(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Advanced Microdevices Manuals | Linear Circuits Manuals | Supertex Manuals | Sundry Manuals | Echelon Manuals | RCA Manuals | National Semiconductor Manuals | Hewlett Packard Manuals | Signetics Manuals | Fluke Manuals | Datel Manuals | Intersil Manuals | Zilog Manuals | Maxim Manuals | Dallas Semiconductor Manuals | Temperature Manuals | SGS Manuals | Quantum Electronics Manuals | STDBus Manuals | Texas Instruments Manuals | IBM Microsoft Manuals | Grammar Analysis | Harris Manuals | Arrow Manuals | Monolithic Memories Manuals | Intel Manuals | Fault Tolerance Manuals | Johns Hopkins University Commencement | PHOIBLE Online | International Rectifier Manuals | Rectifiers scrs Triacs Manuals | Standard Microsystems Manuals | Additional Collections | Control PID Fuzzy Logic Manuals | Densitron Manuals | Philips Manuals | The Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly Debates | Linear Technologies Manuals | Cermetek Manuals | Miscellaneous Manuals | Hitachi Manuals | The Video Box | Communication Manuals | Scenix Manuals | Motorola Manuals | Agilent Manuals
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Irish naturalist"

•<' •■■•• f"- jHii-lr ' ' 




■> \ M 






THE IRISH NATURALIST 



OF 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY 

ORGAN OF THE 

Royal Zoological Society of Ireland ; Dublin Microscopical Club ; 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club ; Dublin Naturalists' Field Club ; 

Cork Naturalists' Field Club 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE H. CARPENTER, M.Sc M.R.I.A. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.I.A. 



VOL XXVI. 



DUBLIN : EASON & SON, LIMITED 

42 GREAT BRUNSWICK STREET 
BELFAST: 17 DONEGALL STREET 
LONDON: SIMPKIN. MARSHALL. HAMILTON. KENT & CO.. LTD, 

1917. 



Jffs > 



CONTRIBUTORS 

TO THE PRESENT VOLUME. 



Benson, Rev. Charles W., ll.d., Balbriggan. 

Bonaparte-Wyse, L. H.. Holland Park Gardens, London. 

Bradshaw, D. B., Dublin. 

Bullock-Webster, Rev. Canon G. R., All Hallows, London. 

BuRKiTT, J. P., Enniskillen. 

Campbell, D. C, Londonderry. 

Carpenter, Prof. G. H., m.sc. Royal College of Science, Dublin. 

Carroll, C. J., Rocklow, Fethard. 

Clarke, W. Eagle, ll.d., Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

CoLGAN, N., Sandycove, Co. Dublin. 

DoNisTHORPE, H. St. J. K., f.z.s., London. 

Flemyng, Rev. Canon W. W., m.a., Coolfin, Portlaw. 

Foster, Nevin H., f.l.s., Hillsborough, Co. Down. 

Greer, Thomas, Curraglasson, Stewartstown. 

Groves, James, f.l.s., Larkhill Rise, Clapham. 

GuNN, W, F., Dawson Street, Dublin. 

Hart, W. E., Kilderry, Londonderry. 

Johnson, Rev. W. F., m.a., Poyntzpass. 

Knowles, Matilda C, National Museum, Dublin. 

Langham, Sir Charles, bart., Tempo Manor, Enniskillen 

Lee, William A., i Rock Ferry, Cheshire. 

M'Ardle, D., Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin. 

May, George C, Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin. 

Moffat, C. B., Ballyhyland, Enniscorthy. 

Nicholson, G. W\, Oxford and Cambridge Club, London. 

Patten, Prof. C. J., m.d.. University, Sheffield. 

Pentland, G. H., Black Hall, Drogheda. 

Pethybridge, G. H., PH.D., Royal College of Science, Dublin. 

Praeger, R. Lloyd, b.e.. National Library, Dublin. 

Rea, Margaret W., Strandtown, Belfast. 

Roebuck, W. Denison, f.l.s., Leeds. 

Ruttledge, Robert F., Hollymount, Co. Mayo. 

ScHARFF, R. F., b.sc, National Museum, Dublin. 

Shaw, Sir F. W., bart.. Bushy Park, Terenure. 

Southern, Rowland, b.sc. Fisheries Office, Dublin. 

Stelfox, Margarita D., Bally magee, Bangor, Co. Down. 

SwiNEY, J. H. H., Cloghaneely, Belfast. 

Waddell, Rev. C. H., b.d., Greyabbey, Co. Down. 

Williams, W. J., Dublin. 

Workman, W. H., Belfast. 




PLATES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Equisetum litorale 

>» i> • 

Gorilla " Empress, " aged 4-5 years 

aged 2 years 
aged 4-5 years 

Irish Greyhound Pig 

Mosses and Hepaticae of Glen of the Downs 

Plagiothecium elegans 



»> 

>> 



To face page 141 
page 147 
pag 125 
page 127 
page 129 
page 173 
page 73 
page 79 



IND 



Agrotis segetum, maxillae, 104. 
Amblystegium serpens, var. angusti- 

folia, 33. 
Anemones, blue Wood Anemones, 120. 
Anosia archippus in Co. Cork, 18. 
Aquatic fungi, 55. 
Arbuti corona, 21. 
Arcyria punicea, ^2. 
Argulus foliaccus, 152. 
Arion ater. \ariation in, 121. 
Asparagus officinalis. North Bull, 

Dublin, 34. 

Badgers and Hedgehogs, 20. 

Bat flying in daylight, 36. 

Bat, Leisler's, speed of flight, 19. 

Beetle, new Irish, 99. 

Benson, Charles W. : Summer migrants 

at Balbriggan in 19 16, 54. 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club : 14, 

52, 83, 152, 166, 185. 
Bird-hfe, effect of winter, 89, 118, 172. 
Birds' eggs, measurements and weights, 

41. 
Birds, Irish : Recent notices, 19, 194. 
Bittern in Co. Tyrone, 53. 
Bonaparte-Wyse, L. H. : Notodonta 

bicoloria in Co. Kerry, 1(34. 
Bradshaw, D. B. : Filago minima at 

Howth, 17. 
Bullock-Webster, Rev. Canon G. R. : 

Characeae of Fanad, East Donegal, 

I. 
Burkitt, J. P. : Effect of winter 1916- 

17 on birds, 172 ; Longeared Owl, 

note on, 161 ; Migrant notes, 103 ; 

Woodwren in Fermanagh, 196. 
Bustard, Little, in Co. Clare, 36. 
Butterflies in Roscommon, 171. 



Calocoris striatus, 8^. 

Campbell, D. C. : Hoopoe in Co. 
Donegal, 195. 

Cardamine amara in East Tyrone, 196. 

Carpenter, G. H. : Notes on Dublin 
Gorilla, 125; Grimshaw's " Guide to 
the literature of British Diptera " 
(review), 100 ; M' Henry's " Geo- 
logical map of the City of Dublin 
area " (review), 102 ; Useful studies 
for field naturalists, 66. 

Carrion Crow nesting at Ireland's Eye, 
140. 

Carroll, C. J. : Little Bustard in Co. 
Clare, 36. 



Characeae of i^anaa, r. 

Chlora perfoliata, apparent mnemic 

action in, 189. 
Clarke, W. Eagle : Recovery of a 

Woodcock supposed to have been 

ringed in Ireland, 139. 
Cole, Grenville A. J. : Election to 

Royal Society of London, 135. 
Coleoptera from Meath and Cavan, 

28. 
Colgan, N. : Apparent mnemic action 

in Chlora perfoliata, 189 ; Elymus 

arenarius and Asparagus offtcinahs 

on the North Bull, Dublin, 34 ; 

Pectinaria Koreni from Dublin Bay, 

136. 
Colias edusa near Tramore, 193. 
Colletotrichum orchidearum, 32. 
Cork Naturalists' Field Club, 15. 
Crassula namaquensis, 85. 
Crossbill, food of, 172. 



Dictydiaethalium plumbeum, 33. 
Dolphins and Wliales stranded in 

Ireland, 123. 
Donisthorpe, Horace St. J. K. : Elater 

praeustus, a new Irish beetle, 99. 
Dublin Microscopical Club : 13, 32, 

70, 85, 104, 152, 186. 
Dublin Naturalists' Field Club : 15, 

85, 124, 138, 168, 187. 
Dunleavy, George : Obituary notice, 

34- 



Earthquake or landslip '^ 2j. 

Eggs, measurements and weights, 41. 

Elater praeustus 99. 

Elymus arenarius on the North Bull, 

Dublin, 34, 56. 
Entomological notes, 114. 
Equisetum litorale in Ireland, 141, 

171. 
Eurhynchium rusciforme var. inun- 

datum, ^2. 

Filago minima at Howth, 17. 

Fish diseases, 122. 

Fitch, W. H. : " Illustrations of the 

British Flora," with additions by 

W. G. Smith, reviewed, 33. 
Flax seeds, germinating, 85. 
Flemyng, Rev. Canon W. W. : Colias 

edusa near Tramore, 193 ; Hoopoes 

in Co. Waterford, 140. 



J/3SS 



VI 



Index. 



Flora, local, losses to, 137. 

Foster, Xcvin H. : ^Measurements and 
weights of Birds' eggs, 41 ; Migrant 
notes, 123 ; Swifts, departure of, 

193 ; Waxwing in Co. Down, 34 ; 
Winter of 19 16-17 and its effect on 
bird life in Co. Down, 118. 

Foxgloves killed by cold, 72. 
Frogs spawning in severe weather, ^^. 
Fungi, aquatic, 33. 
Fungi, Leitrim, ^^■ 

Gibberella Saubinetii, 13. 

Gorilla, Dublin, some notes on, 123. 

Gray, William : Obituary notice, 47. 

Greer, Thomas : Cardamine amara in 
East Tyrone, 196 ; Hadena protea 
in Tyrone, 121. 

Grimshaw, Percy H. : " A Guide to 
the Literature of British Diptera " 
(reviewed), 100. 

Groundsel seed, papillae, 186. 

Groves, J., and Canon G. R. Bullock- 
Webster : Tolypella nidifica, 134. 

Gunn, W. F. : Trichia afftnis, 34. 

Hadena protea in Co. Tyrone, 121. 
Hart, W^ E. : Habits of Vanessa io in 

Co. Donegal, 121. 
Hedgehogs and Badgers, 20. 
Hepaticae of the Glen of the Downs, 

73- 
Heron, Xight, near Dublin, 72. 

Hoopoe in Co. Donegal, 193 ; in Co. 

Waterford, 140. 

Hypopithys multifiora in Co. Leitrim, 

17- 

Ichneumonidae, Irish, 37. 
Ireland, State of, 6. 

Jay in Ireland, 88 ; in Co. Dublin, ^i,. 

Johnson, Rev. W. F. : Larva of 

Death's head Moth in Co. Down, 

194 ; Lissonota basilis, Brischke, in 
Ireland, 82 ; Irish Ichneumonidae, 
37- 

Kingfisher, unusual flight, 72. 
Knowles, Matilda C. : Elymus arena- 

rius on the North Bull, 56 ; Some 

Co. Antrim proverbs, 87. 

Lacerta vivipara, 84. 
Landslip or earthquake ? 27. 
Langham, Sir Charles : Entomological 
notes, 1 1. J. 

Lee, William A. : Sclaginolla 

Kraussiana in Ireland, 87. 



Leisler's Bat, speed of flight, 19. 
Linum usitati.ssimum, 85. 
Lissonota basalis in Ireland, 82. 
Lizard, variation of, 84. 

M'Ardle, David : Musci and Hepaticae 

of the Glen of the Downs, 73. 
]\r Henry, A. : " Geological map of 

the City of Dublin area " (reviewed), 

102. 
Magilligan plants, 169. 
Marine Zoology, Irish, advances in, 

4th Report, 103. 
May, G. C. : Carrion Crow nesting at 

Ireland's Ej^e, 140 ; Jays in Co. 

Dublin, 33. 

Migrant Notes, i^, 103, 122, 131. 

]\Ioffat, C. B. : An exterminating 
winter ; its effect on bird-life in 
Co. Wexford, 89 ; Black Redstart 
in Co. Wexford, 36 ; Food of the 
Crossbill, 172 ; Frogs spawning in 
severe weather, 33 ; Losses to a 
local flora, 137 ; Migrant notes, 131 ; 
Obituary notice of George Dunleavy, 
34 ; Psithyrus rupestris in Co. W^ex- 
ford, 134 ; Quail in Co. Wexford, 

^lonocystis, conjugation and sporula- 
tion, 33. 

Mossy Saxifrages, 171. 

^loth, Death's-head, in Co. Down, 194. 

Mullen, W. H., and H. Kirke Swann : 
" Bibliography of British Orni- 
thology from the earliest times to 
the end ol 191 2," (reviewed,) 163. 

Musci of the Glen of the Downs, 73. 

Muscineae of Achill Island, 170. 

Mycetozoa, Irish, 37. 



Xaias flexilis in Donegal, 17. 
Naturalists, useful studies for, 66. 
Nicholson, G. W. : Additional Coleop- 

tera from Meath and Cavan, 2S. 
Notodonta bicoloria in Co. Kerry, 164. 

Obituary : Dunleavy. George, 34 ; 

Gray, Wilham, 47 ; O'Brien, Robert 

Donough, 113. 
O'Brien, Robert Donough : Obituary, 

113- 

Opuntia tunica, 104. 

Orchid seeds, variation in form, 70. 
Ornithological notes from South Mayo, 

148. 
Owl : Long-eared, 161 ; Short-eared 

Owl at Rockabill, id> ; Snowy Owl 

in Co Antrim, 194. 



Index. 



Vll 



Patten, C. J. : Arctic Skuas on migra- 
tion on Mutton Island, Galway, and 
at ^loville, Co. Donegal, 156 ; Ful- 
mar Petrels at Inishtearaght, 155 ; 
Quail on migration at Rockabill, 
18 ; Quail and Wren on migration 
at Maidens, 35 ; Sandwich Terns 
breeding on Mutton Island, Galway, 
155 ; Short-eared Owl on migration 
at Rockabill,. 18 ; Wood-Warbler on 
migration, obtained at Maidens, 156. 

Pectinaria Koreni from Dublin Bay, 136 

Pentland, G. H. ; Badgers and Hedge- 
hogs, 20 ; Boldness of a Stoat, 20 ; 
Leisler's Bat, speed of flight, 19 ; 
Swans and their nests, 18. 

Pethybridge, G. H. : Worsdell's 
" Principles of Plant Teratology," 
vol. ii. (review), 10 1. 

Petrels, Fulmar, at Inishtearaght, 135. 

Pig. Irish, 173. 

Plants of Co. Down coast, 12. 

Polyporus squamosus, 13. 

Praeger, R. Lloyd : Aquatic fungi, 
55 ; Arbuti corona Creview of 
Scully's "Flora of Kerry"), 21; 
Blue Wood Anemones, 120 ; Effects 
of the late Spring, 120 ; Equisetum 
iitorale in Ireland, 141, 171 ; 
Fox-gloves killed by cold, 72 ; 
Hypopithys multiflora in Co. Leit- 
rim, 17 ; Kingfisher, Unusual flight 
of, 72 ; Leitrim fungi, ^j ; Magilli- 
gan plants, 169 ; Mullen and Swann's 
" Bibliography of British Orni- 
thology from the earliest times to 
the end of 19 12," review, 165 ; 
Naias flexilis in Donegal, 17 ; 
Obituary notice of Robert Donough 
O'Brien, 113. 

Proverbs of Co. Antrim, 87. 

Psithyrus rupestris in Co. Wexford, 

154- 
Pterogonium gracile in Co. Down, 17. 
Pyrus floribunda var. purpurea, 71. 

Quail at Maidens light-house, 35 ; in 
Wexford, 155 ; at Rockabill, 18. 

Raphidia, live pupa of, 32. 

Rea, Margaret W., and Margarita D. 

Stelfox : Some records for Irish 

Mycetozoa, ^y. 
Redstart, Black, in Co. Wexford, 36. 
Reviews : Grimshaw's " Guide to the 

Literature of British Diptera, 100 ; 

Fitch's " Illustrations of the British 

Flora," with additions by W. G. 

Smith, F.L.S., 33; M'Henry's 



" Geological map of the City of 
Dublin area," 102 ; Mullen and 
Swann'.s " Bibliography of British 
Ornithology from the earliest times 
to the end of 191 2," 165 ; Scully's 
" Flora of Kerry," 21 ; Worsdell's 
" Principles of Plant Teratology," 
vol. ii., loi. 

Roebuck, W. Denison : Variation in 
Arion ater in, 121. 

Royal Zoological Society : 13, 48, 84, 
T04, T51, 1S6. 

Ruttledge, Robert F. : Arctic Skua 
and Black Tern on Lough Mask, 
194 ; Migration at Mutton Island, 
35 ; Ornithological notes from South 
Mayo, 148 ; Russet variety of Snipe 
in Mayo, 104. 

Saxifrages, mossy, 171. 
Scapania umbrosa, 186. 
Scharff, R. F. : Advances in Irish 

Marine Zoology, 4th Report, 105 ; 

Earthquake or landslip ? 27 ; Irish 

Pig, 173 ; Should wasps be killed ? 

88 ; Variation of the Lizard, 84. 
Science Club, new club inaugurated, 

71- 
Scully, Reginald W. : " Flora of 

Kerry " reviewed, 21. 

Selaginella Kraussiana in Ireland, 87. 

Senecio vulgaris, fruit, 186. 

Shaw, Sir Frederick W. : Night Heron 
near Dubhn, 72. 

Skua, Arctic, on Lough Mask, 194. 

Skuas, Arctic, on migration at Mutton 
Island and at Moville, 156. 

Snipe, russet variety, in Mayo, 104. 

Southern, Rowland : State of Ireland, 
6. 

Spring, late, effects of, 120. 

Stelfox, Margarita D. : Trichia affinis 
in Connaught and Ulster, 34. 

Stelfox, Margarita D., and Margaret 
W. Rea : Some records for Irish 
Mycetozoa, 57. 

Stoat, boldness of, 20, 

Summer migrants at Balbriggan in 
1916, 54. 

Swann, H. Kirke, and W. H. Mullen : 
" Bibliograph}' of British Orni- 
thology from the earliest times to 
the end of 1912," (reviewed,) 165. 

Swans and their nests, 18. 

Swifts, departure of, 193. 

Swiney, J. H. H. : Bat flying in 
daylight, 36. 

Svmphvlurinus Grassii var. aethiopica, 
"187/ 



VI n 



Index 



Tern, Black, on Lough Mask, i<)4. 
Terns, Sandwich, breeding on Mutton 

Island, Co. Galway, 155. 
Tilletia laevis, 71. 
Tolypella nidifica, 134. 
Trichia affinis, 13, 34, 34 
Turnip Moth, maxillae, 104. 



Upupa epops, 140, 195. 



Vanessa io, habits of in Co. Donegal, 
121. 



Waddell, Rev. C. H. : Pterogonium 

gracile in Co. Down, 17 ; Rare plants 

of Co. Down coast, 12. 
Warble-fiies, fourth stage larva, lateral 

spiracles, 187. 
Warbler, Wood, on migration at 

Maidens lighthouse, 156. 



Wasps, should they be killed ? 87. 
Waxwing in Co. Down, 54. 
Whales and Dolphins stranded in 
Ireland. 123. 



jay in Ireland, 88. 
effect of on Birds, 



Williams, W. J 

Winter 1916-17, 
89, 118, 172. 

Wire worm, jaws of, 152. 

Woodcock ringed in Ireland, recovery 
of, 139. 

Wood-warbler on migration at Maidens 
lighthouse, 156. 

Workman, W. H. : Bittern in Co. 
Tyrone, 53 ; Snowy Owl in Co. 
Antrim, 194. 

Worsdell, Wilson Crossfield : " Prin- 
ciples of Plant Teratology," vol. ii. 
(reviewed), loi. 

Wren on migration at INIaidens light- 
house, 35. 

Wren, Wood, in Fermanagh, 196. 



Jan., 1917. 



THE IRISH NATURALIST. 

VOLUME XXVI. 



THE CHARACEAE OF FANAD, EAST DONEGAL. 

BY REV. CANON G. R. BULLOCK-WEBSTER, M.A. 

A visit to friends in the north of Ireland last summer 
gave me an opportunity, for which I had for some while 
been waiting, to explore the northern lakes of the Fanad 
peninsula. East Donegal, with a view to studying their 
Characeae vegetation. The Ordnance map indicates some 
very tempting waters at the head of Mulroy Bay where 
a series of lakes skirts the seaboard and suggests brackish 
w^aters, the habitat of some of our rarer species. A train 
journey from Derry to Fahan, a boat journey across Lough 
Swilly to Rathmullen and a charming drive of 15 miles 
eventually brought me and my friend, Mr. Colin 
Montgomery, to Kindrum, where we stayed for a week 
(July 27 — August 2), spending every available moment 
in, on or around the loughs which lie close by, and where 
my companion did me good service both as dragsman 
and oarsman. 

It may be of interest, I think, to record the results of 
an investigation made with such care as the limits of time 
and uncertainties of weather permitted. I should say at 
the outset that a boat was available only on Kindrum 
Lough ; for the rest I had to be content with wading along 
the lake margins and dragging from the shores. I have 
marked with an asterisk the species which appear to be 
new records for East Donegal. 

Rinboy Lough is a shallow piece of water lying on the 
sand-flats immediately at the back of the sea-beach. It 



2" The Irish Naturalist. January, 

has a sandy bottom but withal a treacherous one, for here 
and there the wader finds himself sinking into unexpected 
quicksands. The bed of the lake yielded an abundant 
growth of Char a aspera, Willd., and its variety C. 
desmacantha,^ H. and J. Groves, both in small compact 
forms and much encrusted. This, and some small growth 
of C. fragilis, Desv., was all that I could discover. 
Immediately east of Rinboy L. lies a lough not named 
in the Ordnance map and treated seemingly as part of 
Lough Kinny, with which it is probably united in the 
winter when the intervening marsh lands are inundated. 
I gathered that its local name is Tra Lough. This lake has 
a thick growth of reeds and of Chara vegetation so rank 
that it w^ould be difficult to make wa\^ in a boat even were 
the impeding obstacle of rushes removed. The Charas 
here appeared confined to C. aspera, C. desmacantha, C. 
hispida,^ Linn, and C. rudis* Braun. L. Kinny close 
by is of very different character ; its w^ater for the 
most part is deep and clear with a stony bottom. Only 
tow^ards its north shore, where it reaches the sand-flats, 
does it become rank and dense with vegetable growth. 
Here again C. desmacantha abounds, but in this lake it 
is a large dark green unencrusted form, very spinous, 
with long recurved branchlets, looking exceedingly like 
some forms of C. canescens, Loisel. Besides this form 
was another with short connivent branchlets and long 
internodes. The other species which I \^'as able to collect 
b}^ hand or drag w^ere C. aspera and its var. snbinermis,'^ 
Kuetz., C. contraria, Kuetz., C. fragilis, and its variety 
delicatula, Braun. This last grows in great abundance in 
the stony bed at the south end of the lake — choice little 
tuft}^ plants some 3-5 inches high, with thick incurved 
branchlets full of fruit. 

Beyond L. Kinny north-eastward comes a small almost 
circular lake unnamed in the new half-inch ordnance map. 
It lies immediately under the little hamlet of Ballylar. 
Here the drag brought up some specimens of Tolypella, 
much decayed, w^hich on examination proved to be T. 
glomerata,* Leonh. An investigation round the shores of 
the lake revealed other specimens in good condition, 



igij. Bullock-Webster — Characeae of Fanad. 3 

probably a second growth, since T. glomerata usually 
reaches maturity in April and early May. The lough also 
yielded abundance of C contraria, C. aspera, and its var. 
suhinerniis, and C. desmacantha. 

Over the shoulder of the hill on which the hamlet of 
Ballylar stands lies Lough Shannagh. This lake would 
probably repay careful investigation by boat. It has 
clear deep water with a stony bottom at its southern, 
and a sandy bottom at its northern, end. It yielded 
Nitella translucens,^ Agardh. in excellent condition, green 
and fresh, but little else save some C. aspera thrown up 
on the shore by the wavelets, and some immature C. 
fragilis. " Little else," I say, because one large exception 
must be made. Growing in immense abundance along 
the western shore of the lake, about 10 yards from the 
margin and in some 5 or 6 feet of water, was a plant which 
at present defies identification, unless it be a wholly 
abnormal form of A^. flexilis,^ Agardh. Mr. James Groves 
has given some considerable time to examining specimens 
both of the dried plant and of fresh specimens preserved 
in solution, but at present it seems difficult to arrive at 
its identification. It grows in great abundance evidently 
in a long bank parallel with the west shore, and at the 
time of collecting was in fine fruiting condition. The 
plant is monoecious and monarthrodactylous ; that at any 
rate seems clear. Perhaps further investigation, and 
also examination of specimens collected if possible at an 
earlier period of the year, may serve to reveal its true 
species. 

I have reserved to the last Kindrum Lough itself as 
being perhaps the most interesting in its character and 
yield. The lake lies somewhat southward and thus more 
inland, and, while shallow in some parts, on its east and 
north-east side it drops down to a great depth. Here, thanks 
to the kindness of Lord Leitrim and his local agent, I had 
the advantage of a boat. I found C. fragilis, var. deli- 
catiila, growing in the beautiful Httle tufted form of 
L Kinny, on hard black peat, the plant varying from 
i|-5 inches, with short, sturdy incurved branchlets bearing 
abundance of fruit. Also C. fragilis, N. Iranslucens, and 



4 The Irish Naturalist. January, 

C. desmacantha in the same dark green unencrusted forms 
as found in L. Kinny. The drag brought up immense 
tresses of this plant some specimens measuring 15-23 
inches in length growing in 5-6 feet of water, and having 
the appearance of C. canescens, for which I mistook the 
plant till Mr. Groves' microscope revealed its triplostychous 
stems. It would be difficult to find more beautiful speci- 
mens. But, still more interesting, the lake ^delded 
specimens of the curious L. Shannagh Nitella, and also, 
adhering to some draggings of C. fragilis, were to be 
detected a few minute pieces of Nitella Nordstedtiana,'^ 
H. and J. Groves. This plant is always too small to allow 
of its collection by means of a drag. At the same time 
it was growing in water too deep (10-12 feet) to permit 
a rake or hoe to reach its bed. I was, therefore, unable 
to collect more than these chance pieces. However, the 
specimens are sufficient for ]\Ir. Groves to identify the 
plant and to establish the fact of the occurrence of this 
rather rare Nitella in the Fanad peninsula — a notable 
extension of its area, since so far it has onty, I think, 
been recorded from the Killarney Lakes. 

Another interes^^^'^ plant came up in the drag almost 
at the same time, not this time a Chara, Najas flexilis,^ 
Rosk. and Schmidt, till now recorded only from Kerry 
and Galway. 

Near L. Tra I came upon a few small trenches about 
2 feet wide and 18 inches deep dug probably last spring. 
Here Charas were luxuriating in pools of clear, clean water 
where they enjoyed free play unchecked by any stronger 
growth. They yielded beautiful specimens of C. hispida, 
C. fragilis, C. delicatida, and C. contraria in forms and 
condition to satisfy the most exacting of characeologists. 
I was able also to visit a lake near Melmore Head on 
the western side of Mulroy Bay— a very interesting piece 
of water which might have yielded some treasures had 
a boat been available, for it appeared to abound in Chara 
growth. Hoe and drag brought up C. fragilis and its var. 
capillacea* Coss. and G., C. contraria and its var. 
hispidida* Braun., C. aspera, and C. desmacantha both in 
small short form and in its large lax form. 



I9I7- Bullock-Webster — Characeae of Fanad. 5 

Of all the plants which I have here recorded I 
was able to furnish myself with specimens for careful 
examination and identification, and I have to thank Mr. 
James Groves for kindly going through the collection with 
me and giving his skilled assistance and unrivalled 
knowledge in determining doubtful plants. 

Reviewing the Characeae yield as a whole, two or three 
facts call, I think, for observation, (i) The small area 
to which my investigations were confined yielded 8 species 
and 6 sub-species and varieties of the Characeae. Had 
a boat been available it seems more than probable that 
this list would have been enlarged. Should a second visit 
to this very attractive and interesting locality prove 
possible another year I shall certainly make efforts to 
secure the use of a coracle, of which as I gather there are 
some in the neighbourhood, and trust myself to its pre- 
carious stability. (2) The localit}^ seems one likely to yield 
C. canescens, LoiseL, and its frequent companion C. con- 
fiivens, Braun. Both these plants frequent brackish water, 
and this the Kindrum loughs most certainly provide. 
A more careful search may discover one or another or 
both. (3) The absence of C. vulgaris, Linn, from the 
neighbourhood is worth noting, and C. polyacantha, Braun. 
might certainly have been expected. I found in one ditch 
nearly dried up some remains of Chara growth which 
proved to be C. vulgaris, but this is the only trace of the 
species which I could detect. (4) The prevailing plants 
it will be observed are C. contraria and C. desmacantha. 
These seemed to abound and in many different forms. 
(5) The fact that the undetermined Nitella of L. Shannagh 
also occurs in L. Kindrum is not without interest and 
should afford some clue to its identification. In each 
case it is growing with N. translucens and the possibility 
of a hybrid suggests itself, but the plant contains, 
apparently, no traces of the diarthrodactylous branchlets 
of that species. 

St. Michael's Rectorj^, College Hill, London, E.C. 



6 The Irish Naturalist. January, 

THE STATE OF IRELAND. 

BY ROWLAND SOUTHERN, B.SC, M.R.I. A. 

Study is like the heaven's glorious sun, 

That will not be deep-search'd with saucy looks ; 

Small have continual plodders ever won, 

Save base authority from others' books. 

These earthly godfathers of heaven's lights, 

That give a name to every fixed star, 

Have no more profit of their shining nights 

Than those that walk and wot not what they are. 

Too much to know is to know naught but fame ; 

And every godfather can give a name. 

— Love's Labour's Lost, Act I., Sc. i. 

During the present period of intense national introspec- 
tion, it might be profitable to enquire into the causes of 
the recent diminution of interest in natural history in 
Ireland, and more especially of the decrease in numbers 
of the " amateur " enthusiasts. The reduced membership 
of the various Natural History Societies, the falling off. 
in the attendances at Field Club excursions, and the con- 
tracting circulation of the Irish Naturalist are symptoms 
of this lack of interest. Potent causes are undoubtedly 
the increased and inevitable specialisation of the modern 
systematist, and the almost complete cataloguing of the 
more obvious and easily named animals and plants. These 
two causes alone, however, are not sufficient to account 
for the present apathy, for the number of problems awaiting 
solution is as great as ever, and new discoveries are con- 
tinually opening up fresh avenues for exploration. 

The potency of fashion to mould the form of our 
activities, and the rarity of initiative in the " rank and 
file," are obvious even in science. A main cause of the 
small interest now displayed in Natural History is un- 
doubtedly due to the excessive attention bestowed, during 
the last twenty years, on the problems of Geographical 
Distribution. The aims and methods of several of the 
dominant personalities in our midst have been slavishly 
followed by their disciples, and the distribution of an 
organism has come to be regarded as its most important 
characteristic. The infinite complexity of nature obtains 



1917- Southern — The State of Ireland, 7 

for its elucidation merely a label and a map. The result- 
ing labours have imparted to the recent literature of 
Natural History in Ireland, as revealed in the pages of 
the Irish Natitralist and the Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Academy, an arid and monotonous aspect, well adapted 
to chill the enthusiasm of the veteran and to quench the 
budding aspirations of the tyro. 

Of recent years it has become the custom to enlarge a 
systematic paper by a long discussion on Geographical 
Distribution. The procedure is after this fashion. The 
writer has obtained possession, let us say, of a collection 
of sponges from Kerguelen. He compiles a list of the 
species, with appropriate notes. Then with his list of 
species, a good atlas, and a complete set of works dealing 
with sponges, he retires to his lair, and prepares lists of 
" Sponges found only in Kerguelen and Spitzbergen," 
" Sponges found only in Kerguelen and Kamtchatka," 
" Sponges found only in Kerguelen and the Solomon Islands," 
" Sponges found only in Kerguelen and Clew Bay," and 
so on. Then he varies the proceedings with lists of 
" Sponges found in Kerguelen hut not found in Spitzbergen," 
etc., etc. Then follow lists of sponges found in Kerguelen 
and two other localities, sponges found in Kerguelen and 
three other localities, etc., then sponges found in Kerguelen 
and one other place, but not found in a third place, etc., 
etc. And so the dismal narration proceeds, page after 
page, until somebody sends him another collection from 
some other distant isle, or an impatient editor gives him 
a week longer to finish the paper. Of course, nobody 
ever reads this part of the paper, and one wonders why it 
was ever written. But it is the fashion nowadays, it is 
easv, and it exerts the same kind of fascination on the 
author that some people find in playing patience. More- 
ever it imparts a fallacious air of broadmindedness, showing 
that the author has a soul above that of the mere recording 
fiend. The only solid fact that emerges from such 
effusions as this is that our knowledge of distribution 
at present is very imperfect, and will be increased, not 
by burning the midnight oil, but by collecting more 
material. 



8 The Irish 'Naturalist, January, 

Another monstrous parody of Natural History is what 
a returned American — if such a one can be conceived as 
taking an interest in the subject — would call the " county 
stunt." Some people have objected to the partition of 
Ireland into only two divisions, but if they only knew ! 
The craze for finding an animal or plant in as many counties 
as possible has recently been very popular in Ireland. 
Kerry is its Mecca, the Irish Naturalist is its Koran, but 
it would not be seemly to name its prophet in these pages. 
Papers after this fashion are even more unreadable than 
the " Kerguelen " kind, and are often illustrated with 
weird maps resembling ancient antimacassars. Ardent 
champions of this game announce with triumph that one 
of their recent epoch making discoveries constitutes " the 
eleventh record of this species for County Tyrone," and 
they select for their collecting trips, places so situated that 
they can make rapid raids into three or four adjacent 
counties. As the poet says : — 

Primroses by the river's brim 
New County Records are to him, 
And they are nothing more. 

The " county " mania often takes the form of an 
attempt to divide Ireland into a number of similar " ideal " 
divisions, each of which would have its lake, river, patch 
of bog, mountain over i,ooo feet in height, and so on. 
Surely, if the country is to be sub-divided any more than 
it is at present, this is a topsy-turvey method of procedure. 
If the divisions are to portray anything in nature, then 
the more dissimilar they are the better. Moreover, no 
system of divisions " satisfactory " to the student of the 
terrestrial fauna and flora could be applied to the in- 
habitants of fresh-water, still less to those of the sea. 
Distributional limits are fixed by ecological, not geo- 
graphical, conditions, and vary according to the group, 
or even species, under consideration. 

Attempts to express distribution by symbols, numbers, 
and abbreviations arc also to be deplored. They render 
nauseating an already tedious subject, and any doubtful 
economies of time and space are more than counterbalanced 
bv the irritation thcv cause to the reader. 



igiy. Southern — TJie State of Ireland. 9 

The last attempt to subdivide Ireland, for biological 
purposes, was that of J. Adams,' published in these pages 
in 1908. Not satisfied with the four provinces and the 
forty counties and vice-counties, he instituted a new 
partition into twelve sub-provinces, decorated with names 
of antique flavour. A British or Continental naturalist, 
anxious to ascertain the distribution in Ireland of a par- 
ticular animal or plant, would be greatly edified by 
learning that he might hope to find it in Tirawly, Tirowen, 
Offaly, Oriell, and Brefney, or in M 103, L 120, C 003, 
U 123. It would be necessary to illuminate every paper 
using these hieroglyphics with a map and a long explana- 
tion, b}^ the aid of which the reader would painfully 
translate them into geographical terms with which he 
had some familiarity. And yet the proud proprietors of 
these systems always quaintly advocate them because they 
save time and space, and convey their meaning in an 
illuminating flash. In the system proposed by Adams, 
rivers and lakes are used to a great extent as boundaries, 
so that unscrupulous hunters of the aquatic fauna and 
flora might often bring down two sub-provinces with a 
single specimen. In the original scheme the boundaries 
of the marine divisions, in nine out of eleven cases, ran 
up the middle of a bay. In a subsequent note^ Adams 
amended this, and moved the boundaries to adjacent pro- 
jecting parts of the coast, so that the marine divisions 
ceased to correspond exactly to the terrestrial divisions, 
thus spoiling the beautiful symmetry which was the chief 
hope and pride of the original scheme. The seaward 
boundary of the terrestrial divisions was fixed at low-water 
mark. Consequently, one shore of nine of the piincipal 
bays w^as in one sub-province down to low-water mark, 
and in another sub-province below low- water m.ark. One 
might catch a crab just above low-water mark in 
" Desmond," but if the crab were nimble enough, and 
managed to slip into the w^ater before being captured, 
it would figure in the records of " Thomond." If that 
crab had been already recorded from " Desmond," but 

^Irish Naturalist, vol. xvii., 1908, pp. 145-151. 
^Ib. vol. xviii., 1909, pp. 1-2. 



10 The Irish Naturalist. January, 

not from " Thomond " there would be a strong tempta- 
tion for the record-hunter to chivy it over the border 
before capturing it. But such deplorable chicanery could 
not have occurred to the mind of Mr. Adams, for he says 
" Species obtained by shore-collecting belong {naturally 
enough) to the count}^ on whose shores they are collected." 
Nor, apparently, have the vagaries of " low-water mark," 
as a territorial boundary, troubled him. 

But these minor absurdities do not constitute the chief 
objection to such ready-made faunistic and floristic 
divisions of a country. They are fundamentally wrong, 
insomuch as they precede a knowledge of distribution, 
instead of being based on it. If they are to have any 
value they must represent the observed limitations of 
species or groups of species. These distributional limita- 
tions njust be correlated with the habits and life-histories 
of the species, and those factors in the environment which 
prevent their further dispersal. It will then be obvious 
(as it is now) that each species has its own peculiar dis- 
tribution, and onh' two divisions will be necessary to 
express it, one in which it occurs, and one from which 
it is absent. 

In reading papers on the geographical distribution of 
the marine organisms occurring in various localities in the 
British Isles, one often meets such a statement as this : 
" The fauna (or flora) of our area is a remarkable mixture 
of northern and southern forms." This announcement is 
always made with the air of imparting an important dis- 
cover}/, and is usually accompanied by a mass of statistical 
information. For instance, the following sentence occurs 
in a recently published paper : — " A study of this table 
reveals the interesting fact that the marine fauna of the 
west of Ireland, as far as these orders of Crustacea are 
concerned, is a blending of northern forms with southern 
species from the Mediterranean, the latter element some- 
what preponderating." It is difficult to see what alternative 
the writer considered possible. Owing to the usually re- 
stricted bathy metrical range of marine organisms, and the 
general north-south trend of the European coast, the 
fauna could hardly be a mixture of eastern and western 



tgiy. Southern — The State of Ireland. II 

forms. The absence of any well known and important 
limiting barrier on our west coast makes it equally absurd 
to expect that the fauna would have a wholly northern, 
or wholly southern distribution. The only other alternative 
would be that the fauna was peculiar to the west coast 
of Ireland, and occurred nowhere else, which would indeed 
be an interesting fact ! The preponderance of species 
liaving a distribution mainly to the south is also what 
c ne v/ould expect a priori, even when the effects of ths 
warm water of the North European branch of the Gulf 
Stream, flowing past our west coast in a north, and north- 
eastern direction, and of the current flowing out of the 
Mediterranean, the effects of which can be traced as far 
north as the south coast of Ireland, are left out of con- 
sideration. In almost all orders of marine animals, the 
total number of species diminishes as one travels north- 
wards from the tropics, and consequently there must 
necessarily be more species, at any given place on the 
west coast of Europe, having a southern distribution than 
a northern one. In the same way the marine fauna of the 
cast and west coasts of America, and the east coast of Asia 
has a mainly north-south distribution, whilst that of the 
x^rctic and Antarctic, and of the south coast of Asia has 
a distribution mainly east-west. 

In the above paragraphs the writer must disclaim any 
intention of attacking the legitimate study of Geographical 
Distribution. Though it has not realised all the expecta- 
tions of its earliest followers, nor 3/ielded results com- 
mensurate with the amount of labour devoted to it, it has 
its real, if subsidiary, function. 

The remedy for the present devitalised state of Natural 
History in Ireland is to return to the study of living things 
themselves, their physical characteristics, their adaptations 
and habits, and their reactions to the environment. When 
an adequate knowledge of our fauna and flora has been 
accumulated from this point of view, we may perhaps 
be able to derive some intelligent satisfaction from the 
contemplation of their Geographical Distribution. 

Fisheries Office, Dublin. 



12 The Irish Naturalist. January, 

RARE PLANTS OF THE CO. DOWN COAST. 

BY REV. C. H. WADDELL, M.R.I. A. 

It may be interesting to put on record some localities 
for a few plants collected in July of this year, two of which 
are additions to our county list. 

Draba muralis L. — This plant, which was seen in 1896 by Canon Lett 
on a wall of the Newry nursery, has spread from the walls and 
become a troublesome weed, covering the ground in parts of the well- 
known Daisy Hill nursery on the Co. Armagh side of Newry. 

Brassica Rapa var. Briggsii Wats. — Common in fields by the shore at 
Warrenpoint harbour and at Omeath, Co. Louth. 

Raphanus maritimus Sm. — Omeath. 

Radiola linoides Roth. — Ferry Hill, Co. Louth. 

Valerianeila Olitoria Poll. — Walls at Narrow-water, on both sides of 
the river. 

Tragopogon porrifolius L. — The Salsify is well established on the 
banks of the river north of Warrenpoint. 

^Lactuca muralis Gaertn. — I found a number of plants of Wild 
Lettuce growing on the wall and in the open part of the wood by the 
roadside between Rostrevor and the Woodhouse. This is an interesting 
extension of range for this species which has not been found before in 
Ulster, the nearest station being Collon, Co. Louth. 

Linaria repens Mill. — This beautiful plant is still abundant at Kill- 
owen, especially on walls and banks by the sea. 

Scrophularia aquatica L. — Seems to be spreading about Warren- 
point, where some plants are growing on the sea wall. I found it also 
at Narrow-water, on the roadside between the ferry and Milltown. 

Mimulus Langsdorffii Donn. — This beautiful immigrant has established 
itself on the shore at the mouth of the Moygannon River, where it is 
accompanied by Atriplex portiilacoides. It is also found further up the 
river. 

Stachys arvensis L. — A weed in fields at Omeath 

Briza media L. — Sea banks north of Warrenpoint. 

*Zostera marina L. var. angustifolia Hornem. — The common Grass- 
wrack and its narrow-leaved variety [angusiijolia) grow in great masses 
on the mud banks in Strangford Lough near Grey Abbey, where they 
provide food for flocks of Brent Geese (called " Bernacles " in this 
locality). These pluck up and eat the succulent stems. The leaves 
lloat ashore, and tl'is " sleech," as it is called, forms a valuable covering 
for potato bins in winter, but is of little use for manure, it takes so 
long to decay. 



igiy- Waddell — Rare Plants of Co. Down Coast. 13 

*Z. nana Roth. — The Dwarf Sea-grass has not been found hitherto in 
Co. Down. I was glad therefore to find it growing with Riippia 
maritima L. on muddy sand in pools between the Mid Island, Grey 
Abbey, and the mainland. It was not in flower, but the leaves cannot 
easily be mistaken. It is covered by 2 or 3 feet of water at high tide. 

Greyabbey, Co. Down. 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

November 29. — A public lecture was delivered in the Royal Dublin 
Society's Theatre (by permission of the Council), by Prof. J. Arthur 
Thomson, LL.D., of Aberdeen, who took for his subject " The Beauty 
of Animal Life," analysing the conception of beauty as appreciated by 
the naturalist, and illustrating his remarks by an admirable series of 
lantern slides. Sir Walter Boyd presided, and the theatre was crowded. 

Recent gifts include a Red-eared Waxbill from Major Douglas, and 
a Cockatoo from Lady Errington. A female Woolly Monkey and a 
Mandrill have been received on deposit ; a Hamadryas and a Yellow 
Baboon have been purchased. Four Lion-cubs have been born in the 
Roberts House, " Conn " and " Maive " being the parents. 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

October ii.— The Club met at Leinster House. N. Colgan, M.R.I. A., 
was elected President and took the chair, W. F. GUNN being appointed 
Vice-President. 

H. A. Lafferty exhibited microscopic preparaticns of and pure 
cultures of a fungus which he had obtained from wheat ears. The 
fungus was identified as Gihherella Sauhinetii (Mont.) Sacc. ; a species 
described as parasitic on various hosts in America and on the Continent, 
but hitherto not recorded from Ireland. 

November 8 — The Club met at Leinster House, the President in the 
chair. 

H. A. Lafferty exhibited a specimen of Ash on which was present 
the fruiting bodies of the common wood destroying fungus Polyporiis 
squamosus. Microscopic preparations of wood infested with the mycelium 
of this fungus were also shown, which clearly demonstrated its enzymic 
action on the cellulose, especially in the region of the spring wood. 

W. F. GuNN showed two slides of the myxomycete Trichia affinis 
De Bary, obtained at Killakee in October. One of these showed the ripe 
sporangia as opaque objects, and the other the elaters and spores in a 
transparent mount. The species is said to be common on rotting logs, 
and has been recorded from Leinster and Munster but not from the other 



14 The Irish Naturalist. January, 

Irish provinces. The sporangia walls are evanescent and easily rupture, 
liberating the crowded yellow spores which are marked by pitted shallow 
bands forming a triangular recticulation on the exterior surface. 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

October 24. — Annual Conversazione. — The Winter session opened 
with a conversazione held in the Carlton Hall, at which about 250 
members and friends were present. Members contributed the following 
exhibits : — Geology — Minerals from Co. Antrim, Robert Bell ; core of 
Permian conglomerate, R. May ; fossils from Bundoran and Hillsport, 
A. M'l. Cleland ; specimens illustrating the growth of coal, A. M'l. 
Cleland ; fossil and recent Foraminfera viewed with the microscope, 
Joseph Wright ; models of Inishowen and Belfast districts, J. K. 
Charlesworth ; models made from maps by pupils of Richmond Lodge, 
.Miss Houston. Botanical Specimens — Prof. R. H. Yapp, N. 
Carrothers, Rev. W. R. Megaw, A. W. Stelfox, Sylvanus Wear, Miss S. 
Blackwood, J. R. H. Greeves, H. C. Baker, S. A. Bennett, and James 
Orr. Zoological Exhibits — Nevin Foster, E. Foster Green, S. Stendall, 
R. A. Phillips, A. W. Stelfox, and Miss M. W. Rea. Arch^ological 
Exhibits — Wm. Gray, Miss Maudsley, Mrs. A. M'l. Cleland, Miss S. 
Blackw'ood, W. A. Green, and R. May. Miscellaneous Exhibits — 
W. A. Green, photographs of the linen industry ; S. Stendall, kinemato- 
graph film, " Life of the Spider." 

After tea the Vice-President (Joseph Maxwell) took the chair, in the 
absence of the President (Captain A. R. Dwerryhouse) at the seat 
of war. In the course of his remarks the Vice-President said that among 
those present were two of the original members of the Club. Evidently 
natural history pursuits did not necessarily shorten life. Indeed, they 
were the best antidote possible to the troublous times through we were 
passing. Even at the front some enthusiasts found opportunities of 
pursuing their favourite studies. At this stage the following prizes 
were presented to members of the junior section by the Chairman : — 
Botanical Enigma Prize, 1915-16, John Dean ; Zoological Enigma Prize, 
19 1 5-16, Miss Nora Humphreys ; Botanical Enigma Prize, 19 16-17, Miss 
Dorothy Armstrong ; Zoological Enigma Prize, 1916-17, Alfred George. 
Mr. Maxwell concluded his remarks by announcing that Alderman S. T. 
Merrier, J. P., Chairman of the Library and Technical Instruction Com- 
mittee, Belfast Corporation, had offered two prizes to the boy and girl 
who had the best kept notebooks at the end of the forthcoming Winter 
Session. One ordinary and five Associate members were then elected. 
The remainder of the evening was taken up by an exhibition of kine- 
matograph films dealing with natural history subjects, the lantern being 
manipulated with his usual ability by Alexander R. Hogg. A few 
photographs taken on some of the club excursions were also shown. 

November 21. — AIex. M'l. Cleland gave a lecture on " The Roman 
Engineer : 50 b.c. — 200 a.d. — the Vice-President (Joseph Maxwell) 



1 91 7- Irish Societies. 15 

occupying the chair. The paper was illustrated by a series of excellent 
lantern views, many of them from the lecturer's own negatives. After- 
wards Dr. Charlesworth and N. H. Foster made a few remarks, to which 
Mr. Cleland replied. With the election of five junior Members the 
proceedings terminated. 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

October 14. — Excursion to Kilruddery. — A party of twenty-five 
left Harcourt Street Station at 11.45 a.m. for Bray, arrving at Kilruddery 
about one o'clock. The day was very stormy. In the wood on the 
right of the avenue leading from the main gate, the conductor, Prof. 
A. Henry, pointed out the numerous natural seedlings of various ages 
of the Silver Fir [Abies peciinata) scattered about in the vicinity of the 
old parent trees. In the absence of rabbits, this species sows itself in 
most parts of Ireland almost as freely as the Ash and Sycamore. The fine 
old hedges of Beech, Yew, Lime, and Evergreen Oak were much admired. 
In a sheltered spot, some rare New Zealand trees were planted about ten 
years ago, the most remarkable being the Kauri pine {Agathis australis), 
of which only another specimen (at Menahilly in Cornwall) is known 
to exist in the open air in the British Isles. Splendid old trees of Lime 
and Beech are plentiful in the pleasure grounds ; and the magnificent 
line of Evergreen Oak [Quercus Ilex), numbering about twenty trees, is 
unrivalled in Ireland, some of the stems girthing 10 to 12 feet. Special 
attention was paid to the distinguishing characters of the various species 
of conifers, such as Pinus insignis (splendid specimen), Pinus excelsa, 
Deodar, Larch, Abies nobilis. The party returned to Bray about five 
o'clock. 

November 30. — The opening meeting of the Winter Session was held 
at the Royal Irish Academy House. The President (Prof. G. H. 
Carpenter) gave an illustrated address entitled " Useful Studies for 
Field Naturalists," which was discussed by N. Colgan, R. Ll. Prager, 
and C. Dunlop. It will be published in next month's issue of this 
magazine. 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

July 1. — Excursion to Waterloo. — A party of twelve members 
travelled by 3.30 p.m. train from Glanmirc to Blarney, from which they 
walked to Ballygibbon rath. Here the confluctor, J. Noonan, drew 
attention to the fact that in southern districts the Whortle-berrj' 
{Vaccinium Myrtilliis) is generally found growing on all the so-called 
" Danish raths," except on those erected where the soil is calcareous. 
" Father Horgan's Round Tower " at Waterloo (erected in 1834 as a 
protest against Henry O'Brien's theory of the origin of tlie Round Towers, 
then recently published), was next visited. The party then proceeded 
to Blarney by the picturesque Ardamadane Glen. Tea was obtained at 
the Blarney Castle Cafe, after which the members returned to town by 



1 6 The Irish Naturalist . January, 

the Muskerry Railway. In addition to its botanical interest the district 
traversed has many historic and literary associations, which were explained 
by the conductor. 

July 12. — Excursion to Bishopstown. — ^The members walked from 
Bishopstown station to Bishopstown House to visit the site of the 
eighteenth century residence of the Bishop of Cork. The small chapel, 
" Shell House," remains of old fish ponds, mineral springs, etc., were 
shown by Mr. E. Neville. Returning to the city by " Kate Seha's Lane," 
a fine glacial deposit was examined. West of it is a magnesian lime- 
stone quarry. By the wayside, east of the Munster Institute, the Hop 
{Humulus Litpulus) was found well established. This plant is gradually 
spreading south-west of the city. 

August 2. — Excursion to Carrigrohane. — On this outing M. Holland 
conducted the party of members who travelled out by the Muskerry 
Railway. The growth of Centranthus ruber on the face of the limestone 
cliff at the station is very conspicuous. Orohanche Hederae was found 
at the foot of the cliff. After visiting the castle on the top of the cliff, 
from which a fine view of the Lee valley was obtained, the members 
walked by the Church Cross and Inchigaggin Lane to Leemount station 
where tea was provided. Among the plants noted were : — Ononis repens, 
Tanacetum vulgare, Linavia vulgaris. In the first decades of the last 
century the Pearl-mussel, Unio niargaritifera was found in abundance 
in the River Lee at Carrigrohane. 

August 30. — Visit to the Munster Institute. — A party of twenty- 
six members and friends assembled at 3.30 p.m. at Victoria Cross, and 
walked to the Institute by Jennings's Lane. Erinus alpinus was found 
growing on a wall in the lane. This plant has spread considerably near 
Cork since the Rev. T. Allin recorded it for Douglas in 1883. On 
arriving at the Institute the party was received by the Lady Super- 
intendent, Miss L. Murphy and the members of the staff, and shown 
over the building, the gardens, dairy, poultry runs, etc. The visitors 
were subsequently entertained at tea, after which a vote of thanks to 
Miss Murphy and the staff was passed. 

September 9. — Excursion to Blackrock. — A party of twenty 
travelled by tram to Blackrock, and walked by the Church Road to 
Besborough, which was visited by permission of the Misses Pike. John 
Griffin acted as conductor. Vervain [Verbena officinalis) was one of the 
plants observed on the way. Within the grounds fir-cones bearing the 
characteristic markings left by squirrels were met with. A very 
luxurious growth of Mistletoe was observable on many trees in the 
gardens, where Erinus alpinus and Orobanche Hederae were also noted. 
Leaving Besborough and proceeding towards Lakelands, Geranium 
striatum was found. The following plants were found in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the River Lee : — Suaeda maritima, Beta maritima, 
Anihemis Cotula, Statice Bahusiensis, Salicovuia herbacea, 



iQiy. Notes. 17 

NOTES. 

BOTANY. 
Hypopithys multiflora in Co, Leitrim. 

In October last my wife found several fruiting specimens of this rare 
plant growing in chinks of limestone rock under hazel scrub at the east 
end of Lough Gill, on the steep southern side of the knoll near Sriff 
Cottage, marked 328 on the one-inch Ordnance map. The plant is new 
to Leitrim, but has been thrice found at the western end of Lough Gill, 
in Co. Sligo : — ^at Hazlewood in 1871 (Miss Wynne) ; one plant at Doonee 
Road, 1896 (N. Colgan) ; and one plant at the latter station in 1904, 
found by myself during the Sligo Field Club Conference. 

R. Lloyd Praeger. 

Dublin. 

Pterogonium s^racile Swartz in Co. Down. 

Canon Lett and I found this moss growing sparingly on rocks and 
tree bases in two places on the mountain above Rostrevor not far from 
the " Big Stone" last July. The species is rare in the North of Ireland 
and is a welcome addition to the county flora. 

C. H. Waddell. 

Grey Abbey, Co. Down. 

Naias flexilis in Donegal. 

Canon Bullocl:- Webster's modesty has buried a very important record 
of one of our most interesting flowering plants among the notes on 
Donegal Characeae which he contributes to the present number, and I 
draw attention to it here for fear that the record may be overlooked. 
First known in the British Islands from Cregduff Lough near Round- 
stone, Connemara, Naias flexilis was subsequently found at Killarney 
by A. G. More, and is now recorded from that third stronghold of our 
western flora, Donegal. In Great Britain it is known only from Skye 
and Perthshire, and in Continental Europe has a sparse northern dis- 
tribution. Canon Bullock- Webster's discovery furnishes the most in- 
teresting addition to the Donegal flora which has been made for many 
years. 

R. Lloyd Praeger. 

Dublin. 

Filago minima at Howth. 

I found Filago minima last July at Shielmartin Hill, Howth. The 
plant is very rare in Co. Dublin as, so far as I can trace, it does not 
appear to have been previously recorded as occurring in the Howth 
district. 

p. B. Bradshaw, 

Dublin. 



i8 The Irish Naturalist. January, 

ZOOLOGY. 
Anosia archippus in Co. Cork, 

In the Irish Times of November 7th, 19 16, H. Chavasse records the 
capture of a specimen of the famous North American " Milkweed 
Butterfly " near Skibbereen on October 20th. It is well known as a 
migratory insect, and might have been expected in Ireland before now, 
as nearly thirty examples have been observed in the south and west 
of England. 



Quail on Migration at Rockabili Light=Station. 

On Thursday, September 28th, 19 16, at 9.30 a.m., Mr. Hammond 
principal keeper, picked up a dead Quail on the roof of the oil-store 
which encircles the base of the tower. Beside it lay a Greater White- 
throat. Both birds, as he handed them to me, were very fresh but 
soaking wet ; when I dried the Quail I found it was an adult male in 
splendid plumage. 

C. J. Patten. 

University, Sheffield. 



Short-Eared Owl on Migration at Rockabili Light-Station. 

In the October number of the Irish Naturalist (vol. xxv., p. 170) I 
mentioned that at 7.20 p.m. I observed an owl (Short-eared to the best 
of my belief) flying round Rockabili. The date of my observation, 
which was August 20th, 19 16, appears to have been accidentally omitted' 

C. J. Patten. 
University, Sheffield. 



Swans and their Nests. 

A couple of swans frequent our little lake (or rather pond) of about 
3 acres. They fly to the open waters of the Boyne in hard weather, 
come and go at will, but always nest here. However, they have never 
succeeded in rearing their young. In 1914 and 1915 the young ones 
died at the age of two or three weeks. Mere bags of fluff they were, and 
seemed starved. This year the eggs were addled and did not hatch 
out at all. I am at a loss to guess the reason, and would be glad of any 
suggestion. I questioned the man who feeds the wild fowl at the Zoo 



191 7- Notes. 19 

in Dublin who told me that the swans there very rarely rear their young 
successfully. He attributed this to cold and wet seasons, but I doubt 
this, because at Beaulieu Pond, w^hich is very like mine, but larger, 
the swans rarely fail to rear their broods. Moreover, when I was a boy, 
they bred here very successfully. He also told me the cygnets lived 
on small flies and insects which they caught on the water. If so, I don't 
wonder they died of starvation. Surely the parents feed them ? 

G. H. Pentland. 
Black Hall, Drogheda. 



'O' 



Recent Notices of Irish Birds. 

Alfred Bell brings together the records of Pleistocene and later bird 
remains from the British Isles, including cave, sand-dune, and crannog 
records. — [ZooL, 1915, p. 401.) 

C. J. Patten records {Ibid., 1916, p. 41) an Icterine Warbler on migra- 
tion from Tuskar Rock (with plate). 

J. M. M'William notes {ZooL, 1916, p. 194) a Bartram's Sandpiper 
from Bunduff, Co. Leitrim, and contributes a paper {Ibid., 19 16, p. 348), 
" Notes on some Irish Birds," dealing mostly with Co. Monaghan. 

R. F. Ruttledge writes {Ibid., 1916, p. 431) on birds of South Mayo, 
largely Lough Carra. 

N. H. Foster records {Brit. Birds, ix., p. 119) the Tree-sparrow breeding 
on a cliff in north Antrim. 

W. J. Williams announces {Ibid., ix., p. 125) the taking of a young 
Black-necked Grebe, too immature to fly, from a western lake. 

A. R. Nichols states {Ibid., ix., p. 253) that the Little Shearwater obtained 
in Ireland in 1853 proves on examination to be the Madeiran Little 
Shearwater. 

C. L Carroll writes on the extermination of the Golden Eagle in Ireland 
{Ibid., ix., p. 251), Common Buzzard in Wicklow (ix., p. 252), cream- 
coloured Whimbrel on Lough Mask (ix., p. 255), increase of Tufted Ducks 
in Tipperary (ix., p. 275), Common Guillemots breeding in Waterford 
(ix., p. 276), Siskin colony in Tipperary (ix., p. 293), Green Sandpipers 
in Tipperary (ix., p. 302), Quails in Tipperary and Waterford (ix., p. 302). 

Rev. C. W. Benson records February Chiffchaffs from Dublin and 
Wicklow {Ibid., ix., p. 319). and has a note on Quails in Dublin (ix.. p. 320). 

J. Cunningham notes {Ibid., x., p. 116) some Crossbills near Belfast. 

Speed of flight of Leisler's Bat. 

My son told rae this summer that he had seen some large bats hawking 
about the little lake in my grounds and that they flew very fast, faster, 
he thought, than a Swift w^hich was with them. Our common bat here 
is the little Pipistrelle, and any larger bat is very seldom to be seen, •; 
so I went down the next evening to verify his statements and found it 
was quite accurate. From two to five large bats haunted the lake and the 
adiacent woods for most of the fine weather. They appeared about ten 



20 The Irish Natnralist. Jan., 1917. 

minutes before sundown and remained as long as I could see them. They 
flew high as a rule and with astounding speed. I saw them in company 
with Swifts several times, and they certainly flew faster than the swifts. 
When they twisted and turned and swooped after their prey I could not 
follow their movements. My son shot one of them (no easy feat), and 
it turned out to be the Hairy-armed, or Leisler's Bat, which is, I believe, 
the largest bat we have in Ireland. It is perhaps worthy of note that 
I never heard these bats utter a sound, though they are said to be very 
noisy on the wing. Of course the occurrence of this bat here is in no 
waj^ remarkable, but I want to call attention to the extraordinary speed 
of its flight. The Pipistrelle, so far as I can judge, does not fly nearly so 
fast as a Swallow. 

G. H. Pentland. 
Black Hall, Drogheda. 



Badgers and Hedgehogs. 

About fifteen years ago Badgers appeared in my woods and soon 
formed a flourishing colony. As they increased, the Hedgehogs, which 
were then very plentiful gradually disappeared. For five or six years 
I never saw one at all. Then something happened to the Badgers. 
Their numbers dwindled till the tribe was reduced to one or two and 
they seem on the verge of extinction and the little Hedgehogs are 
reappearing ! Cause and effect evidently. 

G. H. Pentland. 
Black Hall, Drogheda. 



Boldness of a Stoat. 

A few da3S ago, one of the ladies of my family saw a Stoat which had 
just killed a full-grown Rabbit, and was eating it. She sat down to watch 
it. At first, being intent on its meal, it did not perceive her, but presently 
it looked up, saw her and retired into a rabbit hole. She sat still and 
watched. It came out again, looked at her and disappeared again. 
She still waited. Presently she was startled by a shrill cry at her back, 
and turning saw the Stoat at the mouth of a hole about two feet from 
her. It snarled and squeaked at her. She picked up a stick and made 
a thrust at the Stoat which retreated for a moment, but reappeared again 
at once, defying the stick and offering such an angry and menacing 
appearance that she fairly dropped her stick and ran away, leaving the 
gallant Stoat master of the field and the rabbit. Stoats have increased 
in numbers here lately to my great pleasure. There is no more useful 
creature (outside the poultry yard). 

G. H. Pentland. 

Black Hall, Drogheda. 



February, 1917. The Irish Naturalist. 21 



ARBUTI CORONA. 

" All authorities appear to be in agreement as to the great antiquity 
of both these groui3s [the Lusitanian and American species of the Irish 
flora]. Prof. Forbes, indeed, considered that the Lusitanian was the 
oldest element in our present flora. It probably reached Kerry along 
a coast-line which was continuous from Spain to Ireland." — R. W. 
Scully : " Flora of Kerry," p. xl., 1916. 

" The three southern sub-floras of Forbes [including the Lusitanian], 
in place of being the oldest as he supposed, we now know must have 
been the most recent ; and it is now very doubtful to what extent they 
migrated over continental land now submerged, as he supposed, or were 
not rather carried by birds, currents, and other natural agencies." — 
Prof. W. H. Herdman : " Life and Work of Edward Forbes," in Proc. 
and Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc, vol. xxx., p. 72, 1915-16. 

The County of Kerry is, as Mr. Southern has very 
properly remarked in the last number of this Journal, 
the Mecca of the student of geographical distribution in 
Ireland ; and its biological interest centres on the group 
of Pyrenean plants and animals for which that area is 
famous. I was under the impression that, excepting the 
vigorous opinions of the late Mr. Clement Reid- -whose 
recent death Irish naturalists join with their English 
brethren in deploring — a fair amount of unanimity had 
been reached as to the great relative age of these organisms 
as immigrants to Ireland ; but two passages, recently 
written, which are quoted above, show that the lion is not 
yet prepared to lie down with the lamb. One cannot 
but feel surprise at the confidence with which Prof. 
Herdman announces that " we now know " that the 
Lusitanian plants are among the most recent arrivals in 
the countr}/, and one wonders who is included in the " we " 
— certainly not one of tlie Irish biologists who have made a 
special stud}^ of this group and of the question of its 
origin. One of the many interesting features of Dr. 
Scully's recently issued " Flora of Kerry "^ is his con- 
clusions regarding many of these plants, which he has 

1 " Flora of County Kerry, including the Flowering Plants, Ferns, 
Characeae, &c." By Reginald W. Scully, F.L.S. With six plates 
and a map. Dublin : Hodges, Figgis & f o , Ltd. 1916. 8vo. pp. 
Ixxxii + 406. I2S. 6d. net. 



22 The Irish Naturalist. February, 

been studying in their native surroundings for a period 
of twenty-five 3^ears. 

A remarkable point in Mr. Clement Reid's confession 
of faith regarding the origin of the British flora is his con- 
viction that the I.usitanian element is rapidly enlarging 
the area of its colonies. " I have mapped and examined 
a good many of these areas, and the plants seem in most 
places to be' spreading vigorously from certain definite 
centres, to which chance has imported a seed " (see 
Irish Naturalist, xx., 207). Dr. vScully's conclusions, drawn 
from twenty-five years' observations of the Pyrenean 
group in Kerry, is directly opposed to this idea. Arbutus 
Unedo is certainly, and Saxijraga Geuni probably, on the 
decrease, according to him. Furthermore, he has had 
certain colonies of both Pyrenean and American plants 
under continuous observation, and finds no tendency in 
a quarter of a century to increase either in numbers or 
in area. It is interesting to note that this observation 
extends to Sisyrinchium angustifolinm and Juncus tenuis, 
two plants whose claim as natives has often been doubted, 
and for which a rapid increase in recent times has been 
frequently suggested : Dr. Scull}^ considers both of them 
aboriginal, and stable as regards their range. This con- 
tribution to our knowledge of the status of our western 
plants will be warmly welcomed. 

Another important feature of Dr. Scully's book is his 
discussion of the Robertsonian Saxifrages- .S. mnbrosa, 
S. Geum, and the rather shadowy 5. hirsuta. By means 
of a series of cultivation experiments, both synthetic and 
analytic, carried out at Trinity College Botanic Garden 
by Prof. H. H. Dixon, it has been shown for the first time 
definitely that S. hirsuta, as well as a number of other 
named and unnamed intermediate forms, is an umbrosa- 
Geum cross ; I sa^^ " for the first time definitely," because 
I fancy that few botanists who have had experience of 
these forms in the garden, or w^ho have studied them in 
their habitats, liave had any reason to doubt the hybrid 
pedigree of S. hirsuta and its kindred forms. My own 
experiences, for instance, are probably analogous to those 
of other people who have paid any attention to the group 



igi/. PRAEGER — Arbiili Corona. . 23 

I broueht 5. Geum from Berehaven to Belfast in i(S88, 
and grew it in my garden for five years. Numerous self- 
sown seedlings appeared, all of which agreed with the 
parent. In 1894 I brought 5. umhrosa from Recess to 
ni}^ Dublin garden, where for ten years it grew and pro- 
duced only normal seedlings. Then I received S. Geum 
from Kerry, and planted it near the other. The most 
varied seedlings soon Ijegan to appear, representing many 
stages intermediate between the two species, and including 
5. hirsuta. This kind of evidence is good enough in its 
way, but it does not supply a scientific proof ; and as 1 
think that most other botanists had got no further in 
the matter than I had, the results of Dr. Dixon's definite 
and controlled experiments are important. Incidentally, 
I may sav that an account by the experimenter himself, 
with further information of this research, would have been 
welcome, and, combined with Dr. Scully's systematic 
notes, would have been appropriate to the pages of one 
of our botanical periodicals, where besides it would have 
obtained a wider publicity. Dr. Scully's long discussion 
of these forms, and the accompanying six plates of leaf 
forms (which are rather poor) while most interesting, 
appear somehow inappropriate in a county Flora, and 
mar the methodical harmony of the work. 

We look to the publication of a local Flora, and the 
intensive study of the plants of the selected area which 
it involves, to settle outstanding doubts and difiiculties 
regarding the occurrence or rank of certain species, and 
similar points regarding which there may have been 
obscurity. In this respect the " Flora of Kerry " fully 
maintains its author's reputation for painstaking research 
and sound judgment. Some of his decisions regarding 
the standing of plants in Kerry are decidedly interest- 
ing. Amiong species often looked on ^^•ith suspicion, 
which he admits to full rank as natives, are Teesdalia 
nudicaulis (on the strength of one small patch now 
apparently extinct), Lavaiera arhorea, Trifolium fili- 
forme, Samhucus nigra. Dr. Moss, editor of the " Cam- 
bridge British Flora," recently told me that, having 
examined the only English station (near Bournemouth) 



24 The Irish Naturalist. P'ebruary, 

of Simeihis bicolor, he believed, as H. C. Watson did before 
him, that the plant is not native there. Dr. Scully has 
no doubt about its being native in Kerry, and botanists 
who have examined its Irish habitat will be inclined to 
agree with him. Thalictrum alpinum is included in the 
flora, although the Brandon record, now thirty years old, 
has never been confirmed, despite the numerous visits of 
botanists to that glorious place. Another plant which is 
admitted, concerning which I cannot but feel very sceptical, 
is Elisma natans. The record rests on immature plants 
collected by G. C. Druce in 1885 near Muckross. JNIr. Druce's 
record {Irish Naturalist, xix., 237) states that Prof. Gliick, 
the well-known authority on water-plants, unhesitatingly 
referred the specimens to E. natans. But Prof. Gliick's 
account of the matter, as I have already had occasion 
to remark (Irish Naturalist, xxi., 105), is of a different 
complexion. As a matter of fact, his statement to me 
was a good deal stronger than what I. published, and makes 
it quite impossible to include this plant in the Irish flora 
on the present evidence. A few plants which we are 
accustomed to look on as indigenous in most of their Irish 
stations are set down by Dr. Scully as introduced in Kerry 
— Spergularia rubra, " alien," for instance, and Ononis 
repens, " denizen." Armaria alpina is excluded, as being 
doubtfully British ; and the evidence, though recent, is 
not considered sufficient to justify the inclusion in the 
Kerry flora of Cardamine amara, Orchis Morio, J uncus 
irifidus. The Kerry " discoveries " of the notorious W. 
Andrews, such as Herniaria glabra and Saxifraga Andreze'sii, 
are treated as they deserve to be. The puzzling Poly- 
gonum sagittatum is set down as " alien or denizen." I feel 
no doubt that all these decisions will commend themselves 
to students of the Kerrv flora. 

The treatment of the critical genera is somewhat unequal. 
The accounts of Rosa, Hieracium, and Potamogeton are 
particularly ftill and clear, and indicate industrious and 
critical collecting and careful diagonsis. Rubus, Euphrasia, 
Chara, etc., are not awarded such full treatment, and 
K.ive evidently received less attention in the field. The 
accounts relating to certain special plants are delightfully 



19 1 7- Praeger — Arhuti Corona. 25 

good ; of Arbutus, for example, and Polygonum sagittatum, 
and particularly of Saxifvaga umbrosa and 5. Geum, as 
already mentioned. The more technical information is 
enlivened with quaint and well chosen extracts from the 
older writers on the Kerry flora, and the author's love 
of nature and of beauty often shines through his account 
of the plants and their habitats. Who will quarrel with him 
for regarding Pinguicula grandiflora as the most beautiful 
member of the Irish flora ? 

At the same time one cannot help thinking that the 
book is a little bit — dare w^e use the word ? — old-fashioned 
in its treatment of the flora in its wider sense. The descrip- 
tion of the topography of the county — so intimately 
associated with its vegetation — is somewhat mechanical. 
Only slight attempts are made to look at the vegetation 
or its constituent parts from the point of view of plant 
geography or ecology. The subject of regional floras is 
but w^eakly developed. No discussion is supplied, for 
instance, of the flora of any of the islands lying off the 
Kerry coast — not even of the Blaskets, which are of 
peculiar interest as forming the most westerly land in 
Europe ; yet the flora of at least the main island of the 
group is thoroughly known and presents interesting features. 
Neither does one find any account of the vegetation of 
the fascinating native woods w^hich are so marked a 
feature of many of the Kerry valleys, and which at 
Killarney are of such special importance. But never- 
theless the topographical part of the book is better done 
than in the case of many local floras of recent date. The 
map which — excepting the inartistic but useful plates of 
Saxifrage leaf-forms — forms the sole illustration in the 
volume is small and inadequate, and a large number of 
the places mentioned in the text are not entered upon 
it. The inclusion of an orographical and a geological 
map would have greatly assisted the reader in understand- 
ing the features and problems of Kerry botany. 

The point which comes out clearest from a study of 
the distribution of the Kerry plants strikes me as being 
the extraordinary richness and intricacy of the flora of 
Killarney. Here favourable and varied conditions prevail 



26 The Irish Xatiiralist. February, 

— there is in a limited area inoiiiitain and lowland, rock 
and lake, limestone and slates, woods and streams. Again, 
large houses and gardens are frequent, and the introduced 
flora is varied ; flower-beds adjoin \\\\d rocky ground 
with a startling proximity ; many of the garden plants 
have now run riot ; and so the present Killarney flora 
presents a bewildering tangle of native and alien plants. 
One would like to know the number of species found 
within half-a-mile of the Lower Lake ; it must be, for 
Ireland, a remarkable total. 

From omissions or errors of any kind the book is almost 
free. One misses the name of West Galway from the 
note on Bartsia viscosa, which is described as disappearing 
completely betw'een Kerry and Donegal. " Topog. Bot." 
does not strike one as a happy contraction for " Irish 
Topographical Botany," since b}^ any but a Hibernian 
reader it would be confused Vsith Watson's better known 
work. Nor do " Bien." for biennial, and " Peren." for 
perennial appeal to one. Mr. Marshall's Ranunculus is 
referred to as R. petiolan's, though that name, being already 
occupied, was soon discarded in favour of R. scoficits. 

The author tells us that he has taken Mr. Colgan's 
" Flora of the County Dublin " as a model, and so closely 
has he followed his pattern, as regards not only arrange- 
ment but paper and type, that when both works are open 
before one it is impossible to distinguish them except by 
the context. The " Flora of Kerry " is beautifully printed 
on thick paper, but typographical errors are rather more 
frequent than one would expect in a \\ork so carefuU}^ 
prepared and sumptuously produced. Though dealing 
with only one count3^ it is more bulky than any of the 
works dealing with the flora of the whole of Ireland — a 
distinct disadvantage for the scientific tourist v.'ho wishes 
to carry it with him on his peregrinations. A thin-paper 
edition reduced in size so as to allow^ of its being carried 
in the pocket would be a godsend to the field botanist. 

The appearance of this able and full account of the 
distribution of the higher plants in Kerry — the most 
beautiful and most interesting of all the Irish counties — 
will be welcomed everywhere by botanists. It is fit and 



191 7- Praeger — Arhuti Corona. 27 

proper that Kerry plants should have a volume to them- 
selves, and in Dr. Scully's book they find certainly a noble 

shrine. 

R. Ll. p. 



EARTHQUAKE OR LANDSLIP? 

BY R. F. SCHARFF, PH.D., M.R.^.A. 

Bog-slides as well as land-slips near the coast have 
been observed in Ireland, but I am not aware of slow 
movements of the soil having ever been noticed or recorded 
in Ireland. The curious phenomenon that I wish to bring 
under the notice of the readers of the Irish Naturalist 
may not be due to this cause. It may possibly be due 
to a local earthquake, but it seems to me more probably 
the result of a land-slip. 

Heavy rains had been falling during October followed 
by another severe rainfall on the 3rd November last. On 
the night of the latter date two of my clocks suddenly 
stopped at ten minutes to eleven, while three other clocks 
went on as before. The latter are placed with the 
pendulum swinging in the direction from north to south, 
whereas the two which stopped are fixed in the direction 
west to east. My house, I may mention, is built on the 
slope of Carrigoona Mountain in Co. Wicklow. It stands 
on a concrete foundation which rests on about 20-30 feet 
of boulder clay and sand. Underneath this comes the 
quartzite rock of this district. 

The clocks had both been keeping excellent time. 
Besides the fact of their both stopping at precisely the same 
time indicates that the stoppage was produced by the 
same cause, which could only have been a shaking of the 
house in the direction of the slope of the ground, which 
is eastward. No indications, other than that alluded to, 
were noticeable to prove that such had been the case. 
I assumed, nevertheless, that a landslip had taken place. 
I should be glad to hear any observations on the subject 
from anyone interested in the matter, 

Knockranny, Bray. 



28 The Irisli Xaiaralisf. February, 

ADDITIONAL COLEOPTERA EROM MEATH AND 

CAVAN. 

BY G. W. NICHOLSON, M.A., M.D. 

Tempted b}^ the fine weather of the latter part of May, 
I went to Ireland in June, 1916, hoping to do some summer 
collecting. I could hardly have chosen a worse month, 
and very soon gave up sweeping and similar summer amuse- 
ments, and had to content myself with grubbing. In spite 
of this I did well enough to justify the belief that there 
are still many surprises in store for the collector in the less 
well explored parts of Ireland. 

I.^COLEOPTERA FROM BaLRATH, Co. MeATH. 

The following are additions to the Irish list : 

1. Omalium planum, Pk. One specimen at the sap of a 
recentty injured oak in the deer-park on June 5. 

2. Conosoma immaculahim, Steph. One in moss on the 
bog on June 10. 

3. Neuraphes SparshaUi, Den. One under the bark of a 
dead log on the bog on June 10. The other side of this log 
was occupied by a nest of Lasius fuscus. There were, 
however, no specimens of the ant in the company of the 
beetle, nor was I able to find any more of it by sifting the 
nest. 

4. Scymnus nigrimis, Kug. Two specimens by beating 
a fir in the bog wood on June 3. 

5. Crepidodera smaragdina, Eoud. This is a doubtful 
species, and is, in my opinion, merely a variety of 
C. helxines, L. I took numerous specimens, which agree 
with such British examples of C. smaragdina as I have 
compared them with. No other form of Crepidodera was 
found with them. They were taken off sallows on the bog 
on several days. 



I9I7- Nicholson — CoJeoptera froiu Meath and Cavan. 29 

6. Otiovrhynchus povcatus, Hbst. This interesting addition 
to the British Hst, which I have already pubKshed elsewhere/ 
came as a great surprise. I found one very bedraggled 
specimen in a shower of rain on the hah steps on June 2, 
and 12 more on the bog on the loth, where they were 
shaken out of moss in a ver}^ restricted area. 

In addition I may mention the following captures : 
Pterosfickus versicolor, Stm., the second black specimen 
in this locality ; Megarthrus denticollis, Beck,, in moss on 
Chamberlaynestown bog ; Olophrmn fuscum, Gr., one in 
a swamp ; Stemis lustrator, Er., a few with the preceding ; 
Lathrohium qiiadratiim, Pk., one at the edge of a pond ; 
Lamprimis saginatus, Gr., one on Chamberlaynestown bog, 
and two on the home bog out of moss in company with a 
species of Myrmica ; Encephahis complicans, West., by 
sweeping in a ditch ; Bolitochara ohliqua, Er., under pine- 
bark ; Ilyohates nigricollis, Pk., one specimen in moss on 
the bog ; Euplectus ambiguus, Reich., in sedge refuse ; 
Neuraphes angulatus, MuelL, two specimens in moss ; Colon 
bnmneum, Lat., one in sedge refuse ; Agathidiiim margi- 
nahim, Stm., two with the preceding ; Orthopenis atomus 
Gyll., at the sap of a wounded oak ; Cercus pedicidariiis , 
common on reeds, etc. ; Epuraea obsoleta, ¥., E. longida, 
Er., E.florea, Er., on a w^ounded oak, the former exceeding^ 
common ; Ips iv-punctata, Hbst., this species, w^hich I 
added to the Irish list a few years ago on the strength of 
one specimen from the bog wood,^ was not uncommon 
under the bark of a pine stump in the same place ; 
Pityophagus ferrugineus, F., five under the bark of a felled 
pine ; Atomaria analis, Er., in moss ; Hyperaspis rep- 
pensis, Hbst., one swept on the bog ; Sericosomus brunnetis, 
L., together with the var. fugax, F., w^hich is the female 
of this species, very sparingly by beating young fir trees in 
the bog wood ; Elater pomonim, Hbst., equally common 
under the bark of birch and of pine stumps on the bog, 
also an occasional specimen on the wing and b}^ general 
sweeping, etc. ; Rhinosimus ruficollis, L., b}/ sweeping ; 

'^Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, lii., 1916, p. 20?.. 
^ Irish Naturalist, xxiii., 1914, P- 7'- 



30 The Irish Xatliralisf. February.. 

Anaspis rufilabn's, Gyll., on hawthorn flowers ; Dryophilus 
pusillus, Gyll., which I have recently recorded from the 
Co. Cavan,' was not uncommon on larch in the bog wood ; 
Barypeithes sulci fr oris, Boh., one specimen on a buttercup ; 
Sitones hrevicollis, Sch., one by sweeping ; Barynotus 
elevatus, Marsh., fairly common in moss and by sweeping 
on the bog ; Coeliodes querciis, F., on oak ; Elleschus hi- 
pundatus, L., in profusion on sallows in the bog wood ; 
Apion immune, Kirby, a few on broom. 

A morning spent on the bog on m^^ cousin's property 
of Emlagh, near Carlanstown, produced Telephorus litur- 
atiis, F. ; E later pomonim, Hbst. ; Barynotus Schoenherri, 
Zett., under stones ; Orchestes scutellaris, Gyll., var. 
semirufus, Gyll., very common on young birch, without, 
however, a single specimen of the type form being found ; 
and Pityophtorus pubescens, Marsh. 

II. — COLEOPTERA FROM ClOVERHILL, Co. CaVAN. 

I Spent a good deal of time in vain endeavours to run 
down Pterostichus aterrimus, Pk. ; in doing so, however, 
I found six specimens of Carahus clathratus, L., by treading 
grass at the edge of a lake, and a single Chlaenius holoseri- 
ceus, F., in a tuft of sedge in the same spot. The capture, 
in this locality, of the former species is rather surprising, 
as it is usually recorded from bogs at a high elevation or near 
the sea. It is generally taken in April. As one half of 
my specimens are males, and as they are all in excellent 
condition, I conclude that the species was by no means 
" over," but that it must be rare in the district, since I 
was unable to capture any more. Stenolophus vespertinus, 
Pz., one with the preceding ; Acupalpus luridus, Dj., 
one in moss on a bog ; Anisodactylus hinotatus, F., var. 
spuraticornis, Dj., four specimens in turf refuse ; Agabus 
paludosus, F. ; Stenus crassus, Steph. ; Cryptobium glaber- 
rimum, Hbst., in moss ; Philonthus carbonarius, Gyll., 
P:lucens, Er., in straw refuse ; Gyrophaena laevipennis, Kr., 
by sweeping ; Tachyusa atra, Gr., common on the muddy 

1 Irish Naturalist, xxiv., 1915, p. 5, 



iQi-j. Nicholson — CoJeoptera from Meath and Cavan. 31 

shore of a lake ; Hypocyptiis laeviusculus, Man., by sweeping ; 
Euplectus amhigiiiis, Reich., Tychns niger, Pk., Euconnus 
hirticoUis, 111., in moss ; Anisotoma ovalis, Schm., by 
sweeping ; Liodes humeralis, Kug., one on a pine stump ; 
Agathidiiini laevigatum, Er., in straw refuse ; C Iambus 
punchilum, Beck., one specimen of this recent addition 
to the Irish Hst ' out of moss on a bog ; Corylophus sub- 
laevipennis, Duv., a few in some straw in a field; Hister 
negledus, Germ. ; Odhebius pygmaeiis, F. ; Chaetarthria 
seminuhim, Hbst. ; Telephorus figuratus, Man., together 
with the var. scoUcus, Shp., which latter has not before 
been recorded from the country ; Malthodes atomus, Th. ; 
Soronia punctatissirna, 111., two at the sap of a damaged oak. 
This species is included in Johnson & Halbert's List of 
Beetles of Ireland,^ without, how^ever, any locality being 
given ; Rhizophagus cribratus, not uncommon under bark ; 
Cryptophagus distinguendus, Stm., one by sweeping ; An- 
therophagiis pallens, Gyll. ; Atomaria basalts, Er. ; Throscus 
dermestoides , L., common under dead leaves ; Tanysphyrus 
lemnae, P., not uncommon in sedge at the edge of lakes ; 
Phytobius comari, Hbst. ; Ceiithorrhynchus cochliariae, Gyll., 
a few by sweeping ; C. chalybaeus, Germ., I swept one 
specimen of this species, that I recorded from Meath two 
years ago : ^ Orobites cyaneus, L. ; Pityophthorus pubescens, 
Marsh. 

At various spots on the shore of Lough Oughter I took 
Be^nbidium assimile, Gyll. ; Chlaenius vestitus, Pk. ; Bledius 
subterraneus, Er., in abundance. 

At Castle Saunderson I found one specimen of Donacia 
impressa, Pk., on an Iris leaf by the shore of a lake. 

At Lanesborough Lodge I observed Atheta liUeipes, Er., 
under a stone by the river. 

Oxford and Cambridge Club, London, S.W. 



^ Irish Naturalist, xxii., 1913, p. 49. 

^ Proc. Royal Irish Academy (3), vi., 1900-1902 p. 710. 

^ Irish Naturalist, xxiii., 19I-I, p. 68, 



32 TJlC I visit Xafliralisf. Febrnary. 

* 

IRISH SOCIETIES. 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

December 13. — The Club met at Leinster House, N. Colgan (President) 
in the chair. 

W. F. GuNN showed two sHdes of the myxomycete Arcyria punicea 
Persoon, one showing the ruptured sporangia, and tlie other the capilli- 
tium threads and spores. The species has been recorded from six out 
of the twelve sub-provinces of Ireland. 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter showed the live pupa of a female snake-fly 
(Raphidia) brought from the New Forest, Hampshire, by Dr. Pethybridge, 
who had found it in old timber. This pupa is remarkable for its great 
activity and power of movement, resembling, more than other pupae 
of the Endopterygota, the nymph of a primitive insect. The charac- 
teristic ovipositor is closely apposed to the dorsal aspect of the abdomen, 
its tip directed forward. 

Sir F. W. Moore showed a parasitic fungus Colletotrichiini Orchiclearum 
Allesch., found growing on a species of Oberonia in the Orchid-houses 
at Glasnevin. The genus is closely allied to Gloeosporium, from which 
it differs in having peculiar dark bristle-like sterile conidiophores ; these 
were seen in the specimens exhibited. This fungus has previously been 
found on orchids at Glasnevin, and in several continental Botanic Gardens. 
It is doubtful if it has been found on orchids in a wild state. 

D. iVFArdle showed specimens of Ettrhynchiuin rusciforme Milde 
var. inundatiim Bridel, which he recently found attached to stones in 
a mountain stream at Killakee, Co. Dublin. Specimens were sent to a 
well-known authority, Mr. H. N. Dixon, of Northampton, who writes : 
" The Killakee specimens come nearer to plants labelled var. inundaium 
than the var. prolixum." The latter has long been a desideratum in 
Ireland. Wilson in his excellent work, " Bryologia Britannica," p. 355, 
under H. ruscifolium. Dill, states : " In the Hookerian Herbarium there 
is a curious variety of this species, of a very different aspect from that 
of the typical form, from Laxlip [Leixlip], Ireland, with elongated 
cylindrical or filiform fasciculated branches, and smaller roundish, very 
concave leaves. It is without fruit, and deserves further investigation." 
The variety inundatum, though not previously published as an addition 
to the Irish cryptogamic flora, has been detected in one other county 
(Wicklow). He also showed type specimens in fruit, and as a microscopic 
object the capsule with the large lid and long curved beak removed, 
exposing the bright red-coloured teeth furnished with semilunar im- 
bricated bands for about two-thirds of their length, terminating in fine 
hyaline points, highly hygroscopic ; annulus almost rudimentary, spores 
mostly round with a well marked hyaline ring. 

January 10. — The Club met at Teinster Hou.se, N. Colgan (President) 
in the chair, 



1917- 



Irish Societies. 33 



Prof. G. H. Carpenter showed stained sections through the seminal 
vesicles of an earthworm in which the stages in the conjugation and 
sporulation of the well-known sporozoan parasite Monocystis, as lately 
described by Cuenot, could be clearly demonstrated. 

W. N. Allen exhibited a specimen of the myxomycete Dictydiaethalium 
plumbeum, Rost., one of three plasmodia found growing on a log in 
Dickson's Nursery, Newtownpark Avenue, Blackrock, Co. Dubhn, on 
22 November, 191 6. The plasmodium shown was the largest of the 
three, and measured about one square centimetre ; when found it was 
in the rose-coloured stage, and had completed its development when 
exhibited, being thus of a brownish slate colour. Accompanying the 
exhibit were coloured drawings of the plasmodium and of the spores, 
which measured from 6.35 ^u. to 12.7 ^ in diameter, and contained when 
examined on 2nd December numerous globules which have since been 
disappearing. 

D. M'Ardle showed specimens of Amblystegimn serpens, var. angusti- 
folia Lindb. (Limpr.) and a microscopical preparation of stem and leaves, 
and copious hght yellow-coloured rhizoids. It differs from the type in 
the complete absence of a nerve, and the leaves more widely ovate-cordate 
at the base, forming a distinct auricle, tapering to a fine acumen, margin 
bluntly and distantly dentate or sinuolate, especially in the lower half. 
Cells large-ovate, unequal-sided, four times as long as broad, increasing 
in size upwards, the fine acumen formed of a single cell. The whole 
plant presents an unusual fragile structure, and forms an interesting 
microscopic object. The specimens were collected recently at Killakee on 
the Dubhn Mountains on old wood, they are of a deep green colour, \ to 
I inch long, growing in neat strata. No fruit has been found ; it will 
be searched for with the hope of finding more evidence to rank this 
beautiful distinct form as a species. The exhibitor is not aware of 
its being previously found in Ireland, and it is an addition to our 
cryptogamic flora. 



REVIEW. 

BRITISH PLANTS. 

Illustrations of the British Flora. Drawn by W. H. Fitch, F.L.S., 
with additions by W. G. Smith, F.L.S. 4th revised edition. London : 
L. Reeve. 1916. 95. net. 

The new edition of this well-known work has been brought up to date 
by the inclusion of a few recent additions to the flora of our islands ; 
and in place of the bare list of Natural Orders given in previous editions 
an enlarged version of the " Arrangement of Natural Orders " as given 
in the last edition of Bentham's " Handbook of the British Flora " is 
substituted, to assist the reader in running down his plant. In the body 
of the work the addition of certain synonyms and of the English names 
of the plants will also be a help to the reader. 



34 ^ 1^^ lyisli SaLiiralisl. February, 

OBITUARY. 

GEORGE DUNLEAVY, 

Of the many lightkcepers whose well-filled schedules formed the basis 
of Mr. Barrington's Irish Migration Reports, few contributed so much 
excellent work as George Dunleavy, who, we regret to see, passed away 
on the 3rd of January last, at his Islandmagee home, Ballylumford. 
Dunleavy was stationed at the Fastnet lighthouse in the years 1886-8, 
and from that station he sent Mr. Harrington the first Lapland Bunting 
known to have visited Ireland, as well as the third and fifth Irish 
examples of the Pied Flycatcher, three Black Redstarts, and a Common 
Redstart. After leaving the Fastnet he was in charge of less promising 
lighthouses — Spit Bank (1889-91), N. Drogheda (1892-3), Samphire 
Island (1894-5), and Dungarvan (1896-7), and had naturally fewer 
opportunities of sending rare birds ; but his vigilances as an observer 
and his accuracy in noting what he saw made the poorest station a centre 
of ornithological interest when Dunleavy filled its schedules. His 
letters showed that he took real ])leasure in the work. At the time of 
liis death he had attained the age of 72. 

C. E. M. 

NOTES. 

BOTANY. 
Trichia affinis in Connaught and Ulster. 

In a report of a meeting of the Dublin Microscopical Club, p. 13 ante, 
it is stated that Trichia affinis de Bary has only been recorded from 
Leinster and Munster. Reference to Miss Lister's report on the 
Mycetozoa, Clare Island Survey [Proc. R. I. Acad., vol. xxxi., part 
63) shows that this species has been found in both Counties Galway and 
Mayo. In Proc. Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, series 2, vol. vii., 
pp. 86, loi and 161-163, it is moreover recorded for Counties Antrim, 
Leitrim, Sligo and Fermanagh. I have also collected it in County Down, 
and found this species to be generally common. 

Margarita D. Stelfox. 

Ballymagee, Bangor, Co. Down. 

Elymus arenarius and Asparagus offi*cma!is on the 

North Bull, Dublin. 

On a visit paid to the North Bull on the i6th September last, my first 
visit since the Bull was closed to the public on its adoption as a military 
rifle range towards the close of 191 4, I found four patches of this fine 
grass well established and in fruit along the outer or sea edge of the sand 
bank beyond the northern end of the golf links. I saw no trace of the grass 
here in the autumn of 1914, when I examined this part of the Bull in 



I9I7- 



Notes. 35 



search ol Artemisia Stellariana, and there can be httle doubt that the 
Elyraus was somehow introduced here in the interval. It may have 
been sown as a binder of the sands, though the abundance all round of 
Psamma arenaria, an equally efficient binder, renders that explanation 
improbable. Or, still more improbable, it may have been drifted by 
a southerly gale across some twelve miles of sea from the railway bank 
where it has been sown along the shore near Bray. Or, most probable 
solution of all, since the grass is cultivated as an ornamental species, 
it may be a garden outcast thrown on the mainland shore of the creek 
near Raheny, whence, like the Kamtschathan Artemisia, it has been 
floated across the narrow water channel to find a resting place amongst 
the dense fringe of Psamma on the seaward edge of the Bull. Against 
this assumption of a recent introduction, it might be maintained that 
the Elymus has been long established on the North Bull and only lately 
disclosed by a shifting of the sands. But since the sand drift sets steadily 
towards and not away from the present station of the grass this disclosure 
seems highly improbable. 

Near the Elymus stations, but farther inland amongst thick beds of 
Psamma, seven growing plants of Asparagus officinalis were found, scattered 
over about half a mile's length of the dunes. Two of these plants bore 
tall fruiting stems, and the species, obviously originating from garden 
outcasts on the mainland shore at Raheny, will, no doubt, become a 
permanent member of the North Bull flora. 

N. Co LOAN. 

Sandvcove, Co. Dublin. 



ZOOLOGY. 
Quail and Wren on Migration at Maidens Lighthouse. 

On the night of October 4th, 191 6, Mr. Barlow picked up a dead Quail 
on the balcony of the ^Maidens lighthouse towxr. The bird proved to 
be an adult female in splendid condition. Almost synchi;onously a dead 
adult female Wren was picked up in very good condition. I am indebted 
to Mr. Barlow for foi-warding these specimens for investigation. 

C. J. Patten. 

University, Shefheld. 

Migration at Mutton island. 

The following notes are taken from letters received from Mr. Glanville, 
keeper of Mutton Island lighthouse : — A Grey Wagtail Vvas observed 
on August 5th, and on August loth one v/agtail was observed going 
south and another heard calling. Mr. Glanville believes both were White 
Wagtails, which he says he was familiar with while on the Tuskar. On 
July 29th,. two Bar-tailed Godwits were observed, and on August 19th 
a Black-tailed Godwit. A Greenshank was on the island from August 
19th until August 22nd. During the latter end of August and early part 
of September wagtails were numerous on the island and many passed 



o 



6 TJic Irish Naturalist. February, 1917. 



over. On August 28th Mr. Glanville watched for over an hour three 
Yellow Wagtails feeding on flies about some decaying sea-weed. 

Robert F. Ruttledge. 
Bloomheld, HoUymount, Co. Mayo. 

Black Redstart in Co. Wexford. 

On the morning of November 4th two Black Redstarts in female or 
immature plumage appeared on the roof and portico of this house, having 
probably been driven out of their course by the great storm that had 
blown from the south during the whole of the preceding day. They 
remained here for nine days, and were last seen a little before sunset 
on the evening of the 12th — a beautifully fine, calm day, on which the 
barometer stood at the highest point it had reached since the birds' 
arrival, so that the selection of their time for departure would seem to 
have been highly judicious. This is the first occasion on which the 
Black Redstart has been noted — so far as I am aware — in this part of 
Co. Wexford, v.^hich is eighteen miles from the nearest sea to eastward, 
and twenty-two from the south coast. I should be glad to know if it 
has shown itself at other inland stations during the present winter, and 
under what sort of meteorological conditions. Owing to its preference 
for porches and window-sills it is somewhat less likely than most of the 
smaller migrants to escape observation when it reaches a new locality. 

C. B. Moffat. 

Ballyhyland, Co. Wexford. 

Little Bustard in Co. Clare. 

A female Little Bustard, Otis teivax, in beautiful plumage was shot 
near Ennis, Co. Clare, on December 20th, iiji(\ and sent to Messrs. 
WilliamxS, where it is being mounted for me. This is the seventh specimen 
obtained in Ireland, for of the eight individuals observed between 1833 
and 1892 two managed to elude capture. 

C. J. Carroll. 

Rocklow, Fethard. 

Bat Flying in Daylight. 

On the 15th December last, over a frozen mill pond near Downpatrick, 
in a bright sun at the hour of 1.25 p.m., I watched for some time a small 
bat hawking, exactly like a Swallow over water, and like the latter 
frequently dipping down to touch the ice for a brief moment and off 
again. Several times it came within a few feet of me, but unfortunately 
I do not know the different species or I could easily have distinguished 
it. Only once before have I seen a bat out in the daytime, but then 
it was in the late .spring or early summer about twelve years ago in the 
County Cavan. Tlie hour was noon, and it was hawking under the shade 
of trees, although the sun was shining as in the present case. 

J. H. H. SWINEY. 

Cloghaneely, Belfast. 



March, 1917. TJic Irish Naturalist. 37 



SO:\lE IRISH ICHNEUMONIDAE. 

BY REV. W. F. JOHNSON, M.A., F.E.S., M.R.I. A. 

Last year was not at all favourable to the pursuit of 
Ichneumon Flies. These insects like to fly in the sunshine,, 
and its absence makes them lethargic, so that ver\' few are 
met with ; they are also more partial to the morning hours 
than the afternoon. As last year was anything but noted 
for sunshine and had more than its share of rain and dull 
weather, it will easily be realised that m^^ captures were 
not so num.erous as usual. However by taking advantage 
of what sunshine there was I managed to pick up some 
specimens here througli the spring and summer ; I also 
got some specimens at Coolmore where I spent September, 
and ^Ir. J. J. F. X. King, F.E.S., allows me to record some 
Irish captures of his. 

I ^^■as ver}^ 8^^^ ^o take IcJnieiinion inilitaris (jrav. again, 
for as I pointed out in my last paper' there had been some 
doubts about this species ^Ahich my capture cleared up. 
I give /. eiiiancipatus Wesmi. with reserve, as I am not quite 
satisfied as to its identity. It is very interesting to observe 
these insects searching for their prey. They will ahght 
on a leaf and instantly run to underside, then on to the 
next, up the stem and down the stem, antennae quivering 
and the whole creature instinct with a hunter's eagerness. 
So active are they in their movements that it is very hard 
to follow them and often as I have watched I have never 
yet seen one strike its victim, but I hope some day to see 
and observe this action. ^ 

ICHNEUMONINAE. 

Cratichneumon annulator Fab.— Coolmore at flowers. 
Barichneumon anator Fab. — Coolmore on the wing, a male. 
B. ridibundus Gr. — Coolmore among sallows, a male variety with head, 
meso- and metathorax and hind femora except extreme base, black, 
B. incubitor L. — Poyntzpass in fields in June and August. 

-'• Irish Nahiralist, vol. xxv., 1916, pp. 18, 19. 



3S The Irish Nahiyalist. March 

Barichneumon albicinctus Or. 



I- 



_,.,,. r Povntzpass in fields in Tune. 

B. lepidus Cxr. J ' 

Ichneumon lugens Gr. — Kcnmarc, taken by J. ]. F. X. King in August, 

a female with black scutellum. 
I. sarcitorius L.— Coolmore, a male captured on the outside wall of the 

bungalow. 
I. militaris Gr. — Poyntzpass. 1 took another female of this interesting 

species at Hogweed in one of my fields in June. 
I. emancipatus Wesm. (?) — Coolmore, on the roadside, a male. 
I. caloscelis Wesm. — Coolmore among sallows. 
Probolus alticola Gr. — Coolmore, three females among herbage on a 

grassy bank, and two males on the wing, all were taken at the same 

time and the females appeared to be freshly emerged. 
Platylabus orbitalis Gr. — Poyntzpass in iields in August, a male var. 

with the hind tarsi white ; Coolmore among herbage on the roadside, 

a female of the var. subalhellus Gr. 

Phaeogenes planifrons Wesm. — Poyntzpass in fields in June. 

P. melanogonus Gm.^ ^ •,-!,•» 

_ ,. , ,,, > Poyntzpass m fields m August. 

P. riisticatus Wesm. J 

Colpognathus divisus Thoms. — Coolmore among sallows. 

Hemichneumon elongatus Ratz.— Poyntzpass on roadside in ]\Iay. 



CRYPTINAE. 

Microcryptus perspicillator Gr.— Poj-ntzpass in fields in August, a male 
var. with light-coloured antennae. 

M. improbus Grav. 

Acanthocryptus nigricollis Thoms. — Coolmore among sallows. 

Glyphichnemis vagabunda Gr. — Poyntzpass in fields in July. Cappoquin, 
Co. Waterford, in July, by J. J. F. X. King. 

Phygadeuon ambiguus Gr. ^ Po\mtzpass in August in fields. Coolmore 

P. hercynicus Gr. J on roadside among herbage. 

P. inflatus Thoms. — Poyntzpass in fields in June, male and female ; one 
of the latter had the legs dark. Coolmore on Wild Carrot. 

Hemiteles conformis Gm. — Coolmore in porch of bungalow. 

H. cingulator Gr. — -Poyntzpass in stable window and in fields in July. 

H. subzonatus Gr. — Poyntzpass in fields in July. 

H. tristator Gr.— Poyntzpass on hill in June and in stable in July. Cool- 
more in porch of bungalow. 

Stilpnus gagates Gr. — Coolmore on roadside among herbage. 

Atractodes exilis Hal. — Coolmore on roadside among herbage. Haliday 
says it is very rare in Ireland. 1 took it at Curraun Achill and 
]\Ir. Morley took it at Louisburgh and on Clare Island, vide Clare 
Island Survey {Proc. R.I. A. vol. xxxi., part 24, p. 11.) 

Spilocryptus migrator Fat. — Poyntzpass in fields in August. 

S. abbreviator Fat. — Poyntzpass in field in August. 

var. Hopei Gr. — Coolmore on roadside : this is a female variety. 



191 7. Johnson — Some Irish Ichneitmnnidae. 39 

Goniocryptus titillator L. — Poyntzpass in fields in July and August. 
Cryptus dianae Gr. — Poyntzpass in August in fields. 

PIMPLINAE. 

Pimpla brevicornis Gr. — Coolmore among sallows. 

P. punctiventris Thorns. — Coolmore roadside among herbage. 

P. instigator Fab.— Cappoquin in August, taken by J. J. F. X. King. 

P. maculator Fab. — Poyntzpass in June in field. 

Clistopyga incitator Fat. — Poyntzpass in June in garden. 

Glypta ceratites Gr. — Poyntzpass in August in field, a male var, with 

claws not pectinate. 
G. trochanterata Bridg. — Poyntzpass in June and August ; among those 

taken in June was a female which varied in having the hind trochanters 

partly black instead of entirely so. 
G. annulata Bridg. — Coolmore among sallows. 
Stilbops chrysostoma Gr. — Coolmore on roadside among herbage. 
Banchus moniliatus Gr. — Kilmacrenan, Co. Donegal, taken by J. J. F. X. 

King in July. It is rare in Great Britain, being only recorded from 

Colchester, Portland, South Devon and Galashiels. 

TRYPHONINAE. 

Metopius dentatus Fab. — On mountain nearCookstown, flying over heather, 
taken by Mr. Thomas Greer. I took this handsome insect at Cool- 
more. It has been bred from Lasiocampa callunae, L. querous 
L. frifoUi, L. qiiercifolia and Saturnia carpini. 

Exochus podagricus Gr. — Poyntzpass in June in field. 

E. niger Bridg. — Coolmore among sallows, rare. 

E. prosopius Gr. — Coolmore among sallows, not common. 

Bassus multicolor Gr. — Poyntzpass in August in field, rare. 

Homocidus dimidiatus Schr. — Coolmore on sandhills. 

H. xanthaspis Thoms. — Coolmore among sallows. 

H. elegans Gr. var. nigritarsus Gr. — Bellurgan, Co. Louth, in June, among 
herbage, on seashore, a male. 

H. hygrobius Thoms. — Caught on the wing when driving to Newry in 

July. 

Promethus sulcator Gr.^ ^ ^ . ^ ^ ^ ,j 

_ , , „ TTi r" — Poyntzpass in August m field. 

P. pulchellus Hlgr. / 

P. dorsalis Hlgr. — Poyntzpass in May in field, uncommon. 

Mesoleius rufonotatus Hlgr. — Coolmore among sallows. 

M. aulicus Crr. — Poyntzpass in June in field. 

Trematopygus vellicans Gr. — Poyntzpass in August on hill, scarce. 

Tryphon elongator Fat. — Coolmore on Owen's Fort, at flowers of Wild 

Carrot. 
T. brachyacanthus Gm.— Poyntzpass in August on hill, rare. 
T. vulgaris Hlgr. — Poyntzpass in August, in field. 
T. brunniventris Gr. — Poyntzpass in August in field. Coolmore on 

Owen's Fort, at flowers. 



40 The Iris/i Xninyalisf. March 

MesoleptUS prosoleuous Gr. — Coolmorc in August on roadside, at flowers, 
a female, rare. 

M. leptocerus Gr. — Poyntzpass in August in field, rare 

Polyblastus sphaerocephalus Gr. — Poyntzpass in August in field. Cool- 
more on roadside among herbage. 

P. pastoralis Gr. — Poyntzpass in June in field. 

P. pratensis Gr. — Poyntzpass in June in Acton Wood, rare. 

P. rivalis Hlgr. — Coolmore among sallows, rare. 



OPHIONINAE. 

Diaparsus geminus Hlgr. — Poyntzpass in May in field. 

D. microcephalus Gr. — Poyntzpass in August in field. Coolmore on 
roadside. 

Campoplex falcator Fat. — Coolmore among sallows, 

Limnerium annulator Zett. — Coolmore among herbage. 

L. xanthostoma Gr. — Poyntzpass on hill in June, on hill and in fields 
in August. Coolmore among sallows. 

Omorga difformis Gmel.^Poyntzpass in field in July. 

0. cursitans Hlgr.— Poyntzpass in fields in June. 

0. multicilicta Gr.— Poyntzpass hill in May, lane in June. 

Olesicampa sericea Hlgr. — Poyntzpass in field in August. 

Meloboris crassicornis Gr. — Poyntzpass in fields in June. 

Angitia insectator Schr. — Coolmore on roadside. 

A majalis Gr. — Coolmore in window. 

A. fenestralis Hlgr. — Poyntzpass hill in ^la,y. 

A. armillata Gr. — Poyntzpass in Acton Wood in June. 

A. internipta Hlgr. — Coolmore among herbage. Poyntzpass in fields in 
JNIay, June and July. 

A. tripunctata Bridg. — Poyntzpass hill in July. 

Schizoloma capitata Desv.^ — Kilmacrenan in July. 

Anomalon cerinops Gr. — Kilmacrenan in July. 

Labrorhynchus nigricornis Wesm. — Cappoquin in August. The three last- 
named species were taken by J. J. F. X. King. 

Ophion distans Thoms. — Poyntzpass in October in my house. 

Poyntzpass, Co. Armagh. 



I9I7- Foster — Measurements and Weight of Birds' Eggs. 41 
MEASUREMENTS AND WEIGHTS OF BIRDS' EGGS. 

BY NEVIX H. FOSTER, F.L.S., M.R.I.A., M.B.O.U. 

One hundred and thirty-six species of birds breed, or have 
been known to breed in the past hundred years, in Ireland ; 
and of these are appended from my own collection of their 
eggs the measurements, i.e., greatest length and greatest 
width, and weights of the em.pty shells. The measurements 
are given in millimetres and the weights in grammes. It 
ma\^ be well to state that a few of these eggs (Carrion-Crow, 
Redstart, Harriers, Eagles, Bittern, Spotted Crake, Red- 
throated Diver, and two or three others) are not " Irish 
taken " specimens. The order and nomenclature followed 
is that of the " B.O.U. List," 2nd edition, and where that 
differs from the better known nomenclature adopted in 
Howard Saunders' " Manual of British Birds," the latter 
is given in square brackets. 

Raven, Corvits corax Linn. — Average of 2 eggs 49-35X32i — weight 

Carrion-Crow, C. corone Linn. — Average of 4 eggs 42 -67x29 -78 — 

weight I -262. 
Hooded Crow, C. comix Linn. — Average of 4 eggs 42 48x29 -07 — 

weight 1-2. 
Jackdaw, C. moneditla Linn. — Average of 6 eggs 35 ^x 24 99 — weight -8. 
Rook, C. frugilegus Linn. — -Average of 23 eggs 41 13 (36- 5-4.5) x 27-51 

{25-29 - 7)— weight I 045. 
Magpie, Pica pica (Linn.) [P. rustica]. — Average of 33 eggs 33-62 (30-5- 

57-3)x 23-71 (22-25-2)— weight 5958- 

An egg 23X 17-2 in which was no yolk is not included in above 
average. 
Irish Jay, Gavrulns glanadrius hibernicus With. & Hart. [G. glandarins]. — 

Average of 3 eggs 30 9x22 -5 — weight -5066. 
Chough, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (Linn.) [P. gracidus]. — Average of 2 

eggs 39 •85X 28 • I — weight i -025. 
Starling, Sturnus vulgaris Linn. — Average of 17 eggs 30 -03 (28-32) x 21 -58 

(20-22-5) — weight -497. 
Greenfinch, Chloris chloris (Linn.) [Ligurinus chlovis]. — Average of 21 

eggs 19-82 (i8-5-2i)x 14-105 (i3-5-i5-5)_weight -1019. 
Goldfinch, Cavduelis cavduelis britannica (Hart.) [C. elegans]. — Average 

of 5 eggs 17-36X 12-9 — weight 088. 
Siskin, Spiniis spinits (Linn.) [Cavduelis spinus]. — One egg 16 x 14 — 

weight '06. 



42 The Irish Naturalist. March, 

House-Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linn.)- — Average of 32 eggs 21-16 

ri8-7-25)x 15.13 (13 -5-16 -5)— weight 1712. 
Tree-Sparrow, P. montanus (Linn.). — One egg 19 -3x14 -3 — weight -12. 

Chaffinch, Fringilla coehhs Linn. — Average of 9 eggs 18-9 (18-20) x 14-24 

(13 -5-14 -8) — weight -121 1. 
Linnet, Acanthis cannabhta (Linn.) {Linota cannabina]. — Average of 

3 eggs 17 4 X 13-5 — weight 08. 
Lesser Redpoll, A. linaria cabaret (Miill.) {Linota rufescevs]. — Average of 

7 eggs 15-64x11-82 — weight -0643. 
Twite, A. flavirostyis (Linn.) [I.inota flavirostris]. — Average of 3 eggs 

17-93x13-23 — weight -0833. 
British Bullfinch, Pyrrhula pyrrhida pileata^l^LcGiW. [Pyrrhiilaeiiropaea]. — 

Average of 5 eggs i9-24x 14 04 — weight -118. 
Crossbill, I.oxia curvirostra Linn. — One egg 21 x 16 — weight -15. 
Corn-Bunting, Emberiza calandra Linn. \E. miliaria']. — Average of 5 eggs 

2 3 - 1 X 16-5 8 — weight -194. 

Yellow-Hammer, E. citrinella Linn. — Average of 13 eggs 20 57 (19-22) 

XI5-7 (15-17 -y^—weight -1581. 

A yolkless egg in the collection measuring i3-7x it is not included 
in above average. This egg is heavily pigmented all over its 
surface. 
Reed-Bunting, E. schoeniclus Linn. — Average of 9 eggs i9-54x 14-31 — 

weiglit - 1 2 1 1 . 
Sky-Lark, Alauda avvensis I-inn. — Average of 3 eggs 25-04x16-92 — 

weight -22. 
Wood-Lark, Lnllula arhovea (Linn.) [Alauda arborea]. — One egg 26-7X 16 

— weight -17. 
Pied Wagtail, Moiacilla litgitbris Temm. — Average of 7 eggs 19 -24X 15 -06 

— weight -1286. 
Grey Wagtail, M. boanila Scop. [M. melanope]. — Average of 4 eggs 18-42 

XI433 — weight -105. 
Yellow Wagtail, M. raii (Bonap.). — Average of 2 eggs 19 -75x14 5 — 

weight -105. 
Meadow-Pipit, Antkus pratensis (Linn.). — Average of 10 eggs 20-31 

(i9-8-2o-7)x 14-37 (14-15)— weight -125. 
Rock-Pipit, A. petrosus (Mont.) [A. obscttnts]. — Average of 2 eggs 20-75 

x 1 6 ■ 85 — weight -185. 
British Tree-Creeper, Cerihia familiaHs britannica (Linn.). — Average of 

5 eggs 15 04x12 -04 — weight -0633. 
Goldcrest, Reguliis regulus (Linn.) {Regulus cristatits]. — Average of 6 eggs 

14-03X io-_|6 — 0392. 
British Great Titmouse, Pants major newtoni Praz. [Par us major]. — 

Average of 12 eggs 18-15 (i7--0'5)x i-"^^3 (11-2-14 -5) — weight -i. 
Irish Coal-Titmouse, P. ater hibernicus (Grant) [P. ater]. — Average of 

3 eggs I5-33X 12— weight -0633. 

British Blue Titmouse, P.coeruleits obscurus Praz. [P.coerulcus]. — Average 
of 3 eggs 14-66X 11-93 — weight -0633, 



I9I7- Foster — Measurements and Weights of Birds Eggs. 43 

British Long-tailed Titmouse, Aegithalus candatus roseus (Blyth) [Acrediila 

candata]. — One egg 14 x 11 — weight 05. 
Whitethroat, Sylvia communis Latham [5. cinerea]. — Average of 9 eggs 

1 7 • 72 X 13- 49— weight • 0955 . 
Garden- Warbler, 5. simplex Latham [5. hoytensis']. — Average of 3 eggs 

i^J3Xi4-6 — weight 123. 
Blackcap, 5. atricapilla [lAnn.). — Average of 4 eggs 19 -35x14 -65 — 

weight 125. 
Grasshopper- Warbler, Locustella naevia (Bodd.). — Average of 2 eggs 

17 75 x 14-25— weight -I. 
Sedge-Warbler, Acrocephulus schoenohaenus (Linn.) [A. phvagmitis]. — 

Average of 2 eggs i6-35x 12-9 — weight 075. 
Willow-Warbler, Phylloscopus tvochilus (Linn.). — Average of 6 eggs 

I4-83X 12 15 — weight -059. 
Wood-Warbler, P. sibilatrix (Bechst.). — One egg 17 7x12 -2 — weight 

•071. 
Chiffchaff, P. collyhita (Vieil.) [P. nifus\. — Average of 4 eggs 15 -6 x 12 -3 — 

weiglit 07. 
Missel-Thrush, Turdus viscivonis Linn. — Average of 15 eggs 31 -32 

(29-8-34-5)x 2211 (20-23 -8)— weiglit 4566. 
British Song-Thrush, T. musiciis clarkii Hart. [7\ musicus']. — Average of 

26 eggs 27-31 (24-29-5)x 20-6 (19-5-22-5)— weight -3615. 
Blackbird, T. mentla Linn. — Average of 18 eggs 30 23 (26-33) x 21 -65 

(19-25)— weight -44. 
Ring-Ousel, T. torquatus Linn. — Average of 4 eggs 29 -Sx 21-88 — weight 

•4325- 
Redstart, Pboenicurus phoenicHVus (Linn.) [Ruticilla phoenicnviis]. — Average 

of 2 eggs I8-75X 13-45 — weight -o. 
British Redbreast, Evithacus rubecula melophilns Hart. [/.£. riibecula]. — • 

Average of 9 eggs 19-78X 15-39 — weight -15. 
Stonechat, Saxicola vubicola (Linn.) {Pvatincola ntbicold]. — Average of 

4 eggs I9-37X 14-1— weiglit -105. 
Whinchat, S. rubeira (Linn.) [P. nibetva]. — Average of 2 eggs 18-65X 14 — 

weight -11. 
Wheatear, Oenanthe oenauthe (Linn.) {^Saxicola oenanthe]. — Average of 

4 eggs 20-35X 15 - 17— weight -1375. 
Hedge-Sparrow, Accentor moditlaris (lAwn.). — Average of 12 eggs 20 29 

(]9-22)xi4-3 (13-7-15)— weight -133. 
Irish Dipper, Cinclus cinclus hiberniciis Hart. [Cinclus aquaiicus]. — Average 

of 2 eggs 26 X 18 — weight 24. 
Wren, Tvoglodydes tvoglodydcs (Linn.) [Troglodydcs parvidus']. — Average 

of 6 eggs 16 • 33 X 12-45— weight -075. 
Spotted Flycatcher, Musicapa griseola Linn. — Average of 7 eggs iS-ogx 

13-84 — weight -1. 
Swallow, Hintndo nistica Linn. — Average of 5 eggs i9-G4X 13-8 — weight 

•104. 
Martin, Delichon itrbica (Linn.) \Chelidon urbica]. — Average of 3 eggs 

19-5x13-93 — weight -1066. 



44 '^he Irish Naturalist. MarcVi, 

Sand-Martin, Ripavia riparia (Linn.) [Cotilc viparia]. — Average of 4 eggs 

I7-43XI2-82 — weight 078. 
Cuckoo, Ciiculus canonis Linn. — Average of 4 eggs 22 03x16 -55 — 

weight -1728. 
Swift, Micropus apiis (Linn.) [Cypsehis apiis]. — Average of 3 eggs 24-67 

X 16 '13 — weight 23. 
Nightjar, Caprimulgits curopaeus Linn. — Average of 4 eggs 31 ^x 22 jj — 

weight -625. 
Kingfisher, Alcedo ispida Linn. — Average of 3 eggs 2^.\x 18 73 — weight 

•2166. 
Barn-Owl, Flammea flammea (Linn.) [Sirix flammea]. — Average of 2 eggs 

40 ■ 75 X 30 • 6 — weight i • 45 . 
Long-eared Owl, Asio oils (Linn.). — Average of 2 eggs 41 -25 x 32 5 — 

weight 1-575. 
Marsh-Harrier, Circus aeruginosus (Linn.). — One egg 49 5 x 39 3 — weiglit 

405- 
Hen-Harrier, C. cyaneus (Linn.). — Average of 2 eggs 48 25x36 -25 — 

weight 3-05. 
Buzzard, Biiteo buteo (Linn.) [jS. vulgaris]. — Average of 3 eggs 54-77X 

46 • 83— weight 4.6833. 
Golden Eagle, Aquila chrysaetus (Linn.). — One egg 72 3x58 3 — weight 

132. 
White-tailed Eagle, Halia'elus albicilla (Linn.).^ — One egg 70 7x55 7 — 

weight 1 1 • 2 . 
Sparrow-Hawk, Accipiter nisus (Linn.). — Average of 12 eggs 39 375 (37-42) 

X 32-5^5 (32-33)— weight I -821. 
Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus Tunst. — One egg 51 2 x 37 -8 — weight 

3S5- 
Merlin, F. aesalon Tunst. — Average of 3 eggs 39-23X 31 -3— weight i -^S^, 
Kestrel, F. tinnunculus Linn.— Average of 11 eggs 39 77 (38-42 •2)x 31 -23 

(29-8-33)— weight 1-6. 
Cormorant, Phcdacvocorax carbo (Linn.) . — One egg 66 • 7 x 4 1 ■ 5 — weight 71. 
Shag, P. graculus (Linn.). — Average of 3 eggs 61 •3X 38 4 — weight 4-833. 
Gannet, Sida bassana (Linn.). — Average of 5 eggs 75 ■ 78 x 49 06 — weight 

10-966. 

The eggs of the Order Pehcaniformes are thickly incrusted on the 
outside with a chalky secretion. In the above three species 
this incrustation was not removed before weighing, but on 
scraping it off one of the Gannet's eggs it was found that without 
it this egg weighed 1 5 grammes less. 
Mute Swan, Cygnns olor (Gmel.). — Average of 7 eggs 109-86 (10^-113-5) 

x 7214 (68 •5-75)— weight 38 •943- 
Common Sheld-Duck, Tadorna tadovna (Linn.) [Tadorua conmtaj. — One 

t'gg <M>^ -15-7— ^veight O4. 
Wild Duck or Mallard, Anas boschas Linn. [A. boscasj. — Average of 6 eggs 

58 • 72 X ^ 1 -92— weight 4 • 783. 
Common Teal, Querquedula cvecca (Linn.) [Netiion crecca]. — Average of 

3 eggs 43 • 766 X 32 -4— weight i ■ 78. 



1917- Foster — Measuvemcnis and IVeighls of Blnis' Eggs. 45 

Shoveler, Spatitla clypeala (Linn.). — Average of 3 eggs 501X 37-36— 

weight 2 ■~\. 
Pintail, Datila acuta (Linn.). — One egg 53-5x41 -7 — ^veight 4-35. 
Pochard, Xyroca fcriv.a (Linn.) [Fuligula fevina]. — Average of 2 eggs 

61 • I X 44 • I — weight G • 45. 
Tufted Duck, A', fuligula (Linn.) [Fitligiila o'istaia]. — Average of 3 eggs 

56 ■ I X 40 • 5- -weight 425. 
Common Scoter, Oedemia nigra (Linn.). — Average of 3 eggs 62 63 x 43 9 

— weight 4 ■95. 
Red-breasted Merganser, Mergus serrator Linn. — Average ol 5 eggs (>\i\ 

X 45-3— weight 6 326. 
Heron, Ardea cinerea Linn. — Average of 5 eggs 59-82x41 34 — weight 

4-55-1- 
Bittern, Botaurus stellaris (Linn.). — One egg 52 2x37 5 — v/eight 2-43. 
Red-necked Phalarope, Phalavopus lobatus (Linn.) [P. hyperborens]. — One 

egg 30 ■ 2 X 2 o • 2 — weight 35. 
Woodcock, Scolopax vusticola Linn. — Average of 3 eggs 42 -76x33 -76 — 

weight 1-4. 
Common Snipe, Gallinago gallinago (Linn.) [Gallinago coelesiis]. — Average 

of 7 eggs 38-89X 28-34 — weight -8357. 
Dunlin, Tvinga alpina Linn. — Average of 6 eggs 34 -44x24 -78 — w'eight 

•483- 
Redshank, Totanus totanus (Linn.) [Totanus calidvis]. — Average of 5 eggs 

43 ■ 8 X 3 1 • 64 — weight 123. 
Common Sandpiper, Totanus hypoleucus (Linn.).— Average of 4 eggs 36 • 125 

X 24 -98 — w^eight -58. 
Curlew, Numeniiis arquata (Linn.). — Average of 5 eggs 70-24x48-38 — 

weight 4-82. 
Golden Plover, Charadrius apvlcarius Linn. [C. pluvialis]. — One egg 47-5 

X 35 ■ 7— ^^^eight i 55. 
Ringed Plover, Aegialitis hiaticula (Linn.) — Average of 4 eggs 36 -5 x 26-25 

— weight -7. 
Lapwing, Vanellus vanellits (Linn.) \V. vitlgaris]. — Average of 9 eggs 

-16-39 (44-48)x 33-9^ (30 -3-34)— ^veight 1-478. 
Oyster-catcher, Haematopus ostralegus Linn. — Average of 4 eggs 56-45X 

45 -J— weight 3-375- 
Common Gull, Lams caniis Linn. — Average of 2 eggs 56 35x40 -65 — 

weight 3-115. 
Herring-Gull, /-. avgentatus Ponto. — Average of ^^ eggs 68-97 (64 -5-78) x 

48 - 5 (43 ■ 7-53 • 3)— weight 5-71. 
Greater Black-backed Gull, L. marinus Linn. — Average of 3 eggs 76-87X 

54-33— ^veight 8-27. 
British Lesser Black-backed Gull, A. fusciis affi,nis (Linn.). — Average of 

4 eggs 69 - 1 25 X 49 - 65 — weight 6 - 1 . 
Black-headed Gull, L. vidihundits Linn. — Average of 8 eggs 51 71 x 37 -75 — 

weight 2-3312. 
Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla (Unn.). — Average of 4 eggs 55-7x38-625 — 
weight 2 625. 



46 The Irish Naturalist. March, 

Common Tern, Sterna Jiintndo Linn. [5. fluvio.lilis]. — Average of .|3 eggs 

I-'-3- {38-47 • 7) X ^9-84 (28-31 -7)— weight 1.0756. 
Arctic Tern, S. paradisca Brim. [5. macruia]. — Average of 2O eggs 40-69 

(38-44 -8) X 20-36 (25-3-31) — weight 1-0288. 
Roseate Tern, 5. doitgalli Mont. — Average of 3 eggs 41 • i6x 29-93 — ^veight 

I -12. 
Little Tern, 5. uiinuia Linn. — Average of 7 eggs 31 -SGx 24 — weight -56. 
Sandwich Tern, 5. sandvicensis Lath. [S. cantiaca], — Average of 3 eggs 

52 -52 X 36 -9— weight 2 -566. 
Razorbill, Alca tovda Linn. — Average of 8 eggs 75 03 (72 -3-79) x 48 -31 

(46-51 -5)— ^veight 9-49. 
Common Guillemot, Uria iroille (Linn.) [U. troile]. — Average of 18 eggs 

^08 (75 ■5-«9)x 50-25 (48-53)— weight 12-37. 
Black Guillemot, U. gvylle (Linn.). — Average of 2 eggs 62 - 75 x -10-5 — 

weight 4-55. 
Puffin, Fvaterciila ayctica (Linn.). — Average of 6 eggs 60 83x42 87 — 

weight 3-9167. 
Storm-Petrel, Thalassidroiiia pelagica (Linn.) [Pyocellaria pelagica]. — 

Average of 4 eggs 27-95X 21 — weight -4. 
Leach's Petrel, Oceanodvoma leucoryhoa (Vieill.)- — One egg 33-3x24 — 

weight -55. 
Manx Shearwater, Puffinus puffinus (Brim.) [Pufj'inus augloriwi]. — One 

egg 58 X 43— weight 3-8. 
Pulmar, Fulmayus glacialis (Linn.). — Average of 2 eggs 74 -6x50 -6 — 

weight 8-45. 
Red-throated Diver, Colyinbits stellaius (Pont.) \C . se ptcntyionalis]. — Average 

of 3 eggs 74 ■ 66 X 45-5— weight 6-6833. 
Great Crested Grebe, Podiceps cyistatus (Linn.) [Podicipes cyistatus]. 

—Average of 4 eggs 54 ^^-X 35 -875— weight 3-375- 
Little Grebe, P. fluviiitilis (Tunst.) [Podicipes Jluviatilis]. — Average of 6 

eggs 39 -22 X 26-.:] 2 — weight 1-1917. 
Water-Rail, liallus aquaiicus Linn. — Average of 4 eggs 35-25x25-9 — 

weight -9122. 
Spotted Crake, Porzana poyzana (Linn.) \_P0y2ana itiayiietta]. One egg 

31 X 23-5— weight -75. 
Corn-Crake, Crex crex (Linn.) [Crex pyatensis], — Average of 17 eggs 36-85 

(34-40) X 25-82 (25-2-27)— weight -834. 
Moor-Hen, Gallimila chloyopus (Linn.). — Average of 19 eggs 43 -73 (41-47 -2) 

X 30-61 (27-5-33)— weight 1-9447- 
Coot, Fulica atya Linn. — Average of 6 eggs 51-95 (48 -5-54) x 36-04 

(33 -2-39 -5)— weight 3-4. 
Stock-Dove, Colmnha aenas Linn. — Average of 2 eggs 36X 28-6 — weight 

I -25. 
Ring-Dove or Wood-Pigeon, C. palumhus Linn. — Average of 9 eggs 40-67 

(37-42)x 29-08 (27-30)— weight 1-261. 
Rock-Dove, C. livia Bonn. — One egg 41x28 — weight i-i. 
Turtle-Do ve, Streptopelia turtiiy (Linn.) [Titytuy communis]. — One egg 

30x22-5 — weight '5. 



19 1 7- Foster — Measurements and Weights of Birds' Eggs. 47 

Pheasant, Phasiamis colchicus Linn. — -Average of 6 eggs 44 -67x35 08 — 

weight 3 05. 
Partridge, Perdix perdix (rjnn.) \Pevdix cinered]. — Average of 3 eggs 

37 • 1 7 X 28 • 33— weight 1-65. 
QuaU, Cotiiruix coiurnix (Linn.) [Coturnix communis]. — Average of 7 eggs 

3 1 • 7 1 X 238 \ — weight • S286. 
Red Grouse, Lagopus scoticus (Lath.). — Average of 4 eggs _|4ix3i-9 — 

weight 1.775. 

In previous issues of this Journal^ the dimensions and 
weiglits of full eggs of 109 species were recorded. The two 
following have since been examined : — 

Dunlin {Tvinga alpina) — -(^ hatched). 

Grains. 

- 154 

- i55h 

Stock-Dove {Columba aenas). 

Inch. Inch. Grains. 

1-43 X I 15 — 264I- 

Hillsborough, Co. Down. 



Inch. 




Inch. 


Grains. 


Inch. 




Inch. 


i-37 


x 


I • 


— i59i 


1-4 


X 


•97 


1-33 


X 


■98 - 


- i5.5i- 


1-38 


X 


•98 



OBITUARY. 

WILLIAM GRAY. 

The death, in liis eighty-sixth year, of Mr. Wilham Gray, removes one 
of the pioneers of the Belfast NaturaHsts' Field Club, and one of the 
most familiar figures in scientific circles in Belfast. Mr. Gray belonged 
to the period when a " naturalist " v.as expected to know something of 
the whole range of science, and he acquired a wide knowledge of local 
geology, zoology, and archaeology. But detailed study did not appeal 
to him, and though he collected extensively and had a very complete 
knowledge of the district in which he lived and worked, he contributed 
but little to scientific literature during his long and active life. This is 
to be regretted, as for many years his position as inspector under the Board 
of Public Works gave him exceptional opportunities for scientific study 
throughout the counties of Antrim and Down. He was much esteemed 
by his fellow-members of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club who 
elected him as President for the years 1879-81 and 1889-91. 

^Vide vols, x., xi., xii., xvi., and xviii. 



48 The Irish Naturalist. March, 

IRISH SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Recent gifts include a Badger from Mrs. Lendrum, Cavies from Miss 
Grattan Bellew, and a Ring-necked Parrakeet from Mrs. Newman. A 
Diana ^Vlonke}-, a Mona ^lonkey, and a Woolly Monkey have been received 
on deposit, and three White-Collared Mangabeys and two Sooty Mangabeys 
in exchange. A pair of Swans have been acquired by purchase. 

January 31. — Annual General Meeting held in the theatre of the 
Royal Dublin Society (by permission), the Rt. Hon. Jonathan Hogg, 
ex-President, in the chair. In opening the proceedings, he referred to the 
loss sustained by the Society through the deaths within the 3^ear of two 
Presidents : Sir Charles Ball, Bart., and W. E. Peebles. J. P. 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter (Hon. Secretary) moved the adoption of the 
Council's Report. 

This is the third Report presented to the Society since the outbreak 
of war. Another year of much difficulty, on account of reduced attendance 
and diminished receipts from ordinary sources of income, has passed ; 
the Council desires to record thankfully that, through the generous support 
of members, the Society closes the year in a distinctly stronger position 
than was the case twelve months ago. At the end of December, 191 3, 
there was an adverse balance of ,^447 ; this has now been reduced to 
^225. The decrease of gate receipts during the past year is attributable to 
the continuance of war conditions, intensified by the abnormal loss on 
account of the Easter-week rebellion, to which reference is made below. 
The Easter holiday entrance payments in 1915 amounted to /132, whereas 
they were barely £62 in 1916. But the number of visitors to Dublin 
was lower than ever all through the summer, so that another fall of ^250 
in the gate receipts has to be recorded. All soldiers and sailors in uniform 
are now admitted at half-price on week-da)'s, and this privilege is utilized 
to a gratifying extent. 

The increasing economic strain has also reduced seriously the number 
of members ; it is satisfactory to record the admission of ten new life- 
members. Thirt)'-f()ur annual members and ten garden subscribers 
joined during 1916, and several have reluctantly resigned their member- 
ship. The result is a decrease of /54 in entrance fees and subscription. 

A year ago it was hoped that further appeals to members of the Society 
for monetary help might be avoided. Jkit the loss incurred during Easter 
week, the falling off of admission payments throughout the summer, 
and the continual increase in the cost of food and fuel combined to produce 
a financial situation so threatening that the Council felt it necessary 
to lay the needs of the Society again before its supporters by means of 
a circular letter. The appeal of 1914 l)rought in gifts amounting to /-|20. 
This encouraging result was far surpassed during the last six months of 
1916, when contributions reaching a total of £575 were sent, in many cases 
with cheering letters expressing true concern for the welfare of the Society. 
The Council, on whom has fallen the responsibility of guiding the Society's 



1917. Irish Societies. 49 

affairs through these trying days, cannot but express gratitude for the 
support that has been accorded, and acknowledge with liearty thanlffuhiess 
the generous action of the members at this time of need. During the 
last few days of the year a promise of a further gift of ;(,ioo — as to the 
source of which anonymity is enjoined — has been received ; this sum 
will not be paid until 191 7, and cannot, therefore, be included in the 
accounts now presented, which show a deficit of £2.2=,. The Council is 
doing its best to ensure economy in administration, and feivourable 
engagements have been made for the supply of coal, coke, and hay. 
Nevertheless the coal bill is 50 per cent, higher than in 1915. 

A year ago, Sir Charles Ball, Bart., M.D., retired from the Presidency 
of the Society, and ^Ir. W. E. Peebles was elected in his place. It is with 
the deepest regret that the Council now record the death of both these 
old and valued supporters of the Society, which has never before lost 
an ex-President and a President within twelve months. 

Sir Charles Ball, whose failing health prevented him from taking the 
chair at the last annual meeting, died on March 17th (St. Patrick's Day), 
1916. The third son of Robert Ball, who was Secretary of the Society 
from 1837 till 1857, Charles became a member in 1882, and he was elected 
on the Council in 1S95, becoming President in 19 10. During the last 
two years of his life he held a lieutenant-colonelcy in the Royal Army 
Medical Corps, and there can be little doubt that the exertions and ex- 
posure associated with his militar}^ duties contributed to the weakness 
which caused his death at the comparatively early age of 65. A good 
account of his life may be found in the Irish Naturalist for j\Iay, 1916. 

W, Edward Peebles was the " father " of the Royal Zoological Society, 
which he joined in 1861. and on N\liose Council he has served continuously 
since 1879. A barrister and a sportsman, with many varied interests, he 
was an admirable t\pe of those men of leisure whose valuable help has 
always been at the service of the Society. It may be doubted if any 
member has visited the Gardens more constantly than he, and his counsel 
was continually at his colleagues' disposal, while his gifts to the collections 
were generous and frequent. The establishment of the Members' Room 
in the Haughton House was first suggested by him, and later on he con- 
tributed liberally to its enlargement. The Council has now been informed 
that IMr. Peebles has becjueathed by will a sum of money for the further 
improvement of the premises and for the erection of necessary buildings 
in the Gardens in future ; all these advantages will therefore remain as 
material evidence of his benefactions. In 1904 he was elected Honorary 
Vice-President, and when the members of the Council a year ago unani- 
mously chose him for the Presidency they little thought that he would 
enjoy that honour for less than a year. 

Reference has already been made to the serious monetary loss which 
the Society suftered as one result of the outbreak in Dublin in Easter week. 
The dilficulty of bringing the collections safely through that week was 
great, and it is hardly surprising that wild rumours of the shooting of 
the lions and tigers, because no food could be procured for them, were 
current, and were believed in some quarters. ^lembers of the Society 



50 The Irish Naiuralist. March, 

should know that the preservation of the collections was mainly due to 
the zeal and courage of ^Irs. B. B. FciTar and the keepers under lier in- 
structions. On Easter Monday, z^ih April, the Superintendent had gone 
as usual to his military duties at the Royal Barracks, where he was neces- 
sarily detained from the outbreak of the revolt until Thursday, .ith Maj'. 
In the morning the Gardens were full of visitors, most of whom hurried 
away when news of the conditions in the Q'lty reached the Park. One 
family from Dalkey, finding it impossible to get home, returned and 
was lodged for the night in the Haughton House. The refreshment room 
was, happily, well stocked with provisions, and the immediate w'ants of 
residents and some of the animals were tlius provided for. Through the 
week the keepers could not go to and from their homes, except at risk 
of their lives; Mrs. Ferrar arranged, therefore, for J. Supple, J. Flood, 
and T. Kelly to lodge on the premises, and tlie others attended when they 
could. Heavy firing about Phibsborough on Tuesday, 25th, was all too 
audible in the Park, and on Thursday, 27th, rifle bullets passed over the 
Gardens. 'J'he most serious difficulty was the feeding of the large 
Carnivora ; as it was impossible to get horses from the City, it became 
necessary to sacrifice some of the less valuable stock in the Gardens, 
so that an old pon}^ a donkey, a goat, and a few dingoes were used to 
keep the lions and tigers in food. The Secretary was able to reach the 
Gardens on three occasions by wa}- of Island Bridge or Chapelizod, and 
to convey .some urgently-needed provisions. By the beginning of the 
succeeding week permission was obtained from the military authority 
for the supply of horse-flesh from the City, and all danger of famine 
was removed. By the middle of the week, it was possible to 
convey to the Gardens an unexpected gift of monkeys ; a few 
visitors who had permission to enter the Park made their way to 
the Zoo, and small amounts began to be taken at the gate. On 
Saturday, 6th :\Iay, six members of the Council assembled at nine 
o'clock, but, owing to the shortage of coal and the absence of gas, 
no breakfast was provided. On May 13th, however, a fully-attended 
breakfast and Council meeting coincided with the re-opening of the Park 
to the public, and the resumption of normal activities at the Gardens. 

No change has taken place during the year among the Anthropoid Apes ; 
the Gorilla " Empress," the Chimpanzees " George" and " Charlie," and 
the Hoolock Gibbon are still the chief attractions of the Monkey House. 
All have grown and maintained excellent health, the swellings in the neck 
which troubled the Gorilla during 1916 having now disappeared. The 
Gorilla must be at present in the fourth year of her age, having completed 
three full years' residence under J. Supple's care. 

Besides the three kinds of Anthropoid Apes just mentioned, tliere are 
now in the Gardens tv;elve Ethiopian, four Oriental, and two South 
American species of monkey, and three species of Madagascar Lemurs, 
the twenty-four distinct members of the Primates being represented by 
forty-seven specimens. It may be doubted if the jMonkey House ever 
contained a more varied and interesting selection. Noteworthy animals 
comprise an exceptionally large and handsome Patas, which goes through 



igi?- Irish Societies. 51 

a curious dancing performance, a rare Rolo-way from the Gold Coast, and 
three White-collar Mangabeys, one of which is of great size. A Hamadr3'as 
Baboon — the " sacred " monkey of the ancient Egyptians — and a large 
Anubis Baboon from West Africa live together on friendly terms in the 
large central cage, which afTords them ampk- scope for mutual chnses 
and climbing competitions. The American group was represented last 
year by Capuchins. These have, unhappily, all died, but tv/o Humboldt's 
Woolly Monkeys (I-agothrix), on deposit, worthil}' represent the New- 
World Primates, as well as a Fehne Douroucouli — an animal rarely seen 
in collections. A beautiful little Titi, given by Capt. Henderson during 
the summer, proved very docile and affectionate ; unfortunately, it died 
in October. 

Among the older lions, the East African " Fritz," given to the Society 
four years ago by Mr. H. Gurney Barclay, has died ; all the other mature 
stock is still on view. Four litters of cubs were born during the year, 
comprising twelve specimens. Of these, three of each sex were in the 
House at the close of the year ; of the remainder, four died, two were 
sent to Canada in exchange for a Black Bear, Canadian Porcupines and 
Beavers, while two were sold, together with six of the 1915 cubs. The 
stock now stands at twenty — ten of each sex. 

The old Tigress, " Ranee," given by the Nizam of Hyderabad, died 
in October, but two handsome pairs of Tigers are left in the House. Un- 
fortunately, the Jaguars and three of the Leopards have died during the 
year, leaving only one Leopard to represent the larger spotted felines. 
Promises of gifts to replace these losses have been received, but it is feared 
that it may not be possible to import them while the war lasts. The 
Cheetah, given by Capt. Dobbs, died in February, to the grief of many 
admirers of such a friendly beast. The stock of Bears has been increased 
by a very fine Black male, received in exchange from the Riversdale 
Gardens, Toronto. 

Unhappily, several interesting and valuable animals in the Herbivore 
Houses have died during the year. The Eland bull succumbed in March, 
and the cow, kindly promised a year ago, and given in the spring by the 
Duke of Bedford, survived only until August. The Indian Antelope, 
after a long life in the Gardens, also died in August. As some compen- 
sation for these losses, a very handsome Zebu bull from Borneo, w4th 
two cows, were given by the Zoological Society of London ; shortly after 
arrival in June, one of the latter gave birth to a fine calf ; these beasts 
are kept in the paddock beyond the lake, where they show to great 
advantage. Another midsummer birth of much interest was that of a 
female Bison calf, v/hich is thriving ; in its early weeks, this calf's fur 
was of a bright red colour, but it has now assumed the dark coat of its 
parents. /\ Greek Boar from jMudros— -formerly a warship pet — is another 
noteworthy acquisition. 

Two pairs of Canadian Porcupines have been acquired during the year ; 
these are on view beneath the Haughton House ; a new Beaver from 
Toronto is another gratifying addition to the collection of Rodents. On 
the other hand, we deplore the loss of the pair of Capybaras, which tor 



52 The Irish Naturalist. March, 

several years had been allowed much liberty around the lakes, and often 
provided an instructive spectacle to visitors as they swam or walked. 
A Great Ant-Eater was acquired in September ; it lived for some time 
liappily in the Monkey House, and its habits — especially at feeding time, 
when the long tongue came into play — were a source of much interest. 
Unfortunately, it died of enteritis in November. 

Dr. MacDowel Cosgrave (Hon. Treasurer) seconded the adoption 
of the Report and Accounts, which were unanimously passed. 

The Otficers and Council for 191 7 were then elected : — President, Sir 
Frederick Moore ; Hon. Treasurer, H. F. Stephens ; new members of 
Council, Col. C. Cane, J. IL Ceoghegan, and A. Maude. 

Sir F. Moore, the new President, then took the chair, and appealed 
to the members present for support in the varied activities of the Societ}*. 

Prof. J. Alfred Scott gave an account of some of the animals now 
and formerly in the Gardens, with an excellent set of photographic lantern- 
slides in illustration. 

Prof. J. Arthur Thomson, LL.D., of Aberdeen Univcrity, \\as unani- 
mousl}' elected an Honorary Member of the Society'. 



BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

December 19. — An address was delivered by A. Deane on " The 
Childhood of Art " as manifested in tlie works of the stone age of man. 
Professor Yapp occupied the chair. An animated discussion followed, 
in which Professor Yapp, Dr. Charlesworth, Mr. Cleland, and Mr. Milligan 
took part. 

January 16. — N, H. Foster read a paper on " The Mourne 
Mountains." The chair was occupied by the President (Major A. \i. 
Dwerryhouse). Mr. Foster said that theMourneMountains formed the most 
elevated land in Ulster, and covered an area of about 14 x 7 miles. They 
were in the main composed of a tough grey granite, but in several of the 
peaks the old Silurian rock had been lifted with the outflow and now 
capped the underlying granite. He then proceeded to describe some 
\\alks which could be undertaken, and in spealdng of the Castles of Comme- 
dagh— a wonderful natural feature — said it was strange that so few of 
Newcastle's visitors had ever viewed this wonderland, which was within 
two hours' walking of the town. In a granite area the flora and fauna 
were as a rule poor in number of species, but in the Mourne district 
several of our rarer plants were to be found. In speaking of the fauna 
he said that in the recesses of these mountains the Fox and the Badger 
still lurked, whilst the Pine Marten had been observed in Tollymore Park 
and in Donard dem.csne. Our only Irish reptile, the Viviparous Lizard, 
had been recorded from here. Of the birds frequenting the district ]VIr. 
Foster had many things to recount, including the capture at Greencastlc 
some years ago of a specimen of the Antarctic Sheathbill — unique in the 
northern hemisphere. The paper was illustrated by 60 lantern slides. 



iQi?- Notes. 53 

NOTES. 

ZOOLOGY. 

Frojafs Spawning in Severe Weather. 

I must supplement the note I wrote last winter (vol. xx\-. p. j^i) on 
" Frogs spawning in January," by mentioning that during the present 
winter I saw no frog-spawn until February i-^th. On that day, examining 
three separate spawning pools — two of them half a mile apart— I found 
masses of the jelly-like substance in them all. The date is ten days later 
than the latest recorded in my previous note ; but as the country on Feb. 
14th was still under a mantle of snow which had lain for a full calendar 
month the difterence is not greater than might have been expected. The 
present winter has been the severest experienced here for 36 years, and 
the snowfall of January 2Gth (which fell on ground already twelve days 
under snow) was the heaviest since that of January 17th, 1881. With 
the exception of one week — December 28th to January 3rd, inclusive 
(during which week I may add that Pipistrelles were flying numerously 
every night) — we have had uninterrupted cold weather since December 
loth, and it was only in the immediate neighbourhood of springs, even 
in the second week of February, that the Frogs cotdd spawn, the pools 
elsewhere being still under ice. It shows how inveterate is their habit 
of early spawning that they began when they did. 

C. B. Moffat. 

Bittern in Co. Tyrone. 

My friend, Mr. W. C. Wright, of Belfast, published in British Birds 
for January last that a Bittern {Botaiivus stellaris) shot near Coalisland, 
Co. Tyrone, on December 2nd, 1916, proved to be a female, with the 
feathers of the head and neck in a state of moult. The ovaries 
were in a diseased state and the stomach contained a perch nine inches 
long. I think the above of great interest to Irish ornithologists. 

W\ H. Workman. 
Belfast. 

Jays in County Dublin. 

Within the last few months a considerable number of Jays, about 
30 birds, have appeared in the southern part of the county about Brittas, 
and are still located there. I am not aware that these birds have ever been 
observed in the locality before. 

G. C. May. 

Dubhn. 



54 



Tlie Irish Naturalist. 



March, 



Summer Migrants at Balbrig-gan in 1916. 

In March last year, 1 issued more than loo cards containing a hst of 
migrants with the probable dates of their arrival, hoping in this way 
to ascertain the range of some of the rarer species. 

There were manj' applications for these cards ; but I am sorry to sa}-, 
that I have received only one return from those to whom they were sent. 
It is remarkable, however, that it contains the names both of the Redstart 
and the Garden Warbler, which may be considered decidedly " Rarae 
Aves " in Ireland. 

I append the dates of my own observations here in iqt6. 

1 Chiff-chaff April 

2 Swallow ,, 
Willow Warbler 
Corncrake ,, 
Sand -Martin ,, 
Whimbrel 

7 Cuckoo ,, 

8 Whitethroat May 

9 Grasshopper W^arbler ,, 
My observation of the Wheatear was extraordinarily late here last year. 

No observations of the Quail or Blackcap. 

Charles W. Benson. 
Bedford House, Balbriggan. 



5 


10. Swift 


•7 


II Sandpiper 


13 


12 Common Tern 


^4 


13 Sedge Warbler 


26 


14 House ^Martin 


27 


15 Wheatear 


28 


16 Lesser Tern 


2 


17 Spotted Flycatcher 


12 





May 13 
13 

17 
20 

„ 26 

27 

.. 28 



Waxwing in Co. Down. 

A Waxwing, Ampdis garrnlus, was shot here on ist February, and 
brought to me for identification. It was feeding on berries of Cotoneaster 
in a garden close to a dwellinghouse, and is said to have appeared very 
tame. 

Hillsborough, Co. Down. Nevin H. Foster. 



BOTANY. 

Trichia affinis. 

I am obliged to Mrs. Stelfox for her correction of my statement at the 
November meeting of the Dublin Microscopical Club that Trichia affinis 
had only been recorded from Leinster and Munstcr. \\. the time T was 
unaware of the records of the Clare Island Survey. Since that list was 
l^rinted, some good work has been done in extending the known range 
of the Mycetozoa in Ireland, not the least of which is to the credit of 
tlie writer of the correction. There is little doubt that a careful search 
in other localities will sliow that this specjcR is fairly well distributed 
throughout the country, 

Dublin. W. F. Gunn. 



19 17- Noies. 55 

Aquatic Fungi. 

Fungi which hve in or under water are rare. In the outlet of a httle 
lake on Brandon, in Kerry, at 2,000 feet elevation, in July, 1913, I found 
a small orange fungus growing on dead heather stems in three feet ot 
water, which was identified at Kew as Vihvissea truncoruni Fr. Next 
year (October, 191 4) the same plant turned up on dead heather in a foot 
of water in Lough Dan, Co. Wicklow ; and on the day following ]Miss 
Jane Stephens obtained further specimens, also on dead heather, in a 
foot of water in the outlet stream from Lough Tay. These specimens 
were ^•erified by ^liss Knowles. The species is rare in the British Isles ; 
and in Ireland, curiously enough, has been recorded previously only 
from these same two regions : — Hungry Hill, Co. Cork, 1,000 feet, on 
dead heather stems in boggy places (^Nl'Weeney in Irish Naturalist, ii. 
227, 1S93), and " Powerscourt, recurring in the same place every spring 
(Pim) ; Slade Brook (M'Weeney)" — (Pim and M'Weeney, Irish Naturalist, 
ii., 259, 1893.) 

A commoner species of similar appearance and similar habitat is 
Mitrula phalloides Chev. {=^M. palndosa Fr.). It is recorded from Cloyne 
Valley, Co. Cork ; Powerscourt, Co. Wicklow ; Glencullen, Co. Dublin ; 
Slieve Donard and Hilltown, Co. Down, and near Belfast, Co. Antrim. 
I have a note of having obtained it over twenty years ago in Tollymore 
Park, Co. Down (named by Canon Lett), and in June of last year got 
good specimens on dead heather in several inches of water near the 
Hare's Gap, Mourne ^fountains ; ]\liss Knowles kindly identified it. 

R. Lloyd Praeger. 

Dubhn. 

Some Leitrim Fungi. 

At Dromahaire, Co. Leitrim, last October, we found an unfamiliar 
yellow spatula-shaped fungus on limestone pasture in some abundance ; 
and later under trees near the mouth of the Bonet River, on a space of 
a few square yards, we collected an unusual variety of interesting small 
fungi of the Clavaria and Geoglossum tj'pes. They were sent to Mr. 
A. D. Cotton of Kew, who kindl}' reported on them. The first-mentioned 
proved to be Spathnlaria clavata Sacc, rare in the British Isles, and with 
only one previous Irish station (Shankill, Co. Dublin : G. Pim). The 
others were as follows : — Clavaria Jumosa Pers., C. muscoides L., C. rugosa 
Bull., C. inaequalis Fl. Dan., C. unibrinella Sacc, Microglossuni viride 
Gill (=Miirnla viridis Karst.), Otidea grandis ]\Iassee, Thelephora spiculosa 
Fr. Of these, C. rugosa and C. inaequalis are on record from each of 
the four provinces of Ireland ; the other three Clavarias were only recently 
added to the Irish flora in the Clare Island Report ; C. umbrineUa is 
very rare in the British Isles. Microglossuni viride has been recorded 
from the Dublin district. For Otidea grandis (a rare species in our 
islands) the present appears to be the first Irish record. Regarding 
Thelephora spiculosa, the name is new to the British list, as is explained 



56 The Irish Naturalisi. March., 1917. 

in the following note which has been kindly communicated hv ^liss 
Wakefield of the Kew Herbarium : — 

" This fungus is not uncommon in Britain, and has been previously 
recorded under the name Thelephora mollissinia , Pers. There has been 
much confusion as to nomenclature in connection with it, and probably 
T. mollissinia, Pers., T. penicillata (Pers.) and T. Crustacea, Schum. are 
synonyms of T. spicnlosa, Fr. The reasons for adopting the latter name 
are explained in a note which it is hoped will appear in the next number 
of the Transactions of the British Mycological Society. This plant 
is somewhat variable, but among British species is readily recognised 
by its habit. It grows on the ground, spreading over dead leaves wi 
decumbent or slightly ascending fan-like clusters of branches, or en- 
crusting the base of grasses and other small plants in the same way as 
Sehacina incrustans (Pers.) Tul. The slender cylindrical branches nto 
which the margin of the sporophore divides have conspicuous whitish 
fringed tips, from which character the specific name is derived." 

The only previous Irish record for Thelephora spicnlosa appears to be 
Rademon, Co. Down (Lett, as 5. moUissima). 

R. Lloyd Praeger. 

Dublin, 

Elymus arenarius on the North Bull. 

In his interesting note in last month's Irisii Xatiiralist on the appearance 
of Elymus arenarius on the North Bull Mr. Colgan places the probable 
date of its introduction after the closing of the Bull to the public in 191 4. 
I can, however, push back the date a few 3ears. In June, 1909, I gathered 
Elymus arenarius on the North Bull on the exact spot described by Mr. 
Colgan. The specimens are now in the Herbarium of the National 
Museum. My note-book says there were two patches. T looked for it 
again early in the following season, but unsuccessfully. However, in 
the autumn of that same year Miss M'Ardle (now Mrs. Patman) and 
I came across it again. Shortly afterwards Dr. Pethybridge independently 
found the grass and brought specimens to the Herbarium.. He also 
reported having seen only two clumps so that the colony seems to be on 
the increase as !Mr. Colgan records four patches. At the time I made 
some enquiries as to the probable source of origin, and amongst others 
I wrote to Mr. Campbell to ask if Elymus arenarius was grown in the gardens 
at St. Anne's ? I received a very interesting letter in replv, which I do 
not think I can do better than quote, since it supplies an explanation of 
the presence of the grass on the North Bull. ]Mr. Campbell says " with 
reference to Elymus arenarius I have not got it here, but I think I can tell 
you iiow it has appeai^ed on the North Bull. The late Mr. Burbidge for 
years before his death used to fill his pockets with all sorts of seeds whi^h 
he thought likely to grow there and on the cliffs at Howth. He told me 
so himself, and I have no doubt the above is the result." 

Matilda C. Knowles. 

National Museum. Dublin. 



April, 191 7. The Irish Naturalist . 57 

SOME RECORDS FOR IRISH MYCETOZOA. 

BY MARGARET W. REA AND MARGARITA D. STELFOX. 

In her report on the M3\^etozoa of the Clare Island Survey, 
Miss G. Lister, F.L.S., included a list of all the species 
found in Ireland up to that date. Other papers have 
appeared since giving additional records for the Counties 
of Kerr\',' Sligo, Leitrim, Fermanagh and Cavan.^ 

As the result of gatherings made during the last two 
years we have been able to compile the following list which 
we think may be of interest to other workers. 

We have to thank Miss Lister for her extreme kindness 
in examining and identif3/ing practically all our material, 
and Messrs. E. Armstrong, A. M'l. Cleland, Nevin H. 
Foster, A. W. Stelfox, J. A. S. Stendall and Professor 
Yapp, for contributing specimens found by them. 

The following contractions are used for the names of 
county divisions : — AX., Antrim ; DO., Down ; MO., 
Monaghan ; XT., Xortli Tipperary ; TY., Tyrone ; WD., 
West Donegal. 

Thirteen species which have not been recorded previously 
from Ireland are marked with an asterisk. 

The letter R in brackets following any locality signifies 

that the specimen was collected by M. W. Rea, and S that 

the specimen was obtained by J\L D. Stelfox, or A. W. 

Stelfox. 

Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa Macbridc. 

AX. — Cammoney ; Colin Glen ; Ballycastle (R and S). 

DO. — Near Lisburn ; Holy wood ; Newcastle (R). Belvoir Park 

Belfast ; Bally magee ; Carngaver (S). 
:\IO.— Glaslough (R). 
TY.— Coalisland (R). 
WD. — Near Falcarragh (S). 

Badhamia utricularis Berkeley. 

AN.— Colin Glen (R). 

DO. — Near Lisburn ; Holy wood (R). Belvoir Park ; Carngaver (S). 

^ Irish Naturalist, vol. xxiv., pp. 37-39, 1915. 

^ Proceedings Belfast Nat, Field Club, 1914-1915, pp. 160-163. 



58 The Irish Naturalist. April. 

* Badhamia foliicola Lister. 
DO.— Ballymagee (S). Saintfield (R). 

* B. nitens Berkeley. 
DO.— :Near Lisburn (R). 

B. panicea Ro.stafinski. 
DO.— Near I.isbiirn (R). 

* Physarum pulcherripes Peck. 
DO.— Rostrevor (R). 

P. psittacinum Ditmar. 
DO.— Belvoir Park (R). 

P. viride Persoon. 
AN.— Colin Glen (R). 

DO. — Holy wood (R). Leverogue near Drumbo ; Carngaver ; Bally- 
magee (S). 

The var. incanuui Lister has been found at Holywood in the 
Plasmodium stage. 

* P. galbeum Wingate. 
DO. — In a small glen one mile south of Bangor (S). 

P. nutans Persoon. 

AN. — Colin Glen; Ballycastle (R). Ballycastle ; Malone House, 

Belfast (S). 
DO. — Holywood ; Near Lisburn ; Newcastle (R). Hillsborough (N. II. 

Foster). Portavo ; Carngaver; Belvoir Park (S). 

The subsp. leucophaeitm Lister has been found throughout the 

district in many localities ; a form having the lime granules 

entirely absent has been collected at Portavo. 
i\IO.— Glaslough (R). 
TY.— Coalisland (K). 

P. compressum Albertini & de Schweinitz. 

DO.— Ballymagee (S). 
NT.— Nenagh (R). 

* I P. vernum Sommerfelt. 

DO. — Leverogue near Drumbo (S). 

About a dozen sporangia on moss growing on dead whins have 
been doubtfully referred by Miss Lister to this species, though 
she considers they may possibly be a dark-sporcd form of 
P. cinereum Persoon.] 



I9I7- I^i^A AND Stelfox. — Rccovds fov Ivhh Mycetozoa. 59 

Fuligo septica Gmelin. 

AN.— Colin Glen (R). Carr's Glen (S). 

DC— Belvoir Park; Mol3'wood (R). Carngavcr ; Drunibo (S). 

MO.— Glaslough (R). 

Leocarpiis fragilis l^ostafinski. 
1>0. — Carngavcr Woods near Bangor (R). 

Didymium difforme Duby. 

DO. — Near Lisburn (R). Ballymagee (S). 

* D. Clavus Rostafinski. 
DO. — Saintfield (R). Ballymagee; Leverogue (S). 

D. melanospermum Macbride. 
DO. — Carngaver near Bangor (S). 

D. nigripes Fries. 

DO.— Saintfield (R). Ballymagee (S.) 

The var. xanthopus Lister was also collected at Saintfield and 
near Lisburn (R). 

D. squamulosum Fries. 

AN. — Rungill Glen near Glenoe ; near Lough Naroon (S). 
DO. — Saintfield and near Lisburn (R). Ballywilliam ; near Donaghadee ; 
Ballymagee (S) . 

Mucilago spongiosa Morgan. 
DO.— Near Killough (J. A. S. Stendall). 

Stemonitis fusca Roth. 

AN. — Colin Glen ; Garron Tower (R). Lagan Valley ; Garron Tower (S). 
DO. — Hillsborough Park; near Lisburn. (R). Carngaver woods (S). 

Var. coiifliieHs Lister has been found in great abundance at 

Belmont near Belfast, and at Rostrevor, where var. flaccida 

Lister has also been collected (R). 
NT.— Nenagh (R). 

S. splendens Rostafinski. 

DO. — Carngaver woods (S). 

Var. Wehheri Lister occurred at Belvoir Park (R). 
Ya^T.Jlaccida Lister has been collected at Hillsborough, Belmont 
and Holy wood (R). 



6o Tlic IrisJi Naturalist. April 

Stemonitis herbatica Peck. 
AN.— Colin Glen (R). 
DO. — Belmont (R). Carngaver (S.). 

S. tlavogenita Jahn. 
AN.— Colin Glen (R). 
DO.— Belvoir Park; Holy wood (R). 

S. ferruginea Ehrenberg. 

AN.— Colin Glen (R). Garron Point (S). 

DO. — Belvoir Park; Holy wood ; near Lisburn (R). Portavo ; Carn- 
gaver woods (S). 

Comatricha nigra Schroeter. 

AN. — Colin Glen ; Ballycastle (R). Lagan Valley (S). 
DO. — Holy wood ; near Belfast; Rostrevor (R). Leverogue ; Carngaver 

woods ; Ballymagee (S) . 
The var. alia Lister has been collected in Belvoir Park and at 
Saintfield (R). 
TV.— Coahsland (R). 

C. laxa Rostdfinski. 
AN.— Ballycastle (R). 
DO. — Ballymagpc ; Carngaver woods (S). 

* C. elegans Lister. 
DO. — Belvoir Park (R). Carngaver woods (S). 

[C. pulchella Rostafinski. 

DO. — Carngaver Woods (S). 

The sporangia of the specimen collected were irregularly formed, 
^liss Lister refers them doubtfully to C. pulchella var. gracilis 
Lister.] 

C. typhoides Rostafinski. 

AN.— Cohn Glen; Ballycastle (R). Lagan Valley (S). 

DO. — Hillsborough; Holywood (R). J->allyholme near Bangor; Carn- 
gaver woods (S). 

Specimens of the var. heterospora Rex have been obtained at 
Holywood (1^) and in Carngaver woods (S). 

MO.— Glaslough (R). 

NT.— Nenagh (R). 

Enerthenema papillatum Rostafinski. 

AN. — Ballycastle ; Colin Glen (R). 

DO. — Holywood (R). Leverogue; Ballymagee; Carngaver woods (S). 



iQiy. Rea and STRLYOX.—Reconh for IrisJi Mvciiozoci. 6i 

Lamproderma echinulatum Rostafinski. 
AN. — Lagan Valley near J3elfast (S). 

L. scintillans Morgan. 
DO.— Near Lisburn (R). 

L. columbinum Rostafinski. 
DO. — Carngavcr woods (S). 

* Brefeldia maxima Rostafinski. 
AN.^^NIalonc near Belfast (Professor R. H. Yapp). 

Cribraria argillacea Persoon. 

AN.— Colin Glen (R). 

DO. — Strickland's Glen near Bangor; Holywood (R). Clandeboye ; 

Carngaver woods (S). 
WD. — Near Falcarragh (S). 

C. aurantiaca Schrader. . 
AN.— Colin Glen (R). 

DO. — ^Bangor ; Holywood (R). Clandeboye; Carngaver woods (S). 
WD. — Near Falcarragh (S). 

Dictydiiim canceUatum Macbride. 

AN.— Colin Glen (R). 

DO. — Belvoir Park ; Holywood ; Roslrevor (R), Carngaver wood-i ; 

Drumbo (S). 
WD. — Near Falcarragh (S). 

* Licea minima Fries. 
DO.— Portavo near Donaghadee ; Carngaver woods (S). 

L. flexuosa Persoon. 
DO. —Comber (R). Carngaver woods (S). 

Tubifera ferruginosa Gmelin. 

AX. — Carnmoney near Belfast (R). 
DO.— Holywood ; Rostrevor (R). 

Enteridium olivaceum Ehrenberg. 
DO. — Baiiyniagee near Bangor (S). 

Relicularia Lycoperdon BuUard. 

AN.— Ballycastle (R). Glendun ; Lagan Valley (SL 
DO. — Near Lisburn ; Belvoir Park (R). Drumbo ; Balhmagee ; 
Bangor (S). 



62 



The Iri'ih Nahirali'^t. 



April, 



Lycogala epidendnim Fries. 

AN.— Colin Glen ; Ballycastle (R). Lagan Valley (S). 

DO. — Near Lisburn ; Bangor; Holywood (E^). Carngaver woods; 

Belvoir Park ; Hill.sborongh (S). 
TV.—Coalisland (R). 

Trichia affinis dc Bary. 

AN. — Colin Glen ; Carr's Glen (R). Mnrlough Bay ; Ballycastle ; Garron 
Point ; Lagan valley ; Glendun (S). 

DO. — Belvoir Park; Belmont (R). Hillsborough; Porta vo ; Carn- 
gaver woods (S). 

NT.— Nenagh (R). 

T. persimilis Karsten. 

AN. — Malone House near Belfast (S). 

DO. — Holywood (R). Porta vo ; Carngaver woods ; Bally magee (S). 

* T. scabra Rostafinski. 
DO.— Belvoir Park near Belfast (R). 

T. varia Persoon. 

AN.— Colin Glen (R). Lagan Valley (S). 

DO. — Belvoir Park ; Holywood (R). Belvoir Park ; Millisle ; Portavo ; 
Carngaver (S). 

* T. contorta Rostafinski. 
AN. — Glenoe near Larne (S). 

T. decipiens Macbride. 

AN. — Colin Glen ; Ballycastle (R). Garron Point ; Glenoe ; Lagan 

valley (S). 
DO. — Belvoir Park; Holywood (R). Hillsborough; Porta vo ; Carn- 
gaver woods ; Ballyinagee (S). 
MO.— Glaslough (R). 
WD.— Near Falcarragh (S). 



T. Botrytis Persoon. 

AN. — Colin Glen (K). Garron Point; Ballycastle ; Lagan valley (S). 
DO. — Comber; Belvoir Park; Holywood (R). Mourne Park near 

Kilkeel (Nevin H. Foster). Porta vo ; Carngaver woods ; Drumbo 

Glen (S). 

* Arcyria ferruginea Sauter. 

DO. — Near Donaghadee ; Porta vo ; Carngaver wfjods (S). 

The var. heterotrichia Torrend has been collected near Lisburn 
(R) and near Donaghadee (S). 



igi?- Rea and Stelfox. — Recovds for Irish Mycetozoa. 63 

Arcyria cinerea Persoon. 
AN.— Colin Glen (R). 

DO. — Holy wood ; Hillsborough (R). Leverogue Glen ; Bally magee ; 
Carngaver woods (S). 

"^ A. pomiformis Rostafinski. 
AN.— Colin Glen (R). 

DO. — Bangor; near I.isburn (R). Near Donaghadee ; Ballymagee ; 
Cargaver woods (S). 

A. denudata Sheldon. 

AN.— Colin Glen (R). Lagan valley (S). 

DO. — Holywood ; Hillsborough (R). Portavo ; Clandeboye ; Carngaver 

woods ; Ballymagee (S). 
MO.— Glaslough (R). 
NT.— Nenagh (R). 

A. incarnata Persoon. 

AN.— CoHn Glen; Ballycastle (R). 

DO. — Near Lisburn ; Hillsborough; Belvoir Park (R). T.everogue ; 
Portavo ; Ballymagee ; Carngaver woods (S.) 
The var. fulgens Lister occurred at Belvoir Park (R). 

MO.— Glaslough (R). 

A. nutans Greville. 

AN.— Colin Glen ; Tiallycastle (R). Glendun (S). 

DO." — Near Lisburn ; Hillsborough ; Holywood (R). Belvedere near 
Drumbo ; Ballymagee ; Carngaver woods (S). 

Perichaena depressa Libert. 
DO.— Near Lisburn (R). 

P. corticalis Rostafinski. 

DO. — Saintfield ; near Lisburn (R). 
TY.— Coalisland (A. MT. Cleland). 

Margarita metallica Lister. 
DO. — Carngaver v,oods ; Leverogue (S). 

Prototrichia metallica Massee. 

AN. — Colin Glen (E. Armstrong). 

DO. — Leverogue ; Portavo ; Ballymagee (S.) 

As in some cases we have found those species, which are 
new to the Irish Hst, in only a few localities, it may not be 



64 The Irish Naturalist. April, 

out of place to give a short account of some of their 
habitats, etc. 

Badhamia foliicola was first collected at Ballymagee where sporangia 
were found in groat profusion covering pieces of whin stick. INIuch rain 
had fallen during the first fortnight of August, 1915, and after a few days 
of fine weather specimens of several species were found on small pieces of 
sticks lying under whins which were growing on the tops of old earthen 
ditches. On examination, the sporangia were found to be externally 
typical of this species, though under the microscope the spores showed 
a tendency to cluster. Howe\-er, the colour of the spores was too pale 
brown for B. utricularis with which this species might be confused, and 
there was no leathery fungus in the neighbourhood on which the ])las- 
modium could have fed. 

The specimen procured at Saintfield was on a heap of straw lying 
under a hedge. The bright orange colour of the plasmodium attracted 
attention, and when some of it was brought indoors it matured into the 
grey iridescent sporangia in a couple of days. 

7>. viiens. — On picking up a small much decayed twig in a plantation 
at Larchfield, near Lisburn, some typical sporangia of this species were 
discovered : the only ones which we have so far been fortunate enough 
to find. 

Physarum piOcherripes. — -While searching in a larch plantation in the 
grounds of Sir John Rojbs of Bladensburg at Rostrevor a stump attracted 
our attention, and here a number of the upright buff sporangia were 
collected. Miss Lister, when returning the specimens, remarked that the 
colour is less orange-red than usual, the stalks a darker broAvn, but the 
lime-knots show the typical form and red colour. This is the first British 
record for this species, and so far as ]\Iiss IJster knows is the lirst European 
.specimen obtained. Miss Lister also drew our attention to the fact that 
P. pulchevvipes is the earliest published name. " Peck afterwards pub- 
lished pulchripes, but we must abide by the first." 

P. galbenm. — A short distance south of Bangor there is a small glen 
filled for the most part with hazel scrub. Under some bushes a few 
specimens were found on small decaying stems of Rosa canina. The 
sporangia were quite typical in appearance, being bright yellow, erect 
and smooth. Under the microscope the dense network of yellow capilli- 
tium was clearly visible and the sporangium wall had a wrinkled l^ase 
which is not always so in this species. On account of the minute size 
of the sporangia they might easily be overlooked. 

Didymium Clavus. — The remarks made above concerning the finding 
of Badhomia foliicola at kJallymagee also apply to this species. The 
sporangia were quite typical and in good condition. The sporangia 
collected at the Leverogue were rather over-ripe. They occurred on small 
branches of dead bramble which were lying under some whin bushes. 



1917- Re A AND Stelfox, — Records for Irish Mycetozoa. 65 

Near Saintfield a small quantity was discovered on straw in an open 
field together with specimens of D. nignpes and D. sauamnlosum. 

Stemonitis splendens. — In the Clare Island Survey, Mycetozoa, pp. 16-17, 
Miss Lister notes that all the gatherings of this species so far recorded 
from Ireland belong to the var. Webhevi, the typical form not having 
been found in the British Isles. We have been fortunate enough to find 
the type and var. Webberi at Carngaver, while the var. flaccida proved 
common. 

Coniaiviclia elcgans seems to occur \ery locally. Specimens were 
collected at Carngaver in the months of August, September and January. 
All occurred on pine logs. The material procured there and in Belvoir 
Park was quite typical and could be referred with certainty to this species. 
The gathering obtained in September at Carngaver is interesting, as 
though the character of the branching of the columella and capillitium 
undoubtedly made it C. elegans, the pinkish lilac colour is quite unlike 
usual gatherings, and Miss Lister suggests it is almost worthy of being 
named a distinct variety. 

Brefeldia maxima.^T\\e plasmodium of this species was found on the 
stump of a lime-tree. Brought indoors, some difficulty was experienced 
in ripening it satisfactorily, as mould appeared in a few days. In con- 
sequence it had to be dried hurriedly, but, as Miss Lister remarked, the 
component sporangia stood up, showing their individuality better than 
they would in a perfectly mature specimen. 

Licea minima. — No British record of this species has been previously 
published, which is no doubt due to the fact that the sporangia are so 
minute in size that they may be easily overlooked in the field. Specimens 
were discovered by us on a piece of wood at Carngaver, while, simul- 
taneously Miss Lister identified some on a piece of wood we had sent 
with sporangia of Arcyria cinerea from Portavo. 

Trichia coniorta. — Sporangia were abundant on small twigs — principally 
ash— which were lying in heaps at the foot of Rungill Glen, Glenoe, in the 
month of December. 

Arcyria ferriiginea. — This easily recognised species is no doubt more 
common than our records would suggest. One specimen was found on 
a discarded gate-post lying partly under a hedge on the golf links at 
Donaghadee, while others were found in a small plantation and in woods. 

A . pomiformis. — It is a matter for surprise that no records have appeared 
for this species before this, as we found it to be fairly common on decaying 
branches and sticks lying among grass 

Ballymagee, Bangor. .. 



66 The Irish Naturalist. April, 



USEFUL STUDIES FOR FIELD NATURALISTS. 

BY PROFESSOR GEO. H. CARPENTER, M.SC, M.R.I. A. 

(Presidential Address to the Dublin Naturalists' Field Club, 

December 14, 1916.) 

It happened lately that I looked into a book well known 
to students of the history of Irish zoology — the Rev. John 
Keogh's " Zoologia Medicinalis Hibernica," published in 
1739. This curious work illustrates well the connection, 
in pre-Linnean days, between systematic natural history 
and medical practice, so that botanical and zoological 
classifications arose largely as a necessary aid to the 
phj^sician. A sentence from Keogh's preface should find 
an echo in the minds of members of this Club : — 

" I think, there ought to be encouragement given, in order to improve 
and cultivate the three Branches of the Matey ia Medica, which are 
Botanologia , Zoologia, and Minevalogia, tJiey being so very useful for the 
Preservation of Health, I could heartily wish our Doctors took more 
notice of them in their Practice, then so many Patients would not expire 
under their hands." 

Perhaps, however, we may be thankful that the medical 
m^en of the present century- do not habitually follow Keogh's 
zoological prescriptions. It is interesting to an entomo- 
logist to learn that " the spirit extracted from Ants causes 
Magnanimity or Greatness of Mind," that " Butterflies 
reduced into Powder, and mixt with Honey cure Baldness, 
being externally applied," and that Caterpillars '' being 
burnt and put into the Nostrils stop bleeding." The Crane 
is now unfortunately unknown in Ireland except in our 
Zoological Gardens, but in Keogh's da3^s the bird would 
have been appropriate to an occasion like the present when 
members of a club are assembled to hear an address. The 
speaker might have been helped, because " a Broth made of 
the Flesh clears the Voice " ; he would not share his broth 
with the audience, but would let them know that the Gall 
" dropt into the Ears with oil of Amber, cures Deafness." 



T9I7- Carpenter.— ?7.s^//^/ Studies for Field Naturalists. 67 

This evening the President cannot improve his voice 
or the members their powers of hearing with these appli- 
cations, but we can all recognize that Keogh's interest in 
zoology was largely utilitarian, and it may be instructive 
for us to trace the connection of some economic applications 
of natural history with the cultivation of the science for 
the sake of the interest and fascination which it has for us. 
People often talk and write of " pure " and " applied " 
science ; but as Huxley taught us long ago there are not 
two kinds of science but one. It ma^^ be desirable to enter 
a protest against two points of view both inimical to the 
advancement of science among our people : firstly, the 
supercilious outlook of some " pure scientists " who affect 
to believe that a discovery is somehovv^ degraded if it become 
useful to mankind ; and secondly, the intolerant attitude 
of some " practical men " who would discourage any line 
of research that cannot be clearly directed to an economic 
issue. As a matter of fact enquiries undertaken — like 
Keogh's — for the sake of miedicine or agriculture, often 
yield results of high theoretical importance, while there is 
no line of biological research that may not at some time 
contribute to the preservation of human health or to the 
advancement of human industry. 

The last twenty years have been noteworthy for a remark- 
able advance in our knowledge of the parasitic Protozoa, 
such as the Haemosporidia and the Haemoflagellata. The 
researches that led to these discoveries were undertaken 
bv medical men who worked at the life-histories of the 
protozoan parasites in order that they might be the better 
able to prevent or relieve disease in man and domestic 
animals. In such practical results the investigations have 
proved abundantly fruitful, but how impressive also has 
been the progress of zoological science associated with them, 
as illustrated for example by the elucidation of a true sexual 
reproduction among the Protozoa and of the adaptation 
of these minute parasites for a life in two alternate hosts — 
the vertebrate and the blood-sucking gnat or tick. 

Some time ago I gave before this Club an account of the 
progress made in an investigation into the life-history of 
the Ox Warble-flies — an investigation with a definitely 



68 The Irish Naturalist. April, 

economic bearing. Yet it has well justified Prof. Miall's 
remark that the transformations of insects of agricultural 
importance are fully as interesting as those of any other 
insects. The first stage larva of Hypoderma^ with its 
relatively immense mouth-hooks and strong spiny arma- 
ture, adapted for boring through the skin of cattle, differs 
so markedly from the smootli second-stage maggot found 
in the gullet-wall that the life-history might be regarded 
as approaching the hypei metamorphosis that characterises 
some Coleoptera. In the latter order besides the oft-quoted 
cases of larval differentiation among the Meloidae it is well 
to recall the less marked but highly interesting instances 
afforded by the Bruchidae — a family of economic im- 
portance on account of the injury done by them to peas 
and beans. Here, as Riley and Howard have shown, ^ 
there is a first-stage larva, provided with legs and a 
pronotal spiny process, which bores its way through the pod 
and enters the developing seed within which the legless 
grubs of the later stages feed. 

During my previous Presidency of this Club, more than 
twenty years ago, my visit with some of the members to 
the Mitchelstown Cave led me first to take an interest in 
those lowly wingless insects, the springtails or Collembola, 
several blind species of which are included in our Irish 
cave fauna. At that time beyond a few observations there 
was nothing to show that the insects had an}/ economic 
importance, and the severely practical man might have 
thought that an entomologist, in devoting daj^s and months 
to their systematic study, was hopelessly wasting his time. 
During the present century, however, it has been found 
both in Ireland'^ and in Britain* that several kinds of 
Springtails are very harmful to roots and other imderground 
plant structures, to fallen fruit, and to fohage. It is reason- 
able to suppose that the comparatively sudden rise of the 
Collembola to importance as injurious insects is not due to 

'^See Carpenter and Hewitt, Irish Nat. vol. xxiii., 1914. PP- 214-221. 
and Sci. Proc, R. Dublin Soc, vol. xiv., igi^, pp. 268-290. 
^Insect Life, vol. iv., 1892, pp. 297-302. 

^Carpenter, Ecov. Proc, R. Dublin Soc, vol. i. (1904, pp. 251-3). 
*Theobold, " Report on Economic Entomology for 1910 " (pp. 111-127) 



1917- Carpenter. — Useful Shidies for Field Naturalists. 69 

want of observation in former years, but to an actual change 
in the mode of Ufe of the species observed. Thus the study 
of an obscure group of insects is found to have an unexpected 
economic bearing, and the behaviour of the creatures in 
relation to cultivated plants may give the naturalist an 
opportunity of noticing change of habit on a large scale 
— a fascinating line of enquiry from the biological point 
of view. 

In the case of one springtail, at any rate, such a change 
of habit has been certainly observed. Tobacco is a newly 
introduced crop in Ireland, raised entirely from seed, so 
that no insect-pests can have been introduced with it. In 
April, 1907, tobacco seedlings from Kilkenny were found 
to be covered with multitudes of dark greyish springtails, 
which proved on examination to belong to Isotoma tenella, 
a Finnish and North German species hitherto unrecognised 
in the British Islands.^ There can be no doubt that this 
scarce insect had suddenly increased in numbers through 
the introduction of a new crop which happened to afford a 
large and suitable food-supply. 

It is interesting to notice also that the tobacco grown in 
Ireland has attracted several of our common and always 
abundant farm-pests such as wireworms (Agriotes larvae), 
and caterpillars of the Cabbage Moth [Mamestra hrassicae) 
and of its ally il/. oleracea, as well as the familiar " surface 
caterpillars " of the Turnip Moth {Agrotis segetum). 

Many years ago I received from a Westmeath farm a 
number of root-eating beetle-larvae which none of my 
friends, specialists in the Coleoptera, were able to identify. 
In February, 1908, the same larvae turned up again — 
injurious to roots of oats and grasses in Co. Dublin. On 
this occasion I succeeded in rearing a beetle which proved 
to be the common Dascillus cervinus f then I learned that 
similar observations on the habits of the larva had been 
made in Denmark by Prof. J. E. V. Boas,^ and that some 
description of its structure had been given by Dr. C. J. 

^See Irish Naturalist, vol. xvii., 1908 (pp. 174-6) and Econ. Proc. R. 
Dublin Soc, voi. i. (1908, pp. 574-6). 

^Econ. Proc, R. Dublin Soc, vol. i. (1909, pp. 589-592). 
^Tidsskift for Landbrugets Planteavl, vols. iii. x., 1896-1903. 



70 TJic Irish Xafiii'alist. April, 

Galiaii.^ J he nuixilla of the DasciUus grub is strikingly 
like that of the adult, showing none of the secondary 
simplification in that appendage which characterises beetle- 
larvae as a rule. It seemed therefore that a detailed study 
of the jaws might be pioh table. The resTilt was the estab- 
lishment of the presence of maxillulae, comparable to those 
of the Apterygota and of ma^^fiy-larvae, in the larval Das- 
ciUus and also in the curious little woodlouse-like larva 
of the sub-aquatic Helodes which belongs to the same 
family.^ Here then was a discovery of some importance 
to the student of insect morphology made as a bye- 
product of an ordinary agricultural enquiry — another 
illustration of the beneficial action and reaction of the 
" pure " and the " applied " aspects of natural science. 
I have ventured to bring these rather discursive re- 
miniscences before the Club, because they illustrate how 
frequentl}^ studies which the naturalist pursues for the love 
of them ma^^ turn out to be useful in the economic sense ; 
how frequent 1}^ too a }^)iece of work undertaken for the 
sake of medicine or agriculture may lead the investigator 
into paths of high theoretical interest. From either point 
of view they may truly be hailed as " useful " studies for 
field naturalists. 

Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

February 14. — The Club met at Leiuster House. X. Colgan, M.R.I. A. 
(President) exhibited a series of slides illustrating variation in the form 
of orchid seeds. The series included, along with the seeds of native orchids, 
those of many hybrids and exotic species which Sir Frederick Moore 
had kindly procured for the exhibitor from the famous orchid specialists, 
Messrs. Charlesworth and Messrs. Sander and Sons. Much variation in 
the percentage of perfect seeds was apparent in the specimens shown, 
some of the hybrids being perfectly fertile, while accepted .species showed 
either absolute infertility or a degree of fertility as low as 10 per cent. 



^Trans. Eut. Sue, 1908, pp. 275-282, pi. vi. 

-Carpenter and MacDowell, Quart. Joiirn. Microsc. Sci., vol. Ivii., iyi2. 
PP- 373-396. 



191 7- Irish Societies. 71 

The most characteristic amongst the forms of seed-coat shown were those 
of Disa grandiflora and of an undetermined species collected in New 
Caledonia by the representative in New Guinea of Cambridge University. 
In this undetermined species the diaphanous, netted seed-coat was 
peculiarly attenuated, the length being more than ten times the breadth. 
Three out of the four New Caledonia orchids, of which mounted seed 
specimens were kindly lent by Messrs. Charlesworth, proved to be quite 
barren. They had evidently not been favoured with the insect visit 
necessary to ensure fertilisation. 

Sir F. W. Moore exhibited sections of two-year-old wood of Pyrus 
floribimda var. purpurea. In this variety the leaves are dark red in 
colour, and the bark is also very dark. The colouring matter is in the 
cells of the outer layers of the cortex, and in the medullary rays in the 
one-year-old wood. It does not extend to the cells of fibro- vascular 
bundles. In older parts of the stem and branches the coloured sap was 
more generally diffused through the tissues. 

Dr. G. H. Pethybridge exhibited the smut fungus Tilletia laevis Kiihn, 
obtained from a sample of seed wheat from Birr in King's County. 
Although " stinking smut " or " bunt " of wheat is not uncommon in 
Ireland this is the first time that T. laevis has been observed to be the 
cause of it here, T. tritici being much more common. The spores of 
T. laevis are quite smooth-walled and are not so spherical as those of 
T. tritici. The life histories of the two parasites are quite similar. 

NOTES. 

A new Science Club. 

In February the inaugural meeting was held of a new Club in Dublin 
whose special object is the discussion of biological problems in a wide sense. 
The meetings of the Club are intended to be of a very informal character, 
being devoted to open discussion of selected subjects, exhibits which 
involve some problem or some novelty, and occasional discourses on the 
present state of our knowledge in branches of science. Papers in the 
ordinary sense are barred. The membership is limited to 50, and only 
persons actually engaged in science research or science teaching are 
eligible. The affairs of the Club are controlled by a committee of three 
(for the present year Messrs. Southern, Hallissy and Praeger), and a chair- 
man is elected for each meeting. At the inaugural meeting on Feburary 5, 
after formal business, R. Southern opened a discussion on the geological 
and biological features of Lough Hyne, Co. Cork, and on March 5 Prof. 
R. A. S. Macalister brought forward the subject of the chronology of early 
man. The members who took part in the discussions which ensued 
included Profs. G. H. Carpenter, A. F. Dixon, A.Henry, J. A. M'Clelland, 
E. J. M'Weeney, E. A. Mettam, H. J. Seymour, and J. Wilson, Sir F. W. 
Moore, Drs. W. E. Adeney, F. E. Hackett, J. R. D. Holtby, G. H. Pethy- 
bridge and J. T. Wigham ; Messrs. X. Colgan, T. Hallissy, A. C. Forbes, 
J. de W. Hinch, R. LI. Praeger, W. B. Wright. 



73 jTAj Irisli Satiiyalist. April, 191 7. 

BOTANY. 

Foxgloves Killed by Cold. 

An unexpected effect in my garden of the very cold February through 
which we this year passed has been the complete killing of numbers of 
healthy self-sown one-year-old plants of Foxgloves. I put it down to 
the fact that they were growing more in the open than they do in wild 
situations, but a recent visit to Aughrim in Co. Wicklow, showed that 
there Foxgloves had in many instances been killed even in partial shelter, 
while even on hedge-banks under trees all the larger leaves were dead, 
and only the heart displayed signs of life. This tenderness to cold would 
hardly be expected in a plant which ranges across Central Europe, and 
northward into Scandinavia. 

R. Lloyd Praeger. 

Dublin. 

ZOOLOGY. 
Unusual Flight of a Kingfisher. 

Some twelve months ago, near the River Dodder on the south side of 
Dublin, my wife and I heard a note which she identified as that of a 
Kingfisher, proceeding from a l>ird which was flying in wide sweeps so 
high over our heads as to be little more than a speck. After performing 
these evolutions for a while, uttering its note at intervals, the bird descended 
till it passed close to us, and its identitj^ as a Kingfisher was duly estab- 
lished. Several ornithologists of whom I enquired having said they have 
not observed such lofty flights on the part of a Kingfisher, undertaken 
apparently without specilic purpose, I venture to publish this obser- 
vation. 

R. Lloyd Praeger. 

Dublin. 

Night Heron near Dublin. 

In Easter week, igi6, a Night Heron {Nycticorax griseits) appeared at 
Bushy Park, Terenure, and remained till September. It was not at all 
wild, and could easily be watched with glasses. It generally perched 
by day on a willow tree close to the pond, but at night it was always 
moving about and flying round. Between 8 and 10 p.m. it generally 
fiew, uttering a peculiar note rather like the Common Heron, but yet quite 
distinct from the latter. It seemed a young bird, as the breast and back 
were mottled to a certain extent, the plumage being intermediate between 
that of the two mounted specimens in the National Museum. I am 
informed that the last occurrence of this bird was in 1882 in the Rathgar 
quarry, only a mile away. 

I'REDERicK W. Shaw. 

Bushy Park, Terenure. 



H 

< 
t-l 




> 

X 



tr. 



on 

H 
< 

:z; 

X 



\ 









^' 



-Vf^. 








o 



o 

IS 

w 



o 
o 

I—* 

H 
< 

w 

K 

p 

w 

73 

C/3 
O 












■ 'y- 



May, 1917. The Irish Naturalist. 73 

THE MUSCI AND HEPATICAE OF THE GLEN OF 
THE DOWNS, CO. WICKLOW. 

BY DAVID M'ARDLE. 

(plates I. II.) 
(Read before the Royal Irish Academy, January 8, 1917). 

The Cileii of the Downs Hes in the north-east corner of 
Co. Wicklow, five miles due south of Bray, and two and a 
half miles from the nearest sea at Greystones. It is a glacial 
" dry gap," a mile in length and about 400 feet in depth, 
cut through a low ridge, 'some 700 feet high, formed of the 
Cambrian slates of the neighbourhood. West of the glen 
at a distance of about a mile, the ground rises to over 
1,200 feet. Some miles further west rise the high granite 
hills of the main Wicklow chain. The sides of the glen 
are steep, with large detached masses of rock resting in 
places on the slopes. The bottom has a gentle slope towards 
the south-east, and is occupied by an insignificant stream, 
and also by the main road from Dublin to the south. The 
glen is densely wooded, the trees selected evidently with 
a view to develop autumn tints, and the colours of the 
foliage are then worth going to see. Some very fine speci- 
mens of the Sessile-flowered Oak, with Pyrus Aucuparia, 
Alder, Larch and Abies, Pinus, Ash and Horse Chestnut 
occur. The conifers attain large dimensions. 

The Glen of the Downs has been better known as a pleasure 
resort than as the haunt of the cryptogamic botanist, 
previous records of Mosses or Liverw^orts from it being 
very few. This was the place selected by the members of 
the Dublin Microscopical Club for their annual excursion 
in June, 1911 ; the day was wet and stormy, and little 
collecting was done ; Messrs. Allen and Gimn agreed with 
me to return in more favourable weather and investigate 
the Musci and Hepatic ae ; we visited it in the following 
August, and the result of our collecting was so encouraging 
that we have paid several visits through the following years, 
1912-13-14, always finding some Mosses or Hepaticae of 



74 The Irish Naturalist. May, 

interest. In this way we have collected 8i species, varieties, 
and forms of Mosses, some of which are very rare. Hypnum 
cupressiforme var. minus Wils. is an addition to the Irish 
flora. Eleven (marked *) are new to Co. Wicklow, accord- 
ing to the list of the Mosses of Ireland, b}^ Canon Lett, 1915. 
Other species although previously recorded from Wicklow 
have not been found there for many years. I may instance 
Wehera cruda and W. albicans. Both were found at Lough 
Bray more than half a century ago ; it is interesting to 
have verified such old county records. 

In our work of collecting we found some of the mosses 
very attractive ; Hypnum cupressiforme var. iectorum grew 
both on rocks and on the trunks of trees, in dense velvety 
cushions of a dark olive-green colour, and the moist bank 
of a drain was covered with the bladder-moss Physcomilrium 
pyriforme, the dark red fruit-stalks contrasting with the 
green foliage. In the stream the water-moss Fontinalis 
anhpyretica flourished, and growing with it a form of 
Eurhynchium rusciforme attached to stones. I have not 
previously found this plant affecting a purely aquatic habit. 
On wet rocks we gathered Milde's var. fallax of Heterocladium 
Jieteropterum, very distinct-looking and much restricted in 
its distribution in Ireland. On peaty banks Tetraphis 
pellucida flourished, bearing gemmiferous cups and also 
fruit ; from copious material we were able to examine the 
curious frondiform protonema (Plate I fig. i) microphoto- 
graphed by Mr. Gunn ; on account of its fugacious habit 
it is rarely seen. 

On the branches of Alder and Oak Ulota crispa var. 
intermedia was plentiful, a rare plant in this part of Ireland. 
Orthotrichum Lyellii presents a good example of the asexual 
mode of reproduction in these curious plants ; in the micro - 
photograph by Mr. Gunn (Plate I lig. 2a), it will be observed 
that the leaves are furnished with reddish-brown genmiae. 
Of others belonging to this group which bear similar gemmae 
\^'e may mention Ulota phyllantha, which though widely 
Oi^^tributed in this country has only once been found in fruit ; 
;n this, the upper portion of the leaves, notably the tips 
(jf the younger ones, bear copious brown gemmae, which 
arc a help in the identification of the plant ; it has oiily 



lyi;. M'Ardlk. — Byyuphyui of Glen of the Downs. 75 

recently been found in fruit in the south of England and in 
several North American stations ; it grows luxuriantly at the 
highest limit of vegetation on Chimborazo, and frequently 
near sea-level in oiu" own country. Plagiothecium elegans 
we found growing in dense patches of a shining green colour, 
remarkably proliferous ; I have not previously found 
specimens of this moss showing the asexual mode of repro- 
duction so well as in this glen, and we were able to trace 
the various stages of growth to the leafy axis and shoots 
having root-hairs ; most of these adventitious shoots under 
favourable conditions become perfect plants which may 
bear the sexual mode of reproduction in their life-C3/cle. 
This mode of adventitious branching has been delineated 
by Mr. W. N. Allen in Plate II, drawn from specimens 
collected in the glen. We found on examination that these 
branches or ramuli are not always deciduous, but remain 
on the stem until it decays, and are then furnished with 
leaves and root-hairs and are enabled to carry on an in- 
dependent existence, nourished by the detritus of the parent 
plants, hence the moss is found growing in smooth close 
patches of neat strata. Leucohryum glauciim is common 
in this glen. The apical leaves often produce at their tips 
root-hairs and develop tufts of minute plants, which fall 
off and, nourished by the old decaying plants, flourish ; 
this goes on year after year until large masses are produced 
in which, when divided, the annual growths can be traced. 
These are a few familiar instances of mosses known to 
reproduce themselves by this curious mode of adventitious 
budding. 

We collected 35 species and varieties of Hepaticae or 
Scale-mosses, 6 of which are additions to Co. Wicklow. 
They have been checked off by MacVicar's " Census 
Catalogue of British Hepatics," 1905. As in the mosses, 
the additions are marked thus "^ ; Pearson's " Hepa^ 
ticae of the British Islands " has also been consulted. 
Among them we were fortunate in finding Pnonolobus 
Turncri (Hook.), on a sloping sand}/ bank in fruit, at about 
700 feet. It is one of the rarest and most curious of the 
leafy group, possessing characters bordering on several 
sub-genera. 



76 The Irish Naliinilist. May, 

The first notice of the plant in Ireland is in Hooker's 
" British Jungermanniae " (where there is an excellent 
figure and description at tab. 29) : — " Found on a shady 
bank of a mountain rivulet, near Bantry, Co. Cork, by Miss 
Hutchins." The date of Miss Hutchins' collecting would 
be about 1811. The plant was not refound in Ireland 
for sixty-two years, when Professor Lindberg of Helsingfors 
found a small quantity on a wet sandy bank at Cromaglaun, 
Killarney, in 1873 ; and now again it has been found by 
myself in a new station luxuriating in Co. Wicklow, in 
October, 1912, after an interval of thirty-nine years. In 
England it is rare, and has been reported from nine 
counties ; in Wales from Dolgelly ; also from Guernsey, 
France, the Canary Islands, N. Africa ; and I have speci- 
mens collected in the coast counties of California. 

We were also fortunate in finding Pedmophylhim inter- 
ruptum (Nees), which was not previously recorded from 
Co. Wicklow. It is sub-alpine and is found on the Ben 
Bulben range about Gleniff, Co. Leitrim ; also at Bally- 
vaughan, Co. Clare ; we were surprised to find it so low 
as about 300 feet above sea-level. 

The most remarkable instance of a rather alpine genus 
growing at a ver}^ low elevation which occurs in Ireland 
among the liverworts, is to be found in Clasmatocolea 
cuneifoUa (Hook.) (Plate III fig. 4), which grows near the 
summit of Brandon, Co. Kerry, at about 3,000 feet and also 
luxuriates in the valley near Tough Duff on damp rocks 
with Frullania Tamarisci at about 400 feet above sea level. 
I remember with what interest the late Dr. Spruce received 
these specimens, some of which I sent him when I first began 
to study these curious plants. In his splendid work on 
the Hepaticae of the Amazon and Andes, page 440, he refers 
to the plant : — " I cannot doubt that the Irish Junger- 
mania ctineifolia Hook. Brit. Jung., t. 64, hitherto known 
only from sterile specimens, is a true Clasmatocolea. 
Specimens gathered on Mt. Brandon by McArdle are so like 
the arcuate barren shoots of C. fragillima that until I com- 
pared them closely I thought them the same. The Irish 
plant like tlic Andine has both entire and bifid under- 
leaves." 



191 7- M'Ardle. — Bryophyta of Glen of the Downs. 77 

In our work of collecting we noted with interest the 
number of genera which grow together for their mutual 
support ; from one patch on the table of a dissecting micro- 
scope we found Frullania Tamarisci, Lophocolea cuspidata, 
Lepidozia reptans, Scapania nemorosa, S. gracilis, Diplo- 
phylliim albicans, Ccphalozia lumdaefolia, C. hiciispidata 
and a moss, Mnitim pimctatum. These were with difficulty 
separated, so closely were they interwoven. The curious 
cucullate or saccate lobules on the leaves of Frullania 
Tamarisci were unusually large and well developed in rock 
specimens in this glen. They hold water, and it is remark- 
able that in places where there is constant moisture, or 
water tricjding over the place where the plant grows, these 
water-holders become smaller ; when constantly sub- 
merged they become almost rudimentary. 

We found several specimens showing the asexual mode of 

reproduction by budding which is more frequently seen 

than in the mosses ; the subject has been fully discussed 

from my own observations in Irish Naturalist, Vol. IV., 

'p. 81, pi. 3, 1895. 

My best thanks are due to Mr. H. N. Dixon of 
Northampton, whom I consulted in matters of doubt 
relating to mosses. These lists would not be so extensive 
were it not for the help rendered by Mr. W. F. Gunn, of 
Dublin. 



MUSCI. 

Tetraphis pellucida Hedwig. — Plentiful in fruit on turfy banks and on 
decayed wood up to 700 feet. Dissected capsules show the possible 
origin of the peristome, composed of four solid conical teeth, derived 
from the fission of the whole cellular tissue of the interior of the 
operculum or lid ; they mark a very primitive stage in that organ, 
so highly developed in other mosses. Plate I., Fig. i., shows a micro- 
photograph of the protonema with the frondiform leaves which appear 
on the first development of the moss stem. They are ovate-spathu- 
late from a narrow base ; at first they are often ligulate ; they 
disappear before the development of the moss stem is completed, and 
are rarely seen for this reason. 

Catharlnea undulata Web. & Mohr. — On shady clay banks up to 700 
feet ; not common. 



78 The Irish Naturalist. IMay, 

Polytrichum aloides Hcdwig. — On dry ditch banks; plcMitiful. 

P. urnigerum L. — On dry ditch banks ; frequent. 

P. gracile Dicks. — Peaty bank at 500 feet ; rare in this station. 

P. formosum Hedwig. — Dry banks in wood. 

P. commune L. — Wet boggy places and peaty banks. 

Ditrichum homomallum Hampe. — Clay and peaty banks among rocks 
at 700 feet ; rare. 

Dicranella heteroraalla Schp. — Clay and peaty banks ; very common. 

*D. Schreberi Schp. — Clay bank near a stream. 

D. varia Schp. — Clay and peaty banks ; frequent. 

Campylopus flexuosus Brid. — Peaty ground. A curious robust form. 

C. fragilis B. & S. — Peaty banks ; frequent. 

Dicranum scoparium Hedwig. — Rocks and decayed wood. 

Leucobryum glaucum Schp. — Turfy ground in large masses ; plentiful 
at 700 feet. 

Fissidens bryoides Hedwig. — Ditch banks ; plentiful. • 

F. taxifolius Hedwig. — Clay banks ; frequent. 

Ptychomitrium polyphyllum Furn. — Rocks at 700 feet ; plentiful. A 
curious depauperated form is found here with the setae and capsule 
very unlike the type. 

Tortula muralis Hedwig. — Roadside wall ; common. 

T. subulata Hedwig. — Roadside wall. 

T. laevipila Schwgr. — Trunks of trees and decayed wood. 

Barbula fallax Hedwig. — Peaty and clay banks ; frequent. 

B. convoluta Hedwig. — Clay banks at 700 feet. Var. sardoa B. & S. — 
Very rare. 

Ulota crispa Brid. — Trunks and branches of trees, frequent from 500 feet 
upwards. *Var. intermedia Schp. — The trunks and branches of 
trees up to 700 feet ; rare. This well-marked variety has previously 
been found in Ireland in Tyrone, Down, Mayo, and Antrim. 

Orthotriclium leiocarpum B. & S. — Lower branches of trees at the extreme 
ends ; frequent. 

0. Lyellii Hook. & Tayl. — Trunks and branches of Oak at 700 feet. The 
leaves bristled with adventitious buds, some of which were well 
developed and branched ; these were known to the old bryologists 
as Conferva Ovthotrichi. Under favourable conditions they produce 
young plants with leafy stems, which in their further development 
may bear either male or female fruit, or revert again to the asexual 
mode and so carry on the life-history. The plant is rarely found 
fruiting. It is remarkable that this moss is in America almost always 
without the brown septate gemmae so characteristic of the British 
plant. (Plate I., fig. 2a). 

0. affine Schrad. — Trunks of trees ; frequent. Var. fastigiatum Hubn. — 
Trunks of trees and stones by the stream ; rare. 

Physcomitrium pyriforme Brid. — Ditch banks ; plentiful. 

Funaria liygrometrica Sibth. — Ditch banks and burnt peaty ground. 

Webera cruda Schwgr. — Moist rocks at 700 feet ; very rare. 



Irish Xaturaltst, Vol. XX\'T.] 
4: 5. 



rPLATE 11 : 






iU(U 



V 

l^^ 












I. 




Pl.AGIOTH£CiyM ELEGANS. 



To face p. 79. 



W. iV. Allen, del. 



1917- M'Ardle. — Bryophyta of Glen of the Downs. 79 

Webera albicans Schp. — Rare on clay banks of the stream, where it 
grows in l<irge soft loose tufts 1 to 3 inches high, pale white or 
glaucous green. 

Bryum capillare L. — Roadside wall ; common. 

* Milium cuspidatum Hedw.— Peaty banks ; frequent. 

M. undulatum L. — Ditch banks ; plentiful. 

M. hornum L. — Trunks of trees near the ground, and ditch banks ; 
plentiful. A slender lax form grows on peaty banks, not fertile, 
very distinct. 

M. punctatum L. — Among mosses in rocky places. 

M. rostratum Schrad. — Shady banks at 700 feet. 

Fontinalis antipyretica L. — In the stream, plentiful. 

Neckera complanata Hubn. — Trunks of trees and decayed wood ; common. 

Porotrichum alopecurum ?^Iitt.— Stones in damp places, very fine, with long 
dendroid stems. 

Heterocladium heteropterum B. & S. — Wet rocks ; rare. *Var. fallax 
Milde. — -Wet rocks at 500 feet, rare. 

Thuidium tamariscinum B. & S. — Damp bank wdth Diplophyllum albicans. 

Isothecium myurum Brid. — Trunks of trees, in large bright yellowish-green 
patches ; frequent. 

Pleuropiis sericeus Dixon. — Roadside wall. 

Brachytheeium rutabulum B. & S. — Stones about the roots of trees ; 
common. 

*B. velutinum B. & S. — Roots of trees ; frequent. 

B. populeum B. & S. — Damp sandy ground ; common. 

B. plumosum B. & S. — Decayed stumps of trees, and stones often sub- 
merged ; frequent. 

B. purum Dixon. — Banks in the wood ; very common. 

Eurhynehium crnssinervium B. & S. — Rocks and stony ground ; rare. 

E. praelongum B. & S. — Banks, old wood and damp ground ; frequent. 
Var. Stokesii (Turn.) — Moist places about the roots of trees. 

*E. Swartzii Hobk. — Damp banks among rocks ; not common. 

E. pumilum Schp. — Damp ground among rocks, growing in tufts of neat 
strata ; rare. 

E. myosuroides Schp. — Trunks of trees and stones. A form with re- 
markable fine leaf-points, and another very slender one, with delicate 
branches, almost filiform, occurred very sparingly on dry rocky 
banks at 700 feet, 

E. rusciforme Milde. — Wet rocks ; frequent. *A form occurred attached 
to stones in a rivulet with Fontinalis antipyretica. It is not usual 
to find the plant with aquatic habit and aquatic associates. 

E. confertum Milde. — On old wood ; frequent. 

Plagiothecium elegans Sull. — On the ground in the wood on the east side ; 
plentiful at 300 to 500 feet, very fine specimens. (Plate II). 

P. sylvaticum B. & S. — On the ground ; frequent. 

P. undulatum B. & S. — On the ground among trees, very fine specimens 
growing in large patches ; conspicuous on the slopes up to 600 feet 
by its pale silky colour ; it presents the appearance of a Neckera, 



8o The Irish Naturalist. May, 

Amblystegium serpens B. & S. — Damp banks ; frequent. 

Hypnum uncinatum Hedwig. — Wet rocks ; rare here. 

H. cupressiforme L. — Trunks of trees and rocks. Var. resupinatum 
Schp. — Rocks and trunks of trees, rare. *Var. filiforme Brid. — Trunks 
of trees ; frequent. *Var. minus Wils. — Trunks of trees, very rare. 
Not previously recorded from Ireland. *Var. ericetorum B. tS: S. — 
On old wood, and trunks of trees ; rare. Var. tectorum Brid. — Trunks 
of trees and rocks ; rare. 

H. cuspidatum L. — Marshy places, side of a stream where it is often sub- 
merged ; frequent. 

Hylocomium splendens B. & S. — Banks in wood; common. 

H. squarrosum B. & S. — Damp ground, etc. ; common. 

H. triquetrum B. & S. — Shaded banks and old wood ; plentiful. 



HEPATICAE. 

Conocephalus conicus (L.) Dum. — Swampy ground, and on banks of a 

stream up to 700 feet ; common. 
Lunularia cruciata (L.) Dum. — Roadside and base of roadside wall ; 

plentiful. 
Metzgeria furcata (L.) Lindb. — Trunks of trees and among mosses on damp 

banks and rocks ; common. *Form prolifera. — Damp banks ; rare. 
M. conjugata Lindb. — Trunks of trees, fertile. 
Pellia endiviaefolia (Dicks.) Dum. — Ditch banks ; plentiful. 
P. epiphylla (L.) Dum. — Banks of stream and marshy places ; common. 
Nardia scalaris (Schrad.) Gray. — Damp banks ; common. 
Plagiochila spinulosa (Dicks.) Dum. — On old wood ; frequent. *Var. 

inermis Carr. — Banks and stones ; rare. 
P. asplenioides (L.) Dum. — Rocks and banks ; frequent. *Var. Dillenii 

(Tayl.) — In dense cushion-like tufts about the roots of trees ; rare. 
=^=Pedinophyllum interruptum (Nees) Lindb. — Wet rocks, very rare, at a 

very low elevation (under 300 feet). 
Lophocolea bidentata (L.) Dum. — -Banks and old wood ; common. 
*L. cuspidata Limpr. — Decayed wood. 

Cephalozia catenulata Huben. — Decayed moss and wood ; rare. 
C. bicuspidata (L.) Dum. — Damp banks and old wood ; common. 
=^C. lunulaefolia Dum. — Decayed wood ; frequent. 
♦Prionolobus Turneri (Hook.) Schffn. — Ditch bank at 700 feet. Very 

rare. 
Kantia trichomanis (L.) Gray. — Banks and old wood ; common. 
K. arguta (Nees et Mont.) Lindb. — Damp clay bank ; rare. 
Lepidozia reptans (L.) Dum. — On the ground and on old wood ; plentiful 

at 500 feet. 
Trichocolea tomentella (Ehrh.) Dum. — Abundant along the banks of the 

stream. 
Diplophyllum albicans (L.) Dum. — Damp banks and trunks of trees near 

the ground ; very common. 



I9I7- M'Ardle. — Bryopliyta of Glen of the Downs. 8i 

Scapania resupinata (Linn.) Dumort. — Rocks, banks and trunks of trees ; 

common. 
S. nemorosa (L.) Dum. — Damp shaded banks among rocks and about the 

roots of trees ; frequent. 
Radula complanata (L.) Dum. — Trunks of trees ; common. 
Madotheca platyphylla (I-.) Dum. — With ikf^/^^ma/»yca/« on damp rocks. 
Lejeunea cavifolia (Ehrh.) Lindb. — Trunks of trees, among mosses on 
damp banks and on stones ; common. 

The specimens from this locaUty are very distinct, larger than the 
type; yellowish, very ramose, intricate and fragile. Leaves closely 
imbricate ; antical lobe obliquely broadly ovate-oval, very obtuse ; 
apex distinctly narrower but never acute, entire ; postical lobe 3-5 
times smaller ; cells very chlorophyllose and thickened ; trigones 
distinct ; stipules sub-adpressed, obtuse, larger than the postical lobe, 
and four times as broad as the stem, convex oval-rotund. Monoecious, 
perianth narrow at the base, oval pyriform, upper 4th part 5-plicate ; 
antheridia singly in amentae formed of one to three pairs of altered 
leaves. 

In the hope of finding some American species like it I sent speci- 
mens to Professor A. Evans of Yale University ; he compared the 
plant with American and other specimens, and writes :— "' I have 
studied the Lejeunea you sent me some time ago with a great deal 
of interest. It seems to me, however, that it represents a form of 
cavifolia Ehrh. (L. serpyllifolia Libert). As this species grows with 
us it is exceedingly variable, and I have studied specimens in 
which the leaves are similar to those in your material. It certainly 
presents a very different appearance from the forms growing on 
shaded rocks, and yet there seems to be no sharp distinction be- 
tween." Professor Kaalaas, of Christiania, who also examined 
specimens of the Co. Wicklow plant, says " there is no essential 
difference between them and specimens from various parts of 
" Norway," and he considers the difference too slight to separate it 
from L. cavifolia. It is the most distinct form of L. cavifolia I have 
met with, in the imbricated decidedly ovate leaves and large stipules 
four times as broad as the stem. I observed in the mature perianths 
coloured chlorophyllous cells such as we find in L. Holtii. In the 
young growth the stem is strong and the leaves distant arranged in 
a distinct spiral, and furnished with bundles of root-hairs with well 
marked haustoria ; the spiral arrangement is less observable in 
mature specimens. 
Var. heterophylla Carr. — On Frullania dilatata on the trunks of trees ; 
rare. 
Frullania tamarisci (L.) Dum.^ — Rocks, and trunks of trees ; common. 

Var. robusta Lindberg. — Moist rocks ; rare. 
F. fragilifolia Taylor. — Trunks of trees ; rare. 
F. germana Taylor. — On old wood ; rare. 
F. dilatata (L.( Dum. — Trunks of trees, in fruit ; frequent. 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin. 



Sz The Irish Xafuralist. :\Iny, 

HXJM ANAl ION OV PI.ATl'S. 

PLATE I. 

Fig. I. TetrapJiis pelhtcida : Frondiform protonema, x 50. 
Fig. 2a. Orthotrichum Lyellii : Adventitious budding on leaves, x 80. 
Fig. 2-6. Clasmatacolea cuneifolia. 2-4, Polymorphous stipules. 5, Leaf, 
X 175. 6, Plant bearing female bracts, x 35. 
Drawn from specimens collected on rocks at Lough Duff, 

Brandon, Co. Kerry. 

PLATE IL 

Flagiotheciitm elegans : i, branch showing adventitious ramuli, x 20. 
2, ditto, X 50. 3, detached adventitious branch with young leaves, 
X 200. 4, young leaf taken from near apex of - on No. 3, showing 
cell structure, x 500. 5, normal leaf, x 75. 6, capsule, after 
Wilson. 



LISSONOTA BASALIS BRISCHKE IN IRELAND. 

AN ADDITION TO THE BRITANNIC LIST. 
BY REV. W. F. JOHNSON, M.A., F.E.S., M.R.I. A. 

In August, 1915, I took a pair of Lissonota in cop. in 
one of my fields. At the time I supposed them to be 
L. sulphtrifera Grav., and referred to them as such when 
writing about them,^ although I made mention of certain 
points of difference in the male from typical L. siilphurifera. 
This note was seen by Mr. A. Roman, the eminent Swedish 
hymenopterist, who most kindly wrote to me and suggested 
that I had probably taken L. basalts Brischke. He asked 
me to examine the tibiae of the male and see if they were 
narrowly whitish at the base, for this character combined 
with the dark head which I had already noted would point 
to my insect being L. basal is. On examination I found 
that this character was present, and consequently my 
insect was L. basalts. 

Brischke originally described this species in 1864^ as 

^ Entomologisl's Monthly Magazine, vol. Hi., 1916, p. 18; Irish Natiiralisf, 
vol. XXV., 191C, p. 17. 

^ Schriften Phys. Ohon. Ges. Konigsherg, v., 186.}, p. 192, 



I9I7- Johnson. — Lisscnoia hasalis Brischkc in Ireland. 83 

follows : — " Nii^ra ; apicc mandibnlarnm et ch'pci rufesccnte, 
sligmatc pict-o-iiigro \cl dilute-fusco, radicc ct squamula 
(maris puncto ante alas) albido-flavis (feminae squamula 
testacea) : pcdibus rufis, tarsis posticis nigris (maris basi 
tibiarum flava)." At a later date, in 1880,^ he varied 
this description slightly as follows : — " Nigra ; clypeo 
rufescente, stigmate nigro, radice et squamula (in mare 
puncto ante alas) flavis ; pedibus rufis, tarsis posticis nigris 
(in mare basi tibiarum flava)." 

The male of L. hasalis differs from that of L. sulphiirifera 
in having the head not narrowed behind the eyes and 
black except the rufescent clypeus, also in the narrow 
whitish or flavous band at the base of the tibiae. I have 
three males all captured here, and in one the spot before 
the wings is large and triangular, in a second it is 
small and circular, w'hile in the third it is altogether 
wanting. The female which I took differs from that 
of L. snlphurifera in the following points : — the head 
is not narrowed behind the eyes, the apical half of the 
clypeus is very pale, almost white, the basal half black, 
the palpi fuscous, all the coxae black, the trochanters 
black at base, red at apex, stigma black, radius and tegulae 
pale, hind tarsi light fuscous. 

Brischke says that it has been bred from Hadena 
suffnruncida (which is also a host of L. sulphiirifera) and 
Tapinostola elymi. 

He describes the cocoon as cylindrical, thinly covered, 
glittering, brownish-white or dark-brown. He records the 
insect from North Germany, and Mr. Roman tells me that he 
has met with it in Sweden. It has not been hitherto met 
with in the British Isles, and I have much pleasure in 
adding this species to our Irish fauna. 

I wish to thank Mr. Claude Morley, F.E.S., and Mr. R. 
Lloyd Praeger, M.R.I. A., for their very kind help in 
obtaining for me copies of Brischke 's descriptions of the 
species, which I could not have obtained otherwise as I 
am not within reach of a library of entomological w^orks. 

Poyntzpass, Co. Armagh. 
^ Schriften Nat. Ges, Danzig, vol. v., 1880 Heft ^, p. 123. 



^4 The Irish Naturalist. May, 

ON THE VARIATION OF THE LIZARD 

(lacerta vivipara) . 

BY R. F. SCHARFF, B.SC. 

In my report on the Reptiles and Amphibians of the 
Clare Island Survey/ I expressed the opinion that Tizards 
from Ireland showed no characters by means of which 
they might be distinguished from British or Continental 
specimens of the same species. This is rather remarkable 
considering that this animal offers so much scope for 
variation and that it occurs under such extreme diversities 
of soil and climate. 

The same subject has recently been reinvestigated by 
Dr. Boulenger," who had at his disposal in the British 
Museum a very much larger series of specimens than I 
had. There were altogether 150 specimens from various 
parts of Europe and Asia. He compared minutely the 
shape of the body, the scales, the colour and size of 
the specimens, and as the result of these researches 
declares his inability to distinguish any varieties or 
geographical races. It is one of the most remarkable 
instances of a persistent type of animal. Specimens 
of this Lizard from [Clare Island in the west are 
indistinguishable from those occurring in the Island of 
Sachalien in the Pacific, or from those found on the 
Amoor in Northern Asia, Lapland, Bulgaria, Italy, the 
Alps or Pyrenees. 

National Museum, Dublin. 

IRISH SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Recent gifts include a Patas Monkey Irom Mr. T. S. Russell, a Fox 
f rom Miss Joye Stronge, a Badger from Mr. G. Moore, a Hedgehog and 
a Jay from Mr. \V. \V. Despard, a Swan from Mr. F. Power, a pair of 
Doves from Miss Vernon, and a pair of Amherst Pheasants from Mrs. 
W. Bailey. A Drill has been deposited in the Monkey House. 



• ^ Pyoc. R. Irish Acad., vol. xx.xi., 191 2, part 18. 
^Journal of Zool. Research, vol. i., 1917, pp. 1-16, 



1917- Irish Societies. ' 85 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

March 14. — The Club met at Leinster House, N. Colgan (President) 
in the chair. 

Sir F. W. Moore exhibited a leaf of Crassula namaquensis, to show 
the peculiar hairs which are thickly distributed over the surface of the 
thick fleshy leaf. The hairs are unicellular, stout, cylindrical, and 
devoid of contents ; they are all inclined at a sharp angle towards the 
apex of the leaf. 

Dr. G. H. Pethybridge exhibited germinating Flax seeds {Linum 
usitatissimum) having two embryos in each seed. Polyembryony is of 
course a well-known phenomenon and is a normal state of affairs in 
Cycads and Conifers. Maxwell Masters in his ■' Vegetable Teratology " 
(1869) gives a list of plants other than cycads and conifers in which 
plurality of embryos has been recorded, but the genus Linum does not 
occur in it. It is thought probable, therefore, that polyembryony has 
not previously been recorded as occurring in Flax. In Worsdell's 
" Principles of Plant-Teratology," published last year, the subject of 
polyembryony is not dealt with. 

J. N. Halbert showed a specimen of the plant-bug Calocoris striaius, 
a handsomely coloured insect, found last June on hawthorn in a wood 
at Ardfry Point in County Galway. It is apparently an extremely local 
species in Ireland. A second specimen is preserved in Haliday's 
collection, but the locality in which it was found has not been recorded. 
The species is rather local in Great Britain, occurring in open places in 
woods as far north as the shores of the Moray Firth. 



BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

February 20. — Robert May presiding. At the opening of the meeting 
a sympathetic resolution was passed in silence to the relatives of four 
deceased long-standing members — William Gray, M.R.I. A., the Right 
Hon. Robert Young, John Frame, and George H. Elliott. F. J. Bigger, 
M.R.I. A., then gave a lecture on two old churches in Lecale, Raholp 
and St. Nicholas of Ardtole. 



DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

January 18. — The President (Prof. Carpenter) in the chair. Prof. 
A. Henry lectured on the Growth of Forest Trees in Ireland, pointing 
out the dependence of tree growth on climate both with regard to 
temperature and wind force. The lecture, illustrated by numerous 
lantern pictures, was discussed by the President, X. Colgan and R. LI. 
Praeger. The officers serving during 1916 were re-elected for 191 7. 

February 15. — The President in the chair. A number of exhibits 
were shown, among which Prof. Cole's demonstration of the granite 
from ]Mullaghderg, Co. Donegal, enclosing sph.erulite was especially 
noteworthy. {Set. Proc. R.D.S., xv., 1916, No. 15.) 



86 TJie Irish Xcituriilist. ^lay, 

March 15. — The President in the chair. W. Haigh, B.Sc, lectured 
on the Ancient Volcanoes of Ireland, tracing the evidence for volcanic 
activity in various parts of the country from Silurian to Eocene times. 
The subject was discussed in a masterly way, and the lecture was ad- 
mirably illustrated. The President, R. LI. Praeger and J. de W. Hinch 
took part in the discussion. 

March 24. — Excursion to Trinity College Botanic Garden. — 
A party of sixteen assembled at Lansdowne Road at 3 o'clock on the 
kind invitation of Dr. Dixon, Professor of Botany, and favoured by 
fine spring weather spent a most enjoyable and instructive two hours 
in rambUng through the grounds and glass-houses. The abundance 
and luxuriance of Cordyline, of which many fine examples upwards of 
fifteen feet in height were grown here from seed, was perhaps the most 
striking general feature on a first view of the grounds. An uncommonly 
tall specimen of Salisburia adiantijolia, the Maiden-hair Tree or Ginko 
of the Japanese, was pointed out by the conductor, and also a tree of 
Pyrus bearing flourishing tutts of mistletoe, where planted in the trunk 
by the late Archbishop Whately. Some picturesque old Stone Pines 
{Pinus pinea), the species which yield the edible seeds, the Pinocchi 
of the Italians, were noticed, and many plump cones were picked up 
on the grass beneath. They bore apparently perfect seeds, but on 
breaking open several they all proved to be " blind," the kernel being 
quite undeveloped. It seems that the species never forms perfect seed 
here. At the entrance to the orchid house, where inany handsome species 
were in flower, a wall beautifully draped Avith Maiden-hair and frondose 
Sclaginellae won the admiration of the visitors. 

Perhaps the most curious thing brought under the notice of the party 
was a variegated variety of that delicate little creeper our Kerry Sibthorpia 
europaea. In this the leaf-margins were pure white as long as the plant 
was grown out of doors in a cold frame, but when removed to an adjacent 
glass-house the plant ceased to produce these white-margined leaves, 
the new shoots reverting to the normal tender green colour. An in- 
teresting field for experiment appears to be opened up here. What arc 
the precise changes of condition which induce this reversion to type ? 
Does the variety come true to seed ? These are amongst the questions 
suggested by the behaviour of this plant. 

Some of the curious forms which Dr. Dixon has produced by the 
hybridising of our Kerry Saxifrages, 5 umbrosa and 5. Geum are grown 
here in the open air. The nature and results of these experiments, 
which have so clearly and for the first time demonstrated the hybrid 
origin of Saxijraga hirsuta and other puzzling intermediates so frequent 
in the Kerry Highlands, are fully set out in Mr. Scully's recently pub- 
lished Flora of County Kerry. Owing to the very late spring few plants 
were in flower in the gardens. On one of tlie rockeries, however, there 
was seen in brilliant crimson bloom a line tuft of Saxifraga oppositifolia, 
the hardiest of its hardy genus, equally at home at 11,700 ieet on Monte 
Rosa, at 1 7,000 feet in the Himalayas, and at sea-level on the desolate 
shores of Grinnel Land within eight degrees of the Pole. 



19 J 7 Notes. 87 

NOTES. 

Some Co. Antrim Proverbs. 

Just now when the weather and the food question are the main topics 
of conversation, perhaps the two enclosed old saws from Co. Antrim on 
these subjects might interest the readers of the lyish Naturalist. It would 
l)e interesting to know if they are universal in Ireland. 

WEATHER. 

JNIarch borrowed from April 

Three days and tliey were ill. 
The first was wun an' weet. 

The second snaw an' sleet, 
The third was a freeze that would ha' freezcd 

Tlie bird's nebs to the trees. 

FOOD. 

Barley bread will do you good. 

Rye bread will do you no harm, 
Wheaten bread will sweeten your blood, 

Oaten bread will strengthen your arm. 

I have heard a southern variation of the one about the March weather, 
t)ut have forgotten it. There may be others of a similar nature that would 
be worth collecting. 

M. C Knowles. 

National Museum, Dublin. 



BOTANY. 
Selagfinella Kraussiana in Ireland ? 

Whilst spending a holiday at Bundoran at Easter, 191 2, I gathered a 
number of cryptogamous specimens, mostly mosses and lichens. Amongst 
them, however, Mr. W. G. Travis, President of the Liverpool Botanical 
Society, on a recent inspection of my gatherings, noticed a specimen 
which he declared to be a Selaginella. It was certainly not the only 
known British species but more nearly resembled a specimen from Grand 
Canary, which he had in his possession. On reference to ^Ir. Gcpp, of 
the British Museum, it was named by him Selaginella Kraussiana, A. Br. 
which occurs in the Azores, Madeira, Sicily, and Cape Colony. Unfor- 
tunately, my record of this specimen is not complete, so that I am partly 
dependent on memory for particulars of the habitat in which it occurred. 
W^ith this reservation, the occurrence of the plant in an Irish station 
should perhaps be brought under notice, so that Irish botanists may be 
in a position to confirm or supplement the record The specimen is 



88 The Irish Nuhii'itlisl. May, 1917. 

believed to have occurred on wet clay banks sloping to the beach at 
Tullaghan, near ]3undoran. If the occurrence prove a permanent one, 
it should be of particular interest to Irish botanists as constituting a 
notable addition to the Lusitanian or Iberian element in the Irish flora. 

Wm. a. Lee. 
80 Cavendish Drive, 

Rock Ferry, Cheshire. 



ZOOLOGY. 
Should Wasps be killed ? 

The question whet]\cr wasps should be left in undisturbed possession 
of their prey is still undecided. Some authorities like Prof. Carpenter 
seem to be of opinion that they do more good than harm in killing flies 
and their larvae during summer. But perhaps he does not possess a 
fruit garden and may not therefore be brought so vividly in contact with 
the undoubted damage wasps inflict on fruit. I have frequently watched 
these creatures and have never seen them attack flies, though I am loth 
to disbelieve in the observation of those who speak to the contrary. Any- 
how an actual test of balancing the amount of benefit against that of the 
damage done has never been carried out, and it must thus remain a matter 
of opinion whether wasps are beneficial or injurious. I may confess that 
in order to preserve my fruits from injury I kill wasps freely. Now it 
may not be generally known that all wasps appearing before June are 
queen wasps. If these arc killed it means the destruction of a whole 
brood of wasps. Hence the necessity of starting the slaughter early in 
the year. I find that gooseberry flowers form a great attraction to queen 
wasps and these were in flower last year towards the end of April. Later 
on, as Mr. Beresford has pointed out, wasps are often found in profusion 
among the flowers of the various species of Cotoneaster. When thus 
busily engaged the wasps can te easily killed. 



R. F. SCHARFF. 



National Museum, Dublin. 



The Jay in Ireland. 

Referring to Mr. May's ncjte in a recent issue of tlie Irisli Naturalist 
(p. 53 supra) it appeal's that this species having remained resident for 
so many years in the southern counties has now begun to extend its 
range. In January this year several birds were observed at Lord 
Talbot's demesne near Malahide, one having been shot in mistake. They 
have also appeared at Kilcrony, J5ray, and recently at Mountbellew, Co. 
Galway. I am also glad to report that Lord Talbot has given orders 
that they are not to be destroyed. 

\V. J. Williams. 
Dubhn. 



June, 191 7. The Irish Naturalist. 89 

AN EXTERMINATING WINTER : ITS EFFECTS ON 
BIRD-LIFE IN CO. WEXFORD. 

BY C. B. MOFFAT, B.A., M.R.I. A. 

The great snow-storm of January 26th, 1917, brought 
unprecedented havoc on the bird-Hfe of the area over 
which it swept. In this neighbourhood — by which I 
mean that part of the Co. Wexford lying between the 
rivers Urrin and Boro, two tributaries of the Slaney that 
have their sources some six miles apart on the eastern 
slope of the Blackstairs range — five resident species were 
exterminated, while another was reduced to little more 
than a twentieth part of its former number. 

Taken as a whole, the winter of 1916-17 was the most 
severe experienced in this part of Co. Wexford, and 
probably in Ireland generally, for at least fifty years ; 
but in spite of the hard frost that characterised nearly the 
whole of December and also the greater part of January, 
no species of bird underwent more than a partial thinning 
of its numbers up to the time when the memorable 
snow-storm began, on the night of January 25th. 

Happily, this snow-storm did not cover the whole of 
Ireland. Its range might form the subject of an interest- 
ing distributional map, and it is hard to say how many 
branches of our fauna may prove to have been affected by 
it. From the accounts given in Dublin newspapers, it 
appears to have fallen most heavily over a region com- 
prising the counties or county-divisions of East Mayo, 
Roscommon, King's County, Kildare (southern half), 
Wicklow, Car low, W^exford, Kilkenny, South Tipperary, 
Waterford, and East Cork : a sort of broad diagonal belt 
crossing Ireland from N.W. to S.E., in the form known in 
heraldry as a " bend." The rest of Ireland was at the 
time severely frost-bound ; but still there was a large 
area on either side of the snow-belt offering an improved 
chance of survival to such birds as made a timely retreat. 
The increased competition for food thus brought about in 
those parts of the country that were spared the heavy 
snowfall would, however, operate even more fatally against 



go The Irish NainraJist. June, 

the refugees from the snow-covered area than against 
the birds previously in possession of the ground ; and I 
have no doubt that both were severely affected, so that 
the extermination wrought by the snow may prove to have 
been much more widespread than the extent of ground 
actuallv covered. 

The average depth of the snowfall of January 26th 
in this district was fifteen inches. From notes kept at 
Ballyhyland during the past fifty-six years it appears that 
this depth had been measured once — but only once — 
before, on the occasion of the great snow-storm of 
January 17th, 1881. In 1881, however, the snow had 
nearly all gone by January 31st, whereas in 1917 it had 
barely begun to relax its hold after three weeks, and patches 
still lay unmelted on the 15th of March. 

The severity of its effect on bird-life was, of course, 
much increased by the long sufferings previously under- 
gone during man}^ weeks of frost. The progressive severity 
of the season can be illustrated by the case of the Song- 
Thrush (Turdus nmsicus). During the long December 
frost the roadsides were lined with starving birds of this 
species, belonging both to the Continental and to the British 
form ; but there were then no Blackbirds in the distressed 
crowd, the hardier constitution of the last-named bird 
enabling it to shift pretty well for itself, while hundreds 
of Thrushes were perishing all round. Very different was 
the scene a week after the coming of the snow. The road- 
sides were now lined with starving Blackbirds, and the 
Song-Thrush was as conspicuous by its absence (though 
for a tragically difterent reason) as the Blackbird had 
been during the earlier troubles. The fate that now 
seemed to overhang the stronger bird had already befallen 
the weaker. 

The British Song-Thrush {Turdus musicus Clarkii) was 
not, indeed, one of the five resident birds that were totally 
exterminated in this district. A remnant survived, and 
T think we had about one-twentieth part of the usual 
number of Thrushes singing in our fields during March. 
But it does not follow that anything like that proportion 
had lived through the winter in this country. No Thrushes 



1 91 7- Moffat — Exterminating Winter : Effects on Bird-life. 91 

were heard in song until February 23rd ; and it should 
be remembered that by that time, in any ordinary year, 
the birds of this species that have wintered abroad will 
have returned and reoccupied their Irish breeding quarters. 
Mr. Barrington [Migration of Birds, p. 15) has shown 
that the first ten days of February are, in a normal year, 
the period of maximum migration of the Song-Thrush at 
Irish light stations ; and he has also drawn attention 
(p. 276) to the fact that the Song-Thrushes taken at our 
light-houses in early spring have, on an average, shorter 
wings than those that strike the lanterns in autumn, 
which belong (at least largely) to the Continental form. 
With these two facts before us, it is impossible to doubt 
that most of our emigrant native Song-Thrushes return 
to our shores in early February, or as soon thereafter as 
weather conditions permit. We cannot, therefore, be sure 
that any of the birds that were heard singing this year 
on or after the 23rd of February — and before that date 
I heard none — had wintered amongst us. I believe, how- 
ever, that a few — a very few — Song-Thrushes lived through 
the visitation of the snow. 

The five species that were exterminated in this district, 
where they were all previously common birds, were the 
Stonechat {Pratincola ruhicola),^ Golden-crested Wren 
(Regtdus cristatus), Long-tailed Titmouse {Acredula 
caudata), Grey Wagtail {Motacilla melanope), and Meadow 
Pipit [Anthtis pratensis). All five were with us, in numbers 
not greatly below their usual winter strength, until the 
snow-storm descended and swept them utterly awa}^ 

At any other time than the spring of the year it would 
be rash to assert the total extinction of a species on no 
better evidence than that the writer has failed to find 
it. But February and March are marked by such general 



^ The proper names of this and the three succeeding species are, 
according to the new B.O.U. hst, Saxicola rubicola, Regulus regtdus, 
Mgithalus caudatus rosens, and Motacilla hoarula. I prefer, where the 
difference is merely one of nomenclature, to adhere to the names that 
are found in standard text-books most generally used in Ireland — 
Saunders's " Manual," Ussher and Warren's " Birds of Ireland," and 
the " List of Irish Birds," by R. J. Ussher, published in 1908 by the 
National Museum, 



92 The Irish Naturalist. June, 

resumption of song, reoccupation of breeding quarters, 
and proud display by the male birds of their readiness 
to take the field against all intruding rivals, that a little 
local knowledge of the most favoured spring resorts of 
the various " missing " species should enable an ornithologist 
to make practically sure of the presence or absence of 
the birds. By the end of March the question would be 
complicated by the fact that four out of the hve species 
mentioned above are summer visitants as well as residents, 
and should by that season have returned in some force 
to their Irish nesting quarters. It was, therefore, necessary 
to remain continuously on the outlook for signs of spring 
immigration ; but the backward character of the year 
rather simplified the problem. 

The vStonechat, the first of our lost birds, is not only 
a partial migrant but, in most years, one of our very early 
spring visitors ; for the Irish light-house returns show that 
three-fourths of Mr. Barrington's specimens during the 
spring movement had struck the lanterns between the 
middle of February and the middle of March. But though 
I have visited many of this conspicuous bird's best-known 
haunts during tlie past tw^o months not a Stonechat have 
I seen. Even at so late a date as April 24th I went 
up Blackstairs without seeing a sign of its presence any- 
where on the mountain. The melanchoty state of its loved 
furze-bushes, nearly all killed by the snow, would perhaps 
deter it from occupying its usual quarters ; but I have 
no proof that, even as a migrant, it has yet (April 28th) 
visited any of its haunts this year. 

The absence of the Golden-crested Wren it still more 
marked ; for the song of this little bird, first heard as a 
rule about the beginning of February, is one of the most 
familiar of the greetings to which the nature-lover in 
Ireland has hitherto been accustomed as he took his walks 
around. The fact of its extermination as a resident 
breeding species has been set beyond doubt by its pro- 
longed silence. As a spring immigrant it is not so early 
as the Stonechat. Mr. Barrington's records show that 
most of the captmes by light -keepers are made between 
the 15th of March and the T5th of April. From these 



igij. Moffat — Exterminating Winter : Effects on Bird-life. 93 

rather late dates, compared with the early dates at which 
it was usual to find the resident (joldcrests nesting, it may 
well be doubted whether the immigrants really contributed 
any quota of consequence to the ranks of our breeding 
birds. It would, however, be of great interest to observe 
what use they would make of their opportunities of easy 
possession, should they return this spring to find the 
country a " clean slate." The period of their normal 
immigi'ation has, unhappily, elapsed, and the Goldcrest 
is still missing. 

The Grey Wagtail has always been much more thinly 
distributed than any of the other species on my list of 
missing birds ; but it yields to none in the regularity with 
which it returns yearly to the same nesting resorts, and 
it is, therefore, an easy bird (though not very much of 
a songster) to keep count of in a local census. The males 
frequently repair to their breeding quarters so early as 
the beginning of March, and wait there patiently for the 
arrival of their mates, which may take place before the 
middle of the month, but does not always occur until 
early in April. In the latter event it may generally be 
assumed that the hen-bird is an immigrant. The light- 
house records of this w-agtail's spring migration are scanty. 
The Barrington Collection, now in the National Museum, 
contains, as Mr. Nichols kindly informs me, only tw^o spring- 
killed specimens (both received subsequent to the publica- 
tion of Mr. Barrington's book) — one disabled at the lantern 
of Blackw^ater Bank lightship, Co. Wexford, on March i8th, 
1901, and the other shot, probably on migration, at Rock- 
island, Cork, on April 2nd, 1912. But I have in- 
variably found all the nesting resorts in this neighbourhood, 
and also those on the Dublin streams, occupied by the 
breeding birds in pairs, at latest, before the close of the 
first week of April. Any immigration of birds that come 
to breed must therefore take place before that time, 
unless in a very abnormal year. This year we have 
reached the end of the fourth week of April without my 
seeing more than one nesting locality occupied by this 
beautiful species, though I have kept ten such stations 
under observation. The only pair I have seen — at a long- 



94 The Irish Naturalist. June, 

established haunt on the Boro — were first found in pos- 
session on the 19th of April, but may have been actually 
there for about a week before I saw them. The fact that 
nine out of ten breeding resorts still remain vacant, shows 
how very small a proportion of the species has been pre- 
served to us by its partially migratory character. Either 
the migrants are very few in comparison with the residents, 
or else the severe winter told on a large proportion of 
those that went away, as well as on those that staj^ed. 

That the latter explanation is, to some extent, the correct 
one appears probable from the case of the last " partial 
migrant " on my list, the Meadow Pipit or " Titlark/' ^ 

The Titlark is found in most years to strike the lanterns 
of Irish light -Stat ions with considerable frequency during 
the period from the loth of March to the loth of April ; 
and within the same period flocks of this species are apt 
to appear in our fields, their bright fresh plumage quickly 
attracting notice. This year, instead of the usual influx 
of showy and sociable-looking Titlarks, I saw on March 
2ist and from that time onward to about the middle of 
April a few solitary and dull-plumaged specimens, which, 
from their poor plumage and listless manner, I could not 
believe to be newly arrived spring migrants. More pro- 
bably the}^ were birds that had struggled through the 
winter in some part of our own island where conditions 
were a few shades more tolerable than in the deep-snow 
zone. At any rate, it was not until the fourth week of 
April, when, with a high barometer, the real rush of 
spring immigration set in, that I first saw what I 
could confidently pronounce immigrant Meadow Pipits, 
and even then their numbers, compared with those 
generally observed, were very small. It was not until 
April 27th (the date last year was March 5th) that I 
heard the first Meadow Pipit's song. I have since heard 
some seven or eight more. The poor derelict birds that 



^" Titlark " is the common name by which I hear this species generally 
designated by field-workmen in this part of Co. Wexford. I am told 
by Dr. Benson that in the north of Co. Dublin it is called by the curious 
local name of " Swiney," of which I had never heard, nor can I suggest 
any explanation. 



19 1 7- Moffat — Exterminating Winter : Effects on Bird-life. 95 

had been drifting about since the 21st of March do 
not appear to have thought of starting breeding opera- 
tions ; and though the later arrivals are clearly pre- 
pared for matrimony, their small numbers augur badly, 
I am afraid, for the hopes of a successful season. 
The Cuckoo, in this part of Ireland, almost invariably 
lays on the " Titlark " the burden of rearing her young. 
This means, for each female Cuckoo, the destruction 
of the lawful broods of from live to eight pairs of Tit- 
larks ; and this annual sacrifice is, in most years, quite 
compatible with the maintenance of the full numbers 
of the duped species, owing to its being so much more 
numerous than its artful enemy. This year, the conditions 
are reversed ; the supply of " Cuckoo's Nurses " will 
apparently fall far short of the demand, and the chance 
of any young " Titlarks " being successfully reared in the 
district is poor indeed. 

As to our fifth missing species, the Long-tailed Titmouse, 
it has no recognised status as a migrant, and I can only 
hope that in some other parts of Ireland, where the winter 
has been kinder, it may increase and multiply until 
economic causes dictate its resettlement in the districts 
lately cleared of its presence.^ The large broods often 
reared by this species encourage the hope that it may 
soon spread back to us. 

That man}^ other birds besides the six I have mentioned 
had their numbers sorely reduced is, of course, beyond 
question ; but there were, in this district, some striking 
exceptions — birds that, so far as I could see, suffered 
no loss at all. Among these figure, as might be expected, 
our three peculiarly Irish sub-specific forms, the native 
Dipper (Cinclns cinclus hihernicus), Coal Titmouse {Parus 
ater hihernicus), and Jay (Garrulus glandarius hiberniciis). 
These insular and non-migratory races could hardly have 
maintained themselves for the long time that must have 

1 Since writing as above I have received from Miss Cooper, of Killanne 
Rectory, the welcome information that a pair of Long-tailed Titmice were 
seen by her within the Rectory grounds about the r3th of May. INIiss 
Cooper also believes that some Grey Wagtails lived through the winter 
at Killanne, where they must have enjoyed the benefit of exceptionally 
favourable surroundings. 



96 The Irish Naturalist. June, 

elapsed since their settlement in Ireland (probably before 
the present British and Continental races had been de- 
veloped) had they not been proof against the worst 
vicissitudes of the Irish climate from pre-historic to present 
times. Other birds that survived equally well were the 
Robin, Hedge-sparrow, Wren, and Blue Titmouse. A more 
surprising instance of hardihood was presented by the 
Tree-Creeper ; for this frail-looking little thing has never 
within my memory been anything like so numerous here 
as it has been all through the present spring, and its song 
is heard on all sides. The weather would seem to have 
had quite a bracing effect on it. 

The Crossbill, which had frequented the woods here in 
good-sized flocks all the winter, not only showed no 
falling oft in numbers, but might be heard gleefully 
proclaiming its intention to start nesting operations (an 
intention since fulfilled) so early as February 14th, while 
the ground \\as still prevailingly white. The spring 
assemblages of the Magpie, which Darwin believed to be 
held for the purpose of a general selection of mates — 
and ^^'hich undoubtedly somehow mark the commence- 
ment of the period of nidification — were attended as 
numerously as usual, and began about the usual time 
(first noticed February i8th). The Sky-lark, only a few 
days after the holding of the first " magpie parliament," 
was pouring out such torrents of song from many throats 
as to indicate that hundreds of larks were already com- 
peting for nesting ground in fields that could not accom- 
modate more than a few pair. The Woodcock and Snipe, 
before February was over, had both begun their curious 
nuptial evolutions and music over their breeding haunts 
in the first hour of the evening twilight ; and the numerical 
strength in which both these birds appeared so soon after 
the disappearance of the snow gives rise to a curious 
question . 

Of the Woodcock I can only say that I think the numbers 
seen flying at dusk this year were about the same as usual. 
Of the Snipe, however, I can speak more confidently, 
because in this neighbourhood, where there are no large 
bogs, it breeds chiefly in small isolated patches of boggy 



1917- Moffat — Exterminating W inter : Effects on Bird-life. 97 

ground, seldom sufficient to accommodate more than one 
pair during the jealous period of the nesting season ; and 
over these patches, to which they return constantly year 
after year, the male birds disport themselves on line 
evenings with a regularity that makes it easy to keep 
accurate census of the number of breeding pairs. This 
year I found that all the nesting grounds known to me 
were occupied as usual, either by the end of February 
or quite early in March — showing that the numbers of the 
Common Snipe, as a breeding species, were certainly not 
reduced.^ 

Now it is remarkable that the Woodcock, Snipe, and 
Sky-lark are all included by Mr. W. Eagle Clarke (Digest 
of British Association Migration Reports, 1896, p. 15) in 
a list that he gives of " the species which appear to be 
specially susceptible to cold." Oddly enough, this list 
does not contain the name of a single one among the five 
species that I have had to enumerate as totally killed off 
in this district by the cold of the early months of 1917 ; 
and 3'et it contains as many as three of those that would 
seem to have been least affected by that catastrophe, 
since they turned up in their full normal strength at their 
accustomed breeding haunts immediately after the retreat 
of the snow. 

I do not contend that Mr. Eagle Clarke's conclusions 
are invalidated as to the delicacy of the above-named 
three birds. Indeed, it is almost inconceivable that birds 
like the Sky-lark, \\'oodcock, and Snipe, whose food is 
obtained solely on the ground, could have lived through 
the three wrecks from January 25th to February 14th in 
a district where nearly all the ground was under frozen 
snow averaging more than a foot in depth ; and still less 
credible is it that, having survived such conditions, they 
should have emerged from the ordeal in splendid form 
and high animal spirits, taking prompt possession of their 



1 The Snipe has evidently been less fortunate in other parts of Ireland, 
as I see that Mr. Robert F. Ruttledge, in a letter to the Irish Times of 
May loth, remarks on its complete disappearance from its spring haunts 
in the Hollymount district of Co. Mayo. This increases the need for some 
explanation of the survival in undiminished numbers of our breeding 
birds in the south-east. 



98 The Irish Xatnralist. Juno 

breeding quarters, and making the air ring with their 
proudest notes of courtship, challenge, and jubilation. 

In the case of the Sky-lark, I think there can be no 
difficulty about accepting the conclusion that the birds 
which were heard singing so numerously during the last 
week of February were returned migrants. The spring 
migration of this species is known to be on a large scale, 
and the light-house data go to show that February is 
probably the month in which it reaches its maximum. 
The influx this year must have been very happily timed 
to account for the great numbers seen and heard before 
the end of the month. From February 20th to 28th we 
had weather that seemed really favourable to migration ; 
it was then that the bulk of our Redwings left us, and 
the Song-Thrush and Blackbird (some of both species 
being, doubtless, new immigrants) took to singing. From 
the end of February to the middle of April we had no 
equally favourable week, and the return of many of our 
other partial migrants would seem to have been largely 
prevented. 

The Woodcock and Snipe, which turned up in force 
about the same time as the Sky-lark, present a more thorny 
problem, since there is no proof of a regular spring influx 
of either of these birds into Ireland, or even into Great 
Britain. But Mr. Barrington has shown {Migration of 
Birds, pp. 209-10) that some of the light-house evidence 
points to such an immigration, and as these birds are so 
little addicted, even in autumn, to striking the lanterns, 
absence of fuller proof is not conclusive to the contrar3^ 
I believe the facts here adduced will go some way towards 
strengthening Mr. Barrington's suggestion that both the 
Woodcock and Snipe are summer as well as winter visitants. 
The birds that were watched performing their spring 
evolutions during the last week of February, after this 
exceptionally cruel winter, were, at any rate, in much 
better physical condition than one would have expected 
them to show had they passed the severe weeks from 
January 25th to February 14th in any part of Ireland. 

Ballyhyland, Co. Wexford. 



1917- DoxiSTHORPE — Elutcr praciistus F., an Irish Beetle. 99 



ELATER PRAEUSTUS R, AN IRISH BEETLE. 

BY HORACE ST. J. K. DONISTHORPE, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 



4 i 



In June, 1902, my friend Mr. F. Bouskell and I captured 
specimens of a red Elater which were found on a road 
at Glencar, Co. Kerry. These were said to be E. pomonae 
Steph., and were recorded as such {Ent. Rec. xiv., 240, 
1902 ; Irish Nat. xii., 60, 1903) although neither 
Bouskell nor I have ever felt satisfied that they were that 
species. Placed among a series of E. pomonae they catch 
the eye at once as evidently being out of place. 

Recently Mr. Pool, who is working at a paper on the 
British red Elaters, asked me to examine my specimens, 
This caused me to make a careful study of the Irish insect, 
and I became convinced it was something new. When I 
met Pool at the British Museum he was able at once to 
pick out this beetle, and he tells me he has now ex- 
amined large numbers of British specimens, and has not 
seen another like it. . 

In examining the species in the general collection I 
found mixed in the series of E. praeustus specimens very 
like the Irish species (the only ones in the whole collection 
near to it), one from Montpellier being almost identical. 
Either E. praeustus is a very variable insect, or there are 
two species mixed up in the large series at the Museum, 
one being undescribed. 

Typical E. praeustus are larger, duller, and more closely 
and strongly punctured, they have a broad black tip to 
the elytra, and such specimens do not appear to have 
golden pubescence beneath. It is very widely distributed, 
having been found in North and South Russia, Sweden, 
France, Spain, etc., etc. ; it may be best therefore to 
record the Irish beetle as E. praeustus F., new to the 
British list, rather than to make a new species. 

I have drawn up the following description of the Kerry 
insects : — 



100 The Irish Naturalist. June, 

Black, with red elytra, the extreme tip of which being blackish ; tarsi 
reddish brown, lighter at apex. Upper surface furnished with black hairs; 
body beneath ivith golden pubescence. 

Head coarsely and thickly punctured with umbilicate punctures. 

Thorax completely punctured all over with close umbilicate punctures ; 
scutellum thickly and coarsely punctured. Elytra closely punctured all 
over. Long. lo mm. 

From E. pomoiiae it differs in many ways ; the colour 
of the elytra is a darker red, not so pink ; it is entirely 
more closely punctured, and consequently not so shining. 
The black hairs on the whole upper surface are a little 
shorter, and individually less stout, though more abundant 
and closer together. The first joint of the antennae and 
the anterior tibiae are more closely punctured, as is also 
the head. The scutellum is more coarsely and closely, 
and the interstices of the elytra more closely and dis- 
tinctly punctured. One of the most striking differences 
is the entirely punctured base of the thorax, elytra, and 
black rims of the latter, which in pomonae are almost 
impunctate. 

London. 



REVIEWS. 

BRITISH AND IRISH FLIES. 

A Guide to the Literature of British Diptera. By Percy H. 
Gkimshaw, F.R.S.E., F.E.S. From Proc. R. Phys. Soc. Edinb. 
Vol. XX., pp. 78-117. Edinburgh: R. Grant cS: Son, 1917. Price 

Students of this most important though most difficult order of Diptera 
will be grateful for the valuable summary of the literature given by Mr. 
Grimshaw of the Royal Scottish Museum in his vice-presidential address. 
There are 416 references beginning with Moses Harris' " Exposition of 
F3nghsh Insects," 1782 ; the books and papers listed are classified under 
subjects and families, with plenty of cross-references, so that the use of 
the bibliography is made as easy as possible. Mr. Grimshaw has not 
included the writings of foreign entomologists on families and species 
included in our fauna ; references to these will, however, be found in 
bibliographies attached to the more comprehensive of the British and 
Irish memoirs. Irish naturalists will read with pleasure the well-deserved 
praise bestowed on A. H. Haliday's writings. 

G. H. C. 



lOij 



Reviews. toi 



VEGETABLE MONSTROSITIES. 



The Principles of Plant Teratology. By Wilson Crossfield 
WoRSDELL, F.L.S. Vol. ii. London (Ray Society) : Dulan & Co., 
1916. Pp. xvi 4- •^Q^- Plates xxv-liii. Price, 25s. net. 

The first volume of this work was revieAved in the Jns7i Naturolist, 
vol. XX., May, 1916, p. 77, and the second volume, issued to the sub- 
scribers to the Ray Society for the year 191 6, now lies before us. It 
may be recalled that vol. i. dealt with teratological phenomena as ex- 
hibited by the Cryptogams and by the root, stem and leaf of Phanerogams. 
The present volume deals with the flower, and under that term is included 
" not only the flower " of the Angiosperms, but also the " cones " of 
Gymnosperms and Vascular Cryptogams, and the sporophylls of Ferns, 
which are not contained in what we usually term a " flower." A few 
abnormalities in fruits are touched on in the volume, but there is no 
section dealing with seeds. 

The material is dealt with under three main headings, viz. : (i) 
Differentiation, (2) Simplification, and (3) Adventitious Flowers, these 
sections being subdivided into Prolification, Forking, and Fasciation, 
Disruption, Positive Dedoublement, Dialysis, Metamorphosis, and so on. 
Naturally the method of treatment closely follows that adopted in the 
first volume, and we find in both volumes not merely descriptive details 
of teratological appearances, but well developed discussions as to their 
meaning and suggestions concerning the light they throw on problems 
of morphology and development. In this connection the pages deahng 
with the theory of anther-structure may perhaps be singled out for 
mention. Teratology as the key to morphological problems is the 
essence of the whole work. - 

In his " Final Conclusions " the author utters a lament that there 
appears to be a tendency amongst modern botanists to neglect the study 
of abnormal forms as a guide to the solution of morphological problems, 
and he speaks also of " the wavering interest of botanists of the present 
day in the subject of comparative morphology itself (there being a greater 
concentration on mendelism, physiology, and ecology) ..." He main- 
tains that this subject including its sub-section teratology " is every 
whit as important as any other department of the science " of botany, 
and he states that it was to afford some indication of this that these 
volumes were written. Judging from the large number of papers cited 
in the excellent bibliographies found at the conclusion of each of the 
main sections of the book — by no means all of them of antiquated date — 
this lament is perhaps not wholly justified. It is true we have lacked 
a comprehensive yet compact survey of this field of work, and we have 
to thank the present author for having made a serious and successful 
attempt to fill the gap. 

The book is not one which an amateur or a young student can read 
rapidly with profit, and the style may perhaps be found to be of the 
" dry " rather than of the fascinating order. A tendency towards pro- 



102 The Irish NaiuraJist. June. 

lileration in technical terms (such as phylloniania, hracteomania) is also 
observable, but the glossary provided at the beginning of the volume 
will be found helpful. To the future, of course, belongs the study of 
the causes of abnormalities and the degree of their inheritance — 
physiological teratology — if we may so term it, but for the present Mr. 
Worsdell's volumes certainly provide us with a succinct treatment of 
the subject from the morphological standpoint. 

The present volume, like the former one, is abundantly illustrated. 
One could have wished, however, that more of the figures had been 
distributed through the text instead of being massed in the form of plates 
at the end of the book. Some of the plates and figures are good, but 
others can only be described as bad, such for instance as figs. 121 and 
136 and Plate 45. 

It would appear as if a collection of technically good photographs 
of plant malformations was sorely needed, and some of our clever field 
naturalist photographers might do worse than specialise in this direction. 

G. H. P. 



THE DUBLIN DRIFT DEPOSITS. 

Geological Map of the City of Dublin Area. Drift Edition. 
Surveyed in 1901 by A. McHenry. Published with minor Revisions 
by Grenville A. J. Cole, Director. 191 7. Scale 6 inches to 
the mile. Dublin : Ordnance Survey Office, Price 3s. 

This map may be heartily commended to inhabitants of Dublin 
interested in the topography and geology of the city and neighbourhood. 
The area represented extends from Glasnevin to Rathmines and from 
Castleknock to Sandymount. By far the greater part of the surface 
is covered with Boulder Clay, but the alluvium and gravels of the Liffey, 
Tolka, Cummack and Dodder are conspicuous, and the old course of 
the Poddle can be traced by remnants of alluvium along the now closely- 
built district between St. Patrick's Cathedral, the Castle and Parliament 
Street. The shore-line of the Liffey estuary marked on Sir Bernard dc 
Gomme's map of 1673 is indicated, demonstrating the extensive reclaimed 
area along the North and South Walls, and explaining the name of the 
North Strand Road. The printing of the map is clear, although a trifle 
heavy. It is five years since the Ordnance Survey published the map 
on which the geological details have now been marked by the Geological 
Survey, yet we are surprised to see the University College premises in 
Earlsfort Terrace marked " Royal University," and the Royal College 
of Science new building in Upper Merrion Street totally ignored although 
completed in 191 1. 

G. H. C. 



i()i7- 



Notes. 



103 



NOTES. 



ZOOLOGY. 



Some Migrant Notes. 



The arrival dates of migratory birds may be rather threadbare, and 
yet hold a perennial interest in every sense. The phenological depart- 
ment of the Royal Meteorological Society has lately added a migrant 
table to its other returns, seeking for indications of late or early seasons 
by the variation in first arrivals. From my own experience, my 
impression is that the first arrivals are so regular to time that the varia- 
tion observed is likely to be much more that of the observer's chances 
than of the bird. (See the regularity of Corncrake below, being more 
easily observed than others.) And if the front of the arrival wave is 
so regular the crest or average ought to be still more ?o. 

I have rather special opportunities for observation, and the following 
notes, though not very extensive, show all but one event to occur within 
8 days of the average and half of them within 4 days. I insert the 
Chaffinch date because in his singing he seems an example of utterly 
ignoring the weather, even heavy frost and snow. I wonder why the 
Corncrake date is 10 days earlier than the N.H.J, date, N.H.J, means 
average of 20 years' observations in Great Britain, 1877- 1896, 
recorded in the Natural Hisiory Journal. 







Average 


Variation 


Years 


N.H.J. 




Date 


from 


Observed 








Average 




■ — - 


Chaffinch, sings 


Feb. 6 


+ 4 -4 


7 




Ringed Plover, inland.. 


Feb. 23 


+ 5 -3 


5 


April 4 


Chiffchaff 


April 2 


H-7 ~5 


9 


April 13 


Willow Wren . . 


April 14 


+ 7 -8 


7 


May I 


Corncrake 


April 2 1 


+ 4 -4 


10 


April 21 


Cuckoo . . 


April 25 


+ 6 -4 


8 


April 27 


Sandpiper 


April 26 


4-6 -6 


5 


May 5 


Swift 


May I 


+ 3 "4 


6 


April 28 


Grasshopper Warbler . . 


May 3 


+ 11 -9 


6 


April 24 


Sedge Warbler . . 


May 4 


+ 4 -2 


6 


April 23 


Whitethroat 


May 7 


+ 2 -3 


6 


May 8 


Spotted Flycatcher 


May 7 


+ 2 -4 


5 




Common Tern . . 


May 1 1 


+ 3 -6 


6 



Fnniskillen, 



J. P. BURKITT. 



104 ^^^^ Irish Naturalist. June, 19 17. 

Russet variety of 5nipe in Mayo. 

On January 5th, 191 7, my brother shot a fine specimen of this variety 
of the Common Snipe. The following are the points of difference in 
comparison with a common Snipe shot the same day. The most striking 
difference was that of the plumage. The pale markings of this bird 
were far more buff-coloured than in the common Snipe, this colour being 
particularly noticeable on the head and neck. It differed also in build, 
being much broader across the breast, its neck was shorter and stouter. 
The legs were much shorter in proportion to the size of the body than 
in the common Snipe, and did not extend so far beyond the tail. There 
were fourteen feathers in the tail ; the bird weighed 4I ozs., the wing 
measuring 5.36 inches and the bill 2.70 inches. The bird was unfortunately 
not preserved. 

Robert F. Ruttledge. 
Bloomfield, Hollymount, Co. Mayo. 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Recent gifts include a Pine Marten from Dr. R. R. Leeper, a Parrot 
from Mrs. Croly, Golden and Amherst Pheasant from Mr. A. Miller. A 
pair of young Black Bears from Canada have been deposited by Colonel 
Mitchell (looth Canadian Grenadiers) ; after the war they are to be given 
to the ist and 2nd Battalions of the Leinster Regiment (" Royal 
Canadians.") The female Gorilla, which had lived in the Ape-house 
since January 28th, 1917, died on May 23th. We propose to publish an 
illustrated article on this exceptionally interesting animal. 



DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

April ii. — The Club met at Leinster House. N. Colgan (President) 
in the chair. 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter showed a preparation of the jaws of the Turnip 
Moth {Agrotis segetum), pointing out the modification of the maxillae 
to form the sucking proboscis, the vestigial maxillary palps, and the 
minute triangular plates which have been regarded by some students 
as reduced mandibles. 

Sir F. \V. Moore exhibited spines of Opuntia iiiyiica, a rather un- 
common species of cactus from Mexico. The young spines were covered 
by a coat or tunic which was cast off as the spines developed. On 
reaching full development they were armed with numerous strong and 
formidable hooks which pointed downwards. These hooks were distri- 
buted all over the surface of the spines. 



July, 1917 The Irish Xafuralist. 105 

ADVANCES IN IRISH MARINE ZOOLOGY. 

FOURTH REPORT. 
BY R. F. SCHARFF, B.SC, M.R.I. A. 

It is seven years since I last had an opportunity of 
commenting on the recent advances made in Irish Marine 
Zoology.^ I do not intend to allude to the progress re- 
corded in the papers published in the Irish Naturalist. 
The advances, and truly remarkable they are, which I 
refer to are the results obtained from the cruises of the 
steamer attached to the Fisheries Branch of the Irish 
Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction. 
Within the last few years these operations have been 
suspended owing to the war, but just before that time 
the zoologists associated with the Fisheries Branch have 
displayed great activity in collecting materials for a large 
number of most valuable reports. The additions thus made 
to our knowledge of the Irish fauna far exceed previous 
attempts in the same direction. Twenty-five of these 
reports will now be quoted, although some of them are 
not strictly speaking of a zoological nature. The last of 
the reports was issued in 1915,' and there is material in. 
hand for many more. 

General Biology. — A ver}^ comprehensive investigation 
is the survey of the trawling grounds on the coasts of Down, 
Louth, Meath and Dublin. To judge from the two parts 
published the results will be of considerable importance 
to Irish fisheries. It is intended to complete the work 
in four parts, the two issued being Part I. by E. \\'. L. 
Holt,'^ and Part III. by Anne L. Massy.^ 

Mr. Holt informs us that the surve}^ was undertaken 
with a view to obtaining some knowledge of the condition 



^ Irish Naturalist, April, 1910. 

^Including Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1914, iv. 1915. 

^ Holt, E. W. L. — Report of a Survey of Trawling Grounds on the 
Coasts of Counties Down, Louth, Meath and Dublin. Part I. Record 
of Fishing operations. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1909, i. [1910]. 

* Massy, Anne L. — Report of a Survey of Trawling Grounds on the 
Coasts of Counties Down, Louth, Meath and Dublin. Part III., In- 
vertebrate Fauna. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 19 11, i. [1912]. 



,io6 The Irish Xaturalist. July, 

of these lishing grounds, for they had for a long time been 
a bone of contention between the various classes of fisher- 
men by whom they are exploited. The enterprise was a 
formidable one, and it cannot be expected that such a 
large undertaking could be carried out so as to be in every 
respect satisfactory. Only a single steamer is available 
for the protection, inspection and investigation of the 
Irish Fisheries, and a work of that nature makes many 
calls upon the energies of this vessel. Almost the whole 
of Mr. Holt's report consists of " Trawling Records." 
The various kinds of fish taken are denoted as far as 
possible by vernacular names. This in itself is of interest 
to the Irish naturalist, who finds often considerable diffi- 
cult}^ in identifying local names of fish. Thus the " Tub 
Gurnard " is generally known among Irish fishermen as 
" Latchet," the Long Rough Dab as " Smeareen," and 
so forth. 

Miss Massy 's report appeals even more to the zoologist. 
The invertebrate organisms observed are roughly divided 
into burrowing, fixed, and wandering categories, and the 
records of the various hauls abound in facts of faunistic 
value. Special attention of course has been paid to 
species of economic importance, such as the so-called 
Dublin Bay Prawn (Nephrops norvegicus), and there are 
some interesting notes on the distribution of species. 

For the purpose of tracing the migration of fishes and 
other economic organisms a knowledge of the salinity 
and temperature of sea-water is of special significance. 
Mr. Matthews^ was charged therefore with the investiga- 
tions bearing on this subject. Mr. Matthews shows in 
his report that the tides exert a great influence on the 
distribution of salinity and temperature in the Irish Channel. 
A current of salt warm water sweeps up the Irish Channel 
from the mouth of the English Channel. Part of it is 
deflected westward by a cyclonic circulation, the remainder 
escaping northward through the Irish Channel. 

In order to test the assertion that the establishment 



^Matthews, Donald J. — ^The Salinity and Temperature of the Irish 
Channel and the Waters South of Ireland. Fisheries, Ireland, Set. 
Invest., 1913, iv. [1914]. 



1917- ScuARFF— Advances in Irish Marine Zoology. 107 

of a whaling station on the coasts of Ireland was detri- 
mental to the fishing industry, it was decided to make a 
surve}^ of the Blacksod Bay fishing grounds where it was 
proposed to erect such a station. The latter was started 
in 1910, while the grounds referred to were surveyed before 
and after that date. The report by Mr. Farran^ discusses 
the results of these operations. His conclusions are that 
except in the small area of the bay adjoining the whaling 
station there has been no alteration among the marine 
Linimals or plants. Hence we possess fairly reliable 
L'vidence that no injurious effect to the fishing industry 
results from the establishment of a whaling station. A 
number of well-known naturalists aided Mr. Farran in his 
work, and the report is particularly valuable in connection 
with the similar survey carried out further south around 
Clare Island. 

Fishes. — In my last article (Irish Naturalist, April, 
1910) I alluded to two reports on the fishes of the Irish 
Atlantic slope. Four more have since been published, 
all written by Messrs. Holt and B\Tne. One of them^ treats 
of the very curious and little known " Rabbit fishes " or 
Chimaeras. Three different kinds are described, viz., 
Chimaera monstrosa, C. mirabilis and Rhinochimaera 
atlantica. 

The next report^ contains a useful list of all the species 
of fishes that have been recorded so far from the Irish 
Atlantic slope by various authors. The list comprises 
only such species which have been taken in nets beyond 
the hundred-fathom line. There are over a hundred 
different kinds of fishes, some of them having only been 
captured once. 

Above this great Atlantic slope far away from the west 
coast of Ireland we meet with a set of extremely curious 



1 Farran, G. P. — Results of a Biological Survey of Blacksod Bay, 
Co. Mayo. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest. , 1914 , iii. [1915]- 

2 Holt, E. W. L.. and L. W. Byrne.— Third Report on the Fishes, 
of the Irish Atlantic Slope — the Holocephali or Chimaeras. Fisheries 
Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1908, iv. [igioj. 

^ Holt, E. W. L., and L. W. Byrne. — Fourth Report on the Fishes 
of the Irish Atlantic Slope.— List of Recorded Species with References. 
Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1908, v. [1910]. 



io8 Tlic Irish Naluralisi. July. 

fishes.^ They are very active pelagic forms, difficult to 
catch and somewhat herring-like in shape. The most 
striking feature they possess is a series of numerous 
luminous organs on the head and body. \Mien alarmed 
or in any way disturbed these fish are able to obscure 
or switch off as it were the light issuing from these tiny 
lamps. Seven different kinds of fishes belonging to the 
genus Scopelus were observed. 

The last of this series of reports- deals mainly witli fishes 
from great depths of the ocean. Most of these fishes have 
fantastic shapes and large mouths. The eyes are often 
large, sometimes they are c}uitc minute. The body is 
frequently scaleless, while luminous organs are generally 
present. Some species like Maiirolicus Pe.nncuiti stray 
into shallow water, whereas the members of the genus 
Argyropelecus are truly pelagic in their habits. The 
curious Lamprotoxiis flagelliharha has a filament many 
times the length of its whole body attached to the lower 
jaw. This fish is quite new to science. An interesting 
note on its luminous organ is given by Mr. C. L. Boulenger. 
Bathylagus euryops, formerly described by Holt and B\Tne 
as B. atlanticus, is related to the salmon. 

That the freshwater eel, which is of such economic value, 
spawns in the sea, where the early stages of its develop- 
ment take place, was definitely ascertained some years 
ago. A few problems relating to the subsequent move- 
ments of the eel fry still await elucidation. W'ith a view 
to solving some of these, tables of queries were issued 
by the Department. Mr. Hillas's two reports^^ contain the 
printed replies to these \\hich throw a certain amount 
of fight on these movements of the eel fry. 



^ Holt, E. W. L., and L. W. Byrne. — Fifth Report on the Fishes 
of the Irish Atlantic Slope. — Fishes of the genus Scopelus. Fisheries, 
Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1910, vi. [191 1]. 

2 Holt, E. W. L., and L. W. Byrne. — Sixth Report on the Fishes 
of the Irish Atlantic Slope. — The Families Stomiatidae, Sternoptychidae 
and Salmonidae, with a note on the luminous organs of Lamprotoxus 
flagellibarba by C. L. Boulenger. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1912, 
i. and ii. [1913]. 

' HiLLAS, A. B. E. — Summary of Reports relative to Eel Fry, 1908-9 
and 1909-10. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1908, vi. [i 910], and 1909- 
ii. fi9ii]. 



T9I7- ScHARFF — Advances in Irish Marine Zoology. 109 

Mr. Farran supplies a further instalment of his Plaice- 
marking experiments.^ 1 have already alluded to them in 
my former article, and need not repeat the statements 
contained therein. A smaller number of the marked fish 
were recaptured than in previous years. 

Molluscs. — In my former article I also referred to Miss 
Massy 's report^ on the Cuttle-fishes (Cephalopoda) of the 
coasts of Ireland. The same author now makes some 
necessary corrections to her list. The rare Teuthowenia 
megalops has been added to the species occurring in the 
Irish marine area. Another species, viz., Doraiopsis 
vermicular is, has had to be withdrawn. 

Some people imagine that the age of an oyster is easily 
ascertainable by counting the rings on its shell. If correct 
this discover}^ would be of some commercial advantage to 
oyster growers. But it is only a theory which had not 
been seriousty tested until Miss Massy^ devoted herself 
to it. Her conclusions are that it is not possible to tell 
the age of an oyster with any degree of certainty by 
counting the concentric rings on the shell. 

Crustaceans. — The tiny shrimp-like Crustaceans known 
as " Schizopoda " are of considerable economic importance 
since they form a large constituent of the food of fish. 
Two reports on the species occurring on the Atlantic slope 
were published some years ago. More material has ac- 
cumulated since that time so as to enable Dr. Tattersall^ 
to furnish us with another instalment of his researches 
on these small Crustaceans. Eight species new to science 
are now described from the deeper waters and several 
forms which had not previously been known from the 
Irish marine area. It is of interest to note that 
Michthyops pavva and Hansenomysis fyllae, w^hich had 
only been recorded from about 100 fathoms off the west 

^ Farran, G. P. — Plaice Marking Experiments on the East Coast of 
Ireland in 1907. Fisheries, Ireland, Set. Invest., 1910, v. [191 1]. 

2 Massy, Anne L. — Further Records of the Cephalopoda Dibranchiata 
of the Coasts of Ireland. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1912, v. [1913] 

^ Massy, Anne L. — Notes on the Evidence of Age afforded by the 
Growth-rings of Oyster Shells. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 19 13, 
ii. [1914]- 

* Tattersall, W. M. — Schizopodous Crustacea from the North-east 
Atlantic Slope. Second supplement. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 
1910, ii. [1911], 



no The Irish Naturalist. July, 

coast of Greenland, are among the species living at a 
depth of 900 fathoms near the Irish coast. 

Several groups of the larger forms of Crustaceans are 
dealt with in a report by the late Mr. Selbie.^ It is with 
feelings of sadness that I peruse the pages of his descrip- 
tions to which he devoted such care and industry. The 
illustrations, all drawn by himself, are a good example 
of his artistic merit. Four species are described as new 
to science and there are sixteen additions to the Irish 
marine fauna. The majority of these were taken in deep 
water. The discovery of laxea noctiirna adds another 
instance to the curious faunistic links between the far- 
distant Adriatic and the northern seas. Mr. Selbie also 
describes a new kind of Spin}^ Lobster. As regards the 
Common Lobster it is satisfactory to note that the number 
and value landed in Ireland are steadily increasing from 
year to 3^ear, the catch amounting now to over half a 
million. 

Still another group comprising the more active shrimp- 
like Crustaceans are treated by Mr. Kemp.^ Bags of 
sprat and mosquito netting attached to the beam trawl 
have been chiefly instrumental in the capture of most 
of these. As the previous records of this particular group 
(Decapoda Natantia) from Irish waters are few, Mr. Kemp 
has incorporated all references to scarcer forms in the 
present paper. It makes his report all the more valuable 
to zoologists. Of the 54 species known to occur in the 
Britisli and Irish marine area not less than 47 have been 
found off the Irish coasts. No new species are described. 

Worms. — The English term " worms " includes a great 
variety of forms for which no other convenient word is 
applicable. The Spoon Worms (Gephyrea) are a group of 
worms confined to the floor of the sea, where they live 
as a rule buried in the sand or mud. Twenty-three species 



1 Selbie, C. M.— The Dccnpoda Reptantia of the Coasts of Ireland. 
Part I. Palinura, Astacura and Anom\ira (except Paguridea).Fu/;mf5, 
Ireland, Set. Invest., 191 4, i. [191 4]. 

2 Kemt, Stanley. -The Decapoda Natantia of the Coast of Ireland. 
{fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1908. i. [1910], 



1917- ScHARFF — Advances in I Hsh Marine Zoology. iii 

are described by Mr. Southern/ of which eleven were 
hitherto unknown, from the British and Irish marine area. 
Six of these are new to science. One of the most noteworthy 
facts brought to Hght by Mr. Southern is the discover}^ 
of a deep-water Physcosoma off the west coast of Ireland. 
The whole of this valuable collection, including the type 
specimens, has been deposited in the National Museum 
of Ireland. 

Very distinct from the last group are the active Chaeto- 
gnatha,^ which are free-swimming worm-like organisms. 
They are difficult to determine, and little attention had 
been given to them in Ireland hitherto. They had to be 
sent to a German specialist who describes twelve species. 

The Bristle-worms (Polychaeta) form still another group 
of worms. There are three reports on different sections 
of this large and varied group. Dr. Ashworth'^ deals with 
the two families Arenicolidae and Scalibregmidae. The 
first of these includes our well-known lug-worm. No 
member of the other family had previously been dis- 
covered in Irish waters. Dr. Ash worth records the two 
species Scalihregnia inflatiim and Lipohranchias Jeffreysii. 

Mr. Southern^ reports on the pelagic Phyllodocidae. No 
species of the sub-family referred to had hitherto been 
recorded from the British and Irish marine area, so that 
all are additions to our fauna. Several are new to science. 

Another section of pelagic worms is included in the 
sub-family Alciopinae and in the families Tomopteridae 
and Typhloscolecidae.'^ All these live in the warm and 
saline waters of the European branch of the Gulf Stream. 
Mr. Southern describes twelve species, of which all but 
two are new to the British and Irish marine area. 

1 Southern, R. — Gephyrea of the Coasts of Ireland. Fishevies, Ireland, 
Set. Invest., 1912, iii. [1913]. 

2 Ritter-Zahony, R. von. — Chaetognatha from the Coasts of Ireland. 
Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1910, iv. [1910]. 

3 AsHWORTH, J. H. — Polychaeta of the Coasts of Ireland. I. — Areni- 
colidae and Scalibregmidae. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1908, ii. 
[1909]. 

* Southern, R.— Polychaeta of the Coasts of Ireland. II.— Pelagic 
Phyllodocidae. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1908, iii. [1909J. 

^ Southern, R. — Polychaeta of the Coasts of Ireland. III. — The 
Alciopinae, Tomopteridae and Typhloscolecidae. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. 
Invest., 1910, iii. [igii]. 



112 The Irish Naluralist. July, 

The least worm-like of all the groups generally included 
under the term " worms " are the Sea Mats or Potyzoa, 
which are popularly regarded as akin to sea- weeds. Many 
of these are found encrusting stones, shells and other 
objects both in shallow^ and deep water. During the 
course of various cruises of the Department's steamer 
much material was dredged, and this yielded a good 
harvest of Potyzoa. These are described by Mr. Nichols.^ 
A variety of Brettia pellucida is new to science. 

EcHiNODERMS. — Star-fish, brittle-stars, feather-stars and 
sea-urchins all belong to one great group of invertebrates 
(Echinoderma). The shallow- water forms of the Irish 
marine area are fairly well known, but among the deep-sea 
species there is still a great field for research. The present 
report by Mr. Farran^ gives an account of the species that 
have been taken in depths greater than 50 fathoms. No 
less than 69 species are enumerated, of which 18 are new 
to the Irish marine area. Ophiacantha hihernica and 0. 
densa are new to science. Many others are extremely rare. 

The feather-stars constitute only a small section of the 
great group of Echinoderma, and Mr. Clark^ of the U.S. 
Museum in Washington undertook to examine the Irish 
captures. Altogether there were only eight species, but 
two of these proved to be new to science. The genus 
Atelecrinus, to which one of these belongs, had never been 
observed outside the tropics, and the new species A. Helgae 
seems to be nearly related to the West Indian A. 
halanoides. 

CoELENTERATA. — A curious case of " symbiosis," as it 
is called, or " living together " of two very distinct forms 
of animal life was discovered during these investigations. 
Dr. Ritchie* noticed that what were apparently blisters on 
a deep-sea mollusk were in reality the early stages of a 

1 Nichols, A. R. — Polyzoa from the Coasts of Ireland. Fisheries, 
Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1910, i. [1911]. 

2 Farran, G. p. — The deep-water Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea and 
Echinoidea of the West Coast of Ireland. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest. 
1912, vi. [1913]- 

^ Clark, Austin H. — On a collection of recent Crinoids from the waters 
about Ireland. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1912, iv. [1912]. 

* Ritchie, James. — A new British Commensal Hydroid, Perigoniraus 
abyssi, Sars. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1913, i. [1913]- 



I9I7- ScHARFF — Adiances in Irish Marine Zoology. 113 

'' hydroid," which is a relation of the well-known jelly- 
fish. The same species of hydroid was known from the 
Arctic and sub-Arctic regions where it also spends its 
youthful existence in a similar manner. 

Sponges. — Very few kinds of Irish sponges are of 
economic interest and none of them seem to be useful 
to mankind. Yet it is quite possible that some of them 
may prove to be of commercial value at some future time. 
Miss Stephens^ deals with several sections of sponges, 
most of which were obtained in deep water. Among the 
most interesting records are the cup-shaped Hyalonema 
injundibuliim and the sponge like a bird's nest, Pheronema 
Grayi. Both of them had only been p)reviously known 
from the great depths of the Bay of Biscay and the neigh- 
bourhood of the Azores. Several species are described 
as new to science. 

National Museum, Dublin. 



OBITUARY. 

ROBERT DONOUGH O'BRIEN. 

By the death of R. D. O'Brien, which occurred on April 9th, Irish 
natural history has lost one of the keenest and most helpful supporters. 
During a long life he was a close observer of nature, and had a wide if 
not technical knowledge of the fauna and flora of the district which lay 
around his home at Limerick. To botanists his name is familiar as the 
discoverer of the rare Scirpns triqiieter in Ireland, and the collector of 
strong evidence in favour of the contention that Leucojum aestivum is truly 
native in its home in the Shannon marshes. He was interested in zoology 
also, and supphed useful data regarding such problems as that of the 
Wild Cat in Ireland, and the Irish Wolf-hound. Mr. O'Brien was one 
of the most helpful, as he was one of the most modest, of men, and the 
extent to which he benefited Irish natural science extends far beyond 
the few contributions to the subject which appeared over his own name. 
He left all workers who visited his district under a deep debt of gratitude 
to him for valuable advice and assistance. 

R. Ll. p. 



1 Stephens, Jane. — Sponges of the Coasts of Ireland. I. — The 
Triaxonida and part of the Tetraxonida. Fisheries, Ireland, Set. Invest. 
1914, iv. [1915]- 



114 ^^^^ Irish NatuyaList July, 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES. 

BY SIR CHARLES LANGHAM, UART., M.R.I.A. 

Early in the summer of 1914 I decided to make an 
expedition to Co. Clare, my chief object being to obtain 
specimens of Zy^aena piloscllae and Plaiypiilia tesscra- 
dactyla. 1 left home on the 13th of June, accompanied 
by my wife and one of my gardeners, who had often 
collected for me and proved very useful on other ento- 
mological trips. We motored all the way, a matter of 
some 160 miles ; the weather was perfect, but the roads 
left nmch to be desired, particularly in Galway. 
Unfortunately we had two punctures and a burst tyre, 
which delayed us considerably^ so that it was 7 o'clock 
that evening before we reached Bally vaugh an in the 
Burren of Clare, which we made our headquarters. 
Zygaena pilosellae was so plentiful that it \Nould have 
been impossible to overlook it ; but Plaiyptilia 
tesseyadactyla would in all probability have escaped our 
notice had it not been for the kindness of Mr. de Vismes 
Kane, who had previously given me minute directions 
as to the most likely localities in which to find it ; 
and by closely following his advice we were successful in 
obtaining a few specimens. During the ten days of our 
stay the weather was uniformly good and very hot, and 
having the motor we were able to cover a good deal of 
ground, and explore the coast some twenty miles on each 
side of Ballyvaughan. What particularly astonished me 
was the large number of insects on the wing during the 
daytime. We did very little work at night, comparatively 
speaking, as we were all tired after the day's excursions, 
and setting the captures took up all m}^ time during the 
evenings and early mornings ; however, my man sallied 
forth most evenings and procured some good things. 

The following is a list of the rarer species obtained in 
this neighbourhood : — 

Leucophasia sinapis. — Three specimens obtained near the town on June 

14th. 
Argynnis aglaia. — One freshly emerged taken on June i6th. 
Lycaena minima. — Extremely common but rather local. 



igiy- Langham — Entomological Notes. 115 

Choerocampa porcellus. — Very plentiful at Valerian flowers in a garden 
at the back of the hotel. 

Sesia musciformis. — Two nice specimens, freshly emerged : the first one 
I noticed close to my hand, as I leant over the bank, admiring the 
view on the Cliffs of Moher ; and on searching, we found the second 
one on Wild Thyme ; unfortunatel}- it was getting late in the after- 
noon, and we could not wait to look for others. 

Zygaena pilosellae var. nubigena. — Very abundant in several localities, 
and in nice condition, just emerging the day we arrived at Bally- 
vaughan. 

Setina irrorella. — Fairly common but very local. 

Nemeophila plantaginis. — Common, but owing to the hot sun extremely 
lively, and difficult to take on the wing. 

Dasychira pudibunda. — One specimen taken at hght. 

Xylophasia sublustris. — One at light on June iSth. 

Phothedes captiuncula. — Common on the cliff sides, but difficult to see 
owing to their rapid flight, and quite disappearing whenever the 
sun was behind a cloud. Fond of sunning themselves on the rocks, 
but very shy of approach. 

Dianthoecia, sp. — We collected a quantity of larvae from Silene mariiima 
seed pods ; but unfortunately they escaped before I could ascertain 
to which species they belonged. 

Hadena contigua.— One near Bally vaughan. 

Habrostola triplasia. — A few at Valerian flowers at dusk. 

Euclidia glyphica. — A few worn specimens seen. 

Zanthognatha tarsipeunalis. — One only, in a field near the town. 

Venilia macularia. — Fairly common near Ballyvaughan and Kinvarra. 

Dasydia obfuscaria. — A beautifully fresh specimen flying to my man's 
lamp, w-as taken in a field near Ballyvaughan. 

Strenia clathrata. — Locally common. My man captured a black variety 
of this moth, on the road to the Cliffs of Moher, all the wings being 
black, except the fringes and a small patch at the base of each wing. 

Emmelesia adaequata. — A few taken in a lane near the town of Bally- 
vaughan. 

Eupithecia venosata. — Two specimens of the smoky form taken on the 
shore near Ballyvaughan. 

E. scabiosata. — Common near Blackhead. 

E. constrictata. — A few taken near Ballyvaughan. 

E. exiguata. — Two captured at Blackhead. 

Melanippe tristata. — Common locally on the coast round Blackhead. 

M. galiata. — Common along the coast but local. 

Anticlea CUCUUata. — I was fortunate in obtaining three specimens of this 
rare moth, one near Kinvarra and two near the spot where Mr. 
Kane obtained his specimen some years before, viz., on the walls round 
Gleninagh Castle, Ballyvaughan. 

Camptogramma bilineata. — Very common ; I took some nice dull-coloured 
forms. 

Rhodaria sanguinalis. — Common locally along the Burren coast. 



ii6 The Irish Naiiiraiisi. July, 

Ennychia cingulata. — 1 took a nice series of this rare species in a field 

not far from Kinvarra. 
E. octomaculata. — Locally common near Ballyvaughan. 
Eurrhypara urticata. — Mr. Kane in his '' Catalogue of the Lepidoptera 

of Ireland " says, "' Common everywhere." Personally I have never 

seen it in Ireland, though I have collected for many years and in a 

good many counties. However, I came across a colony on nettles 

which were growing in the rooms in a large derelict and roofless house 

near Ballyvaughan. 
Platyptilia tesseradactyla. — Wc took two specimens in a field near 

Kinvarra, and nine more in a field not far from Ballyvaughan on 

June 17th. 
Aciptilia tetradactyla. — Abundant in several localities along the Burren 

coast. 
CrambUS pinellus. — W e took several flying at night in a field near 

Ballyvaughan, and secured a few during the daytime by beating 

hazel and thorn bushes in the same field. 
C. perlellus. — Extremely common, also the variety Warringtonellus ; 

I took one with all the wings of a slate colour. 
Aspis udmanniana. — One near Kinvarra. 
Hyponomeuta padella. — In some spots along the coast the larvae and 

cocoons were in thousands, their webs completely covering the 

thorn bushes, which they had entirely denuded of their leaves. 
Hypercallia christiernella (cifrinalis). — One taken near Ballyvaughan; 

I believe this to be '" new " to Ireland, 

We left Ball3'vaughan on the 22nd ol June and motored 
via Galway and Recess to Roundstone, where we were 
forced to stay three days owing to a broken spring on the 
motor. I was greatly disappointed with Roundstone as 
a localit}^ for Lepidoptera, only the commonest species 
having been obtained, and even these were numerically 
scarce. Leaving Roundstone, we journeyed through 
Connemara ; near Doo Lake we came upon a large colony 
of Melanippc hastata, and passing on through W^estport 
and Castlebar we arrived about 7 o'clock the same evening 
at Pontoon on Lough Cullin in Co. Mayo, where we stayed 
at the hotel for some days. On June 28th we explored 
Nephin Mountain in the hopes of obtaining Erebia epiphron. 
However, the da}^ was cloudy and rather cold, and we saw 
no insects at all there except one Argyrolepia Iiartmcinniana . 

While at Pontoon we obtained the following besides 
taking some commoner species : — 

Gonopteryx rhamni. — One rather worn specimen mi an island on Lough 
Conn on June 24th. 



1917- Langham — Entomological Notes. 117 

Coenonympha typhon. — Very abundant. 

Nemeophila russula.— Very common ; I took a nice series of females. 

Odonestis potatoria. — Fairly common. 

Cymatophora or. — We took two or three regularly each evening at treacle 

C. fluctuosa. — One very worn specimen obtained by beating. 

Bomolocha fontis. — Very common in th e woods. 

Hypenodes costaestrigalis. — One taken flying at dusk on June 27th. 

Zonosoma pendularia. — One beaten out of a birch bush. 

Venusia cambrica. — Several taken in the woods near Pontoon. 

Acidalia immutata. — One only. 1 spent some time hunting for others 

but was unsuccessful. 
Emmelesia taeniata. — We secured two specimens and saw several others, 

but owing to the thick undergrowth of the wood in which they were 

they managed to escape. 
Eupithecia debiliata. — A few specimens were captured in the woods. 
Melanippe hastata. — A few only were taken. 
Eucosmia undulata. — Fairly abundant in the woods around Pontoon 

and near Foxford. 
Cidaria fulvata. — One or two taken near Pontoon. 

Tortrix podana. — I took one on an island on Lough Conn on June i8th. 
T. viridana. — One on the same island and at the same time. 

On visiting Pontoon again in June, 1916, I obtained 
another Cymatophera fluctuosa, a freshly emerged specimen, 
also a series of Acvonycta leporina at treacle. This 
time I found Melanippe hastata abundant, and took 
two varieties, the black markings on all the wings of one 
specimen being much suffused, and in the other the hind 
wings differing from each other in the extent of the black 
scaling. I also captured Drepana falcula by beating ; a 
species I had already obtained a few days before in Co. 
Tyrone. 

In June, 1915, I came across in Tempo demesne five 
newty emerged specimens of the yellow variety of Eiichelia 
jacobaeae in which the crimson on all the wings was replaced 
by yellow. 

I obtained at Lough Gill in Co. Sligo in July of 191 5 
Schoenobius mucronellus, a moth 1 had taken on Lough 
Erne and also at Tempo some years previously. 

Also through the kindness of the late Mr. J. E. R. Allen 
I was able to obtain a series of Laventia flavicinciata and 
Phibalapicryx lapidata, both of which species Mr. Allen 
had lately discovered in the Fermanagh mountains. 

Tempo Manor, Co Fermanagh. 



ii8 The Irish Natural i^it July, 

THE WINTER OF 1916-17 AND TTS EFFECT ON 
BIRD-LIFE IN CO. DOWN. 

BY XEVIN H. FOSTER, M.B.O.U. 

Mr. C. B. Moffat's account (p. 89 ante) of the effects of 
the severe winter of 1916-17 on the avifauna of Co. Wexford 
gives a vivid picture of the exceptional conditions there 
prevaihng. The weather in North-East Ireland, though 
severe, presented a great contrast to that experienced in 
the South-East. The meteorological data at my disposal 
are rather meagre, but from my few notes and recollections 
it ma}^ be taken that the following conditions obtained 
here. December : — Till middle of month mild, I5th-20th 
hard frost, 20th thawing (on this da}^ we had lightning and 
thunder), from 20th till end of month a succession of short 
frosts and thaws. January : — Weather during this month 
not severe — several sharp frosts which however only lasted 
for a few days. February : — Intermittent frosts of short 
duration. March : — 2nd heavy snow^-fall which had all 
melted next day, 5th renewed snow-fall followed by sharp 
frost, 7th-ioth frequent snow showers, loth till end of 
month weather not severe, 31st thunderstorm followed by 
severe frost. April : — 5th heavy snow-fall which quickly 
melted, 5th-9tli frequent snow showers, on morning of 
loth about 6 inches of snow on ground most of which 
disappeared before nightfall, during the following night 
snow again fell, and on morning of nth the snow was 
II inches deep — the thermometer registering a temperature 
of 20"" F., by the 14th the snow had disappeared, but for 
the next few days there w^ere frequent snow showers. 

Naturally the effect in bird-life has not been so pro- 
nounced as that observed by Mr. Moffat, but, at least in 
the cases of the Stonechat, Golden-crested Wren and Long- 
tailed Titmouse, it appears as if there had also been a 
diminution in numbers in this district which ma}^ be taken 
as a roughly circular area of about 5 miles in diameter 
with Hillsborough as centre. One of the most notable 
observations of the winter here was the scarcity of Field- 
fares. This bird is usually present in large numbers from 



I9I7- Foster — The Winter of 1916-17 and Bird-life. 119 

November till April, but this season till the middle of 
January a flock of even 10 birds was not seen. From that 
time onwards there appeared to be an increase but it never 
attained anything near the normal numbers. Redwings 
were much more numerous than Fieldfares though these also 
were somewhat less numerous than usual. 

In respect to the five species which the winter has ex- 
terminated in Mr. Moffat's neighbourhood I give their 
status and apparent present position here. 

Stonechat \ — In this district there are only a few pairs 
which appear to confine themselves to strictly limited areas 
except in winter when they sometimes wander further 
afield. Frequent visits to their haunts this year have not 
revealed the presence of a single bird — in fact, with the 
exception of one female seen in an unlikely locality in 
November, I have not seen this bird since last August. 

Golden-crested Wren : — This bird has always been 
regarded as numerous here, but during the past winter and 
since it seems practically to have disappeared. 

Long- TAILED Titmouse : — This species is resident here 
in small numbers, but since December I have failed to detect 
its presence. 

Grey Wagtail : — A few pairs reside in the district 
generally keeping to the banks of some of our streams and 
ponds. The status of this species here is apparentty un- 
changed. 

Meadow-Pipit : — This species (universally known here 
as " Moss-cheeper ") is common all through the district 
and its numbers apparently show no change. I have not 
noticed the brighter plumaged birds come to the district 
in spring, and consider the number of individuals to remain 
fairly constant the year round (allowing for the substantial 
increase of young birds during the summer). Its song was 
first heard this year on ist x\pril. 

There is no noticeable change in the number of any of 
our other birds, and the dates of arrival of our regular 
S])ring migrants arc, with the exception of two, about the 
normal. The Chiffchaff usually arrives here about the 
beginning of April, but this year it was not observed till 



120 The Irish SalityalisL July, 

23rd April. The Willow- Wren was iirst noted this year 
on 24th April — fully a fortnight behind its usual time. 

Flillsborough, Co. Down. 



NOTES. 

BOTANY. 
Effects of the late Spring:. 

A conspicuous Ciiect of the severe winter and late spring has been an 
upsetting of the date of flowering of spring plants ; and some species 
have been much more retarded than others, as the following examples 
will show. At Aughrim, Co. Wicklow, on I\Iay 20th, Blackthorn and 
Hawthorn were flowering together, accompanied by Broom. Lesser 
Calendines were still abundant, though Wild Hyacinths were already in 
bloom. I already noted in these pages the mortality of Foxgloves in that 
area. Gorse has also suffered very severely, about two-thirds of the 
bushes being killed, at least in the upper parts . Whole hillsides, which 
last year were sheets of gold, were this year brown and lifeless. The 
destruction of Gorse perhaps followed the course of the great snowstorm 
for on June 2nd the hillsides of the Carlingford range above Dundalk, were 
golden with Gorse apparently uninjured — a very late date for such 
abundant flowering. 

Dubhn. R. Lloyd Praeger. 

Blue Wood Anemones. 

In the valley between Aughavannagh and Ballymanus Bridge, in Wick- 
low, we lately found a variety of colour-forms of the Wood Anemone, 
distributed over several miles of county. The most marked were of a 
fine deep blue — just the deep greyish blue of Hepatica triloba. Others 
were paler and of large size, resembling the vars. Rohinsoniana and Allcni 
of gardens. Others again were purple, owing to the presence of red 
pigment on the back and blue on the face of the sepals. There were also 
very large creamy forms, or white with a red reverse. On enquiry. Sir 
F. W. Moore pointed out at Cilasnevin a good blue form sent by The 
O'Mahony from this district some years ago, and grown there as the 
Mucklagh variety. In the National Herbarium there are blue specimens 
collected by R. M. Barrington in 1904 at 1,000 feet on the west side of 
Ballinabarry Gap — that is about seven miles W.N.W. of the previous 
stations. Sir F. Moore was in the neighbourhood a week after our visit, 
and extended the area of the blue Anemones some miles to the south-west. 
There would appear, therefore, to be a wide area around Aughavannagh 
in which the Wood Anemone varies in this unusual way. 

Dublin. K. Lloyd Praegeh. 



igi/- yoies. 121 

ZOOLOGY. 

Habits of Vanessa io in Co. Doneg:al. 

ilie Peacock Butterfly (Vanessa Io), here formerly all but unknown 
has within recent years become, not indeed common, but much less rare. 
A few now haunting the lawn and garden, and remaining unmolested, 
are getting to be quite familiar. It is interesting to observe their marked 
preference for the flowers of the Primrose, which for most species of 
l.epidoptera appear to have little attraction ; the only others of which 
1 remember to have seen visiting them having been the Humming-bird 
and the Bee Hawk-Moths. After close observation of its behaviour 
whilst feeding, one is inclined to regard the Peacock Butterfly as a fairly 
efficient agent in the pollination of the Primrose. When alarmed, this 
insect has the habit of flying to the nearest patch of dug ground, where, 
closing its wings, it at once becomes invisible. 

W. K. Hart. 
Kilderry, Co. Donegal. 



liadena protea in Tyrone. 

Last autumn (1916), a single example of this species turned up here 
at sugar, close to the garden where there a few small oak trees. In a 
demesne near here full of fine oak timber I have collected for many years 
and never met with this species, which still appears to be very rare in 
Ireland. 

Thomas Greer. 

Stewartstown, Co. Tyrone. 



Variation in Arion ater in Cork North-East. 

My friend Ernest Stainton, B.Sc, who is at present a signaller in the 
2 /6th Battalion Scottish Rifles, in camp at Kihvorth, in vice-county 
146 N.E., Cork North-east, is employing his leisure in collecting Mollusca, 
and has sent me a number. One interesting consignment just received, 
collected at Glanworth, under stones and decaying coffin -boards in the 
churchyard, on 21st April, showed the remarkable extent oT colour- 
variation so prevalent in the South-west of Ireland. There were about 
a dozen Avion ater, all about a quarter-grown, including a few var. fasciata 
one var, livida, a few var. svxcinea, a few very richly-coloured var. riifa, 
and one very characteristic var. bicolor. With them were various shelled 
species, Hyalinia lucida in abundance, and an adult example of Helix 
nemoralis var. alhina 003/00, in which the band is well-defined, brown- 
black, edged closely by a very fine line, a split-off. On the way between 
Kilworth and Glanworth Signaller Stainton found a half-grown example 
of typical Limax flavus, a species not often found in the open, away from 
human habitations, 



122 The Irish Naturalist July, 

May I add how pleased I shall be if Irish naturalists will assist in the 
rapid completion of the Conchological Society's Census of Distribution, 
by permitting me to see slugs and snails from every part of Ireland, for 
wliich part of the kingdom the blanks still to be filled up are very 
numerous. 

W. Denison Roebuck. 

J59 Hyde Park Road, Leeds. 



Fish Diseases. 

Two important contributions towards our knowledge of hsh diseases 
published within recent years in Ireland have not yet been alluded to 
in the pages of the lyish Naturalist. The lirst of these is a paper by 
L. von Betcgh of Fiume in Austria on yolk-sac dropsy (Hydrocoele 
cmbryonalis. Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1913, iii. [1913])- This 
epidemic disease affects trout alevins in fish-breeding establishments. 
It appears very suddenly, and first attracts attention by the swollen 
yolk-sac which seems to weigh down the little fish, which drops to the 
bottom of the hatching tank. Later on the yolk-sac bursts and the fish 
dies. The disease is due to bacteria {Diplobacillus liquefaciens piscium) 
but no remcd}'^ has as yet been discovered to combat it. 

The second paper (A. E. Mettam — Report on the outbreak of Furunculosis 
on the River Liffey in 1915, Fisheries, Ireland, Sci. Invest., 1914, 
li. [1915]) deals with a disease known as furunculosis, which produces 
abscesses or boils in freshwater fish. A serious outbreak of this disease 
occurred some years ago in the River Liffey among salmon. Prof. Mettam 
now describes the nature of the disease which he traces to Bacillus 
salmonicida. It is probably the same ailment which was investigated 
by Dr. E. J. McWeeney many years ago. The most obvious remedy to 
prevent the undue spreading of such disease is to remove any affected 
fish from the water and destroy them. Great care should also be taken 
when introducing fish eggs or fry from places where this disease is known 
to exist. 

Some Migrant Notes. 

Under above title Mr. J. P. Burkitt (p. 103 ante) gives his observations 
of Spring Migrants for a series of years. It is well-known that such 
average would only apply to a certain district and, as a rule, be earlier 
the more southerly the locaUty. Appended is a table drawn up from 
my observations here, and it may be well to state that my " average 
date " is the mean of the earliest and latest dates of first appearance 
(this .sometimes gives a misleading impression as to the usual date of 
arrival), and that in the " variation from average "-|- indicates the number 
of days later than average of first observation and — the number of days 
earlier. During the past 15 years my notes show that the song of the 
Chaffinch has first heard from 17th January till 23rd February. 



^ 



i<n7- 



Notes. 



123 





Average 


Variation 


Years 


» , 


Date 


from 
Average 


Observed 


Wheatear 


I St April 


+ 12 - 9 


6 


Whitethroat 


4th INIay 


+ 17 -17 


17 


Chiftchaff 


9th April 


+ 14 -13 


17 


Willow-Wren 


13th April 


-fii -10 


17 


Sedge-Warbler 


7th May 


-f 9 - 8 


14 


Grasshopper-Warbler 


nth May 


-f 9 -10 


6 


Spotted Flycatcher 


loth May 


4-7-8 


15 


Swallow 


13th April 


4-9-9 


17 


House-Martin 


28th April 


+ 8-8 


14 


Sand-]Martin 


17th April 


+ 13 -12 


16 


Swift 


I St May 


-fii -10 


17 


Cuckoo 


23rd April 


-fi4 -14 


17 


I-^ndrail 


. 26th April 


+ 5-4 


17 


Common Sandpiper 


3rd May 


+ 15 -17 

1 
I 


8 



Hillsborough, Co. Down. 



Nevin H. Foster. 



Whales and Dolphins stranded in Ireland. 

In the Irish Naturalist of June, 1915, reference was made to the second 
Report by Dr. S. F. Harmer on the Cetacea stranded on the British coasts. 
Two reports have appeared since that date, enumerating the specimens 
cast ashore in 19 15 and 1916. It is of interest to note that several of these 
animals had been injured probably by gunfire or mines. The following 
list gives details of the captures on the Irish coasts : — 

Cuvier's Whale {Ziphiiis cavirostris) , i8ft. 2Un. long. July i8th, 1915, 

Fethard, Co. Wexford. 
Pilot Whale {Globicephala melaena), 20 feet long, March i6th, 19 15, 

Dunmanus Bay, Co. Cork. 
Dolphin {Delphinus delphis), 7ft. 6in. long. December 22nd, 1915, 

Dunfanaghy Bay, Co. Donegal. 
White-sided Dolphin {Lagenorkynchus aciitus), git. 3in. long. June 9th, 

1916, Rathlee, Co. Mayo. 
Porpoise {Phocaena phocaena), 4ft. long 

Co. Wexford. 
Sperm Whale {Physeter calodon), young, 

19 16, Roundstone, Co. Galway. 
Lesser Rorqual {Balaenopiera acutorosirata) , 22ft. long 

1916, Lennan, Co. Donegal. 



July 13th, 1916, Fethard, 
1 8ft. long. September 4th, 
October 9th. 



124 ^^^^ Irish Naiuralisf. July. 191 7. 

IRISH SOCIETIES. 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

June 2. — Excursion to Feltrim Hill and Malahide. — Members 
and friends to the number of 25 assembled at Amiens Street terminus 
and travelled by the 12.30 p.m. train to Portmarnock, when a two miles' 
walk by the old church of Kinsaley took the party to the top of Feltrim 
Hill. As the original form of the name shows (Faeldruim — Wolf-ridge) 
Feltrim is a ridge rather than a hill, an isolated rocky wrinkle in the land- 
scape running east and west for about a quarter of a mile. Kising 190 
feet above sea-level, this ridge serves as a pedestal for the massive shaft 
of an old derelict windmill, familiar as a landmark for many miles around. 
Here the party took shelter and lunch while a heavy shower swept over 
the hill accompanied by distant rumblings of thunder. When the sun 
broke out again the conductor, J. de W. Hinch, assembled the party 
on the summit of the ridge and with the theme of his discourse spread 
out below him briefly sketched the geological history of the district. 

The conductor's address ended, the geologists scrambling down to the 
quarry which cuts so monstrous a cantle out of the ridge as to threaten 
before long to bisect it, busied themselves in fossil hunting, while the 
smaller botanical section pushed westward over the ridge in quest of the 
rare plants long known to inhabit Feltrim. The fossil hunters were rather 
more successful than the botanists. Many specimens of the characteristic 
brachiopod genera of the Lower Carboniferous Limestone, Productus, 
Spirifera and Rhynchonella were found together with the cephalopod 
genus Orthoceras and the polyzoon Fenestella. The botanists found 
abundance of Trifoliiim striatum, Viola hirta and Orchis Alorio towards 
the western end of the ridge, but failed in their search for Geraniinn 
liicidum and 6". cclumbimwi , perhaps for lack of time to examine the rocks, 
or because these species, always rare here, have been quarried away. 

Soon after 4 o'clock the excursion reached ISIalahide Rectory where 
Canon and Mrs. IJndsay having dispensed afternoon tea with most genial 
hospitality earned the further gratitude of the Club by conducting the 
large party over their beautiful grounds. The sunken rock-garden stocked 
with a profusion of alpines, most of them in full bloom, and including 
the exquisite and not often successfully cultivated Daphne Cneorinii, won 
the admiration of all. But the most curious amongst the many rare plants 
and shrubs pointed out was a well-grown flowering specimen of the Cyiisus 
Adami, produced in 1826 by a French grower, M. Adam of Vitry. In the 
flower of this graft-hybrid, as it is called, a strange intermingling of the 
characters of Cytisus piirpureiis and C". Labitrnion (the Common 
Laburnum) is shown. The precise nature of M. Adams' Laburnum 
has afforded matter of as heated discussion amongst bc^tanists as has 
the nature of Oldhamia amongst palaeontologists. 

The party returned to Dublin by the 7 p.m. train after a most successful 
dav filled with \arifd interests. 



Ikish Naturalist, Vol. XXVI. 



Plate III. 




Gorilla " Empress." 

Age, 4-5 years. 

Zoological Gardens, Dublin. 



To face page 1 25. 



W. N. Allen, Photo. Copyright. 



August, 1917. The Irish Naturalist 125 

SOME NOTES ON THE DUBLIN GORILLA. 

BY PROF. GEO. H. CARPENTER, M.SC, SEC. R.Z.S.I. 

(plates III., IV., v.). 

For several years past the Gardens of the Royal Zoological 
Society of Ireland in Phamix Park, Dublin, have never been 
without one or more representatives of the Anthropoid 
Apes — that family (Simiidae) of the order Primates whose 
members approach most nearly in bodily structure and also 
in mental characteristics to Man. For no observant person 
who has had the opportunity of watching the habits of 
anthropoids can doubt for a moment that their behaviour 
is far more " human " than that of even such a long- 
domesticated animal as the dog. 

Among the apes on view in the Dublin monkey-house, 
the Bornean Orang-utan and various species of the Malayan 
and Burman Gibbons have often been represented, while 
West African Chimpanzees have been constantly in the 
collection — frequently two or three individuals at once, 
these being the most frequently imported and most readily 
obtained of all the anthropoids. In December, igo6, the 
Society acquired a young male Gorilla — the other great 
West African ape whose name has become famihar to most 
people from the descriptions of travellers and naturalists, 
and from museum specimens, though very few Europeans 
have the opportunity of seeing a live example. This young 
male lived in the ape-house for a few weeks only, and no 
opportunity of getting another Gorilla presented itself 
until January, 1914, when a young female was offered for 
sale by Mr. W. Cross, of Liverpool, who had imported her 
from the Gaboon along with a young male Chimpanzee. 
These two apes were purchased by the Society, and they 
have lived together in the ape-house until 25th May of 
the present year when the Gorilla died after a residence in 
Dublin of three years and four months. This is by far 
the longest period through which a Gorilla has survived 
in captivity in the United Kingdom. The Zoological 



126 The Irish Naturalist . August, 

Society of London has had six of these apes in the Regent's 
Park Gardens at various times between 1887 and 1908,-^ but 
none of them Hved more than a few weeks or months ; the 
longest residence having been that of a female which sur- 
vived from I\Iarch, 1896, until August of the same year.^ 
At Berlin there have been several Gorillas on view ; 
the first, brought from Africa in 1876, died in the autumn 
of 1877 ; it was a young male and an interesting account 
of its habits by Dr. Falkenstein is given in Prof. Hartmann's 
book^ on the Anthropoid Apes. The second Berlin 
specimen lived in captivity only a few weeks (1881) ; while 
a third survived for about a year (1883-4).* The length 
of life in captivity attained b}^ our Dublin female seems to 
have been exceeded only by the famous specimen at the 
Breslau Zoological Gardens, which at her death in 1904 had 
been " naturalised " in Germany for about seven years. ^ 
That ape, which also had a male Chimpanzee as companion, 
w^as about four years old on her arrival in Europe, and 
had therefore attained an age of eleven years at her death. 

When the Gorilla arrived, the Dublin ape-house w^as 
already occupied by a Hoolock Gibbon, an Orang and two 
Chimpanzees, so that visitors had the opportunity, rarely, 
if ever, offered, of comparing living specimens of all four 
types of Anthropoids. This remarkable assemblage was 
terminated in March, 1915, by the death of the Orang, 
but the other three genera of apes could be studied side 
by side until the Gorilla's lamented death this year. 

Frequenters of the Dublin Zoological Gardens have there- 
fore had unusual opportunities for watching the behaviour 
of a Gorilla, and some account of the ape's characteristics 
may well be placed on record. For man}^ of the particulars 
given in this article I am indebted to Capt. B. B. Ferrar, 
R.A.M.C., Superintendent of the Gardens, and to Mr. John 
Supple, the head keeper of our monkej^-house, to whose 
great care of the inmates the survival of the Gorilla through 

1 R. Lydekker. — " Gorilla " in Encycl. Brit., nth ed. Cambridge, 1910. 
*My friend, Mr. R. I. Pocock, F.R.S., has kindly furnished me with 
some particulars of the London Gorillas that were under his care. 

• R. Hartmann. — " Anthropoid Apes." London, 1885. 

* R. Lydekker. — " Royal Natural History," vol. i., 1893 (p. 46). 

5 F. Grabovsky. — Zeitschr.f. Natunvissenschaften, vol. xli., 1906, and 
Vcrhandl.d. Gesellschaft Deiitsch. Naturforsch.u Aertze, Breslau, 1904, 



Irish Naturalist, \'o1. XW'I. 



Plate IV. 




CiORILLA " ICmI'RESS." 

Age 2 years. 
Zoolooical Ciardens, Dublin. 



lo face pas:e 127. 



IV. N. Allen, Photo. Copyright. 



iQiy- Carpenter — Notes on the Diihtin Gorilla. 127 

such a comparatively long period is largely due. Before 
her arrival the Gorilla had been dignified with the name 
of " Empress," her companion Chimpanzee being called 
" Charlie." Both apes were apparently more than a year 
old, but certainly less than two years, in January, 1914, 
so that at her death " Empress " had probably attained 
an age of nearly five years. During her residence among us 
she was closely watched, and many attempts were made 
to secure good photographs. In this work, Mr, W. N. Allen, 
who spared neither time nor trouble in order to obtain 
the best results in light and posture, was highly success- 
ful ; he kindly allows me to use the three excellent 
pictures that accompany this article, one of which (Plate IV.) 
represents " Empress " when about two years old, the 
other two (Plates III., V.) v/hen between four and five. 

Most wTiters on the habits of the Gorilla describe this ape 
as morose and savage in disposition, though Ealkenstein's 
specimen, kept first in West Africa and afterwards at Berlin, 
w-as docile and playful. " Empress " proved quite docile 
and never attempted to hurt or bite anyone — simian or 
human — though she has shown herself distinctly less 
interesting and friendly than most of the Chimpanzees that 
have lived in Phoenix Park. The contrast in appearance 
between the black-skinned, small-eared, broad-nosed Gorilla 
and the pale-faced, large-eared, comparatively narrow-nosed 
Chimpanzee is very striking, and the generic distinction 
between the two types of ape, now generally accepted by 
systematic zoologists, seems fully justified. 

On first taking up her residence in the Dublin ape-house, 
" Empress " was naturall}^ shy and nervous, but she quickly 
became accustomed to her surroundings. She was then 
willing to make friends, in a quiet way, with casual visitors 
whom she allow^ed to pat and stroke her, but she strongly 
resented any attempt (even by the keeper) to carry her 
about or nurse her. When such attentions were offered 
she became nervous and greatly distressed. This aversion 
was noteworthy, because young Chimpanzees delight to 
rest in the arms of a human friend, and, like small children, 
often beg by means of voice and gesture to be lifted up 
and carried about. Also it is well known to frequenters 



128 The Irish Naturalist. August, 

of the Gardens how delighted the Chimpanzees always are 
to leave their cage, to roam about the monkey-house, to 
get out into the grounds and to climb the trees. But 
" Empress " could never be induced to follow her com- 
panion " Charhe " on such rambles ; she became accus- 
tomed to her house and would never leave it, though she 
often liked to sit in the doorway when the wire door was 
thrown open. Apparently having once settled down, she 
developed a strong conservative tendency, with a suspicion 
of all things new or strange. 

Her affection for " Charlie " was very strong, and though 
she would never accompany him on his excursions, she tried 
to keep him in view as long as possible, and seemed anxious 
and restless until his return. During feeding-time her sub- 
servience to the Chimpanzee was most noticeable, and if 
not watched she would, without protest, give up the food 
which he was greedy enough to covet. In this respect 
" Empress '' was a contrast to the Breslau Gorilla who, 
according to Dr. Grabovsky's account, used to be envious 
when her companion Chimpanzee was fed. During 
" Empress's " second year's residence in the monkey- 
house, " Charlie " was for some time unwell ; she then 
became very anxious, tried to nurse him like a sick child, 
and pillowed his head on her body. 

The Gorilla used to walk in the manner usual to an- 
thropoids with the knuckles resting on the ground, the 
body inclined forwards and the head thrust out. She 
climbed leisurely up to the beam that crosses the compart- 
ment about five feet above the floor, and often spent much 
time sitting on this with her back to the wall. Her move- 
ments were always slow, compared with the rapid agility 
of the Chimpanzees, but she was a sure if a deliberate 
climber. During the first eighteen months of her residence 
she played constantly with " Charlie," who used to swing 
on the rope, deal her a sportive blow and then quickly 
get out of her reach. In these mock combats she rarely 
seemed to lose her temper, but the habit of drumming with 
the fists on the breast, as a kind of challenge, was noted 
early, in relation to the controversy that has raged among 
naturalists about this particular action in Gorillas. Both 



Irish Naturalist, Vol. XXVI. 



Plate V. 




Gorilla " Empress." 

Age, 4-5 years. 

ZooloKical Gardens, Dublin. 



To face pa^e 129 



\V. N. Allen, Photi). Copyright. 



191 7- Carpenter — Notes on the Dublin Gorilla. 129 

Falkenstein and Grabovsky regard this habit as an expres- 
sion of satisfaction. When " Charhe " was absent, she 
would also sometimes beat her breast or clap her hands, 
and she seemed to derive much amusement from rolling 
an iron dish about on the iloor. Fondness for knocking 
about metal vessels was noticed by observers as a character- 
istic of one of the Berlin Gorillas. 

When in repose, " Empress's " face had a placid and 
benign aspect, and there was a strikingly wistful expression 
in her fine dark eyes, of which the sclerotic coats showed 
a creamy hue. This expression is well caught in Mr. Allen's 
photograph (PL III.) which brings out the increased wrink- 
ling of the skin that became apparent during her last year. 
When she was pleased or amused, her expression broadened 
into a grin which was hardly distinguishable from the aspect 
of her countenance when angry ; this is shown in Plate V., 
a picture taken by Mr. Allen a few seconds before she 
opened her mouth to emit a cry of rage. Such exhibitions 
were, however, very rare ; her characteristic sound was a 
deep grunt of satisfaction, contrasting strongly with the 
shrill outcry of the Chimpanzee or the high-pitched notes 
of the Hoolock Gibbon in the adjoining cage. " Empress " , 
was an easy animal to m.anage, affectionate and amiable 
without any kind of vice. When retiring for the night 
" Empress " used to make a kind of nest in the straw at 
the corner of her cage. Here she lay down to sleep often 
with one arm supporting her head. 

From the beginning of her residence, she developed a 
great fancy for chewing straws, choosing a piece with the 
deliberation of a person of nice taste. This habit led to 
an attack of actinomj^cosis evidenced by a swelling on the 
back of the neck, but this disease yielded to treatment, 
with regard to which the Gorilla was very docile. She 
was willing to take any kind of medicine that might be 
prescribed by one of her several " physicians in ordinary." 
Supple remarked that she showed great intelHgence in 
responding to his wishes in these matters, and that her 
leading motive in drinking a dose seemed to be a desire 
to please him. 

During the last year of her life, " Empress " became 



130 The Irish Naturalist August, 

abnormally stout and disinclined for exertion. Her back 
and arms began to show the characteristic development 
of muscle (PI. V,), but she gave up her climbing, and even 
" Charlie's " teasing failed to make her play. Another 
Chimpanzee, " George " by name, larger and older than 
" Charlie," had been introduced into the partnership, and 
the Gorilla Uked to sit in the corner of the cage watching 
with an amused tolerance the gambols of her two com- 
panions. 

The Gorilla had a good appetite, ate bread, drank milk, 
and fed freely on deny kind of fruit, with a special liking 
for ground-nuts ; she was fond also of fresh green-stuff 
such as lettuce or dandelion. Despite the sluggishness 
already mentioned, she seemed to continue in good health, 
but the onset of violent abdominal pains early in May 
showed that some trouble in the digestive organs had set 
in. After an apparent improvement the pains returned ; 
the Gorilla refused all food, and died early in the morning 
of May 25th. An examination by Professor A. Francis 
Dixon certified inflammation of the intestinal caecum as 
the cause of death. Her weight was then 31 lbs., and her 
height, when standing in the usual attitude with knees bent 
and body inclined forward, was slightly over two feet. 
The weight of the Breslau Gorilla is recorded by Grabovsky 
as 31.5 lbs. on arrival, when that specimen was somewhat 
younger than " Empress " was at the time of her death. 

During her last few^ days " Empress " lay on the floor of 
her house, resting on her back or on one side, with limbs 
strongly flexed and hands clenched, her plaintive eyes 
turning from point to point, and still expressing satisfaction 
at the recognition of " Charlie," her companion Chimpanzee. 
He evinced much concern at the Gorilla's condition, and 
v/hen, on the morning of her death, his caresses failed to 
evoke any response he burst into loud cries of grief. The 
keeper removed her body from the cage and laid it on the 
floor of the passage alongside, covered with a piece of sacking. 
" Charlie," when set at liberty, lifted the corner of this 
sacking, stood for a few moments gazing at his dead friend, 
and then replaced the cover with seemly reverence. 

Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



191 7- Moffat — Some Migrant Noks. 131 

SO.ME MIGRANT NOTES. 

BY C. B. MOFFAT, B.A., M.R.I. A. 

The notes contributed by Mr. Burkitt {supra, p. 103) 
deserve careful study, and will be welcomed by all who 
take a genuine interest in the subject of migration. 

The phenological department of the Royal Meteorological 
Society is, 1 think, clearly justified in adding a migrant 
table to its returns ; for the very regularity on which Mr. 
Burkitt lays stress, and which his well-kept records go so 
far to prove, must lend the greater interest to those occas- 
ional departures from it which undoubtedly occur, and to 
the ciuestion how far such irree^ularities may be due to the 
meteorological conditions prevailing at the time. 

There have been a few years in which it would be almost 
impossible to dispute the existence of some connection 
between the early or late arrival of the migrants and the 
forward or backward condition of the season's general 
advance. The extreme cases in my recollection are the 
wonderfully warm and forward spring of 1893 and the 
sadly inclem.ent one of 1917. For the former of these years — 
during which I was debarred by some exceptionally pressing 
duties from field observations on any regular scale — I must 
refer all doubtfully-disposed readers to the notes from 
various sources published in the Irish Naturalist (vol. ii., 
pp. 150, 177, 201, etc.) ; I well remember my own surprise, 
on taking a walk for a short distance outside Dublin on 
April 23rd, when I heard Whitethroats and Sedge- Warblers 
singing numerously on every side — a state of things that in 
ordinary years would not exist sooner than, at best, the 
8th or loth of May. In 1917 the influence of the cold 
season — aggravated, until the middle of April, by strong 
and unfavourable winds — affected, I must admit, only the 
" earlier batch " of the migrants ; but how badly it spoiled 
the punctuality records of these, let the cases of the Chiff- 
chaff and Willow- Wren declare. 

Of the Chiffchaff 's arrival at Ballyhyland in former years 
I have 28 dates, and of these 17 are within four days, and 



132 The Irish Naturalist. August, 

25 within eight, of the average, March 29th. Of the three 
outside dates two are on the " early side " of the zone 
(March i8th, 1884 and 1894), and so are not due to faulty 
observation, but probably to the genial weather that 
prevailed in both those seasons ; while the other (April 
7th, 1900) is only one day outside the zone on the bad side. 
This year the Chiffchaff's first appearance here was on 
April 13th, or fifteen days from the average date. At 
Killanne Rectory, two miles off, it was heard by Miss 
Cooper one day sooner, so a small migration wave had 
probably arrived about that time. 

For the Willow- Wren I had until this yesx 17 records, 
of which 13 were within four, and all within seven days 
of April loth. This year the bird was not seen or heard 
until April 22nd, twelve days behind its average. The 
Swallow was also later than I had ever previously known 
it, arriving (April 24th) simultaneously with the quite 
punctual Cuckoo. The Corncrake and other migrants of 
the " late batch " were, as a rule, up to their usual times. 

Mr. Burkitt's dates for the Corncrake are surprisingly 
early — my average from 28 notes of this bird's arrival at 
Baltyhyland is April 27th, six days later than his — and 
I can only suggest as a possible answer to his query on the 
subject that the soil of the country around Lough Erne 
is favourable to an early growth of such vegetation as suits 
the Landrail for cover. In many parts of the country 
this species would be puzzled where to bestow itself, unless 
in really forward years, at so early a date as April 21st. 
About Ballyhyland this year, though arriving on the 25th 
of the month, it was compelled by the backward state of 
the young grass and corn-crops to take refuge in furze- 
knocks, and for more than a week afterwards these were 
the only kind of cover from which its voice could be heard. 

There are, I must add, cases of abnormal dates not at 
all so easy to explain as those that coincide with exception- 
ally genial or harsh weather, or that may be governed by 
special local conditions. For example, the"*^' astonishing 
rush of early Swallows into many parts of Ireland in March, 
1903 (for particulars of which see R. J. Ussher's note in 
the Irish Naturalist, vol. xii., p. 198) does not appear to 



19 1 7- Moffat — Some Migrant Notes. 133 

have synchronized with any remarkable deviation from 
the normal as regards weather or temperature, so that this 
strange breach of the rule of averages remains so far in 
want of even an hypothetical explanation. 

But of course it should be remembered that the explan- 
ation may sometimes be sought in conditions prevailing 
elsewhere than in our own country, and sometimes, as in 
the case of the great bird-rush of March 29th, 191 1, so well 
explained by Mr. Barrington in this Journal (vol. xx., pp. 
97-110), in a complex combination of circumstances necessi- 
tating some knowledge of atmospheric conditions extending 
over a wide area. This is a further reason why the Royal 
Meteorological Society should not neglect the subject. 

NOTE. 

By the average date of first arrival I mean the sum of 
the dates divided by their number — not the mean between 
the earhest and latest. The mean, I see, is used by Mr. 
Foster in his note in the July number (p. 122) ; but Mr. 
Foster himself very fairly points out that such a course 
" may give a misleading impression as to the usual date " — 
the reason for this being that the mean is sometimes 
violently affected by one extreme variation. For instance, 
the late date of the Chifichaff' s arrival at Ballyhyland this 
year would alter the m^ean date for that migrant by as 
much as three days, though it does not affect the average 
date by more than half a day. In adding up the dates 
for a bird whose arrival does not always take place in the 
same month one must, or course, adopt a consecutive 
numbering, as if the two months were one. Thus, in the 
case cf the Chiffchaff, April i may be counted as March 32, 
April 12 as March 43, and so on. 

Ballyhyland, Co. Wexford. 



134 ^^^^ Irish Naturalist. August, 



TOLYPELLA NIDIFICA, Leonh. 

BY J. GROVES, V.P.L.S., AND CANON G. R. BULLOCK-WEBSTER, 

M.A. 

We have recently been examining Irish specimens of 
Tolypella with a view to ascertaining which of those 
hitherto placed under T. glornerata should be referred to 
the nearly allied species T. nidifica. The principal differ- 
ences between the normal forms of these two species are 
to be seen in the ripe oospore, which in the case of ordinary 
T. glornerata is of moderate size (c. 325-350 ^t long, 250-290 ^i 
broad) ovoid or ellipsoid in form, with a yellowish to orange 
or gold-brown membrane covered with minute granules, 
developing to a spongy surface when ripe, while the oospore 
of type T. nidifica is much larger (c. 400-475 /x long, 350-450 /x 
broad) subglobose in form with a membrane becoming a 
rich wine-red when mature and with an almost, if not 
wholly, glabrous surface. There is little difference in the 
vegetative parts of the two plants ; T. glornerata is usually 
the more slender, but stout forms occur. There is a tendency 
for the rays to taper more decidedly in T. nidifica than in 
T. glornerata. In both species the proembryonic member 
often persists for a long period. 

T. nidifica was first found in Ireland by the late Dr. 
Moore, who collected it many years ago in Lough Neagh. 
A doubt, however, existed as to its identity, Braun, 
to whom it was submitted, having apparently seen only 
immature fruit, but Mr. N. E. Brown reported (Enghsh 
Botany, ed. 3, xii., p. 190) that he found ripe fruit on 
Moore's specimen in the Kew Herbarium and that it corres- 
ponded well with the authentic T. nidifica from the Con- 
tinent. The most satisfactory Irish specimens we have 
examined are from a lagoon north of Wexford Harbour 
collected by the Rev. E. S. Marshall in June, 1896. 

A somewhat intermediate plant occurs having large 
subglobose, deeply-coloured oospores but with the surface 
of the membrane apparently granulated. A fine form of 
this was collected by Mr. R. Lloyd Praeger in Lough Melvin, 



19 1 7- Groves — Tolypella nidifica. 135 

Co. Leitrim, in July, 1899, and a similar specimen by 
G.R.B-W. in Lough Ballyla, near Kindrum, E. Donegal, 
last August. Both of these, however, require further 
examination. 

T. nidifica may well be expected to occur in other locali- 
ties in Ireland, especially near the coast, and botanists 
would much assist in elucidating the doubtful points in 
connexion with these plants, and in determining their 
distribution, if they would be on the watch for mature 
specimens in the late summer. Unfortunately herbarium 
specimens of Tolypellas do not as a rule include ripe fruits, 
owing no doubt to the fact that by the time these have 
matured the plants have become dilapidated and decayed 
in appearance, and younger specimens are selected for 
preservation. The oldest and most decayed-looking heads 
should be collected. We shall be glad to examine specimens, 
preferably fresh or preserved in formalin (i % solution). 
Characeae travel very well if packed rather tightly in a tin 
in layers between other clean water plants such as Elodea 
or Potamogeton crispus, densus or heterophylliis, or between 
pads of newspaper. They are more likely to suffer in 
transit by being too wet and sodden than too dry. Speci- 
mens may be sent to us at 9 Larkhall Rise, London, S.W. 4. 

London. 



NEWS GLEANINGS. 

Prof. Grenville A. J. Cole, F.R.S. 

Vv'^e tender our hearty congratulations to our friend and contributor 
Prof. Grenville Cole, of the Royal College of Science and Geolpgical 
Survey of Ireland, whose name appears among the fifteen elected into 
the Royal Society of London in May of the present year. 



136 The Irish Naturalist. August, 



A NOTE ON PECTINARIA KORENI FROM DUBLIN 

BAY. 

BY NATHANIEL COLGAN, M.R.I. A. 

All of the species of Pectinaria, using that generic name 
in its wide sense, appear to be quite rare in East Ireland. 
In his " Marine Worms (AnneHda) of DubHn Bay and 
the adjoining District '' ^ Mr. Southern gives but two 
records for P. auricoma and one for P. helgica, all three 
records referring to specimens dredged in from 5 to 26 
fathoms. While shore-collecting on Dubhn Bay between 
Merrion and Booterstown in April last I found two specimens 
of a third species, P. Koreni (Malmgren), one on the 21st, 
the other on the 28th of the month, both embedded in the 
sand near low water mark. So far as I can discover, this 
species has not been previously recorded for East Ireland. 
In one specimen the tube, so admirable as a sample of 
Annelid vvorkmanship, was quite buried in the sand ; the 
other tube, of more slender and tapering form, had its 
lower or tail end projected fully an inch from the surface 
at the edge of a shallow tidal channel. The tubes, one 
65 mm. long tapering from 10.5 mm. to 6.5 mm., the other 
60 mm. tapering from 8 mm. to 3 mm., were both quite 
straight, and this feature, taken together with the characters 
of the enclosed worms, led me to identify the species as 
Pectinaria helgica. On mentioning the find to Mr. Southern 
he suggested that the species on closer examination might 
turn out to be Lagis Koreni of Malmgren (referred by later 
authors to Pectinaria) as he was convinced that many 
records for P. helgica should be transferred to the species 
which Malmgren in 1865 had taken as the type of his new 
genus Lagis. On re-examination of the Dublin specimens 
I found that Mr. Southern's surmise was justified. They 
agreed in all points with Malmgren 's description and 
figures^ of Lagis Koreni save that the tubes, which he 



^ Proc. R.I. A., vol. xxviii., p. 215. 

2Nordiska Hafs-Annulater. Ofversigt af K. Vet. Akad. Fork. 1865, 
and plate xiv. Ofversigt, 1867, 



19 1 7- CoLGAN — Pectinaria Koreni from Dublin Bay. 137 

gives as slightly curved, were in my specimens quite straight, 
and the paleolae or golden bristles which crown the head 
and suggested to Miiller the appropriate name auricoma 
for the best known species of what is now the genus Pectin- 
aria, numbered in my specimens 17 and 13, respectively, 
and not about 14 as given by Malmgren. This character 
is apparently variable. 

Twenty- four hours after the taking of the smaller specimen 
it was transferred from sea water to fresh water in the 
belief that it would thus be quickly killed so as to admit 
of fuller examination. The animal, however, appeared to 
be little affected by immersion in fresh water. Its gills, 
once blood-red, turned quite pale, and several of the upper 
body segments emerged from the tube, but the tentacles 
continued in active motion. After half an hour's immersion 
the animal, still in its tube and still quite Hvely, was returned 
to sea water. Within ten minutes the gills had resumed 
their blood-red hue, and within half an hour the worm 
had completely abandoned its tube. 

While examining the setae under a quarter-inch objective 
I observed a stream of minute, cream-coloured eggs issuing 
from the body slightly below the gills at a point where 
no rupture of the tissues was perceptible, and similar eggs 
could be discerned within the body in several of the trans- 
parent parapodia or bristle-bearing feet. This egg- 
deposition continued for about four hours until fully a 
thousand eggs lay in the bottom of the watch glass in which 
the worm, which survived until the following day, was 
kept under observation. Development of the eggs was 
well advanced and their form, as one occasionally presented 
its edge to the observer, was seen to be discoid with a 
central depression and not globular as they appeared to be 
when viewed in face. After two days further development 
disintegration of the eggs set in and my hopes of rearing 
a brood of young Pectinarias were dashed. No doubt the 
half-hour's immersion in fresh water had brought about 
a premature deposition of the eggs. I am not aware of 
what is the normal method of reproduction in this section 
of the marine annehds, whether the eggs are laid singly 
or in cocoons or capsules or in gelatinous masses as occurs 



138 The Irish Naturalist. August, 

in other sections of this wonderfully complex and beautiful 
group of marine organisms. 

It may be that the high tolerance of fresh water shown 
by this Dubhn Bay Pectinaria depends on the low salinity 
of the estuarine waters it inhabits, where the outflow of the 
Liffey mingles with the waters of the Irish Sea. On our 
western coast Mr. Southern fmds this species to be common 
in Blackscd Bay.^ It has also been found in Ballinakill 
Harbour ; but the present appears to be the first record 
for East Ireland. Judging from the descriptions given of 
the Pectinaria helgica found by Cunningham and Ramage 
on sandy fiats at Granton on the Firth of Forth^ and by 
Hornel " in immense numbers " on the sands skirting the 
Lancashire and Cheshire coasts,^ it would appear that 
both records should be referred to the present species, 
P. Koreni (Malmgren). 

Sandycove, Co. Dublin. 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

June 30. — Excursion to Glenasmole. — The midsummer outing of the 
Club was favoured by perfect weather and was in every way most successful. 
Starting in drags from Terenure about 11.30, before one o'clock the party 
reached the entrance to the Glen and the grounds of the Rathmines 
water-works, where a reinforcement of cj'^clists brought the strength of 
members and visitors up to a total of 21. From the caretaker's lodge, 
above the lower reservoir, where the drags were dismissed, the party 
pushed up the glen on foot and crossing to its eastern side by the embank- 
ment of the upper reservoir reached the moist hill pastures around the 
old burial ground of Saint Anne's about half-past two. Here the botanists 
got to work at once, and the results of an hour's collecting over a small 
area were enough to prove the great richness of the ground. No less than 
seven species of orchids were found, some of them in abundance. First 
came the ubiquitous Spotted Orchis (0. maculata), varying in all shades 
from pure white to bright pink, then the Twayblade [Lister a ovata), the 



1 Clare Island Survey. Part 47, p. 130. Proc. R. I. A., 1914. 

*Polychaeta Sedentaria of Firth of Forth. Trans. R.S. Edirb., 
xxxiii., p. 657. 

* Polychaeta of L.M.B.C. District. Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc, vol. v., 
pp. 259-O0. 



19 1 7- Irish Societies. 139 

Butterfly Orchis {Habenaria chloroleuca), the Frog Orchis {H. viridis), 
the Fragrant Orchis [H. conopsed), the Marsh Helleborine [Epipactis 
palustris) and the Green-winged Orchis {0. Morio). With these were the 
Grass of Parnassus, the Butterwort and the Bog Pimpernel, and, sheeting 
the hillside with gold, thousands of the Rough Hawkbit {Leontodon his- 
pidus). The hedges yielded the Guelder Rose and three species of wild 
rose, Rosa canina, R. arvensis and R. tomentosa, to which a fourth species, 
the Burnet Rose {R. spinosissima), found on the way up-glen, may be 
added. To the orchids, too, an addition was made on the way up, the 
Pyramidal Orchis (0. pyramidalis), the day's total of orchid species being 
thus raised to eight. These hill pastures of Saint Anne's yield the Moon- 
wort and the Adder's Tongue, but the botanists failed to discover either, 
vegetation being as far advanced as to hide these easily overlooked species. 

Time did not permit of the party pushing further up the glen to Castle 
Kelly, where the limestone drift of the lower reaches gives place to the 
granite and a new flora, the calcifuge flora, asserts predominance. So 
the botanists left Saint Anne's with regret and turning downwards reached 
Mrs. Healy's farmhouse at Bohernabreena by four o'clock. Here while 
tea was enjoyed al fresco in brilliant sunshine, the rich botanical spoils 
of the day were exhibited and discussed. That irrepressible American 
alien, Matricaria discoidea, was found to have established itself in and 
around Mrs. Healy's farmyard, while close by another American alien, 
Mimulus guttatus, was observed growing in the moist river shingles having 
travelled down-stream from its original station above Castle Kelly, where 
it was introduced m.ore than half a century ago. 

The return journey was made in less than an hour, and at 6.30 the party 
broke up at Terenure, the members taking with them pleasant memories 
of a beautiful glen made more beautiful by the usually disfiguring hand 
of man ; for the Rathmines water-works with their twin lakes and 
wooded slopes have most happily combined the useful and the beautiful. 



NOTES. 

ZOOLOGY. 

Recovery of a Woodcock supposed to have been ringed 

in Ireland. 

On the 7th of July, a Woodcock, which is believed to have struck the 
telegraph wires, was picked up in an injured condition, but still living, 
at Skellister, Nesting, Shetland. On examination a metal ring was found 
on its left foot bearing the following inscription : " T. H., Sligo, 4," and 
was forwarded to me. I shall be glad if any readers of the Irish 
Naturalist can furnish information which will enlighten us, through 
its pages, on the history of this wanderer. 

Wm. Eagle Clarke. 

Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 



140 The Irish Naturalist. August, 1917. 

Hoopoes in the County Waterford. 

About three weeks ago, two birds were observed by the servants in 
the rectory here. The birds were quite close to the house, hardly twenty 
yards away, on the avenue, and the description given by them so closely 
corresponded with a pair of Hoopoes that I went at once, and got " British 
Birds" by Stonham, and the volumes of "British Birds" illustrated 
by Frohawk, and turned to the illustrations in both works. On my 
showing the pictures to the servants, they said at once that the birds 
they saw were Hoopoes. They appeared to be quite tame, and were only 
frightened away by the sudden appearance and running near them of 
two horses in an adjoining field. One of them kept bowing and erecting 
his crest to the other. I deeply regret that I had not the opporutnity 
of seeing them myself. 

William W. Flemyng. 

Portia w, Co. Waterford. 



Carrion Crow nesting at Ireland's Eye. 

On the 23rd May last, Mr. J. P. Brunker, a close observer of birds, 
informed me that a black Carrion Crow was nesting at Ireland's Eye 
and apparently hatching. On the 4th June I visited the Island, and found 
the Crow sitting on her nest, which was placed in a miniature cavern, 
in the face of a steep cliff, a little to the south of the Stack-rock. I had 
a good opportunity of seeing the bird, through a very strong pair of Goerz 
field-glasses, and feel sure that it was a Carrion Crow. On my approaching 
the top of the cliff, the bird slipped off her nest, in the furtive way one 
notices in the case of a raven. As far as I c^uld see, looking down from 
above, there were no young birds in the nest, nor eggs. I again went 
to the place, on the i8th June, but the Crow was nowhere to be seen, 
and the nest was empty. It did not, however, appear to have been 
disturbed, and there were no signs of anyone having got to it from above 
or from below — by no means an easy thing to do. It seems strange that 
the bird should have sat so close as she did, when I saw her on the first 
occasion, without having eggs, and if there were any, I cannot account 
for her deserting the nest. Mr. Brunker tells me there were two crows 
when he was at the island in May last. 

The appearance of a Carrion Crow at Ireland's Eye has been recorded 
by me in the Irish Naturalist in 191 4 and 19 16. The nest was made of 
roots, twigs and dried grass. The Crow has not been seen since, although 
the place has been visited by ^Messrs. Williams and Brunker. 

G. C. May. 
13 Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin. 



Irish Naturalist, Vol. XXVI.] 



[Plate VI. 




Equisetum litorale. 



To face p. 141. 



Eileen Barnes, del. 



September, 19 17. The Irish Naturalist. 141 



EOUISETUM LITORALE IN IRELAND. 

BY R. LLOYD PRAEGER. 
(plates VI., VII.) 

The Rocky River, in the ^lourne Mountains, above the 
point where it joins the infant Bann, is a pleasant trout- 
stream, babbhng among granite boulders or pausing in 
sandy pools. The banks are rough, rising steeply for a few 
feet, amid a tangle of willows, gorse, and rocks, with an 
undergrowth of rushes, Molinia, &c., and then spreading 
out into heathy land, sheep pasture, or tilled ground. 
Among the plants which fringe the stream. Horsetails are 
conspicuous by their abundance and variety. Five species 
can be readily distinguished — E. hyemale, E. sylvaticum, 
E. palustre, E. limosum and E. arvense. The first keeps to 
the steep overhanging edges of the banks, and is widely 
spread along the stream. The second, the most pleasing 
of British Horsetails, is very abundant, and like the last, 
displays no noteworthy variation. E. palustre is rare, but 
grows in profusion at one place — a compact erect plant, 
with short branches and large black cones. With it the 
unbranched form — " var." midum — and other variants also, 
occur. E. limosum is seen only occasionally — the un- 
branched form here and there in pools in the stream, 
rather dwarfed in stature ; and the branched form — " var." 
fluviatile — well developed and two feet or more in height — 
in a couple of riverside ditches. Lastly, E. arvense in its 
typical form keeps to the drier ground — sandy overhanging 
river-banks and adjoining earthen fences, growing half-a- 
foot to a foot long, and, as usual, varying considerably as 
to size, habit, and branching. At the time of our visit, 
in the middle of last June, the fertile stems had already 
quite passed away, and the barren ones were fuUy 
developed. 



142 The Irish Naturalist. September, 

Along with these forms, of which five or six might 
often be seen growing intermixed, another Horsetail 
occurred, which puzzled me a good deal, and to which, 
in the course of several pleasant lounging days, I was 
able to devote some attention. As typically developed, 
it occupied the steep banks of the stream from about 
one to three feet above summer level, extending occasion- 
ally downward into a foot of water, and more frequently 
upward into dry ground. Its usual growth was tall 
(2 feet or more) and quite erect. The stem was slender, 
unbranched in its lower half or two-thirds, with whorls 
of simple branches above, diminishing into a long naked 
tail. A search revealed fruiting stems. These were rare 
— not more than one to one hundred barren ones — and 
most of them w^ere not yet mature ; they w^ere similar 
to the barren stems, save that they tended to be less regu- 
larly branched, and were stouter above, where they bore 
each a terminal cone which was disproportionally small. 
The plant was strongly reminiscent of E. arvense on the 
one hand, and of E. limosum fluviatile on the other. At 
first glance, it suggested the former b^^ its slender stem 
and its possession of just that peculiar shade of fresh rather 
glaucous green which belongs to arvense, while it agreed 
with liiYLOSum fluviatile in the similarit}^ of its fertile and 
barren stems, its tall erect growth, its stem bare in the 
low^er half, branched and lanceolate in outline in the upper 
half, and the length of the bare " tail " above. Besides, 
though usually bearing branches, it tended to lose them 
when growing in or near the water, and stems could be 
found which were quite unbranched, as in typical limositm. 
And while its most striking difference from arvense lay in 
the fact of the fertile and barren stems being similar, yet 
the cones had the shape and pale yellowish colour of those 
of arvense, not the black hue which characterizes limosum 
and palustre, nor the ovoid shape of the former of these 
two. The whole appearance of the plant, including the 
rarity and poor development of the fruiting organs, 
suggested a hybrid origin, with E. arvense and E. limosum 
as parents, and called for more critical examination. 

A quantity of typical material — typical, that is, as 



19 17- Praeger — Equisetum litorale in Ireland. 143 

regards the forms of the plants prevailing locally. — was 
collected, from which the following notes were compiled : 

E. arvense — barren stems (which alone remained) 6-12 
inches long, seldom erect, but usually ascending and 
branched from the base, with the branches longest below, 
giving a triangular or ovate outline ; when growing strongly 
among vegetation, the stems attained 18 inches in height, 
and were then bare in the lower half, the outhne of the 
upper half tending to oblanceolate, with a short abrupt 
tail. Stem (middle part) about 8 mm. in circumference, 
strongly furrowed, very firm if compressed laterally, feeling 
almost solid. Teeth 7 or 8 in number,^ long-triangular, 
2.5 — 4 mm. long. In cross section the central hollow occupies 
about J of the diameter, the lacunae in the walls (7-8 in 
number) being small in comparison, and oval with the 
longer axis radial (not almost as large as the central hollow 
as in E. palustre). Layer of thickened cells just inside the 
ring of lacunae well-developed, causing the stem if crushed 
to separate readily into an inner and outer C3dinder. 

E. limosum — as developed locally varies much in length 
and thickness of stem, and is branched or unbranched ; 
stems usually 2-3 feet long, quite erect, dark green, bare 
in lower half or more, branched portion lanceolate in outline, 
ending in a long naked tail ; cone black and thick. Stem 
about 12 mm. in circumference, almost smooth, with many 
faint furrows, weak, collapsing on slight lateral pressure. 
Teeth about 15, crowded, very narrow, 2 — 2.5 mm. long. 
Central hollow occupying about J of the diameter ; the 
lacunae (about 15) in the thin wall very small or absent, 
oblong with long axis parallel to the circumference. No 
layer of thickened cells, to cause the stem to divide, if torn, 
into an inner and outer cylinder. 

E. arvense x limosum? — Erect, usually about 2 feet high, 
fresh green in colour, bare in lower half or more, branched 
above, the branched parts lanceolate in outline with a 



1 In the Horsetails, the number of teeth (the tips of the rudimentary 
leaves), of ridges (when the stem is rough), of air-spaces in the cortex 
(the '* vallecular lacunae "), &c., depends upon and equals the number 
of the fibro-vascular bundles. This number is quite variable in most of 
the species. In E. arvense it ranges from 6 to 19 (being usually from 
8 to 12) ; in limosum from 10 to 30 (usually 16 to 20). 



144 



The Irish Naturalist. 



September, 



long naked tail.^ Cone small, seldom present, rather 
slender, yellowish, on a pinkish peduncle about J inch long. 
Stem about 8 mm. in circumference, somewhat firm, yielding 
elastically to lateral pressure, furrowed, but less so than in 
nrvense. Teeth about 12, crowded, very narrow, 2.5 — 3 mm. 
long. Central hollow |-| the diameter, the lacunae in 
the wall oval, small, larger and rounder than in limosiim, 
as large as or smaller than in arvense, their longer axis 
transverse as in limosum, not radial as in arvense. Layer 
of thickened cells absent as in limosum. 

It will be seen that this more minute comparison amply 
bore out the first impression of the intermediate character, 
as between E. arvense and limosum, of the plant under 
discussion. Several considerations, particularly the colour 
of the plant and the characters of the cone, ruled out 
E. palnstre as a possible parent. There the matter had to 
rest until return home rendered books and specimens 
available. It then became clear that the Hilltown plant 
agreed well in all essential characters with E. litorale Kiihle- 



i The relation of the branched to the unbranched portions of the stems 
in the Hilltown plant may be shown as followS; the figures given being 
the average of a number of stems examined. The joints are counted 
from the tip down to the uppermost joint which bears roots. 



Number of Joints 




Unbranched upper part 
Branched middle part 
Unbranched lower part 



Total 



The fertile stems, in spite of the smaller number of joints, attain the 
same total length as the barren stems, owing to the much greater length 
of the internodes in the unbranched upper section (see Plate VI., 1,2). 
The numbers of which the averages are given above all vary from about 
\ more to | less. 



19 1 7- Praegek — Equisetitm litorale in Ireland. 145 

wein/ first described (as a species) from Russia. This 
plant has been much discussed since its discovery, and 
possesses a quite extensive hterature. To mention the 
views of two leading authorities on the Equisetaceae, Duval- 
Jouve awards it specific rank, while Milde comes to no 
final conclusion, though pointing out the strong evidence 
for its being a hybrid, E. arvense x limosiim. Recent writers 
generally accept the latter view of its position, which is 
much strengthened by the fact that the spores are abortive 
and the elaters absent — the latter feature I was able to 
confirm in the Hilltown specimens. For full descriptions, 
discussions and figures of the plant, with synonymy, <^c., 
the monographs of the two writers quoted above^ should 
be consulted. E. litorale, which has been characterized 
by Milde as " one of the most remarkable of cryptogams," 
is the only known hybrid Equisetum ; and for a hybrid it 
has a very remarkable geographical range, occurring in 
northern, central and western Europe, Bulgaria, Canada 
and the United States. In England, it was discovered at 
Bisley, Surrey, by W. H. Beeby in 1885 (Journ. Bot. 24, 54), 
and described and figured in the same Journal soon after- 
wards (25, 65, tab. 273). Bisley has since remained the 
only British station. Eqtdsetum litorale is, like several 
others of our British Horsetails, an extremely variable 
plant, and it varies in the same directions — size, habit (erect 
to prostrate), branching (simple to much branched), the 
bearing of lateral as well as terminal cones, and so on. 
Milde enumerates four varieties and seven monstrous 
forms, and to these several other " varieties " have been 
added by A. A. Eaton, from American material ; but as 
these variations are dependent chiefly on habitat, they have 
not much importance. The Bisley plant is described as 
passing gradually from var. gracile to var. vulgare Milde — 
that is, from a small unbranched to a larger branched 



* Kuhlewein in Ruprecht, BeitrSge zur Pflanzenkunde des russischen 
Reiches, iv. Lieferung, p. 91. 1845. 

2 DuvAL-JouvE : Histoire naturelle des Equisetum de France. 1864. 
Milde : Monographia Equisetorum, in Nova Acta x\cad. Nat. Curios. 
23, 2 Abth. 1867. 



146 The Irish Naturalist. September, 

form ; and while the collected specimens figured in the 
Journal of Botany, approach the former condition, 
garden-grown specimens in my own and other herbaria 
supplied by Mr. Arthur Bennett, are as much branched 
as ordinary arvense. The Hilltown plant belongs to Milde's 
var. elatius, characterized as follows : — " Caulis erectus 
2-4' altus, apice longe attenuatus, superne et inferne nudus, 
medio verticillis densis ramorum vestitis ; rami superne 
sensim decrescent es, unde caulis imaginem caudae longae 
referens. Spica procaulelongoparva/' (Milde, /. c. p. 365). 
i\Iilde records this variety from Schlesien and Provence, 
and characteristic examples of the Hilltown E. litorale are 
identical wdth specimens from Aries, collected by Duval- 
Jouve, in the Kew Herbarium. It may be noted that 
where at one place the Hilltown plant descended into the 
stony stream-bed it assumed the gracile form, becoming 
smaller, slender, and quite unbranched. 

The parentage E. palnstre x Umosum has been suggested 
by some writers for E. litorale, and W. H. Beeby, in discussing 
the English plant (/. c.) follows Nyman in adopting this 
view ; but the Irish plant, if a hybrid at all, has certainly 
arvense, not palnstre, as one of its progenitors. As regards 
the other parent, the absence of the ring of thickened cells 
in the cortical tissue clearly indicates Umosum, as this 
character is not found in any other species of Horsetail. 

In the preceding paragraphs, I have described the steps 
by which this critical plant was identified, rather than 
merely publish the record of its occurrence, in the hope that 
Irish botanists wall examine local Horsetails with a view 
to extending the range of so rare a plant, and that they wdll 
be assisted by the comparative notes w^hich I have given. 
The botanist visiting the Mourne Mountains will find 
E. litorale growing along the Rocky River for about a mile, 
from the point where it is joined b}^ Shanky's River 
(ascending the latter stream for a short distance) down 
to the old mill-dam above the junction of the Rocky River 
and the Bann. It is likely to occur elsewhere, and if 
fruiting cannot be mistaken ; when not fruiting, the best 
characters are the number of teeth (intermediate between 
the number in arvense and Umosum) and the size of the 



Irish Naturalist, Vol. XXV L] 



[Plate VII. 




4 





10 



To face p. 147. 




Equisetum litorale, &c. 



Eileen Barnes, del. 



19 1 7- PRAEGER — Equisditm litoralc in Ireland. 147 

central cavity as seen in cross-section (likewise intermediate) . 
By merely pinching the stem this character can be accurately 
tested, arvense being very resistant and feeling almost 
solid, limosiim collapsing at once, litoralc being elastic and 
fairly compressible. From all forms of arvense the plant 
can be separated at once by the absence of the cyHnder 
of thickened cells already referred to. One has only to 
crush the stem of any arvense form to render the inner 
cylinder at once noticeable. 

In sections of the stem, as seen under a low power with 
the microscope, the differences stand out clearly. Miss 
Barnes has kindly drawn (Plate VII., figs, 6, 9, 12) sections 
of characteristic stems of E. arvense, E. limosum, and 
E. litorale from fresh Hilltown specimens, and these figures 
may be compared with the corresponding figures in the 
beautiful plates of Duval- Jouve and Milde. Wliile the 
proportions between the central cavity, the cortical lacunae, 
and the diameter of the stem vary in all three, the essentially 
intermediate character of E. litorale is always evident. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

PLATE VI. 
E. morale from Rocky River. 

1. Mature fertile stem, x i. 

2. Tip of barren stem, x i. 

3. Piece of dried stem, showing slight expansion of sheaths and con- 

traction of internodes due to drying, x i. 

PLATE VII. 
E. arvense. 

4. Joint, x 2. 5. Sheath, flattened out, x 2. 6. Section of stem, 

X 12. 

E. litorale. 

7. Joint, X 2. 8. Sheath, flattened out, x 2. g. Section of stem, 
X 12. 

E. limosum (slender stem). 

10. Joint, X 2. II. Sheath, flattened out, x 2. 12. Section of stem, 
X 12. 13. Ditto, showing cortical lacunae, after Duval-Jouve. 

The figures 4 to 13 are all drawn from the middle part of typical stems. 

National Library, Dublin. 



1 48 The Irish Naturalist. September, 



ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTES FROM SOUTH MAYO. 

BY ROBERT F. RUTTLEDGE. 

The following notes cover the time between August, 
1916, and the first week in May, 1917. 

Missel Thrush. — Less numerous, owing probably to the severe winter. 
Song Thrush. — Although formerly very numerous I only noticed about 
half a dozen during last April, although hundreds must have died 
I never found any remains. During the winter many were seen in a 
dying condition, and this species suffered much more than the 
Blackbird. 
Redwing. — More numerous than usual this winter, and remained later. 
Fieldfare.-^More remains of this bird were found during the spring than 
of any other species. 

They were very numerous here this winter, large flocks were seen 
up until the last week in April. 
Blackbird. — Very nearly as plentiful as in former springs ; I found the 

remains of a large number. 
Stonechat. — One singing on April 6th, with snow still on the ground. 
Golden-crested Wren. — Of this species, usually so very plentiful at all 

times of the year, I observed very few this spring. 
Chiff-Chaff. — Very late in its arrival ; it did not appear until April 20th. 
Willow Wren. — Did not appear until April 23rd this year. I found this 
bird very plentiful on Derrinrush peninsula, Lough Carra, on April 
26th. 
Long-Tailed Titmouse. — Although apparently exterminated in some 
districts this Tit was still to be found here quite plentifully after 
the winter. 
Tree-Creeper. — Although always pretty abundant throughout the woods, 
especially in the month of April, I have never noticed so many as 
in this spring. 
Pied Wagtail. — No so prominent as usual. As a rule they arc present 

all tlirough April, but only occasionally this season. 
Grey Wagtail. — The same remark as above applies to this wagtail, though 

I have noticed many by streams and lakes about the country. 
Swallow. — For the third successive year the Swallow was first observed 
on April 22nd, in the evening. I have always noticed the first to 
be a male. 
Martin. — Rather later than usual in arriving. The first Martins were 

noted on JMay ist. 
Sand Martin. — First seen on April 21st. 



igiy- RuTTLEDGE — Ornithological Notcs fvom S. M ayo. 149 

Brambling. — A small flock feeding on a road where stable litter had been 
put down during the frost. They were seen on December 22nd and 
23rd. This is the first I have seen of these birds in the district. 
Lesser Redpoll. — Fewer about this spring. 

Corn Bunting. — I had never observed the Corn-Bunting here until April 

23rd, 191 7, when I saw a flock of about twenty, and on the succeeding 

days saw them in the same place, namely, in a hedge by the roadside, 

and I also heard them in the vicinity of Mayo village. 

Hooded Crow. — Flocks numbering upwards of twenty seen going to roost 

during the autumn and winter. 
Nightjar. — These birds w^ere heard during the month of August, 19 16, 
and one was seen on the evening of August 12th. The Nightjar 
appears to be a regular summer visitor to this district. 
Cuckoo. — First heard this year on April 25th ; several days earlier than 

usual. 
Sparrow Hawk. — Seen in about equal numbers with the following species. 

Both are pretty numerous. 
Kestrel. — Seen at nest on April 26th ,and another pair nesting on April 30th. 
I watched a pair for a long time on April 20th, feeding on the " watch- 
man " beetle. 
Cormorant. — Cormorants were observed almost daily flying in the direction 
of, or away from, Lough Carra, and were often seen fishing in " bog- 
lakes." In the evening one could see them collecting on Hag Island, 
Lough Carra, where they breed. 
Bean Goose. — Two shot on February ist, 1917, out of a flock of from 
seventy to eighty birds. This goose is scarce here in comparison 
with the White-fronted species, and the above occurrence seems to 
be the first for some time. 
White-fronted Goose. — Apparently these geese were driven away from 
this district by the severe weather. At the beginning of the frost, 
however, they were exceptionally numerous. 
Mute Swan. — A great many swans were noticed moving about during the 
winter, and were to be found on many small lakes throughout the 
spring. 
Mallard. — Particularly numerous throughout the winter and many more 

seemed to remain to breed this spring than usual. 
Shoveler. — I found a nest containing nine eggs in Coolmeen Bog, Mayo, 
on April 28th, 1917. There were several Mallard " Spoonbills " or 
" Spooners," as they are locally called, in the marsh. The bird left 
the nest very close, so that she was easily identified. The Shoveler 
is numerous in the swampy ground in the Plains of Mayo in winter, 
and I am told by the man who preserves the marsh, mentioned above, 
that the birds have been increasing for the last five years, breeding 
nearly every spring. A small bog near Lough Carra had a pair of 
Shovelers on a small pond in it on April 21st, and the birds were seen 
again on another occasion. 
Pintail. — A flock consisting of fourteen Pintail were observed on a " flash " 
of water on April i^th. The majority were males in beautiful 



^50 The Irish Naturalist. September, 

plumage. On April 17th tlierc were two pairs. On April 27th four 
pair. Each day on which the ■water was visited showed the Pintails 
to be present.-^ 

Teal. — The same remark applies to this duck as those concerning the 
Mallard. Evidentl}- a large influx took place in November, and 
during the winter Teal were very plentiful. Ever}^ bog which was 
investigated showed many pairs throughout April. 

Wigeon. — Wigeon were in very considerable numbers on the lakes this 
winter, especially during the hard weather when they were in large 
numbers on Lough Carra. In the evening and morning large flights 
were heard passing over on their way to and from Carra and feeding 
haunts. 

Tufted Duck. — A flock of five were resting on the water near the Pintails 
on April 14th. Of the five two were males, and three females. 
Although very numerous on Lough Carra in spring, I had not, until 
this, seen Tufted Duck elsewhere about the country. 

Corn-Crake. — The Corn-crake was first heard this year on May ist. A 
young bird was captured on May loth. This date seems very early 
for young Corn-crakes, as the eggs are usually not laid until the end 
of May. 

Ringed Plover. — Although this species was not found nesting at Lough 
Deen, two pairs of them were seen there, and it is probable that they 
were about to nest at the beginning of May. They appear to breed 
regularly at this " bog-lake." 

Golden Plover. — Although usually very plentiful towards evening about 
Lough Deen, very few were observed this spring. Throughout the 
winter, however, flocks were seen moving from place to place. This 
bird is usually very common in the district. 

Lapwing. — Very late in nesting this season. 

Woodcock. — Birds of this species which I weighed during the winter 
to be in very fine condition. In the evenings during April Woodcock 
might be seen performing their " love-flights " over the woods and 
going out to the bogs to feed. 

Snipe. — The severe winter has had a bad eft'ect upon Snipe. I have found 
their remains in various places. In places where many Snipe breed 
other years, hardly one was heard or seen this season. I am told 
that " there is hardly a Snipe left in the country." 

Common Sandpiper. — Was first observed on April 25th, when a pair was 
noticed at Lough Deen. I had never seen them in that locality 
before. 

Common Redshanks. — These birds did not appear in numbers until April 
14th, though in other years they are abundant on lakes and floods 
during winter and spring. On April 26th there w-as a very dark 
specimen in company with other Redshanks at the northern end of 



* Unfortunately I had to leave this country at the end of April and 
therefore was not able to ascertain whether the Pintails remained to 
breed. 



I9I7- RuTTLEDGE — Ornithological Notes from S. May 0. 151 

Lough Carra. Its dark plumage formed a strong contrast with that 
of its companions. 

Common Curlew. — Very numerous at all seasons. The flocks began to 
break about April 20th ; large flocks, however, existed much later. 
These birds assemble in great numbers for the night at Lough Dcen, 
and are seen making to that lake from the surrounding country 
every evening. 

WhimbreL — The first Whimbrels were heard on April 23rd, which is 
earlier than their usual date of arrival. They disperse themselves 
over the bogs for over a fortnight from the time of their first 
appearance. 

Black-headed Gull. — Many were killed during the winter, as was testified 
by the numerous remains. Though my brother and I visited their 
nesting sites on Lough Carra on April 23rd they had not yet laid 
any eggs. 

Common Gull. — This species was not yet laying on April 23rd when we 
visited Illanatrim Island, their breeding haunt in Lough Carra. 
This species is abundant in spring, particularly at Lough Deen. 

Lesser Black-backed Gull. — One observed flying south in the evening of 
January 4th, and several more during succeeding days.^ Often seen 
during April. April 26th — five mature birds. April 25th — at Lough 
Deen, one mature and two immature birds. We also saw this species 
singly most days, and on one occasion watched one devouring a 
dead sheep in the river Robe. 

Great Crested Grebe. — I did not see any on Lough Carra this spring though 
they were there most probably. There was an immature bird on 
Lough Joe (this lake lies N.N.E. of Lough Carra) on April 21st. 
I was informed by a cottager at the lake that a bird or two always 
came there in the spring, but that they were never seen during the 
winter months. 

Bloomfield, Hollymount, Co. Mayo. 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Recent gifts include Rabbits from Messrs. Wright and Brett, and 
Pigeons from Mr. Dunbar. Five Lion cubs have been born in the Gardens 
during the last few weeks, a litter of three (two males and a female) from 
" Red Hugh " and " Nigeria," and a couple of females from " Oseni " 
and " Sheila." The last-named male (" Oseni ") was captured as a wild 
West African cub, while " Sheila " was born in Dublin from forest-bred 
West African parents. 

1 This species seems rare inland in winter (Ussher's " List of Irish 
Birds," page 49, and Ussherand Warren's " Birds of Ireland," page 339), 



152 The Irish Naturalist. September, 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

May 9. — The Club met at Leinster House, N. Colgan (President) in 
the chair. The officers of 1916-17 were re-elected for 1917-18. 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter showed a preparation of the jaws of a common 
Wireworm (larval Agriotes) and called attention to the lately pubhshed 
account of the external anatomy of this insect by Mr. G. H. Ford 
in the Annals of Applied Biology, (vol. iii., pp. 97-115, pis. xvi-xvii.) 
The structure of the jaws as demonstrated was seen to be well illustrated 
by the figures in this paper. 

Mr. R. C. Taylor showed Argulus foliaceus taken from a salmon killed 
in the Shannon, July, 1916, about 47 miles above Limerick; also two 
species of Caligidae, one from a salmon taken at the same time and place 
as the former, the other from one killed, March, 191 7, in the Boyne above 
Beauparc. It appears unusual to find these copepod parasites on salmon 
so far up the river during the summer months. 

June 16. — Excursion to Portmarnock and Malahide. — A party 
of twelve members travelled by rail to Portmarnock and walked thence 
along the " silver strand " by the sea path to Malahide, where they 
visited the Royal Irish Academy's " Ussher Hut," now in use as a marine 
biological laboratory. J. N. Halbert and R. Southern demonstrated 
there a number of rare and interesting littoral animals and entertained 
the Club to tea. 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

March 13. — The Vice-President (Joseph Maxwell, J. P.) in the chair. 
W. B. Wright, F.G.S., delivered a lecture on " The Applications of 
Geology to the Development of Mineral Resources." He pointed out 
that if a line were drawn through England from York to Dorset it would 
be found that in the country to the east of this line the rocks of the Car- 
boniferous period were concealed by a cover of rocks of the Mesozoic or 
Secondary period, but that to the west of the line the Palaeozoic rocks 
containing the Coal-measures were mainly on the surface. Hence almost 
all the English coalfields lay in the western side of the line. As it was now 
possible to mine to a depth of 4,000 feet it might be that by boring through 
the Mesozoic cover coal would yet be attainable. Mr. Wright said that 
systematic investigation might reveal the existence of coal-beds under- 
neath the Tertiary basalts of South Antrim, of which the Dungannon 
and Coal- island coalfields in County Tyrone were providing the western 
outcrop. 

April 17. — Annual Meeting. — The Vice-President, Joseph Maxwell, 
in the chair. The Committee's and Librarian's Reports were read by 
Dr. Charlesworth ; the Treasurer's Statement of Accounts by Nevin H. 
Foster ; the Report of the Botanical Section by N. Carrothers ; the 
Report of the Geological Section by Miss E. L. Andrews ; the Report of 
the Zoological Section by C. G. Robertson; the Report of the Archaeological 
Section by Robert May; and the Reports of the Junior Section and 



I9I7- Irish Societies. 153 

Prizes Sub-Committee by J. A. Sidney Stendall. Dr. Charlesworth sub- 
mitted his report as Delegate to the Committee of Corresponding Societies 
of the British Association. These reports were adopted. 

Major A. R. Dwerryhouse, D.Sc, F.G.S., M.R.I. A., was re-elected 
President ; A. M'l. Cleland, Vice-President ; S. M. Macoun, Treasurer ; 
Sylvanus Wear, Librarian ; Miss M. W. Rea and Dr. Charlesworth, 
Honorary Secretaries. The Sectional Secretaries were elected as follows : 
Geological, Miss E. L. Andrews ; Botanical, S. A. Bennett ; Zoological, 
C. G. Robertson ; Archaeological, Robert May ; Junior, J. A. Sidney 
Stendall, and Associate, S. A. Bennett. A ballot was taken for three 
Members of Committee, and W. B. Burrowes, Joseph Maxwell, J. P., 
and Joseph Skillen were declared elected. 

Suggestions for places to be visited on the Summer excursions were 
put forward ; and it was pointed out that the usual scope of these 
must for this year be necessarily curtailed as the Railway Companies 
were unable, under existing circumstances, to give excursion fares. 
S. C. Porter, B.L., and W. Keiller having been elected ordinary members, 
the proceedings terminated with the passing of a vote of thanks to N. H. 
Foster for his services to the Club during the past fourteen years. 

May 19. — Excursion to Duncrue. — A party numbering 63 proceeded 
to Carrickfergus by the 1.20 train from Belfast to visit the Duncrue Salt 
Mines, for which kind permission had been given by Mr. Miscampbell, 
J. P. The descent was safely accomplished in buckets, the party, as on a 
similar occasion, proceeding by twos. After the descent the members, 
each armed with a candle, proceeded to an examination of the mine. 
The mines were illuminated by coloured lights, and after a brief account 
of the geology of the salt beds and their mode of origin by the conductor, 
Dr. Charlesworth, the party ascended. The boiling sheds were next 
visited, where the salt is freed of chemical and detrital impurities, and 
prepared. 

June 2. — Excursion to Dundonald. — A party of about forty-five 
met the conductor (A. M'l. Cleland) at Dundonald Station and walked 
to an adjacent field, in which were two fine examples of " standing stones." 
From thence the members proceeded to the Kempe Stone, where a halt 
was made whilst the conductor gave a short description of this monument 
of the past and similar structures, illustrating his remarks by a series of 
photographs. A short walk through the grounds of Rockfield House 
brought the party to a quarry in the Triassic sandstone, covered by a thick 
cap of Boulder-clay. After a few remarks from Dr. J. K. Charlesworth 
as to the points to be observed in the quarry, an adjournment was made 
to Dundonald Presbyterian Church, where the Rev, J. Bingham very 
kindly had on exhibition a fine sixteenth-century treasure chest. 

June 16. — Excursion to Hillsborough and Lisburn. — Eighty 
members and friends travelled by the two o'clock train to Hillsborough, 
and under the conductorship of N. H. Foster walked to the Lagan Canal 
at Newport and thence to Lisburn. On arrival at Lisburn the party 
proceeded to the Cathedral, which by kind permission of Rev. Canon 
Pounden had been kindly opened for their inspection. 



154 -^^^ Irish Naturalist. September, 

The customary business meeting was held in the Cathedral schoolhouse — 



the Vice-President, A. M'l. Cleland, in the chair. A cordial vote of thanks 
was awarded to Rev. Canon and Miss Pounden for their attention and 
hospitality ; R. M. Close was elected an ordinary member of the Club. 

The interests of the walk by the canal side were chiefly botanical, and 
it was rather disappointing that in this unusually late season some of the 
rarer plants which have found a habitat were not yet in flower ; and 
interest chiefly centred in the Sweet Flag, Acorus Calamus, of which many 
flowering specimens were available. This plant was (upwards of 200 years 
ago) introduced by Sir Arthur Rawdon into his gardens at Moira. His 
gardens wit-h their ponds have long since disappeared, but from them the 
Sweet Flag has spread, and now practically lines the canal on both sides 
from Lough Neagh to Belfast. In Ireland it is only found in a few other 
outlying stations, where it had doubtless been planted. Among other 
of our less common plants observed may be mentioned Nasturtium am- 
phibium, Habenaria Morantha, Carex panicidata, C. vesicaria and 
Catabrosa aquatica. 



NOTES. 

ZOOLOGY. 
Psithyrus rupestris in Co. Wexford. 

I caught a female of this conspicuous " usurper-bee " at Ballyhyland 
on August 3rd, and another on August 14th. Though it probably occurs 
in most parts of Ireland, it appears to have been recorded from only 
quite a few localities. Mr, Sladen in his fascinating book " The Humble- 
Bee " credits only three Irish counties — Cork, Limerick, and Sligo — with 
records of this species. He might, however, have added Down, where it 
it was taken by the late Mr. H. L. Orr {Irish Naturalist, vol. xx., p. 76). 
With Wexford added, the range is seen to extend into all the four pro- 
vinces. The insect is probably often overlooked owing to its resemblance 
to Bombus lapidarius ; but by coming abroad in August, when queens of 
the last-named species are not likely to be on the wing, it sometimes runs 
a risk of easy detection. I should like to know how these two females 
came to be travelling about at so late a date. 

C. B. Moffat. 

Ballyhyland, Co. Wexford. 



I9I7- Notes. 155 

The Quail in Co. Wexford* 

The present summer has been marked by an unusually large visitation 
of Quails to this part of Co. Wexford — the largest, probably, since 1893, 
though there was a big influx noticeable for a short period in the early 
summer of 1899. The birds have remained with us during the whole of 
July and well into August, many of the cornfields on moonlight nights 
resounding with the challenge cry that seems to have gained for the 
Quail its local name of the '" wet-weather bird "— a name that has perhaps 
died out, though I heard it from an old farmer in this neighbourhood in 
1904, and " wet weather " is a much better rendering than " wet-my-foot ' ' 
of the trisyllabic cry, accentuated as it always is on the second syllable. 
Some Quails, I believe, now come to us every summer, but in 191 6 I only 
heard the note once. 

C. B. Moffat. 

Ballyhyland, Co. Wexford. 



Fulmar Petrels at Inishtearaght. 

Last April, when staying on Inishtearaght, 1 observed a few Fulmar 
Petrels on a great number of occasions. The birds, though not seen 
to alight, usually hugged the precipitous cliffs for hours at a stretch 
on both north and south sides where Kittiwakes and Auks were 
preparing to breed. I have not as yet had any positive evidence that the 
birds are breeding on Inishtearaght this season, but may be able to find 
out before the season is over. Seeing that the Fulmar Petrel has estab- 
lished itself as a breeding species in goodly numbers at the Skelligs, a 
neighbouring island, it is very likely that an overflow of birds may have 
proceeded to Inishtearaght for breeding purposes. 

C. J. Patten. 

University, Sheffield. 



Sandwich Terns breeding on Mutton Island, Gahvay. 

I am much indebted to i\Ir. John Glanville for letting me know that 
the Sandwich Tern is breeding this year in small numbers on Mutton 
Island, Galway. This is a newly-discovered breeding haunt of this fine 
tern, and the species, nowhere numerous around our coast, (as far as our 
present knowledge goes), deserves rigid protection. Mr. Glanville tells 
me he is most anxious that the birds should not be molested, and that 
he will do all he can to watch and drive off egg-raiders. 

C. J. Patten. 

The University, Sheffield, 



156 The Irish Naturalist. September, 191 7. 

Arctic Skuas on Migration on Mutton Island, Qalway. 

and at Moville, Co. Donegal, 

On June 8th last Mr. Glanville collected on Mutton Island an Arctic 
Skua which he was kind enough to send me for investigation. Though 
the specimen, an adult male, was in most excellent plumage, and a beautiful 
skin was made, nevertheless the bird was much emaciated. Curiously 
enough, on June 13th, Mr. L. Power, light-keeper at Inishowen, found 
another Arctic Skua in Moville. The bird had flown against a tree and 
had injured itself. Mr. Power very kindly sent me the specimen which 
proved to be an adult female, also in beautiful plumage, but the body was 
very emaciated. As these two birds were picked up more or less by 
chance there is no reason to doubt that many others, passing northwards 
along the Irish seaboard, were in a similar state and may have died 
unnoticed. Except when actually at their breeding-grounds. Skuas are 
strongly pelagic, and it is customary for them to perform their migratory 
passages some miles off the coast. Some disturbance at sea seems to 
have been the means of depriving them of their food (small fishes obtained 
second-hand from the crops of gulls) . Though the Arctic Skua is the one 
most commonly met with round our coast it is nevertheless scarce as a 
passing visitor in June as compared with the large numbers which appear 
in autumn, especially in September and October. 

C. J. Patten. 
The University, Sheflield. 



Wood-Warbler on Migration obtained at Maidens 
Lighthouse, Co. Antrim. 

I am greatly indebted to Mr. John Barlow, light-keeper, for kindly 
sending me a beautiful adult male Wood-warbler which he obtained 
at 10.30 p.m. on May loth last at Maidens lighthouse. The bird struck 
the lantern on a calm dark foggy night wdth rain and light east wind. 
Numerous Sedge-Warblers, Willow- Warblers, Greater Whitethroats, and 
a Redstart, appeared the same night, specimens of which were also for- 
warded. The above Wood-warbler is only the second which I know of 
which has been obtained from a light-station, and the first which has 
actually struck a lantern. The previous specimen was shot on Blackrock, 
Co. Mayo, on May 27th, 1890, as recorded by the late Mr. Barrington. 
("Migration of Birds at Irish Light-stations, Analysis of Reports," 
1881-97, P- 76). 

C. J. Patten. 

University, Sheffield. 



October, 1917. The Irish Naturalist. 157 

LOSSES TO A LOCAL FLORA. 

BY C. B. MOFFAT. 

The glacial conditions of the winter of 191 6-17 have left 
their mark on the flora as well as on the fauna of this 
neighbourhood. At least five species of plants have been so 
reduced that it seems doubtful whether they will ever 
recover their former plenty. These are the Weld {Reseda 
luteola), Pale-flowered Flax {Limini angustifolium) , Fleabane 
[Pulicaria dysenterica), Greater Broomrape {Orohanche 
major), and Lesser Broomrape (Orohanche minor). 

The Greater Broomrape has been brought to the very 
verge of extermination in its old stronghold of Killoughram 
Forest, where, until a few years ago, its flowering spikes 
could have been counted by thousands every summer as 
they towered over the tops of the Broom, which was here 
undoubtedly their chief host. Since the ploughing up 
of a favoured stretch of broom-covered scrub this profusion 
has been a thing of the past ; but I could still have counted 
some hundreds of the spikes 'during a walk through the 
wood in 1916. This year, though searching carefully, I 
failed to find more than one. 

As the Broom had suffered considerably from the hard 
weather, while the Gorse was nearly destroyed, it is possible 
that this general disappearance of the Broomrape is due 
to impaired vitality on the part of its host-plants. Even 
the Heather {Calluna vulgaris), which sometimes serves as a 
host, is alleged (as Mr. J. P. Burkitt informs me) to have 
been killed in some districts, and may (though I did not 
notice the fact) have endured minor damage here. 

The Lesser Broomrape should this year be celebrating 
the Jubilee of its first recognition as a County Wexford 
plant ; for it was in 1867 that Miss E. M. Farmar found at 
Bloomfield (as related in the " First Supplement " to Cy- 
hele Hihernica i) the two plants, on Sweet Pea and 
Clover, which form the earliest recorded instances of its 

^ More : " Recent Additions " (1872), p. 24. 



158 The Irish Naturalist. October, 

occurrence in this count3^ Its increase since that date 
must have been extremely rapid, and for fully forty years 
prior to 1916 it was so abundant throughout this district 
as to affect the coloration of every clover-field. It was 
also common as a roadside plant, and in that capacity it 
flourished chiefly as a parasite on White Clover {Trifolium 
repens), though in meadow-ground it may have been — 
as the editors of Cyhele Hihernica (1898) consider it to 
be throughout Ireland — restricted to Trifolium pratense. 

As a roadside plant, however, Orobanche minor has now 
vanished, and Trifolium repens has, therefore, possibly 
ceased to be its host. And though in clover-fields it is 
still far from extinct, the reduction it has undergone within 
the past two years is certainly over 95 per cent. This is 
not exclusively due to the severity of last winter, for I had 
been struck by a marked decrease of this species in the 
summer of 1916 ; but in 1917 the diminution has been still 
more manifest, and it seems probable that the exceptional 
weather has caused the further decline. 

The three other reduced species showed no symptoms 
of any diminution until the summer of 1917. Not one of 
them is now to be found in one-tenth of the quantity that 
existed a year ago. 

Of these three species, two — the Weld and the Yellow 
Fleabane — are known limestone-lovers. Reseda luteola is 
referred by Mr. Colgan to his Calcicole B, and Pulicaria 
dysenterica to his Calcicole C group. I do not know whether 
Linum angustifolium is credited with any similar leanings 
or not, but from the company it keeps I should not be 
surprised to hear that it was so. We have no limestone 
in this district, where the formation is of Silurian age ; 
and it is possible that the few calcicoles we possess in our 
decidedly calcifuge flora are for that reason peculiarly 
sensitive to uncongenial weather, or any other change for 
the worse in their surroundings. 

At any rate, it is a remarkable fact that even before 
the destructive winter of 1916-17 we had lost or nearly 
lost from this neighbourhood several of our more interesting 
calcicoles — all within the past ten or twelve years — from 
causes that I am quite unable to decipher. The most 



igij. Moffat. — Losses to a Local Flora. 159 

singular disappearance of all has been that of the Yellow- 
wort (Chlora perfoliata) ; for this species, though confined 
to dry, upland pastures, used to abound in such localities, 
as far back as my memory extends. When it began to 
decline 1 cannot sa^^, as I was little in this part of the country 
between the years 1902 and 1915 ; but in that interval 
the Yellow-wort vanished. The same is true of the Fel- 
wort (Gentiana Amarella), a frequent companion of the 
Yellow-wort, though a good deal less common. A third 
species of the B group — the Marjoram (Origanum vulgar e) 
died out during the same period in the only spot within a 
three-mile radius of Ballyhyland where I had known it to 
exist, though the ground where it grew— and had grown for 
at least 35 years prior to 1902 — had certainly not been 
subjected to any disturbance. A fourth loss prior to 
1915 was that of the only Calcicole A plant that could ever 
have been claimed for our local flora (discarding mere 
casuals like Galeopsis angusti folia) : namely, Orchis pyrami- 
dalis, whose presence in a little grove of spruce-firs at 
Caim had always seemed a bit of a mystery— though the 
fact that the only known locality for the Marjoram was 
little more than 200 yards distant may suggest that the soil 
was here a trifle more favourable to calcicoles than that of 
the district generally. The dying out of both species 
would, however, similarly suggest that by this time the 
favourable properties in the soil must have been exhausted. 

In addition to the four plants mentioned I am afraid 
that a fifth calcicole has disappeared in the Mountain 
Cudweed (Antennaria dioica) which I failed to find, this 
year and last year, in an old habitat not half-way up Black- 
stairs ; but as I had not marked the spot in former years 
with proper exactness the fault in the case of this species 
may be mine. The Banewort (Sambucus Ebulus) also 
shows a tendency to die out ; but as its principal stations 
were sites of former cottages it is scarcely a case in point. 

The calcicole species that remain in our flora are now so 
few that they are worth enumerating. Only six are 
common : — Pimpinella Saxifraga, Tussilago Farfara, Thrin- 
Qta hirta, Carex glanca, Trisetum flavescens, and Ceterach 



i6o The Irish Naturalist . October, 

officiiiarum. Three others, though local and scarce, retain 
their hold in undiminished strength in the few stations 
to which they are restricted. These are Hypericum per- 
foratum (found chiefly near lime-kilns), Leontodon hispidns, 
and Spiranthes autumnalis. 

The above are, I think, the only plants we have 
left (exclusive of cornfield or waste-ground casuals) that 
are certified as limestone-lovers in Cyhele Hihernica, and 
that have not suffered from last winter's severity. I must, 
however, mention one further species, whose calcicole 
proclivities (duly recognised in Irish Topographical 
Botany) have not interfered with its survival in the very 
few settlements it has effected in this neighbourhood. I 
refer to Rubus discolor, the Bramble so universally prevalent 
about Dublin, and often supposed to be common every- 
where, but in the district round Ballyhyland so exclusively 
confined to a few " suspicious " localities that no one could 
possibly claim it as a truly native plant. Except in the 
outskirts of the town of Enniscorthy, I know only four 
spots where it grows, each being close to a cottage, on ground 
where it is probable that lime may at some time have been 
thrown. Near one of these settlements the calcicoles 
Poterium Sanguisorha and Convolvulus arvensis (otherwise 
nearly unknown here) once flourished as prosperous colo- 
nists ; but both soon died out. The sturdier Rubus discolor 
contrives in each spot just to hold its own, neither decreasing 
nor spreading, over a space of some four or five yards in 
length. It is evident that the late winter did this plant 
no harm. 

I hope these notes may serve to direct attention to the 
question whether any similar process to that under notice 
here has been observed elsewhere in Ireland, and whether, 
if so, there has been any marked difference in its effects in 
different parts of the country, especially in connection 
with the difference between limestone-loving and limestone- 
avoiding plants. In the near future, the spread of tillage 
must add to the difficulty of determining from what causes 
various members of our flora have tended to disappear 

Ballyhyland, Enniscorthy. 



1917. BuRKiTT. — Note on the Long-eared Owl. 161 

NOTE ON THE LONG-EARED OWL. 

BY J. P. BURKITT. 

My friend, C. V. Stoney, once used to me the expression 
that the Long-Eared Owl was an uncertain nester, and 
observations of mine corroborate that to an only too 
aggravating degree. I had planned this year to make 
continued observations of these birds throughout the mating 
season, and formulate relations between their evening 
practices and their nesting, including the incubation of 
the male, and to follow up their habits with their young. 
This note is one of failure. But failure is sometimes 
instructive. Others may have very much easier chances 
of observation than I had. 

I began on the 17th February to watch a pair in a small 
planting, who had raised a brood the previous year, having 
had goodsized young on the 8th April. The old nest was 
gone to pieces (a young skeleton on the ground below), 
so a new nest had to be watched for. Each evening watch 
means about i to i|- hours. After eleven watches I found 
on March 29th one eo^g in what I had diagnosed since the 
20th to be the selected nest. Thereafter up to April 4th 
the birds were about the nest at dusk, but on the 12th 
I found still only the one eg^, and bedded round in snow. 
And on subsequent evening watches there was no further 
sign of the parents I took the egg on the 24th April, 
and found it cracked. 

I do not think the birds were disturbed by my one 
climb to the nest (in daytime) and they kept about it for 
at least a week later. So I do not know what bad luck 
happened. We had snow and frost from the 8th to 12th 
April, with a very severe frost on the night of the loth. 
I then, from April 12th, located and took on another 
pair in a larger plantation some miles awa}^ This pair 
as events proved had not yet nested. I had to pay about 
a dozen evening visits before the misleading female gave 
clear indication of the nest she was going to occup\^ and 
that was on the nth May. From then till the 17th she 



l62 The Irish Naturalist. October, 

went to a nest each evening cautiously shortly after leaving 
her roost, and when on the nest varied her ordinary note 
with new chuckling or cuddling sounds. 1 had previously 
climbed to this nest, so there was no question of young. 
Wliat was my chagrin to ftnd that on my next two visits, 
22nd and 23rd May, she never w^ent on to the nest, while the 
regular evening duets of the pair dwindled away, and from 
the 26th there was no further sign or sound of the birds ! 
Now, the strange point is that I had a similar experience 
with a pair of birds in 19 15. 1 had watched them from the 
28th March. A nest was apparently selected, as in the second 
case, by the 5th April, and retained till the 24th, but no eggs 
ever appeared, and the (mating) notes died oi^. This 
latter nest was in a wood about a quarter of a mile from 
number 2. Query : was this a peculiarity of the same pair 
of birds, or a peculiarity of the species ? 

I would suppose this bird to be too well studied, for the 
above pre-brood observations to add anything fresh, but 
there was with both the pairs which I watched this year a 
regularly maintained habit of clapping the wings together 
in flight, like that of the Nightjar. Unless aware of the 
cause, one would never connect the noise with a bird, much 
less an owl. It is evidently a regular part of the connubial 
language, and practised by both parents during their early 
flights about the wood and before leaving for their nightly 
work. I have never seen this mentioned, except a clapping 
referred to by Mr. Kearton as a means of terrifying the 
human intruder when handling the young. This wing- 
clapping was practised the whole time I watched the two 
pairs this year, from the first time that I discerned it, early 
in March. 

The mating birds roost 15 to 50 yards apart. The 
female is ever changing, but the male's roost seems to be 
almost constantly in the neighbourhood of the ultimate 
nest, and not much varied ; in fact the general impression 
he gives throughout is of anxiet}^ to keep her from ne- 
glecting her nesting duties. If you climb to the nest in 
the daytime, before the female is sitting, a few notes from 
him may show he is doing sentry. These birds open their 
night by a few low hoo-s at dusk from the male on his roost. 



191 7- BuRKiTT. — Note on the Long-eared Owl 163 

They will probably be so soft as to be barely audible close 
at hand on a quiet night. This low bass note gets stronger 
as the dusk increases, but though comparatively far-reaching 
it is nearly impossible to locate exactly, especially when near 
at hand or overhead. His note is always in a regular beat 
of about 3 seconds, whereas the female's wail (rather like 
a distant lamb) is, at her best, about 10 seconds interval, 
and may be much more. After the male's first call there 
will be silence for perhaps 5 or 10 minutes, w^hen he calls 
again ; probably silence again, or just one reply note from 
the female. She may have 10 minutes between her first 
notes, but she gradually lessens the interval to 10 or 12 
seconds. Twenty minutes to half an hour from his first 
call, she flops down from her roost in the thick top of a 
spruce to a bare branch half way to ground and half way 
to the edge of the wood, keeping up her call. She seems 
generally the first to leave her roost. He then comes along 
clapping his wings together in slow but pretty loud flaps, 
and both will fly and flap wings between various perches 
along the adjacent edge of wood, calling to each other, 
and flying about 10 feet from the ground. Or as grey 
shadows they will flit about the wood, noiseless, except 
for the uncanny clapping. When they think the light 
sufliciently gone, the male drops down from his perch to 
3 or 4 feet over the field, and steals away along the outside 
edge of the wood for his night's work. She follows later. 
If near nesting time she may not follow, or she may follow, 
but return in three quarters of an hour and keep up her 
wailing call half through the night, from perches near the 
edge of the wood. I have thus been able to hear her 
when I was nearly a quarter of a mile away. I never 
heard the male call after he first leaves the w^ood. The 
whole evening duet till they leave the wood lasts from 
30 to 50 minutes. I was treated once to the probabty rare 
experience of the male hoo-ing on the ground within 5 feet 
of me, for a minute or so. It was amusing to see his 
head rising and his eyes glaring as he gradually scented 
something wrong. 

Enniskillen. 



164 The Irish Naturalist. October, 

NOTODONTA BICOLORIA IN. CO. KERRY. 

BY L. H. BONAPARTE-WYSE. 

On the morning of June 7th last, whilst cycling on the 
Kenmare road, between Muckross and Derrycunihy, I 
noticed a white moth fl3^ing round a holly tree. Not being 
sure of its identity, I dismounted from the bicycle and 
waited till it had settled on the underside of a holly leaf. 
I then saw with pleasure that it was a male specimen in 
good condition of the White Prominent, Notodonia (Leuco- 
donta) hicoloria (Schiff.), one of our rarest moths and a great 
prize. I soon had it in a pill-box and was glad to get it 
home undamaged. 

The following interesting account of the moth's occurrence 
in our islands and abroad taken from Barrett (" Lepidoptera 
of the British Islands," vol. iii., pp. 129-130) is worth 
quoting : — 

" A very rare species in this country, and little is known of its habits. 
The first specimen known to have occurred in these islands was taken in 
the middle of June, 1859, at Killarney, in the south-west of Ireland, 
by Mr. P. Bouchard, a professional collector. It was understood to have 
been beaten out of a birch, but he was naturally reticent as to its habits. 
Several more were taken by him in the same place — Mr. S. Stevens believes 
sev^en or eight — and the wings of one were found at the foot of a tree. 
Doubt was subsequently raised as to the genuineness of the captures, but 
Mr. S. J. Capper tells me that when he visited Killarney the residents 
showed him the very tree on which one of what they called '" ]\Iicolora " 
was taken ; and I think that there is no reason to suspect fraud in this 
case. In June, 1861, Mr. John Smith, an artisan from Manchester, had 
the good fortune to secure a specimen in an extensive wood, known as 
the Burnt Wood, in North Staffordshire. This was exhibited at Man- 
chester, and led to an expedition by Mr. Joseph Chappell, a well-known 
Manchester collector, to the same place in J une, 1863, when he and a friend 
had the good fortune to obtain six examples, by beating birch trees and 
bushes. One of these laid a number of eggs, the larvae from which were 
carefully tended, but they proved extremely delicate and most of them 
died, seven only producing the perfect insects. . . In 1866 another 
specimen seems to have been secured at Killarney. . . . Mr. W. F. de 
Vismes Kane states that .two specimens have been obtained in the County 
of Kerry by Miss Vernon, and he exhibited one of these in London in 
1892. Major J. N. Still possesses a single specimen, tlic capture of which 



1917- Boxaparte-Wyse. — Notodonta bicoloria. 165 

near Exeter, Devon, in 1880, appears to have been satisfactorily proved; 
and this I think completes the record of captures in the United Kingdom. 
Not a very common species abroad, but found in France, Belgium, 
Germany, Sweden, Livonia, Finland and Russia . . ." 

Since this was written (1896) Mr. Thomas Greer mentions 
{If. Nat., vol. xxv., p. 82) a specimen of N. bicoloria that 
a friend met with in a " new locahty in the South of Ireland." 
This specimen and mine are probably the only captures of 
the moth in the Emerald Isle within the last twenty years. 

Holland Park Gardens, London, W. 



REVIEW. 

ORNITHOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

A Bibliography of British Ornithology from the earliest times to the end 

of 19 1 2, including biographical accounts of the principal writers and 
bibliographies of their published works. By W. H. Mullens, M.A., 
LL.M., F.L.S., M.B.O.U., and H. Kirke Swann. 8vo. pp. 20+ 708 pp. 
London : Macmillan & Co., 19 16- 17. Published in 6 parts, price 6s. net 
each. 

This well-printed work will be of great value to the many persons who 
are interested in ornithology, particularly those whose taste leans towards 
the historical and biographical side of the subject. On our first examin- 
ation of the book, we failed to discover on what principle ornithologists 
had been selected for inclusion, as the names of some well-known writers 
on birds were not to be found, and others were included whose contri- 
butions to ornithology were of the slenderest. Eventually we found a 
small inset in red ink pasted into the second part, which stated that " it 
has been considered necessary to limit the present portion of the Biblio- 
graphy to those authors who have written a separate work, 
or a section of a separate work." But the titles given under writers 
thus qualified is not limited to such separate work or works, but 
includes a selection — made, presumably, with an eye to their relative 
importance — of their contributions to periodical literature, down to items 
occupying less than a single page. It is necessary to bear these limitations 
as to both the list of persons and the lists of their papers thoroughly in 
mind when consulting the book, otherwise quite erroneous impressions 
might result. Within the limits thus laid down, the information given 
■ is full of interest, and appears especially rich where the older ornitholo- 
gists are concerned. The biographical notices are often somewhat diffuse, 
and being printed in large type have added materially to the bulk of the 
book, and are a contributing cause of its high price. It is a pity that the 
editors were unable to see so many of the books which they catalogue, as 



l66 Tlic Irish Naturalist. October, 

such entries at second-hand are not satisfactory. Access to a good ornitho- 
logical library ought to have prevented looseness as regards certain items. 
For instance, who would recognize under the entry " The Birds of the Co. 
of Cork. Cork: 1894. ^'^o " Mr. Ussher's contribution to the edition 
of Charles Smith's " Ancient and Present State of the County and City 
of Cork," issued by the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, of 
which it constitutes chapter 6 of vol. ii., being entitled " A Catalogue 
of the Birds observed in this county." One also notices with regret an 
absence of accuracy of detail in some of the entries — for instance, " Major 
G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton, B.A., of Kilmarnock House " ; " Dr. More " ; 
" R. M. Barrington, LL.D." Biography and bibliography are now-a-days 
such exact studies that inaccuracies of this kind are to be regretted in 
so useful a work, even though they do little to detract from its value. 

We are glad to learn (from the red slip already mentioned) that the 
authors intend that the present volume should be followed by a Geogra- 
phical Bibliography or " County Index," in which will be included not 
only short titles of the books, but all articles and notes in periodicals, 
provided they are of a faunistic nature. By being complete, a bibliography 
gains very greatly in value. 

R. Ll. p. 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

June 30. — Ii^xcursion to Pot of Pulgarve. — Under the conductorship 
of A. M'l. Cleland, a party of about fifty members journeyed to Newcastle 
lor the Pot of Pulgarve, a lovely little hollow at the head of the Glen River, 
at the foot of the slopes of Sheve Donard and Slieve Commedagh. On 
reaching Newcastle the party quickly traversed the town and then began 
the long, slow climb to the Pot, reaching the latter shortly after two. 
From here some of the more active members ascended to the summit of 
SUeve Uonard, the majority, however, contenting themselves with a short 
clamber up the guUcy in which llie Glen Kiver takes its rise, and where 
some very fine examples of granite weathering were met with. Tea was 
served in the Slieve Donard Hotel, after which the majority of the party 
returned to Belfast by the 6.50 train. 

July I-|. — Excursion to Ballyw.\lter Park. — By permission of 
Lad\- Hunleath, who met the party on their arrival, the grounds and 
aviary were thrown open U) the visitors — a kindness which was much 
appreciated. A business meeting of tlie Club was held after tea at the 
Dunlcath Arms, at which three new members were elected. 



1917- Irish Societies. 167 

July 28. — Excursion to Downpatrick. — Thirty members and friends 
travelled by the 10.50 a.m. train to Downpatrick. W. B. Burro wes 
and R. May were the conductors. A pleasant walk of two miles brought 
the party to St. Patrick's Holy Wells at Struell, once a famous resort 
of pilgrims. A clear stream which flows down a little valley supplies 
the water. Wells have been dug along its course and covered in with 
stone-built huts. Utter neglect is now a prominent feature of the historic 
spot. A walk of one mile further brought the party to Sleive-na-Griddle, 
414 feet in height. On the summit a cromleac formerly existed ; all 
that now remains is the top stone. On the return to Downpatrick an 
excellent tea was served in the Down Hunt Hotel, after which a short 
business meeting was held. F. A. Heron presided, when two new members 
were elected. 

August ii. — Excursion to ^iIagheramorne. — A party of sixty 
members travelled thither, under the conductorship of A. M'l. Cleland. 
On reaching Magheramorne station the members were met by the manager 
(Mr. F. W. Davis) of the British Portland Cement manufacturers, and by 
him and his assistants conducted through these very important local 
works. From the works the party adjourned to the quarries, when the 
conductor gave a brief address on the principal geological features of the 
rock sections here seen. As the quarry has been in continuous work 
for the past hundred years, and as its lowest workings are now below 
sea-level, it affords an excellent practical demonstration of the geology 
of the district. The party next passed down to the shore to inspect an 
artifical and modern raised beach, caused by the tipping of quarr}^- 
rubbish upon the soft surface of the estuarine clays which have thus been 
pushed well above high-water mark, disclosing countless remains of oysters 
and other molluscs. The members afterwards visited ^lagheramorne Glen, 
kindly thrown open to them by the Hon. Miss M'Garel-Hogg and Lady 
Evelvn Baring. This proved to be an enjoyable part of the day's 
proceedings, the botanists meeting with a full reward, the principal find 
being a beautiful growth of Viper's Bugloss {Echiiim vulgare). 

August 25. — Excursion to Ballinderry. — Travelling in brakes, the 
party halted at " Jeremy Taylor's Church," After inspecting the church 
the members drove to Lower Ballinderry corner, whence a walk of about 
half a mile led to the ruins of the old church of Portmore. Here the 
members scattered to follow their various pursuits till four o'clock, when 
tea was served in the schoolroom. Afterwards a business meeting was 
held, at which A. M'L Cleland announced that the average attendance 
at the excursions during the season had been about fifty. On the return 
journey the Tansey Road was taken through Killultagh and past Stoneyford 
to Castle Robin, where a fifteen minutes' halt was allowed. From here 
the party admired the Lagan Valley spread beneath them, whilst 
inspecting the somewhat meagre ruins of the castle. The drive to 
Belfast was then resumed. 



i68 The Irish Naturalist. October, 



DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

July 21. — Excursion to the North Bull. — A party of 12 assembled 
at the Bull bridge, Dollymount, about 2 p.m., and proceeding along the 
Bull Wall struck northward past the army huts until the hollows amongst 
the sand-hills beyond the range of targets were reached. Here a halt 
for luncheon was made in rich botanical ground carpeted with the Sea 
]\Iilk-wort (Glaux), the Knotted Spurrey and the Sand Pansy [Viohi 
Ciiytisii), more conspicuous features being the Yellow-wort and the 
Centaury with occasional belated spikes of the Pyramidal Orchis. 

Mr. Arnold Graves having been duly elected a member at a business 
meeting held after lunch, the majority of the party pushed northward 
to the extreme end of the sand-bank leaving a contingent behind to more 
fully explore the sandy hollows. Though a drifting sea fog veiled the 
Bay and shut out the fine prospect of the Dublin Hills for which the Bull 
is famous, the dunes were flooded in sunshine and troops of the Six-spotted 
Burnet hovered over the tall Ragweeds, the silky, yellow cocoons of the 
moth being observed in large numbers on the slender stems of the Sea 
Bent (Psamma). Farther on two fine individuals of the Silver-washed 
Fritillary were seen and careful search amongst the dense growth of 
Bent was rewarded by the discovery of abundance of the Kamtschatkan 
Wormwood, Artemisia Stelleviana, an accidentally introduced alien first 
detected here by Miss A. G. Kinahan in 1891, and still maintaining its 
place amongst natural surroundings. Several plants of Asparagus, too, 
were noted looking thoroughly wild amongst the native growths and near 
the extreme end of the sandbank a large solitary tuft of the Trailing 
Willow {Salix repens) was seen, the only plant of this willow established 
on the dunes here and probably originating in seed wind-borne from the 
banks of Portmarnock about a mile to the northward. 

Nearing the extreme Sutton end of the Bull a remarkable mirage effect 
was witnessed. Through the heat haze and the drifting sea mist an 
archipelago of rocky islets appeared rising from the sea in the distance, 
but as the party ap)proached this visionary archipelago it resolved itself 
into A few sand hummocks less than a foot higli, capped with sea-weed, 
and lying near the edge of ebb tide. On the way back vast sheets of the 
Sea Lavenders [Staiice rarijiora and 5. occidentalis) just beginning to 
flower were noted on the inner tidal flats and scattered plants of the 
Hare's-foot Trefoil were found amongst the Bent. 

Although no special attention was paid to marine zoology, numerous 
shells of the sand-dwelhng mollusca were observed belonging chiefly to 
the genera Solen, Tellina, Mactra, Venus, Tapes, Pccten, and Cardium, 
Soldi vagina occurring rather frequently amongst the innumerable valves 
of its much commoner congener, S. siliqna. The party returned to Dublin 
by tram about 7 o'clock. 



1 91 7- Notes. 169 

NOTES. 

BOTANY. 
Magilligan Plants. 

Last July I was glad to find the Yew still existing in Co. Derry. It was 
found by David Moore in 1835 on the cliffs of Benevenagh, 1000- 1300 
feet, but had apparently not since been seen in the county. Its existing 
habitat is on high basaltic cliffs in the townland of Woodtown,]Magilligan, 
(The area which forms the eastern corner of the great triangle of Magilligan, 
comprising the townlands of Woodtown, Umbra and Benone, has usually 
been referred to by botanists as Benone or Umbra, but Benone is properly 
confined to the flat sandy area north of the railway, while Umbra is the 
eastern, and Benone the western part of the rising ground which adjoins, 
extending as far as the top of the cliffs.) Several old Yew-trees grow 
flat against the face of the rock above the place marked " The Merrick 
Stone " on the 6-inch Ordnance map, and a smaller bush and a large dead 
stump were seen near by. The spot may be fixed on the one-inch map 
as f mile W.S.W. of the summit of Eagle Hill. The elevation is 500-600 
feet. Save with a rope from the top, the Yew is inaccessible ; but I was 
able to climb sufficiently near for positive identification. 

Near the base of the same cliff, a little to the right and to the left, 
and accessible to a climber, are a few bushes of another rare local plant, 
Pyriis rupicola ; this is, no doubt, Templeton's old station (under P. Aria) 
" sparingly on Umbra rocks," where it had not been seen again till re- 
found by Mr. Tomlinson last year, and seen again by him during the same 
week as my visit. Mr. Tomlinson writes : — " In addition to the isolated 
but fine specimens on face of the Woodtown clift's, there are half-a-dozen 
trees growing in the ravine where Meconopsis occurs (see below). They 
are all on the Woodtown side of the glen, and arch over from the steep 
side of the ravine. It is strange that wind effects are so noticeable on 
the plant here, and much less so on the plants of the same species on the 
cliffs to the west." 

Another local station which will be the better for exact definition is 
that for Meconopsis camhrica, half a mile north-east of the last. A number 
of fine plants of it grow on crumbling basaltic rocks on the Woodtown 
side of the stream which separates the townlands of Woodtown and Umbra, 
and which may be more conveniently found on the one-inch map as the 
first streamlet west of Eagle Hill. This is, no doubt, S. A. Brenan's 
station, " Magilligan Braes" — a very vague term — where it was refound 
last year by Mr. James Henry ("in a little glen at Benone"), and by 
Mr. Tomlinson a couple of days before I visited the place. The spot is 
at about 500 feet elevation, a picturesque gully with a waterfall on its 
eastern bank, and a wooded glen below. Mr. Tomlinson saw some fine 
plants also in the bed of the ravine at the foot of the waterfall. 



170 The Irish Naturalist. October, 

I have thought it well to define exactly the stations of these three plants 
(owing to their cliffy habitat, they are in no clanger of extermination as a 
consequence !) because from the time of Templeton there has been a 
looseness in the use of the local place-names, and as a result considerable 
uncertainty as to the location of the stations. 

■Mr. Lilly kindly took me to see his Magilligan station for Lastrea Thely- 
pteris. It lies south of ^Magilligan camp — a long narrow^ marshy meadow 
adjoining (on the east side) the main road to Bellarena just two miles 
from Magilligan Point. There is plenty of the ]Marsh Fern here, growing 
dwarf among a vegetation consisting largely of Poteniilla palustris and 
Galium paliistre, along with Menyanthes, Caltha, Spiraea, Iris, IMentha, &c. 
The plant appears to be now almost extinct in Ulster through drainage, 
and this Derry station is very welcome. 

R. Lloyd Praeger, 

Dublin. 

Muscineae of Achill Island. 

In August, 191 1, a party consisting of Messrs. J. C. Wilson, J. B. Duncan, 
D. A. Jones, and the late S. J. Owen visited Achill Island in search of 
Cryptogams, and Mr. Jones gives an interesting account of what was 
done, with a full list of the species collected, in the Journal of Botany 
for September. They were successful in the principal object of the 
expedition in finding again Adelanthus dugortiensis, a small quantity of 
which mixed with mosses Canon Lett gathered in 1903 during a fog 
on Slievemore. They found it in single stems in hummocks of other 
mosses and also in pure tufts on rocky ledges. It is endemic, and is 
allied to A. unciformis of South America. The fruit is not known. It 
is satisfactory to know something about the habitat of this curious species, 
the most interesting liverwort which has been found in the British Isles 
of late years. Scapania nimhosa, hitherto only known in Ireland from 
Brandon, was also met with on Slievemore, but sparingly as single stems 
growing with mosses. Mr. Jones found it also in Carnarvonshire 
on Glyder Fawr. The north-west slope of Slievemore is a paradise of 
Hepaticae ; mosses are not so abundant there as this paper shows, but 
there are fine tussocks of the rare Dicraniim uncinatum. 

The following are marked as additions to the Irish list, but it should 
be pointed out that many of these records have been already incorporated 
in Lett's " Musci and Hepaticae " of the Clare Island Survey [Proc. 
R. I. Acad. 1912) and " Census Report " (1915), and also in the " Census 
Catalogue of British Hepaticae " (2nd edition, 1913) : — 

Weisia curvirostris var. comniutata, Aneura major, Marsitpella Pearsoni, 
Eucalyx ohovata var. rividaris, Lophozia badensis, Sphenolobus Pearsoni, 
and 5. exsectiis. Hypnum Patientiae should not be included in this list 
of additions as it is widely spread throughout the counties of Ireland, 
though nowhere common. Mr. Jones has followed Canon Lett in placing 
Moerckia Flotoiviana among the additions to our list, but it was previously 
found at Malahide and in several other county divisions. No indication 
is given in the paper of species which are additions to W. Mayo, 



I9I7- Notes. 171 

Equisetum litorale. 

Mr. Waddell points out to me that in my account of this plant in last 
number I omitted reference to a Scottish record by W. A. Shoolbred, 
published in the Report of the Botanical Exchange Club for 191 3 (banks 
of Lough Tummel, Perthshire). The plant is thus known at present 
from one station in each of the three kingdoms — England, Scotland, and 
Ireland. 

R. Lloyd Praeger. 

DubHn. 

Mossy Saxifrages. 

In the Journal of Botany for June, Rev. E. S. Marshall discusses 
critically some of the Mossy Saxifrages of the British Isles, on which 
he has been at work for some time. He finds that S. incurvifolia D.Don 
(for synonyms of this and the other plants mentioned the paper must be 
consulted) is endemic in Ireland, occurring in Kerry and on the Twelve 
Bens. The name S. groenlandica must disappear from our lists. 5. 
Slernbergii Willd. from Brandon in Kerry and North Clare is the true 
plant. It is not known in Great Britain. S. rosacea Moench is the 
correct name for the plant known as S. decipiens Ehrh. (a nomen nudum). 
Mr. Marshall confirms it from Kerry, Twelve Bens and Clare Island, 
the only other Britannic station being in Wales. 5. hirta Smith (not of 
Haworth, whose name disappears) is accredited to Kerry, Clare, and 
Tipperary. Waterford and Donegal are added with a query. True 
5. hypnoides L. is also Irish. For further notes Mr. Marshall's interesting 
paper should be consulted. 

ZOOLOGY. 

Happy Roscommon ! 

A correspondent sends us the following paragraph from a recent issue 
of the Daily Mail : — 

" Rare Butterflies in Flocks. — A remarkable spectacle may be seen 
now in County Roscommon and, indeed, throughout Central Ireland, 
where myriads of rare and beautiful lepidoptera are disporting themselves. 
The lovely peacock butterfly is the most numerous, and clusters of this 
species may be seen on a single plant. They can be taken in the hand 
or plucked like fruit from a tree. The swallow-tail, red admiral, painted 
lady, and many other varieties are here in profusion. It is a record 
occasion for collectors." 

Such enlightenment on an unexpected addition to the Irish fauna 
will doubtless be received by naturalists in this country with the docility 
due to the universal knowledge possessed by all writers in our daily 
contemporary, 



172 The Irish Naturalist. October, 191 7. 

Food of the Crossbill. 

Whether the seeds of the Spruce Fir are, in this country, ever eaten 
by Crossbills is, it appears, still an open question. Mr. Nevin Foster 
informs me that the spruces in which he watched a party of Crossbills 
feeding at Hillsborough in 1909 were not the Norway Spruce {Picea excelsa) 
but the Douglas Fir [Pseudotsuga Douglasii). It is, I think, a fact of 
high interest that the seeds of this magnificent American conifer have a 
place in the Crossbill's menu. It shows, for one thing, a considerable 
adaptability on the bird's part to new conditions, as the Douglas Spruce 
cannot have been familiar to it as a wild tree in any part of its range as 
an Old World species. But this increases the singularity of its conduct 
in systematically neglecting the cones of the Norway Spruce in this country, 
if, as has been stated, the same tree in other countries affords it its staple 
fare. 

C. B. INIOFFAT. 

Ballyhyland, Co. W^cxford. 



The Effect of the 1916-17 Winter on Birds. 

With reference to Mr. Moffat's extremely interesting article in the June 
issue I can corroborate some of his observations as also applying to Co. 
Fermanagh, even though we were just east of the severe snow belt. By 
the way that belt reached right up to the coast line of Sligo, where the 
road fences were obliterated. I have not seen or heard a single Golden- 
crested W^ren this year. I used to have several pairs nesting round 
my own house, and the county is generally full of them. It will be 
very interesting to see how the bird recovers from this devastation. I 
also always had a couple of pairs of Long-tailed Tits, and they were 
pretty common in the county. I have not seen any. Neither have I 
seen any Stonechats, though we generally have a sprinkling, especially 
at one regular site where I expect them. The Thrushes are very 
remarkably thinned, though the Blackbirds seem as numerous and 
troublesome as ever. Of course everyone knows of the mortality among 
Lapwing and Redwing, and has heard of their feeding in town streets. 
Mr. Moffat mentions the at least usual numbers of Snipe in the early 
spring. Curiously enough I had made a note of their extraordinary 
numbers here— extraordinary at least judging by the noise they made 
over all suitable snipe-ground. In addition to Mr. Moffat's list, the 
Grasshopper Warbler did not arrive here at all. If this be true elsewhere 
it is strange seeing it is a late arrival. I can always count on three or 
four pairs nesting not far from me, and on hearing many more over the 
county, especially on arrival. Their absence has been corroborated by 
Mr. H. E. Rathborne at another favourite locality in the county. 

T. P. BURKITT. 

Fnniskillen; 



Irish Naturalist, Vol. XX\'I. 



Plate VIII. 




Ancient Irish Greyhound Pig. 
(From an old drawing.) 








Modern Representatives of the Ancient Irish Greyhound Pig. 
Photographed by Sir Arthur Ball, M.D., on Clare Island. 



To face page 173. 



Nov. Dec, 191 7. The Irish Naturalist. 173 

ON THE IRISH PIG. 

BY R. F. SCHARFF, B.SC, M.R.I. A. 
PLATE VIII. 

The breed or breeds of pigs which we notice nowadays 
in Ireland do not seem to call for any special comment. 
They do not differ very materially from those found in 
other countries. They are not active as a rule either 
mentally nor physically, and they are aided as much as 
possible by their masters in their efforts to accumulate 
that quantity of fatty deposit which enhances their value 
as a marketable commodity. And yet within the last 
thirty years there existed in certain remote parts of Ireland 
domestic sows which differed strangely from the ordinary 
type of the present day. To me the latter appeared so 
interesting and attractive that whenever I heard of one of 
these abnormal specimens I endeavoured to obtain a 
photograph. I have now quite a number of these photo- 
graphs representing pigs formerly inhabiting Clare Island, 
Achill Island, BalHna, and Rossmuck in Galwa}^ Even 
County Wicklow furnished an example, though not nearly 
so peculiar as those just alluded to. I am reproducing a 
photograph of a group of three of these strange pigs taken 
by Sir Arthur Ball on Clare Island in County Mayo about 
twenty years ago (Plate VIII.) It will be noticed 
that they are tall active-looking creatures with long heads 
and bodies, prominent ears and of a greyish colour. At 
present these links of past generations have probably all 
been exterminated, for, although interesting from a 
zoological and historical point of view, it seems that these 
pigs were not considered fit to survive, as they yielded 
only poor bacon. They were condemned by the Congested 
Districts Board, who were as anxious to eliminate all traces 
of their existence as I was to preserve them. 

We may ask why should this peculiar race of pig occur 
only in the most inaccessible parts of Ireland ? Evidently 
because it had long ago perished in the more up-to-date 
districts of the country. And this view receives a confirma- 



174 Th^ Irish Naturalist. Nov. Dec, 

tion from the past records of the Irish pig. The agricultural 
statistics of about the middle of last century convey to us 
the information that the tall, long-legged, heavy-eared and 
coarse-haired pig, known as the old Irish " Greyhound Pig" 
appeared then to be almost confined to Galway. From the 
descriptions and illustrations of this pig which we still 
treasure, there can be no doubt that the peculiar examples 
above referred to must be looked upon as the last survivors 
of this ancient greyhound race. The National Museum 
acquired some of the specimens mentioned from Galway 
and other parts. Their skeletons have thus been preserved 
for comparison with those of the genuine ancient breed 
should the latter ever become available. Skulls and odd 
bones which may possibly- belong to the genuine ancient 
breed have been compared with those of the more modern 
specimens collected in the west of Ireland. But a distinct 
admixture of a foreign strain was noticeable in the latter. 
The leg bones were thicker and shorter and the face of the 
skull, as well as the jaws and teeth, had become reduced 
in length. The modern specimens of the ancient Irish pig 
acquired by the Museum no longer represent the exact 
record of that breed, and it is highly probable that the 
pure strain of the Irish greyhound pig had already vanished 
in the early part of the last century. 

It is of considerable interest therefore to gather all the 
available information concerning the nature and peculiarities 
of this ancient " Grevhound " breed and to trace its past 
history. 

The accompanying illustration (Plate VIII.) is the only 
likeness I could find giving a fairly good idea of this 
remarkable animal. And vet its head must have been 
much more elongated than in the picture. A more exact 
representation is therefore needful and would be most 
acceptable as a record for the National Museum of Ireland. 
Sir WilHam Wilde^ writing in 1854 describes it as tall, leggy, 
arched on the back and remarkably long in the head with 
huge pendant ears falling over the sides of the face. He 

^ Wilde. William, " The Food of the Irish," Dublin University Magazine, 
March, 185^, 






igij- ScHARFF. — On the Irish Pig. 175 

says it had a knowing look and a bright quizzical eye. It 
was exceedingly fleet and celebrated for its cunning. We 
need not wonder that it was companionable and that it 
became almost one of the family among the Irish peasantry. 
Its activity and agility must have been extraordinary, 
and it is said to have cleared a five-barred gate as well as 
any hunter. Carleton-^ tells us that the backs of the old 
Irish pigs formed a rainbow arch capable of being contracted 
or extended to an inconceivable degree and that their usual 
rate of travelling in droves was at mail-coach speed or six 
Irish miles an hour, preceded by an outrider to clear the 
way, whilst their rear was brought up by another horseman 
going at a three-quarter gallop. This description may be 
somew^hat exaggerated and even more so when he likens the 
droves of pigs to a flock of antelopes crossing the deserts of 
the East. Yet an underlying stratum of truth there must 
be in all these stories which suggest that the Irish greyhound 
pig was a remarkably swdft and agile creature, whereas his 
modern representative is the very reverse. 

A curious feature v;hich we note in the illustration is 
the pendulous wattles hanging down at the throat or rather 
at the corners of the jaw. Similar appendages occasionally 
occur in Normandy pigs according to Darwin^ and it is 
quite possible that they were not characteristic of the Irish 
race, but onl}/ appeared in certain litters. From the fact 
that no wild pigs were known to have analogous appendages, 
Darwin argued that there was no reason to suppose that their 
appearance is due to reversion. Since Darwin enunciated 
these opinions Rolleston^ pointed out that similar append- 
ages are found in the wild swine of Java — Sus verrucosus. 
Hence the wild ancestors of the Irish greyhound pig may 
likewise have possessed them. 



^ Carleton, W., " Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry," 3 vols., 
London, 1 896. 

^ Darwin, Charles, " Animals and Plants under Domestication," vol. i 
(2nd ed.), 1890. 

^ Rolleston, G., "On the Domestic Pig of Britain in prehistoric times" 
Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. (2) Zool., vol. i., 1876. 

A 2 



176 The Irish Naturalist. Nov. Dec, 

The domesticated greyhound pig must have inhabited 
Ireland for many centuries past. It seems to have been 
difficult to fatten it for the market and yet the ancient 
Irish often succeeded in fattening their domestic pigs. In 
the " Book of Leacon " there is a description of the 
celebrated hog of Mac Datho which is said to have had 
nine inches of fat upon her snout, and to have required sixty 
oxen to move her. Again we read in another ancient 
record of hogs of broad sides, and of bull-like hogs, while 
the preservation of pork was well-known in very remote 
times. The Irish word saill meaning bacon occurs in 
a manuscript of the year 942. There can be no doubt 
therefore that the art of fattening pigs was understood 
since early Christian times and that the Irish at all times 
were fond of pork and bacon. 

While the domestic pig was already spread far and 
wide over Ireland an apparently wild pig (fiadhmuc) 
abounded in the woods and forests. "In no part of the 
world," says Giraldus Cambrensis,-^ " are such vast herds 
of boars and wild pigs to be found ; but they are a small, 
ill-shaped, and cowardly breed, no less degenerate in boldness 
and ferocity than in their growth and shape." That was 
in the 12th century. It may be doubted whether the 
account of Giraldus Cambrensis is correct with regard to the 
ferocity of the wild pig elsewhere. Even the modern contin- 
ental race of wild boar may be described as cowardly in so far 
as it does not readily fight except during the breeding season. 
That the wild swine of Ireland were feared may be gathered 
from the fact that among the restrictions put upon one of 
the Kings of Ulster, according to " Book of the Rights and 
Privileges of the Kings of Erin " (Leabhar na g-Cart), was 
that he was not to go into the wild boar's hunt, or to be 
seen to attack it alone. There are other references to 
wild pigs in early writings and there can be no doubt that 
they coexisted in Ireland with their domesticated relation 
since very remote times until about the seventeenth century. 
There are several words in Irish-Gaelic for the domestic 

^ Giraldus Cambrensis, " The Topography of Ireland " (revised and 
edited by Th. Wright), 1881. 



igiy. ScHARFF. — On the Irish Pig. lyy 

and wild pig and the place-names relating to this animal 
are numerous. The word " mucklagh " means a locality 
where the wild pigs feed. At Killarney we have " Tore " 
and " Muckross." Then there are " Inishturk," " Kanturk," 
and many other names connected with pig and boar. 

Now a number of most interesting questions arise from 
these considerations. We ma\^ ask, did the wild pig 
originate in Ireland or did it migrate to this country from 
the continent by way of Great Britain ? If neither of these 
suppositions were correct we should have to assume that the 
domesticated pigs were originally brought to Ireland and 
that some of these had, in course of time, reverted to their 
wild ancestral form and habits. The problem is thus much 
more complex than at first sight appears. It is a well 
known fact that domesticated pigs very readily revert to 
the character of their ancestral wild stock. The young are 
then said to re-acquire the longitudinal stripes which had 
been lost in a state of domestication, and the boars 
re-assume their long tusks. Such cases are known from 
New Granada, Jamaica, Peru, and other places. 

If the Irish wild pig had originated in such a manner 
it would seem that the fossil records should indicate the 
gradual process of reversion from a domesticated to a 
wild stock. The oldest Irish skulls and bones should all 
belong to domesticated pigs, while some of the less ancient 
ones ought to show traces of reversion to the wild type. 
We can generally distinguish complete skeletons or even 
skulls of wild pigs from domesticated ones. The task 
before us should therefore not be too difficult. And yet 
it is, because we never find complete skeletons preserved 
in ancient deposits and even imperfect skulls are of extreme 
rarit}^ Let us take for example the ancient deposits 
which have been brought to light from Irish caves. Pig 
remains were found in the Kesh caves. County Sligo, the 
caves of County Clare, and of those of Ballinamintra in 
County Waterford. In few cases could the presence of the 
wild pig be ascertained with certainty owing to the extremely 
fragmentary condition of the bones and teeth. The pigs 
had evidently formed the food of the people who used the 



17S The Irish Natttralist. Nov. Dec, 

caves as shelters in past times, and everything was thus 
broken up while the dogs may have completed the 
destruction of the skeletons. In most cases where the 
remains could be identified they certainly belonged to a 
domesticated stock. 

Mr. Armstrong, the Keeper of the Irish Antiquities in the 
National Museum, was good enough to point out to me 
that probably the oldest pig remains he had in his charge 
were those excavated by Thomas Plunkett from a cairn in 
Co. Fermanagh. As this cairn certainly belongs to the 
Bronze Age these remains are of special interest. Unfor- 
tunately they consist altogether of tusks or lower canine 
teeth of a boar. They are figured in Mr. Coffey's paper 
which describes this find.^ To judge from their great size 
— a left canine measured 210 mill. =8J inches, and a right 
one 205 mill. =8 inches in length, the measurement being 
taken round the outer edge — I think they must have 
belonged to a wild boar. Hence wild swine probably 
lived in Ireland already in pre-Christian times. Then we 
possess in the National Museum of Dublin the skull of a 
pig discovered at Killeshandra, Co. Cavan, nine feet below 
the surface in black turfy mud. This is no doubt very 
ancient and exhibits all the characteristics of a wild pig. 
Several other skulls seem to have lain in bogs for a long 
time, to judge from their colour, but we possess no record 
as to the part of Ireland in which they were found. Finally 
we have some specimens of pigs from the Dunshaughlin 
crannog which dates from about the tenth century, and a 
few quite modern Irish skulls showing traces of admixture 
with foreign breeds. 

Except the skull from Killeshandra, which seems to be 
the oldest, all others exhibit distinct traces of domestication, 
this being more pronounced in the modern ones. So far 
our enquiries would tend to the conclusion that in very 
remote times Ireland was inhabited by a wild pig which 
became extinct a few centuries ago, whereas the domesticated 
pig was either introduced from abroad or produced in 



^ Coffey, G., " On a cairn excavated by Thomas Plunkett on Belmore 
Mountain, Co. Fermanagh." Proc. R. Irish Acad. (3) vol. iv., 1896-98. 



if'i 



igiy. ScHARFF — On the Irish Pig. 179 

Ireland by a domestication of the wild stock. It is the 
latter view I had adopted many years ago and have held 
until quite recently. Further research, however, has shaken 
my conviction as to the correctness of this opinion that the 
ancient Irish domesticated pig has originated in Ireland 
from a wild stock, and I will state the reasons for my 
present belief that the pig was originally introduced into 
Ireland in the domesticated state. This must have taken 
place long before the Christian Era, either during the 
Bronze Age or in Neolithic times. 

I have already mentioned that the skull of a wild pig 
can be readily distinguished from that of a modern domes- 
ticated one. The alteration in the skull during the course 
of domestication has proceeded graduall}^ being almost 
entirely due to the method of feeding. The wild pig 
obtains much of its food by burrowing in the soil for 
succulent roots, fungi, and other materials. The* head 
is thus always on the move and the muscles are exerted 
to the utmost in the animal's endeavours to provide the 
necessary sustenance for its body. Strong muscles imply 
a powerful bony frame to which they are attached. By 
comparing the skulls of wild and domesticated pigs several 
striking differences become at once apparent. The skull 
of the wild pig is elongated to such an extent that the 
back part is arched over the aperture {foramen magnun) 
at the base of the skull, the jaws are elongated, the teeth are 
simple in construction, while the lachrymal bone is long. 
These are, perhaps, the most manifest features of the skull of 
the wild pig, whereas in the domesticated pig the back part 
of the skull seems crumpled up, rising straight up above 
the foramen magnum and not arched over it, the teeth are 
crowded together and more complex in their composition, 
the jaws, as well as the lachrymal bone, are shorter. 

I think it was the eminent Swiss zoologist, Professor 
Riitimeyer, who first indicated the correct explanation of 
these interesting osteological characters, and his view^s have 
found general acceptance. The changes in the skull during 
the course of domestication are largely due to mechanical 
causes. As soon as the wild pig was no longer obliged to 
exercise his head, in the search for food, to the same extent 



i8o The Irish Naturalist. Nov. Dec, 

as before, the muscles of the skull relaxed and deteriorated. 
The muscles most affected in this process -were the large 
neck muscles whose function is to move the head. Their 
attachment to the back part of the skull must have gradually 
become more restricted, with the result that the arching 
back of the bones above described grew less pronounced. 
Changes in one part of the skull affect other parts, and thus 
we may assume that the profound osteological differences 
between the wild and domesticated pigs were mainly 
brought about by changes of habit. 

Although the differences in the skull of wild and modern 
domesticated pigs are so very noticeable that no one can 
fail to observe them, they are far less so in pig skulls of say 
a hundred years old than in quite recent ones. In pigs 
which lived a thousand years ago they are still less 
pronounced. Let us examine for example a pig skull 
from an Irish lake-dwelling such as the crannog of 
Dunshaughlin. This dates from about the loth century. 
Pig sties and the modern care of pigs were probably unknown 
in those days. The herds of pigs belonging to such a 
community as that of Dunshaughlin must have led a semi- 
feral existence. They probably obtained their food, to a 
large extent, in the neighbouring woods and forests. In 
their habits they approached wild pigs much more than 
modern domesticated breeds do. And these conditions of 
their existence impressed themselves on the bones of the 
skulls. The Dunshaughlin pig skulls differ comparatively 
little from the skulls of wild pigs. Yet they show clearly 
the early traces of domestication in the shape of the skull 
and the dentition, and I have no doubt that the skulls 
discovered in the crannog of Dunshaughlin belong to truly 
domesticated pigs. If we go a step further to pre-Christian 
times, many of the domesticated pigs must then have led 
a state of existence which scarcely differed from that of 
the wild pig. Even then there may have been colonies of 
more advanced and better cared-for pigs which were 
carefully maintained and fattened. But in those remote 
times we may assume that some of the domestic stock of 
pigs took to the forest altogether and reverted completely 
to a feral condition with resultant alteration in the confer- 



I 



I9I7- ScHARFF. — On the Irish Pig. i8i 

mation of their skulls and limbs, after a certain number 
of generations. Thus it becomes apparent that the problem 
of determining whether the old domesticated greyhound pig 
has originated in Ireland from a truly wild ancestor or from 
a feral stock which was originally domesticated is very 
difficult to solve, in spite of the fact that we possess a 
number of very ancient skulls. 

Let us now attempt to trace the relationship of the 
ancient Irish domesticated pig to the breeds of other 
countries with a view to tracing its origin. If we compare 
the skull of the Dunshaughlin crannog pig with that 
found in the Swiss lake-dwellings it will be noticed that 
the two exhibit a striking resemblance, and evidently 
belonged to the same breed. Professor Riitimeyer^ named 
this ancient swiss pig " Torfschwein " (turf -pig). He was 
in doubt whether he had to deal with a wild or a domesticated 
form as the indications of domestication were so slightly 
pronounced, and applied to it the Latin name Sus palustris. 
Many more remains of this interesting pig have been 
unearthed in other Sw^iss lake-dwellings since the days of 
Riitimeyer, and great strides have been made within recent 
years in the identification and classification of all objects 
discovered in these ancient hut sites. It is now possible 
to affirm that while some of these dwellings and the objects 
found near them belonged to the Bronze or Iron Age others 
were much older, being either Neolithic or Palaeolithic. 
As far as the pig remains are concerned they tend to show 
the pig has undergone certain noticeable changes, as we 
should expect, during the long ages that elapsed between 
the Stone Ages and the Iron Age. Through the courtesy of 
Professor Studer of Berne I have had the advantage of 
examining one of the most perfect of the Swiss skulls found 
at Lattrigen in a Neolithic deposit and comparing it with 
the ancient Irish crannog pig skulls. 

In the size of the two skulls there is a remarkable agree- 
ment. Both the Lattrigen and Dunshaughlin skulls possess 

^ Riitimeyer, L., " Neue Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Torfschweins 
Verhandl. dev NaturfoYsch. Gesellsch. Basel, 1865. 

A 3 



i82 The Irish Naturalist. Nov. Dec, 

the short canines and the large round eye-sockets, and the 
back of the skull being more vertical than in wild forms 
they botli indicate that the animals were in a state of 
semi-domestication. On the other hand the upper row of 
teeth are somewhat more crowded and complex in the 
Irish skull than in the Swiss one, and the nasal bones are 
longer. The lachrymal bone in comparison with that of 
the Wild Boar is high and short in the Swiss and Irish 
turf-pig and the skull broad. Altogether although the 
Dunshaughlin skull is clearly referable to the Swiss turf-pig, 
it belongs to a somewhat more advanced type than the 
Lattrigen skull. From the dimensions and figures given 
of the various Swiss pig skulls by Dr. Otto,^ the Irish skull 
appears to approach the La Tene type. The Lattrigen 
skull is Neolithic in age, whereas the one from La Tene 
belongs to the early Iron age. Thus it is fairly well 
established that the domesticated pig which lived in Ireland 
w^hen the Dunshaughlin crannog was inhabited by human 
beings, that is to say, about the loth century, was of the 
same type and breed as the domesticated pig which roamed 
about the Swiss lake dwellings a thousand ^''ears earlier. 
Since the Swiss turf-pig had already been domesticated in 
Switzerland during Palaeolithic times while we possess no 
evidence of its existence in Ireland at so early a period, 
it may be assumed that it was imported to this country 
from the continent and not vice versa. This view agrees 
with the generally accepted opinion that Ireland was first 
colonized by people coming from the continent of Europe, 
and it seems likely that some early tribes brought pigs 
with them which could easily be conveyed across the sea 
even by primitive boats. That the same breed of pig 
also existed in England is proved by the discovery^ of its 
remains in the lake-village of Glastonbury in Somersetshire. 
It is believed that this village flourished during the time 
of the first Roman invasion of England, that is to say, 
about the same time as the La Tene period. 

^ Otto, F, " Ostcologische Studien zur Geschichte des Torfschweins." 
Geneve, iqoi. 

^ Bulleid, A., and H. Ci. Gray, " The Glastonbury Lake Village," 
2 vols., Glastonbury, 191 7. 



1917- SCHARFF. — On the Irish Pig. 183 

At the date when this turf-pig was brought to Ireland 
this country was largely covered b}^ forests as it was for many 
centuries after. Acorns were no doubt abundant, and there 
can be no doubt that suitable food for pigs must have been 
plentiful all over the country. At any rate even long after 
their introduction to Ireland pigs probably led a semi-feral 
life. They had no need to adapt themselves to changed 
conditions, and they thus practically remained for many 
centuries in the same primitive state as when first introduced. 
Probably many of them took to the forests altogether, 
leading there an existence precisely corresponding to that 
of their ancient wild predecessors. As I remarked before, 
they would have lost the characters of domestication after 
a certain number of generations, reverting in every respect 
to their wild ancestor. "In no part of the world as in 
Ireland are such vast herds of boars and wild pigs to be 
found," says Giraldus Cambrensis, " but they are a small, 
ill-shaped, and cowardly breed, no less degenerate in boldness 
and ferocity than in their growth and shape." The pigs 
the writer saw in Ireland in the 12th century were evidently 
not the wild swine he was accustomed to in England, but 
the feral descendants of the old domesticated turf-pig. 

We have still to determine the origin of the turf-pig. It 
certainly is not a descendant of the European wild swine 
which still occur in certain parts of central and southern 
Europe. The turf-pig is distinguished from the latter by 
its broad forehead, the round large eye sockets, the shortness 
of the skull and the high and short lachrymal bone. In 
all these characters it approaches the wild swine of the 
East Indies (Sus vittatus) much more closely. This 
resemblance is all the more striking when we compare the 
turf-pig with the semi-feral pigs of the East, and it seems 
probable that our ancient dom.estic pigs have been imported 
from the East through the Mediterranean region and 
northward through western Europe to Ireland. This 
importation, of course, was due to the vast human migrations 
which took place in the dim and distant past, the early 
tribes being accompanied in their wanderings by their 
domestic animals. 



184 The Irish Naturalist. K^ov. Dec, 

We have no evidence of the existence in Ireland in very 
remote or prehistoric times of a perfectly wild stock of 
pigs of the eastern type, and we are, therefore, led to the 
conclusion which I have just expressed. Nevertheless it is a 
mistake to suppose that only the feral swine mentioned by 
Giraldus but no truly wild swine lived in Ireland. I have 
alluded above to a skull from Killeshandra, Co. Cavan, 
discovered in black turfy mud nine feet below the surface. 
It presents very striking differences from all other Irish 
pig skulls. The canine teeth, which are extremely 
powerful, resemble those found in a cairn in Co. 
Fermanagh (p. 178) and in some of the Irish caves and 
bogs. It is most unlikely then that the particular pig to 
which the Killeshandra skull belonged was an isolated 
instance, or that it had been introduced from abroad. 
The skull undoubtedly is that of a genuine Wild Boar of the 
continental type. The occipital region of the skull is bent 
far back. The length of the skull from the foramen magnum 
to the tip of the snout measures 334 mm., as compared 
with 267 in a skull of the Dunshaughlin type. The upper 
row of cheek teeth is 120 mm. long, whereas in the 
Dunshaughlin pig it measures only 109 mm. The upper 
length of the lachrymal bone is 62 mm., as compared with 
43 mm. in the Dunshaughlin skull. The eye-sockets are 
not round but oval measuring 48 mm. by 43 mm. These 
and many other measurements I have made, together with 
the large tusks of the Killeshandra skull, agree with those 
of the European Wild Boar {Sus scrofa). Hence the latter 
once inhabited Ireland, as it did England and Scotland. It 
may already have become scarce in Ireland in the I2th 
century, so that Giraldus Cambrensis only noticed the 
small and ill-shaped feral pigs infesting the forests. Or 
the latter may have been especialh^ numerous in the 
southern parts of Ireland which were those visited by 
that somewhat credulous Welshman. 

Now to return to our Greyhound Pig. Miss L. Stephens 
pointed out to me that this pig has even penetrated to 
Denmark. In his history of the Danish pig industry Dr. 



1^17. ScHARFF.— Oaz the Irish Pig. 185 

Thiel^ indeed alludes to old records according to which two 
different breeds of pigs formerly lived in Denmark. One 
of these which seems to have been estabUshed chiefly on the 
heaths of Jutland had a long arched back, pendulous ears 
and high thin legs, reminding us of the old Irish greyhound 
pig. The old Danish invaders may possibly have brought 
some of these back to their country where, no doubt, 
another race resembling the north European one was 
already firmly established. What was its origin ? It 
was clearly not a domesticated descendant of the Wild 
Boar. It may either have been a large and modified 
type of the old turf-pig or possibly a cross between 
the latter and the Wild Boar. Future researches will 
probabl}^ throw light on this fascinating problem. 
Meanwhile may I urge on those interested in the history of 
the Irish pig to send any pig skulls that may be dug up 
in bogs, caves or ancient burial places to the National 
Museum ? 

National Museum, Dublin. 



IRISH SOCIETIES. 



BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

October 24. — Opening Conversazione held in the Carlton Hall. 
Two hundred members and friends were present. The various sections 
had interesting exhibits on view. After tea the Vice-President (Mr. A. 
M'l. Cleland) took the chair in the absence of the President (Major 
A. R. Dwerryhouse) at the seat of war. Mr. Cleland referred to the 
fact that the Club had still some of its original members left and also 
commented upon the flourishing condition of the Junior Section. Prizes 
won during the session were presented to several junior members by Mrs. 
Cleland on behalf of Mrs. INIercier, who was unavoidably absent. During 
the evening three new members were elected. The remainder of the time 
was occupied by an exhibition of kinematograph films, illustrating various 
phases of natural history. 



^ Thiel, H., " Entwickelung der Schweinezucht in Danemark,', 
Landwivtschaftliche Jahrbriicher, vol. xxxv. (Erganzungsb. ii.), 1906. 



i86 The Irish Naturalist. Nov. Dec, 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Recent gifts include a Squirrel from ■Mrs. Pierce, two Rabbits from 
Miss R. Murray, a Silver Pheasant from Mr. W. Robertson, two Merlins 
from Dr. Costello, a Kestrel from Mr. P. Walsh, and a Swan from Major 
Cotton. A Diana Monkey and a pair of Guinea Pi ;s have been received 
on deposit. 



DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

October 9. — The Club met at Leinster House. The President 
(N. Colgan) exhibited the hairs or papillae of the seed of the Common 
Groundsel [Senecio vulgaris) which when moistened display a remarkable 
structure well described by \V. A. Leighton in vol. vi., p. 258, of the 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 1841. While dry, these 
short hairs have blunt undivided tips and lie adpressed to the seed, but 
when a drop of water is applied they spread outwards, slightly bifurcate 
and discharge from each of the lobes a long spiral thread which under a 
high power is seen to be made up of several, at least six, strands. Issuing 
at first with a rapid wriggling motion, these widely diverging threads 
w^ave gently to and fro for a time and finally coming to rest surround 
the moistened seed with a wide fringe of spiral threads, each from three 
to four times as long as the hair from which it issues, and exceeding in 
length the breadth of the seed. Hairs of this peculiar structure are not 
characteristic of the genus Senecio, as one might expect them to be. They 
do not occur either in S. Jacobaea or S. erucifolius, two very common 
congeners of the Groundsel, though they are found in S. sylvaticus. Hairs 
almost precisely similar in form and behaviour were detected by the 
French botanist, M. Decaisne, so early as 1837 in Ruckeria, a genus of 
Compositae native in the Cape and are fully described and figured b}'' him 
in vol. xii., series ii., of the Annales des Sciences Naturelles. In this 
paper he mentions other genera of Compositae as possessing seeds with 
similar appendages. As for the function of this very curious and complex 
hair structure, authorities generally regard it as a provision for anchoring 
the seed and so aiding germination, this object being further promoted 
by the emission of mucus along with the spiral threads. 

D. M'Ardle showed one of the foiiaceous group of Hepaticae, Scapania 
umbrosa, Schrader, which he recently collected in Killakee demesne, Co. 
Dublin, growing on decayed wood. It was collected in the same station 
many years ago by the late Dr. D. Moore and reported in the Brit. Assoc. 
Guide for 1878. It is a rare plant and it is interesting to know that it 
flourishes there still, though reported from Kelly's Glen in 1896 ; these 
are the only known Co. Dubhn records for the plant. This elegant minute 
Scapania grows from ^ to | of an inch in height and is one of the prettiest 
objects of the genus. The leaves are unequally bilobed to about the 
middle, the antical lobe serrate in the upper half and beautifully guttulate 
often papillose at the extremity ; the postical lobe is oval acute partly 



igiy- . Irish Societies. i8y 

crossing the stem. Seldom found in fruit on account of the dioeicious 
character, upper leaves furnished with dark clusters of gemmae, resembling 
curious septate slipper-shaped spores, and doubtless the plant increases 
by this asexual mode of reproduction. It is sparingly distributed in the 
counties of Kerry, Mayo, Donegal, Antrim and Wicklow ; several localities 
in England, and West Inverness in Scotland ; found also on the Continent 
and in North America. 

F. J. S. Pollard showed minute lateral spiracles, six pairs of which 
he had discovered on the fourth-stage larva of the Warble-flies 
(Hypoderma). They are connected by fine air tubes with the lateral 
trunks of the tracheal system, but these minute tubes appear to be 
partially blocked, and it is unlikely that the spiracles are functional. 
Hitherto no such structures — even in a vestigial condition — appear to 
have been recognised in the larva of any muscoid fly. 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter showed specimens of the Campodea-like bristle- 
tail Symphylurinus Grassii var. aethiopica Silvestri, collected near 
Johannesburg, South Africa, by Mr. J. W. Shoebotham. The genus 
belongs to the family Proiapygidae ; it was first discovered by Prof. 
Silvestri in South America and has been lately recognised by him in a 
collection from Zululand. {Ark.f.Zoolog. Stockholm, vol. viii., no. i, 1913). 



DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

September 22. — Excursion to Portrane. — Threatening weather was 
responsible for a small attendance on this excursion. A party of eight 
started from Amiens Street by the 12.30 train, and reaching Donabate 
about one o'clock spent half an hour there in examining the interesting 
little modern church and the fine Wych Elm which grows by the church- 
yard gate. This monarch amongst Co. Dublin elms, still intact and in 
full vigour, had a girth of 16 feet 3 inches at about 6 feet from the ground 
and an 80 feet spread of branches when measured in 1903. On the way 
to the shore at Portrane the Bank Sedge [Carex riparia) was seen in 
abundance by the alder-lined ditches ; but botanizing was discouraged 
by the thick drizzle of rain which set in about three o'clock and drove 
the party for shelter to the ivy-clad ruins of the old church. Here lunch 
was taken and a business meeting held at which Mr. Lancelot Gubbins 
was duly elected a member of the Club. 

The shore was reached soon after three o'clock, when the rain passed 
off and Lambay stood out clearly in the offing. Amongst the shells of 
the beach the Smooth Cockle {Cardium norvegicum) was found to be 
quite frequent in various stages of growth. Pushing southward the well- 
known beds of the Portrane inlier were reached. Here the conductor, 
Mr. J. de W. Hinch, explained the geological features of the Lower Silurian 
volcanic ashes, lavas and crush conglomerates, and the numerous sea 
caves, half masked by the rising tide, were examined with interest. Along 
these cliffs the Sea Spleenwprt grew vigorously with a profusion of Samphire 



1 88 The Irish Naturalist. Nov. Dec, 191 7. 

and in two spots the rare Sea Wormood [Artemisia maritima), recorded 
for this station nearly a century ago, was found still in full possession. 
The return to Donabate was made across the Burrow and by field-tracks 
and a lane where Corniis sanguinea, very rare in the county, was noticed 
growing in the hedges. 

Though the rain held off during the latter half of the excursion the 
sun was veiled and butterflies and moths were absent. As the party 
crossed the sandy pastures of the Burrow, where the Felwort (Gentiana 
Amarclla) was frequent, a fine three-inch caterpillar of the Oak Eggar 
Moth was seen travelling over the wet grass. The return to Dublin was 
made by the 6. 11 p.m. train. 

October 13. — Excursion to Lucan and Leixlip. — Favoured by 
perfect autumnal weather a party of fifteen assembled at Parkgate Street 
and travelled to the Spa Hotel by the mid-day tram. Here the Lucan 
demesne was entered and the Liffey, thanks to recent rainfalls round its 
head waters at Kippure, was found to be in perfect condition for the 
lover of river scenery. 

The stately trees which line the walk of the river bank immediately 
attracted attention as the party made its way up stream. A halt was 
made opposite to the finest Beech in the demesne. This great Beech, 
which in 1904 gave a girth of 16 feet 3 inches at a height of five feet from 
the ground, was now^ found to measure 17 feet 6 inches, an increment of 
almost 5 inches of diameter in 13 years. A fine Larch close by gave a 
girth of 12 feet 6 inches, and a Silver Fir of 10 feet 3 inches, both measured 
at a height of five feet from the ground. It would be of interest to know 
whether these dimensions are exceeded elsewhere in Co. Dublin, where 
no doubt, many fine trees which have never been measured lie hidden away 
in private grounds. Among the trees worth measuring are the Spanish 
Chestnut, the Sycamore, the Walnut, and the Horse Chestnut. The 
last named of these attains to a girth of a little over thirteen feet at 
Ballinclea near Killiney, and offers one of many instances which serve 
to show that, in Co. Dublin, at least, the largest tree growths are to be 
found amongst our alien species. 

Though the season was rather far advanced for botanizing the 
Columbine, established here for more than 170 years, was discovered in 
a gorse spinney along the track from Leixlip Bridge to the Salmon Leap 
and close by a fine Spindlo-trec laden with coral fruit lit up the dark 
copse with a splash of colour. Ten minutes were spent at the Salmon 
Leap, which was in fine form, and then hurrying down stream the party 
reached the old-world village of Leixlip soon after three o'clock. Here 
there was time to examine the church where a 17th century fioor-slab 
marks the tomb of a sister of Narcissus Marsh, Archbishop of Dublin 
and founder of Marsh's Library. The Rector, Canon R. N. Somerville, 
kindly acted as archaeological demonstrator, and piloted the party to 
the top of the old tower whence a spacious view was had of the Liffey 
woods and the Rye Water. The battlements of the tower were found 
tp be thickly cl^d with that pretty alien, the Ivy-lesived Toad-flax, 



1917. CoLGAX. — Mnemic Action in Chlora perfoliata. 189 

NOTES ON APPARENT MNEMIC ACTION IN 

CHLORA PERFOLIATA. 

BY N. COLGAN, M.R.I. A. 

On the 22nd of July last while walking along the abandoned 
permanent way of the Dublin and South-Eastern Railway 
between Killiney and Bray, I noticed that the great majority 
of the flowers of the common Yellow- wort (Chlora perfoliata) 
borne by plants growing exposed to full sunshine were 
completely closed at 3 o'clock in the afternoon. This 
suggested to me that the closing of the flowers might be 
independent of sunlight, and that their behaviour under 
changed conditions would be worthy of investigation. 
So several flower-heads were cut off from the growing 
plants, and taken home as material for experiment. That 
evening three of the flower-heads with closed flowers having 
been placed in water in a small glass dish, the dish with the 
flower-heads w^as covered with a roomy card-board box so 
as to exclude the light. On removing the box next morning 
at 9.15 five of these flowers, from which the light had been 
continuously excluded since the previous evening, were found 
to be fully open 

This not altogether unexpected result of the first rough 
experiment w^as so interesting as to induce me to continue 
the investigation with greater care and method. 

Answers to the following questions were sought : — 
[a) What is the opening hour of the flowers of 
Chlora perfoliata when covered so as to 
exclude sunlight ? 
[h] How long do flowers so covered remain open ? 

(c) How many times do they open in succession ? 

(d) Does repeated opening, if it occurs, produce any 

effect of fatigue or exhaustion in the mechan- 
ism of opening and closing ? 
{e) Do flowers exposed to sunlight behave differently 
in any of these respects from flowers deprived 
of sunlight ? 
Observations were made on fifteen days between the 
23rd July and the loth August last, and altogether seventy 



190 The Irish Naturalist. Nov. Dec, 

distinct flowers were dealt with, the flowering heads being 
taken from plants growing at Killiney or on the North Bull. 
Two sets of flowers were employed in each series of experi- 
ments, one set being covered with a roomy card-board box 
so as to exclude the light, the other being fully exposed 
to sunlight in a window facing south. Many of the flowers 
were in the bud state at the beginning of the experiments, 
and had certainly never opened. The sets were carefully 
selected so that each should be made up as far as possible 
of flowers in the same stage of growth, and throughout 
the whole course of the observations the covered flowers 
were kept continuously covered, save for the few seconds 
when it was from time to time necessary to uncover them 
for examination. 

Omitting details of the numerous observations made, 
the answers v»-hich they yielded to the questions put may be 
briefly stated as follows : — 

[a) The earliest opening of a covered flower took place 
on the 28th July last at 5.30 a.m. clock time, as instituted 
for Ireland by recent statutory enactments, or say at 4.5 
a.m. Dublin mean time, which is approximately the hour 
of sunrise. Only two flowers, however, were found to 
open so early, the mean of the first times of opening of seven- 
teen covered flowers being 6.50 a.m. clock time, or 5.25 a.m. 
Dublin mean time. 

(h) The duration of opening for different flowers was 
very variable, ranging from 6f to 12 hours. The mean 
duration of opening taken from the mean opening hour 
of thirty-five flowers and the mean closing hour of forty- 
two flowers was found to be 9 hours 9 minutes. In Dublin 
mean time these mean opening and closing hours were 
6.6 a.m. and 3.15 p.m. 

(c) A large number of flowers were observed to open three 
times in succession ; three flowers opened four times, and one, 
five times. 

(d) If retardation of opening be taken as indicating 
fatigue of the opening mechanism, then no distinct effect 
of the kind could be traced after three successive openings 
had taken place. On the fourth opening, however, such 
a retardation was observed, the mean of the times of fourth 



igij. CoLGAX. — Mneriiic Action in Chlora perfoLiaia. 191 

opening for five covered flowers being 2f hours later than 
the mean of the first opening of thirty covered flowers. 
But this retardation is probably an effect of fertilization 
rather than of fatigue of the opening mechanism. Self- 
fertilization in this species is effected on the second or 
third closing of the flower when the stigmas are forced 
into contact with the opened anthers and with the pollen 
dusted on the inner surface of the petals, the aestivation 
being imbricate- twisted. 

(e) The behaviour of the flowers exposed to sunlight 
did not differ materially from the behaviour of those kept 
covered, as set out in the preceding paragraphs. The only 
marked differences appeared, first, in the retardation of 
fourth opening of exposed as compared with covered flowers, 
this retardation for exposed being less than half (i\ hours) 
of that for covered flowers (2f hours) ; second, in the time 
of earliest opening, which was approximately half an hour 
earlier for covered than for exposed flowers. This difference 
in the hours of opening may be most conveniently shown 
thus in tabular form, the times given being Dublin mean 
time. 



Difference in the Times of Opening of Chlora perjoliata 
flowers (a) in Darkness, and {h) when exposed to 
Sunlight. 





Earliest opening 


Mean of earliest 
openings 


Mean of all first 
openings 




(a) In Darkness 
(6) In Sunlight . 


4.5 a.m. 
4.35 a.m. 


5.25 a.m. (17 
flowers) 

5.57 a.m. (21 
flowers) 


6.6 a.m. (35 

flowers) 
6.30 a.m. (53 

flowers) 


Difference • 


30 minutes 


32 minutes 


24 minutes 



The duration of opening of covered and exposed flowers 
agreed rather closely. For thirty-five covered flowers the 
mean duration w^as 9 hours 9 mins., for fifty-three exposed 
flowers, 8 hours 54 mins., a difference of quarter of an hour. 

The results of these experiments show^ conclusively that 
the periodic opening and closing of the flowers of Chlora 



192 The Irish Naturalist. Nov. Dec, 

perfoliata is not, what it would prima facie appear to be, 
an instance of that direct response to the stimulus of sun- 
light so familiar to us in many species of flowering plants. 
How then are we to explain this action which synchronises 
with the diurnal advent of sunlight yet has no direct causal 
connection with it ? It must, I think, be regarded as an 
example of plant-habit, of memory-like or mnemic activity, 
to use the language of Semon's theory ^ so ably discussed 
by Francis Darwin in his presidential address to the Dublin 
Meeting of the British Association in 1908. Having 
declared the characteristic par excellence of habit to be 
a " capacity acquired by repetition of reacting to a fraction 
of the original environment," the President thus proceeds : — 
" When a series of actions are compelled to follow each 
other, by applying a series of stimuli, they become 
organically tied together or associated, and follow each 
other automatically, even when the whole series of 
stimuli are not acting. Thus, in the formation of habit 
post hoc becomes equivalent to propter hoc. Action B 
follows action A, because it has been repeatedly compelled 
to follow it." 

On this view the periodic opening and closing of the 
Chlora perfoliata flowers may be regarded as a character or 
habit originating in an ages-long succession of recurrent 
light stimuli received at some remote stage in the history 
of the species. The habit has long since become so in- 
grained in the constitution of the plant as to operate auto- 
matically at a certain stage of growth. It is, in fact, 
one of that bundle of potentialities mysteriously wrapped 
up in the seed, which ordain that the germ of Chlora perfoliata 
shall produce precisely that and none other of the 100,000 
or so of phanerogamic species which clothe the earth. 

As this explanation obviously implies the inheritance 
of acquired characters it cannot be accepted by those w'ho 
deny the possibility of such inheritance. They may perhaps 
take refuge in the supposition that this capacity of the 
Chlora flower is acquired by each individual plant within 
the space of its brief life-time as an annual, that the capacity 

^ Richard Semon, Die Mneme als erhaltendes Prinzip im Wechsel 
des organischen Geschehens. Leipzig, 1904. 



igiy CoLGAN — Mnemic Action in Chlora perfoliata. 193 

is acquired, but not transmitted. Granting that this 
capacity could be somehow acquired by each individual 
plant in the few months intervening between germination 
and flowering, the question remains, why does this capacity, 
the capacity not merely of opening, but also of closing 
periodically and independently of the direct stimulus of 
sunlight, not manifest itself in a host of other species 
exposed to precisely similar conditions ? Must we not 
credit the germ from which the plant springs with a pre- 
disposition to produce flowers prone to develop this peculiar 
capacity, and must we not regard this predisposition as 
inherited and forming part of the character of the species ? 
Finally, the obvious objection may be made that the ex- 
periments here recorded having been carried out on flowers 
severed from the parent stem the results cannot be accepted 
as valid for the complete organism, the growing plant. 
There seems to be little weight in this objection. The cut 
flower-heads kept in water showed a very high degree of 
vitality, remaining quite fresh for a month and developing 
to full bloom buds which were green when gathered. We 
have, too, a periodic opening and closing of both the cut 
flower-heads and the plants growing in the field and the in- 
ference seems to be well justified that experiments on com- 
plete growing plants would yield results in all respects 
very similar to those here set forth. Such experiments 
it would be by no means difficult to carry out as the species 
is an annual of moderate size. 

Sandycove, Co. Dublin. 



NOTES. 

ZOOLOGY. 
Colias edusa near Tramore, Co. Waterford. 

Colias edusa was not uncommon about here from the beginning 
of September. Early in that month I took six specimens, five male, one 
female, at Garrarus and Kilfarrissy, a few miles from here. They fly 
very fast. The males were in excellent condition ; the female a little worn. 
Since I have taken several more specimens : one on the 29th September, 
of the variety helice of the female, but the front wings were worn. 

Coolfin, Portlaw, W. W. Flemynq, 



194 The Irish Natuyalist. Nov. Dec, 

Larva of the Death's Head Moth in Co. Down. 

Mr. Wakefield Richardson informed me that he met with the larva 
of Acherontia a/ropos at Moyallen in a potato !i- Id. 



W. F. Johnson. 



Poyntzpass. 



Recent Records of Irish Birds. 

To Novitates Zoologicae, May, 191 7, Prof. Patten contributes a long 
article on the specimen of the Western Black-eared Wheatear from Tuskar 
Rock which he already recorded in these pages {I.N., 1916, p. 100), 
determining the subspecies as the Western Black-eared Wheatear 
{Oenanthe hispanica hispanica. The following communications appear in 
British Birds for the present year : — Bittern in Co. Tyrone (near Coalisland, 
2nd Dec, 1916), by W. C. Wright (January No.) ; Little Bustard in Co. 
Clare (near Ennis, 20th Dec, 1916), by C. J. Carroll (Feb. No.) ; Black- 
winged Stilt in Ireland (Tory Island, April, 191 6), by W. J. Williams 
(March No.) ; Mortality among Barn Owls in Ireland, by the same (June 
No.). The Severe Winter of 1916-17, and its effect on Birds in the South 
of Ireland, by C. J. Carroll (July No.). 

Arctic Skua and Black Tern on Loug^h Mask, Co. Mayo, 

On September 12th, at 4.30 p.m., I observed an Arctic Skua near 
Inishmaine, Lough Mask. The day was fine with a fairly high west 
wind. The bird flew very low and swiftly to the south and passed about 
eighty yards from our boat. On the following day at 6.50 p.m. I noticed 
a Black Tern north of Saint's Island ; it was flying leisurely southwards, 
just above the surface of the water, now and then darting down for food. 
The bird was quite close to the boat and I was able to identify it easily. 

Robert F. Ruttledge. 
Bloomfield, Hollymount, Co. Mayo. 



Snowy Owl in Co. Antrim. 

My friend, Mr. Herbert Malcomson, had the interesting experience of 
examining a fine specimen of the Snowy Owl [Nydea nyctea) at Messrs. 
Robbins, taxidermists, which was shot near Glenavy about 12th November, 
1917. According to the latest edition of the British Ornithologists' 
Union List of British Birds this species is a winter visitor between 
September and April to the Shetland and Orkney Islands, and not 
ynusual in the Inner and Outer Hebrides and the mainland of Scotland- 



igiy- Notes. 195 

It has occurred in England in the eastern and southern counties more 
than twenty times, while in Ireland more than thirty examples have been 
recorded, chiefly from the nortli and north-west. 

W. H. Workman. 
Windsor, Belfast. 

Departure of Swifts. 

I having been at home during all the month of August this year, I 
have been closely watching the departure of the Swifts, Cypselus apus, 
from here. It may be stated that at the close of the season these birds 
are mainly in evidence only in the mornings and evenings. At the 
beginning of the month the Swift population here was estimated at about 
100, and on the 4th there appeared to be some diminution, but up till 
nth there were still 50-60 flying about. From 12th till 14th the numbers 
dropped to 10-20, and afterwards the numbers seen were as follows : — 
August 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 

222212114311152 

30 31 September i 2 

II 63 

Mr. A. W. Stelfox informs me that he saw one at Bangor on nth 
September — an unusually late date for the North of Ireland. So far 
as I know only two later occurrences have been reported in the Irish 
Naturalist, viz., vol. xii., p. 320, and vol. xxi., p. 246. 

Nevin H. Foster. 
Hillsborough, Co. Down. 

Hoopoe in Co. Donegal. 

An adult female Hoopoe [Upupa epops) was shot at Greencastle, Co. 
Donegal, on the shore of Lough Foyle, about 15th September last, by Mr. 
R. H. Nolan, B.E., of Londonderry. I have only note of one other occurr- 
ence of the species in this district, about twenty-five years ago at Egjinton, 
Co. Derry. 

D. C. Campbell. 

Londonderry. 

In September last a female Hoopoe {Upupa epops) was shot at Green- 
castle, Co. Donegal, by Mr. R. R. H. Nolan, B.E., on the shores of Lough 
Foyle, a very interesting record of one of our rarer migrants. The 
B.O.U. list of British Birds remarks : — " To Ireland it is a spring and 
autumn visitor and occurs alinost annually, most frequently in March 



196 The Irish Naturalist. Nov. Dec, 191 7. 

in the southern counties, but it is not known to nest there." I well 
remember what pleasure I got when I first saw a Hoopoe in the wild state, 
it was flying across the Arab cemetery outside Constantine, Algeria. 

W. H. Workman. 
Windsor, Belfast. 

Wood Wren in Fermanagh. 

On 1 8th May, 191 7, INIr. H. E. Rathborne heard and saw a Wood- Wren, 
Phylloscopits sibilatrix, near the north shores of Lough Erne. 1 was 
unfamiliar with the bird but along with him saw it, still keeping to the 
same spot, on the 28th May. Between then and the 7th June 
Mr. Rathborne had heard either this bird or another one about half a 
mile away. But on the 7th June we could find neither bird. For the 
short time we watched it we detected no mate. I much regret I had 
not time to spare to find out if there was a nest. When heard its song 
was constant, interspersed with call notes. 



J. P. BURKITT. 



Enniskillen. 



BOTANY. 

Cardamine amara in East Tyrone. 

This plant, in Ireland confined to Ulster where it is rare and local, has 
been already recorded from this county [Irish Naturalist, February, 19 15.) 
In the early summer of this year (1917) some time was devoted to working 
out its distribution in this locality. Its headquarters appear to be a 
marshy meadow on a small tributary of the Ballinderry River about 
four miles from the town of Cookstown ; in this meadow it grows in 
great abundance accompanied by such plants as Caltha and various 
species of Carex and in drier ground with Geum rivale. It next appears 
in Tullylagan demesne, in many spots along this same stream generally 
on some sandy bank ; it has also invaded a " made bank " here, constructed 
to prevent the river from eating away the soil ; and grows among the 
dry sward, and there is a large bed of it again at a wier half a mile below 
Tullylagan bridge. Further down stream it occurs here and there in 
Loughry demesne, but not in any great quantity. I also re-discovered 
it on the Ballinderry River near the old church of Derryloran, close to 
Cookstown; this must be the station noted in "Irish Topographical 
Botany " from " Flora of Ulster" and misspelt Derryloan. The formation 
underlying the bed of this stream is Carboniferous sandstone. 

Thomas Greer. 
Curglasson, Stewartstown, Co. Tyrone. 



::v.:::::-:;.my---:-- 


BH VOL. XX vi. 
JANUARY, 


NO. I. HE 

I9I7: 



i'..', 






mmsii 



tu^W 



H flDontblip Joucnal 



ON 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY, 

ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 
, DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 
BELFAST ^ NATURAL HISTORY & PPIILOSOPHICAL 

SOCIETY, 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 
TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

EDITED BY 

Prof. GEOEGE H. CARPENTER, M.Sc, M.R.LA. 

AND> 

R. LLOYD PMEGER,'b.A., B.E., M.R.LA. 










\^-l 



%/ 




Price 6d. 



DUBLIN : EASON & SON, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street. 

Belfast : 17 Donegall-st., 

London : 

SiMPKTN, Marshall,* Hamilton, 

Kent &IC0., Ltd 



r?("((((jUijwuupW)fjtii>iiiMwiw»S 




The IRISH NATURALIST for 1916 (twelve parts) will be sent to any Address 
for 5s. Subscriptions should be sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A., Scot.. 

The Museum, Hull ; 

AND 

X. vV. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll., 

HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles daring back to 1833. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.G. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication- among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World : and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest 



SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE. 



I • 



£ s. d. 

Yearly 18 

Half-yearly 1 14 6 

Quarterly 6 8 



{To all places Abroad) £ s. d. 

Yearly 1 10 6 

Half-Yearly .. 15 6 

Quarterly 8 



,-♦ A chargft of Sixpence is made for changing Scotch and Irish Checjues. 

Cheques and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmillan & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., London, W.C. 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 



OF THE 



ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a»m, (Sundays from 12 noon) 

Ml dusk. 



Admisssoii, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 
Holidays, 6c!., and Sunday afternoons, 2d. 

S'lildren, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BOF^NEAN lEBUS, WITH CALF. 
BROWN, HIMALAYAN AND POLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE. 

A HOOLCOCK GIBBON 

AND 

THE ONLY LIVING GORILLA IN EUROPE. 
TWO YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANTS 
PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 
YOUNG BOAR FROM MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRBSHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR, 

Donations of Animals (Irish or Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



DEPaKTMENT of AGRICULTUPiE AND TECHNICAL 




INSTRUCTION 


FOR 


IRELAND. 


LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 


No. 1. 


The Warble Fly. 


No. 


55. 


The Apple. 


„ 2. 


The Use and Purchase of Feeding 


f 9 


56. 


Cultivation of the Root Crop. 




Stuflfs. 


J) 


57. 


Marketmg of Fruit. 


„ 3. 


Foot Kot in Sheep. 


99 


.58. 


Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 


„ 4. 


The Sale of Flax. 


J) 


59. 


Testing of Farm Seeds. 


„ 5. 


Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 


1) 


60. 


The Packing of Butter. 


„ 6. 


Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 


> 9 


61. 


Field Experiments — Wheat. 


,. 7. 


Fluke in Sheep. 


J J 


62. 


The Management of Dairy Cows. 


„ 8. 


Timothy Meadows. 


99 


63. 


" Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 


„ 9. 


The Turnip Fly. 






in Cattle. 


„ 10. 


Wire worms. 


99 


64. 


Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 


,. 7.1 


Prevention of White Scour in Calves 






Cultivation in Ireland. 


., 12. 


Liquid Maniure. 


99 


65. 


Forestry : The Plantmg of Waste 


„ 13. 


Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 






Lands. 


„ 14 


Prevention of Potato Blight. 


99 


66. 


Forestry : The Proper Method of 


., 15. 


Milk Records. 






Planting Forest Trees. 


„ 16. 


Sheep Scab. 


99 


67. 


Forestry : Trees for Poles and 


„ 17. 


The Use and Purchase of Manures. 






Timber. 


„ 18. 


S\vine Fever. 


99 


68. 


Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 


„ 19. 


Early Potato Growing. 






Ornament. 


„ 20. 


Calf Rearing. 


99 


69. 


The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 


„ 21. 


Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 






Cattle. 


„ 22. 


Basic Slag. 


99 


70. 


Forestry : Planting, Management, 


., 23. 


Dishorning Calves. 






and Preservation of Shelter-Belt 


„ 24. 


Care and Treatment of Premium 






and Hedgerow Timber. 




Bulls. 


99 


71. 


Forestry : The Management of 


„ 25. 


Fowl Cholera. 






Plantations. 


., 26. 


Winter Fattening of Cattle. 


99 


72. 


Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber. 


„ 27. 


Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 


9 9 


73. 


The Planting and Management of 


., 28. 


Blackleg, Black Quarter, Oi Blue 






Hedges. 




Quarter 


99 


74. 


Some Common Parasites of the 


„ 29 


Flax Seed. 






Sheep. 


„ 30. 


Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 


99 


75 


Barley Sowing 




Lice. 


J J 


76 


American Gooseberry Mildew. 


„ 31. 


Winter Egg Production. 


99 


77. 


Scour and Wastmg in Young Cattle. 


„ 32. 


Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys. 


99 


78 


Home Buttermaking. 


., 33. 


Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 


99 


79. 


The Cultivation of Small Fruits. 


„ 34. 


The Revival of Tillage. 


99 


80. 


Catch Crops. 


„ 35. 


The Liming of Land. 


9 ) 


81. 


Potato CiUture on Small Farms. 


„ 36- 


Field Experiments — Barley. 


99 


82. 


Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 


„ 37. 


„ „ Meadow Hay 


99 


83. 


Cultivation of Osiers. 


., 38 


,, „ Potatoes. 


99 


84. 


Ensilage. 


„ 39. 


M Mangels. 


99 


85 


Some Injiu-ious Orchard Insects. 


„ 40 


Oats. 


99 


86. 


Dirty Milk. 


„ 41. 


Turnips. 


99 


87. 


Barlev Threshing 


., 42. 


Permanent Pasture Grasses. 


J • 


88. 


The Home Bottling of Fruit 


,. 43. 


The Rearing and Management of 


99 


89 


The Construction of Piggeries. 




Chickens. 


99 


90 


The Advantages of Early Ploughing. 


,. 44. 


" Husk " or " Hoose " in Calves. 


9 ) 


91. 


Black Scab in Potatoes 


„ 45. 


Ringworm on Cattle. 


19 


92. 


Home Preservation of Eggs. 


„ 46. 


Haymaking. 


99 


93. 


Marketing of Wild Fruits. 


„ 47. 


The Black Currant Mite. 


1 J 


94. 


Cost of Forest Planting. 


„ 48. 


Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 


f 9 


95. 


Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 


„ 49. 


Poultry Fattening. 






Eggs. 


., 50. 


Portable Poultry Houses. 


99 


96. 


Packing Eggs for Hatching. 


„ 51. 


The Leather-Jacket Grub. 


J f 


97. 


Weeds. 


„ 52. 


Flax Experiments 


9; 


9S. 


Tuberculosis in Poultry. 


„ 53. 


The Construction of a Cowhouse. 


99 


99 


Seaweed in Manure 


„ 54. 


Calf Meals. 










TOBACCO-GROW 


ING 


LEAFLETS. 


A.— 


Introductory. 




G.— 


Transplanting. 


B — 


Suitable Soils and their Treatment. 




H.— 


Cultivation, Suckerlng, and Topping 


C— 


Curing Barns. 




I. — Harvesting and Curing. | 


D — 


Suitable Varieties. 




J.— 


Grrading, Packing, and Matuiing. 


E.— 


Seed Beds. 




K — 


Marketing. 


F.— 


Manures. 








Copies of the above Uafiels can be obtained / 


ree oj 


f cha 


rge, and post free, on application to 'hf 


Secretary, Department of Agriculture and Technic 


alln 


struc 


tion for Ireland, Upper Merrion Street. 


DiMin 


. Letters of application so addressed nee 


■d not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS «s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FREE. 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE. F.R.S.E., F.L.S., 
Keeper, National History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E., 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.R.S.E., 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Magazine — founded in 1 87 1 — is devoted to the publication of Original Matter relating to the 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Obsen'ations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh : OLIVER <& BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



FOR SALE. 

Rev. Morris' British Birds, 6 vols., new, 400 coloured plates (published 
£6 6s.), £^ 3s. Ditto, British Birds' Nests and Eggs, 3 vols., coloured plates, 
/i 15s. Ditto^^ British Butterflies, 74 coloured plates, 12s. 6d. Ditto, 
British Moths,' 4. vols., 2,000 coloured figures {£^ 4s.), £1 15s. 

Frohawk's British Birds' Nests, and Eggs, 6 vols., new, 318 plates of 
birds, mostly life-size, and 24 coloured plates of eggs (;^5 5s.), £2 12s. 6d. 

Yarrell's British Birds, 3 vols., £1 15s. Ditto, British Fishes, 2 vols, 
and Supplements, £1 los. , _ ,. , 

Rev. Houghton's British Freshwater Fishes,5o coloured plates, £i iis. 6d. 

Wood's Index Tcstalogicus, 2,350 coloured figures {£'j los.), £2, los. 

Adams' Recent Mollusca, 3 vols,, 138 plates, nem {£^ los.), £1 5s. 

Anne Pratt's Flowering Plants and Ferns of Great Britian, 5 vols., 238 
coloured plates, £2. los. \ 

Johnstone and Croall — Nature — printed British Seaweeds, with coloured 
plates of all British species, 4 vols. £2 los. 

Barratt's British Lepidoptera, 11 vols., coloured plates {£zs)t £^^- 

Stainton's Natural History of Tineina, 13 vols., new, coloured plates 
(;^8 25. 6d.), £z 17s. 6d. 

Sir W. Jardine's Naturalist's Library, 40 vols., about 1,200 coloured 
plates, 10,800 pages, £^. Many other lists from A. Ford, 36 Irving Roed. 
Bournemouth, England. 



Vol. xxvi., No. 1 



CONTENTS. 



The Chartaceae of Fanad, East Donegal. Rev. Canon G. R 
Bullock- Webster, M.A. .. 

The State of Ireland.— Rowland Southern, B.Sc. 

Rare Plants of the Co. Down Coast — Rev. C. H. Waddell, 

d,VX • X v • X • xX • •• •« •• «9 

Irish Societies : — 

Royal Zoological Society 
Dublin Microscopical Club 
Belfast Naturalists' Field Club 
Dublin Naturalists' Field Club 
Cork Naturalists' Field Club 

Notes : — 

Hypopithys multiflora in Co. Leitrim — R. Lloyd Praeger 

Peterogonium gracile in Co. Down — Rev. C. H. Waddell, 

Naias flexilis in Donegal — R. Lloyd Praegar 

Filago minima at Howth — D. B. Bradshaw 

Anosia archippus in Co. Cork . . r. . . 

Quail and Short-eared Owl on Migration at Rockabill Light-Station 

Prof. ,C. J. Patten, M.D. 
Swans and their Nests— G. H. Pentland 
Recent Notes on Irish Birds . . ^f .. . 
Speed of FHght of Leislerls Bat — G. H. Pentland 
Bacjgers and Hedgehogs — G. H. Pentland 
Boldness of a Stoat — G. H. Pentland 



January, 1917. 

Page 



I 
6 

12 



13 
13 
H 
15 
15 



17 
I? 
17 

17 

18 

18 

18 
19 
19 
20 
20 



TAe Publishers will be pleased to pay 1s. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1893; January, 18941 and September, 

1904, 

if sent Flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

Care of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 



TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN " IRISH NATURALIST." 

s. d. 
Whole Page . . . . From 10 | ^^^^^^^^ 

Half Page .. .. .. ,, 6 > to 

Quarter Page 



^ g I Position. 



A Reduction given for a Number of Insertions. 



ALE :. THOM AND CO., LIMITED, DUBLIN. 



VOL. XXVI. NO. 2. 

FEBRUARY, 1917. 




:0^ 



It ..«'• 



■smm 



V 



H flDontbli? 3ournal 



ON 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY, 

ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL 

SOCIETY, 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 
TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

EDITED BY 

Prof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER. M.Sc, M.R J.A. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B^E.. M.R.LA. 



-n 








Price 6d. 



DUBLIN : EASON & SON, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street. 

Belfast : 17 Donegall-st., 

London : 

SiMPKTN, Marshall, Hamilton, 

Kent & Co., Ltd 




Tht IRISH NATURALIST for 1916 (twelvf parts) will be tent to any Address 
for 5s. Subscriptions should be sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A., Scot.. 

The Museum, Hull ; 

.AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tecpl Coll., 

HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. '' 

London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd.. 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.G. 

Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by tlie most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World ; and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest 

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE." 



£ 8. d. 

Yearly 18 

Half-yearly 1 14 6 

Quarterly 6 8 



{To all places Abroad) £ p. d. 

Yearly 1 10 6 

Half-Yearly .. 15 6 

Quarterly 8 



,♦, A charge of Sixpence is made for changing Scotch and Irish Cheques. 

Cheques and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmillan & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., London, W.C. 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 



OF THK 



ROYAI. ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

PHOENSX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.m. {Sundays from Mnoon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 2d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

BROWN, HIMALAYAN AND POLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE. 

A HOOLOCK GIBBON 

THE ONLY LIVING GORILLA IN EUROPE. 
TWO YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANTS 
PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 
Y0UN3 BOAR FROM MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR, 

Donations of Animals (Irish or Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privi'eges of Membership 
of tile Society, apply to — 

Prof G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 






No. 1. The Warble Fls'. 

„ 2, The Use and Purchase of Feeding 
Stuffs. 

3. Foot Rot in Siieep. 

4. The Sale of Flax. 

5. Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 
„ 6. Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 

„ 7. Fluke in Sheep. 

,, 8. Timothy Meadows. 

„ 9. The Turnip Fly. 

„ 10. Wirewornis. 

,. II Prevention of White Scour In Calves 

„ 12. Liquid Manure. 

„ 13. Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 

„ 14 Prevention of Potato Blight. 

,, 15. Milk Records, 

„ 16. Sheep Scab. 

„ 17. The Use and Purchase of Manures. 

„ 18. Swine Fever. 

,, 19. Early Potato Growing. 

„ 20. Calf Rearing 

„ 21, Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 

„ 22. Basic Slag. 

„ 23. Dishorning Calves. 

„ 24. Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls 

„ 2.5. Fowl Cholera. 

, 26. Winter Fattening of Cattle. 

„ 27. Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 

„ 28. Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 

„ 29 Flax Seed. 

„ 30. Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 

,, 31. Winter Egg Production. 

„ 32, Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys 

„ 33. Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 

„ 34. The Revival of Tillage. 

„ 35. The Liming of Land, 

,, 36. Field Experiments — Barley. 
,, 37. „ „ Meadow Hay 

„ 38 „ „ Potatoes. 

„ 39. ,, ,. M?ii.;el3. 

„ 40 „ ,. Oats. 

„ 41. „ „ Turnips 

„ 42. Permanent Pasture Grasses. 

,, 43. The Rearing and Management of 

„ 44. " Husk " or " Hoose " in Calves. 

„ 45. Ringworm on Cattle. 

,, 46. Haymaking. 

„ 47. Tile Black Currant Mite. 

,, 48. Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 

„ 49. Poultry Fattening. 

., 50. Portable Poultry Houses. 

„ 51. The Leather-.la-ket Grub. 

„ 52. Flax Experiments 

,, 53. The Construction of 

,, 54. Calf Meals. 



lo. 


55. 


91 


56. 


99 


57 


II 


.^8. 




59. 




60. 




61. 


) ) 


62. 


»9 


63, 


II 


64. 


99 


65. 


II 


66. 


»l 


67. 


II 


68. 


99 


69. 


91 


70. 



Cowhouse. 



71. 

72. 
73. 

74. 

75 

76 

77. 

78 

79. 

80. 

81. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89 

90 

91. 

92 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 
97. 
9H. 
99 



The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potato's. 

Testing of Farm Seeds. 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat, 

The Management of Dairv Cows 

" Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees. 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornanient. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
nnd Preservation of Shelter- Belt 
and Hedgerow Tim*) i. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations. 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

Barley Sowing 

American Gooseberry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Buttermaking 
The Cultivation of Small Fruit?, 
Catch Crop>>. 

Potato Culture on Small Farms. 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injurious Orchard Insects, 
Dirty Milk. 
Barlev Threshing 
The Home Bottling of Fruit 
The (Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home Preservation of Eggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Parking Eggs for Hatching 
Weeds. 

Tuberculosis in Poultry. 
Seaweed in xManure 



TOBACCO-GROWING LEAFLETS. 



A — Introductory. 

JJ — Suitable Soils and their Treatment. 

C. — Curing Barns. 

D — Suitable Varieties. 

E. — Seed Beds 

F. — Manures. 



G. — Transplanting 

H — Cultivation, Sucker'ng, and Topping 

I. — Harvesting and Curing. 

.1. — (irading, Packing and Matujini^. 

K — .Marketing 



Copift o/ ihf ahuvf ImletH can be obtained free of charge, and post free, on apvUcation to fhf 
Secretary Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, Upper Mertion Strert, 
Dublin. LeUer* of application to addressed nee<l not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6ll. PER ANNUM, POST PREK 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE. F.R.S.E., F.L.S.. 
Keeper , National History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E., 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.R.S.E., 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Magazine — founded in 1871 — is deroted to the publication of Origrinal Matter relating to the 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh \ OLIVER & BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



FOR SALE. 

Rev. Morris' British Birds, 6 vols., new, 400 coloured plates (published 
£6 6s.), £z 3s. Ditto, British Birds' Nests and Eggs, 3 vols., coloured plates, 
£1 15s. Ditto, British, Butterflies, 74 coloured plates, 12s. 6d. Ditto, 
British Moths, 4 vols., 2,000 coloured figures {£± 4s.), £1 15s. 

Frohawk's British Birds' Nests, and Eggs, 6 vols., new, 318 plates of 
birds, mostly life-size, and 24 coloured plates of eggs {£$ 5s.), £2 12s. 6d. 

Yarrell's British Birds, 3 vols., £1 15s. Ditto, British Fishes, 2 vols, 
and Supplements, £1 los. 

Rev. Houghton's British Freshwater Fishes,50 coloured plates, £1 iis. 6d. 

Wood's Index Testalogicus, 2,350 coloured figures (J^j los.), £2 los. 

Adams' Recent MoUusca, 3 vols., 138 plates, nem {£/^ los.), £1 5s. 

Anne Pratt's Flowering Plants and Ferns of Great Britian, 5 vols., 238 
coloured plates, ;^2 los. 

Johnstone and Croall — Nature— printed British Seaweeds, with coloured 
plates of all British species, 4 vols. £2 los. 

Barratt's British Lepidoptera, 11 vols., coloured plates {£'is), £\S. 

Stainton's Natural History of Tineina, 13 vols., new, coloured plates 
{£^ 2S. 6d.), ;^ 17s, 6d. 

Sir W. Jardine's Naturalist's Library, 40 vols., about 1,200 coloured 
plates, 10,800 pages, £i\. Many other lists from A. Ford, 36 Irving Rood, 
Bournemouth, England. 



Vol. xxYi., No. 2. February, 1917. 

CONTENTS. 

Page 
Arbuti Corona. Review of R. W. Scully's " Flora of Co. 

Kerry." — R. Ll. P. . . . . . . . . 21 

Earthquake or Landslip. — R. F. Scharff/ Pir.D., M.R.I. A. 27 

Additional Coleoptera from Meath and Cavan. — G. W. 

Nicholson, M.A., M.D. ... . . . . . . 28 

Irish Societies : 

Dublin Microscopical Club . . . , . . . . 32 



Review : 

W. H. Fitch and W. G. Smith's "Illustrations of the 
British Flora " . . 



33 



Obituary : 

George Dunleavy (C.B.M.) .. .. .. .. 34 

Notes : 



Trichia affinis in Connaught and Ulster. — Margarita D. Stelfox, 

.-^^aOCfa • • • . • • •• •• •• •• at 

Elymus arenarius and Asparagus officinalis on the North Bull, 
Dublin. — N. Colgan, M.R.I. A. . . . . . . 

Quail and Wren on Migration at Maidens Lighthouse — Prof 
C. J. Patten, M.D. . . . . . . . . 

Migration at Mutton Island. — Robert F. Ruttledge . . 

Black Redstart in Co. Wexford.— C. B. Moffat, M.R.I. A. 

Little Bustard in €0. Clare. — C. J. Carroll .. 

Bat Flying in Daylight. — J. H. H. Swiney . , 



34 

34 

35 
35 
36 
36 
36 



TAe Ptiblishers will be pleased to pay 1s» each for 

Copies of 

February, 1893', Janua/y, 1894; and September, 

1904, 

// sent Flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

Care, of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Groat Brunswick Street, 
Dublin. 

TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN " IRISH NATURALIST." 

s. d. 
Whole Pagb . . . . From lo o | ^^^^^^^^^ 

Half Page . . . . . . ,, 6 V to 

Quarter Page .. ,. 4 6) Position. 

A Reduction given for a Number of Insertions. 



ALEX.. lUOM AND CO., LIMITED, DUBLIN. 



VOL. xxvi. NO. 3. 
MARCH, 1917. 



^SJR 


Bi 




MIR 




i 


i 




iiiSi 






^^j^ 


m 








r!T5l 


Ivi! 


B 


ifff 


1 


ki 




M 



H flDontbli? Journal 



ON 




GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HI 



ORGAir OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 
DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 
BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL 
• SOCIETY, ■ 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 
DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD .CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 
TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

EDITED BY 

Prof. GEORGE H: CARPENTER M.Sa, M.R.I.A. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.LA. 



Price 6d. 



Tht IRISH NATURALIST for 1916 (twelvt parts) will be sent to any Address 
for 5s. Subscriptions should be sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD. M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A., Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

"and 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech: Coll.. 

HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc.,- M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest .Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London: A. BROWN & SONS. Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.G. 

Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annunf, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the NaturaUst, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL Op' SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



*• NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain off Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
off the day. it also contains Reviews of all recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of ths World : and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE." 

{To all places Abroad) € f. d. 

Yearly 1 10 6 

Half- Yearly .. 15 6 

Quarterly 8 

,*» A charjje of .'Sixpence is made for chanjjing 'Scotch and Iri-h Ch<*qu s. 

Cheques and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmtllan & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., London, W.C. 





£ B. d. 


Yearly 
Half-yearly 
Quarterly 


18 
1 14 6 
6 8 



I 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OF THE 

ROYAIv ZOOIvOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.lll. {Sundays from Alnoon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 2d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 
BROWN, HIMALAYAN AND POLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE. 

A HOOLOCK GIBBON 

AND 

THE ONLY LIVING GORILLA IN EUROPE. 
TWO YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANTS 
PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 
YOUNG BOAR FROM MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR. 

Donations of Animals (Irish or Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dubhn. 



uepaetment or agricultuee and technical 

INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



No 


. 1. 


i> 


2. 


»> 


3. 


i> 


4. 


»> 


5. 


» 


6. 


«« 


7. 


»> 


8. 


M 


9. 


»» 


10. 




:.i 




12. 


i9 


13. 


>« 


14 




15. 


»» 


16. 


>> 


17. 


»» 


18. 


>» 


19. 


«l 


20. 


99 


21. 


It 


22. 


>> 


23. 


l> 


24. 


l» 


25. 


it 


26. 


»» 


27. 


l> 


28. 


»l 


29 


»> 


30. 


>) 


31. 


»» 


32. 


*• 


33. 


*> 


34. 


»> 


35. 


»» 


36. 


M 


37. 


)> 


38 


»» 


39. 


97 


40 


99 


41. 


It 


42. 


IJ 


43. 


tl 


44. 


»t 


45. 


tl 


46. 


It 


47. 


It 


48. 


It 


49. 




50. 


If 


51. 


if 


52. 




53. 


»> 


54. 



The Warble Fly. 

The Use and Purchase of Feeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Hot in Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 
Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke in Sheep. 
Timothy Meadows. 
The Turnip Fly. 
Wireworms. 

Prevention of White Scour in Calves 
Liquid Manure. 

Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Blight. 
Milk Records. 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Purchase of Manures. 
Swine Fever. 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Bearing. 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 
Basic Slag. 
Dishorning Calves. 
Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls. 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Bearing and Fattening of Turkeys 
Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of TiUage, 
The Liming of Land. 
Field Experiments — Barley. 

,, „ Meadow Hay 

,, ,, Potatoes. 

„ „ Mangels. 

,, ,. Oats. 

,, ,, Turnips. 

Permanent Pasture Grasses. 
The Rearing and Management of 

Chickens, 
"Husk" or "Hoose" in Calves. 
Ringworm on Cattle. 
Haymaking. 

The Black Currant Mite. 
Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 
Poultry Fattening. 
Portable Poultry Houses. 
The Leather-Jacket Grub. 
Flax Experiments 

The Construction of a Cowhouse. 
Calf Meals. 



1 No. 


.55 


>> 


56 


it 


57 


99 


58 


9} 


59 


>i 


60 




61 


> J 


62 


»> 


63 


9f 


64 


99 


65 


J> 


66 
67 



Jt 
It 



II 
It 
It 
II 
II 
;t 



It 

It 



68. 
69. 
70. 



71. 

72. 
73. 

74. 

75 

76 

77. 

78 

79. 

80. 

81. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89 

90 

91. 

92 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96. 
97. 
98. 
99 



The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

Testing of Farm Seeds. 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat. 

The Management of Dairv Cows. 

" Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees. 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
and Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Timber. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations. 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber. 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges. 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

Barley Sowing 

American Gooseberry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Buttermaking. 
The Cultivation of Small Fruits. 
Catch Cropb. 

Potato Culture on Small Farms. 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injurious Orcliard Insects. 
Dhrty Milk. 
Barlev Threshing. 
The Home Bottling of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home Preservation of Eggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs for Hatchmg. 
Weeds. 

Tuberculosis in Poultrv. 
Seaweed in Manurej 



TOBACCO-GROWING LEAFLETS. 



A — Introductory. 

JJ — Suitable Soils and their Treatment. 

C. — Curing Barns. 

D. — Suitable Varieties. 

E. — Seed Beds 

F. — Manures. 



G. — Transplanting. 

H.— Cultivation, Suckerhig, and Topping 

I. — Harvesting ami Curing. 

.T. — Grading, Packing, and Matming. 

K — Marketing. 



Copies of the above leaflets can be obtained free of charge, and post free, on apr,lication to the 
Secretary. Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, Upper Merrion Sheet, 
Dublin. Letters of application so addressed need not be stamped. 



f, 

"f 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FREB 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE. F.R.S.E., F.L.S., 
Keeper, National History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS. F.R.S.E., 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW. F.R.S.E., 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Magazine — founded in 187 1 — is dcToted to the publication of Original Matter relating to the 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh : OLIVER & BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



FOR SALE. 

Rev. Morris' British Birds, 6 vols., new, 400 coloured plates (published 
£6 6s.), £2> 33- Ditto, British Birds' Nests and Eggs, 3 vols., coloured plates, 
£1 15s. Ditto, British Butterflies, 74 coloured plates, 12s. 6d. Ditto, 
British Moths, 4 vols., 2,000 coloured figures {£^ 4s.), £1 15s. 

Frohawk's British Birds' Nests, and Eggs. 6 vols., new, 318 plates of 
birds, mostly life-size, and 24 coloured plates of eggs {£^ 5s.), £2 12s. 6d. 

Yarrell's British Birds, 3 vols^, /i 15s. Ditto, British Fishes, -2 vols, 
and Supplements, ;^i los. , 

Rev. Houghton's British Freshwater Fishes,5o coloured plates, £1 iis. 6d. 

Wood's Index Testalogicus, 2,350 coloured figures {£y los.), £2 los. 

Adams' Recent Mollusca, 3 vols., 138 plates, nem {£^ los.), £1 5s. 

Anne Pratt's Flowering Plants and Ferns of Great Britian, 5 vols., 238 
coloured plates, £2 16a 

Johnstone and Croall — Nature — printed British Seaweeds, with coloured 
plates of all British species, 4 vols. £2 los. 

Barratt's British Lepidoptera. 11 vols., coloured plates {;^35), ;^i8. 

Staipton's Natural History ol Tmeina, 13 vols., new, coloured plates 
(/8 2S. 6d.>, £3 17s 6d. 

Sir W. Jardine's Naturalist's Library, 40 vols., about 1,200 coloured 
plates, 10,800 pages, £^. Many other lists from A. Ford, 36 Irving Road 
Bjurn mouth, England, 



Vol. xxYi., No. 3. March, 1917. 

CONTENTS. 

Page 

Some Irish Ichneumoiiidae. — Rev. W. F. Johnson, ^LA. . . 37 

Measurements and Weights of Birds' Eggs— Nevin H. 

Foster, F.L.S. . . . . . . . . 41 

Obituary-: 

William Gray . . . . . . . . . . 47 

Irish Societies : 

Royal Zoological Society . . . . . . 48 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club . . ... . . 52 



Notes : 



Frogs Spawning in Severe Weather. — C. B. Moffat, M.R.I. A.. 

Bittern in Co. Tyrone. — W. H. Workman 

Jays in Co. Dublin. — G. C. May 

Summer Migrants at Balbriggan in 1916 — Rev. C.W. Benson, LL 

Waxwing in Co. Down. — Nevin H. Foster, F.L.S^. 

Trichia affinis.— W. F. Gunn 

Aquatic Fungi. — R. Ll. Praeger 

Some Leitrim Fungi. — R. Ll. Praeger 

Elymus arenariiis on the North Bu11.-t-Matilda C. Knowles 



D. 



53 

53 
53 
54 
54 
54 
55 
56 
56 



*■ ■ i . • ■ • 



■^^ 



TAe Publishers will be pleased to 'pay 1 S. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1893; January, 1894 ; and September, 

1904, 

if sent Flat to 

" IRISH NATURALIST/' 

Care of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 



TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN " IRISH NATURALIST." 

s. d. 
Whole Pagb .. .. From 10 OV^^^^^^^ 

Half Page . . . . . . ., 6 v to 

Quarter Page -. .. ..^ 4 6 j ^°»it^^° 

A Reduction given for a Number of Insertions. 

ALBZ. TUOM AMD CO., LIMITED, DUBUN. 



^f^^mm. 



VOL. XXVI. NO. 4. 

APRIL, 19^7. 



^A 



\v:n 



r^^v^^f^ 







H flDontbli? 3ournal 



ON 



APR 'vi.'j 
38- ^? 



V-'.^ 



GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY; 

ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND. 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL 

SOCIETY, 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 
TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

EDITED BY 

Prof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER. M.Sc, M.R.I.A. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.LA. 



Price 6d. 



1 ■ 



;v-— 55 






DUBLIN : EASON & SON. Ltd.. 
\ ,,i r^ . 42 Great Brunswick Street, 

4==»->3 Belfast: 17 Donegall-st., 

'\ ^~\£" London : 

SiMFKiN, Marshall. Hamilton, 
,^ , .; Kent & Co., Ltd. 




lfl?TfWv5i™ 



Tbe IRISH NATURALIST for 1916 (twelvo parts) will be sent to any Address 
for 5s. Subscriptions should be sent to (Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 



THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc. F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A., Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph,D., M.Sc, F.L.S., TeCii. Coll., 

HUDDERSFIELD. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest .Scietitihc I'eriodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London: A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, FARRINGDOJST AVENUE, E.G. 
A'rep^id Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the NaturaUst, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World : and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest 

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE." 

( To all places Abroad) £ p. d. 

Yearly .. 1 10 6 

Half-Yearly . . 15 6 

Quarterly B 

, , A < f,c uf .iSirpehre is made for changing SV'ofrti and Irish Cheques. 

Cheques and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmillan & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., London, W.v„. • 





£ s.d. 


Yearly 

Half-yearly 

Quarterly 


18 
1 14 6 
6 6 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 



OF THE 



ROYAIv ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.m. {Sundays from 12 noon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 2d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

BROWN, HIMALAYAN AND POLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE. 

A HOOLOCK GIBBON 



AND 



THE ONLY LIVING GORILLA IN EUROPE. 
TWO YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANTS 
PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 
YOUNQ BOAR FROM MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR. 

Donations of Animals (Irish or Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



UEPAETMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



>> 



No. 1. The Warble Fly. 
„ 2. The Use and Purchase of Feeding 
Stuffs. 

3. Foot Eot in Sheep. 

4. The Sale of Flax. 

5. Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight 

6. Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 

7. Fluke in Sheep. 

8. Timothy Meadows. 

9. The Turnip Fly. 
10. Wireworms. 
11 Prevention of White Scour in Calves 

12. Liquid Manure. 

13. Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 
14 Prevention of Potato Blight. 

15. Milk Records, 

16. Sheep Scab. 

17. The Use and Purchase of Manures. 

18. Swine Fever. 

19. Earlv Potato Growing. 

20. Calf Rearing. 

21. Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 

22. Basic Slag. 

23. Dishorning Calves. 

24. Care and Treatment of Premium 
Bulls. 

Fowl Cholera, 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys 
Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Land. 
Field Experiments — Barley. 
„ „ Meadow Hay 

„ „ Potatoes. 

„ „ Mangels. 

„ „ Oats. 

,, ,, Turnips. 

Permanent Pasture Grasses. 
The Rearing and Management of 
Chickens. 

„ 44, "Husk" or " Hoose " in Calves. 
„ 45. Ringworm on Cattle. 
,, 46. Haymaking. 
„ 47. The Black Currant Mite, 
,, 48. Foul Brood or Bee Pest, 
„ 49. Poultry Fattening. 
;, 50. Portable Poultry Houses. 
,, 51. The Leather-Jacket Grub. 
„ 52. Flax Experiments 
„ 53. The Construction of a Cowhouse. 
„ 54. Calf Meals, 



„ 25. 
.. 26. 

„ 27, 
» 28, 

„ 29 
„ 30, 

„ 31. 

„ 32. 

„ 33. 

.. 34. 

„ 35. 

„ 36 

„ 37. 

„ 38 

„ 39. 

„ 40 

„ 41. 

.. 42. 

.. 43. 



No 


.55. 


>> 


56. 


»> 


57. 


99 


.S8. 


9> 


59. 


»> 


60, 


99 


61, 


>> 


62. 


>> 


63. 


>> 


64, 


» 


65. 

• 


>» 


66. 


>> 


67. 


»» 


68, 


>> 


69. 


»> 


70. 


3» 


71, 


>> 


72, 


»> 


73. 


1* 


74, 


>» 


75 


>» 


76 


99 


77. 


>> 


78 


»9 


79. 


; , 


8U. 


}: 


81. 


>> 


82. 


>> 


83. 


>J 


84. 


)> 


85 


99 


86. 


99 


87. 




88. 


99 


89 


>> 


90 


99 


91. 


19 


92 


99 


93. 




94, 


11 


95, 



96. 
97. 
9H. 
99 



The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit, 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes, 

Testing of Farm Seeds. 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat. 

The Management of Dairv Cows. 

"Redwater" or "Blood-Murrain" 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees. 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber, 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
and Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Timber. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations, 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber. 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges. 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep, 

Barley Sowing 

American Gooseberry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Buttermdking. 
The Cultivation of Small Fruits. 
Catch Cropa. 

Potato Culture on Small Farms, 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injurious Orchard Insects. 
Dirty Milk. 
Barley Threshing. 
The Home Bottling of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home Preservation of Eggs, 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs for Hatching. 
Weeds. 

Tuberculosis in Poultry. 
Seaweed in Manurei 



TOBACCO-GROWING LEAFLETS, 



A — Introductory, 

B — Suitable Soils and their Treatment, 

C. — Curing Barns. 

D. — Suitable Varieties, 

E.— Seed Beds 

F. — Manures. 



G. — Transplanting. 

H. — Cultivation, Suckering, and Topping 

1. — Harvesting and Curing. 

•T. — Grading, Packing, and Maturing. 

K — Marketing; 



Copies of the above leaflets can be obtained free of charge, and post free, on apvlication to the 
Secretary. Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, Upper Meriion Street, 
Dublin. Letters of application so addressed need not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FREE. 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST 

A MONTHLY xAIAGAZTNE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE, F.R.S.E., F.L.S.. 

Keeper, National History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E., 

Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW. F.R.S.E., 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, 



This Magazine — founded in 1871 — is deroted to the publication of Original Matter relating to the 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
yther 11 eful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh '. OLIVER <& BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



FOR SALE. 

Rey. Morris- British Birds, 6 vols., new, 400 coloured plates (published 
£6 6s.), ;^3 3s. Ditto, British Birds' Nests and Eggs, 3 vols., coloured plates, 
£1 15s. Ditto, British Butterfliesj^ 74 ! coloured plates, 12s. 6d. Ditto, 
British Moths, 4 vols., 2,060 coloured figures {£/[ 4s.), £1 15s. 

Frohawk's British Birds' Nests, and Eggs, 6 vols., new, 318 plates of 
birds, mostly life-size, and 24 coloured plates of eggs {£^ 5s.), ;^2 12s. 6d. 

Yarrell's British Birds, 3 vols., £1 15s. Ditto, British Fishes, 2 vols, 
and. Supplements, £1 los. 

Rev. Houghton's British Freshwater Fishes,50 coloured plates, £1 iis. 6d. 

Wood's Index Testalogicus, 2,350 coloured figures {£7 los.), £2 los. 

Adams' Recent Mollusca, 3 vols., 138 plates, nem {£/\. los.), £1 5s. 

Anne Pratt's Flowering Plants and Ferns of Great Britian, 5 vols., 238 
coloured plates, £2 toz. 

Johnstone and Croall — Nature^ — printed British Seaweeds, with coloured 
plates of all British species, 4 Vols. £2 los. 

Barratt's British Lepidoptera, 11 vols., coloured plates {£^5), £18. 

Stainton's Natural History of Tineina, 13 vols., new, coloured plates 
{£8 2S. 6d.), £s 17s. 6d: ' 

Sir W. Jardine's Naturalist's 'Library, 40 vols., about 1,200 coloured 
plates, 10,800 pages, £^. Many other lists from A. Ford, 36 Irving Road 
Bournemouth, England* 



Vol. xxvi.. No. 4. April, 1917. 

CONTENTS. 

Page 

Some Records for Irish Mycetozoa. — Margaret W. Rea and 

Margarita D. Stelfox . . . . . . 57 

Useful Studies for Field Naturalists.— Prof. George H. 

Carpenter, M.Sc. . . . . . . . . . . 66 

Irish Societies : 

Dublin Microscopical Club . . . , . .- 70 

Notes : 

A new Science Club . . . . . . . . . . 71 

Foxgloves Killed by Cold. — R. Ll. Ppaeger . . . . 72 

Unusual Flight of a Kingfisher. — R. Lt. Praeger . . . . 72 

Night Heron near Dublin. — Col. Sir Fred. Shaw . . . . 72 



The Publishers will be pleased to pay 1s. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1893! January, 1894; and September, 

1904, 

if sent Flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

Care of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Groat Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 



TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN " IRISH NATURALIST." 

s. d. 
Whole Page . . . . From 10 \ ^^.^.^j^g 

Half Page .. .. .. „ 6 V to 

Quarter Page . . . . „ 4 6) Position. 

A Reduction given for a Number of Insertions, 



▲UIX. TUOll AND CO., UMITBD. DUBUN. ^ 






VOL. xxvi., NO. 5. 
MAY. 1917. 




.is. 



JKi^«SC»\^*»* 






H noontbl? 3ournal 



ON 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY, 

ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND. 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL 

SOCIETY. 

BELFAST NATURALISTS'' FIELD CLUB, 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 
TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

EDITED BY 

Prof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER. M,Sc., M.RJ.A. 

, .^V .AND 

g^LLd]^D PRAEGER, B.A.. B.E.. M.RJ.A. 



Price 6d. 






!=^*= 



r)'>i 



)"/ 



V J 



\^^\ 



%' 




DUBLIN : EASON &. SON. Ltd.. 

42 Great Brunswick Street. 

Belfast : 17 Donegall-st., 

London : 

Simpktn, Marshall, Hamilton, 

Kent & Co., Ltd 



?fffl<UU^W.LIiU1. 




^ f^' 



Tilt IRISH NATURALIST for 19f6 (twelv* parts) will be sent to any Address 
7er 5s. Subseriptions should be sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A., Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll., 

HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE. E.G. 

Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The MuSeum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientific works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World ; and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest 

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO **NATURE." 

{To all places Abroad) £ s. d. 

Yearly 1 10 6 

Half-Yearly .. .. 15 6 

Quarterly 8 

**♦ A charge of Sixpence is made for changing Scotch and Irish Cheques. 

Cheques and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmillan & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., London, W.C. 





£ s. d. 


Yearly 


..180 


Half-yearly 


1 14 6 


Quarterly 


6 8 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.m. (Sundays from 12 noon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 2d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

' SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

BROWN, HIMALAYAN AND POLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE. 

A HOOLOCK GIBBON 

AND 

THE ONLY LIVING GORILLA IN EUROPE. 
TWO YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANTS 
PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 
YOUNG BOAR FROM MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR, 

Donations of Animals (Irish or Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter, 

Hoii. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



DEPAETMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



No. 1. 



3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 






„ 10. 

,. n 

„ 12. 

„ 13. 

„ 14 

., 15. 

„ 16. 

,, 17. 

„ 18. 

„ 19. 

„ 20. 

.. 21. 

„ 22. 

„ 23. 

„ 24. 

If ^^' 

,, 26. 

„ 27. 

„ 28. 

» 29 

„ 30. 

» 31. 

„ 32. 

M 33. 

„ 34. 

„ 85. 

„ 36. 

„ 37. 

., 38 

„ 39. 

„ 40 

„ 41. 

M 42. 

M 43. 

„ 44. 

„ 45. 

„ 46 

„ 47. 

,. 48. 

M 49. 

>, 50. 

M 51. 

, 52. 

„ 53. 

» 54. 



The Warble Fly. 


No. 


55. 


The Use and Purchase of Feeding 


» 


56. 


Stuffs. 


>> 


57. 


Foot Rot in Sheep. 


>» 


58. 


The Sale of Flax. 


yy 


59. 


Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 


t> 


60. 


Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 


» » 


61. 


Fluke in Sheep. 


> » 


62. 


Timothy Meadows. 


i> 


63. 


The Turnip Fly. 






Wire worms. 


>> 


64. 


Prevention of White Scour in Calves 






Liquid Manure. 


>) 


65. 


Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 






Prevention of Potato Blight. 


>> 


66. 


Milk Records. 






Sheep Scab. 


»> 


67. 


The Use and Purchase of Manures. 






Swine Fever. 


ty 


68. 


Early Potato Growing. 






Calf Rearing. 


»> 


69. 


Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 






Basic Slag. 


>> 


70. 


Dishorning Calves. 






Care and Treatment of Premium 






Bulls. 


: J 


71. 


Fowl Cholera. 






Winter Fattening of Cattle. 


5J 


72. 


Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 


>» 


73. 


Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 






Quarter 


>> 


74. 


Flax Seed. 






Poultry Parasites— Fleas, Mites, and 


>> 


75 


Lice. 


>» 


76 


Winter Egg Production. 


>> 


77. 


Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys 


>» 


78 


Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 


>» 


79. 


The Revival of Tillage. 


;j 


80. 


The Liming of Land. 


y> 


81. 


Field Experiments — Barley. 


>> 


82. 


„ „ Meadow Hay 


19 


83. 


„ „ Potatoes. 


)> 


84. 


„ „ Mangels. 


yy 


85 


„ ,. Oats. 


>> 


86. 


Turnips, 


<> 


87. 


Permanent Pasture Grasses. 


»• 


88. 


The Rearing and Management of 


»» 


89 


Chickens. 


>9 


90 


•Husk" or "Hoose" in Calves. 


9> 


91. 


Ringworm on Cattle. 


• > 


92 


Haymaking. 


>» 


93. 


The Black Currant Mite. 


>> 


94. 


Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 


>y 


95. 


Poultry Fattening. 






Portable Poultry Houses. 


>y 


96. 


The Leather-Jacket Grub. 


i> 


97. 


Flax Experiments 


i; 


98. 


The Construction of a Cowhouse. 


yy 


99 


Calf MeaU. 







The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

Testing of Farm Seeds. 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat. 

The Management of Dairv Cows. 

"Redwater" or "Blood-Murrain" 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees. 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
and Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Timber. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations. 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber. 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges. 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

Barley Sowing 

American Gooseberry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Buttermaking. 
The Cultivation of Small Fruits. 
Catch Crops. 

Potato Cidture on Small Farms. 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injurious Orchard Insects. 
Du-ty Milk. 
Barley Threshing. 
The Home Bottling of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home Preservation of Eggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs for Hatching. 
Weeds. 

Tuberculosis in Poultry. 
Seaweed in Manure i 



TOBACCO-GROWING LEAFLETS. 



A — Introductory. 

B — Suitable Soils and their Treatment. 

C. — Curing Barns. 

D. — Suitable Varieties. 

E.— Seed Beds 

F. — Manures. 



G . — Transplanting . 

H. — Cultivation, Suckering, and Topping 

I. — Harvesting and Curing. 

J. — Grading, Packing, and Matming. 

K — Marketing. 



Copiet of the above leaflets can be obtained free of charge, and post free, on apvlication to the 
Secretary. Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, Upper Merrion Street, 
Dublin. Letters of application to addressed need not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6(1. PER ANNUM, POST FREE. 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE, F.R.S.E., F.L.S.. 
Keeper, National History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E., 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.R.S.E., 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Magazine — founded in 1871 — is deroted to the publication of Original Matter relating to the 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Lif« Histories, et\;., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh : OLIVER i. BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



FOR SALE. 

Rev. Morris' British Birds, 6 vols., new, 400 coloured plates (published 
£6 6s.), £3 3s. Ditto, British Birds' Nests and Eggs, 3 vols., coloured plates. 
£1 15s. Ditto, British Butterflies, 74 coloured plates, 12s. 6d. Ditto, 
British Moths, 4 vols., 2,000 coloured figures {£^ 4s.), £1 15s. 

Frohawk's British Birds' Nests, and Eggs, 6 vols., new, 318 plates of. 
birds, mostly life-size, and 24 coloured plates of eggs (/5 5s.), £2 12s. 6d 

Yarrell's British Birds, 3 vols., £1 15s. Ditto, British Fishes, 2 vols, 
and Supplements, £1 los. 

Rev. Houghton's British Freshwater Fishes,5o coloured plates, £1 lis. 6d. 

Wood's Index Testalogicus, 2,350 coloured figures {£y los.), £2 los. 

Adams' Recent Mollusca, 3 vols., 138 plates, nem {£4 los.), £1 5s. 

Anne Pratt's Flowering Plants and Ferns of Great Britian, 5 vols., 238 
coloured plates, £2 los. 

Johnstone and Croall — Nature— printed British Seaweeds, with coloured 
plates of all British species, 4 vols. £2 los. 

Barratt's British Lepidoptera, 11 vols., coloured plates {£S5)» £^^' 

Stainton's Natural History of Tineina, 13 vols., new, coloured plates 
(;^8 2s. 6d.), £3 tys. 6d. 

Sir W. Jardine's Naturalist's Library, 40 vols., about 1,200 coloured 
plated, 16,800 pages, £^^. Many other lists from A. Ford, 36 Irving Road, 
Bournemouth, England^ 



Vol. Kvi., No. 5. May, 1917. 

CONTENTS. 

Page 
•The Musci and Hepaticae of the Glen of the Downs, 

Co. Wicklow (Plates I. II.).— D. M'Ardle . '. .. 73 

Lissonota basalis in Ireland. — Rev. W. F. Johnson, 

M.A., M.R.LA. .. .. .'. 82 

On the Variation of the Lizard.— R. F. Scharff, B.Sd . . 84 

Irish Societies : 

Royal Zoological Society . . . . . . 84 

Dublin Microscopical Club . . . . . . 85 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club .. .. .. 85 

Dublin Naturalists' Field Club ... . . . . 85 

Notes : 

Some Co. Antrim Proverbs. — Matilda C. Knowles . . 87 

Selaginella Kraussiana in Ireland ? — W, A. Lee .. .. 87 

Should VV^asps be killed?— R. F. ScHARFi, B.Sc. .. .. 88 

The Jay in Ireland. — W. J. Williams .. .. .. 88 

The Publiske7's will be pleased to .pay Is. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1893; January, 1894; and September, 

1904, 

if sent Flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

Cart of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 
■ ' ^ • • — — ■ - ■• ■ .. . . ■ • 

TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN "IRISH NATURALIST." 

s. d. 
Whole Page . . . . From 10 ^ . 

I According 

Half Page ... ,, 6 \ to 

Quarter Page .. ,. 4 6) Position. 

A Reduction given for a Number of Insertions. 



'ALSX. TBOM Ain> CO.. UiCITBD. DUBLIN j 



VOL. xxvii., NO. 6. 
JUNE, 1917. 



:/'-'^. 






A 



H flDontblp 3ournal 

ON 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY, 

ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND. 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL 

SOCIETY, .-^-r- 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUJ 



I 



DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLU 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLU 
TYRONE NATURALISTS'' FIELD CL 



EDITED BY 

Prof. GEORGE H.<:ARPENTER, M.Sc, M.R 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B A., BE.. ^LR.1.A. 

Price 6d. 




|?1 







DUBLIN : EASON & SON, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street. 

Belfast: 17 Donegall-st., 

London : 

SiMPKiN, Marshall, Hamilton, 

Kent & Co., Ltd 



lfffff((IUI.V,iJ>ViMJ|1l.l|lit|l)lilhlililllll.l,lilJllii|iiM^ 




Tbt IRISH NATURALIST for 1916 (twelve parts) wtii be sent to any Address 
fftr 5s. Subscriptions shOHld be sont to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD, ]^.Sc., F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A., Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll.. 

HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH THB ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

i. QILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALLrM.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London: A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.G. 

Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
off the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which fform a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World ; and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest 

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE." 

{To all places Abroad) £ s. d. 

Yearly 1 10 6 

Half-Yearly .. 15 6 

Quarterly 8 



£ s. d. 

Yearly 18 

Half-yearly 1 14 6 

Quarterly 6 8 



,»♦ A charge ot Sixpt-iK c is luadr toi changinlg Scotch and Irish Cheques. 

Cheques and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmiilan & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., London. W.C. 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OF THK 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL S0CIP:TY OF IRELANiJ 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.m. (Sundays froyn 12 noon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 2d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 
BROWN, HIMALAYAN AND POLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE. 

A HOOLOCK GIBBON 

AND 

THE ONLY LIVING GORILLA IN EUROPE. 
TWO YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANTS 
PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 
YOUNG BOAR FROM MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR. 

Donations of Animals (Irish or Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



DEPAKTiMENT ^ OF AGRICULTUEE AND TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



s'o 


. 1 


*» 


2 




3 


1 1 


4 


*1 


5 


• » 


6. 


l» 


1 




8 


»> 


9 


»» 


10 




;.i 


•1 


12 


r 


13 


tt 


U 


. f 


15 




16 




17 


M 


18 


It 


19 


r» 


20 


ft 


21 


tt 


22 




23 


** 


24 




25 




26 




27 


99 


28 


t» 


29 


»» 


30 




31 


It 


32 


tf 


33 


»» 


34 


tl 


35 




36 




37 


t f 


38 


ft 


39 


tl 


40 


f » 


41 


99 


42 


t? 


43 


It 


44 




45 




46 


tl 


47 


tt 


48 


tt 


49 


■, t 


50 


It 


51 




62. 




53. 


tt 


54. 



The Warble Fly. 


No. 


55 


The Use and Purchase of Feeding 


tt 


56 


Stuffs. 


it 


57 


Foot Rot in Sheep. 


19 


58 


The Sale of Flax. 


,1 


59 


Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 


»> 


60 


Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 


1 » 


61 


Fluke in Sheep. 


i » 


62 


Tiiuothy .Meadows 


19 


63 


The Turnip Fly 






Wiiewornis. 


19 


64 


Prevention i>i White Scour in Calves 






Liiiuid Ma tune. 


tf 


65 


Confa'giOUs i-Vbortion in Cattle. 






Preventioh of Potato Blifrilt. 


9) 


66 


Milk Records. 






Sheep Scab. 


tt 


67 


The Use and Purchase of Manures. 






Swine Fever. 


t9 


68 


Early Potato Growing. 






Calf Rearing 


9) 


69 


Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 






Basic Slag. 


91 


70 


Dishorning Calves. 






Care and Treatment of Preinium 






Bulls. 


:9 


71 


Fowl Cholera. 






Winter Fattening of Cattle. 


99 


72 


Breeding and Feeding of Piss. 


99 


73 


Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 






Quarter 


99 


74 


Flax Seed. 






Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 


99 


75 


Lice. 


99 


76 


Winter Egg Production. 


99 


77 


Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys 


99 


78 


Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 


99 


79 


The Revival of Tillage. 


; 9 


80 


The Liming of Land. 


9 


81 


Field Experiments— Barley. 


99 


82 


,, „ Meadow Hay 


99 


83 


,, „ Potatoes. 


99 


84 


„ Mangels. 


99 


85 


Oats. 


99 


86 


,, „ Turnips. 


99 


87 


Permanent Pasture Grasses. 


1 • 


88 


The Rearing and Management of 


99 


89 


Chickens 


99 


90 


'Husk" or "Hoose" In Calves. 


99 


91 


Ringworm on Cattle. 


99 


92 


Haymaking. 


19 


93 


The Black Currant Mite. 


9 9 


94 


Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 


,9 


95 


Poultry Fattening. 






Portable I'oultry Houses. 


99 


96 


The Leather-Jacket Grub. 


99 


97 


Flax Experiments 


9;' 


98 


The Construction of a Cowhouse. 


99 


99 


Calf MeaU. 







The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

Testing of Farm Seeds, 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments— Wheat. 

The Management of Dairv Cows. 

" Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees. 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
and Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Tim*)'r. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations. 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber. 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges. 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

Barley Sowing 

American Gooseberry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Buttermakiug. 
The Cultivation of Small Fruits. 
Catch Crops. 

Potato Culture on Small Farms. 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injurious Orchard Insects. 
Du:ty Milk. 
Barley Threshing 
The Home Bottling of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home Preservation of Eggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs for Hatching. 
Weeds. 

Tuberculosis in Poultry. 
Seaweed in Manure, 



TOBACCO-GROWING LEAFLETS. 



A — Introductory. 

B — Suitable Soils and their Treatment. 

C. — Curing Barns.. 

D. — Suitable Varieties. 

E.— Seed Beds 

F. — Manures. 



G. — Transplanting. 

H. — Cultivation, Suckerlng, and Topping 

I. — Harvesting and Curing. 

J. — Grading, Packing, and Matuiing. 

K — Marketing. 



Copie$ of the above Itaflett can be obtained free of charge, and post free, on application to the 
Secrstary. Department of Agticukure and Technical Instruction for Ireland, Upper Merrion Street, 
Dublin. Ledtrs of application so addressed need not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FREE: 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., 
Kieptr, National History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh* 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E., 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.R.S.E., 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Magazine — founded in 1 87 1 — is deroted to the publication of Original Matter relating to the <, 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh '. OLIVER & BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



FOR SALE. 

Rev. Morris' British Birds, 6 vols., new, 400 coloured plates (published 
£6 6s.), £3 3s. Ditto, British Birds' Nests and Eggs, 3 vols., coloured plates^ 
£1 15s. Ditto, British Butterflies, 74 coloured plates, 12s. 6d. Ditto, 
British Moths, 4 vols., 2,000 coloured figures {£4 4s.), £1 15s. 

Froh^wk's British Birds' Nests, and Eggs, 6 vols., new, 318 plates of 
birds, mostly Ufe-siae, and 24 coloured plates of eggs {£5 5s.), £2 12s. 6d. 

Yarrell's British Birds, 3 vols., £1 15s. Ditto, British Fishes, 2 vol*, 
ana Supplements, £1 los. 

Rev. Houghton's British Freshwater Fishes,50 coloured plates, £1 lis. 6d. 

Wood's Index Testalogicus, 2,350 coloured figures {£7 los.), £2 108. 

Adams' Recent Mollusca, 3 vols., 138 plates, nem {£4 los.), £1 5s. 

Anne Pratt's Flowering Plants and Ferns of Great Britian, 5 vols., 238 
coloured plates, £2 los. 

Johnstone and Croall — Nature — printed British Seaweeds, with coloured 
plates of all British species, 4 vols. £2 los. 

Barratt's British Lepidoptera, 11 vols., coloured plates 0^35), £16. 

Stainton's Natural History of Tineina, 13 vols., new, coloured plates 
{£8 2s. 6d.), £s 17s. 6d. 

Sir W. Jardine's Naturalist's Library, 40 vols., about 1,200 coloured 
piates/ ro,8oo pages, £4. Many other lists from A. Ford, 36 Irving Road, 
Bournemouth. England^ 



Vol. xxvli.. No. 6. June, 1917. 

CONTENTS. 

J Page 

An Extemunating Winter: its Effects on Bird-life^ in Co. 

Wexford.— C. B. Moffat, M.R.I.A. .. .. .. 89 

Elater praeustus, an Jrish Beetle. — H. v'^t. J. K, Donisthorpe, 

X • Zv. 0« •• •• *• •• •• a, ^M 

Reviews. 

P. H. Grimshaw's " Guide to Literature of British Diptera " 

(G. H. C.) . . . . . . . . . . 100 

W. ..C. Worsdell's "Principles of Plant Teratology" 

(G. H. P.) . . . . . . . . . . loi 

Geological Map of the City of Dublin Area . . . . 102 



Notes : 

Some Migrant Notes. — J. P. Burkitt, B.E. 

Russet Variety oi Snipe in Mayo. — R. F. Ruttledge 



104 



Irish Societies : 

Royal Zoological Society. Dublin Microscopical Club . . 104 



The Publishers will be pleased to pay 1s. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1893 i January, 1894; and September, 

1904, 

if sent Flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

Care oJ> Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 



UU^^MMMJiMl^i 



TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN " IRISH NATURALIST." 

s. d. 
Whole Page . . . . From 10 j . ^ 

I According 

Half Page . . . . . . ,, 5 v to 

Quarter Page .. .. ,. 4 6) Position. 

A Reduction given for a N timber of Insertions. 



4LBZ. rHOM AMD CO.« LIMITBD, DUBLIN. 



'o>\N" 



"')«; 



VOL. XX vi., NO. 7. 

JULY, 1917. 












VI f)^ HBHHH 






H flDontbli? 3ournal 




ON 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HI 

ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND. 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL 

SOCIETY. 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 
TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

EDITED BY 

Prof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER, M.Sc, MR I A. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER B.A., B.L., ALR.LA. 






:)->i^ 







Price 6d. 



DUBLIN : EASON & SON, Ltd.. 

42 Great Bkunswick Street. 

Belfast : 17 Donegall-st ., 

London : 

Sjmpktn, Marshall, Hamilton, 

Kent & Co.. Ltd. 



mfff((miiM.uiiViiiinw)(iiiuiii]ii!i 




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



No 


. 1. 


>» 


2. 


»» 


S. 


)* 


4. 


»> 


6. 


99 


6. 


9» 


7. 


>* 


8. 


It 


9. 




10. 


« t 


;.i 


.^ 


12 




13. 


,, 


14 




16. 


t» 


16. 


>» 


17. 


«» 


18. 




19. 


»V 


20. 




21. 


t» 


22. 




23. 


»» 


24. 


• » 


25. 




26. 


»> 


27. 


>> 


28. 


J> 


29 


• » 


SO. 


>> 


31. 


9» 


32. 


>f 


33. 


1> 


34. 




85. 




36. 




37. 


»> 


38 


• t 


39. 


f> 


40 


ft9 


41. 


*» 


42. 


• > 


48. 


9» 


44. 


II 


45. 


It 


46 


II 


47. 


It 


48. 


II 


49. 


It 


60. 


It 


51. 


t 


52. 


II 


53. 


It 


64. 



The Warble Fly. 

The Use and Purchase of Feeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Rot in Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 
Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke In Sheep. 
Timothy Meadows. 
The Turnip Fly 
Wireworma. 

Prevention of White Scour In Calves 
Liquid JVIanure. 

Contagious Abortioii hi Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Blight. 
Milk Records. 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Purchase of Manures. 
Swine Fever. 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Rearing. 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 
Basic Slag. 
Dishorning Calves. 
Care an<l, Tieatnaent of Preooinm 

Bulls. 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Bla(!kleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites— Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys 
Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Land. 
Fiell Experlmenta— Barley. 

„ Meadow Hay 

„ Potatoes. 

„ Mangels. 

Oats. 

„ ,, Turnips. 

'Permanent Pasture Grasses. 
rh<> Rearing and Management of 

Chickens. 
"Husk" or "Hoose" in Calves. 
Ringworm on Cattle. 
Haymaking. 

The Black Currant Mite. 
Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 
Poultry Fattening. 
Portable Poultry Houses. 
The Leather-Jacket Grub. 
Flax Experiments 

The Construction of f^ Cowhouse. 
Calf Meals. 



^0. 


ar>. 




58. 


.» 


57. 


«• 


.ss. 


tt 


59. 


» J 


60. 




61. 




62. 


91 


63. 


1 t 


64. 


>f 


65. 


>» 


66. 


»> 


67. 


• J 


68. 


»1 


69. 


* y 


70. 


;> 


71. 


n 


72. 


1» 


73. 


» 


74. 




75 




76 




77. 


9» 


78 




79. 




80. 


f 


81. 




82. 




83. 




84. 


11 


85 


II 


86. 


It 


87. 




88. 


If 


89 


It 


90 




91. 




92 


II 


93. 


91 


94. 


n 


95. 


II 


96. 




97. 




98. 




99 



The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes 

Testing of Farm Seeds. 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat. 

The Management of Dairy Cows.'- 

"Redwater" or "Blood-Murrain" 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitai>le for 
Cultivation In Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

Forestry : The Proper Itfethod of 
Planting Forest Trees- 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
and Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Tlmbtr. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations. 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber. 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges. 

Some Common Parasites of t^e 
Sheep. 

Barley Sowing 

American Gooseberry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Buttermaking. 
The Cultivation of Small Fruits. 
Catch Crops. 

Potato Cloture on Small Farms. 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injurious Orchard Insects. 
Dirty Milk. 
Barley Threshing 
The Home Bottling of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab In Potatoes 
Home Preservation of Eggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs for Hatching 
Weeds. 

Tuberculosis in Poultry. 
Seaweed In Manure 



TOBACCO-GROWING LEAFLETS. 



A — Introductory. 

B— Suitable Soils and their Treatment. 

C. — Curing Bams. 

D— Suitable Varletlea. 

B.— Seed Beds 

F. — Manures. 



G. — Transplanting 

H. — Cultivation, SucKering, and Topping 

I. — Harvesting an«j Curing. 

J. — Grading, Packing, and Matuiing. 

K —Marketing. 



Cop\e$ of UiB above UaffeU can b« obtained free of charge, and pott free, on apvlieation to the 
Sterftary Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, tipper Merrum Street, 
Dublin. LetUri of application to addretted need not be ttamped. 



■l-*— 



The IRISH NATURALIST for 1916 (twelvt parts) will be sent to any Address 
or 5s. Subscriptions should be sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A., Scot.. 

The Museum, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll . 

HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles daring back to 1833. 

London: A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.G. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, HulL 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 






" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the world : and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest 

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE." 

I {To all places Abroad) £ ?. d. 

1 Yearly 1 10 6 

Half-Yearly .. 15 6 

1 Quarterly 8 

,-* A charge of Sixpence is made for changing "fcotch and Irish Cheques. 

Cheques and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmillan & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., LoiiDON, W.C. 





£ 8. d. 


Yearly 
Half-yearly 
Quarterly 


18 
14 6 
6 8 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FREE; 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

A MONTHLY MAGAZIKE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE. F.R.S.E., F.L.S., 
Keeper, National History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.R.S.E., 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Magazine — founded in 187 1 — is devoted to the publication of Original Matter relating to the 
Natural History ot Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Lifrt Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh : OLIVER & BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



FOR SALE. 

Rev. Morris' British Birds, 6 vols., new, 400 coloured plates (published 
£6 6s.), ;^3 3s. Ditto, British Birds' Nests and Eggs, 3 vols., coloured plates, 
£1 15s. Ditto, British Butterflies, 74 coloured plates, 12s. 6d. Ditto, 
British Moths, 4 vols., 2,000 coloured figures {£^ 4s.), £1 15s. 

Frohawk's British Birds' Nests, and Eggs, 6 vols., new, 318 plates of 
birds, mostly life-size, and 24 coloured plates of eggs {£^ 5s.), £2 12s. 6d. 

Yarrell's British Birds, 3 vols., £1 15s. Ditto, British Fishes, 2 vols, 
ana Supplements, /i los. 

Kev. Houghton's British Freshwater Fishes,5o coloured plates, £1 lis. 6d. 

vVood's Index Testalogicus, 2,350 coloured figures {£'j los.), £2. loa. 

Adams' Recent MoUusca, 3 vols., 138 plates, nem {£/{ los.), ^i 5s. 

Anne Pratt's Flowering Plants and Ferns of Great Britian, 5 vols., 238 
coloured plates, £2 los, 

Johnstone and Croall — Nature — printed British Seaweeds, with coloured 
plates of all British species, 4 vols. £2 los. 

Barratt's British Lepidoptera, 11 vols., coloured plates (;^35), ;^i8. 

Stainton's Natural History of Tineina, 13 vols., new, coloured plates 
(£8 2S. 6d.), £1 17s 6d. 

Sir VV. Jardine's Naturalist's Library, 40 vols., about 1,200 coloured 
piates, 10,800 pages, £:^. Many other lists from A. Ford, 36 Irving Road, 
Bournemouth, England^ 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAlv SOCIETY OF IRELAND 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.m. (Sundays from 12 noon) 

tiir dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 2d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 
BROWN, HIMALAYAN AND POLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHiMPJlNZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE 



AND 



A HOOLOCK GIBBON. 

TWO YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANTS 

PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 

YOUNG BOAR FROM MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR. 

Donations of Animals (Irish or Foreiirn) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to— ^ 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



Vol. xxt1.,No. 7. July, 1917. 

CONTENTS. 

Page 
Advances in Irish Marine Zoology. Fourth Report. — R. F. 

scharff, b.sc, m.r.i. a. .. .. .. .. ids 

Obituary : 

Robert Donough O'Brien (R. LI. P.). ... ... ... 113 

Entomological Notes, — Sir Charles Langham, Bart. .. 114 

The Winter of 1916-17 and' its Effect on Bird Life in Co. 

Tyrone.— Nevin H. Foster, M.B.O.U. . . . . 118 

Notes : 

Effects of tlie late Spring ; Blue Wood Anemones. — R. Ll, 

Praeger, B.A. ... 
Habits of Vanessa io in Co. Donegal. — W. E. Hart. 
Hadena protea in Tj^rone. — Thomas Greer. 
Variation ot Arion ater in, Cork X.E. — W. Denison Roebuck, . 

JT.E.c). ... ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Fish Diseases ... •••. 

Some Migrant Notes. — ^Nevin H. Foster, M.B.O.U. 

Whales and Dolphins Stranded in Ireland 



120 

12 1 

121 

121 
122 
122 
123 



Irish Societies : 

Dublin Naturalists' Field Club. ... ... ... ... ^ 124 



T/ie Publishers will be pleased to pay Is. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1893; January, 1894; and September, 

1904, 

if sent Flat to 

" IRISH NATURALIST," 

Care, of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 

TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN "IRISH NATURALIST." 

s. d. 
Whole Page .. .. From 1^ | ^,^^^^i„g 

Half Page . . . . . . ,, 6 v to 

Quarter Page ,. .. ,. 4 5) ^^^^^^u, 

A Reduction given for a Number of Insertions. 



A.LHX.. I HUM AND CO., LIMITED, DUBLIN, 









':m< 



VOL. xxvi., NO. 8. . 
AUGUST. 1917. 



r^*\ 






■,..«lte 



H flDontbl? Journal 1^1 •s'A^ r 



ON 



GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HIS 

ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND. 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL 

SOCIETY, 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 
TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

EDITED BY 

Prof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER, M.Sc, M.R.I.A. 

AND 

R LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.LA. 



W 



The IRISH NATURALIST for 1916 (iwelvt parts) will be sent to any Address 
or Ss. Subscriptions should be sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A., Scot., 

The Museum, Hull ; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll., 

HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH THB ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.G. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all' recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World : and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest 

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE." 

{To all places Abroad) £ s. d. 

Yearly 1 10 6 

Half-Yearly .. 15 6 

Quarterly 8 

, •', A char;,'e of Sixpence is made for changing Scotch and Irish Cheques. 

Cheques and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmillan & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., London, W.C. 





£ s. d. 


Yearly 


..180 


Half-yearly 


14 6 


Quarterly 


6 8 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 



OF THE 



ROYAIv ZOOI.OGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.m. {Sundays from 12 noon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 2d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES, 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BROWN, BLACK, HIMALAYAN AND POLAR BEARS. 

TWD CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE 



AND 



A HOOLOCK GIBBON. 

YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANT. 

PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

YOUNG BOAR FROM MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR, 

Donations of Animals (Irish op Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Prof, G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



DEPAIITMENT OF AGEICULTUEE AND TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



No 


. 1. 


•> 


2, 


19 


3 


>l 


4 


» 


5. 


>f 


6. 


>l 


7 


• * 


8 


»f 


9 


>• 


10 


f • 


11 


>> 


12 


l> 


13 


>> 


14 


• y 


15 


l> 


16 


f> 


17 


9» 


18 


J9 


19 


>> 


20 


ly 


21 


• > 


22 


» 


23 


>i 


24 


•t 


25 


M 


26 


>) 


27 


i> 


28 


>i 


29 


• > 


30 


If 


31 


» 


32 


»> 


33 


If 


34 


f f 


35 


If 


36 


f f 


37 


If 


38 


II 


39 


II 


40 


If 


41 


11 


42 


t> 


43 


II 


44 


II 


45 


If 


46 


f f 


47 


f > 


48 


f ) 


49 


; f 


50 




51 




52 




53 


f f 


54 



The Warble Fly. 

The Use and Purchase of Feeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Rot in Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight 
Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke in Sheep. 
Timothy Meadows. 
The Tiu-nip Fly 
^Yi^ewo^m3. 

Prevention of White Scour in Calves 
Liquid Manure. 

Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Blight. 
Milk Records, 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Purchase of Manures. 
Swine Fever, 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Rearing. 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 
Basic Slag. 
Dishorning Calves. 
Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls. 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. ! 

Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys 
Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Land. 
Field Experiments — Barley. 

„ „ Meadow Hay 

„ „ Potatoes. 

„ „ Mangels. 

Oats 
Turnips. 
Permanent Pasture Grasses, 
the Rearing and Management of 

Chickens. 
" Husk " or " Hoose " in Calves 
Ringworm on Cattle. 
Haymaking. 

The Black Currant Mite. 
Foul Brood or Bee Pest, 
Poultry Fattening. 
Portable Poultry Houses. 
The Leather-Jacket Grub. 
Flax Experiments 

The Construction of a Cowhouse. 
Calf Meals. 



fo. 


55. 


tl 


56. 


If 


57. 


II 


.^8. 


If 


59. 


«f 


60, 


f » 


61, 


f f 


62. 


II 


63. 


II 


64. 


II 


65, 


II 


66. 


II 


67. 


II 


68. 


II 


69. 


If 


70. 


:i 


71. 


II 


72. 


If 


73. 


II 


74. 




75 




76 




77. 


11 


78 


If 


79. 


>l 


80. 


y ; 


81, 


tt 


82. 


ft 


83. 


If 


84, 




85 




86, 


It 


87. 




88. 


II 


89 


II 


90 


If 


91. 


II 


92. 


II 


93, 


ft 


94, 


>f 


95, 




96, 


If 


97. 




9H, 


If 


99 



The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop, 

Marketing of Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

Testing of Farm Seeds. 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat, 

The Management of Dairv Cows. 

" Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle, 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands, 

Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees, 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
and Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Timber. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations. 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber. 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges. 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

Barley Sowing 

American Gooseberry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Buttermaking. 
The Cultivation of Small Fruits, 
Catch Crops. 

Potato Culture on Small Farms, 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injiu-ious Orchard Insects, 
Du-ty Milk. 
Barley Tlireshing 
The Home Botthng of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home Preservation of Eggs, 
Marketing of WUd Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs for Hatching. 
Weeds, 

Tuberculosis in Poultry. 
Seaweed in Manure, 



TOBACCO-GROWING LEAFLETS. 



A — Introductory. 

B — S<iitable Soils and their Treatment. 

C. — Curing Barns. 

D — Suitable Varieties. 

E.— Seed Beds 

F. — Manures. 



G. — Transplanting. 

H — Cultivation, Suctering, and Topping 

I. — Harvesting and Curing. 

J. — Gra<ling, Packing, and Matming, 

K — Marketing. 



Copies of the above lta*ieis can be obtained free of charge, and post free, on apvlication to the 
Secretary Department of Agriculture and Ttchnical Instruction for Ireland, Upper Mernon :itreet, 
Dublin. Leiter$ of application go addressed need not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FREE; 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., 
Keeper , National History Deparimenij Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union, 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.R.S.E., 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Magazine — founded in 1871 — is devoted to the publication of Original Matter relating- to the 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful abd interesting facts. 



Edinburgh : OLIVER &, BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



FOR SALE. 

Rev. Morris' British Birds, 6 vols., new, 400 coloured plates (published 
£6 6s.), £s 3s. Ditto, British Birds' Nests and Eggs, 3 vols., coloured plates^ 
£1 15s. Ditto, British Butterflies, 74 coloured plates, 12s. 6d. Ditto, 
British Moths, 4 vols., 2,000 coloured figures {£4 4s.), £1 15s. 

Frohawk's British Birds' Nests, and Eggs, 6 vols., new, 318 plates of 
birds, mostly life-size, and 24 coloured plates of eggs (£5 5s.), £2 12s. 6dc 

Yarrell's British Birds, 3 vols., £1 15s. Ditto, British Fishes, 2 vols, 
ana Supplements, £1 los. 

Rev. Houghton's British Freshwater Fishes,5o coloured plates, ;^i lis. 6d, 

Wood's Index Testalogicus, 2,350 coloured figures {£7 los.), £2 ids. 

Adams' Recent MoUusca, 3 vols., 138 plates, nem {£4 los.), £1 5s. 

Anne Pratt's Flowering Plants and Ferns of Great Britian, 5 vols., 238 
coloured plates, £2 los. 

Johnstone and Croall — Nature — printed British Seaweeds, with coloured 
plates of all British species, 4 vols. £2 10s. 

Barratt's British Lepidoptera, 11 vols., coloured plates (;^35), ;^i8. 

Stainton's Natural History of Tineina, 13 vols., new, coloured plates 
(£S 2s. 6d.), £s 17s. 6d. 

Sir W. Jardine's Naturalist's Library, 40 vols., about 1,200 coloured 
plates, 10,800 pages, £4. Many other lists from A. Ford, 36 Irving Road, 
Bournemouth, England* 



Vol xxfl.. No. 8. August, 1917. 

CONTENTS. 

Page 
Some Notes on the Dublin Gorilla. — -Prof. Geo. H. Carpenter 

M.Sc, Sec/R.Z.S.I. (Plates III. IV. V.) .. ..' 125 

Some Migrant Notes. — C. B. Moffat, B.A , M.R.I. A. . . 131 

Tolypella nidifica. — J. Groves, V.P.L.S., and Canon G. R. 

Bullock-Webster, M.A. . . . . . . . . 134 

News Gleanings. ... ... ... ... ... 135 

A Note on Pectinaria Koreni from Dtiblih Bay. — Nathaniel 

COLGAN, M.R.I. A. .. .. .. .. 136 

Irish Societies : 

Dublin Naturalists* Field Club. ... ... ... ... 138 

Notes : 

Recovery of a Woodcock supposed to have been ringed in Ireland. — 

W. Eagle Clarke, LL.D., F.L.S. ... ... ... 139 

Hoopoes in Co. Waterford. — Rev. W. W. Flemyng, M.A. ... 140 

Carrion Crow nesting at Ireland's Eye. — G. C. May. ... 140 



The Publishers will be pleased to pay 1s. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1893; January, 1894; and September, 

1904, 

if sent Flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

Care of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 



TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN " IRISH NATURALIST." 

s. B. . 



Whole Pagb .. .. From 10 

Half Page .. .. .. „ 6 u > to 



I According 

AA/\A.r X- e\\ja .t •• >• tt \j \J > to 

Quarter Pack .. .. ,. 4 5 J Position. 

A Reduction ^iven for a Number of Insertions. 



ALSX. THOM ikHl> CO.. LIMITKD, OUBUti. 



:-::;4k:.'\- 



>^^^V 



">)»; 



VOL. xxvi., NO. 9. 
SEPTEMBER, 1917. 



tH'I'tiii. 



:iii»i..i-=/ 






H flDontbl? Journal 



ON 



36 

< 1-= t 



GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY, 

ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND. 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB. 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL 

SOCIETY, 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 
TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 

EDITED BY. 

Prof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER, M.Sc, M.R.LA. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, BA., B.E., M.R.LA. 

Price 6d. 



-r' 



fi 






DUBLIN : EASON & SON. Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street. 

Belfast: 17 Donegall-st., 

London : 

Stmpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, 

Kent & Co., Ltd. 



r 



I i.'i' 



ff,m \mm\Wili\\\ mmmw^^ 



The IRISH NATURALIST for 1916 (tweivo parts) will be sent to any Address 
or 5s. Subscriptions should be sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., F.S.A., Scot., 

The Museum, Hull; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll., 

HUDDERSFIELD, 
WITH THB ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest .Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd.. 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.G. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



" NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Pr'mcipal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World : and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest 

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE." 



£ B. d. 

Yearly 18 

Half-yearly 14 6 

Quarterly 6 8 



{To all places Abroad) £ p. d. 

Yearly 1 10 6 

Half-Yearly .. 15 6 

Quarterly 8 






**» A charge of Sixpence is made for changing Scotch and Irish Cheques. 

Cheques and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmillan & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., Loudon, W.C. 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OF THE 

ROYAIv ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND^ 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.lll. {Sundays from 12 noon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 2d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BROWN, BLACK, HIMALAYAN AND POLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES AliE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE 



AITD 



A HOOLOCK GIBBON. 

YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANT. 

PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

YOUNG BOAR FROM MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR. 

Donations of Animals (Irish op Foreign) thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

Prof. G. H. Carpenter, 

. IIo}2. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



DEPAETMENT OF AOEICULTURE AND TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS, 



No 


. 1 


•> 


2, 


»» 


8 


>• 


4 


tt 


5 


tt 


6. 


ft 


7 


•t 


8 


>> 


9 


t> 


10 


f 


11 


>• 


12 


» 


13 


It 


14 


tt 


15 


tt 


16 


» 


17 


II 


18 


>i 


19 


» 


20 


II 


21 


II 


22 


i> 


23 


II 


24 


ti 


25 


31 


26 


II 


27 


II 


28 


II 


29 


•1 


30 


II 


31 


II 


32 


II 


33 


II 


34 


11 


85 


II 


36 


II 


37 


II 


38 


II 


39 


II 


40 


II 


41 


tt 


42 


tt 


43 


It 


44 


•1 


45 


II 


46 


II 


47 


II 


48 


II 


49 


>i 


60 


II 


61 




52, 


11 


53 


II 


54 



The Warble Fly. 

The Use and Purchase of Feeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Rot in Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 
Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke in Sheep. 
Timothy Meadows. 
The Turnip Fly. 
Wireworms. 

Prevention of White Scour in Calves 
Liquid Manure. 

Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Blight. 
Milk Records. 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Purchase of Manures. 
Swine Fever. 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Rearing. 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 
Basic Slag. 
Dishorning Calves. 
Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls. 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys 
Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Land. 
Field Experiments — Barley. 

„ „ Meadow Hay 

„ „ Potatoes. 

„ „ Mangels. 

,1 ,. Oats. 

Turnips, 
r^ermanent Pasture Grasses. 
Che Rearing and Management of 

Chickens. 
" Husk " or " Hoose " in Calves 
Ringworm on Cattle. 
Haymaking. 

The Black Currant Mite. 
Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 
Poultry Fattening. 
Portable Poultry Houses. 
The Leather-Jacket Grub. 
Flax Experiments 

The Construction of a Cowhouse. 
Calf Meals. 



No. 


55 


II 


56 


II 


57 


tt 


58 


It 


59 


II 


60 


It 


61 


II 


62 


II 


63 


II 


64 


•> 


65 


II 


66 



11 67. 
II 68. 



70. 



-•1 


71. 


II 


72. 


II 


73. 


II 


74. 


II 


75 


91 


76 


II 


77. 


II 


78 


II 


79. 


II 


80. 




81. 


II 


82. 


II 


83. 


II 


84. 


II 


85 


II 


86. 


II 


87. 


1* 


88. 


II 


89 


II 


90 


II 


91. 


tl 


92 


II 


93. 


II 


94. 


rl 


95. 




96. 


II 


97. 




9S. 


II 


99 



The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

Testing of Farm Seeds. 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat. 

The Management of Dairv Cows. 

" Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees. 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
find Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Timber. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations. 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber. 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges. 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

Barley Sowing 

American Gooseberry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Buttermaking. 
The Cultivation of Small Fruits. 
Catch Crops. 

Potato Culture on Small Farms. 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injurious Orchard Insects. 
Du-ty Milk. 
Barley Threshing 
The Home Bottling of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home Preservation of Eggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs for Hatching. 
Weeds 

Tuberculosis in Poultr.v. 
Seaweed in Manure 



TOBACCO-GROWING LEAFLETS. 



A — Introductory. 

B —Suitable Soils and their Treatment. 

C. — Curing Barns. 

D — Suitable Varieties. 

E.— Seed Beds 

F. — Manures. 



G . — Transplanting 

H — Cultivation, Suctcering, and Topping 

I. — Harvesting and Curing. 

J. — Grading, Packing, and Matuiirg. 

K — Marketing. 



Copiei of the above Itafleit can he obtained free of charge, and post free, on *pvlieation to the 
Secretary. Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, Upper Mernon Street, 
DxMirv. Letters of application so addressed need not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6ll. PER ANNUM, POST FREE; 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

A MONfHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., 
Keeper, National History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.R.S.E., 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, 



This Magazine — founded in 1871 — is devoted to the publication of Orig-inal Matter relating: to the 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Life Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh : OLIVER <& BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



FOR SALE. 

Rev. Morris' British Birds, 6 vols., new, 400 coloured plates (published 
£() 6s.), ;^3 3s. Ditjo, British Birds' Nests and Eggs, 3 vols., coloured plates^ 
£1 15s. Ditto, British Butterflies, 74 coloured plates, 12s. ;6dl Ditto, 
British Moths, 4 vols., 2,000 coloured figures {£^ 4s.), £1 15s. 

Frohawk's British Birds' Nests, and Eggs, 6 vols., new, 318 plates of 
birds, mostly life-size, and 24 coloured plates of eggs {£5 5s.), £2 12s. 6d. 

Yarrell's British Birds, 3 vols., £t. 15s. Ditto, British Fishes, 2 vols, 
ana Supplements, £1 los. 

Kev. Houghton's British Freshwater Fishes,5o coloured plates, £1 lis. 6d, 

Wood's Index Testalogicus, 2,350 coloured figures {£•] los.), £'2 ids. 

Adams' Recent Mollusca, 3 vols., 138 plates, nem {£^ los.), £1 5s. 

Anne Pratt's Flowering Plants and Ferns of Great Britian, 5 vols., 238 
coloured plates, ;^2 io« 

Johnstone and Croall — Nature — printed British Seaweeds, with coloured 
plates of all British species, 4 vols. £2 los. 

Barratt's British Lepidoptera, 11 vols.^ coloured plates {£"^5), £1^, 

Stainton's Natural History of Tineina, 13 vols., new, coloured plates 
(;^8 2S. 6d.), £z 17s. 6d. 

Sir'W. Jardine's NaturaUst's Library, 40 vole., about 1,200 coloured 
plates, 10,800 pages, £^. Many other lists from A. Ford, 36 Irving Road, 
Bournemouth, England.* 



Vol. xxvi./No. 9. September, 1917. 

CONTENTS. 

Page 

Equisetum litorale in Ireland. — R. Lloyd PraegEr (Plates 

VI. VII.) ... .. . . . . .. . . 141 

Ornithological Notes from South Mayo. — Robert F. Ruttledge, 148 
Irish Societies : 

Royal Zoological Society ... ... ... ... 151 

Dublin Microscopical Club ... ... ... ... 152 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club ... ... ... ... 152 

Notes : 

Psithyrus rupestris in Co. Wexford.— C. B. Moffat, M.R.I. A. ... 154 

The Quail in Co. Wexford. — C. B. Moffat, M.R-LA. ... ... 155 

Fulmar Petrels at Inishtearaght. — Prof. C. J, Patten, Sc.D. . ... 155 

Sandwich Terns breeding on Mutton Island, Galway, — Prof. 

C. J. Patten, Sc.D. ... ... ... ... 155 

Arctic Skuas on Migration on Mutton Island and at Melville — Prof. 

J. C. Patten, Sc.D. ... ... , .,.* ... 156 

Wood-Warbler on Migration at Maidens Lighthouse, Co. Antrim. — 

Prof. C. J. Patten, Sc.D. .. .. ... ... 156 



The Publishers will be pleased to pay 1 S. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1893', January, 1894; and September, 

1904, 

if sent Flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

Care of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 

TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN " IRISH NATURALIST." 

s. d. 
Whole Page . . . . From 10 \ j,^^^,^^^^ 

Half Page . . . . . . „ 6 v to 

Quarter Page .. .. „ 4 S ) Position. 

A Reduction ^iven for a Number of Insertions. 



ALSX. THOM AND CO., LIMITED, DUBXJM« 



;><; 



,S»1 



VOL. XXVI. No. 10. 

OCTOBER, 1917. 






iUiiissm^ 




OX*\V 



H noontbl? 3ournal 

ON 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY. 

ORGAN OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB, 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY & PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, U> j 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 



17 



TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 



EDITED BY 

Prof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER, M.Sc, M.R.I. A. 

AND 

R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.LA. 






»/ 



r.illi;r:illUUI.. 



)'y' 



y 




Price 6d. 



-'^--2 



DUBLIN: EASON & SON, Limited. 

42 Great Brunswick Street. 

BELFAST: 17 Donegall Street 

LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, 

KENT & CO., Limited. 




The IRISH NATURALIST for 1916 (twelve parts) will be sent to ^ny Address 
for 5s. Subscriptions should be sent to Messrs. Eason and Son, Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPAKD, .\LSc., F.G.S., F.R.G.S.. F.S.A., Scot., 

The. Museum, Hull; 

AND 

T. W. WOODHEAD, Ph.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll., 

HUDDERSFIELD. . 
WITH THB ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. KENDALL, M.Sc, F.G S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
<^ T. H. NELSON, M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the'oldest Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS. Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.C. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per aiinum, post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Naturalist, The Musdum, HulL 



NATURE. 

WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



"NATURE" contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of Intercommunication among men of Science ; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World : and Notes on all matters 
of current scientific interest 

SUBSCRIPTIONS TO "NATURE." 

{To all places Abroad) t s. d. 

Yearly 1 10 6 

Half-Yearly .. 15 6 

Quarterly 8 

,*4 A char^^e of Sixpence is made for clianging Scotch and Irish Cheques. 

Che-^ues and Money Orders to be made payable to Mac mii.lan & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., Lorn)ON, W.C. 





£ s. d. 


Yearly 
Half-yearly 
Quarterly 


18 
14 6 
6 8 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OF THE 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daiSy from 9 a.m. {Sundays from 12 noon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Saturdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 2d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BROWN, BLACK, HIMALAYAN AND PCLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUSE 



AITD 



A HOOLOCK GIBBON. 

YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANT. 

PAIR OF CANADIAN BISON, WITH CALF. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

YOUNG BOAR FROM MUDROS 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR, 

Donations of Animals (Irish op Foreign) thankfully received. 
Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, apply to — 

PROf. G. H. Carpenter, 

Hon. Sec, R.Z.S., 
Royal College of Science, Dublin. 



DEPAETMENT OF ACiHICULTUKE AiNTI) TECHiVICAL 
INSTRUCIION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



^0 


. 1 


»> 


2. 


)> 


3 


II 


4 


f> 







6. 






11 


/ 


f* 


8 


II 


9 


l» 


10 


!• 


;.i 




12 


1? 


13 


Jl 


14 




15 


»l 


16 


1* 


17 


f f 


18 




19 




20 




21 


It 


22 




23 


11 


24 


*f 


25 




2fi 


II 


27 


1) 


28. 


»1 


29 


»J 


3C 


II 


31 


M 


32 


I* 


33 


ir 


34 




35 




36 




37. 




38 




39 




40 


i» 


41 


ft 


42 


1. 


43. 


11 


44 


II 


45 


II 


48 


II 


47. 


11 


48 


II 


49 


ff 


50 




51 


1 


52. 


II 


i>6. 


II 


54. 



The Warble Fly 

The Use and Purchase of Feeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Rot in Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight 
Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke in Sheep. 
Timothy Meadows. 
The Turnip Fly 
Wireworms. 

Prevention of White Scour in Calves 
Li(iuid Manure 

Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Blijjht. 
]Milk Records. 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Purchase of Manures. 
Swine Fever. 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Rearios. 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 
Basic Slag. 
Dishorning Calves. 
Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls. 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Rearing and Fattening of Turkeys 
Profitable Breeds of Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Land. 
FielJ Experiments — Barley. 

,, „ Meadow Hay 

,, ,, Potatoes. 

,, ,. Mangels. 

Oats. 

,, „ Turnips 

Permanent Pasture Gr .sses 
The Rearing and Management of 

Chickens 
" Husk " or " Hoose " in Calves 
Ringworm on Cattle. 
Haymaking 

The Black Currant Mite. 
Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 
Poultry Fattening 
Portable Poultry Houses. 
The Leather-Jacket Grub. 
Flax Experiments 

iiie Construction of a Cowhouse. 
Calf Meals. 



iNo. 


OD 


ij 


56 


>) 


57 


99 


58 




59 




60 




61 




62 


>> 


63 


»f 


64 


99 


65 


>> 


66 


II 


67 


1) 


68 


«l 


69 



70 



71. 

72. 

73. 

74. 

75 

76 

77. 

78 

79. 

80. 

81. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89 

90 

91. 

92 

93. 

94. 

95 

96. 

97. 
9^. 
99 



The Apple 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

Testing of Farm Seeds 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat 

The Management of Dairv Cows. 

" Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
and Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Timber. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations. 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep. 

Barley Sowing 

American Gooseberry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Buttermaking 
The Cultivation of Small Fruits. 
Catch Crops 

Potato Culture on SmaU Farms. 
Cultivation of :\Iain Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injurious Orchard Insects. 
Dirty Milk. 
Barley Threshing 
The Home Bottling of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes' 
Home Preservation of Eggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter. Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Eggs for Hatching 
Weeds 

Tuberculosis in Poiiltrv. 
Seaweed in Majeure 



TOBACCO-GROWING LEAFLETS. 



A — Introductory. 

B — Suitable Soil? and their Treatment. 

C. — Curing Barn.s 

D — Suitable V' arietiea. 

E — Seeii Beds 

F — Manures. 



G. — Transplanting 

H — Cultivation, LSucicering, and Topping 

I. — Harvesting an^ Curing. 

J. — Grading, Packing, and Matming. 

K — Marketing 



Capiat 0/ thf above Ua^eti can be obtained free of charge, and post free, on apvlication to the 
SecrdMry JJepartmpnt of AijrictUture and Technical Instruction for Ireland. Upper Merrion St wet, 
Dublin. Letttrs of application to addregntd need noi, be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. 6d. PER ANNUM, POST FREE. 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

EDITED BY 

WM. EAGLE CLARKE. F.R.S.E.. F.L.S., 
Keeper, National History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E 
Member of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW. F.R.S.E.. 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum. 



This Magazine— founded.in 1871 — is devoted to the publication of Origrinal Matter relating to the 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Lif<j Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 



other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh : OLIVER <&. BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



FOR SALE. 

Thompson's Natural History, of Ireland, 4 vols. (Scarce, out 
of print), 56s. 

More. ^Geographical distribution of Plants in Ireland, 6s: 6d. 
. \\'ard's Life Histories of Familiar Plants, 86 plates, 3s. 

Birds useful and harmful, ^^ plates, 3s. Postage extra. 
Man}^ others, lists, also British Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. 

Ford, 36 Irving Road, Bournemouth, Hants. 



Vol. xxvi., No. 10. 



October, 1917. 



CONTENTS. 

Losses to a Local Flora.— C. B. Moffat, M.R.LA., 
Note on the Long -eared Owl. — J. P. Burkitt, B.E., 
Notodonta bicoloria in Co. Kerry. — L. H. Bonaparte- 

VVxoI-'». •" •• •• •• ,, 

Review : 

Mullens and Swann's " Bibliography of British Ornithology " 

( iv . I >1-. X ./, ••• ••• ••• •■• »•• 

Irish Societies : 

Belfast Natu^alist^ i icld Club 
Dublin Xaturalists' Field Club 



PAGE 
161 



164 



lOS 



166 
168 



Notes : 

Magilligan Plants. — R. Ll. Praeger, M.R.I.A. 

Muscineae of Achill Island 

Equisetum litorale. — R. Ll. Praeger, M.R.I.A. 

Mossy Saxifrages 

Happy Roscommon ! 

E^ood of the Crossbill. — C. B. Moffat 

The Effect of the 1916-17 Winter on Birds. — J. P. Burkitt 



i6g 
170 
171 
171 

171 
172 

172 



The Publishers will be pleased to pay Is. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1903; January, 1894; and September, 

1904, 

// sent flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST," 

Care of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 



TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN "IRISH NATURALIST." 

s. d. 
Whole Page ... ... .. From 10 ) 



Accordinil to 
Half Page ... .. • „ 6 6 „ .^. * 

** i Position. 

Quarter Page ... ... ... ,, 4 0/ 



A Reduction given for a Number of Insertions, 



ALl'JX. XiiUiJl A.NiJ LO., LlMi'^tlLJ, DUBLIN. 



'yf^<. 



Vol. xxvr^ Nos.n<fci2. 

NOV. & DEC, 1917. 




II' 






/^7 



H flDontbli? 3our?tal 

ON 

GENERAL IRISH NATURAL HISTORY. 

ORGAN OF THE ' 

ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND, 

DUBLIN MICROSCOPICAL CLUB, 

BELFAST NATURAL HISTORY 8c PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

DUBLIN NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

CORK NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB, 

TYRONE NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. 



EDITED BY 

Prof. GEORGE H. CARPENTER, M.Sc, M.R.I.A. 



AND 



R. LLOYD PRAEGER, B.A., B.E., M.R.I.A. 



Price is. 




IIHIIIIIUIII 




DUBLIN: EASON 8c SON, Limited. 

42 Great Brunswick Street. 

BELFAST: 17 Donegall Street 

LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, 

KENT & CO., Limited. 



>iiiiiiiiiiniiiiimWjjriiii'iii^w 



The IRISH NATURALIST for 1916 (twelve parts) will be sent to any Address 
for 5s. Subscriptions should be sent to (Messrs. Eason and Son,. Ltd., 42 Great 
Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

THE NATURALIST. 

A Monthly Illustrated Journal of 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 
T. SHEPPARD, M.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S.. F.S.A-, Scrot., 

, The Museum, Hull ; 

AXD 

T. W. WOODHEAD, th.D., M.Sc, F.L.S., Tech. Coll., 

HUDDERSFIELD. 
WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 

J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S., GEO. T. PORRITT,' F.L.S., F.E.S. 
PROF. P. F. I^ENDALL, IVI.Sc., F.fi.S., JOHN W. TAYLOR, M.Sc. 
T. H. NELSON/ M.Sc, M.B.O.U., RILEY FORTUNE, F.Z.S. 

This Journal is one of the oldest Scientific Periodicals in the British Isles dating back to 1833. 

London : A. BROWN & SONS, Ltd., 5, FARRINGDON AVENUE, E.C. 
Prepaid Subscription, 6/6 per annum, ^post free. 

Communications to be addressed to the Editors of the Njituralist, The Museum, Hull. 



NATURE. 



WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

PRICE SIXPENCE. 



'^ NATURE " contains Original Articles on all subjects coming within 
the domain of Science, contributed by the most eminent scientific writers 
of the day. It also contains Reviews of all recent scientifie works ; 
Correspondence Columns, which form a medium of scientific discussion 
and of intercommunication among men of Science; Accounts of the 
leading Scientific Serials ; Abstracts of the. more valuable papers which 
appear in foreign journals ; Reports of the Proceedings of the Principal 
Scientific Societies and Academies of the World : and Notes on all m;.tters 
of current scientific interest 

SUBSCRIPTIONS «T O "NATURE." 



£ B. d. 

Yearly 18 

Half-yearly 14 6 

Quarterly 6 S 



(To all places Abroad) £ p. d. 

Yearly 1 10 6 

Half- Yearly . . 15 6 

Quarterly 8 



charfjfe of Sjxi' made for changing Scotch ^nd Irish Cheques. 

Che':3ues and Money Orders to be made payable to Macmiixan & Co., Ltd., St. 

Martin-st., London, W.C. 



THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 

OP THE 

ROYAIv ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND 

PHOENIX PARK, DUBLIN. 

Open daily from 9 a.m. {Sundays from 12 noon) 

till dusk. 

Admission, Is., except Wednesdays, Satisrdays, and 

Holidays, 6d., and Sunday afternoons, 2d. 

Children, always Half-price. 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN AND 

EXCURSION PARTIES. 

FINEST COLLECTION OF LIONS IN EUROPE. 

BROWN, BLACK, HIMALAYAN A?4D POLAR BEARS. 

TWO CHIMPANZEES ARE NOW IN THE APE-HOUOE 



AND 



A HOOLOCK GIBBON. 

YOUNG INDIAN ELEPHANT. 
PAIR OF CANADIAN BIBQ% WITH SALF. 

BORNEAN ZEBUS, WITH CALF. 

YOyr^G BOAR FR0!V5 mUBFiOB 

(A Warship Pet). 

REFRESHMENT ROOM OPEN ALL THE YEAR. 

Donations of Animals (Irish or Foreign/ thankfully received. 

Surplus Stock of Beasts and Birds for Sale or Exchange 

For particulars, and also for Terms and Privileges of Membership 
of the Society, aj'ply to — 

Prof G. H. Carpentkr, 

Hoi:. Sec, R.Z S., 
Royal College of Science. Dublin. 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNICAL 
INSTRUCTION FOR IRELAND. 



LIST OF THE DEPARTMENT'S LEAFLETS. 



No. 1. 



9» 


4. 


It 


5. 




6. 


tf 


7. 


■ • 


8. 


l> 


9. 


»> 


10. 


|« 


;.i 




12. 


tr 


13. 


M 


14 




15. 


ff 


16. 


»l 


17. 


M 


18 


it 


19, 




20. 




21. 


It 


22. 




23. 


»» 


24. 


»» 


25. 


t 


2«. 


l» 


27. 


»l 


28. 


ft 


29 


»l 


30. 




31. 




32. 




33. 


T» 


34. 




or 


»J 




»« 


36 


It 


37. 


tt 


38 


ft 


39. 


t» 


40 


t» 


41. 




42 


> 


43. 


»» 


44. 


>» 


45. 


>t 


46 


>» 


47. 




48. 


)» 


49. 


» 


50. 




51. 


. 1 


52. 


II 


58. 


If 


54. 


^0 


. 1. 


M 


2. 


f f 


3. 


M 


4. 


t t 


5. 


tt 


6. 






»l 


t . 


It 


8. 




9. 



The Warble Fly. 

The Use and Purchase of Feeding 

Stuffs. 
Foot Rot In Sheep. 
The Sale of Flax. 

Celery Leaf-Spot Disease or Blight. 
Charlock (or Preshaugh) Spraying. 
Fluke in Sheep. 
Timothy Meadows. 
The Turnip Fly 
Wireworms. 

Prevention of White Scour in Calves 
Liquid Manure 

Contagious Abortion in Cattle. 
Prevention of Potato Blight. 
Milk Records. 
Sheep Scab. 

The Use and Purchase of Manures. 
Swine Fever. 
Early Potato Growing. 
Calf Rearing 

Diseases of Poultry : — Gapes 
Basic Slag. 
Dishorning Calves. 
Care and Treatment of Premium 

Bulls. 
Fowl Cholera. 

Winter Fattening of Cattle. 
Breeding and Feeding of Pigs. 
Blackleg, Black Quarter, or Blue 

Quarter 
Flax Seed. 
Poultry Parasites — Fleas, Mites, and 

Lice. 
Winter Egg Production. 
Rearing and Fattening of Tiurkeys 
ProStable Breeds oi Poultry. 
The Revival of Tillage. 
The Liming of Laud. 
Fieli Experiments — Barley. 

„ * ,, Meadow Hay 

,, ,, Potatoes. 

Mangels. 

„ ,. Oats. 

Turnips 
Permanent Pasture Gr-'sos 
The KearinL' and Management of 

Chickeui, 
" Husk " or " Hoo?e " in Calves 
Ringworm on Cattle. 
Haymaking 

The Black Currant Mite. 
Foul Brood or Bee Pest. 
Poultry Fattening. 
Portable Poultry Houses. 
The Leather-Jacket Grub, 
Flax Experiments 

The Construction of a Cowhouse. 
Calf Meala. 



No. 


55 


»* 


56. 


»> 


57 


ft 


58. 


ft 


59. 


>» 


60. 


t 9 


61. 


t t 


62. 


ft 


63. 


tt 


64. 


ft 


65. 


tt 


66. 


tt 


67. 


tt 


68. 


»> 


69. 


1) 


70. 


:» 


71. 


>> 


72. 


If 


73. 


»i 


74. 


tt 


75 


tt 


76 


tt 


77. 


91 


78 


tt 


79. 


It 


80. 




81. 


tt 


82. 


99 


83. 


9> 


84. 


tt 


85 


tt 


86. 


19 


87. 




88. 




89 




90 




91. 




92 


91 


93. 




94. 


»9 


95. 


1 >> 


96. 


>> 


97. 


9 


9^. 


99 


99 



The Apple. 

Cultivation of the Root Crop. 

Marketing of Fruit. 

Sprouting Seed Potatoes. 

Testing of Farm Seeds. 

The Packing of Butter. 

Field Experiments — Wheat. 

The Management of Dairv Cowg. 

" Redwater " or " Blood-Murrain " 

in Cattle. 
Varieties of Fruit Suitable for 
Cultivation in Ireland. 
Forestry : The Planting of Waste 
Lands. 

Forestry : The Proper Method of 
Planting Forest Trees. 
Forestry : Trees for Poles and 
Timber. 

Forestry : Trees for Shelter and 
Ornament. 

The Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
Cattle. 

Forestry : Planting, Management, 
and Preservation of Shelter-Belt 
and Hedgerow Ttmbtr. 
Forestry : The Management of 
Plantations. 

Forestry : Felling and Selling Timber 
The Planting and Management of 
Hedges. 

Some Common Parasites of the 
Sheep 

Barley Sowing 

American Gooseberry Mildew. 
Scour and Wasting in Young Cattle. 
Home Buttermaking. 
The Cultivation of Small Fruita. 
Catch Crops 

Potato Culture on Small Farms. 
Cultivation of Main Crop Potatoes 
Cultivation of Osiers. 
Ensilage. 

Some Injurious Orchard Insects. 
Dirty Milk. 
Barley Threshing 
The Home Bottling of Fruit 
The Construction of Piggeries. 
The Advantages of Early Ploughing 
Black Scab in Potatoes 
Home Preservation of P^ggs. 
Marketing of Wild Fruits. 
Cost of Forest Planting. 
Store Cattle or Butter, Bacon, and 
Eggs. 

Packing Et/g-? for Hatching 
Weeds 

Tuberculosis in Poultrv. 
Seuwecd in Manure, 



SPECIAL LEAFLETS. 



Catch Crops. 

Autumn Sowim Cereals. 

Eggs and Poultry. 

The War and 1- ood Production 

The Sowing of Spring Wheat. 

Winter Manuring (irass Lands. 

Feeding of Pigs- — Use of Boiled Swedes. 

DcBtr'ution oi Farm Pest. 

Grain Crops. 



No. 10. Pig Feeding — The need for 

economy. 
„ 11. Poultry Feeding — The need for 

economy. 
,, 12. The Digging and Storing of 

Potatoes. 
,, 13. Sulpliate of Ammonia. 
, 14. Flax-seed for 1918 Sowing. 



Copiea of the above Uafets ran be obtained free of charge, and poxt free, on ,»pvlieation to the 
.'^"tcretary Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, Upper Mernon Street, 
h'ibhn. Letter* of application ao addrestsed need not be stamped. 



TO SUBSCRIBERS 6s. W. PER ANNUM, POST FREE. 



THE SCOTTISH NATURALIST. 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 
Edited by 
WM. EAGLE CLARKE. F.R.S.E., F.L.S.. 
Keeper, Natidnal History Department, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 

Member of the British Omitholdf^isfs' Union. • 

PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.R.S.E.. 
Natural History Department, Royal Scottish Museum 



This Magazine — founded in 1 871 — is devoted to the publication of Original Matter relating- to the 
Natural History of Scotland, and includes Papers contributing to the elucidation of the Fauna, 
Observations on Lif-i Histories, etc., and Notes recording the occurrence of uncommon species and 
other useful and interesting facts. 



Edinburgh : OLIVER &, BOYD, Tweeddale Court. 



-,■, >4.-y. .. 



FOR SALE. 

Thompson's Natural History of Ireland, 4 vols. (Scarce, out 
of print), 50s. 

More.— Geographical distribution of Plants in Ireland, 6s. 6d. 

Ward's Life Histories of Familiar Plants, 86 plates, 3s.* 

Birds useful and harmful, 85 plates, 3s. Postage extra. 

Many others*, lists, also British Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. 

Ford, 36 Irving Road, Bournemouth, Hants. 



Vol. xxvii., Nos. 11 S, 12. Nov. & Dec, 1917. 

CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

On the Irish PiK-" R- F. Scharff, M.R.I.A. (Plate VIII.) , 173 
Irish Societies : 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club ... ... ... ... 185 

Royal Zoojogical Society ... ... ... ... ... 186 

Dublin Microscopical Club ... ... ... ... 186 

Dublin Naturalists' Field Club ... ... ... ... 187 

Notes on apparent Mnemic Action in Chlora perfoliata.- — 

N. CoLGAX, M.R.I.A. .. .. .. .. 189 

Notes : 

Colias edusa near Tramore, Co. Waterford — Rev. W. W. Flemyng, M.A. 193 
Larva of the Death's Head Moth in Co. Down — 

Rev. W. F. Johnson, M.A. ... ... ... ... 194 

Recent Records of Irish Birds ... . -v ••• ••♦ I94 

Arctic Skua and Black Tern on Lough Mask, t3o.. May^TT-R. F. Ruttledge 194 

Snowy Owl in Co. Antrim— W. H. Workman, M. B.C. U. ... 194 

Departure of Swifts — ^N. H. Foster, F.L.S. ... ... ... I95 

Hoopoe in Co.^'Dfenegal — D. C. Campbell, & W. H. Workman ... .195 

Wood Wren in Fermanagh — J. P. Burkitt, B.E. ... ... 196 

Cardamine amara in East Tyrone — Thomas Greer ... ... 196 



The Publishers will be pleased to pay Is. each for 

Copies of 

February, 1903; January, 1894; and September, 

1904, 

if sent flat to 

"IRISH NATURALIST." 

Care of Eason and Son, Ltd., 

42 Great Brunswick Street, 

Dublin. 



TERMS FOR ADVERTISEMENTS IN "IRISH NATURALIST." 

s d. 

Whole Page ••. ... ••• From 10 

Half Page ... .«. ••• »» 6 6 

Quarter Page ... ••• • .. 4 0, 

A Reduction given for a Number of Insertions. 



According to 
Position. 



ALEX. THOM AND CO-.TLIMITED, DUBLIN. 



MBL WHOI LIBRARY 




H lABL b 



m 



:^m 



iiiitlL' 



Wm 

mmmm 



i<H''. 



1 ■• • .\f 



W 



mm-Mi 



mm 



MM 



.)-,<. 



^ <■ 



m 






'm 



t\ 



i-Q{ 









iiliflifitiiiail 






i 



im