press.] 

1894. Supposed occurrence of Vespertilio murinus in England.— Correction 

of an error. Zool. (3), vol. xviii., p. 148. 



[ 117 ] 

THE BREEDING BIRDS OF TROUGHS CONN, CARRA, 

AND MAvSK. 

BY ROBERT WARRKN. 
(A Report laid before the Royal Irish Academy, 28th May, 1894). 



The results of some former visits to Though Conn have 
enabled me to ascertain that Wild Ducks and Teal breed on 
some of the islands and shores of the lake ; and the adult 
Shoveller has been seen, and a flapper shot in Errew bay on the 
west side of the lough ; and in the summer of 1892, my friend* 
Mr. H. Scroope, jun., had a nest and twelve eggs sent him 
from the same part. A colony of Blackheaded Gulls breed on 
the low gravelly island off Errew Bay, and also some Common 
Terns : and this summer, Mr. H. Scroope obtained a nest and 
eggs of the Common Gull off the same island — the first nest 
that I have known of this gull to have been found on I^ough 
Conn, the nearest breeding station being on I,ough-na-Crum- 
pane, a little bog-lake some eight or ten miles away. 

The Common Tern also breeds on the stony shores of some 
islands nearCloghans, a favourite breeding haunt of Redshanks, 
Some Dunlins frequent the boggy shore of the southern end 
of the lake near the Pontoon road ; while Ringed Plovers are 
seen in many of the sandy bays. 

The Common Sandpiper is to be met on every island, as 
well as on the shores of the lake, and some pairs of Hooded 
Crows have nests in the low trees on some of the islands. 

Formerly the Lesser Blackbacked Gull bred in large 
numbers on islands in the lake, but of late years, although 
some birds are seen during the summer time, no nests have 
been discovered. Redbreasted Mergansers also breed on the 
islands. 

Of the Warblers, only the common species are met — White- 
throats and Willow Wrens, on the islands, while the Chiff-chaff 
frequents the woods of Cloghans and others along the shore 
of the lake. 

Having been informed by Mr. W. H. Good, of Westport, 
that the Lesser Blackbacked Gull, Common Gull, Common 
and Arctic Terns bred on Lough Mask, and the Yellow Wagtail 
on Lough Carra, I was anxious to verify the statement, and 
on the 1 2th of June, 1893, I left Balliua for Ballinrobe, being 

A5 



ii8 I he Irish Naturalist. 

joined at Claremorris station by my friend, Mr. W. Williams. 
After arriving at Ballinrobe in the evening, we walked on to 
Lough Carra (about two miles from the town), to make some 
preliminary observations, and see about engaging a boat and 
men to go up the lake next morning. On reaching the bridge 
near the foot of the lake, Mr. Williams hearing the call of a 
Yellow Wagtail, and looking round, saw a female bird with 
something in her bill sitting on the fence of an oat-field, and 
shortly after we saw the cock bird standing on a thistle in the 
oats. They evidently had a nest and young somewhere near, 
but although we searched carefully all round, were unsuc- 
cessful in finding it. 

We soon after saw another cock bird whose hen must have 
been hatching, for she did not appear in sight ; the three 
birds haunted the oat-field, and a bit of pasture land that 
extended from the lake to the road. Next morning when 
walking to our boat, we saw the three birds at the same place, 
and again in the evening when returning. We row^ed up the 
lake, visiting several islands, on which we saw Redshanks and 
Sandpipers; and on a wooded island, having a dense under- 
growth of brushwood and weeds, situated under Lakeview, we 
found two Wild Ducks' nests containing six, and nine eggs, 
and three nests of the Redbreasted Merganser having twelve, 
eight, and two eggs, those w^th the larger number being 
densel}^ lined with down. The Merganser's nest with the twelve 
eggs was situated in a dense thicket of Meadowsweet four 
feet high, and so thick and close, that when the female left 
the nest we caught her before she could escape to the water. 
The nests were easily discovered by the beaten path through 
the grass and weeds leading from the water. 

We next landed on a long low island under Brown Hall, 
about 150 yards long, with a few bushes on it, and on either 
end was a colony of Blackheaded Gulls, having eggs and 
young, while on a patch of short grassy turf near the centre 
were a lot of Terns having eggs and some young in their 
nests. We sat down for some time watching them, and 
observing a pair hovering over us, screaming in a shriller tone 
than the others ; one was shot, and it proved to be an Arctic 
Tern. We found a Wild Duck's nest, and a Water-Hen's, on 
the end of the island, the former with eight and the latter 
with ten eggs. Visiting some others we only saw Redshanks 



The Breeding Birds of Lough Conn, Carra, a7id Mask. 119 

and Common Sandpipers ; and then on coming to that upon 
which Castle Carra stands, we were disappointed at finding 
that the Great Cormorants were not breeding on the ruins this 
season in consequence of a great part of the Ivy covering the 
walls having been torn down by the winter's storms. We 
however saw some birds resting on the highest part of the 
castle. 

Continuing our course up the lake we came to a large island 
at the head of the lough, under Moore Hall. It was covered 
with old timber of a great size, Ash, Oak, Elm, and Scotch Fir, 
and in open glades formed by storms cutting lanes through 
the wood, were large brakes and thickets of Briars over- 
growing the fallen trees, and in other parts of the island were 
dense copses of Black- and White-thorn mixed with Hazel, 
which appeared to us to be a perfect paradise for Warblers, 
but to our great disappointment we only saw the commoner 
ones, Willow Wrens, and Chiff- Chaffs, no trace of Wood Wren, 
Blackcap, or Garden Warbler, I may here remark that 
although one of the. chief objects of our visit was to ascertain 
if any of the last-named Warblers visited the district, yet, 
although we carefully searched the woods of Creagh, the 
magnificent demesne of Colonel Knox, situated on the shores 
of L^ough Mask ; Cranmore, that of his brother, near Ballin- 
robe ; and the lovely demesne of Lord Ardilaun at Cong on 
the shores of I^ough Corrib, and the various wooded islands 
on Carra and Mask ; we were unsuccessful in either hearing 
or seeing these birds, or obtaining any information about them. 

Next morning when going to IvOUgh Carra we saw the 
Yellow Wagtails in their old haunt, and after going to the 
island and securing the Merganser's nest and eggs, we took 
our boat under the bridge, and down the canal-like drain that 
leads for half a mile to lyough Mask, and entered it through 
a wilderness of rocks and stones. We then rowed across to 
the Partry side of the lake where the island upon which the 
Lesser Black-backed Gulls bred was situated, just opposite to 
the monastery ; but on our way we landed on a flat stony 
island towards the middle of the lake ; we saw some Redshanks 
and Sandpipers, but found only one nest with eggs of the 
Common Gull. 

The island frequented by the Lesser Black-backed Gulls is 
very rocky, and with long grass between the rocks ; there 



1 20 The Irish Naturalist. 

are also a few bushes. On landing, we found that the nests 
had been lately robbed, upwards of twenty being empty, and 
a few in which the Gulls had begun to lay again. The nests 
were large and substantially constructed of the dried grass 
left by the floods on the shore of the island, and were 
generally placed between the rocks and large stones or near 
bushes, and when we were leaving a Merganser rose from her 
nest, under a bush, containing ten eggs ; and standing on the 
extreme end of the stony point, we were surprised at seeing 
a Turnstone in the dark-coloured immature plumage of 
winter, a strange sight at that time of year, so far from the 
coast, on an inland lake. 

A heavy thunderstorm with torrents of rain and high wind 
coming on drove us from the island, and it was with great 
difficulty that we gained the Ballinrobe side of the lake under 
Creagh, taking shelter within the walls of Grace O'Malley's 
castle on the island. After the storm passed off the wind 
continued so high as to raise such a sea on the lough, that it 
put an end to any further explorations that day, and we had 
to content ourselves with searching the woods of Creagh for 
Warblers, but as usual only the common ones appeared. 

Next day we returned to the lake, and although still blowing 
hard we ventured on a visit to the Terns' island, taking advan- 
tage of the shelter of Cushlough Island until opposite that of 
the Terns, to which we had a hard pull aerainst a head wind and 
sea. On landing we found a large colony of Terns hovering 
overhead, for like the gulls, their nests had been nearly all 
robbed previous to our visit ; we saw a large number of 
empty nests, but in a few they had begun to lay again, 
several having one and two eggs, and but very few having the 
full number of three, and only three or four nests with newly 
hatched young birds. We remained for a long time on the 
island watching the birds on the wing, and trying to distinguish 
between the Arctic and Common Tern, but failing to do so a 
few were shot and found to belong to both species. I took 
the eggs from two nests, which from their being similar in 
size and colour to some brought from the Sovereign Islands 
off Cork Harbour, and being a size smaller than those of 
undoubted eggs of the Common Tern taken off the Inch at 
Killaloe, and from an island in Lough Conn, I have no doubt 
of their being the eggs of the Arctic Tern. 



The Breeding Birds of Lough Conn, Carra, and Mask. 121 

We took the newly-hatclied young from one nest, which are 
certainly Arctic Terns, for on comparing them with young 
Common Terns of about the same age, we found their tarsi so 
much shorter, as to leave no doubt of them being the Arctic 
species. I found a nest containing an ^g<g of the Lesser 
Black-backed Gull, placed under a thick bush, and several 
empty ones on other parts of the island, while as usual the 
Common Sandpipers were on the islands ; indeed on every 
island visited these birds were seen. The wind still blowing 
too hard for any further exploration of the lake, we returned 
and again spent some hours in Creagh demesne on our way to 
Ballinrobe. 

Next morning being our last day, and finding it still too 
stormy for the lake, we drove to Cong to visit Lord Ardilaun's 
beautiful demesne on the shores of Lough Corrib, and searched 
the woods and plantations for the Wood Wren, Garden 
Warbler, and Blackcap, but after walking for hours, saw 
nothing of these birds, and returned thoroughly disappointed 
to Ballinrobe, where after dinner we set out for a walk to 
Lough Carra, to have a last look at the Yellow Wagtails, and 
have another search for their nests. We met them in their 
old haunt near the bridge, but although we remained about 
the place until dusk, failed, as before, in our search. 
Returning to Ballinrobe, about half a mile from the lough, 
we came to a fir-wood that extended from Creagh demesne to 
a bog on the side of the road, and just when passing the wood, 
Mr. Williams hearing the churring of the Nightjar, we stopped 
to listen to its curious notes ; here we remained for a time, 
but a noisy cart passing along the road scared the bird, which 
went deeper into the wood where we could scarcely hear him. 
It was unfortunate the weather turning out so storni}^ on 
our last three days, for it prevented a thorough exploration 
of Lough Mask, especially the Galwa}^ side and the lower end, 
where there are a number of islands. However I was glad to 
have ascertained that the range of the Yellow Wagtail and 
Nightjar extended so far west, and that neither the Wood 
Wren, Garden Warbler, nor Blackcap frequented the woods 
of the lake district, at least so far as our observations went, 
though of course it is not improbable that all these birds, or 
perhaps some of them, may yet be discovered in some part of 

that district. 

• A4 



122 The Irish Naturalist, 

THE FRESH-WATBR SPONGES OF IREEAND, 

WITH REMARKS ON THE GENERA!^ DISTRIBUTION OF THE GROUP. 

BY R. HANITSCH, PH. D. 



[Pirate 4-] 
Thk following short account of Irish Fresh-water Sponges is 
based chiefly upon a small collection which I received last 
autumn from Dr. R. F. Scharff, Science and Art Museum, 
Dublin. The examination of the material gave such unex- 
pected results, that I gladly accepted Dr. Scharff's invitation 
to publish the same in the Irish Natur^alist. 

According to Weltner (13 & 14), the Fauna of Europe com- 
prises seven species of Spongillidse, viz : — 

Euspongilla lacusiris, Autt. 
Spo}igilla fragilis, IvCidy. 
Trochospongilla horrida^ WeUner. 
Ephydatia Mi'dleri, L/ieberktihn. 
Ephydatia JJuviatilis, Autt. 
Ephydatia bohe??iica, Petr. 
Carterius Stepanowi, Dybowsky. 

To these we have to add Heteromeye^iia repens, Potts, of which 
Wierzejski (15, p. 143) discovered some free floating gemmules 
in a pond in Galizia. The same species is enumerated by 
Petr (6, p. 18) in his recent paper on European Spongillidae. 
The article, however, being written in Bohemian, I am unable 
to say whether he gives additional data regarding the 
occurrence of that species. Out of Weltner's list the first five 
— and no others — occur in Germany (Weltner, 18, pp. 210-220) 
and France (Topsent, 8, p. 176). But Ephydatia bohemica has 
been found in Bohemia only, and Carterius Stepa^iozvi, near 
Charkow in Russia, in Bohemia, Hungary, and Galizia 
(Wierzejski, 15, p. 143). Russia possesses six species (viz., 
Weltner's seven species with the exception of E. bohemica), 
although Traxler (10), in quite a recent paper, enumerates 
only four species from Northern Russia : — 

Euspongilla lacustHs. 
Spongilla fragilis. 
Meyenia {—Ephydatia) Mdlleri, 
Trochospongilla horrida. 



Irish Naturalist, Vol. IV.] 



[Plate 4. 





Fig. 4. 




IRISH FRESH-WATER SPONGES. 



Th e Fresh - iva ter Sponges of Ire la nd^ 123 

A few months ago, Dr. Adriano Garbini, of Verona, published 
a paper on Italian Spongillidse. He has found, so far, only 
two species, namely Eiispongilla lacustris and Ephydatia 
fluviatilis, and he gives a table showing the distribution of 
those two species in Europe (4, p. 20). They occur according 
to Garbini in all European countries, except the Iberian and 
Balkan peninsulas, and he explains this by saying that the 
long mountain-range of the Pyrenees, Alps and the Balkans 
hindered the dispersal of those Sponges from Northern Europe 
(where according to Merejkowsky, (5), at least Euspongilla 
lacustris has its home) into Southern Europe. Those two 
species, found in Italy, were conveyed and dispersed by 
migratory birds along their lines of flight from the White Sea 
and the Baltic, to the lakes of the Alps and Northern Italy. 
But before we accept this explanation, we must ask w^hether 
it is settled beyond dispute that only two species of Spongil- 
lidse exist in Italy. In regard to their supposed non- 
occurrence in the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas, I ma)^ 
state that quite recently, amongst a collection of marine 
Sponges, sent to me by Dr. Paulino d'Oliveira in Coimbra, 
Portugal, I discovered an Euspongilla lacustris, coming from 
a small river near Caldas de Nixella, North Portugal. 
Whether this is really the first instance that the occurrence 
of a fresh-water Sponge in Portugal has been stated, I 
cannot say. 

Coming now to Great Britain, we find that Bowerbank (1) 
mentions four species, which, according to his nomenclature, 
are : — 

Spongilla Jlicviatilis, Johnst. 
Spongilla lacustris, Johnst. 
Spongilla Parfitti, Carter. 
Spongilla sceptrijei'a, B. 

One of these, Spo7igilla Parfitti, is synonymous with 
Ephydatia Millleri, I^iebk. (SeeTopsent, 9, p. 12). Spongilla 
sceptrifera, B., is, according to Carter (2, p. 93), probably nothing 
but Spongilla {^Ephydatia) fluviatilis ; "for S. fluviatilis grows 
abundantly in the same locality [reservoir, Exeter], and the 
characteristic spicule represented by Dr. Bowerbank (/. c. fig. 
17) is nothing more than a detached frustule of the diatom 
Asterionella, like A. foniiosa'' Bowerbank's type specimen 



124 • The Irish Naturalist. 

was without genimules, so that a final decision is impossible. 
Adding to the three species which are thus left, Sp07igilla 
fi'agilis, mentioned b}^ Carter (3, p. i8), as occurring in the 
River Wye, near Hereford, we find the British Fauna of 
fresh-water Sponges to consist of 

Ejispongilla lacitsiris, Autt. 
Spongilla fragilis, Ivcidy, 
Ephydatia MiiUeri, Lieb, 
Ephydatia Jliiviatilis^ Aiitt. 

We scarcel}^ need to believe that this is all. It is very 
likely that the fifth .species which is common to France and 
German)^ viz., Trochospo?igilla horrida, will some da}^ be found 
in Great Britain, and perhaps others in addition. 

We now come to Irish Spongillidae. I will state right 
at the beginning that Dr. Scharff's material comprises, 
besides E2cspo7ioilla lacustris and Ephydatia Jiuviatilis, two 
species which are of undoubted American origin, viz., 
Hetc7'oineye7iia Ryderi, Potts, and 7uJ?ella pe?insylva7iica, Potts. 
Only the former of the two species contained gemmules, but 
the skeleton spicules of Tzibella perinsylvaiiica^cs:^ so character- 
istic, that I consider an}^ mistake impossible. The case was 
more difficult with a fifth species, also without gemmules, 
from Park I^ough, Hungr}^ Hill. It has no resemblance to 
any known European species, and of American species I can 
identify it onl}" with Ephydatia craterifo7i7tis, Potts. With 
this form it agrees both in the general character of its vSkeleton- 
spicules, and especially in certain small spicules scattered 
through the tissues, which may be immature amphidiscs (for 
details see p. 128). A quite satisfactory identification will be 
possible only when material w^ith gemmules is found. But as 
I hear from Dr. vScharff that no scientific person lives within 
50 miles of Park Lough, some time may elapse, before such 
can be obtained. A sixth and last species, Ephydatia Miilleri, 
I received through the kindness of my friend, Mr. S. R. 
Christophers, who collected it last summer during a walking 
tour in Ireland at McHugo Island, Lough Rea, Galway. 
The specimens are again without gemmules, but the skeleton- 
vSpicules of this species are so characteristic, that an error in 
identification is not likely. 



The Fresh-water Sp07iges of Irela?id. 125 

The following therefore are the Fresh-water Sponges so far 
found in Ireland : — 

1. Euspongrilla acustris, Autt. Camlough River, Co. Armagh; 

Dry drain, Killakeen. Probably common throughout the 
country. 

2. Ephydatia fluviatilis, Autt. River Barrow ; Raheny ponds, Co. 

Dublin. Probably common throughout the country. 

3. Ephydatia lYIuIIeri, Lieberktihn. McHugo Island, Lough Rea, 

Galway. 150 feet above sea level. 

4. } Ephydatia crater if orm is, Potts. Park Lough, Hungry Hill. 

300 feet above sea level. 

5. Hetcrotneycnia Ryder i, Potts. Lough Doon, near Dingle. 

1,000 feet above sea level. 

6. Tubella pennsylvanica, Potts. Columbkille Lough, Bally- 

shannon. 100 feet above sea level. 

In this list we notice the important fact that the eastern 
part of Ireland possesses only common European forms (Nos. 
I and 2), but that the American species (Nos. 4, 5 and 6) are 
found only along the west coast, and there, so far, only one 
European species (No. 3) has been obtained. 

How can we account for the occurrence of those American 
Spongillidae in Ireland ? Wallace (12, pp. 364 and 365) men- 
tions several flowering plants, viz. : — Spiranthes Romanzoviana, 
Sisyrinchium a7igustifolium and EriocatUon septangular c, which 
are American, and yet have been found in the west of Ireland, 
and he thinks that these American plants, together with a few 
arctic and alpine plants, ma}^ be the remnants of a vegetation 
once spread over the whole north temperate zone. Similarly, 
we might explain the occurrence of American Spongillidae in 
Ireland. But, at least in the case of the Spongillidse, it seems 
to me quite as likely that such forms migrated from North 
America to Ireland. The formation of gemmules gives to the 
Spongillidae such chances of dispersal, as only few animals 
enjoy, comparable in fact to the dispersal of plants by means 
of seeds. In the February number of this journal Mr. G. 
H. Carpenter recorded from the Mitchelstown Caves, Co. 
Tipperary, a collembolan, Sinella cavernicola, almost, and a 
spider, Porrhommamyops, quite indistinguishable from species 
inhabiting the Kentucky and other North American caves. 
But insects too are very easily dispersed. Only in case of the 
discovery in Ireland of American animals whose presence 
could not be explained by dispersal in recent times, should 



126 The Irish Naturalist. 

we be obliged to accept Wallace's theory as to a more or less 
uniform fauna and flora once spreading over the whole north 
temperate zone. In any case, it is significant that of American 
forms, with the exception of a few plants, only such animals 
have been found in Ireland as might easily have migrated 
there. Three agents may have served in carrying sponge- 
gemmules from North America across to Ireland — winds, 
ocean currents, and birds. Strong winds might carry dried 
gemmules almost any distance, like plant-seeds, and the 
position of Ireland, together with its western winds favours 
such a possibilit}^ The Gulf Stream might have carried 
gemmules or even entire Sponges containing gemmules, loose 
or attached to floating timber, from North American rivers 
to Ireland. When once arrived on the Irish shore their 
further dispersal to higher levels must have been a com- 
paratively simple matter. Similar cases must have happened 
often enough. Fresh- water Sponges, if they had, as we 
suppose, their ancestors in marine forms, must in any case 
have travelled inland and to higher levels. However, I do 
not know for how long a period gemmules can stand entire, 
or partial immersion in sea-water. Finally, we may look to 
birds as agents in the dispersal of gemmules from N. 
America to Ireland. Wallace (11, vol. I., p. i6) says that 
* small and weak birds are often carried accidentally across 
great wadths of ocean by violent gales.' — * No less than sixty- 
nine species of American birds have occurred in Europe, 
most of them in Britain and Heligoland.' Such birds would 
naturally first alight at the west coast ot Ireland, and would 
be more liable to leave any gemmules there than at sub- 
sequent resting-places. Again, a number of migratory birds, 
common to Europe and America, regularly visit Greenland 
(Wallace, 11, vol. II., p. 138). It is possible that, even by such 
roundabout methods, gemmules could be carried from America 
to Greenland and thence to Ireland. A similar communica- 
tion via Iceland seems less probable, as, although there are no 
less than forty species of annual visitants from Europe to 
Iceland, there seems to be no regular inter-communication 
between N. America and Iceland (Wallace, 11, vol. I., p. 198). 
The explanation of the fact that these Sponges, once arrived 
in the west of Ireland, did not spread out further east, is 
perhaps that competition was too severe. 



The Ff'esh-water Sp07tges of Ireland. 127 

I now propose to give a short description of the Spongillidae 
so far found in Ireland, with the addition of Sp07igillafragilis. 
By doing so the following list will at the same time include 
all British Spongillidse and thus be useful to British collectors 
too. Besides, S. fragilis is sure to be found some day in 
Ireland, being, next to Eusp07igilla lac2istris, the most common 
fresh-water Sponge of Europe and N. America. 

Euspongrilla, Vejdovsky. 

Skeleton-spicules oxeote, generally smooth, accompanied by short, 
either straight or curved, smooth or rough flesh-spicules. Gemmules 
always single, and covered with oxeote and almost always spined 
spicules. 

Euspongrilla lacustris, Autt. [PI. 4, fig. 1.] Forming finger-like 
branches arising from an encrusting base. Colour grass-green, yellowish, 
brown. Skeleton-spicules, smooth oxea, straight or slightly curved, 
gradually pointed. Flesh-spicules slightly curved, minutely spined. 
Gemmules globular, the covering spicules strongly spined, and more or 
less curved, tangentially or radially arranged. 

Habitat : Camlough River, Co. Armagh (R. LI. Praeger) ; dry drain, 
Killakeen, Co. Cavan (R.I. A. Flora and Fauna Committee) ; probably in 
numerous other localities in Ireland. Common throughout Great 
Britain, Europe generally, Siberia, and, according to Potts (7, p. 200), 
the most widely distributed fresh-water sponge of the United States. 

[Spong-illa, Wierzejski. 

With the characters of Euspongilla, but gemmules in groups of two to 
thirty enclosed by a common covering. (Often considered as subgenus 
of Euspongilla). 

Spong-illa fragrilis, Leidy. (Plate 4, fig. 2). Encrusting, never 
branching, surface smooth. Colour from light grey to brown, rarely 
green. Skeleton-spicules straight or very slightly bent, rather abruptly 
pointed, smooth. With little spongin, therefore easily broken. Covering 
spicules of gemmules generally larger than those of Euspongilla laciisiris, 
straight or curved, with numerous minute spines. No flesh-spicules. 

Habitat : Not yet found in Ireland. Occurs in England (River Wye, 
near Hereford), France, Germany, Bohemia, Galicia, Russia, and next 
to Euspongilla laaistris, the most widely distributed fresh-water sponge 
of North America: (Potts, 7, p. 200).] 

Ephydatia, Lamouroux. 

With either smooth or rough skeleton-spicules, or with both. The 
gemmules surrounded by radially-arranged amphidiscs of a single type 
only. The rotules with star-shaped margins. 

Ephydatia f luviatllis, Autt. (Plate 4, fig. 3). Encrusting, massive. 
Emerald green to light yellow-brown. Skeleton-spicules smooth, 
fusiform, slightly bent, gradually pointed. The shafts of the amphidiscs 
smooth or spined, twice as long as the diameter of the rotules ; rays of 
the rotules deeply cut. 



I2S The hish Nahiralist. 

Habitat : River Barrow (Mr. T. Greene) ; Raheny ponds, Co. Dublin 
(Dr. R. F. Scharff); probably common throughout the country —Great 
Britain, France, Germany, Bohemia, Galicia, Russia, Italy, and throughout 
the Eastern and Middle United States generally. 

Ephydatia Miillerl, Lieberklihn. (Plate 4, fig. 4). Encrusting, 
with smooth surface, sometimes with short branches. Green, yellow, 
yellowish brown, white. Skeleton-spicules straight or slightly bent, 
suddenly pointed, smooth or rough, or smooth and rough spicules mixed. 
Shaft of the amphidiscs short, rays of the rotules smooth or indented. 

Habitat : McHugo Island, Lough Rea, Loughrea, Galway (Mr. S. R. 
Christophers), about 150 feet above sea level. —England (River Exe, 
Devonshire), France, Germany, Bohemia, Russia. Probably also in the 
United States, but Potts gives no locality, as he fuses this species with 
E. fliiviafilis. 

Our Irish material consists of a few small circular patches, each about 
10 mm. in diameter and i or 2 mm. in thickness, of yellowish grey colour, 
when alive. Its skeleton-spicules appear shoit and stout, suddenly 
pointed, both the smooth and rough variety of spicules are present, 
measuring about 0*25 by 0*02 mm. 

Ephydatia crateriformis, Potts. (Plate 4, fig. 5). Thin, encrust- 
ing. Colour of gemmules white or yellowish. Skeleton-spicules slender, 
gradually pointed, slightly spined. Tubule of the gemmule standing at 
the centre of a crater- like depression. 

Habitat : (doubtful) : Park Lough, Hungry Hill, 300 feet above sea- 
level (R. I. A. Flora and Fauna Committee), — Occurs in various localities 
in North America (for details see Potts, 7, p. 229). 

We have only two specimens from the Irish locality. They are small, 
uneven, somewhat lobular masses, about 10 mm. in diameter and 4 mm. 
in height. The skeleton-spicules are slender, o"2i to 0'33 mm. by 0007 
mm., straight or only very little bent, slightly spined, often irregularly 
inflated, and such inflated portions of the spicules are always free from 
spines. The corresponding spicules as described and figured by Potts 
measure 0*27 by o-oi mm., and show no such inflations. The Irish 
specimens contained no gemmules, but scattered throughout the tissue 
of the sponge there are exceedingly slender spicules with swollen ends, 
with most minute spines which may be immature amphidiscs, measuring 
0-036 to 0'045 mm. by 0*0025 i^m. Potts (7, p. 229) describes similar 
spicules in his American material, measuring about 0*062 by o'oo3 mm. 

Hetcromeyenfa, Potts. 

Skeleton-spicules as in Ephydatia. The gemmules surrounded by 
intermingled amphidiscs of two tj'pes, whose shafts are of unequal length* 
The proximal rotules of all rest upon the chitinous coat ; the outer 
extremities of the less numerous rotules project beyond the others. 

Hetcromeycnia Rydcrl, Potts. Light green, massive. Skeleton 
spicules fusitorm, gradually pointed, entirely spined, except at their 
ends. Rotules of long amphidiscs with three to six short recurved 
hooks. Rotules of short amphidiscs with straight rays. 



The Fresh-water Spo?iges of Ireland. 129 

Habitat: Lough Doon, near Dingle, 1,000 feet above sea-level (R. I. A 
Flora and Fauna Committee). — United States : from Florida to Nova 
Scotia, and from the Atlantic coast to Iowa. (Potts, 7, p. 243). 

The Irish specimens are in shape of small thin patches, i or 2 mm. in 
thickness, one of them with a conical elevation 4 mm. in height, bearing 
an osculum on its side. In giving the dimensions of the spicules we add 
Potts's measurements in brackets: skeleton-spicules 0*22 by o-oo8 to 
0-0I2 mm. (Potts 0*317 by o"oi5 mm.); long amphidiscs 0*052 by 0-005 
mm. (Potts 0*0507 by 0*006 mm.) ; short amphidiscs 0*024 mm. (Potts 
0*03 mm.). 

Tubella, Carter. 

Skeleton-spicules smooth or spined, pointed or rounded off at the 
extremities. Gemmules with unequal trumpet-shaped amphidiscs of 
which the larger rotule rests upon the chitinous coat. The margins of 
these larger rotules generally entire. 

Tubella pennsylvanica, Potts. Gray or green. Minute, encrust- 
ing. Skeleton-spicules extremely variable as to length and curvature ; 
rounded or pointed at the ends ; entirely spined. Margin of the large 
rotule of the amphidiscs entire, that of the small rotule occasionally 
notched. 

Habitat : Columbkille Lough, Ballyshanuon, 100 feet above sea level 
(Dr. R. H. Creighton^y United States ; Lehigh River and tributaries ; 
also generally throughout the Eastern United States (Potts, 7, p. 251). 

The largest of the Irish specimens is an encrusting mass, 25 by 20 mm. 
and 7 mm. in height, with a corrugated but smooth surface, bearing 8 
or 9 oscula with a diameter of i mm. or less. Three varieties of skeleton- 
spicules can be distinguished : (i) strongly spined, curved spicules, with 
blunt ends, which are as a rule the thicker, the shorter, from 0*07 by 
0*018 mm. to 0*116 by 0*013 mm. (2) Slightly spined, curved or 
straight spicules with pointed ends, of pretty uniform dimensions, 
0*16 by 0*005 mm. to 0*19 by o'ooS mm. (3) Slightly spined, shylote 
spicules, few in number, 0*15 by 0*005 mm, Potts gives the average of 
the skeleton spicules as 0*165 by 0*0075 mm. 

The specimens upon which this account is based, are not 
the outcome of systematic investigation. What results such 
an investigation would bring is difficult to foresee. But I am 
sure that even the highest expectations would not be 
disappointed, and I would not be surprised if the majority of 
American Spongillidse were discovered some day in the West 
of Ireland. A fresh-water station after the model of those in 
Germany and Bohemia would be the best means towards the 
study of the remarkable Fauna and Flora of Western Ireland. 

I will not conclude this paper without expressing my great 
indebtedness to the following gentlemen : — Dr. Scharflf, for 



^ Erroneously recorded as Euspongilla lacusiris, Irish Nat., vol. ii., 
p. 322. 



130 The Irish Naturalist. 

most of the material and valuable information regarding 
the Irish Flora and Fauna ; Dr. Weltner, Berlin, for having 
kindl}^ identified Hete?v??teye7iia Ryderi ; Dr. Gunther, F.R.S., 
and Mr. Kirkpatrick for having sent me fragments of type- 
specimens from the British Museum ; and finally, Mr. S. R. 
Christophers for specimens of Ephydatia Millleri. 

LITERATURE 

1. BowERBANK, J. S. "A Monograph of the British Spongiadse." 

4 vols. 

2. Carter, H. J. ** History and Classification of the known species 

oi Spongillay A.M.N.H. (5) vol. vii., 1881, pp. 77-107. 

3. Carter, H. J. " Note on Spongilla fragilis, Leidy., and a new 

species of Spongilla from Nova Scotia." A.M.N.H. (5) vol. xv., 
pp. 18-20. 

4. Garbini, a. " Contributo alia studio delle Spongille Italiane." 

Accad. Agriadt. Verona {3), vol. Ixx., 1894, 23 pp., 3 figs. 

5. MEREJKOWSKY, C. " Etudes sur les Eponges de la Mer Blanche." 

Mem. Acad. St. Petersbonrg, vol. xxvi., 1879. 

6. Petr, F. "Evropsk^HoubySladkovodnl." [European Spongillidae]. 

Chrudimi, 1894. 

7. Potts, E. "Contributions towards a synopsis of the American 

forms of Fresh-water Sponges, with descriptions of those named 
by other authors and from all parts of the world." Proc, Acad. 
Science, Philadelphia, 1887, pp. 158-279, 8 pis. 

8. ToPSENT, E. *' Note sur la faune des Spongillides de France." 

Bull. Soc. Zool. France, vol. xviii (1893), p. 176. 

9. ToPSENT, E. "Etude sur la faune des Spongiaires du Pas-de- 

Calais suivie d'une application de la nomenclature actuelle k 
la Monographic de Bowerbank." Rev. Biol. Nord France, vol. 
vii. (i894-95), pp. 6-28. 

10. TRAXiyER L. " Spongilliden der Umgebung von Jaransk." Zool. 

Anzeiger, vol. xvii. (1894), pp. 363 and 364. 

11. Wai.i,ace, a. R. "The Geographical Distribution of Animals." 

2 vols., 1876. 

12. Wahace, A. R. " Island lyife." 2nd ed., 1892. 

13. Wei^Tner, W. "Die Susswasserschwamme." In " Die Tier-und 

Pflanzenwelt des Siisswassers," by O. Zacharias. Vol. I., pp. 
186-236. 1891. 

14. WeI/Tner, W. " Ueber die Autorenbezeichnung von Spongilla 

erinaceus.''^ Sitz. Ber. Ges. naturf. Freimde, Berlin, 1893, No. i, pp. 
7-13- 

15. WiERZEJSKi, A. " Ueber das Vorkommen von Carterius stepanovii, 

Petr, and IJeteronieyenia repens. Potts, in Galizien." Biol. Centralbi, 
vol. xii., 1892, pp. 142-145. 

EXPI^ANATION OF Pl.ATE \. 

All figures are magnified 200 diameters. 

Fig. I. Euspongilla lacustris, Autt. From Killakeen, Co. Cavan. — a. 
skeleton-spicule ; b. gemmule-spicule ; c. flesh-spicule. 

Fig. 2. Spongilla fragilis, Leidy. From Bohemia. (From type specimen 
in British Museum, sent to Dr. H. J. Carter by Prof. Vejdovsky).— a. 
skeleton-spicules ; b. gemmule-spicules. 



The Fresh-water Sponges of Ireland. 131 

Figc 3. Ephydatia flziviatilis, Autt, From Raheny ponds, Co. Dublin. — a. 
skeleton-spicules ; b. amphidiscs (gemmule-spicules). 

Fig. 4. Ephydatia Mulleri, I^ieberklihn. From McHugoIsland, Lough 
Rea, Galway. — a. smooth skeleton-spicule ; b. spined skeleton-spicule ; 
c.,d. amphidiscs ; e. rotule of amphidiscs. (Figs, c, d., e., copied from 
Bowerbank, I. vol. III., pi. LXXXVL, figs. 14, 11, 12). 

Fig. 5. ? Ephydatia crateriforniis. Potts. From Park Lough, Hungry 
Hills. — a. skeleton-spicules; b. immature (?) amphidiscs; c. mature 
amphidiscs. (Fig. c, copied from Potts 7, pi. v, fig. 5/^) 

Fig. 6. Heterojiuyenia Ryderi, Potts. From Lough Doon, near Dingle. — 
a. skeleton-spicules ; b. short amphidiscs ; c. long amphidiscs ; d. 
immature (.?) forms. 

Fig. 7. Tubella pennsylvanica. Potts. From Columbkille Lough, Bally- 
shannon. — a. skeleton-spicules, one of them with pointed, the others 
with rounded ends ; b. amphidiscs. (Fig. b, copied from Potts, 7, 
pi. xn., fig. i^). 



THE ORIGIN OF MKGACEROS-MARL. 

BY CLKMKNT RBID, F.LS., F.G.S. 



Through the kindness of Mr. W. Williams of Dublin I have 
lately had an opportunity of examining a sample of the marl 
from which he has obtained skeletons of Cervus giganteus 
{inegaceros?) The exact locality is not mentioned, but Mr. 
Williams informs me that he " does not think that there is any- 
thing exceptional in the place which the clay came from, as 
the bogs are spread over a good many miles of country, and 
are all of the same character on the central limestone plain 
of Ireland, about 120 miles from Dublin." As a minute 
examination of this marl has suggested a new explanation of 
the mode by which the deer were trapped in such quantities, 
I think that it may be interesting to give the results, not 
committing ourselves, however, to any opinion as to the 
partial or general application of this explanation. Until an 
examination of a larger series of specimens can be undertaken 
it will be impossible to say whether the peculiar conditions 
may not be confined to a single locality, and that elsewhere 
the deer were merely bogged in the way suggested by Mr. 
Williams in his paper published in 188 1'. 

■" W. Williams. — " On the Occurrence of Megaceros Hiberniciis, Owen, in 
the Ancient Lacustrine Deposits of Ireland ; with Remarks on the 
Probable Age of these Beds." Geol. Mag. (new sen), Dec. XL, Vol. VIIL, 

PP- 354-363- 



132 The Irish Naturalist. 

The deposit is evidently a Chara-m2x\, for though the 
calcareous stems are so much decayed as to be scarcely 
recognisable, yet decalcified nucules of Chara are abundant. 
The only other determinable remains consist of seeds of a few 
aquatic and marsh plants, Pondweeds being especially 
common. All of the species are of wide range, and throw no 
light on the climatic conditions that held during the 
Megaceros period. The plants found are as follows : — 

Ranunculus aquatilis. Eleocharis pahistris. 

Myi'iophylhim spicatu?ii. Carex ? 

Littorella laaistris Scirpus ? 

Potaviogeton crispus. Chara (several species). 

F. prczlongus. 

This examination of the matrix suggests a curious, and I 
believe till now unrecognised, explanation of the occurrence 
of whole skeletons, or of complete heads, of Cerviis megaceros 
in such deposits. Those familiar with pools containing 
Chara will be well aware of the appearance of shallowness, 
and of a solid floor, which is so deceptive. The Chara and 
Potainogeto7i ma)^ grow from a depth of several feet, but they 
often appear to form a carpet of bright green turf a few inches 
under the surface of the clear water. Any animal treading on 
this turf would immediately plunge head- foremost into the 
water, and the wide-branching antlers of Cervus megaceros 
would become entangled amid the Chara stems, and still 
tougher Pondweeds, so that the animal would have scarcely a 
chance of escape. 

If this be the method b}" which the deer were caught, one 
would expect to find the remains of stags far more abundant 
than those of hinds, and old animals more abundant than 
young, though the reverse was probably the case among 
the living deer. This disproportionate number of skeletons 
of stags has already been recorded by Mr. Williams and other 
writers. It would also account for the abundance of heads 
without other parts of the skeleton at certain localities ; for 
the animal being caught by the antlers, the body might drift 
away within the reach of carnivorous animals, while the 
entangled head and heavy antlers would sink at the spot 
where the deer died. 



[ 133 ] "" 
PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



RoYAi, ZooLOGiCAi, Society. 

Recent donations comprise a Hawk from Rev. E. Denny, and a number 
of fish from F. Godden, Esq. Twelve Monkeys have been acquired by 
purchase, and a Pigmy Calf has been born in the Gardens. 

7,660 persons visited the Gardens in March. 



Dubinin Microscopicai, Ci^ub. 

March, 28th.- -The Club met at Prof. G. Coi^E'S, who exhibited a 
section of the basalt of Carnmoney, near Belfast, containing the translu- 
cent yellow-brown substance that has been called " huUite." He urged 
that this substance was really the altered basic glass between the crystals 
of the basalt, and exhibited sections from Eskdale in Dumfries and from 
Forfarshire in support of this contention, the former containing unaltered 
and the latter palagonitic glass. 

Mr. F. W. Moore showed Nectria sinopica, Fries, growing on a decaying 
orchid pseudo-bulb, part of a plant which had been imported from South 
America. This Nectria is rare in Britain, and is reported as only growing 
on the Ivy, both in Britain and on the Continent. It is, therefore, 
interesting to find it now growing on an Orchid. 

Mr. McArdi^E exhibited Lejeunea patens var. cochleata in fruiting condi- 
tion, which he collected last year at Anniscaul, Co. Kerry. This form is 
remarkable amongst liverworts in having the margin and apex of the 
leaves recurved over the lobule, not unlike the orifice of a broad-lipped 
shell of a Helix. The plant was first collected at Killarney by 
the late Dr. D. Moore, who identified it with specimens gathered by Dr. 
Spruce on Mount Tunguragua in Ecuador, and named by him Z, cochleata, 
but now Dr. Spruce writes that having compared it rigorously with 
L. patens, he thinks it must stand as a variety. It is an additional link 
between Tunguragua and Killarney. 

Dr. McWeeney showed a specimen of Eiirotium repens with the two 
forms of fructification, the imperfect or conidial, and the perfect or 
ascigerous, growing from the same mycelium. This common mould of 
which the conidial form under the generic name Aspergillus is so familiar, 
produces its small yellow peritheria comparatively seldom, and only 
under circumstances which are for the most part imperfectly known, 
but of which imperfect air-supply is one of the most important. In this 
instance however the peritheria were abundantly produced on a surface 
of nutrient gelatine, freely exposed to the air. The most mature con- 
ceptacles were in the centre of the patch which was an accidental 
contamination of a gelatine plate -culture made for another purpose. 
Every stage of their development from the corkscrew-shaped mycelia 
branch with its enveloping hyphse could be distinctly traced. The 
peculiar shape of the ascopores (biconvex with a depressed margin) was 
then demonstrated. 

Mr. G. H. Carpenter showed a chernetid or " flilse scorpion '' Chthonius 
Rayi, from Howth, and remarked that only four of the twenty British 
species of this interesting order of arachnids had yet been found in 
Ireland. 

Mr. J. N. HaIvBERT exhibited Microvelia pygnioea, Duf, a minute 
hemipteron of aquatic habit, which he had taken in a marsh near 
Ventry, Co. Kerry. The specimen shown was immature, and the 
consequent non-development of the elytrae allowed the upper side to be 
seen ; the silvery patches of pulusana with which it was covered, gave the 
insect a very brilliant appearance. The developed form is very rare. 
Haliday was the first to record this insect as British, from specimens 
taken near Belfast, but it has since been found in many widely distributed 
localities throughout Britain. 



134 The Irish Naturalist, 

Mr. H. J. Seymour showed Foraminifera from the raised beach at 
rortmarnock. These were got from a shelly sand w'hich occurs in the 
field adjoining the Portmarnock brickworks, and close to the railway 
line. The sand lies beneath a deposit of alluvium and appears to overlie 
Glacial gravels. Only a small amount of the sand was examined, and 
from it specimens of Polystoviella, Planorlndina, Discorbina, Lagena, and 
Btiliniina were obtained. Of these Lagena was the most common after 
Polystomella, and one specimen oi Nodosaria was found. 

Irish Fiei,d CIvUB Union. 

Galway Conference and Excursion. — The first conference of the 
Field Clubs of Ireland, under the auspices of the lately-formed Irish Field 
Club Union, will be held at Galway, on July ii to 17. The proceedings 
will include a conference on Field Club work, and a number of excursions 
to the most interesting localities in that famous and beautiful region, such 
as the Arran Islands and the mountains and lakes of Connemara — districts 
of surpassing interest to the naturalist and antiquarian, and of great 
picturesqueness. 

Arrangements have been made for special trains and steamers for the 
conveyance of the party, which it is expected will be a very large one. 
In addition to the members of the four Irish Field Clubs, representatives 
of several English scientific societies have signified their intention of 
being present, and there can be no doubt that this gathering will mark 
an important epoch in natural history work in Ireland. Tickets will be 
issued to members of Irish Field Clubs at surprisingly low rates, and 
early application for tickets is recommended, as the accommodation avail- 
able places a limit on the number of the party. Applications will be 
received by the Secretaries of the various Clubs from this date forward. 



BEI,FAST NATURAI.ISTS' F1E1.D ClvUB. 

March 28. — In connection with the Celtic Class, an entertainment of 
Irish music and readings was held. The report of the Celtic Section was 
read by the Secretary (J. St. Clair Boyd, M.D.). Readings in Irish were 
subsequently given by Messrs. George Gibson and P. J, O'Shea. Miss 
Cathleen Milligan, Mrs. Wheeler, and Mr. Savile Hardy contributed Irish 
songSj Miss Stelfox, Irish airs on the violin, and Mr. Owen Lloyd, Irish 
airs on the harp. There was a large attendance. 

In our report of the meeting on March 19, mention was omitted of a 
paper by Prof. G. A.J.Cole, F. G. S., on the so-called "Hullite" from Cam- 
money, in which the author expressed the view that Hullite is not a 
distinct mineral form but only altered basic glass. The paper will be 
published shortly in the Geological Magazine. 



Dubinin Naturausts' Fiei.d Ci.ub. 

April, 9. — The President (Mr. G. H. Carpenter, B. Sc.I in the chair. 
Prof. E. J. McWeeney, M.D., gave a communication on a fungoid disease 
of Mangel-Wurzel which has lately appeared in Ireland. The fungus 
attacks the leaves and especially the succulent root of the plant, produc- 
ing dark brown discoloration. It was first found by Dr. Franks of the 
Agricultural College, Berlin, in Germany in the autumn of 1892, and 
named by him Phoma beta. Prof T. Johnson, D.Sc, and Mr. D. M'Ardle 
took part in the discussion that followed. Dr. McWeeney then exhibited 
in the lantern micro-photographs of yeast, by Mr. Allan Swan of Bush- 
mills, showing the spores of this plant. 

The Secretary subsequently read a paper on " Wild Bird Protection and 
Nesting Boxes," by Mr. J. R. P. MASEFIEI.D, M.A., of the North vStafFord- 
shire Naturalists' Field Club. The writer describes various forms of nest- 
ing boxes and other devices, by means of which he had induced upwards 
of thirty species of wild birds to breed in the vicinity of his house. He 
made a strong appeal for the protection of the rarer species of British 



Proceedi?tgs of Irish Societies. 135 

birds Mrs. Lawrenson exhibited some very beautifuj new hybrid 
daffodils, and Mr. R. Wei^ch (Belfast), photographs showing the effects 
of the great December gale in the North of Ireland 



NOTES. 

Portraits of Irish IVIcn of Science and of others who have 
worked for the Advancement of Science in Ireland. — For 

some time I have had it in contemplation to exhibit in a suitable part of 
the Museum a collection of portraits of persons identified with the 
progress of science in Ireland. 

Quite recently a number of portraits having become available for this 
purpose, and others, as the result of special correspondence, having been 
presented or promised, the time is now close at hand when the collection 
can be placed on view. 

I therefore desire to make known through the pages of the Irish 
Naturalist, that contributions and loans to this collection of portraits of 
eminent and acknowledged men of science belonging to the above 
denomination will be gratefully accepted. 

Circumstances have rendered it desirable that no restriction whatever 
should be put upon the style or nature of the portraits so contributed, 
no funds being available for securing uniformity. Hence we have 
decided to accept oil paintings, lithographs, etchings, or photographs, 
and to exhibit them as received, save that suitable frames will be 
supplied when needed. 

Portraits of Mathematicians, Astronomers, Physicists, Meteorologists, 
Geologists, Botanists, Zoologists, Antiquarians, and Numismatists will 
be arranged in separate groups. In the cases of those vvho are deceased, 
short biographical notices will be attached to the portraits. 

V. Bai,!,, Science and Art Museum, Dublin. 



BOTANY. 
PHANEROGAMS. 

Th3 Lesser Burnst (Poterium Sansuisorba, Linn.), in the 
North of Ireland. — In Vol. i of the Irish Naturalist, 1892 (p. 81), is 
recorded for the first time, the occurrence of the Lesser Burnet in the 
North of Ireland. In a large field at Glenmore, near Lisburn, County 
Antrim, some patches of the plant growing close together were then 
found, with every appearance of being native there. It has continued to 
flourish in this spot, and this year, early as the season is (March), it has 
unexpectedly been found in another part of the same large field. In 
this latter spot, which is distant about three hundred yards from that 
mentioned in my former note, there are numerous plants, covering 
nearly a square yard. This, I should thinly, tends to confirm the view 
that the species is indigenous in the north. It may be added that the 
meadow has been known to me for close on forty j^ears, and that at no 
time during that period has it been under cultivation. 

John H. Davies, Lisburn. 



ZOOLOGY. 

AMPHIBIANS. 

Irish Newts.— All the newts I have hitherto received from various 
parts of Ireland, belong to the one species {Molge vulgaris, L. ).^ Further 
search for the other species is therefore necessary, chiefly in the Co. 
Galway, where the late distinguished naturalist, Mr. M'Calla discovered 
a larger kind readily distinguishable, as he remarked, from both male 
and female of the Common Newt During the forthcoming visit of the 
Irish Field Clubs to Galway, t is to be hoped that the question will be 



136 The Irish Naturalist, 

determined whefher the large species of newt has since become extinct, 
or whether the faculty of taking interest in Natural History matters 
has become lost among the inhabitants of the county. 

Mr. Thompson records the Common Newt from Belfast and Sligo, and 
mentions that Mr. M'Calla had found it at Tuam, and Dr. R. Ball at 
Youghal. It has been known from the Co. Dublin for a great many 
years. We have received specimens at the Museum of this species from 
the following localities : — Cashel, Co. Tipperary (Miss Kelsall) ; Cappagh, 
Co. Waterford (R. J. Ussher) ; Armagh (Rev. W. F. Johnson) ; Bushy 
Park, Co. Roscommon (A. R. Nichols) ; Waterford (A. Neale) ; Lake 
Mentrim, Co. Meath ; Mullingar, Co. Westmeath ; Giant's Causeway, 
Co. Antrim ; Raheny and Howth, Co. Dublin (R. F. Scharff) ; Ivucan, Co. 
Dublin (J. N. H albert); Borris, Co. Carlow (R. I. Acad. Fauna and 
Flora Committee) ; and Cork (R. A, Phillips). 

R. F. Scharff, Dublin. 

MAMMALS. 

Hedg-ehogrs in Captivity. — In Mr. Barrett-Hamilton's paper on 
" Irish Mammals " in the Irish Naturalist for this month (March) the 
following sentence appears : — 

" It is a pit}^ that Mr. Lj^dekker has not given us any notes on the 
habits of the Hedgehog in captivity." 

Having kept Hedgehogs at different times perhaps a few remarks about 
them may be interesting. 

When first caught they are very shy, but after a time they learn to 
know who feeds them. Hedgehogs will eat almost anything, but as they 
belong to the carnivora they must have meat frequently when in captivity 
to keep them health}-, besides bread and milk, boiled potatoes, etc. 

We had one Hedgehog that would lay his bristles down smooth and 
allow himself to be stroked without rolling up. He got so accustomed 
to be handled and fed by children that he would draw a little cart made 
out of a paste-board box. He was attached to this by a tape passed over 
his head with two traces, after the style of the American trotting 
harness. He was usually kept in a box with wire on the front of it, but 
sometimes made his escape. The garden he dwelt in was large and 
walled in, and after two or three days' absence he was generally found 
rolled up in a nest of grass and leaves under a bush. We had him about 
a year when during one of his outings he was found as usual, but alas ! 
poor Peter was no more, ^\'■hat was the cause of his demise we cannot 
say. 

Hedgehogs are not cleanly in their habits, and are generally infested 
with fleas. Knowing this, we once spread a white cloth on the ground, 
placed a Hedgehog on it and sprinkled it plentifully with Keating's 
Insect Powder, when the fleas left it in great numbers, the white cloth 
enabling tis to see them. In some houses Hedgehogs are kept for killing 
black beetles, and it is said answer the purpose well. 

M. Jose Simpson, Ballymena. 

The Irish Stoat. — Naturalists will be startled to read in the y^««. 
Mag. Nat. Hist, and more fully in the Zoologist, for April, that in the 
opinion of Messrs. Oldfield Thomas, and G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton, 
our Irish Stoat must be regarded as a new species, intermediate between 
the Stoat of Great Britain and the Weasel. These gentlemen describe 
the animal under the name of Futorins hibcrnicus, and point out that it 
differs from the British Stoat and approaches the Weasel in its small 
size, and the less extent of whitish colour beneath the body. As a 
colloquial name the}' suggest " Assogue," an anglicised transliteration of 
the Irish name of the animal — Easog There will be, no doubt, much 
comparison of Irish with English Piitorii by naturalists, and, if the 
distinctions indicated, be found constant, one of the most important 
additions to the Irish fauna within recent years will gladly be welcomed. 

=— — Ka 



^Ije ^vi^lj ^ainvaii&t 



Vol. IV. JUNE, 1895. No. 6. 



SOME CAUSES OF THE DISINTEGRATION 

OF SHEIvIvS. 

BY MISS R. HENSMAN. 



(Read before the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, nth December, 1894.) 



Thk disintegration of shells was, until quite recently, looked 
upon as due to the friction of the sea, which carries un- 
inhabited shells backwards and forwards, bringing them into 
intimate relations with the land and dashing them against each 
other and against the rocks on the coast, and also to the 
gradual solvent action of the carbonic acid dissolved in the 
water. The aim of my paper is to draw attention to another 
and remarkable cause of this disintegration. The presence 
of tube-like structures in shells, corals, fossil fish-scales, and 
other calcareous bodies has been known for some years, but 
it was not known until quite recently to what cause these 
tubes were to be attribitted. In 1888 was published a short 
paper b}^ Bornet and Flahault in the Journal de Bota7iique 
describing two of these tube-like structures as perforating 
algse. A year later a fuller paper entitled " Sur quelques 
Plantes vivant dans le Test calcaire des Mollusques" was 
published by the same authors, in which ten species were 
described and illustrated. 

We have six species recorded in Ireland. The first to be 
found was Gomontia on the shores of Gal way Bay, in the 
spring of 1891, by Prof. T. Johnson. Owing to the difficulty 
of freely examining these plants and the little general attention 
that has been paid to them, we may feel sure that more will 
be noticed on the Irish coasts, and even fresh forms dis- 
covered when greater research has been made. So far none 
are recorded from the North of Ireland. The brown seaweeds, 
which are as yet unrepresented, we may expect to be recorded. 

A 



138 The Irish Naturalist. 

Probably we shall find that there are more fresh-water species. 
It is due to Bornet and Flahault, that we have had pointed 
out the great use of these plants in the economy of nature — 
namely, that of shell-destruction. Since Bornet's work, 
papers have been published, giving illustrated accounts of 
two additional species, one by Batters^ and one by Bommer. 

The presence of these organisms can be detected in the 
shells of various molluscs, such as razor -shells, limpets, 
cockles, periwinkles, by the green, bluish green, or pink 
stains which they make. They have been classified according 
to their colour, into four groups : — 

I. Rhodophyceae (red); 2. Chloropli3^ceae (pure green) ; 3- 
Cyanophjxeae or Phycochromacese (blue-green) ; 4. Fungi 
(plants colourless, appearing to belong to the fungi). 

Care is needed in examining a specimen to make sure that 
the plant we are looking at reall}^ penetrates into the shell, as 
various algae, especially in the young state when the spores 
are germinating, form patches of various colours on the 
surface of shells, but never penetrate into their substance. 
This mistake fortunatel}^ is easily avoided ; by using one or 
other of the following simple tests we can determine whether 
the coating is superficial or not. If we scrape the shell with 
a sharp instrument (or, if this is not at hand, one'5 nail being 
so, answers the purpose admirably) the young germinating non- 
perforating seaweeds will be rubbed off, leaving the shell its 
original colour. If the shell is penetrated by a shell- 
borer this will not be the case, the colouration still being 
apparent. Another and perhaps better plan is to break the 
shell in two ; if the stain continues to any depth we ma}^ feel 
sure that we have a perforating alga. A good deal of infor- 
mation can also be obtained by powdering the shell with 
pestle and mortar, and observing the powder under the i-inch 
objective, or by taking a thin layer of the shell, and looking 
at it under the same objective. 

For fuller information as to these plants it is necessary to 
first remove the calcareous matter and thus set free the plants 
themselves for examination. The reagent used is Perenyi's 
Fluid, which not only dissolves the carbonate of lime, but 
fixes the protoplasm, without destroying the colour. The 

^ Conchocelis rosea. E- Batters. Phycological Memoirs, II., 1893. 
2 " Note sur Vcrru carta cotiseqiwis," 1892, C. Bommer, 



Some Causes of the Disintegration of Shells. 139 

action of any acid upon carbonate of lime is well known. 
Perforating seaweeds perform the same office as acid, though 
in a less rapid manner, upon the shells which they penetrate. 
Bornet was the first to point out that they must therefore be 
most powerful factors in the work of disintegration. 

All these algae attack the shell in the same manner. First 
they form a horizontal layer on the outside of the shell, from 
this branches develop, and enter into the substance of the 
shell until it may be quite honeycombed by them. The 
calcareous matter is thus by their agency returned to the 
water, where it may again enter into the composition of 
marine plants or animals. 

One of the commonest species is Goinontia polyrhiza, fre- 
quently found, especially in razor-shells. It is readily distin- 
guished by the naked eye, owing to its patches of green, mark- 
ing the shell, sometimes on one side, sometimes on both, 
the depth depending on the age of the plant. At certain 
times we notice dark green specks scattered over the sur- 
face of the shell ; these are the reproductive organs or 
sporangia. 

Under the microscope Gomoiitia is recognised by its long 
branched green septate filaments, and by the sporangia, 
which take definite forms when j'oung. • As they reach 
maturity their walls become thick and stratified, root-like 
filaments are developed, and the sporangia being detached, 
look like independent plants. They were at one time de- 
scribed as such under the name of Codiohi7ii polyrhizimi. The 
filaments of Gomontia vary greatly in size ; so much so, that 
one is extremely liable to mistake the different preparations 
for distinct and separate species. 

With Gonio7itia we often find Mastigocoleits and Hyella, both 
of which stain blue-green or grey. The former can be dis- 
tinguished microscopically from the latter by the presence of 
heterocysts, and by its tortuous filament, which is of equal 
thickness throughout. Looked at with the naked eye, Hyella 
shows more numerous patches, the filaments of which are 
closer together than Mastigocoleus. On microscopic ex- 
amination Hyella usually shows two kinds of filaments, 
some long and branched, others composed of a number of 
cells. 

A 2 



140 The Irish NaU^raUst. 

Plcdonema terebrans^ an extremely delicate form, can onlj^ 
be observed after decalcification and subsequent examination, 
as it gives no external indication of its presence. Threads of 
it are frequently found in preparations of other algae, from 
which it is at once distinguished by its long slender segmented 
filaments, much interwoven with each other. 

The red alga, Conchocelis rosea, first observed by Batters in 
1892, stains pink, so its presence can be at once determined : 
tests being employed to make sure we are looking at a shell- 
borer. The filaments swell out into irregularly-shaped in- 
flations, more or less constricted at the joints. In the centre 
of each cell of the inflations there is a star-shaped chroma- 
tophore. 

The shell-destroyers, which are looked upon by Bornet as 
belonging to the colourless group of Fungi, are Ostraeoblabe 
and Lithopythiufn. The latter has not 3'et been recorded from 
this country. 

A marine lichen named Verriicaria consequens was, in 1894, 
obtained in shells collected at Bundoran b}^ Professor Johnson. 
It will perhaps not be out of place here to explain what we 
understand by the term lichen. Lichens are compound bodies 
consisting of two organisms — a fungus and an alga, variously 
associated. The fungus absorbs the required water and 
mineral substances ; the algal portion of the lichen, possessing 
chlorophjdl, absorbs carbonic dioxide, evolves ox3'gen, and 
forms starch, &c., thus supplying the organic food necessary 
for the nourishment of the whole plant. We have in this 
wa3^ a case of division of labour among organically distinct 
plants, to form a S3anbiotic organism, with marked peculiarities 
of its own. The fruit of a lichen, which is ahvays formed 
entirely of the fungal element, ma3' be open and cup-like 
(apothecium), or enclosed in a cellular covering (peri- 
thecium). Verrucai'ia consequens has long been known from 
the west of Ireland, but M. C Bommer was the first to show, 
in 1892, its perforating powers in Belgian specimens. It was 
first noticed in limpet-shells ; later on it was observed in 
Purpura and acorn barnacles. 

On looking at an3^ shells attacked b3^ this lichen, we notice 
dark spots as indentations scattered over the surface, the 
perithecial fruits of the lichen, formed from the fungal 



Some Causes of the Disintegration of Shells. 14I 

constituent {Ostracoblabe). On removing one of these fruits 
we see that the fungoidal filaments are really attached to it. 
A young fruit in course of development shows this still more 
clearly. The algal element of Vej^rucaria shows filaments 
having a great resemblance to Hyella ccespitosa, though their 
form is somewhat altered owing to its living in conjunction 
with a fungus and not as an independent organism. 

The law of sympathetic selection of colour in nature is well 
known. Animals, plants, and insects all display this quality 
in a marked degree. Molluscs are apparently not devoid of 
this power of selection. 

Batters has noticed this fact with regard to the yellow 
periwinkle, which lives among Fuci. We may expect shortly 
an interesting paper showing the protective colouring adopted 
by these molluscs. 

I conclude my remarks on the perforating seaweeds with a 

list of the Irish species. This is the first time a complete list 

of the Irish species has been published. For it and for help 

and every facility for examination of the group, I am indebted 

to Professor Johnson. 

Hyella caespitosa, Boriiet et Flahault— Cloutarf, 1S92, Prof. John- 
son, B. and W. coasts of Ireland. 

PIcctoneiYia terebrans, Thuret — Clontarf, 1892, Prof. Johnson 
and R. Hensman. E. and W. coasts of Ireland 

MastliTOCoIeus testarum, Lagerlieim — Roundstone, 1S93, Prof. 
Johnson and R. Hensman. E. and W. coasts of Ireland. 

Comontla polyrhiza, Bornet et Flahault— Shores of Galway Bay, 
1891, Prof. Johnson. E. and W. coasts of Ireland. 

Conchocelis rosea, Batters— Clontarf, 1893., Prof. Johnson and R. 
Hensman. 

Verrucaria consequens, Nyl. — Bundoran, 1894, Prof. Johnson 
and R. Hensman. It has since been found on the east coast. 

It is probable that all the species mentioned, except C. 

rosea, are generally distributed round the coast of Ireland. 



142 The Irish Naturalist. 

AN ORNITHOLOGICAL EXPLORATION IN DONEGAL, 
FERMANAGH, SLIGO, AND ROvSCOMMON. 

BY RICHARD J. USSHKR. 
(A Report laid before the Royal Irish Academy, 25th May, 1894). 

On 3otli May, 1S91, accompanied by Mr. Robert Patterson, 
of Belfast, I drove from Donegal to Killybegs. Near Donegal 
is Loiigli Easke, on which a colony of Black-headed Gulls 
breed. It is in a wooded demesne, the haunt of the Goldcrest. 
Chiff-Chaff, Long-tailed Tit, Tree Creeper, Bullfinch and 
Nightjar, birds almost entirely absent from the bare regions 
of Western Donegal we were about to traverse. Near Killy- 
begs we observed Starlings breeding at Bruckliss, where we 
were informed they had bred for the first time in 1890. 
This spread of the Starling as a breeding species is similar 
to the spread of the Missel Thrush earl}^ in this century, 
whose advent into Western Donegal is remembered by Mr. 
William Sinclair. He states that it had reached Tyrone at 
least ten j^ears previously. Missel Thrushes breed near 
Killybegs in sites easil}^ reached, probably from the scarcity of 
trees. One nested among the rocks on a hill witli Hazel 
scrub about it. ... 

At Killybegs we derived much information and assistance 
from the kindness of our host, Mr. Arthur Brooke, whose local 
collection of eggs give evidences of the breeding of many 
interesting birds in County Donegal. Among these I may 
mention Golden Eagle, Merlin, Peregrine, Ring Ouzel and 
Chough, all from this western peninsula ; Merganser and 
Woodcock from Lough Easke ; Dunlin from near Ardara ; 
Common and Arctic Tern, Great Black-backed Gull and 
Storm Petrel from islets round this coast ; Black Guillemot 
from Horn Head; Manx Shearwater from Arranmore ; and 
Red-throated Diver from near Dungloe. We subsequently 
found many of these species in their breeding-haunts. We 
found a Lesser Redpoll nesting in a willow beside a road, and 
Mr. Brooke says it breeds commonly here. Mr. Brooke has 
observed the Whinchat near Killybegs, and Archdeacon Cox 
has seen it near Glenties. This is not so surprising when we 
bear in mind that it is also a summer visitor to the neigh- 
bouring counties of Tyrone, Mayo, and Sligo, though an 
exceedingly local bird. 



An Ornithological Exploration. i43 

On June ivSt, acconipanied by Mr. Brooke, we drove into 
an elevated mountain tract on the north side of the pen- 
insula, where we met the Golden Plover whistling in its 
breeding-haunts. We were led to a range of mountain-cliffs 
whence Mr. Brooke had obtained eggs of Choughs this year. 
It was the first inland breeding-place of this species I had 
seen, a fissure in the face of a high rough cliff, overlooking 
a valley that led down to a gorge in another range about a 
mile off, through an opening in which we could see the still 
more distant sea. Choughs were heard by us in another glen, 
in the cliffs of which we were told they breed, about a mile 
from the sea. 

Beside a lonely lake in these mountain wilds was a solitary 
cottage with a few Elders beside it, the only attempt at bushes. 
There we were surprised to see the Spotted Fly-catcher, a bird 
associated with more luxuriant scenes, but we found it here 
and there through Western Donegal during our tour. We 
then ascended and crossed one of the highest mountains in 
the district, and while doing so we beheld a Golden Eagle 
come flying along, almost over us, pertinaciously pursued 
by a pair of croaking Ravens, one of which continued to 
make stoops at it from above, apparently striking it at times. 
Besides the Ravens we saw a small falcon, probably a Merlin, 
making repeated stoops at the Eagle. The latter continued 
to fly steadily along with an occasional flap of its enormous 
wings, whose upcurved primaries were distinguishable. It 
passed away still pursued by the Ravens. 

We then visited the Eagle's nest from which had been taken a 
single Qgg in April. On the further slope of the mountain we 
found avast deep coombe containing a good-sized and evidently 
very deep lake, beyond which, beneath another great descent, 
lay the sea. The rugged slope below us led down to a 
precipice which overlooked the lake. Each of us then 
descended with the rope round him, and having passed an 
overhanging piece of rock that formed a canopy, came at once 
to the recess in which was built the huge nest. It was a 
broad platform of coarse heather-stems which here grow to a 
great size and were bare, probably having been built into the 
foundation of the nest for years. There was no cavity in it, 
but the top or bed for the eggs consisted of dried tufts of 
Wood-rush. I found the cranium of a Hare and a feather of 



144 ^^^^' ^^'^^^^ ISlatujatist. 

the Kagle. Previously to 1S91 it was last occupied in 1SS7, 
when two young Eagles were taken from it in Ma}^ the nest 
then containing some hares and a grouse. Since 1887 the 
Eagles had brought out their broods unmolested in the sea 
cliffs. In 1891 before the breeding season two Eagles were 
said to have been shot b)^ a farmer. It is the only place in 
Donegal where any continue to breed. A gentleman told us 
that he had formerly shot Eagles off their nest near Eough 
Easke, and further north we were told by Colonel Crampton 
Lees that Eagles used to breed between Errigal and Muckish. 

On June 2nd, we passed through Ardara, and walked through 
a marshy tract separated from the sea by sandhills. In this 
niar.sh Snipe and Lapwings were breeding numerousl}', and on 
the drier portion covered with tussocks of coarse grass I 
started a Dunlin from her nest containing four eggs. It was 
overshadowed by the long grass and comfortably lined with 
liner grass. We saw and heard quite a number of Dunlins, 
whose twirring note is so unlike that of other species. I learn 
from Mr. J. Steele-ElHot, who visited this marsh on 8th June, 
1892, that he found five Dunlins' nests there. 

'"" Driving towards Portnoo, through a stony tract, in which 
were small lakes, we found a number of Common Gulls 
assembled on a small grassy island in one of them. On ex- 
amining the spot we found twenty-three nests, recently de- 
spoiled of all their eggs, and one nest containing eggs ready 
to hatch, as the young birds were squeaking in them. We 
subsequently found a few nests of the Common Gull on islets 
in lakes near Dungloe. This species breeds in the barer 
parts of Donegal and Western Connaught, and a very few on 
one of the Kerry isles, but further south than this it is not 
believed to breed, nor anj^where on the eastern side of Ireland, 
where it is exclusively a winter visitor. It is thus the most 
local of our six breeding species of gulls, and Ireland is the 
southern limit of its breeding-range in Western Europe. 

Passing Portnoo we drove to Glenties. It was getting dusk, 
and in more than one place where there were low trees or 
bushes we remarked Cuckoos collecting to roost, as they are 
wont to do in bare tracts like this district wherever there is a 
little covert. We often met with Cuckoos, though the Magpie 
seems to be a scarce bird in Western Donegal. 



An OrnUJioIogical Exploration. 14^ • 

On June 3rd, we drove from Glenties by Doochery Bridge 
to Dungloe, through one of the wildest, most mountainous 
districts I have ever seen (without ascending to any great 
altitude). Bird life was exceedingly scarce, an occasional 
Sandpiper by a stream, or Ring Ouzel perched on a rock, but 
as we approached Dungloe we passed some small lakes con- 
taining islands, covered with bushes or low trees, in which 
Herons were nesting conspicuously, for want of better trees. 
We saw a remarkable instance of this on an island in Lough 
Aleck More, where an ancestral nest of Heron measured 4 feet 
9 inches across, having evidently been added to from year to 
year until it was as large as the Golden Eagle's nest we had 
visited. It stood on the bare skeleton of what had been a low 
tree not more than six or eight feet above the ground. On 
other islands and rocks in this lake, and Lough Meela, on the 
other side of Dungloe, Common Terns, Black-headed Gulls, 
and a fevr pairs of the Common Gull were breeding. 

Next da}^ on Lough Meela we observed two Sheldrakes 
and a Lesser Black-backed Gull. Swifts were numerous on 
the lake and about Dungloe as well as at Glenties, being found 
in the West of Ireland, as elsewhere, wherever there are build- 
ings of sufiicient size for them to nest in. 

We then visited the small mountain lake which is the 
breeding place of the Red-throated Diver. It was the most 
elevated and perhaps the most lonely of a number of small 
lakes some miles from Dungloe and from the sea. We saw 
the pair of Divers, whose dark plumage assimilated to the 
leaden hue of the waves of this lake. It partially overflowed 
on one side, and its edges were flat and so wet that we sank , 
to the ankle at almost every step. In places these margins 
were mats of herbage, chiefly buck-bean, which yielded under 
one. On such a margin we were shown the nesting-hollow, 
scraped out with a peaty bottom on the (t(\%^ of the water, a 
little vegetation fringing and partly concealing it. We saw 
the old nesting-site of last year, which was similar. We were 
told that the male usually remained on the lake while the 
female was hatching, but that they sometimes go to the sea 
to fish, and return flying to the lake late in the evening with a. 
loud laughing cry, especially before rain.*' Both birds kept 
Jtogether, and. always at the side of the lake furthest from us. 
We were told that the Diver was. about to lay, but the fact i«. 



A3 



14^ The Irish Naturalisl. 

that, since the discovery of this species breeding in Ireland, 
both first and second ckitches are regularly taken for col- 
lectors, one gentleman in England having received three 
clutches one season from near Dungloe, probably indicating 
a second pair of birds. The Red-throated Diver will soon be 
driven from its breeding haunts in Donegal unless it can be 
protected, if it be not too late already. 

On our way to Gweedore the driver remarked that Thrushes 
and Blackbirds, which we rarely saw, were more numerous in 
winter, thus confirming the observation of Rev. A. H. Delap 
to the same effect concerning the western woodless parts of 
Donegal. 

On June 5th, embarking in a boat, we sailed round Owey 
Island, the western side of which is full of fissures in which 
a number of Black Guillemots appeared to be breeding, as we 
saw more of them about the spot than I have ever seen else- 
where. A pair of Great Black-backs seem to have their nest 
on a lofty stack of rock. We saw Swifts, too, off this remote 
island. 

On Innishfree we found three Turnstones, two of which 
were in full breeding-plumage. It is the third instance in 
which I have met with Turnstones off the Irish coast in June, 
but apparently not breeding. We also saw a Dunlin in 
breeding-plumage. We saw a great number of adult Gannets 
throughout the day, though they do not breed nearer than 
Ailsa Craig, also many Manjc Shearwaters. Choughs were 
seen on the coast, which is rather low and sand3% and after 
landing we were shown a most peculiar inland breedrng-^^lace 
of this bird. 

We had come up the estuary of a little river to a village. 
Proceeding inland over a bare tract, chiefly rock, we came to 
a bridge over this river about a mile and a half from the open 
sea ; above this bridge the river flowed through a low narrow 
gorge in the granite, with perpendicular sides. On one side, 
where a deep part of the river occurs, the rock overhangs, 
forming a canopy over a receding ledge or shelf on which the 
Chough's nest is placed. We saw the Choughs issue from it, 
and the rock beneath the canopy covered with their dung. 
Their eggs had been taken from this nest on previous years. 
Colonel Crampton Lees has seen a flock of forty-three Choughs 
about the estuary in autumn. 



A?i Ornithological Bxploratioii, 147 

tn the little village near the sea we saw Goldfiuches feeding 
their young in an Apple-tree. The owner said that several 
nests of Goldfinch had been built the same season in this and 
the adjoining tree, which are the only apple-trees in this very 
bare part of the country. A Missel Thrush had her nest in 
an ash in the same small garden. I have remarked the nests 
of Chaffinch and Missel Thrush close together, the smaller 
bird evidently seeking the vicinity of her stronger neighbour 
to ward off Magpies. 

On June 6th and 7th, we explored Horn Head, a mountain- 
peninsula, which, the proprietor told us, measured thirteen 
miles round, rising to a height of five hundred feet. It is one 
of the largest, if not the largest, breeding-place of sea- fowl in 
Ireland. We went round the cliff-tops, and I also went round 
their base in a boat. For miles and miles the great colony 
continues, the cliffs being thickly populated up to about two 
hundred feet from the water, the birds becoming above that 
much fewer. One cannot see them readily at close quarters 
as on the Saltees, but one gets some magnificent general 
views as at the Campbell. There is not a great variety of 
species : Kittiwakes, Razor-bills, Guillemots, and Puffins, form- 
ing the great majority of the bird-life. There are colonies of 
Herring Gulls and Cormorants. We did not see a Black- 
backed Gull of either species, nor did we identify the Common 
Gull, which is more of a '* lyough Gull," as it is called. We 
were shown a pair of Peregrines, the female bird proving by 
her outcries and actions that she had eggs or young. Our 
guide, who takes young Peregrines, says that three pairs breed 
at different points of the Head, and the proprietor, Mr. Stewart, 
can remember when three pairs of Eagles bred round these 
cliffs (doubtless White-tailed Eagles), and that once four pairs 
had bred there the same year. The last Eagles bred there as 
late as 1880, but none have since done so. We were shown two 
of their breeding sites, in oneof which were the remainsof a nest. 
We saw Choughs feeding near the Campbell, and flying out 
of a low cliff near the entrance of Dunfanaghy Harbour, where 
they breed. They seem to avoid the great precipices tenanted 
by other birds, but a pair breed annually in a small creek close 
below inhabited houses. I saw a Raven on the higher cliffs, 
and a Black Guillemot and Sheldrake at the entrance of the 
harbour, 

A 4 



148 The Irish Naturalist. 

As we were walking round the tops of the higher cliffs, 
practically on a mountain-top, we met a female Ring Ouzel \ 
which chuckled and displayed herself close to us, to lure us ; 
from her young—just able to fly. We had met with the Ring r. 
Ouzel from time to time in the mountainous and rocky parts 
of Western Donegal, much lower down than it is usually found 
in other counties. ; 

On June 8th, I proceeded alone to Knniskillen, where I was 
informed by Mr. Thomas Plunkett, the well-known antiquarian, 
that he has often taken Choughs' eggs at Knockmore, a 
mountain in Co. Fermanagh, about ten miles from the sea. 
I had heard of this nesting-site of Choughs from another 
gentleman. 

On June 9th, taking a boat, I sailed twelve miles down Lower 
Lough Erne, a splendid lake abounding in islands covered with 
natural wood, chiefly of oak, tracts covered with which are 
preserv^ed on the neighbouring estates. I here became 
acquainted with several species of birds, new to me, in their 
breeding haunts. 

At Devenish we put up a pair of Shovellers from a reed* 
bed. As we advanced we found Mergansers numerous, nearly 
every island seeming to be inhabited by a pair. At an island 
where is a large ancient cross we met with Redshanks breed- 
ing, one of which sat on the top of a White-thorn bush uttering 
his alarm-cr3^ I here saw six Mergansers and six Tufted 
Ducks, and found the nest of the latter species in a bank or 
old fence among long grass, black- thorn, scrub, etc. It 
contained seven fresh eggs. 

While passing an open reach of the lake we saw a pair of 
Great Crested Grebes swimming, with little more to be seen ' 
than the top of the back and the long thin stick-like neck and ' 
quaint tufts or tippet. Their note was not unlike the croak 
of a Rook, and when diving they sank quietly forwards with- 
out a splash. 

We came to a small stony islet over which hovered a 
vociferous cloud of Black-headed Gulls. It was strewn with ' 
their numerous nests, most of which had two or three eggs ; . 
some contained young. Some Wild Ducks and Mergansers . 
flew up, but several Tufted Ducks swam off low in the water, 
of these we found two nests with eggs among tall grass or ' 



An Oniitlwlogical Exptoratio7i. 'Y49 

flags. This species is rapidly iiicreasing on Xough Erne in 
the breeding season. . . .,...i;: 

We then rowed to a remote island, its centre occupied with 
natural wood, with a broad beach on which stones of various 
sizes occurred. On this beach a scattered colony of some 
twelve or fifteen pairs of Lesser Black-backed Gulls w^ere 
breeding. It is twenty miles from the open sea, and, except 
on a mountain-bog in Co. Antrim, is the only inland colony 
of these birds I have seen, though others exist in other lakes. 
The nests were here and there among the stones on the beach, 
some having evidently been robbed. Common Sandpipers 
were numerous. On this island I heard the song of the 
Garden Warbler, now so familiar from my acquaintance with 
it in the Shannon Valley. The late Sir Victor Brooke knew 
it well at Castle Caldwell, lower down the lake, and considered 
that there must be ten or twelve pairs in the place in 1869. 

At Knniskillen I was shown a Spotted Crake in the posses- 
sion of Mr. lyUnham, which was shot with another of the 
. same species late in the summer or early in the autumn of 
1890, by George Husband.s, on Upper I^ough Krne, where he 
saw two more. 

On June loth, I visited the mill-dam at Castle Irvine, a marsh 
abounding in breeding Mallards, Teal, Snipe and I^apwings. 
^ Here a male Shoveller got up, and Captain D' Arcy Irvine, who 
accompanied me, as well as the late Sir Victor Brooke, told 
me that Shovellers breed there. I also learned that Crossbills 
had remained and presumably bred at Castle Irvine the three 
preceding 3^ears, though previously unknown there. 

On the road from CoUooney to Hollybrook, Co. Sligo, I 
was struck by the tameness of a pair of Mergansers, male and 
female, which were quite unconcerned at my gazing at them 
while the car stopped. They were on a small open lake about 
a hundred yards from me — overlooked from the road. 

Hollybrook, the seat of the late Colonel Ffolliott on lyough 
Arrow, occupies a beautifully wooded tract between limestone 
heights at the back, rising into cliffs (the home of the 
. Peregrine) and the lake shores in front, which are indented 
and covered with a tangle of natural wood, several large 
: islands lying not far off. On one of these I saw a pair of 
Dunlins in breeding plumage, and Ringed Plovers and Red- 
shanks, which were excited about their eggs or young. We 



J50 The Irish Naturalist, 

also saw Tufted Ducks, which in 1 893 appeared to be much 
more numerous. Several of their nests were taken on I^ough 
Arrow in June, 1892, by Mr. H. L. Jameson, who also took three 
eggs of Great Crested Grebe, and discovered between I^ough 
Arrow and Bally mote many Whinchats, some with young, 
a species reported to me by Colonel Ffolliott, but which I did 
not see there. I saw, however, Great Crested Grebes, and a 
Woodcock sitting on her eggs. Reed Buntings are always to 
be found hatching at this season on the islands in Irish lakes. 
It was reserved for my second visit to Hollybrook, in 1893, 
to discover there the Garden Warbler singing in two parts of 
the demesne. I observed it morning and afternoon and on 
successive days, so that it is evidently a regular visitor there. 

On June 12th, accompanied by Colonel Ffolliott, I visited 
lyough Key, contiguous to the demesne of Rockingham, Co. 
Roscommon, an exceedingly beautiful, wooded lake, with 
numerous islands abounding in bird-life, being preserved. 
We passed a Lesser Black-backed Gull perched on a stone, 
and visited two small islets crowded as thickly as possible 
with nests of the Black-headed Gull, which had hard set eggs 
or young : among these I found a nest of Tufted Duck contain- 
ing thirteen eggs with some flags growing round it. In every 
part of the lake we saw Tufted Ducks and Mergansers, usually 
paired, showing that the females had not begun to hatch. 
We also put up three male Shovellers, and in a reed-bed saw a 
Great-crested Grebe. On a small islet within a short distance 
of Rockingham House and terrace-garden I found five nests, 
with two and three eggs each, of Common Tern among large 
stones at the verge of the scanty soil of the island, and 
backed by the bushes growing thereon. 

On Hermitage Island a colony of Cormorants were breeding 
in Ash-trees, which preponderate there and form a dense dark 
grove. I reckoned fourteen nests (but there were probably 
more) placed from thirty to forty feet above the ground ; most 
contained fully fledged j^oung. Several of the old Cormorants 
remained on their nests while we were beneath. I was 
informed that Herons breed on this island along with 
Cormorants, as they do at Lough Cutra in Co. Galway, 
where a much larger colony of both species build in high 
trees. 



■H! 



[ 151 ] 
GEOI^OGICAIv NOTES FROM WEST GALWAY. 

THE GAI^WAY AND CI.IFDEN RAII^WAY. 
BY ROBERT J. KIRWAN, B.A., B.E. 



In this paper I propose more particularly to describe the 
rock sections exposed by the cuttings for the portion of the 
new Galway and Clifden Railway lying between Oughterard 
and Recess. The rocks cut through belong for the most part 
to the schistose series, the origin and age of which have long 
been involved in doubt. The officers of the Geological Sur- 
vey, who first examined and mapped this district, believed 
these schists to be metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of 
Cambrian age, while some geologists believed them to be 
Pre-cambrian ; and the overlying quartzites were supposed 
to be Cambrian or Lower Silurian. Within the last few years 
the Survey has carefully re-examined some parts of Conne- 
mara, and similar areas occurring in Mayo and Donegal, with 
the result that the older theories have been found altogether 
untenable.' Most of the schists are proved to be igneous 
rocks, which have been altered during successive periods of 
metamorphism. There is, however, one notable exception. 
The crystalline and often schistose limestones of such fre- 
quent occurrence as bands in the schists must be the remains 
of a sedimentary deposit, probably of Ordovician age. Later 
still than the metamorphic periods came violent earth- 
movements, which crushed the rocks over large areas, but 
especially along certain well-marked lines in the neighbour- 
hood, of which even the hard resisting quartzites have been 
crushed into small fragments or even powdered. These 
crushed rocks, when recemented by infiltered matter, form 
interesting conglomerates or breccias, some of which were 
supposed to be Carboniferous shore-beds by the surveyors. 
Of a later age than some of these earth-movements, but older 
than many, are the great granite outbursts which have pene- 
trated the schists and quartzites, as veins, dykes, and intrusive 
masses. In this district are also dykes of eurite, which may 
be later offshoots of deeper portions of the granite, which 

* See " Report of the Director-General of the Geological Survey," 40/A 
Rep. Depart of Science and Art ^1893^, P* 266, and ibid.^ 41^/ Report^ (x2>(^/\)^ 
p. 270. 



152 The Irish Naturalist. 

remained fluid after the crust had solidified. In the country 
to the south of the railway are several considerable intrusive 
masses of hornblendic rocks, which may for the most part be 
referred to the diorite series. This rock, in process of 
weathering, splits readily into large blocks, and appears for 
this reason to have been particular!}^ adapted for transportation 
by glacial agenc3^ It is frequently met with in the form of 
boulders in the cuttings, and erratic blocks of the same rock 
are distributed over a wide area, being particular!}^ numerous 
on the high ground west of the lower end of lyough Corrib. 
Cutting all the other rocks and quite unaifected by earth- 
movements are dykes of fresh-looking basalt and dolerite. 
These are probably much newer than the other rocks of the 
countr}^, and may be contemporaneous wdth the Eocene 
basalts of Ulster. The above general account of the rocks of 
the district will be useful for a correct appreciation of the 
following detailed descriptions. The terms right and left are 
supposed to apply to an observer proceeding from Galway 
towards Clifden. 

Cutting at Oughterard. 

. This cutting is about 700 yards long, with an average depth 

of 25 feet of rock ; the diagram, fig. i, shows the right face of 

the cutting. At the Oughterard end is a dark Carboniferous 

Fig. t. 
Signal Post. 








Yi. it. '. . i 






d Carhoniferous Limestone, q Qnartzite. q^ Fine Quartzile. 
G Granite. A Hornblende Schist. 

limestone, with numerous minute shining specks and large 
concretionary masses of calcite. This limestone is fossil- 
iferous, some brachiopod shells and crinoid vStems being seen 
in it. The undisturbed and well-bedded appearance of this 
exposure forms a marked contrast to the crushed condition of 
the older rocks which make up the rest of the cutting. After 
the limestone comes a space occupied b}- the debris of the 
neighbouring rocks, mixed with clayey matter. Next in 
order is a great mass of crushed green quartzites, wdiich show 



Geological Notes from West Galway. 153 

well the effect of the violent earth-movenaents previously 
referred to. This quartzite makes up more than half the 
cutting ; it contains much iron pyrites, the decomposition of 
which causes the water flowing" from the cutting to be highly 
impregnated with iron, and the face of the cutting is for the 
same reason much stained. Near the centre of the quartzite 
is a mass of white granite, which seems to have been brought 
into its present position by faults, the lines of which may be 
traced by the highl}- crushed appearance of the rock in them. 
In this granite are some large picked-up pieces of quartzite. 
Deep blue fluor-spar also occurs as concretions in this granite. 
A wedge-shaped piece of dark schistose rock, probably a much 
altered and crushed hornblende schist, has been thrust into 
the granite apparently by faults. In this schist are some 
veins of haematite. There seems to be some hornblende 
schist mixed with the quartzite in parts of the cutting. 
•At its farther end the quartzite is traversed by numerous 
small -granite veins, mostly horizontal ; some of them are 
very felsitic, and much of the felspar is of a greyish black 
colour (probably labradorite), and the granite often contains 
calcite veins which may be due to the decomposition of lime 
felspars. Opposite the signal, a well-marked fault brings in 
a dark quartzite with larger granite veins ; these, however, 
have been so much cut up and displaced by minor faults 
that the granite seems to occur in patches. The green 
quartzite is cut off suddenly by a well-marked fault, and 
about twelve feet farther on is another fault, similar and 
parallel to the last. Between these fault-planes is a mass 
of greyish-brown rock without granite veins. Professor 
Cole, to whom I submitted a specimen, suggests that 
it may be a m3'lonite, formed by the crushing together of 
quartzite and granite ; but it would do well for a fine-grained 
quartzite. The fault-planes bounding this rock are worthy 
of special description ; they are each about a foot wide, with 
parallel walls, and are occupied by clayey matter and some 
fragments of the adjacent rocks. In the clay are curious 
little spherical masses of the rock included between the faults. 
These spherules are about the vsize of ordinary shot, and might 
have been formed by an oscillator}^ movement of the adjacent 
rocks. The last of the faults just described is bounded on its 
farther side by a mass of red granite. This granite is much 



154 The Irish Naturalist, 

jointed, and is traversed by some well-marked fault-planes. 
In some places it appears to be slightly foliated, and the joint- 
planes contain chloritic matter. Near the end of the cutting, 
the granite approaches the character of a breccia. Through 
a considerable part of the cutting, the rock is covered with a 
layer of peat containing numerous tree-roots. 

On emerging from this cutting the line runs for over a mile 
through bog. At the farther end of the bog, on the right- 
hand side of the railway, is a lead mine, from which a 
considerable quantity of ore was raised. The works have 
long been abandoned, and are now full of water ; but a full 
description of them may be found in the survey memoir' of 
the district. In the rock cast from the mine some good 
specimens of barytes may be found. 

About a mile beyond the mine some protrusions of horn- 
blende schist have been cut through on the right of the line. 
This schist contains well-developed crystals of hornblende, 
probably due to secondary crystallization. At one place a 
lump of epidote, about three inches in diameter, may be seen 
in the schist. 

At the bridge over the river, near the village of Garabaldi, 
are white crystalline limestones with strings of chloritic 
matter, which give them a schistose appearance. 

Between the river bridge at I^eam and the road-crossing 
are hornblende schists with some limestone. Crossing the 
railway, cutting the limestone and schist, is a narrow dyke of 
basalt. The surface of the schist at this place is often ice- 
polished, and .shows very prettily the curled and contorted 
foliation. 

Cuttings ai,ong I^ough Bofin. 

Opposite the south end of the lake are hornblende schists 
with quartzitic bands. Farther on are schists with granite 
veins, which contain large flakes of silvery white mica. 
North of the island are quartzites, some of which are very 
coarse-grained and schistose. The quartzite is often cut by 
granite veins. In one place the granite seems to graduate 
into eurite ; but Professor Cole, on microscopic examination, 
finds the supposed eurite to be a fine quartz-breccia, with very 
few evidences of felspar. 

^ Memoir of Geol. Survey of Ireland to sheet 95, p. 65. 



Geological Notes from West Galway, 155 

Between the last cutting bj^ the lake and the bridge are 
coarse and fine hornblende schists. On the left side a small 
intrusion of garnet-rock may be seen in the schist. This 
garnet-rock is of frequent occurrence in the country south of 
the Maam Bay arm of lyOugh Corrib ; but, being a very friable 
rock, it has suffered much from denudation and does not form 
a prominent feature. A little farther on are veins of coarse 
felspathic granite, which cut both the normal granite and the 
schist. The felspar in these veins is dark grey or black, 
resembling labradorite ; it gives a lime reaction in the blow- 
pipe-flame, and I have also verified the presence of lime by 
microchemical reactions. 

Some fluor-spar may be seen in the joints in the granite, 
and there is a small vein of haematite in the schist. At the 
same place a wide dyke of fresh-looking dolerite crosses the 
line ; this rock weathers brown, with numerous whitish star- 
shaped markings. 

The cutting between the bridge and the public road consists 
at the lake end of a mass of whitish rock, which contains what 
appear to be fragments of altered hornblende-schist, and may 
be due to the disintegration and alteration of that rock. 
Farther on, a wide dyke of dolerite, similar to that last 
described, is cut through. 

Between the public road and I^oughaunierin are some very 
micaceous quartz schists, and much crushed hornblendic 
schist. Opposite the houses on the road-side, veins of fels- 
pathic granite with black felspar may be seen in the schist, 
while near the lake there is a dyke of dolerite. North of 
Tawnagh-beg I^ake there is a considerable cutting in granite, 
which is much crushed, and appears to occupy part of the 
Maam Valley fault of the Survey. The joints of the granite 
are generally much chloritised, and the rock is traversed by 
many veins of pure quartz, which are also bounded by chloritic 
matter. The quartz was probably deposited from hot waters, 
at the close of the granite intrusion. Some well-formed clear 
quartz crystals are to be seen in hollow portions of the veins. 
The chloritic matter on the edges of the veins effervesces 
strongly with acid, which probably indicates the presence of 
carbonate of lime ; and in one specimen from this cutting a 
mass of garnet with barytes is seen on the edge of the quartz 
vein. 



156 , The hHsh Naturalisf. 

A little beyond this cutting, a dyke of compact basalt about 
one foot wide was cut through in making an outlet for the 
drains. Northward from the granite cutting the Maam Valley 
fault may be traced to I^ough Corrib, its course being marked 
by great masses of crushed quartzite. In one place a newer 
dyke of intrusive rock cuts across the fault ; Professor Cole 
regards this as a quartz-aphanite. A basalt dyke seems to 
have come up alongside and mingled with the aphanite. 

Near the basalt dyke in the outlet before described, a large 
boss of schist has been cleared of peat, and on the fresh 
surface may be seen a network of granite veins, which 
suggests that the granite was intruded in a very liquid 
condition. The line now enters the bog, through which it 
runs for nearly four miles, with the exception of some cutting 
in rock, which often rises in bosses above the surface. In 
excavating the foundations for Maam Cross station, limestone 
was met with under the peat, and this rock may also be seen 
west of the road at the station. North-east of Lough Shindilla 
some schists, much cut up by granite, may be seen on the 
right. The schists contain much quartz, probably deposited 
from hot waters. 

Cutting North of Lough Shindii,i,a. 
At the east end are greenish and purplish quartzitic mica 
schists. On the purple foliation planes are often pale-green 
bands about \ inch wide, straight and fairly parallel, and cut 
by similar systems of bands. These seem to be due to de- 
composition, with production of chlorite, along very fine 
joints. Near the centre of the cutting are quartzitic schists 
that contain carbonates, probably calcite, in the mass, and 
more abundantly on the joint-planes. Farther on, the schist 
approaches the character of a granulite. The schists in this 
cutting appear in great part to occur in regular beds, and 
might possibly be metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. There 
are many granite veins in the cutting ; some are narrow, with 
straight parallel walls, and they are generally vertical. 
. These veins were probably formed by the granite filling old 
joints. The granite in them is father coarse-grained ; the 
mica flakes are generally most plentiful in the centre, but are 
sometimes arranged in two zones parallel to the walls. There 
are other larger and more irregular veins, often with ill- 
defined edges, as if the schist and granite had fused together. 



Geological ISfotcs fropi West Gahvay. 157- 

The mica appeans to occur in thin flakes rather than in the 
usual nests, and on this account it frequently appears as small 
rods on the broken surface of the rock. The granite veins 
are all somewhat displaced by small faults. Pieces of pure- 
looking quartz are common in the schist, which sometimes 
appears to send veins into them. These may be due to silica 
deposited in cavities left by the solution of pieces of limestone, 
which were picked up by the schist when it originally invaded 
the sedimentary rocks as an intrusive mass (see below). 

Cutting b^twkkn I^oughs Shindii,i,a and Oorid. 

A diagram of this cutting is shown in fig. 2. The average 
depth of rock is about 12 feet. The eastern end is made up 
of crushed quartzitic mica-schist, with perhaps some horn- 
blende-schist and granulite. The joints usually contain much 
chloritic matter. Proceeding westward, the schist becomes more 
hornblendic. There are several patches of crystalline lime- 
stone (X), more or less mingled with the schist. One of these 
patches is entirely enclosed by the schist, and near it is a piece 
of pure quartz with included patches of limestone. This sug- 
gested to me the explanation of the origin of pieces of quartz 



Fig. 2. 



Bridge. 







in the last cutting described. Close to the bridge, which 
carries the public road over the cutting, is a large vein of 
normal granite. West of the bridge there is a remarkable 
series of hornblende schists, which seem to have almost en- 
tirely escaped the crushing action which affected the rest of 
the cutting. The first of these is a fine-grained actinolitic 
hornblende-schist (A), which Professor Cole, on microscopic 
examination, finds to contain irregular patches of a pale 
mineral, probably granular epidote ; also a minute sap-green, 
isotropic granular mineral, of high refractive index, which 
crystalised out early in the history of the rock. This is pro-, 
bably a green garnet, but really requires separation with dense 



158 The Irish Nattiralisi. 

liquids for its determination. In the schist are some wtitish 
lenticular patches, which effervesce with acid, and appear to 
be rolled-out fragments of limestone. A handsome schist (B), 
with bronze mica and prismatic crystals of hornblende, 
appears to cut the last. The joints of these schists contain 
much chloritic matter, so as to form occasional lenticles of 
chlorite-schist. Some intrusions of a remarkable granite 
may be seen here. In general it is very felspathic, with 
occasional large flakes of black mica (biotite). In places it is 
compact in texture. Scattered through the mass are numerous 
small dark inclusions. Professor Cole has examined a speci- 
men of this rock under the microscope, and finds the dark 
blotches to be actually much altered garnets. Some residual 
garnets occur, in a soft green product that has formed all 
along their cracks. A few pale pink unaltered garnets may 
be found on careful search ; and some small cavities, to be 
seen near the surface of the rock, appear to be left by the 
destruction of the garnets. The garnet in this granite is pro- 
bably all that remains of picked-up pieces of the schist, through 
which it flowed. 

The rock marked c in the diagram is a schist composed 
mainly of bronze mica with hornblende crj'stals. It weathers 
easily into a micaceous mould, which forms a considerable 
deposit around it. Professor Cole believes this rock to be an 
altered diorite. Indeed, I think it not improbable that the 
hornblendic schists to be seen here are simply the metamor- 
phosed representatives of the diorites and finer associated 
hornblendic rocks, which occur in the district south of the 
great chain of lakes. 

Cuttings ai,ong Oorid I^ough. 

In the cutting nearest the east end of the lake, there is an 
interesting granite intrusion in the schist. Fig. 3 is a sketch 
of part of the right side. The portion marked B is a normal 
granite with dark flakes near the edges, which appear to be 
torn-off" portions of the schist. In the normal granite are 
patches (A) of very coarse felspathic granite, with large flakes 
of greenish mica, which appears to be much chloritised biotite. 
The portion C that flows over the schist appears to be slightly 
foliated. 



Geological Notes from VVest Galway. 



159 



^he veins D are in part very fine-grained, approaching the 
character of eurite. West of the mass just described, there is 
an outburst of granite similar to that in the last described 
cutting, but not containing garnets. 

Fig. 3. 




In the other cuttings along the lake, there are coarse horn- 
blende schists, composed of lenticles of hornblende closely 
packed in a felsitic matrix. There are are also veins of coarse 
granite with large hornblende crystals, apparently picked up 
from the schist. In the rock excavated from one of these 
cuttings a portion of a granite vein was found, in which the 
mica flakes were all arranged with their planes perpendicular 
to the walls of the vein. There are also some soft green schists 
almost entirely composed of mica, a species of schist very 
common in the cuttings west of Recess. 

In the lower portion of Cloonloppeen stream, a little above 
the road, some remarkable pot-holes may be seen. Of two 
large ones close together, one contained a single large stone 
over a foot in diameter, and the other a great number of 
small stones about one inch in diameter. 

Cuttings about Boheshai.. 

West of Cloonloppeen Bridge is a cutting in hornblende 
schist. In this may be seen a granite vein with hornblende 
crystals. Here also a vein of handsome fresh-looking garnet- 
rock was cut through : it is, however, altered, with the forma- 
tion of calcite and pyrite. As it lay nearly in the line of the 
cutting, only a small portion is now to be seen in situ ; this is 
near the west end, low down on the left side. On the right 
side what may be a continuation of the vein is seen in a boss 
of hornblende schist, if the latter is indeed i7i situ. The vein 
appears to have been hollow in places, with well-formed garnet 
crystals lining the cavities. Professor Cole, who examined 
a specimen under the microscope, finds it to be a pyroxene- 



i6o, . The Irish Naturalist. 

epidote-garnet rock, which may hence be regarded as a true 
eclogite. The epidote and garnet appear to have crystallised 
siniultaneousl}^ and are intergrown in a kind of graphic 
structure. 

The next cutting has at its eastern end banded hornblendic 
schists. The rest of the cutting is in great part made up of 
mica schist alternating in thin la3xrs with calcareous matter, 
all being much crumpled. The calcareous matter maybe due 
to the decomposition of lime-felspars, as Professor Cole has 
suggested to me. There are some veins of calcite deposited 
in the joints, the mineral being in pyramidal crystals. Galena 
occurs in these veins. 

Along the lake, most of the cuttings are in hornblende 
schist with quartzitic bands. In one place there are bands of 
garnetiferous granulite ; sometimes the garnets are in well- 
formed crystals up to one inch in diameter, and may be found 
weathered out. In other places the garnets are in larger 
crushed masses, or they may be streaked out into lenticles or 
bands. 

Cutting West of Dkrrynken Bridge. 

The eastern end of this cutting is composed of hornblende- 
schists w^ith quartzitic bands (granulite ?) Near the west end 
is a large mass of little disturbed hornblende schist. Professor 
Cole has made a microscopic examination of this schist, and 
finds it to contain layers of calcite, with pink garnets and a 
mineral that is probably a pale epidote. The schists are cut 
by some veins of coarse granite, usually very quartzose, and 
containing some calcite. In the granite are picked-up pieces 
of the schist, whicli appear to have been partially fused. The 
granite veins are often slightly displaced by faults. 

From this neighbourhood a capital example of folded strata 
on a large scale may be seen on the side of I^etterbreckaun, 
the most northerly of the Maam Turk Mountains, about 
5^ miles distant. 

The cuttings between Derryneen and Recess are all in 
quartzitic mica-schists, somewhat similar to those in the 
cutting north of Shindilla. 

In Recess station-yard, a large vein of very coarse felspathic 
granite may be seen in the schist ; it resembles the coarse 



Geological Notes from West Gahvay. i6i 

granite described as occurring in patches in a cutting north- 
east of Oorid lyough. A large outburst of a similar granite 
was observed on the southern slope of I^ecavrea Mountain, 
where it is cut by veins of the normal granite. 

Between Recess and Clifden there are many interesting 
cuttings which I have not had an opportunity of examining 
closely. 

Before concluding this paper I must express my indebted- 
ness to Professor Cole, of the Royal College of Science, for 
interesting notes on specimens from the cuttings which I 
submitted to him. These notes, with his kind permission, 
have been embodied in the foregoing descriptions. 



REPORT ON INSECTS COEEECTED AT COOEMORE, 

CO. DONEGAE, 

FOR the: ROYAI, IRISH ACADEMY FLORA AND FAUNA 
COMIMITTEK, JULY, 1 894, 

BY REV. W. F. JOHNSON, M.A., F.E-S- 

( Concluded p-oiii page 99). 



LEPIDOPTERA. 

Nymphalidae. 

IVIelitdea aurinia, Rott. — Coolmore, a large number were washed 
up on the beach on July 3rd, and I captured three flying in a field near 
the shore. 

Coenonympha patnphilus, Iv. — Coolmore, Bruckless. 

Zygaenidae. 
I no staticcs, L.— Coolmore, a single specimen washed up with other 
insects on beach. 

Hepialidae. 

Heplalus velleda, Hb., var. gallica.) (Coolmore 
H. humulif Iv. f 

Cymatophori^ae. 
Thyatira derasa, L.— Coolmore, at sugar. 

Noctuidds. 
Acronycta psi, L. — Coolmore, at sugar. 
A. rumicis, L. — Coolmore, at rest on walls of house. 

Leucania iinpura, Hb. 

Axylia putris, L. 

Xylophasia sublustris, Esp. 

IVlamestrabrassicae, L. 

Apainea gem In a, Hb. j- Coolmore, at sugar. 

A. oculea, Gn. 

IVliana strlgilis, Clerck. 

Agrotis cxclamationis, L. 

Noctua plecta, L. 



I 



162 The Irish Naturalist. 

Euplexia luclpara, L. \ 
Hadena adusta, Esp. f ^ , 
H. dentlna, Esp. Coolmore. 

Plusia pulchrina, Haw. 1 
RIvula serlcealis, Scop. — Templenew. 

Ceometrldde. 
Rumia cratdeg:ata, L. 1 r 1 

Wlctrocampamargarltarfa, L.{" '-ooimore. 

Boarmla repandata, U, var. sodorenslum, Weir— Coolmore. A 
female which agrees with Hebridean specimens in colour but is of the 
usual size of the type form. 

Pseudoterpna pruinata, Hufn.] 

Acfdalla dimidiata, Hufu. 

Cabera pusaria, L. 

C. exanthemata, Scop. 

Strenlaclathrata, L. 

Larentia viridaria, Fb. ^Coolmore. 

Eupithecia castigrata, Hb. 

IVIelanippe montanata, Bork. 

lYI. graliata, Hb. 

IVIelanthia ocellata, L. 

Cidaria populata, L/. J 

Pterophoridae. 
IVIimaesoptllus plaglodactylus. Haw. — Coolmore 

Crambidae. 
Crambus pascuellus, L.— Coolmore. 

Tortricidse. 
Serlcoris cespitana, Hb. — Coolmore. Also at Bundoran. 
S. lacunana, Dup. — Bruckless. Occurs at Armagh. 
Sciaphilaconspersana, Dougl- — Coxtown. Occurs at Armagh. 
S. virgaureana, Tr. — Templenew. Occurs at Armagh. 
Crapholitha nigromaculana, Haw.— Coolmore. Taken also at 
Beleek. 

Ephlppiphora pflugiana, Haw.— Coolmore. 

E. trigreminana, St.— Coolmore. Also at Bundoran. 

Carpocapsa splendidana, Hb. "^ 

Dicrorampha herbosana, Bav. [ 

Catoptria scopoliana, Haw. ^Coolmore. 

Xanthosetia hamana, L. | 

Argyrolepia hartmannlana, Clerck. J 

Tineidae. 

Tinea rusticella, Hb. — Coolmore. 

Prays curtisellus, Don. — Coxtown, on Ash. 

Cerostoma radiatella, Don. — Coxtown, on Oak. 

Phibalocera quercana, Fb. — Coxtown, on Oak. 

Deprcssaria heracleana, De G. 1 
Bryotropha terrella, Hb. 1 

CEcophora pseudospretella, Sta. y Coolmore. 
Eudrosis fenestrella, Scop. ] 

CoIeophoraaIcyonipenneIla,Kol. j 

Elachista luticomella, ZelL— Coolmore, Coxtown. 

Llthocolletls coryli, Nic— Coxtown. 



r 163 ] 

THE BRITISH FI.ORA IN 1895. 

The London CatalogTue of British Plants. Part I. Ninth 
Edition. London : George Bell and Sons, 1S95. 6d. ; with cloth 
covers and interleaved, ij-. 
Considering that the last edition of our standard list of British plants 
was issued in i8S6, and that since that time " no new Edition of either 
of our native Floras has appeared" ; and bearing in mind the great 
advances made in British botany during this period, particularly in our 
knowledge of critical genera, and in the comparison and correlation of 
British forms with continental, it is not to be wondered that botanists 
have awaited with some impatience the issue of the Ninth Edition of 
London Catalogue, which will now be welcomed as affording a complete 
and up-to-date list of the native flora, a census of the distribution of that 
flora in the larger island, and an invaluable check-list for purposes of 
cataloguing and of exchange. 

The present issue is edited, like the last, by Mr. F. J. Hanbury, F.L.S., 
but the number of assistants in various groups is so large, and the 
assistance they have given so considerable, that the Catalogue might 
almost be considered as the collective work of E nglish systematic botanists. 
Messrs. Groves are responsible for the batrachian Ranunculi, and of 
course for the Characece ; Mr. Marshall for Epilobium ; Mr. Beeby for 
Viola, A7ithy His, andj'i(ncacece] Mr. Townsend for £upArasia; Mr. E-F. Linton 
for Thalictrutn and Alchemilla; Mr. W. M. Rogers for Rubus 2Md. Rosa ; the 
late Dr. F. B. White for Salix ; and Mr. Bennett for Potamogeton and Carex. 
The last-named, and Miss Bennett, have executed the laborious task of 
bringing the census numbers up to date. 

In glancing through the Catalogue (which, we note, has swelled 
from 40 pages in the last edition to 50 in the present), several con- 
spicuous changes strike the eye. The authorities for generic names 
have been added, but pre-Linnean authorities are not quoted. The 
sub-division of certain critical genera has extended enormously — a 
necessary if somewhat alarming result of the close attention which they 
have been receiving of late years in Britain and the Continent. Thus, 
Rubus now runs to just 100 " species," and about as many varieties : 
while Hieracium even excels this, numbering 104 " species," and varieties 
ad lib. ; those of H. viuroriun, alphabetically indexed, exhausting all the 
letters with the exception of Z ! But whatever may be the value of these 
myriad forms in relation to our accustomed conception of the term 
species, and while the advisability of burdening these unfortunate genera 
with such an overwhelming mass of names may be open to question, no 
one can doubt the necessity of carefully studying their variation, their 
distribution, and their habits. 

The number of hybrids in the new Catalogue is also striking. In Viola, 
Carduus, Primula, Linaria, and Runiex this feature is apparent, but much 
more so in Epilobiui/i. and Salix, where every species apparently hybridizes 
with almost every other. In Euphrasia a new departure is made, a 
suggestion of trinomial nomenclature being introduced ; the species is 
divided into four varieties, which are again divided into a number of 
forms. 



1^4 • The Irish Naturalist. 

"Changes of nomenclature;are, uuf9rtuiiately, again numerous" writes 
the Editor, and, as he remarks, it could hardly have been otherwise, 
considering that these changes represent the result of nine years critical 
study of questions of priority and validity. Some of the changes now 
introduced will be no doubt startling to those who have become used to 
the nomenclature of the eighth Edition, and have not followed the sub- 
sequent alterations as proved necessary in papers in Wx^Joicrnal of Botany 
and elsewhere. Castalia speciosa, Schollera oxy coccus, and Borctta cantabrica, 
for instance, will sound unfamiliar to most of our readers. Among 
changes in generic names Neckeria replaces Corydalis, Bursa replaces 
Capsdla, Buda replaces Lepigonum, Pncumaria replaces Mertensia, and the 
formidable names of Homaloccnchrus and Wcingccrtneria replace Leersia and 
Corynephorus, A number of old specific names also have disappeared. 

Not the least important part of the Catalogue is the modest numbers 
which follow the specific names and in many cases the varieties, showing 
the number of vice-counties of England, Wales, and Scotland, in which 
the plant is known to grow, and forming an index of its frequency. 
Irish distribution plays no part in this census. Ireland is, in fact, placed 
on the same footing as the Channel Islands ! Where a species occurs in 
either of these areas only— not in Great Britain— this is shown by the 
letter" I" or " C." For Irish botanists this is, of course, unsatisfactory, 
since neither here nor elsewhere have they any key to the county 
distribution of the greater part of their flora, and even the publication of 
the second edition of Cybcle Hibernica, so grievously checked by the 
lamented death of Mr. More, will supply this for only the rarer Irish 
plants ; but a few years of combined and steady work should go far to 
supply materials for an Irish " Topographical Botany," and bring our 
knowledge of plant-distribution in Ireland more on a level with that ol 
the sister island. R.Lly.P- 



NOTES 



BOTANY. 
MOSSES, 
Ephemcrum seri*atuin, Hatnpe., In County Antrim.— The 

only recorded localities in County Antrim for this minute annual moss 
are in the neighbourhood of Belfast and Lisburn, where it was first 
noticed by Templeton in 1801, and again in 1805, one of the localities 
given under the former date being "in a field near Lambeg Moss." 
Subsequently Drummond gathered it also in ''fields now occupied by 
the Botanic Gardens," vide " Flora of the North East of Ireland." Since 
that time so far as I am aware there is no record of the plant having been 
observed in the district. Mr. S. A. Stewart and other biologists have 
made diligent search for it, season after season, for many years, but have 
never met with it. Its occurrence in a light sandy field at Glenmore, 
near Lisburn, where it has just now been found, may, therefore, be 
noteworthy, and its re-discovery so near Templeton's original localities 
after the lapse of ninety-four years may be considered interesting. There 
seems to be no reason why this species should not be found in other 
parts of the county, but so far it has escaped detection. In County Derry 
it has not been met with, and for the County Down Mr. Stewart 
mentions only one locality. 

John H. Davies, Lisburn. 



Notes. i6c^ 

MARSILIACE^. 

Pilularia in Conneinara. — The Y\\\\\or\.{PUHlaria globuUfera)h€\r).^ 
one of our rarest Irish plants, and recent notes of its occurrence being 
apparently exceedingly rare, it may be worth stating that I dredged 
it in abundance at the western end of Glendalough Lake, Connemara, in 
May, 1894. Usually this curious little plant grows in water only a few 
inches deep, or out of the water on marshy ground, but here it flourishes 
in water from about four to six or eight feet in depth, while the leaves, 
v\^hich are usuall}- two to four inches long, in my specimens attain a 
length of six to twelve inches. The Pillwort has been recorded from this 
neighbourhood long ago (Wade, Planta Rariores, 1804), but it has not 
apparently been found in Connemara in recent years. 

R. L1.OYD Praeger. 



PHANEROGAMS. 

The Buckthorn in King's Co.— A correction.— On p. 173 of 

the f.N. for 1894, in my account of the Seagull Bog near Tullamore, I find 
that by inadvertence I wrote Alder Buckthorn (R/iaffinus fraugtila) for 
Common Buckthorn (A'. catJiarticus). The latter is the species that occurs 
in that district. 

R. L1.0YD Praeger. 



ZOOLOGY. 

WORMS. 

Bipalium Kewense, lYIosel. — A specimen of this rare Planarian 
worm was captured last month by Mr. Moore in one of the greenhouses 
of the Glasnevin Botanic Gardens near Dublin. It has only recently 
been discovered that this remarkable worm is a native of Madeira. 
There is some possibility therefore of its being also indigenous to 
Western Europe, though the fact of its having hitherto only been found 
in greenhouses on that continent appears to be in favour of the generally 
held belief that it is an introduced species. 

R. F. SCHARFF, Dublin. 

Some Notes on Irish Leeches. — In collecting Newts for me in 
the ponds near Cashel (Co. Tipperary), Miss Kelsall discovered two 
species of leeches. If we look into the nomenclature of the Irish land 
and freshwater leeches in Thompson's "Nat. Hist, of Ireland," vol. iv., 
p. 424, we find that some revision is needed. He records sixteen Irish 
leeches, six of which are marine and need not concern us at present. 
His Erpobdella tessulata should I think be referred to Hemidepsis tcssellata 
(O. F. Muller). Dr. R. Blanchard of Paris is of opinion that to this 
species should also be referred Thompson's Glossiphonia Eachana. Then 
Erpobdella vtilgaris should be known by the name of Herpobdella ocloculata, L. 
This is one of the species collected by Miss Kelsall in Co. Tipperary. 
It is a very active leech and according to Thompson " as merry as a 
grig." The next species Glossipora tuberadata should be called Glossiphonia 
cotnplanata, L., being an older name, and for the same reason G. hyalina 
should be changed to G. hcleroclisfa, L. and G. bioailata to G. slagnalis, L. 
Thompson next refers to two species oi Piscicola, viz. : — P.geomdra, L., and 
P. perccB, Tempi. Lastly we come to the true leeches. The Irish horse 
leech was considered a distinct species from the continental by R. 
Templeton, and described by the name oi Aiilosioma heluo. Thompson on 
the other hand identified it as Hamopsis vorax, Johnst. It is probable 
that we have two species, but Tcmpleton's is, as was pointed out to me 
by Dr. Blanchard, nothing but the well-known continental Humopsis 
sangiiisuga, L. I hardly think that the record of the Medicinal Leech in 
Ireland {/limdo tnedicuialis, L.) rests on sufficient evidence, and I have 
not seen an Irish specimen, but it is quite probable that it does occur in 
this country. 



1 66 The Irish Naturalist. 

Altogether the number of Irish land and freshwater leeches remains 
at about the same number as given by Thompson, viz, — ten species. 
One of the commonest seems to be Glossiphonia complanata, which was the 
second species obtained by Miss Kelsall, whilst Mr. Halbert has recently 
procured it near Clondalkin, Co. Dublin. 

R. F. SCHARFF. 



CRUSTACEANS. 
Porcclllo pictus, Brandt. — A specimen of this pretty Woodlouse 
was taken last month by INIiss Kelsall, near Cashel, Co. Tipperary. It is 
one of the rarest of the Irish species, having only been previously known 
from three localities, viz. — Dublin, Belfast, and Maryborough. 

R. F. SCHARFF. 

Irish Psithyrl. — I took two females of Psithynis vestahs, Fourc, at 
Dundrum, Co. Dublin, on 2nd May. These bees are of considerable 
interest from their habits, being "cuckoo-parasite" on the true Humble 
bees (Bombi), which they closely resemble in appearance. I hear from 
Mr. Carpenter that Mr. F. Neale took a specimen of Ps. riipestris, Fab., 
at Limerick last year. 

Percy E. Freke, Dublin. 



AMPHIBIANS. 
Irish Newts.— Additional specimens of the Common Newt {Molge 
vulgaris, L.) have been received from the following localities since the 
publication of last month's Irish Naturalist: — Curraglass, Co. Cork (C. 
Longfield) ; Bagenalstown, Co. Carlow (D. R. P. Beresford). 

R. Y. vScharff. 



BIRDS. 



Rare birds In County Cork. — The following rare birds I have 
seen at Mr. G. Rohu's taxidermist, Cork : a Bartram's Sandpiper {Bar- 
tramia loiigicauda, Bechst.), shot at Newcestown, Co. Cork, on 4th 
September, '94 ; a Gadwall {Anas stn-pcra, ly. ), shot at Castle Bernard, 
Co. Cork, on istli February, '95; and an Avocet (Recurvirostra avoa-tta, I^.), 
shot at Ringaskiddy, Co. Cork, feeding in company with another, on 15th 
February, '95. The above three specimens appeared to be adults. 

W. Bennett Barrington, Cork. 

White Stork near Athy.— ]Mr. J. W. Young writes in the Field o^ 
April 27th, that, when driving from Athy to Stradbally, he saw a Stork 
(Ciconia alba) fly past in a south-easterly direction. Though he at first 
mistook the bird for a Gannet, he states that he afterwards saw it near 
enough to render the identification certain. 

Summer Visitants at Knocknacarry, Co. Antrim. — Swal- 
lows appeared on April 14th ; the Cuckoo was heard on the 21st, and 
the Corncrake on the 20th. The Cuckoo is said to have been seen on 
April 18th. 

S. Arthur Brenan, Knocknacarr}'. 

Spring lYIIgrants at Armagh, — In spite of the .severity and 
length of the winter these birds were not much later than usual. The 
ChiffchafF was, as alwaj-s, first, appearing on March 25th, Swallows I 
observed on April 9th, but they did not appear in numbers till the 20th. 
The Willow Wren came on April 13th, somewhat later than ordinarily, 
while the Corncrake made his sweet voice to be heard on the 19th. On 
the 27th April arrived the Cuckoo, the Grasshopper Warbler, and the 
Sand Martin, and on May 2nd the House Martin and the Swift. 

W. F. Johnson, Armagh, 



Azotes. 167 

Arrival of Spring IVIlg^rants In Londonderry District. — 

As might be expected from the lateness of the spring the early visitors 
were behind time. The Chiff-chaff came on 6th April. I did not hear 
the Willow Warbler until 17th April. The Swallows arrived on the 14th, 
and the Cuckoo and Corncrake were first heard on 24th April. The 
Swift was seen by Mr. Milne on 29th April, an unusually early date for 
this locality. I first heard the Sedge Warbler on 2nd May, and the 
Whitethroat on 4th May. 

D. C. Campbei.!., Londonderry. 



MAMMALS. 

Irish Mammals — A correct! on, —The statement which I made on 
page 86 of the current volume of the Irish Naturalist, that " Probably the 
Squirrel moults twice in the year — roughly speaking, in Spring and 
Autumn, and before each moult the old coat becomes thin and faded," 
should read '■'■before the Spring jnoult." Owing to absence from England, I 
was unable to look over the proof of the second part of my review of 
Mr. Lydekker's book. 

G. E. H. BARRETT-HAMII.TON, 

Kilmannock, New Ross. 



PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



RoYAi. Z001.0G1CA1. Society. 

Recent donations comprise a monkey from Mrs. Burrowes ; an Otter 
from W. H. Harvey, Esq. ; a Pike from F. Godden, Esq. ; Badgers from 
J. H. Nicholson, Esq., and Capt. French ; a number of Newts from P. 
Mahony, Esq. A St. Kilda Lamb has been born in the Gardens, and a 
pair of Crown Pigeons, two pairs of Chukar Partridges, a pair of Alpine 
Choughs, a pair of Leadbeater Cockatoos, and seven monke^-s have been 
purchased. Two of the most interesting animals in the Gardens, the 
Orang-utan and the Tapir, have unfortunately died. 

16,860 persons visited the Gardens during April. 

Dubinin Microscopicai, Club. 

April i8th.— The Club met at Dr. M'Weeney's, who showed cultures 
of a fungus {Phoma Bet(P, Frank), which causes a disease in Mangel 
Wurzel, characterized by blackening of the root-stock and speedy 
decomposition. The cultures in moist chambers illustrated various 
stages m its development. The great swelling of the spores previous to 
germination was specially remarkable. 

Mr. Moore showed Gloeosporium orchidearuDi which had appeared on 
the leaves of a species of Masdevallia received from Belgium. This is one 
of the fungoid pests which cause so much damage to orchids. When 
attacked the leaves turn black, and the tissue in the interior of the leaf 
becomes disorganised, gradually breaking down, and changing into a 
soft black decaying mass. The disease spreads rapidlj- through the 
plant and is very difficult to check. 

Mr. McArdlE exhibited Lejeuitea Jlava, Swartz (the yellow green form) 
which he collected in some quantity in Lord Howth's demesne last 
month. This is an addition to the Howth and to the Co. Dublin lists of 
Liverworts. 



Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society. 

April 2.— The President in the chair. Mr. James Wilson, M.E., 
read a paper entitled " The Alps, with Rope and Axe." 



1 6 8 The hish Na tu ya list. 

Dubinin Naturai^ists' Fiei^d Ci.ub. 

Aprii, 27th. — The first Excursion of the summer was made, when a 
party of 33 members and visitors visited the neighbourhood of Portrane. 
Proceeding to Donabate Station by the 1.30 train, no halt was made until 
the shore was reached, where Prof. Sollas, F.R.S., who conducted during 
the day, drew attention to the interesting geological features there dis- 
played. At the southern extremity of the broad sandy beach that 
stretches away up towards Rush are seen dark red conglomerates of the 
Old Red Sandstone formation. These are succeeded b}^ a mass of dark 
volcanic rock, the junction being unfortunately not visible. Further 
south Ordovician slates appear, containing blocks and fragments of the 
volcanic rock before-mentioned, and of limestone. Bands of limestone 
interstratified with the slate next make their appearance, and the 
limestone increases in quantit}- to the southward until it entirely replaces 
the slate, and forms a bold cliff of hard rock, teeming with corals and 
other fossils. The leading features of each of these ancient formations 
were pointed out by Prof. Sollas, and many specimens were obtained. 
Messrs. Colgan and Praeger collected flowering plants and noted, in 
spite of the late season, several plants in bloom that are not usually seen 
so early in the year, such as the Bugloss {Lycopsis at-veiisis), Storksbill 
[Eroduim cicutariuiii), and Field Violet ( Viola ai~oensis). The rare Sea 
Wormwood (^Artemisia inaritima), previously known to grew here sparingly 
in one spot, was seen in abundance in several places on the cliffs ; on 
the way to the shore a Water Ranunculus {R. b-icophylhts) was found 
already in bloom ; the abundance of the Great Bank Sedge {Carex riparia) 
in this neighbourhood was noted, and the rare typical form of the Blood- 
veined Dock {Rii/fiex satiguhteus) was gathered. An examination of the 
pebbles on the beach proved very instructive. Here, with pieces of con- 
glomerate, slate, limestone, granite, and prett}^ pebbles of chain-coral 
and other fossils, were fragments of volcanic rocks from the Carlingford 
and Dundalk districts, flints from Co. Antrim, and abundance of the 
peculiar granophyre which comes from the far-distant Ailsa Craig in 
the Clyde. The party returned to Donabate through the fields and 
woods, and caught the 6.55 train to town. 

Mrs. Ross, Rarc-an-ilan, Dalkey, was elected a member of the Club. 



Cork Naturai^ists' Fiei^d Ci.ub. -^ j/^ 

The annual meeting was held. May ist, in the Librar}', School of 
Science and Art, Prof. Hartog, President, in the chair. The Secretary 
(Mr. J. L. Copeman) read the report, which showed the Club had been 
doing good work. The following excursions had taken place : Youghal, 
Little Island, Quarries (Victoria Cross), Spike Island, Iniiishannon, the 
Ovens—and a joint three days' excursion with the Dublin and Limerick 
Clubs to Fermoy, Lismore, and Mitchelstown, on which some 36 went. 
Full accounts of this excursion and its valual)le scientific results have 
appeared in the Irish Naturalist, the monthly organ of the various Irish 
Field Clubs. Several lectures were given during the year, including one 
by Professor Grenville A. Cole, P\G.S.; Dublin College of Science, on 
" The Story of the Rocks of Munster," and one by Joseph Wright, Esq., 
F.G.S., of Belfast, on " Foraminifera." Both these were given under the 
auspices of the Irish Field Club Union, and which has been formed 
during the past year, and which is certain to prove in the future a great 
stimulus to Field Club work all over Ireland. A course of four lectures 
on Practical Botany was also given by Miss Martin, and it is expected that 
during the coming year a course equally valuable will be given on some 
other subject. The following officers were elected for the coming year : 
— President: (Vacant); Vice-Presidents: Professor M. Hartog; W. H. 
Shaw, M.E.; Thomas Farrington, M.A. ; Miss H. A. Martin, M.IiC.P. 




VALENTINE BALI., 

C.B., LT,-D., F.R.8. 



^ije ^vi&l) ^ainvaii&t 



Vol. IV. JULY, 1895. No. 7. 



VALENTINE BALL, 

C.B., I.I..D., F.R.S. 



Valentine Bali, was born in Dublin on the i4tli July, 1843, 
and his busy and varied life ended in an everlasting rest on 
the 15th of June, 1895. The second son of Robert Ball, LL.D., 
for many years Secretarj^ of the Queen's University of Ireland 
and Director of the Museum of Trinity College, Dublin, he 
seemed in a great measure to have inherited his father's love 
for Natural History. In one respect, however, there was a 
marked difference between the father and the son ; Robert 
Ball, though always willing to assist the student by a verbal 
communication of the knowledge which he so largely pos- 
sessed, was only with difficulty persuaded to put this know- 
ledge into print, and his published writings are extremely 
few ; Valentine Ball was an indefatigable note-taker and a 
voluminous writer. Calling to mind that from the time that 
he was fifteen years of age, until his untimely death, he was 
occupied with a constant routine of official work, which 
seldom gave much time for any leisure, it is amazing to think 
of the numerous works and papers on Natural History, giving 
the widest limits to that term, which appeared from his pen. 

Shortly after his father's death, in 1857, he entered Trinity 
College, Dublin ; he passed his Degree examination in 1S64, 
but he did not graduate until 1872, when at the Winter Com- 
mencements of the University of Dublin, he took the B.A. 
and M.A. degrees by accumulation. In the summer of 1864 
he was appointed by Professor Oldham to the staff of the 
Geological Survey of India, on which he continued until 1881. 
This period of his life was full of labour, each season's work 
was accomplished amid many disadvantages. In his "Jungle 
Life in India" published in 1880, he gives an account of his 
often very arduous occupations on the Survey, sometimes in 

A 



170 The Irish Naturalist. 

most trj^ng climates, and always surrounded b}' many social 
and domestic drawbacks. Amidst such, however, his love of 
nature sustained him, and he pathetically alludes to this in 
the dedication of his "Journeys and Journals of an Indian 
Geologist," " To ni}^ father, to whose early training and guid- 
ance I owe a love for Natural History, which has afforded me 
solace in many a lonely hour." 

While his chief work in India was among the rocks and 
coal-measures of Western Bengal and the Central Provinces, 
no object of nature met with, seems to have been left un- 
recorded, and we find contributions from his pen on the 
stone implements, on the various races of men, on the 
mammals and birds, and even on some of the local floras 
of India. The Geological Survey of India had its origin in 
the desire of the Government to have the coal-fields of the 
country systematically investigated, and the work of the 
Survey for some time was wholly devoted to this object ; most 
of V. Ball's Reports and Memoirs published by the Survey 
relate to various coal-fields. After the principal coal-fields 
had been mapped and described, the general examination of 
the Geolog}^ of India w^as attempted, and in 1879 a general 
geological sketch-map of nearlj^ the whole of India, with two 
volumes of descriptive matter, forming Parts i and 2 of the 
** Manual of the Geology of India " were published. Towards 
this great work all the staff contributed, more or less, but the 
third part, relating to the Economic Geology, which appeared 
in 1 88 1, was compiled by V. Ball ; to whom the then 
Superintendent of the Survey wrote "the vStudent as well 
as the man of enterprise will long owe gratitude for the great 
store of facts thus brought within easy reference." 

In 1881 V. Ball resigned the position of Officiating Deputy 
Superintendent of the Geological Survey of India on his being 
appointed to succeed the Rev. Dr. Haughton as Professor of 
Geology and Mineralogy in Trinity College, Dublin. Some 
of his friends would have had him remain in his professorial 
chair, where, if the teaching was somewhat monotonous, 
the opportunities for original work were great ; the long vaca- 
tion too afforded time for geological work in Europe, and 
there was the custod}^ of a collection, which had been once 
partly under his father's care, and which Dr. Haughton had 
left well stocked, for an University Museum, with minerals, 



Valentine Ball, 171 

rocks, and fossil forms. But V. Ball had alwaj's been ambitious 
to superintend some great museum, where he could have the 
freest scope to carry out his ideas of order and arrangement ; 
so the quiet of the academic grove was left for the responsi- 
bilities and anxieties of prCvSiding over the fortunes of the 
Dublin Museum of Science and Art, the foundation stone of 
the new building of which had not as yet been laid. 

The spirit was willing, but the difficulties of reconciling 
many antagonistic views were great, and the trials to a 
sensitive mind of having to oppose the wishes of many of 
those who were brought into semi-ofQcial connection with 
him were sources of trouble, that often ruffled the even tenor 
of his life, and it is painful to think may have shortened it. 

For over twelve 3'-ears — even of those parts of them, when 
from ill health, he was obliged to take some rest— the Science 
and Art Museum was in his every thought. One cannot but 
admire the energy and zeal which he brought to bear upon 
this work ; he could not understand what it was to go slowly, 
and in very truth, he most generally, even when he went 
quickly, went well. If possible he would have arranged 
every article with his ow^n hands. It was on the failure of 
such attempts, that he realised that no human being could 
have done so. 

During these years his moments of recreation were vSpent in 
bringing out a model and charming edition of the travels of 
Tavernier, and in writing numerous articles on the plants and 
animals of India. His scientific writings have such merit that 
he needed not to have left any further record of his life, but 
yet above all these, the Dublin Museum of Science and Art 
will still stand as a witness for ever, to be associated with his 
name. 

Of the high character of the man, of his trueness in friend- 
ship, time must soften sorrow, ere we could trust ourselves 
adequately to write. 

E. P. W. 



A 2 



172 The Irish Na twa list. 

INSECTS COI.I.ECTED AT THE SEAGULL BOG 

TULLAMORE, 

FOR THE ROYAI, IRISH ACADEMY FI^ORA AND FAUNA 
COMI^IITTEE, MAY, 1 895. 
BY J. N. HAI^BERT. 



The members of the Dublin Field Club spent a most en- 
joyable and instructive da^^ on the 25th of last May, when, 
not in any woy deterred by the warnings given in the pro- 
gramme about deep and treacherous holes, etc., a large and 
adventurous part}^ turned out to explore the Seagull Bog, 
Tullamore. The selection of the time could not have been 
more fortunate, as the dr}^ weather previous to our visit 
rendered access easy to many of the most dangerous, though, 
at the same time, most interesting parts of the bog. The 
flora of that portion of the Bog of Allen which the Black- 
headed Gull has chosen for its breeding haunt is decidedly 
above the average, as may be learned by a perusal of Mr. 
Praeger's interesting paper in the IHsh Nahcralist for August, 
1894, and the adjacent, richly varied woods of Clonad and 
Derryclure mark the locality as about the most likely to repay 
the incursions of the insect-hunter. To the latter undoubtedly 
the most pleasing feature is the abundance of birch, hazel, 
and various willows scattered over, but most common on the 
outskirts of the bog, and which were proved to harbour the 
best species. 

As the captures were rather too numerous for inclusion in 
the usual report, it has been thought advisable to detail them in 
a separate list. I cannot find any previous Irish record^ for the 
following species : — Polydrus2ts tcrdicollis, De G., P . ccrvinus, 
L, and Hylastcs palliaiiis, Gj^lL, while a fourth species, E later 
pomoriLin, Herbst., has only once before been recorded from a 
specimen taken by the Rev. W. F. Johnson in a somewhat 
similar locality near Armagh. As one would expect, the most 
notable feature in the bog collecting is the abundance of the 
various species, for, with the exception of the insect mentioned, 
and with a little more available time, large numbers of the 
others could have been obtained. Several of the universally 
common kinds have been omitted from the list, 



insects Collected at the SeagtUl Bog, Ttdlavwre. 173 



COLEOPTERA, 

Cicindela campestr'ls,Iv.— Common on the drier parts of the heath 
near Clonad Wood. 

Hydroporus Cyllenhali, Schiod.) 

H. obscurus, Sturm. ^ ^^^zxx\\ Bog, common in the 

\ pools. 
H. pubescens, G3II. ' 

Tachyporus obtusus, var. nitidlcollis, vSteph.— Clonad Wood, 
common. 

Proteinus ovalis, Steph. \ 

Atomaria- fuscipes, Gyll j Seagull Bog, all fairly common. 

Epistetnus gyrinoides, Marsh. ^ 

Rhizophag-us depressus, F. — Clonad Wood, common under bark 
of decayed fir. 

Microcara llvida, F. ) o n t> t. ^i, 

Cyphon padi, L. I ^^^^-'^^^ ^°-! ^^^^ common. 

Tclephorus lituratus, Fall. — Seagull Bog, common. This insect 
seems to have been overlooked b}^ the early collectors. As in the case of 
E. pomoruni^ Mr. Johnson has taken a specimen on Churchill Bog, Co, 
Armagh. 

Elater pomorum, Herbst. — Three examples of this very local 
species were swept off a birch tree. It is usually taken under bark, and 
in decayed branches. 

Coryinbitcs quercus, Gyll. — Seagull Bog; the variety ochropterus, 
Steph., occurred, but not so commonly as the type. 

Donacia discolor, Pan/.. — Seagull Bog, common. 

Lochmsea sutu rails, Thorns. — Perhaps the commonest beetle in 
the Bog. 

CaleruceHa nyinphaeae, L.— Seagull Bog, sweeping herbage. 

C. lineola, V, — vSeagull Bog, common on willow. 

Aptcropcda globosa, Tel.— Seagull Bog, several by sweeping. 

Crepidodcra helxines, L. — Seagull Bog, common on willow. 

Anaspis frontalis, L. — Clonad Wood, common. 

Polydrusus tcrcticollis, De G.) Clonad Wood, common oil 

P. ptergomalls, Boh. j hazel, etc. 

P. cervinus, L. — Seagull Bog, common on birch, ash, etc. 

Phyllobius calcaratus, F. y Clonad Wood, common on various 
P. pyri, L. S trees. 

Anoplus plantaris, Naez. 
Coeliodes ri 

Ccuthorrhynchus ericae, Gyll.— Seagull Bog, abundant on 
heath. 

Li mnobar is T-al bum, L.— Seagull Bog, sweeping herbage in dry 
drain. 



[antaris, Naez. \ g^^^ j^^g common on birch. 

ubicundus, Herbst. j ^ ^' 



Hylastes palliatus, Gyll.— Clonad Wood, in decayed fir stump. 



HEIYIIPTERA. 

Nabis6rlcctorum,Schoetz.--vSeagUll Bog, off heath. Not previously 
recorded from Ireland. 



1 74 The Irish Naturalist, 

LEPIDOPTERA. 

In lepidoptera the best finds were full fed larvse of Dasychira fascdina on 
hazel, a species which seems to occur only in the Bog of Allen, and one 
Gcoinctni papilionaria on birch. Numerous species of EiipitheciiC were 
flying on the Bog, but the attempt to capture these in a heavy sweeping 
net was not at all satisfactory. A specimen of Nwiieria piilveraria was 
secured at rest in Clonad Wood. Mr. E. Williams found the Green Hair 
Streak {Thccla }-ubi) still frequenting a part of the Seagull Bog where he 
had taken it in numbers some years ago, while the beautiful moth 
Anuria myrtilli was also noticed regaling itself on the flowers of the Bog- 
bean {Menyanthes trifoliata), and on the way back to the station Torttix 
ministrana was captured flitting about the wooded margins of the road. 



NOTES ON THE FLORA OF HOWTH. 

BY R. LLOYD PRAEGKR, B.E. 



The bold promontor}^ of Howth, with its heather}^ hills, its 
steep sea-slopes, and rugged cliffs, has long been a favourite 
haunt of the naturalist, and indeed for him Howth has varied 
attractions — the shattered and contorted Cambrian rocks, 
carved into jutting crags and fantastic pinnacles by the rest- 
less sea; the shell-bearing gravels and Boulder-clays that 
overhang the town ; the eddying bird-life of the cliffs ; the 
busy insect world that teems in summer among the rocks and 
flowers and woods ; and the marvellous variety of plant-life, all 
combine to render this favoured spot an oft- visited resort of 
the lover of nature, whatever be his bent. It is to the botanist, 
perhaps, that Howth especially appeals, for here are gathered 
together in a small area man}^ of the rarest Irish plants ; and 
leaving rarities out of account, who would not willingly 
journey miles to view those great slopes overhanging the blue 
water, decked with the crimson flowers of the Blood}' Cranes- 
bill, and white sheets of Sea Campion, and masses of yellow 
Bedstraw and purple Thyme ; to see the storm-beaten sea- 
rocks, hung with grey Samphire, and the glossy foliage and 
yellow stars of the rare Golden Samphire, and splashed with 
purple patches of Sea-lavender ; or the wide heaths above, 
blazing with Gorse and Heather ? Nor less attractive is the 



Motes 071 the Flora of Hoivth. 175 

low neck of land that joins the headland to the mainland ; 
where 

" All the sands that left and right 
The grassy isthmus-ridge confine, 
In yellow bars lie bare and bright 
Among the sparkling brine " ; 

for here the wastes and banks are gay with yellow Melilot, 
and scarlet Poppies, and pink Convolvulus, and many rarer 
plants that twine amid the lavish profusion of summer 
vegetation. 

The wild-flowers of Howth can boast the distinction of 
having a book devoted to themselves. Mr. Hart's excellent 
little Flora' is well-known to most of my readers, and 
ought to be well-known to all of them. Many a time, while I 
was still living in Belfast, did I pore enviously over its pages, 
for the Flora of Howth contains well nigh four-score of 
species which either are unknown in the North-east, or are so 
rare there as to constitute the prize of a day's collecting ; 
indeed man}^ of them are plants which to any Irish botanist 
possess considerable interest on account of their restricted 
range in this country. Nor have the botanical resources of 
Howth been yet quite exhausted. During the course of several 
rambles over the hill last summer, I was much pleased to find 
one or two species that are not recorded among the 545 native 
or naturalized plants which are enumerated as inhabitants of 
Howth in the work referred to ; also a few others, which, 
though recorded from Howth by previous writers, were 
excluded b}" Mr. Hart on the ground of their absence there at 
the present time. When Miss R. Mahaffy communicated to me 
several interesting additions which she has made within the 
last few years, it occurred to me that our combined observa- 
tions might be worthy of publication in the pages of the Irish 
Naturalist ; and I have endeavoured^to make the present paper 
as far as possible complete, by including any published additions 
to the flora (so far as I was aware of them) which have 
appeared since the publication of Mr. Hart's " Flora." These 
latter are few in number, and are soon enumerated. In the 
Journal of Botany for 1891 (p. 377).. Mr. Hart contributes three 
additional species— the Portland Spurge, Eiiphorbia portlan- 
dica, found on the rocky islet of Ireland's Eye by Sir Robert 

'The Flora of Howth, by H. C. Hart, B. A., F.L.S. Dublin: Hodges, 
Figgis, and Co., 1887, 3s. 6d. 



176 The Irish Naturalist. 

Ball ; Urtica pihilifera, an alien nettle, noticed by the present 
writer ; and the rare grass Festuca unigluniis, found on the 
sandy shore at Baldoyle by Mr. H. C. Levinge, where, last 
season, not knowing at the time of Mr. Levinge's discovery, I 
was delighted to find fine specimens of it. In the Irish 
Naturalist for 1893 (p. 174), Mr. David M'Ardle, who has dis- 
covered so many interesting liverworts among the rocks cf 
Howth,' added the little club-moss, Selaginella spiiiosa, to the 
flora. In the Joztrnal of Botany for 1894 (p. 76), I record 
seven Brambles not known on Howtli hitherto, nor most of 
them in Co. Dublin or in District 5 ; these were gathered on a 
pleasant July day spent with a number of members of the 
Belfast and Dublin Naturalists' Field Clubs. In the same 
journal (p. 359) I add R. viicans to this list. So far as I am 
aware, this completes the enumeration of published additions 
to the Flora of Howth. 

Of unpublished additions, it is probable that interesting 
notes are in possession of some of the many wild-flower lovers 
who spend summer da3^s or weeks on the breezy slopes of Ben 
Edar; and if the present sketch has the result of bringing to 
light information that otherwise might remain unrecorded and 
unknown, then it will not have been written in vain ; in this 
way, the very incompleteness of my notes may prove their 
greatest merit. 

PLANTS NOT INCLUDED IN THK "FLORA OF HOWTH." 

Crambe maritima, L.— Not yet quite extinct at Howth. I found it 
last year sparingly on the gravelly strand of Ireland's Eye. Formerly 
grew on the south side of Howth {Irish Flora, 1833), but "Mr. Hart says 
that it has been extinct there for many years. 

Reseda suffrutlculosa, L. — Has grown for many years near the 
Forge, Sutton. — jMiss R. Mahaffy. Apparently naturalized here. 

Silene ang^Iica, L., var. S. quinquevulnera, L. — On the railway 
bank near Howtli station. — Miss R. Mahaffy. Perhaps merely casual here. 

Rubus scaber, W. & X.— Howth Demesne.— Rev. C- H. Waddell. 
" A hirsute variety." — W. M. Rogers. 

R. silvaticus, W. & N. 

R. macrophyllus, W. & N. 

R. mlcans, Gren. and Godr. Howth. Praeger, 

R. tnucronatus, Blox. \ Joum. Bot., 1894, 

R. fuscus, W. & N., pp. 76, 359. 

R. corylifolius, Sm., var. sublustrls (Lees). 

R. Balfourlanus, Blox. 

The above were collected mostly in the Demesne ; a few of them near 
the Bailey ; the exact locality of each was not noted. The plants were 

1 See M'Ardle: Hepaticse of the Hill of Howth. Proc, R.LA., 3rd S., 
No. I, 1893. 



Notes on the Flora of Howth. 177 

named by Rev. W. M. Rogers. K. suberedus, R. villicanlis, and R. discolor 
are mentioned by Mr. Hart as occurring on Howth. The last-named is 
common there ; the second might be expected ; the first is a very rare 
plant in Ireland. 

Myriophyllum spicatum, L. — Abundant in the pool by the sea at 
the Quarr}'. The larger pool there is full of what appears to be the same 
plant, but it was out of flower when I visited the place. M. alterniflorum 
is recorded from these pools by Mr. Hart. I could not find it there. 

[Bryonia dioica, L.— One large plant on a rocky slope below KarlsclifF 
where it has grown for some years. It does not grow in any garden in 
the neighbourhood.— Miss R. Mahaffy.] 

[CEnothera biennis, L.— Established by the railway near Howth 
station, where it has grown for at least five years. — Miss R. Mahaffy.] 

Aplum nodiflorum, Reichb., var. ochreatunri, DC— In a spring 
on the east side of Ireland's Ej'e. 

Galium mollug'o, L., var. insubricum (Gaud)— Howth. — H. C. 
Levinge, Bat, Ex. Chib Repo7't, 1893. 

Arctium nemorosum , Lej. — On the Burrow; and I believe it occurs 
elsewhere. 

A, intermedium ) Lange. — North corner of Ballykill field near the 
Pavilion. 

Taraxacum officinale, Web., var. erythrospermum (Andrz.).— 
Sandy places east of the Cosh. 

[Crepissetosa,Hall. fil. — InafieldbetweenDrumleckandtheNeedles. 
— Miss R. Mahaffy. An alien which has not, I think, been noticed in 
Ireland hitherto.] 

Orobanche minor, Sm. — On a bank at Tansy. — Miss R. Mahaffy 
Abundant in a clover field near Sutton station. — R.Ll.P- A plant which 
is steadily spreading in Ireland. 

Mentha Puleg'ium, L. — Old pasture fields near Bailey post-office. 
Miss R. Mahaff}'. An interesting addition to the flora. 

Stactiys palustris x sylvatica. — In a potato patch near Howth 
chapel. The more common hybrid form, nearer to S. palustris than to 

S. sylvaiica. 

Chenopodium murale, L. — On rubbish-heaps south-west of 
Howth chapel, and on waste ground on the Burrow. Was recorded 
from Howth in the Brit. Assoc. Guide (1878), but excluded by Mr. Hart as 
probably a mistake. 

Euphorbia portlandica, L. — Ireland's Eye, Sir R. Ball. — Hart, 

Journ. Bot., 1891, p. 377. 

Urtica pilullfera, Iv. — B3' a ruined cottage on edge of the north 
cliff near Bailey Lighthouse, R. LI. Praeger. — Hart, Journ. Bot., 1891, p. 377. 
An alien plant, which I did not refind there last year. 

Ruppia rostellata, Koch. — Plentiful in the pool by the sea at the 
Quarry. 

BIysmus rufus, Panz. — Margins of the pool by the sea at the 
Quarry. Previously recorded from the vicinity — probably from this 
identical vSpot — by Mackay, who says {Flor. Hib., 1836), "between 
Baldo3de and Howth," but disallowed by Mr. Hart. 

Festuca uniglumis, Soland. — On the western edge of the Cosh [not 
coast, as printed], H. C. Levinge. — Hart,yc;«/vz. Bot., 1891, p. 377. 

Selag^inella selag-inoides, Gray. — Small bog on the north side of 
Howth Hill.— D, M'Ardle, I.N., 1893, p. 174. 

A 3 



1 7 8 ihe Irish Na tu ra list. 

Among the above plants there are a few whose occurrence on 
Howth possesses more than a local interest. Crambe is now 
one of the rarest plants in the district, and possibly the 
station mentioned is its last appearance prior to extinction. 
A^'ditim nemorosum appears to be very rare in Co. Dublin. 
Orobanche minor has onl}^ recentl}^ been observed in the 
County (Colgan, I.N., 1893, p. 285). Mentha P^ilegiiwi is 
a good addition to the flora of Co. Dublin, and to District 5. 
For Chc7iopodiuvi viurale Mr. Colgan has only one recent 
station in County Dublin, so the addition of two others is 
welcome, and I may here add a third — Rathfarnham — where 
I gathered it in a gravel pit with Matricaria Chavioinilla last 
December. 

To the above notes I ma}- add the following : — 

ADDITIONAIv STATIONS FOR RARER HOWTH PLANTS. 

Sisymbrium Irlo, L. — Roadside east of Sutton railway station. 

S. thalianum, (raud.— Steep banks above the sea at the north side 
of the Bailey— D. M'Ardle. 

Sinapis nigra, L. — Rough ground above Carrickbrack House. 
Viola hirta, Iv.— Dry field east of Glenaveena. 

Trifolium striatum, L.— Plentifully above the Martello tower at 
Sutton. — ]Miss R. Mahaffy. Mr. Hart records it from Ireland's Eye alone, 
disallowing Dr. oMoore's " Howth " record in Cyhele Hibernica. 

Rosa tomcntosa, Sm.— Near Waldron's tavern, and below 
Glenaveena. — Miss R. Mahaffy, 

Pyrus Aria, Sm. — Sparingly on a rock near the summit of Ireland's 
Eye. I failed in spite of careful search to find it in its only recent 
recorded station " rocks high up on Dung Hill, looking north " {Flora 
of Howth). 

Valerlanella Auricula, DC— Roadside near Sutton station. 

Helminthia echioidcs, Gaert, — Steep banks at the Needles, 

Centiana Amarella, L.— On Shelmartin, Miss R, Mahaffy. Mr. 
M'Ardle writes that he formerly found it plentifully in a stony pasture 
field at Sutton, but he thinks the place is built over now. 

C. campestris, L.— On Ireland's Eye, near the Martello tower. 

Hyoscyamus nigcr, L.— Abundant on the southern slope close to 
the Bailey lighthouse, R. LI. Praeger, I.N., 1S94, p. 156. On Shelmartin, 
and at Corr Castle— Miss R. Mahaff"y. Miss Mahaffy tells me that the 
seeds are smoked by certain persons, which may account for the spread 
of this plant. 

Stachys arvensis, L. — Needles field, Miss R. Mahaffy. 

Carcx cxtcnsa, Good. — Rocks on the shore near the Bailey. 

Phragmitcs communis, Trin.— By the sea below EarLscliff. 



Notes 071 the Flora of Howth. 179 

As the above plants are mostly somewhat rare in the county, 
and have only one or two stations attached to them in the 
" Flora of Howth," the additional localities mentioned have 
been considered worth}^ of record. 

Pyrus Aria and Valcfianella Auricula are not known in Co. 

Dublin except on Howth ; while Sisymbrium thalianum, and 

some of the others are of rare occurrence in the county. I 

may add that possibly V. Auricula is establishing itself in 

this neighbourhood, as I gathered it in some abundance last 

June in sandy fields at Portmarnock, where so many colonists 

appear to find a congenial resting-place. 

That interesting and anomalous group, the Characece, are 

not included by Mr. Hart in his Flora. Being aquatic plants, 

they are but poorly represented on Howth, as would be 

expected ; 5^et several species occur, and even the dry rocky 

surface of Ireland's Eye has one spot which is perennially 

damp enough to allow of the existence of one species. The 

following are, so far as I know, all the notes of Howth 

CharacecE. 

Chara fragrilis, Desv.— Howth, 1S60, D. Moore— Groves, LN., 1S95, 
p. 8. Shallow pools on the Sutton side of the hill, near the quarries, D. 
M'Ardle. In Balsaggart stream, near its source (" approaching var. 
capillacear H. and J. G.), 1894, R. U- P. 

C. vulgaris, L.— Sutton, 187 1, W. T. T. Dyer— Groves, I.N., 1895, p. 
38. 

C, vulgfaris, L., var. longribracteata, Kuetz. — In a marshy spring 
on the east cliff of Ireland's Eye, 1S94, R. LI. P. 

C. vulgrarls, Iv. near var. melanopyrena, A. Br. — A curious little 
plant which grows in the brackish pool by the sea at the Quarry is so 
named by Messrs. Groves. This variety is not recorded from Ireland. 

Nitella opaca, Ag,— Hill of Howth, 1S60, D. Moore— Groves, I.N., 
1*^95) P« 41- Ditch in the marsh at source of Balsaggart stream, 1894, 
R. I/l. P. This species is probably the N. syucarpa recorded from Howth 
in Brit. Assoc. Guide. 

In bringing these brief notes to. a conclusion, I have to 
express my indebtedness to Miss R. Mahaffy and Mr. D. 
M'Ardle for notes and specimens of their Howth finds, and to 
Messrs. Groves and A. Bennett for assistance in the naming of 
critical plants. 



i8o The Irish Naturalist. 

BIRDS OBSERVED BREEDING ON THE COASTS 

OF SI.IGO AND MAYO. 

BY ROBERT WARREN, 
(A Report laid before the Royal Irish Academj^ 28th May, 1894). 



The coast line of the County Sligo, and that of the County 
Ma3'o, as far as Belderig Harbour, is of the Carboniferous 
formation, and, wherever of sufficient altitude, is eminently 
adapted for the nesting-places of cliff-breeding birds. 

The sea-face of the cliffs consists of series of horizontal 
shelves and ledges, caused by the weathering and decay of 
the softer strata, the harder only remaining, and thus forming 
the ledges upon which the birds have their nests. But at 
Belderig Harbour, a " fault" occurs, and from that little cove 
westwards, the North Mayo coast-line is formed of rock of 
the metamorphic series, so crushed and jumbled together, that 
the face of the highest cliffs appear crumbling away ; the 
falling particles, in many places, forming steep slopes, and 
where lodging, providing most convenient nesting-places. 

On the long line of coast between Sligo and Killala Bays, 
there are only two parts sufficiently high for the breeding- 
haunts of cliff-breeding birds ; the larger one of Aughriss 
Head, and the lesser one of the Killeenduff cliffs. Aughriss 
Head, situated about twenty-four miles from Ballina, and 
fourteen to sixteen from Sligo, is a short promontory jutting 
out from the coast line, about a mile in width, rising to 150, 
or 200 feet above the sea, and sloping down inland to the 
level of the adjacent country. It is composed of Carboniferous 
limestone, and the whole sea-face of the cliff, from base to 
summit, is divided into shelves and ledges of various widths, 
running horizontally along the face, and parallel to each 
other ; but as the rock dips down towards the land side, the 
outer edges of the shelves are tilted upwards at a slight angle, 
thus forming sheltered positions for the nests almost invisible 
from the outside. 

In such a favourable breeding-haunt it was strange that 
none of the Great Cormorants were to be seen, but immense 
numbers of the Green Cormorants were nesting on the cliffs, 
the nests being scattered all over the face of the cliff in every 
crack and crevice available, and in some of the more sheltered 



Birds observed Breedmg on the Coasts of Sligo and Mayo. i8i 

ledges ; and, irrespective of the birds sitting by their nests, we 
counted over a hundred resting on a low fiat reef at the base 
of the cliff, while fully as many more were on the water. 
Razorbills and Guillemots were in thousands, perfectly in- 
numerable, thickly packed together on the ledges, while the 
sea was dotted over with numerous flocks, varying in numbers 
from five to a hundred individuals in each flock. The 
Kittiwake Gulls were in two large colonies, one on a range 
of cliff about three hundred yards in length, and the other on 
one about fifty or sixty yards shorter ; while on a space of a 
hundred yards between the two, was located a colony of 
Herring Gulls numbering about fifty pairs of birds. 

The only other birds seen about were Rock Pigeons and Jack- 
daws, frequenting the caves and holes, while Ringed Plovers 
with their young ones were running about the bare edges 
of the cliff where the winter storms had worn away the soil. 
Choughs were said to have bred here some years ago, but no 
trace of them was to be seen on the occasion of my visit on 
the 22nd of July, 1891. On a visit to this head on the 9th of 
June, 1893, 1 saw nothing new at the breeding-haunt, although 
I had the advantage of viewing the sea- face of the cliffs from 
a boat. 

Killeenduff cliffs, situated about three miles from the little 
town of Easky, are a bold range about 100' feet high, and 
although most favourably circumstanced for the breeding of 
seafowl, are only frequented by a few pairs of Green Cor- 
morants, and Rock Pigeons in the caves ; a colony of House 
Martens having their nests in the face of the cliff, the nests 
looking like little dabs of mud stuck against the rock. 

After leaving Killeenduff" no rock-breeding birds are to be 
met with until Killcummin Head, the western boundary of 
Killala Bay in the County Mayo, is reached, where a few pairs 
of Green Cormorants nest, as well as some Jackdaws, and 
Starlings ; a pair of Peregrine Falcons had an eyrie in the 
highest part of the cliff", and about thirty years ago a pair of 
Choughs also bred there. 

On Killala Pool (the inner part of the bay) several pairs of 
Black Guillemots are to be seen throughout the year, and 
probably breed in the cliffs between Kilcummin Head and 
L^ackin Bay. 



1 82 The Irish Naturalist. 

On the "Inch," a low gravelly island on the western side 
of the Pool, a colon}^ of the Common and Lesser Terns breed, 
as well as Ringed Plovers ; while on the sandhills of 
Bartragh Island Sheldrakes breed in the Rabbit-holes. 

For six miles west of Killcummin Head no breeding-haunt 
(unless that of a pair or two of the ubiquitous Green 
Cormorants) is met with until Downpatrick Head is reached, 
with its pillar-like rock of Doonbrista standing upright 126 
feet out of the water, and 100 3^ards from the head. This 
rock is perfectly inaccessable, its wall-like sides (in some 
places overhanging) rising out of deep water, and although 
now so isolated, and inaccessable to man, was at some remote 
period of time joined to the mainland, and inhabited, which 
is proved by the remains of a stone w^all still to be seen on the 
summit. 

On the ledges of the head and rock, Kittiwakes swarmed in 
thousands, and when disturbed by the report of a gun, looked 
like a shower of snow as they darted out from the face of 
the cliffs. Green Cormorants were also in large numbers both 
on the rocks and head ; while on the flat grassy summit of the 
former a colony of twelve to fifteen pairs of the Great Black- 
backed Gull held undisputed possession ; a few pairs of 
Herring Gulls having to content themselves with the ledges 
just below the top. Razorbills and Guillemots thickly crowded 
together on the shelves of the head and rocks, in some places 
in dense masses, quite innumerable, though not in such large 
numbers as at Aughriss Head. 

Leaving Ball3xastle (or Buntraher Bay, as it is named on 
the maps), a few pairs of Black Guillemots were seen in the 
sheltered cove, and the cliffs begin to rise in height westward, 
until Keadue is reached, between two and three miles from Bally- 
castle ; just before reaching Keadue, and situated about 150 
yards from the sea, in the centre of a grass field, a curious 
chaldron-like hole is seen, almost circular, and about 30 yards 
in diameter, the sides perpendicular and about 50 or 60 feet in 
depth to the rocky bottom, into which the tide flows through 
a tunnel-like cavern. It was low tide when we were there, 
but when the tide is high it rushes in with tremendous force 
in stormy weather, sending the spray up to a great height. 
While sitting on the edge of the cliff over the hole we observed 



Birds observed Breedmg on the Coasts of Sligo and Mayo. 183 

some Jackdaws feeding their young in the crevices of the sides, 
and were agreeably surprised to hear the musical calls of a 
Chough, and shortly after saw a pair go into a hole near 
where the Jackdaws were, and heard them feeding their 
young ones. 

Keadue is an immense amphitheatre-like bay, running for 
a quarter of a mile into the land, and about as wide at the 
entrance, surrounded by a perpendicular wall of rock 350 feet 
in height, upon the edges of which a large colony of Herring 
Gulls had nests (perhaps a hundred pairs), while several pairs 
of the ubiquitous Green Cormorants were scattered about the 
face of the cliffs, having nests in the holes and crannies ; and 
about halfway on the western side a beautiful pair of Peregrine 
Falcons had their eyrie some thirty feet below the top, on a 
flat ledge under an overhanging vslab of rodk. 

As there were conflicting accounts of the species of eagle 
breeding on the North Mayo coast, I was anxious to visit 
their haunts, and ascertain if possible which species really 
bred there ; and also to continue my observations of the coast- 
breeding birds from Downpatrick Head and Keadue, as far 
west along the coast as possible. However, owing to the 
long-continued bad weather of the summer of 1892, I was 
unable to leave for my first visit until the 30th of June, 
when, at a quarter past 8 o'clock, a.m., I left Ballina on my 
twenty-mile drive to Belderig, via Killala and Ball3'castle. 
On reaching the latter village, while our horse was resting 
and feeding, I walked on before as far as Keadue, and during 
my three miles walk through the valley and along the river, 
I met a great variety of birds. Sedge Warblers singing in the 
reeds by the river banks ; Corncrakes calling from the little 
patches of oats, the three species of Bunting ; Thrushes, 
Common and Mountain Linnets, Goldfinches, Swifts, Swal- 
lows, and Sand Martins ; a few Chafiinches and Green 
Linnets — stragglers from the few trees and bushes near 
the villages ; Meadow Pipits and Skylarks, the latter very 
numerous. However, as soon as the bog district v.-as 
reached, a little beyond Keadue, onl}^ the two species 
of larks were to be seen. Though whenever there was a 
solitary cottage, even in the bog, with its little patches of oats 
and potatoes, there a few Twites and buntings were seen. 



184 The Irish NaUcralist. 

The road from Ballj^castle to Belderig runs along the coast, 
not far from the cliffs, through a desert of bog and moor, but 
half-way between those places is Glenglossera, a small and 
verj^ picturesque glen, or rather ravine, reaching the sea 
through a narrow cove in the high cliffs ; at the head of 
the glen is the pretty shooting lodge of Mr. Mudge, sur- 
rounded by evergreen shrubs and natural brushwood, the 
latter clothing the sides of the ravine, and offering such a 
contrast to the wilderness of bog all round, that it looks like 
a lovely oasis in the midst of a desert. 

On the cliffs near the mouth of the cove over the sea a pair 
of Peregrines have an e3^rie. In August, some 3^ears ago, 
when Grouse-shooting, Mr. Mudge shot two Golden Eagles, 
an adult bird w^hich he has at his English residence, and an 
immature specimen w^hich he show^ed me in a case at Glen- 
glossera. 

Belderig is a small village, consisting of a few cottages 
thinly scattered over a broad valley or depression of the land, 
opening out into the little harbour between the cliffs, while 
bog and mountain surround it inland. 

The sea-cliffs from Belderig to Broadhaven Bay are the 
finest I have seen on the Irish coast, consisting of a mountain 
range varying in height from six to eight hundred feet, cul- 
minating in Benwee Head, 829 feet high. The cliffs are 
highest on the sea-face, and slope down inland to the level 
of the great bog, turf covering them to an immense depth. 
Even on the outer edge of the cliffs it is seven and eight feet 
deep, and falling with the crumbling face of the cliffs, and 
lodging where there are vacancies between stones and rocks, 
forms most convenient nesting-places for the Puffins and 
other birds. 

This line of coast is indented b}^ great ba3^s, at short distances 
from each other, and it is chiefly on the high wall-like cliffs 
of these bays that the sea-fowl breed in such numbers. 

(to bk conci.ude:d). 



[ i85 ] 



FIELD CLUB WORK IN THE NORTH. 



Annual Report and Proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists' 
Field Club, for the year ending 31st March, 1S95 (thirty-second 
year). Belfast : Printed for the Club, by A. Mayne & Boyd. Price 
of extra copies to members, 2s. 

This publication has just been issued, in the shape of a well-printed 
volume of over 200 pages, of which half is devoted to the Proceedings of 
the Club, and half to a " Supplement to the Flora of the North-east of 
Ireland," being one of the series of scientific memoirs relating to the 
natural history or archaeology of their district which this vSociety issues 
from time 10 time. Just thirty years ago the Belfast P'ield Club issued 
their first report, an eight-page pamphlet, covering two years' work — a 
contrast to the present stout volume, which indicates the growth of 
this Club during the intervening period. From the Committee's report 
we learn that the membership now stands at 516, being by far the highest 
number ever reached. The principal events of the summer were a joint 
excursion with the Dublin Field Club in June, a week's visit of the North 
Staffordshire Field Club to Belfast during the same month, and a three- 
day excursion to North Donegal in July. The formation of the Irish 
Field Club Union, which is already bearing good fruit, is referred to as 
calculated to work for the general benefit of all the Clubs concerned. The 
list of papers read at the winter meetings looks at first sight varied and 
representative of the several branches 'of the Club's work, but on anal3'sis 
we find that seven papers deal with geology, only two with zoology 
(and of these the titles alone are given in the Proceedings), none with 
botany, and the remaining five with literature, art, ethnography, &c. 
This weakness in zoology and botany is certainly to be regretted, in view 
of the immense amount of work still required in the North in these 
departments. 

In the reports of the excursions also, which occupy 21 pages, the same 
weakness is conspicuous ; not half-a-dozen animals, nor more than a score 
of plants are recorded as having been found by the members on their 
nine field-days, and as a matter of fact almost the whole of this small 
list was supplied by members of the Dublin Club on the joint excursion 
to the Boyne. The cause of this deficiency in field-work appears to be 
that the Belfast Club is suffering from a plethora of members. 
Is this Society doing more work now than during the many 
years when the membership ranged from 200 to 300.'^ We doubt it. It 
is certainly doing less field-work on its excursions, and the importance 
of maintaining the esprit de corps on these summer trips cannot be over- 
estimated; picnicking and consequent demoralization are always ready 
to swoop down on the unwary Field Club that allows its excursions to 
degenerate into pleasure-trips. When we read of 120 members having 
attended the driving excursion to Langford Lodge — well known as 
a " show place " — we are not surprised to find that absolutely 



1 86 The Irish Naturalisi. 

no field-work was done on this occasion : it appears to be a 
law ot Field Club mathematics that the work done on an excursion 
usually varies inversely as the number of members present. Perhaps it 
is to this cause that we owe a redeeming feature of the Report under 
review — the excellent researches that are being carried out by a few 
ardent members of the Geological Committee on the glacial deposits 
of the district, and in other branches of local geology. Miss Thompson's 
report shows that the boulder- clays and associated beds, and the larger 
erratic blocks, are being carefully examined, and some interesting 
discoveries have already rewarded the researches of the Geological 
Committee ; while Mr. Hoskins' analysis of Antrim glauconite, and 
Prof. Cole's notes on hullite, are valuable contributions to our know- 
ledge of these minerals. 

But if the Belfast Field Club is weak in its field-work, it is certainly 
strong in a different department of its labours — that of indoor in- 
struction to its members. Three courses of lectures were held during 
the past winter, and all of them appear to have been decidedly successful. 
Prof Cole gave his second geological course, " The Study of Life on the 
Globe " ; Prof Johnson contributed twelve lectures on " The Study of 
Plant Life " ; while under the care of Mr. P. J. O'Shea the class for the 
study of the Irish language has continued to make satisfactory progress. 
The geological and botanical lectures were followed by practical demon- 
strations. These classes should serve as useful adjuncts to field-work, 
and as a stimulus to the same, but it should never be imagined that 
they can replace it. 

As a relief to the complete absence of botanical papers in the Proceed- 
ings, we have the loo-page appendix, " Supplement to the Flora of the 
North-east of Ireland," now published by S. A.Stewart and R. Lloyd 
Praeger. This paper shows that even if work on the Club excursions has 
been insignificant, the botanical members have not been idle when on 
excursions of their own. It is now just seven years since Stewart and 
Corry's " Flora " was published, and the present supplement shows a 
goodly number of additions to the lists of plants of the three counties — 
Down, Antrim, and Derry — dealt with in the work in question. As a 
matter of statistics, the flora (phanerogams, vascular cryptogams, mosses, 
and hepatics) of the district is raised from 1,169 species to 1,229; that of 
County Down is increased by 60 species, of County Antrim by 58, 
and of County Derry by 45. These additions include a number of plants 
of much interest. Spiranthcs Konianzoviana is indeed a bright jewel to add 
to the local botanists' crown ; Garex pancifiora is a highly interesting 
addition to the list of Irish mountain-plants ; the critical Polygonum, 
viaciilatuni is also an addition to the flora of Ireland; while a number of 
species, such as Kannncnhis circi/iatus, Drosera intenncdia, Saiissurea alpina^ 
Orchis py rati I idalis^ Carex aqiiatilis, were not previously known to grow in 
this part of our country. Withdrawals and corrections to Stewart and 
Corry's " Flora " are very few, showing the excellence and care with 
which the " Flora " was compiled. The species now withdrawn from 



Field Club Work hi the North. 187 

the list of local plants are only six in ri\x\\\hQ.x\— Ononis spinosa, Rosa 
micrantha^ Silaus pratensis, Calamintha offi.cinalis, Primula veris, Grimiiua 
ovata, and in only two of these Zdi^^s—Rosa and Griinmia—is, the plant 
withdrawn on account of a proved error of determination, the remainder 
being omitted since time has shown that they were merely casuals or 
escapes in the stations credited to them. A useful feature of the Supple- 
ment is the enumeration of a number of plants which have not now been 
seen in the district for some years ; the rediscovery of these will be a 
useful work for the local botanist, since, on account of drainage and 
other changes, their confirmation as members of the present flora is a 
consummation devoutly to be wished. The supplement is wisely printed 
in pages of the same size as the " Flora of the North-east of Ireland," in 
order that it may be bound with it ; and it furnishes a valuable addition 
to our knowledge of Irish botany. 



PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



RoYAi, Z001.0GICA1. Society. 

Recent donations comprise two pairs of Hooded Crows from H. H. 
Jonas, Esq., and J. P. Swan, Esq. ; a Hedgehog from G. C. Gray, Esq. 
A Camel and a Chimpanzee have been purchased, and a Golden Agouti 
born in the Gardens. 

8,790 persons visited the Gardens in May. 

BEI.FAST Naturalists' Fiei^d Ci,ub. 

May i8th.— The first Excursion of the season was held on this date 
when the Club paid a visit to the old Cistercian Monastery of Greyabbey^ 
A pleasant morning found a party of sixty collected at the Linen Hall 
Library at 10 a.m., and a start was made at once in brakes. Passing by 
Dundonald, Newtownards, and other places of interest, the first h^lt was 
made at Mountstewart, the seat of the Marquis of Londonderr}-. Here 
the fine mansion was thrown open to the members, after which the 
cromleac occupied the attention of the party, and was freely photo- 
gra])hed. This cromleac, as Mr. W. Gray pointed out, was once tlie 
centre of a large tumulus, which has since disappeared, leaving only its 
core. Having examined this relic of olden time, and having noticed" the 
good sense of the owner of the soil in leaving it intact, the party pro- 
ceeded to Greyabbe3^ Mr. J. J. Phillips has written a most beautiful 
and interesting monograph on this fine old ruin, and the information 
imparted by it during the day greatly increased the pleasure of those 
who saw it. 

Tea was provided on the hill close by, where a most extensive view 
delighted the eyes of all present. Strangford Lough and its islands, 
with the blue Mourne Mountains in the distance, and the ruins of the 
old abbey nestling amongst the trees beneath, added every feature 
necessary for a perfect picture ; in fact, it is doubtfid if there is so fine a 
view in all County Down as is here to be had in the evening sunlight. 



1 88 The Irish Naturalist. 

At five o'clock the waggonettes were then once more mounted, and 
the party drove off, passing on the wa}-, close to Mountstewart, a vast 
erratic of basalt resting on Triassic sands and marls. Mr, Welch has 
taken a capital photo, of this amazing sample of the power of ice in the 
great ice age. Belfast was reached at eight o'clock, where the members 
dispersed. The botanists of the part}' found nothing rare, but Sediini 
telcphiiiDi and Anchiisa senipervircns, which were in great quantity. In one 
spot the double variety of the Lesser Celandine and an extremely large 
variety of the Wild Hyacinth were growing in abundance. The 
geologists only spent a few minutes at a small section of boulder clay, 
from which, however, a good specimen of a striated block was extracted. 

May 25th. — The geological section visited the Woodburn district, 
seventeen members being present. It is satisfactory to find that 
Professor Cole's recent lectures have greatly increased the interest in 
field geology, as evidenced by the large attendance at this excursion. 
The first halt was made outside the beautifvil and well-kept glen of the 
Water Commissioners. A cliff of Lower Greensand yielded brachyolites, 
ventriculites, Vermicularia, pectens, and other fossils. Passing up the 
glen, where the waterfalls were in perfection, the party crossed meadows 
gay with orchis, bugle, rattle, and Water Avens, obtaining the Adder's 
Tongue, and plunged into the nortli glen, where the dark green glan- 
conitic sands were reached after a good deal of scrambling. Many 
Exogyrce and lercbraiuhc were gathered, whilst the glacialists secured 
some boulder cla}' from about 400 feet above the sea. Passing down 
stream some blocks of Lias yielded fish teeth and scales, and eventually 
the party returned to Troopers Lane. 

June ist. — The second Excursion of the Club took place to Glj'nn and 
Gleno. A part}^ of about 100 left Belfast by the 2.15 express to Larne, 
which was kindly stopped at Glynn station by Mr. Cotton to allow the 
members to alight. This Excursion was rendered especially interesting 
owing to the presence of Professor Johnson and Mr. S. A. vStewart, two 
well-known botanists, who gave good assistance to those members 
taking up this study. On leaving the station a halt was made at the 
churchyard, where the ruins of the old church were examined. The 
Secretaries then announced that a prize would be given for the collection 
containing the largest number of species of flowering plants gathered 
during the afternoon. Mr. Stewart headed the party who wished to go 
on to Gleno, whilst the remainder stayed in the glen. A walk of about 
two-and-a-half miles brought the former to the quaint little village of 
Gleno. At the waterfall the botanists searched carefully for mosses, 
liverworts, and algie ; although nothing very rare was found, Fontinalis 
Jitiviatilis among the mosses, and Leutanca among the algae are worth 
noticing. Mr. Stewari obtained a specimen of Zygodon Stirtoni, which is 
found onl}' at Killarney and one or two places in the North. The large 
limestone quarry alongside the stj-eam yielded few fossils, but there were 
quite a number of the little Atiiorphospon^ia globularis weathered out on 
the surface in one part. The usual Ananchyics ovatus, Belemniklla imuronata, 
and Terebratula carnca were seen. A few photographs having been taken 
the party made for Glynn, where by the kindness of Mrs. Johnson the 
local arrangements had been made, and tea was provided in the school- 
house by Messrs. Inglis and Co. This was followed by the judging of 
the nine collections of the competitors for the botanical prize, but it was 
only as the train neared Belfast that Professor Johnson and Mr. Stewart 
were able to say that Mr. Richard Hanna had taken the prize with ninety 
species ; Miss Vinycomb was next with seventy-one, and the lowest was 
about sixty, so the competition was keen. The only plant of note was 
Dog's Mercury (^Mcrcurialis perennis), which was in some quantity, and is 
locallv rare. 



Proceedi7igs of Irish Societies. 189 



Dubinin Naturawsts' Fiei^d Ci.ub. 

May 25th. — An especially interesting excursion was made on May 25th, 
when a large party visited the bog near TuUaniore in King's County, 
which is well known to naturalists as the largest breeding place in Ire- 
land of the Black-headed Gull. Leaving Dublin at 9.15, a rapid journey 
in a special through carriage brought the members to Tullamore, where 
they were joined by some local friends, and drove immediately to the 
vicinity of the bog. Here they were met by Mr, R. Digby, J. P., and the 
Rev. Canon Russell, D.D., who acted as guides during the day. No time 
was lost in getting out on the bog, where the unusual spectacle of some 
fifty persons wending their way cautiously among the pools and marshes 
to the centre of the vast spongy plain produced a great commotion 
among the only inhabitants — thousands of graceful sea-birds, that rose 
in clouds before the part}', and eddied like snowflakes overhead, filling 
the air with their wild musical din. Here among the bog-pools were 
numbers of slightly-formed nests, many of which contained brown 
spotted eggs, others 3'oung birds in the beautiful brown and black 
mottled down of infancy, while others of larger size, covered with dark 
feathers, ran about among the heather, or skulked in the beds of rushes. 
The photographers of the party busily took snap-shots at the birds, old 
and young, while the botanists were well pleased to find abundance of 
the Cranberry (FarczwzV/;;^ Oxycoccos)^ with its pink blossoms dotting the 
wet moss, the waxy bells of the Andromeda {A. polifolid), the Great Sun- 
dew {Drosera anglica), a somewhat rare fern, Lasirea spinnlosa, and other 
plants ; and the entomologists captured a variety of rare bog insects, a 
list of which is contributed by Mr. J. N. Halbert to the present number 
(p. 172). The edge of the bog was regained without mishap, and the 
party next explored the beautiful wood of Clonad. Here were found 
both species of Buckthorn {Rhamniis latharticus and. R. frangtda), the Inter- 
mediate Avens {Geuin interniediiDii), the Columbine {Aqiiilegia vulgaris), the 
Water Avens {Geiim rivale), and many other interesting species. In 
meadows adjoining grew the Green-winged Orchis {0. i/iorio), Q.i\d fine 
plants of the Royal Fern {Osniunda regalis) were obtained on the banks of 
a stream in the neighbourhood. The following fungi were collected by 
Mr. Greenwood Pini and Dr. H. J. McWeeney : — Agariciis (Gahrd) hypjio- 
rum, Fr. ; A. {Gabra) viycenopsis, Fr. ; and A. {Oniphalia) timbelliferus, Fr., 
on Sphagnujn ; Peronospora parasitica on Sisymhritim Alliaria ; J\ pygmcea on 
linemone neviorosa ; Aicidiuiii crassum, Pers., on Rharnnus catJiarticus (the 
spermogonia were also found on the upper side of the leaf); CEcldiuni 
aquilegice ; Puccinia epilohii ; P. coronata, Corda, abundant on both species 
of Buckthorn ; Penidllium olivaceu!n(Ca..), on discoloured spots on Aquihgia- 
leaf The whole party, now reinforced by a number of the local gentry, 
assembled at the forester's house at five o'clock, where an ample tea was 
provided by the Misses Gardiner, of Leinster-street, Dublin. Subse- 
quently a short business meeting was held." Mr. Greenwood Pim, M.A., 
F.L.S., who occupied the chair, on behalf of the members warmly 
thanked INIr. Digby and Canon Russell for the great assistance they had 
given during the day. Mr. A. J. Pentland and Miss Pentland were then 
elected members of the Club. The return journe}^ was made in time to 
catch the 7.42 train to town, and Dublin was reached punctually 
at ten. 



igo The Irish Naturalist. 

NOTES. 



BOTANY. 

Irish plants in the new London Catalogue,— It may be 

interesting to point out some of the changes as regards Irish plants 
which have been made in the ninth edition of this useful work. Irish- 
men will regret that St. Dabeoc's Heath no longer bears his name 
{Daboecia), but is changed to Boretia, and that the Lough Neagh sedge 
Carex Biixbazimii becomes C. fusca, but the law of priority is inexorable. 
Two other exclusively Irish plants, Asplcnitim Clermontce, and Potamogeton 
longifolhis, Bab., are marked as hybrids. We have cause to be grateful, 
however, that Rosa hibcniica still retains its name, though it had a narrow 
escape, and that the following now help to swell the small numl)er of 
Irish plants, Thalictntm lollinuin var. calcarcum, Carex rhynchophysa, and 
the varieties Ilartii, Stcwartii, and occidentale from the long array of Hawk- 
weeds. The new spelling of Spiranthcs J\o/iianzo//iana, and Isoetes laciistris 
V. Morei should be noted ; the latter, which was spelled Moorci in the 
eighth edition, was I suppose a misprint. 

C. H. Waddei^L, Saintfield. 



HEPATIC^. 

Jubula Hutchinsiae (Hook,)-— I am glad to be able to record a 
new station for this beautiful scale-moss, which I have only seen before 
in the North of Ireland at Rostrevor and Tollymore Park. It was found 
by Miss S. M. Thompson in a damp fissure of the rocks on the coast 
south of Newcastle, County Down. There is no appearance in the 
North of its variety integrifolia, which is said to be one of the links 
between the flora of S.W. Ireland and that of Spain and the West 
Indies. 

C. H. Waddei*!/, Saintfield. 



ZOOLOGY. 



CRUSTACEA. 

Cladocera from the West of Ireland.— The following Clad- 
ocera have been identified b}^ me in material collected at various times 
by Prof. D'Arcy W. Thompson (of Dundee) in the neighbourhood of the 
town of Galway — Sida crystallina, Miiller ; Daphnia piilex, De Geer ; D. 
longispina, Miiller ; D. galcata, G. O. Sars ; Si/nocephalus veivlus, Miiller ; 
Ceriodaphnia viegalops, G. O. Sars ; Bosmina longispina, Miiller ; Etirycerciis 
lamellatns, Miiller; Acerpcriis harpie, Baird ; Alonopsis eloiigaia, G. O. Sars; 
Lyncciis affinis, Kurz. ; Grapiolcbcris tcsindinaria, Fischer ; Alone! la nana, Baird ; 
Pleuroxus trigonellus, Miiller ; Chydorns sphericns, Miiller ; Leptodora hyalina, 
Lilljeborg. Of these species the rarest is Lyncens affinis, a form only 
recently added to the British lists. It has lately been found, however, 
by Mr. Scourfield in North Wales, by Mr. T. Scott in the West of 
Scotland, and by myself near Birmingham. 

T. V. Hodgson, Birmingham. 



INSECTS. 

Plague of Beetles In Calway in 1688. — I send an extract from 
Boate describing a curious plague of beetles in Galway in i6S8 : — 
"In the summer of 1688 a vast swarm of insects of the Scarabeus 
or beetle kind appeared on the S.W. coast of Galway, not far from 
the town. They were brought by a S.W. wind and proceeded 
towards Headford to Tuam, where, and in the adjacent country, they 
lay by thousands among the trees and hedges, hanging to the boughs in 



Notes. 191 

clusters, and sticking to the backs of one another, like bees when they 
swarm. In this manner they continued quiet during the heat of the day, 
but towards evening they simultaneously took wing with a strange noise 
resembling the distant beating of drums, and in such vast and incredible 
numbers as to darken the air for many miles around, In a short time 
they devoured all the leaves of the trees, and the countr}', though it 
was then in the middle of summer, was left as naked as if it had been in 
the middle of winter. The grinding of the leaves in the mouths of this 
vast multitude made a sound similar to the sawing of timber. They 
destroyed all the gardens round the country, and particularly Mr. 
Martin's beautiful plantations at Dangan ; entered the houses, and, 
crawling about, fell into the food of the people ; and wherever they 
happened to stride they left a slight mark behind. Their spawn they 
deposited near the surface of the ground, where it did considerable 
damage by devouring the roots of the corn and grass. These formidable 
invaders were, however, easily killed ; smoke was their greatest enemy, 
and one wet day destroyed great heaps of them. They proved good food 
for the swine and poultry, and, according to some, were also used by the 
poorer sort of people. PVoni the time of their first appearance they con- 
tinued to proceed progressively with the westerly wind, and in 1696 they 
reached the Shannon ; but they were gradually destroyed. The year 
before about 40 or 50 horse loads were found lying dead along the shores 
of the bay, for miles westward of Galway. It was supposed this new 
colony, coming from their native lands, Normandy or Brittany in France, 
met with a contrary wnnd, which, having blown them into the sea, they 
were drownied, and their bodies cast ashore. Since that time nothing 
of the same kind has appeared." 

Richard T. KeIvI.y, Dublin. 

[It is only a few days since we received complaints from Co. Galway of 
the serious ravages of the small chafer Phyllopcrtha horticola, L., during the 
present summer. Very probably the beetles referred to in the above 
interesting old record belonged to that species. — Kds.] 



Lepidoptera from SIig:o. — In the March number of the current 
volume (p. 77) I record the capture by Rev. R. A. M 'Clean of Erebia 
epiphron var. cassiope near Sligo. Having now looked through his entire, 
collection, the following species of moths seem to be worthy of record :- - 

GeoM£;TRID^. — Eiirymene dolobraria, Epione apiciaria, Acidalia remuiaj-ia, 
Bapta temeraia, Numeria piilveraria, Scodioiia belgiaria, Hybernia nipicapraria, 
Anisopteryx asailaria, Eininelcsia tcvniala, Eupitheiia dodoncata, E. lariciata, 
Larcntia nniltisirigaria, Melanthia ocellata, Cidaria miala, C. siierata, C. corylata, 
C. silaceata, C. suffiimata, Pdiirga coniitata. 

SphinGID^. — S/nerinihiis ocellatus. 

NOTODONTID.^. — Pterostonia palpina. 

CymaTOPHORID.'E. — Thyalira batis, T. dera^a, Cymatophora duplaris. 

NOCTUID^. — GraiiiDiesia trigranimica, Stilbia anomala, Ma/nestra persicarue, 
Celcena HaivortJiii, Dianihcecia nana, D. capsincola, D. ctuubali, Epiinda lutidenta^ 
vars. sedi, and liinebcrgensis, Cleoceris viininalis, Agrotis vestigialis, A. cu7'Soria, 
A, pnrcox, A. strignla, A. confusa, Panolis pinipcrda, Xanthia fulvago, X. Jlavago, 
Charicleanmbra, Xylocampa areola, Xylina orniihopus, X. socia, Plusia bractea. 

IvlTHOSllD^. — Gnophria rnbricollis. 

PYRAt,lD^. — Botys niralis, B. fuscalis, Scoparia ambigiialis, Noviophila 
nocinella, Scapula lutealis, Crai)ibiis niaigaritellus, C. horiuellus, C. genicnleus. 

TlNElD^. — Dmrnca fagella, Hyponomeiita cagnagclhis. 

ToRTRlCiD^li. — Tortrix ministrana, Sericoris lacunana, Argyrotoza conwayana, 
Pardia iripinutana, Catoptria idicctana, Aigyrolepia hartmanniana. 

Z YGiE NI D.-t; . — Zygcena lonicene. 

Hepiai^id^I^. -Ihpia'.iis hcctus. 

Geo. H. Carpenter. 



192 The Irish Naturalist. 

BIRDS. 

Notes on Black-headed Culls.— The following notes arc from 
observations which I made at Lough INIask, Co. INJ.ayo, and Gull Island, 
Gartan Lake, Co. Donegal. — The birds all seem to begin to lay at the one 
time— once an o.^^ is laid either the cock or hen is on the nest so that 
the eggs come out very irregularly ; they lay from three to five eggs, 
generally three or four, but in a few nests there may be six. When the 
chicks are all out they stop for about a week at the "gullery " and then 
all suddenly disappear. The young chicks do not seem to be alile to 
swim, as some that fell off the island at Gartan were drowned. One year 
the gamekeeper at Toormakeedy robbed the regular gullery to get the 
eggs to feed his Pheasants, and the Gulls moved to a rocky island and 
crag in the small river that flows into the north end of Lough Mask, 
here they could be easily watched as one could creep within 100 yards 
of them. When the chicks were about ten days old they all suddenly 
left. To-day when passing the gullery was alive, the next day there was 
scarcely a Gull to be seen, and on going to the island one only found one 
or two late clutches. After the gullery was deserted I found in the Co. 
Mayo in the grass fields and in the Co. Donegal in the corn-field a 
hovering pair of Black-heads that mobbed me if I came near as if their 
young were about, but although I worked the ground very close I never 
could find one ; but in two or three weeks the country would have nu- 
merous small flocks consisting of two adults and three or four young 
ones flying about feeding. I firmly believe the Gulls bring their young 
to these fields, in fact it is all but positively proved — but how do they 
do it .'' Do they carry them } The Mallard Duck does carry its young as 
at Cragg, Lough Derg, Co., Clare ; so also does the Woodcock. Why there- 
fore may not the Black-headed Gull do likewise ? The Terns and the 
Grey-backed Gull keep about Lough Mask till their young are well able 
to fly. G. H. KiNAHAN, Dublin. 

GEOLOGY. 

Exposed LlasatWhltepark Bay, North Antrim. —Heavy storms 
in former 3'ears exposed small patches of Lias shales near the " Kitchen" 
Middens" in this bay, but these were very soon covered up again, 
sometimes ])y next few tides. The great storm of December 22nd last, 
has left lasting traces of its fury here, and by removing many thousands 
of tons of sand and shingle from the centre of the strand to the east end 
has exposed the beds for a distance of over a thousand long b}' from 
twenty to one hundred and fifty feet wide. All that now remains are 
large masses of Chalk scattered over the Lias, There does not seem to 
be even after four months exposure any sign of the sand covering up 
again, but it might be well for geologists to take advantage of this fine 
exposure while they may ; the beds are fairly fossiliferous, indeed it is 
from here and from the little section a little higher up along the banks of 
the stream that the Causeway guides get the majority of the specimens 
of ammonites which they sell to tourists, and there are plenty of 
indications that they are working there now. It would be impossible to 
accurately describe the great change the storm made from the little port 
at Eallintoy to this point. Almost all the shingle which lay in gullies 
around the sea-stacks has been thrown up high beyond high water 
mark ; at one place lying along a field 30 to 40 feet inside the low ditch. 

Even more destructive was the storm on the West Strand, near Golf 
Hotel, Portrush, where the sand has been removed in immense quantities 
all along the face of the dunes, exposing for almost a quarter of a mile 
the well-known submerged peat beds there, which before the storm showed 
only in a small patch about two feet below the Hotel ; it being now 
from seven to eight feet high there the alternate layers of peaty matter 
and sand can now be well examined, insects, &c., searched for. Roots and 
branches of trees, evidently of the pine tribe, are common, and what 
appeared to me like leaves or stems of Zostera .? or other esiuarine plant. 

R. We;i.ch, Belfast 



Vol. IV. AUGUST, 1895. No. 8. 

THB ORCHIDS OF COUNTY DUBININ. 

BY NATHANIKI. COI^GAN, M.R.I. A. 



So far as it is possible to judge with our still very imperfect 
knowledge of the various Irish county floras, the County 
Dublin is exceptionally rich in orchids. Out of a total of, say, 
twenty-three Irish species, no less than sixteen are included 
in the actual Dublin flora, while further research may be ex- 
pected to raise the number to eighteen by the re-discovery of 
two recorded species which have not been recently observed. 
This proportion of sixteen to twenty-three is somewhat ex- 
ceeded in the Counties of Cork, Galway, and Kerry, with 
areas, respectively, about eight, seven, and five times as great 
as that of the County Dublin ; Wicklow, with more than 
twice the Dublin area, numbers about seventeen species ; 
Westmeath,^ with exactly double, and Armagh/ with one and 
a half times the area of Dublin, each number twelve species 
in their orchid floras ; Donegal, with five times the Dublin 
area, has, perhaps, no more than an equal number of 
species ; and, finally, the three north-eastern counties of 
Ireland : Derry, Antrim, and Down, with a combined area 
more than eight times that of the County Dublin, hp.ve 
one less than its number of orchid jspecies^ — fifteen. On the 
whole, then, the orchid flora of the County Dublin may be 
set down as exceptionally rich when compared with that of 
other Irish counties, though it must be confessed that its 
richness lies rather in the number of its species than in the 
presence of any of the rarer Irish members of this peculiarly 
interesting order of plants. 

The following notes, selected rather hastily from some j^ears' 
observations in the highlands and lowlands of the county, will 

1 See Mr. H. C. Levinge's " Plants of Westmeath," /.JV„ 1894. 

2 See Mr. Praeger's " Flora of Armagh," /.N., 1893. 

^ EJxcludin^ Epipactis palustris and Cephalanthera ensifolia. 

A 



194 * 'j^he Irish Naturalist. 

be found, perhaps, to contain nothing strikingly novel for 
students of the Dublin flora. It is hoped, however, that they 
may serve to exhibit with some clearness the county distribu- 
tion of the Dublin orchids, as at present known, and thus 
show the direction in which further inquiry may be useful. 

Malaxls paludosa (Sw.)— Bog Orchis.— vStill in some abundance 
in its old station on Glendliu Mountain, where I had the pleasure of 
pointing it out in September last to Dr. I^eitch, of Silloth, who on the 
same day discovered another station for the species on the mountains to 
the eastward above GlencuUen Bridge, at a height of i,ooo feet. For ten 
years this plant has maintained itself in precisely the same patch of 
Sphagnwn on Glendhu Mountain. It would be of interest to know 
whether it still holds its ground in its earliest recorded Dublin station, 
at the head of Glenasmole, where it was found eighty years ago by John 
Templeton, who, in his IMS. Irish Flora, records the discovery in these 
words:— "In marshy places about Kelly's Glen, River Dodder, July, 
1814, in company with Dr. Ta3-lor and Mr. Mackay ; in flower July 23rd, 
1814." Mr. John Bain, who more than once gathered the plant here in 
his early botanical excursions with Dr. Mackay about the date of the 
publication of the Flora Hibernica{i^2i^), tells me that Templeton's station 
is no doubt the mossy plashes on the right above Grierson's, now Cobb's, 
Lodge at the head of the glen. Malaxis, it may be noted, should be 
sought for not only in living Sphagnum beds, but also round their edges, 
where a constant trickle of moisture passes over freer ground. In its 
Glendhu station it usually occurs in groups or clusters, a number of 
small plants, one inch or less in height, surrounding a larger, sometimes 
three-inch, central plant. This outer ring arises, no doubt, from the 
growth of the characteristic leaf-bulbils dropped by the more mature 
central plant. 

Ranging in Dublin from 1,000 to 1,300 feet. 

Llstera cordata (R. Br.)— Lesser Tway-bi,adi:.— Probably abund- 
ant in the Dublin mountains wherever the heather is well grown and 
not too dense below. First recorded for the county in the late Mr. A. G. 
More's Rtrent Additions (1872). Mr, H. C. Hart tells me that he gathered 
the plant on Feather Bed Mountain in 1867. It occurs frequently on 
Glendhu Mountain, on Kippure, and on the slopes between Kilmashogue 
and the Three Rock. 

Ranging from 1,200 feet on Kilmashogue to 2,000 feet on Kippure. 

Llstera ovata (R. Br.)— Common Tway-bi;ade.— Abundant in the 
county, especially on moist " drift " banks. Specimens gathered last 
year on the railway cuttings between Raheny and Killester, where this 
orchid grows in great profusion, measured 2 feet 2 inches in height, 
with leaves 6 inches by 3 inches. The three-leaved form mentioned in 
Smith's English Flora (4th Kd., 1830), is probably not uncommon in the 
county. Mr. W. H. Bloomer has shown me fine specimens of it gathered 



The Orchids of County Dublin, 195 

on the railway banks, near Shankill, and I have found the form frequent 
in woods near the head of Saggard Slade. 
Ranges from sea-level at Balbriggan to 1,000 feet on Slieve Thoul. 

Splranthes autumnalis (Rich.)— Lady's Tresses.— Apparently- 
very rare in the county. Recorded from Bray Common, from Killiney, 
and from Loughlinstown, but not recentl3^ Found on the North Bull 
about the year 1885 by the late Mr. A. G. More. It would be desirable to 
search for this plant along the top of the drift banks from Killiney to 
the Bray river, towards the middle or end of August. 

Epipactis palustris (Crantz)— Marsh HeIvIvEborine. — This 
species appears to have been formerly much more abundant in the 
county than at present. Templeton, in his MS. Flora, gives the follow- 
ing localities : — "Jamestown, \ mile beyond Kilgobbin, Co. Dub- 
lin, Dr. Stokes, October 26, 1801. Plentiful in a bog in the neigh- 
bourhood of Killiney Bay, and among the sand-hills at Baldoyle 
Strand." The first of these is its earliest recorded Dublin station : in the 
third, better known as Portmarnock sand-hills, it still holds its ground, 
Mr. Praeger having gathered it there last year. The plant is now per- 
haps extinct in the stations Stagstown and Kingstown^ given by Wade 
in his PlantcB Rariores (1804). Should this be so, it would make all the 
more acceptable the new station quite recently added in Glenasmole, 
where a considerable number of plants was discovered by Rev. C. F. 
d' Arcy on this year's June excursion of the Dublin Field Club. 

Lowland in the county, reaching only to 600 feet (in Glenasmole). 

Epipactis latifolla (Sw.)--Hei,i.Eborine.— Recorded in Mackay's 
Catalogtie of the Indigenous Plants of Ireland, 1825, for Portmarnock sands, 
an unsatisfactory habitat for a woodland species. In Mackay's Flora 
mbernica, published eleven years later, the Portmarnock station is trans- 
ferred to E. palustris. Though the plant is marked in the British Associa- 
tion Guides 1878, as " rather tare " for Dublin and Wicklow, I had no 
recent records for the county, until last month (July, 1895), when I had 
the good fortune to discover about a dozen plants of this species in a 
wood near Ballybetagh, north of the Scalp. 

Orchis pyramidalis (Linn.)— Pyramidal orchis.— A decidedly 
calcicole" plant, abundant in Dublin, where it finds in almost all 

* Not, of course, the modern Kingstowm, the Dunleary of Wade's 
generation ; but the district of Kingston, lying about a mile N. of the 
Scalp, where the Rev. vS. A. Brenan informs me he gathered the plant in 
i860. 

2 This convenient word is adopted from Coutejean's " Geographic 
Botanique," Paris, 1881, as it clearly denotes the observed connection 
between lime-soils and certain species of plants, without in any way 
begging the very vexed question as to whether the influence of the 
mineral is chemical or mechanical. 

A 2 



196 The Irish Naturalist, 

quarters a congenial habitat on the limestone drift spread over so large 
an area. It occurs in all the eight botanical districts into which I have 
divided the county, and is apparently lowland here, as elswhere in 
Ireland, hardly reaching to a higher level than 600 feet. 

Orchis IVIorlo (I^nn.)— Green-winged Orchis.— Like the preceding 
species, though rare in many parts of Northern and Southern Ireland, the 
Green-winged Orchis is widely distributed through Dublin, where it has 
been observed in seven of the eight county districts. It grows in great 
profusion at Baldrummond, N.E. of Ballyboghil, where I found it in May 
last, thickly spread over some acres of damp pasture. It is frequent in sandy 
fields to the E. of Portrane peninsula and abundant on the drift banks of 
Glenasmole and its tributary glen of Glassamuck}'. 

Ranges from sea-level to 1,000 feet at Piperstown. 

Orchis mascula (Linn.)— Eari,y Purpi^E Orchis— Occurs in all eight 
districts of the county, where, however, it seems less abundant than in 
the North of Ireland. 

Ranges to 750 feet in Glassamucky glen. 

Orchis Incarnata (Linn.)— Apparently rare in the county, having 
been found, so far, in only two of its districts. It is recorded from 
sandy pastures at Sutton and Portmarnock, and occurs in considerable 
quantity by the Grand Canal at Hazlehatch and in the Slade of Saggard, 
above the old bridge. 

Ranges from sea level to 600 feet at Saggard Slade (*)• 

Orchis maculata (Linn.)— Spotted Orchis.— The commonest 
orchid of County Dublin, as it is, perhaps, of all Ireland, and indeed of 
the British Isles. Well distributed through all eight districts of the 
county. 

A high ranging species in Dublin, as it is throughout the British Isles, 
reaching to 1,950 feet on Seefingan mountain. 

Ophrys aplfcra (Huds.)— Bee Orchis.— This, perhaps the hand- 
somest of the Dublin orchids, occurs in five of the county districts, all 
the stations, w^ith one exception, the Green Hills, being near the coast. 
It is apparently rare in all its Dublin stations, save at Skerries, where 
Rev. T, B. Gibson found it in abundance in 1892. 

A lowland and distinctly calckok species, probably occurring in many 
other stations on drift banks and gravel eskers. 



(*). 0. latifolia, Linn., is for the present omitted from the county list, 
as it is to be feared that, though recorded from many stations, it has not 
been discriminated from 0. incamaia. Treating the two species as an 
aggregate, the county distribution will be extended to four districts. 



The Orchids of County Dublin. 197 

Ha)t>enarIaconopsca(Benth.)— Fragrant Orchis.— Widely distri- 
buted in the county, occurring in seven of the districts, and very abundant 
in many places on the drift, especially in railway cuttings. It grows most 
luxuriantly in the cuttings near Killester on the Great Northern Railway, 
where I have gathered specimens measuring fully i foot 11 inches in 
height. 

lyowland in the county, reaching only to about 650 feet (in Glena« 
smole.) 

Habenarla viridis (R.Br.)— Frog Orchis. — Rather common, occur- 
ring in six of the county districts, and abundant in many stations in the 
uplands, as on the Brittas Hills, in Upper Glenasmole and round Friars- 
town and Piperstown. This species seems to be quite indifferent as to 
soil. It appears on the basalt at Ballynascorney, on the limestone drif 
at Balbriggan and Glenasmole, in sandy pastures by the shore near 
Skerries, and in stiff non-calcareous clays on Carrickbrack in the Naul 
Hills. 

Ranging from sea-level to 1,000 feet on Mount Seskin and Kilakee 
Mountain, and to 1,050 feet on Knockanavea. 

Mabenarla albida (R.Br.)— Rare, recorded only from two districts 
of the county. Templeton, in his MS. Flora, enters it as found " in 
pastures on the sides of Kelly's Glen, Dodder River," the date of the 
record being certainly not later than 1820. It still maintains itself in 
this station, where Mr. Greenwood Pim gathered it in 1889, and Dr. 
M'Weeney so recently as in 1894. 

Habenaria chlorantha (Bab.)— Butterfi<y Orchis.— Rather fre* 
quent in the three mountain districts of the county, as on the northern 
slopes of Slieve Thoul, in Upper Glenasmole and at Ticknock. This is, no 
doubt, the species recorded by Wade in his Catalogue of Dublin Plants 
(1794) under Habenaria bijolia as found " at Stagstown " (Ticknock) and 
** between Lugmore and Kilty-loones " (Kiltalown). 

Ranges to 900 feet on Slieve Thoul. 

To the foregoing notes on the orchids clearly entitled to a 
place in the present-day flora of the County Dublin, may be 
added a few words on the following two species, which, 
though recorded for the county, have not been recently 
observed. 

NeottlaNldus-avis (Rich.)- Bird's Nest Orchis.— For this there 
are two old records, both for the same locality. Woodlands, on the Liffey, a 
most likely station for the plant. Wade, in his Planta Rat lores (1804), gives us 
the first record in these words : — " In the thickets among the rotten leaves, 
Luttrellstown' wood, Co. Dublin, flowering so early as April." The 
flowering season here given would appear to point to Lathraa, which still 

* The old name forWoodlands. 



igS The Irish N'aturalist 

grows in Woodlands, rather than to Neottia. Yet Wade could hardly have 
mistaken one plant for the other, and his record is supported by the 
following from the MS. Flora of John Templeton, a more competent 
authority: — "In I^uttrelstown wood, Co. Dublin, Mr. Brinkley ; ^ seen 
in abundance by Dr. Taylor and m3^self, July, 1814." I have not myself 
had an opportunity of looking for the plant in Woodlands at the proper 
season, and it is most desirable that a thorough search should be made. 
Perhaps some reader of the Irish Naturalist can refer me to a record 
more recent than Templeton's. 

MaUenaria bifolia (R. Br.)— There does not appear to be any 
definite recent record for this. The older records belong to a period be- 
fore the species was limited by the separation from it of H. cJilorantha 
(Bab.). There is nothing in the known Irish distribution of the plant to 
make its appearance in the county improbable. 

I shall be happy to receive notes, accompanied by vSpecimens, 

of further County Dublin localities for any of the rarer 

orchids mentioned in these jottings, and more especially for 

either of the two which I have ventured to exclude from the 

actual county flora. 



13IRDS OBSERVED BREEDING ON THE COASTS 

OF SI.IGO AND MAYO. 

BY ROBKRT WARRKN. 
(A Report laid before the Royal Irish Academy, 28th May, 1894.'^ 



[^Concluded from page 184.) 
On reaching Belderig and stopping at the post-office and 
public-house, I made enquiries about the eagles, but could 
get no definite information about them, until a young keeper 
from Glencalry, coming for letters, hearing my enquiries, ad- 
vised me to see an old cliff-climber, named M'Andrew, who it 
was said knew more about eagles than any man in the 
countr}^ for he lived all his life near the cliff in which the 
eyries were situated. The old man lived about three miles 
away in the mountain, and the keeper offering to show me the 
way to his house, we set off at half-past three, on our three 
miles walk over two ranges of hills and through soft wet bog. 

1 Dr. Brinkley, Astronomer at Dunsink and afterwards Bishop of 
Cloyne. He appears to have botanized a good deal in the County Dublin. 



Birds observed Breedifig on the Coasts of Sligo and Mayo. 199 

Reaching the cottage at about six o'clock we found the old 
man cutting grass, but on hearing what we wanted, he became 
quite excited, threw down his scythe, and would have talked of 
eagles and their nests all night if allowed. He told me that 
eagles as long as he remembered regularly bred on that part 
of the coast until about three years before, when he had the 
nest robbed bj^ a boy who he let down with a rope over the 
cliff, and that since then the pair had removed further west to 
the Porturlin cliffs. On questioning him as to their appear- 
ance he described them as follows, saying " The eagle that 
bred on the cliffs was the Grey Eagle, almost as grey as a 
Goose," and that they lived chiefi}^ on hares, sometimes taking 
a Duck, or a Hen, and occasionally a lamb, but that they were 
not nearly so destructive to lambs as the Black Eagle that 
occasionally visited them from the mountains inland near 
Corick and Bangor" ; thus distinguishing between the light- 
coloured Sea Kagle of the cliffs, and the darker-coloured 
Golden Eagle of the inland mountains. Finding I had no 
chance of seeing the eagles I was about to return, when the 
old man avSked if I would like to see some birds on the cliffs, 
and L,oughtmurriga, the former nesting-place of the eagles. 
So after less than a quarter of a mile's walk up the boggy side 
of the hill, we came to the sea-cliffs of a great bay, semicircular, 
like a vast amphitheatre, bounded by wall-like cliffs 600 and 
700 feet high from the water. Lying down I looked over the 
edge, and was amazed at the thousands of birds covering the 
face of the cliff, and flying about between it and the water, 
giving the idea of bees swarming round a hive — Puffins, 
Razorbills, Guillemots, and Kittiwake Gulls, all building in 
that order, except that the Puffins were everywhere on the 
face of the cliff from the lowest tier of Kittiwakes' nests up to 
the very summit. However, I should mention that, for any 
one of the other birds there must have been a hundred Puffins. 
I lay for a long time looking on in wonder and amazement 
at the scene before me, for, although I had read of such 
gatherings, I was never until then able to realize the fact. 

We then moved about three hundred yards to the east and 
came on another bay opening out from the cliff of I^ought- 
murriga, 790 feet high ; here the birds were still more numerous. 
Puffins in tens of thousands, all over the face of the cliffs, 
burrowing in the turfy slopes, and occupying every hole and 



loo The Irish Naturalist, 

corner behind stones and rocks, and every crack and crevice 
available for a nest. At the base of lyoughtmurriga was the 
island of Moistha (Islan Master of the Ordnance Survey map) 
separated by a little strait three fathoms deep, and only wide 
enough for a rowing boat to pass through, 

Moistha is an oval-shaped island, 350 feet high, having a 
rounded grassy top, upon which the Puffins were innumerable, 
and especially so on the western slope facing the evening sun. 
Fully a quarter of an acre was thickly carpeted by them, as 
thickly as they could stow, while the sun shining on their 
snow-white breasts, and red bills, caused them to look like an 
immense bed of tulips, or other bright-coloured flowers in a 
grass garden. 

Near the highest part of the cliff, we saw a young Peregrine 
nearly fledged sitting at the mouth of a hole, in which probably 
the nest had been ; our attention was directed to him by the 
loud screaming of the parent birds, after we reached the top 
of the cliff. A pair of Ravens (the man told us) bred every 
year in the cliff, until that season, when the Peregrines (or 
** Blue Hawks," the local name) drove them awa3^ I remained 
watching this wonderful sight of sea-birds until past eight 
o'clock, and then returned to Belderig, which I reached close 
to eleven. 

Next morning, the weather still continuing fine, I drove to 
Porturlin, which, although only seven or eight miles by water, 
is sixteen miles by road, through a dreary wilderness of flat 
wet bog, with numerous black-looking pools and loughs inter- 
spersed throughout its wide expanse ; and so bare of life, that 
besides the skylarks, only one solitary Golden Plover appeared 
in view during the long drive there and back ; and the road 
was so bad, that for the latter half of the way we had to go at 
a walking pace, and did not get to Porturlin until nearly two 
o'clock. 

This little fishing village is situated in a deeper and narrower 
valley than Belderig, reaching the sea by a narrow cove 
through the cliffs, while to the west of the village, close 
behind, rises the Hill of Doonmara, 649 feet high, the com- 
mencement of the range running on to Portacloy and Broad- 
haven, also indented by great bays, with crumbling cliffs 
similar to Belderig. 



Birds observed Breedmg on the Coasts of Sligo and Mayo. 20 1 

On arriving at the village, we met all the men and boys just 
returning from their morning mackerel-fishing, in which they 
were most successful, the crews of eleven curraghs bringing 
in on an average 300 to 400 fish each, all taken with hand- 
lines. I spoke to several about the eagles, but although they 
all knew and saw the birds frequently, none knew where they 
bred ; until a boy, just coming up while I was speaking, said 
he knew where the nest was on the cliffs, containing two young 
ones nearly fledged. So, engaging him to come with me and 
show the nest, we set off to climb Doonmara behind the village, 
but when we got to the top, reaching the level plateau of bog 
that extended along the range of cliffs, he saw the canoes 
again going out fishing, and not wishing to lose his share of 
the evening take, he returned, leaving me to puzzle on by myself 
in search of the eagles. I walked along the cliffs for half an hour, 
when I came to the first bay indenting the high cliff of Altmore, 
and if I was surprised at the numbers of birds at Lought- 
murriga, I was fairly astonished here when I looked on the 
cliff, for I think there were tens, and hundreds of thousands 
of Puffins ; the entire face of the stupendous cliffs was covered 
with them, and the sea below was almost obscured from sight 
by the swarms of birds on the wing — thousands of Kittiwakes 
Guillemots, and Razorbills, nesting in the same order as on 
the other cliffs. 

I walked on for half a mile, and came to the second bay 
running into the cliff of Altredmond, which takes its name 
from a coastguard whose boat was upset near the base of the 
cliff ; all the crew perished, he only escaping by climbing up 
the face of this stupendous precipice, where no human being 
ever climbed before, or ever will again. Looking down over 
the edge it is impossible to realize how any being without 
wings could climb from the water, and reach the summit in 
safety. In this bay the birds were in still greater numbers. 
Three quarters of an hour's walk brought me to the third bay, 
which was the same ; the cliffs covered, the water dotted over 
with little flocks, while those on the wing actually swarmed, 
and gave me the idea of the great ** I^oonories" in the Arctic 
Regions as described by Captain Markham and Sir I^eopold 
M'Clintock. 

I still walked on ahead, but no eagles appeared, and I came 
to the fourth and largest bay of all, and, strange to say^ 

A 3 



202 - The Irish Naturalhi. > -^ .'. . 

although quite as favourable in appearance as the other bays 
for seabirds' breeding haunts, none were to be seen,, except a 
few pairs of Guillemots near the entrance. 

Not wishing to go any further from Porturlin, as it was late 
in the day, although there were still some miles of coast unex- 
plored, I sat down to rest, and carefully examined the cliffs 
with my glass ; but I saw no birds oi any kind except a pair 
of Peregrines, and these by their noisy anxiety indicated that 
they had either eggs or young somewhere near. After a time 
I perceived a greyish object stirring behind a stone on a ledge, 
but, unless when moving, perfectly indistinguishable, and this 
proved to be one of a pair of young Peregrines sitting behind 
a grey stone ; they were about as large as grouse, and some 
dark feathers appearing amongst their white down gave them 
that grey colour so like the stones by which they were sitting. 
After satisfactorily identifying the birds, I set out on my 
return, and having walked about a quarter of a mile, I heard 
the screaming of a Peregrine in the distance, and after a time 
the noisy screams coming nearer, I looked about and per- 
ceived just in front of me, flying towards me, a magnificent 
eagle closely followed by a screaming Falcon. Both birds 
passed over me, the eagle carrying a hare by the head and 
forequarters, the rest of the body dangling from his talons as 
he flew slowly along towards the cliffs, and disappearing below 
the edge, passed out of sight. I had a good view of the bird 
with my glass, and seeing the white feathers of the tail, have 
no doubt of its being the Sea Kagle {Halicetus albicilla). The 
bird had evidentl}^ come a long way over the bogs from the 
inland district, and was carrying the hare to its young in the 
cliff of "Spink, "where the boy told me the nest was situated. 

Having thus had the pleasure of seeing the eagle, but not 
being successful in finding the nest in consequence of the 
desertion of my guide, I returned to Porturlin, and got back 
to Belderig between nine and ten o'clock. The weather 
changed that night, and I was obliged to return home next 
day on a twenty-mile drive in a storm of wind and heavy rain, 
which continued for ten days, and prevented my revisiting 
the cliffs ; when the weather cleared up it was too late in the 
season. 

The foregoing notes, being the result of my two days' visit 
in 1892, were so satisfactory that I was encouraged to pay a 



^irds observed Breeding on the Coasts of Sligo and Mayo. 203 

more prolonged visit to this district in 1893, and take more 
time to explore the range of cliffs as far as Portacloy. 

So, on the 23rd of May, in company of my friend Mr. H. 
Scroope, junr., I set out on my second visit to the North Mayo 
coast, with the intention of walking along the cliffs from 
Belderig to Porturlin, and thence to Portacloy, and if the 
weather permitted to explore the sea side of the cliffs from 
the water. During our drive from Ballycastle to Belderig we 
found the Herring Gulls and Green Cormorants breeding 
here and there along the line of cliffs, and in consequence of 
being so thinly scattered not appearing numerous anywhere 
after passing Keadue. 

On reaching Belderig at three o'clock, it being too late in the 
day to go on to Porturlin, we walked from the harbour along 
the cliffs to the first headland (Benwecruagh) and Horse 
Island, where the old disused copper mine is situated ; the 
island is a mere mass of rock, about half an acre in extent, 
probably a hundred feet in height from the water, and joined 
to the mainland by a ridge or causeway formed by the fallen 
debris from the cliff, just above the highest spring tides. On 
the flat summit of the island Oyster- catchers bred, and we 
found their eggs in a depression in the rock, resting on a few 
small stones for a lining to the nest. Oyster- catchers breed 
all along the coast, on the small island rocks, and on the 
bare summit of the cliffs in many places. In a hole of the 
cliff in the south-west side a pair of Choughs had a nest, and 
not far from it a pair of Black Guillemots had a nest also, 
while another pair were in the water at the base. I was sur- 
prised to see the Black Guillemots breeding so high, at least 
ninety feet above the water. A pair of Grey Crows haunted 
the cliffs also, and we were told these birds bred in many places 
along the cliffs of that part of the coast. Guillemots and 
Razorbills also had nests on the headland and inside the 
entrance of some large caves at the base. 

Next morning we set out on our seven miles' walk over the 
cliffs to Porturlin, and when crossing the river that flows just 
below the village of Belderig, we were surprised at hearing a 
Whinchat singing, and shortly after saw him on a furze-bush on 
a bank, but although we searched carefully for the nest were 
unsuccessful, although we were certain it was near, for the 
bird was always near the same part of the little field. We were 

A 4 



204 '^^^^ Irish Naturalist. 

glad to have ascertained that the range of the Whinchat ex- 
tended so far to the north-west of the county, for the only 
other locality in North Mayo where I have met this bird is 
near Killala. 

On walking along the cliffs, we found that, irrespective of 
the great breeding-haunts in the bays, there were many 
smaller colonies of Kittiwakes, Guillemots, and Razorbills 
scattered all along ; and that many were passed over unnoticed 
in consequence of not being within view from the land side, 
it being quite impossible to see them without a boat. On the 
east side of lyoughtmurriga, on a ledge a short way below the 
summit of the cliff, we saw the old nest of an eagle that had 
been robbed about four years ago ; it was an immense heap 
of sticks, apparently composed of the thick stems and roots 
of heather. The various rock-birds were as numerous as ever, 
but in consequence of the Puffins being hatching inside their 
holes, the birds sitting on the cliffs and on Moistha Island 
did not appear in such numbers as when visited later last 
season. 

On the land side of lyoughtmurriga, in a patch of the only 
long heather we met, we were surprised to see a pair of Stone- 
chats and their fulh^-fledged young flitting about. The slope 
of the hill on which this long heather was growing had less 
turf on it, and was drier, which was the cause of the more 
luxuriant growth. On arriving at Porturlin we engaged a 
curragh and four men to take us out to Pig's Island (Pig's- 
back its local name), about half a mile to the west of the 
harbour, a long narrow island about 150 feet high, with steep 
sides, and having a great archway through the centre. On 
the sheltered ledges underneath an immense colony of Kitti- 
wakes bred, while in holes in the turf and under stones large 
numbers of Puffins and Razorbills were hatching, and Herring 
Gulls on the grassy top. We put a boy on the rocks, and he 
scrambled up and got us some Puffins' and Razorbills' eggs, 
and a clutch of Herring Gulls also, but the wind rising and 
the sea getting up, he was obliged to hasten down, and it was 
with great difficulty we got him safe on board again. It was 
very provoking the wind rising and not giving time to search 
for the Stormy Petrels that had nests in the turf over the arch, 
and from which, some weeks later, an addled ^^'g and several 
birds were sent to Mr. Scroope. On several rocky islets at the 



Birds observed Breeding on the Coasts of Sligo and Mayo. 205 

base of Altmore inside Pig's Island, thousands of Razorbills and 
Guillemots were sitting — birds that would have been un- 
noticed from the land side. It was most disappointing that 
during our stay the wind kept blowing persistently from the 
north-west, raising such a swell on the rocks that we had no 
opportunity of exploring by boat, and until this can be done 
the list of birds met with must necessarily be imperfect. We 
then got to our car, and back to Belderig for the night, and 
next morning drove by road to Porturlin, sending the car on 
from there to meet us at Portacloy after our walk along the 
cliffs. 

Having engaged a very intelligent boy for a guide, we set 
off on our walk over the cliffs. The bays at Altmore and 
Altredmond have certainly the largest number of sea-birds 
yet met with ; I am certainl}^ within bounds when I say the 
Puffins were in hundreds of thousands, almost millions. At 
Altredmond we saw another old nest of the eagle ; after 
passing the last-mentioned bay we came to another, the large 
bay mentioned in my first visit as having no sea-birds except 
a few Guillemots and Razorbills near the entrance. A little 
beyond it was a smaller bay bounded by the headland of 
'* Spink," where the eagle's nest was last season. This was 
a curiously shaped pointed rock, the outer end rising up into 
a sharp pinnacle twenty or thirty feet high, upon which the 
eagles used to stand, having a fine look-out all round them, 
both inland and over the sea, so that they could not be 
approached unawares from an}^ side ; and some feet below the 
nest was situated, but not visible from the land side ; but 
although we saw nothing of the eagles that day, the boy told 
us they were all the season about the cliffs. In the same cliff 
a pair of Peregrines had a nest, and we saw the Teiral take a 
Puffin out of a flock and carry it to his mate and young at 
the nest. From that bay right on to Portacloy the sea-birds 
were breeding in large numbers, while at Portacloy we found 
the largest colony of Guillemots and Razorbills that we had yet 
seen, breeding by themselves apart from other birds. There 
was another ej-rie of Peregrines in the cliff on the east side of 
the cove, and a colony of Choughs, of which we saw the site 
of one nest. Not having time to explore what remained of 
the few miles of coast between Portacloy and Broadhaven, 
including Benwee Head, we returned to Belderig for the night, 



2o6 The Irish Naturalist. 

thus ending a most enjoyable and interesting visit to a line of 
coast which, for the number and variety of the birds breeding 
on it, and for its wild and rugged scenery, cannot be equalled 
in Ireland, 



APPENDIX. 



In the first part of this report, published in the July number 
of the Irish Naturalist^ I erroneously stated (page 182, line 5) 
**that for six miles west of Kilcummin Head no breeding 
haunt is met with until Downpatrick Head is reached." I 
was unaware, until a few weeks ago, of the fact of birds breed- 
ing in that part. I had never visited it, nor could I get 
reliable information until my young friend, Mr. G. Scroope, 
of Ballina, passing along the coast in an excursion steamer 
on the 28th of June, observed several breeding stations on the 
cliffs between Lacken Bay and Downpatrick Head. Stimulated 
by this information, on the nth inst., in company of Mr. G. 
Scroope, his father, and brother, I drove to Lacken Bay, and 
then walked along the cliffs as far as Crevagh Head, where 
we were obliged to return by heavy and persistent rain coming 
on. 

We met five breeding stations of Kittiwake Gulls (the 
smallest of about 130 pairs), while Razorbills and Guillemots 
frequented each station. Herring Gulls were met with at only 
two. A pair of Great Black-backed Gulls were also observed, 
but not breeding, having evidently come from their great 
breeding-haunt on Doonbrista, off Downpatrick Head, 

As Crevagh Head is only half-way to Downpatrick, many 
other stations are probably on the unexplored cliffs extending 
in that direction, which at some future time I hope to visit. 
The Green Cormorants breed all along the line of coast, but 
none of the Great species were seen anywhere on the clifis 
during our walk. 



[ 207 1 ^ 

CAPTURES OF COI.EOPTKRA IN IREIvAND DURING 

THE SPRING OF 1895. 

BY JAMES J. WAI.KKR, R.N., F.EJ.S. 



Hkr Majesty's ship '' Northampton," employed on special 
training and recruiting service, visited several Irish ports 
during April and May of the present year, and I lost no oppor- 
tunity of working hard for Coleoptera whenever I was able to 
land. I was favoured with fine weather during nearly the 
whole of the cruise, but a hard gale of wind experienced at 
two of the most interesting places — viz., Bangor and Bun- 
crana, interfered somewhat with collecting, and no doubt 
reduced the number of species which would otherwise have 
been observed. At the suggestion of the Rev. W. F.Johnson 
of Armagh, I forward a full list of my captures to the Irish 
Nahiralist as a small contribution to our knowledge of the 
Coleopterous fauna of Ireland. All the species on which I had 
any doubt have been examined and identified by my friend, 
Mr. G. C. Champion. 

Taken at Queenstown, Co. Cork, 27th April to 8th May, 

1895:— 

Carabus nemoralls, Mull.— Scarce. 

C. granulatus, I,.— Common under stones, &;c. 

Notlophilus bigfuttatus F. 

Nebria brevicollls, P. 

Loricera pilicornis, F. 

Cllvina fossor, L.— Common. 

Badister bipustulatus, F. — Occasional under stones. 

Acupalpus dorsalis, F.— Ivocal, by sweeping in damp places and 
under stones, 
A. exiguus, var. luridus, Dej.— With the preceding, scarce. 

Harpalus latus, L. — Common, under stones on dry hill-sides. 
H. proteus, Payk.— Not common. 

Dichlrotrlchus pubesccns, Payk.— Under stones on the shore. 
PoecIIus cuprcus, Iv, ) Occasionally found running on paths, 
P. versicolor, Sturm. JT &c, 

Ptcrostlchus madidus, F. 

P. vulgaris, L,. 

p. nigrita, F. ) . , , 

P, strcnuus, Panz. [ Not rare, in damp places. 

P, dlllgcns, Sturm. ) 



5o8 The Irish Naturalist. 



Abax strloIa« F. — Occasionally under stones. 

Amara lunlcollls, Schiod.) 

A. communis, Panz, V On paths, &c., close to the town. 
At trlvlalls, Gyll. ) 

Calathus clsteloldes, Panz. 

Anchomenus parumpunctatus, F.~Damp places. 

Bembldlum rufescens, Guer.— Scarce, under stones. 

B. obtusum, Sturm. 
B. lam pros, Herbst. 

Demetrlas atrlcapillus, L. 

Dromius linearis, 01. 

D. nigrrlventrls, Thorns.— Scarce, under stones on hillsides. 

Agrabus bipustuiatus, ly. 

Gyrlnus opacus, Sahl. 

Aleochara brevlpennis, Gr.— One specimen. 
A. lanugrinosa, Grav. 
A. maesta, Grav. 

Oxypoda longrlusciila, Er. — In wet places. 

Astllbus canallculatus, P. 

Homalota vestlta, Gr. — On muddy sea-shore. 
H. g:ramInIcola, Gyll. 

Tachyporus obtusus, var. nitldlcollls, Steph.~Not rarely, by 

sweeping, &c. 

Tachlnus ruflpes, Iv. 

Megracronus cingulatus, Mann. — One specimen, under a stone. 

IVIycetoporus splendens, Marsh. 

Quedlus tristis, Grav. 
Q. moloctilnus, Grav. 
Q. fumatus, Steph. — One example. 

Staphyllnus pubescens, DeG.— Four specimens, on dusty road. 
S. caesarcus, Ceder. — Common. 

Ocypus ater, Grav. — Occasionally under stones. 

Phllonthus splendens, F.— One fine male, by sweeping. 
P. lamlnatus, Creutz. 
P. marglnatus, F. 

XanthoIInus linearis, Ol. 

Baptolinus alternans, Grav. — Under decaying fir bark. 

Lathroblum boreale, Hoch. 

L. brunnipes, F. — Common. 

L. quadratum, Payk. — One specimen, in wet place. 

Platystethus cornutus, Gyll.— By sweeping. 

- Bryaxis haematica, Reich.— One, by sweeping. 

Sllpha atrata, L. — Common, and very variable, from the most 
pronounced form, subrotttndata, Steph., to specimens indistinguishable 
from those I have from Kent and Hampshire. 

Choleva serlcea, F.— By sweeping. 

Hlster carbonarlus, 111.— Taken on the wing. 



Captures of Coleoptera in IrelaJid during the Spri^ig of 1895. 209 

Coccinelia xlv-gruttata, I^, 
C. xviii -guttata, L. 
C. xiv-punctata, L. 

Epuraea melina, Er. —By sweeping. 
E. florea, Er. 

Otnosita discoidea; F.— Scarce. 

IVleligethes virldescens, F. 

Coninotnus nodifcr, Westw. — One or two, by sweeping. 

IVIicrambe vini, Panz. — Common, on furze-blossom. 

Onthophag'us fractlcornis, Payk. — Locally common, in sheep- 
dung. 

Aphodius erraticus, L. \ 

A, fossor, L. f 

A. ater, DeG. VMore or less plentiful, in dung. 

A, merdarius, F. | 

A. rufipes, L. / 

Athous haemorrholdalis, F. — Common, by sweeping. 

Cyphon variabilis^ Thunb. 

Helodes margin ata, F.— Common, by sweeping on the banks of a 
stream. 

CIS fcstlvus, Panz. — Rare, under Beech bark. 

Lema lichen is, Voet. —Common, by sweeping, varying to quite 
black. 

L. Erichsoni, Suffr. — Six specimens of this rare species were taken 
on May 7th and 8th, bj sweeping on grassy banks. 

Chrysomcia Banksi, F.— Scarce. 

Castroldea viridula, De G.— On dock, rather sparingly. 

Phaedon armoraciae, L. , 

Calerucella tenella, L. 

Haltica lythrl, Aub^— One specimen, by sweeping. 

Phyllotreta ncmorum, L. 

• P. brasslcse, F. — On Cardamine p-atensis. 

Aphthona nonstrlata, Goeze— Abundant, on Iris pseudacoi-us. 

Plectroscelis concinna, Marsh. 

Helops striatus, Fourc— Not rare, under fir-bark. 

Rhlnosimus planlrostris, F.— By sweeping. 

Wleloc proscarabseus, L.— Very local, occurring in one lane only. 

Rhynchltes mlnutus, Hbst.— Several, by sweeping. 

Aplon subulatum, Kirb)-. ^ 

A. ml n latum, Germ. I , 

A. cruentatum, Walt. (All more or less common, by sweep- 

A. trifolll, L. I ing. 

A. nigritarsc, Kirby. | 

A. vircns, Hbst. J 

A. Striatum, Kirby.— Not rare, on furze-blossom. 

A. Cyllcnhall, Kirby. ) ^ sweeping. 

A. hydrolapathi, Kirby. 5 ^ *- » 

Ai humlle, Germ. 



210 The Irish Naturalist. 

Otiorrhynchus sulcatus, F.— Not rare. 
O. plclpes, F.— Common. 

Strophosomus coryli, F.— Common. 

Llophlaeus nuUIIus, F.— Several specimens. 

Sciaphilus murlcatus, F.— Common. 

S. retusus, Marsh. — Not rare, on Furze-blossom, &c. 

Sitones cinerascens, Fahr.— Two examples, by sweeping. 

S, regrensteinensis, Hbst. \ r^ ^ 

S. tibialis, Hbst. ; Common, on Furze. 

S. flavescens, Marsh. 

S. sulcifrons, Thunb.— By sweeping. 

Hypera punctata, F. 

H, rutnicis, L.— Common, on docks. 

H. plantag:inis, DeG. 

H. trilineata, Marsh —One or two, by sweeping. 

H. nigrirostris, F. 

Liosoma ovatulum, Clairv.— Common, in damp places. I have 
taken the var. collaris, Rye, here in moss, in November, 1894. 

Orchestes qucrcus, L. \ 

O. aini, Iv. [ Rarely, by sweeping, 

var. ferrug^ineus. Marsh. ) 
O. fas'!, I/. — A-bundant on beech. 

Erlrrhinus acridulus, L.— In damp places. 

Dorytomus tortrix, ly.— Under poplar bark, rare. 

IVIecinus pyraster, Herbst. 

Anthonomus pedicularius, L.— By sweeping. 

Ceuthorrhynchus assimllts, Payk. "| ' 

C. crysimi, F. | 

C. contractus, Marsh. ! By general sweep- 

C. pollinarius, Forst. f ing. 

C. plcurostigma. Marsh. | 

Ceuthorrhynchidius troglodytes, F. J 

Rhinoncus pericarpus, L. 

Balaninus pyrrhoceras. Marsh— Scarce. 

Rhopalomesites Tardy!, Curt. — Remains common in Beech, but 

living specimens not observed. 

Phloeophthorus rhododactylus. Marsh— One specimen, off 
Furze. 

Pityophthorus puttesccns. Marsh {micrographusy Brit. Cat.) — One, 
by sweeping. 

At Midletown, Co. Cork, I took the following species on the 
afternoon of May 6th : — 
Amara ovata, F. — One, under a stone. 
Aleochara ttrcvipcnnis, Grav.— One, in dusty road. 
Staphylinus caesareus, Ceder. — Two examples. 
Tachyporus obtusus, var. n itidicoll Is, Steph.— By sweeping. 
Boletobius trinotatus, Er.— By sweeping, under firs. 
Lathrobium toorcale, Hoch. 
Piatystethus cornutus, Gyll. 



I By sweeping, in a marshy place. 



Captures of Coleoptera in Ireland during the Spring of 1895. 211 

Omaliumexcavatum, vSteph. 

Silpha atrata, L. — Brown variety. 

Anisotoma calcarata, Br. — One male specimen. 

Olibrus toicolor, F. 

IYIicropeplustnarg^ai*ltse, Duv. 

IVIonotoma spinicollis, Aube.— By sweeping, nnder fir trees. 

Coccinella hieroglyph ica, L.— One specimen. 

Aphodlus sticticus, Panz. — One example, by sweeping under firs. 

Lema ErichsonI, SufFr. — Two examples, by sweeping among weeds. 

Prasocuris junci, Brahm. 

Hydrothassa marginella, L. 

Rhinosimus planirostris, F.— By sweeping. 

Aplon subulatum, Kirby.— Common. 

A. Cyllenhali, Kirby. — Several, by sweeping. 

A. humilef Germ., &c. 

Phyllobius otolongus, L. — Scarce and immature. 

Barypeithes sulcifrons, Boh.— By sweeping under fir trees, rare. 

Scfaphilus muricatus, F. — Not uncommon. 

Coeliodes iv-maculatus, L,.— Abundant, on nettles. 

PhytoltJius Iv-tuberculatus, F. > , ^ 

Hylastes ater, Payk. S ^^ ^^eeprng under fir trees. 

On May 13th and 14th inst., I met with the following 
species, between Bangor and Newtownards, Co. Down : — 

Carabus neinoralis, Mull. — One specimen. 
Ci grranulatus, Iv. 

Poecllus versicolor, Sturm. — In the road. 

Pterostlchus madidus, F. 

P. niger, Schall. — One specimen. 

P. nigrita, F. 

Aleochara fusel pes, F.— In carrion. 

Staphylinus putoescens, DeG. — One example, caught on the 

wing. 
S. erythropterus, L. — Under stones, and running on the road. 

Philonthus aeneus, Rossi. 
P. laminatus, Creutz. 
Lathrobium elongatum, L. 
L. fulvipenne, Grav. 

Eusphalerum prlmulae, Steph.— Not rare, by sweeping. 
Silpha atrata, L. — Brown variety only. 

Anisotoma calcarata, Er.— Five specimens of both sexes, by 
sweeping. 
Choleva airills. 111. — One specimen. 

Epurasa aestlva, Iv. 

E. melina, Er. — By sweeping. 

Mlcropeplus margarltae, Duv. 1 

Latridius lardarlus, De G. > By sweeping. 

Coninomus nodlfer, Westw. J 



212 . The Irish Nattiralist 

Cytilus varius F.— Three specimens. 
Aphodius depressus, Kug.— In dung. 
Athous haemorrhoidalis, F.— Common. 
Agriotcs obscurus, Iv. 

Corymbites quercus, Gyll. ] In great abundance, by sweeping in 
var. ochropterus, Steph. > grass fields ; intermediate forms 

) common. 

Telephorus limbatus, Thoms.— By sweeping. 

Lema Erichsoni, Suffr. — Two specimens, by sweeping, on 13th. 
May. 

Lochmsea sutu rails. Thoms. — By sweeping heather. 

Blaps mucronata, Latr. — One in Newtownards. 

Rhlnosimus planirostris, F.— By sweeping. 

Apion carduorum, Kirby. 

A. viclae, Payk. 

A. crvi, Kirby. 

A. Cyllenhali, Kirby.— Rather common, by sweeping under trees, 

A* hydrolapathl, Kirby. — Common. 

A. humlle, Germ, &c. 

Otiorrhynchus picipes, F. 

Strophosomus coryll, F. 

Sciaphilus murlcatus, F. — Common. 

Llophlaeus nubilus, F. — Common, some of the specimens very 
large. 

Phyllobius oblongus, Iv. — Not rare, by sweeping. 

Barypeithes sulcifrons, Boh.— Not rare in one place, by sweep- 
ing under trees. 

Barynotus obscurus, F.— Under stones and by sweeping. 

Sitones tibialis, Herbst. 
S. sulcifrons, Thunb. 

Hypera rumicls, L. 

H. polygoni, Iv — One or two, by sweeping. 

H. trilineata, Marsh. — One specimen. 

Llosoma ovatulum, Clairv. — Common, in damp places. 

CcBlIodes cardui, Herbst. — Rarely, by sweeping. 

Ceuthorrhynchus cricae, Gyll. \ By sweeping heather at " Helen's 

C. contractus, Marsh. ) Tower. ' 

C. quadridens, Panz.— Not rare, by sweeping. 

C. pollinarius, Forst. 

C. angulosus, Boh.— Three examples of this very rare species were 
taken on May 14th, by sweeping under trees bordering a marshy place, 
about a mile from Bangor. 

C. pleurostig-ma, Marsh. — Common. 

C. rugulosus, Herbst. — One or two by sweeping. 

Rhlnoncus pericarpius, L. 

Lltodactylus Icucogaster, Marsh.— One, by sweeping on banks of 
a pond. 
Phytobius Iv-tuberculatus, F.— One or two, by sweeping. 

(TO BE CONCIvUDED.) 



[ ^13 ] 

NOTES ON A NEW BRITISH BEETI.E. 
Otiorrhy7ichus atiroptmctatus, Gyll. 

WITH REMARKS ON THK DISTRIBUTION OF IRISH ANIMALS. 
BY GEORGE H. CARPENTER, B SC. 



Three years ago, Mr. H. K. Gore Cuthbert, in a paper on the 
Weevils of South lyouth,^ recorded a species from the north 
of the Boyne mouth obtained by beating Alder and Beech as 
Otiorrhynchus maurus, Gyll., a mountain beetle of which the 
only Irish specimens were taken in 1875 by Mr. G. C. 
Champion on Slieve Donard% Mr. Cuthbert remarked that his 
insects were much lighter in colour than the typical O. maurus. 
Mr. J. N. Halbert recently took the same species in some 
numbers at various points in Cos. Dublin, Meath and lyouth, 
and, with his usual careful discrimination, observed structural 
differences between it and O. maurus of much greater value 
than the colour distinction. A suspicion that we had a Weevil 
new to the British list was awakened, and specimens were 
sent to some of the leading British coleopterists. One of 
them, Mr. G. C. Champion, in a recent note,^ has pronounced 
the insect to be O. auropuftctatus, Gyll., a Pyrenean species, 
found also in the Auvergne and in Spain, and a most note- 
worthy addition to our fauna. 

The identification of this Weevil as O. utaurus, Gyll., was 
natural enough, as, by the table for discriminating the 
Otiorrhynchi in Canon Fowler's *' Coleoptera of the British 
Islands,'"* the captor of our insect would be readily led to refer 
it to that species, with which O. auropunctatus agrees in its 
unspined front femora, and rugose pronotum and elytra. It 
is, however, not closely related to- O. maurus^ from which its 
much longer legs and antennae distinguish it at once. The 
first two joints of the funiculus of the antennae are consider- 
ably longer than the succeeding joints, and are themselves of 
unequal length, the second being half as long again as the 
first (fig. 2). The British species to which it approaches most 
nearly is O. tenebricosus, Herbst ; from this, as Mr. Champion 
points out, it may be easily separated by its smaller size, and 

^ Irish Nat., vol. i,, 1892, p. 158. ^ EhUMo> Mag., vol. xii , p. 82. 

^ Ent. Mo, Mag.y vol. xxxi., 1895, p. 133. * VoL v., p. 174. 



214 



The Irish Naturalist. 



rougher surface. Mr. Champion further remarks that it re- 
sembles a atroapterus, DG., in shape and size, but differs also 
from that species in its rougher sculpture. O. auropunctatus 
derives its name from the scattered patches of golden pubes- 
cence on the thorax and elytra— an adornment which becomes 
very easily rubbed off. Our Irish specimens vary in colour 
from rich chestnut brown to almost black. 






Otiorrhynchus auropunctatus, Gyll. 

Fig. I Female, iiat. size. Fig. 2 Male, magnified. 

Fig. 3 Hinder end of abdomen of Male. 

The section of Otiorrhynchus to which O. aiiropimctatus 
belongs is characterised' by the very distinct longitudinal 
striation (fig. 3) beneath the hindmost abdominal segment in 
the male. This group is specially characteristic of the 
Mediterranean district and Southern Europe, only a few species 
— of which O. tenebricosus is one — extending their range into 
Central and Northern Europe. We have, therefore, in this 
beetle a most interesting addition to the group of animals of 
southern origin, which, absent or extremely rare in northern 
Continental Europe and in Great Britain, form so interesting 
a feature in the fauna of Ireland. 

I^rom the various captures of this weevil by Messrs. Cuth- 
bert and Halbert, it appears to be distributed along the eastern 
Irish coast from Carlingford to Dublin. The localities where 

^ O. Stiefliil— Bestimmungstabellen der Europ. Curculioniden Schaff- 
hauseti, 1883, 



Notes on a New British Beetle. 215 

it has been found are Santry, Raheny, Portmarnock, and 
Donabate in Co. Dublin ; I^aytown in Co. Meath ; Ternionfeckin 
and Carlingford in Co. lyouth. It is obtained by beating 
shrubs and trees. It is certainly remarkable that so com- 
paratively large an insect should have been overlooked by the 
older naturalists ; not a specimen is to be found in the collec- 
tion of that prince of Irish entomologists, the late A. H. Haliday. 
One can only conjecture that, in the localities where the insect 
occurs, he did not for some reason collect by beating or .sweep- 
ing. The wide distribution of the weevil and the analogy of 
its range with that of other animals show that its presence here 
cannot be ascribed to recent introduction. While it is not 
possible to assert definitely that O. auropunctatus does not 
occur in Great Britain, it is hardly likely that it has been 
overlooked for many years in a country so well supplied with 
coleopterists. 

From the discovery of this weevil in Ireland we are naturally 
led to speculations as to how it found its v/ay here. In a case in 
the Dublin Museum, recently described by me,^ I have ventured 
to roughly group the animals of the British fauna in three 
divisions : — those with a wide range over the whole of our 
islands, those characteristic of the south-eastern and lowland 
districts of Great Britain (" Teutonic Fauna"), and those 
characteristic of Ireland and the western and highland dis- 
tricts of Great Britain (" Celtic Fauna"). In this last division, 
two distinct groups of animals at least can be recognised. 
One includes animals of northern origin, characteristic of 
northern and arctic Europe, and sometimes also of the Alps, 
which have come into Ireland by way of Scotland ; of such the 
ground-beetle Pelophila borealis, is perhaps the most striking 
example. The other group comprises animals of southern 
origin, which, outside the British ^ Isles, are found in the 
Mediterranean district, and extend their range in some in- 
stances as far as the Madeira, Canaries, and Azores. It is 
clearly to this latter group that Otiorrhyiichus auropjaietatus 
must be assigned. 

Dr. R. F. Scharff's recent preliminary paper on the Origin 
of the Irish Fauna^ will doubtless be fresh in the minds of 
all readers of these remarks, and his support of the theory 



1 



Report of Museums Association, 1894,, pp. 109, 117. 
* Proc, Rd.A, (3) vol. iii., 1894, p. 479. 



2i6 l^he Irish Naturalist. 

of an ancient freshwater lake on the site of the present Irish 
Sea and St. George's Channel, with land-connections to the 
north and to the south of it, across both of which animals 
passed into Ireland, will be seen to correspond with the sub- 
divisions of our fauna which I have here suggested. As Dr. 
Scharff states that the land-connections in question were of 
Pliocene age, it is clear that he does not believe in the total 
extinction of our fauna either by land-ice or by submergence 
during the Pleistocene Period, which is generally held by 
geologists and zoologists. For the reasons for this disbelief 
we must await the publication of his promised large memoir. 
I would, however, call attention to the fact that Mr. Jukes- 
Browne^ locates a lake in a similar situation during the 
Pleistocene Period, after the Ice Age had passed away, and 
the land had risen once more from the glacial sea. He sup- 
poses the immigration of our fauna to have taken place then. 
But, whether earlier or later, it seems clear that the animals 
of the Celtic fauna were passing, one group southwards, the 
other northwards, between the St. George's lake and the coast 
of the Atlantic, then far to the west of the present Irish coast- 
line, before the animals of the Teutonic fauna crossed the site 
of the present North Sea into Great Britain. The breaking 
down of the land-connections with Ireland, and the conver- 
sion of the St. George's lake, first into a gulf, and then into a 
sea-channel, prevented, as has been pointed out by Dr. A. R. 
Wallace'' and other naturalists, the extension of these into 
Ireland. 

The distribution in Ireland of Otionhynchus auropicndatus 
recalls that of the land-snail, Helix pis a?ia, which inhabits our 
eastern coast to the north of Dublin, extending however only 
from the south of Co. I^outh to Rush in Co. Dublin^ but 
appearing in Great Britain at points in South Wales and 
Cornwall. Its distribution abroad extends all over the 
Mediterranean region and to the Madeira, Canaries, and 
Azores. Another distinctively Mediterranean animal, the 
ground-beetle Nebria complanata, now placed by Dr. 
Ganglbauer^ in a peculiar genus, Eurynebria, is also 
characteristic of the east coast of Ireland, but is found onl}^ to 

1 " The Building of the British Isles," London, 1888, p. 298^ PI. xiv. 

' "Island Life," 2nd ed., London, 1892, p. 379. 

2 " Die Kafer von Mitteleuropa," vol. i, AVien, 1892, p. 98. 



Notes on a Neiv British Beetle. ^17 

the south of Dublin, in Counties Wicklow and Wexford. lyike 
Helix pisa7ia, it occurs also in South Wales and South-western 
England (North Devon). Now, most of the distinctive Celtic 
animals of southern origin are characteristic of the west coast 
of Ireland, where occur those plants of the Atlantic type 
which have made our western counties so fascinating a field 
for botanists. For example, the famous Kerry Slug, Geomalacus 
viaculostis, and the Galway Burnet Moth, Zygcena nubigefia, are 
unknown in eastern Ireland. It seems therefore that we can 
trace for the Celtic animals of southern origin a western and 
an eastern line of migration ; the former along the Atlantic 
sea-coast of the old continental land, the latter along the 
valley of the river which flowed south-westward from the 
ancient St. George's lake, and which must have received the 
Severn and the rivers of eastern and southern Ireland as 
tributaries. Our fine Dublin House-Spider, Tegenaria hibernicay 
Cb., very closely allied to a Pyrenean species, must be re- 
garded as belonging to the eastern migration. It occurs in 
Cork as well as in Dublin, but we must remember that the 
Lee as well as the I^iffey was a tributary of the ancient eastern 
river. This spider, though undoubtedly indigenous, has 
apparently found human dwellings more comfortable than 
the open air in our north-western island. 

If we accept Dr. ScharfPs view that our Celtic fauna is pre- 
Glacial — and it is certain that it is older than the Teutonic 
fauna — we might believe that by the ancient Atlantic coast, 
and along the banks of this old river, such mild conditions of 
climate prevailed that species were able to maintain them- 
selves in those localities, while most of the present land-sur- 
face of Ireland was covered with glaciers. The objection to 
such a view, which will at once occur to geologists, is the 
apparent submergence of the hills of Wales and Dublin to the 
extent of about 1,400 feet as evidenced by the shell-gravel on 
Moel Tryfaen and Two-rock Mountain. Moreover, the 
marine origin of the Boulder-Clay which Mr. J. Wright's recent 
discoveries of foraminifera in that deposit render highly 
probable, would require a submergence as fatal to a pre-Glacial 
fauna as the orthodox ice-sheet. But, if the migrations we 
are discussing took place in Pleistocene times as the ice passed 
away, and the land (after deep submergence and .subsequent 
elevation) subsided towards its present level, the animals would 



2 1 8 The Irish Na hi 7 a list. 

naturally reach their present stations on the western and east- 
ern Irish coasts respectively. Some individuals of the eastern 
(river- valley) migration would retire eastwards towards what 
is now south-western England and Wales, where a few of 
their descendants are still to be found ; but the incursion of 
the newer Teutonic fauna has made their persistence there 
harder than in Ireland, and so we find that some of the species, 
as Otiorrhy7ichtcs atiroptmctattis, are absent from Great Britain, 
while the rest are scarcer there than in Ireland. Some animals 
of the western migration seem to have passed on northwards 
into Scotland ; the Galway Burnet Moth for instance occurs 
in Argyllshire. The land-connection to the north of the old 
lake remained after the southern river- valley had been sub- 
merged beneath the sea.^ 

As an example of a southern species which appears to have 
followed both the western and eastern lines of migration, we 
may take our peculiar holly-boring weevil, Mesites Tardyi, 
Curtis, belonging to a most characteristic Mediterranean and 
Atlantic genus. Abundant in the south-west of Ireland, this 
insect occurs near Westport, and in the Clyde and Argyll dis- 
tricts of Scotland ; it seems therefore to have passed north- 
wards along the old Atlantic seaboard. But it is also found 
at places on our eastern coast from Wicklow to Belfast, as 
well as across the Channel in North and South Devon, which 
suggests that it also followed the old river and lake valley to 
the east of modern Ireland^ 

Our comparison of the distribution of our new British 
Beetle with that of other animals has therefore opened up to 
us problems of the highest interest in the past geography of 
our islands, and of the neighbouring continental lands. 
The discontinuous range of these southern forms shows them 
to be of very considerable antiquity. Whether they entered 
our country in Pliocene or Pleistocene times, they mUvSt have 
preceded those members of our fauna which have come to 
us directly from Central Europe. The land- tracts over 
which these distinctly Pyrenean and Mediterranean animals 
had travelled to Ireland, were covered by the waters of the 
sea, while early races of men were still able to ramble into 
Britain over an isthmus where the waves of the Straits of 
Dover and the North Sea now roll. 



^ Cf. A. J. Jukes-Browne, op. cit., PI. xv., and R. F. Scharflf, he. p. 485, 



[ 219 ] 



PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



RoYAi, Zooi^oGiCAi, Society. 

Recent donations comprise a Badger from W. J. Matson, Esq., and a 
number of fish from P. Mahony, Esq. A Golden Agouti has been pur- 
chased, and a Red Deer fawn born in the Gardens. 

16,150 persons visited the Gardens in June. 



Dubinin Microscopicai, Ci,ub. 

May i6th.— The Club met at Mr. F. W. Moore's. 

Mr. Greenwood Pim exhibited a curious black mould which occurred 
on Bananas, given him by Prof. Cole, and which had been imported from 
the Canary Islands. Being unable to identify it, Mr. Pim sent specimens 
to Mr. Massee, who states it is Glenospora Cicrtisii (Berk.), and that it 
had not previously occurred in Great Britain. 

Professor T. Johnson exhibited Ectocarpus sccundus (Kiitz.), a brown 
sea- weed showing two kinds of flurilocular sporangia, like those des- 
cribed recently in this species by Bornet, who found the plurilocular 
sporangia differing in size, shape, and in the size of the compartments. 
The contents of the larger loculi are probably female, and of the smaller 
male. Direct experimental evidence is required. The species (taken in 
Bantry Bay) is an addition to the list of Irish species. 

Mr. M'Ardi^E exhibited Diplophylluin miniitum, (Dicks.), which he 
collected recently in L,ord Howth's demesne. The specimens of this rare 
liverwort showed the dichotomous branching of the plant, and shoots 
bearing in the axil of each leaf antheridia of a large size, having 
remarkably long pseudopodia. . 

June 20th.— The Club met at Mr. Greenwood Pim's, who exhibited 
Ustilago Vaillantii (TuL), which .occurred on the anthers and ovones of 
Scilla bifolia in the Trinity College Botanic Garden, forming the so-called 
" Black-eyed " variety of that Scilla. It was referred to Dr. P. Wright, 
who kindly identified it, and states that it is an addition to the British 
Mycologic Flora. It is said to occur also on Gupa lutea, 

Mr. M'ArdIvE exhibited Jtatgermania bicrenata (Lindenberg), which he 
recently collected in Howth Demesne. This scarce plant is easily 
separated from the other \i\di.^r\.\.dX^ Jiingermani(x, by the smaller size, acute 
segments of its leaves, and remarkable guttulate cells, and above all the 
paroecious inflorescence. It is an addition to the Co. Dublin list of 
liverworts. 

Mr. J. N. HaIvBERT exhibited the nymph of Cryptostemma alienw/i, H.S., 
recently captured amongst wet gravel in the bed of the Dodder, near 
. Tallaght. Mr. A. H. Haliday, when recording this insect from the Black 
Lakes, Co. Kerry (JVat. Hist. Rev. 1855, p. 61), mentioned the occurrence 
of theyellowishlarvceandpupaewiththeperfectinsect. The nymph, how- 
ever, is further distinguished by the presence of a well-defined red colour 
patch on the dorsal side of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th abdominal segments. 
This species, which at first gave some trouble as regards its affinities, is 
now placed among the Ci/nicidcc next Ceratocombtis. 

Mr. Henry J. Seymour showed a section of a Gold-bearing Quartz- 
Diorite, from Fort Salisbury, Matabeleland. The gold, which occurs in 
small fragments quite visible to the unaided eye, is almost entirely 



220 The hish Naturalist, 

developed in, or near, the crystals of hornblende ; the lattermaking up 
about 20 per cent, of the total bulk of the rock. In the mass, the rock 
has a slight schistose structure, and is said to yield from 80-100 oz. of 
gold per ton. The mean result of several experiments gave its sp. gr. as 
2 85. A few cr3^stals of sphene, and some of titanic iron, appear in the 
section. 

RE;y. Canon Russell showed a preparation of the feathers of a duck 
showing the scales, to the peculiar structure of which their irridescence 
is evidently due. The feathers had been boiled first in caustic potash, 
and reduced almost to a pulp, and then put up in glycerine jelly. Their 
metallic lustre could be plainly seen after this treatment under reflected 
light. The barbs seem to be composed of a single file of cells, marked 
longitudinally with fine lines like those on the scales of the wings of 
the Lepidoptera, which bring out the colours found on all such striated 
surfaces. 

These stride appear to have been noticed before ; but in the centre of 
each scale there is a well-marked oval or round figure, of which the 
exhibitor could get no account from any book. It was conjectured that 
they might be the nuclei of epithelial cells. If this be so, the only 
way of accounting for their absence in the scales of butterflies and 
beetles, is that on these latter the scales are simply inserted in sockets, 
and are not organically connected with the membrane on which they are 
set. The cells of the barbs seem to grow out of the substance of the 
feather, and cannot be detached from it. The feathers examined were 
those of the Peacock, the Teal, and an Argentine Duck ; in all the same 
structure is to be found. 



Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. 

June 15. — A party of twenty-five proceeded by the Northern Counties 
Railway to Limavady and the valley of the Roe, On arrival at the 
prosperous clean town of Limavad}-, a start was made for the Glen, a 
distance of a couple of miles. The first halt was made at O'Cahan's Rock, 
where the party spent a pleasant hour botanizing, lunching, and 
photographing, the splendid crag forming a feature hard to surpass. 

Mrs. Leebody, the well-known Derry botanist, joined here, and her 
local knowledge proved useful throughout the day. A steep climb from 
the river-bed brought all to the top of the precipitous rock, from which 
the view of the Roe Valley was very beautiful. The Dog's Leap was then 
made for, where the curious pot-holes below the bridge came in for a 
share of observation, and where those members interested in engineer- 
ing (among whom Mr. A\'. A. Traill, of Bushmills, was prominent) 
enjoyed an inspection of the electric light station and sawmill owned 
and worked by Mr. J. E. Ritter, J. P., to whom the Club were indebted 
for this pleasure. The dynamos are driven by a turbine, the mill by an 
ordinary wheel, and a new pit is in process of formation for an additional 
turbine. After enjoying the cool water of the well, the return journey was 
begun, passing down the other side of the river through woods where 
the most delightful views of water and mountains were obtained. 
Here the botanists were pleased to find a great profusion of Lastnca 
(€inula, a fern which is locally uncommon. Mr. Ritter's house at Roe 
Park was soon reached, and by his courtesy was thrown open to those 
of the party who cared to inspect a most perfectly ai)pointed amateur's 
workshop. 



Proceedings of Irish Societies. 221 

On leaving the house, a mile and a half or so brought the party to the 
Alexander Arms, where an excellent tea was provided. After tea, Mr. 
W. H. Patterson thanked Mr. W. Gray in the name of the Club for the 
trouble he had taken in acting as guide to this most interesting, but 
little known district. A short business meeting was then held, and the 
following were elected members: — Dr. Lorraine Smith, Mr. J. M M'llroy, 
Mr. John Bain, Mr. vS. K, Kirker, C.E., of the Board of Works, Major- 
General Bland, Mr. John Savage, and Mr. James M. Fall. The 6-5 train 
was then taken, reaching Belfast shortly after nine. The geology of the 
district is mainly of rocks either Silurian or older, being mainly mica 
schists, with bands of primary limestone interstratitied, as Mr. Gray 
pointed out near the Dog's Leap. During a short wait at Limavady 
Junction, Mr. W. H. Patterson obtained samples of the very rich estuarine 
clay which covers the whole neighbourhood, and on the return journey 
several of the microscopists took lumps to wash down for foraminifera. 
The very numerous shells were in excellent condition, although 
the stay was not long enough to secure any rarities. The botanists had 
the advantage of both Mr. S. A. Stewart's and Mrs. Leebody's presence. 
During the day the botanists found the following plants which may be 
worth mentioning : — Laniiuni album, Arenaria trinervis, Geum intermedium, 
Listera Nidus-avis, Ca7'cx hvvigata, and Lastraea a-inula (Bree's fern). It 
may also be worth noting the very great abundance of the larger variety 
of the Cow- wheat {Melanipyrum pratense), the flowers being large and fine. 
The weather being so dry, land shells were few, and none of them out 
of the common. Altogether the day was a most enjoyable one, the party 
being the right size for good work, and the weather being everything 
that could be desired. 

June i8th. — The Geological Section met at the Museum in the rooms 
recently acquired by the Club to be fitted up as a library and laboratory, 
where all collections formed by the Club can be preserved. Erratics 
from northern boulder clay were contributed by Messrs, R. Bell, 
J. Moore, J. St. J. Phillips, and A. G. Wilson, and details arranged about 
the collections previously accumulated. 

June 22nd. — The Geological Section visited Islandmagee, proceeding 
from Magheramorne station across the ferr}', and along the shore to 
Barney's Point, to explore the beds of Lower Lias which occur at that place, 
underlying the Greensand and Chalk which fringe the western coast of 
Islandmagee. The afternoon was spent in collecting fossils, including 
two specimens of the rare Ceromya gibbosa, the original specimen hav- 
ing been first discovered by Mr. W. Gray in this locality many years 
ago. Nautilus, Pecten, Pinna, Lima, and other liassic fossils were also 
obtained by the naturalists, who determined to revisit the shore 
later in the season. 



Dubinin Naturai^tsts' Fiei^d Ci^ub. 

June 22nd. — A highly successful excursion was held, when a party of 
60 members visited Glenasmole. Leaving Earlsfort- terrace at 1.30, in 
brakes, the dusty roads were soon left behind, and when the steep hill 
at Bohernabreena was surmounted, the beauty and pleasure of the scene 
were fully appreciated. The deep glen with the reservoir shimmering 
in the sunlight, the high brown mountain beyond, the hedges filled with 
wild roses and Honeysuckle, and the meadows blazing with flowers, 
formed indeed delightful contrasts to the hot and dusty streets of the 
city. The partj^ drove straight to the head of the glen, where the 
members scattered for a couple of hours. To the botanists fell the 



222 The Irish Nahiralist. 

principal spoils of the day. The sloping pastures capping the great drift 
banks along the eastern side of the glen below the old churchyard of St. 
Anne's rivalled a Swiss Alp in the number, variety, and brilliancy of 
their flowers. Orchids were specially numerous here. The spotted 
Orchis {0. maculata)^ the Tway-Blade {Listera ovata), the Frog Orchis 
{Habenaria viridis), the Fragrant Orchis {H. conopsea), the Butterfly Orchis 
{H. chloranthd), and the Green-winged Orchis (0. Morio) (this latter now 
past flowering), were all gathered in abundance, while one of the botanists, 
the Rev. C. F. D'Arcy, was fortunate enough to discover here a consider- 
able quantity of the Marsh Helleborine (^Epipactis palustris), a species very 
rare in the County Dublin, and not yet recorded for this station. Here, 
too, Dr. M'Weeney pointed out some finely developed plants of the 
Adder's Tongue [Ophioglosstim znilgaiuni) and the Moonwort {Botrychium 
lunat-ia). The common Guelder Rose ( Vibttrmim opulus), truly native here, 
was seen flowering by the rills, the Mountain Trefoil ( Trifolium medmni), 
rather rare in the county, showed its heads of vivid crimson in abund- 
ance, and the handsome Downy-leaved Rose was in full bloom on the 
banks of the Reservoir. 

At the opposite side of the glen some of the botanists ascended 
Leecawn Mountain to the only known station for the Beech-Fern 
{Polypodium phegopteris) vn County Dublin, and were pleased to find the 
plant growing there quite as vigorously as when first discovered by the 
Rev. C. F. D'Arcy in 1883. On the way down to the rendezvous at the 
head of the glen two other rare County Dublin species were noted, the 
Sweet Mountain Fern {Lasirea Oreopteris) abundant on the rock-strewn 
slopes between 700 and 900 feet, and the Common Club-moss {Lycopodiu/n 
clavaitwi) spreading its curious network of green stems over the ground 
in the shade of the Bracken. In a marsh on the main arm of the Dodder 
above the Lodge, some fine clumps of another rare County Dublin plant, 
the Panicled Sedge {Carex paniailatd) were discovered by the Secretary. 

Among the insects, Mr. Farrell found the large mountain ground- 
beetle (Cfl;r^^z^j"^/a<^ra/?/^). Otherbeetles taken were Hydroportis septentrionalisy 
Byrrhtts pilula, and Malthinus piinctaius. The plant-bug Calocoris striatcUus, 
and a crane-fly of the mountain genus Ainalopis were also noteworthy. 

All assembled at 6 o'clock, when Miss Gardiner had an ample repast 
ready, which, by kind permission of Mrs. Power, was spread on the lawn 
adjoining the pretty shooting-lodge .it the top of the glen. After tea a 
short business meeting was held, at which J. A. Jackson and Mrs. Long 
were elected members of the Club, and the President (Mr. G. H. Carpenter) 
expressed the indebtedness of the members to Mrs. Power for her kind- 
ness. Shortly afterwards the return journey was commenced, and the 
city was reached at 10 o'clock. 



— 223 — 



NOTES. 



ZOOLOGY. 



POLYZOA. 

Plumatella repens, L. In Ireland. — This pretty freshwater 
polyzoan, which was first discovered in Ireland by Prof. Allman, has re- 
cently been found by Mr. Greenwood Pirn in a small pond in his garden 
at Monkstown. Mr. Pirn noticed it adhering to the underside of the 
leaves of the white-water Lily {Nymphaca alba), and correctly identified 
the interesting species as Plumatella repens, 

R, F, SCHARFF, Dublin. 



INSECTS, 

Spi*lngr Lepidoptera at Armagh. — Owing to the long-continued 
severity of the weather outdoor work was useless till April, However 
I had dug some pupae in the autumn, and these being indoors emerged 
at pretty much their usual time. A very beautiful Phigalia pedaria emerged 
on February 8. It is very much suffused with yellow, and Mr. C. G. 
Barrett, to whom I submitted it for inspection, tells me that it is the 
most yellow form he has seen. On February i8th Hybemia viargiiiaria 
emerged, the pupa had been dug up in the Palace Demesne. The 
Tceniocavipce now began to appear, the first being T. incerta, which emerged 
on March 2nd. On March 3otli one of my pupils brought me a specimen 
of Anisopteryx ccscitlaria which he had caught m his house. 

The sallows had suffered severely from the frost, and the bloom was late 
and not abundant. However, on April i6th I and my friend, Mr. J. H. 
Johnston, determined to see what we could get, and succeeded in captur- 
ing TcEiiiocampa stabilis, T. incerta, T. gothica, T, gracilis, and a solitary 
Xylocajiipa areola with Anticlea badiata taken on the wing. On the follow- 
ing evening I was fortunate enough to take a nice specimen of T. opima, 
and a pretty form oi Peronea hastiana. On the 19th we (Mr. Johnston and 
myself) were joined in our nocturnal rambles by Rev. H. Harpur. This 
proved a record night for numbers of moths. It was rather damp and 
pitch dark, and consequently exactly suited for our fell purposes. We 
took several T. gracilis, one T. opima, which fell to Mr. Harpur's lot, and 
numbers of T. incerta, &c. T. gothica was present simply in crowds. 
One curious thing happened : — we were working a large tree, and Mr. 
Johnston, who was beating, not being able to reach the higher branches, 
shook the tree violently, in the hopes that some at least would fall into 
the sheet. Some certainly did, but immediately afterwards the lantern 
was besieged by frantic moths which we proceeded with all our hands 
to box. A fine Selenia bihinaria also flew to the lantern and fell a victim 
to its misplaced confidence. T. gothica was far the most numerous, far 
outnumbering all the others together. It varied somewhat in colour, 
some being much darker and others rather lighter in hue than ordinary. 
In size, however, they were very constant, also in markings. Hadena 
thalassina emerged on May 2nd, and on the following evening I captured 
Selenia bilunaria while out for a stroll. Butterflies now began to appear, 
including battered Vanessa ^irtiae, Pararge egeria, with plenty of the pretty 
Euchloe cardamines. EJvening rambles produced Cidaria siiffiimata, Coremia 



224 "^^^^ Irish Naturalist, 

unidentaria, C. ferriigata, Cahera ptisaria, E^ipithecia vulgata^ and a nice speci- 
men of Anticlea nigyofasciaria. In my pupa case emerged Spilosovia 
7nenthastri, Phragmatobia ficli^inosa, and Acro7i}/ita psi. I tried sugar many 
times, but always without success. On May 25th I drove to Ivough Neagh, 
and at Churchill took a few Theda rubi and Fidonia atomaria ; but being in 
a hurry to reach the lake, I only spent a few minutes on the bog, and 
hence the scantiness of my captures. — W. F. Johnson, Armagh. 

Dyschirlus obscurus, Cyll. at Loug^h Neagrh, — This rare 
beetle was taken by the late A. H. Haliday on the sandy shore of Lough 
Neagh more than 40 years ago. Since his time no record of its capture 
has been given. In the E. M. M. for 1893, Mr. G. C. Champion mentions 
that he has found three specimens without locality in the collection of 
the late Dr. Syme, who collected chiefly in Scotland. 1 have made 
several unsuccessful attempts to obtain it at Lough Neagh. In 1893 I 
took a single specimen, and last year two, but this year I and Mrs. 
Johnson managed to capture quite a respectable number. Mr. Carpenter 
kindly compared these with Haliday's specimens in the Science and Art 
Museum, and also forwarded it to Herr Reitter. It agrees with Haliday's 
insect, and Herr Reitter pronounces it to be undoubtedly D. obscurus, Gyll. 

W. F. Johnson, Armagh. 

The Strldulation of Corixa. — I have again had opportunity of 
hearing a Corixa sing. The note increased in volume during the week I 
had him. One evening a dozen people were listening ; I caught the 
insect twice and put it in a bottle alone, but in both cases there was 
silence until I restored it to its companions. Because of this I could not 
examine it as I wished, but everyone agreed as to the motion made, 
which was generally referred to as " combing its whiskers." 

M. Thompson, Cork. 

BIRDS. 

Little Bittern In Co. Carlow.— Mr. Clarence Cary writes to 
Land and Water for June ist that a Little Bittern was shot on the Barrow 
at Carlow on May 19th. 

MAMMALS. 

Introduction of English Hares into Ireland. — Having been 
asked more than once by correspondents if I could give them any in- 
formation on the introduction of English Hares into Ireland, I propose 
to publish in the Irish Naturalist a list of such introductions as have come 
under my notice. Before doing so I should be much obliged to any 
readers of this Journal who would kindly give me any notes on this subj ect, 
such as might add to those I already possess. 

G. K. H. Barrett-Hamii^ton, Kilmannock, New Ross. 

Occurrence of the IVIarten in the County Waterford.— Two 

specimens of the Marten (male and female), Martcs sylvaiica, were taken 
here last month. They were both caught in rabbit traps, the female on 
the 6th, the male on the 7th June. Length of the female 27^ inches ; 
that of the male 30Hnches. They were both caught in a large rabbit 
burrow in Curraghmore. The colour of the spots on the chest, in both 
specimens, is yellow. 

\Vii,i<iAM W. Fi^emyng, Coolfin, Portlaw, Co. Waterford. 

4 




•5 












12; 

> 

pi! 






> 



^Ije girtelj Jtaturaltet^ 



Vol. IV. SEPTEMBER, 1895. No. 9. 



IRISH FIELD CLUB UNION. 



REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE AND EXCURSION 
HELD AT GALWAY, JULY iiTh to lyto, 1895. 



l.—GENERAL ACCOUNT. 

BY R. IvLOYD PRAKGKR, B.B-, 
Secretary Irish Field Club Union. 



It may be desirable to preface the present account of the Galway Field 
Club Conference with a note on the history and objects of the Irish Field 
Club Union, under the auspices of which the Conference was held. In 
July, 1894, a three-day joint excursion of the Dublin, Cork, and Ivimerick 
Field Clubs was carried out, F^'ermoy being the headquarters of the 
party. At a conference held on the evening of the second day, for the 
discussion of Field Club matters, emphasis was laid on the isolation of 
the southern Field Clubs, and on the desirability of bringing all the 
Irish Field Clubs into closer contact. The suggestions made on this 
occasion, and in subsequent discussions among the Secretaries of the 
Clubs represented, were not lost sight of, and after some correspondence, 
the following memorandum was submitted to the Committees of the 
Belfast, Dublin, Cork, and Limerick Field Clubs : — 

Memorandum. 

In the carrying out of the duties connected with their offices, the 
Secretaries of the four Irish Naturalists' Field Clubs have for some time felt 
the want of closer connection between the Clubs, by which more frequent 
meetings might be arranged, and by which the Clubs might assist each 
other by the occasional interchange of lecturers, and by the loan of papers, 
specimens, lantern slides, &c. At present the Clubs have but a slight 
knowledge of each other, and of each others' resources, and such aids 
to their work as the above-mentioned can now only be carried out after 
much enquiry and correspondence. With a view to facilitate these and 
kindred objects, the Secretaries suggest that a joint committee be 
formed, consisting of the President and Secretary of each Club, and that 
these officers be empowered by the Committee of each Club to repre- 
sent them on this joint committee, theit actions being in all cases 
subject to the approval of the committee of their Club. The Secretaries 
suggest that this organization be called the Irish Field Club Union, and 
they feel convinced that such a bond between the Clubs will strengthen 
each, and greatly assist the cause of Field Club work in Ireland. 

(Signed), Francis Joseph Bigger, Sec B.N.F.C. 

R. Iyi,OYD Praeger, Sec. D.N.F.C. 

John L. Copeman, Sec. C.N.F.C 

FRANCIS NEAI.E, Sec. ly.N.F.C. 
Dublitl, 23. II. 94. 

A 



226 The Irish Naturalist. 

The following resolution was thereupon adopted by the Committee of 
each Club referred to : — 

*• Resolved : That this Committee approve of the suggestions embodied 
in the memorandum submitted to them by the Secretaries of the four 
Irish Field Clulxs, and they hereby appoint the President and Secretary 
to represent them on the Joint Committee." 

The Field Club Union Committee, then created, appointed R. Lloyd 
Praeger, Secretary Dublin Field Club, as their vSecretary, and during the 
ensuing winter (1S94-95) an interchange oflecturers was carried out with 
marked success. Mr. Joseph Wright, of Belfast, lectured at Dublin, Cork, 
and Limerick; Professor Haddon, of Dublin, lectured at Belfast; and 
Professor Cole, of Dublin, lectured at Cork and Limerick. 

The excursion which is reported in the pages which follow is the 
second definite result of the formation of the Field Club Union, which 
is now fairly embarked on a life of practical usefulness and scientific 
advancement. 



Wejdnesday, July ioTh. 
The members of the Belfast Club were the first to take the field. The 
northern party, to the number of about fifty, took the T.45 train to 
t)ublin, where they were met by the Secretary of the Union, and 
despatched to the Gresham and Hammam Hotels. At 7 o'clock they 
assembled at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, where they were 
teceived by the President and Officers of the Dublin Field Club, and a 
numerous company of the members of the local Society. After tea a 
couple of pleasant and instructive hours were spent in examining the 
many botanical treasures of the Gardens under the guidance of Mr. F, 
W. Moore, A.L.S., Curator, and his able assistant, Mr. D. M'Ardle. 

Thursday, Jui.y iith. 

' Punctually at 9 o'clock the First Class Special Train provided by the Mid- 
land Great Western Railway Company steamed out of Broadstone Station 
with the members of the Belfast and Dublin Clubs, and representatives of 
several English Societies on board, and a very rapid journey across the 
Great Central Plain of Ireland was pleasantly spent in studying maps 
and scientific papers relating to the districts about to be visited. 
Shortly after noon the bogs, woods, and pastures of the Central Plain 
gave way to the bare limestone pavements so characteristic of Galway and 
Clare, and at 12.30 the train drew up at the platform at Galway. At 
I o'clock brakes were mounted, and the party drove through the pretty 
suburb of Salthill to Gentian Hill, a promontory of drift standing out 
into the sea, where lunch was served. Here the members of the Cork 
and Limerick Field Clubs joined their brethren of Dublin and Belfast, 
and when lunch was over the party scattered for their first ramble. 
From Gentian Hill a good idea of the geography of the district was 
obtained. Eastward lay Galway and the level lands of the Limestone 
Plain. To the southward, across Galway Bay, rose the great grey 
terraced limestone hills of the Burren district of County Clare. To 
the westward the Aran Islands could be dimly seen rising out of the 



Galway Field Chib Co7iference. 227 

waters of the Atlantic, while northward and north-westward rose low 
rocky granite hills, backed by the higher metamorphic mountains of 
H Connemara. The geologists of the party examined with much interest 
the grand sections formed by the stead}- encroachment of the ocean on 
the tough drift which composes this and the adjoining promontories. The 
botanists were delighted to find at Gentian Hill several rare mountain 
plants, which were growing close to sea-level, after the manner 
characteristic of the west coast of Ireland — such were the Spring Gentian, 
Mountain Dryas, Blue Moor-grass, and Dwarf Juniper ; and on the muddy 
shore adjoining a good find was made in the Dwarf Grass- wrack, which 
was found growing in abundance. The entomologists searched the 
seaweed thrown up by the tide and were rewarded by the discovery of 
the local marine rove-beetle Cafiiis fucicola. Besides the small but 
handsome M'olf-spider Pardosa monticola, a specimen of its large newly-' 
discovered relation F. ptirbeckensis, F. Cb. rewarded the collector of 
arachnids. 

At 7.30 dinner was ready at the Railway Hotel, which formed the head- 
quarters of the party during their stay. After dinner a number of local 
ladies and gentlemen arrived by invitation to meet the members of the 
Field Clubs. Among those who accepted the invitation were the 
President of Queen's College, and Mrs. Moffat ; Sir Valentine Blake and 
Lady Blake; the High Sheriff of Galway, Mrs. Townsend, and the Misses 
Townsend; Colonel O'Hara, D.L., and Miss O'Hara; Marcus Lynch, 
D.L.; Major Wilson Lynch, D.L. ; Professor Kinkead, M.D., Miss Kinkead 
and party; Prof. BreretcU; L.R.C.S.I. ; Lt.- Colonel Cochran and Officers, 
Depot Connaught Rangers ; Rev. J. C.Clarke, B.A,, Mrs. Clarke, and 
Miss Clarke ; Rev. J. T. Berry ; Rev. R. Boyd ; Rev. Father Lally, P.P. ; 
Mr. James Perry, M.E., County Surveyor, and Mrs. Perry; Mr. W. N. 
Binns, B.E., Borough Surveyor; Mr. and Mrs. Murray, and Miss Murray ; 
Mr. and Mrs. Tivy; Mr. J. A. Grant, &c. 

During the evening the Galway String Band performed in the hall, 
and musical items were contributed by Prof Robertson and Mr. J. A. 
Grant. Several members showed specimens of the rarer plants and 
animals of the district, and explained their points of interest. The 

company did not disperse until a late hour. 

t 
I 

Friday, Jui,y 12TH. 

Friday dawned gloriously fine, and the party, which, now reinforced 
by local friends, had swelled to over 100, left Galway in high spirits by 
special train at 9 o'clock, en route for the mountains of Connemara. Oil 
the way to Oughterard the new railway passes through a charmingly 
diversified district of wood and lake, with the wide expanse of Lough 
Corrib to the eastward. After passing Oughterard, the land rises, and 
the railway emerges on the great plain of South Connemara— miles upon 
tniles of brown undulating bog, with flashing lakes in every hollow. As 
the train sped along, lovely views were continually obtained of the 
quartzite mountains of Maam Turk, and subsequently of the still more 
picturesque Twelve Bens. At Recess station the members alighted, and 

A 2 



22S The Irish Natia^alisi. 

the party divided into two, one section driving and walking along tli6 
Clifden road to ascend Ben Lettery, while the other section examined the 
bogs and lakes in the immediate vicinity. The mountain party passed 
along the chain of lakelets which extend througliout the course f)f the 
Ballynahinch River, and turned up the steep side of Ben I^ettery (1904 
feet), which overlooks the beautiful lake of Ballynahinch. F'rom the 
summit a truly superb panorama was obtained. Northward, peak beyond 
peak, rose the mountains, and through a gap to the north-west was seen 
the rugged outline of Achill Island. Further southward lay Inishbofin, 
and the whole western coastline of Connemara, and the town of Clifden. 
To the southward, across a vast stretch of bog dotted with lakes in- 
numerable, stretched the Atlantic, with long arms reaching up to 
Roundstone and Cashel, and many outlying islands, behind which 
the low ridges of the Aran Islands stood clearl}' up. South-eastward 
lay Galway Bay, backed by the grey uplands of Burren, and further 
eastward Lough Corrib and the I/imestone Plain. On the summit, the 
rare mountain ground-beetle Leislus montamis, and the interesting little 
spider Hahnia montana were found. Photographs having been secured and 
natural history specimens duly put away, the descent was undertaken, 
and Recess station reached in time for a refreshing cup of tea befor'e 
train-time. The lowland party had also a most satisfactory day. A 
number of rare plants had been collected, including the Pill wort, and iu 
common with the mountain party, they had collected many of the 
characteristic Connemara species, such as St. Dabeoc's Heath, London 
Pride, and Pipewort. The large and handsome wolf-spider Dolomedei 
fimbriatus attracted the attention of many observers on the bogs ; while 
the entomologists were agreeably surprised to find one of the most 
striking British Orthoptera — Muostethus grossus, often considered a rare 
species^n positive abundance. Others of the party had visited the 
"Connemara Marble" quarry on Lisoughter, behind Recess Hotel, and had 
obtained good examples of this beautiful serpentine. It was with much 
regret that members found their day at an end, and took their seats in the 
special train that was waiting for them. 

After dinner, bags, bottles, and vasculums Were emptied on the tables, 
and until a late hour members were busily engaged in examining and 
jioting the many captures and finds made during the day. 

Saturday, Jui.y 13TH. 

A morning of driving mist found the naturalists embarked on board the 
6s. *' Duras " at 9 o'clock, which in no way lightened as the steamer 
passed down the river and set her course for Ballyvaughan, on the 
southern side of Galway Bay. However, the cheerful predictions of the 
conductors were duly fulfilled, for as the destination was approached the 
clouds broke and the sun shone out, lighting up gloriously the strange 
bare slopes of the Burren mountains and the great masses of vapour that 
still hung over the higher summits. Advantage was taken of the 
leisure afforded by the passage to hold a meeting of the collectors 
of the party, when the work of identifying and cataloguing the various 
captures was distributed among the different naturalists, one 



Galway Field Club Conference, 229 

man being made responsible for the report on each group ; the result 
of this distribution of labour is seen in the scientific reports which follow. 
On landing at Ballyvaughan, the party were joined by Mr. P. B, 
O'Kelly, a Ballyvaughan botanist, whose local knowledge was freely 
placed at the disposal of members, and proved of much service, 
Gleninagh, on the sea, three miles north-west of Ballyvaughan, was the 
rendezvous, and the party slowly made their way along the road in this 
direction, with the sea on the right, and the great limestone hills rising 
steeply on the left. This was the field-day of the botanists, for the flora 
of the Burren is most peculiar as well as rich. It was not long before 
most of the characteristic plants were discovered. The Maidenhair was 
found ere Ballyvaughan was a mile behind. On the low grounds Mr. 
O'Kelly pointed out the Bee Orchis and the extremely rare Close-flowered 
Orchis, now in fruit, for which for many years Castle Taylor in County 
Galway was the only known British station. On the limestone hills 
above was found abundance of the Mountain Dryas, Bear-berry, Purple 
Helleborine, Bloody Cranesbill, Spring Gentian, and other rare plants. 
Lunch was served at 2 o'clock under the shadow of the old castle of 
Gleninagh, after which scientific occupations —shore-collecting, botaniz- 
ing, insect-hunting, and geologizing — were energetically resumed. Some 
of the party drove to Black Head, where the Maidenhair was found in 
abundance, as well as other rarities. Mr. O'Kelly conducted one or 
two of the party to the home of the Shrubby Cinquefoil, which grows 
in much abundance not far from Ballyvaughan. Others, who ascended 
to the flat summit of Cappanawalla (1023 feet) brought back strange 
accounts of the vast stretches of bare grey limestone which extend on 
the higher grounds. At 5.30 the steamer's whistle warned stragglers to 
linger no longer, and when at length the last late-comer was on board, 
the return journey was made without loss of time. After dinner, the 
tables were again devoted to an exhibition of the day's spoil. These 
evening exhibitions of each day's work were found of much service, 
especially in the way of giving the less experienced members an oppor- 
tunity of examining specimens at their leisure, of asking questions, 
and of watching demonstrations of identification and mounting of 
specimens. It was found that a beetle, Miaris campanula, new to the 
Irish list, and the local moths, Anticlea cticullata and Phothcdes captiuncula, as 
well as the striking black spider, Prosthesima Petiverii, had rewarded the 
labours of the insect-hunters on this day, " 

Sunday, Jui,y 14TH. 

On this day, according to the Programme, members were to " make 
their own arrangements." A party of archaeologists and conchologists 
made an early start for Clare-Galway Abbey, and spent a profitable day 
in that vicinity. The majority of the party attended service at the 
beautiful old Church of Saint Nicholas. After lunch two pleasant 
receptions awaited the members. The President of Queen's College 
received a numerous party at the College, and conducted them through 
the buildings and gardens, and entertained them to tea in his own house ; 
while another large section of the members rowed up the River Corrib 



2SO The Irish Naturalist, 

in the well-appointed boats of the Royal Galway Boat Club (most 
kindly placed at their disposal by the Committee) to enjoy the hospitality 
of Sir Valentine and Lady Blake at Menlo Castle. Along the banks of 
the river some good insects, including a rove-beetle, Stenus melanopus, new 
to Ireland, and plants were collected, and at Menlo the rare sedge Carex 
pseiido'cypertis was obtained. ,The quaint old house, said to be the oldest 
inhabited house in Ireland, excited great interest, and the generous 
hospitality of the host and hostess completed the pleasure of the visit. 
At 6 o'clock dinner was served, and in view of the early start next 
morning, most members wisely retired at an early hour. 

Monday, Jui^y i6'rH. 

Punctually at 5.30 a.m., the Secretary's shrill whistle called members 
down for an early cup of tea. A prompt response ,was made, and at 6 
o'clock sharp the ss. " Duras" cast off her moorings with the whole 
party on board, excepting a few who did not care to face the thirty-five- 
mile sail across the troubled waters of Galway Bay. Once again the 
Field Clubs were favoured with a fine day, in a district well-known as 
one of the wettest in Ireland. At 8 o'clock Miss Gardiner had breakfast 
prepared with the despatch and neatness that characterized her some- 
what arduous duties throughout the excursion, and when this important 
function was completed, the Aran Islands were alread}' close at hand, 
and the bare grey fields, the whitewashed cottages, and innumerable 
stone walls furnished a quaint and characteristic scene. A heaving tide- 
run off the shore of Aranmore proved disastrous to some of the 
naturalists, but they speedily recovered as the steamer dropped anchor at 
Portmurvy, and was immediately surrounded with a crowd of stalwart 
islanders in their strange canvas curraghs. The disembarkation was 
promptly effected in the ship's boats, while some preferred the novel 
experience of the curragh. The vSecretary now announced alternative 
routes, those who were prepared for a long walk to go west to Dun 
Aengus and thence to Kilronan, while those who wished less exertion 
would proceed to Kilronan by a more direct route. The members who 
visited Dun Aengus — the larger portion of the party— were amply repaid 
for their exertion. This splendid example of pre-historic architecture — 
the finest structure of its kind in Europe — perched on the edge of an 
; overhanging cliff, 300 feet in height, was examined with the keenest 
' interest and wonder. Floating on the Atlantic swell far below, a keen- 
eyed member descried a fine specimen of the Great Sun-fish, which con- 
siderately remained in full view for a length of time. On the vegetation 
here and elsewhere many observers noted the great abundance of the 
handsome rose-beetle (Cf/^wm a«ra/a). The presence of this species — so 
rare on the Irish mainland — was a great surprise to the entomologists. 
A small flower-beetle {Meligethes rufipcs) new to Ireland, was found, as well 
as a minute spider (^Micariosomia fesiivwn), also apparently new to the 
Irish list. A striking feature was the great abundance of the springtail 
Machilis polypoda, which occurred in multitudes under every stone. The 
party made their way along the edge of the cliff, which was fringed with 




TEAMPUL BENAX, ARAN:M0RE. [F. 'A. Dixon, Photo. 




AX ARAX FTRTJ). 



/•" A. Dixon. Photo. 



Gahi'ay Field Club Confereyice. 231 

Sampliire and Sea Lavender, to where an islander sat fishing. By his 
side was a basket well filled with fine Bream. He sat on the overhang' 
ing edge of the cliff, his feet dangling over the abyss, and his line descend- 
ing vertically into the ocean some 200 feet below. Fishing of this kind 
is carried on along the whole western side of the island. The " Worm 
Hole " was next visited, a large square natural tank in the rock at some 
distance from the sea, with which it is connected by a large underground 
passage, as shown by the prompt response of its waters to the ocean 
swell outside. Near the hamlet of Gortnacopple the Maidenhair was 
seen in very great abundance and luxuriance, growing as usual in the 
vertical fissures of the limestone ; it is abundantly distributed through- 
out the island. Another well-known plant of Aran that was seen here 
abundantly was the large leek, AU'min Babingtonii. The main road being 
reached, the party followed the first section to Kilronan, visiting on the 
way some of the best of the many antiquities of Aran, including the 
ancient church of St. Kieran, and the adjoining holed stone and early 
crosses, and viewing with interest the curious wayside monuments. The 
geologists of the party were much interested in the extensive exposures 
of bare jointed limestone, and its curious weathering, and in the 
numerous erratics from Connemara scattered over its surface, while the 
entomologists literally " left no stone unturned" in their search for 
rarities. 

On the beach at Kilronan, INIiss Gardiner had a sumptuous tea pre- 
pared, to which the members did ample justice"; after which, undeterred 
by frequent showers which now began to fall, a numerous party started 
southward to visit the primitive church of St. Eany with its many accom- 
pan5nng antiquities, Teampul Benan, &c., and to attempt further dis- 
coveries among the fauna and flora. The botanists were well pleased to 
find, at the last moment, that very rare Irish grass, the Wood Rush, in 
one of the two Aran stations given by Mr. H. C. Hart in his paper on 
the botany of the islands; and in the fading light a hasty return was 
made to the steamer, which left at 8 o'clock punctually, and the hotel 
in Galway was once more reached at ii.o. 

During this day's excursion, which was in every way successful, the 
members derived much local information and assistance from the parish 
priest. Rev. P. Colgan, and his curate, and from Mr. P. 0'P\ Johnson, the 
local magistrate, all of whom did their best to assist the party in every way. 

TUBISDAY, JUIvY 16TH. 

At 9 o'clock a special train conveyed the members and local friends 
to Oughterard, where Mr. Dominick Burke had brakes and cars in 
readiness, and an immediate start was made northward along the shores 
of Lough Corrib, a party of geologists remaining behind for an hour 
to examine the sections exposed in adjacent new railway cuttings 
under the guidance of Mr. R. J. Kirwan, B.E. The route lay through 
hilly ground, with alternating patches of bog, wood, and cultivation. 
Eastward stretched the vast lake of Corrib, diversified with islands 
great and small ; westward rose theMaam Turk mountains, still clothed 



22,2 The h'ish Naturalist, 

in dark vapour, and sending an occasional splash of rain over the 
plain below. Presently the ground grew rougher, till it blazed with 
purple heather, among which hung abundantly the large bells of St. 
Dabeoc's Heath. Passing through a pine wood the vehicles halted 
beside a mountain stream, whose banks were fringed with Royal Fern 
growing six feet high. This was the rendezvous for the day. To the 
left the lake narrowed among steep wooded hills, and a glorious valley 
stretched away for miles, overhung by high mountains on each side. 
Behind rose the purple slopes of Carn Seefin, and in front lay the 
shining waters of the lake. It was an ideal spot for naturalists, and in 
a few minutes the party was scattered far and wide in eager search. 
The botanists rejoiced to find here the characteristic flora of Conne- 
jnara— London Pride, Pipe-wort, Lobelia, St. Dabeoc's Heath, &;c. The 
rare Bog Orchis was found sparingly. The geologists found congenial 
ground in the spoil-bank of an old copper mine on the hill-side. A new 
Irish beetle, Chilocuis bipustulatus, and the rare northern ground-beetles 
Pelophila borealis and Caralms daihratus delighted the entomologists ; while 
under the stones on the margin of the lake were found numerous 
examples of a rare southern jumping spider, Attus floricola. 

Lunch occasioned but a short lull in the business of exploration, 
which was continued energetically until the repeated blasts of the 
Secretary's whistle recalled the wanderers, and the return was effected 
in time to catch the special train at 6 o'clock for Galway. 

After dinner a formal Conference on Field Club work was held. The 
chair was occupied by G. H. Carpenter, B.Sc, President, Dublin 
Naturalists' Field Club. 

The Chairman said that the duty of taking the chair that evening 
devolved on him since the President of the senior Club (Belfast) was not 
present. He referred to the origin of the Field Club Union, an outcome 
of the formation of which they saw in the present successful excursion, 
and pointed out the great desirability and usefulness of such an organiza. 
lion, and the good work which during its short existence it had already 
accomplished. This evening representatives of all the Irish Field Clubs 
and of several similar English Societies met together in friendly con- 
ference, and he called for remarks and suggestions on matters relating 
to Field Club interests. 

Wm. Gray, M.R.I. A., as an old member and ex-President of the 
Belfast Club, referred to the benefits resulting from an interchange of 
ideas in the field, as was accomplished on an expedition such as this. 
He congratulated the Clubs on the number of lady members present, and 
on the presence of representatives of science from England. The forma- 
tion of the Irish Field Club Union was already justified by its results. 

Prof. T. Johnson, D.Sc, Treasurer, Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, 
said that at a meeting of this kind the members reaped benefits of the 
same nature as accrued to the meetings of the British Association. They 
learned that there was a brotherhood in science, and that assistance and 
encouragement were ready on every hand. He thought that if possible 
a meeting of this kind should be arranged annually. 



r 

Galway Field Cliih Conference, 233 

J. J. WoivFE, as representing the Cork Naturalists' Field Club, re- 
gretted that so few members of his Society had been able to avail them- 
selves of the Galway excursion ; he thought the Cork Club was already 
deriving substantial benefit from the formation of the Union, 

Francis Neale, Secretary, Limerick Naturalists' Field Club, also 
referred to the advantages which the smaller Clubs were reaping from 
the operations of the Union. He hoped that on the next Galway excur- 
sion they would assemble on the invitation of a future Galway Field 
Club. He recommended the consideration of some more systematic 
means of recording scientific " finds" made by Field Club members. 

H. E. Brothers, member of Committee North Staffordshire Naturalists' 
Field Club, desired to thank the Irish Clubs on behalf of his members 
for their invitation to join in the present excursion. He was glad that a 
number of the members of his Club had availed themselves of the 
invitation, and thought that they would carry home with them many 
useful hints from this meeting of the Irish Clubs. He also spoke of 
the duty that rested with Field Clubs everywhere to check by every 
means in their power the unnecessary destruction of animal and 
vegetable life. 

R. Standen, Curator of the Conchological Society of Great Britain and 
Ireland, mentioned some of the more interesting points noted on the 
excursion in connection with his own particular group — the land and 
fresh- water mollusca. 

Prof. J. W. Carr, M.A., F.L.S., President, Nottingham Naturalists' 
Society, expressed his warm congratulations on the success of this first 
general meeting of the Irish Field Clubs, and on the zeal and energy dis- 
played by the members in scientific research. He doubted if such an 
active week's field work could have been organized and carried out by 
any English Scientific Society. After speaking of the aims of Natural 
History Societies, Professor Carr expressed the hope that the ultimate 
result of such combined effort would be the production of a series of 
monographs on Irish Natural history. 

WiiviviAM Gray interposed to give his hearty support to the remarks 
of Mr. Brothers in regard to the destruction of animals and plants. The 
Field Clubs could do good work by discountenancing the sale of fern 
roots, &c,, and the wearing of birds' feathers. 

Professor G. F. Fitzgerai^d, D.Sc, F.R.S. (Dublin University), 
wished to know if a resolution recommending botany as a subject of 
study for boys under the Intermediate Education Scheme would be in 
order at the present meeting. 

The Chairman said that such a resolution would certainly be in order ; 
zoology also might well be included in the resolution. 

Professor Johnson stated that he would with pleasure support any 
such resolution. 

Mann Harbison (Belfast) suggested that the subject of geology 
should be included in the motion. 

While Professor Fitzgerald was preparing his resolution 



234 The Irish Naturalist 

Hon. R. B. Dili^on (Galway) referred to the local interest which the 
visit of the Field Clubs to Galway had excited, and which he trusted 
would have a lasting effect in the way of stimulating scientific research 
in that part of the country. On behalf of those of the party who were 
not members of any of the Clubs, but were there as visitors, he wished 
to express the great pleasure and interest which they had derived from 
the excursion. 

Prof. FiTZGERAI^D then moved:— That the United Naturalists* 
Field Clubs of Ireland press upon the Board of Intermediate Education 
in Ireland the importance to education and to the country of introducing 
Natural Science as a subject to be encouraged in Intermediate Schools 
in Ireland. 

Prof. B. J. M'Weenfy, M.D., (Dublin), had pleasure in seconding 
the resolution, and referred to the advantages which the teaching of 
natural science would give. Before sitting down, he referred to the very 
great kindness shown to the party during their visit by many inhabitants 
of Galwa}^ Bspecially were the thanks of the party due to the Presi- 
dent of Queen's College, to Sir Valentine Blake, to Captain Henley, to Mr. 
P. O'F. Johnston, J.P., to the Hon. R. B. Dillon, to Mr. R.J. Kirwan, B.E., 
to the Committee of the Royal Galway Boat Club, and to the officials of 
the Midland Great Western Railway, and of the Galway Bay Steamboat 
Company. He would like to move a vote of thanks to these gentle- 
men. 

The Chairman put Professor Fitzgerald's resolution to the meeting, 
and it was passed unanimously. 

Adam SpeerS, B.Sc, (Belfast), seconded the vote of thanks to those 
who had so cordially assisted the success of the excursion. Referring 
for a moment to the resolution which had just been passed, he wished 
as the head of an Intermediate School, to express his gratification that 
such a resolution had met with the unanimous favour of this meeting 
of practical scientists. 

Hon. R. B. Diiyi^ON responded on behalf of those named in Dr. 
M'Weeney's resolution. He assured the members that the visit of the 
Field Clubs had been a most welcome event in Galway. 

F. J. Bigger, M.R.I.A., Secretary, Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, 
wished to express the deep obligation of the members to Miss Gardiner, 
of Leinster-street, Dublin, for the remarkably prompt and able manner 
in which she had managed the catering on the daily expeditions— a very 
important matter on these long and fatiguing excursions (hear, hear). 
Speaking of the Field Club Union, he predicted how its increasing 
strength would more and more bind the Clubs together, so that at length 
they would have in Ireland one Field Club, with a common membership 
for all, and one official mouth-piece — the Irish Nahiralist. 

Prof. Johnson remarked that the conference would not be complete 
without some remarks from the organizer of the excursion. 

R. Li^OYD Praeger, B.E., Secretary Field Club Union and Dublin 
Naturalists' Field Club, in reply said he had only to repeat the thanks that 
he had expressed that evening after dinner for the unfailing promptness 



Galway Field Club ConfereJice. 235 

with which members had carried out the requests of the conductor 
throughout the excursion, and the great assistance they had given. The 
unqualified success of this, the most elaborate Field Club excursion ever 
carried out in Ireland, was in itself the best thanks that the organizer 
could have. 

• The Chairman reminded members that specialists had been appointed 
to prepare reports on each group of the fauna and flora, and requested 
that all notes and specimens should be shown to them. Having refer- 
red to the advisability of having Irish finds recorded in Ireland, and 
drawn attention to the wonderful mixture of characteristic northern 
and southern forms of life which the naturalists had observed in this 
western district, he declared the conference concluded. 

WKDNESDAY, JUI.Y 17TH, &c. 
On this morning the party broke up. While the majority of members 
left for home, others proceeded to extend the investigations commenced 
on the excursion. R. Standen, E. Collier and R. Welch spent two days 
in collecting recent and subfossil shells and foraminifera at Roundstone. 
Miss Knowles botanized at Oughterard. J. A. Audley and R. Lloyd 
Praeger had a day at Roundstone, where they collected Erica Mackaii and 
Naias flexilis in their recorded stations ; the latter then sailed to Aran- 
more, where three days were spent in botanizing with the assistance of 
Prof. Fitzgerald, the return being made in his company, via Lisdoon- 
varna and Ballyvaughan. The work done on these further days being a 
direct continuation of that accomplished on the excursion, the results 
obtained are embodied in the reports which follow. 



II.— GEOLOGY. 

BY MISS SYDNEY M. THOMPSON. 



The magnificent scenery of the district comprised between Galway Bay, 
the Atlantic, and Lough Corrib demonstrates what metamorphism can 
do in the way of earth -building. The grand quartzite group of the 
Twelve Bens, with their bare scarred peaks rising abruptly from the vast 
flat plain that stretches westward to the Atlantic, display earth-folding 
on a magnificent scale. The age of these quartzites and the schists that 
occur with them is somewhat obscure ; the latter were at one time 
supposed to be metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, but modern investiga- 
tions have changed these opinions, and they are now considered to be 
altered igneous rocks. ^ A very interesting section through these schists 
was visited on the railway near Oughterard under the guidance of Mr. 
Kirwan, whose able paper in the Irish Naturalist- shows an ilhistration 



^vSee Report of the Director-General of the Geol. Survey, 40M Report 
Dept. of Science and Art (1893), p. 266, and 41J/ Report (1S94), p. 270. 
'June, 1895, vol. iv., p. 151. 



236 The hish NaUiralist, 

of this section, in which quartzites, hornblende schists, and intrusive 
granites occurring in veins, dykes, and in mass are seen, with 
Carboniferous limestone which has been subsequently laid down, and 
which is undisturbed. This cutting is quite near to the station, and 
forms an interesting and instructive diagram of faults, contortions, and 
intrusions. Many specimens were obtained, including some of quartzite 
and white quartz with beautiful cross-veins of red intrusive granite. 
Some concretions of calcite, prettily stained with orange and black, were 
found amongst the fragments on the line. On the day when Ben 
Lettery was ascended, very fine crystals of quartz were obtained from 
crevices on the summit of Ben Gower, and from weathered blocks. 

Some lead and copper mines near Carn Seefin, above the north- 
western shores of Lough Corrib, were subsequently visited. Although 
not worked at present, some samples were obtained from the '* tip." 
One block contained galena, copper pyrites, iron pyrites, calcite, felspar, 
and quartz as concretions in the hornblende schists in which the mineral 
lodes occur. Pure massive epidote and fluorspar were also obtained, 
and specimens of an intrusive rock in this neighbourhood almost 
entirely formed of sheared pinkish-brown garnets were obtained with 
difficulty, owing to its extreme hardness. 

The celebrated Connemara " marble" at Recess is now being worked 
in only one quarry by about a dozen men, employed by an American, 
who is at present executing an order for twenty pillars, each to consist 
of five blocks measuring about four feet by three in diameter. To gauge 
the quality of the stone a long section has been made in the side of the 
quarry by a wire saw. This section well displays the contorted green 
bands with grey layers at either side. The so-called "marble" is a 
serpentine formed by the alteration of olivine introduced in the crystalline 
bands of primitive limestone by igneous action. Similar results occur 
in limestones around Mount Vesuvius. These serpentine bands do not 
average more than two feet in thickness, and have been much sheared 
and contorted, showing the " eozoonal " structure. This was formerly 
believed to be a gigantic foraminifer when discovered in the Laurentian 
rocks of Canada, and named Eozoon Canadense, biit its organic nature is 
now practically disproved by the recent discovery of a similar substance 
in limestone blocks ejected from Vesuvius.^ 

But few fossils were obtained from the Carboniferous limestone so fully 
developed in the district, the rock being so hard as to preclude the ex- 
traction of its organic remains in the limited time available for the 
geologists on a mixed excursion. The usual characteristic fossils were 
observed in abundance, and some specimens obtained in Ballj^vaughan 
from the Burren Limestone, and in the Aran Islands. The shale-beds in 
Aran would probably repay a fuller examination than was possible on the 
excursion. Blow holes and the *' Worm Hole," a curious natural tank 
are amongst the curiosities of the Aran limestones. 

* Johnston-Lavis and Gregory — "Eozoonal Structure of the ejected 
Blocks of Monte Somma." Scu Trans, R,D,S. (2) vol. v., 1894. 



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Gatway Excursion. — Geology. 237 

^he marble quarries at Menlough were also visited, where an excellent 
jet-black marble is obtained, ornamented with white s^zWows oi Producttis 
and corals. It seems a pity that this marble and the serpentine are not 
more fully worked, as facilities for transport are all that can be desired. 

On the shores of the lake near Clare-Galway Abbey the limestone is 
curiously bored by holes, varying from half to one-and-a-half inches in 
diameter, and sometimes extending downwards for six or eight inches. ' 
Their origin is as yet uncertain, the alternative suggestions being either 
the action of carbonic acid from vegetation, etc., or the burrowing of 
land snails or of marine animals such as Pholas. Travellers on the line 
to Clifden will see, on the right hand side, soon after leaving Galway, 
some of the curious " mushroom" rocks, produced by softer inferior layers 
weathering away more rapidly than harder superior layers. 

The glacial geology of the district is very interesting, the hard, white 
quartzite of the Bens being splendidly glaciated ; and capital ice-worn 
surfaces were seen close to Recess station, and also on the way to Ben 
Lettery, the rock being finely smoothed and polished, with deep ice- 
groovings. The drift sections at Gentian Hill yielded many erratics. 
The grey clay is excessively hard and compact, forming a cliff a quarter 
of a mile long and about thirty feet high, with large and small erratics 
projecting from the surface, the retentiveness of the matrix being evi* 
denced by the great masses that stand out in all directions ; similar sec- 
tions occur on islands and on the coast about this locality. Many 
boulders are of black Carboniferous limestone with bands of white Pro- 
ductus about three inches deep, the whole surface being exquisitely 
polished and striated, others are Connemara granites, including the 
typical Galway variety, remarkable for the scarcity of mica, and the 
handsome crystals of pink orthoclase felspar, recalling the famous Shap 
granite ; specimens of serpentine also occur as erratics. 

On the Aran Islands, in Galway Bay, many of these rocks occur as 
erratics. Also there are found specimens of a fine-grained red quartzite 
said not to occur now anywhere in situ. It would be impossible to con- 
clude without a reference to the remarkable cliflf-scenery of these 
islands, where the slightly-dipping limestones have been undercut by the 
sea into mighty shelves, over which the Atlantic waves play ceaselessly, 
whilst upper terraces are tenanted by myriads of sea-birds, and the top 
of the cliffs between 50 and 100 feet above the sea are swept bare at the 
edges, huge piles of stones forming a rampart many yards inland, de- 
monstrating what the force of the surges must be, when their spray can 
do such mighty work. Here and there, in the face of these grand cliffs, 
a bed of shale gives rise to a water-spring, falling in delicate veils of 
spray into the ocean, an exquisite rainbow perpetually spanning the 
abyss. The causes that result in such beautiful effects are full of geo- 
logical interest, and the whole excursion was replete with such oppor« 
tunitiee for the geologists o| the party. 



238 The Irish Naturalist. 

III. — BOTANY. 



FUNGI. 

BY E. J. M'WKENEV, M.A., M.D. 



// YMENOM YCE TES. 

This Order, which comprises the most highly organized and largest 
Fungi was but sparsely represented, owing no doubt partly to the dry- 
ness of the early summer season, but chiefly to the fact that a great deal 
of the ground traversed — stony and boggy, mountainous and maritime 
regions— is 'of a character notoriously unfavourable to the growth of 
agarics and their allies. Besides, their season of fructification had as 
yet hardly commenced. In the patches of wood (chiefly fir) by the lake 
sides at Recess on the 12th Jul}', and Lough Corrib on the i6th, the 
ordinary species oi Bolettts generally met with in such places, were taken 
together with a few of the manure-frequenting agarics belonging to the 
genera Panaohis, Stropharia and Coprinus. We also found a very fine 
Mycena filopes, and one Marasmius androsaceus, an uncommon species in 
my experience. The heaths at Recess yielded a large mouse-coloured 
pink-spored Agaric [Entoloma helodcs, Fr.), in abundance, and large forms 
of Galera hypnoriim and its var. Sphagnorinn^ were met with in the swamps 
at Lough Corrib. The only form at all peculiar or unusual was a 
pale-yellow-capped white-gilled Canthardlus {albidtis) which we came 
across in some abundance on the heath-covered slopes at Recess and 
also near Lough Corrib. No agaric save the Common Mushroom 
seems to have been collected on Aran. 

Agraricus (lYIyccna) fi lopes, Bull. — Wood at Lough Corrib. 

A. (WI.) stylotoatcs, Pers. — Lake-side near Recess. 

A. (Entoloma) helodes, Fr. — Abundant on heaths, Recess, &c, 

A. (Calera) hypnorum, Batsch. — Frequent in the bogs. Recess, &c. 

var. Sphagnorum, Fr. — Swamps by Lough Corrib. 

A. (Psalllota) campestrls Linn, (the Common Mushroom). — 
Frequent in nearly every suitable locality, including Aran . 

A. (Stropharia) semigloli^atusy Batsch— Lough Corrib and 
Recess, frequent. 

Anellarla flmlputrls, Karsten— Lough Corrib. 

PanOBOlus phalaenarum, Fr.— Lough Corrib. 

Coprinus cphcmcrus, Fr.— Lough Corrib. 

Cantharellus albldus, Fr.— On heaths at Recess and L. Corrib. 

Marasmius androsaceus, Fr.— Lough Corrib. 

Boletus luteus, Linn.— Lough Corrib. 

B. flavus, With.— Lough Corrib. 

B. larlclnus, Berk.— Recess Wood, and Lough Corrib. 
Fomes varlegatus, Seer.— Burren. 
TremcHa mesenteflca, Retz.— Lough Corrib. 



Galway Exairsion — Fungi. 239 



DISCOMYCETES. 

The Only Peziza of any size— a fawn coloured species (probably P.plairota, 
Phil.), collected by Mr. M'Ardle, and placed in a tube — was unfortunately 
lost, together with the tube and its remaining contents, which comprised 
a Saprolegnia or Achlya sp. on a dead fl}', and Dr. FitzGerald's specimen of 
Claviceps on grass. Another specimen which I took on a superficial 
inspection to be a discomycete parasitic on some frondose hepatic proved 
to be a Lichen, Solorina saccaia, L., stated to be rather rare, but already 
recorded from Brandon in Kerry, and Ben Bulben in Sligo by Mr. 
J. T. Mackay, and from Cushendall, Co. Antrim, by Dr. Moore. I had 
confined my examination to the apothecia, and had therefore become 
acquainted only with the fungal element in the compound organism 
of the Lichen. Each ascus contains four uniseptate brown .spores. Struck 
by these peculiarities, I thought I should have no difficulty in 
identifying the specimen ; but here I was disappointed, and not being 
able to find a place for it, I sent it to Mr. Phillips of Shrewsbury, the 
well-known authority on Discomycetes, and to his kindness I am indebted 
for the establishment of the true nature of this specimen. Moral — 
always examine the substratum / The poverty of this region in Discomy- 
cetes is very remarkable. 

Lachnea stercorea, Gill. > ^ -, t 1. rv -i, 

' L On cowdung, Lough Comb. 

Humaria g^ranulata, Sacc. y 

Dasyscypha virglnea, Fekl.— Frequent, Recess, Lough Corrib, &.C. 
Phialea virgultorum, Sacc— Recess, lake-side. 
IVIoIlisla clnerea, Karst. — Lough Corrib. 
WI. melaleuca, Sacc. — Lough Corrib. 



SPHyER/ACEL 

The most important species found was Claviceps purpurea (Ergot), taken 
at Burren by Dr. FitzGerald on some grass not now certainly recogniz- 
able, Only a few fruits were ergotized. 

Claviceps purpurea, Fr. — 0\\ grass, Burren (Prof. FitzGerald). 

Eplchloe typhina, Pers.— On Dadylis glomerata. Gentian Hill wood. 

Polystigma ruttrum, Pers.— Burren, on Black-thorn. 

Cladosporluin herbarum, L. R.— (The conidial stage of some 
Pyrenomycete) on Quaking-grass, Aran, Prof FitzGerald. 

Hypocopra flmlcola (Rob.), Sacc— On rabbit-dung, Lough Corrib. 



UREDWEI k^n USTILAGINEL 

When industriously sought for, members of the first-named class are 
fairly abundant in the region examined* The only smut we found was 
Ustilago scgetum on oats, Aran (Dr. FitzGerald). I was much struck with 
the slight degree of development attained by these parasitic forms on 



^40 ^^ic hish Naturalist, 

that island. Piiccinia pnlvcrtilciita, Grev., formed a striking exception. It 
grew most luxuriantly on a patch of Willow-herb near Mr. Johnson's 
house at Kilmurvy, the entire under-surface of some of the leaves being 
covered with the cluster-cups, whilst large confluent sori of teleuto- 
spores occurred on neighbouring plants. This partial separation of the 
two stages— dioecisra — is worthy of note. The commonest wild 
Umbellifer, Angelica sylvesiris, was infested with a rust, P. ptmpinel/cr, Sirsiuss, 
whilst the only specimen I saw of the local Phnpinella magna was covered 
with the Urcdo-s^o\.^ of a somewhat larger-spored rust which may 
possibly prove distinct. The only other species worthy of remark 
are the Phragmidium on the Lesser Burnet, and the rust on clover, both 
found on Aran, and neither frequent, so far as my experience goes, on the 
east side of Ireland. 

Pucclnla prlmulae, DC— Wood near base of Gentian Hill. 

P. centaurese, Mart.— Gentian Hill. 

P. vlolae, Schum.— Gentian Hill. ^ ;' 

P. pulvcrulcnta, Grev.— On ^//^^/w;« /5i>j«/«w, Aran« > '"^ 

P. variabilis, Grev.— Gentian Hill. 

P. taraxacl, Plow.— Gentian Hill. 

P. hleracil, Schum. — Uredo on Cardtms lanceolattiSy Aran. 

P. pimpinellsef Strauss.— On Angelica sylvestris and Pimpinelta ma^na, 
Aran. 

Uromyces anthyllidis, Grev. — On A.vulneraria^ Aran. 

U. trifoliiy Alb. and Schw — On T. pratense, Aran. 

Triphragmium ulmariae, Schum. — Uredo only, near Gentian Hill. 

Phragmlciium frag^ariastri, DC. — Aran. 

P. sangulsorbae, DC, — On Poteriiim Sanguisorba, Aran. 

P, Vlolaceuirif Schultz. — On Rubusfmticosus, Aran and elsewhere. 

P. subcortlcatutrif Schrank. — On Rosa spinosissima, Aran and else- 
where. 
lYIelampsora Ilnl, Pers.— Abundant on Aran and elsewhere. 
M. f ar I nosa, Pers,— Heaths near Recess. !^ 

WI. hyper Icorum, DC— On Tutsan at L. Corrib. ,y' 

Coleosporlum seneclonis, Pers.— Aran. Prof. FitzGerald. 
C» cu phrasias, Schum.— Aran and elsewhere, on Rhinanthiis, 
Ustllago segetum. Bull.— Aran, Prof. FitzGerald. 
Urocystis Vloiae, Sow.— Near Gentian Hill. 

In conclusion I have to express my deep sense of obligation to Prof. G. 
1^. FitzGerald, F.R.S., to whose quick observation and skill in collecting 
I owe many of the most interesting fungal specimens taken during this 
enjoyable excursion. 



Sttl 



[ 241 1 
BY PROF. T. JOHNSON, D.SC, AND MISS HENSMAN. 



The Galway excursion afforded several excellent opportunities for sliore- 
coUecting. It is to be regretted that so few took advantage of tliem. 

I would suggest that, on our next Field Club Union excursion members, 
on joining the meeting, be invited to act as collectors in some special 
group of plants or animals. On the first day, during the preparation of 
lunch on Gentian Hill, one of us searched the somewhat muddy shore on 
the western side of the hill, gathered a number of shells attacked by 
the perforating algse, and found Zostera nana, which is referred to else- 
where. Sea- weeds were collected at Gleninagh, Co. Clare, the low rocky 
shore affording some good rock-pools, the coralline Lithothamnioti 
polyfnorphuvi lining some of them. Here was found the common green 
Codiion tomentosiim infested by the brown alga Strcblonema simplex, hitherto 
only once recorded for Ireland, by one of us; another species, S. 
fasciadatum, growing on Mesogla:a vermiailata, is new to Ireland. Sporochmis 
pedunculatus was found washed ashore. It would be out of place to give 
here a full list of the species noticed or gathered. It maybe of interest to 
state that Holmes and Batters make a preliminary attempt to indicate the 
distribution of sea- weeds in their " Revised L^ist of the British Marine 
Algse" (^Annals of Botany, vol. v., 1890). For this purpose the coast of 
the United Kingdom is divided into fourteen districts, in which Ireland 
is represented by districts 10-14, Galway Bay being included in district 

II (Slyue Head to Crow Head). It would be comparatively easy for us 
to make out a list of species found, not recorded in the above-mentioned 
list for district ir. Such a proceeding would be out of place, as there 
are many species, in collections made by earlier workers, known to us, 
not recorded. The following are some of the interesting finds : — 

Delesserla, all (6) species except D. angustissima. 

Phyllophora rubens, infested with Acthiococcus. 

Champla parvula, with cystocarps. 

Ceramlum tenulsslmum. 

Rhodophyllis bifida, with cystocarps. 

Dudresnaia cocclnea, with antherrdia, procarps and cystocarps. 
This beautiful and rare red alga is one in which one act of fertilisation 
results in the formation of a number of cystocarp fruits. 

Coralllna rubens. 
Ca squamata. 
Choreonema Thurctf. 
Melobesla cortlclformls. 

Ascocyclus orbicularis, on Zostcm, new to Ireland. 
Castagnea zosterse. 

Species of Cystosclra, Ctadostephus, Ectocarpus, Urospora, 
Monostroma, Euteromorpha, Cladophora. 
Hyella cdespltosa, 

B 



242 The Irish Naturalist, 

IVIastlgrocoIeus testarum. 

Picctonema terebrans. 

Comontia polyrhiza. 

Conchocells rosea, new to West of Ireland. 
V Tellamia? 

Aranmore.— Low water was caught at Killeany Bay (Kilroiiau) on the 
east side of the Island, and in addition some scraps of sea- weeds were 
gathered on the west side, a little east of the fort Dun Aengus. Ordinary 
shore-collecting is almost impossible on the west side, owing to the 
precipitous cliffs, and ocean swell, even on a comparatively cahn day. 
Several interesting weeds were obtained on the west side, indicative of a 
rich harvest after a westerly gale or by dredging. Killeany Bay proved a 
splendid locality for the perforating algje (all the species recorded in Miss 
Hensman's recent paper in the Irish Naturalist being found here), and 
iox \.\).^ Sqtiamariacccv, a group of red sea- weeds, coating stones, &c., and 
of which Pdrocelis and Pcyssonndia are examples. This group is at its 
best in the winter. In the quiet pools, with the abundant disintegrat- 
ing mollusc shells, and the stone-coating Squamariaccic:, were found 
quantities of Stilophora rhizodcs, and several species of Cystoscira, including 
the iridescent C. ericoides infested with Myriadis ptilvinata. The meeting of 
the southern and northern types, noticed in the fauna of the district was 
illustrated in several ways ; thus Plumarici degans, a southern form, and 
Ptilota plumosa, a northern closely allied form, were both found; Pycno- 
phycus tubcrcidatus, a brown alga which is erroneously supposed to reach 
its northern limits in Galway Bay, was also found. 

Of the less-known forms may be mentioned — 

Conimophyllum BulftiamI on Nitophyllum laceratu7n\ new to 
Ireland. 
Dermocarpa prasfna ] Latter new to, and former not recorded 
D. Schousbdet > for Ireland. 

Growing on a rock exposed at half-tide was a form of Codium^ not un- 
like the Codium amphibiwn of Harvey's " Phycologia Britanuica." Some 
time must elapse before all the material collected has been examined, 
many of the rarest weeds being microscopic and time-absorbing in their 
determination. Our thanks are due to Miss Sydney Thompson of 
Belfast for a collection of attacked shells, to Miss Kelsall for some 
Kilronan weeds, and to Mr. R. J. Mitchell, whose health has prevented 
him from taking part in the determination of the weeds he helped to 
collect. 



[ 243 ] 

MOSSES AND I.IVKRWORTS. 
BY D. m'ardl:^. 



x7 



The appended lists of these plants which were collected by me on the 
Galway excursion are provisional only. It will be observed that the list 
of mosses is very short, 17 species only, excluding a few species not yet 
determined. The entire district we visited in Aran was very scanty in 
moss vegetation ; even the commonest rock moss, Ptychomittium, which 
clothes such formations in almost every county in Ireland, was not met 
with, and very few grow on or amongst the bare rocks. The summit of 
the mountain from Cappanawalla to Ballyvaughan, where I went in search 
of rare flowering plants, produced very few mosses; it is one vast *• stone 
field " as far as the eye can reach. We met with no mountain stream ; 
on the banks and rotting timber in such places mosses luxuriate in the 
shade, heat, and moisture. On the lower slopes of the Burren, as at 
Ballyvaughan, and on Carn Seefin a good representative list of mosses 
could be made would time permit. 

The total number of liverworts collected is forty-seven. Of these 
twenty-three are not reported from the counties we visited in Dr. D. 
IMoore's work on the Irish Hepaticae, and two are additional species to 
the list in that important publication. Out of fourteen species ot 
Lejeunea known to grow in Ireland I collected eight ; four of these are 
additions to the Galway list. The rare Lejeunea Mackaii occurs sparingly 
on the north island of Aran on damp rocks. It is remarkable amongst 
Lejeunea in having large undivided obcordate folioles or stipules by which 
it is easily known from all others. It is the Irish representative of four 
species included by Dr. Spruce in the genus Homalo- Lejeunea, natives of 
the Peruvian Andes and Brazil. Scapania aspera, Mull., was first detected 
by me in the Co. Cavan in 1893, and now it has turned up in both Clare 
and Galway ; it may lurk in herbaria under the name of Scapania 
neviorosa ; its place is between that species and S, aqtiiloba ; possibly it 
belongs to the latter. 

Plagiochila interrupta I have not found before. I am not aware that it 
has been published as Irish, and may have been overlooked for Saccogyna 
or Chiloscyphus, which it resembles ; the plants collected by me are 
identical with those gathered by Dr. Carrington in Bolton Woods, York- 
shire, specimens of which are included in the excellent Fasc. Hepatic^t 
No, 86, of Carrington and Pearson, kindly placed at my disposal by Mr. 
F. W. Moore, A.L.S. 



MUSCI. 
Campylopus sctlfollus, Wils.— Carn Seefin. 
Tortula tortuosa, Hedwig.—Kilronan. 
Tortula rural is, Linn.— Rocks, Kilronan. 
Tortula fallax, Hedwig.— Aran. 
Tortula murallSt Timm.— Aran, Gentian Hill. 
Orthotrlchum afflne* Schrad.^ Ballyvaughan. 



244 The Irish Naturalist 

Enthostodon TempletonI, Schwaegr— Side of a stream, Carn 
Seefin. 

SplachnuiYi ampullaceum, Liiiu. — Cappanawalla Mountain 
(Professor T. Johnson). Amongst Sphagnum, shore of Lough Corrib 
(Professor Fitzgerald). 

Bryum capillare, Hedwig.— On walls, Bally vaughan. 

Leucodon sciuroldes, Schwaegr.— Ballyvaughan, Mr. O'Kelly. 

Neckera crispa, Dill.-Gentian Hill, Ballyvaughan, Island of 
Aran. 

Hypnum coiYimutatum, Dill., van— Aran. 

Hypnum purum, Linn.— Gentian Hill, Aran, common. 

Hypnum unclnatum, Hedw.— Near Kilronan. 

Hypnum loreum, Dill.— Ballyvaughan. 

Homalothecium serlceum, Linn. — Near Kilronan. 

Fissldens adfantoldes, Hedwig. —Ballyvaughan. Amongst rocks, 
Aran. 



HEPATIC^. 

* Denotes a species not previously reported from the County, 

FruIIania dilatata, (L.) Dum.— On the trunks of trees, side of a 
stream, Carn Seefin ; Gleninagh, and Ballyvaughan. 

FruIIania tamarlsci, (L.) Dum.— Gentian Hill, Carn Seefin, 
Cappanawalla Mountain, common 

*FruIIanIa gcrmana, Taylor.— Carn Seefin, rare. 

*LeJcunca minutissima, Smith. —On trees at Gentian Hill ; 
Gleninagh, Co. Clare. 

*LeJunea microscopica, Tayl.— On Plagiockila, Carn Seefin, rare. 

*Lejunca hamatifolia, (Hook.) Dum.--*Gleninagh; Carn Seefin; a 
rare species. 

*Lejeunea ovata, (Tayl.) Dicks.— On moss and decayed wood, side 
of a stream, Carn Seefin, plentiful; a rare species. 

Lejeunea serpyllifolla, Dicks.— On the trunks of trees, shores of 
Lough Corrib near Carn Seefin. 

*Lcjeunea flava, var. — Carn Seefin ; a rare species. 

*LeJeunea patens, Lindberg.— On FruIIania, Carn Seefin; Gentian 
Hill. 

*Lcjeunea Mackail, (Hooker) Dum.— On rocks on the North Island 
of Aran (Kilmurv}'), rare. 

Radula complanata, (L) Dum.— On rocks. Gentian Hill. 

*PorcIIa platyphylla, (L.) Lindberg.— Island of Aran. 

Pleurozia cochlcarlformis. — Gentian Hill. 

Kantia trichomanes, Dicks.— Gentian Hill, Carn Seefin, common. 

*Kant!a arguta^ Nees. — On a damp bank, Carn Seefin (Professor T. 
Johnson). Side of a stream near the shore of Lough Corrib ; a very rare 
species. 

Lepldozia setacea, Web.— Carn Seefin, frequent. 

*CephaIozIa eaten u lata, Huben. — On damp peat, Carn Seefin; 
♦Ballyvaughan, very fine ; a rare species. 

Cephaloziablcuspldata, Linn.— Carn Seefin. 



Galway Excursion. — Mosses and Liverworts, '^ 245 

Cephalozia Lammersiana, Hub.— Cam Seefin. 

Cephalozia sphagn!, Dicks (Spruce).— Carn Seefin. 

"^Cephalozia divarlcata, Sm.— Carn Seefin. 

"^Cephalozia divarlcata, var. Starkll, Spruce— Ball3rvaughan ; 
Carn Seefin ; a rare species. 

"^Scapanla aequIloDa, (Schw.), Dum.—Cappanawalla Mountain. 

*ScapanIa netnorosa, (L.) Dum.— Carn Seefin, *Bally\-aughan. 

*Scapanla aspera. Mull.— Salthill, near Galway; Ballyvaughan, 
very fine on Cappanawalla Mountain ; new to these districts. 

Dlplophyllum albicans, (Iv.) Dum.— Carn Seefin, Gentian Hill, 
Gleninagh, and Ballyvaughan. 

Plagriochlla asplenioides, (L.) Dum.— Carn Seefin. 

*PIagIochlIa Interrupta, (N.) Dum.— Ballyvaughan. Not pre- 
viously published as Irish.t 

Plaglochllasplnulosa, (Dicks.), Dum. — Carn vSeefin, shore of Lough 
Corrib. 

*Juni:ermania (Aplozia) riparia, (Tayl.), Dum.— Moist bank near 
Kilronan. 

vlungrermanla ventrlcosa, Dicks.— Side of a stream, shore of 
Lough Corrib. 

Saccogryna vltlculosa, L- — Carn Seefin. 

Nardia etnarg:inata, Ehrh.— Gentian Hill; on moist rocks, Carn 
Seefin ; common. 

Nardia scalaris, (Schr.) Gr.— Carn Seefin; shores of Lough Corrib 
common. 

Nardia crenulata, (Smith), Lindberg.— Ballyvaughan, Gentian Hill 

*NardIa obovata, Nees. — Carn Seefin. 

Pellia epiphylla, Linn.— Moist places, Carn Seefin; near Kil 
ronan. 

*Penia calyclna, Nees. — Damp bank side of a stream, Carn Seefin 
a rare species. 

lYIetzgrerla furcata, Linn.— On trees. Gentian Hill; Gleninagh; 
shores of Lough Corrib. 

*IVIctzgrcria conjugata, Lindberg.— Carn Seefin ; rare. 

RIccardia multifida, (Dill.), Linn.— Carn Seefin. 

Riccardia pinguis, (L.) B.Gr.— Damp, boggy place, Carn Seefin. 

IVIarchantia polymorpha, Linn.— Ballyvaughan. 

*Re)fc)ouIia hemisphaerica, Raddi.— In the crevices of moist rocks, 
Kilronan. 

Fagatella conica, (L.) Corda.— Moist bank near Kilronan. 



t This may be the type of the plant described by Dr. Moore und^r 
the name 01 Fedinophylhim pyrenaicwn^ Spruce. A'. /. A. Proc. (2) vol. ii., 
p. 629. 



246 The Irish Naturalist, 

PHANEROGAMS, FERNS, &c. 

BY R. I.I,OYD PKAE;GER, B.E., AND PROF. J. W. CARR, M.A., F.I^S. 



The remarkable flora of the districts lying aroiiiid Galway has long been 
famous, and has by this time been tolerably well worked out. Conne- 
mara, with its interesting southern species, has attracted many botanists, 
whose observations are brought together in Cybele Hibernica ; and since 
the appearance of that work, further contributions to our knowledge of 
that flora have been made, the most important paper being that of H. C. 
Hart."" The limestone district of Burren has likewise been well examined, 
as is witnessed by the papers of F. J. Foot,^ T. H. Corry,^ H. C. Ivevinge,^ 
and others. The interesting flora of the Aran Islands (which are 
botanically a part of Clare, not of Galway) has also been carefully 
investigated. So that, while close and systematic search would, no 
doubt, yield a number of additions to the floras of these districts, but 
little in this direction could result from the necessarily hurried and 
superficial work of the Field Club excursion ; and indeed, the time of 
members was devoted to securing examples of well-known botanical 
treasures, rather than to working out the distribution of less interesting 
species, or the determination of critical plants. But that the excursion 
was by no means barren of results as regards the flowering plants, the 
records which are appended will show. 

Our notes can be conveniently arranged in three geographical groups : 
—I. West Galway (District 8 of Cyhclc Hibernica) ; II. East Galway and 
Clare (District 6 of Cybele) ; III. Aran Islands (District 6 of Cybele). 

I. West Gai^way (District 8).— Plants were collected chiefly in three 
places— Gentian Hill, Carn Seefin on Lough Corrib, and about Recess. 
Gentian Hill, a promontory of drift on the shore three miles west of 
Galway, is interesting as yielding a group of limestone plants not found 
elsewhere in West Galway ; this drift has come from the east or south, 
and is largely composed of limestone. Here, within 50 feet of sea-level, 
were gathered Dryas odopeiala^ Aspertda cy7ianchica, Chlora perfoliata, Gentiana 
verna. Orchis pyratnidalisy Sesleria ccenilea. 

At Carn Seefin and Recess the typical Connemara flora reigns supreme. 
In both localities grew abundance of Drosera anglicn, D. intermedia, Hyperi- 
cum elodeSy Saxifraga wnbrosa. Lobelia DorOnanna, Dabeocia polifoliay Utricularia 
intermedia, Eriocatdon septangulare, Rhynchospora alba, Osmunda regalis, 

^ H. C. Hart.— Notes on the Flora of the Mayo and Galway Mountains, 
Proc. R.LA., Ser. II., Vol. 3, No. 10, 1883. 

2 F. J. Foot.— On the Distribution of Plants in Burren, Clare. Trans. 
RJ.A.y Vol. 24, 1862. 

8T. H. Corry.— Notes on a Botanical Ramble in the County of Clare. 
Proc. Belfast Nat, Hist, and Phil. Sac, 1879-80. 

•* H. C. Levinge.— iV^c^/mra intacta in County Clare. Journ. Bot.^ vol. 30, 
p. 194. 1892. 



Galway Excnrsion. — Phanerogams, &c. 247 

The following notes are selected for publication :— 1 
Thallctrum col 11 n um, Wallr.—Lakeshore below Carn Seefin. 
SiiK>uIarIa aquatlca, L.— Glendalough Lake. 
Lotus pllosus, Beeke.— Oughterard, Miss Knowles. 
Dryas octopctala, L.— Lisoughter Hill behind Recess, Carr. 
Saxlfra^ra opposltlfolla, Iv— Lisoughter Hill, Carr. 
IVIyriophyllum verticil latum, Iv.— Lake-shore below Carn Seefin. 
GEnanthe Lachenalll, Gmel. —Gentian Hill. 

Card u us pratensfs, Huds.— Oughterard, Miss Knowles ; Carn 
vSeefin. 

Hieracium angrlicum, Fr.— Lisoughter above Recess, Carr. 

Arctostaphylos Uva-ursI, Spr.— Near summit of Ben Lettery. 

lYIelaitipyrutn pratense, L. var. montanum, Johnst— Carn 
Seefin. 

Scrophularia aquatica, L.— Gentian Hill ; Oughterard. 

Scutellaria minor, L.— Gentian Hill ; base of Carn Seefin. 

Plngruicula lusitanlca, L.— Carn Seefin, Miss Knowles. 

Habenaria chlorantha, Bab. — Carn Seefin, J. A. Audley. 

IVIalaxis paludosa, Sw.— Base of Garn Seefin, J. A. Audley. 

Sparganlum simplex, Huds. — Oughterard, Miss Knowles. 

S. minimum, Fr. — Oughterard, Miss Knowles. 

Zostera nana. Roth. — Prof. Johnson supplies the following interest- 
ing note : — While waiting for lunch on the day of our arrival, Miss 
Hensman and I collected Algce on the muddy shore on the west side of 
Gentian Hill, and found several beds of Zostera nana in fruit. The only 
Irish record for this plant hitherto published {vide Cybele Hibernica) is a 
station near Baldoyle (Co. Dublin), discovered by the late A. G. More. 
When recently looking through Mr. H. C. Hart's collections in the 
Herbarium of the Science and Art Museum, Dublin, specimens of Z. 
nana, gathered by this botanist in Co. Donegal several years ago, 
were noticed. The publication of the record awaits Mr. Hart's general 
*' Flora of Donegal." Hence the Galway locality is the third in Ireland 
for Zostera nana. 

Cladlum IVIarlscus, R. Br. — Galway, Oughterard, Recess, abundant. 

Rhynchospora f usca, Sm. — Abundant in several places between 
Oughterard and Carn Seefin. 

Eleocharis multlcaulls, Sm. — Carn Seefin, Praeger. 

Sclrpus TatternaemontanI, Gm. — Near Gentian Hill. 

Carcx disticha, Huds. — Gentian Hill, Miss Knowles; River Corrib 
above Galway. 

C. stricta, Good. — River Corrib abov^ Galway, Praeger. 

C. pallescens, L. — Carn Seefin. 

C. limosa, L. — Abundant about Recess. 

C. cxtensa, Good.— Near Gentian Hill. 

C. fiilformls, L.— Oughterard, Miss Knowles; River Corrib above 
Galway. 

Lastrea Orcoptcrls, Presl. — Carn Seefin. 

L. aemula. Brack.— Near the summit of Ben Lettery. 

» In the following notes, the finder's name is added wherever a plant 
was reported by one member only; when found by more than one 
member, names are omitted. 



248 The Irish Naturalist, 

Asplenium vlridCi Huds.—Lisoughter Hill behind Recess, Carr. 
Hymenophyllum WllsonI, Hook.— Ben Lettery. 

H. tunbridgrense* Sm. — Damp crevice near summit of Ben Lettery, 
Praeger. 

Isoetes lacustrlSf L.— Glendalough Lake. 

Pllularia globullfera, L.— Gathered abundantly in the station 
(west end of Glendalough Lake), recorded by Praeger in /.A^., 1895. 

II. Kast Gateway and Ci.are (District 6).— In boggy ground at 
Menlo' Castle near Galway were gathered Myriophyllum veriidllatuniy 
Cladimn Mariscus, Carcx Pseudo-cypems^ Osmunda yrgalis. 

In the day spent at Ballyvaughan and Gleninagh, the peculiar Burren 
flora was seen to full advantage. On the shelves and crevices on the 
limestone hills grew in profusion Aradis hirsuia, Arenaria verna, 
Cerastium arvense. Geranium sanguineuMy G. lucidwn, Poterium Sangtiisorbay 
Dryas odopetala, Rubus saxatilis, Asperula cynanchica, Galium sylvestre^ 
Rubia peregrina, Carlina vulgaris, Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, Gentiana verna, 
Epipactis atrorubens, Sesleria ccsrulea, Poly siic hum aculeattuny Cystopteris 
fragilis. 

Under the guidance of Mr. O'Kelly, Rhamnus catharticus and Potentilla 
fruiicosa were seen in the stations given in Mr. Foot's paper'; Ophrys apifera 
and Botrychium Lunaria were pointed out near Ballyvaughan, and Pyrola 
media high up on the mountain above Gleninagh. Some members 
who drove to Black Head brought back Thalictrtwt collinum, Saxifj-aga 
Sternbergii, and Adiantum Capillus- Veneris : these have been recorded from 
here in Mr. Levinge's paper. 

Papaver Rhdeas» L. ) 

P. hybrldum, L. > Fields at Gleninagh. 
P. dublum, L. ) 

Futnaria pallidlflora,jord.— Gleninagh. 

SInapIs alba, L. — Fields near Gleninagh. 

S. nliri*a, L. — Gleninagh, MissKnowles. 

Hypericum dublum, Leers. — Common about Gleninagh. 

Geranium rotund If oil um, L.) Pointed out by Mr. O'Kelly to 

G. columblnum, L. > Prof. Fitzgerald and Praeger 

growing in stony limestone ground near Ballyvaughan. G, rotundifolium 
is an extremely rare plant in Ireland. 

Scandix Pecten-Vencrls, L.— Gleninagh, J. A. Audley. 

Centaurea Cyan us, L. — Among oats, Gleninagh. 

Verbena officinalis, L.— Ballyvaughan, D. M'Ardle. 

Neotlnea Intacta, Reich. —Pointed out in fruit near Ballyvaughan 
by Mr. O'Kelly, and subsequently observed in many fields in that neigh- 
bourhood by Prof. Fitzgerald and Praeger. 

Carex pallescens, L.— Gleninagh. 

Adiantum CapIIIus-Venerls, L— Found a mile north-west of 
Ballyvaughan, by Mrs. Fitt. 

III. Great Isi^and of Aran (District 6).— The Aran Islands have 
been so thoroughly explored by botanists that it was not to be expected 
that the few hours spent by the members on the North Island would 
yield much in the way of novelty, though they teemed with interest; 
and indeed, the only find reported that merits publication (though it is 



Galway Excursion,— Phanerogams^ &pc, 249 

not a novelty) is the rediscovery of that rarest of Irish grasses, Calama* 
grostis Epigejos, in one of the stations (Killeany) assigned to it by Mr. 
Hart. The members were, however, quite satisfied with finding, often in 
abundance, the plants, in many cases rare elsewhere, which characterize 
the Aran flora, such as Arenaria verna, Cerastium arvense, Geranium satt' 
gtiineumt Rubus saxatilis, R, ccsshis, Poierium Sanguisorha^ Sedum Rhodiola, Saxi' 
fraga Sternbergii, Pimpinella magna, Crithmrim maritimtim, Cornus sanguinea^ 
Rubia peregrina, Asperula cynanchica, Galium sylveslre, Carlina vulgaris, Ccntau- 
rea Scabiosa, Senecio Jacobcea var. flosculosus, Geniiana verna, Statice occidentalism 
Allium Babinglonii, Adiantum Capillus- Veneris. The three days subsequently 
spent on the island by Praeger, afforded time for sj'stematic work, and 
yielded satisfactory results ; he sends in the following notes as the 
result of his observations : — 

NOTES ON THE FLORA OF ARANMORK. 

BY R. IvIvOYD PRAEGER. 



The flora of the Aran Islands has already been carefully investigated. 
The first attempt at a complete list of plants was that of Dr. E. P. 
Wright', whose paper notices 159 species as growing on the islands. In 
1875 Mr. H. C. Hart followed with a much more elaborate paper^, em- 
bodying the results of a fortnight's botanizing in August, 1869, and the 
additional observations of previous botanical visitors. He gives the 
flora of the group as 372, of which 34S are definitely assigned a place 
in the flora of the North Island. In Wxo. Journal of Botany for June, 1892, 
Messrs. Nowers and Wells published a list of plants additional to Mr. 
Hart's list, found by them during a fortnight's visit in June, 1890. They add 
41 species to the flora of the group, of which 40 were found on the 
North Island, thus bringing up the flora of Aranmore to 388. The one 
day spent on the island by the Field Club party gave of course little 
opportunity for detailed examination, though most of the characteristic 
species were observed ; but the three days which I spent there during 
the ensuing week yielded some additions to the flora, and some new 
localities for rarer Aran species. Especially on the third daj' of my visit, 
I was much assisted by Prof. G. F. Fitzgerald, the keenness of whose eye 
made me regret that botany was not his chosen profession. In the 
appended notes. A signifies an addition to the flora of the Aran Islands ; 
a an addition to the flora of the North Island. 

Crambe marltlma, L. — In the greatest abundance on the beach 
below the Seven Churches. Not found, though well searched for, in Mr. 
Hart's only station, "shore near Kilronan," and apparently extinct 
there. 

Thiaspl arvense, L. — Field by roadside a mile east of Portmurvy. 

Arabis clllata, R. Br. — Dry banks near the roadside half a mile 
from Portmurvy pier towards the Seven Churches. One of the rarest of 
Irish plants. Found by Mr. Hart on sandhills near Killeany, six miles to 
the eastward. 

"• Proceedings Dub. Nat. Hist. Soc, Dec. 6, 1S66. 

2 A List of Plants found in the Islands of Aran, Galway Bay. Dublin : 
Hodges, Foster, and Co., 1875. 



250 The Irish Nahiralist, 

Arabfs hirsuta, R. Br.— South-west of the old lighthouse. 

a. Barbarca vuli:ai*!s, R.Br.— Between Kilronan and Kilmurvy; 
recorded by Mr. Hart from the South Island. 

Senebiera dfdyma, Pers.- Abundant everywhere, as noted by 
Messrs. Nowers and Wells. 

a. Alllarla ofTlc! nails, Andrzj.— A little south of the old lighthouse, 
and in the rectory grounds at Kilronan (Prof. Fitzgerald) ; recor- 
ded by Mr. Hart from the Middle Island. 

SInaplsalba, L.— Kilronan, Portmurvy, and at the Seven Churches. 

A. Stnapls arvcnsis, L.— Fields west of Kilronan, and elsewhere. 

Reseda lutea, L. — Field at Portmurvy. 

Viola hirta, L.— South of the old lighthouse, near Oghill, and near 
the Seven Churches. 

A. Viola arvensis, INIurr.— Near Kilronan and Kilmurvy. 

A. Cerastlum tetrandrum, Curt.— On the cliffs behind Killeany, 
and at Dun Aengus. 

A. Leplgonum salinum, Kindb.— On the clififs near Dun Aengus. 

Malvarotundlfolla, L. — Kilmurvy, Seven Churches, and thence 
to Bungowla. 

Geranium Robertlanum, L.—With white flowers at the Seven 
Churches. 

Ulex Callii, Planch.— Seen in two places near the centre of the 
island. Apparently not found since noted by Prof. Balfour in 1S52. 

A. Ulex cu ropaeus, L. — Thicket on the edge of a field between 
Portmurvy and the Seven Churches. 

lYIedicagro sativa, ly. — Abundant in cultivated land east of Killeany, 

evidently sown. 
Astragalus Hypoglottis, ly.- Dry bank on the edge of the cliff 

west of Dun Aengus. 

A. Potentllla fr agar last rum, Ehrh.— Near Oghill. 

A. Epilobium obscurum, Schreb. — Common. I saw no trace of 
E. tetragonwHy given in Mr. Hart's list as occurring on all the 
islands. 
Hlppuris vulgaris, L. — Still in the marsh at Lough Atalia, though 
not found there by Messrs. Nowers and Wells. 

Wlyriophyllum, sp. — Still grows in Lough Atalia, though not seen 

by Messrs. Nowers and Wells. Out of flower at the time of my 

visit. 
Saxifraga tridactylltes, L.— On the ruins of the Seven Churches, 

and on rocks further westward. Apparently only previously 

observed by D. Oliver in 1850. 
/Ethusa Cynapium, L. — Seven Churches. 
Viburnum Opulus, L.— Lough Atalia. 
A. Scablosa arvensis, L.— Near Kilronan and Kilmurvy. 
Carduus tenuiflorus, Curt.— Kilronan. 
Sen eel o Jacobaea, L.— The normal form is not now so rare as 

stated by Mr. Hart, though the rayless form {ysLY.Jlosculosus, Jord.) 

is the prevailing one. 
A. Thrincia lilrta, DC— Sandy fields north of Kilronan, and 

pastures between Kilronan and Killeany. 
A. Clchorlum I ntybus, L.— Field east of Killeany. 

Menyanthes trifollata, L.— Recorded by Mr. Hart from Lough 

Atalia. Messrs. Nowers and Wells say it was certainly not there 

at the time of their visit. It has re-appeared there now. 



Gatway Excursion. — Phanerogams, 6*r. 251 

Cuscuta Epithymum, Murr.— Still abundant on sandy fields east 
of Killeany and at Portmurvy, where the stems colour the pasture 
with brilliant patches of dark red, pink, and straw yellow. 

Lit h OS per mum officinale, L.— Near Kilronan, and at the Seven 

Churches. 

a. Pcdicularis palustris, L.— In several spots on the North Island; 
noted with doubt in Mr. Hart's list. 

A. Veronica Buxbaumil, Ten.— Near Killeany, west of Kil- 
ronan, &c. 

A. Veronica polfta, Fr.— Roadsides between Kilronan and Port- 
murvy. 

Calami ntha officinalis, Moench.— Abundant about the Seven 
Churches, and thence to Bungowla. 

a. IVIarrublum vulgare, L.— Abundant about the Seven Churches; 
recorded by Mr. Hart from the Middle Island only. 

A. Chenopodlum rwyyruxvi, L. — In great abundance on the muddy 
margins of the brackish lake at Port Cowrugli. A very rare plant 
in Ireland, and usually near houses or on disturbed ground, so that 
it is of interest to find a station M-liere it is abundant and evidently 
native. So far as I am aware, it has not been found in the West of 
Ireland before. 

A. Atriplex hastata, ly. — Shores in several places. 
A. Rumcx crispus, L. — In several places. 

A. Rumex sangruineus, L. var. viridls (Sibth). — Roadsides in 
several parts of the island. 

Sallx repens, L. — Portmurvy. Var. argentea Avas gathered by Prof. 
Fitzgerald between Portraurv}^ and the Seven Churches. 

Junlperus nana, Willd. — In several places. The Aran Juniper is 
certainlyy. nana (which was recorded by Prof. Balfour in 1852) and 
noty. cojiiniunis. 

a. Iris Pseud-acorus, Iv. — Seen in several places; Mr. Hart gives 
Middle Island only. 

(I. Juncus cffusus, L.— In several places; previously recorded from 
Middle Island only. 

A. Luzuia multlflora, Lej.— West of Kilronan. 

Potamogeton polygon Ifolius, Pourr. — At Lough Atalia. Icould 
not find there P. natans, given by Mr. Hart. 

A. Eleocharis palustris, R. Br.— Brackish lake on the shore at 
Port Cowrugh. 
Carex glauca, Scop. — Grows remarkably tall on Aran. The leaves 
are commonly 2 to 3 feet high, and the stems 3 to 4 feet. 

a, Carex f lava, L.— Near Oghill. 

A. Brlza media, L.— Rocks east of Portmurvy. 

a. Phragmltes communis, Trin.— Marked in my list as observed, 
but locality not noted, as I only subsequently noticed that it is 
recorded from the South Island only. 
Calamagrostis Epigejos, Roth.— This rare grass, elsewhere in 
Ireland known in Co. Derry only, was discovered by Mr. Hart 
near Killeany, and on the " inland" side of the road near Oghill. 
It was not seen on the island bv Messrs. Nowers and Wells, and 
Miss Knowles' re-discovery of It in Mr. Hart's first station is 
therefore satisfactory. During my stay I was well pleased to meet 
with it in several places near the sea not far from Port Cowrugh, 
and to find that it grows in some abundance among rocks near 
the sea a little north of Portmurvy Fier, and thence at frequent 
intervals all the way to the Seven Churches. 

fir 



252 The Irish Nahiralist 

A. Fcstuca elatlor, L.~Lakelet west ofBungowla. 

A. Equlsetum arvense, L.— Near Lough Alalia. 

A. Equisetum variegratum, vSchleich, var. majus, Syme.— Among 

stones at Lough Atalia. This is the plant recorded doubtfully by 

Mr. Hart as E. hyemale. 

a. Polystlchum annulare, Newm.— Fine specimens about Oghill; 
Mr. Hart quotes Middle Island only. 

Lastrea Flllx-mas, Presl. — In a number of places. 
A number of rarer Aran plants were seen growing in the stations 
already recorded for them by Mr. Hart — such were Sinapis niora^ 
Helianthemum ^a««/« (abundant in many places) AV5aw;«/j cathartictts, Orohanche 
Jiedera (several places), Stachys ai-vensis, &c. The rarest Aran plants not 
seen were Matthiola simiaia, Cardials nutans, and Ajuga pyramidalis, but 
time did not permit of a visit to Straw Island, the former home of the 
first-named, 



In conclusion, we have to express our obligations to the various 
botanists of the party who favoured us with notes and specimens, and to 
Messrs. Arthur Bennett, H. and J. Groves, and Rev. E. F. Linton, for 
kindly naming some critical plants. 



iv.-^zooi,OGy. 



FORAMINIFKRA. 

BY JOSKPH WRIGHT, F.G.S. 



Th^ following list of Foraminifera must not be looked as complete. 
From several packets of shore-sand taken from the vicinity of Dog's 
Bay near Roundstone, and given to me by my friend Mr. Robert Welch 
of Belfast, I regret to say that from want of time only a portion of one of 
them has been examined, with the result given below. I hope at an 
early date to go through the remainder of the stuff. It is interesting to 
note that the shore-sand at this locality is almost entirely made up of 
small shells and Foraminifera. Miliolina secans and Truncatulina lobatula 
occur in the greatest profusion, whilst Discorhina globulariSf Miliolina 
suhrotunda and M. circularis are also in great numbers. 

Bllocullna Irregularis, d'Orb.— Rather rare, specimens very 
small. 

B. depressa, d'Orb.— Rather rare. 

Miliolina olblonira (Mont.) — Rather rare. 

IVI. semlnulum (Linn.) — Frequent. 

Hi. auberlana (d'Orb,) — Rare. 

IVI. subrotunda (Mont.) — Very common. 



Galway Excursion. — Forammijera, 253 

IVIillollna circularls (Born.)— Very common. 

WI, semlnuda,Rss.— Common. 

IW. secans (d'Orb.)— Most abundant, specimens large. 

var. obliqulstrlata (Halkyard)— Very rare. 
IW. Ferussacli (d'Orb.)— Rather rare. 
WI. blcornls (W. & J.)— Frequent. 

HaplophrairiTiIum canarlense (d'Orb.)— Very rare. 

Textularla grramen, d'Orb.— Frequent. 

T, concava (Kar.)— Frequent. 

Bulimlna fuslformis. Will.— Very rare. 

B. marglnata, d'Orb.— Rather rare. 

Bollvlna punctata, d'Orb.— Very rare. 
CasslduIIna laevlg^ata, d'Orb.— Rather rare. 

Lag'ena glolsosa (Mont.)— Rare. 

L. laevls var. clavata, d'Orb.— Rare. 

L. 11 neata (Will.)— Rare. 

L. sulcata (W. &J.) — Common. 

L. Wllllamsoni (Alcock)— Common. 

L. costata (Will.)— Very rare. 

L. sctnlstrlata, Will.— Rare. 

L. squamosa (Mont.) — Common. 

L. hcxagona (Will.)— Frequent. 

L. orblgnyana (Seg.)— Frequent. 

L. auadricostulata, Rss. — Rare. 

Nodosarla (Clandullna) rotundata, Rss.— Rare. 

Cristcllarla rotu lata (Lamk.)— One very small specimen. 

C. crepldula (F. & M.)— Rare, specimens large. 

Polymorplilna lactca (W. & J.)— Common. 

var. oblonga, Will.— Rare. 
P. compressa, d'Orb.— Common. 
P. problema, d'Orb.— Common. 
P. sororia, Rss.— Very rare. 
p. rotundata (Born).— Rare. 
P. myristlformls, Will.— Rare. 
Uvlgerlna angulosa, Will. -Rather rare. 
Cloblgerlna bulloldes, d'Orb.— Common. 

C. Inflata, d'Orb.— Rather rare, specimens very smaL. 
Orbuima unlversa, d'Orb.— Frequent. 
Dlscorblna glotoularls (d'Orb.)— Very common. 

D. orbicularis (Terq.)— Rare. 
D. nitlda (Will.)— Very rare. 

PlanorUullna Medlterranensis, (d'Orb.)— Frequent. 

Truncatullna lotoatula (W. & J.)-Most abundant 

I ruiiucxi, ^^^ variabilis, d'Orb.— Frequent 

Pulvlnullna auricula (F. & M.)— Common. 
Cypslna Inhaercns (Sch.)— Rare. 
Nonlonlna deprcssula (W. & J.)— Rare. 
Poiystomella crispa (Linn.) -Frequent. 
P?8trlato.punctata (F. & M.)-Rather rare. 



:254 ^'^^^ Irish Naturalist. 

ARACHNIDA. 

(Collected for the R. I.A. Flora and Fauna Committee). 
BY GKORGE H CARPKNTBR, B.SC 

ARANEIDA. 
The; district visited by tlie Field Club Conference was almost virgin soil 
as regards Arachnids. Mr. T. Workman's valuable list of Irish Spiders^ 
deals mainly with northern localities. Mr. D. W. Freeman has collected 
industriously for several years in the Dublin district, and a large number 
of specimens from various parts of Ireland have been kindly sent to me 
by various correspondents, so that material is accumulating for a new 
list which I hope to issue before long. The summer is not the time of 
5*ear when one finds the small Theridiidce which form the bulk of our 
spider fauna, adult; but our collecting in the Gal way district was rewarded 
by several Lycosidit and Attidce of great interest. Of the forty-four species 
of spiders enumerated below, eleven do not appear in Mr. Workman's 
list. My best thanks are due to several members of the party who kindly 
helped me in collecting spiders as well as insects. 

The most remarkable finds were Lycosa leopardiis on Lough Corrib shore, 
Pardosa piirbeckensis (a species only described this year) at Gentian Hill, 
Hahnia nwntana on Ben Lettery, and the four species of Ailidic which 
conclude the list. The spiders of this family are very scarce in Ireland ; 
I have as yet noted only seven species. The discovery of such a rare 
species as Athis floricola was, therefore, very welcome, while the presence 
of no less than three attids on Aranmore is a remarkable feature in the 
fauna of that island. 

Dysdera crocota, C. Koch — Mr, R. Welch fovmd an immature male 
Dysdera on M'Dara's Island, Roundstone, which must in all probability 
be referred to this species. Local in the south of England, this spider 
is generally distributed and not scarce in Ireland ; its presence in this 
remote western isle is of some interest. 

Segestria senoculata, L. — Immature specimens observed in most 
of the localities visited, including Aranmore. 

Drassus cupreus, Bl. — From an examination of Irish Z>mj-5z, kindly 
made by Rev. F. O. P. Cambridge, this species appears to be far more 
plentiful in Ireland than the nearly allied D. lapidosjts, Wick, Adult 
females with colonies of 3-oung just hatched, were found at Ballyvaughan, 
on Lough Corrib shore, and on Aranmore. 

ProsthesiiYia Petiverii, Scop. (Cb.)— Ballyvaughan and Aranmore. 
The nearly allied P. Latreillci, which is not rare in the south and east of 
Ireland, was not observed. 

P. nigrita, I'ab.— I did not find this species, but Dr. ScharfFtook it 
on Aranmore in September, 1S91. 

lYIIcarlosoma festlvum, C. Koch — An immature male on Aran- 
more. Not previously recorded as Irish. 

Clublona phragmltis, C. Koch— Lough Corrib shore, under stones. 

C. rcclusa, Cb. — Recess; Ballyvaughan; Lough Corrib shore in the 
wood, female with nest beneath frond of Polypodium. This seems the 
commonest of the Irish ClubioncP. 

DIctyna ai*uncllnacea, CI.— Immature males and females on L. 
Corrib shore. 

■• Entomologist, vol. xiii,, 1880, p. 125. 



Galway Excursion. — Arachnida. ^55 

Tcxtrix dentlculata, Oliv.— Everywhere under stones, including 
Aranmore. 

Ai:elena labyrinthica, CI.— Mr. Wolfe found two females of this 
fine spider at Ballyvaughan. It is common in the south-west of Ireland, 
but unknown or verj'' scarce in the east. 

Hahnia montana, Bl.— Adults on the summit of Ben Lettery. 
This is its first record as an Irish species. Rev. W. F. Johnson took a 
specimen at Portrush last year. 

Therldlon lineatum, CI.— Abundant in most places. Not 
observed on Aranmore, but Mr. Welch took it on M'Dara's Island and 
on Inchangoil. 

Pedanostethus IIvicIus,Bl.— On the slope of Ben Lettery. 

Llnyphia triangularis, CI.— Observed in most localities; not on 
Aranmore. 

Leptyphantes tenuis, Bl.— Gentian Hill, L. Corrib shore, in 
the wood. 

Erigrone atra, Bl.— Gentian Hill. 

^ E. longripalpls, Sund.— Shore of Galway Bay, among seaweed at 
tide-mark. 

IVIaso Sundevalll, Westr.— A single female in the wood on L. Corrib 
shore with egg-cocoon beneath a dried oak leaf. 

Pachygnatha Degeerii, vSund.— In most localities. M'Dara's 
Island, but not observed on Aranmore. 

Tctragnatha extensa, L. — Recess ; L. Corrib shore. 

Meta segmentata, CI.— Immature individuals everywhere on the 
mainland; but not observed on Aranmore or M'Dara's Island. 

M. merlanse, Scop.— Recess. 

Zllla x-notata, CI.— In most localities. Abundant on Aranmore, 
making its web in the clefts of the limestone rocks. 

2. atrica, C. Koch. — Recess. 

Epeira diademata, CI.— Everywhere, common. Males and females 
were already adult : rather an early date for this species. The colour 
of specimens varied from bright red to blackish Inown. 

E, cornuta, CI.— Recess; L. Corrib shore; M'Dara's Island. Like 
the last species, showing great colour variation. 

Xystlcus cr I status, CL— Observed in most localities, but not on' 
Aranmore. 

Oxyptila trux, Bl.— Aranmore.— This species is not in Mr. Work- 
man's list ; I have examples from several Irish localities. 

Dolomedes flmbriatus, Wick.— Recess ; Lough Corrib shore. 
This fine spider, perhaps our largest British species, has been found at 
various points in western Ireland from Co. Roscommon to Killarney. 
M'e observed adult females carrying their egg-bags and young in nearly, 
all stages of growth, from the newly-hatched colonies, dwelling in the 
web spun (according to Blackwell) by the mother spider, over plants of 
Myrica Gale. 

Lycosa plcta, Hahn.— Aranmore, on sand-hills. 

L. leopardus, Sund.— Lough Corrib shore, including Inchangoil. 
This fine spider has not been recorded as Irish, though I took it in 1893 
at Castletownbere, Co. Cork. 

Li terrlcola, Thor.— Common everywhere, including Aranmore. 

L. ruricola, DG.— Lough Corrib shore; Inchangoil. 

L. pulverulenta, CI.— Slopes of Ben Lettery. 



X 



256 The Irish Naturalist 

Pardosa amentata, CI.— Ballyvaughan. 

P. pullata, CI. — livery where common, including Aranmore. 

P. nlgrrlceps, Tlior. — Ballyvaughan ; Aranmore. 

P. monticola, C. Koch.— Gentian Hill; M'Dara's Island. This 
spider, not previously recorded as Irish, has lately been taken by Mr. 
Halbert at Portmarnock, Co. Dublin. The nearly-allied P. -pahcstyis, L., 
common in eastern Ireland, was, curiously enough, not observed in this 
district. 

P. purbeckensis, F. Cb.— A single female taken at Gentian Hill 
must be referred to this species, lately described"" by Rev. F. O. P. 
Cambridge from the Isle of Purbeck and the shores of the Solway. An 
interesting addition to our fauna. 

Euophrys erratlcus, Walck,— Dr. Scharff found this spider on 
Aranmore, September, 1891, but it has not been recorded as Irish 
before. 

E. frontalis, Walck. — Aranmore. Immature females under stones. 
This species (which Mr. H. L. Jameson has brought me from Co. Sligo) 
has not been recorded as Irish. 

Helioptianus cupreus, Wick. — Aranmore; immature males 
abundant under stones. Probably a widely-distributed spider in 
Ireland. 

Attus floricola, C. Koch — This interesting species, whose only 
recorded British locality is Brighton, Sussex, was abundant under stones 
on the margin of L. Corrib. Adults of both sexes and immature 
individuals were obtained. The nest, of beautiful white silk, was found 
in a cavity of the stone. 

FHALANGIDA. 

None of the four species recorded below are worthy of special remark. 

Llobunum rotundum, Latr. | Bvery where, including Aranmore 
Phalangium opilio, L. ^^^ M'Dara's Island. ^ 

Olig^olophus morio, I^b. ; 

O. trldenSi C. Koch.— L. Corrib shore. 



MYRIAPODA. 

(Collected for the R.I.A. Flora and Fauna Committee.) 

BY gkorge; h. carpente:r, b.sc. 



The few Myriapods which I was able to collect add but little to our 
knowledge of the Irish species as set forth by Mr. Pocock (^I.N,, 1893, 
p. 309). Lithopiiis variegahis was common almost everywhere. L. melanops 
and Linotania maritima were found at Ballyvaughan. At the same place 
I took lulus luscus, which Mr. Welch found on M'Dara's Island. I did 
not observe any Myriapod on Aranmore. 

At Gentian Hill I found Scolopendrella ivimaculata, Leach, an obscure 
white creature, which belongs to the interesting group Symphyla, and 
is not included in Mr. Pocock's list. I have taken this species at several 
localities around Dublin, and it is probably generally distributed in the 
country. _ 

^ Ann. Mag. N. H. (6) vol. xv., 1895, p. ^2. 



[ 257 ] 
INSECT A. 

(Collected for the R.I. A. Flora and Fauna Committee.) 
COLLEMBOLA and THYSANURA. 

BY GKORGE H. CARPE;nTe:r, B.SC 



The first volume of the Trans. Ent. Sac, Lond. (1836) contains a paper 
by Templeton on the Irish species of these lowly but most interesting 
insects. I have, for some time, been collecting material for a revision 
of this list, and I obtained a fair number of species around Galway. 



COLLEMBOLA, 

Smynthurus fuscus, Iv. — Oughterard. 

Tomocerus plumbeus, Iv. (Jongicomis, Mull.). — Galway; Ough- 
terard. This species is apparently common in Ireland, though not 
mentioned by Templeton. 

T. trldcntlferus, TuUb. (J>lumbeus, Tempi., Lubb.).— Oughterard. 

Orchesella cincta, L. — Oughterard. 

Anurlda marltlina, Guer.— Aran, at Kilronan between tide-marks. 
Not in Templeton's list, but recorded as from Kinsale by Ivubbock, and 
probably common all round the coast. 



THYSANURA. 

IVIachllls polypodia, L. — Everywhere, including Aranmore and 
M'Dara's Island. According to Templeton this is a very common species 
in Ireland, an observation which I can abundantly confirm. From 
Lubbock's statement it seems to be quite a rarity in the south-east of 
England. On Aranmore it occurs in myriads, every stone one overturns 
disclosing a large colony. The insects agree closely with the stone in 
colour and markings. 

M. marltlma, Leach. — Gentian Hill. 

Campodea staphyllnus, Westw. — Ballyvaughan. This obscure, 
but probably common, insect was described subsequently to Templeton's 
paper. Dr. ScharfF has taken it near Dublin. 



HYMENOPTERA, ORTHOPTERA, and 
NEUROPTERA. 

BY GEORGE H. CARPENTER, B.SC 



The only family of Hymenoptera to which we were able to pay attention 
were the Ants, of which the following species were taken : 

Laslus nlger, L. — Oughterard; Ballyvaughan. 

L. flavus, D.G.— Gentian Hill. 

Leptothorax accrvorum, Fb. — A small colony in a felled fir-trunk 
in the wood above L. Corrib shore. This species has only been recorded 
as Irish from Carlingford (Rev. W. F. Johnson). 

IVIyrnnIca rubra, L. (races ruginodis and scabrinodis)—Q\!i^\.^xQ,x^. 

C 



258 The Irish Naturalist, 

Such Orthoptera as came in our way were noted or collected. The 
following five species only were found, but one of these (^Mecostethus 
grossus) was one of the best insects taken on the excursion. 

Forflcula aurlcularla, L. — Common everywhere, including Aran- 
more. 

Wlccostethus grossus, L. — Abundant near Oughterard, at Recess, 
and on the slopes of Ben Lettery. This fine grasshopper attracted much 
attention. According to Mr. E. Shaw {Etit. Mo. Mag. vol. xxv., 1889, p. 
412) there are but two recent British captures of the species on record, 
one in the fens of Norfolk and one in Co. Kerry. Mr. iil\\\&x{Entom. vol. 
xxii., 1889, p. 196) expresses a doubt if it is really a native insect. 
Stephens remarked that in his time it was not rare in marshes, and 
there are several Irish specimens in the Haliday collection. Dr. Scharff 
has taken it at Killarney. It is a northern and central European species. 

Stenobothrus vlrldulus, L.— Common everywhere except on 
Aranmore, where no grasshopper was seen. 

S. bicolor, Sharp. — Oughterard and Recess. 

Acrldlum blpunctatum, Iv.— Gentian Hill ; Oughterard. Mr. Kane 
has taken this species at Kenmare, and Mr. F. Neale has found it at 
Limerick as well as A. szibulatum, L. 

The only Neuroptera observed were Lepletrum qiiadrhnaculatiim and 
Orihetrum cceriilesccns at Recess, and Calopteryx virgo at Oughterard. 



HEMIPTERA. 

BY J. N. HAI^BERT. 



The following species of Heteroptera were collected. None are rare, 
so they do not call for special remark. 

Scolopostcthus neg^Iectus, Edw.— Ballyvaughan. 

Piesma quadrata, Fieb. — Ballyvaughan, under stones on shore. 

Dictyonota crasslcornis. Fall — Ballyvaughan under stones ou 
shore ; also common on Aranmore, in a sandy place near Kilronan. 

Dcrcphysia follacea, Fall.— Aranmore, one specimen near Kil- 
ronan. 

VcIIacurrcns, Fab. — Common. 

Nabts flavomai-glnatus, Scholtz.— Recess, etc., frequent by 
sweeping. 

Salda littoral Is, Linn.— Lake shores, common. 

Temnostethus puslllus, H. Schff.— Oughterard, sweeping. 

Anthocorls sylvcstris, Linn.— Abundant. 

Pithanus maerkcll, H.S.— Frequent. 

IVIegaloceroea ruflcornis, Fall.— Common near Galway. 

Leptopterna fcrrugata, Fall. "| 

Calocorisroseomaculatus, De G. I common. 

C. tolpunctatus, Fab. j 

Lygus patoulinus, Linn. J 

Campyloneuravirgula, H. Schf.— Oughterard. 

Archotylus marginalls, Rent— Common. 

Phylus coryll, Linn.— Oughterard. 

Psallas varlans, H. Schif. 

Plagiognathus artoustorum, Fab. ] 

P. vlrlduIus,Fall. Common. 

Asclodema obsolctum, D. 6c b. ; 



[ 259 ] 
COLEOPTERA. 

BY J. N. HAI^BKRT. 



The facilities offered on the recent Field Club trip for visiting promis- 
ing and in most cases unworked districts were so exceptional, that I 
gladly availed myself of the opportunity to collect on that occasion. 
The results prove to be very satisfactory considering the time of the 
year (not the best for beetles), and the difficulty of making the most of 
a few hours when in a strange locality. In the spring of 1880 Mr. J. J. Walker, 
R.N., made some valuable captures in the neighbourhood of Gal way, 
and with this exception I cannot find that the district has been examined 
by any coleopterist. This factwill excuse theinclusion of so many 
common species in the following list, and it must be remembered, that 
it is more satisfactory to have the records of such when a general list 
comes to be compiled than the conjecture that ih.Qy probably occur there 
as elsewhere in Ireland. 

Of the species collected at least four are new records for Ireland, and 
some others are rare or of interest in their distribution. I must 
acknowledge my indebtedness to those members who so kindly 
assisted me in collecting,and may mention that Mr. G. H. 
Carpenter was not so deeply engrossed over spider-hunting as to allow 
the rare Leisttis montanus to escape when working Ben Lettery. Mr. 
Frank Neale also became a coleopterist specially for the occasion, and 
by his exertions considerably extended the list. 

Clclndela campestrls, h- — Recess, and locally common. 

Carabus catenulatus, Scop. — A few examples at inland localities. 

C. clathratus, L. — Slopes of Carn Seefin; no living specimens were 
found, but numerous wing cases proved its existence. A northern 
species which occurs throughout Scotland, and is widely distributed in 
Ireland. 

C. granulatus, L. ) 

Notlophllus biguttatus, F. J Frequent. 
N. aquatlcus, L. ) 

Leistus montanus, Steph. — Top of Ben Lettery. This northern and 
mountain species is new to the Co. Galway, but has been recorded from 
Croagh Patrick and Mangerton, and ther€ is an example in Mr. Haliday's 
collection from I^ugnaquilla, it probably occurs on most of our high 
mountains. 

Nebria brcvlcoIIIs, F.— Common. 

Pelophlla borealls, Payk.— Shore of Lough Corrib near Oughter- 
ard. One of our most interesting beetles, an inhabitant of high conti- 
nental latitudes, its British distribution being the Orkney Islands and 
Ireland, where it occurs as far south as Killarney. It is perhaps the most 
remarkable instance of the southern extension in Ireland of a character- 
istically arctic animal. 

Elaphrus cuprcus, Daft. ) 

Lorlccra plllcornls, F. [ Lake shores, common. 

Cllvlna fossor, L. ) 

C 2 



26o The Irish Naha-alist. 

Dyschlrlus aeneus, Dy.— Banks of River Corrib near Galway. 
D. griobosus, Herbst. — Common. 

Broscus cephalotes, L.— Shore at Gentian Hill; also on sandy 
beach near Kilmnrvy, Aranmore. 

Badlster bipustulatus, F. \ 

Harpalus seneus, F. \ ^ 

H. latus, L I Common on sea-shore under 

H. ruflcornis, F. f stones, etc. 

DIchlrotrichus pubescens, Payk. ) 

Pterostlchus tnadidus, F."| 
P. vulgaris, Iv- i 

P. nigrlta, F. (Common. P. madidus, F., occurred 

P. strcnuus, Panz. j on Aranmore. 

P. vcrnalls, Gyll. J 

P. strlola, F. J 

Calathus cistcloides, Panz.— Shore at Gentian Hill. Aranmore. 

C. melanoccphalus, L.— Common, also on Aranmore. Some ex- 
amples clearly referable to the type have the thorax slightly infuscate, 
approaching the var. v7tl>igena,^a\. The latter form was taken on Aran- 
more by Mr. J. M. Browne. 

Taphrla nivalis, Panz. — Shore at Bally vaughan. 

r ^rr^r„"^tls,' L."''- "■} C— on ; also ou Aranmore. 

a: SfdulTs'^Pa".'?"*""'''- ) Lough corrib shore near Oughterara. 

Bembidiuin minimum, F.— Ballyvaughan, under stones on the 
shore. Previously recorded from Belfast, but there is no recent record 
from any Irish locality. 

B. lam pros, Herbst. — Common ; also on Aranmore. 

b! m?iraTe"^.' ^^'''''''} ^"^""^^ °^'^^'' ^^ ^""^^^^ ^'^^- 
Trechus minutus, F., var. obtusus, Er.— Common ; also on Aran- 
more. 

Pogonus chalccus, Marsh. — Shore near Gentian Hill. 
Dromius quadrinotatus, Panz. — Recess, beaten from oaks. 

Hydroporus obscurus, Sturm. ) t ^ ^t, r^^ -^ i. 

Agabus bipustulatus, i. } ^^^-^ ^^'''^^ ^^^^ common. 

Orectochilus vlllosus, Mull. — Lough Corrib, in small colonies 
under stones along shore. 
Anacaena globulus, Payk.— Local. Ballyvaughan, etc. 

Phllydrus maritlmus, Thoms. — Aranmore. Abundant in a small 
salt-marsh near Kilronan. 

Chaetartliria seminulum, Herbst.— River Corrib, near Galway. 

Hclophorus aenclpennis, Thoms. — Glendalough near Recess. 

H. brcvlpalpis, Bedel.— Common. 

Ccrcyon littoral is, Gyll.— Gentian Hill; also on Aranmore, near 
Kilmnrvy. 

Alcochara lanuginosa, Grav. — Common everywhere. 

A. moesta, Grav.— Oughterard, on lake shore. 

A. obscurclla, Er. — Aranmore sandy beach near Kilmnrvy. This 
species has hitherto been recorded from the Dublin coast and the Great 
Blasket Island. 



Galway Excu>sio7i,—Coleoptera. 261 

Astilbus canallculatus, F.— Common. 

Homalota volans, Scrib.— Common on lake shores, etc. 

H, vcstlta, Grav. ) Abundant under seaweed, etc., near Gentian 
H. trinotata, Kr. \ Hill. 

Tachyporus obtusus, I^., van nitidicollis, Steph.— Locally com- 
mon, by sweeping. 

Quedius fullgrlnosus, Grav. \ Gentian Hill, common on sea 

Q. tristis, Grav. / . shore under stones, etc. ; the var. 

Q. tnolochinus, Grav. i of molochimcs w^ith dark elytrse 

Q- ruflpes, Grav. / was fairly numerous. 

Creophilus maxlllosus, L. — Aranmore. 

Staphyllnus csesarius, Cider. — Recess, etc., frequent. 

Ocypus olens, Mull. ) ^ 

O. cupreus, Rossi. \ Common. 

O. atcr, Grav.— Abundant along shore near Gentian Hill. 

O. morlo, Grav. — Frequent; also on Aranmore, 

Phllonthus aeneus, Rossi. — Sea shore at Gentian Hill. 

P. sordidus, Grav. — Ballyvaughan, under stones on sea shore. 

P. Qulsquillarlus, Gyll. — River Corrib bank between Galway and 
Menlough. A southern species in Britain, not recorded from north of 
Cambridgeshire. 

Caflus fuclcola. Curt.— This local species occurred abundantly 
under sea weed on the shore near Gentian Hill. Previously recorded 
from Greenore. 

C. xantholoma, Grav. — Common in same situation as former. A 
larva which appears to belong to this beetle was found at the same place. 

Xanthollnus punctulatus, Payk. — Recess, etc., common. 

X. tricolor, F. — Frequent both inland and on the coast ; also on 
Aranmore. 

Lath rob I um longulum, Grav. — lyougli Corrib shore, near 
Oughterard. 

Stenusbuphthalmus, Grav. ] RiverCorribbank,near Galwaj'. The 

\ latter has not been previously re- 

S. melanopus. Marsh. ) corded as Irish. 

S. declaratus, Er. — Recess, &c., sweeping. 

S. brunnlpes, Steph. ] 

S. Impressus, Germ. [Common, by sweeping. 
S. simills, Herbst. J 

S. pubescens, Steph.— River Corrib, several off sedges. 
S. tarsal Is, Lynn. — Recess, sweeping herbage. 

Sllpha atrata, L., var. s u b rot un data, Steph.— Common in most 
places. 
Cocclnella hieroglyphica, L.— Recess, sweeping amongst Heath. 

Halyzla xvl -guttata, L. \ ^^^^ Qughterard, beaten from Alder. 
H. conglobata, L. i t> ' 

Chllocorls bipustulatus, 111.— Near Oughterard, off Birch. Does 
not seem to have been previously recorded from Ireland. 

Rhizoblus litura, F.— Found on the shore near Ballyvaughan. The 
occurrence of certain species (usually taken by sweeping their food plants) 
under stones on the coast, seems to be pretty frequent in the west, 
amongst others I have taken Gastroidca polygoni^ L. , in this way. 

Meligethes ruflpes, Gyll.— Aranmore, one specimen by sweeping. 
Does not seem to have been previously recorded from Ireland. 



262 The Irish Nahiralist. 

Byturus tomentosus, F.— Ballyvaughan, several by sweeping. 

Byrrtius pi I u la, L.— Bally vaugliau, under stones. 

Parnus prollfericornis, F.— Common on lake shores. 

Aphodius lapponuiYi, Gyll,— On Ben Lettery. A northern species; 
probably occurs in all our upland districts. 

Ceotrupes stcrcorarlus, L.— Common; also on Aranmore. 

G. sylvaticus, Panz.— Common. 

Scrica brunnea, L.— Gentian Hill, etc., off bushes. 

Phyllopcrtha hortlcola, L. — Coast near Galway. 

Cetonia aurata, L. — Aranmore, common on the flowers of Riibus, 
GaliuDi, Senecio, etc. The occurrence of the Rose-beetle in such abundance 
on Aran was unexpected, as it is rare or local on the mainland. Has 
been only definitely recorded from near Belfast. Mr, W. F. de V. Kane 
has observed it locally on the Cork littoral and in the Glengariff dis- 
trict, and I have lately seen specimens taken by Mr. A. Neale at Tramore, 
near Waterford. It is a common insect in the south of England, and 
seems a striking example of the tendency of southern insects to have a 
western range in Ireland. 

Lacon murinus, I^. — Aranmore, under stones near Kilronan. 

Cyphon nitfdulus, Thorns, "j 

C. variabilis, Thumb. | 

Telcphorus bicolor, F. )• Frequent, by sweeping. 

T. thoracicus, M. | 

Rhagronycha fulva, Scap. J 

Chrysomela Staphylea, Iv.) xTear Galwav ^weenbicr 
Gastroidea polygoni, I^. | ^^^^ Galway, sweepmg. 

LochiTidea suturalis, Thoms. — Recess, etc., common on heath. 

Long:itarsus holsaticus, L. — Near Galway, sweeping. 

L. luridus, Scop. — A slightly immature specimen taken near Recess, 
is probably referable to this species. 

L. pellucid us, Foudr. — Ballyvaughan and Oughterard. A few 
examples of this local and southern species occurred by sweeping. Has 
been recorded from Bundoran. 

L. Jacobaeae, Wat. — Common. 

Cassida nobi I Is, L.— Ballyvaughan, in numbers on shore clinging 
to stones amongst a growth of Honckeneya peploides^ on which plant it was 
observed by the Rev. W. F. Johnson at Greenore. 

Apion carduorum. Kirby. — Near Galway, common. 

Otiorrhynchus blandus, Gyll,— Gentian Hill, under stones on 
coast ; also on Aranmore. Sub-alpine, and common in Scotland, but has 
not occurred in England. 

O. lig^neus, Ol.— Ballyvaughan and Gentian Hill, frequent on shore. 

O. PJciPes, Fb.^c^^^^^^^ 
O. sulcatus, F. \ 

O. ruglfrons, Gyll.— Gentian Hill and Ball5^vauglian; also in Aran- 
more. Seems to be much more common on the west than on the east coast. 
Barynotus Schbnhcrri, Lett.— Gentian Hill. 

Orchcstcs fagi, L. — Common 

O. salicis, Iv. — Recess, swept off Willow. 

lYIiaris campanulae, L.— Ballyvaughan. Several on the hill-side in 
the flowers of Cavipamila rotundifolia, L.~Not previously recorded from 
Ireland. 

Ccellodes quercus, F.— Recess, beaten from Oak. 

Ceuthorrhynchus ericae, Gyll.— Common everywhere on Heath. 

C. erysiml, F.— Aranmore, sweeping near Kilmurvy. 



[ 263 ] 
DIPTERA. 

BY GEORGE H. CARPENTER, B.SC. 



Opportunity was taken to secure some specimens of this order of insects, 
which since Haliday's time have been almost neglected in Ireland. 
Their distribution over the country is so little known, that I make no 
apology for giving a list of all the species which I have been able to 
identify, though most of them appear to be common and widespread. 

Tfpula macullpennls, Mg.— Lough Corrib. 

Haematopa pluvlalis, L.— Recess ; Lough Corrib. 

Chrysopa rellctus, Mg.— Recess. 

Therloplectes tropicus, L.— Recess. 

Microchrysa pollta, L.— Recess. 

Nemotelus pantherlnusp L — Gentian Hill. 

Leptis lineola, Fb. — Recess. 

Em pis stercorea, L. — Recess, Lough Corrib. 

Hybos g^rosslpes, L. ) t t, r^..^^\u 

Dollchopus signatus, Mg.| ^^^^'^ ^^^^^^- 

Serlcomyia lappona, L. — Summit of Ben Lettery. 

Pyrophaenaocyml, Fb. — Galway, Aranmore. 

Sphaerophoria nltldlcollis, Zett.— Lough Corrib. 

Echlnoinyia fera, L. \ 

E. grossa, L. [ Lough Corrib. 

Ollvieria lateralis, Fb. ) 

Hylemyla variata, Fall. — Galway. 

Hyetodesia flaveola, Fb. — Gentian Hill. 

IVIydaea urbana, Mg. — Lough Corrib. 

Orygma luctuorum, Mg. ? On seashore at Gentian Hill Otl 

Fucomyla friglda, Fb. J Fuais, at tide- mark.. 

Tephritls leontodontis, D.G.— Gentian Hill; Lough Corrib. 

Urophora solstltlalls, L, ) Ballyvaughan. 

Tctanoccra punctulata, Scop.) ^ ^ 

Lauxanlaaenea, Fall.— Lough Corrib. 



LEPIDOPTERA. 

BY W. F. DE V. KANE, M.A., F.E-S. 



On the excursion to ReceSvS the captures most worthy of note were as 
follows. I took a large number of larvai oi Acronycta vienyanihidis feeding 
on Myrica gale and one on Menyanthes trifoliata^ some of them within a 
fortnight of pupation. Larvte oi Hadena pisi \i^r^ also very numerous 
on various food plants. An imago of Agrotis lucernea was taken by the 
party who ascended Ben Lettery, an interesting locality for this coast- 
loving species. Mr. Wolfe of Skibbereeu was fortunate in securing a 
nice specimen of the rare and local Selidosetna ericetaria. I collected some 
very striking forms of Camptogramma bilineata on the heather very similar 
to some in my cabinet from the Killeries. 



264 The Irish Naturalist. 

The following lepidoptera also were in evidence— ia/j/rwj semcle and 
Epinephile hyperanthes abundantly, a specimen also of Argynnis aglaia and 
Tanagra atrata. 

At Bai,i,yvauGhan, Co. Clare, the stony district traversed was not such 
as to reward a flying visit in search of lepidoptera. A few Argynnis aglaia 
and Satyrus semele were noticed. Larvae oi DiantJuvcia ciicnbali and probably 
some of D. capsophila were found in Silene maritinia and ^. inflata. A few 
very pale Larentia cxsiata were observed conformable to the tint of the 
grey limestone, and one Gnophos obscuraria too worn to distinguish its 
character; Herbula cespitaUs abounded in the short herbage, and a few 
Anaitts plagiata. The most interesting .species taken were one Anticlea 
cucullata by myself on the wall of Gleninagh Castle, where the party 
gathered for lunch, an insect almost unrecorded hitherto in Ireland ; and 
one of Phothedes captiuncula by Mr. Carpenter, which was remarkable for 
its dark and strongly marked delineation, differing thus from the English 
form, but not so brightly coloured as those occurring near the town, and 
elsewhere in the County of Galway. 

At InishmorE (Island of Aran) a pupa of Dianihcecia capsophila was 
found. Satyrus semele and Argynnis aglaia turned up abundantly, as well as 
Cainptogramma bilineata, which is here of a very pale and inconspicuous 
type, a protective character already noted in the Larentia coesiata of 
Ballyvaughan. 

At OuGHTKRARD, Mr. Wolfe found larvae of Thccla rubi feeding on 
Erica Teiralix, an unusual food-plant for the species. 



MOLLUSC A. 



BY R. STANDEN, 
Hon. Curator, Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 



Marine Moi.i,usca. 
The subjoined catalogue of 112 marine species collected by Messrs. 
A. R. Nichols, R. Welch, Fred. Bigger, E. Collier, Miss Kelsall, and my- 
self, embraces the usual common littoral forms found living everywhere 
in the district, together with a number of scarcer species from shore 
drift at Dog's Bay, Connemara. This drift, of which Mr. Welch and I 
brought home a large quantity, has proved most prolific, and we are 
indebted to Dr. Chaster, of Southport, for much valuable aid in sorting 
material, and in determination of minute species. It contains, in addition 
to adult examples, a vast number of embryonic specimens in beautiful 
condition. Ovciun glabrum with spiral attached is common, and separate 
spirals are plentiful. Patella vulgata, Helcion pelhicidiim, and Tectura virginea 
with embryo spiral cap are all common. Most of the bivalves are represen- 
ted only by valves, but the univalves are, as a whole, in good condition 
and abundant in individuals— /'/<?«w<c7wa and Rissoa especially so. 



Galway Excursioyi. — Mollusca. 



265 



The most important record from Dog's Bay is undoubtedly the 
occurrence oi Lepton Sykesii, Chaster, in the shore drift. For original des- 
cription see Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, for March, 1895, p. 248 ; and Journal 
of Malacology, June, 1895, p. 36, for further notes by J. T. Marshall. Both 
record it only from Guernsey. 

Mr. Nichols took Modiolaria marmorata, Cardhun tiojvegicum, Venus casina, 
and Chiton 7?iarginatus at Gleninagh — the latter species being also found 
by Miss Kelsall at Aranmore. I found Rissoa violacea and R. parva in 
abundance near Kilronan, and under stones at low water near Killeany, 
B. undatum var. littoralis occurred — a pretty little form exactly agreeing 
with West of Scotland examples. 

The late Dr. Alcock gives a list of about fifty species from Dog's Bay in 
Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Manchester, 1866, including several species not 
taken by us, but the following catalogue contains many additional species, 
and amply indicates the rich field which exists here for some systematic 
dredging with modern appliances. 



Anomia ephipjnum, Iv. 
Ostrea edulis, ly. 
Pecten varius, Iv. 
P. maximus, I<. 
Limasuhauriculata, Mont- 
L, Mans, Gm. 
Mytilus edulis, L. 
Modiolaria marmoratay 

Forb. 
Pectunculiis glycimeris, Iv. 
Area tetragona, Poli. 
Lepton nitidum, Turt. 
L. Clarkiob, CI. 
L. Sykesii, Chaster. 
Montacuta hidentata, 

Mont. 
M. ferniginosa, Mont. 
Lascea rubra, Mont. 
Cyamium ininiimim. Fab. 
Cardium echinatwn, I^. 
C. edide, L. 
C. norvegicum, Speng. 
Venus lincta, Pult. 
V. casina, Iv. 
V. gallina, L. 
Tapes decussatus, Iv. 
Te/lina halthica, L. 
T. tenuis, Da C. 
T. donacina, ly. 
Donax vittatus, Da C. 
Mactra solida, Iv. 
Lutraria elliptica. Lam. 
Scrohicularia alba. Wood. 
Ceratisolen legutnen, L/. 
Solen ensis, L. 
S. siliqua, 'Li. 
S. vagina, L,. 
Corbula gibba, Oliv. 
Saxicava rugosa, L. 
Teredo norvegica, Speng. 



Dentalium entalis, Lt. 
Chiton marginatus, Penn. 
Patella vulgata, L. 
Helcion pellucidum, ly. 
Tectura virginea, Mlill. 
Trochus helicinus. Fab. 
T. magus, L. 
T. cinerarius, L/. 
T. umhilicatus, Mont. 
T. lineatus. Da C. 
T. exasperatus, Penn. 
T. zizyphinus, ly. 
Phasianella pulla, L. 
Lacuna divaricata. Fab. 
L. puteolus, Turt. 
L. pallidula. Da C. 
Littorina obtusata, Iv. 
L. neritoides, I/. 
Z. rudis, Maton. 
L. littorea, Iv. 
Rissoa punctura, Mont. 
R. costata, Ad. 
R. parva, Da C. 
R. viembranacea. Ad. 
R. violacea, Deshn. 
R. striata, Ad. 
R.fulgida, Ad. 
R. solnta, Phil. 
R. cingillus, Mont. 
Hydrobia ulvce, Penn. 
Barleeia rubra, CI. 
Skenea planorbis. Fab. 
Honialogyra atomus, Jeff. 
B. rota, F. & H. 
Ccecum glabrum, Mont. 
Turritella terebra, L. 
Scalaria communis, Lam. 
S. Trevelyana, Leach. 
IS. clathratula. Ad. 
Aclis unica, Mont. 



Odostomia minima, Jeff. 
0. nivosa, Mont. 
0. rissoides, Han. 
0. turrita, Han. 
0. diaphana, Jeff. 
0. lactea, L. 
0. nitidissima, Mont. 
lanthina rotundata. 

Leach. 
Eidima distorta, Desh. 
Natica Alderi, Forbes. 
Lamellaria perspicua, L. 
Aporrhais pes-pelicani, L. 
Cerithium reticulatum, 

DaC. 

C. perversum, L. 
Cerithiopsis tubercularis, 

Mont. 
Puipura lapillus, L. 
Puccinum undatum, L. 
Trophon truncatus, Str. 
Fusus antiquus, L. 
Nassa reticulata, I,. 
N. incrassata, Str. 
Defrancia linearis, Mont. 

D. purpurea, Mont. 
Plewotoma costata, Don. 
P. nebula, Mont. 

P. IcBvigata, Phil. 
P. rufa, Mont. 
P. turricula, Mont. 
CyprcEa europcea, Mont. 
Cylichna cylindracea, 

Penn. 
Utriculus truncatulus, 

Brug. 
Philine punctata, CI. 
A]>ly.sia punctata, Cuv. 
Spirialis retroversus^ 

Flem. 



266 The Irish Naturalist. 

I^AND AND Freshwater Moi.IvUSCA. 

The number of members particularly interested in the investigation of 
the land and freshwater moUusca of the district covered by the 
excursion was practically limited to myself, and Messrs. Welch and 
Collier, but several others so far interested themselves as to pick up such 
specimens as they came across whilst engaged in their own special 
pursuits, and handed them to me. In this way much valuable 
assistance was rendered, for which I would here take the opportunity 
of thanking one and all. 

From the diversified character of the ground over which our researches 
extended, a good list was hoped for, but, with the exception of Lough 
Corrib, the various sheets of water proved rather unproductive. The 
failure to find the rare Vertigo Moulinsiana was a grievous disappointment, 
but .circumstances prohibited any lengthy search in its recorded 
localities, to which moreover we had no precise clue. 

On the occasion of our trip to Oughterard the courtesy of a local 
gentleman, Mr. Henry Hodgson, J. P., of Currarevagh, in kindly 
placing a couple of boats at our disposal, enabled Messrs. F. J. 
Bigger, R. Welch, E. Collier, and myself to cross over to Inchangoil, 
and he otherwise extended his hospitality. This visit was especially 
interesting, both from the historic associations connected with the place 
and from the fact that it was very probably the first time a conchologist 
had ever set foot on this beautiful islet, which proved a good collecting 
ground. 

On the breaking up of the party, eight of us spent a few days at 
Roundstone, and whilst some visited Inis MacDara, and other places, 
the rest investigated the shores and sandhills of Dog's Bay. (For 
particulars of the interesting deposit of semi-fossil land shells found 
there see note at end of list.) On the return journey a break was made 
at Athlone, where the night was spent, and next day the party visited 
Clonmacnois. The many interesting finds made during this " extension 
trip" are included in the subjoined list— in which I have chiefly followed 
the nomenclature and classification used by Dr. Scharff in his " List of 
Irish Mollusca." In all cases where a particular species was only taken 
by one individual his name follows in brackets. 

Vitrlna pelluclda, Mull.— Gentian Hill, near Galway ; Aran ; Inch- 
angoil ; and Inis McDara. As is generally the case during the summer 
months only dead specimens were obtained. 

Hyallnia cellaria, Mull. — Common everywhere. 

Hy. draparnaldl, Beck.— Very fine near Kilronan, Aran; and 
Clare-Galway Abbey. 

Hy. alliarla, Miller.— Clare-Galway Abbey; Inis McDara; and 
near Athlone. Uncommon. 

Hy. nitidula, Drap.— Common at Clare-Galway; Inchangoil; Innis 
McDara ; and Clonmacnois. 

Hy. pura, Alder.— On Inchangoil, the only locality noted, the brown 
variety is fairly plentiful under moss-covered stones in the graveyard. 

Hy. radlatula, Alder.— Several fine specimens under stones on 
shore of Lough Corrib, between the Abbey and Castle at Annaghdown. 

Hy. crystalllna, Mull.— A small compact form at Gentian Hill; 
Ballyvaughan ; and Inchangoil. Not plentiful. 



Galway Excursion. — Mollusca. 267 

Hy. fulva, Miill. — Very large uuder stoues on shore of Lough Corrib, 
at Annaghdown ; and several of a smaller type amongst moss on 
Inchangoil. 

Hy. nitlcla» Miill.— At Annaghdown, and on Inchangoil this local 
species occurs in considerable numbers, close to the water's edge. 

Hy. excavata, Bean. — One specimen at Gentian Hill (Kane). Pro- 
bably not uncommon there, as, although a local species, it is generally 
plentiful w^here it occurs. 

Arlon ater, ly. — Abundant everywhere, and variable in colour ; van 
brimnea, Rbk., was noted at Gentian Hill ; var. bicolor, Rbk., under old 
coffin boards in Clare-Galway Abbey ; and var. albolateralis, Rbk., at Aran. 

A. subf uscus, Drap. — Common in Clare-Galway Abbey, along with 
its variety, aurantiaca, Loc. 

A. hortensis, Fer. — Not uncommon at Gentian Hill, and Clou- 
macnois, where var. nigra, Moq., was the prevalent form. 

A. clrcumscrlptus, Johnst. — Two specimens at Clonmacnois, and 
one near Roundstone. 

LImax tnaxlmus, L. — One specimen of var. cinerea, Moq., at Bally- 
vaughan . 

L. margrlnatus, Miill. (=Z. arhoreum, B.-Ch.).— Gentian Hill ; Bally- 
vaughan ; and woods in Mr. Hodgson's demesne on shore of Lough 
Corrib. Not uncommon. 

AgTloIfmax agrestls, L. — Common. At Clare-Galway most of the 
specimens seen were the creamy-white var. albida, Pic. On Aranmore a 
very dark form is common — probably var. nigra, Morelet- 

Amalla grag'ates, Drap. — One specimen of the dark lead-coloured 
\2S. phiuibca, Moq., taken at Inis McDara by Mr. R. Welch. 

A. Sowcrbyl, F^r. — vSeveral in graveyard at Clare-Galway Abbey. 

Helix pygrtnaea, Drap. — Several amongst moss at Inchangoil; and 
in rejectamenta of River Shannon at Athlone. 

H. rotundata, Miill. — Common everywhere, except in the Bally- 
vaughan district, where it is remarkably scarce. The var. Tur/oniy'Flem.., 
occurs in Clare-Galway Abbey. 

H. rupcstr Is, Miill. — Plentiful on rocks and walls at Ballyvaughan 
and Aranmore. On the roadside limestone walls between Athlone and 
Clonmacnois it swarms, and is there unusuall}^ large. 

H . aculeata, Miill. — vSome pretty light-coloured examples under dead 
branches at Inchangoil (Standen). 

H. pulchellaf Miill.— Fairly plentiful at Annaghdown ; Inchangoil ; 
and in rejectamenta of River vShannon at Athlone. None of the ribbed 
variety {If. costata, Miill.) were observed. 

H. hlsplda, L. — Type, and var. concinna, Jeff., are common every- 
where. 

H. rufesccns, Penn.— Common at Clare-Galway ; near Athlone; and 
at Clonmacnois, where a small compact "form of var. rubens, Moq., is 
plentiful along with the type. 

H. vlrgata, Da Costa. — Very abundant on Aranmore. Mostly typical 
in colour and markings ; var. subalbida, Poir., and var. albicans, Grat., 
being the only variations noticed. 

H. cricctorum, Miill. — Common in nearly every locality visited. 
It is especially plentiful at Ballyvaughan, in and around the small hay- 
fields, and is extremelj^ fine and variable. Specimens of var. instabilis, 
Zgl., are plentifiil near Gleninagh. On Aranmore a small dark form of 
var. hiuozona, Moq., is abundant ; and some from Inis Mc Dara are almost 
black; others from Roundstone are the var. hyalozonata, Chll., and every 
conceivable intermediate form between the type and above-named 
varieties may be collected. 



268 I he Irish Naturalist. 

H. acuta, Miill.— Abundant, along with var. stiigala, Menke., and var. 
articulata. Lam., on Aranmore, between Kilronan and Killeany. 02curs 
sparingly on the sandhills at Dog's Biy, and on the fortifications at 
Athlone. 

H. nemoralis, Miill. — The extreme beauty in colour and variability 
of banding exhibited by this common species deservedly make it a prime 
favourite with collectors, and nowhere in the United Kingdom can such 
lovely examples be obtained as in the West of Ireland. At Gentian 
Hill, numerous pretty forms were secured, including vars. albolabiata, V. 
Mart., rubella, Moq., castanea, Moq., and lihdlula, Risso. At Ballyvauglian 
it attains to great perfection, and many fine examples were taken from 
the walls surrounding the small fields, but when the weather is dry they 
retreat far amongst the stones, and require careful search. The shells 
are of exceptional size and beauty in this locality, some being remark- 
ably thin and fragile, which at first seems rather strange, considering 
that the district is on the limestone, and therefore a suitable habitat for 
snails ; but nearly all the little meadows are formed by covering up the 
limestone pavement with boggy earth brought from a distance, and it is 
a well-known fact that snails do not love bogs. This may account for 
the thinness of the shells, but will not for their large size. The varieties 
obtained were roseolabiaia, Taylor, albolabiata, V. Mart., rubella, Moq., 
libellida, Risso., castanea, Moq., hyalozonata, Taylor, and innumerable other 
intermediate forms of colour and banding. A full account of all the 
forms obtained here during a four days' visit last year is given in a paper 
by Mr. Ed. Collier, in The Journal of Conchology, for April, 1895. The 
greater part of the day on Aranmore was quite unproductive, concho- 
logically, but the heavy rain which fell towards evening caused the snails 
to leave their snug retreats in the fern-filled crevices of the limestone 
terraces, and a number of fine specimens were secured before the steamer 
started. In their general characteristics the Aranmore specimens do not 
differ greatly from those [at Ball}- vaughan, except in the remarkable 
preponderance of white and rosy-lipped forms. Some large semi-fossil 
specimens from a drift near the priest's house at Kilronan closely re- 
semble those from Dog's Bay. In the ancient grave3'ard at Clonmacnois 
some pretty forms occur, notably one in which the bands are all coalescent, 
and, but for a minute white sutural line, the shell would be perfectly 
black. It occurs on Inchangoil. 

H. aspersa, Miill. — Common throughout, and remarkable mainly 
for its extreme uniformity of marking. A few specimens of var. 
undulata, Moq., were noticed, and five good examples of the pale yellow 
variety exalbida, Menke, were taken on the terraces and walls between 
Kilronan and Killeany, Aranmore. 

Bullmlnus ofascurus, Miill. — Very fine under stones on roadside 
between Athlone and Clonmacnois (Standen). 

Cochllcopa lubrlca, Miill. — Abundant, with its vars. lubricoides,V^r., 
ovata, Jeff., and hyalina, Jeff. 

Pupa cyllndracea, Da Costa (=P. wnbilkata, Drap.) — Common. 
On Inis McDara, var. curta, Westl., occurs (Welch). 

Pupa muscorum, Miill. — A few at Ballyvaughan ; Aranmore; Inis 
McDara ; and Roundstone. 

Vertigo pygriTidsa, Drap. — Common under stones at Aunaghdown, 
on shore of Lough Corrib. 

V. antivertlgo, Drap. — Several in rejectamenta of River Black- 
adder, at Ballynahinch. 

Balea perversa, L. — Inis McDara (Welch). 

Clausilfa bldentata, Strom. (=C/. rugosa, Drap.).~Commou in 
most localities. 



Galway Excursio7i.-' Mollusca, 269 

Succlnea putris, L.— Banks of river at Clare-Galway ; shore 01 
Lough Corrib near Oughterard; and on Inchangoil. Common. 

S. eleg^ans, Risso. — Some pretty examples of var. ochracea, Betta, on 
shore of Lough Corrib, in Mr, Hodgson's demesne. 

Carychlum minimum, Mull. — Common at Annaghdown. 

Alexia dentlculata, Mont. — Common and very fine near Gentian 
Hill (Kane). 

Limnaea stag-nails, L.— Abounds in the Victoj-ia ?r^2^ tank at the 
Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin. Common in Lough Corrib at Annaghdown. 
On the shore of Inchangoil a curious little obese form is very plentiful, 
which agrees exactly with specimens of var. fossarina in my cabinet from 
Lough Erne. 

L. peregra, Mull. — Common in all the loughs and streams ; variable 
in form, but small in size. 

L. palustrls, Mull. — Gentian Hill (Kane). Common in Lough 
Corrib, of a small obese form — var. odesa, Taylor. In River Shannon 
rejectamenta a few small specimens occurred. ' 

L. truncatula, Mull. — River Shannon, and river at Ballynahinch ; 
occurs in rejectamenta. Plentiful at Annaghdown. 

Planorbis marginatus, Drap.— Plentiful at Annaghdown ; Inchan- 
goil ; and in Lough Corrib generally. 

P. spirorbis, L. — Common in swampy places in Lough Corrib. 
P. contortus, L.— A few cast up on the shore at Inchangoil. 
P. a! bus, Mull. — Plentiful at Inchangoil. 
P. crista, L. — Several specimens on caddis-cases at Annaghdown. 

Ancylus fluviatilis, Mull. — Plentiful in Lough Corrib, especially 
at Inchangoil, where the stones are thickly studded with a small form of 
var. gibbosa, Bourg. Dead shells abundant on caddis-cases in the rejecta- 
menta of River at Ballynahinch. 

A. lacustris, L. — Three specimens from dead stems of Eqtnsetuin^ 
River Shannon. 

Bythinia tentaculata, L.— In Ballynahinch River rejectamenta ; 
common in Lough Corrib everywhere. 

Valvata plscinalis. Mull. — Common at Annaghdown and Inchan- 
goil. 

Sphaerlum corncum, L. — A small form is common in all the 
loughs examined. 

Pisidium pulchellum, Jenyns. — Lough Corrib, at Annaghdown. 

P. milium, Held. (= P, r^5«/w, Jeff.)— The only mollusc found in a 
small pond on Aranmore, about a mile from Kilmurvy (Standen). 

P. pusiilum, Gmel. — Common in Lough Corrib, and occurred in 
rejectamenta of the Shannon at Athlone. 

Anodonta cygnea, L. — Probably common in some of the quiet 
parts of Lough Corrib. A broken valve was found at Annaghdown. 

The semi-fossil land shells of Dog's Bay, Connemara, possess a peculiar 
interest, and the large H. ncmoralis obtained there are well known to 
most conchologists. In the Journal of Conchology for April, 1S85, Mr. R. 
D. Darbishire has a short paper on this remarkable shell-deposit as 
observed by him in 1865. He describes them as occurring in an old sward 
which appeared as a black band, about two inches deep in the face of a 
small cliff or section of sandhill closing the bay to the eastward. Our 
stay at Roundstone afforded an opportunity of personally investigating 
the deposit, of which we availed ourselves to the full. The features of 
the isthmus between Dog's Bay and Gorteen Bay appear to have altered 



270 The Irish Naturalist. 

considerably since Mr. Darbistire's visit, and no *' black band " answer- 
ing to his description could be found. But, in several places where the 
wind had cut a clean section through the sand-dunes, the old land 
surface was exposed and showed plainly as an earthy layer about a foot 
deep, quite distinguishable from the blown sands above and below, and 
this was full of land shells in good preservation, all the species men- 
tioned by Mr. Darbishire being obtained, together with several additional 
ones. The H. 7iemoralis found in this earthy layer are of ordinary char- 
acter, and comparatively recent, most of them still retaining traces of 
colour. The large and massive specimens, which undoubtedly belong 
to an earlier epoch, all occur in the stratum below, which is from three 
to four feet deep, and composed of clean sand, foraminifera, and finely 
comminuted shells. As the shells from these separate layers are 
weather out, they are blown about the sandhills and accumulate in 
the hollows, where they lie by hundreds intermingled together, but 
specimens belonging to the two epochs may be determined at a 
glance by their comparative size, and by the nature of the material with 
which they are filled. The older shells are not only remarkable for 
weight and solidity, but also for their dimensions. Some specimens 
measure 28 mills, in breadth, by 18 mills, in height, but the elevation of 
spire varies considerably, some examples being very depressed. Some 
specimens are umbilicated, others have a thick, heavy, curiously constric- 
ted lip, folding inwards near the suture, and forming a tooth-like pro- 
tuberance. Variously banded forms occur, but they are mostly bleached 
pure white, and as a rule are very perfect, except that in some cases a 
narrow triangular portion of the lip near the suture is broken out, but this 
is probably owing to the action of frost. The substance of these massive 
shells is not calcareous as in recent examples, but more of the nature 
of arragonite, and the deposition of the material in layers is well shown 
by making a section of the shell. The following is a full list of the species 
found in the deposit: — Vitruia pelhccida, Hyalinia cellaria, H. nitidida, H. 
pura, H. crystallina, H. ftdva. Helix aciilcata, H. neinoralis, II. riifescens, H. 
hispida, H. concinna^ H. virgata, H. capcrata, H. ericetorum, H. pygmaa, H. 
aspersa, H. pukhella, II aaita, Pupa inuscortim, Vertigo angnstior, V. pygmcea, 
V. substriata, Clausilia bidentata, Cochlicopa lubrica, Carychiiim mininnu7i, Acme 
lineata. Careful search in the immediate vicinity for living examples of 
above only yielded H. aspersa, H. acuta, H. ericetorum, and P. vtuscorum. 
Some specimens of H. nemoralis of ordinary character were, howeven 
found living on the road to Roundstone. 







c 



a., 
o 







o 



[ 271 ] 

v.— ARCHEOLOGY. 

BY FRANCIS JOSEPH BIGGER, M.R.I.A. 
Hon. Sec. b.n.f.c. 



The following were some of the antiquities examined by the members 
during the excursion. 

GAI.WAY.— The most interesting of the many objects of antiquarian 
study in Galway was the old Collegiate Church of S. Nicholas, now the 
Parish Church. Almost all the members examined this structure, which 
presents so many distinctive features to the ecclesiologist, carefully con- 
served, with none of its historic features obliterated. It presents a 
model of what many of our at present dilapidated churches might be 
made in usefulness and beauty. The Lynch and Joyce monuments are 
fine, whilst the old square carved font is particularly so. A fine peal of 
bells occupies the tower ; one of them bears date 1631 ; whilst all around 
the roof there is an extensive display of the most grotesque gargoyles. 
In the north aisle a curious stone structure, with pillars supporting a 
canopy, is built against the wall ; it would be a solution of a disputed 
point if this were found to have been a street pulpit. 

Portions of the old town walls still remain, with a gateway at the 
quay, and portions of a tower in Francis Street. The quaint old Lynch 
mansion, with its square-headed windows, attracted much attention on 
account of the weird history connected with its mayoral occupant. 

The Claddagh settlement was also visited, and the primitive homes 
and habits of the people, now fast assimilating with the townsfolk, duly 
noted. 

BALI.YVAUGHAN.— At Ballyvaughan a very perfect medieval castle of 
the O'Loghlins was made the rendezvous of a lunching party, such 
as had not been seen within its shade for many generations, whilst the 
cross-crowned holy well close by had not more visitors at a "pattern.'' 
Near at hand the little church of 13th or 14th century date still handed 
down some curious customs. Here, on the stone altar, and in a hollow 
beneath, and in the sills of windows and other places, human skulls 
were exposed in quite a common-place way. 

Aran Isi^ands. — The visit to these islands was certainly the big 
day for the antiquarians, affording more to see than could be 
seen in one day. Crosses, churches, -and forts were visited in 
rapid succession, scarcely affording the photographers time to "do" 
them all ; nevertheless little was missed, from the great Cyclopean 
fort of Dun Aengus to the primitive little stone church of Teampull 
Benan, with its accommodation for about one worshipper. 

CIvARE-Gai.\vay.— Many members visited this celebrated Franciscan 
Abbey, founded in 1290 by John de Cogan. The tall central tower is its 
most distinctive feature, springing from arches to a height far above 
the average of such towers. In the choir is a beautifully-carved altar 
tomb of a De Burgo. The lofty east window might well be restored, all 
the interlacing being forthcoming. On the side of the road facing the 
Abbey stands a Clanrickarde castle, lofty and perfect. 



272 The Irish Nahwalist. 

Annaghdown. — Beautifully situated on the shores of Lough Corrib 
stands the graceful Norman castle, large and almost perfect. Here was 
an ancient religious settlement, as attested by the many ecclesiastical 
ruins scattered around ; one of the most beautiful Hiberno-Romanesque 
windows in existence is built into a modern church, whilst the corres- 
ponding door is well preserved, with other features of almost equal value. 

InchanguoiIvE. — To a few were given the pleasure of visiting this 
most remarkable island in Lough Corrib, through the great kindness of 
Mr. Henry Hodgson, J. P., who lent his boats, and otherwise hospitably 
entertained the visitors. Here are two of the earliest churches with 
deeply sculptured doors, Teampul Phaidrig and Teampul-na-Neave, both 
carefully conserved by Lord Ardilaun. In the graveyard is a little rude 
cross-carved pillar, with perhaps the most ancient Christian inscription 
in Ireland, to the memory of Lugnaedon, son of Limenueh, the sister of 
S. Patrick, 

Inis Mac Dara. — This little island out in the Atlantic off Roundstone 
(the latter a place that no one should miss visiting) is very seldom visited, 
so it was with great delight a small party chartered a lumbering hooker 
to make the voyage to the Church of Saint Sinach Mac Dara, and well 
were they repaid by a sight of the 6th or 7tli century stone-roofed 
church, the crosses, and stations. This same hooker subsequently took 
one of the party to Aran from Roundstone. Indeed, long after the 
excursion was over, members were seen straggling about Connemara 
and the islands of the sea, quite unable to drag themselves away from 
the glories and m^-steries of the west, ever seeking for that Hybrasil 
which lay in the lap of the setting sun. 

Many notes and details were taken of the antiquities visited that will 
serve for future use in publications more suitable for that purpose than 
the Irish Naturalist. 



^S^ 



Irish Naturai^tst, VoIv. IV.] 



[Pirate 5. 








.-/. Stead man, del. 



vSTYvSANUvS ri^IARIAi:, ]McWi:i-XKV, si>. Nov 



^Ije $vi^\j |latuvalt0t. 



Vol. IV. OCTOBER, 1895. No. 10. 



A NEW IRISH FUNGUS 

BY E. J. MCWKENRY, M.A., M.D. 



(PI.ATE 5. ) 

When investigating the bog at Braganstown, Count}' Louth, 
during the excursion of the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club 
to Castlebellingham on August loth last, I came across a 
mould-fungus which proves to be an as yet undescribed 
species. In the following pages I will give a short account of 
this organism and its affinities. 

It was in that portion of the bog which lies east of the 
railway line, and which was visited by but few members of 
the party, that I observed a patch of Meadow-sweet, the tops 
of which presented a peculiar dark brown and shrivelled ap- 
pearance. This premature decay of a plant that is wont at 
this season to attain its greatest luxuriance, struck me as 
peculiar, and led me to examine the patch more nearly. Small 
greyish- white stalked objects then became visible, dotted here 
and there over the dried-up and wrinkled stems, petioles, and 
leaves. The plants did not seem to have flowered. The tiny 
objects in question were not more than -^jj inch high, and, 
looked at with a strong glass, consisted of a globose head, 
silvery-grey in colour, and a short brown stalk, not exceeding 
in length the diameter of the head.. The whole appearance 
was very similar to that of a little myxomycete or slime-fungus 
in its spore-bearing stage ; but the fact that these little stalked 
bodies were not associated in clusters, but stood well apart 
from each other without any tendency to be gregarious, told 
against the possibility of its proving to be a member of that 
family. Besides, the habitat — portions of a living plant, that 
had undergone localized death and desiccation — was hardly 
a likely one for a myxomycete. Further knowledge on the 
subject was, however, not to be had without a more minute 

A 



274 '^^^ Irish Naturalist, 

examination than could then and there be made, so I careful!}^ 
collected a quantity of the material and put it up in glass 
tubes for subsequent determination. A few days later, going 
over the contents of my collecting box, I came upon these 
tubes and mounted some of their contents for the microscope. 
Nothing could be easier than the process adopted ; and as I 
may have some readers who, possessing microscopes, might 
care to take up w^ork of this kind, I will now state how the 
mounts w^ere made. A few of the little stalked bodies were 
removed from the matrix by the aid of a dissecting needle, 
and immersed in a drop of absolute alcohol on a clean slide. 
As soon as the alcohol had all but completely disappeared 
b}" evaporation, it was replaced by a drop of glycerine, 
and a clean cover- glass applied. The object of the alcohol is 
to get rid of any air that may be, and usually is, entangled in 
the mycelium, and which would greatly interfere with the 
transparency of the mount if it were allowed to remain. An 
alternative procedure is to mount in glycerine at once, and 
after putting on the cover-glass, heat the preparation over a 
spirit-lamp till ebullition just commences. This also drives 
out the air, but the process is rather a severe one, especially 
for a delicate object, and liable to cause alteration in the 
natural appearance. The preparations thus made proved 
very successful, and on placing the slide under the microscope 
with a moderatel}^ low power (x 150), I saw it very much as 
it looks in figure 2. The stalk and head can now be distinctly 
seen, and also the fact that the former is composed of a number 
of parallel hyphae or threads. The head is also composed of 
threads which radiate from the stalk, and round about the 
edge where these threads become free and end,, they may be seen 
to have a peculiar knobbed or headed appearance. We now 
turn on the high power ( x 400) and see (figure 3) that the cause 
of this beaded appearance is the fact that the terminal portion 
of each hypha or thread is divided by thick partitions into a 
string of cubical cells, of which the end ones display a tendency 
to have their corners rounded off so as to become subglobose\ 
or, in ordinary language, nearly round. If now, without chang- 
ing the power, we move the slide so as to bring the stalk into 
the field, we can, by gradually working upwards, make out 

* This is not well shown in the drawing. 



A New Irish Ftmgus. 275 

the whole construction of the fungus. We find, as before stated, 
the stalk composed of parallel brown hyphse with numerous 
partitions, or ** septa " as they are technically called. I^et me 
explain, however, the term ''hyphae" which may possibly prove 
a stumbling-block to some of my readers. The name ** hypha " 
is given to the " threads " of which most fungi are constructed. 
These "threads" are said to constitute or make up the 
" mycelium." They are not, however, really threads, but only 
seem threadlike when insufficiently magnified. Under a fairly 
high power they are little pipes or tubes composed of a trans- 
parent outer wall made of cellulose or something very like it 
(cellulose is the material in the cell-walls of the higher, green 
plants), and jelly-like granular contents, which are living 
** protoplasm." The protoplasm contains numerous very 
minute bodies of another nature called nuclei. These also are 
living — in fact they constitute the centres of the life of the 
cell. The tubes or hyphse are divided by cross-partitions or 
" septa " into long compartments. Each compartment is a 
" cell." Fungi are made up of strings of lengthy cells pressed 
or woven together so as to form variously-shaped masses. 

I hope I have now made these matters of detail pretty clear, 
and will go on with the description of our new fungus. The 
hyphse, of which the stalk is made up, are loosely compacted 
and interwined, and at their upper ends they open out, so to 
speak, into the head, dividing repeatedly into two (** forking")* 
so as to make up the solid mass of branches of which the 
head is composed. The terminal branches are much paler 
in colour than those from which they spring, and are divided 
by very thick partitions into strings of cubical cells. Such a 
string is seen highly magnified in figure 3, and it is these 
curious jointed rows of cubical or barrel-shaped cells which 
give the fungus its characteristic appearance. Of what 
significance are these cell-rows ? it may fairly be asked. Are 
they of any use ? Emphatically so, for the last, that is the 
oldest joint, keeps falling off, and then constitutes a spore, 
that is, a seed from which the whole fungus may be repro- 
duced. Each of these chains is therefore a chain of spores. 

Having now ascertained the structure of the fungus, let us 
enquire what place it occupies amongst those already known 
— let us classify it. An impression appears to prevail, even 
amongst botanists, especially those who confine themselves to 

A 2 



276 The Irish Naturalist. 

naked-eye work on the flowering-plants, that the classification 
of fungi presents features of unusual difiiculty. This is not 
seldom true as regards the determination of the species, owing 
in many cases to the insufficient descriptions handed on by 
superficial observers. Up to June, 1892, there were no less 
than 39,662 sorts of fungi known, and a couple of thousand 
more at least have been added since. Let us see now what 
position our fungus is to take amongst so enormous a number 
of vSpecies. We must first decide what group or family it 
belongs to. It is clearly a '* Hyphomycete," which means 
that it belongs to a group composed of minute fungi made up 
of threads very loosely compacted and bearing *' naked" 
spores, that is, not enclosed in spore-bags or asci. Such 
fungi are usually known as " moulds" in English, and certain 
members of the group make their presence quite obtrusively 
familiar by covering damp bread, leather, paper, preserves, 
&c., &c., with blue or green, sometimes with pink or golden 
patches. Many of these moulds are not "independent" species, 
that is, they are really only stages in the development of a 
fungus that forms its spores in asci or bags. Moulds are 
divided into four groups — Mucedinece, comprising most of the 
ordinary moulds well known to, and disliked by, the house- 
keeper ; DematiccB, which have dark brown threads ; Stilbece, 
in which the lower threads are compacted to form a stalk ; and 
Tiibcrculariecc, in which the threads are compressed into a 
wart-like tuft. There is no difficulty in deciding to place our 
fungus in the third family, Stilbcce, on account of its obvious 
stalk. Turning to this family we find it divided into two 
groups, according as the hyphse are pale or dark. Now ,as 
we have seen that in our specimen the colour is dark brown, 
save for the terminal branches, we turn to that group, the 
PhcEOstilbea:. As the individual spores in the specimen are 
simple and undivided into compartments, we must look in the 
section Amerosporcs, and here we have to select between a 
number of competing genera — Sporocybe, Graphium, Harpo- 
graphiuTJi, Stysanus, and G7nphiotheci2i77i. For reasons, into 
•which it would occupy too long to enter, we place the specimen 
in Stysanics, but as it does not agree with any of the three 
British species given in Mr. Massee's excellent " British 
Fungus-Flora" (vol. III., p. 458), we look it up in Saccardo's 
great " Sjdloge," and find that of the seventeen species there 



A New Irish Ftcngiis, 277 

described it comes nearest to a species from Ce34on called 
Perico7iia vionilifera by Messrs. Berkeley and Broome, but re- 
moved to Stysanus by Saccardo. Their description, as 
repeated by Saccardo, is not very complete, but our specimen 
differs in the stalk not being rough (scabrous). To sum up, 
Mr. Massee, to whom I sent the specimen, and who is the 
leading English authority on the subject, has no hesitation in 
declaring the species to be new, and it has accordingly de- 
volved on me to confer upon it a name. I have accordingly 
called it 5*. UlmaricB, indicating thereby its habitat on Meadow- 
sweet, SpircBa Uhnaria, and have drawn up the following 
technical description : — 

Stysanus Ulmarlae, McWeeney, nov. sp. 

Stem from -25 to i m.m. high, composed of loosely-com- 
pacted, septate, brown hyphae which, passing upwards, 
undergo repeated dichotomous division and oj^en out to form 
a globose head. Terminal branches paler, divided b}^ rigid, 
thick, projecting septa into moniliform chains of cubical 
elements which fall off and constitute the spores. Spores 
pale-brown, cubical, barrel-shaped or subglobose, 5-6 /i. in 
diameter. 

On dying Meadow-sweet {Spircea Uhnaria), Braganstown 
Bog, Co. Louth, Ireland, August loth, 1895. 



EXPI^ANATION OF PI<ATE 5- 

1. Natural size of object. 

2. The same, magnified about 150 diameters (somewhat diagrammatic). 

3. An isolated spore-bearing hypha, magnified 400 diameters. 

4. 5, and 6 Small portions of the fructification isolated to show the 
different forms assumed, magnified 300 diameters. 



2/8 The Irish Naturalist. 



THE RAISED BEACHES OF INISHOWEN. 

BY R. 1,1,0 YD PRAEGER, B.E. 



Two YEARS ago I Spent a short autumn holiday in a solitary 
ramble round the wild coast-line of Inishowen, the most 
northerly portion of Donegal and of Ireland, which the con- 
verging loughs of Foyle and Swilly almost convert into an 
island, as its name implies. This is a beautiful district, with 
rugged mountains of ancient schists and quartzites, wild moors, 
deep bays, and savage sea-cliffs, where the waves of the 
Atlantic rave and foam. The season was too far advanced 
for botanizing, and I spent the time in studying the post- 
glacial geology of the coast, especially with a view of compar- 
ing the raised beaches of this wild shore with those of the 
more sheltered shores of the Irish Sea, such as the well-known 
deposits of Larne and Greenore. 

Culmore was the first point visited. Here, where the 
River Foyle widens out into the lough of the same name, a 
low point projects far out into the stream. On the eastern 
side the sea has eaten into this level tract, and the section above 
the beach shows lo to 15 feet of horizontally stratified gravels. 
The material consists almost entirely of rounded flat pebbles 
of mica schist, with a little quartz and quartzite, in a dark 
brown sandy matrix, slightly current-bedded near the base, 
with occasional layers of sharp quartz sand. No shells were 
found. This deposit covers a considerable area — the whole of 
Culmore point, and extending one to two miles to the north- 
ward. It is apparently the creation of the river rather than of 
the sea, as shown by the brown matrix and the absence of 
shells. 

Crossing by the ferry to the County I^ondonderry side ol 
the Foyle, I saw two well-marked sea-terraces rising above 
the muddy shore near Culmore railway station, to heights of 
about 10 and 25 feet above high water-mark. These terraces 
are cut out of a thick and extensive deposit of sands and gravels, 



The Raised Beaches of Inishoweii. 279 

of which a fine section is seen close by on the bank of the 
River Faughan. There, in descending order, we have 

feet 
Bluish clay, • . . . ,1 

Yellowish clay, . . . . .1 

Stratified gravel, . . . . .8 

Very fine greyish sand . , . .20 

Water of river, at high tide level. 

This deposit is rather puzzling, but it is probably of glacial 
age. 

Next morning I drove to Burnfoot, on the upper reaches of 
lyough Swilly, and visited the brick-field there, which is 
situated on an extensive flat of reclaimed land, slightly below 
high water-mark. I had hoped that the material was estuarine 
clay, but found it to be a fine hard pinkish clay, without 
fossils, but containing layers of pebbles and boulders. Thence 
I walked to Blanket Nook. The Geological Survey map 
marks a raised beach fringing the alluvial flat for some miles 
in this direction, but little was to be seen. According to the 
Memoir this deposit has an average elevation of 32 feet. On 
the northern shore of Blanket Nook, not far east of the rail- 
way, a gravel bank, evidently a raised beach, rises to a height 
of 20 feet above the muddy flat. No section was seen, but on 
the surface I picked up Ostrea, Peden varius, Mytilus edtdis, 
Cardiu7n edule, Tapes aureus, T decussatus, Mactra subtrtmcaia, 
Littorina litorea, L. obtusata, Cerithiuvi reticulahi7n. Further 
west is a striking deposit — a horizontally stratified bed at least 
12 feet thick, consisting almost entirely of marine shells, 
mostly unbroken, and in good preservation — apparently a 
shelly bank laid down by currents at the entrance of the bay 
when the land stood slightly lower than now, and evidently 
newer than the before-mentioned raised beach, which runs 
along behind it and above it to the entrance of the bay. The 
top of the shell-bed is about 6 feet above high water-mark. 
The species found here were as follow : — 

Anomia ephippiu7n. Tapes aureus. 

Ostrea edulis. T. decussaius, 

Pecten varius, T. virgineus. 

Mytilus edulis. T. pullastra. 

M* adriaticus. Vertus galli?ia. 

Cardium echifiatum* V. ovata. 

C exiguuvi* Tellifta balthica, 

C* edule. Mactra subtrtmcata. 



28o The Irish Naturalist. 

Corbula gibba. Hydrobia uIvce. 

Ttochjis cinerareus^ Cerithium reticulatum. 

T. mag7is. Purpura lapillus. 

Littorina litorea'.^ ' ' Nassa reticulata. 

L. obtusata. • • P leurotovia turricula. 

Rissoa membyajiacca. 

Specimens of T. pullastra and C. exiguuvi occurred with the 
valves in juxtaposition. 

On the eastern shore of lyOUgh Swilly at Fort Stewart ferry, 
a couple of miles further south-west, an interesting raised 
beach may be seen. At a ruined cottage a couple of hundred 
yards north of the ferrj^ there is a la5^er of shells 4 feet above 
high water, with shelly gravels above and below. Northward 
the deposit rises up on the top of a bed of blue Boulder-clay 
to a height of 12 feet above high tide. Southward it runs 
level past the public-house, where it shows out as a great bed 
of oyster shells, 10 feet above high water. Further south, the 
Boulder-clay rises up again. In this raised beach the follow- 
ing shells were seen, the first eleven being abundant — 

Ostrea ediilis. Tapes p^dlastra. 

Pecteji variiis. 'Telliiia bait hi ca. 

Mytilus edulis. Corbula gibba. 

Tapes aureus- Patella vulgata. 

T. d ecus sat us. Trochus ci7ierareus. 

Cardium exiguum. T. lineatus. 

C. edule. T. viagus. 

Mactra subtnmcata, Mu7'ex eriyiaceics. 

Littorina obtusata. Purpura lapilhis. 

L. lito7'ea. Buccimcvi undatuvi. 

Cerithium reticulatum. Nassa reticulata. 
Anomia ephippium. 

The Ivimpets were remarkably elevated, the height being in 
some cases /^ of the greatest breadth. The occurrence of 
TrocJms lineatus here is interesting, as its present range in 
Ireland does not extend further north than Bundoran on the 
west coast, and Ballywalter on the east coast. The late Canon 
Grainger used to tell me a curious story of some sailors who 
collected a number of these shells in mistake for Periwinkles 
at some place on the west coast, and brought them alive in 
their vessel to I,ough Swilly, where, finding them unpalatable. 



The Raised Beaches of hiishowen. 281 

they threw them overboard in shallow water, where they were 
seen crawling about some time afterwards. Whether the species 
thus introduced into Lough Swilly still flourishes there is a 
nice point for inquiry ; but its occurrence in the Fort Stewart 
raised beach shows that it formerly lived in these waters. 

Going northward along the shore, Boulder-clay holds the 
ground till Inch is reached. Along the shore eastward of the 
old castle, which rises picturesquely on a high knoll of quart- 
zose grit, are traces of low raised beaches. Westward of the 
castle, at Mill Bay, two sea-terraces rise, one behind the other, 
in the pasture near the shore, like green waves on the sward, 
to heights of about twelve and fifteen feet above high water, 
the ground falling away a little behind each. No section is 
exposed, but the ground is very shelly. On the north side of 
Inch, near the church, where raised beaches are marked on 
the Survey map, there are beds of sand and gravel up to eight 
feet above high water, but no features of interest are 
observable. 

Next day I left the hospitable house of my host, Prof 
Leebody, in the small hours of the morning, and took the 
6.20 train to the favourite watering-place of Buncrana, prettily 
situated on the shores of Lough Swilly. A brisk walk over 
the sand-hills that stretch southward revealed nothing of 
interest, and after breakfast I tramped nine miles northward 
to Mamore Gap, a picturesque pass formed by an old line of 
fault across a rugged mountain-ridge of quartzite that stretches 
on both sides of the entrance of Lough Swilly. The view as 
one passes through the Gap is very beautiful — the sands of 
Lenan Bay to the right ; below, a sandy and boggy flat 
dotted with cottages, and beyond that the huge mass of 
Dunaff" Head ; further to the eastward, the rugged outline 
of North Inishowen, and Malin- Head ; and beyond all, 
the illimitable ocean. A steep descent led to Lenan Bay, 
where the westerly winds have swept the shifting sands up 
the adjoining hill-side to a height of 150 feet. Down on 
the beach, the sand has become cemented by some natural 
process, and masses of it stand out in weathered torrs six to 
ten feet high, looking like reefs of schist. Passing over the 
low ground (marked raised beach on Geological Survey map) 
lying behind Lenan Head and Dunaff Head, I found at 
Rockstown Harbour a good example of what is no doubt the 

A 3 



282 The Irish Naturalist. 

50 ft. raised beach of the Geological Survey — a well-marked 
ridge of gravel rising abruptly to a height of 30 to 40 feet from 
the flat or gently-sloping plain that runs inland from the 
existing beach. 

A little further eastward, behind Tullagh Bay, this terrace 
is still better developed, and forms a very striking object. 
There, as elsewhere on this wild coast, the present beach con- 
sists of high terraces of pebbles and rounded stones, piled up 
by winter gales in a steep slope to some twenty feet above 
ordinary high water. Behind the beach at Tullagh Bay, the 
ground drops slightly and then runs level in boggy or gravelly 
fields to this grand old terrace, which rises at a slope of about 
I to I to a height of thirty to forty feet. On the top of this 
old beach the ground again dips slightly, like the present 
beach, and continues almost level to where the hills rise, a 
quarter of a mile from the sea. As seen in a small pit, this 
terrace is composed of coarse stratified gravel, full of much 
rounded stones, just like the existing beach. No shells were 
to be found, but then shells are almost absent also on the 
present beach, where they get smashed to pieces ; and the 
coarse and open nature of the material is unsuitable for the 
preservation of organic remains. 

I tramped across the broad sands of Tullagh Bay, where 
the ocean waves boomed as they broke with rhythmical 
monotony. The Clonmany River was in flood, but I forded it 
waist deep, and climbed the rocky slope of Binnion, where 
another magnificent view was obtained — a vast expanse of 
ocean, faced by the great cliff's of Dunaff" and the white sands 
of Tullagh, behind which rose the wild mountains of quartzite 
and mica schist that culminate in Slieve Snaght (2019 feet). 
A scramble down a precipitous gully, and a stiff climb round 
the most rugged of sea-cliffs hung with Rose-root brought me 
to PoUan Bay, where the sands stretched far into the grey sea- 
mist. Evening was closing in apace, so I took to the road, 
and six miles more brought me to Carndouagh, and to its 
comfortable inn. 

Next morning a wild storm was raging, and sea and sky 
and land were all shrouded in rain and spray. But as the 
sun rose the clouds broke, and I took the morning mail car 
for Malin Head. The day before, an American mail steamer 
had arrived at Queenstown, and as we drove along it was 



The Raised Beaches of Inishowen. 283 

pathetic to see the anxious faces of parents and brothers and 
sisters gathered at each road-end and boreen, hoping for a 
letter from the loved ones who were seeking their fortune in 
that far-off land of promise. At Bree I left the road, and 
struck down to the northern shore. In the bay south of the 
coast-guard station are raised beaches six and twelve feet 
above storm-water level (which is about twelve feet above 
ordinary high tide) ; and behind these, marine gravels cap 
the rocks thirty to forty feet above the same level. As usual, 
no shells were to be found in any of these deposits. Among 
the stones of the present beach the beautiful Oyster-plant or 
Sea Gromwell spread its blue-grey leaves, its red and blue 
blossoms still abundant, in spite of the lateness of the season. 

North of the coast-guard station is a flat stretch of peaty 
land, forty to fifty feet above high tide. A small stream 
cutting through it shows in its banks a couple of feet of peaty 
soil overlying twelve feet at least of horizontally-bedded 
marine gravels. These Inishowen raised beaches are all the 
same, consisting of coarse much rolled gravel and large 
pebbles of the various metamorphic and igneous rocks of the 
district, with a matrix of coarse sharp quartz sand, and no 
fossils — just like the present beaches. 

On the low-lying ground south-east of the ridge which forms 
the extremity of the land, and on which the signal-tower stands, 
there are two well-marked terraces, one behind the other, 
composed of coarse gravel, and having elevations of I should 
guess thirty-five to forty, and sixty to seventy feet above high 
tide ; I had no means of determining the heights with 
accuracy. The Geological Survey Memoir says that here the 
25-ft., 50-ft., and 75-ft. raised beaches are well marked ; these 
elevations are reckoned from Ordnance datum, eight feet below 
mean sea-level. I had a chat with lyloyds' agent, while the 
wind shrieked round the signal-tower, and flecks of foam 
dashed against the window, fully 200 feet above the sea, and 
then fought my way against the storm down to the rugged 
quartzite cliffs, the most northerly point of Ireland, and 
crept down as far as I dared go— about fifty feet above 
the waves — to watch the fearful sea that was running. 
At the westerly end of the Head, the cliffs were brightened 
by patches of Samphire and Rose-root and Scotch I^ovage. 
The coast trended southward now. At White Strand 



284 The Irish Naturalist. 

Bay the Keenagli River was forded, south of which there is a 
glorious pebble beach, dipping away down 20 feet to where 
the waves were rushing up and down, rattling the pebbles 
with a noise that could be heard a mile away. Behind the 
beach rises an old sea-escarpment (perhaps made by a heavy 
gale not long ago), cut out of an older beach, the top of which 
is 20 feet above the present one. Behind the old beach the 
ground rises in steep rocky ridges for several hundred feet. 
At the southern end of the bay, high cliffs close in on the 
strand, and soon I came to Stookanafanoga, a hugh sea- 
stack of dark basalt rising in front of the grey quartzites. 
There an ascent was necessary, and the route lay along high 
headlands, whence the sun was watched setting in the western 
ocean. In the dusk I crossed the sands which fringe the nar- 
row and dangerous entrance to Trawbreaga Bay, and tramped 
in the moonlight through Malin Town, and over the sleeping 
country to Carndonagh. 

On the following morning I went eastward, and examined 
for the raised beach underlying peat bog, which, according 
to the Geological Survey, occupies the valley of the Culdaff 
River, but very little was to be seen — possibly a pit would be 
required to show the raised beach. Passing over a band of 
black primitive limestone, Culdaff was left behind, and I 
took road to Tremorne Bay, where I did not see the raised 
beach marked on the Geological Survey map, though I looked 
for it. Then on through the primitive hamlet 'of Ballyma- 
garagh, and down the lyong Glen to meet the sea again at 
Kinnagoe Bay, which is a most picturesque spot, with a wide 
sandy beach, and high rocks, and steep slopes above. Here 
I noticed a patch of stratified gravel at about 50 feet over 
high water, in the bank of the road which leads down to the 
shore, at the west end of the bay. It was full of fragments 
of shells, too minutefor identification, and I got also one large 
fragment of Pcdtmculiis, but I observed that behind the ad- 
joining beach, on which Pcctunadus abounds, valves of this 
shell and sand have been blown by gales up the slope to 
quite as great an elevation, so possibly the Pectu7icuhis frag- 
ment was not 171 situ. In the adjoining bay of Glennagiveny 
is a well-marked raised beach at about 10 feet above high 
water. In the banks of the little glen which runs into the bay 
are stratified gravels at about 100 feet, containing a few 



The Raised Beaches of Inishowett 2S5 

decomposed shell-fragments ; further up this glen are sands 
and gravels at 100 to 150 feet above the sea, with contorted 
bedding, and without shells. These deposits are probably of 
glacial age, and the shelly gravel in Kinnagoe Bay may belong 
to the same horizon. Some miles of wild heathery moors and 
slopes were next crossed, with the sea far below on the left, 
and Inishowen Head was reached. This also is a very 
picturesque spot ; a grand cliff overhangs the bay to the north 
of the signal-station, and there is a very extensive view of 
L<ough Foyle, the I^ondonderry and Antrim coasts, and the 
Scottish Islands. From the lighthouse to Greencastle there 
is a rather sandy flat at about 25 feet above high water, with 
bare projecting rocks here and there ; it extends in a broad 
belt along the shore, the ground rising abruptly behind it, 
and it is evidentl}^ an old foreshore. According to the Geo- 
logical Survey there is a raised beach with many shells here, 
I could find no sections, and the surface-fauna, w^hich is some- 
what abundant, is not to be relied on, owing to sea-weed 
being used as manure ; but Mytilus edtdis, Tapes mrgineus^ T 
aureus, Vemis cxoleta, Cardium edule, Patella, Buccinum, and 
Purpzu^a appeared to be i7t situ. 

It was late when I passed the ruin from which Greencastle 
derives its name, but I stopped to examine the grand old pile, 
which must have been a place of immense strength in its day ; 
and then pushed on in the twilight to Moville. Next morning 
the early steamer took me up I^ough Foyle, past Culmore, the 
scene of my first ramble, and up the river to the " Maiden 
City." 

I find that I have written the following memorandum at the 
end of the notes which I took in the field: — the Inishowen raised 
beaches differ from those of the east coast in their greater 
average height above the sea, their.coarse and unfossiliferous 
nature, and their occurrence as sea-terraces rather than as 
bottom-accumulations ; the greater rise of tide, and the greater 
exposure (and consequent much greater height of waves) will 
probably account for these differences. 



286 The Irish Naturalist, 

MY BIRDS. 

BY RKV. THOMAS B. GIBSON, M.A. 



Perhaps no one ever commenced aviary-keeping for such a 
reason as I did, sometime in the spring of 1889. Of course as 
a boy, I had the usual amount of successes, and perhaps more 
than the usual amount of failures with bird-pets ; but aviary- 
keeping was not my particular boyish hobby. No doubt I had 
reared, and educated in mischief, many jack-daws and magpies 
till complaisance could go no farther ; and, one after another, 
pets of this kind were either banished or came to an untimely 
end. A Pigeon, whose greatest delight was in pecking at the 
toes of my younger brothers and sisters whenever an oppor- 
tunity oflfered itself, was on this account exiled, to my great 
distress. But of all my favourites, a pair of Sparrow-hawks, 
which I had reared from the downy state, after an exciting 
contest with the parent birds, which ended in my being pre- 
cipitated, together with nest and young ones, from a fir-tree, 
were the most valued. These I had kept for fully two years^ 
and one of the pair was so tame that it would come out with 
me and hawk for sparrows, returning to me even after a suc- 
cessful flight. This tame one was killed by a young colt 
which was being weaned in the stable where I kept the birds. 
The other made its escape from my mother's hands whilst 
she was showing it to a visitor ; and, though for a whole year 
it continually returned to the neighbourhood, it would never 
allow itself to be recaptured. A Song-thrush, too, for some 
time proved a most interesting pet, and would usually come 
at my call ; but one day, whilst I was digging for worms to 
go a-bobbing for eels, I accidentally struck it with the spade, 
and so ended its existence. Starlings were also very easily 
brought up by hand, but they usually took " French leave " 
before the year was out, or at any rate during the following 
spring. Indeed why so many birds remained with me for as 
long as they did, in those days, is now a wonder to me, since, 
as a boy, I never used cages to confine the nestlings, nor was 
I either, as far as I can remember, a very attentive caretaker. 
These boyish attempts at bird-keeping, however, exercised no 
great influence upon me, and when I did start an aviary it 
came about unintentionall}'-, in this way. One of my pupils 



My Birtk. 287 

at King's Hospital — a most incorrigible little scamp, but good- 
natured in his way — had, after he left the school, gone 
away to sea, and, somewhere or other, had picked up a Rosy- 
breasted Cockatoo. This he sent to me as a present, whether 
with the intention of driving me out of my wits by its con- 
tinuous screaming, or by its mischievous presence to remind 
me of some traits in the character of the donor, I know not. 
At any rate it was not long before its noise and the necessity 
of daily renewing its perches drove me upon the plan of con- 
structing an aviary round a tree in the garden for its future 
residence. Everyone told me, of course, that the bird would 
not live outside during the winter, and it is probable that I 
should have taken it inside when the hard w^eather came ; but 
in October I was seized with a severe attack of typhoid, the 
school was broken up, and all its inhabitants cleared out until 
the February following, and in consequence of this the 
Cockatoo had to take his chance though the winter was a 
severe one. Being well looked after by one of the men about 
the place, he not only survived but improved in appearance, 
despite the hard weather, or probably because of it. Since 
that time neither he nor any one of my birds has been taken 
inside, no matter what the weather, though the aviary is totally 
unheated, and yet they are infinitely superior in health and 
feather to birds of the same kind carefully attended to in 
heated aviaries. When I returned, in February, I found that 
the large tree, around the trunk of which I had constructed 
the aviary, had narrowly escaped destruction from the perse- 
vering efforts of the Cockatoo to strip it of its bark. For- 
tunately one strip of bark had escaped, there being no perch 
near it, and by at once removing the perches from the tree and 
encasing it in thin sheet-iron, I succeeded in saving its life. 
The aviary was easily made, thus^: I planted eight posts 
around the tree and nailed short pieces in a sloping position 
from these posts to the tree. This cap I roofed in with wood, 
and then covered the wood with tarred felt. Next I nailed 
wire netting, narrow in mesh, all round the posts down to the 
ground, except between two of the posts where I left an open- 
ing about three feet high, in which I afterwards placed a door 
made also of netting attached to the frame. Then, as 
additional security, as well as for shelter, I boarded over the 
netting at the base and top for about nine inches. No other 



288 The Irish NaUiralist, 

protection has ever been given to my birds, and, as there are 
very many kinds now in the aviary, I can exercise no par- 
ticular control over their food, each being at liberty to indulge 
his fancy from what is provided. I may here say, there is 
always sufficient food placed fresh in the aviary, together with 
clear water, at least once a day. Hemp, canary-seed, millett, 
rape, wheat and maize are the only seeds I use ; and nothing 
else is given except a basinful of bread soaked in milk, fresh 
every morning, with, of course, occasional treats of groundsel, 
chickweed, plantain, and water cress. I have never taken the 
trouble to soak the bread in water or to squeeze out the alum, 
as is so often insisted upon ; yet my birds are usually very 
healthy and exhibit excellent plumage. I notice, however, 
that bread soaked in milk is greatly preferred by all kinds of 
birds — for all kinds eat it when fresh — to bread soaked in 
water. I notice also that fresh water is a greater desideratum 
than fresh food ; and birds continually alight upon the spout 
of the can to drink while I am pouring the water into their 
baths or drinking troughs. With regard to bathing some 
birds are inordinately fond of it, and all enjoy it whilst the 
water is clean. Starlings would bathe, I believe, twenty times 
a day if you gave them fresh baths so often ; and the same 
might be said of Bramble-finches and Missel-thrushes, though 
Song-thrushes and Field-fares are not so persistent. Bull- 
finches and Chaffinches, too, are fond of bathing, as are akso 
most of the Bunting family, except the Common or Corn 
Bunting, but I have never seen either Sparrows or Quails 
bathe, though both kinds delight in the sand-heap as a 
substitute. 

Of course originally I had only intended the aviary to be 
the home of the Cockatoo ; but, principally because it was so 
large, I began to introduce other kinds as well. Two Quails, 
both cocks, for I have never been able to obtain a hen, were 
purchased, and, though one killed itself against the wire the 
first night, one still survives looking healthier and happier than 
when I obtained it some six years ago. This bird, by the way, 
has more than once slipped out of the aviary, whilst the door 
was open ; but it never seems to care about going away, and 
waits quietly outside till I finish what I am about within. 
It often gives the well-known Quail call ; but has another 
kind of call, similar to the crowing of a cock, that I have 



My Birds. 289 

never heard described by any observer. This is the only one 
of the Gallinaceous tribe that I have hitherto possessed ; and I 
must say that it has proved a very interesting, and by no 
means troublesome pet. 

(to bk concluded). 



CAPTURES OF COI.KOPTKRA IN IREI.AND DURING 

THE SPRING OF 1895. 

BY JAMES J. WALKER, R.N., F.E-S. 
( Concluded from page 212). 



Between May i8th and 21st, I took at Buncrana, Co. Derry :— 

Cai*abus catenulatus, vScop.— Not uncommon on moorland. 

Notlophllus blg^uttatus, F. 

N. palustrls, Dnft. 

Nebria brcvicollls, F— A small form 

Elaphrus riparius, ly.— One specimen. 

Loricera pilicornis, F. 

Clivina fossor, L. 

Dyschirius impunctipennis, Daws. — Locally' abundant in a 
sandy saline spot, on the shore of Lough Swilly, in company with Blcdlus 
annariiis. 

Broscus cephalotcs, L. — Common. 

Bradycellus collaris, Payk. — One on Roosky Mountain, about 
1,000 feet elevation. 

Harpalus latus, L. — Not scarce. 

Pterostlchus vitreus, Dej. — Two specimens, under stones on a 
peat-bog, elevation about 500 feet. 

P. nigrlta, F. — Common. 

Abax striola, F. — Not rare. 

Amara spin! pes, Auct. — Two on the beach. 

A. trlvialls, Gyll. — Not uncommon. 

DIchlrotrlchus pubescens, Payk. — Common, in salt marshes. 

Calathus cisteloides, Panz. 

C» mollis, Marsh. — Very common on the golf-links. 

C. melanoccphalus, L. — Common ; one or two from the top of 
Roosky Mountain may be referred to the var. nubigena, Hal. 

C. micropterus, Duft. — One specimen, on the sandhills. 
Anchomenus parumpunctatus, F.— A beautiful blue-black 
variety, occurred rarely on a peat bog. 



290 The Irish Naturalist, 

Ollsthopus rotundatus, Payk.-On Roosky Mountain. 

Clllenus lateralis, Sam.— Running on wet sand between tide- 
marks ; about six specimens. 

Bembldium pallldlpenne, 111.— One on the sandhills. 

B. littorale, 01.— Common. 

Trechus rubens, F. — One specimen on the peat-bog, under a stone 

T. obtusus, Er.— With preceding, scarce and immature. 

Patrobus asslmills, Chaud.— One on Roosky Mountain. 

Ag^abus paludosus, F.— In small stream on golf-links. 

Rhantus bistrlatus, Berg.— One specimen on the beach. 

Aleochara brevipennls, Gr.— One example \ 
A. moesta, Gr. ( 

A. nitlda, Gr. ( All on the sandhills. 

A. obscurella, Br. ; 

Tachyporus obtusus, var. nltldlcollls, Steph.— A few, by 
sweeping. 

Creophllus maxlllosus, L. — Commonin carcases and decayingsea- 
weed on the beach, with a few of the var. cillaris, Steph. 

Staphyllnus pubescens, DeG. — Two on the golf-links, walking on 
sand. 

Phllonthus lamlnatus, Creutz. 

P. aeneus, Rossi. 

P. decorus, Grav. — One specimen, under a stone. 

P. sanguinolentus, Grav. 
P. marginatus, F. 

Bledius spectabills, Kr. ; Not uncommon, in rather dry sandy mud, 
on the beach near the railway station. 

B. arenarius, Payk. — In wet sand at the far end of the golf-links, 
very common, the specimens mostly rather dark in colour. 

Lesteva longelytrata, Goeze. — On banks of small stream on golf- 
links. 
Omalium Ideviusculum, Gyll. 
Cercyon littoral is, Gyll. 

C. hsemorrhous, Gyll. 

Anisotoma dubia, Br.— One specimen, on the sandhills. 

Silpha at rata, Iv.— Scarce, and rather small. 

8. rugosa, L. — In carrion, 

S. opaca, L- — One dead specimen. 

Hister cadaverlnus, Hofif. | ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ carrion. 

H. neglectus. Germ. ) 

Saprinus sencus, F.— In dead fish, not rare. 

Ptenidium punctatum, Gyll.— Under stones at high water-mark, 
common. 

Cocclnella xi-punctata, L.— Common. 

Byrrhus dorsal is, F.— One in a "bunker " on the golf-links. 

Hcterocerus marginatus, F.— Occurred plentifully with ^/^^/wj 
spectabilis ; varying to a handsome unicolorous dark fuscous form, with 
the usual yellowish markings on elytra quite obsolete. 

Aphodlus mcrdarlus, F. 

A. dcprcssus, Kug. 

^glalla arcnarla,F.— Rather scarce, on the sand-hills. 



Captures of Coleoptera in Irela^id during the Spri7tg of i^g^. 291 

Lacon murlnus, L.— One example. 

Cryptohypnus rlparlus, F — A few on Roosky Mountain, &c. 

Athous haemorrholdalls, F.— Common, some examples very 
large. 

Corymbltes cupreus, F.— A pair. 

C. quercus, Gyll. — Rather scarce, by sweeping, with the var. 

OcJu'opterus^ Steph 

Cyphon coarctatuSf Payk. 
Telephorus bicolor, F.— By beating willows. 
Rhag^onycha fusclcornls, 01. — One specimen, with preceding. 
R. limbata, Thorns. 

Phyllodectavulgratlsslma, L.— Common, on young willows. 
Phyllotreta nemorunn, Iv. 

Crepidodera aurata. Marsh — Rather plentiful, on young willows. 
Apion Cyllenhall, Kirby — Rare, b}' sweeping. 
OtSorrhynchus atroaptcrus, De G. — Most abundant, on sand- 
hills. 
O. blandus, Gyll.— One specimen only, on sandhills. 

O. rug"ifrous, Gyll. — Under stones on the beach, and inland on 
turf walls, a few examples. 
O. piclpes, F. 

Aloptius triguttatus, F — One specimen, on the beach. 
Sciaphilus murlcatus, F. 

Phyllobius oblong^us, ly. — Very common, by sweeping. 
P. viridlaeris, Laich. 
Barynotus obscurus, F. > q ^ ^ ^ ^ 

B. SchonhcrrI, Zett. > ' 
Philopedon g^emlnatus, F. — Abundant on bare sand on the golf- 
links and beach; some of the females very large, and almost white in 
colour. 

Sltones i^r iseusy F. — Sparingly on sand-hills, and very large. 

S. lineellus, Gyll. — One example on the sand-hills ; last November 
I found this species abundantly at Campbeltown, Cantire, in a similar 
situation, hybernating at roots of bent-grass. 

S. flavcsccns, Marsh. 

Hypera rumicis, Iv. 

H. polygoni, Iv. 

Orchestcs sallcetl, Payk.— A few, on young willows. 

Dorytomus liirtlpcnnis, Bedel. — One example. ( By beating 

D. pcctoralis, Gyll.— Four examples. ) young willows. 
Ceuthorrhynchus picurostlgma. Marsh. 

C. quadridens, Panz. 

Phytobius iv.-tuberculatus, F. — One or two, by sweeping. 

Rhinoncus perlcarpius, L. 

Balanlnus sallclvorus, Payk.— On young willows. 



292 The Irish Naturalist. 

PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



RoYAiv Zooi^oGicAi, Society. 

Recent donations comprise a Collared Peccary and a land tortoise from 
J. Giblan, Esq., a hawk from D. Smyth, Esq., a seal from L. Powell, 
Esq., three Green Lizards from Sir F. Shaw, a Muscovy Duck from Miss 
Macbeth, a Mocking-bird from Captain Rogers, sea-anemones from Dr. 
C. B. Ball, a pair of Stock-doves from Rev. T. B. Gibson, a Leadbeater 
Cockatoo from Mrs. McDonnell, a pair of Angora Rabbits from Master 
Brooke, Crayfish and Sticklebacks from P. Mahony, Esq., a monkey from 
J. Ingoldsby, Esq., a Puffin from W. L. Scott, Esq., a Sparrow-hawk from 
R. ly. Weldon, Esq., aServal from Surgeon-Lieut. D. J. MacCarthy, three 
Canadian Ducks from C. J. Wallace, Esq., and a parrot from C. A. James, 
Esq. Three Puma cubs and a Llama have been born in the Gardens, 
and a Tricoloured Porcupine, a pair of Cheetahs, a Chimpanzee, seven 
monkeys, two squirrels, two fruit-bats, five Choughs, three Axolots, 
twelve Rock Bass, and four Siluri have been purchased. 

Over ii,oQO persons visited the Gardens in July, and over 15,000 in 
August. 



Dubinin Microscopicai. Ci^ub. 

JUI.Y iSth.— The Club met at Prof. T. Johnson's, who exhibited 
specimens of Selaginella selaginoides, showing the large female spores 
(megaspores) and the small male spores (microspores). The specimens 
were gathered in Connemara during the recent Field Club Union excur- 
sion. The species is not uncommon in the west though rare in the east 
of Ireland. It is the only representative in Britain of the several 
hundred species of the genus Selaginella, the highest of the vascular 
cryptogams. 

Mr. "M'Ardt^e: exhibited the rare Pihdaria glohidifcra., the Irish repre- 
sentative of the order Rhizocarpse, which he recently gathered in the lake 
at Recess, Co. Galway, which is one of the few known localities- It was 
detected by Mr. Lloyd Praegar, a short time previously, who kindly 
gave all the information necessary for its rediscovery. Ballynahinch 
(near the Salmon Leap), a few miles further west, is an old habitat for the 
plant ( Wade, Rar. ) The specimens bore copious sporocarps which contain 
the macrospores and microspores in four cavities in the interior ; the 
contents of one was exhibited under the microscope. On account of its 
grassy or sedgy appearance, the plant may be readily passed over for a 
species belonging to either. In the absence of the fruit, it may be 
easily known by the vernation of the young leaves, which is circinatc 
like Marsilea, or the young frond of a fern. 

Mr. G. H. Carpenter showed Tanystyhun {Clotenia) conirosire, Dohrn, a 
pycnogon collected in rock pools, at Bundoran, in September, 1894, by 
Mr. J.'E. Duerden. Not only the species (which was first found in the 
Gulf of Naples), but the genus is new to the British marine fauna. The 
occurrence of this southern form so far to the north along our western 
coast is of very considerable interest. A paper with figures will be 
published in the next number of the Irish Naturalist. 

Mr. H. J. Seymour showed the section of an Epidote rock from 
Portrane. The rock, which is of a bright yellowish-green colour, occurs 
in patches in the vesicular ash near the southern Martello tower. 
Epidote, some quartz, and numerous calcite crystals are present in the 
rock. 

INlR. R. J. M1TCHEI.1. exhibited preparations of an utricle of the 
Bladderwort {Utriailaria intermedia). The specimen had been collected 
near Recess, Co. Galway, on the recent excursion of the Field Club 
Union to that district. The bladder enclosed some small water animals, 
showing that the plant captures and digests these creatures; which 
gain an entrance as to an eel trap, but find it impossible to get out. 



Proceedings of Irish Societies. 293 



Bei^fast Naturalists' Fiei.d Ci.ub. 

JuivY 6th. — The fourth summer excursion was held, when a party of 
over fifty assembled at the Northern Counties Railway bound for Island- 
magee and the Gobbins. Arriving at Ballycarry, the whole party walked 
across the peninsula, and then the various sections took their several 
ways, each intent on their particular pursuit. Several members took the 
steep path to the " Black Cave" in the basalt, which proved, however, 
less interesting than was expected, save for its historic association. The 
cave extends i^iland a distance of over 100 feet, and is washed by the 
tide. The remains of a wall extend across its mouth, so its uses have 
been, doubtless, various— legitimate and illegitimate — the latter in the 
" good old days " when it was quite respectable to rob the King of his 
dues. The most of the party walked along the shore, where the great 
blocks of Chalk and Greensand lying to a large extent on I/ias offer a 
most tempting prospect. This series of sections and blocks extends for 
about half a mile along the coast, until the basalt once more comes down 
to the sea-level at the cliffs of the Gobbins. The basalt of this neigh- 
bourhood is itself of more than usual interest, as it exhibits a curious 
banded structure on a large scale, seen very well along the escarpment 
facing the sea, and in one little quarry which was passed on the way the 
amygdaloidal vesicles were very beautifully arranged in well-marked 
bands, between which was the ordinary half-rotten basalt, without 
amygdales. The Greensand was, however, the chief point of interest, 
and numerous fossils were obtained, though many more had to be left 
behind owing to the hardness of some of the blocks. Among the ])est 
finds was one of the secretary of the geological section. Miss S. M. 
Thompson, which was a perfect specimen of a fossil sponge ( Ventriculiies) 
of unusually large size. Several other sponges of different genera and 
species were secured, these being a class that are in want of working out, 
as very little is known of the Irish ones. Other finds were numerous, 
Cidaris spines, some small corals and br3-ozoa, and plenty of the ordinary 
Greensand fossils, such as Rhynchonella, Spondylus, &c. The Lias was in 
very bad order for working after the heavy rain, followed by the baking 
sun, and few fossils were taken. Botanists did not get anything worth 
speaking of, except the Adder's tongue {Ophioglossum), of which quite a 
large patch was seen. Tea at 6.30 on the cliffs at Hill's Port was the 
finale to a most delightful day's outing. Many thanks were due to Mr. 
Wise, C.E., for his kindness and courtesy to his fellow-members in 
making arrangements for this visit, and it was the only regret expressed 
that he has not as yet succeeded in his laudable efforts in making the 
path around the Gobbins. After tea, a pleasant walk through the 
fragrant bean-fields of Islandmagee brought the party to Ballycarry and 
home by train. 

July 29TH. — The sixth excursion was held to the Mourne Mountains 
in conjunction with the London Geologists' Association, who were 
visiting the North of Ireland. A party of about eighty arrived at New- 
castle at 9.30, where breakfast was partaken of at Laurence's rooms at 
the station. Breakfast finished, the brakes and cars were mounted, and 
the road taken to the Trassey Bridge. Here the vehicles were left, and 
the party proceeded up the valley to the Hare's Gap, close to which are 
the Diamond Rocks. These are great masses of Mourne granite 
containing very numerous drusy cavities, some of them of considerable 
.size. So often have they been visited by geologists that parts of the 
hillside bear quite a resemblance to a quarry. These cavities contain 
large and well-formed crystals of smoky quartz, orthoclase, biotite, 
albite, and less frequently of beryl, topaz, and microcline. Of all these 
many capital specimens were taken by the members, the. topaz and beryl 
crystals being very good, and some of exceptional size were ol^tained. 



294 ^^^ Irish Naturalist, 

From this point the party broke up into four divisions, one contingent 
walking back to the cars, another going round the flank of Coramedagh 
to " The Castles," which consist of the usual granite whose sub-columnar 
structure in this part gives rise to vertical and horizontal jointing pro- 
duced by shrinkage during the cooling of the mass. This jointing has 
been so increased and brought out by the action of wind and rain, snow, 
frost, and sun, that the masses now present the appearance of huge 
bastions and fortifications of Cyclopean masonry. A third section of the 
party walked up over Slieve Commedagh (2,512 feet), and a venturesome 
few even ascended Donard atterwards, and observed the remains of the 
rude stone cell where dwelt the anchorite St. Donard, after whom the 
mountain is called. These members brought down the report that the 
view was one almost unequalled, the horizon being so clear that no fewer 
than nine counties and the Isle of Man were plainly visible, the hills of 
Derry and Bray Head being both easily seen. This was the more 
extraordinary as the sky appeared cloudy. The last portion of the 
members remained at the Diamond Rocks, adding to their collections. 
The other three divisions met below the Windy Ridge, in the Glen Valley, 
noticing on the way the curious bared summit of the ridge, almost all 
the vegetation being blown away, leaving small patches of bog and large 
rounded stones and granite sand. The waterworn face of the cliff over 
which the river trickles is also well marked. The mountaineering 
members were interested in the sharp junction between the granite and 
the Ordovician strata at the Shanslieve spur, where the granite sends 
out veins into the slates. Basalt and eurite were also seen in contact 
here. The junction between granite and slate is also well seen above 
Trassey Bridge and in the Glen Valley. The botanists, though not 
strictly on business, noticed most of the alpine plants known to occur 
on these hills, and although several interesting ferns, «&c., were obtained; 
no new find to the locality was recorded. Tea at the station was finished 
just in time for the 6 40 train to Belfast. Altogether the Mournes have 
seldom been seen to better advantage, and the English geologists 
expressed themselves more than pleased with the day and the pleasure 
they derived from a visit to the Mournes in conjunction with the 
members of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. 



DUBUN NaTURAI^ISTS' FlElvD ClyUB. 

August loth. — A party of fifteen members left Amiens-street station 
by the 9 a.m. train for Castlebellingham, where they were met by J. R, 
Garstin, Esq., on whose land the collecting-ground for the day was 
situated. Under his kind guidance the naturalists made their way 
along the railroad to Braganstowu Bog, which proved an excellent field 
for research. The morning sped rapidly, and Mr. Garstin most hospit- 
ably entertained the Club at luncheon at Braganstown House, after 
which an inspection of the neighbouring woods was commenced. This 
was unfortunately cut short by heavy rain, and the naturalists were 
glad to again seek shelter in the house, where the kind attentions of 
Mr. and Mrs. Garstin and their family made the time pass most plea- 
santly. After tea the President briefly expressed the thanks of the 
members to their host, and the party returned to Dublin by the evening 
train. 

The bog proved the home of several interesting plants. Mr. Colgan 
noted there two species of Utrictdaria {vulgaris and minor), Sparganium 
viinimiwt, Typha latifolia^ Lycopus europceus^ Hydrocharis J\d or sus- ranee, Osmunda 
regalis — to find the Royal Fern in profusion so near the east coast was a 
new experience. Along the railway the immigrant Diplotaxis was observed, 
and by the roadsides Chdidoniwn ?najus and Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus, 



Proceedings of Irish Societies. 295 

Dr. McWeeney searched diligently for fungi, and supplies the follow- 
ing list : — 

The Hymenomycetes were represented by Agaricus {Lepiotd) cristattis, 
Fr. ; A. {Tricholoma) terreuSy Sch. ; A. {Collybia) maiulatiis, A. & S. ; A. (C.) 
radicatus, Relh. ; A. {Mycena) tenerrhnus^ Berk.; A. (A/.) rugosiis, Fr. ; A. 
(Entoloma) costatus, Fr. ; A. {Crepidotiis) chiinnophilus, B. & Br. ; A. 
{Pluteiis) cervinuSy SchaefF; A. {Moeybe) rimosus, Bull. ; A. {Psalliota) catn- 
pestris, L. (a very typical series of specimens of this the common edible 
mushroom was collected, well illustrating the development of the veil 
and ring) ; var. pratensis, Viltad. ; A. {Hypholomd) fasciatlaris, Huds. ; A. 
{Psilocybe) areolatus, Klotzsch. ; A. {Ps.) bullatus, Bull. ; A. {Pandolus) phalcen- 
arum, Fr. ; Coprinus cornaius, Fr. ; C. ep hevierus^ Fr. ; Bolbitiics tener, B. ; 
Lactarius subdtilcis, Fr. ; Hygrophorus conicus, Fr. ; H. psiiiacinus, SchaefF; 
Marasmius rotula, Fr. ; Boletus chrysenteron, Fr. ; B. litridus, SchaefF (small 
form) ; Polyporus squamostis., Fr. ; Poria vaporaria, Fr. , var. secernibilis, 
B. & Br. The Gastromycetes comprised Lycoperdon Bovista^ Linn. {=gigan- 
tium, auct. (A specimen 7 in. in diameter and 23 in. in circumference 
was taken by Prof Johnson in a field near Braganstown House) Z.; 
fyriforme, 1 Sch. (specimen immature) ; Phallus impudiciis, Linn, (on the 
" Island," Braganstown). The Uridineae found were Puccinia centaurece. 
Mart. ; P. prarufn, Neelsen (oecidia on Tussilago Farfara) ; P. viaveolus, 
Pers. (on Carduus arvensis) ; P. iaraxaci^ Plow. ; Coleosporhim sonchi, Pers. ; 
MelafHpsora lini, Pers. ; Triphragniium ulinarice, Lk. (The rare teleuto 
spores found abundantly on the bog at Braganstown), The only Disco- 
mycete was Phialea virgultoriim, Karst. Hypomycetes included Graphium 
Grovei, Sacc. (on dead decorticated wood, the Island, Braganstown) ; Clado- 
sporium epiphyllum. Mart., on Salix leaves, and Stysanus ulfnaritv, McW. 
(nov. sp.), described and figured in the present number of the l7ish 
Naturalist. This excursion will long be remembered as the occasion of 
the discovery of this interesting new form. Plasnwpara densa, Schroet. (on 
Euphrasia) represented the Phycomycetes, and Comatricha Friesiana, de By. , 
the Myxomycetes. 

Mr. J. N. Halbert collected insects for the R.I. A. Flora and Fauna 
Committee. Among the Coleoptera an addition was made to the Irish 
records in Phalacris caricis, Strum., whilst Philonthus albipes, Crav., was 
taken for the first time on the east coast. The following also occurred 
in more or less abundance: — Aniara aulica, Pterostichtis vernalis, Oxypoda 
longiuscula, Stenus ossium, S. pubescens, S. pallitarsis, Ccrcus rufilabris, Telma- 
tophiltis caricis, Atoviaria basalis, A. pusilla, Donacia limbata, Panz., Galerucclla 
lineola^ G. tenella, Lagria hirta, Apion subulatum, and Grypidius equesiti. The 
local and northern species Anthonomus comai-i, Crotch., occurred in 
abundance by sweeping. On the railway bank many common species 
abounded, including Scymnus testaceus, Mots., Bruchiis atotnariuSf and 
Ceuthoj rhynchus litura. Amongst Hemiptera the following are selected 
for record : — Picromerus bidens, Cymnus grandicolor, Nabis Jlavomarginatusy 
Tetratocoris saundersi, D. and S. (not previously recorded as Irish), 
Calocoris roseomaculatus, Labops saltator, Cyrtorrhinus caricis, Campyloneura 
virgula, and Psallus sanguineus, Fab. 

Mr. Carpenter found an interesting little crab-spider, Oxyptila praticola, 
Koch, new to Ireland, and among other spiders, Bathyphantes pullatns, 
Lycosa pulverulenta, and Pardosa ni^riceps. Besides the more common 
harvestmen, Oligolophus tridcns, and the black unspotted form oiNetnasionia 
lugubre were found. 



296 The Irish Naturalist, 

NOTES. 



BOTANY. 

LIVERWORTS. 
RIccIa glaucescens In Ireland. — This hepatic, which docs not 
appear to have been hitherto recorded from Ireland, was sent to nie in 
small quantity by my friend, Rev. S. A. Brenan, in July of this year, 
from Co. Antrim. The specimen was freshly gathered, and has since 
been submitted to and named as above by Messrs. Pearson and Holt. 
On the 14th of Au^^ust I visited Cushendun, in Co. Antrim, where Mr. 
Brenan resides, and had the pleasure in his company of seeing two small 
patches of the plant growing on low rocks in the river that flows through 
Glendun ; and, I may add, we took care not to exterminate it. 

H. W. Lktt {\n Journal of Botany for September). 

ZOOLOGY. 

CRUSTACEANS. 
Trichoniscus roseus, Koch., near Dublin. — On July 20th I 
took a specimen of this rare woodlouse among some stones about a foot 
underground near Templeogue. Dr. R. F. Scharff kindly determined 
the species. E. C. Farran, Templeogue. 

FISHES. 
Bass In Donegal Bay;— It maybe of interest to record a Bass 
{Lahrax lupus) which was recently taken in a trawl-net in Donegal Bay. 
This fish is reported by Thompson from only one locality— I/Ough 
Swilly — in the north of Ireland. It was exposed for sale in the market 
to Donegal town, and being entirel}' unknown to the fishermen and 
fish dealers there, attracted the attention of a gentleman who sent 
it to me. The specimen was a little over thirty inches long. 

W. SiNCi^AiR, Strabane. 

BIRDS. 

Ruff In Co. Wicklow.— Mr. E. Blake-Knox records (in Field, Sept. 
7th) that he shot a 'R.m^ (^Machetes pu^nax) in the Wicklow mountains on 
August 29th. 

Stock Dove and Crossbill In Carlow.— Mr. J. G. Symes having 
reported to me the appearance of flocks of what he thought were Blue 
Rock Pigeons in the neighbourhood of Ballaghmoon, Co. Carlow, I 
asked him to send me a specimen. This he has very kindly done, and it 
proves to be, as I had expected, a Stock Dove. These birds, according 
to Mr. Symes, only made their appearance in Carlow about two years 
ago, and this extension of their range in Ireland is very interesting. 
Some little time ago Mr. Symes reported to me that Crossbills were 
breeding in his neighbourhood, and, in confirmation of his statement, 
sent me two specimens, 

G. E. H. BARRETT-HAMI1.TON, New Ross, Co. Wexford. 

ArAMMALS. 
Irish lYIammalla. — A very fair idea of the small mammals of a 
district can be gained by examining the pellets cast up by owls. These 
pellets can be found in great numbers in and about the nests of the 
Long-Eared and Barn Owls ; they are composed of the indigestible parts 
of the animals eaten, and are cast up from the crop. When dissolved 
many interesting bones are often found. I would be very grateful for any 
7iumber of such pellets from any part of the country. Locality where 
pellets were taken, and, if possible, the name of species of owl, with 
name and address of sender, should accompany all specimens. I should 
also be glad of specimens or records of Irish mammals from all parts of 
the country. Specimens for identification will be returned if desired. 
Shrews, Field-mice, and particularly Bats, are specially desired. 

H. L. Jameson, Killincoole, Castlebellingham. 



Irish Naturai^ist, Voi.. IV.] 



[Pirate 6. 



M 






TAXYSTYLUM CONIROvSTRE (Dohrx), 



Fno"\r P.i-x-nnR aat 



■ ■»■'' ■ . . ■ - 

Vol. IV. NOVEMBER, 1895. No. 11. 

A NEW BRITISH PANTOPOD. 

TANYSTYLUM CONIROSTRE (DOHRN). 
BY GEORGE H. CARPENTER, B.SC 



[Collected (Sept., 1894), for the R.I. A. Flora and Fauna Committee, and 
Exhibited (July, 1S95), before the Dublin Microscopical Glub.] 

(Pirate 6.) 
Readers of the hisk Naturalist will, doubtless, recall Mr. 
J. E. Duerden's paper on the Rock-pools of Bundoran ( p. i 
of the current volume), and remember that in Mr. Welch's 
excellent photograph which illustrates it, the most conspicuous 
animal is the rock-boring Purple Sea-Vr chin (St?v?igjtoce?ittvtus 
lividus). This urchin is one of the best-known examples of a 
group of characteristic southern and Mediterranean forms 
which, in British waters, are almost or altogether confined to 
the western coast of Ireland, along which they often range a 
considerable distance northwards. The same coast also 
furnishes examples of northern and Scandinavian species, 
many of which are found as far as the extreme south-western 
corner. And so it comes to pass that the western shores of 
Ireland present to the marine zoologist a most interesting 
mixttire of northern and southern forms of life, which cannot 
be found elsewhere in the British area. A similar mixture of 
immigrants from the north and from the sotith is to be observed 
in the land flora and fauna — the southern species often ranging 
northwards to Donegal and the northern forms southwards to 
Cork. 

While Mr. Duerden's researches at Bundoran and elsewhere, 
during his too short residence in Ireland, were chiefly con- 
cerned with the Hydroids and Polyzoa, our knowledge of 
which he has done so much to advance, he was not neglectful 
of other marine creattires. And, knowing my interest in the 
Pantopods or P3xnogons — that ctiriotis group formerly classed 
with the Cru.stacea, but now regarded either as very aberrant 

A 



29^ The Irish Naturalist. 

arachnids, or as an independent class — he was so good as to 
collect these animals for me whenever he met with them. At 
Bundoran only two individuals — one an adult male carrying 
eggs — of a single species rewarded his search. On examin- 
ation, these proved referable to a pj^cnogon from the Bay of 
Naples described in Dr. Dohrn's great work' under the name 
of Cloteiiia conirostris. The Rev. Canon A. M. Norman, f.r.s., 
to whom I communicated the discovery, was so good as to 
coniBrm my impression that both genus and species were new 
to the British marine fauna ; and this opinion was corroborated 
by Mr. W. T. Caiman of Dundee (who, in conjunction with 
Prof. D'A. W. Thompson, has done much w^ork on the British 
species), when, on a recent visit to Dublin, he examined the 
specimens. This pycnogon, then, hitherto only known from 
the Bay of Naples, but now recorded from Donegal Ba}^, will 
form a most interesting addition to those Mediterranean 
animals which range far northwards along our western coast. 
One can hardly doubt that future search will reveal other 
Irish localities further to the south. 

The genus Cloteyiia, founded by Dr. Dohrn in 1881 for the 
single Neapolitan species C conirostris, differs from the large 
genus Ammothea in its extremely compact and radially-formed 
body, the segments of which are fused together (Plate 6, fig. 2), 
and in the reduction of its chelifori (fig. 2, a) to minute knobs. 
But the character on which Dr. Dohrn chiefly relied was the 
presence in Clotenia of a genital opening on the second coxal 
joint of each of the male's walking-legs except those of the 
first pair, whereas in Ammothea, both the first and the second 
pair in the male want these openings. But in 1879, Mr. Miers"" 
had described an allied pantopod from off the far southern 
island of Kerguelen under the name of Tanystyhim styligerum, 
the genus being specially founded for this species ; and in 1880, 
Prof. E. B. Wilson in his monograph of New England 
pycnogons^ had referred to Tanystylum a species, T. orbiculare, 
evidently very near indeed to Dr. Dohrn's Clotenia co7iirostris. 

^ A. Dohrn. " Die Pantopoden des Golfes von Neapel." Leipzig, 1S81 
(pp. 160-4; pis. viii, ix.) 

3 E. J. Miers. *' Zoology- of Kerguelen Island — Crustacea." Phil. Trans. 
R.S. Lond., vol. clxviii (extra vol.) p. 213-4; pi. xi,, fig. 9. 

» E. B. Wilson, " Report on the Pycnogonida of New England and 
adjacent Waters." JRep. U.S. Commis. Fish and Fisheries, 1878 (Washington, 
1880), (p. 471-3; pl- iii'> f- ii)- 



A New British Pantopod, 299 

Dr. Dohrn admitted the probability that his Clotefiia might be 
identical with Tanystylzmi, but, in the absence of information 
as to the number of genital openings, he refused to positively 
refer his species to the latter genus. Prof. Schimkewitsch, 
however, in a recent valuable paper' on some genera of 
pycnogons, states that the male genital openings in the species 
of Tanystylum correspond with those of Clo tenia. He 
accordingly does not hesitate to sink the latter genus in the 
former. In accordance with this view, I refer to our new 
BritivSh form as Tanystyhwi coiiirostre (Dohrn). 

The genus Tayiystyluni, then, now added to the British 
fauna, is to be recognised by its circular disciform body without 
evident segmentation and with fused lateral processes ; its 
conical proboscis not doubled beneath the body ; the extreme 
reduction of its chelifori to knob-like vestiges without a trace 
of jointing ; the presence of palps with joints varying in 
number from four to seven ; the possession of ten -jointed 
false legs with simple spines in both sexes, and the opening of 
the genital ducts of the male on the second coxal joints of the 
three hinder pairs of walking-legs. The affinities of the genus 
are with Afumothea, of which several species have long been 
known from our coasts, and it should be classed in the family 
Anwiotheidce with many other genera, all characterised by more 
or less vestigial chelifori, but possessing, in either sex, both 
palps and false legs. In Dr. Hoek's great work' on the " Chal- 
lenger" pycnogonida this family is styled Colloseiideidce, but 
Ammothea, being the earliest described, and, perhaps, the most 
typical genus of the group, seems entitled to furnish the family 
name. Prof. Sars, in his beautiful monograph ^ of the North 
Atlantic pantopods, considers this group of ordinal value and 
divides it into three families — Anwiotheidce, Pasithoidce, and 
EurycydidcB. I cannot think, however, that the distinctions 
between these subdivisions entitle them to family rank. 

All students of the pantopoda have considered the genus 
Ny77iphon, with its elongate clearly segmented body, fully- 
developed chelifori, ten-jointed palps, and ten-jointed false legs 

1 W. Scliimkewdtsch. " Notes sur les genres des Pantopodes. Phoxi- 
chihis and Tanystylum ." Arch, de Zool. Exp el Gen. (2) ix. , 1891, pp. 503-522. 

2 P. P. C. Hoek. " Report on the Pycnogonida." Zoology of the Challenger. 
London, 1881. 

" G. O. Sars—" Den Norske Nordliaus Expedition. Zoologi. Pycnogo- 
nidea." Christiana, 1891. 

A 2 



300 The Irish Naturalist. 

furnished with toothed spines and present in both sexes, as 
the typical form of the group. All these three pairs of limbs 
in front of the four pairs of walking-legs are here present in 
their highest state of perfection. From such a prototype the 
other genera seem to have been produced by modification 
— in most cases of a degenerative tendency. In the paper 
already referred to, Prof. Schimkewitsch suggests how series 
can be formed leading on to genera showing extreme con- 
centration of the body and nervous system, or the reduction 
or loss of one or more of the three front pairs of limbs. And 
in Ta7iystyhim w^e find the concentration of the body carried 
to the farthest possible point, while the chelifori have almost 
vanished, and the palps have lost several of their joints. 
Further, the beautiful denticulate spines, which in Ny??ipho7i 
and other genera are to be found on the false legs, are here 
replaced by simple spines (fig. 5). 

Our European species, Ta7iystylu?n conirostre, like the other 
species of the genus, is of very small size, measuring only 
I mm. in length (fig. i). It may be distinguished by the palps 
possessing only four joints (fig. 4). Each of these limbs con- 
tains an excretory gland, observed by Dr. Dohrn, which opens 
towards the base of the second joint (fig 4, «). In the other 
species the palps are six or seven-jointed, and Dr. Dohrn 
states that traces of the vanished joints are sometimes to 
be seen in Naples specimens of T. conirostre. Also it seems 
that the degeneration of the chelifori has gone farther in T, 
co7iirostre than in the other species. It is interesting to note 
that in our Bundoran specimen these organs (fig. 2, «) are in 
an extremely vestigial state, being decidedl}' smaller than in 
examples of the species from Naples in the Dublin Museum 
collections. The lateral processes of the Bundoran animal lack 
the spines described and figured by Dr. Dohrn as occurring 
there in his Mediterranean specimens. Such minor differences 
will not, however, warrant the creation of a new specific 
name. In the North American species, T. orbiculare, Wilson, 
which ranges along the Atlantic coast from Martha's Vine- 
yard as far south as Virginia, the chelifori are rather less 
reduced, the palps are six-jointed, and the spines on the 
false-legs are sometimes bifid. It will be remembered that 
the type of the genus, T. styligeru77i, Miers, came from the 
shores of Kerguelen, an island situated in latitude 49*^ S., 



A New British Pantopod, 301 

about halfway between the Cape of Good Hope and Australia. 
This species also has six-jointed palps. It is considerably 
larger than the other Ta?iystyla, and possesses a swollen pro- 
boscis and long tail-segment. Recently, Prof. Schimkewitsch 
has described' (in addition to T. Hoekia7ium of unknown 
habitat) three new Ta^iystyla from the coasts of South America, 
collected by the Italian corvette " Vettor Pisani" on her explor- 
ing cruise. These are T. Dohrnii (with six-jointed palps) from 
Abrolhos islands off the coast of Brazil, T. calicirostre (with 
six-jointed palps and strange cup-shaped proboscis) from the 
Chonas islands off the coast of Chili, and T, Cherchice (with 
seven-jointed palps) from the Bay of Panama. I should be very 
much inclined to refer also to Tanystyhim the genus Disco- 
a^'achne, Hoek, with its single species D. brevipes described in 
the " Challenger" Report^ from the shore near Capetown. In 
this pycnogon the palps are five-jointed and the chelifori are 
altogether wanting. When one considers how nearly these 
latter have disappeared in T. conirostre, it seems unnecessary 
to retain another genus for an allied form in which they have 
altogether vanished. 

The geographical distribution of the foreign relations of our 
new British pantopod raises some questions of much interest. 
None are deep-water species, so it is probable that migration 
has taken place along coast-lines. We see that this Mediter- 
ranean and Irish species and the Capetown species {Disco- 
arachne, Hoek) are the most modified forms in the genus, 
showing the furthest amount of reduction in the first two pairs 
of limbs. When'we consider that the majority of the species 
are from the southern hemisphere, and (with the exception of 
Discoarachne) that these are not so far modified as the Euro- 
pean form, we are to conclude that the original home of the 
group was far to the south. This view is confirmed by the 
fact that two species occur on both the Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts of the American continent, while no species have been 
found on the Pacific coast of Asia, such a distribution sug- 
gesting the neighbourhood of Cape Horn as the starting-point 

' W. Schimkewitsh. " Sur les Pantopodes recueilles par M. le lieut. G. 
Chiercliia pendant la Voyage de la Corvette ' Vettor Pisani ' en 1882-5." 
Atti delta R. Accad. dei Lincei {Me?noire d. Classe di Scienze fisiche^ &*(.), Vol. vi., 
1890, pp. 329-347, and plate. 

* P. P. C. Hoek, t.c, pp. 74 6, pi. vii. fig. 8-12. 



302 The Irish Naturalist. 

for the American species. But did our Tanystyhim conirostrCy 
or its less-modified ancestors come northwards along the west 
coast of Africa to the Mediterranean and to our shores ? The 
general southern range of the genus stronglj^ suggests such an 
explanation, as no Tanystylnvi is known from the Norwegian 
or other north European coast. On the other hand there can 
be no doubt that T. conirostrc is very closely allied to the 
North American T. orbiadare, a consideration which renders 
it at least possible that the migration to Europe may have 
taken place eastwards along an old shore-line to the north of 
the North Atlantic. On such a view, we must regard the 
newi}' discovered Irish station as a mark of the path b}^ which 
our pycnogon travelled to its Mediterranean home. In all 
these speculations, however, it must be borne in mind how in- 
complete our knowledge of the range of these animals still is. 
While such theories add zest and interest to the investigation 
of our fauna, new facts will surely be brought to light which 
will oblige us to modify them. If zoological science is to 
progress there must ever be an evolution in the thoughts of 
its students, as we believe there has been and is in the 
wonderful creatures which it is their pleasure to study. 



EXPI^ANATION OF P1.ATE 6. 

Fig. I. Tanystyhim conirostre (Doliru), natural size. 
„ 2. „ ,, adult male, magnitied. All limbs 

removed except clielifori {a), 
and tlie right palp and third 
walking leg. 

,, eye-eminence in profile mag- 

nified. 

,, palp, highly magnified ; (a) open- 

ing of excretory gland. 

,, false leg of male, highly mag- 

nified. (In this figure, spine 
at tip of ninth joint should 
have been shown projecting 
beyond end of tenth joint). 



>> O' >> 



>) 



C 303 1 



INSECTS FROM ROSSCARBHRY, CO. CORK. 
By H. K. Gore: Cuthbkrt. 



C01.EOPTERA. 
The following beetles were taken at Rosscarbery and its 
neighbourhood, about the end of last August. The list is a 
small one, for I have much neglected this order lately, but it 
contains some records of interest regarding which I have 
appended some notes : — 



Cychrus rostratus. 
Carahus caiiceUatus. 
C granulatas . 
BradyceJlus distinctus. 
B. verhasci. 
Harpahis latus. 
H. proteus. 
Pterostichus cxipreus. 
P. minor. 
P. strenuus. 
Amara livida. 
Taphria mvalis. 
Anchomenns piceus. 
A . pnellus. 
Bemhidium decorum. 
Brychius elevatus. 
Haliplus lineatocoUis. 
Coelambus v.-lineatus. 
Hydroporns palustris. 
H. septentrio)ialis. 



Noterus sparsus. 

A leochara fuscipes. 

Falagria thoracica. 

Leistotrophxis murinus. 

Philonthus cenens. 

P. sanguinohntus. 

Silpha atraia var. suhro- 

tundata (black form 

only). 
Necrodes Uttoralis. 
Necrophorus riispator. 
iV. vespillo. 
Saprinus nitidulus. 
Chilocorus hipustuJatus. 
Halyzia xiv. -guttata. 
Onthophagus fracticornis. 
Aphodius depressiis. 
A. piinctato-su/catus. 
A. scyhalarius. 
Geotrupes vernalis. 



Cetonia aurata. 
DoUchosoma lineare. 
JDonacia limbata. 
D. sertcea. 

Chrysomela marginalis. 
Phaedon armoracice. 
Lochnoia suturalis. 
GaleruceUa nymphcem. 
Cassida equestris. 
Heliopathes gibhus. 
Helops paUidus. 
Rhinosimus planirostris. 
Otiorrhynchus blandus. 
0. atroapteriis. 
0. rugifrons. 
Strophosomus retusus. 
Hyper a trilineata. 
H. variabilis. 
Orchestes fagi. 
Ceuthorrhynchus ericce. 



Carabus cancel latus, 111. — One specimen, female, at East 
Poiiladav. This is a rather unexpected addition to the Irish as well as 
the British list. Its claim to admission to the latter rested hitherto on the 
doubtful record of Stephens : " said to have occurred in a chalk-pit at 
Northfleet." The beetle is widely distributed in Central and North 
Central Europe, and much resembles superficially the common Caralms 
granulattis, L. 

Harpalus proteus, F. ) Entirely black forms of these com- 



.} 



Ptcrostlclius cupreus, Dej.) mon insects, usually very brassy. 

Chilocorus bipustulatus, Leach. — Lately recorded by Mr. J. 
N. Halbert, from the Galway district. Tt occurs at Rosscarbery on the 
Dog-rose. 

Geotrupes vernalis, L. — At Castlefreke, on the sandhills. 
Apparently widely distributed, but not common, in Ireland. 

Cetonia aurata, L. — In great abundance on Ragwort near 
Glandore. 

Chrysomela marg"! nails, Duft. — First Irish record for this species. 
Swept from underwood in an alder plantation at Benduff. 

Otiorrhynchus blandus, Gyll. — Under stones on the shore at 
Tralong and Ownahinchy. This mountain species appears to be widely 
distributed on the south and west coasts. 



304 



The Irish Naturalist. 



Hkmiptera. 

Thefollowiiigspecies of bugs were taken, fortheidentification 
of which, as also of many of the beetles, I am indebted to 
Mr. J. N. Halbert. 

Macrode.ma micropterum. 
Stenocephalus agilis. 
Nahis lativentris. 
N. riigosus. 



Eurygaster viaura. 
Pentatoma baccarum. 
Picromerus bidens. 
Syromastes marginatus 



Stygnus pedestris. 
S. arenarius. 
Phyfocons varipes. 



Eurygastei* maura, L. 
Stenocephalus agills,Scot. 



f These are very interesting addi- 
I tions to the list of Irish Hemiptera. 
■{ They are rather widely distributed 
species in the southern counties of 
.England, and also in S. Wales. 

Syromastes marg-lnatus, L.— Is probably frequent in the south- 
\vest having been taken at Berehaven by Mr. G. H. Carpenter ; the 
British distribution is similar to that of the two preceding species. 



HymKNOPTERA ACUI.EATA. 



The following were captured in Ross 
latter part of August. As regards them I 
indebtedness, as on previous occasions 
identification, to Mr. Edward Saunders, F. 

Formica fuscu' 
Lasius flavus. 
L. niger. 
Myrmica rubra 



CoUetes daviesana. 
C succincta. 
Sphecodes affinis. 
(races S. pilifrons. 



ruginodis and scabrin- S. subquadratus. 



odis). 
PompiJus gibbus. 
P. fusctis. 
p. niger. 
P. phimbeus. 
Ceropales macidatxis. 
Oxybelus uniglumis. 
MelUnus arvensis. 
Odyneriis parietinus. 
0. trimarginatus. 



Halictus cylindricus. 

H. morio. 

H. mtidiiisculus. 

H. ruhicundus. 

H. vi/losidus. 

Andrena albicnis. 

A. denticulata. 

A. g icy nana. 

A. nana. 

Megachile centuncularis. 



district during the 
have to express my 
in the matter of 
I..S. 

Coelioxys ehngata. 
Nomada ochrostoma. 
Psithyrus barbutellus. 
P. campcstris. 
P. ritpestris. 
Bombus cognatus. 
B. hortorum. 
B. lapidarius. 
B. latreillellus. 
B. miiscorum. 
B. sylvarum. 
B. schrimshiranus. 
B. terrestris fvars. vir- 
ginalis and lucorum). 



Oxytoelus uniglumis, L.— In great abundance on flowers of Cnicus 
arvensis, at Castlefreke. 

Odyncrus trimarginatus, Zett — Not uncommon on heath (Erica) 
at Ownahinchy and Tralong. All these specimens belong to a variety 
with spotted tibiae. 

Sphecodes subquadratus, Sm. — New to Ireland. Taken at 
Downeen, about burrows of Halictus rnbicundus. 

i These are also new Irish records, The 
latter pretty and fragrant insect abounds 
in the district and is a welcome addition 
to our lists. 



Insects from Rosscarbery, County Cork, 3(55 

Psithyrus barbutellus, Kirb. f These I believe are the first 

j Irish records, but the former 
Botnltius schrimshiranus, Kirb. I was previously taken, though 

not recorded, by Mr. Freke, at 
Dundrum, Co. Dublin, and the 
) latter at Carrickmines, in the 
\ same county. I have a speci- 
men oiB. barlmtellus from Port- 
marnock, taken last June. 
Both species were common, 
with others of the same genera 
(^on heath at Castlefreke. 

The Andrcncs in the above list are fev/, as might be expected 
in the case of a spring-flying genus. The Fossores are also 
poorly represented although the locality seems specially 
suitable for them. The absence of social Wasps was remark- 
able, while the social Bees were unusually abundant. 



IRISH KNOTWBEDS 

BY REV. C. H. WADDKIvI., B.D. 



ThK following notes upon some species of the genus Polygonum 

may be useful, as the Irish Knotweeds do not seem to have 

received any special attention from Irish botanists. Mr. A. 

Bennett of Croydon has kindly named the critical species and 

varieties for me which are mentioned in this paper. 

Polygonum Convolvulus, Linn., var. subalatum, V. Hall— 
Saintfield, Co. Down, growing as a garden weed, 1893. Crossgar, 
Magheralin, Co. Down. — This variety has long been known in England, 
where it was named pseiido-diwidorum by Mr. H. C. Watson, because it 
was so often mistaken for P. dtimctorum, but does not seem to have 
been recorded for Ireland. It is interesting as being an intermediate 
variety between that species and P. Convolvulus, the common Black Bind- 
weed of cornfields, from which it may be easily distinguished by the 
winged segments of the perianths. I have found it at the localities 
mentioned, but cannot meet with the type, and my friend Mr. S. A. 
Stewart tells me he has also found the variety this season at Donaghadee. 
Is the typical plant common in other districts in Ireland } When 
growing as a weed in rich soil the variety is a very beautiful plant, and 
climbs several feet high. 

A 3 



3o6 The Irish Naturalist. 

Polygonum avlculare, Linn., ivar. agrestlnum (Jord.)— 
Dundrum, Co. Down. 

van vulgatum, Syme— Shore, Killough, Co. Down. 

var. arenastrum (Bor.)— Saintfield. A well-defined variety, growing 
commonly in the channels by roadsides in compact cushions. 

var. rurlvagrum (Jord.)— Fields by shore, Killough, Co, Down. 
This is also a well-defined variety. It has long narrow leaves and wiry 
stems, and grows very long among the herbage in cornfields. 

P. Hydroplper, Linn. — This species is very common in this district 
(Co. Down), in marshes, along roadsides, and in fields and gardens in 
places where water lies. A fine vigorous form of it appears every year 
as a weed in a wet spot in my garden at Saintfield, which Mr. Bennett 
says is the var. densiflorum of Braun. It has much larger flowers than the 
typical plant, clustered in remarkably dense bunches at intervals along 
the flowering branch or stem, and in the axils also, the racemes 
broader and interrupted, not filiform, and sometimes erect ; and varies 
from P. Hydrojnper, I suppose, in somewhat the same manner as the var. 
elatiwi, Gren., does from P. Persicaria, though it has not received varietal 
rank from British botanists. I quote Braun's description (Flora Bot, 
Zeit.y 1824, p. 108) : — " /3. demiflomm mihi, elatum, spica terminali 
cylindrica densa, floribusxil alaribus confertis. Distinguished by its 
higher stem with numerous spreading branches, broad leaves, and very 
dense, green, pendent perianths. It grows in ditches and sometimes 
in marshy woods." 

P. maculatum. Trim, and Dyer.— I found this in 1894 growing in 
marshy fields north of Dundrum, Co. Down, along with P. lapathifolhim. 
It is a difficult plant to distinguish, and has no doubt been confused 
with P. Persicaria or P. lapathifolium, its two nearest allies. It is said to be 
common on the outskirts of London, and in many parts of England. 
It is a smaller plant than P. lapathifolium, its leaves are white and woolly 
beneath, not so broad in the middle and attenuated at either end ; its 
racemes longer, slender, and forming a more compact spike of flowers. 

P. amphlblum, Linn. — When growing on dry land the beautiful 
floating leaves and whole habit become so changed that it might be 
considered a different species. This is I suppose the var. terrestre, Leers. 
I have seen it in flower on the banks of the Closet river, Co. Armagh. 
It furnishes an interesting example of a plant adapting itself to a different 
environment, the floating leaves changing to upright ones, and taking 
upon them a hairy coat when they leave the water. Since the terres- 
trial form is not permanent in its characters, it has, strictly speaking, no 
title to be called a variety, but is only a form. 

P. Blstorta, Linn. — Shrubbery, Saintfield ; Graveyard, Knock, Co. 
Down. I have never seen the Snakeweed truly wild, either in Co. Down 
or in Westmoreland, where I have gathered it in similar localities. It 
seems to have a penchant for graveyards and other rich ground near 
human habitations. At Kendal it is called Easier ledges, as its succulent 
leaves appear above ground at that season, and, boiled with oatmeal and 
other ingredients, are made into herb puddings. 



C 307 1 

MY BIRDS. 

BY RE;V. THOMAS B. GIBSON, M.A. 
^ Continued fro7n page 289.) 



Of the Crow family I have three kinds, viz., the Starling, 
the Jackdaw, and the Jay. There are about a dozen Starlings 
at present in my aviary ; though I certainly would not keep 
so many were it not that I fear to lose one which I have had 
for about five years, if I released or gave any away, not being 
able to distinguish my favourite from the others in any way 
but by his voice, which is superior to anything I had ever 
imagined in a Starling — superior I might say almost to any 
other bird's voice I know — for he imitates everything in the 
aviary and chuckles over his imitations when he has finished. 
This bird, with three others, I obtained from a nest near my 
aviary, having taken them while unfledged and placed them 
in a cage which I then hung over the entrance to the nest. 
The old birds attended to them for about a month, when I 
placed them in the aviary, where they have remained ever 
since. Two or three others have since been obtained, in the 
same manner; but the greater number were placed in the 
aviary last winter to save their lives, they having been caught 
by my pupils during the severe frost. I may here say that 
the Starling is a delicate bird I believe, though only one has 
ever died with me ; and, last winter, for several mornings in 
succession, I found dead Starlings lying upon the heaps of 
crumbs I had placed for them. The want of water was, I 
believe, felt by them even more than the want of food; and, 
when I placed a basin full of water near the crumbs, the Star- 
lings would at once crowd around it to drink, neglecting the 
food till they had slaked their thirst. It is very singular 
that my Starlings have never bredln the aviary though some 
of them may be said to have been almost reared in it ; and I 
have been careful to provide nesting material plentifully for 
them. But, indeed, I may say that birds usually despise any- 
thing that is done for them that way, in an aviary at least, and 
will pitch upon the most unlikely places to nest, though you 
may have arranged everything most beautifully for them only 
a few inches away. Why, for many days, I have removed 
portion of a nest from the lid of my seed-box, and in the end 



3o8 The Irish Naturalist. 

been obliged to give up the contest by the quiet persistency 
of the birds. 

My Jackdaw — I have but one — was also reared by its 
mother in my aviar}^ It had fallen from the nest apparently, 
as it was still unfledged when brought to me by one of my 
pupils, the old bird still hovering around and making uncom- 
plimentary remarks. I placed it in the aviary and took no 
further trouble about it, but the old birds continually attended 
to it — indeed even when it could shift for itself. This bird is 
not, however, nearly so tame as those of its kind that I pos- 
sessed in my boyish days, and does not appear to be much of 
an acquisition. 

M}^ Jay was a purchase which came from England. There 
were two others in the nest, but these were fed liberally with 
small pebbles by the Registrar's sons, and the diet did not 
agree with them, it appears ; though, when 3^oung, they cer- 
tainly are always ready and eager for any kind of food. My 
Jay is not much of a mimic, nor indeed does he concern him- 
self much about his companions ; but he is a beautiful bird, 
and quicker in his movements than any other with which I 
am acquainted. I feared that the smaller birds would have no 
chance of breeding in the same aviary with him, and so built 
another aviary for them in a sunnier spot, which has been 
very successful. He does not however seem to have any 
desire for eggs, and the Doves and Thrushes have not, so far 
as I know, suffered from his attentions. Very lately, I obtained 
a Magpie, w^hich is not so harmless, as, in the very first night 
of its residence, it killed two Thrushes and a Sparrow. I have 
had to separate it from the others, removing also the Jay at 
the same time. 

The Blackbirds I had to remove into the smaller birds' aviary 
as a feud arose between one of them and the Missel-thrush 
which threatened to be life-long, and to the detriment of the 
former. I can hardly blame the Missel-thrush, however, for 
he was perfectly peaceable till the Blackbird drove him into 
anger by continuous bullying. This Blackbird, which I have 
now had for five years, was caught by myself in a trap, during 
the frost, together with two or three Thrushes. Four other 
Blackbirds, including a hen, were brought to me by my pupils, 
and then war began. The original occupant apparently resen- 
ted the intrusion of the others^ and killed three, in spite of my 



My Birds. 309 

continued interference. So savage was he that many times he 
has attacked his victim while it was even in my hands. I have 
seen him take hold of another Blackbird and twist off its beak 
to the skull ; so that I have had to kill the sufferer. At last 
I removed the one remaining survivor to the second aviary ; 
and then for a few days, the bullying Blackbird made the 
life of the Missel-thrush a burden to it, till at last it turned, 
and then the Blackbird suffered. To save its life I removed it 
also ; and singularly enough, it has never since fought — 
though there are now four Blackbirds in this aviary — all of 
them cocks however — which maj^ account for the harmony. 
As in the case of the Starling it is fear of losing a magnificent 
songster that prevents me from releasing or giving away some 
of my Blackbirds. And a like cause, in part, operates with me 
as regards Thrushes, of which I have eleven — nine being Song- 
thrushes (mostly caught last winter), the others being the 
Missel-thrush and a Field-fare. I have too, a very fine 
Ring-Ousel, but, as it is this year's bird, I cannot say much 
about its habits, except that it is very tame, having been 
brought up by hand. I should like to add a Red-wing, 
but I have not yet been able to obtain one. The Song- 
thrushes have always built nests, and laid eggs ; but the 
hatching has been intermittent, and no young birds have as 
yet been reared. The Missel-thrush has surprised me by the 
delicacy of its throat notes, for though the five or six notes of 
its usual song are shrill enough, it loves to come beside me 
(either when inside or outside the aviar}^ and to give utter- 
ance to the softest of tones, deep down in its throat, as if it 
were whispering a song, while, all the time, it turns the head 
to look into my eyes, as if noting the effect. This bird was a 
purchase ; and has now been in my possession for about four 
years. Of the Field-fare I cannot say much, as it was only 
captured in our play-ground last spring. It is, however, a 
beautiful bird — in my opinion the most beautiful of the 
thrushes — and, though its voice, so far as I know, is unmusi- 
cal, its elegant shape and bluish-grey colour, together with 
its peculiarly tipped beak, make it an ornament to the aviar5^ 
In this, my first aviary, there are several Sparrows — more 
than I desire indeed, for they have bred there — who are the 
very wildest of its denizens. Originally I had placed two or 
three young sparrows inside, to save them from the cats. 



3 10 The Irish Naturalist. 

These produced one or two broods last year, and I fear that 
there are several broods this year ; but I cannot catch them, 
without frightening all the other inhabitants, and so they 
escape expulsion. One fellow is rather a rarity, having two 
white feathers in each wing. Of L,arks I have had several, 
and still have a pair ; but only one ever distinguished himself 
as a songster, and he died during the snow of last winter. 
All my I^arks, however, after a short time in the aviary, are 
perfectly well able to perch, which seems to be opposed to 
what one usually hears of their habits. In this aviary there 
is no tit-bit so earnestl}^ desired by all the birds I have men- 
tioned as wood-lice, locally known as slaters. The Jay, 
indeed, prefers beetles, and the Cockatoo looks on with in- 
difference ; but to see the commotion amongst Starlings and 
I^arks and Thrushes, one would imagine no other food had 
been given them for a week. 

Of Doves I have several kinds — the Common Ring-dove, 
the Turtle-dove, the Stock-dove, the White Japanese Dove, 
and the Egyptian Dove, the latter being like the common 
Ring-Dove, but suffused with a rosy hue all over the body. 
I^ast year the Stock-doves brought out one young dove, as 
did also the Ring-doves ; but both young birds died, whilst I 
was away during my summer holiday. This year the Stock- 
doves have fully reared a beautiful pair of young ones which 
I presented to the Zoological Gardens ; and all the other kinds 
were to be seen hatching. Indeed one of the most singular 
spectacles possible to imagine was to be seen in the aviary ; 
for, in a very capacious nest on a tree branch, there were six 
Doves' eggs, and on this nest, seated in harmony, a Turtle, a 
Japanese, and a Common Ring-dove. 

In building my second aviary I took advantage of the angle 
between two walls, so that there was perfect shelter from N. 
winds, and the wire netting was only on the S. side. I also 
boarded more than half the flooring of the aviary, in a sloping 
manner, so that the birds have always got dry footing to rest 
on below as well as on the perches. I also placed a number of 
boxes, cocoa-nuts, &c., in suitable positions for nesting ; but 
here, as in the other aviary, my birds greatly preferred their 
own to my arrangements. Not many, however, ever con- 
structed nests or laid eggs except a pair of Bullfinches and a 
pair of Budgerigars — these latter being indefatigable in that way. 



My Birds, 311 

Of the Warbler family I have only kept four ; and one of 
these, a Stonechat, only lived with me for a few days, so that 
of its habits I can say but little. A Wheatear, however, 
which was caught in our playground, lived for about two 
months, and I had an opportunity of watching the peculiar 
movements of its tail and the spreading out of its wings 
whilst it sang. This bird was particularly fond of wood-lice, 
and though so small, whenever I brought those tit-bits to 
the aviary it succeeded in getting more than its share, fiercely 
driving away all other birds except a Robin that generally 
manages to have its own way in everything. The Robin is 
not by any means a tame bird in the aviary, and it is decided!}^ 
pugnacious, not merely with birds of its own kind, but with 
any bird that interferes with it. The bird is so well known 
that there is no need to refer to its peculiarities ; but my 
specimen is so wild — after two years' residence in the aviary — 
that whenever I go inside it creeps under the boarding and 
remains in hiding till I have left. It sings sweetly, however, 
and, except for its temper, is a satisfactory bird in the aviary. 
My favourite, however, amongst the Warblers is the Hedge 
Accentor, or Hedge Sparrow as it is called. I purchased a 
pair about two years ago ; but the hen died in less than a 
week, and I have never been able to obtain another. The 
survivor has astonished me with the beauty of its song ; and I 
have found it well able to hold its own though apparently so 
timid. After a time it became quite tame, and would allow 
me to stroke it down, scarcely moving away even when I 
placed my face close to it. The peculiar shuffling of its wings 
seems to be involuntary. 

Of Titmice I have only kept the Great or Ox-eye Titmouse 
and the smaller Blue-cap. I did not greatly care for the for- 
mer as it more than once broke the eggs of a Canary that had 
paired with a Siskin, and I suspecfed it also of having similarly 
wrecked a Goldfinch's nest. I never heard it sing, and it 
usually was in a state of chattering wrath either with me or 
with some denizen of the aviary. It was very interesting 
though to watch the manner in which it held a grain of hemp- 
seed in its claw to peck at, always flying with a single grain 
to a particular spot in the aviary. Of this bird's disappearance 
after having, been a year iti the aviary I can give no explana- 
tion. It is not there now, that is all I can say for certain ; 



312 The Irish Naturalist. 

but before its disappearance I removed it to the large birds' 
aviar}^ on account of its habits. 

The Blue-bonnet is a more satisfactory bird and quite as 
amusing. It flits about incessantly, chattering continually, 
and 5^et it is a sociable bird too, never appearing happ3^ unless 
it lias a companion to solace its captivity. M}^ birds are not 
timorous, though neither are they tame, and whenever I 
enter the aviary they seek the topmost perch, always remain- 
ing in exactly the same spot till I leave, their heads being 
hidden behind a piece of board. They love anything in the 
way of fat and appear fond of water ; but they have not 
3'et nested with me. 

Of Finches I keep many kinds. The Goldfinch has nested 
and sat on its eggs more than once, but has ** forsaken " the 
nest on every occasion, without bringing out young, though 
the eggs were fertile, as I have discovered by breaking them, 
The bird is delicate, but a thing of beauty in an aviary. 

The Canary, having paired with a Siskin, has nested and 
brought out young, which died, but the Siskins have never 
paired amongst themselves. The Siskin is, perhaps, of all 
small birds the most satisfactory in an aviary. I have had 
a pair for five years and they have never showed signs of 
illness, not even when moulting ; but they feed voraciously, 
and drive away much larger birds from both food and water 
till they are satisfied. The cock on one occasion escaped 
from the cage as I was entering, but instead of flying away, 
it settled on the netting, and allowed me to take it in my 
hand and place it within the aviary. It is an incessant 
songster, and bathes in a peculiar way by standing on the 
edge of the bath, merely ducking its head under water and 
allowing the water to run down its back. 

The Brambling is a handsome fellow, and a great addition 
to the aviar^^ Some few years ago the}^ were very plentiful and 
cheap in Dublin, but I have not seen so many for sale lately. 
I have had three for about four j^ears and they seem very 
healthy. A fourth died, but it was moulting at the time, and 
the weather was cold. The .song is not sweet, but there is not 
one of the Finches so handsome, and at the same time so 
-healthy. It is particularly fond of water, and usually is the 
; first to enter the bath.. 



My Birds. 313 

Everyone knows the Chaffinch and its habits, but I may 
here say that as an aviary bird it is as nearly perfect as can 
be imagined, except that it does not nest — at least with me. 
The pair which I placed in my aviary five years ago are there 
still, and look quite as healthy and as happy as their kindred 
outside — which by the way are very fond of lighting on the 
wire in the endeavour to become partakers with the captives 
— not I suppose in the captivity, but in the good things 
provided for the captives. 

The Common I^innet is very easily kept in an aviary, and 
is not, so far as I know, liable to diseases. One which I 
caught under my hat whilst it was trying to get into the 
aviary, is an especially good songster, and appears quite 
tame. I have an idea that it must have escaped from captivity 
before it was caught by me. The song is very sweet, and it 
continues the music till very late in the evening. The Twite 
I have found very hard to keep, and it appears to be not 
nearly so hardy as the Common Ivinnet. I had to renew my 
specimens several times, and, although I possess one for over 
two years, I cannot recommend this species as being so 
satisfactory as either the I^innet or the Redpoll. Of this latter 
species I have had four, for about five years, and I am able to 
disprove a statement in regard to its colour, which maintains 
that the captive bird having lost the red colour never 
recovers it in captivity ; for at this present moment one of 
these four has as brilliant a colour as I have ever seen, even 
in the most recent captives. I once possessed a large Mealj^ 
Redpoll — purchased in Bride-street, and supposed to have 
been captured near Dublin, but it was accidentally hanged 
through being entangled in a piece of thin twine. None of 
these birds ever commenced even to build a nest, and I have 
never noticed any inclination to pair, though I always keep 
my birds in pairs when possible. " 

(TO BR CONCtUDKD). 



314 T^h^ Irish Naturalist. 

A NEW HANDBOOK TO THE GEOLOGY OF 

IRELAND. 

Guide to the Collections of Rocks and Fossils belongring: to 
the Ceologrical Survey of Ireland.— B3 A. McHenry, m.r.i.a., 
and W. \V. WatTS, m.a., f.g.s. (Dublin : for H. M. Stationery Office ; 
A. Thorn & Co. Price 9^/.) 

In the hands of those special investigators who are now replacing or 
assisting the omniscient but old-fashioned curators of museums, guide- 
books to collections are assuming the importance of scientific treatises. 
Her Majesty's Stationery Office has just issued, under the above title, a 
work of reference which will be welcome to all geologists in our islands. 
The late Dr. V. Ball, in his preface to this guide, clearly indicates his 
desire to provide better accommodation for the collections ; but the series 
of rocks and fossils now displayed in the Science and Art Museum in 
Dublin is already a boon to students, as well as a public recognition of 
the work of the Geological Survey, Sir Archibald Geikie gives us an 
account of the origin of these collections. They were for some time 
under the care of that keen field-observer, Mr. McHenry, who has him- 
self, during his official labours, added a large number of the specimens. 
Mr. \V. W. Watts, during his brief residence in Dublin as a member of 
the Staff of the Surve}-, gave almost his whole attention to the petro- 
graphic portion of this guide, which he has finally edited from his new 
post in London. The remarkable manner in which the work has been 
made to keep pace with recent observation (see p. 29, for instance) is a 
testimony to his constant care. 

The rocks are grouped under the four geographical provinces of 
Ireland, a plan which will be found convenient for reference in the 
Museum. In 80 pages we have a concise description of the floor of 
Ireland, a guide, in fact, to its geology, illustrated by the specimens in 
the Museum, which are referred to constantly by their numbers. The 
superiority of this method over that of the systematic catalogue drawn 
up by the mere curator will be at once apparent. Messrs. McHenry and 
Watts have produced a readable work, the details of which are largely 
based on original observations made in the course of survey-work. We 
w*ish that still more frequent references could have been given to the 
papers by other authors which have been utilised, as this would only 
serve to emphasise the enormous amount of new descriptive matter that 
is due to the writers of the guide. 

We have nothing here to do with the unfortunately dark conditions 
under which the photographic illustrations and many of the specimens 
have to be displayed in the museum. The study of them has now been 
admirably facilitated by the guide; but why was not the concluding 
"Index to Places " arranged alphabetically according to the localities, 
like that in Roseubusch's " Mikroskopische Physiographic," instead of 
in the order of the numbers on the specimens.? A visitor from the 
country can find without difficulty the rocks of his own county ; but, if 



A New Handbook to the Geology oj Ireland. 315 

he wishes to see whether Balliuagappoge or Knockaunavoher is repre- 
sented in the collection, he may have to search over an extensive series. 

When we attempt to comment on the details of the text, we find the 
perusal of the book far more interesting than any attempt to criticise it. 
In a few lines, for instance (p. 17), we have an account of Sir A. Geikie's 
views on the " conglomerates " of Howth, and Prof. Sollas"s suggestion 
that the majority of these rocks are breccias ; while, lower down on the 
same page, the theory of slaty cleavage is introduced in an account of 
the slates of Co. Wicklow. We notice, by-the-by, that the names of the 
Irish counties are written throughout the work without the prefix, which 
is, perhaps, to be regretted from the point of view of geographical preci- 
sion. An Englishman does not say that Woodstock is in Oxford, or that 
Whitby is in York; and such a phrase as " isolated localities in Dublin 
and Wicklow " (p. 18) is, we believe, liable to misconstruction. 

It goes somewhat against the grain to find (pp. 18, 60, &c.) the division 
" Lower Silurian " merged into the general term " Silurian," although it 
appears as a separate system in the table on p. 16. Surely this is too 
great a sacrifice to deceased authorit}-. We note, however, with pleasure 
that the Old Red Sandstone is accorded (p. 83, &c.) a distinct systematic 
position, and is not swallowed up, as was once threatened, between the 
Silurian and the Carboniferous. Even the alleged conformity between 
the Dingle Beds and the Silurian becomes a dubious matter in the field, 
and Jukes himself preferred to let his mapping controvert his conclusions, 
and to state his difficulties most plainly. 

For observers in Co. Dublin, the fine account of the Leinster granite 
and its flanking masses will have especial interest (pp. 31-35 and 39-40). 
In the list of minerals (p. 32) we may take exception to the description 
of apatite as merely "hexagonal phosphate of lime" ; to copper pyrites 
as " cubic sulphide " of copper, when it is tetragonal, and contains as 
much iron as copper ; and to kaolin as ''silicate of alumina" only, its 
mode of formation being outlined without reference to the hydration. 
Too many names, moreover, seem to us to be used for igneous rocks in 
general ; the ordinary museum-student — and, for that matter, the most 
experienced petrologist — may really gain in philosophic knowledge by 
grouping together such generic names a;s diabase, proterobase, hypcrsthenc' 
porphyrite, epidioriie, lamprophyre, and kcnantite, under far more simple family- 
titles, distinguishing the special types by adjectival affixes. This point, 
however, will always be a source of friction between those to whom the 
name of a rock-mass comes as a reminder of some microscopic section, 
and those to whom it seems almost as the echo of an elfin trumpet, borne 
along all the range of crag and purple moorland. We have evidence that 
the aspect of the country- itself was often in the minds of the writers of 
this museum-guide, as, for instance, in the account of the Mweelrea area 
on p. 45, and the capital description of the limestone country of Co. Clare 
on p. 87. 

The geographical grouping of the rocks under the several provinces 
requires some occasional cross-references, which might be obviated by an 
index such as that which we have suggested. Thus a traveller between 



3i6 The Irish Naturalist. 

Newcastle and Warrenpoint might expect to find his rocks illustrated in 
the case styled " Coast of Down " (p. 74) ; whereas they are more conve- 
niently dealt with under the heading of " The Mourne Mountains." The 
important questions raised by the igneous rocks of Ulster are remarkably 
well treated in a summary of some nine pages. 

We hope to hear more of the phonolite of Blackball Head (p. 91), the 
" Ivernites " of Co. Limerick (p. 93), and other rocks of which Mr. Watts 
has special knowledge, here modestly passed over. The last thirty- five 
pages of the guide are devoted to an account of the fossils displayed, pre- 
faced by an outline of the classification of the animal kingdom. This 
latter feature seems beside the purpose of the guide, and might have been 
handed over to the zoological department of the museum, especially as 
there is no corresponding introduction to mineralogy and petrology in 
the earlier portion of the book. It is impossible to do justice to the de- 
tails of animal structure in such limits ; this is apparent in the description 
of the older and modern types of crinoids (p. 100), of the limbs of trilo- 
bites (p. 102), and of the pulmonata (p. 105) as "lung-bearing shellfish." 
In the survey of the special palaeontology of Ireland, the gender of certain 
specific names is open to correction ; but the information seems to rival 
the petrological portion in the attention given to recent work. As ex- 
amples, the Durham concretions are correctly mentioned as "calcite" 
(p. 109) ; while Pucksia MacHenryi already finds a place as an Irish fossil. 
An important list of figured and type-specimens in the collection con- 
cludes this section of the guide. 

Altogether, this little paper-covered volume is a real addition to our 

libraries, and its excellences are likely to be appreciated by the specialist 

even more than by the enquiring visitor. It will now be impossible to 

enter upon research in any Irish county, without referring in the first 

place to what Messrs. McHenry and Watts have thought fit to say upon 

the subject. 

Grenvii,i,E A. J. Coi,E. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Quartz, Quartz-rocks, and Quartzltes. 

To the Editors of the Irish Naturalist. 
Tn a paper recently published by the Royal Irish Academy on "Quartz, 
Qnartz-rocks, and Quartzites," I notice that Mr. Kinahan quotes some 
passages from a letter written by me to him on the subject of sinters 
from Iceland. As his statement, made just before the first quotation, is 
open to some little misunderstanding, and as I have no copy of the 
letter, I am compelled to ask him, through you, to publish any statement 
in my letter, except that which he has already quoted, which has any 
bearing on the clastic structure of sinters. If he will be good enough 
to do so, the bearing of the study of sinters on quartzites and quartz- 
rocks will be a little clearer. 

W. W Watts, 
Corndon, Worcester-road, Sutton, Surrey. 



L 3^1 ] 
NOTES, 



BOTANY. 



FUNGI, 



The Utility of noting Fungrus-Iocalltles,— Despite the universal 
abundance of the Daisy, the parasitic cluster-cup fungus which it some- 
times harbours, is so rare that I had never, until a few weeks ago, come 
across it. Happening to be at Woodenbridge, Co. Wicklow, on August 
25th, and remembering that the fungus had been recorded from here by 
Mr. Greenwood Pim a good many years ago, I kept a sharp look-out 
whilst walking up the " Gold-mines Valley," and was rewarded by find- 
ing an abundance of this rare species. It was formerly called (Ecidium 
co7?ipositarum var. bellidis, D.C., but is now known to be only a stage in the 
life-history of Fuccinia obsctcra, Schroet., the other, or teleutospore stage, 
being passed on Luzida cainpestris. 

E. J. McWeenjsy, Dublin. 

A curious Coincidence. — For several years I have carefully ob- 
served Fumaria officinalis in order to ascertain if it ever became atta<:ked 
by fungal parasites — but always in vain. Last August a plant was 
sent me from Westport by a friend who is commencing the study of field- 
botany, and wanted to be told the name of the specimen. As luck would 
have it, that very plant of Fmnaria was severely infected with a parasitic 
mould which I had never before seen — Feronospora affiiiis, Rossm., de- 
scribed by Massee as " rare." Rare it certainly is about Dublin, for out 
of the hundreds of specimens of the host-plant I have examined, not one 
presented the parasite, whilst it is accidentally present on the only 
specimen I have ever seen from Co. Mayo ! 

E. J. McWeeney 



MOSSES, 

The WIoss Flora of Aran. — The visit of the combined Field Clubs 
to Aranmore took place at the very worst season for collecting mosses, 
and the meagre list published does not do justice to the bryology of the 
island. Aranmore, with its dry limestone rocks, cannot promise a 
copious moss flora, but yet, in winter or early spring, it might very well 
repay a search, A full enumeration for this western outlier would be 
very interesting, and it is to be hoped that ere long some local botanist 
may undertake this work. Going there by steamer in May, 1891, and 
stopping all night, I had an afternoon and a morning's work amongst 
the plants. The search for mosses was not, on this occasion, the primary 
object, and the near approach of summer did not authorise the hope of 
much results as regards these moisture-loving plants. Nevertheless 
some damp nooks did turn up affording suitable habitats, and my list of 
species, collected in Aran, includes the following, which do not appear to 
have been found by the Field Clubs, whose report is the only record of 
Aran mosses that I can find : — Dicranujn scopariuni. L. ; Tortula ttwntana, 
Nees. ; Cinclidoius fontinaloides, L. ; Grimviia heterosticha, Muell. ; Orthotrichtan 
saxatile, Brid. ; Fiinaria hygroinetrica, L. ; Breutdia chrysocoma, Dicks. ; Hypmon 
striatum, Schreb. ; Neckera coviplanata, L. ; Fottia Heijnii, Hedw. ; Mollia 
nitida, Lindb. ; Grijiimia prtcinosa, Wils. ; Zygodon viridissitmts, Dicks. ; 
Funaria obttisa, Dicks. ; Bryitm ccespititiutn, ly. ; Anomodon vitictdosis, ly. ; and 
Hypnum rusciforme, Neck. 

S. A. Stewart, Belfast. 



3i8 The Irish Naturalist. 



CHARACE^E. 

Irish Characcae. — In the Journal of Botany for October, Messrs. 
Groves publish their records of British Characese for the last five 5-ears. 
We are glad to see Irish plants figuring prominently in the lists of new 
stations for the various species and varieties. Most of the Irish notes 
here given have been already published in the paper Avhich Messrs, 
Groves contributed to these pages at the beginning of the present 
vear. 



PHANEROGAMS. 

Flora of Howth.— Miss Jeannette Featherstonhaugh sends a speci- 
men of Aniennaria dioica, gathered early this summer, growing among 
heather on the upper cliff-walk. This forms an interesting addition to 
the flora of Howth. 

R. LiyOYD Praeger. 

Aran Island Brambles.— When on Aranmore in July, I collected 
specimens of the few forms of Rubus that grew there ; and they have 
since been submitted to Rev. W. Moyle Rogers, whose notes did not 
reach me in time for insertion in the botanical report of the Galway 
Conference. The Rti/>us-^or2i of Aran appears to be very limited, and 
consists almost entirely of R. riisticanus, R. corylifolius, and R. cizsius, and 
their h3'brids. A more interesting form, and the only other form I 
gathered, was R. fnollissimus, Rogers {Joiirn. BoL, February, 1894). This 
plant was also the only bramble which grew on Inismacdarragh, a re- 
mote islet of the Connemara coast, celebrated for the beautiful primitive 
church which stands on it, and other remains of early Christianity. Mr. 
Rogers writes — " The Aran Rzibi are apparently very poor. Where 
rusticanus and the civsii appropriate the ground they seem to try to make 
up for the want of other allies by hybridising endlessly. But your 
finding ?nollissimus there is very interesting." 

R. L1.OYD Praeger. 

Carex fusca, All. (=^C. Buxbaumll, Wahl.) In Scotland.— 

To the Annals of Scottish Natural History for October, Mr. Arthur Bennett 
contributes a short paper on the recent finding of Carex fusca (better 
known as C. Buxbaumii) in Scotland, which interesting discovery had 
been already announced in the Journal of Botany for September. The 
interest of this find to Irish botanists lies in the fact that for the long 
space of sixty years this has been considered an exclusively Irish plant 
as regards the British Isles. It was discovered in 1835 by Dr. David 
Moore on Harbour Island, lyougli Neagli, near Toome, and has not since 
been found elsewhere either at Lough Neagh or in other localities. As it 
is a native of Scandinavia, and Central Europe, its occurrence in Scotland 
does not come as a surprise. The station where it has now been found 
by Mr. W. F. Miller, is in the district of Arisaig in Inverness-shire, on 
the swampy margins of a small loch, where the finder reports five large 
patches of the plant. The discovery is of importance also, since, on 
account of drainage and grazing, it is doubtful if the plant still survives 
in its only Irish habitat. May it long flourish undisturbed on the 
margins of this remote Scottish loch. 

Old Plant Remedies. — In the Dublin Journal of Medical Science for 
September, Dr. Henry S. Purdon writes on "Old Native Remedies." 
Those who are interested in the medicinal uses, real and imaginary, of 
our native plants, will find interesting information in Dr. Purdon's 
article, which deals with the plants formerly or still in use in the neigh- 
bourhood of Belfast. 



Notes. 319 

ZOOI.OGY. 



CRUSTACEA. 

TheWoodlfce of Co. Carlow. — An expedition was organised by 
the Royal Irish Academy Fauna and Flora Committee in the spring of 
this year to Borris in the County Carlow. The principal object of the 
Committee in the selection of this locality was to try and discover the 
Crested and the Palmated Newts, which had been reported to occur there. 
Though plenty of the Common Newt were found, the rarer ones succeeded 
in evading capture, and we still remain in the same position as last year 
in regard to them — namely, we have nothing at all to show but reports 
that they live in Ireland. 

The expedition was more successful with the invertebrates. Mr. 
Halbert will shortly publish an account of the coleoptera of the Borris 
district, many of which are new to Ireland. The following species of 
woodlice were obtained : — 

Trichoniscus pusillus, T. vividus. Porcdlio scabcr, Cylisticus convexus, 
Platyarthrus Hoffmanseggii (only at Bagenalstown in the nest of the ant 
Myrinica rubra), Oniscus asellus, Philoscia niiiscoriini and Arniadilliduun vidgare. 

It will be remembered that I mentioned in my paper on the Irish 
Woodlice {Irish Naturalist, vol. iii., 1894), that Trichonisais vividus w^as 
found only at Waterford. It had not been obtained anywhere else in 
fact in the British Islands. The discovery of this very rare species along 
the banks of the River Barrow is therefore of much interest. None of 
the other species, except perhaps Cylisticus convexus, deserve special 
mention, this being only the second Irish locality. 

R. F. SCHARFF, Dublin. 



INSECTS. 

The Strldulatlon of Corixa.— At Mrs. J. H. Thompson's residence 
I had the opportunity of observing on two distinct occasions the 
stridulation of Corixa. I was attracted by the peculiar notes proceeding 
from the glass vessel in which the creatures were preserved for 
observation. Having watched till I identified the one performing, I 
was rewarded by a fine opportunity. Perched on a piece of the 
vegetable matter' with which they seem to love to amuse themselves, the 
little fellow with the two front legs brushed to and fro rapidly the sides 
of his mouth, and at the time of this brushing the sound was produced. 
I noticed also a slight change in the note, but could not detect any 
corresponding change in the movement. 

James Robertson, Cork. 

New Irish Ichneumons. — Mr. Bignell of Plymouth informs me 
that two hymenopterous parasites bred from larvae of Sesia scoliifortnis 
which I took at Killarney belong to the genus Pimpla, and are probably 
a species new to science. This suggests that research in Ireland would 
probably result in additions to our list of parasitic Hymenoptera. 

W. F. DE V. Kane, Mouaghan. 

BIRDS. 

Rare Birds near Wexford. — Two of my boys were out shooting 
on 24th August, and one shot an Avocet in good plumage and the other 
a Black-tailed Godwit. Another Godwit of the same kind was shot by 
one of them on September 17th. The Avocet was by itself feeding at the 
edge of a pool in marshy ground, and the Godwit was with some Ring 
Plovers on the edge of a sandbank in Wexford Harbour. The second 
Godwit was shot near where the Avocet was got. All specimens are in 
the hands of Messrs. Williams & vSons, Dame- street. 

E. A. Gibbon, Rosslare, Wexford. 



330 The Irish Naturalist, 



PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



RovAi, Z001.0G1CA1, SociEi'y. 

Recent donations comprise a Kingfisher from Miss Lees, a dozen Trout 
and other fish from F. Godden, Esq., a Brown Bear from Lieut. R. 
Travers, a Lemur from Dr. More Madden, and a Seal from F. Flynn, Esq. 
A Red Deer fawn and three Lion cubs have been born in the gardens ; 
while a Gibbon, another representative of the man-like Apes, three Bar- 
bary Apes, two Axolotls, six Hedgehogs, and a pair of Geese have been 
purchased. 

12,680 persons visited the gardens during September. 



Dublin Naturai^ists' Fiei^d CIvUb. 

September 7th. — The Club held an Excursion to Gormanstown. 
The weather was delightful, and a party of thirty-five proceeded by the 
2.0 train northward, and entered the picturesque grounds of Gormanstown 
Castle, where the afternoon was spent. The season was rather late for 
the collecting of flowering plants, but numerous fungi were peeping up 
through the dead leaves in the woods, and a number of species were 
observed by Dr. M'Weeney, who found that one of the most remarkable 
features of the day's collecting was the abundance of the genus Hygro- 
phorus, which comprises bright-coloured mushroom-like species of a 
peculiar waxy consistence. They are usually found much later on in 
the season. To the heavy rains in August must doubtless be attributed 
their early appearance this year. The species taken included Hygrophoriis 
praiensis, Fr., H. coccineus, SchaefF, H. chlorophamts^ Fr., H. psittacinns, Fr., 
H. niveus, Fr,, H. russo-coriaceus, B. and Br., H. nemorens, Fr., H. 
calyptrceformisy Bk., Clavaria fastigiata, Linn., Helvella crispa, Fr., Leotia 
lubrica, Pers., Pcziza badia, Pers., and Sporodinia aspergillus, Schriit. 
The last-named, a beautiful parasitic mould, was taken in its 
sporangiferous stage on a decaying agaric ; whilst awaiting examina- 
tion, it conjugated, forming numerous zygospores. The chief interest 
of the Gormanstown demesne lies in the fine old timber and rare shrubs. 
Near the Castle stands a marvellous old Mulberry, whose history can be 
traced back for 700 years. Close at hand are beautiful walks between 
rows of ancient Yews, overshadowed by the far-stretching flat branches 
of a great Cedar. Acacias and Cork-trees flourish exceedingly, and a 
summerhouse has been built of cork grown on the estate. A glorious 
Beech-tree came in for much admiration ; its branches sweep the ground 
over an immense area, and have taken root, and will remain as separate 
trees long after the parent has gone the way of all timber. In the walled- 
in garden was pointed out an enormous Pear-tree, stated to be the largest 
in Ireland. The district was not rich in insects. The pretty plant-bug 
Phytocoris tilicB was taken in numbers by beating lime ; its variegated 
patterns harmonising well with the lichen-covered twigs. Among the 
spiders were Lycosa ruricola, Linyphia clathrata, and Bathyphantes nignmis, 
wdiile Oligolophiis iridens and Liobmmni Black-wallnwQve noteworthy harvest- 
men. The members returned to the station in time to catch the 6. 28 
train to town. Miss E. H. Goodbody, and Messrs. R. A. Cammack and 
H. G. Tempest, were elected Members of the Club. 



>/ 



^jje ^vx^lj ^ainvcili&t 



Vol. IV. DECEMBER, 1895. No. 12. 



■>■ ' " t M. 



NOTKS ON GIvACIAI, DEPOSITS IN IRKI.AND. 

BY PROFe:SSOR W. J. SOI,I,AS, F.R.S., AND R. I.I,OYD PRAKGKR, B.^. 



II. — Kii,i,-o'-THS Grange:. 

[Read before the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, 12th February, 1895]. 

Thk important brickworks of Kill-o'-the Grange are situated 
near the southern shore of Dublin Bay, being distant a mile 
and a half S.W. of the town and harbour of Kingstown. The 
surface of the ground at the works is just 150 feet above 
ordnance datum ; the surrounding country is undulating and 
drift-covered, rising gradually from the sea to the base of the 
granite hills, ofwhichthenearest (Three-Rock Mountain, 1,479 
feet) is distant four miles to the W.S.W. Kill-o'-the Grange 
lies on the Leinster granite area, near its northern limit, the 
junction with the Carboniferous limestone being about two 
miles to the northward. About two and a half miles to thQ 
S.K. lies the northern end of the well-known coast-section of 
Killiney Bay, which we have discussed in a previous papers 

The excavations which have been made to procure clay at 
the brickworks, and gravel in the adjacent meadows, afford 
an excellent section of the local superficial deposits. As in 
other sections in this neighbourhood which we have described,^ 
we find here a thick deposit of I^awer Boulder-clay, capped by 
stratified gravels, large blocks of rock being prevalent at the 
junction of the two. The Boulder-clay is here about thirty- 
five feet thick, and homogeneous throughout. It rests on an 
uneven bed of granite, the projecting portions of which are 
rounded and smoothed, and strongly grooved in aN.W. and S.E. 
direction. Near its base, the Boulder-clay presents a peculiar 
character, causing it to be known among the workmen as 

' /n's/i Naturalist, iii,, 13 (1894). '■ Loc. at. and I.N., iii., 161, 194. 

A 



322 The Irish Naturalist. 

"tea-leaf," a name which aptly expresses its appearance. 
This is the result of a foliated structure, the folise being very 
irregular in form, and their faces, as revealed on breaking 
the clay, being extremely smooth and shining. The '' tea- 
leaf" clay passes upwards imperceptibly into typical Boulder- 
clay, dark brown in colour, very hard, fine, and smooth in 
texture, and containing a fair number of pebbles, generall}^ 
rather small, and most of them glaciated ; also occasional 
blocks of large size ; and sparingly scattered marine shells, 
usually in fragments, with now and then a scrap of lignite. 

Our first visit to this interesting deposit was on the occasion 
of an excursion of the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club on 28th 
April, 1894 ; what we saw on that occasion decided us to 
return, and since then we have paid frequent visits to the 
localit}^ The advantages of working this section were two- 
fold — the constant excavation presented continually new faces 
of the clay for examination ; and the workmen were speedily 
induced to pick out and preserve every shell or other organic 
object that they observed. In these ways a representative 
collection of the rocks and fossils contained in the deposit 
was speedily accumulated. The workmen showed industry 
and observation in their collecting ; their instructions were 
to preserve anything in the nature of a shell which the}- found 
in the pit, and their findings showed curiously how extraneous 
objects make their way even to an isolated spot like this. 
We have no reason to believe that their collecting was not 
genuine ; 3'et it was surprising to receive among numerous 
glacial fossils a fresh specimen of an Oliva and two of a 
foreign Nassa, in addition to oysters, cockles, limpets, and 
periwinkles which were evidently of recent origin ; but even the 
freshest of the shells natural to the clay could be distinguished 
from all these at a glance, by their different texture, colour, 
and state of preser^-ation. The weakest point in the men's 
collecting was that pieces of small or fragile shells were likely 
to be passed over or smavShed. 

The following is an annotated list of the shells obtained ; 
we have added the exivSting range of each species with reference 
to Great Britain. We are much indebted to Messrs. Iv- T. 
Newton, F.R.S., and Percy F. Kendall for assistance given in 
the determination of some of the fragments. 



Notes on Glacial Deposits in Ireland, 32 



Pectcn opercular Is, L.— One fragment. Present distribution, 
north and south of Great Britain. 

P. maxitnus, L.— One fragment of a large specimen: Present 
distribution, north and south. 

Lima subauriculata, INIont.— One beautiful and perfect valve, of 
full size, was washed out of the material filling the spire of a Chrysodovms 
re7r7'sus. Present distribution, north and south. 

Mytilus modiolus, I^.— Two fragments. Present distribution, 
northern only. 

Pectunculus glycymcris, L.— Seven pieces, one of them a nearly 
perfect well-preserved valve. Present distribution, north and south. 

Cyprlna island ica, L.— By far the most abundant fossil in the 
deposit, but in spite of its strength, the shell is invariably broken into 
fragments. Out of over 150 pieces collected, the largest is only if-inch 
in length. Most of the fragments belong to fully-grown specimens ; a 
few to )-oung shells. The fragments are in general quite angular, with 
sharp edges. Three pieces are somewhat scratched and smoothed on 
both sides ; two others are much scratched and polished, with sharp 
edges; and another two are beautifully polished, with most of the edges 
rounded. In all these pieces the markings show about equally on each 
side ; in at least a dozen others, the smooth inner side shows scratches. 
A few pieces are bored by Cliona. Present distribution, chief!}' northern. 

Astartc sulcata, Da C, var. eiiiptica.— Six complete valves, and 
twenty-six fragments. This variety, which is the northern form of the 
species, and does not now range south of Britain, alone occurred. 

A. compressa, Mont, var. striata. — Three perfect valves. Present 
distribution, northern only. 

A; borealis, Chemn. — Twenty specimens occurred, one of them 
being a beautifully complete and fresh valve ; several others were only 
slightly broken. Present distribution, high northern, and not British. 

Venus casina, L. — Frequent ; thirty-six fragments were found, but 
no complete specimen, which is certainh' remarkable, as this is one of 
the most strongly-built of British shells. Present distribution, north 
and south. 

Tel Una toalthica, L.— Five complete specimens, and twelve others, 
most of them only slightly broken. One shell was bored, perhaps by a 
Natka. Present distribution, north and south. 

Solen slllciua, L.— One fragment. It ranges north and south of 
Britain. 

IVlya truncata, L.— Seven fragments were found. Present distri- 
bution, chiefly northern. 

Panopaea norvegica, Speng.— Twenty-one fragments of this fine 
shell occurred, some of them being beautifully glaciated. Its present 
distribution is entirely northern ; in Britain it is now found on the 
Dogger Bank only, in about 30 fathoms. 

Saxicava rugosa, L.— Four pieces. Present distribution, ever}-- 
wliere. 

Dcntalium entalis, L.--Two broken specimens. Present distri- 
bulion, north and south. 

Littorina rudis, Maton.~Two specimens, slightly broken, a fully- 
grown one, and a young shell. Present range, north and south. 

Turritella terebra, L. — Sixteen broken specimens. Present dis- 
tribution, north and south. 

Natica Alderi, Forbes.— One small complete example, which has 
been bored through near the lip. Present distribution, north and south. 

A 2 



324 The Irish Naturalist. 

T*\xrx^\xr3. lapillus, Iv. — Two specimens, complete, but much 
smoothed and worn. Present range, north and south. 

Chrysodomus (Fusus) contrarius, L.— Two almost complete 
specimens, and fragments of at least half a dozen others. This reversed 
form occurs throughout the newer Pliocenes, but is extremely rare in 
our present seas. 

Pleurotoma rufa, Mont. — One complete specimen. Present range, 
north and south. 

In addition to the above, there are a number of species 
which are not j^et positively identified, and are withheld for the 
present. Among them, is a Pecten, three species of Cardiuvi, 
a Cardita % a Macfra, two species of Nassa, and two of Fusiis. 
There are besides fragments of at least half a dozen other 
species, quite indeterminable ; so that the total molltiscan 
fauna which we have collected at Kill-o'-the Grange numbers 
abottt thirty-eight species, represented by some 400 specimens. 
As to the physical characters of this large assemblage, the 
remarks appended to the note on Cyprina islandica appl}' to 
all ; the shells are very hard and fresh-looking, almost 
invariably broken, mostly with sharp angles and edges, thotigh 
in some the edges are thoroughl}^ rounded ; some of them 
are striated, and a few are beautifull}' polished. 

Before considering the faunistic characters of this assemblage, 
it may be well to enumerate the other animal forms discovered. 
Of CirripedeSj Balanus .^«;;^^n was represented by four pieces. 
It is a species of northern facies, occurring rather sparingly 
and generally in deep water. Several Ostracoda were detected ; 
but they have not yet been named. A polyzoon washed out 
of the spire of a univalve also awaits determination. Thanks 
to the kindness of Mr. Joseph Wright, F.G.S., we are able to 
state that Foraminifera are abundant in the cla}-, and to give 
the following list of species obtained in abotit ir, lb. of 
material sent to him. 

lYIlIioIina seminulum (Linne). — Rare 

lYI. trlcarlnata (D'Orb.) — Very rare. 

IVI. sub rotunda (Mont.) — Frequent. 

IVI. tenuis (Cz.) — Ver}' rare. 

Textularia globulosa, Ehr.— Common. A common fossil of the 
North of Ireland Chalk. 

Bulimlna pupoides, D'Orb.— Rare. 

B. fuslformis, Will. — Frequent. 

BoIIvtna punctata, D'Orb — Rare. 

B. pllcata, D'Orb.— Rare. 

B. lobata, Br.— Rare. 

B. dllatata, Rss. —Common. 



Nolcs on Glacial Deposits in Ireland. 325 

Cassidutina laevigata, D'Orb.— Rare. 

C. crassa, D'Orb. — Very common. 

Lagena apiculata, Rss.— Rare. 

L. seriato-granulosa, Rss..^— Very rare. 

L. squamosa (Mont.)— Very rare. 

L. hexagon a (Will.)— Very rare. 

Nodosaria orthopleura, Rss.— Very rare. This is a Crag species. 

N. hispida, D'Orb.— Very rare. 

Rhabdogonium tricarinatum (D Orb.) -Very rare. 

Lingulina tenera, Born.— Very rare. Common in the Antrim 
lyias. 

Uvigcrina angulosa, Will.— Common. 

U. nodosa, D'Orb.- Very rare. Common in the North of Ireland 
Chalk. 

Cristellai*ia cultrata (Mont.) Very rare. 

CIobIgei*!na bulloides, DOrb.— Very common. 

C. crctacea, D'Orb. —Frequent. A Chalk fossil. 

C. asqui lateral is, Br.— Common. A Chalk fossil ; it has also been 
dredged off the West of Ireland, but the Kill-o'-the-Grange specimens 
look similar to those found in Chalk. 

Orbulina universa, D'Orb.— Rare. 

Discorbina rosacea (D'Orb.)— Very rare. 

D. sp. — Very rare. 

Rotalia Beccarii (Linn6).- Very rare. 

R. orbicularis, D'Orb. — Rare. 

Truncatulina lobatula (W. & J.)— Frequent. 

Nonionina depressula (W. & J.)— Very common. 

N. orbicularis, Br. — Frequent. 

N. scapha (F. & M.)— Rare. 

Polystomella crispa (Linne). — Rare. 

P. striatopunctata (F. & M.)— Frequent. 

Mr. Wright remarks that Foraminifera are quite abundant 
in the clay ; the fauna is in general what one would expect 
to find in shallow water around our present coasts, but mixed 
with these are derived species, some of them being compara- 
tively plentiful ; these derived forms are clearly distinguishable 
from those properly of the clay by their chalky texture, as 
well as by their generic and specific characters. 

Viewing generally the Kill-o'-the-Grange fauna, and leaving 
out species certainly derived from older formations, and species 
whose identity is doubtful, we have first a group of twenty-two 
mollusca — fifteen lamellibranchs, a scaphopod, and six gastro- 
pods ; of these, one species {Astarte borealis) is an arctic shell, 
not now found in the British area. Several others, such as 
the remaining species of Astaric, Panopcca norvegica^ and 
Mytihis modiohcs, have now outside of Britain au entirely 



326 The Irish Naticralisi. 

northern range; the remainder are widely distributed both 
north and vsouth of Britain. It will thus be seen that the 
fauna has a northern, but by no means an arctic aspect. 
Indeed the absence of such arctic s\)qciqs 2i.s Lcda pcrnula, &c., 
which usually characterize the Boulder- clay fauna, is worthy 
of special note. As to the bathymetrical characters of the 
fauna, a few of the species, such as Solai, Littorina and Pur- 
pura, are purely littoral ; the majority are such as live in five 
to twenty fathoms of water : and one or two, such as Lima 
subaitriculata and Panopxa norvegica usually inhabit a some- 
what greater depth ; to these last must be added the Cirripede 
Balanus Hameri. The Foraminifera do not lend themselves to 
an analysis of this kind, as they occur throughout a much 
less restricted bathymetrical range ; but the occurrence of 
forms derived from Secondary rocks is of great importance, 
and will be referred to later on. 

Among the specimens collected by the workmen were a 
number of Liassic fossils, most of them striated and polished. 
The following is a list, arranged according to zones, of the 
species found ; we are indebted for their determination to Mr, 
A. H. Foord, F.G.S. :— 

ScHlothelinia ang:ulata, vSclilotli, ") 

Lima grlg^antea, Sow. | 

Cryphaea Incurva, Sow. f Lower Lias. 

Cai^dinla Listeri, Stutch. | 

VEgoceras Portlockii, Wri^lit. J 

Bclemnltes brcviformis, Voltz., var. y| ^^-^^^^^^ ^ 
Lytoccr'as fimbrlatus, vSow. > 

Mai*poccras bifrons, Brug. f pper Lias. 

Of these, the most abundant was Gryphcta incurva, of which 
over a dozen specimens were obtained ; of Cardinia Listeri 
four were found ; of Lima gigantea three ; and of LLarpoccras 
bifrons two. The most southern exposure of the Liassic 
system in Ireland is a few miles south-west of Belfast, whence 
it extends to the northern coasts of Antrim and Derry, the 
principal exposures being at Larne and Ballintoy. These 
beds belong to the lower division only, the highest zone 
noticed by Tate being marked by Bclemnitcs acutus at Larne. 
It is remarkable therefore to find in the Kill-o'-the-Grange 
Boulder-clay not only fossils of the Lower Lias, but two 
species of Middle Lias age, and one, LLarpoccras bifrons, which 
is characteristic of a particular zone of the Upper Lias. 



Notes on Glacial Deposits in Ireland. 327 

From a clean face in the lower portion of the deposit of 

Boulder-clay, we gathered 129 stones and pebbles at random, 

which, when examined, yielded the following percentages : — 

Carboniferous limestone, - - - 38' 2 

Basalt, - - - - - - 15*8 

Carboniferous sandstone, - - - 15*0 

Hard chalk, - - - - - 5'o 

Slate, - - - - - . 5-0 

White quartzite, - - - • Z'^i 

Felstone, - - - - - Tt'Z 

Black flint, - . . . _ 2*5 

Cambrian sandstone, " - - - - 2*5 

Cambrian slate, - - - - - 1*6 

Coal-measure shale, - - - - i*6 

Black micaceous grit, - - - - i'6 

Triassic sandstone, . - . . -8 

Epidiorite, . .... -8 

Granite, ------ -S 

Rhyolite, - - - - - -8 

Lignite, ------ -8 

White quartz, - - - - - -8 ' 

lOO'O 

It will be immediately observed that although the deposit 
lies on granite, which extends in every direction for several 
miles, this rock was only represented in the 129 pebbles by a 
single specimen, w^hile more than half the total are derived 
from the Carboniferous rocks. Still more remarkable is the 
comparative abundance of basalts of precisely the same 
character as those which are found in places in the north of 
Ireland. But while this is certainly the nearest locality from 
which these rocks can have been derived, it by no means 
follows that they may not have come from points still further 
north The northern origin of the basalts is in accord with 
the occurrence of no less than 7*5 per cent, of Cretaceous rocks. 
None of the other pebbles call for special remarks except one 
of rhyolite agreeing in character with that of Forkill near 
Dundalk, the nearest point fronr which it can have been 
derived. 

In addition to collecting pebbles for per-centage purposes, 
we paid special attention to the larger blocks. These occur 
almost exclusively on the denuded surface of the Boulder-clay 
at the base of the overlying gravels, and they present a very 
interesting assemblage. Among numerous specimens of 
riebeckite-beahng granophyre (Ailsa Craig rock) may be 
mentioned one angular block measuring i' ;< 8" x 8". Its sur- 
face was rough, and did not exhibit striation. Of the various 



328 The Irish Naturalist. 

agents that have been suggested as having effected the trans- 
port of this Scotch rock, seaweed would in this instance 
appear to be excluded, both by the size of the block, and by 
the distance which it has travelled. Large fragments of Chalk 
flint were found, one sharp-edged piece measuring 8" x 6" x 6". 
A fine boulder of rhyolite or quartz porphyry occurred, 
probably from Forkill in Co. Armagh ; and near at hand 
was a large fragment of Coal-measure sandstone, streaked 
with undulating layers of coarse muscovite and carbonaceous 
matter, similar to sandstones which occur at Coalisland, Co. 
Tyrone, and Ballycastle, Co. Antrim. There were also blocks 
of Carboniferous limestone of considerable size, one being 2 ^ feet 
long by 2 feet broad ; and one of Old Red Sandstone measur- 
ing i' 6" X \ 6" X r. Leinster granite was rare, but one grand 
block was seen in sittc near the base of the Boulder- clay, 
rounded, with a rough unscratched surface, and measuring a 
yard in diameter. 

It will be seen from a consideration of the travelled fossils 
and rocks described above, that while many of them may 
have been derived from the north-east of Ireland, this cannot 
have been the case with all. The Ailsa Craig rock must 
certainly have come from the Clyde, or from some of the 
islands to the north of it. We know furthermore that Ireland 
furnishes Liassic fossils of the lower division only, and to 
e:jiplain the presence of Middle and Upper Lias fossils we are 
driven again to the Hebrideaii islands, where the zones which 
might have furnished them have been shown to exist by 
Judd"^ and others. And if the riebeckite-granophyre and a 
portion of the Lias fossils had their source in the Inner 
Hebrides, some of the basalts also may have come from this 
region. 

The occurrence in the clay of Liassic and Chalk foraminifera 
corroborates in a remarkable manner the evidence of the larger 
Liassic fossils and the travelled blocks ; all these derived 
foraminifera are found in the secondary rocks of Antrim, and 
none of them elsewhere in Ireland ; but, as in the case of the 
larger fossils and the erratics, some of them may have had 
a Scotch origin. 

*See Judd, "On the Secondary Rocks of Scotland," QJ.G.S. 34, 
(1S78), p. 660. 



Notes 071 Glacial Deposits in Ireland. 329 

The MoUuscan fauna points to a cold sea of moderate 
depth, and an adjoining shore-line. But the smashed con- 
dition of even the strongest shells, their polish, striation, and 
frequent rounding, are very remarkable features, and, coupled 
with the rounded and polished nature of the grains of sand in 
the clay, suggest that they have been exposed at some period 
of their history to beach conditions, and to the grinding and 
pounding of shore ice. 



COI^EOPTERA COIvLECTBD IN CO. CAREOW. 

(For the R.I. A. Flora and Fauna Committee.) 
BY J. N. HAI^BERT. 



Towards the end of last March the Royal Irish Academy 
Fauna and Flora Committee arranged for a short trip to the 
west of Co. Carlo w, the objects of which were various. Dr. 
R. F. Scharff wished to confirm the reputed occurrence there of 
two rare species of newts (see Irish Naturalist (current volume) 
p. 319), and at the same time to see what could be done in 
certain other groups, while Mr. David M'A.rdle collected the 
liverworts and mosses. During our stay of three days we 
worked the sheltered and pleasantly diversified Barrow valley 
between Goresbridge and Graiguenamanagh, and as all our 
captures were made sufficiently near Borris special localities 
are in most cases unnecessar}^ Unfortunately our visit was a 
little too early in the season, for the previous severe frosts 
would seem to have retarded the spring species, notably the 
Hydradephaga, which were decidedly rare, and in the terres- 
trial groups a little hard work was necessary to search them 
out from their yet undeserted winter quarters. There was a 
heavy flood in the Barrow and great numbers of Coleoptera 
were found in the refuse swept down and accumulated in low- 
lying places. The only records from the district are a few made 
by Dr. A W. Foot in the Proceedi?igs of the Diibliji Natural 
History Society for 1870. Dr. David Sharp has kindly given 
me much help with the difficult genus Honuilota, and I am also 
indebted to Mr. G. C. Champion. 

A 3 



330 



The Irish Naturalist. 



The following is a complete list of the species collected : — 



Carahus nemoralis, Miill. 
Notiophiluspahtstn's,T)n{t. 
Nebria brevicolHs, F. 
Loricera pilicornis, F. 
Acupalpns exiguus, Dej., 

var. h(?idus, Dej. 
Harpahis rujibarhis, F. 
H. rujicornis, F. 
Stoniis pnrnicatus, Panz. 
Pterostichxis versicolor, 

Sturm. 
P. madidus, F. 
P. vu/garis, L/. 
P. m'grita, F. 
P. streniius, Panz. 
P. vernaJis, Gyll. 
Amara trivialis, Gyll. 
A. communis, Panz. 
Calathus cisteloides, Panz. 
C. melanocephahis, L. 
A Hchomenus angusticollis, 

F. 
A. dorsalis, Mlill. 
- A . partimpunctatus, F. 
A. micans, Nic. 
A. puellus, Dej. 
Bemhidium rit/escens, 

Guer. 
13. viannerheimi , Salil. 
Trechus ininuiiis, F., var. 

obtusus, Er. 
. Dromius quadrimacidatus, 

L. 
Haliphis fuh'tis, F. 
//. riiJicoUis, DeG. 
//. lineatocoliis, Marsh. 
Hydroporus lepidus, Ol. 
U. palustrts, ly. 
//. jiigrita, F. 
Agabus bipustidatus, Ol. 
Gyrinus natator, Scop. 
G. opacus, Salil. 
IJydrobius fuscipes, L. 
. Anacosna globulus, Payk. 
Laccobius sinuatus, Mots. 
L. bipunctatus, F. 
: Jjiinnebius truncatellus, 

Thorns. 
Choetart/n-ia seminulum, 

Herbst. 
Helophorus nubihis, F. 
//. aquaticus, L. 
II. brevicollis, Thorns. 
Ilydrcena riparia, Kug. 
Cercyon hoemorrhoidalis, 

Herbst. 
C. lateralis, Marsh. 
C. melanocephahis, L. 
C pygmceus, 111. 



Cercyon analis, Pa3'k. 
Megasternum boleiopha- 

gum. Marsh. 
Cryptopleuron atomarium , 

F. 
Aleochar a fuscipes, F. 
.4. brevipennis, Grav. 

A. nitida, Grav. 
Astilbus canaliculatus, F. 
Homalota languida, Er. 
H. elongatula, Grav. 

//. volans, Scrib. 
//. grammicola, Gyll. 
H. circeUaris, Grav. 
//. analis, Grav. 
II. exilis, Er. 

B. atricolor Sharp. 
H. ati'amentaria, Gyll. 
H. longicornis, Grav; 

//. pilosiventris, Thoms. 
II. fungi, Grav. 
Falagra obscura, Grav. 
Lepiusa fumida, Er. 
Myl/iena dubia, Grav. 
Ilypocyptus loeviusculus, 

Mann. 
Tachyporus obtusus, I/., 

var. nitidicollis, Stepli. 
Tachinus Jlavipes, F- 
T. laticollis, Grav. 
Quedius tristis, Grav. 
Q. semiceneus, Steph. 
Q. boops, Grav. 
Ocypus morio, Grav. 
0. cupreus, Rossi. 
PhilontJius laminatus, 

Crevitz. 
P. addendus. Sharp. 
P. varius, Gyll. 
P. marginatus, F. 
P. trossulus, Nord. 
Othius fulvipennis, F. 
Lathrubium brunnipes, F. 
Stilicis rufipes, Germ. 
S. orbiculatus, Er. 
aS. affinis, Er. 
]\Iedon jvopinquus, Bris. 
Sunius dicersus, Aube. 
Stenus juno, F. 
S. speculator, Er. 
S. declaratus, Er. 
S. brunnipes, Steph. 
S. impressus. Germ. 
S. nitidiusculus, Steph. 
Platystethus arenarius, 

Fourc. 
Oxyteliis 1-ugosus, Grav. 
Trogophlatis bilineatus, 

Steph. 



Troqophlceiis elongatulus, 

Er. 
T. corticinus, Grav. 
Olophrum fuscum, Grav, 
Lathrohium atroceji/ialum, 

Gyll. 
L. unicolor, Steph. 
Omalium punctipenne, 

Thoms. 
Proteinus ovalis, Steph. 
Prognatha quadricornis, 

Lac. 
Pselaphus Heisei, Herbst. 
Dythinus bidbifer, Reich. 
Clambus armadillo, DeG. 
Hister neglectus, Germ. 
Onthopliilus striatus, F. 
Halyzia xvi-guttata, L. 
Scymnus testacAis, Mots. 
Atomaria mesomelas, 

Herbst. 
Epistemus globosus, Waltl. 
P. gyrinoides, Marsh. 
Cytilus varius, F. 
Melanotus rufipes, Herbst. 
Agriotes lineatus, ly. 
Cis boleti. Scop, 
C. nitidulus, Herbst. 
Donacia impressa, Payk. 
P/icedon tumidulus. Germ, 
P. cochleariie, F. 
Hydrothassa marginella^ L. 
Prasociiris jjhellandrii, L. 
Apteropeda orbiculatus, 

Marsh. 
Longitarsus luridus, Scop. 
Cassida sanguinoloita, F. 
C.Jiaveola, Thunb. 
C. equestris, F. 
C. viridis, L. 
Helops striatus, Fourc. 
Apion cerdo, Thoms. 
A. tilicis, Forst. 
A. dichroum, Bedel. 
Otiorrliynchus ligneus, 01. 
Strophosomus coryli, V'. 
Sciaphilus muricatus, F. 
Tropiphorus lomentosus. 

Marsh. 
Barypeithes sulcifrons 

Boh. 
Barynotus obscurus, F. 
Aloj)/ius triguttatus, F. 
Ilypera variabilis, Hrbst. 
H. nigrirostris, F. 
Liosoma ovatulum, Clairv. 
Ceuthorrhynchus pleuro- 

stigma, Marsh. 
Eubrychius velatus. Beck. 



Coleoptera Collected in County Carlow. 33 li 

The following species in the above list have not apparently 

been previously recorded as Irish. 

Homalota lang^uida, Br. — In moss on river bank, also in flood- 
refuse. Recorded as a rare species in the south of England. 

H. exilis, Er. — Several in flood-refuse. 

H. plloslventris, Thonis. — One example in moss. Rare. 

The Irish specimens of this difficult genus are frequently very puzzling 
through a tendency to var3% Dr. Sharp has seen any doubtful species. 
These were returned by him as correct, but marked as variations from 
the types. 

Olophrum fuscum, Grav.— Found amonst dead leaves in a wood 
near Graiguenamanagh. iV local northern species in Britain. 

Homalium punctlpcnne, Thoms. — Under bark of ash. The allied 
//. pusillnin, Grav., has been taken under fir bark in the north and west 
of Ireland. 

Prognatha quadricornis, Lac. — Under bark of moist decaying 
stumps. Ivocal, and an interesting addition to our list. 

Cassida sangruinolenta, F.— Taken in moss, on a gravelly bank 
between Borris and Goresbridge. 

Other species worthy of mention are Anchomeims pnellus^ 
Dej., found under a felled stump, recently taken on the Cork 
coast by Mr. H. G. Cuthbert. Anchomenus angusticollis, F., 
occurred in great abundance along river bank. Aleochara 
brevipennis, Grav., rare. Hister fieglectus, Germ., in flood- 
refuse ; this species seems to be of more frequent occurrence 
in Ireland than the common English H. carbonarms, Tel. 
Mclanotes ricfipes, Herbst., dug out of decayed ash. Barypeithes 
sulcifro7is, Boh., in moss, and Ezibrychius velatus, Beck., in 
flood-refuse. 

The following species were recorded by Dr. A. W. Foot, in 
the paper referred to above : — 

Chlccnius vestitus. Coccinella x-punctata. Aphthona nonstriata^ 

Sphcenduim scarahoeoides. Halyzia xiv-(juttata. ^lelo'd prosrarahocus. 

Sifpha riKjosa. H. conylobata. Api'on miniatunu 



THE LATE A. G. MORE. 

Many friends of the late eminent Naturalist, Alexander G. More, wish 
to see a short memoir of him published. Any one having letters or 
papers of interest would greatly oblige by lending them for selection to 
his sister, 

Miss More, 

74, I,einster-road, Dublin. 
November, 1895. 



iMi 



-^32 The Irish Naturatisi. 



o 



SOME WAIFS AND STRAYS OF THE CORK FLORA. 

BY R. A. PHII.I.IPS. 



In the following paper I have brought together a few notes 
selected from observations made during several years past on 
some of the more interesting plants found growing in the 
County Cork. M}^ chief object in so doing has been to record 
the rediscovery, and verify the existence, of several species, 
some of which were long ago discovered by the earlier Cork 
botanists and recorded in Dr. Power's flora,' but, which having 
become extinct or lost sight of for a time in their original 
stations, were excluded from the later floras.^ 

Such are Carduus nutans, and Hordawt pratensc, noted by 
Rev. T. Allin as ** probably extinct ;" Rumex pulcher, certainly 
extinct in its former station ; and Hyperictun hircimun and 
Hoi'deum muriiium, hitherto admitted only as casuals, but still 
flourishing in several districts. 

I have also mentioned additional localities for, or extended 
to a new district, a few of our rarer plants which have pre- 
viously been recorded from one or two stations only, and have 
added remarks on one or two species whose continued existence 
might be considered precarious. 

Papaver hytoridum, L. — Recorded by Dr. Power from Little Island, 
very sparingly, in 1841 ; still continues to hold its ground in this station, 
though it has not apparently increased, as in last August I found it at the 
same place in small quantit}' amid abundance of its near relations, P. 
Argenione and P. dtibmm. 

Arabis hirsuta, R. Br. — The only habitat of this species near Cork 
city was, I regret to say, recently destroyed, the old wall at Vosterberg, 
on which it was first found by the late Mr. T. Wright, having been taken 
down and rebuilt early this year. 

Armoracia rusticana, Rupp. — This is now one of the most abun- 
dant and conspicuous plants on a stretch of waste ground extending for 
about two miles between Tivoli and Glanmire. 

Dlplotaxls muralis, DC. — Recorded by Mr. Alexander as occurring 
near the Lower Glanmire Road previous to 1833, but disallowed by the 
later botanists, who considered it an error. During the past summer I 
have found it sparingly in one or two places on the railway embankment 
in the same locality. 

Lepldlum latffollum, L. — Still plentiful at Cork Beg, where it has 
held its own since Dr. Smith recorded it 125 years ago, and is now 
apparently spreading along the causeway which joins that island with 
the mainland. It is also still to be had at Rev. T. Allin's station near 
Kinsale. 

1 " Fauna and Flora of Co. Cork." 1845. 

2 " Cybele Hibernica," 1866; and " Flowering Plants and Ferns of Co. 
Cork," by Rev. T. Allin, 1883. 



Sonie Waifs and Strays of the Cork Flora. 333 

Cram be maritima, L.— A few plants of this species have been 
flourishing for several years past on the river-bank between Tivoli and 
Dunkettle. 

Viola canina, I,. — In May, 1893, I found this plant sparingly in 
Teniplemichael Glen. This is its second station in the county. 

Silene g^allica, L. — In a cornfield near Whitegate in September last. 
This was the t3-pical large-flowered form. 

Hypericum hircinum, L. — This certainly deserves a place among 
our naturalized exotics as, in several of the localities in which it occurs 
it is thoroughly established. At Glanmire and Eastferry it is abundant 
and spreading fjom walls to roadsides, rocks, and banks. 

H. calycinum, L. — One of the finest floral sights to be seen in the 
county is at Eastferry early in July, when the roadsides and broad banks 
of the Ballinacurra river are covered for a mile or more with profusion 
of this handsome plant in bloom. It is thoroughly naturalised in many 
localities. 

Geranium pratense, L. — Abundant on a rather mountainous road 
leading from Clonakilty to Rathbarry, and in fields in the same vicinity, 
August, 18S9 and 1890. To find this showy plant in plenty in the South 
of Ireland was quite an event in my botanical experience, but whether it 
is native or naturalised I cannot now decide, as, though I could not find 
traces of its former cultivation, it is hard to understand how so con- 
spicuous a plant, if it were native, should have escaped the notice of the 
older botanists. 

lYIedicago maculata, Sibth. — Still at Little Island, where it was 
discovered for the first time in Ireland, in 1840, by D. Murray. Plentiful 
in several places on the banks of the river near Eastferry. In the latter 
locality this plant is regarded by some of the natives as the " true 
shamrock," the dark spots on its leaves being said to have originated 
when St. Patrick touched them with his fingers while illustrating the 
doctrine of the Holy Trinity. 

Lepig^onum rubrum, Fries. — In September, 1894, I found this 
plant, hitherto recorded onl}^ from near Kilcoleman, in some plenty on 
waste ground near the Marina, Cork, where it was probably introduced. 

Sedum album, L. — In addition to its other stations this species is 
abundant and well established on walls and the railway embankment 
between Cork and Glanmire. I also found it on a wall at Glengariffe, in 
August, 1894. 

Saxifraga umbrosa, L. — The Rev. T. Allin omits this species, 
possibly through an oversight, from his eastern division of the county, 
but it still exists, though not plentifully, on rocks at Inniscarra, where it 
was first found by Drummond. 

Galium erectum, Huds.— This interesting species of "Germanic " 
type, recorded by Rev. T. x\llin from near Midleton, is abundant also in 
the extensive pastures at Trabolgan and Roche's Point near the mouth 
of Cork Harbour. This plant, so often sown with grass seeds, can 
scarcely be regarded with certainty as a native of Ireland. 

Dipsacus sylvestris, L. — "One plant at Berehaven." Writing in 
18S3, Allin thus records this species for his western division. Visiting 
Berehaven in 1894, I also found one plant only. But in 1890 I found it 
plentiful in the same division at about half-way between Clonakilty and 
the Island. 

Carduus nutans, L. — This rare and handsome plant was recorded 
from Little Island by Drummond in the beginning of the present 
century, but in Allin's flora it is stated that it had not been seen since 
1S53, and was probably extinct, the other recorded locality (Berehaven) 
being looked on as an error. I have, therefore, much satisfaction in 
giving it once again a place on our county list, having rediscovered it at 

A 4 



334 The Irish Naturalist. 

Little Island, where in one spot I counted last August over fifty plants, 
besides individuals on other parts of the island. I also found it the 
following month in a new station, namel}-, Poorhead, on the south coast 
of the county, where it is fairly plentiful in cultivated fields and on 
cliffs. 

Hieracium murorum, I.. — In July last I gathered specimens of this 
at Fota. This is, I think, its second station in the south of Ireland. 

Convolvulus Soldanella, L.— Stated by Allin to be "probably 
extinct " at Ballycotton, the only station then known for it in his eastern 
division of the county. In 1891 I found it plentifiil on the strand near 
Youghal, thus restoring it once more to a place on the list for that division. 
I also found it abundant on a strand about two miles east of Lough Hyne 
in 1889. 

Linaria minor, Desf. — This is now abundant along the railways from 
Cork to Oueenstown and Youghal, and also in a gravel pit at Midleton. 

Erinus alpinus, L. — This interesting and pretty South European 
plant seems well suited to our climate, the tops of many old walls in the 
suburbs of Cork being rendered quite dazzling in the early part of June 
by its bright rose-coloured flowers. At Blackrock, Douglas, and Victoria 
Cross, all limestone districts several miles apart, it is spreading rapidly and 
has made itself quite as much at home as its congener Linaria Cymbalaria. 

Salvia Verbenaca, L. — Clay Castle, Youghal. Allin notes this, its 
earliest station, as "probably destroyed," but I have gathered it there 
nearly every summer since 1891. In 1S90I found it plentiful on roadsides 
near Ardfield, Clonakilty. 

Rumex pulcher, L. — The Fiddle Dock, so very scarce in Ireland, has 
long been denied a place in the Cork flora, it having become extinct in 
its reputed station (Friar's Walk, Cork) long before the publication of 
" C3'bele Hibernica," but I have now no hesitation in placing it on the 
list once more, this time on better evidence, having found it in the 
neighbourhood of Whitegate, Cork Harbour, where I have watched it 
closely for the past two summers. In 1894 I first noticed it growing on 
an uncultivated portion of Cork Beg Island and also, one plant, by a road- 
side nearly two miles away. This year I searched more carefully and 
found it plentiful among the grass and bracken in different places at Cork 
Beg, and several fine specimens in a third station on the roadside between 
Whitegate and Fort Carlisle. I described the habitat to the late Mr. 
A. O. More last year, but he then stated that he did not think the plant 
was indigenous anywhere in Ireland, so that although it is perfectly well 
established and appears quite at home in the above-mentioned localities 
we must still regard it as a doubtful native. 

Milium cffusum, L. — In 1890 I found this rare grass in the woods 
at Castlefreke, thus making a new record for Allin's western division. 
This year I obtained good specimens in a new locality, i.e. Lota Wood, 
Glanmire, where it luxuriates in company with Festnca sylvatica and Carex 
pendula. 

Koelcria cristata, Pers. — Another of our rarest grasses. Sparingly 
on Cork Beg Island, 1894. This is its third recorded station in the 
county. 

Glyceria aquatica, Sm. — Still continues to hold its own in a 
stream running into the Lee near Cork. 

Bromus sccalinus, L- — Plentiful in a cornfield at Castlefreke, 
August, 1890. New to West Cork. 

Hordeum pratense, Huds. — Recorded by Dr. Power from three 
localities near Cork, but noted by Allin as " perhaps extinct in all." In 
1890 I rediscovered it in one of these stations, a marsh at the Little Island 
Bridge, and every year since have seen it at the same place. I have also 
gathered it in a similar habitat at the Blackrock end of Cork Park. 



Some Waifs and Strays of the Cork Flo7'a 335 

H. murinum, L. — Admitted by Alliii as a casual only, is still 
abundant on rocks at Haulbowline, where it was first noticed by the late 
Mr. J. Sullivan, and is also plentiful at Fort Carlisle, Cork Harbour, where 
I found it three years ago. 



AN ADDITION TO THE IRISH MOLLUSCAN 

FAUNA. 

BY R, F. SCHARFF, PH.D. 



Towards the end of last year, Dr., Westerlund described in 
the Nachrichtsblatt der deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft 
(26ter Jahrg., 1894, p. 205), a new species of Pisidium from 
Ireland which he named Pisidmm hibernicum. 

As no figure is given with the description, I herewith add 
an outline sketch (three times natural size) of the shell, so as 
to facilitate future diagnosis. I may mention that I discovered 
the species during the summer of 1893, in a small mountain 
tarn known by the name of Lough Nagarriva, about 1,200 feet 
above Glengariff, in the County Cork, and sent it to Dr. 
Westerlund for identification. The shell is thin, of a yellowish 
green colour, and remarkably ventricose, so much so that its 
breadth is equal to its height. It resembles Pisidium obtzisale, 
but is much more globular. Not only is it equal in breadth 
and in height, but also in length (see figures). 





The following is Dr. Westerlund's description : — 

Pisidium (Fossarina) hibernicum. — C. supra medium ventri- 
cosissima, lateribus leviter convexis regulariter ad marginem inferum 
declivis, truncato-ovata, ubique sulcato-striata, marginibus omnibus 
regulariter arcuatis, parte posteriore brevissima, anteriore duplo longiore, 
ad margines compressa, sed obtusissima ; umbones validi, lati, tumido- 
rotundati, prominentes. Long. 3I, rect. 3^, cr. 3^ mm. 



;^^6 The Irish Naturalist. 

MY BIRDS. 

BY REV. THOMAS B. GIBSON, M.A. 

( Conchided from page 3 13.) 

The Greenfinch is quite hardy ; and the cock is undoubtedly 

ornamental, though his plumage does not improve in the 

aviary ; but the melancholy note, and the other indicative of 

fright, are the only tones to which I am accustomed. The 

bird is not easily made quite tame, though an approach towards 

that state can be obtained with all of them. No bird is more 

easily obtained in Dublin ; and a price of three-pence, for the 

very best plumaged bird, is so small that one need never 

worry about losing a bird ; though, to be sure, a real bird-lover 

laments the loss of a cheap pet almost as much as he does 

that of a dear one. This bird is called — on account of its price 

I suppose— the " penny bird" by little boys in Dublin; and 

hens, at least, can easily be obtained at that rate. It, and the 

Bullfinch, are particularly fond of a branch in bud. This 

latter bird is a prime favourite with me ; and the pair I possess 

could hardly be tamer. They have built a nest, hatched and 

brought out young ; but the young died when only two or 

three days old, and the old ones have not nested this spring. 

The nest was loosely made, after the usual style, some of the 

hairs having been obtained by the cock out of my beard, after 

strenuous exertions. The hen — but not the cock, singularly 

enough — can pipe a few bars of " Pop goes the weasel" ; but I 

have never been able to teach any other tune — a circumstance 

due, I fear, to the incapacity of the teacher rather than the 

taught. The Bullfinch is fond of water; and usually disputes 

with the Bramblingfor first place at the bath, though he never 

plunges in or rolls about in the thorough-going way the 

latter does. Moulting-time is very serious in regard to 

the health of the Bullfinch — especially with the hen, 

which appears to lose almost all its feathers at once 

— but perhaps the impossibility of keeping the birds 

away from the hemp, in an aviary, may account for this. 

I have for about a year or so, kept a good many Crossbills ; 

but I am sorry to say only two survive now. One of these is 

very red in colour, being, I suppose, a year-old bird, while the 

other is yellowish and sings continuously. It must therefore, 

I suppose, be an older bird. At first, when I learned that 



My Birds, 337 

the wine-red colour was not the perfect phimage, I could 
hardly believe it ; but apparently the superior power of song 
in the yellowish fellow bears out the contention. As to the 
song I cannot agree with those who describe it as "harsh," 
" unmelodious," or " twittering." I like the song very much ; 
and I like the singer, too, who likes particularly to pour out his 
song whilst I am in the aviary, at a time when other birds, 
except the Siskin, restrain their notes. The bird is a delicate 
one ; or perhaps it may be that the food I can give is not 
sufficiently varied. It eats hemp-seed very voraciously ; and 
thoroughly enjoys apple-pips and berries, when I can get 
them. The Hawfinch is like the Crossbill in its dietary 
tastes ; but very unlike in other particulars. I have had three 
for nearly a year, a fourth having died soon after purchase. 
Both Crossbills and Hawfinches were obtained from England, 
though, I believe, visitors of both kinds have been observed 
in Ireland, even so near Dublin as the Phoenix Park. Of the 
habits of the Hawfinch I can tell little, as the only habit I 
have observed, for so far in it, is that of endeavouring to get 
as far away from me as possible whenever I enter the aviary. 
It is, however, a beautiful bird, though stumpy-looking on 
account of its thick beak and short tail. The notes, too, that 
issue from this formidable beak are ludicrously weak. It is 
said to be easily tamed, but dangerous to its companions — 
though I have never noticed either of those traits in m^^ 
specimens. It has a short quick call-note which is often 
heard ; but its song is only a sharp twittering. The colour 
of the eyes is most peculiar. 

The Buntings are satisfactory occupants of an aviary, 
especially the common Yellow Ammer, which is certainly my 
favourite. The cock is an incessant songster, and after five 
years captivity his plumage is as bright as ever. He seems 
to know no care or sorrow, and there are not many birds in 
my aviar>* I prize before him, though sixpence was the amount 
of his purchase-mone3^ The hen is ver}^ quiet, and not 
nearly so tame as her partner. I have a pair of Corn-Bunt- 
ings for nearly five years, yet they are still very wild and 
awkward, nor will they approach either food or water whilst 
I remain in the aviary. I cannot speak of them as favourites, 
but I do not agree with those who deny them the gift of 
song ; though the song be neither so sustained, nor sweet 
and melancholy as that of the Yellow Ammer The Cirl 



SS^ ^^^ /m// Naturalist. 

Bunting, of which I have had a pair, which died last winter, 
differs little, either in habits or appearance from the Yellow 
Ammer. It is, however, a more delicate bird in every way — 
in voice, in appearance, and in health. I obtained my speci- 
mens from Devonshire — a journey they bore very w^ell — 
probably because they do not seem to care much for water, 
but cold seemed to affect them more than it did any other kind 
of Bunting. The voice was soft and sweet, but of neither 
much quantity nor quality to boast of. The Reed Bunting, 
with its general resemblance to a Sparrow, his black cap, and 
sprightly habits, is a very interesting bird. He is very fond 
of water, and visits the bath oftener than any other bird, but 
he does not bathe so thoroughly as the Brambling, or even 
as the Yellow Ammer. He sings on into the night, with 
somewhat hurried, but soft notes, and he has a most harsh 
disagreeable call whenever disturbed whilst singing. Next 
to the Yellow Ammer in beauty of plumage comes the 
Snow Bunting. Of this kind I have got four specimens — 
two having been obtained from England, and the other two 
purchased on the street in Dublin. The cock of this latter 
pair is the most beautiful bird of the kind I have 3'et seen, 
and the largest too. The wings and abdomen are pure white, 
whilst the rest of the plumage is like that of the hen, of a 
rusty reddish colour. The bird has not got much of a voice, 
and seems deficient in powers of flight, the hens, though 
perfectly well, never even flying up to the seed trough, so 
that I have to scatter food on the boards for them. The cock, 
too, prefers remaining on the ground, though he does perch 
when I enter the cage, which the hens never do. 



GEOLOGY FOR RAILWAY TRAVELLERS. 
Scenery and Ceologry in County Antrim. By Grenvii^IvE A. J. 
Coi.K,F.G.S.; pp.19; Belfast: Printed for the Belf.& N. Cos. R. Co., 1895. 

The issue of such a pamphlet as this by an Irish railway company is an 
encouraging sign of the times, for it shows us that the high interest of 
the geological structure of north-eastern Ireland is expected to attract 
not a few travellers. Prof. Cole, in the clear style which our readers 
know so well, sets fofth the main points in the history of Co. Antrim, as 
told by the rocks, and the tourist who is furnished with this little guide 
will get truer and higher pleasure from his examination of the scenery 
than the idle sightseer. We trust that the enterprise of the Northern 
Counties Railway will be abundantly justified. 



[ 339 ] 

STUDIES IN CRITICAIv PLANTS. 

Botanical Exchangee CIuK) of the British Isles : Report for 
1894: Manchester, 1895. 

Eleventh Annual Report of the Watson Botanical Exchange 
Cluto, i894-95: York, 1S95. 

The) work of the two British Botanical Exchange Chibs, at first con- 
cerned with the greater part of the British flora, is year by year becoming 
narrowed into a study of critical species and varieties, owing, no doubt, 
to the filling up of gaps in the herbaria of the members. The latest 
reports of these Clubs, both of which are edited by Rev. W. R. Linton, 
M.A., afford interesting food for reflection to both "splitters" and 
"lumpers" on the vexed question of specific and varietal values. The 
close scrutiny and careful comparison that is now being made of our 
critical forms and those of the continent, will surely tend to an under- 
standing of their relative importance, and a general agreement among 
botanists as to how they are to be treated in systematic works. These 
Exchange Club reports year by year furnish valuable contributions to 
our knowledge of plant-distribution, and in this respect the present 
issues are npt behind those that preceded them. Irish plants do not 
figure very largely, but in the Watson report there is a fair sprinkling 
of them, thanks chiefly to the energy of Mr. H. C. Levinge. Mr. 
O'Kelly's find of Ajuga pyramidalis at Ballyryan, Co. Clare, furni.shes a 
second station in Ireland for this very rare plant, and is decidedly the 
most interesting record that catches our eye. The most remarkable 
feature of the Watson Club's report is the atrociol^s typographical 
errors, to which attention has already been called in the Journal of Botany. 
The Irish records have not escaped ; and the strange forms that some 
of the place-names have taken may puzzle some of our readers. 
" Magheradin," "Anieath," and " Grashill" should evidently read 
'* Magheralin," ''Omeath" and " Geashill" respectively. We presume 
that " Lough Beichan" stands for "Lough Brickland," more correctly 
"Lough Bricland," and "Castle Taly" for "Castle Taylor' "Ferry 
Noogan near Scarver" would furnish a pretty puzzle for future botanists, 
were the plant recorded therefrom of any value. R. LI. P. 

NATURAL SCIENCE IN SCHOOLS. 

Thirty-ninth Annual Report of the Newton School Literary 
and Scientific Association, 1895. 

At the Galway Conference of the Irish Field Club Union a resolution 
calling for the recognition of Natural Science in Irish Intermediate 
Schools was unanimously passed. We trust this will bear fruit some day. 
Meanwhile the Report before us shows that at the Newton School, 
Waterford, the pupils thems2lves realise the value of a love for natural 
objects. We find that work has been done during the year in the 
practical study of birds, insects, and plants. The Waterford district is 
highly promising for natural history research, and we look forward with 
confidence to much good work by this Society. One of its members, H. 
G. Tempest, was one of the most active naturalists on the Galway excur- 
sion and several of his discoveries are here duly chronicled. 



340 The Irish Naturalist. 



CORRESPONDKNCE. 



Quartz, Quartz-rocks, and Quartzltes, 

To the Editors of the Irish NATURAiyiST. 
Mr. Kinahan has been so good as to forward to me my letters 
addressed to him on this subject, and I will ask you to favour me by 
printing the whole of my second letter to him, except the two closing 
paragraphs which deal with other and private matters. The exact 
bearing of my study of the structures of siliceous sinters on the origin of 
quartzites, etc., will then be rather more clearly seen, 

W. w. Watts, 



28, Jermyn-street, S.W., 

January loth, 1895. 
Dkar Mr. Kinahan, 

I have had three examples of Icelandic sinters cut, and examined 
them with a view of testing the relationship between them and quartzite. 
Two out of the three show nothing but irregular layers of deposit which 
undoubtedly give rise to the cauliflower-like surface of the sinter. 

This consists of opaline silica which has very little reaction on 
polarized light and is consequently utterly difl"erent from the crystalline 
quartz which makes up the bulk of quartzites. Were such a rock broken 
up and recemented by geyser action it would present similar features. 
The broken grains would consist of opaline silica cemented by similar 
material, and would be different from any quartzites I know, which show 
grains of quartz — like sand-grains — which have grown larger by the 
addition of crystalline silica to their edges. 

The third slice, however, shows little nests or pockets full of minute 
angular sand-grains, chiefly of quartz, but also chips of felspar and other 
minerals. Here and there these little pockets are embedded amongst 
the sinter, the rest of which has the character already described. These 
grains, however, are embedded in, and cemented by opaline silica, 
quite unlike that of quartzites, and there is no trace of any secondary 
quartz. Nor are the grains in any way enlarged by the deposit of new 
quartz at their edges, but these edges are either sharply splintered or 
very slightly rounded ; in other words, they are of the form of 
ordinary clastic sand-grains such as may be seen in almost any fine - 
grained sandstone. 

Ido not say, of course, that some sinters may not have structures 
like quartzites or quartz-rocks, but I have chosen those examples from 
our collection — not a very large one — which looked to the naked eye most 
like quartzites and, on slicing them, I find no character in them which 
could possibly suggest that any of the quartzites or quartz-rocks which 
I know liave been made by the same process. 

W. w. Watts. 



[ 341 1 



PROCEEDINGS OF IRISH SOCIETIES. 



RoYAiv Zooi^oGiCAi, Society. 

Recent donations include a Cormorant from Captain Boxer ; a Golden 
Pheasant, a Ringed-necked Pheasant, and a number of fish from F. 
Godden, Esq. ; a pair of Canadian Geese, and a Reeve Pheasant from 
Sir Douglas Brooke ; and a pair of Wood Pigeons from K. M. Dunlop, 
Esq. A large Mandrill, a Chilian Sea Eagle, and two Turkey Vultures 
have been purchased. 

10,350 persons visited the Gardens in October. 



Dubinin Microscopicai, Club. 

October 17th.— The Club met at Dr. R. F. Scharff'S. 

Prof. Coi,E exhibited the petrological microscope elaborated by 
Mr. Dick in conjunction with Messrs. Swift and Son, of London, an 
example of which has been purchased for the Geological Laboratory of 
the Royal College of Science for Ireland. The main feature of the 
instrument is the rack-and-pinion arrangement, whereby the polariser 
and analyser can be rotated together or separately while the stage 
remains fixed. In the older instruments where the stage was rotated 
between the nicols, there was great difficulty in keeping the centering 
sufficiently accurate to retain the object in the field when high powers 
were employed. 

Mr. Greenwood Pim showed a curious Sphccria, found on rotten wood 
in considerable abundance at Brackenstown, Co. Dublin, a few weeks 
previously. It was densely bearded with short white hairs; the peri- 
thecia under a low power resembling some furry animal. The asci 
could be distinctly traced, but the sporidia were not fully developed, so 
that the identity of the species was a matter of some doubt. It will 
probably prove to be S. canesccns. 

Prof. Johnson showed Aglaozonia reptans, Kiitz., a brown alga growing 
on the calcareous red alga, Litkothaninion calcareum, and obtained by 
dred^ng in Roundstone Bay in September, 1893. This is the only Irish 
locality given in Harvey's *' Ph3'Cologia Britannica." The exhibitor 
has this year got it in the S.W. of Ireland, on Lithothamnion agariciforme, 
itself an addition to the S.W. A section showing the unilocular 
sporangia (asexual) was exhibited. The species is well worth a detailed 
study at the sea-shore, as it is, in all probability, as Reinke first suggested, 
the asexual creeping generation of a species of which Cutleria multijida is 
the sexual erect generation. 

Mr. H. H. Dixon showed preparations of the pollen mother-cells of 
Lilium longiflortan. Before entering on the early stages of karyokinesis the 
nucleus of these cells possesses a very delicate and complexly coiled 
nuclear thread. Portions of this thread lie parallel to one another, and in 
some places these portions present the appearance of a single thread 
which has undergone longitudinal fission. That this is not the case, 
however, appears probable from the sudden divarications of these portions 
from one another and the way in which they often lie across one another, 
and also from the fact that in later stages the divarications are not so 
conspicuous. As the thread thickens the parallel portions become more 
regular in their disposition and finally transverse fission divides it into 
a number of chromosomes, each composed of two parts lying more or 
less exactly parallel to one another. Sometimes the two portions of a 
chromosome form a loop which is possibly derived from a loop in the 
original thread, and sometimes they are twisted on one another. Thus it 
appears probable that the doubling of the chromosomes before the for- 
mation of the nuclear plate is in this case not due to longitudinal fission 
of the thread, but to lateral approximation of two portions of it. 



342 7 he hish Naturalist. 

At the equator these double chromosouies arrange themselves in such 
a manner that the plane of division between their two rod-like parts is 
vertical and not in the equatorial plane. Seen from the poles at this 
stage they appear triangular, quadrate or ring-shaped. Their two parts 
are in close contact and seem fused together at their inner extremity, 
while the outer or peripheral ends are often slightl}' parted. At the 
equator each chromosome undergoes a horizontal longitudinal fission 
beginning from the inner end, so that, seen from the equatorial plane, 
the chromosome (which was at first of the typically humped form) now 
appears X-shaped, and the two daughter-chromosomes are formed. As 
these latter are separating from one another the rod-like arms, which 
form them, diverge from one another so that a diamond-shaped space is 
enclosed between the two daughter-chromosomes. As the V-shaped 
daughter-chromosomes approach the poles, the rod-like arms of the V 
part asunder from one another and so form twice as many short straight 
chromosomes as there w-ere in the nuclear plate. From the process 
described it appears probable that each chromosome in this division 
represents two of previous divisions which have become more or less 
completely united end to end. Their double nature is revealed in the 
mode of origin of the two parallel portions of the chromosomes which 
exist prior to the formation of the nuclear plate and in the separation of 
the two parts of the daughter-chromosomes as they approach the poles. 
From this it would appear that the reduction in number is effected by 
an end to end fusion of the chromosomes in pairs as Strasburger has 
already suggested as probable. 

The next division to form the pollen-tetrads takes place according to 
the typical karyokinesis in plant-cells. 

Mr. M'ArdJvK exhibited a specimen of Fndlania dilalafa, L., which he 
collected last year near the Baily Lighthouse, Ilowtli, which demonstrated 
in a marked degree the facility these plants have of reproducing them- 
selves by vegetative budding, or adventitious branching. The specimens 
under the microscope showed all stages of development of the young 
plantlets, which were more numerous from the leaf margins, some of 
which bore six or more fully developed leaves, a strong shoot from one 
of the bracteolae showed root hairs. The investigation of this 
adventitious reproduction in liverworts will account for the continuance 
in Ireland of plants which have never been known to bear fruit. Mr. 
M'Ardle quoted as a familiar instance /iw^trmanm cuneifolia. Hook, known 
to grow in the counties of Cork and Kerry for more than half a century 
and has not been found in fruit, and may probably reproduce itself in 
this way. 

Mr. G. H. CarMvNTER showed the springtail Lipum Wright'd from 
Mitchelstown Cave described in the current volume of the Irish 
Naturalist (p. 31). 

Dr. M'Weeney showed parts of the omentum of a rabbit infested 
with the cysticerci of Tcenia serrata, Goeze. The special points of interest 
were the presence of an outer cyst, derived from the peritoneum of the 
host, and the small, tough, nodular cicatrix at the caudal end of the 
vesicle. This cicatrix indicates the points of division where the worm- 
like cysticercus, twenty-two days old, and i cm. long, splits into two equal 
parts, of which the anterior becomes the true cysticercus, whilst the 
posterior appears to become atrophrid and absorbed. This process takes 
place in the liver of the rabbit before the parasite migrates into the 
peritoneum. When the rabbits entrails are eaten by a dog, the 
cysticercus develops into the tape-worm, which is i metre long and lives 
in the dog's intestine. 

Mr. A. Francis Dixon exhibited two specimens of early human 
embryos and microscopical photographs of them taken from different 
aspects. In the youngest specimen the longest diameter of the 
chorionic sac Mas a litlle less than 10 mm. The other specimen was 
estimated to be in fourth week of developmeut. 



Proceedmgs of Irish Societies. 343 

Prof. Haddon exhibited some specimens of Bythotrephcs, a grotesque 
Water-flea with a long spiny tail, from Upper Lough Erne. 

Mr. Henry J. vSevmour showed a section of granite from the "Diamond 
Rocks," Mourne Mountains, Co. Down, collected on the occasion of the 
visit of the London Geologists' Association to that district last July. The 
section showed a well defined micropegmatitic structure, the result of 
the simultaneous development of the quartz and felspar cr3-stals in the 
rock. Some parts of the section exhibited very well the radial arrange- 
ment round porphyritic crystals of quartz. 

Bki^fast Naturawsts' F1E1.D Cr,UB. 

October 22. —The geological section met in the Club's Rooms. As this 
was the closing meeting of the summer session, during which these 
monthly meetings were inaugurated, the question of continuing theni 
was discussed, and it was decided to meet on the second Wednesday in 
each month until further notice. Mr. R. Bell exhibited an interesting 
collection of Silurian fossils, including some Trilobites which he had 
obtained at Pomeroy, and Mr. W.J. Fennell exhibited rhyolite from 
Tardree. Contributions to the Club's collection of geological specimens 
were made by Miss M. K. Andrews, and Messrs. Leo M. Bell, Robert Bell, 
and A. G. Wilson. 

October 26. — The final geological excursion of the season took place 
to Templepatrick Quarr>', about which Mr. ISI 'Henry, M.R.I. A., wrote 
in the Geological Magazine for June. Favoured by brilliant sunshine, several 
hours were .spent in studying and photographing the sections, where the 
rhyolite is well seen, in conjunction with chalk and basalt, overlain with 
boulder-clay. Heavy snow showers prevented the party from proceeding 
to Ballypalady, but a large erratic boulder, relic of the great Ice Age, was 
appropriately photographed in a snow-covered field. 

November 13. — The Geological section met to arrange the exhibits 
at the Social Meeting as follows :— Miss M. K. Andrews, igneous and 
metamorphic rocks ; Leo M. Bell, graptolites from Donaghadee ; R. Bell, 
Silurian fossils from Pomeroy, Lias fossils from Yorkshire and Island 
Magee, basaltic dyke at Ballygomartin ; J. O. Campbell, quartz crystals ; 
W. Gray, quartz, altered chalk, etc. ; W. J. Fennell, fossil plants from 
Lough Neagh beds, Carboniferous fossils, Armagh; G. M'Lean, gypsum 
and igneous rocks, Divis ; J. Moore, Castlewellan granite, etc. ; Miss S. 
]\I. Thompson, Carboniferous fossils, Galway, Clare, and Aran Islands ; 
Rhyolites, etc. ; Alec G. Wilson, graptolites, Donaghadee ; beryl and 
topaz, Mourne Mountains, zeolites, carboniferous fossils, etc. Specimens 
of columnar basalt and serpentine from a dyke were presented by R. Bell, 
and granite from Castlewellan b}' J. Moore. 

November 14. — The thirty-third winter session was inaugurated by a 
conversazione in the Exhibition Hall, when over 600 members and 
friends attended. On this occasion the presence of some members of 
the Dublin F^ield Club, and the fact that microscopy in all its branches 
was the chief feature added to the interest. The business of the evening 
began by the President (Mr. F. W. Lockwood, C.E.) offering a hearty 
welcome to all present, and more especially to those who had come from 
Dublin to assist their friends and co-workers in Belfast. This over, 

The President said he had a very pleasant duty to perform on that 
occasion in offering to Mr. Wii<liam Gray, M.R.I. A., an albuni of local 
photos, with an address, as a recognition of the valuable services to the 
Club which he has rendered for many years. The album and illuminated 
address were artistically produced by Messrs. Marcus Ward &. Co., the 
photos being by Mr. R. Welch. The President called upon the Secretary 
to read the address, and the album was then presented to Mr. Gray 
amidst applause. Mr. Gray briefly replied, saying he would ever value 
the presentation as another link connecting him with his many friends 
in the Field Club and Belfast 



344 '^^^ Irish Naturalist, 

One of the finest displays in the hall was the large series of views— 
antiquarian and scientific— taken by Mr. R. Welch during the past season, 
more especially those taken in Galway and Connemara on the occasion 
of the Field Club conference. Each department of the Glub was in 
charge of some one or more members, around whom congregated a group 
of listeners. At one table Mr. D. M'Ardle and Rev. C. H. Waddell were 
in charge of mosses and liverworts. Close by, Mr. W. H. Phillips had the 
whole breadth of the hall covered with nature prints, of British ferns, 
and a table full of the ferns themselves. Mr. Hamilton's toads afforded 
interest during the evening, whilst Mr. Gray's method of looking at the 
time through a beetle's eye brought up a feeling of wonder at such a 
lowly creature being provided with about 250 perfect lenses, through each 
of w'hicli the watch was visible. Mr. Joseph Wright had, in company 
with Mr. Welch, a fine collection of foraminifera from Connemara, of 
which 90 species had been identified. Further on, Mr. Lyster Jameson, 
of Dublin, had skins of six out of seven known species of Irish bats ; also 
some shrew mice and field mice. Beside him, Mr. Halbert, of Dublin, 
had an extensive collection of rare in.sects, collected on the D.N.F.C. 
excursions during the year ; whilst arranged around the central dais were 
the exhibits of the geological section. The polished blocks of Conne- 
mara and Menlough marble looked very well. Mr. R. Bell's trilobites, 
from Pomeroy, were a surprise to many, being so well preserved ; and 
Mr. M'l^ean's blocks of pure white gypsum were very handsome ; whilst 
Miss vS. M. Thompson and Mr. W. J. Fennell had both varied and interest- 
ing exhibits of rocks and fossils. Mr. Morrissey exhibited a model of 
the Giant's Causeway. 

On the large central table Professor T. Johnson was in charge of a 
large collection of seaweeds, and showed the best methods of examining 
them ; also a well-mounted series of Alpine plants preserved by Lady 
Rachel Saunderson. Professor M'Weeney, m.d., of Dublin, at the next 
table exhibited variously coloured masses in little tubes, which proved 
to be a series of bacilli. Professor Cole's Tardree rhyolites, illustrated 
by samples from all the other well-known rhyolites and obsidians, were 
full of interest, as were the paintings of sea anemones displayed on 
the walls by Professor A. C. Haddon, of Dublin. Besides these, the 
following gentlemen exhibited: — Rev. J. Andrew, General Subjects; 
J. C. Carson, Micros. Apparatus: J. H. Davies, Flax injured by larva of 
Eristalis, with specimens of the insect ; W. D. Dorman, m.b.. Diving 
Rotifers; W. B. Drummond, Marine Life; W. A. P'irth, Diatoms; P. F. 
Gulbrausen, Pond Dife; H. M'Cleery, Hydrozoa and Polyzoa; W. S. 
M'Kee, Diving Fresh Water Organisms; A. Speers, B..SC., Vegetable 
Tissues ; J. Stetfox, Diving Fresh Water Organisms : Wm. Swanston, 
p\G.S., Echinodermata : and Miss Andrews, Rock Sections. A good 
exhibit was that of Mr. Alex. G. Wilson, hon. sec, of models of the Aran 
curragh and pack-saddle, and the primitive style of living in these 
islands, as exemplified by the raw-hide sandals and the simple form of 
lamps, one being a scallop shell. Dr. Lorrain Smith and Mrs. Smith had 
a collection of disease germs, such as diphtheria and scarlet fever, in 
bottles, and also a "Cambridge" rocking microtome, which was kept busy 
cutting sections during most of the evening. Dr. Thompson had a 
number of tests for colour vision and optical illusions in colour — also 
an ingenious method of measuring small spaces of time, and a pulse- 
recording instrument. Dr. Cecil Shaw's microtome came in for a good 
deal of attention. Professor S3^mington's exhibit was an apparatus for 
drawing pictures of sections under the microscope. 

In addition to the microscopical exhibits there were two series of 
lantern displays, at 8 30 and 9.30, from photos taken on the Galway and 
other excursions. The first of these was described by Mr. Gray, and the 
second by Mr. Fennell, who pointed out the features of the pictures, which 
v/ere Excellently shown by Messrs. Lizars' best lantern. At ten o'clock a 
short business meeting was held, and seventeen new members elected. 



Proceedi7igs of Irish Societies. 345 

Dubinin Naturai^ists' Field Ci^ub. 
October 12. — The Club held its last excursion of the year. A party of 
23 members and visitors proceeded by the 10.30 train to Malahide, where 
cars were in readiness to convey them through vS words to Brackenstown, 
where the extensive grounds of Brackenstown House were entered, by 
kind permission ofD. J. O'Callaghan, D.L. The special object of the 
excursion was to examine the fungus flora of the neighbourhood, and 
under the scientific guidance of Greenwood Pim, M.A., andProfessor K. J. 
M'Weeney, M.D., members were soon busih' engaged in collecting these 
lowly plants. The almost complete absence of the larger fungi, such as 
agarics, was quite remarkable, as this is just the time of year when they 
usually most abound ; but of smaller kinds a rich harvest was obtained. 
Every rotten twig and log, every decaying leaf, was carefully examined, 
and the result was a large collection of tiny plants. On the return 
journey time permitted a short stop at Swords to examine the round 
tower and other antiquities, and the party then proceeded to Malahide, 
where tea was provided. After tea a short business meeting was held, 
Mr. Greenwood Pim in the chair, when the following were elected mem- 
bers of the Club :— Dr. W. A. Dixon, Miss Mabel F. Elliott, B.A. : Charles 
E. Howlitt, Mrs. Howlitt, and Miss C. Matheson. Mr. Pim subsequently 
gave a short demonstration on the specimens obtained during the day, 
and the party returned to town by the 7 o'clock train. A paper by Dr. 
M'Weeney embodying the results of the day will appear in our January 
number. 

November 5. — The Dublin Naturalists" Field Club inaugurated its 
tenth winter session with a conversazione. There was a large 
attendance of the members and their friends, and the interest of the 
proceedings was enhanced by the presence of representatives of the 
F'ield Clubs of Belfast, Cork, and Limerick. Scientific matters chiefly 
occupied the evening, and a large and varied collection of objects of 
scientific interest filled the library and lecture hall. The President 
(G. H. Carpenter) showed the Mitchelstown Cave fauna and also rare 
insects and spiders taken on the week's excursion, made by the combined 
Field Clubs of Ireland to Gal way and Connemara in July. Indeed, the 
results of this excursion were visible on every hand ; among the exhibits 
resulting from that expedition being rare beetles (Mr. Halbert), Seaweeds 
(Professor Johnson and Miss Hensman) ; Mosses and Liverworts (Mr. 
M'Ardle) : Land Shells (Dr. Scharff'), and Flowering plants (Mr. R. 
Lloyd Praeger). 

The Vice-President (Professor Cole) showed natural glass from the 
volcano of Tardree, Co. Antrim, and also the first sheets of the 
Geological map of Europe, now in course of publication by the Inter- 
national Geological Congress. Mr. H. K. G. Cuthbert had a case 
illustrating recent additions to the Irish insect fauna. Mr. A, H. P^oord, 
F.G.S., exhibited a fine series of fossil shells of the Nautilus group, from 
the Carboniferous limestone of Ireland. Professor Haddon, M.A., had 
on view an exquisite set of water-c(5lour drawings of sea-anemones, 
chiefly from the brush of P. H. Gosse. Dr. C. H. Hurst demonstrated 
with a number of microscopes the metamorphoses of the gnat. Mr. 
Lyster Jameson showed specimens of Irish bats and other Irish mam- 
mals. Mr. A. V. Jennings showed lichens. Dr. M'Weeney demon- 
strated fungus growth, with specimens of large and of microscopic size. 
Mr. A. R. Nichols showed marine shells from Baltimore; and another 
fine series of marine shells was shown by Mrs. Tatlow, who obtained 
them in three days on Magilligan Strand, Co. Derry. Professor Sollas, 
F.R.S., had on view maps showing the distribution of esker ridges in 
Ireland, and also relief maps of Ireland, showing the relation between 
the elevations of the country on the one hand, and glacial striae and 
geological formations on the other. Dr. Creighton, of Ballyshannon, 
showed a form of tow-net with which he has obtained good results on 
Lough Erne, 



346 The Irish NaHiralist. 

.At eight o'clock the President formally opened the meeting. Twice 
during the evening exhibitions of lantern slides were given. The slides, 
none of which had been before exhibited, were the work of Messrs. 
Welch, Gray, and Fennell of Belfast, but especially of the first-named ; 
and they dealt with the scenery, geology, archaeology and ethnography 
of the district visited by the combined clubs during the Galway 
conference. The slides were described b}' Professor Haddon, and Messrs. 
Welch and Praeger. In addition to this contribution from the Belfast 
Club, three other members of that Society had exhibits. Miss S. M. 
Thompson showed a characteristic series of clays, scratched stones and 
erratics, as well as maps and photographs, illustrating the glacial 
deposits around BelfavSt. Rev. C. H. Waddell showed flowering plants, 
mosses, and hepatics of the North of Ireland, and Mr. W. H. Phillips, 
had on view a magnificent series of nature prints of British ferns, and 
also a number of growing specimens of rare varieties. 

At 9 o'clock the meeting was called to order, while the Secretary read 
out a list of new members proposed for election ; after which the 
conversazione was resumed. 



Armagh Naturai. History and Phii^osophicaIv Society. 

October 3rd. — Annual meeting of the Society. — The following officers 
were elected :— President, Rev. W. F.Johnson, m.a., F.E.S. ; Hon. Secre- 
tary, H. A. Gray, m.d. ; Hon. Treasurer, J. Moore ; Hon. Librarian, 
J. Boyd. Committee— R. Gray, f.r.c.p.i. ; W. Gallagher, E, FuUerton, 
A. Gibson, J. Pillow, W. J. Greer, S. Davison, R. H. Dorman, R. Best, 
F.J. Anderson, W. Whitsitt, J. Bell, and Rev. R. Patterson. The out- 
going Committee reported that the debt on the Society had been re- 
duced to £2) loj- 2^/., which was considered highly satis factor}-. 

Nov. nth. — The President gave his Annual Address, taking for his 
subject, " Injurious Insects." After remarking how little most people 
realised the power of insects for liotli benefit and harm, and having 
given an account of the devastation caused by the larvce of the Antler 
Moth {jCJiareas graniinis) in Glamorganshire, in 1884, the lecturer pro- 
ceeded to the main part of his subject. The following insects were 
noticed : — The Large White Butterfly {Pieris brassica:), the Great Yellow 
I'nderwing Moth {Trip/uvna pronuba), the Turnip Flea Beetle {Phyllotrda 
nemoruni), the Wireworm and Click Beetles {Elateridit), the Daddy Long- 
legs ( Tipvla oleracea), the Cockchafer {Melolontha vulgaris), the Potato Thrips 
{7'hrips mmutissijnus), and the Wood Wasp {Sirex gigas). The lecture was 
illustrated with lantern slides from drawings by Miss Ormerod. The 
Rev. H. M. Harper acted as lanternist, and exhibited the slides in an 
admirable manner. A hearty vote of thanks was accorded to him, on 
the motion of Mr. A. Gibson, seconded by Mr. J. Bell. In proposing a 
vote of thanks to the President, Mr. J. H. Fullerton, CE., alluded to Uie 
regret felt by all at his approaching departure from Armagh, and ex- 
pressed a hope that, though no longer resident in Armagh, he would not 
sever his connection with the Societ)\ The vote of thanks, which was 
seconded by Dr. Gray, having been carried by acclamation, the Presi- 
dent in his reply said that as the parish of Acton, to which he was going, 
was not ver}' far from Armagh, he should be happ}' to continue his con- 
nection with the Society, and render any service he could to it. 



Cork Naturai^ists' Field Ci.ub. 

This Club has had some very interesting excursions during the past 
session, and a good deal of information has been exchanged amongst 
the members. The following places have been visited : — 

May nth. — The Lee Valley, to see the old river beds, which are very 
plainly marked in the district, A field lecture was given by Prof. M. 
Hartog, M.A., D.sc. 



Proceedings of Irish Societies. 347 

May 25th.— Fota, Mr. Smyth-Barry's demesne, specially noted for its 
fine collection of pine and fir trees. 

June I5tli. — Ballyedmund, Midleton. 

JuiyY loth. — Upton and Innishannon, along the banks of the Bann and 
Brinny rivers, a district evidently worth further visits by entomologists 
and botanists. 

Aug. 5th. — A good party left by 10.30 train for Buttevant, where cars 
were in waiting to drive them to Doneraile Court, the seat of Lord 
Castletown, through whose kindness, and that of his agent, Mr. Godfrey 
Levinge, j.p., the grounds were shown, and various trees of interest 
pointed out. Luncheon and tea were served at the Hotel, Doneraile, 
and, despite heavy showers, a very enjoyable day was spent. 

Aug. 24th. — The members visited Warren's Court, by the kind invita- 
tion of Sir Augustus Warren, who entertained them to tea. This 
demesne, combining woodland and lakes, should yield good results to a 
, longer vLsit in the next session. 

Sept. 7th. — Castlemartyr, Lord Shannon's extensive grounds, was the 
last place visited, and brought to a close some very pleasant days spent 
amongst some of the beautiful spots to be found in County Cork. 



NOTES. 



BOTANY. 



PHANEROGAMS. 

The Primrose in November.— On Saturday, 9th November, as 
Mrs. Johnson and I were walking along the road from Armagh to 
jMarkethill, we observed a Primrose in flower in the hedge. Further 
search produced several more flowers and quite a number of buds coming 
out. It would seem probable that the warm weather of September deve- 
loped the buds, and the sudden mild weather of this month caused them 
to burst into bloom. It would be interesting to know whether similar 
occurrences had been noticed elsewhere. 

W. F. JoHNvSON, 

Armasfh. 



*&' 



ZOOLOGY. . 

Rock-pools of Bundoran. — In one or two of the recent numbers of 
the Irish N'atiiralist, there has been notice of discoveries made in the 
rock-pools of Bundoran. 

I venture to suggest that any one desirous of following them up should 
do so at Dooran Point, on the opposite side of Donegal Bay, where the 
rock-pools are very extensive and full of life. It is, particularly, an old 
haunt of the Rock-boring Sea Urchin, and may very likely contain other 
forms of a similar distribution. 

Dooran Point, also called " the Eagles' Nest " from an isolated crag, 
used to be rather inaccessible, but is now to be reached from Dooran 
Road Station, about two miles away. The nearest quarters are at 
Mountcharles. 

W, F. SlNCI,AIR, 

Chelsea, London. 



34^ The Irish NaticralisL 

ARACHNID A. 

Attus florlcola, C. Koch.— lu the record of spiders collected on 
the Galway Excursion (p. 256 of this volume), I stated that this rare 
spider was new to Ireland and recorded as British from Brighton. The 
Rev. O. P. Cambridge has since kindly examined my specimens and 
compared them and the Brighton spiders with German types. This has 
shown that the Lough Corrib species is the true A. floricola, C.K., and 
new to the British Isles, the Brighton spider being referable to the 
nearly allied form, A. mam us, Thorell. 

Geo. H. Carpenter. 



INSECTS. 

Rose Beetle In Ireland. — As I see the Rose Beetle {Cetonia aurata) 
is put down as rare in Ireland in the September number (p. 262) it may be 
worth while recording a specimen which was brought me in August, 
1S89, from the top of Slieve League, Co. Donegal. 

B. TOMI^IN, 

Llandaff. 



MOLLUSC A. 

Splrula Peronil in Co. Antrim. — I do not think I ever recorded 
the finding of three specimens of Spintla Peronii — dead of course — near 
Port Ballintrae, in 1893. Thej- came in with a shoal oi lanthina, 

B. ToMIvIN, 

LlandafF. 

Helix arbustorum near Armag^h. — This seems to be a rare shell 
in Ireland. Dr. Scharff says — (/. Nat., vol. i, p. 107) — that Thompson 
found it in Co. Antrim and in Co. Down. Mr. W. Kenned}' (/. Nat., vol. 
ii., p. 302\ found it at Glencar Waterfall, Co. Leitrim. Mr. vStanden (/. c. 
p. 230) got one dead specimen at Portsalon, Co. Donegal. 1 have the 
plea.sure of recording its occurrence in a new locality, as I found it living 
near Armagh, last September. This is an interesting addition to the fauna 
of District 10 in which Armagh is situated. 

Jas. N. M11.NE, 

Londonderry. 

Lepton SykeslI, Chaster, In Klllala Bay.— I have to record the 
occurrence of this rare shell in this locality, I may say a new shell on 
this coast, a.s it was recorded for the first time, this autumn, from Dog's 
Bay, Galwa3\ I am indebted to Dr. Chaster, Southport, for its discovery 
in some shell drift from Bartra Lsland, I sent him a .short time .since. 

Amy Warren, 

*Moy View, Ballina. 

Adeorbls Impersplcuus, Monterosato off Roundstone. — 

This .shell is recorded from Round.stone by Dr. Chaster, in the Journal of 
Malacology for September 30th, 1895. The specimens first discovered in 
British waters were identified as Cyclostre?na niilleputictatttm, Friele, 
but have subsequently been shown to be Adeorbis iiuperspicuns, Montero- 
sata. This shell has been found off the Sicilian coast, and in British 
waters at Southport and Oban. 



/ 




H lAAZ J