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THK filFT OF
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Letter of Transmittal 3
Irrigated Lands of Washington 7-15
Lands Watered 7
Methods of Irrigation 7
Capital Required 9
Special Advantages 9
Selecting a Location 11
Frost Data 13
Climatic Table 15
The Irrigated District by Counties —
Chelan County 17-25
n::!> Okanogan County 25-37
Stevens County 37-39
Spokane County 41-45
Grant County 45-47
Douglas County 49-51
Yakima Valley 53-57
Kittitas County .57-59
Yakima County 59-63
Benton County 63-67
Walla Walla County. 67-71
Asotin County 71-73
Other Eastern Washington Lands 73-75
Irrigation in Western Washington 75-79
Clallam County 75
X Pierce County 79
•^ Earning a Living before Orchards Come into Bearing 81-91
' r^ Profits from Irrigated Lands 91-95
^ Cost of Placing Land in Crop 96
A WASHINGTON MOUNTAIN STREAU
STATE or WASHINGTON
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Bureau of Statistics and Immigration
THE IRRIGATED LANDS
STATE OF WASHINGTON
By CEO. M. ALLEN
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Office OF the
Bureau of Statistics and Immigration.
Olympia, Sept. 20, 1910.
Hon. I, M. Howell, Ex-offlcio Commissioner :
Sir — ^Pursuant to your instructions, I have prepared and
have the honor to transmit herewith a report deahng with the
irrigated lands of this state, with a recommendation that an
edition of 10,000 copies of same be pubHshed for general dis-
tribution in connection with the work of this department.
Geo. M. Allen,
Approved for publication, October 1, 1910.
I. M. Howell,
It is quite within the range of possibilities that the products of
the irrigated lands of Washington will in time exceed in annual value
the present output from our combined timber and cereal-producing
areas. Inasmuch as the forest and grain products aggregate not less
than $100,000,000 in value each year, this statement might, at first
thought, be viewed as one born of undue enthusiasm. Regarded in the
light of the facts, however, it would appear conservative.
Careful authorities have estimated that the total irrigable lands of
the state exceed 2,000,000 acres in area, of which not more than
twenty-five per cent, have thus far been reclaimed. With this entire
area productive, to secure a yield of $100,000,000 in value annually
would require only an average of $50.00 per acre — an amount far below
the returns from lands now irrigated and which have reached the pro-
In this report an effort has been made to review the progress of
irrigation in the state up to the present time and to assemble such
facts as will be of assistance to homeseekers who may be in search of
a location on irrigated lands. The development to date has been small
in comparison with what will occur in the future. The activity of the
federal reclamation service, coupled with that of private companies, will
result in tens of thousands of acres of land being reclaimed and placed
on the market within the next few years.
This situation has created an insistent demand upon the state au-
thorities for information, which it is the purpose of this report to
supply, in so far as is possible within its fixed limitations. It has not
been possible within the scope of this pamphlet to describe every pro-
ject and community in the irrigated districts, the aim being to make
the report as reasonably representative of the various counties where
irrigation is practiced as circumstances would admit.
Much of the data has been secured from field investigations and
through reports of men actually engaged in the cultivation of irrigated
lands. Government reports and other recognized authorities have
also been freely consulted. It is believed, therefore, that the informa-
tion presented will be found reliable and fairly comprehensive, and it
is hoped the pamphlet will prove of service to many who may be look-
ing to Washington irrigated lands for a new home location.
Special acknowledgement is due Mr. S. O. Jayne, irrigation expert of
the United States department of agriculture, for valuable data sup-
plied in preparing the map of irrigated and irrigable lands which iff
THE IRRIGATED LANDS OF WASHINGTON
Generally speaking, the bulk of the irrigated lands of the state lies
along the valleys of the streams which find their sources in the eastern
slopes of the Cascade mountains. These rivers, chief among which
are the Yakima, Wenatchee, Entiat, Methow and Salmon, traverse a
series of valleys, once a waste of arid sagebrush lands. Now these
same lands present in many places the aspect of one continuous garden
and orchard, reaching for miles up and down the streams.
The proximity of these extensive arid sections to the mountain
streams and the swift descent of the latter from their places of origin
in the Cascades to their respective points of confluence with the Colum-
bia river present a combination of natural conditions highly favorable
to the development of extensive irrigation enterprises.
Not only the low lands immediately adjacent to the streams are
thus brought within reach of gravity water flow, but the higher levels
or bench lands are also irrigated in the same manner, the canals and
flumes reaching such lands, often being visible, clinging to the cliffs
several hundred feet above the stream level. To accomplish the water-
ing of the high lands, it has been necessary to build immense reservoirs
for impounding flood waters, to tunnel mountains in search of proper
grades for carrying the canals, and to overcome many other obstacles
requiring expert engineering skill.
In addition to the lands immediately tributary to the above men-
tioned streams, there are considerable irrigated areas located at var-
ious points along the Columbia river and in the country lying east of
that stream, as well as vastly larger tracts that still remain unre-
claimed. To a small extent irrigation is also practiced in western
Washington. All of the above sections are treated elsewhere and in
detail in this report.
METHODS OP IRRIGATION.
Various methods of irrigation have been devised where conditions
were such as to preclude the possibility of securing gravity water.
Pumping plants operated by electricity or gasoline are employed quite
extensively. Such plants are common along the Columbia river and
are also in frequent use at points away from the streams where well
water is available reasonably close to the surface. On some of the
streams, current wheels have also been found a useful and economical
means of irrigating, where a small lift only is required. Irrigation
Washington Irrigated Lands 9
by pumping bids fair to be undertaken on an extensive scale with
the development of plants for the conversion of available water power
into electrical energy.
The amount of ready money required to insure success to a person
locating on irrigated lands depends largely upon the individual, the
number of acres he desires to secure, his willingness to endure tem-
porary hardships and his ability to support himself and family while
his lands are non-producing. The development of a tract of irrigated
land is not what is usually termed "a poor man's proposition." Raw
land under ditch and ready for improvement will cost $200.00 and up-
wards per acre. Usually it may be purchased on terms extending
over a period of several years, but the man without means to make the
first two or three payments will need to draw heavily on his ability as
a ''hustler" if he succeeds in meeting his obligations as they mature.
He must count also on the expense of clearing and planting his land,
building a house, cost of farm implements, a horse or team and wagon,
and when these are provided, he must look forward to a considerable
period during which he will receive practically no direct returns from
his land. Some men, it is true, have started in practically without
ready resources, save an abundance of pluck, and ability to turn every
opportunity to account, and have succeeded beyond their expectations;
but they are in the minority. An available capital of $2,000.00 is none
too much to start with, and the settler's prospects of success will be
augumented in proportion as his cash resources are greater.
As an offset to the somewhat onerous conditions enumerated above,
the man who locates on Washington irrigated land enjoys certain ad-
vantages to which the average farmer is a stranger. If he has exer-
cised ordinary judgment in the selection of his land, the element of
chance is largely eliminated from his field of operations. His rela-
tion to his land may be likened to that of a manufacturer to his plant.
His raw materials are in the soil and in the moisture supply which is
independent of natural precipitation and available for use at a moment's
notice. In the warm sunshine, continuing at times for six months
without interruption, he finds the motive force necessary for trans-
forming his raw material into the manufactured article. His crop
ready for shipment represents his finished product, the selling qualities
of which are largely governed by the skill and energy he applies in
its growth and the preparation for market.
If his soil lacks any of the essential elements that make for fertility
and productiveness, he can call to his aid the experience of state and
federal experts, who will advise him as to the best method of meeting
his particular problem. The same advantage holds good with reference
to the garden and orchard pests he will encounter. Remedies have been
Washington Irrigated Lands 11
found for practically all of them, and the proper authorities will instruct
him in their application.
If he possess initiative and a desire to experiment, he may originate
improved methods and economies which will work to his financial
betterment. In any event, his work will provide him a constant mental
stimulus as well as a field for physical effort, and all the advantages
will accrue to him that are inherent in a life of out-door activity.
To the foregoing should be added the fact that the irrigated sec-
tions within a few years become thickly settled. Twenty acres con-
stitute a large holding, and the tendency is in the direction of five- and
ten-acre tracts to the family. Neighbors, in consequence, are close at
hand, rural mail delivery is generally established, good roadways are
constructed, improved railroad facilities induced, while schools and
churches are always readily accessible. In short, the social side of life,
throughout the irrigated districts, will be found developed on a sane,
SELECTING A LOCATION.
The best suggestion that can be given upon the above point is for
each person to make an investigation for himself and find a location
that will best suit his particular requirements or purposes. It is not
safe, under any circumstances, to buy land without having first seen
it, or, in any event, without having a report from some person of good
judgment and established reliability. Inferior tracts may be found in
the best districts, and the only way to make sure of avoiding such lo-
cations is to secure first-hand information before purchasing.
There are a number of companies developing fruit lands in the
state that undertake to plant the tracts they sell and care for same
until the bearing period is reached. Where the responsibility of the
company is fully established and the land is known to be adapted to the
purpose, this plan of securing land may be profitably followed. The
chief advantage lies in the fact that the purchaser may continue at his
customary vocation during the period his land is non-productive.
The soil of the irrigated districts is in the main similar to that
which is characteristic of eastern Washington as a whole. It is com-
posed largely of a mixture of ash or dust of volcanic origin, sedimentary
deposits washed down from the mountains and surrounding hills, and
disintegrated basaltic rocks which through the ages have undergone
a pulverizing process. Combined with accretions of decayed organic
matter in varying quantities, it possesses great fertility, is remarkable
for its moisture-retaining qualities, and is easily and readily tilled.
It occurs in different depths, ranging from three feet to sixty feet,
and there is often found an underlying strata of gravel providing ready
drainage. In response to the application of water, it yields prolifically
of all manner of products common to temperate and semi-tropical
Washington Irrigated Lands
Inasmuch as different points in the section of the state under con-
sideration vary widely in altitude, it is difficult to generalize with
reference to climatic conditions. The characteristics are dry, hot
summers and moderately cold winters, with a snowfall varying from a
few inches to several feet. At times extremes both of heat and cold are
experienced. The absence of moisture from the atmosphere operates
against excessive discomfort from the heat, and the summer nights
usually bring a pleasing coolness. The spring and autumn seasons are
delightful, the only annoying feature being the prevailing winds,
which lose much of their unpleasantness, however, as the area of
orchards increases. The accompanying tabulations from reports of the
United States weather bureau present detailed climatic data covering
numerous points in the district:
FROST DATA FOR EASTERN WASHINGTON.
(From Report of U. S. Weather Bureau).
Okanogan Country- -
Big Bend Country—
Walla Walla and Snake
Upper Columbia Val.—
Waihington Irrigated Landi
THE IRRIGATED DISTRICTS BY COUNTIES
Chelan county is located on the eastern slopes of the Cascade moun-
tains, the summits of which constitute the county's western border.
It extends eastward to the Columbia river, and the county's three im-
portant valleys, the Wenatchee, Entiat and Chelan, slope from the
mountain peaks to the edge of the river. In these valleys, and more
especially in the first named, the development of irrigated lands to a
high productive state has been reduced almost to an exact science.
THE WENATCHEE VALLEY.
The Wenatchee valley has attained more than a local reputation as
"The Home of the Big Red Apple" and as the section where "Dollars
Grow on Trees," and an astonishing array of facts and figures may be
assembled in support of the contentions expressed in these familiar
The line of the Great Northern railway, passing up this valley on
its way to tidewater on Puget Sound, is bordered on both sides by an
almost continuous succession of orchards, which cease only when the
arable valley lands merge into the more rugged surface of the moun-
Individual Holdings Small.
The individual holdings are comparatively small, the tracts owned
by a single family usually running five, ten or twenty acres. Ex-
cellent wagon and automobile roads traverse the valley, and a trip
by motor or rig over its length gives one the impression of driving
about the suburbs of some large city. Neighbors all along the route
are close to each other, and everywhere there is manifest the evidences
of a friendly rivalry in the beautification of home surroundings.
In the earlier days, small diversions of water were made by settlers
who occupied the level lands along the river, for the purpose of
irrigating their alfalfa fields. Some domestic orchards were inci-
dentally set out, and the remarkable results obtained from these paved
the way to the extensive scale upon which fruitraising as a commer-
cial enterprise is conducted at the present time.
For a number of years, moneyed interests have been engaged in the
construction and development of irrigation enterprises, and it is
c Pkoject, Okasogas (
Chelan County 19
quite evident at the present time that within a very few years every
available acre of irrigable land in the valley will be reclaimed.
In the district lying between Leavenworth and Rock Island on the
'Columbia river, and including several thousand acres on the east side
of the Columbia river opposite Wenatchee, it is estimated that there
are not less than 28,000 acres of land under irrigation.
Wenatchee Canal Company.
Practically one-half of the above acreage is under the ditches of
the Wenatchee Canal Company, which is now engaged in enlarging
its high line canal in anticipation of supplying several thousand
acres of bench lands with water. This company's operations extend
the full length of the valley, reaching also across the Columbia river
into Douglas county.
What is known as the Old Mission canal is being replaced by a new
ditch fed at Icicle creek, near the town of Leavenworth. The new
project will cover the lands now watered by the Mission canal and an
additional 2,000 acres. The lands are located between Leavenworth
and Monitor, and the total length of the ditch will be 18 miles. It is
being constructed on the most approved lines, involving the replacing,
at intervals, of wooden flumes by tunnels driven through solid rock.
Lands to the amount of 1,000 acres, located between Peshastin and
^Monitor, are watered by the Jones-Shotwell ditch. The water for the
project is taken from Peshastin creek.
Wenatchee Water Power Company.
The above company's ditch, known also as the Gunn ditch, provides
ivater for about 1,500 acres of land lying between the towns of Cash-
mere and Wenatchee. It is estimated that fully 80 per cent, of the
orchards under this project are in bearing.
Centering about the little town of Cashmere is a thickly settled
section of about 1,200 acres of land. This is one of the beauty spots of
the Wenatchee valley, happily termed "The Vale of Cashmere." There
is a diversification of effort here, fruitraising being supplemented by
dairying, poultry-raising and gardening, the district as a whole pre-
senting rural conditions almost ideal.
At Malaga, a fruit and hay district located seven miles south of
Wenatchee on the Columbia river, is the Lockwood ditch, which waters
3,500 acres of land. This is one of the oldest ditches in the valley.
Its water supply is obtained from Stemilt creek.
Near Leavenworth, several hundred acres of land are supplied
with water through the Peters ditch.
Chelan County 21
In addition to the areas above enumerated, there are many small
tracts under private irrigation ditches, located in the numerous creek
valleys and gulches which head into the Wenatchee valley proper.
Some of these lands are supplied with water from live rivulets, others
from springs and still others from small storage reservoirs in which
the spring flood waters are impounded.
Prices of Lands.
Prices of lands in the Wenatchee valley cover an extremely wide
range. The prospective purchaser may exercise a choice extending
from raw lands at $400.00 and $500.00 per acre to full bearing orchards
for which selling prices have been recorded five and six times the
above amounts. Under these conditions, he may regulate his purchase
to suit his particular inclinations or the limitations of his resources.
In locating in this section, the homeseeker has the advantage of
rail transportation both east and west, affording easy access to es-
tablished markets extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific coasts. In
addition, he will find himself in an environment where pioneer con-
ditions have been met and overcome, where good schools and churches
are at hand, with telephone and rural mail delivery established, and
all the other accessories of our advanced civilization readily avail-
In summer, the pine-covered slopes of nearby tnoiintains, their
lakes and streams filled with trout, offer a pleasant field for recrea-
tion, while but a short half day's trip over the range is Puget Sound
with its myriad islands and 2,000 miles of shore line, one of the
country's greatest summer playgrounds.
The growing city of Wenatchee, the metropolis of the valley, is
easily reached from all points in the district. It is a thriving place,
having advanced in a few years from a village to a trade and distri-
buting center of commanding importance. The rapid growth of the
city is bringing many metropolitan advantages within reach of resi-
dents of the valley.
THE ENTIAT VALLEY.
The Entiat river rises in the Cascade mountains 60 miles from its
point of confluence with the Columbia, and is a typical mourtain
stream, having an average fall of 50 feet to the mile. The valley is
exceptionally narrow, mountains towering on either side to a height
ranging from 1,000 to 3,000 feet.
The fruit lands of the valley extend for a distance of about fifteen
miles up the river from its mouth, and in many respects conditions
of soil, climate, etc., are similar to those found in the valley of the
Wenatchee. On the lower lands, near the river, peaches have been
found to yield abundantly, while farther up the stream winter apples
of fine quality and size are raised. At the Portland and St. Louis
Three- Year-Old AprLB Tees in "Uppeii Columbii Orchabds," Near Marble,
Chelan County 2S
expositions apples raised in this district were awarded gold medals
and other prizes.
Above the fruit line the cultivated lands are devoted chiefly to
hay production, timothy being the leading crop. There is a plentiful
timber supply in this valley, and to its other advantages are added
remarkable possibilities for power development.
LAKE CHELAN DISTRICT.
Adjoining the shores of Lake Chelan, and also occupying favorable
locations in the nearby draws and gulches, are numerous fruit farms,
many of which, however, have not as yet been brought under irriga-
tion. Until within recent years, the theory was held by many that
fruitgrowing in this district could be developed into a profitable in-
dustry, independent of any artificial water supply. The presence of
moisture in greater or less quantities, supplied through sub-irriga-
tion, was a known factor in the problem, and it was determined with-
out much difficulty that trees would reach the bearing stage, inde-
pendent of surface application of water.
Beyond that stage, however, results were uncertain, and trees after
reaching an age of ten to twelve years frequently showed a tendency
to weakness in production and other evidences of exhausted vitality.
Under these circumstances, the fruitgrowers of the district began
devising ways and means of irrigating their tracts. In some cases,
power pumps have been installed, capable of lifting water from the
lake to a considerable height on the nearby bench lands. Other
growers have access to gulches or canyons, and by impounding their
waters when in freshet secure a sufficient supply to insure maturing
At the present time an important irrigation project is being
worked out, covering several thousand acres of land lying along the
north shore of the lake a short distance west of the town of Chelan.
The location with respect to the lake and mountains is delightful,
and all the requisites of soil and climate are present to make fruit-
growing highly successful. The mild nature of the climate and the
absence of late frosts have made it possible to grow peaches, apricots,
English walnuts, etc., with great success.
The problem of transportation is the most serious one that con-
fronts the people of this section. The towns of Lakeside and Chelan
are located side by side at the extreme eastern end of the lake, and
the fruit lands are near by. The steamer landing on the Columbia
river is four miles distant, and the wagon road is steep and narrow, in-
volving a climb in its short length of about 300 feet. The traffic, at
present, is cared for by stage and freight wagons. That improved
transportation facilities will come in time is certain, particularly in
Okanogan County 26
view of the fact that an immense power development is contemplated
from Chelan falls.
Lands Near River Mouth.
Near the mouth of the Chelan river is a splended body of land well
adapted to irrigation, but as yet undeveloped. A few miles farther
south is a tract of several hundred acres now being brought under
irrigation. Land here is plowed and set out in trees before being sold,
prices ranging from $350.00 per acre upwards.
A Summer Resort.
Lake Chelan has long been famous as a summer resort, and annually
attracts large numbers of tourists to enjoy its manifold advantages of
boating, fishing, hunting, etc.
THE METHOW VALLEY.
Sixty miles above the City of Wenatchee and almost at the point
where the Columbia river makes its "Big Bend" to the eastward the
waters of that stream are joined by those of the Methow river. Rising
far up in the Cascade mountains, the Methow pursues a general south-
easterly course, and towards its lower end runs almost parallel to the
The Methow is a turbulent stream, averaging a drop of 25 feet to the
mile and carrying a heavy volume of water throughout the irrigation
season. The question of water supply will never become of serious
moment in this valley, owing to the above fact, and there is an abun-
dant surplusage to cover several other large irrigable sections lying
along the Columbia and Okanogan rivers.
The valley attains a total length of about eighty miles, and for a
distance of more than fifty miles the lands are splendidly adapted to a
wide variety of agricultural purposes. In general the valley is nar-
row, seldom attaining a width in excess of two and one-half miles, and
for much of its length being less than half as wide. In earlier days,
stockraising was a leading industry, the natural grazing afforded by
the hillsides being supplemented by remarkable yields of alfalfa on the
lower lands. In later years corn has been found a profitable crop,
while all manner of tree and small fruits and garden truck is ex-
tensively raised. Dairying is finding favor with many of the farmers,
and several creameries are well supported.
At the present time the valley is in a transition stage, the larger
holdings being rapidly brought under irrigation and sold off in small
Okanogan County 27
tracts. It is still possible, however, to secure a quarter section in a
single tract, and an occasional relinquishment of a homesteader's
right is offered for sale.
A number of individuals, companies and associations of land owners
have constructed irrigation ditches to water their lands, and others are
making similar preparations. Such lands may be purchased under a
variety of conditions. They may be bought outright for cash, or on
installments, or by part payment of cash and the balance extending^
over a period of years. Some of the companies for an additional fee
undertake to clear the land, plant it to trees and care for them until
of bearing age. Where the purchaser does not wish to move im-
mediately on the land, this plan is very satisfactory and has many
advantages, provided full assurance of the responsibility of the com-
pany has been obtained.
It has been estimated that there are not less than thirty thousand
acres of irrigable land in the valley, of which probably fifteen thousand
acres are now being watered. Much of this is good fruit land, and
thousands of apple trees have been planted during the past season.
Domestic orchards have been producing in the valley for many years,
and its fruitgrowing possibilities have been thoroughly established.
There will always be a diversity of occupations in this valley, how-
ever, and its prestige as a producer of fat beef, alfalfa, corn and other
products is not likely to diminish.
Prices of Lands.
There is considerable range in the values of lands in this valley.
Raw tracts without water may be found at $60.00 to $75.00 per acre, but
generally the prices range higher. For lands under ditch, with a
water-right, the prices vary from $250.00 to $350.00 per acre. By
reason of the desire on the part of many of the older settlers to
realize on their holdings and seek a newer environment, land may be
purchased at times, under exceptionally favorable conditions.
The Methow valley has suffered from a lack of transportation fa-
cilities, and there is as yet no definite information as to when this
difficulty will be overcome. All traffic at present is by stage and
freight team from Pateros, which is reached by the Columbia river
steamers from Wenatchee, and is also the present southern terminus of
the railway now building from Oroville. A railroad up the valley is
a crying need and one almost certain to be supplied ere long. One of
the principal state roads extends up the valley and is the highway over
which the bulk of the traffic at present is borne.
At the mouth of the river and touching also along the bank of the
Columbia is a tract of 360 acres irrigated by the Pateros Water Ditch
Okanogan Cotmty 29
Company. This land has been under ditch for nearly six years, and
is almost entirely in fruit.
The Larrabee ditch supplies about 200 acres of land lying along
the Methow from four to eight miles above Pateros. Construction
work on this project is about completed.
Opposite the Larrabee holdings is the Vroman ditch, watering a
small tract of land. At Black canyon and Squaw creek tracts of
about 75 acres each are being irrigated.
Near the village of Methow is the Bolinger ditch, carrying double
the amount of water necessary to irrigate the 400 acres it supplies.
This ditch is built on permanent lines throughout its entire length of
five miles. The property is being cut up into tracts at prices ranging
from $250.00 to $300.00 per acre.
The Methow Canal Company irrigates 4,000 acres of land lying on
both sides of the river below the town of Twisp. The main canal
receives its water supply from the Twisp river at a point several miles
above the town and follows the west side of the Methow. Some dis-
tance below Twisp a portion of the water is diverted through a pipe
line and carried across the river to irrigate the lands on the east side.
Practically all of this company's lands are under ditch and are being
sold in small orchard tracts. A plan for the development and dis-
tribution of electric lights and power is under consideration by the
Adjoining Beaver creek, which enters the Methow from the east
about twenty-eight miles above its mouth, there are nearly two
thousand acres of land ^nder irrigation. The lands lie on both sides
of the creek and the water is supplied from a reservoir and canal
built at the joint expense of the interested land-owners. Probably not
to exceed two-thirds of the land irrigated is as yet under cultivation,
and there is a limited additional acreage not yet watered.
Along Benson creek, a few miles below Beaver, there are several
hundred acres of bench land under ditch and generally cultivated.
A few miles above Twisp is the Barclay project, comprising about
1,200 acres of land, of which approximately one-half is watered. The
lands are located on the east side of the river and the point of water
diversion is about six miles north of Twisp. Along the Twisp river
there are four hundred acres watered, with an additional six hundred
acres that will be irrigated later on.
The Uppek Methow Country.
Above Twisp, the valley broadens considerably, and, following the
main stream from Winthrop northwest for a distance of 20 miles, the
first flat averages a mile in width.
The Foghorn ditch, constructed some seven years ago, waters about
600 acres of land, beginning near Winthrop and extending several
miles down stream.
Beginning at a point three miles above Winthrop, there are three
small canals, each with a capacity for watering about 100 acres.
Okanogan County 31
From Wolf creek, water has been diverted through several ditches
for watering a total of 500 acres of private holdings.
Eight miles above Winthrop is the Rock View ditch, a neighbor-
liood enterprise which supplies about 300 acres, with a capacity for
double that amount. In a similar manner, 200 acres are watered some
four miles nearer Winthrop.
On the North Fork, about nine miles from Winthrop, is the Sky
Liine project, designed to water 1,500 acres. When completed it will
represent an expenditure of $25,000.00.
• The Fulton ditch, taking water from the North Fork, waters 220
acres of land, devoted chiefly to alfalfa.
Land to the extent of 1,300 acres will be watered by the Chiwak
Canal Company's ditch, which is one of the important newer projects.
The point of water diversion is eight miles above Winthrop, and the
main canal attains a length of eleven miles. There are a number
of additional smaller ditches along the river which increase the total
irrigated area in this section by several hundred acres.
THE BREWSTER FLATS.
Extending north from the town of Brewster a distance of several
miles, and reaching back from the Columbia and Okanogan rivers
toward the foothills, lie the Brewster flats. These lands, compris-
ing about 15,000 acres, present extremely favorable conditions for de-
velopment under irrigation. With other areas lying contiguous to
the Okanogan, Columbia and Methow rivers, they combine to make a
total approximating 35,000 acres, all of which will undoubtedly be
reclaimed within the next few years.
The Brewster flats, proper, formerly were a part of the state's
school land, the bulk of them having passed into private ownership
within the past two years. They consist of comparatively level
bunchgrass benches, paralleling the river at elevations varying from
a few feet to 500 feet above the river level.
A plan was formulated several years ago for reclaiming this whole
district, but has not as yet been carried through to completion. It is
proposed to construct a diversion weir in the Methow near the town of
Twisp, where a supply of water is available sufficient to reach every
part of the district with a gravity flow. When a practical plan for
completing the project has been developed and financed, this section
will advance very rapidly. At present there are some 2,000 acres
watered, a large proportion of which is already in orchard. The soil
is a sandy loam, liberally mixed with the volcanic ash characteristic
of the region. A strata of gravel generally underlies the top soil at a
depth ranging from two feet to eight feet, affording excellent drainage.
Brewster Orchards Company.
The Brewster Orchards Company is the owner of a tract of 144
acres, all of which has been planted to standard winter apples. The
land adjoins the townsite of Brewster, lying between it and the river.
; FABU, NlUK EPBKATA,
Okanogan County 33
The trees on one-half of the tract are three years' old, and the balance
were planted last spring. The varieties planted are Spitzqnberg, Wine-
sap and Newtown Pippins. Mr. A. L. Smith, part owner and superintend-
ent of the orchard for the company, states that the above named are
the proven varieties for this section. Winesaps are known to give a
yield as prolific as the Ben Davis. Mr. Smith plants his trees at
intervals of 30 feet in rows 26 feet apart, using Anjou pears as fillers.
His trees have attained a remarkable growth for their age and give
every promise of developing into strong and vigorous bearers. Domes-
tic orchards in the neighborhood have been producing without failure
for upwards of a score of years.
Prices of Lands.
Raw lands without water-right may be purchased in the Brewster
district at prices ranging about $100.00 per acre, and, on account of
the uncertainty as to when the lands will be watered, favorable in-
vestment and speculative opportunities are presented. For land under
ditch or which can be watered from the existing canal, the price varies
from $250 to $350 per acre, depending on location, freedom from sur-
face rocks and general topography.
GOVERNMENT OKANOGAN PROJECT.
The above project comprises 10,000 acres of land lying along the
west bank of the Okanogan river. The tract consists of a series of
terraces or benches of what formerly were bunchgrass lands. The
lower lands are only slightly above the river level, while the higher
points reached by the supply ditch attain an elevation of 300 feet to
400 feet above the river. The lands irrigated extend up and down the
river a distance of ten miles, reaching on the north the little town of
Riverside, on the south the town of Okanogan and at a central loca-
tion on the bank of the river is the rapidly-growing community of
This is the first project completed by the government in the state,
and is regarded by experts as a model in stability of construction and
in respect tp economy of operation. The water for the lands is ob-
tained from the Salmon river, which empties into the Okanogan near
the south end of the project. To insure a plentiful supply, the flood
waters of the stream are impounded in two reservoirs of earth-filled
construction and located near the town of Conconully.
During the season of 1910, water was available for distribution
upon 8,900 acres of land, about one-half of which is under cultivation.
It is estimated that more than 4,000 acres have already been planted to
apple trees, the chief varieties being Winesaps, Jonathans, Spitzenbergs,
Rome Beauties and Newtown Pippins. The first two mentioned comprise
about 75 per cent, of the total acreage planted.
As is customary in government irrigation enterprises, the federal
Okanogan County 35
authorities deal with the landowners through a Water Users* Asso-
ciation. No individual can hold more than 40 acres of land, and a con-
dition of residence is provided whereby the owner must live upon or
within 50 miles of the project. The government's charge for a water-
right is $65.00 per acre, payable in ten annual installments, without
interest. Land values under the project range from $250.00 to $500.00
per acre, the latter price being asked for choice tracts, cleared and
planted to orchard.
This project is unusually favored in respect to air drainage, ele-
vation and other conditions which give assurance of immunity from
late frosts. The famous Pogue orchard is located here, upon which
peaches and apples have been raised for years without failure. The
additional advantage of an incontestable water-right, obtained direct
from the federal government, has appealed strongly to many home-
The new branch line of the Great Northern railway, now building
from Oroville to Pateros, passes down the river opposite the project,
and will afford a rail outlet to Spokane and eastern points. Another
extension of the same system is building which ultimately will give
access to coast ports in British Columbia. River steamers are in
operation between Wenatchee and Brewester, and in the summer season
run up as far as Riverside on the Okanogan.
The anticipated opening of the Colville Indian reservation will
undoubtedly stimulate other transportation interests to build in this
direction. There are several hundred acres of excellent land ad-
joining the limits of the project, which will be watered whenever land
values advance suflftciently to warrant the additional expense involved.
OTHER OKANOGAN VALLEY LANDS.
In addition to the projects and districts described somewhat in
detail in the foregoing pages, there are numerous smaller irrigation
enterprises in various stages of development, located up and down the
entire length of the Okanogan valley.
The lowlands adjoining the river are receiving first attention, and
reclamation of such tracts is proceeding very rapidly. The Okanogan
river is a sluggish stream, having very little fall, and hence unsuited
to the development of gravity systems of water distribution.
Some of the ranches along the river are irrigated from small creeks
or from reservoirs built in neighboring canyons. Others, and the
number of these is constantly growing, have installed pumps operated
by gasoline, finding this a cheap and satisfactory method of watering
From Ophir to Malott there is a large acreage of irrigable lands,
and near the latter point some 350 acres are under cultivation. West
of Malott on the higher levels 500 acres have been irrigated by means
of ditches supplied from storage reservoirs.
Further up on the Okanogan river, in fact along much of its course
Stevens County 37
from Brewster to Oroville, many of the old alfalfa and stock ranches
are now being divided up and sold off in small tracts. North of River-
side the valley widens out and an occasional clump of pine trees adds
variation to the scenery.
The town of Oroville is located a few miles south of the inter-
national boundary line. It is on the line of the Great Northern branch
which reaches Spokane on the east and will ultimately find outlets at
Wenatchee and at Pacific Coast points in British Columbia.
Oroville at present is a railroad point of importance, in the center of
expanding mining developments, and possesses all the characteristics
of a busy western community. The population is about 500. On the
east side of the river, directly opposite the town, and lying also along
the shore of Lake Osoyoos, is a tract of 1,000 acres of land well suited
to irrigation. A company has been organized for the purpose and will
install a 100-horse-power pump, taking water direct from the lake. The
company has begun active preparations looking toward the development
of this property, and it is announced that their plans will be carried
through to early completion. There are several other tracts of good
lands in the vicinity of Oroville which in time will become productive
under the stimulus of a plentiful water supply.
Stevens county is located in the extreme northeastern section of
the state, its chief physical features being the valleys of the Columbia
and Colville rivers. The irrigated lands of the county are found chiefly
along the borders of the first-named stream.
South of Kettle Falls, where the country is generally open, irriga-
tion has been in progress for a number of years. Some timber appears
at intervals and the hills back from the river are well wooded, afford-
ing a plentiful timber supply.
The irrigated lands comprise a narrow strip along the river, where
the soil is of a sandy loam, carrying a mixture of fine gravel.
The Fruitland Irrigation Company has completed a 7,000-acre pro-
ject in this locality, taking their water from the Colville river, the
length of ditch being 25 miles.
All grains, grasses, vegetables and many varieties of fruit produce
abundantly in this section, small farms, irrigated from nearby creeks,
having demonstrated its capabilities for all of the above products.
Stevens County 39
The timbered hills protect the valley from unpleasant winds, and the
climate on this account is more enjoyable than elsewhere.
Several other projects are being developed, and bench lands, as well
as the bottoms, are being placed under irrigation. Farther down, and
continuing in fact to the southern boundary of the county, irrigated
tracts will be found, as advantages of soil and location have warranted.
A second important irrigation district in Stevens county is lo-
cated on both sides of the Columbia river, well up toward the inter-
national boundary line.
The lands lie in a series of benches which originally were covered
with a growth of pine and tamarack timber. Several tracts, totaling
15,000 acres of irrigable land, are being opened here by the Upper
Columbia Company. The first unit of 1,500 acres is now nearing
completion. The lands extend from a point several miles north
of the town of Northport in a general southwesterly direction to and
some distance below the village of Marble. The method of irrigation
is by gravity flow, the water being secured from Deep creek. Crown
creek. Sheep creek. Onion creek, and other tributaries of the Columbia
river. The elevation varies from 1250 feet to 1750 feet.
Apples have been raised in this section for years without irrigation,
although the rainfall is not sufficient for maturing the fruit in perfect
Soil and Climate.
The soil is gravelly, with a liberal percentage of loam and vol-
canic ash, and fruit trees and all manner of vegetation grow very
The annual rainfall averages about 20 inches, and the company
contracts call for the delivery of one acre foot of water per season. The
rains occur chiefly during the spring months. Snow falls freely in
winter, and there is usually 60 days of good sleighing. The scenery
is relieved by wooded hills and mountains in the far background, and
fish and game are abundant.
Raw lands in Stevens county, with water-right, are held at prices
ranging from $250.00 to $325.00 per acre, and where the operating com-
pany improves the lands with orchard trees and cares for same until
the bearing period is reached, an additional charge of $150.00 is made.
Usually the lands may be purchased on terms, the payments extending
over a period of several years.
Rail transportation reaches Meyers Falls, providing for the district
adjacent thereto, and in the Upper Columbia section the irrigated dis-
tricts lie directly along the railroad, and shipping facilities in three
directions are available.
Spokane County 41
Spokane county is located in the extreme eastern section of the
state, bordering on the Idaho line.
The northern portion of the county is somewhat mountainous, and
is covered with a fine growth of pine and tamarack timber. Much of
this section is suitable for agriculture, while all is adapted to grazing.
The central part of the county is rolling and is traversed by the Spo-
kane river. West of the city of Spokane there is much fine agricul-
tural land, while to the east is the Spokane valley, which is rapidly
being brought into a high state of cultivation by means of irrigation.
There are about 40,000 acres in this valley capable of irrigation, of
which a considerable portion has been reclaimed and is now under
cultivation. The southern portion of the county is rolling, and com-
prises some of the finest agricultural land in the state. Large areas of
this section are utilized for wheat-growing.
CITY OF SPOKANE.
The city of Spokane, the metropolis of the "Inland Empire" coun-
try, is the county seat and is located on the Spokane river. The falls
in the stream at this point have a drop cf 132 feet, making possible
the development of 33,000 minimum horse power. Spokane is the
distributing center of a vast agricultural, mining and fruitgrowing
district, and is one of the few large cities of the Pacific Northwest.
Its manufacturing interests are expanding rapidly, their products in-
cluding lumber, flour, machinery, agricultural implements, brick, pot-
tery, iron products, cereal foods, furniture, etc. Transportation fa-
cilities are the best, including the Northern Pacific, Great Northern,
Spokane Falls & Northern, O. R. & N., North Bank, and Milwaukee sys-
tems, in addition to a network of electric lines radiating from the city
to different points in the tributary country. Spokane is the seat of the
annual National Apple Show.
The irrigated lands of the county, as already noted, are located
chiefly in the valley of the Spokane river. They extend in a general
easterly direction from the city of Spokane to the Idaho boundary
line. North of Spokane well up towards the Stevens county line are
other districts which are likewise being brought under irrigation.
Spokane Valley Land & Water Company's Project.
The above company is developing 10,000 acres cf land located in
the valley of the Spokane river in Washington, and in Kootenai
county, Idaho. The water for these lands is secured partly from the
Spokane river and partly from Fish lake, Idaho. The Fish lake por-
Spokane County 43
tion of the system is completed, as is also the main part of the ditch,
which is supplied with water from the Spokane river. The total main
canal length is 22 miles.
These are prairie lands, most of which had been devoted to grain
production prior to their development under irrigation. The soil is a
black gravelly loam, producing fine crops of fruit, vegetables and al-
falfa. The elevation ranges from 2,000 to 3,000 feet. The annual pre-
cipitation is greater than in most of the irrigated sections, and the
amount of water supplied by artificial means is correspondingly less.
The lands are located at distances ranging from five miles to twenty-
five miles east from Spokane. Prices vary from $150.00 to $400.00 per
Spokane Canal Company's Project.
This property comprises some 5,000 to 8,000 acres of Spokane valley
land, water for irrigation being secured by gravity from Newman lake.
A large portion of this land has been sold out and is in bearing or-
chards, producing extremely high quality commercial fruit. The
varieties, generally speaking, are Wagener, Rome Beauty, and Jona-
than. Land sells from $350.00 to $500.00 per acre, on terms of 25 per
cent, cash and 25 per cent, each year until paid out.
The irrigated lands at Opportunity comprise about 3,000 acres, and
are located east of and not far distant from the city limits of Spo-
kane. Water for irrigation purposes is obtained from wells, averag-
ing about 100 feet in depth. Electric power is used in hoisting the
water. A complete system for domestic water supply is also in
operation, and electricity for lighting purposes is furnished the resi-
dents on the project. Some of the lands first sold in this district are
now in bearing orchards, the chief varieties being Jonathan, Grimes
Golden, Wagener, and Rome Beauty. Prices of land range from
$450.00 to $550.00 per acre, while the annual maintenance fee is ap-
proximately $5.00 per acre.
Some 5,000 acres of land are included within the above project,
which lies directly east of Opportunity. For the most part, the same
conditions apply to both districts. Water is supplied by pumping, and
the soil is adapted to the same purposes as at Opportunity. Trans-
portation is excellent, two steam, as also two electric lines, reaching
Hazelwood Irrigated Farms.
The above property lies westward from Spokane, and comprises
about 2,500 acres of land lying at an elevation of about 2,200 feet.
Water is supplied from Silver lake, and is raised to the required ele-
vation by a huge pumping plant, capable of lifting 21,000 gallons per
minute. A wooden stave pipe is utilized to convey the water to a basin,
Grant County 45
whence it is carried to the project through an open canal. An under-
ground pipe system supplies the water direct to the individual tracts.
The soil here is a sandy loam, and prior to their development under
irrigation the lands had for years produced good crops of different
cereals. Apple and cherry orchards are being extensively developed.
Orchard Ave:^ue Project.
The above project is located just eastward from the city of Spo-
kane, bordering in fact upon the city limits. It has been platted into
blocks or home-sites and is being developed as suburban property
rather than as commercial orchard lands. The water is obtained from
wells sunk to a depth of about 80 feet. Domestic water and electric
lighting systems have been established, and the district is being
improved with graded streets and cement sidewalks. This district may
be reached in twenty minutes by electric car service from the center of
The lands of the Arcadia Orchards Company are located about 22
miles north of Spokane. This district was originally covered with a
timber growth, and the logged-off lands are being cleared and developed
as garden and orchard tracts. The sources of water supply are Dra-
goon creek and Loon and Deer lakes. One thousand acres have been
planted to trees and large additional tracts are in preparation for
Grant county, in point of years, is the youngest county in the
state, having been created by act of the last legislature from the limits
of Douglas county. It is about equally youthful in respect to the
development of its natural resources, which are, however, of much im-
portance, and withal enjoying great possibilities for the future.
In contour, the county is a rolling, treeless plain, broken in places
by depressions called coulees and by rather infrequent watercourses.
It is essentially a district in the upbuilding of which irrigation is
destined to play an extremely important part. In the southwestern
portion of the county is a vast district, containing approximately 1,000
square miles of territory, wanting only the application of water to make
it one of the most productive sections of the state.
The Great Northern railway skirts the northern edge of this dis-
trict. Paralleling the Great Northern, and 25 miles to the southward is
the main line of the Milwaukee system. On the west is the Columbia
river and to the eastward lies Moses lake, a splendid body of water
which is quite likely to be utilized in watering a large tract in the
Grant County 47
RESULTS FROM IRRIGATION.
At present a few settlers have installed pumping plants en Moses
lake, and are meeting with success in thus watering their lands. The
Moses Garrison ranch is an example of the possibilities in this par-
ticular. Mr. Garrison is irrigating 110 acres of orchard and 20 acres of
wheat, using a 12-horse-power Fairbanks-Morse engine and a centri-
fugal pump. His pump and engine installed cost about $1,000.00. His
well, which is 50 feet in depth, cost |4.00 per foot to dig, or $200.00 in
all. His entire expense for securing water is less than $10.00 per acre,
and his annual expense for fuel does not exceed $3.00 per acre.
The results to be obtained from irrigation have been well demon-
strated in several other sections of the county. Near Ephrata, the
-county seat, are several tracts which have brought splendid results to
their owners. Part of the lands are watered from nearby springs,
while ether tracts are dependent upon wells. This latter method is
gaining in favor, inasmuch as there are indications of an underlying
sheet of water through this section giving promise of an inexhaustible
supply. It is of record that powerful pumps working day and night
liave been unable to lower the stand of water in wells sunk in this
district. Several orchards in the vicinity of Ephrata have established
the adaptability of the country to fruitgrowing.
STRATFORD IRRIGATED TRACTS.
Lying south of Soap lake and extending from the village of Adrian
along the line of the Great Northern railway toward Ephrata are the
"holdings of the Stratford Irrigation Company. This company is irri-
gating several thousand acres of land, taking water from Brook lake,
-at Stratford, into and through which Crab creek flows. A large por-
tion of their lands have been sold, and the tracts are now being de-
veloped by individual owners. Approximately 200 acres were set out in
trees last year. Alfalfa is perhaps the leading crop at present.
A few miles east of the above section, in the vicinity of Wilson
Creek and Krupp, there are a number of irrigated tracts planted
to young orchards and alfalfa. Land values range from $100 to $300
per acre for irrigated tracts.
This entire district has the advantage of ready access to the main
line of a transcontinental railway, although up to the present time
there has been a local market for all the products raised.
In its virginal aspect the country is bleak and forbidding, impres-
sing the observer as a desert waste. Moreover, being an open coun-
try, severe windstorms, with accompanying clouds of dust, are common
in the summer. These are conditions, however, which have been met
-and overcome in nearly all irrigated districts. The pioneers who
face the temporary discomforts and privations will see this district
within a few years take on an entirely different appearance.
Douglas County 49
Douglas county lies eastward of the Columbia river, comprising a
portion of what is known as the "Big Bend" country. It is reached by
the Great Northern railway main line, as also by a branch of the same
system, extending from a junction near the Columbia river, into the
wheat fields of the northern part.
The irrigable lands of the county lie chiefly along the Columbia
river, where a considerable section of the country is rapidly settling
up. Also in the Moses Coulee section much development has taken
place and additional lands are rapidly being brought under ditch.
COLUMBIA RIVER LANDS.
The lands lying along the Columbia river are mostly tributary to
the city of Wenatchee, and the high line canal which supplies much
of the Wenatchee valley serves also the Douglas county lands in this
section. The waters from the ditch are carried across the Columbia
river in two large iron-bound wooden conduits, strung along the bridge
which spans the river at Wenatchee. The water is carried at heavy
pressure to a ditch constructed along the base of the nearby hills. This
ditch, which is in efCect a continuation of the Wenatchee high line sys-
tem, extends up and down the river approximately twenty miles in
Douglas county. Tributary to the water supply thus provided there
are about 9,000 acres of irrigable lands, much of which is already
improved and taking water from the ditch.
The land is sandy for the most part, with a clayish tendency shown
at intervals. A strata of gravel is usually found several feet below
the surface, affording splendid drainage. Surface rocks are scattered
about on much of the raw lands, but they are easily removed, the
custom being to pile them along the fences. Ultimately these stores
of basaltic and granite rocks will be crushed and used in the construc-
tion of a modern highway along the river, to take the place of what
is now an indifferent county road.
There are considerable tracts of unimproved lands lying adjacent to
the ditch, but as yet not watered by it. Such land is held at prices
averaging about $400.00 per acre.
Beyond the reach of the ditch there are several improved ranches,
occupying the open spots along the river, where the steep bluffs recede
somewhat from the bank. Some of the ranchers in this section are
watering their lands by means of pumps, operated by gasoline. Others
have access to live springs in the hills or have built small reservoirs
in the gulches for storing the flood waters of spring. Still others resort
to current wheels, by means of which a limited amount of water may be
lifted and distributed to their lands.
Douglas County 61
Private pumping plants seem to be gaining in favor, and conditions
for their successful operation appear to be peculiarly suitable in this
section. One such plant, now in use for watering 100 acres of land,
cost for installation $2,500.00, and the expense of operation, outside of
the personal care required, is $1.50 per day. In addition to watering
their own lands, the owners supply several neighbors, and the revenue
thus derived materially reduces the expense burden. The chief ad-
vantage of such a plant lies in the fact that the rancher exercises a
direct control over his water supply and has no fear of loss entailed
by breaks in supply canals, washouts of reservoirs, etc.
This district is rapidly settling up, and thrifty young orchards are
met with on every hand where water is available. The accessibility of
Wenatchee as a shipping point and source of supplies is an important
The Moses Coulee district is located about in the center of the
county, along the line of the Great Northern branch road which has its
terminus at Mansfield.
The lands irrigated constitute the floor of a vast depression or
hollow, characteristic of the region, and known as Moses Coulee. Pre-
cipitous walls are on either side to a height of several hundred feet,
sloping thence upward more gradually until they merge into the rolling
lands of the surrounding wheat belt. The soil is a sedimetary de-
posit mixed with the prevailing volcanic ash and decayed vegetation.
It is of great depth and fertility and is said to be free from alkaline
The Moses Coulee Fruit Land Company has developed 1,200 acres of
land here, and contemplates by the construction of reservoirs the
reclamation of an additional 2,000 acres. The company follows the plan
of planting its tracts to trees, and contracts with purchasers to care
for them until the bearing period is reached.
Peaches and apples are both leading products, the extreme warmth
of the summer insuring early fruition to the former and high coloring
to both. The natural heat is intensified by the huge cliffs or palisades
which, as already noted, tower on both sides of the coulee.
The lands available for irrigation purposes here are limited in
■extent, owing to the peculiar configuration of the country, and will
probably all be occupied within a few years.
Yakima Valley 53
Three counties — Kittitas, Yakima and Benton — are included within
the confines of the Yakima valley, and by reason of close geographical
relationship and inter-dependence from an irrigation standpoint, the
three counties will be considered together under the above heading.
It was in this valley that the possibilities of transforming the arid
sections of the state into gardens and orchards of unsurpassed pro-
ductiveness was early demonstrated. First by individual farmers, then
by groups of neighbors, next by strong financiers, and lastly by the
federal government with a programme of reclamation work coextensive
almost with the remaining irrigable area of the valley, the great work
has gone forward without cessation until, in the most literal inter-
pretation of the expression, the desert has been made to "blossom as
Government Reclamation Work.
The plans of the government reclamation service cover five dis-
tinct projects in this valley. The total irrigable area involved is
approximately 400,000 acres, and the estimated expense of completing
the work is placed at $25,000,000.00. Inasmuch as the total minimum
flow of the Yakima river has already been appropriated for existing
irrigation canals, the government is depending upon the construction
of huge storage reservoirs, adequate to the requirements of its various
projects. A number of lakes, includings Lake Kachess, Lake Keechee-
lus. Bumping lake, Lake Cle Elum, and McAllister Meadows, all lo-
cated at the headwaters of the Yakima river and its tributaries, will
be utilized for this purpose, their present storage capacity being en-
larged through the construction of immense retaining dams. These
dams, on which construction work has already been begun, will range
in height from 40 feet to 160 feet.
The five projects are described as follows: Kittitas project, lo-
cated in Kittitas county, irrigable area 60,700 acres; Sunnyside pro-
ject, located in Yakima and Benton counties, irrigable area 90,000
acres; Tieton project, located in Yakima county, irrigable area 35,000
acres; Wapato project, located in Yakima county, irrigable area 120,-
000 acres; Benton project, located in Benton and Yakima counties, irri-
gable area 180,000 acres. At the beginning of the present year, ap-
proximately 40 per cent, of the Sunnyside project had been completed.
The first unit of the Tieton project, comprising about 11,000 acres, was
opened in June, 1910, and it is estimated that 75 per cent, of the work
has now been completed. Actual work on the remaining projects has
not as yet been undertaken.
High Line Benton Project.
This proposed project is a continuation of the Kittitas unit of the
Yakima project. The survey has been made by an engineer recom-
Yakima Valley 55
mended by the United States reclamation service. The engineer reports
a project that will cover 200,000 acres by gravity flow and 100,000 acres
by pumping from the Columbia river. Power is to be developed by
dropping water from the higher to lower levels. The high line Benton
project will include the Benton unit of the Yakima project. The survey
of the high line has been passed upon by a board of United States
reclamation service engineers and pronounced feasible.
The federal government is willing to store and appropriate the
necessary water as soon as Congress passes a law making it legally
possible for the reclamation service to sell water to a private cor-
poration. The Warren act, which has already passed the senate, makes
provision for such disposal. The estimated cost of the project is
126,000,000, and the funds are now practically assured. The lands
covered are the higher bench lands, and are especially adapted to fruit-
In view of the fact that the future history of irrigation in the
Yakima valley will be closely identified with the operations of the
government reclamation service, it is important that some insight
should be given into the regulations under which the service is work-
The reclamation fund is created from the sale and disposal of
public lands in certain states having large arid tracts within their
borders. The money thus derived goes into a special fund, to be used
exclusively in the development of irrigation projects. The work is
carried on under the federal department of the interior.
Public lands, open to homestead location, as also lands held in pri-
vate ownership, may be included under a given project. Occupation
and settlement of the first named class of lands is accomplished under
the provisions of the homestead act. The size of individual claims,
however, is usually limited to 40 acres or 80 acres, and the settler is re-
quired to return to the government the actual cost per acre involved in
the construction of the project under which he has located. Such
payments are distributed over a period of ten years, without interest.
Owners of private lands are required to reduce their individual hold-
ings to the maximum limit of area fixed by the government. In general
the regulations fixed by the government are strictly enforced, it being
the policy of the federal authorities to insist upon the lands being
occupied by actual owners. In order to qualify for a water-right, the
applicant must either actually be upon the land or make his residence
in the vicinity.
Climate and Altitude.
The general characteristics of the districts included within the
Yakima valley are largely similar. There is, however, a wide varia-
tion in altitude, and the resultant differences in climatic conditions
affect the growing period in the several locations. On the Benton
project the altitude is about 500 feet. At North Yakima it is 1,067 feet.
Kittitas County 67
and from there a gradual rise ensues until a maximum altitude is
reached at about 2,100 feet above sea level. The lower lands are gen-
-erally considered as being better adapted to hay, grain and vegetables,
while the best fruit districts are on the bench lands in the different
parts of the valley. The season is noticeably early in the vicinity of
the Columbia river, strawberries ripening here several weeks in ad-
vance of other sections.
Prior to the entry of the federal reclamation service into the
Yakima valley, private interests, as is noted above, had already under-
taken more or less extensive irrigation enterprises. This condition
was common to the several counties in the valley, particularly as re-
gards Kittitas and Yakima counties.
In Kittitas county there are at the present time under irrigation
between 50,000 and 75,000 acres of land in private ownership. The
bulk of these lands is contained within the Kittitas valley, the first
large area of arable land lying east of the Cascade mountains. The
location of this valley with reference to the Yakima river and its
tributaries is such that practically the entire acreage, double that now
under ditch, is readily susceptible of irrigation.
The valley is treeless, except for small growths along the streams,
and the soil, largely of sedimentary origin and rich in the elements
that make for prolific plant growth, responds splendidly to the appli-
cation of moisture. The annual precipitation averages about 11 inches,
and the mean temperature at Ellensburg, the county seat, is 48 degrees
For many years hay has been a leading crop of the county, and the
Kittitas product is held as a standard throughout the northwest. Oats
hold an important place in the production of cereals. Potatoes yield
from 200 to 400 bushels per acre, and other vegetables are equally pro-
ductive. The adaptability of the soil to the grasses has created a great
dairying industry, and herds of sleek cattle attest their nutritive value.
While well suited to raising many classes of fruit, the county has de-
veloped only slowly along this line, owing largely to the fact that land
holdings are usually large and have been devoted mainly to the in-
dustries noted above. The tendency now is toward a division of such
lands into orchard tracts, and fruitraising is receiving constantly grow-
ing attention. The development of the government irrigation project
^ill stimulate the production of fruit, as much of the acreage to be
thus reclaimed is counted as first-class fruit lands. The final surveys
for this project have been completed and accepted and the date of the
beginning of actual construction may be announced at any time.
There are certain special advantages appertaining to Kittitas county
"which should be noted. By virtue of its location in the first tier of
Yakima Cownty 59
counties east of the Cascade mountains, it enjoys easy access to the
growing markets on Puget Sound. This is an asset of first importance
and one which will increase in value with the demand for agricultural
products in the coast cities. Moreover, the Kittitas valley is traversed
by the main line of two great railway systems, the Northern Pacific,
and Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound adding to the above the factor
of competitive rail transportation. The Northern Pacific Railway Com-
pany is now constructing a cutoff line from Ritzville to Ellensburg,
which will materially reduce the overland running time of that road.
Land in the Kittitas valley is comparatively cheap, notwithstanding
the important advantages mentioned above. Opportunities are pre-
sented here for newcomers to engage in a wide variety of profitable oc-
cupations both of an agricultural and commercial nature.
Ellensburg, the chief town of the valley and county seat of Kittitas
county, has a population approaching 6,000 people. It has excellent
possibilities for growth with the rapid settlement of the districts of
which it is the distributing center.
In Yakima county there are under irrigation at the present time
approximately 150,000 acres of land, including Indian reservation lands.
This is equal to about one-third of the total irrigated area of the
state, and easily places the county in a pre-eminent position from an
The original entry of the government reclamation service into the
state occurred in 1906, when the Sunnyside canal, in Yakima county,
was taken over and the development and extension of that system
The main canal is sixty miles in length, and extends from the in-
take about eight miles below North Yakima down through the valley
and well into Benton county. When completed in accordance with
government plans, this canal will water 90,000 acres of land, practically
the whole of which is held in private ownership. When the govern-
ment secured the canal, the lands irrigated amounted to about 40,000
acres. During the four years that have elapsed since then the acreage
has been greatly increased. A single extension of the Sunnyside canal
conveys water to 10,000 acres of land in the vicinity of Mabton, the
water being carried to the lands through a syphon constructed undjer
the Yakima river. Other large areas will be reclaimed under this system
and the canal will be increased in water-carrying capacity accordingly.
The Tieton Project.
The lands to be watered under this important government project
comprise a district of 35,000 acres lying a few miles westward from the
city of North Yakima. Construction work was begun on the main canal
Yakima Coimty 61
in 1907, and the first unit of the project, 11,000 acres, was opened in
The diversion weir and headgate are located in the upper Tieton
canyon, twenty miles above the town of Naches. The main canal itself
is twelve miles in length, and is lined with concrete, originally cast in
forms eight feet in diameter and four inches in thickness. These forms
closely joined constitute in their entirety a continuous and watertight
conduit. More than two miles of tunnels were involved in the con-
struction, and the work of driving them was one of the most difficult
features of the whole undertaking. The tunnels, of which there are
six, vary in length from 100 feet to 3,800 feet. The distribution of the
water to the project is accomplished through a network of main and
sub-lateral ditches totaling 78 miles in length.
Work on the second unit is in progress and will be completed in
part during the present year. The lands under the Tieton project are,
in the main, held in private ownership, and ordinarily may be pur-
chased on terms covering a period of several years.
In addition to the government projects above mentioned, there are
numerous private companies supplying water to lands in Yakima
county. The splendid fruit district centering about the city of North
Yakima has been developed under private ditches, and, in addition to
the waters of the Yakima river proper, many small creeks have been
utilized for irrigation purposes. Artesian water has also been found
in the Moxee valley, and is successfully used in supplying an extensive
Products and Lands.
A summary of the products of the Yakima county irrigated lands
includes a wide range, extending from such tender fruits as peaches,
apricots and grapes to winter apples of unsurpassed color and flavor.
With these are to be included potatoes and all other classes of vege-
tables, grains, hops, beef-cattle, mutton, wool, dairy and poultry pro-
ducts, honey, and the output of the several fruit and vegetable can-
neries. An unofficial estimate places the value of the above products in
the county at $8,000 000 annually.
Yakima county, with its immense acreage of lands under ditch and
its still larger area of lands that are susceptible of irrigation, offers,
the widest possible scope for choice to the landseeker. He may make
his selection from river bottom, valley or bench land, according to the
particular line of farming activity in which he wishes to engage, and
he enjoys a further advantage of being able to establish a home at
almost any altitude he may elect.
Prices of lands, as elsewhere, hinge upon location, soil, surface
contour, condition of water-rights, and more particularly upon the
stage of improvement and development.
Benton County 63
The main line of the Northern Pacific railway passes through the
■county and the North Coast system is now building. A branch of the
first named road reaches into the Sunnyside district, having its ter-
minal at Grandview. A network of electric lines centering about North
Yakima will ultimately bring all the neighboring valleys within the
reach of the city. In fact, the transportation problem of the entire
county is being worked out on a basis that will bring shipping facilities
to every one of its various farming and fruitgrowing districts.
Coincident with the development of its irrigated lands, a remarkable
growth has been enjoyed by the cities and towns located in the county.
North Yakima, the seat of government and metropolis of the county,
is a thriving, enterprising community of 14,082 people, enjoying all
modern advantages and conveniences. It commands a splendid and
growing trade with the surrounding sections, and its business district
has been built up on a basis commensurate with its prosperity. Paved
streets, a fine court house, substantial school and church edifices, and
many handsome residences reflect the spirit of progress everywhere ap-
parent in the city.
Other growing communities in the county are Ahtanum, Cowichee,
Naches, Selah, Yakima City, Moxee, Wapato, Toppenish, Parker, Zillah,
Granger, Outlook, Sunnyside, Grandview, and Mabton. These towns are
trading and distributing centers for the districts immediately sur-
rounding them, and several of them are rapidly developing into sub-
Benton county constitutes the lower portion of the Yakima valley,
and is bounded on three sides by the Columbia river, into which the
Yakima river flows, the point of confluence being near the center of
the eastern border of the county.
By reason of its location with reference to these rivers and other
available sources of water supply, nearly the whole of Benton county,
with the exception of certain of the more rugged sections, is classified
as irrigable land.
The districts which already have been brought under irrigation in-
clude, in addition to the lands tributary to the government Sunnyside
canal, a number of large private projects taking water for their lands
either from the Yakima or Columbia rivers.
Lands Around Prosser.
Prosser, the county seat, is located in the western section of the
county, in the center of an important irrigation district, watered by
the government Sunnyside canal. All the facts brought out with refer-
ence to the Sunnyside lands in Yakima county have equal application
Benton County 65
in respect to this district. The products extend all the way from early-
maturing berries to winter apples, which have proven exceptionally
Splendid opportunities are offered here, both on account of the
adaptability of the soil and climate to maximum crop production, and
by reason of the added fact that lands may still be purchased at ex-
ceptionally reasonable prices. A new syphon is now under construction
at Prosser, designed to water lands on the south side of the river, which
at present are supplied by a large pumping plant. One of the important
enterprises undertaken in this district is a 340-acre orchard located
near Prosser, owned and in process of development by the oflacials of
the Northern Pacific railway.
A six-acre orchard tract originally developed by E. L. Stewart, of
Prosser, is a striking example of the possibilities offered for fruit cul-
ture. During 11 years of production, Mr. Stewart received $25,364.00
from the fruit grown on this tract. This tract was subsequently sold
for a consideration of $10,000.00. The present owners estimate the
gross receipts for the current year from the six acres at $7,000.00.
On the lower lands alfalfa is grown, and runs from six to eight tons
to the acre, three cuttings usually being made. Potatoes are a staple
crop, producing from 300 to 500 bushels per acre. Corn of excellent
quality and heavy yield is raised, but not extensively, owing to the fact
that other crops are more profitable.
The lands watered under the above project are located in the north-
eastern portion of the county, and comprise a total of 16,000 acres.
The immediate plans of the company contemplate the irrigation of an
additional area of equal size to the above, while vastly larger tracts in
the same locality remain to be reclaimed in future years.
The water is pumped from the Columbia river, power for this pur-
pose being developed at Priest Rapids. The pumping plant has a ca-
pacity of 83,000,000 gallons per day. The main canal which delivers
the water to the lands is eight feet wide on the bottom, twenty-four
feet wide at the top, and attains a total length of nineteen miles.
The soil is a sandy loam with an under strata of gravel, and pro-
duces abundant crops of fruits, vegetables and alfalfa. Prices of lands
range from $150.00 to $300.00 per acre, terms covering a period of five
years being given if desired.
One of the leading irrigated districts in Benton county is that which
centers about the growing little city of Kennewick. The lands here are
watered under the project developed by the Northern Pacific Irrigation
Company. The Yakima river is the source of water supply, and forty
miles of canals have been constructed, capable of irrigating 20,000 acres
Walla Walla County 67
This district, including lands lying farther south along the Columbia
river and a number of islands in that stream, has long been famous for
its early-ripening strawberries, which are marketed as early as April.
Peaches, apricots, grapes and melons are extensively produced, and, in
fact, for the growth of the more tender fruits this section is unexcelled.
The canal of the Northern Pacific Irrigation Company also irrigates
a portion of the Yakima valley surrounding the town of Kiona, situated
seventeen miles east of Prosser, on the Northern Pacific railroad. A
private project in this section will also irrigate land tributary to Benton
City, a new town recently started about a mile west of Kiona. The
Richland District, above Kennewick, is also partly irrigated by the
Northern Pacific Irrigation Company, as well as by a private project.
Benton county as a whole is well provided with transportation
facilities, and is rapidly developing under the stimulus of the irrigation
enterprises above described, and others which are reclaiming lands in
different portions of the county.
WALLA WALLA COUNTY.
Walla Walla county is located in the southeastern section of the
state, its southern border forming a portion of the boundary line be-
tween Washington and Oregon. Walla Walla city, with a population
of 20,000 people, one of the wealthiest and most enterprising of the
smaller cities of the state, is the county seat and the commercial and
distributing center for a large district.
Including a number of large irrigation projects and the smaller
holdings of a great number of individual owners who water their lands
from sources immediately available, it is estimated that there are more
than 50,000 acres of land now irrigated or in process of being reclaimed
in the county.
Blalock Orchard Tracts.
One of the most interesting irrigation enterprises in the state is
the project known as the Blalock Orchard Tracts, comprising 1,500
acres of land adjoining the city of Walla Walla. The water is supplied
from artesian wells, of which there are twelve on the tract. One of
these wells, eight inches in diameter, is 585 feet in depth and has a
pressure of 62 pounds to the square inch. When the opening of the
well is reduced to one and one-half inches, the water is thrown to a
lieight 112 feet above the surface. The flow from this well is 2,224
gallons per minute. The average flow from each of the 12 wells, when
all are in operation, is about 1,200 gallons per minute.
By reason of close proximity to the city of Walla Walla, these lands
are being laid out in suburban orchard and garden tracts, ranging in
size from two to ten acres. Each well is designed to provide water for
Walla Walla County 69
125 acres of land, and purchasers, in addition to their land deed, are
given a pro rata right in the artesian well and pipe line system. Streets
are being graded through these tracts and a system of domestic water
supply installed. An electric railway provides transportation to the city.
During the season of 1910, 60,000 apple trees were planted on these
tracts, comprising the following varieties: Rome Beauty, Winesaps,
Jonathans, Yellow Newtown Pippins, and Delicious. Prices of land in
this district range from $500.00 to $800.00 per acre, depending upon the
location and state of improvement.
Near the point of confluence of the Columbia and Snake rivers, in
the extreme western section of the county, lands to the extent of
13,500 acres are being developed by the Burbank Power & Water Com-
pany. The tract is made up of sagebrush bench lands, lying at an ele-
vation of 75 feet above the rivers. The soil is of good depth and of
the character common to the Columbia river basin.
The water is obtained from the Snake river, a water power being
developed for this purpose. At this point a fall in the river of eleven
feet in one mile has been utilized for power purposes, including power
canal one and one-half miles long, 50 feet in width on the bottom and
about 30 feet deep. The machinery consists of two units, each com-
posed of one twin horizontal turbine, direct-connected to one cyclodial
rotary pump, operating under two lifts of 55 and 85 feet respectively.
The capacity of the pumping plant is 113 cubic feet per second.
Transportation facilities are furnished by the Northern Pacific and
O. R. & N. systems, which pass through the project, while no portion of
the lands is more than two miles from a railroad station. In addition,
steamboat navigation on the Columbia and Snake rivers is successful
during the greater portion of the year. About 500 acres of this land
is now under cultivation.
Water rights provide for 32 inches of water during the season,
beginning April 1st and terminating November 1st. Land values range
from $200.00 to $300.00 per acre, with an annual maintenance fee of
$3.50 per acre.
Fifteen miles southwest of the city of Walla Walla, a tract of 7,000
acres, known as the Gardena Contoured Tracts, is being developed by
the Walla Walla Irrigation Company. The land lies 150 feet above the
valley of the Walla Walla river, from which stream the water for irri-
gation purposes is obtained. An open ditch twenty miles in length
carries the water to the tract, while an additional supply, sufficient to
irrigate 2,000 acres, is obtained from the surplusage of the water system
which serves the city of Walla Walla. A concrete conduit delivers this
latter supply to the main irrigation canal.
The size of the different sub-divisions in the tract is governed by
the contour lines, on the theory that irrigation is thus facilitated and
Asotm County 71
the amount of unutilized land reduced to a minimum, streets and sub-
ditches for carrying off the surplus water being placed on the lower
Three thousand acres of land are now under cultivation, most of
which is planted to Winesap apples. Alfalfa is a staple crop here, four
cuttings frequently being made annually. During the season of 1909,
products to the amount of 600 carloads were shipped from this dis-
trict over the O. R & N. Company's lines. The North Coast system will
reach Gardena, and surveys for an electric line to Walla Walla have
In addition to the foregoing, several other important projects are
being developed in the county, notably near Attalia, where several
thousand acres have already been reclaimed.
Asotin county occupies the extreme southeastern corner of the state,
its eastern and southern borders coinciding with the Idaho and Oregon
boundary lines respectively.
THE CLARKSTON DISTRICT.
There are some ten thousand acres of irrigated lands in this
county, of which eight thousand acres, comprising what is known as
the Clarkston irrigation project, lie adjacent to the towns of Clarkston
and Asotin, the latter being the county seat.
The irrigation system for supplying the land is constructed on the
most substantial and approved lines. The headworks and dams on
Asotin creek, from which the water is derived, are of concrete, and the
water is delivered to the project through a steel-bound stave conduit
forty-eight inches in diameter. Thence it is distributed to the individual
tracts through pipes of smaller dimension.
Soil and Climate.
The soil here is a fine loam of good depth, with some sand and gravel
in places. Regarding the climate. Prof. O. L. Waller reports as follows:
"The mean annual temperature is 53.2° F.; the average for January
35.9°; the average for July 73.6°; the average latest killing frost in
spring is April 9; the average date of earliest killing frost in fall is
November 4. Any damage by late spring frosts is minimized by
smudging. The average annual rainfall for the past seven years has
been 13.83 inches, most of which came from November to April."
Cherries and peaches were leading products until within the last
few years, during which time apple orchards have been extensively
planted, the chief varieties being the Spitzenberg, Newtown Pippin,
Winesap, and Jonathan. Grapes also are grown quite extensively.
i Smkahe Counti.
Other Eastern Washington Lands 76
About 12 miles west from the town of Asotin is the district known as
doverland. Irrigation was first undertaken here some eight years ago,
when a portion of the waters of George creek, a stream having its
source in the Blue mountains, was diverted and brought to Cloverland
by means of flumes, trestles and ditches, totaling some eight miles in
The lands are located on a plateau about 2,500 feet above sea level,
having a general slope toward Snake river and Asotin creek. The
«oil is of a loam character, having a high percentage of mineral ele-
ments. Much of the land is planted to orchards, including cherries,
plums, prunes and pears.
Transportation for Asotin county is provided by the Northern Pacific
and O. R. & N. railway companies, and also by navigation on the Snake
and Columbia rivers. With the completion of the Dalles-Celilo canal
within two or three years by the U. S. government, the county will
have through navigation to the Pacific ocean for steamboats of three
liundred to four hundred tons.
OTHER EASTERN WASHINGTON LANDS.
LANDS AROUND PASCO.
In the vicinity of Pasco, the county seat of Franklin county, the
Pasco Reclamation Company is developing a project comprising a total
of 10,000 acres. The water is taken from the Snake river by electric-
ally operated turbine pumps and is delivered to the project through a
pipe line twenty inches in length and from thirty-two to thirty-six
inches in diameter. Only two miles of open ditch are used in the
During the season of 1910, water sufficient to cover 5,000 acres was
•delivered to the project.
The soil here is a sandy loam, and is highly praised by government
experts for its depth and high plant food content.
The lands are of a gently rolling character, sloping toward the
Columbia river. The climate gives a growing period of unusual length,
strawberries and vegetables maturing several weeks in advance of other
Land values range from $200.00 to $350.00 per acre, payments being
arranged to extend over a period of several years. Transportation fa-
■cilities are excellent, the district being reached by the main line of the
Northern Pacific and the Spokane, Portland & Seattle railways. A
branch of the first named system extends into Walla Walla county.
Irrigation in Western Washmgtan 75
In the valley of the Touchet river, in Ck>lumhia county, lands origi-
nally embraced in wheat farms are now being brought under irrigation
and planted to orchards, or utilized for various branches of intensive
The possibilities of this section were first demonstrated by Mr.
J. L. Dumas, who developed a tract of 100 acres located four miles be-
low the town of Dayton. The net profits from the operation of this
tract during a period of three years amounted to $56,000.00. There is an
abundance of water in this valley for irrigation purposes, and addi-
tional lands are rapidly being placed under ditch. The total irrigated
area of the county at present is placed at 1,000 acres.
LANDS IN LINCOLN COUNTY.
In the northern part of Lincoln county, occupying advantageous loca-
tions bordering on the Columbia river, irrigated farms are found at
frequent intervals. Near the little village of Peach, several hundred
acres of land have been reclaimed and plans for enlarging the area
irrigated are maturing. When this section is supplied with adequate
transportation facilities, it will develop rapidly.
SNAKE RIVER LANDS.
Along the Snake river, bordering on Whitman county, are numerous
^tracts of sandy bottom lands which are irrigated largely by means of
pumping plants. These tracts are usually the holdings of individual
farmers, and produce fine yields of early vegetables and fruits.
IRRIGATION IN WESTERN WASHINGTON.
Climatic conditions in western Washington are such that as yet
very little attention has been paid to the possibility or desirability of
farming under irrigation. In nearly all parts of this section of the
state there is a heavy rain precipitation, sufficient for the maturing of
all crops. There are some portions of western Washington, however,
which by reason of advantageous location and a somewhat slight rain-
fall are well suited to development under systems of artificial water
In a section of Clallam county, which county faces the Pacific ocean
on the west and the Straits of Juan de Fuca on the north, conditions
have been found particularly favorable, and a total of five thousand
acres has been brought under irrigation ditches. The lands thus
watered are located on and near the Dungeness river and are within
four or five miles of salt water. The village of Sequim is the trading
point of the district, which is commonly spoken of as Sequim prairie.
Irrigation in Western Washington 77
The town of Dungeness and the boat landing at Port Williams are only
a few miles away.
These prairie lands, set down in the midst of a great timbered sec-
tion, were for many years undeveloped, owing to the light rainfall,
which averages about twenty inches annually. This condition is ex-
plained by the proximity of the Olympic mountains, which range at-
tracts and holds in the form of snow the bulk of the moisture carried
by the winds from the Pacific ocean.
SOIL AND PRODUCTS.
The soil is made up of silt deposits, with some gravel, is of good
depth, and improves rapidly under tilling. The irrigated lands produce
splendid crops of clover and timothy, while alfalfa to a limited extent
has been successfully raised. Records of seven tons of timothy hay to
the acre have been reported. Wheat, oats, potatoes and onions are
also leading crops. Yields of potatoes reaching 400 bushels to the acre
are common, while oats run often as high as 110 bushels or more.
Small fruits are raised in abundance, including strawberries, rasp-
berries, blackberries, loganberries, gooseberries, currants, etc., while
several bearing orchards attest the adaptability of the district to the
production of tree fruits.
At present the chief industry is dairying, and the lands are given
over principally to hay and grain or are used for pastures. Poultry-
raising as an adjunct to dairying is also commanding increasing atten-
tion. A ready market is available for both dairy and poultry products,
local creameries and produce dealers absorbing the total output.
There are three irrigation projects in operation, known as the Se-
quim, Eureka and Independent ditches. All three were constructed
through cooperative efforts on the part of the landowners interested.
No difficult engineer problems were encountered, andj as the lands are
comparatively close to the source of water supply, the cost of construc-
tion per acre was exceptionally light. The annual maintenance fee
rarely exceeds fifty cents per acre. A water-right has been taken out
for a fourth project, upon which it is stated construction work will soon
be under way. Practically all the prairie lands have already been
brought under irrigation, but there still remains a considerable area of
logged-off timber lands which, when cleared, are equally good for
agricultural purposes. These lands will be developed as conditions
This section has no rail transportation, but steamers calling regu-
larly at Port Wiliams and Dungeness furnish ready means of communi-
cation with Seattle and other Puget Sound ports. An excellent system
of roads enables the farmers to reach the various shipping points of the
county with ease and comfort.
Irrigation in Western Washington 79
South of the city of Tacoma, in Pierce county, there is an exten-
^sive prairie section similar in some respects to the Clallam county
lands ahove described. There are thousands of acres of these lands
-entirely open in places, and elsewhere covered with a scant growth of
scrub oak and other small timber.
Until very recently this section has been considered practically
valueless for agricultural purposes. The soil is gravelly and of a
•depth' ranging from 10 inches to two feet. In summer time the country
presents a parched, arid appearance. Within the last two years, how-
-ever, it has been shown that under irrigation and proper cultivation
profitable crops of many kinds can be produced. Thus far no project
has been carried out for irrigating these lands on an extensive scale,
although a plan for developing a gravity system from the Nisqually
river is being considered. A few individual owners are watering
their holdings from wells, and it is through their efforts chiefly that the
possibilities of the section have been demonstrated.
A short distance from Cosgrove station, on the Northern Pacific
Railroad, an irrigation farmer of long experience in the Yakima valley,
Mr. C. L. Fisher, is developing a tract of twenty acres. Water is ob-
tained from a well 39 feet in depth and is raised to the surface by a
six-horse-power gasoline engine and pump. The cost of fuel for
operating the pump is 6 cents per hour. The water is conveyed to the
lands in wooden flumes, from which it is distributed through furrows
averaging about 300 feet in length.
Two irrigations to the season are considered suflacient for potatoes,
and the pump running steadily for three days lifts sufficient water to
irrigate four acres of land. Fruit trees are irrigated three times during
The principal crops raised by Mr. Fisher for 1910 include potatoes,
of which 12 acres were planted; sugar beets, one-half acre; small fruits,
one and one-half acres, and garden truck of different varieties grown on
a considerable area. There are four hundred fruit trees on the tract.
The potatoes yielded between five and six tons to the acre, and
other vegetables gave equally satisfactory results. Blackberry vines set
out in April, 1910, exhibited a growth of ten feet when examined in
The fruit trees are thrifty, showing a new growth during the season
of three feet. From the results already obtained it is anticipated that
fruit-growing as a commercial enterprise will soon be developed in this
<iistrict, cherries and pears appearing the best adapted to meet all the
The proximity of these lands to the city of Tacoma as a marketing
oenter and the added fact that transportation both by steam and
olectric railway is already established are considerations of first im-
portance in estimating the advantages offered.
In Thurston county there are several thousand acres of similar lands
which present equally attractive opportunities for irrigation.
EARNING A LIVING BEFORE ORCHARDS COME
The problem suggested in the above title gives the average home-
seeker in the irrigated districts much concern, and more especially if
the bulk of his funds has been expended in the purchase of his land.
If he settles on an undeveloped tract with the intention of planting an
orchard, a period of several years must elapse before his trees will
bring him a revenue, and in the meantime he must make a living
as best he may. How this difficulty has been met and overcome by a
great many individuals is set forth in the following reports of their
Jor>. W. LiPE, Clarkstcn: My place (one acre) was planted when I
purchased it. I made a good living by raising garden truck between
the trees until they came into bearing, and continue to do so, as I
had to replace many of the trees on account of inferiority of the fruit.
Part of the acre is in chicken yards, and gives profitable returns. Every
incn is in use, and I want to say that it takes time, work and patience
to make it a success. I am perfectly happy and would not live any-
where but on my "one-acre farm.'*
H. C. Larson, Clarkston: A man can make a living before trees
come iLto bearing if he takes hold of it in the right way. Part of his
tract should be planted in early garden, and between the trees he can
raise dewberries and strawberries. This year's strawberries (one acre)
netted me $157.00. Last year's dewberries (one acre) netted $111.00.
Besides the above, we raise beans, peas and tomatoes, which bring a
good price. The main thing is to get the right varieties of trees and
small fruit. A man who is willing to work can make a good living, and
a little beside, in this section while his trees are coming into bearing.
Peter Spohn, Clarkston: I would advise to plant vegetables, if not
too large a tract; also melons, if not too far from railroad to ship. If
too far to ship, would plant clover, alfalfa, corn and peas, and raise
hogs. Would leave space of four feet between rows of trees and crops
to give room for good clean cultivation, and as trees get older and
require more room would plow under clover and other crops as fertilizer
for the orchard.
H. W. Desgranges, Kennewick: Where settlers go upon the land,
a splendid living may be made out of chickens the first year, and by
planting strawberries between the tree rows, enough can be realized
from them to pay for the land by the time the orchard comes into bear-
ing. Land is sold on easy payments, but the beginner must have suffi-
cient means to bear the expense of improving the land and planting it
to trees and berries. This requires a capital of from $50 to $75 per
acre, and this should serve as a scale to measure the number of acres
one is to handle. The above amount he should have in his pocket after
he has made the first payment on the land. It does not require a
fortune to start in on irrigated land, as some seem to think, but it does
require some money, and with a little capital success is certain.
r CLABK3T0II, A at
Individual Experiences 83
G. L. FiNLEY, Kiona: The newcomer must either have funds suffi-
cient to meet his living expenses for two years or he will have to work
for wages, which can always be obtained at $2.50 and upwards per day.
The third year he should have sufficient income from his berries and
garden truck to keep him going until his trees come into bearing. Straw-
berry growing is one of the best paying industries. On the right kind
of soil $400.00 is about the average return. Potatoes are also a profit-
able crop, as we have an excellent home market and the price is never
less than $15.00 per ton. Two years ago I got $40.00 per ton for mine
that I held over until spring. The most essential thing for success here
Omab W. Rich, Kennewick: Strawberries, asparagus, alfalfa and
garden truck are grown between the trees to help pay the living ex-
penses. A few cows, chickens and bees are good if intelligently man-
aged. The cows are the surest paying of anything, as we grow ten tons
of alfalfa to the acre, have mild winters, and milk and butter are always
in great demand at good prices. The alfalfa is also a great benefit to
the land as a fertilizer. My crop this year is as follows:
Strawberries. Clark Seedlings, 100 crates sold for $250 00
Bins: and Royal Anne cherries, 100 crates sold for 200 00
Elberta peaches, estimated 500 boxes 250 00
Bartlett pears, estimated 200 boxes 300 00
Tokay grapes, estimated 600 boxes 300 00
Apricots, apples, prunes, other berries, estimated 100 00
Potatoes, garden, alfalfa, estimated 100 00
Total $1,500 00
Size of tract, five acres.
W. M. Scott, Kiona: If the soil is suitable for potatoes, few better
crops can be grown between the young trees. Not all the soil here,
however, is adapted to potatoes or will produce them successfully. In
such cases, strawberries are as good as anything, and are nearly always
quite profitable. It is, however, considered by many experienced horti-
culturists that an orchard is better off if nothing is grown in it but
the trees, unless it is some legume crop that can be plowed under at
least part of the time to enrich the soil. In following out this plan, it
would be a good plan to keep a few good dairy cows. They will bring
in ready money all the time and will greatly aid in building up and
maintaining the fertility of the soil. In my own case, I engaged in
dairying for some years and found it both profitable and congenial until
failing health compelled me to give it up.
T. B. Kendall, Kiona: We have eight acres under ditch, all in
alfalfa and fruit. One year, from three-fourths of an acre of straw-
berries planted between peach trees we picked 175 crates of berries,
which sold in Seattle at $4.50 and $5.00 per crate. The following year
the frost injured the berries, and we got only 75 crates. Then I set
out another three-quarter acre tract in berries, and this year got 243
crates. I also raise garden truck to sell, and the garden pays all my
store bills. I manage to lay by more or less money each year.
S. E. Marical, Entiat: In regard to making a living on land until
trees bear, will say that we grow all kinds of truck between the trees,
such as melons, corn, tomatoes — in fact all kinds of vegetables, which
^nd a good and ready market.
Geo. B. Spencer, Farris: I have lived in this part of the country
for sixteen years and have done fairly well. If a man has any get-up
to him, he can make a good living by raising strawberries or garden
truck until his trees come to bearing. Fruit trees come on quickly
liere. My trees that were five years' old last year averaged eight or
nine boxes to the tree. I took second prize on Winter Bananas at the
Individual Experiences 85
Spokane apple show last year, and that would indicate this to be a
good place in which to raise fruit.
J. L. Dumas, Touchet Valley (near Dayton): My land (100 acres)
was settled in 1856, and was farmed in wheat and other crops con-
tinuously until planted in orchard. My chief crop between the trees
was potatoes. In the five years that I raised potatoes (1898-1903) prices
averaged nearly one dollar per sack, and the yield was from 60 to 100
sacks per acre. Other paying crops were onions, corn and nursery
stock, but at least 90 per cent, of the cost of maintaining the orchard
came from the potatoes.
S. W. Usher, P. O., Wenatchee: I make my living by improving land
for others. Some of my friends grow vegetables, melons or cantaloupes
between tree rows. This being a newly developed section, not many
have an opportunity to do this, as the first consideration is the trees.
J. W. Broyles, Pomeroy: In 1909, we had oft of about GV2 acres in
berries, potatoes and onions a little over $2,000.00. There was 1^/4 acres
of strawberries, from which we got 213 crates, and sold at an average
of $2.59 per crate. From about three-fourths of an acre in blackberries
and red raspberries we got 140 crates, which brought an average of
$2.25 per crate. Our whole berry crop brought over $850.00. I would
suggest that a man starting in on a new place should plant his orchard
tract to potatoes and onions, as there is money in both crops, and the
land cannot be put in too good shape for trees.
J. D. Reard, Ephrata: I am growing vegetables, such as potatoes,
sweet corn, beans, carrots, watermelons, garden peas and other garden
truck, at a good profit above all expenses of the orchard. I am irri-
gating from a well, and pump all the water at an expense of $4.00 per
acre each year. I consider this better than gravity water.
J. P. Flynn, Ellensburg: A living may be made by raising straw-
berries, potatoes, onions, etc., between the rows. Potatoes give from
200 to 400 bushels to the acre. A small piece of ground, about 25 feet by
35 feet, produced this season $36.80 worth of strawberries, besides suffi-
cient to supply a family of five persons. Pears, apples, prunes and black-
berries are all fine producers.
Frank Garber, Okanogan City: In the irrigated districts which
have transportation facilities a living may be made upon land planted
to fruit trees before they come into bearing, by growing between the
rows of trees such crops as potatoes, cantaloupes, watermelons, toma-
toes, corn, etc. Where such crops thrive as they do in the Okanogan
section, this can be done without injury to the growing trees. Markets
have been rather uncertain here, owing to the lack of transportation,
but the railroad now building will solve this problem. Some who plant
only small orchards and do not care to crop between trees work for
others the greater part of the time and make their living in this way.
As the land here when growing young trees and properly tilled requires
but two irrigations in a season, all of one's time is not required in
caring for a small tract.
B. E. Hendrick, Omak: A living may be made from land planted
in trees, by raising potatoes, onions, beans and all kinds of garden
truck. Also strawberries can be grown at a great profit, as they yield
very heavily and ripen about May 15th to 20th. They require only a
small amount of capital for plants and will bear within one year after
L. B. McLean, Brewster: A good living may be made by raising
truck between the tree rows. Almost anything will grow here that is
cared for. I raised corn, mostly, on my land in 1909; raised plenty on
Individual Experiences 87
seven acres for five head of stock, fattened three hogs, and have corn
enough left to fatten three more. On one-half of an acre I raised 85
sacks of potatoes, and other vegetables did well. One can raise any
kind of berries in a young orchard. I received as wages, $1.00 an hour
for self and four-horse team, and single hands demand $2.00 to $3.00
per day, without board. There is much work to be done.
Geo. p. Blood, Spokane Bridge: Have tried crops between trees for
three seasons. For the first year averaged $50.00 per acre from potatoes.
The second year was a failure, owing to lack of water supply. Third
year, beans on three acres brought $30 per acre; one acre of early
potatoes brought $80 net; one acre of tomatoes brought $175 net profit;
two acres in blackberries and dewberries, first-year bearing, brought
$50. This year have taken care of twenty acres besides our own and
work team outside wherever possible, or put land in shape for trees
for other parties. It pays better than crops between trees and saves
fertility of soil. Have averaged over $100 per month, besides caring
for my own tract.
M. Hanly, Spokane Bridge: It is not difficult to make a living in
this district, the Spokane valley. It was impossible to do the labor
and team work here last season; also the work of taking care of tracts
for non-residents. All berries do well here, as all vegetables. From
this season on there will be plenty of work, spring and fall, thinning
and picking apples. If a man has the price of his tract, he can make
it; but if he expects to pay for the land from the crops, I would not
advise him to buy here or in any other section where raw tracts are
A. W. Turner, Fruitland: In reference to making a living before
fruit comes into bearing, gardening pays well. Good money is made in
raising strawberries, tomatoes, etc., and, besides, there is generally
lots of work in the immediate vicinity, where one can put in an oc-
casional day for cash.
John Melzer, Two Rivers: I am engaged in raising poultry and
gardening, and have made a comfortable living. I had no cash when I
started and had to work for others, hence could not give all my time to
my land. I do not believe there is any reason why a man cannot make
a living on irrigated land. Cultivation is the main thing. My potatoes
run eight to twenty-seven to the hill without fertilizing. My whole
crop has been marketed. There is an abundance of land to be had here,
either with or without water.
S. A. Ferrel, R. F. D. No. 5, Walla Walla: A living may be made
from truck gardening while the trees are small. I find that berries are
pretty hard on the soil with young trees, but the trees will grow some,
and good money can be made in that way. I find that corn or potatoes
between the rows are as good for the young trees as clean cultivation.
Jas. Brake, Wallula: In my particular locality you can raise almost
everything — potatoes, squash, beans, peas, peanuts, radishes, turnips,
etc. I get my supply of water from a well with a gasoline engine and
pump. Turkeys are a good side line here. Out of 72 hatched, I have
62 living and thrifty.
Harry K. Spalding, Sunnyside: The best small fruits to grow be-
tween the young trees are strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, cur-
rants and gooseberries. I prefer the strawberries, as they are highly
profitable and easily cared for. The strawberry is very beneficial in
another way, as it thrives best under good cultivation, which is a
benefit to the young trees. Such crops as potatoes, onions and musk-
melons and watermelons are also grown in young orchards to good
Individual Experiences 89
advantage. Some growers have made a success of grapes among young
trees for a few years.
Wm. H. Abramsky, Selah: Potatoes and truck may be raised on
fruit land, but I should advise newcomers to come with enough money
to carry them along. In addition to his land, there is the expense of a
house, team, barn, cistern, wagon, tools, etc. One should not be carried
away by glowing reports of rearing an orchard without work, as it is
work from morning to night. Care should be taken in selecting the
soil to see that it has depth and good gravel drainage.
Ernest C. Hill, Selah: I purchased my place (20 acres) in 1908,
and have had no experience in raising a young orchard. In this sec-
tion the ranchers raise potatoes, onions, alfalfa and small fruits until
their trees come in bearing. I paid $650.00 per acre in the month of
March, 1908, and now bearing orchards around here are selling at
$1,000.00 per acre. Have only been in this business two years, and
last year won third on sweepstakes and second on carload lots at the
Spokane Apple show.
Geo. M. Chase, Grandview: If a man is a good gardener and in-
tends to live on his ranch, he can make money farming between the
rows, but if he hires his place taken care of he should confine himself
to trees only. I consider alfalfa the surest crop.
Herbert Powell, Mabton: A living may be made on fruit lands
before the trees come into bearing by raising berries, potatoes, corn
or other crops between the tree rows. Alfalfa can also be grown very
successfully. My way of planting is to grow berries between the trees
and have a part of the land in alfalfa and keep cows and chickens. In
this way I build up the land all the time. If the land is managed as it
should be, there will be a handsome profit after the first year.
Dr. F. C. Jones, Sunnyside: I think that on the level lands one
can do as well with root crops or truck as with trees. I would advise
those coming to this valley to decide first one of three things. Do
you want to raise alfalfa? Then buy an alfalfa ranch. If you want to
raise truck, then get level land close to market, and if you wish to raise
apples, buy good orchard land. It is difficult to make truck gardening
pay on land planted to trees, but one can start in at once with truck and
make it pay. from the first.
Granville Lowther, North Yakima: The best small fruit crop is
strawberries, that will yield one year from the time of planting and
will often make $300.00 per acre. The most profitable crop is to-
matoes, if blight can be prevented, and many claim to have overcome
this by planting in hills, thus avoiding transplanting, and by watering
at night, rather than permitting the water to run when the sun shines.
Onions, asparagus, cabbage, beans, peas, carrots, etc., all do well. A
good gardener will make a living from five acres. A poor gardener may
need ten acres.
Paul Killian, Mabton: A living may be made by growing straw-
berries or other small fruits between the rows or by raising vegetables.
Strawberries will yield from 100 to 250 crates per acre, and will sell
from $1.00 to $3.60 per crate. It will cost about 75 cents per crate
to have them picked, packed and cost of crate ready to ship. The
average price is $2.00 per crate. Chickens and other poultry pay well.
Eggs seldom sell for less than 25 cents per dozen, and up to 50 cents.
Spring chickens bring from 18 to 35 cents per pound; old chickens
sell at 12 and 16 cents per pound; turkeys, geese and ducks bring 16 to
-■20 cents per pound.
Individual Experiences 91
M. AsHTON Gore, Selah: From my observation and experience, it is
impossible for one to make a living on irrigated fruit lands before the
trees come into bearing. But by having small tract (say ten acres) one
can cultivate his trees and have a team and do outside work — that is,
work for others. Wages here are good — $2.00 and $2.25 per day and
$4.50 and $5.50 for a man with a team.
PROFITS FROM IRRIGATED LANDS-
While a great many motives may be cited as contributing to induce
men to seek a change in their home location, undoubtedly the final de-
cision is influenced in nearly every instance by the possibilities ahead
for financial betterment. There is small object for any person to
migrate across a continent unless he may anticipate with reasonable
certainty an improvement in his material welfare. Such advantages
as a desirable climate, beautiful scenery, opportunities for hunting
and fishing, educational and social opportunities, etc., all make their
appeal, but the question, "Can I better my condition?" must be satis-
factorily answered in behalf of any section that is seriously desirous of
adding to its home-making population.
Fortunately for those who will inquire deeply into this phase of the
situation, farming by irrigation is not a new or untried industry in
this state. Back in territorial days, men were acquiring competences
through the application of water to the arid valley lands of eastern
Washington, and in the interim that has elapsed since that time
many of them have attained comfortable fortunes. The experiences
of those who pioneered the way are available to the newcomer, and in
the light of such experiences he may determine to some extent, at
least, the possibilities for success that await his own efforts.
The essential difference between the early days and the present
time is found in the fact that reclamation work is now proceeding on
a vastly larger scale. Land is being brought under ditch and made avail-
able for cultivation by tens of thousands of acres and is lying now, fat
and fallow, waiting the coming of the industrious husbandman. In the
meantime, some idea of what is being accomplished by men who have
already brought their lands to a producing basis may be gleaned from
the following reports, supplied on request, by individual irrigation
farmers and orchardists.
H. C. Larson, near Vineland, in Asotin county: Size of tract, five
acres; planted to grapes, strawberries, dewberries and peaches. For the
season of 1909 the above tract yielded 990 boxes of peaches and 1,000
crates of grapes; the total expenses for the season amounting to $550.00
and the net profits were $1,341.00.
Individual Experiences 93
J. B. LoBER, owner and Peter Spohn, operator, of seven-acre tract,
located near Clarkston, Asotin county: The tract is cropped in vege-
tables, and during the past four years 800 loads of manure have been
spread over the seven acres. For the season of 1909 the total sales
from the above tract amounted to $5,340.00; the total expenses, includ-
ing water, taxes, feed, express, boxes, sacks, labor and commissions
amounted to |2,125.00, and the net profits were $3,225.00.
H. W. Desgranges, near Kennewick, Benton county: Size of tract,
ten acres; planted to alfalfa. For the season of 1910 the above tract
yielded a net profit of $540 over and above expenses.
Omar W. Rich, Kennewick, Benton county: Size of tract, five
acres; planted to cherry, peach and pear trees; the trees, of which there
are 400 in the tract, are six years' old. For the season of 1910, Mr.
Rich marketed 1,300 boxes of fruit, at a total expense of $500.00; his
net profits for the season were $1,000.00.
G. L. Finley, Kiona, Benton county: Size of tract, three acres;
planted to apples, peaches and pear trees. There are 325 trees in the
tract, only a portion of which, however, are bearing, as some of them
were put in two years ago. For the season of 1908 Mr. Finley sold 400
boxes of apples from 45 trees, which brought him a net profit of $200.00.
S. B. MoRicAL, Entiat, Chelan county: Size of tract, two acres;
planted to a general variety of winter apples. There are 200 ten-year-
old trees in the tract. For the season of 1908 the yield from the tract
amounted to 1,800 boxes; the total expenses amounted to $450.00, and
the net profits were $1,800.00.
J. H. Blake, Wenatchee, Chelan county: Size of tract, one acre;
planted to Winesap apples. There are 96 trees in the tract, which was
planted ten years ago. For the season of 1909 Mr. Blake sold 960 boxes
of apples from his one acre at an average price of $2.40 per box. He
estimates his expenses for the season at $600.00 and his net profits
slightly over $1,700.00.
Blackman Brothers, near Wenatchee, Chelan county: Size of
tract, 36 acres; planted to apples. The trees, of which there are
2,880 in the tract, are eight years' old. For the season of 1909 the
yield from the above tract amounted to 18,000 boxes; the expenses for
the season were $6,000.00, and the net profits $21,500. In common with
other fruitgrowers, Blackman Brothers report 1909 to have been de-
cidedly an '*ofC" year.
Geo. Spencer, location on the Entiat river, 7 miles from the Colum-
bia: Size of tract, twelve acres; planted to apples and peaches; apples
include Winesaps, Winter Bananas and Spitzenbergs. There are 800
six-year-old trees in the tract. For the season of 1909, when the trees
came into bearing, Mr. Spencer marketed 700 boxes of apples at a net
profit of $650.00.
John N. Johnson, near Wenatchee, Chelan county: Size of tract,
seven acres; planted to apple trees not yet bearing. Timothy, clover
and alfalfa grown between the trees yielded at first cutting for season
of 1910, 14 tons, which brought $19.00 per ton exclusive of hauling.
Two additional cuttings were made, but returns not reported.
J. L. Dumas, Touchet valley, Columbia county: Size of tract, one
hundred acres; planted to winter apples; number of trees in tract,
7,500. For the season of 1907, the above tract yielded 24,000 boxes of
apples, giving net profits of $24,000; for 1908, the yield was 35,000
boxes, with net returns of $20,000; in 1909 (a poor fruit year), the
yield amounted to 17,000 boxes, with a net profit of $12,000. Mr.
'94 Individual Experiences
Dumas states that his crop for 1910 will far exceed that of any previous
year. The trees range in age from 10 years to 13 years.
E. S. Ryerson, Touchet valley, near Dayton, Columbia county: Size
of tract, nine acres; planted to apple trees. The trees of which there
are 1,400 in the tract are 14 years' old. For the season of 1909, Mr.
Ryerson sold 4,200 boxes of first-grade apples in addition to his sec-
onds. The total expenses for the season amounted to $2,000.00, with
net profits of $3,000.00.
Chas. Tichacek, Moses Lake, Grant county: Size of tract, 120
xicres; planted to fruit trees, strawberries, potatoes, alfalfa, grapes,
watermelons, muskmelons, vegetables, etc. There are 3,200 fruit trees
on the tract, including apricots, plums, peaches and apples; of the last
named, the varieties are Winesap, Spitzenberg and Rome Beauties; the
trees are from one to five years in age, and this year it is estimated they
will produce 3,200 boxes of apples, sufficient to meet the expense of
developing the orchard to date. The returns from the other products
-of the tract amounted to about $2,500.00, potatoes, alfalfa and grapes
being the principal crops.
W. H. ToLLiVER, Ephrata, Grant county: Size of tract, one hundred
^nd twenty-one acres; planted to alfalfa, watermelons, beets, carrots,
general garden truck and fruit trees. There are about 565 trees in the
tract, one-fifth of which are twenty years* old, the balance having been
planted within the last seven years. For the season of 1910, the ex-
penses of caring for the above tract amounted to $1,500 and the net
profits over and above expenses from the orchard alone were $2,000.00.
No report from the sale of other products was received.
J. P. Flynn, Ellensburg, Kittitas county: Size of tract, four acres;
planted to apples, pears, prunes, plums and cherries. There are 284 trees
in the tract, ranging in age from five to thirteen years. For the season
of 1908, the yield from the above tract amounted to 1,200 boxes; the
expenses were $720, and the net profits from the season's operations
amounted to $1,080.00.
H. C. Mastekson, Kittitas county: Size of tract, 320 acres; planted
to timothy and grain. Mr. Masterson reports the net profits from his
farm for the season of 1909 at $2,500.00.
S. SORENSON, owner; Thos. Walker, operator, of an 80-acre hay
farm located near Ellensburg, in Kittitas county. Sixty acres of the
tract are in mixed hay, 15 acres in oats, and 5 acres in pasture. For
the season of 1909 the sales from the above tract were as follows:
First crop of hay, 150 tons, at $16.50 per ton $2,475
Second crop of hay, 60 tons, at $12.00 per ton 720
Oats, 15 tons, at $28.00 per ton 420
Total receipts $3,730
Water for irrigation $160
Labor for irrigation 150
Plowing, harrowing and seeding 40
Stacking and harvesting 300
Total expenses $1,310
Net profits $2,420
Net to owner, $1,565 ; net to operator, $855.
Individual Experiences 95
Mitchell Stevens, near Ellensburg, Kittitas county: Size of tract,
39 acres; planted to timothy and mixed timothy and alfalfa. For the
season of 1909, the yield from the above tract amounted to 110 tons of
hay, selling at $19.00 in the stack, and 16 tons which brought $12.00
per ton. The total returns amounted to $2,282.00.
A. C. LiBBY, Methow valley, Okanogan county: Came to the valley
in the fall of 1888 — myself, wife and three babies. Filed on 160 acres
of land in the Methow valley where Libby creek joins the Methow river.
Have cleared up my ranch, and to last spring (before the time of its
«ale) put 120 acres under irrigation — of this amount about 60 acres into
alfalfa, about three or four acres into bearing orchard; the balance of
the ranch given up to growing grain and some corn. Our first apple
tree was planted twenty-one years ago this fall, and since the year it
first came into bearing has had a good crop of apples every year.
There never has been a year when the tree has produced below a
normal yield from any cause whatever. The greater part of our orchard
was planted twelve to fifteen years ago. The yield as well as the
•quality of apples grown compares favorably with anything I have ever
seen in the Wenatchee country. My experience of twenty-two years in
the Methow valley leads me to believe it is destined to be one of the
greatest apple-growing sections in the world. I cut three crops of
alfalfa hay each year, averaging from five to six tons per acre; corn
yields from 40 to 60 bushels; oats, about 60 to 75 bushels per acre;
wheat, from 30 to 40 bushels per acre. Climatic conditions in this part
-of our state are ideal; practically no winds at any season of the year;
winters are mild, with plenty of snow to insure a sufficient amount of
water during the entire irrigation season. Outside of a small strip
•of land along the valley, the greater portion of this section is included
in forest reserve. This insures us unlimited fuel, as well as timber for
posts and building purposes for the next generation. There is plenty of
room for men who desire to engage in general farming, stockraising or
S. A. Ferrel, 12 miles east of Walla Walla: Size of tract, 10 acres;
planted to apple trees; varieties, Newtown Pippins, Ben Davis, Spitzen-
berg, Rome Beauties, and Jonathans. There are 1,000 trees in the
tract, averaging twelve years in age. During the past three seasons,
5,680 boxes of apples were marketed from the tract, the total expenses
for the period being $1,800 and the net profits $3,400.00.
C. M. Radeb, Lowden, near Walla Walla: Size of tract, 150 acres;
principally in alfalfa and pasture. The farm is rented on half shares,
-and for the season of 1909 the net returns for one-half share, exclusive
of interest and taxes, amounted to $1,831.50.
Ernest C. Hill, tract of 20 acres located near Selah: Planted to
apples, peaches, pears, cherries and prunes; varieties of apples as fol-
lows: Spitzenberg, 300; Arkansas Blacks, 100; Ben Davis, 100; Graven-
steins, 100; Kings, 100; also some Newtowns. Age of trees, 14 years.
For the season of 1909, Mr. Hill sold 2,000 boxes of fruit; his total ex-
penses amounted to $1,542.33, and his net profits from the season's
operations were $2,892.20. His carload of Spitzenbergs exhibited at
the Spokane apple show was awarded second prize.
E. C. Van Brundt, Fruitvale, two miles west of North Yakima:
►Size of tract, 40 acres; planted to apples, peaches and grapes; 800
bearing apple trees and 1,000 bearing peach trees; the apple trees
^are 10 to 12 years' old and the peaches 4 to 10 years. For the season of
1908, Mr. Van Brundt marketed 6,300 boxes of apples, 9,400 boxes of
peaches and 3,000 baskets of grapes. His total expenses for the season
amounted to $4,800.00, with net profits over and above expenses of
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