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i 




Iron 




£kuM, 




i$i7 

ARTtS SCICNTIA VII^ITAf 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 






Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE 



MECHANICS' MAGAZINE. 



JANUARY 1st— JUNE 30th, 1855. 



EDITED BY R. A. BROOMAN. 



TOL JJi\Ir 




«! r 



** Ye here sbWered momitalni asunder, made the hard iron pUarli {6 ymi it^aoft pattv : the 
Forest-glantt, Marth-jtttunt bear theaTe»of golden grain ; Aglr the Sea^l^mon hUMw |[fkchet 
his baek for a sleek highway to you, and on Firehorses and Wlndhories ye cafl!M!:>s&&s^ 



LONDON: 

ROBERTSON, BROOMAN, AND CO. 

166, Fleet-street. 

AQKSTB'.^BPiyBU&OH, J. SUTHERLAND; GLASGOW, W. R. M'PHUN, AND DAVID 

ROBERTSON; DUBLIN, HODGES AND SMITH, 104, ORAFTON-STREET ; PARIS, 

A. ft W. OALIONANI, RUE VIVIENNE; HAMBURGH, W. CAMPBELL. 

1855. 



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ukMif 

r 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX 



TO THE SIXTY-SECOND VOLUME. 



AbenmtioB of light, 
Cha]lboDthe.fM 

Aeeident st tba South Lambeth 
waterworks, MS 

Aceount-bookt, ImpfOTOBMAt in, 
M 

AddltioD, toblM for liaeilitating, 
M4 

Alr-engiB«, PantT't patent eom- 
nrefeed, 19S 

AUan't dngle-cell battery, 516 

AhuBiniiun in galTanic batteiiea, 
on the UM of, 692 

Anerican paddle-wheel, WaUia's 
patent, 590 

— ~— — patent oiDoe, new rule 
of the, 151 

— — telegiaphe, S95 

Anchor patent, refutal to oon- 
flrm Porter's, 16S 

Argand ftimaee, the, 276 

Amand's sdentillc drama, 614 

Arithmetic," Rawson's ** Exer- 
cises in, 541 

Armstrong's smokeless furnace, 
135 

ArU. spedal priaee olftied by the 
Xoeiety of. 129; exhibition of 
ioTentions at the Society of, 
150; annual report of the So- 
ciety of. 584 

Astronomer Royal's pendulum ex- 
periment, the, 174 

Astronomical docks, 110 

Astronomy, mechanical 'illustra- 
tions of, 255 

Atlantic submarine telegraph, 514 

Baddeley (Mr. W.) on London 
flres In 185S, 122, 147 

Ballast-bags, water, 102 

Bars, compound metallic rods and, 
486 

Batteries, Professor Callan's pa- 
tent impraveaanu in galvaaio, 
518 



Battery, Profesaor Callan's new 

Migmooth single-fluid, 249, 846, 

898; Allan's single-ceU, 516; 

use of aluminium in the galv»- 

nle,592 
Bayliss's patent imokeleai ftir- 

nace, 25 
Beams, on the distribution of m»- 

terial in wrouffht-iron, 418, 434 
Bearings, Penn's patent wooden, 

842 
Bennett's patent machinery for 

heating gold, ftc, 481 
Benumbmg influence of ice, on 

the, 256 
Bensine, 16, 135 
Bethunc^s improTcments in steam 

navigation, 103, 180, 203 
Biden's patent improvements in 

Aimaces, 529 

marine steam- 



engine condensers, 442 
Bisecting compaases, Colonel Parl- 



by's, 850 
Bishopi ' 



lopp's patent method of com- 
municating rotary motion to 
shafts, 885 

Black Sea telegraph cable, the, 
110 

BUsting of rocks, W. Nisbet, esq., 
on the, 868 

Boats, Clilford's patent method of 
lowering -^i"-*^ *«• 

Boiler exi 



lowering ships^, 492 
loUer exploeion 
Booth, 498, 510 



at Crawshaw 



Boilers, on the construction of, 8 ; 

on the inorustration of, 29, 85 ; 

Forsyth's, 31 ; on tubular steam, 

76, 181; Johnson's, 145; Crad- 

dock's tubular, 229, 517, 665; 

Syke's patent feed apparatus 

for, 419 
Bolt, new patent barrel, 463 
Books, improvement in account, 

34 
BoilBg earth, machinery for, 581 



Brace, Fenn's patent rachct, 346 

Brass by galvMiic agency, on the 
formation of, 7 • 

Breech-loading fire-arms. Wen- 
ham's patent, 289 

Bright's registered parallel com- 



passes, 540 
•britishl 



ritish Workman," 297 
Burch's safety-ships, 82 
Burgess's patent reaping and 
mowing machines, 241 

CaDan's (Proltesor) new May- 
nooth single-fluid battery, 149, 
346,898 

patent im- 



provements in galvanic batte- 
ries. 538 

Caloric engine, the, 78 

Camp-stoves and cooking appara- 
tus, WiUiams's, 368 

Cannon, portable, 63; improved, 
64 

Capsiitng of the troop-ship '* Per- 
severance," 172 

Capstans, Herman's patent, 577 

Carpenter (Captain) on the scnw- 
propeller, 422 

Carriages, manumotlve, 802, 851 

Carr's patent steering*«pparatus, 
409 

Castors, Hyde's patent Aimituro, 
512 

Castraise pump, Dclpech's patent, 
813 

Chaff-cutting machine. Dray's pa- 
tent, 361 

Challis (Professor) on the aberra- 
tion of light, 586 

Charcoal, Dr. Btenhouse on the 
sanityy uses of. 343 

(Dayton and Harrop's patent Im- 
provements in ornamenting 
wood, 505 

Clifford's patent method of lower- 
ing ships' boau, 491 



302224 ° '''''' '' Google 



IV 



INDEX. 



Cloek, utronomfeal, 110 
CoAl-minet, North of England, 

" Coal Mtoing," Harlor*!, MS 

Coal-tar, 16, 135 

Cockle (Mr. J.) ou iDCongraoiit 

•olutiona, 509 
Collier*, on 'steam and laiUng, 

SS2. S50, 275 
Collodion photograpba on metal, 

■tone, 5ro..0ll 
Coloured fluids, 150 
Combined Tspour - engines. Da 

Trembley't. 915 
Communicating rotary motion to 

shafts, Bisbopp's patent method 

of, 885 
Compasses, apparatus for correct- 
ing the variations of ships', 610 
——— Colonel Parlby't bi- 
secting, 850 ; Bright's registered 

parallel, 540 
■ ' , Oray's patent mari> 

ners', 488 
Complete specUcatlons filed with 

applieations for patents, ab- 
stracts of, 880, 618 
— ^— , patents 

applied for with. 82, 46,95, 118. 

142, 166, 268,406, 481, 454, 502, 

627, 550 
CondeDsen, BIden's patent im- 

proyements in marine steam- 
engine. 448 
Construction of ahips, Mr. J. Scott 

Russell on the, 490 
Cooking apparatus, Williams's, 

868 
Cooper's natewt drain-pipes and 

couiiectloBs, 867 
Copper sheathing of ships, on the 

protection of the, 515 
Correspondents, notices to, 84,48, 

96, 12(), 144. 168, 192, 815, 840, 

264, 288, 818, 886, 860, 884, 488, 

456, 480, 604. 558 
Craddock's tubular boilers, 829, 

517,565 
Cranks, Uackworth*s paUnt, 457 
Crimean submarine telegraph, 

the, 470 
Crossings, railway, 890 
Crystal Palace, ladder emeute at 

the, 424 
Cubic equation, new solution of 

a. 581 
Cuvier's patent furnaces, 837 
Cylinders, Hackworth's patent 

■team-engine, 457 

Daguerreotypes, without lenses, 
on the production of, 420 

Damper, Phelp's patent label, 588 

De Bergue's patent propeller, 59 

" Decimal Coinage lamiliarly Ex- 
plained," WaUord's, 227 

Delpech's patent Castraise pump, 
818 

Density of the earth, the Astro- 
nomer Royal's experiments on 
the, 174 

Designs for articles of utility re- 
gistered, lists of, 23, 144, 215, 
811,407,508,623 

De Penning's screw-propeller pro- 
tector, 13 

Deposition of metals, Mr. A. Watt 
on I he eleetTo-chemieal,506, 588 

Destmction of Eusafan fortresses, 
«n the, 568 



DisclaimeiB, notice of application 
for leave to enter, 47, 119, 166, 
862, 575 

Disputes in the Royal and Royal 
Astroitomical Societies, 242, 267 

Doings in our mathematical pe- 
riodicals, 851 

Drain - pipes and connections. 
Cooper's patent, 867 

Drama, Arnaud's scientific, 614 

Dray's patent chaff-cutting ma> 
chine, 861 

Du Trembley's combined Tapour- 
engines, 816 

Earth-boring machinery, 581 
Earth, the Astronomer Royal's 
experiments on the density of 
the, 174 
Elastic woollen cloths, 806 
Electricity, W. E. Orove, esq. on 

induced, 80 
Electric telegraphs, 68; Imiport- 

ant improvement in, 487 
Electro-chemical deposition of me- 
tals, Mr. A. Watt on tbe, 506, 
585 

the 



action of Hght upon, 558 

"Elementary Physios," Hunt's, 
442,465 

Enaineers, errors of mechanical, 
370 ; science among the, 510 

Engine, Mr. W. Falrbalm on the 
steam, 840 

Engines, Du Txmnbley'b combined 
vapour, 315 

Equation, new solution of a cu- 
bic, 581 

Eriocson's caloric engine. 78 

Errors of mechanical engineers, 
370 

Ether engines, Du Trembley's, 
815 

" Exercises In Arithmetic," Raw- 
son's, 541 

ExhlbiUon of inventions at the 
Society of Arts, ISO 

, the Paris, 612 



Expanding shot or shell, Captain 

Norton's, 847 
Expansive use of steam, Mr. W. 

Pairbaim on the, 840; Mr. 

Mushet on the, 872, 471 
Experiments with the gyroscope, 

Foucault's, 416 
Explosion of a boiler at Crawshaw 

Booth, 493, 510 
Eyes, on trade* which alTect the, 

56 

Pairbaim, (Mr. W.)on the steam- 
engine, 340 

Falrbairn's (Mr. P.) patent sliver- 
winding machine, 558 

Faraday (Professor) on magnetic 
philosophy and the philosophy 
offeree, 818,291, 871 

Feed apparatus, Sykes* patent, 
419 

Fenn's patent rachet-brace, 846 

Fenton's patent safety-valves, 886, 
517 

Fire - arms, Wenham's patent 
breech-loading, 289 

Fire-rooms of steam-ehips, Mr. B. 
F. Isherwood on the ventilation 
of the, 365 

Flici in 1853, London, 133, 147 



Flow of water through pipet and 
orifices, on the, 151, 177, 197 

Fluids, coloured, 159 

Flushing and ventilating sewers, 
Dr. Oray's apparatus for, 834 

Foard's smokeless ftimace patent, 
prolongation of, 57 

Force, Pmfessor Faraday on the 
philosophy of, 218, 291 

Forsyth's furnace and boiler, 81 

Fortresses, on the destruction of 
Russian, 563 

Foucault's experiments with the 
gyroscope, 416 

France, on the mining reeonreet 
of, 562 

Furnaces, Baylis's patent, 25; 
Forsyth's, 31 ; Foard's, 57 ; Par- 
ker's patent, 86, 158, 280, 358, 
801 ; Armstrong's, 135 ; Garland 
and Olasson's patent, 234; the 
Argand. 376 ; GilberUon's. 276 ; 
Cuvier's patent, 887; Biden's 
patent, 529 

Furniture castors, Hyde's patent^ 
513 

Gallery of inventions, 501 

Galvanic batteries: Professor Cal- 
lan's new Maynooth single - 
fluid, 349, 846, 898; Allan's 
single-cell, 516 ; use of alumi- 
nium in, 593 

Garland and Glassoo's patent 
■mokelchs faroaces, 334 

Gas, Lowe's patent for supplying 
and pnri^ng, 58 

Gearing, Hackworth's patent, 467 

Gllbertsen's fhmace, 376 

Gold -beating machinery, Ben- 
nett's patent, 481 

GoodaU's patent grinding and le- 
vigatiag apparatus, 463 

Governors, Hackworth's pateat, 
457 

Gray's patent mariners' compassea, 
433 

Oray's (Dr.), sewer -fiusher and 
ventilator, 824 

Grinding and levigating appara- 
tus, Goodall's patent, 462 

Grove, (W. R. esq.) on Induced 
electricity, 80 

Gunnery, an improvement in, 38 

Gunpowder, 11. 37, 64, 87, 456 

Owynne's patent processes for 
treating Mat, 554 

Gyroscope. Foucault's experiments 
with the, 416 

Hackworth's patent steam-engine 
cranks, cylinders, governors, 
and gearing, 457 

Hancock's vulcanised India-rub- 
ber patent, law-case, 540 

Herman's patent windlasses, cap- 
stans, ftc, 577 

Hearse patent, refusal to prolong 
Shillibker's, 135 

Heating apparatus. Knight's pa- 
tent, 589 

Hoare's *' Mensuration made 
Easy," 897 

Horse-power of steam-engines, on 
the indicated, 157, 227, 254, 299, 
848, S79 

Howell and Jamicson's patent 
saw machinery, 1 

Hughes and Denham's patent 
manual pianofortes, 587 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX. 



Hnoff "Etometttary Ph]rdet/' 

44S,4«6 
Hyde's pstont famitim eutortt 

51S 
Hydraulle problem, 504 
Hydrogen, steam-generator bum- 

Ice, on the benumbing influence 
ef,SM 

Illustration of identifle works, on 
tbe defective, 228 

Ittcongruons solutions, J. Cockle, 
1I.A., on, 509 

Incraatratlon of boUers, on the, 
29,85 

IndiA-rubber patent, Hancock's 
TulcanSzed, law-case, 540 

Indicated horse-power of steam- 
engines, on tbe, 157, 227, 254, 
299, 848, 878 

Induced electricity, W. R. Orove, 
esq., on, 80 

Industrial pathology, the eyes, 58 

Intention to proceed, notices of, 
22. 4«, 71, 95, 118, 142. 167, 190, 
214, 238, 262, 287, 810, 884, 859, 
882, 408, 431, 454, 478, 502, 527, 
550, 575, 598, 028 

InTODtions, Captain Norton's re- 
cent, 488 ; gallery of, 591 

'* InTentions of James Watt, the 
Mechanical." 199, 225 

Inventions, Society of Arte exhi- 
bition of, 180 

Iron beams, on the distribution of 
material in, 418, 434 

Iron, Kenton's method of making 
malleable, 246, 326 

Jandin and Duval's patent means 
of dressing aud dyeing raw silk 
fabrics, 169 

Jekyll, (Mr. E.) on siege operas 
tions, 817 

Jet propnlsion, 100, 182 

Johnson's steam-bcdlers, 145 

KItson's Motion hammer, 97 
Knight's patent heating appara* 

tus,689. 
Kyan's process tct preserving 

Label-damper, Phelps* patent, 588 
Ladder emeute at the Crystal 

Palace, 424 
Lamport's patent ship - building 

machinery, 49 
Lamp, the moderator, 78 
Launching ships, on, 36 
Lasy-tongs to pumps, application 

of the, 448 
Levigating apparatus, Goodall's 

patent grinding and, 462 
Library and reading-room in 

Ooveniment patent office, 297 
Lifting-Jack, Peile's patent, 539 
Lightnina, protection of the new 

Westminster palace from, 892 
Light, Professor ChaUis on the 

abeiration of, 586 
Lloyd's patent turntables 121 
hook. Long's improved. 327 
London fires in 1858, 123, 147 
Lowering ships' boats, Cliffbrd's 

patent method of, 492 
Lowe's patent for supplying and 

purifying gaa, prdloogation of. 



Lumiaiferous medium. Professor 
Thomson on the density of the, 
54,252 

Machinery for boring earth, 531 

Mackay's patent propeller, 394 

Magnetic force, Proressor Thom- 
son's demonstrations of propo- 
sitions in the theory of, 387 

— — philosophy. Professor 
Faraday on, 218, 891, 371 

repulsion. Professor 

Tyndall on, 195 

Malleable iron, Renton's method 
of making, 246, 326 

Manumotive carriages, 802, 851 

Marine signals, 591 

Masts and spars, M*Qavin's pa- 
tent, 393 

Mathematical periodicals, doings 
in our, 851 

Maynooth single -fluid battery, 
Professor CaUan's new, 249, 346, 
398 

M'Connell's patent wrought iron 
pliton, 130 

Marior's " Goal Mining," 542 

M'Cormick's reaping - machine, 
law-case, 84 

M'Oavin's patent masts and spars, 
393 

Measure, the standard of, 559 

Mechanical engineers, errors of, 
370 

Mechanical illustrations of astro- 
nomy, 255 

** Mechanical Inventions of James 
Watt, the," 189, 225 

*' Mensuration made Easy," 
Hoare's, 897 

Metal leaf, Bennett's patent ma- 
chinery fbr heating, 481 

Metallic rods and bars, compound, 
486 

Mines, North of England coal. 

Mining," Marlor's "Coal, 542 
Mining resouiees of France, 562 
Moderator lamp, the, 73 
Moon's motion, on the, 82, 86, 106, 

138. 155, 201. 251, 277, 297, 298 
Mowing machines, Burgess's par 

tent, 241 
Museums for the working classes, 

special, 514 

Nature-printing, on, 579, 606 

Navigation, Bethune's improve- 
ments in steam, 1V3, 180, 203 

Niagara falls, attempU to sound, 
614 

Nubet, (Mr. W.) on the blasting 
of rocks, 863 

North of England coal mines, 372 

Norton's, (CaptaInX rifle and rifle- 
shot, 38, 88; expanding shot or 
shell, 847; recent inventions, 
488 

Nota Mathematics, No. vi., 271 ; 
No. vU.. 582 

Notices of intention to proceed, 
22, 46, 71, 95, 118, 142, 167, 190, 
214, 238, 262, 287, 310, 834, 369, 
382, 406, 431, 454, 478, 508, 527, 
550, 575, 598, 623 

Notices to correspondents, 24, 48, 
96, 120, 144, 168. 192, 215, 240, 
264, 288, 812, 386, 860, 884, 432, 
456, 480, 504, 552 



Notices to subscribers, 552, 624 

Observatory, the Royal, 561 
Ordnance and gunpowder, 11, 37. 

64, 87 

>— — , wrought-iron, 568 

Ore-crusher, Tendall and Trotter's 

patent, 265 
Orifices, on the flow of water 

through, 151, 177, 187 
Ornamenting wood, Clayton and 

Harrop's patent improvements 

in, 505 
Oxygen by the decomposition of 

water, on the production of, 564 

Paddle e. screw, 441 

wheel, Wallis's patent 

American, 590 

Palmer's patent propeller, 489, 519 

Paper-making, substitute for rags 
in, 5417618 

Paris ExhibiUon, 612 

Parker's patent smokeless Air- 
nace, 86. 158, 230, 255, 801 

Parlby's, (Colonel) bisecting com- 
passes, 350 

Parliamentary smoke, 85 

Parsey's patent compressed air- 
engine, 193 

Patent law eases: M'Cormick's 
reaping-machine, 84-, Hancock's 
vulcanised India-rubber, 540 
query, 192 



Patent ofllce library and reading- 
room, 297 

Patents, applications for (see pro- 
visional protectiona). 



• prolonga- 
tions of, 142. 190, 262, 598 

- applied for with com- 



f! 



lete spedflcations, 22, 46, 96, 
18, 142, 166, 262, 406, 431, 454, 
502, 527, 550 

recently flled. specifica- 
tions of, 16, 88, 64, 88, 111, 185, 
159. 188, 206, 231, 256, 280. 802, 
827, 852, 375, 401, 424,448, 472, 
494, 519, 548, 566, 502, 615 

sealed, weekly llsu of, 

28,47,71,95, 119,148,167.191, 
215, 239, 268, 287. 311, 335, 859, 
883, 407, 481, 455, 579, 608, 527, 
551, 575, 600, 628 

, progress of. 7 



, ykv^iva* vs. w 

Pathology, Industrial, (the eyes), 
56 

Peat and some of its uses, 554 

Peile's patent lifting-Jack, 539 

Pendulum experiment, the Astro- 
nomer Royal's, 174 

Penn's patent wooden bearings, 
842 

Periodicals, doings In our mathe- 
matical, 351 

Permanent ways, on, 4, 27, 62, 84 

" Perseveranee," capsisingofthe 
troop-ship, 172 

Phelps' patent label-damper, 588 

Philosophy of magnetism and 
force. Professor Faraday on the, 
218, 291, 371 

Photographs on metal, stone, ftc, 
collodion, 611 

Physics," Hunt's "Elementary, 
442,465 

Pianofortes, Hughes and Den- 
ham's patent manual, 587 

Pipes and conneetlona, Cooper's 
patent drain, 367 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



VI 



INDEX. 



Pipes, on the flow of water 
ihroagh, 161, 177, 197 

Piston, M'ConneU'f patent 
wroaglit-iron, 130 

PolychromatlB preuet, 327, 374 

Polymagnet, Profenor Tyndall's, 
601 

Porter's anchor patent, lefuaal to 
oonfinn, 163 

Potichomaaie, t79 

Premium for the pnTentlon of 
■moke, 464 

Presses, polychromatic, 337, 374 

Prevention of emoke, pteminm 
for the, 404 

Prises of the Society of Arts, spe- 
cial, 120 

Probiem in hydrauUca, 804 

Progress of patents, 7 

Proiongatl<»s of ps^enta, applic»- 
tions for. 142, 190, 262, 388 

: Foard's 

smokeless Aimaee, 57; Lowe's 
supplying and purifying gas, 
58 : Clark's partly ing water, 155 

Propellers : De Penning's patent 
guard for screw, 13; De Ber- 
gue's patent, 59 ; Maekay's pa- 
tent, 394 ; Captain Carpenter's 
letter on screw, 422; Palmer's 
patent, 489, 519; on the slip of 
screw, 537 

to large sailing ships, 

on the application of screw, 320, 
344 

Propulsion of ships by Jets of 
water, on the. 100, 132 

ProTlsional protections, 21,45, 70, 
93, 116, 141, 165. 189, 212. 238, 
260. 285, 309. 333, 357. 381, 405, 
429, 452, 476, 525, 549, 574, 595, 
621 

registrstions, 24, 144, 

215,312,408,503,623 

————— specifleations not pro* 
ceeded with, abstracts of, 19, 42, 
69, 92, 114, 139, 163, 187, 211, 
236, 259. 283, 306, 331, 356, 379, 
404. 428, 451, 475, 499, 523, 547, 
572,619 

Pamps, Delpech's patent Cas- 
traiae, 313; application of the 
lasy-tongs to, 448 

Query relating to the patent law, 
192 



Rags In paper-making, substitute 

for. 541, 613 
Railway-signiiU, 422, 591 

-switches and crossings. 



390 



- trains, intercommunica- 
tion in, 422 

Ratchet brace, Fenn's patent, 346 

Rawoon's ** Exercises In Arith- 
metic," 541 

Reaping machine; M*Cormick's 
patent (law ease), 34 ; Burgess's 
patent, 241 

Registered, lists of designs for 
articles of utility, 23, 144, 215, 
311,407,503,623 

Registrations, lists of proTisional, 
24, 144, 215, 312, 408. 503,623 

Re- inventions, re-pa( anted, 61 

Renton's method of making mal- 
leable iron, 246, 326 

Rc-patented re4nTeBtaons, 61 



Bepulaifln, Proteaor Tyndall on 
magnetic, 195 

Roeervoirs, Mr. J. Braithwaite's 
patent method of roofing, 558 

Rifles, and rifle-shot, Captain 
Norton's, 38, 88 

, self-capping, 60 

Rocks, W. Nisbet, esq., on the 
blasting of, 363 

Rods and hart, oompoond metal- 
lic, 486 

Roofing reservoirs, Mr. J. Braith- 
waite's patent method of, 558 

Royal and. Royal Astronomical 
Societies, disputes in the, 242 

Roval Observatory, the, 561 

RnhmkorfTs coil apparatus, 288 

Russell, (Mr. J. Seott) on ship- 
oonstruetlon, 490 

Russian fortresses, on the de- 
struction of, 563 



Safety-ships, Bureh's, 32 

valves. 134; Fenton's pa- 
tent, 396, 617 
Sanderson, (Mr. C.) on the manu- 
facture of steel, 460, 482 
Sanitary uses of charcoal. Dr. 

Stenhouie on the, 343 
Saw machinery, Howell and Ja- 

mleson's patent, 1 
Science among the engineers, 510 
" Scientific American," the, 51 
Scientific drama, Arnaud's, 614 
Screw-propeller protector, DePen- 
ning's patent, 13 

to larKo sailing 



ships, on the application of the, 
320, 344 

Williams's patent, 

217; Maekay's patent, 394; 
Captain Carpenter's letter on 
the, 422 : on the slip of the, 537 

Screw e. paddle, 441 

Sealed, weekly lists of patents, 
23, 47. 71, 95, 119, 143, 167, 191, 
215, 239, 263, 287, 311, 335, 359, 
383, 407, 431, 455, 479, 503, 527, 
551,575,600,623 

Sewage of towns and cities, on 
the, 411 

Sewer-flusher and ventilator, Dr. 
Gray's, 324 

Shafts. Bishopp's patent method 
of communicating rotary motion 
to, 385 

Sheathing of ships, on the protec- 
tion of the oopper, 515 

Shilllbeer's hearse patent, reftual 
to prolong, 135 

Ship-building machinery, Lam- 
port's patent, 49 

Sliip-construction, Mr. J. Seott 
Russell on, 4V0 

Ships, Bureh's safely, 32; on 
launching, 36; Bethune's im- 
provements in steam, 103; on 
the application of screw-propel- 
lers to large sailing, 320, 344 

Shot, Captain Norton's rifle, 38 ; 
Captain Norton's expanding 
■hell and. 347 

Siege operations, on, 317 

Signalising on railways, 422, 591 

Silk fabrics (raw). Jaudin and Du- 
val's patent means ol dressing 
and dyeing, 169 

Slags of smelting fUmaces, on the, 
323 



Slip of ■erew-propoUirs, on the, 
537 

Sliver-winding machine, Mr. P. 
Falrbairn's patent, 553 

Smith, (Dr.) on the slags of smelt- 
ing f^unaoea, 223 

Smoke quettion, the, 14, U, 61, 
62, 86, 87, 108, 109, 111, 158. 181, 
183, 204, 280, 800, 301, 350, 464, 
612 

Society of Arts : special jprisea 
oifered by the, 129; exhibition 
of inventions at the, 130 ; an- 
nual report of, 584 

Solution of a cnbio eqaatlan, new, 
531 

Solutions, J. Coekle, M.A., on 
incongruous, 509 

Spars aod maats, M*OaviB's pa- 
tent, 393 

Specifications filed with applica- 
tfona, abatacts ot complete, 330, 
618 

-~— — not proceeded with, 
abstracts of provisional, 19, 42, 
69, 92, 114, 139, 163, 187, 211, 
286, 259, 383, 306, 331, 356, 379, 
404. 488, 451, 475, 499, 528, 647, 
572, 594, 619 

— - raoently filed, ab- 
stracU, 16, 38, 64, 88, HI. 136, 
159, 183, 206, 231, 256, 280, 302, 
327, 352, 375, 401. 424, 448, 472, 
494, 519, 543, 566, 592, 615 

Standard of measure, the, 559 

Steam-engine, Mr. W. Fairbalm 
on the, 340 

Steam-engines: Biden's patent 
improvements in marine, 422 ; 
Haekworth's patent cranks fte. 
for, 457 ; on the indicated horse% 
power of, 157. 227, 254, 299, 348, 
373 

Steam generator burning hydro- 
gen, 38 

Steam-ships: Bethune's patent, 
103. 180, 203 ; Mr. B. F. Isher- 
wood on the ventilation of the 
fire-rooms of, 365 

Steam used expansively : Mr. W. 
Fairbaim on, 340; Mr. Mushet 
on, 372, 471 

Steel, Mr. C. Sanderson on the 
manufacture of, 460, 482 ; tem- 
pering of, 515 

Steering apparatus, Carr's patent, 
409 

Stenhouse (Dr.) on the sanitary 
uses of charcoal, 343 

Stoves, Williams's camp, 368 

Submarine telegraph,theCrimean, 
470; Atlantic, 514 

Subscribers, notices to, 552, 624 

Switches, railway, 390 

Sykes' patent feed apparatus, 419 



Tables for facilitating addition, 
564 

Teiegraph cables, the Black Sea, 
110 

Telegraphs; electric, 63; Ameri- 
can, 395; important improve- 
ment in electric. 437; the Cri- 
mean submarine, 470 ; Atlantic 
submarine, 514 

Teinperinic of steel, 515 

Tendall and Trotter's patent ore- 
crusher, 365 - 

Theory of magnetic force, Profee- 



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INDEX. 



VU 



of piopoiltimis in the, 887 
Tbamaoii (Profeisor), on tha 
density of the lamfaiiferont me- 
dium, 54, 858; on elementary 
propoeitiont in the theory of 
magnetle force, 387 
Tndee whkh ajfeet the eyee, on. 

56 
TubnlarttauD-hoDen, on, 76, 181, 

517,505 
Turntables, Lloyd's patent, 181 
Tuyere for smiths' hearths, an 

improved, 440 
T^dall (Professor) on magnetio 
repulsion. 195; on the poly- 
magnet, 801 

Valves, safety, 154; Fenton's pa- 
tent safety, 386, 517 

Ventilation of the flre-rooms of 
Bteam-ehips, Mr. B. F. Isher- 
wood on the, 885 



Walford's " Decimal Coinage fa- 
miliarly Explained," 827 

Wallis's patent American paddle- 
wheel, 590 

Water ballast-bags, 302 

— , on the production of oxy- 
gen by the deeompoeition of, 

, prolongation of Clark's 

patent for purifying, 155 

^— — through pipes and orifices, 
on the flow of, 151, 177, 197 

Waterworks, accident at the Sonth 
Lambeth, 558 

Watt, f Mr. A.) on the electro-che- 
mical deposition of metals, 506, 
535 

"Watt, (James), the mechanical 
inventions of," 199, 225 

Weoham's patent Iweech-loading 
fire-«rms, 289 

Westminster Palace, protection 
f^m lightning of the new, 392 



Whittington dnb, the, 493 
Wickens's railway-signals, 422 
Williams's camp-«toves and cook- 
ing apparatus, 368 
Williams's patent screw-propeller, 

Windlasses, Herman's patent, 
577 

Wood - bearings. Peon's patent, 
342 

— , Kyan's process for pre- 
serving, 336 

, Clayton and Harrop's pa- 
tent improvements in omament- 
hig, 505 

Woollen cloths, eUutic, 206 

WorUng-classee, special museums 
for the, 514 

Works, on the defective illustra- 
tion of scientific, 228 

Wright, (Mr. H.) on tubular 
steam-boilers, 76 

Wrought-iron ordnance, 563 



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Ptt|anits' pajajine. 



No. 1639.] SATURDAY, JANUARY 6, 1855. [s,!!!^ f '4.;. 

Edited by R. A. Broonian, IGC, Fleet- street. 



HOWELL AND JAMIESON'S PATENT MACHINERY FOR MANUFAC- 
TURING SAWS. 
Fig. 2. 



vol.. Lxir. 



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HOWELL AND JAMIESON'S- PATENT MACHINERY FOR MANUFAC- 

TURING iSAWS. 
(Pfttent dated Jaly 25, 1S0S.) 

Messrs. J. B. HowelLi of Sheffield, and W. Jamieson, of Ashion-under-Lyne, have 
patented a machine for improving the manufacture of saws, hy means of which they are 
ahle, they state, to produce saws of every desoription with great facility and accuracy of 
workmanship. 

One part of the machine consists of a punohing*apparatus, the punch and its die heing 
of such a form as to punch or cut out the notches or spaces by which the teeth of the saw 
nre formed. It is combined or not, as may be required, Mi\i ft Shearing or cutting appa- 
ratus, the action of which is to give a correct straight or ettrrllitll^ar form to the edge of the 
plate of metal on which the teeth are to be cut. Another part tff ihs mabhine consists in 
tlie directing apparatus, by which fresh portions of the |)late of metal ate brought succes- 
sively under the action of the punching and shearing ajl^ftratus. ^he punohing and shear- 
ing apparatus is actuated by a cam or eccentric on a fetolving shaft kept in motion by a 
steam engine Or otherwise, whilst another cam on the same shaft gives motion to the direcU 
ing apparatus ; the operation of punching or cutting out the notches atid hioving forward 
fresh portions of the plate taking place aUernatety. A third part of the invention consists 
in tlie application of a rotatory file or files, by the action of which any roughnesses on the 
surface of the teeth of the saw are removed. They dombine this part of their invention with 
the other parti, so as tO form a single machine, or use it separately, as may be required. 

Fig. 1 of the engravings on the preceding page represents a side elevation of a machine 
in which their improvements are exhibited as applied to the manufacture of circular saws ; 
and fig. 3 is a plan of the upper part or table of tne machine. A, A^ &c., the tWo end frames 
or standards of the machine ,* B B a vertical cross rail for connecting the two standards 
together ; C a bottom cross rail ; D D, the platform or table of th6 machine, which is sup- 
ported by the two standards. A, A, &c. ; E E, a headstock, which carries the hollow axis, 
FF, on which are the fast and loose pulleys or riggers, O, O, on which the strap or band 
acts which gives motion to the machine ; U is a fly-wheel fit the outer end of the hollow 
axis, F, for regulating the motion of the machine, and is constructed so as occasionally to 
answer the purpose of a strap-pulley ; 1 1 is the punching headstock, which carries the 
mechanism for punching or cutting out the spaces or notches by which the teeth of the 
saw are formed, with which is also combined, when necessary, the cutting or shearing appa- 
ratus ; J J, a shaft, having a longitudinal groove nearly the whole of its length. This shaft 
slides through the hollow axle, F F, and is carried round with it by means of a feather or 
pin which enters the longitudinal groove. By means of this contrivance, and a slot in the 
table or platform, D, the punching headstock, 1 1, can be placed in any position along the 
xtiiddlc of the table (to suit the size of the circular saw to be manufactured), and clamped 
fast by means of a bolt passing through the slot. A catn or eccentric fixed on the shaft, J, 
actuates the slide, K, whibk has at its lower extremity a preparation to receive the punch 
and the shearing tool. These tools, when adjusted, are secured by means of set screws. 
Preparation i^ made oh the frame of the headstock to receive the die corresponding tO the 
punch, and the same with the shearing tool. The die and under shearing tool are adjusted 
and secured by*means of set screws. L L is a vertical shaft or axis, at the upper end of 
which is fixed the plate of metal which is to form the cltcular saw. It carries the ratchet- 
wheel, M M, which ttiust have as many teeth in ii as there are to be in the circular saw to 
be made. It is moved forward one tooth at a time by the cam, N, on the hollow axis, FF. 
For this purpose the cam gives motion to the lever, O, on the vertical axis, P, which has at 
its lower end the arm, Q. This arm gives motion to the lever, R, by means of a connecting 
rod, S, the quantity of motion being regulated by means of an adjusting plate attached to 
the arm, Q. The lever, II, carries the click or cntch, T, which takes into the teeth of the 
ratchet wheel, M, with which it is held in contajt by means of a spring. U is another 
click or catch, which also takes into the teeth of the ratchet-wheel, MM, which it 
secures or retains each time the wheel is moved forward by the action of the cam, N. 
The catch, U, is held ih contact with the ratchet-wheel by a spring, and turns on a 
centre secured to the cross niil, B. The ratchet-wheel, M M, and the mechanism con- 
nected with it, are chiefly shown by dotted lines in fig. 2. V V is a friction pulley 



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OOVKLL Aim JAUESOM'S patent MAOBEKnT FOB MAKUFACTUSINa SAWS. 3 

filed on the Teiti««] vom^ L; thii piilley is etnbrtoed bv the (rietton brake, W, which 
it oompoeed of two straps of metal oonneeted together by two lorew boltS) by means 
of which the frietion of the brake on the pnlley is regulated* One end of one of the straps 
if elongated so oa to form an arm ot lefe^, X, to Uie end of which is attached the spring, Y, 
at the opposite end of which spring Is a tightening serew, which passes through a filbow 
attichea to the underside of the platform, D. The quantity of the friction of the brake, W, 
and tension of the spring, Y, being regulated as described, the action it obviously to hold 
the ratchet-wheel, M, flnnly against the catch, U, at the time when the earn, N, is drawing 
back the catch, T, in order to engage a freah tooth of the ratehet*wheeL As the ralehet- 
wheel is moved forward the spring, Y, becomes lightened until its tension is sufficient to 
orereorae ihe frietion of the brake on the pulley, V ; the brake then slips on the pulley, and 
the teusien of the spring is diminished, until it is again tightened by the action of the cam, 
K« on the ratchet-wheel, M i a, the plate of metal whioh is to form the eireular saiir. It 
is firmly held betwixt the two plates, h and c, which revolve with the vertical axis, L. The 
punching headstbck, 1 1, is fixed in" such a position that the punch and shearing tool are 
enabled to act upon the edge of the plate, a a, which has been previously brought to some- 
what near a circiilar form. The two cams are placed in such positions with respect to each 
other that when the first is foroing the punch through the plate of metal, the second, N, is 
in the act of drawing back the lever, R, to enable the catch, T, to take hold of or engage a 



Fig. 3. 







IMi tooth of the tatchet-wfaeel, M, and that when the first cam, by its reverse action has 
withdrawn the punch clear of the plate of metal, the second reacts on the catch, T, and 
eonfleqnently moves forward the ratchet-wheel one tooth. By this means a fresh portion of 
the plate, a, is brought wlthlti Hnae of the action of the punch, and the process is repeated 
as before. This is continued uhtil the teeth are formed all round { the saw being then com- 
plete is removed, and a fresh plate substituted in its place. 

The inventors also describe a machitie in which their improvements are exhibited as 
applied to the manufhcture of tfeciprocating or straight-edged saws, the cuttlHg edges of 
whieh have a straight or curvilinear fotm, and add the concluding portion of their inven- 
tion, which consists in the appHcatioti of a rotatory file or files for tne purpose of removing 
the roughnesses and filing up the teeth of saws used in saw-gins for ginning eotton, and 
other saws whieh reqnire to be treated in a similar inanner. The construction and applica- 
tion of these files will be utiderstood iVbm figs. 3 and 4 ; fig. 8 representing a plan, and fig. 
4 an end view of two rotatory files, as arranged and adjusted when in operation on the teeth 
of the saw ; G O is a portion of a saw plate in whieh the teeth Sre partially cut (showii In 

▲ 2 



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4 ON PERMANENT WATS« 

section in fig. 4) ; H a rotatory file which acts on the upper side of the saw plati 
another rotatory file which acts on the lower side of the saw plate. The form of tl: 
tory files is similar to that of two frustroms of cones or solids of a conical form, th( 
which ate placed together, forming an angular edge all round from which the hevi 
surfaces slope both ways. On these slant surfaces the file teeth are cut sU round, 
of the surfaces being such that while one of them remoTee the rough edge or arris 
back of one tooth, the other removes it from the front of the next. The action c 
rotatory files is simultaneous, the rough edges of the upper side of the teeth being 
by the upper file, and tlie rough ^ges of the lower side of the teeth being 
by the lower one. It will be seen that the two rotatory files cannot operate in 
space or notch between the saw teeth at the same time, but are placed so as to ( 
notches a tooth or two distant one from the other. J is a shaft or axis on whicl 
tory file, H, is fixed ; and K a shaft or axis, on which the rotatory file, T, i« fixe 
two shafts are geared together by means of toothed wheels, so as to operate b 
same time, and are fixed in a frame which turns on a centre or swivel. To this 
consequently to ihe rotatory files, a vibratory angular motion is given by means 
When the files have removed the roughnesses from the edges of Uie teeth with ^^ 
are in contact, they are withdrawn clear of the saw by the action of this cam. 
then moved forwal^d the space of one tooth by means of the directing apparatus, w 
done, the rotatory files are each reinserted in fresh spaces or notches, and the op 
repeated as before, and this is continued until the roughneKses are removed frou) e 
of the saw. When the rotatory files are combined with the machine shown in f 
2, they are arranged so as to operate at the wpae time as the punching and shear 
ratus; when the punch and shearing tool are raised so as to clear the plate of i 
rotatory files are withdrawn at the same time, so as to allow the plate to be wove 
the space of a tooth, as before described. In this case the rotaioiy files may be 
by means of a strap or band from the fiy- wheel ; and as they are broi!.<r!it into aotl 
taneously with the punch and shearing tool, the same cam may be made to acti 
But it is obvious that the rotatory files and their appurtenances may be arrangee 
constitute a separate machine, if required. 



ON PERMANENT WAYS.* 



A large and important question is that of 
Permanent Way. It involves the whole 
difference between railways and all other 
ways — highways, bvewnys, parish roads, and 
streetways. A railway is not a railway by 
virtue of its stations or signal-lights, or any 
other of the jiaraphernalia which strikes the 
eye of the public, but simply because of the 
lonji: narrow bands of iron placed on the 
levelled surface, willi more or less accuracy 
and substantiality. Take away these, and it 
is but a road of natural materials like most 
other roads ; add these bands or rails-^ood 
and efficient rails, — good relatively to the 
work they have to do and the loads placed 
upon them — and the road of natural mate- 
rial thus banded with artificial, is in practi- 
cal value, as compared with a horse-road, 
multiplied by ten. And when the steam 
locomotive is substituted for the horse, we 



* " Practteal Remarks on Railways and Perma- 
nent Way. as adapted to the various Requirements 
of TrsDSit. By wiiliaic Bkidgbs Adams, en- 
flneer. Loadon: Effingham Wilson, Royal Ex- 
change. 1854." 

'* The Permanent Way Company's Circular. 
Oetol»er, 18M. London: Day and Son, Oate- 
street, LlncelB's-in&>fl«Ids." 

" Railway Machinery. By Danisl Kxmvxak 
CLAax. Nos. 22, SS, and 24. lUackie, Edin- 
burgh." 



may probably again multiply the efficiency 
of the means of conveyance by ten ; so that 
the steam railway is, or should be, if rightly 
understood and employed, one hundred 
times as efficient as tiie horse highway. 

But if the highway, and its natural mate- 
rial and horse-power, be the most perfect of 
ito kind, and the railway, with its steam- 
power, be of very imperfect character, it 
may happen that the resisunce encountered 
on the highway is actually less, in propor- 
lion, than that of the railway. 

Supposing the levels to be the same, the . 
railway is superior to the highway in the ' 
harder and smoother surface presented for 
the wheels to run on, providing that surface 
be non-deflecting, anci that the joints of the 
rails be so formed as to make the rails prac- 
tically a continuous bar. But if the joints 
occasion a series of jolte on the wheels, — if 
the rails deflect both vertically and laterally 
— if the sleepers work loose in insufficient 
ballast, — ^the railroad may become a far 
worse road for the locomotive than the high- 
way is for the stage-coach. 

Therefore, in determining what shall be 
the permanent way of a railway, the data 
for calculation must be —what are the maxi- 
mum load, maximum speed, the resistance 
of the carriages or wagons, and the resist. 



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ON PEBlCAliENT WATS. 



ance due to the gradienti. In conneotion 
with theae must be calculated the power and 
proportions of the locomotive, which mufit 
govern the structare of the line. The weight 
on the driving- wheels is one of the chief 
points to he considered, as to iu damaging 
power on the rails. It is clear that if the 
weight be in excess, the rails may be de- 
flected either laterally or vertically, or both; 
and if they do not deflect, they may be 
crushed and laminated, as we practically 
find to be the case. The earlier railways 
were constructed with very light rails. As 
the loads increased, the rails deflected, and 
the enffines were overpowered, not by the 
actual Toads, but in consequence of the de- 
terioration of the way. It was assumed that 
the engines required increased power, when, 
in truth, they wanted foothold: therefore, 
larger engines were produced, and the de- 
struction of the way greatly augmented. 

The argument respeeting light and heavy 
engines has been purposely made a vexed 
question; but it is plain enough to those 
who wish to understand it. We cannot bet- 
ter exhibit the truth of this statement than 
by giving the following extract from the 
work of Mr. Adams, whose successful in- 
ventions for the improvement of railways give 
importance to his judgment in the matter : 

" This leads to the consideration of the 
quality of engines. By the terms ' light ' 
and * heavy * we must understand the rela- 
tion that is borne to the rails and substruc- 
ture on which the engines run. An engine 
may be light as regards one line, and heavy 
as regards another. 

** And even supposing the heavy engines 
to possess more power than the light ones, 
it does not follow that they would draw a 
heavier train, becaase they lose power by 
having constantly to ascend deflections. 
Moreover, it must not be forgotten that the 
engine has to move its own dead weight, as 
well as the dead weight of the train, and the 
heavier the. engine in proportion to its haul- 
age power, the greater will be the disad- 
vantage. 

" But there is another consideration. Up 
to a certain weight, engines carrying their 
own water and fuel may be perfectly safe at 
any speed. Beyond that weight, the num- 
ber of the wheels must be increased, and 
aAer that, a tender must be added, still in- 
creasing the number of wheels. And every 
increase of the number of the wheels, unless 
provision be made for free lateral traverse, 
to enable each pair of wheels to seek their 
path of minimum friction, will dispropor- 
tionately increase the resistance of the ma- 
chine on the rails. It would be possible that 
in certain positions, such as reversed curves, 
the engine might be arrested by the friction 
of its wheels on the rails. 



" The real question is, how to attain the 
maximum power with the minimum weights 
By power, we are to understand the surplus 
power remaining to draw a train, after sup- 
plying suflScient to overcome its own gravity 
and friction. 

'*Thus it may happen that a welUcon- 
structed light engine may be able to draw a 
heavier train than a heavy engine, by rea- 
son— 

** 1. Of having less dead weight. 

" 2. Of having less friction. 

" 8. By not crushing and deflecting the 
rails, and consequently running on a better 
road. For, by the terms * light* and ' heavy,' 
are not to be understood ' tmaU power' and 
' great power,' for the small engine may have 
great power, and the large engine small 
power. A boiler formed of a given tliick- 
ness of plate, 2 ft 9 in. in diameter, will bear 
higher pressure than a boiler of 4 ft. in dia- 
meter, made of the same thickness of plate, 
and at the same time with less risk of burst- 
ing. 

"But^ it may be argued, there is a limit 
to the available power of an engine on four 
wheels, and trains are required imperatively 
of a weight and speed beyond that power, 
and it is better to watte power in accom- 
plishing this object, than to use power with- 
out waste and not accomplish the business 
required. 

"This would be quite true, supposing 
there could be no other means of accom- 
plishing it. But the cheaper and simpler 
method is to run two light engines coupled 
together, instead of one heavy one, precisely 
as two, three, or four horses are attached to 
a carriage, instead of one. Thus, two en- 
gines with cylinders of 1 1 in. in diauteter 
would move 500 tons along a level at 15 
miles per hour ; or 200 tons up gradients of 
1 in 100 at 25 tniles an hour ; or ISO tons, 
on the level, at 40 miles an hour ; the weight 
of each engine being about 15 tons, and being 
coupled by the flre-box ends, with a connec- 
tion at the foot-plates, one driver and stoker 
might, if required, manage them. And two 
engines, so coupled, would be safer in case 
of a wheel breaking, than any ordinary six- 
wheel engine. 

" It may be objeoted» that with two en- 
gines coupled together, there would be the 
same result as with two horses coupled toge- 
ther — a diminished amount of available 
power, for want of pulling uniformly. 

" The answer to this is, that the two en- 
gines are to be so coupled as to constitute 
one, though permitting the two pairs of 
driving-wheels to work independently of 
each other, and without the mischievous 
friction which is the usual result of coupling 
two pairs of driving-wheels on the same 
engine. 



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6 



OH 9&kA»t^ Wits. 



*' Lotlg traiiii lntend«a fbt dftianoes, 
usually separate midwayi and it is a saving 
of risk and loss of time to run them toge- 
ther, and it is eeonomical not to have a 
heavy engine doing the wdrk bf t light 
one. 

"With regard to consutnption of fuel, 
supposing all engines to be constructed 
with equal aecttracy, a given quantity per 
ton per mile will be burned, proportioned to 
the speed, the gradients, and the condition 
of the road. If, therefore, the heavy engine 
crushes the road, more coke will be con- 
sumed and waited. And supposing no 
etushing, still every extra ton or every extra 
pound of resistance in the engine itself will 
represent so much extra coke. 

<' If, therefore, an engine Weighing 16 
tons can, by extra ptessnre, and reduced 
weight and friction, be made to draw as 
heavy a train as an engine of 80 tons, there 
will be a saving of eoke equivalent to 16 
tons, or three earriages, independent of the 
saving in friction and deflection, which liiay 
amount to as much more. 

** Another consideration is, that the light 
engine may travel at hx greater speed 
without damaging the rails or road, and 
though called light, the parts that are in mo- 
tion are in reality proportionately stronger 
than the corresponding parts in heavy En- 
gines, while their less total weight reduces 
the amount of the momentum and 1-isk. 

"There is yet another consideration — 
$lip. The real meaning of the term ' slip,' 
is < deflecting rails.' If an engine on six 
wheels, with middle drivers, hai much 
weight on the drivers, proportioned to the 
leaders and trailers, it will be apt to piich. 
If it have little load on the drivers, the 
engine will be supported on either end, atid 
the rails deflecting beneath the drivet-s, they 
will slip. 

" The light engine, on four wheels, will 
not deflect the rails, and consequently the 
drivers will not slip. But supposing vety 
light rails which do deflect) still the drivetv 
will fbllow the rails, and proddee adheHon. 

" A strong argument m fkvour of light 
powerful engines, is their facility of great 
speed with little damage ; they are less costly 
to clean, and may be iUore constantly at 
work; consequently, the journeys and re^ 
turns may be made quicker, the public will 
be better pleased, And a smaller amount of 
rolling stock will be required. 

" Of course, well-construcled trains should 
be used, corresponding to sUch engines, and 
in proportion to the diminution of dead 
weight, would bfe the diminudbn of momen. 
turn, and the constant diminution of risk, 
either of getting off the rails, or of doing 
damage in collision. And above all, the 
diminution of destruction to the road, which 



is the ot'igilial cause of alniMt illl Medhaiil. 
eal aceidents in the rolling poilioHi of rail, 
way machinery." 

We now have to offer s6me tethkrks sng. 
gested by the Circular of the Perhianeiit 
Way Company. Regarding bad Joitits is 
one main difficulty in the permaneht way — 
as an evil, in fact, precluding any peHlia. 
lience — Mr. Adatlis, as he states, some years 
back devised the "flsh-joint;" applicable to 
the double-headed inil. It is dlesr that this 
plan of uniting the rails was as true in prin- 
ciple when it prbceeded from the iilveUtot^a 
brain as it is at the present day, after being 
extensively applied on many railways. Why, 
then, it should have been considered neces. 
sary to work this invention by a botripany, 
we Cannot Well understand. It wak surely 
competent tb railway companies ahd engi. 
neers to use it direct from the inventor is 
easily as ft'om a Cbmpany, under the follow, 
ing directors and manlier: — vit., iHrtc~ 
tori: P. W. Barlow, Esq., F.R.S. } W. H. 
Barlow, £sq., F.R.S.; Charles H. Wild, 
£2sq.; James Samuel, Est}., P.R.A.S. ; Rb. 
bert Richardson, Esq. ; Peter Ashcroft, 
Esq. kemageri Charles Maj^, Esq., F.R.d. 
The reasons why the Company has been 
formed are thus stated : 

" The developtnent of traffic bn railways, 
accompanibd by the introductibn bf a hea- 
vier class bf engines and increased speiid, 
having rendered it necessary to Improve the 
construction of the permanent way, so as tb 
render it suitable for the heavier work it was 
required to sustain, several improvements 
were suggested by practical engineers, whieh 
became the subject of patents. 

"The inventors or proprietors of such of 
these as were ascertained on experience to be 
sound and useful, con«idered that advantage 
would result from uniting their interests in 
these inventions: flrstly, because it would 
enable companies to use two or more of tiie 
improvements combined, without having to 
deal with separate patentees ; and, secondly, 
because it liberated them, as prbl^ssional 
men, from the bias of interest in any |)aHi. 
cular patetlt 

" These views led to the establishment bf 
the assbciation knbWn as ' The Permanent 
Way Company.* " 

This is oy no nieans satisfactory reason- 
ing to Us, and we suppose it is not satikfac- 
tory to the body of civil engineers^makers 
of railwayR — Who opposed Ih Parliament the 
Bill by which the members of the l^rmanent 
Way Company sought to iUborporatb thert- 
selves, and place themselves in a position of 
greater power, analogous to that of the Elec- 
tric Telegraph Companies. 

If, indeed, the six directors and their ma- 
nager had each invented ahd patented a 
seventh part of a specific permanent way. 



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HMGBB88 OV VATEHtS. 



«• can undetitMifl that it might theo he 
advantageous to combine all their inventiooa 
together; hut if, 09 the other hand, the 
Company were got up for the porpoie of 
h«jing up all patenta of aU kinda of perma- 
Bent way, and of oppoaiog hy imited e^rti 
all newer iiiventiona, or such as are not pur- 
chased hy th^m, they would prove a very 
fliaadvaiitagoaua medium for the puhlio and 
for inventors, comaelliog both to pay blsek 
mail I ibr it is tolerably clear that the iu- 
ventor could afford to deal directly at a 
lnwr fflce than those who might buy from 
him* and seek to make a merehant's or mo* 
nopolist's profits as a Company. The list 
of Ike present patentees ia thus given in the 
Gireqlar: 

«• W, B. Adams, ; P. Ashcroft, ; P. W. 
Bavlmri W. H. Barlow; P. 8. Bruffi John 
Gardner ; L. D. B. Gordon ; C. F. Ouitard ; 
J. W. Hohyt Sir John Maoneill; Charles 
May; Robert Biohardsoo ; James Samuel; 
Charles H. Wfld, &o., ke." 

Although the name of Mr. W. B. Adams 
ia at tho head of the list, we understand 
that he has no connection with the Com> 
pany, save that they use his patent; the 
employment of which he himself, we are 
informed, retains as a railway engineer. 
(2*0 be continued.) 



ON THE FORMATION OP BRASS 
BY GALVANIC AGENCY. 

Copper is more electro-negative than 
zinc, and separates more easily from its so. 
Intiona than a metal less negative. If then, 
in order to obtain a deposit of brass by gal- 
vanic means, we employ a solution contain- 
ing the two component metals, copper and 
zinc, ip the proportions in which they would 
form brass, there will only be produced by 
the action of the battery a deoosit of real 
copper ; the zinc, more difficult of reduc- 
tion, remains in solution. What must be 
dMidi tben« to obtain a simultaneous preoi- 
pi(a(e of the two metals in the proportions 
required, ia either to regard the precipiia- 
tiou of the cppperi or to aocelevate that of 
the zine. This may be effected hy forpiipg 
the bath vi(h a gre&t ^cess of zipp apd 
v^j little eopper. 

Djf, tieerp gi?e« the following propor« 
tiopa aa h^vipg perfectly succeeded 1 
Thfre ara to be taken of 

Sulphate of Copper . 1 part. 
Warm water 4 „ 

And thoA 

Sulphate of line 8 „ 

Warm water .16,, 

Cyanide of potassium 18 }, 
WaraawatM • 3d „ 



£aeh salt is dissolved in its prescribed 
quantity of water, and the solutions are then 
mixed; thereupon a precipitate is thrown 
down, which is either dissolved by agitation 
alone, or by the addition of a little cyanide 
of potassium; indeed, it does not muoh 
matter if the solution be a little troubled. 
After the addition of 250 parts of distilled 
water, it is subjected to the action of two 
Bunsen elements charged with concentrated 
nitric acid mixed with one-tenth of oil of 
vitriol. The bath is to be heated to ebulli- 
tioq, and is iotroduced ipto a glas4 with a 
foot, in which the two electrodes are plunged. 
The objeot to be covered is suspended from 
the positive pole, whilst a plate of brass is 
attached to the negative pole. The two me- 
tallic pieces may be placed very near. 

The depoait is rapidW formed if the bath 
be very hot; after a few minutes there is 
produced a layer of brass, the thickness of 
which augments rapidly. 

Deposits of brass have been obtained in 
this way on copper, zinc, brass, and Britan- 
nia metal ; these metals were previously 
well piokled. Iron may, probably, also be 
coated in this wsy; but cast iron is but 
ill adapted for this operation. — MUiheil- 
umgen des Hannov, Gewerbeverems, through 
DmUin Journal </ Industrial Progress, 



PItOGRESS OF PATENTS. 

It ia stated, on good authority, that the 
actual cash profits realised this year by the 
assignees of Ketchum's mowing machine, 
will not fall far short of one hundred thousand 
dollars. This may seem like a very large 
amount to those who have little knowledge 
of the value of paten U or the progress of 
invention at the present day. But to us, 
such an announcement has no feature of 
surprise. We could name several other 
patents from which still larger sums are 
annually realised, while incomes of from 
10,000 dollars to 60,000 dollars a-year from 
snoh sources are quite common. 

Never in the history of this country or 
Europe has such a propitious time existed 
for inventors as the present. There is a 
growing demand for patents of all kinds, 
both at home and abroad. Rights which a 
few vears ago were worthless, are now of 
precious value. The best of railroad stock 
is not to be compared, in monetary estimate 
and actual profit, to ownership in certain 
useful patents. In these hard times it is 
well to be acquainted with reliable sources 
of wealth and secure subjects of investment. 
The field of invention is open to all, whether 
learned or unlearned, rich or poor ; but in- 
stead of being crowded with adventurers. 



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8 



ON THE COKSTBUCmON OF BOILERS. 



only a few indiTidualSi comparatively, enter 
it. The chances of success for inventors are 
better now than ever, and we wonder that 
there is not a greater strife among them 
than there is, although the number of inven- 
tors have multiplied three-fold within the 
past five years. — Scientific American, 



ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF 

BOILERS. 

To the Editor qf the Mechanics* Magazine. 

Sir, — Thp steam engine is one of the 
greatest and grandest achievements of me- 
chanical science; and since the improve- 
ments made by Watt, all our energy and 
mechanical appliances have been turned to 
it, in order'to arrive, as near as possible, to 
perfection in its construction. In this 
course it has assumed various forms and 
modifications suitable to the exact position 
and purposes for which power is to be used. 
The boiler, on the contrary, which may be 
justly termed the source and producer of 
power and motion, bearing the same rela- 
tionship to the engine that the heart does to 
our body (if I may be allowed the com- 
parison), has till very recently been almost 
neglected. This may have partly arisen 
from the cause above mentioned, as also 
from the great abundance of good fuel 
which exists in this country, not requiring 
it to be so economically used. Our at- 
tention has now, however, been especi- 
ally called by repeated disastrous occur- 
rences, to examine the state of its construc- 
tion nnd strength (or, rather, the want of 
both), when high pressure is used. It is to 
be regretted that engineers or boiler- makers 
have been so backward in bringing to notice 
the various experiences and difficulties en- 
countered in the course of their profession, 
from which some data could be deduced, 
and which would have tended to the ad- 
vancement of meohanical science and know- 
ledge upon this interesting subject, con- 
sidering the importance of which, I trust 
the following remarks will not be deemed 
entirely out of place, as they are made to 
point out some of the most palpable or 
erroneous ideas adopted, while all abstruse 
reasoning, not suitable to the mind of a 
thoroughly practical man, will be avoided. 
There are several principles and conditions 
that require great attention in the construc- 
tion and form of a good and efficient boiler ; 
amongst others, I may mention the follow- 
ing: 

1st, The best or most suitable form to 
sustain the required pressure. 

2nd. The mo»t correct mode of structure 
for the above purpose, which will depend, in 



some measure, upon the quality of the ma- 
terial used. 

3rd. A sufficient area for steam, and the 
necessary water space. 

4th. A proper proportion between the fire 
grate and fine or tobe areas. 

5th. The length of the tubes should bear 
a relative proportion to their diameter. 

6th. A boiler (when possible) should be so 
constructed in form as not to require stays, 
&c., to remedy its defects ; bnt only as an 
additional means of safety. 

And I would add, as an appendage, that 
much depends upon the caution exercised in 
their working. 

Having thus stated a few of the particu- 
lars that should exist in all boilers, whether 
for high pressure, or otherwise, I will now 
proceed to consider how far the construetiini 
now in use will agree with or conform to 
the same. It is generally understood that 
the waggon- shape boiler was about the first 
used for engines of moderate power and low 
pressure. This form is represented by fig. 
1, which shows a transverse section, a a be- 

Fig. 1. 



ing the outside shell, and b h the internal 
flue. Now, it will be readily seen and un- 
derstood that the pressure or force in this 
instance is applied internally upon the shell, 
aa, and externally upon the flue, 6 b, the 
direction of the force being illustrated by 
the arrows ; it will, therefore, require little 
argument with those possessing the slightest 
knowledge upon the subject, to prove that 
we have in this boiler three curves in its 
form, totally at variance with the principle 
of strength, and which render the correct 
form of the crown or top of no avail. Any 
excess of pressure would have a continual 
tendency to force the sides and bottom to 
assume a shape somewhat similar to that 
exhibited by the dotted lines. With, the 



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ON THB OONSTBUOnON OF B0ILBB8. 



9 



flue which is correct in fonn, it woald be 
entirely different, as ire know that the resist- 
ing power of cjHndrieal bodies to compres- 
sion would be directly as their diameters. 
For instance, a flue 2 feet in diameter, of 
such form, would resist double the pressure 
of one 4 feet in diameter, of a similar form ; 
and the preunre being equal on each square 
inch of its circumference, would prevent any 
very great variation in profile or shape, 
should t^:e material be of the required 
strength or thickness. There is yet^another 
defect in the construction of the above men- 
tioned boiler, arising from the flat ends be- 
ing at right angles to the sides or bottom ; 
the pressure or force upon these would, of 
course, be in the ratio of the area of the sur- 
face. The flue, bbt often forms the only 
stay or support between the ends, and is 
used also as a means of fixing other stays to 
the crown and bottom, which are in many 
cases rendered useless, from the want of 
principles in their introduction or direction. 
Yet this boiler has been used at pressure 
varying from 5 lbs. to 12 lbs. on tlie square 
inch of its surface. The only claim that 
can be advanced in its favour at all, is the 
free and extensive water surface and steam- 
room ; bat the form is false and dangerous 
for great as also for low pressures, the only 
query being how it has been retained in use 
so long. 

The cylindrical boiler having an elliptical 
flue, illustrated by fig. 2, is the next I will 




take under consideration. The shell is at 
a a, and 66 is the internal fine, extending 
from one end to the other of the boiler. The 
pressure upon the shell in this instance has 
a form best adapted to resist it, the tension 
being along with the strength, in the ratio 
to its diameter ; but in the flue it is not so, 
as it will be perceived by the direction of 
the arrows, showing the compressing force, 
that the crown of the flue bears the greatest 
pressure, the ends being also acted upon in 
unch a manner as to be incapable of afford- 
ing the necessary support to resist the same, 
and the pressure therefore has a tendency 
eontinuaUy to force the flue into the col- 



lapsed form exhibited by the dotted lines in 
the diagram. The fire bars are generally 
placed in a longitudinal direction with the 
flue ; and altliough there may be suflicient 
width of grate, there is yet not a sufficient 
height between the surface of the bars and 
the crown of the flue, for. the mixture of the 
gases srising from combustion, and the cold 
air introduced for the prevention of smoke, 
of which more will be said hereafter. Tho 
cylindrical shell has also been used in con- 
nection with a cylindrical internal flue, as 
shown by fig. 3, which is a transverse section 

Fig. 3. 




of a boiler so constructed, the direction of 
the force being as before in that of the 
arrows. In form, this is all tliat could be 
desired, when the ends are made spherical ; 
but they are more generally used with the 
ends flat, which renders it, according to the 
above principle, defective ; in either case it 
is difficult to obtain what is now thought a 
sufficient amount of heating surface, but it 
is yet retained in use to some considerable 
extent 

I may also point out another form of flue, 
or flues, that is used in a cylindrical shell 
(see flg. 4), a patent for which was granted 
Fig. *. 




some few years ago, to an engineer who is now 
allowed to be one of the greatest authorities 
upon this subject. In this case the force of 
compression is exhibited by the arrows. I 
have no occasion to point out the defect in 
this form, as it v<ill be seen, from the excess 
of pressure upon the flat sides, 6 b, as corn- 



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10 



OM CTH GORStWaneil OV SOtLBttS. 



pared with th« omwii, that it is one of the 
most dangeious forms that oould he adopted. 
I am aware that the same has heen exten- 
sively tried in marine hoilers, hut in this 
ease there is a limit as to width in such con- 
structions; besides whioh| they are chiefly 
low pressure, but in the former case it has, I 
believe, to be used as a high-pressure boiler, 
and also when the above conditions need not 
be 80 strictly observed. It would absorb 
too much of your space, and occupy too 
much of the reader's time, to follow out in 
due order all the various forms and con- 
structions that have be^n advanced from 
time to time, as improvements, some of them 
differing so slightly from those above men- 



tioned as to merit no particular notice. Our 
subject will, therefore, bring us to consider 
the most recent improvements tried, and in 
many cases adopted ; and as that class, ge- 
nerally termed multitubular, has received the 
attention due to it by engineers, I will just 
venture to add a few considerations on the 
advantages and defecu as existing in some 
examples. 

I have stated before, as an axiom, that a 
proper proportion should exist between the 
flre grate and flue area (or tube area), and 
also that the length of the tubes should bear 
a relative proportion to their diameters ; we 
will, therefore, see how far the preaent ex- 
amples agree with this condition. Fig. 5 



Fig. 6. 



represents, in illustration, a section of a 
boiler upon the tubula{ principle; the 
shell being shown at a oi, and the furnaces 
At bb (in this case there are two) ; the tubes 
are also shown at e c ; it ^111 be perceived 
that the combustive products, after leaving 
the grate, pass through the tubes, cc, direct 
into the chimney ; but I may mention that 
in some examples it is caused to return, 
through a second or upper tier of tubes 
over the furnace, and repass into the chim- 
ney. But to return to the above points, I 
will give as an illustration the proportion 
of a boiler under my own observation, hav- 
ing two tiers of tubes, and consequently a 
great excess of tube area, in proportion to 
the fire grate ; the length of tubes being 
about IS feet 6 inches, and the diameter 
about 2\ inches. The action of this boiler, 
having such a great length of tube com- 
pared to the diameter, is not at all satisfac- 
tory, either as regards fuel or the supply of 
steam, and it is found to be impossible to 
keep the tubes from being choked up with 
the accumulation of «oo/, for more than four 
hours' working. On inspection, the cause 
is easily discernible, namely, the small sec- 
tional area, in proportion to the great length 
of the tube, which is shown to have a ten- 
dency to extinguish the flame before it 



reaches the end of the same ; and that there 
can be no adequate supply of steam, arises 
from the small amount of heat in the tubes 
being drawn through rapidly, too rapidly, 
to produce any effect ; in proof of which I 
will give the following simple illustration. 
Suppose a metallic plate is passed rapidly 
through a flame proceeding from any or- 
dinary fire, what amount of heat would be 
communicated to the same ? None I But, 
supnose again that we allow the plate to 
dwell over the flame for a length of time, 
what effect then should we have ? The heat 
of the flame would, of course, be given off 
to it. Now, in this illustration the beat is 
at right angles to the plate, but acting di- 
rectly upon it In the case of the boiler 
above mentioned, the heat in the tubes also 
acts at right angles to it, but it is drawn 
through so rapidly, as to give it no time to 
produce the desired result ; whereas, were 
the tubes shorter the draught would not be 
so strong, and the beat would be given off 
to the tubes in a greater degree than it is 
now. 

I will only just produce another case, 
and that is a boiler, the area of the fire- 
grate in which is the same (or nearly so) as 
that mentioned above ; but it has only one 
tier of tubes, the length of which being 



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AN dBiaiUKB AKO flOmOWSBB. 



11 



€ feet 6 inclieB, aod the diameter about 
S inohea. The power of this boiler is also 
about the same as the above, but the result 
obtained is rery superior. Here we have 
plenty of steam, eeonomy of fuel, and good 
working ; die draught is not too quiek nor 
too slow, and the tubes are kept clear ibr 
two or three months, and the dead pUte at 
the end is not so muoh heated ; evidently 
abowing that the heat has been given off to 
the tubes on its passage through, and tho 
flame often extends the whole length. This 
will be proof sufficient that we gain little 
either in the economy of ftiej, or the amount 
of efficient heat, by making the tubes long 
and of small diameter. I will not now 
venture to draw attention to the variety of 
opiniouB that exist, as to the difficulty there 
is in maintaining a proper circulation of the 
water in contact with the tubes in these 
boilers, nor yet to the free escape of the 
steam, but just proceed to consider how far 
the best example above mentioned will agree 
with our settled ideas as to the prevention of 
smoke. I have said that it contains two 
furnaces, for the purpose of being enabled 
to ire alternatelv; there is also a large 
mixing chamber behind the bridge, or be- 
fore the holes. Concerning the alternate 
firing, it no doubt produces good** results 
when strictly adhered to, but until we can 
make the stoker into a mere machine, and 
get him to work as such, we cannot depend 
upon great results from this source only, 
and considering the class we hftve to con- 
tend with, it is almost hopeless. There is 
another error we are liable to fall into, and 
that is placing the fire bars too near the 
crown of the furnace, thereby leaving no 
room for the due admixture of the gases aris- 
ing from the combustion, and the cold air 
admitted either through the interstices of the 
bars, or through perforations to the chamber 
behind the bridge; upon which subject I 
eannot do better than refer the reader to the 
copious Treatise published by Mr. C. W. 
Williams, in which he will find the whole 
clearly and ably defined. There is yet an- 
other point worthy of notice, and that is 
the manner in which the fuel is placed upon 
the bars ; the prevailing custom is to build 
upon the mass nehind the door, or in front 
of the fire grate. |t should be laid evenly 
over such surface, from front to back, when 
the air will have no difficulty to pass, and 
mix as before stated. 

In the foregoing remarks, I do not sup- 
poee the same rules would be exactly fa- 
vourable in locomotive boilers, in which all 
are well aware a different kind of fuel is 
used, but there are points in which the same 
mav be justly applied. 

in conelusion, I cannot help repeating 
what I liave before stated, that it is to be 



regretted, for the advancement of soience, 
that engineers and men well vereant with 
mechanical arts should not oome forward 
and give their testimony towards arriving at 
just and correct conclusions on their various 

I experiences, which would furnish us with 
good and correct data. 

I am, Sir, yours, Arc, 

I Bnginebr. 

Ifanohetter, Nov. SO, 1854. 



ON ORDNANCE AND GUNPOW- 

DER* 
To the ^itor qf the Meckaniet* liagatine, 

SiR,--It is remarkable tliat, although Up. 
wards of half a century has elapsed since the 
publication of Robins' woi'k on practical 
gunnery, so small an amount <^ additional 
knowledge of the properties of gunpowder 
should have been acquired^ and so great a 
diversity of opinion should still exist rela- 
tive to its effects as a propellant power. 
Some advocate his opinion that, in a loaded 
p:un, the whole of the charge of powder is 
Ignited before the ball is sensibly moved 
from its place, — an opinion upon which he 
has based his theory ; whilst others main- 
tain that the explosion is gradual, and ima- 
gine that velocity is gained by slow ignition 
of the powder, and build certain hjrpotheses 
thereon as to whether the powder should be 
coarser or not to suit the size of the piece 
of ordnance or gun. Although the supe- 
riority of the gunpowder of the present day 
is, no doubt, great compared with that with 
which Robins made his important experi- 
ments, the nature of it is precisely the 
same, and a few of his simple experiments 
will show the latter opinion to be erroneous. 
One author speaks of an accelerative pro- 
' pellant force being required — ^whioh nobody 
will deny — but argues that it may be ob- 
tained by the systematic arrangement of the 
granulation of powder ; it seems, however, 
that the material fact that powder loses its 
effect as a propellant power proportionately 
as the space in which it is confined is en- 
larged, is lost sight of by those who advocate 
such a system. An aocelerative propellant 
power would, tloubtless,' be a first-rate ao- 
quisition ; but I cannot comprehend how it 
may be obtained by gunpowder or any ex- 
plosive material (except by firinv off several 
charges in succession before the ball has 
time to leave the gun, were sueh a thing 
possible), not only on account of the reason 
oefore stated, but that the heat generated 
would not be so great in the explosion of a 
smaller quantity at a time, and consequently 
the velocity of expansion would be less. 

Setting aade for the present the question 
as to whether a oharge of powder !• exploded 



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12 



ON OSDNANCE ANU GUNPOWDEK. 



instantaneously or gradually ; let us const, 
der whether it would he beneficial to have a 
gradually. exploding powder or not Let 
us suppose, for instance, that one-third of 
the charge, or a quantity, the expansion 
of which would cause the hall to be moved 
from its place, should become ignited before 
the remainder, the explosion of that re- 
mainder would take place in the space 
caused by the movement of the ball from its 
place between the ball and the ignited por. 
tion of the charge of powder. So that should 
the ball, by the explosion of that portion, be 
moved four times the length of its diameter 
up the barrel, the explosion of the rest 
would take place in a space of about six 
times the size of that in which it was at first 
confined, and lose its propelling power in 
proportion. 

It is impossible to get more than a certain 
quantity of power out of a given charge of 
powder, and the more instantaneous the ex- 
plosion, the greater the efiect produced, the 
greatest portion of its force dependine 
upon the intensity of the heat generated 
by the explosion. Now still arguing on 
the supposition that the ball may be 
moved before the whole charge of powder 
is ignited, let its take two charges, one 
coarser grained than the other, in order to 
burn more gradually; and suppose the one j 
to explode instantaneously, the other not to 
have entirely exploded until the ball is two. 
thirds out of tlie barrel. When the ball had 
reached that distanee, the amount of power 
behind it (consideTiog gunpowder as a per- 
manent elastic fluid) would be the same in 
both charges, with this difference in the 
efiect, that the eharffe of powder which ex- 
ploded at once will have imparled a greater 
velocity to the ball from the whole force of 
the charge having acted ujMn it from the 
beginning ; and though, owing to that su- 
perior velocity, the air before it being more 
condensed, would oflbr an increased resist- 
ance, that would be more than counteracted 
by its decreased resistance to the explosive 
fluid behind it. Therefore, allowing that 
powder which would explode gradually 
would bring the same power to bear on the 
ball (which is far from the case), the advan- 
tages would still be in favour of that which 
explodes instantly ; but it will be found that 
both oharges would have exploded before \ 
the ball would be moved, if the powder be 
equal in quality. It is unaccountable that 
a fact so easily proved by experiment should 
be doubted by any one. The very argument 
used 6ceaaionally by those who advocate 
the theory of powder gradually burning 
(and in favour of its good effect) goes 
against it ; namely, that a ball cannot in- 
stantly attain an extreme velocity, and that 
it requires to be gradually set in motion. 



Now, the flame of gunpowder, it is well 
known, moves with a rapidity of expansion 
of 7,000 feet in a second, and with a heat 
greater than red-hot iron ; therefore tor any 
of the powder to escape ignition, unlets the 
ball were previoosly propelled from its plftce 
with an initial velocity of ever 7,000 feet a 
second, would be impossible. It has been 
said that the quickness of gunpowder de- 
stroys its propellaiit force, being soon burnt 
out; if so, it entirely puts aside the hitherto 
r^eived fact, that it is converted by ignition 
into a permanently elastic fluid, and in that 
case, whether quickly or slowly exploded, 
the same quantity of equally g^ood powder 
would produce the same proportion of fluid, 
the propellent power of which would only be 
affected in proportion to the spaee in which 
it might be confined when ignited. 

Gunpowder itself has been improved, and 
brought to great perfection ; but there ap- 
pears to have been little knowledge acquired 
as to its properties, or how to use it to the 
best advantage. The improvements iu small 
arms have not been kept pace with at re. 

Srds cannon; and, consequently, for the 
ter still to be of service in the field, it is 
absolutely necessary that some attempt be 
made to increase their range. A cannon is 
loaded much in the same way it was two 
hundred and fifty years ago. The great 
power to be contended against in all pro- 
jectiles is simply the .itmosphere ; the only 
advantage that has as yet been gained is by 
offering less opposition to its force, by 
having balls (of rifies only, except Lancas- 
ter's guns, which is still an experiment) of 
a conical form. Robins was the fir«t to dis- 
cover the great resistance met with fi'om the 
atmosphere by projectiles, and its effects on 
them, especially before leaving the gun, as 
also when confined between the ball and 
the powder; but little ever seems to have 
been attempted to defeat the one or profit 
hy the other. Every sportsman, or person 
who has interested himself on the subject, 
is aware, that if a space be left between 
the powder and ball, the gun, unless of ex- 
traordinary strength, will burst or swell out; 
and the experiment having been made with 
a sufficiently strong piece, the ball was 
found to have attained a much greater velo- 
city, the gunpowder being confined to as 
snidl a space as possible when ignited, not 
otherwise. Robins accounted for it in this 
nianncr, that the flame not being confined 
by a heavy body, which it is obliged to im- 
pel before it dilates itself with a velocity 
much beyond what it can at any time impart 
to a ball by its continued pressure conveni- 
ently, if the ball be placed at a distance from 
the powder, the powder will have acquired a 
considerable degree of this expansion, and 
the first motion of the ball will not be pro- 



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DE PKNNIKG'S CYUNDRIGAL GUABD, or BCREW-PIfcOTEOTOB. 



13 



dneed by the coniianed pressure of the pow- 
der, bul by the actual percussion of the 
flaine, and it will'begin therefore to move with 
a quantity of motion proportionate to the 
quantity of the flame and the velocity of its 
respective parts. ** A moderate charge of pow- 
der," he also saiys, ''when it has expanded 
itself through the vacant .«pace and reaches 
the ball, will, by the velocity each part has 
aoqutred, accumulate itself behind the ball, 
and be cdndensed thereby -prodigiously ; 
whence, if the barrel he not of extraordi- 
nary firmness in that part, it must, by the 
reinforced elasticity of Uie powder, in&l- 
libly burst.'* Now here is a power which 
BO one had as yet attempted to control and 
turn safely to account, to the best of my 
belief, until I lately made some experiments 
on it mysel£ After repeated tnals, I as- 
oertained that by introducing a portion of 
air in a certain manner between the powder 
and the ball, the additional velocity ob- 
tained was very great, and without the least 



strain on the gun. I shall be glad to send 
you an exact account of the manner in 
which it is done, for the benefit of any of 
your readers that may take an interest in 
such matters; but being the subject of a 
patent, I cannot do so just at present. The 
great advantage such a manner of loading 
a gun possesses is, that, independently of 
the powder not being bruised or crushed in 
loading, it has, though confined previous to 
its explosion, room to expand with a cer- 
tain velocity before it acts upon the ball. 
Whether Robins is correct or not in his 
opinion that the additional velocity is ac* 
quired in the manner he states, I cannot 
undertake to say ; but I imagine that the 
action ot the heat and expansion of the 
fluid on the air confined between the j^owder 
and the ball must have more to do with it 
than he seems to consider. I should be 
glad of the opinions of any of your readers 
on the subject. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c, T. 



DE PENNING»S CYLINDRICAL GUARD, OR SCREW- 
PROTECTOR, 



(Patent dated May 31, 1854.) 
To the Editor qf tJie Mechanics* Magazine. 



Sir,— The recent enormous loss sustained 
by the country in the wreck of the Prince, 
laden as she was with a most costly cargo, 
is sufficient to direct the attention of en- 
gineers and others to the causes of the ca- 
tastrophe, with a view to the prevention of 
the recurrence of so calamitous a circum- 
stance. Every one knows (for every one is 
now a newspaper reader) that the Princa was 



lost in consequence of her propeller having 
become disabled by fouling with the dis- 
mantled spars and rigging. And, to me, 
it is a matter of no surpriae that such foul- 
ing took place, under the circumstances. 
For, in addition to the fact that the screw- 
propeller is situated in the after-dead- 
wood, and so occupies a very convenient 
position for such a nushap, it is clear that its 



rotatory action is eminently calculated to 
carry down, and draw towards the debris of 
a wreck that may be on or near to the sur- 
lace of the water, floating by. 

Foreseeing the danger arising from this 
circnmstance, and having heard of similar 
accidents resulting from the screw coining 
in contact with floating niatter, I some time 
since directed my attention to the subject, nnd 
have succeeded in effecting an arrangement 
which, if applied, is, in my judgment, cal- 



culated to most considerably reduce, if not 
to altogether do away with, the possibility 
of danger from such a cause for tne future. 
The accompanying engravings show a 
longitudinal view and thwartship section of 
the ai\er part of a vessel fltted with the cy- 
lindrical guard. From them it will be seen 
that I place a metallic cylinder around the 
path traversed by the outside of the blades 
of the propeller, and attach it, by means of 
flanges, to the vessel. This shield serves 



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14 



TH8 SMOSK QDBSTI0N. 



the doable purpose of confining the action 
of the icrew to the water within the cylin- 
der, therebj increasing the propelling effect, 
and of guarding the propeller, to a great 
extent, from coming in contact with floating 
materials as above suggested. The cylinder 
is further supported by three stays, as shown, 
which may be placed parsllel to the keel In 
cases where the form of the ship is such 
that they would not require to be too 
long when thus fitted, or they may 
be carried into the ship's side, and 
formed of thin metal, so that, presenting 
themselves edgeways, they will offer but 
little resistance to the progress of the vessel. 
It is true that d^bria might float in a fore 
and aft direction, and foul the propeller, 
but the probability of this would be but 
small, and might be still more diminished 
by in'creasing the number of stays, which, 
acting as guards, would effectually fend off 
all foreign substances and wrecks; while the 
cylinder would even permit them, were they 
attached to the cordage, to lay alongside 
without hindering the movements of the 
screw, and when without it, we should to a 
certainty have a deplorable result. 

I think, Sir, your readers will see, that 
if fitted with a guard of this description, a 
vessel would be greatly secured from acci- 
dents of the distressing character that I 
alluded to in the opening paragraph of my 
letter. 

I am, Sir, youra, &c., 

O. A. De Penniko. 
Cbaring-crois. 

♦ 

THE SMOKE QUESTION. 
To the Editor of the Mechanics' Magazine, 

Sir, — I had intended paying my respects 
to your correspondent, Mr. Woodcock, with 
the view of showing that he has, in his last 
letter, completely extinguished all efforts to 
uphold the doctrine of *' smoke burning ;" 
at least, he has shown its advocates to be so 
utterly unworthy of credit, that a short time 
alone will be necessary to put the theory 
and the theorists out of the pale of forbear- 
ance. I must, however, let my remarks 
give place to the following letter, from Mr. 
Fairbairn, of Manchester ; the more so as it 
is so much in point to the present state of 
the discussion. 

Here, Sir, we have the letter of a sound 
thinking, practical man ; showing that he 
has clearly appreciated the true principles 
of combustion, founded, as they arc, on the 
undeviating laws of nature, and which we 
cannot abrogate with impunity. Now, it is 
only necessary to compare this letter with 
the inflated mass of mystification which 
runs through every line of the communica- 



tions of Mr. Woodcock and Mr. Mansfield, 
to see where truth lies, and credit should be 
given. 

I am, Sir, yours, &&, 

Chas. W. Williams. 
Liverpool, Dec. 90, 1854. 



MR. FAIRBAIRN TO MR. C. W. WILLIAMS. 

My dear Sir, — In wishing you better 
health and many returns of the aeason, I 
have much reason to apologize for the time 
that has elapsed since I received your two 
letters. Nevertheless, I have been alive to 
the whole of your correspondence in the 
Meehamci* Magazine^ and my surprise is 
that you should have the patience to notice 
and reply to the quackery that is at present 
afloat on the subject of the smoke nuisance. 
You have already, in your excellent work, 
nearly exhausted the subject ; and the che- 
mistry of the question is there made to clear 
and apparent, that little further remains to 
be said. From the first, I had no difficulty 
In appreciating the value of your investiga- 
tions, which, in my opinion, established the 
true principle of combustion, and clearly 
showed in what manner and to what extent 
the combination of the gases with the oxygen 
of the air was to be effected. * 

On the first appearance of your work 
(first edition), I took those quantities or 
equivalents as fixed and determined laws, 
which we could not abrogate with Impunity ; 
and in all my researches on this question, I 
applied myself more to the means, either in 
construction or mechanical proportion, to 
effect, with greater facility and greater cer- 
tainty, the combinations therein recom- 
mended, as essential to perfect combustion, 
with the absence of smoke. 

At the present moment, every man having 
a boiler, or having the least claim to being 
an engineer, is his own doctor ; and hence 
follow the endless nostrums that are con- 
stantly brought before the public, for the 
attainment of an object which, in my opi- 
nion, may easily be accomplished, by atten- 
tion to a few simple rules, founded upon 
those undeviating laws of nature which have 
been propounded for our use. 

I make no doubt, we shall ultimately ac- 
complish the object so long under discus- 
sion, and all these schemes, patents, and 
projects which are now in circulation may 
eventually lead to good results. I am glad 
to find you have time to look after them, 
and to cut up the plagiarist, copyist, and 
pretender for their unscrupulous conduct 

Mr. Holdsworth, myself, and others are 
establishing an association here, and in sur- 
rounding districts, to prevent boiler ex- 
plosions. We have got about 260 firms, 
representing upwards of 1,000 boilers, and 



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TBE BMOiEZ QUESTION. 



15 



we propose, exelasive of inspection, giving 
instructions on the constraction, manage- 
ment, and economy of fuel, and ultimately 
the ahatemeot of the tmoke nuisance. 

Now, I know of none so able to assist ns 
in carrying out these objects as Mr. C. W. 
Williams ; and I hope you will not only 
allow us to calculate upon your co-opera- 
tion, but any suggestions you may have to 
offer will, in the mean time, be gladly re- 
coived and acknowledged. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

W. Fairbairn. 

Manehetter, Dec. 28, 1851. 



To the Editor qf the Mechanics* Magazine. 

Sir, — Mr. Mansfield's letter in your last 
number calls for a reply. He complains 
that in a quotation from his now celebrated 
letter, I omitted certain words. The sentence 
quoted is as follows — the words omitted 
being those in italics — viz. : " The lamp- 
black carbon floats in the current of car- 
bonic acid and steam, mixed with the nitro- 
gen of the air, and with the unhumt restdual 
tar vapmurt qf greater density. Such is the 
atmosphere which leaves the fire-place soon 
after coaling, and passes. . ..&o." These 
words were omitted intentionally, to save 
the trouble of repeating, that where the air 
is properly introduced and mixed with the 
gas, no '* residual tar vapours " can possibly 
ejost, Mr. Woodcock has proved this by 
the use of my perforated air diffusion plate, 
in his late patented re-invention. 

Mr. Mansfield asks, wby I omitted these 
words 7 He will permit me to ask him, 
why he introduced them ? He has tlirnst in 
these tar vapours, while they exist only in 
his imagination. To show that Mr. Mans- 
field is right in saying that the products are 
'* carbonic acid and steam and the nitrogen 
of the air," I will supply him with an au- 
Uiority even better than his own. Let him 
turn to page 286 of my Treatise (last edi- 
tion), and be will find Professor Brands, in 
answer to my queries on the very point of. 
What is smoke? says — '*Your system of 
throwing jets of air into the inflammable 
gases and vapours which constitute so large 
a part of the matters, which in many ill- 
eonatructed fire-places, escape by the chim- 
nej, along with the finely-divided carbon, 
or black smoke, renders them all available as 
sources of heat ; and where that system is 
perfectly applied, the smoke can consist of 
very little else than carbonic acid, steam, and 
nitrogen ; all incombustible, and also incapa- 
ble of supporting combustion." Does Mr. 
MausfiHa require any further authority ? 

And now for the gem of Mr. Mansfield's 
lucubrations. '< If any of our readers," he 
observes, '* still beUeves that smoke cannot 



be burned, that is to say, for practical pur- 
poses, consumed, he may satisfy himself by 
the following child's experiment. Let the 
bowl of a clay tobacco pipe be filled with 
eoal powder, luted over with clay, and put 
into the fire in a common hearth. Let the 
nearest child, or adult" (the word adult 
ought to have been omitted,) ** of either sex, 
be asked what the fumes are, which will 
soon be seen issuing from the tube-end of 
the pipe? He, she, or it will answer — 
' Smoke.' Let a lighted candle then be ap- 
plied to it. I tried the experiment when I 
was in the nursery." Now it is recorded 
that this very experiment was made by 
Murdock to convince Watt that coal gas 
might be available for the purpose of illu- 
mination. Mr. Mansfield's child no doubt 
would have shown both these philosophers 
that they were wrong, and that it was smoke, 
and not gas, that was emitted. But I will 
force Mr. Mansfield to the point. Let him 
say, if these fumes are *' smoke," what, then, 
is gas? To this question I demand a reply. 
If he declines, his silence will prove to me 
either Uiat he is at length coming to the 
sense of manhood, or that he has learned 
but little since he was an occupant of the 
nursery. 

I »m, Sir, yours, &c., 

C. W. Williams. 

Uverpool, Jan. ], 1855. 



To the Editor qf the Mechanics* Magazine. 

Sir, — Haying noticed the discussion on 
Mr. Woodcock's furnace in your pages, I 
take the liberty of referring any of your 
readers who may be curious on the subject, 
to the specification of the patent of James 
Gilbertson, 15th January, 1828, published 
in the Repertory rf Patent Inventions, vol. 
vii. (Srd series), page 65. They will there 
find a very complete account of Mr. Wood- 
cock's mode of heating the air by passages 
at the sides of the fire communicating with 
a perforated bridge. This invention is, 
therefore, open to the public, who may 
freely use it if it should really be found to 
possess any advantage over the old methods 
of admitting cold air at the bridge. The 
perforations in Gilbertson' s furnace are in 
the form of parallel slits, and he describes 
the perforated plate as " the air grating at 
the top of the air cavity, to prevent the fiiel 
from falling into the air cavity, and to Ef- 
fuse the heated air freely among the smoke qf 
the fire," 

This patent, taken in 1828, does not leave 
much to be claimed either by Mr. Wood- 
cock or Mr. Williams. Perhaps Mr. Wil- 
liams will object to the word smoke in the 
specifica(tion ; but Gilbertson appears to 
have been content to use a word which 



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16 



SPECIFICATIONS OV PATENTS ££C£MTLY FILED. 



would be understood by every one, and not 
to bave thought it necessary to substitute 
for it such terms as gas, hydrocarbon, cu- 
mole, or rigmarole. A man who should ask 
his servant for a vessel of truncated conical 
form, closed at the bottom, and constructed 
of silicate of potash and oxide of lead, and 
filled with protoxide of hydrogen in the 
liquid state at a temperature of 50° Fahren- 
heit thermometer, might show his learning, 
but would be more likely to remain thirsty 
than if he were content to ask for a glass of 
cold water. 

I am. Sir, yours, &c., 

C. 
Dec. «0, 1834. ^ 

COAL-TAR.— BENZINE. 
To Uie Edilor of the Mechanic** Magazine. 

Sir,— The question between Mr. Calvert 
and myself, as to Benzine — Benzole^ shall, 
as he suggests, be decided by a court of 
law. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

Charles B. Mansfield. 
Weybridge, Jan. 2, 1865. 



SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS 
RECENTLY FILED. 

Erard, Jean Baptists Numa, of Paris, 
France, gentleman. Improvements in the 
preparation rf paint. Patent dated June 9, 
1854. (No. 1271.) 

The inventor says, " I mix about 2| lbs. 
of a composition nrhich I 'call caustic, and 
which is made of 460 grs. troy of virgin 
WAX, 75 grs. of dry white soap, 150 grs. of 
salt of tartar, and about four glasses of 
water, witli about 150 grs. of rosin, 150 
grs. of gum lac, 150 grs. of gum arabio, 
150 grs. of gum galipot, 75 grs. of gnm 
copal, and 150 grs. of borax." The mixture 
thus obtained he combines with oils by 
means of heat 

Broouan, Richard Archibald, of 
166, Fleet-street, London, patent agent. 
Improvementt in machinery far cutting brads, 
lath nailsj and others tf similar character. 
(A communication.) Patent dated June 9, 
1854. (No. 1278.) 

A complete description of this invention 
formed the first article of our last Number. 

Bramwell, Thomas, of Enfield-house, 
near Gateshead - on - Tyne, Durham, /m- 
provements in the manrfaeture qfthe carbonates 
and prussiates rf potash and soda. Patent 
dated Jane 9, 1854. (No. 1274.) 

Claims. — 1. The use of sulphate of pot- 
ash or sulphide of potassium instead of pot 
or pearlash of couimerce in the manufac- 
ture of prussiate of potashi or of sulphate 



of soda, or sulphide of sodium, instead of 
soda, or carbonate of soda, in the making of 
prussiate of soda. 2. The separation of 
carbonate of soda from a mixed solution of 
carbonate of potash and soda by-means of 
salting out the carbonate of soda by boiling. 
3. The separation of sulphur from solutions 
of potash,* or soda salts containing sulphides, 
by means of black oxide or of finely 
divided iron, whether the said potash or 
soda salts be used in the making of prus- 
siates, or for the manufacture of carbonates, 
or other form of potash, or soda alkalies. 

Nelson, John, of Selby, York, and 
David Boyd, of the same place, flax- 
scutchers. Improvements in preparing and 
scutching flax, Jump, and other substances. 
Patent dated June 9, 1854. (No. 1275.) 

In carrying out this invention, the fiax, 
hemp, or other substance is conducted by 
an endless apron to a succession of pairs of 
grooved rollers, through or between which 
the fibrous substances pass and become 
crushed, and the fibres partly separated, 
and then pass to another endless apron, by 
which they are conducted to a pair of fluted 
rollers, the axis of which are in suitable 
frames, and these fluted rollers become tlie 
holder of the fibres when subjecting them 
to the scutching process, &c. 

Hancock, James Lamb, of Neath, Gla- 
morgan, medical practitioner. An improve- 
ment in cutting hay, straw, and other fibrous 
articles and substances. Patent dated June 
9,1854. (No. 1276.) 

C^m.— Combining the parts of a ma- 
chine for cutting hay, straw, and other 
fibrous articles and substances in such man- 
ner, that the trough or apparatus containing 
the matters to be cut shall be in an oblique 
direction to that of the cut of the cutting 
apparatus of the machine. 

CuRRiB, James, of Glasgow, Lanark, 
North Britain, miller, and Robert Youno, 
of the same place, engineer. Improvements 
in the treatment and grinding of grain and 
the products thererf. Patent dat^ June 9, 
1854. (No. 1277.) 

This invention consists primarily in 
washing grain, by means of a revolving 
shaft working within a perforated cylinder 
or half-cylinder, and furnished widi screw 
or inclined blades, the shaft being set in a 
tank, which the waahing-watar is made to 
fiow through in a direction contrary to the 
course of the grain, and to carry off t!ie 
floating refuse, tlie heavy foreign matters 
falling to the bottom. 

Bernard, Julian, of Club - chambers, 
Regent- street, Middlesex, gentleman. Im- 
provements in stUehittg and sewing machines, 
and in machines for securing and ornamenting 
parts qf garments and other materials. Patent 
dated June 9, 1854. (No. 1279.) 



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SPECmOATIONS OF PATENTS SECENTLY PaED. 



17 



This inveotion relates to a novel arrange- 
ment for taking up the *' slack,*' to another 
for insuring a perfect stitch, to discontinuing 
the travelling action of the mat- rial at plea- 
sure, and to a method of causing the needle 
of machines for making button holes and 
parts connected with it to travel, while 
the material is held stationary.^ 

Braithwaite, John, of Oower-street, 
Middlesex, civil engineer. An improved 
method qf roofing or coverwg buildings, reser- 
voirs, and other spaces requiring roqfsor cover • 
ings. Patent dated June 10, 1854. (No. 
1281.) 

This invention consists in constructing 
suspension roofs or coverings, supported on 
suitable end.piers or abutments, 

Dawson, Arthur Llewellyn, of South- 
wark.bridge<road, Surrey, engineer. Im- 
provement in machinery for cutting or shaping 
wood. Patent dated June 10, 1854. (No. 
1282.) 

This invention consists in certain arrang^c- 
ments of machinery, whereby gun> stocks, 
ftc, may be cut and shaped from a pattern. 
We shall probably give an illustrated de- 
scrintion of it hereafter. 

Young, John, of Wolverhampton, Staf- 
ford, manufacturer. Improvements in locks 
and latches. Patent dated June 12, 1854. 
(No. 1288.) 

CkUms, — 1. Making the edges of the 
tumblers of locks serrated for the purpose 
of preventing the picking of locks by forc- 
ing back the bolt. 2. Constructing locks 
in which one of the tumblers has a rising 
while the others have a falling motion, &e., 
&c. 

P^TBR, Antoine Louis, of Lyons, 
France. Improvements in treating a certain 
kind rf imUgo. Patent dated June 13, 1854. 
(No. 1291.) 

This invention consists in extracting from 
Manilla or Philippine Island indigo cal- 
careous and earthy matters, by means of 
acids or acid solutions, which, combining 
with the said impurities, give rise to lolu- 
ble salu. 

Picxup, James, of Liverpool, Lancaster, 
engineer. Improvements in steering appara- 
tus. Patent dated June 14, 1854. (No. 
1295.) 

This invention consists in the peculiar 
employment of a screw to communicate the 
requisite motion to rudders in steering 
vessels, the principal object being the re- 
duction of the entire apparatus to a smaller 
compass and more convenient form. 

Haroravb, John, of Kirkstall, York, 
worsted manufacturer. Improved machinery 
for washing, sconring, and jelting, orJulUng, 
Patent dated June 14, 1854. (No. 1296.) 

Claim, — An arrangement of machinery 
whereby the material to be operated upon 



may be subjected to the action of beaters 
on its passage tlirough the vessel contain- 
ing the washing or scouring liquor. 

Wilson, Thomas, of Birmingham, War- 
wick, engineer, and John Hadley, of Bir- 
mingham, engineer. A new or improved 
method qf constructing certain kinds if rolls 
or cylinders, and dies or surfaces. Patent 
dated June 15, 1854. (No. 1299.) 

Claim, — Making ornamental rolls, or cy- 
linders, and dies, or surfaces of steel to be 
used for ornamenting metallic surfaces, &c., 
by forming the same in portions, and com- 
bining them together. 

Kite, James, of Princes-street, Lam- 
beth, Surrey, engineer. Improvements in 
machinery and apparatus for expressing mois- 
ture from substances. Patent dated June 15, 
1854. (No. 1 800.) 

Claim, — The expression of moisture from 
substances by means of one or more cylin- 
drical, or similarly shaped vessels, provided 
with pressing or straining apparatus, and 
the delivery of such substances so treated 
by part of the apparatus employed in ex- 
pressing the moisture. 

Stirling, John Davie Morries, of 
Blackgrange, Clackmannan, Scotland. Im- 
provements in the manvfacture qf iron, 
(Pardy a communication from M. Leon 
Talabot.) Patent dated June 15, 1854. 
(No. 1308.) 

'This invention consists in causing the 
beds of refinery, boiling, and puddling fur- 
naces to be covered with oxides of iron or 
of some other metal, or of some of the 
earthy bases mixed with saw-dust, or other 
ligneous, resinous, tarry, or oily, and such 
like matters, and in running molten iron 
thereon ; also, in " introducing such mat- 
ters into such furnaces, and there mixing 
them with the melted iron, and running 
the melted iron thereon, and in using 
a mixture of oxide of iron (or com- 
pounds of oxides) and cinder (puddling or 
boiling furnace cinder being preferred) in a 
state of fusion, and adding thereto a quan- 
tity of cast iron in a fluid state, and as 
soon as the ebullition (consequent upon such 
addition, and upon the chemical action 
which results) is finished or nearly so, intro- 
ducing a piece of wrought iron, to which 
the newly formed resulting wrought iron 
will attach itself, and to which it is to be 
gradually pressed by any convenient instru- 
ment." 

Piper, John Edwin, of New-road, St 
Paneras, Middlesex, operative ehemiat. 
Improvements in the preparation rf Umen, 
cotton, and other fabrics, to produce fictitious 
leather. Patent dated June 16, 1854. (No. 
1304.) 

Claim, — The preparing linen, cotton, or 
other fabrics, with nour, paste, and a corn- 



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fiJ^SOmCATIONB OF 9rmrtB REOiSNtliT FttEt). 



pot;tioii of white lead and boiled lii)8eed 
oil mixed with any suitable colouring mat- 
ter 80 as to produce a fictitious leather. 

HoRNSBY, RicuARp, of Spittlegate Iron- 
works, Graniham, Lincoln^ JmprovemenU 
in partahle thrashing machinet. Patent dated 
June 16. 1864. (No. 1206.) 

This invention consists in suspending the 
ends of the ^bakery nearest the thrashing 
parts of the machine in links, and giving a 
rising and falling motion to the back ends 
of the shakers by means of a crank-axle or 
oUierwisCf so that the principal aption is 
towards the back end of the shakers | i|nd 
also in applying moveable riddles or screens 
at the back end pf a thrashing machine be- 
"yond the dressing machinery in such man* 
ner that the pulse and matters blown from 
the dressing machinery may be driven 
against a perforated surface, which admits 
of the passage of air through it, but not of 
the pulse, which falls on a riddle below. 

Fell, Thom as Mara, of King William^ 
street, London, and William Cook, of 
Cuson-street, Hanover-square, Middlesex. 
Imprmements in ventilatort. Patent dated 
June 16, 1864. (No. 1307.) 

This invention consists in ** the conatruo- 
tion of ventilators having plates of perfo- 
rated or gauze4 material fixed to a rule joint 
or frame, or other oontrivanoet whereby the 
said plates are made to open or shut at ap 
angle, with or without connection with the 
moveable portion of the saah or frame." 

Hargrove, Ciiarlrb, of Birmingham, 
Warwick, manufacturer. 4n imprwenent or 
improvements in the mani^faeture qf certtUn 
kinds of iron. Patent dated June 16, 1854. 
(No. 1309.) 

Claim, — *' Manufacturing malleable iron, 
or oast iroui capable of being annealed or 
rendered malleable by adding wrought iron 
tQ the ordinary malleable iron, either during 
or after the smelting of the same." 

July AN, Frederick John, of Gerri^rd- 
street, Soha-square, Middlesex, carpenter. 
Improved metltods (^producing musical sounds. 
Patent dated Jupe 16, 1854. (Nq. 1313.) 

This invention consists in passing a cur- 
rent of air over or across a portion of a 
stretched string, or a membrane so placed 
as by its Tii)ration8 alternately to obstruct 
and clear the aperture through which the 
air passes. 

P(PDUCK, WiLLlAU Ql(.BEBT, of Cani- 
berweli, Surrey, gentleman. Improvements 
in the constrnetion qf vent-pegs. Patent 
dated Jane 10, 1854. (No. 1314.) 

The inventor forms i^ the vent-peg an 
air passage, extending upwards front the 
bottom of the peg (or that part whic)) is 
inserted into the oarrel) to an opening iq 
the side, the passage being governed by a 
pressure- valve, so constructed and applied, 



that when aoted upon, to admit air into, or 
shut it off from the barrel, it will have no 
tendency to draw up the liquor, and get 
clogged. 

PAnRAMORE, Thqhas, of Castle- Street, 
Southwark. An improvement in the manu- 
facture of air-tight seatSt heds, and other 
articles required to be inflated and air-tight. 
Patent dated June 16, 1854. (No, 13iq.) 

This invention consists in rendering wo- 
ven fabric^ water-tight on one of their «nr- 
faces by applying oil thereto, and water and 
air-tight on the other surface by means of 
India rubber, 

Lowe, David, of Jjcicester. Improve- 
ments in knitting machinery. Patent dated 
June 16, 1864. (No. 1317.) 

This invention consists in oonstruoting 
machinery so that the thread carriers, in 
place of laying the threads on the needles 
as heretofore, lay them on instruments 
which correspond in number with the spaces 
between the needles, and which are caused 
to lay and aink the threads on and between 
the needles, and allow of other instruments 
coming in (whilst the preceding ones retire) 
and working the course on the needles. 

HiNDE, Georqe Jame«, of Wolverhamp- 
ton, Staffordt commercial clerk. J neto 
or improved combination qf pateriai^ to bo 
used for the mani\facture of pipes or tubes for 
drains, or such other purposes as the sam *' 
or may be applicable tq. P^t^Pt dfited Jun« 
17,1854. (No. 1318.) 

This invention consists in *'the applif 
cation of enamel to articles made of clay, 
or mixtures compoaed mainly of olay," 

Fontainmoreau, Peter Armakd Lb- 
coMTE DB, of South- street, London. Im- 
provements in treating bttumen. (A commu- 
nication.) Patent dated June }7, 1854, 
(No. 1319.) • 

Claims — Converting hard bitnmen into 
soft bitumen by means of oil of petroleum, 
or pyroligneops oil, or a mixture of both. 

FouiiDRiNiER, Joseph, of Sherbourne- 
street, Islington, Middlesex* Improvements 
in machinery for washings boilings cleaning, 
and bkaching, rags, fibrous qnd tentilfi sti- 
stances. Patent dated June 17* 1854. (No. 
1321.) 

This invention consists in constructing a 
vessel closed at each end and mounted on 
hollow axles. On tlie interior, near each 
end, is fixed a aieve of fine wire cloth or 
other suitable material. The vessel is pro- 
vided with manholes for charging and dis- 
charging the materials, and to the two hoi- 
low axles of the vessel a pipe with branches 
is connected, by which water or washing or 
dyeing liquids can be caused to flow in one 
end, and away at the other. In tlie interior 
of the vessel are a number of spheres 
whiohi by the rotation of the veasel, caaae 



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numstOHAt «FJK3mOATH»td Hot PHOCBEDBB WltH^ 



10 



the matteri nliddr ]iroteeM to be beaten And 
pressed. Ste*m pipes or a stbam jacket or 
both, are used for cauiing the fluids to 
boil. . 

Newtov, Alfred Viiicent, of Chan- 
eery-lane* MiddleseZ) tnechanieal draughta- 
man. Impr&»tmefit8 in nuKhinertf for block- 
printing. (A eomltiunicAtion.) Patent datiid 
June 17» 1854. (No. 1822.) 

Thia infention coitaists in a mode of 
arrahging on flat aurfaoea eonsetfutire por- 
tions of so much of a design^ as is in- 
tended tb be reproduced in one colour, 
and fiting roUry ihotioii thereto | and iii 
ikrranging in bne machine a set-ies of blocks 
or flat printing surfaces containing cotti- 
ponent parts of the same design, so as to 
print the latter in varioua eoloura upon a 
fabric. 

Rawe, John, the younger, of Harer- 
tteek-hill» Middlesex, gentletnan. Improve- 
minii appiicdbk to ttoveSf stooe-graies, or 
ptJplMBt for domuiHe use. Patent dated 
June 17, 1854. (No. 1323.) 

This invention ttiainly eonaists in the 
application to atoves, stoire-grates, or fire- 
placeft for domestic use, fot the purpose of 
fl^eding the samC) of an apparatus or mecha- 
nioal arrangement of the nature of a force- 
pump constructed to remoTe a small portion 
of c»al at a time flrom a t'eservoir protided 
for the purpose) and force it ihto the lower 
part of the firei 

HoLLOWAY, dEbko^ of the firm of HcU 
lo#a3r» Btrotbers, of Stroud) Gloucester, 
clothes manufacturer. IH^ovenufHts in dew- 
ing and etnbroietMng inachiMt. Patent dated 
June 17, 1854. (No. 1324.) 

datrnf.— 1. A mode of paasing the thread 
as it leaves the bobbin over or arotind a wire 
twiated to the form of a spring, i(nd attached 
to the fhikne of the machine. 8. The ent- 
plbyment of springe fo^ keeping the bowltss 
of the rocking levers, which work the 
needles, in continuous contact with the work- 
ing facea of theit: respi^etive cams. 8. Cer- 
taiii described means of efiecting ihe lateral 
adjustment of the catii by which the rock- 
inglever of the circular needle is worked* 

WtLtiAils, JOHH AlLin, of Baydon, 
WilU, farmetr. lmpr9oeitienis M macMnet^ 
M- app&raiti for ftl&i^hit^g and tuUi^Hng 
kmd. Patent dated June 17, 1844. (NOi 
1825.) 

CkdmM, — 1. A mode of artangiiig or dis- 
poling^ one or more ploughs, or othet oulti* 
vating instruments^ in one frime, each 
separate instrument being capable of ad- 
Jastment at the will of the ploughman, xA 
attendant, by raeana of lever handles and 
front pulleys, ahd chains connected to 
beama ot bare, t, A mode of forming the 
lever beams or bars for holding the ploughs, 
skim cultivators, and drags, with an eye or 



joint, as described. 3. The peculiar at* 
rangement and position of a hind rurtnidg 
wheel, which is made to run always in the 
furrow last formed by the set of ploughs, 
though situated at or near the centre of the 
framework. 



PRoVtStOKAL SPECtl»lcATtOIIS !lOt PRd- 
CEEDEb WITH. 

Seertchlv, Joseph, jnnioi-, of Rings- 
latid) Middlesex, and Ansty, Leicester, en- 
l^tlecr. Imprdifeiiienti in Hit mant{fatittr9 of 
gdies, hurdtes, ntid fencing, in ifehietei, wagons, 
carts, and trucks^ for common roads and fstl- 
wapSf dnd in facias^ enhsbtatures, window- 
headingi, pantpets, and other mouitRngs pfo- 
Jecllngflwn the brickvtork qf bnildiiigs. Ap- 
plication dated June 6, 1854. (No. 1267.) 

This invention consists in facifag or co- 
vering the surfaces of wooden mouldings 
with sheet iroti br other metal, b^ the pro- 
cess of drawing, of by mechanical pressure. 

JouRNET, t'lERRB, of Ruc dc Bcliittnee, 
Paris. Improvements in chucks for lathes. 
Application dated June 8, 1854. (No. 1268.) 

This inventitm consists in arranging 
lathe-chUcks in such manneir that the ar- 
ticle to be fixed in the lathe IS held between 
sliders placed iti a Circle, eouidistant from 
Ohe another, and which slide to and from 
the cekitre. 

MaRoubrittIb, Fr&d^ric, of Paris 
France. Improvements in wet gai-meiers. 
Application dated June 9, 1854. (No. 
1272.) 

The inventor places above the cistema 
used for gas-meters a reservoir, communi- 
cating with the cistern by means of a pipe 
descendihg into it, for the purpose of prC' 
serving the required level of tne water in 
it 

Cook, Benjamin, of Birmingham, War- 
wick, manufacturer. Otrtnin improved means 
of ornamenting metaUic bedsteads, chairs, »nd 
touches, which said improvement is also apoU- 
cdbk for ornamenting ttandatd^ fvr giaXi 
fr^mtn, tables, and fire-s6reens, eomice-poles, 
and other artietes of farttiture. Application 
dated June 9, 1654. (No. 1278.) 

This invention consists in passing over 
the iron or brSss bars or mbea of which the 
parts of the articles above mentiotied may 
DC composed, glass or china tubes, which 
may be moulded in any deaired form and in 
Any number of parte. 

BtjcHHOLS, GustAT Adolph, of Ham- 
mersmith, Middleseit, civil engineer, /si- 
proved maehi^ry OppUcabte to the hOUhg or 
cleaning of grain, seeds, and other vegetabds 
produce. Application dated June 9, 1854. 
(No. 1280.) 

Thia invention consists of improvements 



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20 



PROVISIONAL 8PECUPI0ATI0NS NOT PROCEEDED WITH. 



upon tUd machinery patented by M. Buoh- 
holz, December 24, 1853. 

Barclay, Andrew, and John Barclay, 
both of Kilmanioolc, Ajrr, engineers, /m- 
provementt tii pHnthig textile fabrics and 
other turfaees. Application dated June 9, 
1854. (No. 1288.) 

This invention relates principally to cer- 
tain improvements upon the printing ma- 
chinery for which patents were obtained by 
Mr. James Melville, of Roebank- works, in 
1852 and 1853. 

Bois, Louis, stockholder, of Paris, 
France. Certain intpropements in looms. 
Application dated June 10, 1854!. (No. 
1284.) 

These improToroents consist in a system 
of thread-carrytng needles, by which the 
weft is crossed through the^ed, another set 
of needles holding the weft thus shot for 
the purpose of forming a selvage or fringed 
border. 

Alexandbr Edwin Powlby, of Lin- 
coln's-Inn.fields, mechanical draughtsman. 
Intprwements in madding, (Acommunica- 
tion.) Application dated June 10, 1854. 
(No. 1286.) 

This invention consists in a mode of 
forming moulds for casting toothed.wheels 
without patterns. The circular portions of 
the wheels, such as the rims and bosses, are 
formed by a rotating arm with a scraper 
attached, and the spokes by suitably shaped 
scrapers, and the teeth by inserting small 
pieceis of clay made hollow for the rim, such 
pieces or cores corresponding with the 
spaces between the teeth, and being put 
into their places by the aid of an apparatus 
. simitar to a dividing engine. 
iTPuLS, Francis, of Wliitechapel-road, 
Middlesex, philosophical instrument maker. 
Improvements in etectro " gahanie apparatus 
for medical purposes^ parts of which improve- 
ments are also applictdtle to other electro-gal- 
vanic apparatus. . Application dated June 10, 
1854. (No. 1287.) 

The main feature of this invention con- 
sists in employing at the place of inter- 
ruption, instead of points, flat or rounded 
{>lates, "which," says the inventor, *' prove 
ess liable to oxidation by the electric 
spark, and cause it to spread further. This 
arrangement also produces a more agree- 
able sensation than when the electricity 
springs from a point to a plate, or the 
reverse, at the place of interruption." 

Brooman, Richard Archibald, of 166, 
Fleet-street, London, patent agent. ^ me- 
thod of producing plans in relievo. (A com- 
munication.) Application dated June 12, 
1854. (No. 1289.) 

This invention consists in producing 
plans in relief by blowing nlr in between 
two sheets of caoutchouc, (parts of which 



are covered with silk or other similar mate- 
rial), and then hermetically- closing the 
edges of the sheets. 

Brooman, Richard Archibald, pf 166, 
Fleet-street, London, patent agent. jIu im- 
provement M, or addition to, tugar-basine. 
(A commnnication.) Application dated 
June 12, 1854. (No. 1290.) 

This invention consists in so forming and 
combining two vessels that they register 
the quantity of sngar placed in or taken 
from them. 

CoifPTON, Charles Henry, of Blooms, 
bury, Middlesex, gentleman. An improved 
railway^ break. Application dated June 13, 
1854. (No. 1292.) 

This invention consists of a self-acting 
break for railway carriages, operated by the 
pressure of the buffers against each other, 
and by tlie drawing-rods. 

South ALL, William, of Swan-lane, Lon- 
don, gentleman. Improvements in revolving 
cntters. Application dated June 18, 1854. 
(No. 1298.) 

The main feature of this invention consists 
in "the application and use of revolving 
cutters of any kind, such cutters revolving 
in a direction at rigm angles with the move- 
ment of the machine." 

Barlow, Jambs, of Accrington, Lancas- 
ter, machinist. Improvements in the mode or 
method rf extracting gluten, and preparing the 
same for sixing purposes. Application dated 
June 14, 1854. (No. 1294.) 

The inventor takes flour, and makes it 
into dough or thick paste, and piits it into 
a barrel having a number of fine longitudi- 
nal slots, and fixea this barrel on suitable 
bearings, placing a perforated tube or pipe 
through it, into which he injects water, so 
that as the barrel revolves, the water acts 
upon the dough, and separates the gluten 
and starch, leaving the former in the barrel, 
and carrying the latter off with it through 
the slots. 

Edwards, Joseph, of Camberwell, Sur- 
rey, gentleman, ^n improved knife-cleaner. 
Application dated June 15, 1854. (No. 
1297.) 

Within an oblong narrow box, standini; 
on its narrow edge, the inventor places a 
wooden cylinder of about 9 inches diameter 
and 3^ inches wide, covered with leather, 
fixed upon a spindle, and operated by a 
sroail winch ; and round this cylinder is'an ^ 
endless leather band passing over a small 
roller, which, by means of a screw, can be 
made to cause more or less friction of the 
band on the main cylinder, as required, the 
band being pressed by a friction- roller. 

Martini, Frederic, of Elberfeld, Prus- 
sia, and Mumford-oourt, Milk«slreet, Lon- 
don. An improvement in steam engines. Ap- 
plication dated June 15, 1854. (No. 1298.) 



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21 



This inYentioii eonsists in ttirronnding 
tlie eylindeis of steam engines with mantles, 
and filling the npace between the cylinder 
and the mantle with steam of a considerably 
higher pressure and temperature than that 
used in the working cylinder. 

Obdgb, John, of Wellington-street, South, 
Middlesex. ImprooenteniM in the cotuirue* 
tim qflcdts and htieke*, s/fhtdles amd kn§h9, 
mpipHcabU to thor* and other similar fmr* 
fomu Application dated June \5, 186i. 
(No. 1801.) 

The iuTentor proposes to use a spindle, 
the under patt of whieh is flat, and la fitted 
with two springs, either formed in the solid 
spindle, or affixed to the surface of it, so 
tnat the handle or knob slips orer them 
and is retained by them« the springs being 
pressed back when it is required to take the 
handle off, by means of an awl or wire 
pushed through a hole in the handle. 

VaaLET, SaMUBL, of Stamford, Lincoln, 
engineer. Am improved eonetmetion tjhay^ 
making maekhee. Application dated June 
15,1854. (No. 1302.) 

The inrentor so constructs a hay-mak- 
ing machine that the tines in their rotation, 
as they pass orer the hay field, meet with 
an olMtruction that mieht cause them to 
break, fold back, and oy tlius yielding 
escape without injury. 

Beimdlby, William, of Moorgate-street, 
London, machinist Iwtprommentt in apply^ 
img eteam for offenaive and drfensive purpotee, 
Apptioation dated June 16, 1854. (No. 
1305.) 

This invention relates to modes of apply- 
ing ateam, particularly high-pressnre steam, 
by means of metal and flexible tubing, to 
purposes of attack tLiid defence. 

Cooke, William, of Cursoo-street, 
Hanover-square, Middlesex. Imp roaememte 
te boots and thoet. Application dated June 
16,1854. (Nal808.) 

The inventor proposes to attach portions 
of a second sole to such parts of boot or 
shoe soles as are liable to wear. 

Evans, William, of St. Leonsrd's-ter- 
race, Chelsea, Middlesex. Jn improved tap 
for drawing ^ Uqmdi. Application dated 
Jane 16, 1854. (No. 1310.) 

This invention eonsists in constructing 
taps or cocks, so that when they are driven 
into a cask or barrel, in the act of tapping 
it, the liquid shall be prevented from esoap- 
ing. 

Maktini, Frbdeeic, of Elberfeld, Prus- 
sia, and Mumford.court, Milk-street, Lon- 
don. A new and improved eonttntctton qf 
steam engines. Application dated June 16, 
1&54. (No. 1311.) 

The invetttor's engine is forn!ed of two 
moveable diaphragms, hermetically closed 
roimd their outer parts, the ateam being 



made to enter between them, producing a 
short but powerful motion which can be 
increased by leverage. 

Macnbb, James, junior, of Glasgow, 
Lanark, merchant. Improvements in cape, 
hats, attd other coverings for tJte head. Ap* 
plication dated June 16, 1854. (No. 1312.) 

This invention essentially eonsists in 
forming an inner franiing separate from the 
outer covering of oaps, hats, &c., in such 
manner that wkilat it eonatitutes a stiff 
frame when set up, it can be rolled up or 
folded into an exceedingly small space. 

Hughes, Hbskbth, of Aldersgate-street, 
London, engineer. Certain improved machi- 
nery for cutting and embossingf either sepa* 
rately or simulkmeoHslf. Application dated 
June 16, 1854. (No. 1315.) 

This invention eonsists of a modification 
of Mr. Hughes's invention patented August 
13, 1853, snd described on page 208 of vol. 
Ix. 

Aspinali., John, of Tavistock-square, 
Middlesex, civil engineer. An improved 
means qf, creating a vacuum, or partiat va» 
emm, for, evaporative purposes, Applica- 
tion dated June 17, 1854. (No. 1320.) 

Thia invention eonsists in creating a 
vacuum, or partial Tacuum, in sugar and 
other like pane, by means of steam intro- 
duced through a blast-pipe. 

••• The dooumenU of No. 1285 are with 
the law-officers, under objection. 



PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS. 

Dated August 26, 1854. 

1875. Richard Arehibald Brooman, of 166, Fleet- 
street. London, patent agent. Improvements in 
oMaintng motive power. A eommuntcaiion. 

Dated October 19, 1854. 
2236. Samuel Mason, shoe manufacturer, and 
William Beeby, cHeker, both of Northampton. 
Certain Improvements in the manufacture of cover- 
ings for the human leg and foot. 

Dated December 13, 1854« 

2615. Jot Mayer, of Dale Hall Pottery, Long- 
port, Staflbrd, maanfsctorer, and John David 
Kind, of Birmingham, Warwick. manaliMtunr. 
An improvement or Improvements in door-knobs 
or handles, mysde of china, earthenware, glass, or 
other vitreons or semi-vitreous snbstanee, and In 
attaching the said knobs or handles to their 
spindles. 

2616. Charles Frederick Stansbury, of ComhUl, 
London. A machine for cutting keys. A com- 
mnnlcation. 

2618. August* Edouard Laradonx Bellford, of 
Castle-street, London. Improvements In sewing- 
machines. A communication. 

2619. Peter Armand Lecomte de Fontainemo- 
rean, of South-street, London. An improved ink- 
stand. A communication. 

2620. Peter Armand Lecomte de Fontainemo- 
reau, of South-street, London. Improvements in 
photography. A eomasunicatlon. 



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22 



N0TIGB8 or m T gN T iOW TO ntOGEEB. 



S6tl. John Lonia JolUon, ofCombt^hofiM, TotU, 

Kent, analytical chemist. Separating certain ve- 
getable fibres from mixed fabrics for various use- 
ful purposes. 

26tt. Charles WUlimm Grant, of Bath, Somerset, 
a lieutenant-eolonel on the retired list of the In- 
dian army. Certain Apparatus for the production 
of draught, and nrevention of smoke in domestic 
stoves and flre-places. 

2628. Hiram Berdan, of New York. Compres- 
sible life-boat. 

2624. Samuel Fishei', of Birmingham, Warwick, 
engineer. Certain improvements tn ordnance and 
In machinery and apparatus to be employed in 
manufacturing the same. • 

2625. Christopher James Taylor, of Handsworth, 
Stafford, agent. Improvements in protecting un- 
derground telegmph wires. 

2626. Thomas Finnemore Evans, of Philpot- 
lane, London. Improvements in the manufacture 
of candles. A communication. 

2627. Thomas Haimes, of Melboome, near 
Derby. Improvements in warp machinery. 

2628. William Crees Taylor, of Catherine-grove, 
Greenwich. Improvements in constructing the 
bearing parts of shafts and axles. 

2629. John Court, junior, of Sheornest, Rent, 
builder. Improvements in rockets. 

' Dated December 14, 1854. 

2630. James Redgate, of Sneinton, Nottingham, 
lace manufacturer, James Thornton, of Notting- 
ham, mechanic, and Edwin Bills, of Sneintbn, 
Nottingham, lace manufacturer. Improvements 
in machinery for the manufacture of lace and 
other fabrics. 

2631. Richard Ruston, of Lansdown-villa, Nor- 
thumberland-street, Tauxhall-road, Birmingham. 
Improvements in anchors. 

2632. Llewellvn William Evans and James 
McBryde, of Saint Helen's, Lancaster, manufac- 
turing chemists. Certain improvements in the 
burning of sulphuret ores for making sulphuric 
acid and for smelting. 

26S3. William Frederiek Padwick, of Hayling 
Island, Hants, gentleman. An improvement in 
projectiles. 

2635. William Charles Scott, of Warner-road, 
Camberwell, Surrey, gentleman.' Improvements 
in paddle-wheels. 

2636. Peter Edwin Henderson, of Trafalgar- 
square, Cbaring-cross, Middlesex, civil engineer. 
Improvements in ventilating ships. 

2637. Louis Cornides, of Trafalgar-square, Cha- 
ring-cross, Middlesex. Certain improved appara- 
tus for coating or covering surfaces of glass or 
other material with collodion. 

2638. James Rose, of Ash ford station. South 
Eastern Railway, Kent. An improvement In ctn- 
Btructing the fire boxes of st?am boilers. 

T)ated December 15, 1854. 

2639. John Rowley, of Camberwell, Stlrrey. Im- 
provements In machinery or apparatus for em- 
bossing natural and artificial leather, and woollen, 
cotton, paper, silk, and other woven or felted 
fibrous materials, the said improvements being 
more particularly adapted to those machines In 
which heat is employed for effecting such said em- 
bossing. 

2640. William Clark, of Upper-terrace. Isling- 
ton, Middlesex, engineer. Improvements in an- 
chors. 

2641. Uriah Scott, of Duke-Street, Adelphi, Mid- 
dlesex, engineer. An improved method of con- 
structing hollow and solid metallic bodies. 

2642. Arthur Lyon, of Windmill-street, Fins- 
bury, Middlesex, sausage-maehine manufacturer. 
Improvements in machines for reducing or minc- 
ing )neat and other solid edible substances. 

2643. Luke Turner, of the Arm of Hodges and 



Turner, of Lelceeter, manufacturers. An improve- 
ment in weaving elastic fisbrics. 

2644. Francis Archer, of Bishopsgate-street, 
London, and William Paplneau, of Stratford, 
Essex, manufkcturing ohemfst. Improvements in 
distilling peaty, schistose, bituminous, and vege- 
table matters. 

2645. Robert Adams, of King William-street, 
London. Improvements In fire-arms called re- 
volvers. 

2646. Edward Strong, of Carstalrs, Lanark, 
North Britain, engineer. Imptoveinenti in re- 
moving and replacing the wheels and iixles of 
locomotive engines and other rotiing stock of rail- 
ways. 

Dated December 16, 1854. 

2648. Peter Joel Livsey and WilUam Weild, both 
of Manchester, Lancaster, engineers. Improve- 
ments in cartridges and projectiles, and in the 
construetion, mounting, and working of ordnance. 

2050. John Hickman, of Birmingham, Warwick, 
manufacturer, and Isa<ic Smith, of Birmingham, 
machinist. A new or Improved stop-cock. 

2652. Matthew Curling Friend, of Ashburahtm- 
grove, Greenwich, lieutenant in the Royal Navy, 
and William Browning, of Minorie^ Middlesex, 
philosophical instrument maker. An apparatus 
for determining the magnetic aberrations occa- 
sioned tj local attraction. 

2654. William Eassle, of Gloueesten railway- 
contractor. Improvements in means of stopping 
or retarding vehicles used on railways. 

2658. Leopold Wimmer, of Ylenna, Austria, 
baker. Improvements in biking. 

Dated December 18, 1854. 

2660. Charles Frderick Stansbury, of Comhtll, 
London. An improved life-car or btidy. A com- 
munication from F. Z. Tucker, of Brooklyn, New 
York, United States of America. 

2662. William Hartley, of Bury, Lancaster, engi- 
neer. Improvements in safety-valves for stetah 
boilers and in steam engines. 

2664. Edwin Whele, of Birmingham, Warwick. 
Improvements in oil and other lamps. 

2666. Louis Henri Frederic Melsens, of Bras- 
sels, Belgium, professor of chemistry and natural 
philosophy. Improved processes of saponification. 

2668. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's-Inn-^ 
fields, Middlesex, gentlenuui. Improvements in 
the extracting tannic acid from leather, and in 
preparing the leather for the manufacture of glue. 
A communication ftom Obadiah Rich, of Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, United States of America. 



PATENT APPLIED FOR WITH COMPLETE 
SPECIFICATION. 

2683. William Donald and William Heginbo- 
tham, power-loom managers for John Ferguson 
and Co., of Carlisle, Cumberland. Certain im- 
provements in looms. December SO, 1854. 



NOTICES OF INTENTION TO 
PROCEED. 

(From the ** London Gazette," January 2nd, 
1855.) 

1800. Julian Bernard. Improvements in the 
manufacture of boots and shoes or other coverings 
for the feet. 

1830. William Vitruvias Greenwood and John 
Saxby. Improvements in signal-lamps. 

1854. Aristide Balthaaard B^rard. Certain im- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



UST OF SBSIGHB. 



proTementf in the iiumaf)B«tuTe of gat, co^e, ud 
other products Arom coal, and in apparatus lor 
that pnipoM. 

1875. lUehard Aiehibald Brooman. Improve- 
ments in obtaining motive poire r. A communica- 
tion. 

1878. Auguste Antoine Legras. An improved 
apparatus for regulating the level or flow of 
liquids. 

1883. GeotgeBureh. Improvements in the ma^ 
nulheture of pulp. 

1886. James Lamb Hancock. Improvements in 
machinerj for draining luid. 

1880. Louis Napoleon Langlois and Jean Bap- 
tiste davits. A new mode of constructing 
stesm boilers. 

1893. John Fisher Williams. Improvements in 
Joining cast iron tabes. 

19S1. Pierre Andri Oecoster. Certain improve- 
ments in extracting the saccharine parts of the 
sugar-reeds and of other saechariferous substances. 

1930. William Hill. Certain Improvements in 
doubling or t-wisting net or taw silks. 

1976. John Rigbj. Improvements In flre-arms 
and guns, and in wnddings to be used therewith. 

2058. Henry Alexandre Genetreau. An im- 
proved system of carriage-shafts, poles, ot beams. 

8403. Ismaei Isaac Abadie. Certain improve- 
ments in the mode or working screw-propellers. 

S49S. John Henderson. Improvements in the 
manulhetiire of oarpets. 

2634. Robert Christopher Witty. Improvements 
in illumination by means of artificial light. 

2543. Edward Dowling. Improvements In weigh- 
ing-machines, and in their application to imple- 
ments of transport. 

2566. Edward Te IComay. A new construction 
of guns, and a new form of prolectile peculiarly 
s^ipiicable to such guns, but which can be also 
used for ordinary guns. 

2584. Edward Acres. Improvements in drying 
wheat and other grain. 

2598. James John King and Tliomas Brindley. 
Improvements in cigar-cases, card-cases, and other 
similar oases. 

2609. Alflred Vincent Newton. Ah imi/roved 
manufacture of conducting wire for electric tele- 
graphs. A communication. 

263*. William Charles Day. Improvements in 
portable camp-bedsteads and bedding. 

2643. Luke Turner. An improvement In weav- 
ing elastic fabrics. 

2666. Louis Henri Frederic Melsens. Improved 
processes of saponification. 

2683. William Donald and William Beginbo- 
tham. Certain improvements in looms. 

Opposition can be entered to the granting 
of a Patent to any of the parties in the 
above Liat, who have given notice of their 
intention to proceed, within twenty - one 
days from the date of the Gazette in which 



the notice appears, by leaving at the Com- 
missioners* -office particulars in writing of 
the objection to the application. 

♦ 

WEEKLY LIST OP ^ATE^TS. 

Sealed December 29, 1854. 
3. Alfred Dawson. 
1431. Edward Joseph Hughes. 
1462. Jean Andre C^ile Nestor Delpech. 
1464. Joseph Marie Bardet and Frant^ois 
Collette. 

1468. Henry Heycock. 

1469. David Bowlas. 
1472. Louis Joseph Cheval. 

1479. Samuel Ilarv&rd and Joshdtt Wo- 
mersley. 

1526. John Knowelden. 

1620. Edward Francis Hutchins. 

1632. Peter Spence. 

1707. William Qossage. 

1761. William Woodcock. 

1846. James Lamb Hancock. 

1922. Thomas Craddock. 

1959. Samuel Frearson. 

2035. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bell- 
ford. 

2080. Frederick Clark. 

2095. John Nelson Gamewell. 

2167. Joseph Burdekin Jackson and Wil- 
liam Bowlfer. 

2206. William John Bisseker. 

2258. John Penn. 

2308. Robert Stirling Newall. 

2323. Alfred Vincfent Newton. 

2368. William Edward Newton. 

Sealed January 2, 1855. 

1449. Benjamin Walters. 

1456. Urbain Chauveau and Charles d' 
Epinois. 

1501. Thomas Waller. 

1507. Thomas SchoReld Whitworth. 

1516. Matthias Walker. 

2021. John Cunningham. 

The above Patents all bear datfe as of the 
day on which Provisional Protection was 
granted for the several inventions men- 
tioned therein. 



LIST OF DESIG1T8 FOR 

Date of No. in 

Regisira- the Re- 

tion. gister. Proprietor's Names. 

Nor. 80 M«6 fi. B. B. Wren 

Dec. I 3667 C. Weintraud, Juti 

7 3668 T. Jones 

9 8669 W. Colllnson Snd H. P. 

Mather 

18 3670 W.Dicks 

19 S671 Price's Candle Com- 

S3 3672 J. £^eli".'.""!'.'.!"!'.*.*.'.".*. 

28 8673 W. RusseU 

18A6. 

Jan. 1 3674 J. W. AsUes 

S 3675 O. Dowler 



ARTICLES OF UTItlTT REGISTERED. 



Addresses. Subject of Design. 

Tottenham-eourt-road Portable bedstedd. 

King-street, Cheapside Fastening for porte taon- 

naies. 
Clement's-lsne Turn-out bedstead. 

Staffordshire ^ Elastic boot. 

Weedon, Northampton Screw-jack. 

Vauxhall Army-stove. 

Newark Steerage horse-hoe. 

Darlington Air-tube eoach-lamp. 

Woroester....M Boot-leg. 

Birmingham Ctgar-magaalne. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



24 



Not. 30 6S5 

Dec. 4 6S6 

9 627 

11 629 

„ 630 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

LIST OF PROYISIONAL REGISTRATIONS. 

F. and W. Collins Flvet-ctreet Show-card. 

D. O. Orove Birmingham Show-eaid sUlfeiior. 

T.J. Mason Wood-street Elasticated stock. 

J.Wilson Islingtiin .^m. Planing apparatus. 

C. A. Gardner and R. 

Smith ....« Blaokfriars-road Camp-stoTe. 

C. A. Gardner and R. 

Smith M. BlackMars-road..... Cottage store. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



H, Hop^.'-^We will Attend to your letter shortly. 

BngiHeer,^'W» acknowledged the receipt of your 
paper in No. 1635. 

Jl. CA«r*ofifM««f.— The eliject we had in tiew in 
allowing the dlscutilon of the moon's motions in 



our pagea having been accomplished, as we find 
by soTeral communications recently recelTed, we 
cannot at present Insert correspondence in conii* 
nuatlon of the subject. 



MESSRS. ROBERTSON, BROOMAN, & CO. 
Undertake the ProonratioiL of 3Pateata 

for the United Kingdom and all Foreign Countries, and tlie tranaaotion generally of all 

business relating to Patents. Costs of Provisional Protection--£10 10s. 

Practieal Instructions to Inventors and intending Patentees supplied gratis on application 

to Messrs. ROBERTSON, BROOMAN, and Co., "Meclianics' Magazine and 

Patent Office," 166, Fleet-street, London. 



CONTENTS OP THIS NUMBER. 



Howell and Jamieson's Patent Machinery for 
Manufhcturlnff Saws— (w»/A engraving*) I 

On Pennanent Ways— (Review) 

On the Fonnation of Brassby Oalranie Agency 

Progress of Patents 

On the Construction of Boilers— (wiM engrmh- 
ingi) ^ 

On Ordnaaee and Gunpowder 

De Penning's Cylindrical Guard, or Screw-pra- 



teetor-^wjtib enaraviftga) .. 
^ leation.......... 



The Smoke Qm 
Coal-tar.— Bettsine 

Specifications of Patents recently Filed : 

Erard m Paint IC 

Brooman .....Nails and Brads 18 

{Carbonates and Prus- 
siates of Potash and 

Soda 16 

Nelson ft Boyd ....Scutchinfir. ^c 10 

Hancock Cutting Hay, ftc, 16 

Cnnie ft Young ...Treating Grain 16 

Bernard Stitching-machines .... 16 

Braithwaite Roofing Buildings 17 

Dawson ^ Shaping Wood 17 

Young Locks and Latches 17 

P&er ^ Indtgo 17 

Pickup Steering 17 

Margrave ....^ Washing, Scouring, ftc 17 

Wilson ft Hadley ..Rolls or Cylinders 1 7 

Kite Expressing Moisture... 17 

Stirling Iron 17 

Piper Fictitious Leather 17 

Homsby Thrashing-machines... 18 

Fell ft Cook .........Ventilators IS 

Hargrove ...Iron 18 

Julyan ^....Musical Sounds 18 

Pldduck ......Vent-pegs 18 

Parramore Air-tight Seats 18 

Lowe Knitting-machinery ... 18 

Hinde Pipe* for Drains 18 

Fontainemoreau ...Bitumen 18 



Fourttrinler Textile Substances .... 18 

Newton ....Block-printing 19 

Rawe Stones 19 

Holloway Sewing-machines 19 

WlUiams Ploughing-apparatus... 19 

Provisional Spedfleations not Proceeded with : 

Skertchly Wooden Mouldings...... 19 

Joumet M. ...Lathe-chucks 19 

Margueritte .:. Wet Gas-meters ... ...... 1 9 

Cook M Furniture 19 

Bucbhols Cleansing Grain 19 

Barclay ft Barclay Printing Textile Fa- 
brics fO 

Bols Looms 80 

Alexander .....m... Moulding 20 

Puis Electro-Galvanic Appa- 
ratus 20 

Brooman Plans in Relief 20 

Brooman Sugar Basins 20 

Compton Railway Break ^ 20 

Southall Revolving Cutten 20 

Barlow Gluten 20 

Edwards Knife-cleaner 20 

Martini Steam Engines 20 

Gedge..» Locks and Latches 21 

Varley Haymaking Machines . 21 

Brindley Steam for Warlike Pur- 
poses 21 

Cooke ......M Boots and Shoes 21 

Erans Taps 21 

Martini Steam Engines 21 

Macnee Hats and Caps 21 

Hughes ...............Embossing 21 

Aspball Evaporating Sugar...... 21 

Provisional Protections 21 

Patent Applied for with Complete Speeifloa- 

tion 22 

Notices of Intention to Prooeed..........N ... m.... 22 

List of Sealed Patents 28 

Monthly List of Registered Designs 23 

Monthly List of Provisional Registrations...... 24 

Notices to Correspondents 24 



LONDON: Edited^ Printed, and Published by Richard Archibald Brooman, of No. 160 Fleet-street, 
in the City of London.— Sold by A. and W. Galignani, Rue Vivienoe, Paris; Maefain, and Co, 
Dublin ; W. Ct Campbell and Co., Hamburg. 



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tt\mus* Hagajht 



No. 1640.] SATURDAY, JANUARY 13, 1855. [«£!?; fw. 

Edited by R. A. Brooman, 164, Fleet-street. 

BAYLISS'S PATENT SMOKELESS FURNACE. 
Fig. 1. Fig. 5. 



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BAYLISS'S PATENT SMOKELESS FURNACE. 
(Patent dated April 16, 1853.) 

The engravings on the preceding page represent & furnace constructed with certain 
improvementa which were patented on the ahoTe day, hy Mr. Bayliss, of London. The 
objects sought by the inventor are set forth as follows :— '' First. Perfect combustion of the 
gases arising from the heated fuel .in steam-engine and other furnaces, for the purpose of 
preventing smoke and economising coal. Secondly. To retain within such furnaces much 
of the heat which now passes away to the chimney without producing any useful effect. 
And thirdly. To facilitate evaporation by causing a rapid circuUitlOil in the liquids to be 
heated." . 

"Touching the first part of these improvements," he contllitifeii ** Itifejfjitijtji^l leases we 
have to deal wltit in a funiace are carbnretted hydrogen, Di-caToiiretted fiydrbgen, and 
carbonic okiAbi uib titoilis of Hiileh must be chemically united with oxygen derived from 
the air, and hH 9tt|)plied witll t\ik rbquisite temperature^ before combustion can take place. 
The difficniU tiitherto has been to acbomplish this ^ifion, for the gikhi^ s#eeping along In 
a body townds.the ehitnney with l^reat rapidity, at tlt^ rate of abptit thiriy feet per sec6hd, 
there is not ihttfc'lbht tfWe for ^ tildttfugh mixture of tnem with tn^ ait t6 iike place, at all 
events, whilfe \a fcdhtact with tWe iJegfee of heat nects^Sry for their ignltioft. I ther*fbte 
propose to 80ti1t)ei<sate for thii wttn't of time by inte^bebting the tt&ses oH their wai f^om 
the fireplace to the tUlMteft dividing them into a nttfnbH of small sHeittis or hoUiii^ atd 
forcing them into mechanical mixture with air, rising in small currents, in. order to facili- 
tate the chemical unionf of them with oxygen, and produce i lRri|Mb^iMi> tnixture, and 
to do this in such place and mahher is to ensure the necessary nelut uii mif combustion." 

Fig. 1 of the engravings represents a transverse section, fi^. S 9 I6'f1^!tildinal section, 
and fig. 3 a sectional plan of thfe furnace. In place of tH^ ^^Itfsfj^ fl^-bridge, the 
inventor employs ail Uir-chamber, D, formed by two cast-iro* plates, E, F, built in or 
otherwise fixed to the ^alls or sides of the furnace. G is a do^' httpf bit tu plate, E, for 
regulating the admission of air to the chamber, D, and actuated by iiie rod, H. The upper 
part of the plate, E,* serves as support for the fire-bars on one &i6bf ktiA ihk nCaring bars, a, 
on the other. The uppet part of plate F consists of an iron dead platej ^jlttending across 
the furnace, intended to prevent the air from the chamber, D^ refilling ifie ^ues, without 
first being incorporated with the gases, a a are bearing bars, laid lengthwise from side to 
aide of the air chamber, and are kept secure in their places by being simply dropped in 
sfots prepared for them, hhntti, i^lti of "fldiiitie^^f tfiA frtltretAhiers/' cortsilting of 
tows of solid bars of any eonvenient form, of metal or clay, or any suitable fire-redlsting 
substance, having spaces, d, between them, of sufficient area in the aggregate for the 
passage of the products of combustion ; and the rows of admii^efs beiiTg placed a. distance 
apart, having spaces, /, between them for ^e admission of ^urrentd or air froi^ the 
6hamber, D, to commingle with the gases. J is a fence extending across i\ih furnace fo 
prevent the fuel getting amongst the admixefs, and \^ retained in its proper positidD by 
means pf projections on the under side, Ofte at eaeh end, t^Mch fit irtlo holes in the top of 

Slate E, on which it rests. K, shown in dotted lines, is a deflector for throwing the flame 
ownwards, and giving it an extended sweep tinder th6 rest 6f the boiler ; but this may b6 
dispensed with, not being essentia to the action of the apparatus. 

" It will be seen," says Mr. Bayliss, " that the gaseS cannot fall to biS brought into the 
most intimate mechanical mixture with the air, in the endeavoulf td find their way througH 
the numerous channels presented to them by such Ad arrAy of bars, and the agitation con- 
sequent thereon ; and as the bars become red hot, and form besides a great liHtural harbour 
for heat, a steady combustittn goes on from one end of the admirers to the other." A 
vertical settion of a row of admixers is repres«»nted separately at fig. 4. Perforated plates 
of metal or slabs of fire-clay might be used instead of the admixers already described, and 
these admixers may be placed vertically or horizontally, a^ i^ thought best; The inventor 
prefers having them mau^ df east it^oh, i^hen ttie heat of the furnace iS nbt so intense as to 
burn them away too rapidly, on account of the cheapness of the metal, and the facility it 
offers for renewing them. For furnaces of very high temperature the plan shown in vertical 
section at fig. 5 may be adopted with advantage. This arrangement is comjposed of two 
vessels of plate iron, L, M, built in the sides of the furnace, and connected together by 
metal pipes or tubes, A, which serve as aflihixers, &c. A ^ip8, 1^, cbmtiltlTiitJileS with tjie 
force pump, and another pipe, P, #ith tHfe boiler, " and thus all the tt^aler thai enters tSfe 
latter must pass through the tubular admixers, and, by absorhihg the heai, prevent them 
from being burnt away. This method Wi thb additloiliil advantage of hes|tiiig the supply 
water, which would prove a further source of economy in the expenditure for fuel." 

*' The second part of my invention," says Mr. Bayliss, " is to extend the ' admixers and 



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ON PEBMANElfr WATS. tH 

heaUretainera* to the end of the boiler, and again, if thonght desirable, through the 
* internal tube.' These being maintained at a red heat by the passing flame and heated 
gases, will give off, by radiation to the surface of the boiler, a great quantity of heat, which 
would otherwise pass up the chimney and be wasted ; they will fbrm, in fact, a continuons 
fire from one end of the boiler to the other, and tend to spread the heat more uniformly 
throiighont the furnace. For evaporating pans, such as those used in the manufacture of 
salt, for example, where slow combustion and uniform heat under the whole surfkce are 
desirable, I belief e this part of my invention will be found of great practical use.*' 

The third part of this invention is shown by figs. 6 and 7, the former being a plan, the 
latter an elevation. R, R, is a portion of the bottom of a boiler or eraporating pan ; 
Si, s, o, hollow cones, open at top and bottom, as shown by n, which is a section of one of 
them. They are supported on legs, and fixed just above the surface of the boiler or pan, 
so as to leave a free passage for the liquid underneath and through them, an J should be 
sufficiently heavy to maintain their positions by their own gravity, or a number of them 
mav be fixed to bars of iron, which bars may be fastened down in any convenient manner, 
and in this case the legs will be unnecessarv. The object is to produce ascending and 
descending currents in the liquid to be heated, for the purpose of carrying off the globules 
of steam from the heating surface as fast as they are formed, which will have the useful 
effect of accelerating its evaporation, and protecting the iron from being burnt. The action 
of this arrangement is thus described by the inventor : — ** On heat being applied to the 
bottom of the boiler or pan, it expands the liquids in the cones, and causes upward currents, 
when the cooler liquid outside the cones rushes downwards to supply the place of that 
which is ascending, and thus ensures a rapid and continual circulation, and a quicker 
difiiision of heat" 



The improvements the Company profess 
to hold are as follows : 

•* First. — Those directed to the better 
mode of securing the joints of the rails of 
the ordinary form ; by which means a more 
even and safe road is obtained, while the 
cost of the labour of maintenance is greatly 
diminished. 

" Second. — The substitution of cast iron 
in lieu of timber in the substructure, so as 
to avoid the heavy expenses attendant on 
the renewal of wood sleepers. And, 

"Third. — The employment of wrought 
iron for the entire construction of the 
road ; a material which, from its strength, 
durability, and non- liability to fracture, 
appears well adapted to the purpose." 

With regard to joints, their principle are 
the fish joint, before mentioned, and Mr. 
PeterW.Barlow's cast-iron sleepers to be used 
without timber, and bolted in two halves 
beneath the rails connecting them together, 
by means of their separate chair heads. 

Fish jointing consists in placing two 
pieces of cast or wrought iron bar, about 
18 inches in length, one in each side 
channel df the rail, something similar to 
the wooden fishes which are applied to 
spars when sprung at sea. These side 
fishes are bolted to, and through, the rails, 
or they may be applied so as to connect to- 
gether two chairs, with a sleeper under 
each, and keyed in the usual manner. The 
method of applying them with chairs is 
probablv the best, though the most oostly, 
as thereby the crosa-tie of the joint is Ten- 



ON PERMANENT WAYS. 

(.Concluded from page 7.) 



dered firmer, and better able to resist the 
lateral thrust of the wheels. But this mode 
requires better workmanship than the for- 
mer. The fishes are made to bear at their 
edges against the upper and lower tables of 
the rails, and a space is left between the 
fish and the vertical rib of the rail. Thus, 
when the bolts are screwed tight there is a 
springing action lengthways of the bolt, 
which tends to keep it tight, and prevent 
jamming. 

In every case the cross sleepers should 
be brought as close as possible to the ends 
of the fishes, leaving the joints suspended, 
so that the cross-tie will be made; and, 
above all, there should be ample metal 
applied. But it sometimes happens, that 
for purposes of false economy the wrought 
iron is diminished in weight, and instead of 
an extra sleeper being applied, the joint 
sleeper is occasionally removed, and the 
intermediate ones are brought a little nearer 
together. 

Two evils occur with this joint. By the 
working of the fishing plates, they bend 
vertically, and the joints become permanent 
surface hollows, perpetuating a series of 
waves through the whole length of the 
way. The other evil is, that by the re- 
moval of the cross-ties firom Uie joints, 
they are exposed to the lateral blows of 
the wheel flanges, which occasionally 
break off the nuts from the bolts, leaving 
the joints loose. 

To guard against this contingency and 
risky Mr. Adams has lately devised a new 
b2 



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28 



ON PERMAHBNT WATS. 



Byitem. It sholild l>e here understood that 
DO form of joint is satisfactory that does not 
practically connect two rails into one, in. 
dependently of all aid from the sleeper 
(save as a cross-tie and bearer), precisely 
as two lengths of a fishing-rod are efiectu- 
ally made one by the ferrule embracing 
them. The ordinary joint chair does not 
do this, because it depends materially on 
the wooden key for the security of the rails. 
And connected with this question also is 
the consideration, how we may best secure 
the rails to the sleepers. It will be at 
once seen that the greater the elevation 
of the rail above the surface of the 
sleepers, the more it is exposed to lateral 
blows and displacement, and the broader 
and longer roust be the base of the chair to 
support it. With ordinary chairs, the 
bottom of the chair must be 2 inches in 
thickness to prevent its splitting across 
with the weight of the- engine. This makes 
the height of the rail 7 inches above the 
sleeper. 



Instead of the joint chair, Mr. Adams, in 
his improved plan, applies a pair of cast 
iron brackets formed with a vertical web, 
from 15 to 18 inches long, filling the chan. 
nels of the rails, and with a broad horizontal 
foot to bear on the surface of the sleeper, 
at the level of the lower side of the rail. 
Thus the surface of the rail is brought down 
to within 5 inches of the sleeper instead of 
7. The two brackets are bolted to and 
through the rails by two bolts an inch in 
diameter, and tliey are treenailed or spiked 
down to the joint sleeper as usual. Thus 
all the advantages of the fish are combuied, 
in our judgment, with a perfect cross-tie, 
while the stress on tlie rail is lessened by 
its beiog lowered two inches. The fishes, 
and two bolts to each joint, are dispensed 
with by disposing the iron of the joint chair, 
with a small additional weight, in the form 
of brackets. The annexed engraving shows 
the two plans, the rails being represented 
at their respective heights above the sleeper. 
The saving in first cost by the bracket-joint 



as compared with the fish.joint,will be about 
from £50 to iSlOO per double mile, accord- 
ing to the method adopted. 

In the estimate of the Company, a com- 
parison being made between a line laid in 
the ordinary mode with joint chairs, and one 
with fishing process, the latter is made to 
appear the lower in cost This is accom- 
plished by getting rid of the joint sleepers 
and joint chairs altogether ; in short, by re- 
ducing the total number of sleepers, and 
thus diminishing the bearing surface below 
the rails. This is robbing Paul to pay Peter; 
but we incline to think that Peter will not 
find it pay in the long run, — certainly not 
in the heavy run of engines over it. It is 
not by dimmishing the weight of rails from 



72]bs. to 651bs. per yard, nor by abstracting 
from the number of the sleepers employed, 
that the Company can acquire a legitimate 
title to put forth a circular on Permanent 
Way, or claim credit for their propositions. 
The great fault in Permanent Way has been 
insufficiency of material as well as the un- 
equal distribution of it. It is strange that 
the Company who appositely quote from 
Mr. Clark's " Railway Machinery" promi- 
nently on their title-page as to *' expensive 
economy in permanent way," should, in 
their text, so wholly disregard his mode of 
reasoning. 

With regard to the propositions of the 
Company to use cast iron sleepers, exclu- 
sive of timber, we can see little in the sys- 



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ON THE IKCTOSTATSOdf W 8TBAM B0ILEB8. 



tern, save a mueh greater outUy in first eost, 
for • melt more than qnettionable. There 
is no doubt that iron sleepers may be made, 
and made dnimble, bat only with a mass of 
material fiur ezoeeding the statements of the 
Company. Moreover without timber to ah- 
sorb their vibrations, the rails would be 
very rapidly destroyed. Timber, or some 
other material oapable of absorbing vibra- 
tioas, most in all eases be used in eonnee- 
tion with the iron, or it would be simply a 
vetam to the stone-block principle, with a 
more eostly material than stone. Exeept 
for localities where sopplies of timber can- 
not be obtuned, or maintained, we think 
east iron sleepers are a eostly mistake, and 
for snob localities we do not think the Com- 
pany have been discreet in their selection of 
forms. 

The third vaiiety of the Company's im- 
provements — ^the proposed employment of 
wronght-iron rail wholly independent of 
sleepers of other msterial — ^we cannot re- 
gara ss a practical snggestion. 

Apart from the question of the best form 
of rail to produce lateral and vertical 
rigidity, there is the other question, of how 
we may best hold the rail firmly to the sub- 
structure. If capital were unlimited, the 
best structure would be one composed of 
timber sleepers firmly bolted down to a 
series of heavy stone blocks, precisely upon 
the same principle that a heavy stone foun- 
dation is placed below a machine for a 
€Mtory. Cross and longitudinal sleepers 
are both good, inasmuch as they are both 
sunk into die ballast, and are thus held 
down. If the ordinary cross-sleepers could 
be doubled in size, and their distance apart, 
from centre to centre, be reduced to two 
feet, we should obtain a very firm road, not 
likely to spring or get loose. The Barlow 
rail proposed by the Company is not of this 
character. It is, mechanically speaking, a 
modification of the bridge rail, and not a 
good modification, for it lessens the vertical 
strength without addins to the horizontal. 
To make this rail really effective would 
require more iron than has yet been applied 
to it, and its form precludes it from lying 
fast in the ballast, while there is gpreat 
difficulty in producing firm joints, and it is 
without means of absorbing the vibration. 
As a matter of economy, it would appear 
that the destruction of its upper or rolling 
surface by wear, involves the waste of a 
greater mass of material than any other 
form. We are speaking of the solid rail ; 
for in plans for fastening down bridge and 
foot rails on bent iron plates, on plates bent 
moreover into the form of a trough, infolv. 
ing therefore unsteadiness, we have no faith. 

The consecutive plans given in the circu- 
lar bear out our remarks. One engraving 



(nlate 7) shows the largest sized rail without 
sleepers, riveted together at the ends, like a 
piece of boiler plate, in a wide saddle or 
strap, the two rails being connected by cross 
angle irons, from seven to eight feet apart, 
to preserve the gauge. This strongly re- 
sembles a long ladder laid on the sai^ce of 
the ground. In another place (plate S) the 
ends are fastened down by spikes to angular 
cross sleepers of timber. And again (plate 
9), wrought iron transverse sleepers are 
riveted to the rails, as a subatitnte for 
timber, and in a similar form. It is sUted 
that these rails are made from 74 lbs. to 
126 lbs. weight per yard. We believe that 
a common bridge rsil of 90 lbs. per ysrd, 
measuring 4 inches in depth and 6 inches 
in breadth, would be found greatly superior 
to any of the Barlow forms. In the circular 
is given a list of forty- five railway com- 
panies who use the patented improvements 
of the Permanent Way Company. It would 
have been as well, and more satisfactory, 
had the number of miles employed by each, 
and the peculiar improvement adopted, been 
specified. We recommend to our readers, 
in conclusion, the perusal of the numbers 
of Mr. Clark's work on Railway Machinery, 
quoted at the head of this article, for valu- 
able considerations respecting both the 
theory and piaotioe of the Permanent Way. 



ON THE INCRUSTATION OP 
STEAM BOILERS. 

BY M. covsrt. 

In the Jnmalet det Mines for the present 
year, is an interesting paper by M. Coost^ on 
the incrustations of steam boilers, and the 
methods for preventing their formation. He 
commences by pointing out that the pre- 
vention of incrustations, if realised, would 
produce a better preservation of the boilers, 
greater security against explosions, and con- 
siderable economy in fuel. For steam ves- 
sels it would be attsnded with an increase 
of available space for cargo, and the use of 
steam at high pressure. 

He then presents the results of his inves- 
tigations on the nature of depositi^ and the 
circumstances connected with their forma- 
tion, whether in boilers fed with salt or fresh 
water. 

M. Cou8t6 suggests four methods for pre- 
venting inerustadons. The first is, in net, 
the well-known method, which consists in 
extracting from the boiler, either at inter- 
mittent periods, or in a continuous manner, 
a certain quantity of water saturated with 
solid matter. He thinks this process im- 
perfect for low-pressure engines, and quite 



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OV THE mCBUSTATlON OF STEAM BOHiERg. 



3d 



useless for those tt htgh-pressure. He pro- 
poses, however, to make some further im- 
proTements in it, as the greater number 
of marine steam-engines work at low-pres- 
sure, and may thus be in some measure 
benefited. 

The second of the methods described is 
called by M. Coust^ alinuntatum nonhpdrU 
quBf and requires the use of Hall's conden- 
sers. The principal objection to this me- 
thod is the existence of a counter pressure 
in the cylinder during too considerable a 
part of the stroke of the piston. By calcu- 
lation he finds that from about 25 to 30 
per cent of force is lost in a low-pressure 
engine. 

The third method consists in continually 
employing the same water for condensing 
the steam, and of course requires that this 
water must continually pass through a re- 
frigerating process. 

The fourth method, which belongs entirely 
to M. Coust^, consists in feeding the boiler 
with water heated to a very high tempera- 
ture (at least SIS° Fab.) before being Intro, 
duced intp the boiler. This process has the 
efiTect of completely precipitating all the 
calcareous salts held in solution by the 
water. 

The process requires a special heating 
apparatus, and a filter for separating the 
precipitate. The author remarks that the 
filtering which is necessary for engines 
at ordinary or low pressure, or for high- 
pressure engines working occasionally, 
might be dispensed with for marine high- 
pressure boilers, because the salts precipi- 
tated in the heater cannot again dissolve in 
the boiler, and consequently cannot crystal- 
lize, but will only form a muddy deposit 
instead of a fixed incnistration. 

Finally, in comparing these dififerent me- 
thods, M. Coust6 thinks the last should be 
preferred for navigation, whether in salt or 
fresh water, and exclusively employed for 
locomotives ; while the third more cumbrous 
method could be advantageously used for 
land engines under certain locally favour- 
able conditions. 

In order accurately to estimate the value 
of keeping the surfaces of boilers clean and 
free from incrustation, M. Coust^ has ma- 
thematically investigated the loss of heat 
which takes place in causing the water in 
an incrustated boiler to arrive at a given 
temperature. He does this by comparing 
two boilers of the same shape and dimen- 
sions, placed under precisely the same con- 
ditions, except that one is covered with a 
calcareous incrustation all over its heated 
surface, while the other was free from deposit, 
and covered only with a thin coat of rust 
They are supposed to be so managed as to 
produce equal quantities of steam in equal 



times. It follows that the heat of the iire 
under the inerusted boiler must be increased ; 
hence a great loss of heat by the rarefied air 
and gas escaping through the chimney, and 
by the external radiation from the furnace. 
The first of these causes of loss is, of course, 
the most considerable, and it is it alone that 
the author has sought to estimate. This he 
does by the aid of some hypotheses, which 
enable him to establish his fundamental 
equations. From these he finally deduces 
the formula : 

y«v(l-h2Ms) 

where II represents the loss of heat in the 
inerusted boiler due to the causes men- 
tioned,? the loss in the non-increased boiler, 
e the thickness of the calcareous crust, and 



M. 



l(-4) 

y 

in which K is the co-efficient of conduct!, 
vity of the boiler plates, K' of the calcareous 
crust ; b the temperature of the water in the 
boilers; A the mean temperature of the 
heated surface of the non-incrusted boiler ; 
e the thickness of the boiler plates; i| the 
thickness of the coating of rust, and y its 
co.efficient of conductivity. 

By the aid of these formulas the loss of 
heat occasioned by incrustation in steam 
boilers covered with deposits not exceeding 
two.tenths of an inch in thickness is calcu. 
lated to amount to 40 or 50 per cent. 

That a considerable loss must be produced 
by boiler incrustations is thus proved, but 
it seems to be somewhat exaggerated. One 
result of these ealculationn seems, however, 
to be well established, namely, that the con. 
sumption of fuel increases rapidly with every 
increase in the thickness of incrustation. 

M. Coust^ makes highly interesting re- 
marks on the nature and formation of the 
deposits. He distinguishes the deposits of 
marine boilers from those fed with fresh 
water. The former consist chiefly of sul- 
phate of lime, and contain not a trace of 
carbonate of lime, while the latter are form- 
ed both of sulphate and carbonate in propor- 
tions varying with the localities. 

He also distinguishes deposits which are 
merely muddy, or formed of matters sus- 
pended but not dissolved in the water, and 
which are formed of magnesia, oxide of iron, 
silica, &c., from the crystalline deposits 
which commence to fonA when, during the 
progress of evaporation, the water has arrived 
at a state of saturation with respect to the 
salts forming the deposits. 

An important fact resulting from M. 



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FOBSXTB'S nOBOTZD nntNAOB AND BOHiEB. 



31 



Coasts 8 obterratioDi it, that the state of 
saturation is brought about the sooner the 
water attains a high temperature ; that is to 
sajr, that the solubility of the sulfihate and 
carbonate of lime diminishes in a rapid pro- 
portion as soon as the temperature rises 
aboTe the boiling point. Between this and 
the freezing point, the former of these salts 
has for temperatnre of maximum solubility 
96« Fahr., and at 212<> its solubUity is not 
mnch greater than at 92^. Hitherto the 
law of its solubility beyond the boiling point 
has not been examined ; and M. Coust^ is 



perhaps the first person who has shown that 
at temperatures somewhere about ZW^, 
which corresponds to a steam pressure of 
four or five atmospheres, the solubility is 
almost destroyed. Upon this fact is founded 
the principal method proposed by M. 
Coust^ for remedjring the formation of in- 
crustations. 

He also explains by this circumstance the 
difficulties which have hitherto interfered 
with the use of high-pressure engines on 
board sea-going ve88els.~/Minia/ ^ Indut^ 
tritU Progress. 



FORSYTH»S IMPROVED FURNACE AND BOILER.* 



It is proposed by the author to make the 
gprate a weighing-machine, lowering and 
rising according to the weight ; that is to 
say, when a charge of coal is put in the fur- 
nace, the grate is thereby depressed, and by 
the coal gradually burning away, the grate 
is elevated as the weight upon it diminishes. 
From this weighing-machine connections 
are made to the valves for admission of air 
to the flue, which open and close by the ac- 
tion of the weight of the coal, thus effecting 
the necessary variation, but preserving the 
necessary relative quantities and conditions, 
and thereby avoiding smoke by obtaining 
perfect combustion. A series of openings 
for the admission of air are made on each 



side of the cylindrical portion of the boiler, 
each opening being constructed with a ring 
round it, like a fire-door opening, and faced 
with a grating, upon which the regulating, 
slide works. The fire-grate has a fire-brick 
casing sliding up and down freely with the 
grate inside the fire-box, which is suspended 
by spring balances, provided with adjusting 
screws for the attendant to have the means 
of correcting, for accumulation of clinker 
on the bars, wearing away of the fire-brick 
casing, fire-bars, &c., &c. 

The fusing.plug, to prevent injury to 
boiler from scarcity of water, is shown in 
the fig. below, and ia made of a large brass 
bolt (in which the fused metal is soldered), 




capped on the fire-side, so as to bring the 
lower side of the tin or ** lead plug" within 
it, some distance above the water-side of the 
roof-plate, thus leaving a margin, and allow- 
ing the plug to be fused while there is yet 
sufficient water upon the plates to prevent 
their being burned, and to drown out the 
fire after the plug has been fused. 

In the writer's experience of many thou- 
sand fusing-plogs, he has not found any 

• From a paper recently read, by the Inventor, 
before the Institution of Mechanieal Bngineen, 



which could be depended upon, except those 
that he has constructed and applied accord, 
ing to the above principle. 

To prevent the destruction of boilers from 
galvanic currents, which the writer has 
many opportunities of observing, he pro- 
poses to adopt generally the use of a piece 
of zinc, in metallic contact with the boiler 
plates, and to be renewed from time to time 
as required; this practice he believes has 
been successfully applied in iron ships, and 
for other purposes, but not generally used in 
steam boilers. 



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92 



BUBGH'8 IMFBOYED SAnCTT SHIPS. 



To prevent tfa« etMpe of mefiil heat, the 



ehimney it nude multi- tubular, and oon- 
▼arted into a feed pipe, reoeiving iu water 
at the top, and delif ering it to the boiler at 
the bottom, by which the flue temperature 
at the outlet is reduced e? en without pro- 
ducing eny oooling effect upon the boiler, 
the spare heat being abstraeted for a useful 
purpoee. 

In large engineering and other works, 
where many forger and furnaces are in 
operation, it is proposed to run from a cold> 
water tank a main or pipe with bnll taps, 



and small tanks to suMly Che tuyeres of the 
several forffes, &e., with oold water i and aa 
this water becomes heated, to draw it oiT by 
a main feed-pipe with a force pump into the 
tubular chimney feed-pipe ; also to case the 
chimneys and hoods of the foiges with water, 
for the double purpose of keeping the shop 
cool in hot weather, and obtaining the waste 
heat for useftil application. The feed-pipe 
chimney to be provided with a safety valve 
to prevent it bursting, if at any time the 
pump be in action when the valve to the 
ooiler is olosed. 



BURCH'S IMPROVED SAFETY SHIPS. 



Mn. BuncH, of Crag-hall, near Maccles- 
field, proposes to build ships in two distinct 
parts, having the appearance, when toge- 
ther, of one perfect vessel. The larger or 
parent part is to be the great body of the ship, 
containing the whole length of keel, main 
and fore meats, hold, space for machinery 
and cargo, fore cabin, berths, &&, &c. ; the 
lesser, or escape part, to contain berths, 
saloon, victualiiug stores, treasury, &c.; 
and to have the form of, and to be, a perfect 
vessel of itself. It is to cany the mizen 
mast, and is to be a substitute for, the quar- 
ter and after deeks of the parent vessel, 



occupying the deck space from the stem up 
to about the main mast, and down to or 
about level with the water line, and ao ar. 
ranged and Axed upon the parent part of 
the vessel that, in cases of shipwreck or fire, 
it may without difficulty be launched off 
the stem of the parent ship. The stem and 
bows of the escape vessel form the stern and 
counter of the parent vessel. In order to 
make a secure berth for the escape vessd 
while on board the parent vessel, and also to 
protect it from the force of the waves, the 
sides of the parent vessel are to be raised 
above the water-line up to about Uie gun- 




wale, forming a kind of trough, which may 
terminate obliquely about the steropost of 
the pttent vessel ; and in this trough the 
escape boat or vessel is to be securely 
placed, with her head projecting over the 
sternpost of the parent vessel, and always 
in a position ready to be launched. To 
faoiliute the lauehing, under circumstances 
where this is required, while the parent ves- 
sel still floats, the inventor proposes that 
the hold of the parent vessel should have a 
water-tight bulk- head division astem, and 
that the compartments thus formed shall be 
provided with plugs or valves for the pur- 
pose, when necessary, of letting in water; 
and in the event of the parent vessel being 



wrecked, or on fire, and all hope of saving 
her appears lost, the ploes or valves are 
then to be opened, when the after part of 
the parent vessel will begfin to fill and sink, 
and the escape part can then, without difil- 
cnlty, when loosened from her fastenings, 
float off the wreck. Only sufficient water 
is to be admitted to enable the escape vessel 
to float off, or sufficient in cases of fire to ex* 
tinguishing the flames, and to avoid the loss 
of the larger vessel, while a hope remains of 
saving her. Mr. Boroh recommends the 
employment of self-acting valves, which 
close in sufficient time to prevent the vessel 
from sinking ; so that, if after all she sur- 
vives the threatened danger, the escape part 



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DtPBOYZMElIT IN GinmE&T. 



88 



•an again be re^sdjiuted on her stern, tlie 
water pumped oot, and the perfect ship 
reach her destination in safety. 

The iastcnings by which the two vessek 
are to be bound together are of the simplest 
kind, in order that a separation may be 
made within a few moments after the order 
to let go is given ; but of sufficient strength 
to keep the escape vessel well secured in 
heavy, stormy weather. Various modes may 
be adopted, but that which is recommended 
aa amoogst the simplest and most effective, 
consists in employing strong hook-bolt fss. 
tenings attached to each side of the stem 
of the escape vesfcl, and corresponding fas- 
lening^ fixed to the deck of the parent ves- 
sel ; so that by means of short - noosed 
eables with tightening block and falls, the 
two vessels may be securely held together. 
*'The same means may," says the inventor, 
'* be adapted at the sides, if necessary, but 
aa the rising trough sides of the parent ves- 
ael will be expos^ to, and receive the pres- 
Bure of the ses, the stern fastening may be 
found sufficient, and although the stem and 
bows of the escape vessel will be exposed 
to the sea, her own weight will probably be 
found sufficient to keep her down i should 
she lift, however, the result will not be dis- 
astrous, for the water will immediately 
rush up the trough between her and the 
parent vessel, and act as a water buffer aa 
she again settles in her place." Under all 
circnmstanoes, he recommends rope fasten- 
ings, and where they are placed he would 
have a small hatchet chained, so that in ease 
of any entanglement of the ropes, all the 
noosed cables might be simultaneously 
severed. The inventor says, " In cases of 
shipwreck from fire, or striking on sunken 
rocks, such as the loss of the jiwuaon and 
Birkenhead, I do not hesitate to say, that 
had those vessels been provided with this 
means of escape, almost every person who 
then perished would have been saved ; and 
during the late wreck of the Queen Victoria 
its services would have been equally effec- 
tive. The captains and crews of vessels, 
having the means of escape at hand for 
themselves and passengers, will neither lose 
energy nor presence of mind { there will be 
no scrambling into, launching, and swamp- 
ing unseaworthy boats ; every effort will bo 
made to save the parent vessel, which in 
some instances need not be abandoned until 
she even sinks awsy from the escape part 
Of course, there are circumstances in dread- 
ful storms, when no human aid or contri. 
vanee oould rescue the doomed vessel and 
her unhappy living freight ; the mercy of 
Providence alone can then save ; but from 
such disasters at sea as ^n, leakages, strik- 
ing on sunken rocks, shoal waters, sand 
banks, eoUisions, and many other casualties 



by which so many vessels and lives have 
lately been sacrificed, and so much valuable 

groperty lost, I venture to hope that this 
ivention may prove, under these circum- 
stances, a sure means of escape. It will 
also be found useful in the Arotie regions, 
and likewise in exploring rivers, where, in 
shallow waters, the parent vessel could not 
float It maybe constructed to receive a 
small engine, and thus be made ayailable 
for many other useful purposes." 



IMPROVEMENT IN GUNNERY. 

A novel and important improvement in 
gunnery was exhibited on Tuesday last, 
when a series of experiments were made by 
the inventor, aecompanied by several gen- 
tlemen, with a cannon constraeted to propd 
chains and shot in any given direction. The 
gun is of a peculiar oonstruotion, and the 
chain and shot, when discharged, expand to 
the full length of the chain, and carry every- 
thing before them, so that a eolnmn of men 
might be swept down at an explosion. Wo 
cannot particularise the secrets of the inven- 
tion, which have not yet been made public ; 
but to give some idea of its destructive 
power, we will describe the result of the 
experiments brought under our notice. The 
ground selected was a plain in Battersea- 
park; the cannon used were diminutive 
models, 9 inches in length and one inch bore. 
One shot was attached at either end of a 
chain, 9 fieet long ; the guns were raised 2 feet 
above the lerel of the park, and two targets 
were placed 20 yards distance to fire at; 
between the targets and the cannon a num- 
ber of large sticks were driven into the 
earth, to resemble a column of men. These 
arrangements perfected, the inventor ap- 
plied the match ; the powder instantly ig- 
nited, and the guns exploded with the 
desired effect, every stick being swept 
down ; and had there been as many Rus- 
sians before it as there were sticks, they 
would have been sent to the land of shadows. 
The experiment was repeated several times 
with the same results ; and had the chain 
been 60 feet instead of 9 feet long, and the 
cannon of proportionate dimensions, we are 
convinced nothing within their range— men 
or horses — could have remained 2 feet 
above the ground. We understand the in- 
ventor can unite two, three, or more cannon 
together, pointed as arrangements of an 
attack or defence might require, and cause 
them to explode instantaneously by the appli- 
cation of one match. The perfection of such 
a system of gunnery would, in the present 
state of our warlike relations, prove of 
inestimable advantase, and create a new 
era in the ordt^aikee department of the eoi» 



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84 



mPBOVXMBNT IN AOOODXT-BOOKS 



pire. We UDderttand the inTentor is Mr. 
Thomas Spargo, of Adelaide- chambers, 52, 
Gracechurch-street, City. — Mining Journal. 



MCCORMICK'S REAPING-MACHINE. 

SUCCESSFUL ACTION FOR INFRINGEMENT 
OP MR. M'CORMICK'S PATENT IN AME- 
RICA. 

It is necessary tliat English agricultur- 
ists and others should be made aware that 
Mr. M'Cormick has gained the verdict of 
the Circuit Court of the United States for 
the Northern District of New York, and a 
jury, in an action for infringement of his 
patent, against Mr. W. H. Seymour, and 
Mr. D. S. Morgan, who are said to have been 
strongly supported in their resistance to Mr. 
M'Cormick's claims. We have before us, 
in the Semi-toeekly Tribune, of December 8, 
1854, the speech of the plaintiff's counsel, 
Mr. Sv. H. Seward — a speech of great me- 
rit, but defaced by that national arrogance 
to which America so much accustoms her 
orators, and by which they are so often 
made ridiculous. 

Tiie action depended upon the use, by the 
defendants, of the " divider ;" or, as Mr. 
Seward denominated it, the '* mechanical 
man," wliich, wherever tiie machine goes, 
** goes before it, always stooping and lifting 
up, and disentangling and dividing the 
grain ; " and of a *' new location " of the reel 
standard, " accompanied by such devices as 
would make it support the axis of the reel 
so far in advance of the sickle as would 
allow the reel to co-operate in dividing, 
while the standard itself was out of the way 
in that operation." 

The plaintiff's counsel concluded an ela- 
borate address with the following remarks, 
which show that it is not in England alone 
that the commercial greatness of our country 
is attributed to the existence of laws, by 
which inventors have their rights secured, 
and their interests protected : 

** Gentlemen, we are an ambitious people. 
We are emulous of Great Britain ; we ac- 
knowledge no other rival. Great Britain 
has risen to her present high commercial 
and imperial position chiefly through the 
development of the inventive genius of her 
people. If we are to attain an equal or su- 
perior position, we must, in like manner, 
cherish the inventive genius of our country- 
men. That policy is written in our consti- 
tution. You cannot deny justice to an in- 
ventor without violating that very constitu- 
tion itself. The duty which I have myself 
performed on this trial has been a pleasing 
one, because I have been inspired by a zeal 
not only to secure justice in this case, but 
to maintain the laws and the constitution. 



Nevertheless, I envy you the nobler office 
which you have to perform. I can only 
plead for justice and national honour. Yon 
have the power to lender the one and to se- 
eure the other.' ' 

The trial resulted in a verdict for the 
plaintiff, for 7,750 dollars. 

IMPROVEMENT IN ACCOUNT 
BOOKS. 

Messrs. Waterlow and Sons, the well- 
known stationers, have become the proprie- 
tors of, and are now introducing to the 
public a very valuable but simple improve- 
ment in the manufacture of account books, 
recently patented by Mr. Arnold. 

The improvement consists in the employ- 
ment of a metal hinge, C, as shown in the 
aocompanying engraving, for fastening the 




inside of the book> B, to its covers, A, in the 
place of the linen joints ordinarily employed. 
By this method the inside of the book is en- 
tirely independent of the covers, and may 
be separated from them by the mere with- 
drawal of the sliding hinge-pin, so that one 
cover may be used for several books, or new 
covers supplied at pleasure to an old book, 
without the necessity of the book itself 
being placed in the hands of a binder. The 
great objection to the common glued joints 
is their liability to give way under the in- 
fluence of a damp atmosphere ; but with the 



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ON PASUAXEirrABY SMOKE. 



85 



improved hinge arrangement this is, of 
covree, impoasible. We should also men- 
lion that by the use of the metallic hinse, 
the P^ges of the book are allowed to lie 
quite nat, whereyer it may be opened, an 
Mlvaatage whieh every acoountantwill know 
well how to appreciate. We believe the 
Mescra. Waterlow have wisely resolved to 
charge no more for books on the improved, 
than for those on the ordinary prmoiple, 
trusting to the increased sale for suitable 
returns. 



OK PAELIAMENTABY SMOKB. 

To the Editor rf the Mechanic^ Magazine. 

SiE, — I have now to reply to Mr. Wood- 
cock's letter, in your Number of the 23rd 
December. He opens thus : — ** First, to 
the assault of the Liverpool league, with its 
Cerberus-beaded organ, vfeU concocted, Mr. 
Mnsliet will find Us required data in the 
forthcoming report of the two Stances at the 
Institute of Civil Engineers. ' Engineer* 
atates nothing in his letters for remark. 
Now, therefore, to Mr. Williams's fulmina- 



As to the <* well-concocted assault," I 
know nothing ; and as to your correspond- 
ents, Mr. Mushet and '' Engineer," I nei- 
ther knoir who they are, or what they are, or 
even where they live; never having seen, 
or had the slightest communication, verbal 
or written, direct or indirect with either. 
All I know is, that the letters, on the sub. 
jeet before us, signed Jkarid Mushet, have 
always been worth reading — intelligible 
and to the point, which certainly cannot be 
said of those from Mr. Woodcock, or his 
chemical tutor, Mr. Mansfield. 

*'And now,'* says Mr. Woodcock, <Mo 
the kernel of the question — can smoke be 
bnrned, or can it not? I fearlessly reply, 
yesl and advantageously. It makes extra 
fuel." Here we have, apparently, a manly 
and defiant challenge. Appearances, how- 
ever, are often deceptive, and here they are 
peculiarly so. First, then, what is it which 
Mr. Woodcock so stoutly asserts can be 
burned f In a word, what is it he calls 
smoke ? From his own pen, we learn that 
it is just what every one else (Mr. Mansfield 
excepted) calls coal gas. The problem, then, 
is very simple, and easily solved. ** Only 
let me," says Mr. Woodcock, "give coal gas 
the name of smoke, snd then, I fearlessly re- 
ply, smoke ea» be burned " — mirabile dietu I 

To give plausibility to this theory (and 
jugglers are always plausible), Mr. Wood, 
cock invents, or supposes, or assumes, that 
there are two kinds of smoke; vis., " ParH- 
amtntary smoke» and true smoke." This 
certain^ is original, and deserves a patent 



His own words are, " First, parUmteutwry 
smoke, or smoke as popularly understood. 
This is what a fumaoe-fure, covered with 
small coal " (and why not large coal ? ), " smo- 
thering all flame, emita. But Mr. Williams 
pleaeanthf calls it gae," Pleasant fellow 
that Mr. WUliams. Again, *' There is also 
another substance. Let us call it, 'trub 
SMOKE.' Mr. Williams" (in common wiih 
all authorities) " says, this the result of im- 
perfect flame" (combustion), "and con- 
sists, for the roost part, of steam, carbonic 
acid and nitrogen, and minute portions of 
osrbon in suspension." — For this see Mr. 
Brando's letter, quoted in your last, page 

By this new doctrine, then, scientiflc in- 
quiry is but complicative ; and we are not 
to consider what is right, or true, but, as 
Mr. Woodcock does, take as chemical 
gospel what is " populariy understood** to be 
so ! or, as Mr. Mansfield does, go to the in- 
mates of the nursery for information. What 
an age of enlightenment will this simple 
doctrine produce 1 

Now, as to this parliamentary smoke 
(pleasantly called gas), Peckston, in his 
Treatise on Gas-light, says, "When pit- 
coal is burnt in an open fire-place, it emits 
fiame which is occaaionally exhibited in 
streams of peculiar brightness. This flame 
is coal gas m a state of combustion." " Not 
at all, not at all," says Professor Woodcock ; 
" you may, as Mr. Willianu does, 'pleo' 
saaUly* call it gae; but I tell you, it is 
neither more nor less than purUamentary 



Again— '* Seeing that when coals are 
bumed'in the ordinary way we have evident 
proof that they contain inflammable gas, 
(inflammable smoke, by your leave, as 
Messrs. W. and M. have shown), which, if 
collected and properly applied would serve 
as a substitute for the light of candles, or 
oil, &c." Away with such pleasantries, says 
Mr. Woodcock, you must not so rob me of 
my theory, or my parliamentary smoke 
either. Do we not burn it and illuminate 
our streets and apartments with It? 

Again, Peckston says,— "Mr. Winsor" 
(who first exhibited the nature of gas-light 
illumination) "proved experimentally that 
the flames of coal gas, when properly ma- 
naged, produce no smoke, by allowing no 
more gas to pass through the burner than 
can be entirely consumed." Now here is 
the whole theory and practice of combustion 
iu our furnaces, tei^umt smoke. Instead of 
one burner, or one jet, let the whole body of 
the gaa generated be thrown into aa ntany 
burners or jets as there are subdivisions or 
apertures, and thus all will be "entirely eon^ 
sumed,** Professor Brando says the same 
when be observes, « Each jet of ahr bo- 



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86 



ON LAUNOHIKG SHIPS. 



oouMt, u it were, the •ouroe or oeutre of a 
separate flame, and the effeot is that of to 
many jets of coal gas ignited in the air." 
What further illustration is required ? Mr. 
Woodoock's own re-inrention and applioa. 
tion of my perforated air-distributor plate 
(if he looks into his furnace from behind) 
will satisfy him of these facts. 

"My points," says Mr. Woodoook, '* are, 
to endrele completely the geues** (encircle 
the gases!) "as they lea^e the furnace." 
This is an awkward laptut pemue, seeing 
that he had just before told us that these, so 
pleata$iily called, gatet, were not gases, but 
were ParUameniary tmoke. But to go on, — 
** I encircle the gases with heated air, which 
I prefer to administer in thinjiimtt or through 
very tmall ar(flee«."-H(He might have added 
— "as shown in Prideauz's furnace-door, 
and in the perforated plate used by my. 
self,") ** thus perfectly," he continues, " and 
not partially, applying the Argand princi- 
pie," &c. I stop to ask Mr. Woodcock, as 
an honest man, can there be a more perfect 
description of my Argand furnace ? and if 
io, either let him say so, or point out the 
difference. 

And now, as to some of Mr. Woodcock's 
iuuendoes. " Is it not surprising that Mr. 
Williams was once a profit-seeking paten- 
tee, yet so it is. When his patent expires, 
with the savage impotence of a toothless 
lion, or less noble beast, he would resist any 
further iwtproptment,'* Softly, most vehe- 
ment! First show your piracy is not 
piracy, but is an ** improifement" and I 
will be the flrst to ask for a licence to use 
it I do resist, however, and will continue 
to expose the audacity, either on the part of 
Wooocock, Prideaux, or others, of adopting 
and accurately imitating the principle, prac- 
tical detail, and action of my now expired 
patent, to deceive the public and gain a dis- 
honest profit, and by thus calling improve-' 
ment what is unqualified piracy. 

And now, as to my being a patentee. 
Having in 1839 under my management the 
greatest number of steam vessels belonging 
to any one company, I was naturally desirous 
of economising fuel ; and having practically 
ascertained the efficiency of the argand 
principle (as above explained by Mr. Wood- 
cock himself), I had no alternative but either 
myself going to the expense of a patent, or 
seeing others do so, as they soon assuredly 
would, and then probably have to pay for the 
use of my own invention, and for my own 
vessels. Having, then, taken out the patent, 
I disposed of my interest in it, and without 
a shilling of profit, and never since took 
any trouble about it. 

For Mr. Woodcock's information, I can 
mention another similar case. In Novem- 
ber, 1840, 1 took out, and for the same reaeon. 



a patent for the application of the pin heat 
cMduetors, for "increasing the heat-trans- 
mitting power of the interior plate surface 
of boilers." (See my treatise, obapter 17.) 
Since then, I confined myself to the use of 
these heat-eondoctors in the steam-vessels 
under my direction, and took no further in- 
terest in the patent A few years will see 
these heat-conductors universally applied, 
although I have never realised a shilling by 
the patent 

Mr. Woodcock says :— " Mr. Williams 
thought it prudent to try the invention of 
others, to wit, Mr. Prideaux." Yes, cer- 
tainly I I did try Prideaux's plan. I oh- 
tained, at a considerable expense, one of his 
self-acting valves; not, however, for use, 
but "to try" it, and proved that what is 
good in it, namely, the "introducing the 
air by separate films," waa an unqualified 
imitation of my patent : and that what was 
really Mr. Prideaux's part, namely, the self- 
acting valve, was a worthless adjunct, — that, 
in fact, combustion was more effective, and 
more heat generated when the valve was in- 
operative, and/x«d, so as tosiWaw, at all times ^ 
a certain amount of air to enter to the gases 
(I beg pardon — to the "Parliamentary 
smoke "). These facts being proved, Mr. 
Prideaux's door was, of course removed. 

Mr. Woodcock says:— "Mr. Prideaux's 
and my plans are not identical." I say they 
are identical, not in the useless adjuncts of 
Venetian blinds, &c., hot in all that regards 
the introduction of the air " in thin /Urns or 
by numerous small apertures^" and on which 
the whole question of perfect combustion 
without smoke depends. 

As to the use of hot air^ that is the mere 
ad eaptandum element of the quackery. Un- 
til Mr. Woodcock or Mr. Prideaux can prove 
that bringing hot air to the gas in the argand 
burner improves the combustion and " bums 
the smoke," or that they can breathe more 
easily, and their lungs have a better action, 
when in the hot atmosphere of the oven, than 
in the open fields, their hot air (like his 
Parliamentary smoke) may pcss for its 
quantum valeat, vis., nil 

I am, Sir, yours, &e., 

C. W. Williams, 

Liverpool, Jan. 6, 1855. 



ON LAUNCHING SHIPS. 
To the Editor qf the Mechanics' Magazine, 
Sir,— I cannot but imagine that some 
simple and sure means of liberating a vessel 
from the position in which she has been 
built on the stocks, at a given moment, {• « 
great desideratum. 

The employment of a " dog - shore,^' 
having one extremity placed against the end 



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ON OSDNAKOE AMD CHDMVOWDER. 



87 



of a piaee of timber, called a riband, ez« 
toodin^ the whole length of the gronnd. 
wajs, and fastened to the ground-ways, and 
the other extremity against a Urge ohock 
secured to the bilge-ways, upon each side 
of the ship, is attended with great disad- 
Tantages. 

When it is required to launch the ship, a 
small piece of wood called a *' trigger," used 
to keep the dog-shore in its proper position, 
is readily removed ; the dog- shore is then 
acted upon by some impulsiTe force, such 
as a blow with a maul or with a pig of 
ballast; if the dog-shores thus struck fall 
away, all is well, but numerous instances 
might be cited in which all attempts to 
remove these shores by striking them have 
been useless : they have then to be eii^ awatf, 
a work of considerable time, leading at 
times to hair-breadth escapes of very serious 
accidents. 

These and other difficulties have led to 
ships being launched without these shores. 
The ships being usually built at an inclina- 
tion of 4 of an inch to a foot, and launched 
at au inclination of { of an inch to a foot, 
it is readily seen, that to move one foot 
horizontally the vessel must descend ^ of 
an inch ; to keep her from descending, a 
number of blocks are kept under, and not 
** split out," until it is required to launch 
her ; to remove these blocks with such an 
immense weight upon them is a work of 
considerable difficulty, and these means 
being adopted, the launching cannot be 
ensured at any exact time. For several 
hours before the launching of the ship the 
shores which have supported her are gra- 
dually removed during this time; should 
there be a serious accident likely to occur 
from keeping her on the slip, it may be 
advisable to liberate her (and this without 
any impulaive force, which in itself might 
cause an accident), and let her glide off the 
ways. 

Many erry nmple and yet effective means 
may be devised to accomplish the desired 
object; I think the following may be 
classed amongst them : — Let there be two 
iron plates, let one into the under side of 
bilge-ways, the other into the upper side of 
ground-ways; let a large bolt, having a 
tiiread cut on its uppermost end, pass 
through the bilge-ways, and also through 
the two iron plates j this, fitted on each side 
of the ship, would prevent the bilge-ways 
from moving over the ground-ways ; let 
similar nuts be fitted on these two screws, 
having affixed to them small wheels so con- 
stmcted, that a chain could not slide round 
them ; pass a small chain round these two 
wheels ; motion could not then be communi- 
cated to one nut without the other ; let the 
bolts extend equal distances through the 



plates in the ground-ways ; fit tlie nuts with 
wheels on " eross-spanners/' so that two or 
four men may turn them and thus raise the 
bolts. At the word of command these 
wheels are turned, the bolts simultaneously 
raised, and the connection between the 
bilge- ways and ground- ways being thus 
destroyed, tlie ship is freed from her fetters. 
Persons unacqusinted with the terms 
" bilge- ways" and " ground- ways," may see 
engravings and explanations of them in an 
article nublished in Vol. LX.> page 461, of 
your Magazine. 

I am. Sir, yours, &c., 

W. L. 
Portsmouth. 



ON ORDNANCE AND GUNPOW. 

DER. 
To the Editor rf the Mechanics* MagoMine, 

Sir, — Will you kindly permit roe to say 
a few words in reference to *<T.'s" letter on 
gunpowder, published in your last ? Some 
^ears ago, When percussion locks were first 
mtroduced among sportsmen, I happened to 
reside in a district where, during the winter, 
I had frequent opportunities of observing 
what was then said to be peculiar to the 
new lock, and was considered to be an un- 
favourable characteristic When the snow 
was on the ground it was observed that, after 
a discharge of the piece, a portion of the 
powder would be seen on the snow before the 
muzzle of the piece, which, from its granular 
appearance, was supposed to be part of the 
charge unexploded. Some thought that this 
was owing to the vent being improperly 
placed in relation to the chamber ; but what- 
ever the cause may have been, if the fact be 
true, it is contrary to the theory of '* T.," 
which supposes that the heat generated being 
greater than that of red-hot iron, is sufficient 
to insure complete combustion of the pow- 
der. One thing is obvious, however, that 
some other conditions are necessary beside 
the generation of heat The oxy-hydrogen 
light apparatus may be taken as a familiar 
illustration of this foct. The mixture of two 
parts hydrogen and one oxygen is much more 
infiammable than gunpowder, and the heat 
generated by its combustion more intense ; 
and yet a small piece of wire gauze inter- 

Eosed between the gasometer and the 
urner, renders it safe and prevents explo- 
sion. The other, and perhaps the more im- 
portant part of " S.*s" letter, I can onlv for 
the present notice by saying, that I have 
observed the effect produced by a portion of 
air being between the ball and cnarge, or, 
as it is commonly phrased, the ball not 
being home, but have never supposed that 



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38 



SPEOmOATIONa OV PAXXNT8 BSaSMTLY FILED* 



it in any way Durouved the theory of insttn- 
taneous combustion. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

J. F. 



THE RIFLE, AND EXPANDING 

RIFLE SHOT. 
To the Editor qf the Mechanic*' Magazine, 

Sir,-- The following reply firom Mr. S. 
Herbert to a question from Major Reed, 
in the House of Commons, appears in the 
Timet of Saturday last : " As to the inten- 
tion of the government for the future, he 
might state that it was resolved to arm the 
whole of the troops with the Minie rifle, and 
that they were being issued to them as fast 
as they could be supplied from the manu- 
facturers." (Cheers.) 

More than a year ago Lord Hardinge, 
CommaUder-in-Chief, reported to her Ma- 
jesty the Queen that I am the original 
inventor of the elongated exploding rifle- 
shot. His Majesty the Emperor of the 
French, out of his private purse, presented 
Captain Mini^ with 20,000 francs for put- 
ting an iron cup or culdt into the hollow 
base of this shot; and Lord Raglan, as 
Master- General of the Ordnanoe, prevailed 
on the British government to give Mr. 
Pritchett, an intelligent London gunmaker, 
£1,000 for allowing my rifle-shot to remain 
as it was without the addition of the iron 
cup, and thus " letting well alone.** 
I am, Sir, yours, &e., 

J. Norton. 

Owen's Hotel, Liverpool, Dec. 28, 1854. 



REMARKS ON A NEW STEAM 
GENERATOR BURNING PURE 
HYDROGEN. 

(Addressed by M. Jametel to M, Sontigny,) 

Sir, — I had ascertained, as well as your- 
self, that evaporation, especially that of 
water, might be considerably assisted by 
multiply ine or increasing the surface in 
contact with the heat I also knew that it 
was possible to increase the amount of heat 
transmitted by a metal by employing heat- 
ing surfaces crossed by bars, immersed to a 
certain depth in fluids, exchanging their 
temperatures ; in fact, beside the advantage 
of a greater mass of heating surface, the 
surface of fluid in conuct with the latter 
(plates or bars also counting as heating 
surfaces) would be continually renewed by 
the simple circulation of the fluids them- 
selves. 

I first construct a eylindrical boiler with 
two hemispherical oovers, the lower one im- 



mersed in a fire, the upper one in connec- 
tion with a dome, furnished with the usual 
appendages of steam boilers. 

This boiler is surrounded with a double 
ease or jacket, in which the products of 
combustion circulate, and which products 
in ascending come in contact with cylindri- 
cal surfaces ending in tbe boiler, after hav- 
ing passed along the sides. The feed-water 
descends in a contrary direction, and comes 
in contact with the said bars, the heat of 
which increases in proportion as they ap- 
proach the bottom, and being already in a 
state of vapour before it has arrived at this 
point, it beeomes surcharged with heat, and 
yields a completely dry steam, which should 
then and there be taken. The products of 
combustion continuing their passage come 
in contact with metallic wire-cloth, which 
removes the laat particles of heat from 
them. 

The whole, boiler and casingt is placed in 
a furnace of masonry, hut a space is left in 
which the air which feeds the combustion is 
heated as it comes in contact with the sides 
of the casing. 

With respect to the combustion I should 
tell yon, that the hydrogen comes in from 
underneath, and into the centre of a circular 
case furnished on the inside with wire-doth, 
the upper cloth carrying a layer of amian- 
thus, on the surface of which the hydrogen 
bums, the necessary air previously heated 
flowing in laterally ihsteto.'^TratuiiUedJrom 
Monsieur IndustrieL 



SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS 
RECENTLY FILED. 

Bellford, Auoubtb EnouaRO Lora- 
Doux, of Castle-street, London, /i^oes- 
mtnts in water-mil machinery, (A commu- 
nication.) Patent dated June 17, ISSi. 
(No. 1326.) 

This machinery is composed of parts for 
taking up the motive power from the water 
in motion, and consists of two or more pa- 
rallel endless chains carrying bucketa or 
paddles. 

Henry, Louis AMBROiaB, of Meta, 
France, engineer. CertaiH improvements in 
constructing railroads. Patent dated June 
19, 1854. (Na 1327.) 

The inventor describes a great variety of 
forms of rails applicable to the permanent 
way of common railways, contrived so aa to 
dispense with the ordinary cast-iron chairs, 
wedges, and cross sleepers ; and a system of 
railroad for common vehicles, consisting of 
flat iron rails fixed at a suitable distance or 
gauge. 

Mears, George, of the Bell Foundry, 
Whitechapel-road, Middlesex, Jmpnvewteuis 



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BPEOIFIOAZEOKS OF PAZKtrrS VEOBXtThY FtLXD. 



in madkmery or apparatus far obitdning 
sound. Patent dated June 19, 1864. (No. 
1330.) 

The object of this invention is to obtain 
sound regulated so as to be produced at cer- 
tain intervals by mechanical means, the 
invention beings particularly applicable to 
the sea- coasts for alarum bells, &c. 

Weber, Joseph Valentin, of Orchard- 
street, St Luke's, London, watchmaker. 
Improvements appiicable to chronometers and 
other mechamtm reqwring a steady spring 
power. Patent dated June 19, 1854. (No. 
1332.) 

Claim. — Combining two mainsprings in 
such manner that the mainspring in imme- 
diate connection with the gomg works shall 
be maintained by the other at a uniform 
tension, during the whole time the m&ohine 
is in operation. 

Oliver, Joseph, of Wapping, Middle- 
sex, manufacturer. Jn improved construction 
of signal lantern. Patent dated June 19, 
1854. (No. 1887.) 

The Admiralty require vessels to hoist, 
when at anchor, a lamp which shall spread 
a light all round the horizon, and when 
under weigh, to throw a light forward only. 
To produce these effects by the use of one 
lantern, the inventor glazes the lantern ail 
round, and fits it with a movable reflector 
or panel, which, when applied, will prevent 
the radiation of light at the back part of the 
lantern. 

Bogus, David, of Fleet-street, London, 
publisher. Atmrnproved apparatus for faeiU^ 
tating the attachment of adhesive stampi. 
(A communication.) Patent dated June 19, 
1854. (No. 1338.) 

The stamps or labels when cut up are ar- 
ranged in a pile and placed in a box, the 
sides of which are formed of four vertical 
plates hinged to a fixed bottom plate. These 
hinged plates are kept iu a vertical position, 
by means of bow strings affixed to the bot- 
tom of the box, and their upper edges are 
bent over outwards, to permit of tlie sides 
of the box yielding when pressed upon 
vertically by the descent of the damped 
paper, which is to be brought down upon 
the upper stamp. 

WoRRALL, Hekrt, of Stalcy- bridge, 
Chester, innkeeper. Improvements in ma* 
chinery or apparatus for carding cottont ufool, 
or other fibrous materials. Patent dated June 
20, 1854. (No. 1389.) 

Claim. — The use of an endless creeper 
with lap drum, comprising rollers and car- 
riers, for the purpose of making the lap of 
cotton or other fibrous substances. 

Brunton, William, of Camborne, Corn- 
wall, civil engineer. Certain improvements 
in melalUc pistons. Patent dated June 20, 
1854. (No. 1340.) 



This invention consists in a method of 
tighlenmg up the piston rings whenever 
required, without the labour of taking off 
the cylinder cover and junk ring of the 
piston, at the same time securing equal 
pressure upon eaoh spring or other power 
required to force out the piston rings during 
the process of tightening. In illustration 
of the nature of the invention, Mr. Brunton 
states that it may be effected by having a 
plug grooved to correspond in number with 
the spring in the piston, fitting into a hole 
in the centre of the piston. The bolts 
which are connected to the springs rest in 
these grooves ; when the piston is first in- 
serted they are placed in the deepest part of 
the groove, or bottom of inclined or wedge- 
like part Through the plug a screw is in- 
serted, having a conical collar, which is 
fitted and ground into the inside of the junk 
ring, a square head to the screw going 
through and extending some l^ inches out- 
side of the junk ring. In the centre of the 
cylinder cover is a hole large enough to 
insert a box spanner, which would fit the 
head of the screw extending out of the junk 
ring, into which hole a plug is inserted when 
the engine or other machine ia at work. 
When the piston requires tightening up, 
the plug in the cylinder cover is taken out,' 
and a box spanner inserted; and by un- 
screwing the screw which is in the plug in 
the centre of the piston, the plug is made 
to return inwards, and the bolts attached to 
the springs forced to a greater distance from 
the centre of the piston by the inclined 
grooves in the said plug, thus tightening 
up the springs. 

Reeves, Charles, of Birmingham, War- 
wick, manufacturer, and William Wells, 
of Sutton Coldfield, Warwick, carpenter. A 
new or improved method of mani{facturing 
certain kind* of metallic tubes. Patent dated 
June 20, 1854. (No. 1343.) 

The inventors mount a pair of dies or 
plates, having tapering grooves round their 
edges, on axes placed eccentrically, in such 
manner that tapering tubes are produced by 
rolling the metal between the edges of these 
dies, on suitable mandrils. 

Day, Joseph, of Birmingham, Warwick, 
manufacturer. An improvement or improve- 
ments in certain kinds of candlesticks. Patent 
dated June 20, 1854. (No. 1344.) 

In this invention a thumb-plate connected 
with another plate, and passing through a 
slot in the candlestick, serves to raise and 
lower the socket, and a spring, made of a 
piece of sheet steel, pressing against the in- 
side of the candlestick, retains the socket in 
its place. 

Stephen, Alexander, of Kekinhaugh, 
near Glasgow, Lanark, ship-builder, and 
Albx AMPE& PUNiE, of Kelvinhsugh, black* 



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SVAOmOATIONS 09 VATEHTS BBGENTLY FILED. 



smith. Ceriaiu i«pfotwM»l« In tk» appUeO' 
tioH i^maUriaU for, and fo tkg arrtmgemtni 
rf mnd wttikod ^ t^^ying, apparatms to be 
Mted at Uwtphiet,/or atetriaining and mark- 
ing tk« proper potMenefor the rivet and belt- 
koke reqmred in the phtet, framee, and other 
inecet or poriione ei the WMiUrUde need in ike 
conetrueiion and mant{faeiwe ef iron ekipe or 
veseeU, hoilere, tanke, matter spare, and other 
eimilar artielee. Patent dated June 20, 1854. 
(No. 1345.) 

Thla invention consists in the use <'of 
open, open^woven, or closely-perforated 
flexible materials for the eonstmotion of 
templates, such as wire-clolh, hair-cloth, or 
cloth of other suitable material, or of perfo- 
rated flexible sheets of sine, copper, nrass, 
or other metals or materials ;" the texture 
of such doth or sheets being such that the 
holes may he seen throu|^h it, and therefore 
accurately marked upon it 

Clayton, Nathaniel, and Joseph 
SuuTTLEwoRTH, agricultural engineers, of 
Stamp-end Iroo-workit, Lincoln. Improve" 
mente in portable and fixed combined thraeh^ 
ing, taking, and winnowing m ao hi ne t. Pa- 
tent dated June 20, 1854. (No. 1847.) 

Claim. — Applying two blowing fans or 
hlowers on the same axis, and dividing the 
lower riddle into two separate oompart- 
ments. In such manner that the corn may 
be a second time dressed. 

Reeves, Robeet, of Bratton Westbury, 
Wilts. Improvements in driUe for dHUing 
liquid manmre. Patent dated June 20, 1854. 
(No. 1349.) 

These improvements consist in dispensing 
with the employment of rotating buckets or 
vessels, and depending on a flow of the ma- 
nure through openings in the vessel con- 
taining the same, one to each funnel, the 
liquid manure being kept constantly stirred 
to insure the flowing out thereof. 

CnrfTENDEN, George R., of Wood- 
street, London. Improvemente in sewing- 
ntaekines. (A communication.) Patent dated 
June 20, 1854. (No. 1351.) 

This invention consists of certain arrange- 
ments for folding bindings for the edges of 
hats and other articles, and for holdine such 
bindings during the sewing action ; also for 
foldiug the edges or selvages of fabrics for 
hemming, and introducing cords, when ne- 
cessary, into the hems or folded edges. 

Newton, William Edwabd, of Chan, 
eery-lane, Middlesex, civil engineer. Jn im- 
proved manmjdeture of pigments or colouring 
matters. (A communication.) Patent dated 
June 20, 1854. (No. 1353.) 

Claim. — " The production of a siccative 
black, brown, or gray pigment or colouring 
matter, by the admixture with the gas tar 
or other organic substance to be carbonized 
for the purpose^ of the oxides of potsssium, 



sodium, ealcinm, aluminum, or other alka- 
line and earthy bases." 

M'Innis, John, of Liverpool, Lancaster, 
oil-merohant. An improved eomposiiion/or 
coating the bottoms </ iron ships to prevent 
their fouling, and other useful purpoeee^ 
Patent dated June 21, 1854. (No. 1856.) 

This invention consists in the application 
of a metallic soap to the bottoms of ships, 
to prevent their muling, by the adhesion of 
animal or vegetable matters, whether the 
metallio soap is mixed with othdr matter or 
not. 

Phtsick, Hbnsy Vebnon, civil en- 
gineer, of North-bank, Regent's. park, Lon.. 
don. Electric telegraphs, and apparatus 
connected therewith. Patent dated June 21, 
1854. (No. 1857.) 

Claims. — 1. The use of more wires than 
one, plaited or twisted together as de- 
scribed, as a conductor for the electricity 
in submarine cables. 2. The use of spirals, 
&c, to distinguish the wires in a tel^rsph 
cable one from the other, and to distin- 
guish one cable from another when several 
are laid together. 3. The use of cotton 
instead of hemp in making telegraph cables. 
4. A certain described plan for preventing 
the slipping of wire supported on insulators, 
and means of fastening insulators to their 
supports. 

Dembinski, Henry, General, of Rue 
Joubert, Paris, France. Iw^mvementtinheat' 
ing apparatus. Patent dated June 21, 1854. 
(No. 1358.) 

The inventor combines two vessels together 
by means of a pair of tubes; to one of 
these, called the heat-receiver, the heat of 
a gas-jet, lamp, or candle is applied, and 
the heated water flows through the upper of 
the tubes into the other vessel, 3tc. 

Newton, William Edward, of Chan- 
eery-lane, Middlesex, civil engineer. Js»- 
provementt in apparalue for generating and 
utilizing steam. (A communication.) Patent 
dated June 21, 1854. (No. 1361.) 

The main object of this invention is to 
apply steam to flre engines, for which pur. 
pose the patentee proposes ** to increase the 
capacity of the boiler from the fire to the 
steam-receiver, and this constitutes the gist 
of the invention." Th» boiler is formed by 
" dividing a coil or ooils oommencing with 
one, then dividing into two, and then sub- 
dividing into four, or any other number," 
the water being received at the bottom, and 
the streams multiplied, or the capacity in- 
creased, as they ascend. 

Rhodes, Thomas, of Vine-street, Ame- 
rica-square, London, merchant An im- 
proved method of framing sehoel-slatee, 
(A communication.) Patent dated June 21, 
1854. (No. 1362.) 

The inventor makes the slate frame of 



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SHBomoAiioirs or PAmm BiGBirrLT vnxs>. 



41 



two piMM of wood, or other Buitablo mite- 
rUl, with rounded eomert, and a groove 
to reoeive the slate, the parts being fas- 
tened together by pins, glue, or eompo- 
Bition. 

Stablbfoed, William, of the Broms- 
grofe BailwajT Carrisfe-works, Woreester, 
foieman to Messrs. Johnson and Kinder, 
railway cootnetors. ImprmtemenU im raU" 
maf bnakM. Patent dated June 21, 1854. 
(No. 1363.) 

The inventor claims— 1. The eonstruo- 
tion of a break oaused to act upon the 
wheels by means of wedges. 2. A oonstruo- 
tion of breaks by which the weight of the 
carriage is caused to act upon them. 3. 
The construction of a double-acting break, 
which is caused to bite upon both sides of 
the wheel. 

HBATUBft, John Fey, M.A., mathema- 
tical master at the Royal Military Aos- 
demy, Wodwich. ImprtmewttHtt m opporo- 
IM for rtgtUaiiHg tk€ /low nf gat. Patent 
dated June 21, 1854. (No. 1865.) 

The inventor jprovides an outer vessel 
eontainiDg fluid, mto which the gas enters 
by a vertical plp«» which rises above the 
surface of the nuid ; there are also tWo air- 
tubes or passages fixed vertically to the 
iiottom of the vessel, and these also rise 
above the fluid. Within the outer vessel 
there is a hollow float, the lower end of 
which ia at all times immersed in the fluid, 
and is air-tjffht in all directions, but the 
upper part ofthe float has two hollow cham- 
bers, which are air-tight only at the top 
and aides, and into these chambers the air- 
passages before mentioned enter, so that the 
air in these chambers, and the outer atmo- 
sphere are at the same pressure. The float 
carries a conical or other valve for regu- 
lating the quantity of gas which is allowed 
to rise up the supply-pipe. 

SiMPSOir, Oboroe, of Union-buildings, 
Leather-lane, Holborn. ImpntvementM in 
fimaees. Patent dated June 22, 1854. 
(No. 1868.) 

The inventor employs hanging bridges or 
stops, in such manner as to have an extent 
of bright fire beyond them. 

Blashpield, Jouh Maeeiott, of Mill- 
wall, Poplar, Middlesex. Improvement* in 
Ike wuuutfnetare of dtina, peitery, bricks, and 
other artieUt wuauifaeiuredfor the mottpart rf 
elag. Patent dated June 22, 1854. (No. 
1369.) 

Claim, — " The use of mmerals or fossils 
eontaining phosphate of lime, and known in 
eommerce m ' e<mrolites,' 'phosphorites,' 
' fossil sponges,' ' fossil faces,' * fossil fiesh,' 
and * fossil bones' in the manufJscture of 
china, pottery, bricks, and other articles of 
which clay is the principal ingredient." 

CowpEE, CiiAELBa» of Southamptou- 



bnildings, Middlesex. ImpfooemenU in ma- 
ckintryfir combing eoiton, wool, flax, tow, silk 
waste, and other firons subeianees. (A com- 
munication.) Patent dated June 22, 1854. 
(No. 1371.) 

This invention consists in certain modifi- 
cations of a former invention, patented by 
the present patentee, February 23, 1852. 

Bbllpoed, Auoustb Edovaed Lora- 
Doux, of Castle-Street, London. Certain 
new and utejkl improvements in maehinerif for 
fo^'ghsg er hammering iron, which may be 
abo appUeaMe to the hammering of other 
materiale, (A eommunieattoo.) Patent 
dated June 22, 1854. (No. 1372.) 

Cfotsis.— 1. A machine for forging or 
hammering iron, &c, having two hammers, 
which simultaneously strike tlie sides of the 
iron, ac6ng in conjunction with a hammer 
which strikes the upper surface of the iron. 
2. The use of the side hammers, either with 
or without the upper. 

Smith, Epheaim, of Carlisle-street, Mid- 
dlesex, jeweller and watch-key maker. An 
improved wateh-key. Patent dated June 22, 
1854. (No. 1373.) 

This invention is an improvement upon 
Bregnet keys, and consists in enabling keys 
to turn either from left to right or vice versd, 
by means of a reversible paul or catch. 

Bbllfoed, Auoustb Bdouaed Loea- 
Doux, of Castle-Street, London. Certain 
improvemenis in grate-bare, and certain ap^ 
pUanees to the same, for the purpose of pre- 
venting them from warping or twisting by 
heat. (A communication.} Patent dated 
June 22, 1854. (No. 1374.) 

This invention consists in casting or 
otherwise securing to the undersides of 
grate-bars, hooks or catches, through which 
one or more transverse bars are inserted, 
the transverse bars serving to hold every 
bar of the grate in its place, while each one 
is allowed to expand and contract independ- 
eotly of the others. 

Peicb, Astlet Paston, of Margate, 
Kent, chemist. Improvements in the treat- 
ment rf certain alloys rf tin. Patent dated 
June 22, 1854. (No. 1376.) 

This invention mainly consists in subject- 
ing certain alloys of tin and gold — such as 
that known as AuttraUan auriferous tin — to 
the action of hydroMitoric acid, so as to dis- 
solve the whole or the greater proportion of 
the tin, the solution of chloride of tin 
being, by evapomtioii and crystal isation, 
rendered suiuble to be employed in the arte 
or otherwise. 

Price, Astley Paston, of Margate, 
Kent, chemist Improoements in the perifi' 
cation rf tin, and in obtaining uetjul products 
arising from such purification. Patent dated 
June 22, 1854. (No. 1377.) 

These iroprovemente consist " in subject- 



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42 



PBOTISIONAL SPECnnCATIOSrS NOT PBOCEBDEI) WITH. 



ing impure tin to the action of hydroohloric 
acid, and in decomposing the solution of 
chloride of tin so obtained by means of am- 
moniaoal gas liquor, or other ammoniacal 
liquor, or with the volatile alkaline ammo- 
niacal products obtained therefrom, or with 
ammonia or carbonate of ammonia, so as to 
precipitate the tin existing in solution^ and 
to obtain a valuable product, muriate of 
ammonia." 

Farrell, Isaac, of Dublin, Ireland, 
architect Improoementt mjire-pro^jlooring 
and roofing, whidi improyementa are also appU- 
cable to the conetruction of toaUs and bridget, 
and other like structures. Patent dated June 
22,1854. (No. 1379.) 

Claim, — ^The application and use of a tile, 
having a button or flange, either formed on 
or attached to it, and projecting from one 
side, or from both sides of it, if found ne- 
cessary. 

Phillips, Charles, of Offchurch, War- 
wick, engineer. The improvement qf appa- 
ratus or machinery for reaping. Patent dated 
June 23, 1854. (No. 1380.) 

The inventor employs bars, cords, chains, 
or other suitable instruments, for inclining 
the com into a suitable position for being 
out ; these, by revolving round two or more 
axles, being caused to act on the corn over 
a larger space than they would by revolving 
round a single axle ; and he combines these 
with rotating circular cutters, against which 
the corn is supported by projections from 
the machine. 

Knab, David Clovis, of Rue Rosini, 
Paris, France, operative chemist Certain 
improvements in the production cf carburets qf 
hydrogen. Patent dated June 23, 1854. 
(No. 1381.) 

The inventor says, '' I operate upon coal, 
turpentine, cannels, lignites, and bituminous 
matters, in a still similar to that described 
in former letters patent granted to me, and 
heat them to a temperature of about 400** to 
500° centigrade, which temperature should 
be constantly, or nearly constantly, kept up, 
by means of a metallic bath, also described 
in former letters patent granted to me." 
The products of these operations upon ooal 
are light oils and essences, which are sub- 
mitted to reotiflcation. 

Bellford, Augusts Edouard Lora- 
Doux, of Castle-street, London. An im- 
provement in propelling vessels in water, (A 
communication.) Patent dated June 28, 
1854. (No. 1883.) 

Claim, — The employment for propelling 
vessels of any number of propellers, having 
each a movement towards and from the side 
of the vessel, and a reciprooatory circular 
movement about an axis. 

Bellford, Augusts Edouard Lora- 
Doux, of Castle-street, London. Certain 



\ts in machinery for picking or 
opening cotton and other fibrous materials, and 
all kimia qfufoste rags and old materiale, to 
prepare the same for the operatiom qf carding, 
or for other operations, (A communication.) 
Patent dated June-23, 1854. (No. 1385.) 

This invention principally consists in 
constructing the main cylinders of ma- 
chinery for picking and opening cotton or 
other fibrous materials, &c., with perfonu 
tions in their shells, through which currents 
of air are driven by fans or wings placed 
within the cylinder. 

RuDD, Tbomas, of Pimlico, engineer. 
Improvements in stands for casks or barrels. 
Patent dated June 23, 1854. (No. 1886.) 

Claim, " Forming a cask or barrel- stand 
actuated continuously through the interven- 
tion of a metallic spring or springs by the 
drawing off of the liquor, so as to give the 
cask or barrel the requisite self-tilting 
action forwards." 

DmsDALE, Tbomas Isaac, of Hadley, 
Middlesex, gentleman. An improvement in 
the manrfacture qf gas for lighting and heat- 
ing purposes. Patent dated June 23, 1854. 
(No. 1889.) 

Claim. The method of operaUng upon 
carbonaceous or bituminous substances by 
the introduction into the retort during the 
process of distillation of jets of superheated 
steam, for the purpose of decomposing the 
same, and causing its elements to combine 
in a nascent state with the gases evolved 
from the carbonaceous "or bituminous sub- 
stances contained in such retort Also 
mixing with solid carbonaceous matters 
fiitty, oleaginous, or resinous substances 
previous to the same being placed in the 
retorts for the production of gas. 

OsBORN, William Ellsworth, of MiU 
ton. New York, United States. Improve- 
ments in breech-loading guns or cannons. Pa- 
tent dated June 23, 1854. (No. 1890.) 

The inventor employs an eccentric or 
cam-shaped piece set on trunnions, *^so 
that the operation of rotating the said 
breech-pieoe on its trunnions by a lever or 
any suitable means, compresses the curved 
surface of the said breech-piece against the 
rear of the bore or calibre of the gun." 



PROVISIONAL SPECIFICATIONS NOT PRO- 
CEEDED WITH. 

Fell, Thomas Mara, of King William- 
street, London, and William Cooke, of 
Curzon-street, Hanover-square, Middlesex. 
Improvements in bottles and bottle^stoppers, 
and in stopping and applying the same. Ap. 
lication dated June 19, 1854. (Na 1328.) 

This invention consists in so manufac- 
turing bottles aqd stoppers for them, that it 



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PBOTXSIOITAL BPEOmCATIONS NOT PROCEEDED WITH. 



is necessary to remove the latter only when 
the fonner are to he filled. 

Anderson, Sir J&mes Caleb, of Fer- 
moy, Cork, baronet An economical railway 
fcr the conveyance qf paseengersj goods, and 
letters. Application dated June 19, 1854. 
(No. 1329.) 

In carrying out this invention, after the 
rails are fixed, they arc to be enclosed in a 
chamber ; and to work the line, the inventor 
"fixes high-pressure engines at such dis- 
tances as may be found requisite. On the 
top of the chamber which encloses the rails, 
the chimneys of the engines are to be 
placed. The exit steam of each engine is 
to he permitted to escape at a good pressure 
into its chimney. By this arrangement the 
air in the chamber will be drawn up the 
chimney, and thus a strong current of air 
will be caused to rush into the chamber at 
the opposite end to that at which the engine 
is at work, and in the direction of the work. 
ingengine." 

Westlakb, John, of Newton Abbott, 
Devon, mine agent. Improvements in treat- 
ing the puherized solution obtained from ma- 
chines used for crushing ores, gossans, earths, 
and rocks. Application dated June 19, 1854. 
(No. 1331.) 

This invention consists in drawing off the 
" pulverized solution V into a vessel, separate 
from the crushing- machine, and having a 
fire at the bottom, and provided with a re- 
volving apparatus, by which the solution is 
brought in contact with mercury. 

Bauer, William, of Munich, Bavaria, 
engineer. Improvements in propelUng vessels. 
Application dated Jime 19, 1854. (No. 
1333.) 

This invention consists in driving screws, 
paddle. wheels, or other propellers, with fans 
or rotating sails, connected with their shafts 
by suitable mechanism. 
Dartiguenave, Prosper Guilhavme, of 
Regent-street, Middlesex, gentleman. Im- 
prooements in aerial navigation. Application 
dated June 19, 1854. (No. 1334.) 

The inventor employs an apparatus simi. 
lar to two parachutes, which rise on being 
pushed up and down, and are steered and 
turned by means of a horizontal flapper and 
a pair of wings. 

SCBLESSINOER, JOSEPH WiLLIAM, of 

London-wall, London, merchant A means 
of readily discovering any street, road, river, 
locality, or place, on maps, cliarts, and plans. 
(A communication.) Application dated June 
19,1854. (No. 1335.) 

This invention consists in combining with 
a numbered or figured margin to maps, 
charts, and plans, a tape or otiier measure, 
with numerals on its surface. 

Relet, Samvel, of Oldham, Lancaster, 
agent. Certain improvements in pocket-hooks, 



43 



bill-cases, or other such depositaries. Appli- 
cation dated June 19, 1854. (No. 1336.) 

This invention consists princip<illy in the 
application of elastic springs or bands to the 
interior of pocket-books, bill-cases, &c., for 
the purpose of securing or retaining notes, 
loose papers, &c., in the pockets thereof. 

AcLAND, James, of Langley-cottage, 
South Lambeth, S urrey,Parliamentary agent. 
Improvements in the mant^aeture of paper. 
Application dated June 20, 1854. (No. 
1341.) 

This invention consists in forming paper 
of the fibrous portions of the roots of pota* 
toes, parsnips, carrots, and turnips, and of 
the roots, stems, and stalks of beet, man- 
gold wuTzel, chicory, and rhubarb, either 
alone or mixed with rag pulp. 

Holt, Thomas Littleton, of Warwick- 
square, Paternoster-row, London, and Wil- 
liam Charlton Foster, of Hatton-garden, 
Middlesex. Making paper. Application 
dated June 20, 1854. (No. 1342.) 

The inventors take clover, nop-stem, 
Italian rye, grass, and old rope, or rags, in 
equal proportions, "or all or either of them 
individually, or in combination with each 
other, or with old rope or rags, as aforesaid,'* 
and make the whole into pulp in a common 
beating engine. 

Jesson, Jean Eugene, clockmaker, of 
Paris, France, An improved barometer, 
called " hydrographer barometer." Appli- 
cation dated June 20, 1854. (No. 1346.) 

The inventor employs a strip of bladder, 
or of gold-beater's skin, which is fixed at 
one end and passed round pullies so as to 
obtain a considerable length of the ribbon 
in a small space. The other end of the 
strip is attached to the shorter arm of a 
lever, and a thread from its longer arm is 
passed round a groove or small pulley on 
the spindle of a registering index. The 
strip is kept extended by means of a weight 
or spring. 

MoNZANi, Willoughby Theobald, of 
St James's- terrace, Bermondsey, Surrey, 
gentleman. An improvement in brushes and 
brooms. Application dated June 20, 1854. 
(No. 1348.) 

This invention consists in the application 
of vulcanized India-rubber or other elastic 
material on those parts of brushes and brooms 
which are liable to be struck against skirt- 
ings, &c. 

Braithwaite, Frederick, of Gower- 
street, Bedford-square, Middlesex, civil en- 
gineer. Improvements in constructing sus- 
pension bridges, roofs, and coverings. Ap- 
plication dated June 20, 1854. (No. 1350.) 

This invention consists in the application 
** of wire-rone, hemp, flax, or cotton ropes, 
canvas or other textile material, iron chains, 
and iron links or bars of whatever lengthy 



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44 



PROVISIONAL SPECXFIGATIOHS HOT PBOOEEBED \7ITH. 



to tbe constrnetion of suspension bridges, 
roois, and coverings." 

McLainb, Alexander, junior, of Bel- 
fist, Ireland, shipbuilder, jiu hnpnoed modt 
rf cenHrwcUng amdJUHmg gtm^boais. A ppH- 
cation dated June 20, 185i. (No. 1352.) 

Gun- boats constructed according to this 
inTention are made of iron, are sharp, 
have rudders at each end, and have very 
little side exposed above the water. In the 
middle of the upper deck, which is of iron, 
a cannon of Isrge calibre is mounted in 
fixed bearings, held down by bolts, which 
pass through the angle iron of the fore and 
aft bulk heads. 

Byekley, Oeqbqb Henry, of Paris, 
France, now residing at Brompton, Middle- 
sex, gentleman. Improvements i» machmtry 
for the mawrfaeture rf hrivkt, tUet, quarries, 
tubes, and other such like articles. Applica- 
tion dated June 20, 1854. (No. 1854.) 

The inventor, by means of certain ma- 
chinery, manufactures hollow bricks, tiles, 
tubes, pipes, &c., from clay or brick earth, 
in a dry or partially dry state, reduced to 
powder, and intimately mixed with sand, 
ashes, or whatever substance it may be 
deemed needful to employ by means of 
pressure. 

Donald, Willtau, and William He- 
GIN BOTH AM, power-loom managers for John 
Ferguson and Co., both of Carlisle, Cum- 
berland. Certain impr oee me nts in looms. Ap- 
plication dated June 21 , 1864. (No. 1 855.) 

This invention has reference to a certain 
arrangement of apparatus whereby the 
weights, ropes, and levers ordinarily em- 
ployed in weaving looms for producing the 
necessary friction to the force-beam are dis- 
pensed with. 

Shaw, James Whitworth, of Birming- 
ham, Warwick, merchant. Improvements in 
apparatus or machinery for prodsuing motive 
power, (A communication.) Application 
dated June 21, 1854. (No. 1360.) 

This invention consists " In a certain ar- 
rangement and combination of an axle with 
a system of shifting radial arms or levers 
furnished with weights, and maintaining a 
motive power by the force of gravity alone 
without any other agent than mechanism." 

Parsons, William, of Paradise-street, 
Lambeth, Surrey, engineer. Improvements 
in rotatory engines. Application dated June 
26,1854. (No. 1364.) 

This invention consists in employing a 
moveable cylinder in such manner that 
when the ensine is at work, the cylinder 
may constantly change its position, and be 
eccentric to its axis, which retains a station- 
ary position, but rotates within the cylinder, 
** and in such manner that the piston which 
is fixed to the axis will be pressed on and 
moved continuously by the same steam." 



Stidolph, William, machinist, of Win- 
toun-place, Greenwich, Kent. A transfer' 
abie book marker. Application dated June 
22, 1854. (No. 1366.) 

The inventor bends a narrow strip of 
metal or other elastic material double, so as 
to fbrm a spring, which is intended to clasp 
the cover, back, or leaves of a book ; and 
at the bend of this spring attaches one or 
more ribbons or strings, which are used as 
marks between the. leaves. He sometimes 
elongates one blsde of the spring, which 
may be then used as a paper knife. 

Yatbb, Thomas Chadwick, of Bolton- 
le- Moors, Lancaster, cabinet maker, /m- 
provements in wickets for the game of cricket. 
Application dated June 22, 1854. (No.l367.) 

This invention consists in connecting the 
three stumps, forming part of the wicket, to 
a stand by means of springs of vulcanized 
India rubber, or other suitable material, 
so that after the stumps are struck, by the 
cricket ball or otherwise, they resume their 
perpendicular positions. 

Brown, William Henry, of Wardsend 
Steel Works, near Sheffield, York, steel 
roller and manufacturer. Jn improvement 
in the construction ff furnaces for the melting 
of steel and other metals requiring a crucible 
in the melting thererfi Application dated 
June 22, 1854. (No. 1370.) 

The inventor employs a portable furnace* 
coated with a subsUnce capable of resisting 
intense heat, and suspended by axes in its 
sides upon a carriage running on wheels or 
rollers. This furnace is to receive the 
crucible, and, along with its carriage, is to 
be drawn out from under the flues or stack, 
the melted metal being poured therefrom 
into the ingot moulds, by the entire furnace 
(crucible included) being tilted by means of 
a pulley or block. 

LooAN, George Fox, of Glasgow, La- 
nark, boiler maker. Improvements in porta^ 
ble winches. Application dated June 22, 
1854. (No. 1375.) 

This invention consists of an arrange- 
ment for increaaing the adaptability of 
the ordinary crab, or similar winches. 

Ermen, Godfrey, of Manchester, Lan- 
caster, cotton spinner. Certain improvements 
in machinery or apparatus for winding yams 
or threads. Application dated June 22, 
1854. (No. 1378.) 

In this invention the yarn or thread is 
wound on to the cards by means of " flyers," 
which are set in motion by small wheels, 
such wheels and " flyers " being regulated 
by other gearins, which stays their motion 
after any given length of yarn is wound on. 
By this arrangement the inventor is enabled, 
he says, *' to wind-either one sinele card or 
a number of cards or suitable substitutes at 
the same time.*' 



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FBOmiOVAL ntOTBCTlONS* 



45 



Db FONTAI1IBUORE1.U, PSTBR ArMANO 

Lbcomtb, of South-Street, London, /m- 
pnmmemU m maekiMnf for the mtmrfaeture 
rf mnU* (Acoimniiiiieation.) Application 
dKted June 23, 1854. (No. 1382.) 

The machinerjr described by the inventor 
consiBU of two cylinder!, in the lower of 
which « groove is made, each of the three 
internal sides of which groove has the form 
of one side of a nail ; " the three tides being 
united, present the form of the three sides 
of a nail, and the groove being divided into 
six parts, aflbrde the space for six nails." 

Brbtfub - Wbrth, SalomoK, and 
Pierre Meunicr, of Saiote Marie-aux- 
Mines (Haut Rhin), France. A new or im- 
proved extern rf applying design* to all 
kmd* rf fabrics, and ^ surfaces ef wood, 
marble, and stone. Application dated June 
23.1854. (No. 1384.) 

Fabrics or other substances, after being 
subjected to one or more baths for render- 
ing them sensitive, are well washed and 
dried. The designs to be reproduced on the 
surface are then laid on it in a suitable man- 
ner, and the whole or part of the surface 
thus treated is exposed to the action of 
solar light during A few moments. The 
surface, naving thus received the image or 
outline of the design, may have any re- 
quired tint given to it by the usual pro- 



WsiLD, John, of Glasgow, Lanark, 
marina surveyor. I mprooemenis in prevent^ 
img the drainage waste rf cargoes an skip^ 
board. Application dated June 23, 1834. 
(No. 1387.) . , 

Th» invention " is carried into practical 
effect by caulking, or otherwise rendering 
perfectly tight the lining or ceiling of the 
chip, so as to prevent leaked matter from 
mixing with the bilge water. Or the same 
thing may be effected by arranging tanks 
or other receptacles for the drainage mat- 
ter to flow into." 

Keybe, John, of Apollo-buildings, Wal- 
worth, Surrey, gentleman. An improved 
method tf loading muskets, r'^s, carbines, 
pistois, and all descriptions qf small arms, 
Kith cartridge, without applying the cartridge 
to the mouth. Application dated June 23, 
1834. (No. 1388.) 

This invention consists in " making 
grooves round the top and the outside of 
the barrel of the small-arm, and round the 
top and outside of the socket of the bayonet 
or sword to be atUched to the small-arm," 
so that by placing the top or end of the 
cartridge on the top and outside of the bar- 
rel of the piece, the end of the cartridge 
may be removable by hand. 

LiOHTBowN, Henry, of Pendleton, 
Lancaster, paper stainer. Improvements in 
drying pulp in the mant^acture qf paper, also 



paper-hangings and printed textile fabrics. 
Application dated June 24, 1854. (No. 
1393.) 

This improvement consists in causing the 
materials to be dried to pass over plates, or 
through chambers, heated by a number of 
jeu of gas. 



PEOVISIONAL PROTECTIONS. 
DaUd October 6, 1834. 

2140. Andrew Smith, of Princet-itraet, Middle- 
lez, elvU engineer. An improved aaJiBty-eage and 
appantut for miners. 

Dated December 16, 1834. 
S647. Daniel Chandler Hewitt, of Richmond, 
Snrrey, profetaor of music. Improrementa in the 
construction of pianofortes. 

2649. John Sjrkea, of Hnddersfldd, York, ma- 
ehine-maker. Improvementa in piecing-machincs , 
a part of which nnprovements are applicahle to 
other similar purposes. 

2«ftl. Thomaa Forshaw, of Manchester, Lancaa- 
ter, calendcrer. Improvements in machinery or 
apparatus for beetling woven ikbrica. 

2663. James Fenton, of Low Moor, York, cItU 
engineer. Imorovements in the manufacture of 
axles, pistons,'rods, and shafts, girders, and other 
like articles. 

2655. Robert Lucas Chance, of Birmingham. An 
Improvement in the manufacture of glass. 

M57. Juliana Martin, of Soho-square, London. 
A safety-apparatus for eDhctually cleaning win- 
dows from the ln»ide of s room. 

Dated December 18, 1834. 

2650. Maria Morrison, of Chelsea, Middlesex. A 
mode of preserving inscriptions and paintings on 
glass, applicable for monumental and other tab- 

2663. Robert Von Seckendorff, of St. Helen's, 
Lancaster, manufacturing chemist. ImproTe- 
roents in concentrating and distilling sulphuric 
acid. 

2665. Thomas Hart, of George-street, Glasgow, 
foreman to Messrs. David and John Anderson, ma- 
nufEictnrers. ImprovemenUin Jacquard apparatus 
for treating. __, ^ ., 

2667. James Cunningham, of west Arthunie, 
Renfrew, North BriUin, bleacher. Improvements 
in starching textile fabrics. _ 

2660. James Pritchard, of Ponsea, Hampshire. 
CerUin improvements In the construction of screw 
propellers. 

Dated October 19, 1854. 

2670. Auguste Fran$oia Joseph Favrel, of Paris, 
gold-beater. A new machine for beating preeious 
metals, applicable to leather and to forging. 

2672. Jean Baptiste Palgulbrc, engineer, of Mar- 
seille, French Empire. Certain improvements in 
apparatus and maciOnery for propelling boats and 
vessels on water. ^ „,jji 

2673. John Avery, of Essex-street, Middlesex. 
Improvements in machinery for cutting metallle 
bars. A communication fTom Samuel Hall, of New 
York, United Statea of America. 

2674. Frederick Robert Augustus Glover, of 
Bnry-street, Westminster, M.A. Improvements In 
or applicable to the construclion of eanlages. 

2675. Joseph Gorton Briggs, of Ktngslaad, Mid- 
dlesex, gentleman. Improvements in the manu- 
facture of fuel. 

2676. James Langridge and Richard Langridge, 
of Bristol. Improvementa in stays or corsets. 

2677. Joeeph Tucker, of <3nlnea-street, Bristol, 



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46 



NOTICES OF lATJWTiON TO PROOEED. 



■hip-buIIder. An IttproTement in the oonstnielion 

of ships for saving persons in case of shipwreck. 

2678. Joseph Quick, of Sumner-street, Sonth- 
wark, clril engineer. Improvements in the con- 
struction of ftimaces. 

Dated December 20, 1854. 

2679. William Bittleston, senior, of Mary-street, 
Middlesex, architectural and engineering draughts- 
man. Improvements in ploughs. 

2680. R. B. HuVgens, of Holland. Improvements 
in ordnance and fire-arms, and in the projectiles to 
he used therewith. 

2681 John Paul, of Manchester, Lancaster, pa- 
per-stainer. Improvementt in machinery or appa- 
ratus for colouring or staining the surfaces of 
paper, leather, woven fabrics, and similar mate- 
riaJs. 

2682. John Higgins, of Oldham. Lancaster, en- 
gineer. Improvements in steam boilers, and appa- 
ratus connected therewith, parts of which improve- 
ments are applicable to valves and steam indica- 
tors. 

2684. William Milner, of Liverpool, Lancaster, 
fireproof-safe manufacturer. Improvements in 
safes, and other such depositories, and further im- 
provements in the locks of the same. 

2686. Alexander Cochrane, of Kirkton Bleach 
Works, Renfrew, North Britain, bleacher. Im- 
provements in starching textile fabrics. 

2686. Richard Whytock, of Edinburgh, and Tho- 
mas Preston, of Nottingham. An improvement in 
the manufacture of fabrics by twist-lace machinery. 

2687. George Tomlinson Bousfield, of Sussex- 
place, Loughborough - road, Brixton. Improve- 
ments in machinery for splitting leather. A com- 
munication. 

2688. Robert Walker, of Glasgow, merchant. 
Improvements in telegraphing. 

Dated December 2}, 1854. 

2689. Thomas and Samuel Baker, of Liverpool! 
Lancaster, engineers. Improvements in the mode 
or method of lifting or lowering weights or heavy 
bodies by steam or hand power. 

2690. JohnYenables and Arthur Mann, of Burs- 
lem, Staflford, earthenware manufacturers. Print- 
ing and fixing self and other colours in china, 
earthenware, parian, gypsum, stoneware, bricks, 
blocks, bats, slabs, tiles, quarries, glass, metals, 
hardware, gums and gummeoua sulMtances, and 
papier-roach6 ware. 

2691. George Bell, of Cannon-street West, Lon- 
don, and George Charles Grimes, of Wandsworth, 
Surrey. Improvements in the manufacture of 
lucifer or congreve matches, and other instanta- 
neous lights. 

2692. William Bertram, of Upper Harden-street, 
Woolwich, Kent. Improvements in the manufac- 
ture of iron ships, steam and other boilers, bridges, 
and other structures where numerous sheets of 
iron are used. 

2693. William Greener, of Birmingham, War- 
wick, gun -maker. Improvements & repeating 
military rifles, carl ines, and pistols, and in cart- 
ridges to be used therewith. 

2694. Henry Render, of Liverpool, Lancaster, 
gentleman. Improvements in the manufacture of 
night-lighU. 

2696. Gustavo Iren^ Sculfort, manuflacturer, of 
Maubeuge, French Empire. Certain improve- 
ments in manufoetnring screw-plates. 

2697. Jabez Smith, of Bedford, silk-mercer. An 
improved buckle or Aistening. 

2698. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's4nn- 
fields, Middlesex, gentleman. Improvements in 
the manufteture of railway and other wheels. A 
communication flrom Hippolite Ullysse Petin and 
Jean Marie Gaudet, of Rive de Gier, France, ma- 
nufhoturers. 

2699. John Henry Johnson, of Linooln's-inn- 
fields, Middlesex, gentleman. Improvements in 



the application of the eleetrotype or galvano-plAstIc 
processes. A communication from Etienne iSenolr, 
of Paris, France, galvanlzer. 

Dated December 22, 1854. 

2700. Louis Joseph Fr£dMe Margnerltte, che- 
mist, of Paris, France. Improvements in the ma- 
nufacture of sulphuric acid. 

2702. John Hunt, of Birmingham, Warwick, 
brass-founder. An improvement or improvements 
in illumination. 

2704. Robert Ashworth, of Rochdale, Lancaster, 
engineer, and Samuel Stott, cotton-spinner, also of 
Rochdale, Lancftster. Improvements in machinery 
for preparing, tpinning, an^l doubling fibrous sub- 
stances. 

2706. Edward Loyscl, of Rue de Gretry, Paris, 
France, civil engineer. An improved apparatus 
for cooking or preparing edible substances. 

2708. John Henry Johnson, of Lineoln's-inn- 
fields, Middlesex, gentlemsn. Improvements in 
electro-magnetic engines. A communication from 
Thomas C. Avery, of New York, United States of 
America. 

2710. Felix Marie Baudouin, of Paris. France. 
Improved means of isolating and testing the isola- 
tion of the wires of electric telegraphs. 

Dated December 23, 1854. 

2712. Barthtflemy Martin Giroux, of Liege, Bel- 
glum, locksmith and mechanician. Improvemente 
in the construction of locks. 

2714. John Francis Porter, of Besborough-street, 
Middlesex, civil engineer.. Improvements in the 
manufacture of bricks and tiles. 

2716. John McKelvey, of Belfast, Antrim, Ire- 
land. Certain improvements applicable to spin- 
ning, twisting, and roving or slubbing flax and 
other fibrous substances. 

2718. Charles Henfrey, of Turin, Sardinia, civil 
engineer^ Improvements in the constnirtion of 
ridlways for steep gradients, and in the machinery 
or apparatus employed therein or connected there- 
with. A communication from Signor Pasquale 
Delorenai, of Turin, Sardinia. 



PATENT APPLIED FOR WITH COMPLETE 
SPECIFICATION. 

2764. Samuel Smith Shipley, of Stoke Newing- 
ton, Middlesex. Improvements in fittings suit- 
able for dressing-cases, and for other purposes of 
elegance and utility. December SO, 1854. 

1. Epaminonda Frascara, of Alessandria, Pied- 
mont, now of Alfred place, Bedford square. A 
voltaic pile, and of the appllcatioa of its electric 
fluid either to the decomposition of water, or to 
enable the gases to r: place the steam power actually 
in use. January 1, 1855. 



NOTICES OF INTENTION TO 
PROCEED. 

{From the ** London Gazette," January 9tt, 
1855.) 

1880. Thomas McNally. Improvements appli. 
cable to window-sashes or shutters. 

190). Julian Bernard. Improvements in the ma- 
nufacture of combs. 

1908. John Macmillan Dunlop. Improvemeuts 
in machinery or apparatus for preparing, cleaning, 
and cuttins India-rubber and gutta percha. Partly 
a communication. 
. 1914. James Danks. An improvement or im- 



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WXEXLT IIBT OW PATENTS. 



47 



CBTKnento in tnkttandt, wbieh imiiMTeineiit or 
proTemmts may also be appUod to the itoppen 
of bottlee, the packing of piitont, and other Jlke 



1919. Henry Bemonlli Barlow. Improyements 
In machinery for cleaning cotton and other fibrous 
mnterlals. A communication. 

1927. Janice Parker. An improTement or Im- 
prorements in the smoke-boxes of locomotiTe 
engines. 

I94S. John Henry Pape. ItnproTements in wind 
musical Instruments. 

1851. Paul Adolphe Oamaud. Improvements in 
oeitain gasogene apparatus used for the production 
of aBrated liquids. 

19T0. Achille Ouyardin. The use of a certain 
ibrons matter for the manufiieture of paper and 
pasteboard. 

1990. Attguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford. tm- 
proTcments in electro-magnetic clocks. A com- 
munication. 

1999. Alfred Wilson and George Wilson. Im- 
prorements in knitting machinery. 

2070. Thomas Clayton and Robert Harrop. Im- 
proTements in ornamenting wood, and in the ma- 



chinery or apparatus connected therewith. 
2089. Charles William Lancaster. Impro^ 
in flre-arms and in cartridges to boused therewith. 



2091. Louis Beer. Certain improvements in 
nnchlnery for shearing piled terry or ndsed fabrics. 

2121. Alfred Vinoent Newton. Improvements 
to mocive-power engines, applicable to the work- 
ing of thor valves, and to the conversion of the 
reeiproestfttng motion of such engines into rotary 
motion. A communication. 

2180. Edward John Seville. An Improvement 
In the manufacture of hats. A communication. 

2205. John Henry Pape. Improvements in the 
mannflMStUTe of boots and shoes. 

2590. Eugtoe Antoine L6pine. Certain powders 
and collyrinm for curing the diseases of the eve, 
without the use of surgical operations, to which 
Invention be has given the name of "Lupine's 
Ophthalnuriioglcal Powders and Collyrlum." 

2442. George Tomilnson Bousfleld. Improve- 
ments in preventbig incrustation in steam boilers. 
A communication. " 

2471. William Arlstideo V6rel. Improvemento 
In grinding or pulverising bones. 

2503. Thomas Restell. Improvements In um- 
breUaa, parasols, and cases or ccvers, and walking- 
sticks. 

2530. Thomas Restell. Improvements in guns. 

2577. Thomas Metcadfe. An improved construc- 
tion of bath chair. 

2017. John Hesmith. The man.'.faoture of wire 
netttog and wire fence by power. 

2094. Samuel Fisher. CcrUin * improvements 
in ordnance, and in machinery and apparatus to 
be employed in manufacturing the same. 

2027. Thomas Hsimes. Improvements in warp 
machinery. 

2030. James Redgate, James Thornton, and 
Edwin Ellis. Improvements in machinery for the 
manufacture of laee and other fsbrlcs. 

2003. Robert Yon Seekendorff. Improvements 
in eoneeutrating and distilling sulphuric acid. 

2072. Jean Baptiste Palgui^re. Certain improve- 
ments in apparatus and machinery for propelling 
boats and vessels on water. 

2078. Joseph Quick. Improvements in the con- 
struction of fUmaees. 

2085. Alexander Cochrane. Improvements in 
sUrehfaig textile fabrics. 

2080. Richard Whytock and Thomas Preston. 
An improvement in the manufiieture of ftibrics by 
twist laee machinery. 

2088. Robert Walker. ImprovemenU in tele- 



"iSifS;- 



9090. John Henry .Johnson. Improvemento in 
the maanfteture of railway and other wheels. A 
communication from Hippolite Ulysse Petin and 



Jean Bfarle Gaudet, of Rive de Gier, Fnaee, ma- 

nufacturers. 

2708. John Henry Johnson. Improvements in 
electro-magnetic engines. A communication from 
Thomas C. Avery, of New York, United States of 
America. 

1. Epaminonda Fraseara. A voltaic pile, and of 
the application of its elastio fluid either to the de- 
composition of water, or to enable the gases to 
replace the steam power actually in use. 

Oppositiou can be entered to the granting 
of a Patent to any of the paitieo in the 
above List, who have given notice of their 
intention to proceed, within twenty - one 
days from the date of the Gazette in which 
the notice appears, by leaving at the Com- 
missioners' -office particulars in writing of 
the objection to the applicntion. 



NOTICE OF APPLICATION FOR LEAVE 
TO ENTER DISCLAIMER. 

An application has been made to Her Majesty's 
Attorney-general by Charlotte Smith, wife of Jabes 
Smith, of Bedford, for leave to enter a disclaimer 
for the purpose of disclaiming a certain part of the 
specification of a patent granted to her, 14tb May, 
1849, for "improvements in certain articles of 
wearing apparel." 



•▼- 

WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS. 

Sealed January 5, 1855. 
1499. Joseph Ellisdon. 
1521. William Houghton and Robert 

Hoyle. 
1591. Richard Roberts. 
1681. Alfred Vincent Newton. 
1841. William Johnson. 
1917. George Lewis. 
2227. Peter Armand Lecomte de Fon- 

tainemoreau. 
2327. Charles Hargrove. 
2357. Thomas Metcalfe. 
2883. Frederick Smith. 

Sealed January 8, 1855. 
1502. William Robertson and Robert 

Crighton. 
1506. Felix Lieven Bauwens. 

Sealed January 9, 1855. 
1517. Thomas Richards Harding. 
1536. Arthur James Lane. 
1538. John Greenwood and Robert Smith. 
1540. Edwin Travis. 
1546. William Bishop. 
1552. Astley Paston Price. 
1622. John Henry Johnson. 
1654. Franguls Desiri Molve and Pierre 

Martin. 
1720. John Cunningham. 
1730. Samuel Lucas. 
1746. Jean Bantiste Ambroise Marcelin 

Jobard. 



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48 



N0TIGS8 TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



1978. John Norton. 

2370. Edme Augustin Chameroy. 

2384. George Roas. 

The above PatenU all bear date aa of the 
day on which Proviaional Protection waa 
granted for the aeveral inventions men- 
tioned therein. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

M, /. Bummkwer, anthor of the " M^tht du 
Sgrtiwu PlaniMrt DhtoiM," wrltet tnta Bnit- 
Mto in refutation of Mr. Maihet's remarks upon 
the Rotation of the Moon ; hut we do not intend 
re>openinK that question at pretent. lie offen to 
■end an article, "5«r d'auire$ erreura tnaeignSea 
par Vmslronomie ^m^urd^hui,'* wbteh we shall 
be Rlad to receive. 

F. E, W. wishes to know if any of our corre- 



spondents can inform him why Perkins's sleam 
gnn is now capable of throwing no more than 60 
balls per minute, seeing that, thirty years ago, it 
was represented by scientific Journals, on the au- 
thority of the late Mr. Perkins, to be capable of 
protlecting upwards of 400 in that time. " F. S. W." 
also states that Mr. Perkins was then convineed 
that a steam engine might be made to throw a ball 
of a ton weifht from Dover to Calais. 

/. ThomUntwn.~~Ywx must send ns the date of 
the patent you refer to, as well aa the number, be- 
fore we can answer your first qneation. The Lam 
T%mu will probably furnish you with the report 
yon refer to; we do not know how else you can 
obUin it. 

A. F.— It wiU not be nosaible for you to complete 
your studies as a civil engineer unless you put 
yourself in communication with some gentleman 
of that profession. The acquiremenu you say you 
possess i^ord an admirable basis for the knowledge 
you will have to gain. If you pleaae, we will Air- 
nish you with a list of books you womld do well to 
study. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



Bayliss's Patent Smokeless Furnace — («iM 

enaravimgi) m.... S5 

On Permanent Ways— (Review) 27 

On the Incrustation of Steam Boilers. By M. 

Coust^ 20 

Forsyth's Improved Furnace and Boiler— (tp«A 

an engraving) 81 

Burch's Improved Safety-ships— (wiM an m- 

gravhag) ^ 82 

Improvement in Ounnefy 88 

M'Cormick's Reaping-machine—Infringement 

of Mr. M'Cormick's Patent 84 

Improvement in Account-books— {m'/A an m- 

eravliiff ).•..•••...•••.... •M.M.....M •.••••*•..... •..*...• 84 

On ParlumenUry Smoke... 85 

On Launching Ships 86 

On Ordnance and Onnpowder 87 

The RIfie, and Expanding Rifle Shot 88 

Remarks on a New Steam Generator Burn- 
ing Pure Hydrogen 88 

Specifications of Patents recently Piled : 

Bellford Water-mills 88 

Henry Permanent Way 88 

Meats Regulating Sound 88 

Weber Chronometers 80 

Oliver ...Signal- lantern 80 

Bogue Afllzing Stamps 80 

Worrall Carding-machinery 80 

Brunton Metallic Pistons 80 

Re ves at Wells ....Metallic Tubes . 80 

Day Candlesticks 80 

Stephen at Pimie.. .Templates v 80 

Clayton & Shuttle- 
worth Thrashing-machines ... 40 

Reeres Manure Drills... 40 

Chittenden Sewing Machines 40 

Newton Pigments 40 

M'Innis Coating Iron Ships 40 

Physick Electric Telegraphs ... 40 

Dembinski Heating Apparatus .... 40 

Newton Stenm 40 

Rhodes M.Sehool-slntes 40 

Stableford Breaks 41 

Heather...... Gas Regulator 41 

Simpson Furnaces 41 

Blashfleld China. Potteir, ftc 41 

Cowper Combing Machinery ... 41 

Bellford Forging Metals 41 

Smith Watch-keys 41 

Bellford Grate-bars 41 



Price Alloys of Tin 41 

Price Purifying Tin 4! 

Farrell Fire-proof Flooring, fto. 4f 

Phillips ...Reaping Machine 42 

Knab Carburets of Hydrogen 42 

Bellford Propelling 42 

Bellford Fibrous Materials 42 

Rudd Barrel Stands 42 

Dimsdale ..Manufacturing Gas ... 42 

Oabom Breech-loacUngGuna... 42 

Provisional Speciflcatiens not Proceeded with : 

Fell ft Cooke Bottles and Stoppers^. 42 

Anderson Railways...* 42 

Westlake ..Separating Ores 43 

Bauer Propelling 42 

Dartiguenave...... A6iial Navigation ...... 4S 

Schlessinger Maps and Cbarta 43 

Riley Pocket-books 43 

Acland Paper 48 

Holt ft Foster Paper 42 

Jesson Hydn^apher Baro- 
meter 43 

Monaani ^....Brushes and Brooms... 43 

Bralthwaite Suspension Roofs, ftc. 43 

McLaine Gunboats 44 

Byerley Bricks 44 

Donald ft Hegin- . 

botham Looms 44 

Shaw Motive Power.. 44 

Parsons ,...m... Rotary Engines 44 

Stidolph.. Book-markers 44 

Yates Cricket WIckeU 44 

Brown Furnaces 44 

Logan ^ Portable Winches ...... 44 

Ermen Winding Machinery ... 44 

Do Fontainemo- 

reau Nails 45 

Drevfus-Werth ft I Applying Designs to 

Meunier / Surfaces... 45 

WeUd Merchant Veoseis ...... 45 

Keyse Loading Fire-arms...... 45 

Lightbown Drying Pulp 45 

Provisional Protections 45 

Patent Applied for with Complete Bpeelflca- 

tion M.. ..M ....M. 46 

Notices of Intention to Prooeed..........M......... 46 

Notice of Application for leave to Enter Dis- 
claimer , 47 

LUt of Sealed Patents 47 

Notices to Correspondents ..., 48 



LONDON : Edited, Printed, and Published by Richard Archibald Brooman, of No. 166 Fleet-street, 
In the City of London.— Sold by A. and W. Gailgnani, Rue Vivienoe, Paris; Machln, and Co, 
Dublin ; W. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburg. 



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Ptfjfanifs' pap^be. 



No. 1641.] SATURDAY, JANUARY 20, 1855. [ !■''«»<' 



SUmpel 4d. 
Edited by R. A. Brooman, IM, Fleet-street. 



LAMPORT'S IMPROVEMENTS IN SHIPBUILDING. 
Fig. 1, Fig. 2. 



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50 

LAMPORT»S IMPROVEMENTS IN MACHINERY USED IN SHIP- 

BUILDING. 

(Patent d4t«4 Febnuiry 25, 1854.) 

Mr. Lamport, of Workington, ship-builder, has patented an arrangement of machinery 
which is intended to supply the place of hand labour in several of the operations practised 
by the builders of ships. 

In preparing the frame of a ship, the builder usually trims the timbers which are to com- 
pose it to the shapes and sizes required by the form of the ship by means of manual labour, 
as they lie upon the ground« He then hoists them into their places, and after arranging 
them as accurately as possible, by means of harpins, ribands, shores, &o., trimi off from 
them, by means of adzes, any irregularities that may have arisen from defective moulding 
and bevelling, or fVom the straining of the frames, so that they shall present a fair surface 
to the plank that is afterwards brought upon them. Instead of proceeding in this manner, 
Mr. Lamport roughs the timbers out with an axe ox a ^w, and in this state pute the frames 
together, and, when in place, reduces them to the mouldings and beyellings (marked on 
each from the moulds in the ordinary way), by means of revolving cutters or planing irons, 
set in motion by steam or other motive power. For thij purpose he employs an ordinary 
railway for a travelling crane to run the whole length of the slip on which the ship is to be 
built. Upon, and pendant from, the transverse carriage, he has a moveable frame to sus- 
tain the pullies, shafts, wheels, and apparatus necessary to give motion to the cutters, which 
are so arranged as to move up and down the pendant frame, so as to adjust them to the 
required height on the frame of the ship, while the travelling carriage will carry the frame 
along the ship's side, as may be necessary. He communicates motion to the puUies and 
cutters by means of shafts or continuous bands, either at the level of the railway, or at any 
advisable height upon the pendant frame, and capable of being raised or lowered as required. 
He also employs the machinery to bore the bolt and treenail holes in the frames and planks 
of the ship, by the substitution of centre-bits, augers, or other borers, in place of the cutters. 
He further employs the machinery to dress and plane the planks on the ship, the stanchions, 
bulwarks, and other parts, and to mould the rails, gunwales, and other parts, ai well as to 
plane or fair the flat of the deck ; and he uses the same machinery to bore the holes in the 
plates and angle irons, and other parts of iron ships, when in place, so as to ensure the exact 
coincidence of the several holes in the different parts. 

Figs. 1 and 2 represent elevations, partly in section, of the machine, and figa» 3 and 4 are 
plans, also partly in section, of the upper and lower parts of it. "-Upon the cross carriage, 
A, of an ordinary travelling crane," says the inventor, ** the railway for which may be car- 
ried along the heads of strong stage poles, or the supports of a shed covering the slip, is 
placed a small carriage, B, on four wheels, in the middle of which, and between the sides 
of Che cross carriage, A, is a circular iron frame, C, to which are attached, or through sta- 
pies in which may slide up or down, four pendants of wood or iron, D, D. The top of C ia 
formed by a flange which rests upon and freely turns in a strong iron ring, O, supported oy 
the trunnions or pivots, H, H, resting on the carriage, B. In the ring, or in the flange, are 
four or more rollers, I, I, so that the frame, C, with its pendants, D, D, can freely turn on 
its own axis, or swing on the pivots, H, H. Placed within the iron frame, C, is a grooved 
pulley, K, driven by the rope, L, which extends the whole length of the slipway, ana which 
is kept in its relative position to the frame, C, by guide puUies and a weighted pulley at the 
farthest extremity. Connected with K are the wheel and pinion, M and N, and the pulley, 
O, which by the strap, P, drives the planing shaft, Q, and the boring shaft, R. These are 
attached to a frame and platform, S, which slide up and down the pendants, D, by means of 
a winch, T, and ropes or racks, so as to adjust the cutters and drills to their required posi- 
tion on the ship's side; or instead of the said frame, S^ sliding upon the pendants, I propose 
to fix it to the bottom of the said pendants, and cause them by the action of the winch, T, 
to slide up through the frame, C, by which means the said platform, &c., will be always 
above and out of the way of the stages required along a ship's side. Motion fore and aft 
the ship is caused by the rotation of the square shaft, Vf, and pulley, Y, acting upon the 
stationary rope, Z. The rope being fixed at the stem and stern post of the ship, will oblige 
the carriage, B, nud frame, C, &c., to follow theturve of the ship's side at the same time 
they move longitudinally, while the sheer curve or curve of the plank upwards is followed 
by the guides or shoes, £, so as to keep the cutters in their proper place on the ship's side 
as the machine progresses. The shaft, W, can be stopped or made to reverse ite motion by 
means of the lever and rone, X, acting upon two small bevel wheels. The plate supporting 
the pedestals and shafts, Q and R, is intended to move fore and aft, so as to allow the cut- 
ters, &c., to clear the outside of the pendants, D, D, that they may work under such shores or 



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51 



props 18 may be r«qaiilte to support the frames, and also angularly by the handle and sorew, 
F, so as to adjust the cutters to a greater degree of nicety than can be done by the turning 
of the whole frame. The mode of working is as follows : — The ship's frames are roughed 
out without regard to the exact bevelling by axe or common vertical or circular steam saws, 
and pot together without dressing, the exact curve of the mould being marked clearly on 
the moulding edge of such set of timbers. The frames are then erected in the ordinary way 
with strong ** ribands," so that as few shores as possible may be required, and a few bilge 
planks inside and out put on, and firm packings put under the bilges. The machine can 
then be set to work. The guide-rope, Y, will keep the apparatus close to the ship's side as 
it moves along, while the guides, £, control the action of the cutters which plane the tim- 
bers, until the surface is wrought fair with the moulding line on each timber. By this 
simple prooeM the form of the frame and the true bevelling will be worked correctly, while 



Fig. 8. 



Fig. 4. 



the outside edges of the cutters are planing the upper edge of the plank to any given angle 
with the perpendicular surface of the frame, and ensuring a correct and even seam for caulk- 
ing. When one machine only is at work on a ship, the carriage, B, must be pushed to the 
other extremity of A, to the other side of the ship, and the frame, C, and pendants turned 
entirely round in the ring, O, the driving and guide ropes having been previously detached. 
In the wake of the shores the machine can be swung or moved off, and brought to again on 
the other side, the cutter plate and shaft havine been caused to traverse sufficiently to work 
under the shore. At each extremity of the snip, where the timbers incline outwards, the 
frame, D, D, must be swung until the face of the eutters are parallel to the timber. It may, 
however, be advisable to work some of the frames aft under the quarter, in the ordinary 
way." 



THE "SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN." 



In our number for November 25th, 1854, 
we drew attention to a series of articles, in 
course of publication in the above journal, 
and by comparing passages contained in 
them with others quoted from Mr. Wood- 
croft's " Appendix to the Specifications of 
I^ogHsh Patents for Reaping Machines," 
established a charge of elaborate plagiarism 
against its editor. In his number for De- 
cember 23rd, that gentleman has devoted an 
article to the consideration of the subject. 

The production is certainly characterised 
by great bitterness, and is evidently in- 
tended to accomplish our destruction. We 



are, nevertheless, disposed to treat it with 
much forbearance, remembering the diffi- 
culties which beset our contemporary in 
concocting it The act imputed to him was 
gross, the evidence perfect, the conclusion 
unavoidable. No sensible man, therefore, 
will be surprised to learn that he writes 
vindictively. Is it not the function of tor- 
ture to beget rage ? 

And yet, since rage blinds its possessor, 
it is a dangerous element in polemics. This 
our contemporary has unhappily forgotten 
(much to his detriment) ; and the conse- 
quence is, that as in November we put him 
e2 



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THE ** 8CIBNTIFIG AMSRICAN/ 



to sluune before our readers, so he in De- 
cember, puts himself to shame before hu 
own. The eomposition of our *' Scientific" 
friend is of such a character, that while it 
necessitates a repulse, it holds forth no 
invitation to a contest. We see in it no 
indications of any of those qualities which 
render an antagonist worthy to be warred 
with. He does not come 

** Breathing and sounding beauteous battle/' 
but staggers on to the field with no other 
weapon than a bludgeon, and no other 
impulse than revenge. We care not to war 
with him. Who would feel any pride in 
confronting an opponent who brings neither 
honour nor intellect to the combat ? Who 
could experience any delight in contending 
with a foe who has neither blood for the 
sword of satire to draw, nor bones for the 
artillery of syllogisms to crush "? 

We will, however, offer a few observations 
to our readers on the rejoinder before us, 
dealing first with the main subject — the 
plagiarism — which is, of course, the most 
painful thing to our contemporary, and a 
thing he would be most happy to ignore ; but 

** Our acts our angels are, or good or III ; 
Our fatal shadows that walk by us still." 

Concerning this plagiarism the plagiarist 
says many things in which we know not 
whether eonaUtency or truth shines the 
brighter. In the first place, he intimates 
an intention of acknowledging hereafter the 
source of the borrowed passages. He says, 
** If the editor had only held on to his bad 
passions until the close of our series on 
reapers, he would not have had occasion to 
expend so much virtuous indignation." We 
seriously vrish, for the honour of onr craft, 
that this poor loop-hole of escape were left 
open to onr contemporary; hut, alas! he 
himself has securely blocked it up, by mu- 
tilating what he appropriated. It will be 
recollected by our readers, that the extracts 
quoted were so sadly garbled, that they 
could not, in their new form, be imputed to 
the author of the "Appendix" witiiout an 
infliction of injustice, and an exhibition of 
impudence. Unhappy the man who, having 
defaced the furtive coin, ia able neither to 
retain nor to return it ! Were we right in 
naming our contemporary the "Knowing 
American'* ? 

Again, this far-sighted editor quotes a 
remark made to him by a ''very intelligent 
foreigner," to the effect that, *' the collec 
tion of reaping machines is not the work 
of Mr. Woodcroft, but is a public work, pub- 
lished by authority through that mvom." 

This, most assuredly, is not less, if it be not 
greater, than an error. The work was pre- 
pared wholly by Mr. Woodcroft, before his ap- 
pointment to the office of the Commissionets 



of Patents, and is published, not *'by the 
authority," but " under the sanction" of the 
Commiisioners. Besides, if the work vert 
a public one, why should any gentleman be 
simple enough to trouble himself with 
transposing and eliminating words, and ef- 
fecting all sorts of insignificant changes in 
the woodcuts ? Why should he not appro- 
priate unaltered what he is not gifted with 
the power of improving? 

Onr acute contemporary has, however, yet 
another justification of himself to offer ; and 
this is embodied in an argument. Here it i< : 
" Our readers will notice that we acknow- 
ledge the original sources from whence all 
our information about foreign reapers is de- 
rived, by naming the publication ; therefore 
the remarks of the Magazine are entirely 
gratuitous and impertinent" There is a 
charming petitio prineipU! There is a 
sensible appeal ! The readers of the Sciem" 
tific American will notice that their editor 
acknowledges the sources whence " all" his 
information is derived! Indeed! Then 
they will, of course, notice that the editor 
has acknowledged what he just now said he 
intended to acknowledge "at the close of 
our series on reapers." He who is dull in 
the execution of knavery, evidently should 
not enter upon his own defence. Our 
readers will see that they could be furnished 
with no stronger confirmation of the charge 
of plagiarism than ia supplied in the reply 
of the plagiarist 

We have already said that our contempo- 
rary has sought to compass our destruction. 
We have now to add, that in pursuing this 
object, he has recourse to most curious ex- 
pedients. For instance, he first assails our 
reputation by establishing our impartiality. 
This he does, very effectually, by quoting a 
foot note appended to certain Remarks of 
ours, on American *' literary and scientific 
pyrotechnics," in November, 1853. lu this 
note we mentioned the Seientjfic Jmeriean as 
one of several American journals, in which 
sensible improvements had taken place. We 
did so honestly and cheerfully, and regret 
that our contemporary has made that praiae, 
which he has shown we are anxious to ren- 
der, no longer appropriate. 

The Scient\fic American tlien speculates 
upon the causes of our expoti of his plagi- 
arism (which to him are, of course, quite 
occult); and hits upon this elucidation t 
"Our list" (of subscribers) "comprises 
English lords. • • • Perhaps a know- 
ledge of these facts are like a thorn iu the 
editor's side." Oh, Republican contempo- 
rary ! 

Here is another gueas : " Or perhaps he 
is smarting under our defence of Mr. 
Hobbs." The secret of this passage is con- 
tained in the fact, that on our announcing 



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THE " 6CIENTIFI0 AMEBICAM/ 



53 



tbe picking of Mr. Hobbs's locks by Mr. 
Goater, the Seiemtifh American imroediately 

Claimed, e« oar tmihmity, that the cele- 
sd NeweU lock had been picked, and 
some time after attacked us for what its own 
blundering had eflectod. We did not take 
the trouble to reply or explain, because oar 
language was, at the first, perfectly intelli- 
gible : it was as follows : ** In short, Mr. 
Hobbs, by falling back upon the large and 
etpennoe lock, attempts to divert public 
attention from the fact that the principal 
part of the locks issued by him may be 
picked in a very few minutes." 

There is but one other thing suggested in 
the article before us, which calls for an ob- 
serration, tie., tlie SeienU/k American's esti- 
mate of itself, which is extremely high, (and 
which will probably lead to an enormous 
increase in its circulation.) The " editorial 
labour " which that journal ** contains," is 
a theme on which the *' editor " dwells with 
great delight We shall not here enter 
upon a general criticism of tlie publication, 
because that might divert attention from 
the plagiaritm which is our theme. But as 
we are dealing with the " editorial page " 
of the number for December 23rd, in which 
the article in question appears, we will just 
indicate its contents, and leave our readers 
to draw their own inferences. This page 
contains four articles (in addition to that 
already discussed), headed as follows: — 
•• Light and Color "— '* On the Patent- 
ability and Patenting of Inventions" — 
" Fine Writing " — ** 670 Dollars in 
Prizes '*; and an announcement The first 
of these we shall notice in the sequel. The 
second is almost entirely devoted to the 
publication of *' several reasons why we 
think that intending patentees will inva- 
riably promote their own interests by having 
their patents prepared through our establish- 
meut."* Tlie third declares that a "Mr. 
McDowall, of Bolivar," " has embraced 
in a circle of one inch in diameter," as 
much information as " would occupy more 
than two columns of printed matter in the 
SciENTiric American " ! ! The fourth is 
an advertisement that " The Publishers " 
(and they are the Editors also, be it ob- 
served) " of the SciBMTiFic American, 
oiler the following cash prices for the four- 
teen largest lists of subscribers sent in by 
the 1st of January, 1865." f The announce- 

• The italics are ours.— En. H . H . 

f The editor of the Scientific American affirms, 
thsthU journal has a large circulation. If tbts 
1m true, there Is but little excuse for the insolence 
with which the readers of that paper are treated 
ia the carrying out of this system of offering 

Gises for lists of subscribers. The practice is of 
elf not a little disgusting to a "dcientiflc En- 
glishman," but when pushed to the extent indl- 



ment, before mentioned, communicates the 
fact that an individual " of the Scientific 
American" has been elected to an Hono» 
rary office in this country. 

And now a word or two on the '* light 
and color " editorial, which completes the 
" Editorial page." No, not a word or 
two; two quotations shall suffice. Here 
they are : — " The red bird, dancing from 
bush to bush, and the butterfly from flower 
to flower, charm us with the beauty of their 
plumage; and the flowers themselves, from 
the modest daisy to the stately dahlia, 
thrill us. with delight How pungent the 
truth ' Man shall not live by bread alone.*" 
(Was not that Transcendental Lady whom 
Mr. Chazzlewit heard exclaiming " Howls 
the sublime, and softly sleeps the calm 
ideal," on the stafl* of the Scientific Ameri- 
can ?) — " Strange as it may appear, how- 
ever (and this shows the peculiar relation- 
ship of the immaterial within, with the 
universe without,) colors have no material 
existence ; * What,' one may say, • has the 
rose no color, «nd is the purple of the violet 
a delusion V It is even 80."» 



cated by the following quotations it certainly 
becomes extremely vile. The Seientijie American 
for October 28, 1851, after a column of dap-trap, 
wound up by an announcement of these prizes, 
goes on to say : " It strilces us, thst any young 
man to whom a knowledge of these opportunities 
come, and who refuses to take advantage of themt 
en the ground of apparent difficulty or trouble, 
should not complain If his friends write him down 
as a dolt, and turn the cold shoulder upon bim in 
times of actual need." And then suggests, that 
" those whose occupations prevent them from 
going about in the day-time, might, we think, 
employ a portion of their evenings for the pur- 
pose." 

In the number for December % 1854, we observe 
an article headed "A Windfall poa Soxa 
Ok a.'* In this we read a tedious tale about a 
"legacy beqaeathed to some fourteen diffisrent 
persons, name unknown; " "not a large sum, to 
be sure, but still worth having, when monev is so 
scarce and times so hard as at present," and after- 
wards reach these remarks : " Modesty has thus 
far hindered us from presenting a more explicit 
exposition of this practically benevolent project ; 
but we feel that at this stage of the subject we 
must be definite. The donors referred to are the 
proprietors of the SciaKTiric Axbkicav, and the 
bequest is contained in their liberal prise list, 
which foots the lower comer of this very page." 
The article concludes thus : " Do you want, nay, 
mill you accept of this liberal legacy t Here it is. 
We hold It up plainly to your view. Yon have 
but to say one word. If you say YES, then put 
fnrth your hands— bring out your subscription 
list— comply with onr published terms — and the 
money is youre." We do not wonder that this 
showman thinks us " a good specimen of ' learned 
dulness.' " 

* We And, on glancing over our remarks, that 
we have omitted to discuss the following import- 
ant sentence of our contemporary :— " We have our 
eye now upon an article in a late number " of the 
Meehanicr Magazine^ ** stolen ttom the Soicnti/lc 
American** We call upon our contemporary to 
point out the article In question. We cannot, of 
course, deny the statement broadly, since we know 



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54 



ON THE POSSIBLE DEN8ITT OF THE LUMIMlFEROnS MEDIUM. 



ON THE POSSIBLE DENSITY OF 
THE LUMINIFEROUS MEDIUM; 

AND ON THE MECHANICAL VALUH Ot 

A CUBIC MILE OF SUNLIGHT* 

BY PROFESSOR WILLIAM THOMSON.* 

That there must be a medium fonn- 
ing a continuous material communication 
throughout space to the remotest visible 
body is a fundamental assumption in the 
nndulatory theo^ of light Whether or 
not this medium is (as appears to me most 
probable) a continuation of our own atmo- 
sphere, its existence is a fact that cannot be 
questioned, when the overwhelming evi. 

' dence in favour of the undulatory theory is 
considered; and the investigation of its 
properties in every possible way becomes an 
object of the greatest interest. A first 
question would naturally occur, Wliat is the 
absolute density of the luminiferous aether 
In any part of space 1 I am not aware of 
any attempt having hitherto been made to 
answer this question^ and the present state 
of science does not in fact aSbrd sufficient 
data. It has, however, occurred to me that 
we may assign an inferior limit to the 
density of the luminiferous medium in in- 
terplanetary space by considering the me- 
chanical value of sunlight as deduced in 
preceding communications to the Royal So- 
ciety from Pouillet's data on solar radiation, 
and Joule's mechanical equivalent of the 
thermal unit Thus the value of solar ra- 
diation per second per square foot at the 
earth's distance from the sun, estimated at 
"06 of a thermal unit Centigrade, or 83 
foot-pounds, is the same as the mechanical 
value of sunlight in the luminiferous me- 
dium through a space of as many cubic 
feet as the number of linear feet of propa- 
gation of light per second. Hence the me- 
chanical value of the whole energy, actual 
and potential, of the disturbance kept up in 
the space of a cubic foot at the earth's dis- 
ss 
tance from the sun.f is , or 

' 192000 X 5280 

not what is meant by a "late number," and since 
an nmiasioii may have been made by accident. We 
confldently affirm three things:—!. If we have 
neglected to attribute to the Scientific American 
an article transferred from its pages to our own, 
the circumstance is the result of an oversight. 
S. If an article, so transferred, exist, it has not 
been garbled. 8. If an article, so transferred, exist, i 
it was not written by the Editor of the ScUiti^fie 
Americant or we cettMnltf $kouid not have reoro- 
dueedit, 

* From the Transactions of the Royal Society of i 
Edinburgh, vlI. xxi. part 1 ; through Philoeopki- , 
cal Magazine. 

f The mechanical value of sunlight In any space ; 
near the sun's surface must be greater than in an 
equal space at the eartti's distance, in the ratio of 
the square of the earth's distance to the square of 
the sun's radius, that is. in the ratio of 46.400 to 1 
nearly. The mechanical value of a cubic foot of 
sunlight near the sun must, therefore, be about 



'819 

—--. of a foot-pound. The mechanical 

value of a cubic mile of sunlight is conse- 
quently 12050 foot-pounds, equivalent to 
the work of one-horse power for a third of a 
minute. This result may give some idea of 
the actual amount of mechanical energy of 
the luminiferous motions and forces within 
our own atmosphere. Merely to commence 
the illumination of three 'cubic miles, re- 
quires an amount of work equal to that of a 
horse-power for a minute ; the same .amount 
of energy exists in that space as long as 
light continues to traverse it ; and, if the 
source of light be suddenly stopped, must 
be remitted froin it before the illumination 
ceases.* The matter which possesses this 
energy is the luminiferous medium. If, 
then, we knew the velocities of the vibratory 
motions, we might ascertain the density of 
the luminiferous medium; or, conversely, 
if we know the density of the medium, we 
might determine the average velocity of the 
moving particles. Without any such de- 
finite knowledge, we may assign a superior 
limit to the velocities, and deduce an in- 
ferior limit to the quantity of matter, by 
considering the nature of the motions which 
constitute waves of light For it appears 
certain that the amplitudes of the vibrations 
constituting radiant heat and light must be 
but small fractions of the wave lengths, and 
that the greatest velocities of the vibrating 
particles must be very small in comparison 
with the velocity of propagation of the 
waves. Let us consider, for instance, plane- 
polarized light, and let the greatest velocity 
of vibration be denoted by v ; the distance 
to which a particle vibrates on each side of 
its position of equilibrium, by A ; and the 
wave length, by X. Then if V denote the 
velocity of propagation of light or radiant 
heat, we have 

-l=2w:i; 
V X 

and therefore if A be a small fraction of X, 
V must also be a small fraction (2t times as 
great) of Y. The same relation holds for 
circularly-polarized light, since in the time 
during which a particle revolves once round 
in a circle of radius A, the wave has been 
propagated over a space equal to X, Now 
the whole mechanical value of homogeneous 
plane-polarized light in any infinitely small 
space containing only particles sensibly in 
the same phase of vibration, which consists 
entirely of potential energy at the instants 

'00S8 of a foot-pound, and that of a cubic mile 
560,000,000 foot-pounds. 

* Similarly we find 15,000 horse-power for a 
minute as the amount of work required to generate 
the energy existing in a cublo mile of light near 
the sun. 



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ON TBE POSSIBLE DENSITr OF THE LUMINIFEROUS MED^J^f. 



55 



when the partiolei are at rest at the extre- 
mities of their exeuraions, partly of poten- 
tial and partly of actual energy when they 
are moving to or from their positions of 
equilthriam, and wholly of actual energy 
when they are passing through these posi- 
tioD8» if of constant amount, and must 
therefore he at every instant equal to half 
the mass multiplied hy the square of the 
velocity the particles have in the last men- 
tioned case. But the Telocity of any par- 
tide passing through its position of equili- 
hrium is the greatest Telocity of vibration, 
which has heen denoted by o ; and, there- 
fore, if p denote the quantity of vibrating 
matter contained in a certain space, a space 
of unit Tolumo for instance, the whole me- 
chanical Taine of all the energy, both actual 
and potential, of the disturbance within that 
space at any time is |po*. The mechanical 
energy of circularly-polarised light at eveiy 
instance is (as has been pointed out to me 
by Professor Stokes) half actual energy of 
the revolving particles and half potential 
energy of the distortion kept up in the lu- 
miniferous medium ; and, tner^ore, being 
now taken to denote the constant Telocity 
of motion of each psrtiole, double the pre- 
ceding expression gives the mechanical va» 
lae of the whole disturbance in a unit of 
▼olame in the present case. Hence it is 
clear, that for any elliptically-polarised 
light the mechanical value of Uie disturb- 
ance in a unit of volume will be between 
4pe> and pe*, if v still denote the greatest 
Telocity of the vibrating particles. The 
mechanical Talue of the disturbance kept 
up by a number of coexisting series of 
waTes of different periods, polarized in the 
same plane, is the sum of the mechanical 
Talues due to each ,homogeneous series se- 
parately, and the greatest velocity that 
can possibly be acquired by any vibrating 
particle is the sum of the separate velocities 
due to the different series. Exactly the 
same remark applies to coexistent series of 
cirenlarly-polarized waves of different pe- 
riods. Hence the mechanical Talue is cer- 
Uinly less than half the mass multiplied 
into the square of the greatest velocity ac- 
quired by a partiole, when the disturbance 
consists in the superposition of different 
series of plane-polarized waves ; and we 
may conclude, for every kind of radiation of 
light or heat except a series of homogeneous 
circularly-polarized waves, that the meeha* 
nieal value nf the dUturbanee kept up in any 
tpaee i$ lets than the product of the mats into 



the square of the" greatest velocity acquired 
by a vibrating particle in the varying phases 
of its motion. How much less in such a 
complex radiation as that of sunlight and 
heat we cannot tell, becauss we do not know 
how much the velocity of a particle may 
mount up, perhaps even to a considerable 
value in comparison with the velocity of 
propagation, at some instant by the super- 
position of different motions chancing to 
agree ; but we may be sure that the pro- 
duct of the mass into the square of an or- 
dinary maximum velocity, or of the mean 
of a great many successive maximum velo- 
cities of a Tibrating particle, cannot exceed 
in any great ratio the true mechanical value 
of the disturbance. Recurring, however, 
to the definite expression for the mechanical 
value of the distarbance in the case of ho- 
mogeneous circularly-polarized light, the 
only case in which tlie velocities of all par- 
tides are constant and the same, we may 
define the mean velocity of vibration in any 
case as such a velocity that the product of 
its square into the mass of the vibrating 
particles is equal to the whole mechanical 
value, in actual and potential energy, of the 
disturbance in a certain space traversed by 
it ; and from all we know of the mechanical 
theory of undulations, it seems certain that 
this velocity must be a very small fraction 
of the velocity of propagation in the most 
intense light or radiant heat which is pro- 
pagated according to known laws. Denot- 
ing this velocity for the case of sunlight at 
the earth's distance from the sun by t>, and 
calling W the mass in pounds of any volume 
of the luminiferous lether, we have for the 
mechanical value of the disturbance in the 
same space, 

g 
where g is the number 32*2, measuring in 
absolute units of force, the force of gravity 
on a pound. Now we found above, from 

observation, — for the mechanical Talue, in 

foot-pounds, of a cubic foot of sunlight ; and 
therefore the mass, in pounds, of a cubic 
foot of the sether, must be given by the 
equation, 

.82-2 X 88 



W=^ 



If we assume «=— V, tliis becomes 
n 



w., 322.88 ^ ^.^ 32-2x88 ^ ^.^^ 



V» 



(192000 X 5280)> 



8899 X 10>o 



and for the mass, in pounds, of a cubic mile we have 



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56 



INDUSTRIAL PATHOLOGY. 



192000)» 



2649x10* 

It IS quite impossible to fix a definite limit 
to the ratio which v may bear to V ; but It 
appears improbable that it could be more, 
for instance, than ^, for any kind of light 
following the observed laws. We may con- 
clude that probably a cubic foot of the 
luminiferous medium iu the space tra. 
versed by the earth contains not less than 

of a pound of matter, and a 

1560x10^' ^ 

cubic mile not less than — .. 

1060 X 10« 

If the mean velocity of the vibrations of 
light within a spherical surface concentric 
with the sun aud passing through the earth 
were equal to the earth's velocity — a very 
tolerable supposition — since this is -nrlrv ^^ 
the velocity of light, the whole mass of the 
luminiferous medium within that space 
would be YTsh^ ^^ ^^® earth's mass, since 
the mechanical value of the light within it, 
being as much as the sun radiates in about 
eight minutes, is about Yzhnf otthe mecha- 
uical value of the earth's motion. As the 
mean velocity of the vibrations might be 
many times greater than has been supposed 
in this case, the mass of the medium might 
be considerably less than this ; but we may 
be sure it is not incomparably less, not 
100,000 times as small, for instance. On 
the other hand, it is worth remarking that 
the preceding estimate shows that what we 
know of the mechanical value of light ren- 
ders it in no way probable that the masses 
of luminiferous medium in interplanetary 
spaces, or all round the sun in volumes of 
which the linear dimensions are comparable 
with the dimensions of the planets* orbits, 
are otherwise than excessively small in 
comparison with the masses of the planets. 

But it is also worth observing that the 
luminiferous medium is enormously denser 
than the continuation of the terrestrial at- 
mosphere would be in interplanetary space, 
if rarified according to Boyle's ]a\« always, 
and if the earth were at rest in a space of 
constant temperature with an atmosphere of 
the acttial density at its surface.'' Thus the 

" " Newton has raleuUted (Princ. lil. p. 512) 
tliat a globe of ordinary density at the earth's sur- 
face, or I Inch in diameter, if reduced to the den- 
•ity due to the altitude above the surface of one 
radius of the earth, would occupy a sphere exceed- 
ing in radius the orbit of Saturn."— (Herachel'c 
Asuonomy, Note on § 559.) It would (on the 
hypothesis stated in tlie text) we may now say oc- 
cupy a aphere exceeding in radius millions of mil- 
lions of times the distances of any start of which 
the parallaxes have been determined. A pound of 
the medium, in the space traversed by the earth, 
* cannot occupy more than the bulk of a cube 1,000 
miles iu side. The earth Itself, in moving through 
it, cannot displace lets than 250 pounds of matter. 



mass of air in a cubie foot of diatant spaec 
several times the earth'a radius off, on this 

hypothesis, would be 1 : while 

^^ 442xl0»*« 

there cannot, according to the preceding 

estimate, be in reality less than '. 

which is 9 x 10*"' times as much, of matter 
in every cubic foot of space traversed by 
the earth. 

INDUSTRIAL PATHOLOGY: 

ON TRADES WHICH AFFECT TUB EYES. 

We have already directed the attention of 
our readers to a notable movement, made by 
the Society of Arta, for the purpose of ob. 
taining and spreading information respeet^ 
ing the operations of various industrial pro- 
cesses upon the lives and healths of tnoae 
engaged in them. The committee appointed 
by the Society resolved last year lirat to 
direct their attention to injuriea anatained 
by the eye alone. They have accordingly 
done 80, and recently presented to the coun- 
cil a report of their investigations. The 
report is short, and not very eompreliensive. 
iu extenuation of which fact two reasons 
are urged, viz.: the novelty of the subject 
to the public, and the introduction into the 
communications of correspondenU of nouoh 
irrelevant matter. 

There is, however, in the report, what 
appears to us an evident diierepancy. For, 
after stating that ** many classes ^om wham 
it was hoped a good deal might be teamed, 
did not undertake to reply to the ques- 
tions," the committee proceed to ofilsr the 
shortness and meagreness of the report, " as 
a fair subject of congratulation," and aay, 
" It appears, from the constant repetitions 
by different persona of the same leaions, 
and the little novel or original information 
that has been elicited, that the important 
organ of vision is much less iniured direotly 
by handicraft operations than the committee 
thought.'* Would it not have been more 
consistent to have reserved all congratula- 
tion of the kind, until we are told more of 
those ''from whom it waa hoped a rood 
deal might be learned," than that they have 
not undertaken to give us the resulta of 
their experience 7 We venture to suggeat, 
that according to their own representations, 
the committee have but imperfectly per- 
formed their labours. 

It is, nevertheless, very gratifying to find 
that many of the injuries complained of by 
workmen seem to result from ignorance or 
neglect of well-known hygienic laws, rather 
than from circumstances inseparable from 
their occupations; and also, "that all the 
results complained of seem capable of being 
met by simple, cheap, and universally attain- 



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rOABD'8 SUOKKLESS nSNAOB PATKNT. 



57 



M» means : no alterations of modes of ma. 
•ivfaeture, no interferrace with the natmral 
liberty of the master to have work done in 
the cheapest way, is necessary ; but merely 
sueh precautions as it is monstrous not to 
adopt when onee known." 

The following is a summary of the infor- 
mation obtained by the committee : — 

1. That the following classes of artisans 
are exposed to injury of the eyes from chips, 
splinters, dnst, grit, or fluff, viz., engineers, 
masons, stonecutters, stonebreakers, brick- 
layers, soda-water bottlers, turners, fitters, 
hammermen and smiths, cutlers, railway 
gnardsy rock blasters and qnarrymen, mill- 
ers, chimney-sweeps, worlters in cotton, 
flax dressers, feather cleaners, drug grind- 
ers (especially in grinding blistering flies), 
shoe-makers, (from breaking of the awl); 
and that the following appliances hsTc been 
found useful in preventing the ill conse- 
quences of such exposure, viz., for those 
liable to blows from large portions of hard 
substanees, such as stonebreakers, &e. 
eoarse metal netting as eye guards, and f:^r 
those exposed to the finer dust, crape spec- 
tacles, while at the same time free ventila- 
tion of the apartments they work in would 
relieve much of the inconvenience. 

2. That the following suffer from the 
chemical nature of the substances which, in 
the shape of solid particles get under the 
eyelids, viz., bricklayers, workers in lime, 
workers in potash. 

No special preventive seems to be here 
pointed out beyond the placing within 
reach of the workmen the ready means of 
immediately clean Jting the parts with pure 
water. Some such apparatus as that de- 
scribed in Mr. White Cooper's communica- 
tion (in which a jet is forced np wards by the 
pressure of a head of water) might be placed 
in the workshop or superintendent's office. 

(The action of chemical fumes, strictly so- 
called, has not been reported to cause injury.) 

S. That the following suflbr from excess 
of light or glare proceeding from the mate- 
rial used, viz., furnace men, gilders, book- 
binders. ^ 

No practical remedy for this inconveni- 
ence has been suggested, as spectacles 
which intercept the light would diminish 
the eflScieucy of the workn;an. 

It may be observed that there is a great 
diUbreoce between ezcessite illumination of 
the work, and excess of light on the eye. 
Tlie latter is the most common, and is con- 
sidered under a separate head. 

4. That the following. suffer from defi- 
ciency of light, viz., dressmakers, tailors, 
sempstresses, cobblers, and, in fact all who, 
having to direct the needle to a definite 
spot, are miable to command the requisite 
amount of direct illumination. 



5. That the ill effects of deficiency of 
light are much aggravated by working long 
on the same materia) or colour. The renie- 
dies for this and the foregoing evil are, in- 
crease of light and variety of work. 

6. That flickering of light is a great evil, 
which is felt much by compositors and all 
who work at minute objects by gas illumin- 
ation. 

The simple remedy for this is the em- 
ployment of glass chimneys. 

7. It seems improper that an equal quan- 
tity of artificial light should fall on the 
work and on the eyes of the workman. 
If that is the case, the latter become over- 
strained. 

This evil, when it occurs, is easily oh- 
viated by shades to the light, which defend 
the eye, and throw the illumination on the 
required object. The shades should be 
made of white or light coloured material, so 
as to reflect as much light as possible. 
Ground glass between the light and the 
worker is injurious, by intercepting and 
diffusing the illumination instead of direct- 
ing it on to the object. 

8. It seems doubtful whether heat and 
cold have much ill influences over the healthy 
eye ; but when it is in a weak irritated 
condition, there is no doubt but that they 
are injurious. 

9. Bad ventilation, constrained postures, 
over-indulgence in spirituous liquors, the 
fnmes of tobacco, and all other violations of 
healthy habits, are injurious to the eyes at 
the same time as to the rest of the body, 
and aggravate the bad effects of the above- 
named industrial occupations. 

10. The employment of the eye when the 
body is in an exhausted state from want> « 
food, prolonged working hours, mental dis- 
tress, &c., even in handicrafts not of them, 
selves pernicious, is very detrimental to the 
organ. So that the later periods of work 
are those which are found most materially 
to weaken the sight and injure the eye. 

The shortening of working hours would 
probably be a saving in the end to both 
master and artisan; for the faulty execu- 
tion of that which is completed with an im- 
perfect organ must be a loss to the former, 
while the latter is ill remunerated by 
slightly increased wages for the risk of ill- 
ness which he runs. 



FOARD'S SMOKELESS FURNACE 
PATENT. 

BEFORE THE JUDICIAL COMMITTEE OP THE 
PRIVY COUNCIL. 

Wednetday, January 10, 1855. 

Present — Sir John Dodsou, Mr. Pemberton 
Leigh, and Sir Edwaid Ryan. 

Mr. Hindmaroh appeared in support of 



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58 



LOWE'S PATENT FOB SUPPLTIKa AND PUBIFTING GAS. 



a petition for the prolongation of the patent 

S ranted to Mr. Foard in 1841, which was 
escribed in our last volume, page 619, and 
stated that as, up to a recent period, there 
had been no means of compelling those who 
used furnaces or large fires to adopt ap- 
pliances for the consumption of the smoke 
arising from them, the patentee had ex- 
perienced the greatest difficulty in inducing 
any persons to adopt his invention. He 
had employed every means in his power to 
bring it into public use. It had been 
tried in her Majesty's dockyard at Wool- 
wich with perfect success, until the build- 
ing in which it was erected was pulled down. 
In the new building the smoke from all the 
furnaces was carried into one chimney; 
consequently it was of no use to employ the 
apparatus, unless it was adopted m every 
furnace. Mr. Foard assigned part of his 
interest to two gentlemen of the name of 
Godson, but only three or four persons bad 
heen induced to have recourse to it. It has 
since been re-assigned. The important 
part of the construction was, that it kept 
the heat up to such a temperature as to 
compel combustion before smoke could 
escape from the furnace. Fuel was or- 
dinarily placed on the top of the fire, and 
the smoke immediately ascended; but in 
this invention it was introduced at the bot- 
tom, so that all the matters escaping from 
the coal must rise through a red-hot fire, 
and there being an apparatus for supplying 
the requisite quantity of atmospheric air, 
the combustion was perfect. 

Mr. Lucas, the owner of a splitting-mill ; 
Mr. Beckett, a drug-grinder; and Mr. 
Gordon, a distiller, suted that they had 
employed Foard's invention, which was 
cheap in its construction, and economical 
in its operation. They estimated the saving 
of fuel at from 15 to 20 per cent 

Mr. Grissell and Mr. Maudslay, en- 
gineers, deposed to the efiSciency of the 
apparatus. The latter gentleman observed 
that he was convinced the public would not 
adopt any invention for consuming smoke 
unless they were compelled to do so by 
fines. 

Mr. Sheves, foreman to Mr. Grissell, con- 
sidered this invention to be better than most 
others employed for the same purpose. In 
Jukes' s apparatus there must be a motive 
power to work it, but in Foard's it could be 
done by the stoker. 

Mr. Edward Godson proved that the loss 
sustained by the parties interested in the 
patent had exceeded £1,200. 

Mr. Welsby, on the part of the Attorney- 
General, did not dispute the efficiency of 
the machine ; but, as it was probable that 
an act of Parliament would be passed com- 
pelling the consamptlon of imoke in all 



manufactories throaghoat the kingdom, he 
hoped their Lordships would not extend the 
patent, and thereby impose a burden on the 
public for the term asked for — 14 years. 

Mr. Pemberton Leigh, in delivering the 
judgment of their Lordships, said the inven* 
tion was proved to be extremely useful, and 
a heavy loss had been incurred. It was 
probable that by a moderate extension of the 
patent some remuneration would be re- 
ceived. Their Lordships would advise Her 
Majesty to prolong the patent for six years. 



LOWE'S PATENT FOR SUPPLYING 
AND PURIFYING GAS. 

BEFORE THE JUDICIAL COMMITTEE OF THE 
PRIVY COUNCIL. 

Thurtday, January 11, 1855. 

Present — Sir John Dodson, Mr. Pemberton 

Leigh, and Sir Edward Ryan. 

Mr. Webster appeared in support of a 
petition of a prolongation of a patent for 
** Improved methods of supplying gas under 
certain circumstances, and of iraproTing its 
purity," granted to Mr. G. Lowe, March 16, 
1841, and stated that the gas supplied by 
pujblic companies had long been kno\vn 
to contain many impurities, which pre- 
vented it from being used for domestic pur- 
poses to the same extent in London and 
other parts of this country as it was in 
Edinburgh, where it was obtained from a 
different sort of coal. At certain times and 
in ceruin localities there was a deficiency 
of supply. The object of the patent was to 
obviate all these objections. During the day 
the pressure of the gas as supplied by the 
companies was frequently insufficient to 
force it through the meter, but Mr. Lowe 
added to the meter a motive power which 
remedied the defect He had also sue- 
ceeded in inventing an apparatus by means 
of which the gas was purified of sulphuret- 
ted hydrogen, carbonic acid, and ammonia, 
with its compounds, the gas being at the 
same time saturated with naphtha, by which 
its illuminating power was greatly increased. 
The apparatus was so simple that it could 
be placed with perfect ease and safety on the 
same shelf as the common meter. The result 
was that gas could be burnt in private 
houses with great comfort, and at a large 
saving of expense to the consumer. Hitherto 
the receipts from the working of the patent 
had not been equal to the outlay incurred 
in procuring it ; but, public attention being 
now aroused to the importance of pure gas, 
there was every probability of its becoming 
remunerative. 

Mr. Lowe having described his apparatus 
and illustrated its efficiency by experiment, 



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DE BERGUE's patent PROPELLER FOR SHIPS. 



59 



Sir Jamei Clarke, Professor Brand, Mr. 
Smee, of the Bank of England. Mr. Wad- 
dington, the manager of Apothecaries Hall 
and inspector of gas on the south side of 
the Thames, and Professor Hoifman were 
examined, and spoke in unqualified terms 
of the utility and perfect operation of the 
invention. Mr. Smee exhibited the cover 
of a book which had been destroyed in a 
public library by the impure quality of the 
gas consumed. He stated that in Russian 



leather the action took place at the angle 
where the back of the cover was attached to 
the sides, and in calf binding the leather 
peeled off in flakes. The sulphurous acid in 
the leather was perceptible to the taste. 

Mr. Welsby, on behalf of the Attorney- 
General, offered no opposition. 

Sir £. Ryan said their Lordships were of 
opinion that there was considerable merit in 
the invention, and they would advise Her 
Majesty to extend the patent for five years 



DE BEROUE'S PATENT PROPELLER FOR SHIPS. 



(Patent dated 
Mr. Charles De Beroue, of Dowgate- 
hill, London, has patented a propeller which 
consists of a body rocking in the water in 
such manner, that its upper and under sides 
shall alternately present a moving inclined 
surface to the water on which it acts, forcing 
it through a surrounding chamber. 

Fig. 1 represents a transverse, and fig. 2 
a broadside view of the propeller, applied 
to the side of a vessel beneath the position 
usually occupied by the paddle-wheel. A 
is the hull of the ship, B the deck, C the 
steam-engine shaft. The opposite extremi- 



April 6, 1854.) 

ties of this shaft, which project a little on each 
side of the vessel, are supported in suitable 
bearings, and furnished with cranks, D, 
which transmit the motion to the propeller. 
£ represents the case or chamber, open at 
each end, placed longitudinally with regard 
to the vessel, and so as to be entirely sub- 
merged below the surface of the water. 
This case is constructed in a substantial 
manner of stout sheet iron, and riveted, 
bolted, or otherwise firmly secured to the 
hull of the vessel, the outer side of the 
chamber being further supported and 



Fig. 2. 



Fig. 1. 




strengthened by the side, F, which is also 
made of iron, and is attached at its upper 
part to the beams of the vessel, or in any 
other suitable manner. Two slots are 
formed in the upper part of the case to 
allow the free action of the arms or connect- 
ing rod of the rocking body. Provision 
should also be made in the construction of 
the upper part of the caste, so that a part of 
it may be- removed or taken away for the 
convenience of inserting or removing the 



blade and connecting rod. H is the rocking 
body, being in fact a working blade, which 
acts against the water, and a forked piece, 
G, is either formed in one with, or firmly 
attached to, the blade, H, serving as a con- 
necting rod or arm to commiinicnte the 
motion from the crank, D, to the blade, the 
latter being guided by two arms, I, made of 
fiat bar iron, and placed in the interior of 
the chamber, one on each side of the blade, 
H, so as not to hinder its action. These 



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60 



SELF-CAPPING RIFLE.. 



arms vibrate at one of their extremitiesi 
each ou one of the studs or pivots, J, J, 
fixed to the sides of the chamber, £, and 
the other end of each is firmly secured to 
each extremity of the small shaft, K, which 
is seen in section in fig. 2, and which works 
freely in the blade, H ; it is this shaft which 
constitutes the centre or axis on which the 
rocking motion of the blade takes place. 
All the working parts which, on account of 
their working under water, cannot be lubri- 
cated, should be properly bushed with brass 
or gun metal. The mventor prefers to eon- 
struct the case or chamber, £ (particularly 
its upper or top side), so as in length rather 
to exceed that of the blade, H, and of such 
capacity and form as to allow the to and fro 
and rocking action of the blade (without the 
blade getting in actual contact with any 
part of the inner sur&ee of the chamber), 
and yet only slightly to exceed the spaee 
traversed over by the blade during its 
action. 
It will be observed, that when the shaiV, 

C, is set in motion by the engines in the 
direction of the arrow, L, fig. 2, the cranks, 

D, produce on each of the blades, H, by 
means of the connecting rods, O, a to and 
fro and a rocking motion on the centre or 
axis, K, by which the propeller is moved 
into the various positions shown by lines or 
dotted lines in fig. 2. The arrow, M, fig. 2, 
shows the direction of the current produced 
by the action of the blade, H, in the cham- 
bers, and the arrow, N, shows the direction 
of the motion thereby given to the vessel. 

It will be observeci, that by reversing the 
motion of the engines, and by turning the 
cranks in the contrary direction to that 
indicated by the arrow, L, the current given 
to the water by the blade, H, will be in the 
contrary direction. It may likewise be 
observed, that the chamber, £, and the 
blade, H, are wider at the centre than at the 
extremities. This is for the purpose of 
increasing the area of the chamber in the 
centre, which otherwise would be more con- 
fined than at the extremities, in consequence 
of the greater thickness it is necessary to 
give to the blade, H, at the centre than at 
the ends. " To compensate," says Mr. de 
Bergue, '* for the increased Telocity which 
it may be necessary to give to the water 
during its passage through the chamber 
over and above that at which it enters (in 
order to the more sati:ifactorily working or 
efficiency of this propeller), I purpose con« 
Rtructing the chamber, and also the blade, 
H, of an uniform width from the front end 
or mouth of the chamber to the middle of 
their length, and narrowing them only at 
their opposite ends, whereby I apprehend 
the requisite quantity of water will be re- 
ceived In front to compensate for the in« 



oreased velocity acquired daring its pasaage 
through the chamber. Or this object may; 
be attained by making the chamber and the 
blade to taper or diminish in width from the 
front end or mouth of the chamber to the 
opposite end throughout the entire length, 
and either by a curved or a straight taper, 
as may be desired." 

The blade, H, and the forked conneouag 
rod are formed of wrought iron, and are so 
connected as to eonatitute a strong and sub. 
stantial framing, the blade being covered 
with iron plates firmly riveted together, 
and to the framing of the blade, so that the 
interior, being hollow, and made impervious 
to water, the propeller will have a floating 
tendency, and its buoyancy will render it 
self-supporting. But the blade may be 
made of any otlier suitable substance. 
These propellers, which may be placed at 
any suitable part of the vessel, and in any 
suitable number, should always be com- 
pletely submerged. 

The inventor states that his apparatua 
may also be used either to disnlaoe or to 
force water or any other kind of liquids 
instead of pumps or pumping apparatus, 
and (being placed in a stream of water) may 
also serve in place of a water-wheel as a 
prime mover. 



SELF-CAPPING RIFLE. 

At the close of tiie meeting of the Insti- 
tution of Civil Engineers on January 0th, 
1855, Monsieur N^ron, of Paris, exhibited 
an ingenious mode of placing detonating 
caps on the nipple of a rifie or a musket. 
The apparatus consisted of a tube contain- 
ing twenty-two caps, placed parallel with 
and close beside the barrel, being partially 
inserted in the stock, and so arranged, that 
whilst the near end was attached by a pin to 
the hammer, the further extremity was free 
to travel in a slot. Its action was very 
simple ; the tube being filled with caps from 
a reservoir, several of which would occupy 
but a very small space, the end cover was 
turned down. On drawing the hammer to 
half cock the tube was drawn forward, until 
a cap was brought over the nipple, and at 
full-cock the cap was pressed down upon it. 
After firing, if any portion of the copper 
remained attached to the cap, it was re- 
moved by a small picker preceding the 
tube, on its being again drawn forward to 
repeat the operation. 

It was evident that by this simple and 
cheap addition to any fire-arm much time 
must be save<l in loading, and a great waste 
of caps must be avoided, whilst about 25 
Iter c^ut. pf copper was ^ave4 in ipaVIng, thfi 



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SE-PAXEMTBO BE-INT£MTI0M8. 



61 



w^, and they were kept dry in the reser- ; 
Toir, instead of being exposed to damp and | 
ranning the risk of not exploding, as bad I 
oeeurr^ frequently iu action on recent i 
oceaaions ib the Crimea. ! 

The system waa stated to have obtained 
the approbation of the highest military 
aathorities in France, and witli the charac- 
teristic alacrity of the Government of that 
coantiy, to be already in process of adapta- 
tion to the Minie rifles and to fire-arms of 
all kinds for the army ; it had, only within 
the last few days, been brought here to lay 
before the fingb'sh Government, and was 
submitted fur the inspection of the mem- 
bers of the Institution of Civil Engineers. 



REPATENTED RE-INVENTIONS. 

To Ike Sdiior rf the Meeluuuet* Magazine. 

Sir, — Still they come— another and an- 
other still. What a fruitful source, if not 
of invention^ at least of re-invention has the 
new cheap patent law become! In yoar 
Number of December 30th, I enumerated 
several of the more recent re-inventions, in- 
eluding Woodcock's, Prideaux'3, Hill's, 
O'Regan's, and Parker's, of the original 
"perforated air distributors," patented in 
1839. By that invention the air was ad- 
mitted in divided portions, Jileu, or jets; the 
effect is the same, namely, the producing a 
rapid and almost instantaneous mechanical 
mixture and contact of atoms, between the 
g.i8 and the air — that being the sine qud 
nou of atomic cltemical union— which is 
combustion. Your Number of this day, 
just come to hand, gives a drawing and de- 
scription of another patented re-inventioo 
of the same ; viz., " Bayliss's patent smoke- 
leas furnace." It certainly would not be 
worth the ink used, to demonstrate this last 
act of re-inventive duplicity, except that it 
is important to keep the public mind alive 
to these continuing impositions. That 
Bayliss's patent is one of this class, is pal- 
pable from his own description. " The 
principal gases/' he observes, ** we have to 
deal with iu a furnace are, carburetted hy. 
drogen, bi-carburetted hydrogen, and car- 
bonic oxide, 'the atoms of which must be 
chemically united with oxygen derived from 
the air, before combustion can take place." 
(Bayliss has not studied my treatise cor. 
reetly, or he would not have here introduced 
carbonic oxide, which is not one of the gases 
"arising from heated fuel.") He continues: 
"The difficulty hr.s hitherto been" ^not 
since 1839), *'to accomplish this union, 
for the gases, sweeping along at the rate of 
30 feet per second, there is not sufficient 
time for a thorough mixture of them with 
the air to take place." In Justi 2e to me, he 



should have given the ehapter and page of 
my treatise, where this is so fully explained 
and insisted on. 

He proceeds : '* I therefore propose to 
compensate for this want of time by dividing 
the gases into a number of small streams or 
bodies, Rwd forcing them into mechanical mtje- 
ture with the air, to facilitate the chemical 
union with oxygen, and produce a com- 
bustible mixture." Here, again, he should 
have quoted my treatise, either first, second, 
or third edition ; for no where else can he 
find the necessity of thus forcing a mecha- 
nicak mijcture as an essential to chemical union 
described as an incident to the combustion 
of the coal gases in a furnace. 

This operation he proposes to effect by a 
" series of admixers," having spaces between 
them for the admission of the air, *' to com- 
mingle with the gases," Again : " perfo- 
rated plates of metal or slabs of fire-clay 
might be used instead of the admixers 
(they, however, being the best possible ad« 
mixers), and these may be placed horizon- 
tally or vertically, as is thought best." 

Now, had his patent referred alone to 
these "per/orated plates," the efibct would 
have been all-sufficient, inasmuch as they 
supply the cheapest as well as the most 
effective means of producing mechanical 
mixture and chemical union between the air 
and the gases. This, however, would have 
been too simple, and would not have afforded 
room for that display of ingenuity and com- 
plication by which high patent charges and 
** royalties" appear justifiable, as has been 
demonstrated by Prideanx, with his silly 
self-acting valve, and Woodcock, with his 
equally silly Venetian ash-pit blinds ; as if 
either had anything whatever to do with 
combustion, except occasionally to impede 
it. 

As corroborative of the accuracy of Mr. 
Bayliss's second-hand descriptive faculty, 
and the correctness of his imitative mecha- 
nical mixing process, I give an extract 
from the claim, in the patent of 1839, by 
which " a quicker and more complete incor- 
poration of the combustible gas and the air 
is effected, and tlie formation of smoke pre- 
vented;" viz., <' Having thus described the 
nature of my invention, I specially claim 
the use, construction, and application of the 
perforated air distributor, by which the atmo- 
spheric air is more immediately and inti- 
mately blended with the combustible gases 
in the furnace." Will Mr. Bayliss exercise 
his ingenuity, and point out any difference 
between his use and application of the 
" perforated plate" referred to in his patent, 
and that of the above, as claimed by the 
patent of 1839. It is only necessary to add, 
that the public may apply these perforated 
plates either at the door or bridge end of 
their furnaces^ withoyt a^y reference tg 



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02 



PEBMAMKNT WATS. 



Prideauz, Woodeoek, Baylif s^ or others, or 
being subject to their exactions, 
r am, Sir, yours, &c., 

C. W. Williams. 
Liverpool, January 18, 185A. 

THE SMOKE QUESTION. 

To the Editor ^f the Mechanics* Afagaxine. 

Sir. — Mr. Williams having noticed the 
Cerberus allegation, I cannot do less than 
join my own disclaimer of having the 
slightest trace of knowledge who " En- 
gineer" is. Mr. Williams I have never seen 
in my life and know nothing about him, 
except from his publications and by hear- 
say. Seeking information for fnj own use, 
I have found in his works a clear and com- 
prehensive account of the process and re- 
quisites of combustion which I do not know 
where I can meet with anywhere else ; and 
noticing the excessive minutiae of Mr. 
Mansfield's letter contradictory to them- 
selves, for want of being reduced within a 
sound principle, I thought it was a service 
both to himself and hisprotige to point out 
my own sources of knowledge. A man 
who has discovered a pure spring, and does 
not take the trouble to indicate it to those 
around him who are drinking puddle, only 
deserves to exchange his lot for theirs. My 
absolute disconnection with Mr. Williams 
is evinced by the fact, that he does not even 
know my signature to be that of the same 
person who, immediately I saw the last 
edition of his work, forthwith pointed out 
the same day to my patent agent, well 
known to Mr. Williams, a most important 
mistake which had crept in, on a subject in 
which T have no other interest than that 
which dictates Mr. Williams's present cor- 
respondence—a desire for truth and justice 
to prevail upon a question of immense 
practical value, which I have publicly dis- 
cussed. Now as I was promised this error 
should be corrected with a publicity equal 
to the oversight, and I am not aware it has 
yet been done, it would be just as reason- 
able to ssy I was in a slate of ** feud " as a 
state of «* league " with Mr. Williams. 

As there is no more effectual way of pro- 
moting truth than by correcting error, I 
beg to refer to a late instance of the prevail- 
ing misconception as to the ** consumption 
of smoke," fostered, ss it undoubtedly has 
been, by the ambiguous views enunciated 
by the great Watt, at a time when the com- 
paratively undeveloped state of chemical 
science rendered some amount of inac- 
curacy almost unavoidable. The deficien- 
cies of great authorities we must supply by 
the further lights obtained since their day, 
and which they would themselves be the 
very first to do if living. No one is likely 
to doubt that the Timet commands, in its 
writers, selected samples of the general 



talent and infomatioa of the kingdom, jet 
in a long article on the inioke nuisance, itwaa 
lately stated that the process of Jucke8,Hasel- 
dine, Hall, and other grate patentees, is to 
supply a thin stratum of coal utiMemeath the 
hotfiul, through which, in consequence, the 
smoke passes up aYid is consumed ; being the 
very reverse of the facts and principles of 
the cases, and an excellent method of mak- 
ing tmoket as may be readily proved even in 
a parlour fire. I am, Sir, yours, &e., 

David Musrbt. 
January 15, 1855. 

PERMANENT WAYS. 

To the Editor of the Mechanics' Magazine. 

Sir, — Your able remarks on the Per- 
manent Way Company, in your number of 
the 9th instant, induce me to trouble you 
with a few lines on the subject. Every one 
must agree with you, that if the company is 
established for the purpose of " buying up 
all old patents, and by united eflTorts oppo- 
sing all new inventions,'* it is a very serious 
evil, and one materially afiTecting the inter- 
ests of the public at large. I believe it is 
formed for that purpose, and will give yon 
my reasons. To my certain knowledge the 
patent of L. D. B. Gordon was worthless, 
m a pecuniary sense, and never produced 
the patentee one farthing until one fine 
morning he awoke, and, to his great as- 
tonishment, he found it in requisition by 
the Perinnnent Way Company. Then let 
us proceed to two other directors, viz., Mr. 
Bruff and Mr. Robert Richardson. Many 
years ago, I forget the date, Mr. Richard, 
son was employed under Mr. BrufT as resi- 
dent or assistant engineer on one of the 
Eastern Counties lines of railway, in which 
capacity he had to superintend the erection 
of a wooden railway bridge, when, for the 
first time, Mr. Brufl' employed the fish- 
jointed rail. After the railway was opened 
to the public, Mr. Richardson took out a 
patent for a great variety of improvements 
in carriages, locomotives, &c., and perma- 
nent ways, &c. ; and amongst other things 
the very identical fish-joint used and pub. 
lished almost a year before by Mr. Bruff. 
This was the only thing of any use in the 
whole patent, and on tiie formation of the 
Permanent Way Company, became its pro- 
perty. This state of things did not exactly 
meet the views of Mr. Bruff, who rather 
fancied that as he was the inventor of this 
imnrovement (although not the patentee), he 
had a right to some pecuniary advantage 
from its adoption ; and so well founded were 
his claims, that the company thought better 
to keep the thing quiet, by giving him a 
share in their profits, than to go to trial. 
The public have therefore to pay the com- 
pany for the use of this improvement, 



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FOBTABZiS OANNON. 



63 



•IthoQgli the patent U granted to a gentle- I 

roan who took out hit patent about twelve ' 

months after it became public property, for i 

an invention which is not his ; and to keep I 

the thing quiet Mr. Bruff becomes one of | 
the direolort. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 

Z. I 

ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS. 

ANOTHER MODERN ANTIQUE. 

To the Editor </ the Meehaniee' Magazine. 
Sir, — Sundry paragraphs have been go- i 
ing the round of the papers within the last | 
twelve months, relating to a wonderful dis- | 
covery of a Mr. Lindsay, of Dundee, which, 
if I mistake not, has been heralded not a 
little by Sir D. Brewster, by way of stomp- 
ing the fact of the discovery. All this 
would really amount to nothing were it not 
that I perceive by your Journal of Decem- 
ber 30, No. 1638, that tliis discovery, for 
some purpose or other, is carried the length 
and made the subject of a patent. In the 
abstract of patents of that date, I see that 
such has been granted to Mr. James Bow- 
man Lindsay, of Dundee, beariii|[ date 
June 5, 1854, No. 1242. Supposinff at 
this time of day, no one would be so silly as 
to throw away their money in patenting 
what, to all versant in electro- telegraphic 
experiments, was a well-known and esta- 
blished fact, I thought d fortiori that there 
must or might be some peculiar novelty in 
Mr. Lindsay's discovery ; I therefore went 
to the Patent office to peruse this speciiicar 
tion, and besides finding myself sold, I find 
the patented description similar, and the 
diagram almost a copy, of what you will find 
at pages 60 and 61 of a little volume jpublished 
by Lea and Blan chard, Philadelphia, 1847, 
and edited by Mr. Alfred Vail, where a 
much fuller description of the experiment is 
given, under the heading, " Mode of cross- 
ing broad rivers and other bodies of water 
without wires ;" to which are appended the 
requirements necessary to carry it out, with 
the results and data of several experiments 
made by Professor Morse, December 16th, 
1842; also explanations showing that the 
minimum length of wire required sideways 
along the banks of the body of water must 
be six times greater than the distance 
across; making it as a question of cost, 
quite unavailable, even supposing greatly 
extended bodies of water could be got to act 
similarly to these narrow rivers and canals. 
I trouble you with these remarks, as I have 
heard the crossing of the channel and the 
Atlantic by such a process seriously and 
gravely mooted. 

The fact was first discovered by two Dutch 
philosophers, many years ago, and it is fn- 



queotly alluded to in eompilations on elec- 
trie telegraphs. 

I am, Sir, youra, &c., 

Merguriui Calbdonius. 
January IS, 1856. 

Sir,— At page 641 of your last volume is 
a notice of the specification of Mr. J. B. 
Lindsay, of Dundee, for ** a niode of trans- 
mitting telegraphic messages by means of 
electricity through and across a body or 
bodies of water ;" which mode is said to con- 
sist in dispensing with submerged wires, 
using in their stead submerged balls, 
plates, or tubes, attached to the ends of the 
wires ! 

It is just possible that the learned Domi- 
nie may be able to sustain his claim to the 
monopoly of halls and tubes for this pur- 
pose, if they can be advantageously em- 
ployed. But his claim to the plate is most 
assuredly dished by the public use of them 
in 1841, by Mr. Alexander Bain, who 
" found that if the mere ends of the wire 
were dipped into the water, the current that 
passed was so feeble, that if he had stopped 
here, it would be applicable to no practical 
use." He then saw that it was " necessary 
to attach a few feet of metallic surface to be 
immersed at each end of the conducting wire. 
The result was, that the whole current of 
the small battery employed immediately 
passed as freely through the water as it 
would have done through an entire metallic 
circuit The success of that experiment 
obviously led Mr. Bain to his great disco- 
very of plunging, in a similar manner, 
plates of positive and negative metallic 8ur« 
faces in the earth, or in the water, at great 
disUnces; then, connecting these by a well- 
regulated wire, he is enabled to discard gal- 
vanic batteries altogether, and to produce 
an (almost) everlasting and unvarying fiow 
of electricity, proportionate in power to the 
amount of metallio surface." * Will any 
gentleman think it worth while to patent 
the latter discovery ? 

I am. Sir, yours respectfully, 

Wm. Baddelby. 

IS, Angell-terrace, Islington, Jan. 11, 1895. 



PORTABLE CANNON. 
To the Editor of the Mechanics* Magazine. 
Sir, — From a paragraph in last week's 
papers, I learn that, " the Minister of War 
has had his attention drawn to a novel de- 
scription of siege cannon, the invention of 
a Mr. Williams, of Pembroke. The great 
difficulty experienced at Sebastopol is the 
enormous labour required to get the siege 

* JUsck. Mag., vol. xzxiz., p. 76. 



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SPEOinCAIIONS OV PATENTS &IOENTLT FILSP. 



pieces in position ; the cannon of Mr. Wil. 
Hams can be carried with ease on men's 
shoulders, they being cast in pieces which 
can be fitted together in a few minutes by a 
person of the commonest understanding." 

Some of your " constant readers from tlie 
firsti" may perhaps remember a similar in- 
vention (or, at any rate, an invention for a 
similar purpose) described by me in your 
pages, upwards of fifteen years ago, as the 
invention of Mr. Penny.* 

In a succeeding numberf the late Colonel 
Macerone, while admitting the ingenuity 
of the contrivance, expressed an unfavour- 
able opinion practically, of duplex pieces 
of ordnance. Although the Colonel's opi- 
nion on such matters was entitled to great 
consideration, I could not agree with him 
in his view of Mr. Penny's cannon, which I 
still believe to be the embryo, at least, of 
some important Improvements in the con- 
struction and application of heavy ordnance. 
That siege guns can be so subdivided as to 
be " carried on men's shoulders," is by no 
means probable. 

If the weight can be divided into two 
nearly equal parts, and the gun thus become 
capable of use, either as a cannon or a mortar 
at pleasure, the importance of the improve- 
ment can hardly be overrated. Perhaps the 
description in your 30th volume, may just 
now be worth a reperusal ; to the late Mr. 
Penny roust be conceded the merit of the 
invention. 

I am. Sir, yours respectfully, 

Wm. Baddeley. 

IS, Angell-terrace, Islington, Jan. 9, 1865. 

IMPROVED CANNON. 
To the Editor qf the Me^umiet* Magazine. 

Sir, — There appear to be nuny and va- 
ried opinions relative to the merits of cast 
and wrought-iron cannons, the leading fea- 
tures of each being, I think, the following : 
— Cast iron possess great hardness in their 
material, but are subject to the great draw- 
back of their extreme liability to burst. 
Wrought iron, on the other hand, have the 
advantage of great tenacity in their particles, 
and perfect safety even with the use of mueh 
more explosive matter, which is equivalent 
to greatly increased force and power ; these 
latter, however, from their expansion, are in 
a short time useless. We are thus left in 
considerable uncertainty which to employ. 

It will readily be admitted that it would 
be far better if we could dispense with these 
life-destroying machines ; but as we cannot, 
it is well to make them as efficient as pos- 
sible. I would, therefore, propose that the 

* Tide vol. zxx., p. H. 
,t IbW, p. 179. 



cannon should be made of a comparatively 
thin cast material, and encased in a very 
accurately and strongly-wro«ight covering, 
such covering being afilxed by means of 
screws and nuts, or by collars or rings 
driven on in the same manner as railway- 
wheels are to their axle-trees. 

I have thought that by this mode of con. 
struction, the advantages of both could be 
made available, without the evils of either. 
I should be glad of the insertion of this in 
your Journal. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

Joseph Clarke. 

London, January 16, 18U. 



ON ORDNANCE AND GUN- 
POWDER. 
To the Editor qf the Mechanics* Magazine. 
Sir, — In a letter, headed as above, and 
signed "J. F." in your last number, I ob- 
serve a curious argument is employed which 
deserves pointing out " J. F.," in speak* 
ing of exploding mixed gases, says, *' One 
thing is obvious, however, that some other 
conditimks are necessary beside the genera- 
tion orheat ; '* and in support of this etate- 
ment, brings forward the fact, that a piece 
of wire gauxe interposed between a gaso- 
meter of oxygen and hydrogen, and a burner, 
prevents the firing of the mixture when 
fiame is applied. I think this illustration is 
an imfortunate one for the argument, for 
the non-explosion depends, or is universally 
said to depend, upon the cooling efiects of 
the wire gause, and upon these alone. 
I am. Sir, yours, &c., 

Argus. 



SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS 
RECENTLY FILED. 

Garrett, Richard, jun., of Leiston 
Works, near Saxmundham, Sufiblk, en- 
gineer. An im^rooed arrangement of valvee 
for working steam expansivelu. Patent dated 
June 23, 1854. (No. 1391.) 

This invention relates chiefiy to a mode 
of facilitating the starting of steam-engines 
which are arranged to work expansively, 
and to a mode of actuating the valve which 
is employed to cut off the supply of steam 
to the valve-chest at any required portion 
of the stroke of the piston. We may give 
a full description of the apparatus here- 
after. 

Lbtchford, Robert Michael, of 
Whitechspel, Middlesex, match manufac- 
turer. A matck-stand and holder for holding 
matches while being ignited. Patent dated 
June 23, 1854. (No. 1892.) 

Clai^s^ — 1. Tbe oonstruQtion of a match*! 



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ftPEOIFZOATIONS OV PATENTS BECENTLY FILED. 



65 



•taad, bv fitting a short tube, open at both 
ends and throughout it* length, to a base or 
pedestal, or by constructing a similar tube 
with a base or pedestal formed thereon, or 
by forming an equivalent aperture through 
a piece of meUl or other suitable material. 
2. The employment of a short tube, open 
at both ends and throughout its length, as a 
holder, for holding matches while being 
ignited. 

Skbltom, Thomas, of Plaistow, Bssex, 
draughtsman, jin improvement in, or addi^ 
Hon to, tiilers or yokes. Patent dated June 
24, 18A4. (No. 1394.) 

The addition to tillers or yokes of blocks 
or sheaves between those on the free end or 
ends thereof and the rudder«head, for the 
purpose of taking up the slack of the steer. 
ing rope or chain. 

Brooman, RicuardArchibald, of 166, 
Fleet-street, London, patent agent yf nem 
or improved prof ecHle for ordnance aud small 
arms, and a sabot or plug to be emphyed 
tkeremnthj which sabot or plug may also be 
used with other projectiles, (A communica- 
tion from W. Antrobus Holwell, of Quebec.) 
Patent dated June 24, 1854. (No. 1395.) 

Claims. — 1 A projectile of an egg form, 
more or less elongated, having an axial 
opening throughout its length, in which is 
fitted a double spiral vane, for the purpose 
of giving a motion of rotation round its axis 
to the projectile on its being discharged 
from a piece of ordnance or a small arm ; 
also a solid projectile of the like egg form. 
2. A certain sabot or plug, and the employ- 
ment of the same in the formation of cart^ 
ridge?. 

Brooman, Richard Archibald, of 166, 
Fleet-street, London, patent agenL An 
improved mill for grinding and puheriziug 
points, and various vegetable and mineral 
Mubstancss, (A communication.) Patent 
dated June 24, 1854. (No. 1397.) 

C^M.— Forming the grinding surfaces of 
the muUcr, and of the annular concave in 
the bed-stone, with a radius so much greater, 
as compared with the semi-diameter of the 
muller, that an excess of material shall have 
spac3 into which to pass, thereby obviating 
tbe packing or clogging between the sides 
of the wuller and of tbe said groove. 

Davies, Joseph, of Bristol. Improve^ 
ments m propelling vessels. Patent dated 
June 24, 1854. (No. 1398.) 

When a ship or vessel is to be propelled 
according to this invention, it is constructed 
with suitable channels below the water-line 
to receive one or more endless series of 
feathering float-boards, arranged so that tlie 
propelling machinery may be below the 
water-line of the vessel. 

Thompson, John, of Newton-le- Wil- 
lows, Lancashire, sugar-refiner. Improve^ 



ments in centrifugal apparatus used in tlte 
manufacture qf sugar. Patent dated June 24, 
1854. (No. 1399.) 

This invention consists in constructing 
centrifugal apparatus with a compartment 
at or near the centre, and in filling the same 
with fibrous or other absorbent matter to 
absorb water or other cleansing fluid, and 
to part with it by the centrifugal action of 
the machine. 

BoTTOMLEY, RsuBBN, of Rochdale, Lan. 
caster, cotton spinner ; David Schofibld, 
of Oldham, same county, mechanic ; and 
Henry Spencer, of Rochdale, manager. 
Certain improvements ia machinery or apparaf 
tusfor spinning and doubling cotton and other 
fibrous materials. Patent dated June 24, 
1854. (No. 1401.) 

Claims, — 1. The use of bars or laths of 
any suitable material furnished with projec- 
tions or studs, either, or all, moving later- 
ally, so as alternately to secure and release 
the yams or threads. 2. The construction 
and use of a bar or lath of any suitable 
material furnished with projections or studs, 
and rising and falling alternately between 
two exterior laths or checks. 

HuBNER, Emile, of Mulliouse, France, 
engineer. Improvements in machinery for 
preparing wool, cotton, silk waste, low, and 
otlter fibrous materials. Patent dated June 
24,1854. (No. 1403.) 

The object of this invention is to lay the 
fibres of the wool, or other material, in a 
longitudinal direction, and to convert the 
material into a long fieece or lap, or into a 
band or sliver, in which state it Ik better 
adapted for undergoing the combing or other 
operations pursued ia the manufacture of 
fibrous materials. 

Bain, Alexander, of Queen' s-row. Cam- 
berwell, Surrey, mechanical engineer, /m- 
provements in fire-arms, and the apparatus 
connected t/terewith. Patent dated June 26, 
1854. (No. 1404.) 

Claims, — The construction of fire-arms 
with certain described moveable bridgen, 
certain ariangements for loading a series of 
chambers, either simultaneously or singly, 
and certain means of applying a number of 
percussion caps simnltaneousTy. 

Palmer, William, of Sutton.airecr, 
Clerkenweli. Improvements in candle-lamps. 
Patent dated June 26, 1854. (No. 1407.) 

This invention consists in the construc- 
tion of a candle-lamp suitable for. burning 
candles on the interior, and near the roofs, 
of railway carriages, &c. 

Bealb, Charles, of Leicester, hosier, 
and John Latchmorb of the same place, 
hosier. Improvements in the manufacture of 
knitted shirts. Patent dated June 26, 1854. 
(No. 1408.) 
This invention consists in introducing 



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SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS BECENTLY VtLBlf, 



fleecy wool or cotton in the knitting needles 
used in manufacturing shirU, in such man- 
ner as to produce nap or fleece as the work 
progresses, for the purpose of affording ad- 
ditional warmth to the breast of the wearer. 
Yateb, William, of Mary-street, Brom- 
ley, Middlesex. IntprovemenU in fumeues. 
Patent dated June 26, 1864. (No. 1410.) 

The inventor employs slides, which, in 
moving back, allow some of the fuel to de- 
scend, and which, on their return, force the 
fresh fuel, and that which is already on the 
bars, towards the bridge. 
• Smith, Andrew, of Princes-street, Mid- 
dlesex, wire-rope manufacturer. Improve* 
menu in the manufacture cf certain kinds or 
descriptions qfteire and other ropes and strands. 
Patent dated June 27, 1854. (No. 1412.) 

This invention consists in constructing 
machinery for forming strands for " formed 
ropes," telegrnph, and other cables, &c., 
without putting " individual twist" into the 
wires or yarns composing the strands. 

CoLLETTE, Charles Hastings, of Lin- 
coln's- inn-fields, Middlesex, gentleman. 
Improvements in the mantrfacture qf beer, 
(A communication.) Patent dated June 27, 
1854. (No. 1418.) 

This invention consists of methods of 
forcing water through malt in a closed 
mash - tun, of forcing water through 
malt in several closed mash-tons succes- 
sively, of forcing the wort through hops in a 
closed hop- tun, and of apparatus ** for the 
fermentation process when applied to one 
fermentation- cask, and a modification of it 
applied to several casks." 

Antrobus, Richard Leicester, of 
Birmingham, Warwick, commercial clerk. 
j4 new or improved method of printing oil- 
cloth for fioor and table-coverSf paper-hang- 
ings, and other surfaces. Patent dated June 
27, 1854. (No. 1415.) 

The inventor prints oil-cloth by means of 
a series of as many pairs of rolls as there 
are colours to be printed, these rolls. being 
supported by and working in suitable fram- 
ing. The lower roll of each pair is plain, 
and the upper engraved with that portion of 
the pattern which is to be printed in the 
colour to which the said roll is devoted, &c. 
Morgan, William, of Birmingham, 
Warwick, manufacturer. Improvements in 
machines for cutting paper ^ card, and mill- 
boards, woollens, veneers, and materials used in 
making paper, parts qf which improvements 
are applicable to other machines where quick 
and slow motions are used, and where ma- 
chinery is required to be thrown into and out 
qf gear. Patent dated June 27, 1854. 
(No. 1416) 

As we purpose giving a full description of 
this invention shortly, it will be sufficient 
for the present to state that it mainly con- 



sists in making the cutting-knife of ma- 
chines for cutting paper, &c., to pass through 
the material to be cut in the segment of a 
circle or circles by means of two or more 
radial arms or levers placed above or below 
the knife, or by a combination of radial arms 
or levers so placed, or by other cauivalent 
guides; in actuating the cutting- Knife by 
one or more screws, combined with bevel- 
wheels and pinions so arranged as to give a 
return motion to the knife vnthout reversing 
the driving- shaft, cither at the same rate as 
the cut or at an increased speed, and so 
also that the knife may be stopped and ad- 
vanced or returned at any distance from the 
bed ; and in actuating the knife by eccen- 
tric cog-wheels, so as to obtain a slow cut 
and quick return. 

Iles, Charles, of Peel-works, Birming- 
ham, manufacturer. Improvements in metal 
bedsteads. Patent dated June 27, 1854. 
(No. 1417.) 

This invention consists in combining and 
keeping together the posts and the side, 
head, and foot-rails of metal bedsteads, by 
, means of improved constructions of the 
posts and rails, and by the metal laths and 
stretchers. 

Coltman, William, of High-street, 
Leicester. Improvement in knitting-frames. 
Patent dated June 27, 1854. (No. 1418.) 

This invention consists in dispensing with 
hanging-bits, tumblers, thumb- plates, &c., 
and forming a groove on either side, into 
which a roller or truck attached to the frame 
enters, and is thereby guided so as to insure 
the correct sinking and coming forward of 
the frame, so that skilled labour may be 
dispensed with. 

De Fontainemoreau, Peter Armand 
Lecomte, of South-street, London, /m- 
provements in apparatus for producing abated 
waters. (A communication.) Patent dated 
June 27, 1854. (No. 1419.) 

Claims,— I. The employment of an inter- 
nal chamber made at the bottom of the ap- 
paratus, provided with a filler and moveable 
ball. 2. The application of India-rubber 
rings to the stopper, &c., for the purpose of 
closing the joints of the apparatus hermeti- 
cally. 

De Fontainemoreau, Peter Armand 
Lecomtb, of South-street, London. Im- 
provements in the construction qf axle-boxes, 
(A communication.) Patent dated June 
28, 1854. (No. 1420.) 

A chamber^ constructed in the ordinary 
manner, is provided internally, and near 
each of its two extremities, with bearings, 
or circular supports, upon which the jour- 
nals of the axle-tree bear without touching 
any other part of the oil chamber, and be- 
tween these supports is a space for contain- 
ing oil. This oil chamber is closed on the 



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outer side by a cap and nut, and to close 
the maio chamber oo the inner side, the in- 
▼entor places behind the inner support two 
▼ulcanized India rubber and leather 
washers, and behind them another leather 
washer, all of wliicb are adjusted inside the 
chamber by a cast iron cap and sorew. 

Brdnlbes, Jambs, of Manchester, Lan- 
caster, civil engineer. Improvements in draW" 
bridge* applicable to rail and other roadways. 
Patent dated June 28, 1854. (No. 1421.) 

This invention consists in so constructing 
the roadways <of bridges that they shall be 
capable of being lowered below the general 
level, and drawn backward beneath the 
adjacent surface of the road« 

Edwards, Hanry Sutherland, of 
Cranboume-street, Middlesex, gentleman. 
Improvements in preparing textile fabrics, or 
materials for the purpose qf their better re- 
taining colours appUed to them, (A com- 
munication.) Patent dated June 28, 1854. 
(No. 1422.) 

The object of this invention is to enable 
textile materials to retain lithographic inlc, 
and other colouring matters of an analogous 
nature, or into the composition of which 
similar ingredients enter, and consists in 
passing such materials, when intended to 
be printed by the ordinary printing rollers, | 
through a bath consisting of water, holding | 
in solution alum, sulphate of zinc, proto- i 
chloride of tin, caustic potssh, and nitric 
acid, or other chemicals possessing like 
properties with these. 

CocKSHUTT, Edmund, of Preston, Lan- 
caster, iron founder. Improvements in bungs 
or adjustable stopper apparatus for casks and 
other vessels. Patent dated June 28, 1854. 
(No. 1423.) 

Claim, — The application and use of bung^ 
of any suitable material, having a screw 
thread formed thereon, and made to screw 
flush into a corresponding socket altaolied 
to a cask or other vessel. 

ScHLOBSiNo, Thbopiiilb, of Paris, 
France. Improvements in the mamrfaeture tf 
carbonates qf soda. Patent dated June 28, 
1854. (No. 1425.) 

This invention consists in causing a solu- 
tion of chloride of sodium to be placed in 
horizontal cylinders in which are mechan- 
ieal agitators,' and in passing into these 
cylinders carbonic acid and ammoniacal 
gases, by means of which a precipitate of 
bicarbonate of soda is produced. The 
excess of gas, which passes through the 
cylinders without being absorbed, is caused 
to psss over coke moistened with a solution 
of chloride of calcium and hydrochloric 
aeidf by which it is retained. The precipi- 
tated bicarbonate of soda is separated from 
the containing liquid by means of a oen- j 
trifogal maebine, and is eonverted into the J 



neutral carbonate by the roasting process, 
and the carbonic acid gas which escapes is 
used to produce a further quantity of 
bicarbonate in the manner already de- 
scribed. 

JofTEs, John Gregory, of Roscommon- 
street, Liverpool, secreUry and accouniant 
to the Liverpool Collegiate Institution. 
Improvet.tents in apparatus for teaching addi- 
tion. Patent dated June 23, 1854. (No. 
1426.) 

" This invention has for its object a com- 
binstion of parts which can be changed 
amongst themselves, and present different 
rows of figures to be added up by the pupil, 
the master having a key to ascertain by 
inspection the sum of the whole for himself." 

BiasEKP.R, William John, of Birming- 
ham, Warwick, manufacturer. A new or 
improved method of labelling bottles and such 
other vessels or articles as refuire or may 
require labelling. Patent dated June 29, 
1854. (No. 1427.) 

C/aim.— The manufacture or construction 
of labels for bottles and other similar 
.articles, of glass, or other transparent sub. 
stance, such labels being shaped so as to fit 
the surface of the bottles or other articles, 
and having the inscription or device upon 
their back surfaces. 

Spbrry, Corydon Stillman, of Con- 
necticut, United States of America. An 
improved knitting machine, (A communica- 
tion.) Patent dated June 29, 1854. (No. 
1428.) • 

Claim, — ^The arrangement of the needles 
in the plane of the endless belt instead of at 
right angles to it, in combination with an 
arrangement of the driving-pinion and the 
projecting joints. 

Markland, Thomas, of Hyde, Chester, 
warp-dresser. Certain improvements in ma- 
chinery or apparatus for warping, dressing, 
and weaving textile materials. Patent dated 
June 29, 1854. (No. 1429.) 

In constructing an improved reed or 
wraith the inventor finely perforates two 
strips or bands of India-rubber, or any 
other elastic substance, and employs one 
as a top and the other as a bottom support 
for the wires or dents which constitute the 
reed. He also describes a sub-divided self- 
acting temple. 

Hughes, Edward Joseph, of Manches- 
ter, Lancaster. Improvements in sewing 
machines. (A communication.) Patent dated 
June SO, 1854. (No. 1431.) 

This invention comprises an improved 
machine for sewing with one loMg thread 
and needle, and a hook, which hook takes 
the loop of the thread, after it has been taken 
up through the cloth and down again iu 
another place, around a spool, or case con- 
taining the spool, fiom which the thread is 



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taken, producing a fast stitch fonned by 
one thread only, &c. &q. 

Edwards, John, of Manchester, Lan- 
caster, gentleman. Intp n te me nt* in raiiwaif 
chain. Patent dated June 80, 1854. (No. 
1432.) 

The inventor describes a great variety of 
forma of rail, so constructed, that the rail 
can be taken out without removing the chair, 
no keys being required. 

Shears, Daniel Towbrs, of Bankside, 
Southwark, Surrey. Improoementi in curing 
or separating moisiure frwn tugar and other 
stthetancee, (A communication.) Patent 
dated June 30, 1854. (No. 1438.) 

This invention consists in constructing 
the revolving vessel of a centrifugal ma- 
cbine in such manner that it may be caused 
to open when the process is complete, and 
that while the continaed rotation shall be 
the roeana of throwing out the charge, when 
the vessel is again closed it shall be in a 
condition to receive a fresh charge. 

MoNZANI, WlLLOUGHBY TUEOBALD, of 

St James' s«terrace, Blue Anchor-road, Ber- 
mondsey. Improvements in the manrfacture 
of foldingchairs, stools, and other articles nsed 
to sit or recline upon. Patent dated June 30, 
1854. (No. 1435.) 

The chief object of this invention is so to 
arrange parts that a bedstead ahsll be 
partly constructed of the box or case in 
which it is packed when out of une. 

Thompson, Nathan, jun., of New York, 
United States. Improoements in regulating 
the supply rf steam Jrom steam boilers. Patent 
dated June 30, 1854. (No. 1436.) 

In carrying out this invention a float in a 
steam boiler is caused to act on a throttle or 
other suiuble valve in such manner as to close 
the valve as the water-level becomes low. 

Gray» Henry Georqb, of Commercial 
Wharf, Mile-eud-road, Middlesex. tm- 
prooements in preserving potatoes, roots, plants, 
grain, and seeds. Patent dated June 30, 
1854. (No. 1437.) 

Claim. — The use of iodine in combination 
with sulphates or muriates for preserving 
poutoes, rooto, &c. 

M^Gafpin, John, of Liverpool, Lancas- 
ter, engineer. Improvements in the manii- 
facture of iron casks and cisterns. Patent 
dated June 30, 1854. (No. 1438.) 

This invention consists in forming iron 
casks or cisterns, by combining corrugated 
iron with frames or rims of cast iron.' 

Slater, Thomas, of Somers-place West, 
St Pancras, Middlesex, optician, and Jo- 
seph Tall, of Crawford-street, Marylebone, 
in the same county, tool-niakcr. istprooe- 
ments in the construction of planes, and in 
cuttin/^-apparatus, and in the maehinertf em' 
ployed therein. Patent dated June 30, 1 854. 
(No. 1439.) 



This invention consists — 1. Of a peculiar 
construction and arrangement of machinery 
for cutting the parallel sides of the plane- 
blocks or rough blanks. 2. Of oeruin 
peculiar constructions and arrangements of 
self-acting machinery for mortising the an- 
gular cavity which contains the plane- iron. 
3. Of an improved oonatruetion of plane- 
iron. 

Johnson, John Henry, of Lincoln's- inu- 
fields, Middlesex, gentleman. Improvements 
in machinery or t^fparatusfor winding threads 
w yarns. (A communication.) Patent dated 
June 30, 1854. (No. 1440.) 

This invention relates to an improved ar- 
rangement of mechanism for winding or 
forming the skeins or hanks of silk, cotton, 
linen, or woollen yams, and consists in im- 
parting a lateral reciprocating motion to the 
guides which conduct the thread to the 
winder. 

HuLME, Joseph, of Manchester, Lancas- 
ter, engineer. Improvements in steam engines 
and m vedves, parts of which improvements are 
applicable for diminishing friction in other en- 
gincs. Patent dkted July 1, 1854. (No. 
1442.) 

This invention consists — 1. In a new com- 
bination of parts forming a direct-aetion 
oseillating steam engine, in which the cylin- 
der and the guide-frame of the piston-rod 
sre made to act as a beam. 2. In workuig 
the air-pump buckets of oseillating engines 
from the cylinder, or from some part con- 
nected thereto. 3. In an improved combi- 
nation of parts forming a compound direct- 
action oscillating steam engine. 4. In giv- 
ing motion to anti-friction rollers by means 
of racks, segments, or wheels and pinions, 
for the purpose of preventing the slipping 
I and consequent uneven working of snch 
I snti-friction rollers, or of the surfaces against 
I which they act 5. In causing a current of 
water or other cool fluid to pass through a 
I chamber formed under the footstep of go- 
vernor spindles or other uptight shafts, for 
the pur|Mwe of keeping sucn footsteps from 
heating. 6. In makmg the spindles of mush- 
room or other circular valves of nearly the 
same diameter as the valve itself, to reduce 
the power required for working such valves. 
Harding, Thomas Richards, of Leeds, 
York, hackle and hackle-pin manufacturer. 
Im provements in the man^facture of the pins 
of hackles, combs, and cylinders uaed in hack- 
Ung, combing, and preparing wool, Jtax, and 
other fibrous substances, and in the mode rf 
applying them to manufacturing purposes. Pa- 
tent dated July 1, 1854. f No. 1443.) 

This invention mainly " consists in mak- 
ing the ssid pins or teeth by means of pres- 
sure applied by cylinders or other analogous 
mechanical contrivances provided with dies, 
in the surfaces of which are made grooves or 



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pBovisioHAL sPxanoinoirB mot progseoed with. 



69 



ehanneU, so arranged that when the rar- 
faees of the cylindrical or segmental dies 
are broaght together, the groores made 
therein will form a model or matrix for the 
pins." 

PROTISIOMAL 8PSCIPICATIONS NOT PRO- 
CBBDBD WITH. 

Williams, David Lloyd, of Cannon- 
street, London, gentleman, and John Wil- 
liam Nealb, of Stepnej, Middlesex, 
engineer. Imprmtementt m fmmaeei. Ap- 
plication dated June 24, 18^4. (No. 1396.) 

This invention consists in surrounding a 
furnace with a water-trough or jacket, and 
in the employment of short hollow bars, 
which comronnieate with the jacket at the 
back of the furnace, above the water-level. 
On the furnace becoming heated, the water 
in the iacket is vaporized, and steam and 
atmospheric air enter the back ends of the 
hollow bars, and travelling ibrwArd pass into 
the fire. 

Rbvell, John, of Newark, Nottingham. 
ImprmememU im korse-koes. Application 
dated June 24, 1854. (No. 1402.) 

The inventor causes a number of hoes or 
blades to be secured to the underneath sur- 
face of a strong bar, working vertically and 
laterally, in bearings connected with a 
frame-work secured to the axles of the ma- 
chine. This bar receives motion from levers 
or handles, and acting upon steerage wheels, 
through the intervention of a steerage lever 
connected with their axles, in snch manner 
as to give the wheels 'a lateral movement 
corresponding to that of the hoes or blades. 
The hind wheels of the machine likewise 
move sideways, and the horse is harnessed 
to a rack which works on a centre in the 
fore part of the machine. The hoes or blades 
when taken out of work are supported by 
catches. 

Manteoues, Henbi, of Rouen, France. 
im p r ove m ents im the mamt^aciure qf bcoiSf 
«Aof«, golo^et, or i» shoe-making generally. 
Application dated June 26, 1854. (No. 
14M.) 

The principal feature of this invention 
appears to consist in a method of nailing 
the uppers of boots, shoes, &c., to the 
vampa. 

Brown, James, of Haddington, Scot- 
land, plumber. Improvements in the majm- 
/aetitre rfmetai spouts or troughs* Applica- 
tion dated June 26, 1854. ^No. 1406.) . 

This invention consists m a method of 
manufacturing spouts or troughs' from 
sheets or plates of metal by means of cer- 
tain described machinery. 

Bakewbll, Thomas Hill, of Welford- 
road, Leicester. Improvements in the manU'- 
faetmre rf ghoes. Application dated June 
26,1854. TNo. 1409.). 

In carrymg out this invention parts of 



the fronts of gloves which come to the 
palms of the hands have let into them vul- 
canised India rubber or elastic fabric, and 
ventilators, consisting of two perforated 
plates or discs. 

Brxndley, William, junior, of Moor- 
gate-street, London, general trader, /m- 
provements in the construction ofltfe-hoats. Ap- 
plication dated June 27, 1854. (No. 1411.) 

This invention mainly consists in form- 
ing boats with a perforated bottom, and a keel 
about a quarter of the depth of the boat, 
having a semi- circular sheet of metal fixed 
upon it longitndiually to stiffen the boat 
when necessary. 

Morison, James, of Paisley, Renfrew, 
machinist. Improvements in the treatment or 
manirfdctttre rf ornamental fabrics. Applica- 
tion dated June 28, 1854. (No. 1424.) 

This invention relates to that part of the 
manufacture of fabrics of the lappet class, 
wherein portions of the surface-threads are 
cut from the piece to bring it to the finished 
state. This cutting away of the threads is 
effected by means of a number of cutting- 
blades, carried spirally or otherwise upon a 
cylinder revolring in contact with a series of 
stationary tapered blades. 

Smith, William, and William Brak- 
WELL Hayes, both of Manchester, Lancas- 
ter, manufacturers. Certain improvements 
in power-looms for weaving. Application 
dated June 29, 1854. (No. 1430.) 

This invention consists in stopping the 
loom without concussion, by means of an 
extra pulley or wheel on the driving or 
crank shalt of the loom, this pulley being 
furnished on its rim with a tooth or stop, 
piece. 

Izart, Laurent Furcy, manufacturer, 
of France. A new mode of removing organic 
vegetable substances from woollen ferries. 
Application dated June 30,1854. (No.l484.) 

This invention consists in applying hy* 
drocliloric acid, in a liquid or gaseous state, 
to any kind of woollen fabrics, to remove 
the cotton or other organic vegetable sub- 
stance contained in them in order to render 
the materials fit for being re-manufactured. 

Jones, Robert Lewis, of Chester, rail- 
way manager. Improvements in locks and 
keys. Application dated July 1, 1854. (No. 
1441.) 

The inventor constructs locks and the 
keys belonging to them in such manner 
that when the key is inserted, and its handle 
tnmed round in the ordinary manner, the 
key is separated into two portions, one of 
which enters a chamber or box, while the 
other part, which includes the stem and 
handle Of the key, turns round in the ordi- 
nary manner. 

*•* The documents of No. 1400 are 
with the Law Officers, under second re- 
ference. 



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70 



KOnCEB OF INTEirnOW TO PROCEED. 



PROVISTONAL PROTECTIONS. 
Dated December 16, 1854. 

2656. David D. Demlng, of New York, United 
States of America. A machine for cutting cloth 
or other material used in the manufacture of all 
kinds of wearing apparel, and also for cutting all 
other articles of an uniform thfeknes», and which 
are required to he of any particular pattern, and 
for whatever purpose intended, and by which thev 
may be cut with perfect accuracy, and with al- 
most inconceivable rapidity. 

Dated December 22, 1854. 

2701. Louis Joseph Fr^d^ric Margueritte, che- 
mist, of Paris, France. Improvements in the ma- 
nufacture of caustic and carbonated potash and 
soda. 

2703. Alfred Suter, of Fenchurch-street, London. 
A wind guard to cure smoky chimneys or ventilate 
rooms or buildings. 

S705. Frederic Prince, of Haverstoek Hill, Mid- 
dlesex. Certain improvements in the nipples of 
fire-arms. 

2707. Edward Loysel, of Rue de Gr6try, Paris, 
France, civil engineer. A new game combining 
chnnce and skill, and the apparatus to be used 
therewith. 

2709. John Downle, of Glasgow, Lanark, North 
Britain, engineer. Improvements In fire-arms. 

2711. Auguste Edouard Loradouz Bellford, of 
Castle-street, London. A new and useful improve* 
mcnt in breech- loading fire-arms. A communica- 
tion. 

Dated December 23, 1854. 

2719. James Walker, of Wolverhampton, Stan- 
ford, brick-manufacturer. Certain Improvements 
in machinery for the manufacture of bricks, tiles, 
pipes, and other articles made of clay. 

2715. George Anderson of the Gas-works, Ro- 
therhithe, Surrey, gas engineer. Improvements in 
purifying sewers and buildings, or other places of 
* noxious vapours. 

Dated December 26, 1854. 

2720. Adolphus Dormoy, ironmonger, of Senil- 
lon, near Langres, France. The nutnufacture of 
shovels in Iron. 

2721. Charles Edward White, of Fulham, Mid- 
dlesex, gentleman, and Francis Robinson, of Put- 
ney, Surrey, gentleman. Improvements in sig- 
nalling for railway purposes. 

2722. Benjamin Bishop and Joseph Dver, of 
Birmingham, Warwick. Improvements in the 
manufacture of hinges. 

2724. Frederick Samson Thomas, of Hooks Villa, 
Fulham, Middlesex, and William Evans Tilley, of 
Klrby-street, Holbom, Middlesex. An improved 
process for plating or coating lead, iron, or other 
metals with tin, nickel, or alumina. 

Dated December 27, 1854. 

2725. James Dundas, of Dundas Castle, Linlith- 
gow, North Britain, enginer. Improvements in 
the manufacture of cannon and ordnance of every 
description. 

2726. John Nash, of Market Rasen, Lincolnshire. 
Improvements in the means or process of drying 
malt, grain, or roots. 

2727. George Carter, of Lombard-street, London, 
gentleman, and Henry Cyrus Symons, of Castle- 
street, S uthwark, Surrey, engineer. Improve- 
ments in boilers and furnaces, and in the apparatus 
for supplying and regulating the fuel, air, water, 
and hU am. 

2728. Thomas Boyle, of Skinner-street, Snow 
Hill, London. Improvements in reflectors for 
artificial light. 

2729 John Lang Dunn, of Glasgow, Lanark, 
manur.cturing chemist. Improvements in work- 
ing up certain waste sulphates and nitrates, and 
for the manufacture of useful products therefrom. 



t7f0. William Edwatnd Ntwton, of Chaaoery- 
lane, Middlesex, civil engineer. Improvements In 
looms for weaving. A communication. 

27S1. John Comstock, of New London, Connec- 
ticut, United Statea of America. Improvements 
in trip-hammers. 

2782. The Honourable James Sinclair, commonly 
called Lord Berriedale, of Hill-street, Middlesex. 
Improvements In machinery or apparatus for wash- 
ing cloth or yams. 

2733. John Cumming, of Glasgow, Lanark, Nortli 
Britain, pattern-designer. Improvements in the 
treatment or manufacture of ornamental £»brics. 

Dated Decmtber 28» 1854. 

2784. Charles May, of Great Georgo-street, West* 
minster, civil engineer. Improvements in the ma^ 
nufacture of screws. 

2786. John Cockcroft, of New Accrington, Lan- 
caster, machine-printer. Improvements in machi- 
nery or apparatus for printing woven or textile 
fabrics and yarns. 

2740. William Ward, of Sheffield, York, lead- 
chawr. Improvements in stoves. 

Dated December 30, 1854. 

27A4. Charles Biasell, of Birmingham, Warwick, 
gun and pistol manufacturer. Improvements in 
sights for rifles and other flre-arms. 

2786. Eugene Mayeur, of Tredegar-square, Lon- 
don, agent for Thomas Platti, of Port Maurice, In 
the Sardinian States. A new hydraulic pump or 
machine, based on the centrifugal principle, for 
the purpose of raising, forcing, or exhausting (even 
muddy) waters or other fluids, and applicable to 
the wants of agriculture, industry generally, and 
to the salvage of ships. A communication by the 
said Thomas Piattl. 

2760. Robert Sam North, of Gorton, near Man- 
chester, Lancaeter, eDglneer. Improvements in 
Bwiiches and crossings for railways. 

2762. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln Vinn- 
flelds, Middlesex, gentleman. Improvements in 
obtaining motive power. A communication flrom 
Jacquts Eugene Armengaud, of Paris, France, 
civil engineer. 

Dated January 1, 1855. 

2. Walter William Lewis, of Hanley Castle, Wor- 
cester, gentleman. An Improvement in the ma- 
nufacture of charcoal. 

4. George Cram, of Chester, iron ship-builder, 
and John Jackson Crane, «of the same place, 
painter. An improved composition applicable to 
the coating of ships' bottoms, and other useful pur- 
poses. 

Dated January 2, 1855. 

6. Bashley Britten, of Anneriey, Surrey, gentle- 
man. A cheap and convenient method and appa- 
ratus for obtaining a copy of writings, drawing*, 
or tracings in ink. 

8. Henri Louis Dormoy, merchant, of Paris, 
French empire. Certain improvements in manu- 
facturing and twisting silk, cotton, wool, and other 
fibrous substances. A communication. 

10. Claude Jules Fincken, glass-merchant, of 
Rue de TEchiquier, Paris. France. Preserving, 
without loss of heat, all windows, glass roofs, false 
zoofs, 8pc., from the effects of condensation and 
danip, and also ftom the effects of external smoke, 
soot, and dust. 



NOTICES OF INTENTION TO 
PROCEED. 
{From the ** London Oaxette,** Jemuary \tth, 
1855.) 
1956. John Jones. Improvemehtiln metal din- 
ner and deeeert forks. 



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WSBKLY LIST OF PATRMT8. 



71 



lt60. Tony Petitjean. An improTed proettt for 
re^uttiriK or re-forming the faeos of fllM. 

1961. WUliam Prior Sharp and ^^illiam WeUd. 
ImproTemtnta In the production of raw and thrown 
•ilk, and in machinery and apparatus to be used 
for ttfe purpose. 

1966. Julian Bernard. Improvements in the 
aunufaeture of boots and shoes, or other coverings 
for the fset. 

1974. Thomas Clowes. Improvements in muz- 
zlra for horses, or apparatus to prevent horses 
fronn biting or suclcing their cribs or mangers. 

1977. Edward Palmer. Improvements in pro- 
pelling veasela. 

19S1. John Chillcott Pumelle. Improvements 
in obtaining and applying motive power. 

198S. Martin BilUng. Improvements in manu- 
facturing and ornamenting castors for furniture. 

1996. Charles Frederick Stansbnry. Improved 
machinery for making screws. A communication. 

1997. Charles Frederick Stansbury. Machinery 
for making lock springs. A communication. 

1998. Charles Frederick Stansbnry. Improve- 
ments in punches and dies. A communication. 

2039. Jean Antolne Passet. Improved machi- 
nery or apparatus for pressing or calendering fab- 
ries. 

soil. William Hodson. Improvements in appa- 
ratus for the manufacture of bricks, tiles, and other 
articles, from plastic materials. 

20i0. Thomas Gamett. Improvements in steam 
engine and other governors. 

2057. Georges Danr6. Certain Improvements in 
gas-burners. 

2094. Walter Sneath. An improvement in sew- 
iag-raachiDes. 

2120. John Jeyes. An improvement iu the ma- 
nufacture of paper, threads, and yarns. 

2154. Robert Way Uren. Improvements in ma- 
chinery for the manufacture of brlclis and tiles. 

2155. William Johnson. Improvements in win.l- 
Usses. A communication. 

2165. George Wigaell Knocker. Improvements 
la obtaining motive power by means of water. 

2166. Francois Alexandre Nicolas Delsarte. A 
new mode of, and apparatus for, tuning pianos and 
other kinds of stringed instruments. 

2222. Jacob Dockray. Certain improvements in 
machinery for raiding woollen cloth. 

2236 Samuel Mason and William Dceby. Cer- 
tain improvements in the manufacture of cover- 
ings for the human leg and foot. 

i5AS. Augustus Thomas John Bullock. An im- 
proved raft or apparatus for saving life at sea. 

2583. Thomas Brown. Improvements in ma- 
ekinery or apparatna for cutting velvets- or other 
similar piled fabrics. 

26^6 Jaoies Rose. An improvroent in con- 
structing the fire-boxes of steam boilers. 

2646. Edward Strong. Improvements in remov- 
ing and replacing the wheels and axles of locomo- 
tiTe engines and other rolling stock of railways. 

2684. William Milner. Improvements in safes 
and other such depositories, and further improve- 
ments in the locks of the same. 

2691. Henry Render. Improvements in the 
manufacture of night-lights. 

2709. John Downie. Improvements in fire arms. 

3718. Charles Henfrey. Improvements iu the 
construction of railways for steep gradients, and 
in the machinery or apparatus employed therein or 
connected therewith. A communication from 
Slgnor Pasquale Delorensl, of Turin, Sardinia. 

2726. John Nash. Improvements in the means 
or process of drying malt, grain, or roots. 

2730. William Edward Newton. Improvements 
in looms for weaving. A communication. 

2733. John Cummlng. Improvements in the 
treatment or manufacture of oniamental fabrics. 

S746. William Ward. Improvements in stoves. 

Oppoflitiou can be entered to the granting 
of a Patent to any of the parties in the 



above List, who have ^ven notioe of their 
intention to proceed, within twenty - one 
days from the date of the Oautte in which 
the notice appears, by leaving at the Com- 
missioners' -office particulars in writing of 
the objection to the application. 

PRIVY COUNCIL APPOINTMENTS. 

The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council 
have appointed Thursday, 1st February, at half- 
past 10, A.M., for the hearing of the petition of 
George Shllllbeer, coach-builder, formerly of Mel- 
ton-fctreet, Euston-square, but now of Commercial- 
place, St. Luke, Middlesex, for a prolongation of 
the letters patent granted to him for "improve- 
ments in the construction of hearses, mourning, 
and other carriages." 20th September, 1841. 

The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council 
have appointed Saturday, February 10th, at h:ilf- 
past ten, a.m., for the hearing of the petition of 
Thomas Clark. Professor of Chemistry In Mari- 
schal College, University oi Aberdeen, for a pro- 
longation of the patent granted to him for "anew 
mode of rendering certain waters (the water of 
the Thames being among the number) less impure 
and less hard for the supply and use of manufacto- 
ries, villages, towns, and cities," 8th March, 1841. 



1531. 
1587. 
1541. 
1559. 
1565. 
1567. 
1568. 
15S0. 
1587. 
1592. 
1505. 

1606. 
1608. 
1609. 
1639. 

1657. 
1680. 
1741. 
1808. 
1835. 

1894. 

2181. 
2183. 
2295. 
2310. 
2329. 
2335. 
234*. 
2358. 
2359. 
2;^67. 

2375. 



. EKK.LY LIST OF PATLX IS. 
Sealed Jafiuary 12, 1855. 
William Armand Gilbee. 
Thomas Bennett Foulkes. 
John Hackett. 
John Afihworth. 
John Bailey Denton. 
George North. 
William Warcup. 
William Beckett Johnsou. 
William Ball. 
Jean Barthclemy Gillet. 
Francis Whiteliead and William 

Whitehead. 
Nicholas Callan. 
Richard Archibald Brooman. 
James Sedgwick. 
William Church and Samuel As- 

pinall Goddard. 
Samuel Frankham. 
Edwyn John Jeffery Dixon. 
William White. 
Thomas Webster Rammell. 
William Henry Smith, Henry 

Bessemer and Robert Longsdon 
Pierre Auiable de Saint Simon 

Sicard. 
William White. 
Ancel Alexander Routledgc. 
Jabc'Z Morgan. 
Thomas Frederick Tyermau. 
, Henry Walmsley and John Day. 
James Atherton and John Kinlock. 
Fiederic Ramford Ensor. 
John Bird. 
William Beardmore. 
Allan McDonald and Alexander 

Mcintosh. 
David Ferrier. 



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72 



WEEKLY List OF PATENTS. 



2380. George Tomlmson Bousfield. 
2421. Alfred Vincent Newton. 
2436. Joseph Wilson. 
2449. George Tomlinson Boaafield. 

Sealed January 16, 1856. 
1583. Samuel Mitchell. 
1586. James Longley. 
1596. John Hackett 
1614. Thomas Firth and John Wilson. 
1616. William Septimus Losh. 
1634. Henry Stephens Garland and Jo- 

siah Glasson. 
1658. Barton H. Jenks. 
1666. Francis Morton. 
1670. Robert John Keen. 
1692. Christopher Ridout Read. 
1698. James Griffiths. 



1752. Edward Monsoii. 
1824. Joseph Barrows. 
2256. John Maddox, Edward Gardner and 

George Dyer Green. 
2350. Louis Napoleon Lsuglois. 
2356. Edward Simons. 
2372. Charles Dalryniple Cranstoun. 
2382. Henry William Harman. 
2406. Adolphe P«coul. 
2432. William Hann. 
2446. Henry Rohert Ramshothani , and 

William Brown. 
2474. George Collier. 

The above Patents all bear date as of the 
day on which Provisional Protection was 
granted for the several inventions men- 
tioned therein. 



MESSRS. ROBERTSON, BROOMAN, & CO. 

Vndertake the Proeimtioii of Pateati 

for the United Kingdom and all Foreign Countries, and the transaction generally of all 

business relating to Patents. Costs of Provisional Protection— iSlO 10s. 

Practical Instructions to Inventors and intending Patentees supplied gratis on application 

to Messrs. ROBERTSON, BROOMAN, snd Co., "Mechanics' Magazine and 

Patent Office," 166, Fleet-street, London. 



CONTENTS OP 
Lamport's Pateat Improvements in Machinery 

used in ShlpbaUdin^~(MriM engravinga) 49 

The " Scientific Amenean " 51 

On the Possible Density of the Luminiferons 

Medium, &e. By Professor W. Thomson... 54 
Industrial Pathology :— On Trades n hich affect 

the Eyes .t. 56 

Foard's Smoke-famace Pateat 57 

Lowe's Patent for Supplying and Purifying 

Oos - 58 

De Bergue's Patent Propeller for Ships -(fip</A 

emgraHngi) 59 

Self-capping Rifle ». 60 

Re-patented Re-Inventions.. 61 

The Smoke Qaestlon 63 

Permanent Ways 62 

Electric Telegraphs :— Another Modem An- 
tique 63 

Portable Cannon 63 

Improved Cannon ». 6t 

On Ordnance and Gunpowder 64 

Specifications of Patents recently Filed: 

Garrett Valves 64 

Letchford BCateh-hoIders 64 

Skeltoo Tillers 65 

Brooman Projectiles 65 

Bioomaa Grinding Paints 65 

Davles Propelling 65 

Thompson Sugar 65 

Bottomley, Scho- 

fleld ft Spencer..8p!nning fr Doubling... 65 

Hubner Fibrous Materials 65 

Bain Fire-arms 65 

Palmer Candle Lamps 65 

Beale ft Latchmore Knitted Shirts 65 

Yates Furnaces 66 

Smith Ropes and Strands 66 

Collet te Beer ....: 66 

Antrobus Printing Oil-cloths 66 



THIS NUMBER. 

Morgan Cutting Paper, fte 

lies Metal Bedsteads 

Coltman Knitting Frames 

De Fontalnemo- 

reau Axle-boxes 

Brunlees Draw>bridges 

Edwards Textile Fabrics 

Cockshutt Bungs and Stoppers ... 

Schloesing Carbonates of Soda .... 

Jones Teaching Addition 

Blsseker Labelling Bottles 

Sperry Kniitlng Machines 

Markland Textile MateriaU 

Hughes Sewing Machines. 

Edwards Railway Chairs 

Shears Sugar 

Monsani ...Folding Chairs 

Thompson Steam Boilers 

Gray' Preserving Roota 

M'Oadln Casks and Cisterns 

Slater ft Tall Planes 

Johnson....^ Winding Yams 

Hulme M Steam Engines 

Harding Hackle Pins, ftc 

Provisional Specifications not Proceeded with r 

Williams ft Neale Furnaces 

Revell Horse-hoes 

Mantegues Boots and Shoes 

Brown ^.Metal Spouts 

Bakewell Gloves 

Brindley Life Boats m.... 

Morison OmameUl Fabrics 

Smith ft Hayes ....Power Looms 

Ixart Woollen Fabrics . — .... 

Jones Locks and Keys 

Provisional Protections 

Notices of Intention to Proceed 

Privy Council Appointments 

List of Sealed Patents 



66 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
68 
68 



68 
68 
68 
68 
68 



69 



69 
69 
69 
69 
70 
70 
70 
71 
71 
71 



LONDON : Edited, Printed, and Published by Richard Archibald Brooman, of No. 166 Fleet-street, 
In the City of London.— Sold by A. and w. Gallgnani, Rue Vivienne, Paris; Maehin, and Co. 
Dublin ; W. C. Campbell and Co., Hambarg. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



No. 1642.] SATURDAY, JANUARY 27, 1855. [sum^li «. 

Edited by R. A. Biooman, 166, Fleet-street. 

THE MODERATOR LAMP. 
Fig. 1. ; Fig. 2. F ig. 5. Fig. 3. 



I. 



VOL. LXIT. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



74 

THE MODERATOR LAMP. 

The French lampe & modkraiewt now well known t>oth in FrtnM and in this eottntry, 
has been pronounced by the Jcadimii det Sciences to be the intention of M. Franchot, to 
whom the Academy has awarded a prize in recognition of its merits. In laying before our 
readers a short account of this yery useful invention, we shall avail ourselves of an interest- 
ing paper upon the subject which appeared in the eighth volume of Le G&nie InduetrieL 

Before proceeding, however, with this account, we may remark that the real value of 
the moderator lamp is not generally known in this country, in consequence of a very 
common practice which prevails among our oilmen, of adulterating the lamp oils vended 
by them with oils of inferior and unsuitable qtttlities. We are informed, on good autho- 
rity, that this practice, of mixing oils ill adapted to purposes of illumination with the 
illuminating oils, ift so general, that but few persons are now aware of the degree of light 
which may be obtained from the flame of an oil-thirning lamp. We gladly avail ourselves of 
an opportunity of taking what we trust will fW9t the first step towards a beneficial change 
in this matteh 

Fig. 1 of lue etl^ravings on the preceding }MkM fepresents the first design of a moderator 
lamp, made by ll. Franchot, in December, l^Si^ This lamp is composed of a cylindrical 
vessel, e, mounted on a base, «, and open at itft ttpper part. To the base, 01, are fixed the 
supports, «, ft| #hieh carry the upper part of the apparatus. In the vessel, e, is fitted a 
piston, p, formed of several discs of leather ceili|»ressed between two metal dises, by means 
of screws and Huts^ q, A leather valve, I, tokening downwards, is fitted to the piston, to 
allow the oil to pass below the latter whefa it it f«iiedt The piston, ^, carries at its centre 
a tubular rod^ d^ Which slides in a box packed #ith leather compressed by means of a 
screw. The box, e-, is surmounted with a tube, h^ in which the oil ascends, and in this tube 
is an iron wire regulator, /, which also enters Ibi tube, d. ** By varying the length and 
thickness of this wire,*' says (he inventor, in a note Which accompanies his original drawing, 
" a regular flow majr be produced from the top olf the tube, h.** A box spring, r, presses 
constantly on the piston, beittg fiked at g, at the ttj[»per part of the lamp. '* By arranging 
holes through the inpports at lltibrent heights,** says the inventor, " the heights of the 
points of support of the spring flie| be varied^ aMd^ consequently, the power of the spring." 
For raising the pisbii he employed a sort of small axle, k, on which he wound a piece of 
catgut, the lower eiid of whieh Waa eonnected to the piston. 

We see he^ all like elements el a moderator lamp roughly brought together. The piston, 
p, being at the bottom of the reservoir, c, the latter is filled with oil ; the piston is then 
raised by means ef the axle, and the oil passes belew through the valve, t. The compressed 
spring, r, then presses upon the piston and cause! It to elevate the oil, through the tubes, d 
and A, to the bumeli 

It was, however* some months After the invention of the above arrangement that M. 
Franchot first applied for a patent fbr his lamp; vit. in April, 1836. His plans having been 
meanwhile matured» how assumed tike form represented in fig. 2. " The lamp, which is the 
subject of this invention," said the patentee's speeification, " is essentially characterised : 
1. by the direct trahMnission of the power of the spring to the resistance opposed by the 
ascension of the oU te the burner ; 2. by a regulator which constantly keeps this seeond 
force in «quilibrium with the first It is distinguished from other lamps principally : I. by 
the absence of wheel-work, valves, tiid suckers { 1» kf the simplicity of the motive mechan- 
ism, which is reduced to a spring and a rack." iKlftbtt etk he says, " fbr rereilating the 
flow, which, being propoHionate to the decreasing fbtnee ttf the spring, would be flrsl too 
rapid and then too sle#| A fixed iron wire is mam te penettate into the interior of the hol- 
low rod of the piston^ ahd f etard the flow of the ^\ in proportion to the length of it which 
is made to act If thtt piston is at the upper end of its stroke, the spring acta with all its 
force, but at the sanie titlie the iron wire penetrates as deeply as possible Into m tube of the 
piston, and the resiitilkee it opposes to the flow of the oil is at its maximum. The liquid 
gradually flowing, the piston falls proportionately, and the spring is distended, while, on 
the other hand, the tube of the piston is disengaged from the iron wire, being withdrawn hr 
the piston. The first oavse tending to retard tne ascension of the liquid, and the second, 
on the contrary, tendinff to accelerate it, the two neutralize each other, and the flow Is con- 
slant. The absolute velocity is determined by the greater or less length of the iron wire.*' 
Again, " the piston is formed simply of leather stamped out, compressed and held by a 
nut between two discs of plate iron. It moves with but little friction, and bears closely 
against the sides of a strong cylinder. And it has this advantage, that it aets like a valve 
when drawn up, the sides of it yielding and allowing the oil to pass beneath." 

Fig. t represents a vertical section of the lamp tsken through its axis. The piston, p, 
moves in the cylindrical tube, c, and is held between two discs, y, a, against a collar, c, on 
the tube, d, by a nut, w. The spring is formed of a wire rolled spirally on a double ftueOi 



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THB MODXILITOB LAMP. 75 

•ad pTM^et eonttontly upon the piston. Its form permits it to beoome flattened end 
reduced to double the thiokneee of the wire of which it is formed. The tube, dt passes 
through a stuffing-box, e, packed with leather, and enters a caae, A. A regulating rod, /, 
passes up through the tube, d, in the direction of its axis, and through a Stuffing-box, «• 
The tube, /, is prolonged to /, to allow it to be withdrawn in ease of its becoming choked. 
To the collar, «, of the piston is fixed a rack, ^, which serves to raise the lamp by means of 
a pinion, ti. The other rack, J, is that of the burner, and is raised by a pinion, m. A cross 
piece, pt is fixed to the burner, and mounted by screws on two bearings left in the interior. 

On July 1, 1897, M* Franchot obuined a first certificate of addition to his patent, in 
which he proposed — 1. To designate his lamp by the name lamps d nutd^aitmr; 2. To 
employ springs eomposed of three tninoated cones of wire united end to end, as is the case 
in that shown in fig. S. 

On July 81, 1887, M. Frsoehot assigned his patent to M. Jao, a roanufaoturer of Carcel 
lamps, at Paris. Before this arrangement, the inventor had constructed six or seven doeen 
of the lamps shown in Hg, 8, which vefy nearly resemble those represented in fig. 3 ; and 
since the same letters are applied to the former as to the latter figures, no further descrip- 
tion is needed. 

M. Jac, on the 5th of August, 1837, obtained a second certificate of addition, in which lie 
proposed to replace the valve-piston by a piston carrying an ordinary valve. It will be 
seen from fig. 1 that M. Franohot had also had this idea, but had abandoned it. Subseqaent 
experience has not justified the change made by M. Jac, and the valve-piston has been 
returned to, and is the only one now used in moderator lamps. 

Several reaeons have been alleged against the rights of M. Franchot ; there are, bowcTer, 
says Le Odnis htimsirielt but three which appear to interfere materially with his patent. 
They an as follows :^L M. Mallebouehe, it has been said, patented, June 9, 1832, the 
spring whieh M. Fk-anehot claims ; 2. M» Joanne is said to have employed, in 1833, the 
piston of stamped leather; 3. M. AUard desoribedt in 1827| a regulator analogous to that 
which M. Fraaehot employed in his lamp. 

** Were these assertions rigorously true," says our contemporary, ** we could not forget 
that these eeveral very simple pitfts, eombined for the first time bv M« Franchot in his mo- 
derator lamp, eonstitute a lamp more pmctical than any before known, and consequently 
an useful Invention." 

The point of intarfinrMioe between Mallsbouche's and Francbot's inventions appears to 
be connnod to the springs employed by each, which certainly mueh resemble each other. 

Figs. 4, 4, and 6 repreeent a lamp described by AL Joanne in a hrevet d'additim. May 
17, 1888 ; ig. 4 being a vertical section through its axis ( fig. 5 a section of the piston ; 
and fig. 6 a plan of it oeenfk'em beneath. The lamp is composed of a cylindrical body, a, 
in wlueh a piston, e, movee freely. The piston is formed of lead, and is of sufficient 
weight to raise the eolunui of oil, and to overcome lu own firiction. It is also furnished 
with a seeend piston, fomned of eoAcned leather, with a central opening, the edges of which 
ptojeet inward, and its outer edge is so formed, that the proMure of the oil expands it, and 
esnees It to fit the eyllnder accnrately. A Oentral tube, A, terminated below by a moveable 
part, k, fitted with a bayonet joint, passes up the lamp, and regulates the aperture, e, 
tiirottf h whioh the oil enters the tube. The moveable piece, k, is formed with a square 
piece, M, on it* lower part, which fits into a corresponding reoess in the bottom of the lamp. 
This arrangement is used for opening or closing tne apertxire, <k In raising the lamp, the 
tube, ky fs raised by its upper end. This tube, in rising, grasps, by means of two hooks, 
the bottom of the pisteii, and carries it with it to the topi ana the oil, poured in above the 
pietott, pasBOB below it The piston is then left to itself and the tube pushed back to the 
position shown in the drawing i then the weight of the piston presses upon the oil, causing 
it to ascend the tube, A, throi^ the aperture, o. At the interior of the tube, h, is placed a 
valve, <, whiefa oloeeswhen the lamp ia wound up, and opens when tlie piston presses down. 
wardSk The spindle of this valve earries a sponge, j, whioh eomes against the valve-seat, 
and Rgnlstet tlie aseeneion of the oil. On a earefnl examiuaiion of this description, it 
will be seen, that althouf h hC. Joanne's arrangement of the piston is related to M. Fran. 
ehot*a, thefe is sufioient diSwenoe to show that the latter gentleman has fully developed 
and i«ineed to their simplest construction methods which the former applied only in their 
emde and imperfect foms, and with apparently but an imperfect appreciation of their 
poaslble eflbeu. 

In a first patMit of addition, dated 25th July, 1828, to a patent obtained for a lamp at 
an earlier pcviod, M. Allard replaced a sponge which he had Vormerly used by a capillary 
tube, **ekpeflenc« having shown, that for the eame area of tube and the same preesure, 
the qnanlity of oil supplied in a given time is in an inverse propoftion to the length of the 
tube." TUs is in e£foct the theory of M. Francbot's regulator ; but M. Allard makes no 

t 2 



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76 



ON TOBULAB STEAM BOILERS. 



mention of any arrangement for causing the length of the capillary canal to vary with the 
expansion of the spring. In a fourth addition this gentleman speaks of contracting the 
hore of capillary tubes by tlie introduction of one or more metal threads, but makes no 
suggestion relative to the adoption of any method for the purpose of regulating the flow, 
as is the case in M. Franchot's lamp. 

From an investigation of the whole case, Ze G^ie Induttriel is of opinion that M. 
Franchot has a right to claim— 1. The improvement of the spring by the application of 
the triple fusee, the spring having been already applied to lamps. 2. The valve-piston, 
that is, the utilisation of tlie flexibility of the edges of the leather piston for the passage of 
the oil from above to beneath the piston ; ako the tubular rod of the piston for the 
ascension of the oil. 8. The modiraUur a dSgagement which, combined with the 
thickness of the rod of the piston, renders the retaining- valve useless. 4. The application 
of the rack and pinion for raising the piston. 5) The general combination of Uiese 
difierent parts, which, ader an experience of eighteen years, has not been materially 
modified, this combination forming the moderator lamp, and constituting a really useful 
invention. 



ON TOBULAR STEAM BOILERS.* 

BY MR. II. WRIGHT, OF BIRMIMOHAM. 



Stationary steam boilers ivith tubular 
heating surfaces possess many advantages, 
and experience has brought them into notice 
more Ailly than any mere theoretical consi- 
deration could have done ; at the same time 
it has brought to light difficulties that were 
not at first anticipated. 

The advantages of tubular boilers are 
found to be — 

1st Economy in fuel, requiring from 25 
to 30 per cent less fuel for the same amount 
of du^ than the two- fined boiler. 

2nd. They are Bxed and set to work with 
less cost and labour, not requiring any brick 
flues to surround them. 

3rd. They can be examined and repaired 
with ease and facility, having no brick fines 
to be removed before they can be inspected. 

4th. They are not injured by using dirty 
water, as the sediment falls to the bottom 
of the boiler, where there is no heat trans- 
mitted through the plates ; consequently, it 
does not adhere to the boiler shell, but lies 
loose, which is not the case with boilers 
having brick flues round them. 

5th. The heating surface is renewed with 
less labour and cost than the heating sur- 
face of any other kind of boiler. 

6th. The shell of the boiler is more du- 
rable, not being acted upon by the flre nor 
by the brick-work, as are boilers with brick 
flues round them. Brick- work round boilers 
is found to do more injury than anything 
else i in most cases when boilers are done 



* The above remarks on tubular steam boilers 
form part of a paper reoentW read at the Institu- 
tion of Mechanical Engineers, Birmingham. 
They were accompanied with a description of an 
improved boiler inTented by Mr. Vi. B. Johnson, 
of Manchester, whieh we shall endeavour to pub- 
lish shortly. 



and worn out, it has been the brick-work 
alone that has caused it, in connection with 
a few leakaffes, or an accumulation of mois- 
ture, of which nothing is known until the 
injury is done. 

7th. They will sustain a greater pressure 
than other boilers, the same power being 
obtained in less space or diameter of shell. 

8th. They occupy much less space than 
other boilers, and are more easily moved 
from one place to another. 

9th. They require less time to do the 
same amount of duty ; for instance, steam 
is raised in about one-fourth the time that 
other kinds of boilers require; also, in 
checking the production of steam, leas 
trouble and time is expended; by shutting 
the dampers and opening the flre-doors, it 
is stopped immediately; but with boilers 
in brick-work, it requires considerable time 
to heat and cool the brick-work with which 
they are surrounded, which must be done be- 
fore the boilers can either be put into or out 
of action. 

Some difficulties have arisen in carrying 
into practical use this mode of obtaining 
the heating surface of steam boilers ; still 
none have yet appeared that may not rea- 
sonably be expected to be overcome. 

Some of the difficulties ate found to be — 

1st In firmly attaching the tubes to the 
tube-plates; this arises in m^ny instances 
from defect in the materials or workman- 
ship ; but it still is a fact that with all the 
care that has been given in making, the 
tubes sometimes become leaky and loose in 
the attachment to the tube-plates, before 
the tubes are properly worn out in other 
parts. The most efiectual remedy for this 
appears to be, t« make the end of the tubes 
fixed to the tube-plates much thicker than 



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ON TUBULAB STEAM BOILEBS. 



77 



in the body part, by which the tube ends 
will be able to muntain that amount of ex- 
pansive force which is absolutely necessary 
to form a firm connection between the tubes 
and tube-plates. 

2nd. It has been found in many cases 
extremely difficult to keep the interior sur- 
faces of the tubes free from sooty deposits ; 
this often arises from the tubes not being of 
proportionate diameter to their length; 
also, from the imperfect combustion of the 
gases from the furnaces, producing in such 
instances a great amount of smoke. This 
difficulty is effectually removed by making 
the tubes of proper proportions, and con- 
suming the smoke before it enters into 
them. Some boilers made upon the arrange- 
ment shown in the engravings, have tubes 
only 2^ inch diameter, which are found to 
work well, with cleaning out once in three 
or four months during constant work. 

3rd. Another difficulty in some arrange- 
ments of tubular heating surface, appears to 
be in keeping the exterior surfaces of the 
tubes dean. This difficulty is not found to 
exist when the tubes are placed in vertical 
rows, leaving a clear vertical space between 
them from &b top to the bottom row. But 
when the tubes are arranged in diagonal 
rows, where each tube comes just under the 
spaces of the row above, this difficulty be- 
comes of serious import, particularly where 
the water contains materials liable to deposit, 
the scale from one row of tubes fitlling upon 
the tubes below, and thus the spaces between 
the tubes are liable to become choked up, 
and the tubes are rendered useless as heat- 
ing surface. 

Tubular heating surface in steam boil- 
ers has the advantage, that the heat is 
brought into contact with no other sur- 
faces but those that are surrounded by 
the water intended to be converted into 
steam. The heat is also divided into a 
considerable number of small streams or 
eurrents. Bach stream or current of heat 
is exposed to a considerably larger amount 
of surface in proportion to its quantity than 
can possibly be obtained by any other mode ; 
and a large amount of heating surface can 
be obtained without causing the heat to 
travel an objectionable distance from the 
place of its production. The desirableness 
of heat acting upon surfaces only in contact 
with the water to be converted into steam is 
evident; and. in no other construction of 
heating surface is this so fully obtained as 
in the tubular. 

The heat being divided into a number of 
small streams according to the number of 
tubes, facilitates its transfer to the water 
with which each stream is surrounded ; the 
heat is, in fact, sifted through the water by 
passing through the tubes. 



In the comparison of a tube S inches dia- 
meter inside, and flue of 24 inches diameter 
inside, the capacities of the tube and flue 
for the heating vapour being in proportion 
to their cross sectional areas, will be as 7 to 
452 square inches; therefore, the 24-inch 
flue will carry 64 times as much of the 
vapour containing the heat as the 8- inch 
tube. The surfaces, or oireumferenees of 
the tube and flue are 9| inches, and 75^ 
inches respectively, or the surface of the 
flue is 8 times that of the tube; conse- 
quently, the tubular heating surface in this 
example has an advantage of 7 to 1 over the 
flue heating surface, supposing that both 
are supplied with an amount of heat in propor- 
tion to their respective cross sectional areas. 

Tubular heating surface is obtainable 
within a much less distance from the fur- 
nace than any other kind, an advantage of 
no small importance, when it is considered 
how much cleaner the surface thus placed 
is kept by its proximity to the furnace ; and 
the heating surface is thus made more 
effective. The further the heating sur&ce 
is from the furnace, the greater is the 
amount of deposit upon it; as is well 
known from experience in the use of boilers 
of the ordinary construction. 

An important principle, applying to all 
kinds of heating surface, appears to a great 
extent to have been overlooked in the first 
constructed tubular boilers; namely, that 
the vapour containing the heat should pass 
slowly over the heating surface, and also 
that the vapour should pass evenly over the 
heating surface. 

That the vapour containing the heat to be 
transferred may be carried too quickly over 
the heating surface, may be illustrated b^ 
passing the finger through a flame. If it is 
passed through the flame quickly, say at a 
speed of 10 feet per second, scarcely any 
perceptible heat will be transferred from the 
flame to the flnger, and the transfer of heat 
increases as the speed is reduced. 

Supposing a steam boiler required 100 
square feet of heating surface on the tubular 
construction, if long tubes were used, this 
surface would be obtained by taking eight 
tubes 16 feet long, and 3 inches internal 
diameter ; but with short tubes, it would be 
obtained by using sixteen tubes 8 feet long, 
of the same diameter. 

The vapour containing the heat to be 
transferred, in passing over the heating sur- 
face formed by the long tubes, will travel at 
double the velocity that it will in passing 
over the surface formed by the short tubes; 
or the vapour will pass through the long 
tubes in the same period of time as tlirough 
the short ones, and consequently travel at 
double speed. 

The slow passage of the heated vapour 



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78 



THE OALOBIO BKGIKE. 



ovtr the heating surikoe appean still further 
important, when it is considered that atoms 
of beat, in being transferred from the yaponr 
to the heating surface, move in directions at 
right angles with the current of the vapour. 
The vapour, when travelling with rapidity, 
has a tendency to earry the heat along with 
it; and it might, perhaps, be possible to 
convey vapour containing a considerable 
amount of heat so rapidly over a surfiioe as 
that tio perceptible heat should be trans- 
ferred. 

Considerable difficulty in many steam 
boilers having tubular heating surface has 
arisen in evenly distributing the heat ( one 
part of the heating surface having more 
heat transferred to it than another part, 
some of the tubes receive a larger amount 
of vapour from the furnace than others. 
This is objectionable, in as much as the 
duty of the steam boiler is diminished 
thereby ; a part of the heating surface not 
being iu proper action, must of necessity 
reduce the amount of duty performed by the 
boiler. 

The most successful mode of combating 
the difficulties is, so to arrange the position 
of the Aimaoes relative to the tubes, and of 
the draft from the tubes to the chimney, as 
that the tabes shall be all equally disposed 
to receive the vapour as it comes from the 
furnaces. 



THE CALORIC ENGINE. 
Mr. Ewbahk'8 papers on the caloric 
engine, the principal of which we published 
in our Number for October 28th, 1864, 
have been replied to in the November Num- 
ber of the Jtmrnai qf the Fnmklin InsHiuie, 
by Mr. Bloodgood, and by Captain Erics- 
son himself. The former gentleman, after 
contending that if the facta arrived at by 
experiments with the caloric engine could 
not be reconciled with the received theories 
of heat, the latter, and not the former, must 
give way, proceeds thus : — " But is it the 
fact that the principles of this engine are at 
variance with received theories ? Mr. Ew- 
bank states that Captain Ericsson and his 
friends claim that, ' But for practical diffi- 
culties and imperfections attending the con- 
struction of a new class of machines, the 
whole heat might be saved from running to 
waste. I have known Capt. E. personally, 
and have often talked with him upon this 
subject, but have never heard him claim this 
much; on the contrary, be potitivilp and 
MOit emphoHeaUy diseUUmt any such idea. 
"What his fk-iends claim, may arise from 
their misapprehension, but certainly not 
from his own asaertions. He has never, to 
my knowledge, claimed to retain for fhture 
use, my heat but that whish kmt not heem e«- 



pended in useful effect (or whose force has 
not been transferred to matter outside the 
engine.)" 

Mr. Bloodgood then proceeds to state that 
it is that heat only which is not actually 
expended in producing "useful labour," 
which Captain Ericsson expects, or has 
claimed to save ; and adds—** It will not, 
however, be out of place ill this connexion 
to quote the words of the celebrated Reg. 
nault, certainly the highest authority on the 
subject of caloric now living, to wit: 'In 
air engines, when the motive force is pro- 
duced by the dilatation which heat produces 
upon gas in the machine, or by the increase 
which it produces in its elastic force, the 
work done at each stroke of the piston will 
always be proportional to the difference of 
this quantities of heat in the air entering and 
leaving ; that is to savt the loss of heat by 
the air in traversing the machine.' But, as 
in the Ericsson system, the heat which the 
air gives <mtt u given up te bodies from which 
the entering air takes it again, and brings it 
back to the nuKhine, we see that, theoreti- 
cally, ail the heat expended is utilized for 
me^anical workt whilttf in the best steam 
engtuCf the heat utilized in mechanical work 
is not the one-twentieth part rf the heat ex- 
pended," 

In concluding his remarks, the writer 
says — " But to revert to our original propo- 
sition; does the return of heat, as illustrated 
above, imply a perpetual motion, as stated 
by Mr. Ewbank t Most certainly not ; even 
were an engine constructed solely with re- 
ferenee to continued motion, without regard 
to any exertion of power. This plainly appears 
from what I have shown as the action of a 
* regenerator ; ' for, though the saving may 
approach, apparently, very nearly the whole 
quantity of heat demanded, it certainly can 
never equal it, even leaving out of the con- 
sideration the effect of expansion, radiation, 
&c. Theoretically, it may approach infi- 
nitely near that point, but there must still 
be a difierence. 

" If my assumption as to the value of 
heat returned be not admissible, how then 
can we account for an engine being kept in 
motion for a long period, an hour or more, 
after all sources of heat except the regene- 
rator and heated parts of the engine have 
been removed! and this I assert to be a 
fact. • ♦ • Finally, as to the statement 
that the regenerator acts as a serious drag 
on the engine, by resisting the passage of 
air, I have only to say that this exists only 
to a very trifling degree; for in an experi- 
ment which I witnessed to test this very 
fact, the obstruction in passing through 
260 wire discs was only sufficient to change 
the level of a mercury gauge about one- 
quarter of an inch, too inconsiderable to be 



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THE OALOaXC XDIQIKB. 



of terious moment, oomptred to the whole 
power.*' 

Captain Ericsson's reply is as follows : 
" A very learned professor of mathematics 
in the north of Europe recently puhlished 
a pamphlet in relation to this motor, in 
which he clearly demonstrated that calorie 
cannot be made to exert an infinite amount 
of mechanical force. On presenting a copy 
of his work to an eminent engineer for his 
approbation, this gentleman returned oi? ili- 
ties by presenting the professor with a 
printed copy of the claims of the in? enter, 
under which several European patents had 
been granted. The tawmt was much mor- 
tified to learn by the document thus pre- 
sented to him, that he had wasted time by 
disproving a proposition not advanced. This 
is only one instance out of hundreds that 
might be cited of nncalled.for criticism on 
this subject. Such misconceptions on the 
part of those who have only had access to 
newspaper statements, popular lectures, 6cc, 
are by no means surprising. That Mr. 
Ewbank should have fallen into a similar 
error is^ however, unaccountable ; for he, as 
oommiseioner of patents, signed a docu- 
ment, in which the following distinct de- 
elaration of the inventor is contained : 
' Whilst in the steam engine the caloric is 
constantly wasted by being passed into the 
condenser, or by being carried off into the 
atmosphere, in my improved engine, the 
caloric is employed over and over again, 
enabling me to dispense with oombustibles, 
excepting for the purp&ee ofrettoring the heat 
het by the expaiuim cf the acting faedtnm, 
and that hit by radiation ; also, for the pur- 
poee of tnaktMg good the siqaII deficiency 
mnawridabie in the transfer and retransfer oif 
the caloric' In the faee of so clear a 
sutement, it is palpable injustice to attri- 
bute to the inventor the absurd proposition 
of producing an unlimited amount of me- 
chanical force by caloric. Moreover, an 
aecnrftte estimate of the quantity of fuel 
requisite to meet the several sources of loss 
here distinctly pointed out as inseparable 
from the caloric engine ; viz., the loss by 
radiation, the loss by 4kll of temperature 
during expansion, and lose attending the 
process of transfer in the regenerator, will 
assuredly not furnish good excuse for con- 
founding the caloric engine with the chi- 
mera of ' perpetual motion.' At the same 
time, it may be readily profed, that the 
caloric, which is thus in part wasted, and^ in 
part rendered unfit for producing motive 
power in this engine, calls for but a small 
consumption of fuel. Accordingly, the pro- 
duction of a given amount of power will re- 
quire but a small consumption compared 
with the present steam engine. 

" Mr. Ewbank states that heat cannot be 



79 



used over sgsin. It has been shewn by the 
practical working of several oaloiic engines, 
that the quantity of heat conteined in the 
air of the working cylinder is much greater 
than the quantity generated by the oombns- 
tion in the furnaces during each stroke. 
The excess, therefore, must be supplied by 
the regeneratort which receives its calorie 
solely from the air escaping from the work* 
ing cylinder. It would be sheer sophistry 
to say that this is not employing beat ovef 
again. Treating heat as motion only, and 
adopting corresponding language, would 
render the explanaUon of the operation oi 
the machine quite unintelligible. Other- 
wise, the writer has no objection to deal 
vrith caloric as force, for his opportunities 
of observing its nature and enects have 
been most extensive, and he long ago ar- 
rived at the conclusion, that heat is motion. 
The superficial investigator alone, will deem 
this hypothesis fatal to the caloric engine. 
A thorough investigation of the principle of 
the engine will show, that (^supposing calorie 
and motion synonymous) tlie proposition is 
not to reproduce the motion once imparted, 
or parted withi but simply to employ, or 
exhaust the whole motion, the entire force 
resulting from the exciting cause. How 
imperfectly this is aoeompluhed in the pre- 
sent steam engine, needs not be pointed 
out, high and low temperature being alike 
unavailable, whilst in the caloric engine the 
exciting energy, the force of caloric, may 
be rendered available from MO" down to 
atmospherio temperature. 

'' Mr. Ewbank's practical mode of illus- 
trating the subject by showing tlut ' there 
is no making pounds out of pennies in the 
currency of force,' calls for the following 
kindred illustrations The foroe of ealoric 
being represented by a stream of water run- 
ning down a declivity of a certain height, 
the present steam engine will be truthfully 
represented by a small overshot wheel 
placed somewhere down the stream i the 
caloric engine, at the same time, will be as 
truthfully represented by a Turbine wheel 
placed at the bottom, employing the force 
of the entire height of the falL The wheel 
first mentioned has been tinkered at for 
half a century, and at last rendered tolera- 
bly perfect, its admirers telling ue with ex- 
ultation, that ' it spans the entire stream, 
and that not a drop can pass witbo»t doing 
full duty.' They forget, in their admire- 
tion, that the stream is running to waste 
above and below. 

*' The writer desires to be elearly under- 
stood to assert, that the power developed by 
the caloric engine demands bo further eon- 
sumption of fuel than that requisite to meet 
the several sources of loss of heai enumer* 
ated in the foregoing statement, viz : fall of 



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80 



ON OSBTAIN KFFEOTS OF INDUCED ELEOTBICmr. 



temperature by expansion of the acting me- 
dium in the workmg cylinder, radiation of 
heat, and lose attending the process of 
transfer of the caloric in the regenerator. 
The first-named loss, calculation will de- 
termine; the other two hare been ascer- 
tained experimentally. The result estab- 
lishes a Tery small consumption of fuel 
compared with the present steam engine. 
The saving is eflected mainly, by using the 
heat Of er again in the regenerator, by whicht 
in every instance, the air entering the work- 
ing cylinder has been elevated to 400°, often 
as high as 500°, he/are receiving any heat 
from the fiamae€B,** 

To these communications, the Editor of 
the Journal has appended the following re- 
marks, upon which, as well as upon the 
papers themselves, we shall leave our read- 
ers to form their own opinions : 

"We publish the remarks of Messrs. 
Ericsson and Bloodgood, although it is 
rather too late to begin to reply to the 
articles previously published, afler the total 
failure of the project. Nor do we agree 
with the gentlemen as to the view they take 
of the question. Mr. Bloodgood incorrectly 
asserts that Mr. Ewbank's article is ' almost 
the only one which essays to meet the sub. 
ject upon philosophical grounds, instead of 
by ridicule.' The ridicule which was thrown 
upon the project in some of the later articles 
which have appeared in this /oitmai, was 
caused by the attempts of his friends (for 
we considered the feasted and champagned 
reporters who were permitted to attend his 
trip, in this light), to present each succes- 
si? e failure as an entire success. The prin- 
ciple, as announced in the patent, was fairly 
developed and rationally discussed in for- 
mer articles, to which no reply was at- 
tempted. 

" We do not accuse Mr. Ericsson of hav. 
iTiff ever asserted that his engine was, in 
principle, a |^erpetual motion. But this 
claim was decidedly and frequently made in 
the various newspaper articles which re- 
ported his banquete, and for which we can- 
not but consider him responsible, since they 
were published under his auspices (on his 
account, as it were), and without public re- 
monstrance on his part, so far as we have 
ever heard. 

"The experiment we always regarded as 
an interesting one, and regretted the care 
with which all impartial and competent 
men were excluded from an opportunity of 
witnessing the trials. Now that the result 
has been a complete failure, it is, we ima- 
gine, useless to resume the discussion, 
until new features are developed in the ms. 
chine, or capitalists are found ready to 
throw away their money on a new experi- I 
ment" ' 



ON CERTAIN EFFECTS OF IN- 
DUCED ELECTRICITY. 

BY W. R. OROVB, ESQ.* 

In the course of last year I observed 
that, by connecting the coatings of a Ley- 
den phial with the extremities of the se- 
condary coil of RuhmkorfT's apparatus, a 
great increase in the brilliancy of the dig- 
charge oould be obtained. Circumstances 
diverted my attention from it at the time, 
and I did not publish the experiment, though 
I believe Mr. Gassiot mentioned it in one 
of his papers. I have since heard that M. 
Sinsteden in France had made the same 
observation, though I do not know when, 
nor whether he has published his experi- 
ments. 

The point which I now think may be 
worth insertion in the Philoiopkical Maga^ 
zine, is the conversion, by mean^ of a Ruhm- 
korff coil, of an indefinite amount of vol- 
taic power into static electricity. If a 
small Leyden phial have its coatings con- 
nected respectively with the extremities of 
the secondary wire of a Ruhmkorff coil 
(the primary being, as usual, connected 
with the condenser of M. Fizeau, and two 
wires being attached to the terminals and 
brought within striking distance), the noise 
and brilliancy of the discharges are greatly 
increased, with generally a slight, but a 
very slight, diminution in their length. If 
now the voltaic battery be increased, the 
coil and Leyden phial remaining the same, 
but little increase in the length or bril- 
liancy of the sparks will ensue, that 
is, provided the battery was in the first 
instance snfilciently powerful to give the 
maximum effect of the coil without the phial. 
For instance, if with a Ruhmkorff coil 
of the size now usually made, 10 inches 
long by 4 diameter, four cells of 2 inches 
by 4 of the nitric acid battery be used, and 
a pint Leyden phial, but litUe increase of 
efiect will be obtained by using eight or 
more celU, and the platinum at the contact 
breaker would be rapidly destroyed by the 
sparks. 

But substitute for the pint Leyden phial 
one of double the capacity, and it will be 
found, that though this second phial was 
inferior to the first with a battery of four 
cells (giving shorter sparks, and fewer in a 
given time, though somewhat denser), yet 
it is far superior to the first with the battery 
of eight cells, and the sparks at the contact 
breaker are no longer injurious. 

By adding more coated surface, for in- 
stance, another phial, four more cells may 
be added, and increased effects will be ob- 
tained, and thus with t/te same coil the bril- 

* Communicated by the author to the PkUow- 
pkieal Magazine for January, 1855. 



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ON GEBTAIN EFFECTS OF INDUCED ELEOTBICITY. 



81 



lianoy of the dischanv may be increased to 
an extent to which I hare not yet found a 
limit I obtained thit result some months 
back ; but not having a large battery, I did 
not go beyond ten cells, which I found 
would well bear a jar of one square foot of 
coated surface. 

By the aid of Mr. Gassiot's more power- 
ful apparatus I have, with him, used 30 
cells of the nitric acid battery, 2 inches by 
4, and 5 square feet of coated surface ; the 
eflects were very striking— a roar of to- 
luminous discharge of 0*6 of an inch long, 
increased to 1*5 mch when the flame of a 
spirit-lamp was placed between the ter- 
minals. I have never^ witnessed such a tor- 
rent of electrical discliarges; the noise 
conid not be borne long without great dis- 
comfort. ^ 

With the same Toltaio battery, and an 
additionaJ square foot of coated surface, the 
e^ct was somewhat diminished. Mr. 6as- 
siot had not more than 80 cells available 
at the time of our experiments, so that I 
have not yet ascertained the limit to which 
this increase of power can be carried. I 
presume, however, Uiere is a limit, for 
reasons which will be presently apparent. 

The following precautions are essential 
to the success of the experiment : 

1st The wire proceeding from the outer 
extremity of the secondary coil must be 
connected with the inside or insulated 
coating of the Leyden battery, if the battery 
is not wholly insulated. The reason of this 
is that the outer extremity of the coil is the 
better insulated portion, and also that to 
which electricity of tension flies ofL A good 
spark can, under ordinary circumstances, 
be obtained from the outer, but scarcely any 
from the inner terminal of the coiL 

2nd. The distance between the hammer of 
the contact-breaker and the soft iron core 
should be made as great as practicable, at 
least one-eighth of an inch ; this is an ini- 
porUut point as to the theory and experi. 
mental results of the Ruhmkorff coil. Time, 
as is well known, is necessary for the de- 
velopment of electro- magnetism ; and M. 
Matteucoi, in his recent valuable book on 
induced electricity, has shown some re- 
markable results flowing from this fact. If 
the hammer be too near the core, the former 
is raised before the latter has time to be 
fully magnetized ; and when a Leyden con- 
denser is used, further time is required for 
this to be charged. This demand of time 
indicates the probable limit to the increase 
of power to which I have above alluded. 

it is very curious to see the abtorption, so 
to speak, of voltaic power by the Leyden 
battery : when the maximum effect for a 
given Leyden jar has been passed, the con- 
tact-breaker shows by iu sparks the unab- 



sorhfd induced electricity which now ap- 
pears in the primary wire ; an additional 
jar acts as a safety-valve to the contact- 
breaker, and utilizes the voltaic power, and 
so on. 

It is a question of some interest why a jar 
charged in the ordinary way by temporarv 
contact of the terminals of a secondary coil 
will only receive a very slight charge, and give 
a discharge of scarcely measurable length, 
yet when permanently connected with the 
terminals will give a long and powerful dis- 
charge. The Allowing is the best theory I 
can offer. At the moment of the inductive 
action or wave of electricity, the same wire 
which is affected by the electric impulse is 
unable to conduct it back again, and thus 
to discharge the jar ; while, when the jar is 
attempted to be charged in the ordinary 
way, the contact, however apparently of 
short duration, lasts longer than the single 
impulse of electricity, and so the coil in 
great part discharges the jar. Some such 
state of the wire as that I have suggested 
must exist at the moment of an induced 
current, as otherwise the wire would dis- 
charge itself, or, in other words, would 
never receive a charge or state of opposite 
electricity of great tension at its extremities. 
At one time I considered the explanation to 
be, that at the moment of breaking contact, 
a portion of the induced electricity flies off 
across the discharging interval in the form 
of a spark, and thus enables the jar to dis- 
charge itself just as the voltaic arc will pass 
across the path of an electric spark, though 
it will not pass through a measurable distance 
of interposed air without the spark. This 
theory, however, does not satisfactorily ex- 
plain the great increase in the charge of 
the Leyden phial, as compared with the 
charee by contact 

3rd. It must be borne in mind that each 
coating of the Leyden phial must be con- 
nected with each terminal ; the jar is not, 
as many have tried the experiment, to be 
interposed in the secondary circuit. 

The number of discharges in a given 
time will depend upon the intensity of the 
battery, and its relation to the amount of 
coated surface; the eye cannot estimate 
this, but a rough measurement of the rapi- 
dity of succession may be made in the fol- 
lowing way. Move across the line of dis- 
charge with a steady hand a strip of writing- 
paper, it will be punctured with a row of 
noles, which will be the more closely approxi- 
mated in proportion as the succession of 
discharges is more rapid. By a disc of 
paper attached Jto an axis moving with a 
given rate of revolution, this measurement 
may be made very accurate and useful. 

Those who possess the coil apparatus will 
find it very convenient to have a plate of 



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82 



omfiBTiaATioN or the Moon's MonoN. 



glass, coatsd on each side with tinfoil, plaoed 
on ths baso of the machine, and having 
strips leading from each coating to binding, 
screws, with which the terminals of the 
secondary coil can be connected at will. 



INVESTIGATION OP THE MOON'S 
MOTION. 

[We deem it necessary to state that the 
following letter was receiTed before the 
opening of the late controversy in o«r 
pages on the above subject] 
To ike Editor qf tk^ Misekauiet^ Magnim, 

Sir, — ^That the moon rotates on its axis 
in exaetly the same time as it turns round 
the earth can scarcely be considered as a 
matter of pure accident. The reality of the 
fact cannot be doubted ; for if there existed 
eren a very trifling difference between the 
times of the two motions, the corresponding 
differences of the motions themseWes would, 
alter centuries, certainly haye accumulated 
to such an extent as to amount to a very 
sensible quantity. Astronomical hypotheses 
may have been made respecting the original 
impulse of the moon, in consequence of 
which it was to rotate on its axis in the 
same time as it revolves round the earth, in 
whieh hypotheses the influence of any 
other heavenly body was naturally left out 
of consideration. This very influence, how- 
ever, would soon produce an error in the 
motion great enough to be noticed, as we 
said, after centuries. 

It is therefore but reasonable to believe, 
since these changes in its motion are not 
obsenred, that the moon goes steadily on, 
rcTolving as it does in yirtue of some law 
independent of its original impulse. It is 
the demonstration of this law that I will 
endeavour to give here. I shall first recall 
the fact, thst the moon having begun to 
move as it does, there was, setting aside 
extraneous influences, no reason for its 
discontinuing to do so; and then, taking 
the foreign influences into consideration, 
show why the said motion is undisturbed. 

Admitting that the earth and the moon 
are perfect and homogeneous spheres, their 
reciprocal attractions may be considered as 
aeting in the Hne joining their centres ; 
but the moon is, in comparison to its size, 
near enough to the earth to prevent our 
being allowed to consider the directions of 
the attractions, conrergiDg from its different 
pomts to the earth's centre, as parallel ; and 
we will leave it for the present questionable 
whether we can speak of a centre of gravity 
ef the moon. We shall, in the sequel, return 
to this point. 

Let A (fig. 1) be the earth's centre ; C, 
the moon's centre ; A B, the earth's radius; 
C D, the moon's radius ; and suppose that 



the cirole, with radius A G, is the orbit of 
the moon'a etntre. Leaving out of the 
Fig. 1. 




question, for the present, the libration, we 
admit that the moon revolves round the 
earth so that the same noinU, A, B, D, C 
(which have been taken in a straight line), 
are constantly in a straight line, and that C - 
moves uniformly in its orbit ; and we ob. 
serve that the same dynamieal phenomenon 
will be produced, if we consider the moon 
to be at rest whilst the earth rotates uni- 
formly on its axis, perpendicularly projected 
at A, so that any one of its points, B, describes 
a whole circumference in the same time as 
C did in the former motion, but in the con- 
trary direction. Or, in our present oon- 
sideration, we might express this in other 
words, by saying that, in both ceuet, the dy. 
KAMiCAL BBLATION qf the two bodies it the 
tame. 

We have here an opportunity of stating 
the following general and rery important 
djmamical principle : 

When, bt different cadses, two or 
more bodies come to have the same 
dynamical relation to each other, 
the forces which these bodies exert 
directly or indirectly upon each 
other, are exactly the sake in all 

CASES. 

This principle must be understood as 
soon as a clear idea of relative motion, in 
opposition to inconceivable absolute mo- 
tion, has been formed, and can require no 
demonstration. 

Returning to our subject, we observe that 
if the moon is at rest, its gravity, repre- 
sented by C O, acting in the direction C I> A, 
is independent of the earth's rotation and 
that therefore a force, C E, equal and di- 
rectly opposite to C G, will be that which 
will produce the moon's stability. There- 
fore, according to our above principle, the 
already described motion of the moon round 
the earth will be possible under the in- 
fluence of the same forces, C G, C E. The 
flrst of them will be unaltered by that 



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iMvssnaAxioii of the moon's motion. 



8a 



motion, and the second will be produced hj 
gifing to the centre, C, such a Telocity that 
the centrifugal force of the moon, which 
baa evidently always the directioUi ACE, 
shall be equal to C £. We now perceive 
dearly the posaibility of the moon's motion 
as it occurs in nature, without the neces- 
sity of admitting that it has a centre of 
gravity with regard to the earth. 

The resultant of the attractions of the 
atoms of the earth on one atom of the moon, 
is evidently a force passing thro^gh the 
earth's eentre. 

Let C D. C £ (fig. 2), he two such forces 
acting on the points A and B of the moon. 




Join A B, find the risultaot C F of ^e two 
forces, C D, C £ ! and produce F C till it 
meeu AB in O, We may eall, analo- 
gously to the combination of parallel forces, 
G, the fulcrum of the forces acting on A 
and B. By the help of this eonvention, 
we can eacceed in determining a pi^intofthe 
iBOOB corresponding to the centre of gra- 
vity which it would have if the attractions 
from the earth centre were parallel. This 
point will evidently lie on the diameter 
D F (fig. 9) of the moon. Further, we can 
Fig. 8. 




damooatrste thai it will lall on C P, 
bat wUl net «oiMide with ^ 0en- 
tn, C ; lir il W0 conttdffr |wo elemenU, 



M M', N N', of the moon, represented by 
equal circular sections, both perpendicular 
to A F, and on different sides of C ; we see 
at once that the section, M M^ being nearer 
the earth's centre A than NN^ is more 
attracted by it than NN^ Therefore 
the centre of gravity of the system, M M', 
N N^ in the new acceptation of the term, 
is below ^9 point, C. If we i|ow draw 
the diameter, F P', perpendicular to A F, 
we see that the whole of the moon can thus 
be divided into elements lying on both sides 
of P P', the centre of gravity of any pair of 
which is beneath C. Therefore, also the 
centre of gravity of the whole system of ele- 
ments, or of the moon itself, lies below C. 

Let Q be this point { it is easily seen that 
the only property it will have in common 
with an ordinary centre of gravity, is that 
the moon migr revolve on its azis, D F, 
passing through U, so that the position of 
the latter point in space is not altered. For, 
if we suppose any other axis drawn through 
O, we see that anv rotation of the moon on 
it will alter the distance of its centre, C, 
and therefore of its centre of gravity, in the 
new acceptation of the terra, from the cen- 
tre of the earth. 

The rotation of the moon on an axis pro- 
iected at O. appears now impossible, so 
long as the oistance, A Q, is to be constant ; 
and, since this laat condition is neoessary 
for the equilibrium of the gravity and of the 
centrifugal force (repreaented at fig. 1 , in tl^e 
state of stability ot the moon, by the constant 
G £), we conclude that in its stable position, 
the moon could not revolve on the axis pro- 
jected at Q, which, according to the prin- 
ciple we established above, is the same as 
saying that the moon muat revolve round 
the earth in the already described manner. 

On the other hand, if we do not admit, 
even by analogy, the existence of a centre 
of gravity of the mooni we can conclude at 
once that since there is no point in the moon 
through which such an axis of rotation could 
pass, that the rotation, when once begun, 
could occur as a consequence of inertia, 
without the action of aidditional txUmal 
fbrcea: the moon can only revolve round 
the earth in the already described manner, 
unless it were to rotate on the axis, D F 
(fig. 3), as we have seen. 

Since, then, the roUtion of the moon on 
iU axis, in the sense hitherto given t^ those 
words, appeara to be a mere consequence of 
its revolution round the earth, and not an 
iiukpindeHt motion, it might be more ra- 
tionfl not to speak of that axis and of the 
rotation on it at all; but to define the moon's 
motion, independently of the libration and of 
the eccentricity of the orbit, by saying that 
the moon revolves round the earth's oentr9 
S4 if it were rigidly connected to that pouit 



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84 



ON PEBMAKENT WAYS. 



I hope, Sir, with your consent, to con- 
tinue thii investigation. I trust, howercr, 
I liave already said enough to destroy some 
douhts. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

Cambridge, C. J. Recordon. 

ON PERMANENT WAYS. 

To the Editor </ the Mechanics* Magazine. 
^SiR, — In the last Number of your Maga- 
zine is a letter signed " Z," to which I beg 
you to give me a little space to reply ; as 
although I might well pass over an anony- 
mous attack that came within the fair limits 
of criticism, I do not think it right to 
leave this letter unnoticed ; dealing, as it 
does, not only in sUtements conveying 
utterly erroneous impressions, but ending 
in an insinuation that a member of the 
Permanent Way Company obtained a patent 
for that which he knew was another man's 
invention, and, consequently, that he must 
have made a false declaration. I think, 
Sir, you will allow that you have not in this 
instance exercised your usual editorial dis- 
cretion, as it is not the proper province of such 
a periodical as yours, and especially one so 
widely circulated, to give currency to the 
imputation of conduct which, if proved, 
would exclude the party from respectable 
society. But to begin at the beginning of 
the letter: — there can be no greater piis- 
take than to suppose *' the company is esta- 
blished for the purpose of buying up all old 
patents, and by uniting efforts opposing all 
new inventions." This quotation is from a 
review of the Company's circular contained 
in a former number of your Magazine; and 
I take the liberty of saying the reverse is 
the fact, and the statement in the circular, 
that '*the Company do not consider the im- 
provement of permanent way by any means 
an exhausted subject; and they not only 
propose to add, from time to time, such 
i'urther improvements as may suggest them- 
selves to the members of this Company, 
but they are also desirous of promoting any 
useful inventions in permanent way which 
mny be brought under their consideration 
by other parties," truly expresses the facts 
of the case. 

" Z.*8" "certain knowledge" about Mr. 
Gordon's patent, and the inference he would 
have your readers draw f^om it, to prove the 
object of the Company, is quite beside the 
mark ; some of the most intrinsically valu- 
able patents have been " valueless in a pe- 
cuniary sense," until parties having the 
power to work them commercially have 
taken them up. Had not Watt been thrown 
into connection with Bolton, the proba- 
bility is that he would have reaped no per- 



sonal advantage from his inventions, and 
the public might have waited for many 
years for the development of the benefits 
that accrued to them through the union of 
commercial ability with inventive genius. 
Instances similar m principle are so nume- 
rous, that they are aamosl the rule rather 
than the exception in patents ; but let us 
suppose that the Permanent Way Company 
have bought a patent that is not only value- 
less in a pecuniary sense, but utterly worth- 
less : what then ? They have simply thrown 
good money away for a bad article^ which it 
no business of " Z.'s," or that of anybody 
but themselves. Certainly, the Company 
will not be inclined to be guided by his 
judgment aa to the value of a patent, con- 
demning, as he does, with one swoop, the 
inventions of so talented a person as Mr. 
W. B. Adams (the co-patentee of Mr. 
Richardson); but I need not defend this 
gentleman, as he is competent to do that 
himself. 

I pass on to ** Z.'s" assertions respecting 
the connection between Mr. Bruff and Mr. 
Richardson and the invention of the fish 
joint ; it is to this garbled statement that I 
alluded in the outset. I have the authority 
of Mr. Richardson to utterly deny the im- 
putation attempted to be fastened upon him 
by inference. " Z." mixes up the name of 
Mr. Bruff in a manner that roust be 
offensive to that gentleman, who is a mem- 
ber, but not a director, of the Permanent 
Way Company, and who has contributed 
patents of his own to the common stock. I 
could easily expose the inaccuracies of the 
whole statement; but it would not interest 
your readers, and it is no concern of 
•* Z.'s" 

Allow me now to allude to an expression 
in your former criticism, to the effect that 
the Company levy ."black mail" upon 
the railways. Unless all income derived 
from licences under patents is "blackmail," 
in other words, a robbery, the stig[ma does 
not apply, but it seems to be attributed to 
the Company because it is an association of 
patentees. Now the fact is, that the Com- 
pany's rates of licences are all of them mucft 
lower since the association than when the 
patents were held by individuals i and I 
fearlessly state, that the Company has been 
the means of more quickly and extensively 
introducing improvements in railways .than 
if the inventions had remained in the hands 
of the patentees individually; that the 
rates of licensing have been largely reduced ; 
that gpreat economy has resulted to the raiU 
way companies, with increased safety and 
comfort in travelling to the public; and 
whatever success has attended the Com- 
pany's operations in a pecuniary sense, it is 
only a small fractional part of the savings 



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OK THE INCKUBTATION OF STEAM BOILEBS. 



85 



cMsed by the adoption of their iDventiong, 
aid 18 the fruit of honourable enterprise. 
I am, Sir, yours, &c., 
Charles Mat, 
Manager of the Permanent Way 
Company. 
26, Great Oeoiva-ttreet, Westmlnater, 
Jan. S4, 1855. 

[We did not consider that part of ** Z*s '* 
letter above referred to admitted of the in- 
terpretation put upon it by Mr. May — that 
Mr. Richardson, and consequently Mr. 
W. B. Adams, ss they are joint patentees, 
made a false declaration — or we certainly 
should not hare given it insertion in our 
pages. With regard to our own remarks 
on the Permanent Way Company's circular, 
it will be obserred, that the words Mr. May 
complains of did not occur in an assertion, 
but formed part of a sentence put hypothe- 
tically.— £d. M. M.] 



ON THE INCRUSTATION OF 
STEAM BOILERS. 

To the Editor qf the Meehaniet* Magazine, 
Sir, — Your valuable Journal, so widely 
circulated amoug scientific men, appears 
the only tribunal before which the real and 
first inventor may claim his rights against 
second-hand inventors, or authors ignorant 
of inventions of high merit already existing 
in practice, of which they claim to have 
been the first to discover the theories. In 
your last Number, dated 13th January (No. 
1640), I find an extract from the Journal of 
Industrial Progress on the incrustation of 
steam boilers, reporting, that M. Coust^ I 
claims as his own, and as the best means of 
preventing incrustation, the feeding of the 
boiler with water heated to a very high 
degree (818° Fah.) before it is introduced 
into the boiler. He considers this high 
degree required for the object, and wants a 
separate heating apparatus, and, in low 
pressure engines, a filter to separate the 
precipitate. In high pressure engines the 
filter, says M. Couste, may be dispensed 
with, as the precipitate in the heater cannot 
crystallize in the boiler, but will only form 
a muddy deposit instead of a fixed incrusta. 
lion. M. Couste afterwards, by some hy- 
pothesis, establishes a formula to prove that 
the loss of heat by incrustation m:ist 
amount to 40 or 50 per cent, and therefore 
that the same per centage of increase in the 
generation of steam is gained by preventing 
incrustation by feeding the boiler with hot 
water. I think, Sir, you will do me the 
justice to say, that I have a right to claim 
the priority of this invention, and to correct 
the theories of M. Coust^ by my experience 
during ten years practice; as you know, 



that ten years since I obtained a patent 
under the title '* Improvements in high pres. 
sure and other steam-boilers, with a new 
mode or principle of supplying them with 
water." The invention contained the new 
mode of feeding the steam boiler with water 
previously heated and purified. I have 
already (ten years ago) fitted up such 
heaters to steam boilers in London, Bir- 
mingham, and Leicester, of which I enclose 
you the certificates, and I can prove by ten 
years experience, that these steam boilers 
were fully protected against any fixed in- 
crustation; nothing more than a muddy 
deposit (and this in a very small quantity) 
was cleaned out from those steam boilers. 
I executed, practically, this invention, by 
fitting three or four cylindrical tubes to the 
boiler, with an open cylindrical fiue inside, 
surrounded with a ring of water ; in these 
tubes (which I called metallic flues) the 
water was heated by degrees, only by letting 
the gaseous products of combustion pass 
from the flues of the boilers^ on their way 
to the chimney through them; the cold 
water was supplied to the tube next to the 
chimney, and passing from one tube to the 
other fed the boiler with purified boiling 
water. During ten years constant use, a 
fixed incrustation was never fonned in the 
steam boiler. These practical results enable 
me to contradict the necessity of heating 
the water to a higher degree than the boil- 
ing point, to prevent perfectly well any 
incrustation, and also to show the useless- 
ness of a filter. The sediment in the me- 
tallic flues (cylindrical tubes) was from time 
to time let out by a pipe and cock, and of 
course all the fuel which M. Coust^ wants 
for a separate heater, is entirely spared by 
my heating the water with the otherwise 
lost heat of the flues in their passage to the 
boiler. My heating to a boiling point and 
purifying the water, cost, therefore, literally 
not a single pound of coals. And I must also 
contradict, for I cannot help it, the mathe- 
matical formula of M. Cousti's invention, 
by which he wants to prove the saving in 
heat equal to about firom forty to fifty per 
cent. My experience is only in low pres- 
sure boilers, and there the increase of steam 
may amount to twenty. five per cent or to 
an economy of twenty per cent, in fuel. In 
high pressure boilers the saving in fuel 
must, of course, be proportionately greater, 
considering that the heat from the flues is 
passing through the metallic flues in a 
higher degree. These are facts, which can 
be ascertained at any time, and the question 
how to constantly prevent the incrustation 
in boilers, and with so much profit in fuel, 
in such a simple way (incrustation being 
often the prineipal cause of explosion) may 
be of the highest interest to your readers. 



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THE WKAt^ COKTHOYISRSy. 



I have, th«reforei oonsiderod it my daty to* 
wards royaelf and the puhlio, to contradiot 
the theories of M. Coust^ and to estahlish 
my right of priority in this invention. 
I am, Sir, yoaii, ^c, 

AiiTHoiiy B. Von Rathbw. 
i, Ci«ioent-pl«M, N«w Bridg^-ttraot, 
BUekfrian, Jan. IS, 18M. 



PARKER'S PATENT SMOKB. 
CONSUMING APPARATUS. 



Tq the Editor qf the Uedumict* Magazine, 

Sir, — At page 61 of your laat Numher, Mr« 
Williams, for the second time, enumerates, 
among other " re-inventions,'* the smoke- 
consuming apparatus of Mr. Parker, a 
description of which appeared at page 445 
of yeur last volume. 

In several communications published in 
your pages, Mr. Williams has admitted the 
principle of ''perforated air distributors" 
to have originated with Mr. Argand, who 
applied that principle to the well-known 
lamp which bears his name, 

Mr. Williams claims to have invented 
and patented a peculiarly-constructed fur- 
nace, to which be gave the name of the 
** Argand furnace," in consequence of its 
embodying that principle. The mechani- 
eal oonstruotioB and arrangement of the 
furnace — not the prineiple of its aotion — 
being the invention, and constituting the 
paUnt right of Mr. Williams. The perfect 
efficiency of the principle, as applied in the 
furnaee of Mr, Williams, is indisputable ; 
but it is a fair and legitimate subject for the 
exercise of inventive thought, whether a 
more simple, less inconvenient, and cheaper 
mode ot applying the Argand ]^rinoiple to 
ftimacee than that of Mr. Williams might 
not be devised 7 

When the application of the principle is 
embodied in the original eonairuotion of 
the furnace, coneiderable expense is secea- 
sarily iueurred } the alteration of old exist- 
ing furnaces is worse, and all alterations er 
repairs renders the stoppage of the works 
inevitable. In order to obviate these in* 
eonvenienees, Mr. Parker devised the smoke* 
consuming apparatus be£Mre referred to, in 
which the applioatio» of the Argand prin- 
ciple is altogether separate from, and inde- 
pendent ef, the original eonstruotion of the 
furnace itself, so &X its application ia the 
first instanee, and occasional renewals after- 
ward, involves but little expraae and no 
ineonveaience ; thus affording a ready and 
oooveaient remedy for sufferers under the 
'* Smoke-consuming Act." 

There is, in this iastaaoe, no refined 
question af chemistry at issue, neither is 
Uw claim of Mr. Williams t« ** the Argaud 



furnace" diaputed. There is a questiiw, 
however, that forces itself upon public at- 
tention, and it is a question of considerable 
importance just now, viy., Is it possible that 
the simple, inexpensive, and easily applied 
amoke-oonsnming apparatus of Mr. Parker 
is really sufficient for its intended purpose ? 
To this praotieal questimi a decidedly prac- 
tical answer is furnished by the fact, that 
Mr. Parker's patent apparatus has been for 
some time paat in use at the white lead 
works of Messrs. Champion at Ce., Isling* 
ton-fields; the chemical works of Messrs. 
Brandram and Co., Lower-road, Rother- 
hithe ; and the soap manufactory of Messrs. 
Peytoa and Charles, Wapping ; as well as 
at the patentee's works at Deptfi)rd, with 
unvarying success, in eaeh case taking pre- 
oedeace of all other plans in operation in 
these localities. 

If Mr. Williams is acquainted with any 
similar apparatus as simple, eflfectual, and 
economical as that of Mr. Parker in use 
before the date of that gentleman's patent, 
then, but not till then, will he be justified 
in designating Mr. Parker's contrivance 
"are^itwemtioml" 

I am, Sir, yours, &o., 

Wm. Baddeley. 
IS, AngsU-torraoe, Islington, Jan. 2S, l&U. 



THE LUNAR CONTROVERSY.* 
To tko Sditor rf ih$ Mo^iamie^ Magmimf. 

Sir,— J must admit that I rather took i| 
to heart when you decided that the reply, 
which I had forged out as a thunderbolt to 
the numerous gentlemen who had taken so 
much kind trouble to release me from error, 
was too long for your columns, and that the 
discussion must of necessity be closed. We 
were entering on such a warm and lively 
argument, that I felt much like one of a 
cheerful Christmas party, when the un- 
looked-for intrusion of a fireman's hose 
damps the spirits of the whole circle. How. 
ever we all must sometimes resign our opi* 
nions for the general welfare. I therefore 
contentedly submit to silence, only assuring 
my opponents (as you can testify) that I 
have spared no pains to reciprocate their 
good offices, and had as great a confidence 
of converting them as they could have of 



• We recently reeelTed a long letter from Mr. 
Mashet, ia wbfteh he eoatlnned Uie dlseui^n on 
the Rotattoa of the Moon by Uyiag down, with 
great tkill, and undiminished confidence, a sue- 
eeision of arguments and mustratiops which 
ftilly dcTehmed his Tiews on that subject. We 
were compelled, however, fi>r anmeious reaaons. 



to abstain from inserting it, and the author haa 
accordingly contented himself with forwarding 
the abore explanatory letter, which we have much 
^easue ia tnsettiBf . 



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87 



connrtiog me, in which, however, I grieve 
to my, they have not succeeded, all their 
efloTts having only hardened my unbelief. 
Thfy are acute champions and I had a real 
pleisure in contesting with them, and only 
nope we msy meet again, on some other 
field, to do battle for the truth. Were it 
net that I have some dread of th« solenmi* 
ties of deliberate authorship, which is a 
more serious affiur than writmg a brisk let- 
ter on the spur of the moment, to be printed 
and done with in the same week, I might 
resolve, pro bono pubUeo, to set mv light in 
a candlestick and consign it to the reposi- 
tory of my excellent friend, Mr. Weale, as a 
sort of rudimentaiy rudiment of astronomy, 
though, in fact, it is a question of pure me- 
chanics, comprising nothing astronomical 
except the name. It would perhaps be only 
courteous so to do, to give my adversaries 
the benefit of the thoughts which I am in- 
debted to them for suggesting. " J. C,*' 
will then, perhaps, be not so much startled 
with my views as when their first appear- 
ance surprised him, especially as I see, on 
reperusing his letter, that his illustration 
was intended to develope the same idea ' 
which influences your other correspondents. 
Duly acknowledging and obliged for all en- 
deafours to enlighten me, I beg to take 
leave with one remark, which will not, I 
think, involve any controversy. If any of 
my friends, in visiting Bath or the '' hill 
abounding Devonshire," should chance to ' 
have their locomotion protected bv any of ' 
the excellent devices lately described in your 
pages, let them examine the wheel of their 
carriage, either on a hill or on flat ground, 
when itiding under the pressure of the 
brake, and when rolling free upon its axle. 
They will then appreciate the difference be- 
tween us, without any argument And even 
should Mr. Cheverton chance to be the 
voyager, and undertake to bore a hole, by 
transferring the mere to-and-fro motion of 
the tUding wheel, yet when done, this will 
hardly accomplish the proof that the locked 
rota is truly rotating. As he entertains the 
matter on my own ground, that of practical 
mechanics, this hint will scarcely be thought 
to re-open the general question. 

I am. Sir, yours, &c., 

David Mushet. 



THE SMOKE QUESTION. 

To ihs Editor qf the Mechamet* Magazine, 

Sib, — What Mr. Woodcock's ideas may 
now be, after the explanation given by Mr. 
Williams and Mr. Mushet concerning the 
*< Cerberusf headed League " I know not ; 
but I think he will not require any ftirthev 



evidence from me. I may, however, state 
that, so far am I from being in league with 
Mr. Williams, that I here distinctly wish it 
to be understood that I am not prepared to 
coincide with that gentleman in all his 
views concerning combustion ; but I still 
must say, that he has written the most clear 
and concise exposition we have upon that 
subject 

I trust your readers will show a little 
pity to the gentleman, who has brought his 
mvention before them, as one of the grand- 
est discoveries of modem science, and yet 
will not allow it to be examined by men 
who are known to possess a little experi- 
ence upon this subject as well as himselC 

If Mr. Woodcock will take the trouble to 
refer to my first letter, inserted in your 
Journal, he will find that the only spirit 
pervading it, is a desire to prevent your 
readers supposing the invention to be new 
in any shape or principle. I had, then, no 
wish to convince Mr. Woodcock of the 
error of his theory, for I do not believe, 
after what he has written, that his convic- 
tion would be any gain to the public or a 
credit to himself. Is it not astonishing 
that, during all the controversy, he has 
never brought forth real facts in support of 
his views, but has always thrown the facts 
aside hj bringing or advancing charges 
Against mdividuals ? 

I am, Sir, yours, fipc, 

Kngin£EB, 
Maochester, January 2S, 1855. 



ORDNANCE AND GUNPOWDER. 
To the Editor of the Mechatnct' Magazine, 

Sir,— I think *' Argus," in pointing oat 
the curious illustration of " J. F.,'* has 
made an admission as curious and unfor- 
tunate as the one pointed out. ** Argus " 
says that the non-explosion of the mixed 
gases depends, or is universally said to 
depend, upon the cooling effect of the wire- 
gause, and upon that alone. 

To ma it appears that this is granting all 
that '< J. F " or any one else would demand, 
since the question is not how diaw the wire« 
gause prevent explosion, but does it prevent 
it? For aught that "J. F." has said to the 
eontrary, he may subecribe to the universal 
opinion as stated by '< Argus," although 
I rather think he would not, since he pro* 
bably knows that cold means the absence of, 
or a less degree of heat, and not a principle 
in itself to be imparted by a pieoe of wire- 
gause, which, being simply a good con- 
ductor of heat, affords it a rapid transit to 
the surrounding medium. If the illustra- 
tion given by "J. F." is not sufficient to 
show that other conditions are 



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88 



SPECmCATIONS OF PATENTS BEGENTLY FILED* 



beside the mere generation of heat, I will add 
another. 

Having drawn the rods of the universal 
discharger about three quarters of an inch 
apart, place between them a dram of gun- 
powder, and discharge an electrical battery of 
about five or six feet superficial, so that the 
current shall pass through the powder when 
the metallic circuit is otherwise closed ; the 
powder will be scattered but not exploded, 
although an intense white flame has passed 
through its midst Every one at all con- 
versant with electrical matters knows this, 
and the. cause of it 

I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

Hydra. 



EXPANDING SELF - CLEANSING 
SABOT FOR RIFLE-SHOT. 

To the Editor rf the Mechaniei* Magazine. 
Sir, — ^At the present time, when every- 
thing connected with the improved efficiency 
of fire-arms is of public interest, I am sure 
you will not refuse a place in your impartial 
Journal to the following statement: — On 
Saturday last Mr. Warren, who keeps the 
shooting-gallery in Williamson-square, fired 
from a rifle of the musket-bore an elongated 
shot made of brass, having a square shank, 
half an inch long, projecting from the centre 
of its base ; on this shank the sabot of cork 
was fixed ; the shot, with its attached sabot, 
was gently rammed home on the charge of 
powder ; the rifle was then fired at a target 
formed of six planks of deal, at a distance 
of twenty yards, and the shot struck point 
foremett. This proved that the cork sabot 
WAS condensed by the extreme pressure of 
the explosion of the charge so as to fill up 
the spiral grooves of the rifle, and thus 
impart the rotatory motion or spin round 
the long axis of the shot. It is better that 
the rotatory motion should be imparted to 
the shot by the expanding of the sabot than 
b^ the expanding of the shot, as it prevents 
violent/ricHofi in passing through the barrel, 
and tends to cleanse it at each discharge. 
This successfhl experiment proves that shot 
similarly affixed to a sabot formed by 
pressure such as is used in making cups for 
calenders, and of various material, such as 
coarse brown paper, can be used from rifle 
cannon of the largest calibre, and confirms 
me in the belief that a ten-inch bore rifle 
gun thus loaded would make a breach 
through the side of a gun-boat encased in 
planks of four and a half inch well forged 
or hammered iron — it will be a very " hard 
case " if it does not 

I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

J. NORTOM. 
Owen's Hotel, Jan. 15, 1855. 



SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS 
RECENTLY FILED. 

JoHNsoM, John Hemrt, of Lincoln's- 
inn-flelds, Middlesex, gentleman. Improve- 
ments in tubmarine navigation, (A commu- 
nication.) Patent dated July 1, 1854. (No. 
1444.) 

The inventor describes a steam- vessel 
constructed for travelling beneath the water, 
the air in the vessel being purifled by the 
aid of a current of water, or of an alkaline 
solution composed of water, lime, potash, 
and oxygen, and the vessel itself being 
divided into several compartments, &c. 

Wilder, John, of the flrm of Wilder 
and Sons, of Reading, Berks, agricultural 
machinists. Improvements in agricultural 
rollers and clod-crushers. Patent dated July 
1, 1854. (No. 1447.) 

The improved rollers or clod- crushers are 
constructed of two or more rollers (three 
being preferred) set in suitable framework, 
and moring in adjustable bearings, in order 
that when used on undulating ground they 
shall accommodate themselves to it 

Milne, John Kolbe, of Edinburgh, 
Midlothian, Scotland, pocket-book maker. 
An improved means of holding letters, docu- 
mentSf or other similar articles. Patent dated 
July 8, 1854. (No. 1448.) 

This invention consists in the application 
to a board or other suitable back of an 
elastic band, which is passed through a 
tube, and conflned to the back by its two 
ends which extend from the ends of the tube. 

Walters, Benjamin, of the firm of 
Benjamin and Philip Walters, of Wolver- 
hampton, Stafford, lock - manufacturers. 
Improvements in spindles for locks and latches, 
and in the means qf adjusting knobs to the 
same, to suit any thickness of door. Patent 
dated July 3, 1854. (No. 1449.) 

This invention consists in the employ- 
ment of a screw collar, which screws on to 
the angles or edges of the ordinary square 
spindle. 

Fontainemoreau, Peter Arhand Le- 
COMTE De, of South-street, London. Improve- 
ments in stopping bottles, and in drawing off 
derated or other Uquids contained therein. (A 
communication.) Patent dated July 3, 1854. 
(No. 1450.) 

These improvements mainly consist in 
manufacturing bottles or other vessels for 
containing gaseous, volatile, or other liquids, 
with two rims on the neck, at a variable 
distance apart, and placing between the said 
rims a metallic ring provided externally 
with a screw thread or cleats. 

Greenshields, Walter, of Edinburgh, 
Midlothian, manager. Improvements in 
chenille fabrics. Patent dated July 8, 1854. 
(No. 1451.) 



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The inrentor manufactares a fringe by i 
using parti- coloured chenille, either as warp 
or weft. This fringe, as is usual in this 
branch of manufacture, is woven in a loom 
with an amount of warp material sufficient 
for the production of two selvages at a dist- 
ance apart equal to the width of two pieces 
of fringe. The weft when thrown across 
and woven in with such warp, produces two 
woren selvages or heads for the two pieces, 
the fiibric being afterwards cut up the 
centre, and the fringe pieces thus sepa- 
rated. 

Balk, William, of Ipswich, Suffolk. 
An improved friction dynamometer. Patent 
dated July 8, 1854. (No. 1452.) 

The strap or instrument used for produc- 
ing the friction in this dynamometer, is con- 
nected to the ends of a lever with unequal 
arms, which causes any shifting of the strap 
or instrument to increase or decrease its 
pressure on the friction- wheel, thus adjust- 
ing it so as to produce the exact amount of 
friction necessary to keep the load up. The 
dynamometer, thus constructed, does not 
require lubrication. 

Chauveau, Urbain, and Charles 
d'Epinois, both of Paris, France, civil en- 
gineers. Improved tneane or apparatus for 
preventing eollisums on railways. Patent 
dated July 3, 1854. (No. 1456.) 

By means of small apparatus or machines, 
placed at convenient distances along the line 
ofrailway, so as to strike against a lever, catch, 
or other contrivance attached either to the 
engine or the break-earriage of an advanc- 
ing train, the inventor proposes to bring 
into action certain levers or mechanical 
contrivances in connection with the steam 
ports or valves of the engine, and with the 
breaks. 

SuNTER, Joseph, of Derby, engineer. 
New or improved drilUng-machinery, Patent 
dated July 4, 1854. (No. 1457.) 
t^This invention consists in constructing 
drilling machinery by combining together 
two or more parallel drills geared together, 
and actuated by one axis. 

TippAWY, Christopher Thomas, of 
Leeds, York. An improvement in the manu- 
faeture of brushes used in gig-miUs and ma- 
ehinery for brushing piled fabrics. Patent 
dated July 4, 1854. (No. 1459.) 

This invention consists in the application 
of the fibres of Brazilian grass in the manu- 
faeture of gig-mill and machinery brushes, 
for brushing piled fabrics. 

Haimbs, Thomas, of Melbourne, near 
Derby. Improvements in the mantrfacture of 
gloves and mils, by warp machinery. Patent 
dated July 4, 1854. (No. 1460.) 

This invention consists in causing the 
thumbs of gloves and mits to be produced 
simultaneously, with their other portions. 



by means of machinery patented by the pa- 
tentee and others. May 10, 1851. 

M'Gaffin, JoHN^of Liverpool, Lancas- 
ter, engineer. Improvements in corrugated 
cast iron. Patent dated July 4, 1854. (No. 
1461.) 

These improvements consist " in forming 
cast angle iron with corrugations, either on 
all the parts of the angle iron, or in such 
manner that some of the parts may be plain 
and the other parts corrugated; and this 
applies to T, L, and H cast and angle iron." 

Delpech, Jean Akdr£ C^cilg Nestor, 
mechanist, of Castres, in the French Em- 
pire. An improved lift and force-pump, called 
" Castraise pump.'* Patent dated July 4, 
1854. (No. 1462.) 

This pump consists of an outer casing of 
cast iron or other suitable material, made in 
two parts, and separated by a diaphragm or 
partition. The two parts are bolted to- 
gether with the diaphragm between them, 
and to the latter is firmly fixed a thin brass 
cylinder or barrel, in which the piston 
moves. We shall probably give an illus- 
trated description of this pump hereafter. 

NcwuAN, James, of Birmingham, War- 
wick, manufacturer. Improvements iu the 
mant^acture of metallic rods, rails, and bars. 
Patent dated July 4, 1854. (No. 1463.) 

This invention consists in the production 
of a strong and economical metal rod, rail, 
or bar, having the appearance of solid 
metal, bat made with " a core or centre of 
sand, or sandy, earthy, ashy, or other arena- 
ceous material, rendered solid and stony, or 
vitreous, by ramming or pressure, and the 
action of the fire during the course of ma- 
nufacture." 

Bardet, Joseph Marie, chemist, and 
Francois Collette, manufacturer, both 
of Paris, France. An improvement in the 
construction of matches. Patent dated July 
4, 1854. (No. 1464.) 

Claims. — 1. The manufacture of friction 
matches giving, during the combustion, a 
flame of sufficient power to resist the action 
of the wind, and formed by the partial or 
entire interposition of inflammable phos- 
phorated paste between two light, firm, 
combustible bodies, the combustibility of 
which may be enhanced by any suitable 
preparation; these bodies thus arranged 
being cut in a convenient form and size to 
render them fit to be used for friction 
matches. 2. A mode of moderating and 
steadying this combustion of the interposed 
phosphorated paste by thoroughly mixing 
with the same a small quantity of any suit- 
able finely pulverized, inert, or noncombus- 
tible matter., 8. A mode of preventing in- 
voluntary combustion by covering the said 
matches entirely, or partly, with any suit- 
able coating. 



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SPECU'ICATIONS OF PATENTS RRGENTLT FH^ED. 



Garrett, Richard, and Richard Gar- 
rett, junior, of Leiston Worka, near Sax- 
mundham, Suffolk, agricultural implemenu 
makers. Improvements in machinery for drill- 
ing seed and manure. Patent dated July 4, 
1854. (No. 1465.) 

This invention comprises the appli- 
cation to liquid manure drills of a gra-. 
duated plate or koale, whereby the attend- 
ant is enabled to regulate the discharge 
of the liquid, so that it shall be delivered 
on to the land at any given quantity per 
acre. Also, the application to Uie fore car- 
riage of drills of ft compound lever for 
facilitating their steerage, and certain 
means of regulating the delivery. 

BiBHOPF, Gborqe Daniel, of Inverness, 
terrace, Middlesex, civil engineer. Im- 
provements in the censtmction and arrange- 
ment qf engines to be driven by steam^ air, 
gases, or water. Patent dated July 4, 1854. 
(No. 1466.) 

Claim, — *' The arranging and fixing two 
or more cylinders, of the same or dif- 
ferent dimensions, opposite to or near one 
end of the main shafi of the engine, for the 
purpose of connecting the pistons or piston 
rods of such cylinders to levers or arms 
fixed into or attached to a ball and socket, 
or universal joint, to which is fixed an arm 
that Ukes into the end of a crank on the 
main shaft, and causes the same to ro- 
ute." 

Elliott, Thomas, of Manchester, Lan- 
caster, engineer. Improvements in safety- 
idlves and apparatus connected therewith, 
which valves may also be used as steam 
valves. Patent dated July 4, 1854. (No. 
1467.) 

The inventor claims the construction of 
an annular valve, having one or both of the 
two faces thereof horizontal or fiat, that is, 
at right angles to the valve spindle; and 
certain applications of this valve to safety, 
stop, throttle, and governor valves. 

Heycock., Henry, of Manchester, Lan- 
caster, merchant. Certain improvements in 
hydrauUc presses^ employed for packing or 
pressing cotton, silk, flat, wool, or other 
fibrous materials. Patent dated July 4, 1854. 
(No. 1468.) 

This invention mainly consists in the em- 

ployment of self-acting apparatus, composed 

of levers, weights, and valves, for the pur- 

* pose of throwing in and out of gear, either 

one or several pumps of hydraulic presses. 

BowLAS, David, of Reddish, Lancaster, 
manufacturer. Certain improvements in ma^ 
chinery or apparatus for knitting or mant^fac- 
iuring healds or harness used in looms for 
weaving, PaUnt dated July 4, 1854. (No. 
1469.) 

This invention consists in the employ- 
ment of an iron framing composed oi two 



parts, the one forming a frame for the ma- 
nufacture of the heald, the other being de- 
voted to the working parts of the machinery. 
The inventor employs for the base of both 
the top and bottom braid used in the manu- 
facture of weavers' healds or harness, pitched 
yarn, stretched by weights, to give it a due 
amount of tension. 

Cheval, Louis Joseph, of Raismes, 
France. Improvements in beer-engines. Pa- 
tent dated July 5, 1854. (No. 1472.) 

This invention consists in using the pres- 
sure produced by a column of liquid for 
elevating beer or other liquors from the 
barrels in the cellar to the tap. 

Burgh, Joseph, of Crag-hall, near Mac- 
cleafield, Cheater. Certain improvements in 
marine and other steam engines. Patent 
dated July 6, 1854. (No. 1473.) 

This invention mainly consists in the use 
of a long cylinder, formed by a combination 
of severid short ones, each having a top and 
bottom and separate steam ways ; and in the 
use of one piston rod, on which is fixed, at 
proper distances, a series of pistons, one for 
each cylinder. The slide valves of the 
united cylinders are moved simultaneously, 
and the combined force of all the pistons is 
transmitted through the one rod. And 
also in an arrangement of reciprocating 
frames, to be used instead of the ordinary 
crank. 

Restell, Thomas, of the Strand, West- 
minster, chronometer-maker. An apparatus 
or holder for holding parcels ^ gUnes and 
other goods and papers. Patent dated July 
5, 1854. (No. 1475.) 

This invention consists in connecting two 
rigid plates or cards, in various ways, by 
means of elastic threads or braids attached 
to them. 

Harvard, Samuel, of Stoke Holy-oross, 
Norfolk, and Joshua Womerslby, of 
Stoke Holy. cross, Norfolk. Heating crushed 
seed for making cake, for drying seeds, com, 
and other grain, and Jot feeding miU-siones or 
other grinding apparatus. Patent dated 
July 6, 1854. (No. 1479.) 

This invention consisto in the use *' of a 
cylinder or cylinders heated by steam, hot 
air, or fire, provided with vanes, fans, blades, 
or propellers, for propelling the com, seeds, 
&c., through the same, and delivering the 
same as required.'* 

Glasgow, John, of Manchester, Lan- 
caster, engineer. Improvements in madiitury 
or apparatus for cutting, compressing, punch- 
ing, shearing, and shaping metals. Patent 
dated July 6, 1854. (No. 1480.) 

This invention relates— 1. To a machine 
for cutting and compressing metals into 
suitoble forms for rivets, bolts, and similar 
articles, the working parts of which are 
made double far the purpose of multiplying 



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91 



the amount of work produced by the ma- 
chine, with the same gearing. The iuTen- 
tor places the fly wheel and gearing of this 
machine at the top of it so as to keep the 
gearing out of the way of the workman, 
thus facilitating his operations and avoidmg 
accidents. — 2. To an improved machine for 
punching, shearing, and cutting metals, 
such as boiler plates, bar iron, railway 
tyres, and similar articles. The fly wheel 
and gearing of this machine is also out of 
the way of the workman. — 3. To an im- 
proved machine for cutting and compress- 
ing metals into suitable forms for nuts, 
screw bolts, and similar articles, in which 
the power of finishing the nuts as well as of 
cutting them from the bar and punching 
them is obtained. 

AvBBT, Otis, of Castle-street, London. 
Improve m ents in tewing and stitehmg ma- 
ehinee. Patent dated July 6, 1854. (No. 
1482.) 

This invention mainly consists in certain 
improved forms of needles, by the com- 
bined action of two of which and of a single 
thread, tambour or chain-stitch is formed. 

FORTAIIIEUORBAV, PeTBR ArKAND Le- 

COMTB DE, of Sooth-Street, London. Cer- 
tain imprommenU in apparatus for breaking 
M horses, (A communication.) Patent 
dated July 6, 1854. (No. 1483.} 

This apparatus is composea of a rod 
which carries four cross bars, one above the 
other, each carrying a ring at its extremity. 
This rod is placed on the centre of the 
saddle, and sUnds upwards, being in- 
clined a little forwards. Daring the break- 
ing in the reins are alternately passed 
throuffh the rings on either side (beginning 
with the upper ones) according to the posi- 
tion which the work of the horse requires, 
and descending so as to shorten the reins »» 
the horse comes in hand. 

Lamb, John, of Newcastle- under- Lyne, 
Stafford, paper manafocturer. Improvements 
apptieable to machines for cutting paper. 
Patent dated July 6, 1854. (No. 1484.) 

This invention consists in collecting 
paper (after it has been cut to the proper 
size by the ordinary machinery) by self- 
acting mechanical agents, thereby dis- 
pensing with the manual labour required ' 
lor that purpose. 

Nicholson, William Newzam, of 
Newark, Nottingham, iron founder and \ 
agrienltnral implement manufacturer. Im- 
proventents in hoff-making machines, part <f 
wAtVA improvements is applicable to carriages 
generally. Patent dated July 6, 1854. (No. 
1485.) ! 

Claims. — 1. Obtaining a backward and ' 
forward motion hi hay-making machines, 
by means of inside and outside gearing in 
one axle-box at each side of the machine. 



2. Raising or lowering the working parts 
from or nearer to the ground, by means of 
a long arm or lever, cast with or otherwise 
rigidly attached to the axle-box. 3. Certain 
means of attaching fork heads to the fork- 
carrying wheel. 4. The manufacture of 
shafts from metal lubes joined together and 
united to an agricultural implement or other 
wheeled carrisge, as dtscribedt 

M'CoNMBLL, James Edwabd^ of Wol- 
verton, Bucks, civil engineer. Improve- 
ments in wheels, axle-boxes, and brakes for 
railway carriages. Patent dated July 6, 
1854. (No. 1489.) 

Claims — 1. A mode of forming the body 
part of railway wheels from a single piece 
by the aid of pressure and suitably shaped 
dies and matrices. 2. A mode of construct- 
ing brake blocks for railway or other pur- 
poses, by inserting two or more blocks of 
wood into suitably shaped slots formed in a 
metal shoe or holding frame, the interstices 
between the protruding portions of such 
blocks being filled up with lead, wood, or 
other suitable material. 3. The application 
of papier mache, or other light material, to 
the construction of washers or disc-platea 
for preventing the escape of grease from 
axle-boxes. 

Caballi, Nicholas Michael, of Glss. 
gow, [Lanark, merchant. Improvements in 
the mant^acture or production qf ornamental 
fabrics. Patent dated July 6, 1854. (No. 
1490.) 

The zebra goods produced according to 
this invention present a different and dis- 
tinct printed pattern on each side. Accord- 
ing to one modification of the system of 
manufacture a plain twilled or other iabric, 
having no flushing or back lashing on 
either of its surfaces, is used as the ground- 
work for the production of this duplex 
pattern. 

Pole, William, of Storey 's-gate, West- 
minster, civil engineer. Certain improve- 
ments in the construction qf railways. Patent 
dated July 6, 1854. (No. 1491.) 

The inventor forms the '* point," or angu- 
lar piece of the crossing, by combining 
two converging rails together, so that they 
shall mutually assist each other in susuin- 
ing the weight of the train passing over 
either of the lines of rail with which the 
point is connected; and he proposes tap- 
ping the fisli-plate fastenings, &o. 

Lacey, William, of LozelPs-lane, Aa- 
ton- juxu-Birmingham, Warwick, sgent. A 
new or improved method </ making copper rol. 
lers, cylinders, and tubes. Patent dated July 
7, 1854. (No. 1493.) 

This invention consists in casting hollow 
cylinders in cast-iron moulds, so constructed 
that the liquid metal shall enter at the bot- 
tom of the moulds, so that the metal in 



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PBOVISIONAL SPEOIFIOATIONS NOT PBOOEEDED WITH. 



them shall be undisturbed by air bubbles 
carried down by the stream of metal, and 
the casting consequently sound ; and also in 
a method of shrinking an old roller upon 
another, &c. 



PROVISIONAL 8PECIPICATION8 NOT PRO* 
CEEDBD WITH. 

Johnson, John Henry, of Lincoln's- 
inn- fields, Middlesex, gentleman. Improve- 
ments in stoppers for bottles and other vessels^ 
and in apparatus \ connected therewith, (A 
communication.) 'Application dated July 
1, 1854. (No. 1445.) 

This invention relates to the employment 
of gutta percha and caoutchouc, either vul- 
canized or not, in the manufacture of stop- 
pers or covers for bottles and other vessels ; 
also to certain improvements in the shape 
of the stoppers, and to a peculiar form of 
instrument for drawing them. 

Hutchison, Georoe, of Glasgow, La- 
nark, merchant. An improvement or improve- 
ments in the man^facture of soap. Applica- 
tion dated July 1, 1854. (No. 14^6.) 

This invention " consists in wa«hing and 
cleansing from the foreign matters or im- 
purities the nigre of one pan with the spent 
salt ley of a succeeding and adjacent pan, 
and when this last has been completely 
made, and is ready for what is technically 
called ** the finish," the nigre of the former 
pan, which has been washed as before stated, 
is transferred to this second pan, and 
finished along with it" 

Newton, Alfred Vincent, of Chan- 
cery* lane, Middlesex, mechanical draughts- 
man. Jn improvement in the construction 
and arrangement of marine steam engines. 
(A communication.) Application dated 
Julys, 1854. (No. 1458.) 

This invention consists in employing two 
steam cylinders placed transversely and 
very' near the vessels* bottom, the piston- 
rods of which pass through them in opposite 
directions, and impart, by means of cou- 
pling links and levers, "a reciprocating 
motion to rock shafts, which transmit mo- 
tion to the crank on the propeller- sha A, by 
levers and connecting-rods acting nearly at 
rieht angles to each other." 

HoPKiNSON, Joseph, the 3'ounger, of Hud- 
dersfield, York, engineer. Improvements in 
steam boilers and furnaces^ and in apparatus 
connected therewith. Application dated July 
3, 1854. (No. 1454.) 

This invention consists mainly in arrang- 
ing a number of boilers side by side, and 
adapting furnaces in such manner that the 
products of combustion are caused to pass 
over their surfaces in a transverse direction, 
instead of in the direction of their length. 
The series of boilers are connected together 



by means of pipes, so as to constitute one 
steam generator. 

GuiCHARD,£D0UARDAuaU8TE D£8IR£, 

of Paris, France, designer. Improvements 
in ornamenting the surfaces rf various articles 
and fabrics. Application dated July 3, 1854. 
(No. 1455.) 

This invention consists in the application 
to oil-doth of certain substances to form a 
flock surface, either on the underside, as a 
substitute for the woollen surface ordinarily 
produced, or for the production of orna- 
mental designs on the upper side , and in 
the application of the'improved flock to the 
manufacture of toys, &c. 

Johnson, John Henry, of Lincoln's- 
inn-fields, Middlesex, gentleman. Improve- 
ments in obtaining motive power. (A com- 
munication.) Application dated July 4, 
1854. (No. 1470.) 

This invention consists in employing *' a 
long cylinder fitted with a piston which is 
acted upoB on one side by any elastic force, 
such as steam, compressed air, or any ex- 
pansive gas, the other side of the piston 
being acted against by a column of fluid, 
which fluid is^also acted upon by com- 
pressed air or other elastic power contained 
in a vessel in connection with the other end 
of the cylinder." 

Johnson, John Henry, of Liocoln's- 
inn- fields, Middlesex, gentleman. An im- 
proved system or mode qf coating iron with 
copper. (A communication.) Application 
dated July 4, 1854. (No. 1471.) 

This invention consists — 1. In the appli- 
cation of the sulphate of copper for the gal- 
vanic coating of iron which has been pre- 
viously covered by a tUjn preservative coat- 
ing, for the purpose of preventing the sul- 
phuric acid of the sulphate from acting 
upon the iron. 2. In the application of a 
thin preservative coating on the iron which 
is to be coated with copper, by the aid of 
the sulphate of copper. 3. In the applica- 
tion of lead as a preservative coating, as a 
substitute for copper. 4. In the application 
to thiit operation of baths of copper and 
lead. 5. Of a process for cleaning the metal 
surfaces. 

Symes, William, of Pimlico, Middle- 
sex, gentleman. Improvements in tills. Ap- 
plication dated July 5, 1854. (No. 1476.) 

These improved tills are divided into 
three compartments, each of which has 
a hinged top, and over the two compart- 
ments intended for the reception of gold 
and silver is placed a piece of glass or wire 
work, and connected to the underside of 
each top is a box into which the coins fall, 
and remain visible until pasaed into the 
lower part of the till, by the withdrawal of 
a slide and rod. 

Orubb, Thomas, of Dublin, civil en- 



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PB0VI8I0NAL PROTECTIONS. 



93 



gineer. ImprotfewtmUs tn nuerotcopes. Ap- 
plieadon dated July 5, 1854. (No. 1477.) 

These improveonenU consist — 1. In sr- 
ranging a " stage," or object holder, cana- 
bie of moYement through an entire revolu- 
Uon» the usual slow motions in opposite di- 
rectiona being obtained by cam rings. 2. 
In employing a new form of prism which, 
when suitably mounted, effects every kind 
of illumination required both for translu- 
cent and opaque objects, by its own revolu- 
tion and without changing the position 
either of the microscope or of the source of 
light 3. In the addition of a graduated 
sectoral arc to microscopes concentric to 
the planes of the object tn situ, on which 
either the aforesaid prism or other suitable 
illuminator is made to slide, thereby pro- 
ducing every kind of illumination required 
lor microscopic examination, and also the 
means of registering or applying any de- 
finite angle of illumination at pleasure. 

Venables, John, and Arthur Mann, 
both of Burslem, Stafford, earthcnware-ma- 
imfacturers. Printing se\f and other colottrs 
im btu-reUiif or raited work on china, earthen^ 
tffore, glasSf parian, stoneware^ bricks, blocks, 
tike, quarries, hardvoare, japan, and papier- 
naM ware. Application dated July 6, 1854. 
(No. 1478.) 

The inventors propose, by means of 
deeply cut engravings or mattices, to re- 
ceive the coloured matter, and to deposit it 
upon the articles mentioned in the title. 

Arrowsmith, John, of Bilston, Stafford, 
engineer. A new or improved method qf con- 
emming or euppreteing smoke and obtaining 
motive power ther^om. Application dated 
July 6, 1854. (No. 1481.) 

The inventor causes heated air and smoke 
to pass through and over one or more coke 
fires, *' whereby the said smoke becomes so 
heated that it combines with the oxygen of 
the air with which it is mixed, and the heat 
thus obtained may be used to heat a steam 
boiler or for other purposes.'* 

Radcliwe, John, of Stockport, Chester, 
machinist Certain improvements in power- 
looms for weamng. Application dated July^ 
6, 1854. (No. 1486.) 

This invention consists in the use of 
elastic surfaces in certain parts of power- 
looms, for the purpose of adjusting, regu- 
lating, and softening the impulsive action of 
the '* picker" in lieu of the *< check-strap," 
or other contrivance hitherto employed. 

Johnson, John Henry, of Lincoln's- 
inn-fields, Middlesex, gentleman. Improve- 
mente in madtinery or apparatus for effecting 
agrienltural operations, parts of the said im- 
provemenU being applicable far the obtainment 
of motive power for general purposes. (A 
communication.) Application dated July 
6,1854. (No. 1487.) 



This invention consists of modifications 
of the agricultural apparatus patented by 
the patentee. May 10, 1853. 

Johnson, John Henry, of Lincoln's- 
inn-fields, Middlesex, gentleman. Improve- 
ments in electro-magnetic engines. (A com- 
munication.) Application dated July 6, 
1854. (No. 1488.^ 

This inrention consists in " the arrange, 
ment and combination of the helices snd 
poles of the electro-magnets in combination 
with revolving bars, the helices being upon 
the bends of the magnets from which the 
poles of the magnets extend, towards the 
centre of motion ; and the revolving bars or 
armatures extend outwards from the centre 
of motion, and embrace the poles of the 
magnets successively as the revolution goes 
on." 

Pbtrie, John, jun., of Rochdale, Lan- 
caster, ironmonger. Improvements in ma- 
chinery or apparatus for washing or scouring 
wool Application dated July 6, 1854. (No. 
1492.) 

This invention consists in the adaptation 
to a wool-washing or scouring machine of 
apparatus which acts upon the principle of 
combing or opening out the fibres by a 
series of teeth or prongs. 

••• The documents of No. 1474 are with 
the Law Officers under objection. 



PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS. 

Dated December 1, 1854. 

2525. Joseph Whit worth, of Manchester, Lsn- 
caster, engineer. Improvements Incaunons, guns, 
and flre^u'ms. 

Dated December 28, 1854. 

2785. Margaret Williams, of Chelsea, Middlesex. 
Improvements in suspending swing looking or 
dressing^lasses. 

2737. Peter Hawoith, of Manchester, Lancaster, 
currier and leather dealer. An improved belt, 
band, or strap-fastener. 

27S6. Richard Threlfall, of Bolton-le-Moors, 
Lancaster, machine maker, and Robert Walker 
Pitfleld, of the same place, mechanic. Improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus for spinning cot- 
ton, wool, or other fibrous materials. 

27S9. James Murdoch, of Stople-iiHi, Middlesex. 
Improvements in waterproofing woven fabrics. A 
communication. 

2741. John Gray, of Strand-street, Liverpool. 
Improvements in adjusting compasses on board 
ships or vessels. 

2742. Oerd Jacob Bensen. of Christian-street, 
St. George's-in-the-East. An improrement in re- 
fining sugar. 

2743. Heury Charles Hill, of Parker-street, 
Kingsland, London. Improvements in port- 
able dwellings, barracks, and similar dwellings, 
part of which invention consists in rendering such 
buildings, and also ships,- proof against snot or 
bombs.' 

Dated December 29, 1854. 

2744. James Nasmyth, of Barton-upon-Irwell, 
Lancaster, engineer. Certain improved machinery 



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94 



PBOVISXOKAli PB0TECTI6K8. 



or apparakttt Ibr fiiftlliUtltiB the forgtng of maases 
of iron. 

2745. Frederick Ttaoupion anfl William Wag> 
Btaff, of Pall Mall East. Improvementa in photo- 
graphy. 

2746. Andrew Dieta and lobn Q. Dunham, of 
Raritan, New Jerwf , Umtcd Btatet of America. 
Improvementt in mowing aad reaping machines, 
by which the sickle cutting the grain is moved or 
worked dlzoctly by the driving wheel or iU equiva- 
lent, without the neoatatty of oogwheala, aranks, 
fto. 

2747. Athton Stantfleld, of Todmorden, Lancas- 
ter, cotton spinner and mattufseturer, and Josiah 
Greenwood, of the same plaee, managet. Certain 
Improrements in power looms for weaving. 

2748. John Zephaniah Bell, of Sand field-place, 
Lewlsham-road. Kent, gentleman. Improvements 
in the manufkcture ofboott and shoes. 

2749. Henry Wldnell, of Lasswade, Midlothian, 
North Britain, eafpet manufacturer. Improva- 
ments in the manufacture of carpets and other 
textile fabrics. 

2750. Edward Loysel, of Rue do Oritry, Paris, 
Fnace, civil atogitttoer. An Improved lavement or 
injecting machine. 

2751. thomas Thorneyerott, of Wolverhampton. 
Improvements in ihtp-baildlng. 

2752. iamesPilUuis.of Brempton-erescent, Mid- 
dlesex* Improvements in the preparation of hema- 
tosin and fibrinous and serous matters. 

2753. Heniy Richardson ^nshawe and John 
Americus Fanshawe, of North Woolwich, Essex, 
manufketuring agents. Certain Improvements in 
the manufacture of various kinds of waterproof 
garments. 

Dated December 30, 1854. 

2756. Robert Chapman* of Manchester, Lancas- 
ter, and John Miller, of Stalybridge, In the said 
county. Improvements in machinery or apparatus 
for spinning and doubling cotton and other fibrous 
materials. 

2757. George Mhlliilfton, of Manthester, Weaver, 
arid Horatio Ridings, of Newton- heath, near Man- 
chester, card-cutter. An improved manufacture 
of woven fabric. 

2759. George Edward Bering, of Lockleys, Herts. 
Improvements in obtaining motive power when 
using electric currents. 

2761. Thomas Slater, of Somen-place West, St. 
Pancras, Middlesex, optician, and Joseph Tall, of 
Crawford-street, Marylebone, tool-maker. Improve- 
ments in the construction of planes and tn cutting 
apparatus, and in the machinery or apparatus em- 
ployed therein. 

2763. Bernard Hughes, of Donegal- place, Bel- 
fast, Ireland. The better and more efifectual heat- 
ing of bakers' ovens. 

Dated January 3, 1855. 

12. John Keir Harvey and Daniel Pearce, of 
London, Middlesex. A calendar inkstand. 

14. Hippolyte Fontaine, engineer, of Marseilles, 
France, improvements in enRravers' presses. 

16. William Kendall and George Gent, of Sal- 
ford, near Manchester, Lancaster, machinists. Im- 
provements in machinery or apparatus for catting 
metals either solid or tubular. 

18. John Henry Johnson, of Llncoln's-inn-fields, 
Middlesex, gentlemao. An improved system or 
mode of coating iron with copper. A communica- 
tion. 

20. Charles Hnstwick and WiUian Bean, of 
Klngston-upon-Hull, carriage and harness manu- 
facturers. Improvements in buflfers and springs 
for railway carriages and other purposes. 

22. John Tenables and Arthur Mann, of Burs- 
lem, Staiford, earthenware manufacturers. Im- 
provements In producing raised figures or oma- 
mettti upon the snrfhoet of articles made of metal, 



pottery, and earthenware, glaai, papier macbd, and 
other materials. 

24. Thomas Webster Rammell. of Trafalgar- 
square, Middlesex. Improvements in boiler aiid 
other fHirnaces. 

Dated January 4, 18 5 o. 

26. Charles Watt, of Victoria- wharf, Regent' a- 
park Basin, chemist. An improvement in prepax- 
ing coffee. 

Dated January 5, 1855. 

28. George Bowden, bookbinder, of Little Queen- 
street, High Holborn, Middlesex. Improvements 
in the manufacture of united adhesive book head- 
band and register ribbons. 

80. Louis Dominique Girard, civil engineer, •( 
Puis, French empire. Certain improvements in 
applying steam, fluids, and gases, for the purpose 
of obtaining motive power, parts of which are ap- 
plicable for compressing and rarefying air and 
gases, and fbr raising liquids. 

32. John Livesey, of Kensington Gore, Middle- 
sex, gentleman. Improvements in printing, and 
in the materials and apparatus connected there- 
with. A communication. 

Dated January 6, 1855. 

34. Benjamin Cook, of Green-street, Birming- 
ham, Warwick, metallic bedstead and tube manu- 
fketurer. Certain improved apparatus for separat- 
ing filings of iron or ateel from other metallic 
filings. 

36. Toussaint Delabarre and Angiline Bonnet, 
of Paris, France. Imprtvements in the preserva- 
tion of substances for food. 

38. David Joy, of Worcester, engineer. An im- 
provement in pistons. 

40. George Hallen Cottam and Henry Richard 
Cottam, of St. Pancras Iron Works, Old St. Pan- 
eias-road. An improvement in the manufacture 
of iron bedsteads. 

Dated January 8, 1855. 

42. William Orlndley Craig, of Gorton, near 
Manchester, Lancaster, engineer. Improvements 
in railway buffer-cases and rams. 

44. Joseph Player, of Winchester-buildlnfTs, Ix>n- 
don, civil engineer. Improvements in the eon- 
itruction of furnaces for the prevention of smoke. 

46. Peter Armand Leeomte de Fontainemorcaut 
of South- street, London. An improved mode of 
obtaining alcohol. A communication. 

48. Albert Nagles, of Ghent, Belgium, chemist. 
Improvements in machinery or apparatus for clean- 
ing the surfaces of woven fabrics, and also for dis- 
tending or spreading the same either ibif»re or 
after, or during the processes of bleaching, print- 
ing, or other similar operations. 

Dated January ^, 1855. 

50. Samuel Smith Shipley, of Stoke Ncainffton. 
Middlesex. Improvements in machinery nnd ap- 
paratns for washing or cleansing. 

62. Thomas Hodgson, of Morley's Hoti 1. West- 
minster, architectural modeller. An improved 
construction of paddle-box life boat. 

54. Andri Gaspard Guesdron, of Pari-, Prance. 
A Aimiture table which may be used fbr difl^rent 
purposes. 

56. Nathaniel Jones Amies, of Manchester, Lan- 
j caster, small ware manufacturer. Certain improve- 
ments in winding or bailing thread «r yam, ami in 
the maehin 'ry or apparatus connected therewith. 

58. Ebenezer Bow, of Glasgow, Lanark, North 
I Britain, coal merchant. ImprovemcntM la the 
1 manufacture or production of "blackening," for 
foundry purposes. 

60. John Lamb, machinist, and Francis Beat 
Fawcett, carpet manufacturer, of Kidderminster, 
Worcester. Improvements in certain parts of the 



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WJifcKLT WMt dY PATEMTB. 



95 



m^Mnttf tmfAojtA ih tke ^rodttctioa of TMloiii 
Ikbrics in which bobbini are uied. 



PATENT APPLtEB POR WITH COMPLEtE 
SPECIFICATION. 

rt. Anfnste Bdoaard Lonulonx B«Uford, of 
Emcx street, London. Improrements in tanning. 
A eonuDonieatlon from Meurs. Rene de Kercado 
Molao and Jean Daniel Frledel, of Straabouxg, 
France. January 12, \Ui, 



NOTICES OF INTENTION TO 

PRoctefito. 

(Frmn ike *' Lendon Gnzeite," January Urd^ 
1855.) 

\WS. Edward Gillman. Obtaining filaments 
ttvm certain regetable Bubstanoee, and ap|ilylng 
the lame to Taiious manufacturing purpotee. 

mt. William Nash and John Jewell. Improve- 
menta In window-taahes and frames. 

1008. Andrew Barclay. Improrements in re- 
firactinff and reflecting telescopes. 

MM. Martin Billing and Walter Gootgo White- 
head. A new or Improved waterproof pftper. 

2033. Anguete Edouard Loradoux Bellford. Cer- 
tain tapraTomente in machinery for waahing paper 
•teck. A eommnlrieatloh. 

2000. Aogntte Edouard Loradoux Betlfbtd. A 
Mw malhematicid Instrument to be termed the 
** hoiometer," for the purpoto of tolTlng nroblems 
fii ^aae and epherloal tHjmionwtry, one feature of 
trhfeh laTeotlon to Vt nay be applicable In the 
construOtiott Of othot Mothomatieal Instruments. 
A eommiittlMtlol). 

2037. Henrjr HudMh. Impraremente In the 
ittaavlhehuo of Veitelt fbr meoeuring flnids. 

3088. WUIIam Prior Sharp and WUltam WeUd. 
IlnprDT«ments fai maehlnery for winding, clean- 
teg* douMing, tptoning, atad throwing of mlk. 

2888. TiiolMM Banks and Henry Banks. Im- 
provements in uiparatus for retarding and stop- 
ping tailway trauM. 

3083. Hentt COthetine Camilla de Ruols and 
Anselme Louis Marie de Fontenay. ImproTOments 
te the ticatmeaC of certain metals for pndUeing 
an Improved metallic alloy. 
2074k Jonathan BdgOk Improvements in pistons. 
2082. John ftegoreon and James BrImetoW. Im- 
provements In certain parts of steam engines* 
2093. ThomaaMohaak An improved churn. 
2133. Aimd Antolne Joseph LegentlL Certain 
taprovements in pumps or machinery fbr rblsing 
and forcing water and ether dnids. 

2228. Angnate Edouard Loradoux Belllbrd. Cer- 
tain improvements In breoch-loading flto-anlls. A 
oommnaieatlon. 

2588. Joseph Whitwocth. Improvements In can- 
mons, guns, and fir»«nns. 

2621. John Louis JulUon. Separating cortain 
▼actable fibres from mixed fabrics for various 
iMetel pnrpoeea. 

2847. Daniel Chandler Hewitt. Impcovements 
In the construction of pianofortes. 

2887. Oeorgo Tomllnson Bousfield. Improre- 
taenu In maoUnety fbr splitting leather. A com- 
munication. 

2702. John Hunt. An improvement or improve- 
ments In ISluminatton. 

2727. George Carter and Henry Cyrus Symons. 
Improvements in boilers and furnaces, and in the 
apparatus for supplying and regulating the Aiel, 
air, water, and steam. 

1788. John Coekcroft. ImgroveoMito In mo^ 
oldneif or appankua for piiatlnf wotob or toxtllo 
Ibbiioo and yams. 



pioyea inerein. 

38. Louto Dominique Oiraid. Cert 
ments in applying steam, fluids, and { 
puipoee of obtaining motive power, p( 



2737. Petof Haworth. Ad improved belt, band* 
or strap-fastener. 

2788. James Murdoch. Improvements In W8ter- 
prooflog woven fhbries. A communication. 

2744. Jaines Nasmvth. Certain improved ma- 
chinery or apparatus for fhdlltating the forging of 
masses of iron. 

8745. Frederick Thompson and William Wag- 
etair. Improvements in photography. 

2749. Henry Widaell. Improvements in the 
manufacturo of carpets and other textile fabrics. 

2752. James Pillans. Imi/rovements in the pre- 
potation of htmatoslh and Bbrinous and serous 
matters. 

8761. Themes Slater and Joseph Tall. Improve- 
ments in the construction of planes and in cutting 
apparatus, and in the machinery or apparatus em- 
ployod therein. 

"" ' • ~ * ■ Certain Improve- 

1 gases, for the 
. . „ , parts of which 

are ^applicable for compressing and rarely ing air 
and gases, tad Ibr raising liqurdt. 

88. ToussaInt Delabarre and Ang^llne Bonnet. 
Improvements in the preservation of substances 
for food. 

OppoBitiou can be entered to the granting 
of a Patent to any of the parties in the 
above Liat, who have given notice of their 
intention to proceed, within twenty - one 
days from tho date of the Owutf in wliioh 
the notiee appeara, by leaving at tho Com- 
miaaioners' -office particulars iu writing of 
the objection to the application. 



WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS. 

S$akdJiamary 19, 1855. 

1599. Sir John Seott Liilie^ 
. 1621. Hichard Roberta. 
1623. AuguBte CasteU. 

1629. William Orundy* 
1647. William Litteli tisard. 
1695. Richard Archibald Brooroan. 
1697. John Simon Holland. 

1755. Peniaton Groavenor Grevillen 
1849. William Shepherd Smith. 
1975. Peter RothweU Jackson. 
2051. Pietro Feloj. 
2465. John Hennr Johnson. 
2475. George Ci^lien 

Sealed January 23, 1855. 

1630. Ephraim Hallum. 
1641. John Chilcott Pumelle 
1643. Lodis Chnstian Koeffler. 
1664. Robert Henrj Thompson. 
1676. John Tail Borland. 
1684. Henry Adams. 

1696. Thomas Edward Mertitt 

1714. Charles Weightman Harrison. 

1715. Attguste Boiasonneau. 

The above Patents all bear date as of the 
day on which Provisional Protection was 

S ranted for the several inventions men- 
oned therein. 



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98 



NOTICES TO COBBEBFONDENTS. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

WaiL—We have not the work you refer to at 
band, and cannot therefore reply to yoixr inquiry. 

/. A. Jl.— We have no hesitation in laying that, 
iu the caBi you mention, our abitraet wai auffl- 



elently oompiehenilTe to give you the entife sub* 
stance of the invention. 

Z. Z. and Romanug,— Your remarks reipeetiac 
the comparaiive merits of Russian and fingliah 
weapons of war, only state what thousand* of our 
countrymen are at this moment deploring. 



MESSRS. ROBERTSON, BROOMAN, & CO. 

VnderUke the Proouatioii of Patonti 

for the United Kingdom and all Foreign Countriet, and the transaction generally of all 

business relating to Patents. Costs of Provisional Protection — £10 IDs. 

Practical Instructions to Inventors and intending Patentees supplied gratis on application 

to Messrs. ROBERTSON, BROOMAN, and Co.» ''Mechanics' Magazine and 

Patent Office/' 166, Fleet-street, London. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



The Moderator Lamp— <«»M engravinff*) 7S 

On Tubular Steam Boilers. By Mr. H. 

Wright « 76 

The Caloric Engine 78 

On Certain Effects of Induced Electricity. By 

W. R. Grove, Esq 80 

Investigation of the Moon's Motion~(«;<iA 

diagrami) 82 

On Permanent Ways 84 

On the Incrustation of Steam Boilers 85 

Parker's Patent 8moke*Consuniing Apparatus 86 

The Lunar Controversy 86 

The Smoke Question 87 

Ordnance and Gunpowder 87 

Expanding and Self-Cleansing Sabot for Riile 

Shot 88 

Spcciflcatiotts of Patents Recently Filed : 

Johnson Submarine Navigation 88 

Wilder Rollers frClod Crushers 88 

Milne Letter Holders 88 

Walters ..., Locks and Latches 88 

Fontainemoreau ...Stopping Bottles 88 

Chenille Fabrics 88 



..Dynamometer . 



Greenshields 

Balk 

Chauveau 

D'fipinois Railway Apparatus 

Sunter Drilling Machbiery .. 



Tiffany ..Gig-miU Brushes 89 

Haimes Gloves and Mits....^... 89 

M'Oaffln ..Corrugated Iron 89 

Delpech Pumps 89 

Newman RaUs, Rods, ftc 89 

Bardet ft Coliette.. Matches 89 

Garrett fr Garrett..DrilUng Seed & Manure 90 

Bishopp ^ Motive Power Engines 90 

Elliott Valves 90 

Heyeock Hydraulic Presses ...... 90 



3owlas Looms 90 

Cheval Beer-Engines ..• 90 

Buroh Steam- Engines 90 

ResteU Parcel Holders ......... 90 

Harvard ft Womers- 

ley ^ Drying Seeds, ftc 90 

Glasgow WorkUig Metals 90 

Aveiy .....Stitching Machines ... 91 

Fontainemoreau ...Breaking in Horses ... 91 

Lamb Cutting Paper 91 

Nicholson Hay-making Machines 91 

M'Connell RaUvay Wheels, ftc. 91 

Caralli ..Ornamental Fabiics ... 91 

Pole Railways ».«. 91 

Laeey Copper Rollers, ftc 91 

Provisional Specifications not Proceeded with : 

Johnson Stopping Bottles 93 

Hutchinson Soap 9S 

Newton MarioeSteam Engines. 92 

Hopkinson Furnaces 9S 

Ouiehard Ornamenting Surfaces 9S 

Johnson Motive Power 99 

Johnson.. Coating Iron with Cop- 

"per 

Symes Tills 

Gnibb Microscopes 

Venables ft Mann.Printing in Colouxa..... 

Arrowsmith Suppressing Smoke ... 

Radcliffe Power Looms 

Johnson ^.Agricultural Apparatus 98 

Johnson Electro - Magnetic En- 
gines 9S 

Petrie ^ Scouring Wool 98 

Provisional Protections 98 

Patent Applied fbr with Complete Specifica- 
tion ., 95 

Notices of Intention to Proceed 95 

List of Sealed Patents 95 

Notices to Correspondents 98 



LONDON : Edited, Printed, and PubUshed by Richard Archibald Brooman, of No. 166, Fleet-strBe*, 
in the City of London.— Sold by A. and W. G^alignani, Rue Yivienne, Paris] Maohin, and Co., 
Dublin ; W. C, Campbell and Co., Hamburg. 



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No. 1643.] SATURDAY, FEBRUARYS, 1855. [J^" '" 



Edited by R. A. Biooman, 166, Fleet-itreet. 



LStampel 4d. 



KITSON'S IMPROVED FRICTION HAMMER. 
Pig. 2. 




VOL. LXII. 



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98 

KITSON'S IMPROVED FRICTION HAMMER. 

(The following paper was recently read at the Institution of Mechanical (Engineers, 
Birmingham.) 

The hammer described in the present paper has been in use for some time at the 
author's works, in Leeds, where it was originally constructed as a simple and inexpensive 
hammer, for the heavier smiths' work ; and the present description has been prepared only 
in compliance with a request to communicate to the Institution the particulars of this ham« 
mer, as possessing some practical advantages of efficiency and simplicity. 

An elevation of the hammer is shown in fig. 1, and a plan in fig. 2. The hammer block, 
A, weighing 6 cwt, is guided by grooves in the same, B B, and is lifted by the flat wrought- 
iron friction bar, C C, 5} inches wide, and | inch thick, fixed into it by a T head, with two 
cotters, SS. The friction bar, C, is raited by two rollers, D and £, carried on 
the cross frame at top, one of which, D, runs loose on its axle, and the other, E, is fixed 
on a shaft which is driven continuously by the pulley, F, and carries a fly-wheel, G G, at 
each end, to give momentum for lifting the hammer. The axle of the roller, D, is carried 
by a bent lever, H, which works on a fixed centre, I, below the roller, and has a chun con- 
nected to Uie outer end, passing dver a pulley, T, and attached to the weight, K. This 
weight presses the tightening roller, D, towards the driving«roller, £, and grips the friction 
bar, C, between them, causmg the hammer to be drawn up rapidly ; the hammer being 

Prevented from being lifted too high by a timber stop at the top of the frame. A handle, 
I, is connected by a rod to the extreme end of the leyert H, and by pressing down this 
handle, the tightening roller, D, is drawn back slightly, releasing the friction-bar, C, and allow, 
ing the hammer to fall. On releasing the handle, £, firom the pressure, the hammer is 
again lifted by the bar beins gripped between the roUets, and it is again let fall from any 
height desired by pressing down the handle. The. nfian holding the handle has thus com* 
plete control over the hammer, by simply pressing down the handle, or letting it rise again i 
and he can readily regulate the rapidity, or length of the stroke, as required. The present 
hammer makes fVom 25 to 30 strokes per minute, when lifted to the full height, 5 fiiet ; 
about 40 per minute with a stroke of 2 feet, and 84 per mioute with 14 inches length of 
stroke. The driving pulley makes 132 revolutions per minute, whem the hammer |s at 
work. 

The second handle, M, works a friction clip or break, N, serving to check the hammer, 
and hold it fast in any position. This break, N, is fixed ftt the end of a second bent lever, 
O, working on a centre below, and lifted up by a chaln« V, and a second weight, P, working 
by the tide of the other weight, inside one of the hollow columns of the frt^ming. This weight 
presses the break towards the tightening-roller, D, the lifting bar being gripped between 
them by the opposing pressure of the two weights, holding up the hammer in any position 
that it may be in. The break handle, Mt is held down continuously whilst the hammer it 
working, the man holding this in one hand, and the lifting handle, L, in the other hand ; 
by means of which the working of the hammer is managed with great expedition and 
accuracy, and it can be instantly stopped and held Gut whenever required, by merely letting 
go the break^handle. The grip of the lifting rollers, and of the break, is always the t«me, 
being produced by the pressure of (hc two weights, and consequently always properly 
adjusted, not being dependent on the pressure of the man's hand, which is only empuwed 
to release the pressure of the weightt. The frame that carries the bearings of the lifting 
rollers and break, is mounted upon four India-rubbfr springs, R R, fixed upon the main 
cross firame, for the purpose of relieving tht friction-bar from the shock of suddenly putting 
the hammer into full motion, when the lifting rollers lay hold of the bar s the India-rubber 
springs are compressed at the first moment, allowing the lifting rollers to drop a little, 
whilst the hammer is getdns into motion. The bottom T end of the friction*btr u b«dded 
upon teveral thicknesses of wood, 12 inchti thiok in all, fixed in the hammer-blooki the 
elasticity of which relieves the lifting-bar from the end concussions, when each blow of the 
hammer is struck. 

When this hammer was first constructed, the friction-bar, which was rather siuAller 
(4 inches by |ths inch), was fixed in the hammer with a single 4.incli niece of wood liflow 
it, and the India-rubber tpringt were not adopted ; and it was found that the cotters, 8 S, 
broke very frequently, about twice a week. India-rubber, |ths inch thick, was then put in 
between the cotters and T head of the bar, with a better result ; and the India-rubber 
springs were afterwards introduced, with the wood packing below the T head of the bar. 
This arrangement has been found to work very successfully, and it has been in regular work 
for the last nine months, without accident or repair. 

The only wear that is found to take place in the machine is in the friction-bar, near 
where it is first caught by the lifting-rollers, for a length of about 14 inches ; the wear being 



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KIT80]f*8 mroOTBB VSI6fl6il HAIOIBB. 



99 



^l the mto ofmtuly |tli Inoli lUekneu ft week, wken in coii|tant werk. Thia repair eoats 
very litUe time and expense, requiring onljr smiths* wprk ; but iu the case of making 
nnether siniiai l|ammer, it would be preferred to make the bar 7 inches wide instead oT 
5^ inches, to diminish the wear. 

• Fig. 1. 




The Chairro^ (Mr. W. Pairbairn) sai^, he regretted that Mr. Kitsoi^ bad been upexpect- 
My prevented from being present at the meeting. I^e thouj^ht the hammer that ha^ beefi 
described was an ingenions and efficient arraogement, and would prore useful and econo- 

o2 



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100 ON THE PROPULSION OF SHIPS BY THE SBAOTION OF JETS OF WATER. 

mieal in many Bmiths' shops. The sime principle might probably be advantageously 
applied to many of the stamping processes, in brass and iron mannfaetures, such as those 
of the Birmingham district, in place of the slower and more expensive processes of hsnd 
labour, at present in use. 

Mr. McConnell remarked, that he had seen the hammer at work, in Mr. Kitson's works, 
and was much pleased with its action. It was a very efficient machine, well arranged for 
the purpose, giving a very complete command over the action of the hammer, with a simple 
and inexpensive construction. He thought that kind of hammer was ^ery applicable, where 
a steam hammer would be too expensive ; and he was strongly of opinion, that power ham- 
mers would soon become much more generally used, in all works, in place of hand labour, 
as a great part of the ordinary smiths' hammer-work might be done more efficiently and 
economically by power. 

Mr. Sampson Lloyd said, he had had a friction hammer on a similar principle in use for 
some years, in his works at Wednesbury ; it worked well, and was found a useful tool ; 
they had not found any great wear of the friction-bar take place, and the same bar has 
been working for a year, he believed, without requiring repair. 

The Chairman remarked, that the hammer described in this paper seemed to have a 
defect in the rapid wear that took place in the lifting-bar, and he thought this might be 
avoided by adopting some different material : he inquired what was the di£Eerence in the 
construction of Mr. Lloyd's hammer? 

Mr. Sampson Lloyd replied, that the lifting-rollers were faced with wood, which pre- 
vented the wear of the friction-bar ; the rollers were worn away instead of the bar, but the 
wear of the rollers was not important; the wood lasted for nearly a year, he believed, with- 
out renewal. 

Mr. Fernie said he had seen a similar hammer in use some ten years since at Messrs. 
Forrester's works in Liverpool, which worked very well. With the exception of the India- 
rubber springs, the machines were nearly the same. 

Mr. McConnell remarked, that the advantage of applying power, in plaee of hand labour, 
was being experienced more and more in all manufactories, and the application was 
extending more rapidly than it had done, as more effective and expeditious, as well as 
more economical. At the Wolverton works they had greatly increased the number of 
power hammers, as well as other machines, with a marked advantage in economy, and 
facility for executing the work. 

Mr. Johnson observed, that another instance of the same principle was Ryder's forging, 
machine, which was found very convenient and advantageous, and was now used to a large 
extent in Manchester and other places, taking the place of hand work, and making an 
important saving in expense and time. 

The Cliairmnn said he had lately seen a number of those machines in the Oovernment 
factory at Woolwich, where it was intended to have all Uie hand labour of forging done by 
machinery, and a long range of these machines were being erected down one side of a 
shop, witb the fires acyoining, and merely requiring to be attended by one man each. In 
those machines the motion was given by an eccentric, and the strokes were very rapid, 
being suitable for the smaller hand-forging ; the friction hammer that had been described 
in the paper read, was adapted for the heavier hand- work, for which it appeared well 
suited, and also probably applicable with advantage to other manufacturing processes. 

He considered it was an important advantage that the Institution afforded the oppor- 
tunity of bringing forward such practical subjects, and eliciting valuable information in 
their discussion from the experience of the members. 



ON THE PROPULSION OF SHIPS BY THE REACTION OF JETS OF 

WATER. 

This important question has been brought before the Institution of Civil Engineers 
several times of late. On the laat occasion, in April last, Mr. Gravatt complained of the 
manner in which it was received, and has endeavoured to remedy the injustice, which he 
believes was then committed, by printing and circulating a " Letter on Steam Gun-boats, 
of shallow draught and high speed." 

The theory contained in this letter we now propose to examine, as, whether we agree with 
Mr. Gravatt or not, we are sure that we are forwarding his wishes by publicly canvassing 
this matter. 

His proposal consists in this — to make an aperture in the bows of the vessel, through 
which water will flow while the vessel is in motion, and will rise to a certain level, where he 
places a tank, called the lower tank ; this height of course will depend on the velocity wiUi 
which the ship or boat is moving. The water is pumped from this tank to a tank on a 



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ON THE PROPULSION OP SHIPS BY THE REACTION OP JETS OP WATER. 101 

higher level, called the upper tank, whence it is pennitted to fall freely to the original lerel 
of the first made orifice, and is allowed to issue through another orifice, whose section is 
made of such a size that the quantity of water which issues in a given time, shall be equal 
to that which is admitted. The reaction of the issuing jet, or tail water, will, he supposes, 
be sufficient to keep the vessel moving at a high velocity with little loss of power. 
According to this theory, putting 

a 2 ""area in square feet of section of the head water. 

a,— „ „ tail water. 

v^ «■ velocity of vesseL 

9j|»velodty due to the height through which the tail water falls firom the upper tank. 

P^horaepower of engine, used for pumping, divided by 60 to reduee the time to 
seconds. 

E^ellbetive hone power, for propulsion of vessel, divided by 60. 

He obtains £ 2aiV^*{e,-vJ 

P-«,r.(eJ-».«) 

and g.-?^ 



P r, + e. 

With his conclusion, so far, we do not quarrel, although we have somewhat to say regard- 
ing his mode of obtaining it 

He otmsicf (for, notwitnstanding his supposed proof, it is really an assumption) that the 
counter-pressure of an efiluent jet is douole of the pressure of the column of fluid due to 
the veloeiiy. Thus a^ p^ being the volume of water admitted in V moving with ^e velo- 
eity v^ he assumes the constant pressure which it produces to retard the vessel to be 
2a^ V|*, and therefore the work done to reduce it to rest, to be 2a^v^*. Now one half of 
the vis vHm of this mass of water is 

since w (weight of cubic foot of water)=^ very nearly. 

It is a mechanical piinciple that the work which must be expended to reduee a moving 
mass to rest, is one half the vU viva. The work, therefore, so expended in the case before 
us, is equal to a^e,*, instead of 2a^ej*. The same error he repeats with regard to the 
tail water. The true investigation is as under. 

Work expended in reducing head water to rest and raising it to the level of the lower 
tankssa^v,*. 

The Uil water issues f^m the boat with the relative velocity v^^v^f hence the issuing 
stream is capable of performing an amount of work » 0802(9^—0^)*, which is uselessly 
expended. The whole amount of work it could perform being that dae to the mass section 
a, with velocity Vg-^a^p^* as before. 

The work actually performed is, therefore, 

=a,e,»-a.e,(e,-e,)« 
=«s»al»"s-(«'a-^)*}=«a»a»i(2*a-»i) 
=a,»,«(2 e,— »,)» "">c« a,ea=ajej. 

Hence the effective useful work 

sWork done by tail-water— Work done in reducing head-water to 
rest 
That is, E=aj»i«(2e, -e J-«^e,» -2 a,e^«(eg-e,). . . .(I.) 

Also PsWork done by pumps in raising the water from the lower to the 
higher level. 
=a,e>,»-fr»«) (11.) 

.E . 2«>«^>'K->J _ 2,, 

•P a,e,(V-0,«)-e, + e. ^''''^ 

Now, with this result Mr. Gravatt is satisfied ; there is, however, an importont part of 
the question' which he entirely overlooks. 

He assumes the relation of e, to v^ to be perfectly arbitrary ; it is, however, nothing of 
the kind. 

Let A be the ef&ctive midship section of the ship or boat, by which we mean that plane, 



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109 ON !ERE PBOPULSION OF SHIPS BT THE REACTION OV JETS OF WATER. 

which moving dxreotl j tfaK>i:^h the ilnid, experiences the «anie Resistance as the vessel, and 
^hich will in all ships bear a certain ra^io to the actual midship section ^epepding on the 
fbrm of the vessel's bows. 

Then Av^* is the work expended bj the resistance to the vessel's motion, and this must 
be equal to the enctive work expended on the propulsion; 

or 2a,t,,»(r«-«^)-4t?,« i,- .(IV.) 

whence, !:»Zi«-J^; 

or !:^«^^^-.,,..,...,, (V.} 
», 2 a, 

Hence the ratio of »« to v^ i^ «At fffWtt«y» hlj^t 4<^pends o« the ra^i^i af |h» effective 
midship section to the section of the hei^d-wat^r. We believe that we are quite within the 
mark in assuming that the former cannot, without great inconvenience, be less than six 
times the latter. Putting therefore A ^9a , we have 

Afti since the heights of the upper i^nd lowqr teaks ate at the iquaro of theM velocities, 
putting A, and h^ for these heights respectively, 

an4 since high speed is the g^eat desideratum, if Vi "■25, which corresponds to a velocity 
of 15 kuots an )iour, v^^-lOO, and A^ «il56^ feet. And the ratio 

P "fa + Wi"" 5», "" 5 
or the theoretic loss of power is three-fifths. 
Taking the lower ratio 

And for a velocity of Ifi knots an hoar, the upper tank mutt ho at •« height of 88 feet 
M«rl]i, omI the loss of power is one hal£ 

Even assuming A = 2 a, only 

tfa-2»„ 

the height of upper level is S9 feet, snd the loss of ppwer is one-third. 

By what arrang^m^t a tank can be placed v^ a gun-boat of shallow draught ^t a height 
of S9 feet above the w^ter-line, o^ anything equivalent to this, withQHt gre^it sacrifice of 
space, it is impossible to imagine. 

It is therefore evident, if our theory be correct, and we fearlessly challenge inquiry into 
it, this mode of propelling vessels is in all cases very clumsy^ entailing great loss of power 
and most inconvenient arrangements ; but i« n\(wt especially upsuited to gun-boats of 
shallow draught and hig|i yelocity. PesidM these objections, which we think fatal, thero 
Is also to be considered the difficulty of obtaining a back- torn in such a mode of propul- 
sion without great sacrifice of ropm a^id power ; and farther still, from the fact that the 
apertures are placed below the water-line, a much greater deduction must be made from 
the effective horse-power, inasmuch as the case of water issuing into water is very diferent 
ffom that of wator isming into aii. 

Mr. Gravatt's grand point is his astumption that " the counter-pressure of an effluent 
stream of water is double the pfessure of the eohimn of Quid due to the velocity,'* for which 
he adduces the high authority of Newton. 

But how does he prove it ? He takes the particular case of a'Vessel of a square- sect ion, 
such that the sections are proportional to the square roots of their distances from the upper 
surface (in which case the velocity of the water in the several sections will vary in the 
same proportion) ; and calculating the contents of the figi^re, discovers them to be donble 
the contenta of % column whose base ii the afNsrtare In the bottom of the vessel, and height 
that due to the velocity. From this ooaelusion lifr. Qravatt infers that the reactionary 
piresjwre qf |^n e^uent stream is c|ouble this column. We fe#r thi|t the connection between 
this conclusion and the inference, however clear to Mr. Gravattt will not gq^erally be 
4$e(nf4 very sfttisfaptory. 

He gives another demonstration of the same supposed fact, independently of any law of 
fluids, which is. in its wsyi one of ^e moM remm-ki^hle m^tkem^ticftl curio/iities ve ever 
remember to have encountered. It would be time wasted to allude to it further here. We 



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BBTHUME'S PBETZNDED WPBOTXICEKTS IN STBAM NATIGATION. 



108 



may merely remark, that he first supposes a mass moving from rest to be aeted on by a 
force so as to acquire a ciertain velocity, and then assumes, thai tWo such masses com- 
bined " might form a continuous cylinder 32 feet long, moving unifortnty at the rate of H 
feet per second.*' I'hese two suppositions manifestly imply a contradiction. 

Mr. Gravatt also tests his theory by obtaining two ejcpressions, one for the cause and tka 
other for the ^eeif and finding them identical, congratulates himself on the corrobotation 
thus given to his investigations. 

By the cause, he understands whatever has produced the bringing of the inHuent water 
to rest, and raising it to the higher level. 

By the ^ectt he understands the whole eSects produced by the water which fails irom 
this higher level, and flows out at the stern. 

£ach of these he finds to be measured by 

g|(»'a* + «'s^*) 

which ou^ht, by.the-by6 ttt be 

«a(V + »aPi*)- 
Now one half of the whole vU vtVo, which is a proper measure of the whole effect that 

can be produced «agO^*» and his efiect exceeds this by ^^9,^9^*^ which is manifestly 

absurd. 
The whole effect muat be a^v,*, or atO^v^', and neither more nor i«M* 
The work expended in bringing the influent mass a^v^ \o rest a&d raising it to height A| 

«esr,9^*, the work exjpended in raising this mass from height h^ 

Vto*.- h^ 

Hence cause *«,v^(va' -»4*) + ajfrj»»a^rifr4*—eflfeot as before. 

Mr. Orav^tt, evidently, ii aft tnrhest believtet> itt i\ik trttthlAfhit il^l^tf \ ahd fbt thii 
reason ire have taken th« trottbU of shoeing that od^ theory ahsirftri th<^ te*t he brdtt«iet 
of sepaHiting thfe cause from the ^ffe'et equally with his own, ^ith th« hdditiotiA! allvantagpft 
of not giving a gr^at^r meastire bft&fth^r than the r«al fttAte of thin]^ Admits bf— ^whieh we 
coneeitiB to be no slight corrlftboration of it^ truth. 

VTe are convinced that Any person conversant with the thi6 ^Hi^cipleb btkhetihaliieft ahd 
hydrodynamics will haVe no difficulty Itt cOining t» this edniilnsidh ihat, for the heafeonfe wb 
have Maligned, Mr. Gravatt'A thebry it only partially fbuhded in truth, and his proposal 
to propel veis^ls in such a mAnn^^ unfit to be entertaihed \ sifti^ti tt) obtain ^fficli^Hx^y with, 
out enormous satriflee Of spAce fentAlls a very gl^at loss of power, Hhd bofts^tjtiefttly nf 
economy also. 



• Ji to *g - ZaT is equal to a^v^ (wg* -r^*). 



BETHUNE'8 PRETENDfiD IMPROVEMENTS IN STEAM NAViaATtON. 

To m BHi&r <{f the JfedUrtf «t' M4goz^, 

Sir, — ^Irhere is a remarkahle article in a 
late nomber of the JoMmai rf the Satiety qf 
Arts, on the subject of Improvements in 
Steam Navigation. It is written by a Mr. 



Bethune, who has patented certain improve- 
ments in building steamers, and th^ article 
referred to conuins his estimate of his own 
invention, the modesty of which estimate is 
on a par with that observable in. some of the 
extracts you lately made from the Sctint\fie 
Amgrican, In fact, the whole article may 
be safely classed with those long advertise- 
menU of Parr's Life Pills, Holloway's 
Ointment, &c., which, from their being 
treacherously mixed with the more tolerable 
matter of some of our papers, one sometimes 
finds himself reading unawares. The (hot 
that Mr. Betiiune has induced the editor of 
the Jcuruttl rf the Society qf Afts to insert 
his production, without preflxiog, as is 
usual in such oasea, the warning whtoh the 



word "(Advertisement)" impliea^. consti- 
tutes the curiosity of the matter. There is 
something wrong evidently. Never^eless, 
viewing it as one of a very large class of 
productions, I think your readers will not 
find it either unpleasant or unpro^table to 
glance with me first through the article, then 
at the invention. . And neither pleasure nor 
profit will be diminished by perceiving that 
the present instance has some peculiarities 
of its own which are quite ^oetious. 

Th^ preliminary remarks are intended to 
embody the following very common species 
of argument in the cases of new-born ihyen- 
tions that are designed to change the whole 
system of civilisation, an4 to give rise to a 
new era in the world. Whether the author 
regards it as an invincible syllogism or as a 
deep sophism, I ^ not know, acre is the 
argnment epitomised : 

Isti All those great and ttseful inventions 



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104 BETHUNE's PBETENBEB mPBOYEUENTB IN BTEAH NAVX6ATI0K. 



which, like the printing-press, the railway, 
the electric telegraph, have proved of ines. 
timahle value in the service of progress, 
have met with the raost eager opposition 
from people prejudiced or interested against 
them. 

2nd. Mr. Bethune's improvements in 
ship-huilding have met with this opposi- 
tion. 

Srd. Therefore Mr. Bethune's method of 
building steam vessels, like the mechanical 
masterpieces above mentioned, must one 
day be recognised as one of the triumphs of 
modern science and invention. 

This argument is not, I believe, generally 
regarded as conclusive, for it is thought by 
some to urge the mind of a right-thinking 
man inexactly the opposite direction. They 
say it has been used in the attempts to 
bolster up so many quackeries, that the 
chances are, when its aid is sought for any 
novelty, that the invention will prove an 
entire failure. 

But let Mr. Bethune say something for 
himself: 

*' Do we not hear now, from interested par- 
ties, the same cry against proposed improve- 
ments in the speed and accommodation of 
steamers, that we, in Tears long gone by, 
heard against the railway and iU advan- 
tages f Is not the same feeling of personal 
interest at work now to prevent anv great 
and striking improvement in steam-ships as 
it was formerly against railways? Surelv it is. 
The writer of this paper has met with such uni- 
versal opposition firom all persons connected, 
as owners with steamers, to his improved 
plan of steam-ship, by which a speed of not 
less than 21 miles, and probably 25 miles an 
hour, or more, can be attained, that he feels 
no hesiution in asserting that the feeling of 
private interest is as strong against any 
great improvement in the speed of steamers 
as it was formerly on tlie part of interested 
parties against our railway system." 

Mr. Bethane's steamers are to banish 
" consumption " from the face of the earth. 
** Instead, then, of being exposed to the in- 
clemency of the weather upon deck, and of 
being drenched with spray or rain, as pas- 
sengers now generally are in crossing the 
Channel, and of being compelled to travel Jn 
wet clothing for some miles by rail, thus 
laying the foundation of the catarrhal and 
consumptive diseases which cany off their 
yearly thousands of victims, passengers in 
my steamers will arrive at their destination 
free from such exposures, and without sus- 
taining a loss in the destruction of wearing 
apparel perhaps equal to five times the pas- 
sage-money!" 

The author says that» li Canada, the use 
of steamers having one of the features pos- 
sessed by his plan, vis., upper spar-decks. 



has sensibly diminished the frequency of 
violent storms on the lakes. 

** * * It was supposed that no steamera 
with such top hamper could live upon Lake 
Ontario in a gale of wind ; for the sea there 
is very similar to that in the Qerman Ocean. 
Experience, however, has proved that the 
fears of those who predicted tneir unsuitable- 
ness were altogeuier groundless. At that 
time storms were of very frequent occur- 
rence, and steamers built with flush 4eeks, 
and having all snug below, were often com- 
pelled to remain in port, or obliged to put 
back, owing to stress of weather. Now, kooo- 
ever, we never hear iff a steamer, built with a 
spar deck, being obliged to put bade or to re- 
main in port from the inclemency qf the wea- 
ther i and the drea^l storms tf former years 
are seldom heard qf new." 

Here is a liberal offer from one who has 
not the ability of trying the experiment 
himself, and whose only recipe for producing 
faster ships is, make them deeper, nar rowe r , 
longer, and stronger, 

** It may not be uninteresting to remark, 
that the cost of a steamer that could carry 
as many troops as the Himaiaya, and at a 
speed exceeding that of that vessel by 100 
miles a day, will be at least one-ihird leas 
than the price paid by the Government for 
that steamer; and that I am prepared to 
contract, in connection with eminent d^p- 
builders and engineers, for the construction 
of one or several steamers whose speed will 
be guaranteed at not less than 17 knota an 
hour. Although we limit the guarantee to 
17 knots an hour, we do not the less expect 
a speed exceeding 18 knots an hour ; for it 
must be obvious that a prudent builder will 
allow himself an ample margin in the rate 
of speed to prevent loss on his parL" 

I wonder who the prudent builder is who 
would underuke such a contract I think 
he will prove difficult to find. But let us 
now turn to Mr. Bethune's invention, as 
exhibited in the specification of his patent, 
which I have before me. 

The means adopted by Mr. Bethune to 
obtain such wonderful results will, no doubt, 
appear to those acquainted with ship-buUd- 
ing, somewhat unadapted to produce them. 
In his specification he says : 

" This invention consists in a new and 
peculiar mode of constructing ships, so as 
to give them greater strength amidships, 
or, in other words, at that part where the 
greatest stram takes place, and which part 
in ships, as hitherto constructed, is usually 
the weakest, particularly in vessels pro- 
pelled by paddle-wheels placed at the aides 
thereof. And further, by this invention I 
am enabled to build ships of greater length 
in proportion to the width of beam than 
heretofore ; and by strengthening the sides of 



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BBTHUME's PBETENBED DCPBOTSlfBirrS IN STEAK NAVIGATION. 



105 



the ihip I am enabled to employ paddle- 
wlieels of considerably larger diameter, by 
which, in combination with greater length, 
I obtain greater speed. And I efiect these 
improvements by constructing the sides of 
the ships in the following manner. Instead 
of making the top of the sides of a ship 
straight, I fonn the sides thereof strongest 
at those precise parts [where the main 
driTing-shaft is ntnated, by making such 
parts higher than the other parts of the 
sides, in the form of a solid arch ; and in 
building iron ships I rivet the sheets of 
metal together which form such arch, and 
I connect the upper edge thereof to a strong 
bar of wrought-iron, so that the strain is 
distributed over the greater portion of those 
parts of the sides which would otherwise be 
too weak in proportion to the extreme 
length of the ship ; and it is this peculiar 
mode of constructing ships which consti- 
tutes this invention of improTements in the 
construction of vessels propelled by steam 
or other motive power." 

Professional men will have some dii&. 
enlty (arising from the prejudiees they have 
contracted, according to the inventor,) in 
perceiving the connection between 25 miles 
an hour and a strake of thick stuff worked 
round the heads of the frame-timbers, which 
in a wooden ship form the inside framing 
of the paddle-box, and continued down for- 
ward and aft in the manner of a truss. 

But let us give the inventor credit for all 
the little plansibility with which he has 
succeeded in endowing the method. 
Sharpness is a very important facility in 
the speed of a ship, and the sharper we 
make the vessel the more must we diminish 
the ratio which her breadth bears to her 
length. But as we diminish this ratio, 
while we keep that of the depth to the 
length constant, we diminish the capability 
of resistance to any force acting to destroy 
the rigidity of the vessel ; so, in order to 
preserve this in its desirable amount, we 
must in some way supply this longitudinal 
strength. Thus, I imagine, Mr. Bethune 
reasons ; and we have seen his results. 
Having conceived a method of strenp^hen- 
ing, to some unknown extent, the sides of 
his vessel, he begins to draw upon it un- 
limitedly. In the first place, he intends to 
make his ship very much longer than 
usual; secondly, to apply to her paddle- 
wheels unusually large in diameter ; thirdly, 
10 employ much greater power in propor- 
tion to tonnage ; and fourthly, much less 
draught of water will be required. These 
improvements entitle him (the inventor 
thinks) to be ranked with the great Watt, 
with Stephenson, and with Wheautone. I 
think the few on whose attention the 
/Mmol rf ihB Soeietf rf AtU has given the 



inventor an opportunity of forcing his in- 
vention, will seek him out a place in thett 
esteem far below Ericsson, Lipscombe, or 
Planavergne. 

Mr. Bethune seems unaware of the ex- 
treme importance of some of the reasons for 
giving a vessel a considerable breadth, and 
for keeping her depth within reasonable 
limits. In the first place, a vessel must 
have breadth, to enable her to resist all the 
forces which tend to alter her lateral form : 
she must have breadth to enable her to 
resist torsion: and, above all, she must 
have breadth to give her sUbility. That 
ships built according to Mr. Bethnne's 
specification would be wanting in this last 
quality, there is no room to doubt For he 
intends not only to diminish the ordinary 
breadth, but also to make his ships much 
higher than usual, and to build them with 
top hamper of enormous weiffht, and at the 
same time he purposes tlist they shall draw 
very much less water than is ordinarily 
done. Now all these processes are admi- 
rably and clearly adapted to diminish the 
stability of his vessel and make her totally 
unfit for any service whatever. Then, to 
make her failure still more sure and still 
more apparent to all his readers, he sUtes 
liis intention of placing engine work of im- 
usual power, and, therefore, of unusual 
tveight, at a height also much greater than 
any kind of experience has ever sanctioned, 
or is ever likely to sanction. Those'pro. 
perties with which Mr. Bethune would en- 
dow our modern steamer, are just those 
which a prudent builder will carefully 
avoid. For vessels built in a manner dif- 
fering very little from what has been war- 
ranted by experience, hare lately been 
found lamentably wanting in the quality of 
stability! Most people will, I think, per- 
ceive that it is important that there should 
be some assurance attainable, when we put 
even merchandise of great value on board a 
vessel, that she will continue always to 
float the same side uppermost ; and this is 
of infinite importance when such a vessel is 
used for the transport of troops, or for the 
conveyance of those stores on which our 
armies depend. In the case of a ship built 
after Mr. Bethune's design, we should not 
be sure from one minute to another which 
part of her body she would determine to 
immerse, and which to present towards the 
clouds. Indeed one would feel a great deal 
of surprise if she were to remain floating in 
any position except she were built on a re- 
volving principle, and allowed to choose 
her own position of equilibrium. 

Sir, I must beg you to excuse me, if you 
deem I have said more than is needful on a 
subject so intrinsically worthless as these 
improvements. My apology is the promi- 



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105 



nence gWen it b^ a journal which ought to 
iiave some authority, and oe, io some extent, 
a judge in these matters. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

J. v» 
Deptford, Jan. 30, 1855. 



ON T^ MOOM'fl BOTATICmi 



ON THE MOON'S ROTATION. 

To the Editor (f tJie l^ehanics* Magazine, 

Sir, — tlic letter of Mr. Reeordon, wliich 
you publish this week) onlY re-opens the 
question of the moon's rotation in a slightljf 
di^rent form. I, as an Englishman, and 
not entirely unversed in scientific pursuits, 
have felt acutely and painfullyi during the 
iate discussion, the miserable conviction of 
how low the state of science is in this 
country. A controveray on the patent fact 
that the moon rotates on her axis! And 
now Mr. Reeordon comes forward to eohn- 
plicate errors still more ; and, by an abuse 
of philosophic terms, to give countenance to 
ihe fatuitoi^a disbelief in the above fact on 
the part of Messrs. Evan Hopkins, Mushet, 
8cc,y &c. It sounds very fine indeed to talk 
of the dynamical relation |n which bodies 
stand to one another, and to enumerate 
"general and important principles*' on this 
subject. 1 should hi^ve been much fetter 
satisfied with the exhibition of a knowledge 
of sound dynamical first principles ; and I 
am sure your readers will nave derived more 
profit than they can possibly dp now from the 
perusal of Mr. Recordon*iB. letter. What 
proper notion can be afi&xed to such a sen- 
tence as this ? " IVenow perceive clearly the 
possibility of the moon's motion as it occurs 
in nature, without tiie uecetiitg <4 admitting 
that it hat a centre ofgraitntff with reg^d to 
the earth?'' 

The explanation on which this grave an- 
nouncement is founded is simply erroneous. 
Like many, who are biit tyros in physical 
science, Mr. Reeordon confounds centri* 
fugal force with the impressed force actually 
exerted on a body, in this case the attrae- 
tion of the earth. A force equal and oppo- 
site to the centripetal foroe to the earth's 
centre, he tells us, is .necessary for the 
"moon's stability!" and this he ealls her 
centrifugal force. Why, if sueh a forpe 
were really to act on the moon, she would 
then be under the influence of two equal 
and opposite forces, whose resultant scro 
she would move in a straight line, and could 
not move as she does in an orbit nearly 
circular. 

The term " centre of gravity" is applied 
to denote a certain point in all heavy bodies, 
totally irrespective of the external forces by 
which they are acted upon. Tkt moon's 
centre of gravity, with regard to the earthy 
is, aooording to Uie uauai language of sci* 



enee, which ought never to bo departed 
^rom, aimpb nonsense. So long as tbe 
moon is symmetrical with respect to tEe 
axis about which she rotates, or rather with 
respect to the diameter Al right angles to 
ihe plane of her orbit, ao long it may be 
demonstrated that the attraction of the earth 
dan produce no etfejSt whatever ih impress- 
ing a motion of rotation ahout any axis, and, 
of course, not in altering such a motion. 
For, referring to ^r. Kecordon^s letter, 
page 83, allowing (^ to he the point at which, 
if the whole attraction of the eiarth were ap« 
plied, it would produce the same efi^ci as is 
actually the case ; the direction olf this force 
l^asses through C, the moon's centre, and 
can therefore cause no rotation about it. 
The rotation of the moon about her axis is 
lust what it was at the time she wat 
launched into space under her present con- 
ditions, ana no force has acted to modify il 
in any manner. She tnight, like the earth, 
have had a quicker motion of rotation im- 
pressed, and the hiotion of her centre of 
gravity with regard to the barth would have 
been just the same as it is, and nothing 
else. 

I emphatically deny Uiat ^^ the rotation 
ojf the moon on its axis, in the sensj^ hitherto 
given to these words, appears to be a mere 
consequence ot its revolution round the 
e^rth, and not i^n inde^ieni motion*" 
There is not the slightest shadow of a proof 
of this in anytliing that Mr. Reeordon has 
said. On the contrary, he h^ shown (if he 
has shown anything) that the attraction of 
the earth can impress no such motion. I 
will enunciate to him a dynamical princi- 
ple oi far more importance and direct ap. 
plication to the matter in hand than any* 
thing he has hroughc forward. It is this : 
*' the principal axes of a body passing 
Uirongh the centre of gravity are perma. 
nent axes ;" <.«., if he requires explanation, 
any motion of rotation impressed about 
such axis will continue uniform and undi- 
minished so long as no force acts to retard 
or ehtck it. The moon has had impressed 
upon her a motion of rotation by which she 
revolves about one of her principal axes 
once in a lunation. The earth's attraction 
exerts no force to interfere with this. 
Hence the moon continues, and, so long as 
tiie circumstances in which she is placed 
remain unchanged, will continue to revolve 
about her axis uiiiformly in the same 
period* 

'* To define the moon's motion inde- 
pendently of the libration and of the eccen- 
tricity of the orbit, by saying that the 
inoott revolves about the earUi's centre as if 
tt were rigidly connected to that point," 
is a mere geometric iUuetration^^ and de- 
seribes the result of the eombination or tbe 



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ON IHB moon's BOTATION. 



107 



two motions impreised on every point in 
the moon, but is in no tense a phygiccU or 
phiJesophicai interpretation or explanalion of 
such motion. 

I sometimes wonder what foreigners {\ 
do not mean Americans, who are too much 
like us) think of the scientific attainments 
of the majority of the readers of those En- 
glish journals which are open to the discus- 
sion of such subjects as the foregoing^ 
when they see the wonderful theories gravely 
asserted and maintained by many of them ! 
A very intelligent French engineer, some- 
time pupil of the £cole Polytechnique, 
probably formed his judgment from some 
such course of reading, when he told me, 
that in England the great evil was, that all 
science was merely akin- deep. If this be 
the result of our Mechanics' Institutes, 
popular lectures, &c., &c., tiie sooner we 
remrn to the old method of learning 
science, by hard research, burning the mid- 
night oil in painfully toiling our way 
through the works, written with labour and 
to be read with labour, of our great philo- 
sophic lights, the better. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

Indaoator. 

London, Januarjr l^^ 1615. 



To the Editor tf the Mechanics* Magazine. 

Sir, — Though the process be somewhat 
mysterious and recondite, 1 am glad to per- 
ceive that Mr. Ileeordon arrives in his last 
paragraph at the correct conclusion that the 
moon revolves round the earth's centre as if 
it were rigidly connected with that point, 
and that it would be more rational to apply 
a different language than that hitherto used 
respecting this rotation, tiis sentence is, 
in fact, the sum and substance of my own 
arguments. The moon floats round the 
earth's centre in her orbit precisely as a 
ship floau in a smaller circle round that same 
centre when circumnavigating the globe. I 
certainly must now be encouraged, by this 
abstruse investigation, to record my own 
plain Enelish pleadings to the same point 
in due Jormd auctoris. The auue of this 
motion is a distinct and different question, 
involving other Investigations, but I con- 
ceive no one but an infidel ever attributed 
it, or any other great natural phenomenon, 
to "accident." That imbued with appro- 
priate elements of buoyancy, this lunar 
globe sails onwards in its trackless path by 
the force of a magnetic current generated 
by the twenty-eight co-rotations of its 

Srimary, there seems no reason whatever to 
oubt. This is the view of the planetary 
motions explained in the treatise to which £ 
have before referred ; and your correspond. 



ents scarcely seem aware that since its 
publication Sir John Herschel has publicly 
adopted the opinion. The laws of magnet- 
ism coincide exaetly with the mathemati- 
cally calculated laws of gravitation $ there, 
fore these interesting studies are not dis- 
turbed, but fully confirmed, by the substi- 
tution of n term m vIm for an assumed 
constant, which involves the necessity of 
the iibpossible fiction of a perpetual motion 
engendered by one solitary impulse. On 
the contrary, nothing can place the original 
grandeur of the Newtonian conceptions ill 
a brighter light, than when a mere idea, is 
seen to be supported by facts, the discovery 
of which was not then even dreamed of. 
He proved a force diminishing in intensity 
as the square of the distance, and such a 
force is in reality constant and undiminish- 
ing, because it weakens not by loss but by 
expansion, 'AW'mg up as it radiates an area 
always the square of the distance it has 
progressed. There is the same amount of 
force in the Increased area, but proportion- 
ally less intense, and this is the law of the 
magnetic energy. Magnificent, indeed, is 
the field of research thrown open by the 
coineidences of the law of magnetism and 
gravitation. Losing nothing by its progress 
through any measurable disUttoft of space, 
the power recovers all its pristine vigour 
upon re-entering an appropriate pole of re- 
condensation and concentration. With what 
ardour would Sir Isaac Newton hail the 
marvellous developments achieved by elec- 
tro-chemistry since his day. Uow little did 
he dream, that in the trifling and curious 
loadstone was indicated and yet concealed 
the key to his whole system of the universe. 
The epochs of great difficulty in the pro- 
gress of science have always been those of 
tranuition, involving the hard task of recon- 
ciling old data with new truths. Kepler, 
Copernicus, Galileo, had a whole world of 
past ideas against them. Bacon had to 
conjurp to rest the 'giant phantom of the 
Aristotelian logic, with all its innate facul- 
ties. Our chemistry was born in the triumph 
of Lavoisier over Scheeie, and yet here 
again the too strict adherence to one acidify* 
ing principle, rendered Berzelius so long 
the antagonist of Davy. Nay, was not even 
Watt's steam-engine opposed on all hands, 
even upon religious grounds, as an innova- 
tioit^ too powerful to besuflTered? **When 
ye think ye stand, take heed lest ye fall," is 
a caution well applicable to scientific studies. 
We may be sure that error is mixed in all 
the truths laid down by finite beings. No 
source of error is so fertile as prejudice and 
habit, and great mhids should be constantly 
on the alert to look out the dead wood in 
our trees of philosophy, which, antiquating 
for centuries, checks and chokes by its 



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108 



BiB. WILLIAM 8*S MBTHOB OF PSEVEMTING BMOKE. 



aocutnulatioii tb« young and lively ehooU 
from bearing fruit to truth. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

David Mushbt. 
January 29, 1M5. 



To the Editor rf the Meehamcs* Magazine, 

Sir,— I perceive that I unfortunately 
made a serious oversight in my last paper 
on the above subject, for wblob I must beg 
your and your readers' pardon. 

In the fourth paragraph, instead of " we 
admit that the moon revolves round the 
earth, so that the same points A, B, D, C, 
&c.," it should be, — we suppose the esrth to 
be at rest, and the moon to revolve round it 
(without rotating on A C produced as axis), 
so that the same three points A, D, C, &c. 

My paper was only intended to be a 
sketch of a theory, but I intend giving soon 
a more full explanation of its chief points. 
1 am, Sir, yours, &c., 

C. J. Recordon. 



MR. WILLIAMS'S METHOD OF 

PREVENTING SMOKE. 

To the Editor rf the Meckanice* Magathe. 

Sir, — In your number of this day I find 
a letter from Mr. Baddeley, whose several 
communications through your columns give 
him a strong claim to attention. I am de- 
sirous, therefore, of removing some misappre- 
hensions .on his part, in reference to M. 
Parker's furnace (see your number for Nov. 
4th), and to my suggestions for promoting 
combustion in furnaces. 

Mr. Baddeley observes: '*Mr. Williams 
has admitted the principle of perforated air 
distributors to have originated with Mr. Ar- 
gand, who applied that principle to Uie well- 
known lamp which bears his name." Now, 
I have made no such admission, as Argaiid 
did not apply that principle to his lamp. 
In truth he made no attempt of the kind. 
The principle (not of Argand's lamp, which 
was an oil lamp, but, as applied since his 
time, to the use of gas) was, not the regu- 
lating the admiuUm qf the air^ but regulat. 
ing the exU qf the gat, by means of numer- 
ous small apertures. It was the effect 
produced, namely, the rapid mixture of the 
gas with the air, that led me to regulate the 
admission of the air, in furnaces, through 
numerous orifices — ^mixture being the great 
desideratum. 

The distinction between my process and 
that in the Argand gas burner, is clearly 
indicated by Professor Brands (see his letter 
dated 26th Nov., 1840). " Each jet of air," 
he observes, '* which you admit, becomes, at 
onee, the source and centre of a separate 



fiame ; and the effect is exactly that of so 
many jets of inflammable gas ignited in the 
air [as in the Argand burner] ; only, in your 
furnace you invert this ordinary state of 
things, and use a jet of air, thrown into an 
atmosphere of inflammable ffas: thus mak- 
ing an experiment upon a large and prac- 
tical scale, which I have often made on a 
small and theoretical one.*' Now, this pre- 
cisely applies to Mr. Parker's air distri- 
butor. The important difference, then, be- 
tween my process and what is done in the 
Argand gas burner is, that in the latter, it 
is the gat that is dealt with, and put under 
control, whereas, in my plan, it is the air 
that is dealt with and regulated. 

Mr. Baddeley says: "Mr. Williams 
claims to hsve invented and patented a 
peculiarly constructed furnace, to which he 
gave the name of the 'Argand furnace.' 
lliis also is a misapprehension. I have 
neither claimed or patented any peculiarly 
constructed furnace. What I patented and 
claimed is applicable to all furnaces, or 
wherever coal is employed. For instance, 
among msny, may be mentioned the lar^ 
stoves in which mssses of iron and large 
boiler-plates are heated, the air being intro- 
duced through numerous perforations in the 
side; and where it is thus brought, in a 
divided sute, into contact with the great 
mass of gases in the stove, then in the 
state of flame, and by which perfect com- 
bustion is at once effected, and without 
smoke. My stove has been in action for 
many years, and is, I believe, the most 
efficient in the kingdom. 

Again ; I did not give the name of /^r^oriii 
to my mode of introducing the air. That 
name was given, and by another, many 
years, I believe, after the patent was sesled 
in 1839. In truth the word Jrgatid does 
not appear in my patent or specification, 
and has only been used by me in illustra- 
tion of the effect produced. 

Mr. Baddeley says, '* The meehanieal com- 
ttrvction and arrangement of the furnace, 
not the principle </ itt actum, being the 
invention, and constituting the patent right 
of Mr. Williams." This, sgain, is a mis- 
apprehension. If Mr. Baddeley will con- 
sult any legal friend conversant with patent 
law, he will find that a "principle of action** 
cannot be the subject of a patent ; but that 
it is for the mode by which a principle is 
carried out, and not the principle itself, that 
the patent must be taken. In my case my 
claim necessarily was, not for '* the princi- 
ple of action," but for the tpecific mode by 
which I proposed to carry out the principle, 
and which principle was the " causing the 
atmospheric air, and the combustible gases 
generated, to be more immediately and 
intimately blended;" and so it was stated 



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ON THE OOMBUSnON OV COALS AMD THE AB80BPTI0M OF HEAT. 



109 



in the tpeoifleation, u settled by Dr. Uie* 
Now tht mode adopted by Mr. Parker it 
identical with that tUted in my tpecifioation 
as above. 

Mr. Baddeley speaks of considerable ex- 
pense and time being required in the appli- 
eation. This is, practically, the reverse of 
the faeL As an instance of recent date, I 
may refer to the application of the air dis- 
tribntors in the famaces of the Lttwellyn, 
contract mail steamer, in which the expense 
or the time was so insignificant as not to 
be worth noting. When the last edition of 
my treatise on combustion was published, 
the perforated plates were applied to the 
after set of boilers (see page 114.) The 
application has since been made to the six 
furnaces of the fore set of boilers, and with 
equal success. 

Mr. Baddeley observes, that « no refined 
question of chemistry is at issue, neither is 
the claim of Mr. Williams to the Argand 
fornace disputed." I do not understand 
what is meant by the term "r^ned question 
of chemistry." The chemical union, which 
is combustion, is the same in all cases ; and 
Mr. Parker's mode of introducing the air, 
ihroughpefforationtf being identical with that 
adopted l^ me, as regards chemistry, it 
roust be equally applicable in the one case 
as the other. 

As to the mode wUch Mr. Parker con- 
siders his epeoial invention, if Mr. Baddeley 
will refer to page 92 of my treatise, figs. 89 
and 40 (a copy of which 1 beg to forward, 
through you. Sir, for that gentleman's ac- 
ceptance), he will there see it given as an 
illustration of the fact, that the air may be 
advantageously introduced into any part of 
a furnace, and on which point he will, at 
page 91, find the following: ''With refer- 
enoe to the place for the admission of the air, 
it is here sUted advisedly, that it is a matter 
of perfect indifference, as to effect, in what 
part of a furnace or flue it (the air distri- 
bntor) is introduced, provided this all-im- 
portant condition be attended to, namely, 
that the wuchanieal mixture of the air and 
the gas be continuously effected before the 
temperature of the carbon of the gas (then 
in the state of flame) be reduced below that 
of ignition." 

I trust I have sufficiently removed the 
misapprehensions on the part of Mr. Bad- 
deley. If not, I shall be happy to afford 
any furthier explanation that may be neces- 
sary, 

I am. Sir, yours, ftc, 

Charles W. Williams. 
Uverpool, Jan. S7, 1855. 



ON THE COMBUSTION OF COALS 
AND THE ABSORPTION OF HEAT. 
To the Editor rf the Mechanics* Magazine. 
Sir, — Your most valuable and instruc- 
tive journal has for some time back con- 
tained so many learned expositions on the 
consumption of smoke, and letters disput- 
ing the preference of the hot or cold air 
systems, to be introduced in various ways in 
small fiims to inflame the smoke issuing 
from the furnace, that it appears as if the 
onlv object of the proprietors of steam- 
boilers was to consume or destroy entirely 
the smoke produced by imperfect combus- 
tion, by any means, eo4lte qui coAte, to obey 
literally the wise and beneficial law; the 
spirit of which, however, is to direct the 
attention of builders and proprietors of 
steam boilers to improve the combustion, 
and by it increase the generation of steam, 
economise their coals, and abate or reduce 
the issue of smoke so far that it could not 
be called a nuisance. The problem to be 
resolved should not be, how to consume the 
smoke produced, but how to prevent smoke 
issuing at all. Having in vain made in- 
quiries about works treating on the im- 
nortant objects named at the head of my 
letter, and finding that not a single boiler is 
constructed on land or water with a view to 
a complete absorption of heat, and that even 
the principles of the most complete absorp- 
tion appear to be unknown or not attended to, 
and that therefore in the best possible Argand 
furnace, in smoke or in flame, a very large 

auantity of heat and coals is wasted through 
it chimney, I have considered it my duty 
to gite the benefit of my long researches 
and practical experience in a treatise about 
to be published to the industrial world, and 
to expose the theories of production and 
absorption of heat from time to time in your 
Journal, if found agreeable. My object is 
to draw the attention of your readers and 
proprietors of steam boilers to the fact, that 
as economy in coals, and quick and copious 
generation of steam, must be their principal 
objects, they should, as a criterion of the 
value of any patented invention, claiming 
improvement in combustion, or in prevent- 
ing or consuming smoke, first inquire how 
much water would be evaporated from 1 lb. 
of coals 7 I am not a disinterested person ; 
and as Mr. Williams claims the priority and 
preference in all smoke-avoiding schemes 
through the introduction of atmospheric air 
in small films, I claim the preference in 
improved combustion and absorption of 
heat, and will undertake to evaporate about 
12 lbs. of water from 1 lb. of West Hartley 
coals in 12 seconds. I enclose the testimo- 
nials, showing that I have practieally done 
it, from ooala of an inferior quality, and less 



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110 



ASTBONOiaOAI. OI.OOK0* 



Ui pr6pdrtfo&. Y«t» I oliftltolifte ttty ona.td 
do the flame, without using the principles 
and modes of my two patented inventions of 
the undulAted firegrate and metallic fluei, of 
the lattfer of whieb I gave an etplanation, 
inserted in your last Numbbr^ on ''The 
Prevention of Incrustation inBoilers/' which 
at the same time shows it to be the beet 
possible means for obtaining the absorption 
and utilisation of heat. Withotit mention, 
ing parties' names, I will enter into a com- 
parison between quick and slew combustion. 
In the latter the entire destruction of 
stnoke appears to be the. only and principal 
object to be arrived at* by the use of costly 
machinery) and with great expenses fdr 
boilers and waste of coals. My object, 
which I have successfully Attained^ is, to 
produce in the shortesl time the greatest 
volume of steam with the greatest economy 
in coals) feeding by hand) without ma- 
chilieryi By a calculation made on in- 
formation received by good authority, the 
generation of steam on the slow-burning 
system, with the use of small coals* is so 
diminished that three boilers, with the pa- 
tent apparatus and machinery, are required 
to produce as much steam power as I can 
produce ftom one boiler, without ma. 
Dhiuery, but provided with my undulated 
firegrate and metallic fiuet, using good 
West Hartley coalu If coals of an equal 
quality are used in both systems, I can still 
produce from one boiler as knuch steam as 
Ihey can from two, with the saving of one- 
third part in the cost for fuel i this shows 
that) like gold, the entire destruction of 
smoke may be too dearly purchased. The 
immense economy of the rapid and im- 
proved combustion ■against slow burning 
with small coals is evident ; two boileri, of 
equal siae, and their wear and tear^ and two 
apparatus snd machinery are saved. The 
expense of my undulated firegrate, with 
hollow bars and the metallic flues, is about 
the saiiie Us one apparatus on the slow, 
burning system. I can prove the truth of 
this assertion ; and even if I had not a right 
to speak of the advantages of my invention, 
in comparison witii another in direct oppo- 
sition to my system, it too much conceroa 
the public benefit for me to keep it con- 
cealed firom personal regards. I will only 
say a word about perfect combustion, and 
then leave this new view of the smoke ques- 
tion to the consideitition of your scientific 
readers. One of your most zealous scien- 
titic cormpondents says, in one of his 
letters, *' The power of efifeoting a more in- 
tense and rapid combustion is just the de- 
sideriitum #6 are in search of;" but may I 
not be enabled, by the foregoing assertions 
(which you know^ fl'om my encloiure, are 
tnte)| to elAim the honour of having already 



diseoveted and practieally earried out this 
desiderattim to a certain degree 7 Unluckily, 
circumstances have prevented my bringing 
it to the general knowledge of die public, 
and very fytr persons know it i yet I may be 
permitted to conclude by claiming also the 
first discovery and adoption of a principle 
by which really |ie^c< comlnuHon is effected. 
I call it perfi!ot combustion, if I can change 
th« coals, without the issue of any smoke, 
into white flames, without introdueing any 
other atmospheric air whatever than that 
which passes through the fireban in the 
burning coalt. I have practically done that 
utider the protection of my last patent, ob- 
tained for improvements in furnaces and 
ovens for bakers and confectioners. I prove 
it to you by the certificates from two highly 
respectable bakers in London, and this is 
coupled with the saving of half the fuel, and 
other advantages. In asking your pardon 
for having occupied such a large space of 
your valuable Journal, which is the only one 
that allows the patentee inventor to commu- 
nicate the results of his experiments to the 
public, 

I am, Sir, yours, &&, 
AnthgHt B. Yoic Rathbn. 

4, Crsfteent-plaee, Blaekftiars, 
Jan. SI, 1850. 



BLACK SEA TELEGRAPH CABLE. 
Tbb facility with which the operations of 
the Gutta Percha Company are at present 
conducted at the Whatf-road Works, has 
lately been exhibited in a remarkable man- 
ner in the preparation of the cable for the 
Black 3ea Telegraph, the whole 360 miles 
of which were covered within Jtftftn dtufi of 
the receipt of the order from Messrs. 
Kewall and Co., the contractors. 



ASTRONOMICAL CLOCKS. 

To the Editor qf the Mechanics* Magazine. 

Sir, — I shall feel obliged by any of your 
correspondents, familiar with the subject I 
am about to mention, if they will be good 
enough to suggest a contrivance by which 
the difficulty it involves may be obviated. 
In few words, I require a piece of apparatus 
which may be atuched to an astronomical 
dock for the putpose of registering the 
seoond and tenth part of a second at which 
a star or other object may pass the wires in 
transit observations. 

One or two modes of effecting this have 
occurred to my mind, but of so complicated 
a nature as to be questionable in their re- 
sults, or inapplicable to the conditions of 
the case. 

I have heard of the electro-galvanic 



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l^KnttOAnOMS OF PAXKITS BBOBMTLT VOBD. 



Ill 



plan exhibited by an American artist, bat I 
was not so Fortunate as to see it at the fix- 
hibitioii of 1851 ; and, from the accouht t 
have received of it, conclude the cldck 
itself was peculiarly constructed to the end 
in view. Simplicity, I take it, must form 
an essential element in such a piece o^ 
machinery as I have indicated. 

I need scarcely say that the clock to 
which it is required to attach this apparatus 
is of the usual kind— <iea(^ beat escapement, 
and one second penduluitt. The number in 
the escapement wheel pinion is high, but 1 
am unable at present to state the number of 
iu leaves. 

Trusting that you will oblige me by in- 
serting thii in your valuable Magazine, 
t am. Sir, yours, &c«, 

Londoft, laa. 2B, 1855. 



MR. C. WYE WILLIAMS ON 
COMBUSTION. 
to the Editor qf the Mechcmlea* Magazine, 
8ili,^>SiDoe writing my renunciation of 
the " league," it has occurred to me, that 
the very best way of settling the matter 
Uiertin referred to, would be for Mr. Wil- 
liams to forward for the columns of ^ur 
widely circulated Journal the paragraph ih 
correction of the error, which wa« sUbmitttd 
to my approral, wiih the view of having it 
pHnted and bound up as a supplementary 
page to the last edition of the work on Gom<- 
Dusdon. The errt>r is of incalculable im- 
portance, and not the less injuriouk, while it 
remains uncontradicted, from having beiin 
originally the mere ttiili of accidi^nt Its 
correction in your columns will go fkr to 
redeem the promise g^iven me, that every 
possible public reparation should be madb ; 
and as I entertain perfbct confidence ih the 
bcnaJUei of Mr. Williams, and the spirit of 
candour which pervades his writings, I can 
have no doubt that he will gladly avail him- 
self of this my present suggestion. 
I am) Sir) yours, 6ltc., 

DaviI) MusAet. 
Jtanakt S^, 1B55. 

— 4 — 

iSPfeCIFiCATIONS OF PATENTS 
RECRKTLY FILED. 

BfeJLki}, Oeorqe, and William Beard, 
both of Cannon- sbeet, London^ pin and 
needle-mauufacturers. An improved needle- 
depositor. Patent dated ^uly 7, 1B54. (No. 
1495.) 

This Invention consists in so constructing 
a thachine for depositing needles, that they 
may be readily examined as they are placed 
ih the packing papers. 



Norton, Jambs Lee, of HolUnd-street, 
Blackfriars, Surrey, gentleman. Improve- 
ments in tumitile couHting apparatus. Pa- 
tent dated July 7, 1854. (No. 1498.) 

The inventor curves the arms of turnstiles 
in order to allow only on6 person to pass 
tiirough at the time, &c. 

Ellisdon, Joseph, of Liverpool, Lan- 
caster, designer and cabinet-maker. Im- 
provements applicable to rea^ng, lounging^ 
and other chairs. Patent dated July 7, 1854. 
(No. 1499.) 

The inventor forms the seat and back (and 
arms when arms are required) together in 
one piece, which he mounts upon the lower 
portion of the chair, which consists of a 
ptout frame, supported by and attached to 
legs of a suitable height. The upper and 
lower portions of the chair are connected 
in such a way that the former is free to 
k'otate horizontally upon a pivot or friction- 
rollers. 

Cottam, Henry IIichard, of Argyle- 
square, King's-cross. Improvements in horse- 
mangers. Patent dated July t, 1854. (No. 
1500.) 

The inventor causes the halter to paa| 
between two rollers, and the weight attached 
to it to slide in guidea, instead of swinging 
loose, as usual. 

Waller, Thomas, of Eatcliffe, Middle- 
sex, ironmonger. Improvements in the con- 
struction qf stoves and other jfre-plaees. Pa- 
tent dated July 8, 1^54. (No. 1501.) 

This invention consists m a mode of lin- 
ing stoyes or fire-pUces, in which the back 
fire-tile is fixed, and the side ones moveable 
or oiherwise ; in a certain arrangement of 
the bars and hobs ; and in sometimes dis- 
pensing with a portion of the nre-bars. 
. RoBiKsoN, William, of Manchester, 
Lancaster, screw-bolt maker, and Aobbrt 
Crichton, of the same place, engineer. 
Improvements in nM^nery or apparatus for 
rolling mitals into suitable shapes or forms. 
Patent dated July 8( 1854. (No. 1502.) 

Claim. — " The use of rollers, in rolling 

, machines, with their surfaces or peripheries 

formed so as to give the pbject passinff 

through them the form or shape required, 

as hexagonal nuts, or similar articles." 

TindjLll, Lorenzo; of Scarborough, 
"^ork, ironmonger. Improvements in hruising 
or reducing grain and other substances. Patent 
dated July 6. 1854. (No, 1503.) 

claim. — 1. A mode of bruising or reduc- 
ing grain, and other matters by means of a 
ribbed or Serrated cylinder working in con- 
tiguity with an a^ustable serrated bar. 8. 
A mode of guiding or directing the grain 
down to the disintegrating surfaces, by 
means of a recessed or inclined bar^ or guide 
surfaces. 3. The application of a holding 
reeess or space, for keeping the grain or 



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112 



BPECIFIOATIONS OF PAHSNTS BECENTLY FILED. 



ether substance, well up to the grinding 
actioc:, 

JouNJ^ON, John Henry, of Lincoln's- 
inn-fiiii';% Middlesex, gentleman. Improve- 
menu ir. fhe manirfiaetwre of carbonates cf toda. 
(A co!iji!mnication.) Patent dated July 8, 
1854. (No. 1504.) 

CfaiMU)-.— 1. The use of fuel gases, or the 
gaseoiiB products arising from the combus- 
tion of l\iel, for the obtainment of pure, or 
nearly p'lre, carbonic acid gas by applying 
the said fuel gases under pressure to soda 
and pifli.Oi, and to the carbonates or solu- 
tions (jf i^ese matters, so as to form highly 
carbo«*iaf<.)d compounds from which pure, or 
nearly p:ife carbonic acid gas is evolved by 
the aj^micy of heat 2. The use of fuel 
gases in ])rocuring comparatively pure car- 
bonic ft :ld gas by applying the said fuel 
gases nr.dcr pressure to water or to solutions, 
so thrt comnaratively pure carbonic acid 
gas VLBy be obtained when the water is with- 
drawn nud released from pressure, or when 
such Jiiipregnated water or solutions are 
hcatecl. 3. The use of fuel gases under 

Sressi:re, as before described, directly to the 
ecoti. position of the salts of soda by the 
reactlau of ammoniacal compounds, such 
pressure being about sufficient for the pro- 
ductiL*ri of such an atmosphere of carbonic 
acid ^as as shall present any material sola- 
. tlliza.'i3n of ammonia, &c. 

SimjLAiR, the Honourable James, com- 
monly called Lord Berriedale, of Hill- 
streeij Middlesex. Improvements in the ma-^ 
nufa'Xwof paiper^ and m the production qf 
Uxti'fs matcrialt. Patent dated July 8, 1 854. 
(No. 1506.) 

Ccitoi.— 1. The use of the thistle plant, 
or {lants of the thistle species, for the 
obta'nment of fibrous materials to be used 
for the manufacture of paper. 2. The use 
of the thistle plant, or plants of the thistle 
species, in the manufacture or production 
of textile materials. 

Bauwens, Felix Lieven, of Pimlico, 
Middlesex, manufacturer. Improvements in 
the mant^aeture rfeoap. Patent dated July 
18, 1854. (No. 1506.) 

Tliis invention consists in peroxldizing 
any oxide of iron that may be present in 
neutral or acid fatty matters undergoing 
the process of saponification, by the injec- 
tion of atmospheric air or oxygen, and then 
removing the peroxidlzed iron by the aid of 
a Isolation or infasion of tannic or gallic 
acid, or any other acid or principle capable 
of combining with the peroxidized iron. 
The process of soap making is afterwards 
fin islied with the purified materials in the 
ordinary manner. 

WaiTWORTH, Thomas Schofibld, of 
Salford, Lancaster, mechanic. Improve^ 
ments in machinery or apparatus for cutting 



or shaping wood, parts of which are partieU' 
tariff applicable in the construction of epkn^ 
ning-machinery. Patent dated July 8, 1854. 
(No. 1507.) 

This invention consists mainly in the use of 
drilled holes or other openings in the mate- 
rial to be operated upon as a medium for 
carrying it forward to receive successive 
cuts, by which rectangular recesses are 
formed ; and in the combined action of one 
cutter for piercing the outline of the rect- 
angular cut, and a second for removing the 
portion so marked out 

Saxby, Stephen Martin, of South 
Lambeth, Surrey, gentleman. An improve- 
ment or improvements in making fast, and 
letting go, the cords qf window blinds, which 
said improvement or improvements may also be 
applied to the fastening and letting go qf 
ropes, cords, lines, wires, and chains, for 
various other purposes. Patent dated July 
10, 1854. (No. 1510.) 

This invention consists in the construe 
tion of an apparatus for making fast and 
letting go cords, ropes, &c., formed of a 
curved plate or roller mounted eccentrically 
upon an axis, between the edge of which 
plate and a fixed portion of the apparatus 
the cord, rope, or chain may be we^ed. 

BiDDELL, Oeobge Arthur, of Ipswich, 
Suffolk, engineer. Iwtprovements in maehtnes 
for cutting vegetable and other substances. 
Patent dated July 10, 1854. (No. 1512.) 

This invention consists in combining a 
cam or cams with a friction roller or rollers 
and a lever, for the purpose of advancing 
the v^etable or other substances towards 
the knives. 

WoLVERSON, Edwin, of Aston-juxta- 
Birmingham, Warwick, machinist jf new 
or improved lock. Patent dated July 11. 
1854. (No. 1514.) 

This invention consists in attaching to 
the bolts of locks, plates which have a 
sliding motion transverse to the motion of 
the bolts, and which require to be raised to 
particular heights, respectively, before the 
bolt can be withdrawn. The plates are 
raised to the proper heights by means of 
slides on which the key first acts, and from 
which they are isolated, except during the 
motion of the key prior to the withdrawal 
of the bolt 

Walrbr, Matthias, of Horsham, Sus- 
sex, ironmonger. An improved construction 
of cooking-stove. Patent dated July 11. 
1854. (No. 1516.) 

When constructing a stove with a boiler 
and oven, the inventor so arranges the 
parts, that the fire is placed between them, 
and he leads off the heat by lateral openings 
in the fire-place, one current of heated gat 
acting upon the boiler, and the other circu- 
lating round the oven. The boiler is set at 



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8PE0IFI0ATI0MS OV PATENTS RECENTLY FILED. 



113 



a higher level than the fire-place, and hy 
means of a flue, the flame and beat are 
made to pass under it 

Harding, Thomas Richards, of Leeds, 
York, hackle and hackle-pin manufacturers. 
An improved mode qf doJiNg fibrous materiaU 
from hackle cylinders, and gill, or porcvptne, 
or preparing rollers. Patent dated July 1 1, 
18^4. (No. 1617.) 

This invention mainlv consists in the use 
and application of stripper-pins or teeth, 
which, while in action, are made to travel 
laterally, so that their poioto may be kept 
in the helical lines or grooves of the pins m 
the porcupine or other cylinders or rollers 
which require doffing. 

CoviER, Victor Gustavb Abel, che- 
mist, of Seloncourt, France. An improved 
apparatue, having for its object the combustioH 
rf fit/el and the uHUxoHon qf the gaseous pro^ 
duets for heating and other uaefiU metailurgis 
purposes. Patent dated July 11, 1864. (No. 
1519.) 

This apparatus, which the inventor deno- 
minates ** The fiyper-Oaco-Pyrog^ne,'* and 
which is intended for the production of 
combiutible gases from wood, charcoal, 
peat, &c. ftc, or from these solid sub- 
stances in combination with tar, or oily or 
fatty matters, &c, will be fully described 
hereaAer. 

HouoHTON, William, and Robert 
HoTLB, both of Bury, Lancaster, machine 
makers. Improvements in machinery for 
spimung and doubling cotton and other fibrous 
substances. Patent dated July 12, 1854. 
(No. 1521.) 

This invention, which is applicable to 
self-acting mules, consists — 1. In certain 
improved combinations of machinery for 
throwing out of gear the catoh-boxes by 
which Sie drawing-rollers are made to 
revolve and the carriage made to ran out, 
for stopping the spindles for stripping the 
yarn off the bare part of the spindles, for 
working the fallers, and for bringing the 
carriage up to the roller beam ; also in 
modifications of the same for the purpose 
of producing after draught for giving twist 
and for backing off. 2. In the application 
of an expanding pulley or drum, supported 
in the carriage for winding the yam on the 
spindles. 3. In an improved scavenger for 
cleaning the flyings or dust off the roller- 
beam and carriage-top, or either of them. 

Maoos, Oliver, of Bourtoo, Dorset. 
Improvements in thrashing machines. Patent 
dated July 24, 1854. (No. 1524.) 

The invention consists in combining ele- 
vating apparatus and a weighing machine 
with the thrashing and winnowing appara- 
tus, in such manner that several successive 
blasts are caused to act upon the materials 
under operation. 



Cooke, Luke, of Sower by- bridge, York, 
manager. Improvements iu machinery or 
apparatus for preparing cotton, wool, or other 
fibrous substances to be spun. Patent dated 
July 12, 1854. (No. 1525.) 

This invention relates to the blowing 
machine which is used for opening and 
cleaning fibrous materials, and consists in 
placing one or more small beaters imder the 
usual beater and feed tollers, working in 
opposite directions; the beaters revolve all 
one way, but the blades at the working 
parts pass each other in opposite direc- 
tions. 

Knowelden, John, of Church-road, 
Battersea, Surrey, engineer. Inducements 
in steam-boiler and other furnaces. Patent 
dated July 12, 1854. (No. 1526.) 

This invention consists in arranging tlie 
fire-bars of furnaces, so that a portion of 
them on every alternate bar shall have both 
an up and down, and a backward and for- 
ward motion, whilst the other portion of the 
bars are either stationary, or have a slight 
vertical motion, and rest upon bearers, so 
that the weight of one set or portion of the 
bars counterbalances an equal weight of the 
other portion. 

Oilbeb, William Armand, of South- 
street, London, gentleman. Improvements in 
the application to weaving of certain textile 
plants not hitherto employed, eitlter alone or in 
combination with silk, cotton, and other fibrous 
substances. (A communication.) Patent 
dated July 12, 1854. (No. 1531.) 

This invention consists " in the employ- 
ment of the fibres of the corchorus junoeus, 
corchoras olitoreus, and corchorus capsu- 
laris, either alone, combined together, or 
mixed with other fibrous substances for the 
manufacture of cloths, carpets, and other fa- 
brics." 

Lanb, Arthur James, of Surbiton, 
Surrey, gentleman. Impr o vements in breech- 
loading fire-arms. Patent dated July 13, 
1854. (No. 1536.) 

The inventor first hinges the breech-piece 
of the gun to the iron work of the stock 
which receives the breech, technically 
termed the break-off, by means of a screw 
pivot or pin, upon which the breech moves 
freely. He then connects the barrel of the 
gun to the break-off, by attaching to or 
forming upon the breech- end of the barrel 
on each side a bar of metal with a hole in it, 
through which screws, entering the break- 
off, pass. 

FouLKEs, Thomas Bennett, of the firm 
of Abel and Thomas Bennett Foulkes, of 
Chester, glove-manufacturer. Improvements 
in the manufacture of self^a^usting gloves. 
Patent dated July 13, 1854. (No. 1537.) 

This invention consists *' in the employ- 
ment of a gore of elastic material inserted 



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114 



PR0YI6IOVAX. flPEGIFICA.1!I0lf6 NOT PBOOEBMBD WITH. 



at the wrist part of glovet) known to the 
trade as gauntlets." 

GreeHwood, JohH) of Irwell-springti 
ilear Baeup, Lancaster, I'urkey'.recl dyet^ 
and Robert Sti itit^ of Bacilp, tnAttufio^ 
turer. Certain imprm)ement» in ntmg, s^ff- 
ening, and tithing igxHle maieriaU and 
^bries. Patent dated July 18» 1854. (Nov 
1588.) 

The inventor employs for the above pur* 
poses rye flour, xye flour combined with 
chloride of calcium or chloride of magne* 
sium, or the latter " mixed with any amy* 
laceous substances." 

TratiS) Edwin, of Oldham, Lancaster, 
cotton spinner and manufietur^h Certain 
imftrovements in maehinery or aftp^ratut for 
indicating fke height of wafer , and aUo thS 
prtinare ofefeam in tteom hoi^ere and gemeta- 
tere. Patent dated July 18, 1854. (Nob 
1540.) 

The inventor describes an apparatus for 
registering Cokitinually the heights of water, 
in which a float rises and falls in a tube^ 
and, acting upon a band whieh it tightens, 
thus produces a partial rotary motion in a 
wheel) and sets revolving a small drum on 
the outside of the lube, which drum takes 
on or gives off a registering band. He em. 
ploys also a bcnt metcury tube for register- 
ihg pressure. 

HackisTT, Johii, of Derby, maAufiietnreK 
A netb method offoMtehin^ Ihi ends ef Indka-^ 
mbber eloith cord anS india-ruhher eteffk; 
web. Patent dated July 18, 1654; (Ko^ 
1541.) 

This invention consists in fastehing the 
overlapped eAds of India tiibber cord and 
web, by means of a thin piece of metal 
wriipped round them in a similar Inanner to 
thAt in whieh a tag is applied to th« end of 
a stay-lace. 

BoDMfcR, RunOL^ti} of Thsvi«s.inti, Hbl. 
btti>hi London. The appfitAtion 4/* gMit, 
erfMtalf or other vitreous mateHai, ^ qfetMh*- 
enware {ciramique) to certain parte qf liuk^ 
Winery. (A commutilcationO Pateiit dated 
July 13, 1854. (No. 1542.) 

This invention cohsists in thb tipplicittion 
of steps, sockets, or bearings, made of glASs^ 
crystal, or other ritreClis ttSMKalj or of 
earthtinware, to all kindfc of mschiHery. 

CHAUVBt, JEAir BA^TISTii, flU, Of Ait| 

Provence. A new tysiem oftinehor. Patent 
dsted July 13, 1834. (No. 1548.) 

The inventor dencribes ftn Uttehori whibh 
be calls the ** Tutela anchor," in which the 
arms are so swivelled that they move in a 
plane St right angles to that in which the 
Dt-dihary arms more, both flukes taking and ' 
holding into the ground at the satoie time. 

MarVon, Robert ^ames, gentleman, of 
York- road, Lambeth, Surrey. Tmprotfementt 
in the construction off and arrangement ^, and 



oi^tieaHon ^ o»am engiiM /or the better 
meant of tranemitting motion^ and ofapplffin^ 
steam or other motive power. Patent dated 
^uly 18, 1854. (No. 1544.) 

This invention comprises a variety of ar* 
rangements of steam engines, and the parts 
of engines, which we shall probably describe 
at the nfccesaary length hereafUr. 

Stocker, Alexander Sovthwooo, of 
Poultry, London^ manufacturer. tmipr(fee~ 
mtnU in Mrfeti Patent dated July 14^ 1854» 
(No. 1545.) 

CIWiNt.— 1. The making of axles in which 
one tube is shrank on to or formed or drawn 
over another. 2. The combination of n 
tube or tubes with a trilateral, cruciform^ or 
other similar sectioned core; 8b " The mak- 
ing of axles with a series of tubes, as de- 
scribed> whether the tubes be made in the 
ordinary methods at ptesent in use for mak- 
ing tnbesi or by any other plan; as als^ 
whether they are first manufactured and 
shrunk on or otherwise applied, or are 
formed on or npon the eore or journals." 4. 
dalvanicfng tubular axles» 

k^Ro^UtbNXt fepEctt'tcATti^irs Hot i^Ro- 
dEEDEtt VrtR. 

MoRisoN, An0RBw» of tnchmichael, 
Perth, Scotland, farmer. An improved mode 
of protieting or preserving agri&Utural and 
kortumiiural produce from diseaee or blight, 
AppUealiOn dated July 7, 1654. (No. 
1404.) 

This ibVention consists in placing metal 
bars, rods, or wires in the ground for 
attracting the electricity of the atmosphere 
and carrying it into the earth, and thereby 
preventing the ordinary effects produced by 
It upon plants and crops exposed to its 
influence; 

Ross, JbsSb, of Keighley, York, gentle- 
man. Improvements ih making compounds ef 
ehocoiaie, eoeoa\ and other ingredients for 
bnulrfast And occasional beveragee» Appli- 
cation dated July 7, 1854. (No. 1496.) 

The inventor says that in carrying out his 
invention I coffee, chicory^ chocolate, and 
cocoa " may be used in various proportions 
and eombioations.*' 

Nbwtor, Alfred Vincent, of Chan- 
eefy-lano^ Middlesex, mechanical draughts- 
man. An improved conetruction ef pump for 
raieing and forcing fluids, (A communica- 
tion.) Applieation dated Jtily 7, 1854. 
(No. 1497.) 

The barrel of this improved pump is 
fitted with two valve pistons^ the rod of the 
lower one of which passes through the 
centre of the upper piston, and each of the 
two rods carries a rack at its upper end* 
These racks are set back to back and slide 
in a fixed guide secured to the pump eyiin- 



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115 



axle, which has i\% \^^vsltk^ «a ihf Up 9f 
tlM 9y\xu^u^ and oanrMt a eiw^wliMl for 
transmHtlDff motion io the valve pUtoss, 
Xhia Qog-wheei geaf s into a pair of segmaAt 
neki, whiab ar« attaehod to olhei ttgii;i«At 
racks m gtai with the racks on the yajve 
T9dx VfheA, x^vnfo^Qt hy QMAD* o( a 
ha«ds9i]be» ok otberwisa, (ho locking Mclo ii 
set m MOth>B, the oo^-whool whioh h oaiw 
ria will, thr«uig% (h^ s^gtnent V«ck« aod 
the straight t%dU oa (hf fods, cause the 
simnltaneous advance or recession of the 
two TslTe piatoas to oi 6f99^ oaoh other, and 
therelgr pioduca % o^tiAuoua Ufti^ Mtion. 

LoiA, BwwABD, of Todnovdea, York, 
machinist* Imp r o ve me nU t» nuichinery fifr 
clHP^Mf 9Md ceriiiiig toUou <md other jS^ous 
maieriah. AppUcaiion dated J(uly a, 18^ 
(No. 1508.) 

These imprQvenieuta consist in 9^plying 
nadu Uie oeataM, toothed c^Uadeie, or 
win oylindecB, of blowers and other similar 
machmea ^f the like nature, a plate covered 
with wire cards, or having teeth upon it, 
sMh earda or teeth heiag set at aa angle, so 
that the ftbrons materii3 under operation 
will strip them off, &c. 

Beck, David, of Carlten-hoQse, South- 
ampton, 4o^or of medieina^ Imprmemenis 
m hr$timg and ^Milhng. Applicittion dated 
ittlj 10. 1S&4. (No.l509»> 

This invention condats in oonvorting the 
whole quant^ of starch contained fa or 
extracted from' malt or grain, into sacchA- 
rino mattes;. *^ Thia I eftot," saye the in- 
venter, ** hy means of acids, but j^rtfou. 
larly hy the sulphuric acid i after a si|j$oi- 
est decootioD, I aepanAa the a»id fiK»n the 
said saeeharine matter, by eba^k or any 
other absorhent or alkaline substanee or 
liquid. The aacchariue loatur is. then f(^- 
menled, in the ordinary way, for the pns- 
poses of brewing or distilling.*' 

Swindells, Israel, of Manchester, l^am- 
caster, manufacturing chemist. Improve- 
mtnU in the treatment rfwood and vegetable 
9U$Uert, far <A# ftrodueticn of vegetahk fikre. 
Application dated >uly 10, 18^4. (No. 
UU.) 

Tho object of thsa invention ia to iwdnoe 
waste cuitings of timber and loppings of 
trees to a kind of vageUble wool " \ tak^ 
any of the aUwlis^" aaya the invtstory *' and 
digeat the wood or vegetabk» mattet a. 1 
ta]ke fny conteoiexxt ves«el; fpr yiood \ 
take one pound of any cauatic aU^ioir any 
caustic earth, to one gallon of water, and 
ateep for any length of time, until I pro- 
dace thi? desired ^ct." 

Moore, Charles Frederick, of ^rts- 
lioadi park, Sonfthampton, lUmpshire, gen- 
Aeman. / si pr sew M a/a <» <Ae Mm§tnt€»km amd 
wue^au apparalut, eloiet, or receptacle, to be 



used instead of a water-cloeet or other neces- 
sary, and which mav be either jtxed or p^ri- 
abk. Application dated July 11, 18|4. (No. 
1518.) ^ "^ 

The inventor so arranges his apparatus, 
that on a board or step b^iug pressed by the 
foot or other part of the person coming in 
contact with the box, it will act on a lever 
and spring, which will open a trap, acrfen, 
er valve, which olosee when the prtessure is 
removed. He proposes to deodorize the 
soil within the apparatus. 

Gattt, Frederick Albert, of Aocrltig- 
ton, Lancaster, manufiieturing chemist Jn 
hnprooememi in the manufacture of printed 
receipt-itampe. Application dated July 12, 
1854. (No. 1522.) 

This improvement consists in applying 
such colours to the printing of receipt- 
stamps as will change or become effkced 
when treated with acids or other chemical 
agents. The colours applied are lead, 
orange, i^ltramarine, blue, or some others 
of the same kind mixed with ghie or 
gummy suhatancea, vithQUt any varnish or 
oily substance. 

TowNMNO, Matthew, of Leioeater, loa* 
nufisoturer. Imfwovemente in ike mans^faoium 
qf knhted fabric** AppKoation dated Jtily 
12,1854. (No. 1523.) 

These improvements consist in forming 
the legs or ankles and part of the feet of 
'* circular** or ** round " knitted fabric, and 
in applying ''fashioned" portions to fbrm 
the heels andtoes^ 

MooEB, TuouAS EnviN, of Sl Maryle- 
hone, Middlesex, engineer. ImpronemmU 
in apparatue to be need far extinguishing firee^ 
Application dated July 12, 1854. (No. 
1527.) 

This apparatus is composed of a vessel 
fenced or plate iron, circular at the top,0at 
at) tho sides and end, and rounded at the 
bottom. At each side is a tank for supply- 
ing the interior of the vesael with water, and 
at the front end is a mouth-piece with a 
alidiug door. 

Armstrong, Robert, of Hall-street, 
City- road, Middlesex, consulting engineer, 
and James Bes^nerd Dew, of Pentonville, 
Hiddleees, gentleman. An improved appa- 
ratm* fair oMutuMtag emoke. Application 
dated July 12, 1854. (No. 1528.) 

The inventor proposes t4 feed the furnace 
throngb a certain passage with lur heated 
by pasaing between tho Srebars and a fixed 
plate. 

LoiAEAu, Alphonsb Jul I en, machinist, 
of Paris, Ifranoe. Ceiriem Mnprettsmeni^ in 
maiif(/(ur/«rtn^ faingee and other plaited 
fatbrics. Application dated July 1?, 1854. 
(No, U29-) 

The inventor employs a braiding ma- 
chine constructed with bobbins, oarried 



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116 



FBOVISIONAI. PQOTECTIOKS. 



round by revolving discs or heads, so as to 
plat or interlace the threads, &c., &c. 

Marshall, Josiah Thompson, of New 
York, United States of America, gentleman. 
iMprovement* in reefing andfiirUng the taiis qf 
•hips or other veuele. Application dated 
July 12, 1854. (No. 1530.) 

The inventor proposes to furl sails firom 
their lower parts, &c. 

Robertson, Jamei, of Kentish-town, 
Middlesex, cooper. Improvemente in the eon- 
twmption or prevention </ tmoke. Application 
dated July 12, 1854. (No. 1582.) 

The inventor describes a furnace in which 
" the bridge is made to overhang the bars 
considerably in the direction of the furnace 
door, and immediately in front of the over- 
hanging portion of the bridge is fitted a 
moveable inclined grating, or series of bars, 
which oscillate upon a fixed centre at the 
back of the stationary furnace bars." 



PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS. 

Dated October 14, 1854. 
SSOS. Louisa Honsani, of Greyhound-place, Old 
Keiit>road, Surrey, widow and admiuUtiatriz of 
Willoughby Theobald Bfonsani* lace of St. Janea't- 
tarraee, Bennoodsey, Surrey, gentlemaD, deeeased. 
Improvements in bedsteads, and packing-oases or 
boxes to contain the same and other articles. 

Dated November 14, 1854. 
Si14. George Bodley, of Everard-street East, 
London. Improvements in revolving cannon. 

Dated December 19, 1854. 

2671. William Porter Dreaper, of Bold-street, 
Liverpool, Lancaster, pianoforte maoufseturer. 
The ampr - - - - - - 



fortes. 



improvement of the manufacture of piano- 

Dated Jamutry 1, 1855. 

8. Joseph Seguin, of Paris, France, civil en- 
gineer. Improvements in obtaining motive power 
by the expansion of air, steam, and other fluids. 

5. Stephen Giles, of Caledonian- road, Islington, 
Middlesex, engineer. An Improved ratchet brace. 

Dated January 2, 1855. 

7. Antoine RouUion, gentleman, of Paris, 
French Empire. Certain improvements In the 
manufacture of soap. 

9. Joseph Arnold, of Tamworth, Staffbrd. A 
new mode of ornamenting bricks, and other 
moulded articles fox building purposes. 

11. George Peacock, of Graoeehutoh-etrcet, 
London, ship owner. Improvements in construct- 
ing propellers for ships and other vessels. 

Dated Jannary 8, 1855. 

18. FAiz Gabriel C«leatin Dehaynin, of Parb, 
France. Improvements in the purification of hy- 
drogen gas. 

15. Inie Lippmann, of Rue Geoffrey St. Hilaire, 
Paris, France, tanner. An improved machine for 
splitting or sawing the skins of calves, oxen, cows, 
horses, and other animals. 

17. Samuel Aspinwall Goddard, of Bitmingham, 
Warwick, merchant and manufacturer. A new or 
Improved flre-arm, a portion of which Is applieable 
to ordnance. 

19. Jacob Gukell, of Manchester, button manu- 



facturer, and George Holcroft, of the same place, 
consulting engineer. Improvements in the manu- 
fticture of mortar and cement. 

SI. Alexander Southwood Stocker and Samuel 
Darliufr, of the Poultry, Cheapside, London, ma- 
nufacturers. Certain improvements In the manu- 
fketure of bottles, pots, jars, tnbes, and other 
receptacles, part of which improvements are ap- 
plicable to various other purposes for commercial 
and domestic use. 

23. John Venables and Arthur Mann, of Burs- 
lem, Stafford, earthenware manufacturers. Im- 
provements in prodndng figures or ornaments In 
articles made or^elay or plastle material. 

2fi. George Walker Mnir, of Glasgow, Lanark, 
Scotland. Improvements in warming and venti- 
lating. 

DaUd Jannary 5, 1855. 

27. Louis Jacques Martin, of Paris, Fianee, en- 
gineer. Improvements In the composition of 
colours for printing and dyeing, and in the appli- 
cation of sueh colours. 

29. William Henry Bulmer, of Queen's Head, 
near Haltfkx, machine maker, and William Bailey, 
of Halilkx, engineer, both in York. Improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus for combing 
wool, cotton, and other fibrous substances. 

81. Robert Ashworth, of Rochdale, Lancaster, 
engineer, and Samuel Stott, of Rochdale, Lancaa- 
ter, cotton spinner. Improvements in machinery 
for preparing, spinning, and doubling fibrous sub- 
stances. 

SS. Frederic Prince, of South-parade, Chelsea, 
Middlesex. Improvements In cartridges for fire- 
arms. 

DaUd Jannary 6, 1855. 

85. John Henry Johnson, of UnoolnVinn-fields, 
Middlesex, gentleman. Improvements in ma^ 
chinery or apparatus for effecting agricultural 
operations, parts of the said improvements being 
applicable for the obtainment of motive power for 
general purposes. A communication. 

87. Jean Baptlste Edouard Rnttre, of Paris, 
Prance, manuflscturer. Improvements in the 
treatment of rags and other goods, formed psrtly 
of wool and partly of vegetable fibres, in order to 
separate the vegetable fibres trom them and obtain 
the wool in its pure state. 

89. John Scott, of Sunderland, Durham, blaek- 
smith. Improvements in the construction of 
anchors. 

41. Charles John Edwards, Junior, of Great Sut- 
ton-street, ClerkenweU, Middleaex, mill-band ma- 
nufketnrer, and Frederick Frasi, of Tavistock-ter- 
race, Holloway, engineer. An improved mannCac- 
ture of bearings for carriage axles and shafts of 
machinery In general. 

Dated January 8, 1855. 

48. John Huggins, of Birmingham, Warwick, 
machinist. A new or improved machine for the 
manufacture of lint. 

45. Robert MeCall, of Pallas-Kenrr. Limerick, 
Ireland. Certain Improvements in the mannflM- 
ture of iron and steel. 

47. William Hay and James Hay, of Glasgow, 
Lanark, North Britain, engineers. Improvements 
in engines for obtaining motive power. 

49. Isaac Bury, of Manchester, Lancaater, em* 
bo«ser and finisher. A certain improvement in 
embossing Orleans cloth, or other similar fishrics, 
commonly called stuff goods. 

Dated January 9, 1855. 

51. Edward Hayes, of Stony Stratford, Bucks. 
Improvements in apparatus for feeding thraahing 
machines. 

58. Joseph Offbrd, of Wells-street, Oxlbrd-street, 
Middlesex, eoach builder. Improvemente in the 
construction of carriages* 



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117 



ftS. PleiTC Emlle Tboma*, of Parli, Fiance, obe- 
mlMl «Dgiiieer. ImproYemmito in the treafttneot 
of Uitnet and other goods formed of wool, mixed 
with other textile fibres, in order to obtain the 
wool fVom them. 

S7. Henry John Hall, of Charlton, Kent, com- 
mander in the Royal Navy, and Alexander Dal- 
get7 and Edward Ledger, both of Deptford, Kent, 
engllieert. ImproTemenls in apparatus for pro- 
pelling, guiding, or^nanoeuvring ships or boats. 

59. William Major, of Copenhagen, Denmark, 
engineer. ImproToments in the construction and 
axrangcment of screw propellers. 

Dated Jamiary 10, 1855. 

61. Thomas Wilson, of Birmingham, Warwick, 
engineer. An inprovement or improvements in 
the manufhetnre of bands used in the eonstrue- 
t1<m of small arms. 

61. Bartholomew Predaval, of Great Russell- 
street, Bedford-eqnace, Middlesex, civil engineer. 
Improving the production and manufacture of 
pujp for the making of p^por. 

63. William Thomas Henley, of Saint John- 
street-road, London, electric telegraph engineer 
and machinist. Improvements in steam boilers 
or generators, and In apparatus in connection 
therewith. 

64. Edward Booth, of Gorton, Lancaster, gum 
maauiiMturer. Certain improvements in the mode 
and machinery for dressing, starching, and ilnish- 
lag textile and other Ikbiioi and matoials. 

65. WilUam Coles Fuller, of Bueklersbury, 
Che^wlde, London, India rubber spring manufte- 
tufer. Improvements in the construction and 
adaptation of India rubber springs. 

66. Henry Bessemer, of Queen-street-plaoe, New 
CaBBOO-skreet, Iflddleaex, engineer. Improve- 
menta in the mannlhctuie of iron and steel. 

66. Louie Pierre Lehngeur, mechanic, and 
Michel Uttinger, gentleman, of St. Denis, near 
Paris. Improvements applicable to maehinery for 
printing fkorlca. 

Dated Jmuary 11, 1855. 

69. John Oedge, of Wellington-street South, 
Middlesex. Improvements in the construction of 
metallic flooring, supports for floors, walls, or par- 
titions of buildings. A communication ttom M. 
Nicolas Gervis. of Paris, France. 

70. Jacques Louis Herv6, of Paris, France, Rue 
de TEperon, householder. Improvements in pre- 
servinr meat and flsh. 

71. John Norton, of Dublin, Ireland, esquire. 
Improvements in draining land. 

75. Alexander Robertson, of Upper Hollowsy, 
Middlesex, engineer. A new manufacture of 
packages for dry goods. 

76. Edward HaD, of Dartford, Kent, engineer. 
Improvements in the manuihcture of gunpowder. 

74. Robert Oxland, of Plymouth, Devon, sugar 
reflner. Improvements in the manufacture and 
revivification of animal charooal. 

75. Elmer Townsend, of Massachusetts, United 
States of Ameilca. New and useftil improvements 
in machinery for sewing cloth, leather, or other 
material. A communication f^om Alfred Swingle, 
of the saU State. 

76. James Wood, of Barbican , London, printer. 
An improved process for lettering and omament- 
inff glass, which the inventor terms hyalotypy. 

77. William Lynall Thomas, of Anderton, De- 
von, gentleman. Improvements in projectiles and 
gun wads. 

76. Smith William Davids, of Carnarvon, North 
Wales, slate agent. CerUin improvements in 
elongating chandeliers and gaseliers. 

Dated January 12, 1855. 

81. William Hunt, of Tipton, Stafford, diemist. 
Improvements in the manniiMture of iron. 
tt. Joseph Ray Hodgson, of Sunderland, carver 



and gilder. Improvements in the eonitmotlon of 



83. Francois Victor Guyard, engineer, of Grave- 
lines, French Empire. Certsiin improvements in 
the electro-telegraphic communications. 

84. Ezra Mifos, of Stoke Hammond, Bucks, 
civil engineer. An improved coupling Joint or 
connection for tubing or other purposes. 

85. Christopher Turner, of Burnley, Lancaster, 
weaver. Certain improvements in power looms 
for weavin?. 

86. Joseph Harrison and John Oddie, of Black- 
bum, Lancaster, machinists. Improvemente In 
machines fbr slicing, drying, and otherwise pre- 
paring yams or threads for weaving. 

67. Rands Preston, of Manchester, maehinlit. 
Improvements in ordnance and in projectiles for 
ordnance and small arms. 

88. Wmiam Baralngham, of Salfbrd, Laneatter, 
iron manulketnrsr. Improve nents in connecting 
the raUs of rallwavs. 

89. Anton Seithen, of Cob! ens, Prussia, cork 
manulkcturer. and Joseph 11. Liehtenstein, of 
Berlin, Prussia. Improvements In machinery or 
apparatus for cutting and shapin? cork. 

90. Richard Archibald Brooman, of 166, Fleet- 
street, London, patent agent. C Ttaln means of 
devulcaniiing India rubber and other similar 
gums, or of treating such gums after having been 
vulcanized. A communication. 

91. Peter Nicholas Gadol, of Bermondsey, 
Surrey, tanner. An improved process to be em- 
ployed in tanning. 

Dated January 13, 1855. 

93. William Henry Nevill, of Llanelly, Carmar- 
then, copper smelter. Improvements in the oon- 
stractlon of reverberatory ftimaces for the oolleo- 
tion and condensation of volatile substances. 

94. John Graham, of Hartshead Print-works, 
near Stalybrldge, Lancaster, calico printer. Im- 
provements In fixing certain colours in or upon 
yams and textile fabrics. 

95. Gustav Wamecke, of Frank fort-on-the- 
Maine, merchant. Improvements in preserving 
vegetables and fhilts. 

96. Joseph Claudot, of Paris, France, architect. 
An improved stucco. 

97. Michael Daintry HoUins, of Stoke-upon- 
Trent, Stafford, gentleman. Improvements in 
slip kilns for drying clay. 

98. Edward Lambert Havward, of ItlftckfHars- 
road, Surrey, raanufacturtng ironmonger. Im- 
provements In kitchen ranges. 

99. John Charles Pearee, of the Bowling Iron- 
works, York, engineer. Improvements in ma- 
chinery or apparatus for the manufacLure and 
worklna of Iron and other metals. 

100. Joseph Edlyn Outridge, of Constantinople, 
now at. BlackfHars-road, Middlesex. Improve* 
mentsin transmitting motive power. 

101. John Greenwood, of Irwell-sptings, near 
Bacop, Lancaster, Turkey-red dyer. Certain im- 
provements in siseing, stiffening, and finishing 
textile fabrics or materials. 

Dated January 15, 1855. 
103. Francis Burke, gentleman, of Woodlands, 
Montserrat, British West Indies. Improvements 
in and apparatus for obtaining from the plantain, 
banana, aloe, penguin, and other vegetable sub- 
stances, fibres, applicable to various manufactur- 
ing purposes. 

103. William ToplU Frost, of Shottle, near Bel- 
per, Derby, gentleman. Improvementa in ma- 
chinery for cleaning knives. 

104. Henry Mortloek Ommanney, of Chester, 
esquire. An Improvement In the manufacture of 
shot, shells, hollow shot, and other projectiles. 

105. James Peter Lark, of Nine Elms-Ian?, 
Vauxhall, Surrey, foreman to Messrs. Franotr, 
Brothers, cement manulkcturers. Improvements 



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118 



NOTICES OF nrrmxoN to pbooeed. 



is aSbetliig the Mmbnstlon of fbel and the epn- 
■umption of smoke In it«ain boiler and otU^r 
fliniaeefl. 

106. a«onre Riley, of Portland-place North, 
Clapham-Toad, Surrey. An improved fUse bottom 
for brewers*, distillers', and vinegar makers' mash 
tubs. 

107. Edward Haynes, jun., of Bromley, Middle- 
sex, epgineer. A smoke-consuming furnace. 

DaUd January 16, 1855. 

10). M«r« TouBsaint Stefani, of Paris, Vrai^c^j 
gffui^mw* Improvements in fire-arms. 

110. Henry Adkini, of Edgbaaton, near Bir> 
n^Bgl^up, Wiu-wiok, manufacturer, ^n vmproye- 
n^^nt er improveroents in \)le%ching or decitlorlf- 
ing oily and fatty bodies. 

111. Jamef Yeomaiif of Walworth, flvrrey, mi\]- 
vfignt and enginef r. Improvemepta in self-ced- 
ing ftimaces. 

113. Q^QTge Jackson, of Manchester , L^n^Mistar, 
decorator. Certidn improvements in the copstrw:- 
t)on of touts. 

118. James 9imkin, of Dolton-le-Mtlors, ;«anoae- 
t«r, gun maker. Improveiuents in rifles ;iQd other 
treiurms. 

\U, Jamea Lee Norton, of Holland-street, 
BUickfriars, Surrey. Improvementf lu recoveriug 
the wool from fabrics composed of wool, or wool in 
coKpection with cotton or other vegetable ^ub- 
Btance. 

115. Jonathan Saunders, of 8t. John's-wood, 
Middlesex. An improTcment in the manufacture 
of axles and shafting. 

1)7. Robert James Marypn, gentleman, of York- 
ro»d, Lambeth. Surrey. Improvements in thf 
construction of steaiQ en^Uies, which coQsUtsof a 
better means of mechanism for effecting the trs^ns- 
mission of, »nd conversion gt action of motion for 
. working and applying steam or other equivaleat 
motive power. 

Dated January l/i 1855. 

118. George William Garrood, of Burqhan, 
Essex. An improved apparatus to be used in oop- 
JunctiQp with windlasses on ships, cranes on land, 
and with other machinery for raising or lowering 
weights for the purpose of gpiding and controlling 
the action thereof. 

119. Samuel Loraos, of Manchester, machinist. 
Improvements in machinery for winding and 
doubling sUk. 

120. Joshua Horton, of Birmingham, WfMrwick, 
manufacturer. An improvement or improvements 
in packing or storing gunpowder. 

ISl. Ambroise Ouertinier, of COiarleroi, Belgium, 
merchant. An improvement in glass fumaoes. 

122. Alexander CoUes, of MUlmount. Kilkenny, 
Ireland, marble manufacturer. Improvements in 
sawing marble and similar materials. A commu- 
nication. 

12S. David Davidsoq, of Meiklewood. by Stirling, 
North Britain, captain in tlie Hon. E^st tnril« 
Co.'s service. Improved apparatus for pointing 
ordnance, and restoring the aim of the piece, 
either by day or night, when it in once obtained. 

124. James Webster, of Collingham, York, com 
miller. Improvements in the application of mo- 
tive power. 

125. James HIggins, of Sal ford, Lancaster, ma- 
ehlne-maker, and Thomas Schofleld WhitwortJ., 
of the same place, mechanic. Improvements in 
moulding for casting shot, shells, and other arti- 
cles. 

127. Edward Hall, of Salford, Lancaster, gentle- 
man. Improvements in combining metallic wires 
With textile materials, or fabrics for forming wire 
ribbon. ' 

128. L^morock Flower, of Great Russell-street, 
Bloomsburj'. l^iddlesex, and George Augustus 
Dixon, of Cobham Hall, Stratford, Essex. Im- 
proveroents in machinery or apparatus for sifting 
and cleansing. 



PATENT APPLIED FOR WITH COMPLETE 

SPECIFICATION. 

154. Charles Van den Bergh, of Laeken, by 
Brussels. Improvements in rotatory steam en- 
gines. January 20, 1855. 



NOTICES OF INTENTION TO 

PR0CE5I). 

(From the '* It^ndou OazaU^,'* Jmuary SOfk, 
1855.) 

IQS2. Joseph Porter. Improvements in maehl- 
nary ka cutting, punching, Ibri^ng, and forming 
nuts, bolts, screws, and various other artielea itt 
metal. 

M28. Jamas Kershaw. Irapnivements in looms 
for weaving. 

2032. Auguste Edouard Loradonx Bellford. 
Certain improvements in machines for drilling 
stone. A communication. 

2046. Thomas Lawrenoa. Improvements in ma- 
chinery or apparatus to be employed for the pur- 
pose of shaping and finishing cerUun pans of 
bayoneta. 

2047. Peter Spenoe. Improvements in obtahslng 
sulphur ftom iron pyrites and other substances 
containing sulnhur. 

2046. George Collier and Samuel Thornton. Im- 
provements in looms for weaving. 

2055. BolMrt Pinkney. Improvonents In stop- 
pers, corks, or valvular apparatus for bottles or 
receptaclea for liquids, and in the maohinery or 
apparatus employed for making the same. 

2061. Philip James Chabot. Improvements in 
supplying ^rto fumaoes. 

M65. Joshua Bachelor Halsey. An improved 
machine or apparatus for orushlng and pulverisiog 
ores, and for separating the gold therefrom by 
amalgamation. 

2068. George Ipenoer. Improvements in the 
external coverings of roofs and walls of buildings 
and sheds, and in the vlndowa of such buildings 
and sheds. 

2u72. Thomas Griffiths. An improvfd pump for 
raising and forcing water. 

2079. Robert Renfrew. Improvements in bob- 
bins 

2092. Thomas Foxall Grifliths. Ap improve- 
ment or improvements in lamps. 

2108. Williaroa Wood Coolf. An improved me- 
thod of weaving or manufaeturing woven ftibrics. 
suitable for petticoating or similar purposes, where 
thick and thin parts of the same fabric are re- 
quired. 

21U. Christopher Hill. Improvements in (ho 
manufacture of pulp. 

2125. Wright Townend. Aa improvement in 
combing wool and other fibres. 

2139. Thomas Edwin Moore. Certain improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus for curvilinear 
and annular cuttings in metals and other hard 
substances. 

2171. William Chubb. Improvements in the 
construction of beams and parts of ships, ships' 
masts and spars, and other like structures. 

220^. Louisa Monzani. Improvements in bfd- 
steads and packing-cases or boxes to contain the 
same and other articles. 

2224. Richard Green. Improvements in pro- 
pelling vessels. 

2452, Riciiard Ee9f«. Improvements in droMing 
flour. 

2455. Nicholas Callan. Improvements in ex- 
citing agents used In galvanic batteries, and in 
the construotipn of galvanic batteries. 

2573. John Colic Browne. An improt od wfi#* 
par applicable cs a coat and other ooveriog. 

2610. Christian Henry Richard Ebert and Lipp- 
sum Jacob Levisohn. Improvements in the mode 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



WBBMLV UR or tAXUm. 



119 



ma. Rabart Adaau. ImproremeDU in l|ie- 
amt ealled revolvers. 
IMA. Cbaries Frederick Stensbary. An im- 

rred 1tfe>ear or baoy. A commumealion fW>m 
Z. Toeker, of Brooklyn, New York. United 
Stores of Ameries. 

S714. Frederick Sameon Tbonuu and WiUlam 
BTaaa Tilly. An improTed process for platins or 
eaatlBg lead, iron, or otber metals witb tin, niesel, 
or alumina. 

1729. John Lang Dunn. Improvements in work- 
ing op oert^n waste sulphates and nitrates, and 
fbr the manuf«ctare of oseAil products therefh>m. 

17n. Thomas Thomeycroft. ImproYements in 
ship-hoOdinff. 

9. Joseph Arnold. A new mode of ornamenting 
Meks ana other moulded articles for boilding par- 



IS. IsaJe Ltppman. An improved machine ftnr 
splitting or sawing the skins of calves, oxen, cows, 
horses, and other animals. 

n. John Venablee and Arthur Mann. Improve- 
ments in producing raised figures or ornaments 
upon the surfaces of artieles made of moUT, pot- 
tajt and earthenware, glass, papier mach£, and 
other materiaJs. 

23. John Venables and Arthur Mann. Improve- 
ments in producing figures or ornaments In arti- 
eles made of clay or plastic material. 

27. Louis Jacques Martin. Improvements in the 
eompodiioo ot^ colours for printing and dyeing, 
and in the application of such colours. 

S9. William Henry Bulmer and William Bailey. 
Improvements in machinery or apparatus for comb- 
ing wool, cotton, and otber fibrous substances. 

32. John liivesey. ImPToyemeotv in printing, 
and in the materials and apparatus connected 
therewith. A communication. 

35. John Henry Johnson. Imp^vements in ma- 
ehtnery or apparatus Cor ejecting agricultural ope- 
rations, pans of the said improvements being 
applicable for the obtainment of motive power for 
general purposes. A communication. 

30. John Scott. Improvements in the construc- 
tion of anchors. 

55. Pierre Emile Thomas. Improvements in the 
treatment of tissues and other goods formed of 
wool, mixed with other textile fibres, in order to 
obtain the wool from tliem. 

71. John Norton. Improvements in draining 
land. 

75. Elmer Townsend. New and useful improve- 
ments in machinery for sewing cloth, leather, or 
other material. A communication from Alfred 
Swingle, of Massachusetts. 

82. Joseph Ray Hodgson, Improvements in the 
construction of anchors. 

88. Anton Seithcn and Joseph H. Liehtenstein . 
Improvements in machinery or apparatus for cut- 
ting and shaping cork. 

99. John Charles Fearce. Improvements in ma- 
chinery or apparatus for the manufacture and 
working of iron and other metal«. 

112. Oeoige Jackson. Certain improvements in 
the construction uf tents. 

154. Charles Van den Bergh. Improvements in 
rotatory steam engines. 

Opposition can be entered to the granting 
of a Patent to any of the parties in the 
above List, who have given notice of their 
intention to proceed, within twenty - one 
days from the daU of the OoMette in whieh 
the notice appears, by leaving at the Com- 
missioners'-oifice particulars in writing of 
the objection to.tlie application. 



NOTieS OF APPUCATION FOR LBAYB 
TO FILE DISCLAIMER. 

An application will be made to Her Malestj'f 
Attomey-Oeneral by Joseph Lamb, of Manchester, 
Lancaster, spindle-maker, for leave to file a dis- 
claimer and memorandum of alteration of parts of 
the specifleation of the patent granted to nim Unf 
" A certain improvement or ioaprovements in ma- 
chineiT for preparing and spinning cotton, wool, 
fiax, suk, and similar fibrous matexuU." *" 



her 8, 1843. 



Oecem- 



WKSKLY LIST OF FATRNTf. 
Seakd Jamuiry ^, 1955. 

1659. Henry Wickens. 

1665. Riekard Johnson. 

1679. Augnste Edouard Loradoux Pell- 
ford. 

1689. Edward Gillman. 

1724. Edward Alexandre. 

1738. Antoine Gorri. 

1761. Thomas George Taylor. 

1768. Henri Louis Edmond D^tr^ 
Hennebutte. 

1777. John Norton. 

1785. Samuel Frankham. 

1788. William Burgess. 

1789. William Siddons. 

1796. John Turner Wright and Edwin 

Payton Wright. 
1798. Charles Blake. 
1868. Henry Besaemer. 
1882. John Kirkham and Thomas Nes- 

ham Kirkham. 
1966. Jamea Burns. 
2169. John Kershaw. 
2196. Anthony Bernhard Baron Yon 

Rathen. 
2311. William Reid. 
2416. David Oavies. 

2458. Fisk Russell. 

2459. William Beasley. 

2481. Samuel Alfred Carpenter. 
2486. Cyprien Marie Tessi^ du Motay. 

2489. Henry Besaemer. 

2490. Thomas De la Rue. 

2496. Joseph Gillott, the younger, and 
Henry Gillott. . 

2510. George Gowland. 

2512. Sydney Smith. 

2518. Edwin Pettitt. 

2521. John Sands. 

2542. Joseph Maudslay. 

SeaUd Janmry 30, 1855. 

1713. Alfred Kortright. . 

1745. William Armand Gilbce. 

1793. William Johnson. 

1795. Charles Cow per. 

1815. Frederick Craoe Calvert. 

1879. Thomas Carr. 

2539. Augusta Edouard Loradoux Bell- 
ford. 

The above Patents all bear date as of the 
day on which Provisional Protection was 
granted for the several inventions men- 
tioned therein. 



Digitized by 



Google 



120 



NOTICES TO CORBESPONDENTS. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



J W&rkma%t Shrawsbury.— "We think the aUte- 
ment you allude to is perfectly erroneous, and very 
much doubt if you wUl obtain any other satisfac- 
tory explanation of it. 

WtUt.—Wt have n<>t Nicholson's work at hand, 
and cannot therefore give the verification you re- 
quire. 

J. Ward.— -We cannot do better than submit to 
you the following remarks upon the subject you 
mention. They occur in a paper read last week 
before the Soeletf of Art* by Mr. Longmaid : — 
'* A most perfect trial has been made in the dis- 
secting rooms of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
which must abound In noxious gases and putres- 
cent odours. On thoroughly heating the charcoal 
and placing it in shallow vesaels about the rooms, 
it acted so promptly, that in ten minutes not the 
least difFyised smell could be detected. So quick 
and effectual was its action, that arrangements 
have been made for Its constant use. As a puri- 



fier of hoapital wards, both civil and military, it 
might be applied with great advantage, savinv pa- 
tients flrom the unpleasant smells and effluvia 
firom gangrenous wounds ; thus the patient him- 
self, and those in adjacent beds, would not be sub- 
jected to the influence of putrescent odours. All 
these the charcoal would effectually absorb. Char- 
coal is more efficacious than any other disinfectant 
when applied in the manner described, absorbing 
gai^es of rvery kind. It does not require the pre- 
sence of any other substance to assist its action, 
but without stint or scruple collects noxioua va- 

5 ours fiom every source, not disguising, but eon- 
enslng and oxidising the most ofTensiTe gases 
and poisonous effluvia, converting them into sim- 
ple, inert, staple compounds. It is easy of appli- 
cation, and is economical, comes ivithin the reach 
of the poorest, and can be safely placed in the 
hands of the most ignorant, thna combining ad van-' 
tages not possessed by any other disinfectant." 



MESSRS. ROBERTSON, BROOMAN, & CO. 

Undertake the Proenratloii of Patents 
for the United Kingdom and all Foreign Coantiies, and the transaction generally of all 

business relating to Patents. Costs of Provisional Protection^jglO 10s. 

* Practical Instructions to Inventors and intending Patentees supplied gratis on application 

to Messrs. ROBERTSON, BROOMAN, and Co., "Mechanics' Magazine and 

Patent Office," 166, Fleet-street, London. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



Kitson's Improved Prictiim Hammer {teith 

engravinffi) 97 

On the Propulsion of Ships by the Reaction of 

JeU of Water 100 

Bethune's Pretended Improrements in Steam 

Navigation 103 

On the Moon's Motion 106 

Mr. Williams's Method of Preventing Smoke.. 108 
On the Combustion of Coals and the Absorp- 
tion of Heat 109 

Black Sea Telegraph Cable 110 

Astronomical Clocks 110 

Mr. C. Wye Williams on Combustion Ill 

Specifications of Patents recently Filed : 

Beard fr Beard ....Needle-Depoeitor Ill 

Norton Turnstiles 1)1 

Elltsdon Chairs Ill 

Cottaro Horse Mangers Ill 

Waller Stoves and Fire-places. Ill 

Robinson & Crich- 

ton Rolling Metals Ill 

Tindall Bruising Grain Ill 

Johnton Carbonates of Soda .... US 

Sinclair Paper 112 

Bauwens Soap 112 

Whitworth Cutting Wood 112 

Saxby Sash lines. &c 112 

BiddeU Cutting Vegetables.,.. 112 

Wolverson Locks 112 

Walker Cooking-stove 112 

Harding Doffing Apparatus US 

Cuvler .Burning Fuel 113 

Houghton Spinning ft Doubling . US 

Maggs Thrashing Machines... US 

Cookf " ■ ■ 



Cooke Fibrous Substances . 



lis 



Knowelden Furnaces 113 

Oilbee Weaving 113 

L«ne Breech - loading Fire- 
arms .« 113 

Foulkes Gloves 113 

Greenwood ft Smith Sizing Materials 114 

Travis Guages 114 

Hackctt Elastic Cords 114 

Bodmer Glass Bearings 114 

Chauvei Anchor 114 

Maryon ...Steam Engines 114 

Stocker Axles ^. 114 

Provisional Specifications not Proceeded with : 

Morison Protecting Plants, ftc. 114 

Ross Bevenges IM 

Newton Pumps 114 

Lord Fibrous Materials 115 

Beck Distilling 115 

Swindells Vegelable Fibres 115 

Moore Water-closets, ftc 115 

Gatty Receipt Stamps 115 

Townsend Knitted Fabrics 115 

Moore Extinguishing Fires... 115 

Armstrong ft Dew .Consuming Smoke 1 15 

Loiseau Frinses 115 

Marshall Furling SaUs 116 

RoberUon Consuming Smoke 1I6 

Provisional Protections ii6 

Patent Applied for with Complete Specifica- 
tion ..«.^.....^ 118 

Notices of Intention to Proceed 118 

Notice of Application for leave to file Dis- 
claimer 119 

List of Sealed Patents 1I9 

Notices to Correspondents 1 19 



LONDON : Edited, Printed, and Published by Richard Archibald Brooman, of No. 160, Fleet-street.,, 
in the City of London.— Sold by A. and W. Qalignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris ; Maohln, and Co. 
Dublin ; w. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburg. 



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Pfo. 1644.] SATUKDAY, ^IffiBUARt lO/l&SS. , ];g^^ 



Bdli«d br R. A' Broom«n, 16^, Pleefe^rMt. 



LLOY15»S 1>ATENT TITHInTABXE; 

Fig. 1. • •! ■■• • '■■'■'■ ]' ■'np'2-^ -■ 



VOL. LXII. 



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122 

LLOYD'S PATENT TURNTABLE. 
Patent dated October 21, 185S.) 

Mr. Samuel Llotd, Jun., of Wednesbory, has patented an iD?ention the object of 
which ie to produce a more durable Turntable than those ordinarily in use, by construct- 
ing it BO that the working parts of the table, viz., the rollers and centre, may be pre- 
served firom injury when engines and carriages run over it 

The considerations which have led Mr. Lloyd to effect and introduce his improTe- 
ments will be found in the following extracts from a paper recently prepared by him, and 
read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 

** In the construction of turn-tables three leading principles have been followed : 
either the bearing has been on the centre only, with no bearings at the circumference, or 
with bearings at the circumference and none at the centre ; or a combination of these two 
modes has been adopted by allowing the weight to rest in part upon the centre, and in part 
upon the bearings or rollers at the circumference ; this last construction has been most 
frequently adopted. Most of the turn-tables first laid down on railways were made to resC 
on fixed rollen, for the sake of economy ; but although fixed roller turn-tablea are the 
cheapest kind in first cost and were much used on the first railways made, live roller, 
tables have been generally adopted latterly, firom the greater ease with which they turn*; as 
in the fixed roller turn-table the weight bears on the axle of the roller, producing rubbing 
friction, but in the Uve roller table it beari upon the circumferenee of the roller, pro- 
ducing only a rolling action without any rubbing friction, except in the guiding rmg. 
Some fixed roller turn-tables have, however, of late been constructed with much larger 
rollers than those formerly used, which has the elbot of perceptibly lessening the friction s 
but these tables seldom continue long in good working order, in eonsequence of the rollen 
indenting the top table. This is an objection to which all roller turn*tables are tubjeet, 
but those with fixed rollers most especially, from the top- table always resting upon 
the rollers in these, in the same position, thus receiving the pressure Always on the same 
points ; and as the amount of surface la contact between them is Tf ry smalli the whole 
amount of surface in contact between the surface of the rollers and the top tuble being not 
more than three square inches, If so much, the rollers soon wound die under surface of 
the top table, so that the latter becomes indented over every roller. As soon as thii 
takes place, considerably more power has to be exerted to turn carriafttt upon them, aa 
the resistanoe to be overcome is ffreatly increased by the whole weight having to be lifted 
out of each of the hollows formea firom the above eause. 

" But in addition to the increase of friction occasioned by these indentatlonsi th«y cauae 
also great unsteadiness, making the table rook, and thus clatter and hammer against the 
rollers as each pair of wheels passes on and off its two opposite sides. This deteriorating 
action goes on to a greater or less extent in almost all roller tables, often occasioning the 
top to break, if it is not very strongly made ; this rocking is often greatly inereased, and 
occasionally entirely originates, from the centre pin being too tightly lerewed down, so 
as to take the weight entirely off the rollers on one side of the table. 

" Thisvdefect has led to the construction of turn-tables with a eentr« pin, tfa«t acta 
merely ajja centre guide, without taking any weight Turn-tables of this class, if made 
with radiating rollers, have the advantage of remaining very solid tor a time after diey are 
put in ; but frequently this is not of long continuance, for all roller turn-tables are unsteady, 
if the rollers are not all correctly turned to the same diameter, and oottered or screwed 
up exactly to the same distance from the centre ; each roller being a portion of a eone, its 
outside cUameter is greater than its inside, and if either of the rollers is screwed up too 
tightly, the table rides on it This is sometimes occasioned after a few months' wear« by 
the pressure of the table top continually exerting a force tending to drive the rollers 
upon which it rests outwards, which is sure to be the effect if either of the nuts that screw 
them up becomes slack. This pressure tending to force the rollers off the roller-path 
causes considerable friction against the guide-ring at the boss of every roller, and !s one 
cause of the heaviness with which even live-roller turn-tables work, causing railway 
labourers in goods stations, whenever they have the chance, to wrench them round by 
horse- power. 

" In an improved construction of roller tum-tablea extensively adopted, the weight of 
the table top is nearly counterbalanced by a weighted lever, which constantly tends to lift 
the centre pin without actually doing so, making the table much easier to turn, by dimi- . 
nishing proportionately the pressure on the rollers ; the rollers also are not fixed as in 
common turn-tables, but in an inclined position, with their upper surfaces level, for the 
purpose of preventing the level of the table top from being disturbed by tlie surge of oar- 
riages passing over. In some turn-tables the rollers have been made with rounded edges. 



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LOKDON VXBMS IN 1864 123 

and level roUer-Daths, with the yiew of leMeniog the f^riction of tumiag, and increasing 
tlie tteadinesa or the table by resting it on a plane instead of a cone ; bat these rollers 
have not been found to be durable, and the roller- path becomes worn hollow by them. A 
more successful plan for diminishing the friction has been the use of spherical balls instead 
of rollers^ travelling round in a live ring, to prevent the balls from rolling off, but allowjjig 
them room to shift their position on the roller-path as they move round, which prevents 
them from wearing the roller-path into grooves ; and as the balls travel in a circle, some- 
dmes in one direction and sometimes in the contrary direction, they continually present 
a fresh portion of their surface for the bearing, which preserves them from being worn 
unequally. 

" There is one objection to these tables, but which applies still more strongly to roller 
tnm-tables, namely, the extreme diificulty of turning them in frosty weather, when the dirt 
on the rollers and roUer-paths becomes frozen ; horse-power is then often inquired to stir 
them, or a fire has to be lighted to thaw the congealed mud collected on them* 

" Centre-bearing turn-tables are practically free from this objection, and also from the one 
before referred to, namely, the bearing sur&ce becoming indented, from the small extent of 
snrface in contact with the rollers. This description of turn-table has two important advan- 
tages : — Great ease in turning and smoothness of motion, and great durabiUty, numbers of 
them having continued in use for many years without requiring any repairs. 

" Centre-bearing turn-tables, as usually constructed, have most of them two defects; 
namely, great extra cost of foundations, and unsteadiness and liability to deflect ; the last 
being the most serious defect, which renders them objectionable for any situation where 
much traffic is likely to pass over them. Their deflection upon trains passing over them 
being caused by the whole of the weight of each carri ige acting at a great leverage to 
strain the working parts of the table while running on and off. To meet this defect, a 
number of supplementary rollers have usually been fixed at the circumference, for the 
purpose of catching the weight, and preventing any undue deflection when the weight is 
paasiag on and off the edge of the table, these rollers being fixed a little below the level of 
the table top, so as not to touch the top and come into action until the top gives way by 
deflection, or by canting on one side. This plan has, however, the objection of being 
unmechanical, as it implies a eertahi degree of failure in the machine before it can come 
into full operation." 

To do away with this straining action, which is produced when the weight of the car- 
riage is received by the outer part of the table, Mr. Lloyd adds four sliding blocks and a 
balance weight to the form of table known as Handcock's patent. The engravings on the 
first page of this Number represent the improved table, flg. 1 being a sectional eleva- 
tion, and fig. 2 a plan. A A are the sliding-blocks, which are arranged around the cir. 
cumference of the table, and worked by a lever, C. B is the balance weight, which is 
equal in weight to the top of the table within about 28 lbs., so that the lever, C, and 
the blocks, A A, may be worked with ease. It will be observed, that when the blocks are 
brmight in beneath the table, the latter is thereby raised about a quarter of an inch. This 
is tlie position in which it remains when out of use, and it therefore presents a perfectly 
solid surface for trains to pass over, and the disagreeable clatter so generally noticeable on 
the |MssiBg «f trains over the turn-tables at the railway stations is altogether avoided. The 
merits of this arrangement are so obvious, that we need not add our commendations to the 
foregoing description^ 



LONDON FIRES IN 1864.* 
Twenty-fourth Annual Report. By Mr. William Baddeley, C, E., Inventor qfthe Portable 
Canvas Cisterns, Improved Jet-spreaders, Farmers^ Fire-engine, 8fc, 

" The statittiei of London Fires are by no meant devoid of interest, and the time may come when 
they will form an index to the toclal advancement of the people ; for, In proportion as houses are built 
more and more fire-proof, and habits of carefulness become more and more difiViaed, the number of 
dettmctive fires will assuredly Ie8aen."~J:ii^U'« LomtUm, 



Scarcely any subject of domestic information had been so generally neglected, up to 
the commencement -of the publication of these '' annual reports," as the statiatics of fire. 

% 

* Since this paper was in the printer's hands, a very interesting article, headed, " Twenly Thousand 
Fires" founded upon Mr. Baddeley's Annual Reports, has appeared ia No. 57 of Chambers* •Journal.-' 
£o. H. H. 

H 2 



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M 



£bMdN 'Maa^tx'lKA: 



Although ihsJItmd-in'Hand, and levefral other Insurance offices sprung in<o existence at 
the close of the 17th, and the beginning of the 18th centnries, each office collected and 
kept to itself the statistics of its own solitary experience. - 

On the formation of the London Fire-engine EttabUskmentt a more perfect means was 
affiyrded for colleeting and recording, in a systematic manner, the statistics of London 
fires ; and the published results show the vast amount of useful and interesting informa- 
tion necessarily embodied in these records. A striking illnstration of l3iis is affiirded by 
the publication In the last number of the Quarterly Review of an article upon " Fires and 
Fite-ineurance/* in which the records of the past are worked up into one of ^e moat able 
and interesting papers ever published on the subject. 

Tb these records I have now the pleasure or adding those of another year, l!he conse- 
quences of which have been peculiarly imfkvdUrable to the Insurance offices ; especially 
m the proitittcin. London exhibits an increase in the number of its serious fires, as well 
as in the total number reported. 

The number of London fires in 1954, was 95S t being an inerekse of iSS upon the pre- 
vious year. The iata^ destroyed aNo showR an increase of 12, and the terhusly damaged 
an increase bf 66^ in the same period. ^ Of thtee fires, 258 were extinguished by the unaided 
efforts of the inmates of the premises ; 840 were extinguished by the inmates with caanal 
assistance ; while the extinction of 960 devolved npun the firemen. 

Parish engine-keepers have rendered useful and efficient aid on upwards of 55 oecanons. 

The following Ta«lb shows th^ Monthly Distribution of last Yeafs Fires: 



Konths. 


Number of 
Fir^s, 


FaUl Fires. 


Lites Lost 

■ 


Chimneys 
on Fire. 


Falae 
Alarms. 


January 


98 


1 


1 


9 


8 


February .. 


88 


5 


12 


12 


1 


March 


69 


t 


8 


9 


5 


April 


86 


1 


9 


18 





May 


64 


2 


2 


4 


7 


June 


89 


I 


I 


6 


7 


July 


T4 


6 





2 


6 


August .. ' .. 


80 








8 


18 


September 


n 





a 


5 


4 


October 


70 


1 


1 


9 


7 


November .. 


80 


4 


9 


12 


8 


December .• .. 


88 








7 


7 


953 


17 


88 


91 


79 



Instaacee in winch Imuran ees were known to have been effected ; 

Upon the buildings and contents •• .. *. 488 

Upon the building only . . . . . . # . 106 

Upon the contents only • . . . . . • • 98 

No insurance ... •. •«. •• •• 261 



Chimneys on Fire 
False alarms 



958 
91 
79 



Making the Total number of calls .; .. .. 1123 

The/atalftrt* of last year were of a peculiarly unfortunate character, and the loss of life 
great. These calamities were attributable to : 

" Ftrn. Lives Lost. 

PelkOBal accidents from the ignition of wearing apparel ..9 9 

„ „ „ fire sparks igniting bedding . . . . 3 8 

„ „ „ explosion of fireworks . . . . 2 7 

Inability to eaeape from burning bnildings, or killed in attempt- 

ing to do so . . . . • • • • • . . . 8 19 



17 



38 



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^cmoK'^mtA' m 1854. 



ISS 



Pefhftpt ho IkuI flr^ «fw presented Meh 
Ml tciamuUtioQDf untoward circumstanee* 
as that which broke out at five o^clook on< 
Tuesday -moming, Febniary 7th^ in Pf inces- 
streeti LeioMter^tquare, which terminated 
latalW to IM> less than nine persona. On 
the diaooT««y of the Are, a {>anic of feat pre« 
▼Mied the iinnateafifonni making- ihealightJ 
oateflbTtto e8eape» ahhoiig'h the premtsea 
^reaenied rniamal faeihtieg for doine so.. 
Tlio most rematfkahke oSrcumatanoo, how* 
ever, was that the panic ektended to ' the 
poHee and nttuerotts byttandeiis, .wte> atOod 
aa helpless as the jeopardised inmate*, to 
wliora they 'ofiaredno assistance.' Aftm* 
roprehen^Me delay, a- messenger was dis-- 
patched for the tonieook ^st, arid then for 
the parish engine of St. Aon's^ which mtd' 
found locked up under 'the care of the 
churchwarden, Kr. George^ Jfier thi$f the 
ircescape of Su James's paripji was sent 
for, but the conductor was away from his 
post, sad time was lost in looking after him, 
and an opposite neighbour "quite forgot*' 
heliada Udder on hjs premises until the 
fire waa extinguished.* During this eon- 
fiuaoa, a man preoipitaled hiraaclf from a 
seeond-floor window ^ roeeiving Iktal in. 
Jurieain his descent; while another maai> 
three women, and four children perished in 
the smoke and fiame8.v An i-nqnOst waa 
held before Mr: Bedford, the Coroder, when 
much indignation was eaptessed. at tlie 
official neglect, of which these nine persCBS 
had fallen Umt iriotiais. Mr. Qeol-ge, the 
ehurchwarden, .was sent for to explain the 
circumstances under which he had deprived 
the neighbourhood of the protection of their 
parish-CDgine, and of the services of a most 
experienced and efficient fireman. ■' Mr. 
George endeavoured to excuie himifelf upon 
the ground " that the parish-ekigineB were 
- now effete and useless, siid thai it was better 
to leave any fires that might occur, to be 
extinguished by \iiefin*brigadeJ*^ Where- 
upon, in conjunction wiUi the church- 
warden of S.t James'% they had agreed to 
lock up their engines. Mr. Braidwo^, at the 
request of the coroner, gave his opinion 
"that parisl^-engmes, if well managed, 
would be very useful, and might be the 
means of saving aq immense amount of lifo 
and property." After a lengthened in- 
quiry, which created a most intense in- 
terest, the jury returned a verdict, ** That 
the deceased persons died from burning, in 
the house of Ko. 1J>, Princt^-street, ott 
Tuesday last; but by* what me^iis the fire 
waa caused, there was no evidence to show. 
And that it waa their uniinimous opinion, 
that some plan should be immediately 
adopted to insure the efficient use of the 

• rMevol.60,p8geS00. 



parish-enghie at all times.** Mr. Bedford, 
the coroner, saidj '^ he quite agreed in that 
recommendation T at preseht the parish- 
engine was a complete mockery.'* Upon 
this, the Secretary of Stste for the Home 
I>epartment glive directions that the 
churchwardens of St. Anne's should be 
prosecuted, under the Act 14 Geo* III., 
c. 78. Accordingly, Mr. George was sum- 
moned before Mr. Hardwick, at Marlbo>. 
rough-istreet IPolioe-^court ; when Mr. Bod- 
kin, who ooodtioted the prosecution, said, 
*Uhail when Lord Falmerston heard of the 
calamitous fire In Princes-* street, he was 
horrf&ed at the details ; and on being in- 
formed of the absence of the parish-engine, 
and the cause, he directed proceedings to 
take place Against the parish authorities, 
with the intonation that it was his deter ^ 
raination to enfhroe the Act against all 
similsrly oflTending parishes, without ex- 
ception. Mr. George, haviug no grounds 
of defenee, and finding t^e law too strong to 
be disregarded with impunity, promised ac- 
quiescence for the ^t«re, and the summons 
was ordered to a tend over for a fbrtnight, on * 
the understanding that if the olTence now 
complained of tbeH existed, th^ full penalty 
of iSlO woikld be infiieted^ and an additional 
i)IO for every • day the ob^eciionahle state 
of things continued. Within the iortnighti 
the engine was put in efficient repair, the 
engine^keeper neinstated, and in- a few days 
afterwaarda promptly attended and extin- 
guished a five in the neighbourhood ! Some 
few parishes, warned by thefte pfroceedings, 
furbished up their antiquated engines; but 
no further judicial proceedings were insti- 
tuted, althuugh in many other parishes (St. 
James's, Westminster, fthd St. Andrew's, 
Holbom,' being notorious instances) the 
services of the parish-engines heve not been 
forthcoming for many years past. Another 
extensive human sacrifice to these Molochs 
may, perhsfps, call attention to the circum- 
stance. 

< The next fatal fire oOeilrred at half- past 
tiro' o'clock on Saturday mOrning, April 
21Hh, in the house of M^. Brosette, beer- 
shop and lodging-house keepeTi Colchester, 
street,' WhitechapeL At! the time of the 
outbreak) all the inmates were asleep in bed, 
and were aroused with difficulty to a sense 
of their danger. In a very few minutes, 
Conductor Wood was on the spot with the 
Royal Society's fire-escape; the fire was 
then r^gfng tliroughout the back of the 
house, and smoke pouring from all the ftoni 
windows. Wood instantly ascended, and 
entering the first-fioor room, which was on 
fire, he discovered Mr. Brosette, his wife, 
and three children, almost insensible from 
the smoke and heat Wood descended his 
ladder with Mrs. Brosette on Ms shoulders, 



Digitized by 



Google — 



126 



LOmON FIBB8 IN 1864 



and holding « ditld by its night-clothet in 
his mouth ; again ascending, he re-entered 
the room, and having enabled the father to 
escape, descended with a child under each 
arm. The whole building then became en- 
veloped in flames, rendering it impossible 
to extricate any of the other inmates. Be- 
fore the arrival of the fire-escape, a man 
jumped from the upper window, and died in 
the London Hospitalifrom injuries received 
in fiilling, and from burns. The bodies of 
eight male lodgers were ultimately dug out 
of the ruins ; and at a coroner's inquest 
held thereon, the jury returned the following 
verdict : — " That the deceased persons were 
burned to death in a house on fire, that 
occurred on the 29th of April last i but how 
and by what cause, no evidence hath ap- 
peared to the jurordk And the jurors cannot 
separate without expressing their deep sense 
of the services rendered by the fire-escape 
conductor, Wood* — ^the police, and others 
who rendered assistance in endeavouring to 
save the lives of all persons in danger ; and 
particularly of those persons who assisted in 
clearing the ruins, to discover the bodies 
buried therein." 

The third fatal fire, of this class, occurred 
on Sunday evenings November 19th, about 
7 o'clock, in Red-lion-street, Holbom. The 
premises, a double house, Nos. 59 and 60, 
belonged to Messrs. Arnold and Co., watch 
and clock manu&cturers. On the discovery 
of the fire, Mr. Jones, who occupied the 
second floor, succeeded in getting his wife 
and a child safely into the street ; but one 
child being left behind, the anxious mother 



re-entered the hooM unperoeived, and being 
unable to escape, both mother and son 
perished in the flames. 

Among the personal accidents from the 
ignition of wearing apparel, one was of a 
very peculiar and distressing character. On 
the 10th of March, the premises of Mr. 
Brown, artists* colourman, 260, Oxford- 
street, were wilfully set on fire in two places 
— in a vault and in a back workshop — about 
9 o'clock in the evening. The only persons 
on the premises being Miss Brown, a daughter 
of the proprietor, aged 20, and her grand- 
mother. On the discovery of the fire in the 
vault. Miss Brown in the most courageous 
manner attempted to extinguish it by throw- 
ing on water ; bat venturing too near, the 
flames communicated to her clothes, and she 
was so much burned that, after lingering 
several days in great agony, death terminated 
her suflEerings. A coroner's inquest returned 
the following verdict :— " That the deceased 
was burnt to death by the fire ; and they are 
of opinion that the premises were wilfully 
set on fire by some person or persons un- 
known." 

The Committee of Managers of the Ro^al 
Society for the ProUctim ^ Lift from Fire 
are enabled to look back upon the past year 
with much satisfaction to diemselves and to 
their subscribers. Three hundred and Jifiy-' 
one fires have been attended by one or more 
of their fire-escapes, accompanied by a brave 
and experienced conductor; and thirty-eight 
persons have, by their instrumentality, been 
rescued from imminent peril, no other mode 
of escape remaining, viz.. 



January 6th No. 78, Comhill 2 lives saved 

tf 8th 9, Union-street, Bishopsgate 2 „ 

„ Hth 1, Colchester-street, Whitechapel 10 „ 

April 2$th 33, Great Russell-street, Bioomsbury I „ 

„ 29th 1, Colchester-street, Whitechapel 6 „ 

May 28th 73, Snow-hill 1 „ 

July 14th 102, New-street, Gravel-lane, Houns- 

ditch 2 „ 

August 16th Messrs. Cubitt's Factory, Thames-bank i „ 

October 16th 1, Old-street-road, Shoreditch 2 „ 

November 25th 23, Lambeth-hill 4 „ 

December 3rd 3, Arundel-street, Strand 4 „ 

„ 17th 17, Drury-lane 3 „ 

„ 22nd 144, Edgware-road 1 

38 



Immediately after the lamentable loss of life in Princes-street, a deputation waited 
upon the churchwardens of St James's parish, and pointed out the public import- 



* It WM a most remarkable circumitanee that 
Wood rescued the same family, under similar cir- 
cumitanees, from the same building, on the llth 
January preceding; five other persons, lodgers, 
being alflo then saved. After the eecond fire, a 
meethig was held in Whitechapel, by the inhabit- 



ants of that locality, who expressed their high 
estimation of the fire-escape conductor's heroic 
services, by presenting him with the sum of £20, 
a silver watch bearing a suitable inscription, and 
a handsome Bible. 



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umnys KKBS » 1854 



187 



ance of placing their present useleM fire- 
escape* under the Society's uuna^einent i 
vetted iniertsU, howeTer, beinff interfered 
with by such an arrangement, ft Is postponed 
to a " more con? enieat season." In order, 
however, to guard as much as possible 
against a similar catastrophe, the Royal 
Society immediately established a fire-escape 
station in Conduit-streeti on the border of 
St. James's parish. 

During the past year, a fire-escape station 
has also been established in Tower-street, 
City, making the present number of stations 
forty-two. The Society hope, eventually, so 
to complete the firo>«Bcape arrangements of 
the metropolis, as to have one stationed 
throughout Uie night within a quarter of a 
mile of every house ; they are of opinion 
that fifty- five stations will eflbct this de- 
sirable end, and to supply the thirteen still 
wanted, is an objeot of the Society's greatest 
solicitude. To this end they are now de^ 
voting all surplus funds ; and to assist them 
in so desirable an objeot, they especially 



solicit the aid of the wealthy and humane. 
The benefits of a fire-escape station are so 
highly appreciated by the inhabitants of 
their several localities, that there is little 
doubt of their being well supported when 
once established. '* To make this excellent 
scheme complete," says the writer, in the 
Quarterly Review^ <' only thirtoaa stations 
have now to be Mtablisbod, at a eoet of 
about eighty pounds each; the charitable 
could not give their money in a more worthy 
cause than in furnishing these districts, in 
which many thousands of inhabitantg are 
atill exposed to the naoat horrible of aU 
deaths." The greateat practical difilculty 
the fire-escape conductors have to contend 
with, is the great and unpardonable delay 
which is too often permitted to occur befote 
their services are applied for. In very many 
cases of fire, the routine adopted by those 
whose doty it is to know better, is to eall 
firtt the turncock, then the /b^ougmoM, and 
lastly thefire-eteapel 



The following tabular analysis exhibits, in each instance, the occupancy of that part of the 
premises in which the fire originated, illustrating the comparative liability to accident 
by fire of various trades, manufactories, and private dwellings : 



Vy 



OceupatioQ. 



Apothecaries, and dealers in drugs, but 
no chemical works carried on • 

Bakers 

Boat and barge builders 

Bath keeperf) 

Beershops 

Booksellers, binders, and stationers 

Bottle merchanU 

Brewers 

Brokers, and dealers in old clothes 

Builders 

Butchers 

Cabinetmakers 

Cane dyers 

Caoutchouc manufacturers . 
Carpenters and workers in wood . 

Chandlers 

Charcoal and coke, dealers in 
Chnrehes and chapels .... 
Cheesemongers ~. . . . . 
ChentJsU, ueing l%boratories . 
Coachmakers 

Coal ttterchspts 

Cofiee-shops and chop-houses 
Coopers 



Totally 
Destroyed. 



Seriously 
Damaged. 



4 
9 

1 
10 
10 



2 
3 

9 
2 

20 
13 



Slightly 
Damaged. 



6 

11 

2 

2 
16 

1 
\ 
3 

1 
5 

1 
21 
19 
1 
2 
8 
2 
1 

£ 

8 
6 



Total. 



10 

20 

2 

1 

13 

26 

I 

1 

fi 

10 

1 

15 

2 

1 

46 

32 

1 

3 

8 

8 

a 

8 

10 

8 



• TM inntflity of this ttarlih Mcave frss painftiUy manifested at fatal fires in Wardonr-stMet, 
8obo, oUe v(d. 50, pan 200} and fei MooP4treet, 8oho, Hde vol. ffS, ps^e 184, as well as at the more 
recent catastrophe in Frlnces-stieet. 



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tOlBMiX VIBMB IN 1854. 



Oeeupationf* 




X)aauged. 




Total. 



Cmrnehuidlers . . > . 
Currien «nd lesther-dretaen 
DifltiUtts . . . . 
, tar . . . 



I>«ok8 . . . . 
Braperiy lin«n and woollen . 
Drumsts, wholeiale 
DwdlingB, private (lodgffiga, 97) 

Dyera 

Bating Jiontea 

Bngineera, meehUnioal . * 
Fartning stoek 
FellmoDgera . . • 
Firewood inaniifiiotmry, patent 
Firework-makera . « . 
Flax-dresaen . - . 

Foundera .... 
French warebousesi fancy 
Farriers and skin-dyers 
Oas- works . ' . 

Glass-blowers 

Grocers ..... 
Hat-makers .... 
Hemp-dtessdrs 
Horsehair merchants -. , • 
Hotels and club-houses 
Ink-makers .... 
Japanners .... 
Laundresses .... 
Lucifer-matoh-makers . 
Lunatic asylums . 
Marine stores, dealers in 
Mattress-makers . 
Milliners and dressmakers 
Mnsieal instrument* makers . ' 
Oil and colourmen ; not colour 
Painted baize-makers . 
Painters, nlumbers, and glaziets 
Pastrycooks and confectioners 
Pawnbrokera 

Pipemakers .... 
Playing-oard-makera . 
Pork-butchers -, 
Printers, letter-press 

, copper-plate . 

Public places of r^ort (not theatres) 

Rag-merchants 

Railways 

Rope«>makers 

Sail-makers . 

Sale- shops, and officea . 

Sack-makers 

Saw-milla, ateam . 

Schools 

Ships . • ' . 

— -, ateam • 



-makers 



2 

1 
2 
I 
9 

a 

62 
2 
2 
2 
8 



I 

2 

I 

6 
3 
11 
1 
2 

1 

1 



6 

1 
2 
2 
2 
4 
1 
12 

8 
1 
1 
I 



16 
6 

1 

2 



4 
1 
6 
2 
20 

2 

1 
1 

1 

1 
9 



2 

8 

1.' 

33 
2 
2 
1 



6 

2 
8 

2. 

1 
26 
8 
298 
8 
§ 
6 
& 
I 
1 

1 
4 
2 
4 
2 
2 
8 
8 
2 
2 
5 
1 
3 
1 
1 
2 
8 
1 

11 
6 

81 
1 

-4 
I 
2 
1 
1 
1 

12 
1 
2 
8 
8 
8 
1 

48 
2 
6 
8 
1 
1 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



aooam^^ ,4911)^ mmr^^fmrnfi, k«v 



xm 



Oo«viMtipp. 



ToUHy 

Dettroyed. 



Seriously 
Damaged. 



Slightly 
Damaged. 



Total. 



Ship-bnildert 

ehaodkra 

Soot meiebaots 

Subles 

Straw boiaet-maken . 

Sugar refiners 

TaSors. 

Tallow -chandlers, melters, 

boilers • - . 
Tanners 

Tarpaulin mannfactarers 
Theatres 

Tinmen, braziers, and smiths 
Timber merchants 
Tobacconists 
Toy warehouse 
Type-founders 
Unoocupied . 
Under i«pair or building 
Upholsterers 
Vamish-maikers . 
Victuallers, licensed 
Wadding manufacturers 
Warehouses . 

, Manchester 

Waterproof canvas-makers 

Weavers 

Wharfingers . 

Whiting-mahcrs . 

Windmill . 

Wine and spirit merchants 

Wool-staplers 

Workhouses . 

Workshops, not haxardous 

Total . 



and 



soap 



1 

1 
10 



4 
1 
1 
2 
1 
8 



32 I 807 

{To be eonthim^) 



9 

1 

B 



4 
7 
4 
I 
28 



4 
8 

8 

1 

2 
1 
1 
1 



«14 



1 
2 
8 

17 
1 
1 

17 

8 
1 

t 
2 

14 
2 
8 
1 
1 
4' 
8 
9 
1 

88 
« 1 
1 
6 
4 
8 
8 
I 
I 
4 
1 
2 
2 



953 



SOCIETY Oy ARTS,, MANUFACTURES, ETC. 



BPBOIAL PRIZES. 



In addition to the General Premium List, 
the Council has detennined to offer speoial 
prizes as follow : 

For two pounds of the best and finest 
PtAX THREAD, spun by machinery, suitable 
for lace-makiogt Tweniy-Jive pcmtutSf or a 
Gold Medal rfihe tame value, 

NoTC-^The Conmitt«e of tbc Normal Lace 
School of Ireland will be requested to re- 
port on the speeiment tabmitted. 

For the best Essay on the Means of Pre* 
venting the nuisance of suoKti arising 
from lUos and fumaces; treating the subject 
pmrtScttHyv r^itmmg the various plans 



which hsve bj^en put forth as remediei^ with 
the ezperienoe of their success or friluze^ 
and the results of their adoption as to e;|r 
pense or economy, in erection and in working* 
The legislative measures necessary for the 
prevention of the nuisance, and the- causea 
of the failure of the local acta for its sup* 
pression* should also form part of the Essay. 
Tvfeniyfive pounds^ or a Gold Medal rf the 
tame value* 



I Mngroing prtsas of £15 eSch, 

losd by BeQJsmla OOvlsra, 

the dlspMsI of tlM Oeuiea 



NovjB.— -The two tingoing 
have been pUuMd ' 

Sk-i M.P., at the _, 

for prenUome duxlng the year 184^. 



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180 



M Um(KfEt> WBOWH^lftOIf PDSMIf • 



For a COMPOSITION for the feeding rol- 
lers used in pnnting paper-hangings hj 
cylinder machineryi similar in consistency 
and action to those used in letter-press 
printing, but adapted for working in water- 
colours. The Society*s Medal and five 
poundi. 

NoTK.<— This preniom hu been placed at the 
disposal of the Council by t. M. Hubert* 
Ssq. 

For a " School" MicRoscori, to be sold 
to the public at a price not exceeding 
lOs. 6d. The Society's Medal 

To be a simple microscope, furnished with 
powers as low as those of a pocket-magnifier, 
for the purpose of observing flowers, insects, 
&c., without dissection. The lenses should 
range from two inches to one-eighth of an 
inch ; the focal a^ustment to be by rack* 
work, extending sufficiently above the stage 
to allow a thick object to be brought under 
the lowest power. It should be furnished 
with plyers, a concave mirror, and an illu« 
minating lens, also a live box, or instead of 
it, two or three glass cells of different depths, 
a few slips of common glass, and a few pieces 
of thin glass for covers. 

Makers are requested to state at what 
additional price they will undertake to sup- 
ply a doublet of l-16th or l-20th of an 
mch, appHcable to any instrument as above 
described. 

For a Teacher's or Student's micro- 
scope, to be sold to the public at a price not 
exceeding 3^ 3t, The Society^ Medal. 

To be a compound Achromatic Micro- 
scope, with two eye-pieces and two object 
glasses, one magnifying 120 diameters with 
the lower eyepiece, the other magnifying 
25 diameters with the lower eye-piece. It 
should be furnished with a diaphragm, having 
Tarious-sized openings, mirror, side illnmi- 
nator, live box, forceps stage and case. 

In the event of the Medal being awarded, 
the Council is prepared to take 100 of the 
smaller and 50 of the larger Microscopes, at 
the trade discount 

The instrument! for which the medals 
shall hare been awarded will be retained by 
the Society as standards, and the successful 
competitors must enter into a guarantee to 
supply their Microscopes at the foregoing 
prices, anf of equal quality with those re- 
tained, aftd to change them if not found 
satiafaptory. 

The Council, in all cases, expressly re- 
serves the power of withholding the Pre- 
mium or Medal altogether, should the Essays 
and articles sent in competition not be oon- 
sidsMd workhy of rewanL 
' TIm Essays and Arti<?Ies intended tot com- 
petition, must be delivered, addressed to the 



Secretary, at the Society's house, free of 
expense, on or before the 1st of May, 1855. 
By order, 
P. Le Neve Foster, Secretary, 

Society's House, Adelphi, London, 
Jan. Slat, 1855. 

EXHIBITION OF INVENTIONS. 

The Seventh Annual Exhibition of In- 
ventions is fixed to open to the public on 
Monday, the 2nd of April next. These Ex- 
hibitions of the Society have now for lo long 
formed part of its general action, and are so 
well known, that it is scarcely necessary to 
enlarge on the object and advantages of 
forming the collection. It may, however, 
be stated, that the importance of exhibitiona 
of this character has long been pointed out, 
and the experience of the Great Exhibition 
afforded the unmistakeable testimony of 
fact in support of the arguments in favour of 
their utility. 

Limited as the Society's Exhibitions ne- 
cessarily are, being dependent entirely on 
j the voluntary assistance of the inventor* 
themselves, they at least show the practi- 
cability of the idea, whilst their utility haa 
been unauestioned. It is hoped that mem- 
hers and others will exert themselves to 
render the forthcoming Exhibition as com- 
plete as possible. 

Articles for exhibition, consisting of spe- 
cimens, models, and drawings of invention^ 
must be sent in not later than Monday, the 
19th March, and applications for space by 
intending exhibitors should be made to the 
Secretary as early as possible. 



AN IMPROVED WROUGHT-IRON 
PISTON. 

BY MR. J. E. M*CONNELL, OP WOLVERTON.* 

This piston is« constructed entirely of 
wrought iron, and i^ is forged in one piece 
with the piston-rod, by means of which the 
ordinary joint between the piston and 
piston-rod is avoided, and a great saving of 
weight is effected. 

The construction is shown by the accom. 
panying engraving, which represents an 
18-inch piston for a locomotive engine. 
Fig. 1 is a transverse section of the piston. 
Fig. 2, a sectional plan, showing the interior 
on a more reduced scale. Tiie body of the 
piston, A A^ is ^ circular disc of wrought- 
iron, which is ferged under the steam-^ham- 
mer, with a portion of tho piston-rod, B, 
formed upon it, about 9 Inches ldng« to 



< Bead at the Institution ef Meehantel Bngl- 
neerSf'Binningham. 



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mnOTXD WBOnOHT-IMll K8T0II. 
Kg.l. 



131 



which the piaton-rod if afterwards welded. 
The circular ring, C C, is also raised upon 
the disc in the forging, thus completing 
the body of the piston in one solid piece of 
wrought-iron. The wrought-iron oorer 

Fig. 2. 



D D, is screwed into the ring, C C, by a 
single thread, cut upon the projecting rim, 
£ £, on the inner side of the coTer. The 
cover is dished in the centre, as well as the 
body of the piston, so that the two sides 
meet in the centre, to diminish the weight 
of materiaL 

The packing consists of two plain brass 
rings, F F, lined with a thin steel hoop, O, 
whicii fit into a shallow recess on the inside 
of the brass rings. The four steel springs, 
H H, are set out against the packing, by 
set screws fixed in the ring of the piston, 
C C. The fifth set screw is attached to a 
solid block, I, which is placed at the bot- 
tom of the piston, and serves to itipport the 
weight of the piston, to prevent it from 
fluting the cylinder. 

Two holes, K K, are provide In the d6t^ 
fbr the pnrpose of unse^ew?pg ft' 'bj^ Ihei^ifs 
of a bar passed throdjfh eith^f hdle,^, and 



bearing at the point in a series of holes, 
L L, sunk in the opposite side of the piston. 
The holes, K K, are closed by brass screwed 
plugs, which are kept from turning by a 
thin brass plate, M, fixed by split pins, as 
shown in the detached plan, fig. 3. This 
plate also secures the brass locking-nut, N, 
for preventing the cylinder, cover fh>m un- 
screwing ; the thread of this nut is right- 
handed, whilst the main thread of the cover 
is left-handed. 

Fig. 3. 




The weight of this piston, including th^ 
piston-rod, is 217 lbs. for the size shown, 
18 hiohes diameter, which is 89 lbs. lighted 
than the ordinary construction of plslbn^'df 
the same size, weighing 306 lbs. The Weigl^t 
of a 16.inoh wrought-iron piston and fo& h 
100 lbs., being 47 lbs. lighter thaiii the o^" 
dinary construction. 

This saving of weight affnbunts to 1781bs^ 
in the pair of IS-inoh pistons, ihd 94 Ibs.;M 
the 16-ineh pistons, which is a point of 'dljn- 
siderable importance ilt the high t^eed df 
600 to 800 feet per ndlnute, Ht ifhioh loco- 
motive-engine pistons ar)^ driven; tne eon- 
sequent reductibn' of Mbm^ntdM adding to 
the dlirabiliiy- of the working par^ by re- 
dueing the strain Upon tiiem, as Weil as 
diminishing the disturbing efieot upofi the 
motion of the engine. 

The solid construction of this piston 
avoids Mil risk of accident from th^ pisto^ 
%8fkiri^ loi>s4 tipoti the rod, which ih ihe 
'^Prdihary cdiistrudion is liable i6 cause the 
^AclUte of th^ pyiiTid^k' coveflrt, and tptnt-^ 
"^fhiei ihdre extWisive injui-y. ' 
" "1116*6 art upwards of loo of these 'pistoos 



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now in user "-^^ some of them have been at 
work for two years. The lightness of the pis- 
ton, and the accuracy of a^uttment main- 
tained throughout, in consequence of the ab- 
sence of joints and loose parts in the construe- 
tion, allow the brass packing-rings to be worn 
down to a greater extent than usual, before 
requiring renewal. These rings (of which 
specimens were exhibited to the meeting) 
have been worn down to ^th inch from the 
original thickness, Jths inch, and lasted 
twelve months in constant work. 



ON PROPULSION BY JETS OF 
WATER. 

to ih$ 'Editor (^ the Mechanics* Magtaine, , 
Sib, — Your vtide on the above subject, 
in the last member of your Magazine, has, 
I assuxp ypu, been, read with much interest 
by .many who . h^ve . recently interested 
themselves in several systems jof jet propul- 
slop brought prominently before the public. 
It lyppears to me that tf Mr» Qravatt's rear 
soningsfWTf; fjolly disposed of> we shall not 
have occasion to trouble ourselves much- 
with these various systems, although one at 
least of them has been backed up by a pow- 
erful company ; for Mr. Gravatt ia almost 
the only inventor who bases his contrivance 
on mathematical investigations, and chaU 
lebges others to discuss his theory^ I 4m 
xipt now about to attempt to add to the ful- 
neteof y^ur able remarks already referred 
to, but purpose ^ply ofibring a consider- 
ation or two, which occurred to me on 
ceding :.>Cr*,6rAvaU's pul^hed letterj to 
hiaXnencU I xna^ be in. error ia my opi- 
nions, ^o,^ H so, eltffU be most ba|>py to 
receive oorrectioiu.. . , 

In tli? Urst plaoe, I SM. quite^jst j| loss to 
discover wW possible, advantagQ cem be 
gained by lempioyijjg ateam jiewer . kn iht 
manner proposed by Mrt..Gcavatt{ via^ in 
foreiiig water tbrou£^ an orifice, by raising 
tbe .water ^p a ceruin diAtance aud theq 
allojviug It to fell 4owiJ agAin. Ho wf not 
fill know that we must do precisely the 
pame worpt tp raise ;« given body of walei 
through a height h^ as gravity does in ear- 
qring it down through the same height? 
Apd if so,, where is the use of Mr. Gravatt's 
tank and its appendegesZ Why should be 
not employ liis stean} power in the much 
more convenient method of forcing the 
water directly through the orifice ? 

I very clearly see that, as you sayi " Mr. 
GravattU grand point ia bis auumptUn that 
* the,cpunter pressure o( an effluent stream of 
water is doubU the pressure of the column c^ 
the fluid due to the velocity/ '* and I also 
fancy I aee^ that this Js hie grand error also. 



But even taking his " cataract*' example 
surely that gentleman must admit that it 
can matter but little whether the preasure 
on the sides of the vessel about the orifice 
is produced by the action of gravity upon 
the fluid above, or by the action of a steam- 
driven piston. 

But, without insisting upon this point, I 
am bound to say, that I am Sn the condi- 
tion you predicted, Sir, and find myself 
quite unable to deem the explanation (pro- 
fessedly borrowed from Newton) of the 
al)ove " grand ' point " satisfectory. ; I do 
not know, at present, whether, in 1686, 
Newton taught, that when an orifice is 
opened in the bottom of a vessel contain- 
ing a fluid, the bottom itself is relieved of a 
pressure ^val to twice the.we^h;^ of the 
columa of fluid superincumbent above the 
orifipei J can only say, that I suspect Mr. 
Gravatt haa .seriously misapprehended some* 
thing, that Newton really did teach; and I 
am inclined to receive thiis explanation of 
the matter, from (he fact, that, in tlie de- 
monstration given by Mr. Gravatt, on page 
8 of his letter, the cataract (F G H i) is 
<lragged in so unceremoniously, and the 
steps of the integpration performed are given 
so rudely, that the whole matter eeemH. to 
be but imperfectly comprebeBded 1>^ tlie 
writer. The ** other demonstration '^ whicb 
follows the former, also points, in my judg-^ 
ment, to the san^e fact, from the earieusi 
way in which the symbol, /, appears indis. 
iprlminately in velocities, forees, spaces, &c« 
\ Now, a word or two about the *' Medea " 
example. Taking p s pressure in lbs., to 
keep the boat at the velocity v^, and ns»the 
ratio of tf^ to v,, and employing for the 
remaining elements, the notation preserved' 
by you in your article, ailer getting out 
certain values from his^ ibrmulse, Mr. Gra- 
¥%tt goes on to say :— " Now, without going 
iuctber, take jf», an exampjle. the * JAe^p^' 
paddle-wheel steam frigate.^' (slpop?} " of 
848 tUAs burdea and. 14r-5 feet draught, 
where i^ has been aaid, , 

p-»4500.1bs., ©^=16, 

and the horse power 220, but which, I .be^* 
lieve, is nearer 8S0. 



Let i»«^l-5, thenp«16«Oj -4500, 
or, a^al7'6» Rndiig»ll7 
: frj«16; Vg^24!.' 
The horse power 
-^^Xl^6xl6» = 164 nearly. 

This result is, of course, e^cclu si ve of fric- 
tions; but here is a large margin, altbopigh 
n is not taken so small as it might be; and 
when we eopsider the dw^ugbt for thia mode 



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INVESTIGATION'Or TBM MOON'S MOTION. 



18Si 



of frapokkm need not bo xaate tban 4 

Now, I should liko to know the ▼ahis of 
thnf where it has been said." Whoeeid 
it f And how it was obtained^ ? It appears 
to me, that it eonld only have been anrited 
at by makings certain deduotions from the 
indicated horse-power ; and, if so, what im* 
poTtance is to be attached to it f 

Perfeetiy agreeing with Ml. GraTstt, as to 
the geneial ^sadvsBtages of paddle-wheels 
in ships of war, and the inapplicability of 
serews to vessels of shallow draught, I am, 
nevertheless, unable to believe thst he has 
not totally misconceived the real merits 
and demerits of jet^propulaioii. 

1 am. Sir, youm, &e., 

Obsbavbii. 

Fetamaiy 5, 18ff&. 

--— ♦^ — ^ 

INVBSTIGATION OF THE MOON'8 

MOTION.* 

(Coneluded Crom p. 840 
To the Editor qf, the Mechanics' M(agaxine, 
Sir, — We have hitherto- considered the 
moon in the same mannet aa weare aeens- 
tomed to consider ths'^mpatatively small 
bodies with whieh we- meet ea the serfaoe' 
of the earth, -and' we have been led to the 
oonclosion that no point in it possesses .the 
es of the -eentseof gravity of.suth 



Neverthelees we «an show (tlie hypo* 
Uiesis of die moon being a perfect bonio*> 
gctieoas sphcce still 'subsisting) that the 
moon would rotate oniforttily on any one of 
ita diameters; for if no forces whatever 
act on the moon, such a osotion will ton- 
tinne^ when once begun, in eonsequettce of 

• I am not scqusinted with Mr. Evan Hopkins' 
new theories, but it will be teen from the present 
paper tbst nty beliirf Ys, that a meebanleal exp1&n*i 
tioD of the peenUsilty of the mom's motion «an be 
. given. BtiiBboldl^ in^ his " Koamos." has already 
giren such an expUnalion ; but the hypotheses he 
mskes to that end do not seem to have found favour. 
(See Edimbutgh Bniett, Ko. 175, page I9S, and 
8te J. Heischel's *' Ontllnes «r Aatroneny." 4th 
edition, page 262.) The celebrated Daniel Ber«- 
nonllli, Sn his '* TraiK iur U Flux et R^u* de la 

Mer{ S}H$ertaH»nn gtut Ptmrnio fiirteohde- 

cmraiai^eelthH PuriiUmH SeU aU ar m m AcadMndd,**) 
says;— (I fiMind .this vrorh only four days ago at 
the Cambridge University Llbrair, at the end of an 
edition of Hewton's " Prinelpia,*'^ published at Ge- 
neva in 1741)— *'ira*« quell* %die 9 pnO^^ itUor 
c*er~(speakins ef the wordt^C««<r* dt 9r99U4) 
JorsqMiS ta petanieur ett inigaU dans le$ diffrentei 
parties iu cftrps 7 Tln'pa auenn point ators qu*on 
fmisse nitmtwur M, qmeSqae d^nition oS'm* dbnne A 
ee tmt," And a Uftile farther, speaking, of the pe- 
eallarlty of the moon's motion:— "^aand nUms 
la lune seraU parfailemenl homogine, *a teule figure, 
jjoinie i fintgaliii de petantew de »e» parHea aen it 
cemtre d4 id terf, pearroil wtim0prodtttr»tepMa»- 
mine ea fSMiKeS.." B9 dsea not, however, oaxry 
out a f^U proof of hia assertion. These quotations, 
ftom aneh an anthotity, couflrming what I said 
before, may well justify my eentlnuing here my 
Investigation.— C. J. E* „ 



inertiii; and, aooordihg to D^Alembert's 

principle, this motion will not be disturbed 
if we add the two forces, C G, C E (fig. 1, 
the centre C being at rest, and the earth 
rotating on axis, AX and therefore, accord* 
ing to our principle (on page 82) such 
rotatiott can exist when C revolves round 
the eostfa. 

Now it is time to consider the moon sS it 
is in reality, viz., as an ii^perfeot heteroge- 
neous sphere (not even composed of homo- 
geneous concentric shells). The rotation 
we have just been speaking of is no mora 
possible I for only bodies enclosed by ear- 
faces of revolution can- rotate on an axis so 
as to oconpy eonstsntly the same space 9 
and besides, the resultant of the attractions 
from the earth would now vary with evevy 
position of the moon, thereferci not eon- 
stsntly cut its- axiS) and oonsequently dis- 
turb the rotation* This isCrue, whstever 
point be now tahen to replace Uie former 
moon's centre. Applying our princi)^, 
we conclude now also that the T«yd oaeon 
can only revolve round the earth's centre 
as if it was rigidly conneoted.to that point. 

And, lastly, a word more on our principle 
itself. I shhll choose the moon's motion 
for exemplifying its meaning; 

. We leier again to- figu 1. The moon is at 
rest, and the earth rotates unifonnly on ita 
axis, projected at A. Take the latter axis 
as AXIS of y!, A E as axis of c, nnd a peff]id)i- 
dicuiar to the plane, yA J, drawn thtough, 
A, as axia of sr. Now, suppose another 
movable oystem of oo>*ordinates produced by 
chtnging in the fitat, 4-x into ^«, and by 
letting the same system be carried on by 
th^ earth in its rotatiou. Entirely disre* 
garding now the first system, let us refisr 
lig. 1 to the second. Then ^e and the 
same dynamical phenomenon has occurred 
in two different systems of co-ordinates ; and 
since the use of an^ such' sy stent is only to 
fix space for us, j( I may use th^t«xpref si^n 
(absolute space being as inconceivable to us 
as absolute motion), the mesDing of Saying 
that ttom different causes bodies have the 
same dynamical relation, must be quite 
clear. 

Tnking, now, the first system of Co- 
ordinates again, we see that the transmit- 
ting of the said dynamical phenomenon to 
the new system has produced the following 
effects: — Firstly, to bring the earth at rest; 
secondly, to produce the oflen-defined mo« 
tion of the moon ; thirdly, to engender a 
new centripetal force, equal in Intensity to 
and coinciding in direction with C 6. This 
new force being equal and directly opposite 
to the <ft7/ subsisting force, C E, we may. 



the "influen'ce of the ' iln altered atti'iibtibn> 

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IH 



SA9ECT VAXiVttS* 



C O, from tb« eMtb, ia •onfirmation of our 
prineiple. 

I might apply the Mm« prinoiple to the 
conaidention of the elliptieftl motion of 
the moon loond the earth, and show that 
only the xegnlarly reeurring phenomenon of 
libratien interferes with our abore oonolu* 
sions ; which phenomenon may in faot be 
called simply a gmrmttrioal eonseqnenee of 
elliptio revolution. We oan, however, con- 
aider the discussion of this point as belong* 
ing to a general investigation of elliptiMl 
motion* 

From a moral point of view, it also seems 
natural that the motion of a satellite should 
dius be a subordinate one. The agreement 
of a meohanieal law with a moral proposi* 
tion, can only be a display of the infinite 
wisdom of Him who created all things. 

The reaaon why the present inveetigation 
cannot be applied to the case ef the sun and 
planets, is, that the latter appear so very 
small, as seen from the first, that there ean 
be no objection to speak of their centre of 
gravity. And why does not the earth show 
always the same faee to the moon ? Be- 
eause the gravity of the earth towards the 
moon is so small in comparison to the mass of 
the earth, that the trifling variations ef this 
gravity can only produce a very small peri- 
odical perturbation in the earth's ensting 
rotation. 

This is, Sir, what I have judged indis- 
pensable for making my investigation an 
intelligible wlwk. Having done this, I 
shall on no account write to you any more 
cm the subject, for fear I might, indirectly, 
revive a controversy, which is disagreeable 
to you, and, no doubt, to moat of your 
readers. I am. Sir, yours, &c., 

^ C. J. Rbcoedon. 

Csmbridge, Feb. I, INf. 

"♦ 

SAFETY-VALVES. 

To the Ediiar rf the Meehaniet* Magazine, 

Sir, — I am glad to see from the tone of 
the letters published in vour journal, that 
attention is likely to be drawn to the num- 
ber of *' Re-inventions " that are constantly 
appearing before the public. The examples 
of similarity are too numerous to mention, 
but I cannot refrain from drawing a parallel 
between two inventions (one of which waa 
specially mentioned in your journal a short 
time ago) for a more efficient safety-valve. 
I could give the names of the patentees and 
the date% but this would not add anything 
to the facta. The principle of the just- men- 
tioned valves it as follows: The valve is 
made perfectly spherical, and rests upon a 
narrow " seat " of brass let into the top of 
an upright stapdardpipe, fixed on the boiler. 
Tik%yf^^ T^mfei&z ik^M^iure is sus- 
M>Wi|i;<>'3t.Jto..PMt..'0tt,th^j^alj%,,f)r by 
means of a saddle made to form a cap for 



the valve. In on« case they an tvapended 
from the lugs, by means of a pipe of larger 
diameter than the standard above-men- 
tioned, and having an aperture in the top 
for the escape of waste steam. In the othev 
caae they are suspended by four rods, and 
the weights are east in segmenta. Now the 
only oSier difference between these two 
valves consists in one being enoased in a 
shell, with a whistle to act by the escape of 
the waste steam, and the other having the 
weighta exposed, the steam escaping at once 
without noise: still they each profess to 
claim the spherical vahe, having 4lie weighta 
so suspended to be used for such purpose. 
In this case, how are the public and users 
to judge who is the true inventor, or whom to 
pay patent right to ? This, Sir, is only one 
BoUtary case ; but, as I said before, there are 
many such parallels in the inventive world, 
take any direction you wilL Look, fer in- 
stance, at the numerous arrangements for 
that all-absorbing question, " smoke com- 
bustion." Again, see the number of such 
cases in connection with the steam engine 
and boiler. Sinoe the adaptations of the 
steam engine made by Watt, how many 
patents have been obtained for all kinds of 
imag^ary improvements, and yet in what 
distinetive feature does the steam engino 
differ now from what it was when it first 
left his master mind t Some slight altera- 
tions and additions may certainly have been 
made ; but to term idl improvements,, is 
simply preposterous. Now in all this ** mul- 
tiplication-table " system of invention, you 
will admit, there is a great amount of true 
and energetic talent wasted, that might, and 
would be, avoided by a scrutinising exa« 
mination of the inventors' claims to novelty, 
before the patent is granted at all. The 
patent agent ought also to render all his ex- 
perience and advice to warn the inventor 
that his indention is or is not new. 

I doubt not the publication of the speci- 
fications by the " Commissioners" as at pre- 
sent done, will remove some of the evils 
under which all intending patentees labour ; 
but yet these are not quite so accessible as 
they might, and must be, before the above . 
state of the ease is improved. Certainly we 
could do very well without a " great host" 
of the re-inventions now so prominently 
put forth ; the great minority containing no 
new principle, but being simply a slight 
(very slight) alteration, for the purpose of 
swaUowing up the share of the patent right. 

I shall be glad to see the matter brought 
conspicuously before inventors, and the'pub- 
iio geaerally^ and as your aid in. WQjmb 
•ases i» freely gii^en^it will not require me 
to ask fbr the Insertion of this letter. 
I am, $ir, your^, &o>« 

Bngiheba. 

Maneheiter, Jan. 51, 18M. 



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185 



PRODtTCTS PROM COAL- 
BENZINE. 
Tbb following letter by Dr. Hofmann haa 
been elicited by a diaousaion in the pagea of 
tko JmtnuU qf ih$ Soehty rf Artt^ aimilar to 
tkat already publiahed by ouraeWea, on the 
above subject I 

Sir,— I notice in your Journal, No. 110, 
page 104, a letter by Mr. Mansfield, quoting 
and remarking on a passage from a paper 
by Mr. F. Grace Cakert, in a former num- 
ber. I abaenre alao, at page 131, a note 
ftma Mr. Calvert in answer to this letter. 

I am exceedingly unwilling, and it ia 
quite contrary to my habit, to take part in 
controreray. I am not now about to break 
my rule, but I feel bound to aak you to in« 
aert the following remarks in your next 
number. I think it my duty to do so, not 
only on general grounds of justioe, but be« 
cause tiie experiments of Mv« Mansfield, to 
which he refers in the letter whioh I first 
mentioned, were made by that gentleman in 
my laboratory, at the Royal College of 
Chemistry, and because I watched the tedi* 
one process which Mr. Mansfield patlentlv 
oanied on for many months, and by which 
he obtained, amongst other interesting re- 
sults, the foots which he truly states to have 
been hia diseovery. 

I am disposed to regret the tone of 
warmth which appeats in Mr. Mansfield's 
letter. I must, however, point out, that the 
few words in which Mr. Calvert replies to 
Mr. Mansfield's strictures in no way meet 
die objection which Mr. Mansfield raises to 
Mr. Calvert's sutement eoneernlDg *' Ben- 
sine.'* The chief points to which Mr. 
Mansfield calls attention in his letter, are 
cireumstaneea of scientific history and of 
literary fact He appeals on this matter to 
the only tribunal wUch can consider it^ 
that of science. 

Such questions as the following are not 
subjects for Courts of Law: Are '*Ben. 
aine" and "Benaole" accepted synonymet 
Who gave the name *' Benzine '* to a pro- 
duct contained in coal-naphtha 7 Is ** Ben- 
aine " co^.naphtha purified, or is it a pecu- 
liar substance ? Who first found ** Benaine " 
in useftil quantity in coal-naphtha? Who 
first pointed out its utility as a solvent of 
greaae and as a detergent ? Who first in- 
tied need it into England ? 

These are the main pofnta raised in Mr. 
Mansfield's letter agamst Mr. Calvert'a 
alateinent. The answers to these questions 
are mattets of history^ and not of law ; and 
I am bound to declare, that the assertions 
made by Mr. Mansfield regarding these 
poiqta are in every respect exactly correct. 

fits trne that Mr. Mansfield, jn hia let- 
ter) rttset by implication a secondary ques- 



tioui as to the validity of Mr. Calvert'a 

recent patent. On this question, of course, 
I have nothing to say; this is simply a 
matter for legal decision ; but, in the pre* 
sent ease, it is only a subordinate question, 
and to merge the first dispute in the second, 
which is altogether beside it, appears to me 
an evaaion of the point at issue. 
I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

A. W. HoFlf ANN. 

Beyal College of QMiaistry, Jan. S4, 1865. 



ARMSTRONG'S SMOKELESS FUR- 
NACE. 
To the Editor rf the Mechamcs' Magazine, 
Sin, — Seeing in your laat week's ** Pro- 
visional Specifications not proceeded with," 
one for consuming smoke (p. Il5)t to which 
my name is attached, will you allow the 
correction of an error in the abstract there 
given. You say, **the inventor proposes 
to feed the furnace through a certain pas- 
sage with air heated by passing between 
the fire-bars and a JUed plate." Now the 
word ** fixed" ought to have been ** tno90able, 
and turning upon a joint or hinge,'' which 
aie tba actual words used in the specifica- 
tion ; an important difierence you will ad- 
mit, and curious from the fact thf t it waa 
alleged to infringe on previoua patents, with 
JUed plates in a similar position. 
I am. Sir, youra, 9io,, 

ROBEET ARHaTROMG. 
M, FtachuTc1i<stffeet, Fe1>. B, I85f . 

4 

SHILUBEER'S PATENT HEARSES. 

BBVOBB THB JUDICIAL COMMITTEE OP 
THE PBTVY COUNCIL. 

Friday, Fehfwtry 2, IMS. 

Mr. Shillibeer appeared in peraon, and 
prayed an extension of his patent for 
hearaea, the merit of which he represented 
to consist in the oombinatioB of a hearse 
and a mourning eoaoh in one carriage^ 

Mr. Pemberton Leigh said that their 
Lordsbipe saw no such merit in the inven- 
tion as to induce thorn to recommend a pro- 
longation of the patent. 

SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS 
RECENTLY FILED. 

Bishop, William, of Boston, Lincoln- 
shire, gentleman. Improvements in maehi' 
nery er apparatus fir ticketing or labelling 
spools, parcels of the same, or' other similar 
parceh. Patent dated July 14, 1854. (No, 

The inventor describes a box contatnmg 
damping-pads, which ar^ kept moist by 
means Sf capillary action. 

SeWell, CBARLESy of Longton-lodgc, 



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BsmmPMog^Mrm wntm v^miwhj mass^i 



LoBg^-groTe, Sydetihtin, Kent, bnildor* < 
An hmpnnwMni in spring hinge* far doon ,and- 
gates. Pfttent dated July 14^ 1854. (N^. 
1647.) 

Ctoim.'^The applioatioa of a rod of steel 
or other auitable material aa a apriog to . 
door and gate hingeav so aa to cauAe the- 
doors and gates to be oloaed by the tocsion 
of the rod. 

MoC^AFFur, John, of Liverpool, Lan- 
caster, engineer. lmproveueni$ in the nmde 
qf corrugating angular iron. Patent dated 
July If, 1854. (No. 1549.) 

This invention " consists in the manu- . 
facture of corrugate4 wrought-iron iMigle 
T or H, or any such forms of rolled iron, 
with all or any of the flang*es corrugated." 
The comigatione are fbrmed either during ' 
the pTocebs of rolling the iron in dies made 
with the requisite sized corrugations, or by 
passing the iron, after it is rolled into the 
first forma, through a set of suitable roHers. 
McGa^fik, Jotiir, of Liverpool, Lao- 
caster, engineer. Improoementt in the c&n" 
struction qf iron bridges. Patent dated 
July 14, 1854. (No. 1550.) 

This invention consists in eo&strncting 
iron bridges or roofs by riveting or screws 
bolting corrugated plates of iron together^ 
phicing the sheets across tfafo place to be 
bridged. Several of (h#e sets of sheets tre 
placed over eaeh other, the epaoee betw^n 
them being filled in. 

Dekham, Jamb», of Bradford, York, ma- 
nager. Impnsmd mmiMmry for ^nmhing 
wool €Knd ot/isr fibrous substance. Patent 
dated July 14, 1854. (No. 1551.) 

This ihvencion ebnsists in combining «p« 
paxatussoas to operate upon a contimious 
sliver, and draw c^ the fibrous material un- 
der operation in detaohed alivora, fit for the 
pr«paxiog maohine, leaving t&e Mil said 
dirt between the comb teeth j and in the use 
of a Ravelling fork or its equivalent^ for 
elearing the oomba of the noils and dirt ex* 
tracted from the fibrous material under ope« 
ration. 

Pricb, AATI.KY Pabton, of Margate^ 
Kent, chemist. Imp ro oements • in tJte distiU 
lation of wood and of other vegetable substancesm 
Patent dated July 14, 1854. (No. 1552.) 

This invention consists in so constructing 
and arrangmg the distilling apparatus that 
the process cS' distillation may oe rendered 
continuous, that is to say, that the wood or 
other vegetable matter having been sub- 
jected to the action of heat, and the distil*, 
lation of the volatile products being efifeoted^ 
the resulting Qhatcoal, which is at a red 
heat, is made to pass or to descend into a 
portion of the retort or dittiUiug apparatus, 
and allowed to cool down to a temperatui^e 
at which combustion will not tal^ pl*ee, 
iief h auppliea of material beii^g fea in. 



Dechai1c«i;,Jbah Seaptibt^ 49^ Am- 
ToiNE Dominique Sisco^ o{ Paris, France, 
gentleman. Certain iihpravements in the eon» 
structkm rfteiUetiy carrUig^, Patent dated 
July 14, 18<S4. (No. \US.) 

This invetMiion comprtsea eertain means 
of «onstrueting wheels fo^ railway' oarriageS ' 
with flanged tyres, and wrought or rolled 
iron ■ disks, and the employment Of short 
axles with two journak oaxryitig QiAf one 
wheels 

Brindubt, Elijah Hbi^rt^ of Longton, 
Stafford, engraver. Certain tmpretfetnentsiw 
printing or emomenting china^ eoHhekwtiref ' 
and glase. Patent dated July < 15, 1854. 
(No. 1^4*) . • 

This invention' eODsista in the uae of 
flexible aadelaatio blooka ortypea^ by whicli 
the patterns or poirtioasof a pattern required 
to be produced upon the materSal may be 
readUj adafited to the abapeof-the aiticOe- 
the surface of which is to- be omameoted. 

WrIgbt, Thomas, of George-yard^Lom^ 
bardwatrtet, London, engineer, iiaipnioti* 
ments in the permanent watfrfraUwtt^ Pa« 
tent dated July 15,1854. *(No^ 1558.) 

Thia inventioA mainly conaiata in a mode' 
of oottstrueting alcepera by. forming ibe«> 
in onf piece of caat or wrooflht i»on, in the 
ahape of a- reotaaffular bed«pTate^ or fisMntng^, 
vrith longitudinu and tranaverae- bearing 
iurfaoei, the two vails -beiaag anstained on 
onia aleepeir; or by eaatiac or uniting in one 
piiece the tavo -eoUateral aieepera of i doable 
line of cailway« 

' AsHWORTH, John, of Turton, Landaattr^ 
QOtton-apitiner. Certain impravemente ta 
apparaiue io. be emphffed in the coMfmettow 
of the permanent wap of nAlwape, Patent 
dated July 15» 1854. (No. 1559.) 

This invention mAinly cooaista in- the uae 
of a certain bar or plate, whk}h flta the aides 
of the rail, and in a mode oC ibting m ae* 
curing it against the rail by means of set* 
aorewa and look*<nuta. 

JCeubx, Geor^qe Wapb» of Hope-farm^ 
near FolketoBe> Kent. Improetmente in acrw 
engines. Patent dated July 15, 1854. (Mo. 
1563.) 

This invention relates to that qlaas of 
engiues where the power ia obtained by the 
expansion of six,, and consists in a moda of 
expanding the air in the chamber by meaaa 
of a flame of gas inside of the latter* 

Wagbtaffe, Matthew French, of 
Wf^lcot-placa West, Lambeth, Surrey, s«r- 
geon, and John William Perk wa, analy- 
tical chemist, of Poplar-terriece, Poplar, 
Middlesex. latpropements in obttming ,pie*' 
tals fr4>m ores and oeideSf. Patent dated July, 
15, 1854. (No. 156a.) 

This invention couaista in aoting upon, 
metallic ores or metallic oxides by varioma 
mineral aeida, "thaaoida acting upon me* 



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SPBOBRCAnONS OV PAVDraS RBGEKTIiY WJJiBlK 



U7 



UlKc ore* or oxides Vy tb« «otioii «f voltaiov 
eleetrioity, m a« to 4Usolyo out and di»in- 
tcgmte feojD tlie inatrix 0ach metal codv*. 
tained therein in successioo, in accordance' 
with tjbeir respective degrees of eolubiUtj.in 
sucb aaid« reapeetlTely, and the-metaU are 
obtained direet^or the metals axe afterwards 
obtained from .their solutieoa by precipita- 
tioni by roeana of voltaic electricity, after 
the separation, of the meuU from the solu^. 
tiona, The acid -lolutions are to bo neutrsl-. 
ised by fixed alkalies, wborehy neutral salts 
of the alkaliea so nsed, are obtain^ in a 
commercial rtate." 

Sjpiileji, Josefh, of Cleveland ^street, 
FiUroy-square» Middlesex* gwmAker. In* 

Patent dated July 1^, 1«54, (No. 15fi4.y, ; 

The inventor describes. i an ifnproised ro- 
tary heel, which, consists of a cizcuJax metal 
plate which is fixed to the he«l4f the hoot 
or shoe, and of a concentric metal ring, or 
tip which aorroimds the &(ed plate» and ie 
held in its pJUce by. a shoulder or ethsrvise, 
so that it may bq lou^le to rotate- or move 
round wkeu required. The inventor also 
deacribes an iustrumen^. fi>r rotating Ae 
heel. .* 

Dektoa y JouM Bajx^Y, of London, and 
Stevenage. Improved hoes and Mpv^s^ Patent 
dated July 17, 18^4< (Jt^o. .1465.) . 

These improved hoea or spuds are foriiied> 
with holders for containing lipids, known 
to Jiave the efiect of destroying nsgetable 
nfe, or lipoids known to promote vegetation, 
when applied to culti? ated plants. 

Wooj>YATT, TflOMAS Mayos^ o£ Kniver 
Mills, Stafibro, sorew^manufacturer, A^ 
twtproaewteiU or ,improwmonU m ton^ming or 
npgrressing the emoke of steam-engine boiler 
emd other Jurnaees, Patent dated July 17, 
1S54. (No, 156^) 

The inventor introduces air to the gases 
through a horizontsl perforated plate 
pUecd between two bridgee, at their lower 
parts* 

. NoRTJif Oeorgx, of Lewisham i road, 
Kent, coach-bttildpr. Jin . improved cypipara^ 
iUM to be attached to garments for protecting 
watchgSj pursea, and either ariieUs fiom beimg 
stolen from the person. Patent dated July 
17,1854. (No. 1667.) 

The inventor employs a ^Ute fitted with 
a spring, and a catch abuttmg again&t the 
sprmg, the two. being secured to the plate 
by rivets which 'pass- through the plate and 
extend so Car beyond ilslinder surface as to 
be capable of being passed through the 
garment, and through a second plate on the 
inside of the garment, and fastened by 
means of A bar,. ' 

Wa^cup, Wjuuljam, of Lyndburst-Villa, 
Coroniation-road, Bristol, Somerset, con- 
tractor. Impronewtents in the constmetum qf 



springs for carriages and similar purposes^. 
Patent dated July 17, 18^4!. (No^ 1568.) , . 

This invention, which is an improvement 
upon one patented Mf y, 26, 1853, consists 
in connecting '* V, U, or open ^ angular 
doub]e4>lade springs" to a plate secured, 
to the under side of the csxriage. wagon or 
engine- framing, instead -pf fitting' them into 
the interior of. a spring box, 

JfOCK^AitT, John, junior, of Paisley, 
Renfrew,, wood. tamer. Improvements in the,, 
manrfacture of bobbins^. Patent dated Jnly 
17,1854u (Noa569.) 

Ckdins^, A mode of cutting out bobbin • 
blanks from a block,. by means of a revolv- 
ing, tubular, or crown ■ saw or cutter, .fixed, 
to and working in oonjunction yt\\\i a. cen- . 
tral drill* and combined with a moveable 
internal ejecting piece for thrusting the cut 
blank out. of the tubular cutter.^<2. Certain- 
mechanism for feeding or shifting the wood 
up to the cutting tools. — '3, A mode of 
s)nmltaneously cutting out and drilling 
blanks, by means of a rotatory tubular aawi 
with a. central dnll, or borer, worl^i^g, 
therein.-^, Tne use, in cutting out bobbin, 
blanks, of an internal ejecting piece, work" 
ing in or through the tubular or c^wn saw,, 
for clearing out the severed blank. 

. 1,1 v£8jsY, John, QjU^ew Lenton, Not- 
tingham, lace makfiiS'improoem^nts in lace 
maehin^eryt <tnd in fabrics mflnt^factured buf 
such machiuerif, PateUt dated: Jul> 17, 
1864:. (No.15710 

This invenjtioi^ consists — 1. In improve- 
ments m, e)|^ improved arrangements of; 
the cutting apparatus used In lace machinery 
for cutting the pile fabiics formeil^^4heMOfv^«. v 
2, In ioaprovements in the, instruments used 
in lace machinery, and arrangements for 
working the same, in <^rder. 1^ ^onn pile or 
loop$, by which the inventor produces much, 
longer pile or loops than have heretofore 
beeA made by such instruments^ and which' 
lengthened pile or loops may be cut or sepa* 
reted by drawing out a thread, and so form- 
ing e fringe. 3. In the production of a 
fabric made from lace machinery;, comhiniog . 
the long loop or pile fkbrics forming frmge4 
a^ aforesaid, with a loading of lace- work, 
having velvet ornamenu upon it, or with a 
head of velvet only to such fringes. 

Ho HNS BY, Richard, of Spiitlegate Irou- 
works, Grantham, Lincoln. Jn improve- 
ment in the straw- shaking apparatus qfthresJi^ 
ing machines. Patent dated July 18^ 1854. 
(No. 1576.) 

This invention consists in applying, at 
intervals, in straw shakers, surfaces nsing 
above the general level of the shakeray 
by which the straw,. as it proceeds towards 
the back ends of the latter, is to be thrown 
up and opened out 

Bkllforj), Auquste Edouard Loxa-( 



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SPBOIFIOATIONS OT PA1B1IT8 BSOXIITLT WSIXDm 



Doux, of Caitie-street, London. A new 
kind qf piston. (A commtinication.) Patent 
dated July 18, 1854. (No. 1577.) 

The patentee describes ** a prismatie, cy. 
lindrioal, or otber'shaped piston or embolus, 
which is fixed to, or to whieh is secured a 
bag or diaphragm of any suitable flexible 
material. The said diaphragm is secured in 
any convenient way to the Inside of a cylin- 
der or prismatic tube or pipe, in which the 
aboTC said piston or embolus is capable of 
performing or reciprocating motion." 

Johnson, William Beckett, manager 
for Messrs. Ormerod and Son, of Manches- 
ter, Lancaster, engineers and ironfounders. 
Improvements in steam engines. Patent 
dated July 18, 1854. (No. 1580.) 

Claims — 1. An arrangement of engine, In 
which the condenser is placed under the 
cylinder. — 2. An arrangement in which the 
air-pump is placed under the cylinder. — 9. 
As applied to disc, throttle, or regulating 
▼alves, forming the openings through which 
the steam passes, of a curvilinear or other 
form, whereby the arrears of the openings 
are caused to increase in a greater ratio 
than the motion imparted to the valve. — 
4w As applied to the same valves, adapting 
the spindle which communicates motion 
thereto, loosely to the moveable part, but 
BO as to impart the necessary rotatory or 
vibratory motion.— 5. The application to 
the metal lids of air and feed pump valves 
of a piece of vulcanized or other India rub- 
ber, which arrives in contact with a stop 
upon the opening of the valve. — 6. The ap- 
plication of vulcanized or other India rub- 
ber as a check or stop, for preventing air 
and Ased pump valves from opening too 
far. 

Browne, John Collis, physician, of 
Rodney-terraco, Cheltenham, Gloucester. 
Improvements in the mant^facture qf camp' 
bedsteads. Patent dated July 19, 1854. 
(No. 1684.) 

The side rails of the Inventor's bedstead 
are divided in their length, and Jointed by 
hinges, so that one part folds upon the 
other. 

Whitbley, Jonas, John Slater, and 
William Hbnrt Crosslet, all of Halifax, 
York. Improvements in machinery or appa- 
ratus for preparing and spinning wool and other 
fibrous substances. Patent dated July 19, 
18^4. (No. 1585.) 

These improvements oonsiBt in sp arrange 
ing and combining apparatus employed in 
preparing apd spinning flbroos substances, 
that continuous support may be gpven to 
the fibre between the feed-rollers and the 
nip, for drawing ofi* by a suitable surfaoe 
travelling in the same direction as the fibre. 

LoNGLEY, Jambs, of Hunslet-road, 
Leeds, York. A machine for turning and 



finishing tubsj paits, eaeks, and other wooden 
vessels «f an etttpHCf oval, or other eeeenirie 
form. Patent dated July 19, 1854. (No. 
1586.) 

This maehine consists of an oscillating or 
vibratory lathe, supported on or suspended 
from a driving-shaft by two earrying-bars 
through one end of each of which the 
driving-shaft revolves, the other ends form- 
ing head-stocks, in which the lathe, shaft 
works. Rotation is imparted to the lathe- 
shaft by a band direct from the pulley on 
the driving-shaft, the vibratory motion to 
produce the eccentric action being obtained 
oy means of a cog-wheel set on the lathe- 
shaft or mandril, and communicating mo- 
tion to another cog-wheel on a top carrying- 
bar, the axis of whieh works an arm of a 
crank, the other arm of which is fixed, and 
the revolution of the crank produces the 
reciprocating motion required. 

Ball, William, of Rothwell, Kettering, 
Northampton, ironfonnder and agricultural 
implement maker. Im p rovem e nts in drills. 
Patent dated July 19, 1854. (No. 1587.) 

Claim. — Constructing drills with eaat- 
iron press-wheels running on a spindle, for 
the purpose of pressing grooves or ftirrowi 
on ploughed land on the fiat to receive the 
gram or other seed. 

Sudbury, John, of Halsted, Essex, and 
Samuel Wright, of Clare, Sussex, gas- 
engineer. Improvements in taps and valves, 
and in the method qf working them for the 
purpose qf regulating the passage of fiuide. 
Patent dated July 20, 1854. (No. 1590.) 

The first part of these improvements re- 
lates to those valres which move always 
parallel to their seats, and consists in open- 
ing and closing them more gradually than 
usual ; and the regulation of the passage of 
gas and other fluids is efibcted by means of 
a small receiver, which floats in water or 
other suitable fluid, and is subject internally 
to the pressnre of the gas, so that according 
as the latter is at a greater or less pressure, 
the receiver rises and falls, and becomes 
more or less immersed, and the receiver of 
the regulator is suitably connected with the 
valve through which the supply of gas has 
to pass, so that when the pressure increasea 
the passage is diminished, and vice versd. 

ItoBBRTs, Richard, or Manchester, en- 
gineer. Improvements In machinery for mv- 
paring to be spun cotton and other fores, i*a« 
tent dated July 20, 1854. (No. 1591.) 

Claims. — 1. mie use of a tpa veiling. web 
to contain and bring forward fresh poitions 
of fibre to a toothed cylinder, fojr detaching 
the fibre from seed or other impurities. 2. 
The use of a sheet metal cylinder having 
serrated or toothed perforations fbr the 
same purpose. S. The use of ventilating 
drums, when they are placed at such an 



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PBOVXBUMIAL SSBdVIOAXIONB HOT PBOOKEDSD WTOL 



189 



d«fatioii above the beater as to allow tbe 
ciurent of air towards tbe drams to cany 
the fibre upwards, so tbaC in its progress 
forwards it sball allbrd time for impurities 
to descend into the dust chambers. 4. The 
use of Tentilating endless webs or wire 
fabrics^ also ele?ated as above, &o., &c. 

GiLLET, J BAM Barthslbjit, of Agde 
(Herauh)i France. Imprwemenis in cap- 
gioHt, wkicke*, and wmdiaueu Patent dated 
July 20, 18S4w (No. 1593.) 

These improTements consist in construct- 
ing a pair of windlasses or capstans, which 
are mo?ed by spur gearing from a central 
shaft on which moveable drivers of different 
diameters are keyed, so that by shifting 
these drivecs different speeds may be im- 
parted to the capstan, and a greater or less 
power obtained. 

Barnes, Joseph, of Church, Lancaster, 
coal proprietor. CertMn impnvememti in 
Jmrmaeei or Jlre^places, Patent dated July 20, 
1854. (No. 1694.) 

The inventor constructs furnaces or fire- 
piaees with certain hoUow bars, so arranged 
as to allow of the circulation of water 
through them. 

Whitehead, Fraitcis, and William 
Whitehead, both of Crayford, Kent, en- 
giaeera. I mpnm m emU in mfety kunpt. Pa^ 
tent dated July 20, 1854. (No. 1595.) 

This invention consists m constructing 
the frame or body of safety-lamps of solid 
sheet metal — in surrounding the upper por- 
tions of safety-lamps with an extra outer 
casing — in placing a fixed deflector on the 
inside of safety-lamps, — and in certain ar- 
rangements for extinguishing such lamps 
when any attempt is made to get at the light 

Chambers, Thomas, jun., of Colkirk, 
Fakenham, Norfolk. Improvements in mo- 
ekimor^ for ditiribuHng m€mtrt. Patent 
dated July 21, 1854. (No. 1598.) 

Outside of the hopper into which the 
manure is fed, and nesr tbe bottom of it, 
is arranged a cylinder composed of nu- 
merous short portions, each having three or 
other convenient immber of inclined blades 
protruding short distances from its peri- 
phery, the extent of their protnuion being 
capable of aiy«atment in order to regulate 
the quantity of manure thrown off by them. 
Certain arrangements of scrapers andstirters 
are used m connection with the Ibregoing. 

LiLLiB, Sir Johm Scott, aB., of Pall. 
naU, Middlesex. XwprooomenUimfhrO'^trmt. 
Patent dated July 21, 1854. (No. 1599.) 

These improvements consist in providing 
poruble rests, so as to insure a better aim 
for troops in action with small arms. For 
this purpose the inventor atUches a bayonet 
or sword to the musket by means of a hinge 
and a meUllic band or slide, which, by ] 
means of a thumb-spring, will move from j 



the centre to the muzzle, and enable the 
point of the scabbard to be placed against 
the breast or hip of the marksman. 



PROVISIONAL tPEClPICATIONS NOT FRO- 
CEEDED WITH. 

Oardissal, Charles Burand, of Bou- 
levart St Martin, Paris, France. A stamp 
tq/e. Application dated July 12, 1854. 
(No. 1533.) 

The inventor describes a box which can 
be opened on one side, so that the different 
kinds of stamps may be wound on the 
different rollers, and the opposite side of 
which has apertures, so as to allow the 
stamps to be wiUidrawn as they are used. 

Bellford, Auguste Edouard Lora- 
Doux, of Castle- street, London. Improve^ 
ments in preserving smimai substances, (A 
communication.) Application dated July 12, 
1854. (No. 1534.) 

The inventor employs sulphurous acid 
and water for preserving animal substances. 

Flitcroft, William, of Bolton, Lan- 
caster, manufacturer, and Thomas £van8, 
of Manchester, same county, printer. /s»- 
prooements in printing and JUnshing fioor- 
clotkSf or any other fabrics or nutierials printed 
in oil colows. (A communication.) Appli- 
caUon dated July 13, 1854. (No. 1535.) 

Instead of using the two printing blocks 
for each colour, viz., a colour-block and a 
blotch-block, the inventors use only one 
colour- block, and afterwards one finishing 
or flushing.block which flushes all the 
colours at once. 

Lawson, Liohel, of Paris, France, ma- 
nufacturer. I mp r ove me nts in printing. Ap- 
plication dated July 13, 1854. (No. 1539.) 

This invention consists in using heated 
inks for typographical purposes. 

WiBERo, Martin, of Lund, Sweden, but 
now of Myddleton-square, Middlesex, doc- 
tor of philosophy. Improoements in tkeeon* 
siruetion^ setting tip, and distribution qf tffpes 
for printing. Application dated July 14, 
1854. (No. 1548.) 

The inventor proposes to oonstmct appa- 
ratus by means of which " the setting and 
distribution may be simultaneously ef- 
fected." 

Taylor, James, of Burnley, Lsneaster, 
cabinet-maker. An improved clothes peg, 
(A communication.) Application datai 
July 15, 1854. (No. 1555.) 

The inventor connects two pieces of wood 
or other suitable material, and places a 
spring between them. 

Waller, Ralph, of Manchester, mer- 
chant and manufacturer. Improvements in 
the manufacture of letters and fgures, and 
vf ornamental signboards and other tablets, 



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¥40 



*ft0^lS!l<>HAfi'^Bcai:OAtt(>N« KOT 5?M00Ea»!fi^ VntB, 



hhM in- nffitiki^ letters f figures^ or ijrnAmenh 
io'gtan, -' Ajiplicatiem dat^d Jnly 15, 185^4 
(No. 1556.) ' 

The first of these improvements consist 
in stamping letters and figures of copper 
or ( cri^er- .cuitable slieet • laetal in basso 
relievo ; the seoondin fixing every descrip- 
tion of letters, figures, or ornaments, on 
m^brktkf'pkites of silvered glMs; tind the 
tdird ill affistiit^ letters', ft«c., to glass^by 
Wieans of pins, Whieli pass into bdl^s drilled 
in the glass. 

GVYAttD, l^RKHisoiB YvctotL, GDRifie^r- 
eaptainto the town of Gravelines, France. 
Cettain improvements Iri ihetteetrO'ielegrtiphie 
eomrhunicaH&niforpteifentingtikisdnincee ^htf^ 
ing the passage of trains im roilwajft. Ap*- 
plioatioft dated July 19, 1S54. (No. (597.) 

On -the •tertdrt ' or' enjrine, of «ne of the 
carriage^ in each train, the inventor plades 
» projecting arm cai^rying two metallic 
biriiishe^, fir^e to revolve. ' By this meMi« a 
connection is made between the wires and 
dne pole of a galvanio batt^y^ or other 
source of ^leetrietty 'On the train, the other 
pole of which battery is eonneoted with one 
of the kxlMt and through It with the «arth, 
for'the -purpose «f making' signals. 

S<>mwbafi8ld,<Thoua8, of Birmifkgbam, 
Warwick, glass* manufaetursf. 2Vt« manu^ 
faeittra of ehromatle glass and gla^s-faced 
briekti which saidhrieks are appUcabk Xofaie- 
wMrk er fronUof buildingMt Inuements^piflas' 
tert, string ^KrseSt door und ioh^dow^heads^ 
moditUonWf mmiees in part or wiMde^ or other 
purp&ses iohero a onpeirior finish and dnrabiUtf 
are reifuired f a part of \ohich U aUo oppUca^ 
hie to bricks made wholly qf clay» Applioa* 
tion datttd July 15, 1854. . (No. l^D.) 

• This invention - relates mainly • to the 
leaking of bricks wholly of a«uitable com- 
poojidi so as to resemble matble or stone in 
colour and appearance, the basis of which 
eompouoid will be principally glass. 

Hunt, William, of Tipton, Stafford, 
roaoufrcluring chemist Improvements in 
uUUzing eerUtin cotnpoimdo produeed in the 
ptocess rf galvanizing iron, and in the appU- 
cation of the same and similar compounds id 
certain m^fnl purposes^ Application dated 
July 15, 1854. (No. 156U) 

. Thii invention, consists in using chloride 
of zinc in place of sal-ammoniac in coating 
iron witK 'zJno.or other metals, and in re- 
covering , the ftulphuriQ acid which has 
been used in cleaning the icon; also in the 
use of a solution of chloride of mc for 
washing the iron in* after cleaning and 
previous to coating. 

Fowler, John, the younger, of Temple- 
gate, Bristol, agricultural in^plement maker. 
Improvements in draining ploughs. Applica- 
tion dated July 17, 1S54. (Na 1570.) 
This invention consists in attaching to a 



drinn plough, apparatus by means of whi^ 
tb^ couheris progressively raised or low- 
ered ata:regulated speed by the action of the 
machltiel -itself, so as to siiit th^ incHnation 
Of the ground oveif whibh the plough is tra- 
velling, and whtbh H at all times indicated 
by an apparatus attached to the machitte: 
' BikRLOw, jAaies, of Acorington, Lanoas- 
ter, tnaehhiist Improvements in the mode itr 
method ^qf ^trading gluten from wheat or 
flour and preparing the residuum for sizing 
purposes. Application dated July 18, 18S4. 
(No: 1572^.) 

The inventor miires flour into dough and 
j^laoes' it m a slotted eyiinder or trough, into 
whi^ he itijeets water, so that as the baa^rel 
with the dofigh revolves, the water aots upon 
the latter and separates the gflutien and 
starch, leaving the former in the barrel, and 
allowing the latter to fall through the' slots. 

HiTCHTNs, HenrYi of King WfUiam- 
streei) London, engineer,- and Wn.LiAir 
Batley, of Dean -street, Middlesex, nie-> 
chanio. Certain eomhinaiions of niaterials 
suitable for m&uldings and medallions and to 
bet employed as a oi&stitute for welod, gutta 
percha, and other like materials. • Ap^CR- 
tton dated July 18, 1854. (No. 1678.) 

This invention coasists in^- combining 
shavings at wood, ivory, bone,- and other 
substanees; wHh glue or^ other adhesive 
matter, and, where desirable, with essences 
and peorfuines* 

•Hill, Mary Ca'rolinb, of DubKo, miU 
liner. An improvement in bonnets and in 
bonnet frameOi Application dated July 18, 
1864. (No. 15740 

The improvement in bonnets consists in 
BO ■ constructing thelm by means of sliding 
frames, as to &m eitbsr a small or a Iku'ge 
bonnet. The improvement in bonnet frames 
consists in forming those parts of the franee 
which run firom back to ikont of two or 
more pieces, made to slide one within the 
other, or side by side. 

Archbr, Charles Maybvry, gentle- 
man of the press, of St Jamet^s-gardens, 
Haverstook.hiil, Middlesex. TnaHng edl 
Jdnde of paper wketeon any printing'^ engrav^ 
ingi engroesingi letter tuitingi i>r Utkompk'i' 
•i^g has Iteen printed- or impressed, io mai the 
said printiug, engraoing, engitossing, letter. 
wriihig^ or lithographing may be completely 
remeoedf dtseharged,. or obliterated from the 
said papers id Aai ihe eaSd paper may be 
readily n-ueoA' in eheete} or. be re^eenverted 
amd 'Worked up agedn intt its primitive putp. 
Inf. the ordinary msikod, .and be again maim- 
factured into and be used as paper, Appliea- 
tiott dated July 18, 1854. (No. 1575.) 

Mr. Archer takes any kind of printed 
paper, and immerses it for a given period in 
a bath or solution of pure sulphuric or other 
aoid^ which '* tots upon or eats its way into 



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«le oili litaip-W«6k, &e., of Vhich printert' 
iD]^.,is cpZQiposed, apd so gwduRlly decom- 
poses or discharges it from the paper hy a. 
gyadHa) eVolation and ^fflorefcence.'* 

Twiod,> Qeoroe, and Akthur Lucas 
Silvester, of Birminghsm, Warwiofc, ma- 
■ofiwtvreis. ImprewmenU in apparaitts or 
•*MW«*fy for ttamping or pressing metals. 
Applicatiba dated July 18, lW4v fNo. 

1578.) ; 

These improvements eonsist In an ar- 
rangement of ineohanical parts composed of 
a lever working on friction-rollers, a con- 
necting rod, and aj» ooeentric . The fric- 
tioD-roUers are conpled together by a cam, 
Ifaxoogh whieh the pin of the rollers passes, 
and the lever works the punch or stamping 
die. The feed apparatus consi^its of a dou- 
ble parallel motion and slide-bar attached 
to the connecting rod. 

Cato, Peter, of Liverpool, Lancaster, 
ship- builder, Jn improwd. trough or manger 
for holding the provender ofhoraess eattUt and 
other gnimals. Application dated July 18, 
1854. (No. 1^7^.) 

This inrentiou consists in making the 
troughs. or mangers of.e*rtheikware or stoned- 
ware, and so forming the fnside that the 
animal may, without difficulty, be able to 
gather up all the provender. 

Daloety, Albx ak dsr, of Florenee-road, 
Deptfbrd, Xcnt, engineer. Improvements ifi 
the reduction of friction. Application dated 
July 18, 1854. (Na 1581.) 

This intention consl^rs of a peculiar ar- 
rangement of anti-friction rollers, which are 
interposed, between rubbing working ^or- 
faces. 

FONTAJNEMORfiAU, PeTEA ArMANO Le- 

coMTB DB; of South- Street, London. Im- 
pronements in zim^agraphy. (A Communica- 
tion.) Application date'l July IS,, 1854. 
(No. 1582.) 

This invention consists in producing, by 
eleclro-galvaniG agency, designs in reliex on 

Slates fsi sine, from which iinpressions may 
e taken by an ordinary printing-press, in 
the same n^anncr as from wood engravings 
or stereotypes, or from which niouTds may 
be taken to be employed) in the formation of 
cliche plates by the galvano- plastic process. 
^ 

PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS. 

Baud November 10, 1854. 

IMP. Bdward WitllBm Kembde Turner, of Praed- 
street, Paddington, Mtddloaez. Improvtments in 
scpatating liquids or fluids flrom sobiUnoet or 
aatSera, pari of which improvensents are also 
applicable to other purposes where the air-punp 
has been hidMsto employed. 

Baud November 20, 1854. 
M9I. Benry Diaper, of St. MIcbael's-terrace, 
Pimllco, Middlesex, gentleman. The mptteation 
or ■ new matsfrtaS to the mannlketnre of paper. 



Bate^ November 25, 1854. 



141 



2495. John Simon HoUaad, of WodiHeh, Kent, 
engineer. Improvements In large and small flce- 
I anasi and in the prepsratloA of theii charges. 

Baisd November 29, 1854. 
; »51S. John Moore Hyde, of Bristol, iron shfp- 
Duilder. Improvements in iron steam ships, and 
in boilers and machinery for pr6]^lling the same. 

Bated JS^mber 3d, 18$4. 
S51». Jeha Mssoa, of Boohdale, Lancaster, ma- 
chinist, and Leonsrd Kabcrry, ef RosMale, ma- 
nager. Improvements in machinery €ft apparatus 
for preparing, spinning, and doubling CMton and 
other flbioas materials. 

Baud Beeember 21,. 1854. 
JW5. Andrew Smith, of Pzinces-street, St' Msr- 
ttn's-in-tht-Fields, engineer, and James Thomp&bn 
Mackenzie, of Lombaid-street, Middlesex, raer- 
ehsnt. Improvements in ordnance and smsH arras, 
by applying thereto projectile force obtained from 
high-presvurc steam. 

Balked Beeember 23, 1854. 
8717. Thomas Heppleston, of Manchester, Lan- 
caster, hat - trimming* mannltotorer. tmprove- 
ments In machinery or apparatus fbr stretching 
and finishing sillc or woollen yams or threads ih 
the hank or skein. 

Baud Beeember 26, 1854. 
«723. Philip Patton Biyth, of Upper Wimpole- 
street MIMlesex^ gentleman. An improved ap- 
plication of materials to the constraetfon of screw 
propellenr. 
j BaUd January I2t l^^^. 

I 80. John Onions, of Wellington-place, Black- 
I friars-road, Southwark, ironfouoder. Certain im- 
j provements In the construction of pipes and tubes 
I tbr the lue of smoking tobacco and cigars. 
BaUd January 18, 1855. 

129. Constant Joufljroy l)um^ry, of Paris, France. 
Jmproveilients in lanoke-preveiUlDg apparatus. 

130. John Bailey Surgey, (if Lidlington place, 
St. Pimcrr.s, Middlesex. Certain Improvements 
in carriages.' • • i • 

13L Thomas .Blackwood aud ^ndrew Gordon, 
both of Paisley, Renfrew, engineers. Improve- 
ments in motive-power engines, 
. 132. William Lancaster, of Preston, Lancaster, 
cotton-inaaufacturer. Jn)provements in " temples" 
employed in the manufacture of textile, fabrics. 

133. £van.I#eigh« of Collyhurst, Lancaster, ma- 
chine-maker. Certain improvements in machineiy 
or apparatus for preparing cotton and other fibrous 
substances for spinninjr. 

13 (. Henry Purtrldge and John Benjamin 
Broome, of Birmingham, Warwick, gun-manu- 
facturers. . Certain improvementa in the manu- 
facture of wrought-iiou ordnance. 

135.^ William Johnson, of Lincoln's inn-fields, 
Middle^x, civil engb.cer. Tmprovements fn the 
application, treatment, cleansing, and dyeing of 
fibrous substances and products. A communica- 
tion. ^ 

136. William PIdding, of Putney, Surrey. Im- 
provements in the manufacture of combs for the 
human hair. 

137. William Pidding, of Putnev, Surrey. Im- 
provements in the manufacture of building mate- 
rials, and in the machinery or apparatus for mak- 
ing the same. 

138. Wflliam Pidding, of Pntney, Soney. Im- 
provements In cpveri' gs for the fieet of bipeds and 
quadrupeds. 

1S9. James Grsy Lawrie. of Glasgow, engineer. 
Improvements in the sights of fire-arms and ean- 



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142 



140. MiehMl JoMf Kyfliny, of ClundM-ttraet, 
Corent - gftrden, Middlesex. Improvement! in 
wind muetoal Initrnmenta In the natnte of the 
bugle and the trnmpet. 

141. Samuel Alexander Bell and John Black, of 
Bow-lane, Cheapiide, London, Yoeta-light manu- 
Iketuren. An Improvement In the manufacture 
of oongreve or luoifer matehos. 

DaUd January 19, 1855. 

142. Charles Frederick Stansbury, of CornhUl, 
London. Improvements in the eonitruotion and 
operation of self-actinff railway breaks. A com- 
munication A-om James J. McComb, of New Or- 
leans, United States of America. 

143. Stanislaus Joseph Paris, of Manchester, 
embosser. Improvements in machinery for em- 
bossing. 

144. Robert Martin, of High-strset, Tottenham, 
Middlesex, and Jacob Hyams, of Union-street, 
Bishopsgate. Improvements in goloshes or over- 
shoes. 

145. Samuel Isaacs, of Newman-street, Oxford- 
street, Middlesex. Improvements in the manur 
Ikcture of artificial coral. 

146. John Irwin Clarke, of Windsor-court, Monk- 
well-street, Middlesex. Improvements in apply- 
ing colour to the edges of leather gloves. A com- 
munication tnm Francis Moat, of Grenoble. 

147. Joseph Abbott, of Smallbrooke-street, ma- 
nufacturer, and Henry Holland, of Steelhouse- 
lane, manufacturer, both of Birmingham. Im- 
provements in preventing the sinking of vessels at 
sea or on rivers, and In raising of sunken vessels. 

149. Thomas CoSndoi Hill, of Stanton Laov, 
Shropshire, gentleman. An improvement in dram 
pipes and tiles. 

150. Pierre Charles Paul Laurent-Pr6fontaine. 
gentleman, of Paris, French Empire. An improved 
engine, called hydraulic sling, for raising water 
and other liquids, or heavy bodies. 

151. William Smith and Thomu Phillips, of 
Snow-hill, London, gas-engtneers. Improvements 
in cocks or Upsy'andin bslls or floats to be used 
therewith. 

15S. Matthew Boulton Rennie, of Whitehall- 
place, Middlesex. Improvements in preserving 
animal and vegetable substaoces for food. A 
communication. 

DaUd January 20, 1855. 

155. William Douglas and John Carswell, of 
Manchester, Lancaster, dyers. Improvements in 
dyeing woven fabrics. 

156. Scipion Salaville, of Paris, France, proprie- 
tor. An improved method of preserving and puri- 
fying grain and seed. 

157. William Gore Pearce, of Qrosvenor-street, 
Camberwell, Surrey. An improved method of 
projecting chain or coupled snot or shell from 
double and single barrel guns, and causing them 
to explode simultaneously by electricity and other 
means. 

158. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of 
Essex-street, London. Improvements In paddle- 
wheels for propelling veuels in water. A com- 
munication hom John Upham Wallls, of Dansville, 
United States of America. 

159. Fr6d6ric Margueritte, chemist, of Paris, 
France, Improvements in the manulacture of 
ioda and of potash. 

160. William Eisenmann, merchant, of Berlin. 
A new construction for a hearth, appUcfble to all 
firing-constructions or fireplaces. 

Dated January 22, 1855. 

162. John Gedge, of Wellington-street South, 
Middlesex. Improvements in laminating metals, 
either in relief or bas-relief. A communication 
ftom Messrs. Toumel fttees, of Saint Chamond, 
France. 

164. Henry Carr, of Peterborough, Northampton, 



NOTI0B3 OF ZMTEMnON TO PBOGEED. 



civil mgiiiaar. Certain Impiovfrnanti in ttHwwj 
crossings. 

165. John Henry Pape, of Paris. Improvements 
in pianofortes. 

167. Jacques Joseph Van Camp, of Paris, Franoe. 
Improvements in putons of steam engines. 

168. Fran sols Arsftne Vasnier. of Paris, Franoe. 
Certain improvements in fireplaces. 

169. Pierre Hippolyte Gustavo Berard-Tonselin, 
of Paris, Prance, maoufhcturer. Improvements 
in the manufacture of artificial fiowers. 

170. William Kilgour, of Liverpool, Lancaster, 
merchant. An improved manufacture of naphtlia, 
paraflloe, ftnd parafline oil. 

171. Peter Arkell, of Stockwell, Surrey, engi- 
neer. An improved mode of purifying whale and 
•eal oils. 

Dated Jamtary 28, 1855. 

ITS. Frederic Prince, of South-parade, Chelsea, 
Middlesex. Improvements in cartridges for fiie- 
arms. 

175. Walter Sell wood, of Cheapside, London, 
draper. An Improvement in spatterdashes. 

177. George Brooks Pettit and Henry Fly Smith, 
both of New Oxford-street, Middlesex, gaa^ngi- 
neers. Improvements in stoves and other appa- 
ratus for generating heat from gas, and in the em- 
ployment and removal of the vapours produced by 
its combustion. 

^ 

PATENTS APPLIED FOR WITH COMPLETE 
SPECIFICATIONS. 

106. John Lamacraft, of Westboume-grove, Mid- 
dlesex, engraver. Improvements in envelopes or 
means for securing letters, notes, and umilar 
documents. January 26, 1855. 

208. Samuel Mayer, of Bristol, potter, and WO- 
liam Bush, of the same city, millwright. Improve- 
ments in reducing fiint and other substances, ren- 
dering them suitable for the manufacture of porce- 
lain and other earthenware articles. January 27, 
1855. 

213. Auguste Leopold Lenoir, of Paris, France. 
Incprovements in breech-loading fire-arms. January 
27, 1855. _ 

NOTICE OF APPLICATION FOR PROLON- 
GATION OF PATENT. 

A petition will be presented to Her Mi^esty in 

Council by Alpbonse Rene le Mire do Normandy, 
of Judd-street, Middlesex, analytical and consult- 
ing chemist, praying Her MiO«*^y to grant a pro- 
longation of the lettert patent granted to him 8th 
September, 1841, for " certain improvements in 
the manufacture of soap." 

On the 12th March, or on the next day of sitting 
of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, if 
it do not sit on the. day mentioned, an application 
will be made to that Committee to fix an early day 
for hearing the matters conUined in the said pe- 
tition; and any person desirous of being heard In 



for hearing the matters contained In the i 
tition; and any person desirous of being h«wu m 
opposition must enter a caveat to that elfoct In 
the Privy-council Ofltoe on or before that date. 

NOTICES OF INTENTION TO 
PROCEED. 

{Prom the " London Gazette," February 6th, 
1855.) 

2085. William Hntohinson and William Barlow. 
Improvements in steam-boilers. 

2086. William Beckett Johnson. Improvements 
in lamps and other apparatus used for illumina- 
tion. 

2087. George Crux. Improvements in the pro- 
duction of bonnets, children's hats, and similar 
coverings for the head. 

2100. G6mis Filhon. Improvemonls in glass 
chimneys fox gas-burners or lamps. 
2118. William Xaihaia. Improvementt in aa- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



tm OT M* 



ehlaaj or appanhu for loepviiig, tplnnlns, < 
donbling, twUtiny, and winding cotton, wool, I 
flax, silk, and other flbrooa labatancet. 

21S4. Thomas Crotalej. An improved mode of 
manofoctuilBg printing-blocks. A oonim«nioa- 
tion. 

2141. Enoch Oldfleld Tindall. Improrements 
in mangles and wringing machines, for smoothing 
and wringing clothes and woven ttbrics. 

2142. Thomas Harris. Separating the steam 
ftom the condensed water and mud in Its transit 
from the boila to the cylinder of a steam engine, 
BtationarT, or locomotive. 

2249. Thomas Allan. Iqproven*!^ in anply> 
ing elecfricitj. 

2262. Frangois Jean Bouwens. An Improved 
rotarj engine. 

2270. William Hendenon. Improvements in 
treating certain ores and alloys, and In obtaining 
products therefrom. 

2301. Richard Archibald Broomaa. Improve- 
ments in centrlfrigal machines, and in driving the 
same. A communication. 

2366. Charles William Siemens. Improvements 
in electric telegraphs. A communication. 

2426. Robert Wilson. A new or improved orna- 
mental material or fabric. 

2495. John Simon Holland. Improvements in 
large and small fire-arms, and in the preparation of 
their charges. 

2602. William James Harvey. Improvements in 
flre-arms when revolving barrels are used. 

2671. William Porter Dreaper. The improve- 
ment of the mannfscture of pianofortes. 

7. Antoine RouUion. Certain improvements in 
the manafaetore of soap. 

II. George Peacock. Improvements in con- 
structing propellers Ibr ships and other vessel*. 

41. Charles John Edwards and Frederick Fraai. 
An improved manuflicture of bearings for carriage 
axles and shafts of machinery in general. 

7S. Edward HalL Improvements in the manu- 
focture of gunpowder. 

79. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford. Im- 
provements 'in tanning. A communication from 
Messrs. Rene de Kercado If olac and Jean Daniel 
Friedel, of Strasbourg, France. 

80. John Onions. Certain improvements in the 
eonstraction of pipes and tubes for the use of 
smoking tobacco and daars. 

90. Richard Archibald Brooman. Certain means 
of devulcanislng India-rubber and other rimilai 
gums, or of treating such gums after having been 
vulcaniaed. A communication. 

100. Joseph Sdlyn Outridge. Improvements in 
transmitting motive power. 

105. James Peter Lark. Improvements In effect- 
ing the combustion of fuel and the consumption 
of smoke in steam boiler and other ftimaces. 

III. James Teoman. Improvements in self- 
feeding furnaces. 

128. Lsmorock Flower and George Augustus 
Dixon. Improvements in machinery or apparatus 
for sifting snd cleansing. 

129. Constant Joufflroy Dum6ry. Improvements 
in smoke-preventing apparatus. 

131. Thomas Blackwood and Andrew Gordon. 
Improvements in motive power engines. 

132. William Lancaster. Improvements in "tem- 
ples** employed in the manufacture of textile fo- 
Dries. 

144. Robert Martin and Jacob Hyams. Improve- 
ments in goloshes or overshoes. 

US. Samuel Isaacs. Improvements in the ma- 
nufacture of artificial coral. 

146. John Irwin Clarke. Improvements in ap- 
plying colour to the edges of leather gloves. A 
communication from Francis Moat, of Grenoble. 

165. John Henry Pape. Improvements In piano- 
fortes. 

Oppositiou can be entered to the granting 
of a Patent to any of tiie partiea in the 



143 



abofo Liat, who have given notice of their 
intention to proceed, within twenty - one 
days from the date of the GatttU in which 
the notice appean, by leaving at the Com- 
miaaioners'-offioe partioulara in writing of 
the objection to the application. 



WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS. 
SedUd February 2, 1855. 

1708. Edward Hallen. 

1716. Charlea Frederick Stansbury. 

1717. Charies Frederick SUnabury. 

1718. Charles Frederick Stansbuxy. 

1719. Charles Frederick Stansbury. 

1749. John Hackett. 
1803. Edward Trenery. 
1901. William Symington. 
2117. Jamee Hammond. 
2259. James Scott. 
2457f Richard Knight. 
2485. James Hartley. 
2487. William Eley. 

2523. Frederick Le Mesurier. 

2531. William James Cantelo. 

2533. Charles lies. 

2557. George Fergosson Wilson and 

John Chase Craddock. 
2575. Nathaniel B. Carney. 

iSMWFe5nMry3, 1855. 

1458. Alexander South wood Stocker. 

Sealed February 6, 1855. 

1734. Joseph Hulme. 

1735. Henry Turner. 
1786. Henry Moorhouse. 
1742. William Charies Pitt 
1744. Plato Ouiton. 

1750. William Houghton. Clabbuni. 

1753. Samuel Bickerton. 

1754. Joseph Reimann and Friedrich 

Saoermann. 
1766. John Petrie, junior. 
1772. WUliam Croaland. 
1776. Benjamin O'Neale Stratford, Earl 

of Aldboroogh. 
1790. John Lamb and Thomas Lamb. 
1802. Sara Spaldin. 
1812. Peter Armand Locomte de Fon- 

tainemoreau. 
1814. Wiiliam Ker and Matthew Ker. 
1837. John Orist. 
1840. Augustin Jaoquelaln. 
1851. John Norton. 
1858. William Brooke. 
1943. Isaac Pim Trimble. 
2306. Pierre Benoit Chapuis. 
2318. Thomas Osborne and William 

Eldred. 
2336. William Charles Theodore Schaef- 

fer. 
2361. George Davis. 
2582. William Hawthorn. 
2594. Nathaniel Johnston. 



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144 



NOnOBB 1H> OOIWBaPaKDflMTS. 



tT8T or I^SSIOKS FOR ARTICLBS OP UTILITY RB0t8T£K£D. 

Date of Ko. tn 

Recistm- theUe^ 

tooB. gistfff. .Ptfoprietoff'sKtmes. AddrtMMk Snl^tof Destgn. 

JftiL f 8676 J. Tkompson *^. Nattfaig-hUl .^.m Pamp-bedstead. 

19 8677 J. K^SinlCb ^,..,^,^,., WocxUtreet ShirtHioUar. 

2U 3678 R. W. George ....^ Portman-wiuare Desk. 

25 8679 W.S«luiell Denmark-street Sofa-bed. 

26 3680 R.Sdwards Bow Po)rsih«t. 

Feb. 8 8681 F.W. I<ee»..«^».^.,.^... Fetter-lane m..,. Cloak. 

7 8682 T.CWUllams Reading ^ Caap-ttove. 



LIST OP PROVISIONAL REOISTRATIOirS. 

Jan. 8 681 8. Potta Birmingham «« Pencil-case. 

e 6Sf T^ P. Hawkia „.^^..^ filimingham Chain. 

11 688 H. Elliott ....^.M., Rtnningham ...o*^, Si^ht. 

19 634 8. Davidson «.... Pentonville ..,..^.m..., ^ Triune protector. 

23 635 W. Townsend CoTentnr Trivet, 

90 686 F.Smith ». Birmingham ......«.........«......m... Tap. 

Feb. 7 637 R. Jasoba ...•.^... Cbaring-crosa .........^ .*.......*. ParasoI-JoinL 



We haYe been compelled to postpone iht imbli- 
catlon of the letters, of Jfr.'W. Baddeley, *'^tiige- 
nieur," and others. 

Z.~We do not think it necessary to smbttih your 
second communication. 



NOTICES TO C0RRES?0K1)£NT8. 

T. C. H., Dublin.— We re^ommfehti Dr. Lard- 
net's Handbook as the best work yre khow of on 
the sul^eet. 

. C.J» C— We cannot undertake, to furniah yon 
with' the information you reguUe. ' 



C0NTBNT8 OF THIS NUMBER. 



Lloyd's Patent Turntable— (tNUb^iij^aeiM^}... 121 
London Fires in 1854.— T«eoty*4sorth Annual 

Report. By Mr W. Bsddeley. C. E 128 

Society of Arts, fto.— epedal Priies— >Rxhlbi- 

tion of Inveations ^ a. .....»*. ISO 

An Improved Wrought-lron Piston— (»i'A ea- 

ffraving*) « k 130 

On Propulsion by Jets.of Wat4r .........*....».,. 182 

Investigation of the Moon's Motion 133 

Safety-valves -.... 134 

Products from Coal-Ben line 135 

Armstrong's Smokeless Furaaoe. .....<.........». 135 

Shillibeer's Patent Hearses...... ...^...M-—l-r— 135 

Specifleations ol Patents recently Filed : 

Blihop Damping Labels ' 135 

Sewell .^pri1l(^hlng«s 135 

H'G«i&D..^.......«Conrngated Angular 

Iron 136 

M'Gaffln Iron Bridges .., 136 

Derham Combing Machinery ... 136 

Price DlstiHinfE Wood 136 

Decbanet & Slpco .Railway Carriaifes 186 

Brindley OmameatlngChina, Arc. 13S 

W^rlght Permanent way 136 

Aabwtorth..(..^«....Permaacnt Way ' 136 

Kelscy Air-anguies ...>. 136 

Wsgstaffe 8c Per- 
kins TreathigOrei 136 

Spires ..Boots and Shoes 137 

.Dentan ;.....,.....«.Ho«s and Spude ......... 137 

Woodyatt Furnaces 137 

North Watch-protectors 137 

Warcup CarriAge-springe 137 

Lockhart Bobbins ^... 137 

LIvescy Lace Machineiy 137 

Homsby Thrashing Machines ... 137 

Bellford Piston 138 

JTohnsan Steam Bnginrs 138 

Browne ..Camp Bedateads 138 

Whlteley, Slater, 

ti Crossley... Spinning Machinery ... 138 

Longlct" .Ecoeatric Lathe 138 



BaU ..Drills ....:.. 1^ 

Sudbury &Wright.Taps 9c Valves 188 

Roberts...*. *.. Preparing Fibres ....... 188 

GUlet ..„.....„ Capstans, &c. 189 

BaxQes,. ...... ........Furnaces ^yu^ »f.... 189 

Whitehead and 

Whitehead ....^Safety Lamps 139 

Chambers ............Distributing Manure ... 139 

LilUe .-.Fire-arma 139 

Provisional Specifications not Proceeded with: 

Gardisaal .., ..Stamp Safe ; .. 139 

Bellford........ Preserving Animal Sub- 
stances 1.19 

FlitcioftiiE Evans .Floorcloths, Sec 139 

Lawson .: Printing Inks 139 

, Wiberg ..Printing Machinery ... ISO 

Taylor Clothes Peg 1S9 

Waller Sign-boards, ^c ^ ISO 

Guyard... Railway Signals HO 

. Summerfleld ....... Bricks, ft b. ^ ».... 1*40 

Hunt , ....Galvsnizlngtron ....... 140 

Fowler........,, Draining Ploughs'. 140 

Barlow Treating Wheat 140 

Hltchins and Bai- 
ley ...Mouldings IfO 

Hill , bonnets 140 

Archer .Trcatluij Printed Paper 140 

Twigg 9e Silvester.Stamping Metals 141 

Cato Troufjhs and Mangers.. 141 

Dolgety Reducing l^riction 141 

Font.'tiiiemoreau ...Zincography., 141 

Provisional Protections - 141 

Patents Applied for with Complete Specifica- 
tions ....:.;. .:............ 142 

Notice of Application for Prolongation of Pa- 
tent .'.....: 142 

Notices of Intention to Proceed... 142 

List of Sealed Patents 148 

List of Designs for Articles of Utility Regis- 
tered 144 

List of Provisional Registrations 144 

Notices to Correspondents..... 144 



LONDON : Edited, Printed, and Published by Richard Archibald Brooman, of No. 166. Fleet-street,, 
In the City of London.— Sold by A. and W. Galignaai, Rua Vlvieane, Paris; tfadiln, and Co. 
Dublin ; w. ۥ Campbell MUd Con Hambvg . 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Pttlawits' '^^^m. 



No. 1645.] SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 17, 1855. [sj;j|^/i^ 



Fig.S. 



3d. 
Edited by R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-itre«t. 



AN IMPROVED STEAM-ENGINE BOILER. 

Fig. 2. Fig. 1. 



VOL. LXII. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



146 
AC^ IMPROVED STEAM-ENGINE BOILER, 

BY MR. H. WRIGHT^ OF MANCHESTER. 

The boiler described in the present paper* (the in?ention of Mr. W. B. Jobnson, of 
Manchester), has been at work successfully for more than twelve months at the author'* 
Works, near Birmingham ; and the present description has been laid before the Institution, 
as the boiler appears to possets sooie praetioal Advantagea \a eiBcienay- and economy. 

It is one of the tubular construction of boilers, and has an impcpveroent in the arrange- 
ment, designed for the purpose of removing some objections that have been experienced in 
tubular boilers, and increasing the economy both of working and construction. 

The boUcr it atlOHM Vk Ibe engravings on the preceding p^e^ in which fig. 1 represents 
a transverse section ; fig. 2, a longitudinal section ; and fig. |^ a plan of the two boilers 
combined. The products of combustion from each furnace, aftfi fusing over the furnace- 
bridges, 9 B, xpeet and mix together in the chamber, D, attach^ tq the back of the boiler ; 
and when tbe furnaces are alternately supplied with a proper i\||^7i;rt of the fuel, combus- 
tion is rei^ered sufficiently perfect to prevent ^e %|^W«^^ «f WM^Vq ^^ ^ ^MMey. 

The i»qUo» giyen to the vapour in coming ^iqi^ M^k^f^fftf^ tt^«•% H %gt wfH ^J^fm^^^J 
togetl^, afteY ^^^h. \t passes into the tub^ £ S> iumiii;|f the bealia^ swpf^ Sf the 
boUeva. Ti»« pcoduoW of combustion are collect«4 ftoift ^ tu^ i«t«^ tb« fn^Jk«->VoXi F> 
and coaducted fy^m th«9C6 by the flue, Q, t« V^« o^m««^ ?^ IMIMI^^ ^ ftiM with 
a damper to reguUt« the draught thr«u^)^ ^ tub«% '^^ Ami9«% V9A i«twt|^ ^u^ fiv 
rng aicoUar results, are sometimes pk«fsd \» ^as «heU (u^ ^U«hMil»9t ^«t the umiymirit 
^presented in the engravings is recQxwp»ea4^ m mbWf ft m^ Mi HVMf M\9»\ $» 
it must be appaieat, ib«t if the tw« |m««««s. uicl two set« of tuWt M»ita^e4 fa the Ipa 
ibeUa were placed, ^ 9J^ it must b« MMid«c«b]jc Ucgec ia dUi»fttet» sod ta that e^MH 
baoon^ ^niit foi; tb^ puipose of |ff«4\b9i?^ ite^m 9i ki^ {ireaaiM«i Mwi «(fiW WW9» 
]|aye been constructed similar to this, and the result has been strongly tn favour of tubular 
he^ttng |<u%ce. 

As^lh^ VvangeoMat of l^e furnaces is shown in fig. i, which ii a plan, ^ey ace placad 
insi^^ tiU i^ell of tha boillBEt ^^re ^9JMi WC0I«|M wth the waio,. »a oyHB#2^> ni^ 
traaaxeiat Hction, are placed opposi^ W «^a aaot^f ^ii^Uudio^aUy* aad »¥% %uj^H«d wit^ 
fue) aA aaob end of the WIqi. The |kiodttoU of o«m¥astion Irojm eaob Aumaoe^' after pas%. 
ing otef ^ fumaoe-bridgei, ^ 6, wjof. Wgakber in Iha cbamb^K, Q. WH^A the f^roaoea 
coataiiv a proper amount of fuel, and ve alteit^aMj mppUedi the oonsuoBif tion oi th« 9inokf 
ia ]pia^ieaUy complete. From boileira o| 3i^ horse-pow^^ an.d ^S-^aiVU ^ ftHUMSl^ 9t 
smp^a ^dHced it not more than ap^axa at tba ta^ oX aa aidiAaiy kaiiia* okMnaajb Vk# 
produ^W ol oombuation, aftev mixing ul the chaoa^i:; ftlCt 90JDtT|Z^ ttuCQPH^l t^ tabuMh Upl^ 
into the tmojte-boxes, £ £, and from thenoe iato the il\Mi| WS, Wiawwaigatwg vuh wa 
chiajmav. Each amoke-box ia provided with a dam^r, O, b^ wbiek eaeh sel of tubss ^%a 
be rogujf^lied in the amount of heat they receive Uom. tlM^ obasabaik^ 

The bo^ert described above, that are in use at the Auihoi^a w«^l, ^xt Vtlft ia a<WMl»at 
vor^ {m a l^^'y vith very satisfactory results. No iaikus has oooun^ oI ih^ tabs% at 
any Qtthav past, and the tubes are not found to chotf;aup i iiie ii«a(4a balag \94% oamfiatslv 
bun|tA ik/n dej^it of soot in the tubes ia thereby preir^nted> tnc^ t^^ fiiTa t|a| ^eqiuceq 
qleaajag out awoe firat ata;rtiag work. Thasa tub#a' ua wiou^kb-iioa, 2 mohaa disHastai, aad 
^feattong. 

Tha fuel OQoaumed is saw-dust and rubbish 9$ the oacpaBtexa' ahoasy with a small pjpo- 
jsortl^a of ooal-alackj and the boiler is found to ksap up the steam well, at 50 lbs. per inch. 
The aomitxi^tion of the boilers, and the sxiangement of the two in oombinaiion, is found 
very tentiQeable in economy of fuel, allowing very inforiof quality to be used, and the con. 
sumatioi^ of the smoke is accomplished very completely, scarcely any traae of amoke being 
visible^ a^oap^ fov a short time when lighting the fixe, or getting up a low fire. 

Ligr !■■■■-' — •■ ■■■■■■■'■■ . ■ — --; 

* Head at tha Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Binningbam. 



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14^ 
LONDON FIRB8 IN 1864. 
Tuseuty-fmirtk Jnaual lUj^U By Mr, William Baddeletf, C, £. 
{Qmchtded from page 129.) 

The daily distrilration of last year was as follows : 



1 ' 

1 Hosdav. 


Tuesday. 


WedBesdaj. 


Thunday. 


Friday. 


Saturday. 


Sunday. 


1 

! ^^^ 

i 


1S3 


ISO 


136 


134 


141 


187 



Their distributicm through the l^ours of day aad night has been ix\ the fgllof ipg pfth 
portions : 



P.M. 19 







s 


C 


ii 


M 


1^ 




§* 




a 


o 




s 


s 




o 




i 

22 


1 

> 




O 

14 


c 
16 


•3 


.a 

i 

I 




21 


1$ 


U 


19 


25 29 30 42 


36 


SI 


66 


SO 


82 


61 


62 



The causes qffrf, so far as they could be sat^factoriV ascertained, have been the (ol- 
loiring : 



Accidents, unforeseen) and for the 

most part unavoidable . , 
Apparel ignited on person 
Candles, various accidents with 

„ ignited bed- curtains . 

„ „ window-curtains 

Carelessness, palpable instances of 
Children playing with fire 

„ „ „ lucifers 

Cinders put away hot 
Coke „ ,, . 

Copper improperly set 
Fire-spaiks . . « . 
Fireworks, making of , 

„ letting off 
Flues, foql and ignited 

„ blocked up . « , 

„ defective or overheated . 

„ hot air . 

,.- of hot plate . 
Friction of machinery • 
Fumigation, incautious , 
Furnaces ..... 
Gas, escape of from defectiTQ fittings 



9 

7 

98 

66 

41 

11 

8 

11 

18 

2 

1 

47 

3 

1 

25 

9 

47 

1 

3 

4 

2 

17 

66 



Ga9, accidents in lighting 
„ le(l burning too high, or near 
combustible goods 
„ fitters at work . 
„ stove 
Gunpowder, explosion of . 
Hearths laid on timber 

„ fires kindled on . 
Hot,water pipe . . • 
Intoxication 
Lamps, oil ... 

„ naphtha 
Lime'slaking , 

Liueu, drying or airing before (ire 
Lights thrown down areas, &c. 
Locomotive, sparks from . 
Lucifer- matches, making . 
„ using . 

„ accidentally ignited 

ff «• '- 

. by sun's heat 
Ovens, defective or overheated 
Pitch and tar, boiling of . 
Reading iu bed « , 
I 2 



27 

1 

1 

1 

7 

4 

1 

9 

4 

2 

6 

34 

16 

2 

2 

10 

U 

1 

11 
12 

2 



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148 



LmiBOl^ 1IBE8 IN 1854. 



Sha? ingt, loose ignited ... 43 

Smoking in bed .... 1 

t, meat 2 

Spirits, drawing off . . • . 2 

Spontaneous ignition of chemioals . S 

„ „ cotton-waste . 1 

tt ft dung . . 2 

„ ,, greasy rubbish 6 

„ I, lamp-black . 6 

y, f, wet rags . 2 

Steam boilers, heat from ... 4 

Stoves, improperly set, defeetiye, or 

overheated 26 

„ drying 18 

„ ironing 1 

» pip« 7 

„ skeleton 1 

Suspicious ..... 9 

Tobacco, unextinguished ... 39 
Varnish, oils, &o., boiling of . .18 

Wilful 19 

Unknown 77 

9^8 
The causes of fire during the past yesr do 
not present any particular feature of no- 
velty. The use of artificial light in the form 
of candles, gas, &o., continues to originate 
a large proportion of fires. A fire has again 
been occasioned by a hot-water pipe, and for 
the second time in the same locality ; viz., 
Mercers* -hall, the scene of a similar acci- 
dent in the previous year. " It is com- 
monly imagined that the introduction of 
hot water, hoc air, and steam-pipes, as a 
means of. heating buildings, cuts off one 
avenue of danger from fire. This is an 
error. Iron pipes, often heated up to 400*, 
are placed in close contact with floors and 
skirting-bosrds, supported by slight dia- 
gonal props of wood, which a much lower 
degree of neat will suffice to ignite."* 

Mr. Bratdwood has stated his belief, that 
by long exposure to heat not much exceed- 
ing 212^, wood is brought into a condition 
that will fire without the application of a 
light; and that this process takes from 
eight to ten years. There is no doubt that 
such a process goes slowly on ; but it is 
probably a much quicker one than Mr. 
Braidwood supposes ; influenced, no doubt, 
by the temperature of the pipes, and modi- 
fled by many other circumsunces. There 
is much analogy between this slow charring 
and ultimate ignition, and the spontaneous 
ignition of various substances ; as also to a 
circumstance which, for want of a better 
term, I call the aeeumulatioe property of 
heat, which manifests itself when large 
quantities of carbonaceous matters, heated 
much below the igniting point, are heaped 
together in bulk, l^is phenomena fre- 



• OuarUrlif Review, No. czd. 



qnently takes place with hot charcoal, coke, 
roasted coffee, chicory, &e. In the course 
of a few hours it is no uncommon thing to 
find these substances, which had been pre- 
viously cooled down so as to be handled 
without inconvenience, in a state of active 
combustion. 

Nineteen of last year's fires are known 
to have been witfuUy occasioned; in 
two instances only was the crime judi- 
cially brought home to the perpetrators. 
The first of these was the ease of H. J. 
Hall, beer-shop keeper, in Fleeustreet, 
whose premises were destroyed by fire, early 
on the morning of February 28th. Sui&- 
cient evidence, however, remained to show^ 
that the fire had been wilfully occasioned. 
It is notorious that the insurance offices in . 
general ''do not like the trouble or bad 
odour of being prosecutors," and in the pre- 
sent instance the incendfary nearly escaped. 
To the honour of some of the directors of 
the Westminster Fire-office, they felt they 
had a duty to perform to societv, as well as 
to themselves ; they caused Hall to be ap- 
prehended at Liverpool, where he was 
hiding, and at the August sessions of the 
Central Criminal Court convicted him of 
arson. Mr. Baron Martin, in passing sen- 
tence said, that the extent of injury that 
might have arisen from a fire in such a 
place as Fleet-street was incalculable, and 
the prisoner must have anticipated that, 
upon conviction, the heaviest sentence short 
of death would be passed upon him, and 
he should order him to be transported fwr 
life. The other incendiary was a journey, 
man printer, who having quarrelled with his 
employer, and been discharged from his 
service, set fire to his premises out of re- 
venge, and then gave^ himself up to the po- 
lice; he was convicted, and (raatported for 
twenty years. 

The writer already quoted,* says, ** There 
is no denying tliat the crime of tirson owes 
its origin entirely to the introduction of fire- 
insurance ; and there can be as little doubt, 
that of late years it has been very much in- 
creased by the pernicious competition for 
business among the younger offices. It is 
calculated that one fire in seven which occur 
among the small class of shopkeepers in 
London, is an incendiary fire. When an 
event of the kind ' is going to happen ' at 
home, a. common circumstauce is to find 
that the fond parent has treated the whole 
of his family to the theatre." 
The excessive competition above alluded to, 
which has for some time past been carried 
on, for the most part in " hazardous" and 
" special " risks, has entailed heavy losses in 
some of the competing offices, and they 

• Quarterip Review, 



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LOHDON 7IBX8 IN 1854 



have in eomtqnenee abandoned the fhrt 
boaineaa altogether. The actual risk in 
eertain classee of insnrancee it very nnsatis- 
factoriljr determined — ^being tettled, Appa- 
rently, by the rale of thumb 1 I have now 
before me, an announcement that the Lm^ 
coJtiUrv Insurance Company are open to any 
proposal for insuiance on goods in the 
" CfysUl Palaoe,'* Sydenham, at lOf. (MLper 
eeoL premium ! 

This building is composed principally of 
iron and glass, the floors being almost the 
I only combustible pert — ^without any aly 
I comers for incipient fires to breed in unper* 
I ceived — ^wholly exempt from the greater 
^ number of " causes firam fire" hereinbefore 

r enumerated — abundantly supplied with water 
both within and without the building-^ 
watched and guarded day and night by ex- 
perienced firemen, and containing a larger 
supply of available fire-extinguishing ma- 
chinery than is to be found in any provin- 
cial town in the kingdom (Liverpool and 
Manchester only excepted) ; and nere the 
risk of destruction by fire, to goods depo- 
sited therein, wof estimated at one guinea, 
[ and as now reduced it estimated, by the 
^ office alluded to, at half a guinea per cent ! 
I Looking from the terrace of the said Crystal 
Palace, there may be seen a private dwelling, 
ooeupied bj two families, having fires and 
candles in every fioor, liable to S^ the nu- 
merous accidents which they occasion, the 
only supply of water being that from a small 
pump, and the nearest fire-engine station 
upwards of nine milei distant ; and yet, all 
the risk of fire in this building is considered 
amply covered by a premium of twtMUmgs 
per cent I On comparing these two widely- 
different risks together, it would Bcem as if 
s the one premium muBt be ruinous; the 
other excessive, if not fraudulent. So far, 
however, from the lower premium being 
rainous, it is, according to a report by 
Mr. Barnes, surveyor,* twice as much as 
the actual risk demands; and he recom- 
mends such insurances to be taken at one 
MkUUng-pet cent — or, if the house be isolated, 
or semi-detached, at ttlnepence. 

Because, says Mr. Barnes, " The instance 
of a dwelling-house having been on fire, !• 
almost a solitary one, and when it has oc- 
eurred, the injury has been mostly of a 
very partial character. I have rarely heard 
of injury done to dwelliDg-honses, and when 
I have, it has formed the atceptkn to an 
almost universal rule." During the last 
twenty-one years these exoefftimu have 
amounted to 6,942 1 During the year just 
ended, one private dwelling was totally de- 

* Report to the DirectoTs of the London Mer- 
cantile Asennmce Company; to he had gratis at 
No. 4, Oreaham-atreet, and at No. S, Church-court, 
Old Jewry, London. 



H9 

stroyed; 62 seriously damaged, and 245 
slightly damaged. Mr. Barnes admits that 
he has no data whereon to found hit recom- 
mendation, but says, *' It is difficult, indeed 
next to impossible, to furniah any statistical 
report of ttie number and amount of risks 
by fire of this class of assurance, owing 
to the slender means I have at my com- 
mand."* 

Mr. Barnes supposes a very large number 
of private dwellings in the metropolis and 
its suburbs, insurable at the thittiug rate ; 
but there is no doubt the number is much 
exaggerated ; and of the actual number, a 
very large proportion are bound, by leases 
and other circumstances, to existing offices. 
Therefore " every one ** will noi ** insure his 
dwelling-house in the office that charges the 
most moderate premium.'' Again, the 
** most moderate premium " may, after all, 
involve a fallacy ! 

Take the ordinary case of a dwelling- 
house insured for 

£ 8. d. £ s. d. 
SOOatl 6..0 4 6 

Contento of ditto 500 at 1 6 . . 7 6 

Duty upon SOO at 8 0..1 4 

£1 16 



On removing this insurance to Mr. Barnes' 
office, as he charges 28. upon the contents, 
the account will stand thus : 

£ s. d. £ 8. d. 

House 800 at 1 .. S 

Contents 500 at 2 .. 10 
Duty 800 at 8 .. 1 4 

£1 17 

That is, just one ahUHng sierf than is charged 
by the present insurers ! 

Mr. Barnes says, *' no doubt exisU in my 
mind that these properties are greatly under- 
insured, owing to the rate of insurance being 
unquestionably beyond the risk." But can- 
not Mr. Barnes perceive that, if the rate be 
beyond the risk, the reduction in the amount, 
in a great measure, restores the equilibrium? 

The dwelling-house before alluded to, is 
doubtless under-buured^ its value being full 
£500 ; but taking the probability of its total 
destruction as very remote, an insurance for 
iS800 is commercially considered to be am- 
ply sufficient If all private dwellings 
{withmt lodgerej^) and their contents were 
insured at their JuU value, there can be no 
doubt that insurances at a shilling premium 
would be a profiuble business; but then 
comes the duty I 

• Reference to the Ueehanic$* Uamine would 
have fumitbed the information required. 

t Mr. Barnes says, '* Lodgers do not destroy the 
single occupancy.*' I hold that they do. 



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190 



LONDON F1BE8 IN 1854. 



Taking the 1i«um bofbiw alhid«d tot 



Hense 500 at 1 
Contents 500 at 1 
Duty en 1000 at 8 


d. 





.. 

.. 

:. 1 


8. 

5 
6 

10 


cl. 








£2 









An increase of four thilimgs on the present 
insurance, brought about bjH-a' reduction of 
premium t 

Mr. Barnes wfnda up his extraordinary 
Report ^y asking tbp Question I haye often 
addresse4 to otners, when in conversation 
professionally and otherwise, for the last 
twenty-fire years-:-** When did you last $C€ 
a dwetling-houie on ire t^* 1 reply — Jan. 
13th. at Holloway (when the private dwell- 
ing of W. Prentice, Esq., was destroyed Sy 
Are) ; and having thus answered Mr. Barnes' 
notable question, I take leave of his Report. 
The number of flres in the list of" totally 
destroyed" during the past year, shows an 
increase qf 12 above tQQse of 1853, and an 
increase of 6 cr 7 on the average qf the 21 
years previous. 

The writer in the Quarterly Review before 
quoted^ observes, that a decrease in the 
number of "totally destroyed " is the " beat 
test of the activity of the Brigade." Such, 
however, it by no meant the fart, seeing that 
the eiremnttaneot of the eaao, in nine in- 
stances out of ten, are tneh as to be altoge- 
ther beyond the control of the Brigade. Want 
of water (ftpom frost, abtenee of water-mains, 
or negtect of turncock) — distance from the 
nearest engine station-rdelay in calling the 
firemen — small size or peculiar construction 
of the bttilding, or inflammable nature of its 
contents — all contributed to swell the num- 
ber of last years' •• total lotset.^' 

In the list of " seriously damaged " will 
be found nearly all the largest fires of the 
year; and at them wat the effieieney and 
activity of the Brigade most taWy tested , — 
dtfliouUies and disadvantages of no ordinary 
kind being frequently encountered and trf. 
umphantly surmounted. In upwards of 
thirty inttancet the premises were all hut 
dtsiroyed. Want of spaee prevents even 
enumerating the oecasiont upon which the 
exertions of the firemen hare been eonspi- 
cnously eneeestful. I may, however, just 
mention the following as a f^w of the most 
striking • —January 5th, 6f a.m., Bennett'al 
hill, D^etoHs-eommons, the premises of Mr. 
Coombs, carpenter and builder, and Messrs. 
Hodgkinaon, envelope - makers. Pebruary 
15th, 11} P.M., London-wall, the workshops 
of Mr. Perry, cabinet-maker and upholsterer. 
February 28th, 2 a.m., HoUaud-atreet, Bank- 
tide, the glassworks of Mesart. Pellatt and 
Co. Mareh9th, IO^p.m., Wellington-street, 
Strand, the papier-mach^ maniifkctory of 



Mr. BtoleAM.* Jano tltt, 8^ A.M.. Now- 
road, St. Ooorge't £ast, the oil warebMiae 
and eak>nr-weirkt of Messrs. Pinohin and 
Jolmton. July 29th, 8^ ».m., Wood>streot, 
Cheapside, the premisea of Mr. Jones, oar- 
penter and paoking-oaae vakor. Angnsl 
10th, 7j^ A^., Old Fkb^troot, the prenrite* 
of Mr. Fitch, mamifaoUirmg stationer. An- 
gttft Ifth, 11^ P.M., Thamet>bMik, Pimlleo, 
the extensive premises of Meanrt. Onbitt aad 
Co.» Wttildem. Angnet SOth, 5 a.m., Lewer 
Thanteo-ttrett, the warelMMite of Means. 
B#ist Brothefi, whokfalo iraggiett, the 
tamt premiaet having bowi proviona^ do- 
stroyed by fire in Oetober, ia49l Septeni. 
ber 15th, 8^ p.m., INimp^rov, Old.elre«C- 
road, the promlaee of Mr. Hooker, engineer, 
and M. Oaropbigne, pianoforte-maker — an 
inoendiary fire. September 28rd, 8^ p.m.. 
Shad Thames, Mettra. Lainff and Shand, 
saiUmakera. Deoember 8rd, i^ a.m., Aran- 
deUttract, Strand, the Wkittington CInb. 
booae, formerly the well-known Crowm amd 
Antkvr Tavern. 

Upon each of tbete^ at np«i other ocea- 
Rioiis, an immense body of ire wat made to 
tnccumb to the powerftil ozertiont of the 
Firo Brigade, under the tkilfnl diroetioii of 
Mr. Braidweod, aided by the diatriot ibie. 
men, Messrs. Poge^ Oolf, Staples, and Hen- 
devaon, in eonjunetlon vrith the lPVa# ^ 
EngUmd firemen under Mr. Connorton. 

At many of last year's fires, the exertions 
of parisli-eogino keepers Jnstified the good 
opinion of Mr. BraSdwood, hereinbefore nar- 
rated. The writer in the QmmrUriy Memew 
says, with refereneo to parish engines, " The 
majority of these are very ineffieient, «oC 
baring any porsons appointed to work them 
who possess a competent knowledge of the 
service. £ven women nsod, new pnd then, 
to ill the ardnees post of direotor i and it 
is not long sinee a certain Mrs. Smith, a 
widow,f might besetn at conflagrations, hnr. 
rying about in her pattens, direeting the 
firemen of her engine, which t>elonged to 
the united parishes ef St. Michael lU^I 
and St. Martin Vintry, in the City. We 
question, indeed, if, at the pr esen t moanent, 
any ef the parish engines ars mueh better 
oi&cered than in the days ef Widow Smith, 
with the exeeption ef those of Hackney, 
Whitechapel. Islington, and perhaps tec or 
three others.*' The fir«t named parish huve 
recently e&tablished their engines upoo a 
most liberal footing, and the inhabitants are 
justified in expoeting oorresponding useAil- 
ness. Wherever paririi engines are iaeffi. 
ciently worked, it almost invariably arises 
from the niggardly spirit that vrithhelds the 
funds, which in this, as iu all other caset, 
are " the sinews of war.** 

* Notice in vol. GO, page 299- 
f Notice at vol. 29, page 4, ATecA. Mag, 



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OH CMB IX.OW Of WAiaB TBOMUOS PIPBS AMD OfimCSS* 



151 



Mr. imes, •BpcrintendMit of Um Lfedt 
Fire Brigade, m alio Mr. SuperinteDdent 
White, 1 Qravesendi hATe nuMJe M?erml Terj 
ftueceufulappliofttioDs of the/re-ofUiiAiiater, 
abowiDg Uittwhen skilfullj applied to a legi- 
timate ease, the apparatus is oot ao utterly 
valoelesa as it had appeared from the impro> 
per uses to whieh it had been applied, and 
the exaggerataom snd ipisrepresenutions by 
which its pretensions had been supported. 
Hr. Bamumi in his recently-published life, 
after alluding to the unfair interibrenoe with 
Mr. Phillips, and the determined epposition 
to his experimental demonstration! very 
Justly remarks that, '< When « fire has bro- 
ken out, snd is raging furiously, especially 
if the wind is blowing, the annihilator can- 
not housed to adrantage, and in that respect 
I was deetned by the represenUtions of the 
man who first c&lled upon tne. Mv expe- 
riences in life bave conrinced me that real 
merit does not always succeed so well as 
'humbug;' and I consider Phillips' fire- 
annihilator i Ihir exemplification of the 
fact" It would seem as if Mr. Phillips 
wna of precisely the aanle opinion, and not 
satisfied with the slow success that waits on 
modest merit, stteiupted *' humbug,'* snd 



between the two stools came to the ground. 
Mr. Curtia, Secretary to the Fire-anoihilator 
Company, has recently applied to the Town 
Council of Liverpool for a reconsideration 
of the practical merits of the Fire-aiinihi- 
lator, upon the ground that the experiments 
made therewith in Liverpool Were most 
unfably conducted, and the reports thereon 
falsified. The editor of the Lwetpotl Jeur- 
%al observes that, ** Questions of the great- 
est public utility are prone to lose them- 
selves in party and personal enmities. 
This is the case of thfe fire - annihilator. 
The Company say it will extinguish fires ; 
aeveral councillors knd the agent say, that 
eve)ry member in the Council wotild Say so, 
had not the superintendent of the fire-poHce 
reported falsely against It. This is a grave 
charge, and, we believe, unfounded ; but 
what does the Watch Committee do ! They 
ledd support to the accusation by gathering 
legal difficulties around their servant, and, 
like pettifogging lawyers, fencing themselves 
withm technibaiities: This is not the way a 
great Corporation should act, in reference 
to an important public matter." 

IS, AngeU-teitaot, IslfaigtoB, 
Jan. «7. 1855. 



ON THE PLOW OF WATER THROUGH PIPES AND ORIFICES. 



A paper on the above subject was resd at 
the Institution of Civil Engineers, on the 
evening of February 6, by Mr. J. Leslie, 
M. Inst C. £. 

The author having been professionally 
called upon to report on a small scheme of 
water supply^ in whieh it was proposed to 
lay down a pipe with unusually imall deeli- 
▼ity, was induced to hsve a set of experi- 
ments tnade on the discharge of a new lead 
pipe, of 2^ inclies diameter, and 1,086 nset 
m length, with heads varying ttom A^Hs of 
an inch to 10 feet This pipe was laid In a 
coil of about 70 feet in diameter, and 
Iras afterwards siiccesvively shortened into 
lengths of 540 feet, 270 feet, 100 feet, 25 
feet, and 10 feet. Other experiments were 
also made with pipes of l^incb, and 1] inch 
diameter. 

As much care as possible was taken to 
insure the escape of air; but the tesulta 
were in some cases so anomalous as to in- 
duce the bfelief tbat complete success had 
not, in this respect, been always obtained. 

The pipes were also carefully joined and 
soldered, and it was believed that, with one 
trivial exception, no internal obstruction 
bad existed. 

The observations, which were exceedingly 
numerous, were stated to have been made 
ivith much eare» by Mr. John Lamondi an 



assistant of the author; and these had been 
tabulated at great length, atid were annexed 
to the paper. 

The object of the author having been to 
institute a oomparison between the dedub- 
tions of hydraulicians, an^ the results of 
direct experiment, he had adopted, As a 
standard of comparison, a formula which he 
believed to be due to Du Buat, and firom 
that had calculated " the ratio Of actual dis- 
charge to Bu Buat*8 formula.*' 

The formula employed was thuA ex* 
pressed : 

8000^5" 



in which 4 wss the velooiqr per minute, 
f the length of the pipe, increased by 50 
diameters, and d the diameter of the pipe, 
all in feet 

For the discharge (D), in cubic feet per 
minute, this formula became 



D= 



2S56-2 di 



V^ 



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152 



ON THE FLOW OV WATEB THBOUGH PIPES AND OBIRCBS. 



Adopting this formula, the following were 
a few of the results obtained from the pipe 
2^ inches diameter : 

Pipes 2^ inches diameter 1,086 long 
+60 diameters= 1,096 feet 







^^ 








«| 




Head. 


Gradient. 






Ft. In. 








OA 


1 in 70,266 


•0^ 




1 


„ 13,162 


•2t.« 


»^^ 


If 


„ 7,616 


•241 


•448 


21 


„ 6.260 


•4412 


•684 


51 


„ 2,391 


•7407 


•776 


2 4 


„ 767 


1-4634 


•863 


394 


2-22 


•946 


4 H 


,, 230 


3- 


•976 


7 0^ 


„ 156 


363 


•945 


9 111 


„ 109 


4*286 


•961 



(It was shown in the discussion, which 
was only commenced, that the formula re- 
lied upon by the author was not that of Du 
Buat, which when applied ga?e results more 
closely approximating to those of the expe- 
riments, than were obtained by the formula 
employed in the construction of this table.) 

Numerous experiments were also made 
on simple orifices — on short tubes placed 
sometimes vertically, and sometimes hori- 
sontally — and on vertical pipes, from which 
coefficients of discharge, greatly at variance 
with accepted data, had been deduced ; but 
it was afterwards discovered that the appa- 
rent anomaly disappeared, if the active head 
were measured by the difference of level be- 
tween the surface of the water in the cistern 
and the point of exit from the pipe, or the 
difference of level of the water in the upper 
and the lower cisterns. 

Observations on a large scale were also 
made on the pipes of the Edinburgh Water 
Company. The "Crawley pipe" was 16 
inches in diameter, and 44,400 feet long, 
with a differential head of 226 feet The 
actual discharge was 266 cubic feet per mi- 
nute, whereas, by the formula, it ought to 
have been 294 cubic feet per minute. This 
pipe was, however, thirty years old, and was 
known to be considerably reduced in diame- 
ter by incrustation. 

The **Collinton pipe" was 16 inches 
diameter, 29,680 feet long, with a differen- 
tial head of 420 feet The mean of 16 ob- 
servations gave an actual discharge of 671 
cubic feet per minute, whereas the formula 
required that the discharge should have been 
675 cubic feet per minute. This pipe was 
only eight or nine years old. 



A section of the same pipe, of 26,765 feet 
in length, with a differential head of 230 
feet, yielded, on a mean of 26 observations, 
440 cubic feet per minute ; whereas the 
discharge by the formula should have been 
467 cubic feet per minute. 

Another section of the same pipe, 3,816 
feet in length, with a differential head of 
184 feet, yielded 1,216 feet per minute, in- 
stead of 1,063 expected from the formula. 

But a new iron pipe of 2| inches diame- 
ter, and 1,160 feet long, with about 11 feet of 
fall, yielded about what was doe by formula 
to a pipe of 2} inches diameter. 

Observations were also made on the Dun- 
dee Conduit, which was 2 feet broad, with 
rectangular sides and a bottom of smooth 
stone slabs, with the following results : 





FALl 


. 1 IN 1,000. 










Actual 


Velo- 




Calcu. 


Actual 


average 


city by 


Depth. 


lated 


dis- 


ascertain- 


floats 




discharge 


charge. 


ed velo- 
city. 


at sur. 
face. 


Inches. 


Cubic ft. 


Cub. ft. 


Cub. ft. 


Cub.f. 


6 


109^ 


11009 


110-09 


1285 


7 1 134^ 


134^83 


116- 


129-7 


8 , 160- 


162^16 


121-6 


133-1 


9 1 186^ 


184^61 


123^ 


136-7 


10 213- 


21428 


1286 


138-1 


11 2403 


240- 


131- 


140- 


12 268- 


266^6 


133^3 


146-7 



The formula used in this instance might 

be t hus expressed ; 

44Vhyd. mean depth xf&U in feet per mile 
= velocity in miles per hour. 

The discharges by the sluices of the dock 

Sates of Dundee and the lock gates of the 
[onkland Canal were also ascertained and 
tabulated. (The mean of the first seven 
observations gave a coefficient for feet of 
6*3, and of the next four observations, omit- 
tinff one imperfect observation, of 5'25, 
which were consistent with the received 
formula.) 

A few experiments were also undertaken 
with respect to the flow of water over notch- 
boards ; and some investigations were made 
for the purpose or determining whether the 
theoretical addition of 60 diameters to the 
length of the pipe was practically correct 

The author's conclusions were, that while 
Du Buat's formula gave very accurate 
results at moderate rates of inclination, it 
gave a great deal more than the actual dis- 
charge with very low gradients, and very 
considerably less with steep gradients. 



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POBTEBfS PATBIT AMCliOBS. 



158 



PORTER'S PATENT ANCHORS. 

BEFORE THE JUDICIAL COMMITTEE OP 
THE PEITY COUNCIL. 

Friday, Feb, 2, a$td Saturday, Feb. 10, 1856. 

Present — Lord Chief Justice Jerfis, Sir 
Edward Ryan, Sir John Dodson, and 
Mr. Pemberton Leigh. 

Thb was an application of a peculiar 
character for the confirmation of a patent, 
originally granted in 1838, for an improve- 

I ment in the construction of anchors. 

' Sir P. Thesiger, with Mr. Webster, 

!• appeared for the applicant, and Mr. M. 

f Chambers, with Mr. Seijeant Atkinson and 

Mr. Russell, opposed the application. 

Mr. Pemberton Leigh delivered the judg. 
ment of their Lordships. The followingis 
a condensed report of his remarks: — The 
patent, he said, was granted on the 16th of 
August, 1838, to Mr. Porter, for an im- 
prorement in the manufacture of anchors, 
and expired on the 16th of August, 1862. 
On the 18th of February, 1863, Her Ma- 

4 jesty granted a further term of six yearr for 
the exdusiTe use of the invention. The 
term was granted by new letters patent, 
which contained a condition similar to that 
in the original patent, that the grant was to 
be Yoid if it should appear that the inven- 
tion was not new as to the public use and 
exercise thereof in Ens]and,or not invented 
and found out by Mr. Porter. In an action 
brought against Mr. Bloomer for the in* 
friogement of the patent, it was proved that 
this was not a new invention within the 
condition of the letters patent, and it was 
* agreed on all hands that the patent at 
present was Toid. The Legislature, how. 
ever, had thought fit to vest in the Crown, 
under certain circumstances, on the recom- 
mendation of the Judicial Committee, the 
power of restoring and giving effect to the 
grant so become Toid, and upon a petition 
being presented, it had been referred to 
their Lordships to inquire whether it was fit 
that the application should be granted. 
The power was conferred upon the Crown 
by the 6th and 6th William IV., chap. 83, 
see. 2, and it had been admitted, that even 
if the petitioner brought himself within the 
provisions ik the Act, it was still left to the 
discretion of the Judicial Committee to 
recommend or not the confirmation of the 
patent, as justice to all parties might appear 
to them to require. There were, therefore, 
two questions before their Lordships : first, 
whether the petitioner had proved those 
facts which were necessary in order to 
enable the committee to recommend a con- 
firmation ; secondly, whether the circum. 
stances were such as to make it fit that their 
Lordsbipe should ezarcise their discretion 



by recommending a eonfirmation if they 
had the power so to do. It was objected by 
the opponenU of the petition that those 
questions did not arise in this case, because 
the provisions for confirmation of a pa- 
tent did not spply to a patent for an extended 
term. But the grant of an extended term 
was a new grant by- new letters patent, 
subject to the same conditions, open to the 
same objections, and, in ordinary cases at 
least, entitled to the same advantages as 
the original grant. In the case of " Aube's 
patent" it was decided that the grant of an 
extended term must be consideied as a new 
grant There appeared to be nothing in 
the nature of the benefit now sought which 
should exclude ite application to a patent 
for an extended term ; the question there- 
fore arose, whether the petitioner had esta- 
blished those facte which were necessary, in 
order to give jurisdiction to the committee. 
The onus of proof lay on the petitioner, and 
he must satisfy the committee, first, that 
before the date of the original patent the 
invention was not publicly and generally 
used ; and secondly, that the grantee of the 
original patent believed himself to be the 
first original inventor. It was proved by 
the evidence, that Mr. Porter was, in no 
sense of the term, the first inventor of this 
improvement The principle hsd been dis- 
covered and put in use by Mr. James Logan, 
of Liverpool, more than ten years before 
the date of Porter's patent ; he had made 
drawings of his invention, which he had 
shown to a great number of persons, and 
had procured models of it to be made, which 
he had sent to anchorsmiths and other 
persons likely to bring the iuTcntion into 
use, and had caused one of those models to 
be hung up in the room of the underwriters 
at Liverpool, where it remained for twelve 
or fifteen years, and was probably there 
when Mr. Porter took out his patent It 
further appeared that he had actually, in 
1826, manufactured a large anchor upon 
this principle, and had sold it in that or the 
following year ; that it was put on board a 
steamer called the fViUiam Huekitwm, and 
remained there in use till 1836, when, one 
of the toggles having been broken, it was 
sent to the yard of Messrs. Logan, as one of 
the witnesses said, to be repaired, and from 
that time it lay in the yard open to the 
inspection of idl the workmen who were 
employed there, amounting, as was said, to 
about 260, and of all persons whom business 
or other circumstenoes might bring to 
Messrs. Logan's works. If their Lordships 
could rely with confidence on the accursoy 
of Mr. James Logan's memory, the case 
would be carried much further with re- 
spect to the use of the invention. It 
was not easy to define what was the exact 



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IM 



MBfBA'S ^JOMKT AXCaOftS. 



meaniiig of the,.«spreMiotti "publiol^ and 
generalTj used," containea in the section 
of the act of Parliament referred to. Their 
Lordships oould not consider the use of the 
invention on boarsi a single ship, however 
public, or for whatever length of tiiqe, as a 
general user. They were satiafied that the 
invention had not been publicly used at the 
liate of the original letters patent Whether 
the petitioner had made out the second 
point, namely, that the original patentee 
believed himself to be the first and original 
inventor, depended entirely upon the period 
at which the belief must be proved to have 
existed. There was no reason to doubt that 
he so believed himself when the original 
letters patent were granted i on the other 
hand, it was plain Uiat he oould entertain 
no suoh belief at the time when the re- 
newed grant was made. According to the 
doctrine laid down by Lord Lyndhurst in 
''Weatrop and Gibbons's patent" (Web- 
ster's Cases, 555X a party oould not be 
permitted to shelter himself under wilful 
Ignorance, but must be fixed with know- 
ledge, not only of what he did koowt but 
of uiat which he would have known if he 
had made the inquiries which it was in- 
bumbent upon him to make. It had been 
arffued, however, very forcibly, that the 
belief of the original patentee must mean a 
belief at tlie time when the original patent 
was taken out, and that neither the merit 
of the original patentee, nor the rights of 
the assignee could be affected by oiroum- 
stanoes which came to the knowledge of the 
former only aAer the patent had been 
granted, and when, possibly, as in this case, 
all his interests in it had ceased. It was 
impossible to deny that there was great 
weight in that argument i but, on the other 
hand, it must be remembered that it was 
the new patent which it was sought to 
confirm} that it was as a new and an 
original patent that it was brought within 
the meaning of the clause, and that there 
was nothing unreasonable, when it claimed 
the same advantages, in subjecting it to the 
same resuiotions as an original grant. 
tVhatever doubts their Lordships might 
entertain upon other points in this case, 
upon that whioh was sufficient for its de- 
cision, namely, the mode in whieh they 
were to exercise their discretfon, if the cir- 
cumstances gave occasion for it, they oould 
enierUin no doubt whatever. The power 
given to the Crown was to provide an 
extraordinary remedy for extraordinary 
cases, to supersede the ordinary rules of 
law at the expense of the public in favour 
of an individual, to give force and validity 
by a quasi legislative authority to a grant of 
monopoly actually void, and to taolude from 
the use of the invention not only the other 



sniijec.ts of Her Miges^ in BBgland* but 
even the first and original inventor who had 
actually brought it into public, though not 
into general use before the first patent was 
Uken out That that was the effect of a 
confirmation was perfectly clear, though it 
appeared from Lord Lyndhur&t's observa- 
tions in '^WesVropandOibbons^s casc*\that 
such was not the intention of the framer of 
the Aot, nor its efifeot as i| was originally 
introduoed into, and as it left, the House of 
Lords. To what ektent, under the lioi. 
guage of the Act, other ol^ectitfns to the 
validity of the patent were ranoted by the 
confirmation might be doubtfbl. In the 
oase of "Card's patent" (6 Moore 7, e. 
213), Lord Campbell sug|rested that the 
generality of the ekpreasion was probftbl/ 
intended to be limited lo prior ust of the 
invention. His Lbrdship alto intimated 
that the proviaiona of the clause were 
meant to be confined tt> easel where either 
doubts might exist Whether there had been 
ftttoh a prior use as to vitiate the patent, or 
where tne use of the Invention, after some 
fruitless trials, had been throl^it aside and 
abandoned by the original inventor. In 
this particular oase th^re was no room for 
doubt that, if the faoU whieh aetually 
existed had been known at the time when 
the original parent was Uken oat, oo 

Stent ought ever to have been granted to 
n Porter. If the Uttt now in proof had 
been knowh to their Lordships when Uiey 
recommended ao extebftion of the patent, 
they never oould have given any such re- 
commendation to the Crown. Their Lord- 
ahips had considered what Ought to be 
done with respect to the Ooats of the oppo- 
nents. It was of great importance tnat 
parties ahould not be discottrsged from 
bringing important facts to the knowlodge 
of the Court by the fear of the oosu which 
they might have to pay if their opposition 
was successful, and Upon that ground, In 
'* Westrop and Gibbons," the partiea op- 
posing were allowed their costa^ But their 
Lordships were not satisfied with the man- 
ner in whioh this opposition had been 
conducted. Much expense had been occa- 
sioned by relying upon patents for inven- 
tions which had really no resemblance to 
this, and witnesses had been produced to 
whoee testimony their Lordships could not 
give the amallest eredit On the whole, 
their Lordships would humbly advise Her 
Majesty that the application ought not to 
be granted, bat that no costs should be 
awarded to the opponenti. 



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Oir THE MOOM*S MOTION. 



155 



CLARK'S PATENT FOR PURIFY. 
tKG tTATER. 
(0^^ the CoM^ Hte nmtmd m thBplreedimg I 
Cate.) 

Sattrdoff, ]^ett^uartf 10, 1855. 

Tan was ui appUeAtion for the extension 
of a patent granted on the 5th of Mareh, 
1841. The bhject of Che patent was to 
•often and purify watery for domestic and 
mannfabtnrinf pnrpneei» more espeoiallj in 
chalk dittrictai Bf the emplo)rment of Ta. 
rio«s testb tiie qualt^ of the water was 
taeertaitaed, and bj the introdnction of lime 
it was divested of chalkj and organic mat- 
tery one resnlt of which Would be a gteat 
teving In soap. It was atated that the pa. 
ten tee had sustained te loss in endeavouring 
to bring the process itato general use of 
ahont ill ,000. The patent is now in bpc- 
mtioQ at the Plumatead Water-wof ks, and it 
waa alleged that as new edmpaniea are 
fomed, ^ert wak every r^Mon to believe 
that they would avail themsevee of its ad- 
Tantages. The plan was highly approved 
hy the Board of Health. Several witnesses 
deposed to iU excellency, fthd, •niong them, 
proftsaore Miller and Hoffmant The ex- 
tnusion was opposed by M. Lelong- Burnet, 
•f Ft^nise. 

Mr. Oratea and Mr. Aston appeared Ibr 
the petitioner ( Mr. Hindmareh for the op- 
ponent. 

Lord Chief Justice Jervis said, their 
Lordships would humbly advise Her Ma- 
jcaty to grant an extension for seten years. 



ON MJS MOON'S MOTION. 
To Me AIRvl' ^ ike BfgtkaiUef BfUgttstn^. 

Sir,— A few (and very tew) words sfcem 
to be called for in reply to the last commu- 
nication of Mr. Recordon with respfect to 
the moon's motion» 

t must Mrst of all profess myself Unable 
to penetrate the mist which veils his true 
meaniog from the apprehension of the 
-vulgar. As far, however, as I can under, 
stand him, nothtog seems to me more vague 
and unsatisfactory than his whole train 
of reasoning. In order that I might do 
him no injustice, I took the trouble of pain-' 
/«j/|r reading throuffh his former letter. And 
I must confess that the ambiguity with 
which he has succeeded in enveloping his 
meaning is most ingenious and successfuL 
I do not know whether any other of youf 
readers has taken the trouble to endeavour 
to comprehend him; but I for one musi 
own, that t cannot, for the life of me, un- 
deratand either from his former communis, 
eationi or what he has lately added to it| 



what he wishes to convey by the statement, 
that the ** Moon and the Earth stand in the 
same dynamical relation to each other." 

If he kneans to iiuplv hy this, that the 
moon's attraction on the earth is of the 
same intensity as that of the earth on the 
moon, he is clearly in error; for that would 
require that the quantities of matter in the 
two hodies are equal, which they are not 

Again, if he means that supposing the 
mobn to be absolutely at rest, the earth 
would revolve about the moon in exactly the 
same way as the moon do6s actually aoout 
the earth, (and this, I confess^ seems to be 
what he really wishes to convey, when he 
says» page 82. '* if we consider the moon to 
be at rest while the earth rotates uniformly 
on its axis, perpendicularly projected at A, 
so that one of its points, B, describes a 
whole circurtiference in the same tim6 as 
C did in the former motion, hut in the 
contrary direction,") all that I can say is, 
that supposing the moon to sUnd fetill, the 
apparent motion of the earth round her is 
not correbtly described in the words quoted. 
The rotation of the earth round her axis 
once in 24 hours would soon rftmove the 
point, % from the line joining the two 
centres; and in the time that C (in the 
moon), is making a complete circuit. B 
would have made no less than 2i complete 
revolutions round the earth's axis, and have 
arrived at, and left the position indicated, 
no less than 27 times. 

Moreover, supposing (^ (^.3, page ^3) 
to he the point through ^hieh the ni^an 
attraction of the earth or the moon passes, 
that point is not a JUe'd point in the moon, 
as Mr. Recordon's subsequent ^ reasoning 
seems to imply, hut yariable in such a 
manner that however the moon be sup- 
posed to revolve shout her own axis, it must 
lie in the line joining the centres of the 
earth and moon. In fact, supposing the 
moon a homogeneous ^pherci the earth's 
attraction, as appears from this very fact, 
can exert no influence on the moon's rota- 
tion. 

It ii, however, now tinie td examine the 
new matter Mr. Recordon hsa braught for- 
ward. He toils Ui we mutt eonsider *' the 
moon as it it in reality, ?is., at en Imper- 
fect heterogeneous sphere (not even com- 
posed of homogeneous coneentric shelll.)" 
yfi should like to know whence Mr. Recor- 
don derives his intimate acqualAtince with 
the interior construction of the moon. Of 
that of the earth, which lies so maoh more 
under our control, we know little enough ; 
but who taught any sublunary being any- 
thing of the law which regulates the distri. 
bution of matter within the moon? We 
presume that Mr. Recordon hai reMlvMl a 
tiaiti for thie very purpoM, fhmi thtt Ihr-fottied 



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156 



ON THE moon's MOTION. 



" maii-in-the-moon." He then infonnt us, 
that the free rotation of the moon ahout her 
axis is, in such a case, impossihle, though on 
what grounds, it is very difficult to under- 
stand ; and sums up with these remarkahle 
words, which seem to furnish him a clue to 
escape from eTery difficulty, and would evi- 
dently he a satisfactory mode of accounting 
for any and every kind of motion conoeiv- 
ahle or inconceivable. '* Applying ourprin~ 
ciple, we conclude now, also, that the real 
moon can only revolve round the earth's 
centre, as if it were rigidly connected with 
that point" To this solemn dictum, we, 
who unfortunately know no principles but 
those of mechanics, can only reiterate the 
question, What principle, and how applied? 

Mr. Reeordon's explanation of his prin- 
ciple is one of the most edifying insUmces 
of mystification that I ever had the luck to 
encounter. 

Supposing the moon at rest, he refers the 
earth to three co-ordinate axes, that of y 
being her axis, that of x the line joining her 
centre with that of the moon, and that of x 
the straight line through the earth's centre 
in the plane of the moon's orbit perpendi- 
cular to the axis of z. He now supposes 
another movable system of co-ordinates pro- 
duced by the modest change of + ' into 
— jr. We are then told that hereby " one 
and the same dynamical phenomenon has 
occurred in two different systems of co-or- 
dinates," whence "the meaning of saying 
that from different causes, bodies have the 
same dynamical relation, mutt be quite 
clear.** He might just as well have told us, 
that because there are fishes innumerable in 
the sea, therefore we are enjoying a good 
dinner ! 

But we have not yet done with the conse- 
quences of this modest change of -for into 
— «. Behold 

" What great events tnm little causes spring t ** 

The great magician flourishes his wand; 
-)-x is changed into - » ; and hey ! presto ! 

"Taking, now, the first svstem of co-or- 
dinates again, we see that the transmitting 
of the said dTnamioal phenomenon to the 
new system has produced the following 
effecte :— ^tr«%, to bring the earth to rest : 
eeamdly, to produce the often-defined mo- 
tion of the moon; thirdly ^ to engender a 
new centripetal force, equal in intensity and 
coinciding in direction with C G. This new 
force being equal and directly opposite to 
the etiU tubshtmg force C E, we may, ac- 
cording to D'AIembert's principle, Uke 
them both away. And now, the already- 
described motion of the moon exists under 
the influence of the unaltered attraction, C O, 



from the earth, in 'cw(firmaticm rf our prhn' 
ctpU.** 

Oh 1 rare co-ordinates ! Mr. Recordon 
has at last discovered the true philosopher*! 
stone. Change •\-x into —2, and you can at 
once bring the earth to rest, engender a new 
centripetal force, and produce I know not 
how many magical effects. 

Herci then, you blunder-headed mathe- 
maticians, who have been content so long 
with using co-ordinate axes simply to "fix 
epace^** and reduce to calculation the results 
of djmamical causes previously existing, 
under the false impression that they could 
do nothing more for you, here is a grand 
discovery 1 Change •¥x into— x, and you 
may engender new forces ; and so bring the 
most obstinate problems, the most recalci- 
trant cases of motion to reason. 

Seriously, however, is Mr. Recordon 
aware that the earth is under preciselj 
similar conditions, with respect to foroes of 
attraction, as the moon f The sun attracts 
equally the two bodies, and the moon's 
attraction on the earth is of the same kind 
as that of the earth on the moon, though 
less intense. Moreover, we know the earth 
to be a heterogeneous body, whose layers of 
equal density follow a most complicated 
law. *' According to our principle," then, 
the earth ought to revolve about her axis 
once a month. Aye, but here's the rub, the 
really rotates once in twenty-four hours. 
How will ** our principle" account for this? 

The difficulty may be great, but it is not 
insuperable : — for, has not Mr. Recordon a 
system of co-ordinates ? Who knows, if the 
change of + « into — x do not succeed this 
time, that a further change of +y into — y 
may do the trick to admiration ? 

i suppose I ought to say one word with 
regard to the foot-note to Mr. Recordon't 
last letter, which seems a kind of indirect 
reply to my former strictures on his use of 
the term centre of gravity. 

I grant at once that Daniel Bernouilli's is 
a great name, and his authority on most 
mathematical questions of the highest grade ; 
but I must except his strictures on Sir Isaac 
Newton's lunar theory. Like most mathe- 
maticians of that time, he had to lewm the 
very alphabet of physical astronomy from 
that great master, and that in spite of his 
long-cherished prejudices. As a matter of 
fact we know it was long before Newton's 
doctrines found anything like a general 
acceptance on the continent. Bernouilli, 
in the passage quoted by Mr. Recordon, 
evidently entirely misconceived the term 
centre of gravity as applied to the moon. 
He imagined that it was the point of action 
of the forces of attraction to the earth's 
centre ; whereas, in truth, the moon's centre 
of gravity has no more to ^o with the earth' a 



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ON THE INDICAISD H0B8E-P0WSB OF BTEAU-KH0IMS8. 



157 



attraotion than the earth has to do with the 
moon's attraction. According to the New- 
tonian law of unifersal gravitation, CTery 
particle of matter in the moon is attracted 
iy CTery other particle of matter in the 
moon ; and the moon's centre of gravity is 
relative to these forces of attraction, and 
would be the same if the sun and earth 
were both suddenly annihilated, and she 
went rolling on into space with the velocity 
she now has. It is about axes passing 
through this point that the moon would 
rotate freely, had a motion of rotation been 
impressed upon her, quite independently of 
any forces of attraction whose resultant 
passes through this point D.^ fiemouilli, 
to whom this notion was new, may well be 
excused for the misapprehension he has 
fallen into ; hot at this time of day, when 
the doctrine of Newton has received so 
much elucidation, and is explained with so 
mueh of mmuteness and exactness, it is 
quite a diflTerent matter; and I am quite 
aore that D. Bernouilli himself would be 
the first to recall the unfortunate paragraph 
which has so much misled Mr. Recordoo. 
I am. Sir, yours, &c., 

Indaoator. 
, Feb. IS, 1855. 



ON THE INDICATED HORSE- 

POWER OF STEAM ENGINES. 
To the Editor qf the Mechame** Magazine, 

Sir,— Permit me to call your attention, 
and that of your readers, to a very singular 
error that exists in the present method of 
"indicating" steam engines, or rather in 
the calculation of the horse-power from dia- 
grams obtained by a McNaught's indicator. 
In the present system of calculation, an 
aversge is taken by equidieUmt ordinates of 
the pressure upon the piston, and this aver- 
sge pressure is multiplied by the average 
velocity of the piston to get the power. 

Now, in proTing that this method of cal- 
culation is essentially wrong, we shall sim- 
ply require, as an axiom, that pressure mul- 
tiplied by velocity gives power, and only 
when multiplied by Telocity. 

Since we only know by the indicator the 
pressure upon the piston of an engine, and 
not that upon the crank-pin, except indi- 
rectly, we will confine ourselTcs, for the 
sake of simplicity, to the piston end of the 
beam. Everybody knows that the piston of 
a steam engine works with a varying velo- 
city. It starts from a state of rest when the 
crank is on the *' dead centre," and reaches, 
with a constantly-accelerating motion, the 
middle of the stroke, thence gradually de- 



creasing in velocity until tho crank reaches 
the opposite centre. Now it is evident that 
the piston does not transmit the same power 
when starting from a state of rest and mov- 
ing very slowly at the commencement of 
the stroke, that it does when going with its 
greatest Telocity in the middle of £e stroke. 
When the indicator diagram is divided by 
eqnidistoHt ordinates, the manner of calcu- 
lating ought, therefore, to be as under : 



Fig. 1. 



I i 



i • I 1 X 
1 1 1 1 l\ 

. 1 1 1 J 1 ' 
^« 1 1 • « 1 


V 


S^. .^ 


'A ^ « ^1 ^1 ^1 
s 1 ; « 1 1 

! 1 ; 1 i 1 
^. 1 . . . . 




: ! iTTt 



The sum total of the products PxV 
(pressure multiplied by velocity) divided by 
tneir number will give the average power 
per square inch during the stroke ; but as 
the velocity is constantly varying, an infinite 
number of ordinates would be required to 
ensure strict accuracy. 

To calculate diag^rams in the above man- 
ner would be a very tedious process. The 
following is my method ; it is aa simple as 
that now in use, and it appears to me to be 
perfectly correct : 

With A and B, fig. 2, as centres, and half 
the atmospheric line (A B) as a radius, 

Fig. 2. 




describe two quadrants of circles cutting the^ 
atmospheric line in C. Divide the two 
quadrants into the desired number of equal 
parts, and from the points so obtained pro- 
ject perpendicular straight lines divining 
the figure. We thus get a number of ordi- 
nates exactly proportioned to the velocities 
of the different parts of the stroke. 

I am sure that no one, after a moment's 
reflection, would say that the power of two 



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166 



engines frem whioH ihe two fellowiiic^ dia. 
(Cramst flg» 3 and lig. 4» may be euppoeed 
to heve been taken respectively, would be 



\'b nuaxs^'^fmwmmot APPikitATUfli 



%.3. 



!>>, 




^■\ 




; : : : K 

1 1 1 1 


i*~~— — ■ 


1 1 1 1 1 


i ! ' « i^^ 


v- . ■ . . 


, . . 1 • y 



equal, though it is made to be so by the 
usual mode of calculation, supposing the 



Fig. 4. 




^ 


tt 




i J i 
i 1 1 




t^ 1 






I 1 1 


1 I 1 



ordinates of fig. 8 to be 32, 30^ l8, 13*5, 
12, 11, 9, 8, 6, 5, 3-5, and 3 respectiveW; 
and those of fig. 4 to be 5, 8, 9, lO, 20, 25, 
23, 18, 12, 10. 6 and 5, the average In each 

esse bfeing _ ^ l4-d» 
'^ IS 

But if the two figures above be divided 
by lines projected from two quadrants of 
circles as before shown, the respective re- 
sulu will be found to vary considerably, 
which they do for the very obvious reason, 
that the high pressure at the commence- 
ment of the stroke in the one figure, gives a 
comparatively small amount of power, on 
account of the slowness of the piston ino- 
tion ; Wlitlst in the other, the tame average 
amount of pressure is obtained on the piston, 
but the steam is used very much more rapidly 
in ihe middle of Ihe stroke. 

I may remark, in conclusion, thnt the 
above is no doubt the cause of a part of the 
discrepancy that is found to exist between 
the actual and indicated horse power of 
engines working expansively. I should be 
much obliged if you, or some of your ta- 
lented correspondents, would further eluci- 
date the subject. 

I am. Sir, ftci 

iNoiNIBUR. 

ttantiheiter, Feb. 3, 1855. 



PARKER'S SMOKE-CONSUMING 
APPARATUS. 

To the Edii&r cf Vht Mechanics* Magttztf^. 

Sir, — I must crave permissiou to reply 
to the remarks of Mr. Williams^ at page 108 
of your last number^ who in his anxiety to 
remove some "misapprehensions*' on my 
part, has fallen into very serious error him- 
self. I am touch obliged to Mr. Williams 
for the copy of hil very interesting treatise 
dD '* The Combustion of Coal abd the Pre- 
vention of Smoke t" although 4 careful 
perusal and vivid recollection of Mr. Wil. 
liams's numerous eootributions to your 
pages had Ibng since pot me in possession 
of most of the information therein con- 
tained ; and I was not a little surprised at 
Mr. Williams's quarrelling with my state- 
ment, **that the principle of air-distributors 
had originated with Mr. Argand." Strictly 
speaking, this is not quite so ; but then Mr. 
Williams has laboured so long and so kea- 
loUsly to {establish the perfect identity of 
principle between "ArgaHd burnerst" Ap. 
plied in lamps» ahd " air-disuibators»" 
applied to furnaces, that I confess I had 
become thoroughly inoculated witli hii 
fornier view of the case. At page 34 of his 
book, Mr. Williams Hays, " observing the 
means by which the gas is effeclually con- 
sumed in the Aruand Lamp, it seemed 
manifest that, if the gas in the furnace 
could b« presetited, by means of ^e/i, to an 
adequate quantity nf air, u it ia in the 
lamp, tlie reAilt would be the same. The 
difficulty of fellbt!ti)tg a similft)- distHbtttion 
of the gas in the furnace, by means of jeu, 
however, feemed insurmountable: one al- 
teruative alone remained, namely, that, since 
the gas covid not be introduced by jets into 
the body of air, the air might he introduced 
bit jets itite the body 1/ g«." And \£r. 
Williams quotes Professor firaode, to sup. 
port the identity of the two operations — • 
only reversed, or inverted. At page 108 of 
your last number, Mr. Williams quotes the 
Professor's words, apparently to uphold a 
iome\>hat different opinion. On the same 
page^ Mr, Williams says, ^* Again ; I did 
not give the name of Argand to my mode of 
introducing the air. That name wfts given, 
and by another, many years, I believe, after 
the patent waa sealed in 183^. In truth, 
the word Argand does not appear in my 
patent or spec^tcation, and has only been 
used by me in illustration of the effect pro- 
duced.*' 

Now this statement is so extraordinary, 
that I cannot allow it to pass uncontra- 
dicted. At page 94 of Mr. Williams's 
book, he gives an engraving and description 
of " one of the modes first adopted, under 
the patent /or the AMQAKt> fmmeu» of 1839 1" 



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spxcmcATioNS or fxxssra MtsnatHTUx rtLot, 



158 



At Mge 89| Mr. WiUiams ouotes, approv- 
ingly, en extract from Dr. Ure,* wbo a<N 
tually tells us, that " One of the many 
ingenious methods in which Mr. Williams 
has carried out the principles of what he 
justljf calls ihe Aroand furnace, is repre- 
sented at fig. 1510"!! In the 37th vol. 
of the Mech, Mog-t Mr. Williams published 
a description of the specification of his pa- 
ttnt, and at page 59o, writes as follows: — 
*'The specification also states that this 
operation is intended ' for the same purpose, 
as f,li IS admitted into the centre of ihe 
body of gas issuing from an Argand gas- 
burner ; ' and hence a furnace so supplied 
with air has been called an Aroand fur- 
MACE " 1 1 ! 

Why Mr. Williams is now to desirous of 
ignoring the name of Argand, after so long 
and extensive use thereofi t cannot imagine. 
** What's in a name?'* 

Although it may be justly conceded to 
Mr. Williams that he was the first person 
who developed the true principles of eom- 
bustion in furnaces, and who made a rational 
application of air-distributors for the pre- 
vention of smoke, yet it cannot be admitted 
that the modes employed by him are the mly 
ones by which that principle can be made 
available. 

Tiie real question now at issue, raised by 
Mr. Williams himself, is this: Had Mr. 
Williams, prior to the date of Mr. Parker's 
patent, applied an air-distributor to furnaces 
for the prevention of smoke, constructed and 
placed like Mr. Parker's? Mr. Williams 
endeavours to establish an affirmative, by 
referring to nage 92 of his work ; but I am 
quite sure that Mr. Parker would not edn- 
aider the use oif such an air-distributor, so 
placed in the furnace, any infringement of 
his patent 

The apparatus referred to by Mr. WiUiams 
was only the subject of experiment in a 
tubular boiler, four feet long, and is not re- 
presented as having ever been actually em- 
ployed to any extent. 

The principle of air- distributors, so ad- 
vanUgeously applied in several ways (or 
modes) by Mr. Williams, is somewhat differ- 
ently applied by Mr. Parker, whose mode of 
wplication consisted in making the Argand 
air-di«tributor separate from, and indepen- 
dent of, the furnace ; a mode which, if effec- 
tualf in practice (and that it is so, is matter 
of daily demonstration), unquestionably is 
the simplest and best hitherto devised. 

I hope to be ever ready to render unto 
Cssar the things that are Caesar's; but 
then Cesar must not want, aUo, that which 
belongs to — aomebody else. 

I am, Sir, yours, ^c, 

William Baddcley. 



COLOURED FLUIDS. 

To ihe Editor of the Mechanics* M^gdtine. 

Sir,— It would be a great favour to me if 
any one of your numerous readers who are 
well itifonned on chemical subjects, would 
tell me how to make a fluid or fluids that 
should, while liquid, be of any given colour, 
such as crimson, blue, yellow, green. &c, 
&c., but whicb» when spread out thinly 
on any white surfkce, such as linen or paper, 
and exposed to the action of the atmospnere, 
would turn gradually very dark,or quite black. 
I am. Sir, yours, &c., 

KicHOLAs Brown TON. 
Oldehureft Bide, Vfcb. It, 1851. 



H, Aftf*U-terttoe, Ulington> geb. 7, 1M5. 
• " Dictionary of AtU." 



SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS 
RECENTLY FILED. 

Hackett, John, of Derby, manufac- 
turer. Covering India-rubber thread, whether 
vuicanited or otherwise, with sewing-sil^ and 
with other articles. Patent dated July 20, 
1854. (No. 1596.) 

Claims, — 1. Covering India-rubber thread, 
whether vulcanized or otherwise^ with sew- 
ing-silk, mohair and ailk, linen thread, or 
chenille. 2. The application of threads 
covered with either of the above substances 
to the manufacture of web. 

••* The above Abstract should have ap- 
peared on page 139 of our last Number. 

Kewton, Alprbd Vincekt, of Chan- 
eery-lane, Middlesex, mechanical draughts- 
man. An improved construction of metallic 
spring. (A conmiunieation.) Patent dated 
July 21,. 1854. (No. 1602.) 

This improved spring consists of a thin 
meUUic strap and a ngid bar, connected 
together at each end, for the purpose of 
susuiping the weight of carriage bodies. 
I'be elastic force rendered available in this 
construction of spring is derived from the 
tendency of the thin metallic strap to retain 
its length, and thus resist the tensile 
strain put upon it by the load which it 
carries. 

Mois, John Thomas, of Arundel-atreet, 
Strand, Middlesex, hotel manager, /m- 
prwemmUs applicahle to apparatus for roast- 
ing meat and other edible substances. Patent 
dated July 21, 1854. (No. 1603.) 

In this invention, a wheel or its mecha- 
nical equivalent, capable of being made 
more or less eccentric, ii used in combina- 
tion with cranked spear and other spits, 
for the purpose of securing their equili- 
brium or balance during their entire 
rotation whilst carrying joints; and the 
inventor employs dogs, whose prongs are 
capable of eliding laterally on &in stand- 
ards or supports, and dega with apring 



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160 



SPECIFICATIONS OF PATXNTS BECENTLY FILED. 



arms, for the purpose of securing the joint 
to the spit. 

Knioht, John, of Birmingham, War- 
wick, gentleman, and James Stubbs, of 
Oldbury, Worcester, mechanical engineer. 
An improvement or improvements in the monu- 
facture rf bricks, tiles, and such other articles 
as are or may be made of clay, which im~ 
provement or improvements may also be applied 
to the manrfacture qf artificial fuel, and to 
other mixing and tempering processes. Pa- 
tent dated July 21, 1854. (No. 1604.) 

The inventors introduce through the dies 
or moulding sur&ces of the brick-making 
and similar machines, steam, which by con- 
densing on the surfaces of the material 
used, and of the different parts of the 
interior of the machine, forms a layer or 
stratum of water between tiie two, and faci. 
litates the motion of the piston and the 
moulding substance. 

Brooman, Richard Archibald, of 166, 
Fleet-street, London, patent agent. An 
improvement in treating raw silk fabrics while 
being dressed and dyed. (A communica- 
tion from Messrs. C. Jandin and A. Duval, 
of Lyons, France.) Patent dated July 21, 
1854. (No. 1608.) 

This improvement consists in holding raw 
silk fabrics in a state of tension, both in 
length and breadth, while being dressed (or 
deprived of the gummy matter contained in 
them) and dyed. 

Sedgwick, James, of Lewisham, Kent, 
master mariner. Improvements in ship- 
building. Patent dated July 21, 1854. (No. 
1609.) 

Claim. — Constructing vessels in such 
manner that that portion of every transverse 
vertical section which is adjacent to the 
keel shall be a convex curve. 

Harratt, Charles, of Royal Ex- 
change-bnildings, London. Improvements 
in fastenings for ship-building. Patent dated 
July 21, 1864. (No 1611.) 

These improved fastenings, which are to 
be used instead of trenails and other fasten- 
ings now employed, are formed each of 
three or more parts, in such manner that 
these parts, being introduced into the hole 
formed to receive the fastening, are ex- 
panded by the introduction of an internal key. 

FiRTR, Thomas, maohine-maker, of 
Huddersfield, and John Wilson, finisher, 
of Mirfield, West Riding, York. Improve- 
ments in finishing woollen, worsted, silk, 
and other woven fabrics, and in the apparatus 
employed therein. Patent dated July 22, 
1854. (No. 1614.) 

This invention relates to what is generally 
called '* pressing," and consists in heating 
the papers used in that process (as well as 
the metal plates), and placing them in or 
between the foldings of the fkbric. 



LosH, William Septimus, of Wreay 
Syke, Cumberland, gentleman. Improve-. 
ments in bleaeldng. Patent dated July 22, 
1854. (No. 1616.) 

Claim. — ^The treatment of vegetable fibres 
preparatory to the bleaching thereof, by im- 
mersing them in a solution of any of the 
soluble combinations of sulphur with an 
earthy base, such as the bi-suiphuret of 
calcium or lime, alone or combined with the 
hyposulphite of the same base. 

HuTCHiNs, Edward Francis, engineer, 
of Whitechapel-road, Middlesex. Constmct- 
ing the cylinders qf engines worked by steam, 
air, or other fiuid body in a circular form or 
plan, by which means more power is obtained 
from a given quantity rf the said fiuid body, in 
cases where circular motion is required, than 
by any other known form qf cylinder. Patent 
dated July 24, 1854. (No. 1620.) 

The inventor constructs an engine with 
radial pistons, moving round between two 
concentric cylinders. 

Roberts, RiCHARDf of Manchester, en. 
gineer. Improvements in machinery for punch- 
ing, drilling, and riveting. Patent dated 
July 24, 1854. (No. 1621.) 

The objects of this invention are — 1. To 
increase the efficiency of punohing-macbines 
by the direct application of the fly-wheel to 
the eccentric shaft, together with means for 
causing the flv- wheel to acquire momentum 
sufficient to do its work, without the inter, 
vention of heavy'toothed wheels. 2. To 
afford the operative a much larger propor. 
tion of the whole time occupied by each 
stroke of the machine than is allowed to him 
by the machines in use for adjusting the 
object to be operated upon under the tool, 
and so to enable him to run the machine at 
a higher speed, and consequently to turn off* 
more work. 8. To obviate the necessity of 
raising the punch higher than is required 
for the a4justment of the work. 4. To 
adapt the punehing-machine to perforate 
and rivet together plates in the sides of 
ships and other large works, whilst being 
suspended from a travellitig>crane, &c., &c. 

JOHNSON, John Henry, of Lincoln*s- 
inn-fields, Middlesex, gentleman. Improve- 
ments in the preparation qf silk. (A com- 
munication.) Patent dated July 24, 1854. 
(No. 1622.) 

Claims, — 1. A certain described mode of 
warping silk directly from the cocoons. 2. 
A certain construction and arrangement of 
" heck," composed of two sliding bars, and 
guiding the threads in a vertical plane. 8. 
The warping of the silk threads either in 
gangs or half gangs, guided on to the warp- 
ing mill in the form of bands or ribbons, 
each single thread being separate from the 
rest when wound on the warping mill. . 4u 
The use of revolving yanes or blades, situ- 



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SPEGIFEGATIONS OF PATENTS BECENTLT FILED. 



181 



ated inside the warping mill, foi the porpoie 
of drying the tilk Uireads, &c. 

CA8TBT8, Augusts, manufacturer, of 
Paris, Franoe. The extraction of a subttanee 
for sttpplymg the place rf pumne. Patent 
dated July 24, 1854. (No. 1623.) 

This infention consists in suhmittiog the 
seeds of the plant called cumin to processes 
similar to those employed to ohtain quinine 
from cinchona hark. 

WiLsoH, Oboro£ Ferousson, of Bel- 
mont, Yanxhal), managing director of Price's 
Patent Candle Company, and Oeoroe 
Patnb, of the same place. Intpropementt 
M disHlUng fatty and oilp mattert. Patent 
dated Jnly 24, 1854. (No. 1624.) 

This inTsntion consists in distilling neu- 
tral or partially neutral fats and oils in an 
atmosphere of steam or vapour of water in 
such manner as to distil over glycerine, 
together with fat acids mixed, hut not com- 
hined. 

Bbllford, Auoustb Edouard Lora- 
Doux, of Castle-street, London. Certaiu 
i mp rovem en ts in kneading'maehinet. (A com- 
munication.) Patent dated July 24, 1854. 
(No. 1625.) 

This inrention consists — 1. In forming a 
kneading-machine consisting of a square or 
trapezoidal hox rotating ahont an axis ; and 
2. In directing a current of hot or cold air 
into the kneading-box hy a &n or other 
suitable means. 

Preston, Franpis, of Mi^ichester, 

spindle and flyei^maker. Certain imprope- 

mentt in machinery for preparing cotton and 

> other JUirout materiaU. Patent dated July 

25, 1854. (No. 1627.) 

This invention consists in an improved 
mode of constructing the pressers for roving 
frames and other similar machines, known 
as Seed's Patent Centrifugal Pressen ; in 
making under the hook by which the 
presser is suspended, a shoulder, which 
comes in contact with the under side of the 
clip or bearing, to prevent the presser 
rising from its working position, &c. 

Ckauponnois, Huques, of Chauinont, 

^ciTil engineer, and Jean Baptistb Bave- 

'libr, of Dijon, manufacturer. Improve- 

menu in the manner rf treating beet-root and 

aU other eugary emd feadent vegetables. 

Patent dated July 25, 1854. (No. 1628.) 

Clabnt. — 1. A meUiod of maceration or 
extracting the saccharine juices from vege- 
table matters containing sugar, hy means 
of juices of the same nature which have 
been previously partially or deprived en- 
tirely of the sugar they originally con- 
tained. 2. A mode of utilizing the fer- 
mentative power of liquors in actual fer- 
mentation, as a means of producing fer- 
mentation in other suitable liquors. 

Orundt, William, of the firm of John 



and Edmund Grundy, of Bury, Lancaster, 
woollen manufacturer. Certain in^ovemente 
in the manvfacture of drugget. (A com- 
munication.) Patent dated July 25, 1854. 
(No. 1629.) 

This invention consists in the use of a 
warp of cotton, flax, hemp, or other textile 
material or materials, so arranged as to 
form a ground or hack for druggets, each 
warp-thread being so placed as to allow the 
upper woollen cloth or drugget to he milled 
as usual and to any extent required, and 
which extra warp shall be so woven in as to 
form a distinct cloth or "carpet back," 
when milled and finished. 

Hallum, Ephraiu, of Chester, cotton- 
spinner. Improvements in machines for pre- 
paring, spinning, and doubling cotton and 
other fibrous substances. Patent dated July 
25, 1854. (No. 1630.) 

This invention relates to the machines 
known as slubbing and roving machines, 
hand and self-acting mules, throstles, and 
doubling frames, and consists in the appli- 
cation to them of such arrangements of me- 
chanism as shall impart to their first-motion 
shafts, and thus to their spindles, a speed 
which shall vary in inverse proportion to 
the quantity of material built on the cop or 
bobbin. 

Newtom, Alfred Vincent, of Chan- 
cery-lane, Middlesex, mechsnical draughts- 
man. An imp r ovement in the process qf coU'^ 
verting wood into paper. (A communica- 
tion.) Patent dated July 25, 1854. (No. 
1631.) 

Claims. — 1. A process of reducing soft 
woods to pulp, and rendering them fit for 
the manufacture of paper, by clearing them 
of kiiots, cutting them into strips, and 
crushing them between rollers. 2. The 
employment of chloride of lime or chlorine, 
as a solvent for the gummy matter contained 
in woody fibre. 3. The employment of 
saL soda, in connection with chloride of 
lime, for bleaching pulp made as above. 

Spence, Peter, of Pendleton, Lancas- 
ter, manufacturing chemist. Improvements 
in^pbtahung sulphur from iron pyrites and 
other subsUtnees containing sulphur, and m 
apparatus for Meeting the same. Patent 
dated July 25, 1854. (No. 1682.) 

Claims. — 1. " The production of sulphur, 
by causing the sulphurous acid gas obtained 
from pyrites and other matters containing 
sulphur by burning to be conveyed through 
or in contact with coke, charcoal, or ether 
solid carbonaceous or deoxidizing; msttera 
kept at a red heat, but not subjected to 
combustion by the admission of air. 2. A 
peculiar apparatus by which the sulphurous 
acid gas is conveyed in a stoneware or other 
pipe or vessel containing charcoal, coke, or 
other oarbonaoeous or deoxidizing matters. 



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162 



SPEOXFTCATIOm OF PAIIIITS BBOBlfTLT WOXD. 



heated by the combustion of the eabttance 
from which the aUlphurous acid gas is ob- 
taioed." 

BcLi, ThoHab, of Don Alkali Works, 
South Shields, and Henry Scuolbfield, 
alao of South Shields. Iwtpnmenuatit in 
Hu mawufiKtwe qfboraxi Patent dated July 
85» 1854. (No. 163i.) 

ClmwL — Treating the miheral borate of 
lime in saeh manner aa to separate the lime 
and other matten therefrom ^ and com- 
bining the boracie acid of such mineral 
with soda. 

Oakland, Williau Stbpuen8, and 
JosiAH Glasson, both of Soho Foundry, 
Stafford, engineers and boiler-makers, 'a 
meanM rf twntmrning §mekt m fiirttacet. Patent 
dated July 26, 1854. (No« 1634.) 

A full description of this invention will 
be given shortly. 

HuRD, Julius C.» of Medway, Wor- 
eester, Maasachusetta, United States. An 
impn^gd wut^iimi mid pneest for piekmgf 
hmrring^ and 'cUamng eotton^ mwd^ and fir 
Uaringmp and redu^ng old fahria U be 
Tt'tfmn. Patent dated July 26> 1854. (No. 
1««5.) 

Ciainu — 1. The use of a oombifag in 
which the teeth are so curved aa to brine 
the beater very near to the feed-rollers, and 
united with each other at their bases in the 
manner of saw-teeth. 2. A method of 
applying apringt to the slats of the grating 
beneath the beaters, each slat being fur- 
nished with independent springs, whereby 
the motes, as they fall upon the grating, 
are inatantly knocked through the spaces 
between the slata, and are not oarried 
round by the beaters. 

McGafpin, John, of Liverpool, Lan- 
es stef, engineer. I mp rei/e n m u tt in cmmrmet- 
ing a nd applying heada to metal eatke and 
veiteU, Patent dated July 25, 1854. (No. 
1636.) 

This invention consists in the employ- 
ment of angle or curved iron ringa within 
the ends of vessels made of corrugated iron, 
where the tormgationa run roiknd the ves- 
seU* 

CuTiiNO, Jambs A*, of Boston, United 
States, photographer. An improved preeeu 
nf taking pkdtogro^hic pictures npon gkusy 
and also of' beamtifywg and preeermOg the 
MSte. Patent dated July 26, 1854. (No. 
1638.) 

This invention mainly conaists in the use 
of alcohol for the purpose of depriving the 
gun-cotton, of which the collodion is made, 
of its moisture after it has been washed to 
free it from the acids used in its manu- 
facture. 

Church, Willi AM, of Birmingham, War- 
wick, civil engineer, and Samuel Aspinall 
Gk>DDAHi>, of Birmiiighanif merohmnt a&d 



gun^mauufactuter. An imprettement cr im- 
provements in ordaiance. Patent dated July 
26, 1854. (No 1639.) 

This iuVention comprises the use of a 
certain collar and recest) a^ compound 
wedge, and a moveable fiiee-plato* 

Purnbllb, John Chillcdtti of Tach- 
brook-street, Pimlieo, Middlesexi improve^ 
mente m obtedmmg and applying ptoiive poorer. 
Patent dated July 26, 1854. (No. 1641.) 

This invention relates to certain arrMge- 
ments of apparatus by means of which at- 
mospheric air is compressed and employed 
for exerting pressure altemlttely upon the 
upper and under side of a piston working 
air-tight in a closed oyltnder, and fitted 
with vidves acted upon by a uppet motion, 
&c., &e. 

Bbllford» Augustb Bdouaro Lora- 
Doux, of Castle-street, London. An im- 
proved miil/or grinding paint as%d other moist 
substances. (A communication.) Patent 
dated July 26, 1854. (No. 1642.) 

This invention mainly conUsta in hang- 
ing the top atone by pivots, within a ring 
or frame which is hung by pivots on up- 
right rods, which are capable of Bdjttstment 
by screws and nutS) so that while the top 
atone is free to aecommodAie itself to the 
runner, facility is at the same time afforded 
for raising it to allow tlie stones to cool Off 
when necessary. 

Koeffler, Louis Chrxstiak, of Roch- 
dale, Lancaster, bleaeher and dyer. 7m. 
proo e nt enh inJlnisUng or peUshing ffOms or 
thread*. Patent dated July 26» 1854. (No. 
1643.) 

This invention relates to a ibrmet patent, 
dated Jan. 31, 1854, and conaists— 1. In 
the use of one portion of the yarn as a bed 
or surface upon which another portion 
travels. And 2. In mounting the heated 
surface so as to render it citable of being 
moTcd inward or outward. 

PoNTiPEX, £dmund Alfred, of Shoe, 
laue^ London, and Charles Olabspobo, 
of Ashburaham-grove, Greenwich, /m- 
prwvoments im obtaining srft ietsd from hard 
lead, fir the separatiOH ef the imparitiee in 
hard lead, and for the separation <^ atitimany 
from these imparities. Patent dated July 
26, 1854. (No« 1644.) 

Gbris».^T)reating hard and impure leads 
with alkaline matter to separate the impuri- 
ties, but more especially the antimony and 
ailica. Also separating the antimony firom 
the dross obtained by the process described. 

HucxvALB, Thomas, of Choice-hill, 
near Chipping Norton, Oxoo. Jmprooe- 
ments in machinery for gathering crops*. Pa- 
tent dated July 26, 1854. (No. 16450 

The inventor employs a rake, in combina- 
tion with endless belts, in such manner, 
that the nke, being mounted on wheels, aq 



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it is BMved over tb* lasd, cmtlMn up tli« 
erop, «nd passes it to the eotfless bands, by 
whteh H Is raised to the betgbt desired. 

TixARD, William Littbll, of Aldgate, 
London engineer. ImprmMm ents imfsrmen^ 
iationf and in apparatus employed tkerem. 
Patent dated July IS/ISM. (No. ]64y.) 

Thisinventidn eonsists in combining witb 
a fermenting vessel an externa) attem|Mra. 
tor for tbe purpose of producing either an 
ascending or descending cirenlation of tbe 
worts undergoing fermentation ; and in the 
employment of a foree^pump or screw pro- 
poller In the wort pipe of f uim en ting appa. 
ratus lor the parp<we of prodneing or aiding 
the eireulation of the worts. It also eon. 
sists in three improved processes of fermen- 
tation, denominated respeetively, the Pro> 
gressive, the Intermittent and tbe Acce- 
krating Proeess. The progressive process 
eonsists in keeping the wort or liqnor on. 
dergoing fermentation in constant cirenla. 
tion through the apparatns during the 
eontlnuanee of the fermenting process, by 
eausing a stream of water to flow through 
an attemperator at a lower temperature than 
that of Uie wort in the fermenting vessel, 
whereby a eontinnal enrrent will be pro- 
doeed, owing to the difference of tempera, 
ture between the wort in the fermenting 
vessel and the water passing throagh the 
attemperator. The intermittent process 
differs from the preceding by the alternate 
use of hot and cold water in the attempe- 
rator, and by occasionally changing the di- 
rection of the currents of wort in the vessels 
from upwards to downwards, and olee vertd. 
The accelerating process is worked in con- 
junction with either the progressive or in- 
termittent process, or it is conducted inde- 
pendently^ df either of them. It eonsists in 
giving the worts a circnlating motion inde- 
pendent of that produced by the diflference 
of temperature between the worts in the 
attemperator and the fermenting vessel, by 
means of the screw pump or forcing apps- 
ratus connected with the attemperator, which 
may be worked either by hand» water or 
steamo wer. 

Bbllpord, AuevsTE Bdouard Lora- 
Dovx, of Castle-street, London. Improve- 
ment$ in toklering wtetab, (A communica- 
tion.) Patent dated July 96, 1854. (No. 
1850.) 

Ctoim.— Soldering metals by exposing at 
once the whole length or circumference of 
the laps of those parts which are to be 
united to the heated exterior snrfeee of a 
furnace or heater of suitable construction, 
whether the soldering be eflbeted solely by 
the tin which was received by the plate or 
plates in the tinning ptocess, or by' a loose 
strip of solder. 
Bf OLVi, Peam 9018 Dbsik6, and Pibrrb 



Martiii, of Paris, France, engineers. Cer-^ 
kUH imp rooementt m koatimg water for ffed^ 
ing MIere qf ■hcomo^iv^ and mari»e tSeam^ 
engines. Patent dated July 27, 1854. (No. 
1«54.) 

Ckdm. — Certain mechanical arrange- 
monla applied to or in connection with the 
chimneys of locomotives and sleam*engines, 
for abstracting and applying tbe heat ge. 
nerally lost in such chimneys to the 
supply of healed water to ateam boilers. 



eaovxsioNAL specifications not fro- 

CEEP^D WITH. 

MrrcRBLL, Samuel, of Dewsbinry, York. 
Improvemenis in ike mam^aetttre of cards for 
carding wool, cotton^ silk, and etker fibrous 
mater-aU. Application dated July 18, 1854. 
(No. 1583.) 

This invention consists in the application 
of a metallic covering to the leather, cloth, 
or other material of which the card may be 
made. This covering serves to protect the 
"card cloth" from grease, oil, resin, or 
other injurious matters. 

MrcSBLL, Matthbw, of Stoke New ing- 

ton, Middlesex, brewer. An improvement m 

fkmaees, having for ohieei the consumpOon qf 

smoke. Application dated July 19, 1854. 

(No. 1588.) 

I The inventor employs as a bridge a thick 

j block of metal, having horizontal per/ora- 

I tions formed through it. 

Wbnham, Francis Hbrbbrt, engineer, 
of Bflfra Vale, Lodge-bridge, Brixton, Surrey. 
Certain i mpr ove me nts in eteam'engines. Ap< 
plication dated July 19, 1854. (No. 1589.) 
These improvements consist in the ap. 
plication and use of two cylinders, each ro- 
tating OB its own axis in the same direction 
and at the same speed, one being placed 
eccentrically inside of the other, and con- 
nected by a flap piston valre or abutment. 
Jackson, Oborob, of Manchester, Lan- 
caster, decorator. Certain improvemenis im 
the constr action of tents. Applicaiion dated 
July 20, 1854. (No. 1593.) 

These improvements consist in producing 
a roof without a central support, and scoared 
to the poles or shafts, by placing «t the apex 
of the roof a key block, with mortises to re- 
ceive the raflers. 

Pallisbr, WiLLiAJf, of Comrngh, Wa- 
terford, esquire. Improvements in projee^ 
tiles for fi^-arms and ordnance genemllff. 
Application dated July 20, 1854. (No. 
1597.) 

This invention mainly eonsists in com- 
bining wood and metal for the purpose of 
getting the centre of gravity, or greater 
part of the weight of the projectile at the 
fore part of it, and in eonstruottng the pro- 



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PBOVISIONAL 8PE0IFI0ATI0NS NOT PSOCEEDED WIXH. 



jectiles with helioft] or straight projeotioDt 
or flanges, for the purpose of causing it 
to rotate upon its long axis during its 
flight. 

Delabarrb, Toussaint, merchant, of 
Crenelle, near Paris, France, and Leon 
Bonnet, of the same place. The preaerva- 
iioH qf meat m Us natur€U ttaUj and wiihoui 
being cooked. Application dated July 21, 
1854. (No. 1600.) 

The inventors first extract about one-half 
of its water from the meat, and then im- 
merse it for a short lime in heated gelatine, 
made from the hones and sinews of animalx; 
it is afterwards hung up in a well ventilated 
room and dried, and after hanging for fif- 
teen days, it becomes hard and will keep 
fresh and good, say the inventors, for years, 
without being packed. 

JcAN, Amand Bbnoit Joseph, manu- 
facturer, and Alfred Alexandre Huoues, 
engineer, of Paris, France. Certain improoe- 
ments in reducing the friction qf axlet and 
hearing*^ or other rotary ruhbhtg eurfacee in 
machinery. Application dated July 21, 
1854. (No. 1601.) 

The inventors construct an axle-box, the 
internal diameter of which is larger than 
the diameter of the axle, and place a num. 
ber of small rollers in the annular space 
between the axle and box. These rollers 
are connected together by a ring or annular 
frame at each end, which keeps them at 
equal distances apart. 

Alexandre, Isaie, of Bruxelles, but 
now at Birmingham, Warwick, merchant, 
and Alfred Sommbryillb, of Birming- 
ham, merchant. An improoement or improve' 
ments in boots and shoes, and in socks or inner 
soUsfor boots and shoes. Application dated 
July 21, 1854. (No. 1605.) 

This invention consists in applying to the 
interior of the bottoms of boots and shoes 
wires or plates of copper and zinc, or com- 
binations of snch other materials as will 
form with the aid of the moisture of the foot 
galvanic or voltaic combinations, for the 
purpose of imparting vigour to weakly per. 
sons. 

Stevens, Mary Ann, of West Derby- 
street, Liverpool. Improvements in bonnets. 
Application dated July 21, 1854. (No. 
1610.) 

These improvements consist in forming and 
applying to bonnets, hoods or shades, in such 
manner that they may be made to recede 
within, or shut up to the edge or front of 
the bonnets. 

Francis, Henry, of the Strand. An 
improvement in feeding fuel on to the fire-bars 
qf boiler and other furnaces. Application 
dated July 21, 1854. (No. 1612.) 

This invention consists in employing 
streams of air or steam passing through 



j suitable tubes or passages above the fire- 
{ bars of a furnace in such manner, that the 
j fuel being supplied to these tubes or pas- 
{ sages, the blast of air or steam carries it 
' into and distributes it over the fire on the 
bars. 

Lamb, John, of Newcastle-under-Lyne, 
Stafford, paper manufacturer. Cerlain im- 
provements in, or appHeable to, wuukines for 
making paper. (A communication.) Appli- 
cation dated July 22, 3854. (No. 1613.) 

This invention consists in producing a 
uniform partial vacuum in a chamber pUced 
across the paper making machine, whereby 
the paper pulp is deprived of a portion of 
its moisture before it is taken off the wire- 
cloth web to be pressed between the couch* 
ing and tension rollers. 

Young, James Hadi^bn, of College- 
street, Camden-town, Middlesex. Improve^ 
ments in gathering grain and other crops, and 
securing the same. Application dated July 
22,1854. (No. 1615.) 

In Mr. Young*8 arrangement, the vehicle 
employed in its forward progress causes an 
endless belt, provided with projections, to 
lift up the grain or other crop into a recep- 
tacle placed behind it, and when it is there, 
a sliding panel, like a piston, is moved by a 
crank, and compresses it into a proper com- 
pass, and holds it firmly until a ligature 
secures it. 

Bain bridge, John, of Ely-place, Hoi- 
bom-hill, Middlesex, agent Im pr ove m e n ts 
infire-grates, stoves,fumaces, and other similar 
contrivances. Application dated July 22, 
1854. (No. 1617.) 

This invention consists in forming the 
grate of a number of bars, arranged so as 
to form a kind of skeleton cylinder, sup- 
ported by and centered upon an axis. 

Johnson, William, of Lincoln's-inn- 
fields, Middlesex, oivil-engineer. Improve- 
ments in the treatment, cleansing, and dyeing 
qf fibrous and textiie materials. (A commu- 
nication.) Application dated July 22, 1854. 
(No. 1618.) 

For the purpose of cleansing the treated 
materials, and discharging colouring mat- 
ter, insoluble carbonates, such as carbonate 
of lime, are used by the inventor ; and he 
employs for mordanu hypochloride and 
muriate of alumina, salts of magnesia, 
picric aud formic acid, and their salts, 
&c. 

DiLKS, Jambs, of Parliament-street, NoU 
tingham, lithographer and embosser. The 
application qf printed or painted l^nen, cotton, 
or other textile fabric, either plain or orna- 
mental, for binding more effectually than 
heretofore packets or parcels 'qf lace, hosiery, 
or other articles. Application dated July 22, 
1854. (No. 1619.) 

This invention consists in the employ- 



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165 



ment of printed or painted linen, cotton , or 
other textile fabrici either plain or orna- 
mental, for the purpose named in the title. 

Cole, Beaumont, the younger, of 
Deardsend, Knebworth, Hertford, engineer 
and machinist. Improved agricultural ma- 
ehingry or apparatus for pUmghing and 
grubbing. Application dated July 29, 1854. 
(No. 1626.) 

The inTentor employs shafts or spindles 
ftimished with shares, coulters, &c., one or 
more of which shafts he attaches to} and 
eomhines with suitable framing which con- 
nects it with a steam or other engine which 
will work the plough, and cause the whole 
to travel over the field by the aid of wheels 
or rollers. 

Lauacraft, John, of Westhourne-grove, 
Middlesex, gentleman. ImprooemenU in en~ 
vehpet, or means for securing letters, notes, 
and similar documents. Application dated 
July 26, 1854. (No. 1687.) 

In the improved envelope the lap is left 
loose, as now, and is made in the shape of 
the flap of a pocket-hook, or nearly so, the 
point or tongue being provided with adhe- 
sive substance, both on its outer and inner 
surfaces, and passed through a slit in the 
envelope. 

OPFENHEiifEB, Adolphus, of Manchcs- 
ter, Lancaster, manufacturer. Certain im- 
prooements in the manirfacture qf mohair vel- 
vet or mohnir plush, and worsted velvet or 
worsted piush. Application dated July 26, 
1854. (No. 1640.) 

The inventor describes a peculiar arrange- 
ment of the threads to be used in the manu- 
facture of the fabrics named in the title. 

OoDEFROT, Peter Auoustin, of King's 
Mead Cottages, New North- road, Islington. 
Improvements in purifying coal-naphtha and 
turpentine. Application dated July 26, 
1854. (No. 1646.) 

This invention consists in the employ- 
ment of a suiuble stirring-apparatus to stir 
in, first strong acid, and then water, and to 
distil the same with free steam. 

Delate, Pierre Victor, of Paris, 
France. Improvements in printing - blocks. 
Application dated July 26, 1854. (No. 

1648.) ... 

This invention consists m formmg the 
blocks used for printing calico, paper, and 
similar surfaces, of movcBble pieces of type 
or parallelepipeds. 

Luques, Constantin, of Boulevart St. 
Martin, Paris. An improved centrifugal go^ 
vemor. Application dated July 26, 1854. 
(No. 1649.) 

The inventor connects the two balls, or 
their equivalenU, by any suiuble springs 
which act centripetally, and are adjusUble 
by nuts and screws, for the purpose of regu- 
lating at will the speed of the governor, &c 



MuMBBT, Qborob, of Hunter-street, 
Brunswiek-square, Middlesex, mechanical 
draughtsman. Improvements in bearings €md 
in the prevention qf friction. Application 
dated July 27, 1854. (No. 1651.) 

"These improvements consist in the 
application of a non-conducting substance 
as a substitute for metal in the oearings of 
machinery ; " also the use of powdered talc 
as a aubstitute for oil in the prevention of 
friction. 

BuRLBioH, Richard Clarke, of North- 
umberland-street, Charing-cross, Middle- 
sex. Improvements in guns, and in the shot or 
other projectiles fired t^rrfrom. Application 
dated July 27, 1864. (No. 1652.) 

This invention consists in detaining the 
shot or other projectile in the gun by 
mechanical means, and preventing its 
moving under the impulsive force of the 
gunpowder until that force has reached any 
amount desired. 



PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS. 

Dated December 12, 1854. 
S6U. Richard Larkin, lock-maker, of St. John's- 
vilhu, Highbury, Middlesex. Improvements in 
the construction of locks and keys. 

Dated January 16, 1855. 
109. Urhain Charles Choiinet, of Birmingham, 
Warwick, lamp-maker, and Charles Emlle Oiajola, 
of Birmingham, lamp-maker. Improvements in 
moderat<^ur lamps. 

DaUd January 19, 1855. 
152. Maarioe Delcamp, of Paris, France. An 
improved apparatus for advertising, or for the ex- 
hibition of placards. 

Dated January 22, 1855. 
166. Robert Johnst<>n, of Drums -lane, Lock- 
street, Aherdeeu, soap-maker. The use of certain 
portions of fish in the manufacture of soap. 

Dated January 23, 1855. 

172. John Coatcs, of Sairord, Lancaster, engi- 
neer. Improvements in railways. 

174. William Dray, of Swan-lane, London, agri- 
cultural Implemencmaker. An improved machine 
for cutting chaff. 

176. James Fenton, of Low Moor, York, civil 
engineer. Improvements in the manufacture of 
axles, shafts, rods, and bars. 

Dated January 24, 1855. 

178. Richard Laming, of Carlton-vUlaa, Haida- 
vale, Middlesex. Improvements In obtaining and 
combining ammonia. 

179. James Webster, of Birmingham, Warwick, 
engineer. A new or improved method of changing 
the direction of and multipl)ing motion. 

180. Sir James Caleb Anderson, of Fermoy, Cork, 
Ireland, baronet. Improvements in steering ships. 

181. Charles William Tupper, of the Arm of 
Topper and Carr, of Mansion House-place, Lon- 
don, galvanised Iron manufkcturer. Improve- 
ments in the construction and arrangement of 
coverings for buildings. 

183. Augustus Edward Schmersahl, of Miles 
Platting, Lancaster, analytical and practical che- 
mist, and John Augustus Bouok, of the same 



Digiti 



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196 



NOTICE OP APPLIOATWW Wtm LBAVE Td KNTER DISCtAIMER. 



plM«, mawttl^olurlny chsmtol. linpift«MM«te in 

mtua fox ^^otiQg tUe Mme* 

184. Xfilliam Edward Kewton, of Chancerjr-Ivie, 
MfddleMX, etvil en^neer. Improved machinery 
for raising ^nd fercing fluids. A commuRicatioa. 

Dated January 25, 1855. 

185. John Gregojy and Avdrev Peddk How, o( 
Mark-lane, London, engineers. Certain Improve- 
asft&to in steam eagtn«s, and in packing fov pumpa 
«Dd qUikw machinery in whieh pAcki«g li ftaiuTe4« 

186. William Winstanley and Joseph K«l^y, q| 
Liverpool* Lancaster engineer^. Improvements 
inpampgear. 

187. Barnett Samual, of Shefll^d. Yark. MWib 
iBmufccturer. Improvvpoats In tbe nuAufactoEa. 
of knife-handles, umbrella and stick handlea. 
door knobs, articles of A)miture, and other ar- 
ticles having the appearanca and transjparancy af 
solid iortoiBeab«ll. 

188. Henry Buckworth Powell, af Foxleaxe- 
park, Lyndhurst. An improved precautionary 
keel, to be applied to vessels wben In sballow 
water or other diflkcult navigation. 

189. Charles Frederiok Bumard, oif Plynmn^U, 
manufacturing chemist. Improvements in the 
manufacture of super-phosphate of lime. 

190. Alexander William Anderson, of Birming- 
ham, Warwick, news agent. Improvements in 
pasting or exhibiting advertisements. 

191. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's-inn- 
flelds, Middlesex, gentleman. Improvements in 
the construction and arrangement- of electric tele- 
graphs, and in the appHoatioo thereof. A com- 
munieatkm from the Chevalier Oaetane Bonelli, 
of Turin, Sardinia, Director General of Sardinian 
telegraphs. 

192. John Henry Johnson, of lineoln's-inn- 
flelds, Middlesex, gentleman. Improvement! in 
machinery or apparatus for prcpariug cotton, and 
similar fibrous m«teriale. A communication from 
Charles Leyherr, of Laval, France, spini er. 

193. George Henn^ Bursill, of Ranelagh-road, 
Thames-bank, PimlTco, engineer and assayer of 
mineraU. Improvements in cases or coverings 
for explosive substances or compounds. 

194. Richard Archibald Brooman, of 168, Fleet- 
street, London, patent agent. A power accumu- 
lator or apparatus to be employed with hydraulic 
presses. A communioatioa from Jean Baptiste 
Falgiii4re, of Marseilles. 

Dated January 26, 1855. 

195. William Townsend, of Coventry, Warwick, 
machinist. Constructing vehicles without axle- 
trees, and thus alTordiiig an improved method of 
lowering the body of the vehicle. 

198. William Bealea, of Arlington-street, Cam- 
den-town, Middlesex, cartridge maker. Improve- 
ments in cartridges. 

199. George Bellt of Cannon-street West, Lon- 
don, merchant. Improvements in constructing 
air springs. A communication. 

200. Joseph Lease, junior, of Manchester, Lan- 
caster, manufacturer. Certain improvements in 
the process of printing calicos and other textile 
fabrics. 

201. William T. Vose, of Massachusetts, United 
States of America. New and useful improvements 
in pumps for elevating fluids. 

302. Isaac Atkin, of Basford, and St. Mary's- 
place, Nottingham, lace manufacturer, and Mar- 
maduke Miller, of Vernon- terrace, Nottingham, 
steam gauge maker. Improvements in apparatus 
for measuring the supply of water and regulating 
the supply of fluids. 

203. William Richard Morris, of DeptforA, 
Kent, engineer to the Kent Waterworks Company. 
Improvementa in the construction and arrange^ 
ment of apparatua for preventing thie voste of 
water ftom service pipes or cisterns. 

204. George Searby, of Sloane-ctreet, Chelsea, 



Middlesex. Improvementa In the mnnafkelure 
of hoots and ahaes, also applleaUe to other arlktlea 
made of or partly formed of leather. 

20S. Robert Mallet, engineer, of Dublin, Ire- 
land. Improvements in the manufacture of hol- 
low ahot and sheila, and similar hollow hodlea el 
cast iron of otbei cast SMtaU. 

BttUd Jtmuarp 2?, }U5. 

MO. WUliam Onion, of Birmingham, Varwiell. 
manufacturer. An improvement or imi^niamwita 
in gas stovea. 

Sll. Peter Armand Lecomte da Fontainemo- 
reau, of South-street,' London. An Improved 
maehine for manuflictHring thimhiee employed en 
board ship er elsevrhere. A oommunieatioa. 

212. Henry Nightingale, of Chorley, Lancaster, 
manager, and Robert Nightingale, of the sanie 
place, groeer. Improvement . In maohinevy er ap- 
pwntus for slnhbing, raving, and spinning cotton 
and other fibrous materials. 

Da4€d Jasi^ary 29, 18^5. 

%H. John Wilkina, commercial clerk, of Nov 
Chnrles&treet, City-road. Middlesex. An im- 
proved mod « or method of damping or moistening 
postage, receipt, or other stamps, adhesive labels^ 
the surface of paper, and other substances. 

216. Henri Louis Dormoy, gentleman, of Paris, 
French Bmpire. Certain improvements in briU4- 
ing or plaiting machinery. A communication. 

218. John Imray, of Bridge-road, Lambeth, 
Suney, engineer. Improvements in loeks. 

220. Arthur Collin ge, of Bridge-road, Lambeth« 
Surrey, engineer. Improvements in spring hinges. 

222. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's-inn- 
flelds, Middlesex, gentleman. Improvements ia 
looms for weaving. A eommunlcation fiom Gna- 
tave Bombque, of BaviUers^ France, manufac- 
turer. 

224. Alphonee Plehot, printer, of Pottieie, 
Franee. Certain Improvementa in poatage papec 
and envelopes. 

226. Edward Cunnah, brass founder, and John 
Hampson, time keeper, both of Liverpool. Lancas- 
ter. Improved turnstile counting apparatus. 

Dated January ai, 1855. 

234. Arthur Lyon, of Windmill-street, Finsbury, 
Middlesex, sausage machine nianufttetnrer. An 
improvement in sausagermahtng or mincing ma- 
chmes. 

286. George Price, of Wolverhampton, Staflbrd, 
manufacturer. Improvements in iron safM, chests, 
and boxes. 

238. Jacques Roux Del)(uey-Malavas, eentle- 
man, of Montbrison, France. Improved raacninery 
for obtai-Mng and applying motive power. 

240. John Francis Porter, of Bessborough-strect, 
Middlesex, civU engineer. Improvements ia the 
manufacture of bricks, and other articles of elav 
or brick earth. 

242. Auguste Edonard Loradoux Bellford, of 
Essex-street, London. Improvements in nuv- 
chinery for forging nuts and washers. A commM- 
nication from Charles H. Wateron, of America. 

PATENT APPLIED FOR WITH COMPLETE 
SPECIFICATION. 

249. William Soelman, of Bennett-street, Flts- 
roy-KOuare, gentleman. An invention applicable 
to shipping and mills, under the title of the 
Naukinetic or 8hip-moving Machine. February 2» 
1855. 

NOTICE OF APPLIC.\TION FOR LEAVE 

TO ENTER DISCLAIMER. 
An application has been made to Her Majesty** 
Attomey-Geaeral h|y the patentee oad assises of 
Letters ('«tent granted to WiUiam Ifemy Fox T«t> 
hot, of Lacock Abbey, Wilts, Esq., and Thomas 
Augustine Malone, of Regent-street, Middlesex, 



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WEEKLY U8T OV l^ATEMTS. 



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i*aiiA'(ktter 



photogimplier, fer I^ve tq eA^ a di«ciatm«S for 
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NOTIOBS OP INTENTION TO 
PROCBEI). 

212s. wniiam McIfaughV ^pfiMOTements in 
•tide TalTea fbr iteam engines. 

2131. William Peel GauHon. 
breaks, appUcahIa la Mflwfjp 
Tehieles. 

2144. WOlian) Frost. Improyeipents in stfim 
CMflnta. 

IMS, TIfMi 9««a(9% Ipprowpwits In Um 
apparatus eiaplQZi94 mi X^ w^W^^^Vf^ •t 99Vlt 
surer, and metaiieaf. 

2147. /ohn Macmillan Ihinlop. iBptoveaients 
in maehinery or apparatus for preparing, spinning, 
and doubling cotton and other flbroii% mataxialu 

2148. Francois Durand. Certain improvements 
in eiteiilsi liMnss 

2149. Andrew Smith. An impmved snMy saga 
aa4 appMatna isi mlaen. 

1152. William Chaabaia. HaproTanienta In ma- 
chinery for beetling cotton and ather inbilaa. 

2155. Valentine William Hammerich. An im- 
pnrred construction of buoyant mattress. 

2 1 70. Henry Crosley. Improvementa In the mMr 
nufacture of waddings for cannon ana fire-arms. 

2175. WlUiaoi Heniy Taylar. ImproTeraents in 
caitouche-bahSf or oases §ot containing eartridges, 
to be worn round the waist, or otherwise, eafeu- 
latad for anus of every deseiiption, guns, pistols, 
and other flia^arma. 

2210. Btieane Barnol. A new maohina far eut- 
tlng iUea, which he ealla Bemot's Flla-«utting 
Machine. 

2214. Liaaal John WethcreU and Augustus 
Johann Holbtaedt. An improved construcnon of 
pump. 

2225. William Easde^ An improved means of 
seeurlng goods, or loading in or on railway tracks 



iragons. 
174. Ric 



2f74. Richard Hugh Hughes. Improvements 
in transmitting motive powcK. 

2179. John Iknry Joanson. Improvements in 
circular looms. A communication from M. Poivaet. 

2309. John Henry Johnson. Improvements in 
axle-boxes. A eommunloatlQn from Benjamin 
Laurent, of Hauteonit, France, manufacture!. 

SM6. William Childs the younger. An improva* 
ment in the manufacture of pipes and tubes. 

2441. Charles Aspcey. Improvements in haa* 
dies, particularly applieable to dressiog-eaaee, dit- 
pateh-boxes, wxitiag-easea, and other rimilar arti- 
cles. 

2SS7. Loagin Oantart. Improvementa in ma- 
chinery or apparatua for dyeing and bleaching of 
yams or threads. 

25311. Jamca BIden. The prevention of smoke 
from furnaces. 

2555. Cromwell Fleelwood Yarley. Improva> 
meats in producing and app^la^ dynamic eWetcl- 
city. 

2311. Riehaxd Larkin. Impxovemeata Im tha 
coostruetion of locks and keys. 

2706. Bdwaxd Loysal. An improved aypasatua 
for cookiog or preparing edible substances. 

2707. Edward Loysel. A new game oombinina 
chance and skill, and the apparatus to ba usaa 
therewith. 

2959. George Edward Denag. Imaiayamenta 
in obtaining motive power whaa uabig eleelrlo 
currents. 

2ft. Geocia Walkei Mnir, Im^ovsneaU in 
warming and veja^ting. 

60. Henry Bessemer. Improvements in the ma- 
nnfocture of iron and steel. 



186. William Pidding. Ixpp^veniei^ts ^ tt^e 
manufacture of combs for tKe human hair. 

137. William Plddiag^ lopiavemnits ia the 
mapuCsctnie %f building matf rials, and in tha ma- 
chinery or apparatus for making the same. 

138. William Pidding. Improvements in cover- 
ings for the feet of hip^^a nnd Quadrupods. 

150. Pierre Charles Pa«l Laur9nt-?r6fantaine. 
An improved engine, called hydraullq slings for 
raising water and other liquids, or heavy bodlee. 

155. William Douglas and John Garswell. Im- 
provements in dyeing v(QY9n fa)>ncsa. 

156. Sciplon SalaYille. An Improved inett^uX of 
preserving and purifying grain and seed. 

166. Robert Johnston. Tha uoe of eertain por- 
tions of fish in fha avimAJdotfuo of Mng.- 

170.. "Villliain KUgour. An Improv^^ nHBHfiptc- 
tpre of naphtna, parafSne, an4 parajIBn^ oil. 

171. Feter Arkell. An Improvod mode of puri- 
fying whale and seal oil|« 

177. George Bxoo]^ Pet tit and Hem% Fly ^th. 
Improvements In stoves and other appar^tv^ for 
generating heat fnm gas, and in the employment 
and removal of the vapours produced by its com- 



181. Charles William Tupper. Improvements in 
thf construction and anangemeat of coverings for 
buildings. 

191. John Henry Johnson. ImprovoMonts la 
the construction and arrangemeat of electric telo- 
giaphs, and in the applicailon thereof." (A oom- 
munioation from the ChevaUerGaetaao Bonoltt, of 
Turin, Sardinia, director-general of Sardinian tele- 

196. John Lamacraft. Improvements in enve- 
lopes, or means for securing letters, notes, and 
similar doeoaienta. 

201. William T. Toee. New and useftU tanpeooa- 
ments in pomps for elevating fluids. 

202. Isaac Atkin and Marmaduke Mlllof. Im- 
provements in apparatus for measuring the sup- 
ply of water and regulating the supply of fluids. 

203. Wnilam Richard Morris. Improvementa 
in the constructlott and arrangement of apparatus 
for preventing the waste of water from servioo- 
plpes or cisterns. 

208. Samuel Mayer and William Bash. Im- 
provements in reducing flint and other subetaaces, 
rendering them suitable for the manufacture of 
porcelain, and other earthenware artielee. 

213. Auguste Ldopold Lenoir. Improvements 
in breech-loading flre-arms. 

220. Arthur GoUinge. Improvements te spring 
hinges. 

Oppositiou can be optered to the granting 
of a Patent to any of the parties w the 
above List, who have given notice of their 
intention to proceed, within twenty - one 
days from the date of the Gazette in which 
the notice appears, by leaving at the Com- 
miasioners^-oflice particulars in writing of 
the objection to the applicatiqa, 



WESKLY LIST OF PATEHT** 

Sealed Februarff 9, 1855. 
1764. George Weeton. 
1771. William Todd and Ji^cob Tbdd. 
1800. JuUan Bexnarcl 

Ariatide Balthazard Berard. 

Richard Archibald Broomaa. 

Aaguste Antoine Logics. 

Piesra Andr^ Decoiter. 
2017. Samuel Crabtree* 
2218. Willian Warn. 
2494. Walter Blundell. 
2534. Robert Christopher Witty. 



1854 
1875. 
1878. 
1921 



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168 



NOnCBS TO C0BBESP0NDENT8. 



2570. John Fairrie. 
2584. Edward Acrei. 
2634. William Charles Day. 
2683. William Donald and William He- 
ginbotham. 
Sealed February IS, 1855. 

1778. Henry Smith. 

1775. John GreaTesand Charles Miebael 
Oreaves. 

1779. Robert Caance. 
1792. Thomas Wallworth. 
1797. John HacketL 

1801. Louis Christian Koeffler. 

1816. Samuel Kershaw and James Taylor. 

1880. William VitruTiua Oreenwood and 

John Saxby. 

1881. James Worrall, junior. 
1836. Stopford Thomas Jones. 



1838. Robert Barlow Gooley. 

1880. Robert McConneL 

1905. Julian Bernard. 

1915. Joseph Worth ington. 

1962. Robert Macallister. 

2390. Eugene Antoine Ii^pine. 

2460. Alfred Tylor. 

2471. William Aristides V^rel. 

2574. Richard Archibald Brooman. 

2598; Jaines John King and Thomas 
Brindley. 

2617. John Nesmith. 

2698. John Henry Johnson. 

2708. John Henry Johnson. 

The aboTe Patents all bear date as of the 
day on which ProYisional Protection was 
granted for the seferal iuTentions men- 
tioned therein. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



/. H, Jt.— Bourdon's inatrument Is used mainly 
for reglitering the pressures of elastie fluids. We 
do not think it could be well applied as a gauge 
for a powerful Brsmah's press. 

A person who has invented and got to work a 
piece of machinery, cannot he interfered with in 



his use of it by another who subsequently makes 
it the subject of a patentf 

C. £., Hoxton.— Can you infonn us on what day 
the ProTisional Protection was obtained for the 
battery you mention f 

JC.-No. 



CONTENTS OP 
An Improved Steam-engine Boiler. By Mr. 

H.yrxifbt {with enffravingt) 145 

London Fires in 1 854. Twenty-fourth Annual 

Report. By Mr. W. Baddeley. C.E 147 

On the Flow of Water through Pipes and Oriflcet 1 5 1 

Porter's Patent Anchors 153 

Clark's Patent for Purifying Water 155 

On the Moon's Motion 155 

On the indicated Hone-power of Steam Engines 157 

Parker's Smoke-consuming Apparatus 158 

Coloured Fluids 159 

Specifications of Patents recently Filed : 

Hsekett ......Covering India-rubber 

Thread 159 

Newton Metallic Springs 159 

Moss Roasting Apparatus ... 159 

Knight & Stubbs... Bricks and Tiles 160 

Brooman Raw Silk Fabrics 160 

Sedgwick Ship-bullding 160 

Harratt Ship-bullding 160 

Firth and Wilson ..Woven Fabrics 160 

Losh Bleaching 160 

Hutchins .Steam Engine Cylinder 160 

Roberts Punching and Riveting 160 

Johnson Preparing Silk 160 

Caateta Substitute for Quinine. 161 

Wilson & Payne ...Fatty Matters 161 

Bellford Kneading-machines ... 161 

Preston Fibrous Materials 161 

Champonnois and 

Bavelier Beetroot 161 

Grundy Drugget 161 

Hallum Fibrous Subetances ... 161 

Newton Converting Wood into 

Paper 161 

Spenc? ..Sulphur 162 

Bell ft Scholeileld. Borax 16S 

Garland ft Olasson. Furnaces 162 

Hurd Treating Fibres snd 

Fabrics 162 

M'Oaffln Metal Casks 162 

Cutting Photography 162 

Church ft Goddard.Ordnance 162 

Pumelle Motive Power 162 



THIS NUMBER. 

Bellford Grinding Paints, ftc... 163 

KoeJBer Finishing Threads...... 162 

Pontifez ft Glass- 
ford Separating Lead 162 

Huckvale Gathering Crops 162 

Tixard Fermentation 163 

Bellford Soldering Metals 16$ 

Molv6 ft Martin...FeedingBoiler8 168 

Provisional Specifications not Proceeded with; 

Michell Furnaces 163 

Mitchell Cards for Carding 

Wool, ftc 163 

Wenham Steam Engines 163 

Jackson Tents 163 

Palliser Projectfles 163 

Delabarre ft Bonnet ^..Preserving Meat 164 

Jean ft Hugues Reducing Friction...... 164 

Alexandre ft Sommer- 

ville Boots and Shoes 164 

Stevens Bonnets 164 

Francia Feeding Furnaces ...... 164 

I^amb Making Paper 164 

Young Gathering Crops 164 

Bainbridge Stoves and Furnaces... 164 

Johnaon Fibrous and Textile 

Materials 164 

Dilks Binding Parcels 164 

Cole Agricultural Machinery 165 

Lamacrafk .....Envelopes 165 

Oppenheimer Velvet and Plush 165 

Godefh)y Coal-naphtha, ftc 165 

Delaye Printing-blocks... 165 

Luques Governors 165 

Mumbey Bearings, ft Reducing 

Friction 165 

Burleiah Guns aqJA Projectiles... 165 

Provisional Protections 165 

Patent Applied for with Complete Specifica- 
tion , ~ 166 

Notice of Application for Leave to Enter Dis- 
claimer 166 

Notices of Intention to Proceed m.... 167 

List of Sealed Patents...... 167 

Notices to Correspondents .m. 168 



LONDON : Edited, Printed, and PublUhed by Richard Archibald Brooman, of No. 166, Fleet-street, 
in the City of London.^Sold by A. snd W. Oalignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris; Machini and Co., 
Dublin i W. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburg. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



pet|an}ts' Paga^he. 



No. 1646.] SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 24, 1855. [gjl^jjla^i. 

Edited by R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street. 

JANDIN AND DUVAL'S IMPROVEMENTS IN DRESSING AND DYEING 
RAW SILK FABRICS. 
Fig. 4. Fig. 6, 



3. 




NOL. LXII. 



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17Q 

JANDFN AND DUVAL'S IMPROVEMENTS IN DRESSING AND DYEING 

RAW SILK FABRICS. 
(Patent fl»t«d— «s A eommnnicatloii to it. A. BroomaiH-^nly 91, 1854.) 

Messrs. Jandin and Duval, of Lyons, have roceotly patented in this country an 
invention which consists *' in holding raw silk fabrics in a state of tension, both in length 
and breadth, while being dressed (or deprived of the gummy matter contained in tb^m) 
and dyed."* 

By this arrangement, fractures of the silk whieh ocenr in other methods for effecting 
the same obiept are avoided, and a fabric is produced having the same appearance and 
effisct as if it had been manufoctured of silk which had been dyed before being woven, 
instead of that of a fabric dyed in the piece ; while fabrics manufactured in raw silk may 
be dressed in eight or ten days, by having the gummy matter boiled out of them, and may 
be dyed of any desired oolour to suit the taste of the manufacturer or purchaser. The 
invention applied to inferior raw sUk goods, such as handkerchief pleoes, produces an article 
stronger and of brighter colours than usual. 

The raw silk fabric is kept in a state of tension in the direction of both length and breadth 
by being passed firom one roller to another over ai| intermediate breadth stretching-drum, 
and is dressed by being immersed in a vessel containing a solulion of soap (mainuined at 
boiling point) for about three quarters of an hour, by which the gummy matters are removed 
from it. The fabric is then washed in a fuitable vat in order to remove the soap, then 
receives the mordant, and is a^nrards dyed i tension, both lengthwise and breadthwise, 
being maintained throughout the whole of the processes. 

The manner in which the invention may be p^formed la represented in the accompany- 
ing engravings. Figs. 1 and 3 are views of the apparatus employed in the dreuing process, 
for removing the gummy matter from the silk, the fbf mer bemg an end view, and the latter 
a front elevation. A is a vessel heated by steam passing through e coil at the bottom 
of it, or otherwise i B B are rollers, upon which the fabrio Is wound and unwound ; C is 
a stretching-drum, round which it is passed while being unwound fh>m one i^nd wound 
on to the other of the rollers, B B. This drum, C, is made to rise and fall in the guides, 
G G, by pulleys and ropes, H H. E is a toothed pinion worked by a handle, F, and D is 
a toothed wheel for communicating rotary motiou \Q the roU^if^i B B, through the endless 
chain, J, which gears Into the teeth of the wheelj D, and pinioni £ ; K K are levers for 
removing the rollers, B B, from the vat, 

Fig. 8 is a view, chiefly in section, of the imm employed for stretehing the fabric breadth- 
wise. One half onlv of this drum Is shown in detail, k la the axis of the drum ; aa are 
segmental bands of orass or other suitable metal of which the drum is composed, tlieir outer 
surfaces being serrated. The serrations or teeth on all the segments forming one-half of 
the drum inclines to the right, and those on the segments of the other lialf to the left, c c 
are discs keyed to the shaft, b; dd 9,x% levers connected at one end to the segments, a a, 
while their other ends work in inclined gr«pvf wheels, as is hereafter exptained, so as to 
impart a to-and-fro movement to the bands, n 4, There is one lever for every band or seg- 
menU e « (re semi-oylindrical grooved wheels ^ed in an inclined position upon sockets. 
The levers, dd, work into the grooves of these wheels, and, by following their inclination, 
produce the to-and-fro motion of the bauds, • fl, in the direction of their length, and in a 
reverse direction to each other on each of the dnims, / is a bent rod, carrying at each end 
a socket, which becomes the bearing of the aatis of the drum, and supports also the inclined 
semi-cylindrical grooved wheels, ee, ^ is a oentre-pin, by which the rod, /, is suspended, 
and upon which it is fVee to turn. The inner ends of the segmental serrated bands are sup- 
ported upon pins or bolts, jfj, which pass through an eye cast en or otherwise fixed to the 
mside of the oands. The pins or bolts are supported by a ring or disc, h, keyed to the axis, 
b. The fabric, after being passed four or five times from one roller to the other over the 
breadth stretching-drum will be found to be dressed. Care must be taken on winding the 
fabric from roller to roller to turn round the breadth stretching-drum so that the InoTlni^- 
tions of the teeth on the segments shall always be presented in the Mme position t« tho 
fabric. 

After having had the gum boiled out, the fabric is next to he washed, tnd for this purpose 
it is removed to such an apparatus as that shown at fig. 4, which is an end view i A A are 
supports or bearings, on which the rollers are placed when removed from the dressing 
apparatus ; B is a stretching drum, similar to that shown at flg. 8 1 C C^ the roUera off 
and on which the fabrio is rolled ; these rollers are worked by a Ofank handle 1 F F'are 1 



* See last Number, page I6O4 



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JAMDnr AXD DUVlL'fl mPmOYBMSHTS IN BBR8BINO VABBI08, ETC. 171 

of a frame on which the rolleri, C C, are mounted ) B £', hooked rode, for retaining the 
arms in the required poeitiona ; G is a perforated pipe, for sprinkling the fabric. 

After being washed, the fabric is next taken to the dyeing vat Fig. 5 it a sectional 
elefation of Uie apparatus used for dyeing ; A is a stretehing-druin, made of wood and 
shown in detail at flg. 6 ; B B are rollers, on and off which the fabric is wound and 
unwound, after being passed through the bath and over the stretching drum ; C is a cylin- 
drical frame, centred and turning on bearings, D D. This frame is intended to hold the 
Ikbrio while it it immersed in the dye-bath. E £ are moveable arms or leyers, on which 

Fig. d. 







the rollers, B B, are mounted, and by means of which these rollers may be moved nearer 
to or farther from the stretching-drum, A } F F are hooked rods for retaining the arms, £, 
in the required positions ; O is a wooden vat, in which the dye-bath is placed ; H is a guide 
roller. Fig. 6 shows the construction of the breadth stretching. drum ; A A are bands of 
wood, of the shape shown at A in the plan, fig. 3, and having mortices cut out on the inside, 
into which bara, b 6, take ; each bar, b, ia connected to a band, a, at each end, and ia 
centred upon a pin in the sbafti c ; thia shaft is octagonal and the bars, b, pass through 
mortices ip the ahaft, tlie faces of which are all inclined ) dd are disca or wheela centred 
on a pin in the apindle, e ; their inclination is adjusted so as to afford more or less play to 
the bands, a a, by meana of the acrews, a; e ia the apindle ; // are tightening acrewa, for 
holding the apindlea, e, in their bearinga; gg are pina screwed in the spindles, e, which 
support the atretching-drum, and become the axea on which the ahaft, c, revolvea; hh, 
bearinga for the apindlea, §e; t ia a croaa bar for supporting the bearinga, hhi 2 is a frame 
fixed to the vat on which the atretching-drum and ita appendagea are mounted ; m ia a 
bolt h^ which the framea, t /, are held together, and which forma a centre upon which the 
atretchlng-drum may be turned. 

The proceaa ia as follows : — A number of pieces of fabric are first divided into lots of six 
or eight pieces, according to their length. One lot, of not more than about 200 yards, is 
wound round a portable roller, which is afterwards placed on the vat, A, and from which 
the fabric is passed on to the rollers, B B (fig. 1), at the bottom of the vat. A solution of 
soap in water is then poured into the vat, a, to cover over the rollers, B B, and steam is let 
on in order to raise the aolution to the boiling point, the fabric being pasaed from one roller 
over the drum, C, to the other roller, four or five timea, the breadth atretching-drum being 
hoiated up and turned round each time, in order that the right and left hand diverging 
edgea may always be presented in the same position to the fabric. The piece is tb.eii 
removed from the bath oy the rollers, B B, which are lifted by means of the levers, KK, 
connected to their ends, tranaferred to the portable roller previously mentioned, and allowed 
to drain. 

The portable roller is now placed on the bearings, A A, fig. 4, and the piece rolled off 
it, over ihe stretching-drum, B, and thence to the roller, C ; the portable roller being then 
removed. The crank handle, before-mentioned, is unscrewed, the hook, E, which holds 
up the arm, F, is un&stened so as to allow the roller, C, to descend. The drum, B, is 
turned in order to present the proper side of the fabric. The other of the arms, F, is 
fastened, or hooked up, so as to cause the other roller, C, which had been out of the water, 
to pass into it, and the first roller to be lifted out. The handle is now replaced and turned. 
Thia first part of the operation ia performed in water heated to about 125' containing 
about a pound of carbonate of aoda. When the fabric has been twice paased through this 
bath, a valve is opened and the water drawn off from the vat, which is again filled with 

k2 



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172 



THE OAPSIZZNa OF THE TBOOP-SHIP " PERSEVEBANCE/ 



cold water which flows through perforated pipes, G, so as to fall on the fabric, on the 
stretching-drum, and on the roller on to which it is being wound, while the roller from 
which it is being unwound is kept immersed in the water. 

The fabric having been so treated four or five times, will be free from soap, and ready 
for dyeing. It is again rolled on to the portable roller, before referred to, and transferred 
to the mordant and dyeing baths, shown in fig. 5, and there passed through the mordant 
bath and the dye bath, being all the time kept in a state of tension as before. The only 
difference between the construction of the dyeing apparatus and the washing apparatus 
consists in the frame, C, intended for holding the fabric while immersed in the bath, and 
in the rollers, which move separately, the fabric being handled in the same manner. 



THE CAPSIZING OF THE TROOP-SHIP "PERSEVERANCE." 



Op all the unanticipated spectacles 
brought before us since the outbreak of 
the present war, there probably has not 
been one more Remarkable than that which 
was witnessed in the Royal Dockyard at 
Woolwich, when one of Her Majesty's 
ships, on being floated in dock, sUrted from 
her upright position and rolled leisurely 
over, till her masts came down upon the 
ground. Such a circumstance is of im- 
portance, not only on account of the results 
immediately following it, but also because 
it suggests considerations and excites ap- 
prehensions which greatly tend to the dis- 
quietude of the public mind. Men ask, 
and ask with reason, ** If the Admiralty 
provide us with one ship which rolls over in 
their own docks, and before the eyes of 
their own executive officers, may they not 
have provided, or be now providing, us with 
others, which, while they are stable enough 
to bear our regiments with safety from our 
harbours, may, nevertheless, pitch them out 
into the Bay of Biscay or the Black Sea, 
when the first storm overtakes them ? *' 
They begin to doubt whether the same fatal 
hand that has slain one army before Sebas- 
topol, is not likely to seize upon the ele. 
ments of another on their way tnither ; and 
whether Mr. Bernal Osborne is not to be 
numbered among the lords of misrule, not- 
withstanding the boldness with which he 
calls upon the House of Commons to ad- 
mire the perfection of his own department 
of the Royal service. 

Undoubtedly, when a vessel, in which a 
thousand British troops are about to be 
deposited, suddenly capsizes in still water, 
some ready explanation of the fact may 
fairly be demanded. The elucidation put 
forth by the Duke of J^^ewcastle in the 
House of Lords, viz., that the shores were 
removed from the ship too soon— however 
effectual it may have been in silencing the 
interrogator of the Government, is quite 
unfit to be entertained for a moment. Every 
person who has ever seen a large ship un- 
docked in a Royal dockyard, must be per- 
fectly well aware that the upper tier of 



shores (breast-shores) are allowed to remain 
until the vessel is fairly afloat. But even 
if this were not the case, and if the shores 
were actually removed before the WHter in 
the dock had altogether floated her, it could 
only be by an extraordinary combination of 
instability of form, and inequality in the 
distribution of the weights on board the 
vessel, that such a result could be brought 
about. In addition to these considerations 
we may add, that we have been assured by 
eye-witnesses of the occurrence, that no- 
thing transpired during the undocking of 
the Perseverance which could lend the small- 
est show of truth to the statement of the 
War Minister.* 

To us nothing mysterious appears to be 
involved in the circumstance under notice, 
and nothmg accidental is necessary for its 
explanation. Those of our readers who 
have carefully studied the disquisitions on 
the science of naval architecture which 
have from time to time appeared in our 
pages, will have observed, that the height 
of the centre of gravity of a ship always 
enters into the expression representing her 
stability in such a manner, that the stability 
diminishes as it increases, and vice versd. 
It is evident, therefore, that for every ship 
there is a maximum height, beyond which 
her centre of gravity cannot with safety be 
elevated, a given displacement and draught 
of water being assumed. This height is 
generally much less in merchant or pass- 
enger ships, than in ships of war of the 
same tonnage ; because, while the latter are 
expressly formed to carry great weights, 
such as those of guns and shot, &c., above 
the water line, the former are constructed 
to carry the principal portions of their 
burdens in their holds, and but compara- 
tively small weights upon their decks. 
Now, the Perseverance was built to carry 
merchandize and passengers ; but having 
been purchased by the government for the 

• Sinee the above remarks were written, Admi- 
ral Berkeley has contradictedt in the House of 
Commons, the statement made by the Duke of 
Newcastle. 



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TEn OAFSizma of thb t&oop-ship '' pebsetebakce. 



173 



transport of troops, she has had a poop and 
a forecastle added to her, and has unques- 
tionably been furnislied with much heavier 
masts and yards than she was originally 
intended to carry. By these and other ad- 
ditions of weight above the water line of the 
vessel, she has, beyond doubt, had her sta- 
bility, (which was probably scarcely suffi- 
cient even for her original purpose) too 
much diminished, and uie inevitable result 
has followed. 

It is evident, therefore, that a mistake has 
been made, and a cosUy vessel has been 
purohaied, and appropriated by the Admi- 
ralty to a purpose for which she was quite 
unsuited. We know how easy a matter it 
would be to pursue the subject further, to 
show that the error committed was avoid- 
able, and to endeavour to fix the responsi- 
bility upon those whose business it is to 
expend the public funds with caution and 
economy. But we think it more to the 
public interest to point out the cause from 
which, we believe, this and other similar 
evils have arisen, viz., the disproportion 
that exists between the staff of the Surveyor 
of the Navy's Department, and the duties 
that devolre upon it, especially at a time 
like this, when the Admiralty profess to be 
putting forth the full naval strength of this 
great nation* 

Let any competent person consider for a 
moment the amount of labour that has fallen 
to the lot of the surveyor's department, only 
in these three great divisions of its duties, 
viz. — the construction of new ships, the con- 
version of sailing into screw vessels, and 
the hire and purchase of suitable vessels for 
transport service I And who have there 
been to execute this ? A post captain for 
surveyor, two professional assistants (only 
one of whom has received a thoroughly pro- 
fessional education), and some four or five 
draftsmen ; these latter being, in almost all 
cases, uken from the offices of the dock- 
yards, never having received any further 
direct theoretical culture than what is 
abroad in the mould-lofts of those esta- 
blishments, which we confidently pronounce 
to be but small, and to fall altogether short 
of that necessary for the determination of 
the essential qualities of ships, such as sta- 
tical and dynamical stability, &c. This is 
the staff appointed by the Admiralty to fur- 
nish to the dockyards complete instructions 
for the conduct of works, on which upwards 
of one million pounds for artificers' wages 
and nearly three millions for the stores con- 
verted, are to be expended during the ensu- 
ing year ! It is an incontestible fact that 
the Government of this great maritime 
country, which prides itself on its skill in 
naval architecture, and its supremacy upon 
the seas, has not in its pay one individual 



whose undivided duty it is to perform those 
calculations which must necessarily be ef- 
fected before the true qualities of a single 
ship can be determined ! 

These things tend to excite inquiry once 
more into the attitude assumed by our naval 
administrators towards those who have pur- 
sued or are pursuing studies connected with 
the more theoretical branches of the scieooe 
of naval architecture, and therefore into the 
prospects of the science itself among us. 
We cannot now extend our remarks upon 
the subject, but shall return to it hereafter. 
Let it suffice for the present to say that the 
fatal blight — ^proceeding as much from stu- 
pidity as from corruption —which is now 
seen to have fallen ujpon all public depart- 
ments, has descended thickly upon this. A 
single glance at our dockyard establishments 
attests the truth of this statement The 
members of the first school established by 
the Government for the improvement of 
naval architecture, are just now stepping, 
grey-headed, into leading positions, after 
years of systematic depreciation, while those 
of the late School of Mathematics and Naval 
Construction, whether meritorious 6r other- 
wise, are tossing about in the most humi- 
liating positions that can be found for them, 
and are subjected to frequent indignities, 
from which an arduous and extended course 
of mental culture should at all times be a 
protection. 

We have hinted in our previous remarks 
at only a few of the defects in the adminis- 
tration of Admiralty Boards in connection 
with our dockyard establishments. But, as 
we write, innumerable others rise up before 
us, and claim our future consideration. 
Among these are the paralyzing influences 
which result from the placing of the mechani- 
cal departments of the dockyard under the 
control of captain and admiral superintend, 
ents, an arrangement by which the plans and 
orders of well-informed professional officers, 
are daily annulled by the mere caprices of 
men, who are commissioned with authority 
to dictate even where they are incompetent 
to advise, and to adjudicate on matters of 
which they are necessarily ignorant : — The 
modern system of promotion through the 
various grades of office, which system, while 
it certoinly opens up a readier way to pre- 
ferment for deserving persons, at the same 
time opposes but an inconsiderable barrier 
to the progress of incompetent but favoured 
candidates for advancement, often conferring 
the prize upon one who, though without skill 
in his profession, scrambles through a 
meagre examination in the most elementary 
mathematics, and witholding it Arom anotlier 
whose abilities and experience commend 
him to office : — ^And the vast outlay that has 
been made in attempts to introduce and 



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OK 9I!B BBNDVLVM BXPERmSNTfl IN HABTOM OOLUEBY. 



perfect a method by whioh the wftM of the 
workpeople employed are apportioned ac- 
cording to a system of measurement, which 
is, after all, a most oostly and inefflclent 
system, and one which, as «re are prepared 
to show, is productive of evils whicn cannot 
be too strongly condemned. These we shall 
hereafter consider, and endeavour to throw 
much light upon. 

Meanwhile we oontent ourselves with 
suggesting, that the accident with the Ftt^ 
M94ranee plainly calls ibr the adoption of 
measures which shall enable the Surveyor of 
the Navy's department to be more efficiently 
conducted. Why should there not be per- 
sons appohited not only to examine the 
qualities of those ressels which the Admi- 
ralty require for present emergencies, but 
to ascertain and record the qualities of so 
much of the mercantile navy as is likely to 
be required at any future time for extra- 
ordinary service? For a most insigtiificant 
annual sum the Admiralty might constantly 
supply themselves with this information, 
and thus prepare themselves for the exi- 
gencies to which a great State is continually 
liable. 



ON THE PENDULUM EXPERI- 
MENTS IN HARTON COLLIERY. 

BY THE ASTRONOIfER ROYAL.* 

Thb Lecturer commenced with remark- 
ing that the bearing of the experiments, of 
which he was about to give a notice, was 
not limited to their ostensible object, but 
that it applied to all the bodies of the solar 
system. The professed object of the expe- 
riments was to obtain a measure of the 
density of the earth, and therefore of the 
mass of the earth (its dimensions being 
knovm){ but the ordinary data of astro- 
nomy, taken in conjunction with the lavrs 
of gravitation, give the proportions of the 
mass of the earth to the masses of the sun 
and the principal planets; and thus the 
determination of the absolute mass of the 
earth would at once give determinations of 
the absolute masses of the sun and planets. 
To show how this proportion is ascertained, 
it is only necessary to remark that a planet, 
if no force acted on it, would move in a 
straight line ; that, therefore, if we com- 
pute geometrically how far the planet moves 
in a short time, as an hour, and then com- 
pute the distance between the point which 
the planet has reached in its curved orbit, 
and the straight line which it has left, we 
have found the displacement which is pro- 



* The tubstanee of a paper recently read at the 
Royal Institution. 



duced by the sun's attraction, and which is 
therefore a measure of the sun's attraction. 
In like manner, if we apply a similar cal- 
culation to the motion of a satellite during 
one hour, we have a measure of the attrac- 
tion of its primary. The comparison of 
these two gives the proportion of the attrac- 
tion of the sun, as acting upon a body at 
one known distance to tlie attraction of a 
planet, as acting upon a body at another 
known distance. It is then necessary to 
apply one of the theorems of the laws of 
gravitation, namely, that the attraction of 
every attractinsf body Is inversely as the 
square of the distance of the attracted body, 
and thus we obtain the proportion of the 
attractions of the sun and a planet when the 
bodies upon which they are respectively 
acting are at the same distance from both ; 
and finally, it is necessary to apply another 
theorem of the law of gravitation, namely, 
that the attractions thus found correspond^ 
Ing to equal distancee of the attracted 
bodies, are in the same proportion as the 
masses of the attracting bodies (a theorem 
which applies to gravitation, but does not 
apply to magnetic and other forces). Into 
the evidence of these portions of the law of 
gravitation the Lecturer did not attempt to 
enter: he remarked only that they rest 
upon very complicated chains of reasoning, 
but of the most certain kind. His only 
object was to show that the proportion of 
the masses of all bodies, which have planeta 
or satellites revolving round them, can 
easily be found (the proportion for those 
which have no satellites is found by a very 
indirect process, and with far less accu- 
racy) ; and that if the absolute mass of the 
earth be known, the absolote mass of each 
of the others can be found. As their di- 
mensions are known, their densities can 
then be found. Thus it rests upon such 
inquiries as those on which this lecture Is to 
treat, to determine (for instance) whether 
the planet Jupiter is composed of materials 
as light as water, or as light as cork. 

The obvious importance of these deter- 
minations had induced philosophers long 
since to attempt determinations of the 
earth's density ; and two classes of experi- 
menU had been devised for it 

The first class (of which there was only 
one instance) is the attraction of a mountain 
in the noble Schehallien experiment. It 
resta, in the first place, upon the use of the 
zenith sector ; and, in the next place, upon 
our very approximate knowledge of the 
dimensions of the earth. [The construc- 
tion of the zenith sector was illustrated by 
a model ; and it was shown, that if the same 
star were observed at two places, the tele- 
scope would necessarily be pointed in the 
same direction at the two places, and the 



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175 



difierenoe of direotion of the pluiiib«.UnO| 
u shown by the different pointe of the 
graduated arc whioh it oroaied at the two 
plaeea, would show how much the direction 
of gravity at one place is inclined to the 
direction of gravity at the other plaoe«] 
Now, from our knowledge of the form aod 
dimensions of the earth, we know that the 
direotion of gravity changes very nearly 
one second of angle for every 100 feet of 
horizontal distance^ Suppose, then, that 
two stations were taken on Schehallien, one 
on the north side and the other on the south 
side, and suppose that their distance was 
4,000 feet, then, if the direotion of gravity 
had not been influenced by the mountain, 
the inclination of the directions of gravity 
at these two places would have been about 
40 seconds. But suppose, on applying the 
zenith aector in the way just described, the 
inclination was found to be really 62 seconds. 
The diflferenee, or 18 seoonds, could only be 
explained by the attraetion of the mountain, 
which, combined with what may be called 
the natural direction of grarity, produced 
directions inclined to these natural dirto- 
tions. In order to infer from this the den. 
sity of the earth, a oalculation was made 
(founded upon a very accurate measure of 
the mountain) of what would have been the 
disturbing effi»ct of the mountain if the 
mountain had been as dense as the interior 
of the earth. It was found that the dis. 
turbance wonld have been abont S7 seconds. 
But the disturbance was really found to be 
only 12 seoonds. Consequently the proper^ 
tion of the density of the mountain to the 
earth's density was that of 12 to 27, or 4 to 
9 nearly. And from this, and the aseer- 
tained density of the mountain, it followed 
that the mean specific gravity of the earth 
would be abont five times that of water. 
The only objeotion to this admirable ex- 
periment is, that the form of the oountrv 
near the mountain is very irregular, and it 
ia difficult to say how much of the 12 
seconds is or is not really due to Sche- 
hallien. 

The seoond class is what may be called a 
cabinet esi^riment, possessing the advan- 
tage of bemg extremely manageable, and 
the disadvantage of being exceedingly deli- 
cate, and liable to derangement by forces so 
trifling that they could with diffiouty be 
aroid^. Two small balls upon a light ho« 
rixontal rod were suspended by a wire, or 
two wires, forming a torsion balance, and 
two large leaden balls were brought near to 
attract the small balls from the quiescent 
poettion. We could make a oalculation of 
how far the great balls would attract the 
little ones, if they were as dense as the 
genenl mass of the esrth } and eomparing 
Ihlswith the distance to which the leaden 



balls really do attraet them, we find the 
proportion of the density of the earth to the 
density of lead. The peculiar difficulty and 
doubt of the resulta in this experiment de- 
pend on the liability to disturoances from 
other causes than the attraction of the leaden 
balls, espeoially the currents of air produced 
by the approach of bodies of a different tem- 
perature i and after all the oautions of 
Cavendish, Keioh, and Baily, In their suo- 
oessive attempts, it seems not impossible 
that the phenomena obaerved may have 
been produced in part by the temperature 
of the great balls as well as their attrae- 
tion. 

These considerations induced the lecturer, 
in 1826, to contemplate a third class of ex- 
perimenU; namely, the determination of 
the difference of gravity at the top and the 
bottom of a deep mine, by pendulum expe- 
riments. Supposing the difference of gra- 
yity found, its application to the determina- 
tion of density (in the simplest ease) was 
thus explained :--^Gonceive a spheroid con- 
centric with the external spheroid of the 
earth to pass through the lower station in 
the mine. It is easily shown that the aU 
traction of the shell included between these 
produces no effect whatever at the lower 
station, but produces the same effect at the 
upper station as if all its matter were col- 
lected at the earth's oentrcb Therefore, at 
the lower station we have the attraction of 
the interior mass only : at the upper station 
we have the attraetion of the interior mass 
(though at a greater distance from the at- 
tracted pendulum), and also the attraction 
of the shelL It is plain that by making the 
proportion of these theoretical attractions 
equal to the proportion actually obaerved by 
means of the pendulum, we have the re- 
quisite elements for finding the proportion 
of the shell's attraction to the internal 
mass's attraction, and therefore the propor- 
tion of the matter in the shell to the matter 
in the internal mass ; from which the pro- 
portion of density is at once found. More- 
over, it appeared probable, upon estimat- 
ing the errors to which observations are 
liable, tliat the resulting error in the density, 
in this form of experiment, would be less 
than in the others. 

Accordingly, in 1826, the lecturer, with 
the assistance of his friend, Mr. Whewell 
(now Dr. Whewell), undertook a series of 
experiments, at the depth of nearly 1,200 
feet, in the Doleoath mine, near Camborne, 
in Cornwall. The comparison of the upper 
and lower clocks (to which further allusion 
will be made) was soon found to be the most 
serious difficulty. The personal labour was 
also very great. They had, however^ made 
a ofrtain progress when, on raising a part of 
the instruments, the straw packing took firo 



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176 



(the origin of the fire is still unknown), and 
partly by burning, and partly by falling, the 
instruments were nearly destroyed. 

In 1828, the same party, with the assist- 
ance of Mr. Sheepshanks and other friends, 
repeated the experiment in the same place. 
After mastering several difficulties, they 
were stopped by a slip of the solid rock of 
the mine, which deranged the pumps, and 
finally flooded the lower station. 

The matter rested for nearly twenty-six 
years, the principal progress in the subjects 
related to it being the correction to the 
computation of ** buoyancy " of the pendu- 
lum, determined by Colonel Sabine's expe- 
riments. But in the spring of 1854, the 
manipulation of galvanic signals had become 
familiar to the Astronomer Royal, and the 
assistants of the Greenwich Observatory; 
and it soon occurred to him that one of the 
most annoying difficulties in the former ex- 
periment might be considered as being 
practically overcome, inasmuch as the upper 
and lower clocks could be compared by 
simultaneous galvanic signals. Inquiries 
made in the summer, induced him to fix on 
the Harton colliery, near South Shields, 
where a reputed depth of 1 ,260 feet could 
be obtained ; and as soon as this selection 
was known, e^ery possible facility and assist- 
ance were given by the owners of the mine. 
Arrangements were made for preparing an 
expedition on a scale sufficient te overcome 
all anticipated difficulties. A considerable 
part of the expemse was met by a grant from 
the Board of Admiralty. The £leotric 
Telegraph Company, with great liberality, 
contributed (unsolicited) the skill and la- 
bour required in the galvanic mountings. 
The principal instruments were lent by the 
Royal Society. Two observers were fur- 
nished by the Royal Observatory, one by 
the Durham Observatory, one by the Oxford 
Observatory, one by the Cambridge Ob- 
servatory, and one by the private observa- 
tory of Red Hill (Mr. Carrington's). Mr. 
Dunkin, of the Royal Observatory, had the 
immediate superintendence of the observa- 
tions. 

The two stations selected were exactly 
in the same vertical, excellently walled, 
floored, and ceiled; the lower station, in 
particular, was a most comfortable room or 
rather suite of rooms. Every care was taken 
for solidity of foundation and steadiness of 
temperature. In each (the upper and the 
lower) was mounted an invariable brass 
pendulum, vibrating by means of a steel 
knife edge upon plates of agate, carried by 
a very firm iron stand. Close behind it, 
upon an independent stand, was a clock, 
carrying upon the bob of its pendulum an 
illuminated disc, of diameter nearly equal 
to the breadth of the tail of the invariable 



pendulum ; and between the two pendulums 
was a chink or opening of two plates of 
metal, which admitted of adjustment, and 
was opened very nearly to the same breadth 
as the disc. To view these, a telescope was 
fixed in a wall, and the observer was seated 
in another room. When the invariable pen- 
dulum and the clock pendulum pass the 
central points of ribration at the same in- 
stant, the invariable pendulum hides the 
illuminated disc as it passes the chink, and 
it is not seen at all. At other times it is 
seen in passing the chink. The observa- 
tion, then, of this disappearance determines 
a coincidence with great precision. Suppose 
the^ next coincidence occurs after 400 
seconds. Then the invariable pendulum 
(swinging moro slowly), has lost exactly 
two swings upon the clock pendulum, or 
the proportion of its swings to those of the 
clock pendulum is 898 : 400. If an error 
of a second has been committed, the pro- 
portion is only altered to 397 : 399, which 
differs by an almost insignificant quantity. 
Thus the observation, in itself extremely 
rude, gives results of very great accuracy. 
As the proportion of invariahle-pendulum- 
Bwings to clock-pendulum-swings is thus 
found, and as the olock-pendulum-swings 
in any required time are counted by the 
clock dial, the corresponding number of in- 
variable-pendulum-swings is at once found. 
Corrections are then required for the ex- 
pansion of the metal (depending on the 
therntometer-reading), for the arc of vibra- 
tion, and for the buoyancy in air (depend, 
ing on the barometer reading). 

But when the corrected proportion of 
upper-inyariable-pendulum-swings to up- 
per-clock-pendulum- swings is found, and 
the proportion of lower-invariable-pendu- 
lum - swings to lower - clock - pendulum- 
swings is found, there is yet another thing 
required, namely, the proportion of upper- 
clock-pendulum-swings to lower- ctoek- 
pendulum-swings in the same time ; or, in 
other words, the proportion of the clock 
rates. It was for this that the galvanic 
signals were required. A galranometer 
was attached to each clock, and an appara- 
tus was provided in a small auxiliary clock, 
which completed a circuit at every 16 
seconds nearly. The wire of this circuit, 
passing from a imali battery through the 
auxiliary clock, then went through the 
upper galvanometer, then passed down the 
shaft of the mine to the lower galvano- 
meter, and then returned to the battery. 
At each galvanometer there was a small 
apparatus for breaking circuit. At times 
previously arranged, the circuit was com- 
pleted by this apparatus at both stations, 
and then It was the duty of the observers at 
both stations to note the elock times of the 



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ON THE FLOW OF WATER THBOUGH PIPES AND OBIFIGBS. 



177 



same signals; and these eYidently give 
comparisons of the clocks, and therefore 
give the means of comparing their rates. 
Thus (by steps previously explained), the 
number of swings made by the upper pen- 
dulum is compared with the number of 
swings made in the same time by the lower 
pendulum. 

Still the result is not complete, because 
it may be influenced by the peculiarities of 
each pendulum. In order to overcome 
these, after pendulum A had been used 
above and pendulum B below, they were 
reversed ; pendulum B being observed 
above and A below ; and this, theoretically, 
completes the operation. But in order to 
insure that the pendulum received no in- 
jury in the interchange, it is desirable again 
to repeat the experiments with A above and 
B below, and again with B above and A 
below. 

In this manner the pendulums were ob- 
served with 104 hours of incessant obser. 
vations, simultaneous at both stations, A 
above and B below ; then with 104 hours, 
B above and A below ; then with 60 hours, 
A above and B below ; then with 60 hours, 
B above and A below. And 2454 effective 
signals were observed at each station. 

The result is, that the pendulums suffered 
no injury in their changes; and that the 
acceleration of the pendulum on being 
earried down 1260 feet is 2| seconds per 
day, or that gravity is increased by Tvinr 
part. 

It does not appear likely that this deter- 
mination can be sensibly in error. The 
circumstances of experiment were, in all 
respects, extremely favourable; the only 
element of constant error seems to be that 
(in consequence of the advanced season of 
the year) the upper station was cooler by 
V than the lower station, and the tempera, 
ture reductions are therefore liable to any 
uncertainty which may remain on the cor- 
rection for 7^ The redactions employed 
were those deduced by Sabine from direct 
experiment, and their uncertainty must be 
very smalL 

If a calculation of the earth's mean den. 
sity were based upon the determination just 
given, using the simple theory to which 
allusion is made above, it would be found to 
be between six times and seven times the 
density of water. But it is necessary yet to 
■take into account the deficiency of matter 
in the valley of the Tyne, in the hollow of 
Jarrow Slake, and on the sea-coast. It is 
also necessary to obtain more precise deter- 
minations of the specific gravities of the 
rocks about Harton colliery than have yet 
been procured. Measures are in progess 
for supplying all these deficiencies. It 
seems probable that the resulting number 



for the earth's density will probably be 
diminished by these more accurate esti- 
mations. 



ON THE FLOW OF WATER 
THROUGH PIPES AND ORIFICES. 

At the Institution of Civil Engineers, on 
Tuesday, February 13th, the evening was 
entirely devoted to the consideration of Mr. 
Leslie's paper on the above subject, pub- 
lished in our last Number. 

In the discussion, when moving a vote of 
thanks to the author for his interesting 
paper, it was stated to be only due to his 
position in the profession, to direct his at- 
tention to certain points which appeared to 
require revision, before the paper was 
printed. The paper might be divided into 
two heads ; 1st. As to the accuracy of the 
experiments themselves; and, 2nd. As to 
the extent to which they might be considered 
as a test of the accuracy of the formula of 
Du Buat. With regard to the experiments, 
in the cases of low velocities and flat gra- 
dients, due precautions did not appear to 
have been taken for guarding against ob- 
structious, especially from the effect of the 
accumulation of air. For instance, in the 
second series of experiments, with a pipe 
600 feet long, it was obvious that the results 
could not be relied upon. In experiment 1 , 
with a gradient of 1 in 2,000, the flow of 
water was stated as *824S, whereas in the 
preceding series of experiments the flow was 
stated to be '7407, with a flatter gradient of 
1 in 2,891. In experiment 5, of the second 
series, the flow was suted to be 2*18, with a 
gradient of 1 in 220 ; whereas in the pre- 
ceding series, in experiment 8, the flow was 
stated to be 8* with a gradient of 1 in 230. 
These were examples of the discrepancies, 
more or less pervading the whole of the ex- 
periments of the class. 

With regard to the test of the formula of 
Du Buat, the author had adopted a formula, 
which omitted from it all those corrections 
which were introduced by Du Buat, with 
the express view of meeting the case under 
consideration. On applying Du Buat's 
formula to the author's experiments, the 
alleged discrepancies were, however, re- 
duced ; for instance, in experiment 1, flrst 
series, in place of being as 4 to 1, they were 
only about 2^ to 1. In' experiment 2, in 
place of being 2 to 1, they were as 8 to 2 ; 
and in experiment 4, in place of a discre- 
pancy, as represented, of about 8 to 2, the 
results were nearly identical. 

Referring to the experiments by Mr. 
Previa, quoted from the ** Trans. Inst. 
C.E.," vol. il, the author had omitted, in 
the deductions, to allow for the head due to 
the velocity generated in the pipes. That 



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: THE FLOW OF WATEB THROUOH FIPBi ijn> 0BIFICB8. 



aUowanoe being made, and the oorreot for^ 
mala applied, the remits were identioal with 
those of Du Bust ; affording a strong con- 
firmation of the accuracy of Du Buat, not 
only as regards the formula, but also as to 
the experiments upon which that formula 
was based. 

While on that subject, as there appeared 
to be at present a strong tendency on the 
part of public boards to invalidate esta- 
blished rormulse, and to introduce others 
affording larger results, the attention of all 
who desired to investigate the subject was 
directed to the article ** Theory of Rivers,'* 
in Dr. Robison's "Mechanical Philo- 
sophy," vol. ii., page 388. By an attentive 
perusal of the article, they would not only 
be confiimed in their faith in the experi- 
ments and formulas of Dn Buat, but they 
would be satisfied how little practical result 
depended upon whether, in point of fact, the 
fiow of water was under-stated, even to the 
extent of 20 per cent. ; for instance, in a 
culvert of 100 inches diameter, such a dis- 
crepancy would not infiuence its dimensions 
to the extent of 7) per cent, nor the cost of 
construction probably to the half of that per 
centage. In fact, practically, below the 
margm allowed by all careful engineers for 
contingencies that could not be estimated* 
And after reading and understanding the 
article, they would appreciate the sentence. 
"We must understand their motions, ana 
their mode of secret, slow, but unceasing 
action, thst our bridges, our wharfs, our 
dykes, may not become heaps ofruiD. Igno- 
rant how to proceed in these daily-recurring 
cases, how often do we see projects of high 
expectation and heavy expense fail of their 
object, leaving the state burdened with works 
not only useless, but frequently hurtful 1 " 

This quotation derived peculiar signifi- 
cance from certain facts attending the publi- 
cation of a pamphlet, proceeding from one 
of the recently appointed Metropolitan Com- 
missioners of Sewers, and purporting to be 
a " Memorandum on the Data employed in 
Determining the Sizes and Estimating the 
Cost of the Works designed for the Main 
Drainage of the Metropolis," in which it 
was stated : — " De Prony's formula, applied 
to this latter class of cases, gives results 
which, as Claudel sUtes (' Formulet,' p. 110), 
deviate in some instances from the truth by 
no less than 29 per cent." But in reality, 
on reference to the authority there quoted, 
it appeared that no such passage existed, 
and the inference was entirely unsup- 
ported. 

It was pointed out, that if several miles 
of huge sewers in the metropolis were con- 
structed of too large dimensions, there might 
be an extra expenditure of 5 or 10 per oent, 
but if, by the adoption oS empirioal and 



inoorrect fortonlas, their dimeAsions were 
unduly restricted, the whole system might 
be a failure, and the expenses induced would 
be enormous. 

On this point it was remarked, that the 
formulas published by autliority, and in- 
sisted on by the Board of Health, gave 
results differing very considerably from 
those of accepted practised experimenters, 
and men of admitted scientific attainments 
and mathematical knowledge t it would be 
deairable, therefore, to ascertain how and 
by whom these modem experiments had 
been made, in order to be assured as to th« 
degree of credence to be accorded to the 
results. 

It was thus elicited that the experiments 
referred to, although generally suted to have 
been made for the Metropolitan Commis. 
sloners of Sewers, and actually undertaken 
by a committee composed of genUemen at 
that time forming part of the Commission, 
and the expense, amounting to upwards of 
£7,000, being paid from that offioe, yet thai 
no complete records of the proceedings could 
be found in the archives of the Commission* 
nor had any official report been presented 
relative to the experiments, which had been 
chiefly made by a person who was not an 
engineer by profession, nor a man of soien. 
tiflo attainmenta, but who was a foreman or 
clerk of works on some small contracts for 
sewers. A careful examination of the de- 
tails of the experiments showed, ooncliu 
sively, that they had been itutituted and pirp^ 
tecuted bjf pertom entirdy ignonuU ^tke 
tetenee qf hydrauUoi, and, as a natural eon- 
sequence, that the results were utterly 
worthless for all practical parposee, and 
moreover, that such as they were, they had 
evidently been tampered with and perverted, 
apparenUy with the object of fitting them to 
preconceived theories; thus the exteisivo 
circulation of deductions from these falla. 
cious experiments had diffaaed error, and 
would, if persevered in, obstruct the progress 
of sound engineering in all matters con- 
nected with the drainage and supply of 
water to towns in this country. 

In the course of the discussion it was 
further elicited that the formula which the 
author had employed was not the formula 
of Du Bust, nor was it <ipplicable to the 
case of very low veloeities, hi which the 
adhesion of the water to the sides of the 
pipe would produce a yery sensible retarda- 
tive efibot The formula used was, in point 
of fact, a special modification of Eytelwein'a 
formula, and did not comprehend in its 
terms this cause of resistance. Dn Boat's 
formula, on the contrary, did inoludo-tho 
resistance by adhesion, and also Uiat of vio- 
oidity, and was of the following form, whoa 
reduced to Snglish inches : 



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ON THE FLOW 09 WATE9 THBOUaH PIPES AND OBIFIOES. 



179 



ao7(V 3^0-1)1 

r= 0-3 (yrf-01) 



v^-L ^s + ve 

d being the hydraulic mean depth, a the de* 
nominator of the fraction expreaaing the 
alope or gradient, and L the hyperbolic 
logarithm of the quantity to which it was 
prefixed* 

This formula gMe ralues much more 
nearly approaching the reanlta of the au- 
thor'i experiment^ with minute heads and 
low Tclocities, than the formula employed 
by him ; bat it was leas exact than the still 
more elaborate formula of Dr. Thomas 
Young, published in the Philosophical 
Transactions ibr 1808, which afforded cor- 
rect reaulta on pipes even so small as the 
^frrd part of an inch in diameter, and with 
velocities of only one-fourth of an inch per 
second. This formula was of the form 

essaie^-l-aeii 
d d 

in which a and e were exceedingly com- 
plicated fonetions of the diameter, each 
iuTolTing four, or five tenns« For all prac- 
tical purposes, beweYer, the formula of 
Eytelwein, Prony, Poneelet, or Hawksley, 
might be used almost with indifference. 
The last-raentioned was the result of an in- 
dependent investigation, had been fire- 
quently Tcriiled on a large scale, and in 
addition was better adapted for mental 
calculation In the practical operations of 
engineers. This formula was :— 



V=JV- 



h d 



L + IM 



or more exactly— '77 /i^. 



h d 



L + lt<f 

V being the Telocity in yards per second, L 
the length in yards, h the active head in 
inches, d the diameter in inches, and the 
co-efficient X\ the divisor when L vanished 
into a tubulated orifice. 

It was also shown, that the results of Mr. 
Leslie's experiments, instead of being at 
variance with received formuls, were sin- 
gularly consistent with, and eonfirmatoiy of 
those fonuttls; and this whether as re- 
garded pipes, orifices, sluices, or weirs. 

The discharge by the Dimdee Conduit 
differed scarcely at all from theory, while 
the discharge by the Edinburgh pipes fell 
short of theory, only just so much as waa 
due to age and corrosion. So also the ex- 
periments through sluices and orer notch- 
boards gave co-effioienta almost identical 
with theory ; therefore it was incumbent on 
the meetiog, in returning thanks to the 



Author for his raluable contribution, to 
request that he would undertake to revise 
the tables of co-efficients, and then to 
bring the subject again under the notice of 
the Institution. 

Great importance was attached to the 
communication, at the present juncture, in 
consequence of the repeated attacks which 
had been made by certain public Boarda 
and unlearned members of local bodies, on 
the present advanced state of hydraulio 
science, with the view of carrying out 
visionary schemes of their own creation, or 
of arresting proposed improvements of vast 
importance to the community. Particular 
attention was drawn to the very inaccurate 
experiments, and still more inaccurate con- 
clusions of the Trial Works Committee of 
the late Metropolitan Commissioners of 
Sewers, used and extensively promulgated 
by the late General Board of Health, which» 
it was feared, coming, as they did, from a 
Government authori^, were not even yet 
sufficiently eradicated from the public 
mind} and also to the evil consequenoes 
which had resulted, a&d still continued to 
result, from the suspension of the drainage 
of the Metropolis, while siieeessive Boards 
of Commissioners appointed by Goveni- 
ment, were debating amongst themselves 
trivial questions, as to whether this, or that 
formula ahould be used in the calculations 
of their engineer, or whether water would 
run faster through a cylinder made of one 
kind of material, or of another kind of 
material. In these respects Mr. Leslie's 
experiments were most valuable, because 
they confimed the conclusions of all prac- 
ticidly scientific men, that the accepted 
formuls? sufficiently well represented actual 
results, and that the velocity of water waa 
the same, whatever were the materials over 
which it happened to flow. 

On behalf of the Author of the Paper, it 
was remarked, with respect to the alleged 
discrepancies in the second series of experi- 
ments, that Instead of impugning the 
resulu, they rather proved the honesty of 
the recorda, and demonstrated their useful 
character, whilst they pointed out the diffi- 
culties to be encountered in making accu*. 
rate hydraulic experiments, and where fail- 
ures might be anticipated in their appliea* 
tion to engineering practice. 

In reference to the formula commonly 
used for the discharge of pipea, it waa con- 
tended, that the rules adopted by Prony, 
Eytelwein, Poneelet, and others, were idl 
substantially the same, varying only in the 
constant for friction, 46*6 being the lowest* 
and 60* the highest constant for feet per 
second, now more commonly used and 
referred to as Du Buat's in the Author's 
Paper ; but it was farther contended, that 



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180 



BETHUNE'S IMPBOYEMENTS in 8TEAH NAVIGATION. 



the formala of Du Bust provided for the 
varying diameter of pipes, and also for the 
reduction of discharge hy the loss of head 
required for overcoming friction, at flat 
rates of inclination, in a manner similar to, 
but much more complicated, than the plan 
proposed in the paper. 

The conclusions of DuBuatand of Bossut, 
a previous writer, were founded on experi- 
ments detailed in a scientific paper by M. 
Couplet, the engineer of the Versailles water, 
works, in the year 17S2 ; and those experi- 
ments were confirmed in a remarkable man- 
ner by the large practical conclusions given 
in the Author's Paper. 

It was maintained, that tlie conclusions 
of all mathematical writers of the present 
century were based on the formula of Du 
Buat; that Prony, Eytelwein, Poncelet, 
Robison and the elder Leslie, as well as the 
engineers of the present day, had all agreed 
in practice, in omitting the more compli. 
cated part of Du Buat' s formula ; in verifica- 
tion of this, ft table was given, showing 
comparisons of the French experiments 
from 1732, down to those recently made by 
the Author, and exhibiting the most strik- 
ing coincidences, of theory with practice ; 
the variations for praotical purposes in the 
different rules being small, and the cor- 
rection proposed by the Author affording 
an excellent application of the principles 
adopted by Du Buat, for providing the most 
ample allowance in extreme cases, such as 
all engineers must meet with in hydraulic 
operations. 

BETHUNE'S IMPROVEMENTS IN 

STEAM NAVIGATION. 

To the Editor qf the Mechaniet* Magazine, 

Sir, — A friend having this day put into 
my h^nd your Magasine of the 3rd instant, 
containing an article, signed " J. C," con- 
demning, in no measured terms, my article 
upon ** Improvements in Steam Naviga- 
tion," which appeared in the Journal of the 
Society €f Arte, I beg to solicit space in ypur 
valuable Magazine to reply to an attack full 
of bitterness and injustice. 

It is generally observable, that what is 
wanting in argument or proof, in attacks of 
the nature of that by " J. C." is made up 
by bold assertion and reckless vituperation ; 
and instead of showing the defects of my 
plan of constructing iron steamers which 
shall hsve a " guaranteed speed of 17 knots 
an hour," " J. C." contente himself with 
expressing his own opinion upon the sub. 
jeet, and with the remark, " I wonder who 
the prudent builder is who would undertake 
such a contract." 

Let me inform "J. C." that there is not 



only one eminent ship-building-firm who 
will enter into " such a contract," but two 
at least ; and for his information, I take Uio 
liberty of giving an extract from the letter 
of one of those firms, which may not be 
uninteresting to your readers generally, as 
well as to "J. C.'» 

Alluding to a steamer upon my plan, for 
river navigation, and which shall have 
strength and etahiUty sufficient to cross the 
Atlantic in summer, they say, "We will 
build you a steamer (giving the dimensions, 
&c.), guaranteeing her speed at twenty-five 
miles an hour ; failing which, we will return 
any money paid to account, with interest, 
and keep the boat. And we consider a 
steamer similar to what you propose (with 
alterations in dimensions, scantling, and 
power) will steam across the Atlantic in 
ordinary weatlier in eeven days, and be per- 
fectly safe and seaworthy." This steamer 
is to have sUte-rooms for 206 cabin pas- 
sengers, and to carry at least 500 deck pas- 
sengers and 80 tons of merchandise, and be 
perfectly stifil 

As such a speed as is here guaranteed has 
never been attained in this countiY, I pre- 
sume the candid reader will say, that if my 
plan can produce such results, it must be 
far in advance of any that has yet been 
adopted. That it can produce those resulta, 
an eminent and responsible ship-building 
firm offer their guarantee. 

Another eminent ship - building firm, 
speaking of an ocean steamer upon my plan, 
say, " We shall have no difficulty in accom- 
plishing the speed you anticipate, viz., 18 
knota or 21 miles an hour ; indeed the re- 
sulta already obtained by the Banshee — 18| 
miles per hour — were nu)re difficult of ac- 
complishment than 18 knota or 21 miles an 
hour will be with yours ; the form and di- 
mensions in your case being so far prefer- 
able. There is, in fact, no doubt of the me- 
chanical result at all." 

It is very easy to assert that a vessel upon 
my plan will have greater depth than ordi- 
nary vessels ; but the truth is, that it will be 
fully one-third less, except at the centre, 
and there it will not exceed the depth of 
long steamers. Cannot "J. C.,' discover 
that by diminishing the depth forward and 
aft, and placing the strength of the ship in 
the right place — the present fbrm of build- 
ing vessels being the weakest imaginable — 
great weight of material is saved ? Cannot 
he discover that less weight of material 
and greater length will have the effect of 
diminishing the draught of water ? Cannot 
he imagine that i}^e models in general use 
at present need not be adopted ? and that 
another may be adopted which shall lessen 
the draught of water, while it gives lines 
far superior to those of any steamer afloat 7 



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ON THE SMOKE QUESTION. 



181 



Allow me to gWo an extract from a letter 
of A well-known captain, and who has had 
▼eiy great experience in the sailing and 
construction of some of the hest steamers in 
the kingdom : " I have no hesitation in 
stating Uiat the model and lines of a Tcssel 
yon showed me are the tery thing that is 
required to ensure great speed and com- 
fort" " Your plan would make the route 
such Teasels are placed on preferable to any 
other. I have often thought of the plan of 
fatUmng you propose, and am satiMfied qfthe 
tirengih," 

Here, then, we have on one side the 
opinions of practical men who have seen 
my plan, approving of it in the strongest 
manner; and on the other we have the 
assertion of a nameless writer, of whose 
experience we have no knowledge, and who 
has not seen my models and drawings. 
Which are entitled to the greatest conside- 
ration, I shall not stop to inquire. It must 
be borne in mind, that my patent is not for 
improved lines, but for an improved mode 
of fastening or strengthening steam ships, 
which enable me to improve their shape and 
speed. The public will, I apprehend, hardly 
think those improvements "intrinsically 
worthless" which have the approval of men 
of great practical ability, and wno are willing 
to back their opinion by a guarantee such 
as they have named. As my connection 
with steamers dates back to the year 1830, 
and has continued to the present time, 
having been the owner of nearly a dozen, 
it is probable I can boast of an experience 
at least equal to that of your correspondent, 
" J. C." Let me hope that he will at least 
have tbe candour to admit that his opinions 
of the value of an improvement approved by 
eminent practical men, and whose letters 
caa be seen at any time by persons desirous 
of availing themselves of the improvement, 
may be wrong, and that he may have in- 
dieted an injury by a hasty and unjust cri- 
ticism which he must regret. 
I am. Sir, yours, &c., 

D. Bethune. 

London, Feb. 15, 1855. 



TUBULAR STEAM BOILERS. 
To the Editor of the Meehames* Magazine, 

Sir, — I think that in Mr. Wright's paper, 
on '* Tubular Steam Boilers," atpageyT, in 
your Magazine, there are one or two mis- 
takes; such as, ''The vapour containing 
the heat may be carried too quickly over 
the heating suiface," and that this " appears 
to have been overlooked in the first con- 
structed tubular boilers." 

Mr. W. forgets that speed was and is 
given to the heated vapour, or to the 



draught, to intensify the heat. It will be 
found that by continuing to pass the finger 
through a flame, an increase of temperature 
is gradually experienced, till the heat of the 
flame is fully attained ; no matter what the 
speed is at which the finger moves. This 
experiment is the best argument in disproof 
of Mr. W.'s suggestion, that " it might, per- 
haps, be possible to convey vapour contain- 
ing a considerable amount of heat so rapidly 
over a surface as that no perceptible heat 
should be transferred." 

In his example of a boiler requiring 
100 feet heating surface, with long or short 
tubes, he overlooks the laws of the motion 
of fluids ; from what follows, I should say 
he means that if long tubes are used, there 
would be eight of 3-inch diameter, and 
16 feet long ; and if short ones, say 8 feet 
long, twelve tubes, with double the area of 
opening. In the latter, and not in his sup- 
posed case, would the velocity of the heated 
vapour in the long tubes be double that in 
the short ones, as the velocity of fluids ia 
inversely as the area of the orifices. With 
regard to the loosening of the tubes, I 
would inquire, who could be surprised at it, 
when the tube, the plate, and the ferrule are 
composed of three different materials, all of 
different rates of expansion by heat? 
I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

Y. 



ON THE SMOKE QUESTION. 
To the Editor qf the Mechanic^ Magazine. 

Sir, — Having, in my last, explained what 
I considered as misapprehensions on the 
part of Mr. Baddeley, I have now to notice 
another, and for which I can only account 
by, perhaps, his not considering my letter 
as requiring a more attentive reading. 

Mr. Baddeley has quoted several passages 
Arom my published treatise on the Combus- 
tion of Coal, in which I relied on the iden- 
tity in principle and effect between my mode 
of introducing air to the gat generated in 
a furnace, and that of introducing the got to 
the air in the Argand gas-burner. Mr. Bad- 
deley then observes—" Why Mr. Williams 
is now so desirous of ignoring the name of 
Argand, after so long and exclusive use, I 
cannot imagine." Where it is that I have 
ignored the name of " Argand," or have 
thus said the reverse of what I mean, I can- 
not discover. Certainly not in the letter 
referred to by Mr. Baddeley. So far, in. 
deed, from doing so, every word I have 
written shows my claim to rest on this : that 
I saw, and reduced to practice, on the large 
scale of the furnace, the principle which 
makes the so-called Argand gat'lmmer effec- 
tive on the small scale of the lamp. 



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182 



ON OEBB BMOKB aT7S8IIOM« 



Mr. Btddeloy miut have OTerlooked the 
meaning of the peasage in my letter, whieh 
he haa auoted, aeeing that he haa giren but 
one-half the short sentence, omitting the 
other half, and to which my objection re* 
ferred ; for I do not suspect him of having 
hitentionally misquoted or garbled. The 
passage was aa follows, the words in Itilioa 
being those omitted by Mr. Baddeley : 

** Mr. Baddeley obserToa, Mr. Williams 
haa admitted the principle of perforated air. 
distributors had originated with Mr. Argand, 
toko appUed that principle to tk$ weUJtnqum 
lamp that bear* hie name»** I then went on 
to say^-'* I have made no sueh admission, 
aa Argand did not apply that principle to 
the lamp. In truth, he made no attempt of 
the kind.*' 

I here then repeat, that so far from mak- 
ing Buoh an admission, I distinctly deny 
either that " the principle of the perforated 
air-dietrihmteri originated with Mr. Argand,*' 
or that *'he applied that principle to the 
lamp that bears hia name." In truth, the 
▼ery use of gaa waa unknown when Argand 
invented liia oil-lamp $ and I claim, there- 
fore, to be the first that applied the princi- 
pie, not of the Argand oil-lamp, but of the 
Argand gfaa-bumer, to the purposea of the 
furnace or the introniuction of the air. The 
principle and invention of Argand was ap- 
plied to the use of oil. This is well explained 
by Pecksten in his "Treatise on Gas," and 
is here worth quoting, the more so as it bears 
directly on the amoke question, and exposes 
the error of the " smoke-bumera." 

"When the circumstances," observes 
Peeksten, " under which eonibustion of im- 
flammable nuitter is carried on, are favour- 
able, the flame is perfect and brilliant On 
^ the contrary, should the combustion be in- 
complete, part of the matter (the carbon), 
capable of furnishing light and heat, wiU 
pate eff m Mie^et hence, whenever much 
soot is found, we may conclude the body 
producing it haa not been used to the great- 
est advanuge. The neeeasity of a prefper 
eapphf of air for supporting oombustion to 
advantage, suggeated the idea of the Argand 
lampt the ingenious inventor of whieh |^o- 
ceeded on two principles. First, to increase, 
to the greatest extent, the surface of the 
wick t secondly, to increaae the qmantitp of 
air applied to it, and in this way, to pro- 
duce the combnation of all the material (oil) 
absorbed. It ia well known that the wick 
in the Argand lamp is thin and circular. 
By this arrangement the whole of the mat- 
ter that can be burnt is consumed in oon- 
seqnenoe of the wick being spread through 
a large surfaoe, and a current of air pro- 
duced by the glaaa chimney being applied 
both to the inside, and the ontaide of this 
wick." 



Here, the prinoiple of Argand' a oil lamp 
is clearly stated, and its effect in increasing 
the quantity of air is also shown. Taia, 
however, has no relation to the principle ^ 
the " air distributors," that principle being, 
not the inereaeing the quantity of air intra, 
dnced, but the mode of introducing that quan- 
tity, and by which means heat and flame are 
instantaneously created} whereaa, on the 
contrary, a cooling is produced by admitting 
the same quantity of air in maasea, or large 
Btreama. 

Pecksten then continues : " As the Argand 
(oil) lamp, from which the idea of the Ar- 
gand (gas) burner was evidently taken (he 
does not say by whom), is superior in effect, 
so also great advantage arises from burn- 
ing gas upon a similar principle," in the 
lamp. 

So far, then, from ignoring the name of 
Argand, I say ita application to the furnaoe 
waa not only correct, but extremely judici- 
ous and useful, as it brings at onoe into 
view the prinoiple on which it acts, namely, 
the bringing the air and the gat together 
and into atomic contact ao rapidly, aa to 
produce the great desideratum — immediate 
mixture and diffusion between their respec- 
tive particlea. 

Mr. Baddeley thinks it extraordinary that 
I should disclaim having "given the name 
of Argand to my mode of mtroducing the 
air." It would, however, have been more 
extraordinary had I claimed that which did 
not belong to me. That most appropriate 
name waa given by another gentleman, and 
has iinoe been generally received and ap. 
plied to the principle adopted by me. The 
uae of the term by Dr. Ure is evidence of 
the fact I may repeat, that Mr. Baddeley'a 
mistake haa arisen from his haaty reading 
my letter, aeeing that he has overlooked the 
other fiict of my having, inatead of ignoring 
the name, pointedly used it in the very quo« 
tation I made from Profeesor Brande, and 
which he has alluded to. That quotation 
waa as follows : *' Each jet of air which you 
admit becomes, at once, the source and 
centre of a separate flame t end the effeot is 
exactly that of so man^ jets of inflammable 
gas iffnited in the air [as in the Argand 
bumer]t only you invert this ordinary state 
of things." Mr. Baddeley appears to have 
overlooked the circumstance of the worda 
there riven in italics being mine, and being 
placed between brackets, indicating that 
they are my words, and not those of Pro- 
fessor Brande : thus showing rather my ad- 
herence to the name, Argand, than ig- 
noring it I trust Mr. Bi^eley wlU now 
do me the justice to believe, that I could 
not be so inconsistent as to ignore the very 
term which I rely on, as being suggestive of 
the principle on which my mode of intro« 



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anatnoAToaa or rATEMTS BKnamT nua>. 



18S 



daeing die a!r operates m a preTentiTe of 
tlie smoke nuisanoe. 

I anil Sir, yours, fro., 

C. W. Williams. 
UTerpool, Feb. 19, I8S5. 

To ihe Editor rf the Mechania* Magazifu, 

SiRy— You have a oleTor but pragmatieal 
oorreopondent, who seems determined to 
allow no one to differ from his ideas on 
smoke and combustion. 

He insists that smoke is not combustible, 
and yet a child who has only read " Pin. 
nook's Chemical Catechismi" could inform 
him that the etHMs gaseous products of an 
ordinary fire (mostly the vapour of tar), 
which really and truly eonstitute smoke, 
pnpremtni dH, are wholly and entirely 
combustible in a practical sense. 

Again, your correspondent pooh-poohs 
the idea of employing heated air to fiicuitate 
the ignition of the tmoAy products of eom* 
bustion ; but Inflammable gases require a 
oertain degree of temperature to insure 
their ignition, and it is evident that if such 
gases are exaotly at the temperature re- 
quired to inflame, the introduction of cold 
air would neoessarily lower the temperature 
of the mixture below the' point of ignition, 
and no combustion would take place. The 
flame of a eandle (which, by-the-byO) is 
nothing but a pyramid of burning smoke) 
may be almost extinguished by supplying 
it with intensely cold air, while a heated 
atmosphere increases the calorifle efibet of 
burning bodies, exactly in proportion to the 
number of units of heat brought to the 
combustible by the heated air* 

Very positive people can only be replied 
to in a positive manner; therefore, pray tell 
your correspondent, that smoke, <.«. the 
visible emanations of a coal flre, is combus- 
tible, and that a flre, supplied with hot air, 
does produce a greater calorific effect than 
when the same fire is supplied with eold 
air, the increased eflfect being due to the 
nuantity of caloric previously imparted to 
tneair. 

I am, Sir, yours, fire., 

G. H. Palmer. 
MaxseOles, Feb. 17, 185S. 

P.S.— It may interest some of your 
readers to learn, that at a sugar refinery in 
this town, there are ^ight steam boilers, of 
the collective force of 400 horses, the 
flurnaoes of which hate been provided, for 
three or four ffears, with Juckes's revolving 
gratea. They are completely successful, 
there is no smoke, and small coal is now 
used where large was formerly necessary, 
the saving m the value of the fuel being 
nearly one-h^f. 



MB. C. WTB WILLIAMS ON COM- 

BUSTION. 

To the Editor qf the Bfechanic^ Magazine, 

Sir', — I am sure Mr. Williams must have 
overlooked my letters appealing to his good 
faith and sense of iustice. He has himself 
thrown too much light on the economy of com- 
bustion to be likely to act the obstructive, or 
attempt to obscure any man's eandle. Stand, 
ing, as this nation now doea, under a crush- 
ing, weight of agony from the results of 
obstnictiveness, fovouritism, and vested in- 
terests, the universal feeling throughout the 
land resembles that of the condemned at 
their last shift, anxious to make atonement 
by confessing all their accidents of omis- 
sion or commission. Mr. Williams's position, 
as the father of ocean steam navigation — ^for 
I believe it was under his auspices that the 
now trifling distance aorosa the Irish Chan- 
nel was first conquered by steam powel^— 
raises him entirely independent over that 
fear of giving offence m witnessing the 
truth, by which subordinates are sometimes 
painfiilly eonstrained to succumb ; and as to 
any reluctance in publicly correcting a 
misapprehension which any one might have 
made, this feeling does not enter into philo- 
sophic minds, — ^to them the pleasure of pro- 
moting valuable truth and redeeming a 
pledge surpaases every other oonsideratioo, 
I am» yours, &e., 

David Mushbt. 

P.S. — ^We tee by the Timet last week 
that Mr. Nasmyth's wrought-iron cannon, 
after his being at considerable expense, are 
stopped in limine^ put in limbo, actually 
suspended, like Mahomet's eoflin, between 
the Ordnance and the Admiralty. Never 
was there a time when every man should more 
lend the utmost effbrts of his shoulder to the 
wheel of improvement 

Feb. 14, 1856. 



SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS 
RECENTLY FILED. 

Franrham, Samuel, of Greenland- 
place, Judd-street, Middlesex, engineer. 
An improvement in the eonstrucHon of fitr- 
naces. Patent dated July 27, 1854. (No. 
1667.) 

Cfalm.— Applying to steam-boiler (Vir- 
naces hollow fire-doors, constituting a sup- 
plementary steam generator in connection 
with the main steam boiler. 

Jenrs, Barton H., of Bridesburg, Penn- 
sylvania, United States, manufacturer, /m- 
proving the art qf weaving, being an im- 
provement in loomefor weaving fancy fabrics, 
PAtent dated July 27, 1864. (No. 1658.) 

Claims— I. The use of a spiral cam in 
combination with a shifting clutch and 



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184 



SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS BECENTLY FILED. 



leYer for raising and lowering alternately, 
or holding stationary, a two-shelf shuttle- 
box. 2. A method of rendering a pattern 
or pin-wheel capable of working larger 
patterns than heretofore, without increasing 
its size, by means of a multiplier. S. A 
series of shuttle-boxes, independent of the 
cheeks of the lay, and constructed of mere 
shelves connected together by upright 
bars, which serve also as guides, or in any 
other convenient manner so that it is a 
mere skeleton or frame, whereby the weight 
of the moving parts of the series of boxes 
is materially reduced, and the changes can 
therefore be safely made with greater ra- 
pidity than heretofore, and the speed of the 
loom be correspondingly increased, &c. 

WiCKENS, Henry, of Tokenhouse-yard, 
London, solicitor. Improvements in the 
means qf giving signals on railwaySf and for 
other purposes. Patent dated July 27, 1854. 
(No. 1659.) 

The inventor' proposes to form a line of 
communication between the carriages of a 
train by .means of a tube, which extends 
from a cylinder placed at one part of the 
train to another situated at any other part, 
and connected with a whistle or other sig- 
nalling instrument 

Law, Alexander, of Glasgow, Lanark, 
iron-founder. Improvements in crimes, or 
luting and lotoering apparatus. Patent 
dated July 27, 1854. (No. 1661.) 

This invention relates to various modi- 
fications of safety contrivances to be ap- 
plied to that description of movable derrick 
or jib-cranes on which the barrel of the 
chain for hoisting or shifting the jib is 
driven in connection with the barrel of the 
main hoisting chain or tackle. In one 
modification of this class of crane the 
spindles of the two hoisting barrels carry 
spur-wheels, and one drives the other by 
means of an intermediate pinion. This 
intermediate pinion is carried on a stud- 
pin in the crane framing: and ordinary 
cranes are so arranged, that when it is 
necessary to work the main hoist inde- 
pendently of the jib-hoist, the pinion is 
shifted on its stud out of gear with the spur- 
wheels of the two barrels, whilst the jib is 
prevented from falling by a pall or detent, 
which is turned over by hand and made to 
take into the teeth of the spur-wheel on the 
hoisting-barrel spindle. 

Thompson, Robert Henby, of Old 
Charlton, Kent, engineer. A universal self- 
acting sawing machine. Patent dated July 
28, 1854. (No. 1664.) 

This invention coiijiists — 1. In obtaining 
from the reciprocating motion of the saw- 
frame any desired motion of the saw itself 
during the process of cutting, so that the 
saws may travel across the frame or gate, 



and may also be partially turned round; 
and, if required, turned entirely round, and 
thus cut backwards, or during the back mo- 
tion of the timber. 2. In obtaining any de- 
sired side motion or cant of the canting, 
roll which supports the timber, and of the 
dogs which carry the ends of the timber, in 
order to present the upper surface of the 
wood at any angular position with respect 
to the saws. We shall, probably, give an 
illustrated description of this inventlcm 
hereafter. 

Johnson, Richard, of Manchester, Lan- 
caster, wire manufacturer. Improvements in 
coating and insulating wire. Patent dated 
July 28, 1854. (No. 1665.) 

Claim. — Coating or covering wire with 
solutions of gutta percha, caoutchouc, tar, 
pitch, asphaltum, resin, or wax, in coal 
naphtha, or in any other suitable fluid. 

Morton, Francis, of Liverpool, Lan- 
caster, engineer and contractor. Certain 
improvements applicable to girders or rafters 
to he used in the construction qf roofs, bridges, 
buildings, and other erections. Patent dated 
July 28, 1854. (No. 1666.) 

This invention consists in constructing 
girders or rafters of main centre pieces, 
which are made to abut end for end against 
each other, and are strengthened and held 
in their relative positions by side pieces or 
plates so as to form one rigid girder or 
rafter. 

Petit, Amablb Hippolyte, of Paris, 
France, gentleman. An improved mode rf 
joining pipes. Patent dated July 28, 1854. 
(No. 1667.) 

This invention consists in forming a joint 
for pipes or tubes by means of a waaher of 
an elastic or compressible material, enclosed 
and tightly held between the joints by an 
arrangement of lugs. 

Gilbertson, James, of Hertford, Herta. 
An improvement in supplying air above the 
fuel in furnaces. Patent dated July 2S, 
1854. (No. 1669.) 

This invention consists in applying a per- 
forated air-tube over the fuel or on the two 
sides of the furnace, extending from the 
front to or beyond the bridge, so that the air 
may be heated in passing through it. 

aIebn, Robert John, of Liverpool, 
Lancaster, nautical and optical instrument 
maker. Improvements in the mariner*s com- 
pass. Patent dated July 29, 1854. (No. 
1670.) 

Claims. — 1. The employment of washers of 
bone or ivory in the adaptation of an India- 
rubber disc-spring to the cap of the com- 
pass, for the purpose of preserving the 
India-rubber from the corrosive effect con- 
sequent on contact with metal. 2. The 
adaptation of a double action metallic 
spring, or its equivalent, to the centre on 



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SPECIFIGATIONS OF PATENTS BEGENTLT FILED. 



185 



which the compass-card is supported, so as 
to obtain a spring-bearing for the compass- 
card. S. The adaptation of metallic springs, 
or their equivaJent, to the pivots and 
shoulders of the compass. 

Burke, Edmund, of Upper Thames* 
street, London, gentleman, and Alexander 
SouTHWooo Stocrer, of the Poultry, 
London, mano&cturer. Certain inqn-ove^ 
menu m the mamrfaetnre of metaUic tubes 
and snch Uke artieles. Patent dated July 29, 
1854. (No. 1672.) 

CUdms, — 1. The application of a thin 
sheet of metal coiled or lapped around a 
suitable core, mandril, or mould, to produce 
a tube or other hollow article. 2. Forming 
one layer or series over another continu- 
ously and in close contact, without welding 
the edges of the plate or sheet together, for 
the purpose of producing a light and strong 
tube or other article. 3. Galvanizing or 
immersing in molten metal, for the purpose 
of soldering together, massing, or consoli- 
dating articles made as above. 

Borland, John Yuil, of Manchester, 
Lancaster, machinist. Improvements in ma- 
^dnery for preparing and spinning fibrous ma^ 
terials. Patent dated. July 29, 1854. (No. 
1676.) 

The chief peculiarity of this invention, in 
respect to the parts immediately operating 
to effect the twisting and winding up of the 
thread or sliver, consists in the arrangement 
of a peculiarly-formed tube, mounted in 
independent bearings, and having a revolv- 
ing motion given to it, to put in the re- 
quired amount of twist in the sliver or 
thread which passes through it, in combina- 
tion with a spindle having its axis also in 
independent bearings in a line correspond, 
ing with the axis of the tube, into the in- 
terior of which the end of the spindle can 
enter. 

Bellford, Auoustr Edouard Lora- 
Doux, of Castle-street, London. An m- 
proced method qf engraving, (A communi- 
cation.) Patent dated July 29, 1854. (No. 
1679.) 

"This invention consists in producing 
engravings of all kinds in relievo, by a gal- 
vaoio current, the plate or metallic object 
desired to be engraved being covered with 
the design in some suitable ink, and substi. 
tuted for the soluble or feeding electrode 
usually employed in any pile whatever." 

Dixon, Edwtn John Jbffbry, of Ban. 
gor. Improoementt in apparatus for teaching 
reading and arithmetic. Patent dated July 
29, 1854. (No. 1680.) 

The inventor employs " alphabet bands," 
which are led over pulleys, like the driving, 
bands of machinery, along the front of the 
apparatus, and are worked by levers acting 
on ratchet or other contrivances, and ar- 



ranged like the keys of a cabinet piano- 
forte, or in any other convenient manner. 

Walduck, Henry, of Warwick- court, 
Gray's-inn. Improoemenis in propelling ves^ 
seU, Patent dated July 29, 1854. (No. 
1681.) 

CUtim, — The construction of the blades of 
propellers with grooves on the propelling 
surfaces. 

Demat, Jean Chrilottome Denis, of 
Leicester-square, London, acting for An- 
toine Charles Cardot, a mechanician en- 
gineer, in Paris, France. Preventing the 
accidents on the railways with the aid qf a 
right line of iron, and in stopping the trains 
almost instant€meously. (A communication.) 
Patent dated July 31, 1854. (No. 1683.) 

The inventor proposes to employ an ar- 
rangement of levers and a peculiar system 
of clockwork.gearing for working railway, 
brakes. 

Adams, Henry, of Leonidas-terrace, 
New Cross, Deptford, Surrey. A revolving 
ventilator. Patent dated July 31, 1854. 
(No. 1684.) 

The inventor employs rotating fans, con- 
tained between discs and enclosed in cases 
in such manner that an in-draught is pro- 
duced on one side and an out-draught on 
the other without producing any " draught 
direct." 

Green, Josefh, and William Jackson, 
both of Leeds, York, machinists. Improve- 
ments in 'mortising-machines. Patent dated 
July 31, 1854. (No. 1686.) 

This invention consists in the application 
to mortising-machines of a hollow rack, or 
its equivalent, through which the spindle of 
the cutting tool passes, for raising and low- 
ering the cutting tool, in place of the spindle 
generally used for that purpose, which has 
teeth all round it 

Newton, Alfred Vincent, of Chan, 
eery-lane, Middlesex, mechanical draughts- 
man. An improved mode qf extracting sulphur 
from compounds of India-rubber and sulphur, 
(A communication.) Patent dated July 31, 
1854. (No. 1687.) 

The inventor cuts the vulcanized India- 
rubber into small pieces, and soaks it in 
camphine till it becomes soft ; he then fur. 
ther treats it with camphine, to which is 
added from fifteen to twenty.fi ve per cent 
of sulphuric ether, and about five per cent 
of alcohol. 

Bridson, Thomas Ridoway, of Bolton. 
le.Moor8, Lancaster, bleacher. Improve- 
ments in preparing cotton for manufacturing 
purposes. Patent dated July 31, 1854. (No. 
1688.) 

This invention consists in improving the 
colour of cotton while in certain stages of 
manufacture, by bleaching ; and, when ve- 
quisite, in submitting the cotton to the 



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186 



spcomoATioire of patents rkobntlt fileb. 



action of a loap bath, in order to render the 
fibrei more fit for undergoing the lubse- 
quent operations of preparing and ipinning. 

OiLLMAii, Edwarp, of Twickenham, 
Middlesex, gentleman. Imprwewunii in th0 
manufacture qf papier machiand other aimUar 
artich$ from certain vegetable tubttwoee. 
Patent dated August 1, 1864. (No. 1689.) 

This invention consists in tne employ* 
ment and peouHar treatment of the leaves or 
fibrous portions of New Zealand flaic, the 
running or ereeping plant called giagia,a]id 
the speoies of draoaena called ti, for the 
produotion of pulp for the manufacture of 
paper, papier maoM, &o. 

Read, Christopher Ridout, of Moor* 
gate-street, London. Improvemente in tUde^ 
vtUvee qftteam engime. (A communieation.) 
Patent dated August 1, 1864. (No. 1603.) 

The inTentor arranges his slide .vaWe In 
such manner, that when an opening in a 
hollow.faoe plate at the baok of the alide- 
YaWe corresponds with one of the openingt 
in the back of the valve, the other opening 
into the valve is fully open to receive steam 
from a valve*boz, and eonseqaently, the 
steam from the Utter will be passing into 
the valve through the faoe-plate, and at the 
same time, into the valve direot from the 
slide.box. 

McGaffin, John, of Liverpool, Lan« 
caster. Jn improvement in the mant^faeture 
rf$koet*metai pipee. Patent dated August 
1,1864. (No. 1683.) 

This invention eonsista in manafacturing 
sheet-meUl pipea of corrugated sheet metal, 
and by preference of sheet iron coated with 
xinc. 
NBWToif, William Edward, of Ghaneery. 
lane. Middlesex, oivil engineer. Improve-^ 
menta in', the conetruetion ef repeating Jfpt. 
artfu, (A communication.) Patent diated 
August 1,1864. (No, 1604.) 

This invention eonsista— 1. In lupplying 
a reserve of motive power, so that the fire* 
arm may be disoharged two or more times 
successively; and, 2. In oausing the ex« 
plosion of the caps or other percuMlon 
priming by the rotary motion of the breech 
cylinder, which is made to perform the fane* 
tion of the ordinary hammer or ooek. 8. In 
the applicatipn to repeating fire^arma of an 
escapement or escapements for the purpose 
of exhausting the store of power obtamed 
for the purpose of discharging them* 

Brooman, Richard Archibald, of 166, 
Fleet-street, London, patent « agent Im* 
provemenU m maekmery for ireuing ftmm^ 
kempt and other Uke ftkront tnbetuneeo, (A 
communication.) Patent dated August 1, 
1864. (No. 1606.) 

CioMM.— 1. The eonatruction and arrange- 
ment of heckling and aeutohing-druma, or 
of drums having a aeriea of beckling-bar^ 



armed with teeth and set at an angle with 
the radius, in combination with blant»edged 
scutching bars, these drums being arranged 
in two rows, one above the other, with tbo 
centres of their shafts placed diagonally, eo 
as to cause the flax, in paaaing between 
them, to be aeted upon bv both sets of 
drums. 2. Combining the shaAs of all the 
drums with the main driving power by pnU 
leys or wheels of different aiies, eo graduated 
aa to cause each successive drum to re vol to 
with greater velocity than the preceding one, 
commencing from the feed plaoe, whereby 
the fiax is stretched or drawn inward with a 
certain tension, and is thus made to receive 
a greater mechanioal action from the drums. 

Mkrritt, Thomas Edward, of Maid- 
stone, Kent, drawing-master. /siprevmeitft 
m apparatme for taking photogmpkie pieturoe 
in the open air* Patent dated August 1, 
1864. [No. 1606.) 

This invention oonsists in adding to a 
camera a dark ehaniber, intended to oontain 
prepared papers or glasses, and a box or 
tray to oontain the photographic pietores 
until they ean be conveniently developed, 
so that the ordinary sereen, which eom» 
pletely envelopes the head of the operator, 
may be dispensed with, and a number of 
piotures taken in suooeesion i in oonstruot. 
ing a spring frame for holding the pro. 
pared plates of glass used in the coUoaion 
proecMi and in the nae of a closed box for 
containing prepared papera and glaaees to 
be used in the open air. 

Holland, John Simoii, of Woolwioh, 
Kent, engineer. Jmprooemonte in isdt«. Pn« 
tent dated Auguat 1, 1864. (No. 1697.) 

Theae improvements consiat<»-l. In mak* 
ing the key of the lock and the tumblera 
stationary during the motion of the bolt t. 
In making the key of a number of separate 
pieces in ttie shape of pins or Bmall plates, 
each tumbler to rest on a separate pin or 
plate daring the motion of the bolt 9. In 
making a ouruin or plate to be moved 
round by the key, and to move the bolt, in. 
stead of the key coming in contact with the 
bolt 4. In making a stopper to prevent 
the key making more than one revolution 
in the same direotion, and thus stop the key 
at the point for ita coming eut of the key« 
hole. 6. In making a fixed or removable 
obstaele to prevent the key being brought 
round to the key.hole, and withdrawn when 
the bolt is not out or looked. 6. In making 
locks intended to be acted on from both 
sides to have two separate key.holes, and 
the key to act upon diflfhrent parts on the 
two sides. 7. In making the baok end or 
ends of the bolt or bolts to paas through the 
oase of the look, or into a separate case of 
the same sine as the locking ends, and thna 
preventing an amount of ahr equal in bulk 



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PR0VI8I0KAL 89£OIFICATION8 NOT PBOOEEDEB WITH. 



18/ 



to the ends of iho bolts being fbroed into the 
interior of the lock when the bolt is shot, 
which air might introduce a quantity of 
dust 8. In making the bolt or bolu pass 
Into a reeeii, formed partly by the lock or 
door, and partly by the jamb or side of the 
chest or safe, so as to render it necessary to 
■hear the end or ends of the bolt or bolts 
longitudinally, before the door could be 
forced by violence being used to destroy the 
bolt. 9. In making the bolts look into 
sheWea haying suitable staples, hooks, or 
tongues to receive a suitable part of the 
bolts to look into them at the back or sides 
of the lock. 10. In a mode of making the 
key of the lock In separate pieces or steps. 
1 1. In fitting a certain case to the key of 
the lock. 12. In makinff a hole or holes 
in the key . pipe, through which the air 
and any dust may pass when the key>pipe 
is thrnst on the key-pin. 18. In making 
the key of the look with a bit at each end, 
instead of a bit at one end, and a bow at the 
other, where the key is to be used on both 
sidea of the lock, one end to serve for one 
side, and the other end for the other side. 
14. In rounding or bevelling off the outside 
of the key-hole, or making radiating grooves, 
or both, 10 as to render ft more difflcult to 
injure the lock by gunpowder, by means of 
s plate or board fixed against the key-hole, 
and also to render it more difficult to take 
an impreeaioa of the key-hole. 15. Inmak- 
ing a rabbet or tongue, pin or pins, to go 
fVom the lock (or door to which the lock is 
fixed) into holes or recesses in the chest, 
safe, or jamb, in order to prevent an open- 
ing being made by force so as to get at the 
outer end of the bolt of the lock. 10. In 
rounding or bevelling the edge of the front 
part of the lock or door and the side to which 
it locks, in order to prevent instruments 
being used to make an opening to get at thd 
bolt. 17. In making a latch in such man- 
ner that, when set for the purpose, the tum- 
blers are right for the bolt being moved 
without the key. 18. In making rabbets 
or tongues on the upper and lower parts of 
the case of the lock, so as to give increased 
strength for fastening into the wood-work 
of a door when used as a mortice look. 19. 
In making an elastic or flexible packing to 
go round the ends of the bolts, and nUo 
round the key-hole, and round the front of 
the lock or door, to exclude dust, wet, or 
dampness from the interior of the lock. 20. 
In making a hook on the outside of the 
lock, with or without a recess in the end, 
into which the bolt is shot when locked, so 
as to adapt it to be used as a padlock. 21. 
In making a hole or holes through or near 
the bottom of the lock when tised as a pad- 
lock, in order to let out any water that may 
find its way in. 



ORirPiTHS, Jambs, of Wiokham-market, 
Sufiblk, gentleman. A new or Improved 
lever bit fir horee*. Patent dated August 2, 
1854. (No. 1698.) 

This invention consists in the construc- 
tion of a bit for horses in which levers are 
made to turn on the 4}heeks of the ordinary 
bit, the lower parts of these levers being 
attached to the pivot ends of the port or 
mouth piece of the bit, and the uppef ends 
connected together by means of a solid or 
chain curb. 

Lees, Samijel, of Salfbrd, Lancaster, 
manufacturing ohemist Improvement* (n 
macMnery or apparatus to be used in pur{fy^ 
ing gas for illumination. Patent dated Au- 
gust 2, 1854. (No. 1099.) 

This invention consists in agitating or 
giving motion to the dry lime used in the 
purification of gas for Illumination, either 
by causing it to be deposited in a trough 
in which a screw or worm revolves, and 
throitgh ^hich the gas is conducted, or by 
other suitable arrangements of apparatus. 



PBOVISION AL iFECIFICATIONS NOT FEO^ 
OEEDED WJTH. 

Varlbv, Samuel, of Stamford, Lincoln, 
engineer. Improvements in the construction 
qf reaping - machinery. Application dated 
July 27. 1854. (No. 1655.) 

The inventor employs lozenge - shaped 
cutters, whieh severally rock on a centre- 
pin, and are connected by links or rods 
at their inner ends to a common reciprocat- 
ing bar. These cutters are pressed up to 
fixed serrated blades by springs bearing 
against their under surfaces, &c. 

SuoREocKS, William, of Femworth, 
Lancaster, spindle and fiy - manufacturer. 
Improvements in presser- flyers fir preparing 
cotton and other fibrous substances fir spin- 
ning. Application dated July 27f 1854. 
(No. 1656.) 

This invention consists In a method of 
employing a spring for the purpose of cans • 
ing the presser- finger or fingers to bear 
against the bobbin ; and in so constructing 
the springs employed for that purpose that 
they shall be capable of keeping the pres?er- 
flngers outward when moved beyond a cer- 
tain point, so as to facilitate the operation 
of doffing. 

Miller, NATHANigt, of Guide-bridge, 
Lancaster, railway-inspector, and Robert 
Graham, of the same place, overlooker. 
Certain improvements in the construction of 
certain parts of the permanent toay of railways, 
commonly called crossings. Application dated 
July 27, 1854. (No. 1660.) 

The inventors propose *' to employ a solid 
block or crossing-piece of metal, tapered as 
required, and bolted at its apex to its side- 



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188 



PHOVISIONAL SPECIFICATIONS NOT PBOOEEDEB WITH. 



rails, with an interrening space occupied by 
small blocks or wedj^es (placed below the 
rim of the wheel-tyre) preserving the proper 
space between the rails and centre block." 

Scott, George Lamb, of Mancbester, 
moulder, and Samuel Bennett, of Man- 
Chester, brass - founder and coppersmith. 
Improvements in springs far pressing together 
roUersfor mangling and other purposes. Ap- 
plication dated July 28, 1854. (No. 1662.) 

These improvements consist in producing 
the requisite pressure upon the rollers named 
in the title, by means of springs of vulcan- 
ized India-rubber or other suitable elastic 
material. 

Guild, Adam, of Salford, Lancaster, en- 
gineer, and John Pendlebury the younger, 
of Manchester, in the same county, bleacher. 
Jwsprooements in apparattis for scouring or 
bkaehing. Application dated July 28, 1854. 
(No. 1663.) 

The chief features of these improvements 
are, that the scouring liquid is heated in a 
vessel distinct from the bowking kier, but 
connected therewith by a pipe leading from 
the top of the vessel to the upper end of the 
kier, and another from the lower end of the 
kier to the bottom of the vessel. 

Clipt, Samuel, of Manchester, manu- 
facturing chemist Iwtprovements in making 
papert patieboard, and papier-maehS, Ap- 
plication dated July 28, 1854. (No. 1668.) 

The inventor steeps in a solution of 
potash, soda, or ammonia, green grass, 
nettles, or hay that has not been too much 
heated in the rick, preparatory to convert- 
ing them into paper, &c. 

Smith, William Henry, of Blooms- 
bury, Middlesex, civil engineer. Certain 
improvements in the permanent way of raii^ 
ways. Application dated July 29, 1854. 
(Nn. 1674.) 

This invention consists in the use of a 
railway chair, formed in two parts, adapted 
to each other so as to form a kind of joint, 
the pressure of the rail with the superin- 
cumbent weight causing the jaws or upper 
parts of the chair to clip the rail firmly 
between them, &c. 

CoLLASsoN, Gustave Emile Ber. 
HARD, gentleman, of Paris, France. Cer- 
tain improvemenis in the means for arresting 
er cheeking the progress of trains on railways, 
(A communication.) Application dated July 
29, 1854. (No. 1675.) 

The inventor works the brakes of railway 
carriages by means of steam cylinders 
attached to each brake carriage, and con- 
nected with each other by means of flexible 
or jointed pipes 

Fawcett, John, of Gateshead, Durham, 
chemist. An apparatus for regulating and 
eeonomiting the consumption qf gat gene- 
rally, but more particularly when employed 



for the purposes of iAcMtnoMmi; Applica- 
tion dated July 29, 1854. (No. 1677.) 

This invention consists in regulating the 
gas at the burner, by means of a supple- 
mentary cock, and in so constructing the 
burner that when it is adjusted it can only 
be altered by a suitable instrument ; an 
index is attached to the burner for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining whether the apparatus 
has been tampered with. 

Inoall, George Henry, of Waroford- 
court, Throgmorton-street, Middlesex, gen- 
'tleman. Improvements in elastic bands for 
holding books and papers. Application 
dated July 29, 1854. (No. 1678.) 

The inventor forms a band of elastic web- 
bing, or other suitable elastic material, 
with a coupling piece by means of which 
the length of the band may be varied. 

Thatcher, Gboroe, of Welton, Mid- 
somer Norton, Somerset. Improvements im, 
Die manufacture of woven fabrics, yam, cord- 
age, ropes, paper, and pasteboard, by the ap" 
plication of a material not hitherto used far 
such purposes. Application dated July 29, 
1854. (No. 1682.) 

This invention consists in employing the 
fibres of the leaves of horse-radish, in the 
place of hemp and flax, in the manufacture 
of woven fabrics, &c 

Green, Henry, of Liverpool, Lancas- 
ter, whitesmith and ironmonger. Improved 
apparatus applicable to the hanging rf doors^ 
gates, and windows, and for closing or holding 
open the same when required. Application 
dated July 31, 1854. (No. 1685.) 

In applying this invention, the doors, 
windows, or gates are mounted on gudgeons 
or pivots, combined with a certain friction- 
roller, which works upon and against an in- 
clined plane, formed on the end of a 
weighted lever. 

BouNEAU, Jules Frederic, of .Paris, 
France. Improvements in propelling ships. 
Application dated August 1, 1854. (No. 
1690.) 

The inventor places on each side of the 
vessel two rollers, on which travels an end- 
less chain or cable carrying paddles fixed 
perpendicularly to it and made capable of 
folding down. 

EvANB, Thomas, the younger, of Bel- 
mont-terrace, Lewisham, Kent, gentleman. 
Certain improvements in the rigging qf ships, 
and all other vessels using or carrying sails, 
whether propelled by steam or otherwise, or on 
whatsoever sea, river, or other water navi- 
gated. Applicatiou dated August 1, 1854. 
(No. 1691.) 

The inventor suspends a sail of " any sise 
or shape " to a pole, rail, chain, or rope, by 
means of a fixed or shifting block, pulley, 
or other such contrivai^e, afilxed to the 
yard on which the said sail is to be set 



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189 



* Palmer, Okoroe Holwortht, of Ade- 
laide-roadi Hampfltead, Middlesex, cWil 
engineer. Improoemenia m guna^ gun. ear ~ 
riaggf and appmrtenaneeSf and m the mampu- 
iatUn or toorking af gum. (A communica- 
tioD.) Application dated August 2, 1854. 
(No. 1700.) 

The bore of the gun described by the 
patentee is made completely through the 
breech end of it ; a key- way or cotter- way 
is cut through tlie gun near the breech-end 
at right angles to the bore, and a key or 
cotter fits into this, and closes the breech. 
The patcfntee also proposes to make arrange- 
ments for turning guns on board ship into 
vertical positions, muxzles downwards, and 
to load them from the deck below ; also to 
adopt certain methods of reducing the re. 
coil. 

ChbvroNi Clbo. of Paris, mechanician. 
Impnvemenis in horns for weaving. Ap- 
plication dated August 2, 1854. (No. 
1701.) 

These improvements relate to certain mo- 
difications of looms for weaving cut pile 
fabrics, and to an apparatus for rolling the 
pile warp threads on their cylinders. 

Brown, Joshua, of Stockport, Chester, 
superintendent of police. Iwtprovemeuts m 
the method i^ consuming smoke. Application 
dated August 2, 1854. (No. 1702.) 

The inventor closes the front of the fire- 
place and ash-pit as nearly as possible, and 
" opens a communication between the flue 
or chimney and the fire at any convenient 
situation (in addition to the usual opening 
to the chimney), by which arrangement the 
air necessary for the support of combustion 
must come from the fine or chimney," and 
is to carry the smoke with it 

Oernbr, Henry, of Moorgate-street, 
London, architect. Improvements in the 
construction qf omnibuus, parts qf which are 
applicable to carriages generally. Applica- 
tion dated August 3, 1854. (No. 1704.) 

In the improved omnibus the passengers 
are to sit back to back, separated by a lon- 
gitudinal partition, and steps are placed 
throogltout the whole length of the om- 
nibus on each side so arranged as to pass 
over the wheels. 

Daylet, Maurice Atkinson, of Lon- 
don-street, Fitzroy-square, Middlesex, pro- 
fessor of ventilation. Improvements in fur» 
naees/or the purpose ef consuming smoke and 
economizing fuel. Application dated Au- 
gust 4, 1854. (No. 1710.) 

This inventor so arranges his furnace 
that the smoke given off from H he fuel 
last thrown on the fire may be caused 
to pass through a mass of incandescent 
fuel. 

Hamilton, Bdmond, of Edinburgh, 
Midlothian, gentleman. ImprovemenU in 
the wtam^acture or produetum if beverages or 



occasional drinks. Applieation dated An- 
gust 4, 1854. (No. 1712.) 

The inventor describes a variety of 
methods of treating the juices of apples, 
plums, cherries, and other English fruits, 
&c. 



PROVISIONAL PROTECTIONS. 

Dated October 24, 1854. 

2264. Isaac Adams, of Mauaehusetts, United 
States of America. Now and useAil improvements 
in machinery for printing. 

Dated December 25, |854. 

2719. Warren De La Rue, of BunbUl-row, Mid- 
dlesex, manufacturer. Improvements in treating 
products arising fN>m the distillation of a certain 
tar or naphtha to render the same suitable for dis- 
solving or removing fktty or resinous substances. 

Dated December SO, 1854. 

2758. Francis Preston, of Manchester, machinist. 
Improvements in bayonets, and in the machinery 
for manufacturing the same. 

Dated January 16, IS55. 

116. Jean Antoine Fran(?ois Victor Oudin, of 
Mons, D^partcment of Seine and Mame. France, 
priest. A new liquid for prerenting sea-sickness. 

Dated January 22, 1855. 
163. Sannden Trotman, of Fortman-square, 
Middlesex, hydraulic engineer. Improvements in 
filtering apparatus. 

Dated January 26, 1855. 

206. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's-inn- 
flelds, Middlesex, gentleman. Improvements in 
the construction of kites, and in the upplication 
thereof to the purposes of carrying lines, and of 
signalling. A communication from Andr6 Marie 
Pr6verand, of Paris, France. 

Dated January 29, 1855. 

215. William Polkinhorn, of Gwennsp, near 
Redruth, Cornwall, miller. Improvements in ap- 
paratus for cleansing wheat. 

217. John Doddridge Humphreys, of Charlotte- 
street, Caledonian-road. Improvements in steam 
engines. 

i19. George Goodfellow, of Great Fenton, Stoke- 
opon-Trent, Staflbrdshire Potteries. Improve- 
ments in supplying heated air to the bottoms and 
flues of potters' and brickmakers' ovens and kilns, 
and of steam-engine boilers. 

221. Thomas BInks, of Wentworth, York, 
plumber and glazier. Improvements in raising 
and regulating the supply of water and other 
fluids. 

226. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's-inn- 
fields, Middlesex, gentleman. Improvements in 
the senention of steam. A communication ft-om 
Paulin Jean Charles Montety. of Toulon, France. 

225. Ephntm Death and John Poppleweli, of 
Halstead, Essex, engineers. An improved stop- 
valve or cock for water, gas, and other liquids and 
fluids. 

Dated January 80, 1855. 

227. David Mollne, of Adelaide-place. London, 
merchant. Improvements in the manufacture of 
metallio window-frames and skylights. A com- 
municattoD. 

226. Richard Archibald Brooman, of 166, Fleet- 
atreet, London, patent agent. An improved filter. 
A eommunieation. 



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190 



NOTICES OF nrrENTIOlf TO PROCEED. 



" 990. G«Mg« WffliMu Henri, of Piiheigalv, York. 
A new compouDd or meal mixture for feeding 
cattle. 

232. David Warren, of Glasgow, Lanark, en- 
gineer. ImproTements in acrew propellers. 

Dated January 31, 1855. 

233. John Smith, of Langley Mills. Braneepeth. 
paper manufacturer, and James Hollingworth, of 
the same place, both In Durham, manager. Im- 

rrements in treating certain fibrous materials 
manufacturing paper. 
285. Stephen White, of Southport, Lancaster, 
gentleman. Improvements in the manufketure 
of pencils or crayons. 

237. James Howard, of Bedford, agricultural 
implement maker. Improvements in ploughs. 

239. Martin Samnelson and Alexander Samuel- 
son, of Soott-street Foundry, Hull, engineers and 
shipbuilders. Improvements in steam-engines. 

241. Josiah Harrington, of Pelham - street, 
Brompton, Middlesex. Improvements in priming 
fire-arms. 

Dated February 1, 1855. 

243. William Taylor, of Oxford-terrace, Hyde- 
park. Improrements in cables for holding at 
anchor, and towing ships, and other floating 
bodies. 

244. Thomas Ogden Dixon, of Steeton, near 
Keighley, York, bobbin manufacturer. Improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus for turning, 
boring, cutting, and shaping wood and similar 
materials. 

245. Alexander Prince, of Trafslgar-square, 
Middlesex. Improvements in fire-arms. Acom- 
munication. 

246. Isaae Jeeks, of Trowse Newton Lodge, near 
Norwich, Norfolk. A machine for sweeping grass 
or weeds from lawns or fields, and depositing the 
same into a box or other receptacle. 

247. Alexander William Williamson» of Univer- 
sity College, Gower-street, Middlesex, Imncove- 
meuts in apparatus for feeding fires. 

Dated February 2, 1855. 

248. Benjamin Goodfellow, of Hyde, Chester, 
engineer. Improvements in ordnance. 

250. George Ritchie, of Monmouth-plaee, New- 
cross, New Kent-road. Improvements in beds or 
mattresses. 

251. Jules Castel, merchant, and Frederic Mau- 
richeau BeauprA, doctor, of Marseilles, Prance. 
A new system of burner for lamps, called the 
•' pyropneuroatie burner." 

252. Isidore Carlhtan and Isidore Corbl^re, of 
Castle-street, Holborn. London, and Bue du Sen- 
tier, Paris, lamp manufacturers. Certain improve- 
ments in moderator lamps. 

Dated February 8, 1855. 

256. Robert James Maryon (engineer civil), of 
York-road, Lambeth, Surrey. Improveraeut or 
improvements in the construction of, and maoufao- 
ture of bullets, or shot, or projectiles. 

2S8. Edmund Clegg, of Shore Mill, near little- 
borough, Lancaster, and James Leach, of the 
same place, manufacturers. Improvements in 
temples for looms. 

260. Hippolyte Victor Pinondel de U Bertoehe, 
gentleman, of Paris, French Empire. Certain im- 
provements in manufacturing paper, pasteboard, 
and pulp. 

262. Edward Cecil Bisshopp, of Stonehouse, 
Devon. Improvemenu in breech loading fire- 
arms. 

Dated February 5, 1855. 

264. Augttste Edouard Loradoux BelUbrd, of 
Essex-street, London. An improved mode of oon- 
sjructlng hulls of vessels. A communication from 
Virgil Putnam Corbett, of CorbettsviUe, Broome 
County, New York. 



166. Alexander Morton, of KUmanoek, Ay», 
manufacturer. Improvements in weaving carpeU, 

268. John Dorrell, of BUston. Stelford. Im- 
provements in machinery for pressing, sqneering, 
and rolling Iron. 

270. John Imray, engineer, of Biidgo-nad. 
Lambeth, Surrey. Improvenenta in meaauriof 
instruments. 

272. Pierre Joseph Carr6, of Aanieres, Seine, 
Prance. Improvements in omameliting iabrin 
with metal leaf. 

Dated February 6, 1855. 

274. Deane John Roare, of Salisbory-etreet, 
Strand, Middlesex, esquire. Certain lasprovw- 
ments in propelling veaaels. 

276. Henry Trappes, of Manchester, Lancaster, 
gentleman. A process for the preparation of 
leather to be nsed in the manufacture of a new 
flock, and for the manufacture of the same, to be 
vsed and applied in lieu of flock made from 

Eoundcd or ground wool and woollen materiala, 
eretofore commonly nsed in the manufkctnre of 
painted, printed, and dyed decorating pi^iera, 
carpets, oil-cloths, and other things, and also to be 
used as a paste or pulp for the manufacture of all 
kinds of paper, parchment, and paste-board, of 
toys, of ornamental and other picture-frames, of 
mouldings, architectural and sculptural oma- 
msnta, and other things. A conununieation. 

278. Frederick Gray, of Birmingham, Warwick, 
manufkcturer. An improvement or improvementa 
in candlesticks. 

280. John Henry Johnson, of Ltneoln'a-iui- 4 
fields, Middlesex, ventleman. Improvementa in 
the combination of materials for waterproofing, 
and similar purposes. A communtcation tiom 
Jonathan T. Trotter, ef New York, United BUtaa 
of America. 

282. William Sandford Roberts, of Lodersvine, 
Pennsylvania, U. 8. A. Coupling railway car- 
riages. 

284. John Grainger, of Birch wood, Alfreton. 
Derby, brickmaker. Improvementa in the menu- 
(kcture of pantiles. 



NOTICE OF APPLICATION FOR PRO- 
LONGATION OF PATENTS. 

A petition will be presented to Her Maieety in 
Council by Frederic John Reed, of Friday-street, 
Cheapside, London, solicitor, Charlee Foard, of 
the Stock Exchange, London, atock jobber, 
and Thomaa Shepperson, of Heme HUl, Cam- 
berwell, Surrey, Esq., praying Her MiU«sty to 
grant a prolongation of the several letters patent 
granted to John Juekes, of Lewlsham, Kent, but 
now of the Queen's Prison, Surrey, for England, 
4th September, 1841 ; for Scotland, 28th December. 
1841 ; and for Ireland, 2Ist April, 1842, for "Im- 
provements in furnaces or fire-places." 

On the 29th March, or on the next day of sitting 
of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, if 
it do not sit on the day mentioned, an application 
will be made to that Committee to fix an early day 
for hearing the matters contained in the said peti- 
tion; and any person desirous of being heard In 
opposition, must enter a caveat to that effect in 
the Privy CouncU Oflice on or before that date. 



NOTICES OF INTENTION TO 
PROCEED. 
{From the ** London Gazette," February 20M, 
1855.) 
2157. Thomas Roberts and John Dale. Impiove- 
ments in obtaining and treating extracts from cer- 
tain dye woods, and in apparatua for obtaining 
such extracts. 

2177. Robert Cruise. Improvements In machi- 
nery or apparatus for stopping railway carrii«ee. 



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WBBSI.T UBT or PATKMTS. 



191 



Sl«. Sir James Caleb Andtnon, ImyxoTementa 
IB locodDotiTe eiiKiiiM. 

21M. Arthur Dobaon. Certaiq improvemanta ia 
looBoa for wesTinff. 

S191. Charles Frederick Stansbory, Improved 
appaiatua for heating buildings. A oomxnnnica- 

S19S. Oooxge Weeks and George Pinner. Im- 
proTemeots in the eonstruction of ftirnaees. 

S19A. John Harrison. Improvements in the 
toeeea applied to mttlstmee. 

Slff. John Coope Haddan. Improvements in 
Mm mawnlbftture of eannmi, aad of projeetiles ibr 

001. Robert PinkMF* ImpnvamenU ta bot- 
tles. Jan, and other like v i is a l i, and in the method 
•g ^oppMteg them. 

tM7. Thomta Xdwin Moofo. Improvements In 
appnrains for sharpening knlTOS, soiaaois, and 
ocher similar edged tools. 

2219. Louis Comidee. An improved apnaratns 
fcr aaalgnasafting the geld and silver eontained in 
polverlaed ores. 

22M. Eobert Walter Winfleld. An improve- 
mmt or improvements in tubes and rods used in 
the eonstraetion of articles of UMtallie fumituxe. 

2237. Peter Armand Lecomte do Fontainemo- 
loao. Imptovemeats in the oonstmetion of grates. 
A eommunication. 

22S9. Thomas Btggart and Allan London. Im- 
pxDTonMats in rmlatiBg motive power engines. 

224A. William Joseph Smith. A certain improve- 
ment In battens. 

2264. Isaac Adams. New and usefhl improve- 
noents in machinery for prlntine. 

2299. Auguste Edonard Loradouz BelUbrd. An 
improved mode of operating trip hammers. A 



2900. Claude Francois Vauthier. Certain im- 
■fovementa in blowing m^i*}iinfff 

tSOi. John WainwriglU. ImprovemenU in flt- 
•ing up shops, ofBoes, aad other like plaees and 
ahoP'firon'ts- 

taoft. John Coope Haddan. Improvements in 
fc^oetUee, and in maeldnefy for mannflwtniing 

2915. John Henry Johnson. Improvements in 
llthographie Minti»g*preeses. A eommunieation 
tMa Plane oMH Vat4, of Paris, Franoe, ma- 
ehiniat. 

1994. WilHam Henry Woodhovse. An improved 
Meter Cmt water and other liquids. 

2979. John Berry Richard Beny, Thomaa Berry 
fbm younger, and Thomas Bovds. Certain im- 
provements in maehinofy for spinnlag, commonly 
known as '* mulee." 

2999. Jamee Thomson. An improvement In ob- 
taining motlTe power when fluids or liquids are 
used. 

2999. Peter Annand Leeomte de Fontalaemo- 
renu. Improvements In flre-engines. A oommu- 



tf II. John Kealy. Improved machinery for eut- 
tlng up turnips and other roots. 

2960. Edward Hammond Bentall. An improved 
eonstruetion of locomotive steam-engine. 

2699. James Fenton. Improvements in the ma- 
nufacture of axles, ptoton rods, and shafts, girders, 
and other like ertieles. 

2719. Warren de la Rue. Improvements in 
ticnting products arising from the dbtillatlon of a 
oettafn tar or naphtha, to render the same suitable 
Ibr diseolving or removing faity or resinous sub- 



27S9. Francis Preeton. Improvements in bayo- 
nets and in the maehlneiy for manufteturing the 

91. Robert Ashworth and Samuel Stott. Im- 
provemenU in machinery for preparing, spinning, 
and doubHng fibrous substances. 

95. Oustov Wameeke. ImpioTemeats in pi»> 
serving vegetnbles and fruits. 

151. William Smith aad Thomas Phillips. Im- 



provements ia eoeks or taps, and in balls or floats 
to be used therewith. 

221. Thomas Binks. ImproTements in raising 
and regulating the supply of water and other 
fluids. 

223. John Henry Johnson. Improvements in 
the generation of steam. A eommunication firom 
Paulin Jean Charles Montety, of Toulon, France. 

226. Edward Cunnah and John Hampton. Im- 
proved turnstile counting apparatus. 

298. Martin Samuelsou and Alexander Stmoel- 
son. Improvements in steam engines. 

248. WUUam Taylor. Improvements In cables 
for holding at anchor and towing sh^s, ond other 
floatingbodles. 

244. Thomas Ogden Dixon. Improvements in 
machinery or apparatus for turning, boring, cut- 
ting and shaping wood and similar materials. 

248. Bei^amui Ooodfellow. Improvements in 
ordnance. 

252. Isidore Carlhian aad Isidore Corbibre. Cer- 
tain improvements in nsoderator lamps. 

260. Hippolyte Victor Pinondel de la Bertoche. 
Certain improvements in manufacturing paper, 
pasteboard, and puIiK 

266. Alexander Morton. Improvements in weav- 



ing carpets. 

290. John Henry 
the combination of materials for waterprooflng and 



Henry Johnson. Improvements in 



similar purposes. A eommunication firom Jona- 
than T. Trotter, of New York, United Statee of 
America. 

282. William Saadford Roberts. Coupling rafl- 
way oaxriagoe. 

OppoBition can be entered to the granting 
of a Patent to any of the parties in the 
above List, who have given notice of their 
intention to proceed, within twenty - one 
days from the date of the OoutU in which 
the notice appears, by leaving at the Com- 
missioners'-office particulars in writing of 
the objection to the application. 
» 
WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS. 
SedUd February 16, 1855. 
1834. Thomas Miller. 
1853. James Hadden Toang. 
1947. Joseph Westwood and Robert 
Baillie. 
SeaUd February 20, 1855. 

1889. Thomas Lees. 

1860. Thomas Hayter. 

1861. Hector Grand de Ch&teauneuf. 
1869. William Woodcock. 

1890. Louis Napoleon Langlois and 

Jean Baptiste Glavi^res. I 

1892. John Seithen. 

1908. John Macmillan Dunlop. 

1911. Peter Armand Lecomte de Fon- 
tainemoreau. 

1928. Oeorge Mackay Miller. 

1953. Henry Lund. 

2121. Alfred Vincent Newton, 

2387. Edward Loysel. 

2403. Ismail Isaac Abadie. 

2609. Alfred Vincent Newton. 

The above Patents all bear date as of the 
day on which Provisional Protection was 
granted for the several inventions men- 
tioned therein. 



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192 



NOTICES TO GORREaPOMDENTS. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



A, B.t of Glasgow, writes as follows :— " A. and 
B. were both experimenting on a new mechanical 
Invention. The matter was unknown to each 
other, and B.» after getting satlsftbctiou flrom his 
expariroents, «>plied for letters patent, and ob- 
tained them. Some months after having the com- 
plete specification filed. B. hears of A. trying the 
same machine, and calls upon him to stop his pro- 
ceedings. JL, however, holds that he has no right to 
stop, because of his experimenting so long (as he 
alleges) before B. secured the letters patent. He 
thinks that he has a prior claim, although as yet 
his machine is not complete, and therefore objects 
to stop his proceedings. Querw, — Can A. on that 
account be allowed to proceed in the fsce of B.'s 
letters patent f " A. has no claim whatever in the 
matter. The first inventor. In the eye of the law, 



is he who first discloses his invention to the pub- 
lie. A. made no publication whatever, but was 
engaged on a series of private experimeuts before 
the date of B.'s patent. Unless B. obtained the 
invention firom A., B. would be held legally to be 
the first and true inventor, and, as such, entitled 
to lus patent. 

Tjrro.— The relative advantages of convex, eon- 
cave, and stnUght water-lines for the bows of 
vessels have long been under discussion, and year 
suggestion, therefore, contains nothing new. 

StpHwnu.—ltjwi wUl take the trouble to refer 
to our part for August last, you wOl there find an 
abstract of the specification of the patent named« 
under the head, " Complete Specmeations Filed 
with ApplieaUons." 



MESSRS. ROBERTSON, BROOMAN, & CO. 

Undertake the ProonratUm of Patents 

for the United Kingdom and all Foreign Coantriefl, and the transaotion generally of all 

business relating to Patents. Costs of Provisional Protection— £10 lOs. 

Practical Instructions to Inventors and intending Patentees supplied gratis on application 

to Messrs. ROBERTSON, BROOMAN, and Co., " Mechanics' Magazine and 

Patent Office/' 166, FleeUstreet, London. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



Jandin and Duval's Improrements in Dress- 
ing and Dyeing Raw Silk Fahrica— (wi<* en- 

gravingM) 169 

The Capaising of the Troop-ship "Perseyer- 

anoe" 172 

On the Pendulum EzperimenU in Harton Col- 
liery. By the Astronomer Royal 174 

On the Flow of Water through Pipes and Ori- 
fices ^ 177 

Bethune's Improvements in Steam Naviga- 
tion 180 

Tubular Steam Boilers 181 

On the Smoke Question 181 

Mr. C. Wye Williams on Combustion 183 

Specifications of Patents recently Filed : 

Frankham Furnaces 183 

Jenks Weaving 18S 

Wickans Railway Signals 184 

Law Cranes 184 

Thompson Sawlng-machine 184 

Johnson Coating Wire 184 

Morton Girders 184 

Petit Joining Pipes 184 

Ollbertaon Furnaces 184 

Keen Compasses 184 

Burke & Stocker ..Metallic Tubes 185 

Borland Fibrous Materials 185 

Bellford Engraving 185 

Dixon Teaching Arithmetic... 185 

Walduck Propelling 185 

Demay Railway Brakes 185 

Adams Ventilators 185 

Green Mortising Machines ...185 

Newton India-rubber 185 

Brldson Preparing Cotton 185 

Gillman Papier-mach6, 8rc 186 

Read Slide-yalves 186 



M'Gaffln Metal Pipes IM 

Newton Repeating Fire^mna ... 186 

Brooman Dressing Flax mm. 186 

Meiritt Photography 186 

Holland Locks 186 

Grifliths Bits for Horses 187 

Lees Puriiying Gas 187 

Provisional Speoifleations not Proceeded with : 

Varley Reaping-machines 187 

Shorroeks Pressor- flyers 187 

Miller A: Graham..Permanent Way 187 

Scott & Bonnet ....Springs ^ 188 

Guild it Pendle- 

buiy Bleaching m.... 188 

Clin Paper 188 

Smith Permaneot Way 188 

Collasson Railway Brakea 188 



Fawcett Gas-regulators.« 

Ingall Elastic Bands 

Thatcher Woven Ffbrica ... 

Green Hanging Doors ... 

Bouneau Propelling «. .. 

Evans Rigging Ships.^.. 

Palmer Guns 

Chevron .^ Looms . 



..... 188 
.... 188 
..M. 188 

188 

..... 188 

188 

..... 189 
..... 188 

Brown Consuming Smoke...... 189 

. Gemer Omnibuses 189 

Dayler Consuming Smoke 189 

Hamilton Production of Drinks 189 

Provisional Protections 189 

Notice of Application for Prolongation of Pa- 
tent 190 

Notices of Intention to Proceed... 19«> 

List of Sealed Patents 191 

Notices to Correspoudentd 192 



LONDON : Edited, Printed, and Published by Richard Archibald Brooman, of No. 166, Fleet-street, 
in the City of London.— Sold by A. and W. Galignani, Rue Viyienae, Paris; Machin, and Co., 
Dublin ; W. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburg. 



D^itized by Google 



Pet|antcs' Paja^he. 



No. 1647.] SATURDAY, MARCH 3, 1855. [s.Jl^'jJd 'ii. 

Edited by R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet-street. 



PARSEY'S PATENT COMPRESSED-AIR ENGINE. 
Fig. 1. Fig. 6. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



■.."^ 194 

PARSEY'S PATENT COMPRESSED-AIR ENGINE. 
(Patent dated January 18, 1854.) 

Mr. Parsey, whose former improvements in the employment of air as a source of 
motive power are well known, has recently patented an invention which consists, first, in 
the employment of an improved pump, used for compressing or exhausting air ; teeond, in 
the construction of an apparatus, called an aerometer, or movable reservoir, for receiring 
and storing air or water forced into it, and for giving it oat again under pressure when 
required; and third, in a mode of heating the working cylinder of an engine. 

Fig. 1 of the accompanying engravings shows a douhle-action pump constructed accord- 
ing to tb« 6rst part of the invention. A A is a cylinder or pump-barrel, with a hollow 
piston, a a, and hollow piston-rod, h ; the piiton bemg furnished with valves, c c, on the 
top opening upwards, and others, d df on the bottom opening downwards. The piston-rod 
is perforata within the piston, e, and et the end, #, cleer of the length of the stroke, form- 
ing thereby an inlet pr passage for the air or other fluids. As the piston descends, the 
valves, <f«I, will close, and the Vftlvee, ee, will open and admit the air above the piston. As 
the piston afcepd», the raWes, n c, will close, and the valves, d d, will open, and the con- 
tents of the pump will b« expelled at the top and bottom of the cylinder by the passage or 
passages, /, or other outlet ports. When the eyiinder is left open at the top, and the 
contents of the pump are only required to issue from the bottom« the piston will require 
to be valved on the under side only, tnd Um outlet pMsegf iney be suitably a4Jttftted to the 
purposes of single action pumps. 

The metal piston must be accurately fitted into the eyiinder, and a channel, », ont around 
the top and bottom, into which is securely fitted a rlnp: packing cr cup of leatlier, or other 
suitable material, which, from the pressure of the flm4 within the cylinder, will secure the 
piston from leakage, h h, is the upper valve, as large as the cylinder, through which 
the piston-rod slides, a spiral spring, f, being coiled around the rod to keep the ralve 
seated. 

Fig. 2 is a plan of the piston, a, showing the channel, g, the valves, e o, and the seetion 
of the piston-rod, 6. Instead of constructing the top and bottom similarly, the cylinder, 
B, may be connected to the top of the cylinder, A (fig. 1), the valve, /, forming the bottom 
of the cylinder, A { and a ierlee of ovlMers or barrels, A, B, C, with simlltr Talve fittings 
may be graduated, for the purpose of obtaining and applying compressed air or any other 
elastic fluid at a high density* 

Fig. 3 is a plan or transverse section of the valve, I, showing the guide gland, as, with 
hollows or corves, ami, and the fillets, nn, which fit the cylinder, B. o Is the guide-rod, 
which has a spiral spring, o, coiled round it to keep it seated, the rod working through a 
eentral hole in the fixed guiae-piece, g q, made of a similar form to the guide-gland, m «, 
and fitting the cylinder, B. Each succeeding valve of a series of cylinders of the same 
sise may be adopted in this or a similar manner to effect the same purpose. 

Fig. 4 shows an aerometer constructed according to the second part of the Invention, and 
worked by means of the pump before described, a a is a cylinder, closed at one end and 
turned mouth downwards over the block or piston, b, which is fixed on legs or a frsming, cc t 
a ohannel or groove, g, is cut around the edge of the piston, b, and is fitted with a oup or 
peeking, as illustrated in fig. I. d shows an inlet valve and pipe, and « shows the outlet 
passage and pipe for conducting the discharge. ^* On the cylinder, a a, being forced up by 
any means, it will fill with air, water, or other fluid. On attaining its elevation, by dosing 
the inlet or injection-pipe, d, or disengaging it f^om the lifting tackle, its weight will cause 
it to descend, and force its contents through the conducting pipe, e« A, in flg. 4, is a small 
cylinder, which may be fitted on to the iojection-pipe, d, to assist the injection of air or 
elastic fluids, and to prevent back pressure. A block, I, slightly domed, is placed on the 
bottom, with a deep cup, k, of leather or other flexible material, which may be nearly filled 
with water, oil, or other liquid, forming a valve for the elastic fluids to pass around, whence 
they pass onward through the upper part of the pipe, d, the pressure of the fluid on the 
cup valve preventing back leakage." 

Instead of forcing air or water into the movable reservoir, aa, by means of a pump or 
pumps, the reservoir may be charged by drawing it up, and opening valves to permit the 
air or water to be forced up into it by the pressure of the atmosphere. When 
charged, the inlet valve or valves being closed, and the power applied for elevating the 
reservoir disconnected from it, the reservoir will be left free to descend, and by its weight 
(with or without the aid of any additional weight placed upon it) force out the air or water 
contained in it whenever the outlet- valve shall be opened for that purpose. Instead of 
using only one such reservoir, several maybe employed. The inventor, in his specification, 



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ON MJLGNCCIG BBPULSIOK. 195 

shows a cfNnbiostioa of six, smnged about a centre, and sapportsd on a saitaUe frame- 
work. Ib the eentre of tbem is placed an hydraulic lift, with' a framing fixed on to the 
bead of the ram, and bolted on to the top of each of the cylinders. When the water is 
forced in under the ram, it with the six oyiinders and connecting framing will be raised, 
causing a ipaoe or Taciftiuii, wbich wiU be filled by air, water, or any other fluid 
passing through the inlet-pipe or pipes ss the cylinders are elevated. On the water being 
withdrawn from under the ram, and the discharge-pipe opened, the whole weight of the 
bead work, ram, and cylinders will cause their descent, and discharge the contents. From 
the well-known eharaoter and oonstmotion of hydraulie machinery, no Aiither description 
need be given of that means of lifting. 

In fig. 4, Y is a cylinder and apparatus sttached to the reserrwr, for regulating the 
working pressure of the compressed air or other elastic fluids oontsined in it, for which 
(with other things) Mr. Parsey obtained letters patent, October 17, 1844. Z Z, fig. 4, is a 
section of a piston-engine, aetuated by the regulated pressure of compressed air from the 
interposed regulator, which is introduced for the purpose of illustrating the action of the 
apparatus. 

Fig. 6 shows the applieatioa of air-pumps to a compressed air locomotive engine. « a is 
a reservoir to be charged with compressed air to a high density or pressure ; Y is the regu- 



Fig. 5. 



Fig. 2. 



Fig. 6. 




later of the working pressure ; and e is the drif ing engines actuated by the pressure. To 
economise the store of power in the reservoir, a, pumps, b, are attached to the working 
machinery, or to cranks or eccentries on the axletrees or otherwise, for obtaining and 
applying an auxiliary supply of oompressed air to the regulating cylinder, Y, so that the 
draught on the reservoir, att, may be economized. The pomps are intended to be worked 
by means of the momentum of the locomotive whilst it is descending an inclined plane, or 
when it may be necessary to stop the engine, so that tlie power necessary to retard or stop 
the motion of the train with which it is connected, may be applied in pumping air into the 
regulator, Y, or a spare reservoir, X, shown in fig. 4. The pumps may be furnished with 
blow-off cooks, or other means, so as to be capable of being thrown ? irtually out of action 
when not required for the purposs above mentioned, and may be placed in connection with 
the machinery of the engine, or on tenders or carriages drawn by the engine. Fig. 7 is a 
plan of fig. 6, showing in outline the pumps, 6, and regulator, Y, connected with cranks 
on the axle, the driving machinery and other gearing of a locomotive engine being too well 
known to need further description. 

The third part of the invention is shown in fig. 5. The heating is effected by means of 
a coil of pipe, a z, surrounding the cylinder, and a current of hot air or water sent through 
the pipe, so as to keep the cylinder hot, for the purpose of increasing the expansive action 
of the air admitted into it daring the working of the engine. The temperature will 
be kept up more effectually if the coil of pipe be surrounded by an external jacket or 
covering. 



ON MAGNETIC REPULSION.* 



Th£ lecturer eommcnoed by showing that 
bodies are repelled by the poles of a magnet) 
in virtue of a state of excitement into which 



BY PROFESSOR TYNDALL, F.R.8. 

they are thrown by the latter. The repul- 
sion of bismuth, and the attraction of soft 
iron, followed precisely the same laws when 



• The substance of a psper recently read at the Royal Institutfon. 

l2 



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196 



ON MAGNETIO BEPULSIOK. 



the strength of the influencing magnet was 
augmented, the respective forces being pro- 
portional, not simply to the sirengtli, but 
within wide limits, to the bqiiare of the 
strength of the magnet. The result is ex- 

Slained in the case of iron by the fact of its 
eing converted, while under magnetic in- 
fluence, into a true temporary magnet, whose 
power varies with that of the influencing 
one ; and in the case of bismuth, the result 
can only be explained by the fact that tlie 
dia-magnetic mass is converted iuto a true 
dUi'tttngnei* 

It was next shown, that the condition of 
excitement evoked by a magnetic pole was 
not the same as that evoked by another pole 
of an opposite quality. If the repulsion 
were independent of the quality of the pole, 
then two poles of unlike names ought to 
repel the bismuth, when brought to act upon 
it simultaneously. This is uot the case. 
Two poles of the same nau)e produce repul- 
sion ; but when they are of equal powers 
and opposite names, the condition excited 
by one of them is neutralized by the other, 
and no repulsion follows. 

Bars of magnetic and dia-magnetic bodies 
were next submitted to all the forces capa- 
ble of acting upon them magnetically ; first, 
to the magnet alone ; secondly, to the electric 
current alone ; and, thirdly, to the magnet 
and current combined. Attention to struc- 
ture was here found very necessary, and the 
neglect of it appears to have introduced 
much error into this portion of science. 
Powdered bismuth, without the admixture 
of any foreign ingredient, was placed in a 
strong metallic mould, and submitted to the 
action of a hydraulic press ; perfectly com- 
pact metallic masses were thus procured, 
which, suspended in the magnetic field with 
the line of compression horizontal, behaved 
exactly like magnetic bodies, setting their 
longest dimensions from pole to pole. This 
identity of deportment wiih an ordinary 
magnetic substance was also exhibited in 
the case of the electric current, and of the 
current and the magnet combined. In like 
manner, by the compression of a magnetic 
powder, magnetic bars were produced, which, 
betweeu the two puiea of a magnet, set 
exactly like ordinary dia-maguetic ones ; 
this identity of deportment is preserved 
when the bars are submitted to the action of 
the current, and of the current and magnet 
combined. Calling those bars which show 
the ordinary magnetic and dia-magnetic 
action normal bart^ and calling the com- 
pressed bars abnormal ones, the law follows, 
that an abnormal bar of one class of bodies 
exhibits precisely the same deportment, in 
sU cases, as the normal bar of the other 
class; but when we compare normal bars 
of both classes together, or abnormal bars 



of both classes, then the antithesis of action 
is perfect The experiments prove, that if 
that which Gauss calls the ideal distribution 
of magnetism in magnetic bars be inverted, 
we have a distribution which will produce all 
the phenomena of dia-magnetic qnea. 

The important question of dia-magnetic 
polarity was submitted to further and stricter 
examination. A flat helix, whose length 
was an inch, internal diameter an inch, and 
external diameter seven inches, was attached 
flrmly to a table, with its coils verticaL A 
suspension was arranged by means of which 
a bar of bismuth, five inches long, and 0*4 
of an inch in diameter, was permitted to 
swing freely, while surrounded by the helix. 
With this arrangement the following expe- 
riments were, or might be made: — 1. A 
voltaic current from twenty of Grove's cells 
was sent through the helix, A, the direction 
of the current in ike upper lutfoi the helix 
being that denoted by the arrow (fig. Vy 




The north pole of a magnet being placed at 
N, the end, a, of the suspended bar of bis- 
muth, a b, was attracted towards the pole. 
N. 2. The south pole of a second magnet 
being placed at S, and the current being 
sent through the helix in the same direction 
as before, the bar left its central position, 
and approached N with greater force than 
in the former experiment The reason was 
deemed manifest ; the state of excitement 
which causes a to be attracted by N, causes 
it to be repelled by S ; both poles, therefore, 
act in unison, and a deflection of greater 
energy is produced. 3. The pole, S, being 
removed to the position S', the deflection 
was also found to be about twice as foreible 
as when the single pole, N, was employed. 
Here, also, the reason is plain ; the two ends, 
a and b, of the bismuth bar are in different 
states of excitement ; the end a is attracted 
by a north pole, the end b is attracted by a 
south pole ; both poles act, therefore, as a 
mechanical couple upon the bar, and pro- 
duce the deflection observed. 4. The pole, 
S', was replaced by a north pole of the same 
strength, thus bringing two poles of the 
same name to bear upon the two ends of the 
bar; there was no deflection by this ar- 
rangement; it is manifest that N's attrac- 
tion for the end a was nullified by the repul- 



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ON TH£ FLOW OF WATJ6tt THBOOaH PIFES AMD OaiFlCBS. 



197 



ftioD of the end 6 by a like VK»le ; the expe- 
riment thus fiumishes in additional proof of 
the polar condition of a b. 5. We have 
iiuppoied the pole, S, to be removed into 
the position, S' ; but permitting the pole, S, 
to remain, and introducing another pole (a 
south one) at S', a greater action than that 
producetl with two magnets was obtained. 
G. Finally, adding another north pole at N^ 
and allowing four magnets to operate upon 
the bismuth bar simultaneously, a maximum 
action was obtained, and the bar was attracted 
and repelled with the greatest promptness 
and decision. In ail thsse eaut, whisre an 
iron bar wot substituted for the bismuth bar, 
a b,a deflection precisely the vpposite to that 
exhibited by a b was produced, A branch of 
the current by which the bar of bismuth 
was surrounded could be suffered to circu- 
late round a bar of iron, suspended freely 
in an adjacent helix ; when the forces acting 
upon the iron were the same as those acting 
upon the bismuth, the bars were always de- 
flected in opposite directions. 

The question of dia-magnetic polarity 
was next submitted to a test which brought 
it under the dominion of the principles of 
mechanics. A mass of iron was chosen for 
the movable magnetic pole, of such a shape 
that the diminution of the force emanating 
from the pole, as the distance was aug- 
men ted, was very slow ; or, in other words, 
the field of force was very uniform. Let 
the space in front of the pole, P (iig. 2), be 

Fig. 2. 




such a field. A normal bar of bismuth, a b, 
was attached to the end of a lever trunsverse 
to the length of the latter, and counterpoised 
by a weight at the other extremity ; the 
system was then suspended from its centre 
of gravity, g, so tliat the beam and bar 
swung horixontally. Supposing the bar to 
occupy the position shovm in the figure, then 
if the force acting upon it be purely repulsive 
— that is to say, if the dia* magnetic force 
be unpolar — it is evident that ti^e tendency 
of the force acting upon every particle of the 
masa of bismuth tends to turn the lever 
round its axis of suspension, in the direc- 
tion of the curved arrow. On exciting the 
magnetism of P, however, a precisely con- 
trary motion is observed — the Uver ap^ 
proaches the pole. This result, which, as far 



as the lecturer could tee, was perfectly inex- 
plicable on the assumption that the dia- 
magnetic force was purely repulsive, is ex- 
plained iu a simple and beautifol manner on 
the hypothesis of dia-magnetic polarity. 
According to this, the end b of the bar of 
bismuth is repelled by P, and the end a is 
attracted ; but the force acting upon a is 
applied at a greater distance from the axis 
of suspension than that acting upon b ; and 
as it has been arranged that the absolute 
intensities of the forces acting upon the two 
ends differ very slightly from each other, 
the mechanical advantage possessed by a 
gives to it the gr^satest moment of rotation, 
and the bar is attracted instead of repelled. 
Let a magnetic needle, n s (fig. S), be at- 

Fig. 3. 




taehed like the bar, a 6 (fig. 2), to a lever, 
and submitted to the earth's magnetism. 
Let the north pole of the earth be towards 
N ; the action of the pole upon n is sttrae- 
tive, upon s repulsive ; the absolute intensi- 
ties of these forces are the same, inasmuch 
as the length of the needle is a vanishing 
quantity in comparison with iu distance 
from the pole, N f hence the mechanical 
advantage possessed by the force acting 
upon s, on account of its greater distance 
from the axis of rotation, causes the lever 
to recede from N, and we obtain a result 
perfectly analogous to that obtained with 
the bar of bismuth (fig. 2).« 



ON THE FLOW OF WATER 
THROUGH PIPES AND ORIFICES. 

At the Institution of Civil Engineers, on 
Tuesday, February 20th, the evening was 
again entirely devoted to the discussion of 
Mr. Leslie's Paper on the sbove subject 

It was stated, that the necessity for intro- 
ducing into the recognised formula some 
modification to adapt it to cases greatly de- 



• A paper submitted to the Royal Society last 
November, and a portion of which formed the 
subject of the Bakerian Lecture for the present 
year, contsint a more oomprehensive discuuion of 
this subject. In it are explanations of the difll- 
euUles adduced by M. Matteueel, in bis instruc 
tivs '< Court Special," recently published. 



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198 



ON THB FLOW OF WATER THROUOH FIFES AND OBIFICSS. 



paitinff ttook a medium ▼•looity or dimen* 
•ionS) bad be«n admitted and fUlly diacuraed 
by D'Attbuisson and by Weisbach ; tbe for- 
mer tttggesting the law of increase of friction 
to be as the square of the Telocity, plus a 
certain addition of the velocity itself i the 
latter proposing a law of inerease com- 
pounded of the square, plui the square root 
of the cube of the velocity. It was argued, 
however, that in oasM where such modifica- 
tions were neooMaryi they should rather be 
applied at fixed veloeitiea of the water, than 
at any fixed gradient. 

A comparison was inititutevl between the 
friction of water in pipes with that known 
under the term '*ikin resistance" of ves- 
sels passing through water. It appeared 
from the results obtained by Mr. Leslie, in 
the experiments on the pipes of the Edin- 
burgh Water Company, and those by Colo- 
nel Beaufoy on floating bodies, that there 
was a marked identity of the diminution of 
the law of increase from that of the squares, 
as the higher speeds were attained ; and also 
that the resistance per square foot of the 
side of a ship was only about one-half that 
per square foot of the internal surface of a 
pipe, at identical velocities. Whether this had 
any reference to the mass of water around 
the ship, as compared with the' content! of 
a pipe, was a subject for eonsideration. 

It was explained that the expression 
known as " Hawksley's formula" waa only 
assumed to be applicable to useful, practical 
cases, falling within the ordinary practice 
of hydraulic science, and extreme oases of 
minute diameter and almost vanishing velo- 
city were expressly exoltided. The meaning 
of the term '* friction " in hydraulics, was 
explained to be that resistance encountered 
in the oond noting of water whieh varied as 
the square of the velocity. The influence 
of "the adhesion of the particles of Tvater to 
the internal periphery of the pipes was then 
explained, in order to render clear that of 
which all engineers, combining science with 
practice, were well aware that, within cer- 
tain limits, the friction of water in pipes was 
independent of the nature of the material 
over which it flowed. In fact, the adhesion 
of a film of fiuid to the interior of the pipe, 
caused the formation of a tube of water, 
through which the body of water flowed, 
virtually reducing the diameter which was 
provided for in the formtiloe. There must 
be some resistance, whatever the pipe might 
be composed of, but as the film of water was 
equally existent, under all circumstances, so 
the resistance was identical in all cases. On 
this assumption Du Buat and Dr. Young 
had given the corrections in their formulsp. 
The result had been, that If the eauations 
mentioned, modified for rivers, or for ordi- 
nary cases of pipes for waterworks, were 



applied, tbe results would be found to coin- 
cide accurately with those of practical expe- 
riments when correctly performed. This 
had been confirmed by accurate investiga- 
tions and by gauging rivers, and also by the 
examination of sewers, as shown in Mr. 
Wicksteed's Report on the Drainage of 
Crojrdon. 

It had been assumed that the greater fall 
of side branches or inlets increased the velo- 
city of the flow in main sewers ; practice, 
however, showed this assumption to be fal- 
laeious, as the various bends and junctions 
caused considerable retardation of the cur- 
rent. It was maintained that the explana- 
tion of the resistance of the interior peri- 
phery of pipes, of whatever material they 
were composed, was consistent with the 
results of actual experiment, and that any 
further expenditure on trials for demon, 
strating the supposed advantages of smooth, 
ness of internal surface would be entire 
waste. On the other hand, it was well 
known that the state of the external surface 
had much influence on the resistance of 
floating bodies moving through water ; and 
no doubt this fact had, from analogy, led to 
the delusion that the smoothness or other- 
wise of the internal surface of pipes would 
exercise an influence on the velocity of the 
flow of water. 

The fkcts whieh had been stated with 
respect to the experiments of the Trial 
Works Committee of the former Commis- 
sioners of Sewers, and the corrupt use that 
had been made even of those worthless ex- 
periments, was another striking instance of 
the bad effects produced on private enter- 
prise, and on the development of sound 
practice, by the rapid growtn of functioneer- 
ing influence during late years. The always 
useless, and sometimes injurious interference 
of the Railway Deportment of the Board of 
Trade, of the Harbour Commission, and of 
the Board of Health, was strongly insisted 
upon, and well-known instances were given 
in support of that opinion — referring to 
previous discussions at the Institution as 
examples. During a long period of peace 
the cumbrous machinery of Government 
departments had been presumed to have 
been rendered perfect, and was assumed to 
be so, whilst no demand was made on their 
active energies, or so long as no exigencies 
arose ; but the late melancholy and disas. 
trons events had shown their utter inability 
to fulfil their fVinetions under any unex- 
pected pressure, or to conduot any practical 
measure in a business-like manner; why, 
therefore, it was nrged, should the rising 
generation of engineers be restricted and 
controlled by officials, not deriving their 
appointments from merit, but from personal 
or politicftl ififlttenee ? 



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THE MXGHANIOAL XNVSMTIONS OF JAMES WATT. 



199 



In extenuation of the alleged penrenion 
of the experiments of the Trial Woika 
Committee, it was stated that the results 
had not heen wilfully perverted, but the 
apologist would not render himself responsi- 
ble for the acts of the Board of Health ; 
stiJl it must be remembered that otKer engi- 
neers besides those employed by that Boaxd 
had extensivdy used pot pipes for sewers, 
and there were instances of small sewers of 
two thousand years old. The sweeping de- 
nunciation of the acta and constitution of 
the late Board of Health was earnestly 
deprecated. 

In reply, it was urged that the remarks 
made were not personal, but were directed 
against a system proved to be pernicious, 
and from which the roost serious results 
must be anticipated. That the engineers 
who had used pot-pipes for main sewers had 
only done so under the compulsory pressure 
of the Board of Health, aa by no other 
roeana could they have procured permission 
to execute the drainage works they had uo. 
dertaken. With respect to the experiments 
of the Trial Works Committee, it was ra- 
markable that whilst the results of experi- 
ments which bad coat upwards of iC7,000 
had been suppressed, the late Board of 
Health had not hesitated to pay a oonsi- 
derable sum for some tables of observationa 
of a similar nature, made by an individual, 
and to publiah and cireulata them exten- 
sively. 



The Origin and Progreu of the Mechanical 
InventiomM of Jorngs WaM. lUMttraUd iy 
ku Conre^Muknce with Aw Friendtf mnd 
the Speeificatkms cf his Patents. By 
James Patxick Muirueap, Esq., M.A:; 
3 Vols. Jabn Murray, Albemarle- 
siveet 

Mr. TeanyaoB's Princess* us one of bev 
outbreaks of hrilliaot dedamialion, describes 
"Faine"Ma 

** Flake of rainbow iyiag on the highest 
Foam of men's deeds. " 

The fiinM of James Watt ie certainly of a 
much more solid ebaraeter than that to 
which this description is applicable. Day 
by day, as the arts and manufaeturee which 
the inventions of that great man have Me- 
tered thicken in thia land, and extend them- 
selves to others, new tributes are paid to 
his genius, and new histre is added to his 
reputation. Nor is it fiineifbl to say, that 
while to him we are eonsciously indebted 
for very many of the oomlbrta and advan- 



tages of our soeial life, we unconsoionsly 
owe to him a thousand things which daily 
afford us either pleasure or profit Although 
less than forty years have passed since 
James Watt died, we shall shortly see, aa 
one of the results of his discoveries, **a 
hundred pennants" borne at will from end 
to end of the Baltic, without regard to wind 
or tide. 

In noticing the volumes mentioned above, 
we do not propose to lay before our readers 
any connected history of Watt, but simply 
to bring forward a few interesting particu- 
lars connected with thoae discoveries and 
inventions which will be for ever memora- 
ble to the lovers of mechanical soienoe. 

It was after spending a year of appren- 
ticeahip to a mathematical instrument 
maker m London, and during the pursuit of 
his trade as instrument maker to the Uni< 
versity of Glasgow, that Watt conceived the 
first idea of ths Condbnsimq Steam- 
engine. The circumstances attending this 
great conception, as ^detailed by Watt him- 
self, have been brought to light by the re- 
searchea of Mr. Muirhead, who, in the 
volumes before us, presents lengthy extracta 
from a long series of letters from Mr. Watt, 
discovered in the archives of his brother* 
in-law, by which he (Mr. M.) is enabled 
" to oooAplete a copious journal of the oourse 
of Mr. Watt' a life and thoughts, his novel 
ideas and versatile experimenta, while he was 
engaged in deviaing and essaying his yieiy 
earliest, and all o&er sucoesMve improve 
ments in the steam-engine." 

*' Mr. John Hart," says Mr. Muirhead, 
"an ingenious tradesman of Glasgow, who 
was a native of Borrowstooesa, and, together 
with bis brother, was diatinguiahed by a 
predilection for the practical arts oonneeted 
with science, has related, that Mr« Watt 
frequently conversed with him on sul^eets 
of mechanical interest t and that being 
asked by him in 1817 whether he recollected 
how the first idea of his great discovery 
came into his mind, he replied, * Oh yes, 
perfectly. One Sunday afternoon I had gone 
to take a walk in the Green of Glanrow, 
and when about half-way between the Herd's 
House and Arn's Well, my thoughts having 
been naturally turned to the expenments I 
had been engaged in for saving heat in the 
cylinders, at that part of the road the idea 
occurred to me, that as steam was an elastic 
vapour it would sxpand, amd rush saie a pre^ 
eienWy exhausted space ; and thai if I were 
to produce a vacuum in a separate vesseU and 
open a communicatUm between the steam in the 
cytmder and the exhausted vessel, such would 
he the consequence.* " 

For a long time prior to the year 1800 
Watt and his nartner, Mr. Boulton,' wera 
almost constantly occupied with litigatioB 



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200 



THE MECHANICAL INVENTIONS OP JAMES WATT. 



in defence of their patents.* From a docu- 
ment, entitled "A Plain Story/' prepared 
by Watt, in 1796, as a general answer to the 
objections which his opponents raised to his 
specifications, we derive the followinpf de- 
tails respecting the manner in which 
his intention of separate condensers wns 
dcTeloped. This document commences thus : 

<* W. found that a well-made brass model 
of Newcoraen*s engine consumed quantities 
of steam and fuel, out of all reasonable or 
direct proportion with larger engines. He 
consulted ' Desaguliers' 'Natural Phiioso- 
pliy,' and Belidor's * Architecture Hydrau- 
iique,' the only books from which he could 
hope for information. He found that both 
of them reasoned learnedly, but by no 
means satisfactorily ; and that D^saguliers 
bad committed a very gross arithmetical 
error, in calculating the bulk of steam from 
the water evaporated in a common steam- 
engine ; which being rectified, it appeared 
next that his data, or assumed facts, ware 
fahe. By a simple experiment, W. found 
what was the real hulk of water converted 
into steam ; and from his friend Dr. Black 
he learned what was the heat absorbed and 
rendered latent by the conversion of water 
into steam, which the Doctor then publicly 
taught, and had done for some years. Ex- 
periments had been made long before by 
Dr. Cullen, Mr. John Robison, and others, 
in public classes, which proved that water, 
when placed in an exhausted receiver, 
boiled, and was converted into steam at the 
heat of 70* or 80* of Fahrenheifs thermo- 
meter, while it was well known that under 
the pressure of the atmosphere it required 
212 of heat to make it boil, and emit 
steam capable of displacing the air. It was 
evident that under intermediate pressures, 
intermediate degrees of heat would be re- 
quired to make it boil, and that in the 
steam-engine more or less cold water must 
be thrown in, according to the degree of ex- 
haustion which might be required ; or, in 
other words, according to the number of 
pounds per inch the engine was loaded to.*' 

After describing Savory's and Newco- 
men's engine with admirable precision. 
Watt goes on to say, 

"Of all those things. Watt must say, 



* "A bill or costs," says Mr. Muirhead, " sent 
in by cue lirm of solicitors in London, for their 
outlay and professional services in matters con- 
nected with the various infringemenis, has been 
preserved, and is now before us, amounting, for 
the short space of the four last years of the time to 
which the extension of the patent was limited, vis., 
from 1796 to 1800, to between five and six thousand 
pounds i This was unquestionably a fearful tax, 
—a burden grievous to be borne by the successful 
diftcoverer in science, and his enterprising asso- 
ciate, in seeking the final, though tardy, eiiforce- 
of Justice f" 



• JVb» ea nostra voco,' The things that are 
his remain to be told. 

" He found, by the application of the 
knowledge which has been mentioned, that 
t))e cause of the great consumption of fuel 
was, that the cylinder being cooled by the 
injection-water, that vessel must condense a 
large quantity of steam whenever it was at- 
tempted to be again filled with steam ; that 
the vacuum could not approach to perfec- 
tion without the steam was cooled below 
100' ; and that such cooling would increase 
the evil complained of in a fourfold or 
greater ratio, because the penetration of the 
heat or cold into the cylinder would be as 
the squares of the differences of the heats 
between that vessel and the steam. How 
was this to be avoided ? 

•*He tried to make the cylinders of wood 
or other materials which conduct heat 
slowly, but he could not prevent the steam 
from coming into contact with the compa- 
ratively cold water which remained in the 
bottom of the cylinder, and which must be 
expelled by the steam ; besides, his wooden 
cylinders did not seem likely to be of long 
duration. In such like experiments he 
spent much time, and more money than was 
suitable to his circumstances, yet he made 
no advances towards a beneficiai discovery. 
But the matter having got firm hold of his 
mind, and his circumstances obliging him 
to make exertions to regain what he had 
spent, he turned the matter over in every 
shape, and laid it down as an axiom — thcU 
to make a perfect tteam-englne, it was veees- 
sary thai the cylinder should be always as 
hot as the steam which entered it, and that the 
steam should be cooled down below ]00*> in 
order to exert its full powers. The gain by 
such construction would be double : — first, 
no steam would be condensed on entering 
the cylinder ; and secondly, the power ex- 
erted would be greater as the stea'U was 
more cooled. The postulata, however, 
seemed to him incompatible, and he con- 
tinued to grope in the dark, misled by many 
an ignis fatitus, till he considered that steam 
being an clastic fluid, it must follow the 
law of its kind ; and that if there.were two 
vessels, A and B, of equal or other dimen- 
sions, the one. A, filled with steam, and the 
other, B, exhausted, if a communication 
were opened between those vessels, the 
steam would rush from the full one into the 
empty one, and they would both remain 
half exhausted (if the vessels were equal in 
size), or be filled with steam of half the 
density. If, then, into the second vessel, B, 
an injection of cold water were made, or 
cold water applied to its outside in sufficient 
quantity, the portion of steam which it con- 
tained would be condensed or reduced to 
water; and by the same law of nnture that 



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ON THE MOON^S MOTION. 



201 



had operated before, more steam xrould issue 
from A into B until the whole was con* 
densed, and nearly a perfect Yacuum esta- 
blished in both vessels; yet as the cold 
water had not entered or touched A, that 
vessel would still retain its heat. 

" This idea once started, the rest imme. 
d lately occurred. The vessel A being sup- 
posed to be the cylinder, B would be the 
vessel called now the condenser ; the water, 
air, &c., accumulated in B, he immediately 
saw could be discharged or drawn out by 
means of a pump, or the water might be let 
run out by a pipe more than 34 feet long 
going downwards, and the air might in that 
ease be expelled at a valve by filling B with 
water, provided the descending eduction, 
pipe were shut meanwhile. On the whole, 
however, he preferred the pump. Another 
difficulty appeared, which was the making 
the piston tight. That could not be done 
with water, as in Newcomen's engines ; for 
that might get in and evaporate, and pro. 
duce steam. He, therefore, thought of wax, 
oil, and similar substances as substitutes, 
knowing that they would not evaporate in the 
heat of boiling water ; and, for greater se- 
curity, he proposed to employ the steam 
itself as the acting power on the piston. 

" The diameters of the pipes necessary 
to convey the steam into and out of the cy- 
linder, he regulated from those in use. The 
size of the condenser he assumed at ran- 
dom, as he did that of the air-pump, which 
it was evident must be larger than was ne- 
cessary to contain the water and probable 
quantity of air. All this passed in his mind 
in the course of a few hours ; and in a few 
days he had a model at work, with an in- 
verted cylinder, which answered his expec- 
tations, and was, as far as he remembers, 
equal in its properties of saving steam and 
fuel to any he has made since, though in 
point of mechanism much inferior. Very 
Hiinple cocks were employed as regulators 
or steam-valves, and his air-pump and con- 
denser were of tin-plate. His cylinder, 
however, was good, and of brass, [about] 2 
inches diameter and a foot long ; the cocks 
were turned by hand, instead of being 
wrought by the engine.'* 

The "Plain Story" afterwards proceeds : 

" Had W. been content with the mechan- 
ism of steam-engines as they then stood, his 
machine might soon have been brought be- 
fore the public; but his mind ran upon 
making engines cheap as well as goodf and 
be had a great hankering after inverted cy- 
linders and other modifications of his inven- 
tion, which his want of experienoe in the 
praettce of mechanics in great, flattered 
him would prove more commodious than 
his nutured experience baa shown them to 
be. He tried, therefore, too many fruitless 



experiments on such variations. He wanted 
experience in the construction of large ma- 
chines; that he endeavoured to acquire; 
but experimental knowledge is of slow 
growth, and with all his ingenuity, so much 
boasted to kis prejudice y he was concerned 
in making some very indifferent common 
engines. 'Other avocations, to him neces- 
sary, obliged him to turn his attention firom 
the subject till he obtained the patent, so 
that at that time he had made no advances 
in the improvement of the meehanism. He, 
therefore, thought it proper to specify only 
what was his invention ; and to leave any 
mechanical improvements he might make 
to be secured by other patents, if worthy of 
them." 
The document concludes thus : 
" It was found that the external cylinder, 
or steam-case, was very expensive. The 
method of covering the cylinder itself ^Hh a 
lid or cover (which had been used in some 
of the models), and conveying the steam to 
the lower end of the cylinder by a pipe, was 
adopted, and a less expensive method of 
applying the envelope of steam was used. 
Ouier kinds of regulators were invented, 
and the whole mechanism of the engine was 
gradually improved, and these improvements 
have been progressive for the last twenty- 
one years. Some of them W. has secured 
by other patents, but many of the most es- 
sential he has left free, and by means of 
them Newcomen's engines have been im- 
proved to his loss. 

• • * « 

*' W.'s invention is merely a contrivance 
to prevent cooling the cylinder, and to make 
the vacuum more perfect by condeushg the 
steam in a vessel distinct Jtom the eyUnder 
itsetf; this is the nature of the invention. 
The means of keeping the cylinder warm — 
the substitution of the powers of steam for 
those of the atmosphere — of grease, &c., in 
place of water to keep the piaton tight— and 
the drawing out the air, &c., by meana of 
pumps — are merely aids in performing the 
principal object. This ought to be kept in 
view in judging of the specification ; also, 
that W. supposed it to be addressed to 
mechanics and philosophers, and not to the 
ignorant." 

{To be eontittited,) 

♦ 

ON THE MOON'S MOTION. 
To the Editor of the Mechanics* Magagine, 

Sir, — In the letter signed " Indagator," 
which appeared in your Number for Febru- 
ary 3rd (page 106, column 2), there is sn 
erroneous statement, which I take the li- 
berty of pointing out to the able writer, and 
which I should have noticed before, had I 
lead his letter carefully through. Taking, 



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203 



ON THE moon's MOTION. 



howe? er, but little interest in the confuta- 
tion of suck ttointelUgible produetionB as 
Mr. Reoordon'e,Ibad only glanced aligbtly 
at the £rftt letter of ** Indagator/' until mj 
attentton happened to be called to it by a 
fViend. 

The error to which I allude is the refer- 
ence to the principal axes of a body as being 
permanent axes of rotation. This is only 
true wkem m foreea oeL ** Indagator," in- 
deed, asserts that **the earth's attraction 
exerts no force to interfere with the motion 
of rotation whieh the moon has had im- 
'pressed upon her round one of her principal 
axes." But he has given no proof of tnis 
assertion, and it does not follow at all from 
the above-named property of the principal 
axes. That property, aa I have just said, 
applies only to the case of a body moving 
perfectly free, and not under the action of 
external foreee. The attraction of the earth 
is an external force acting on the moon, and 
therefore the proposition respecting principal 
axes being permanent ones of rotation, doea 
not apply in this ease. 

It is shown in hooka whieh treat of these 
subjects (as, for instance, Pratt's ** Mecha. 
nical Philosophy,*' second edition, art 459, 
460), that if we neglect very small quantities, 
the attraction of the sun and moon does not 
alter the velocity of the eartVs rotation 
round its axis (which is a principal and per- 
manent axis in this oasejb Now, the same 
iNtfy be equally true with regard to the 
attraction of the sun and earth on the moon. 
But it requires fnw^f, and does not merely 
form a consequence of that principle which 
"Indagator" has brought forward. 

With regard to Mr. Record on and his 
communieation, I oertainly wonder that 
** Indagator'* has taken so much trouble as 
he seems to have done in the effort to ex- 
tract any sense from what is utterly without 
sense. 

As the name of that great mathematician, 
D. Bernoulli, however, has been introduced 
into the controversy, I shall add a few re^ 
marks with regard to his views. The pas- 
sages quoted by Mr. Recordon occur in the 
third chapter of his " Trait6 sur le Flux et 
Reflux de la Mer." This chapter (as Sir 
J. VV. Lubbock has remarked, in his ac- 
count of this treatise of Bernoulli's) has very 
little to do with the main subject of the 
treatise (the " Tides "X and contains, 
amongst other things, an attempt to account 
for that lunar revolution which has been so 
abenrdly denied by some of yonr oorre- 
spondents. In this attempt, Bernoulli as- 
sume» that knowledge of the <* interior con- 
struction of the moon " whieh " Indagator** 
is so much surprised at in Mr. Recordon. 
He says, ** Considtrons, done, que la par- 
iaite bomogMttC dans lea eouehes concen- 



triques de la lune aniti bien que sa parfaito 
spbsrioiti mnt moraUfunt in^Miibkt,** 

" Moral imptri biHty " is, certainly, rather 
a doubtful foundation for a physical argu- 
ment (quite aa good, though, by the way, as 
nine- tenths o( what has recently been writ- 
ten about the PluraUty <^ IVwrkU); and, 
even granting it as an axiom, ** il n'est pas 
encore explique comment on pent deduire 
de Ut pourquoi la lune nous montre to^^ours 
une m^me faoo,*' as Bernoulli ntSvely aidds. 

To this task he next addresses himsdf; 
and the chief cause which he assigns ia, 
"the unequal gravitation of ita parts to- 
wards the eardi; the gravitation being 
greater in proportion as the parts are nearer 
to tbo earth." This amounts, in short, to 
taking into consideration the diftremi dia- 
tanoet^of different portions c»f the moon*s 
mass finra the earth's centre, and the con- 
ae^nent variations of gravity. *^ This cause 
is alone sufficient,** says Bernoulli, " when 
joined to the * figure * of the moon, to pro- 
dnce the phenomenon in question, 'mcm 
tcitre tks wfoom perfeeiiy kmnogemeomi,* ** He 
proceeds with his attempt as followa : — Ijet 
A be the centre of the earth ; B C F D, an 




ellipse, for example, B F being the maior 
and C D the minor axis \ and suppose tnis 
ellipse, by revolving round B F, to generate 
the body of the moon. Suppeee the moott 
homcgeneona and movable round its centre, 
£, and that eaeh particle gravitates towarda 
A, aceording to the hsveise aqnaie of the 
distance from A. ** This being eotabliahed, 
I aseert," says BevnonlK, ^ that the xaotm 
will always twrn the same iaoe, C B D, t». 
wards A, and that the axis, F B, will ahiraya 
pMS through A, and that the moon, if tunsed 
aside from this poaitioD, would return to 
it.** 



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BETHUNES IMPAOV£HEMrS IN SmP-BUlLDIXG. 



203 



** At this matter," taya he, '^ U Tery in- 
teresting both for astronomy and physics, I 
will explain it by an example which will 
render what we have said Yery clear. T say 
tlien that we ought to regard, in this respect, 
the moon as a body floating in a fluid ; for 
the parta of such a body are similarly ani« 
mated by different forces of gravitation. 
Now we know that a floating body which is 
not spherical, or, being so, is not homou 
geneooa, is not indifferent to all situations; 
but takes a certain position, to which it 
always retmrns if disturbed from it Some- 
times the body has only one position of 
equilibrium ; at other times it l)as several, 
according to the structure of the body \ but 
we should be mistaken if we supposed the 
centre of gravity of the body always to seek 
the lowest possible |Situation ; in the same 
way we should deceive ourselves if we sup- 
poaed that the centre of gravity of the moon 
always seeks to get away as far as possible 
from the centre of the earth." 

After this most luminous and convincing 
" example," Bernoulli concludes this singu- 
lar proof thus : — " We see, therefore, suffi. 
ciently, that the principal cause why the 
moon always presents tlie same face to us, 
is the inequality of gravity ; and to this 
cause we must join either the want of perfect 
sphericity or of perfect homogeneity of the 
strata of the moon, or the two causes to- 
gether." This is absolutely all the " proof" 
he gives. It is really marvellous that so 
acute a man could satisfy himself with sueh 
reasoning; or that he could forget the 
simple fact, that by the very same reasoning 
he would prove equally well that tlie earth 
muat always present the same (ace to the 
sun. 

That there is some physical cause for this 
phenomenon in the coincidence of the times 
of revolutioii round ita own axis and round 
the earth — a coincidence so remarkably ex- 
tended in the case of other satellites and 
their primaries — is not to be questioned for 
a moment Such attempts have been made 
recently, but, in the opinion of so competent 
a judge aa Sir John Hersebel, " somewhat 
too Mistily" (Astronomy, art 434 of the 
4th edition). 

I have trespassed longer than I intended , 
on your spaee, but the subject is one of con- 
siderable interest, aa Bernouilli says, '* tant 
poor I'attronomie que pour la physique; " 
and I hope that some competent mathema- 
tician will ere long take up the question 
and treat it in a satisfactory manner. 
I am, Sir, yoort, &o., 

A. H. 



BETHUNE'S IMPROVEMENTS IN 

SHIP-BUILDING. 

To ike Ediior ef the Meektmiet* Magagine. 

Sir, — Mr. Bethune's letter in your num- 
ber of last week certainly calls for some 
reply from me. I shall not, however, tax 
to any very great extent your indulgence, 
as I shall follow Mr. Bethune's example in 
this particular, and be very brieC Indeed 
I have very little now to say, for I have 
already expressed my opinion, and (as I 
believe) justified it in my former letter. 

Mr. Bethune's letter is an attempt to 
prove the respectability of bis invention by 
means of the evidence of men supposed to 
he well competent to decide sucii a ques- 
tion. There is one feature in the letter 
which I think did not appear in (he article 
in the Journal of the Society of Arts ; Mr. 
Bethune seems to have some faith in the 
success of the invention himself. 

The argument with which Mr. Bethune 
designs to lay me in the dust is rather a 
curious one, as your readers no doubt have 
already perceived ; for the very particulars 
which would have rendered it of any weight 
are most carefully omitted. Mr. Bethune 
pretends to confound my anonymous criti- 
cism by arraying against me the testimony, 
favourable to his invention, of two eminent 
ship-building firms and a well-known cap- 
tain, and with this view he quotes from 
their letters their opinions on tne subject; 
butjte neglects to tell us who they are. So 
their opinions are utterly worthless thus 
brought in argument, as indeed they would 
perhaps be if their names went with them. 

I do not intend, Sir, to appeal to my 
experience in the profession of ship-building 
to give weight to what I advance. By way 
of argument I propose that it shall have no 
other power than that which it derives from 
the principles upon which it pretends to be 
based. I considered, and do so still, that 
the extracts made from my last letter from 
the article in the Journal of the Society of 
Arts amply justified my criticism. And 
I think that had Mr. Bethune the means of 
showing my professional authority and 
eminence to be as small as his own, he 
would not in the slightest degree diminish 
the weight of my remarks. 

In the first authoritative extract which 
Mr. Bethune makes, there is a parenthetical 
clause of great significance, viz., (with alte- 
rations in dimensions, scantling, and power). 
It is easily seen that the dimensions may 
be so altered as entirely to eliminate Mr. 
Bethune's principles from the construction 
of the vessel altogether. From this same 
passage I conclude, that if the ship-build- 
ing firm to whom it is ascribed, be sincere, 
they will build the vessel on their own ac- 



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204 



THE SMOKE QUESTION. 



f ount, ond without delay, for iu ihcir own 
opinion it seems pretty clear it would pay 
them well ; so we look forward to having 
a steamer in a few months which sliall 
prove or disprove the reasonableness of Mr. 
Bethune's expectations. On the issue of 
this experiment, I shall be very glad to leave 
the discussion on the justice of my criticism. 

I have just one remark to make on the 
depth which the proposed class of vesfel is 
to have. Tl^ere is a very strong objection 
against making the extremities of a ship 
much lower than is usual. It has always 
been an object to make thift portion of a 
vessel which is above water, as low as is 
compatible with the purpose for which she 
was designed, and of course it has been seen 
that the heights of the forecastle and quarter 
deck have been those which admitted of the 
smallest reJuction. They require height to 
keep the ship dry and give her sea-worthy 
properties. Again, as to the influence that 
the increased height amidships would have 
on the qualities of the vessel, I can only 
say, that to me, there is no doubt whatever, 
that if this top hamper be made sufficiently 
heavy to add in any important degree to the 
strength, it will diminish to a dangerous 
cxteut the stability of the ship. 

Mr. Bethune says in his concluding re- 
marks, that the letters from eminent prac- 
tical men can be seen by persons wishing to 
iivail themselves of the improvements. Now 
T do not wish to try them, so I am still left 
to wonder who tlicsc prudent ship-builders 
are, and must wait for the appeirance of the 
Fhip which they evidently intend to build. 
I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

J.C. 

Deptford, Feb. 27, 1855. 



THE SMOKE QUESTION. 
To the Editor (if the Mechanics' Magazine, 

Sir, — Nothing is more vexing than to see 
very simple and very ui^cful propositions 
entirely misconceived. After all the clear 
definitions in your pages, here is Mr. Pal- 
mer writing from Marseilles to tell us, on 
ilie authority of a child's book, "that ihe 
visible gaseous products of an oidinary fire 
(not chieliy tar vapour) are entirely combus- 
tible iu a practical sense.*' AVho has ever 
qnes-tioned it? Did not Mr. Mansfield in- 
form us that when a child also, he put coal 
into a tobacco-pipe, and luted it in with 
clay, and, placing the bowl in the fire, the 
emoke, as he termed the gas distilling through 
the stalk, could be ignited, tar vapour and 
all, into a stream of flanjc ? Hardly any 
child but has accomplished this feat in past 
days, when *'gas" was the new wonder. 
How singular, then, is it not to perceive the 



correct distinction drawn by Mr. AVilliams 
between this gas be/ore it is consumed, and 
the vapour or true smoke which ensues qfter 
it has been imperfectly consnmed. The gas 
so issuing from the pipe is perfectly con- 
sumed because it has plenty of air ; but 
when gas is distilled suddenly from coal 
thrown into a hot furnace, with a confined 
supply of air, then the true smoke results. 
A part of this gas only being inflamed when 
there is not air enough present for the whole, 
a compound vapour passes oiT through the 
flues, consisting of gases not decomposed at 
all ; carbonaceous particles, or soot, liberated 
from the hydrogen which is decomposed; 
nitrogen, carbonic acid, and the whole of 
these, incorporated with a large volume of 
steam generated from the consumed hydro- 
gen. This constitutes the true smoke tsea* 
ing from factory chimnies, and in no parti- 
cular has Mr. Williams done more real 
service than by pertinaciously (or ** prag- 
matically") discriminating this incombos- 
ble compound from the gaseous products 
distilling, before combustion, from the eoal, 
and which are " wholly and entirely com- 
bustible in a practical sense." 

There is no more important feature re- 
specting furnaces than the consideration of 
the effects of the steam yielded by consum- 
ing hydrogen. Tho forcible admixture of 
this product with the current in the flues, 
already lowered in temperature by the great 
heat abstracted in volatilizing the consti- 
tuents of the coal, acts as a powerful agent 
in checking further combustion and pro- 
moting smoke. Mr. Pahrer makes the 
extraordinarily crude assertion, that the 
flame of a candle ** is nothing but a pjm- 
mid of burning smoke ; " let him add, that 
the flame of an Argand gas-burner is nothing 
but a cylinder of burning smoke, his aseer- 
tion will have consistency, and be resolved 
to the simple proposition that gas ongki to 
be termed smoke. Some other name in place 
of smoke being, then, given to the cloud 
issuing from chimnies, we arrive simply at 
a change of nomenclature, which he may 
adopt for his own use, and whether other* 
choose to adopt it or not, we shall at least 
understand what it means. As to what the 
flame of a candle is, according to the scientific 
terms in use. I beg to refer him to your nom- 
her of the 2nd December last, page 634. Jn 
addition to what is there indicated, let Mr. 
Palmer bring the polished cold surface of a 
knife-blade within half an inch of the candle 
flume, and mark the deposition of steam, 
intercepted and condensed, as it flies 
rapidly outward into the surrounding air. 
lie will then appreciate the cfleets of this 
vapour, when forcibly confined and inter. 
mingled with the produots of the raw coal 
in narrow passages, such as the small tabes 



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MR. iniil JAMS ON COMBUSTION. 



of those boilers the evils of whose introdue- 
tion into the marine serriee Mr. Williams 
so amply explains and illustrates in his 
Treatise. In larger flaes it has a similar 
eflTect in smaller degree, if the whole gas is 
not at once converted at the proper point 
and time. In the " smoke " from the tobacco- 
pipe, the conical '* smoke " of the candle, 
and the cylindrical ** smoke " of the gas- 
burner, this steam rapidly liberates itself 
during combustion by its natural expansion. 
There is a singular oversight in Mr. Palmer's 
statement, that eoiii air mny be made almost 
to extinguish the flame of a candle. The 
fiercer burning of a fire in cold weather 
iHight have led him to suspect a fallacy. 
When a candle is supplied with " very cold 
air,'* the fiame is diminished in brightness, 
as we have all witnessed in the late intense 
season, simply by the fact that the tallow or 
eomposition becomes so cold, that the heat 
radiating downward from the flame is not 
adequate to melt the liouid fuel fast enough 
to supply the wick. Tliis is the solution of 
the paradox of a different action of the same 
cause tipoH the table and in the grate. How 
fortunate would it have been had the " in- 
tensely cold air" extinguished the late 
flames in Holland-street ! 

Last, on the ** hot air " mistake. It is 
quite true that if a fire be supplied with a 
given weight of air heated, and with the 
same weight of air cold, we may assume 
that the resolting heat in the first case will 
he so much greater as is the greater quantity 
of heat brought in with the heated air. But 
this proposition requires to be oorr3Ctly« 
applied and reaaoned on. Suppose a certain 
number of diffusion orifices, supplying jets 
of cold air to a furnace. Then let the same 
tpeigkt of heaied air be driven through these 
apertures. Say the air be heated to 500^, 
its volume will be doubled ; and to furnish 
the same weight of oxygen, a compression 
of one atmosphere must be effected. For 
many practical reasons, I do not consider 
that the beneficial combustion in the furnace 
would be increased by nearly all the amount 
of the 500<* of heat previously imparted to 
the air. But, for argument's sake, grant it 
would be so. What follows? What bearing 
will the admission have on any known con- 
struction of furnace? None at all. In 
order to »iy)p1y the same weight of oxygen 
for combustion as enters without effort when 
the air is permitted to be cold, we must have 
.1 eon^ressing or hltut- apparatus j engine, or 
other power to work it, and a heating- appO" 
ratut to heat the air. That is to say, a costly 
|»lant and two extra fires for the sole purpose 
of forcing into the '* smoke" air raised to 
about one.fourth the temperature, which it 
would inauntly assume from its own com- 
biution, if imffered to go in of itself, cold, at 



the proper time and place. No one has yet 
suggested such a preposterous "smoke-con- 
sumer ; " there has been no plan proposed 
for increasing the caloric of a furnace by 
** the caloric thus previously imparted to the 
air." Therefore Mr. Palmer speaks of no- 
thing but of a wasteful exploit which no 
sane msn will ever attempt to perform. 

In fact, nothing shows how little he is 
aware of the true bearings of his own data, 
thsn the reference to Juckes's grate. This 
is the most conclusive pf all cases against 
the hot-air quackery ; for there ia no furnace 
in which the air it and must be introduced 
so essentially cold as where these grates are 
used, and yet it is the mott petfeet of fmokt' 
eonmmert. The bars matt be kept as coid as 
possible, to preserve the links and coupling- 
pivots from rupture or distortion. When 
this grate is well made, and placed where 
there is a good chimney, with a sharp 
draught to pass the cold air rapidly In, ita 
success is complete, and it realiEcs the sav- 
ing asserted in the value of the fuel which it 
can consume. When properly working, the 
hand may be placed on the bars without 
inconvenience; and as there is, therefore, 
no hot ash-pit to even warm the air, and 
never any thickness of incandescent fuel for 
it to pass through, Mr. Palmer haa settled 
the hot-air ambiguity by quoting, in ita 
support, the best known smoke-consumer 
requiring the coldest known temperature of 
air. Where there is room to generate the 
steam from a large boiler surface by a low 
rate of combustion, and where the great 
weight of the machinery is no object, this 
self-feeding, cotd-air "smoke-consumer" 
is undoubtedly the best thing yet devised. 
I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

David Mushet. 

Feb. M, 18M. 



MR. WILLIAMS ON COMBUSTION. 

To the Editor qf the Meehaniet' Magazius, 

Sir, — I beg to assure Mr. Mushet, 
through your columns, that I did not over- 
look his previous letter, with reference to 
*' a most important mistake which had crept 
into the last edition of my work," on com- 
bustion. That misUke consisted in my 
having, in Mr. Mn»het*s opinion, attributed 
to Mr. Craddock ceruin views and state, 
menta in connection with the use of tubes 
in boilers ; but which were not borne out by 
what appeared in Mr. Craddock's published 

I lectures on his steam engine. 

I So far from overlooking Mr. Mushet's 
remarks, I immediately wrote Mr. Dircks 

j (his agent in London, and through whom 
I had been apprised of the alleged 



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206 



SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS BEOENTLT FILED. 



take), Mking if he bad the marooraBdum 
alluded to by Mr. Musbet, or a copy of it» 
at, being at the time, and long after, oon- 
fined and suffering under a serious illness, 
the matter had oninteotionally lain over, 
and I was unable to find it I would regret 
having published any misstatement of Mr. 
Craddook's views or facts ^ and if Mr. 
Mushet has a copy of the memorandum, or 
will be good enough to communicate to Mr. 
Direks the terms in which it was eonveyed, 
I will, witliout delay, request your giving it 
a plaeo in your columns. 

I avail myself of the present opportunity 
of giving insertion to the following letter, on 
the subject of Mr. Baddeley's oommunioa* 
tion in your Magasine, of the 17 th ult., 
page 159. That gentleman having thought 
it extraordinary I should disclaim the term 
Arg9md, as applied to my mode of intro- 
ducing air to furnaces, or my having given 
it that name, I replied that I could not 
claim what did not belong to me. The foU 
lowing letter, from Mr. Diroks, will, I trust, 
satisfy Mr. Baddeley on that head. 
I am, Sir, yoors, &e., 

C. W. Williams. 
Liverpool, Feb. M, 1855. 

MK. DIRCK'8 LBTtBR TO MR. WILUAMR, 

" Dear Sir, — In reply to your esteemed 
letter, of the Idth instant, I beg to state that 
it was about 1840-1, when I first adopted 
the title of *Argand furnace ^ to distinguish 
your invention from the numerous schemes 
for ' smoke-burning.' the term Argand has 
since become as much a conventional or 
household word as MacAdam or Kyan. 
Having been transferred from distinguish- 
ing a peculiar constmction of ail-lamp, to 
designate an improved gas-burner, the tran. 
sition was natural as applied to your fttr- 
nace ; for, as the Argand ' gas-burner* pre- 
sents jets of gas to a body of air, your 
arrangement of distributors presents jets of 
air to a body of gas. This principle was 
fully discussed and applied in your specifi- 
cation of 1839, and in the first edition of 
your work on the 'Combustion of Coal.' 
Since my denominating it ' the Argand fur- 
nace,* it has been universally known by that, 
and by no other name. 

*' I am. Sir, yours, &e., 

•* H. DiRCKi. 
<* LowloA, S2, MeoTftale^reet, 
Feb. 21, 18^" 



ELASTIC WOOLLEN CLOTHS. 

To (he Editor of Vie Mechanics" Magazine, 

Sib, — Has it occurred to any manufac* 
turer of woollea goods to nsake a material 



for trousers which, when worn, would not be 
so liable to become stretched at the knee as 
the fabrics now in use 7 Such a maonfaoture 
I have no doubt would be among the num. 
ber of those which meet with success. With 
regard to the means of efiecting this object, 
the following suggestions may be of use: 
A thin sheet of vulcanized India-rubber 
may be attached by cement (if auch there 
be), or otherwise to tlie reverse aide of the 
material of which the leg of the trouser is 
made ; this will expand and bear the atrain 
consequent upon the bending of the leg, 
and when the strain is removed, the India, 
rubber will return to its former position, 
bringing with it the fabric to which it is at. 
tached. Another, and perhaps a better mode 
is that suggested by ihe specification of a 
patent granted in 1833, to Mr. R. W. Sievier, 
for " Improvemenu in the making or ma. 
nufaoturing of elastic goods or fabrica," the 
second object of which patent is '* to maau* 
facture in the ordinary loom on elastic wool- 
len cloth by the introduction of cords or 
strands of India-rubber among the longi- 
tudinal threads or yarns which constitute 
the chain or warp, and alao among the 
transverse threads or yams which constitute 
the weft or shoot, and which cloth shall 
be capable of being afterwards iielted and 
dreaeed with a nap." Now were this plan 
of " introducing cords or strands of India- 
rubber" adopted, an elastic strip, about four 
or five inches wide, might be woven in the 
material (aa the ornamental strip is at pre* 
sent produced) in such a poaition, that when 
•made into trousers this elaatic strip would 
pasa down each leg in front of the knee, and 
being felted and dreased with a nap, would 
not be apparent on the o^taide, but from Ha 
elaatioity, would yield to the strain, and 
when releaaed, return to its fonner positioiK 
Hoping that theae suggestions may be of 
use to some of your readers who are engaged 
ia the manufacture of woollen cloth, 
1 am, Sir, yours, &c., 

SVBSCRIBBR. 
Feb. 28, 1855. 

SPECIFICATIONS OF PATENTS 
RECENTLY FILED. 

SoREsiNA, Paul Garavaolia de, of 
Bedford-row, Middlesex. Improvements in 
treating JLax and hemp. Patent dated Au- 
gust 2, 1854. (No. 1703.) 

This invention consists in subjecting flax 
and hemp to the percolation of cold water, 
under pressure, to the action of grooved 
rollers, steam, &c. 

Rye, William, and William Crow. 
TH£R,bothof Oldham, Lancaster, engineers. 
Improvements in steam-engines. Patent 
dated Auguat 3, 1854. (No. 1705.) 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



8PECI7I0ATI0NB OF PATENTS SSCBMTLY KLBD. 



207 



This iDTention relates to the go? ernon of 
steam-engines, and consists in the employ- 
ment of a sliding bush and tapered tappets 
in such manner that when the engfine is 
working at its proper velocity the governor 
holds the bush in such a position that the 
tapered tappets impart the requisite motion 
to the expansion valves, for admitting the 
regular quantity of steam ; but when, owing 
to the diminished velocity of the engine, 
the governor balls collapse, the sliding 
bush of the governor acts upon levers 
which move the sliding hush, and the tap. 
peta are made to increase the traverse of 
the expansion valves until the engine 
r^ains its regular velocity. 

Tetley, Charles, o( Thurlow - villa, 
Dulwicli, Surrey. Improvements in rotatory 
engines to he worked by steam or water. Pa* 
tent dated August 3, 1854. (No. 1706.) 

This invention consists in combining the 
parta of rotatory engines " in such manner, 
that the pressure of the atmosphere shall 
act on both ends of the axis of such en- 
gines, or when one of the ends of a rotating 
hollow axis of such an engine is subjected 
to the pressure of the steam or water, the 
other end of the axis shall be subjected to 
a like pressure, thus keeping tlie axis of 
such engines in a state of equilibrium in 
respeet to end pressure when rotating." 

GosftAOB, William, of Widneti, Lan- 
caster, maAutaoturiftg ehemist Improve* 
menis in the wMarfacture rf eertmn kinds oi 
soap and other detergent eomponnds. Patent 
dated August 3, 1864. ( No. 1707.) 

These improvementa mainly oonaiat in the 
application of solutions of solnble glass t* 
the production of oompouod soap by mixing 
them with genuine soap made from rosin, 
combined with not move than donble its 
quantity of tallow or oil, or of a mixture of 
uDcw and oil. 

Hallbn, Edward, of Comwall-road« 
Lambeth, Survey. Certain improne m ente in 
chairs, ehatr^hedoteadst and other seats and 
bodsteods. Patent dated Angust 4, 1854. 
(No. 1708.) 

This invention consists in forming ehairs, 
&C., with sliding-lrames or supports, and in 
making flat iron frames, and filling the same 
in with a webbing of cane or other nui- 
tcrial, &c. 

Milks, Louis Plater, of Ravens- 
bourne-park, Lewiaham, Kent, gentleman. 
Improvements in the eonstmetion qf loeko^ 
Patent dated August 4, 1854. (No. 1709.) 

The Bsveutev constructs his lock with 
certain spring tumblers combined with 
another tumbler, called a" regulator," which 
has a diiierent motion from tiw others, and ia 
without a spring ; it receives the pressure 
from the springs of the other tumbkrs, mt4 
iu case of any attempt at piekiag it^ le-aeta 



I upon them, and produces " a combination of 
difficulties." 

Taylor, Samuel Lawrence, of Cotton- 
end, Bedford. Improvements in constructing 
and arranging the beaters and dressing machi^ 
nerff qf threshing machines. Patent dated 
August 4, 1854. (No. 1711.) 

The inventor employs as beaters plates of 
iron, formed with ridges and fixed with 
screws, and the grain falls from the straw- 
shaking apparatus of the threshing ma- 
ehinery on to an inclined platform to 
which a shaking or vibratory motion is given. 

KoRTRioHT, Alfred, of James-street, 
Adelphi, Middlesex, commander. Royal 
Navy. Improvements in marine and ftir- 
veying compasses. Patent dated August 4, 
1864. (No. 1713.) 

Claim. — The construe lion of marine and 
surveying compasses in oast-iron rings or 
cases, which rings or oases may or may not 
be electro-typed. 

Harrison, Charles Wbiohtman, of 
Richmond, Surrey, electric engineer. Im- 
provements in obtaining and applying electric 
currents^ and in the treatment of certain pro- 
duets derived in obtaining the same, part or 
parts qf which improvements is or are appU- 
cable to the production qf motive power. 
Patent dated August 4, 1854. (No. 1714.) 

Claisu^l. The employment of sodium or 
potassium, in combination with zinc, zinc 
and mercury, or any other metals whatever, 
as positive eleetrodea in gaWanic arrange- 
ments, 2. The employment of positive 
electrodes, consisting of an amalgam or 
eompound of mercury and zinc.^ — 3. The 
employment of an alloy or compound of 
iron and platinum, as negative electrodes. 
4. The employment of negative electrodes 
formed of divided or partly divided plates 
or sheets of metal. 5. The eenstruetion 
and use of a certain described concentric 
galvanic battery. 6. The use in galvanic 
singW-fittid arrangements of a solution of 
nitrous acid, consisting of equal or nearly 
equal parts of nitrous acid and water. 7. 
The use of hypochlorous acid or euchlo- 
rine, either as an exciting or secondary 
agent, or both. 8. The employment of 
cells or divisions f<Hrmed wholly or in part 
of asbestos. 9. The employment of square, 
fiat, or rectangular wires or ribbons in the 
construction and use of eleet