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LiL^iniAti 



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I • SEE • ALL 



The World's First 
Picture Encyclopedia 



100,000 Pictures of People, Places, and Things 
AND AN Atlas of Every Country in the World 



Edited by 
ARTHUR MEE 



VOLUME ONE 



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Edited at John Carpenter House 
Issued by the Amalgamated Press at Fleetway House, London 



I 



See end ol Last Volume 
[or Colour Plates and Maps 



« 



The Picture Gallery 



\A/E have come to the Picture Age, and the 
great Picture Book was bound to come. 
This is the first book of its kind. 

npHERE have been many attempts to put all 
knowledge into a single work, and there 
still waits, for some pioneer in a more fortu- 
nate age, the glorious opportunity of putting 
all essential knowledge into a single volume. 
It is the favourite dream of all who make 
encyclopedias, and some day, when men love 
knowledge well enough, it will come true. 
In the meantime let us do the things we can. 

Mere is one of the biggest things that men 
have tried to do. We do not apologise 
for it, but it is not perfect. The first clock 
was not perfect. The first dictionary was not 
perfect. George Stephenson's Rocket was 
not perfect. The first Daimler makes us 
laugh as we see the picture of King Edward 
sitting in it. We remember the thrill that 
was stirred within us by the scratching sounds 
of one of the very first wireless sets. The first 
thing of its kind can never be what the last 
thing of its kind will be. 

DUT only a very few will be able to under- 
stand how great an achievement this 
book represents on the part of that industrious 
little army whose thought and skill and in- 
genuity have been put into it. It is one thing 
to fill an encyclopedia with paragraphs set 
in type ; it is another thing to fill it with 
pictures made from originals of every con- 
ceivable sort and size and shape. 



stack 
Annex 

fir 






'To put a hundred thousand of these pictures 
into such a convenient size and shape 
that their blocks of solid metal will all fit 
together like dominoes and be in alphabetical 
order is a miraculous achievement before 
which the editor who conceived the book 
bows down in admiration. Never before have 
so many engraver's blocks been made for a 
single work, and the mere handling of these 
hundred thousand little pieces of metal has 
been a problem exercising the ingenuity of the 
largest printing works in the British Isles. 

2026G66 



As for the bringing together of tlie pictures 
themselves, that has only been made possible 
Ijy the experience of a lifetime and the tireless 
searching and toihng of a little host of hands 
and hearts and minds. 

XA/E do not hesitate to predict that / See All 
will take its place beside the Dictionary. 
The Dictionary gives us the word we want. 
/ See All gives us the picture we want. The 
Dictionary tells us that a Triforium is a 
galler}' in the form of an arcade above the 
arches of the nave and choir of a church ; 
I See All shows us the Triforium. The Dic- 
tionary tells us that a Finial is the ornament 
finishing off the apex of a roof, pediment, 
gable, canopy, and so on ; / See All shows 
the Finial for the eye to see. It shows us 
what the thing is, instantly. 

\A/E are all in a hurr\- today ; we have all 
bowed the knee to pictures. We cannot 
wait. We must see the thing at once. It is not 
so very long since the telephone came to carry 
our voice wherever we want it to go ; it was 
only the other day that the aeroplane came 
to take our bodies wherever we want them to 
so ; and tomorrow our eves are to be at the 
ends of the Earth, for television is upon us. 
We have lived into an impatient world ; some 
have been born into it and do not know what 
patience is. All of us want to see things, and 
to see them quickly. 

LI ERE, then, with the same inspiration behind 
it as the Children's Encyclopedia which 
has gone to the ends of the Earth (which is 
being printed at the rate of far more than a 
milHon separate volumes every year in various 
languages throughout the world) , is one more 
pioneer. It speaks the universal language : 
give it to a roomful of people of all nations, 
speaking all languages, and they will all ha\e 
a kind of understanding of these pages. The 
world is reading less and less, but it is listening 



and looking more and more. Here is some- 
thing for it to look at, the biggest collection of 
pictures ever offered to it, arranged so simply 
that a child can find them. 



Edited by Arthur Mee at 
John Carpentei House. London. 

Engraved and Printed by 

The Amalgamated Press, Limited, 

at their works in 

London and Gravesend , 

and Published by them at 

Fleetway House, London 



II 



ALPINE FLOWERS— THE LOVELY BLOSSOMS ON NATURE'S MOUNTAIN WALLS 




iarjxjt-um 2 Greater Knapweed. i RounJ-iieaded Ranipion. i Arnica muntaiia, > Aiira*.;alus nu)ns(>essulanum 6 Pinks. 7 Senecio doronicum. 
3 Opposite-leaved Sa.tifraiie. o Penny-cress, lo Alpine Toadlla.t. it Golden Hawkweed. 12 Alpine Trefoil. 15 (jentianella 14 Edelweiss. 15 Bistort. 16 Box- 
leaved Milkwort 17 Brown Clover 18 Heart-leaved Ball Flower. 19 A\ount.un Sieversia. 20 Turk's Cap Lily 21 Villous Primrose. 22 Cortusa Matthioli. 
23 Alpenrose. 24 Orani;e Hawkweed. 25 Sprini! Gentian 26 .Mountain Buttercup 27 Alpine Rose See pase 47 



AMERICAN INDIANS— OLDEST LIVINCi RACES OF THE NEW WORLD 




CHARACTERISTIC ur._„ .\:,U ORNAMENTS OF SOME Of Tri 



c CHIcr TKlBcS Of THE RED INDIAN PO/'Ui-AnON Of NOKIH AI-.cKICA 
See page 53 




A, the tirst letter in the Enijlish and 
many other alphabets, has come to us 
from the picture of a bird. It is 
derived from tlie old picture writinc^ as 
shown in this picture-history of it — 
hieroglypiiic, Egyptian script. Phoeni- 
cian, old Greek, old Roman, and nindern. 



21a 6lo Aa iX^&i^Aa 



A in writing. These capital and small 
A's represent Hebrew, Greek, Roman, 
Anglo - Saxon, Gothic, Old English, 
German, Celtic, Engrossing, Italic, 
Tudor. Victorian, and Alodern Script. 



Bass Clef 



A in music. One of a series of tones at 
intervals of an octave, used as a stan- 
dard tone for tuning instruments. 




A.A. The familiar badge of the Auto- 
mobile Association, seen on cars. 
A. A. A. Amateur Athletic Association. 




AALESUND. Norwegian lishing port 
(F'iiMil.itii>n 1(1,500). See Atlas ii. D 5 




AAPEP. In Egyptian mythologv, 
great serpent, the symbol of evil : lie i 
seen here being speared. 
Aarau. See Atlas '), C 1. 



AAH. Egyptian moon god represented 
in two forms, one with an animal face 
and one with a human face. 
AaUnd Islands. See Atbs ii, L i^. 




AAR RIVER. Tributary of the Rhn; 
watering the plain of northern Swit/.r 
land. About ISO miles long, it rises n^.i: 
the Grimsel Pass and flows through Lakv> 
Brienz and Thun to join the Rhine near 
Waldshut. See Atlas 9. B 2. 



AARDWOLF. > illc'd also the 

j.R-kal. It M'iii..\'. hat resembles ; 
ied, lari;e-carL-J h\ena. Sin. 
night-riiamtT. u is u idcspriM-l m 




AARESTRUP. EMIL u<mio 

Danish lyric poet. 




AARHUS - ,..: ,.i::;.^; banish port 

and chiet city ot Jutland, witli a notable 
cathedral (75,000). See Atlas ii, F S. 



AARON, i iic btoUicr ol A\oses and lirst 
high priest of the Israelites, who died 
nil Mount Hor. This statue is in the 
archbishop's palace. Milan. 




AARON'S BEARD. Tne Urge- ilouered 
M. Joiin's-wort (Hypericum calycinuml 
common in British gardens and found 
wild. It is a native of S.E. Europe. 
and is known also as Rose of Sharon. 




An iriiainent in art 
straight rod with 
one serpent twined round it. 
AASEN, IVAR ANDREAS |lSl>-06). A 

Norwo'.;ia!i piiilul.'i^ist. 



I.B. 



A.P.C. BOOK 




A.I. Able-hoJicJ Seanun m the Bn; 
Hh Vjvv i\clt) jnj M.r.jn:;;.' V.u : 




ABA. An uuterc:irment wornby Ar. 
o( town and desert, of simple form \» 
arniholes, and made nf various materi.r 




ABACA. [lie plant (Musa textilis) 
which yields Manila hemp. It grows in 
Ihe Philippines, and is a near relation of 
the banana. The fibre is in the leaf. 
ihools, which support a stem of 20 feet. 






*> >J fJ>»0OO^~ 




ABACUS. An chloni; wiioJ;n tranu- 
with wires across havin? ten coloured 
beads on each. It isu5ed for countinj:, 
and ancient monuments show that it 
was known in Roman times. The 
Chinese have a similar instrirmenl 
which is called a swan-pan. 




Decorated 



Perpendicular 



ABACUS. The flat stone of various 
lorms at the top of a column in 
iircliitecture. Its duty is to provide a 
larger supportin? surface for the arch it 
^as !o cirry, and through the ajes it 
has been moulded in manv stvles. 




ABAOAN. Isl.oiJ ^il tIK' heau oi iji. 
Persian Gulf on which the An';lo 
Persian Oil Tinipany has establishes! 
wharves -. See Atlas 2(-. r ; 




ABALONE. A shcUli.sh ol the >;e>uis 
i.iliotes. whose flattened spiral shell is 
S.J for inlayintr and makine buttons. 







ABANA. .. 

Iliroui;ti Damascus and is meiUioned b> 
Naaman the Syrian in the Bible. It !■• 
now called the Barada. {2 Kinijs V 12.) 




ABATTIS. Ml iiiilit.ir> lot tilica^ioti. .m 
■ tl'striiclion tornied ol felled trees, uitli 
tliL' br.Tru'hos roiiitiii!' to the enemy. 

7 




ABAT-VENT. A series (.( iiichiuJ 

sl.ils in ail vin:;Ia/ed window to keep 
nut the rain. In a belfry window they 
also throw down the sound of the hells. 




ABAT-VOIX. A ■^...iiwliii.: t...ua A ..wr 
a riilpit tn thr"w (.lown the sound of 
the preach L'r's v-ijce. 
ABBAS THE GREAT. Shah of Persia 
who succeeded his father in 1 5S6, and 
captured Bagdad from the Turks in 1623. 




ABB£. a term formerly sii;nityuK 
1 iu- .i)ihot of a monastery, l>ut now 
l'i"sclv applied to French clerics. 

ABBESS. The superior of a convctil 
.'t tiuns, twelve or more In number 





i^-.-:^ 



ABBEY DORE. A guKt iilUe villairc 
with a heautilul church, including part 
of a 12th-century abbey, in the Golden 
Valley of Herefordshire. 

ABBOT, GEORQE. Archbishop nf Can- 

tirhiiry. was horn at Guildford in 1562, 

bccuniL- primate in \<^2^. arid died at 
Croydon in 1633 




ABBOT OF MISRULE. The leader ol 
Christmas revels in abbey and hall in 
Pre- P--fnrmation days. 



ABBEVILLE. An old city or Ni^rtlK-rn 
1 r.ince on the Niver Sonime, in l'ic;irdy. 
It contains the line lifteenth-century 
cathedral of St. Wolfram and has 
textile and agricultural trades (21,000). 



\r!; 



n 




ABBOT'S BROMLEY DANCE. A re- 
markable Horn iJance ci-U-brated annu- 

:.Hv ;it Abb-.t's \'.,^uv\■■^ , tu-.tr Rii.'Hev. 




ABBEY. A se!f-t;overned ln'lll.l^tL•t> >n uni u-w^t tlian twi-lve monks or 
nuns, governed by an abbot or abbess. Some Entrlish abbeys were of iireat sire, 
like Westminster Abbey, of which the present buildine; is only the chapel. 
One of the big abbeys of England was that of Bury St. Edmunds, shown 
here, of which only the gateway and a few ruins now remain. The chapel 
nlone \vas too feet Innijer than Norwich Cathedral. 




ABBEY, EDWIN A. (1832-1911). An 
AuK'ticai; [■iuntL'r who settled in London. 

ABBEY COUNTER. A kind of medal 
formerly stamped with sacred emblems 
or the arms of an abbey, and '^iven 
to a piliirim in olden times. 




ABBOTSFORD. SirWalter Scott's hcati- 
titul home in the Tweed valley, near Mel- 
ros-. It now contains a Scott museum. 
A. B.C. Book. See Absey book. 



A.B.C. CAR 



ABERDEEN 




A.B.C. CAR. \ 

by A.B.C. MutMI^ LiJ. H 
cvlinder 12-40 li.p rrvjitu'. 




ABDEL KADER (about 1807-83). An 
AU'LTian leader who stoutly resisted the 
French occupation of his country. 
ABOEL KRIM. A chieftain of the Rif 
tribes who revolted atrainst Spanish rule 
in Morocco but was overcome in 1Q27. 




ABDOMEN. In mammals that part of 
the body which lies between the 
thorax (or chest) and the pelvis, 
and contains most of the diirestive 
organs. It is separated from the thorax 
by the diaphrai^m. 




ABDUL AZIZ (1S30-70). An incapable 
Tiirt.ish sultan who reii^ned from lS6l. 

ABDUL HAMID I. Sultan of Turkey, 
who reicned from 1773 to 1 7S9, and 
had to i;ive up the Crimea to Russia. 




ABDUL HAMID II. Sultan 
,1 cruel rii'er. who came tu t._ :...■ ..,, 
iti is;', hut was deposed in 1909. 
ABDUL MEJID. Sultan of Turkey dur- 
inti the Crime.m War. He ruled' from 
1S39 to t.SOi was greatly inlliienced by 
Stratford Cannini:;, and improved tlie 
Turkish administration, givitig rights 
to his no:T-Moslem subjects. 




ABDUR-RAHMAN. Ameer of Afghan- 
istan, who was elevated to the llirone 
at the end of the Second Afghan War, 
in 1880, and ruled wisely till 1901. 
ABEL, ROBERT. English cricketer, one 
of the mainstays of Surrey between 
I8S1 and 1908; he made 70 centuries. 
Abel. See Cain. 




ABELARD AND HELOISE. lu'> i.(t 1< 
Ahelard (1070-1112) being ime ot the greati 
almost as learned. Their tragic story is kn 
They are imagined together in this picture by 



,, ., 


■ 'I 1 'i i; 


L i 1 ' 1 






Pierre 


est 


liiiikers 


(It Ins 


lav 


ami 


Hiloise 


(iwn 


bv the; 


r letters' to 


each 


ether. 


Henrietta R 


»e. 










ABELARD'S TOMB. The resli 

i.f Abelard and Helnise in PSre 
cemetery in Paris, where th 
reinterred in lSi 7- 



ng-placc 
Lachaise 





ABE LINCOLN'S BUG. An odd nan 

;:iven to the Harlequin cabbage bu 
seen here uitli it'^ n\ tiiph (ri'._'ht>. 




ABERAYRON. Seaside resort on the 

...ast. 
Aborcorn, Rhodesia. See Atlas 26, F 3. 




ABERCROMBY, SIR RALPH. Scottish 

general ; burn ITU : died of his woundS 

in Egypt 1801, having defeated French 
troops left there by Napoleon. 




ABERDARE. 

wcit ut Mertliyr lydhi. Besides coal- 
mines, it has brickworks (55.0110). 




ABEL'S TEST APPARATUS. An appar- 
atus fur testing the flash point of oils 
and petroleum recommended by the 
Board of Trade Petroleum Acts. 



ABELE. A name for the white poplar. 
Populus alba, lllu,;trated in these 
pictures, showinT tree, leaf, and fruit. 




ABEOKUTA. Town uf \v_'_,'m.\ in tt;e 
Yoruba district, totiiuled in tS25 to 
withstand the incursions of the slave- 
hunters, it is now an active trading 
centre. We show Father Coquard's 
Hospital. See Atlas 25. E A. 



ABERDARE. 1st BARON 1S15-93). .-^ 

WlMi L'b.ra: pi '|;*.;cian. Home Secre- 
tary ts(.s :;. 
ABERDEEN. 4th EARL 1 1 7^4 1 >:r«o^. 
Foreign Minister und- 
ton. and in 1S52 hec.i 




ABERDEEN, MARQUESS OF. A Scottish 

Liberal leader, tiorn in 1S47. he be- 
came Governor-General of Canada from 
1S93 to 1S9S. Lady Aberdeen has 
taken an active interest in advancing 
women's movements. 



ABERDEEN 





ABNEY LEVEL 



ABtRQELOlE CASTUE. A r.>.ii 
residence on the Dee. in Aberdeenshire. 
The castle is two miles Irom Balmoral 
Castle and six miles from Ballater. 



CoUei;e. the earliest college of Aberdeen University 



I. 



1 1 [i 






AbtAG 

narrow 
SnowdO' 
.1 noted 



LASL<N PAS3. .\ , ;vlur.N,|.ic 

pass near Beddsielert, in the 
n retiion of North Wales. It is 
beauty spot. 




ABERDEEN. Cii'ital and port ut Aberdeenshire, exportme granite, dried nsn. and 
textile* Ihe fourth lamest Scottish city, it is the commercial centre for the 
northern count es and has a splendid harbour. Among the most important 
buildings are the remains of St. Machar Cathedral, the nave of which is now 
the parish church, and Marischal College (i60.nooi. See Atlas ?. I- .. 



ABERNETHY, DR. JOHN I 

.Nl L.artlinlMincu^ II' , , 1 ; 

l^orii 1 704, died IS31. 
ABERNETHY BISCUIT. A large thm 
hiscuit wrongly said to have been 
named alter Dr. Abernethy. 




ABERDOUR. Fifeshire bathing resor; 
.» !~ a mined castle nioo>. 




ABERDOVEY. Seaside resort ill iMetion- 
ftln'ilr-:. Slate lead, and copper ar^ 





ABERRATION. A term describing the 
apparent displacement in position ol 
an object seen through a lens. The 
lens splits up light into its colours, but 
the various rays have different focus 
points, two of which are shown in the 
tirst diagram. This is known as 
chromatic aberration. Another lens 
delect (spherical aberration, shown in 
diagram 2) is that near the edges rays 
are more bent than at the centre. 



ABIES. A genus ' 

l.imily of plants m 

Mrs as distinct fronv the pi 

are mostly lofty trees with sm 

row. evergreen leaves and erec 

\Vc show the silver tir. 



all. nar- 
t cones. 




ABILLEMENrS. A double necklace 
ol Tudor times, consisting of a collar Of 
gold and jewels with a second row of 
lewels hanping low on the bosom. 




ABERFELDY. Perthshire town 
vkhich are the Falls of Moness, immor- 
'. alised by Burns as the Birks of Aber- 

'.Idy 1600). See Atlas n E .',. 



M 



ABER FALLi. oiu.>s iu tuc Carnarvon- 
snire village of Aber. ISO feet high. 



1 
I 

ABERGAVENNY. .M.irkel town in 
Monmouthshire, on the River Usk, with 
remains of a priory and castle (10,000^ 



ABERUNCATORS. An apparatus for 
pinning ta'.l trees. Two blades are 
.ittached to the top of a pole, one being 
rigid and the other forming a lever, 
to which a cord is attached and passed 
over a pulley for working by hand. 




ABERYSTWYTH aUi 

ing-place in Cardiganshire, at the 

(Unction of the rivers Ystwith and 

Rheidol, on Cardigan Bay. It has a Uni- 

I versity College 1 1 i 500). See Atlas 4, C 4. 




ABINGDON. An ancient market town 
in Berkshire. It has a 15th-century 
bridge, and remains of an abbey founded 
m the seventh century. 
Abitibi Lake. See Atlas 29, G I. 




ABNEY LEVEL. A form of rellecting 
level and clinometer (which see) com- 
bined, vsed lor obtaining the heights of 
buildings, hills, and so on, and for fixing 
the slopes of gradients for rails, the rise 
and fall for drainage purposes, and soon. 



ABNEY PARK CEMETERY 



ABU. MOUNT 




ABNEY PARK CEMETERY. Thisuas 

formerly the LoiuIdh estate of Sir 
Thomas Abney, with whom Dr. Isaac 
Watts spent his last 30 years. It 

coiit.iin'. tlu- LTiive m| ihe hynin-writer. 




ABO. ...: chi;I purts ol FinUn.J. 

on 111;; D.utK. Willi a large export tradir 
(60,000). See Atlas l6. C 2. 




ABOCOCKE. A type ol hat worn in 
the 14th, i?th. and I6th centuries, with 
a tall, pointed crown and a wide brim 
turned up before or behind. 
ABOLLA. Cloak fastened at the throat, 
worn by the poorer classes in old Rome 
and also used by Greek philosophers as 
a si?n of humility. 




ABO MA. The name given tu the 
i-obies I which see) found in A\exican 
and Japanese waters. The aboma is 
a small tish and has more than the 
usual $i.x dorsal spines. 




ABOMA. A larvre v.'d nr anutondu 
found in the warmer parts of America. 
It appears to be the serpent worshipped 
bv the ancient Mexicans. 
Abomey. See Atlas 25. E 4. 




ABOUT, EDMOND. A French writer. 

burn .It [»u-r./.- i.^2N: died 1SS5. He is 

known chiefly for liis novels. 

ABOX. A nautical term to describe the 

yards of a ship when head-sails are 

braced atjainst the wind. 

Aboyne. See Atlas 5, 1- 2. 




ABRAHAM. Foundt;r of the Hebreu 
;,.itioii, liiS Story bcfini; told in Genesis. 
He was a native of Ur of the Chaldecs 
whence he miiirated to Canaan, where h.- 
died at Hebron about 2300 B.C. Our 
picture is by Francesco Barbieri. 




ABRAHAM, PLAINS OF. Name f<»r 

the heiiihts close to Quebec on which 
Wolfe defeated the French. This tine 
cnhimn commemorates the battle. 




M.inirc, unJcr u Inch Abraham is 
to have entertained three strantiers. 




ABRAHAM'S TOMB. The cave ot 
.\\.ulipcl.ih 4t Hebron. Palestine, in 
wtuch .Abrahiim, Isaac, and Jacob were 
buried This mosque stands over it. 
Abrantes. See Atla.*; S. B 2. 



ABRUPTLY PINNATE. A pmnate. or 
lL-.ither-Uke. leaf, ending in a pair of 
L-.lllets. See Pinnate. 
ABRUZZI, DUKE OF THE. Italian ex- 

pl'irer nf Franz Josef Land, born 187^. 
.Hbruzzi. See .^tlas 11. D V 




-273 -200 



^ 



ABSOLUTE ZERO. The lowest 

r '^jible temperature at whicli it is 
:ijved matter can exist. It is reckoned 
.:•- 273 degress below zero Centigrade, 
and has been approached within four- 
Fifths of a det^ree. The diat^ram shows 
the distance the mercury bulb would be 
from freezing-point if it were possible 
til have such a thermometer. 





ABSALOM. The third and lavourite son ot King Uavjd oi israei. who rcbeilcd 

ai^ainst his father, but though at rirst successful, was eventually beaten and, while 
fleeing, was caught by his hair in a tree and slain bv [onh. 




ABSALOIVIS TOMB. A sepulchral [ 

,..;:.. ...I ;;-ar Jerusalem. 
ABSCONCE. In churches, a kind of dark 

l.nU-rn cntainin? a candle. 



\ 


ABC 
DEF 
SH 1 
JKL 
MNO 


PQR 

4— 


~~ ^ 



ABSEY BOOK. \ primer lor le.ullini; 
the alphabet. ("That is question now; 
and then conies answer like an absey 
book." Kinj; John, .^ct I. Scene 1.) It 
included a catechism. 



ABRAXAS. A sem ensraved with the 
word Abr3.\as and used as a symbol 
by the (Gnostic sect of the Basilidians 
ABRONIA. A itaas of plants, natives 
of western U.S.A. The flowers, thoush 
different in structure, look like verbena. 




ABSINTHE. A liqueur made by steep- 
ini; in alcohol the wormwood, or arteinisia 
absinthium, the plant shown here. 




ABSORPTIOIMETER. Invented by 

r.unsen > w inch see), to determine the 
amount of eas absorbed by a jrivcn 
volume of liquid. Gas and liquid are 
sliaken over mercury, and absorption is 
measured by the height to which the 
mercury presses up the liquid. 

ABSORPTION TUBE. A vertical 
tui-e lUleJ with small class beads, which 
IS used for the absorption of Erases. The 
beads are wet with the absorbing 
substance. DilTerent e.xperimenters use 
ditTerent forms of ii-struiiie-i*. 




ABSORPTION LINES. A term used 
in -spectrum analysis to describe the 
dark lines in an otherwise continuous 
spectrum which are due to the absorption 
of licht bv the relatively cool vapours 
through which the licht has passed. 
Abu, Mount. See Mount Abu. 



ACANTHOPODA 



ABU-KLEA 




lli'li^.^^ 









»BU 

Utc. 


KLEA 


Scene ol the cngaReni 

,„. In issi;, between t 

...11 ...'5 column pt^ 

i.f Gordon ii 

• ion arrived lo. 

,...,.. .1 .1 ■ ,1 -,1 




ABURRIA. U'.i: ' t ilK' uu.iiis. a h' 
reluleJ to the hoccos and curassows. 
It is lound in South American countries 
and is sometimes known by the name 
of the wattled cuan. Us rlun'^?? '.] 
black Riossed with dari; irreen. and it 
has a wattle on iv 




ABU-SIMBEL. Place in Upper Li;>r' 
famous liT its extraordinary rock tem- 
ples of Rameses 11. one of which, the 
sreat temple of Ra, has fiRures of 
Rameses 65 feel high hewn out of the 
clifl. The snia ler temple of Hathor 
has lour standini; colossi 33 feet hieh. 
,.„„„.. ti.tm two fii;ure5 of the qu.en 
^, Nelrere. 




ABUTMENT. .... - , ■■'' »' ^ *^l' 

aeainst which an arch ahuts. or from 
which it springs. The abutments of a 
bridee are the masonry walls I A) aeainst 
which the arches abut or the ends ol 
the roadway of the bridce. 





ABUTMENT-CRANE. ,\ hi,.: .; 

cr.ii.?. ..r derrick, used in the buiidint; 
(if liiwers, chimneys, and similar 
structures. It stands at the edce of o 
platform on the top of the work. 



. . Lj,,, ,.,..: A water carrier 

ABYSSINIANS. A mixed race, brown in colour, and well-shaped, beluii;;un; tu 
a .Semitic stock from the other side of the Red Sea. The Himyarites form the 
main and purest element, and are of Asiatic orisin, but there is a considerable 
I mixture o! Sudanese .Ne?roes and Hamitic GalLis. 



ACANTHOPODA. A Kr.jup ul ckivicorn 
beetles, with hniad llattene.l feet and de- 
pressed bodies. They burrow near to water. 
We show two separate species 



ACANTHUS 



ACCRINGTON 




ACANTHUS. A genus of tall herbaceous 
rlauts that grow wild in southern Europe 
and are cul'ivated in English gardens. 
We show leaf, fruit, and flower. 





— T ^ 




C2f 


1 


^ 


Wti-r-^:-- ^ 


V^^^^^ 




pj-.l 


m Pi 


Wi 


kSy^lr- 


pill! 


">« 


^»^S^ ■' 




-^^^=^ 


^^ — ^ 



ACANTHUS. A form of ornament used 
in Corinthian and Composite capitals, 
and in later architecture, derived from 
the foliage of acanthus, which has thus 
been more Iari;ely used in sculpture and 
decoration than any other plant. 
Acapulco. See Atlas 27. K 7. 
Acarnania. See Atlas 17, C 4. 
Acatium. S^-e Actuarius. 




ACCAD. Or Akkad, one of the ancient 
cities ot Shinar in Babylonia. Men- 
iioiud : ; Genesis. We show the market. 




ACCAOIAN. A member of one ut the 
primitive races of Babylonia— hieh- 
landers wi.u had descended from the 
mountains of Elam. 




A.C. CAR. A ir^iit nit'tnr cur ft .1 sp'-rt- 
in^ type made by A. C. Cars. Ltd. We 
show a 16-66 h.p six-cylinder saloon. 



Carburetrsr 




ACCELERATOR PEDAL. A pedal used 
to actuate the rods of the accelerator 
mechanism of a motor-car, the device 
by which the driver malces the car go 
faster or slower at wi!" 




ACCENTOR. The bctentiiic name of 
the hedge sparrow and its relations. 
Accentor means singer, and the hedge 
sparrow, not related to the house and 
tree sparrows, is a cheerful singer 
thouch its son-* 'S ramhlirpand hurried. 






ACCOLATED COIN. A 

describe a coin on which 

(»r mi>re protUe heads ovc 



^, 




term used t^ 
there are tw" 
rlarpinir. 




Ram supporters accole 





ACCOLE. In heraldry, a term applied 
to animals which have a collar about 
iheir necks. Sometimes called irnrtred. 

Cry •' j 






., ^, ^ y - - _ y rf '■ 



:iO 









ACCEPTANCE. In commerce, an engagement by the person on whom a Biil of 
E.xchange is drawn to pay the bill, signified by writing or stamping the word 
Accepted across the bill with the signature. 





aCCIaCCATURa. a term used in musi. 
f>r a short appoggiatura (which seci. 
really a short additional note of eni- 
belHshment. 

ACCIDENTAL POINT. In perspective, 
that point in which a right line drawn 
from the eye parallel to another right 
line A B cuts the plane. 




ACCOLADE. In iuumc. a bia.j L.r 
couplet connecting several staves, as 
in pianoforte or organ music. 
ACCOLADE. An architectural orna- 
ment of two ogee curves convex to- 
ward the point at which they meet. 




ACCOLADE. The ceremony in con- 
ferring knighthood of giving a light 
blow on the shoulder with a sword. 




ACCOMMODATION LADDER. A stair- 

w.iy rixed on tl;e ^'ut^id^■ ot a ship at tlu- 
gangway to make it easy for persons to 
ascend from or descend to boats along- 
side the vessel. 

ACCOMMODATION MUSCLE. The 
ciliary muscle encircling the edge of 
tile e_\ e uliich enables tlie eye to focvis 
■ objects on the retina by making the 
l-ns more or less convex. 




ACCORDION. A musical instrument 
invented in 1S29 by Daniian of Vienna. 
The tone is produced by the air from a 
pair of bellows acting on metallic reeds 
or tongues. 




ACCORDION PLEATED. A lerin u^cd 

if material pleated in such a way as to 



re-iemble the folds of 
bellows as suggested here. 



an accordion 




ACCORDOIR. A - nmer 

used for the purpose ui tuning piano- 
fortes or harps. It is shaped rather 
like a hammer, and has a head of wood 
and a shank of iron. 
ACCOSTED. A heraldic term applied 
to two animals walking or running side 
bv side or in opposite directions. Also 
used to describe charges placed on each 
side of another charge. 
Accountants Hall. See Astor Building, 
atui liic'irr-irat^d Accountants Society. 




ACCOUTRED. Fully dressed and 
equipped ; specially used of a knight 
arrayed in his armour and furnished 

with all his accoutrements 




ACCRA. 


Ljpitu. •■; li;r uoi.l 


■,(ij>l 


C.Ml.inv. 


This is Government 


House. 


I'^rnierlv 


old Christiansborg 


Castle 


:-^.'"»ool. 


See Atlas o. D 4. 






AUuKINGrON. We .vi.< u liu 
Hall oi this Lancashire cotton-spin- 
ning town, which has also chemical and 
textile machinery trades 145,000). 



ACCUMULATOR 



ACHILLES 




ACCUMULATOR. \:i um'Ii.iiili' u^v.l l.ir thf storaKe"* electncaU-iiiTKy and uljiiu; 
llu- I. Till ..1 lolls in which a chemical charge is hrought about by the passage ol an 
electric current throut-h them. The cells give hack the electrical energy, and while 
rlr,inr <n return tn their nr, ■;■ i' , Ii .nical condition. 




ACCUMULA1UR CHAKIiING SET. A 

term applied to a niiinber of sell-con- 
tained sets adapted for the charging of 
accumulators such as those needed in 
wireless work. 





ACETYLENE GENERATOR. An ap- 
paratus in which acetylene gas is 
L-enerateJ. Sec Acetylene lamp. 



ACERA. A genus of molluscs known 
as bubble-shells, which have a thin 
horny shell, somewhat flattened. 
ACER08E LEAF. Slender, sharp 
pointed leaves like the leaves of the 
nine rri'm U?tin acer. lor sharp. 



ACCUMULATOR COLLAR. A device 
for eRecling the joint between the ttr 
minal lug and the top of the case 
an enclosed tvpe of accumulator, oil.; 
taking the lorni of a piece of tubul.ir 
rubber. 

ACCUMULATOR CONNECTOR. A 
metal bar or wire lor joining the ter- 
minals of one cell to another, or for 
attachments to the bus bar (whicti see) or 
Mher terminal nf the elirtrir-i' rircuit. 




ea 



ACCUMULATOR PLATES. The name 
i;iven to Ihe metallic elements of an 
accumulator. The form varies. 
ACCUMULATOR STOPPERS. Special 
kinJs of pluqs for the lillinij holes of 
.'t-i-Mnni'.it'trs, 



ACERRA. A small box or casket with 
.1 !iini;ed lid used to hold the incense 
inr sacrifices, and carried by priests. 
ACETABULUM. A small cup of earth- 
enware or silver used to hold vine 
t-ar at the menls nl the Romans. 



ACETYLENE LAMP i n, 

.lo>t\!j:K* 1.M-. I r...:'u .1 .■. In.- .u t 
of water tricklin-^ on cjlciiim carbide 



ACHA. A battle-axe used by the 
Ktuiians. and also in medieval times. 
Achaia. See Atlas 1 7, D 4 and IS. J 4. 





ACELDAMA. 1 he held of blood bout;ht 
with the thirty pieces of silver with which 
Judas betrayed his Lord. See Acts 
I. 13. 19. Tradition locates it south ol 
the Valoof Hinnom. outside Jerusalem. 



ACETABULUM. An old form of kettle- 
drum, constating of a hemi-spherical 
ves-iel made of earthenware or metal 
r ■ ' , •'■ -^tretclicd parchment. 





ACHAN. The son of Carmi who hid 
treasure after the fall of Jericho (as 
he is shown doinc here) and was stoned 
to death. See Joshua VI 1. 



ACETABULUM. A ^;enus of green aii;;!^ 
found in tropical and sub-tropical waters, 
and characterised by an erecl axis with 
a solid cap consisting of numerous 
radiatinc chambers. 
ACETIFIER. For convertini; fer- 
mented liquor into vinegar by exposing 
a large surface to air. Tiie liquor meets 
with air admitted through holes in the 
side of the vat. 





A genus of land snails 
\hc family Heliciine 



? 




ACHENIUM. Ur Achene. A small, 
dry, and liard one-seeded fruit, con- 
sisting of a single free carpel, as in the 
buckwheat (left), fumitory (top right), 
and crowfoot. 

Achernar. Or End of the River. Star 
in iiridanus (which see). 




ACHI-BABA. .\ , .!:-ii iiJ.Lic across 
the west end ol the peninsula of Galli- 
poli, fortified by the Turks in 19t5. 
.I'ld frequently attacked by the British. 




ACHIEVEMENT. A complete coat-ot- 
.iriiis. wht-thT it be the shield alone or 
the shield with crest, motto, and sup- 
porters. The term is particularly used 
of the escutcheons of deceased persons 
displayed at their funerals, on tombs 
as above, or on the fronts of houses. 
Achill Head. See Atla^ 6. A 1. 




ACHILL ISLAND. Large island of Co. 
Mayo, Ireland noted tor its rugged 
scener\ . See Atlas 6. A '>. 




ACHILLES. A urcek kiiendary war- 
rior, the central hero of Homer's Iliad. 
He was the son of Peleus and Thetis. 



ACHILLES STATUE 



ACONCAGUA 




ACHILLES STATUe. A muuiiiuciU 

Hvde Park in memory of the first Duke 
ot' WellinBton. it is of bronze cast 
from cannon of the Napoleonic Wars 



Lotver end of 
Small 8one 
eft he leg 



Tendon 

Achilles 




ACHILLES, TENDON OF. Tendon oi 

the cult-niusries behind the ankle inint 




ACHINESE. inj p^upk ul A^Uiit. a 
territory in the island nr Sumatra. 




ACHMET 111. Sultan <>l 1 urkey Irom 
1703-1 720 compelled by the Janissaries 
to resign. He died of poison in prison. 



'^^k^m 




ACHRAY, LOCH. A small lake in 
south-v-est Perthshire, Scotland, between 
Lochs Katrine and Vennachar. it is 
mentioned in Scott's Lady of the Lake. 
The loch is a mile and a quarter long 
and three-quarters of a mile wide. 




ACHROMATIC LENS AND PRISM. 

An achnjmatic lens is a lens free Irntn 
chromatic aberration ( whicli see). II 
IS composed of two lenses liavinc; differ- 
ent refractive and dispersive powers, 
and so adjuste.l that one lens corrects 
the dispersion of the other without dj- 
strovinc its refraction. Achromatic lenses 
are used larjjeiy in telescopes and micrn- 
scopesto correct aberration. Such instru- 
ments, are called achromatic telescopes 
and microscopes. An achromatic prism 
is a s-milar cnnibination of two prisms. 




ACH-ROOT. The root of the East 
Indian plant which botanists call Mor- 
inda tinctoria. Used in India as a dye. 
ACICULAR CRYSTALS. Crystals in 
the shape of a slender needle with a 
-harp point, like those of the mineral 
tibnite 



ACICULA. A needle or bodkin uf 
wood or bone used by Roman women 
,is a hair-pin. When made of silver or 
,old it w.-Hs called an acus. 




ACID-EGG. A fiirm of pumping appa- 
ratus for Jealiir.: with liquids like acids 
which would injure the moving parts 
of an ordinary pump. Eq:c-shaped 
chambers receive the liquid at low 
nr,-"vsnri', .iiul uIilmi air or Steam is 

ltd is driven through 

' Uie desired ooiot. 




'^•iimiiiiWiilgB 



AtlD FUNNEL. ,\ Ui.;;.J ^^..1 in pua: 
in? acid into a receptacle, such as ,1 
closed accumulator. It must be of glass 
or some other material which is nttl 
acted upon by acid. 
ACIDIMETER. An apparatus for de- 
termininii the strength of acids, based 
on the principle that the strength of 
an acid is proportionate to the alkali 
it neutralises. 




ACID PUMP. A pump used lor drau- 
wvj. off corrosive liquids from carboys 
and other vessels in which they are kept. 
It has valves and joints, is convertible 
into a siphon, and has a rubber bulb for 
creatine a vacuum 




ACILIUS BEETLE. A ^enus of water- 
beetles of the family Dytiscidae, to 
which this species, A. sulcatus, oi 
British ponds belont^s. Species are 
found in Europe and America. 
ACINACES. A short strai^•ht dagger 
used by the Aledes and Persians and 
t:;e!ierally worn on the right side, prob- 
ably when a longer weapon was worn 
on 'the left side. 




ACINACIFORM. A botanical term to 
describe a scimitar-shaped leaf or a pod 
of similar shape, as in some beans. 
ACINUS. One of the small berries of u 
truit like the blackberry, wliich is realU 
many berries 3<; one. 




ACKETON. A quilte.l jacket \u>rn 
under the armour in the l.Uhand 14th 
centuries. It was derived from th;; 
Asiatics during the Crusades. 
Acklin Island. See Atlas 31. F 3. 
ACLINIC LINE. An irregular curve on 
the surface of the Eartli near the Equa- 
tor where the magnetic needle balances 
itsi'tf hori'ontallv.'" 




ACOCKBILL. A nautic.i! term mean- 
ing the ends pointed upwards. It is 
used of the yards of a snip when they 
are tipped up at an an^le with the deck 




ACOCOTL. A musical )n:>truiuent 
us.J by Me.xican aborigines. It consists 
• 'T a [liin tube made Irom the stalk of n 
plant. It is from eight to ten feet lone;. 




ACOLOITHUS. A genus of small 
delicate moths of sombre colours be- 
longing to the family Pyromorphidae. 
The hairy caterpillars or larvae feed 
together in soldier-like ranks. The 
cocoons are tough and oval. We show 
A. Americanus and (A) its pupa. ( B) 
larva, and (C^ cocoon. 




ACOLYTE. 1.1 the Roman Catholic 
1 luirch, one ranking below the sub- 
I aeon and serving ecclesiastics ot the 
iperior orders in the ministry of the 
tar, lighting the candles, preparing 
the wine, and so on. 



altar. 




ACON. A boat consisting ot a plank ot 
hard wood for the bottom, bent up in 
iront to form a prow, with three light 
planks for the sides and back. It is for 

travelling over mud beds. 




ACONCAGUA. tii^ntbi ui^uiiUiii 111 
llK- Ni.'w World, on the border of Argen- 
tina and Chile. An extinct Andean 
volcano, it was first climbed in 1897- 
Near by the range is pierced by a rail- 
way. 23.100 feet. See Atlas 32. E 10. 



ACONITE 



10 



ACROPOLIS 




ACONITE. Also called nionkshuod and 
wiilCs tjLnc. \ British wild plJiit 
luund tn damp shady places and cul- 
tivated in i;ard(ns. The whole plan) 
is very poisonous. 

ACONITE, WINTER. A diHercnl plani 
Irotn truL' .u"r>nite thnuKh both ar.- 
liU'inher-. nf the buttercup family. It i^ 
kn.iwn to hr,;.,nist-. .is t-r-inlhis lu enialis. 



ACONTIUM. In ancient Greece a 
iavelin or Jarl. smaller and lii;hter than 
the lone spear ; it was thrown hy means 
.of a (h-nK (A) called tlu- anu'iitnni. 




ACORN. I he Iruit of the oak. which 
forms an excellent food for pi;:s and 
was once much used for human food. 
ACORN. The small button of wood on 

the r^'i"t "f l''e -irindle -.ihove the vane 






ACORN BARNACLE. A popular name 
for thi: «L*iius Bolanusof the Crustacea. 
It is a common ohject of the seaside. 




ACORN MOTH. An ash-iircy moth 
Willi tv^o spots on the fureuiny's, known 
tt> science as Holocera c;landulL'lla. Tht' 
creyishwhite larva is found in acorns. 

ACOHN WORM. An invertebrate 

creature, classed with the worms, though 
it develops like sea-urchins. 
ACOTYLEDON. A plant that has no 
C'.iyled. n; that is, a plant without the 
ru.;in>.'M.iry leaves of an einbrs.). 




BELLOWS. \ bell. .us Willi 
, .-■ .Ut.ich,,l. null «Mid chest 
ana v;iiv.s and keys, lor studvin? sounds. 
ACQUAVIVA, CLAUDIO (isn-lf.li). 
A famous General of the Or.ier of the 
Jesuits, or Society of Jesus, noted for 
his administrative abilitv. Died in Rome. 




ACQUt. ;\iKiciil ci;> ol i'l.aniuiil. 
Italy, famous for its hot sprintrs and 
baths (shown here), with a t2th-cen- 
tury cathedral and remains of a Roman 
aqueduct (2o.ono). See Atlas it. h 2. 




ACRATOPHORUM. Anion,' the Greeks 
.Old Romans a table vessel of earthen 
uare or metal, dedicated to Bacchus 
;ind used for lioUiiiT,' pure wine. 




AuK t I . -d c.j.lsl li.\^n ..ii.t- re 

......... ... .... ke> ol Palestine, besieged 

and captured from the Saracens in 1191 
by the Crusaders. See Atlas 38, C 3. 



ACRE-STAFF. A stall used to clean 
the cutter or coulter (which see) of ;i 

p'.juu'h wiu'n it is cloL'tled uitli earth. 




1 - 

ACRIDIAN. A member of the (;rass- 
hopper family, a term not specially 
referrinc t(» any particular species. 




ACRIS. A cenus ol treefroi;s of tht 
family Hylidae. The best known is the 
Acris gryllus, quite common in the 
United States, where its loud rattling 
pipe can be heard almost everywhere 
during the spring months. 



%c.W.M 




- — 'w 4 si-"* 



ACROBASIS. A i;enus ol moths be- 
loiiiTinii to the Phycitidae, and includini; 
the apple-leaf crumbier (shown here) and 
the walnut case-bearer. The larvae 
vV.'otnni'^'.- K-nves and form silken tubes. 




ACROBATS. .W.'ii or women wlio 
practise tiimbliny, rope-dancim^, hit;h 
vaultini;, and other similar feats of 
aeilitv for tjain. 




ACROBATES. A Kenus ot marsupial, or 
[^"iii. iKd. Ljuadrupeds peculiar to Aus- 
Iralia. One of the best-known species is 
1 his opossum tnnnse of New South Wales. 




ACROLEPIS. A Renus of fossil fishes 
with enamelled scales, rangintj from the 
Permian to the Carboniferous rocks. The 
small pictures below illustrate the 
structure of the scales. 




ACROLITH. An ancient Greek statue 
in which the trunk was of wood and the 
head, arms, and feet of stone. Draperies 
were often covered with Rildincr. 



^^^) It l; 



ACROPODIUM. A plinth serving for 
tlie basement of a statue or other work 
')f art and often forming part of it, as 
s-'en in these three eximnles. 










, . ,..,-<*;^'.*ft 




The Acropolis of Athens as it is 





■in ^T»i 

The A.i..|-..|r, .,1 Alh.-n, .1, il w.is 

ACROPOLIS. Greek word denoting a citadel, the most famous one being the 
Acropolis of ancient Athens, on a mass of rock 500 feet high. 



ACROSPERMUM 



ADAMS 




ACROSPERMUM. A Kcnus ..i miiui!^ 

fuii';ust.'S irrowini^ on dead plants. 
ACROSTOLIUM. An ornament on the 
prow of an ancient Greek warship. 




ACROTERIUM. A small pedestal on 
the apex or angle of a pediment 
supporting a statue, group, or other 
ornament such as these. The term is 
sometimes extended to include the 
statue also. 
Actaea. See Baneberry. 




ACTAEON. A ..Llrated hunter of the 
old mythology. One day he saw 
Artemis, or Diana, bathing with her 
nymphs, whereupon she turned him 
into a stag, and he was torn to pieces 
by his fifty dogs. 




ACTAEONID. A gastropod of the 
family Actaeonldae. It is a sea creature 
living in tropical climates. 
ACTINODON. A labyrinthodont fossil 
of the Lower Permian strata. We 
show parts of its jaws. 




AcriNOtiRAPH. An actinometcr, or 
instrument fur measuring the intensity 
of radiation, constructed to give a 
continuous record of the radiant energy. 




ACTINOMETER. An iiibirunieni con- 
sisting "'f Iwn thermometers, one willi 
a bright and the other with a blacken ' 
bulb, used for measuring the he i 
intensity nf the Sun. 




ACTION RAIL. A bar (A) across a piano 
to which are pivoted the movable parts 
of the hammers and dampers. 




:..^-»af , aw 



^ 



ACTON, LORD O-'^ i:f02). I'rutdisu. 
nt inod'jrii history at (^am'iridirL-. 




AUrUARIES, INSTITUTE OF. 

pnr.ilL-J in 1S8(. this bodv lias i 
headquartt-rs in Staple Inn, seen here. 




ACTIUM, BATTLE OF. fought 31 B.C. oft Actiuni, on the \wit.rii coa^t ut 
Greece (See Atlas 17, B 4). The ships of Octavian defeated those of Antony and 
Cleopatra, and thus established Octavian as Augustus Caesar and master ui 
the Roman world. During the engagement the squadron commanded by Cleopatra 
was withdrawn, and Antony hastily followed, leaving his crews to their fate. 




ACTON. Urban district ol Muidlc^c.\. 
Its residential character is now modified 
by the establishment of many motor 
and aeroplane industries and laundries. 
We show the municipal offices. 




ACTON BURNELL. A very iulerc^tiiiK 

littlj pl.i.i' luar Shrewsbury, the first 
Parliament to which the Commons were 
directly summoned having been held in 
1283 in the old building called the 
Parliament Barn, which we show here. 




ACTUARIUS. Roman unuccKed vessel. 
used for fast tratlic and for transporting 

troops, .md so on. 




ACUMINATE LEAF. A botanical ten: 
Idr a long, tapering end to a leaf. Wh--: 
the base tapers the leaf is described a> 
acuminate at the base. 
ACUS. A Roman bodkin or needle for 
SL'wing, or a pin for fastening a garment 
•r the hair. Also jewelled pins used as 
lastenings for vestments. 




ACUTE ANGLE, iii geometry, ai 
uhich is less than a right-angle. 
ACUTE LEAF. A term for a leaf which 
ends in a point. 



ACUTENACULUAI. l.i surgery. 3 

■ 'Klcr for th-j needle ns.-.l in OP'^ration'.. 
Adalia. 




i' - 

ADAM AND EVE. 

,'aintlng5 of th:- I 
■ lankind, this ir 
the Sistine < 




ADAM BROTHERS. Three famous 

architcLts of the iSth century who 
founded the Adam style (which see) in 
building and furniture. Robert (172S- 
i7')2); James (d. 1794): William (d. 1748) 
\Vc show Rober' (left) and James. 




ADAM'S APPLE. A prominence on the 
front of the throat formed l>y the thyroid: 
cartilage (A) ; so called from the idea 
that the apple stuck in Adam's throat. 
Adam's Needle. Same as Yucca tilamc.i- 
tn-.i (uludi see). 
Adam's Bridse. Se.^ Atlas ^2. E " 







ADAMS, JOHN l .coild 

presiJcnt ol L'.S.A. Ik lirlp;J to draft 
tlie Declaration of Independence, 
AOAMS, JOHN COUCH (ISI9-92). 
British astronomer. He predicted anj 
linallv discovered Neptune. 




ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY 

Sixth president of U.S.A. fought man- 
lullj' for the slaves. 

ADAMS, WILL (1575-1620). First 
Englishman to settle in Japan. 



ADAM STYLE 



ADDER'S MEAT 




AU A;> ( KAL MUU^it. Mu' nam:; i.ivcn 
to the Air .Ministry builJinp in Kingsway, 
Lon.lon. It is derived (rom the Koyal 
Air Force motto (Ad astra*. 



AOOA. A Miuili :5pi.-k:ics ot b!^ypli;i;! 
li/ard (Scincus otficinalis) sometimes 
called the skink. It has always been 
held in repute by Eastern physicians 
for its supposed efficacy in the treat- 
ment of diseases common in the East. 
Adda, River. See Atlas 13, B 2. 



ADDER. A cninmiMi v^'iminiitis scirc-in ol Lumpc .nul Iml' >.iii,v British 
poisonous snake. It grows to a length of two or three feet and is easily recoir- 
nised by the dark zigzag line reachint; down the body from head to tail. 
ihouKh venomous, the bite of the adder, wliich is also called the viper, is 
not often fatal. In winter adders hibernate, often in companies. The 
question whether adders swallow their youni^ in face oi dan;;er is still disputed. 



ADDER-STONE 



13 



ADELOPS 



■^rjr^'1^**^^'^*' 




ADDER-STONE. Kuund. perforated 
atones or glass beads found in Great 
Britain and supposed by archaeologists 
to have been used as small tly-wheels to 
keep up the motion of the' spindle in 
spinnintr. 




A scene in Addis Abt-ba 




ADDER'S TONGUE. A British lern ut 
unusual type. From the dteply-buried 
rootstock rises a solitary frond, and from 
each crown issues a blade with a double 
row of rounded spore capsules on the 
upper two inches. 

ADDER'S WORT. A popular name of 
the bistort, or snake root, so called from 
its twisted, snake-like roots. It is a 
common British wild plant with pink 
flowers in dense spikes, growini: in moist 
meadows. 



ADDIS ABEBA. Ab\isini.in capital. 
standing Sooo feet above sea-level. A 
railw:iv connects it with Jibuti, French 

Snm.ilil.ind (^n,nno>. See Atlas 2v H J. 



Ilil!,!l"lll*i!!l!!""l'!"l""'l!i!"'l 

FirJAIt 

ADDITIONAL KEYS. Those keys uf a 
piano which extend above F in Alt. 




ADDORSED. A term in heraldry ap 
plied to two animals, birds, fishes, " 
other bearinc^s turned back to back. 




ADDING MACHINE. An ingenious apparatus uhich, eitlier <.ii thf tctalisin^^ 
principle or on the principle of a train of i;ear-wheels with the ratio of ten 
to one. enables long series nf numbers to be added up verv rapidiv and with 

absolute accuracy. Ir ; i ii 1 i '. ':' i ' ' 




ADOINGTON, HLi'tKt i : ImIi 
British politician. Speaker during the 
Warren Hastings trial. As Home Secre- 
tary he was notorious for his coercion 
policy. He became Lord Sidmouth. 



ADDRA. Ai. Air. will ^.L/..i.c r.uro:^'..; 

irrjni Seneeul to M')rocco. It stands 
tliree feet at the withers, and lias short 

li'irn^ curvinn forward at \\^^: Uv 




ADDRESSOGRAPH. A device lor print- 
in,' addresses in succession by end!es^ 
cliains •■! mental or rubber tvpe. 




ADtLAIOt HOUSE. J .^^iveoltici 

iMiiMm" jt '.it- .'iiJ -^ !,.... J^.n Bridge. 
I : i ' ■ hit rrior earden. 




ADELER, MAX. I he pen-name ot 
(Jiarles Heber Clark i'S4i-l915). an 
American humorous author. 
Adelie Land. See Atlas 34, 14. 




ADELAIDE, QUEEN (t; 

Oueen ot William IV. Dauchter of the 
Ijiike of Sa\e-Coburg Meinintten. 



ADELOCERA. A buryinij-beelle t Adelo- 
cjra cartonaria)qultecommonin Europe 
and North America. 
ADELOPS. A cenus of beetles of the 

lamilv Silphidae. Thev inhabit caves. 



ADDISON, JOSEPH - 1072-I 7 I'j). 
Entjlish essayist and poet. Born at 
Milston, Wiltshire, he with Sir Richard 
Steele founded the famous Spectator. 




The luaiii thuiuui;lHaic ui .AvUiaiac 
ADELAIDE. Capital of South Australia, on the Torrens River. One of the 
ple.isantest Australian cities, it has Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals. 
and exports wheat, wine, and wool (270,000). See Atlas 56. F 5. 



/U)ELFHI 



ADMIRAL'S INSIGNIA 




ADELPHI. A .: - - J"" 

between the Strand and the Ihames. 
Its name imeanini; the Brnthers) is 
derived from Rnhert and James Adam, 
uhci built Adelrhi Terrace, shown here. 










ADHESION CAR. Anv car whdSe 
wIicuIn .irc .ul.i|>tcd t.i i;rasp a rail sd as 
to have a tractive power greater than 
that due merely to the weicht of im- 
positiim. This car has a coiijed wheel 
wt)rkin^ in a rack. 



■Iwjhtipit. 



:»' ' - . ' > ^. — '- 




ADIRONDACKS. Kani.'e 
Appalacliiaii Kani;e. Tlii 



'if mountains in New York Stal( 
Hudson River ri^^-sin llu'iii. Si' 



, toniiim; part of the 
Atlas 20, L 1. 




ADELPHI THEATRE. Theatre in the 
Strand. London. The original builJinj 
was put up in IS06. 



ADIABATIC CURVE. A line or curve 
showinK the relation between the pres- 
sure and volume of a gas when it 
■\paiuls t»r contracts without at the 

.tiiK' tlnu- receivinj; or givini; out heat. 
ADI-BUD3HA. In Buddhist theolony. 
ine supreme Buddha, who created the 

ive divine Kuddhas. 



ADIGE. 

Here se 
Vercna. 



Second larsesl Italian river. 

;n llowinR through the city c f 

240 miles. See Atlas 13, C 2. 



ADEN, liritish protectorate In Arabia, under the P.ombay (jovernment. A 
nexed in 1839, it is used as a coalin? station : its territory is hot and barre 
water is scarce, and all (oodstufis are imported (56,000). See Atlas 21, H 7. 




AOn. l-iitt .iiue to a nu..- 

slightly uphill for air and ventilation. 




AUlTIVAS. Seven Hindu deities, sons of 
Ailiti.the boundless heaven. The chief 
\i.is Wiriin.i. thi- Aditiya. shown here. 




,,>;".*.v ^ 



'i^'"-!* 



ADJUSTABLE STRAINERS. 

.nuL's liir ttiisioniili,' wires o 
Lr ,-d 111 uireless bir aerials. 

ADJUSTING SCREW. A screv/ by 
uhich the adjustable parts of many in- 
struments can be moved, as shown ,il X 





'^m 


r '^ 


' .&■:■ 


' ^ 


^"wi 


^^^ 


di 


m^ 




ADLER, DR. HERMANN lisiy-mtl). 
Chid K.ihbi ill file liritish Empire 
I S' 1 1 • f o 1 1 . 

ADLUMIA. A delicate climbint: Amer- 
i,Liii pl.iiit cultivated as the climbing 
til initnr\ , 




ADMIRABLE CRICHTON. \.iiii l^ 

til James i^ikIiI.mi. a Scotsiii.iil nl th.; 
I'lth century, who. though assassinated 
at Mantua at the age of 22 or 24. had a 
niinantic career and was a distinguished 
Latin scholar. 



ADJUTANT BIRD. A large species ol 
stork comino.i in India, 4 feet high. 




ADMIRAL. Title of high nav.ll rank. 
I licie .iri- fiuir grades. Rear-admiral. Vice- 
admiral. Admiral, Admiral of the Fleet. 



mm 

ADMIRAL FLAGS. Admirals on active 
\ U-; llv distinctive Hags. Full 



3^-«7W' 



^ ?f 



ADMIRAL'S INSIGNIA. The insignia 
lit an Adiiiir.il's rank in the British Navy 
consists of bands of gold braid worn oil 
the sleeve cuffs, the number of bands 
increasing with the rank. 



ADMIRALTY ARCH 



\r^ 



ADRENAL 




ADMIRALTY ARCH. A inu tnpl. Avch 
in London across the eastern end ot the 
Mall, commemnratinir the Victorian Era. 




Old Admiralty 
ADMIRALTY BUILDINGS. The head 
quarters of tlie British Admiralty on 
Horse (juards Parade. The old Adinir- 
.ilty 'still in nse) is in Whitehall close by_ 




ADMIRALTY ISLANDS. , 

islands Inrmine; part nl the Bismarck 
Archipelago in the Pacitic. Formerly 
a German possession, they arenowadmin- 
istered bv Australia. See .Atlas 3 5, D 5. 




ADMIRALTY PIER. A landm- stai;e 
at Dover 4001) feet l-.m;, built for the 
Navy but now used by Channel steamers. 




ADMISSION PORT. The passa-e 

tlimu-li wliKJi the steam 1,'ains adinis- 
■-ii.ni to an en:;iiie-c\ linder. 



ADNATE. A butanical term nicanini; 
attached, or crown together. It is 
applied to an anther or stipule which is 
attached for its whole lenyth. as shnun. 




ADOBE. An unburned. sun-dried brick 
much used in South American and other 
countries where there is little rain. The 
term is also used for the clay or earth 
from which the brick is made, and for 
structures built of adobe. 





ADONIS. A neaulilul youth, beloved byAphrudite (or Venus), whu died ut u wuund 
friim a boar. The anemone is said to have sprung from his blood. He is here re- 
presented in a paintint; by Albnni. and in^tu'o ancient sculptures by unknown artists. 




ADORATION OF THE MAGI. I iu* uorslnpd k'Mis h\ tiie W ise \\e;i u.,s ,. i.iv-m n 

subicct uith the i 'Kt Masters, and the exampU' -iven here is bv Albert Inirer. 





ADORATORY. A place of worship: 
usuallv applied to a paean temple or a 
place of sacrifice, such as this altar. 



ADORATION OF THE SHEPHERDS. The w.-rship of Jesus in the man'^e 
Bethlehem b> tlie sh^pherJ.i.. I hi:^ exanip''-' i& by Lorenzo da Credi. 




ADOUR. Itench river rising in the 

l'>re:ujs and ilowin.^ into the Bay of 
Biscay near Bavonne. It is navigable 
for about SO of its 200 miles, and in 
parts canalised. It is the Aturus of the 

AiK-ieiits. See Atlas 7. C ^ 




ADOWA. Town oi Abysiniui. in Ksvo 
lij Italian t;eneral Bar.itieri was heavily 
deieated by the Abyssinians in a tight 
known as the Battle ot Adowa. Here 
wi show the church. See Atlas 25, H 3. 



«•**. • 






ADRENAL. One of .1 pair of small 
ijlandular bodies capping; the kidneys 
in mammals, but whose functions aire 
not at present known. We show both. 



ADRIAN I 



16 



AEGEAN SEA 




ADRIAN I. I'..r.- "2 T>i- Ht^ 
j\N.'.ut.J »illi chjrlemacne and r. 
st"ri J M'nic K"mjn agucducts. 
ADRIAN II. Port "ft? S72. He »J' 
ii..ljhlc ("f Jtr"Si"C Pl'"l'"5. patnarvli 
1. 1 I ..nNlatitinnplir. 




ADRIAN III. I'"iv ^- 
AJrijn I and Adrian II he w.is a Koman. 
hul »as unimi'iirlant as a pope. 
ADRIAN IV. Pope 11 54-11 59. Born at 
Lani;lev. Hertlordshire. the only Enclisli 
pope. jlivnamewasNiiThol.!? Breakspe.u 




ADRIAN V. Pope Irom July, 1.270, nil 
his death, AuRust 18, 1276, at Viterbo. 
He was a tjenoese. 
ADRIAN VI. Pope 1522-1 523. He tried 

in \.iin tn reform Church abuses and 




JDUNCATE. Curved inward, as seen 




ADVERTISEMENT. A puhhc aTiniiU ,Ci:- 
.,,.l'.■ 111 ,. i,.us'aper,or elsewhere, often 
iii..de rii.iri suikinR by pictures, setlinR 
forth a want, givinR information, or 
oflerins; goods for sale. We show the 
first advertisement ol the first Children's 
New paper, which grew out of the 
Children's Encyclopedia, the p.irts of 
wtiich here form the hodv of the newsboy. 




( Sultan Sehm— chief entrance (left), and the court 

f European Turkey, on the Maritza. Founded by Hadrian. 



The mosque 

ADRIANOPLE. City . . 

and capital of the Turks 1 ^6(>-l t53. it has many fine buildings, including a mosqu 

of Selim II. and a population of about so.ooo. See Atlas 14, D ?. 

Adriatic 8«a. An arm of the .Ntediterranean. 470 miles long. See Atlas 2. M 7 

Adula. See Atlas o. D 2. 




ADULLAM. Thi 
hid from. .King Sau 



ve in which David 
Sec Atlas aS, B 5. 




ADYTUM. A .^.'vTi-t s.t;ictuary in certain 
Itmples from wliich ordinary wor- 
shippers were excluded. This plan 
shows the position of the Adytum. 




ADZE. A cutting tool lor urcssim: 
timber. The examples shown are 
I Stone Age ; 2 Egyptian ; 3 and 4 South 
Pacific; 5 Indian; 6. 7. and 8 modern. 




ADZ-PLANE. A rabbeting and mould- 
ing tool Mitli gauge adjustments for 
depth and uidtli of cut. used by coach- 
nilKlers and p.ittern-inakers. 




AEDES. A Koni.in Iniikliin; set apart 
lor \^orship but not sulemiilv consecrated 
like a temple. A temple of Vesta was an 
aedes. The term is sometimes used ol 
any building, sacred or profane. 



^pr 




AEDILES. Roman niai^istrates in 
republican timss charged with the duty 
of carintr for public buildings, water 
supply, police protection, and so on. 
Tliev arp shown on one side of this coin. 



AEGAGRUS. The wild goat of the 
Caucasus and Persia, known to science 
as Capra aegagrus, and called by the 
Persians the paseng. 




AEGEAN AGE. The age uf pre- Hellenic civilisation known as Minoan and Alycen- 
;Ki\n. It^ chief centres were Troy, in Asia Minor, Mycenae and Tiryns ui 
Peloponnesus, and Knossos and Phaestus in Crete. It covers a period from about 
:^oao B.C. to 1100 ex. See also Crete and Knossos. We give here examples of the 
pmlerv ;uij other art crafts of this period. 
Aegean Sea. See Atlas 14. C 4. 



AEGICRANES 




AEQUOREA 



AEGICRANES. A eoafs or rani's lieud 
us^J as a decoration on Greek and 
Roman altars to rural divinities. 
Aegidius, St. See St. Giles. 




AEGINA. 

, ..i\ver[ Ji city iji in; :^.llliJ ruinc. Ilij 
tirst rival of Athens. The city was con- 
.[uered by Athens about 456 B.C. aft^r 
.1 nine-months siege. We show the 
Temple of Aphaia. See Atlas t;. E 5. 




AEGIRUS. A 1,'enus of trastropod^ 
lound in the European seas. Thev have 
a convex back c.)\ered with t-ihercles. 




AEGIS. .J,.uJ 

t-'ir. ...4.111^ li.v LiiiiiiLi.-i LULL Hi Zeus, 
the term was later applied to the breast- 
plate of a liiviiiitv lik..' Minerva. 





AELUROPUS. \ c.lnmori_.us 
rupeii found in Tibet. 



qiiad- 




.\ \^iiunjed warrior, frtMii the Temple of Aphaia 
AEGINETAN ART. The art of the island of Aecina, an earlv rival of Athens and 
home of Greek craftsmanship. Many remarkable sculptures have been found there, 
notably in the Temple of Aphaia, and a number of them are seen in these pictures. 



AENEAS. Lt^cnJary froian hero. i:ii:;i .rt,i;:.;J in Viruil's Aeneid, ijmoiis tor 
the rescue of his aged father, for his wanderings, and as the traditional ancestor of 
the Romans. He was killed in battle and worshipped as a eod. Our picture by 

PiLTF. <, •r::- ': i ; \ .1 •"• i.l; ; Dido of the misfortunes of Tr..v 




AENEUS SYLVIUS. Baptismal name 
of Pius 11. pope lt5S-l465. one of the 
vr.':tt \Mt^ and scholars of his as^e. 




AEOLIAN HARP. All instrument which 

IS placed m 11 u iiulow and v'ivesout music 




AEOLIPILE. Mechanical toy. invented 
l'> il.rj ...I Alexandria, consisting ot .i 
hollow metal ball with bent 'arms. 
When water is boiled in it the steam, 
issuini; from the arms, rotates the h.UI. 





AEOLUS. A.^. jmer's 

i.)J\ssev, kinj of \ _. of tha 

Lipari Islands, to whom Zeus gave con. 
trol of the winds. 




AEPYORNIS. A !;i;;aiitic e.xtinct bird 
I •im,! .IS .1 i..,,,,il ill .Madai;ascar. Its 
vl;i; was about 14 inches lomr, and had 
the capacity of si.x ostrich e^gs, or 12 
di»'en he" ee^s. The bird was tfiVee-toed. 



AEOLIS. A senus of active molluscs 
which swim on their backs. The gills 
consist of many linger. like projections. 




AEQUOREA. A seuus of medusae, or 
jeily-iish. which have numerous radial 
vessels and nianinal tentacles. 



AERATOR 




AEROPHORE 



\ 


\ 



AERATOR. All apparatus lor aerating 
the water of Hsh tanks in an aquarium ; 
also an apparatus for forcing air or 
carbonic tas into liquids. 




AEROHIETER. I(.r wcishin^' tlie at- 
mospliere, or ascertainins density of air. 






AERO-BOMB. An cxplosivi- projectile 
dropped from an aeroplane or airship. 

r •" 




\tr^ 



% 






n^ 



AEROCYST. One of the M.idderlil. 
.lir vl-sm'Is hy means of whicli man', 
kinds of ale.ie float on the surface of tli 
sea. 



AERO-DART. A dart discha^^'ed in 
large numbers from an aeroplane upon 
unprotected masses of the enemy. 



t «; « . "^-'• 

AEROGRAPH. I ii.itus h.r 

p.iiiiiiii-, ..iiii.t.^. ^i.u.Li, ..lul evenly l\v 
spravini, as here. It consists of an air 
reservoir and paint container witll a 
control valve to regulate air pressure 
and spray. 




AEROLITE. .\ wuiteorite 'consi :.:■ 
entirely of stone as distinct from 
siderolite, which is metal and stone. 




AERIAL. The system of conductors 
estatilished at a wireless station for 
radiating or absorhing etlu'r waves. 



v"^'-^lS3»*= .^. 






- '-mxft^t. 

AERODROMt ;J lur aircraft coiim ' i .iiu.irs, ..r lMnldnii;s 

I'lr liousnij; thj m.it lim^i, .iiid a course for testing nr rrjclisnig with aeroplanes, 
toi:etlier with worksliops for the repair and lifting up of machines. 
AERO DYNAMIC BALANCE. Apparatus of the National Physical Laboratory for 
investigation of the stability of aeroplanes by testini^ models in a wind tunnel. 





AERIAL TORPEDO. .>.. ,..l pro- 
jectile of great power used in trench war- 
fare. It is tir,.,| frniTi a mortar. 



. AERO-ENGINE. .\\\ internal-combnstittn engine for driving an aeroplane or air- 
For collecting bac- I ship. 1 he requirements are light weight and small bulk, with a wide range of 
teria from the air for experiments. I power and reliability of functioning. We show the Rolls Royce Condor engine. 




AEROMOTOR. \ modern form oi 
windmill in which, instead of four large 
sails, there is a circle of smaller metallic 

v.nu's r.iis^'d hi'h "ii .i metal framework 




AEROPHONE. A;i .ipp.o.ilus inventcj 
by hdistni lor amphtying sound waves 
We show its use by a deaf person. 



AERO-BIOSCOPE. 







AEROPHORE. A respirator consisting 
nl Li tank carried on the back like a 
knapsack (A), into which air expelled 
from the lungs passes and is made tit to 
breathe again by means of chemicals. 



AEROPLANE 



1!) 



AEROPLANE 




Avro triplane. 1909 



Voisin liyJro-aernplane 



Curtiss biplane, J90S 




Cody biplane. 1909 







Paulhans Farman biplane ol 1910 




Vickers-Vimy Transatlantic biplane, 1919 



Bristol liyhtt^r 



llkTiufs cruss-channel monoplane. 1909 





DH9A light bomber 



HanJley Paije twin- engine bomber 



The first Avro 504 biplane 




Fairey Fremantle seaplane (icrni.i;i uhMh huinbi;i- .uropl.ine Vickers Viking amphibian 

AEROPLANE (Development). An aeroplane is a heavier-than-air tlyini- machine which may be likened to a pow;.*r-i.Inverj kite. The motive power of the aeroplane 

is usually suppheJ by a petrol motor or motors drivins; a prureller or propellers. We cive on this page several types of aeroplanes dating in construction from 

Professor Langley's plane of 1902, which then failed but Hew later, as we show. Set page 20 for'typts of modern planes. 



AEROPLANE 



AEROPLANE 




Lindbergh's Transatlantic rnunoplanc 



- ■. ^. " >■ . '•■■ .ir'.^":- 

The j,'iant Indexible monoplane which weighs 15 tons 



Hinkler's Avri> Avian liiiht plane 




Avro Ava coast defence aeroplane 



Cierva autoijir 



Blackburn Iris flying-boat 



_-*<^fefK 



Dornier (lying-boat 





Supermarine Swan flying-boat 



Mandley Pai;e Harnm. with slotted wing 




Armstrong Argosy passenger biplane 



afrU fnmi^n,, ,„?. "^^ '■ The most famrhar form ot aeroplane is the biplane, which has two sets of wings, one above the other, although monoplanes are 

lairiy tommon, and tr. planes are sometimes used. Seaplanes and flying-boats are aeroplanes operating from water. These pictures show several mocfern types 

01 aeroplanes. See also biplane, flying-boat, monoplane, seaplane, and triplane. Src page uj lor .Imlopnmil of anopUnrs. 



AEROTONOMETER 



21 



AFIUM KARAHISSAR 




OC 



ac^ 




A device f 



AEROTONOMETER. 

tainiii? a sample of blood (left) anJ 
testins the tension of its gases (risht). 




AESCHYLUS. Athenian poet, greatest 
of the Greek trat;edians ; born Eleusis. 
525 B.C. : died Gela, Sicily, 45h B.r. 





AETHERIA. A veiius uf bivalve mol- 
luscs fuinul ill the rivers of Africa and 
,\\:u1 t'.;.isc.ir ; also c.dled river-oysters. 



AESCULAPIUS. Koman name of the 
Greek god of medicine, who was sup- 
posed to be able to restore the dead to 
life. His symbol is a staff with a serpent 
twisted round it. 




AETHRA. In Gieec mythology. Aethra, 
seen here in an old picture, was the 
mother of Theseus. She was carried of> 
and became the slave of Helen. 
Aetolia. S»e Atlas 17 C 4. 




AFFIXES, in brnn;e .iiul y'A.-r-. 
vessels, flowers, or other small features 
of decoration, as in this Palissy ware. 




Plaiitimr-out scedlini;? 





A pUtnt.itum nl young trees 
AFFORESTATION. The cultivation of 
tref^ 1'> replace timber cut down. 
Affrick. River. See Atlas 5. D 3. 




AESCULAPIUS. TEMPLE OF. Aesculapius had his chief temple at tpidaurus 
in Art;oIis, where there^was a temple and hospital in one. The ruins have been 
thoroughly explored and the plan of the buildings exposed. 



AFFRONT^. A term in h^raiar> 

applied to animals which face one 
another, and also to animals which 
fully face the spectator. 



A merchant and a laJ- 




Wanderers in Afghanistan 




At;;ii,inisian tribesmen 
AFGHANS. Members of Caucasic tribe? 
lu-Ki tniT.'tlier bv the Durani of Kabul. 



J^ -^^j ij^-i "^ l/j I 



AFGHANI. Languasre spoken bv the 
pe r'-' ' ' \fi;hanistan{from John III, 16). 
Afghanistan. See Atlas 22. C 2. 
Afium Karahissar. See Atlas 20, B 2. 



AFRICA 



AGAMI 




A Iw'iU warrior A Basuto rider A painted warrior 

AFRICA. The third largest ol the continents, having an area of t1, 500,000 square 
miles, or three times as great as that of Europe. In general it is a low tableland. 
with few great mountain systems, but Mount Kilimanjaro rises to over 
19.000 feet. In the north is the immense Sahara Desert, while the centre is covered 
largely by tropical forests. The population is estimated at 180.000 millions. 
chiefly of the great Bantu race, and we give here a picture gallery of its people. 
for map of Africa see Atlas 25 For the Roman province of this name see Atlas 18, G 5. 



AGADIR. A I ..]1 "I Al.. I. ..:..', 
in 1911 Gerniaiiy sent the 
Panther, promising the Moors 
support in resisting France. 



AGAMI. A 

sometimes called the goUleii-brcastea 
trumpeter. It is the size of a pheasant, 
runs very rapidly, but is a poor flier. 



AGAPE 



23 



AGLET 



= :;i*^ f 




AGAPE. A m^ 
connection with 
tile ceremony in 



• r iuvi-te;tit, c;iten in cominnn hv \l\i c.irl', (.,llrl^tl.nl^ iii 

the Cofiinuinion service. Offerings for 'the poor were taken and 
eluded the kiss of charity. Ai^ape is Greek for love. 




AGAPORNIS. A genus of small Alric;in 
parrots which includes the love-birds. 
The name Agapornis means love bird. 
AGAR-AGAR. Sometimes called Japan- 
ese isinglass. A gelatinous fund pre- 
pared by boilinii certain seaweeds. 



ijj 


IIP 


1 


Y- 


1 

[4 


i^ 




Amethyst agaric Bleeding agaric 





Chocolate agaric Slleathed agaric 
AGARIC. A genus of funguses which 

iTuhules the coinninii nuishninin. 




AGARISTA. A:i Australian niulh ..l 
showy Colouring. lines and spots ot 
bright yellow standing out boldly on the 
deep Mack wings. 




AGASSIZ, ALEXANDER (1835-1910). 
Swiss-American scientist who specialised 
in marine zoology. 

AGASSIZ, J. L. R. (fg07-lS73). Swiss- 
American naturalist. Established 
museum of zoology at Harvard. Father 
of Alexander Agassiz. 




AGATE. A variety of quartz, banded 
with various colours, found chielly in 
trap-rocks and serpentine. It isregarded 
as the least valuable precious stone. 




AGATE. A tool in many forms used by 
bin'kbinders for polishing and smoothing. 
Agate Snail. See Achatina. 




ST. AGATHA. Sicilian saint, martNrid 
il r.itnii.i III j;i A, II. under Decius. 

... \ V ' 



AGATHOCLES i^^.i jso b.c). Sicilian 
kini; who was known as the Tyrant of 
Syracuse. 





AGAVE. An American pl.int cultivated 
in Europe, sometimes livinj: for half a 
century before flowering. The plant 
dies after perfecting the fruit. 




AGEN. Old Irt-nch city on the (jiirontii;. 
with til is liiK- 12th-centurv cath^rdral 
iJ^nnii). Sec Atla^ 7. D 4. ' 




AGE OF INNOCENCE. A ^^.rld-famuus 
picture painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
now in the National Gallery, London. 




AGERATUM. A •^■^nii> ol Compo.ite 
pl.iiits found in America ; represented 
in Britain by Ageratum cony^oides- 




/ 



AGESILAUS (442-3UO li.C). L.un. 

kiiiL; of Sparta and one of the ablest 

snlJ.ijrs I'f liis time. 




AGGER. A lurm oi Jct;nce huilt up 
round a beslei^ed town in olJen times. 
sofTit-tim?'; of 'A't^'j. p.s h^T:-. p2:l:rd with 



AGGER. A Roman roaJ or milllarv 
vay. so named because the roads v. ere 
' lised in the middle like 3 mound 
■r aceer) to allow water to run to 
•he sides. 







AGGRADED VALLEY. A vallc> uhich 
bifcoineb Idled up by solid matter 
deposited by a river when, owinc to a 
diminution of its carrying power, it 




AGHA MOHAMMED. SHAH (1740- 

i>>:). Shah oi Persia. Crowned in 
1796. he made Teheran his capital, and 
founded the Kajar dynasty. He was 

"is slaves. 




AGINCOURT, BATTLE OF. Fought in 1415 between 90J0 English under Henry V 
.i:k1 s.'in: 3'\'*'^ ^ Ir.Michmthe Pas-de-Calais, France. The French were utterly 
riuited. about Sooo being slain. 
Aglet and Aglet Baby. See Aiglet 



AGNEL 



AGNEL. 


A 


french Ci»lJ 


i;»in 


^r^l 


issueJ b\ 


Louis 1 X bearhiK 


a liR 


ure ol 


the p.isv 


lull 


Ijtnh. hencs 


the 


nam. 


ji:ntl. In 


Ml 1 


atiij .K'ncll"^- ^ 


little 


laml- 




AGNES, ST. Patrun saint of purit\ 
sIk- siidtTtd niarlvrdom at the age < 
n durin.; the reimi of Diocletian. 




AGNI. A sod in the VeJus, or sacred 
books of India. He is a personification 
of the three forms of lire — Sun, light- 
nini;, and sacriiicial fire. 
AGNUS. The rhizome, or underground 
root stem, of the fern Cibotium baro- 
nietz, which, when inverted and trim- 
med, be.irs some resemblance to a small 
iamb, as indicated a""o\L-. 




AGRlMOmf 




AGNUS BELL. Sometimes called a 
sacrini; bell. It is run;; by an acolyte 
at the elevation of the Host in church. 
AGNUS DEI. In Christian art, a 
representation of Jesus as the Lamb of 
God, bearinR a staff headed with a Greek 
cross, and His head surrounded by a 
nimbus. 




AGOLUM. A lone, sharp-pointed shep- 
herd's stick made of a shoot of prickly 
pear and used by Roman herdsmen to 
drive their cattle. 

AGONUM BEETLE. A brilliantly- 
coloured coppery-red and polden-green 
beetle found in the northern hemisphere. 



I M - — ~~~- -- 






AGONY COLUMN. i :.^ woiumn of a 
newspaper containing advertisements 
of personal matters, so called because 
originally such announcements were 
for lost relatives and so on. 



AGONY IN THE GARDEN. Th.- period which J. mis si.nt prayini; m the 

»Jar.:.*:i .it li.-tliseinaiij, ;is desvTJivd in the Gosp--!-, i^.i-rj His arrest. The 
sl . i- pjinvJ Im in,m\ :irlists. Thi- pi^tur.- jv i\\ Jnhann Hufniaim. 




AGORA. Ill .mciont Grei.-... tl.c liiu'i 
piihhc square and market-place ot a 
t-twn. corresponding to Rr)man Forum. 




AGOUARA. A raccoon, often c.illfd 
the crab-eating raccoon, and known to 
science as Procyon cancrivorus. It is 
the si/e of a fox and is a native of the 
warmer parts of America. 
Agout, River. See Atlas l, D 5. 




AGOUTI. A smaii Kuniiy oi ^snuth 
American rodents. Twenty inches long 
and commonly tailless, agoutis have a 
back pair of curious three-toed feet. 
They feed on foliage and roots: their 
homes are in hollow trees or burrows. 



^-#t' 




Gateway ot the Muijid, Agra 
AGRA. Indian railway centre. Once 
V apital of the Mogul Empire, it contains 
Akbar's fortress and Taj Mahal (190.000). 
See Atla^ 22. H '. 




AGRAFFE. A jewelled clasp lur fasten- 
ing armour or costume. 
Agram (Zagreb). See Atlas U, A 2. 
AGRENON. A net-like woollen garment 

tri:lii) ui.ni ill ancient Greece. 





AGRIAS. A South American moth of 
gorgeous colouring. The upper wings 
are crimson, with bars of black, blue, 
and brown. 

AGRICOLA (37-93)- Roman statesman 
and soldier. The fir-it Roman tn ■^iibdu.- 

Brit.iili. of \i-|M,ii li ■ :■■■■<-. ■■■■■: *r;'.>r. 




AGRICULTURAL HALL. I ir^e Iniild 

nii; in Ulim;ton, Lo^idon, I'^uilt aboui 
1S60 .uid used fnr trade f \liil^it hhk 




AGRICULTURE. T!.e cultivation of the 
land. In art it is typified by Millet's 

Man with th^:' Hno.^bnwn h:'re 




AGRIGENTUM. Ancient Sicilian cit> 
line remains nf w hjch are still to b; 
seen at the niudern Girgenti. Founded 
hy the Greeks as Akracas, it once had 
2no.nno inhabitants. Ste Atlas iS. G4. 




AGRILUS. A genus of beetles distri 
biited all over the world in temperate 
and tropical regions. They are copper 
or bronze in colour. As larvae they do 
much damage to trees. Agrilui grandis 
<leftt and A. viridis are shown here. 




AGRIMONY. A slender plant, two 
feet high, with pinnate leaves and a long 
tapering spike of short-stalked flowers. 
Common in British fields. 



AGRIPPA 1 



25 



AID IN 




AGRIPPA I (d. 44). Idumeaii ruler of 
Judea. Grandson of Herod the Great, 
he killed James, son of Zebedee, and 
imprisoned Peter. He died horribly at 
Caesarea. See Chapter XII of Acts. 




AGRIPPA II {d. un.>). Sun of Agrippu I 

.;id last of the Herodians. He was 

.ilniost persuaded to be a Christian " 

the eloquence of Paul, who is address- 

u' him in this picture by Sir James 

; hornhill in the Dome of St. PauPs. 




AGRIPPA, MARCUS VIPSANIUS io^ 

12 B.C.). Roman general under Augus- 
tus and patron of art and letters. 




1^' 

AGRIPPINA (15-59). Daughter ol 
iicus and mother of the frightful 
■ r Nero, who had her slain. 

AGRIPPINA {d. 33). Wife of Ger- 

manicus and mother of Caligula. 

Jealous of her popularity, Tiberius 
banished her. 




AGROMYZA. A ji^enus ot tli^rs \\ hich in 
the larval sta^e do much damage to 
grasses. We show larva (left) and pupa. 
AGROTIS. A cenus of night- Hying 
ninths with destructive larvae known 

.In ciitunrnis. 




AGUA TOAD. A l-ir-e South American 
toad known to science as Bufo mariTuis. 




AGUAYO. A ni.ui\ -ct'lt.Hired woollen 
cloth used by the Indian women of 
Bolivia for carrying their children. 




AGUILAR, GRACE (1816-184 7). Eng- 
lish uritt-r on Judaism and author of 
several graceful novels. 
AGUINALDO, EMILIO (b. 1S7O). Fili 
pino patriot wlio lirst fought and then 
swiircr allegiance to America. 
Agulhas. Cape. See Atlas 26. D S. 



*{^^^F' 


v% 




V^.«raL 


ml 


Wm. 



AHAB. King oi Isr.u-i and hnsh.md ..1 
the notorious Jezebel, the enemy ol 
Elijah. He met his death in fighting the 
Svrians. This picture is by T. ^\. Rnoke. 




AHASUERUS (519-465 B.C.). Persian 

king who married Esther and honoured 
Mordecai. He is identified with Xerxes. 



^^t. 


/^., ' 


C ) 


\p> 



AHENUM or AENUM. A bronze or 
cupper vessel uith a handle lor sus- 
pending it over the tire- The word is 
also used for a dyer's copper. 
AHIA. A tree, Caryophyllus malac- 
censis, which grows in Polynesia an j 
in the Malay Archipelago. It is greatl\ 
valued for its crimson fruit. 




Ihe City Gat; 



AHMEDABAD. Indian colton-manu- 
(.ictnrini; centre, in the Bombay 
i'residency. It has line mosques and a 
splendid Jain temple. The most famous 
building is the Jumma Musjid (which 
see) (27^oiX)). See Atlas 22. D 4. 




AHMEONAGAR. The chit:) town of 
the All nirdn agar district in Bombay 
Presidency. This massive tower is Sala- 
bat Khan's tomb. See Atlas 22. D ?. 




AHUHU. A leguminuus plant spread 
over tropical Asia and Australia, known 
to science as Cracca purpurea. 

AHUEHUETL. The swamp cypress of 

.^\e.\ico, which grow; to a sreat size. 




Al. The iliree-toeJ sloth, one cf the 
.vaning order of animals with imperfect 

teeth. Restricted to South America. 
it dujlls in trees. 




AIAIA. A large Suutii American bird 
related to the ibis and often called the 




AIDAN, ST. Bishop of Lindisfarne and 
r-'under of the Northumbrian Church; 
he died at Bimburgh in 651. He is 
here shown at a feast. 
Aidin. See Atlas 20. A 2. 



AIGLET BABY 



AIR-BRAKE 





AIGLET BABY. An ai'.;k-t c:irVL-a into 
the shup.: of a small lisure. It was 
ollon nude ol gold or silver. 
AIGLETS. Theta?s.or metal slieathings, 
ol the ribbons used to fasten parts ol 
dress in the I'jtli and i:ili c.-iiliirit'S. 




AIGRETTE. A plume of leathers in 
imitation of the leathers on a heron s 
head and worn on helmets or as p.irt ol 
a l.ulv's head dres;. See E;ret. 



If 



~m 



AieUES MORTES. hurmerly one (il 

tiij ci-.i.I ,%\Lditerranean ports ol 
France, hut now a decayed town three 
miles from the sea. See Atlas 7. F 5- 



"t 



.^ 



•^F 



«:<»OCeeTX3DEX) 



AIGUIERE. a tall slender ewer ut 
inet.il. porcelain, glass, or pottery 
highly decorated. Many of the Re 
naissance aiguiires were of rich silver- 
gilt and elaborate design. 
AIGUILLE. A very slender form o( 
drill, used chielly for boring the hole 
into which a blasting charge is put fur 
loosening the rock in a quarry or mine. 



J^ 



jSf- 



AILERON. In an aeroplane, a small 
suppleinentarv surface (A) lifted at the 
extreniitv of a main plane to help m 
maintaining the lateral balance and to 
assist in hankin'i. 





AILERON. In architecture, the name 
L;i\vn til an ornament similar to a 
levsrsed console placed on eitlier side 
of an upper window as shown here. 




AINSWORTH, W. HARRISON |1S0> 
issji. l-.iv.'li'.li wriliT of about to novels 
Aintab. Sc.- Atlas 20. C 2. 




AINTREE. A parish 
live miles nurtli-east (j 
has a famous racecourse 
aniuially run the Grand 



AIR & WATER SERVICE TOWER. 

An apparatus, made by Safety storage 
Systems Limited, by which Irom the 
s:ime standard air can be pumped into 
a tyre and water into the radi.itor of a 
ni"tnr-car. 




AILETTE. An ornamented mctjl plal/ 
worn to protect the shoulders ol a 
soldier before plate armour was intro- 
duced. Also p.art of a lady's dress, 
similar in shape and appearance. 





AILSA COCK. Ihe purtui, known to 
science as Iratercula arctica. It is called 
\ilsa cock because it breeds in such 
: iive numbers about Ailsa Craig, in the 
11th of Clyde. 




AIRBAG. A canvas bag co.ited Willi 
snlution so that when blown out it may 
remain inllated. It is attached to the 
siiles .if sunken vessels to float them up. 




AIGUILLE. A sh.irp peak or cluster of 
needle-like rocks seen in the .Mont 
Blanc region of the Alps. 
Ai{un. See Atlas ;>. F 2 




AILSfl CRAIC, 



50 iniiabttants. See Atlas 3. C 4. 



Air.i caespitosa, the tufted hair-grass 
AIRA. The hair-grass, of which several 
species grow wild in Britain. The tufted 
hair-grass is slender and graceful ; the 
early hair-grass grows four inches hich. 




AIKIN, JOHN. English physician and 
writer 11747-1822) remembered for 
his Children's book Evenings at Home. 

AILANTUS. The tree of heaven, a native 
■of Mongolia and Japan. It grows very 
rapidly and is propagated by suckers. 



AINGER, CANON ALFRED il!i 3 7 -1004). 
Englisli clergyman and author. Canoi 
ol firistol and .Master of the Temple. 
AINOS. A curiovis Caucasic race who 
inhabit the Kurile Islands, Yezo, and 
Sakhalin, in the Pacific. Regular in 
features and low in stature, they are 
remarkable for their hair. 




AIR BALLOON. A chiMs toy balloon 
Idled With air and usually attached at 
Ihe nozzle by a light string to prevent 
It from being blown away. 




AIRA FORCE. A 1 velv wat 
the Lake District, 65 feet high 
on the north side of Ullswater. 
by the National Trust in 1906. 



rial! in 

It is 

ought 



AIR-BED. A bed of the type shown 
here, consisting of an airtight mattress, 
used for invalids. 

AIR-BLADDER. A bladder filled with 
.,ir. situated under the backbone of a 
■isli to regulate the equilibrium of the 
body. It varies much in form, and in 
s,,me fishes is atrophied. Sometimes 
.ailed the sound bladder. 




AIR-BRAKE. . ssj .l, U ..1..I 

operated by compressed air. A pump 
on the locomotive compresses the air, 
which is conveyed through pipes to a 
reservoir under each carriage. 



AIR BRATTICE 



27 




AIR DUCT 



AIR BRATTICE. An artiliciai parii 
tion erected to divide the main road in 
a coal mine in order to briiiij about a 
proper ventilation and circulation <i( air. 




AIR-BRICK. A perforated Linck let 
into a uall for ventilation purposes. 
Air-Brush. See Aerograph. 




AIR-BUCKET. A water-u Ikl-I bucket 
constructed in such a way that the air 
displaced by the water ' entering the 
bucket can escape without hindrance. 
AIR CAMEL. A caisson placed beneath 
or alongside ships to lessen tlieir draft 
and enable them to pass over shallows. 




AIR CASING. An air-tight casing of 
iron placed round the smoke-stack nl 
a steamship to protect the deck. 





AIR CELL. A ca\ 

other part of a plj.ii ^....ji ,,ii; .m 

In seaweeds and other aquatic plain 
air cells help the plant to float. 
AIR CELL. A cavity of small size m 
an animal's br.dv containing air. 




AIR CHAMBER. A device for equalis 
ing the flow of water in a reciprocatin.g 
force-rump. 

Air Chief Marshal. See Royal Air Force. 
AIRCOCX. A faucet, or turn-valve, con. 
Structed for the purpose of perniittini; 
or stopping the (low of air through a 
pipe. There are various patterns accord- 
ing to the particular use desired 



AIR COMPRESSOR. A pump whitli 
drives air under pressure into a reser- 
for use in ventilation or for 



supplying 
is made bv 



motive power. This type 
Bernard Hiilland & Co, 




Variable condensers 




Fi.\ed air condenser 
AIR CONDENSER. An electrical con 
denser in which air is the non-conductor, 
commonly employed in many types of 
wireless a'pparatus for tuning purposes 




AIR COOLER. An appliance for re- 
ducing the temperature, such as a 
chamber filled with ice or coils of 
pipe in which a cold liquid is circulatinr. 




AIR CUSHION. A las: ul air-light 
m.it-.ri.il wliiih can be inflated. 




AIR CUSHION. A ball of rubber lillcd 
with air placed in a water-pipe to 
receive the pressure in freezing. 




AIR CYLINDER. A device consisting of 
I o Iindtr nid piston, used for checking 

t!i iL^ il I t 1 heavy gun. 




AIR CONDITIONING. Some industries require air of a definite temperature and 
humidity, and this plant, known as the Carrier ffumidifying System, supplies it on 
365 days a year. Air, drawn through the apparatus by a fan, passes through 
regulated sprays of water which give it the required moisture, through a regulated 
heater which gives il the right temperature and is then passed to all parts. 




AIRD. A word meaning dry or arid, 
as the Arizona wastes, where only scrub 
and the cactus grow. 

AIRD, SIR JOHM(t833-l9)l). British 
contractor. Starting business just as 
railways were needed, he constructed 
docks and railways throughout the 
world. He built the Assouan Dam. 




AIR DOUCHE. A pneumatic apparatus 
for inserting in the ear passages and 

dilating them with air. 



Air- 
Dram 


f^ 




■^ 


Air 
Dram 






fe^: 






==rr 





^: ' ' 



AIR-DRAIN. A space left round the 

'uitsiJe foundation walls of a buildinj? 

to prevent damp earth lying in 
contact with them. 




AIRDRIE. Coal-mming and irv>n and 
.:,,-. toundinc centre in Lanarkshire, 

,, ,;;,!,. .,.. ..i .^i-..„.„. :>. .,..-,) See 



V 


^ 4f^ 


- ^■ 






g^st 


"!?#• 


Mm 


\ VV^ 


■ "' . 







AIR DRILL 

drivt'ii by c^i.ii i -.-^i.. .: ^ UN.-,; wt 

excavation, tunneliinc:. and so on. 
S.mie as pneiimntic .Irtfl. 




AIR DUCT. The passage (A) in a fisli 
which connects the air-btadder with 
the oesophagus. In some fishes it is- 
permanent: in others only temporary. 



AIRE 




AIRMAN 



AIRE. Tributary of the Yorkshire 
Ous.-. The bridge shown is at BinRley. 
See Atlas 4, F 3. 



AIR-FLOAT. A bladder in the froiuls 
.,i certain seaweeds like bl.adder-wrack, 
which helps the plant to float. 
Air Forct. See R.A.r. 




AIREDALE: TbKKItK. ' >: I in 

most popular Entjlish docs, a faithful 
companion and an excellent retriever. 
RreJ orit;iiiaIlv in Airedale. Yorkshire. 




AIR ENGINE. An engine in which the 
motive power is either the clastic force 
of air expanded by heat, or air com- 
pressed by a separate compressor. Top 
and side views are here shown. 




AIRER. A screen lor dr>nii; dollies 
made in various forms suitable for 
disposine the rarments before the tire. 




AIR FILTER, for extracting dust, 
germs, or smoke from the air. It con- 
sists of screens of such materials as 
cotton, asbestos, or slag-wool through 
which the air is drawn, or of sprays of 
water through which the air parses. 



AIR FUt«NEL. A lliK' (slmuii liere 
section) Ml the upper part of a ship, 
assist in the ventilation of the hold. 




AIR GAUGE. An instrumeiil for indica- 
ting tile pressure of the air or other 
aas. lor low pressures, a glass tube, 
closed at the top with the lower end 
dipped in mercury, is used. 
AIR GOVERNOR. An appliance at- 
tached to a pneumatic apparatus or 
other machinery in which air is used, to 
regulate pressure or delivL*r\' of air. 




AIR GUN. A gun in which the pro- 
pelling power is compressed air dis- 
charged from a reservoir by the opera- 
tion i>f a valve worked bv a trigger. 






'u:. 




AIR-HOl^^ 1 hoisting apparatus 

opci..i,,( , . L .:iipressed air. 

AIR-HOLDER. A vessel similar in 

construction to a gas-holder which acts 
I as an air reservoir for ventilating 
I machines, and so on. 




AIR JACK. Lirting-jack operated by 
compressed air, the piston rod being 
the lifting arm. 

AIR JACKET.. An inflated coat of 
rubber worn by divers in deep-sea work. 






AIR LIFT. A lift operated by com- 
pressed air. The air is admitted to a 
long cylinder with a piston which is 
attached to the hoisting cables. 




I 



Air-Iiicks for material (l) ;nul for 
iiu'ii (2) used in caisson sinkini; 




AIR LOCK. An airti;:Iit chamber with 
two doors, oneof which (A) cominuni- 
cates with the outside air and the other 
( B) with men workinc; in a condensed 
atmosphere, as when sinking caissons 
and in tunnelling; operations. 




AIRMAN. Strictly ^^eaking the pi.-t . .r n r. kmLh m| an .iLTnpl.iiU'. hut ni..re UM)Selv 
used tu refer to any person en:;.i:;,;d in the operation ui aircraft, such as an 
observer, wireless operator, and, in war machines, gunners and so on. Our 
pictures show airmen in typical flyinc; clothes. 



AIRMAN'S OXYGEN APPARATUS 



29 



AIX 




AIRMAN'S OXYGEN APPARATUS. 

\ breathin? outiit usl-J by airmen 
ilvin^i at yreat altitudes. It cnnsists of a 
cylinder of compressed oxytfen, with 
reducing and control valves, pressure 
-'auge, nieter, flexible tube, and mask. 
Here twn forms of it are shown. 
Air Marshal. Sec Royal Air Force. 




AtR METER. \ i instrument lur 

measurin.; the currents of air in a build- 
ing, mine, or other place. It is litted 
with a fan and the fan is held for a given 
lime at right angles to tlie current, the 
leidints being shown in feet. 
Airoro See Atlas 9, C 2. 




AIR PASSAGE. A passage in the body 
,f an animal through which air is 
idmitted to the lungs, such as the nose, 
larvnx, trachea, or bronchial tubes, or 
my of the very small ramifications of 
he bronchial tubes. 




AIR PIPE. A iH-. Li..jJ l-i .li.iv.....' 
fi^iil air out of a chamber ur tu cimdiui 
fresh air in, as in this example of a brat 
tice (whii'h sei/i inr ventihitinij ;i mine. 




AIR-PLANT. A planl.like the epiphytes. 
wiiich grows on another plant but does 
nut, like the parasites, derive its 
nourishment from its host. 
AIR PUMP. An apparatus for pump- 
ing air into a tyre. Air pumps worked 
by hand or font are used by cyclists 
and nidtorists- We show n font pinnp 




AIR PUMP. An apparatus lor e.\haust- 
ini; the air from a chamber. There are 
many forms, according to the use 
for which they are intended. Generall\ 
the air is exhausted by a cylinder and 
piston, or by centrifugal action. 

Air-Pump. Constellation. See Ant ha 
Pneiimatica. 




AIR ROAD. Fassai^es in coal mines 
which help the ventilation of the 
mine. The adequacy of the ventilation 
depends on the nuniber and dimensions 

of the air mads. 




AIR SAC. An air-spa^e. < 
^c\\, in the bones or bodies of birds, 
shown here in live pairs in white, or 
111 the lungs of mammals. 
AIR SHAFT. A pit or shaft, usually 
vertical, in a coal mine, which is used 
as part of the ventilating system. 
Airship. A historical series of air- 
ships IS given on page 30. 




AIR SPRING. :ii 

a sudden jar or pressure by means » i 
the elasticity of compressed air. Such 
an air spring as is shown here at A is 
Lised on motor-cars. Air sprintjs are a'sc 
used for ;Mins and doors. 




AIR SYRINGE. A I'Tin ui small .n: 
pump made like a syringe u ith a 
cylinder and piston. It is used in 
scientific experiments in laboratories 
for making a vacuum in small vessels, 
or for compressing the air. Some have 
a vice for attaching t<t a bench. 

AIR THERMOMETER. A thermom.' r 
in which air is used insteati of mercviiv 
(ir alcuh'>i. Th'iuch very delicate and 
accurate, and capable of beinc utilised 
in any temperature, it is ditticult to 
use and so is employed only in physical 
experiments. We show two examples. 




AIK TKAP. A contrivance fur prevent- 
ing the entry into a room of the foul 
air from drains and sinks. It usually 
takes the form of a bend in a pipe 
which holds water, and prevents the 
foul air passing tlirough. 
Air Trunk. See Ventilatim- shaft 




AIR TUBE. A Mliall tube oi ir,.ii 
tilled with water and hung in the 
cnal-bunkcrs of a ship for ascertainlni: 
the temperature of the coal and pre- 
\cntini; spontaneous combu'^tion. 



AIR 

the 



was 
inir 



TWIST. A hollow spiral found in 
stems of iSth-century glasses, the 
et '»f which is lost. A bubble of air 
admitted to the stem and in twist- 
this became a spiral. 




AIR VALVE. A 

the ll"w 1 f air, as in the bends and 
summits of water-pipes, to prevent the 
formation of a vacuum when the water 
is drawn otf. 

AIR WASHER. An apparatus in which 
a current of air can be clearsed of dust. 
We show water being sprayed across air 
as it enters the ventilating shaft of the 
House of Coninions. 




AIRY, SIR GEORtiE BIOOELL. Noted 
Rnglish astroii'iiier. A'^trnnonier Royal 
18.^6-81 Born at Alnwick in iSoi. he 
died at Greenwich in 1S02. 




AISLE. A .. v,...iv.. i .....ici 

to the nave, choir, or transept, from 
which it is divided by piers or columns. 
Generally there are two aisles, one 
on each side of t^.e nave or choir. 
but sometimes there may be only one 
nr there mav be three or f.'ur. 




AISLL. A heraldic term meaiiin.!: 
v^inged, but used generally only of 
creatures that in the ordinary wav 
do not have wings, like the winced lion 
of St. AUrk. 




AISNE. lribulat> -. l ., , , . v.. .-.:n.. 
it rises in the Argonne and Hows past 
Rethel and Soissons to join the Oise 
at ConiPi^cne. Navigable (or more 
than half its length of t75 miles, it 
links up with the .Meuse and Marne by 
■in-:n*; >>f ranah. See .Atlas 7. E 2. 




AITCHBONE. The bone oi the buttock 
in cattle. It has given its name to a 
joint ol beef which includes this bone. 
Aitutaki. See Atlas 5?, 5. 
Atx. See .M.indarin duck. 



AIRSHIP 




AIRSHIP 



ML 



steam dirii:.. 



ti4i.^y,\n.i;ili|,:Liilii;/,.j 



Rinard's U France, 1S84 



Santos-Dumoiit, ahout 1900 






IJntisli Null! N^MUulin, I'l 




I'ar.s^v.il 1, .1' 


"' '■ 


1 

i ^^^^^^ 


IBffi^^^^^^ 





An L-.irly Zfpi" 



Clement-BayarJ I. ahout 1909 




.- North Pole airship Norge The Roma, an airship of the semi-riyld type A t; > 

AIRSHIP. An airship, or diriuibic balloon, is a lighter-than-air machine. It is supported by a huse Ras-fdled balloon or smaller ones enclosed in an envelope, Irom 

which one or more cars are suspended. Power is usually supplied by petrol motors drivini; propellers. Airships are of three types— the non-rigid, with a fabric 

gas-bag kept in shape by the pressure of the gas ; the semi-rii»id, with a metal or wood girder serving as a keel to the envelope : and the rigid, with a great metal 

framework. In this page we show examples from the first cylinder-shaped dirigible of tS52 down to recent times. 



AIX 




AIX. l-MrtiK'tiv L"apil>il (.'t I'rnvciiCf. 
The Romans built baths round its 
M'arni springs, and it has an 1 1 th-century 
cathedral, seen on the rii^lit. On the 
lett is the chick tower rtf the HOtel de 
Villefln.onn). See Atlas 7, F ^. 




AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. Ur Aachen, city of 
Prussia and the capital of Charleniai»ne. 
It lias an ancient cathedral (160.000). 
See Atlas 12 




AJANTA. Small place in Hyderabad, 
India, famous fr)r its remar.kable cave- 
temples datini; from the hftli centiiry. 




AJAX oi 1 I I I I lit 1 I tlie 

111 id IS sei, lul nh to Atliilles it Tr •> . 




AKHENATON 




AJMERE. Walled city in R.-ijpulana 
We show the Arhai Din Ka Jain 
temple. Ajmere has railwav shops and 
salt and cotton trades (120,000). See 
Atlas 22, D 3. 



AJACCIO. Capital of Corsica, with a large harbour. The birthplace of Napoleon, 
It hjs a 16th-century cathedral (25,000). See Atlas 7, Inset. 
AJanU. See Atlas 22. E 4. 




AJOUAN. Ih.' fruit of a plant of the 
parsley family, Ammi copticuni, culti- 
vated in E?ypt, Persia, and India for its 
fruit and essential oil. 
AJUGA. A genus of plants known as 
the hurries. Three species grow wild 
II lUitaiti, thoui^'h only one, the common 
1'iii.Il' (Shown here), is at all common. 




AJUTAGE. A 

M-ssi-1 or end .. 
AKA. A \.« / 
Akaba. S \ 



in the wall of a 

n.' lo ease outllow, 

l^ing myrtle. 




AKAHADA POTTERY 

e.irtlienware ni.lde in \ • 
vince of Yaiiiato, Japan, in the seven- 
teenth anj eigliteenth centuries. 




AKALA. The Hawaiian raspberry, 
Kubus macraei, the fruit (A) of which 
■ tten reaches a diameter of two inches. 
I lus (tiiit is deep red, juicy, and verv 
palatable, though somewhat hitter. 




AKAMATSU. A pine found growing 
in the Japanese islands and known to 
science as Pinus densitlora. It is often 
called the red pine, that being the 
meaning of the Japanese name. We 
show its leaf and cone. 




AKBftR THE GREAT .:>. 

■'"--''' .iMi'Li"j. i ,,,■ -r.j:.- : .ii nis 

Inie, his rule at the close of his reign 
extended by conquest over the whole o( 
India as far south as the VinJva Hills. 




AKEBIA. A genus of climbing plants 
wild in China and Japan. One o( them. 
Akebia quinata, is cultivated in England. 
AKEE. A small tree. Blighia sipiva, 
with fleshy, ejliWe f,ruits and large black 
seeds. It'is a native of Guinea. 




AKELEY, CARL(!S04-192()). American 
inventor, n.ituralist. and African big 

■:.ur.: )v.!!it.r. v.-^n here with his wif.-. 
Akeman Street. .<., ! > : 




A KEMPIS, THOMAS. German dev... 
:i :i.il .M.;.r, 1 .,^ i-ri ; author o( The 
1 initalion ol Christ. 

AKENSIDE, MARK (1721-70). English 
poet, satirist, and phvsic::v. 
Akermin. See Atlas' i-. ; 




AKHENATON. i:gypliaii King and 
thinker ot the tJth century B.C., who 
lirst instituted the worship of one god. 
Atvin the Sun. He changed his name 
from Amenhot-'-o to Akiienaton. 



AKIMBO 



32 



ALARM BUOY 




AKKAS. Trib^ of African pytjinic: 
liviiiL; in the Belgian Cumjo. 
Akiavik. See Atlas 28, D 2. 
Akmolinsk. See Atlas 21. I 




AKRON. Great ruLiber-maniifacturiui; 
:eiilre In Ohio. We show its County 
Court House (2I0.0O0). See Atlas 29, G 5. 
Akju. See Atlas 2i. A 2. 
Akyab. S.c Albs 22. H 4. 




• ■v t>i .>iiui. iu»iii built on each 
of the atrium of a Roman house. 



ALA. 

of an 



I he leather aih.xe.l 1.. the Shalt 
arrow to keep the llicht straiKht. 




t^tt-'7A^Ufti,HA 



ALA. The lateral, or side, petal (A) jl , 

r.ir;M'>naceous llower. 

Alabamx U.S.A. See Atlas 30, J 4. 




.^^■. 



ALABAMA, THE. En^jUsh-built Steamship uscd as an armed conimtrcc-dtstro^ cr 
. V ,Mv >..ii.Li.ler.ites in the American Civil War, and sunk by the Federals in lSo4. 
The picture shows its last fight off Cherhourir. 




ALABASTER. A marble lik.- innKr.iI 
inutli used for ornaniLMital purposes. 
Wo show an alabaster vase of about 
HJOO B.C. 

ALABASTRUM. A small Greek vase lor 
lioUliiiL; perfume, SO called from the 
alabaster, or marble-like mineral, of 
which it was ffenerallv made. 




ALACTAGA. A ruLk-nt tnund m Am.i 
and North Africa, often called tlu 
juinpin-.; rabbit. It resemble.s ajerb'M 
u ith J loni; tail. 

A LA CUISSE. In heraldry, a term 
applied to the leg of an animal ur bird 
when cut off at the thigh. 




ALADDIN. In liic Arabian Nights, a 
poor boy who became rich through 
possessing a magic lamp. 




A LA GREC. An architectural ornament 
resembling a twisted ribbon, and 
taking various forms. 




ALAIS. Centre of the silk industry m1 
Laniiuedoc. France, with this ancient 
amphitheatre nn.nnni. ,'st'c Atlas 7, F ' 




ALAI TAGH. W.'t.rn cmi tiiUKiliuri ..I 
the great TianShan mountain range 
into Russian Turkestan, sume of its 
chief summits rising to over iS.ooo feet. 
I he Irans-Alal is a parallel chain. 
Alalus. See Ape-man. 




ALAMEDA. .A sluuU'd ujlk ir) a puuli. 
plji^j, espeCLilly une planted witii 
poplar trees. The name is used generally 
in those parts of America which were 
formerly settled by the Spaniards. 








Alamo 
ALAMO 

ri.iine ul 

ALANG 

•It.iss 111. 

ALANT 



Alang Alant 

(Populus nioniiifera). The 
a cotton-w'iud tree, or poplar, 



wild in North America. 

(Iniperata arundinacea). A 

t i.s ciinimnn in the Tropics. 

or ALAND. In heraldry, a 
MiastitI with sliort ears. Chaucer refers 
til alaunt/, an old spelling of alans, as 
hnnting the lion and deer. 
Aland Islands. Si'e Aaland l-ilands. 




ALAR. A term used by botanists 
nie.tiiini; situated in the fork nf a <item. 




ALARIA. An edible seaweed ahoundine 

• •}\ ;ill All.uitic slinres of Brit;iin. 




ALARM BIRD. A species of turacou, 
Sell iz< 'mis itonurus, found in Africa. 
1 he bird is sometimes called the 
plantain eater. The tluffy plumage 
\ ields a peculiar pigment called turacin 



jf '^P«^ 




ALARM BUOY. A lnin> with a bell or 
\vlii5tle(\ve show both) which, by sound- 
iri); makes its presenee known at nii^ht. 



ANEMONES OF THE SEA-COLOUR AND WONDER OF LIFE IN THE WATERS 




1 and ; i^eriarithus mempranaccui ,■.,-:..:;. ^ H;.iacli,s reilibibj;^) i,u;i-i.i\ i. j Uuaojji »arj.i.i.^;Mia;'.,U p::iipiit). -l A^;i::o.ora Jia:u.;u> ,:',.....„.■.> _..^;uonC) 
6 Saaartiu viduala {Snake locked anemone). 7" Stomphia cliurchiae (Gapelel). S Bolocera mediae (Deeplet). o Cereactus aurantiaca (Oranje cer.-actus) 
10 Bunodes ballu (Red speckled pimplet). 11 Bolocera eques ( Ringed deepletl. 12 Eloactis nuuelU (Bulbous eloactis). 13 Hormathia marjaritae (Necklet) 
14 Aiptasia couchii (Trumplet). 15 Actinia cari ( Horse beadlet). 16 Bunodes ricidus ( Hard pimplet). 17 Anemone sulcata (Opelet). IS Tealia dijitafa (MaricolJ 
wartlet). 19 Cladactis costae (Margined cladactis). 20 Actinia mesenibryanthenium (Beadlel). 
The namrs tn brackets are the popular equivalents of the Latin names. Numbers 4. 6. 7. <!>\ ro". /j. /j. 14. 76', ao are British. See page 60 



ANI PAPYRUS— PICTURES FROM EGYPT'S FAMOUS BOOK OF THE DEAD 




Ani and his wile, wiih their souls as birds 



A table of olTerings 



Watchers at Ani's shrine 







'^■'iiiiiiiji ,! , Ill", iii..iiiiii irn!-7rF^^ "^ 



t x. iii ) ii j iiii u iiiii i i O) iii . ' i!!j > iii , i mu t M <ii i i u i ' 






■'u' 'uner.il procession o! Ani. with his widow kneehng beside the boat-shaped hearse and mourners and servants lollowin" 




Servants bearing furniture for the tomb Children before Osiris and Isis The funeral service 

THE ANI PAPYRUS. THE FINEST KNOWN COPY OF THE BOOK OF THE DEAD. 7S FEET LONG WAS MADE IN 1500 B.C AND IS NOW IN THE 
BRITISH MUSEUM. FROM WHOSE PUBLICATION THIS PAGE IS REPRODUCED See page 64 



ALARM CLOCK 



ALBANY 




||l ^^=^^ f 





ALARM CLOCK. A clock whicli c:iii be so set that at a K'ven time 
»ill rin? for a long time to arouse from sleep and attract attention. 



t loud bell 
Power to 



rini; the bell is obtained by windini; up a spring, which is held in check by a 
spring and triirger. as shown in the first picture. In the second picture w; 
see the alarm hand with an alarm wheel behind, on which is a D-shaped ring 
This moves at the same rate as the hour hand, and when the depression in the 
D-ring reaches a spindle set parallel with the alarm hand the ring (liei 
forward, pushed by the spring holding the trigger, and the trigger being released, 
the alarm spring rings the bell. The third picture shows the D-nng movement. 




ALARM FUNNEL. A funnel used in 
filling casks which, when the liquid in 
the cask reaches a certain height. riU'^s 
a bell to warn the workman in charge. 

ALARM LOCK. A lock fitted with a 
bell which is rung when any part is 
moved, or the door is tampered witii 
bv anv unauthorised person. 




ALARM THERMOMETER. A Ih.i 

meter with bell attachment whicli ruiLis 
when a certain temperature is recorded. 

ALARM WATCH. A watch fitted with 
an alarm bell which can be set so av 
to strike at any given moment. 
Alashehr. '" '"' ~" • ' 




A:i Al.isk.lli uitll hi; il'iL' 1,M 

'.4 



Alaskans in winter dress 
ALASKAN. A man or woman of Alaska, 
uhere Hi:: natives are about equal in 
numbers to the white settlers. .Most ol 
them are t«kimos. 




iii^wmg[i[}^'i ' 



ALASKA. 

American 
third lies 
settlemen 
155.000) 



.,.,n The town oi Sitka 

:Titory in the Far North- West of the North 
continent. It cuv.:rs about 600,000 square miles, of which about a 
within the Arctic Circle. Nome, Jujieau. and Sitka are the chief 
ts, and fishing, reindeer-breeding, and the fur trade are carried on 
See Atlas 27. D 2. 




ALA-TAU. Mountain system in Ih; 
Semiryetchensk region of Asiatic Russia, 
some of its chief summits being probabi;. 
more than f 5,000 feet hi^'li. 






ALATERNUS. An evergreen tree o; 

small shrub known as Khamnus alater- 
nus. It IS a native of Southern Europe. 
A LATTICINIO. Ornamental glass, 
decorated with lines of opaque white 
'.;lass buried iti th.- v.'^^-l 




AL8. .\ '.. i.it^ . .i iviiidcred linen ruL 
u rn bv priests at the Eucharist. 
Arbareto. See Atlas S. D 2. 





ALBACORE. A fish o> the tunny kind 
IS Orcvpus g^Tmo. 



r^ 



.tf^' 




ALBAN, ST. A convert Ir^ni ^iai;aillsiii 
who was martyred by Diocletian. He 
\^.is a native of Verulam. now called 
St. .\ihans 

ALBANI, MADAME (b. t!i52). Opera 
siii-.;er. Born near .Wontreal and edu- 
cated at Albany, N.Y., she »».'.< 
famous operatic soprano. 




ALBANI. -..'.Han artist 05rs-n*o) m 
ti-.j L . , ..^e school. He loved u 
paini mythological subjects. The 
example of his work given here is 
Cupid's Dance- 
Albania. See Atlas I4. B 3- 



A . .lar troops 

ALBANIANS. A brave and hirdv but 
'nl> half-civilised race inhabiting 
Albania. Their native name is Skipetar. 
meaning Highlanders, and their pursuits 
are chiefly Vastoral. 



-_" i:_n 

ft ty 

> t Ml' '" 

ALBANY, (.^apitai ..l .Ne>A iirv Male. 
U.S. .A., on the Hudson. Formerly i 
Dutch settlement, it has two cathedriU 
and a large trade (120,000). We shorn 
the State Capitol. See Atlas ri. L i. 





ALBANY, THE. Historic residentia. 
chambers in Piccadilly. Gladstone and 
.WacauUiv lived there. „ 



ALBANY 



ALBERT MEMORLAL 




ALBANY. Wistcrn Austr;ilian po't of call, on King George Sound, 352 miles 
>.nith Uist .1 P.rth bv railwav. It is a liealth resort 14000). See Atlas 36, B 5. 
Albany River. See Atlas 2S. J 3. 




vessel used 



ALBARELLO. .\.. ..ut.i 

in the I Mil century and later for hold- 



kjM^ 



r 

ii 



An albiitri'ss cm the wini,' 




ALBATROSS. The larijest sca-goiiiL; 
bird, mainly confine J to the Suuth 
Pacilio. where it rests on rocks and 
islands. Except at nestln^-tinie it lives 
it sea on incomparable wings 12 feet 
ind more in span, keeping pace with the 
swiftest ship. 
Albemarle, Duke of. ^ 
Albert, Lake. 




ALBERT, ST.. OF TRAPANI. A sauu in 
the Koman t-j' ji'm^ k,.iijnUar, canoniSL-d 
in 1476. 



ALBERT I I4yu-i ^o^). Duksot Prussia: 
i;-.i)u1 tnaster of Teutonic Order. 
ALBERT I (J25O-130S). Duke ut 
Austria and GLrni;in king. 




ALBERT. PRINCE CONSORTM^I*' <>\). 
Hushinul vi (.tuccii \ ict-.-ria. 

ALBERT b l,S7^). Kiiiy ot the 
Belc:i:ins. 



^\ 






\ 



%s#y 



ALBERT, DUKE OF YORK ih l»r,} 
The second son of Kini; George V. jnd 
Queen .Mary. 

ALBERT. A short watchcham with a 
cross-bar to be passed tllrous,'h a button- 
ho'e. Named after the Prince Consort. 
Alberta. See Alias 28, F 3. 
Alberta, Mount. See Athis 2,S. F i. 




ALBERT EMBANKMENT. 1 mi 

thuroUL;hl'.ire lui Surre\ .\uL ul Th.tines 
between Westminster Bridge and 
Vanxhall. We show St. Thomas's Hospital. 




ALBERT FALLS. One of the worlds 
IcvL-liest v.aterfalls, on the Umjjeni 
nvLT. Natal, near Pietermaritzbur*.:. 




The Albert Hall 




ALBERT HALL. Buildin'. 
Kensington ; holds neanv 
sons ; used for concerts, 
public meetings. 



lO.UOU 

balls. 




ALBERT BRIDGE. Suspension hrKlL:L' 
Ch;Ne:i fast nl D.ittfrsea Park. 



. tile Th.unes hetv 




ALBERT DOCK 



See Victoria and Albert Docks. 



ALBERTI BASS. A musical term for a 
I'ass consisting of arpeggios or broken 
chords : so called from its reputed 
inventor Domenico Albert! of Vcnics-. 
who died in 1739. 




ALBERT MEDAL. A British decora- 
tiiin instituted in 1S66 tor acts of 
bravery in life-saving at sea and ex- 
tended in 1S77 to acts on land. The oval 
badge is gold for first class and bronze 
for second. The ribbon is crimson. 




rm 



Asia 



ALBERT MEMORIAL. A monument 
^tandjn^ in Kensington G.irdens, London, 
erected to Albert, the Prince Consort of 
Queen Victoria. Its base is flanked with 
sculptures of famous figures in art and 
music, as in the panel shown here. 



ALBERTUS MAGNUS 



ALCESTER 



ALBERTUS MAGNUS ijo; 12S..; 
«jerman theulosiaii and philusoplKT. 
His iearniil!^ earned him the title of 
Universal Doctor. 
Albertville. See Atlas 26, E ". 





ALBOIN (d. ;73). Kin^ of the Lombards. 

shi.un .in Vm It^lt. IK' ci;njiK'ri-d IhiU. 



ALBUQUERQUE . 1^ J 11.')- i';:ii 
■.",i;s^' vii-r"'. of India. 
Albuquerque. S.c Atlas -n. E r 



ALBI. Old city in Lansiuedoc, wilii this 
medieval cathedral, bishop's palace, and 
castle. The Albigenses took their nanu 
from it (25.000). See Atlas 7. E 5. 




ALBIGENSES. Medieval religious sect 
i.i suuthern France, the keynote of their 
1-ielief being that man was wholly evil. 
\t the beginnini; of the 12th centur> 
thev were savaeelv suppressed 



A } "♦ '" , '>' Jiff ^j^ 



ALCANTARA. 

[luicJ f'jr an i 
which ipans t. 
in 10> A.D. hy ir 
almost as he li:(t it. 






ALBUERA, BATTLE OF. r.mi'ju m u.c 1."..- ....... -,. ^_- ,,', 

it.h «on\Kt.ir\ of the British and Spaniards under beresiurd oser .,.:■ 
1 h under Mir hl\ '^onl' marching t" relieve Badaioz. 





ALBINO. An anim.i 

li.is piiik eyes. The . 
absence of colouring rn.Mt.r 




ALBIN'S MOTH. Une ,.l tlie Muallest 
of British moths, brightly coloured, with 
a wing expanse of a quarter of an inch. 
ALBINUS (d. 197). Roman general 
made Emperor by the legions in Gaul 
.md Britain, but overthrown by Severus 
it Lvons. 




ALBULA PASS. Alpine liiglnva) ii 
eastern Switzerland, connecting the 
Allniljaiul Inn valleys. See Atlas o, D :;. 

^--.^MmvM; VI-- 

^1 DKum^r 




ALBURNUM. The lighter coloured and 
softer part "f the wood of an e.xogenous 
plant, between the inner bark and th. 
heart-wood, marked A in diagram. 







ALBUM. In Roman days, a white 
tablet bearing public notices. Now a 
book for photographs or postcards. 







ALBIONE. A sea-leech belonging I" 
:i-^ genus Pontobdella. 
^Ibire. For star see Cygnus. 
Albis, River. See Atlas 18, G 1. 
ALBITE. A common mineral, white or 
almost white, which occurs in crystals 
and in cleavable masses in granite. 




ALBUMIN. A substance entering into 
the composition of animal and vegetable 
juices and solids, as in white of egg 
(albumen) of which it is the chief part, 
and from which it is named. 
ALBUMINOMETER. For measuring 
albumin contained in a liquid. 



ALBURV. Australian town at me iiej. 
of steam navigation on the Riv.; 
Murray. New South Wales. It is th; 
centre of an agricultural region ("ooni 
See Atlas :;6, H 6. 



;>■- 



■\ 



ALCATO. A protection ol mail lor Ihc 
throat worn by the Crusaders, mhc 
■ arned its use from the Arabs. 





\ ,-.uar at Seville 
ALCAZAR. .Moorish word meaning 
castle, the two most famous examples 
being at Seville and Segovia. That of 
Seville, in the lower picture. Ls a 

articularlv lovelv .Moorish building. 

s feature'being its arcaded halls. 
Alcedo. St.- Kinertsher. 



ALCALA. I amous old Spanish cathe- 
dral city near Madrid. It contains this 
Colegio de San lldefonso. once a famous 
university, and was the birthplace .■! 
Cervantes (12,000). 
Alcarno. See Atlas 1 3. D 6. 



1 


h 


( 


m^K^^ 


p 


iK 




^^tmtt- 



ALCESTER. Oid-»orld tov>n in W ai 
iicksliire. We show its Town Hall. 



ALCHEMICAL SIGNS 



3G 



ALDER-BLIGHT 



0.U B -.'"". O 


oil 


't~ 


"•■'•" 1) m:,, ® 


Ai' 


A 


C^r Q |-i.r,.l (^ 


Lank 


F 


,„. (^ r,ril„..(v;_; 


firt 


A 


(;..r«^^_^ ' -'^^ 1-' ^> 


Kat, 


V 


t.*J . ; ■ '^P 


flour 


!? 


J.I.nu.) ^ ■'''?.,|„ ■^ 


W, 


6 


i..,«-, A <t'"';^^ ^ 


«>!»/ 


■ @^ 



ALCHEMICAL SIGNS.' .Marks or syni 
bob used In t!u' early chemists who 
invented a system of shorthand to re- 
present the operations in which they 




ALCHEMIST. UU lumc 1<k .>iie ^Uio 
dabbled In clieniistry. which aid not 
become a science till the middle of the 
i7th century. People regarded it as 
almost akin to niairic. 




ALCHYMIST MOTH. A British muUi. 
Iiavini; rusty Mack fore-wings and dark 
brown hind wings, with a large triangu- 
lar white area at the base. It appears 
in Mav and is rare in south of England. 




ALCIBIADES .. ,it 450--t04 B.C.) 
A tile man L;cnerai and statesman. A 
born leader of men he alternately helped 
and betrayed his country. 





ALCIPPE. A crustacean which has 
three pairs of abdominal limbs, a body 
divided into segments, two eyes, and a 
mouth capable of being extended or 
thrust out. The one shown, Alcippe 
lampas, is found on the British coasts. 




ALCMAEON. The son .if Ainrhiarau> 
-i:k1 Eriphyle who, on his return from 
tlte expedition of the Epigoni against 
I hebes,slewhis mother. He was eveiitu- 

illv ^\:^il^ b\- the *.ons nt Phi^-'-^U'i. 




ALCO. A variety of small dog wit^i a 
small head and large ears found wilo 
in Mexico and Peru. 
ALCOCK. SIR JOHN (1S92-191^). 
!•. nirlish airman- First man. with Sir 
\. \V Hr-'V '•. •■■ 'i' ■■■" : ••-■ - "^■■ 




ALCOCK, SIR RUTHERFORD ( I Mi;-97). 

An English diplomat distinguished for 

hi-; \sork in Japan and China. 

Alcor. Tor star see Ursa Major. 

Alcoran. See Koran. 

ALCOTT, LOUISA MAY {t832-SS). 

American writer. Her best knf'wn stnr\ 

is Little Wnnien. 



^■^^^tki. 



ALCINOUS. Lecendary Greek hero. 
King of the Phaeacians. he entertained 
Odysseus, here seen sitting at his feet. 





ALCUIN (:35-S04). Scholar, born at 
York. Charlemagne invited him to 
Aix-la-Chapelle, which he made a seat 
of learning. 

Alcyon. See Kingfisher. 
ALCYONARIAN. A cnral having ten- 
tacks with feather-like fringes arranged 
round the mouth like the rays of 
a starfish, as shown below. 




ALCYONE. One oi the Pleiads, or 
daughters of Atlas and Pleioiie. beloveil 
l\v Poseidon, or Neptune. 
Aldabra Islands. See Atlas 25, J 5- 
Aldan, River. See Atlas 2). 3. 




ALDBOROUGH. \ lilaiie near Bur.iU'.^ii- 
hridge, Yt»rkshire. containing remain^ 
111 the Roman walled city of Isauriutr. 
ALDEBARAN. Or the Follower. See 
star in Taurus. Also called the Bull's 
live. It is one of the Hvades. 




The Parade at Aldebureh 





ALDER. Tlu- only British species ot 
the genus Alnus, this is a small tree 
with greyish-black bark. The branches 
are triangular in section when the tree 
is young, and the catkins appear 
bi-fore the leaves, the wr»ndy scales of 
; I,- fruiting catkins remaining long on 
the tree. The alder is found thriving 
in swampy ground in most of the 
temperate regions of the Earth. 
Atderamin. For star see Cepheus. 



ALCOVE. 






picture 


ui the Ai! 


j 


libra 


Alcoy. 


See Atlas 


s 


U 2 




'*'%MM' 



The Moot Hall at Aldeburgh 
ALDEBURGH. Interesting Small fishing 
tiiwn on the Aide, in Suffoli: (3000). 



ALDER-BLIGHT. A plant louse known 
to science as Schizoneura tessellata. It 
occurs on the underside o( the branches 
of the alder tree. 



ALDER-BUCKTHORN 



37 



ALEHOOF 










4 

3^ 





ALDERMAN. Anclo-Saxon word 

ineanim; cklcr man, applied to certain 
iiiembers of town and cotinty councils 



Leal 



1 nut 



ALDER-BUCKTHORN. A siirub that 
grows wild in woods in England. Its 
timber, under the name of doijwood, 
is used for gunpowder charcoal. 
Botanists call it Rhamnus frangula. 
It is also known as the breakin-^ or 
berry-bearins: buckthorn. Its leaves are 
deep ?reen, and the fruit has twn stnnes. 




P 







tsiis 



Lu;.aj 



ALDER FLY. A neuropterous (oi 
nerve-winged) insect found along the 
alder-lined streams of England. The 
larvae are about an inch long, and the 
cylindrical eggs are laid in a cluster on 
a leaf. It is used by anglers as bait, 
and imitation aider-flies are made. 




ALDERMANBURY. A street in the 
City of London, the site of the lirst 
Ciiiirt Hall nf the aldermen. 
Alderman Butterfly. See Red admiral. 




ALDERMAN LIZARD. A st >ut IMck 

Calif or nian lizard, Sauromalus ater, 
which gets its name from its obesity. 
;i characteristic popularly associated 
with aldermen. 




ALDER MOTH. A British moth 

.ippearing in June. It is rare anJ 
local in the southern and midianJ 
counties of England and in the east ot 
Ireland. The fore-wings are light grey. 
riinttleJ with darker colour, and the 
hind-wings are white. 




ALDERNEY. Northern must oi tlu 
Channel ' Islands, lying 8 miles from 
Normandv. The picture shows Grosne\ 
Point (2600). See Atlas 4. E 7. 




ALDERNEY COW. A breed ul Mnail- 
sized cattle which takes its name from 
the Channel Island where it originated. 
Noted for the richness rff its milk. 




ALDERSGATE. One of the northern 

-.ites of the City of London since Saxon 
times. Pulled down in 1761. 




ALDERSHOT. Chief Britisii militarx 
training centre. In north-east Hamp- 
shire. The picture shows the Cam- 
bridge Military Hospital. See Atlas -i.G -, 




ALOOBRANDINI MARRIAGE. 

- --f "I . .; irj.-iC'j [■.i;nt;riL.' fi.und m 
IOCj among the ruins of the Baths of 
Titus in Rome. 




ALDRICH, T. B. . i«30-|.X>;;, American 
■vrit r. Lditorof the Atlantic Alonthly. 
;ij -.vr'.*: v-.T'^e and stories. 
ALDROVANDUSd 522-1605). An Italian 

naturalist: call-d also Aldrovandi. 





\4 ^^^k 



ALDUS MANUTIUS O^-'-^l --i ;/. li^Mj., 
printer. He published beautllul boolu. 

The Aiding .Mnrk. th: anch-.r arJ d'-lphin 
devu - 'It. 




ALDWiMKLt. . ... 1 jonn 

Dryden, born in the rectory ol Ald- 
winkie All Saints, near Oundle. in I631. 




ALDGATE. Old eastern gate ul the 
i it-, n; Loiulon. It was rebuilt in 
1 aestroyed in 1761. 




5% 



ALDGATE PUMP. A notable landmark 

.11 111. j.i^t .iKt of the City of London. 
ALDHELM.ST. (d. 709). A Wesse.x archi- 
tevt aiul solutlar, bishop of Sherborne. 
Aldine Mark. See Aldus. 



ALDWYCH. l;ro.iJ. modern Londo.i 

,rr • .;i-Ti^>ctini: the Strand and Kin(:s- 

.ird^\li opened it in 1965. 






ALDWYCH THEATRE. London theatre 
situ.iteJ in AIJw\ch. Opened in 1905. 
Alehool. See Ground ivy. 



ALEMBERT 



3S 



ALEXANDER 




ALEMBERT, JEAN D' (1717-83). 
Philosopher. Founder and joint-editor 
uf tile iire.it French encyclopedia. 
ALEMBIC. An apparatus of glass 
or metal formerly used by chemists 
in distillation but now superseded by 
the retort. 




ALEN90N. Pleas:int 
Norinandv, \vith a 1^ " 
cathedral (20.000). 




xS 



ALENQON, DUKE OF. [ ran^uis de 
Valois. fourth son of Henry 11 of 
rruncf :imi suit'-r "f Qiieen Eli'rihetb. 




ALENCON LACE, POINT D'. A I reiuli 

lace, loniierlv knuwn as Pcint de 
France. Worked entirety by hand 
with a needle on a parchment pattern- 
In Enirland it is called needle-noint- 



ALEOCHARA. i lu- p.v.j pc.ti,-s. 
^eniis including nearly 200 species. 
ALE-POT. A rot f.V holding bee' 
Tli-j word means a fuarl pot. 




.! 'U 



^: 



ALEPPO. Chief city o( ' 
and for many centuri s , 
of trade (i4o,ooo). ^ee Ati.is :;o, C 2~. 




ALERCE TREE. A Inr^^e coniferous 
timber tree of Chile called by botanists 
Lib<'cedrus Chilensis. It is larjrely used 
un sojthern P.icific Coast. 
ALERION. A heraldic term for an 
eagle displayed without feet or beak. 
Tlie term is sometimes used, however, 
for a complete ea,.'le. 




ALESSANDRIA. Cathedral city and 
f.irtress of Piedmont. Italy. This is the 
royal palace fSn.noo). See'Atlas 13. B 2. 




ALE-STAKE. A p^Ie -t .st.ike erected 
iH-tnre ;in inn with .i hii&h ot lui;,'s ,it 
tlie ti'p t(i serve :is a trade siiin. 




ALETHOPTERIS. A i^enus ol lossil 
pLnits •;ener;in\ classed with the ferns, 
tlM-u'.,'h the discovery of seeds near it 
makes it's j;riiupin;i uncertain. 
ALETRIS. A i;enus of low, smooth, 
stemless bitter herbs with fibrous root.s. 
The small yellow or white flowers 
yrovv i'l spiked cluster^.. 




ALETSCH GLACIER. I Ik lit 

'.^lacier m Switzerland. It is .situated 
in the Canton of Valais sotiih of the 
.Jiinirfrai!. It is i;? miles hm-,'. 




ALETSCHHORN. Ai , . 

Alps 13,773 feet hii^h, n^ai ine Alcticli 
olacier (which see). See Atlas 9. B 2 







s 






1 ^ 


^orfYw 


7 


H 


w^\ 


i 

1 1 


r 






''\^ 








A 






A A 




A 


( 




1 1 


h 


1 



ALETTE. The sid.: face of the pier of 
an arch extending from the edi^e of 
the opening to a semi-column or 
pilaster which serves to decorate the 
pier. The alettes here are marked A. 




ALEURODES. A genus of small 
insects related to the aphides and 
scale insects. They have small heads, 
divided eyes, oval elvtra.and wings. We 
show A. inimaculata (above) and the 
under surface of its nymph. 
ALEUROMETER. An instrument tor 
ascertaining the bread-making qualities 
of wheaten Hour by testing the expan- 
sion of the gluten in flnur when fread 
of its starch.' 




ALEUTIAN ISLANDS. Chain ot abnul 
150 volcanic islands, belonging mostly 
to Alaska, at the southern end of the 
Bering Sea. Reindeer, dogs, foxes, and 
seals abound. The picture shows Dutch 
Harbour (2000). See Atlas 3S F 2. 




A-LEVEL. A levelling instrument 
consisting of a light wooden frame 
shaped like the letter A, with a plumb- 
line suspended from the npex. We 
show a sin-:: : " \ ' ■ ■ ■ "f . and an 
adaptation ■ 




any nsh. nut pariicui.ir[\ 
salmon or trout. 




ALEWIFE. A jNorin American lish. 
It resembles a small shad and when 
grown is nine or ten inches long. 




ALEXANDER I. hirst ot the eight 
Alexanders who were Popes. He ruled 
from 1U7 to 116 A.o. 

ALEXANDER II, Pope IO61-73. His 
election was supported by Hildebran.d, 
who succeeded nim. 




ALEXANDER III. Pupe 11 Si 81. 

He made Henry 11 do penance for 
cniiiiiviiiL; at the murder of Becket. 

ALEXANDER IV. Pope 1254-61. 
He tried earnestly but vainly to unite 
the Cireek and ♦ Latin Churches, 




ALEXANDER V \d. 1410). Pope 
1409-10. Elected to reform abuses, 
he died before much could be done. 




ALEXANDER VI (1431-1503). Pope 
1492-1^0^,. K(idrii;n Br)reia was the 
most corrupt and powerful pope of the 
Renaissance. Under his rule Savon- 
urola was put to death. 




ALEXANDER VII (I500-I667). Pupe 

I >'>> -<<:. Patron of art. he supported 
lie Jesuits against the Jansenists. 
ALEXANDER Vill (1610-91). Pope 
16S9-91. He opposed the liberties 
claimed by the French clergy. 



ALEXANDER THE GREAT 



ALEXANDRA, QUEEN 



^^M 

-#^. 




Portruits ul Alexander the Great on a coin and in 
i\J J f < 






.iiider 5:lr^:opha^'tlS at Constantm 





AncU'ii' sf itu s ot 




ALEXANDER THE GREAT. Maceduniun kiiii; and i:L>nqu.: :. ., .. . 
creates! soldiers ot all time. Born at Pella >56 B.C., he began his great 
Eastern expedition in 33K overthrowing the vast Persian empire, conquering 
Egvpt. and invading India. He is here seen dying at Babylon in 325 B.C. 




i V. 



ALEXANDER OF BULGARIA nS5: 

>}). First prince of Bulcaria, IS/9, 
he resigned, 1X.S6, owing t«» Russian 
nppositin". 




ALEXAnOEK I ^777-1825). Tsar oi 
i''i''-i'i \ l^L-nevoIent autocrat he 
lM-.iU'.;lu l-'usM.i into European pidltics ; 
vlvfcitfi! Nap'ileun's Moscow campaign. 
ALEXANDER II (ISKS-Sl). Tsar of 
Russia. liniancirated 23 million serf*;. 
lefeated Turkey in war of lS77-'8- 
I",it.il)v iniiirtd bv Nihilist homh. 




ALEXANDER 111 {MiA^ <)4). 1 ^.ir 

I' iissi.i. His Tci'^n was marked b'. 
repression oi liberal ideas and expan 
^ion of Russian Intliience. 




ALEXANDER II ( 1 1 as-I2-( .)). ki: 
■f Scotland. Helped English barons i 
secure M.itjna Carta from King Joh; 
ALEXANDER III (1241-86). Kin- 
of Sci'Il.iiul. Ended Norway's claim 
tu Hebrides. Killed by his horse fallini; 
over clii*. 




ALEXANDER I (lS7o 1903). King .<i 
.:1-M w.is assassinated with his 
.ju,.n. .1 tiriner lady-in-waiting. 
ALEXANDER II (b. ISSS). King of 
Vuiio-Slavia since 1Q21, having suc- 
ceeded Peter of Serbia. 




ALEXANDER, SIR GEOKGE 

r<l.-i). firitivh acl"r. V, ■ 

Lnnes's Th.-atre home ol :_ _ 

n.Mdern C'>med> . 

Alexandtr Itlantf. 5;^e Atlac 14. ?o. 




ALEXANDERS. A British ^^<'.1 ri^ t 

I the parsley family C"* 
: iir feet high on waste gr"-- . 
-^^a and among ruins. The ^. 
leaves are bright green, the iiii*»cr3 
greenish yellow, and the ripe fruit 
hr..u-M-,h hi i.-L R,.!Tn.srs .-atl it 



t 




t ■« 



ILc V 



^^ 



ALEXANDER THE THIRD BRIDGE. 

A Paris brid:;^ lead n-^ acr.-ss the Seine 

f,. f- ■ in\ ,: ".■s, and n.in'^-d ailcr .1 tsar. 





ALEXANDRA, QUEEN <i^^ 4 -)"_.,. 
Danish princess, QUf^i" i^f Edward VII. 
Liniversally loved. Great helper of 
hospitals and other charities. 



ALEXANDRA PALACE 



40 



ALFORGE 




ALEXANDRA PALACE. ..<.uvi 

of amusement situated in Alexandra 
Park. A\iiswell Hill. First opened IS?^ 




ALEXANDRETTA. Port ut nurthern 
Svria. the chief outlet of the trade of 
Aleppn M^oool, See Atlj-, ?il C 2. 






.r«' 






^•r'Kf'M.. 



(■•I <r^ t^ll4l>*.l O-IC !•»»<*' 

o« t i^itrJOMV^ri »0''«V»0'-* 'CIV 

ALEXANDRIAN CODEX. An inipurt- 
:int iiKinnscript vi the Bible written in 
Greek uncials, or capital letters, on 
parchment, now in the British Museum. 
It was sent to Charles 1 by the Patri- 
arch of Constantinople and is believed 
to be of the lifth centurv. 




ALEXANDRIA, '.luef port aild ^^-lohiI Lit\ ui ti;vpl. [icir inc western nmiitli 
of the Nile, hounded by Alexander the Great. 332 B.C.. it became the world's 
most famous centre of learnjnc; but its importance declined after the Moslem 
invasion. In the toth centurv its prosperity revived n ;o ono) See Atlis2=; G i 





M^^ 



ALEXANDRIAN LIBRARY. 

said to have contained TOO.uvm 
on carturini; the citv in 641 
entirely destroyed under the Patriarch Theophilus in 391" 



-^ ijL^ary in ancui: .11 i^ 

.'niiiniL-s. Tradition savs tlu- bar.iccns turned it 
but many writers discredit this and say it was 




ALEXANDRINE MOSAIC. A ki[id ul 
rich niiis:iic in which are used red and 
^reen purpliyries, marbles, enamels 
and other brilliant materials. Named 
after the Emperor Alexander Severus. 
Our example is from the National 
Museum in Rome. 




r 



=A» 



ALEXANDRITE. A variety ol chryiu- 
beryl found m the mica slate of the 
Ural Mountains. It is named after the 
Tsar Alexander 1. 

ALE-YARD. A very long driukinc; slass 
>ince popular in England. A variety 
known as the tricky ale-yard had a 
hollow hall at the base. When in drinking 
.lir reached the ball its pressure spurted 
liquid on to the drinker. 




ALFA-GRASS. A name given in North 
\ ; . .1 to two varieties of esparto grass 
Li .d 111 the manufacture of paper. 
ALFALFA. The Spanish name for 
lucerne, n >w generally used in the United 
Sf.ites tot the chief varieties of the plant 
u'hicli ar; vinun for fodder. 




ALFET. in early 
vessel ol boiling w 
accused person plu 
lest of his innocence 



tug 
ater 
nged 



lish liistory a 
into which an 
his arm as a 



S^« 



:/^ 



^l^^/^: 



» 
i^ 



^ 



ALFIERI. VirTORIO 1 1 74y-l.S03). 
Italian puL;t. who brought patriotism, 

incerity, and tragedy into Italian drama. 
ALFONSO V. Kins of Ara^on (t416-5S) 
.ind a i:reat patron of learning. He was 

(irnamjd The Matrnaninioiis, 




ALFONSO II. Eldest son ot Ferdinaiu 
and Isabella ot Spain and Kin? of 
Naples 1404-95. 





"«> 



ALFONSO I 1111U-.S5)- thirst knig oi 
Portugal, Proclaimed himself King after 
defeating Moors at Ourigue, II39. 
ALFONSO X (1221-84). King of Castile 
and Leon ! nspired the Alfonsine astro- 
nomical tables "^urmmed The Wise 




ALFONSO XII (1657-iiiJ. King ol 
Spain, first Alfonso ot United Spain : 
restored i^eace to the country. 
ALFONSO XIII (b. 1$S6}. Kmg of 
>pain. A popular monarch- Married 
I'lincess Ena of Battenberg He and 
liis bride narrow I y escaped assassin a- 
tioi! on their wedding day. 




ALFORO, HENRY 1 

uf Caiitti I ui > ..nu JUL ,,. .---wiai 

popular hymns and The Queen's 

English. 

ALFORGE. A cheek-pouch, as those ol 

the baboon, seen here. 



ALFRED 



AL HAMAREIN 





Vrab woniaii ,...,, .-: ■^^:i.ji 

ALGERIANS. Nativ;;i ui Alyi:rM. th^ U-rt;.:.. ^..Ji :.._ no.T.j^.^ A.'jbs bcinj; th- 
hiof tiivbimis. They are an especially tine race, their descent hcin'.: partly African 
,!ui r^rtly European. Blue eye*; and (air hair are cnmmon. 



ALFRED THE GREAT. AngUi-Saxon kins ot Ent;land, the greatest adinini^ 
trator bef'>rt; tlie Conquest. Born at Wantage. Berkshire, in S49, he led the West 
Saxons in the great victory over the Danes at Ethandun atul drove them beyond 
Watling Street. Building a fleet, he overcame the Vikinc:s at sea. He drew 
up a code of laws, built schools, and invited scholars to his Court. He died in 901. 




J^^^ 




rront aid s.de views of Alfred's jewel 




ALFRED'S JEWEL. An enamelled ^old 
rewe! found near Athelney Abbey. 

So'iie'"^et, in i6<)3. 



};: 




ALFRED 

nariu-d .ill 
ALFRIC 
abbot call 



S TOWER. A monumeni 

L-r Kill,: Altred.nearWincanton. 
(about y5 5-1020) English 
ed Gramniaticus. 



ALFRtSTON. 

village with j, r.iarktt cruss and church 
called the Cathedral oi the Downs. 





ALGAE. A division of tlu- cryptogam 
rlants found mostly in the sea or trcsli 
water. Thev vary very much in form 
and size and 'the method of reproduction. 
Freshwater alga (left), marine (right). 
Algazst. See Orvx. 




The Governui's palace. 
ALGIERS. Capital and chief port ot Algeria, uith a cj,;l.wdfu. 



lERS. capital ana cniei port 01 Algeria, uiiii a cj,;..w.:ru. -;.- :.;:; 
ind EufiipL-an buildings. Important largely as a coaling station, it has 
trade with .Marseilles, and two-thirds of the inhabitants are Europeans. F' 
oy the Arabs about 935. it was for centuries the resort of cors?.- 
bombarded in tsib bv a British lleet (2!0.0'viv See Atla^ o. E I. 



.Moorish 

a ereat 

r':d.'J 





ALGECIRAS. >! i;i:sli lown near 

Gibraltar, the iirst to be taken by thi- 
Moors, in 1906 a convention was signed 
here rei:ulating Morocco affairs ( 16.0001 
See Atlas 8, C 2. 
Algelb^. For star see Leo 
Algenib. See Pegasus. 
Algeria. See Atlas 9. E 1. 



ALGOL. 1 h^ Uliuum 5tar, which wa.w^ 
.tnJ wanes as its dark companion en- 

i'ir^U's it : see Perseus. 




ALGOMETER. i uf measuring 
sations of pain due to pressure. 




.J. 



ALGONQUIN. Name applied by early 
Ircnch settk-rs to all American Indians 
north of the St. Laurence. About 
ioo.iHM> still dwell in Canada and U.S.A. 
Algorab. For star see Corvus. 
Algores. For star see Corvus. 
Algum. See .\lmug. 
Al Hamarein. For star see Cancer 



ALHAMBRA 



ALKES 




■\ I. I Hi in th.:* AUianibra The Court uf Lions nullt-ry 

ALHAMBRA. Exquisite ancient palace of the Moorish kings of Granada. Spain. 
Surrt.>undeJ by a massive wall more than a mi e in extent, it was betiun in the 1 ith 
century and tmished in the 14th century. It is a miracle of delicate .trchitecture. 

Alhena. F'-r st;ir S'-- ll.MTii"! 




ALI 

and 
sente 
seen 
arriv 



BABA. Hero of the story Ali Baba 
th; Forty Thieves. He is repre- 
;d as poor and cood-natured, and is 
here viatchinij from a tree the 
al of the tliieves at their civl^ 





ALICANTE. Spanish Mediterranean 
p<irt, e.Kportin^: esparto srass, wine, 
and fruit (6n,ono>. See Atlas S, D 2. 




ALI BEY (172S-I773). Caucasian sUivl- 
who became chief of the Mamelukes 
and was proclaimed Sultan of Ei;yp! 
ALI CALIPH (600-6I-.1). Mohammed' 
adopted son. surnamed The Lion ol 
God. He became Caliph of Islam in 656. 



ALICE IN WONDERLAND. A fant.l.stic 
story of a little girl's adventures written 
by Lewis Carroll {which see). 



ALICE SPRING .] ^ 

-.: -f. s.; v.uUi ,, .... . , ,-,,. s.; .,.,,1, See 
Atlas i6. E 3. 




ALICULA. A short upper yannent. 
" met hi HIT like a cape, worn in nU! 
Knnian itavs hy countrymen and boys 
•xikI also by liunters. 
ALIDADE. The movable arm of a 
graduated instrument with sights for 
ineasuring an angle from a base 
through a stationary line '^>f sights. 
Aligarh. *^^n^ All, I. ^\ n 



1 

1 


T*™^- * 


3 


- - -'- "— 



ALIGNMENT TESTER. An instrumeiil 
which determines uith great accuracy 
.my lack nt straii;htness in the Ruidinc 
surfaces of planers, grindint; machines. 
and -similar tnnU 




ALIMENTARY CANAL. Inanatoms. 

llie diLiL'^tive tube extending frnm 
tlie nioiitli tliroui^h the body whose 
function is the absorption of tlie 
nourishment for the body. In man it is 
about thirty feet Ion? and its chief parts 
are the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, 
stomach, intestines, and rectum. 




^^ W^ 



s 



JL 



ALINGTON, CYRIL ARGENTINO 

(b. 1S72). Headmaster of Shrewsbury 
school from 19OS to 1916. when he 
became headmaster of Eton. 
Alloth. For star see Ursa Major. 




ALI PASHA (17H-1S22). Albanian 
ruler who was put to death by the 
Turks for intriguing with the Powers. 
ALI PASHA {lSt5-7l). Turkish states- 
man and diplnniat. distinsiuished for 
his reforms. 




ALIPED. An animal whose toes have 
.1 membrane to serve as a wimr. as in 
the case of the bat, shown here. 




ALISMA. A genus of aqualic plants 
which includes the floating plantain, 
Alisma nafans. It grows wild in Britain. 
ALISON, SIR ARCHIBALD (1792- 

1.S67). British historian, horn at 
ICenley in Shropshire. His History ol 
Europe and other works enjoyed greal 
popularity in his day. 
Aliwal North. See Atlas 2fi. E ?. 




ALKALI-GRASS. A cummon plant ol 
Western U.S.A. having 'jrass-'ike leaves : 
known to botanists as Zygadenus 
eleyans. 

ALKALIMETER. An instrument tor 
ascertaining the strength of alkalis, or 
the quantity of alkali in caustic potash 
and soda. 




ALKANET. A soft, hatry plai.t, with an 
angular stem and narrow lance-shaped 
leaves. The common alkanet (left) is 
Anchusa officinalis, and is cultivated in 
English gardens. When found growing 
wild it is probably an escape from a 
garden. Its near relation, the ever- 
green alkanet (right), is not an uncom- 
mon hedge plant in Devonshire. 
Alkes. For star see Crater. 



ALKKLDA, ST. 



4:< 



ALL HALLOWS, BARKING 




ALKELDA, ST. An early English 
iiiartvr; tins is her ettij;)- on the stave 
uf the warden of Giggleswick Church. 
ALK6UM. The terebinth tree m 
Southern Europe and Asia Minor. 
Pistacia terebinthus. of commerci.il 
value as yieldini; Chian turpentine 




^PS 



ALKMAAR. Historic Dutch town, llu- 
lirst to withstand a siege by Alva. It has 
s.nne l6th-centurv bnildines, such as 
these (23.000). See Atlas 10, C 2. 
Alkoran. See Koran. 



m 



i^z: 



^^^ 



ALLA BREVE. In nuisic, a directixii 

that the notes are to be made shorter, 
that is, that the pace is to be taken more 
i.iuick!y than usual. 




M 



ALLAHABAD. I 

C'jmmeriji.il city at 
Guntjes aiul Jumna, 
temples i it>n.n(i()V 



inportant 




ndi.i 


the jiinct 


O'l 


.1 til 


We show 


on 


of ll 


.See Atljs 


22. 


1- ? 




t ^^ IM 




ALLEGHANr MOUNTAINS. 



Allelulia. 



Oreat 
lei to the 

east coast of U.i.A. lor 1300 miles. 
6700 feet. See Atlas 29, H 6. 

For plant see Wood sorrel. 

■ ni^ till iviiunc 
i«'\cciit tc gloil 

(ll ifcni tnixtircnl 




ALLERTON, LORD (1S40 - I >17;. 
William L. Jaci;5on, Eni'lish politiciin. 
Chiel secretary lor Ireland 1891-92. 
ALLEV. A white or coloured marble 
used as a toy. The name U short for 
allybaster, a dialect variation 01 
alabaster. 

'1^ 



ALLAN-A-DALE. In the Kt>hm Huud 

ballads, a v'-^Hant, tjaily-dressed youth 
uhnni Ri'hin helped in elnpintr. 





ALLELUIA. Hebrew lor Praise to the Lord, occurrini; in the Psalms and Jc*ish 

hymns. In the New Testament it occurs urice only, in w -v -i .f i.,n. .-h.n--r i-. 



This picture 



ALLALINHORN. One of the chiel 
peaks ol the Alps of the Valais, in 
southern Switzerland. Near by is the 
Allalin P.1SS, 11,700 feet hi?h. leading 
to Zermatt. I3.23.S feet- 




ALLATU. A Uahylonian goddess of the 
nether ret;inns whose minister was the 
demon of pestilence. 
ALLBONE. The greater stitchwort, 
Stellaria holostea, so called on accouni 
ol its skeleton-like stalks. 




and is in the Tate 



ALLEN, GRANT (I.Sls-KSyo). briti>h 
popular no\clisf ami scientitic writer. 
ALLEN, JAMES LANE (1S4>)-I')25V 
Author of A Kentucky Cardinal and 
other American novels. 






ALLBUTT, SIR THOMAS CLIFFORU 

(l,Sit-1025). ilnU^ll plivsuiaii. \'k'.>- 
presideiit ol Royal Society 191 -I to loto 
ALLECRET. Alight armourconsisting ol 
breastplate and lassets to thigh or knee 



ALLAMANDA. A genui of wood, 
climbing plants of the family Apocyn- 
aceae, natives of the tropical parts ol 
America. We show Allamanda cath- 
artics (left) and A. scholtii. 




ALLECTUS. TlK i-ler ol 

Carausius. a Roman .^.ii^ral wh" made 
himself master of Uritaii'. setting up a 
mint from which he issued this coin, 
with his portrait. 



ALLEN, WILLIAM 11^32-94)- English 
Roman Catlnilie cardinal, a determined 
toe ot Protestantism. He was promisei 
the prim.icy if the Armada succeeded. 
ALLENBY, LORD (l>. 1S60. Englisi 
general who served in France lOM-l" 
and in lois conquered Palestine and 
s\ii.i 17 a brilliant and rapid campaign. 
Allen, Lough. See Atlas 6, C 2. 
Allenstein. See Atlas 12, J 2. 
Aller. River. See Atlas 12. D 2. 




ALLEYN, EDWARD. tnglisn actor, 
born iu 1506 in Bishopsgate. London, 
who acquired considerable lame and 
wealth. He built Dulwich College, 
and wa.s buried in its chapel in 162*' 




ALLER-FLOAT. A large trout ol the 
common speeies. The name means the 
alder iloat, and was given because the 
lish hides under the roots of alders or 
is in season when alders are budding. 




ALL HALLOWS, BARKING^ famous 
iild Loudon church near rne lower. It 
was the burial-place ot manv beheaded 
on Tower P.m. It is the guild church 
' of Toe H (which see). 



ALL-HEAL 



ALLUVIAL CONE 




A.„, 



ALL-HEAL. The threat wild valerian, 
Valeriana olficinalis, of Europe and 
Asiatic Kussia. used in medicine. 
ALLICE-SHAD. The European Sh:u1. 
Alusa communis, which ditlers frun. 
the herrings in having the hodv deer 




ALLIED WAVE MOTH. A small 
British moth, Acidalia contisuaria, with 
pale grey wings dusted with brown and 
Nack dots. It appears in June and 
July and is local in North Wales. 





ALLINGTON CASTLE. The hirthplace 
of Sir Tliomas Wvatt, poet, near Maid- 
stone. Though this has been much 
restore.! trom time to time, it is a 
siiiguL'rlv beautiful old fortress 
Allmouth. See Amrler tish 



Baby aUi-^.Hui li.it^hiii'^ nut from its egg 
ALLIGATOR. A genus ot lizard-like 
reptiles differing from crocodiles in 
havim: a shorter head, pits in the upper 
]aw which the teeth of the under-jaw 
fit into, and less webbed feet. 




ALLIGATOR APPLE. 

tree. Anona palustris. 
ol its leaves. 
ALLIGATOR FORCEPS. 

forceps with short toothed 





ALLOA. Busy Scottish port m Clack- 
mannanshire, on the Firth of Forth. 11 
has shipbuilding, varn. and kindred 
industries, and this striking church 
(12.000). See Atlas S. E ■^. 




ALLOCUTION. A formal address by a 
Roman general or emperor to his 
soldiers. <)tten represented on medals. 




ALLIGATOR PEAR. The fruit of the 
avocado, Persira persea.a tree common 
in tropical .-Xnicrica and West Indies. 
ALLIGATOR SNAPPER. A species of 
fresh water turtl 
linn, fovind alf 



I Unu: 

let to a labourer, or artisan, tor cultiva 
tion, especially one let under the pro- 
visions of the Allotments and Small 
Holdings Acts as a means of increasing 
the Hhourcr's inrorria. 



'[' 



A 



ALLIGATOR TREE. 

tree, LiquiJamtj.r st>racitlua, which 
crows in the United States. 
Alligator Terrapin, Tortoise, and Turtle. 
Same as Alligator snapper. 
ALLINGHAM. WILLIAM (1824-S9). 
British poet : born Ballyshannon, Ire- 
land, of English parents. 





ALLOWAY. A}tsliiiL- Mll.t^c -II Uic 
Kivcr Doon, 2i miles south of Ayr. 
Mere is the cottage, now a museum, in 
which Burns was born. 



ALLOY-BALANCE. A balance for 
weighing nietals which are to be com- 
bined in certain definite proportions. 
The ratio of the lengths of the two 
arms can be made equal to the desired 
ratio of the two metals in the alloy. 




ALL'S WELL THAT ENDS WELL. A 
comedy by Siiakespeaic lust played in 
1601. The plot is taken from Painter's 
Palace of Pleasure. 




ALL-RED ROUTE. A route round the world by sea in which a ship need touch 
i.nl\ -it British pnrts Inr coaling. Also any route entirely under British control. 



?;-fs^ ^_^.? 




ALLSEED. The cuinmoii ila.v-.secd, 
Radidla linoides, a minute plant, nevei 
^.xce^-ding four inches high, found on 
damp heaths in Britain. 
ALLSOP. THOMAS (1795-lSSO). English 
stockbr(tker and author, favourite disci- 
ple of Coleridge ; friend of Lamb, Haz- 
litt, and other eminent men. 




ALL SOULS COLLEGE. O.viurd college 
loiindod in I4i7 in memory of Agin- 
court. It is unique in having only 
lour undergraduates, other members 
being fellows- 




ALLSPICE. The truit ot the Pinienta 
officinalis, known as the allspice tree, 
which grows in the West Indies. It 
belongs to the myrtle family and is 
aromatic. The tlowers are small. 




ALLUM SHAH (1701-i^ub). A :;rL-.i; 
.Wcjgul, drivfii 'rom his thrune at Delhi 
by the Mahrattas, and after various ups 
and downs restored to the throne bv the 



-':'y 




ALLUSIVE ARMS. In heraldry, arms 
having charges with names alluding to 
the name, title, or office of the bearer, 
as, for example, an o.x crossing a ford 
on the arms of O.xford. The examples 
given here are the Dolphin for the 
Dauphin and the broom (Planta 
trenista) for Plantagcnet. 




ALLUVIAL CONE. A mass ot deoris in 
the lorm ol a partial cone at the base 
of a hill, deposited there by temporary 
streams resulting from storms and 
rain-showers. 



ALLUVIAL FAN 



ALMS BAStN 




ALLUVIAL FAN. An ;illuvi.il accuiim- 
lation at the base of a hill deposited by 
tenirorary streams resultins from rain- 
showers and storms, and similar to an 
alluvial cone (which see) but with :i 
Ittwer ancle of slope. 




ALLUVIAL TERRACES. A series ot 
terraces alon'.: a river's course consist 
ins of muJ deposited by the river when 
in flood and afterwards hardened. The 
surface of each terrace represents n 
former flood level of the river. 









ALMANAC. A cal>.'nj.;r l..r the \ear 
showing astronomical phenomena, wiili 
ecclesiastical and other data. The two 
lower examples shown are an old cloi: 
almanac -tnrl Wliitaker's. 



ALMA, BATTLE OF THE. first battle 
in the Crimean War. foug;ht in IS 54 
between 35,000 Russians, and 30,000 
French and 25,000 British. The allies 
just succeeded in capturing the heii^hts 
beyond the River Alma. 
Almach. For star see Andromeda. 




ALMANACH DE GOTHA. A tanions 
alni.iiiac with il.ilislical information 
about all ccuintries, published since 
1761 at Gotha in Germany. 
ALMANDINE. A beautiful red Rariut 
sometimes tinced with vellow or blue 
It is translucent and often transparent. 





ALMAYNE RIVET. One of a series of 
rivets slidini; in slot-holes in over- 
l.ippmt: plates of some arm'^'ur. 
ALMEIDA, DOM FRANCISCO 
1 1150-1510). First Viceroy of 1'..:;.. 
;;uese India; he also founded tradinf 
port? in Ceylon, Cochin, and Sumatra. 
Almeida. See Atlas 8, C i. 




ALMOND-EYE. A.n cy: ut 

.hape which is the characterist 



almond 
ic of the 



m 




ALMEMAR. A raised platform in a 
lewish synagogue, from which are read 
ihe I'entateuch and the Prophets. 
Almeria. See Atlas 8, D 2. 
Almoin or Almoign. See Alms. 
Almond, River. See Atlas S. E 3. 





ALMONER, wn. .1 r 
nr cliaril-. . '>'.icli .-s .;: 
with the di.lrihutiMn . 
the poor, as in this ' 



■ •■ . 1.1I Chirked 
,1 puMic moneys 
'Id picture. 



Almond llowers 



^m 



■'■fj-r 






i^J 



ALfnuhm. „ ^. 

moner lives or where alms are distri- 
buted In old davs it was situated 
.liurch. like the Almonrv at 

■ .r. shown here 



■:* •- 



i^fe._-„ ? 



"f 



ALMOND. A small tree, Amygdalus 
coninumis, which yields sweet or hitter 

iruit ace Titine to the varieiv. 



ALMAOEA. A L It used on the rivers 
of India, shaped like a shuttle. It is 
about eighty l^eet long and six feet broad. 
Almaden. See Atlas 3, C 2. 
Almain Rivet. See Almayne rivet. 



ALMA-TADEMA, SIR LAWRENCE 

(1S30-1912). Anglo-Dutch painter 

known especially for his many pictures 
of classical subjects. His Lover of Art. 
now at Glasgow, is shown here. 





ALMOND. An ornament in the sh4rc 
of an almond, such as a piece of rock- 
crvstal used in ornamenting branched 
candlesticks ai\d similar articles. 



ALMS. Gifts distributed in charity 
to the poor, as was formerly done at the 
gates of monasteries or church doors. 
The pi-tnre is bv lules r,oMpil. 




ALMS-BAG. A bag. usual'.\ of some :ine 
•" r.eri.tl. for collecting the alms in church. 
ALMS BASIN. A metal dish in which 
beggars collected alms in olden times. 



ALMS BOX 




ALMS BOX. A stroni; chest or box 
often (astcned to the wall of a church !■• 
receive ntTeriiv^s for the poor. 




'^cm'^^ 



ALMS DISH. A form of alms basin 
(tthicli see) but shallower and flatter. 
On it are placed the alms bai;s ready 
to be laid on the altar after the offerings 
in church have been taken. 




ALArtS GATE. The cate of a mon.aster.v 
• ir nobleman's mansion in the old days, 
at which alms were distributed to tlie 

floor, who gathered there in readiness 
or the distribuli"'! m the •;ilts. 



*K 




ALMSHOUSE. A 

houses set apart i ; 

poor, supported either b> the public 
or by an endowment. The houses shown 
are at St. Cross. Winchester. 



C 




ALMUCANTAR. An apparatus f'lr 
determining time and latitude. It 
Consists of circles of the celestial spher 
parallel to the horizontal plane and 
cuttin; the meridian at equal distances. 
Almucanlar is Arabic for sun-dial. 




ALPHABET 



ALMUCE. A long-sleeved lur hood 
worn in old times by clcriry. See 
.ilso Amice. 

ALMUe. A tree imported by Kinj: 
Solomon for building the Temple as 
mentioned in 1 Kings X It; believed to 
be Pferocarrus santaliniis (.shown here). 




ALNWICK. Old Northvimberl.liid town 
with a splendid castle, foui>ded in tlu 
12th century (7noo). See Atlas 4. F 1. 








A.L.O.E. A i^sciuUiiivm ol CliurluttL- 

\\M-ui Tucker (1821-1893), a populai 

t'iry writer of tlic 19th century. The 

tiers st:iiid for A Lady of Eiip:land. 





ALOPIAS. Mie iiircslKT shark, also 
called the sea-ape,- sea-fox, and fox- 
shark, Alopias vulpes. 




ALOE. A plant i>l warm climates, 
especially of southern Africa. It lias 
thick leaves and helomrs to the \i\\ 
lamily. Here we see the plant and its 
(lower. The American aloe is the agave 
(which see). 



ALONSOA. A tender tropical plant. 
which [,'rows in Peru and Mexico. 
ALOPEKE. An ancient head-dress o! 
fd.x-skin worn by the Thracians. 



l^A 



'::s^m. 



ALOST. HelRian texlile-inakini; town 
ill East Flanders. Its old biiildiniis 
include this line 1Sth-centurv town 
hall C^^.OOd). See Atlas li), C l. 




'-'^f "^'-^ 



ALOUATE. The red howlmi; monke^ 
of GiHuna, Mycetes senicukis. It has 
a \ou-^ prehensile tail, and a peculiar 
enlariiement of its larynx enables it to 
make very rejiiarkable hnwlimr nnjscs. 




ALOYSIA. The lemon verbena, Lippia 
citriodi.ra, of South America !,Town in 
LireenhiKises. It is a l<)W-i:;rowiny shrub. 
ALPACA. Black fabric made of the Jonj. 

soft, silky wool of the alpaca. It is used 
ttir roat lininirs and umbrella*^. 




ALPACA. ::>c\u\ domes tu.Ut-.l jiniimI 
'if the camel family, native nf the 
mountains of Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. 
It is like a sheep, but has a hmir neck, 
and is bred for the value of its line 
and usually dark brown or black woo]. 




^i,;,. iWti t 



ALPENGLOW. The pccuii.ir i;l.iu iin 
the Alps caused by the rellecliun ul ;un- 
lTi,'ht from their snow-clad height- 
alter the Sun has disappeared from the 
view of the valleys, or just before day 
breaks. It is ol a rich purple tint. 




ALPENHORN. Long wooden bugl. 
used l\v Swiss cowherds to communicate 
with one another at a distance. 
ALPENSTOCK. Long pointed start. 
irni;slii.,l, usL'd by mountain climbers 

ALPHA OMEG^ 



bERchl 


5Tci 





^^ 


J L. 


r^-M 


EitHi m 


r n 





ALPHA AND OMEGA. The lirst and 
last letters respectively of the Greek 
alphabet. They are used in Revel a 
tions (Chapter 1) to symbolise the 
eternity and perfection of the Deity, 
and are shown here on two ancient 
tombstones. 



«.. 


„.. 


^ _ =.... 


"" "• r""j 


^^■ 


a' 


A 


A 


X 


a 


A 


A ».aajix| 


^ 


=# 


^ 


"« 


B 


K 


ii 


I 


B 


B iTji: 


H 


2 


> 


7 


r 


r 


j-y 


< 


C 


\^,4 J 


7^~ 


-^ 


A 


A 


A 


.!» 


i 


> 


D 


Tid 


1 


m 


^ 


4 


E 


e 


t 


E 


E 


ee 


n 


•^ 


^ 


H 


y 


YF 




F 


F 


F 


ff 


1 


:&■ 


t. 


I 


X 


I 


X 


CC 


X 


z 


Z 


'^ 


o 


c£> 


H 


B 


H 


H 


M 


B 


H 


hh n 


■"= >= ® 


ffi 0,<> 


es 


8 




J5 


>v 


y 


\ 


X 


1 


1 


I 


1 


1 


i i 


\ 


^ 


-\ 


7 


A 


K 


K 


K « 


K 


K 


k 


; 


'■ix. 


■L 


I 


^ 


A 


A 


X 


V 


L 


t 1 


b 


k 


•> 


1 


'^ 


n 


M 


MM 


r 


M 


ojin 


c 


— 


.^ 


1 


1 


N 


N 


fJV 


r 


N 


nn 


J 


— 


•*- 


* 


J 


-= 


i 


i. 


s 


+ 


X X 


D 






O 


o 


o 


o 





jO 






> 


1 


•> 


7 


1 


r 


TT 


nnj 


IP 


P 


P 


•-\ 


/ 


r 


r 


M 




a 


r 






i- 


a 


A 


9 


9 


9 






9 


Q 


qq 


' 


■^r= 


«7 


1 


4 


p 


r 


9f 


If 


R 


P r 


- 


JJJ 


*» 


W 


\ 


i. 


c 


C CT 


<, 


S 


J{s 


.. 


\ 


6 


+ 


T 


T 


T 


T 


T 


T 


!^f 


n 



ALPHABET. The letters of a written 
Lm^-^uaire arr.mged in the usual order. 
riiose of the Enj^lish alphabet are de- 
rived from the Latin alphabet, which, 
111 turn, came from the Greek and !he 
Greek from the Phoenician. It is be- 
lieved that the Phoenician letters were 
derived from the Egyptian hierogly- 
phics. The development can be roughly 
traced from the alphabets here given. 
See also Deaf and Dumb and Morse. 



ALPHA RAYS 



ALTAR 




ALPHA RAYS. Rays lU luw (V'"' 

■r^itiin; f'V-ir emitted by radium ;m,l 

tliLT ~ radin-active substanc.s. Tlu\ 

, nnsist "I rositivelv rlnri:ed partick-s- 

T J'A.V. 




ALPHEGE, ST. ArLlil'ishop nl Lantfi 
bury, who was captured and murdered 

h\ th> n-^n'<: ini:-, r-fii-Jin?- ransom. 



ALPINE HAT. Soft hat usually called 
a Trilby, adapted from the hat worn 
l\y the Alpini (which see). 
ALPINE PEARL MOTH. A British 
moth (Scopula alpinalis) with fnrewin^s 
tf uniform yellowish srey and hind 
wines white, bordered with'iire\ . 






Municho 
GERMANY ^Z 



ALPINE PLANTS. Plants ,i;ri)wini; on 
mountainous districts all over the world. 
Weshow 1. Rhomboid-leaved helltlower; 
2. Baxarian tjentian ; 3. Alpine crowfoot; 
4. Swiss androsace ; 5- Gracie crowfoot. 

Sr, (..i.'.'/ir Plale 



m>^\ 




ALPINI. B.jdy uf Italian troops recruited 
mainly from Alpine regions. They are 
wonderful mountaineers. 
ALPIST. A kind of birdseed formed of 
the flattened yellow fruits of canary- 
i:rass, Phalaris canariensis (shown 
here, A beinc; spikelet) ; a native of 
countries borderin? the .Mediterranean. 




AUSTRIA 



..•'Berne ^■^ 



Mon#:::^4/ A ^ • .1^ > . Trieste •.. ^ 



rT'"yrn oMilan »' m b " ff, 



:^?; 



mm .^^aiTQ ^f 



•>'fe.''-;>^ L-Ef/oa 




AD»iAriC »^ 
SEA X\ 



ALPS, .^\.ull burnp^an inniiiUam system, covering 80,000 square nnles. OS: 
miles long it belongs to six countries, the Alpine region being generallv soon t. 
7000 feet high, with its highest point in Mont Blanc. 1 ^.7!sO feet. 




ALPS, SOUTHERN. M.iuntain ran 
HI South Island. New Zcdand. 





ALRESFORD. llaiJo<slnie town ulu'tc 
Wary Mitford was born (2000). 
ALRUNA. A small image carved from 
mandrake root. 
Alsace. See Atlas 7. Cj 2. 



ALSATIAN, tirecd ol large and pow> 
lul dogs called Alsatian wolf-hounds. 
Alshain. For star see Aquila. 




ALSIKE. A European species if clover, 
Trilnlium hybridium, grown in U.S.A. 
ALSINE. A genus of herbs including 
ckueeds, natives of temperate and 

liniates. 



ALSATIAN. A n.itive of Alsacf. divtiicl 
of France taken by Germany ni 1571 
and restored in f9iS. 



ALSTON. Highest town in T.ngland. 
standing about 950 feet up in the 
Pennine Chain in Cumberland (2100). 



ALT. The notes which lie between F 
m the fifth line of the treble stiH and 
G on the fourth added line above. 



Mi^ 



ALTAI MOUNTAINS. Great ran(;e in 

Moiiiifjlia :inj West Siberia, risin'i tn 
14.S(XJ feet S,-. Alius 21. N :. 




ALTAMBOUR. A larce Spanish or 

-: |-;:,n 11^ .,( jn th- P.-nitl'.illn 




A hrirsc ill Altamira Cav.- 




<* 



• «» 



ALTAMIRA CAVE. In this cavern 

[u.ir .S.iniaiidcr, Spain, are prehistoric 
.Liiimal pictures, mostly of bisons. 
Altar. For constellation see Ara. 





ALTAR. An elevated structure of 
wood nr stone on which s;icritices arc 
offered or incense burned. The earliest 
altars were mounds uf earth, then un- 
hewn stones, then carved sculptures, 
and tinnllv those in modern churches. 



ALTAR BREAD BOX 



4S 



ALTENBURG 




ALTAR BREAD BOX. A metal box 

111 uhich L-rcaJ U>r Uu- tucharist is kept. 
ALTAR CHIME. A set of three smali 

IvI;n iii..iint,\l t'M .1 fr.uiK' :i!kI riiiv.- h\ 



ALTAR CLOTH. 

em!TuiJ;;r4;ii hjiiL;ini;^ ul Jii altar. Tlic 
various coverings have difterent names 

mkIi a- fr.'ulal. and su on. 





ALTAR CROSS. A cruss standing on 
tlu' altar in a Christian church. 
ALTAR\CURTAIN. A hani;ing sus- 
pended n-om rods at the sides and 
back of an altar. 





ALTAR CUSHION. A custium. ulten ul 
ru ii material, laid v\\ an altar in a 
church tur support of a service book. 
ALTAR DESK. A small dL-sk on an 
altar to vuppurt a <-crviCf ['■nt'..- 




ALTAR l-KUnTAL. \ he urnanic-ntal 

If 'M ■! ;ti.- .liiar in a Christian church- 
When it is of (ahric it is called antepen- 
dium and its colour varies according to 
. tHe Church season. Often it i-^ nf wood. 




ALTAR LANTERN. A luntern used in 
old da>i in place of wa.\ candles on an 
altar erecu'd out-o(.du<trs. 
ALTAR MOUND. A mound of earth 
erected o\jr an altar of clay on which 
sacrilices were hurned. Such mounds 
have been discovered chiefly in Ohio. 



ALTAR PIECE. .\ u... .t.iuvc screen ..t 
reredos erected at the back of thv' 
altar in a Chri-^tian church. 




ALTAR RAIL. A low rail running 
transversely across the church and 
separating the part wliere the altar 
stands from the rest of the church. It 
is also called the Coinnuinioii rail 




ALTAR RECESS. A recess in the wall 
il a church originally constructed to 




ALTAR STOLE. A medieval ornament. 
shaped like the ends of a stole. hani;ini; 
doun over the front oi the antependium. 
or altar frontal, to indicate that the 
altar is constantlv heing used. 




ALTAR TABLE. The name i:ivsn to 
tlif wooili-n tabk-s which replaced altars 
in many Christian churches after the 
Retormation. 

ALTAR TABLET. A carved wooden 
slab let into the top of the altar in Coptic 
churches. It is covered with a cloth upon 
which the sacred elements are placed 




ALTAR TOMB. A monumental 

niemurial of stone or marble, in the 
form ol an altar, frequently having a 
canopy over the top. Such structures 
were often erected .over the vault or 
Liurying-place of a noble in the Middle 
Ages or later. Probably they were never 
actually used as altars 



*V^>"^ '^^: 




Vf' 



1 1 



'^'t'^i 



1: ' Mm 






i ! 





ALTAR SCREEN. A screen ot stone, uo-, ,,-n known as a 

reredos. placed behind and at the sides ot the hii.'li altar to separate it from 
the rest of the church. The example shown is in St. Alban's Abbev 




ALIAilimu 

JetcrmiiiinL; 
' which see) 
upper one is 

h\' the r;T;-M 



rn. All n 

altitudes ; 

of heavenly 

a pocket inst 

:i fiinip 



sirument for 
nd azimuths 
bodies. The 
rument made 




ALT DOR F. Swiss town, capital ol 
I ri L.tiittni, close to which at Bun;len 
IS the traditional birthplace of William 
Tell. There is a statue of Tell which 
commemorates the le«rendof theshootmy 
ot the apple. See Atlas 9, C 2. 
Altenburg. See Atlas 12, E 3 



ALTERNATE ANGLES 



49 



ALVA MARINA 



/ 


^ 


./' 


/ 



ALTERNATE ANGLES. In gcnmetrv. 
the internal angles made by two lines 
uith ;i tliird on oppusite sides of it, as 
\ .md B and also C and D. 
ALTERNATE LEAVES. Leaves on a 
pi. nit which ar.' solitary at the nodes, 
that is, are not oppusite but placed ;it 
unequal heights en the axis. 




ALTERNATE QUARTERS. in 

heraldry, quarters wliich are di.i;^>>nall\ 
opposite to each other on the shield, as 
the first and fourth quarters or the 
second and third. They usually have 
the same charges. 




ALTERNATOR. A dynamoor generator 
for generating alternating or pulsating 
electric currents, that is, currents con- 
sisting of half-waves of equal duration 
and intensity but of opposite direction. 




ALT-HORN. Brass musical instrument 
used in military bands. Of tenor 
pitch, it is also known as the E flat or 
F saxhorn. The baritone saxhorn in B 
flat is also sometimes called an alt-horn. 



^:*H. 



.<^. 




ALTHORP. Seat of the Spenc.i 
since Tudor times near Northampton. 
Its owners formed the Althorp l.ibrar\ . 
now in the beautiful John P> l.uuN 
Library at Manchester. 




ALTHORP, VISCOUNTESS. Liviuia, 

uiie oi Georgj John, second Earl Spen- 
cer. This fine portrait of her, painted b> 
Sir Joshua Reynolds in 1782, is one ot 
that artist's masterpieces. 




ALTISCOPE. A form of periscope 
consisting of lenses and mirrors in a 
tube so arranged that an observer can 
see* over intervening objects. 



ALTITUDE. The elevation of a 
CL'ic-stial body, such as a star or the 
M Min. above the horizon measured by 
the arc of a vertical circle between such 
point -And the horizon. 




ALTO CLEF. The C clef placed on the 
third line of the stave, to indicate that 
the line on which it stands is middle C. 
The alto clef is used lor the tenor violin 
or viola and the alto trombone. See 
also Clef. 






I 






r'i 



-rw 



ALTO-CUMULUS. One of the cloud 
forms recognised by international 
classifications. Alto-cumulus consist of 
large rounded masses, wliite or greyish, 
partially shaded, arranged in groups 
and lines and often so crowded in the 
middle region tliat the cloudlets join. 




ALTON. Hampshire town where Jane 
Austen lived. The Treloar Cripple 
Homes are there. We show the simple 
war memorial, a cairn of stones off th:' 
main street. 
Altona. See Atlas 12. C 2. 




ALTON TOWERS, i^eat ol the harl ot 
Shrewsbury near Cheadle, Stalfordshire. 
It is noted for its magnificent gardens. 




ALTO RELIEVO. Italian for hji,'h 
relief, an artistic term used to describe 
a form of sculpture in which the chief 
figures project boldly from the surface. 



"^a^- 




ALTO-STRATUS. Uoud of a dense 
sheet of ijrey or blui .h ct>lour, sometimes 
forniiii'^ a compact mass of dull grtM 
Colour and tibrous structure. 



i^im 




ALTO-VIOLA. Tenor instrument of the 
larnilv. called .ilt^., ii-wr. 't ■ 




ALTRINCHAM. Kesidential town in 
I lu'sliire. s miles south of Manchester. 
W'e show a familiar corner (iS^ooov 

Altyn Tagh. See Atlas 23, B 5. 




ALUDEL. In chemistry, one of a 

number i^f pear-shaped glasses or 

earthen pots used as a condenser in 
sublimation processes. 





ALULA. The bastard wing of a bird. 
that Is, the packet of small stiff feathers 
( A) throwing on the so-called thumb of a 
bird's wing. 

ALUM. A salt formed by the union of 
two sulphates. Its crystals are octa- 
hedral in form as shown here. 




ALUM BAY. On the west of the Isle of 

'•'■'■''■' ■■ called becauii- linin; !•. found. 



^ 




ALUMINIUM. A ..r . ;. ,t . ;r- 

white, lustrous metal as hard as iinc, 
very malleable and ductile, and 2 cnod 
conductor of heat and electricity : largely 
used for domestic articles such as thesr. 




ALUM ROOT. A North American 
plant, Heuchera americana. which ha^ 
I root sought after for its strongly 
.istringent properties. 
Aluta, River. See Atlas 14. C 2. 




ALVA. Little Scottish town beneath the 
Ochii Hills in Clackmannanshire. »ith 




ALVA, DUKE OF U.''>->5S:) Fer- 
nando Alvarez de Toledo, the merciless 
Spanish general who devastated the 

Netherlands. 

ALVA MARINA. Sea sedge, Zostera 
marina, which as dried grass- wrack 
is an article of commerce, being often 
used as stuffing of bedding. 

E 



ALVARADO 



50 



AMARYLLIDACEAE 




ALVARADO, ALONSO DE (1 490 I 3St>) 
Spanish cavalier «lio served under 
Cortes in A\e.\ica. 

ALVARADO, PEDRO DE (1495-tS41). 
Spanish ;ulventurcr, one o( the captains 

of (jirles. 




ALVEOLAR ARTERY. In anatomy, the 
artery which supplies the upper molar 
and bicuspid teeth (which see). The 
inferior alveolar supplies the lower 
jaw and the superior the upper jaw. 
ALVEOLAR BORDER. The border of 
the upper or lower jaw containinK the 
sockets tor the teeth. These sockets 
are known as alveoli, a Latin word 
whiell nu':tns a snial! hollow. 




ALVEOLAR FORCEPS 

dentists lor extractiin: ■ 




ALVER8T0NE, LORD (1842-1915). 
Rich.ir.l L\erard Webster, lawyer and 
politician. Lord Chief Justice of Eni;- 
land 1900-13. 

ALVISS. In Scandinavian mythology, 
a dwart to whom Thor's daughter was 
promised in marriase in her lather's 
absence. Thor opposed the union. 




ALVIS CAR. ,wn English 

light motor-car made by AlvisCars Ltd. 
of Coventry. We show a 12-50 h.p. 
sports saloon. 




ALWAR. Indian native State in 
Rajputana: area 3141 square miles; 
population 800,000. Founded by 
Pratap Sinch (|-)0-91>, In 1803 it 
supported the British cause in the 
Mahratta War. See Atlas 22, E 3. 
ALWIN. Bishop of Winchester in lime 
of Ethelred the Unready. 




ALYSSUIV1. ,\ tenus ,.| plants oi the 
i.ihh.i ■: i.iinil) 111 which there are about 
a hundred species. They have simple 
leaves and small vellow or white flowers. 



,r>^ 




AMA. liitnee.iri> Lliri^tiati Church, a 
large vessel in which wine fur the tucha- 
rist was niixed betore consecration. 
AMADEO.GIOVANNI. NotableLombard 
sculptor : hi>rn about 1447 ; died 1522. 
Chief architect of the Certosa monastery- 




AMADEUS I. ilM45-tH)). Italian prince 
uim \ka^ t'locted King uf Spain in 1870, 
but .ihdicited in 1S73. 
AMADEUS II {l666-t710}. Duke ot 
N,i\nv .iri,i Kint; >f Sicily and Sardinia. 
Amadeus, Lake. See Atlas ^6. E ;. 




AMADIS OF GAUL. Celebrated prose 
iiMiiaiice written partly in French and 
partly in Spanish by several medieval 
.luthors. Vasco de Lobeira, who died 
in 1525, is said to have written the first 
four books. The hero is an ideal knight- 
errart. 




AMALGAMATOR. A machine used 
111 iimal;;aniatin,g operations, that is. 
Ill ctinipnuiulini; mercury with the 
powdered ore of another metal. 
AMANITA. A large genus of funguses 
known p(»pularly as agarics. A few are 
edible hut flie majority are poisonous. 




i& 



AMANITOPSIS. A genus of funguses 
allied to the Amanita (which see), 
from which, however, they are dis 
tinguished by having no veil, or 
annulus. Most of the species art- 
poisonous, but Amanitopsis vaginat.i 
I left! is a delicious edible fungus. 




3B^^ 

AMANUENSIS. UiU- who copies a 
manuscript or takes down dictation. 
Here Milton's daughter is acting as 
amanuensis to the poet. 




AMANULLAH. Amir of Afghanistan 
from 19ly, seen here with his wife 
Suriya. See Atlas 20, E 3. 




Amaltl Cathedral 



Arnalti from the old monastery 
AMALFI. Beautiful old city on the Gulf of Salerno. Italy, founded under 
It has a Byzantine cathedral (8000). See Atlas U, E 4, 



Constantine. 



_L^. 




AMARA. ciiai (own on the Kiver 
Tigris between Basra and Bagdad, in 
Mesopotamia. Situated about J 30 
miles from Basra, it has some transit 
trade (8000V See Atlas 20, E 10. 




AMARACUS. A name for two or three 
plants of the labiate family. We show 
(left) the Cretan dittanv. and marjoram. 




AMARANTE. Little Portuguese town 

r.n the Tamega. tributary of the Douro. 




AMARANTH. A plant of the genus 
•\iiiarantus, several species of which are 
grown in gardens for their green or 
purple flowers, 

AMARANTH FEATHERS. Australian 
Composite plant, Humea elegans, with 
drooping panicles of small reddish 
llnu'ers 




AMARAPURA. Capital ot Burma till 
1S60. It was destroyed by fire in tSlO 
and by earthquake in 1839* Some ruined 
pagodas remain. See Atlas 22, J 4. 




AmARYLLIUAUt At 

inoiiui.ijt> Iw Ji.iiii..u s 
resembling the lily fami 
the narcissus, daffodil, 
so on. We show the da 



family or 

somewhat 

iy. It includes 

snowdrop, and 

tfodit. 



AMARYLLIS 



AMBLYOPSIS 




AMARYLLIS. A genus ul bulbous 
plants ot the family Amaryllidaceae, 
said to possess only one species, the 
ArrnrvMis bellaJonna of Southern Africa. 
Amasia. See Atlas 20, Ci. 
AMASONIA. A shrub which is a native 
i.'i tropical America and Is cultivated in 
temperate countries as a greenhouse 
plant. It has lone, hairy, yellow flowers. 




AMA - TERASU. Japanese guddess. 
legendary ruler of the Sun. She is 
generally portrayed holding the Sun. 
AMATEUR CASUAL. THE. Pen-name 
of James Greenwood, who wrote much 
about the London poor. 





AMATl VIOLIN. Famous type of in- 
strument made at Cremona in the I6th 
and 1 7th centuries by the Amati family. 




AMAZILLA. A genas oi humming- 
birds found from the Mexican border 
of the United States to Peru. 




AMAZONS, i., iji.^r. ,.<,nU. a rac ■ 
of women warriors living on the souli 
shore of the Black Sea, no men bein 




AMAZONIANS. Indians ot the Ai:i.i- 
zon basin, a vast tropical, foresteJ 
region of Brazil. They exhibit traces 
of a fairly high civilisation which existed 
before the Spaniards invaded America. 




AMAZON RIVER. Greatest river in the world, draining 2,700,000 sguare miles. 
It Hows 4000 miles and is between four and six miles wide. Its chief tributary. 
the Madeira, almost rivals it in the volume of its waters. See Atlas 32. F4. 




AMAZONMACHIA. A battle of the 
MNj/M.^ i.i.'.fded in Greek mythology. 
The invasion of Leuce from a Greek re- 
lief is shown here. 
Ambala. See Atlas 22. E 2. 




AMBASSADORS. A paintnig Oy Hans 

Hilbem tlu Younger (which see). 
■t is believed to represent Dinteville. 
1 ench Ambassador in London, and 
:^holas Bnurbon, a poet. 








AMBER. A tossiltSi:d resin used in 
medicine and the arts. Often pre- 
historic insects are found inside which 
had stuck to the amber when adhesive. 
The rirst picture shows one. and the 
others show how the insect was caught, 
and the resin buried and fossilised. 
Amber Cape. See Atlas 25. J 6. 




AMBER FISH. A name for the Ameri- 
>:in i^enus Serlola, represented here 
h> S. dorsalis. 
Amberg. See Atlas 12, D 4. 




A M B E R G R 1 1 , 

round Hoatmig on the sea and lued in 
making 5cent^. It i* 'i.^.-.*t. v:Vn-c or 
grev i- .)!, 




AMBERLEY. Beautiful little viliaee 
near Arundel. Sussex, uith remains of 
the 14th-century castle of the bishops 
jf Chichester, one of the best-preserved 
and most picturesque in the county. 




AMBERTREE. An evergreen shrub ot 
Africa, the leaves of which, when 
rruised. uive out a verv fragrant odour. 
AMBIDEXTERITY. Ability to use both 
the right and left hands with equal 
facility ; once called ambodexteritv. 




AMBLESIDE. rK-lurc>.-;u- rr..irKel 
town and tourist centre hnely situated 
in the R"thav valley, near the head of 




AMBLYOPINA. A geims ul tishes ul 
the giby family, which have two dorsal 
Tins united into one. Their name is 
derived from a Greek word which means 
dim-sighted, and is a reference to their 
suppoi^ed defective vision. 




AMBLYOPSIS. A genus of lishes most 
lamiliarU represented by the well- 
known blind tish of the Mammoth Cave 
of Kentucky. 



AMBLYOSCOPE 



AMERICA 




AMBLYOSCOPE. A stereoscope 01 
uli:,li ijcl! half moves separately. 
AMBLYSTOMA. A salamander differ- 
ing Irom its order in that it sometimes 
continues in its tadpole stace. 




AMBO. In early Christian churches 
3 raised desk nr pulpit. 
Amboina. Sl.- Atlas 24. G 6. 




AMBOISE. 

French town 
the door of the G" 
castle of the kings 
See Atl.is 7, D 3. 
Ambracia. -Sec Atl. 



picturesque 

We show 

tliic chapel at the 

of France (5000). 

IS 1 -, B 3 



AMBROSIA. In classical mythology, 
the fo'ij of the gods served out by 
Hebe, shown here. 

AMBROSIA-BEETLE. A beetle which 
burrows in trees, and cultivates funguses. 




AMBOISE, GEORGES D' (UtjU-1510). 
French minister ot Louis XII. 
AMBREE, MARY. Heroine of an old 

ballad which tells how she fought to 
aven'je her l^ v-- 




AMdRUdc, oi. wu v*7>. Arciitiisliitp 
of Milan. He made Theodosius do pen- 
ance for massacring Thessalonians. 





AMBRY. A small closed recess, or 
.uphnard, in a wall. 

AMBULACRUM. A set of perforations 
on the underside of an echinoderm 
Ihroujh which til.- tube-feet are put out. 




AMBULANCE. .W.iJcrn tvpe ul m"lor- 
\ehicle for the transport of wounded in 
battle and the conveyance to hospital 
of the sick and accidentally injured. 




AMBULANCE STRETCHER. A two 

wheel litter on springs, with a stretcher 
lifted with a wire-mattress, cover, and 
hood, for conveying accident patients. 

AMBULATOR. A form of odometer 
which see), that is, an apparatus for 
n ' ■ ..nces travelled 




AMBULATORY. Ar.. uild- 

1:11; nitended for walking m, as ;ii\!es ot 
a church or cloisters of a monastery. 
Our cicture is of Gloucester Cathedral. 



AMBUSCADE. LMspiisiihui ,; ircops 
or robbers in hiding for the purpose of 
launching a surprise attack on an enemy 
or an unsuspecting traveller. 
Ambuih. See Ambuscade. 




AMEN. Ur Amnion, tile hidden one, 
chiel deity of the Egyptians, seen here 
in ancient sculptures. 
Ameland. See Atlas 10, D 1 




AMEN COURT. Quiet London court 
where live the canons of St. Paul's 

Cith-dril 



MG'-f^ 


m(°^"lV1 


Cartuucties oi Amtiiemluit 1 and 11 




A statu-.- of Am.-iu-nihat III 



Mv/ 



■m}^ 



Cariuuche Ot Ameiitfmhat IV 
AMENEMHAT. The name of several 
pharaohs of the 12th Egyptian dynasty. 



AMENHOTEP I. Or .Amenophis. the 
second kinir of the iSth Egyptian 
Dvnastv. who reicrned about \6(>ft B.C. 



AMENHOTEP II. tLg>ptian soldier 
ktiv.;. We show his cartouche. 




AMENHOTEP III. One o( the greatest 
phara.ihs. He built the C 'lossi ol Meni- 
[i.in. 

AMENHOTEP IV. Introduced the wor- 
ship of Aton, the Sun, changing his 
name to Aklienatcm iwhoiii see) 




AMERBACH, BONIFACIUS. A famous 

rurtr.iit raiiitcsl bv Hans Holbein. 




AMERICA CUP. Yacht racing trophy 
held bv America since IS":!. 
AMERICA, THE. U.S.A. schooner 
yacht which in 1S5I won the Queen's 
Cup in a race round the Isle ol Wight 



AMERICAN BLIGHT 



53 



AMMUNITION HOIST 




h^nule and youn^ 

'MERICAN BLIGHT. A ^ . .: 

Schizoneura lanigera, infesljiig apr's 
Tees and known as woollv aphis- 




AMEKICAN INDIAN!). ' T'^iilii i^^ple 

of both Amencis. We shnw (left) North 

American Indian and an Indian oi Peru. 

Sre Colour PlJlt- 




AMERICAN LEGION. An association 
of .\merican men and women who served 
in the Great War. We show its badge. 
AMERICAN LINE FLAG. International 
Mercantile Marine Company's flag, dis- 
playin? a blue eagle on a white cround. 




AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL 

HISTORY. 1 ■ -.-v. ^ r,. It- \: ,.::.-,u: 

. : ■ ■ ■ 'In are verv extensive. 




AMERICAN ORGAN. A musical in 
strunient in which bellows draw air 
through the organ reeds. 



'^f^ 




AMERONGcN CaSTLE. I 

H'li'.iiUl ul-er; th; K.ir>,-i l'" '■ 
aliiT the Great War. 
Amersloort See Atlas 10. D 2 




AMERSHAM. iJId-tasliioneLl town 

among the Chiltern Hills of Bucking- 
hamshire. Its market house, shown 
here, probablv dates from 16S0 13400). 




AMESBURY. Little Wiltshire 1,.mi: 
on the Avon, 8 miles nortli of Salisbury, 
it is 2 miles from Stonolienge and has'a 
large abbe>' church and earthworks. 




AMETHYST. A variety ol quartz, violet- 
blue or purple in colour. It occurs in 
six-sided prisms. 

AMETHYST. A colour in heraldry, also 
called purpure, expressed in black and 
white by lines running up from left to 
right 
Amethyst agaric. See Agaric. 




AMGARN. Arch.leulogical term lor ., 
form of the prehistoric or primitive 
weapons or implements known as celts. 

yml ; U-ft- : >.1K>!m<l : PHAA7" : 



AMHARIC. Oliicial a.ld (.- nirt laiguage 
of Abvssinia. Of Semitic origin, it has 
.ilmost replaced Geez, the old Ethiopian 
tongue, though in writing Amharic th, 
ieez characters are still used. 




AMHERST, LORD 1 1 ;-;3-i.s;;) A" 
i-assador who conducted a truitles-- 
mission to the Emperor of China. 
AMIANTUS. Flexible asbestos, some 
times called earth-llax. which was usc.l 
111 the earliest kinds of eas tires 





AMICTIiS. Among the ancient 
Romans, anv upper garment sucn as a 
mantle or cloak. Later it was the name 
applied sometimes in England and on 

the r.ontinent to the almuce fw-hich seeV 



AIVIICE. A decorative >liiv .i-n- 

shown here, worn by priests at niass- 
I ormerly worn on the head, it is nou 
worn on the shoulders. 
Amice. For hood, see Almuce 




AMIDA. Une ul the live eternal 
lUidJhas. He is universally rever- 
enced in Japan, where he is usually 
represented seated on a lotus. 
AMIEL, HENRI F. Swiss author known 
L-specially for his posthumous Journal 
liitime of 17,000 MS. pages: born 
i",.neva. 1821. he died there ISSi. 





AMMIT. , : _ _ 

the Eater ol the Lead. 

AMMODVTID. A small elonjiated fish. 

■oin -times called the sam) lance. 
Ammon. See Amen and Amen-rp. 
Ammon (Palntiae). See Atlas 3S, D 5. 




AMMONIA PLANT. An apparatus lor 

preparing ammonia commercially by 

in.- a:iiniMriM,.n salts with limr*. 









t, 



-^,' 



AMMONITE. A.. eAtn.vl ,1..,..-^... ^me 
are tiny, some as big as cart wheels. 
iheir (.-s-iil rein.iins are in the rr,cks 





AMMUNITION. I en;; u;:Ci ased lor all 
kinds of military stores, but now ap- 
plied more specifically to shells and 
other high explosives. 







AMIENS 

.•1 the S. 



Amiens Town Hail 
Great French cotton centre, 
omme. See Atlas ". F " 




AMIIO. An American iresh-water lish, 
Anna c.iU .1, The only living species. 




1k& 




AMMUNITION CHEST, box or caisson, 
as on the limber ol a gun-carriage, for 
holding explosives (or use in guns and 
other weapons. 



AMILCAR. A French light spoils 

motor-car. We show an S li.p. sports 

luo-SL-ater. 

Amirante Islands. See Atlas 25, K 5- 

Amman. See Atlas 20, C 3. 

Ammeter. See Ampere-.Meter. 




AMMUNITION HOIST. An apparatus 
in the form ol a crane on a man-of-war, 
or in a fortitication. for hoisting the 
ammunition to the guns. 



AMOEBA 



AMPHIPROSTYLE 




AMOEBA. One of the luwest and iiio.st 
numerous forms oi life. Above, a speck 
of jelly, a sintjle cell, niovinp, selectiiiR 
food ; below shown splitting into two. 




AMOKET. Ill 5peiiser"s haerie Queeiie, 
Amoret is the twin sister of Belphoebe, 
the ideal of womanly grace and charm. 
This painting is hv Mis. M. F. Raphat'!. 



II 


w 



AMORPHA. A leguminous plant ol 
North Americ.i, sometimes known as 
false indiso or lead-plant. It has feath- 
ery leaves arul blue-violet flowers. 
AMORPHOPHALLUS. A giant plant ol 
the family Araceae, a native of the 
eastern Tropics, but grown as a cunosit\ 
in hothouses. 




AMORPHOUS. Having no regular 

shape or structure. 1 he term is used 
of substances not crystallised, even the 
smallest particles, such as coal and glue. 
Mere we give glass and amber. 




AMORTISEMENT. The architectural 
'irnarnent th.\t crowns a facade, pointed 
root, gable, and so on. 
AMOS. Earliest of the prophets whose 
writings are in the Bible. A shepherd, 
he denounced demoralising luxury. 




AMORINO. An artistic term used tor Cupids in painting and sculpture. The 
example here given is Iroin the famous painting by Titian in the Prado at 
Madrid. It is called the Worship of Venus. 




AMORITES. One oi the chief ot the 
Palestine hill tribes who were over- 
come by the Israelites under Moses. We 
show types from a famous relief in the 
British Museum. 



<-4i.j M Miaia 8aBE£^ 




-w.;r^ 



s^**^ 



AMOY. Important Ciiuicse treaty port 
exporting sugar, camphor, and paper, 
and also the iron kettles used in the 
camphor industry in Formosa It has 
walls dating from the 14th century 
(150,000). See Atlas 23, E 4, 
Amyiny. See Ampersand. 



AMPERE, ANDRE MARIE. Great 
Irench scientist who established the 
connection between electricity and 
magnetism and gave his name to the 
nuidern unit of electrical flow. Born at 
L\t)iis 177>; died Marseilles 1836. 




AMPtRE BALANCE. An instrument 
lor ineasiiring electric currents by 
balancing the .ittraction or repulsion of 
two parallel currents against weight. 




AMP£RE-METER. An instrument fur 
ine.isuring the strength ot an electrical 
current in amperes, sometimes called 
ampereometer. An ampere is the recog. 
nised unit in measuring the strength of 
a current. There are various forms. 



Sz.@Sc&&8c 



o 



AMPERSAND. Name of the character 
& in writinc and printing ; a combina- 
tion of the letters e ami t, et hcnv.' th: 
Latin word for and. 




AMPHIBIAN. LkiLs^ ul backboned 
animals including frogs, toads, newts 
salamanders, and the wormlike caecil 
ians, which in their early stage usuall\ 
have gills and live in water, but later 
develop lungs and can live on land. 





AMPHIBOLA. A genus of puimonate 
■Mstropods found in brackish waters in 
New Zealand. We show A. australis. 
AMPHIGEN. A cryptogam such as a 
lichen (shown here) which develops its 
cellular tissue outward not upward. 




AMPHION. In Greek mythulugy, a 
skilful musician, son of Zeus and 
Antiope. The story runs that Amphion 
and his brother Zethus took possession 
of Thebes, and. when the walls were 
building, the stones moved into position 
to the notes of Amphion's lyre. 




AMPHIPODA. An order ot crustacean 
arthropods with well-developed abdo- 
mens. They include the sand-hoppers 
.ind sand tleas. 

AMPHIPRION. A genus ot highly- 
coloured tishes belonging to the family 
Pomacentridae, which are found on the 
coral reefs of the Pacitic Ocean. 
Amphlpolis. See Atlas I7. E 2. 




AMPHIPROSTYLE. A building which 
has the plan of an ancient Greek 
or Roman rectangular temple. The 
word means having columns both in 
iront and behind, and an amphipro- 
style building has a patico at each end, 
but no columns on the sides. 



AMPHISBAENA 



AMXI DARIA 




AMPHIUMA. A Msuil i;ruup uf tjjLJ 
amphibians. They have gills through- 
out life, and breathe in air or water. 
Nearest of all amphibians to fishes. 



AMPTHILL. AiKitut t;cdk,Id.^hl^c 
town. A monument to Richard Njcolls 
(1624-1672), first governor of New 
York, stands in its church (2300). 



AMSTEL PORCELAIN 

near Amsterd.im. nrst in a lactor\ 
called Old Amstel from 17S2-1S07 and 
later at another factory called New 
Amstel. .Marked Amstel or A. 



AMSU V L.:..:..\ii end, sometimes 
ciiiej ,Min. personityint: the generative 
power of nature. He is figured in human 
lorm with two plumes above his bead. 
Amu Daris. See Atlas 21. K 5. 



AMXJLET 



56 



ANAMORPHOSIS 





ANABANTID. A lisll u( the famil> 
Anabantidae, which includes the 
climbins-fish o( India. Owing to a 
modilication of its gills it can live long 
out of water. 

Anabapliit See John of Leyden. 
Anabasii. See Retreat of the 10.000. 



AMULET. An object worn or carried 
superstitiously as a preservative against 
accident or disease. Amulets have been 
worn from ancient times. The top three 
are Egyptian; the bi'ttom left is rarly 
Christian, and t' i' 

Roman. 





ANABLEPS. A fiih of tropical Aniet- 
c.). having eves half adapted to sight 
III open air, and half to sight in water. 
It swims near the surface with the 
ives partlv in and partly nut of water 




AMUNDSEN, ROALD j ls;2-ly2S). Born 
at Borje, Norway. He was the son of a 
shipowner and alter studyi.ig medicine 
went to sea. On December 16, loii, he 
reached theSouth Pole, and on May 12. 
1926, sailed in the airship Norge over 
the North Pole. He perished while 
searching for a wrecked Italian airship. 




ANACARDIUM. A genus of shrubs and 
trees growing in North America, repre- 
sented here by the cashew tree. Tl;^- 
Iruit is a kidney-shaped drupe. 
ANACLASTIC GLASS. A glass with - 
narrow inuuth and convex bottom, S' 
thin that when the air is sucked out the 
bottom springs noisilv in. 





ANAKARA. An ancient kettledrum, 
which a woman beat with one hand. 
ANALEMMA. Ancient astronomical 
iiistruiiuiit on which an orthographic 

rrniectiiMi WIS draw 'i 



ANACREON. One of the grcit^st ul 
the Greek lyrical poets. He was bom 
about Sfi^ B.C. and died about 4-s bX- 




ANADEM. An ornamental head-haiid 
ir ullet, worn by women and youths in 
.uicient Greece, "distinguished from the 
liadenl which was an insignia nf honour 
Anadyr, River. See AtUis :i. \ 2 




ANALAV. A kerchief bearing a re- 
presentation of tne Cross or other 
sacred svmbol, worn h^ nuns in Russia. 





ANAGLYPH. An> work ol art that is 
.culptured, chased, or embossed, as a 
.-ameo, or other raised w<.rk- 



ANALCITE. A hydrous silicate of 
aluminium and soda in trap rocks. 
ANALLAGMATIC CHECKER. In 

geometry, a square made up of equal 
squares 111 two colours, so arranged 
that anv pair of columns has like- 
coloured squares in as many rows as 
any other pair of columns. 




ANAGLYPHOSCOPE. A pair ol 

■lasses, one red j\-id the other green, 
through which superimposed red and 
green pictures appear stereoscopicallv 
ANAGLYPTA. Ornamental reliel 
t nx'iiis nr nhiects of art- 



AMUR. River ol Siberia and Manchuria, II .iwing into the Sea of Okhotsk. It drains 
over 770.000 square miles. 3000 miles. See .Mlas 21. 3. 




AMYGDALOID. A rockhaving accllular 
structure with almond-shaped cavities. 

AMYOT, JACQUES (I St3-93). Bishop 
of Au.xerre and translator of Plutarch. 




ANACONDA. 1 ... ......: ;... : .,., 

constrictor snakes, said to reach 40 leei 
long. A native of the tropical forests 
of South America, it is non-poisonous. 
Anaconda (U.S.A.) See Atlas 30, D I. 




ANALYSER. An apparatus lor deter- 
mining the harmonic elements of a 

i-eii.iji. curve. JeviseJ In Lord Kelvin. 




ANAGNOST. .\n n.J n.nne fnr a leader 
ui tile e..nptures, as in this ancient 
manuscript. 



ANAMORPHOSCOPE. An optical toy 
consisting of a cylindrical mirror which, 
when a distorted picture is placed at 
the base, gives a correct image. 
ANAMORPHOSIS. In perspective 

drawing, a distorted image which, when 
viewed in a curved mirror, is normal. 



ANANIAS 



ANCHOR TRIPPER 




ANANIAS. A Jewish . 
s.ili^ni who, according 



as struci; dcaJ for lying. The picture 
Kaphael's cartoon of the suhiect. 





ANANCHYTES. A genus oi fossil sea- 

uluns f'uiiui in cretaceous rocks. 
ANANTA. Hindu name of The In'l lite- 
,iven to the serpent Sesh.i. 



■K^Ky- 



■\^<^. 



ANAPEST. In prosody, a foot c: 
ainini; tuo short or unaccented not. 
r s>llaMes followed by a long u: 

accented nute. marked as shown above 




ANAPHASE. A stage in mitosis, oi 
.jll JiMsion during which the halves <'\ 
t:ij divided chromosomes, or small 
nndies in the cell, move apart and re- 
arrange themselves to form new cells. 
ANAPNOMETER. An instrument used 
!m medical men for measuring the 
I'Tce of respiration in a patient. 
Anas, River. See Atlas IS, C 4. 




ANASTATIUS I. Pore > S-4 : 
ANASTATIUS II. Pope 496-49v 




ANASTATIUS I. 

l-i,rn ah.uit 4io ; 
ANASTATIUS II 

Irfi'v. 71 ; to ;|6 ; 



Byzantine emper^^ii : 
reigned 49l-5i'^- 

Byzantine emperor 
deposed by his fleet. 




ANASTIGMAT. A system of lenses 
ill \i.liicli astigmatic' aberration is 
counteracted and a flat field obtained. 
It is much used in photography. 




ANATINA. A genus of bivalve mo:- 
liiscs belonging to the family Anatinae, 
often called lantern-shells. 




ANATOLIAN. A native of Anatolia, 
or Asi.i .Wini-r. \vhtch is the chief home 
ol the Ottoman Turks. Brave, hardy, 
and hospitable, hut backward, the 
Anatolians belong to the Moslem faith. 







ANATOLIAN POTTERY. Tlie nane 
■^iveii b\ de.il.Ts ti« .1 t.irin of pottery 
(if si'ft paste ni.ide in .\ii.itolia. 
ANCESTOR WORSHIP. The worship 
of fathers, gr.nulfatliers, and other 
ancestors as practised in China and 
Japan for many centuries. Our picture 
s!v''.v^ tli^ r-r •m<tn\ "f worshipping the 
III'; , ,,,' , . li-rv 'ill i'Kt -lapan- 





ANCHOR. An iron device for securing 
a vessel- The first picture shows parts 
of an ordinary anchor, and the others 
are 2 close stowing anchor ; 3 stockless 
anchor : 4 mushroom : 5 grapnel. 




ANCHORAGE. The ctistuiiiar) p'-isJ 
where ships anchor. Also the part of 
the pier of a suspension bridge where 
the ends of the cables holding the bridge 

are embedded, as in the lower rictir^-. 



ANCHOR BEADING. A decorative 
beading in which the ornament is in 
shape similar to an anchor. 




ANCHOR BOLT. A bolt with the end 
of the shank bent or splaved to prevent 
it beins drawn out ; also (centre) a bolt 
for holding down machinery to the floor. 
ANCHOR BUOY. A buoy used to 
mark the position of an anchor. 




ANCHORED. In heraldry , a cross ifchusc 
.■r.tr.:r,ni-.-s are turned backward like 
the lUikes of an anchor. 
ANCHOR ESCAPEMENT. E,capement 
of a clock which superseded the crown- 
wheel escapement. We show tw-, forms. 



ANCHISES id, a noble old Trojan, father of the hero Aeneas- Afttr 

the f.ill •!( Ttnv ho « a. carried to safety on his son's back. Our picture, from the 
Walker Art Ga'llerv. shows Venus and Anchises, and is by Sir W. B. Richmond. 




ANCHOR FISH HOOK. 

hook for hsh-linesor nets, tb..' lo'.e being 
bent round the eyelet and lashed. 
ANCHORITE. A hermit livini; apart 
from the world, obeying religious rules, 
such as those of the Ancren Rule 
'which seel 





ANCHOR LIGHT. -.. ... : - 
e.xhibited on anchored vessels between 
the hours of sunset and sunrise. 
ANCHOR LINE. A British steamship 
company, now part of the Cunard Line. 
We give its Hag. 




ANCHOR MONEY. An cngii^ll colonial 
C'inags lirst struck (or Mauritius in ISM. 
ANCHOR PLATE. A wooden or metal 
plate embedded in 3 support and used 

lor cables. 




ANCHOR SHACKLE. A bow with 

two eies and a boll (or attaching the 
cable to the anchor ring. 
ANCHOR SHOT. A life-saving rro- 
lectile with hinged anchor llukes, which 
..pen out when lired with a line from 
shore to a ship and catch in the rigging. 





ANCHOR TRIPPER. A device 
tripping, or casting Ux^se, a ship's 
anchor! In some the anchor is suspended 
from the cat-block by its ring ; in 
others fastened at each end by chains. 



It - 



ANCHOR WING 



ANDERSEN 




ANCHOR WING. the Australian 

Mack-clK'okcil f;ilcc>n. Talco nu'lano- 
^leriys, so lumeil from the fancieJ 

rt'^i/niM-inc." '>f it*; win'^'s. \\■}■\l-^.^ nut 



ANCHOVY. ^ 

graulis encrasiclMliis, touiid in Impical 
and tL-mpcrate seas. Tiie European 
anchovv i*; nottrd for its rich flavour. 





ANCHOVY PEAR. 1 lu- Iruit of the 
drias caulitlnra. a tree ftmhd ijrouin}! 
wild in Jamaica. This fruit is of great 
si/e, but contains only a .simple si.ed. 



I»J^& 




ANCHUSA. A yeiius ol perennial her- 
baceous plants of the family Borasina- 
ceae. represented in Enclaud by thi 
alkanet (which see). There are ihirtv 
jpecres. and Ihis i^ Anchnsa it;ilii-:i 




ANCIENT LIGHTS. In Enl;il.^h Cunnr.uii 
law, a window uhieh for twenty years 
has enjoyed an uninterrupted 'flow o( 
li^ht and may not, without consent, be 
o> ershadowea by » new buildini;. 



ANCIENT MARINER. Ik-ro of a poeni 
In .s. 1. i.ol.-nd>^j. Tor shooting an 
albatross he is condemned to see his 
comrade.s become spectres, and has to 
tell liis storv wherever he lands. 



- -.V'**if» 




ANCILLA. A .ucnus oi molluscs ot the 
family Olividae. The head is concealed 
and the eyes are absent. The foot is 
considerablv enlarged, but the tent.ncles 
are scarcelv seen. Its shell is polished. 





ANCILLA. The sacred shield ot Alars, 
said to have fallen from heaven into 
tile palace of Numa at Rome. 




I >t. M:iriu, Aiu-o]i.i 
ANCONA. Italian seaport, founded by 
Greeks about 3S5 B.C.. on the Adriatic 
bea. with a mole 2000 feet loni; built hv 
Trajan. There are also a triumphal 
arch of Trajan and an 1 1 th. century 
cathedral |-o.ci(Ki). See Atlas 15. D -; 



/^ 



-c-o -- ..is 

ANCONA FOWL. A breed of domestic 
fowls which oricinated in Italy and 
to: !; its name from Ancoua. 





ANCUNE. An archil.:clural term loi 
any projection intended to support a 
cornice or similar feature. 
ANCRE, MARSHAL D'. Concino 
Concini. an Italian favourite at the 
hrench Coart who u as nssassinated b\ 
the nobles in 1617. 
I " 



t J 









ANCVLOCfcRAS. A i^cniii t>l lossil 
ammonites havini; a partly uncoiled 
shell, as shown here, and the opening' of 
the livinij chamber directed toward the 
coil. It is found in EMs:lish rocks. 




ANCYLOSTOMA. Several species ol 
hookworms, internal parasites on man 
and other mammals. The etrirs hi vari- 
ous staijes of development are shown her^.-. 
Ancyra. See Atlas 18, L -;. 




ANDABATE. In R-in.ni da\,s. a gladi- 
ator who fouglit blindfolded. He wore a 
helmet with no openim;s for the eyes, 
and in modern usage an andabate is "n.^ 
who behaves as if blindfolded. 
Andalusia. See Atlas 8, C 2. 




ANDALUSIAN. A native of the Spanish 
pruviiice i)f Andalusn. They are a verv 
mixed people, and are lively, wittv', 
handsome, and ?ood-tempered'. 




ANDALUSIAN FOWL. A Akditerran- 
an breed of domestic fowl takint; its 
i.tnie from the Span-sh province. 




ANDALUSITE. A grey, green, bluish, 
or llesh-culoured mineral, consisting of 
anhydrous silicate of aluminium, iirst 
luund in Andalusia. Spain. 




ANDAMANESE. I'rimitiv;; race ..I the 
1 '^w-init wJi;nto family inhabiting the 
Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean. 
Less than five feet high, they form 
the last pure remnant of Palaeolithic 
m.in, living by fishing and Iiunting. 




ANDAMAN ISLANDS. .Vbout 2on 

iiidian islands in the Bay of Bengal: 
Ilea 2260 sauare miles: populatinn 
! ,000, See Atlas 22. H 6. 




ANDERSEN, HANS {1S05-75). One 

n| tile greatest \^riters of fairy stories 
of all time. He was born at' Odense. 
Denmark, and died at Copenhagen. His 
monument, on the right, is at Odense. 



ANDERSON 



ANDROMEDA 




ANDERSON, E. GARRETT ( IS36- 191 :j 
The first Englishwoman to be a reco^'- 
nised doctor. 
ANDERSON.SIR R. (184I-I91S). British 

civil servant an,l writer on theology. 




BounJ.irv bitwien Chile and Arijentina 




Trr--^^1mii^^r 



ANDES. Longest mouiita:!i i.m'-j in 
the V. orld, stretchnii; from nortli to 
south almost through South America. 
Throughout the main part of its course 
it averages 14,000 feet in heic;ht. 
Aconcagua, 23.000 feet, is the hitrhest 
American mountain. See Atlas 32, E 8. 




ANDIRON. Iron supports fur lugs in 
open fireplaces when wood fires were 
unive-sa!. See also Fire-do?. 




Anduira la Vella 




ANDORRA. Miniature republic in the 
Pyrenees ; area 1 75 square miles ; 
population 3500. Agriculture and stock- 
rearinc; are carried on. See Atlas S, E l. 




A lady of Andoii.i 
ANDORRANS. People of Andurr;i. 
Thev speak a Catalan dialect and are 
occupied lars^elv in stock raising. 




ANDOVER. Market town in the north 
west I'f Hampshire, on the Anton. 




ANDRASSY, COUNT O^^j-vo;. fit>t 

llaii'^.iri^ni prime minister under the 
Dual MiMiarchy. 

ANDRt, JOHN (1751 -SO). British officer 
hanged as a spy during the American 
War of Independence 



^- s^ 




r 




r \ 
• 


1 
i 


















1 









ANDREA FERRARA. ^c^tti ; 

sword of the i6th and 17th cent.::; 
named after a famous Italian sw^. 
maker. The true Andrea Ferrara is " 
Highland claymnr/. 




ANDR^E, SALOMON AUGUST il^54^ 
97). Swedish balloonist who attempted 
to fly to the North Pole and perished. 
ANDREEV. LEONID {IS70-19I9). Rus- 
sian author known for imai;inative short 
stories and plays. He w.is born at Or-I. 




ANDRENID. A sohtary nee oi 
f,i;iii]-. Andrenidae. There are only r 
.ill J lonLile-^. the female collectingr.i ; . 
ANDREOSSI. ANTOINE FRANCOIS D' 

il761-tS2S). A French count, soldier, 

:nid dipionm u'h" • erv.-d under 

ni-'ii.ir.irt.'. 




ANDREW, ST. Patron saint of Scot- 
Kind, said ti' liave taken Christianity 
to tlie Sc>thiaiis. He diL-d on a cross 
ped likj .\.\\ \. 




ANDREW I. Or Arpad. Im.;^ ,; 

liun^arv H"U'> (>1. 

ANDRE WES, LANCELOT (1555-1626). 

I-n-lish b;sliop and theological writer. 
Andria. See Atlas 15, F 4. 




^■'^'■'< M - ^ an slave who kindly 

r, _ _ :..>r;. Irom a lion's foot. On 

encountering the beast later in the 
arena it immediately fawn-id on bin;. 
Android. - - 




ANDROMACHE. 



. Iliad, 

'.■.lie oi \n- ir"jan ii^r" luct'-r. She 
was captured by the Greeks and taken 
to Epirus. her sorr'^w*; formin? 1*»^ <m*"- 

' ■::\ ■■{ :; tr.i J ■ v. '- ' ■ 




ANDROMEDA. In Greek legend, a 
princess whose beauty excited the 
jealousy of the gods. To appease their 
wrath she was chained to a rock, hut 
was rescued bv Perseus, as shown here. 




ANDROMEDA. A genus of ericaceoos. 

r lioath, plants consisting of the single 
species Andromeda polifolia. or wild 
rosenurv. It has white ilowers. 



3 • 

Mirach 



ANDROMEDA. The Chained Lady, a 
northern constellation named after the 
daughter of Cepheus and Cassiopeia, 
King and Queen of Ethiopia. The star 
Almach. or Gamma, is a beautiful triple 
star. There is a great nebula in .\ndro. 
meda, for which see ne.-st picture. 



ANDROMKDA 



60 



ANGEL 




ANDROMEDA NEBULA, ure.ll iutnil.1 

in tlK- cnnstellatidii Andronii;d;l knuwn 
:is Messkr3l. lis diameter is over 50.000 
times the distance of tlie Sun from Eartli. 



2?-' 

wheretheMtTEORS *'<W 

APPEAR to 
radiate from ^ 






f 



Towards 
South East 



ANDROMEDIDS. A shower of meteors 
seen about November 23 each \e:\r. 
railiatimr imm Andromeda. 




ANUKUttlCUS I (iiio-S>). ByzantiiK- 
fiiiperor wlinse cruelty caused liis lall. 
ANDRONICUS III. Eastern emperor 
M ;2S Jl) under whom the Turks dVft- 
i.tM Aj-i;t MiiiDr. 




ANDROPHORE. The st:ilk nr column 
ul'.ii.h suppuiK the stamens of a plant. 
ANDROPOGON. A ji^nus nf -rasses 
V'rottini: in warm countries. Some are 

,M!tiv;it:J fnr tiu-ir ?ssentijl oiK. 




ANDROS. SIR E. 11^.57-1:1-;). En^ihsh 
i'-ln-niibtrator, povernor of New Vork. 
Andros. See Atlas 14, C-t. 
Andros Island. Se« Atlns 3J. E 2. 




ANDROSPHINX. In ancient Etryptian 
sculpture, .1 nuuiiieaded lion. It is sup- 
posed to represent a creature which i^ 
said to have haunted tlie deserts. Tlie 
oldest and mtist famous example is tin- 
> jrtat Spliinx of Gizeli. 




ANEAt. T<^ anoint cereinomaiiy, but 
purticularlv to administer the rite of 
Extreme Unction to the dvinij as prac- 
tised in the Roman Catholic Church. 
The word is derived from ele. oil. 
ANELACE. A broad, sharp two-edged 
knit\- fir dai^ger worn at the e:irdte. 



, i^mJ 




11 i. '1 1 




' 


f^ 



ANEMOMETER. An instrument fur 
iiK.isiirni^ thi" force or speed of the wind. 
ANEMOMETROGRAPH. An instrument 
Imt rci.iirdin^ the speed, direction, and 
lUrce of the wind. 




ANEMONE. A very widely-distributed 
l^enus (if herbaceous perennials beloiiig:- 
ini: to tlie family Ranunculaceae. whiclL 
includes buttercups, peonies, and other 
familiar flowers. The flowers are showy. 
Several species are cultivated in tjardens. 




ANEKO-BIAGRAPH. An instrument made bv Netjretti and Zambra in winch 
the pressure and suction effects of the wind actin-^ on a float 'give a true record 
or th- action nf tlie wind, including each gust and lull, the mean velocity, and 
the wnid structure. 




ANEMONE. A polyp related to the 
Liirals. but, unlike the coral, produciny 
no limey outer coverint; Sea-anemones 
have a leathery skin (C) and have nianv 
stintiini: tentacles (B). (A) is the 
siphous-Klyph and (D) the disc. We 
show the orange-disced species open and 
chtsed. Sec Colour Plate 




ANEMOSCOPE. A fomi .>| ^uu.l 
direction recorder (which see). The 
cone ?,'it\\ here moves a pen down a 
rack parallel to the chart-drum. 




ANEROID BAROMETER. A baro- 
meter consisting of a sealed cu.TU<ated 
box (A) from which all air is exhausted, 
but which is prevented from coUapsine 
by a spring (Bl. As the air pressure 
decreases the spring forces the top 01 
the box up and moves the pointer. 




ANEURISM. A Inci swellin;^ of a,i 
artery, which may become large' enough 
t<i cause displacement of the heart. 




^ " 










ANEURISM NEEDLE. A t1ne needle 
used b}' surq:eons for passing a ligature 
round a dilated artery. 
ANGAKOK. Among the Eskimos, a 
niedicine-nian who has great influence 
ill the tribe. The picture shows an earl\ 
missionary upbraiding an Angakok. 




ANGEL. \n Englisl) gold coin, origin- 
ally of the value of 6s. 8d.. first struck 
in 1 465, and last by Charles I in 1634. 



AOUARIUM— EIGHT OF THE LONDON ZOO'S WONDERFUL TANKS 




tour wrasses loiind in inp sens ol tsmain : me oanan wrasse, rainnow v ra^s". ci.fKno wrasse, and i/iree-sDoiK-fl wra 




Liral nshes 


uruD ami aol 


■te^ .._ 


^ 


Kvjjy^^fc^^ 


'^^ ' 


-^s?^ 


^^M 




'"'r '<'^,' 


w ' 


-#/^*- 



John Uorv cemre . Dioe lish. and sea-horses 



A^ 



In the first ot these tanks are buiterHv blenny itop lefti, tubfish top right), red gurnard and lanthorn gurnard ; in the right tank are pike 

See page SI 



ARMS— HERALDIC DIGNITIES OF FAMOUS FAMILIES AND PLACES 




^^^; 




D'ACCONU'LIK 



Earl oi Shrewsbury 



Emperor Charles the Fifth ol Germatiy 

See page 97 



ANGEL 



ANGEVIN 




A Guardian Anstel, Py (juercinn 





Adorin? Ancels. by Gozzoli 




item 
ANGELICA. 

iVrous plants. 



Plant 

A genus of tall umbelli- 

Angelica sylvestris ^rows 



Enjland and its stalks are candied. 




A sculpture by Luca della Robbia 
ANGEL. One of an order of spiritual 
beings who act as attendants and 
me-isenffers of God. 







Fra Anirelico and his \ in 




ANGEL-BED. An open bed used ii 
olden times; it had no canopy. 
Angel-fish. Same as Monk-ilsh (q.v ). 





AHULL IjOLO. G 

by English kings an 
whom they touched 



Id pieces presented 
d queens to persons 
for the king's evil. 



ID 



-TT^Sirhte 



(-.■rr? 



in and Child 



ANGELICO, FRA U3S7-1455). One . i 
the most famous and beloved of tlu 



\ 



m^ 




ANGEL INN. Famous old posting house 
at Islington. An 18th-century view. 



ANGELO, CASTLE OF SAINT. Une 01 

Knme's most famous buildings, origin- 
.illy the mausoleum of the Emperor 
Hadrian, but remodelled in the Middle 
Ages. It is a huge round tower and 
citadel, with 3 crowded history. 





Angers Catneuf^. 



ANGELOT. A gold coin struck in France 
by Henrv VI of England lor use in his 
French dominions. On the obverse 
is an angel holding the escutcheons of 
England and France. 




;^ 



ANGELOT. A musical instrument 
s.imewhat resembling a lute used in 
olden times. The name means little 
angel, a reference to its sweet sounds. 
ANGEL'S EVES. The germander 
speedwell, Veronica chamaedrys. Its 
bright blue flowers on hedge-banks are 
.>f!en mistaken for forget-me-not. 
Angel Shot. See Chain shot. 



ANGERS. 1,^1. ia. .-. ,.i. ■ .- . ...... 

province of Anjou. Standing on the 
Loire, it has a 13th-century cathedral 
and a fine castle, besides many ancient 
buildings (85,000). See Atlas 7. C i. 





c 



ANGERSTEIN, JOHN JULIUS (1735- 

1^2^1. .-V Liiulon underwriter whose 38 
pictures bought in \izt for S57.00O, 
founded the National Gallery, London. 
ANGEVIN. Dynasty of English kings 
descended from Geoffrey, Count oj 
Anion, seen here. 




ANtsELUS. bell rung at nujnuag. noon, and evening to annoui-.ce an ancient 
service of the Roman Catholic Church. One of the most famous pictures ever 
painted is Jean Fraiwois Millets representation of two French peasants pausing in 
their work at evening to pray when they hear the Angelus bell. Sold by the 
painter for SCO Irancs in 1S6O. it was worth 600,000 francs in lS89 

G I 



ANGEVINE 



V>2 



ANGLER FISH 




ANGEVINE ARCHITECT UK 1. 
style, as seen here, develupeU iti tlu 
Middle Ai^es. 
ANGEVIN MANTLE. A mantle oi 

PIanta.t;enet times consistine; of a short 
cape with an embroidered border fast- 
ened on rieht shoulder. 





ANGIOGRAPH. A form of sphvi^mo 
irrapli (which see) for recording by a 
needle on paper the character and 
movements of the pulse. 




ANGIOSPERM. Any plant having the 

S;;:;Js in ;i closed ovary. 

ANGIOTRIBE. A forceps-like instru- 
ment used in operations to crush the 
blood vessels and stop hemorrhaee. 



ANGLE BLOCK. In carpentry, a block 
placed in a roof at the junction of a 
strut with a beam, when the two are 
inclined to each other and forminfi an 
abutment for the brace. 




ANGLE-BOARD. A bu.irj on winch 
pattern-makers plane their anijles. It 
has V-shaped grooves of different 
sizes running longitudinally, in which 
the tnaterial is laid while being planed, 
a transverse strip actins as a stop. 









,<-^'.. 



.^. 




The Temple of Anckor Vat (left) and the great stairway of the temple 



1 

s-sp^g!*^-.,: .^__j[-> 

Am:i.,.r \ at, part of E. wall Seven-headed Cobra and its bearers at Angkor Thum 
ANGKOR. Ruined city in Cambodia. It has gates and tall walls, enclosing tenipl?> 
and palaces. Angkor Vat. near by. is a marvellous temple. See Atlas 24, B 3. 






ANGLE. The figure formed by two 
hnes starting from the same point. 
Here C is the centre. BCD is a right 
angle, BCE an obtuse angle, BCF an 
acute angle, BCt; and EGA adjacent 
or contiguous angles, HCJ a curvilinear 
angle, and HCG a mi.xed angle. 
ANGLE BEAM. A beam, usually made 
ot iron, with a portion of it turned at 
an angle, thus forming a kind cf llange. 





ANGLE BRACE. A combination of 
.-arreiiter's brace and breast drill for 
bonng m diliicult places. 
ANGLE BRACKET. Bracket used by 
builders under the eaves and the 
corner of a house (bottom) ; also a 
bracket (or supporting a shelf. 



m 



ANGLE BRICK. \ I m... ,.i a special 
shape moulded U< iit .my atii^tle that is 
not a rit;ht antfle. See .Quoin. 





ANGLE CAPITAL. In Greek archUcc- 
t in I', .til Intiic capital on the corner 
cnhimn of a portico modified to face 
nn both sides of the cnrner. 




ANGLE CUTTER. A machine used in 
entrineerinc; shops for cutting metal 
ant;Ie-bars. We show two cutting 

\\-lieels. 





^— I — 1 1 


i 1. 1 1 1 1. . 1 1 1, . K-). 
■ (' 


nn 






r-.J^ 








"' 


1 — 1 




— 



ANGLE-GAUUt. A ver\ caretuih 
made standard used in testim; the 
accuracy of the angles of a screw 
thread, cutting tool, or other similar 
appliance. It is of various forms 




ANGLE IRON. A bar of iron, rolled 
itr wroue:ht. in the form of an angle, 
used in ironwork. 
ANGLE METER. An instrument for 

nicasurini; angles, used bv surveyors 
.iiul :\\\-< bv eeoloi^ists. 




ANGLE MIRROR. iu* mirrors ad- 
justalMf 1(1 iPiiL* aimtluT used in measur- 
ing aniiles. 




ANGLE MOTH. Alur:; i^encrallv known 
as the tawny-barred angle moth. It 
is common throughout Britain. 




^^.^^ 












y''--ii'i^ 



ANGLE OF CONTACT. 1 he .\n'.;le be- 
tween a curve and its tangent, shown at 
A. The dotted line is the tangent of the 
curve made by the liquid with the glass. 
ANGLE OF DIP. In geology, the angle 
formed with the horizontal plane bv 
strata which are tilted as here at A. 




ANGLE OF WEATHER. \ i , in iise.l 
to di'scribe the angle at which the sails 
of a windmill are set in order to catch 
the wind so as to be driven roiinj. 




ANGLE PLATE. In metal work a 

plate or block having a number of slots 
in which a piece of work can be fixed 
at any angle to be drilled or machined. 
ANGLE PRISM. A prism used in an 
apparatus similar to the angle-mirror 
(which see). 




ANGLER. One who catches fish with 
rod, line, and hook; the word is from 

thj \nLM' i-S;ixon angel, a hook. 




ANGLE RAFTER. \ i.ilter placed at 
the hip (1 .1 1....I. tli.it IS. the junction 
of the inclined planes, to receive the 
heads of the jack-rafters. 




ANGLER FISH. A wonucr oi tiic sea. 
Ranging up to five feet long, these 
fish have a filament with a fleshy knob 
acting as a bait to other fish, which are 
thus lured into the angler's great mouth. 



ANGLESEY 



63 



ANGUILLA 




ANGLESEY, MARQUESS OF l~"S- 

1S54). English tield-marshat and 
statesman. He commanded the cavalry 
m the Waterloo campaign. 
Anglesey. See Atlas 4. C 3. 




ANGLE SHADES MOTH. A common 
British moth, Brotolomia meticulosa. 





ANGLESITE. .\ sulrli.it; jt liad in 
jlear crystalline form, with light shades 
of yellow, i^reen, and blue. 

ANGLE SPLICE. A carpenter's splice 
makiii!; an angle with the lone a.\is of a 

bar or rail. 



C^^ 



ANGLE WHEEL. A gear-wheel in 
which the teeth instead of being parallel 
to the axis are cut so as to make an 
angle with it. Helical and twisted 
trears nre tvpe'^ of anc'e wheels. 





ANGLO-PERSIAN OILFIELDS. Great- 

: r- '-.iucing region entirely under 
British control. The wells are in south- 
west Persia, the enterprise being due 
log conc:;ssion granted in 1901 



n(i 




Urnanit-nts wnrn bv Anglo-Saxons 
—^■f TT^^' ' '^ ■■- — r— 




carls Barton Saxon tuwjr 
ANGLO-SAXON. Term applied to 
people of English race to denote their 
descent from the Teutonic tribes, the 
Anijles and Saxons. We show examples 
nf their life and work. 



I»Airtt.'JO»Wr\iIc rti!lH»ji man i'^npNopHtn-ni- 

yiTK) ititttvhr^euulic a^^T""'* '^''""S I'^^fP'^ 
l>ir('yn>|«i'p trtNi'Mnr [wiir iniir cnifpfNont- 
-iln'paTi'Ti omwrn OTyliwni eimoittini Tms- 

^■rtif^'p,v-yniri5 I>i^fn5 cj-fij5jni.-|a^^ 



ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. Ancient 
MSS.. written in Anglo-Saxon and now 
in the Hritish Museum, recounting his- 
titrv up t.i 1 1 >4. There are translations. 
Angmagsalik. See Atlas 27, 2. 
Angola. Sci; Atlas 26, C 4. 



ANGOLA NAriVtS. A primitive people 

West Alrua. We show two represent aive tvpes and Ti^Miti :i native oar Pr 2: -j. jTH. 





■■mm fi.®^ # f 

i n ji 



g Yi 



J 



adia-Bayram nios^iue The Parliament House at Angora 

ANGORA. Capital nf Anatolia, and ^lince 1923 seat of the Turkish GoTemment. 
It was the ancient \ • m 1*02 Tamerlane defeated the Turks. 

iWohair is produced ' -'"•- B 2. 




ANGORA CAT. .\ domestic cat not.-.l 
for its large si/.e and the silkiness of its 
hair. It originallv came from Angora 
in Turkev, hence its name. 





ANGORA GOAT. A varitt> .4 s.at. 
Capra angorensis, which is native to the 
Angora district of Turkev. Angora wool, 
which is made into light, warm shawls, 
is produced from its long hair. Our 
picture shows a young female. 



ANG0UL£ME. Old hrencli cilv un the 
Charente. It has th'S I2lh-century 
jatliL'dral (4 ,! 03). See Atla.s 7, D 4. 
Angoumois. See Atlas 7. D i. 
Aneuilla. See Atlas 3<, J 4. 



ANGUISCIOLA 



ANIMAL ELECTRICITY 




ANHALT. Little Sutc n, central ber 
many ; area 888 square miles : populj 
tii'n 3W,000. mostly Protestants. The 
capital. Dessau, has this ducal castle 



ANI. Ancient ruined city near Kars 
in Armenia. In the 10th century it wt; 
a pla.-e o: importance as the capital uf 
Armenian kings, but in 1O63 the Seljuk. 
destroyed it. We show the Temple 01 
the Saviour. 



ANIMAL FLOWER. A i ipi, 
as beini; in appearance like 
ANIMALCULE. A minute 



m^w 



te uliK-h. 
i tluw^r. 



wini; h. Its r.Kli.iieJ lorm, is Considered 
Lett and centre pictures 
, . .,., -- animal almost it not quite invisible to the 

nn'i.J'- 1'^' ^^''^""^'i '" "'^J <" such creatures as infus'orians or rot iers 
animal flowers shown on the right are animalcules 



The 



ANIMAL WORSHIP 



65 



ANNAPOLIS 




Snake worship in India 




Muninn<;s of cats and a hawk 



ANIMAL WORSHIP. The Eiiyptians 
developed animal worship to a decree 
since unknown. All the animals shown 
here were sacred to some god. 




ANIMATED SERPENT. A thin metal 
or card serpent, coiled up, hun? from 
a mantelpiece. The rising heat rotates it. 



ANISEED. The seeds of the anise. 
w^iich have an aromatic smell and a 
pleasant flavour. We cive two forms. 





ANISOTA. A genus ol moths of the 
family Cerato-campidae, represented 
here by the green-striped maple-worm, 
shown with its cocoon and caterpillar. 
t-nlait. See Atlas 7. C 3. 



m 



n- 



ANJOU. An old spear-like weapon 
uith a long shaft. 




ANJOU, DUKE OF. A title often borne 
by French princes. This duke is Francis 
(1554-841. Henry the Second's son. 
ANJOU, MARIE OF (1404-63). Queen 
of Charles \ll of France, whom Joan 
of Arc served so faithfully. 




ANKER. An old iit.iuid measure vary- 
in.; Irnrn S to 12 gallons. 
ANKH. .\ keylike cross wliich in 
■ \.::\ pt symbolised ]:U-. 




ANKHEFTA. An Egyptian royal per- 
sona'.:e of the fourth dynasty. 
Anking. See Atlas 25. E 3. 



■■%^ 




ANKLE. The joint (A) of great strength 
which connects the foot with the leg. It is 
known to science as ginglymus. a Greek 
word meaning ball-and-socket joint. 





1^ 


lF>bu'o 


T,bia 


1 




Scaphoid / 
Bone\ / 


w Ut^pc/ci 




"N-jrVx, 


^^ 


H 


y 






- '" '%;. 





ANKLE-BONE. The bone of the ankle, 
called by scientists astragalus 




ANKLE CHAIN. A chain joinim; the 
Xv.'< ankk's "f a prisoner or slave. 
ANKLE SHOE. A low shoe reachinit to 

tlij ..lii.lj .r -i:,! .i! ..■. ■ ' 




Anklets of an liul 



.f. 



• <^' '•' 



mW'! ''''"•!' 



•Uia^ ^ 



L:.. i ankL-t Seedpod anklet 

ANKLET. An ornament for the ankle 
ufirn by the ancient Egyptians. Greeks. 
and Romans, and still worn in the East. 



? 





ANKLE-TIE. A li?ht shoe or slipper 
uith straps buttoning round the ankle, 
much worn in the early t'Jth century. 
ANKLONG. A musical instrument used 
in -lava and iVlalaya. It consists of 
bamboo tubes, hung in pairs, which 
when struck give definite tones 
Ankober. See Athis 2;. H 4. 



ANKUS. An elephant goad used in 
India, consisting of a sharp hook and a 
straight spike. 
Anlace. Same as Anelace. 




ANNA. In Indian money the 16th part 
III .1 rupee, equivalent to a penny. 
Anna Ivanovna. See Ivanovna. 




ANNA, ST. Aho 

gave tiiatiKs at til,- I f w ^,-iii. jti'jii ol the 
infant Jesus. Here she is shown kneeling 
in a Fra Bartolommeo picture 
Annam. See Atlas 21, C 2. 




ANNAMESE. An InJ.j .,... ... .-.; of 

the South Mongolic family in Annam. 
They are short, flat-faced, and tawny. 




ANNAN. An ancient Scottish hurgh in 
Dumfriesshire, near the mouth of the 
River Annan (4200). See Atlas 5, E 5. 




ANNAPOLIS. A Nova Scotian town 
ioundtd by the French in 11:04 as Port 
Roval. ttere we see the French Gate 
(1000). See Atlas 2S. L 4. 




ANNAPOLIS. The capital of Maryland. 
11. S. A. This picture shows the State 
House (9000). See Atlas 29, J 6 



ANNAS 



66 



ANNULAR MICRONOMETER 




ANNAS. TiK' Jfwish IliKli priot ■ 
tried Jesus and sent liini bound to Cai.i 
phas. This picture is from the Storza 
Book of Hours (about 1490). 




ANNATTO. A Brazilian plant from the 

fruit of which (ri'.;lit) a ilvc i- ina.l ■ 




ANN£ : _ i,i4). James It's younger 
daui;hter, who was Queen of Eni.'land 
from 1702. She married Prince George 

cf : 



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ANNE OF AUSTRIA UOOl-03). Qlucen 
of Lnuis XIII of France and enemy 
of Cardinal Richelieu. 
ANNE OF BOHEMIA (1366.94). 

Richard il-.e Seccnul's queen, who died 
of the ;■! 



r 



ANNE 

(Jueen 

then ui L'.jl.. 

ANNE OF CLEVES (1515.';-) 

queen of Henry VIII. 



TANY !1477-1514) 
.1 of France and 



Fourth 




ANNE OF DENMARK ( 1 ;; I luly). 
(.luecn ul James the I irst 01 Kni^'land. 
ANNE OF GEIERSTEIN. Heroine of 

Scott's roni.nue of Ilu- ^anie name. 




ANNE OF WARWICK j 
Dauiihtcr of Richard Neville, the K-iiit;- 
maktir, the greatest of the Earls of 
WatwicI;. She married Richard 11 1. 




ANNE, ST. According to tradition the 
mother of the Virgin, her life being 
recorded in several of the apocrypha! 
gospels. Above, in Leonardo's beauti- 
ful and tender picture, she is shown with 
the Virtjin and the child Jesus. 




".'(■:■ CHURCH OF ST. Oiu- ot the 
■ hie Suh'i churches, founded 
in \t'6S- It contains monuments to 
Hazlitt and King Theodore of Corsica, 
who died in exile in London in 1756. 




ANNEALING ARCH. The v\-ei\ in 
w hich glass ware is annealed, or heated , 
it is also called a leer or carauaise. 




ANNEALING BOX. One in which 
ihiects are placed to be subjected to 
the action of an annealing oven. 




ife 



ANNEALING FURNACE. One in which 

articles to he annealed are placed. 

ANNEALING OVEN. A form of anneal- 
ing arch used in annealing glass. 




ANNEALING POT. A closed pot in 

which are placed articles to be subjected 
to the heat of a furnace. The enclosing 
in a pot prevents the formation of 
oxides on the surfaces. Two types are 
shown in this picture. 




ANNECY. Capital of the French 
department of Haute Savoie at the 
north-west end of Lake Annecy. 
Linen, hats, and paper are manufac- 
tured, and it has a 16th-century cathe- 
dral, a bishop's palace, and a castle, 
seen here (16,000). See Atlas 7, G 4. 




A faniili:ir annelid. Mu- e.irttuvorni 



,( 



V 






Mynanida, a sea annelid 

ANNELIDS. The name given by Cuvier 
to a group of segmented worms, includ- 
ing earthworms, lob-worms, and leeches. 




ANNICUT. - A primitive lurm ot dam 
constructed for irrigation in less Euro- 
peanised parts of India. The one 
shown here consists of sticks, twigs, and 
clay, and is seen alongside an irrigation 
wheel. Annicut comes from two Tamil 
words meaning a dyke and a binding. 




\J 



ANNODATED. A term in heraldry for 
anything twisted into the shape of an 
S, like the serpent here. 
ANNUAL RINGS. Concentric layers of 
wood produced yearly in tree trunks. 
In the section ^houn m the picture 
there are three tinnual rings. 



ANNULAR AUGER. An auger (which 
see) used for cutting a ring-shaped 
channel. The simplest form is a tube 
with a cutting edge, kept centred by a 
proiectinn on a movable plug uithin. 




ANNULAR BIT. A boring bit which 
cuts a ring-shaped channel, leaving the 
centre blank. 

ANNULAR BORER. A tube for rock- 
boring, making a ring-like cutting and 
leaving a column of rock in the centre. 





ANNULAR ECLIPSE. An eclipse of the 

■ Lin ill which part of itssurface is visible 
as a luminous ring, as shown here. 

ANNULAR FINGER. The ring finger; 
that is, the third finger of. the left 
hand, used for the marriage ring. 




ANNULAR GEAR WHEEL. 

its teeth on the inside of a ring. 
ANNULAR MICRONOMETER. A glass 
disc witli a central hole for measuring 
celestial distances in a telescope 



ANNULAR NEBULA 



R7 



ANODONT 




ANNULAR NEBULA. A nebuhl in the 
lorm of a ring, the best known e-xaniplt 
being the Ring Nebula in the constelia 
tion Lyra (which see), sliown in the 
picture we give here. 





ANNULAR SAW. A cutting tool in the 
lorni ui a tube with a serrated end ; used 
tor cutting button blanks 
ANNULATED. In heraldry, any bearing 
whose extremities end in rings. 




ANNULATED. In botany, a term me.i:i- 
ng provided with rings, as in the case ol 
a stem or root encircled with bands- 
Two examples are shown here. 




ANNULET. In architecture an annulet 
!S one of the bands encircling the lower 
part ot the capital of a Doric column ; in 
heraldry it is a small ring borne as a 
charge, several being generally used. 




ANNULET MOTH. A species common 
in the West ot England in July. Pale 
grey to dark smoky-brown in colour it 
has black rings, or annulets, clearl> 
marked on its wings. 
Annulettee. See Annulated. 






7""^^' 










ANNULUS. In botany, the slender 
membrane surrounding the stem of some 
of the agaric toadstools after the cap has 
expanded, as seen in these pictures. 
The name is also given to the elastic 
ring round the spore case in ferns. 



m 











ANNUNCIATION, THE. The coiiiiii,^ ol the Angel Gabriel to ;innounce to the 
VTri,;m A\ary that she should be the Mother of Jesus is a subject that has 
inspired the artists ot the world. Above are two pictures of the Annunciation. 
one a relief in marble by a great sculptor and the other a painting by Leonardo 
da Vinci, perhaps the greatest rainier o! the Italian Renaissance and of all time. 



I 2 


1 2 


# m 


o m 


3 4 


3 4 


m m 


m m 


5 6 


5 e 


m m 


# m 



ANNUNCIATOR. A mechanical ap- 
paratus used in hotels. The pressing 
of a button rings a bell and causes 
.1 disc to fall, indicating the source 
ol the summons, as shown at number 
one on the right. 
Annunzio, Gabriel, see l)'Aiimin.^in 




ANOA. The smallest ol all wild cattle, 
measuring only about a yard to the 
shoulder. Found in the East Indian 
Island ol Celebes, it resembles the 
larger Asiatic species 




ANODE. One element, the plate, of a 
iliermionic valve. We show two ex- 
.iinples, one in the form of 3 cylinder 
(left), and the other a cap. seen insci! 



Var/a6/e 
Condenser 




ANODE COIL. One ol insulated wire 
.lyi; '. 1 in an anode circuit of a 

-.virele.'ij valve Set. 

ANODE RAY TUBE. One which when 
worked with a fairly large Wimshurst 
machine shows the anode ravs. 




ANODE REACTANCE COIL. lo pro- 
vide a measure of reaction in an anode 
circuit, as when one valve in a two- 
valve set is used as a bigh-frequency 
amplifying valve. 




ANODE RESISTANCE. A iiom .i,..,;c- 
tive resistance used in the anode circuit 
in wireless. It is a cylinder supported 
by metal contact brackets 



') Sii 




"Wm^ 



ANODONT. ussel in 

which the 1:. ,- - .i;mentary 

or absent and ol whicli w^e give two 
kinds. The name comes from a Greek 



H T Battery 




fnductance 



fieacC/on Cot/ 



ANODE CIRCUIT. A circuit in a wirelesi receiving set which mcludes the 
.u'.oJe. or pUUe ol the valve, telephones, high-tension battery, low-tension 
batterv. condenser, and filament, as shown in the diagram above. 



ANOINTMENT 



63 



ANT 




ANOINTMENT. An undent ccreniuniul 
custom practised notably in Bible days, 
David's anuintinent as l-iiv- t^eini^ stiown 
in tlie picture. 




ANOLIS. The name given to several 
kinds of American lizards, among tlieni 
the crested anolis, seen on the lett, and 
the tjreen Carolina anolis, on the riijht. 




ANOMALA. A Kenus of scarab beetles 
uith niarijlnal uinK cases. The one 
sliown is Anijmala vitis. 
ANOMALIPED. A bird whose dau- has 
tuo (ir more difiits wholly or partly 
utiitcd, like the kinglisher. 




ANOMALOPS. A genus ol lish with a 
glandular phosphorescent organ below 
the eye. 




ANOMALOUS MOTH. One seen in late 
summer in parts ui western and northern 
Britain. Its wings are glossy and grey. 




ANOMALURE. \: .■..::._:, i;y,ng 
squirrel. A membrane iseen white here) 
joining front and back legi, enables it 
10 plane lrer:i tree to tree. 




ANQMIA. A genus of bivalve molluscs 
iiund attached to oysters and other 
shells. Their shape depends largely on 
the surface to which they are attached. 
We give several kinds. 




ANONA. A genus ul tropical shrubs, 
including the custard apple. The flower 
ut one of the species is seen on the left, 

and (111 the ritiht is a fruit. 




Ar.o[-|;cles rcitlllg Its beak 

ANOPHELES. The malaria mosquito, 
carrying infectipn by its bite. It has a 
narrow body and spotted wings, and 
haunts stagnant water. Hence drainage 
is the chief means of fighting malaria. 
In the lower right-hand picture the beak 
with which it attacks people is shown 
with the sheath parts separated. Ano- 
pheles takes up a curious crouching 
position when at rest. 




ANOPLOTHERE. An extinc 
whose bones have been found 
of M'ight and other places. 



t ,:i,:jlurc 
in the Isle 





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VA. 




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ANORTHITE. 

group occur 




ANSA. The handle of a door, the loop 
fit a shoe, or the liandle ot a steelvard. 




ANSAE. A Latin uair.o ;:i\cn by the 
old astronomers to Saturn's rings. In 
the earlier telescopes these rings looked 

like handles, which the word denotes. 



Ansbach. 



S.'.' \ti.ix i: 



D 4. 




1 


■J 



ANSELM (lu33-HM'M. ,\ n It.UMii iMmik 
who became Archbishop oi Canterbury 
in 1093 and defended the rii^hts of the 
Church against William 11 and Henry I. 
Above are his portrait and seal. 
Anser. See Vuipecula. 




ANSON, LORD 1^)7-1762). The Eni^lish 
.u!ii..ial aI.j uru;anised the Marines. 
ANSTEV, F. (b. 1S56). The pen-name of 
Thomas Anstey Guthrie, writer of many 
piipuiar humorous novels. 




ANSTEY'S COVE. A noted beauty 
spot near Paignton, South Devon. 
Anstruther. See Atlas 5, F 5. 



•3;£650™"PLAYTniES!r£ 




ANSWERS. A popular weekly papei 
begun in ISSS by Alfred Harmsworth. 
ater Lord Northcllflfe. 













.^nts conversin-^' An ant pulling 




Workers with the cocoons 
ANT. The most intelligent of all the 
insects. Wonderful stories are told ot 
its memory and reasoning powers. As 
among bees, there are queen, male, and 
worker ants, the first two with wings, 
the last without. These are wood ants. 



ANTA 



69 



ANTEFIX 




ANTA. Ill Greek architecture, a kind 
of ornamental pier made by thickening 
a wall at its end. 

ANTAEUS. A giant who derived 
strength from touching the earth. 
Hercules overcame him by lifting him 
into the air 



^%. 

'n 



■v^ f 



^71 




ANTAGONISM. The action of muscles 
acting in a contrary direction to others. 
Every muscle has its antagonism, there 
being no muscular motion without scope 
for an opposite motion 




ANTANANARIVO. Capital and cathe- 
dral city of Madagascar. It is connected 
with its port, Tamatave, by a railway. 
Here is the prime minister's palace 
{S0.000>. See Atlas 25. J ^. 





A urotto in an icebjri; 




— - *s 



N 



Shackieton in the Antarctic 
ANTARCTIC EXPLORATION. The long exploration of Antarctica still continues. 

These pi-Jtures show Antarctic conditions. The snnw pillars in the lower picture 
were set up as a i,'uide to Shackleton's ship in tin: ' . 




ANT ARES. The chief star in Scorpio ; red 
and ttitli a green companion. Its dia- 
meter is about 400 million miles, equal to 
tu ice the earth's orbit, as indicated here. 







--^ ' 



ANTARCTIC. The bitterly cold continent lying" around the South Pole. Still 

incompletely explored, it consists mainly of an ice-covered plateau from 7000 

to 10.000 feet high Entirely uninhabited, it has no land animals, though seals 
and penguins abound : vegetation hardly exists. See Atlas 34. 




ANT BEAR. A curious, pig-like ^ 

ol Soutli Airica with a worm-like \ 

and huge claws. It tears down liu- 
ant-hills and devours their inmates, 
as shown here. 




ANT-BIRD. Several Brazilian birds, 
including the bush shrike above, are 
called ant-birds because of their diet. 




ANT-COW. The aphis, or i;r. 
from which ants get honey-dew. 




ANT-EATER. An animal family in 
tropical America. They have strong 
claws and long tongues, used to lick up 
ants. Here is a giant ant-eater. 




ANTECHAMBER. Au 
wtiich callers wait for 

ll;re Dr. Johnson is se 
; .rJ Chcsterli..; : 



ui.-r ('j-jm in 
an audience. 

'n waiting in 








ANTE CHAPEL. 

lyi;',^ wjst ot \\\i clioir 
Here in. Gloucester Cath; 



:Cr:::i 

dral. 




ANTE CHOIR. The Space between th; 
two gates or railings of a rood screen. 
or the space below its arch (A) in this 
example at York .Minster. 







--:^ - 


-ig^*- 1 



ANTE CHURCH. Part of an Early 

isiian church near the main entrance. 

:Jed from the nave by a screen or 
\^.iil, and used by the catechumens and 
sometimes by women worshippers. 




ANTEF. An Egyptian ting 

vears ago. 

ANTEFIX. An ornamented co[nice 

used in the rooting ot Greek temples 



ANT-EGG 



70 



ANTHRACITE STOVE 




ANT-EGG. 1 he ant pupa m it<< cocoon, 

.,s \)^rc uroni^ly called an etiii. "1 ho 

Jit is olteii seen carryine it. 





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-*' 




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fcff 


1 




ir?^!^*?^ 




A \"iini; t>ur-liorjied antelope 
ANTELOPE. A large and beautiful 
animal family "I aliimt 150 species. 




ANTELOPE BEETLE. A lamiliar 

Bnlisii species. 

Ante Meridian. See Time map. 
ANTE-MURAL. Beyond the walls, as, 
for instance, a castle outwork. 




ANTENNAE. The horn-like Iceiers on 
the heads ol insects and other creatures 
including lobsters. Here are the va- 
pourer moth's antennae. 




ANTENNARIUS. A i;enus ol tropical 
fishes with strangely-shaped bodies and 
their mouths opening upward. They are 
mostly found among growin:: cor.ils 




ANTHA. An Egyptian war goddess, 
shown with helmet, shield, lance, and 
battle-axe. She is generally in the 
company of Reshpu (which see). 
ANTHELA. An inflorescence where 
^-ach a.xis with a terminal flower is 
M*f-p;-.i hy lateral shoots. 




ANTHELION. A term used lor the 
halo seen hy an observer with his back 
to the Sun "round the head of his own 
shadow when cast on a cloud In the 
example given the coloured halo appears 
with the shadow of an airship 





ANTHEMIUM FRIEZE. A carved 
floral frieze pattern (left) derived from 
the acanthus, but often called the honev- 
suckle ornament. On the right is " a 
moulding from the pattern. 






'trih 



v- 




/I 



ANTHER. The tip of the stamen in 
a tlower, carrying the pollen by which 
the seed vessels are fertilised with the 
help of insects. Some typical examples 
are shown in this collection. 




ANTHERIDIUM. The oryan in crypto- 
■.:air.ic plants containini: the male cells 
That lertilise the female cells. 
ANTHICID. A beetle of the family 
Anthicidae. usually found on flowers, but 
often also in sandy places near water. 




ANT-HILL. This picture shows an 
ant-hill in section, with the chambers 
and passages made h/ the ants. 

1 




ANTHOCLINIUM. A botanical term 
for the receptacle ot the florets in 
plants of the Composite order. 
ANTHOCOTYLE. A genus of parasitic 
worms found in animals of all kinds. 





ANTHOMYIA. A tiemi^s ui iniccti which 
attack cabbaj^es, turnips, and potatoes. 
ANTHONOMUS. A t^enus of small 

snout beetles found everywhere except 
at the P^ ' 




ANTHONY, ST. iJ.^i-...u.i. Aii hL;ypiian 

desert-dweller said to have been much 
tempted by the devil in many forms. 

In this woo.lcut b\- Dp.rL^r the hermit 

saints Ailtl;u;iv a-:.\ I'.rii .irj tn-t^ther. 




ANTHONY OF PADUA. ST. A great 
preacher said to ha\e ni.iJ.- nianv'con- 
versions and to have preached even to 
the lishes. Born at Lisbon in ir>5, he 
died at Padua in 1231. He is here por- 
trayed by Van Dyck 





ANTHOPHORA. Also called mason 
Ives, a genus whose members collect 
pollen by means of the hind tibiae. 
ANTHOPHORE. A floral stipe pro- 
duced by the lengthening ot the in- 
ternode between calyx and corolla. 




Corals and (below) three sea-anemone? 

1 





A group of sea-anenionei 

ANTHOZOA. A large class of marine 

ur'.,'anisms. including the sea-anemones 
and corals 



... ,^ 



ANTHRACITE. A hard, non-bitumi- 
nous coal which gives out great heat. 
South Wales is noted for it. 





ANTHRACITE STOVE. A slow com- 
bustion stove adapted to domestic use. 
its principle being shown in the side 
section and front view here. Anthracite 
coal is burned and the air supply is 
regulated. The burning coal is seen 
through mica windows 



ANTHRAX 



71 



ANTINOOS 




ANTHRAX. All infectious disease of 
cattle ui uhich we show the bacillus. 
ANTHRIBUS. A snout beetle with a 
fold on the inner lace of each elytron. 




Orang-utan 





V 




V 


"i 






1 


b/ 





Chinipanzt;^ Gorilla 

ANTHROPOID APES. The animals 

most like man, comprising the four great 
genera shown above. They are tailless 
and can stand almost erect. 




ANTIC. An architectural term used t.t 
describe a porch tu a tront door. 
ANTI-CAPACITY SWITCH. A wireltiss 
switch with small electrical capacity. 



^ 



PPf^P 



'^-^ 



y 



^ 

^ 






ANTIGASTER. A small parasitic insect 
\\'.\\c\\ bends its abdomen over its thorax. 




ANTICIPATION. In music, a note (X) 
occurring belore the advent of its 
proper harmony, as in the last bar but 
one of God Save the Kin<. 





M 

i^w 



ANTHROPOMETRY. The science of 
measuring the human body. These 
pictures illustrate the Bertillon system 
of jdentifvine criminals by measurement. 





ANTICLINAL. A geological term lor 
tlie upper curves of folded strata. 



ANTIGONE. A tragic character in plays 
by Euripides, Sophocles, and Aeschylus, 
seen appealini: to her mother Jocn't 




ANTIMACASSAR. A coverine to pre- 
.,..; I,.- -.jiling by the head ol the 
backs of chairs, and so on. 




ANTIGONUS (d. 301 B.C.). One of 

Alexander's generals, who became ruler 
in Asia Minor. Here is one of bis coins. 




ANTI-CORN LAW LEAGUE. An association formed in 183S to secure the repeal 
of the corn ta.t. Richard Cobden, its leader, is here seen addressing a meeting-. 
Anticosti. See Atl.is 28. L 4. 




ANTICOUS. A term applied to flowers 
with anthers facing inward, as shown 
here by the parsnip. 



ANTHROPOMORPHISM. The attribu- 
tion of human characteristics to objects 
or creatures, especially in art, as suggested 
)n this 1 5tli-century French picture. 




ANTHROPOPHAGI. Weird cannibals, 
some (ine-eyed, believed by the ancients 
to dwell beyond the Caspian. 





ANTICYCLONE. A horizontal move- 
ment of the atmosphere spirally around 
and away from a central region. The 
barometric pressure is higher over the 
central region than over the margins. 



ANTIGONOUS GONATAS. A Alacedonian 

king. 270-.^ >'i B.C.. whose coin we show. 
ANtlGROPELOS. Gaiters or long leg- 
gings for use in wet weather. 




ANTIGUA. A West Indian islanJ whv^c 
capital. St.John.we show. See.'Mlas 31. J-t. 
Antilebanon. See AtUas 20, C 3. 
Antilles. See Atlas 31, F 4 and J 5. 




ANTIMEN8IUM. An altar-cloth or slab 
of metal work, such as this fine example 
of 13th-century craftsmanship. 
Antimonite. See Stibnite 




ANTIMONY. A metal and chemical 
element found usually in stibnite, or 

antimonv sulphide. 
Antinoe. ^ 




ANTINOUS. A beautiful youth who 
drowned himself in the Nile in 122 A.D., 
and was bitterly mourned by the Em- 
peror Hadrian, who caused many 
temples and statues to be built in his 
honour This bust is in the Vatican. 



ANTIOCH 



72 



ANTLER MOTH 



t:.- >- 







ANTIOCH. A Syrian cit;. l».jii,kJ 

about 300 B.C. and famous as one of the 
chief seats of early Christianity. We show 
the market place. See Atlas 20, C 2. 
Antioch (Asia Minor). See Atlas 19. B 2. 







ANTIOCH bHALICE. ... luvely silver 
chalice with figures of Jesus and the 
ApnstK'S found in 1910 near Antioch. 




^•^1%^ 



Anlitjcniis Vlll Antiochus IX 

ANTIOCHUS. The name of 13 Syrian 
kiniis ol the Seleucid dynasty. Amoni; 
them were Antiochus III, called the 
Great (223-187). who sheltered Hannibal 
and was overthrown by the Romans 
and Antiochu. IV. Epiphanes (175- 
I'ji) who persecuted the Jews 




ANTIOPE. I I I.I. 1,-.'lik1 I.vcus, 

ilu' iiUNlMiiJ I'l A)iliMp.-, iii.iiried Dirce 
111 her pl.ue. ;uul her sniis killed both 
Lycus and Dirce, putting Dirce to 
death by tying her to a bull, as repre- 
sented 111 this famous statuary called 
•he F.lrnese Bull, in which Antiopc is 
nil the right. 



^ 


/\ 


' I'' ' 


/ \ 


^^ 





ANTIPARALLAX CARD. A device 

used for tixinii on a burette. Throuijh 
refraction a blue line appears at tbe 
liquid's surface, obviating errors due 
til parallax. 

ANTIPARALLEL. In 1,'eunietry, one of 
two or more lines makintr equal anj.;les 
with other lines, but in contrary order. 




ANTIPAS. Also knnuri as Herud Anti- 
pas, the tetrarch of Galilee whom Jesus 
called the Fox. We yive his coin. 
Antipatris. See Atlas 3S, B 4. 
ANTIPETALOUS. A term for flower 
stamens that stand opposite to petals. 




ANTIPODES. A seu;^raphical term de- 
noting regions exactly opposite to each 
(*ther if a line is drawn through the 
Earth's centre. In this map New Zea- 
land is drawn over a reversed map ot 
Western Europe, so as to show the land 
areas which are opposite for antipodal/ 
on the two sides of the globe 




ANTIQUARY, THE. A famous m 

by Sir W.ilttr Scott, so named from 
Jonathan Oldbuck, the antiquary, its 
ctiicf character. 



God's in His Heaven, 
AlTs right with the world 



ANTIQUE. A style of Human type of 
bold face, with all the lines of nearly 
equal thickness, as here. 




ANTIQUE CROWN. In heraldry, a 
crown consisting of a circular band with 
many pointed rays. It is gulden in colour. 
ANTIRRHEOSCOPE. An optical appar 
.it us in which a band of horizontal 
stripes moves up or down on a similar 
background. 





^iMs^zl 


N "K 


p 



ANTIRRHINUM. A genus of beautiful 
and popular garden tlowers which are 
also called snap-dragons because of the 
curious formation of their petals. 
Antisana. See Atlas 32, C 4. 
ANTI8EPAL0US. A term applied to a 
ilower in which the stamens stand oppo- 
site to the sepals. See the correspond- 
ing term Antipetalous. 




ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY. In 1S39, 

soon alter the suppression of slavery 
in the British Empire, the Anti-Slavery 
Society was formed to fight slavery 
throughout the world. One of its 
;^arly leaders was the celebrated Thomas 
Clarkson, who is here seen addressing a 
meeting in London. 




ANTISTHENES. A follower ot Suu.iK 
and louiuler of the Cynic sclmtil i 
philiisophy. He lived about 440-37U ii-< 
Antitaurus. See Atlas 2tt, C 2. 
Anti-Trades. See Wind map. 
Antivari. See Atlas 14, B 3 




1 uUy grown antlers before and after 
shedding the velvet 




Development of fallow deer's untlers 




How the red deer's antlers grow 
ANTLER. The horny outgrowth slied 
.iiid renewed by a stag annually, the 
number of tines, or branches, increasing 

uith the animal's grdwth. 




ANTLER MOTH. A reddish-brjwii 
sind seen on grassland in late summer. 



ANTLIA PNEUMATICA 



73 



ANT-SHRIKE 




ANTLIA PNEUMATICA. Mm Mr- 

rump, a constellation in the Soutliern 
Hemisphere between Hydra and Ari;o 
Navis (wliich see). Why it was so 
ii.mu-d by La Caille in 1752 is unknown, 
.IS It bears no resemblance to a pump. 



k. 




ANTONINE COLUMN. Column ol A\ar- 
cus Aurellus Aiituninus. still standini; 
in Konie. It w.is preceded by one of 
Antoninus Pius, bearinc military sculp- 
tures, as seen on the right. 





lilt- pupa The pertect winjceJ uisect Winsed nisect's he;'d 

ANT-LION. A relation of the lace-win^ fly, found in Europe but not in 
l;n;;laiid. In the larval stace it dius a pit, conceals itself at the bottom with 
only its jaws protrudint;, and seizes any ants or other small insects tluit 
slip down These pictures show it in various staires, maijnihed. 




ANTOFAGASTA. 



ports nitrates from the Atacania Desert 
deposits (60,000). See Atlas }2. D .S 




■^^' 



'^b-. 



d^ 



ANTO FRET. A lorm of IretworK 
J.co'ation illustrated by this card tray 
aoLt section. 

ANTONELLI, CARDINAL (1806-76). 
A famous f'apal diplomat under Pius 1 X 




Castle >^'" °yanfc-ria|Pjisley''f''rt 



A//?«'=^J fort 



Miles 10 15 ?0 ?5 30 3i 40 4& so 5S 60 



■'-© 



iiiiiii ol the \\ .1.. 
ANTONINE'S WALL. A Kunun 

rainp.irl >tretchinL' bftweeii tlie ' rths 
ot lurlh and Clyde, set up 140-11 a.d. 
uiultT Antoninus Pius to check the 
northern Barbari;ins. Its loundations 
are visible at many places. 




i^ 



ANTONINUS PIU3 ;;..!., ... a..-.>. ;....; .. ..... Kunun cinp^rof 

13S-61. Under him the Antomne Wall was built in Britain, and his rciqn was 
marked by its peacefulness and enlit;htened administration. On the ri^ht is hti 
uile. Faustina, a notoriously dissolute woman: their daughter, also named 
I austrna, became the wife of Marcus Aurelius, successor to Antoninus. 



ANTONIO. Shakespeare's Merchant o.' 
Venice, who borrowed money for his 
friend Bassanio and so got into the 
clutches of Shylock. 

Antony, St. See Anthony. 




ANTRUM. A wurd used in anatomy It* 
describe u cavity or sinus. In the dia* 
Rram which we ijive here the position ot 
one of the maxillary antra, which open 
into the nose, is illustrated. 




ANTONY, MARK. Oik- n; tlu 1 rmnu irs Uhr^-'e men) amone whom the Roman 
,Iununions were divided alter the death of Julius Caesar. By his eloquence he 
i.iised the Romans against Caesar's assassins ■' ■"" *' **■'■ **' — <-•-:--* 

.irul d;»i;i;er-rent mantle. 



as illustrated in J 



showing them his blood-slained 
D Court's tine picture above 




ANTO-TURNING. A method ol pro- 
diuni.; a square turned column. 
Antrim. See Atlas 6, E 2. 




ANTRUM INSTRUMENTS. Instru- 

iiK-nis ot nian\ shapes and kinds used 
by physicians and surgeons in the treat- 
ment of nose complaints. These instru. 
ments. ol which we give many examples. 
arj ii.-.nvd after the antrum (which see), 
Ant-shrike, bee Ant*bird. 



ANT-THRUSH 



74 



ANZAC 




ANT-THRUSH. A tropical bird like a 
thrush. ict'Jiiig on ants. 
ANT-TREE A tropical American tree 
of which the leaves are shown here. A n ts 
live in tliL- br:iiiches. 




ANUBIS. The Egvplian nod ot Rraves 
and burial rites, who is represented 
with .1 jackal's head. 



\ 



l^0m 





\':in Liyck Quay 



^w-'^^ 




Antwerp Cn^u'ji 



The Hotel de Ville 




AntWL'rp seen Ironi thi; itiitiut 
ANTWERP. Chiel port and second city oi Belsium. on the Scheldt. In the 
15th century it was the greatest commercial city in the world; and it still has 
many industries and an immense e.tport trade. The noble Gothic cathedral has 
a spire 470 feet hieh. There are many old buildings (310.000). See Atlas to, C 3. 



'% 




^ 


r 


"* 



ANTWERP PIGEON. A domesticated 
pigeon with a larce head and short 
stout beak. 

ANT-WREN. A South American pas- 
serine bird, remarkable lor its long 
slender leet 






^ 


\ 






n 





ANTYX. i he ornamental rim or border 
o' objects such a.> shields 
ANU Chief ol the old Assyrian cods, 
whose symbol is seen above. 




ANUKIT. In t:*ryptian myth .;, ,i 
goddess ot the Nile, and wite ol KhiiLinu, 
a ram-headed god. She is the i-Ann 
as Ankt and Anget. 




ANURA. An order o , . .■ . nib. 

without tails when adult, represented 
by the toad {above) and the fro.t:. 




KuiiiL'J columns at Aniiradhapura 




ANURADHAPURA. Capital ol Ceylon 
over 1000 y;:ars ago, hut now in riiins. 
Among vast numbers ol ancient re- 
mains are the Thuparamaya Dagoba. 
erected in 250 B.C. lor Buddha's iaw- 
bt:)ne and shown in the lower picture. 
See Atlas 22. F 7. 




ANUSHERVAN. Ur Chosroes I (331-7y). 
a Persian king noted as a patron of 
learning. He is here seen in a picture 

h (jtii ,in n!.i ni.iiiiiscript. 




Spruig, geologist's, and goldsmith's anvils 
ANVIL. An iron block with a smooth 
tace of steel on which metals arc 
hammered and shaped, and of which 
various types are shown. In the tirst 
picture the parts are (1) beak. (2) face, 
(3) tocl-ho!e,(4)core, {5)base. The lower 
left-hand picture shows a spring anvO 




ANVIL. An old military term tor a 
small pcnnrju carried on the end of 
a lance. 

ANVIL BLOCK. The metal b!ock on 
which ;i stt-am-hammer lalls when in 




ANVIL BONE. One of the small bones 
i)f the ear. so named because ol its 
supposed likeness to an anvil. 
ANVIL-CUTTER. Chisel-like tool for 
iristirting in an anvil while a bar to be cut 
is laid on the edge and hammered. 




ANVIL TOOLS. Various tools used by 
blacksmiths and other workers at the 
anvil. Those shown are ( 1) poker, 
(2) rake, (3) scoven or shovel, (4) 
set hammer. (5) flattener, (6) swage. 
(7) fuller. (8) hardie, (9) punch, (10) 
open mouth tongs, (11) hollow bit 
tongs, (12) bolt tongs. 




ANVIL-VISE. A Vise in which the anvil 
lurtns one jaw, or which is actually 
provided by the construction of the 
anvil, as shown here 




ANZAC. I he name ?;iven to soldiers ol 
the AustraMan and New Zealand Army 
Corps in the Great War. On the left is 
an Australian soldier and on the right 
a New Zealander 



AORTA 



Valves of 

Pulfftoni 

Arfery 




.Valves of 
Systemic 

■f^Jtorta 




Aunculo^ :> — Right Aunculo- 

I Ventricular Valve VentncularValve 

AORTA. The main arterv of the body. 
Starting from the left cavity of the 
heart, it passes by the root ot the left 
luns and the backbone to the abdomen. 





APE-MAN 




APATE. A (fenus of beetles having 

Airless larvae. 
APATELA. A (tenus of noctuid moths. 
■ '-• American Ar.it-'^ i")puli and cater- 
"illar bein? sh" 




^ 



APATITE. A innicrai phosphate com- 
monly found in isneous rocks and 
mined tor use as manure. 
Apatura. See Purple emperor. 



APACHE. A na.: . 

roughs, whose violent ways used to be 
represented on the stace in the so-called 
Apache dance, shown here. 



The Porta Praetoria 
AOSTA. Italian citv in an Alpine valley 





AOSTA, DUKE OF |b. isog). An 
Italian prince and eeneral, grandson of 
Victor Emmanuel 1! 

r 




/><> >«&. 



APACHE INDIANS, 

!'i"-iy A n.induii. \ crv uarhk;-, Ihev 
.rutjlly harassed earlv settlers. Here is 
:i typic.ii hrave. 





^ 




APE-6AC00N. 



f'x''y »;inJ. ii.T;; 



1^ -i. ^: .c. .T.acaqu;. 



'^^^ 



e\ 




APE. A species including the taille-ss 
and short. tailed monkeys of Asia and 
Africa, among them gorillas and 
chimpanzees, here seen at play. 



APAR. A species of armadillo of South 
America with bony armour so arranged 

that it ran r..n into a ball 



AOUOAD. The shaggy Barbary sheep APAREJO 
of the North African mountains. anJ 




APEDIOSCOPE. All uiu iu<niol slae'>. 
icope m uhich one picture is seen direct 
T 1 the other is superimposed by mirrors. 



^M^^^^Bra^jf 1 f bIH m." J^» 



APELDOORN. A Dutch industria: 
town near which is Het Loo, the Summer 
home of the .Netherlands sovereigns. 
shown in the picture, ^ti Atlas to. D 2. 




Skull of the Java ape-man 




APE. An Eastern plant with large, 
oval, pointed leaves ; its remarkable 
soathe is seen on the right 



APE-MflN. A .r,.jture telween man 
.ind ape, as indicated by the lamous 
skull found in Java in 1594. Here we 
show his skull and a picture ot bim as 
he probably appeared 



APENNINES 



76 



APIS 



f^'-'f^--'' 




APENNINES, 

traversing practically tlie whole lencth 
ol Italy ana risinR to 9560 (cit in Alont( 



Como, shown here. See Atlas, Italy, 










W^mmB^ 



APENNINES. A range of mountains in 
the Moon extendini; for 450 miles and 
including 3000 peaks, one of which is 
20,000 feet hiijh. See Atlas I5, D 3- 




APEPI. The name of the great serpent 
ot ancient Egyptian mythology, con- 
sidered the embodiment of t-vil. 




APERTOMETER. An instrument used 
(or measuring the angular aperture of 
the object glass of a microscope. 



Aperture 




APERTURE. The opening which allows 
light to pass through the lens into a 
photographic camera. 




APE'S COMB A rlap.t. Pithecuctenium 
muncatum, rL-nurkablL- li)r its winged 
seed. We show tlu iruit (top) as it 
appears, and also cut through to show 
the winged seed 




APES-ON-HORSEBACK. a nante fnr a 
kind ut common daisy, Bellis perennis. 
APETALOUS. A term meaning without 
petals, as illustrated by goosefoot. 




APEX. Ihe tip or summit of anything. 
JUre is that of a cone, a pyramid, a 
mountain, and a leaf 




APEX. The ridge on top of a Roman 
helmet to which a crest of horsehair 
was affixed : also a pointed piece of 
olive wood worn on the head by the 
Roman Flamines. 




yj'x< 



APHELINUS. A genus of tiny parasitic 
insects infesting plant and bark lice and 
here shown greatly magnified. 



^.--''^ 


~~^ 


V, 


J^ 




APHELION. The point (A) of a planefs 
nrbit most remote from the Sun. 
APHENGESCOPE. A device which, 
attached to a magic lantern, will ex- 
hibit opaque objects on the screen. 




Plum aphis Hop aphis 

APHIS. A large family of insect pests 
mli-sting plants. 





APHIS BRUSH. Spring tongs witli 
brushes for brushing both sides of a leaf. 
APHODIUS. A beetle family akin 
to the dung beetles. 



Ton .joe 

_ Cushion of 
"Epiglottis 
V-^rue Cords 




APHONIA. Partial loss of voice often 
due to laryngitis. In this state the 
vocal cords cannot be closed as in A, but 
are affected as in Ei and C. 




A pharaoh of about 590- 
,\ hose image, shown here, was 

i.ik ill i-u;. 



Aphrite. 




APHRODITE. Ihe Greek goddcis of 
love, her Roman counterpart being 
Venus. Above is one ot the most 
lamous representations ot her, the 
Towntey Venus in the British Museum. 
Aphrodite. See Sea mouse. 




APHYLLOUS. A term in botany mean- 
ing without leaves, a.s illustrated here 
by the lesser broom-rape, of which w^ 
show the flowers, root, and stem. 




■ \ -Mison's tomb 
APIA. i^.ipiT.il of the Samoan island ot 
L'polu, once German but now under 
New Zealand. Robert Louis Stevenson 
died here in 1894. See Atlas 35, Inset. 




■ >««& 



APIARY. Any pl.u.- u here a colony 
lit bees is kept; the name is given to 
.1 collection of beehives, as shown 




APICULATED. Ending in a little point 
Mr prickle, as this leaf. 
APION. A genus of weevils whose 
l.irvae do much harm to clover. 




APIS. 1 ... ^J.Ci^A tail u: ;.i.:r.r-;o. 
worshipped m ancient Egypt as the 
emblem of the god Osiris, and chosen 
by reason of certain markings 



APIS 



APOSTLE S EMBLEM 



1 


••■ 




'• <5« •" 


• 


'• 


• 





APIS. The Bee. a small southern con- 
stellation situated between Crux ana 
Chamaeleon (which see) : sometimes 
called Musca, the Fly. 
Apis. See Bee. 



-^^ 


k^ 


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^^ ~ 


/^fe^^FcJfL 


^^F 


^^^m 


yO^$tS^^xxa 


^^^-UMU-^- 


---=r — ~~--- 1 



APLUSTRE. An ornament made oi 
wooden planks and often resemblin.; 
the feathers of a bird's wing placed on 
the stern of a Roman ship. In these 
pictures we ?ive several examples. 



.^ 




APOBATES. Greek soldiers who jumped 
in and out ot chariots to fight dunne 
the course of a battle. 




APOCALYPSE. A Greek word meanini; 
anveilin;:, applied particularly to the 
Revelation oi St. John, in which the 
Four Horsemen represent the horrors of 
war. We show an old picture oi the 
Angel with the Book. 





APOCARPOUS. A term in botany for 

a plant ujtii its carpels separated, not 
united : here illustrated by the crowfoot. 
APOCYNUM. A genus of herbs of the 
Dr-.:ha!^e faniilw one of which is shown. 




APODES. The name of an order oi 
lisiies. The order has had varying limits 
; :ierent periods but is now conFined 
■ ieeels. 

APOGEE. The point ol its orbit at 
which a planet is at its farthest from 
Earth, as is Saturn here 



Apollo Drawn by Lions, by Briton Rividre 
APOLLO. The god regarded by the Greeks as the personification of manly beauty. 
He was the ■n-i of the Sun. of athletes, and of the shrine at Delphi. 




APOLLO BELVEDERE. > 

Greek statue in the Vatican. 
Apollonia. See Atlas 3S. B 4 




APOLLYON. The destroying anijel ol 
tlie bottomless pit (Revelation 1 X), in- 
troduced in The Pilgrim's Progress. 



m. 



.w. Tiuddeus. Simon 
APOSTLE. A man sent on a mission, as 
the twelve Apostles of Jesus here sho»-n 
•mm Leonardo's Ln^' •J-'-rfr 



APOSTLE JUG. U:!e JecorjieJ witn 

ar '^tolic lifiures. as sho^-n in these 
\: A<oi an oKi Bavarian iuc- 








APOPHYGE. That part ot a column 
with a concave sweep where *he shai 
springs from the base, as indicated here. 



APOSTLE'S EMBLEM. An otieci asso- 
ciated with an Apostle- Each of the 
twelve is shown here with his emblen^ 
H I 



APOSTLE SPOON 



78 



APPLE 



J««!SN 




APOSTLE SPOON. One in which the 
handle ends in a ligure of an Apostle. Il 
was once the custom at a baptism tc 
give the child one bearing the ligiire ot 
a patron saint. 




Arms i'i S,'d'A\- ot Apot hcc;trtfS 



1 




ArotlicCiir-i'S Hall. Blackfnars 

APOTHECARIES, SOCIETY OF. A 

London company wit ! "• - ; k.i;. 




APOTHECARY. One who mixes drm^v 
We show here an old-time apothecary 




APOTHEOSIS. The elevation ol men to 
d:vine rank. The apotheosis of the 
Emp-ror Augustus is represented here. 
Apo Volcano. See Atlas 24, G i. 




APOXYOMENOS. Statue of an alhieti 
In the Vatican, Rome, heing an ancient 
copy of a bronze by Lysippus. 




APPALACHIANS. The great mountain 
system of Eastern U.S.A., coiTiprising 
the Alleiihanies, here seen in New 
Hampshire. See Atlas ^0, K 3- 
Apparatus Sculptoris. See Sculptor. 




APPAREL. An ornamental work 

forming the collar of an amice or at- 
tached to the skirts of an alb, as here. 




APPARITION. 1 r.,' appeiir.-iiu-L' ol a 
phantom or vision, as here in the case of 
Joan of Arc, who imagined she saw 
visions and heard voices. 
Apparitor. A university beadle. See 
under Beadle. 





APPAUM^E. In heraldry, with the 
lutul opi-n, as in the arms of Ulster. 
APPENDAGE. In zoology, a diversion 
trum the ^.xial trunk, as this curious 
shipe in a tiny sea creature. 




APPENDIX. A ShakfSpear-an word 
fur a cornjianion or attendant, as in The 
Taniint; ut the Shrew, IV, iv. 
APPENDIX. Inflammation of this pro- 
longation of the large intestine sets up 
the disease :ippendicitis. 




APPLANATE. A botanical term mean 
ing lUUlened out. as in this example 




APPENTICE. A lean-to root protection. 
This fine example is in the cloister of 
the church of St. Maclou, Rouen. 
Appenzell. See Atlas o, D l. 




Fruit Section through 

APPLE. The most useful, popular, and 
widely-grown fruit in countries with 
temperate climates, there being thou- 
sands of varieties. It is extensively 
grown in European countries, while 
Australia, Canada, and California pro- 
duce immense quantities for export. 




The Appian Way as it prohably was 




The Appian Way as it i ;■■,■; '■ ■■ 
APPIAN WAY. A great Italian highway built by the Romans, its course 
being marked by many ruins. Begun by Appius Claudius in 3t2 B.C.. it^an 
from Rome to Brundusium and was the way by which Paul walked to Rome. 



APPLE OF DISCORD 




APPLIQUE 



»LE . - . JRD. The golden apple 
Ml i'\ tn~ jinong the goddesses 
awarded by Paris to Venus, thus 
.iMTi!; Juno's anger against Troy. 




APPLE OF SODOM. A name ol the 
;:.ill-Jrr'e which IS found on oaks. 
APPLE APHIS. A green-ny that infests 
the leaves of apple trees. 





APPLEDORE. , , ' 

wliere the ucvuiishire iorriJiie and 
Taw unite in a broad estuary. There is 
also a well-known Appledore in Kent. 
Apple Fly. See Codling moth. 
Apple Gall. See Apple of Sodom. 




scoop-snaped im- 
emeiit fur peeling, coring, and cutting 



APPLE 

ri 

apples. 

APPLE SLICER. An apparatus used in 
restaurants and hotels for cutting pee'- '. 
apples into slices. 




APPLE TRAY, 



APPLE-BARK BEETLE. One which in 
Germany attacks apple trees and in 
England" young plum trees. The pic- 
tures show the beetle, a male and 
female, and the damage done. 




APPLE-BERRY. Australian name for 

the pleasant fruit of the shrub Billard- 

ier.l scandens. 

Apple Blight See American blight. 

APPLE BLOSSOM WEEVIL. An insect 

that attacks apple llower buds before 

they e.xpand. 

Apple-Borer. See Apple-free borer. 





APPLE-JOHN. A kind of apple re- 
ferred to by Shakespeare, supposed to 
be at perfection when shrivelled. 
APPLE MAGGOT. The larva of a two- 
winged American pest. We show the 
larva and stages of the chrysalis. 
Apple Moth. See Codling moth. 



APPLE SNAILS. Water-snails of the 
genus Ampullaria. They are found in fresh 
water in warm regions. We show (left) 
A. scalaris and (right) A. cornu-arietis. 



APPLEBY. Capical uf Weit:..^: 

the Bongate Monument being shown in 
this picture (1750), See Atlas -t, E 2. 



APPLE CAPSID. An insect of the genus 
Capsus. shown here enlarged. It feeds 
on the )uice of ripe apples. 
APPLE-CORER. An implement for 
removing the cores from apples. We 
show it with the coring end enharged. 




APPLE-PARER. A machine used in jam 
factories, cider works, and restaurants 
for peeling apples rapidly. There are 
various forms, but all 
principle shown here 



the 





APPLE-PIE. Apples peeled and sliced, 
placed in a dish, covered with pastry, 
and baked in an oven. 
APPLE-PIE BED. Bed which, for a 
joke, has one o( the sheets doubled 
upward in the middle. 




APPLE-ROT. A disease caused by the 
lun^'us, Glomerella rufo-maculans, at- 
-.icking garden and crab apples. 
APPLE SAWFLY. A European hymen- 
.jpterous insect which in the larval 
stage does much damage to apples. 



m^^r 



APPLE SORTING MACHINE. A 

machine for grading apples in sizes. 
The apples pass over a grid with holes 
and fall through into a receptacle as 
soon as they reach a hole too big for 
them. Above is the machine, and 
bene.ith it part of the grid. 





APPLE-SPHINX. An American rela- 
tion ol the British privet hawk moth 
known as Sphinx gordius. Its apple- 
green larva feeds on the foliage of the 
apple tree. 



APPLE SCAB. The most injurious 
tungus disease ot apples. It is present 
wherever apples grow and is due to the 
lungus Venturia inequalis. 
APPLE SCALE. Or mussel scale, an 
insect pest infesting fruit trees. 





APPLE SUCKER. Or Psylla mall, a 
pest whose larva, here shown magnified 
above the grown insect, does much 
harm to apple buds 
APPLE THRIPS, A minute insect often 
found on young withered apples. 



A wooden tray with a 

and a handle on which 

-ried without injury. 




„,..;.. into pupa The insect emerges 

APPLE-TREE BORER. A great pest 
in American orchards. Saperda candiai. 
It bores into the wood of apple and pear 
trees, as shown in these pictures. 
Apple Worm. See Codling moth. 




APPLICATOR, A surgical instrument 
use.! m applving caustic to a deep- 
seated part of the body. The pictures 
here show two forms. 






APPLI(}UE. An art term used where 
one material is fixed upon another, as, 
for instance, metal on wood in the 
decoration ot a room, enamel appliqui on 
a surface of filigree, and so on. 



APPLIQUE, POINT 



80 



APSE 



?iS!:srit». i^^'v :?c^^-M 



APPLIQUf. POINT. An openwork 
pattern, as of lace, on another material 



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APPOGGIATURA. A small ailditional 
note ui embellishment precedinfi and 
taking part ot its time from the nole 
with which it is connected. 











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APPOINTE. In heraldry, a term tor 
two pieces whose points touch, as of 
two chevrons reversed or swords with 
points meetinc i" the shield's centre. 




APPOLT OVEN. One desicjned lur 
producing; coke for metalluri;ical pur- 
poses. Here part is cut away to show 
the vertical retorts. 



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i- 



>A% 



ir 



APPOMATTOX COURT HOUSE. At 

this Virginian court house Lee sur- 
rendered to Grant in April, 1865, thus 
cndinc the American Civil War. 



'O 




APPONYI, COUM ALEt 








APPRENTICE. A s 

s-.rves a master in orvK-r to uain .i 
trade. From 1562 to tS14 it was tlie 
law of EnjlanJ that apprenticeship 
should last seven years. In this old 
picture the apprentices of a grocer- 
drui,",'ist are <i---ti :it their duties. 




APRICATION. I he practice of h.iskini; 
ni th^' sun for the sake of health or 
pkMsure .IS these children are doin.g. 
APRICOT. A Stone fruit between a 
peach and a plum; brought to England 
ni 1652. 



■O-iC''^- 



r:'^^l£i^ 







APRIL FOOL. The victim of a practical 
ji'k^' made on April 1. This custom is 
.in old one and was practised even by 
Ltean Sv.'ift. It was common in France 
much earlier than in England. 



fh 





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APRON. A covering to protect or 
adorn the front of the clothin?. The 
tirst two pictures show the old and new 
styles in domestic service, and the third 
a bishop's arron. a shortened cassock. 




APRON (carriaee). A .sheet of water- 
proot, dust-nroof, or warm material 
placed over the knees when driving. 




APRON fof a crab). The trun^uhr 

piete of shell covering most of the 
under side. It is clearly seen in the 

pirtMr'- uhii'h we 's'ive. 







APRON (ol a dam). The sloping, pi 
tective masonry covering the ktu 
portion of the outer wall. Here, i^i 
instance, is the apron of the great 
Sennar, or Makwar, Dam on the Blue 
Nile in the Sudin. 




APRON (Freemason's). One of the 

decorations in the form of an apron 
worn by Freemasons on ceremonial 
occasions. Such aprons are ornamented 
according to the rank and lodge. 




APRON (Of a gutter). A strip of lead 
directing the drip ot a wall into a gutter, 
as shown in the picture we give. 
APRON (off a ship). A piece of curved 
strengthening; timber in a ship just 
above the foremost end of the keel. 



:J^-^ 



APRON (Of a plane). The narrow piece 
of wood ill a carpenter's plane which 
holds the cuttinir piece, or blade, in 

positi(.in in the slut. 




L ^llll lln 






Apron 



APRON (Of skylight). The sheets of lead 
placed about a skylight where a dormer 
window like this meets the roof. 
APRON (Ol window). A term used by 
builders for the sill or lower part of a 
window, as shown in this picture 




APRON DEFENCE. A screen of hang- 
ing cables upheld by captive balloons 
to ward off attacks by hostile aeroplanes 
and airships in w.ir." 




APRON FISH. An acanthopterous 
species of the genus Percidae, inhabiting 
the mild European waters. 




Apron- Piece 
Apron- Unin'g 



APRON PIECE. The apron piece '>t a 
staircase is the piece of timber sup- 
porting the joistings in the landing 
places, and the apron lining is the piece 
of boarding which covers this. 




APSARA. A nymph-like beir.g in 
Hindu mythology. There are many 
apsaras which, originally forms of mist 
or cloud, grew into mundane nymphs 
and became spouses of the musicians of 
indra, god of the firmament- 

■ ■■" "l 




APSE. In a church or other buildiiiL;. a 
semi-circular ending or recess, often 
with a half dome above. The picture 
is of Santa Maria de las Gracias, Milan 



APSE-AISLE 



81 



AOUARnrrw 




APSE-AISLE. An aisle e.\tt:iiJiiii: 
round an apse, the example shown here 
beine from the old London church of 
St. Bartholomew the Great. 




APSIDAL CHAPEL. A cnapel openini; 
from an apse, as those opening from tlle 
apse of Le Mans Cathedral. 




APSIDES. The poMits in a planets 
eccentric orbit at which it is farthest 
from (A) and nearest to (B) the hudv 
round which it revolves. 





1-: ■'t«^-«»«"»=R'-*&- ■ —*-•'--'■ 







in France, has many apsiJhil-:^ 
Apsis. See Apsides. 




In^i^ 



APSLEY HOUSE. 1 ; j ; .: ; 
Hyde Park Corner. London, ^tven by 
the nation to Wellington in 1820. 



'P^^'^^^'^!^^^ 




'^*X 




APT ERA. An order of tiny wi unless 
m.sect.s. includini;: tlie sprinij-tails and 
>ristle-tails. Our examples are magnified. 

lou-^r one beint; -x bri'itle-tail. 




APTERIUM. A Space on a bird's skin 
>>. lurt; no feathers grow, as near a 
vulture's eye. 
APTERUS. A 70o)ot;ical term denotinc 

1 W niL.'l:"^''" Cr'.'.il nr ■ 







HI 



APULIAN POTTERY. Above is a winc- 

i.ir of old Apulian ware. 
APUS. The Bird of Paradise, a 
southern constellation south of Tri- 
anyulum Australe (which sec). 




APUS. A cenus of crustaceans which 
have feet though their name means 
without feet. A larce shield-like cara- 
pace covers the creature. 





APTERYX. IH kr.M, ,. -..ir.e. .h.c. 
turnal bird IuuikI mil;, iii .Ni» Zealand, 
where it is protected. Us wings, 
hidden under the leathers, are small 
and useless for Ilicht. 




APULEIUS, LUCIUS (h. abuut U.^ ,\.D.). 
A Koman philosopher, author of a lanious 
romance called The Golden Ass. 




AQUAEMANALE. A ,l r 

a grotesque water. ewer, as shown aPo\ 
originallv a Roman pitcher. 



f '^ ^w^. 





AQUAMARINE. biuiMi-i;ieeii ^..lid» .■: 
topaz, beryl, and apatite. Stones rougli 
and cut are shown. 
AQUAMETER. An early form ot th. 

pulsonieter pump (which seel. 



APULIA Now l'ui;lia,a Roma" 
.It the heel of Italy. The port oi - 
(Brundusium), here, is typical oi 
Adriatic coast. See Atlas 13, F 4. 




AQUAPULT. A small porl.il-k- lore;- 
pump (Which see), in which the liquid is 
delivered under pressure. 




AQUARIS NEBULA. A planetary 

,iti :i Aq.iariu5 : 




1 ishes in an .i.;ii.ir 



Wffll 



London Ztx> aquariuir 




AQUARIUM. A piace where livino 
specimens of aquatic animals and 
plants are kept. It may be quite small. 
as in the lower picture. Stt Col'>ur Pint 



AQUARIUS 



82 



ARABESQUE 





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. Sadacnbla» •" * • 


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. . Saaaisund 


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"•Skat . £, 




orScneat •' 




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AQUARIUS. The Water Bearer, a 
constellation of the Zodiac between 
Capricornus and Pisces. 




A(5U.>k:ij. I art this constellation is 
■ , men pouring water. 

AQUATIC BOX. One to hold tiny water 
creatures (or microscopic studv. 




f 






AQUATINT. All .icIiiuL; ^uniy, .: Ii.ill 
tone effect, as here, instead ot lines. 





I'-iniJinviiiani water supply 
AQUEDUCT. A conduit for brinjin 
water Irom a distance, ancient form 
beinff often beautiful and finely pre- 
served. Pipes, as in the bottom p'icture. 
now often replace masonry. 




AQIIILA J Italian city, us many 

chui... :::ii; that of Santa Maria, 

seen here (2.2. uJO). See Atlas 13, D 3. 





•' 








* %* 






, 








rarared 








a#Alta 


r 






AisrSiin 


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AQUILA. The Eaijk, :i northern con- 
stellation situated "in the Milky Way, 
nearly south of Lyra. 




AQUILA. A leading desk used in 
diiirches and rescmb intj an eagle with 
uini,'s outstretched. 

AQUILEGIA. A i^enus of the columbine 
whose blooms are likened to nests i)f 
Jdve'^ rir eajjles. 




AQUILEIA. A decayed Italian tou n ■■ 
the site ot one ol the t;reatest cities ot tli 
Roman Empire (4000). See Atlas 18, G : 




AQUILINE. Like an eat;le. especially a 
nusc curved or hooked as a Roman's. 
The portrait is of Vespasian. 
AQUINAS, THOMAS(l225-74). Famous 

Italian theuln^ical writer, surnamed The 
rather ot Mora! Philosophy, 
Aquitania. See Atlas IS. E %. 



ff'.. 




uuUllAntA. .., er.;aiitic 4;,000-t.in 
Cunard liner, launched in 19U and 
burning oil fuel. S6S feet long ; 24 knots. 



ARA. Ihe Altar, one ol tlie lilteeii 
ancient southern constellations, south 
of Scorpio. Its two briKhtest stars are 
of third magnitude. 




ARA. A name for the macaw, especi- 
ally tlie blue and yellow species. 



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An Ar,i;> d.in^.r ol Tunis 
ARAB. A pure Semitic race in Asia and 
Africa which has absorbed most other 
Semitic peoples and has played a great 
part in history, religion, and art. 




ARAB HORSE. i 

beautiful!)' Idiiiied :■ 
by the Arabs. The 
have its blood in th 



I. .a i.ivj .i 
best thorou 
eir veins- 



.1 nddvii 
ijhbreds 




ARABA. A name of the nuvvuni; 
monkey, a species common in the 
tropical re'^ions of America 




ARABAH A spri i le o.\-wagon 
1 I i 1 been much used i the East, 
especi.illy tn Turkey and IndKi 



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ARABELLA STUART {1575-1615) The 

next heir tu Oueen Elizabeth after James 
1. She was imprisoned by both monarchs 
and died in the Tower insane. 




ARABESQUE. The fanciful plastic 
method of decoration of the Arabs, 
often in llowing lines intertwined. The 
name is also applied to forms derived 
from Roman imperial times. 



ARABESQUE BINDING 



83 



ARACHNOID MEMBRANE 




ARABESQUE BINDING. Arabic style 
■ I biMkhindint;, of which we give an 



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ARABIC. This passage from an Arabic 
Bible represents the well-known words 
of St. John III, 16. 



( A Cm ^z JtT 

'^B ^^ a-s loh Jq 

2; J -^^ c/^Oh 



f til N 

V H 

.iJK _> W 

Jl ^v 



1 M 



ARABIC ALPHABET. The alphabet of 
the Arabs, of which we show letters with 
their Western eoiiivnlents. 




A vill.r.v volmol 111 Aral 




Une of Arabia s many tine mosques, ai ^aiia 
ARABIA. A sreat peninsula forming the south-western part of Asia. Coverim; 
1.200.000 square miles, it has some 5,000.000 people, but is ntostly pure desert. We 
liive two cli.iract eristic scenes in Arabian life aiul architecture. See Atlas ?A, H o. 




ARABIAN NIGHTS. A collection of 
tales said to have been told to Sultan 
Schahriar. here shown listening to them. 
Arabian Sea. See Atlas 2t. K 7. 




ARABIC ARCHITECTURE 

in Cordova Cathedral shows the rich, 
ness and grace typical of Arabic work. 



12 3 4 5 6 7 

1 6 ? V^ V 6 9 


8 9 
0° 



ARABIC FIGURES. The orii^inul nu- 
merals from which our tigures came. In 
the early forms shown here each group 
of figures is a single number. 




a 



ARABIC POTTERY. A style of pottery 

iiuiilc l\v tile ^^u^JTS, of which we give an 

fxitnirlt:. 

ARABI PASHA (1S39-19H). An 

Egypiian ieadcr of humble birth whi, 

triea to " 




ARA81S. A large geiuis o.' herbaceous 




I 



ARABOTEDESCO. An .l,..i.ii i.."i 
implying a mixture of the A\oonsh and 
r.erriian Gothic stvles in architecture. 

.IS in this view ni Palermo Cathedral. 




ARACARI. A species of toucms with 
latiuT smaller beaks than usual. iMany 
kinds are found in Guiana. 

IL 




ARACHIS. A genus of leguminous 
plants whose seeds, seen in the picture, 
yield valuable oil. 




ARACHNE. 

skilful w;a'. .r 

through Athene s lea: u.-y ; ine rope 

became a cobweb and Arachne a spider- 




"w^ 



ARACHNIDA. A larie genus of crea- 

-res including (I) scorpion. (2 and 3) 
.'den spider, with enlarged section, 
.1 harvestman. fs) water-mite 




I 

ARACHNIDIUM. The apparatus tn a 
spiJjr hv which its silky threads are 
s-creteJ and spun out. Several types 
,ire shown here. 



$p-*a'' ftcnt 




ARACHNOID MEMBRANE. The deh- 
cati tissue loosely covering the brain 
and spinal cord. This section of the 
spinal cord shows its position. 



ARAD 



84 



ARBALESTER 




ARAD. :'.-'r II. 

the i;rcat Hur.L;arian pkuii ; iiuw -.uuler 
Rumania (65.000). See Atlas 14, B 2. 




ARAOUS. An insect species witli uini;s 
composed ol distinct parts. Here arc 
A. corticalis {left! and A. nrientalis. 



.i/=i 








ARAFAT. riiis hili near Mecca is 
a famous pilgrimage centre and is known 
to the Arabs as the Mountain of Mercy. 
Arafura Sea. See Atlas 24. H 7- 





ARAGO, DOMINIQUE (17S6-1S53)- A 

nL.ti;d i rench scientist and astronomer. 
Aragon. See Atlas S, D l. 
ARAGONITE. Carbonate of calcium. 
iruui which molluscs make their shells. 
Araguaya, River. See Athis ^2. J ?. 




ARAL, LAKE. A sea m Turkestan 
coverintr 26.000 square miles. 




ARALIA. 

pith ol u 

ARAM, EUGENE UTOl-Sv)- School 
master hani;ed at York for murder, 
made famous bv Lord L}^ ton's romance 
and Tnm Hfod's r"?m. 




ARAMAIC. The language oi Aram, or 
North Svria, till Arabic took its place. 
The passage above is St. John 111, 16. 
This is the language that Jesus spoke 




ARAN. A group ol thrt: 

very picturesque islands at the entrance 

^n r,-' !'■■'■ in )r,.i,n,i Tn,i herc 




ARANDA, COUNT PEDRO DE U71.S- 
99). A Spanish minister who eftectcd 
vahicible reforms under Charles III. 





ARANEA. An old name for a 2:enus of 
spiders, now more generally called 
Araneida This one is a female, Aranea 
jdianta, a British spider. 
ARANEIDA. A super family and sub- 
i^roup of Arachnida containing the 
spiders as distinct from mites and scor- 
pions. This is Mvtjale coementaria. 




ARANGO. A kind ot rough carnelian 
bead troni Bombay, once much used as 
currency in the African slave trade 




ARANJUEZ. A line town 30 miles 
south ol Madrid with a historic palace 
which is now the property of the nation 
and is seen here {12.000). See Atlas S, 
t) 2. 



ARAPAIMA. A South American Iresh- 
w.ater tish. sometimes fifteen feet long. 







*■'•' - -"^^at^O^y 






*i,..-6^mSSMi 



ARAPUNGm, MUtilul South 

Anu'iicin I ... ^.u! v.jih a peculiar 
cry, sometimes harsh and sometimes 
like a silver gong, made with the aid of 
;i frontal excrescence. 




ARARAT, MOUNT. The famous moun- 
tain mentioned in the Bible and known 
to the Persians as Koh-i-Nuh, or the 
Mountain of Noah. 17.300 feet. See 
Atlas 19. D 2. 




-^k^V.-; 




ARAR. A large conilerous tree yielding 
snndarac gum. Above its cones are 
seen, the female being the larger. 
ARATIKA. A lamp] used in Hindu 
temple worship ; it is usually of brass 
and of some curious form, as seen here. 




ARATOR. A Roman ploughman and 
also a ploughing ox, both of which 
meanings are shown in this picture from 
an ancient bas-relief. 




ARATUS OF SICYON (271 213 B.C.). A 

Greek general and statesman of the 
Achaean League which he allied to 
Macedonia. 




ARAUCANIANS. The chief Indian race 
ot Southern Chile, a warlike, independent 
people, probably the finest natives ot 
South America. 




W 'V 




11 



ARAWAKS. A mild and gentle Indiai) 
people who once occupied the West 
Indies but were driven iro:ii the islands 
by the Caribs before Columbus's coming. 
A few live in British Guiana. 




ARBALEST. A medieval crossbow, 
usually lor discharging arrows The 
types shown here are (i) lever arbalest, 
(2) one with windlass and compound 

pulley-gear, (3) simple type, (4) bullet 
arbalest, (s) one for throwing stones. 



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ARBALESTER. A soldier armed with 
an arbalest or crossbow, as in ttiis picture 
ironi the Chronicles of Froissart. 



ARBELA 



sr, 



ARCADIA 




ARBELON. An axe-shaped knife with 
a round edge used by the Greeks for 
cutting leather. Representations of 
it are found as far back as in Cretan 
pittu^rraphs ';uLh as this. 



L fe^ 




ARBORING TOOL. An engineerini; 
tool uith a rosehead cutter for formini; 
a bearing lor a nut. 

ARBOR VITAE. The name of several 
CMiilvTous evergreens often used in 
r I 1,1 id for [garden fiedges. 



\ 



'% 



ARBER. EDWARD (1836-1912). An 
English man of letters who edited tli^' 
important works named English ReprintN, 
Arbino, Monte. See BeUinzona. 
ARBLAY. MADAME d' (1752-1S4.M 
Married name of Fanny Burney, an 
Enfflish novelist and diarist, a friend 
of Dr. Johnson. 




DIANAE. A tree-like pre- 
to a 



mercury 1 



ARBOR 

cipitate formed by addin; 
solution of silver nitrate. 
ARBORESCENT STRUCTURE. A form 
of structure in minerals such as native 
copper in which the mineral is more or 
Ifv-; tri^e-tik'' f'l n-'n *nr:nu*e. 






aiisi 




.t'^'^^ 



ARBOUR. ,T ^arvlv.i '.wok shelter 
among the trees. 

ARBRIER. The stock of a crossbow, 
seen here. 



'fV' 



)'■ 



w-.- 



ARBROATH. 

port, in Forf.ir.il. u V. It l:aj 1:1 its 
High Street the remains of a splendid 
abbey, seen here, founded by William 
the Lion in II7S in memory of Thomas 
Becket (21.0001. See Atlas 5. F 3. 




W'liL 



^.1 



ARBORETUM. .c; in which Speci- 

mens of growing trees and shrubs are 
displayed, as at Kew Gardens. 




ARBURY. The home, near Nuneaton, 
of George Bliot. She was born at 
South farm, sliown here, and passed 
her girlhood at Grift House, near by. 



M.>h 



ARBUTHNOT, JOHN (1667-1735). Phy- 
sician to Queen Anne and a witty 
writer, a friend of Swift, Pope, and Gay- 

ARBUTHNOT, SIR ROBERT (1864- 
1(16). An admiral who went down 
with his ship, th* n-i-^-'nc. at Jutland 



■D- 








ARCADE. 

supporting a roof, and Uj mak.i:.,,' an 
open-air promenade. The Palace of the 
Doges at Venice, which we iiivc here, is 
a notable example. 



ARBUTUS. A .Ul.^^uli..; c.crgreeii 
heath tree of liurope and North 
America with bell-shaped Dowers and 
.ui orange-red fruit like a strawberry. 
but unpleasant to the taste. 
Arc, Joan of. See Joan of Arc. 




ARC. Any kind of curve, especially a 
portion of a circle. 

ARCA. A chest or*ox used in churches 
for receiving offerings. 



ARCADE. Ill lu*iu, .• ii^!K>M' >^lt'> ** 
jr.;.i<d roof, often ol Riais. with shops 



■f^... 




ARCA. A bu.\ in which the Hob. 
Eucharist was carried, as illustrated b> 
this quaint old picture. 




ARCA. A coflin. often of bake.t 

■d by the ancients. 
ARCA. A genus of deep-sea bivalves_ 




ARCADIA. A niiiy. ihiciiij-wuoaeii 
region in ancient Greece occupying the 
c.nlre of Peloponnesus. Life there was 
rustic and simple and much celebrated 
in po.'try and legend. See Atlas IT. D J. 

COVNTESSE 

OF PE.MBROKES 

A R C A D I .^ 

WRITTEN BY SIR PHILIPPE 
.^ I D N 1; L 



. -t*: .^ 



ARCABUCERO. A soldier armed with 
an arjuebus ^which see). 
Arcachon. See Atlas 7, C ■». 




L o N D O SI 
Pnnted for UViium Ponfonbir, 

ARCADIA. Name of several romances, 
the most famous being that wTitten 
by Sir Pliilip Sidney for his sister. Lady 
Pembroke. The title-page of the first 
quarto edition is shown here 



ARCADIUS 



86 



ARCHAIC 




ARCADIUS. The first Eastern Roman 
Emrcror, who reigned from 395 to 40S 
and made bad use of his power. 
ARCAS. Kin? of the Arcadians, son 
oi Zeus and Callisto. He is here seen 
with Mithridates (richtt. 




ARCATURE. A series ot little archer, 

as St;en here. 

ARC BOUTANT. A French term for a 

(I\ iiii: hiittross- 







ARC DE TRIOMPHE. Two arches in 
Paris, the one shown here being the 
famous arch at the Etoile commemorat- 
ing Napoleon's victories. The other is 
the beautiful Arc de Triomphe du 
Carrousel at the Tuileries Gardens. 

r 




Roman cart boarded all 
semhle an area, or chest. 



ARC FORMERET. 1 1\-- arc. or arch (A), 
■which receives the vaulting at the side of 
^ vaulted bav. 






HI 




Acute Catenarian Cusped False Inverted Stepped 






Cinquefoil Clustered 



Compound 



It 





,^- ^ 




Mil// 





Depressed Drop Elliptic Equilateral Extradosed Flat 





ARCH (Of the foot). This iUu.stra;iun 
shows the arch shape of the bone. 
ARCH, JOSEPH (1826-1919). Founder 
in 1S72 ot the National Union of 
Atrricultural Labourers. 
Archaean. See Geological chart. 










ARCHAEOLOHY. 1 he Study ot ai-cient 
"I'l >-t>, lit.)! iiceiling prolonged,, and 
lulls CALavalions. This pfcture 
shows the scene when the great winged 
bull at Nineveh was moved. 



Ogee 



Pointed horseshoe 



Pointed 



Rampant 




Straight Surmounted Trefoil Triangular 

ARCH. One of the essential and most interesting features ot architecture, the 
arch has been used by every people from time immemorial, examples 6ooo years 
old in unburned brick having been found at Nippur in MesoOotamia. In the pictures 
above are illustrated some of the chief forms of arches, such as have been used 
throughout the ages and on which most other forms are based. 



A'^ch-icopteryx reconstructed 
ARCHAEOPTERYX. A Mesozoic crea- 
ture regarded as the first bird. It had 
feathers and a curious, elongated tail. 
clearly shown in this restoration. 




ARCHAGORA. ' . n m whose 

remarl- . ; .i > l i ... ; i , .iMwn here. 

is now 111 tlu' rritish ^\iiseiini. 





ARCHAIC. A l.M , .1 1.1 L-.irly 

and primitive work in art. These old 
Greek statues, for instance, are archaic 
compared with the work of Praxiteles. 



ARCHAISTIC 



ARCHET 






ARCHAISTIC. A bte ich^ul ol cLiSi^- 
cal sculpture in imitation of the archaic, 
or rrimilive. Greek styles. 

ARCHANGEL. Highest ancelic order, 
Michael (shown here), Gabriel. Raphael, 
arJ Uriel being Christian archangels. 
Archangel. 



ARCHCHANCELLOR. A high title <il 
the llulv Kiini.in Empire borne by the 
archbishops of Cologne, Treves, and 
Mainz. This picture, from the tomb 
of a Mainz archchancellor, shows him 
with three kings whom he crowned. 



ARCHELAUS OF PRIENE. A fair n 

*jreel^ sculptor, liis splendid bas-reiicf 
in marble of Homer's apotheosis is here 
given. It is in the British Museum. 




ARCHANGEL. 1 he chiet Arctic port of Rus-ia. m the Ahite Sea. It has large 
fisheries, and trades in flax, oats, tar, linseed, furs, tallow, and timber between 
June an4 October. We give a general view.of the cilv (^5.000). '■"■ "'-' "• ^- '' 



See Atlas 16, G 2. 




ARCHANGEL. \ 

pigeon with black and Cjprery plunuL'-j. 





I- 






ARCHDEACON. I 

Jcacon of a cathedr.i' . '■■ • 
deputy over part of his diucesc. 
ARCH DRUID. A ceremonial 
held at the Welsh Eisteddfods. 



rank 



ARCHBAR. An arch-shaped sti 
which forms the top member i. 
side-frame of a bogie truck. 




ARCH-BAR. A bar ol arched shape, 
su.'n :1s il:e iron bar over an ash-pit door. 
ARCHBISHOP. The chief bishop of a 
province, who besides having his own 
diocesc presides over a group. 




..-.-^-t^N^ 



^^ 



Archery ground 




\ J.'} 



ARCHER. One who shoots with bow 
in.t arrows, as in the modern pastime 





ARCHED. A term in heraldry for an 
ordinary (which see) with both sides 
slightly' curved, as in the picture. 
ARCHED BEAM. One bent, cut. or 
built up in the form of an arch to 
priAiJe a long span. 



ARCHER, FRED 11S57-S6)- Ajockey 
uhn Weill 274Sr.ices and five Derbys. 
ARCHER, WILLIAM (1856-1926). A 
British man of letters who translated 
Ibsen, and wrote The Green Goddess 
Archer, The. See Sagittarius. 



^J 



ARCHERY. Shooting w:ih the bow. 
We give in the lower picture some of the 
equipment used by archers of old : (1) 
English isthcentury bow. (2) English 
arrowheads. (3) Grecian bow. (4) Red 
Indian bow. (5) Egyptiin quiver. 
(6) Graeco- Egyptian quiver. (7) Egypt- 
ian arrow. (8) Theban bow-cise and 
quiver. (9) Etruscan bow. 



Northern arches Black arches 



>:' 




ARCHER FISH 

l:sh uhi. . 
by s.}uiriiu.. 



Last Indian 
insect prev 
on it. 



ARCHELAUS. We give acoinot this king 
of Cappadocia, about 34 D.C.-17 *-D. 



ARCHBOLD, JOHN O. (1818-1016). A 

pior.e-er of the .American oil industry. 
ARCHBRICK. A wedge-shaped brick 
used 10 get the curve in arches. 




V<2sP' 



ARCHELAUS. An bgvptian king de- 
feated and slain by the' Romans about 
^s B.C.. w'hose portrait is on the left : 
also a Macedonian king. 413-399 B C- 
whose coin is given. 







Female of black arches 



^iir^ 



Grey arches Bufl arches 

ARCHES. Several species ot British 

moths are named arches, as seen above. 



ARCHER'S DART. A Uritish moth 
seen in good numbers in July, esreciall> 
near the coasts. Its wings .we light 
brown with darker markings. 



ARCHET. The kind ol bow used by 
a turner (top) ; also a fiddler's bow. 



ARCHIBUTES 



ARCHITECTURE 




ARCHIMANDRITE. An ancient title in 
the oreck Cliurcii for a superior of a 
monastery or an abbot controlling; 
several religious houses. 
ARCHIMEDEAN DRILL. Drill with a 
stock consistini; of a coarse screw 
thread, giving an alternating rotary 
motion when a nut is slid up and down. 

r 




ARCHIMEDEAN SCREW. A machine 
attributed to Archimedes consistinc: ol a 
cylinder with a watertight spiral within. 
It is so inclined that the spiral, re- 
volving, carries the water up and out. 




ARCHITECT. A planner ot buIl^ill^s. 
\h! great architect Inigo Jones is hcrL- 
sciTishowm- his plans to James 1. 







.^^^^ g^5^£|||Ij^ 



Milan 

Cathedral 



mm: 

■ r- ■ , T p 



V 



K. It ha 115 
Cologne 





ARCHITECT'S CURVES. Shapes ena- 
bling many curves to be drawn quickly. 



Council Olfices Houses ol Sin,i;er building 

Newburn-on-Tyne Parliament New York 

ARCHITECTURE. The science of building. These pictures illustrate its evolution 
[rum the rou!;'li huts ot primitive man to ttie vast buildinsjs of modern times 



ARCHITEUTHIS 



HO 



ARDETTA 




ARCHITEUTHIS. The giant squid, the 
larcest invertebrate known, sometimes 
measurin? 60 feet. For defence it emits 
a dark fluid. 



Arctiitrave 







ARCHITRAVE. In classical .archi 
tecture. the stone beam placed on top ol 
the capital of a column and supporting 
the frieze abo\e it 




ARCHIVES. A term for a stnre ..( 
othcial papers and documents, especially 
a collection of public or State records. 
We show a modern archive chamber 
and an ancient vault used for archives 
of cuneiform inscriptions. 




ARC LAMP. An electric lamp with two 
carbon rods connected to a current of 
snrticient voltage to produce an electric 
arc between the poles. 
ARCOGRAPH. An instrument for 
drawing an arc without using a central 
point. It consists of a pliable strip 
attached to a bar. 





ARCOLA, BATTLE OF. Napoleons 
qreat victory in 1 796 over the Austrians. 
Arcot See Atlas 22, E 6.- 



ARCTIC FOX. A species found tlirounh- 
out the Arctic, its fur being in winter 
quite white, though the upper part of 
its summer coat is brownish, ft feeds 
largely on sea birds and lemmings. 
Arctic Ocean. See Atlas 33, 36. 
Arcturus. For star see Bootes. 
Arcubus. See Arquebus. 

t 

i 





ARDAGH, SIR JOHN (1!>40-I907). A 
British soldier noted for his intelligence 
work before the Boer War. 
AROAGH CHALICE. One of the finest 
known examples of early Celtic art. 
found at Ardagh, Limerick, in 1S6S. 
Ardea. See Egret. 





ARDEN. A beautiiui »ij.jj.a c:-.u;^: in 
Warwickshire, the remains ol the Forest 
of Arden of Shakespeare's comedy 
As You Like It. Touchs- ' • '-ey 

are here seen in Ard: a. 

John Collier's painting. 



The discovery of the North Magnetic Pole by James Ross in iSji 



ARCHWAY. All .:iir.int.- Mriii.j I'v 
an arch, as illustrated by this picture 
of the famous arch entrance to the Ming 
tombs near Peking, China. 




ARDENNES. A ruieiJ lu. ;..i , ..^.-..^ . 
Belgium and Northern France, contain- 
ing much picturesque scenery. Wild 
boar and deer abound but the last 
wolf was killed in the iSth century. 
Here is a tvpical scene sh..\»i:ir fi; 
River Meuse. See Atlas 10. P 




ARCTIC. The part of the globe from the North Pole to the parallel of latitude 
about 231 degrees from it. Owing to its position relative to the Sun the Arctic 
region is "e.xtremely cold and almost impenetr.ible, but many journeys have been 
made over it by explorers, as shown in this map. 



ARDETTA 

found ... i... 



small kind of heron 
em Hemisphere 



ARDFERT 




ARDFERT. Here .it, 

finest remains in Co. Kerr). iiul.Kl: 

these 13th-century monastic ruins. 




ARES 



AROROSSAN. A pu: I iii Ayrsl'ire witll 
an excellent harbour and associations 
with William Wallace. The castle is 
shown (sSoo) See Atlas 5. D 1. 



ARDISHIR. Urst of the Persian Sas 
sanid kinirs. who overthrew the Ar- 
sacids about 226 a.d. 
AROITI, LUIG1(1S22-1903). An Italian 
composer and operatic director who 
lived much in Encland. 




ARDLUKE. A name, said to be from 
an l.skrmo word, for the Rrampus known 

1(1 svIj:k-.' as Orca ijladiator 





ARENG. An East Indian palm yielding 
saso from its trunk, .sugar from its 
juices, and fibre for cordage. 




ARENtCOLA. The generic name of the 
lob-worm, which is common on .all 
sandy shores and widely used by fisher- 
men as bait. 

'6 




I 




AREOLA. A botanical term tor the 
meshes of cellular tissue on a surface, as 
of a leaf. 

AREOLA. A tile of earthenware, or a 
plate of stone or marble, forming part 
of a pavement. 



Area of a house 
AREA. Two uses of the word area in 
connection with buildings are illustrated 
above. The top picture shows the area 
between the wings in front of an ancient 
buildins ; in the lower picture the area 
lamiliar in town houses is seen. 




ARDMORE. A WaterforJ village whose 
oratorv and curiously carved cathedral 
are bo'th of the 7th century. Above is 
its round tower. See Atlas 6, D 5. 




ARECA. tall palms, one of 

whu! . -V! ■ •' lin, produces betel 

nuts. E:,aniplesof these nuts, closed and 
cut through, are given here, with leaf. 







^■^%f-'^-. 




11 1,1 I 1, today 

AREOPAGUS. The hill in ancient 
.\thens where a famous council of 
elders met and Paul preached. 



AREOLATED. A term meaning 

divided into small spaces by intersecting 
lines and used to describe a garden 
much divided up into plots and beds. 




istijle 



Diasttjlei 



^ 



^ 



i Areostyle 



AREOSTYLE. A proportion used in 
spacing ancient columns, as shown in 
the diagram we give. 



AREQUIPA. City ol Peru, founded in 
1540 (40.000). See Atlas 32, D 7- 



ARDNAMURCHAN. A finely-wooded 
district near the westernmost point of 
Scotland. Here is Glenborrodale Castle. 




; 



ARDOCH. A ierlh.^hiie village with 
the finest Roman camp in Britain. Its 
site is shown here. See Atlas 5, B 3. 




ARENA ( Latin, sand). Any open space where spectacles take place, especially 
tlie sarded area for gladiatorial combats in Roman amphitheatres. This 
picture shows the dramatic moment when a Christian monk sprang into the arena 
at Rome and denounced the cruelty of gladiatorial shows. 
Arendal. See Atlas ii, E 7 



ARES. The Gieek equivalent ol Alars, 
the god of war, who is often represented 
in ait as a handsome, lieardless youth. 



ARETAS 



91 



ARGENTINA 





ARETAS. Name ot several kings of the 
Nabataeans, an ancient Syrian people. 
The lower coins are of Aretas IV. 
\'. ho reigned fr(ini 9 B.C. to 40 a. D. 





AREZZO VASE. A 

rL'd-Uistre ware tuuiul 

ARGALA. The Indian adjutant, 
classed with the African marabou for 
its soft under-winc feathers. 



f%^ 



ARETHUSA. In GreeK legend, a 
ivmph who fled to Syracuse and was 
.haneed into a spring to escape her 

-.v?r. H.?r be:id is on Svrarusan coins. 



^ 



ARETHUSA. iwn tranimi;. 

vhip, sh'iuii -- t ;'.H>ned on the 

Thames at Greenhithe, and maintained 
by the Shaftesbury Homes 
r- — ? 



.-?^*. 



^ 



ARGALI. The great mountain sheep of 
Northern Asia, with magnificent horns, 
sometimes four feet long. The name 
is also given to the aoudad and the 

American hi'.;horn. 





ARGAND BURNER. A eas-liurncr pro 
ducing a hnllnw tlamc supplied with air 
from within and witliout. 
ARGAN TREE. A tree growing in 
.Morocco. The wood is hard and the 
nuts furnish an edible oil. 




4RETINE WARE. Types of the pottery 
lor \wiich Arezzo. Italy, is famous. 
ARETIN, LEONARDO. Chancellor of 

: • .::, 1^27-14. and man of loti.-rs. 



& 



'i— . 






ARETINO, PIETR011492-1556). Italian 

satirical poet, called the .Scourge of 

Princes. 

AREZZO GUIDO D'. An 11th-century 

Italian monk who reformed musical 

r.otafi'tii 




ARGELANDER, FRIEDRICH (1799 
1S75). A German astronomer who 
made a complete survev of the northern 
heavens while at Bonn University. 
ARGEMA. A genus of the lepidopterous 
insects whose members, as shown, have 
!ung extensions of the wings. 




ARGENSOLA, BARTOLOME DE (IsOJ 
1631). A n.it;d .Spanish poet and his- 
torian whose works include a continu.i. 
tion of the Annals of Aragon and .i 
history of the conquest nf the Moluccas. 
ARGENSON, COMTE MARC DE (1(,')(.- 
1764). A capable minister uf Lmiis X\' 
who was banished from Paris throui; 
the influence of Madame de Pompadour 



AREZZO. Old Tuscan city, with this 
cathedral (50,000). See Atlas U. C 3. 





ARGENTAN. A line old I rencli town in 
Normandy, with two splendid churches. 
This niagniiicent doorway belongs to 
that of .St. Martin. See Atlas 7. C 2. 



ARGENT AND SABLE MOTH. A 

Uritish moth, li inches across the 
wings, which are cream-coloured, with 

nroad black hind margins. 




ARGENTAN POINT, iii: iir:; ij^= .. j-c 
.it Argentan, Normandy, close to the 
famous lace town of Alcncon. 
ARGENTEUS. A Roman silver coin 
introduced by Caracalla, whose head 
this example bears. It ^adually 
supplanted the denarius. 




ARGENT. Heraldic silver, shown 
drawings by a plain surface. 



ooiiic ol ArkiCiiltna's nulhuas ol catll», a ^r.,i'. s .'.i: c: .': \* . .:.. .". 
ARGENTINA. The' second largest South American Republic: area 1,150,000 
sduire miles; population 0,000,000 : capital Buenos Aires (2,000,000). Famous 
as one of the world's chief granaries, it produces huge quantities of grain and 
linseed, and has a vast trade in frozen meat. See Atlas 32, I- ii. 



ARGENTINE 



ARGYLLSHIRE 



^^emas^MMKtf'^t -tM 



ARGENTINE. A lish so named hecaii^^ 
cf tlK- silvery look ol its scales, arRentuii 
bcnVv the Latin lor silwr. 




ARGENTINE GLASS. An ornaiiiciUal 
Classware with the slieen of silver 





ARGENTO. A silver coin struck liy 
Pope Clement V at Carpentras, near 
Avipnon, in the early 14th century. 




ARGES CATHEDRAL. The strange- 
lui.kiii'.; c.itlu-Jral at Curtea-de- Arges. 
Rumania. 



^ 



ARGHYA. A metal lamp for a lloatii 
uick used in Hindu temples. 



f®?fe*^ 



ARGONAUTS. The Gtcck luTufS who sailed in the ship \ri^o to Cu!i.his tu w mi 
the (jolden Fleece. Their leader was Jason, who 'iccomplished the que^t with 
the help of the sorceress Aledea, the king's daughter who then fled with him 
Being pursued, Medea avoided capture by throwing overboard her >oung hrothn 
thus delaying her father's ship, this picl-ure is bv Mr Herbert Draper 



' '• '-- -' ;--■ 

Eta Arqus v _ ' 
orEtaCarinae "puppis 



'■1|»canopus ,-''* 



ARGO NAVIS. The Ship Ariio. the 
larijest constellation in the heavens. 
Argonne. See Atlas, France. 




ARGOS. 


An old Greek 


city. 


We 


stiow 


the ruins 


on the top 


ol its 


acropolis. 


See Atlas 


1 7, D 5. 








Argostoli. 


See Atlas i 


'. B 4. 







^ 




ARGO, NEBULA OF. A nebula in tne 
constellation (tf An-o Navis (which see) 



^^' 



A..^_.....:. A cutllelish «ith a shell. 
as shown here by the paper nautilus at 
rest and. above, swimniinc. 



ARGOSY. A poetical description of 
•^sel carrying rich merchandise 




ARGUS. The hundrcd-eycJ guardian ot 
lo. vlioni Zeus changed into a cow. 



Male 

WW 









.■-,/' v»r.' 

Under side 



Egg 



ARGUS, BROWN. A butterfly found 
in Southern England, its wings being 
dark brown with orange spots. 




Pup.i 



Under side Egg 

ARGUS, SCOTCH. Butterfly found in 
Scotland and North England: it has 
dark brown wings with rusty red bands. 




ARGUS PHEASANT. A large and 
beautilnl species from Farther India, 
with very long tail feathers. 
ARGUS SHELL. A gastropod ot the 
tamily Cypraeidae or rorcelain-shells. 



ARGYLL, MARQUESS OF II607-6I). 
Montrose's enemy, who twice changed 
Sides in the Civil War and was beheaded 
by Chirles II 

ARGYLL,9th EARLOF(ir>29-85). Son 

nl thi \\ir,iuLss (lift) and champion 
n int ?s beheaded after 




ARGYLL, 8th DUKE OF (1.S2J-1900) 
A Liberal minister and writer who 
resigned in tSSl over the Irish question. 
ARGYLL, 9th -DUKE OF (184S-19t4). 
Governor-General of Canada from 1878 
to 1.SS3. H-' married Princess Louise. 




ARGYLL, LAST SLEEP OF. This 
famous painting by E. M, Ward, R.A., 
is in the Houses of Parliament. The 
Argyll it represents is the 9th earl, a 
partisan of Monmouth who was be- 
headed in Edinburgh in 16S5. 





Badge of the 
Argyll and 
Sutherland 
Highlanders 
Argyll anil Sutherland Highlanders. A 
famous Scottish regiment, a union of 
the old 91st and '.)3rd Foot. The 91st 
(Argyll) was raised in 1794 and the 
93rd (Sutherland, in 18no. 




J 
ARGYLL CAR. A liritish make ot 
motor-car. We show a touring model. 
Argyllshire. See Atlas 5. C V 



ARMY UNIFORMS— WORN BY SOLDIERS OF THE CENTURIES 




ENGLISH 1649 



FRENCH 1709 PRUSSIAN 1756 ENGLISH 1815 



ENGLISH 1918 ENGLISH 1928 



Army unilorms are almost infinite in tneir variety, but have become far less decorative in modern times. The English uniforms oi 
1918 and 1928 show respectively the plain khaki dress worn on active service in the Great War and a decorative uniform worn on ceremonial occasions. 

See pas-e 99 



ASSYRIAN ART— FRAGMENTS OF AN ANCIENT EMPIRE 




From the wall ol a palace at Nimrod 



See pase no 



AKIADNE 



ARISTOTLE 





ARIADNE. Th^ daughter ot Minos, Kint; ol Crete, AruJne lied with Theseus. 
whom she had helped to escape from the labyrinth (which see), but he abandoned 
her. Bacchus, however, found her sleepinc;, as shown (x) in this beautiful ancient 
sculpture, and was so enchanted by her beauty that he married her. 




ARICA. A mineral port oi Northern 
Chile the terminus of a railway from 
La Paz (10.000). See Atlas 52, D 7- 
Arided. For star see Cy^^nus 

r 




ARIEL. The da 
Prospero in Shak 


inty sprite wIki serves 
espeare's Tempest. 


• 




Hamal 
Sti£ratan»/? 






. Mesai-triim 



ARIES. The Ram, a constellation of 
the Zodiac, between Taurus and Pisces. 




ARIES. The Latin name lor a batter- 
in.; ram. which often had a ram's head. 
Arimathea, Joseph of. '^ - ■ 'n ■-'■ 




ARION. A Greek lyre-player whose 
music is said to have charmed even a 
dolphin, which carried him on its back 
when enemies threw him into the sea. 
He is said to have been a friend of 
Periander, the great tyrant of Corinth. 



ARIOSTO, LUDOVICO (1474-1533) 

Italian pO'^t ;rut urn.T of plays wh(. 
wrote Orlando hurioso. He was also 2 
statesman and a satirist. 




ARISH. A small Et;yptian town on the 

.a.r.ivan nute to Palestine. 

mJWF 





~<^ ^?t^^<^ 



ARISTARCHUS. A Greek who in thj 
lird century B.C. declared that th.' 




ARISTIDES Id. al'out 4t'S B.C.). A 
lanious Athenian statesman and general 
surnamed The Just. This picture re- 
presents the lanious incident of the 
peasant who wished him to be exiled 
but could not mark the votin? shell. 
and bet^i^ed Aristides to do so 



ARISTOCRAT. A term used noiabl) 
in the Trench Revolution for memben 
<}l the nohilitv and pri\;:.-/-j - :iv;^<. 




■}> 



"i 



ARISTOLOCHIA. A 

160 s['ecies, including :h- :aa;iI;Aj 
Dutchman's pipe, shown here. 
ARISTOPHANES. The sreatest Athe- 
nian comic poet, who lived about 
450-380 B.C. 





Aristotle thmk-ng 
ARISTOTLE (3S1-322 B.C.)- One 01 the 
i:reatest Greek philosophers, a pupil of 
Plato and the tutor ot Alexander 

I i 



ARITHMETICAL TRIANGLE 



94 



ARLON 





1 
1 1 

r 2 1 




1 3 3 1 




14^41 


1 


5 '" '"5 1 


1 


6 1^ 20 13 6 1 


I 7 


2J J5 as 21 7 1 



ARITHMETICAL TRIANGLE. In 

niathematics, one formed by the orderly 
arranceniii ' ' ' ': "uinial coeHicients. 



n ''i' 


& 




M^ 


1 -I 


/Am! 



ARITHMOMETER. A calculator for 
doing arithmetical sums. 
ARIUS. Tlie founder ol Arianisni in 
the fourth ceiitur\' a. I). 




ARIZONA. An American South- 
western State, famous for its canyon 
scenery. See Atlas 30, D 4. 




ARK. Perhaps the most popular toy 
that has been invented, known to 
children in Christian countries since 
quite early times from the Bible story 
of Noah's Ark 




ARK. An old name 1..: .;._„ mt-i. 

such as this handsome example in the 
Flemish stvle from Guestlinp;, in Sussex. 




ARK. A tlat-bottomed boat or raft on 
which livins quarters are built. 
Arkaig, Loch. See Atlas 5, C 3. 
Arkansas. See Alias 30, H 3. 



.J i^.13B^s 



^Mm^ 



A' 



m 


wm 


^B. 


,^#H| 


H^k ,- ^ 


'-'^K 


■■'.r 


^^ 



ARK OF MOSES. 1 lu- a.uilt: ul par^rLi- 
in winch the future leader ot the 
Israelites was hidden in the bulrushes. 




ARK OF NOAH. The vi-ssei described 
in GeiK'MN \ I, 14-21, which sheltered 
every kind ot creature and alone with- 
stood the Deluge. In Gustave Brinn's 
picture, here, Noah is seen issuing forth 
as the waters subside. 



"il 



■^ 



•nr-r 



•■^ 



ARK OF THE COVENANT. The most 
sacred Jewish reliirious emblem, de- 
scribed in Exodus XXV. In it the Tables 
of the Law were kept. 




ARKLOW. A seaport in Co. Wicklow, 
al the mouth of the Avoca. We show- 
its ruined castle (5000). See Atlas 6, E 4. 




"^:; 



ARK ROYA^ 

tons) in QuL- M 



irsjest ship (Son 
,\it-^-tli's Navy. 




ARK SHELL. I ha"t ol a mollusc ol the 
laniily Arcidac. Four kinds are shown. 



r^i- 




Arkwricht's spinning frame 



^**^&# 




ARKWRIGHT, SIR RICHARD. In 

ventor of the cotton-spinnin? frame, 
shown above, in 1769, and Urst textile 
manufacturer to employ machinery on 
a large scale. Born at Preston in 1732, 
he died at Cromford. Derbyshire, in 1792. 




ARLANDES, MARQUIS D'. A French 
pioneer ot Hying who tested a Mont- 
goltler balloon in 1783. He appears 
here (left) with his airmen friends. 




ARLBERG PASS. A 6000-toot Tirolese 
pass, with an important railway tunnel. 
See Atlas 9, E i. 









St. Trnpiiinuis\ i 



EM^-'''""' ' '"'■'I 




The amphitheatre at Aries 
ARLES. An ancient city ol Provence 
with a Roman aqueduct baths, and 
an amphitheatre. The church of St. 
Trophimus Is one ot the most famed in 
France (20,000). See Atlas 7. F 5. 




ARLINGTON. 1 h. 

i^Miu-t jrv near W.i\!iini,'tn 




ARLINGTON, EARL OF (I61S-S5). A 
niijinber of Charles ll's Cabal Ministry 
Arlon See Atlas to D 5. 



ARM 




ARMENIA 



upper limb ot the human 
; top picture shows the bones 
it. and below is an arm from 
ilpture of John the Baptist. 



The piCiiiiUii^'j or hair\ unnadillo 
ARMADILLO. A South Americaii 
burrowini; mammal whose bony arm.i 
ment enables it to roll itself up like j 
hedKehoii. We Rive two examples. 




"-t^->^- 




The Armada sailing up the Channel 

ARMADA, THE. Tlie trreat Spanish fleet that sailed from Cadiz in June, 1 5Ss. 
to convoy Parma's army from the Netherlands to invade England. Lord Howard 
of Etnngham. Drake. Hawkins, and Frobisher defeated the galleons in the 
English Channel, and those that survived lied round the north of the British Isles, 
strewing the coasts with their wrecks. 




ARMADA MEDALS. The first ever struck 
to celebrate a hritisti triumph. They were 
probably worn as decorations. 




ARMAGEDDON. i .:c ^jcu i<.>ale .it 
the End ot Time (Rev. XVI, 16), th,- 
word coming possibly from the old 
battlefield Megiddo. now occupied by 
Jewish settlements such as these. See 
Megiddo for excavations there. 



ARMAGH. Capital ui Co. Arma-h. 
Northern Ireland, and seat of the Irish 
Roman Catholic and Protestant pri- 
mates. The Roman Catholic cathedral 
IS seen here (7500). See Atlas 6, E 2. 




ARMANDIA. A Chinese butterliy with 
■Airig expanse of four inches. 




ARMATURE. That part of a dynamo. 
or electrical machine, in which the 
electro-motive force arising from electro- 
magnetic induction is generated. We 
show the armature of a six-phase 
rotary converter. 




ARMATURE. The soft piece of iron 
cumitvtini; the poles of a magnet. A 
magnet so fitted Is said to be armed. 








ARMATURE. An .ircliitecturai term 
used for the modern steel skeleton of 
a great building. 





'-V 






Y.irkshir.-. l'^ 



fi„..: i 





.4 



Modern English armchairs 
ARMCHAIR. The armchair has stood 
111 the homes of civilised peoples from 
time immemorial, and these pictures 
show the variety and beauty of old styles. 




■1^ 




ARMED. In heraldry, animals used in 
blazonry having beaks, talons, horns, 
or teeth ; also a botanical term for any 
plant with thorns or prickles. 
Arminia, Ancient See Atlas 19. D 2. 



ARMENIAN 



96 



ARMOUB 




ARMENIAN- ; "" 

Their duel hon.c is aniuii^ the moun- 
tains of Eastern Turkey. Tlie Armenian 
Cliurcli was toundod aVout 300 *.D. 



]AfnL. np y^umni-uii^ ui'bulhlf 
A/1 J^ui&fi'b (J/'7^^ utnt-mi- . 





ARMENIAN. This passaiie 
Armenian Bible is frnin St. Joh 


from an 
n III, 16. 


(/■8^,crt3"lan■(/■iS''3^*•''o* 

-rfl 'itr.P ■tti/-» ','■ ^-i^-r 



ARMENIAN ALPHABET. These char 
acters, used in ordinary books, were 
invented by Mesrob in the 5th centurv. 






ARIWIDALL 

Wales, witll tliesc well-known L,uy 
Fawkes I alls (5000). See Atlas 36, J 5. 





ARMING BUCKLE. A buckle, often 
very ornate, used in lastening armour 
in uldeil times. 

ARMING DOUBLET. A doublet form- 
ini; an important part of a medieval 
fni.t-MiMiiT's equipment. 
Armine-press. See Blockini; press. 




ARMOIRE. Au old name for a cup. 
board. The cupboard we give here is an 
ancient one in Lincoln Cathedral. 




ARMORIAL BEARINGS. The heraldic 
bearings ol an individual or community 
consisting ol some device in heraldic 
tinctures, or colours, on a shield, gener- 
ally with a crest and supporters, as in 
the Duke of Norfolk's bearings (left). 
We show also the bearings of the Em- 
peror Charles V.' See also Bearing. 




ARMIAK. An outer garment ol the 
Russian peasants made "of woven cam 
hair, which is also called armiak 



ARMILLARY SPHERE. An arrange, 
nu-nt of rings to show the relative 
pr>sitions of the chief celestial circles 
the whole series revolving on its a.xis 
within a horizon divided into degrees 
and movable m every direction 



ARMLET.'' Here is seen a type of arm 
let worn by Ancient Britons. 



ARMOUR. Any covering worn 
to protect a person against offensive 
weapons. Various kinds ol armour 
are shown here See separate names 



ARMOUR 



ARMSTRONG-SIDDELEY 




A:i '.U-liTil:' ar:tv:>iir;r .1! U'^rk 




ARMOUR, PARTS OF, The parts tluit 
make up a conipl^ts suit of armour 
are shown b\ this ancient effi'^v in 
Haversham Church. Ncttlnchamshir.-. 




ARMOUR. PHILIP (iSi2-y-)0\). An 
Ameiican philanthropist, head of the 
Chicago firm of meat-packers. 
ARMOUR-BEARER. A sqjire who 
carried armour for a person of rank, as 
this -juir; n! an Anirlo-Saxon kin:^. 




ARMOURED CAR. One with butL-t- 
proof plates and armed with machin- 
guns, as shown here. 



ARMOURED TRAIN 

lor ;;5; :■": u ,: .- rr.r: i:r.j; 

eouipped with gun:^ 'jf m^iJmm calibre. 




ARMOURED WIRE. A wire insulated 
and protected by an external covering;, 
often rubber, cotton, and iron wire. 




ARMOURERS AND BRAZIERS CO. A 

City of London Livery Company, its 
hall being in Coleman Str-eet. its two 
branches, both of the 1 5th century, were 
united in I 70S. We 'i'lvt their arms. 



«.SSi 




ARMOUR-PLATE. The rictlirL here 
illustrates the arrangement of a modern 
warship's armour-plates. The plates are 
at their thickest helow the water-line. 





ARMOURY. Aii> r..ice iihere u..;i-.,.:, 
,ire kept, as, for instance, at tiie Tower 
ii London. Here a corner of the Hnrse 
Ariiiourv there is seen. 




ARM-RACK, In this picture is shown .1 
tspicai r.ick used tor modern firearms. 
ARM-REST. The support ^on, which 
17th-century soldiers rested their mus- 
kets tor hrine 






ARMS. Armorial bearings (which see) 
borne upon the shield, as shown bv the 
Royal Arras, with motto, supporters, 
and crest. Of the arms proper two 
quarters are the lions of England, and 
Ihe others are the lion of Scotland and 
tlie Irish harp. Ste Colour Piste 
Arms fin warlare) See next pat'e. 





ARM-SLING. A looped bandace or 
U-.Uher trou'.:h suspended from the neck 
tn support a w'ounded arm. 




ARMSTRONG, ARCHIBALD (d. 1072) 
Court letter t(^ James and CharlesStuart. 

He was dismiss.-,! t.ir t.inntin^ Laud. 




ARMSTRONfi, 111 BARON ' I b I o- 1 y<jO). 

\'.';ili:ii;i ^tt<>:i_i .Armstron:;. whofounded 




ARMSTRONG CRANE. 




ARMSTRONG GUN. A rilled gun in 

\.:,-.J I". L.Td Armstrone about IS5S 



ARMSTRONG, JOHN (1709-79) 
Scottish doctor noted tor his satire: 
the medicine of his dav 




The self-chanjinc cear contro: 




ARMSTRONG-SIDDELEY. A well 
known British nuke oi motor-car. Some 
models have a self-chanjing gear 



ARMS 



ARMS 




Lancue de hoeui 


Milit 


ary t 


ork 


PIS 


^ 


n 


^ 


E^M 


% 


S 


1 


P.irlizan 




1 .■. 






Holeaxe 



Magazine rilk and bajonet 



ARMS. Man in his ceaseless search lor security has invented many strange weapons. These pictures illustrate especially the immense variety ol arms and engines 
ol war devised by European craitsmen ol the Middle Ages, though the scimetar ol Persia and the Turkish yataghan are also represented, together with one 
ol the most modern of firearms, the magazine rifle. Gunpowder, the oldest known explosive, was first used in the 14th century. Crecy was the first battle 
in which guns were used by the English, but the victory was won by the skill of the archers who used the longbow. See Artillery and Guns 



ARMY 



»99 



ARNO 




British Army uniforms between 1558 and 1S< 




British soldiers of the 19th and 20th centurus 
ARMY. The British Armv as a standing force really dates from the formation in 
1645 of Cromwell's New Model, though only Monk's regiment, now the Cold 
Stream Guards, survived the Restoration. " Up to 17 50 there were fewer than 
19,000 regular troops, but in 1845 the number had increased to ton.on >. 




ARMY AND NAVY CLUB. A London 
social club founded m IS37 lor otficers of 
the fighting services, with headquarters 
in Pall Mall and about 26OO members. 
Here we show the club house. 




ARMY & NAVY STORES. One of 

the earliest London general cooperative 
stores, in Victoria Street 
Army Medical College. See Royal 
Medical College- 




Badge of the 
Royal Army 
Medical Corps 



ARMY MEDICAL CORPS. Founded in 
tS73 and converted into a Royal corps 
in 1898. The badge is the rod of Aes- 
culapius, with a serpent entwined, in a 



- ^- : t^' 






Badge of the 
Royal Army 
Ordnance Corps 



ARMY ORDNANCE CORPS. A unit 

.-HistitutL-d in tssi to handle Army 
Munitions and equipment. 




Badge of the 

Army Pay 

Corps 



ARMY PAY CORPS. The unit respon- 
sible for paying British regular troops. 




ARMY SERVICE CORPS. Since 1: 
unit responsible ior transport and 
supply ; bL'came a royal corps in 191S. 
Army Uniform. Sr^ Colour P'.jte 



^Wi 




Badge ol the 

Royal Army 

Veterinary 

Corps 

ARMY VETERINARY CORPS. Since 
I'JlS a Koy.il corps attending to the 
needs of Army horses. 




ARMY-WORM. A name given to 
several kinds ot insect larvae which move 
in masses. One of these pests (Sdara 
militaris) and its parent are shown. 



ARNAULD, ANTOINE 
famoui ir^ncn in.'.'..L'j/;.-i:i J:i.".J:r c; 
the Janscnists ai^'ainsl the Jesuits. 
ARNAULD, JACQUELINE (1591-1661) 
Antoine Arnauld s sister, who was a 
famous prioress of Port- Royal. 




, . A .LvV 



ARNDT, ERNST (I 769-1 S60). A German 
poet whosi son?s were famous- 
ARNE,THOMA8(l7IO-78) The famous 

English COrr- ^ r uhr, u.T^it* In* rr.'i.K- 

o( Rule, B' ■ 
Arneb. F • 




ARNEE. ;h; :.:.;r,.r::J Indian 
buffalo, the largest of the ox tribe. 




ARNHEM. An Ji'Cisn: Uutca t^.vin o: 
tfie Rhine where Sir Philip Sidney died 
in 15S6. Its I6thcentury Groote Kerk 
is seen in this picture (70.000) See 
Atlas 10. D 3. 
Arnhem Land. See Atlss ;«. E i 





ARNICA. A i;enus ol psrennijl herbs 
of f^urope and America this example 
beini: A. niontana. or mountain tobacco. 
ARNIM, ELIZABETH VON (i;S3-IS59) 
.\ German ftTiler famous for her Cor- 
responJiMice of Goethe With a Child. 




ARNO. An Italian nver flowing through 
Florence. 150 miles. See Atlas 13. C > 



ARNOLD 



100 



ARRAS 



,-^«*)»K 




ARNOLD, BENEDICT ,wn 1> '. 
Trailer U.S. Reneral in tlie Wur of liuk- 
peiidence who went over to the British. 
ARNOLD, SIR EDWIN (tS32-l9on 
English Orientalist, famous for his well- 
known eric roem The Litrht of Asia. 



ARNOLD, MATTHEW (I822-8,S). A 
great Enyhsli poet and school iiispector, 
son of Dr. Arnold of Ru'.:b>'. 




t 


3- ^i 


K 




\ 


iTl» 



ARNOLD. SAMUEL (1/40-1502). Or- 
ganist ..uu v.|.iu composer. 
ARNOLD, THOMAS (1795-1S42). A 
famous llKure in English educational 
history, headmaster of Rusby i82S-42 




ARNOLD OF WINKELRIED. A Swiss 
heio. >,,i,l l,j lia\c decuh-d th; Mctorv at 
Sempach in t3S6 hy natherini; the 
Austrian pikes into his own hreast, 
as seen her?. 




ARNOLD-FORSTER, H.O. nS55-1909) 
Grandson of Thomas Arnold and War 
Secretary 1903-0. 

ARNOLFO Dl CAMBIO (about 1232- 
1300). The hrst great Florentine archi- 
tect and sculptor 



^t 





ARNON. A river, often mentioned in 
the Bible, which flows into the Jordan 
throujih Moab. See Atlas 38. D 6. 




ARNOTTO. A small native tree ol 
tropical America and Jamaica. Here 
us leaves and flowers are seen. 




ARNOULD, SOPHIE (1744-1S02). A 
tanious French opera singer, distin- 
guished also for her beauty, wit and 
.lifted circle of friends 




AROSA. A famous winter and health 
resort in the Swiss Grisons canton, 5900 
feet above sea-level 




ARPAD id. 907). The Hungarian 
national hero who founded about 890 
the iir?* Magyar monarchy. 




ARPEGGIO. In music, a chord the notes 
ul uhicii are sounded in rapid succession 
instead of simnltaneously. We show how 
it is written (left), and how it is played. 



ARQUEBUS. One ot the earliest forms 
of musket, made in many shapes and 
sizes, it came into use early in the I6th 
century, and this one belonced to 
Henrv' V||I. 



M 


ji , 


f 


^^ 


i^ 


f 


T 


'^'W 


\ 

\ 



ARQUEBUSIER. A soldier armed with 
the arquebus, as illustrated by these 

cavalrymen ut 1632. 




ARRACACHA. A South American 
n.mie tor an umbelliferous plant known 
tu botanists as Arracacia, cultivated in 
the Andes and naturalised in Jamaica. 




ARRAN. The Firth of Clyde's lariiest 
island, rising to 2S60 feet in Goat Fell : 
famous for its scenery. See Atlas 5. C4. 




ARRAN, 2nd EARL OF (d I5r.,> James 
Haniiltun. Governor of Scotland in the 
childh.M.d nf Mary Queen of Scots. 








The luwii iiail alter bumbardment 
ARRAS. A quiet and beautiful city, 
capital of Artois, once famo,us for its 
tapestry. Its cathedral and town hall 
were ruined in the war. 135.000). See 
Atlas 7. E 1. 







ARRAS. So famous were the tapestries 
of Arras that the word arras was once 
a eeneral term for tapestry hangings. 



I 



ARRAS 



101 



ARTEMIDORUS 




ARRAS. The t.. 

of which a beautiiiil ;.\.imi'i 

centurv work is seen here. 



ras, 
Ibth- 



/ 



^i^ 



ARRHENIUS, SVANTE A. (I559-I917). 
A Swedish pioneer ot electro-chemistry. 
ARRHIZOUS. A term for certain 
rootless parasitic plants, like mistletoe. 




ARRIERE-VOUSSURE. An arch on the 
inside of a castle doorway, increasing the 
internal space of the entrance. 




ARRIS. A term for the ridge between 

flutines in columns. 

ARRISWISE. A heraldic term meaning 

with one anirle tnward the spectator. 




ARROL, SIR WILLIAM (1839-1913)- 
The famous Scottish engineer whose 
firm built the Forth Bridge, Tower 
Bridge, and Manchester Ship Canal. 




^fe 




is^- ly 



ARROW. A missile thrown , 
loiiRbow and crossbow and sometimes 
used for fire-raisin?, as on the riiiht. 
Arrow, For coTist.Ibtinn see Sattitta. 




ARROW 

British G 

m;ii)h;i 



BROAD. A niarli pi^iccd on 
overnnient property, including 




ARROW GRASS. A popular name of 
plants of the pond-weed family, Eenus 
Triiilochin. The pictures show marsh 
arrowcrass leaves and blossom. 




ARROWHEAD. The lop row of arrow- 
heads here are of the Neolithic and 
Stone Ages : below them are a Grecian 
e.xaniple, one of 1 5yo, and one with barbs. 



ARROL-JOHNSTON. A well-known 
British make of motor-car 




ARROWHEAD. A stitch in needlework, 
so called from the slanting position given 
to the threads- 




ARROWHEAD. A plant of the water 
plantain family, so named from the 
shape ol its leaves 



<<" 5'KcI'UI •« .iTi.x 









W irf Jl t<--'r.<i< <ii« \ 



<<ri< < irr 'f K' 'i.'<-<c< H'W^ 



'"« t'.K-\- 



'.<" « '<-."r £> « "r V . 



:<1< ^ 



"'£.'"' ■?!'=> 



ARROWHEADEO CHARACTERS. Th 

alphabetic, s> liable, or ideoi^raphic char 
acters used in Babylonian, Assyrian, an,; 
other writintjs, made up of combinations 
of an arrowhead. See also Cuneiform- 




i:i 



ARSENIC APPARATU-. 
prcrarin^ ars: 
realy3 



ar and ori 
combined with ■> 
ArtenopyrJte. Se 



- loc 

' JCh 2S 

t occtm 






^ 



ARROW LEAF. Any plant of the genus 
Sat'ittaria having arrow-shaped leaves. 




ARROWROCK DAM. uncol tile wuridS 
highest irrii:.ition dams, on Boise River. 
Idaho, U.S.A.; 350 leet high, it is 107 = 
feet broad. 




ARROW ROOT. A plant from the root- 
stock of \ihich the starchy looJ called 

:irr'>\^rnot is extracted. 

ARROW WORM. A transparent marine 

«,.rin less tlian .in inch long. 




ARSINOE. Hue..-, ,ji ti;;, ft. M;r;i51er 
Cleopatra in 47 B.C. caused Mark Antony 
to put her to death. 



ARSENAL. A building where munitions 
of war are made or stored, as, for 
instance. Woolwich Arsenal, shown here. 





ARSENIC. A chemical element found 
in combination with many minerals. 



ARTAXERXES (464-24 B.C.). Surnamed 
Longimanus an ancient Persian king- 

ARTEMIDORUS. An Egyptian of tbe 
2nd centurv *.D. This is his mummv 



ARTEMIS 



102 



ARTHUR 




ARTEMIS. TiK- Greek goddess, here 
seen receivini: an oflerini;, whom the 
Romans idciitilicil with Diana. 



ARTERY FORCEPS. An instrument lor 
calchinq and lioldini; an artery during 
siirqical operations. 



Superficial Temporal— k.^: 
Occipital 
OccipiLu 
Common Carotid--- 

Subclavian. ,. 

Anterior 

Circumriex — -/^ -^ 

Posterior— -gr: . 
Circumflex K^y f 
Intercostal— ^1 — "T; 
ffi^nt Coronan/-^—^f^ 

Brachiaf 



^ 



^-■'■■-y — facial 

^•p^^-^'llijijt/al 

Superior fht/roid 
^ - - Common Carotid 
.,-'"' "'nnoimnate 



Urch of Aorta 

.1 ^ — -AMllarq 

.^ \--Pulmonari^ Arterq 

-"^---ieft Coronarq 

•^l.-.\. .Brachial 
■\^—;---flioracic Aorta 
*' ^Y- Phrenic 




Superior Lateral Genicular^ 
Anterior Tibial Recurrent- 
Anterior flbial- 



Antenor Peroneal- 

Eiterior Malleola. 
Tarsal-- 
Arcuate 
Dorsal Metatarsal- 



Dorsalls Pedis 
-dorsal Metatarsal 




ARTESIAN WELL. A narrow-dianieter 
bore sunic into oil or water-bearin'.: 
strata, and in which the liquid rises by 
its own pressure ; so called because such 
wells were first sunk in Artois, France. 




ARTEVELDE, JACOB VAN IJ 1,1 I ' 

celebrated Flemish popular leader a 
Ghent who formed an alliance with 
Edward 111 of England against France 



ARTERY One ol the cylindrical vessels that convey the blood from the heart 
throiigliout the body. In the human body about 350 have received spec al 
names, and the chid arteries are shown here. They range in thickness from the 
size of a finger down lo microscopic dimensions. 





ARTFUL DODGER. One of Dickens's 
famous characters, a sly youth (right) in 
Oliver Twist who is Fagin's aptest pupil 

as a pickpncket. 




ARTHROPOD. A n.line given to a great 
division ot segmented creatures with 
jointed legs, as shown here by a lobster 
and a Brazilian species of ant. 



ARTHUR, KING. The most tamous 
tigure of British romance, whose story 
is the theme of Malory's Morte d' Arthur 
and Tennyson's Idylls of the King. 




ARTHUR, CHESTER ALAN ilS30-S6). 
President of the United States ISSl-SS 



ARTHtJR OF BRITTANY 



lO:) 



ARTISTS 




ARTHUR OF BRITTANY (H87 
1203). King John's nephew, whom he 
had murdered because of the boy's 
better claim to the throne. This movin;; 
picture by W. F. Yeames shows Arthur 
pleading with Hubert, his keeper, as 
told in Shakespeare's plav Kir^c 




ARTICULATION. In anatomy a ioint. 
such as the juncture oi bones. Th.- 
examples given are those of the skull 
and hip. 




ARTIFICER. Any workman who needs 
special art or skill to perform his work. 
ARTIFICIAL EYE. A copy of the 
natural eye. generally made of enamel 
like this e.xample. 




ARTHUR'S PASS. A highway through 

the Southern Alps of New Zealand, 
pierced by one of the greatest railwav 
tunnels in the world. See AtLis ^7, <" ; 










ARTIFICIAL FLOWER. Imitation 

{lowers made in immense quantities from 
paper and various other fabrics. 




ARTHUR'S SEAT. 1 he laniuus 
rising above Holyrood Palace, over- 
looking Edinburgh. It is S20 feet high. 




Sutton's Jerusalem artichokes 
ARTICHOKE. A popular vegetable of 
which we show two familiar kinds. 





ARTIFICIAL HORIZON. A level 

rellecting surface, often a metal box, for 
linding a star's height when the natural 
horizon is hidden. 




ARTIFICIAL LIMBS. Mechanical limbs 
of metal or wood or both, with leather 
padding and various ingenious devices 
for bending, and so on. 



Anli.aircralt gun 




ispounder Mark IV field tun 




I uteen-inch naval guns 
ARTILLERY. The powerful and deadly weapons seen above are tvpicai ol 
modern artillery, which has developed from the clumsy cannon ol the Middle Ajes. 
Artillery, Royal. See Royal a->> -v 



ARTICULATED. In botany, lointed. as 
shown by this fruit of sainfoin 




ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION. II 

restoration ol breathing in a parti-, 
drowned or suffocated person by the 
regular moving of the arms, the massage 
of the bodv and so on 




ARTILLERY GROUND, FINSBURY. The training ground near Bunhill Fields 
Loidon ol the Honourable Artillery Company, members oi which are seen 
rehearsing a pageant. The regiment has drilled here since 1541 
Artists, Society ot British See Royal Society of British Artists 



ARTISTS RIFLES 



104 



ASAPH 



J 



Mi 



] 
'in 

ARTISTS RIFLES. The 28th London 

I- ., , . ...d in IS59 by artists. 

Artois. >t;' AiKis 7. E 1. 



Badge of the 
Artists Rill;^ 



./ 



M 




% 



ARIZ, DAVID (i.M, '>iii. A L)utch 
realist painter, one of whose typical 
works. On the Dunes, is shown above. 



-a^t 




ARUACS. An American Indi.... f^ 
once numerous in the West Indies. 
Aruba. See Atlas -^i. G s. 
Aru Islands ^e- M!:.' 24. H 7 





iRoot 

ARUM. A plant genus iikUiJih^ A. 
niaculatum the common lords and 
ladies. Its remarkable spike is seen 
(ully exposed on the rii;lU. 




ARUN. .^,(;x river seen here iitar 

Huinoroui:h ,see Atlas 4. G 5. 





.--■-^-■\, uri the 
li cniei leaiuTv-s V'Ciivi its castle 
see) and beautiful R.C church 




ARUNDEL. 2nd EARL (1 5:>()-1646). I 1.- 

l.iMi.ius art lover who collected Ui 
Arundel Marbles. 

ARUNDEL. THOMAS (U53-1414) 
Archbishop of Canterbury from 139t> ; 

p;TS;cnted llv ! ..'' I'-.f- 




ARUNDEL CASTLE 

s.-.-lt III tllJ Hmu.,i.! . 

in the loth century at ArunJc 



H^^l° 



ARUNDEL HOUSE. A famous Lu 

nianMc:! •■. ■■; '■ ■■•■.■■! ir- th- Str\t;i 





ARYBALLOS. A large Greek vase with 
a small neck, used for carrying water 
to the bath. We show two examples. 



Voca/ Cord 




ARUNDEL MARBLES. I h^^ '^r-^k 

iCulptuiL'S collected by the 2nd Earl i.i 
ArnnJei ; now in the Ashmoleaii Muscuni- 




ARUNOO. A i;enus o! tall i;rasses m- 
cliiJiiiL', the lari^est British species. 
Aruwimi, River. See .\tlas 26, E 1. 
ARVAD. A ruined Phoenician city on 
the coast ol Syria. 




-Thvrcid 



^Arytenoid 



Cricoid 



A triangular pyraniid.n 
cartilage, seated on each side of the 
summit of the cricoid, or first tracheal 
rini; ol the larynx. 
Arzamas. See Atlas 16. G ">. 





AS. One ol the chief Roman coins, 
once weighing a libra or pound, but 
later subdivided. Us faces frequently 
bore the double head of Janus and a 
ship's prow. Here we eive two types. 



4 



9 






ARVAL BROTHERS. TweUe Roman 
ITiests who ottered sacrifices for the 
success of larniin^. Above is Marcus 
Aurelius in Arval dress. 
Arye. River. See Atlas 9. A 3 



J/ k ! ■' ^ 

ASAF KHAN. A minister of Shah 
Jehan. the famous Mo'^ul Emperor of 
InJi.i, who reigned 162S-58. 
ASAFOETIDA. A dru; made from 
plants of the Ferula kind, notably F. 
asafoetida shown in this picture 




.mm 



ASAHINA. The Japanese Hercules, 
ulio in this quaint picture is seen pelting 
.1 demon with beans. 




A S A M A - ■!' A r<1 A 


: ills i.i'-^^-st 


.ictive 


-„...,,... 1.1 ;1-,.J , 


See Atlas 2 


^ G 3. 


frvz^ ^^fr? wflTsbi jiz^ tars ^ffc. (5, 


fi«? 


v-n ftr t*R*nrj frvm 


TT?. f^ If ST*. 


•wn5 


^a ^fu? r-tfuc-a , rse? ari -^z^ v^ tnrrt \ 


ST^ »firt3 - 




1 



ASAMI. The native langua.ce of Assam, 
tills passage being St. John 111. 16. 







^:>u.. 



ASANA. A name given in the Philip- 
pines to the valuable timber tree Ptero- 
carpus. remarkable for the radiating 
buttresses at its base. 




ASAPH. A noted Jewish musician ot 
David's lime, founder of the Sons of 
Asaph I which see). 

ASAPH. A group of trilohite fossils, one 
ol which A. gieas. is the largest trilobite. 



ASAPH, SONS OF 




ASAPH, SONS OF. A bciiool of Jewish 
musicians in Old Testament times, 
founded by Asaph (which see). 



Asbestos suit Asbestos cloth 

ASBESTOS. A mineral valuable because 
of its low conductivity of heat. It is 
used in many ways as a protection 
against fire. 




ASBESTOS TORCH. A cr = . t r^ 
see) of asbestos steeped m oil lor ki . 
ing caterpillars. 

ASBJORNSEN, PETER (1812-S5). 
writer famous for his fairy tales relatin- 
to Norwegian life 




ASCOT 




|^-'V^%ij., 



Mi 



ASCALON, BATTLE OF. A victury in 

H.i'j') <.! tlij CrLi^;i,l':-rs. under Godfrey of 
Bouillon, over :lu- Saracens. 





ASCENSION, THE. "llu Ascension oi 
i;.sus from 01ivi;t, whence, after bless- 
Is' His disciples. He was carried up 
iito Heaven, as told in the cospels ot 
>t. Mark and St. Luke. The lower 
picture is from a painting by an arti5.t 
I the Ferrarese school. 







A8CAL0N. One ot the live great 
Philistine cities, whose ruins still e.xist 
on the Palestine seashore near Gaza 




ASCENSION ISLAND. A British South 
Atlantic naval coalin? station Turtles 
and sea birds abound. See Atlas 9 C 5. 



ASCETIC, wii, .^ .iir disciplines himseit, 
as shown in this picture of St. Jerome 
(3 10-120) in Syria by Rubens. 
Aschalfenburg. :•' - '.:.r : 



ASCLEPIOS. The Grc:i: /od identilje- 
witli the Roman Aesculapius, who wi.« 
the dfitv of the medical art. 
Ascoli. ^.e Atlas I 1. [j 




ASCHAM, ROuLi. .., ,- .j,:,i.is ._-,..■ 

Elizabeth and Lady Jane orev, with whom he is seen in this picture. 




ASCIDIAN. An asymmetrical sea crea- 
ture- lit a class connecting the molluscoid 
Invertebrates with the vertebrates. 
Iliis is Boltenia reniformis- 
ASCIDIUM. A pitcher-shaped forma- 
tion. like this one of the pitcher plant- 



/.^. 



^ 



O^p 



^ 



ASCON. A variety of sponge of tbe 
:<>^^:;^t and simrleit kinj. 
ASCOS. An antique vase for ointireni 
or perfume. 




ASCLEPIADES. A Bithyman physician 
inmou'^ lii Kume about 100 B.C. 
ASCLEPIAS. A North American herb 
known as milk-weed or silk-weed 



ASCOT. A Mtiui^e near ^'...ij.'i,! i^iierc 
a lashionable race meeting has been 
held since lS20. We show the scene at 
the tinish of the Ascot Gold Cup race, 
the principal event at this meeting, 
which is run over a course of two an*? 
a half miles- 



ASCOT GOLD CUP 



lOti 



ASHLEY 




<:: 


■J- .,.--w .--■ 


■& 



ASCOT GOLD CUP. The trophy com- 
peted lor in tlie chiel race of the famous 
Ascot meetinij. 

A8GARD. Mythical home ol the Norse 
RodSf shown here as a hill rising from the 
Earth and upheld by the tree Yuiidrasil. 




/-^=^^ 




A shoot of the cmmon ash 



[Green Ash 




RedAsi 



Black Ash 



ASH. A large tree widely distributed 
in the Northern Hemisphere and 
flourishing at heights of over looo feet 
Above are seen leaves of various kinds. 




ASH. A village near Sandwich, in Kent, 
with this fine church. 




ASHANTI. We show here a boy and 
Sirl of the Ashantis, a warlike people 
MOW under the Gold Coast Colony. 





ASHANTI MEDAL. Here are the 
med.il (looo) and star (IS96) awarded 
for two Ashanti campaigns. 




ASHANTI STOOL. A typical piece of 
W'L'st African furniture. 




ASHBOURNE. This Derbyshire market 
town, 13 miles from Derby, is noted for 
its church, cilled the Pride of the Peak, 
with a spire 212 feet hich (4ino). 




ASHBURTON. |^ ilur 

iMwn m ;i v.ilU'^ b.i!;uiuL.r l-^uuj. 

Ashburton, River. .See Atlas 36, B 3. 
Ashburton Shield. See Bislev. 




ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH. An ancient 
Leicestershire town with the famous 
castle of Scott's Ivanhoe, the prison of 
Mary Queen of Scots (5000). 



ASHBY ST. LEDGERS. The Gun. 
powder Plot conspirators are said to 
have met at this old Northamptonshire 
mansion, perhaps in this gatehouse. 




ASHDOD. A once ureal Philistine citv 
.:s It sl.iiuls today See Atlas 3S, 




ASHEN LIGHT. 


The 


earthsli 


nc' 


ur 


r^'llcctcd liL;ht from the 


Earth, 


on 


thf 


dark part of the 


Moon 


WlU'M 


t 


i.s a 


narrow crescent. 












ASHES, THE. The prue fur which 
En Inland and Australia contend in 
cricket matche?. Lord Darnley, who 
took a team to Australia in 18S2-S3, 
actually brought back this urn. 



i 


^'w 


V. 


3 




^^Ji^fc 


Bn 


^^yi^ 



ASHFIELD, LORD (b. IS7S). The 

skiltul head of London's Underfiround 
Railway system. 




Ashlfiid (Jiui.h 






ASHFORD. A K 

railwav (.[U'liu' ."nr. 





ASH-KEY. 1 he ash's seed case, which 
IS supposed to he like a key. 
ASHLAR. Term for squared stones ol 
various sizes or masonry uf these. 




ASHLEY. EVELYN ( i;S30. 1907). Eni;- 
lish politician, author of a f.imous Life 
ol Lord Palmerston. 
ASHLEY. SIR WILLIAM (IS6O-1927). 
A well-known authority and writer on 
modern economic problems. 



ASHMEAD -BARTLETT 




ASKOS 



/*■ . 

ASHMEAD-BARTLETT, SIR ELLIS 
(lS-49-1902). A prominent figure in 
English politics and father of a well- 
known war correspondent. 
ASHMOLE, ELIAS (1617-92). The 
Cavalier scholar who in 1677 ^ave to Ox- 
ford University his famous antiquities. 



ASHRIOGE PARK. Grounds of an old 

country hmise near lierkhampstead, now 
under the Nnlu.n.il Trust. 

^IBlIlBIIIIItl H 





ASHWELL. LENA (b. 1872). Brilisli 
at tress and theatrical manaeer. 




ASHMOLEAN M 

home at Oxford 
tions formed by 



ASH-SHOOT. A means of discharjjini; 
ashes, which in ships, for instance, are 
mixed with water and pumped into the 
sea. as shown in this sectiun-picture. 



USEUM. The modern 
of the splendid collec- 
EHas Ashmolt?. 




Common ash-pan 




^ 






Sifc 



ASKEATON. 



. Shown 

<, r • 



ASH WORTH'S RUSTIC MOTH. Peculiar 

to North Wales, male (lefti and female. 




A8KEL0N. The site ol one ol the hvc 

great Philistine cities. See Alias 38,B 5. 




< • — »fc 







I -^ 



ASHTON. LUCY. I i . heroine of Scotr- 
lOvcI The BnJe <il L.irnniernu'itr. 




ASH-PAN. A p,ni lur coliectini; the 
ashes from a lire or stove, as illustrated 
here. The lower pictures show an 
anthracite stove ash-pan and receiver. 





^€^ 


^^^ 


( 




P 



ASH PUMPKIN. The white gourd 
melon. Benincasa hispida, of the Tropics. 




ASIA. I ■! i IT .^t ol liie continents, co\ miles, about 

"II il'ii>l '! -i^ world's surface, and coiit.i .. ,-:e. over hall 

Hie UMiUr, luiHil.ition. It has vast, almost iinMiii«:i reei""s mis is the Asii 
Kroup from the Alhert Memorial in Kensinifton Gardens, London. See Atlas 21. 
Asia (Roman Province). See Atlas IS.K i. Asia Minor. See AlLis 14. 4. 



ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE. A busy 

Lancashire town with cotton, iron, and 
kindred industries. Here is the parish 
church (4 5,000). 




>^- 



ASH-TRAY. We show in this picture 
one of a sliape often nsed by smokers. 
ASHTREE PUG MOTH. A small British 
sp.'ci.i appearini^ in July. 
Ashur. See Assur. 
Ashurbanipal. See Assurbanipal. 



JL 



_ 




ASIATIC STEAM NAVIGATION CO. \\\ 

i^ive tins Tar tastern line's liai:. 
ASILUS. A tly called also hornet II v, 
rohher llv, and hawk llv 
A»ir. ."^ee Allis 21. H -. 




i 


f=\ 


t ; 





ASKARI. All Last Alricai'. 
soldier trained by European mett: 



ASKEW, ANNE (IS2I-46). One of the 
lirst English Protestant mart>TS burned 
111 the time ol Henry V'lll. 
ASKOS. A kind of vase used by the 
, icients for perfumes, and so on 



ASKRIGG 



lOS 



ASQUITH 




ASKRIGG. A buiall luwM in Weiisley- 
dale, Yorkshire, with an old market 
cruss and a I7th.centurj' hall (500). 
Asmara. See Atlas 25. H 3. 









-:a 




ASPARAGUS. A piTi'lar veRetahle first 
cultivated in England in the loth cen- 
tury. We show its fern-like stems (lelt). 
iiul (richt) the shoots that are eaten. 




ASPIDIOTUS. A j;enus ul scale in 
sects, which hide behind a white secretion 
nil fruit trees. 

ASPIDISTRA. A member of the lily 
liimilv Irom China. It is lamiliar as an 
indoor ornamental plant. 




ASP* A name lor the viper, especially 
one used by Egyptian jugslers. 



ASPEN, A widely-spread northern tree 
e leaves, here shown with the 
flowers, tremble in the slightest breeze. 



ASPIC. A savoury cali's-loot jelly, otten 
used with meat. 



ASPIRATOR. An apparatus lor creat- 
ing a vacuum by means of a moving 
lluid ; a surgical torm (right) is for re- 
moving fluids from the body. 
Asquith, H. H. See Oitord. Lord 



ASS 



109 



ASSIOUT 





ASSARION. An early Greek name for 
the assarius, a Roman copper coin. 





ASSAULT-AT-ARMS. A fencing div 
'lay. as illustrated here; also a military 

tournament. 



ASS. uiu- "I Liie most interesting 
branches of the horse family, both 
domesticated and wild. The Indian wild 
ass is shown in the bottom picture. 





AS8AI PALM. A graceful Brazilian 
tree yielding fruit valuable as food- 
Assam. See Atlas 22, H 3. 







1 


^ T - ■ 1 






-r—~- 


^^ 


■"- 






1 


_, . _ 1 




1 




^— ^ • 


' 



ASSEGAI. Zulu weapon uf wiod tipp<:'J 
with iron for thrusting nr Ihruwinir. 



ASSAY BALANCE. A delicate kind 
i.tf balance used by assayers, who 
determine metallic quantities in ores. 
Assaye. See Atlas 22. E I. 





ASSEMBLAGE. PLAIN OF. The pla.J 

where the Uraelitjs are said to have 
met to hear the law from Mount Sinai. 
We show it as it is inday. 




A8SHUR. Assyria's lirsl capital, wl.i^.- 
ruins, shown here, arc near Kalat Sher- 
yat, Iraq. See Atb.^ 10. D 2. 




ASSINEGO. A AhaKespearean word iof 
^ vnun;; ass (Troilus and Oesstda II, 1). 



ASSAYE, BATTLE OF (IWj). Ilu- 
rattle in which Wellesley. later Duke ol 
Wellington, crushed the Indian Mahrat- 
;as, who were in league with France. 



^;J--«lMUI»^>. 



ASSAMESE. I ne people ul the Indian 
province of Assam. 





ASSEMBLING SHOP. > I 
^embling the parts ul large machir 
Mere a locomotive is being assemble^ 
Assen. See Atlas lO. E 2. 




ASSER. The shoulder pole used by 
bearers in carrying a palanquin. 



ASSINI80INE, MOUNT. A iir.t 
in B.r-rt N.k;':j'. Park Alberta. 



peak 




Assiout on the .Nile 




ASSAY FURNACE. A simple lorm ot 
lurnace and oven for heating metals in 
cupels, or shallow cups, during assaying. 



ASSES' BRIDGE. Or Pons asinoruni. 
the ^th prop^^sition of the 1st book of 
Euclid, so called because the figure is 
roughly like 3 bridge and the problem 
bailies the beginner. 



ASSiOUT. 

Egypt, with a large caravan trade. Near 
here on the Nile is the great Assiout 
Barrage, shown in the lower picture, 
irrigating the country almost to Cairo 
(55.000). See Atlas 25. H 2. 

K I 



ASSISI 



ASSYRIAN ART 




A general view of Assisi, showing the famous monastery of St. Iraiicis 




I he iHicient walls un the hill ut Assis: 
ASSISI. The beautiful little cathedral city of Central Italy famous as the birth 
place of St. Francis, who founded the Franciscan Order here in 1208. The 
monastery has two churches, built one above the other, with frescoes bv Cimabue. 
Giotto, and other famous painters (2o,nnn). See Athis n. D 1. 




ASSIZES. The re""J":^' visits ol 
British judijes to provincial towns tn 
try the more important cases. 







ASSOCIATION CUP. The famous 
trophy competed tor annually since 1872 
by English football clubs, the final 
match bein; the most popular sportini; 
evftnt of the year. 





^4^^' 



The Assouan Du 





ASSOUAN. A Nile tuwn in Uprer 
Et;ypt. Near it is the famous Assouan 
Dam, opened in 1902, which is over a 
mile long and can store 2420 million 
cubic metres of water. See Atlas 25, H 2. 



JfHt. 



throughout the world 




ASSUMPTION. The miraculous ascen 
sion ol the Vircin, a subject of Titian, 
Corregi;io, Rubens, Murillo, and Guidn 
Reni, whose picture is shown here. 




IUm- 




ASSUR. The old national god ol 
Assyria, represented with an eagle's 
head and wings 





i 



ASSURBANIPAL. One of the greatest 
Assyrian kings, the Sardanapalus of the 
Greeks, who reigned 66S-626 B.C. 
ASSURNASIRPAL. A powerful and 
warlike Assyrian king, 884-S60 B.C. 
Assyria. See Atl.is 10, D 2. 



Z' 



U 




ASSYRIAN. A native of AssMi.i 
line portrait of an Assyrian 
HI the Louvre. 



Assyrian stone mode! of a basket 




Head 01 Ninir.ul 






l:xaniples of Assyrian art 
ASSYRIAN ART. The great feature of 
Ass\rian art was its powerful sculpture, 
hut that other crafts were highly deve- 
loped is shown by these pictures. 
Sff Crlour Pljlf 




. ;> V,'y..i. 












ASSYRIAN ARCHITECTURE. Though few Assyrian houses remain, this recon- 
■truction of Sennacherib's palace shows how imposincf they may have been. 



ASSYRIAN WRITING 



111 



ASTOB 



tVf/^T'' ■^'''■~'f v^r/.p-v >'" ' 



ASSYRIAN WRITING. A cuneiform 
scrirt. sometimes on alabaster, as here. 




ASTALLIA, GIULIA. The heroine of a 
tragedy by Bandello (1480-1562) from 
a tsth-century medal. 
ASTARTE. Or Ashtoreth. the chief 
Phoenician goddess. 




ASTARTE. A genus of sea bivalves, 
here iUusfrafed by A. comoressn. 



^.-^l^ 





ASTATIC NEEDLES. Two equal mai! 
lutic iiet;dles Tixed tocether with their 
ptiles in opposite dirfctions and mounted 
to turn freely. Such an arrangfement is 
very sensitive to a small magnetic force. 



ASTATIC GALVANOMETER. One with 
the deflecting magnets mounted in asta- 
tic pairs, that is, with the poles of the 
needles opposed to each other so that 
there is very little directive control from 
the Earth's magnetic meridian. 




ASTBURY. This village lieu i.m,p^u-lm,i 
has one of the most interesting and beau- 
tiUii clnirclies in Ch'^shire, shown here. 




ASTER. One u{ the most popular 

iLnvers of an Entili'^li 'garden. 





ASTERICOS. hi tlie oreck Chur.i;. 
two metal arches supporting the cover- 
inc veil over the sacred bread. 
Asterid. See Asterias. 




ASTERIONELLA. A genus of diatoms 

uilli star-shaped shells. 




ASTERN. In a po:>ition behind a ship 
ns one boat following antither. 









■■ .;?■ "\ \ ••; 




■ ■:"♦*") ^ ; 




vews.M^.cusv 

■iARTH*' 




" r ■ MftRS 

■ • " ■ ■ 



ASTEROID. One of tfie 700 minor 
planets which circle round the Sun 
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. 




ASTIGMATIC FAN. A orj m.irked 
uithsctsof lines at vartoiu anglts and 
used in tests for astigmatism. 




ASTER, SEA. A I'lant (left) sro\vin,i; in 
salt marshes, with handsome heads 
of vellow and purple flowers. 
Asierabad. See Atlas 20. F 2. 
ASTERIAS. A i;enus of starhsh, repre- 
sented here by the brittle (top picture) 
and common species (lower). 



ASTIGMATISM. Unequal curvature of 
the cornea of the eye, preventing rays 
of liiiht from coming to a single local 
point, and thereby causing indistinct 
vision. The first picture shows a dis- 
torted cornea at A, and the second a 
normal eye. 




ASTIGMATISM TEST. Lines at vanou\ 
ancles. When revolved some lines appear 
indistinct to an asticmatic observer. 




ASTIGMOMETER. An instrument used 
bv oculists for measuring the amount of 
astigmatism in a human eye. 



II - 



#4^ 



ASTLEV. SIR JOHN 0.(l>2S-»>. Eng- 

sH ." •:.■■■.;•. .:"d rjcehorse owner. 
ASTON, BARON (15S<-1639I. British 
ambassador to Spain, 1620-25, and 
patron of Drayton, the poet. 





ASTOR, JOHN JACOB (1 ;o3-lS4S). The 
lur trader who founded the Astor 
family's fortunes. 

ASTOR, MAJOR JOHN JACOB (b. ISS6). 
Brother of Lord Astor (which see). 
chairn\an of The Times. 



ASTOR 



9 



ft 



ASTOR, LORD (b. 1S79) V"'i) '"' 
teresti-a in health and social problems. 
Married Lady Astor (rii;ht), lirst woman 
member of British Parliament. 





ASTRAKHAN. .\ Kilssjan p.jrt near 
the entry of the VolRa to the Caspian, 
ft has a larne Eastern trade. Here we 
see the Vol^a near the city (200,000). 

^•■:- Ml.lS 16. If ^ 





ASWAIL 







ASTYAGES. The Median king who 
ordered the infant Cyrus to be exposed. 
.15 told in the famous lesend. 



ASTROLOGER. One who professes to in- 
terpret the intlueiifr c.f the stars on life. 



ASTOR HOUSE. The Hall of the 
Society of Incorporated Accountants and 
Auditors on the Thames Embankment, 
once the Astor Estate Office. 



ASTRAKHAN. A valuable, curly lur 
much used for trimming coats. produceJ 
bv lambs reared in Turkestan. 
ASTRAL LAMP. One with a rniR- 
shaped oil reservoir connected with the 
wick tube by two small tubes. The 
shadow is thus reduced to a minimum. 




ASTRAEUS. In Greek mythology, 
father of three winds and all the stars, 
and husband of Eos^ or Aurora, the 
dawn, with whom he is seen. 



ASTRINGER. An old-time word for 
■ilconer or keeper of goshawks. 




ASTRAGAL. A small convex moulding 
in classical architecture. 



m^miKwi 



)ii«X{<>lk^»K2K 




ASTROLABE. An instrument used in 
astronomy up to the l8th century, 
especially for taking bearings at sea. 
A 11th-century English astrolabe and 
an oid Italian case are shown above. 



ASTRAGALUS. A small Roman mould- 
ing resembling a row of knuckle-bones. 




ASTRAGALUS. A very popular game 
among the Greeks, who used in it the 
knucklebones of animals as dice. 
Attraealus See Ank'e 




ASTROPHOTOMETER. A device utted 
to a telescore for comparing the bright- 
ness of a star with any given standard 
light. It is really a photometer (which 
see) for measuring the brightness of stars. 
Astroioon. See Echinoderm. 



ASTROLATER. A star-worshipper, as, 
for instance, this Assyrian priest adoring 
a goddess surrounded by stars 






)ik;. ''^^ ' --%K' - >-V 




ASTYANAX. Hector's son, whom the 
Greeks murdered at Troy. 










ASUNCION. P.iraguay's capital, the 
Government Palace being see,"-, 'tpas 
a university and a cathedral (80,0001. 
See Atlas 32, G 9. 




ASURAS. Hindu demons such as these 
represented with calves' heads. 
Asurbanipal. See Assurbanipal. 
ASVINS. Twin gods of Hindu mythology, 

,ine of whom we show- 



ASTUR. The Latin name ot the gos- 
hawk, seen in this picture. 
Asluriat. See Atlas S. C t. 




ASWAIL. The East Indian naiiu ut I'l 
sloth bear, seen here. 



ASYLUM 



iin 



ATHELSTAN 




ASYLUM. All institution tor the care ot 
mentally artliirted people- This linety- 
situated modern asylum is West Park 
Mental Hospital, Epsom. 




ASYMMETRY. Any shape 
proportion is lacking. 




AS YOU LIKE IT. Perhaps Sh.ik:- 

speare's most popular comedy. The 
picture here shows Touchstone and 
\udrey. 




ATACAMA DESERT. An .trid region in 
Northern Chile noted for its immense 
nitrate deposits, which, as seen here, 
are the centre of a busy industry, the 
biggest in Chile. See Atlas T2. E s. 




ATALANTA. builtest of mortals. 
Atalanta in Greek legend required her 
suitors to outrun her, which Miianion 
did by a stratagem. We ?ive Paul 
Manship's line sculpture of her. 




ATBARA, BATTLE OF. The lirst 

.;.i^'dt ui the Mahdi's Sudanese, lS9Ji. 
Atbara, River. See Atlas 2?. H ^. 




ATE. In Greek mythology, the goddess 
nt evil fate whom Zeus sent to lead 

Agamemnon to ruin. 




ATAHUALPA (d. 1535). The iasl liica empcior oi, l^ru, 

the hands of the Spaniards is shown in this striking and well-known picture, the 

original of which is in the cathedral at Lima, the Peruvian capital. 





ATEF. A symbolic crown always borne- 
hy the Egyptian gods Khnum an J 
Osiris, and sometimes by other god:- 
and by kings, 

ATELE0PU8. A K;enus of fishes, repre- 
sented here by A. japonicus. The name 
means imperfect foot and refers to the 
imperfect ventral tln«. 




ATELES. The graceful spider monkey 
of the forests of Brazil and Giiiana. 




ATELIER. An ait 
in Horace Vernet's .1 



iij; sho\^n. 




ATEN. The winged disc cf the Sun wor- 
vhipped by the Egyptians and Hittites. 
Ath. i^ee Alias lu. B 4. 
Athabasca, Lake. See Atlas 2S. G 3. 
Athabasc?, River. See Atlas 2S. F 3- 




ATHALIAH. The daughter of Ahab 
;tnd Jezebel who usurped the throne. 




ATHANA8IU8,8T. (.jtuul 2y(/-;7j x.u.). 
An Alexandrine father of the early 
Church, surnamcd Father of Orthodoxy. 
The Althanasian Creed a, rightly or 
wTongly. attributed to him. 




ATHELING. A title meaning nobly 
born, given to several Saxon kings. Ws 
show an old picture of a Saxon kin~. 




ATHELSTAN (925-40). A Saxon king 
who deieated the Danes and Celts at 
Brunanburgh,. His silver coin is shown. 



ATHENAEUM 



114 



ATHLETICS 





ATHERINE. The sand smelt found 

P.ntisli waters. 



ATHENAEUM. A word wliicli the Greeks appHed uri.yinally tu any buildinj; 
dedicated tn Athene, goddess of wisdom, but especially to one in Athens where 
men ol learnins met. Raphael has imagined a scene in this famous Athenaeum 
in his great picture shown here, The School of Athens. 




ATHEROMA. Formation of thickened 
patches, like this, within an artery. 
ATHERSTONE. A Warwickshire town 

with this 12th-century church (56re-). 




ATHERURE. A small brush-tailed 
porcupine like this one belonging to the 
genus Atherurae, examples of which are 
found in Africa and Malaya. 




ATHLETE, THE. Lord Leiglitcjn's 
famous sculpture, now housed in the 
Tate Gallery in London. 




ATHENRY CASTLE. A ruined castle 
at Athenry, co. Galway. See Atlas 6. C ^. 



The former Royal Palace The National University 

ATHENS. One of the world's most famous cities, capital and ancient centre oi 
culture of Greece. It reached its summit of glory about -ISO B.C. and noble ruins 
of its great age still survive in the modern citv, whose port is Piraeus, as of old. 
The Acropolis is its dominant and grandest feature (450,000). See Atlas 14. C 4. 



Long jLiiuping Putting 
ATHLETICS. The practice 



the weight 
of physical 



exercises for health or pleasure. 



ATHLONE 



IIS 



ATLANTOSAURUS 




ATHLONE. An Irish market town anJ 
railway centre on the Shannon. It is a 
historic place (7^001 See Atlas f^, D 1 




ATHLONE, EARL OF (b. 1S74). Queen 
Marv's brother, who became Governor- 
General o( South Africa in i923- 
ATHOLL, 4th DUKE OF (1755-1830) 
The peer who be^an Scottish larch- 
plantine on an extensjv? scale 




ATHOLL, 8th DUKE OF (b. IS71)- One 

of the chief Scottish noblemen. He 
served In the Sudan in 1898. His wife 
(right) became Parliamentary Secretary 
to the Board of Education in 1024. 




ATHOR. Or Hathor, an important 
Egyptian goddess, counterpart 01 Osiris. 
ATHOS, MOUNT. A famous Greek 
peninsula, the seat of a very ancient 
group of monasteries. See Atlas 1 1. C 3. 





ATIS. A name used in the Philippines 
for the sweet -sop, or Anona sauamosa 






AllTLAN. An active volcano, 1 1,720 
teet high, in Guatemala. 




ATLANTA. Capital and largest citv 
it Gtnri;ia, U.S.A. (210,000). See 
Atlas 10, K 4. 




Pi 



ATLANTES. Sculptured male figures 
used instead of columns, the word being 
the plural of Atlas (which see) 




ATLANTIC OCEAN. 

square nine) u il li a df aii 



jjupymg 2'J million 
, th.it of the Pacific. 



It is 1750 miles across between Ireland and Newtound'and. S;; Atlas 1. G 4 




ATHWART. In a direction across a 
ship's course, as shown here. 



Payini; out a cable at sea .An ocea-i capie s armour 

ATLANTIC CABLE. The core of an ocean cable consists of copper strands 
coated with gutta-percha, covered with jute and steel-wire armour. As the right- 
hand picture shows, the armour is of varying thicknesses, the heaviest kinds 
being used in shallow w.ater. where there is a greater risk of damage. 




ATHV. A town on the B.irrow, Kildare. 
one of its features being White Castle. 
seen here (3500). See Atlas 6, E 4. 



ATLANTIC CITV 



most popular bathing 



broadvialk eight miles lom 0:1 the .New Jersey coast (61,000) See Atlas 29 




ATLANTIC TRANSPORT LINE. The 

funnel and flag of ships of this service. 



-^ ^«tf£< ^ 1^ 




ATLANTIS.A mythical mid- Atlantic con- 

t -, . t. .1^ -magued bv an ..Id ce..crarhit 




ATLANTOSAURUS. A ^iant dinosaur 
from U.S.A. We show its thigh bone 
beside a man and a man's thigh bone. 



ATLAS 



116 



ATTACHE CASE 




ATLAS. In Greek mythology, a Titan 
condemned by Zeus to support the 
Earth from amonir the Atlas Mountains. 




ATLAS. The neck'i lirst vertebra, 
supporting the skull, or globe of the 
head, and so gettinir its name. 




ATLAS. ,\ i k "I iii.ir-s, -" v.iiL-J 

probably because' oM uries bore pictures 
of the Atlas of Greek legend. 

For Atlas of the World see Map Supple- 
ment at the end of this book. 



CK 



ATMOGRAPH. An instrument for 

ri,-cor.fin.T mr-oh.itiic:illv tlic trcqucncy 
.1:1,1 ■ TV movements. 




ATMOMETER. An invention by Sir 
.luhn Leslie for measuring evaporation 
from a damp surface. 



Atmosphere expends h about 200 miks 



Xi 

11 L HhhfsfhmosascsnfSlSXlket 
[reL,! ipiK~ K'p:t of sfratdsetisce .-\ 

.'i/S2M 29.002{eei 



M 



^ 



ATMOSPHERE. This chart shows 
temperature and barometric pressure at 
various levels. 




ATLAS MOUNTAINS. The vast range running for 1500 miles through Morocco, 
AU.ri.i. .Ill J Tuiiis.and rising to 15,000 feet in its Great Atlas branch. See Atlas y, D i. 



I 



r. "^ 




ATLATL. A throwing stick used by the 
Mexicans for propelling spears. 
ATMIDOMETER. An invention by 
Babington for measuring evaporation. 




ATMOSPHERIC CHURN. One in which 
;tir is driven into the milk to agitate it, 
and also to obtain the specific effect of 
gathering together the fatty globules 




ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE. An engine 
in whicli steam was admitted to the 
piston's" underside, a vacuum being left 
underneath and the down-stroke caused 
bv atmospheric pressure. 
Atmospheric Pump. See Air-pump. 




ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAY. One in 

wliich atmospheric pressure acts as a 
driving force by means of a piston work- 
ing in a tube. Air is exhausted before 
the piston and forced in behind. 




ATOLL. \ iHi, . r. . 
centre, as seen by this 
occupied by a lagoon. 



1, the 
heing 




ATOM. An infinitely small particle of 
matter supposed to be built up like a 
Solar System, whirling with electrons. 
It cannot be shown, but we give an 
artist's idea of its incessant movement 
and its throwing out of rays. 





ATOMISER. An\ apparatus lor reduc- 
ing a liquid tu very small oarticles so 
that it can be sprayed, 
Aton. See Aten. 




i 



I 



ATREUS. in (jK.k :-'/.iul. l,i! 11 ; ... 
Ai;amemnon, K.ing ot Mycenae, whi-re is 
his supposed tomb called the Treasury 
of Atreiis, shown in this picture. 




ATRIUM. A Roman dwelling's roofless 
(iitrance hall. 




ATROPHY. A wasted condition, as. 
for instance, this Indian fakir's raised 
arm, which is atrophied through disuse. 
Atropine. See Nishtshade. 




ATTACH^ CASE. A handy ni'>d;^ni 
bair for documents, and so on. 



BANNERS— THE BEAUTIFUL EMBLEMS OF AUTHORITY AND POWER 




ARCHBISHOP OF YORK ARCHBISHOP 



mmE 



DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLANL 




I RiM r'v C^^i^^F.jL, OXFORD 



^gTfnp^ ^-^-^ 




V '>K3^ ^^^^^cM^.^^^^ 




^^^^^^^K^ ^^F^^H 




M 


^5R^ 


''^^^R 


^3 



DUKE OF BEAUFO 




CCRC. 


< A'l^f-^r '''- ' 


'CNTBRISCN 




I^C 


n 




e3S 


y 




!^B 


1 




BISHOP OF TRURO 



CORPORATION OF LANCASTER CORPORATION . OF CHESTER EARL OF SHREWSBURY 



Formerly a banner was a square flag, its size denoting the rank of its owner. The banner of a king was Hve feet square, a duke's four 
feet, a baron's three feet. We give several historic examples. B.inner5 were often carried, unlike most'- flags, between two poles. 

See pace 155 



BASKETRY— THE ANCIENT HANDICRAFT OF THE PRIMITIVE RACES 




t From inc United Provinces oi India 2 Nigerian. 3 tskimo 

inHi^S' l'^," ""' v" '"*' '™'" Af'zona 8 Box ironi the Sudan, 
ndian work Irom Vancouver Island 13 From Ceylon 14 F 
lb Mdi Irom Uganda 19 Bornean. 20 Oregon Red Indian 



4 Fan irum li)i. 5 From Voruha. Nigeria. 6 Ked Indian work Irom Oregon. U.S.A. 

.. 1. 1,* •" '"'''■'" sacred plaque. 10 Bornean. 11 Red Indian work from Calilornia. 12 Red 

14 i-rom Uganda. 15 From Yoruba, Nigeria. 15 Red Indian woman's hat from Oregon 17 Alaskan. 

Sreai loresl 01 Paraguay 26 From the" Narriiil'u 'A. 'k'?."^!!; •>, h 1 P ^'""^ ^.'"".^ ^^"""^^ -^ Oregon Red Indian. 24 From Uganda. 2S From the 

"■ " ■- 5 ^ ------ 11 and ^-id Fm„.r^,vk ^ °P' '"d'^V sacred plaque. 28 Poma Indian leathered hat. 29 Mat trom Uganda. 

31 and 34 From Arctic America. 32 Red Indian work trom Calilornia. 33 From the Belgian Congo. See page 173 



30 Sudanese cotiee-pot basket. 



ATTACHMENT SCREW 



AUCTION 




ATTACHMENT SCREW. Used tor tas- 
tenini; together two parts of an adjust- 
able tool or apparatus. 




ATTACUS. A Kenus ot moths, repre- 
sented here bv the large and beautiful 
A. atlas of the Hini il.n .1. 




ATTAR OF ROSES. A scented oil dis- 
tilled Irum roses, notably in Bulgaria, 
where this picture of peasants engaged 
in the industry was taken. 




ATTATHA REGALIS. A strikingly 
m.irked species of moth found in 
South-eastern Asia. 





ATTIC. .'. ii.M, M..I > next to the v 

<•! a Inillding. as shown here. 

Attica, iee Atl.is 17, E 4. 

ATTIC BASE. That used for columns 

in the Attic or Athenian, style. 




ATTERBURY, FRANCIS (1662-1732). 

A Bish.ip 111 Roche.^ter banished in 1722 
for plMttwig with the Jacobites. 

' Jf~T" r^Tr-7 'I e - T t ft r- r \ 



■'^ <-> -, r 



ATTIC. A low storey above a buiMmij'S 
cornice, as seen in this picture. 



ATTILA Id. -153). C.illed the Scourge 
of God, the destroying King of the Huns 
who threatened civilisation till his 
defeat at Chalons in 451. 
AttOCk. See Atlas 22, D 2. 




|| 




ATTORNEY-GENERAL. The chief l.iw 
officer ol the I'.ritish uovernment. 
ATTRAHENS AUREM. Asmall muscle 
(A) which draws the ear forward. 



\\ 





ATYS. ni uicck i.-i^ci-vl. .. . .^ui.ful 
shepherd who was driven mad through 
tlic je.ilousy of Cybele. This ancient 
bust shows him wearint; a Phrygian cap. 
Aube, River. See Atlas 7. r 2. 




AUBUSSON, PIERRE D' •U23-i5'^'>» 
A :air. I -;r:ir.J rnxslcr ol the Knights 
of St. Juhn who in 14S0 stemmed the 
Turkish attack on Rhodes. 



AUBER 

coinp 
AUBER 

k;inu'ii 1 




, 0. F. (17S2-I.S;IJ. A 
r who wrote nearly 50 operas. 
GINE. The fruit of the egg-plant, 
s:ience as Solanum melongen 1. 







AUBIGNE, J. H. 



1S72). 



S\m: 



MERLE D' (1794- 
.-;i-iic.il historian. 



AUBIGNE, THEODORE D' (1552- 

16;'0. A Irjiuh llii-'uenot soldier. 

i-M.-t. and liistori.iii. 




AUCH. 

here (15,000). See Atlis 7, L> j. 




Auckland Harbo-ir 



AUBRIETIA. A genus ol perenni.il 
bright-flowered plants belongins to the 
lamily Brassicaceae. 



ATWOOO'S MACHINE. An mventi. 
bv George Atwood lor illustrating the 
laws of motion and other phenomena. 
ATYPUS. A genus of spiders with si.x 
spinnerets. We show A. piceus. 





AUCKLAND. The large.st city a-u rvr' 
of North Island. New Zeal.\nd. »ith a 
line harbour. We show some oi its 
gr.!!.ir:.s ; "ii.'V.i). See .\tlas 57. E 3- 
Auckland Islands. See Atl.is '.=. E 7 



AUBUSSON. A;i oLI Irench tour. 

n,.ted lor centuries tor its carpets. Here 

IS its quaint old bridge over the River 
Creuse (7200). See Atlas 7. E 4. 




AUCTION. A public sale, as illustrated 
here by G. B. ONeill's painting. 

Ll 



AUCTIONEERS INSTITUTE 




AUGURS 



AUCTIONEERS INSTITUTE. A 

chartered body with this modern home 
in Lincoln's Inn Fields. London. 




AUDIOMETER. An instrument useO 
to gauce and record audibility, the pic- 
ture here beini; a photoeraph bv a 
IlilRer-Low audiometer of sound \v;ive^ 
from a violin string. 





AUCUBA JAPONICA. A branching; 
shrub '^rown lor its mass of glossy, 
leathery leaves and cr.ral berries. 









AUDIBILITY METER. for testing 

relative stren','ths of signals from 
dillerent wireless stations or from a 
station usi"'.; dilTereiit instrument^ 



AUDION VALVE. The three-electrode 
valve m wireless which was invented by 
Dr. Lee de Forest. 

AUDIPHONE. A fan which, laid against 
the teeth, carries sound vibrations to the 
brain, thus assi.-iting hearing. 



AUDLEY END. The finest mansion in 
Hsse.x, built bv the first Earl of Suffolk 
between loos'and 1616 on the site of 
Walden Abbey, Saffron Walden. It 
cost £100. nnn, and was probably the 




AUGEREAU. PIERRE (1757-1816). 
A fami'us .Napoleonic marshal. 
AUGER SHELL. A gastropod, so called 
because of its long, spiral shape. 





AUDITU 

occupi;J 
ditorium 



r^iuffl. 111. r-''' "I ^ theatre 
by the audience ; this is the au- 
of Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. 




AUDIO-FREQUENCY AMPLIFIER. 

For amplifying wireless signals at audio- 
frequency. It is connected in place of 
telephone receivers. 




AUDITORY CANAL. I he e.Ueni.il 
opening of the ear known to science as 
the external acnuslic meatus and ex- 
tending as far as the drum. 




AUDIO-FREQUENCY TRANSFORMER. 

An arrangement of wire coils whereb\ 
an alternating current passing through 
the primary winding induces a higher 
voltage current in the secondary winding 
at the applied current's frequency- 



Audilori/ nerve 
passing to Ike ear 




AUDITORY NERVE. The Special nerve 
01 hearing which runs from the brain 
(right) to the internal ear or labyrinth 
(which see). 




AUDREY. An awkw.irj. rustic i.iss 
" Shakespeare's As You i :k I; ' 

with Touchstone, the 



AUDUBON, JOHN J. I7»U-IS 
American naturalist, famous 
study of birds. 

AUERBACH, BERTHOLD (ISI 
German writer, noted for his 
the Black Forest. 



51 ;. An 


for his 


2-82). 


A 


tales 


ot 


4=. 




^ 




3^ 






AUGEAN STABLES. The 3000 stalls of 
o.\en owned bv Angeas, an Elian king. 
Their cleansing was one of the twelve 
labours of Hercules, who turned two 
rivers through them and finished the 
work in a night. 

AUGER. A tool for wood-boring, 
usually with a spiral bit. 



AUGIER, G. V. E. (iSJu -Syj. A noted 
French dramatist of modern life. 
AUGITE. An aluminous variety of 
pyroxene fo-.ind in igneous rocks. 





AUGMENTATION. An additional 
charge to a coat-of-arms given as a mark 
of honour, as when Wellington added 
the inescutcheon of England to his arms 
(left). We also show Marlborough's. 



M^-rr^v^ [ 



fe 



4ac.'tJ J J J 



zz 



AUGMENTATION. A theme repeated in 
notes of greater value. We show above 
a uitue subject. Below it is augmented. 
Augmented Interval. See Interval. 

^"-I 








AUGER-BIT. An auger used with a 
brace or bit-stock 



AUGSBURG. :^nt [aviriandty 

with an u!„ . •.: .::.il an 1 a splendid 
town hall. We shnu sonii nl its quaint 
houses (160.0001. See Atlas 12. D 4. 




AUGURS. A r-.li ••; in -t* ■'< 1^""" 
whose duty w .is to interpret the feeling of 
the gods in regard to anv undertaking. 



AUGUSTA 



ll"^! 



AURANGABAD 




AUGUSTA. Caril.ll ol .\Uinv, U.S.A., 
its capitol beins; shown here (15,000), 

See Atlas 20, N ?, 




AUGUSTAL. An Italian gold coin uf 
Emreror Frederick II (H94-1250). 
Augusta Trevirorum. See Atl.is iS. F ::, 




AUGUSTINE iJ. i..-.)4). Th 
the An,i;lu-S,i\'"< -, •• 
bury's first ,u , 




AUGUST THORN MOTH. A Britisli 

.species appfarim; in ,Aui:ust and seen 
h,-r • •■ ■"■ ■' - " - 



The young Augustus 




AUGUSTUS (63 B.C.-lt A.D.). The hrst 
Roman tniperor, under whom Jesus 

■,^ :i^ '^:,rn. He was a great patron of art. 
-sesculpturesareinth- \ ii;.,i;i. 




AUGUSTINE'S CHAIR. The arch- 
bishop',',,, , , '.anterburv Cathedral. 
AUGUSTINE'S CROSS. The memorial 
at Ehbsileet, where Augustine landed. 




AUGUSTINIAN8. Known also as Austin 
friai* ; they once had 125 British houses. 



AUGUSTUS M. King of Poland Irom 

100- to 17;;, 

AUGUSTUS III. KiMROI Poland 1733-6' 



i 



X 






AUGUSTUS, TOWER OF. .-... 

in;* ruin of Augustus's time at La i uroie, 

near Monaco. 




AUK. Two species of northern sea birds. 
tlu- g^reat auk, seen on the left, beinc 
now extinct. The little auk (ri^ht) 
visits Scotland. 




AULA. Ill Roman building, an open 
i.Murt. sucli .i.'< is here seen in the the.ttrt' 

I'l Pompeii, 




AULACODE. A spiny ground rat <s^"u^ 
\'i! lovlii':) ft is a larsre burrowini; 




AUGUSTUS. ARCH OF. A imely pre- 
served triumphal arch at Aosta. Italy. 



AULD ROBIN GRAY. The central lii^ur. 
of the lanioiis ballad, seen here in Faed's 
well-known picture, which is now* in 
Shertield Art Gallery. 




AULETRIS. i / : .- . • ': : _r ^ 

!iij"^-plav;r .it bjriqucts. 
AULNOY, C0MTE88E D'(d. 1705). One 
of the best kni'wn and moil popular 
French writers of fairy storiei. 




AUL08. A Greek wind instrument mitt 
a vibratint: reed In the mouthpiece. 




AULOSTOMUS. A kind of fish o< 

-;iil> Aul'.'Stomidae, »-ith a lone* 

' . md a tube-like "-nout. 



AUMALE, DUG D' {\ii22-77). A cad- 

. ble French S'ldicr, fourthsonof homclr 
Ltiuis Philirre. 

AUM0N|£RE. An often elaboratelv- 
^■nibroidcrrd pouch carried at the girdle 
in the Middle Aces. 




AUNT SALLY. A zimt in which i 
ead with .1 pipe is s^t on a pole and 
■hrowers try to break the pipe. 
AURA. A classical divinity, the personi* 
i.c.uion of the lighter breezes. 




AURAL INSTRUMENTS. ::uch thin^ 
.IS lorccps. hooks. .'.;id knives used in 

j.tr oper.iti. 'PS- 




AURAL SYRINGE. One of metal, glass- 

or rubber tor douchini; the car. 
Aurangabad. See Ati.15 =2. E 5. 



AXJRANGZEB 



120 



AURORA AUSTRALIS 



I 



4' ^- 



AURANGZEB. I '< : ' ; "' .H M.<i;ii| 
Emperor ol InJi.i, 105S Wur. WeShow 
here his splendid mosque at Benares. 
Aurnxa. ^ ■ ■ ''^' ■"•■'' 




#. 



AURtLIA .1 ii:lly-lish ol the 

t;lrnil\ A'.lullul.U'. 

AURELIAN. A Caesar who reigned 
27()-J75 and did much to restore the 
waninR power of Rome. 





Aureoles 


ill 


med 


eval ; rl 


' '^^H^ 


* 


?^ 


^^K"' 


z' ' 








/ , 








W/i:'-'^^ 


1 




^^'^- 












i 


w 


¥" 1 


Kn^F 






\'\ 


^Y^P 






' M i 


H^PF' 




A 


hP ^ 


^ 




\ 


t.. 



Aurcoltr ul tlic Miidurina 
AUREOLE. In art, a halo or nimbus, 
varifttjj types heing shown liere. 




AURELIAN'S WALL. A ramp:irt of 
Rome bCRun !-\ AurL'li.m in z:\. 




Two portraits of .^Aarcus Aurclius 




Marcus Aurehiis statui: ii) Hdnie 



A nit^da! ol .Warci.. 
AURELIUS, MARCUS (121 1,'u A.D.). 
Otu- '.I ihe 1,'reatL-st Roman emperors, 
tthijrcK-neJ K.i 1V1. He was a ureal 
ruler and illustrious as a philosopher. 



AUREUS. A jold coin introduced in 
l-'iime in the tl^ird century B.C. 




AURICLE. The e.vlernal portion ol 
the e.ir ; the ch ef p.irls of it are seen 
in ti i^ diagram. 





Aorta 






Superior > 


<^ 


^^ 


Pulmonary 
/ 4rtery ^ 


i 

R.ght (M 


m 


m 


^^j</^ Pulmonary 


Inferior '^H 
Vrnii Cava ^^B 


w 


^1 


% — —X^yentricle 


£S,c 


;^ 


.^. 


;■ ) 






>__ 


:-- 



AURICLE. One of the he-art 's twn 
thanihers by whicli the blood is received 
and passed into the ventricles. 




AURICLE. An instrument applied to 
the ears to assist the hearing. 




/\ u J ; I (J u L .(N 



>erennial 
iwers. 
AURICULAR FEATHERS. The Set 

"t Il'.i hots {marked A) overlyint; a 
hud's .■:■.!■. 




AURICULAR FINGER. The little 

iiii'.'.cr. Sit c:iUed because it is most 

lolv introduced into the ear. 
AURICULATE. A term for a leaf with 
luu small projections, or ears, at thf 
base, us illustrated here. 







• 


V . 


1 




• 


CopeUoofttieCoot 

J, •" 1 
Menkolinon ^^ 1 


• 




e» 




''•sJdotonI 




.. 


. 




• 



AURIGA. 1 he Wagoner or Charioteer 
(HU' iT tiie nortliern constellations, con- 
taiiiini; the brilliant double star Capella. 
Aurillac. See Atlas 7. E 4. 




AURIPHRYGIA. An • 'i im iik^I .il h.nul 
nil various ecclesiaistical \ u^t iiu-nts, 
especially the richly-adorned band 
round the lower eds:e of a mitre. The 
wrd means Phrygian ejold. 
Auris. See Haliotis. 




,1 \ ^^^^wpMaa^^r 



1 . t •'!■•! 



AURISCOPE. An instrument for e.x- 
plorinv! the ear, generally with an elec- 
tric lamp as part of its equipment. 





AURLANDS FIORD. A line Iranc 
thejireat Sniine fiord, Norway. 

1 iJC 




AUROCHS. The European biso 
species now almost extinct. 




AURORA. The goddess of the dawn, 

here ,sln<\vn from the fresco by Guide 
Reiii where she is scattering flowers be- 
fore the charidt of Phoebus, the Sun god. 




AURORA. Th- brilliant Polar Ir^liis 
caused by the electrons with which the 
Sun constantly b<jnil''ards the Earth. 




AURORA AUSTRALIS I ii aurora as 

ni.i'iiiL-.u-d 111 Lli- - I'litiui 11 Hemisphere, 
sometimes in beautitul curtain-like forms. 



_1. 



AURORA BOREALIS 



^tfj^bi 




AUSTRALIA 



AUSTIN. Cupitill of Icxas. whi 
invtTSity Wi: show no 000). S 



AURORA BOREALIS. The aurora u 
see]] in the Northern Hemisphere : ottei 
called the Northern Liirhts. 




AURORAL FLASHES. Those seen 
some ki'uls of auroral display. 
AurungS'be. See Aiirantrzeh" 





British 



AUSTIN, ALFRED ! l s u Ivu). 

Pi>et Laureate trom is<j(,, 

AUSTIN, SARAH (1743-1867). Trans 

itnr Ml Kjiike's Histr)ry of the Popes. 




AUSTIN CAR. One ot the best-known 
t^n^lish makes of motor-cars, including 
high-powered luxury cars and the popu- 
lar little Austin Seven 



1 1 r 



AUSTEN, JANE (1 775-1817). One of 
the most jilted British women novelists. 
Auslerlitz. See Atlas 15, E 4. 



AUSTIN rt;iARS. 



site of the street of ttiat name in the 
City of London, it is now the Dntcli 





AUSTERLITZ, BATTLE OF. . ^..„: ;..i,,o over tlie Aiistnans and 

Kusiians, Oiic, 2 laos. in Moravia, it was liie most decisive victory in his career 



, ;^lraIian bus : ^ ,l 

AUSTRALIA. The island continent, the Empire's vast southern Commonwealth, 
with an area of nearly three million square miles, a population of six millions, and 
illimitable farmiiiij resources See Atlas 56. 



AUSTRALIA HOUSE 








AUTOMATIC MACHINE 



AUSTRALIA HOUSE. 

Lo; 




AUSTRALIAN ALPS. Aranse i" South- 
eastern Australia, rising to 73^0 feet i" 
Mount Kosciusko, seen in this picture. 
See Atlas 36. H 6. 
Austral Islands. Si'e Atlas 35. G (>. 



AUTEUIL. A pIcMS.iiil Paris suburb 
with this fine viaduct over the 'i-iiii- 
Auto-Boat. See .Motor-boat. 





AUTOCLAVE. An .M'^l imenta 

Jiijester (which see) i:)r subiecting fooJ 
to' a heat greater than boilinj-point. 




AUSTRALOPITHECUS AFRICANUS. 

A man-like ape, known from the lamous 
Tauni^ skull found in South Africa. 
These are reconstructions of it. 




AUTODYNE RECEIVER. A device in 
wireless m which one valve generates 
local oscillations for heat fLcrt"''. 
and performs other functions. 



A^"''^""- ^2J"^v^^ 



fi(/UA^ fhzo-^rh^ 



/^^^-.^Ti^^ 



fyd^ m^f^ 



j£n 



JL^. 



VTs- 






AUTOGRAPH. An>tn 

author's own. handwritin 
word is usually applied 
entire manuscripts bein 
■rraphs. We show six 



ui the 
ir. though the 
to signatures, 
; called holo- 
famous auto- 




.A village band in Austrian 1 irol 
AUSTRIA. The most mountainous European country after Switzerland ; area 
32.100 Svjuare miles : population 'j. 550,000; capital Vienna. It comprises roughly 
the German parts of the old Empire. Mere are some of its people. See Atlas 1 5. D 5. 



AUTOLYTUS. A genus 01 annelids 01 
the family Svlidae which reproduce 
their species by making many new- 
segments at a point near the tail. 



The cut-out with cover removed 
AUTOMATIC CUT-OUT. A device for 
breaking an electric circuit directly the 
current rises above the limited amount. 
We show here a cut-out of the General 
Electric Company. 




AUTOMATIC MACHINE. U.ie with a 
slot lor inserting a coin, usually a 
penny, which falls down a shoot and 
depresses a spring controlling a catch, 
enibling a drawer to be pulled out. 



AUTOMATIC MILK SUPPLY 



i:;:i 





AUTOMATIC MILK SUPPLY. A penny 
insirt.-'d in this machine depresses a 
lever, seen above, and releases the other 
end from a ratchet. A handle can then 
be turned which, moving a toothed 
quadrant, causes a paddle to stir the 
milk and releases a i:lven quantity. 




AUTOTYPE 



AUTOMATIC POST OFFICE. A kiosk 
with a public telephone, letter box, and 
automatic .stamp machines. 




AUTOMATOGRAPH. An apparatus 
for recordini^ tile involuntary movements 
of the hand and arm. 






^.''J 



"< 



k 



AUT0M0LI8 CHRY30WEUAS, 




1 he Droz automatnns 



f 



u 





AUTOMATON. A term applied e.s 
peciitiiy to mechanical puppets. The 
middle picture shows writing auto- 
matons made in the tsth centurv bv 
Jacauet Droz, a Swiss, and below is the 
machine that worked them. At the top 
is a modern automaton, the mechanical 
ma-1 calU'.i a K.>l-..t. after a famr^us p'.i\. 





AUTOMATIC TELEPHONE. A telephone by which the subscriber connects 
mmselt. 1 he ten rows of white squares in this picture correspond with figures. 

Ihp subscriber, by liftinc the receiver, sets a line switch (top rii;ht hand) sweep- 
ing round till it finds a selector rod diseniiased. Then he turns the dial to the 
!'.f,"r" "taking up his number, and the selector arm slides along the little contacts 
till It finds one disengaged. When it has completed the number switches are 
operated establishing the connection. 





AUTOMOBILE ASSOCIATION. Society 
lor ni'tiristi We Show badges of the 
English and French associations. 





AUTOMOBILE CLUB. A club lor motor- 
ists, like the Royal Automobile Club, 
London, whose badge is here shown. 




AUTOPHONE. A musical i.islrumcnl 
illieJ to the barrel-organ in which the 

tun;s j:.- pr-.Ju;;J b-. r;rf'-Tj!iorJ in 




AUTOPLATE. .. ^.^ in 

neuspaper priming lor rapidly pro- 
ducing stercoplates. 



AUTO-TRANSFORMER. An electric 
transformer in which part of the 
primary coil is used as the secondary 
coil, or inversely. 

SHAKE SPeXrES 

<.:OAm>ll.>. 
HtsTor.ll.^ 
TU.\(il m:- 




AUTOTVPE. A process for printing in 
:.u-sin;ile : for instance, for reproducins? 
the title-page of the first edition or 
Shakespeare s rla\S. and so on. 



AUTOVAC 



AVENTURIN 




AUTO-WHEEL. A small motor and 
wheel attached to a bicycle, trans 
formine it into a motor-cycle. 



-.'f^ 



AUTUMNAL MOTH. 1 lie bntisn 

Oporahia tilicramniaria, seen in Aiiiriist. 




AUTUMN BELLS. A European gentkui. 
So naiiKtl because of its bell-shapeJ 
flowers and season of opening. 



AUXOGRAPH. A hntanical apparatus 
: iniikini: records of the rate of growth 

■ ■. :i plant. 

AVA. A shrubby species of pepper. Piper 

niL'th\sticuni. uruwinii in the South Seas. 




AVALON. In Celtic mytlioli)i;y, a magical green liland to which King Arthur was 
taken to be cured of his wounds, as shown in this well-known picture by Burne- 
JoneS- Tennyson calls it the island valley of Avilinn. 



AVALANCHE. A t.ill ..t kc .... .u..,^ 
such as occurs in the High Alps, carrying 
all before it. tearing up trees and houses. 




AUXANOMETER. A device lur measur- 
ing and recording plant growth. 



AVALOKITA. A Buddhist deity, the 
merciful protector of the world and 
men. In this picture we show a Tibetan 
representation of him in gilt copper 
adorned with jewels. 





w 



AVANT-8RAS. A piece of medieval 
armour which protected the forearm. 
We show two examples. 









AVATAR. A Hmdu word fnr a mani- 
festation, applied especially to the god 
Vihsnu represented as here. 




AVEBURY. This village, near Marl- 
boriiugh, Wiltshire, has one of the linest 
prehistoric relics in Britain, a double 
ring of huge stones, once, perhaps, a 
Druidical temple. 




AVEBURY, LORD OSH-1912). Au- 
thor nj th- Bank Holidays Act, IS71 
Aveiro. See Atlas ^, B 1. 
AVELLANE. A heraldic term for lilbert- 

sh.ipfd. likt' tliL-. cross's arms 



^ 



OTk^W 




AVELLANEDA, NICOLAS il836-»5l. A 

prt-siJ.'tlt "t .■\rL:dntina. 

Avenger of Blood. See City of Refuge. 
AVENS. Two British wild plants, water 
awns, shown llere, and herb bennet. 




AVENTAILE. A movable llap m a 
nudi^\.il helmet, covering the face. 
Aventine HilL See Rome. 
AVENTURIN. A kind of felspar, 
spaimled with hematite or mica. 



AVENtJE 



125 



AWNTNG 




AVENUE. A double row of trees, 
usually bordering a road. This one is 
at the WiUernesse. near Sevenciaks 




AVERNUS. A lake near Naples, 
believed by the ancients to be the 
entrance to' the infernal regions. 
AVERRHO£S fd. 1198). A famou- 
Spanish- Arabian physician and philu 
sopher. a commentator on Aristotle. 




AVERSANT. A heraldic term meaning 
turned to show the back and generally 
used of a hand, as seen here. 
AVESNES. A French northern frontier 
t"u n, once an important iortress, whose 
:irnis are Shown. 
Aveyron, River. See Atla^ 7. D 4. 




AVIGNON. :..- -„,,: , 

ui the hrench medic vai Fupc5, whuie 
palace is seen here. Once Roman, the 
citv has lofty walls and an 11th-century 
cathedral (SO.OOO). See Atlas 7. F 5. 




AVILA. An old and lovely Spai 
cathedral city with 86 towers and 
gateways (H.ooo). See Atlas 8. C l 




» i 


i - 1 


A 1 A 



AVOGADRO, COUNT AMADEO ^1776- 

'• ': Yimous Italian chemist. 

AVOIRDUPOIS. The measure of wei;;ht 
in which t6 ounces equal a pound. 




AVOLI. The little mouldinR (A) where 
til.- i^owl and stem of a wineglass join. 
Avon. A river in Hampshire, reachini; 
the sea at Christchurch. See Atlas 1, F 6. 




AVON, LOWER. . ne ^.iirrwav on 
which Bath and Bristol stand. Clifton 
Suspension Bridge over -it bein? seen 
here. "- miles. See Atlas 4. E - 






AWE, LOCH. TiieiATcol 
water lak^;. covering 15 s.' 



AVON, UPPER. The lovely river liowmp 
through Stratford to join the Severn at 
Tewkesburv. 06 miles. See Atlas 4. F 4. 





AVOCA, VALE OF. I he lovely Wicklow 

jL-n ni Toiii .Wonre's famous soni;. 

A V r, C.I ri . '. ■ ■ 



AVIARY. A rGo;u>. ui"jr.-j.ir uuclo^urs; 
in \i.l!ich birds are kept. 
Aviator. See Airman. 




AVICULA. A genus of bivah . 
(family Aviculidae) often called win^ 
shells. Here ws show two examples. 




: N M U T H . 
Avranches. See Atlas r. 



and once common in the fens. 





AWAJl WARE. 4.W K., ,. . . ^. 
made in Awaji province. Japan. 




AWL. A slender 

in wn.ij or !e.itb:r 



AWL-CLIP. An awlshaped Spike for 

lilinc letters and so on. 

AWLWORT. WATER. A British wild 

plant ot the cabbaije family, common 

on the bottoms of irii^untain lake> 




AWN. In botany, a bristle like growth, 
like the beard on barley or wheal. 
AWNING. A covering ot canvas or 
other material as a protection trom 
the Sun and weather. 



AXBRIDGE 



AYACUCHO 




hellllli; UX:; 

AXE. One of the most ancient of num's 
weapons and tools. In these pictures 
we show some very old e.Tampies wiWi 
medieval kinds and familiar types in 
ise today 



'' "-=•" ■"-■ •"- 



AXIS DEER. An easily domesticated 
Indian species, with a fawn coat spotted 
with while, and short, sharp antlers. 



AXMINSTER. A 1 ..■■,. .11, in, , t-ua ,,n 
the Axe. "iite lariKius l^r its c.irpets. At 
Ashe House, 2 miles south, the famous 
Duke of Marlborouirh was born 13000). 



iiiiififii-A >»f M n^'furrf i 



AYACUCHO, 

9000 feet abuVi Sva-lcvel, louiideU by 
Pizarro (20.000). See Atlas 32. D 6. 



AYAH 




AYSGARTH 



AYAH. A.I ..U f.<rtuguese 
used for ail Indian nurse. 




AYE-AYE. A squirrel-like animal 
Madagascar, with long, thin ears. 




Near this pleasant 

jh the Medway the Jutes 

under Horsa defeated the Britons under 
Catigern, both leaders being killed. Kit's 
Coty House, near by, is said to be 
Catigern's grave. 




AYLET. A bird, often identified with 
the cormorant, used as a heraldic bearing 
(which see). Several examples are given. 



bS^H^., 



AYLSHAM. A qLi.niit littlj \nrti;.lk 
town on the Bure, which is navigable 
for wherries up to this point. 



'. •: ury Parish Church 
AYLESBURY. The county town of Buck- 
inghamshire, with dairying and printing 
industries (12,500). See Atlas 4, G 5. 





AYRANT. In heraldry, a bird sealed 
■'■1 its nest ; used as a bearing (wf:: ■'- ■ ■ ■' 




A- rs.'iir.' .;■ w 
AYRSHIRE CATTLE. A breed o( 

medium si7e with short. Incurved horns, 




AYRTON, HERTHA. \ r,-,nun;nt 

w...man scientist, wife ol W. E, Avrlon. 
tile electrical engineer who died in'l90S. 
AYSCOUeH, JOHN Id. 1028). Pen-name 

"i M'.y'5;gn..r p-.-^ - • ■•=■ '■-;- - - ■ -• 




p^ir 



AYSGARTH. A ; i.uirt.Nju; .,; . 
dale village near which are the I : 
and the Lower Force, on the YorLs 
Ure. the Lower Force beinc seen here. 



re 



^==^-' 



AYLE8BURY DUCK. 

kind bred mainly near 



Types oi Aymaras 
AYMARA. An interesting [ndian race 
still numerous in Bolivia, where they 
nourished in pre-Inca times. 




Burns\< i.un 



rw .1 B.'itis 01 



AYR. The old capital of Ayrshire, now with textile and eTUinc^niu trades. Its 
chief features are the Wallace Tower, rebuilt in 1S34. and the bridge made famous 
bv Burns, shown in this picture's backsrround (36,000). See Atlas ">, D 4. 
Ayr. River. See Atlas 5, D 4. 



AYTOUN 



128 



AZURITE 




AYTOUN, SIR ROBERT i i 

Scottish pott kiiisilitt'd by Janlv'S I. 
AYTOUN, WILLIAM E. (IS13-65). 
Scottish poet noted tor Ims ballads 




AYUB. MOSQUE OF. ; .,_ l l, i. 

mosquf .It LMnstautinor'e named att^' 
Avub. .Mohammed's standard-bearer. 
Ayulhia. See Atla^ 24 B !. 



y 




AZADAH. A Persian 
huntimi, lrt)ni a l Sth-centurv l\\:^ 
AZALEA. A beautiful ifjrden tluwer, 
native nf America and Asia 





AZIMUTH COMPASS. A ship's compass 
placed in the midsliip line and havim; 
vanes and screens lor observing the bear- 
ine:s n( heavenly and terrestrial objects. 
Azoic. See Geology 



AZALEA, TRAILING. A mountain 
plant. A. pri»cunibens, con lined in 
Britain to the Scottish Highlands. 
AZAROLE. The Neapolitan medl.ir , 
Crjitiiei.Mis :i7arnlus 







AZERBAIJAN. A Urt.ir republic in 
the Caucasus, under Russian domina 
tiun ; also Persia's north-eastern pro- 
vince. Above is a view of Baku, capital 
of the republic. 




AZIMUTH Cll-:i,Lw. .-. .....ut^.uLu vir.K- 

wiih sight vanss and screens attached 
to a compass and used for indicating 
an arc oi the horizon 




AZOR. A strini^cJ instrunu'nt used b\ 
the Jews in ancient times 





AZOTOMETER. An apparatus for 
cnilectiiig and measuring nitrogen gas 

Ireed in analysis. 

Azov. Sea of. See Atlas 16, F ^ 




AZRAEL. The Jewish and Mt.sicm 
aiK'el 111 death, from the paintiiT^ by Sir 
!'hilip Burne-JoneS- 




Aznres peasants wit h t 




I he town of Horta 
AZORES. A Portuguese island group in i 
are the halfway house of the Atlantic for the llyiii 



.\zores coslunus 
L noted for fruit. 
See Atlas l, H 4. 



A^tec carvinys on a u 




.\ ^.iLMtici.ti stone 
AZTEC ART. In these pictures we give 
examples of the decorative art of the 
Aztecs, who had a highly developed 
civilisation in Mexico before the com- 
ing of Cortes and are regarded as the 
Egyptians ot the New Wi.rld. 




AZURE. Heraldic blue, shown in en- 
L;rayimT by parallel horizontal lines. 
AZURINE. The Australian warbler, 
also known as the blue wren. 




AZURINE. The European blue roach. 
Cy prill us coeruleus. 



I 



AZURITE. A hlLK- nwlr-^us copper 
carbonate, sometimes used as a pigment 




BABAKOTO. The short-tailed, woolly 

tcii.iu .t ^\,^Jagascar. 
Baliar. see Babur. 



BABBLER. A hird ul suutlliTM Asia 
with a powerful beak and noisy, chat- 
teriiK' cry. We show the chestnut- 
backed babbler. 



BABES IN THE WOOD. 

prettiest and most p.ipular Ei:„-lish tales 
of children, lirst printed in 1595. 



BABIRUSA. A wild pn; of the East 

Indie-!, the m.ile having long teeth 
curving back ovir the eyes. 



BABLAH 



I :iii 



BACCHUS 




BABLAH. A roJ <il acacui. e^pi-n.il 
this kind, helon^ini; to A. scorpioides. 




BABOON. A l.ir,i;t aaJ iciu.i.jii.s Ju:; 
headed monliey found in Africa ami 
Arabia, and living amonc rocks. 

r 




BABOOSH. A slipper with neither sides 
nor heel, worn in Turkey and the East. 
Babuina. See Baboon. 
BABUL TREE. The Acacia arabica, 
which yields gum arable. Our illustra- 
tion shows its foliaire and fruit. 
f - 







^^ 



tt^'-'Wl 




Babvio 



!t p. 



BABYLON. A once splendid city "! 
the East, its ruins today covering so 
square miles near Hilla, in Iraq. Its 
elory lasted from about fSoo to 538 B.C., 
when Cyrus took it. See Atlas 19, D ?. 




BABY. 1 he hope ol the British Empire 

of the future. 

BABY BASKET. One in which a 

baby's clothes are kept. 




BABY CHAIR. Any kind of chair 

for the usl- of young children. 
BABY HAMPER. One for packing a 
baby's clothes in for travelling. 




BABYLONIAN ART. Chiefly Sculpture 
and bas-reliefs, which were finely done 
in Babylon, as these examples show 




BABYLONIAN CAPTIViTY. 

k-w!sh exile ni ' I 

is by E. Bandenrinn 










'^ 



c 




BACCHANTE. A priestess or woman 
wiirshipper of Bacchus. 
BACCHARIS. A plant genus including 
the groundsel tree, seen here. 



BABYLONIAN TEiVIPLE. I yp 

temple seen in this reconstruction. 
Babylonite. See Cuneiform. 




BABY WALKER. A Irame nn callers 
ill \^h;ch .1 h:iby learns to walk. 




BACCA. A berry like the currant, with 
:,.Js in a pulpy mass. 
BACCATE. Any berry-bearing plant. 



BACCHEION. 1 . .; .. ..!;.! temple wi 
1. K-L-hus at baalpL.K (which see). 






BACCHIC AMPHORA. A Greek vase 
ustd ill the Bacchic revels : we give 
also on the right a thyrsus, a pole 
crowned with vine leaves which was 
much used by Bacchus worshippers. 




BACCHANAL. A wild revel, such as the 
Greeks held in honour of Bacchus. 





Ba 


ccluis mui .AriaJtii: 






1 


m 


i 


fc 


1 


'-T'^ '1|^^| 
^^H 


1 




h 


^T"^ 


H 


i;rl^i. 


1 


Mhm 


^1 



BACCHUS. Another name of Dionysus, 
tlu- ijreek god of wine, whose emblems 
include the vine, the ivy, the thyrsus, 
and the panther. The Greek repre- 
sentation above shows him in his 
chariot drawn by panthers. 



BACCHUS AND VENUS 





■4 






BACH, BARON VON isii isij). a 
prDmiiiciit Austrian puliticiari bftwei-n 
Isls and l,SS9. 

BACH, KARL (1714-1 788). J. S. Bach's 
wrots 210 piano pieces 



BACCHUS AND VEI4US. ,< ..nnu 

porcelain group of iSth-century German 
worlc showing the Roman god and god- 
dess, now inVictoria and Albert Museum. 



>X!^t --i4-;->^r-',^. \~''~- 


T 


-T*hv(n<'TK»! ^^~.^^-•-^— ' 




A*j K t .j-i >;'?,-«+ f^ -r*-* J -=^'- ■ 




!!?Aoi'T'!-'*'"^i-i>*M»r-K ■ 




■ ■St-x-n'-- 'T^-t (^-iTn^»>/,-- ' . 




-■ ■-. "-I.'J. ,.f^-4-,-^.H 


■fty 


■ ■ ,- f , '^ !-,_, r ,-^w 




'■■■■■ •■tH-'.-t.^---' fnl-i 




^H -->",v^. .-^ - — " r : — -'C^ -,- 




; 3>Tr-^^>'-'-^((fr-^-1 










*^JY»-t,>.K4 fol<7-l-! ■ 




^J^-^-v-Z^^ 1^ 




^ )0>isrtM^_C i*f-j-7 . 


- .J 




BACCHYLIDES. A Greek lyric poet 
who lived in Ceos in the llfth century B.C. 
We show ;i papyrus of one of his odes. 



BACHtLOR OF ARTS. l..\\ot .iris 
deiirce in En-lish Universities. A 
Cambridije B.A. is shown. 
BACHELOR'S BUTTONS. The popular 
name for Ranunculus acris (shown here) 
and other plants. 




BACCIFORM. A botanical term mean- 
in? sli.iped like a berry. 




BACCIOCOLO. 

especially in T 


A kind Ml L^uit.ir 
uscanv- 


•ijw'd 




"mm 


■ 




^ 


1 


^^Ki yi 


"^m 


I 


^V "''■' S 


^^B 


1 


^B>«LJ 




F 




111 


i 



BACHELOR'S BUTTONS. Buttons 

that can be permanently lixed without 
the use of thread. 
BACILLUM. Among the Romans, a 

small statT or cane sometimes hent iiitt- 

.1 l.iney lurrn, as carried bv lliiv l'..ii:,n: 



I \phnl.l 






i nlvtvi: 






N ry - 



Lnphili,M.i 
BACILLUS. A inicr..-^ ■ ■ ip.'d 
like .1 rnd. in tliese pictures sonic 
deadly forms are shown. 



/ 



BACH, JOHN SEBASTIAN Mr,S5-l75o). 
A German orijanist and composer, 
one of the u'reatest who ever lived. 



MALr-B-iCO 



BACK. A timber (marked A) bolted 
to the after end of a ship's rudder. 
BACK. The position of two players 
in an Association football team 



BACK CHOIK 





'^M..^-^ 



BACK, SIR QEORGE M7Vf' i>i7S). An 
Arctic explorer who accompanied 
Tranklin on one o( his expeditions. 
BACK-BAQ. A knapsack carried on the 
back; especially the TIruIesc mrksact:. 





BACK BALANCE. A weiijht counter- 
balance when descendin-/ triirk<; ha'ance 
a^cendint^ ones, ■.i\ '. 




BAGKBAND. A bruad strap (A) passing 
over a horse's saddle to support the 
shafts of a vehicle. See also Harness. 



BACKBONE, i .,. h"'-*' column »-n 
many vertebrae which suppbrts tbt 
human frame. We civc two vie»r% ot n 




BACKBONE of an avnint'. A rope 
s:;wn to the middle ot an awninr to 
•rjnL:thi;n it and afford support. It iS 

■-.; !-,Tj .il the summit of thr Jv 




BACKBOARD. The back oi the seat 
in a boat's stern-sheets. 



BACK CHOIR. The area beh:nd the 

choir and presbytery in larije churches, 
as shown by this' example in Wells 
Cathedral: also called retro-choir (a. v.). 



BACK CLOTH 



Hi 



BACK STAY 



\ 



BACK CLOTH. A irianRubr canvas 
(asienca in the niidait ol a topsailyarJ 
li> simplilv the slu«in« ol the bunt <r 
bacirv rart "I the tnrsail. 



>-J 




U'^ 



BACK CLOTH, lite puiaUJ rear cl >I 
111 th--' s»:-.-iierv on a staiie. 




BACK CrLlNDtR HEAD. llKit imJ ..f 
a cvlinJer thri>ui;li which the piston-rod 
passes as it moves to and (ro. 




BACKET. A trough or Bo.'C lor carryini; 
ashes or cinders. 






BACKFALL. An old melodic decora- 
tion indicated by signs as on left, anj 
played as on rillht. 




BACK-FIRE. The liring o( a molor- 
car\ eni;ine premat'irely, jerking tile 
handle seen hj-. 



BACKGAM 

^...ir^l i:.ui 
Llavi.l I u-i 



MON. An old and popular 
•. as illustrated here by 

lTS tlu- Vniiniier. 




BACKING HAMMER. Il.ininier u.ed b> 
I'ni.kbmdcrs lor heatini; into shape the 
backs of books ; lotir-sided grooved 
i^.icking. irons are also used in this 
■ iMping, and one is shown on the right. 




BACKGAMMON BOARD. The hoard 
used in the i;anie. with two parts hinged 
tin:ether and 2i triangles called points. 



'SlsV:^)i:>^^ft^^Ja^'c^^ 



BACKHAND. Handwriting that slopes 



«*• 




BACKING MACHINE. A machine made 
In the Crauley .\\anufacturing Co. and 
used by large bookbinders for rounding 
and shaping the backs of books as they 
are being bound. 



•J;^ 



BACKHAND STROKE 

rlay..l ■. • ■ . 

lorward. a,s seen lierc. 




BACK LYE. A siding for shuntin.; 

iriKf.s in .1 eo.il.mine. 




BACKHAUS, WILHELM (b. 1884). 

eminent <iernian pianist. 
BACKING. The course of masonry 
resting on the e.xtrados. or upper curves, 
ol an arch, as indicated in this diagram. 





BACK PLATE. ,\ piece of defensive 
arnii'iir protecting the back. 
BACK PRESSURE VALVE. A valve 
inside a supply pipe to prevent the 
flowing back of a liquid or gas. 




^ 



BACK PUFF. A long-handled pull 
t' T applying powder to the back. 




Sxk rope 



BACK-ROPE. A ii.pe running from 
the dolphin striker's lower end to a 
ship's bows: alsi one attached to the 
hook <.l the catblock, as on the left. 
Back Saw. See Tenon-saw. 



BACK-FLAP. I he part ol a window 
shutter lolding into a recess. 



BACKING DEALS. In u.jning. til. 
hoards placed behind the curbs of a 
shaft to keep the earth Irom falling in. 




BACK '-CRArCHFR 



BACK REST. An adjustable frame for 
supporting an invalid's back. 




BACKSHEESH. An Arabic word 

iiu-:iniiig cift and applied to tips. 




BACK-SIGHT. An adjustable device 
used with the foresight of gun or rifle 
in aiming at a mark. 




BACK SPRING. One in a lock which by 

.liistie rressiire springs the bolt. 
Back's River. .See Atlas 28, G 2. 




BsckStay 



BACKSTAFF. An old na,utical device 
for measuring the Sun's height. 
BACK STAY. A support for the flag- 
mast of a ship as shown here. 



BACK STITCH 



i:i:t 




BACK STITCH. A type of sewinji in 
which each stitch overlaps or doubles 
back on the preceding' one. 




BACK STRAP. A broad leather strap 
passing along a horse's back from the 
upper hame-strap or the gig-saddle tn 
the crupper. 



y 


Siiiu'lfsticks 


^ 


1 


1l 




BACK-SWORD. A heavy sword with 
only one cuttint; edge, or a sintilestick 
(tup). The term is now almost obsolete, 
BACK VALVE. A valve (A) which auto- 
matically prevents a fluid from flowing 
in the- wrong direction. 




BACKWASH. The backward rush u* 
water in a vessel's wake. We give here 
an aerial view of the heavy backwash 
of a liner leaving port. 

f 




BACKWAI ER. 

the quiet water below the \vcir 
the main stream below the lock. 




BACKWELL, EDWARD (d. lf)Sj). A 
L(Mul'>ii [Mildsmith, pioneer of banking'. 

BACKWOODSMAN. A pioneer settler, 

escL'ci.illv in Nortli America. 




Whole middk' of hiu-, 




9^ 



r 



BACON. Cured meat from the pic. We 
show (1) back ribs (2) streaky and back 
(3) hall sammon (4) fnre-erul (5) collar 
(6) loin and Hank (7) thick back (8) 

CaiTlninn fn> Inin fin\ h<u-k 



BACTEKIOLOGICAL LABORATOBY 





7^;:i:i::s!;v'-^i 



BACON, JOHN (I7I'>~W). (Jnc </l ■ 

cliiel sculri'.r, ..( hij day. 

BACON, JOHN (is«6-t904). A clerty 

man n'>tL-(l .is :i hallnnnnt. 




BACON, SIR NATHANIEL \,t- l'.i;j 

1 r ,111. Is i;,u ..I.' . ., 1 ; r .th.-r. a painter. 
BACON, SIR NICHOLAS I :•. T.i 




BACON THtiiaoairt e 




BACON, ROQER .IJi; ';>. . .i^ l.i. 

monk<if llchester. philosopher.disaiverer. 
and forerunner of science. 



BAOTCIIIA. 



BACON, FRANCIS > 1 SOl-u-oi. in. U; 

of the methods of scientific study. Made lord 

dismissed in n.2t for briherv, :nul is seen in disi.Ta.e on the rKht 





..ACON'S TREE. 

oray's Inn, London, 
planted by Francis Bacon. 



BACON, SIR REGINALD . :.^ -V 
. ;i;inand.r.l the Uover Pltrol WI>-IS. 
BACON BEETLE. .\ kind of beetle 
whose larvae often cjuse considerable 
damage to bacon. 



[&^_fe^^ 



BACTERIOLOSICAL LAiORATORT. 

ls;d • ■: >;.:.!>:-; r:;t;- 1- i^ : ' 
liboMton titl*4 (>?• B*jrJ M»i Tit>Kk. 



BACTERIOSIS 




BACTERIOSIS. A r'-"'' ili'iiMSf f;\u^i-.l 

by 1 ..... . :--- . 

dam 




BACTRIAN CAMEL. A twu-luiiiipLvl 
c.lmcl usfil i"r tr.iiisport in Centr.il 
Asia, Tibet, and Cliiiia. The Arabian 
variety has a sinple hump. 




BACTRIS. A genus (if slender palms 
found in tropical America. 
BACUBA. A West Indian name for 
the du-arf banana, Musa cavendishii. 



■t.>Vt 

"Sir] 





BACULITt. . ^hell of the Am- 
monite family, found in Europe and 
India. Two e.xamples are given. 
BACULUM. A lonK staff such as was 
commonly carried by travellers, shep- 
herds, and others in ancient times. 




town in Lancashire, 22 miles north-east 
uf Manchester (21.000). 




BADAJO. An uld term tiir a hcl'S 
t.'iKMif. Thf clappers on the rii;ht are 

... .^ . ., .1.. .... ,.,, ,,. (;iuirch. 



ci^ cns;!v oS» — itari 3. 35. 




BADGER 





li.idajuz Cathedral 
BADAJOZ. A Spanish cathedral city 
<_>ti th^- (iiiadiana famous for its sieue 
by Welliniiton. We show its cathedral 
(40.000). See Atlas 8. C 2. 

mi 



mm 



1^ 



BADARI FABRIC. Tlie earnest kn ■ a 
piL-ce of fabric, from Badari, Eyypt. Th 
drawing Irom a dish found there show 
textile- making 12.000 years ago. It 
represented two figures engaged in 
Inni'iii" l--i'"tli-c 111 \v trp iiv.T ;i Inu-. 



BADAGA. A native tongue of Southern 
India, the Kanarese characters shown 
here being one way of writing it. 




BADOESLEY CLINTON HALL. I 

the nv'st charmingly picturesque l stt'- 
century houses in England, near Henley- 
in- ArJen, Warwicksliire. 



r-K 




BAULN. A Nui^N >i .1 Mil ihe Limniat, 
1 1 miles from Ziirich. See Atlas 9. C l. 



BADBURY RINGS. . ; .-. :. pre- 
historic strongiiold near Wimborne, 
Dorset, rising 327 feet. 





BADEN. A (jerman watering-place on 

',!k> cdi;e of the Black Forest (22.000). 

-LL' Atlas 12. C 4 

Baden (State). See Atlas 12, C 4. 




BADEN-POWELL, SIR GEORGE (is;: 

OS). A colonial otiicial w lio repre- 
sented Britain during the Bering Sea 
fisheries dispute. iSol-n.l. 
BADEN-POWELL. LADY. The Chief 
Guide, wife ot Sir Robert Baden-Powell. 




BADDERLOCKS. The popular Scottisli 
i.ime tur the seaweed Alaria esculenta. 
On the right are its tetraspores (top) 
and its fructiferous leaflet. 



BADEN-POWELL, SIR ROBERT (h 

1.S'7)- ^ fanu)us British soldier and the 
world's Chief Scout, defender of Mafe- 
king 1S99-I900. He founded the Scout 
movement in 190S. 




Three regimental bad^'es of the 
riritish Army 




Ulster Henry V 

BADGE. A distinctive mark of a regi- 
ment, rank, family, society, or person, 
as illustrated by these examples. 




liadgers outside their hole 
BADGER. An interesting burrowing 
;;i:nnmal about 3 feet long, found on the 
continent and in Great Britain. In the 
two top pictures are shown its hair, 
magnified, and a curious oil gland near 
its tail ; the middle pictures show its 
powerful jaws and its winding burrows. 



BADGER-BAITING 




BADGER-BAITING. A Cruel and 

'"' ■ - : : II which dogs drew a 

baJi;cr ir'j:n its lljlc. 






BADGER BOX. A rough dwelling 
covered with bark once much used by 
pioneers in Tasmania. 




BADGER-PLANE. A plane with the 
mouth cut obliquely from side to side 
<;o that it can work cln=e up to a cnnier. 




BADGIR. A uind-t'tujr [..r v.-;U;la; 
erected ahove a Persi.iri Imus.^ 








BADIAN. A tree of the mai;nolia kind, 
its flower and fruit being shown in the 
pictures ?iven here. 




LANDS. A >trdtch 01 desuhUf 
country like this on the east slope of the 
Rnckv Mountains in the North-centra! 

';-:* ' '"•.it;S, S-; Atl.u V., F 2. 




BADMINTON. A game somewhat re- 
sembling lawn tennis in which a shuttle- 
cock takes the place of a ball. We here 
show courts marked for singles and 
doubles and a game in progress. 




BADMINTON RACKET. One rather 
like a tennis racket. The frame is of ash 
and tile handle often of mahogany. 




BAD NAUHEIM. A spa ne.ir Homl- 
ijjrni.m\, with noted nniural srri; 
We show the famous Knrhau^. 




BADNEH. A form o( l,: 

the Caliphs of Bagdad. 
BAEDEKER, KARL (ISOI-59). 
German bookseller who in IS39 start 
the f.iinous Baedeker guide-books. 
Baetica. See Atlas IS, C 4. 
Baetrs, River. See Atlas i.s. n J. 




BAETYLUS. A stone ot meteor;, 
regarded in ancient times as sacred 
sometimes shnv n on coins. 



BAG 



BAFFIN BAY. : _. ; , 

between Ballin Land and Gre«nl»nJ 

See Atlas 27, M I. 

Baffin Land. See Alias 2;, M ? 



BAFFY. A brassie with j fj. 
back like 3 niblick. 



^ 



tinel-bag 




Hand bag Kil-Djg 

BAB. Receptacle in i;eneral use for 
carrying large or small things. Wc siv; 
^ line familiar kinds. 
Bagainoyo. See Atl.ns 36. G 3. 








:, *»\- 



BAGANA. A.: A.j ;>i::..;.; :.._..._, ... I 

ranu-nt very much like i lyre, as seen I i'»*- 

.;jre. It has ten strings, sounjin - '^ ' 
notes and their octaves. 










BADMINTON. 

Badminton, among the Cotswolds. 



BAEYER. ADOLF VONllSJS 1 . 

i;,\i ( jernian chemist. 
BAFFIN, WILLIAM (about I5SJ-I62: 
The famous Iinglish Arctic explorer afte 
whom Batfm Land is named. 



B A G A S ;) -S 



IHittery and ^a^i^et^y. 



m L'candi 
::i;ir skill in 



BAGEHOT. WALTER l«2<-r:>. A 
ur;.-js ;c--:o--.H i-.J htcttrr <rAK, 
1 natir- v>( Lncpoct. Soraen-jt. 

B*a FILTEK. A una c( striiaers 

us<J in sucar-refioiQC- 



BAGGAGE 



136 



BAGUET 







BAGGAGE. A traveller's bcloncini;s. 
illusiraica by tht caravan above anj 
this scene at a railway station. 




BAGGAGE TRUCK. Used for movini; 
lu(:ga'.;e at railway stations : two kinds 
are seen in the pictures given here. 







BAGGALa. .\ two. masted boat used 
for trading in the Indian Ocean between 
the Malaliar Coast and the Red Sea. 




BAGGING HOOK. 

rj.ipnK curn nr ^UJ^.■ p> 
with the curved blade. 
Batiiitwiy. See Lacmwe. 



h 



4- 




I :. 



BAGIRD1I. 

hquatoria! Ainca, wnose sultan 
lancers like this. See Atlas 25. F 




BAG MACHINE. .'S inaLliine U>| ni.ikini: 
paper bai:s of various shapes and sizes. 





BAG NET. A type used in fishing, sn 
valk'd because when hauled in it closes 

and enlr.ips the lisli. 





kA. a warli 
ving in the 



BAGNIO. An old ..„:.; ;,.. - .„;..:... 
house, especially of the Oriental type 
seen in this picture. 



BAGNIO. In Turkey, a prison where 
!.iv,-, were confined, and so named 
hicau-se of the baths it contained. 




BAGNUT. A name "f the hladder-nut 
• 't Lunipe, Staphylea pinnata. 
BAGOT, 2nd BARON (l773-tS56). A 

finl -.1 antiquary and scientist. 




Old <Jfrniai! 



Bellows bagpipes 



■^ ff^ M 

Ar.ih Indian Roman 

BAGPtPES. A musical wind instrument 
■t wliich many kinds have been used 
[II different countries, but wliich is 
nearly always associated with the 
Scottish Highlands and Ireland. We 
show several types. 



j 


y\ 




i 


M 


I 


-^^K^ 



BAGPIPED MIZZEN. .\ n.iutu..! ti.rm 
used when the niizzen is laid aback, by 
brintrini; its sheet to. 




BAG PUMP. -V kind of bellows pump 

BAGRATION. PRINCE {I765-IS12). A 

Russian eeneral in tlie Napoleon wars. 




BAG REEF. The lowest reef of a fore 
and-aft sail, or the (irst reef of a topsail 



^-rTTTf^**?*^' 



-vfi^iri' 



iuaasaashJi 



:z^.'A ■r:v:f<,¥am%Mtxr*rmrm 



BAGSHOT BEDS. Saiuly strata named 
from Ba^shot. Surrey, and occurring 
notably at Alum B;:v. Isle of Wight, 
seen iii the picture which we i.'ive. 







BAGSTER. SAMUEL (1772-IS51). A 
famous Londni publisher of Bibles. 
BAGSTOCK, MAJOR. An apoplectic 
retired otlicer in Dickens's novel Dombey 
and Son. 




BAG TROUSERS. Ih- l.i^:> t\] 
trousers worn in the East. 
BAGUET. A term for a small convex 
I semicircular moulding (X). 



BAGUETTE 



6i-rr-- i T i;^y ijj ; ^ »M uiMfc ^-."'] 



BAGUETTE. A term used tur u small 
drumstick of this kind. 




BAG WIG. A lurin ui wit; uhicii in- 
cluded a bag to contain the back hair, 
as seen here. 

BAG WORM. A caterpillar which covers 
its cocoon (right) with leaves or small 
twifi^s. 



/0&^ ^^^- 



BAHADRY. A.; ..:j l:;J.:,.: 




BAHADUR SHAH I. Muazim. son .1 

the 'jre^t \\<ii;ul emperor Aurun'^vebc. 
:' f - - 1 1707-12. 




BAHADUR SHAH II J l^ J, A 

Jeicenda;u ol the \\oi,'ijls uhoill the 
mutineers proclaimed their ruler in the 
Indian Mutiny. 




BAHAMA GRASS, .^n American i^rlis 
with l'>n';: r"f)ts, useful in bindintj sand. 
Bahama Island. See Atlas 32, F 11. 
BAHAMA SPONGE. A very valuable 

::-,;;jr. 1,, t'.e Bahamas. 



BAO. 




4 



} 



I'.ahamas Government House at Nassau 







f/ 



The ^ca;, s at .Na;.sau, Bahamas 




BAHRAM QUR . .. 

eeend and is in this 




BAHREIN. A K'^ap of Brjiijh i>UnJ> 

in the Persian Gulf with a pearl fuhery 

■"■■' ' inc a thousand boats in the 

Our picture shows part of the 

lleet at anchor (IIO.000V Sec 




A t\pital road in tlie Bahamas 
BAHAMAS. A larse British island 
:roup in the West Indies. These pic- 
tures are typical of their sunny life. See 
Atlas 31. F 3. 




BAHIA. r.ra.'il's secniij port and city 
loundeJ in 1510 and the capital for t«i 
centuries. We show its marl'le cathe 
dral (300 0001. See Atlas 32. L 6. 



BAHR-EL-GHAZAL. Asu,v-^ 

trilnitary. olten blocked V: -n.:j, : . ; >; 
tropical southern Sudan. 1 hi. pictar: 
shows steamers forcing their »js 
throueh the sudd. See Atlas 25. G «. 




BAHUT. A chest covered with Icai ■;• 
LiMiallv ornamented, and sometime-* 
^'^^\ an arched top, 

BAHUT. A low wall behind the cutter 
in medieval buildings to support the 
roof and keep out rain. 




BAHIA BLANCA. A Rraiii-e-xportiiic 
port of Argentina, with huce elevators 
like this one (50.000). See Atlas 32. F 11. 



BAIAE. The modern ftlia. x r;<>et 
:iear Naples famous in R.>man imperii' 
times for its lu.xury and matniScenci. 
Our picture shows it as it is tojav. 




BAIOARKA 

bv : 




BAIKAk l»M 

' i c .■ in ; ^ t « 







BAIL 




BAIL. A term (or a line of dilence 
.-nmr'Wfd of stakes or palisades. 





BAILER. A simple kind of scoop fur 

hailini; out water. 

BAILEY, PHILIP JAMES (IS16-I902). 

Poet of Nuttingham, auttior of the 
loiv.: poem Festu";. 




ml ilislr.riil^. 
illustrated here by W. P. Frith. R.A. 





BAILING MACHINE. A pivoted :>cui'r 
iiit.J u]ih Milvcs lor raisin? water. 
BAILING NET. A kind of net used 
I'iiiir lish from a trap. 




BAINES, EDWARD (I771-1S48). Eng- 
lish writer. luitlii.r of a History of the 
CnuMtv Palatine. 
BAINES, SIR EDWARD (1S00-90). 

lliiitor and economist, an advocate of 
cnrn-l.tw repeal. 




BAILLIE, LADY GRIZEL (1005-1740). 
Author of some famous and beautiful 

';.-r,tti<h ballads. 




BAILLIE, JOANNA i 1 ;ii2-lS51). A 
■ntjj Scottish dramatic writer. 
BAILLON. A t'ai.' f'r keepinj ihc 

illu'.ltll op^rn duriiTj - r '•: - 



BAIN MARIE. A vessel of heated 
water in which another vessel is placed 
in order to heat its contents regularly 
.nid evenly. 

BAIOCCO. A small coin of the Papal 
States. It was worth about a halfpenn\ . 




BAIOCHETTO. A small 16th-century 
coin of the Dukes of Castro. 



6. 



'^^i 



.1 



y 



BAILLY. JEAN .i7^'.-9i>. A ttitt 
French :istrononier condemned as a 
miiderute in the Revolution. 
BAILY, EDWARD H. (I7SS-IS67). The 
^culptor of the Nelson statue in Trafal 
i;ar Square in Londni. 







BAIRAM. A tUi.c J.i;. M isl'.-m U'sti- 
val often celebrated in Persia by swing- 
ing from the housetops, as here. 




BAKEHOUSE 



,/'■>. 



BAILY, FRANCIS (1744-1S44). TIu 
.istronuiner whu lirst observed Baily's 
bt-ads, seen on the right, which are 
iippearances like a row of bricht 
beads at the Moon's rim in a total 
jclirs:- "f the Sun. 



BAl 

The 
of a 
Our 



LIFF'S DAUGHTER OF ISLINGTON, 
heroine of the famous old ballad 
squire's son and a baihtT's daughter. 
painting is by W. Hathereli. 




BAIN. ALEXANDER :iSlu-77)- Invcn- 

t >r ( ■ .li.tric lire-alarms. 

BAINBERG. A piece of plate armour 

protecting the lei;. as seen on the richt. 



BAIRD, SIR DAVID (1757-l>i29). The 
.. hi> stormed SerinK;a- 
p.it.iin m 1 7')'). 

BAIRD, JAMES (1S02-76). A Scot- 
tish ironmaster, a pioneer of the industry. 
Baireuth. See Bayreuth. 




BAJARA. A form of water-lift used 

ii»r irriijation. It consists of a large 

wrtiCLil wIk'l'1 lik.' this, which works a 

^ 'iiu "1 ,' ' Is, beint; usually 

'■V ■! .11 .■.] I ■■!■ niulf.' 




BAJAZET I (b. 1347). An unert;etic 
Turkish sultan. 1389-1403, who men- 
aced Constantinople till Tamerlane 
nverthrew him at Angora in 1402. 

BAJAZET II (b. 1447). Sultan of 
Tnrkcv 1 1S1-1?12. 




BAJAZET, MOSQUE OF. One of Con- 
stantinople's finest examples of JVtoslem 
architecture, dating from 1505. 




BAKALAHARI. i- , - 

the K.ilaliari Desert. 

BAKALAI. The chief native coastal 

traders of French Equatorial Africa. 




BAIRNSFATHER, BRUCE (b. iSSrl 
A popular humorous artist of the war. 
BAIT. Used by anglers for catchini 
lish. Here are three artificial types. 



BAKEBQARD. A board on whic 
bakers knead and roll out dough. 

Bakehouse. See Bakery. 



BAKER 



i:ift 




A maker of bread or cakes, 

r-. S.-e .ilsn Bakery. 




BAKER, SIR BENJAMIN Ib.u i>u:k 
A famous English engineer, one ot tli^; 
builders of the great Forth Bridi^e. 
BAKER, LADY. The Hungarian wife 
of Sir Samuel Baker, whom she accom- 
panied on his African journeys. 




BAKER, SIR SAMUEL (1821-93)- 

tatiiMLis expIi-Tcr oi the Upper Nile. 
BAKER, VALENTINE (1S27-S7). Sir 

S. B.ikcT's brother, called Baker Pasha. 
Bakerloo. See I'luL^rciround Railways. 





Arms of the 
Bakers Com- 
pany, incorpi r- 
ated in 1 50<) 



BAKERS COMPANY. A London com- 
pany of which we show the hall in Harp 
Lane. Great Tower Street. 




BAKER'S DOZEN. Thirteen loaves, 
tormeriy given by bakers as a dozen 
to avoid short weight. 




BALACLAVA 



^ -i^f^^ r- ,, y 



>^ 

BAKERY. 1. Ill ii:.u,nij .1 liiaf in an up-to-date h... 
iitu a hiippL-r ami carriej by a hucket-conveyer to rtc^rtaLic, jn v.jw,-,, .1 .. 



i 



mixeil up and kneaded, after which the d(m'.;h is sent down a hopper 



-^ L A" 






2. I In the lower ll.ior the dout;h falls into a ir,,i MemhcJ uii 

Pressed- It then passes to and fro on a banJ-c..nve>er in u Kll\s-en.' 
chamber, where it rises and attains the proper condition for the niouldrr. • 
which it linallv falls. A lump can he seen here beini; tipped from the cm . 






BALA. 



j^tf;l2 Itm^t tm 



3, In the moulder the dou^ili is pressed into portions ol the rr.-ht m,'^ 
a'-;3in pass on to endless bands and are placed in bakin/ X'vs. \\:: I i.. 
proved in tli; m.ichi!i,' si'.ii i):i the 'iKht before ■■■,\r- i. ■ 

%T- — >; ''T},T.T;.r.T;.l 




4. The tins are carried in and out ot the oven and tlirnui;!! 
rl". ri'.,'lit, after which they are placed on another conveyer. 






T 



5. Finally the loaves i . 

paper and passes tliein mu i.i ik- I'i.u.a --h ii.>,. i..>,j. -i . 
machinery shown in these pictures is in AVessrs. Nevill's bakery at A 




BAKESTONE. A llat stone or slate 
uhicli cakes are baked round a lire- 



BAKER STREET. A i.U.: .. 
Street in the west end of London. 



BAKEWELL. A picturesque little 
Derbyshire town with an interestm-,- 
church, seen here. It is a centre lor 
visitinir Chatsworth. H addon Hall, and 
the ravine of the Wve <JH)0). 




BAKEWELL, ROBERT ii;i5"*i|. >.'■•■ 
of the most laiiMUS Enclish stoci 

breeders ..J b^^ ' 




BAKEY. A >vooJcii i^vx u.;,; ;. 
haiulles. n.urower at the boSiom th- 
the top. for carr> in? Ciuls rai ishcs. 
BAKING TIN. A stout oblonj pin ot 
cahanised iron used Ic»r bakin<. 
Bakshish. See Backsheesh. 




BALACLAVA. 






BALACLAVA BUGLE 



BAL4.NCE VANE 




BALACLAVA BUGLE. Ttu- tni<lc tiut 
soundtrJ the chari:i; (or the Li»:ht 
Bripail? it thf Brittle of BalacUiva. new 




BALAQAN. In Sit^cria, a wiHkltrn hut 
r.iiN ,1 .ri r^U'S an»1 ro.u-hoJ bv ;i hitliter 




BALACLAVA CHARGE. 

o( Balaclava. t>v " • ' 
the possession 



The heroic charge ot tlu- l.ii'iit I'r 
in; I inim,.ri.iIiseJ hy Tcnny:>un. 
mpany. 




BALACLAVA HELMET. A warm, 
woollen form of headgear first used in 
the Criiiu-an War. 
Balaena. See Whale. 
BALAENICEP8. A genus of birds repre- 
sented in this picture by the shoebill or 
whalehead of the Upper White Nile. 




....iiii> 




BALA-KRISHNA. The hoy Krishna, 
the chief hero of Hindu mythology, here 
shown from a quaint native drawing. 
BALALAIKA. A Knssian stringed musi- 
cal instrument played like a guitar. 
The sounding-board i< triangular. 




BALAFO. A musical instrum 

bv West African natives and ^ 

of pieces of wood placed over gourds to 

increase their resonance. 



riail balance 



Ciiemical balance 




i 



A^m. 




Two types of meat balance 
BALANCE. An apparatus fur weighin 
substances consisting of a horizontj 
lever having its fulcrum just above tli 
centre of gravity of the whole balance. 
Balance. Tor constellation see Libra. 



End Vii 



BALAFRE, LE the scarred). A name 
given to Francis of Guise (1519-63) 
Because of his face wounds. 



BALANCE-BAROMETER. A barometer 
crnsistmc ol :t bean balanced on a 
pivot. The varying density uf the atmo- 
sphere alters the balance of the beam, 
which makes a record on a scale. 




BALANCE BEAM. A beam for partly 
.■unter-balancing a drawbridge's weight 
mj easing its working. 
Balance Bridge. See Bascule bridge. 



BALANCE CRANE. 

li-,ij \ihnlly or p;irtly 



A crane with a 
ounterweighted. 




< 


m 


§ 



BALANCED CONDENSER. In wire- 
le.'^s, a C(in denser uith moving vanes 
so arranged that the weight of one part 
counterhiilances that of the other. 
BALANCE DYNAMOMETER. On& in 
wliich the steelyard principle is used to 
determine foot-pounds of power. See 
bynamometer and Steelyard. 
Balance Fish. See Hammerhead shark. 




BALANCED CRYSTAL CIRCUIT. In 

wireles's, one in which crystal detectors 
minimise the results of interference. 




BALANCE GATE. A sluice gate 
w hi,:h opens and closes automatically 
with the How and ebb of the current. 
BALANCE LUG. A lug sail which can 
be made narrower by rolling up part of 
the canvas on its yard. 





BALANCE OF FORCES. A slate 
cquilihrium. as su;:i,'t'sted here 




BALANCE PLOUGH. A plough with 
two sets ot coulters attached to an iron 
frame for use with a steam plough, so 
that it can plough in either direction. 




BALANCER. A man who performs 
balancing tricks. We show two medieval 
jugglers and a tight-rope walker. 




BALANCER. One of a pair of clubbed 
processes (A) near an insect's wings, 
supposed to help it in balancing. 
Balancer. See Balancing machine. 




" "' 111 - , iji^^"W HaH(i^i^ 

BALANCE RAIL. The raised strip in 
a piano (over A in diagram) carrying the 
pins on which the kevs .ire balanced. 




BALANCE REEF. A term for a reef 
band crossing a sail diagonally, so that 
one half may be reefed. 
BALANCE RUDDER. One supported 
on a projection with two-thirds behind 
the vertical action i:if ni')tion. 




BALANCE VANE. A vane balanced by 
a cock or some other projection. 



BALANCE WHEEL 




BALANCE WHEEL. A his «l"!el in ;i 
watch or chronometer whicli determines 
the beat or strike. 




BALANCING MACHINE. Used for 
finding and correcting anv variation in 
the weight of different parts of a pulle>' 
machine knife. 




BALANCING TOY. An old form of toy 
made by nicelv calculating the point of 
balance, as illustrated by this picture 
of a toy lizard. 

BALANDRANA. A wide cloak worn in 
the 12th and 13th centuries. 



Balangan. See Atlas 24 E 5. 




BALANITE. A fossil baUinid, 
tacean allied to the barnacles. 
BALANOPHORA. A leafless pi 1 
which is a parasite of roots and 
related to the mistletoe. 




BALA-RAMA. A tfindu god, hrothir 
of Krishna (which see), with whom he 
was reared by tfie herdsman Nanda. 
BALARAO. A dagger with a rather 
broad blade used in the Philippines. 



BALATON. 

draining into the Lianubc, '206 sJuare 
miles in area. See Atlas 1 5. E 5. 



'nicooT 



BALBRiaOAN. Coast town near fjuhh,, 
long noted for its cotton giKjds (2jr)<,| 
This IS its harbour. See Atlas 6, E 3. 



BALOACh 

the '.,,-! 

Thit c«j ^• 



1»^ 




BALAUSTA. The botanical .. 

fruit of Hiepomeijranate type, 



1*9 



r«» 



^Sf^' 



BALAWAT GATES. 1 liose of flu 
palace of Shalm.ineser II of Assvn.i 
(rom Balawat, near old Nimrod. Plati-. 
from them like the one which we shou 
here are in the British Museum. 




BALBINUS (d.25.S). A Roman emper.i 
u lio was assassinated after reignin,; 
liT a summer. 

BALBOA. A silver coin of Panama, equi 
■. .ileiit in v;ilire to the American dnll.i: 




BALBOA, VASCO NUNEZ I47S IM7' 
rile Spaniard wlni conquered Darien 
a:ul u ;i^ file (irsl I'liropean to see the 



"'>a 



BALBOA. 1 he port .11 1 
end of the Panama Canal. 



'/ 



V 








V 



BALBUS, M. NONNIUS. A member o( the f jrr 
statue, shown here, was found at HercuUneum. 




BALDACHINO. A Jecorjtivf cjnor> 
such as is firing MrricJ in this mcdu-vj: 
rrocession with relics. 



BALDICOOT. ^ Tiirre ;or i-e c^yyu c*f- 



BALDRIC 



142 



BALFOUR 



l^. 




^'"^ 



BALDRIC. A leather belt for a sword or 
bui;lc. worn in the MiJiUe Aces. 
Baldur. See Bnlder. 





G'in vl H.iiJwtn I 




I .. .luiii 1 enti-'rinit Edessa 
BALDWIN I (105S-IIIS). Godfrey of 
Bouillon's brother, who became Kirii: ■ i 
Jerusalem in 1 100. 




BALDWIN III. Kint; of Jcrusalen 

tiA';-';o. here seen at Ascalon's captur;- 




1? 



BALDWIN IV. Kini: of Jerusalem 

1173-s:i. He tuice beat the Saracens. 
and is seen beinc carried into battle in 
the picture which we give. 




BALDWIN I. A crusadinc Count tt 

1 Uiulers uhoni the Latins made Ein- 
pcr.ir .'( Constantinople in 120V. 
BALDWIN (d. I l«H)>. An Archbishop ot 
Canti-Tbury who full-"' -I i-'i fw M * 
rak'stine and who>L 




\ 




BALDWIN, STANLEY (b. lS67). Leader 
<'i the CtmsLTvative Party; Prime 
.Minister. 




BALE. A canvas-covered p.uk,i-., 

such as that in which cotton and wuni 

are packed for export. 

BALE, JOHN (1495-1563). An Englisli 

ecclesiastic noted as an early writtrr 

"f plavs. 

eaie (Switzerland). See Basle. 




BAi_._.".j;.w;\.% i.: for the Balearic 

LMiwiitd Lt.iiie ui ilie Balearic Islands 
1 North Africa. 




BALE BREAKER. 

opening and loosening a tightly-] 
cotton bale. 




BALEEN. I he liHrn> . pli.ihie ni.iterial 
friniiini; the jaws of right whales and 
kimwn cnnimercially as whalebone. 




BALEARIC ISLANDS. A Spanish island group in the AU 
Majorca. Minorca, and Iviza. which grow much fruit, 
cathedral at Palma, the capital, on the island of Majorca. 



shows the 
E 2. 




BALEEN-KNIFE. A double-handled 
knifL- ulth a curved blade used for 
spliltini: baleen, or whalebone. 
Bale Fire. See Beacon. 




BALE HOOKS. Large hooks suspended 
ill pairs from a crane for lifting bales. 
Inset are two types of hand hooks. 
BALE SLINQ. A ship's circle of rope 
passed round a bale to be hung on it. 




BALFE, MICHAEL (lSO.s-70). Irish 
composer of operas, including The 
Bohemian Girl. 

BALFOUR, LADY FRANCES fb. 185S). 
A gifted advocate of the franchise and 
better opportunities for women. 



•Si C: 



BALFOUR, FRANCIS U»H~82). A 
Scottish scientist, noted for his study of 
animal morphulogy. 

BALFOUR. GERALD (b. lS53). Lord 
Balfour's younyer brother. A Con- 
servative minister from IS95 to 1906. 




BALFOUR, SIR ISAAC (1$53-1922>. 
Noted Profesinr of Botany at Glasgow. 
Oxford, and hdinburgh. 
BALFOUR, JABEZ (1S40-1916). A 
Ilnancier imprisoned in 1S95 after his 
disastrous failure. 




BALFOUR, LORD .h. 1^45). Popular 
British statesman ; prime minister, 
scholar, and thinker. 



BALFOUR OF BURLEIGH 



143 





BALFOUR OF BURLEIGH, 6th BARON 

(1S49-1921). A Cinli^rvative politician. 
Secretarv for Scotland IS05-19O3. 
Balfrush. See Atlas 20. F 2. 
Bali. S.'e Atlas 24, E 7. 

BALIBAGO. The tree Pariti tiliaceum, 

ot uhich we sliow the tlower ami leaf. 
Balikesri. Sei- Atl.is 11. D 4. 




BALING PRESS. A press used lor c. 
pressing into bales materials such 
cotton, p:iper, or hay. 




BALIOL, JOHN id. about 1209). 
Scottish adherent of Henry 111 u 
founded BaUiol College. Oxford. 

BALIOL, JOHN (1219-1315). The 

claimant f,, *h.. v-,.tt;.-|^ crown u-honi 
Ed'.v.t: 1 overthrew. 




BALISAUR. The name uf the Indian 

bad^^er, wiiich has 3 long snout. 







BALISTER. A crossbow ; also the man 
who uses it. 




BALISTES. A i;enns of tropical fish 
with the power of raisinti a long dorsal 
spine, shown in this picture. 





Rocky pinnacles ni t 



BALL. 

UhUiH ii IhC b; 

Jtnilartjr the h>ll 

u-.h:.- 4t • 

Ball at t;t 




BALKANS. A liulirarian iv..u:r. 
r.mi:e rising tu :S00 feet. Atlas 1 1. C i. 



BALK. A crossbeam of a roof. 
' hiiu 11 in this piclnre. 



m«^ 



i-':..:.4S 






s 

'01 



BALK. A set nl st.ikes surrounded b> 
;K-ttiny; nr wickerutirk U\x cxi<:\\\\\% tlsh. 



-33PtM[ 



BALK. A liJ Kind left un- 

plnu'^hed in Mij n^sli •■\ .i iield. 



^OSTrtlA ,' ■■ , --T 

. HONr.AWv,' ''^7 

\"' "'. ■' "*- 

"■.,--■'. H U M A N I A < < 

/i ■- >5 

^ Bplgradt-o '..-..Bucharest ,. ,, 

^ , 1:1,0- SLAVIA.;'--- -••.. ' J 

';. Sofia ■ ; ,. 

•"BULGARIA'" ^ 

' "■'-?■ ' -'■■ ■ - ■■;■■"". ' 
. -, r.t.ini,. :■-■f■.— ■uA^■MK■^ 




BALK ASH, LAKE. One of the greatest 

I.ik.s 111 Asia in Russian Turkestan. 

s. ■ Atlas 21. L4. 

Balkh. See Atlas 22. C i. 






BALL. A round or nearly round object 
used notably In games. Mere are balh 
for (1) Rugby football. (2) Association 
football, (3)hockev. (1) cricket, (.:) bil- 
liards. (6) bagatelle, (7) baskctbj'i. 
(S) golf, (')) lives. (10) croJuet. 1 11) ten- 
nis,(12)stoolball, (1.5) baseball. See jKo 






BALL. ALBERT 



Ihc \ -u. alter luft 4calb «« : 

BALL, JOHN (l»IS-SOI. Tkc KifSlIM 



w^ 



BALL. JONN 

pla>ed a b;c part in ''kkt ijti» tv 

!«.' w.t< e\?c-i.itf J .-m it» onfiarM. 




BALKAN PENINSULA. The south 
ejstern peninsula of Europe, peopled b\ 
a great variety of races and notoriously 
a seat of unrest. This map shows thi 
Balkan countries. S-ee Atl.as 2. N r. 




BALL. A s.-ii.u t.ur..t:...: .■ . .. ...v. .-v.. - .. . ..--■,..-.-. 

picture shows a ball at a restaurant Junng ttic London seax^. 



BALL 



BALL GRINDER 




BALL, JOHN 1- l>'.j). Enclistl golfer, 
!;■■ 1' 'ir ^tuinipiori ,.i?ht times. 
BALL, SIR ROBERT (1.S40-19I3). IrisI' 
n:.illu-matKi.ui and aslroncimer. 
BallKhulith. See AtlAS >. C 1. 




BALLAHO. A kind ol car (which see) 
hmiul in \ustra!ian water-i. 




BALL AND JET NOZZLE. One wliere 
a liiiht ball is held in contact with the 
jet by the adhesion of the w.lter on the 
rollinV surface, 

BALL AND SOCKET HANGER. One. 
whieli the hn\ ur hearini; is attach. 
to the bracket by a spherical segmenl, 
joint, here marked A, 




BALL AND SOCKET JOINT. 1 

mechanics, a ball held in a socket of t 
same form but at the same time allow 
free movement. Such joints exist in tii, 
body, as seen im the ri',:ht. 




BALLAN WRASSE. A species of wrasse 

,.,.,,■ ,■, in Untish waters and known 

, .■ as Labrus maculatus. 





BALLARAT. An Australian m.ldnunii 
.mj industrial centre, the second city 
Victoria (40.0D0) See Atlas iC. c fi. 





BALLAST HEAVER. A dredger (or 
raising ballast from a river's bed. 




BALLAST LIGHTER. A lame, flat- 
b .it.meJ bari;e fur transporting sand, 
aslus. and ballast. 



BALLAST. The material formiiiL; tn, 
hed of a railway track, as seen here ; 
,ilso heavy substances, such as sand or 
stone, placed in a ship to Rive stability. 




BALLAST SHOVEL. A shovel for mov- 
inu s.ina and nther ballast. 
BALLAST TANK. A watertiRht com- 
p.irtment in a ship which may he filled 
uitli water or emptied as needed. 



BALLANTINE, WILLIAM (l'il2~,S7). 
S.,ru-.ril-.il-!.i\v and one of the hrst 
harris'ijrs "l ins da\ , 
Ballantrae. See Atlas >, C 4. 
BALLANTYNE, JAMES Mrrn ISTiV A 
schoolfellow of Sir 
who later printcvl 




BALLAST FIN. A heavy metal cxten- 
si m bolted to the keel of a yacht to ,i;ive 
her sreater stability by carrying the 
ballast low down. It is here marked A. 




BALLATER. A popular ScMfa;!} sum 
mer resort on the Aberdeenshire Dee, 
See Atlas 5, E 2, 



BALLANFYNE, JOHN WILLIAM , isol - 

tQ23), An eminent Scottish physician 
and writer on medical subjects. 
BALLANTYNE, ROBERT MICHAEL 
(1S25-'>1). ,\ British author well known 
for his stories for boys. 




BALUAisr HAmmtR. 
hammer with a long 
laying railway tracks. 



icr\. .A >: iiMe-laced 

hammer with a long handle used in 





BALL BEARINGS. A method of lessen- 
ing strain bv surrounding a shaft with 
loose balls running in a ring track. 
BALL CARTRIDGE. Any cartridge 
containing a bullet as well as powder. 





BALL CASTER. A furniture caster 
with a hal! instead of a roller. 
BALLCOCK. A hollow metal ball fixed 
lo a lever which rises and falls with the 
water in a tank and in this way controls 
tile supply pipe, 
Ballery Islands. See Atlas >i, i;, 



fitl-^' 



Russian ballet 




S^il! 
i;.ilk-t dancers 
BALLET. An artistic and dramatic 
dance, generally with many artists. It 
lias been highly developed in Russia, 
Ball Floa». See Ballcnck, 




BALL FLOWER. In architecture, a 
llower-like ornament, usually with three 
petals, as in this example. 



BALLATORIUM. The raised ends of 
medieval ship, as seen in this picture. 




BALL GRINDER. A pvilverisiiii; machine 
with a chamber in which the sub'tance to 
be ground is revolved with metal balls. 



BALLIN 



!+.-. 




BALLINA. A cathedral city in Co. Mayo, 
on tlie Mov estuary, noted for its salnion 
fishery (4 700). See Atlas 6, B 2. 
Ballinasloe. See Atlas 6. C :. 




BALLING FURNACE. A furnace in 
which piles of metal are placed to be 
heated before beinir rolled. 




BALLING GUN. A device fur giving' 
medicine ti> Ihtrses in pi'l form. 







OJ 


h— 



BALLING IRON. An implement for 

rt-niuviii;: simu from a horse's hoofs. 
Balling Machine. See Ball machine. 
Ballinrobe. :iee Atlas 6, B 3- 




BALLINTOBER ABBEY. A lar^e and 

beautiful 13th-century ruin near Castle- 
bar, in CO. Mavo. 




BALLIOL COLLEGE. An (Jxf'ird col 
lece founded about 1265 hv John 
Baliol (which see). It is noted for its 
high standard of scholarship. 




BALLIOL GATES. Oak gates made u 
12SS lor Balliol College, Oxford, re 
moved in isth century, returned ii 
1026. They were charred by the tlame 
whicli burned Latimer and Ridley. 




BALLISTA. A military engine used in 

ildeii times for hurling darts or stones. 




BALLISTIC. A term (or a fruit that hurls 
its seeds tu a distance. The lower e,\am- 
ple is the tropica! plant Hura crepitans ; 
the top ones are spring bitter vetch, oro- 

bus. and \'in!-t. 




BALLISTIC BALANCE. An apparatus 
for determining the velocity and 
momentum of falling bodies. 



BALLISTICS. 

and courses oi prujecliles- 



BALLOOn 





BALLISTRERIA. rough which 

cr- sshowinen shut. Iwu examples beinc 
shown here. 
Ball Lever. See Ballcock. 




BALLLIQHTNINC, r .: • .t. 

which descends a; a ball u( lire and rolls 
.ilong tlie ground. 




BALL MACHINE. Or Ballnix. ........ 

Brunei's old machine tor winding uito 
halls cotton and other thrtiads. 




BALL MILL. A gnndini' mill 
ores .ire pulverised bv being 
with inctui balls. 



m whijh 
reviilved 




BALL MINE. Nodular iron ore. o 
kidnev sti'iie. so called from its shape 
ilso called ball ironstone. 



I 



BALLOK KNIFE. An o... 
dac'Kcr hum; Irom the front 

.,r.r ■ i'. 111.' I :t!i c.-ntur\. 



oi" the 



BALLON. A word lor a tleaw c.i .. 
SUCH a> one of paper or te:ttilc r.u;e.-ui. 
BALLONET. A small cjs-bi<; ir.siJi the 
l.irse container of airships or billoon.^ 
as seen in this aiasr.llil 



'*-— v.>^ 



« 


BALLONIONOE. A 


up 1 1 rcci.rj rr.r' ■ ■ 


the ri<hl 'top) 


f»mboo cue t 


loruonde lor tat 


it 3 hatlonvindc 





BALLOON. A mufral tern lor a fa- 

■ , ;J ;ic lo» Hyi-.r tV "-"t t'-w (»(*• 
ably ha>in{ l>f{- "•- 

Solna-s in ITS}. w 

are compared ■it- .... 



BALLOON 



U*> 



BALLYLONGFORD 




BALLOON «rei. A lev bjlloori 

u -.v ..1 li.'l air. 




BALLOON ihite). An ^l- 

tion balloon controlkJ Ironi tv 
iround by ropes. 




BALLOON , propaganda). A 

ill ujr lur distributing kullet 
10 its t.iil. beyond the enemy' 





BALLOON. A state rarm "i .-^ ' 
ule in imitation o( a Rrotesque sea 




BALLOON VINE. A tropical Ameriijn 
flinibini; plant, so named becausi' it 
h.-;irs iiillated pods. 




BALLOON BOILER. A sti-Uni buiKr 
rather like a balloon in sh.iri ; '1 " 
called a haystack boiler. 



..i-^^ 




BALLOT. Ihc sysum ul secret 
usL-d in Mritish elections. 



BALLOON FISH. A kind of globe lish 
luliich set), so called because it can 
I'liiw itself uut like a balloon. 





BALLOON FLASK. In chemistry, 
el.i'.s receiver shaped like a balloon. 
BALLOON FORESAIL. A larse s.i : 
carried in place ol the usual forc-staysail 
Balloon Gun. See Artillery (Ant; 




BALLOTA. A ijenus of plants of the 
labi.ite order, all havin? an offensive 
smell. Pd.ick hc.rehound, shown here, 

IS :i LiiiiinMii British species. 



BALLOON JIB. A s.iil sueh lis tin-. 
^iinevl !"\ \.ichts in lic'ht winds. 
BALLOON KNICKERS. Football 
knickers cut to a rounded shape. 



BALLOON (toy). Ihe pretty, brii:htly- 
coloured playthings sold everywhere for 
a few pence. 







BALL REACTANCE COIL. In wire- 
less, 11 fiirm c.( inductance couplinc; more 
ecmnmical in space than many others. 




BALLROOM. A laree ii...in Inr d.iiicmi:. 
Iliis is lit the London .Mansion House. 






1 IT 



BALLS AND RINGS. A puzzle in which 
halls on a frame are made to change 
places with rings underneath. 

BALL SCREW. A screw at the end of 
a eun's ramraJ to help the extraction of 
.1 hnllet from tile barrel. 



BALLOTING MACHINE. A device used 
III sMiiie iMtiittries fur recording votes 
uilh .1 suiteli nr hiiiidle. 



BALLOON. An nrnai 
set on the top of a p 



BALLOON RACE. The annual inlcr 
national balloon race for a cup given 
bv James Gordon Bennett, begun in 
tooo. The beginning of the race from 
Brussels is seen in the picture here given. 
Balloon Sail. See Balloon foresail. 
Balloon Tyre. See Tyre. 



CounleHoil 





BALL TROLLEY. A truck for taking 
b.ills ,,[ puddled iron from the puddling- 
furnace tn the tilt-hammer. 

BALL VALVE. A ball resting on a 
cnncave seat which is lifted by the up- 
ward pressure of a fluid. 



BROWN 

(Jo)iaBtWTloi3:GaTqESl.ensbI. 
merchant) 



JONES ■ 

(Wilbn^ Q^ JofK&af H^ti Llm 

Wills. Etn) 

MEirrON 

(K«iC«(i]eTrayia. cOTronlycaiW 

VisOMilMHHvatSwjnwItBeriisJ 



SMITH 

|lltnn)Sdi»i|Sniilri«(72HiqhSl. 
83th,3li0fllCj) 



X 



BALLOT PAPER. In British elections, 
the paper on which the voter makes a 
crciss nir.tinst the name of the candidate 
■A i . I ' I support. 




BALLYBUNION RAILWAY. A quaint 
Irish m.in.i-r.iil railway that ran from 
Biillvbunii 



Listowel. 9 miles away. 




BALLOW. 

a quarterstafi or cudgel ( Lear 1 V, 6). 



pea 
f(L 



BALLYLONGFORD. 

in CO. Kerry where Kiiciu 
See Atlas 6, B 4. 



ner was born. 



BALLYNOE STONE CIRCLE 



'virTr.fym 



BALLYNOE STONE CIRCLE. I»>;k 

historic circles of stones, one witliin IIk' 
-Other, ,lt Ballynoe in co. Down. 




BALLYSHANNON. An In^li pwrt. 
noted for salmon tishin.^, where the Erne 
enters Donejal Bay (2200). Atl.is 6, C2. 




BALM. .^ Eurupcm l.ebof the labiate 
ordjr. It is fru'^rant and attracts bees. 
BALMACEDA, JOSE (ISJS; 90. A 
Chilean president \^!' . :'"' ■■ 

in ISSH. 




BALM CRICKET. The l.dd uicket. 
GrylUis canipestris, an insect lartjer and 
stroni^er than the house cricket. 
BALMERINO, LORD ARTHUR (I6S,S- 
i"'6). A Scottish Jacobite wlm was 
cap-ured at Cullnden and e.^ecufed 




BALM OF GILEAD. An Arabian tree 
', KKliiii; arijmatic L^um. 
BALM OF HEAVEN. A laurellike 
Californian tree noted for its strongly 
arouatic leave;, shown in this picture. 





BALMORAL. A kind of lace-boot lo 
null and formerly for women. 




BALMORAL PETTICOAT. A woollen 
line, orifjinallv red with black stripes, 
u hich shows below the skirt when that 
is looped up. 




BALTIC. BATTLE OF TaE 










BALNEAE. The old Runian public 
baHis, which had a series of chambers 
with varying decrees of heat, as sliuwn 
m the diairram which we 1,'ive Iiere. 




I ^^^ 



BALNEUM. A bath ur tray containim; 
u.iter (ir sand in which a vessel is placed 
fur heatini;:. We ijive two exampL'S. 




BALQUHIDDER. Rob Roy's native 
vdla^e, in Perthshire. He was buried in 
Its churchyard, seen here, in I73t. 




BALMORAL CASTLE, t'lyal residence in Aberdeenshire, picturesquely situat.J 
on the Dee near Lochnajar, and a favourite residence ol Queen Victoria. 
Bought in 1848 by the Prince Consort, it was rebuilt in 1S53-S5. 



^ 



EAL.- y, flAH. f 

bauAm trie. 



j! ; 




BALSA. A 

i.'itl.ited skin^;. 



used in Snutl 



BALSA. A tiat-hottomed boat made ..i 
bundles nf reeds, used on Lake TilicuM. 
South America. 




Wild balsam Cultivated t^alsatr 

O'palni fruit Oabam of Jk*\u 

BALSAM. The name of certain ». . 
and cultivated plants and of rc>ins pr-'- 
duced bv the copalm and other Iropicjl 
trees. 









,>* 



'> 






i 



BALSHAV M, .M LE 



I'etffhi.uir 
Balta. S.-e A' 



BALTEUt. 

;r Ih; ^h ■ 
1 -d r...i-J 






'^ 



EUlIctufopit 
BALTEU8. 




BALTHA$A*t CAftLO&. 



BALSAM APPLE. The Iruit o\ .M.-nu^- 
dica 'p-iKainina ; iu Svria the pulp is 
u>,.d \->r b.ea'iin^ wounds. 
8ALSAMARI0. A n.irrow-necked p.v- 
lauu- v.ise used by the ancients. 
Balsam Fir. See Cmada balsam. 



1^] 



BALTIC. BATTLE OF THE. V V * 
Copenhagen in iSoi. 



BALTTr EXCHANGE 



US 



BAMBERG 




frn*njpf^^|, 



BALTIC EXCHANGE. A I nil In i: . 
St. Mary A.xc, London, for busincii 
rebtini; to shipping anJ cargoes. 




BALTIC MEDAL „.a ;,i 

naval service in the Baltic in IS54-55 
durin'» the Crimean War. 
Baltic Sea. s.e Atlas 2, M 4. 




BALTIMORE, 1st BARON (I58U-I632). 
The man to whom u as granted the land 
in America which became Maryland. 




BALTIMORE. A i;reat American port 
on Chesapeake Bay in Marvland. We 
show the W-ashincton monument here. 
(750,000). See Atlas 29, J 6. 




BALTIMORE BUTTERFLY. An Ameri- 
can butterfly with hiack win'.;s margined 
with yellow spots. It is here seen with 
Its hanginE cocoon and caterpillar. 



■7 .'■ ,^.VT'-"- 




BALU. 1 tko native name tor the wiUl c;it 
n( Sumatra, knuwii to science as Felis 
sutiKitran:). 




BALUCHI REGIMENTS. Several regi- 
ments of the Indian army provided by 
Baluchistan. Many excellent soldiers 
like these are recruited from among the 
tribesmen. 




Modern UTOU(.;ht iron 



MTM^ 




llljliil.l 

.\\i.»dtTn wroui^'ht ami cast iron 



Baluchi tribesmen 




BALUCHIS. The chief tribe livins in 
Baluchistan, an Indian North-West 
Frontier country coverin? 135,000 square 
miles and containing 850,000 people. 
Most of them are pastoral and warlike 
Moslems, like those we show here. 
Baluchiitan. See Atlas 23, C 3. 



s 


» 











m 


■m 


m 



bjM-n liir a halj->n\ railn 



BALUSTER. A support carryini; the 
handrail of a staircase or parapet, made 
in many designs. In these pictures we 
1,'ive some handsome examples. 




BALUSTER. The side part of the volute. 
or scroll-like ornament, of an Ionic 
capital ; sometimes called a bolster. 
BALUSTER-COLUMN. A small balustc-r 

of no special order such as is used tn 
divide windows 




BALUSTER SHAFT. A torm of 
pillar in An;,'Ui-Sa.xun architecture, used 
chielly for separatin.? window liijhts. 




BALUSTER STEM, lliesteinut a chalice 
"I : I a bulging shape and re- 

^,■^lt■'lltl^' a i^aluster. 

BALUSTRADE. The series of balusters 
(ormim,' the support of a handrail, as 
seen here. 




BALZAC, HONORS DE {1 7=)9-lS50). 
I he chief of the French realistic school 
of novelists, a native "i Touis. 




BAMANQWATO. The Bechuana people 
formerly ruled over by Khama. One of 
them is seen in European dress. 
BAMBARA. A Negro people of the 
Trench Upper Sene^ral- Niger colony. 




BAMBERG. .M; .iiu->j'!| i'-.i\ .inan citv 
noted lor this splendid hve-tuwered 
cathedral begun in 1004 (50,000). See 
Atlas 12, D 4. 



BAYEUX TAPESTRY-THF, WONDERFUL PICTURE OF THE CONQUERORS DAY 




W¥J^ 



The Normans in baule array, inspired by their leaders worus. auvance againsl ihe foe 



THIS FAMOUS TAPESTRY OF LINEN WORKED IN WORSTED IS 231 FEET LONG :0 INCHES WIDE. AND CONTAII^r: SCENES. ASCRIKD BY TRA^^"« 
TO MATILDA, WIFE OF THE CONQUEROR, IT WAS MORE PROBABLY MADE AT THE ORDER OF BISHOP ODD FOR BAYEUX .. ATHEDRAL. S« mt Ul 



BEADS-GEMS OF CRAFTSMANSHIP IN GOLD AND PRECIOUS STONES 








illlllln 



S? ;^ 



























^<»»w^" 



43 



48 



^w9^\ 



•^- 



65 



56 




1 Stone Alio turdiinise Irom Bnttanv. 2 Glass. Roman- British. i Danish amber, Stone Age. 4 from Essex, about 600. j Glass, Late Celtic. 6 Olass, 
Anclo-Sa.xcn. 7 Glass. Roman- British. S Glass, from Yorkshire. ') Stone Arc jet, British, to From Rhine District. It Iron Ase, from Gothland. 
12 Anv:lo-Saxon. 15. 14, 16, 17 From Ur. 15-18 Ecyptian. 19 From ancient Rhodes. 20 From Cyprus. 21-26 Ecyptian. 27 From Cyprus. 2S Roman. 
29 From Ir. 30 Gold. Phoenician. 31 Moorish. 32 Glass, from Lake Neuchatel. 33 and 43 Tibetan rosary beads. 34 Etruscan. j3 Stained ivory. 
Chinese. 36 Aeate, India. 37 Coral, Modern Italian. 38-39 Glass, Venetian. 40 Chinese. 41 Woord, Chinese. 42 Persian. 43 See 33. 44 Sardoiiyx. 
45 Indian 46 Glass Chinese. 47-49 Chinese. ^0 Glass. Ireland. 51 Venetian. tSth century. 52 19th century, English. 53-54 .Japanese. 55 Gold, .Modern 
Italian. 56 iSth century, Italian. 57 Mother of pearl. 5S Amber, iSth century, English. See page 182 



BAMBERGER 



lift 




BAMBERGER, LUDWIG 11S23-1S99). 
\' t.-j-^ ij;rnian revolutionary in tS4S. 
BAMBINO. Thi crowned figure of the 
Child Jesus in the church of Santa 
Maria in Ara Coeli, Rome. 




BAMBINO. An Italian word for a hat; 
often applied to images of the Infant 
Jesus. We show here a beautiful bam- 
bino by Andrea della Robbia. 




BAXCAL 



BAMBOCCIADE. .: scene of 

ci-mmon !i!e such as was painted not- 
ably by Teniers the Younger, the artist 
of this picture. 



BAMBOO. A giant grass found through 
out the hot countries of the East. Some 
species grow 50 feet high. 








BAMBOO BRIDGE. A type ul bridge 
often used in the J-ar East, the e.xample 

sliown in this picture heinif in lava. 




BAMBOO FURNITURE. Light and 

ornamental furniture ri.uie m1 tM;nb'">. 





BAMBOO PHEASANT. A general 
name lor pheasants of the genus Bam- 
busicola, found in India and China. 




BAMBOO RAT. A species ct rou.iit 
equal in size to a rabbit and found in 
the Straits Settlements. 




BAMBOROUGH. .\ Northumberland 

. .ast village lamous for its castle, seen 

1 the ne.xt picture, and as the home of 

.race Darling, whose birthplace we 

iw. She is buried in the churchyard. 




BAMBOROUGH CASTLE. A iis. n. 
\nrthuml-rian fortress on a rock oppo- 
site the l-arne Islands. Founded about 
5^7, it was dismantled in the Wars of 
the Roses, but the Norman keep remains. 




BAMBOULA. A bamboo drum one: 
used by the slaves of Louisiana, U.S.A. 




BAMBOULA. A dance perlornied t^y 
the Negroes of Louisiana to the music of 
the bamboula. 



^^ 





'^^S 


^ 


y^^ 


Q 



wild bee of Ceylon 
L^ a? Ari'> indica. 




\-!'-^ 



BANANA BIRD. The Jama;ca:i hanc- 
nest. a member of the starling family. 
Banana-eater. See Plantain-eater. 



< 



BANANA ritH 




BANANA. A valuable food plant which 

••rows in hot, moist cli:iMt:s. i-ot.iMv ii 
the West InJi,- 
a single truit. ■■ 




BANBRIDGE. 
try ot Co. Ouknoi 



A 



^ 



BANBURY CROSS 
:iurivT> ih>nic. 
To Bmbury Oos^ 
up in Banburr, O^ 
replace the "■*Id »■ 




"^•'•■7 



BANBURY CAKE. » ri':-> -->■: ■ -•'■ 
:a r-; a n^i-c;-:i; ■! Ir-^t 
BANC A benches! justice, 1» miSlTJitJ 

n t-is quaint s>lJ rnn'- 



-^ 



BANCAU A sabre live a <ci 
I notably by Nafs.-'lK>n's otc 



N I 



BANCHORY 




BANDED MAIL 



BANCHORV 




BAND. A loni; rid^elike hill of small 
iiLislit; also a long, narrow slopini; off- 
shoot from a hiRher hill. Both these 
meanircs are illustrated in our picture. 




BANCROFT, RICHARD (1541'loin). 
The Arcl-.bishop of Canterbury under 
whom the Authorised Version of the 

Bi:-i^' u.iN heirun. 



BANDAGE WINDER. A reel with a 

r,i:ull.- rr. ;i tr.Hii- Uir winding bandace';. 



BAND. A layer of rock inter-stratilied 
with cjther rock, such as coal. 
Band. Sec also Zodiacal bands, Bands, 
and Fallinj bands. 



*JS^ 



BANCROFT, SIR SQUIRE 1 1»; I -1126). 
A fani'iiis finglisli actor and theatrical 
manai:er who, with his wife (riiiht) did 
fine work lor the stace between 1S6I and 
1SS5. Ladv Bancroft was born in 1S39 
an I Jii-.l i'l' i'i:^i 




BAND. In architecture, a moulding of 
little proiections. like these. 




Broken humerus Broken cnliar-hunes 






Splint for broken thiirh-bone 




BAND. A citrapa:'.,v ui nrjs:ci.liis. a^, for 
irisi-ince. the band of a P<ritish reciment. 
A Guards band is here seen plavinc. 



;en ;aw liroken collar-bone 

BANDAGE. An appliance for binding 
wunnds or lor keeping in position splints 
or dressings. Here are types of bandages 
for various iniuriei;. 




BANDALORE. An old toy consisting 

Mt .1 :.;ri)oved wheel which rebounded 
'1 a string being unwound from it. 
BANDANA. A silk or cotton handker- 
iliicf originally made in India and 
iLiving white or coloured spots on a 
cnloured ground. 




BAND BIRD. A name ot the Alrican 
pillared linch. known to science as 

Arn.uiina fasciala. 





BANDBOX. A Imht box 01 thin card 
used hy hatters when packing hats for 
storage or transport. 
BANDf. A term used in heraldry for 

a lield or charge divided bendwise into 
an even number of equal parts. 





BANDEAU. A haild worn by women 
• keeping the hair in order, particularly 

lull plaviiiL: tennis. 



BANDANA PRESS. An apparatus lor 
pressing certain parts of material so 
that wlieii it is dyed the colour does not 

reiuil the sp^ts pressed. 





BANDED COLUMN. A column with 
h.mJ (iriLimentatinn. as seen here. 
BANDED FLEA BEETLE. A species, 
Svstena toeniata, very similar to the 
pale-striped flea beetle. Both are great 
pests in U.S.A. 



••.:.iT !ii.,v^*aiil£.'i:{£.»«jiiaii 
BANDAREE. U'..- -l III; l.av-c.f 
tiiri.ins ..1 t:;e I'.onibay district u li< 
.i"_ u5 1 I the coconut palms. 
Bandar Abbas. See Atlas 20, G 4. 
Banda Sea. See Atlas 24. G 7 




BANDED MAIL. 

in the Ijth century. I he nuss «ere 
arranged in bands running round the 
arms.body, and legs, as this section shows. 



BANDED STRUCTURE 



BAIYD Si 




into layers of dirierent colour. [extLirj 
or composition. 




BANDELET. !;; .ir. r:U. ii:r;, J i;f.. 
hand such as crowns a Doric arcllitrav^- 
It is sometimes srelled bandlet. 
BANDELLO, MATTEO (USO-lS'J^i 
An Italian prelate, famous as one o; 
the ctiief story-writers of his time. 



BANDING TREES. In autumn Iruil 
trees are banded with cotton strips 
thickly greased, as here illustrated, t() 
prevent the winter moth climbini; up 

.Iriii I:ivitv,' e'.'s's 




8ANDERILLA. .A sma'!, dart-like 
javelin with a banderole ornament used 
in bull-!iahts to infuriate the bull. They 
fix themselves in the bull as shown 
here, thrown by r. banderillero (risht). 





BANDEROLE. .\ small ornamental Hag 
or streamer carried on a lance near the 
head ; also a streamer fastened below 
the crook of a bishop's staff and foldini^ 
round the shaft. 



BANDOLEER. A lealiier heU wurn uv.- 
the shoulder and lilted with pockets lo 
-inimunition, as in these examples. 



BAKU LACING. .Strips ol leather fasten- 
iui' tuscther in various ways the ends 
ot a band driving machinery. We illus- 
trate four methods in these diagrams. 
Bandlet. See Bandelet. 








BANDONION. A l.trge and rather 
plic.iteJ kiiul n( concertina. 



BANDMASTER. The chief ot a band ul 
musicians, especially a military band. 
who wears a uniform like this. 
BAND NIPPERS. A book.bindin? tool 
l,,r drawmi; the leather on the back close 
tii tlie sides ul the bands. 




BANDICOOT. 

mar.>uri:i'S liviiii; im Aiisir.iM.i aiiu I'w" 

Guinea and here represented by the odd- 
lookinR rabbit-eared bandicoot 



BANDOG. All old name loi .1 Uir^e .ind 
lierce house-do? needins to be kept on a 
chain. The word is used by Shakespeare 
n 2 Henry VI. Act I. Scene 4 . 
BAND OF HOPE. A name given to 
societies promotins the cause of total 
abstinence among children, the badge 
being shown above. 




BANDORE. A 12Stnni;ea iitlier, sjij 
to have been invented by John Rose ol 
London in 1561- , , ,. ... 

BAND PULLEY. A Hal or only slightly 
.roun faced pullev used in driving 
;n.ichinerv. 



BANDS. T>or 

:v.-."ii Ifi Cl.-f .u' ; 




BAND SAW. 

r :ritiinc '•'* ■ ' 





BAND RESAWINo „.„..t,.\L, 
ot band sawing niacnine in wnicn liu 
saw is thin anJ n.lrrow. It is used lor 
sawing up wood already sawn up into 
thick planks 



BAND SAWING l«»CH1>t£ 
111 «hich the .« 
endless MnJ r 




BAND SETTER. V 

the surface o: a trar.c 
band saw can be forciJ 



BANDSMAN 



l.Vi 



BANGKOK 




BANDSMAN. A word used especially 

f'tr 3 m;'mh'*r nf 3 military bani1. 



I 

BAND SPECTRUM. A spectrum (which 
sl-i.) corisistuii; III ;i mimher of haiuis, 
bright or dark. 




BANObI tK. \ :.:■:! -.i-.jJ n\ a j-.TN^m 
who binds the sheaves after reapinc. 
The picture is The Reapers, by A. Ferret. 




BANDSTRING. A lace (or fastening the 
bands (which see) at the neck. 
BAND WHEEL. A wheel driven by a 
belt. t\v > examples bein? shown here. 




BANDY BALL. A game like hockey, as 

i'liistr iV ,1 here from an old manuscript. 




BANEBERRY. A wild pl.nu, A.i.u-.i 
ispicata. of the Crowfoot order, with 
b!;!Ck and poisonous berrie* 




l!uA . 



1 . 



BANER, JOHN (ISyo-lon). A Swedish 
'/L-neral ulio continued the successes of 
ijustavus Adulplius. 
BANEWORT. A name for tlie lesser 
spearuort. Ranunculus tlaninuila, once 
liiiiU'^'ht to be a bane to sheep. 




BANFF. The county town and a tishini; 
port of Banffshire, on the Deveron 
estuary (38SO). See Atlas 5, F 2. 





BANFr NATIONAL PARK ', mk 

i... ; iM.I .,u tlu' 

eastern stop. Mes. 

Banffshire. i: 2. 




BAN6A. A lari^e spiierical water-jar of 
baked clay used in the Philippines. 




BANGALORE. The chief town o( 
M\sorc, India, r ' ■ ' * tiles. Here is 
its" church ',24i«.' \tlas 22, E 6. 



T^lfif 




BANGHY. A bamboo pole carried on 
the stioulder by Indian porters with a 
load hunt: at each end. 




BANDY. 

the pasi- 



BANGKOK. The capital and port of Siain, huilt largely on canals and now fast 
icini; modernised. It covers over ten square miles, does a c:reat trade in teak 
and rice, and has many splendid temples (550,000). See Atlas 24, B 3- 



BANGLE 



Ancient Roman banijles 



Slave bangles 



A. Jisi^ 




BANGLE. A thin wristlet or armlet, 
often of silver, worn by women. The 
word is of Indian origin. In the lower 
picture A and B are Roman ; C, D, and 
E are Viking ; and F, G, and H are 




BANGLE EAR. A loose, hanging ear 
«uch as belongs to this bloodhound. 




BANGOR. An Irish watering p'^ce on 
Belfast Lough (7800). See Atlas 6, F 2. 
Bangor (Maine). See Atlas 29, N 3. 



NGOR CATHEDRAL. The Cathedral, 

> Hf 15th-ci;ntury work, at Bangor 
I .J Atlas 4, C j), in Carnarvonshire.' 




■iMare uith a b.uii; lail 




Fox terrier with a bang tail 

BANG TAIL. A tail which has been 
docked or an animal with a docked tail. 




..^'' 



BANGWEOLO, LAKE. A shallow take 
ill Northern Rhodesia fnrnied hv the 
Cnn^o's headstreums. S?" \t!.!-: :" , I' i. 





BANi: i,; 



Banister. 



villaije of Palestine (-n Ih; 
famous ruined city *4 
t'Julippi. See Atlas 33. D 2. 
See Baluster. 



Banjermassin. See Atlas 2A. D 6. 




BANJO. 



striii,'ed 11!^ 



jiiitartype hut \^ith a rcuir.J j\,-. ; _ 

^Minulin',;-h(i.ir(.l. 

3ANJ0'FRAME. A rectangular met 

frame in a ship's stern for carryinii an. 

h!)istin:; or lowerint: a two-blaJeil scr:M 

propeller. 








BANJOLINE. An instrument like th.' 
banjo but uith a short neck and onl> 
four strinirs. 

BANJULELE. A form of banjo havini; 
-niv four strings instead of the usual live. 



BANIAN. A liiM.lii Merchant or trader, 
especially of the Gujerat district. 
Banian Tree. See Banyan. 






BANK. IVe >jr1aC( ri«.-J if^ix 
Banki. 



'1 ' l'> 



iw. 



I" ■ M 



N (T 



lL 



BANK. \i ' "c lor trans.ictin<: any 
business relating to money. 



BANK BARN. Blrn t-aii! -.t i call 
»ath three sides boandtJ b> eirth. 



BANK BOOK 



BANKS PENINSULA 



A|4 


jc^y 


Post 0. >ict. Savings H\nk 


ILtie ^i./..Vj- 


„„iiJ~«.«..> 


DtpVbVal: 


OROUCHHiLU 


N .■ 




Th*- Pn»l OJItve S>v.rt(;-» ConK 


;• «i,tatlijK«J l-y Act ol l>ul^>.iwr,i 


And tKc rcp'.yncnl ol jcp.i^il-- 


w::h tntcr«»t i» (!udrA-»'vci Ijy 


UuvrmmcM. 


Strtcl secrecy i% cl»«<^^-d in 


coruwxion with J«iK«itor»' iMX..url. 




1 


'ost Ortu-, 




^.1V 


IKS li.ink 1-M"k 


! 1 




'"~ 






: 1- 



BANK BOOK. A buok for keepi"!: ^ 
recttrJ <ii .i depositor's bankini; account. 

Ill t'.u- Inuer picture westlowthe entries 
■':ce S;ivin'.;s Hank I'.mk. 




BANK-ENGINE, i a; \i in Jin'.;-eiii;iiie iii 
an eni^ine house at ttie pit-l5ank, or 
mnutli -if a mine s^:l" 




BANKERS CLEARING HOUSE. An 

instilution in Post Utiice Court, Lnm- 
harj Street, where accounts of London 
hanks are adiusted between themselves. 
Banker's Mark, "^-e ;\\as(ui's mark. 




BANKER'S SAFE. .\ , ,i: luill.irl> luri;e 
.ind heavy kind made specially for 
bank,s. This one is a Chubb. 




BANKER'S SCISSORS, bcissors with 
luni!. thin blades for cuttini; paper. 




*HB 




BANKING FILE A lite with parallel 
I ,1 .1 Iriancular section. 




BANKING PIN. Oneof twopul^,l.l.lt^..: 
A) in a watch which serve toconline tin 
n'nvernents of the escapement. 








BANK NOTE. A proniissnr\ iinU- 
payable on demand in sjold. We ijive 
a Bank of EnRland note and a Rittian 




BANK OF CLOUDS. A mass of clouds 
piled one mi the otiier in the distance 
and so seen froni the side. 




BANK OF ENGLAND. The bank in 
London that does Government bank- 
ini,' business, issues bank notes, and fi.xes 
the bank rate. We show the design 

fnr 111.- new buildinir. 



BANKER. A man concerned with the business of money, an oldtinie banker and 
his wife heinj shown in this fine picture by Quentin' .Watsys 




BANK OF FRANCE. The hui;e buildin: 
in the Kue de la VrilliSre, Paris. 




BANK OF IRELAND. I he line head- 
quarters of Irish banking on ( ollege 
'ireen, Dublin. It was founded in 1783. 



BANK OF SCOTLAND. A bank estab- 
lished in Edinburgh in 1695. II has no 
special privile.iies, but shares the note 
issue with other Scottish banks. 




BANKO WARE. A .Japanese l!.:ht pot- 
terv made in moulds of irrecular shape. 




BANKS, SIR JOSEPH 

LiniMus b.it.iiiisl 1"! 
dent ol llu' l- 




BANKSiDE. A r.i;ion ol wharves in I 
Ln'uioii iMiroiiiili ot Southwark. 
Banks Island. See Atlas 28, E 1. 
Banks Peninsula. See Atlas 37. D 3- 



BANK WOUND COIL 




BANK WOUND COIL. r hod Of 

winding -. Liver is 

Bann, River. See Atlas 6. E 2. 




Trumpet banner Garter banners 
BANNER. An ensit;n or flag hearitii; a 
heraldic badije or emblem. Three ex- 
amples are iriven here. 





C^^ 



BANNER. In heraldry, a flag, square or 
nearly so and with the bearer's arms, 
used as a charge. 

BANNER. A name for the upper petal 
of a papilionaceous flower, such as this 
pea blossom. 

\^v ^i^ J:a 




BANNER. A standard used in military, 

r.-]jL:i'>'j^. <jr otil^r LVr^inoninls. >\V 




BANNER CLOUD. A cloud streaminc 
hori/ontallv irnni a mountain summit 



BA.'.C^LO 





BANNOCK. A cake of meal baked 

.i!i ir.,:i j-!::t: or rriddle or hot i|.,n.- 



BANQUET HALL 

: an iri'P' ". » 



BANNERER. A standarJI>e.irer, espe- 
cially of a reciment, a; seen here. 





BANNERET. A little hain'er, or ban- 
Jerole 'vihicli see), usually carried on 

the shaft nf a lance. 

^' 




BANNOCKBURN. .. . „ . , , ,1.,,,,, . 
shire near which was fought the Batll; 
of Bannockburn. We show here the 
scene of the battle. See Atlas 5. E 3. 



BANQUETING H A l. 

Par! ..f J • 
b) Ini/ 
front 01 



BANNERET. X km 

rleld of battle as a reuarJ lor brj'..ii 

and entitled to disrlav a banner. 





BANNOCKBURN, BATTLE OF. ■ ljni.i,n vi.-|.v» .hi.-;: 

151', r.^il:;:i: :'i Scotland beinc cleared -' it 
vi-winn his nij 1 beii»re the battle. 



BANNER FISH. One of the carnivorous 
S.iiTdbridae family, found in all the 
warm seas of the world. 
Bannerole. See Banderole. 




BANNER PLANT. Any one of the 

'.;enus An'huriiini (anthus. a Ilower ; 
oura. a tail), sucii as this Ilaniiniio plant. 
BANNER SCREEN. A pendant banner. 
usually of silk, vised as a lire screen. 




/ 



% 



ANQUET RINS. ' 



BANNOCKBURN MEMORIAL. The U.r 

.Stone, where Mruce plant.d htsstand.!- 





BANNOCK FLUKE. 

se"ll.inj lo' :;ie turt-.i. wr.icli wesno*. 
Bannu. See Atl.is 22. D ^. 
BANNUT. An English provincial nam; 
ualnnl tree o- the nut ils.'ll. 



Ct 



h 



BANNER STONE. An ancieit stone 
obiect found in U.S.A. It is like a two- 
ed'.;ed a.xe with a hole lor a handle. 
BANNER VANE. A banncr.shape.t vane 
f.ir shiittine Ihe direction of the wind. 



BANQUET. ,\ lejst !>' :nan> inests. 
usually follow ed bv speeche.s. We show 
the Lord .Mayor of London's banquet. 



a 



H^' 



BANQUErre. 

4-1 earth* ■<t " 
ils.^ ji\ k<n.'. 




BANQUO 



vtth «h->n< ii£ i» ^Cu 
thr.'i »itch£S. 



tMC«.U«£ %b*. 



BANQUO'S GHOST 



!->(> 



BAPTISTERY 



v^. ~ 



1C-.. 



1 4i. 




BANQUO'S GHOST. 



I he 
which 



shade ut 
appeared 




BANSHEE. In Irish lolklorc a sriril 
which by its wailing foretold a death 
in a liimvehold. 



BANTING, FREDERICK G. (h. KSvl). 
The Canadian doctor » ho discovered 
the use of insulin in curini; diabetes. 
BANTOCK, GRANVILLE (b. 1868). A 
noted l;n«lish composer and conductor, 
lonR professor of music at Birmingham 
ilniver^itv. 




BANTRY. The little port near the 
liead of Bantry Bay, co. Cork. See 

Mlas fi. B =,. 





BANTAM. .Any breed of fowls mad- 
small by selection, the first having coi 
from Bantam. Java. We show Japan, 
it.ipl and Silver 'Sebright bantams. 




BANTRY BAY. A line inlet, 25 miles 
long, in CO. Cork, the scene of a naval 
battle with the French, 1689, and an 
attempted French landing, 1796. See 
Atlas 6, B 5. 





i^ 



BANTAI* WEIGHT. A class of bo.\ers 
not exceeding tl''> pounds in weight. 
BANTAY. -the 

Philii V. 



Br. 




v"^ 



BANTU. 

peoples oi .^ouiu .liij ^..iiii.n .■iii...i. 

and also tor the 400 dialects they 
speak. Here are two typical Bantus. 
Banyaluka. S.. A-;.is 1 1, A 2. 









BANYORO. A peoj I 
living south-east of Lai. 

r 



s. 




A baptism in II, .■ Welsli I .HI 




BAOBAB. :r.. uita .i ^a^ 

uiJe trunk, ai seen her^, and a melon- 
like fruit called monkey bread. 





::.e after the German retreat 




BAPAUME. .1 . 

uas wrecked in the oerman retreat Iroin 
the Somme in 1917- 




John baptising Jesus 
BAPTISM. The Christian rite of purifi- 
L-ation by bathing or sprinkling with 
water. Jesus was baptised in the Jordan 
by John the Baptist, as shown here in 
Guido Reni's beautiful picture. 



J 




III 




BANTENG. The wild ox of Malaysia 
and Burma, domesticated in Java. 



ih 



BANYAN. A huge Indian tr .■ .M ih BAPCHILD. A deliKhUul .^=J'"-"' 
fig family whose branches put down village near Sittingbourne, lU mterest- 
props and make more trunks. I ing church being shown here. 



jvCf- ,r i-n 11 



f^f\'(\i 



BAPTISTERY. That part ol a church 
^uiiUiiiiiig a font for baptism. It was 
formerly often detached, a famous 
example being that at Pisa, shown here. 




BAQUtD 



157 




BAQUID. A kind of cane basket for 

fr-::t \:-'i in *'-; Ph-'irpines. 




BAR. A counter at whicil food and 
drink are served. 




BAR. In music, the upright line sepa- 
rating rhythmic groups of notes ; also 
the notes between these lines. 



» ■ » 



BAR, DOUBLE. In music, two bars 
placed together at the end of a move- 
ment or strain ; a dotted double bar 
(right) is one with two or four doti 
added, meaning that the strain on that 
side is to be repeated. 



7! 



m'Ziir^' 



BAR. 

this pig ijl 1;-U %^it'n a V 




BAR. An ordinary, or tigure, used 
in a coat-of-arms, It is a bar such as 
these, occupying a fifth of the field. 




BARABBAS. The rol'l'.r \Uir,m the 
Jews chose to be released instead of 
Jesus, in the trial before Pilate. 




BARADA, RIVER. The river of 

Damascus called Abana in the Bible. 
Baranctzky Apparatus. 




BARANEE. , ^.-.. . . .sited woollen 
cloth worn by the natives of many part^ 
of India. 
Baranovich. See Atlas 15, K 2. 





BARASINGHA. The red swamp deer 
nJi.ui forest districts. 



BARABA. A famous artiticiai cave 
■ ■ ^ -ars old near Gavj. InJia. 




BARABARA. A kind of hut used in the 
Aleutian Islands. The one shown here 
«s an Eskimo dwelling. 




BARB. A word for a beard or any 
beard-like structure. 



-— rcHm 




BARB. In botany, a hair-like tuft, ai 
in barley ; also any growth armed with 
backward-curved hooks like the fruit 
of sparganium, seen on the rirl-t 



\ 




V -'. *,""^ i-.'v W./^£^t Ak/ ^ 

BARB. In a bird's feather, one o( tlu' 
tapering rods forming the fringe on 
either side of the central quill. The 
illustration is of a downy feather, highly 
magnified, from the under coverts uf a 
missel thrush 



^^ 



BARB. A backward projecting point 

ri a sharp weapon, such as an arrow- 

'U':u1, spear, or fishhook, to hamper 



.VJI^ 




BARB. A band of lolded \\ntn 
V. r:- r :y'.Jl tlie chin h\- Ui->n',-n. 




BARB. Armour (or a horse such j> 

V, .IS used in olden days. 




BARB. In heraldrv. a leal which iuts 
ou: like a b.trb between the petals of i 
; eraldic rose. 




BARB. V r ;j,-i:ii 'X Jji r-Jf'^ • ** 

••. : jt beak. 
BARBACOU. A niVv; sieM l«r > 




BARBADOS. 

^!atld. i;t: 
1 To.ooj r< 
miles. We 

! .Mr. llf ,- 




Tta 



r 



w 



r 



iSi 



BARBARA FRItTCHIE. 

.M 1 .eii-i.- » - V-;- 

Mild bv \\.-.i;;i:r. ; - 

Irioa Ate. «li« the >^.-..cJcii 

enter;d FreJerick ( FredenctU-a-ji 



BAKBARIAN 



158 



BARBER'S SCISSORS 




AN. A mcmhcr m u \uL! 

a racf. like those that i.v.-rrr 

F.urt>re m th<? Dark Airc^ 




BARBARY CORSAIRS. The Aluenan 
HI,! \\.)riiccan pi'-"'-'^ *''" *'"' ""^ 
I ri. r ..1 Southern Europe (or 300 vears. 
Barbary Hone. Se,- Barb. 






BAR BELL. - , 

nasties; it is rather like a dumb-bell. 

i-vi! has a Ifins: b.nr tnr the handle. 



BARBAROSSA 1 1 1 5::-S'». A name s'ven 
ti. Frederick I. Holv Roman Emperor. 
because of his red beard, rossa meanins 
reil. He is here seen at his eleCti"'. 




BARBARV SHEEP 






BARBAROSSA !i.). A Turkish 

Corsair u;,, ;..:,-. ...J Spain's power 
in the Western jMedilerraneaii. 
BARBAROUX, CHARLES (t7'>7-9>); A 

French Ginuidin leaier v.hn was i.'iii!ln. 
lined alter his party's f.i'' 




Cr/u 

BARBARV. The former name for the 
\. rlh African Berber countries, as 
shown on this old map. 




BARBASTELLE. A small, rare BritLsli 
bat, with long black fur, hairy lips, and 
ears covering the eyes. 






A n,lll^ i .i: .r ;.:■ ..i 

BARBER. A man who shaves men's 
beards and cuts their hair. Here Western 
methods are contrasted with Eastern. 




BARBAULD, ANNA LETITIA (171; 
1 _ I \ 1 '.-t and hymn writer. 
BARBECUE. An animal roasle.l 
wliol.; ; also the framework by which it 
is held over the lire. 





BARBED. A term used of a weapon 
^r h.ink with a backward-turned point 
tH hamper extraction. 
BARBE DU CAPUCIN. A winter salad 
made from the youni; blanched leaves 
h1 the commnn chicory plant. 



^i^^ 



barberin:, taodeo j i i: \ 

notfii nu-mber ol a f loreiitine lamily 
puwerful in the 17tli century. 




BARBARY APE. A '.-;l.:.-v nii^^ ui 
Nurth Atrica and Gibraltar. It is yellow- 
ish brown and lives among rocks. 



BARBED WIRE. A kind of wire con- 
sisting o( strands twisted toRether with 

ihiirr barb^ at intervals. 





eARBERINI PALACE. A mii^niticent 
17 li ctriitiirv p ■ z \ Pom.*. 



BARBEL. European frc^ii-water lish, 
\\\X\\ tUshy growths, or barbels, hanging 
Ironi its mouth. 




I 



i 







BARBER OF SEVILLE. The chief 
character ol a c.imedy bv Beauniarchais 
un which Rossini founded an opera. 




. ^ 

BARBERRY. A well-known shrub 
ironi the East, its yellow flowers and red 
'-.rri.-s bein? shown in these pictures. 






BARBERS COMPANY. An old City o! 

ndon company, dating from the 14 th 

. jiitury. Its hall, seen here, in Monkwell 

Mreet.V.ls b'.ii'l M-j-i-iallv I-y !niiro.J.>:us. 




BARBERINI FAUN. A famous ancient 
statue which once belonged to the 
Barberini family but is now at Munich. 



bUKBER'S POLE. A relic of the d.ays 
ol the barher-suri;eua. representing the 
splint to which a patient's arm was 
bound for bleeding : used as a sign. 
BARBER'S SCISSORS. A type of scis- 
sors like these, with bows at a greater 
angle than in ordinary scissors- 



BARBER-SURGEON 




BARBETTE. The turret, usually cir- 
cular, protectin? the mountings of a 
warship's iieavv iruns. 



BARBICAN. A \o::i. n.irr,.» ■- • 
throui;h which archers shot, as shown 
here in part of the Tower of London. 



BARBIZON. ,\ .-.....,-! ni.ir the Forost 
, t r'nu.«i:ieM;;au of man> famous French 
I nhc-ntury r.iinters. amon? them 
riK-.iJore Rousseau, Corot, inj .WiUct. 
Barbuda. See .'Vtlas .<i, J 4. 



BARCLAY, JOHN i-S;-ij.-m. A Sort- 
:ish satirist .^1 ;>.; -lesjits- 



BARCLAY 



IGO 



BARGEMASTER 




BARCLAY, ROBERT ilo4S-'W). A 

Scottish Ouakcr lumous for his Afoluiiy 
fur his faith. He is the cloaked li^urtf. 
BARCLAY OE TOLLY (I761-18IS). A 

central (>( Scuttish Jescent who led the 

^■1 ' •" 'SI ■ 




BAR CLOUD. A meteoroloKical term 
(or a loni; cigar-shaped cloud, nearly 
stationary or moving across the sky 
broadside on. 
Bircoo. See Atlas 36. F 4. 




BARD. Pl.ite armour such as was worn 
by a war-horse in the 16th century and 
later ' " cay trappings carried 
bv ) Middle Ages. 




BARD. A poet of u\^.. ..,.:., .. :. 

sang or recited heroic lays : also a poet 
honoured at the Welsh Eisteddfod, as 
seen in the right-hand picture. 





BARDELL. MRS. In Dickens's Pickwick 
FapL'rs, a widt>\v who brings a successful 
action for breach of promise against S\r. 
Pickwick, here seen supporting her. 
BARDELLE. Or bardel, an obsolete 
word lur a pack-saddle. 




A chair oi honour .tt 
:ist<...iaiods. I nis magnificent Chinese 
h.ur was presented to Swansea Royal 
^ati'ina! Eisteddfod ^ ■**'* '*• 



BARDIC CHAIR 

IList.-ddfods. Th 



lis magnificent Chinese 
ited to Swansea Royal 

National tisieddfod Committee by 

Welshmen in Shaniihai. 




BARDOLPH. A dissolute hanger-on ct 
Falstafi in Shakespeare's plays. He is 
the second figure from the right. 




BARDSEY ISLAND. An island nff Braicli- 
\-l'ulI. U.iniarv.ui^liir-. Si-e ..\tlas l.Cl. 




BAREBONE, PRAISE-GOD. A I l^el 
Street leather-seller who gave his name 
to the Barebones Parliament of 1653- 




BAREFOOT. A word happily iiiiisir.iied 
Is *his snapshot in a London park. 
Bareilly. See Atlas 22 E 3. 




BARENTS, WILLIAM (d. 1597). The 
Dutch discoverer of Svalbard {Spits- 
bergen), who died in the Arctic. Here 
his men are seen tackling a polar bear. 
Barents Sea. See Atlas 2. R I. 




BARE PUMP. A pump 

- fr.Hii a cask. 



for drawing 




bar£re de vieuzac. bertrand 

ii75^-lS41). A leader in the French 
Revolution and one uf the few leaders 
u ho survived it. 

BARETTI. JOSEPH (1719-89). An 

Italian man of letters who became a 
nirmber of Dr. Johnson's circle. 



mi- 



bar fish, llie ^ 

ul North America. 




BARFRESTON. An East Kent village 
with this Late .Norman church. 




Kjluse h.ir:.;e on a cimal 
BARGE. A llat-bottomed cargo-boat 
or liijhter, generally used on canals and 
inland waterways. 




■p 



a MM I 



BARGEBOARD. In building, a board 
set aloMK tile inside of a gable-end. thus 
hiding the rafters. It is often richly 
carved, as shown here. 



J 


^ 



BARGE COURSE. Part ot the tiling 
pr.iieiting bevond the rafters of a gable 
IniiKling. shown at a ; b is the barge- 
hciard (which see), and c the barge 
Cfiuple, or rafters under the barge course^ 
BARGEMASTER. The man in charge 
of a barge, especially of a barge of State. 
Here is a King's Waterman. 



BARHAM 



101 




BARHAM, RICHARD HARRIS ,i; - 

1845). An English clercynian famous as 
the aiithnr of tlie Ingoldsby Legends. 




Bari Cathedral 

BARI. A large Italian Adriatic port 
(135.000). See Atlas 13, F 4. 



BARILLA. Any plant used in niakinj 
soda-ash, as, for instance, prickly salt 
wort. Seen here. 
BARILLET. A French term for a little 

harrfl. npflied tn \v.itch-spring cases. 




BARING. English banking family, 
whose founder, John Baring, came from 
Bremen in the early 17th century. Here 
John Baring is in the centre, and on his 
right is Sir Francis Baring (1740-1810), 
who founded the business. 




BARING-GOULD, SABINE (l.s:;i 1 >2il 
A i;ifted tiergyni.m-novelist. .uitlior nt 
tile hymn Onward, Christi.in ShUIkts. 




BARIS. A funeral boat such as was 
used in ancient Egypt. 




^M-/ 



BARITE. A form of fiariuni sulphate 
.ilso c.illed barytes. 
Barilo, River. See Atlas 24, D 6. 
BARITONE. A deep-toned br.iss musi- 
cal instrument. 






BARK. The outer rind 

stems or branches of trees, the bark ol 

four important trees being shown. 




BARK BEETLE. A beetle that bores 
in the bark uf trees, especially in the 
larval stage. Those shown, from left to 
right, are elm, apple, pine, fruit-tree, and 
peach bark beetles. 
Bark Borer. See Bark beetle. 




BARK CUTTER. A machine for cut- 
tin: -itul Ljrinding bark frjr tanning. 
Barkentine. See B,irjuentine. 




BARKER, H. GRANVILLE l< l^:- 
A prMMiiiu-iit :iii J.Tn li.'-iti-.h pl.t-. uri.:i.t 
BARKER, SIR HERBERT ib. l^<.o| 
A famous bone-setting speci.^ti^t. 




BARKER'S MILL. A reacli.m app-ir.i 
tus ill which water falling into a vertic.:' 
tube passes into horizontal arms anj. 
pouring through perforations, causc> 
the u hole to revolve. 
BARKHAUSIA. A rather uninteresting 
plant ol the aster type llnurishin;: in 
common garden soil. 




BARKING ABBEY. The cl.'ister ruiv.> 
I a once tamous ahbev at Barkinc. an 
.1,1 I sse.x town ilou 2\:-A.V. jbv-V.-,! ■■: 
■ 1 ( '0.0(101. 




BARKING- AXE. An axe >r.. 

1 ... 1 ( ,- .Tu-r-r...- h.irk ir.MV, t- - - 




BARKING BIRD. \ rock pigeon found 
on the i'aciiic c.msI of Patagonil ind s.< 
called because its cry is rather like a 
dog's bark. 





BAR 


■LE 


■DOC 




-1^ 










J 








BARKIN'. 

|..r a-; ■ 
■-jptji- 










BARK-LOUSE. 

t trce>. li 



i£j r*'-^r- 




BARK MARK 




BARK MILI. 



BARKOVStfK 






BARK PIT. V 

- ji,;,l ;- i '5 
BARKSLIPPER. 




CkJo art 






Bark«L S.- 



y«i' 



BAR-LE-OUC. A- cj 1...0 ,r, j^..-- 
rain; .it^i r-jn, ,. J ^,.ak;v »t sSkw 
the churv-n oi St- J;*" »-J '^ ?"*t« 
over the Rivw t>ni>n- 5« Alto .. f 3~ 



BARLETTA 



BARNABY RUDGE 




BARLETTA. An JUCiiiit llillian 

AdriJtic r"ft. its lathcenturv cathedral 

bi-ini; sh.'wn here (H.OOOV Atlas t:l. F4 




BARLEY. A cereal of the grass family, 
its botanical name being Hordeum 
sativum. A hardy r'^"' ^"d ''"y 
widely cultivated, it forms a valuable 
(cod crop, and is also used in maltimr 




BARLEY. Several species nl the grass 
family growing wild in England and 
elsewhere. These kinds are (left) sea- 
side and (right) wall barley. 
BARLEY. In heraldry, one of the 
regular charges on a coat-of-arms. 




BARLEY. A village near Koyston, in 
Hertfordshire, noted for a curious inn 
sign nf h'.rses and dogs across the street. 





- orsE 


IISCI-U- 


_^ 


1* JjINCHV 


1 i: 1 


r 









BARLEYCORN. An old English measure 
equal to onir-third of an inch- 




BARLEY FORK. 

at the root o: - 
up barley si 



' rk with a Ruar.: 
>;d (or gathering 





\H^X 



BARLEY GRASS. Any uncultivated 
v.vriety of the genus Hordeum. The 
evample is wood barley grass. 
BARLEY MOW. A heap of barley, 
much used as an inn sign, as in this 
MciL'.irlh rictnre. 




BARLEY RUST. A troublesome pest 
iif barlev, the cause of the damaged 
heads on the right ol the good one. 




\^ ^ 



BARLEY SUGAR. A sweetmeat made 
In melting and hardening sugar in 
twisted mDulds. 
BARLOW, THOMAS (1607-91). An 

Oxfi'rd thenlc.iji.iii. Bishop of Lincoln. 




BARLOWS WHEEL. A copper disc 
between the poles of a magnet. Rotated 
by a current, it acts as a motor ; rotated 
niechanically, it acts ;'.s a dynamo. 




^iiai*i«c^ 



BAR MACHINE. A l 

111 which a bar c.i 
tools revolves h<" 



Neutral One 



»ul-ciittinn machine 
T\tm! the cuttiiiL! 




BAR MAGNET. 



A type ol mai,'ntfl 
ii .1 str.iight bnr 






J 


J^' 



BARMBRACK. The Anglo-Irish name 
nl a kiiul c)l currant bun. 
BARME. An apron worn by peasant 
women in Chaucer's time, as mentioned 
ill the poet's IMiller's Tale. 




BARMECIDES. A noble Persian lumily 
which was almost wiped out by Haroun- 
alKaschid when one of them, the vizier 
Yahya, fell into disgrace, as shown here. 




BARMEN. A tMiL 

Prussia (170,000). We show its 

Fame. See Atlas 12, B 1. 



BAR.'il. The foam or scum rising on 
mall liquors when fermenting. 




BAKuLN-LLBERFELD RAILWAY. A 
reni.irK.inie suspended electric railway 
linking Barmen and Elberfeld, Germany. 




BARMKIN. Ihe rampart or outer 
tirtiiication of a castle in the Scottish 
l,:i\iliiruls or Northern England. 




IIAKIYIOUTH. A I 
nl the All 
Aith views nf (. 




k 




BARN, A sinreliniise Inr any kind nl 
tarni produce, often a very fine" building. 
See Tith" Barn. 




BARNABAS, ST. the companion o( St. 
Paul, with uhoni he is seen forbidding 

, niu-rK It I v^trii to worship them as 

■ , ' M iM \,-|^ XIV 




BARNABY RUOGE. A 

character (second from 
Dickens's novel of this name. 



BARNACLE 




Stalked barnucle 



.js%, 



Windpipe Bell Striated 




Acorn barnacles on a sliell 
BARNACLE. The name ol a crustacean 
vi the order Cirripedia, of which the 
stalked kind fastens on ships' bottoms. 
Some of the manv kinds are seen here. 





BARNACLE. An instrument for 

restraliiiiii; restive horses when beini: 
shod : it consists of a forked stick or 
loop of cord which is twisted round the 
animal's upper jaw. A farrier's barnacle 
is sometimes used as a heraldic charge, 
as seen on the rit;ht. 
Barnacle Eater. See fK 




BARNACLE GOOSE. A northern species 
of ^oose found in Britain in autumn 
and believed in old--" !"■ ' "■ "- ■ 

sprunir from the barr 




BARNARD. EDWARD E.i lo:,;;. An 

American astronomer who found Jupiter's 
fifth satellite and 16 comets. 

BARNARD, SIR JOHN (1685-1764). A 
London Lord Mayor lionoured by a 
statue at tije Royal Exchange. 




BAT-"- 



BARNARD CASTLE. A very picturesque 

Durham tou-n noted for its fine 12th- 
century castle, here shown (ISOO). 




3:i ;i 



BARNARD COLLEGE. \ ciuv^o h.r 

women founded in lS8g and incor- 
porated with CoUiinbia University IS'io. 




BARNARDO, DR. U-'iS IVOS). i uuiiUa 
of the famous homes for destitute 
children whose headquarters in Stepney 
Causeway are sliou 11 I'll :' i '' 



;k^tM 



BARNATO, BARNEY IS^J-O;). All 
Aii;,'lo-Je\\ish iinancicr. a pioneer of the 
Kiinberley diamond Industry. 
Barnaul. Sec Atliis 21, M 3. 
BARNBY, SIR JOSEPH (1S3S-96). An 
hni;lisii musician ulm for many years 
conducted tlie Royal Choral Society. 
Barncock. See Turbot. 




BARN DANCE. A dance ul the \;M, 
century ; also called the pas de qualn 




dMwm 



BARNEIT. CAMOII 

v<ial «■ 



.^ *^ 



BARNtVELDI. Jil 

leader .■! the I 
lime »h.» »ii 

BARNMAN. A :j-- 

in a harn, n, ffv 
faslii.neJ thr^^hw '.' 



BARNDOOR FOWL. The linest 

sleekist fi..il in a farmyard and ti 

inaNter f.i nil 1:1./ ..thers. 






BARNES, ERNEST W. a\ i.->:-i). I'.ish.. 
ot [iirniu!;;h.ini. \ >H, and a prommciit 
inatlu-maticiaii arid writer. 
BARNES, WILLIAM (lS0t'S6). a 
I'orsetshire clerjrynian noted for hi- 
i harmini; poems in the county dialed 




BAR NET. A net of the kind shown 
here placed across a stream to culdc iish 
into a wini;-pond prepared for them. 



^mr-n 




BARNET. A Hertfordshire m.irk<r; 
tnur. It tniles north tif London. 




BARNET, BATTLE OF. A nercc ^n 
ca-.;cnKnt in the Wars o! the Kos.-* 
uhcn Udward IV defeated the Knii;- 
maker, who died rii;htin<. H.idley Hish 
Stone, shown here, marks its scene. 



BARN^TAPLt 
;i Xhc Ta». IP 

Bamiticklt 




BARNSTORMER V. 

so CJ";d b>ci^i^ , --. ■. s^ 

to let in binUh Tf)t> pfctttrc » Tht 
SUotlin; Players, bv St^rtdia Cftovtes. 



BARN SWALLOW 



|i'>l 



BARONS 




BARN SWAtLOW. A ropubr iianu 
(iir .1 ^^v.lll.l^^ lu-.Ntiin in the rafters "I 
b.irns and similar places. 
BARNUM, PHINEAST. (1810-91). An 
AtneriL-an showman who exhibited .' 
(am. HIS collection of freaks. 
Barnyard Fowl. See Barndoor fowl. 




i I » ISft 





BARODA. City o( Western India. Us 
beautiful NazarbaRh Palace is shown 
here (lOO.OOO). See Atlas 22, D 4. 




Prisoner's bar 
BAR OF COURTS. That at which a 
barrister pleads ; also the one at which 
pri^'Mirr^; *.land tn be tried. 







BAR OF MICHAEL ANGELO 

[■■r>'.ul tri>ntat Inuu' n\cr ; 
Michael Aniielu's statues, as ^eeii in 
t.iinntis stutue of Moses. 



/ TUAftiJiV / hOrf/lnKHTV' / 


r/iu/^ay 1 


zfij-riviri tfi^nmn^ 


-:;:W:nr 


mHmiiim^iuimm 


immm 




S 


pf^ 


^"tt 


■ 






m 


1 






T rrr\ — 


kM 


i 






1 


1 


fm^\\\m\\,^mmm\ 




i 



standard Mountain Marine Astern 




BARON, BERNHARD (b. iSSt). Head 

t'f L;riMt i-ihacco company, and famous 

philanthropist. 

BARONET'S HAND. A charge on a 

baronet's coat-of-arms representing the 

Red Hand of Ulster. 



BARONG. A large, broad-bladed knife 
used by the Mores of the southern 

Phi!ii'pnu' Isl.uuls. 



BAROGRAM. The record of the varia- 
tions of the barometer registered by the 
instrument called the barograph. 




BAROGRAPH. lor jiCorJoK Contni- 
iMUsly the height of the barometer. 



,! 




^ 




Aneroid barometer 
BAROMETER. An instrument for 
nieasurin? the pressure of the atmo- 
sphere by its support of a column of 
mercury or its pressure on a diaphragm, 
■IS in the Aneroid. See also Barograph. 
Barometer Chart. See Barogram. 



BARONIUS, CAESAR hm^-IoO?). An 
Italian ecclesiastic noted for his history 
of the Church up to llyS. 



BAROGYROSCOPE. A rapidly rotated 
gvrostat (winch see) used to demonstrate 
the tfarth's rotation. 




BAR OF HOUSE OF COMMONS. Ir; 

bar (.'\) used at times to mark the 
technical boundary of the House. 



BAROL0N6. A branch ul the great 
Bechuana people of South Africa. 




BARON. The lowest rank of peers, 
whose Parliament robes are shown. 




BARON OF BEEF. A large joint 
ccMisisting of the two sirloins joined by 
the backbone. It is now r.irely seen. 




BARONS. A word used especially ot 
the nobles who were a great power in 
England under John and Henry III. 
They are here seen taking oath to make 
I John sign Magna Carta. 



BARONS CORONET 



I *i5 




BARON'S CORONET. A plain ltu!.! 
circle with six b:ills round the edi;e and 
a cap. In the rii;ht-hand picture we 
sive a heraldic example. 




i4M>iri 



w 



BAROQUE. J to the 

degra-!.U :....;...,,.;, _,!,:. Ill architec- 
ture of the Ibth century, as seen here 
in Santa Maria della Salute, Venice. 




BAROSCOPE. -\ J.nic; l.ir showinL; 
the upward pressure o! tlie air by 
means of a larse ball of small density 
and a small uei;.'ht exactly balancim; it. 




BAROTHERMOGRAPH. For recording 

at th..- t!,, . n. , . ,-li,ini;es of atmnspheric 
pr^-^ ".Tiitiire- 




BAROUCHE. .An nlj f. -,j .ii n... 
; lie to SC.U l.rjr persons 




BARQUE. A sailing vessel with three 
or more masts a.id square-rigged on all 
but the mizzen, which is fore-and-aft. 




BARQUENTINE. A sa.lim; vessel, 
usually three-masted, rii,"ied with 
s.iu.ire sLiiU only on the foremast. 
Bar(|uisimelo. See Atlas ,2, E 2. 
BARR, ROBERT (d. I')12). A Briti, 
11' \ ^list and journalist. 




BARRA, JOSEPH. A Ij-vcar-old he 
of the French Revolution who di 
shoutins; Vive la Republique I wli 
surrounded by Vendean royalists. 
Barra. See Atlas 12. K f.. 




BARRACA. A tvpe of hut used 1 

m.uu ot tlie peasants nf Spain. 




BARRAGE An enclosure in uliicil 
lilli inibits were hi-KI. 




iiiiji.:,..iieiK^t>».' 



BARRACKS. A iunljun l..r houMiu 
tro(jps, sailors, or marines. Our picture 
is of Wellinston Barracks. London. 




BARRACOON. A slave-pen in which 
iNe.^rues were cooped before being sold. 




BABREL nUJLa. 



BARRACOUTA. A lar/e lnh of tn- 
■rder Teleostei. Found in West In.fiii 
u.iters. it is someliiii 




BARRAGE. An arlilici.il l-.ir a.T..., 
.1 « ii.iv. .r, to rei;ulate the Mow, a, 

this one on the Upper 

in India. 



'ti-ctim: advancini; tr 



--^*3§^^!^ 



.\iiti .iiri.T.iit b.irr.ii;j 
BARRAGE. A curtain of artilK>r> iir. 
iisi-d L'spccially to protect troops advjnc 
'uvi to the attack and as a barrier U> 
h.'stile aircraft. 
Barra Isles. See Atta:^ 5. A }. 




BARRAMUNDA. Tlie n.itive name (or 

Ml.- \ustr.ili.ri hiin;-liNh. \iliivli bri'.r.h.-s 

p.rtiv bv '^ilU and ;'!- 




BAKrtANQUlLLA. Vv:i ul C iLMnbi.i, 
near the in>'u:li o* the Mai;dalcn.t River 







B\RRAS, COMTE DE (IT52-1S2->1. A 
Fre'ich Kevoluti.mist who helped in 
K 'I'espierre's overthrow. 
BARR£. In heraldry, a term for i 
shield divided horizontally by birs. 











?5" 


barreo. •. 




tj 


m\ 


y 1 J 






/rM 


L 


■ 


V 7 T 






«J 


Jfe/ 



BARRED C. K term .» «,«*,.(. mi* c 

■ it c.imdi'jn time. 

BARREL. A ve«<J (encraay «« vtwdM 

and Jdjp' 

and %'-liJ 




3ARREL BAYONET 



BARREL BOLT. A uar^ 
J—T-r.'lt mi* ins bacfcwd f 
ward in j cylindrical cxiiaf 



■m0-^. 




BARREL BRIOQE. 

nude co;i>utm£ <4 p^^wi 

barrels. i*x«n in Ihj pedvrc. 

BARREL BUOY. A r^M - %h.t^ 




D 4 K K C i. IfACi J». '«~A<4. " 

ichin.sTJJt.!--. s-' nafn^d tran 9% 
cencril fiTm r.-sc-nM-ac a bJfreJ- 

BARREL-CURB. \ rvliCHltr foreoej «l 
strip- ! »-^ J '^s.U^ (ya circular r** 

iM elm and us-zd l^ » ^wiXi^J ',« ^-rfl- 
Sinkinc t>' i;;r t*i; bVr ob^it>«-»i- 




i;ics5fe^ 



1 



BARREL FILLER. A.-, c.d i^tmi^ 
tot til'.i'c birT;5s. (rentrinT »-i'!i lo 
luloniitic device to preve:it overtax 
O I 



BARREL FISH 



BARROW, RIVER 




il 



BARREL ORGAN. A small pipe urnan 
havirK a barret revolved by hand and 
pins which admit air to the pipes in 

& laving a tune. 
ARREL PEN. One with a barrel 
split lensthwis;- '" '■• "" ^ h"t.l r- 




BARRETTER. A thermal detector 
used HI wireless. There are various 
forms, the one shown consisting ol a 
small tube tilled with hydrogen and 
linished with end-.-"iin,'.-tin" lufs. 



is*--- 



BARREL PUMP. ' 

barrel's side so that the liq,;iJ ,;uiUent- 
can be pumped into a hose and de- 
livered as a spray. 

BARREL SAW. A cylinder with a 
toothed edge used especially for cutting 
barrel staves, and so on. 



HARRINGTON, RUTLAND (1«53 f'i-;2. 
1 he stai:e name ol Oeorge Rutland i leet, 
ictnr and theatrical manager. 
HARRINGTON, SAMUEL (1729-lSOO). 
A distingui^iied English naval comman- 
lUr under Hauki- and R^idnev 




BARROW. An early Bntnh i niip nr a 
prL'lii t 'ftc grave-mound, as SL'en here 



BARRICADE. A rarric! „. a..,, 
material available used as a defensive 
work in street fighting, as here. 



BARRINGTONIA. Mi ' 

,.1 the tropics Dearmg bnght-ioKmreu 

llowers and fleshy fruit. 

BARRISTER. A lawyer who has Ijeen 

called to the bar and is qualified to plead 

in court. He wears a gown and wig. 




BAR ROM, ISA A i 10,50-771 f.ambridsje's 
hf-^t Luca^ijii proiessor of mathematics; 
he was succeeded by Newton. 
BARROW, SIR JOHN ll76t-184S). A 
famous t aveilcr and autfior. 
Barrow, Point. See Atlas 27, D 1. 
Barrow, River. See Atlas 6. E 4 



BARROW COAT 



BARTHOLOMEW 




BARROW COAT. A 

si;.'. n »"-!■ 




DcvonsUirc U.pck, tarruu 
BARROW-IN-FURNESS. A Lancashire 
port with big shirbuildini;, engineering, 
and steel works. Near it are the ruins tti 
Furness Abbev, which see (75.000). See 
Atlas 4 D 2. 




BARROW PULLEY. A pulley, gear, or 
wheel on the same sliaft as a larger one. 




BARROW PUMP. A pump niounti 
with a water-cistern on a wheelbarrr'w 
for Erarden use. 



isqfH 



£ 



7 



BARRULEE. In heraldry, a term for a 
shield divided horizoii^illy into ten or 
more equal parts. 

BARRULET. A narrow bar dividing' 
2 her.ilJic shield horizontally. 
Barruletty. See Barrulde. 



BARHY. .\ port 7 miles south-west 
Curdilt with line docks and a lari^L' i: 

port ol .-ML,! ' in.M'^o). 




BARRY, SIR CHARLES (I7';S l^ou). 
TIk' Jesr.MUT "1 tlu' Houses of Parliament. 
BARRY, JAMES (1741-1806). .An Irish 
Jec'jralive painter who was patronised 
bv Fdnuind Burke. 




'3 

BARRY, SIR J. WOLIE ll.sji. I91S). 
rile cfiiet eiiLiliieer (if the Tower Kridjje 
ot London, which \Vas opened in 1804. 

BARRY, MADAME DU (1746 93). A 
celehr.ited Court beauty who was guillo- 
tined in the I re'i.-h Revolution. 





BARRY, SPRAN&ER (1719-1777)., A 
noted Irish actor, a rival of Garrick 
in Shakespearean parts. 
BARRY. In heraldry, a term applied to 
a shield which is divided into an even 
number of equal parts. 




( 


% -■- 




V I 


-j 




/ 



BARRYBENDY. A shield divided far. 
wise and subdivided bend\sise. the 
tinctures heini; countercharged. 
Barry Cornwall. See Procter, H.W, 
BARRYPALY. A shield divided hori- 
,<ont.il'.v a.id vertically bv bends and 
pales. See also these terms. 




BARRYPILY. A smeld divided into an 
even loimber of pieces by piles (which 
see) placed horizontallv across. 
BARRYWAVY. Divided into wavv 
bands, usually placed hori/.ontally. 
BARS GEMEL. Two bars across a shield 
haviiv; n-.o-e of the fold above and below 
than between them. 



BAR-SHEAR, A machine for cullin.' 
bars ..t iriin, steel, and so on, 
BAR SHOE. A horseshoe with a bar 
acr .ss the open end to protect the fro/ 
of the foot. 




BAR-SHOT, An iion bar or two cannon 
t^.llls l;:iked by a liar. 
BAR SIGHT. A rinesight with the 
aperture on a segment plate in the ring. 
1 he lower one is a bar and .slit sie'ht. 




'.e.iral AIn.i. 

BARTHtLEHV, AUQUtTC •.•v-<./,: 




8ARTHELEMY, i. J 

f rcru'li jhbe »tio -■ ...jt 

\o» ji:; Jd Jc ir,e Ar j- 

BARTHCLEMV it. HILAIBf. 4¥IJU 



■;-_..- Hi 
BAR SINISTER. An incorrect but 
common term for bend sinister, wrongly 
supposed always to indicate illegitimacy. 
BART, JEAN (I6SO.I702). A noted 
PienJi priv.iteer frcni Dunkirk whom 
I . ■ ■ ■ ■ 





BARTER, trade bv exchance. as illustral.-J !-; Lord L;i:v 
,.i commerce between I'huenu-ian mere';.i '- . .: : . ^ ■• ■"'• 



■I'l I4:».i«l fhZXvtt 




BAR TESTER. A macfune lor tesfi-.c 
a bar's bending or hrelliins strength. 
The one shown here was made bj 
Bailey S: Co. of Sallord, 





BARTHOLOMEW. 



;«T 



BARTHOLOMEW. ST. — ; -s: tfct 

Apcstics. uiie.sc festival )-s oa Aor«i* 2K 



BARTHOLOMEW FAIR 



IBS 



BARTSIA 




BARTHOLOMEW FAIR. A l.ur ho,! 
:it Smithlifid on or iu-;ir St. Bartholo- 
mew's Day (Aut;ust 24) from 1120 to 
is;?, a': itlustriite.l r» this old print. 




BARTHOLOMEW THE GREAT, ST. 

A (anions l2tli centnry chnrch in West 
Smithlield. London. 




BARTHOLOMEW MASSACRE. A ureat slauiihtsr of llu'.'uenots in Paris organ- 
ised by Catherine de Medici, seen in this picture by Debat-Ponsan walkini; anioni; 
the victims. It took place on St. Bartholomew's Dav, 1572, under Charles IX. 





BARTIMAEUS. One of the two blind 
beir^'ars !i-:t!^d bv Jesns outside Jericho, 

as t,,:,! r ■• ■ •■: 



BARTHOLOMEW'S, ST. A ,;reat 

London iiospilal founded in Smitluieid 
by Rahere, Henry I's minstrel, in 1123. 
Its fine gateway is shown here. 




BARTIZAN. A sn-..U: turret l-uilt out 

from an angle of a tower, three bartizans 
(3) being shown in this picture. 




BARTOLOMMEO, FRA (l475-lSt7). A famous Florentine painter-monk, a 

i"li',\\ T 111 s,,v,,!i,iroia. Here he Is seen with a lovely cherub he painted. 





& 






^ '^m, 


'i'',f. 






{ 




BARTOLOZZI, FRANCESCO ij 

isi?). An Italian eni;raver (left> u )i 
uorked in London and made deli-^'liif Li 
i rints like the two given above. 




BARTON. SIR EDMUND isi' \ )in). 

i)nc .'f tlK- t-'uiuK-rs of the Australian 
CoinniMn\\ j.ilth. 1!j was the tirst Prinif 
.nini^t.T ■>* ' 1 




BARTON AQUEDUCT. The swing- 
iiqiiediict carr>iii^' the Bridijewater 
Canal over the Manchester Ship Canal 
at Barton-on-lrwell. We show the 
biidge open with a barge lloating in it. 




^ J 



BARTONIA. A i^enus ol plants of the 
nrJcr l.oa>;aceae, with white, scented 
tlowers, B. aurea being shnwn here. 




BARTON-ONH UMBER. \ 1 i 

■ . ,tj Hull. 




BARTRAMIA. A genus of sandpipers, 
reprci^nted here by Bartram's sand- 
piper, a North American species. 





wj. 




-^ 



BARTSIA. A genus of plants of which 
these three British species are, from left 
to right, yellow viscid, Alpine, and red. 



BARUCH 




im 



BARUCH 


A man ot ii: 


j.-i-,.j .It Li ! 


:> .i 1 ; . . 


liu befriended 


tlie pM.p.K'i 


JereniKih 


and took down 


liis pr()plu'i.-ies. 


as told in 


Jeremiah. 




Barwin. 


See Sea bream. 






BARWISE. In heraldry, a term meanini; 
placed horizontnlly i:i row^. 



•nijdrQGphere 



Barysphere 
(orCentroiphere) 



BARYSPHERE. The Earth's inner core, 
uhicli IS of greater density than the crust. 
Barytes. See Barite. 




BASEBALL BAT 




BASALT WARE. 

J.isiah WeJ.;w(i.,J, 
throuirhiiiit and \tit: 



U 






C 



I 



BASALT. A dark, heavy i!;;neous ruck 
often column;ir in structure. 




BASAREE. A liMiuu llutc <.r lui;culct 
with seven holes and Mown either by 

tile rnnutli or iiuse. 




ill 



) 



BASCULE. \ ,-.t!.iicmL: Ijver u^ed m 
l^ridi^es as a counterpoise for raisiti^ or 
lowering the roadway. 



BASCULE BRIDGE, a > run: 

by a coiinter-wei'.:ht to allow it to \^c 
easily raised or lowered, as this one on 
the (Canadian Paciiic Railway at Sault 
Sainte Marie. See also Tower Bndc^'- 




Ionic 
BASE. A term 

anv ^•.ructu^c in 

ol c..lumiu- .Win. 

in^ hive been fX%eA la (kt Jc. 

thc^r. as shown bt tbe ixi^r 

uc cive in lh,-4- pci ;»:t 







OUT ritLO 



BASE. A pleated skirt, reachinj (mm 

the waist t'' tile knee, urrn i:i the early 
n.th ee'itniv. 



Barye's spirited group sliowing an Arab killing a lion 
BARVE, ANTOINE (1701-1875). One of the most famous French sculptors of 
ar.lmals, wh(jse portrait v: give here Besides two of his characteristic works. 





BASE. A skirt of plate armour pro- 
tecting the lower part of the body. 



K ^atit^in in ictT.-^a 
BASEBALL. A (imt mest-iiac < 
corii.-'tnitt >n i-4 a>C-tel tad rp«?d0Y 
vhich hu bcoonK tttt natkniJ r>^t <4 
Anicrici. It is pllrcd by t»w til:^ <* 
nine men. eich side osaillr IUTia« cisc 
^nninc?. 



BASEBALL BAT. .\ ..luc c u£ sMj 
;•> tisitii: r'lyerj for strikraf tbe b«i. 



BASEBALL GUARDS 



170 



BASIL WEED 




BASEBALL GUARDS. A padilcil 
tanvas-covered truard, as seen on the 
lc(t, worn hy baseball players to pro- 
IfCt the hojy, ami also, as on the richl 
■. helmet with a frame "* ••>*'''' "ir.'- 




BASEBALL SHOE. A specLiI spiked 
shiie. as worn in baseball. 
BASEBOARD. A board round the 

«.i!Is "! a r. M.m and next to the floor. 
Basel Switierland). See Basle 




BASELARD. A kind uf da.i;i;er usua 
carried on the yirdle, as shown here. 
The daRger with which Wat Tyler was 
killed was a baselard. 
BASE LINE. In surveying, a straight 
line measured on the ground from the 
ends of which angles are taken tor 
triangulation. 




BASEMENT. The part of a buildint; 
with arches and columns supporting the 

iinrjr rortiiins. ;is st-en here. 




BASE MOULDING. A moulding at the 

ha.se ui buttresses, as here. 



=^yQ 




l^aiiterlnir\ Salisbury 

BASE ORNAMENT. Decorative 

tracery at the toot uf a column. 




BASE ROCKER. A di.ui rii.ujnUJ .i 
curved pieces of wund sii that it c.i 
be rt)t:ked. 

Base Table. See Base moulding. 
BASHAW. The nlj srvllin? .if flic titlo r 
the Turkishoffici.il ln.i kimun ,i r i h. 



BASEMENT HC 

jTOonis bciu'A ^i.. 



^ - 




w^^ 


%. 


ira 


^/ 



BASH!-BAZOUK. \ n: ml t i 

1m. nl ot "I iirkish irrc".;ii!.tr tr't<>ps siu'ii 
a- liavc hecn notorious for centuries. 




BASHKtRTSEFF, MARIE (1860-$ t)- 
.A Kussian painter and author. 
BASHLYK. A form of hood worn in 
Russia and in some other countries- 




BASIC SLAG. A product ot st^'cl-nnikiiii; 
tcjiitainniK pliosphoric acid and Itiiu-. It 
is used hy farmers to lighten heavy snils. 
In this picture, taken at the L.AV.S. 
Railway works at Crewe, molten sla,^' 
i'^ seen coniinc from a furnace. 





BASIDIUM. A cell at the top of which 
spores, hire seen greatly magnified, are 
tor mod. 

BASIFIXED. A hotanical term meaninir 
attach.-d at abase, as these tulip anthers. 




BASIL. A genus of sweet-siiu-lin 
plants of the order Labiatae. Wc sh( 
wild basil (left) and the carden kind- 




BASIL, ST. i ^2 



)), One of the fathers 
. h and a champion of 
; aintinq by El Greco. 




BASIL I. Uv^aiUui.- ^iiiiMtwr .■..: c-. 
founder of the Macedonian dynasty. 
BASIL II. Byzantine emperor 976-1023. 
conqueror of the Bvilcarians. 




ban I'aulii, Rome 
BASILICA. In Christian architecture, a 
church in the Romanesque style, based 
on the bulldincs of the Romans. Wc 
shnw an exterior and an interior. 
Basilicata. See Atlas 13, F 4. 
Basilicui. See Basilisk. 



^^ 






Li,---'^- 


^^S 


^ 




Basilic Vein. 


i 



BASILIC VEIN. A vein near the elbow 
often opened fnr blond-lettint;. 




BASILISK. A crested li/.ard luund in 
tri)pical America, often confused with the 
basilisk of fable. Another species comes 
from the Indian archipelairo. 




BASILISK. A jahutous serpent-like 
^re-iture siippi>Ned in olden times to kiH 
other creatures bv its ;,'lance. 




BASILISK. A heraldic char!::e showing 
the tabled basilisk with a second heaa 
.h* tile tail, as seen here. 
BASIL-THYME. A sweet-smeliini; plant 
of the penus fiasil. Its botanical name 
is Calamintha acinos. 
Basil Weed. See Basil, wild. 



BASIN 




^r p I'.tM I Pmldini: hasii 




i6th-ct:ntury Cliincse basin 

BASIN. One of the most ancient 
articles of fiousehold furniture. The 
Chinese basin shown above is in the 
British Museum. 




BASIN. ,;r;a drained hy a river 

'u utaries, as illustrated in the 

view here given. 



BASINET. A light, close-littini; steel 
hviinet i.f various shapes worn by knights 
in the Middle Ages. We give five ex- 
ample.'^. It is also spelled bascinet. 

!vfssM!.M .111.1 b:i.^n.'t 




The uUl t;jteuay ot Basing House 
SASING HOUSE. A lamnus fortiheJ 
mansion in Hampshire which was held 
stoutly lor the king in the Civil War. 
and was reduced at last by CromweU's 
guns in 164 5, after three unsuccessful 
sieges. Its ruins, including the old gate- 
wav. can he ^.""i .i.-ir Uivi-i>'st..V':' 





BASIN , ..... i„.„.M » 

gates of a lock or a widened reach of a 

canal. This picture of the Gatun Lock 

' Pinama illustrates both rneanings- 



i; iiNGSTOKE. ■ '>vi- add 

imrortant railway juncti.,!! in north- 
east Hampshire. Its town hall is shown 
in this picture M 3.000). 



BASSET UZASO 




Laundrv l .r.^. : 



BAtKEr AERIAI- < 

I.'lc l-r;n .: j . •; 
r'fiinj J p.,v 

BASKET-BALL. A »nc 

r il! n '.nf.,>»,i into » hin pi 
I!', the hinjt tcinr 




Flower haskels Ciotlits haskcl 




.WiUoury basket 
BASKET. A lamiliar thing in cverydi> 
use. These pictures show a few ot the 
hundreds ot kinds of basket in use today. 
made usuallv of wickerwork. 




BASKET. A h.asket conl.iining e.\tra 
seals Kir travellers on I7lh and iSlh 
.entury vehicles. Old-fashioned slice 
eiaches. such as the one shown abt^ve. 
>iten had, behind the body a basket 
u ith two seats placed lacing each othcr. 



>fi- 



BASKET. A name >.iw.i ;.) !iie Cell ul 
certai;i kinds of architectural cjr''»l«- | 
The e.\aniple shown on the lelt is of 
Byzantine workmanship and the other is | 
from the Tower o! the Winds. Athens. 



BASKET BOAT 

m2j; ■ * ' ^-" 




BASKET BUTTOn. 

.. t'l a p Jttrrn r :\: - ■' 
BASKET CARBIABt. 

■ * .'k.— W'^t 1 -J '.' 1 ' 




BASKET COIL 

.1 jctancc C' il * ■ 

that the •l.ijint* **t »-»--<*■. ^^--vvsj 
and intCflaceJ. atvd are diw t>Lc 
BASKET FISH. »n J.)-..,-^.^ »J •>*■ 

, .-jv!!: i ..-.•. mini b»>-.— -JT— « 



I 



1 



BASKET HILT. « - 

ser-.!-li-ic > M'k.-! a-e 





BASKET LlIARO. * t-.i- fTCie 
of the genus v.cr--t>.nauras »it!i crotsei 
markinfS like rask;;»crt. 



BASKETMAKER 



I7:i 



BASSET-HOUND 




BASKETMAKER. A niak.-r of buskjl^ 
This b.ibk.iiiKik;T is usiiiL' wsijrs <-r: 
the coinm«>!U'si nutcf 




BASKETMAKERS COMPANY. A City 
yi London Itverv company founded in 
J 5*. ■ • — *i<piaviiv^ three basnots 
anJ used in the craft. 




BASKET PALM. A r»lm of curious 
shape, here st^n crowine in Ceylon. 




BASKETRY. I he craft uf the basket- 



maker. The tyiies of basketwork shown 
here are coiled and phcated (top) and 
twilled-and twined. Sff Colour P'jl,- 




BASKET SHELL. A name lor any 




BASKET WORIVI. 1:1, a 

cattrpill^lr which tuilds a cocoon ol 
leaves and little twigs, as here seen. 




BASKING SHARK. A sh.irk soiiKtime': 
uviT 50 leit lonv; founJ in tlie North 
\tl.uitic. II !■; i'.-iut:iIIv incitlt-nsive. 
Baslird. S. 




I lie r.i 
BASLE. An old 

university and 

■ni' lliall. and 
■J, i! 1. 



illk.uis .il t>.isle 
Swiss city w'ltli a lainous 
ancient rathaus, or 
min^ler (110,000). See 



r^ 




BASQUE. A line people living on eith 
^;dL■ ol the Western Pyrenees. 




BASQUE. A short, skirted jacket iur 
nii'rly w.irn by women. 
Bisque Provinces. See Atlas 8, D 1. 
BASQUINE. A woman's outer petticoat 

niic wr.rn in Spain. 




BASRA. Iraq's chief port, developiiif: 
rapidly (85 000). See Atlas 20, E 3 




BAS-RELIEF. Ui :..w i.:.^l, .i ..ii.i.K o. «.i..^U IL. l.gjiv-s ^i^ only slightly 
r.iis,,'.. .1- illustr.ited here by this marble slab from Nineveh in old Assyria. 




ConiTnon bass 




BASS. A lish ol llie perch lainilv 
kiiuls being shown here. 
Biss. See Bast. 




BASSANIO. I he Iriend lor whom 
Antonio borrows from Shylock In 

Sh.ike^pe:ir:'*s Merchant of Venice. 




BASSANO, JACOPO (1510-92). An 
It.iliaii p.iintLT of the Venetian school. 

BASSANO, DUKE OF (1763-IS39). 
A iainons political agent of Napoleon. 




BASSANO DA.M. A great irrigation 
barrage built by the Canadian Pacific 
Railway across the Bow River, Alberta. 




BASSARIS. \ .■Liui. -1 sill, ill. llesh- 
e.itiiig aniniiils. a typic.il species being 
the N. American cac'onii>;tle. stunvi here. 



{ ' >■■}!' i .f> 



1 



BASS CLEF. The F clef on the fourth 

line of the stave, the lowest sign of 

iiisi.luti- pitch. 




BASS DRUnH. The big drum of a band, 

iiscvl Inr marking time. 
Bassein. Se; Atlas 22. H '-. 




BASSE TERRE. Capital ol the West 
In.iiai island ol St. Kitts. Atlas 31, J «. 




BASSET HORN. A wind musical 

instrument with a wide range of notes. 




BASSET-HOUND. A lung-bodied, short, 
legged, and very intelligent dog. 



BEARINGS-OBJECTS OF EVERYDAY LIFE IN HERALDRY 




Arms of Graham-Toler Family . Lion Sejant Lion SejantRampant Lion Salient LionCouchant Peacock Goat Pcrcjpine Am of F'glln Fas u 




^ 
















Canada Queensland New Zealand Nqasaland NewSouthWales Mauritius 




Mii'rind Appaumee 



-■« C.-T« ^ecurarllM 




^7^ ^;*i f;^ r;^ 

\I7 xj/ ^ VtJ' 



ihjmrccK ii'3-.e 







Foxglove Arms of Gordon-Ciimining Family Primrose Lotus Indian Rose Videt Maple Arr-^ * Lj^-Corv FaTi.',u Sunfo-er 

Bearings were largely derived from the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and lamiliar objects ol everjday lile wer« »iso vtry PopuU/. PUni 
devices may be seen on the four coats-of-arms on the top and bottom lines. To obtain variety animals went shown in diBereai aniwdes. as 

the lions sejant, rampant, and so on. Sm pice is; 



BEETLES— 50 MEMBERS OF THE BIGGEST GROUP OF NATURE'S CHILDREN 




I 



I Splendid Dolichoto lu. 2 Kibbun;;d pros^isceu. ". '\ ari;::;at£d djrlini;. 4 Wallace's belus. 5 Pierced olive. 6 Tour-spot bowl. 7 Violet golden-surtace 
S Emperor phanocus. 9 Buryln.;. to Sacred cross. 11 Precious leal-footed. 12 Sycophant calosoma. 13 Lesser water-beetle. 14 Black-bodied poplar. 
15 Horn-combed corymMtes. 16 Arched clytu:. 17 Beautilul horned euchteanus. iS Five-soot scaphidomorphus. 19 Beaked Bacchus. 20 Bacon- 21 Circled 
archer. 22 Beautiful eupyrochroa. 23 Vespillo buryuii;. 24 Rust-coloured dancer. 25 Sta? (male). 26 Two-striped rhai»ium. 27 Common tiger. 28 Bee 
beetle. 29 Hive. 30 Spotted knot. 31 Copper-coloured corymbites. 32 Scarlet fungus. 33 Pine. 34 Blister. 35 Great synonycha ladybird. 36 Fourteen- 
spot podontia. 37 Golden-limbed cereal. 3& Sharp. pointed sape^da. 39 Rose. 40 River paederus. 41 Great water-beetle. 42 Lone-beaked thin. 43 Frisch*s 
anomala- 44 Hairv tortoise. 45 Common cockchafer- 46 Four-srotted silpha. 47 Polyphylla- 48 Red skipjack. 49 Musk. 50 Macropopillia. See page 197 






BASSINETTE 



BAST J-ALM 




BASS VIOL. A stringed musical instru- 
ment, the largest of its type. 



K t c!uci conimcrcMl cil\ 

,,, :i a cathedral and harbour 

a view oi which is shown in this picture 
(30.000) See Atlas 7. Inset 



BAST TREE 



171 



BAT FISH 




BAST TREE. A name sonK'times '^Ivcti 

r" 




BASUTO. The intelliRent but warlike 

)';nr'- "f Baslltobnci, a Snuth African 




|-"'Miirr-nns,-d l..,| 



Mouse-trared Loni'-.-areJ 




Abyssinian cpauictted bat 
BAT. A winiicd mammal ol the 
Cheiroptera ihand-winsed) order, seen at 
niRhl. Most bats are insect-eaters, but 
some live on truit and two kinds even 
devour small lish. 





I 



Stoolball 



Cricket 



liasi-hall 

BAT. An instrument for hittint; a ball- 
I > iir kiiuls used in fames are shown here. 




y « 



BATAK. A niemher 

ti'ihi.' !i\'iii'/ in Siini:ttrj 



^^mH. 



BATALHA MONASTERY. A buinuiK.ni 
iii<Mi.istt-r\ t.iiiiui.'J hv .Ichn I in tlu- 
Piirtu'^iu's ■■ ''i^- same -vinie 



m\^ 



BATAN. A luui^li stune hand-mill 

. .! Ill western South America. 
BatanR. See Atlas 23. C 3. 
Batangas. See Atlas 24. F 3- 
BATATAS. A plant genus indudin'' 
I ', -^v, j,t potato, of which the flower and 
k-af arc shown. 



"^^ *li 




BATAVIA. 1 he capital ul Java and the 
Dutch East Indies, exporting coffee, 
rice, sui;ar, saeo, tin, tobacco, tea. and 
timber (140.000). 




BATCH. A batch of bread means .i> 
many loaves as a baker can produce 
irom one kneading of douch to be bakeJ 
together. 




BATEKE. A B:ititn Iril-L- -it iv..r\ 

t'.iJ T^ Ht the M\Mk' (.ntl '., b.ivn 




BATELEUR. -Ilie crested ea^ie oi 
SMuth Africa. Helotarsus ecaudatus. 



V 




BATELO. A boat, rather Hke a dhow, 
used in Western India. 




BATEMENT LIGHT. A term fur 

i';irro\v liL;ht in the upper part of 
Perpendicular window, as seen here. 
Batan-Kaitos. For star see Cet'i^ 




BATES, DAISY. A wctl-knnwn Austra- 
Uan friend ul the Aborigines. Here sht 
is seen in camn with two black children. 




BATES, HARRY (tS50-lS99). A well- 
t.ni'wri HnyU'-h sculptor, seen here with 

.UK' ot ins nnrk';. 




BATES, HENRY W. (1S23-92). A 
iKilur.ili^t nuteJ fur his studies of insect 
and plant life in Bra/il. 
BATESON, WILLIAM (1S61-1926}. A 
famous English biologist, author ot a 
notable boolc on Mendel's principles. 




BAT FISH. A name ot the llyint; 
gurnard, shown in the picture we give. 



BAT GAUGE 



175 



Width of Wjcket *1 




dot Gauge - 

3^ 



:lVi/1 



■Ball Counter 



BAT GAUGE. A L:aui;e for tcstini; the 
width ol cricket bats and wickets, and 
as an umrire's ball counter. Semi- 
circular openings are for testing the 
diameter of stumps. 




Aii '. uu iiicwin.L; the famous 
Crescent at Bath 







i 





ThL^ Roman baths .it B.ith 
BATH. A historic city in Somerset 
famous since Roman times lor its baths 
and in modern times for its beautiful 
architecture and town-planning, carried 
out by the famous architects John Wood 
and Son (which see) in the iSth century 
(60,0001. See Atlas 4, E ^ 




Hip bath Child's bath 

BATH. A vessel for washing. He 
are some of the (amiliar types. 



A 




BATH pitheadi. \ i 

provided at iip4n-datL* niirv 




Kniirht ol the Bath 



:^ 













W 


%■ 








S.Tv'A'" . 


t'^^Ss 


■<> 




^^ 


S' 


^*<5^Sj 


r^^^ 




3^^^ 1 



















.Military badtje and star. K.C.B. 





Military Knight Civil Knight 

Grand Cross, G.C.B. Grand Cross, G.C.B. 







Military star Civil star 

Grand Cross, G.C.B. Grand Cross, G.CB. 
BATH, ORDER OF THE. .\ famous 

Britisli Ordt-r ot knighthood, some oi 
the star.s and hadges worn liy Knights 
Commander and Knights Grand Cross 
being shown here. 




batbhtg dsess 



BATH BRICK. .•\ lriat>le n>anul.ietnred 
lirick 01 sand and clay (or cleaning 
knives and scouring metals. 
BATH BON. K rich kind ot bun 
usually containing peel and sultan.is. 
and oViginallv made at Bath. 




BATH CABINET. A Cabinet with j 

MippU of st^ani from outside enabling 
.1 person to have a Turkish bath al home. 




BATH CHAIR. A kind of. perambulator 
ti^r an invalid, often of wicker. The 
type shown in the lower picture is often 
drawn by a donkey. 




BATHGATE. A busy Scottish in- 
dustrial town in the Linlithgo«-shire 
coaliield (8500). 





\\ i • -itinac wrt» 
BATHma ORt«- » r; •■ ^' 

l-atbinc, I - ■■ « 

*.\\\\\ are c- 

the Victof •• 

called l>w 1 .' 




BAlHl.'.v.. . . 

snapshot of holiday-makers tiken it Bojiwc in StcKi. 



o«r; tT tin lutvy 



BATHING HOUSE 




BATMAN 



BATHING HOUSE. A waterside Innld 

: I 'vhi.h swimmers ciin enter 




BATHSHEBA. s.ih.mon's m.ith.r. 

wiu>se story is told in 2 Samuel M 
This is from an old Bilile picture. 



BATHING MACHINE. 

Jrawii diiwii into the water tor the 
3f bathers at the seaside. 




BATH SOAP HOLDER. A 

f.i miliar and handy thins in a 
room, as is also the sponge holder illus 
trated on the right. 



SATH 


STONE 

1 


.,1 llllKsl"i», 


C. 


— 1 > V -• 


. .--^M 


BATH 

niomet 
bath w 


THERMOMETER. A ther 
r for testini; the temperature of 
Iter, in whicli it will float. 








' .J**"" 


//"-^ 






BATHURST, 2nil tMKL /.). A 

prominent lawyer of his day, lord 
cli.nK-cllnr from 1771 to 1778. 
BATHURST, 7th EARL (b. 1864). A 
l-it-r associated with the Territorial 
innvLnu'iit ill 'lloucestershire. 
Balhurst Inlet. See Atlas 28, G 2. 
Bathurst Island. See Atlas 36, E t. 




BATH 

species 



WHITE BUTTERFLY. A 

of the typical genus of the 
Fieridae family. It is widely distri- 
butiJ Init r;irc in Enirland. We show 

In, il/lll Liiiil till' tcnialc. 




BATHORY, STEPHEN (1522 So). A 
great Hungarian noble who became 
King of Poland in 1^7''. 




C.ir.ualla's baths as they are 
BATHS OF CARACALLA. The great 
baths with which the emperor Caracalla 
adorned Rome. They accommodated 
1000 bathers and their area extended 
ovtT a ciii.irt:T nf ,1 ^,|uare mile. 



BATHROOM. Up-to-date bathroom in 
an Hii-rlish house- 






m 



BATHROOiM SEAT. Mere are two 
modern tvces covered with cork. 




BATHURST. A citv of New South Wair 
IniinJi.l 111 1S15. See Atlas 36. H 5. 
Bathurst, Cape. See Atlas 33. 31. 




BATILLUS. A board struck by a mal- 
lit. It w,\s once used in place of bells 
ni Armenian churches when bells were 
prohibited by the Turks. 
BATIS. A genus of plants of the 
lijtideae order. B. maritima is seen 
iR-re with its catkin- 






BATH SPONGE. The type ol sponge 
used in bathrooms. They are really the 
skeletons of living sponges (which see). 



BATHURST, 1st EARL (10S4 1775). 
A Torv opponent of Walpole and a 
friend of I'ope. Sterne, and Swift. 



BATLER. A wooden b;it used lor 
pounding clothes tliat are bring washed. 
BATMAN. A military officer's servant, 
as here : also sometimes used of a man 
in charge of a pack-mu'e and its load. 



BATON 



177 



f$ll^ 



i'l^Iiceman's hati^ 




u.iijucl..r's bat 



Drum-major's baton 

BATON. A truncheon, a wand lor 
beating time, or a staff carried as a sit;n 
of authurity. 




BATON-CROSS. A heraldic device liki- 

these. uith cross-pieces at the ends. 




BATON ROUGE. Capital of Louisiana. 
U.S.A.. whose capitol we show (18,000). 
See Atlas ^^0. H 4. 




BAT PARAKEET. A name given to 
several species of parakeets because of 
their habit of hancintr upside d-wn. 





BATSMAN. A cricketer at the wicket. 
hendren (lett) and Hobhs are seen here 
m play hi the lower pictures. 



a -a v-r-mr- T>«;"j— w.>-^v 



BATTA. The lantruaye of the Batta, 't 
t'.itak. people of Sumatra. This Bihlc 
passa'.,'e in native characters is St 
John Iff. Ifv 




BATTEMENT. An obsulete sii;ii in 
lusica! n'jtation somewhat resenibhtv^ 



the trenioh 



Menopome. Prolonopsis horrida 

BATRACHIAN. A ?roup ot creatures 
including notably the frogs and toads 




BATTTRT 



•i » 




BATTENBERQ, Prince Louis oi i ^ 
1921). A Briti'ih :ijniir;il who did nouj 
work as first sea lurj in lyn and was 
niadL- Mariiuess o( MiKord Mavsn. I'il7. 




BATTER BOARD. An ad|ustjhlc h 
ii^<;d in connection with plumb-lin 
l.iv ott the batter nf a stone wall. 




BATTERING RAM. An ancient engine 

uf war (or i^atterin-.: Jn-A-ri waHs. 




BATTERSEA ENAMEL. A :.!in i:< 

warj originated in Battersea bv Sir 

S. T- l.r'SL-n al'MUl IT^O. 




BATTEN. A wooden strip used as 
tastcnins. as. for instance, on packai: 
of goods like this. 




1 " ' I . kSEA park, a London r 
.: .!. -' ,:cres vvith a charniini: lai..- 
snbtri'pical e-irdens. 



BATTENBERG, Prince Henry ol (IS; 
95). A son ol Prince Ale.xandir , . 
Hesse who became British in |SS5 and 
married Princess Beatrice (b. lj>>7). 
(jueen Victoria's vouni;esl daughter, 
whose portrait is on the risiht. Since 
1917 the family name has been Atount- 
batten, which also see. 




BATTERY. A unit oi 
sistins usually ol six cun 



tVS. 
Kit 



BATTERY BOX 



BATTLEDORE 




BATTERY BOX. In wireless, a con 
tainer specially intended to receive thi' 
cells composing a hiirh-tension batter\ . 
It Is wired as shown here. 



^-^ 




BATTERY CONNECTOR. A brass clip 
(tup) for connectinti the cells forminij a 
wireles!^" hii^h-tenslon battery, or a pluii 
for attaohin? a wire to a battery socket. 
BATTHYANI, COUNT LOUIS (1809-49) 
A Hunirarian patriot wlio was shot b\ 




i^^bSi 



BATTICALOA. An early Portuguese, 
anJ later Dutch, stronghold on the 
east mast ol Ceylon. See Atlas 22. F 7. 
Battimenlo. See Battement. 




BATTING GLOVES. Gluves luti; 
-ubber projections to protect the 
batsman's hands in cricket. 




i ABBEY. The abbey founded bv 
queror at Battle, near Hastins-s. 
: banle of Senlac in 1067. 






- 'K N» 




..ir.l 111 jt til I 




^f. A,.'. '"■ .j^Jl^l 





*feL 



Irj: Jutland, 1916 

BATTLE. A:i e:;^>.„MUi iu >^ar. We i,'ive here pictures ot an ancient, a medieval, 
a Napoleonic, and a modern battle, and of two of the most famous actions at sea 
The picture here iiivcn of the Battle of Issus is from a mosaic discovered amonR 
the ruins of Pompeii and now in Naple« 




Broil?)' AL'r- battle-axes 



— I 



ixciii baltlr-av- 



^. 



-Medieval battle-a.xes 




Bat:l(;-axes*trom South Alrica 





y 


\ 



lieraiJic battle-axes 
BATTLE-AXE. A weapon of war ot 



lany ditterent types and ages. 




BATTLE CLUB. A favourite weapon 

iiniin^ primitive peoples, especially the 

i.itives of the South Sea Islands. These 

\amples are of wood and cane and 

■ m^ from Tonija and Samoa. 

Battled. See Embattled. 




BATTLEDORE. A lichl. lonc-liandled 
racket for playing battledore an d 
shuttlecock, a game which has developed 
into badminton. 



BATTLEFIELD 



I7!l 



BAUTZEM 




BATTLEMENT. In old lortKication. a 
parapet with regular intervals on top 
ot a tower or rampart. 



BATTUE. A bi:,' hunt in wliicn h^-.lters 
drive tile quarry in the rciuired direc- 
tion. This picture, for instance, shows 
a round-up oi elephants. 



BATUM. A t , ; 

Georgia, which is v\'iiiivCUu ;^> run uith 
the Cispian and e.xports much ot Baku's 
-lil 150,000). See Atlas 16 6. 



BAUD. FEROINAKO ' 

-ot;J C,::T-i- \c. T;51 

Baain*. ■• ■ '"'j' <: f 



BAVARIA 



ISO 



BAYEUX 




BAX, E. BELFORT > 1S;4-1926). Oni: oi 

th ■ 'i 1 uljri "I til- British Socialist party. 
BAXTER, GEORGE (1S05-67). An 
EnRlish encraver noted for his colour 
prints, one of which we i;ive on this page 




BAY. In architecture, a space between 
two main piers or columns, as, for in- 
stance, between two columns of an 
arcade or between window mullions. 



BAXTER, RICHARD (1615-91). A fanv 
ous l':iibv'.eri.ui who was driven from 
the Churcb of England in 1662, 




BAYARD, 


PIERRE (1175 


n;ii. .-x i.iiii-is ^r.iKii liero of the Italian 




kni'.rht withovit 


fear and without reproach, who was illustrious 


not only 


for his couraec. 


hut also for liis noM.- rharartcr. This picture 


shows his 


death after ( 


Mlly wounilj i! ;•>,.,' ,1. 




BAYA. The native name of the East 
Indian weaver-bird, which builds a 

Linjint,' nest. 
BAYAG-KAMBING. The seeds of the 

i itlipptnL- tree tjiiiuindina Crista, having 
nicklv rnj. 



BAYARD, THOMAS FRANCIS (tS2S 
■ ,^i. American statesman; U.S. 

ambassad.r to Britain in 1S93-97. 
Bayberry. Same asCandleberry(q.v.l. 
BAY CROWN. A crown of laurel leaves 
such as in ancient times w.as the reward 
of poets and athletes. 




BAXTER PRINT. A 

duced bv the method o! »,enri:e ii.i,\Ltt. 

Here is a charming example of his work. 





BA>ARD. A ...,...^ - , j a bay horse. A bay steed which 

is said to have belonged to Amadis ol Gaul was called Bayardo 



BAYEUX. The famous old Norman 
city whose library contains the Bayeu.x 
Tapestry. We show its noble cathedral, 
rebuilt by William I in 1077 and again 
in the I3th century (SOOO). 



BAYEUX TAPESTRY 



ISl 




Willum planning his fleet 



WfiC 






An English ship ol the tune 

\ f ' 



.SI 



■<< 



c jr 






r- I 



\\ 



f/-i 






The Norman cavalry attacking the English 
BAYEUX TAPESTRY. The story of the Norman conquest of England einl'roidereJ 
on a strip of linen 231 feet long and 20 inches wide, and now preserved in flu- 
library at Raveux, Normandy. Here are scenes from it. ^cc Colottr P'.jh- 



A 




BAYHAM ABBEY. I he picturesque 
ruins of a l^th-century monastery in 
Susse.x, 5 miles from Tuhbrid*.:e WeMs. 




^iSiSjf^.^ 




BAYLE. PIERRE (1647-1706), A 
famoii. !r,:!.Ii philosophical writer. 

BAY LEAVES. A heraldic charge dis- 
plavin? thr-.'e hay leaves. 




BAYNHAM, JAiWES (d. \S\2). One 
the lif.t Ln-lish Protestant martyrs. 
Bay of Islands. See Atlas 37, E I. 
BAYOGO. The Philippine match. h. 
sea. bean, whose pod, leaves, and be; 
section are shown. 




BAYLY. THOMAS HAYNES 1797- 
1.S30). Ajiiiiir oi ihe Wore a Wreath 
of Roses and other songs. 




BAYNARD'S CASTLE. . 

built by Baynard, a lollower of William 
I, which stood at Blackfriars, London, 
till destroyed in the Great Fire. 



BAYONET. A stabbing weapon which 
in use is lixed to the barrel of the lire- 
arm, the examples shown here being 
(1) English I7th.century (2) French 
17th-century (3) ring and socket (11 
Spanish knife-bayonet (5) four. edged 
(6) triangular <7) British sword bayonet 
(S) long "French (o) old Russian. 



BAZDf 




BAYONNE. I 11..- I r r,.!- 

tJii the A Jour alter which Ih^ Lj>lvi,.' 

was named (30,000). See Allaj 7. C t 



BAZAAR. ... . :. :. .^ 

a; i ItL-J to the il^jppiat crat/c. ^M r?s.-< 
l.j'.trrn citirl. 





BAYOU. An abandoned portion ol . 
n\.r eiiannel forming a lake, as in Ihc 
ise of an ox-bow (which seel. 




BAYREUTH 

l.inlo-.L\ .... '. - . - . 

memory the celebrated Wagner Tlleatrt. 
seen here, was built. See Atlas 12. D 4. 





BAZAINE. rRAII(OI> 

French n-jri^ii • •■ 
I., the Pn:v^ i-.i 17 i»- 



BAY TREE. Ihe evergreen Lautus 
nobilis. much used (or ornamenUtion. as 
seen on the right. On the lelt its lejwx 
are illustrated. 




BAYONET CLUTCH. A device lor en. 
saging a loose wheel or pulley with a 
lixed one by projections that act on a 
friction strap. 




BAYONET JOINT. A loint in common 
use, of which we show two examples. 



1 





BAY WINDOW. X >. . ■ 

lir proiection from the wall oi a house. 

Baza. See Atlas S, D i 




I BAIIM. RENE > 

French n,>y.-h^l and c 



BDELLIUM 



IS-.' 



BEAD LIGHTNING 







BDELLIUM. A tarn resin yielded In 
several plants. includinR Balsamoden 
dron nuikul. whose llower we Rive. 
BDELLOMETER. A type ol ciippci! 
nii'.tu'al instrnnient nsed mi Meedinc 




A shmele beach 




Clacton. sanictunes 
sometimes of sand. 



ol pebble.s aiiJ 




BEACH FLEA. A crustacean wi:h a 
compressed body ot tlie order Amphi 
poda. It is also known as sand Ilea. 
sand hopper, and shore iuniper. 




-^^^:.~z 



BEACHY HEAD. A lanious iha!k dill 
over 500 leet hii;h on the Sussex c.jast, .it 
the eastern end of the South Downs, with 
a famous lijhth'ni^e. See Atl.as A. H 6. 




BEACON. A M.;na|.!ir,. -.utli as wjrned 
England oi the Armada's coniinc. 




A 



-•ti- 



BEACON. Any prointnent oti|cct to aci 
.1^ a warninR, as illustrated by the 
heraldic cresset shown here on the left 
:ind the beacon ot a biiov at sea. 




BEACONSFIELO. A Buckin>;haimhirc 
town havini; a-isociations with Disraeli, 
Waller, and Burke. It has this verv 
tine church. 




BEACONSFIELO. EARL OF (1804-81) 
Ben la nun Dusraeli. British statesman 
ind novelist, twice prime minister. 




BEAD. A little ornament tor stringing 
on a necklace. The beads shown here 
are(l, 2) Central American beads of stone 
(5, 4) Bronze Atje (5.6) ancient Egvp- 
lian (7. S) ancient British (9, 10) ancient 
Roman (ii, 12) silver beads of the Iron 
Ai;e (11. 14) prehistoric ivory (15. 16. 
17. l-Si mtidern tvpes. SfcColnw Phi, 




In architecture, any 
mouldintj like these. 







BEAD. A lilobute tor testing the 
\*rcni;th of spirits, each beine numbered 

ivTCordint; to its specific gravity. 
BEAD. The perforated joint ot the stem 

1 a tossil encrinite (left), the bead itself 
I cing shown in section on the rii;ht . 
sometimes called St. Cuthbcrt's bead. 




BEAD AND REEL. A kind ul architv'. 
tural moulding in which oblong beail 
ilternate with discs. 




BEADER. A liaod-tool lor raising a 
tjd pattern on metalware. 




BEAD FURNACE. A drum revwlv.d 
ijver a tire in which glass k:\ iindi.TS 
in which beads are made are rn'jiuK'd. 



BEAD HOOK. An old form ot boathook 
oiten used as a weapon. 





BEAD-HOUSE. Or bede-house, a name 
lor uri old-time altjishouse like this one 
at Stamford. Lincolnshire. 




t:=? 



BEADING. A type of ornamentation 
lur stone or woodwork, the examples 
shown here being (!) angular bead 
(2) large glass bead (3) parting bead 
(4) small glass bead. 




BEADING MACHINE. A nuuhine lir 

impressini; a bead on sheet-metal work. 



The Parish Beadle, by Sir U. Wilkitr 
BEADLE. An official who has various 
duties under different bodies, but now 
figures chietly on ceremonial occasions. 
The unilormed beadles of several famous 
institiitinns :ire se.-n :ii'n\-:> 




BEADLET. A popular name tor tlie 
common sea-anemone. Actinia mesem- 
brvanthemum. We show two kinds. 




BEAD LIGHTNING. A rare lorm ot 
lightniri: havim: .i (.Tinkled appearance 
like a string' of bright beads. 



BEAD LOOM 



183 




BEAD LOOM. A liauze loom lor iiiakiiK' 
beadwark, the threads used bein? strung 
with beads, as seen in the picture. 




BEAO-KiOULO. A iun!:us, here Kreatly 
enlari;ed, luivint; chains of cells so 
arranged as to subtlest a string of beads. 
BEAD MOULDING. A small conve.x 
mo'iKiiiv/ cut into tiie form of a String of 




Old E'.'vptian and Indian u.irl. 



v 







...-■•'V 




Coral bead necklaces 




KatTir bead necklaces 
BEAD NECKLACE. An ornament worn 
practically throughout the world and 
made in an infinite variety of patterns. 



.^.f 



BEAD-PLANE. A type o: fl-im ^.^J 
for cutting a bead decoration . the ed.:e 
of the plane-iron is semicircular. 



\ t.KT\ S IlK i; MVNVS OKI . 



BEAD ROLL. A list of prayers and, 
particularly in pre- Reformation days, a 
list of persons and objects for which 
prayers were offered. 





BEAD SIGHT. A ;;uil (or;sii;ht in wlncli 
a raised bead takes the place of a blade. 
BEADSMAN. A man formerly employed 
to pray for others as seen here ; also a 
dweller in a bead-house or almshouse. 




BEAD-SNAKE. A b.-.iut.i uil> -marked, 
small, and poisonous reptile. Elaps 
fulvius. found in the sweet-potato fields 
of the United States. 



g,-^. 




BEAD-TOOL. A tool used in a lathe 
[or turning' convex niouldinijs. 
BEAD TREE. The pride-ol-lndia, Melia 
azedarach. so called because its nuts, 
here sliowii. are used as rosarv beads. 




BEAD WORK. A lorni ol decoration 
which is very popular for hand-bacs. 



BEAKED HELMET 




BEAGLE. 

-ror:in;: a>*i: u-lM lor niii;*iti,' !ia-', .o.J 

rabbits. As the pace is slow beai;les are 
rollowed on foot. 




BEAGLE. Ai, .„',a -. ..... 

porbea^lle, a .shark found m I 
of the North Atlanti.-. 



BEAK. In I.,', 
Towth n ilu -.i 
■jn-'i till. 
BEAK. Intlrr-. 
( A ) of 1 • 
Ibe I'jfe ; 



■ ;«wl -ji U.t 



'tiro <nik 



tw 



/ 




BEAK. III.- [■.. riled end ..I 
smith's anvil. 




BEAK. A pendant lilL-t tyn the edcc . I 
a larmier, or projeclim; p,irt ol a wall. t. 
form a drip lor water. 




% 



BEAK. A word ni.M''i 

i-ointcd. and so applied t.i if.c bill w -i 

i'ird. This remarkable example is th; 

'•eak of the toucan. 

BEAK. A name lor the point, or Jpe.\. iJ 

,1 hivalvc shell. 




BEAK. The loni; point ol a pecuiijr 
shiv w.^rn from about MT> to l^iO- 



BEAK. An r.;j olor if tti r.»«1t4 
; p ol 1 jar. »» 1- i^ft rt»=ic^rl M 




• EAK. V - .'.. r 
i.*n-i -.- !>: !.--» :- zx*\ 
BEARED AMA. t 




U^ 



BEAKED MELBCT. 

th: Mth c;-t-jr\. :< • 
1 shjf r. iTofcrh'ic rv 



BEAKER 



BEAM COMPASS 




German 16th- Chinese iMi'. 

century century 

BEAKER. A larce drinkinc-vessel 

-.haped like a tumbler and used since 

prohistnric times. 





BEAM. In architecture, a long, squared 
piece of timber extending across a 
buildinv; and restini; on the main walls. 



BEAKER. A ijlass vessel used by 
chemists for makim; solutions, and so on. 




BEAK-HEAD. An urnan-.inl reseml-- 
iin? a bird's head and beak, like these 
carvings in St. Ebbe's. Oxford. 





BEAM. The cruss-rod of a balance 

from llie eiuK "!" uliicit the s.-.tle^ Ii.iik 



BEAK-IRON. An anvil with a lon^: 
beak used for reachim the inside su'- 
laces of sheet-metal ware. Several kinds 
are shown here. 





BEAM. 1... i-y.- ■ ."ii..'.',.' "1 

wagon to which the horses arc harnessed 



BEAK RUSH. Or beak-sedse, a cypera. 
ceous plant of which we show the white 
(left) and brown kinds. 




BEAK SHEATH. ;n entomology, the 
jointed e.\ui;si!j I i ii the labium, encios- 
intr an insect's mouth organs. 
BEAK WATTLE. The large wattle 
lound at the base of the beak in some 
pigeons, such as the carrier 




BEAiYl ipainled). A beam in a church 
iir old huildin; painted with designs. 
Such beams are common in Brittany. 
Beam, White. See White beam. 




BEAM BIRD. A name given to the 
spotted llycatcher because it often nests 
among rafters. 




BEAM BOARD. The platlorm of a 
Sieel-yard or balance, sometimes called 
a beam platform. The one shown is 
made f-v W. T Averv. Ltd. 



BEAM. h. ^u;i:ery, .1 buard on which 
Skins are laid for shaving. 



BEAM. In lace-making a mg wooden 
culler on to which the thread is wound 
trom bobbins for weaving : in weaving 
a wooden roller on which the web is 
rolled as it is woven, here seen in 
front of the loom. 




BEAM CALLIPER. An instrument like 
.1 ceam-compass (which see below), but 
with the points turned in. 




BEAM COMPASS. A metal or wooden 
beam with sliding sockets, as here shown, 
to which are attached points lor drawing 
very large circles and arcs 



BEAM-ENDS 



185 




BEAM-ENDS. Wli-n a ship is lyinc; 
almost flat on her side she is described 
as beinjr on her beam-ends, as shown in 
this picture of a wreck left stranded at 
low tide. 




BEAM ENGINE. A lyp.' ut steam- 
encrine in which the thrust of the piston 
is transmitted to the crank by an over- 
head beam workini; on a fulcrum. 




BEAM FEATHER. The lon^ leather ol 
a bird's wins extending to the tip, as 
illustr.Tted in this pictur; of .1 chatfi;^i:h"s 




BEAMING. The shavin 
a beam knife in tanr^iivj 




BEAMING MACHINE. A machine 




BEAMINSTER. A neat Uttle Dorset 
t(twn with this V2ry handsome church. 



:t- 




BEAM KNIFE. A kind used by tanner 

:or stiaviiii; hides. 




BEAM LINE. I he jnside line iit the she), 
ot a ship where the cross beams are fixed. 




BEAM SCALE. ;•,■ in which Ihe rails 
for holding wei.tihts and load han.? from 
a beam. 




BEAM TRANSMISSION. A system ul 
wireless teleicraphv bv which messages, 
instead of beini; broadcast cenerally. 
are sent in one direction only, as if 
.lion? a beam. We show here the 
earliest beam station, at North Pether- 
ton. Somerset. 




^v:^ 



'^ 



BEAM TRAWL. A heavy trawl nil 
with the m.iuth kept open by a beam. 
Beam Tree. See Whitebeam. 




BEAM TRUSS. A wooden beam 
strencthened I', a tie-rod in the centre. 



BEAU coou 




Li.»ll»U.l.t,.v.. „ 



The seeds beitin t-^ ■.;erni;r..! 



1»*? 



Kin)lS lore,' t'-T 




W.i slK^>ts app:.' 
BEAN. A bis and useful limily o< 
plants, includins the famililr brvvid 
bean and French or runner bem. the 
seed-pods beins »n importint fond- 
stuff. In the lower pictures slices in the 
crowth of the runner bean are seen. 





BEAN APKII. 



BEAN 


CAKE. 


r^!^^^;J 


rrii* . 


rrcurJ 


' -J' : u". - 






■:^ 




^ .1 



BEAN CAPER. 

f'rr\iJ. »-.!' 



Bean Criki. 
BEAN CUTTER 



\-->.':Ur'irv, i-.J ■ 




BEAN DOLPHIN 




BEA"* 

Tnirkicto oo its tiP 



BEAN LADYBIRD 



isr> 



BEARD 




BEAN LADYBIRD. An American bean 
pest, Epilachna corrupt a, shown here 
with its pupa (centre) and larva (lefti 
and an exanipte of the daniat;e it does. 




BEAN LEAF BEETLE. A beetle which 
leeds on the foliai;e of the bean and pea 
in the United States. The larva, shown 
below, feeds on the stems and roots. 
BEAN MILL. A machine for .t^rlndin? 
beans into flour or meal. 




BEAN PODS. \ heraldic chariie dis 
pla\injj tliree bean pods on the shield. 
BEAN POT. A pot with layers ci 
dressing, compost, and crocks in whic! 
to raise dwarf beans. 




BEAN SHELLER. A machine specially 
designed for shellinir beans by passini; 
them between cnrru-^ated rollers. 



m 



u 

#-4, 



"^-. 



*r}^ 



BEAN TREE. A name Kiven to tlie 
liuiiaii bean, or cataipa, a North 
American tree bearins; pyramidal 
clusters of flowers, shown here. 




^T^- 



BEAN TREFOIL. The name Riven to 
several trees as the Spanish anagyris, 
whose leaves and flowers we show. 
BEAN WEEVIL. A species o( weevil. 
Sitones lineatus, which devours the 
leaves of peas and beans. 




/■ 




*«- •- 



A youni; polar bi-ar of the icy Arctic rcRions 




Indian sloth bear 





American black bear 



Malay bear 





Himalayan bear 



l^ali.lhuL l:c.ii 



BEAR. A big and interesting family of animals found chiefly in the Northern 
Hemisphere and usually thickly furred. Th<: chief species are shown in these pictures. 



WJQ 






BEAR. A heraldic charge displaying a 
i car walking. 

BEAR. A bo.x loaded with stones 
which is sometimes drawn up and down 
a ship's deck to clean it. 

Bear (astronomy). See Ursa. 




BEAR ANIMALCULE. A general term 
lor minute arachnids found in Arctic 
waters. The one shown is the Arctisa, 
sometimes called water-bear. 





f 












.ff^f»j^i A. 


^•i 


|i 


iSLj 


-If^ 


^ 


- M 


JAH 


fLw 


1 


r /iii?\^ 


r. ^mJi 



BEAR-BAITING. A h.uh;iruus sport, 
in u hicli dogs were set against a chained 
liear, practised in England up to 1835, 
when It was made illegal. 
Bearbane. See Wolfs-bane. 




BEARBERRY. A plant represented in 
I'.iil.iin hy the red-berried kind (right) ; 
Mti thf left is the l''l.u"k Alpine speoies, 

nr Alpnu' s!i-,r. I 'M ■ 




BEAR CAT. Ihe pu^ ^..uue of the 

liinturung. a civet-like animal of 
.Southern Asia with tufted ears and 
I'Hig, bushy tail. 




Napoleon III Edward VII 

BEARD. The hair on men's chins. 
Here some of the styles of beards worn 
in a period of about 3000 years are illus- 
trated in the portraits of six famous men. 



BEARD 



BEABING CLOTH 




BEARD. A name for a comet's taii. 
the word comet meaning lonii-haired. 
We show here the comet ot 18S2, but 
the comet of 1843 was much liner an^f 
is supposed to have had a tail 150 
million miles long. 



BEARDSL^ Y il.S;j-0SK A" 

hn-lish ., his mastery 01 

line work ji. t,.,: -I: _;;uii. 
BEARD TONGUE. The Enjihsh name 
lor l'entstenu>n (which see), many kmds 
of whicli are i;rown in gardens. 



BEARINS. The part ol an arch .< 
heani whicli rests upon a support. 



• EARIN6 CLOTH. - - 



BEARING REIN 



iss 



BEATITUDES 




Thr cruel rtin The humane rem 
BEARING REIN. The rein which, by 
a cruel practice, is lastencd to the bit 
and passed to the check-hook to keep 
the horse's head up and give a smart 
appearance. 
Bear Kiand. See Atlas 33, 17. 





BEAR JUG. A )ui shaped like a bear. 

lik.- tliis example ol Nottingham ware. 

BEAR'S HEAD. A common charge on 

an heraldic shield 

BSarn. See Atlas, France. 

Bear Pig. Same as Balisaur (which see' 

Bear's Foot. See Hellebore. 



f 





BEATER PRESS. A kind of press iii 
which bales are beaten and comr' - I 
into a smaller bulk bv a falling w . i 




BEATIFICATION. In the Hiim:ii 
(..ithulic Clinrcli, the cerenmny preced 
ing canonisation and declaring a persoi 
Messed. We show Joan of Arc's beat, 
licaticin in St. Peter's. Rome, in luci'). 



BEARSKIN. A high, black fur head- 
dress worn at ceremonies by the Foul 
Guards ot the British Army. 
BEARWOOD. A kind ol buckthorn. 
Rhamiui^ purshiana. found on the 
Pacilu- i-M't "t \...-ti, «,...-i.-' 





BEATING ENGINE. A machine wit 
nit.iting cutters (or preparing rags : 
paper. niakirv.',. 
BEATING HAMMER. A hammer uSl 

Ml shapini; thj backs of books. 



^w 




they 

niter r 

'■■i 


who hunger and thirst 
ghteousness 


■ 


%■ 


i 


t 






0» 







blessed are the pure m lu' 






BEATER. Anyone, like these boys, 
employed to rouse and drive game in 
shooting. 



BEATING THE BOUNDS. An old 

tnglish custom which still persists in 
many places. These pictures show 
choir-boys of St. Clement Danes, Lon- 
don, beating the parish bounds by the 
Ihames I5mbankment. 





Blessed are tli 



^oecuteil 



Blessed are tlie peacemakers, lor they u,,^.,...,, ». ^ ...-,. - 

shall be called the children of God lor righteousness 

BEATITUDES. The blessings in the Sermon on the Mount, recorded in the fifth 
chapter of Saint Matthew F.ight of them are illustrated here. 



BEATITUDES 



ISO 



BEAOTV AND THE BZAST 




BEATITUDES. We give the lie.itituJes 
on the preceding paije. This picture shmvs 
Jesus deliveriiilitlie Sermon on the Mimnt. 




BEATON, CARDINAL 1U04-1546). 
Prinijt_- 't ^ci'tl.nul under Jjmes \' 
' ' ' ( 1.1 tlie French aUianc.^. 



r 


-^ 


3 


A 




^ 


m 


g^h 


i-l'^ 






w jPt-'ut'^t '/ 


1 


i 


1 


% 



BEATTY, EARL lb. 1.S71)- Cumnianjer 
of the British lU-et in the Great War. 
BEAU. A name for a dandy, cspociafly 
in tlie iSth century, when dandyism 
was at its heiiiht. 
Beau Brummell. See BruninieM. 




BEAUCAIRE. A line .m^. . .. 
on the lower Rlione. its castle 
here shown. See Atlas 7. H ^. 
Beauchamp Chapel. " '" 



rums are 
■ck. 




BEATRICE. Ill-- oelMVed .it baiu.'. lde.^.;^ca l'> lii ,.,,.. ... ;.... 

famous paintim; in Liverpool Art Gallery Henry Holliday has^im.isined them inectini; 
in Florence, iieatrice beint: in white "" " ^' '" "' "" ' "^^ '"' ' ' " 



When they first met Dante was onlv nine 




BEATRICE. The chief woman charac- 
ter, witty but affectionate, in Shake- 
speare's Much Ado About NothinR. 




BEATRICE STOVE. A familiar and 

!i.ind\ tnrin "f household oil-stove. 
BEATTIE, JAMES(1735-I«03). Scottish 
philosopher and poet. 




BEAUCHAMP TOWER. I.nt ol flu 
Tower of London ni which many famous 
people were inipnscnieJ. the inner walls 
beins covered with their inscriptions. 



BEAUCHIEF. A vilLn;e near Miel.ieid, 
with this church, which includes pari 
of a I2th-centurv abbey. 




BEAUFORT, CARDINAL ij. |.;^,, 
Henry IV's half. brother, one o( the chlci 
statesmen of llenrv \'l\ brtyhood. 
BEAUFORT, Dl/KE OF l|(il6-//». 

! ran.;ois de Vendome, one of the leader' 
"i the Fronde in France. 




BEAUFORT, MARGARET till t-.rt,. 

'lenry Vll's mi'ther, who enddwej 

*.lirist's and St. John's Colleires at 

L.imbriJ'^.-. 

Beiutort Sea. See Atlas 2S, D I. 

Beaufort West. S.e \tbs :r,. D .H. 




BEAUFOY, MARK M:oi fs.::! 
I ii'.;lish astrnnomer. 
Beaugency. See Ati.is 7. P t 
BEAUHARNAIS, EUGENE OE i:sl 

IS ■:) \.ip..le. Ill's steps.. 11. 
Beauharnais, Hor1en»« de. '-le ll.rt.m 





BEAULIEU ABBEY. A reautuui 

..istercian abbev in Hampshire. Pro- 
11 .loiced Rewlev. 






^ 



BEAUMARCHAIS, PIERRE i-- 

l-.i.i The lann.us French draniJOst 
who wri.te rii: I'.u" r f S.-v:.- irj 
The .Marriaije 




BEAUMONT, mANCr. 
I Uc ^.■lc^f jlt J ; .^1 

■it., ifc r '? - %■*•! ' ^ - 




BCAUnONT COLLCet 




BEAUIKOIIT-NAMII. 








BEAU PtRUKI. k 






A 







# 



. BEAUTV 
BEAUMARIS CASTLE. 
hold bmit bv Fdw.ird 1 at Beauniins I l.> 
(See Atlas -i.C .■>. Anclcsey iXXX)), " stir 



V 1 



BEAUTY 



100 



BEAVER 




Hart ot a beaver dam 
BEAVER. A large water rodent found 

HI Nurtli America and rarely in northern 
tiurope and Siberia. Its dams, built of 
trees, are triutnphs of skill and industry. 




Carnation Lily Lilv Rose — by Sarcent Master Hare — by Reynolds 

BEAUTY, The quality or combination ol qualities in a face or a lorm, or in 
Nature, or in any object which delichts the siyhl or the mind. These pictures 
show the conception of beauty m human lorm by master artists. 



BEAVER. A heraldic renreseitation of a 
b;aver used as a Charlie on a coat of- arms. 
BEAVER. An old-fasliioned hat made 
oricrinally of beaver fur and later of 
heavy cloth. 



BEAVER 



\;*P^ 


H^f^ 



BEAVER. The movable chin-piece oi a 
helmet, usually kept lowered, but raised 
to protect the lace in battle. 
BEAVERBROOK, LORD (b. 1S79). An 
Anirlo-Canadian newspaper owner, head 
of the Ministry of Information in i US. 




BEAVER RAT. Thcf \ 
rat, seen here, whuse i'-u .- .,..-.■. uii 
the back and yellow underneath ; also 
the North American musquash, or 
musk-rat {which see). 




BEAVER ROOT. The yellow water-lily, 
Nuphar luteum, a favourite food of 
the beaver. 

BEAVER TREE. A name tor the sweet 

bay, .Mai^nolia s'lanea. a native of 




BEBEL, FERDINAND (iS40-19t3). 
German socialist, one of the founders of 
the Social Democratic party. 

BEC. A term for the mouthpiece of a 
wind instrument ; also called becco. 



^ 




BECARRE. A term used in music for 
the cancel or natural sign, as illustrated 

above. 

Becasse. See Woodcock. 

BECCA. The beak, or point, ot a kind 

of hood worn in the Middle Afi:es. 




BECCLES. IJne ot the chiel mark.-I 
to«nsot Suflolk, on the Waveney (7200). 
Becco. See Bee 



1 



e\dl war 



BEC OE CORBIN. I „^ ,i,.u 

hammer, which had cither an iron 
handle or one sheathed with iron. 




BtCHE DE MER. The trepan?, or sea- 
cucumber. Hnlothuria, some species 
ol which are eaten by the Chinese. 



:^^m^ 





BCCCET 



BECK. ; .. .. UM a. -M w.<M. 

-inint; a small stream and occurrtnt 
manv Entrlish place-names. 
8ECK, ADOLF. A victim o( mistaken 
identity who in lOO* received k500<") 
compensation for false imrrisnnment. 





f 



BECHUANALAND. A large liritish South Alrican protectorate cuvcnns i: 
s.!uare miles and containinj much ol the Kalahari Desert. It has a populiti. 
nf only 152,000, and is administered troni Mateking. Cape Province. Our picti: 
shows a bi? native villacc. See also Atlas 26. D 6 




BECK. 

water mcidww :-.car a L'.Cf, ■ r iTu.'k. 
o( this meadow aliove the bndce. 




BECK. A tool ol the mattock *vpe used 
in dressms turnips 




BECKENHAM. A rLj-.lnt r.-Mje^lu 
Nulnirt' on the Kentish trmcf -^i LonJ.^r 
Here the parish church is sten 




BECKER. A hsh olten Clli;,) 'i^; i'l-r 

■' tlu' sea-breanu. 





SECKET. A metal ■. :.'" 

ol a rullcv blivk .a '-' ■ 

a rope handle lor a tub ■' -■'•■ ^-c'-n 
ol rope with m t\c and a kit.'>t il the 
other end lor bolJmc spars toectha 



ITk t»!»>» »f£««»<<*' ct cjatil :• I 
•IK. thwirti-J Mcar^ II »»J •«» •»- 
JereJ mil:* c*ifct*»l Unt-'^natttamt 
a lamcoi p »c» « p»tn»»rf 



BECKET LINE 



in2 



BEDE 




BECKET LINE. A n.pe provided with 
a loop m tlu- middle to enable it to be 
fastened round an ot^ject. 

BECKFORD, WILLIAM (1760-1814). 
The author of Vathek. an amazing 
Eastern romance published in 17S7. 




:!f 









BECKMANN'S APPARATUS. A device 
for determinini: molecular \vei,'lits, the 
type shown here beinii for use by the 
freezing-point method ; Beckmann's 
thermometer (right), with a milk-glass 
scale and a metal cap. is used for the 
same purpose. 





BECQUE. A term niL'aiiiug beaked, 
used of an heraldic bird with a beak of a 
distinct colour. 

BECQUEREL, ALEXANDRE 11S20-91). 
A French physicist noted for his re- 
searches in electricity and light. 




BECQUEREL, ANTOINE CESAR |178S 

1S7S). A great French :i\;thority on 
electricity and niai^netisni. 

BECQUEREL, ANTOINE HENRI (18S2- 

190S). Famous French physicist. 




BECUNA. A large European pike-like 
fish, Sphyraena. yielding a substance 
used in making artificial pearls. 




BED. A thick piece of wood placed 
under the quarter of casks in a ship's 
hold to relieve pressure. 




iiuMitary rock having another laye 
if the .same kind on one or both sides. 




BED. A pl.t ..I soil prepared 
tlouers or vegetables. 




BED. An alternative name for the 
channel of a river. 




BED. 

which 



The heavy base or platform 
machine is fixed. 




BEDALE. A qui.t old town in tlu- 
Yorkshire North Riding, with a line 
medieval church, seen here fl200). 



BED CRADLE. A framework for sup 
till;: ,1 br.,kcn lei; that has been set 





BED BATH. A vessel of earthenware, 
riihher, or japanned tin. used in hospitals 
and elsewhere for washing patients 
who must remain in bed. 
BED BUG. An offensive insect, Cime\ 
lectularius, which is a nocturnal pest 
in dirtv houses. 





BED CHAIR. A chair that can !• 
.idiusted for use as a bed, as illustraK.i 

in tlu- ri'.^ht-hand pictur.'. 




BEDCHAfHBER, LORD OF THE. A 

in.inbci" of the ro\ al household who is .1 
persnii.il attendant of the sovereign. 
This picture shows a scene in the bed- 
chamber of Louis XIV. 




BED. One 

Saxon king 



of the most familiar pieces of furniture We show here a bed used by 
of England as contrasted with the kind seen in the home today. 



BEDDGELERT. -\ noted beauty spot 
ill the Su'jwduu rej;ion of North Wales. 




BEDDING, fhe furniture of a bedstead : 
l^ol-t.rs. mattresses, and so on. 




Small beds of 
ith varying slopes. 
chaiK'iiig curreats. 



— ^^*^w?5S?*''. "^iP" 



V,. 



>.-.:.• tirv. 




BEDDING PLANE. The plane t>r 
t rat ill cut inn in sedinuMitary rocks, as 
It'll lu-re in tlie Cnlur;ul(j canyons where 

liiL- strat;i He ll.it iipdii I'uch other. 




BEDDING PLANT. Any plant stiitahU- 

tnr tH-ildmi; Dut in gardens in summer. 
The pi. lilts here are c;\!ceohirias. 
BEDDOES, THOMAS L. (IS03 49) The 

auth(ir of Some clKirriii'it: Ivrics. 




BEDE, THE VENERABL 

735). A learned monk of 
writings are the chief li 
Saxon history. Hs is here 



E labuut 073- 
J arrow whose 

ight on early 
seen teaching. 



BEDEGUAR 



BSD MOinoorc 




BEDFORD MODERN SCHOOL 



BEDFORD. The carital of Bedlord ^„^ _ 

shire, on the Great Ouse. It has a BEDFuku ^v^w ^^ _j,^ ^1^, .^,,,^, 

statue of Bunyan who preached there | '|^ - --i^ j(^„a school. 
(40,000). See Atlas 4, G 4. i'"^' 



days to k.cei' oii draufhts- 



Si^.'^B^J 'ai^*«^"'»««""* "*'*** 



BEE 



BED OF JUSTICE 





BED OF JUSTICE. "',"■';■•, ,, 
whidi the Ir.MKii kins sat »lu-n 1. 
at ended a Parliamentary sitting. 




>(.. '■**»' 



BED PLATE. The Inundation plate on 
,.,l,uh a inacliine stands, as shown here 
Bed Rest. S. :■ Huk ' -I- 



^^"'--r 



BED OF WARE. A huge l";li--rc«'" 
urth-centurv bedstead former y at thu 

\ 5 



but now at RyL .-.,.,,, , 
tioned m Tvveltth Nialit HI 2 



W 




Bedonin women ol Ei^ypt 



IV.-Jimin warn 




BEDROOM. A sleepini; Chamber L.ul 
Bviou'-, bedroom at Newstead Abb.^ 
is shown in this picture. 




lied settee closed 





Bed settee opened 
BED SETTEE. An ingenious piece of 
furniture which serves as a settee by day 
and as a bed hy niaht. 






Old four-poster bedstead 



Bedside table 



liook bed table 





Simple bed table 

lied warmer St. Bee 

BED TABLE. A bandv table for use by 
MCk people in bed. We show three kinds. 
Beiltick. See Mattress. 
BED WARMER. A metal pan to con- 
i.nn h.d coals for wanmnR the bed. 
BEE ST. (d. 660>. An Irish saint who 
worked in Cumbria. This picture is 
roni a stained-elass window inCleator 
church, near Egremont. Cumberland. 




ll^' 



W^ 



^\ 



Modern metal bedsteads 
BEDSTEAD. A familiar thing in the 
l,„,„e which in the old days was often 
daborate but is now much more simple. 



[0:^^^%'' 






i-'i- 




Male bee ni dr> 



BED STEPS. Steps to a couch. In 
ancient times couches were often so 
high that steps were needed to climb on 
to them. 

BEDSTONE. The lower millstone be- 
tween which and the upper stone the 
grain was ground to flour. 




Queen l-ee 



BED SOCK. f=oot-covering of fluhy 
wnni for wear in cold weather. 
BEDSPREAD. Any kind of quilt or 
counterpane, as seen here. 





Pupae 



(ireat hedge 



Rough 







liedouui tents in Sinai 
BEDOUIN. The nomadic and warliki 
\»ao folk of the desert. 



rt 



BED STAFF. A kind of stick once 
used for smoothing beds, as shown in 
this picture from a French manuscript 
of the 15th century 




Smooth heath Rough marsh 

BEDSTRAW. The English name for 
plants of the Galium genus, of which 14 
kinds occur in Britain, six being shown. 



Bees on the honeycomb 
BEE. An insect which rivals the ant in 
industry and cleverness and supplies 
vast quantities of honey to man. Here 
are some ol the forms and stages of the 
common honey bee, which is found m 
almost every country of the world. 



BEE-APRON 



ior> 




BEE-APRON.- A kind of apron used 
by hee-keepers. 





BEE-BEETLE. A red and blue Euro- 
pean species, Trichodes apiarius, which 
destroys the honey-bee's larvae. 
BEE-BIRD. A name sometimes given 

lo the spotted flycatcher. 




BEE-BLOCKS. In saihng ships, Dlocks 
bolted on either side of the bowsprit- 
head for takin<r the fore-topmast stays. 




BEE'BREAD. The pollen which bees 
■ itlier ti> he stored in cells. 




BEE-CART. \ 

!■ ^:■s are i;i .. j. 



\ehiclHi in which 
on a bee farm. 







BEECHAM, SIR JOSEPH (lS4b-lyli,, 
\ tiiianciLT who used :i lortune made in 
the pill trade lurxely in the interests ut 
music. On the rii;ht is his son, Sir 
Thnmas Beecham fh. l.'<70>, famous a-; 



BEECHER, HENRY WARO il^lj S7] 
A farniius Anit:ric;iM Con^reeational 
preacher ;uid anti-shivery worker. His 
father, Lyman Beecher (1775-tS63). 
also a famous preacher, is on the richt 




BEECHEY, FREDERICK W. K' 

1S50}. All .Arcti.: L,\pK.if:-r who iiccun;- 
panied and described I ranklin's expc 
dition in ISIS. 

BEECHEY, SIR WILLIAM (I753-1S30) 
An Ernjlish pnrtr.iit p.iintcr who sent 

^'iO portraits tM \h- Ki.val Academy. 



m 




BEECH FERN. The EncHsh name ul 

fern of th,- I'hei.'i>pteris senns. 




BccrcAm 



* Cj^Bbhs I 



Leaves 



ituil 



BEECH. 

:Teyish b 



f lov^ers 
A handsome British lorest tree, f ajus sylvatica, known by its smooth, 
i-k and Kracelul foliasre Other species have been introduced trom ahr.n 1 




BEECH'FINCH. .\ name v>metime» 

"v.-n v< IP, i-|.;:ti-;:h ^-rii n-r.-. 




'^ 



<* 



BEECH-FUNGUS. An cdirle paraiil;. 
Cyttana da-winn, of cvcri;rcen beech. 
BEECH-GALL. A kind ol call found «n 



BEE-EATtR 

rJi m.-. , ■ 



( ( 




BEECH-HOPPER. \ 

la;;i, ul;:.h .iltack, I'.-^eh ti.,j. 
BEECHING, HENRY C. IISS<>-I9I<>I 
Dean of .N.jrwich rjll. and a prominent 
criii^\ espvia'lv of poetry. 





BEEkM-IMAni tN. A buror-a ' • 
Wusteta foina. also called stone mart: 



a»SV 



/ 





BEECH-MAST. I 

111,' l-ecch Ire.- ir, 
.i:nai!U'd. Lach 
called a be.-ch nut. 




.Li 



BEECH dOTH. A srecn .x nvM.1 
WHO.,; larvae feed on the btecti toliKC 
ae«ch-NuL S;; Beccnmist 
BMCh Owl. See Bro»-n otri 






I v.-'-i- ■•■ •-- 

l,( ; J.t J ^r- — 1- 
hlrc >w •'t't "i 






BEEFEATER 



I ()(> 



BEEROTH 





BEEFEATER. Or ox-pecker, an Afri- 
can bird which perches on cattle and 

picks botfly larvae from their hides. 
BEE-FLY. A fly which enters beehives 
and was once thouijht to cause foul- 
hrond. This is the Mack and white bee-fly. 




BEEF MOULD. A tin of enamelled iron 
in whi^li i-la-mode beef is cooked. 
BEEFSTEAK. A large funRus, Fistu. 
Una hepatica, which attacks standing 
trees through the bark. The flesh re- 
sembles meat in appearance. 




BEEFSTEAK PLANT. A plant with 
leaves of the colour of raw beefsteak, 
like Evans's bc^'onia. shown here. 




BEEF SUET TREE. A shrub ot the 
United Stiites, Shepherdia argentea, 
belonging to the oleasters. 
BEEFWOOD. A type of Australian tree 
ol the Casuarina kind. Here its fruil 
and leafless branch are shown. 




BEE GARDEN. An enclosed space re- 
served for beehives and sometimes 
planted with selected flowers 




BEE GLOVE. A glove extending far 
up the arm as a guard against stings. 




BEE-HAWK. A bird also known as the 
bmwM bci- hawk and honey buzzard, 
Pern is apivnrus, feeding mainly cm 
bees and wasps. 




BEE HAWK MOTH. A name t;iveii i 
LLTt.iin iiiiitlis lit the i^enus Macroglo^ -.1 
(ti the Sphingidae order, supposed t' 
resemble bees. This is the broaJ 

hnrderfd varjetv. 




BEEHIVE. A home for a swarm. Old 
beehives were domed and generally ol 
basketwork or straw, as shown on the 
left, but those used nowadays are of 
manv shapes and usually of wood. 
Beehive (astronomy). See Cancer. 





BEEHIVE. A heraldic representation 

(it a beehive used as a charge on a coal 

of-arms. 

BEEHIVE HOUSE. A prehistoric type 

• >i stcne hut without mortar found 
notably in the Hebrides. 




BEEHIVE KILN. A round up-dralt 
kiln "I "!tl- fashioned beehive shape : 
used by potters for burning china aiui 
other ware. 




BEEHIVE OVEN. An old (orm of re- 

iiiri fnr producing metallurgical coke. 
BEEHIVE TOMB. A kind of tomb use-i 
tor royal burials in very ancient times 
m Greece, a famous survival beinc 
the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae, of 
which we show an interior section. 




lor hives. In 
beehives are 
standing on 
, containing a 
tacks bv ants. 




BEE-KEEPER. Une who attends to 
bees. Scientific bee-keeping needs a 
great amount of attention and the 
uKulern bee-keeper is constantly at work 
at his hiyes. 
Bee Kite^ See Honey buzzard. 




BEELEIGH ABBEY. 

pa;t i.i .1 1 Mil .-jiUury niciiastf 

r 



-dSfcSii^U^f 



y.l. 




BEE LINE. A ttrili mj.uiiM'^ llu' 
shurtesl routt;. derived from the struiylit 
ilii;ht (if the hee. 




BEE MARTIN. A name for the Ameri- 

c.in kinrbifJ, or tyrant flycatcher. 




BEt MOTH. 0, wax moth, a kind 
which lays its eggs in beehives, the 
larvae on hatching-out feeding on the 
wa.x. as seen in the right-hand picture. 



¥ 




BEE NET. A net of line mesh worn over 
the liead and shoulders as a protection 
by bee-keepers. 




BEE NETTLE. A name tor the cunimon 
hemp nettle, of which this is the large- 
lliiwered kind. 

BEE ORCHIS. A British species of 
nrchis found on chalky soil, with a 
pwer raiher like a hovering b'-' 




BEERBOHM, MAX (b. IS?^). A famous 
ninLKTii fiiiglish caricaturist, noted also 
,is a dramatic critic and essayist, and 
li'i his satirical novels. 
Beer Float. See Hvdrometer. 



^"i 


**,. 


) 


- "^ 


;>-;■.--.:*■• 


■ .v--> 


J 


^^^.y,- •r:,.i :■ 


'.m-:' 


-1 


[y^'l-y - ..:-v.v *..;•-, 


mm^. 


U 


^r:'"p-'M 




n 




i, 




, - ^-^J 


1) 



BEER GARDEN. Ail n|;<eil-:iir rdsnrt 
for hcer drinkers such as is common in 

sniithLTii Cicrnuiny. 




BEEROTH. A ruined city ■'! 
tine, menlioncd in Joshua XVlll. 



BEERSHEBA 



197 




BEERSHEBA. A I lun near the south 
cm border tjt Palestine. "From Dan to 
Beersheba " is a phrase meaning tli 
whole length of the land. AtUis 3S, B fio. 




BEE SMOKER. A device used by bee- 
keepers in snmkinii out bees. 
BEE STING. The bee's weapon which, 
when Itii^hly masnified, as here, is seen 
to be heavily barbed. 




9 
1 


/■• > 


i 




,s^,^'iy 


^M 


1 


i^^-^:]^ 


m 



BEE SWARM. A urc.it duster . 
emiijratini' tn niakij a new Iiliiik*. 




BEESWAX. A wax-hke Mibstaric se- 
creted by hive-be^s to form honey cells. 



W^i' 'i:-!^*' 





Beetroot Sugar beet 

BEET. A valuable root containing much 
sugar, the chief varieties being the red- 
fleshed kind, used in salads, and white- 
fleshed sugar-beet. See also Sea-beet. 




BEET APHIS. A very h.irmful sugar- 
beet pest, of which we show the winged 
and wingless female and antenna. 




BEET ARMY WORM. A moth larv.l 
attacking sugar. beet, weeds, and grasses. 
Here are the ninth, larva, egg, and (on 
lefl) the larva's head. 



m^ 



t \ 



BEET CARRION BEETLE. A carrion 

eatina; bct'tU', whose larva, seen below 
it, eats su[;;ir-beet le.ives. On the right 
is the beet fly, whose larva is another 

enemv of Tuirnr-beet. 




BEETLE. A iicjv> n.^Jii. 
driviii'^' stak<:^ anj so on. 




BEET LEAF BEETLE. A irejl nc 
of the sui^'ar-bect industry m wciicr 
U.S.A., shown with its cfjv'S ami larva 





BEET LEAF HOPPER. Another 

American siil;.u i^j.t pc^t. 




BEET LEAF MINER. An insect «h04.* 
larva ravui^-es beet leaves. It is shown 

with if; ;v'p:i fV"-;M ;tnd l.irv.i. 



BEETLINQ MACi 





BEET PRti- 

tt'tTt \t.e ^.•ft rj'P 
Bitlrftdt. 



0O 



BEET ROOT-ArMU. 

ei' t^f I*' » "•» J.I*'- . 



BEETHOVEN, LUDWIG VAN (I770-IS2;). One ul llie « r;j > ,ij.,: 
p.lser^, born ;it iHinii. (Ml the right he is seen playing in .^^o^a^l■s h-'use. 




amilv of insects 
:cies." Some of 
here shown in 
e various kinds 
« Colour Phil 



^<*^^^^-^ '. 



BEETLE CLIFF. A ,i 

ieCt.n:: t"i- -h;,.-: . - 




BEETLEHEAD. A 

which bv i!s l-l.-ws d; 
BEETLE STONE. A r.odu!; ol ccrro 
litic ironstone, which, when broken 
shows J coprolitc rcsemhlinj a btellc. 



.MS tet- 



BEE-WOLF 



1!1S 



BEJA 




BEGGAR'S OPERA. A musical dr.i 
hy Gay, tiist produced in 172S. Ilsr^ 1 
a scene illustrated liy C. Loval Fras;! 



3tG0m. \;i Indian Moslem princess, 
i;,c l.^^uiii of Bhopal. seen here 



BEID-EL-SA1. A medicinal 

the milkweed lamilv. 

BEILBY, SIR GEORGE T. (|S50-1''24) 

A noted Scottish lii.-l experl 



BEJA. An old Portuguese cathedial city 
with remains o( Roman walls (10.0001. 
See Atlas S C 2 



BEJUCO 



1!W 



uB«n 




BE LA. 

Arabian 



1 he Hiildustam name ol the 
jasmine, Jasminum sambuc. 



of which we show the leaves and flower. 



The busy streets ol B.-llast and wh.irves by the L.KJ i 
BELFAST. Capital ot Northern Ireland. It has famous shirbuiljins »nj Imrn 

trades (390.000). " 



See Atla^ 6. F 2. 



; T ■■'■ i fv».ij" 
:• irchf^. 
■ELFRT TUKRET 

to h-^^j*; 5 ^f ■- 



BELGAE 



200 



BELL 




BELGAE. .iiple who oiKi; 

Mitries and from 
whom IJtfl.iiium ^ut iu name. They are 
liere shown buying goods from traders. 



LLL. 




BELGENLAND. A 2-,lj2 t..:i Unti-li 
iiiier. 670 feet Ions, built for tlie Red 
Star line in 1917. 




A Street in Bels'rade 
BELGRADE. Capital of Yugo-Slavia. 
at the junction of the Save and Danube 
M20.ono). Atlas 14, B 2. 




BELGIANS. Ihe industrious people ot the kingdom of BelRium, who in Flanders 
commonly speak Flemish, but in the east are mainly French-speakinff Walloons, 
lor Belgium and also the Belgian Congo see Atlas 10. and 25, G 5. 







BELGRAVE SQUARE. I: . 

the fashionable London district 
Bekravia. laid out 1825-35. 




BELIN, EDOUARD. I Iu Frenchman 

ulii. !irst sent \^ritinl; by wireless. 
BELINSKY, VISSARIdN (1.Stn-4.S). 

I nuiuler of !iterar\ crtticisni in Russia. 




BELISARIUS {505-565). A i;reat 

Byzantine genetal who signally de- 
feated the Vandals, Goths, and Bul- 
garians. An unfounded lecend is that 
he had to beg his children's bread in his 
old age. as iniaeined in this picture. 




BELISARIUS, PALACE OF W ii.ie Beli- 
sarius perhaps lived m Constantinople. 




BELIZE. The capital .jf Briti.sh Hon- 
duras, exporting mahoganv, bananas. 
<:ul inrt<.iseshell /I ; 000). Atlas it, B 1. 




Chinese bell, 1S39 




Church bell 


Hand bell 




Sacring Bicycle Table 

BELL. A hollow, cup-like metallic 
vessel for givin? forth a sound when 
struck. The numbered parts in the 
first picture arc (1) ear (2) barrel 
(3) sound-bow (4) rim (5) tongue 



BELL 



BELL CXJfTRE PUNCH 




BELL. Ill architecture, the budy ut ■ 
Corinthian or composite capital apurt 
from the surroundine folia-re. 




BELL (Of polyp).. The swimmini; disc 
■ 'I Jellyluh, anil so oil. 

BELL, ALEXANDER GRAHAM (1S17- 
1922). The famous Sccttish- American 
scientist who invented the first practical 

telephone in IS7^, 



BELL, ill iii:,ni\. a i^eii-siiaped liouer 
IT corolla, as shown hire. 




BELL, ANDREW (1753-1S32). The 
lirst superintendent of the Ani>lican 
society for the education of the poor. 
He invented the pupil teacher system. 

BELL. SIR CHARLES (I774-IS42). 
The Scottish anatomist who lirst dis- 
tinijuished between the sensory and 
motor nerves of the brain. 



BELLAGGIO. t)ne n| the prettict 
resorts on the Italian lakes, where 
lake Conin divides (4000). Atlas ". D i. 




la 



BELL, BOOK, AND C«i«DL( 

"Id cercmons o( ei. 
the Roman 'Citholic 

hWjk WIS cUnti. 1 . rr.rj (iVdlc 

thrown down, and 1 Bell (oiled at tm 

the dead. 



BELLAMY, EDWARD M.s;o-yS). A 

Aliitnc..:i i.mrr. :list noted tor h' 
Looking [J.u-kward. a Socialist romance 
BELL AND HOPPER. A device con 
sisting of a hopper opened and dose, 
by a bell-shaped cone and used I' 
charjin? blast furnaces from the top. 




0-] 




L&ii 




BELL. A heraldic representation of a 
bell used .is a charge. 
BELL. The part of a funnel into which 
a liquid i^ poured. 



BELL AND HORNS. A common sii;n 

for inns .mJ sh r~ in olden times. 
BELL AND SPIGOT. A form of cast-iron 
pipe for underirround use. Each lentith 
has one straight end and the other end 
is bell-shaped to receive another lenjth. 



BELL, C. F. MOBERLY (1847-1911). 

A niitcd BritiMi 1 'u iiist, for 21 years 
ni.lnat;er of The Times. 
BELL, GERTRUDE (1868-1926). An 
Eni;lishuiinuui who in I9t3 e.xplored the 
■\r:ilii,in Iiosert. She was Oriental 
SLLr.t.ir\ t.' Hii.'h Commissioner of Irai). 




"^ 


M 


^M^ 


^M 


^S^ 


^^- 




BELL ANIMALCULE. A creature of 
\ T tUillul.K- laniily shapeJ like a 

!l. as ill \ , citrina, shown here. 
BELLARMINE. A drinkini; jut! first 

[Jf bv tti-- N-.-therhind-; Pr'-'t^st.int^ 



BELL OF INDEPENDENCE. I .;: t.inious 

Liberty H^ll m 1 riJ^piiidence Hall. 
Philadelphia, supposed to have been 
the first to announce the America': 
Declaration of Independence, 



BELLBUOT. A m<xv: 

■A :t'i .1 t-:l! lo * jrn 



BELL, HENRY n7f>7 IS30). Thj 

Si.ottii.li ciii^ineer who built tlic Coinct. 
the tirst retiular river steamer in Europe. 

BELL, JOHN (lSii-95)- The Entjlish 
sculptor who made the Guards' Memor- 
ial in Waterloo Place. London. 
Belladonna. See Dt'ndly ni^ehtshaJe. 




BELLARMINE, CARDINAL j; .: 
1f'.;i). A l.inunis Italian Iheolojeun 
durini:: the Catholic reaction in the late 
l'>th century. His methods were 

moderate, aiid he befriended Oilrleo. 
Bellary. See Atlas 22. E ^ 
BELLASOMBRA. A tree of tropical 
America. Phytolacca dioica. Here its 
l,-iv-,'s :>■'-.? <i-'\\;>r nr;' <fvn ■: 
Bcll.ltfii 



.£. A timber Irs- 
" lb itc hurc 
chur.'hvjrj, Evv 



IS 




BELL OF MOSCOW 

Kolokol, f.r Kinj^ of Belis, the l.ir.;;;^l 
in the world, standing cracked on .n 
pedestal in the Kremlin. 



BELLADONNA LILV. t ... . t u,n 

African ainaryllis, with masnihcent 
funnel-shaped flowers, white, rose, or 
purple, about the size of white lilies. 



BELL BIRD. A name civen to the 

South American ar.ipunt;a because 0: 
its mjtalliv. bell-like cr>C 




BELL CANOPY. 

BELL CENTRE PUNCH. Fcr mirkmf 
the centre o: a hv^e to b: dnUed or a 
lathe's centre oi revoJutioa. 



BELLCHAMBERS 



202 



BELL EXPERIMENT 




BELLCHAMBtRS, THOMAS. A v^cll 
known South Australian naturalist wlio 
has preserved many of the continent's 
rare creatures at his sanctuary at 
Hunihus Scrub near Adelaide. He is 
liere attemlini' a wounded ea','le 




BELL CHUCK. A Ddl-shapcd lallu- 
chuck, which by means of set screws 
holds tirnilv the p'lics to be turned. 
BELL CORE. The inside part of the 
mould in bell-toundini^. made ot tine 
dafy. The outer shell ot the mould is 
placed over it, both parts are inverted 
and the metal is poured hftw-en 






■i-.. _\ 


1'^^^ 



I 

BELL COTE. An ornamenul struc- 
ture lu hold one or two bells and often 
crowned t^y a small spire ; sometimes 
written hell-cot. 

BELL CRANK. An L-shaped lever, 
pivoted at the angle, for chamjins the 
(lirertmn ol a pull or push 



I 







BELL DOLLAR. I he silver ^locken- 
Ihalei strucK in ["run^wick. Germany, 

in 1'!' V hirh on either side has a 
Ti\ ■ • .)! a ifii as seen h-ic 




»15l 



BELLE ALLIANCE, LA. I he lanioii:. 
larni al Waterloo whore WoUlh;:ton 
inj RliKher mel after the battle. 







'« 



-^ 



BELLED. A heraldic term lor a device 
showint; a hawk with a hell fastened to 

each K'v. .K in this illustration. 



-■'.■■.'>^A^V 



,^,j^^ 



ULLLt rnoihS. The belle licit) and 




BELLE OF NEW YORK. A musical 
comedy played 697 tunes in London, 
1898-99. Edna May appearini: as a 
Salvation Army cirl as seen here 




BELLE DAME SANS MERCI, LA. A magically beaiitilul pucni b> John K.eats. 

alter one '"'t i =;th-centurv France This imaginative picture is by G. S. Watson. 




BELLE-ILE. A picturesque French 
island, peopled chiefly by llshermen; 
oil the coast ot Brittany. We show 
Le Palais its chiet town Atlas 7 B 3. 





BELLt. A W'Oin.ri ^k i ■ 

makes her the centre ot attraction 



6kLLt-l6LE, UUG UE , 1 o.'>4-1 701 ) 
A nntt-d French general in the War ot 
the Austrian Succession. 
Belle Isle. See Atlas 28. N 3 




BELLERIC. The truit ol the Indian 
B- m>robatan tree, yieldinij a dye. TIu- 
Iniit is seen nti this branch 




BELLbROPHON. A lierc. ui L.retk 

legend who bridled the winged horse 
Pegasus and with its help killed a fire- 
breathing monster, the Chimacra. 



•I 



^ 



^ ^ 



BELLEROPHON. A tossil sea shell nt 

Ih..' Nautilus lani;!v 




BELLEROPHON. 1 lu- lamous British 
warship on hoard which Napoleon sur- 
rendered alter Waterloo. This is Sir 

W O Orchardvnn's laninu'^ picture. 




BELLEROPHON. A 1 ii; h siper- 

hreadnnudil, biiiH :m fn" 




BELLEVILLE BOILER. A kind ot 
boiler once much used in British war- 
ships, the generating units hein? water 
tubes of iii'-derate diameter passing 

ihrnueh the tir-. 




BELLEW, HAROLD KYRLE 1S57- 
I'MD. A noted English actor and play- 
wright. He wrote Hero and Leander, 

ISO 2. 

BELL EXPERIMENT. An apparatus 
lor shewing how sound is affected by 
variations in the air's density It 

consists ot an electric bell in a glass 
vessel, with two terminals for connec- 
tion with a battery, as shown here 



BELL-FLOWER 



BKLLOC 




BELLOWS 



204 



BEL-MERODACH 




Camera bellows OrKaii bellows 



.^P-^ 





Japanese blacksmith's Esyptian 





Kuinan FootbelluMS 

BELLOWS. An apparatus for projuciiii; 
air currents, generally for blowing fires. 
We give here several old and modern 
examples, and the top diagram illus- 
trates how the valve in household 
bellows works. The word is also used ot 
anything resembling bellows, like Ih- 
bellows of a camera. 





BELL PUMP. A hell-shaped pump much 
used in cleaning gas and service pipes 
uhi-n lliey become clogged. 
BELL PUNCH. A device used by 
omnibus and tram conductors which in 
punching tickets sounds a bell. 



BELLOWS FISH. A small Alediter- 
ranean tish with a long tubular snout 
through which it draws its food. 




BELLOWS PUMP. An old pumping 
device w.)rk.J by bellows action. 
BELL PEPPER. A kind of red pepr- 
produced by this South African plam 




BELL PIPE. One with a bell or socket 
at one end to make the joint with the 
next length, as seen in these examples. 




t 




BELL TELEGRAPH. A J . i . _ , , uliich 
two bells of dirterent tones replace a 
vibrating needle or a sounder in giving 
nut signals. 




BELL TENT. Ihe familiar round tent 
with .1 sill'.;!: e.'iitr.ll pule. 



Playing a canlknl at Bruges 
BELL RINGER. A man who rings peals 
in a belfry by pulling a rope attached to 
the bell harness or by working levers 
to play a complete cariflon. 




BELL ROOF. A roof resembling a bell 
in sh.ipe, as illustrated here. 
BELL-SCREW. In well-sinking or 
boring, an iron rod ending in a bell- 
shaped cavity. It is used to recover 
boring tools. 





BELL THE CAT. The nickname of 
Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus 
(1449-1514), whose seal we give. He got 
his name because he hanged Cochrane, 
the hated favourite of James 111. 





BELL TRAP. A 

s.iiiitary tr.ip hk.' 
.in inverted bell. 



BELL TOWER. Any 

hells are luiiig. 

BELL TREE. A staff w 

t . i;ive the effect of be 




■.^■\\ 



BELLS OF SEVILLE. The c.itlledral 
bells. In the old days in Seville youths 
used to swing the great bells on festivals 
bv hanging by straps to the clappers. 




BELL TUNING. An operation generally 
dune by reducing the bell's thickness, 
as illustrated in this picture. 




BELL TURRET. A small lower lor 
bells built on to a larger structure, as 
shown in the foregroirnd of this picture. 
The church is the Abbaye-aux- Homines 
at Caen, Normandy. 




BELLUNO. A . ..lii^J: .;! city ol Venetia, 
Italv, manufacturing silk (25,000). It is 
the capital of the mountainous province 
of the same name. See Atlas n, D i. 




BELLYBAND. In the harness ot a horse, 
the canvas strap passing under its body, 
as seen here. 




BELLYBAND. In sail-making, a hori- 
/nntal, strengthening band of canvas 
across a square-sail. 
BELLY GUY. A rope used to strengthen 
a spar or mast midway, as shown here. 
Bel-Merodach. See Merodach. 



BERRIES— THE BRIGHT BEADS ON BUSH AND PLANT AND TREK 




1 Doi; r..s;, 
to Common 



2 iiilllac- 

barb 

berry 



Cherry. S Striw^trr>■ tr«j 



Common li.illv. 4 Blackthorn or sloe. 5 Butcher's broom. 6 ClouJberry. 

l-ommon nou>. isHeMrose. it. Fly honjysucRI:. I r .Mountain 15 ■ 

currant. ;> Cranberrv. 24 Swstt bnjr Iruit. Sn F»« iH 



crry. 1 1 Tutsan. 12 Wayfarm? tree. 1.; Blackberry. 14 Stra*'berry. 15 
berry. 19 Doewood. 20 Honeysuckle. 21 Hawthorn 22 Wild black cut 



BIRDS OF PARADISE— BEAUTIFUL DRESSES OF NATURE'S FLYING CHILDREN 




1 Elliot's. 2 Golden. 3 Superb. 4 D' Albert!';. 5 Wilson's. 6 Da Vis's. 7 Great. S Maijnilicent. 9 Blue. lO Twelve Wired 
11 Red. 12 King. 13 King of Saxony's. 14 Wallace's Standard Win?. 15 Meyer's Sickle-billed. See page 238 



BELODON 



205 



BELT EXTENSION LDfE 




Hunting 
BELT. A nirdle 
kinds of familiar 



Bov Seoul 



Medieval 

round the body. These pictures show n few of the many 
belts in use todav and some medieval example's 



BELT CONVEYER. A i cnjl.w^ belt .^r 
scrici: of bills moviiie m om dir-'Ctio:-, 
to carry materials. Those seen m this 
picture arc lor convevias coal. 



^'S^^Sr'*^ 



BELT EXTENSION LINK. V ..««ce 

UT cx\i-'d'-c x\c ';ncth ol i JnviBf 
t'ilt ^v jJJtpj; j Uniu « sho«rn Stere 



BELT FASTENER 



20H 



BENBOW 




BELT FASTENER. ^ Jevice 1". ailrtiiu 
two ends ol u leather Jnvini; hell lor 
machinery. The first lorm shown is a 
Krip bell lastener which is placeJ in 
position and hammered tisht on the 
joint. The second picture shows a 
button fastener the third steel iacins;. 
Bell Fork. ■-,.■ lull shirrer 




Common types ol belting 

BELTING. A belt lor driving machinery 
We show three lonns- 




BELT-LACING. Leather thoni;s kicing 
together the ends ol a machine belt ; 
on the rKht we show a machine used 
•n tastenin-T them 





BELT PLIER&. A tool used lor drivinir 
home lasteners on beltin^j. 
BELT PUMP. A pump that is driven 
hy a dri villi! belt the driving wheel of 
this machine i- ^en "'i ' t^ ■ riirht. 








BELT 

lor <t 



PUNOH. A tool specially designed 
tniniiii.' holes in .1 belt. 




BELT-RAIL A ioriKitudin.ll wooJe 
CU'ird runnini; aion;4 the outside ot 
tramcar beneath the windows. 




BELT SANDER. A machine with a 
revolving belt of sandpaper for smooth 
iiig large surfaces of wood, and so on. 
Bell SanK. See I'.and saw. 




BELT SCREW. A double clampint; 
-:rew with a Hal head fur joining the 

j;uis nl a l-i-lt 




BELT SHIFTER. A device lor mechan- 
ically transferring a belt from one 

pulley to another 




BELT SHIPPER. Or belt lork, a hand 
tool lor shifting a machine-belt from 
one pullev to another. 
BELT TIGHTENER. A device for draw • 

IT.' machinerv hells together for lacine 



■^^^ 




BELT TOOL. A conibuied cutter, awl. 
punch, and nippers used in bi.'It-niakiinr- 
Bel'JChis. See Baluchis. 




BELUGA. A large species ul dutphin, 
Delphiiiapterus leucas, also called the 
white whale, found in northern waters. 
Its skin is <ioU1 as porpoise-hide 





BELVEDERE. An open upper storey 
III an Italian buildinij ; also an open 

^upnl;i ns slinwn oti the lefL 




BELVOIR CASTLE. I he line Leicester 
shire mansion ot the Duke of Rutland. 

7 miles sfHlt h-v.- ■■■ t nf (jr;intli:in' 




BELZEBUrH. A knul ol spider-in.nikc\ . 
Ateles belzebuth, found in Brazil. 
BELZONI, GIOVANNI (177S-1S23). 
The Italian who in 1817 discovered the 
tomb ot Seti I at Thebes. 




BEMA. The Greek name lor the interior 
i>i the raised chancel or apse of an 

irl\ Chri-vt'in bi^il-ra 





BEMA. An architectural term i<<T Ih^- 
chancel of a church. 




BEMBEX. The typical i;enui ut tli. 
Bembycidae, a variety of wasp-like in 
sects (jf the Tropica. 
BEM60, PIETRO (1470-1547). A 
tamous Venetian cardinal, man of 
letters, and lover of beauty, from n 
bronze medal bv Benvenuto Cellini 




BELUS. The Koman name (or the 
Babylonian 2;od Bel (right), supposed to 
lie the son of the Ei;yptian Osiris, 
BELUS. A genus ol weevils like this 
ot the family Curculionidae. 



SEMERSYOE. A line mansion in 
Berwickshire which since the 12th 
rcntury has been the home ol the Haic;s 
and was presented to Earl Haii^ by the 
British nation in 192! . Me is buried here 



BEMERTON. \ mII 

lamous as the last 
Herbert, whose toni 
i-enturv church show 



home ('I <-)eiir'/e 
b is in the iJth- 
n in this picture. 




BEN. A Gaelic word tor a mountain 
nr peak, notablv in Scotland. 





■If 1 m 




nares 

BENARES. The holy city of the Hindus, 
mi the G ini;es. It contains many temples 
and shrines, and is much visited by 

pihirims (20o.ooro. S-- \ti,r. 22. V - 




BENARES WARE. I he ornamental 
brass work o\ Benares. 
BENBOW, JOHN '165^-1702). An 
English admiral famous for his i^allant 
service in the West Indies. 



BENCH 



207 




i^Lijj Urgiiiisfs bench 

BENCH. A seat differing irom o ston 
bv reason of its creator length 




BENCH. The table ol heavy plankini; 
at u'hicli carpenter^ wnrk. 




BENCH. The Uri^i-rS scat on u Cd 
riai,';;. That shown is the bench of tlu' 
Lord Mavnr nf LoTidon's coacl'. 




BENCH oi bishops., a cullcctive tern; 
lor the bIS^'^p^ who sit in the Mousr.- 
of Lordv. 




BENCH of Commons). A i.ii- v^.a 
the deb^itiiii; ciumocrs of F'arlianient- 
^ye show the Government and Opposi- 
tion front benches in the Commons. 




BENCH (Ol judges). The Judicature 
a whole or a oujy of judgas sittini: 
any court oi law. 



BENCH of magistrates . 

ma'ci'^fatL-s prcNiJiny in a pnhoc 




BENCH DRILL. UiK" that Can be used 

in a machinist's ur carpenter's bench. 
it is made in manv patterns. 
BENCH FORGE. A small for^e set on 
a litter's bench for heating small parts. 




BENCH GRINDER. A macliine titled 
with an emery wheel Inr giindinn : it is 
tixed to a oen'ch and worked by turnini; 
a handle 



y- 



^ 



BENCH HOOK. A slop c.l wood oil .1 
carpenter's bench ai;ainst which the 
work in hand is *te;u!ied 




BE3fD 




BENCH LATHE. A small lathe lor 
mountinc on a woodworker's bench. 




BENCH LEVER STAMPER. A 

made by the Scvbold Machtn; Co. and 
'ised in larse bookblndini; estal'lish 

-i-.-nls (..' vtimrir. ,l,.....,,s on cover- 



;i; 



^ 



:^ 



BENCH-MARK. In survcyini;, a nia.-K 
tu ,>erve as a datum for levels and 
measurements. Ordnance bench-mark. 
are represented bv the broad arrow. 
BENCH PLANE. ' A plane used on i 
bench fnr unrkinp a flat surt.T.-^ 




■jaykn 'Wj Miqy^ -^ jV 



I] 




BENCH SCREW. I h.- screw wiuch nvlj- 
m position the vise-jaw ol a carpenter's 
bencli. We show several kinds. 
BENCH SHEARS. Lari:e hand shears 

.r -uttiii^ /inc. tin. and other metals 




BENCH STOP. A bench nuuc iwnun 
see) made to be lastened down on a piece 
>i work, i;eiiera!Iv bv a screw. 
BENCH TABLE.' A low stone seal 

ninninc roniid the interior walls <»l a 




*^J^ 



BENCH Vlftt 

'If mttal-* .riccr'i tench, 
Beneooltn f n V ■ 








ij 



is 



4 



'■.\-\ 



Slip kn..| 
SEND 'M nft' * 



^J(? 





i ^«4 



BEND. 



BENCH-TABLE. ^K I'.-n^n ULuwi .-n 
be turned into a table by raisia$ ihe 
back, which is pivoted. 





BEND. \ r!-r - the be*d 

is ».^;i b% m.r.i .. -t^ Cfilun 

The$e quaint o*»J r^cto-rs ?b«>»- *•<>• 
hvxvls »-ere $<ctirtJ py means ol besds^ 



BEND 



BENGALI 




BENDIGO. 1 he nickname vl William 
Tliomrson (18I1-S0). of Nottingham, a 
l:oxer who became famous as a preacher. 
He gave his name to a type of fur cap 
such as is seen on the rit'ht. 







BENDIGO. Oneol thechi;! Ii.wnsnl Vic 
tijiia. Australia. It owes its rise t<j tlic ili 
covery of 8:old (35.000). See Atias 36. G ' 



BENDWISE. A heraldic term meaning 
arranged m the direction of a bend 
(which see), like these three scallops; 
bendy means divided bendwise into :ii 
even number of divisions, as on the right 
Bendy Barry. See Barry bendv 





BENEDICT. Or Benedick, in Sli.ik,- 
spearc's Mud; Ado About Nothing, ;i 
wittv young lord who marries Beatrice 
BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS (1804-85). A 

"ted Anglo-Germa:] musirit conductor. 



BENDY PALV. 

bination .4 bend> 



P d\ (see thcsi 



terms) ; also called Paly bendy. 
BENEDETTI, COUNT (1817-1000) 
Lnuis Napoleon's ambassador to Berhn 
belMr.- the Franco- Prussian War 
Benedick. See Benedict. 



BENDING MACHINE. \ machine lor 
hending timber, rails, and so on, to 
shape The lower one shown here is (or 
bending carf.wheel tyres- 




BEND LEATHER Well-tanned leather 
of good aualitv for soling footwear 






BENEVENTO. An old citv ol Cam- 
pania, Italv, with medieval walls, a 
beautiful 12th century cathedral, and an 
arcli ol Trajan (25,000). Atlas 13, E 4. 
Bengal. See Atlas 22. C, 4 



BENEDICTINE, The greal Order .., 
niMiiks and nuns, founded by St. Bene- 
dict in Italy in the 6th century whict 
spread tlir ui li W e-itern Europe 



BENEDICT, Sr. (about 480.543!. Ihe 
lounder ol the great Benedictine Order 
of monks. His portrait here is from a 
painting by Sa,ssoferr3to at Perugia 





A Calcutta sweetmeat seller 
BENGALI. A native of the great 

lndi;in pri, i-in.'-e o' Ben-'a! 



BENEDICTION. The act ol blessing 
iti Cliri.stiaii churches. 
Benetnasch. See Ursa Major. 






BENGALI. The language of Bengal as 
represented by the famous words of 
St. .lohn III, 16, from a native Bible. 



I 



BENGAL INFANTRY 



BESKETT 




BENGAL LISHT. A vivid. .^luw- 
burning firework used for military and 
naval si^nallin? and also for dispbvs. 



BENl-HASSAK. A place 
Esypt "itii 3*) rock tombs. 



Vppii 



A Japjncs.* hero at the Mx'r 
..w...«. ,. around whose name muc'i 
legend has pathsred. OrignnaUy x monk, 
he became a soldier and was killed in an 
ambush in 11S9 



^^ the Nr<amara ce^'-u !tTO»n t<* the .-«; 
yielded by it^ ^e»ds.. 

BENNErr. ENOCH ARNOLD 

\n H-^-r'-^'i iu:^iv and ;■ 

I \r J:iN -.-x ;ls Hi Itf; in : 



BENNETT 



210 



BERBER 




BENNETI, J GORDON (Ib^l IJI-') 
An American newspaper owner win- 
helped lo finance Stanley's Conco 
expedition and in 1S99 founded the 
Gordon Bennett Cup for hallooi^ist?. 
BENNETT, SIR W. STERNDALE 
tlS16-75). A tarnnus Rn'.,''ish nmsiciim 
and composer 




BEN NEVIS. The hicheM mountain in 
the British Isles, near Fort William. 
Inverness. 4400 feet hiRh. it is always 
snow. capped See Atlas 1. D 2. 




BENNIGSEN, C0UNT(174S-1S26). One 

ot th.' ciifet Russian generals in tlie 
Napoleonic wars. 

BENNU. A bird sacred to Osiris and 
used 111 ancient Eyypt as an emblem of 
!• 'Aas often represented 
.s picture. 




BENSON, ARTHUR CHRISTOPHER 

(1S62-t92S). Essayist and critic, son 
of Archbishop Benson and .Waster of 
Magdalene Colleije Cambridt;e. 
BENSON, EDWARD FREDERIC (b. 
1867). Brother of Arthur Christopher 
Benson and author of many novels "t 
social lile. incliulin*,' Dodo (t-*s9>'. 

BENSON. EDWARD WHITE ilS^VVO). 
Ari.iibi'^hop o\ C;uitc:rb'.iry, ISS3. 
BENSON. SIR FRANK (h. ISSS). An 
Eii^lisl, actor noted for his work in 




BENSON, RiCHARD W. iiS25.!9i5). 
liie hni;!isii clernyman wIkj in tS65 
founded Uie Cowley Fathers. 
BENSON, ROBERT HUGH (1S71-1914). 
A son ot Archbishop Benson who 
joined the Roman Catholic Church. He 
wrote novels and books on Catholicism 




BENT, JAMES T. (IS52-U7). A York- 
sh'reniaii who excavated the niysti;rious 
ruins of Zimbabwe in Rhodesia. 
BENT. An old and rare word meanini; 
a hillside or slope. It is used bv Drydei: 
amoni; others. 




Fine .Marsh 

BENT-GRASS. A popular name lor 
grasses of the large Agrostis cienus, 
found in damp pastureland. Several 
species are shown here. 




BENTHAM, GEORGE (lSOO-S-<). An 
tni^lish botanist and author who did 
notable work ui'h the Hookers at Kew. 

BENTHAM. JEREMY (174S-1S32). A 
famous English utilitarian philosopher 
whose main doctrine was tlie -.ireatest 
happiness of the *rrfatcSt number. 




BENTINCK, LORD GEORGE (lS02-^.Si 
An En.i^lish politician who viirorousl^ 
opposed Peel's free-trade policy. 

BENTINCK, LORD WILLIAM (1774 
1839). First ccovernor-general i-l ind'y.i, 
183-. He suppre'<sed the Thui;s, 




BENTINCK, WILLIAM 00^9-1700}. A 
Dutch follower ot William of Orancre 
who became the first Earl of Portland. 

BENT IRONWORK. A general term 
for desi'^ns in wrought iron as opposed 
to cast iron work. 



BENTIVOGLIO. GUIDO U57^-l<-i'> 
An Italian c.u J,ii..l. a noted dlplon.at 
and historian oi his day. 
BENTLEY, JOHN FRANCIS (ir,3o 
1002). The architect who desi'.'n-'il 
Wi-stminsl.-r '""ath-dnil. b.--iii ml- ; 




BENTLEY. RICHARD (t662-!742). A 
lanious Eti,;lish classical scholar and 
critic, Master of Trinity College. Cam- 
bridge. He had a celebrated scholastic 
q-jarrel with Boyle, an Ovford student. 




BENTLEY CAR. A well-known motor- 
jiir i>t Britisli make. The one shown is 
-I po\»..Ttu! sports tourim: model. 
Bentwood Chair. See Chair. 
Berue, River. Sc'.- Atl.iv ';, F J 




BEN VENUE. 




BEN WYVIS. A Scottish mountain 
In Ros.s-shire. We show it as it appears 
Irum Din-wall. 3(30 feet. Atlas 3. D 2. 




BENZ. A motor-car which has de- 
V L' oped from one built by Carl bcnz. en 
Mannheim. Germany. Here we show an 
oarly model of a powerful modern one. 




BENZOIN. Gum benjamin, the resin- 
ous juice ol Styrax .benzoin, an Eastern 
tree whose leaves and (lower are shown. 




BERANGER, PIERRE OE (I7S0 1S57). 
French poet. authf)r ol some ol the most 
charming snncs in the languas'e. 






pOT.Vt.; p.tf \^fit' C^ (:^' laj-]i*c5 Cu:t. ^ i 

cS-ntn^ -i^^Y* 'F^ M^ *aciST.n p^l J«i,^ir.;' 



in the 7th century. This is from the only 
survivin-.! manuscript of it. prubahU 
written in the loth cen^urv 




BERBER. A Sudanese trading centre 
nn the Nile {in.ooOl. See Atlas 25 H V 



_. L . 



BERBER 



--;;,'-^^-^ 



BERBER. I n: I3neuii!<: oi the Berbers. 
:i> representeJ by the words oi St. John 

!!l, \'^. f-.TTi 2 i?tiv? Bin?. 







BERBER. \ ^ ^ ::. .; - 
group 01 peoples in Morocco, Als-';^, a 
Tunis, including the Rift^ and Kah\I 




BERBER A. _ipital oi British Somah- 

ir.d, rra-ir:: ;n ostrich feathers, skins, 
coffee, and ■.\-'^'\ ^nn,-,. Atli? 2=. .J :^t"'. 




BERBERIS. A ?roup u. stirubs reprj 
5 in ted in Britain by the common 
barberry (left): Canadian barberry i< 
f'l' the'ri^ht. 

Berdiansk. S;. .Atlas 16, F 5- 
Berdicher. ^Mas l6. D >. 




SERENGAK I Id. 924j. a ;: ..- 
made Emperoroi Italv by Pope John X. 



AJJ-d 



BERENGARIA. A hui!e Cunard :in:r ot 
52.226 tons launched just tetor l- th^ war. 





BERENGARIA 1.1 1230). Princess m 
■.a-. jrrr -^r.tjrn Richard I married. 
BERENICE Queen o( Ptolemy III n: 
E'.;ypt- She cut ofi her hair as a sacr-.fice. 
and it was said that it was blown to 
the heavens and became the constella- 
tion Coma Berenices f Berenice's hairi 




BERE REGIS. The Km. 

Thomas Hardy, a Dorset villa.;, 
lor the monuments to the D'L'rr.r 
lamilv in its church seen hrr- 



BERESFOKO, LORD lUOA-lsjIJ 
A prominent Bntisli general in Ih^ 
Peninsular War. 
BERESFORD, LORD CHARLES ( tS46- 

1919). A British admiral Jistini;uished 

r '-.1: U'T h:^ e.illantrv .' \!.-xjn.lrij 




BERESFORD DALE. A lovely elen 
Dovedale, Derbyshire, which was 




BERESFORD . HOPE, ALEXANDER 
Review in i'?55 





Lrciiin^ the B;resma. 1512 
BERESINA. The tributar> o! 
Dnieper on which Napoleon's arm> 
t.-red disaster in 1SI2 "* "• -- ' 



Atlas iti I' 




BERET. A sort, ruleless car »r.: 
notablv by tne Basque n-,;:v 
BerezoV. See Atlas 16. L 2 
Bergatl. See Choiset 



* 




V ■ 




...«..^ i.>>u.'hiit3. TIC Aii.j» jjntj Mjri^ 
.Masreiore (60.000). See Atlas U. B 2. 
BER6AM0T. The perlume.v ' ■ 
sweet lime, named Irom Bertj- 



B«fCtf»c 

BERCiO'i 






'^ ' 




BERGEN. The second city and port o' 
.Naruj\. with a tine hartr'ur and terv 
•mportant ilshenes It has an old 
cathedral and manv quaint butldiao 
(oo.ooo) S:e Atlas' li. C& 
Bcrtin-Or-ZMM. S«< Atlas la C • 



• ERKHA^' 



i ^.ll;»e 
K el a 



BERKSHIRE REGIMENT 



BEKMUDIAN 






BERKSHIRE REGIMENI. I he 19th and 60lh ol loot, fr.uilcJ tht title "I 
roval in 1S.S5. In the'ie picture? tlie dress and lield uniforn-.s are seen. 



'IV-. -'J 





BERLINE. A luurwlieelcd earriai;; ItsI 

iiiiJ ■ 111 Pi.Tliii in tlu- 17111 ciMiturv 



if^ 




SntlJuttSMitUI 



«**.'v.^'U*^?75V; 



Mf^y,.* ^'^ '^**E?* 



♦Mii^V^ :ii . f- r >^ r" * 1 1 WW »^'ii s' «I si^ I <*^ 

i : 





Tlic Reich>l.l's' Liuildins wIkt: 



■*^ 



BERLINER, EMILE. ( ■lTiikiii- Aiiiericni 
piiiiK-LT nt telephones .nut |>llon(it;r;iphs 
BERLINER TAGEBLATT. A famovi-. 
German paper publislied in I'erlin. 






^)) " 





BERLINGOT. A carriage rather like 
the herlme hiif lor only one passeni^er. 








Kaiser Fnedrich Museum 





BERLIN WOOL. A ;,olt. light yarn lo: 
knittinv or emhrnidery. 
BERLIOZ, HECTOR (1803-69) A 

noted French musical composer. 



BERMUDA RACING DINGHY. A kind nl 
pleasure hoat known lainiliarly as a nlud- 
1:111 and much used in the Bermudas 




BERMUDA SKIFF. A o.ill .iilh a 

particul.ir rii; used in the enclosed waters 
amoni; the Bermudj islands, as is also 
the Bernnida vaelit (rit'htl. 





;.'■ "^-^'^ssii: 



The New Cathedral 





Ihe Deutscher Dom The lormer royal palace 

BERLIN. The capital of Prussia and Germany and one ot the lareest European 
cities, havine with its suhurhs a population ot aliout lo.u n!'':i \ n i , 12. L j. 

^T ^T ^^ '^' 




BERIVl. A ledee at the loot ot a hank 
1.1 e.itch earth rollinc down the sl&pc. 
Bermejo, River. See Atlas 32, F 9. 
BERmONDSEY ABBEY. A famou; 
ahbey, loiinded in I11S7, which once stood 
in Bermoiidsev. London. Our picture 
sh.ins us eateway as it w.is in 1790. 
Bermuda Grass. See Bahama jrass. 




BERMUDIAN. A native ot the Bermudas. 
Most Bermudians are prosperous, con- 
tented, and lii;hthearted Negroes, and 
this boy is a ;;ood type of them. 




A view "1 Hamilton, capital ol the Bermuda Islands 



BERLIN, CONGRt;.S Of. I._ 1.,--, , L;i. 1 1 ' i.-.n!.' 

the Balkan- altei the Uussu-Turkish war. Anions the dtleuates nho ai p^ar in this 
picture are Beaconsfield (si.\th from left) and Bismarck (centre) 




ionic ot the many lagoons which lie among the islands 

BERMUDA ISLANDS. A British island group in the North Atlantic ; area 10 Ssina"^ 

miles . pop. 22,oou. They are a naval station and a delightful resort. Atlas 2,. M 5 



BERNADOTTE 



2i:i 



BEBOOH 




iDOTTE, m/ 

• KiiiiT nt Swede 





Two panitm« ol St. L.ern.nJ 




^...^_ 








BERNAROINE OF SIENA (13Si>' 

1411). A l.imuus preacluT nf the primi- 
tive t^ranciscan rule. This picturi: ol 
him teaching is from the SI'or/.a Bm.k of 
Hours {about 1490). now prL'servcJ in 

Ml- British Mu-icuin. 




BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX Mo'-u 
1153). A lanious Iti^tk-Ii Cistercian 
preacher, hymn witer, and reformer. 




li:Mnj Clock t.lUJI 



mM 




BERNARD OF CLUNY. A 12tl • 
century French monk who wrote a 
tamous devotional pneni in Latin. The 
picture sh'^iwn i\ s\ rii!->ilic:il of his \i'.'j 





If »;< 
ij 





h/i 


3 


"'^fwi?^''' 


*. - .1 



BERNHARDT, SARAH Inl4-IQ2?) A 

-rc.it 1 Tench tragic jctrcs:. the mo^t 
famous of mo(lt:rii times. 
BernicJa. See Saxon England. 
Bernicle Goose. Sl-o Barnacle kimmc 



r 





SERNINA PiZ 

■ bcrnina A , 

- t C"fnrf 1 



i^S i ^*^t^. 






, filOVAUm 



-^ 



RERNE Swit^erhinJ's capital, a ploasant aiiJ hisloru- city nn th: Kn-cr \.i- 
"th urUTestiPK nVu"euL and many and.-.,. InnWin.s (1 1o.,>,«i,, Atl.l. o. B >i 



BERNARD, CLAUDE ItSlJ 7S) A .lis 
tjtiuuislied French physio)oirist. 
BERNARD, DUKE or SAXE-WEIMA r 
(1604-'!'))- German Prote^tant t;enei 
BERNAROIN DE SAINT-PIERRE, J. H. 
l7i7-(Hti). Aiithiirtit I'lnl et Vircime 






;l^ 



• EROE. 

Mjtcx Be.-,,.: 

■^annfi l'»'^> 






See Atlas 9. b 2. 



BEtiNINA PASS. \t\ Mr'"' (iicn«»» 
t'.'twecii tlu' S«iii5 Enc.idine and Mal\ 
It is 7645 leet hich Atlu o E 1 



BEROON. . ■■! ,- .: c -■• 

rilicc or notiM.-'s h^^oM, is nzic si»o» 



BERRY 



BERWICK, DUKE OF 




m' 




BERKY SIK WILLIAm t. 

il ,1,1 nl .1 I'M. up I'l abOlll 

puiHTS and periodicals, 
BERRY, SIR J. GOMER 

Proniinent Eiiirlish business man associ- 
.itL-il Willi hislirotli" •^ir William H.-rrv 




BERR* POIHEROY. A village near 
Ttitiies, Devonshire, with this ptc* 
tiiresque castle ruin 



Uowberry Black bryony 

BERRY. A small, pulpy Iruit contain- 
ins seeds. Some familiar examples are 
own abnve Srr Ci 




BERTH. 1 he space alli.ilcd to a ship 
alonijside a quay or in dock, as illus- 
trated bv this picture from Liverpool, 



ulLipsirle 
li. I., liertluj 
ritisli Navy. 




if\ .,.<,,'..<;,'!■? 



,-J 



•. ) 







BERSAGLIERi 

win WL-ar plum 



lialiaii licht inlantt 
<ii cock feathf rs 




BERTHA (d aouuiois). I he t|ueen ul Ethelbei t, kini; ol Kent, whom Auaustine (on 
the richt) converted to Christianity in 597. Bertha, a prankish princess, was already 
I hnsti 111 and it was chiellv throuirh her inllmou-e that her husband was baptised. 




BEKTHA. A woman's snoulder-cape, 
ir a v.ike imitatim; it, as seen here. 
Bertha, Big. iee Biii Bertha, 
BERTHELOT, PIERRE 0827 1907) 

I lu- 1 r;nch rioiu-er ,il I liermo-chemistrv 





BERTILLON, ALPHONSE (ISS) 1<I14) 
A trench criminoloi;ist who invented 
a system lor identifyin.i! criminals by 
means of measurements. His system 
is seen in practice on the riehl. 



BERRV, DOC DE ii;75 1.S2U). A son 
,,i the Conite d'Arlois, later Charles .\ 
,,! Trance, tons an exile in England 
he returned to France and was stabbed 
to the heart one ni?ht as he left the 
ins Opera House. He is here seen 





BERSERKER. A Norse word lor a 
warrior wno louuht with fren7ied fury : 
^ucli men often formed the bodvioiards 
of Scandinavian kin .-s. 



BERRY, SIR EDWARD t17AS-1»3I) 
One ol Nelson's ablest captains ; he 
commanded the Vanguard at the Nile 
and in 132I became rear-admiral 




BERTIN, LOUIS F I766-1.S41), The 

1(. under ol the Journal des Dcbats, 
BERTRANO, COUNT (I773-IS44), 
Napoleon's adiulani, who shared his 
master's exile at Elba and St, Helena, 
Bertrand du Guesclin, See Du Guesclin, 
Bervie. See Athis s. F 1. 



BERTHIER, ALEXANDRE (t7SV 
LSI 5). A marshal upon whom Napo. 
leon relied lari>ely for his orBanisation. 
He was his chief of staff and was made 
Prince of Wa^ram. 



BERT, PAUL l^^3;-86) A lirilliani 
French plivsioloi;ist. 

BERTH. The sleepins; place of a 
passenger on board ship 




BERTHOLLET, COUNT I174.S IS22) 
A creat French chemist who originated 
several of the modern methods ol dyeing. 
BERTHON, EDWARD LYON (1813- 
99). The English clergyman who 
invented the Berthon boat (which see). 




BERWICK, UUKE OF (1070 1734), A 

natural son ot James 11 of England 
who was one ol the ablest French 
I marshals of his day 



BERWICK-ON-TWEED 




The old brid^'e buiit in I62i 




BERWICK-ON-TWEED. \ in t ru 

NurtluimherUuid town which was 
iiiKiUy wrtsted from Scotland in I IS2. 
It has two notable bridges over the 
Tuefd fn.ooo) i>ce Atlas 4. E i. 
Berwickshire. See Atlas ?, F 4. 




BES. An bi^>pti.ui Kud ul rccrL-aiiun 
.ind joy, represented as a Rrotesque, 
handy-lcgc:ea dwarf. 
BESA. An ancient drinking vessel much 
wider at the bottom than at the tnp , 
sonietinies called hessa and bossi'in. 




tiESICLOMETER A dc%u<: u-cJ t 

•pectacle-makcrs to deade the currcc 

width ol spectacles 

BESOM. A broom made (rom 

t'lnull-.- (A Iwi^S, like this. 

Bessa. See Besa. 

Bessarabia. s?f At1»^ n. D 2 





BESSEL, FRIEORlOti W. i17m mi' 

A noted Prussian astronomer an : 
mathematician, director for 35 years '■•■ 
the uhscrvalurv at iC6ni^>bcrif. 
BESSEMER. SIR HENRYlt8t3'«)»). An 

[•ntrli^ti encinccr ramous as the invent"- 
it{ the Bessemer "ireel-makinc rr-i.- .^■- 



BESAGi«E. Ill medieval aniunir, 
plate protectini: the joint ti( twn piec. 
of plate armour as in a helmet, elbi 
(»r knee jnint. 




BERVCID. A I.»^sil ^.■^■lV^.■ll!.^^;^- ni llic 
raniiU fr.im wliich fiat lish ar^ descended. 






BESAGUE. A lwt)-eJ'4i'J "r tw" 
pniiittfd weupoii. espfCiallv a son t-i 
pick or hattle-;i.\o. On tlie rislit is a 
.luaint rcprefcntatinn nl .1 nuiJieval 

-oljier :irili-.l -■ ill! onr 

fit 



^■A- 



BERYL. A p.ile variety 1)1 eiiK-raM 
(ouiul in i;recn and several other colours. 
Ht-re arc" two cut stones 




BESANQON. I he K.nn.in \csoiili... 
eastern hrance. with remains ot 
Iriumplial arch, an a^ineduct. and an 
amphitheatre. 11 has a lith. century 
cathedral and a bishop's palace, and 
manufactures watches. Her- we see 
its .saline hnth^ iivi.onn). Al'as ", 1. •. 




BERZELIUS. JOHAN JAKOB II770 
ISIS) The ','reat Swedish chemist 
who established the laws ol combination 
and evolved our chemical symbols. He 
is seen here with one of his inventions, 
the Berzelius lamp, fitted with a 
tubular wick for hurninsr afcohol 



BESANT, nriKb. ABNlt 1. I.sl-I llea.l 
01 the I hei'sopliist m.'vement n Hritai'i 
and advocate ol Indian nationalism. 
BESANT, SIB WALTER (ISjt. noil. 
A popular Enjlish author, for manv 
V. irs ■) collaborator «;>h lanlos Bice 




BES$IERtS, JEAN BAPnSTt 1 - 
i.si;v A marshal ol France »ho 
served in ne.irlv .ill Napoleon's clm- 
paisns till he was killed at Lfltten. 
Rtwion. 'i.-- B-sJ 



;:ei cutter 
■ ue ir\ ka»o « r*!* 
vhich an cl>r»e<l by E»« 
njiin nitiTts. TlK Mjlirt o««n u« 
omamcntil brtsi N>it» tod iotten 



BETELGEUSE 



orbtlSLma^ 




BETELGEUSc. A Hrr^ht ..r,ins^ 
CdldiircJ star, Alpha in Orion, with ; 
iluimeter ot 200 million miles, nearb 
as sreat as the orbit "f Mars. 




BETEL MORTAR. A inurtar used ii; 
thi; E.isl tor crushin? betel nut. 
Betel Nut. See Areca nut. 
BETHANY. The village where dwelled 
Lazarus and his sisters. Ihe friends ol 
K-sn^, 1^ it is tndav See Atlas 33, C 5. 




BETHARRAM. A place near I'aii 
France, noted for a remarkable grotto, 
shown in this picture. 





BETTONG 




BETHNAL GREEN MUSEUm. I Ik 1 isl 
London branch of the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, ctmtainiUK pictures, 
furniture, and other art treasures. 



BETHEL, ihe ruined town ot Pales- 
tine where Abraham pitched his tent 
and Jacob dreamed. The name means 
House ol God See Atlas 38, C 5. 



1',.11'lj of Bethlehem 
BETHLEHEM. The birthplace of Jesus, 
5 miles south-west of Jerusalem. It 
has many religious buildinijs. includina 
the Church of the Nativity (which see) 
soon). Atlas 58, C 5. 
Bethlehem Hospital. See Bedlam. 




BETHPHAGE. The site of a villai;e ot 
Palestine mentioned in Matthew XXI. 




BETHSAIDA. A city by the Sea of 

Galilee. Here is the place where it stood. 

See Atlas 3S, D 3. 

Bethshan. See Beisan. 

Beth Shemesh. See Atlas 38 D 3 



M'-^-i^' 





BETHVLUS. A hymenopterous insect 
of the family Proctotrypidae with a lone: 
and triangular prothora.x and a flattened 
head, as seen here. 
BETONY. ■\ Curnpean lu-rb. B.-t..nii-a 




BETHLEHEM STEEL WORKS. One ol the greatest centres of the steel industry 
111 America and the u"rKI, .it r.ethleheni, Pennsylvania. _^ 




BETHMANN-HOLLWEG, COUNT VON 

(1.S56-1921). German chancellor, autho' 
of the notorious Scrap ot Paper phrase. 
BETHMES. An Egyptian roval liins 
man of about 3800 B.C., of whom this 
statue is in the British Museum 




BETRAYAL OF JESUS. 1 he act of 

betrayal by Judas,., here seen kissing 
the. Master as described by Matthew : 
Now he that betrayed him gave them a 
sign, saying. Whomsoever I shall kiss, 
that s.iine is 




BETROTHAL CUP. A cup to celebrate 
the event. Here is the enamel cover 
ol the one eiven to Mary Queen of Scots. 
BETTERTON, THOMAS (1635-1710). 
An actor praised by Addison and Pepys 
and buried in Westminster Abbey. 



uwn I 
Jas 7, E 




BETTESHANGER. A pretty East KliU 
village: its church is seen here. 



O'jOtiiH 2 -.;•. 



REVENUE TICKET 
BETTING DUTY 



WnMMHSES' 



BETTING TICKET. A receipt tor 
betting duty handed by the bookmaker 
at the races to the person making a bet. 




.■:^«c.. 



BETTONG. 

rat, found in 



A iiaine 
America 



lor ine kan-eaiu 

and Australix 



BETTWS-Y-COED 



217 




-Y-COED. A (ainous be.uiix 
i ■■ :■ I'lver. North W.ilj^' 




BETTY, WILLIAM I179»-1S74). \ 

i;unous boy actor, called The Yomiv 
Roscius. When he was 14 the House ol 
Commons adjourned to see him pla\ 
the name part in H.inilct 




BETTY SAW. A kind oi saw used - 
>liapin.i,' the frames of chairs. 
BETULA. The botanical name o 
trees of the birch family ; the leave 
shnwn here are those of B excelsa 




BETWEEN-DECKS. The spaces Le 
twecn twi. decks oi a ship, ''s stvn h-,re. 




BEULAH land. The >and ut rcrst or 
Bunyan's Pil?rim's Progress, as illus- 
trated by this old-fashioned print 
Beuthen. See Atias 12. H ^ 





lievel square 



BEVEL, An insuument winch cm In' 
adjusted to set ofi any b^-vel or am:l^ 
(torn a tlat s.irtace. Tl'ie lower exampli; 
is a combination bevi-l 



BEVEL. In heraldry, a lerm to de 
^^rib;; an ancular break in any sIt at^'li. 
'r-j. .IS illustrated here. 
B^veland. See Atlas to, B 3- 
BEVEL gear. An arrangement ot 
bevelled, interlocking, cogged wheels 
■<et at an angle to each other. 




Antiular .ind ratchet drilling machine 
BEVEL GEAR DRIVE. A mechanism 
connecting a pair ot bevel gears with 
the necessary shafts, and so on, lor 
driving v:irio'us kinds of niucbines. .'S 
seen iii the examples here given 



BEVEL JOINT. A m.T.-. -.r .|.,p,n;' 

i'>i;it, h.iviiiL: Its laces drci^cd to an anpic 
•.MU-rally oi *5 degrcts 

BEVELMENT. A lerm used lor the 
■dLiing of a crystal in the manner 
hnwn in thL- diagram tiere given 

Bevfel Pinion, s ^ n.v.I .'-,- 




BEVEL PROTRACTOR. An instrum. 
ustfd by metal w.rkers and others (■. 
pl'itling out anijlirs. The f'Tm ih-'Wr' 
Krown and Sharpc's Un 
most improvt-d form. 



7-4^ 




BEVEL REST. A clamp lor h.iljm^- 

U'.iiJ ti» J s;nv 11) makini: j bfvellcJ cut. 
Bevel Squ-re. S^.' Bcvil. 
Bevel Wheel. ,S.Tme as Ancle wheel (4. v.). 
BEVERIDGE, WILLIAM (I63;-I70.si 
A bi^iliup ol St. Asaph ; authur '< 
Priv:ite Thnuclit.'i Urfn Rellci»m. 




BEWCASTLE CROSf 

Sj.\iin Cl'rxy, pf 
Uc»ca)tle. in 




BEVERLEY MINSTER. D:. 

church 01 Boverlev it 4.0001 
■^'orkshire East RiJnii! 



/ 



Enclish 
f.if his 

which *J£ I ■ • ■>- ' 

detiil. A iTpiCAi fx««p*r ' 

i^ \ctr. -M* the rrebt 




■HIWI 111^ 
BEVERSTON CASTLE \ h;i. 
mterotu-.j: rui;i .it i^e version. 
Tetburv Gloucestershire 



nciT 



BEXHILL. 

live miles « 






V <;iMje r«or» xr. SttSiei 
*{ ot Histiiwt 'ISSOO* 



i 



BEXLEY 



•>)x 



BIANCA 




BEXLEY 

11 iMituri; shows the Hinli Miect. 




BEZEL. A lacet ot a Kcm lie") • ^"•" 
ihe part ol the setting holdmR the 
iTilliant in place, as seen on the right. 
Another use of the word is for the bevi-1 
■ 111 the ciittin<r edi;e of a chisel 





BHEESTEE. Or blidoslv, the linulu 
w.iler carrier who suprfies wafer to 
Lustonurs from a goat-Skin vessel. He 
jls.i ualLTS roads, as seen here. 



BEY. Ihe title ot the sovereign 
Tunis and also of distinguished ofhcials. 
military officers, and others in Turkev 
This portrait is of Sidi-Mohammed El 
Hahih. Bev of Tunis 




8EZ1ERS. \ ^-lU "I !-•;"- 
rr.lnce, with Koill.i" remain^ .1 noHe 
Gothic cathedral, shown here, and silk 
and leather trades i ^O.OOO). Atlas 7. E ; 



BEYERb, CHRISTIAN i l,soy-19i4). A 
Boer general who led a short-lived 
revol; in the Transvaal in 1914. 
Beyrout. See Beirut. 

BEZA, THEODORE (1519-1505). A 
learned Frenchman who was Calvin s 
chief assistant and his successor 





BHILS. A Central Indian hill people, 
stunted hut well-built, the men bem'^ 
skiUiil hownien. 






BEZIQUE. A card game in which 
scorins depends on combinations ot 
cards ; the queen of spades and knave 
ol diamonds make " heziaue." 
Bhagalpur. See Atlas 22. G > 
Bhamo. See Atlas 22 



I 






"--.^tSiL.^ 



BEZANT A gold coin struck by the 
Christian emperors ot Constantinople. 






BHYREE. The Indian name lor the 
rereirrine lalcon ; also spelled hehree. 
Biafra, Eight 0». See Atlas 25, E A. 
Biala. See Alias 15. H 2. 



BHANG. Indian name lor the dried 
leaves and seed vessels of the hemp, seen 
above, and the narcotic drug they yield. 
BHARADAR. One of the Nepalesc 



BEZANT. Ill heraldry, a Hold rour 
represen.Mne the gold coin of the v 
name. The term bezante (also ca;..,. 
bezanted and bezantyl is used of an 
escutcheon seme, or studded, with 
bezants, as on 'he ri?ht. 



^4. 




BEZANTEE. An architectural term 
fji a moulding bearing a succession ol 
roundels or bezants 




A place in central India 
ir its remarkable Buddhist 
nts. including the Sanchi Tope, 
eatewav of which we show. 



1*1^ < 




BIALYSTOK. Or Bielostok, a Cityo! 
north-east Poland ( 105.0001 Atlas 15, H 2. 



BHOOJUNGALALITHA. A rersona'.;e 
ot the Hindu trehet who is shown with 
Bhooiunsatrasa (on the right) in these 
curious -^nr..se''tat''- ^■ 




BIANCA A term used in music for 

niT'iim "r half-note 



BHARAl. 

„i.i-l, l,,,s <:' :.. ■■■ I « .1- 1:1. 

Bhalgar. See Lloyd Dam. 
I Bhaunagar. See Atlas 22. D 4 



BHOPAL. c ili.o li'.tian nam.- 

blate uriose Beeum 'Which see) is the 
only Moslem woman ruler in the world. 
Here is a view in Bhoral. the capital. 
See Atlas 22. E 4. 

BHOWNAGREE, SIR MANCHERJEE 
b. t.S51). Parsee politician who sat in the 
Housed Commons Irom 1S95 to 1906. 
Bhutan. See Atlas 22, H 3. 




BIANcA. A character in Shakespeare s 
rlav Othelhi who receives the handker. 
chief believed by Othello to show Des- 
demona's euilt. She is seen wth Cassio. 
her lover (Othello. Act III, Scene 4). 



BIANCA SFORZA 



219 




BIANCA SFORZA. Ihe second wil.' 
of the Emperor Maximilian I (1459- 
1519) a?; she stands in bronze at his 
bur ! - • Innsbruck 




BIANCHI. A type of motor-car of 

which u." ^h^.w the 10/30 h.p. open 
touritnj model- 







BIARRITZ. A .klishtuil s,-,. ' 
on the coast of southwest France, with 
a splendid climate, and a masnificent 
beach MS.OOO) See Atlas 7, C 5. 




L 

BIAS. Ill llie i;ain= ul buwU, the 
wiictht inserted in the side of a bowl to 
make it move in a curve : the curved 
course o: i bowi. 




BIB. .„ ^riick 01 Oau>S 

clothiii'^ ot which we show three types. 

r 




BIB. 1 her name ot British edibie 
sea fish belonging to the cod family. 



BIBM 



UL 






BIBB. 1 lie bracket supporting a ship 
^r M trvo. as in this diai;ram. 
BIBBER. A man too fond of drinkinf, 

.:^ r-presentecf in this picture. 





BIBLE. A rncJi;-. .. 
hurlin? heavy itonci. 
BIBLES. A name (jiven to the ilonei 

u' .'d in " holvstonint' " ri <hir"< .l^.-i . 



BISBIENA, BERNARDO ltl7U-l32M| 
Lortiuo Ji'' Medici's secretary, who 
bjcjnie ;i cardinal and a prominent 
man of li'tlers. 

BIB COCK. A tap, cock, or faucet 
which has its nozzle bent down. Th- 
"rjiiiarv domestic tap is a bit5 cock. 
Biberach. See Atlas 13, C 4. 





BIBERON. A vessel with a spout 
thiouiih which to drink, desii^ned lor the 
use of sick persons, and sometimes \\'r\ 
ornate lik-' tliis specimen. 



Ojuft id Ihr (-. 




aiBLE HOUSE. The horn; in ^u.-cr 
\ ictoria Street, London, ul the Britii'-. 
•ni Foreiiin Bible Society, founded m 
I SOI. which has translated the Biblr 

■Ttn nearlv i'Vi.Tv !.inv'u:ii; ■ 




BIBLIOPHILE 

shnwii ' 



BIBLi 





1\ 



i,v*0-«^ 



Pe 'tueuch in Hebrew 



i 



T.pi(t,r 



Ureek Bible 01 the «tf ceiiuf 




TvnJ.lL's Bible 



Mur. 

Authorised Versioa, 16M 




Wychrt^ Bible 

BIBLE. The creates! book 01 all time which was oriffinallv in Greek and :icf.-i». and »is first 
Ironi the Latin in the time of Wyclirte. The lirst translations irom th; orjfinal were done bi : 
under Henry VIII when poor people came to read the chained En^ish Bibles in the diurchss. tt. , — 
knowledge Rivim: strenijth to the Relormatioi. We i:ive here pi?es irom some fimoas B>N« o< ot<itr im. 



BEBURY 



BIDDERY WARE 




BIBURY. A deliRhtluHy p-cturesvjue 
Gloucestershire village with aitaint 
traMed h')uses. 




BICCHIERRE. The Italian name oi 
the scvphus, an ancient Greek twn 
handled cup. 

BICEPS. One of the hamstrings ot the 
lep. as shown here ; also thv larce front 
muscle of the upper arm. See als-* Arm. 




BICESTER. Pronounced Bister, .m 
old-world Oxfordshire town (3400). 
BICHAT, MARIE li77i-tS02). A noted 
French phvsinln^ist. 




BICHORDON. A inuMcal instrument 
with Strings tuned in pairs, like the 
mandoline. 



r^ 


1 '.jrbon 


■■ 'M 


/ 


1 nf 


;' 7inc 
/ 


Si 


< 


> ^; 




^== ^1 


wSw 


i 




BICHROrnATE CELL. In electricity. 
;i jar containing a zinc plate betwi^en 
two carbon plate* in a solution ol 
bichromate of potash, sulphuric acid, 
and water. 

BICIPITAL. In l-otany. a term meaning 
divided into (wo p:irt':. at top or bottom. 
BItkerr. 'an- ;i 1! .ifc ir.j.i (which ■iee). 




BICKERSTETH, EDWARD i ' 
ISOO). Sccrelar\ ol tlv- (.Ivjrch Mi.s. 
sionary Society, 18)6-30. who is seen 
here (left) with his son Edward Henr; 
(1825-60), Bishop of Exeter and author 
nf the hymn Peace. Perfect Peace 




BICKERSTETH, ROBERT i i 

A n^rlK'w ..! Ldward liick^i -l^lli. li^ 
h^-canie Bishop ol Kipon. 
BICKERTON, ALEXANDER (b. lS42i. 
An astronomer and chemist noted for 
his work in popularisinc science. 




BICLINIA. A kind of couch for two 
persons used by the Romans \\'hei! 
r-'Llinine at meals 



k 




BICOLLIGATE. A word me.inini^ c<.ii. 
nected twice, as the toes of a -duck arc 
hy wehs. 

BICONCAVE. A term meanini; hol- 
lowed out on both sides and used notahlv 
"t spectacle glasses 




BICONJUGATE. A botanical wo 

iiie.niinc: twice-paired, like these leaves. 
BICONVEX. Rounded outward on 

I'l.ith sides : tlie opposite to biconcave. 




BICORNUTE. A botanical term mean- 
111'^ endin.i:; in two horn-like tjrowths. 
BICORPORATE. A heraldic chari;e 
showint; an animal with one head but a 
double body. 

BICUSPID. A geometrical term for ;i 
curve with twn cu^p^. nr points. 




Bicuspid teeth 




Position of the bicuspids 
BICUSPID. A term for a double 
pointed or pre-molar tooth. 




BICUSPID FORCEPS. A dentist's for- 
ijps with curved beaks tor extractint; 
bicuspid teeth. We show here two 
types of instruments and an example 
of their jaws. 



Hobbyhorse, iSlS DalzelPs bicycle, ISlo 



SI 


^ '^ ■''•«] 


,'^=' 






'w^' ^^L\ 





Boneshaker. t869 High type, 1S73 




Pneu 



matic Four-seater 

iSoo Lindeni i.So = 




BICYCLE, CHAINLESS. One without 
a chain and liavini; the back wheel 
driven by means of a countershaft, a 
rod operated by bevelled cears. ( 




BICYCLE, FOLDING. An old military 
cycle that folded up and could he 
carried nn the back. 
BICYCLE LAMP, The oi! (I) or acetylene 
(2) lamp used by cyclists. 




Woman's bicycle 




BICYCLE POLO. A popular amuse 

ment jriMiiL; vmiii; people. 




BICYCLETTE. A kind of bicycle 
p.ilented in 1^79 by Mr H J. I.aws«ni 




<J 




BIDASSOA. flK- i;t;; i,\:: i.TMiinv: 
the western part ui the huLiiid.ir\ be- 
tween France and Spain, it is cros^e;! 
bv this intern:itioii;il brid'je 



Tandem bicycle 



BICYCLE. 

machine, 
inventors 
machines. 



A two-wheeled ridiny 
As early as the t7th century 
were thinking out riding 
some of them simply two 
wheels joined by a bar and driven bv 
pushing the feet against the ground, as 
the hobbyhorse. Here we show the bi- 
cycle's evolution. See also Motor-Cycle. 




BIDDENDEN MAIDS. Cakes impressed 
with a picture ot the two legendary 
Biddenden Maids given away at 
Easter ;it Biddenden, Kent since the 
12th centurv. 

BIDDERY WARE. An Indian cralt 
in which an alloy of base metals is 
inlaid with silver ; also called Bidri ware 



BIDEFORD 



221 



BIGELOW-S UGAMENT 




ThL lanious bridge ol Bidcford 




BIDEFORD. A lanious uld port vi 
North Devon. It was the birthplace of 
Sir Richard Grenville 19500). 




BIDENS. A i^tnus oi the aster family 
including the bur-marigold, seen here. 
BIDENT. An ancient two-pronged 
weapon ; also a two-oroneed hoe. 




^ - - . \ small horse lormtrrl\ 
.: . v.- J I" each cavalryman in the 
British Army for carrying his baggage 
Bidpai. See" Pilpay. 
Bidri. See Ridderv Ware. 



» 






f 




BIELA'S COMET. A comet discover^.- 
in 1S26, Somelimes it appeared as two 
Bielefeld. See Atlas 12, C 2. 
Bielsk. See Atlas 15. H 2. 

Bienne. ^ee Atlas o. B i. 



BIER. A Irame u:i which to bear the 
dead to the i;rave. This example is Egyp- 
tian. Its use is shown in the next picture 




lER. This strikii.i; picture h> Cedarstroni shows the luncrai ■ 

•in :ur king of Swevlen. who was killed while invading Norway i:. ; , : 

tldiers used a stretclu-r for his bier. (See also previous picture.) 



iTte 




BIERCE, AMBROSE (h. I!>4.!>. An 
American writer who was last heard ot 
in Mexico in 191 4. 
BIFFEN, SIR ROWLAND. Professor 

ot aiiricultur.il botany at Catnbridjie 
and an e.xpert on wheat and its diseases. 




BIFID. A ro'.anicai term nieaniii.; 
half separated into two pieces, hke the 
petal and leaf illustrated liere. 
BIFLECNODE. In mathematics, a point 
at which a cui ve crosses itself. 




BIFOCALS. A name Kiven to spectacles 
with two locuses on the same jlass. 
BIFOLIATE. A botanical term mean 
ill- two-leaved. Th.- picture is ol 

l.atluTiis hirsntus. 





BIFORATE. A botanical lenn nie,in 
ni; havini: two pores, as illustrated bv 
the stamen ol a species of nightshade 
BIFRONT. Havini: two fronts or laces, 
a term applied to ancient statues or 
vases with two heads back to back, 
especially those representinj Janus 



BIFURCATED RIVET. Une witn a 
shank split into two so that when 
driven throuijh belting the points can 
be turned to hold tlRhtlv. 
BIFURCATION. A lorkinir into two 
.irms. as the lorkinc of a riv?r 




dlQ BERrHA. 

•jcrman f-jnl w 
171') It ) rini 
ricturc lh'.»t lit 




BIO BUD. ihe (tli eii^t ty » r»i 
■••:t: or. Mick cumni pl>-»1 
BI6EL0W, POULTMET 




.1 IrOrtl Iki lSvd£ 



BIG BEN. The (amous bell mnicti stnSo the hour in the Oock Jora ol tbt 
Mouses of Pirlijment. It wcnhs 13 tons, cost t40.0<XV JnJ » oiasd tlta 
>-ir Ucniamin Hall. First CommtssionM ot Works when it wis h one in fSJc TB- 
clock IS popularly called Bit Ben loo Its dial is 12 leet icross. 



Si 



BIG END 



BILANX 







BIG END. The lower part ot the con- 
nectinc-rod in an aeroplane engine, as 
i!liistr;i1ed in tMs ri^'tiire 




BIG EYE. A priatradthoid Iish remark- 
able for its larffe eyes. 




BIG FOOT. A name ot the Australian 
jungle fowl, whose picture is i^iven. 




BIG GAME HUNTING, lb 

powerful and i1ani;-'r<iii. ,viit 




Tu- nv'.i- ■-. . !-, : . . 






H 


^^^^^^^^^Km j4^H 


^^^^^1 


^^^^^^^^^^B d^^H 


^^^^^1 


^■B V JH 


^^1 


^^^^^^■--^ .-dIBH 


^^^H 




^^H 


^^^^^^^H^'^^^^ ^S 


^^H 




jj^H 




H 


^^^^Bfi 1»J^^^^SEHI^^^I 


mI 




9&^v^l 



BIGGIN. A medieval c<Mt m the c.ip 
of a serjeantat-Iaw : also 3 child's 
cap. as shown in Van Dyck's painting 
of James II. which we ^ive. 




BIGGIN. A kind ol nitfhtcap once worn 
in various forms by men. women, and 
children. 




BIGGIN. A local name for a small 
wooden vessel such as seen above ; 
also a perforated metal container (right) 
for ground coffee in a coffee-pot. 





BIGHT. A term suiu.iLn,. - 

a bfiid in a river 

Bignasco. See Atlas 9. C 2. 




BIGNONIA. A group oi American clinih- 
ing shrubs with trumpet-shaped flowers. 
Big Tree. Sea Sequoia. 
Bihar. See Atlas 22. G i. 




BIJAPUR. An old Indian city nuted 
lor its maccniticent tombs such as these. 



BIGHORN. lii. i,..a.a.un sheep of the 
\ rih American Rockies, which is wild 
hilI sliv and has curling horns sometimes 
42 inches long. See also Irish elk. 




BIGHT. A wiJe opening in a coast 
line, as the Bight ot Benin, or the Great 
Australian Bight ; also the loop of a 
bent rope, or any round coil or bend 
except one at the end, as shown in the 
righl-hand picture civen here. 










BIJOUTERIE. A irench word applied 
in f;ni;lish to trinkets and various small 
obiects of artistic value. 




BIJUGATE. A 

n]L' t \vu-p;tircd, a . .... .... u.i Lll. l.iL 

Btkaner. See Atlas 21, D 3. 

BIKE. A local name for a hive or nest 

' '' b-t";. uMsps nr ants 



/ / 





BIKE-SULKY. A Milky (wiiu-li sc:) 
having a hii^h-arched axle, short shafts, 
and low wheels with rubber tyres. 
BIKE-WAGON. A lit;ht form of buggv 
(which see) with high-arched axles anil 
h>w wheels with rubber tyres. 




BIKOS. In Greek archaeoloi;y, .i large 
earthen vase for holding food. 
BIKSHU. A name adopted by Buddh- 
ist monks in the last statje of initiation. 




BIKSHUNI. A buddhist nun. as ' 
in this picture from Tibet. 




BILABIATE. In botanv. a word meaning 
two-lipped, as in corolla of buijle. it Is 
also used to describe a shell with the 
outer lip doubled by a thickening behind 
the true lip. as shown on the richt. 




BILANDER. A siiklII. two'inast.:d ves- 
sel used, as its name suggests, for in- 
land and coastal voyages. It is used 
notably on the canals of the Netherlands 
and Belgium. 

BILANX. A balance having two scales 
hanging by chains from the ends of the 
beam, as shown in the picture. 



BILBAO 



223 




Bilb:io harhui: 




A slreet in Bi!b.i 



BILBAO. The largest Spanish pu^'t un 
xhi Bav of Biscay, with a great export 
Ml [fon ure (110.000). See Atlas S. D 1. 




BILBERRY. Or whortlehcrry. ;i Miiall 
European shrub witli blue-black berries 
ripe in July and August. Our picture^ 
show its flowers and fruit (rieht). 



«a&BB 



BILBO. An 0I.I name tor a very flexible 
^word, so called because the best blades 
c.ime from Bilban, in Spain. 

' U U tf 



BILBOES. A letter often used on 
hoard ships in olden days, consistinii of 
an iron bar padlocked to tlie deck with 
sliding shackles for the prisoner's ankles. 
Bilboquet. See Cup and ball. 




BILBOQUET. A ii.ime lor a gardenas 
m; j-unii:; line. 

BILCOCK. One of .several Eniilish 

' ni;js i.jr the water. rail. 

Hepatic duct 




%odenum 



BILE DUCTS. The tubes through 
which .he bile, a digestive juice, is 
collected from .he liver. 




BILGE. I he bottom ol a Shin's !!«or \ 
thiit part on which she lies when 
a*.;rouiid or in dry dock. 
BILGE BLOCK. One of a series of 
Mocks of timber (A) supportinR the bili;e 
of a ship when it is being built or in 
ilrv dock, as seen on the riirht. 




BILGE BOARDS. The llooriiiK which 
covers the place where a ship's bilee- 

wat.-r cnllectv. 




BILGE KEEL. A protectini; keel set 

on either side of a ship's hull along the 

hil^e-line. 

BILGE PUMP. A hand.pump for punip- 

litii out ihe biltie-water f^rom boats. 




BILGE-WAYS. I he Iwund.iluiti ol i: 
cradle on which a ship rests duriti 
buildinij and launching. 




m 



BILIMENT. An ornamental part ol a 
woman's dress, especially the coveriUL; 
of the head or neck. 






^ 



sr 



BILL. A .statement ol money due lor 
;;oods or (or services rendered. 



Boxn 




llawksbill turtle Duckbill 

BILL. The beak of a bird. fish, rcplil; 

or mammal ; some of the many remari. 
able examples found in the animal km. 
dom are shown here. 




BILL SOAIIO. A t..uj .- «»..-» 



\^'C 



f^^ 



BILL BOARD 

i r ' ■ 1. c i . 1 ; J ■ ■ . * ■■ - - - ■ • - ■ .-**.- -, - 

r ;;■ of the snct'.o* flulf. 

BILL BUB. A ni:-r *^ » Vftv* 

r^rtt-'ilHv (*f the rcnj- 



BILL. I he nam-' t;iven at llarr. ■• 
School to the callini; over of the roll * 

■Kunes. a'i s^^-n in the picture. 



T 



BILL. A niediev.il weapon lurnishcv: 

with a hook-shaped Made : hal^erd■i 
especially had an immense variety < ■ 
points and cuttinc edi;es, and we ei>: 
one as our illustration. 




^l^'^ 



BILL. The point ol a tluke ot 

anchor, as here illustrated. 

Bill. Same as Bill hook C»hich s.tV 




eiLLti. ..-■;. i \i.~ ; -■ 

an ornamental moaldiot lo !».< utapt 
o>( a short cyhnJer or hall oiirJer ; in 
heraldry, it is an oNooc ctarft borne 
horiroT'tallv of verticallv "c the slwdA 



BILLET 



1>M 



BILL OF EXCHANGE 





BILLET. The lodRing allotted to a 
soldier in a house or huildini; by a 
written order. !n the top pict'ir- 
Napoleon is the central figure. 




BILLET. A small loi; or a short thick 
Stick as cut for firewood. Also a police- 
man's truncheon, as shown on the rijjht 




BILLET. A harness strap passuis 
through a buckle : also a loop or 
pocke't receiving the strap. 




BILLET An English name for the coal- 
t'sh PoMichius virens. 




BILLET^E. A t.-nn used in iiei,ildr\ 
\'> describe a held with at least ten 
rectangular billets placed in rows and not 
one beneath the other, but alternately. 
Also called billety. 

BILLET HEAD. A projecting piece of 
wood (A) at a whale-boat's bow to ^uide 
the harpoon-lnie as it runs out. 





BILLETING-ROLL. hi iron-workin- 

machinery, a set of rollers for makini; 

bar iron. 

Billety. See Billeted. 

BILL FISH. A name ^iven to several 

hshes with elongated jaws. The one 

shown IS the common European garlish. 




BILL HOOK. A (orm of small 
curved inward at the point 

cntlinr ed','e. and used for 

I: ;'::,:nint- h.■J-.■^, Jiui 

..(.■ ^h..u,l ii.:! 



hatchet 
of the 

pruninCT 



^^SSB' 



BILLIARD BALL. y\ rill >l 
-."luc ttnnprisithiL: u' 'il Ml billi.lt 




BILLIARD BALL RETURNER. An 

.trr.unieineilt hv which a buH (.iMiiii^ iiitu 
A pocket is returned to the bottom end 
of the table. It is the channel seen just 
.Lb ,v- the talile's lees. 



£^ 



n 



%^\ 



BILLIARD CHANDELIER. One with 
slKulcd lights to ilUinii'uitea biMi.ird tabic. 




BILLIARD CUE. A t iperitu' 
soft pad at the end tor stnk.n;^ the halls in 
billiards (which see). The picture also 
shows the billiard-marker, who is holding 

.1 cu-- rest, and tlie bn.ird fnr scnrnr:, 




BILLIARD ROOM. A ruom in a honsL- 
titled up for billiards. The one shown 
contains a line Thurston billiard table. 




BILLIARDS. A popular indftor i;ame 
played with balls and cues on a table, as 
illustrated on this patre. The picture 
here given shows Billiards in 1710- 




BILLIARDS, GERMAN. A game for 

children played with halls on a board 
such as is here shown, with a com- 
plicated arrangement of hoops, pins, 
holes, recesses, and cups. The balls are 
propelled bv a sprim,'. 




.lacobean billiard tab!- 



TffT^ 



Voysey design 




A billi.ird table's markini;^ 

BILLIARD TABLE. A table with a felt 
Covered slate bed and side cushions on 
which billiards (which see) is played 
The two tirst examples shown Wtic 
made by Thurston and Company, and 
we also give a diagram showing how ;i 
hiiliard table is marked. 



BILLIARD TABLE BRUSH. A brush 

with projecting bristles for brushing 
round and under the cushions of a 
billiard table. 




BILLIARD TABLE CUSHION. An 

india-rubber cushion running round 
a billiard or bagatelle table from which 
the balls bounce off. Two kinds are 
shown here in section. 

BILLIARD TABLE IRON. A large flat 

iron like the one shown here tor smooth- 
ing the cloth on a billiard table. 



BILLI CONDENSER. In wirele ;>. a 
variable tubular condenser capable of 
very fine adjustment and so called be- 
cause of its small capacity, expressible 
in billifarads. or tnousand-millionths 
of a farad. 




BILLING AND COOING. An expression 
derived from tiie courtship nf birds, as 
suggested in our picture. Billing means 
literally to join bills in a caress. 

BILLINGS. JOSH (181885)- Pen- 
name of Henry WheiMer Shaw, an Ameri- 
can hnniorons \'-riter. 




Billingsgate market 




biiiingsgate porters 

BILLINGSGATE. The market and wharl 

on the Thames near London Bridge where 

tish has been sold for 1000 years. It is 

named after an old gate supposed to be 

called after a legendary king of the 

Britons. 

BMIiton. See Atlas 2 1 C '■ 






BILL OF EXCHANGE. An order 
requesting the addressee to pay a speci- 
fied sum on the writer's account to a 
third party, usually a foreign creditor. 



BILL OF HEALTH 



nnitrlt l^tflU-a ai Aiitrrira 



— ;-.sr^:r- - 



BILL OF HEALTH. A Cunsular certi- 
tioatt' i;iven tu a ship's inasU'r before 
Itavinc: a pfrt 

AMERICAN MEftCHANT LINES. 



-^ 



BILL 


OF 


LADING. 


A 


kind of 


receipt 


yiven 


bv 


u ship's n 


aster for the 


freight 


taken 


on 


board. 










BILLOW. A great wave of the sc 
caused hy a violent wind. 





BILLPOSTER. A man who plays a bii: 

part in outdoor advertising. 
Billy troncheon). See Billet. 



BILLYBITER. A nanK sometimes 
liivcii to the blue titmouse, known to 
science a*: Pariis coeruleiis. 




BILLYBOY. ir name lor a 

sailinL;-bjri:. .;.; ist that can be 

lowered when passim; lui'Jer bridi;es. 




BILLYCAN. The can used by the 
Australian bushman as a kettle and by 
Scouts for cookini;. 
BILLYCOCK. One of the names of the 

hnwter hat. 




BILTONG. Sun-dried strips ol ante 

'oro 'T huffnl') meat, eaten raw. 



r 



m 



-^-z^ 


^~ •F-^ 


BIMACULATED 


DUCK. A Eur'.r.-i 


tt.ll, (,li> r , . !i.-. 


'in\lC'll.lt.i 




BIMACULATED SUCKER. A n;li 

louiul ill Jt-'iT British waters whicl- 
fastens on to sloiv.'s anJ shell? by me.irv 
of a powerful sucktT 




BIN. A large receptacle lor grain. Hour. 

■),l ^.. on. 



BILLY-GOAT. Mie liulle doi::cstic i;ual, 
.IS ,t;:ainst naniiv-v-oat. thf slie-'.;o,if 




BILOCELLATE. A lulanKal term 

which means iliviiieJ into two loceili. 
or second.iry cells. The e.\amplo sIuuvti 
is the fruit of the Astragalus, a les" 
niiiunis plant. 

BILSTEO. The Amcric.in name for the 
sweet gum tree or liquidamfc.ir. yielding 
1 liquid resin from which a scent is made 




BIN. A isiinpartnu-iil i r i' 'Ili.s 
w;iv 111 a w-ne cellar. 
BINARY STAR. A star s«n by Ih. 
telescope to consist of two stars ».- 
volving round a common centre ••■ 
gravity. Two such pairs are seen in t'- 
prclure here given. 




BINATE. ur. witK i;i rairs. like t.>; 
I'inate leaves ol Jwarl cornel, here. 
BINAURAL STETHOSCOPE. An in 
strument with two ear-pieces lor 
listening to the heart and lunjs- 








one Off more terminal nuts Jtiacftej . 
.vien cilleJ a binding Krt. 



BINDING SCREW 



BIPLANE 




BINDING SCREW. Au aJjustuDle scrcu 
which tianips two parts tdijether. 
BINDING WIRE. In electrical work, 
the wire us^-d to wrap parts for soldering 

or to form 'i circuit 




BINDWEED. A general English name 
lor plants of the Convolvulus genus. 
Bindwood. "^^-e Iw. 

r 




BINOCULAR MICROSCOPE. One with 

\\v<.> e\ e-pit.'Ces, also called a hinocle. 




BINGEN. All iUd (jernian Rhine town 
near which is the famous Mouse Tower, 
shown here, where Bishop Hatto was 
devoured by mice in the legend See Atlas 
12, B 4. 
Bingerville. See Atla<; o. D 4 




BINGLEY. A luwn in the Yuikshiiw 
West Riding engaged in the worsted 
and woollen industries (19.000). 
Binh-Dinh. See Atlas 2-1. C 3. 




BINNACLE. A case on board a ship 
tor holding the cumpass. It is often 
fitted with lights, though sometimes a 
binnacle lamp (right) is used for takin- 
readings at night. 




BINNEY. THOMAS (I7a^-i^74). A 
popular Congregational preacher tor 
whom the King's Weigh House Chapel. 
London, was rebuilt. 
BINOCULAR LOOK-OUT TELESCOPE. 
A handy kind with two eve-pieces 



Prismatic binoculars 

BINOCULARS. Glasses such as lield- 
gl asses with two eye- pieces. See also 
Prisniatic hinnculars. 




/ 



BINOCULUS. A genus ul crustaceans 

■ it the Branchiopnd group, having their 
hr.inchiae. or gills, on the feet. 
BINODE. A term in the higher mathe- 
HKitics for a point on a surtace at wiiich 
there are two tangent planes, slmwn in 
the centre of this diagram. 




BINTURONG. A species ot civet cat 
with tufted ears and a long, bushy tail 
which it us. 'it- .. limbing. 




BINYON. LAURENCE (b. lS6u}. A 
W'jli-knov> II English poet and art critic. 
BIOCELLATE. Marked with two eye. 
like spots, like some butterfly wines 




How the lilni unwinds 
BIOGRAPH. The camera which takers 
kinenia pictures. As the handle is 
turned the film unwinds from the loaded 
film box at the top, passes to the front 
for exposure, and is then rewound in 
the receiving box below 








BIOMORPH. A torm of decoration 
representing a living being or part of \.\ 
living being. 

BIOPLAST. A nucleus of germinal 
matter observed in the process oi 
healing of a surface wound. 




BIOSCOPE. The machine used in 
showing kinema films, which the 
operator observes on the screen through 
a spyhole in the operating box. 




BIOT. JEAN BAPTISrE (1774-1862). 
.An eminent i r,ncii astronomer and 
physicist, a pioneer in the study of pol- 
arisation of light. BU)tite (right)'a brown 
variety of mica, is named after him. 




in 



BIPENNIS. A two-headed axe 
ancKiit art, the weapon of the Amazons, 
BIPETALOUS. Having two petals 

likt" tiiis enchanted nightshade flower. 




BIPINNARIA. A name gi\cii tu the 
hirval form of some echinoderms, such 
as the starhsh. under the impression 
tiriginally that they were a distinct race. 




BIPINNATE. A term used in botany 
to describe a pinnate leaf when it' 
divisions are themselves again pinnate . 
sometimes written bipinnatiform. 
BIPINNATIFID. A term applied to a 
leal in which both primary and secon- 
dary segments are split almost to the 
axes. The leaf of bagwort, shown here 
on the right, is an example. 
Bipinnatiform. See Bipinnate. 





The Wriv;ht biplane, 1903 




Sir Alan Cobham's biplane, 1926 
BIPLANE. The standard type of aero- 
plane, having two pairs of wings, one 
above the other. The Wright biplane, the 
first that reallv Hew, is here compared 
with that in which Sir A- Cobham (lew 
from London to the Cape. See Aeroplane. 



BIRCH 





Leal 



Catkin 



BIRCH. A slender, Kraceful member 
of the oak family growini; in the north 
temperate zone. 



BIRCH. A rod made of birch twigs. 
;ind used for punishment. 




BIRD. EDWARD (1772-1819). A'. 
.lire painter remenihcr:.! 
.hii-iu hir his historical pictures. 
BIRO, ISABELLA (1S32-1904). The 

lirst I:u1v f.llriw of the Royal Geo- 

's'rap!i\ ,il '■'..•.■*•, 




BXRO or irrcBT 




BIRD-CATCHER. A r7i 
to h:rd snares and decoys. 



BIRD BATH. A shallow vessel lor thirds 
to bathe in which makes a delightful 
ornament in i^ardens 



BIRCH BARK CANOE. A li?ht boat 
made by the Red Indians from the 
bark of the paper birch. 




BIRCH BROOM, A coarse bruoni used 
commonly in gardens. 




BIRCHINSTON. A pleasant seaside 
resort in Thanet. Kent. D. G. Rossetti 
IS buried in its churchvard. 



i 1 



BIRD-fOOT. 



V 




BlRO-CATCHINB SPIDER. A 

l'..iiry stiJlt of the TfM-ics. ncitir..- 

tr-rs ; sr. ,■! hir.U .,,- ..„.., -, ' 



BIRD BOLT. A short, thick, blunt 
arrow ot many types for killing birds 
witliout piercin,i» them. 




BIRD. A great lamily ol feathered 
creatures. Here some of the feature; 
of the bird family are shown in the 
irancolin. The various species of birds 
appear under their own names 




BIRDING PIECE. K r 




BIRDLIME. 
^luCiJT ^ — :irrj on li 
BIRD LOUIE. TV 
^i'ls.te that ei' - 

Blr< ntmnS - 



BIRDCAGE WALK. A road skirlr 
St. James's Park, London, so call. 
from avi.uies that f:iiarles II kept th;- 




or ju«c 



riouer Lell 

BIRD CHERRY. An ornamentjl Euro 

pean tree whose iruit is us.-Iess to man 
but is l.iveJ b\ l-- Is 



BIRD CALL. A metal instrument. 
niaJe in many shapes, as seen here, 
for imitating the calls of birds in order 
to decov them : also called a bird onjan. 




BIRD FANCIER. A J,a;r n cirj- 
rred \\\ cainiMtv ; PirJ Kow. While 
chapel, a famous London bird mirfcet. 
is shown in this picture. 




BIRD OF III8HT. A ;- 
s^tL vtiicti 15 r&rdT seen frv day 



BIRD OF PARADISE 



22S 



BIRMINGHAM 




Lesser and red birds o( paradisf 




Great bird ot paradise 
BIRD OF PARADISE. A species ol 
birds tourid in New Guinea, the males 
ol whicli wear tiie most magnificent 
plumage. There are over liity varieties. 

See Colour Plait 
Bird ot Paradise (stars) See Apus 




BIRD OF PEACE. I !. Juve. a sym- 
bolical bird Ml llw (..l;t iNl 1.111 religion. 
Bird Organ. See Bird call. 
BIRD'S BREAD. Another name lor 

the hitine sinnei'rop. here shi^wn 




BIRD'S BEAK. An architectural 
moulding curved like a beak. 
Birdseye. See Speedwell. Germander 




tilRD'S-EYE VIEW. A view Horn above, 
as s: n ry .i bird Here is Winchester 
Cathedra! as seen Irom an aeroplane. 



BIRDS FOOI. A Mu.ni lierr ,.| the 
Pea family, Leguminosae, so called 
because its long, curved seedpods, seen 
here, resemble a bird's foot. 




BIRD'S FOOT TREFOIL. Or lady's 
slipper, a familiar English wild plant. 
It,s flower is shown on the right-and the 
plant itself on the left. 




BIRD'S HEAD. A kind ol ai'chitectural 
iecoration once used fairlv commonlv. 




BIRD SLING. A throwing sling lor 
iTinging down several birds at a time 




'■s> 




BIRD'S NEST. The w,)nderlul home 
built by a bird lor rearing its younc 
We give here some notable examples, 
nicliulins the esculent swift nests eaten 
bv tlie Chinese 




BIRD'S NEST. A nuil-hcaJ "luukuut 
iiT ^c;inuMi watching for whules. 
BIRD'S NEST. The wild carrot, or pijiQ^- 
sap. ihnwn here , ■- 




BIRD'S NEST. A tunyus of the genera 
(,yathus and Nidularia. shaped like a 
bird's nest, as are these examples. 
Bird Spider. See Bird-catchini; spidL-r 
Bird Whistle. See Bird call 




BIRDWOOD, SIR GEORGE (1Ni2 
1917). A great authority on Indian 
topics and one of the founders of the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 
BIRDWOOD, SIR WILLIAM (b. lS'>5) 
An Engli'^h soldier tainous as the com 
mander -it the '\ti7acs in Gallipoli. 




t. 



BIREME. An ancient galley like these. 

driven by 1 \v v ■-, ■ t i'.niV:'-' rif '<a;\ 




BIRETTA. A square or three-cornered 
silk c.ip uitli stiff sides worn by priests, 
Birjand. See Atlas 20, G 3. 
BIKKBECK. GEORGE (1776-1841). A 
Yorkshire physician and teacher, founder 
i»i m.-chanics instiliites. 




BIRKBECK COLLEGE. \ 

London University lounded us the 
London Mechanics Institution in 1S2.1 
by George Birkbeck and Lord Brougham. 
It i.*^ in Bream's Buildings. Fetter Lan^* 




BIRKENHEAD. Cheshire'^ gi.al Mersey 
port, with over 1 70 acres ot docks, part of 
which we show (l 50.000). Atlas 4. D 3. 




BIRKENHEAD, LOSS OF THE. The 

Iieruic episnde when a Biitish troopship 
foundered off Cape Colony in 1S52. Five 
hundred men stood at attention while 
the wnmeii and children were saved- 




BIRKENHEAD. EARL OF lb. 1^72). 
V E Smith, the fann'us English lawyer 
u hn bc-canie Secretary lor India in IQ24 
.md resigned office in October, 1928. 
BIRMINGHAM. GEORGE A. (b. 1865). 
iVn-name of the Rev. J. O Hannay*'!* 
u -'ll-knnwn (ri^h hnnwrous uo^eTist. 




.m^ - -r 

\'ictoria Square. Birmingham 




Curpi.u.iliuii Street The Calhedr.il 
BIRMINGHAM. A great centre rt the 
English iron, coal, and hardware 
trades (9:?o.oooK See Alias 4. F 4. 



BONNETS— QUAINT AND ATTRACTIVE HEADWEAR OF THE CENTURIES 




I Phrygian. 2 Greek slave or craltsman. i, 4. j Uerniau, aooul 4IH centurv, o tarl> Venetian. ; .\.i.;u. ja.v.in. s tar.) 
nth century. 10 Ostrojoth, man. 11 Byzantine. 12 Chevalier. IStli century. 13 Pori,>a oi Richard II. i» Gtwel m 
15 Marshal. 16 Woman, 14th century. 17 Ducal. IS Officer of Imperial Court. IQ Bonnet o( Frederic Ml. 20 Cham.-. .,, 
!2 Woman 1420. 23 Jew. 24 Edward IV. 25 Of 15th century. 26 Dove of Venice. 27 Of iS4o. 2S Woman. 15th century. 2o Mnan. 30 
31 Elizabethan. 32 Of 1588. 33 Ouakere,^^. 34 Of IS25. 33 Tudor. 36 Of IS70. 37 LowLmd. 3S Balmor..!. ;o Beret. 40 uK-ncarry. 

Army. 42 Baby's. 43 Child's. 44 Canal barge woman. 45 Bonnet rouKe. S« ftgt 26T 



BOOK BINDINGS— THE CRAFTSMAN'S TRIBUTE TO LITERATURE 




Quaesuones Dispuialae S Thoma« 
Aquinatls. 1557 



Latin ;.-... ,.( ; L 
12tb century 



UOlzio della Settimana 
Santa, Rome. 1758 



Oe Andfiuitate BriUniiiciie 
Ecclesial. 1572 



The bAKLlEST hOOH BINDINGS WERE OF WOODEN BOARDS TO PREVENT THE VELLUM FROM CURLING METAL AND IVORY STUDDED 

WITH JEWELS WERE MUCH USED IN MEDIEVAL TIMES. See page 269 
These spiciidid book covers are taken irom Mr. W Y. Fletcher's iwo volumes on English and Foreit^n Bindint^s. puDiisned Dv Koutiedf^c 



BIRMINGHAM 



22ft 




BIRMINGHAM. Th^ Liryest city ut Ai; 
l^aina. U.b. A., with steel, iron, and cutt<' 
industries (I90.noo). See Atlas 30, J 



.irifcjMtaB^^^^MB^^B^UU^^V 



BIRMINGHAM, H.M.S. A i.< it>^h li'^iit 
cruiser of the Chatham class, the tirst t ■ 
sink a German submarine. 




BIRMINGHAM UNIVERSITY. A Je 

\elMpmcnt uf the Qik-en's and M.i^cii 
Cnlleir^s. Birmiri,'Iiuni, chartered in I'xin, 




BtSELLIUM 



BIRNAM HILL. A hill near Birn.un. 
Perthshire, with remains nf Kmi; 
Duncan's camp. It is here seen in the 
distance. There are no trace.s of Birnani 
Wood of Shakespeare's M.icheth. 




BIROTUM. A small two-wliecU-d ve- 
hicle of the time of Constantinf. 




BIRR£L, AUGUSTINE [l\ l^u;. A 
prominent Eni;!ish Liberal politician, 
minister of education and Irish secre- 
tary, also a ijifted essayist, 
BIRRU3. A hooded cloak for bad 
weather first used by the Romans. 




St*"--^ 



SIRS NIMROO. Ilu- rciu.inii m lr.i.| 
>f :tncicrit H-trsippa, wliere is part of tlu- 

tr;lilitiniijl Ti.svi-r of [ial-el. 




BIRTHDAY CAKE A rah, iced cak. 
on whuii Ji: ..Itcii plactil caiulk-s, tlii- 
iiunihfr of which represents the aio- oi 
tlie person uliose liirtliil.iv it is 




BIRTH OF VENUS. A famous paint- 

iin; bv tJotticelh toiinded nri tile legend 
that \'etuis sprani; from tlie s-:i 




BIRTHSTONE. A so-called lucky (em 
varMru; accordillR to the birth niouMi 
of the person to wfiorn it is civen. 
bIRTHWORT. Any plant of the 
Aristolochia i;eiius. especially A. cle 
matitis, the leaves of which are shown 



t 



\^ 



(J- 



itiSACCATE. Ilavinc two pouches, like 
this calyx ot Dicentru spectaMlis. 
Biscay, Bay ol See Atlas 2, H 6. 



^^ A 


■f 


HI 


^^1^ 1 


SI 


^K 


M 


^B 


M 


P 



BISCAYANS. 

.1 ^;':in'-'i iiasj; 



Bischi'Tiju^ 




BISCHERGO. I!u | . ; . r 

which the stririi; ol a violin t'l stretched 

; t the re^Hiired pitch. 





BISCUIT. A Mliall 1-akeJ cake, i- 
illustrate,! bv tlieso eisht familiar kind*. 
They are : (1) butter cracker u> pat a 
cake ij) nesta (i)c\shornc 1 5) custard 
cream (6) fruit cTeam t"> oval inaric 
SI arrowroot water. 




BISCUIT BEETLE. A kind of teetic 
devouring hard biscuits and also fruit 
and drugi ; often called the drug beetle. 



BISCUIT CAUSE. \ -^ . 

CJ ICOl^. C'JT!!".', J-J 



J. 



'^^ 



BISCUIT MACHISE 

■05 bt\CUit5 

.l.mch led ^ 



t 



t 



BISCUTATE. V....- 
shid.is hk; ;;;i^ :-- :> 
BISECTING DIVIDERS. 

Ih.- ^ecs c,> pi> ;;J : 
*•,- i : - — ; Ml of ^---i' 

■ distance b<J» 



«a jDotMr 




BISECTOR. A ; ■; or 

.15 -, .. .< AD dinjcs : 

BISELLIUM. A seat of 

bv the Romans to dislincui''-..-. 

and larje enoush to scat !»«. 



T« 



BISERIAl, 



2'iO 



BISHOP S STAFF 




BISERIAL. In Jecurative an. a duuhle 
series in tthich the elemeDts tace toward 
each other. look away troni each othe* , 
or do niu- and the oth'-r alternately 
BISERRATE. A term applied lo 
k-aves that are doubly serrate or "^aw- 
edeed. ikc- 'his hawthorn 'eai 




BISHARIN. A w.iiuknn-'. IrrUi; I'l ^.i 
callcil Arabs ot the Eastern Nubian 
Deserl :"vftrk lithe, and shncirv-hajr-'d 




V.p 

BISHOP. I I:l' M-:rnuai head ol a 
diocese ol the Christian Churcli, whi 
amon? his <pther olfices ordains priests 
and conseciates churches 




T 






BISHOP .cnessi. A piece carved tu 
•■present a hishop's mitre: it niav be 
lu.vcd diagonally. 
flishoo, Mrs. See Bird Isabella, 
dishop and derk. See Atlas 31. i' 



ijJt^ 



■kWi- 



BISHOP AUCKLAND. Au old burh.ni 

tiiu n, II (>v^ :i vi):il-niiiinv.' Centre. 11 
i.jiUains Auckland Castle, seen above 
Ine imposing i;^th-century palace ol 
t;v bishops 6t Durham (tionoi 




BISHOP-BIRD. A small. lior'^eousiy 
i-'lmired Airican weaver bird with revi 

:t'iii hiact. or hl:ick and veilow rUnnai;: 




":;»«*MB*fte, 



BISHOP ROCK LIGHTHOUSE. Thc^ 
l.'n-l> Bishop Lielii on an outlyine 

I- ri; "^'".ilh ufst r.f the SciHy Isles 




BISHOPS. THE SEVEN. The Church 

men who protested acamst James 11'^ 
'econd Declaration oi Indulgence, 16SS 
and were arrested. 1 hey are here being 
irreeted by the people. 




|;1 nc.:_.___ 

:-'ia«£S^L:S££fir;3i5l£ 




fllSHOF'S SlBLt. ,.- :.,. ...iis 

lation ol the Bible pubhshed in I 5(>S ti 
■ unteract the Caivinistic Genevn Ribh- 




BISHOP'S CASTLE. A L]u.iirit M;i ;- 
'hire luvvn where once tlie ca^lle ul 
the bishops ol Hereford stood (140f>( 
We <how its Hich Street 




Bishops.:;ate tuda> 
BISHOPSGATE. A London street n 
which vtoiul till 1760 one Ol the City 
i^ates seen in the top picture. 




SISHOf'j nAF. uue like j lop-hat 
mil distiiieuislied P\ its strings 

BISHOP SLEEVE. A baccv sleeve like 

111 It ol a bi.-.h. r'- Ir.i.k 




\^itres ol the MiddU Aces 




toth-centur\ riemish mitre 

BISHOP'S MITRE. A rieaJ-dress worn 
t>v bishops 01 the Western Churches 
and sonietin'es b\ other prominent 
ecclesiastics Olten it is ricnlv decor- 
ated like this Flemish examnl-. 





BISHOP'S MITRE. A popuia- name 
lor a beetle. Asopus suridus. which 
infests Iruit ; il is also the tni;lish 
name lor Mitra cpiscnpal'S Tight) a 
s^nnet-spolled <hi:Il ol the Philippines. 




BISHOP'S RING. A rini; wiin 3 J.wel 
s\ mbolisine lidelity to the Church re- 
ceived by a bishop at his coiisecrition 

BISHOP'S STAFF. The pastoral stall, 
crozier, or buijle rod which is one of the 
cliiet emblems ol a bishop's office 



II 



BISHOP'S STORTFORD 




Ceci! Rhodes's birthpiacc 
BISHOP'S STORTFORD. A Hertfo-d- 
sliire marke* town famous as the birth 
place of Cecil Rh.iJes (SSOO). 

m 




BISHOPS THRONE. Fh^ S;;at 

-: ■ . J cathedral nt hi> .:. 

The classical name for it is catludru. 
from which our word cathedral comes. 
We show the throne at Canterbury (left) 
.nd in St. Paul's. 




BISHOP'S-WORT. Another name I.t 
the pia-^t wfiol hetonv. Stachys b^ 
tonica, htfre shown flowering. 
BISHOPWEED. A herb with creepin? 
root a'ld small white r'>Tn"'"5"d f!->'.v?"-s. 
Her.- th: r. :'.■-..'• . 




^hfi.-tini; at i'.iMjv 




: r riile-shootiti-i. We show here public 
chuul teams competini; for the famous 
Ashburton Shield, which is seen above. 




BISMARCK. PRINCE OTTO VON 

!-i^ "St. Prinu- minister >■; Prussia. 
: s -2-90. and chiel creator ol her povvi-r 

1 Germany and Europe. His dismissal 
IS iSoo bv William II is the suPiecI 
■ I Tennlel's t anions Punch cartoon 
Droppi'ic the Pilot. His son Herbert 

rirht) (lS»t.-i904> was German torei:.;ii 
minister under him. 




aiSMA.lCK .,., ,,.. 'u. 

i.'iif.Mia : the Stjt.- capitoi k \howi in 
this ririur--- '•'■SfO). §<e Atlas V\ F !. 
Bismarck Archipelago. '^ ■■ A')i^ i'^ U ^ 



^M 




BISMER. A form fu steelyard wciiTh 

1 ! • machi:ie used in the Orkney Islands. 

BISMUTH. A reddish- white metallic 

I ;uL-;it used for alloys an I in medicine. 





American praine ri>oii 
BISON. A member ol the ox (amiU. ' »' 
Hie American species only a lew surviv;. 
while the' Europe.in is "almnr^t extinct. 




BISON heraldry!. \ r.pr;scntJHor 

■ ,1 t^is-'ii on a heraldic shield. 
Bisque. See Biscuit china 
BISSELL. A type of wheeled carp.t 
swiTcpivj machine li^e this. 



f:^; 



si.a 




.T..U.I1 -c n .. ~;- ^-. ." ■'•"■-'n il.lt 
•I'lJ vivipa'-'vis hi^*.»rt heipc >h'>»p 



11^ 



^S 't \ 



BISrOUitY. A siiull surjtCJl mile 
ijm.J .liter the town ol Pislofium. 
• .^^ Pist.v.i, in TiiNcanw 
Bislriti. Jee Atl.is i«. C i 
Bisthlza Ri»tr. See .\ll.^s 14. D 2 




KumiP jnt) o'd frfc^ M* 




f 3ee. inaflf. laj rd n- N'.i 




^f^^ 

1 



■lattBcy til 



BIT Jh; tv.:'.y rl'' 





<.«*' 



-<»*^^^»^?- 



-r«tT<>rrr- 



10- 



it ■•••*! 



BIT. A stfti U-»l tor fcriM vood 
jrneJ by 1 brace. Tho*; »y-r- -n 
;he lo»-er ricture. frora ' ■ 
ire Sc»>Hi«h. later tir 
«poon. ind sriral Nt*. ^^ 
rhem a bit ei?uirr*J *''tb » jtri"^ aihtze 
and 1 doretailinc bit and its bead 



BITANGENT 



232 



BIVOUAC 




BITANGENT. A dnublt laiiscnl ; that 
is a line touchinj; a curve at two points. 
The straiKlit liiii AB is an example. 
Below is a curve bitangent. 
BITANHOL. A tree widely spread on 
tropical sh"re« and havins beautiful 
featlU" — ■ ' ■• ' ■::■ l-jr- 




BIT CASE. .\ u.i^.ucii 1.1,. ..il.i <ljss 
doors Ml wliiCli bits are kept in a 
harness mnin when not in n^'- 




BITCH. I he lemalc of the do 
sever:i! allied species. 




BITCHAUDANA. A Hindu aaiy 

generally represented with four hands 
;Mid cari-yine a serpent, as seen here. 




BITERNATE. A term applied to leaves 
divided nitd three leaflets each rit 
which is subdivided into three. 
Bithynia. See Atlas l.S, L 5. 



BIT-KEV. 



A key with movable bits 
"'■'■*"■'* ''">n locks. 





BITON AND CLEOBIS. In Greek 
legend, two dutiful sons who drew 
their mother's car when oxen were 
lacking and were Riven eternal rest 
i^y the cods as a reward. 




BIT-PINCERS. A type with curved or 
. iiK.i\e i.ius used by locksmiths. 




BIT-STOCK. The handle by which 
hiirmijbit is held and rotated. 




BITT. A post on a ship'-. <U^ 
to which cables are made ta^t 



BITLIS. uiie 111 llie chiel cities ol 
Turkish Armenia tiu, 000). Atlas 20, D2. 




BITTER BARK. Th.lt of a siiii 
AnieriL.m tree whose flower is shown. 
Bitter Boletus. See Boletus, bitter. 
BITTER BUTTONS. A name for the 
common tansy, a notably bitter plant. 




(4 %,. . - 

H airy Narrow-leaved 

BITTERCRESS. Group ot plants alhed 
to the caijhaues. The leaves and 
tlowers of four kinds are shown here 





BITTER HERB. A name tor th^ 
cjiit;iiirv plant, here seen in flower. 
BITTER LEAF. Another name for the 
lurire-lcaved Ta'inianian wild hop. 




BITTERLING. A miuiH biirMt^.-.in Iim; 
uf the carp group whose flesh has ;i 
hitter flavour. 




LiU.e b,tt.;rii 
BITTERN. A large marsh bird clnsd\ 
related tu the heron. feedJni? on froi;^ 
and lish. and nestini; by the water's 
edge. During the breeding season it 
makes a curious bn iniinir sound. 




BITTERNUT. The N. American swamp 
hickory, the U'af of which is shown. 
BITTER ROOT. An American herb with 
a fleshy root of bitter taste. We shnu 
flowers, leaves, and fruit. 




BITTER STRAW RUSSULE. A r 

ous fungus, Russula fellea, which grows 
plentifully under trees in England 
during the autumn. 




BITTERSWEET. Or woody nightshade, 
a trailim; shrub with a purple flower 
and red pods. 

BITTER VETCH. The injurious tare 
Lentil, closclv resembling the true lentil. 




^M 



BITTER WEED. An American species 
of ruijweed. Ambrosia tritida. 
BITTER WOOD. A tree, Quassia 
amara, noted for its extreme bitterness. 
We eive its leaves and flower. 




BITT-PIN. A lartie iron pin placed 
in the head of cahle-bitts to prevent 
the chain from jumpinij off. The rope 
holding: a cable while bitting is called 
the bitt stopper. 




■«S 



BITUMEN. , . , .;l1i. 

IT .Illy subst.iiices SUCH as asphalt, 
petroleum, and natural ?as. Here 
bitumen is seen burning in Irai. 




BIVALVE. \nv mollusc 

uhn.-- -sii.-ll 1- 111 t\ui pir.c 




BIVOUAC. A . i I 1 

111 the open of Ir.mps on the move, as 
illustrated here by Detaille's fainous 
picture. La R4v.e (The Dream). 



BIWA 



233 



BLACKBERRY GALL-MAKEB 




BIWA. A I'Mir^trini-ed JapaiKse nmsical 
iiivtruiiieiit rjther like a flat mandoline. 
BtZEN WARE. Red or blue-brown 
pottery, often very fine, made in Bizen. 
a province of Japan. This is a teapcpt. 



r^^ 




BIZERTA. A Ir^ii^n ^,.,wil >l^ti..ii 
Tunisia, at the nortliernmost pnmt 
Africa (so.oon). See Atlas 9. E 1. 




BLACK AGNES OF DUNBAR. A Set 

tish heroine who fallaiitiv held Dunbar 
Castle aiiainst the English in IIV.-- 
B'acV Amber. Same ,is Jet (which see). 




BLACKAMOOR. A name lor a colouroLJ 
person now not often used. This 
illustr:i'ion is from Struuu-elpeter. 



BIZET, GEORGES (183S--5). Corr 
Ale.vajiJre Cesar Leopold Bizet 
French musician who wrote the 
Carmen, llrst produced in 1875. 
Bjorneborg. See Atlas |5. C 2. 
BJiiRNSEN, BJdRNSTJERNE ( 
''I'l A threat ti^ure in Nrjrw 
literature, famous for lu^ hist 
plays and tales of peasant lu. 



ecth. 

the 

opera 



1832- 

esjian 

. incil 




BLACK. Known teclinicailv as sarle. 
heraldic black is shown by many lines 
crossing each other, as seen here.' 
BLACK, ADAM (1 7S4.I87-I). The 
Scottish publisher who bought the 
c >"vri::ht nf SC'>tt*s novels for '£.'>7.00n. 




BLACK, JOStPH II 

famous professQ- of 

Edinburgh University 

theory of latent heat. 

BLACK, WILLIAM (I841-9S). A British 

vovelist mthnr ,• A Daughter of Heth. 



chemistry 
who set up 




BLACK ARCHES. Several Brilisli 

moths of the .\olidae family, thoie 
shown here being the Small licit) and 
Scarce Black Arches. 




nBP 



<, 



BLACK ART. T, . ^t^^iu^ I itu.u. 
-specially of necromancy. This quaint 
picture sh'-us the use of the ma^lc circ!.- 
Blackbacked Gull. See Gull 



;:;.^-.-1 



BLACK BEAR 



r 




BLACK AND TAN. A cab ol the coupe 

t>p;; Iir-.t uiL-d in New York in i.s.s; 
anJ so named froni its colours. 




BLAUK 

with hi. 


AND 

ck h. 


TAN. 

ir ) 


A 

the 


back 


o! 

an 


ti 
d 


rner 
light 


hair 


•Isi 


whert 

















BLACKBALL. The smut of whcjt. Ji 
j.ir J.im.K'v-d by it, with a spore anil 
.i spore cerminatinc, beinu shown here. 

BLACKBALL. A small black ball dropped 
into the ballot-box in voiim; a^ain^t thf 
i-lectittn "f a candidate t«> a cl-.ib. 




*^ 



rtuMoK AND TAN. . .- , 

tor an au.xiliarv section of tiic loraier 
Irish Constabulury 



BLACK-BANDED MOTH. \ Lur^pja i 
specu'S r.ir^rlv !.>;ind in En eland, it* 






BLACK BASS. An edible Iresh ..ater 
lish ol North America allied to the perch 
and sometimes weighing 20 pounds 



SLACK BEETLE 

the . 
mjl.- 




• LACKBEIIKT. TIM ua»l-ir Briltsk 

:ataai«. 



BLACKBERRY SALL-MAKtR. ^ v.^..- 
.'\. t^ist' p:ius turci.iLi5., »^...:~ —ike* 
X ijrcc .■>jl call 111 OT .-;ici..-:rTy 
stems. Below ire larvae in celij (J», 
and larra and rura ii>amit>e<: i3 and 4v 



BLACK BESS 



234 



BLACK EAGLE 



BLACK BESS. Tlu- i^alUmt mart on 
which accordins to lejend. Dick Turrin. 
the highwayman (1706-39). made his 
famous ride from London to York. 






BLACKCAr. A liritisll song-bird so 
called fiecause the male has a black 
patch on its head, as seen here. 
BLACKCAP. A word sometinies iis;-d 
tor an apple i^ i.lcJ \." hl.i. k:i ■■ \ 




BLACK BRUNSWICXER, THE. A 

picture h\ .MilUiii sh ■.v.uk the farewell 
of an officer of the lanious Brunswick 
H.issars. WHO wore hlack in memory 
oi their defeat at Auerstadt (tS06). 




A tjrical Hackhird nest 
BLACKBIRD. One of the most familiar 
birds m liritish hedges and gardens. 





BLACK BUCK. An Indian antelopr 
with spiral, rimed horns. About 
32 inches his;li at the >houlder. the 
males are blackish trown above and 
white teneath. 



BLACKBOARD. A iar.^e board with a 
Miiniith Mack surface used in schools 
l.ir writini; on with chalk and crayons 
such as are seen packed on the richt. 
Blackbonnel. 5ee Reed buntinsr. 



BLACK BOLB THERMOIVieTER. « 

solar radiation thernionieter lirst sui;- 
Rested by Sir John Herschel, and 
consistinc; of a sensitive mercurial 
thermometer with the bulb and an inch 
nf the stem covered with lampblack. 
the whole enclosed in a i;lass tube with a 
laree bulb at the end. 



BLACKBOr. llie Australian erasi sum- 
tree, with a thick trunk like a palm and 
a great tull ot reedfike leaves. 




BLACK COUNTRY. The erimy re.ijion 
wesl and imi-th.west of Birminirham. 




BLACK CAP. A sjuar.' ■ : ■ ■ • '"Hi 
worn by a H .eh Court jud.;;e wlien 
pronouncing sen ence of death. 



rf" 



.; !'■<?"»>,-. 



aLACK CARPET BEETLE. An American 
oeetle. seen here with its larva, which 
.ittacks carpets and other fabrics. 





rtLACK CRESTED EAGLE. A hjiul 
som, African bird, chocolate-brown in 
colour with a crest oi black feathers. 




BLACK CURRANT. A British shrub 
nuicli ■iruwn for its fruit, here shown 
with the flowers. 



JLAUK CAT. A name ol the lish;r, 
;-ekan, or Pennant's marten of northern 

\iirth America. .Mustel.l pennanti. 



Ll.ickourn Cathedral, interior 
BLACKBURN. A great Lancashire 
cotton and machinery centre, where ii 
1707 Hargreaves invented the spinning- 
jenny, it is now the cathedral city 
of a diocese (1 30.000.) Atlas 4, E 3- 





BLACK CHERRY LOUSE. An aphis 
pest ol cherrv trees. Here the wingless 
1 id winged females are shown. 
Blackcock. Same as Black grouse (q. v. 1. 




BLACK CURRANT GALL-MITE. A 

p...st "I M.ick currant buds, seen here 
niagniuedi erected on its suckers. 
BLACK DIAMOND. A name given to 
coal, which is carbon like the diamond. 
See .ilso i^arbonadM 
Black Dr>n. See At! 1 . 1 1, !'■ .. 





''.LACK COLLAR MOTH. A species. 
Noctua flammatra, so called because its 
ihorax has a transverse black bar near 
the head, as seen in our illustration. 



PLACK DWARF, THE, 

;co*t's lale 01 tiie same iianiL-. i .iscd •■ 
the story of David Ritchie (1740-lsn 



^» 



^1^^^ 



M 



BLACK EAGLE, crJei of the. 

Knightly order founded by the 
King 01 Prussia. We show its insii 



A 
tost 
nia 



BLACK-EYED SUSAN 



235 



SoUn's lovait^ to bcr Swcc: William, 
liic uicl:fi.'. r.ovrr. 




^ewcsjlli : Printed in this preXtnt Ycic 

BLACK-EYED SUSAN. The heroine 
of a sailor's love drama by Douglas 
Jerrold, produced in 1S29. 
Blackfeet. See Blackfoot Indian;. 




BLACKFELLOW. A t'.i'>:ii.il nam: 
the Australian aboriginal. 




BLACK-flN. \ Miiall British lish 

found on sandy Huts ■ also called the 
lesser weever and stinc-fish. 




BLAlKFISH. a rare British species 
which has been taken in .Mount's Bav, 
Cornwall, amon? other places. 




BLACK FLAGS. A name lor the Chinese 
freebooters who save great trouble in 
Tonkin between iS73 and 1S85. 




BLACKIEA*. , ^ .v.lt 



^ 





SLACK HOLE Of CALCUTTA 



BLACKFOOT INDIANS. A KeU In.njii peuple wnose survivors no» ijn 
the Saskatcheu'.in and Yellowstone rivers. Their name may he due to 
moccasins or to the blackening of their footi;ear with prairie-tlrc .ishes. 




BLACK FOREST. fhe thicklywo.ijej 
ijerni.iii i.jinii betue^'n the valleys of the 
Kliine .iiul Danube. Atlas 12, C4. 
BLACK FRIAR. A preachini; Doini- 
iilcan friar, x^eariin: a black cloak and 
hood over a white habit. 




Blacklriars as it perhaps 




lilaclriar,. Bridge 
BLACKFRIARS. A historic London 
Jistrict between St. Paul's and the 
Ihanies. The top picture shows it a> 
it perhaps was before the Great Tire. 

Black Game. See Black urouse. 



v 




..\lail 



BLACKFLY. A small, biting fly of the 
forests of northern iNorth America. ' 



.ILAUK GRASS. A kind 

. rass, Alorecnrus asrestis. 

BLACK GROUSE. A game bird com 

111. n 111 Sciilland and parts of Eni;land, 

Black Harry. Same as Sea bass (q.v.>. 




BLACK HAWK l.s.l.^l. A t-itl.r 

. ... ....;... ... .... United States »h<. 

u ,is overthrown in 1Sj2. This huce 
statue in Illinois commemorates him. 
Bl3ck-heai)eil Gull s '.iM 




BLACKHEART. 

..illed becau^. the 



skin is nearly t* 




BLACKHEATH. 

>\o\\ sut^urn witii A his 

seen in the picture civen 



te>ric comni.* 
above. 



BLACK JACK. ADA. 

' ir> .^ - 
V,-l:'C:i llU.iJ- - 
s!-. ivcd jli-*neti! ■ 
BLACK JACK. 

Ujtb.-f Jfnli'^f <*-... 




BLACK JACK. 



BLACKJACK 




f ».- 



BLACK JACK. 

-■- .s Mj.k JC 
BLACK JACK. 

Blactiack. 



BLACKLEAD PENCIL. rst 

l^p^ v.i (-^.-.Cil la UK. t<iaz i it;ck o4 
(Tirhile asaallY CBCioMd in c:iu •<<»] 



BLACKLETTER 



BLACKSMITH 



J 3Ult) (500 nivBf , Irt tllttt bf ligljt: 'lllO 
tlKtcttiasiisDt. , ,_ _, 

4. aiiD COB raUir Hic Ivijlit tliat it lliaS 
gOOB : aiiDOoDTlCUlDcDHjClygOtftOlU 
rtlCDiUlUltS. 

BLACKLETTER. ills type used in 
the earliest printed books ; also called 
Gothic or Old EnRlish 
Black Masic. See niack art 




BLACK MARI 

the van, no\^ 
in whieli pr 
prison and the 



til.ick Mar. a 
A. The slanR 
nearly always 
soners travel 
place of trial. 



name li" 
a HKttor, 
between 





BLACKMORE, RICHARD DODD- 
RIDGE 1 1,S25-1000). The novelist who 
uruti- Lorna Doone a famous romance 
■ f fix moor. 




BLACK MOSS. Spanish iiioss, Tilland- 
sia usneoides, used as a sutistitute lor 
horsehair in mattresses. 
Black Mullet. A kind of kin.?fish (q.v.). 
BLACK NIGHTSHADE. A common 
variety ol niehtshade with a vvhiti- 
llower and l-lack berries.. 




BLACK OBELISK OF SHALMANESER. 

A famous rilic in tile British Museum 
bearing records of the campaigns of this 
Assvrian kin;; 1860-825 B.C.). 
BLACK PEPPER. The fruit of the 
East Indian pepper vine, shown above. 




BLACKPOOL. The most popular seaside resort ol the Lancashire cotton workers. 
I or many years its Great Wheel and its copy of the Eiffel Tower were the chief 
features of its landscape. The wheel has now disappeared (75.000). See Atlas -1, D 3- 




BLACK-POT. Atypeol Danish cri'Ckery 
much used as cookin-.; \. ' 1' ;- 
both clieap and eliicient 




BLACK PRINCE. A L"mninu urn sisn 
representini; sometimes the famous 
Black Prince and sometimes an African 
chiel, as in the example we give. 
BLACK PUDDING. A pudding made 
hem the M.">.i of animals. 

ft^ CUSA 




1 Mh-,-eiitur> liacksinilh 




C A R .B S fA :\ J 

BLACK REPUBLIC. A nam 

Haiti, the lirst NL".;ro r;puMi 



BLACK ROD. The gentleman usiier 
tlie Hciuse of Lords who summons t 
Commons tci attend there uhen a rn\ 
speech is read. 



^ 



''^' 



'^: 





BLACK ROT. A fungus that 
erapes, as seen here. 
BLACK SCALE. A parasite making 
scalv covering for itself ini olive trees. 
Black Sea. Sie Atlas 2, P 7. 



Shoeing a horse 

BLACKSMITH. A worker ni iron, as 

aeainst a whitesmith who works in tin, 

r.ci.ilh a mak.-r "i horse-sh<^es. 



BLACK POLL. An American wart 
Dendruica striata. It Rets its name 
from the black feathers usually found on 
the top ol its head. 




The Black Prince receiying the uarter 
BLACK PRINCE 11330-76). Edward, Edward Ill's famous soldier son, so named because he wore black armour, 
renown at Crecy and at Poitiers and overran the whole south of France, even invadrng Spain. Richard 11 was 



His tomb at Caiilerbary 

He won 
his son. 



BLACKSMITH'S CALLIPERS 



237 






BLACKSMITH'S CALLIPERS. L 

pcrs uith tirm i"iiits and a limi; handl;. 




BLACKSMITH'S CHISEL. A sted 

chi^^l held at rii;ht aiitjies by a lony 
handle and struck with a hani'nier. 
BLACKSMITHS COMPANY. A London 
uuild having a charter of J 571. Here 
we show its arm; 




BLAJDDEB POO 



BLACK SNAKE. A lariie and poisonous 
Australian kind : it lifts its head and 
flattens its neck t'ke a rohra whe;i anery. 




BLAOKSOO BAY. One 01 Irjljnd': 
TLiitural harbijurs. in C.i. \\.i\ 
Atlas 6. A 2. 




BLACKSTONE. SIR WILLIAM (1723 

80). Famous iurist who wrote the tirst 
full survey of the En^l-sh l^-ja! sy^t?m. 




BLACK STONE OF MECCA. A six- 
inch oval stone built into tlie wall of 
the Ka'aba shrine in the Great MoSvTue 
at Mecca at a convenient heieht fo: 
pilgrims to kiss it. Its position s shown 
at A in the le.t-hand picture, and on the 
ri;ht we show it in detail. 




BLACK STRAKE. The rancje of plank 
iust above the wales in a ship's side. 




BLACK TAPE. .. .',:: , . 

;tiaterial, such as linen woven m a Ion'.; 

."sth and treated with an insulatini; 
mixture. II is used for binding over n 

onductor lo complete its insulation. 







H«.iwer- Truit 

BLACKTHORN. Or sloe, a thorny 
lirub of the rose family whose white 
■ iwers come earlier than its leaves 
We show also the flowers and fruit. 




BLACK-TRACKER. An Australi.ii 
native p r.iined to track dowf 

Black crini;;i.iK. 




BLACK-VEINED MOTH. A ISrilish moth 
with »hite Willis veined with black. 



BLACKWALL TUNNEL. A Ijnv.ut 

tunnel opened in I>>v7 to conned Popbr 
and E. Greenwich. 6200 feci Ions, it 
Iks under the Thames lor 1220 i.ri 




the Black 
Watch 



BLACK WATCH. I he RiiVal II . 

iiviuiers. .1 .sc"ttish regiment' rai^•.•J 1 
17_M. Thev a'e the 12nd and T-r.l 1 ,,• 




BLACKWATER. An tsse.\ river, seen 

I..-; jt M,ild..n. 49 miles. Atlas 4. II : 




BLACKWATER. \n Irish. u\ct rr.n. 
Ill tlii Kirrv hills and llowini; 00 mil;' 
i.it' Viiu'chal Harbour. Atlas 6. C4. 
Blackwater, Ri«er iCc. Mtith). S.-.- 




BLACKWELL, ELIZABETH ls:i 

BLACKWOOD, ALSERSO". ;, 

A r-i:;~ii lr.u.n,- .i 




BLACKWOOD, SIR HENRY 1 

ls;2t. .\ IJritisii ii.iv.il otiicer » ht» served 
with crcat distinction und.T Nels,>n. 
BLACKWOOD, WILLIAM iIt;6-i$3<i. 
The Scottish publisher who foundeJ 
Blackwood's Magazine. 



f^J 




^ J 



BLADDER CAMPION. < 

1 r r ri: s :^r.. :, ..i.s . . . ,, 


'^..■^%J^ 


vr! 


"-^^- 


W^^ 


^^-^^ 


^r. 




jUk 



BLADOcK rtKn 

Ifrn* i" calif J Ir 
CSV J •>-' -r-t 




BLADDER HERB 

. ■ cj";J h--.ie>- ■.• U 
BLADDERLOCKt. k 

.■a-*.'.-J. K^ifi :s.:j',f-.* 




BLADOERNOSE. 

;: ,■ r Ur s(i>. 




BLADDER-RUT. 

shru^ »h^c.-! C' 
blaJJ;r-s'^ir--J c. 
BLADDER N>0. V. - . 
family »ith round, intiatcsl .^. 
one ^i) vhich is shovn be&iJe it 



BLADDER SEED 



238 




BLADDER SEED. One of the hemlock 
l.i'iiil', hLTirim; bl;ulder-like seed pojs. 



BLADDER SENNA. A European 

shrub ol whicli we show the niediciual 
leaves (left) and (ruit (centre). 
BLADDER WORM. The tapeworm in 
one of its earlier stasres. 

9 ' 



h i W j T l r- 



Intermediate Lesser 

BLADDERWORT. A fiig plant senus in- 
cludine a water species with tiny bladders 
In which it entraps small creatures. 




BLADDERWRACK. A seaweed hav- 
ing' elobular air chaitibers on its fronds 
bv means of which thev float. 
Blaeberry. Same as Bilberry (which seel. 




BLAENAU FESTINI06. One ut [he 
chief Welsh slate-quarryim; towns 
amid the Merioneth mountains 16700). 



tv""'^:-.y- ■- ^ :f.-~^\-, - — ?P^..; 



f« 



T1ftlSife__ 



L.^ ■ 



BLAGOVYESCHENSK. A ^■reat Siberian 
miMin; centre on the Amur (65.000). 
See Atlas 21 Q j 





BLAINE, JAMES G. ISio-oi). Ai 
American Kepublican leader betweei 
ISiO and tSc)2. 

BLAIR, HUGH (|-t8-lS00). A fammi. 
Scottish preactier and man of left t-. 





.irryside, Blair Atholl 



r»v.>; "io.r- 




Blair Castle 
BLAIR ATHOLL. A Perthshire village 
famous lor its historic castle of the 
dukes of Atholl. See Atlas ;. E ^ 




BLAIRGOWRIE. A Ir int-i'n.u ur^ fiwu 
i'l Perthshire. Here we show its hue 
war memorial (4400). 
BLAISE, ST. (martyred Jt(<). The 

p.itrirn nf wfiol-conibers. b.\- :'i '- ■ 




aLAKE, ROBERT (I5y0-I6N7). The 
ereat admiral of the Commonwealth. 
«ho beat the Royalists. Dutch, Moors 
and Spaniards in turn and hrmlv estab. 
Iished the supremacy of England at sea 
He was a Bridgwater. Somerset, man. 



BL ANKENBERGHE 



5?!= — ^^-i^T'CU,)* 




A plate from Blake's Book of .l..b 
BLAKE, WILLIAM (1757-IS27) An 
English mystic and poet, now acknow 
ledsed as one of the greatest. He was 
also a wonderfully ima-einative eneraver. 



.igi^l^ 







BLANC. A sdver cciin of Henry V! 
used in France (top picture) ; also a 
Ircnch silver coin (lower picture) 
lirst issued in the 1 4th century. 
Blanca Peak. See Atlas 30, E 3. 




BLANCHE OF CASTILE. The mollicr 
"i Sf. Louis of France, wlumi she is seen 
feachin.i: in this picture. 




BLANCMANGE. A lelly made with 

: melass or i^elatine. milk, and su'.^ar 

r «ith cornllnur or arrowroot. 
Blanco, Cape. See Atlas 2S. C 2 




»'!ife.:iL 



BLANDFORO. .\n "Id u,,rld town 0.1 
' i' ' -tshire Stour with some pic- 
I'uildin.ss (3500). 




BLANDINA, ST. (d. 1771. One of the 
'Jiristian martyrs who suffered death 
vitii St. Pniithinus. Bishop of Lyons. 
ilt.r hcni'.! e.\posed to wild beasts. 




BLANO-SUTTON, SIR JOHn : l-.: 

A famous suri^C'in .t; ^\uKll.■^e^ )i>.pit 
BLANK. The central white spot d 
archery target : the bull's-eve. 








dLANKENBERGHi. A bathini; resori 
on the Belgian coast. See Atlas 10, B i 



BLANKET 



23!) 



BLATEIXA 




BLANKET STITCH. A stitch used in 
crewel work and the embruidery for 
edging woollen, linen, or silken fabrics. 




.J 
BLARNEY STONE. A stone (A) at 
BLirney Castle, s.iid to Rive a persuasive 
tnir^ue tn th'ise wlm kiss it, a difticult 
and' somewhat perilous feat owini; to 
its position 



BLANQUILLO. A name lui .^..er.ll 
American fish, among them the gull 
blanquiUo. seen here, a red species 
found oft Florida and the West Indies. 





BLAST FURNACE. A furnace into 
which air i^ lurceJ at hish pressure lor 
smeltin; ir(m and other ores. We cive 
in the lower picture a diagram showinc 
a section throm;h one. 



BLAST PIPE. 

;he chinK;.-\. .11 hctc isju'i' 



Blastiiii; a sulJincucJ wt^ 



s. 





BLANTYRE. The Lanarksliire cnai 
mining town where Livinirstune w;ts 
born. This picture shows his birthplace' 

f 1 S.OOOK 







BLANTYRE. Nyasaland's capital. iianu J 
after Livinestone's birthplace (6000. 
See Atlas 26. G 5 



BLAST. llK- "^.' "1 ■' 
■nr breaking up mater 
in',', mining, and renin 



lals. as 



in viuarr>- 

structiiMls. 




BLAST. \ rii.Wii^. a. mat oi tlie 
iurccJ into a metalluri;icai lurnace 
accelerating combustion. 
dIast-Engine. See Blower. 



BLAST FURNACE CHARGER. \' 

,ipi-u.ltus 1-: i.,klile lip I1-- "t- ■'''•' 
jlscharaing u into the l-l.isl lurnac.v 
lii the picture a cont.iiiier filled «iln •. 
cm be seen a^c, n'-nv 




BLASTING CARTRIDGE. tspl.MV. 
, ,,[ce ir .1 CIS.- iiisert.'d in a 'I'Ck bon 'c 



r 



BLAST RECORDER. 



BLASTING NEEDLE. An instrun-.enl 
lor piercing the tamp o( an explosive 
charge to .tdmit the luse. 




BLATCHFORD. ROBERT ^ IS.M" 

A ..■ll.S.-,.»n EC -- .--iliSt »nJ 
j.it 1 •. r; ■■ a ■•; N.noui-'. 
BLATELLA. The German rolcB, « 
r.-iav.''.". ■: the comrtioa cvvkroi^h. 



BLATTA 



■2W 





BLATTA. A i;eiUlS ol mi,, 

iiisccis whicli includes thi' C'MiHii"n 
cockroach. In the picture (:iven here 
the American blatta is shown. 
BLAVATSKY, HELENA PETROVNA 

(1S31-*M). A Russian spiritualist. iKitui- 
ahseil as an Amc-rican citizen. who becanu- 
well kntiwn as one ot the founders of 
the Theosopliical Society in 1875. 




BLAXLAND, GREGORY. An .Xiiln 
lian explorer who in LSI 3 crossed the 
Blue Mountains tor the hrst time and is 
commemorated hv this statue in Sydney 
BLAZING A TRAIL. MarkinR a path 
throiii:h a forest hy chipping pieces ot 
■■"ark from the trees. 




BLAZING STAR. A term son, elm 
u,-.ed in heraldry for a comet used as 
a charee on a field, as here seen. 
BLEACH FIELD. A place for bleach- 
inir or whitenini; cloth, which is laid 
out on the ground in lon^ strips. 




BLEAK. A small river lish about live 
inches lone, whose silvery scales were 
used for I'nintr imitation pearls 




BLEA TARN. A reauly spot in 
Langdale. in the English Lake district. 



BLESSINGTON 




f^«<tSf% 



BLEEDING AGARIC. A species ol 
tniieii^. Aeatieus h.ieinorrhoiaarius. 
BLEEDING BASIN. A vessel of earthen- 
w.tre or pewter, liradnated inside, for 
receiviii'.; the blood of a patient durine 
a blood-lettini; operation. 



m;j^ 



>^ 




BLEEDING HEART. A n.uiie lor 
several ornamental plants, includine 
the Chinese Dicentra spectabilis, the 
heart-shaped llowcrs of which are shown. 
BLEEDING TOOTH. A snailshaped 
shell, Nerita peloronta, so-called 
cause of its red marking. 




V ivip.irous blenny 
BLENNY. A widely-spread genus of 
about 40 small fishes distinguished hv 
tentacles above the eves. 





BLENHEIM PALACE. .\ali..u 1. ea ;-• 
the Duke of Marlboroui^h in 1704. 
Standing in a noble park' near Wood- 
stock, Oxfordshire, it was designed by 
Vanbrugh. Parliament giving £500,000 




Bleriot crossing the Channe: 
BL^RIOT, LOUIS (b. 1872). A famous 
I rench pioneer airman, inventor of a 
monoplane in which he flew across the 
Channel in 1000 



BLENHEIM SPANIEL. A small spaniel, 
similar to the King Charles, named 
after ISlenheim Palace. 




Jesus blessing the children 

BLESSING. The act of benediction 01 
the la\'ing-on of hands. 




BLESBOK. A large 
antelope with white 



XL 
BLESSINGTON, COUNTESo OF 

17S9-1S49). The centre ot a brilliant 
literary circle and famous for her 
Conversations with Lord Bvron. 



BLETCHLEY 



2?1 




BLETCHLEY. A quul l.mii in nurthern 
Buckinijliamshire known as an im 
portaiit raitwav iuiiction f';200). 




BLEWITS. All t;dibli mushroum :A tlu 
late autumn with a tiat upper surface 
;ind a thick stem stained violet. 
BLIAUT. A Eiarment worn by both 
sexes in the llth. 12th, and 13th cen- 
turies. Men wore it as an outer 1,'arment 
especially over armour, as seen here. 
Often spelt bleaunt. 



^^^n 



eai 




ii#nj;fi^-^ 




BLICKL.NG HALL. 

Jacobean houses in all Eniil.m.l luar 
Aylsham. \orfolk. 




BLIGH, WILLIAM (1 75^-l.Sl 7). Tl,: 
commander u( the Bounty (which sl-. 
when the f;imous mutiny occurred : 
17S9. He was set adrift in a sm 
boat, but survived. 
BLIGHT. A word for a plant disease 
caused by funyi or aphides; a damaged 
r''t:?'o ie^if -s vhnwn in this picture. 




BLIGHT BIRD. 1 he name in Nov 
Zealand for a member of the Zosterops 
tribe of small birds, which clear fruit 
trees of irlitrbt. 

BLIND, MATHILDE (1841-96). An^lo 
German poet and biographer, step 
daughter of Karl Blind the revolutioni'^t. 



i 



I'.'inJ alphahct. Moon systeiii 



■>% 


9 a 99 9 » oa 


»a» 9 


Thv- Braille system 



Si-VVWXYZ. 



BusTza. um 




i 



lulls blind alphahel 



viUl "ill; 



t! 



string alphabet for Ihj blinj 

BLIND ALPHABET. A System nl 
characters lliat blind people read with 
their liniiers. Sione of the best known 
examples are here sjiven. See alscj 
Braille and Moon. 




BLIND ARCADE. A series of arches 
eiliimns .1^ decorations to i wall. 




BLIND DOOR. A feature ol arclule. 
t ir.il design introduced fi,r the lake ol 
symmetry and identical in treatment 
with a true door, hrit closed with a 
nail. We five two 'tamples 




8.IN0 STITCH 



BLIND FISH. Anevelesi h^h. Anuljop- 
■ii^ spelaeus. found in the Mammoth 
Cave if Kentucky. U.S. A 




BLINDFOLD. Ilav.ne the evcv c^ere. 
or bandaijed so as to be unable to see 
The li:,"are of Justice in sculpture i 
ijenerallv shown thus 



3LIND ARCH. One lutli n.i "Pen 




ai.IND AXLE . •..: 

otherwise, and does not coninninicate 
power : also called a dead axle 




BLIND BEETLE. I he pupular nam. 
inr anv iaree lamellicorn beetle th.lt 
-eems blind when living' at ni,s;llt. 
BLINDCORD ENDS. Wooden buttons 
of varinus shapes fixed to the ends ol 
nlindcords to i;ive them a finished 
appearance and to serve in the same 
way as handles. 





BLIND tlORET. 

'nl-rium i»hu"(: 
■'■ru-teJ t n.-- 



1 



BLIND WALL. 
BLIND WtNOOt 



BLINDMAN'S BUFF. A.i a!wa>. 
p.tpiilar injiior eanie. here illustrated 
in Sir David W.lki.\ l ,',<■■;. i-a--\toie 



BLIND SNAKE. One ol the burro> 

,.,,.,, I ,..;,tv -v:.!' -^''fv F!ld«'".oit irv fy 



BLINKt, WATER 

...^ ... .^ ..< !h: vt. -: 




BLIND SPOT. 

.111 the retiua ol th; eve niser.,siMe t. 
ln;ht and colour. We sttow its robtioo. 



BLISTER MITE. > 

■■'.\c. Eroirhje* 
^r.hin the tissue 
tree leaves and dis: c-re; 
reJJish-yello* bluten. is 



BLISTER RUST 



242 



BLOCK TRUCK 




Bl.tSTcR RUST. A d s.asc uf the wlutv 
piiK- caubi-il i).v a tungus Known lu 
•.c cncL' ^i> I Td lartuim riiMCola. 



If 












iSiiii 




w/)'mm 


iiii^^l'^ 


lei^H 


Hbb 



BLOCK CONDENSER. A small li.tetl 
c.mdi-nser. sci-called Irnm its shape, 
and not to h; cunliissJ with the blocking 
condenser (which sec). 



BLISTER STEEL, (aiule stc;l lornuJ 
inim wr..ut;nt iron by the process oi 
cementation and so-calleJ because oi 
its blistered appearance. 
BLITE, SEA. An English name (or 
veashore plants of the goosefoot famih 
.nul the '..-"ns ^nae.la 



BLOCK I lie perch to which 1 
..ri'K- .I'Ul other l.ilcois were I 




BLOCK. A portion ol the bart 
isiilaled by [ractnre, as shown 
8L0CK. A stone placed by the 
10 help horsemen to moirit. 



h'» cii; 

here. 

roadsol 



BLOCK. One or more grooved pulleys 
m a frame provided with a hook or eye 
(or hanging up. We show si.\ types. 



^i 





Blockhouse. a square, stoutiy- 

liiiibercd dwelling which can be de- 
fended in case of need. This one at Sault 
Ste. Marie. Ontario, dates (n.m iSiT. 




CLoOK, PERCHED. \ M i ' i i 

I'll in an isol.Ui-J aiul lott\ poiitiun I'l 
the nieUiiig ol the ice in days .gone by. 
BLOCK, VOLCANIC. A large an 
irregular fragment of volcanic rock 
(Mown out hy an explosive eruption. 



S/oiJff/iQ Coarse 


^v. " 






;'/';.'/ 




^] 



BLOCKING CONDENSER. A small 

nxcd condenser lor .ihecling the path 
ui certain electrical currents according 
to its place ill the circuit. 
BLOCKING-COURSE. A course of 
masonry laid on the cornice of a wall 
.Old lor'miii!: the crown, as slin« n iii. 




BLOB. A »otJ I'.r tie Ininr i 

seen on a [n-e"> leg. 

Blobs. See .Mangold. Marsh. 

BLOCH, JEAN DE (lS3r,-HKa). A 

Polish economist who in The future ol 

War (189X1 argued that a tiuropean War 

would have such shattering results as 

to be inconceivable. 



BLOCK. A piece of « I li.i, 

like a head on which barbers used tr 
dress wigs in former days. 
BLOCK. A massive piece ot wood with 
a space to receive the necks of persons 
to be beheaded. We show the block 
and axe at the Tower ol London 



CLOCK. I he plate, mounted on nietai 
or wood. Irom which a picture is printed. 
The upper block here is lor printing a 
halt. tone picture, and th' 
.'ii' a line picture 



lower one 



BLOCK BRUSH. One with wire instcal 
il bristles, lor scrubbing down butcher.' 
blocks and counters. 



BLOCK TRUCK. A 5trongl>-lniill truck 
without handles for moving heavy 
! oxes and other goods The lop and 
under -ides ot one are here shown. 



BLOEMFONTEIN 



243 



BtOOD PREABAWT 




BLOMFIELD SIR ARTHUR W. I.^^-- 
99). A ndted cluirth nrcliitect, >(>ii 
of Bishop Blomlicid (nilhl). 
BLOMFIELO, CHARLES J. 1 1 786.1SS7.. 
Bishop 01 London 1S2S-57. under wliom 
200 new churches were buiit 



bLOND LACE I ice nild^ ol Sll) 

ill Ml ichel the name havin ■ 
Ir I vJIcmness, It is no« 
111 I Iks 1 tiler iciluurs 
ULOOn, THOMASi I I(>s0). A notoruiu 
losh ailvenlnrcr whose chui expioil 
was stealir.K the Crown jewels Irom the 
Tower in I67t Charles 1 1 pardoned him. 



BLOOD CORPUSCLEi. .sn:.!!! CvMio ..1 
til- llind plasma ol tiie Plo^^l. Thev ar; 
oi two kinds, red and Ahile The 
picture shows tlie disc-like red cw- 
puscles. and white corpuscles jbsorMnc 
typhoid lierin-;. 



8L000 PHEASANT TSi A {•;--- ', it; 
p.'uas.?-;. ivj-;d Irom ilireJ irxrbiitv 



BLOWER 



BLOOD ROOT 





BLOODWORT. A name given ti> sever, il 
plants because of their ccilour. We slu.w 
'lanewort, Sambucus cbulus (left), ami 
red-veined i1"ek. Riimex sanuuineus. 



BLOOD ROOT. A North American 
herb with a laree white flower and a 
creepini! rootstock with oranRe-red sar 




BLOOD SIGN. 

a t.itti'" or other 
BLOODSTONE. 

Screen variety of 
blood-like spots ■ 
for seals ; also a 



Amoni; the Red Indians, 

mark of kinship. 

Or heliotrore. a dark 
quartz variegated with 
.f red jasper, often used 
name for red ironstone. 




BLOOMSBURY. I he once fashionable 
uuarter of London in which is the 
British Museum. Here we show Blooms 
bury Square. 
Blossom. ■= - HI n. 




BLOUSE. A loose upper Rarment worn 
l^v women and Rirls and also by Con- 
tinental workmen, as seen on the ris;ht. 



BLOSSOM-RIFLER. A luinie for 
>uiibird of the Cmiuiris aenus. 





BLOUSE HANGER. A simple frame on 
wlucli ,1 IMouse can be hunK to prevent 
creasinc ; often the hanser is made t., 
fold and pack in a case for travelling. 
BLOW BALL. The downy head of a 
dandelion in seed. . 



BLOODY TOWER. The 

Tower of London in whii 
and his brother were murd; 



Ldv 
:d. 






BLOTCH-BACK MOTH. A populir 
n.une lor the hook-tipped poplar mot 



BLOW BALL. A kind of table football, 
pl.iyed by blowini; throuRh tubes. 
Blow Cock. See Blow-nff cock. 



BLOOD TRANSFUSION. The trans 
ferrin? of blood Iroin one hvnv.; person 
to another. We show the app.iratus used. 




BLOOm. The velvety down on a fruit, 
:is on the left, or the blossom of a 

lloueriii'.; plant or tree. 



BLOOD VEIN MOTH. A specie 
r.ion in the south of EnRland. 




BLOOD VESSEL. 

capillary throURh 



An artery, vein, or 
,.. vhich blood circu- 
lates. Here the red and white corpuscles 
are shown in the Wood vessels- 






BLOOIYIER, AMELIA JENKS (fSlS OJ) 
An American dress ref.irmer, who in 
1851 attempted to introduce the 
trousered costume in which she appears 
on the left. Bloomers (rinht) are named 
after her- 





BLOOD WORM. The blood-red larva 
of Chironomus, a midse, here shown 
masnilied and caught by a plant. It is 
found in cistern water. 



BLOOMFIELD, ROBERT 11766-1823) 
An English shoemaker and pastoral 
poet, author of The Farmer's Boy. 
BLOOM HOOK. A large pair of tongs 
for handling crude masses of mafleabie 
iron known as blooms. 
Blooming Mill. See Rolling mill. 



\IA 



1. lotting pads 
BLOTTING PAPER. The universal 
material for drying writing in ink; its 
use in the 15th century is recorded. 



Hydraulic blower 
BLOWER. A machine for forcing air 
into a furnace, mine, ship's hold, 
building, and so on. Some are worked 
by steam or electric power, others by 
hydraulic or water power, and others 
by hand. There are many kinds, but 
most fans are worked at high speed. 



BLOWER 




^ 



BLOWER. All iron plate placed so ;r 
to close the upper part of n fire crati- 
nnd iticreas^ flie itraiiizht 




Ej!gs Larva Pupa 

BLOW-FLY. A relation oi tlie house-lly 
which taints meat by laying its eRs? "" 
it- it is bicrtrer than the house-flv 




BLOW GUN. A .ons tube through 
which savages blow licht arrows. Thes:- 

pL^npie ar? jivi'M-; ot Fi'tiiiior 




BLOW HOLE. 1 he nostril on the top ot 
a whale's head through which it ejects 
water it has strained in its ninnlh. 




L 



BLOW HOLE. A hole in the ice throuRh 
wliicli seals come up to breathe 
Eskimos wait at such places to speai 
them as thev appear 



BLt'LH 




BLOW HOLE. A Hole in the rucks 
!!.ront,'h which is spouted water from 
■ ives hreakiiic on the shore. 




SLOWING BALL. An uulij rul-lHr I'.i 
with a net-covered reservoir and tnbin 
tnr drying blood pipettes (which see) 
Blowing Engine. See P.Inwer 




iiLOWING MACHINE. In liat-niakin-..'. 
. iiiaeinne for separatini; hairs from fur 
iihres. The mass is fed by rollers into 
the machine where it is disintegrated and 
thrown up, when the hairs and dust fal! 
'v ■jrnvit\ and tli.' fnr passes on. 




BLOWING MOULD. Hiniied mould us.'>< 
in niakun: bottles and other classware. 




BLOWING OUT THE 

_;ainc in winch the pli'. - 
out a candle while b' 



CANDLE. A 

: , li.ivj 10 b:. u 




BLOWING SNAKE. A non-venomons 
s;--cies o tl:e Eastern United Slates 




BLOWING TABLE. \., in"-'^ 

consisting ol a table with doublc-aciioi 
l)ellows and a set ot valves with openini; 
to suit organ pipes. It can be used as ; 
bl..w-pipe table tor class. bloum-e. 



-h 



4t 




BLOWING WtLL. A deep blnn hoi. 
ulncii seer up which the sea drives in 
stormy weather. 

BLOWITZ, HENRI DE ilSaS-l'WIV 
The famous Pans correspondent of Th 
Times for a generation 




BLOW-LAMP. A plumber's hand lamp 
in which vaponrised paralhn is forced 
fr.'in th.' iMirn.T as a ■ •' ■'' ■ "'■ • 




^fh 



BLOW-OFF COCK, for dischjreincsedi 

inent Irom a steam boiler. We sh.^« 
a I-I..M oil b-h c.'Ck an.) b.^.- .-...k 




BLOW-OFF PIPE. Fipc t»r J:SChJisui5 
condensed steam from a cylinder, as at A 



BLUBBtK 



V — 



ZA- 



BLUBBER HOOK 

h.*'^ ''^ hir.Jtiir 



BLUBBER SPADE V 



M 



BLliCMER 



URHAROT VON 



BLUCHERS, i 

(.iiv.cJ .itt.-T f;;1j ' 
iS WclUnctor.s ». - 
litwton They hjvc KOitiXt 



ilta 
I Ike 



U I 



I- 



BLUDGEON 



2 111 



BLUEFIELDS 







IP 


^ u-^ -^^ , 



BLUDGEON. A luavy wood.;!! rliil' 

!• tri ,1 ,ipp.\ii -^ III lu-ralilry. 




BLUE ANAMFSIS. A lish fouiul in tlu- 
Indian and I'.icinc Oceans and kiinwn tci 
science as A. diadematus. 




^^\ i-4^ 




BLUEBERRY. An .American shrub 

a ni;nn seeded, edible, bhiisll-hlack h 
lure shown witli the flowers 



with 

err\', 




-rMIMIl Al. AU.-'1IM''1 
i;UI 11-11 INI'IA 







BLUE BACK. A kind ul salinnn 
extensively canned in (Veyun. US A- 



■>, 



®- 



<- 



BLUEBACKEO WRASSE. A lish Iciund 
in the Pacilic Ocean and known tu 
science as Glyphidon uniocellatus. 



BLUEBILL. The blue duck nl New Ze.i- 
land, which trequents mountain streams 




BLUEBlRD. A common North Ameri 
Lin lurd resembling the robin, but 
i.ireer. with a sky-blue back and a 

tiuit chest. 
BLUEBIRD. A bird of the renus Irene. 

We show the lairv bluebird of Indi.i- 



BLUE BOOK. The name for a British 
Parliamentary report, because of its blue 
cover; but the name is sometimes loosel> 
used for other otticial docnmentS- 




BLUEBOTTLE. A popular name, due 
to Its colour, lor the cornflower, known 
to botanists as Centaurea cyanus. It is 
.1 common wildllower of British corn- 
helds. On the right is a heraldic 
example of the flower. .See Blow-fl>. 
.Uso known l\v this name. 




4i 



BLUEBEARD. A lanious character in 
folklore uiid ill Perrault's fairy tale wlm 
killed six successive wives because ol 
their curiosity. Fatima. his seventh 
wife, is si.'en on tlie richt. 



MK^- 




/ .. Ii 


' . ... 



iLuis play bv 
ry or a ^'"'^■ 



ii 









BLUEBELL. I liiel 

urows thick in E.l^;iM, .,...'m. m -, ring ; 
the name is also given in Scotland to 
the harebell (right) 



BLUE BIRD, THE. A l.ln 

.Maeterlinck tcllim; the story 

,ind girl in search of the blue bird 

happiness. This is a scene from it 




BLUE BOY, THE. One of the world's 
most famous pictures, by Thomas 
Gainsboroir^h. 



BLUE BOAR. A common sign for ; 
inn or tradesman's shop. 
Blue Bonnet. Sameas Blue tit (whichsee). 
BLUEBONNETS. A name given to the 
soldiers of Scotland when it was a 
separate kingdom, because of the blue 
bonnets worn by them. 




BLUE BUCK. A name for the duiker- 
hok a small South African antelope. 




..> » 



Lari^e blue, undersidt.' 



%0 



.\nd its iiiulL'r'-ii.L 



C::*t7 



s. 



\.,.y 



\ ,1 I . . . :i ,i:. .111.1 leill.lk- 
BLUE BUTTERFLIES. Small butter- 
flies whose wings are blue above and 
"Iteii have dark eye s,pots below. 




BLUECAP. A lish of the salmon kind 
uitli blue spots on its head. 





BLUECAP. Name iiiven toseveral plants 
bearing blue flowers, including blue 
scabious (left) and Meld scabious (right). 




BLUECAPS. A British edible fungus, 
Tricholoma nudus, growing among dead 
leaves in woods and shady places. 
BLUECOAT BOY. A pupil at Christ's 
Hospital, where the long blue coat of the 
loth century is still worn. 
Bluecoat School. See Christ's Hospital. 



-«CI 



"■ 'bbAfiniSi."ji»' 



BLUE DEVIL. A lirework consisting ol 
.1 cylinder of paper which when lighted 
sends Mil! sparks and finallv explodes. 
Blue Duck. See Bluebill. 




BLUE ENSIGN. A flag with a blue 
ground and the Union Jack in one 
corner, flown by certain British ships 
Bluefields. See Atlas It Dr. 



BLUE FISH 



?17 




BLUE FISH. A three-loot edible lihli 
of the American Pacillc coast ; akin t<> 
the mackerel, it is Mne above and white 
on the underparts- 




BLUE GRASS. A trey-blue. Il.il 
leaved tirass oi Europe and Asia growint; 
in drv places, such as on banks and walls. 
BLUEJACK. A small kind of oak. its 
scientific name beini; Qu'^rcus cinerea. 
We show leaves, fruit, and catkin. 



BLUE JOHN MINE. A cave near Ci 
tietun, :ii Derbyshire, famous fir ; 
purple fluorspar.' or blue John. 




BLUE MOUNTAINS. A branch ■; ilu 
Great Dividin;; Ranse in New South 
Wales, Australia, These two pictures 
are typical of their scenery. 



BOA CO.VSTBlCTOIl 





BLUE MOUNTAINS, the > 

J.im.Ttca, nsiin; tu 7jJ5 fee 

S 

1 




BLUE 'IILE. A tributa; 
iiii,i. .See 




BLUE PETER. Tlie biuc ll.ii; with a 
wlute square which is hoisted by a ship 
\\ hen she is about to sail. 
BLUE POINT. An Aniericin n.inie fu; 




BLUE RIBBON ARMY. A lea',:ue •! 
teetot.Ulers. louiided in America, wearint; 
blue ribboi in their buttonholes. 
BLUE-ROCK. Popular name of the com- 
monest di'inestic pitreon. Cnhiinha livia. 



/ 



BLUE SHARK. A deep-sea shark 
which often visits En'.:lish waters : it iv 
Matv-blue .ibove and white belnu. 





BLUESTOCKING. A term for a woman 
with a laste lor learnin,!; : ori.ninally 
used in reference to women who met iii 
London at the house of Mrs. Monlai;-.i 
(I72O-ISO0). whose portrait we '^ive. 
BLUESTONE. A name of copper sul 
phate. u^ed in electric batteries and in 
.iili.-'i prtntine. 



^5$V- 




^ 



BLUETHROAT. A small northern brrd 
havin;; a blue throat with a red patch. 
It is called the Swedish niiihtinsaie 



BLUE TIT. A charmin? little vijitot 

to Eni'lish ','a'dens 




BLUE TRIANGLE. I he baJce of the 

■j .n;::' V. nien*s Christian Assrtcution. 
BLUETTE. A small birt rlump breed 
"I Oriejital frilled piceons. Thesn..ulJer' 
are pale blue and the tail blue uitb 
uliite spots or bands. 
Blue Weed. .>:ame as Buel'ss (q.v,i 
Blue Wrasse, iee Bluebacked »rai-f 




BLUIHWORT, A 

the tf.riijl r:Z : 
SLVIriUI. A , 
icJce (imil> "A 
broad biyimul H: 
and fioKcf «( n»fr 






BLVTH. A balj .oi 
inj tahmc [vnrl at th.- 
Hiver Birth. Nr*thumb^f ' j- 




BL1 THBURGH 

.^ .rt. n;ir N" jf- * .1 '-. - * 

church, ooe of the fs-rif i- *ij* .i 



e 



BLusotLL .s SCHOOL. \ w.:; ».: I « 

;-i;;~.;, ^.■, 1 .it Tivduil, III DcViT. 

shire, huilt and endowed in |604 b\ 





BLUNDERBUSS. An oldlJ5hioncd 



•fcl^ 



1 




ti 



BLUNGEK. ir;-ir4:u> 

ii>cJi u-r liii.^ii-.:; Ci.i\ 1.1 !'■ "cries. 
BLUNT, WILFRID SCAWEN (1S40. 
1022) A wcU-kiK'wn tncUsh poit. 




BOA. A ■ rx ICithfr 0£Ck-«Tar «>»• 

. - -Tier., ird ■■'.-; vft". 7^-^^?^!- 
BOABDIL. The i^t V 

*,>i l.-Tt^^ v*jir* !'* ^» -i 






k^ 



BOA CONSTRrCTOR. 

in it> 
Aroer- - 



BOADICEA 



248 



BOAR HOUND 




r....iJicea rousing the Unions 
BOADICEA. The famous British queen 
who in 02 AD. led a great revolt of the 
Iceni tribe to avenge wrongs inllicted 

>.n lier r.imilv bv the Pom:in<;. She 




BOANERGES. Sons ol Thunder, the 
ii.imj -i\;n by Jesus to St. John and 



James (Mark III), 




BOAR. A word generally meaning the 
wild boar, which is still common on 
the Continent of Europe 




BOAR. A representation uf the wild 
boar on a heraldic shield. 
BOARD. A thin, flat piece of sawn 
timber or of some artificial material. 




BOARD. .1 council, such as a board of 
);uardiai:s or directors. 



•'?*->. 




BOARD. Tli.-uhMk' mJv .: 
liK- uords (now supers,,!. dj liii-.iij 
and starboard, the left a id right ^ides 
lookinc forw.lrd from the helm. 




BOARD CLIP. A clip for f.i^it.-niri 
papers to a board or table. 




BOARD CUTTER. 

u ith a circul.ir Liiilc 
hoard or millboard. 



\ in.u'hine tilti'd 
tor cutting straw- 




BOARD DAIM. A d.ini made of heavy 
planking lor holding up water. 
BOARDING. A fence, floor, or other 
structure made of planks or boards. 




BOARDING CAR. A railway car htl^.i 
with a canteen and sleeping berths b-r 
railway workers, used notably in the 
United States and Canada. 




BOARDING HOUSE. An establishment 
where guests are housed and fed at a 
fixed rate of payment. 




BOARDING gOIST. In buiUlin'.;, a 
beam set edt^ewise from wall to wall tu 
carry the lloor. boards. 



BOARDING KNIFE. An alternative 
11. line for blubber-knife, an implement 
specially used for cutting up blubber. 




BOARDING MACHINE. A machine 
used in leather works for raising the 
surface of leather again after it has been 
shaved or dved 

.5; -. ■■!■ a.' 







-.M'^' 



BOARD OF TRADE JOURNAL. The 

weekly otiicial paper in which is pub- 
lished information dealing with British 

ci'immerce. 




BOARDING NETTINGS. 

tings h.xed above the b 
old-time warship to ke 
boarders. They are cle 
this Nelson picture by A 



MjiMi'.; net 

ulu.irks of an 
ep off eiiem> 
arly shown in 
West ■■ 




BOARDING OFFICER. A revenue 
ithcet who hoards vessels arriving from 
abroad for customs purposes. A Canadian 
officer is here seen boarding a vessel. 



BOARD ROOM. A room in winch a 
board ol directors meets. We show also 
a board room table such as is often used. 




BOARFISH. Any one of several fishes 
having a hog. like snout like this. 



BOARDING PIKE. A weapon carried 
h\ sailors uhcu boardinii enemy ships. 




BOARDING SCHOOL, A school in 
whicli for part of the > ear the pupils are 
housed and fed ,is well as taught. 




BOAR GRUNT. A food-fish known to 
science as Haemulon sciurus. found in 
the West Indies. 




BOAR HOUND. Any poujriul knu 
dog used It hunting boars, usually 
Great Dane or a kindred species. 



the 



i 



BOAR'S HEAD 



BOAT 




Urcb^-jJ liuar ^ head 




Bringini; in tht; boar's head 
BOAR'S HEAD. An ancient delicacy n' 
England, where the wild boar was 
found up to the 17th century. The 
roasted head is sometimes brought in 
with carol singing in procession at 
banquets, a survival of an old custom. 




BOAR'S HEAD. A ijniili.u .iiau. mi 
heraldry : also a common sii^n tor an 
inn or shop, as that of the famous Boar's 
Head in Eastcheap referred to by 
Shakespeare. The sign shown here is 
dated 1668, the year in which the inn 
was rebuilt after the Great Fire. 




BOAR SPEAR. A heavy type ot sp:' 
formerlv used in huntine wild boars. 



BOAR'S TUSK. A name given in 
England lo the long, pointed shells of 
the genus Dentaliuni 




BOASTER. A Hat ch:sel v^ith a wid: 
cutting edgi used in dressing stone. 
BOASTING. A rough dressing of stone 
done with a boaster. The letter B herv 
indicates boasting on the side ot a 
capital elsewhere elaborately carved. 




R.icins boat 



C 






A balsa on Lake Titicaca 




it 




iWount's Bay iishmp boats 



Papuan boat 
BOAT. A word used to descnri: rr->ti'^aiiy cvci) iir': >■• •'~<^' "'•■' "-•"- ™ — — ■ 
may he made o! wood, skins, niet.il. wicker, hark, and m.iny other kinds .-< irjten.il.inj 
raddles or by the most powerful modern ensnnes. Amons most f.nmitive pjoples the arst :> 
hollowiiV- out the trunks of trees bv burnin'; or at the cost ol immense labour. The '■ 



cribe rr>'.'l''--'l'y every tvpe ol vessel that tfiv^ls_uii vater. 

iet,il, wicke 



BOAT 



250 



BOB 










) 



BOAT RACE. A race usually betwcm 
red boats, as between O.xfonl 
Cambridge. See also Oxford and 



imbridRe boat race 



lEf 



^y^ 



Sauceboats 



BOAT. The name given to vanoas 
utensils sucli as those shown here. 




BOAT CRANE. A rotary cr.me litted 
,.ii e \A side of a warship for liftins; the 
heavier boats from the water or for 
Inwerini; them as here. 
Boat Drill. See Drill, boat. 




iluteJ shell ol 



BOATBILL. A tropical Amencan 

^^adlns bird allied to the night heron, 
with a beak like an inverted boat. 






BOAT-FLY. An insect which when swim- 
mm- resembles a tiny boat with oars. 
BOAT-GRIPES. Supports for securin; 

J h.ijt as.;lie hanss at the davits. 



!SrH!3Z 



<. (f ________ 

BOATHOOX. A bole with a hook to 
help to inanai;e boats when close to the 
-hore. We sive two examples. 





BOAT YOKE. The cross-piece o 
boat's rudder to which the steering- 
lines are fastened. 




# 




BOAT BOOM. A 

transversely from 
ship or yacht at 
haiiKins pemlants 
be made fa^t 



1..1,- bn.im prii]cei!n^ 
each side of a war- 
anchor, and havins; 
to which boats can 



F'^ 




BOAZ. ill-- llUMMlnl 

he met while she was 
fields at Bethlehem. 



BOATSWAIN. A w.iri am omeer ii. 
the Navy or Merchant Service. We show 
also a boatswain's badces, the bottom 
one heme the Ivpe "-eJ m the Nav> 




BOATSWAIN'S CAUL. A small whisti- 
u^ed by boatswains: also called boat 
-waMi's ripe and boatswain's whistle. 



BOATHOUSE. A shed tor housim; 

ho. Its at the water's edge. 





^S^S, 




BOATSWAIN'S CHAIR. A plank seal 

supported by ropes used by seamen 
when painting or caulking a ship's sides. 



BOATBUILDER. A builder of boats, 
notably oi the costly and delicate craft 
used in boat-racing, as seen in these 
pictures of a racing boat being built. 




BOAT LIFT. A canal lock 
(.1 a double lift which con 
irom one level to another. 



BOAT CAR. 

which a lileboat IS drawn to ine water. ( 



BOATMAN. 



bOAT-TILTING. An old Enjlish sport 
shouu m this 14th-century picture. 
Boatwrighl See Boat buildi-r 




0? 



,lrw 



^— a»v 



i@i 



nr 



BOB. A pendant, especially that of an 
earring or a pendant from a cross. 




BOB. A name for the seed-capsule of 
certain plants, as of the hop (left) 
ind ol common flax (right). 






ti^:is^^ 



^W^' ^£^-^^ 




BOB. A Scottish word tor a nose : 
.1 cluster of fruit, as in these example 




BOB. A small weight seen on the left, 
that can be slid along the bar of a 
I steelyard to ensure accurate weighing. 



BOB 



^ 




BOB. Thi ri'^';' '" '"!:'•'' "" '1'-' '■■"'' 
of a pendulum, usually adjustable in 
heiRlit to vary the rate of swinging. 
BOB. A grub, such as that of the 
cockchafer.' u«ed as a bait hv anglers. 





BOB. A bunch vt rags, bait, feathers, 
and hooks used in fishing ; also the 
cork or other float on a fishin? line, 
as illustt.ited on the right. 




BOB. At Etuii LuL.o. I... ^uji ui-u 
play field games are called dry-bobs, 
and those who take up rowing are 

called vet-bobs 




BOBAC. A rodent man 
mot. Arctomys bobaCj foun,: 
Europe and also in Siberia. 




BOBAOIL, CAPTAIN. In Ben Jons.Jn'^ 
play Ever\ Man in His Humour, a 
character wliose chief features are 
cowardice and bragging, but who 
believes himself to be a ereat man. 





-''i^%-***i^' -ilH 



BOBADILLA, FRANCISCO DE. I K. 

Spanish officer sent in 1 500 to flispaninhi 
to inquire into tlie conduct t)t Columbus 
whom he imprisoned. Here his fleet is 
arriving at San Domingo. 




BOB APPLE. A game in whieh the 
Players trv to bite an apple suspended on 
J cord ; also played with cherrie.?. 




BOBBED HAIR. I he lasiilonol cutlln" 
th; h.iir sliiirt at the neck. 




BOBBER. A man who lisli.s tnr eel 
with a buneli ot uornis or raiis. 




BOBBIN. A spo.il ..n whicn tlire.id 1, 
wound, as seen on the left, fur use in the 
shuttle ot a loom. We show a single one 
and a number on a machine 



./'^> 



f 



BOBBIN. I iu- ^"le "i aunietunes the 
coll and core, of an electric magnet ; also 
a narrow tape of cotton or linen. 




BOBBIN iHrassl. Thin ilai bobbin usee. 
in Lie; machines; fitted into stee 
irames as here, each bobbin being wound 
with about 100 yards of .silk. 



BOB fitro 




BOBBIN 

si.X, nine. ■.! i»c-i.; n.-.i.r. mi'.rjir.;- :■ 

ciuality. These Belgian naxcomberj 
are making bobbins 




BOBBIN AND FLY FRAME. A Cotton 
rn.i;iu:aclaring machine f-T twisting the 
sip, :r and windinp the roving'. 
Bobtin Cradle. S;l- B.I' Is- -- i 




BOBBIN INSULATOR. ,1 ,1.1.: 

electrical insulator used especially lor 
supporting an overhead conductor. 
BOBBIN LACE. A variety of hand- 
made lace made on a pillow with the 
aid of bobbins. 




1. . &»^' 

BOBBIN-NET. A machine-nude imitj 
[Ion o: pillow-lace, the thread bcine 
wound on bobtiins. On the right is r^ 
e.^ample of a machine once used i' 
makinp it. The first one w.is made i" 
iSO'i bv John Me.athcoat of N.nli'i.': 




BOBBIN REEL. A n!.uiune lor »i.,Jin. 
cotton yarn from bobbins into hanks. 
The bobbins are rhiceJ in J Irjme 
called a bobbin cradle. 





BOBBIN- WINDER. A device lor «: u 

Die tliie.id vr other jam on a bobbin. 
tu.. e.Kaniples being given here 
Bob Cherry. See Bob apple 



/J 

/ 



Xj 



aOBECHE. ^ 

■'■■ ;:r) It.- 1 1 
BOB-FLY. I . 
:ilt3chej to lit 

Trrtchcf.fly ; Jls 




^riraflij 



BOaOLI CARDCNI 




Bobr. RiTtr. 

.O&riRik. 




BOB RUNNER. 



l-^, ^ f!i 




BOB SLED. V - 

N^ds -estin; on *.* 
N>bs. clacf J one b£b;aJ 



BOB-SLEIGH 



BODEIN 




BOB-SLEIGH. A vehicle with tu 
sets of runners, one behind the othf 
lor travellini; over the snow. 
Bobstay. See Bowsprit. 





BOBTAIL. A nun's coat with short tails. 
as il they had been bobbed or cut short. 
BOBTAIL. A name given to a verv 
short tyre nf arrowhe.!-.! like these. 




BOBTAIL CAR. A kind of horsed 
street car liavinc no conductor. 
Bobtail Wis. See Bnh.wi'.; 




BOB WHITE. The name ol the Vir. 
L;iniaM quail of North America, which 
is so called be.ause of its cry. 
BOB-WIG. One with short. tiirht 
e:irl-. ui.like a full-bottomed wi;;- 




BOCAL. The nii'iitlipiece (B) "t a hi 
musical insTrunu-iU such as a cruet. 




BOCCACCIO, GIOVANNI 11313 75). The 
Hc.rentine merchant's son who wrrte 
the tJecameron and became one of the 
chief creators of Italian classic prose, 
irom a paintine; by Van Dalen. 




BOCINILLA. A small speaking trumpet 
ije 111 a variety of forms. 





BOOGE. dr h.itch, ti' mend thiniis in 
.111 uiiskiliui manner ; often used of 
rniieh needleuiirk, as shown above. 
BODHIDHARMA. An ancient Chinese 
hero, represented here in a statuette 
of the 17th century. 



BOCCACIO. A name for a Calilornian 

r >ck "ish, Sebastades paucispiiiis. 




BOCCAMELA. A kind of weasel louiu! 
Ml southern Europe and known t" 
science as Putorius boccamela. 




BOCKEREL. 1 lie lu.iL i.I ll;e 1.1.. 
the female is a hockeret or boccaiLt 




BOCKEY. A bowl or vessel made from 
.1 e.'urd. The word means a small bowl 




BODHISAT. A person who in the 
Buddhist belief has att.ained supreme 
wisdom. We give a statue of a Bodhisat 
wh" was a Chinese king. 




BOCKING. A name given to the 
smoked or red herring. 



BOCCONIA. A plant genus of the 
puppy faniih . We show B. frutescens. 
BOCHART, SAMUEL M599-I667). A 

ii..t-.l French Hueuenot SCh"lar. 




BOCCA. 1 He H'lUln ■>! a feid^s luiliaee, 

where the plastic glass is removed from 
the vessel in which it has been fused. 





BODE, 


,■ n 'J 


•Id English word, deri\\.\i 
;f.'io-Sa.\(Mi. for n lieraM 



BODIAM CASTLE. A very picturesque 
moated castle near Robertsbridge, in 
Susse.x. It was presented to the nation 
hv Lord Cur/nn of Kedleston in 192 = . 




BOOIANUS. A genus ot sea-bass of 
th. warm seas, represented here by 
I,: -.irai. Serranii- cahrilla 



■-*■-■■- f 
BOCHE. The name the . : . 
eniitempt fur .i (jernian duriiii; the u ai 




BOCHUIM. A Gerinaii coal centre in 
the Ruhr district. We show its Miners 
Providence Institution (140,000). See 
Atlas 12. B 3. 




1S26). A German 
ered the method, 
led Bodc's Law. of judging the pro- 
portional distances of the planets 
Ironi the Sun. 

BODENSTEDT, FRIEDRICH (tS19-92) 
A German poet, traveller, linguist, and 
Orientalist who translated Omar Khay- 
yam and collaborated in a complete 
translation of Shakespeare. 



f 




BODICE. li- eii se-fitting waist or 

hiid\ ot a woman's gown. 

BODKIN. A wo-d used in Shakespeare s 

tiiiie t'^r a small dai'ger. 




BODKIN. An instrument for drawing 
a ribbon through a hem (top) : also a 
shoemaker's tool. 



BOOKIK 



BODKIN. A pin used by women in 
ancient times for fastening the hair. 
This one is early Scottish. 





BOOLE. An olJ Scottish copper coin 
valued at one-si.xth of an English penny 
and perhaps named after Bothwell. 
a mintmaster under Charles II. \Vi' 
show a hn.il- o' William and M.^r\ . 




The Bodleian Library. OxlorJ 




InsM: the Bodieian Library 
BODLEIAN LIBRARY. The famous 
library of Oxford University, containing 
over a million volumes and 30,000 
MSS. It was restored in I602 bv Sir 




BODLEY, GEORGE F. (iS27-lA'7* 

A:i architect known especially tor his 
r.-Cunstructions of Oxford colleges. 
BODLEY, SIR THOMAS (1345-1613). 
Tlu- Elizabethan scholar who restored 
ilij great Bodleian Library at Oxford. 
BOOMER, JOHN GEORGE ( I 7S61S6I) 
^wiss enginei^r and in\entor. Born ai 
Z'jrich, he started one 01 the first Cunti- 
. .-ntal cotton factories at St. Blaise, and 
, t Bolton did much to improve Lanca- 




BODMIN. Capital ot Cornwall, on the 
CameL An ancient place, it has a fine old 

clrjrch. shown here (5800). Atlas 4. C 6. 



BODO. One of a genus of flag-JLttL-. 
or whip-like, protozoans somctimt-s 
called hooked or springing monads. 




BOEBMXMXA 



BODY. 11.^ whole of the hollow pari 
1 a stringed instrument, as shown here : 
.;l-;o the main part of a wind instrument 
alter removing the mouthpiece and 
t ther appendages. 




BODY. 1 ii-- part I't an urgun pipe above 
tiie mouth uhicli gives resonance, its 
kngth determines the pitch of the tone. 
BODY. A term used for the depth 
of tvpe as distinguished from its fac^* 
0-- stvlc 




BODY. Tn; ^drx nt .1 \:1ir.^- ii.^uln 
r btfa'inir the load. 




BODY. A tcfiu i<-'i any Solid posses^m: 
:ji;t;th. breadth, and thickness. 
Body .dress*. S.'e Bodice, 




BODY BOLSTER. A cross-beam on the 
underside of a railway carriage, sup- 
porting it and transmitting its weight 
tn the axles of the truck. 



1 


[■j|f|illi:n 


nriTTTTrr »'j i .■ >7 i 1 




■Iff" 





BODY BRACE. A brace which crosit-. 
a whole frame or one part of a frjmt 
ot a railway freight truck from one 
corner to the corner diai;nnallv opr'^ite. 





BODY PLATE 



BODY POIT. An upft. 



tfimc 'W J - " 

r 



BODY OLOIK, 

lortiierjy (ii ri.;n iijLiUTi.i; .nia oiljn 

embroidered with heraldic devices. a.s in 
ihi^ Itth. century equestrian ^Titii- '^^- 
also Horse blanket. 




-\ '^'uarj or bcctcatcri 
BODYGUARD. .\n escort, as proviJeJ 

"istance. In tli; Be;tcn.;.T. ■•■ '---•' 




BODY HOOP. \ i".t.i! t-.i".l .^1 pljc.-J 
round the uiK.Jen hlu.;l.s. knovin as arns 
pieces, which secure the sections oi a 
huill m.i.st. 




BODY PLAN. In shipbuildinc. i pla- 
on Mhich .are projected the inter 
sections 01 the sides of the vessel with 
transverse verticil planes pisstnj 
through certain tiied points. 



i 



phil.>i.Th.-r .h.- 
rr;<iJ:-t ■! Af;»J 
Bf>rM*. lACC.M in- AC 




BOEHME. JAKO 



BOEHMERIA. 

tnoptcal <;enis o< 
aeltlts, idctudii^ 



B. ruTti. ^.itc f 1 IT' 



BOEHM FLUTE 



BOGOTA 



BOEHM FLUTE. A lUite with many 
kevs for rapiJ plaving. nanieti after 

TlK',.h;LUI I-;. .dim (179(-1SS|). 
Eocotia. ■- Atlas 17. I: 1. 




BOER. A buUh wx-rd. iirmihh;; pf.is:nil, 
applied to the Dutcli people of Soutli 
Africa, who are nearly all fnrmrrs. 




B KM, 'WE, HERMANN If.' :vr.;M, 
A .,.i..Lju^ Dutch physician, botanist, 
and chemist, long a professor at Leyden. 
BOETHIUS (about 474-525). A Roman 
philosopher and statesman, chief minis- 
ter of Theodoric the Great. His work 
was verv popular in the Middle A-Jles. 




BOG. A swampy tract of land, notably 
in Ireland, where there are vast areas 
of peat'Vieldiny bovjs like this. 
Boga. Same as Bogue (which see). 
Bog Asphodel. See Asphodel. 



^% 



iQ. 



PK^ 



'I 



.\i 



BOGATZKY. KARL |i.y0.1774). A 
ijcMiian ['Utist and li\nin. writer. 
Bog Bean. Same as Buckbean (q.v.). 
BOGBERRY. A name for a small 
variety of cranberry (which also see). 




BOG BULL. A ppiilar name for the 

uerii (whiji see) because of its cry. 
BOG BUTTER. A curious substance 
I esembllni; butter found in Irish bocs. 
usually packed like this. 




BOGEY. A ei'Wni or bui;be.ll : .i 
causing unreasonin.g fear. 


ntbiii'e 


' ■ 







?ss^s^ 



BOGHAI-KEUi- » 

on the site ut tlu' .\irit^I 'Ji the aiuiLiit 
Hittites. Remarkable rock carvhit^s 
and clay tablets have been found there. 







BOGIE. A strMiii; uiu-cled triu,, 

lor carrying the bodies of railway 
trucks and engines and other rollinc: 
stock, and also those of trams. It 
ii pivoted so as to give free play to the 
wheels, and to enable heavy vehicles 
to take sharp curves without dan':er. 
We show fnur types. 




BOGIE. A small timber-carnage used 
in sawmills to set the log at right angles 
to the saw. 



' 






w_ 



BOGIE, BEAM. A small, low, two- 
wheeled trolley for moving heavy 
LiniHis in factories and so on. 



BOGIE-COACH. A long-bodied railway 
en.ich mounted on bogie-trucks at 
either end. as seen here. 




BOG MYkiLE. a iraL:rant bogland 
plant of the myrtle family. 




^^ — "- - 

BOGNOR. A popular jeaii.:. i>,.u:l 
in West Sussex (12,000). 




BOG OAK. Hard and black wood from 
peatbogs carved into ornaments. 
Bog of Allen. See Atlas 1. C 4. 




BOGIE-ENGINE. A locomotive mounted 
on a bogie frame, as seen in the pictures. 




BOGIE SPRING. A stroa;;, cuie.l 
spriii',' which absorbs vibration between 
tlie bo'.;ie frame and the wheels. 




BOGIE TRAIN. A composite railway 
train in which groups of coaches are 
connected by bogie-trucks, two ends 

being supported nn each bogie. 



BOGLAKO 

and among the Scottish hills 




BOGONG. A big Australian moth which 
the aborigines iise for food Its cater- 
pillar is siiown below it 




BOGOSLOV ISLAND. A vulcanic islet 
uf the Aleutian Islands lying west of 
Unal.aska, and here seen erupting It 
rose from the sea in 1796. 
Bogoslovsk. S'-'f Atlas iis, K ^^ 

1 




!'.. • ■!.! (..ilheJ; 




General view of Bogota 
BOGOTA. The capital of Colombia, 
on a healthy Andean plateau (150,000). 
See Atlas 32, D 3 



BOG RUSH 



Ron.ni 




Ci/H I N A I / /' 

jillljnton / ; .- j^^%^ 

B06UE, THE. A name tor the moulli 
of the Canton River 

BOGUE, DAVID (1750-1825). A Scot 
tish pastor who helped to found the 
London Missionary Society and the 
British and Forcijii Bible Society, 






BOGUET. An old-fashioned, two- 
wheeled french vehicle with scroll irons 
underneath the body 



Bohemia in the lltli 


CL-ntiirv 




T"^'^' ■ 


/IB 




I'm- 


^ 



BOHEMIAN GLASS. Beautilul ware 
■Itenol deep ruby tint. lorwhich Bohemia 



BOILtAU DEIPRCAUX «ICOLAt 

■ V f - ; - . I 

pv<l. .-as oi the t"!! i 
the rfifn n< fnjn \ 




BOG VIOLET. 

wort, PinRuicul 
Bogworl. Sam 



A name tor the butter- 
a vulgaris 
as Cranberry (q.v.). 




80HEME, LA 



.V lamous opera b) 
:i Murger's novel of 
rt'sts of Part?: 




BOHEMIAN. A Slu 

or ni.iii <■( letters who 
behaves uncotiventionath 



BOILER. A v;.s$<l in irtiKb stejic i> 
centrileJ unJcr prasare (or domesSic 

or injustr 3l rai^rwr^ *'s rivr here 
sereril domestic cximrU; t"^; ' 7 '■'•■: 
t>ein^ (or use in cookin: 
types (or healin; watsr 



BOILER 



256 



BOILER HOUSE 



Jfer 




BOILER. A struii:. ;.,,.„. ,;;.i,.ji, m vsliicli sIl.iu, 
In some cases flames and hot gases plav iduiui tubc>^ ' 



Inside of a Scotch marine boiler used on steamships. Air enters on both sides 
> <.tn;i.it^d iui driviii- an engine. There are many types, sonii of tlie ciiiei beini; shnwn tiere in section, 
it water and in other cases the hot gases r.iss through tubes and heat the water round Ih 




BOILER ALArtM. Low-water indicator 
in boilers. In these (1) a float valve 
blows a whistle : (2) steam, raising an 
arm whistles; (3) as water leaves a pipe 
steam enters melts a plug, and whistles. 




BOILER FEEDER. An^ automatii 
arrangement for supplying a boiler with 
water. The two types shown are made 
by Walworth-Munzing of London, and 
consist of a float working a valve and 
allowing water to enter when the water 
in the boiler reaches a certain level 




BOILER FLOAT. A float which rises 
and falls with the changes in the height 
of water in a steam-boiler and so turns 
the feed water on or off. In the type 
illustrated here it merely moves a 
pointer to indicate low water 



BOILER HOUSE. That pan ot a factory 
or works in which one or more boilers 
are housed This is at Bournville. 



BOILER METER 




BOILER TEST PUMP. A force pump 
' ;tli .1 pressure indicator for testini; 
■'■-'ilers under hic:li h^-draulic pressure. 
BOILING BASKET. A wire b.isket in 

I'hicli vei;et„Mes are placed for boilinv'. 



BOiS DE BOULOGNE. I I'.c spleiuti,! 
p.lrk f>( 22-» acres on tlie west side ..l 
Paris, with a zoo. botanical g.trd.rs. 
and ornamental lakes. 



liu- li.nch Rev.^lutiou alio surMveJ it. I attJ .\ri-.;r.c;- !...!■■;•' •.- : " 
Bojidor, CiH- See Atlas 35. C i I cilch «t1J ctcatorts inJ cHIi: 



BOLBORHYNCUS 



■j:»s 




BOLBORHYNCUS. A cenus of p:\rrnts 
ol tropical AiiicTicaof which the Avni.'ir;i 
speries is shown here 




QOLDO. A ln\v-t;rnwint; evergreen tret- 
<>t Chile with white llowers such as are 
shown ill thi! picture. 
BOLOREWOOD, ROLFE. Pen-name ol 

Thomas Alexander Browne ( lS?6.iqi 5). 

a we'l-knnun An-^'In- Au^tralian noveHst 




BOLIDE 



-.1',',-^ ,.4W^MP*I""«< 




- 


■Pi 




r. 


- < 





it 



4 




BOLE. Ill; ri;li:i sl/m ,,, 
tfspeciatly near the ground. 
Bole. See linlt-boat. 




BOLE. A term in Scotlanj and IrelanJ 
lor a small uniilazed window, like the 
one here shown, to admit liTht and air. 








BOLECTIOIM 

r.nul . , a, , 



■lftf,>^- XU!,.. 



BOLEOSOMA. A seiuis ol small quick 
tnMsinii tislies of the eastern Unite J 
-tite"-. T'lis is Bnleosonia olmstedi. 




BOLERO. A short jacket, with or with 
'Ut sk-eves. worn over a bodice. The^: 

MlMiiLiii WMin.Mi rlr,' wj/iii'i" I i .•■ 




BOLERO. A p,i;iii!i dance performed 
I iiallv ti til- I. ciinip.miment of casta. 

I t, Mr -i: •■iiit.ir. 




Bi.lj.slaus 111, IV, and V 



BOLESLAUS. The name of three earl) 
Polish kinus (I, II, and III) and two 
Polish dukes (IV and V) alter the 
kingdom had been divided. 




BOLETUS. A Kenus ol tun^i with 4'i 
British species, some edible. A few kinds, 
including bitter boletus, are pnisuMini. 




BOLEYN, SIR THOMAS di;, 15i9). 
Anne Bolevn's lather who became 
Earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde, 




BOLIDE. A metjrjr, ,,r shunting ^ta^. 
L-specialiv line which e.\pl(id^-s mii enter- 
ing' the Earth's atmosphere. 




Amu- BL'le\ II on her way to e.Kecution, by E. M. Ward 
BOLEYN, ANNE 1 1S07-.16). The second queen of Henry VIII and the mother 
of 0"2en Elizabeth. Henry, who married her in 1^13, had her beheaded a 
few years later. 



BOLINGBROKE 





BOLIVAR. Ilu- ihn-1 silver cum ... 
nezuela. corresponding; to the Iranc. 
I I' named after Simon Bolivar 



BOLINGBROKE. Mini.ime .il iL■n!■^ 
IV. h.irii at li.iltiv.'iT.'k.'. Lnici.lii^hir,', 
and here seen with Richard II. whom lie 
supplanted. Richard is looking in the 
mirror, an incident in Shakespeare's 
plnv p.i-li.irJ M, A,-t IV. Scene I 




BOLINGBROKE, VISCOUNT i|-N- 

1751). ll,r.i> it. Jolm. an able ror\ 
statesman who tried to secure the return 
of the Old Pretender after .AnneN death. 





. A^^^^H 


m l.^ 


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'J\0M 


ft^" 


s^Ki^jT^Sr 




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:F*«1 



BOLIVIAN. ,\ !l.'ll\,- n[ t-.ni'M.l. Ml.' 

third Ltrtjest Suiitli AniL-riciin republic 
(see Atias 32, F 7). It has few in- 

liabitaiits of European descent, most 
"i the people being simple and mild- 
natured Indians. Their dress '<s pic- 
turesque, as seen here 




BOLIVIANO. A silver coin ot Hniivio 

worth nniiiim.lh i s 7Ad 



■\ 



BOLINS. Ropes tor managins; Ihe jails 
01 a ship. The word is used by Shake- 
speare and is a variant of bowlines 
I which see). 

BOLITA. A Spanish name lor the 
three-banded armadillo, which can roll 
tsell into a hall like this 



•v.-.'^- 



T 



BOLL. The seed-pod o' capsule oi a 
plant, notably of cotto'i. The illustra 
[ions here given show a boll of cotton 
and the capsule betnre it has hurst 




BOLIVAR, SIMON i , I ,S30). The great Venezuelan p.r 

country and the uther northern countries of South Amcrn.a m.'. o,.. " > . ... 

This fine equestrian statue of him was presented by Venezuel.1 to ,\.w lork. 



A 



>^ 



^J 



c_-=- 



BOLL. A word lor a round knob on 
any utensil, piece ol lurniture, or other 
object. The picture shows a boll ui-d 
as an ornament, 

BOLLARD. A stout post lor m'<orine 
vessL-ls at a wharf as seen here II i-. 

~ :n)l.i' (,. th,. Iilti ,.„ h. .-.,,( .1,.- 





BOLL 

rj\i;:? 
Aiii--ric 
' llcli-.t 



MrORH. 



L-flll 

BOLLING. A tree the tups and crancho 
■I tti.Rli ar,- cut ofl as shown In the 
picture; also called poilard. 
BOLLOCK-BLOCK. One ol two bloc^.^ 
attached to the topsail yard of a ship 
through which the topsail lies pass 
The position of the bollock block is here 
marked bv a B. 



.C^ 



BOLODOH. 

hUt<H|C dip* 
ihnwn h.-'f. 



)^ 



'i 



# 



The boll weevil, the preatesl toe ol the cotton pUnt m Ac 
ma^nitled beside little fi.cures reprcwotlnf \\\ a.:iu 




A^ 






/ 



mil 

The weevil's egg \\\ a cotton bud. the RTUb vhKta b-i 

grub casting its skin, ind the pup* whicb Iwbo ^•■r^ 




k 



iiKsidv ol .1 boll, shown).; crul.>4 \' 
difterent staccs W )n"0»th. 



The lu 



cnicni.ied iHd tbc viae 



BOLL WEEVIL. A tiny buv lormiJiMe insect ret wh»cfc U« its e:cc$ « 

aMton buds in America, its irrubs fecJinson the cottor m-bcn the boHs »re forwei 



BOLOGNA 



•J(i() 



BOLT 




Church ot Madonna Ji S. Luca 




The College of Spain 

BOI.OGNA. One ot the t3re:e:>t citi;;- 
of No'tliern lta!y. with a hundred 
churches, ii cathedral, and an old iinl- 
versitv '21 s 00), See Atlas 13, C 2. 




BOLOGNA FLASK. A iflass phial 
uhich Ikis been suddenly cooled in 
makini;. It has a thick bottom and an 
open mouth and will resist a smart 
Mi.u", ^i:t t'i... to pieces it a sharp-edged 
dropped into it. 




l.oi..;;na inkstands 












J 



Boloiina piatei 

BOLOGNA POTTERY. Pottery made at 

Bolocrn? duri[iq: the R.Miaissanc? 




BOLOGNA SAUSAGE. A targ^; sau^ii;. 
made of hacon. veal, and pork suet, 
chopped fine. This <;ect'nn was 8 Inches 
acres'^ A.'iched IS lb. 




BOLOMAN. A nativi.- who uses the 

'r.ut\i- c ilk-d a bolo (which '^ee) 




BOLOMETER i or measuring small 
.imounts ot radiant heat by variations 
ot electrical resistance due to tempera 
ture changes in platinum We j;ive two 
fnrni^ of the bolometer. 




I -rs on the march 

tiOLSHEVlK. A Russian word for .1 
member ot liie majority Socialist parly 
which established Communism in 101S 




>vj 



\s^- 



BOLSHEVIK BADGE. A liadKC aJup 
ted by the Bolsheviks svnih..hsiiig th; 
powerof riu'iual workers. We shown pen- 
taeoii contflininir a sickle and a lianinier. 




BOLSOVER CASTLE. The tine old 
castle at Bolsover a coalmintni; viHai^f 

■ iLMr r|,,,terlul,l 



c. 



BOLSTER. A lona, round under 
i-iUow. I tamiliar piece of beddinc. 



V-i 



BOLSTER. One ol tlie cyUiulrica. 
rolls or cushions, often called bearers, 
iornierly worn by women to support 
or puff out their skirts at the hips. 
BOLSTER. One of the padded ridges 
iaddle. 





heri 



marked Bl of a 
1: 




BOLSTER A pad to prevent chafiiii: 
.It any place where a ship's ropes rest 
as here shown by a B. 
BOLSTER. The shoulder in a knife or 
ehisel where the blade joins the handle. 
IS seen in the picture 




BOLSTER. A wooden block (B) mIikI 
was placed under the breech of a cannon 
i^efore it was moved to another battery. 
Bolster. Sec also Bodv bolster 




BOLSTER BAG. A lujy's leather ba.( 
resembling a bolster in shape. 
BOLSTER CUSHION. A Ions, round 

cushion for a coiirh nr sofa 




BOLSTER SPRING A spriiiit placed 
on the beam ot a car-truck to support 
the bolster and the bodv of the car 




BOLSTER WORK. ture, 

masonry in whicli Uie s^ii^..^^ ,.. made 
to resemble bolsters. Oui example is 

taken from fh^ Pitti Palace n Florence. 




BOLT. A slidin? bar or pin which, 
shot into a socket, holds a door or 
wi"dow securely fastened- Here we 
give six examples, some quite plain and 
I others fashioned artistically 



BOOTS AND SHOES— MANY KINDS OF FOOTWEAR IN MANY AGES 




' \:;^:- , , • JaUnJhar man. 4 Gamble paten. S EmbruiJered. aboul I.SO). o iucJis' 

s Greek jiuric-suUier. 9 K^^inan-Britiili. 10 Greek archer. U Yarkand woman. t2 North American Indian ni"C*aiin. ij i..cU". i 
<.l 17th century. 15 Paten of 19th century. 16 Crackowe of 15th century. 17 Edward IV period. IS French. 17lh cenlurv. l'< H;nrN Sli: 
raiah of Jaipur. 21 Shoe and clu,' ol r7th century. 22 English cloj of 17th century. 23 Boot of Henrv VI. 24 Ancient Petjun. 
26 Enghsh. i:th century. 27 Jaipur. 2S Restoration. 29 Queen Anne period. 30 Metal shoe of Queen .ii Ab^^Mnla. 19th centur). Jl J^^ 

century. 32 French, about ISOO. 33 British naval, iSoo. See pue £71 

BRACELETS— ADORNMENTS WORN IN MANY LANDS FROM AGE TO AGE 



,i^"'^'i»» 



''^■^i^i^y^^^- 



r 






« 





^^ 



1 Jk 



V:«- 



v.. . 



J* » > ' 






^:j:.\ 



» < 



i < « 





I Roman. . v^ ; Turkish. ' G--Tn:.ir,. I2:!i c-ntury. - Froin Ci-M'"!. 0,1; i. :■"... pi i.i>,. ' ir..._^c.. r..i,j.,. .,..-. 

s Ancient Egyptian. 9 Cumae. 2nd century B.C. 10 Prom Bengal. 12 and 10 From Delhi. 14 Lake uii-id; 15 t-onjo. 16 ureek- Roman, atwot in« «tn «ntur>-. 

1; Frum Cyprus. IS From M.ilwar India. SeeptKeSST 



BRIDES & BRIDEGROOMS: WEDDING DAY PORTRAITS FROM MANY LANDS 




20 



! Mongolia. 2 A bride and bridegroom ol Japan. 3 China, Vunnan Province. 4 Hindu. 3 Pliilippine Islands, o Portugal. 7 tJurina, Sliaii chief and 
bride. 8 Java. 9 Morocco. 10 Hungary. 11 Estonia. 12 Bulgaria. 13 Norway. 14 Russia. 15 Yuco.Slavia. 15 Montenegro. 17 Brittany. IS Sala 

manca Spain. 19 Black Forest, Germany. 20 Trentino. Italy. See page 313 



BOLT 



L'tJI 







> 



^ryityrr^ 



BOLT. An arrow with a bluiU pom: 
used with a crossbow in olden times, 
especially for bringing down birds 
\Ve.eive five examples. 




BOLT. One ot the two pieces fasten 
ing the chain to the shackles once 
fastened to the tees of prisoners The 
bolts are here marked B. 




BOLT. The sliding piece in a rillc 
which carri-J5 the cartridge home and 
contains th. : r 



'■'W- 



Tf! 



BOLT. A roll or definite length oi 
material such as silk, canvas, or wall- 
paper (shown here") as it comes from 
the maker - ^r 




BOLT. \ : 

as seen here, or for a buiiJi.; ol ree^i 

or stiaw. 




BOLT. The comb of a bobbin-net 
irachhie on which the carriage moves 




BOLT. \ cylindrical jet of water 
^howii in this picture; also a jet 
molten glass. 




(5!::im.Ifi?,fIIl^ 




BOLT. A stout and usuallv sli'Tt r.-J 
of metai, generally iron, for holdini: 
timber and so on in place. It has onsr 
end threaded to receive a nut. as seen 
in the e.xamples here given, and thi- 
other end is usually provided with .\ 
permanent head. 
Bolt. Same as Bolter. 
Folt and Tun. See Bolt in Tun. 




BOLT-AUGER. A tool used especiall> 
[ y Nhipuricuts In sinking holes for boMs 
The one shown in the picture is bein;; 
driven bv compressed air 



A>. 



BOLT-BtoAT. A stroni: boat that i> 
cap.ihle of enduring .1 very roueh sea . 
another name jiven to it is a bole 



BOLTON I 




BOLT CLIPPER. A d./uble-lever 1.,^ 
is.d lor cutting oil the rroiecllnr tndt 
il bolts 








SOLT riEOf*. 
BOLT MOO 



J" 



/k*' 



BOLTina MUTCH. 

'■ int.. .^u•- r .J, 

- •'. i ^■ :■•• 

•OLT III TU1 



BOLT COURT 

north side ol Hcet ■sircel. London. 
where Dr. Johnson lived (rom 1776 tlB 
li:s death in l7St. His house no lontr 
stnnds, but a labl.'t marks ii< site 




OLT CUTTER. A machine K'f cullin; 
liirc.kl ..n bolts. We shov a bard 
it cutt-.T in the picture. 




BOLT DIE. A nut .11 hardened >!;.' 
.'.h a'l internal thread Ice cuttine 
■■.rj.ids on bolt* or rodi. 
BOLTEL An irehilertiirjl (erm ("f 

.mv one o( tb.' " " - - . -. 

t.To.i column. 




•OLTON 

Lar. 




•OLTOX ASBCT 




BOLTER. A »u-v; .n »-.,c:i i,^,i2 c 
IV'ltcJ .^r sided Irom the bran Wesht'» 
on the left a cylindrical inictune and 00 
the ri$ht the simple (orm <t sicTe. 



The • 

a( tlu crados d< M«v Que 



XI 



BOLTON HALL 



BOMBAX 




BOLT RING, in jewehery, a sinal 
riny with a sprins bolt for fasteiiint; 
necklaces, and so on. 
BOLT ROPE. A rope formine; the et.li,'e 

oi a sail to strenirlhen it and prevent 
it from sp!ittint;. as seen in this picture 




BOLT SAW. A saw used in the way 
shown here for removini; corners from a 
piece of wood before turnin?. 




SOMA. In Africa, a round enclosure 
fi^rtitu'd by a fence of brusli or stakes, 
as seen here. 




COMB. A container lilled with ex- 
plosive to he lired by concussion or a 
time fuse. We show an old type, a 
hand ijrenade. an aerial bomb, and one 
such as anarchists have used. 




BOMBA, KING it i 

name i>f Ferdinand [I, King ul the Tui' 
Sicilies from IS30. who bombarded his 
nwn citits after the Revolution of IS4S. 
BOMBACE. The down of the cotton 
plant, as seen here. The name is also 
fiven lit raw cotton and to cotton-wool 
nr waddim;. 




BOLT THREADER. A machine |. 

cuttint; screw-threads on bolts. 
BOLUS. A larRe. soft medical pill, 
especially for horses. 




BOLZANO. Or But^en, a Tirui^^e luv\ n 
with many German people which became 
|fai';ri ;iUer the wir See Athu M, c 1 




BOMA. A port near the mouth ol the 
River Congo which was formerly capital 
of the Bels:ian Con:;o. We show its post 
nfiice (6000). See Atlas 26. B 3. 




old French bombards 
BOMBARD. An early kind of cannon 

'•r nii rt.ir lur thn-wim,' stone balls. 




also called a bomb ketch. 



A small tvvo-masteil \e^- 
mortars for firing bombs ; 




A-'^O^ 



BOMBARD. A type of larpe leather 
ini; used 111 the l6th and 17th centuries. 
The name arose because the form of the 
jut; recalled the cannon then used. 
BOMBARD. An old musical instru 
nient, predecessor of the bassoon. 




BOMBA RDELLE. A portable 

hard, the prini'tive tirearni of Europe, 

consisting of a tube with a touch-hole. 




BOMBARDIER. A rank of non-com- 
mi^^l' ned officer'; in the British artillerv. 







BOMdARuieR BEETLE. A nun 
Eur.ipean species, Brachinus crepitans, 
which defends itself from a pursuer b\ 
dischare;ine an acrid volatile fluid, seeii 
in Ihis piiM iH.' ,1-, ,1 w hjte chriid. 




BOMBARDIER FROG. Popular name 

oi .1 European frog, Bombinator igneus. 



a!' 



1 -t 



■^ ^ 




BOMBARDMENT. jiiMjua-a ..niii.iy 
lire friirn warships or sie.ce batteries, 
especially against a fortress. Our 
picture shows the bombardment of 
Alexandria by the British in IS82. 




BOMBARDON. A larffe wind instru- 
m.nt 'it brass and of the trumpet kind, 
\uili v.ilves ; also called a bass tuba. 
BOMBARDS. A type of basgy breeches 
"iKt: worn in Enijland. 




BOMBAST. The padding, usually of 
cnttLMi. in clothes of the reigns of 
Elizabeth and James I. It was used 
specially for doubU-ts and trunk Imse. 
as seen in our pictur-s. 




A i;iant Jamaican silk-cotton tree 

BOMBAX. Genus of silk. cotton trees, 
belonging chiefly to tropical America, 
having a silky libre attached to the seeds. 



BOMBAY 



?m 




Bombay University cluck tower 




Bacl; V>.i\, B-jinbay 




The Municipal Buildln2; 




Pydowni.; Street 
BOMBAY. India's great western port 
and cotton centre, where 62 lanRuaycs 
are spoken (i. 200,000). See Atlas 22, D 5. 



^ 



BOMBAY DUCK A small tish connnuii 
in Indian seas whose tlesh is salted and 
dried and eaten as a relish with curry. 
Combay Presidency. See Atlas 22. D 1. 




BOMBAZET. An old wind instrument 
of the bassoon type. The picture shows 
a bass and an alto bombazet. 




BOMB CALORIMETER. A special 
' rm of calnriniL-tjr (which see) for 
n'.i^asurinij the lu-at creat/J bv tii 
.•■nibustion of cxplrsives. 




BOMB CATAPULT. A modern type "i 

viat.ipult li'r hurlini,' small bonitis. 



BOHAJfG 



BOMBO. A I 

in Sp.ijii. Thi: 

hfluni: to the San ^ct^iiii^ii luunuir 

ilruni and t\tc band. 




BOMBOLO. A sphcrolJjl vc»sil ■; 

ilri'. .:h.. uhout a tool in diamctrr. uitJ 
111 MilMiiiiin;; crude camptutr. 
BOMBONNE. A Jtone vc»cl, cvllndru- jl 
"r ^■t;i;-shjpcd. with three neclu at \he 
t"P :tntl .in exit-tap near the bntt'-r 
■' '^ ' ■■ -'J'.- 11. I'll.' Ji-ul-; 




BOMB-PROOF SHELTER. A ti 1 t i: . 
^iKlt.T fi-r prut.-^-Ii'.ii j'.;jin^t bomt'^ and 
^l'.,-lls, ntlL'n C'>n>i>linv: ul an ifjn franK- 
t '■• .r jj uith ,sandbacs. 
BOMB SHELL. A lircwirk cunsi^tmc 
• 1 .1 pJpL-r cylinder which when Mchtcd 
SL-;ids up a missile which expl<»de^ *ith 
a Hash and a ban-,' 



•r 



SOMBULUH 

tjt-M .( u-r. 

BOMBVLIUI. A 



BOMBTX. An <4J Oc 

; iinf in lAip^ 1 1 . 
•h,- ..«d Jr' •- 





BOMB KETCH. A small ketchri«ed 
vesSL'I !or cirrvinc mortari:. 



BOMB THROWER. A device l.» I BOHAIIC. A .:^^^-^i^ =.^l^ -~"~^' 
throwinc or a soldier who Ihrowi! bombs. I ment ,v.n«5<int c< co«n tet w a Iriiw- 



BONAPARTE FAMILY 



264 



BONDU DEVIL 




Joseph(i76S-iSII) Lucii;n(l7;' iSn 
his hruthcr his brotl^ r 




Eli5a (I777-1S2I)) Pauline (1780-1835) 

':i^ -'-'^cr lii^ sister 




Caroline (17S2-1S39) Charles (1803-57) 
his sister t_ULM--'!i'^ son 




Napole,,n (tS.->2-9l) Lucien (1S2S-95) 
Jerome's '-(>" iueien's rr tn N'>n 




Napolc'inib. imj2) MathilJe (I82O-190;) 
Jerome's granjs-'ii Jerome's daughter 

BONAPARTE FAMILY. The Corsicur, 
family made I anions by Napoleon, wlm 
was the scconJ son of Carlo Bonaparte 
We Rive here portraits of it.; most 
notable members, with their relationship 
to Napoleon. He himself appears under 
Napoleon. 







BONAPARTE, ELIZABETH PATTER- 
SON , I ;85-l.'>79). UaiKliter ..I ;i mer- 
chant of Baltimore. U.S.A.. anJ lirst wife 
■il Jerome Bonaparte, whose marriage 
t > her was annulled by Napoleon. 
BONAPARTE'S GULL. A North Amer- 
,,.n speiies of Rull, Larus Philadelphia, 

Inch has been recorded about six 

nies in Britain. 




BONAPARTE'S SAND-PIPER. A bird 
r\ nuicli Vikc a small dunlin (which 
1. but with :i shcirter hill. 



» f 

^T^ ^k"^^ 





BONAR, HURAnU6 MSU6-Sv). A 

Scottish Presbyterian minister, one ol 
the founders of tho Free Church and 
famous as a hymn writer. 
BONAVENTURA. SAINT (1221-74) A 
':un'>ii^ '..'entra! nt 'lie Franciscans. 




BONA VISTA CAPE \ cap. ut Ncu 
I >iiiuilanLl saul to have been the tljrst 
l:md sighted by John Cabot in i-IQt. 
Sec AtLi^ 28. M 4. 




BONBONNI£RE. a holder lor sweet 
meats, usually of silvL-r plate or plated 
sitviT !ike the examples shown here. 
Bon, Gape. See Atlas 25. F 1. 



BONCE. A marble larger than 
ll'^ual kind, as illustrated here. 




BONCHURCH. A charmmt; villatrc 
near Ventnor, Isle of Wij;lit, with tlii^ 
prettv little church. 




-^ 




%r- 




TT 




t^ 


^ 



BONCI, ALESSANDRO (b. I870) An 
Italian tenor who sani; in all the great 
capitals, and was a rival of Caruso. 
BOND. The distance by which a slate 
on a roof overlaps the head of the next 
course below. 




BOND. The binding tosj^ther ot a wall 
hv means ot an arrangement of header 
and stretcher bricks. These diairrams 
show «ix ways of doing it. 




BONO, SIR ROBfcKT iP KS7S). .\ nulcd 
Newtoiindland politician between I8S2 
and 1911 prime minister in 1900. 
BONO, WILLIAM C. (17$Q'lS59). An 
American astronomer noted for his 
-ibservatiuns ol Saturn and also for 
Celestial photo^raphv. 




BONO STREET. A lanio'.is and lushion- 
able shopping street in the West-end ol 
London. Its southern part, Old [5ond 
Street, dates frnm 16SC> 



r' 



%: 



>. ^, 



BONDED WAREHOUSE. A warehou.se 
in which dut-able a;oods are stored free 
ot duty tu wait their removal for sale. 





BOND NOTE. A custom house docu- 
ment cirtiiying that a bond has been 
given for specified lutisbU' good^ so that 

ihev mnv be e.xpnrV'.l 




BONO SLAVE. A petsun who is lorced 
to work without wages. Our picture 
shows the Israelites making bricks 
luring their bondage in Rv'vpt 




BONDU DEVIL A witch Joctor in 
Sicrr.' L -.1- wh'i sm'^iis out offenders 



BONE 



265 



BONE NIPPERS 




Sections through human bun;;s 
BONE. The hard substance forming tlu 
framework of our bodies. In the middl.^ 
picture here we show i> child's bo:i. 
(top) and a grown-up bone, the dark 
patches representing growth-power 
The lower pictures show growth-cells i:' 
a growing boiu' 'l:ft) and canal: and r:.' 
blood-cells in 



VH^ 


..^rv. 


WfLfiP'^' 






i^^mmi 



BONE, rdUIRHtAP tb. 1S76). A Sd-^T- 
tjili ;-..ii^-[ IN I, a especially for his 
pictures ot industrial and war subjects- 

BONE, WILLIAM ARTHUR (b. lS71). 
A chemist well known as an expert or 
fuel economv and kindred suhiects- 




BONE ACE. A name lor the ace o: 
diamonds, the highest card in a game 
cslled bone ace. 

BONE BED. in ecology, a deposit of 
bones, teeth and so on, of extinct 
animals, especially marine creitures. 




BONE-BLACK FURNACE. A furnacr 

in which bones are charred for making 
bone-black, or animal charcoal 




BONE-BREAKER. A luinc ul the 
>prey. PanJion haliaetus. shown here, 

i:id also (..f th- '.riant fulmar petrel. S;:l? 



... [-.'' .-,,:■ :-:lr 




«>c«^(«^ 


<^ r^J^ae*:, <^ 


0> <© (15^ 


i^:') %®(i)(i 


-^m% 


m>&:>^%' 


^~)f:^M 


-^^%1\(| 


\n. i \ 


. M%^ 



BONE CARTILAGE. I ).; tissue wlllj 
:_velops into hard bone. This diaeran 
iif.iws cartilage cells .it the top, the sam- 
cells calcified in the centre rows, and .u 
•Ik- bottom the beginning of true bon 








BONE CAVE. A L.iN- ""ce inhabited 
by men or beasts and containing dc 
piisits beneath the lloor of bones left 
from their meals as seen in this section. 




3 



BONE CELL. Nucleated cell in bone be- 
lieve.l til be tlie active cause of its growth. 
BONE CHISEL. A chisel used by sur- 
geons in performing operations on the 
human bones. The right-hand pair i.; 
tO'ils civen are bnne gou,'-.'-; 




BONE CRUSHER. A luachine used on 
farms for crushing bones to be consumed 
as food or used as a fertiliser. 
BONE DISINTEGRATOR. A grindi:. 
mill made o:i the centrifugal principL 
for crushing hones. 




BONE DOG. A l.i.ai na;: 

fish. We show the large-s 



BONE DRILL. A surgical instrument 
■ r Jrilling hr>Ies in human bones. 



^-:-j-- jj ' ajt^-.^ 1 ' -■ «^. 



^SJ^ 




■^MUlhLTM rr:inf-j 



K 



<■- *j^' 




I 



il 



i 



Ancient Scottish bon; implemenU 



<rT^S~'> ^ ~ m 



-O 



Bone needles and pm 




BONE ENGRAVING. A piclare carved 
ri hone bv a prehistoric man, as 
in:agined in' the lower picture here. 
The two bone engravings above i! 
'epresent a reindeer and a glutton. 
Bone Fish. .Same as Bone dog. 



®:^S^^ 




BONE FORCEPS. Forceps for holding 

.1 biine during -.urgical operations. 



rr»» 



't 



jMk 




\ miner's pict of deer '-."m 




Bone comb from the Orkney* 




\ ..:> of bone 

BONE IMPLEMENTS. A term uMd 
especially of the tools la^hioned bj 
prehistoric man from bones, which, n 
these pictures show, were adapted fof 

ni.r.iv purp.>ses 




BONE GLASS. 



^^N 



BONE HEAP. 



.-.inn..^ lu.i 

Shown here 



■ uMiens of prehistoric man. Bone> 
nnd in such heaps are often of great 
.;rchaeolns'i<-ai and zooIojicaJ interest 



BONE LACE lac.-, usuaili ol lintn 
;nt^-.;u. iiiju. .... a cushion *-ith bobbins. 
It is so named because tht bobbins «xre 
originally ol bone. 

BONE MILL. A micmne lor $r:ndin( 
:■ Mies for fertiliser of lor us* in making 
none. black 




BONE NIPPERS. A suiticai imple- 
ment, such as these, lor removing the 
ends of a splintered bone gr cartilage 



BONE ORNAMENT 



2U() 



BONING KNIFE 




BONE ORNAMENT. Any >1^cor:ltive 
article ol c.irw'J bone such :is lh« 
Jppanese house and garden shown li re. 




BONE POT. A funeral urn from an 
an- 1 i;t ['iir;.il moutuf 1 hese examples 
i- '1 Museum. 




BONES i iL-ces of bone which, heK 
f'etween the tinkers and struck toiicthe 
mark the time for Negro minstrel musi- 
We show a seaside entertainer trivini,' 
performance, and the bones theni^elw v 




BONE-SETTER \ 

InejteJ fjonos b^ ' i. 




BONESHAKER. An early form ol 
bicycle invented in 1865 by Pierre 
l,»llemeiit. and introduced into Entrlaiiil 

1H'1S(>7. 

BONE SKATES Skates made Iroi 
suitably shaped bones of animal 
usually the Ictr-bones. Londoners us. 
Ihem as late as the Ijth centnrv. 




BO'NESS. i lie ti.iine i:en;ralu useJ li r 
Borrowstounness, seen here." a busy 
rorl on the Firth of Forth (14.000) 




BONFIRE. A bii; lire made in the open. 

e<l'eei.ill\ al times of rejoicimr. 

Bonfire ol the Vanities. See Burninu ol 

the \'anitiev 

Bonga. same as ,\reea (which see) 




80NGAR. A i.iriie. venomous snake, 
Bunyarus lasciatus, ol the East Indies : 
alst) called the rock-snake. 
BONGO A larce, heavily-horned an- 
telope, Boocerus euryccrus, of tropical 
Africa related to the eland. 




BONGRACE. the frontlet staiidiil',' up 
round the forehead in a Tudor ho^J i^ 
shown in these examples. 





BONIFACE (d U;n). Archbisl,,,]- 
(-anterburv under Henry III 
lidward I We dive his sem 




i 1.* - cf- - 

BONIFACE, SAINT |i.Mi,SM \ ] . i 
sliire monk who became the Apostle ol 
Germany, where he suffered martyrdom. 

fiiti fieture shows Iiim sailin-' from 




The Horse Fair, by Rosa Bonheur 




BONHEUR, ROSA 1 s22 j','J .\ rreiieliwoinan lamous lur her remarkable tjiUs as .ui 
animal painter. She bei;an to exhibit in tSu. and in 1894 the officer's cross of Ih. 
I.eeion of Honour w.as conferred on her. an unprecedented honour for a woman 



li Ii.ce 1 1 1 

Boniface V 


1! I.u- IV 

Boniface VI 




Bonilace VH. VUI, and IX 
BONIFACE. The name of nine medieval 
Popes. Boniface VUI (1294-1303) op- 
posed taxinii of the clertry hv Edward I. 




BONIFACE. A hearty, rosy-la^eJ laiui- 
lurd, like the one seen in the lett centre 
uf the picture. The name comes from a 
character in a play. 





w 


'■^-^ f 




?^--;r ,-3 




< 




T 


\ 


















1 



BONIFACIO A picturesque Corsican 

town overlooking the strait of the sanii; 

name between Corsica and Sardinia- 
See Atlas 7. Inset. 



BONING KNIFE. A sli.irp knilc with 
;i beech ur ebony handle used by 
butchers for cutting bones from meat 



BONINGTON 



A River Sec 





BONINurUN, RICHARD PARKES 

(1801-28). An English painter know a 
especially for his water-colours. Here 
we ?ive his portrait with two of his 
works Fishine Boats and A River Scene. 
Bonin Islands. See Atlas 35, D 3- 





BONiTO. The Spanish name for a luiuu 
fish found in tropical waters. 




■^ 



■Tr- 



Bonn Cathedra! 





BONIVARO, FRANCOIS 14;3i;rjj 

A Savoyard whose name has been riiade 
famous by Byron's poem The Prisoner 
of Chillon. fie was held captive for six 
years in the Castle of Chillon (which see', 
on Lake Geneva. 

BONI-VOCHIL. Another name for the 
great northern diver, here shown in 
summer plumage. 





Beethoven's birthplace, a fine 
univ;rsi!\ city on the Rhine 
'■.■ 12. B 3. 




Tlie Bun .\\.ircl!e 




iiri.\i')ti Bon Marcne 
BON MARCH E. A French term mean- 
idg good bargain and taken as a name by 
many drapery shops. 



i inn.Tt. h\ InmseU 

IT 



^ 




..A 



The Girl at the Fountain 
BONNAT, LEON (1833-1922). A French 
painter, two of whose characteristic 
works we give here 



BONNET 



fJ,,-. 



^^ 



-v.. 



BONNE. ,\ I rench word used ot i 

- J's nurse, as seen here. 

BONNER, BISHOP (about 1500-69). 
A bishop of London who was one of the 
chief opponents of the l:ni;lish Reform- 
ation. He condemned manv of the 
Pr-.t^vtants burned under .Mary. 



-^-.^T 



SONNET A Covtrini; |.j» ihr pujlc, 
■yi^rc a Chain or cable chantcv .t. 

BONNET. The velvet cap *hich «f»e» 

as a hnini.' to 3 cro-vn ..r : , - -, . ,j„ 
here in the c r ■ 




BONNER BUGGY. A form 01 bu!,'ny 
■■•hich see) named after an editor of 

i;u- Ne« Ynrk Ledcer 



'.♦.V- 



^' 








Mid-Victorian bonnets 





Btjnnet 01 i>>xt Queen Niclorn- 



xA^^f, 





. ..: -1 Army Nurse's bonnet 

BONNET. A word meamnj: a brimles-s 
h:iadJr;;ss used especially of women's 
headiiear, thou(;h the Scottish woollen 
caps (or men are also known as bonnets. 
Here we see some bonnets used in olden 
times and todav. Stg Colour PIjU 




BONNET. A WW/ ri-^^." -. - -...mncT 
^rn risk of tire from spirts. 




BONNET. A cover (B) placed over i 

mine Ci-2i t-^ rri't^.i mi:i-rv r i-- nr -t 





i:^ 



BONNET. 1;; .....;;;;<. .* ilai puce »»J 
woi>d placed over the top of a prop 

'^■'i.ii:".; lip tlie r.'iif 




.-root cap crnirctinc 



BONNET ...,. „^ ^ 

the mid valvi ^pri^g on a norizontal 
combustion engine as here indicated 



BONNET 



L'llH 



BOOBY 



3o,vcl 




BONNET. Tile movable cover pro- 
leitiin; the engine of a motor-car. 



t 




BONNET. A name ,!;iven to a piece oi 
canvas laced to a jib in calm weather, 
as shown in the diagram and sketch 
here civen. 





iU 

BONNET. A ca^t-iroii plate (b) cover- 
iiit: the openings in the valve chambers 
of a pump, as here shown. 
BONNET. Another nameforthechimney- 

Ccwl which rri.-VentS :t <|nwn.,lr m.-ht 



\ 



BONNET-BLOCK. A wi'.uUn sli.ipi' 
irrnu-rly u\l-J by milliners on which a 
honnet was placed for pressing. 
BONNET CLAM. A mollusc known to 
science as Calyptraea equestris. Its 
popular name is due to its shape. 
Bonnet Limoet. *^ee Bimnet shell. 





BONNET PRESS. An apparatus lor- 
iiKTly u-^.-J for shapin? a bonnet by 




BONNET-ROUGE. 1 ii u : 

hy the |-rciic!i |.\\ ..lutwiulr i. :. ■> 
also as the Cap ot Liberty. This picture 
shows Louis XVI beins crowned with 
o'le when the ninb invaded the Tuileries. 




BONNET SHARK A variety ol shark, 
splivrna tiburo, so named because oi 
the peculiar shape of its head. 



/ 



^ 



^liT^ 



J^_ 




BONNET MACAQUE. The name ^ivc-n 
to an East indran species of monkey 
because it has on its head a patch oi 
fur resemblitit: a car. 



BONNE r SHELL. A mollusc m.i ikuik-j 

t'jcausL* ot its bonnet-shaped shell, 
shown on the rii^ht. On the left tlu' 
livini; mollusc is s;.'en. 



BONNET PIECE. A name s'ven to a 
coin ot James V ot Scotland because the 
Hng appears on it wearing a bonnet. 



^i«a&^^ 



dONNEr SKATE. A name often given 
to th<? common skate. Raia vulgaris 




BONNET STACK. A metal chimnev 
stack with a raised cover to prevent 
r.im arut siinu ironi falliiiii in. 
Bonnet Torbay. See Torbay bonnet. 
BONNEVAL, COUNT CLAUD DE 
(1075-1745). A noted French soldier 
of fortune who took service with the 
Turks rind fouiiht with distinction 
against the Russians. He became a 
WdsU'in and was called Achmet Pasha. 




BONNEV, DR. r. G. y l.>.> i <^>r A 
\wil-kii'iu'ii f-.rii^hsh geologist. 
BONOMI, JOSEPH (I796-IS78). A 
director tjf the Soane Museum, London, 
noted as an illustrator ot works on 
Etiyptiun subjects. 




aonuNCINl, GIOVANNI (about 1672- 
1750). An Italian composer whose 
operas were very popular in his day. 
BONPLAND. AIM^ JACQUES n77^- 
1S5'S). A noted French bnt.inist who 
went with Humboldt to Si.'Uth America. 




BON VIVANT. A French term mean- 
int; a man lond of t^ood living. 




BONY FISH. An American name for 
the menhaden, F.revoortia tyrannus, a 
lish allied to our rikhard. 



1 




BONZARY. A Buddhi.st nuniastery 
such as is shown in this picture. 




BONZE. A inoiik ol a liuJdhist 
monastery in the Far East. Bonzei 
shave their heads and live by teaching 
or on charity. 

BOOBOOK. The name given to a small 
Australian owl, Athene bonbook, be- 




BONVIN 

hreujh iicnrk* p.n..' ' ■■■'■ .■'^■' portrait 
;s here shown beside one ol his charac- 
teristic works. The Refectory. 



BOOBY. A larire. h 
ot the South Seas, ot 
Sula, as the gannet. 
because it is easily 



eavil\ -huilt bir J 
the same penus. 
It IS so called 
captured. 



I 



BOOBYALLA 



269 



BOOKMAKER 




BOOBYALLA. An Au^lIailau U<^c oi 

the acacia type, its leaves and ilowers 
being shown here. 

BOOBY-HATCH. The wooden cover- 
ing of a hatchway leading to the fore- 
peak nf .1 sm.-;!' ve^-^el. 




BOOBY SLEIGH. A carriage-body on 
runners forming a comfortable sledge. 
BOOBY TRAP. Any kind of trap to 
catch the unwary in practical joking. 
Here, for instance, we see a bask;;t 
perilously poised on i door. 




boodlej club. 

17^2 by a man named Boodle. 



BOOJUiM. kind uf hum used by Rumanian 
peasants in callinj; their cattle. 




N|j|jn|i3J£»3 




BOOK. A nuiubcr ui manuscript or 
printed pages bound between two boards 
connected by a backing. Our illustra- 
tions show a volume of the Children's 
Encyclopedia closed and open. 




BOOK I he name given tu a bundle 
01 spun silk, as imported from China 
U-r weaving into the silk of commerce. 




BOOK BACK GLUER. A machine 
uSiid by laryc bookbinders for giuini; 
the baok-v ot books, and so on. 




BOOKBINDER. A man whose trade 

K thi hindini: uf books. Here we see 
.1 bookbinder at work. 




BOOKBINDER'S PRESS. A form of 
handler ( which see) which presses 
together the sheets of a book for sewim: 

b-A'U-- bi;-Jii!i,'. 







Rich medieval bookbindint; 




Italian Arabesque Modern 

BOOKBINDING. The craft of binding 

printed or manuscript sheets totrether 
in covers, often finely decorated. The 
upper picture shows an I ith-centurv 
binding adorned with jewels and enamels. 
See Colour Ptaf 




Open tront Revolving 

BOOKCASE. A familiar piece of furni- 




BOOK CASE MACHINE. A ti..i. 
tor makini; from car V- " ' ■ ' :'. 
the cases, or cover?;. 




BOOK-CLAMP. A lorni oi vise toi 
holdii!^' bonk pages to be bound. 
BOOK CLASP. A metal fastenim: f. ■ 
ke-'pine .i bnnk firmlv shut. 



BOOK-HOLDER. An iJjustjclf dc 
vici tor hoMinv' a book in a comfoftaWe 
rnsition fur rcaJinc as shown in the 

r;"tijrr ii.T'.- I'iv^.'H. 



Bfc^yg 


1 

1 ~ " ^ i 



BOOKING CLERK. A railwa> derk 
•A lio is5ucs tickets to intenJine pii 
seneers. is here seen in his office. 
BOOKING MACHINE. A form ot 

■ijrcw-pres^ used '.'• C"mpf:^s t-'baco 
leal into h r-r.::!!-. :: ;- O- ,u - :^■.^ : 




BuOK COMPRESSOR. A rouerlu. 
press for pressinc together tightly the 
sheets of a hook re.uiv I'tir bindin? 




BOOK ENDS. Supports for holdnw up 
the ends ot a row of books. 




BOOK-KEEPING MACHINE. 

paraius mide c-. thw 
Adding Machine Company u 

up figures computes bal.. 
prints these in tJ:: ' ■'--- '" 

out statemenfi. 




BOOK LOUSE. \ 

'nseci. Atrorus pulsatori.1. i:;:eitir.5 
bixik-i. museum specimens, and so on. 
BOOKMAKER. A professional betting 
man who receives wagers, which are 
then recorded by a clerk in his book 



BOOKMAKER'S CERTIFICATE 



BOOM 



4 



HffT TmAHWF' 



^ 






(§) 



BOOKMAKER'S CERTIFICATE. A 

licence to carry on business received 
by a bookmaker from the Government. 

i ^" - - ' — ■ --,;. 



V 



'll 




BOOKMARK. Anvtliin^ to mark a 
page in a book. (A) strips of silk, (B) and 
(F) printed silk, (C) a silver marker. 
iD) perforated r:ir.T. >r) UiUhcr. 






f f 






BOOK OF MORIVION. Writings on 
yoKlen pl.iies. like this 'left), said to have 
been tound by Jost;ph Smith, founder ol 
Mormonism. They profess to be an 
account nf ancient American peoples. 
BOOK OF THE DEAD. An ancient 
Egyptian work, of which we here show 
part, giviiic; directions for the soul's 
journey after death. It was placed 
with the mummy in the coffin. 
See Colour Pljlr, ^Uii 




Mer.ildic bookplates 
BOOKPLATE. A printed or enirraved 
label, often beautiful, pasted in a book 
and contain itic tlie owner's name 



BOOKRACK. A tr.mu- i- \v,\.\ f^ter- 
ence hooks on a desk or table. The 
(me on the left can be extended or 
•shortened as desirt ; 




BOOK SCORPION. A ^mull arachnid 
like a tailltf-is scorpion found in old 

honks It i^ h'.Tf much mairniiied. 




BOOKSHOP. A shf.p where books ;\re 
s''M. This is a secondhand bookshop. 




BOOK SLIDE. A rack with a blidiiiL- 
end enahlinti it to take a varvin? number 
of hooks. 




A Loiut^iii ^latmn bi^^^kstall 
BOOKSTALL. A :>tall or booth where 
b..i«k^ ) 'J newspapers are sold 




BOOKSTAND. A small book-holder. 
tit^n !■! .1 revolving type liko this. 











BOOK TRIIVIIVIEK. A machine tor 
trimming the edi;es of the paces of 
honks :in(i nin-TLizines after sewin?. 




BOOK TROUGH. A kind of bookracJ 
usually tilted. Fixed and :idiiist:ih1 
forms are here given. 




A iip.k iLuiK-ii by book-wurms 
BOOK-WORM. Any insect larva whicli 
damages hooks. We show in the top 
picture Sitodrepa panicea (left), with 
\^rLib, and Ptimis hrunneus. two insect^ 
u-flli J.'struc'tiv^- larvae'. 




BOOKWORM. A term applied to any- 
one who devotes his time almost 
exclusively to the study of books. 




BUULE, GEORGE . i.i , 
fcnglish mathematician and logician 
noted for the relations he established 
between logic and mathematics. 
BOOLY. A roughly- built shelter for 
cattle nn a mountain or elsewhere. 





BOOM. In a sailim; ship, a spar run 
out to extend the loot ol a sail- The 
top picture shows its position ; below 
it we uive a view of the boom of King 
George's yacht Britannia 




BOOM Or hnnnis. .t Space in a ship's 
' .. .ige of boats 
iwn. 




BOOM. A dcl^tisivc l-atiur .i^iu^.n a 
river or harbour-mouth. As seen in 
this picture, It is sometimes formed 
of lotrs chained Insrether 



^^^^"^f^^M 




BOOM. A ctiain ol lous (A) lasiiindJ 
together at the ends and used to hold 
up masses of floating timber 



BOOM 



271 



BOOT 




BOOM iJ of hav 

and : A Js to keep 

the loaJ i'l r'^^*-'. 2s here indicated. 




BOOM BAND A band for the boom 
of a sail. lifted with a rinc: and held on 
the boom by bolts and nuts. 





bnnm or waist of a ship. 



fT'^^i-oo^^- 



i 



I 



i 



BOOM CHAIN. A short chain used to 
fasten boom-sticks end to end to stop 
floating timber in a river. 



f'- 



BOOM COVER. . - f ajlin for covering 
spare booms una ^pars, as seen in the 
picture here ?iven. 




BOOM CRANE. A crane with a vertical 
mast, and a horizontal boom projecting 
at ri?ht ariLiIes. 



'# 



BOOMER. ;.. ..^ 

male of the kaniiaruo. 





.ime ol tlu- 
-r, Haplodoii 
■ .rina. shown hrr- 



Types ot boomerangs 
BOOMERANG. Curved wooden missili: 

of the Australian natives which returns ti> 
the thrower if it fails to strike an obiect. 




BOOM-IRON. A ring on u ship's yard 
through which a studdinij-sail-boom 
is run in and out. 

B00MSHEET8. Ropes working through 
tackle to keep a ship's boom at th. 
required ancile. as seen in the picture 




BOOMSLANG. A venomous Atric.i:^ 
tree-snake. Bucephalus capensis, Th. 

worj mean'; ;i tree-twi<;ter. 



B M ^ T A Y 



L'uoy. a heavy 
jiisive booms in 




BOOM TACKLE. Ropes and pulleys lor 

.'Liyin'.; "Ut a ship's boom when running 
before the wind, as here illustrated 



BOONE, OANIEL ii735lS20). An 
American pioneer famous (or his 
exploits against the Red Indians. 
BOOR. A peasant or any person ol 
ueh, coarse manners. Our picture 
I'^ws a Dutch Interi'. rbv Tenier? 




=#^ 




BOOSTER. .An electrical device for 
chan.;niij the potential between two 
points locally, in a direct system, with- 
niif affectini; the difference of polenti.il 
.It the '.reneratin? end of the line. 




Wcl in-:.' 




Diver's boot 




BOOT. A leather foot-coverini; reach- 
in'.; above the ankle, some of its parts 
beini; shown in this picture. Thev are 
(A) tonirue. (B) waist. (Q hooks. (D) 

iirrer. iRi -^i-lels. (Fl heel. (T.) t..ec.ir 




BOOT , riding . \ -;-.o.'.lIy Iiuli .ii:J 
heavy kind ol boot for horsemen. Our 
pctuVe shows the kind of riding bo-^t 
worn in the seventeenth centurv 



\\otorin2 to 



'^.\^\ > .. : .■ ' t: l>iInK>ra 

BOOT (Styltt of), (hi tootieir .wn 
n civilised countries, their chief firXs 
l-eina: shown in the preceding column. 
Here we show a variety of boots 

Su Cdctir TP'.air 
Boot See also Pips biNit 



BOOT 



BOOT HOOK 







BOOT. A cnuri;*; {which sec) in hcraUfry. 
appearing in a number of arms; some- 
times referred to as Irish broiiue, Dutch 
boot., and so on. 

BOOT. An old instrument of torture 
consisting oi a wooden casing for the 
leg into which wedges were driven til! 
the bones wlt*; crushed. 



ix::^i 




BOOT. A i;th-century Ivalhcr ju;, so 
called Ironi the use o( leathir jacks 
(which see) as drinking vessels. 
BOOT. The name once given to steps 
fixed to the outside of a private coach 
(or the use of attendait«. 




BOOT. A compartment for passenKer> 
at the side of an old-time travellini; 
watron, as here shown. 








BOOT. A bai^iiaiie box at the rear o; 
::i iiUl-fashiniieJ coach, as seen here. 




BOOT. A leather apron fastened to the 
dash-board of a coach, as seen here, 
for protection from thf weather. 



- n 






G JOI, ,IR JESvE : :■■). English 

^ii^i-.i.^l a;.d .i.-uiijijit, tounder of the 
lirm of Boots Cash Chemists. Limited. 
BOOTBLACK. A man who cleans and 
polishes boots which are beinij worn- 
Usually, lie has his pitch out of doors, 
as Shown in the right. hand picture. 




BOOT BRUSH. A.hrush used in cleanini: 
ni polishini; boots and shoes. We show 
ill the left-hand picture a combined 
boot scraper and cleaner. 




BOOT BRUSHER. A device lor cleaning 
boots by means of a rotating -brush. 
BOOT CLAMP. A device lor holdins a 

bnnt tirnit-.- ill pi";ition for sewing. 




K-- 



BOOT-CLOSER. A worker m the boui- 
ni.ikHi':^ industry who sews the uppers 
111 liiH)ts and shoes, as seen tiere ; also 
;i niadiine used for this purpose. 




BOOT CUFF. A form ol lar^e coat-curt 
ei'innion in Entrland in the tSth century, 
as seen on the man's co.it hfre 






.«5 




■y 




/.'/ 


B 5 


( 


1 


\^' 


1 


c 



SOOT CUPBOARD. A cupboard in 
which boots and shoes are kept. 
BOOTED. A term applied to a bird's 
metatarsus (shown between A and B) 
\\'\\a\ it is quite smooth. 




Nekkfir 



• Izar 



% Aixtunis 

" •'? 
Saak 

or 
Muphrid 



BOOTES. The Herdsman, a northern 
..onstellation situated behind Ursa 
Major (which see), and containing the 
bright star Arcturus, the most swiftly 
moving star we know. 





BOOTH, BRAAIWELL ,li. tSS6). Son ni 
William linDth, whom be succeeded as 
ijencral of th.- Salvation Army in 1912 
BOOTH. CHARLES (tS40-19l6). An 
liiiiiitsh social relormer, author of Life 
and Labour of the People in London. 




BOOTH, EDWIN THOMAS nS33-93) 
A noted American Shakespearean actor, 
son of Junius Brutus Booth. His brother, 
John Wilkes Booth (1S39-65). who was 
also an actor and is seen on the right, 
was the assassin of Abraham Lincoln. 




BOOTH, WILLIAM (1«29 1912). The 
founder and first General ol the Salva- 
tion Army, who by his fervent preaching 
and able administratioii spread its 
influence throui;liout the wurld. His wife 
Catherine (1829-90), on the right, was 
one of the remarkable wonu-i "i h r .!.t'. . 

.1 




* r^SSft 



dOOTHA. An Indian deity generally 

/.pr :;r ■ 1 richly apparelled and 

■ i.ii I ■ ■ I ■ iHni-like dra^'in. 




V a. G^r; 111 j 

.iOOTHBY, GUY NEWELL ( 1S67-1905). 
Australian novelist and traveller, well 
known for his Dr. Nikola series of stories. 
Boothia, Gull of. See Atlas 28, H 2. 
BOOTH LINE. A line of steamships 
lounded by Alfred Booth and Co.. and 
sailing chiefly between Liverpool and 
South America Here is its "ag. 




§— H 




dOOr HOLDER. A device lor holding 
a top l^o'd while it is being cleaned. 
BOOT HOOK. An instrument for pulling 
on long boots. The lower one shown 
here is made to fold when not in use 



BOOT HOSE 



273 



BORCHGREVINK 




BOOT HOSE. Ail cl.l name tor such 
gaiters as these, now out of date. 




BOOTJACK. A wooden instrument trji 
removing a boot by gripping the boot 
heel ; the one on the left has handles 
to aff«ird greater purchase. 




BOOTLACE A thung tor lacin.:; 
together the sides of a boot. We show 
moluiir (topi, inotball and leather laces. 





BOOTLAST 1 he wouaen mould ul the 
foot on which ' '^oot is built. 




£aiBaic:a--;< iiwui^— ■■mi 
BOOTLE. Busy port adjoining Liverpool. 
Here are its municipal byildings (So.ooo). 

r ' 




BOOTLEGGER. In America, one who 
deals unlawiully in liquor, the name 
being a humorous suggestion that boot- 
leggers follow an old practice of carryinr 
a bottle in their lone hoots, as suggested 
in the picture here given. 



L. ...rmaking by machinery 
BOOTMAKER. A man who makes 

buots .'itluT 111 a sliop <ir a factory, as 



-•-vl 






BOOf PATrtRM. 

these, by mtraiis o\ uhii.ii j p.irt r>\ 
buot is cut ou* from the hide 




BOOT RACK. An 

rails on which huots and shii 

when nut in use. 

BOOTS. A hotel servant who cleans 

th- hoots of th'^ •Tuest':. 




BOOT SCKAPER. A u .. >> ... ..^....i^l 
which thi hoot sole is scraped to remove 
mud betore entering a house. 
BOOT STOCKING. ^ An extra stocking 
like that shown in this picture ; also 
.1 inrni oi sp.UIerdash (which see) worn 
insfe-.ui mi b,>nts 




^ 



m 



Vfj w 



BOOT STUOS. Leather studs with 
rikes (or driving into the soles ol 
thall boots 




BOOT TOP. Ihe upper part ol a lone 
boot, as shown in these e.xamples. A 
and B are late I7th century, and C, D. 
and E early 17th century: F is a I9th. 

CL'nturv top bdot. 




BOOT-TREE. A devic tor placini; lu 
''0<A tf. ke^r it in shape. 



BOOT-STRETCHER. An instrument 
fw .stritcliiiig the uppers of boots. 




BOOT WIPER. A device consisting of 
^rushes placed at an angle through 
which the hoot can be drawn to wipe 
fifi mud before entering a house. 




BOPEEP. The heroine o! the famous 
nurserv rhyme of Little Bopeep wh.. 
lost hL-'r sheer and found them again. 




BOPYRID. A crustacean 01 the 
Hopvrid.le family, Bopyrus crangorum 
being here illustrated. 




BORA, Ihe name 0. tnc coid nufth- 
e.ast wind which Plows from the moun- 
tains at the Adriatic's head, as indicated 
here by arrows. 

BORA. A kind ot (rump:! 
!he military of Turkcv. 




BORA. 

the Australian aDoncmci ty 

:iTc initiated into the tribal n 




eORA, KATHARINE 

.Martin Lulhrr's ^v.\ u ;i . : 

convent to jom him. 

BORACHIO. A kmd of Spanish viae 

hottle made from 3 skin. 



^ T 



^ 



BORAGE. A comm'^n British wJJ 
riant. Boraeo officinalis, bearinic Iin;c 
'^ri'ht blue flowers in droopin* clusters. 
Bor«S. See Atlas 11, G S. 



W-\ 




BORAX. A >.!.; ;.ri-.;^.'d by the union 
, [ boracic ac:d and soda. It is obtained 
bv evaporation from certain lakes and 
made from soda and bor.icic add in the 
.;rraratus shvwi here. 
BORCHGREVINK, GARSTEN ib. lS64). 
A Norwc;;ian Antarctic explorer, com- 
mander o! the Southern Cr-'SS expedi- 
tion from London in tS*>S-o. 



BORDAR 



274 



BORDURE 




BORDAR. li. !t^"J-'. li'"-^. -i ^,\''',^^'\" 
held his hut at the rl'';'siif« of his lord. 
This rii^tufs ''■°'" ">' Vision of Pier^ 
Plowman shows a bordar and his wi 
at work in the fieldt. 




The r"" 01 linrjejux 





'^•,r-,-_NTo'fa^*NTE5RrTCRI, 



ss-ti 



BORDER. The frontier line betwe 
tw.> conntries, as shown by this photo- 
•r.iph taken in the Khvher Pass leadinf 

l"r..m liulKl to Afi,'luliiist;in. 







1 — -.'-- 

Bordeaux Cathedral 
BORDEAUX. One of the greatest 
trench ports. Its cathedral was built 
by the Enslish durinc the Hundred 
Years War (27;.00li) ■■ - '"""- " '" ' 



See Atlas 7. C 4, 




BORDEN, SIR FREDERICK W. (IS47 
ril7i. ;\ (..tiKidi.nl statesman, a del:-- 
g.ite at the Imperial Conference of lyoo- 
BORDEN, SIR ROBERT LAIRD (b. 
1S54). Conservative Prime Minister of 
Canada, 1911-20, and her representa- 
tive at the Peace Conference in 1910. 



riv3r5ii:5£g7.A;: 




BORDERING WAX. VVa.\ used in 
etcliers and engravers for formint; a 
I'orderini; about plates, as seen here, in 
order to retain the etchint; acid. 
BORDER KNIFE. One with a convex 
I'l.lde at the enj ol a Ions handle for 
tnniniine crass edires 






»|. 




BORDER. A -.uty •> i;round, usu.div 
pl.inteJ with lli.M.;rs. .It the ed'.;e "I .1 
.;.n-aen path - i:>«n. 



'^'^ f^~ 



% 





BORDER LIGHTS. Hie row of lishts 

I hind the borders in a theatre. 
BORDER PEN. Orawint' pen with several 

punts; lor irakini! dec rative borders. 



BORDER. A part of theatrical scenery 
iLinenii; Ironi above and representirg 
hili.ii^e. clouds, and so on, as shown here. 
Border I heraldry*. See Bordure. 




BORDER BRIDGE. A famous old 
bridge. 2000 leet loni;, carryins the 
railway over the Tweed near Berwick. 




BORDERED BEAUTY. A British 
moth, with deep yellow wings havinc 
black central dots. We show also the 
dirk bordered beautv (richt). 




Border ol a c.;ipet 
BORDER. A decorative edging to 
anything, as shown by these examples 




BORDERED WHITE. A British moth, 
1 idonia piniari.t. common in pine woods. 
We show the fi p (left) and under sides. 



BORDER FORK. A long-handled 
garden fork, with short, straight tines, 
used for digging up borders 



BORDER WARRIOR. A trooper 

iH-loiiging to one of the marauding 
I'ands who used to make forays on both 
.ides of the Scottish border. A Border 
horseman is represented in the line 
(iaiashiels war memorial, here ijiven. 




BORDER REGIMENT. British regime 

tlic old ;ith .Old 55th Foot, recruitL 
lidiii r,niiib."1.rul a'ul Westmorland 




BORDIGHERA. \ drliuhtlul little 

: ' ., • Riviera (isont. 



BORDERS. The district along the 
Border between England and Scotland 
which was once the scene of almost 
incessant warfare. We show Norliam 
Castle, an old Border stronchold. 



f 




BORDER SHEARS. Shears with lone 
liandles and blades almost at a ri«lii 
an'ile for clipping lawn borders. 





BORDER TOWER. I - ol high 

defensive tower ou^e ^oi.ia.oii along the 
Scottish Border. This one is the Bell 
Tower at Berwick 



BORDONE, PARIS (1^'Jll-71). An 

Italian painter of the Venetian school, 
a pupil of Titian. Here his portrait is 
given together with his portraits of a 
lady and a bow 




BORDURE. In heraldry a border or 
bearing around a shield. From left to 
right the examples given are common, 
engrailed, indented, quarterly, gobony, 
cnmpony. cheekv. and vair bordures 



BORE 



275 






/f 



BORE. A;:} .. ' , ■ 

show bores nuJi.' by iij cr!:.ttur;;i in 
limestone (left) and bark-beetle holes 
in wood (right). 




BORE. Til.; h.jle in tlie harr.'l of a i:un 
as htre shown. 



|?«5T 




BOREAL REGION. The name ^ivcn bv 

i ."fcssor Heilprin, the Polish-American 
- ilngist. to the most northerly of th<.' 



^'A 



^■j 



/ 



BOREAS. In urtck ni>thui(ii;y. th. 
Njith Wind, srener.illy represented as 
:ni old man. He is here' seen carrying' off 
i >reithyi;), hi; wife. 




BORECOLE. A variety nt wintei 
bai^'e with spreadinc. curly leaves. 




BORE lartesiaiij. A deep vertical 
boring throui;h which water is obtained, 
nntablv \-\ .Irv '-;irr<; <,i" AiistrLU'Lt. 



Boreci 1 



ff/1 



BOREAL POLE. That pole of a magnet 
which seeks the South : the North- 
seeking pole is the austral pole. 



BOREEN. 



.d it] IrcLiiid lor . 






BOREHOLE. .■\ny kind ol h-U- m.idj 
by borins^, bores for blastin-.: chariies 
in a quarry beini: shown in this diagram. 



BORGHESE PALACE 




Flat headed 
apple tree bor-r 

B 




Grape caneborer 




Hop-plant borer 
BORER. A name given to many moth^ 
-iiid small beetles whose larvae bore 
into wood and stems. Here we show 
several destructive species with their 
larvae (A) and pupae (B). In the middle 
picture we show also the pupa's bore. 



i^ 



BORER. A hand loo! for borine. two 

L'xampU's being here given. 

BORER. A bivalve mollusc which bores 

into wood or stone, the example shown 

beini; Phola dactylus. 

Bore Rod. See Boring rod. 





BORE WORM. The destructive Teredo 
n.iv.ilis, whicli bores into the sub- 
merged timber of ships, piles, and so on. 
as shown in this picture. 




BORGHESE, CAMILLO 17 

An Italian rrir.c; \fch" married Pauliae. 
'^iit^:^ of Niipolc'ij. 1m whom hr '-*i 
his family's art trca-..ur;$. »h 
valued at £^00.0oo 



r 




r" 









BORGHESE G 

antique statue, 
now preserved 



LADIATOR. 

bv Aqis 
in' the 1 




BORGHESE PALACE 

century palace in Rome 
tamilv' lamous tor its 



of the Borghese 
art jalleries. 



BORGHESE VILLA 



276 



BORNEAN 




■ illMliil 



BORGHESE VILLA. 1 lie lunner 

Mimnu'r villa in Rome of the Borghest' 

f .u!iil\ , u ifh :i r-»rk ..I'J .irt treasures. 



r- 1 m\ 







^ 



BORING ANCHOR. A pile cuuipped at 
its lower end with a screw, like these, 



,iiul sutik bv rot.itinn 








BORING GAUGE. A clamp lixod tu tlu- 
shank u( u bit to resulate thu depth ul 
tiiL' work. 

BORING HEAD. In rock-drilling, a metal 
tube in which borts (impure diamond.'.) 
are fixed for cuttinc: purpose.*;. 



BORGIA. I lie iijiiic ul .1 ipuiiLsli-ltuhaii l.unil> notorious lor thtir unscrupulous, 
ness. Amoni; them w.is the dissolute Alexander VI (whom sec). Pope from I4q; 
to 1502, of whom Caesar (1476-1507) and Lucrezia (14SO-1519) were children 
Caesar, able, ruthless, and suspected of being a poisoner, tried unsuccessfully t., 
establish his rule m Central Italy ; Lucrezia was a noted beauty. The Spanish 



Borcias however, rroduoi'd a sai'nl in Fr 




w^m 






-*<-' 



BORGUND, CHURCH OF 

wooden church ul cunous JcsiKn 
Laerdal Norway dating from 1150. 



SORING BAR. Bar to which the cutter 

I I ilnllniijor- hnritK' iniitiiine are secured 



BORING BIT. A tool of various shapes 
a:id sizes used chiefly in borini; wood. 





30RING BLOCK. In a boring machine. 
;... i ...ek (A) -"n which the work is laid ; 
also a cylindrical piece with cutters (right) 
htted on a boring bar (which see). 



\L-rt;cle spiiuli I ..: t 
BORING MACHINE. A machine lor 
liorini; circular holes, generally in wood. 
It may be vertical or horizontal accord, 
ing to the space available, and our 
pictures show three very different types 



■^eS a^i 



BORING ROD A jointed, extensiPK' 
rod to which the tools used in earth 
boring and rock-drilling are fixed ; also 
called a bore rod. Several examples 
are shown in the pictures here given. 



'gWl^UaiAu^.. 




't^(^Uk:«iki-' 



BORING SHELL. A sharp. pointed 
terebroid shell with many whorls, like 
these samples; alsocalleil .111 aueer shell. 




mMmk 



BORING SPONGE. A salt-w.ittr ■>y^im\>M 
nf the genus Cliuna. whitii hures into 
shells and limestone rock. Here we see 
an oyster shell riddled by the attacks 
of Cliona celata. 

BORLASE. WILLIAM (I6y5-1772). A 
Ciirnish antiqniiry and naturalist noted 
li.r his work^ on hi^ cnniitv's anti- 
■ imlk-s. 




BORLEY. A hali-deckcd. cutter-rigged 
nuat used hy trawlers in and atiout the 

Ihames estuarv. 





/ 


'^%ik ' 


-'■^'^^BH^Bs 




BORNEAN. A i.ilivr y.t Uil- island ol 
tiunieo, where the most famous tribe 
is the Dyak ; a typical Dyak man and 
woman are shown in these pictures 



BORNEO 



277 



BORSIPPa 




&r!*^r^ 




bunu'u iLati\^> at liuinc Sandakaii, tiritisli Niirtli Burii(?u 

BORNEO. The third largest island in the world, about 290.000 square miles in 
extent, in the East Indies. Peopled by aboritjinal Dyaks, Malays, and Chinese, it 
belongs chiefly to the Dutch ; but the British administer North Borneo, Sarawak, 
and Brunei. The animal life is varied and brilliant. See also Atlas 24. D 5. 




BORNEO CAMPHOR. A turm ol cam 
phor iiblaiiied from the Borneo camphor 
tree, of which we show a branch with 
flowers and fruit. 




BORNHOLM. An isolated buuisli iil.inJ 
in the Baltic. This is the quaint 
Osterlars church. See Atlas it, H Q. 




BORNITE. A native sulphide nl iro 
and copper used as a crystal rectifier i 
wireless with zincite or copper pvritc 
Here we see it mounted for use. 




BORNU. A c.juiitry mi the L-ciiirai 
Sudan lying partly within the British 
colony of Nigeria. These pictures show 
typical natives 




ba'.^ohas at Boro Budur 
BORO BUDUR. An ancient Buddhi:>: 
temple which is one of the most won- 
derful si!:;hts of Java. Notable lor its 
sculpture as well as its arcliitocture, it 
probably dates from the 7th century. It 
IS preserved by the Dutch Gnvernmenl. 




BORODINO. BATTLE OF. A m\u1 

V erestchai^in picture ol the deleat ut the 
Russians just before Napoleon's capture 
i.f Moscow in 1S12 




BORONIA. A 
shrubs 1 hi 



-.■ilUN of Australian 
h. el.ittor in fruit 



;^ 



■»";■■■<;• 




BOROROS. A tribf ol South America 
livin,; near the sources of the Parana 
and Parni;uay rivers. A typical Bororo 
hunter is shown in our picture. 




BOROTRA, J. A very piipular hrcncii 
tt-nnis pl.iyer. a champion at Wimbledon. 




BOROUGHBRIDGE. i ne mile to%Mi in 
Virkshire wlKTe EJwarJ II defeated 

tlu- i';lrMns i!i 1 '22, Our picture show? 





irn 




B0RRA8C0 

ore or for a 
in the Peak 




BORROMEO, CARLO il>.t6-.S<|. A 
..irJuia) Ai\S saint lanii>us (or his work 
l.jr the Church and his devoted Uboors 
during the pU?ue at .Milan in 1576. 
This remarkable statue of him. 70 (til 
liu'h sr in.1^ ir \- -.1 I--V r-ir-T-ir'.!.-.- 




BOROWLASKI, JOSEPH 

A Polish dwarl. 39 inches hijh. tie 
travelled much, e.xhibitins himself and 
\\rote an autobiography 



BORROMEO. FEDERIGO it564-l63l). 

N.i'"* ■ : >^...'i.' E^rr.iniio. and from 
1 .^95 archbishop of Milan, where he 
founded the Ambrosian library 
Boraiptm. See Birs Nwnrod 

t I 



BORROW 



:;78 



BOSPORUS 





Georse Udrrnw. by T. Pliilllps 
BORROW, GEORGE (IS03-SI). Famous 
liiiijlish aiithor ;nul traveller, born near 
Hj'it Dcrclljm: author of I.aveni;r". 




BORROWDALE. A beautiful valley iii 
LakelauJ. klosj to Lake Dcrweutwater 




T t.il boys niakinc: tile 




BORSTAL. A villa','e near Chatliam 
where a system for reforniinir youni; 
prisoners was first put into practice. The 
system has been greatly extended, and 
AyleslHirv and f'ortland have now 
Borstal establishments In the lower 
picture Borstal Church is on the lelt. 




BORTH HEAD. .\ ti^U h.aJland on 
the c 'asi ot Car,li'.;anshire, Wales. 
Borysthenes, River See Atlas 18. L 2 



^i 




BORZOI. I he Russian wnllhuund 
. : llij bi),'.i;est ol do|;s. with loni; 
^nlt hair and uentle ways. It was intro 
diiced into Britain aboiit 1885 




BOSCAGE. A poeticil term lor thick 
UMiidlaiul \Mlli uiideri;rowth as shown 
111 this picture. 




BOSCASTLE A Jclii;litUil litllc pLic; 
on the iiorlh c.ast nl Cornwall with 
a piclurL-sque windine harbour 




BOSCAWEN, EDWARD II7I1 At) An 

hiu'tish adinir.il. nicknamed Old Dread- 
iioui;ht. u'ho dlstmniiished himsell 
notablv in the Seven Years War. 
BOSCHBOK. The Dutch name for the 
South African antelope Traeelaphn^ 
sylvaticus. 




BOSCH VARK. I lie Dutch name tor 
.111 Airican river pij;. Potaniochoerus 
afr.icanus rather like the wart-hoe 




BOSCOBEL HOUSE .Id manoi 

Ileal Sliiliiai. -.o'lp. ii .il..J, Charles II 
hid alter the liatlle ot Worcester. 




BOSCOMBE. A suburb of BouniLinuulli 
,1 vii'u' nt its si.M iroiit is i:iven lifre 




BOSE, SIR JAGADIS lb tS5S). Indian 
botanist noted for his remarkable dis- 
coveries about nerve systems of plants. 




BOSE INSTITUTE. A scientilic re 

search institution at Calcutta, founded 

by Sir Jai;adis Bose. 




BOSHAM 

with tins 




A viliaee neat 
nclciit little cliiirc 


CI 
h 


icIi-.-slei 








f 


mp 1 1 'flp 








'"'( ' 1 ' 1 1 1 If 










II 11 








r 


i„l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II 










III 










"1 ' 1 ' 1 ' 1 ' 1 ' 










1 1 1 1 li 










1 1 1 1 1 1 
















^ 


m I 


f~r 




~^Wfn ' r— rifli 




f=1S 


i 1 1 III 




irf /I II \a 






^J ^3 





BOSHES. The inward-slopinR sides ot 
;i blast lurnace above the base as 
seen in tliis diaerani 




BOSKET. h) l.iihl M.I 'I 

rhiinp 1)1 trees or a tlileket. 
Bosna, River. See Atlas 14, B 2 
Bosnia. Sor Ml.t-: 1 1, A 2. 




BOSNIAN. A native ot the Yui;o-Slav 
ri'i^ion nl Biisnia, of which we siiow a 
ni:iii and a unman. 



V 




BOSOMBOARD Board on which the 
1 rout of a shirt or other car men t is ironed. 
BOSOIM STAFF. A device for testiuK 
the syininetrv ol the bosom or central 
■oncavitv rl ;i niill-stone 




Sultan's palace by the Bosporus 




A line view ol the Bosporus 
BOSPORUS. The strait, renowned lor 
lis beauty, linking the Sea of Marmora 
and Bfack Sea. Sixteen miics long, it is 
irom half a mile to two miles wide and 
is joined at its southern end by ihe 
Golden tlorn See Atlas 14. D .?. 



BOSS 



'.'70 





Bosses in British cluii-clies 

BOSS. In art. a stud, km*, or pi. 
iecting mass, as seen in the pictin 
liere civen. The book cover shown i 
of 11th-century German workmanship. 



BOSS PLATE. In sliiplnnljiir,;. ash.irplv- 
airveJ plate (B) lilted n.und the bi.'ss 
"i tlie stern frame .nut forminc an en- 
lariiement to recei\e the pMipelkr shalt. 




BOSS. In sculpture, the roughly. cut 
block from which the finished bust is nuule. 
BOSS. In engineerinfi, any enlari;eJ 
part of the diameter of a shaft on which 
a wheel or another section is to be 
keyed. B is the boss «n the rotor 
shaft t.f a liiw pressure turbine. 




BOSS. A vessel for holdini; morl.i: 
which plasterers can hang by a hook nn 
a ladder, as shown in the picture. 
BOSSE. A kind of bomb consistiiifi of .1 
srlass bottle filled with powder and 
having strands of quick-match attached 
to the neck, as seen in the picture 




BOSSUET, JACQUES 1102; 17o4) A 
l.nuniis IrctKii bishop, pre.uher, aiij 
writer "1 the ai;e ..I Lonis .\l V. 







BOSTON. In.' cipii.il ol M.ix^achnseli^. 
U.S..\. The lower pictures show the old 
North Church and old State Hous.- 
(Soo.ooo), See Alias 20. M 4. 




BOSTON STUMP 



bnstMii (.s;c .^tla^ I, u Ij.'a Lmcoln-liii-- 
piirt which in the Middle Aces was on. 
lif the foreni(.sf i;i rii'.'I.inJ iir. --o..|. 




BOSTON TEA PARTY. An incideni 
.; 1 before tlu- American War of In. 
dependence when colonists disi;uised as 
Ked Indians boarded ships in Boston 
Harbnnr and threw overboard the tea 
on wbirh Britain demanded a dutv. 




BOSTON, THOMAS . 1077 1 T.Ui 
tii'ted s,Mttivh i'rjsbyterian iniiiiMer 
.md reliei"Us writer. 
BOSWELL, JAMES Il740-o:> Dr 




BOTANY BAY 



BOSWORTH, BATTLE OF. Henrv 

I .1,1. rS \Ktory in I IS5 i.v;r Richard 111 
on tlie wliite horse), who died fichtin!:. 





BOT. , i . ^.; 

•1 animals py the bot-flv, ul which 

-'|^e examples. 

Botanical Preii. e..i. .u. _ 




and 




BOTANY BAY. An inlet near Sydney, 
New >i.utii Wales, discovere'd by 
Captain Cook in 1770. A penal settle- 
ment was est-ablishsd there in i;S;- See 
Atlas 36. J 5. 



BOTCHER 



:!S() 



BOTTLE 




BOTCHER. Shaktfsre;ir<: 
pjtclKr unj mender. 
Bot-Fly. See But 



name for a 




BOTHA. LOUIS (IS(.2 ivl'». A Boer 
gciieral whose steadfast and far- 
sighted wurk after the Boer War did 
much to make the Union of South 
Africa possioie. He became the tirst 
South African prime minister in lOlo. 
Bothnia. Gulf off. See Atlas il, L 5. 
BOTHRODENDRON. A is'enus of lossil 
pl.i !- i-.I^L'i'i:; to the coal era. Here 
M;- sh.'w U"lliri»dendron punctatum. 




BOTHUS. A cenus of flat fishes re- 
presented here by the European brill, 
Bothus rhombus. 

BOTHWELL, 4th EARL OF (1536-78). 
The turbulent Scutli>h noble who led 
in the plot aiiainst Darnley and carried 
off and married Mary Queen of Scots. 
After their defeat he was imprisoned in 
Denmark till his death. 




i*J^- 



BOTHWELL CASTLE mined 

:,lrotiKli'.id .»t the *;arU ul U-Hhwell at 
Bothwell. Lanarkshire. 



BOTHY. The Scottish name for 
rouyhly-built cottatre or hut. 




BOTON. The knot at the end of a 

r. .pc ;i-eJ as a lariat. 

Bo'onie (heraldry). See Bottony. 




BOTOQUE. An ornament wnm m .i 
hnte piorced in the Itiwer Up. These 
pictures show two monstrous lip orna- 
ments worn by primitive African people^i. 
Botrychium. nuort. 




BOTRYLLUS. A yenus of cc.mPuii;;J 
•iscidians of the family Botryllidae. 
Here we show a colony of them. 
BOTRYOIDAL. A bcpfanical term for a 
tormation clustered like ;:rapes. as seen 
here It is also used in mineralogy. 




BOTRYTIS. Name .Ljiven to certain mould 
luni^i uitli spnres Ejrowini; in ^rape-like 
clusters, as here seen nia'^'nified. 
BOTTA, PAUL ^MILE (lS02-70). A 
French archaeologist noted for his work 
at Nineveh and as the discoverer of 
Saririin's palace at Khorsabad. 





B6TTCHER ware. The: red stoneware 
iii.uie by Johann Bottcher, or Bottger 
fwliich see), at Meissen, in Saxony, in 
the early iSth century. Our example is 
a C'tffee-pot ornamented with i^ilt in the 
South Kensinsjton Atuseum. 
BOTTERILL'S TROUGH. A micro- 
sci'pic slide made of vulcanite plates 
and •s'liis';, enabling living^ animalcules 
to I'L- ,-\,ini:ned under the microscope. 




BOTTEROLL. hi heraldry, the chape. ..r 
nu-t.il tip, of a scabbard, used as a bear- 
in;,'. Also spelled hoterol and bauU-rolI. 
BOTTGER, JOHANN FRIEDRICK 
M6S2-1719)- A Sa,xon potter who is re- 
garded as the founder of the Dresden china 
industry. This bust of him was made al 
the famous Meissen manufactory. 







liutticelli's famous picture cjI Spring 
BOTTICELLI, SANDRO (about 1444-1510). One of the most famous painters of 

th- ! iMr.'tuinc Renaissance, and one of tiie tirst who ventured beyond Church art. 





BOrriNE. A term applied in tin;laiid BOTTINE. A hnut-Iike appliance \Mth 
to strapped shoes or half boots, as shown straps and buckles, like these, for pre- 
in these pictures. venting distortion of children's legs. 



Chinese Cut glass Whisky Liqueur Shouldered Stoppered 

BOTTLE. A narrow-necked vessel, usually of glass, for holding liquids. The pictures 
given here afford some idea of the immense variety of bottles that are made. See 
aLo Capillary bottle and Wolf's bottle and Bottle- making machine (in the next page). 



BOTTLE BASKET 



281 



BOTTLE STAND 




BOTTLE BASKET. A metal basket 
divided into compartments for holdins; 

biiltU'^ syich ;i5 milk bottles. 




BOTTLE BIRD. One that builds a 
bottle shaped, hanging nest. Our 
example is the weaver bird. 



flr*™" 


■^ 




[^ 


s 


M 




■ 


i\ 


i 






1 


1 


' 








II-^-' 








\ 



BOTTLE-BOOT. A leather case in which 
a glass buttle is placed for safety. 
BOTTLE BRUSH. The kind of brush, 
with bristles standing out from a wire 
handle, used for cleaning bottles. 




BOTTLE BRUSH. A name for the tleld 
or cnrn horsetail, of which we show the 
stem and cone-like fructification. 
BOTTLE CAP. A cap of metal, cellulcid. 
or paper, fastened over corked bottles. 
Bottle Carrier. S;-e B.>ttle b.isket. 




BOTTLE CASE. A pruXc^U\c ..i-.uv^ n| 
reed or wickerwork tor jars and buttles. 




BOTTLE CLEANER. An .ipparatus fur 
ua^shini; buttles. The one shown is the 
Purdy cleaner fur washing and dryim,' 
thj" uutsides of buttles. 




BOTTLE CLIP. A device for clusinic 
the neck uf a buttK-, as shown here. 
BOTTLE-COASTER. A plated b<.tt!e 
■^tand for use at table. 





BOTTLE-COD. A West Indian shrub. 
Capparis cynophallophtira, of which we 
shuw the leaves and flowers. 
BOTTLE FISH. A deep-sea fish of 
the family Saccopharyni;idae, repre- 
sented here by S. anipuUaceus. 




BOTTLE FLOWER, A tlritisli iurl . 
C^nt.iure.i cyaiius. with brii^ht blu. 
flowers : also called corn bluebottle. 
BOTTLE GOURD. An Indian climbini; 
plant bearini; bottle-shaped fruit like 
that shown in our picture. 
Bottlehead. See Bottle-nosed wh.iK-. 




,— --, 


1 




4 


"W"^ 



BOTTLE-HOLDER. A deviee I. r 

h.ilji lu .1 hi.ttle. .IS ilkijtrated bv Hi,- 
sketch and sectioii here given. 




BOTTLE-IMP. A h.illow ligure, placed 
in water in a glass iar and made to rise 
-r sink by varying the air pressure. 
BOTTLE JACK. A screw lifting-jack 
s(i c.ilkd l-fc.uise of its shape. 
BOTTLE KILN. A bottle-shaped type 
of kiln. We Rive a section through one. 






Ciosnig on a tum-iormed bottle 




I!:.' ].ius iuctuig .1 bottle 
BOTTLE-MAKING MACHINE. One. 
such as the Owens Machine shown here, 
which makes bottles at a great speed. 
Jaws seize the molten glass, close over 
it. and hold it while it is blown into 
shape bv compressed air. 
Bottle- mould. S.e Blowing mould. 




BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN. A kind 
of dolphin or porpoise known to science 
as Tursiops abusalanu 




BOTTLE-NOSED WHALE. T 

name fur several kir.dv 'A *,.. 
one being Zyphius 'owcrbicniii. 



t- 



o 

t 



BOTTLE OF HAY. 

tile piir.t->e Tu l<A>k ioT i i\<.i%lic in A 

buttL- uf hav. 

Bottle Ore. See Bladder-ftrack. 

BOTTLE PUMP. A device (or removinc 

fluid from a bottle, centrally consisting 

of a rubber bulb for forcin? air in and a 

bent tube through uhich the lt<)uid can 

fJow out as seen in this SfCtion. 




iM&llBihUiim 



BOTTLER. One who bottles mineral 

u.it,rs or other drinks. Here mf yh^w 

hi't'Inii: b>- machinery. 




BOTTLE RACK. One on which bottlc> 
,[r .V .lownward for draining. 

BOTTLE RINSER. An arraratus with 
reCvpt.uiiS tor biittici and jets through 
\*h!Ch water is spraved- to rinse them. 
Bottit Screw. Same as Cork crew tq.v.v 




BOTTLE SPRAYER. A . ■; ;h a 

pipe p.»i^ini; through the stopper and a 
nuzzle att.iched to a part which, when 
worked up and down, starts a fine spray. 
BOTTLE STAND. A rest on which 
t ottles are placed neck downward for 
draining after tiing washed. 



BOTTLE STERILISER 



282 



BOUCHE 




BOTTLE STERILISER, lor sttnlisiiv^ 
hy jets nf steam buttles such as ttiose in 
which milk is deliverfj 




BOTTLE STOPPER. A rl"S. sener-illv 
Ml Klass. used lor eliisim; the neck of a 
bottle, as here shown. 




BOTTLE SWALLOW. A common 
AustraluTi bird, lliruudo ariel, so named 
because of its bottle-sliaped nest. 

BOTTLE TIT. A name of the loni; 
tailed titmouse, shown here. 



Tfupc'rf Cjxct " 



.PA 




y^J\jy^ — ^amoa 




BOTTLE TRACK. The course of a 
sealed bottle thrown into the sea to test 
its currents. This map shows how a 
bottle crossed the Pacific from east to 
west in 1920-21. It travelled at the rate 
of 1 1 miles a da\ 




BOTTLE WASHER. An apparatus for 
washing bottles. Here is one in which a 
bottle brush is revolved by hand power. 

Anotlur III, K Ion ■ Is shown under tJ.urv, 




BOTTLE WASHER. One who washes 
out bottles. flere we show bottle 

washini; by machiner\. 




'Hi" 'f 




BOTTLING MACHINE. A maeliine toi 
iillnii^ .md stoppering bottles, like this 
one used in dairies. 




BOTTOM. A clownish weaver in 

Shakespeare's play A Midsummer 
Nii^'ht's fJream. He is yiven an ass's 
he.id bv Puck, and the bewitched fairy 
.[lu'en Titania f.ills in love with him. 




BOTTOM, DOUBLE. I he two bottoms 
inner one beini.' the 
bottom Hour of the vessel. Here the 
space between is shown white. 




BOTTOM FISHING. Fishint; with a 
weiehted line which sinks to the bottom 
of Hie water, as seen lu're. 





BOTTOM ICE. Ice found at the bottom 
ot a body of water while the surface 

rem.inis unfrozen. 




BOTTOMING HOLE. The mouth of a 
elass furnace at which a slobe of fused 

lilass is e.vposed to soften it. 




'BOTTLE TREE. An Australian tree 
with a trunk very wide at the bottom 



BOTTOM. The lo 
valley, as here illustrated. 



BOTTOIVILEY, HORATIO lb l,S,n) 

Financier. M.P. tor S. Hackney, 1906- 

12: 19t8-August 1. 1022, when he was 

unseated. 

BOTTOMLEV, WILLIAM BEECROFT 

/ l.SOt-1022). A noted Enillish .lut llont\ 

on agricultural fertilisers. 




BOTTOM MORAINE. I he rocks and 
stones that b.i\e fallen on a glacier 
and slipped to the bottom through 
crewisses. as illustrated in this diajfram. 
Bottom Polisher. See Sole polisher, 
Bottom Scourer "^ee Sole scourer. 




BOTTOM TOOL. In turninu, a tool 
with a bent end for working on the 
inside t,f hollLiw work. 
BOTTONY. In heraldry, having buds 
or knobs at the ends, as this cross. 




BOTTONY FITCHEE.Heraldic cross with 
a lower branch endini; in a sharp point 
and the other branches ending in trefoils. 
Botzen. See B<ilzano. 
BOUCH, SIR THOMAS (1822-80). An 
English engineer who did much valuable 
work in planning British railway 
systems. The collapse in 1878 of the 
Tav Bridge, vehich he had built, was a 
mort.il Ml iw to him. 



y^ 




BOUCHARD. In marble-working. a tool 
lor lougliening the surface of the marble. 
BOUCHE. In medieval armour a notch 
in the upper edge of a shield allowing a 
weapon to be passed through it 




BOUCHE. The mouth or bore ol any 
firearm whether large like a cannon, as 
seen here, or small like a rifle. 
BOUCHE. A notch in a heraldic 
shield, a shield having one being 
described as i bouche. 



BOUCHER 



283 



BOUGIE 





A Pastoral IJyII, by Boucher 
BOUCHER, FRANQOIS (1703-70). A 
French Court painter famous for his 
pictures of romantic pastoral scenes. 




I I : J front at Trouville 
BOUDIN, EUG£NE (I824-9!>). A 
French painter nuteJ for his seascapes. 
most of^ tliem painted in his native 
province of Normandy. His portrait is 
here Riven with a sliip and a typical 
C'/ast scene painted by Iiini. 



BOUCHER DE PERTHES, JACQUES 

1 - - . : • . 1 _ tt.iuiider of pr;- 
historic archae"l''i;v in France. 
BOUCHER - DESNOYERS, AUGUSTS 

n779-is;7). A celebrated French 

engraver, notably ot Raphael pictures. 




BOUDOIR. A lady's private siltine 
room. Here we show a French t'th 
centurv h-aijoir. 



BOUCHETTE. In medieval armour, a 
buckle (Bi for fastening the lower part 
■ .i the breastplate to the upper. 






BOUGAINVILLE. The lar'..'est of the 
.Sulonioii Islands, in the Pacific Ocean. 
this vieu beinc typical of its scenery. 
See Atlas .>;. D 5. 




BOUDOIR GRAND. A horizontal or 

.■..iiid pi.uio, belM« the standard size. 
Mf a small sittnii; ri>nm 



BOUCICAULT DION 11S2J .n A 

lamius Irish dramatist and actor 
author ot The Colleen Bawn and about 
140 other plays. 

BOUCICAULT, MARSHAL (1366-1421). 
A celebrated marshal of France whom 
the En«;lish took prisoner at Agincourt 




BOUFFLERS, CHEVALIER DE . 

iSi;). A freiieh i::.!-! •• i-tler^ 
BOUFFLERS. MARSHAL (i614-I711n 
A skilful general of Louis XIV who did 
effective service ai;ain<^i Marlhoroiicn 




BOUGAINVILLE LOUIS ANTOINE DE 

-1729-1611). The first Frenchman to 
sail round the world ; he wrote a valu- 
able book on his travels, and eave his 
name to boiigainvillea. a flower of which 
we show beside him. 




BOUGAINVILLEA. A aenus of showy 

;ihini; shrubs from South America. 

.se are Bouiiainvillea leaves. 
BOUGE. The' French name for a kind 
jt travelling trunk carried on a rack- 
horse in the Middle Ages. 




BOUGET. A budget or pouch. lii 
heraldrv, the curious form of the bougel 
IS nieaiit to represent a yoke with two 



BOUGH. One ol the main arms or 

i'i,iK-lu'^ "•■ .1 tr::. !■; seen here. 








BOUGH POT A Urge pot or vaso lor 
bou-^hs. shrubs, or (lowers lik." tbi« one 
o{ Swansea war; 




b;j>u-aJ Ophvljtefy 

BOUGH POT. A no^f?av "f N^y-^uft «• 
ilowers such as '' 
Jecnration on fur- 





<j. ii. t>uus 



-i^^-^ 




\ r :.,:. . ;-. - 

BOUGHTON, GEORGE H IIS35-I90S). 
\u tncUsh painter k*>wn especull.T lot 
his pictures ol New Enclan.' 'ile ii 
example ol which we irive 




BOUGHTY. An .\rciia!C >..i>i ..i.aninc 
;c;i; or coiled, like the snake and coil 
: ri>re in our picture, 
BOUGIE. A vix candle named liter 
the Algerian port ot Boujie. where 
candles hav ■oni; been manufaclured 



BOUGUEREAU 



BOUQUET 




BOUGUEREAU, WILLIAM il^iv 

1905). A French painter wliitse portrait 
is here Riven uitli two ot his charac- 
teristic worlis. The one on his risht is 
The Eldest Sister, 




BOUILLE, MARQUIS DE (i;39-lBOO) 
A ceneral ol Louis XVI : he wrote 
memoirs of tlie I'rench Revolution. 
BOUILLOIRE. A form of kettle used 
|r>r hoilin-.: water, like that above. 



k 










...... 



BOUILLON. A little town in Ihe 
IIlKm-ui Ardenne?. See Atlas 10. D 5- 




BOUILLON GODFREY DE (about 
1060- tioo). One ot the heroes oi the 
First Crusade, during which he was 
ilected the first ruler of Jerusalem 



-W^ ':^^ 



^■'■"fif, 



JLANGER, GENERAL (l.SJ7-yl>. A 

r..li .si.l.li.r Willi Ivcanie very popular 
r the I1.UIC0. Prussian war but was 
eJ hy intrisues with the royalists, 
JLDER. A detached mass of rock, 

.-.'1 III III,' ricturc 




UuULDLK BELT. A tr.iin or line rl 
h. millers il.pnsited by the meltinj; ol a 
illacier, as seen here. 
BOULDER HEAD. A row of piles set 
in front of a sea-dyke to resist the action 
of the waves. 




BOULDER WALL. In glacial scienc 
a frontal inor.hne composed almo 
en irely ol boulders, as here seen. 
BOULET. A horse whose fetlock, i 
pastern joint, at (Al bends out ol ' 
natural position. 




BOULEVARD. A broad, tree-lined 
avenue in a town, two of the famous 
boulevards of Paris beinu here shown. 




BOULGE. A villase near Woodbndee, 
Sullolk. which was long the home ut 
Edward FitzGerald. He was born ii, 
liredlield House, seen here 




tntrance to Boulogne liarbnur 




BUULOGNE. A French hshiir; porl 
which lias important passenger traffic 
with Folkestone across the Enijlish 
Channel (SS.oOOl See Atlas 7 D i 




rj«i 

BOULTER'S LOCK. A lamous 
I'll the Th. lines near Alaidenhead, a 
popular boatinii centre. Often 
crowded with punts, as seen here 



lock 

very 




BOULTON, MATTHEW (172S-1S09) 
A famous Birminijham engineer, the 
p.irtner of James Watt. The success 
of the famous Boulton and Watt beam 
eni^'iiic. of which we give a picture was 
I ire.lv due III his forcsiehl 




' Uartforo 
Crovdon\ KENT 
S U R R K Y ''-.^ 

Dorkrn,) '('''^^'^tn-ham 

"oiiilalming. \_Tr>iibridy( 

S U S SEX "■■•..^ 



County boundaries 
BOUNDARY. The line dividing one 
property or district from another. In 
the top picture here is shown the stone 
near Moreton.in-the-Marsh marking the 
meeting of four counties, Oxford. 
Gloucester Warwick and Worcester 




BOUNDARY STONE. A stone set up 

III 111. Ilk I boundary;' two Babylonian 

.■x,iniiM .ire tiere given. 

Bounds, beating the. See Beating. 




BOUNTIFUL, LADY. A character in 
Farqiih.ir's Beaux' Stratagem : now 
ny great lady dispensing charity, as in 
this picture by Mary Young Hunter. 




I .ipi.uii Bligh John Adams 





fjouulv ii.i> , rue.iirii Isl.uuf 
BOUNTY, MUTINY OF THE. A famous 
mutinv 111 H..M.S. Bounty in 1 7S9, when 
Captain Bligh was set adrift in the 
South Seas. Some of the crew landed 
on Pitcairn Island. 




BOUQUET. A Buncu ot llowers such 
.IS bridesmaids are her; seen carrying. 



BRITISH BUTTERFLIES-LIKE A FLASH OF RAINBOW IN THE SUN 




q ^an^".n°?°L';f''''i'-. ^ ""i, ^ Silver-washed fritillary. A Clouded yellow (female). 5 Brimstone. 6 Marbled white 7 Laree white S White j.1mir.i 
16 PurD.,r„„ir'*^'l-r''P"'',ll>'^''°* <"'="^>- '2 D^'*= 8^"" fritillary (male), i.i Peacock. 14 Hi«h ?rown fritinarv. , Lar« ort<^s«^^^ 
<6 Purple emperor. 17 Camberwell beauty. 18 Marsh fritillary. 19 Pale clouded yellow. 20 (?ueen of Spain fritillary. Ji and S" Red admiral 'j Gra" ins 

24 Painted lady. Continued oserUjf. ' 



BRITISH BUTTERFLIES— SECOND PLATE COMPLETING ALL EXAMPLES 




I 



I 



lidcK irwwlr-lelt'r StreL/^'^^^^ .,32 Burgundy /ri.illary (underside). 33 Wood white. ^34 Scotch 



Hack hairstreak. 29 Mazarine bluu (underside). 

,, u- ., ,..,,- - „;-■,; ■-.- -•-' - — ■'■ 34 Scotch brown arjus. 35 Scotch brown arsus (undcr- 

44 Dinev skipper 4'; HniK'"i;rM: , / u , ''■'•'"•'.'■■^- , ■'^ Smal white. 39 Chalk hill blue. 40 Brown ari;us. 41 Large heath. 42 Small heath. 4.1 Wall. 

hliiH ;o rr.^', ,^^„^ I V blue. 46 Purple h.iirstreak. 47 Clifden or Adonis blue. 4.S Comma, ■-■-•■ *" - 

blue. 32 Green-veined while. 53 Lan;e blue. 54 Black-veined while 



- - - 49 Scotch arijus, 50 Green hairstreak. 51 Common 
55 Small copper. 5'> Ringlet. 57 Bedford blue. 5S Orani;e tip. 59 Larje copper. 



funde"?i'ier"6rrh^7ue'r;d ^slini'lr^V* rl?"''/, *r-.^,""" '^'^''S'- , V SJIver-spotVed' "skipper. "fii'Speckied"' wood": "eT'Barh white.' 'm CheqG'e're-d 'skipper 
lunatrsinej. 0, i.he.mered skipper. 6<s Glanville frit.lUry. 69 Pearl-bordered Iritillarv. 70 Brown hairstreak. 71 Silver studded blue. 72 Large skipper. 

'3 Meadow brown. See page 367 



BOUQUET-KOIDER 



BOURGEOK 




T^ 



K. 



BOUQUET-HOLUEK 

..i^l.J ;i huiKiuetier. 

BOUQUETIN. A name for the Alrin 

ih.-\. which wo shdW. 





BOUQUET OF ROMANS A numb 
1.1 Knm.ui c.nidlcs i which see) link 
tnjiether so that alter lishtins '.'■' 
^Iiower of sparks and the coloured b:i: 
.;ive the effect of a boucjuet of flowers 
BOURACH. Or bourock, a Scotti- 
word for a small hut or cottage. 1 1- 
t;rm is often applied to toy hou-.; 
built by children. 



BOURACH. A sm.il! KhmU ,.r hi' 
Tl!j uord nrisinally meant a heap ■ 
St Hu-s ,uid then a pr-iiectiiK' b.uik- 





BOURBAKl, GENERAL (lolov;) A 

Fr;iich i^eneral whose army was forced 
ovv'r the Swiss border near Beltort in 
iSjl iuul interned. 

BOURBON, CARDINAL DE 1437 SSV 
A nu-rnbcr nt tlie powerful Bi)urbun 
::i:r:Iv. ir^m .in n\d Flemish picture. 





BOURBON, CONSTABLE DE (1190- 
1=:::). A iienera! wlio wris made 
Const.ihle of France by Francis 1 but 
deserted to Charles V. He lost his life 
durii'ir the memorable Sack of Ronu- 
by Ills army. 

BOURBON, LOUIS OE M279 13HK 

Ti'j tirst iJiike of Bourbon, the iir;:Al 
French nohle house. 




Ikntv l\ sl.ltiu' ni I'.u 





BOURBON DYNASTY. IIk luiii, luK 
nl fii'ncli Ini s ulHch bti;an in 1 SV) 
uiilt Hinrv 1 V ami ended with Loui> 
'■liilipp.'. who lied in I.S4.S. 
Bourbonnais. See Atlas 7. B >. 




BOURBON PALM. Ihc tree Livi.tona 
chiiuii^:^, or Latania borbonica, shown 
Il.T.' uitli lis leal. (mil. and flmver. 




BOURCHIER, CARDINAL (about MUs. 
S6). ArchlMslinp nl C.mterbury friinl 
1454. who crowned Edward IV. 
Richard 111. and Henry \ll. In this 
picture bv J. Z. Bell he is seen innht) 
nersuadini; Edward I V's widow to let 
jr younger son out of sanctuary. 





BOURCHIER, <J. D. An Eniilish journa- 
lis! in whose memory Iluli;aria issued a 
set of stamps ill 19-4. 
BOURCHIER'S KNOT. In heraldry, a 
knotted cord ol the lorm shown here. 





BOURDALOUE, LOUIS '1632.17011. 
A i reiicli lesiiit preacher famous for 
Ills ,io.|ueiice ; on the revocation of the 
I diet of Nantes he was sent to preach 
t I the Hnijuenots. 

BOURDER. A jester or buffoon, as 
shown here with the customary cap atul 
bells im an old carvini;. 



BOURDON. A stalf used by medieval 
pil[;rims (left): a precentor's staff or 
baton (centre): and a lance used in file 
joust (right). 





BOURDON. In heraldry, a term lor a 
pilenin's stall used as a bearinir. Two 
e\.inipl(xs are i;iveii here. 



n I itt>\ 



%. 



If 



5=y? 



BOURDON. An ori;an slop usually ol 
10 feet tone, the pipes nl wliich are 
"enerally oi wood and produce hollow, 
smooth tones. Two arc shown on the 
left and at B in the diasram is a bourdon 
ill place in an orean. 





n 



BOURDON, SEBASTIEN i l \ 

I rench painter whose .\\arl\tdom ol 
St. Peter and Descent from the Cross 
.ire in the Louvre. 

BOURDONNE. A heraldic term me.in 
me terminatim: in knobs or balls, like 
;he b. .iirdonne starts shown here. 




BOURDON'S GAUQE. A M; jm prcMure 

ijaiie.' IM Aliicli .1 curved luh? curK tit 
uncurts as preisurc varies, 
BOURDON'S RING. A curved uval 
section ttitse that explains the viyrUat 
ol an aneroid barometer. By exfiauitinc 
air from it external pressure rt ^hown. 
and by placin'j it in p vacuum iriler'j" 
pres.sure is s,- 




BOURDON'S TUBE. oiled mcIlll'C 

tube whicii I....:. : . :;_.,htcn out when 
pressure is applied within and is lucii 
as a pressure-eauire. 




old hrcnch luwn where is 
Brou. sfen here, fjiroas (o: 
ixwi (S«e At'»- 7. T 3. 




BOURGAOE. A French word 

s-.-.iev' -c: Mllare o*- m.ifkei t.s. 




BOURGEOIS. \ tr. icr. urn , r me 
shop-keepim; midJle class. Here w« see 
members ol J French bourjeois tamilv 

I I 



BOURGEOIS 



'iH(i 



BOVINAE 



God's in His heaven : 
Alls ri"ht with the worUl 



BOURGEOIS. A ni<;Jiutll-SJze.l priiltiii- 
■ ' ■.'..■t;ii brevier and Ions prinu'r. 
tit 8 lines to the inch. 




BOURGEOIS, LEON (Uil 19-51 A 
lu.tt-J 1 r.Mu-ii sl.itcsrn.tn. prenlitr l.s<)v'>. 
BOURGEOIS, SIR PETER (WSolSH) 
An Knijlish painter, landscape painter 
to Geori;e III. He bequeathed a splen. 
did art callcry to Duhvich ColleRe. 




BOURSES. A nne old citj ui <.ciiU.il 
France with this maRniticent 12tli- 
centurv cathedral, the interior of whiih 
is 405 feet lonR( 50,000). See Atlas?. 1; i 




BOURGET, PAUL in. 1852). A well- 
known French novelist, poet, essayist, 
and Academician. 
Bourginot. See Buryonet. 
BOURGOGNE, POINT DE. A heauti- 
uillv liiic and well-liiiished pilhiw lace, 
resemhlin? old IWechlin. made in th. 
French province o( Burgundy. 




BOURGUIGNON. A native of Bur 
■.;iindv. A Bur*^undia;; pl';i>.i;'.1 VMinum 
in characteristic drcs^ 
picture hiTe eiven. 




BOURIGNON, AhiulnciIE !iol(>>u;. 
A French mystic who founded a re- 
lii^ious sect w'h-.ch survived in Scotland 
till the end of tlie ISth centurv. 
BOURKE, SIR RICHARD Governor 
ol N.'M South \V lies from 1S3I to 1837. 
Bourke. See Atlas 36, H 5 




BOURNE, FRANCIS il-. f861). liir 
cardinal. Archbishop of Westinnist.r 
from too.; and formerly Roman Catholic 
Bishop of Southwark. 
BOURNE, HUGH (1772-1S52). Founder 
of the Primitive Methodist Connexion, 
which became a separate h"Jv in iSll. 




BOURNE. A name lor .. 
stream in the chalk and li 
.duntry of Southern England. 




BOURNEMOUTH. One ol the chief 
southern u atcring-places of En;iland. 
noted for its pine woods and fine climate. 
We show here the view from the East 
Cliff (90,000). See Atlas 4, F 6. 




BOURNVILLE. A model Harden vil- 
.tec lU'.ii Birniin^ham founded in 1895 
by George Cadbury tor the employees 
ii{ his famous chocolate (irm. 
Bouro. See Atlas 24. G 6. 




50URRELET. A stuffed roll torminR 
, ... ; ol tlie tall headdress worn by 
woiiu'ii 111 the i4th century. 
BOURRELET. A wreath worn on a 

.....It'-- h.lni.'f, ;ts here seen. 




BOURRELET. A term lui .. »rL..;i. ul 
nulerial, or turban, such as that 
adorning the head of a Moor It is u^ed 
in heraldry and is also called a tortil. 




BOURSE. A ii.imj Ini .1 Cniitinentat 
stock exchange; the handsome Paris 
Bourse is shown in our picture. 

T A^^ Af MAT A.TA.AE^ftNt: ® tCAAJoTo P 

kwnA(i" BiKAl r.jA^v^poU'^IEr 
AlOTvlBT, l3Ail^311i:A"AIAM-?ril8 

rCit-c\n\ 



BOUSTROPHEDON. An old Greek 
method of writing alternately left tn 
right and right to left, like the turnin-^ 
of oxen engaged in ploughing a field. 




BOUVARDIA. An evergreen shrub of 
tnipica! America hearing long, funnel- 
shaped ili.wers, as illustrated here. 
Bouvet Island. See Atlas 34, i. 




6CUV1NES, BATTLE OF. A decisive 
I'attic near Lille in t2i4 in which the 
French defeated the German aMi-.^s of 
King John. Our picture shows Philippe 
,\uguste of France exhorting his knights. 




n 



BOUT. That part of a sling nllicli 
holds the stone ready for hurling. The 
rieht-hand picture shows the bout of a 
I ;th-centurv slinging engine. 




BOUT. The inward curve of a rib ol 
a musical instrument of the violin kind 
as here marked at B. 





BOUTON. The button-like tip ol a 
bee's tongue, shown here much magnified. 
BOUTONNltRE. A word meaning a 
nosegay for the buttonlvtle. 




BOUTS, DIRK (about 1410-75) A 
Dutch painter of the Flemish School 
whose portrait is here seen beside his 
Portrait of a Man (right). 



BOVEV VRACEY. A i:li.i;.- ii^-.i b-iil- 
moor whose church seen here, was 
built as a penance by Sir William de 
fracev. one of Becket's murderers. 




\:: - - ::,.,.- Masl. .i.\ 

BOVINAE. The name ol the important 
sub-family of ruminant animals includ- 
ing the oxen, bisons, and buffaloes. 



BOW 




BOW CHASER 



BOW. \ btiiJimi: oi tlie body Dy way of salutation, li :;;,. 

Ie;t we show an old print of Charles 11 and a courtier ; in the nghl-haiid picture 

Philip the Second of Spain i$ seen receiving a delesation from Holland. 




Bow of sword hilt 




Ancient Hi;ypliun bcw 



i.a.\im Piiw 



Bow of ox-yoke 



r 




ri>nv^ buttress Bow of bridge 

BOW. A term applied to a large number 
of objects havin? an arched or bent 
form. Above we give ten examples of 
its use, the bow bein?; marked where 
necessary by the letter B.- The ox-yoke 
in the fifth picture was used in medieval 
England when oxen did the plou?hin*r. 



Aslianti bow 



b'lw Irom the Lcnmu 



Central African bow 




Asiatic bows 




Indian bow 




i^ 



l6tli-century crossbows 



Modern .ircliery Im)w 



Old Italian steel bow 



Two-strni'^ed Aina7.oni:in bow 
BOW. The cliiet shootiiiK weapon lor 
thousands oi vears, though Ions dis- 
placed by firearms in civilised countries. 
Here we sive some notable examples 
used in aiicient times and today. 



BOW. A stick struiit; wilri n-irsenaif 
used to produce sound Irom a strinc;ed 
instrument. We show here violin (top), 
'cello, and bass hows. 





bOW Af-toMUK. utfc 




BOW ARM. rm whicb vicldt the 

-'ow ; ;,n vie!:.-. ..aving it ts Ihr nrht 
and in archery the left. 




BOW. A loop or knot worn as an 
ornament or to Rive a finished appear- 
ance. In the bottom picture are se-r 
hows of a t/th-century cravat, t 
and 17th-centurv s-arlers. and c' 
riiarl- !' ■''■■■ 



^l?- 

Y 




^ 



of whivh wc show. A-:;. ':". 


t-.--. -. ;hin 


<;ound ol them :. 


5 con5id;rc 


'. .1 l>ctney. 


Pip ■*Wr 


R 


^ 




Hfc^ 


^t ^ 


-r. .-^ 


gjy^\ 


^^ fc. 1 


<- f^^ 


^^^ -Jtfk 


^^ m 


^■v-r: 


ife^^L 




^isM 


HB 


^mBJ 



BOW BOTTLE. 

aiade at the Bow laclori loand;J ;:i t;-.- 
.ichteenth century. The example 
^ho»-n is of the partridge pattern. 
BOW BOY. Name given toCupi J because 
.t ti-? lecendarv use of bow and arro«-5. 



V 



jt stroke 
""" Cox 




BOW. In row I m nearest 

lo the bows of t: . -.en in this 

picture of the positions ol a racinc eight. 
Bow (Ships\ See Boivs. 




BOW CASE. A cover loc a bo»- r.ur 

.\,.:;:r!; .-.inc Central Asian 




BOW CHASER. \ small na\.. , 
ni.'uattJ i,\ .. s;-.ip"s boa^ for .;>; : ■ 
pursuit. One is here seen ready for 
action on board a submarine chaser. 



BOW CHURCH 



BOWHEAD 




BOW CHURCH. I lie cnurcii in CIK-.ir 
side. LunJoii oi St Mary-le-Bow, built 
by Wren It is lamous for its peal of bells. 




dOW DKILL. A lorm 01 drill workcu 
iiy a how. The drill is rotated in alter 
n'ate directions by movini; the bow up 
and down. We cive modern (left) an.! 
ancient examples. 

Bowels. The low.t I : f the Ali- 
mentary canal (wl: 




BOWERY. \ N... 'loiL street .uul 
liMriet oliee iioled lor its cheap slv;--: 

iiul llashv places ol amusement. 




BOW COMPASSES. bmall draughts 
man's compasses in which the legs arc 
connected by a band of steel and 
adiusted bv a screw 






80WEN, LORD I1S35-9H. A luilliant 
'awyer and scholar who became a judge 
in 1879. He translated Virc.l's Aeneid 
and Eclogue;. 

BOWEN, CAPTAIN RICHARD (176I- 
07). A luiv.il c.ipt.iin who served under 
Nflson. and was killed at Sanl.i Ciii' 




Front L-rake Back brake 

BOWDEN BRAKE. A braking device 
lor bicycles invented by Sir Francis 
Bowden. The movement of a lever 
with a cord attachment causes the 
brake to -^rir the rim nf the wheet 






The bower bird's bower 




.J* 



Spotted bower bird 
BOWER BIRD. A remarkable 
\iisti:ilian bird which builds a kind o! 
-Mwcr ol stiff grass and adorns it with 
-.Miles and shells. 



BOWES. Ill the 'i.irkslnr. 

North Riding with this Norman kcer 




BOW FAST. A bow hawser bv whi.li 
vessel is moored. 



-jQrA»<^ 



BOWDER STONE. A remarkabi: 
balancing rock at the entrance to 
Jlorrowdals. in the Lake District. 



BOWER, hi ia.^Mui-., ., jui'ii.; .1.1-^ 
which has just left the nest and clings 
to the boughs as seen here 



BOWERS, LlEUTENANl H. R. \ 

Knglish .Aiitarctie e.xplnrer who perisiied 
with Captain Scott on his return from 
the South Pole in 1012 



BOW HAIR I lie horse hair, used in 
making violin hows, which comes from 
the tails of white horses. Here it is 
being bound into hanks. 
Bowhead 'Rightwhalel. Seeunder Wh.i ; 



BOWIE 



•>KII 




I S^ 



BOWIE. A .NCuiiiMi icnn lur a >tn.ill 
wooden tub or bowl, especially a milk 
bowl, as shown here. 
BOWIE KNIFE. A kind ot huntini; 
knife, slinwn here with its slieath. with 
a sliLjhtiv L-iirved I'dire 




BOW IRON A iramework to support 
a motor-car hood and en:ible it to be 
opened or closed down at will. The 
picture shows one section ol this where 
it joins the body oi the car. erect as 
when the hood is up. 
BOW KNOT. A kind ol slip-knot made 
in one or twn loor?i as here 




BOWLEGGEO. Having the leRs bowed 
outward ; used of a person, animal, 
chair, and so on. The example is an 
early iSth-century English chair 




ialad buwl Cut-glass bowl I heeding bowl 

BOWL. A vessel, usually circular, (or holding solids or liquids. We give here 
several tamiliar British types and some beautiful examples from other lands. 



^ — -'■ 



BOWL. A lar.ye wooden ball uscil iii 
the game of bowls and so weighted a^ 
t" describe a curve as it travels. Th; 
small ball at which the howls are aimed 
is Called the iack. 



# 




■5 



BOWL. Name given to the cork Boats 
supportjns a drift-net. as here seen. 
BOWL BEETLE. A common British 
species allied to the burying beetles 



E 



% 



31 



-^ 




BOWLER. I he player who delivers 
the ball to the hatsman in cricket. Two 
great bowlers, Rhodes (left) and Barnes, 
are here seen in action. 



BOWNESS 




BOWLER MAT. StilT round left hat will 

1 '•' 111 riipularlv called a billy coek 




BOWLES, T. GIBSON (1»44-H)ii). An 
tnglish Conservative M.P. who up 
neld sea-power and was a free trader. 
BOWLES, WILLIAM LISLE (1762 
is;i))- An English poet famous in his 
day. Bvron attacked him »i Enflish 
Bards and Scottish Reviewers. . 








BOWL MACHINE. ', ath.- 

used lor (ur'iin.; wfttnitn 'r,ni 




BOWLS. A ;:ami pU^cJ t»n - 
lawn with large wcmkIcr hallj. -- 
.fowled along the grc'unJ. 



BOW LIUHT. A while light shining 
lorward which is carried in sailing shirs 
in the bows and in steamships on tiie 
forward mast, as shown here. 
BOWLINE. A rope (A) fastened to the 
leech of a square sail and leading for- 
ward to keep it steady and make the 
ship sail nearer the wind 




-^"^ 




bUWLlNE KNOT. A knot u>r iorniin< 
.1 tn;ht loop at tht.' end of a rope. 
BOWLING, TOM. The sailor hero uf a 
taiiMus Ming bv Charles Dibden (Here, 
a slu'cr hulk, lies poor Tom liowllng). 
i Ins uld wMK'ra villi; shows .t sailor at Ttun 
Bowliaii's urave 



BOWLS CARRIER. A r 

bowls are carried. Leath 
such as tlu- i-nt; <h..»n 




30WLS MAKER 

i:i.ik,'i bonis. 0;i :;;.; i.^Ii: a b-o»l ii 
beinii turned ; on the le(t the :inMheJ 
bowls .ire btriii;^ -.;au?ftl. 




BOWLING GREEN A clus.- 

1... I'layim: bowU iuhich ^--j). 




BOWLING SCREEN. In vTiCkct. a uiitl.- 

,.-,. ii ^ : . I'.'ititdary behind tlu- 

howler's arm. lis itbicct i'v to as>iv: 
the batsman's vision. 




BOWLING SHOE. A ^lioe consij^ting ot .1 

sole, toe-piec;'. .ind back worn bv bow's 
players to prevent slippia;. 




BOWLS MkASURE. A o-ru ..u.icticJ 
to pointers for measuhnc Jistanco 
between •U'»'>d5 in a cam? or bo»I^. 




BOWMAN. All jiT^hcr, especially one 
.inncd with the loncbom-. Our p'lclure 
v''o\\-s a 1 N*h-c.'nturv Encli^h biv^nian 




GOWNESS. A :-:;>; r.i.:; ^......:„., 

in:; splendid views ol Windermere, This 
picture shows its fine position on the 
Westmorland shore o' t v i^' .^>\ 1 



QOWNET 



■>90 



BOX 




BOWNET. A kind 01 itoubk wicKe: 
haski-t lor calrliiiii.' I"b*;ters and cr.ivtish. 






•ir <nrT~iMiniiiMTii 
BOWOOO HOUSE. I lu- splcjulid man 
Sion 01 Lord Lan^,!. avt.' cj.u Ciln. 
Wiltshire, shown > i 





60WP£N. A lurni oi bow compasses 

(which see) carrying a pen for describing 

^niall circles. 

Bowpiece. See Bow chaser. 

Bowpin (ot yoke}. See Bow. 

BOW RUDUER A rudder tixed in the 

hows oi some steamers enabling them 

to be steered easily when going astern 




BOWS. A ship's loreward part, n.iimu 
nii: to thj stem as here seen in Wvi ^.TL-at 
liner Leviathan. 



rv ^ 


1 


1 


1— J 






f^-f^V- 






- 





BOW-SAW. A narrow. llc.\ibie saw n: a 
(ram;- hke this : used for cutting curves. 



tiowspnl shroud,s 
BOWSPRIT. A itout spat (A) project 
ing over the bows of a vessel to carry 
the jib. It is kept in place by tlu' 
hob-stav (B). 

BOWSPRIT BITT8. Stout timbers 
used for sccurini; the bowsprit of a sail- 
ing vessel to a ship. 

BOWSPRIT SHROUDS. The rope (B) 
i.tstt-nir-i: The huv.^prit to the Side nl a 
.aihiu- v's^ji. 



y^r:r^ ^ 




aOW STREET POLICE COURT. 1 iic 

chiet police court vi London, the present 
building dating from ISSI Wc show It^ 
exterior and interior. 




^*c^^ 



BOW StriEEt RUNNER. An uiluc-i ol 
the old Bow Street police court who 
Served writs and did detective work up 

to lS2t) 

BOWSTRING BRIDGE. One with an 

irchcd traine and a strong horizontal 
tie. as seen here 



BOWSTRING GIRDER. One hu 1 

■he principle of a bowstring bridge, 
Bowtell. Same as Boliel (which see 





BOW SHOT. I ne distance covered ly 
an arrow between leaving the bow and 
coming to earth at the end of its flight. 



Bow bowl an,l saltceiiar 
BOW WARE. A kind of semi-porcelain 
manufactured at Bow, London between 
the years 1744 and 1776. 



eOVv WINDOW. A vunduv^ 1 ,..■ , , 
irom a wall m the form ot a tlat curve, 
as distinguished from a bay window 
(which see). 

Bowyer. Same as Bowman. 

BOWYERS COMPANY. A London Citv 
livery company, makers of longbows 
and cross-bows ; it was not incorpor- 
ated till 1G20. Its oMices are in St. 
Bride's Avenue. We here give the 
company's arms 



BOX. 1 he bnglisli name lur lin.vus a 
genus of plants of the order Euphor- 
tiaciae, or spurgeworts. The common 
box tree is a small evergreen providing 
hard, close-grained wood. We show a 
sprig ol box (left) and a growing tree. 
A dwarf variety is very popular for use 
as a garden edgin/ 





forceiaui pox 



Indian 
lacquer 



Seal 
box 



Carved 
box 




I4in-ccntur\ ci^yptian i>tix 



Box ot inlaid ivory 




Nail box HiH tn.x 

BOX. A gciieial term lor a covered case or container, sometimes provided with 
a lock. Boxes are made of wood, metal, ivory, cardboard, and other materials, 
and are often beautiful as well as useful. See Colour Plate: Caskets a>id Boxes 



BOX 



2»l 



BOX GIRDER 



Box 




BOX. ilie Jriving-seal oi a noiscii 
vehicle. Here we see the box of a lown 
carriac;e of the mid-ioth centurj'. 





BOX. In a pLiiiip. the cap covcrirri; thr; 
top, as at B : a hoHow plunger with a 
lifting valve, as in the second picture: 
and the casing in which a valve works. 
as in the third picture. 




BOX. In vise-maknig, the hollow screw- 
sccket of a bench-vise, marked A in the 
picture given above. 
BOX. !n locksmith's work, the socket 
Mti a door-jamb which receives the bolt 
when the key is turned. 




BOX. A special compartment in 
theatre to seat a party of people. Our 
picture shows the Kins and Queen in 

th: r v' ^■■^: '■* t'-'-irv L:ine- 




BOX. In printmj;, a conip-trtiUi;.! 
the compositor's case, each letter 
symbol having a separate box. 




by train. The 

and chimed. 




BOX. 

the shootmi: se 



BOX BED. .-V bed enclosed on three 
sides and overhead, as seen here, the 
iuurth side being screened by slidins 
panels or curtains. 




BOX UAGE. 111.' name ^iven tu a luriii 
it hirdcatte with only one open wired 
s de. as shown here. 



BOXBERRY. A little creepini; plant ot 
-. rth America with bright red berries. 
BOX BILL. In mining, a tool used for 
recoverinj broken boring-rods. 




BOX CANYON. A narrow, llatlluured 
valley enclosed by almost vertical walls 

of r.^ck- 




BOX-CAR- -J.. - ..... ■,...,: 

closed car used tor carrvin-.; Iren^ht. 




BOX CHRONOMETER. A snip .s cnroii. 

meter mounted on gimbals, and so 
e.iile.l because it is contained in a case. 




BOX CHURN. A jmail Po.viikc e.iur.i 
like that above in which small quantities 
..i butler can be made. 
BOX COAT. A driving coat ol heav> 

elnlh with a series of cape-S. once worn 




BOX CRAB. A L. u 1' -I ^'.iL . 
takes a box. like form when its pince 
are folded up. 
BOX DRAIN. An 

^'Jilt in the i"rm '-: 





BOX ELDER. ', ::.. 

'amil>. a native ul U.S.A., tli lava .tud 
liowers being shown here. 
BOXER. One who Aghls with ttif fists 
for sport or for money. Here we see 
Jack Dempscv, formerly the world's 
\- :::-■ -Aeichi champion. 



\. 



t»UAkKa. n -..Jilt 4.'^ ^n.. .. .--^..l*. 

which attached forci^ncn in iS9^l9»Xi. 
1 vpical Boxer soldiers ar- sho»'n h;r;. 



<^ 



T — I r-r 

BOX FASTENEK. A >:np . . n.. 
proiecting prunc> lor ha-"-"' 
wood to fasten a box or r 




.<\ 




BOX FKAMt. i.i ta;Uin^. liu - 
hehind a winduw-jimb which contains 
the counter weights. Here wt s« it with 

ihv' cover removed. 

BOX-GEAR. A differ.-ntial cear .mhtch 
■..-,■) used in n>i_ttor vehicles cnaMrn' th; 
irivini;-»he.'i^ '■■ "' '" ^' J;";r:-:r 
speeds when ' 



-1 




BOX COIL. I, .1 I't steam-pipin-.; uir heat 
radiation irranged in a box-shaped form. 
BOX COUPLING. A metal collar or box 
linking two pieces of machinery. 



BOX blROIiR. A nollow iro . ream .-i 
square section, the sides being riveted 
to angle iron. In this picture one is 
seen being riveted with a pneumatic tool. 



BOX GraDER BRIDGE 



090 



BOX SCRAPER 




BOX GIKDcR BRIDGE. A hruK".- .11 
which the main stresses .ir,- c;irrieil l-v 
hdx tfirde'-s (which see^ 




BOXHEAD. A North American Iresh 
w ater lish o' Ihe carp lamilv. also known 
a' Ih* sqiuw tish. 



1^ 



BOX HILL. A lamous beauty spot in 
Surrey, now the property of the nation, 
near Dorking. Our picture shows a 
view on its slopes. 




BOXING BOOT. A special knul 1.1 h.i. 
lealher or cinvas, with a leathe 
■le an.l no heel, worn hv boxer?. 





BOXING GLOVE. A ^In- « r 1 I- 
!>oxers. Boxin'.; i^loves are made * 
l.atlur. with elastic or padded wrist 

:id .sinned with hair on the back ' 

ivc two examples. 



w.- 




BOXING HEAD GUARD. A R.iUi^r 

framewnrk padded with rubber spnii<-rf 
and \^'(irii b\' l-'e ■iniuTs "t buxin.^' t" 
protect tlu'ir heads. 

BOX IRON. A hollow smoolhimr-iron 
t'l which th:^ necessary heat is provided 
by red-hot charcoal," wood embers, m 
iron heaters. 




BOX KEV. A torm of wrench provided 
with a handle and used for turniiH- 
heavy bolts, or for use where an ordinal \ 
spanner would be useless. 

BOX-KITE. A form ot kite in which th.- 
liltini; power is derived from :\ series 
nf rectangular cavities like opivi Kixl^s. 

;is seeti in t!v pictiir.-. 



I he corks- 
BOXING. The art 
the fists, practised 



crew blow 

ot self-defence with 
with boxing iiloves. 




BOX LEVEL. A small, circular k'vd. 
like tiu' examples here shown niai;ni(ied 
used L'specially on cameras. 
BOX LOCK. A rimlock fastened on n 
door but not morticed 




BOX MANGLE. An "U |.>rin oi niani,'!.- 
in which pressure was obtained liv the 
weieht nf a box filled with stone or iron, 
and run to and fro over r^.llers. 








i 

BOX NAILING MACHINE. .X machine l.i nailin- L^-.iher tlu- sid.s and bottoms 
uf boxes. The parts-of the box are assembled on the table, as indicated by dotted 
lines : and the nails after bein? shaken into ijrooves in an oscillating box, fall down 
tubes till they reach the required position. They are then driven home by a series of 
rod hammers. The nail box. the tubes, and a hammer are shown separately on the left. 




BOX NUT. A torm ot nut closed at one 

^■nd. as .seen in this section : the hole 
S>js ni>t L'li clean throuch. 




BOX OPENER. Por prising open 
boxes ; three examples are here triven. 







BOX OTTOMAN. A combined sofa and 
chest, with a padded lid. 




BOX PLEAT. One made by loldin;.; 
the material to riijht and left alter- 
natel>-, a.; s^vn in our picture. 
BOX REFRIGERATOR. A small 

refrigerator like a chest i-r box tor use 
in a home or shop. 




BOX SCRAPER. A tool, such as theso. 
lor erasing; names from wooden boxes 



BOX SEXTANT 




BOYN 



BOX SEXTANT. 



A pucket se.xtuiil 



iM-hich see) made in the form of a ll.it 




BOX TRICYCLE. A 

l:ir!:,* box for carr\hn,' 
I'etween the front whr, 



icycle with 
"ods rnounte 




bOX SIDECAR. A lorm ol sidecar 
attached to a motor-bicycle in which 
a bo.x takes the place of the passenjer's 
seat. It is nsed lor deliverins: soo'ds. 




ftfmm 



BOX SNUFFERS. snun;r^ liaviiv , 
small bo.i to take the smouldering 
wirk when-jdetached from the candle. 

BOX SPANNER. A spanner lor turnin" 
or holding bolts the heads of which arc 
in recesses and cannot be caught b\ 
an ordinarv wrench. Various form'; ar ■ 
shown here. 




\. 



BOX SWIVEL. A double swivel i 
Mllich each end works in a kind of op^'i 
I'.t connecting the two. as seen here. 
BOX THORN. A shrub, usually spiny. 
I'-'iongini; to the cenus Lycium of the 
potato family. The Chinese (top) and 
African varieties are shown here 



jsS^^feSt, 




BOX TORTOISE. A lurtoise ol :\ort; 
America so called because it can shu: 
it^ell up completely by means of ,. 
Iiinced plastron closing on the shell, 
ll is lound from Long Island to .Mexico 




BOX TRAP. A mujse-lrap in I:.; :orn; 
of a bo.t in which the mouse is caught 
alive. Our picture shows a double trap. 





BOY. European name 
palanquin bearer, as shcr 



BOX TROLLEY. A convener consjstin' 
of a large open bu.\. usually of metai 
mounted on small whe-ls. 
Pox Turtle. See Bnv tortoise 





BOX WALL 

thoo.- in the 



^H 


.d bv Em.. 


pi^tu;e. 


. .■ porter, liki- 



9m-. 





BOY. Male child, generally used as 
Ci.verjng the period beyond infancy and 
ip to youth. 




BOX VALVE. A lorm ol v.ilve enclosed 
in a bo.x-like casing and used to control 
the How of water, steam, or I'as. 



BOYAR. A class ol lesser n.)bles in 
Kussia abolished by Peter the Great 
W e show a typical boyar. 




Si^i^ 



A narrow pxssage hjtu.-.'; 
L-^. Here a bn\ai] is iiMrk-.l \ 




BOY BISHOP. 



A 



chosen 



St. Nicholas's Eve to preside over certain 
services and church revels in the Middle 

Ages. Our , ■■ " - ■ 

.IS re\ived 




BOYCOTT, CAPTAIN : ;: 

Irish landowner from uh.tse name the 
term boycott is derived. No one deal; 
with him because he evicted tenants. 
BOYD, A. K. H. (IS25-99). A Scottish 
minister and essavist popularlv known 
a> A. K. 11. B. 




BOYD, 



. ZACHARY 

bcottish r>;venantcr 
Cromwell and bold!', 




iD.ml I •'i*. I'^53J. 
ho preached b:t«e 
Jttacke.d him. 

,S). B,5h.,p ,1 Ripon from >S«4 t„ 
1 '11 : then canon ol Wcstminsler He 
a celebrated preacher. 




BOVDtLL, JOHN 

l:n,'lish engraver uli.jie t'^it 
done in illustrating Shakcspc 
BOYLE, ROBERT (162: ■ 

Irish chemist and ph\ 
covered Bovle's Lai*' of 

'u-lr.-.I t.i ti,.,M.i .1. . V 




i 




BOYLE ABBEY. 

l2th-centurv Ci< 
Bovl... r,,. p,,sco 



ter.?ian 

min..n. 



m.nijlcrv 
Atlls I'.,' 





BOYLE'S LAW APPARATUS. Aa 

;'paratas for deni.>nstrat;:i.; the law 
>c..vered bv Robert P.nl.- that jt Jnv 
.veil temperature the v..lume ol a mass 
■ gas varies irverselv as the pressure 
. iiicli it be.irs. The Bovle's Law tube, 
lown on the right, i.s used for the 
mie purp.ise. 




BOVN. A Scottish name lor a flat dish 
I or bowl like this. 



BOYNE 



BRACE DRILL 




BOYNE, BATTLE OF THE us l-utti- un tlic Kivtr liuyiie in ircl.mj 

U"..- 1. ■- ^, "■ uL.vlj 'A. ULiniic defoali'il the attempt of Jatnjs II tn 

re,i;a'iti his tliroiie. Our picture, by Benianiin West, shows William leading 
hi5 cavilrv tn the attack aft*''' th? death of Schomberjr. one of his chief iienerals. 




BOYNE, RIVER. An Irisli river, .mi 
miles lout:, llowim: Irani the Bog ot Allen 
into the Irish Sea. The scene of the 
;;reat battle in 1690 is marked by an 
obelisk, seen here. Sec Atlas 6, E 3. 




BOYNE MEDAL. The medal struck in 
commemor.Uion ot William of Orange's 

viclnrv :lt thi' Hovnc- 




A biiitler of the Boys Bricade 



^- j^t": 



,x^: 



i'l > [;rri;.i,U-ri itl camp 
BOYS BRIGADE. A great pioneer 
orcanisatiun tor training and helpini.: 
boys. iDunJed in Glasgow in 1S.S3 b\ 
Sir William Smith (which see). It h.i 
130.000 menihers. 
Boy Scouls. See paijes 293 and 206. 




BOYS LIFE BRIGADE. An organisatioi. 
tor traiiiing boys, especially in life 
saving, founded in tS99 and now 
nmalizamated with the Boys Pritrade. 




BOYUNA. A large Br 
Eiiiit'ctt;s murinus. of the 



azilian 
python 



snake, 
family. 




BOY WITH THE THORN. A famous 
.inciciil Greek statue preserved in flu 
Cfipitnlint.' Museum at Rnnie. 
Box. Dickens's pen-name. See Dickens. 
Brabant. See Atl i.'! 10. C ^ 




a St^uabbler. 




Saruiatians wearin-j hr.ic tc 




i ruusered Roman soldiers 

BRACAE. A trouser-like garment worn 
Ml Human times ; our 'llustrations are 
taken from the arches ol Trajan and 

Lii:i,tantine. 




BRACCATE. A term describing a bird's 

legs when c<.)mpletely covered with 
feathers, Uke thi>se if this snowy owl. 

BRACCIOLINI, FRANCESCO 1)566- 
I64i). A versatile Italian poet, si-rvant 
..I Pope Urban VII! 




BRACE. In architecture, a stay ot 
woud (marked A in the picture) used to 
hold in place the timbers of a roof. 

BRACE. In excavating work, a tem- 
porary strut to hold up the side timber- 
ing of a trench. 




BRACE. 

shot game 



birds, as in t 



.ill V .1 [',nr 
picture. 




BRACE, in luirness. a short strap con- 
necting the hip and breech straps at A 
BRACE. In a carnage, a strap con- 
necting the cee springs with thi' body 
springs, as here marked A. 



i 



i^=^ 



mj 




BRACE, in musical notation, a vertical 
line (A) coupling two or more staves. 
BRACE. The leather thong on the cords 
rn a drum by which its tension and tone 
are reirulateJ. 




BRACE. In ik: . (A) at- 

tached to the yard j'i;i i . i qnare sail 
t(i trim if fr.re and aft 3^ required. 




BRACE. A revolvini; tuoi-liolder 
liaving at one end a swivelled head for 
restim; ai;aiiist the hand or chest. 
Here A and D are plain braces and B 
ind C ratchet braces. 
Brace (archery). Sam; as Bracer (q. v.). 
Brace Bit. s e f!it. 
















-nl 






BRACED. A heraldic term ineanini; 
interLiced. like the chevrons here; 
sometimes called braced interlaced. 
BRACE DRILL. A drill shaped like a 
carpenter's brace for borint; metals. 



BOY SCOUTS ASSOCIATION 



BOY SCOUTS ASSOCIATION 




ivuitiih Scout b:a Scum SiijnalliM'; S,-eiii^ without l-^ni^ sfon A Irco look-out Rover Scout Scoutmaster 

BOY SCOUTS ASSOCIATION. A world-wide association with tlio objects of developiiii; good citizenship aninnc hovs and training them in lial>it-i ol self-reliance lo\jln 
ana tnoiiRhtlulness for others. It was founded In 190S ijy Sir Robert fSaden- Powell, and is incorporated bv rovaf charter. Scouts ajeJ eisht to eleven are called Woh 
wins and those over seventeen are called Rover Scouts. They are orcanised into patrols and troops, a troop 'consistint: usually of about 56 under a s^vutmaster As veen 
in our pictures, Scouts are trained to be alert and to be ready in case of enierRency. The movement h;us spread to practically all civilLsed nations, as the bie erour 
01 icouts here ?iven shows. The countries represented in it are (from left to ri^ht) Madras, Beu^'al. Natal. E-jvpt. Malt.a. Ceylon, Jamaica. Tasmania, Southern fndia 
I'alestme, Assam, M,ilaya, Bombay. Ceylon, Switzerland. Cape Colony. Transvaal, New South Wales, and Western India 



BOY SCOUTS BADGES 



BOY SCOUTS BADGES 



^V 




Cud Test Five Year Cubina&ter's 
Star Service Star Brooch 



TL'U'gr.ipliist Tracker \V eat tier lu.m \S irtjlessmaii Wuodniaii 



Rover Scout Hat tiudye 



BOY SCOUTS BADGES. The badges worn by Scouts as iinrks ol rank or awarded for proficiency in crafts, and so on. Those shown in the centre are the 
si.tty proficiency l\ut^'es which can be gained by Scouts. The Kin'^'s Scout badje in the right-hand coUinri is considered the highest Scout decoration. 



BRACE GIRDLE 



2!)- 



BRACKEN 




BRACE GIRDLE. A ilirdle lurmerly 
worn round the waist witti a long robe, 
to keep the lower part Irom trailing on 
the ground. 

BRACEGIRDLE, ANNE (about 1663 
1748). One 01 the most beautiful and 
celebrated actresses of her day. Con- 
greve wrote plays for her 




Roman t)racelet Ponipeian bracelet 





Mil 

AiKiw-nt EiTvptian bracelets 




Gallic 






Pearl bracelei Uiam hracelci 



i>la'.r fraoelet Uiainond 





BRAi;ELeT. Iiu- n.iiuc m a p,K'c^- ui 
armour worn round the arm , the ex- 
implt; here given is early Ejjyptian. 
BRACELET PURSE. A small purse 
-tttachL-d to a bracelet or hand worn 
round the wrist. The one shown here 
was found in Northumberland and is a 
relic of Roman times it has a metal 
lid and catch. 




BRACE MOULD, n. arcint.aui v. lu 
reverse, or loni;, rouijhly 5-shaped curvt- 
ii'ined together as at A- 




tSKAC£ PENDANT. A short leni,'th ui 
rope lastened to a y.ird-arm and hold 
int; a bhick, as shown here. 




BRACER. A le.ulK-r wri^t-.i^u.ud .-lu. 
worn by archers to take the recoil (.1 
the howstrini:; An elaborately orna- 
mented example of the time ot Henrv 
Vlll is shown in our picture 




A"A '^ 





A Roman bracelet 

BRACELET. A band or cold or other 
material, worn round the wrist or arm 
IS an ornament. See Colour R'atc 



BKA0E8. A lamihar article of men'v 
u\.-ar lor suspendin-' the trousers. Wcx.- 
Lire buir common types. 




BRACH. An obsolete uorj lur .i kind 
of scentine dog, as, for instance, this 
black, white, and tan setter 



,' ii.\\ 




BRACHIAL APPENDAGES. 1 lie pait 
ot mouth-attachmentb oi brachiopods 
thev are shown here coiled 



Brachial Arferu 



dRACHIAL ARTERY. In;.- main artcr% 
it the upper arm, dividing at the clhou 



BRACHiUruu^. 

class of bivalv; mollusc 
of attachments to th- rr 

\Vf :';■.■:• n-:de 3nd OUl^iJ- 





BR AC HI ALE. In aiicteiit arniuur. .i 
deience for the upper arm. This 
beautifully ornamented specimen was 
lound at Pompeii. 

BRACHIALE. A case or reliquary 
shaped like an arm in which the arm ot 
I sain* is preserved. 




Spina J Cord *W 




BRACHIAL PLEXUS. I hl u.lwors -i 
the tront branches oi the lower cervical 
and upper dorsal spinal nerves that co 
to the arm. shown here on the right. 




BRACHIATE. Havinj; leaves y. 
branches opposite each other in pair^ 
and widely divertjinc; from the nex* 
pair, as seen in the picture. 
BRACHIATE. A term used tor any 
! i:nal having arms or irmlike proiec- 



I lUTL- 



:inv>.-b.1 




BRACHIATOR. An animal that swmgv 
by its arms from tree to tree like the 
hanging American monkev shown here 



BRACHYCEPHALIC 

■-:r:. :rujd as hr^'h. 2- ^'.[•".Z 

.-actenstic of som? E-jropean 
■ 1 " 1- ■. Asiatic races The Hasqoa 
ti J \V»n7-.ls are notaWy bnchTCrphalic. 
BRACHYCERAT0P8. A dinosaur aboot 
two and a halt feet high that roam;i^ 
America in the Cretaceous Afc Thn ■« 
a reconstruction ni h-^ ^k--'»"<iti 



BRACHYOOONT. 

animal's teeth when th.- m 
short crowns on fully develor 
as in the iaw of th; ^■-'^^■ 
shown here 




BRACHYSTOLA. 

in western North Americi inJ cno&a 
as the lubber crissliopper. 
BRACHYURA. A sub-order »: stilk- 
eyed crustaceans m which the tiil o 
.siiort and tucked under the body. M m 
the crab. Th; eiJmr'e "hown h-r; •< 
the spider cra^ 






fc 




BRACKEN. A Common ern nsine .n 
NHicle tronds Irom creepinc roots jnd 
growing in profusion on mcv-»rland : also 
called brake. 



BRACKENRTTRY 



298 



BRADFIELD INSULATOR 



I -a It 



.iii'j^. 




BRACKENBURY, SIR HENKr |n^ 
191-1)- An English soldier who scrvCii 
in the Indian Mutiny and the Ashanti 
and Zulu \Va s and commanded the 
Nile River Column in 1S84. 
BRACKEN CLOCK. A lamellicorn 
beetle, known to science as Anisopli 
horticola. the larva of which is de 
strticttve tn ir'asses and trees. 




B^acKet^ o( sloru- 





Brackets oi metal uork 
BRACKET. In architecture a suppor' 
01 stone, wood, or metal projectiiu' 
from a wall. Often a bracket is richl> 
decorated, like the first example here 
siven. It is a fireplace bracket by 
Desiderio da Settictnano now preserved 
in t'^? V;c*nria and .\lbert .Museum. 




BRACKET. .... LiJepicce ol a guu 
carnage supportin? the jun pivot .is 
marked A in this picture. 







BRACKET. A woman's douhle-pomtirJ 
■it-aJi-lress o( the 14tli centurv. 





liRACKET BACK. A cas-Mttini; lor 
■icrewine to a wall, witli a cock and an 
attachment to which a bracket or pipe 
can be fastened. 

BRACKET CRAB. A winch or windl.iss 
\uth po\vi.Tltil t;earinq: standint; out on 
:» bracket Irom a wall. It is used fnr 
raisiii'.,' heavy weights by means of a 
I'liain p.i'.siiv.; ovi?r a pullev wheel. 




3RACKET FUNGUS. A name ^iven lo 
any kind ot tungus growin;^ nut from 
,1 tree trunk hke a I'^racket. 



& - 



!^^ #, 




BRACKLt V. A pi.i.wjs.iiic old town and 
aiicient liorou^h in Northamptonshire. 
Our picture shows Hk* Market House. 




BRACKLEY. LORD il3>> ioi7j. An 
EuLilish lawyer who held high office 
under hlizabetli and James I. 

BRACON. A genus ot ichneumon (lies 
oj which this is an example. 




BRACONNt^RE. In aiuiwui. a sLeel 
skirt ot overlappin([, hoop-shaped plates 
to protect the hips and thiphs. 
BRACT. A leaf (A> from the junction 
base of which a flower proceeds, as 
disllni;uishetl from the ordinary leaf 
(r-'in vhM';e base a leaf bud proceeds. 




BRACT. In zoology, the protective 
envelope ot the hydranths of an oceanic 
hydrozoon. 




BRACrEAft. A tiiiii l1i\C ui ;^i>tu lU- 

>ilver with a design beaten in relief. 
once worn on necklets in Scandinavia. 




BRAUTEULE. I lie name ^'ven lo in*. 
sm.i!ler lorm of bract where two 
varieties occur. In the picture B is a 
hiacteole and A is a bract. 
BRACT SCALE. A scale (A) of the cone 
in conifers, situated under the ^^ced- 
bearinir scale. 



3= 




BRAD, k small, slender n.iil havm^^ 
at the top. instead of a head, a slight 
proiection to one side, n^; seen ti?re 




BRADAWL. A small Puring-loul wiin 
a chisel-edge, used lor niakiuL- holes 

for the insertion cit Y:- .\ !■ -.r ■■ wv 




dRADBURN, bAMUEL <i: I lalo) 
A famous Metliodist preacher and 
iriend of John Weslev. 
BRADBURY. SIR JOHN S. (b. 1S72). 
British Treasury official on the Repara- 
tions Commission. His name was on the 
first Treasury .Notes. 



m 



aHAOOA HtAD. I 

th.- Ufsl CfM-l Ml th. M- 




a French 
on Fort 



BKADOOCK, EDWAKO i 

All BiH'lisli iieneral killed i 

imhush when marching 

liuquesne in America. 

BRADDON, MARY ELIZABETH (1<!17- 

1915). A popular English novelist. (Mrs. 

lohn Ma.xwell) who ma.te her- name in 

IS62 wth Ladv Audley's Secret. 



BRAO UKIVtR. A injiHled steel 
piece used with a hammer for driving a 
brad home. 




The Greek theatre at Bradfield CoIleRC 




BRADFIELD COLLEGE. An imporLint 
Berkshire public schfu'l. founded in tS50. 
It has a famous open-air theatre where 
classical plays are presented. 





BRADFIELD INSULATOR. A type 

much used in wireless sets in ships. 
A zinc cone, at the top. helps to keep 
it dry in wet weather 



BRADFORD 



2n:i 



HRAHMAN OX 




Bi.iJIorJ Town 11 
BRADFORD. One of the chief ilhu s 
ol tile worsteJ trade of the Y-irksliire 
We't Ptdi'itr (?ori.nno). See Atlas 4, F 1. 




BRADFORD, JOHN (about 151' 1^) 
An Kliirlish Protestant cler).'ynian who 
\\a;. niartvred at Sniithlleld uiider Mlr\ 
BRADFORD, 3ti EARL OF (18I9-9b) 
A Conservative politician, a ninnst 
under LnrJ Beacon .held. 




BRAOFORD-ON-AVON. A quaint oh 
Wiitsliirc town w:!li thi> Sa.xon churcli 
one of the hnest in England (4sOO) 




BRADLAUGH, CHARLES It.sti ill 
An EiiQlish politician: M.l>. lor Norllo 
anipton. He was loni; excluded from 
the House of Commons for refusine to 
take the oath. 

BRADLEY, GEORGE GRANVILLE 
(1.S2I -10(111. Headmaster "I .Marl 

horoueh, Ma>t._.r ot rioversit\ '.i.lK".... 
r)x|i.r,i, ,1, ! r. : 1 .. ■,>,' ','■■'., ' I 



V- CS 





BRADSHAW, GEORGE n.Siil Jjl 
I omul.. I 111 I.Siool Bradshaw'-i Kailwav 
Guide, a copy of which is .show .i beside 
his portrait. 




BRADSHAW, HENRY (ISil-SO). A 
noted Eiielish bibliii..;raplu'r. librarian 
.It Camhria..;e. 

BRADSHAW, JOHN (IC.02-51)). The 
ludge who sentenced Charles Stuart to 
death. After the Restor.ltion his hodv 
.,' ,is haiiited at Tyburn. 





BRAEKIAR GATHERING. An annual 
assembly at Braemar, Aberdeenshire, 
lor lliehhiiid (tames and competitions. 



^^i 



Tf-^r- g> 



BRAGANZA. 1 he »-n.. 
proviJcJ P'.riuijalwith ki. 
puliion of Xht Spaniards. J 
56). -.e'^ii hert, wa- !hr Hr^l -A itiem- 
Braganza, Catherine of. ^ce Catherine 
BRA6Q. SIR WILLIAM H. (b. 1V.2> 
\ noted Ent;lish sciential, invcstitav* 
>; radio-activity and the a/ranecmci i 
of atoms and crystals. He was pre^i 
dent of the British Associalion in 192S 



vn 



BRAGGART. A vai:. ^.^:.:. _-r 
ricturt.- shows Falslafl (centre) boastinf 

f his exploits to Prince Hal 'richtv 





3RAGUETTE. : iccc oi armour i^r 

■lie loi'is ; :i.. c. i^ brayette. 
BRAHE, TYCHO (1346-1601). Tlie 
reat Danish astronomer, one ot the 
junders of astronomical vj j-:: 




BRAHMA. Ttie supreme deity oi :;.c 
liriJus, represented in art »-ith fojr 



BRAECK. An old French four-whc; 
^.■hide of the brake type, geni:rall 
iwn bv four horses. 




BRADLEY, HENRY (1515-1923). \ 

noted r:iielish philolo'^ist who was senl-.i 
editor of the IJ.xford EnKfish Dict.onary, 
BRADLEY, JAMES (1693-1762). A 
famous Eiiijlish astronomer who dis- 
covered the aberration of liirht. 




B;iAEMAR CASTLE. A line mansion 

11 the baronial style near Braemar. 
Oil the Dee. See Atlas 5, E 2. 



The t.itheJral steps 
BRAGA. One ol the chief cities of 
northern Portucal, with .1 12th-ceiittirv 
cathedral (25,000). See Atl.is S, B i. 



¥"■ 





BRAHMAN. Or Brahmin, a member 
t .;' l-i.'hest Hindu caste. 



BRAGANZA. A histoiic calludial co- 
in PortuRal, the ancient walled town 
still remaining (6000). Sec Atl«s S, C 1 . 




BRAHMAN OX. 1 he Inui-.. ex .te... 
sacred bv the Hindus: it h«s a hump 
ot fat on'the shoulJers 



1! 



BRAHMAPUTRA 



:ii Ml 



BRAILLE MAIL 






*-, £> fn'A 7' 'Vl A" -. / /- 




V *''*D ;' B E IV'^^'^ ■•■''-'>•.■■',■' BURMA 

CENTRAL.'oRisSA 'v^'''""!:^ )Wh ^'>' Mandalay 

PROVINCESi' \^ xMl.^^^^JV./, y 



Miles ?oo 



:/«'«;>/;■;■-/''" 'jifiil'l^^ 




CRAIO COIHB. A lui;h cimih support 
iiiu' till- mantilla worn by Spanish 
wonier. as seen in these pictures. 



I ne .uaina-.'e basin of the Brahmaputra in Tibet and East India 




lea boat on • "tra : ihmaputra in Tibet 

BRAKWAPUTRA. : ....i.itic river, I' .i s, rising in the Himalayas 

and flowing throu«h 1 .bet. Assam, and Bengal mtu the Bay of Benea . In pla«s 
in ribei 11 is navigable at a height of 13,S00 feet above sea-level. See Atlas 22. H j. 




Mfc 



BRAHMINY DUCK. Or ruddy Shel 
drake, a large duck ui India, bay with 
black winis and tail leathers; the male 
has a Mnck rinv rntin.l t!ie neck 







4 J 



\y 

BRAHMINY KITE. A large hid. .in 
bird, in. r.. like an eagle than a kit^'. 
which leeds on tish. 

BRAHMS, JOHANNES (1833-97). A 
famous German composer, the last oi 
the creat cla.ssical masters. 




Braided coats 






BRAIDING MACHINE. \ machine for 
weaving the braid used in trimming 
coats and other garments. 





BRAIL. In falconry a fastening for a 
lauk's wing, as seen here. 
BRAIL. A rope used in gathering up 
J sail for furling. Here A is the peak 
brail B the throat brail, and C the 
I ..v-r I'rai! 



A-^|SsfiEa35£f' 




BRAICH-V-PWLL. The westernmost 
point ol Carnarvonshire, facing Bardsev 
Island, seen here. Sec Atlas 4. C 4. 



Women's braided plaits 
BRAID. A flat woven trimming or 
binding for ornamenting garments or 
labrics. or for binding the hair. It is 
often seen on military and other uni- 
forms, as well as on dressing-gowns and 
smoking. jackets and is manufactured in 
various colours 



BRAILA. A Runianian grain port o 
the Danube (80.000). See Atlas 14, D : 






Braille 


shorth; 


nd 


typ 


eur 


ter 




A 


n 


o 


D 


r. 


F 


c 


H 


1 


J 


iti a-j 


W 


'« 


f^* 


■r; 


'Xt 


3.: 


■••i 


.: 






















K 


1. 


M 


N 


o 


p 


o 


R 


S 


T 




f! 


t^i 


^ 


^*' 


fi 


:•: 


ri 


r: 


S»: 


u 


V 


W 


X 


Y 


Z 






























'•». 


u 


n:. 


■W 


■x 


^ 


i-:: 


i=j 


tu 


»-• 



BRAILLE. A method of reading and 
uiiting for blind people by means of 
raised dots, to be felt by the finger tips. 
The system most widely used, it has 
been developed to help the blind in 
many important ways, as these pictures 
show. It was invented bv Louis Braille, 
I bust of whom arr " "•' "''^ r.'':i' 



BRAILLE, LOUIS (1S09-J21. The 

Frenchman wh.i invented the famous 
Braille system of print for blind people : 
he was himseli blind :-om childhood. 



f be iraiUc mail 


n«i.< .»•«». ^,-_— .,«..f. »<-«. 


Iw « B.™*I B«.l»f (•>■ ».*JliW t«« 1* ■ - i 


; .-: f - < '. r B ? .- ^ 


!^ i \ z 7 '■ r i t i * 

-i i : 3 i c B b 2 ■» 

. . ■=■ .* C i 3 'i. ^ .4 "i S i ] 




■ '—• - fei n 


.gwry^T. tn., 1, It.- »- ---s- — •' 


■- •^■n — '-'-•=i.'rS:.iiV'r*'-^' " 



BRAILLE MAIL. A newspaper contain- 
ing the principal items of home and 
foreign news day by day. It is printed 
in Braille type lor the use of the blind. 



BRAIN 



:!01 




Chief rsrts ot the brain 




ction tlirou^li Ihe brajn 




Th^ brain seen Ironi above 




The brain seen Irom below 
BRAIN. That part of the eeiitra: 
nervous system contained within the 
skull : the seat of human intellect. 
In these pictures we show the position 
of its chief pans, which are also dealt 
with un.ler their own names. Broca's 
Ar.-a is a special portion of grey matter. 
Brain-boi. See Skull 




^ 




Brake connectini; rods 



BRAIN CELL 
Linus in tne tr j \ 



"I th.- nerve 
.iu-:r of tile br.iiii b\ 



means of which its work is done. Our 
r-itiire shnivs nne hiirhlv maenilied 




BRAIN CORAL. A name given t. 
certain kinds ol cural because of tliei' 
rounded shape and brain-like con 
vnlutions. as seen here. 
Brain-pan. 




BRAKE-SHOE 




BRAKE-BLOCK. 

nhich is mounted Ih; .lioe t.^c iiii- 
presses a?ainst the wheel rim. 



llow hand brakes are applied 
BRAKE. Any contrivance to rel.ird i 
arrest the motion of a wheeled vehicle 
by friction at the wheel rim or huh 
See also W. .,tin'hou.se brake Vacuii ■ 



^ 






W^ 



M 



- — -''*^ ■ 



BRAKE. 1 sickle-shaped knife i. r 

^plittitiL^ \m1Iows- 

BRAKE. An obsolete word lor a 
t .illista. or medieval war machine lor 
hurlini! stones or darts, like the one 
h^re shown. 




BRAKE-DRUM. The cylinder (A) on 

1 HMtor's wheel axle to which i huh- 

■ .■-.' IS arr'v'j 




BRAIZE. Or becker, a red iish. Pa.i;rus 
vuU^aris, found oH southern England. 
Bralzer. S,',- Braising pan. 



BRAKE- 


BAR. 


The rod 


Joining 


th. 


br 


ike-bl> 


cks of 


a pair of 


wheels 


01 


wl 


ich th 


.• brake 


lever works 


as in a 


car 



BRAKE-SHOE. The part ol 
aucluiiiir.i rr^ssinc the whiii 



3 brake 
I rira. 



BRAKE VAN 



302 



BRANDENBURG GATE 



^ 




BRAKE WHtEL. Ilie hand u lie. 
controllini; tlie brake of a train. 
Braking Machine. Same as Fla.t brak. 
: u liirh seel. 





BRAMAH PRESS. i"^^ 

(which see). This is tlic unc m.ule in 
itqCi bv .'nscph Brariiali. 




BRAMANlt, DONAfO iliui,!! 
The llalKUi architect who m t506bei;.ni 
til? recfistruciion of St. Peter's, Rome. 




BRAMBER LASTLE. A picliirej.que 
rum at Branlber, a little Susse.\ villaije. 
Bramble. See Blackberry. 




BRAMBLE-FINCH. Or l..raiilblini;. a 
small hir.l akin to the chaHinch which 
visits Britain in winter. 




BRAMHALL. One of the finest ul.' 
timber aiul r.laster mansions in England, 
n.'ar Maccleslield. Cheshire. 




J 



BRAMPTON, LORD isi7l'i:i A 

lamous b.irriL.tcr and iLidiie. an aiit!iurH\ 
on criminal l.iw. 

BRAMWELL, SIR FREDERICK (ISIS 
t'lOi). A noted Enijlish enirineer. 












BRAN. The coarse outer coating ot 
uliL-at and other grains. It is used n 
an animal fifid and in packing fruit 




BRANCARD. A two-liorse litter of llu- 
MuKile A-s'L's, a 14th-century example 




BRANCEPETH CASTLE. A much 

ri;storid but very line castle near 
Durham, once the home of the Nevilles. 




BRANCH. An ullshout from the sic-ni 
of a tree, as here illustrated in th; 
larch, cedar, and rfp':"'. 



BRANCH. A river or stream llowin'.' 
into a 1-ireer hndv nl water. 



BRANCH. In piumf'^ing', one pipe 
joined on to another so that water 
niav flnu' throu'jh hoth. 




BRANCH CHUCK. A contrivance lor 
hoKiiny material in a lathe by coucentrii 
pressure of four pieces tightened by 
voreus as seen here 



^^'<^O^f 



BRANCH TEES. In plumbing, the 
■"'Ckets in a niainpipe into which 
hr.iiuli t'ipes ;ire tn^erteil 




P.rands on a flock n\ slu-ep 




Brailihng a cask L-raiMin.i ,; \-'>r.\ 

BRAND. A ilistinguishiiig mark burned 
\sith a hut iron on wood or an animal's 
lude. In the lower pictures we show a 
cask and a punv bein'- b'andtd. 




BRAND, SIR JAN ri. < K^2j-SS). A 13oer 
statesman, several limes President of 
the Orange Free State. 
BRANDE, WILLIAM THOMAS ( I 7SS- 
iyf>b). A famous English chemist. 
Sir Humphry Daw's successor at the 
Ra\ i! Institutio-i. ' 




f?^-#"-k 




8RANCHI0SAURUS. An extinct ai 
phibian akin to the salamander, lie 

>i"- ■;bntt- -I fn^silived sk^'letnn of one. 




BRANCH SHEARS. Long-handledshears 
for pruning trees and lopping hedges. 



BRANDtNBUKu. .1 , 

capital of the ouce puweriul t.lectoraie 
which de\ftloped into Prussia. We show 
the side chapel of the Gothic church ot 
St Kalherine(5';.oon). See Atlas 12, E 2. 




BRANDENBURG GATE. Ur Branden- 

bur;.;er Tit, a lanitius gateway at the 
end of Unter den Linden in Berlin. 




BRANDES, GEORGE 1542 1(27) 
famous Danish man ol letters 
Jewish parentage. He wrote ma' 
critical worts and a notable study ■ . 
Shakespeare. 

BRANDING HELMET. An iron ca^e- 
like helmet cnce used for holding the 
vU-tim's head while l-ranJins hiv cheek. 




BRANDING IRON. An iron with 3 
head bearing raised letters used for 
stamping marks on wood or animals' 
hides. We eive four examples. 




BRANDON. A:. ..; 

Show a relay torch race of i 



BRANDING MACHINE, t-ur braiidini: 
\\'onden r:ickaees. worked bv a treadle 




BRANDLING. I he r-irr, <.r young, ol 
the salmon, having markincs like those 
mnde ^v braniin?. 




BRANDON. An old-world SutTolk town, 
once noted for its ancient tlint-knappins 
trade and the prehistoric qu.!rries near- 
by known as Grime's Graves (which see). 
We show the fine church, and, below it, 
a flint knapper at work. 
Brandon. For Canadian town see Atlas 

2S, H 4. 




BRANDON, CHARLES -1. l!tf). A 
.! K whom Henry VllI made Duke 
'■'jll Ik in 1514. 
BRANDRETH. A three-legged trivet 
or gridiron used for open-air cooking. 




BRAN DUSTER. A 

Thomas Robinson e* ioti oi KoLiui.oe 
tor corn mills. The bran is led into a 
revolving cylinder covered with wire 
mesh, and dust is removed by brushes 
•111 a revolving drum. 
Brandy Battle. A local name for Wat.t 
!ilv. yellovj (which see). 




BRANDYSNAP. Or jumble, a thiii, 
crisp, sweet cake in a hollow rc.M. 



BRANTFORD. A rising town ol Onl.ino 
i-.i.i.i I io,ii:ii)\. Sec Atlas 29. G 4. 




BRANLY, DR. EDOUARD (b. IStO). 
A Irencil scientist, here seen in his 
laboratory, who invented the Branly 
coherer for detecting wireless waves. 




UKANLY COHERER. A detector ol the 

wireless waves invented hv Dr. Branly 



^3^ 




BRAN ROLLER. A m.ivlnr.c h> Ikoiius 
Robinson &: Soii of KuchdaU- tn crush 
ccr.als. tlak- mai/.c. or roll hrati. 
Brant, Joseph. See Thayen<Janccea. 

Branta. Th; generic name nt the 

[■;trr.;v!j^ ^o>:'se {uhich see). 




il4' 



BRANGWYN, FRANK «. 

painter and etcher noted for his mastery 
of decorative work. Here he is seen 

workine on a strikin'^ r:!ilwav poster. 




BRANKS. A:', old instrument 
punishing scolds, consisting, like thes 
of a skeleton iron helmet with a pie 
to hold down the tongue. 



qUANTO.VIE, PIERRE DEtabout l.vi.^- 
1014). trench soldier, writer oi interest- 
ing memoirs of the Valois Court, He 
accompanied .S\ary Stuart to Scotland. 
BRAN TUB. A tub of bran in which 
.ire hidden tovs and presents for which 
cl'il.l-'" ■'■" ' We clv"v :ilsn a section. 





BRANTWOOD. 



. utiful Lake- 
iston Water. 



BRA8EN0SE COLLEGE. An Oxtord 

college founj.-d n 1 =' • ». 

irrnr.'rrrrfrrr' 



BKASERO. A Spanish »otd lur 
-.■ an antique type 




BRASH. In 5,v,.,,s.,. -.. .^j. ...... 

Hr.'ken angular fragments ot rock. 
Braso« (Kronsfadl). S'- '-■ 



siswasa ^ 



ci^SWWSS 



r^ 



M 






B. 



K 




f feS-itj* f ^ v^Ji 

14th-century Flcinisli brass 
BRASS. A medieval memorial tablet 
bearing an efligy. That of Sir John 
d'Abernon (1277), at Stoke d'Abernon. 
is the oldest English example ; that of 
Sir Nicholas BuritfU. at Acton Burnell. 
Salop, is one of the finest brasses known. 



■1 



BRASSARD 



:'.i)4 



BRAZEN SERPENT 




t\» 



BRASSARD. A liunJ worn as a I'luluc 
riHind the upr'-'' arm llelt) : al^o a piece 
-I ;irrii r rn.tectinc thv iiprf a""' 




BRASS BAND. A t-i.nipany ol niubii>.in.- 
iisinc lTj'i>; lull.! in<triinieiit-<. as lurr 




BRASSIE SPOON. A wooden Roll clul- 
«ilh a lace laid lack larlher than ■• 
Iriver and liavinc 3 brass snl;- 



BRASSEY, 1st EARL (1S:^0-1yl^). A 
Liberal politician, civil lord ol tin- 
Adniiraltv ISSo-.S.S. 

BRASSEV, THOMAS I1S05-70). A 
inniniii railway pioneer and .-oiitractor 




■"■e.^. 



BRAio i L,UltDRY. ;. . .(li ll> I'l 

inakini! tirasi. 0-y meilin.i; copper and 
/ii'C and pounnc the allnv into moulds. 



4 



BRASS HEAD NAIL. A nan with a 
1 r iss hea.l ^enerallv rounded 




(T 



J 



BRAUN TUBE. An apparatus ti. 
demonstrate -the temporary course oi 
variable electric currents, principallv 
.iltenialinc currents. 





BRAWN PRESS. An apparatus for 
.(.inpressing brawn after it has t-een 
cooked and pickled. 
BRAY. A rare word lor a srassv lull- 

..I,- ..r ^l..l>. 



Trumpet 
BRASS INSTRUMENT. A musical wind 
instrument of brass made of various 
shapes and sizes to cover a wide range 
of pitch. We Rive sonic of the chid 
kinds in use 

,; $ ! A I 



8KAV0. A ... 1.1 I "M ^1 :■ "S-- 

,1 hired assassin, liioush it meanl 
f.risinally a retainer ot a noble Italian 
house. This picture shows assassin- 
waitin.,' lor til ■.! lull ni 




"S" 



BRASblUA. Ill: l-.it.uucal L;eiiu, in- 
cluding cabbages and caulillowers. Our 
e.xamples are wild cabbage llelt), fore- 
runner ol the cultivated species, and 
rrnrcnli frightl 



BRASSIE. In gol.. a wooden club sh.id 
with brass for shots through the green. 




BRASS 

an en-J! 
laying 
a pent 



RUBBINtj. All impression ul 
raved brass tablet obtained by 
paper over it and rul'hiivj with 
il or charcoal 



BRAVO, NICHOLAS ( 1 7yi>-l»541. A 
Me.tican general who was deleated by 
the Americans outside Mexico City in 
the war ol 1846. 

BRAWN. A food prepared from the 
llesh oi pigs, especially the head, boiled 
pickled a-d pressed into share. 




BRAWN. A word soni: 

pig ,,r b.iar lattened 1. 




BRASSIERE. A sm.1,11 bodice worn b> 
women to support the bust. 




BRATIANU, JONEL ,isf4-19-;) Ihe 
Rumanian statesman, four times prem- 
ier, who in I9l'i ranged his country on 
the side ot the Allies. 
Bratislava. See Atlas 15, E 4. 
Sr?ttice. See Air brattice. 
BRAUN, KARL F. (1S50-1918). A 
i,!:rnian pioneer of wireless telegraphy. 
Braund, L. C. See Cricketers 





BRAY. A prjttv little lieiKsnirc villaee 

v llie Tll:llll^^. 
Bray (Co. Dublin). See Atlas 6. E 




BRAY. In heral.Irs, J hearing showing 
I iMijcles liir subduin.: a horse. 
BRAYBROOKE, 3rd BARON ITS?- 
l.^;.s). Ldiii.r ni Pepys's diarv. 
Brayctte. Same .as Bragnette (which see). 




BRAZEN ALTAR. The great al ar u. 
burnt offerings in the court ol tli; 
Tabernacle and of the Temple ot th. 
ancient Jews. It was big and high, an.l 
may have been approached by a slop 
'.r steps, as seen in these diagrams. Ti:- 
■ ,.rns of the altar :ir ■ ' ' ' . "- 



BRAWN. A word ine-ni:;.: iiii .1- 
muscular strength, especially of IIk 
arms and legs. Our illustration shows 
■the famous Farnese statue of Hercules 
BRAWN MOULD. An ornamental 
mould of earthenware, glass, or tin into 
which the brawn ol rigs is pressed. 




BRAZEN SERPENT, file .mage set up 
bv Moses in tlie wilderness after the 
visitation of the fiery serpents, those 
who had been bitten being healed Iv 
looking upon it (Numbers XX!. si) 



BRAZEN SERPENT 



.'.05 



BREAD FORK 








BRAZEN SERPENT. A once common 
si^ii for inns and shops. 
BRAZIER. A pan in which coals or 
charcoal are burned. 







-^. 



BRAZIERS COMPANY. An old City 
of London livery company now merged 
in the Armourers & Braziers Company, 
whose arms we show. 
BRAZIER'S HORSE. A small stake on 
n hri-- tV b-nch u^ed as an anvil. 




\4<^ 



BKAZILIAN EMERALD. A Inie. vivid 
'.;reen cr>slul of the mineral tourmaline 
!ound in Brazil. 



BRAZIER'S SHEARS. Powerful shears 
used by bra/iers for cvittin:; sheet metal. 




BRAZIL NUT. The seed of a very t.ill 
Brazilian tree. It bears a biij, round 
fruit (A) each of which contains abou: 
30 of the familiar nuts (C>. B and D 
show the fruit and a nut in section. 




BRAZIL. The largest South American republic, covcrin? nearly 3,300.000 square 
miles and having about 40 million people. In the north are the vast Amazonian 
junRles, peopled chiefly by Indian tribes, but the east and south are very rich 
•gricultural and pastoral resions, producing notably coffee. Founded by Cabral in 
1500. Brazil was a Portuausse colony till 1S21. The capital is Rio de .laneirj. 
The bottom pictures here show typical inhabitants. See Atlas 32 H 6. 







BRAZING CLAMP. A vise tor holdiii 

lnet;ll^ t.. he bra/. J or soldered to eacl 

Mther. 

BRAZING FORGE. A table or pan on 

a pedestal (iti wtiich coke or asbestos 

IS healed by a brazinc lamp, makin-.; 

1 forge for braziiii; or soldering metals. 




ilU 



BRAZING LAMP. A iamp umtU lor sm 
Ijriiii; luMtiiin tools, :ind removini; 
p. lint. It burns bcnzolinc or petrol 
under a forced draught, and produce*; 
::reat heat. On the richt is a bra^ini; 
itircli. usi^'d for ttu' same purpose. 



R 




BRAZING PAN. An iron pan which is 
iiM.d Willi liot charcoal and on which 
llK iibi.l t' be brazed is placed. 
Brazing Table. See Brazint; foriie. 
BRAZING TONGS. Tonss iiilh broad. 
lilt i.ius, used for manipulatinc hot 
nut. lis in brazintr. 
Brazos, River. See Atlas 30, G A. 
Brazzaville. S;c AtUis 2f>, C 2 




^:^f^^^M 



''Am 




t;,.^*^ Ji^iafc^ .-. - >.^j. ':'. "^ 



BREACH. All opeiiiiis made in a cilv 
1. ill through which a storming party 




BREACHING TOWER. A woode:' 
t-nser on wiieels used in mediev.ll sieijes 
The ground Iloor often contained .1 
batterinj ram (or niakini; breaches, 
while the top Iloor carried drawbridees 
'.■ he laid across battlements. 





fifk 



Rye bread Aerated breid 

BREAD. Man's staple food, midi -'i 
:lour and water leavened by yeast. 
kneaded into douch, divijjj and s^-'^; * 
nto loaves, and baV ' 




/ 



^>>?e 



BREAD AND BUTTER PUDDING. A 

puddin? niaj; of thin i\'C-:> ■■' ^r:jd and 
butter with i^^s and niilit. iljvour;d 
uith lemon, baked in a dish and duit^^i 
over with cround nutmeg. It oMrn 
contains currant>. 

BREAD AND MILK. Hot milk poured 
.vcr small piece< of bread and served '"^ 
.1 ba5:in. 




3READ BARGE. .\ ^..-^(.-.i iuL- ..i. 
hoard a ship ror keeping the duly ration 
"f biscuit lor the crew."^ 
BREAD BIN. A cvlindrical metal vc,^el. 

,v:th IiJ 1* r holdinc loives of br.-ad. 




BREAD BOARD. A round trencher <ji 
-vcamorj vt oak generally with a 
.arved tlora! border,' on which bread 
K cut. 

Bread Cutter. See Br^ad sticsr. 
BREAD FORK. A short fork with wide. 
;l.it rroncs used for passinc slices ol 
r'tead at t.tbl.\ as seen ar^'ve 



BREAD-FRUIT 



:«ir. 



BREAKSPEAK 




BREAD-FRUIT. The Iruil ol a larcc 
tn-L' ol the South Sea Islands. II is as 
bis as a melon, and the interior when 
roaslc.1 is hreaiilike but flavourless 




BREAD KNIFE. A knile with a wide 
and often slightly curved blade used 
for cultinj; bread. Some bread knives 
have narrower and serrated blades. 
Breadmaker See li.ik.'. 




BREAD NUT. The Iruil ul a Jamaican 
evergreen tree, resembling hazel-nuts 
in tlavour. E.\3mples can be seen 
jirowini; on this shoot. 
BREAD PAN. A wide vessel with :i lid 
t'*r holdine loaves of l^rend. 




BREAD PRESS. An apparatus for 
prissini; bread in connection with the 
niiikins: oi sansaiies. 




BREAD PUDDING. A puddini;, i^eric! 
ally baked in a pie- dish, consisting ( 
stale bread, flour, suet, raisins, pec 
su:rar. etrv'. and irrated nulmetr. 





BREAD-ROOT. A Norlli American 
herb of the bean lamily whose tuberous 
root is eaten hv the Red Indians. Wi 

shrnv its lL-av?s'. flowers, and petals. 




BREAD SLICER. A machine with 
rrit:itirie I'lade for slicins up loaves. 




BREAD STREET. The street i.ft Che.ip 
■-idc. London, where Milton was bnrn- 
The tablet which we show records his 
baptism in All Hallows Church which 
lormerlv sti->i>d there. 



m 

To 



!^lAi^s Pt:«»Mtk--- i" . '\''''^^ - ^ ,j_u ; ^y ^l'^ 
M.^K•i^^^•i M^H ^r^J•^y ^•.\:^■i' rtll^•.■..\t&^:\■^i,\ 






;iio^{i4^AI3^5, 

.,,.«. . ^iV M/.rS riWMARS mrj-VAKSjl >> ... 






<APSP*MMA-?3V 



MAa? fljJMAPS 



m 

- r:^ 



BREAD TICKET. A .,aJ uitli v.-upmis 
issiu-d in many huropcan countries 
^lurinc the war tor rationin:; bread. This 
line is French 




BREAK, i wodiliirL-nt sl>k'S ni a build 
mj;, as here seen ; also any point wher^ 
the two styles meet, as Gothic and 
Norman in the ritrht-hand tower. 



BREAD RIOT. KiMtirii; vun>L-d l\v tlu- 
dearnessof bread. Here we see a mob 
sackin;; a house during the French 
Revolution. 





BREAKDOWN TRAIN. A 

ing machinery and staff to .. 
after n railway mishap. 




BREAKERS. Sea waves as they curl 
.md break on reaching shallow water. 




BREAKFAST CAP. A lipht lace or hnun 

CAP uncc wurn h\ uumen in the niorninc;. 
BREAKFAST CUP. A big one in which 

^.olic: or tea is taken at thj first meal 

■ if the dav. 



A dish like this for 
i bread at table. 





BREAKING HARNESS. Special harness 
ii:>cd in breakiiii;-in young horses to 
lamiliarise Iheni with the slrarpi'K 



BREAKFAST DISH. Covered dish, often 
with a chamber lor hot water, in which 
breakfast foods are put on the table. 




BREAKING ENGINE. A machine toi 
breaking, or carding, fibres before 
spinning. Short wires, dragging the 
libres as they pass, dress and clean 
them in the process. 




BREAKING PLOUGH. A powerful plough 
tor cuttini; heavy turf, as on a prairie. 






'W 



BREAKING SNAFFLE. A special bit 
used in breakiiie-in votintj ll^^se^. 




BREAK JOINT. The ,u i.iiieei.ieiu "l 
bricks in building so that the joins in 
<:ine course do not coincide with those 
of the course above or below it. as ,^een in 
this picture. 




BREAK LATHE. A kitlic u.lli a ^liJni:.; 
bed allowing a gap for e.xceptionally 
wide turnings. 




BREAK SEPARATOR. A machine 
made by 1 homas Robinson & ^o.i of 
R.icliJale. for siftini; (lour in millina. 
Breaksjiear. Nichola;. See Adrian IV 



BREAKSTAFF 



:W7 



BREASTPIN 




BREAKSTAFF. The long hand lever by 
Rhich a forjie bellows is worked, as indi- 
cated in this picture 





BREAKWATER. A structure 1-- pm- 
tctt a liarbour or river approach fr<.tni 
the sea. These examples are (l) con- 
crete on bafifs of cement. (2) rubble 
faced with ston^. (3) wooden piles en- 
closing rubble. {4) concrete faced with 
stone on rubble 



Breast of fireplace 
BREAST. The part of a wall betwei'n 
the floor and the window, also the 
juttin^-out parts of a chimney-piece 
coverintr Ibe tlues. 





^- -f^ 



Pomeranian bream 








iRt. A- I ,1 iniiu-, tlK- iJCf "I 

coal or uU>>:r mineral at which I1 
hewers work. 




SREASTBAND. A band lastened to a 

chip's riy:,'ini; to support a seaman 
t.ikitii: ^ninidinss, as seen here. 
Breastbeam. See Beam (weavlni;). 
BREASTBONE. The sternum nr front 

bMiiL- r>l the chest. 




BREAST CHAIN. In duuhie harness. 

the' ch.im I A) connectini; eitlier horse's 
lar «ith the head i)( tile carriaire pole 




BREAST COLLAR. A woman's widi- 
cnK.ir. o: lace or <5tlier lii;!it niateri.il. 
lied at the breast by a bow, as in this 
portrait of Airs. Mart Currie, by Romnev 



Common bream Bl.ick sea bream 

BREAM. The name civcii to two quite unallied lishes. both havini; deep, com- 
pressed bodies. The freshwater bream, of which there are some 15 species lias a 
short dorsal fin and is allied to the carp. The sea bream's dorsal Im is long, 
as seen in the species shown in these pictures. 



^rti 






K 






I 1. 


•»« 










'.' ,' 




1^ 


_'_^ i'^y-^^VT^.*^'.' 


HK 



BREASTED, JAME8 HENRY b lM>3). 
An American Orientahst and E*rypt- 
ologist, professor at Chicato Univer- 
sity, shown here explorinrr at Calali- 
Niiiirud, an early capital ■■? A ■.r'i 



BREAST DRILL. A drill-stock opera!..: 
by a crar.k and bevel-se.irini;. and hav 
iris a piece auainst which the workman 
presses his breast when drilling. Wc 
■Tivc two examples 




BREAST HARNESS. A strap lA' 

.icrj;s t.i.- ci:.* it a horse. t,s -a i :'■ ''*• 
traces are attached. 




BREASTHOLE. Arched hole I A> in ! 

,11 .;i^'J I'rn.i r cupola o! a foundry flue 




BREASTPIN. A pin. s..i; i » -i orna- 
mental head, like the examples shown 
I iiere, for fastening; a man's tie or scarf. 



BREASTPLATE 



308 



BREDA, PEACE OF 




\V. iistco.it brcastrhitc Globose 

BREASTPLATE. A pifcc nl .irmour lor 
l-rotertins the breast, still worn lof 
ornament by ^ome cavalry resinieiit?^ 
The Jewish hijrh priest's breistplute i> 
(•f tinen nioiintir't; twelvj difterent C'enis- 




BREASTPLATE. The horny coverini; 
■ t the unJerside of a tortoise. 

BREAST PLOUGH. A lar^e spade Iih 
retnovinil turt, havini; a cross piet. 
pushed fr<>ni Mte breast. 





BREAST WALL. A wall built at th. 
foot of a slope and a wall built breast 
liiijh in an entrenchment, both thesi 
nu-aniuRS being ilUistrated here. 
BREAST WHEEL. A water wheel which 
.1. . „ ,l..r Urtlrs :il about hall ilshi'il'hl. 



BREAST RAIL. A protective rail run 
::;:is' breast hiijh, as on a balcony. 
B-east Strap. See Breast harness. 

BREAST SUMMER. A beam supporting 
a wall, as. for instance, the one marked 
A under the projecting upper storey mi 
this picture. 




BREASTWORK. A breast-hish wall m 
iiu in.iteri.t! to protect riflemen. 



■^'^ 




BREATHING APPARATUS. An app.ira 
tus to supply oxygen to the wearer, as in 
a mine alter an'e.xplosion. The type 
shown is the Proto, made by Si.be. 
Gorman, and Company. 
Breathing Hole, .'^ee Blowhole. 



^i , , 


1 ,j J r.i. 


pjs . - sior.s orr, 




;^^--- U^i==, 


=i= 






-t^ 



BREATHING MARK. In music, a tick 
Msliuwnv.: .i -nii;or u here tut a k'c breath 



STOMA tN TRANSVERSE 
SECTION OF A LEAF 




BREATHING PORE. A niuuite (.pcnnre 
(stom.O found chiefly on the under 
surface of leaves (top right), giving access 
to the air. spaces ol a plant. 




1 .nl ni three stages of extension 

BREATHING TUBE. A special tube b> 
which some creatures breathe. For 
instance, the rat-tailed maggot, or 
drone. fly larva, lies buried in mud and 
breathes through its extensible tail, as 
shown in these diagrams. 



■ ■»■ - 




BRECCIA. A geol""ic.il il..iusit ..; 
angular fragments ol disintegrated rocf; 
cemented in!" .i mass. 




BRECCIA WARE. Bowls and orna 
ments made from breccia : this one is 
(rom an ancient Egyptian tomb. 




H: 



BRECHIN. An old Forlarshire town 
with this interesting old church beside 

1 1- uf tower (-;nii) See Atlas ;. 1" ;. 




BRECKIN. \ large fern such as I'ler: 
diiiiii aquiliiuim, shown here. 

BRECKINRIDGE, JOHN C. (isai-75i 
An American Conteder.tle general 



-; 



BRECKNOCK BEACONS. A nuniiilain 
i.iiige in Brecknockshire. South Wales, 
using to over 3000 feet See Atlas 1. R 5. 
Brecknockshire. See Atbis t 1) s 




Bfc.' 

Brcrcon Cathedral 
BRECON, bounty town o( Brei" 
shire, with sf)nie line i»ld bnildini; 



knock- 
s See 




BREDA, the old Dutch tttwn ulu-r; in 
I'.ot* CharUs 1! is'siu-d his lamous 
1 1 'iLir it'Mii (10 nni)) See Atla'< m. C 3. 




BREDA, PEACE OF. The peac^ sinned 
at Breda in l(i67 between England, 
Holland. France, and Denmark. We 
show a nu'dal issued to commemorate -t 



BREDA, SURRENDER OF 



rioo 




BREDA, SURRENDER OF. The "■ ^■■.•-iirc paiiitcl b> WM.isqiuv 

U.J .1 1........ rv.tL.ic vAaniple of his gcni^.-^. .i -!..■"> !li. Dutch kadtr Justin ot 

Nassau surrendering the keys of the city to the Spanish general Spinola in 
\''2^. Because of th:; many pikes it is often called The Lances. 







BREECH. [Ik- hole at the rear of a -un 
i.'. :-,.;.h '.1 J sh:;U is placed, the breecli- 
block bemii then closed on it. Our pic- 
ture's show the breech open and closed. 
Breech Barrow, ^ame as Brick barrow 
(which see). 



7 Yhin tKccyc* cfthcm boflic wfreopr- 



and ihcy fiTwcd h'gire Jciiifs logrxhc:.. 



"brcccht; 



BREECHES BIBLE. An Lnk;li>h tr.tn 

lation wf the Bible published at Geneva 
in 1560. It is so called because in 
Genesis ill, 7, the word breeches is used 
instead of aprons. a<; seen here. 



BREEZE 




Le:s'al Court dress Royal footman's Costiliou's Ridint; bre«;ches 

BREECHES. A lower garment for men extendim; to about the knee. Till com 
raraiivcly modern times they formed part of meti's usual dress instead of trousers 




BRE 



ECHES BUOY. A lilc savinv: d. 
consisting; ol canvas breeclu" 
!r:d (.. a lifebelt ; it is run at..;!;: .1 
d ship. 




BREECHES FLUE, in a steam>hip. a 

ihiL- uitli two passatjes dischari.Mn-.; int.- 
'iiu- luniu'l. as here j!lu>trat.'d 




Jl 



BREECHES PIPE. \ leni;th ol pipe 
terming the junction of two para!!,-! 
pipes. This huge one for :i reservoT 

u.is \\::.:-\\ ^ f..-t in diameter. 




BREECHING. A rope to limit an old 

:;.i\.il i^un's recoil. It w;is secured av 

s.-en at A .iiul pas-^ed ihr^'ueh a riiu- 

; B) at \\\c br.--'Cli", 




BREECHING STRAP. 1 he part vA) ut .l 
luTse's harness which p.isses round the 
bre.'ch and enables it to back the vehicle. 



Brfcch n( i 

BREECHLOADER. 

by i.ptfnin-^ the breci 
barrel as seen in Ih 



sportins; ^\'^ 
K rillc t-r exi 
:h at llir rr. 
fse examr'- 



■o( th£ 




BREECH PIN. 'Jr breech pIuC «" a 
:nu//.L'Ioadini; ^'un, a screw pia Jt the 
trcfch end of the barrel. 
Breech SiRhl. ^nm- i- B::V ' - 




BREEDING CAGE. 

by entom"l";::sti \',x r. - 
captivity ileft) ; ili>» a 1.; 
pestin? compartment in utu 
I'l.TCed fnr breeding iricht). 




BREEDING PEN 




BREEDING TANKS. Links in «hich 




BREEZE BLOCKS 



•MO 



BRESCIA 




BREEZE BLOCKS. J !..: 

Ill cnke ri'disi:, and used lor iiiaKiiii; 
.irtition walls as shown here. 



1 



II 



H ky^crrti^'^'^'^^cp-d^^S^fR 



BREEZE OVEN. A name tor a coke 
oven. This is a battery o( coke ovens 
Bregenz (Central Europe). See Atlas i s. 
A 5 
Bregenz fSwitzerland). See Atlas i 




BREGMACEROS. A t^enus ot deep-sc:i 
Jisliti ol tlw cyJ family, this one heinc 
B. ntlantictis. 




BREGUET'S THERMOMETER. A tvpe 

invented by Abraham Bret;uet (17-17- 

IS23), consisting ot strips of goKi. 

platinum, and silver, made into a spiral 
J having a pointer needle at the 
.UT end- It depends tor its action 
i the unequal expansion of metals. 

BREHM, ALFRED EDMUND ( lS29-Sn. 

A i.l:stin'.;iiisheJ German naturalist. 

Breitmann. Hans. See Lclan.1, C. G. 




BREITOLINE. A striiiiied musical 
■ trnmeiit played with a how. 








BRELOQUE. An 

lor hanging on a 



ornament such as these 
watch chain. 




Bremen Cathedral 




I he port ot I'renu-n 
BREMEN. An ancient German free city 
and port on the Weser. with a trans- 
atlantic trade (320.000). Atlas 12. C 2. 




BREMEN GREEN. A pi>^nient consisting; 
ui hydrated o.\ide of copper. The 
picture shows its production by sub- 
lectins scrap copper to the action ot 
sea water and vitriol. 
BREMER, FREDRIKA (1$01-65). A 
iioii-d SuvJj'^li novelist and feminist. 




BREMERHAVEN. \ 
serves as Bremen 
See Atla^ 12. C 2. 



rni.iii iiiu n u hicli 

uulport ;25.oon). 




BREMIA. A kind of fun(>us, the down) 
mildew of lettuce. Its spores are borne 
on the marijins of rounded discs in this 
picture shown magnified. 




BRENDAN (4o4->77). Irish saint, lien 
nt ;i liimnus lecendary Atlantic vova'.:e 
"11 which h-; is Tier e <;o mi c mbarkiir/. 




BRENNAN, LOU 

li ish expert nii ^ 
Jojs, inventor •<{ 
rail ■^v=tem. 



lb. iS5i). 
\ roscopes and 
the gyroscopic 



All 
torpe 
mono 




BRENNER. The Inwest pass (45i'ii 
: .'ft I uvt.'r tlie Alps ;ind hrst to have .1 
railway, here shown. It links Italy and 
the Austrian Timl. See Atlas n, C 1. 




BRENNUS. r.)~i uaiih^n leader uiim 
sacked Rome in 390 r.c. The phrase 
Vae Victis (Woe to the Conquered) is 
attributed to him. 

BRENTANO, CLEMENS (177S-1842). 
A German novelist and poet, noted for 
his work in collecting folk soncs. 




BRENTFORD. Capital oi Middlesex 

uli;!re the River tircnt flows into the 

(linmos (17.000). We show the High 

street. 

Brent Goose. .See Gonse. 




BRENT TOR. A well-known landmark 
.tr Tavistock. Devon ; 1 no feet high 




(1 K t N ( w u u u 

towns in bsS(;x COdQ). W ,> shr.u ihe 
ems':. 




BR-QUET CHAIN. A short watch 
guard or chain, more generally called a 
■nb chain 




The ancient castle at Brescia 
BRESCIA. A city ol Lombardy, ltal\ 
more than two thousand years old arid 
having many beautiful churches. Still 
surrounded bv walls, it is dominated bv 
its ancient castle (9O.OOOV Atlas 13. C 2 



BRESLAU 



311 



BKEVIPEN 




L".re>iaL: Cathedral 
BRESLAU. Important German cathe- 
dral, university, and industrial city. 
Silesia's capital (530.000). Atlas 12. G 3. 



House uliere the treaty was signed 
BREST LITOVSK. An important rail- 
way centre in eastern Poland, on the 
Duf. It is famous chiefly as the plaee 
where the Russians signed an armistice 
with the Central European Powers in 
December, t9I7. The PoIhs call it 
Brzesc Lilew--ki (55.noo>. 



lules lirelon. b\ liinisell 




BRESSANONE. Formerly BriX- ;, -i 
old cit; ui tl;; Italian. Tirol r-'>rl-'l 
largely by Germans. Here we see its 
cathedral (6600). Atlas 43, C I. 
Breisaif. See Atlas 5. Inset 



BRETESSE. Heraldic deviCL- in wIikI. 
embrasures oppose each other in English 
style (left). On the right is the French 
form. 



BREVIARY. A b'-iic cnlain. .; :,.: 
J:iily serviCiN »ith prayers lesvins 
.Old hymns, "t the Roman CltboJtc 
Church. We show a pace from an Itiltan 

breviarv ot the f >th centur\. 



GckI's in His lu-avcn : 
.-Mis incht with the world. 



BREVIER. A size ol pnntinit t)r; 
i.iKin^ niUi- lines to the inch 




BREVIFOLIATE. A ... ;...!:;-. U.'m 
meanine short-leaved, like the lejv.-s 

ot wild th\ me shown here. 



A painting by Jules Breton 

BRETON, JULES (tS27-1905)- A 

French painter known chiefly for his 
pictures of rural life- 
Brett. \ kind oi Britjscka (which see). 



BREVIPEN. A term for a short-wjni: 
bird sucli -IS the penguin, seen bere. 



BREWER 




BRICK MAKER 



f 



BREWER. EBENEZER COBHAm 

(lSIO-97). An EiKHshscli.ilar, compiKr 
ol the Dictionary <ii Phrase an.l 1 alilc 
and other valuable reference books. 
BREWERS COMPANY. A &t> ol 
London liverv company nicorporatea 
in ins Here we cive its urins 




BREWSTER, SIR DAVID (ITSl ISoSi 
.\ lainous Scottish man of science, 
inventor of the kaleidoscope and the 
stereoscope. He was editor of th; 
Edinbnrnh lincyclopedia 1807-29. 
BRIAN BORU (<)26-1014). A famous 
warrior kins of Ireland who destroyed 
ilie pi>»or of the Danes. 
Bri«nton. See Atlas 7. G 4. 



BREWER'S DRAY. A dray special 
built lor brewers. It is fitted with iron 
standards and chains which can be 
removed when not required. 



^A 




BREWER'S FLOAT. A low-slung cart 
with side rails used by brewers and 
wine merchants. 

BREWER'S TREE. A heavy ladder 
with two stron; staves to put across 
the tops of vessels durinc home-brewme. 




BRIAND, ARISTIDE(b. 186i). A famous 

r,ret"ii st.itesiiM.i. an uutstandinj; figure 
in French politics for more than twenty 
years. Many times premier, he became 
loreign minister in 1926. 
Briansk. See Atlas 16, E 4. 
BRIAR. Any pricklv bush or shrub, 
especially of the ros'e faniilv. Our 
e.xample is the sweetbriar 




A typical brewery 





BKiuK tUAiflP. An 3rrani;emenl for 

bakmi; bricks by stackinir, a lire beini; 
kev> burninc in the stack''^ ''^"tre. 



dRICK. A moulded block ot baked 
clay for buildinir. From left to rii;ht 
the types shown in the lower illustration 
are London stock, hollow, sand-faced 
red, fletton. Staffordshire blues (splay 
and coping). The top pictures show 
how Babylonians used bricks fur writuK', 




BRICK COURT. A court in the Middle 
lemple. London, wheYe Goldsmith 
fhackerav. and Blackstone lived 




BRIAREUS. In Greek mythology, a 
"iant with 50 heads and 100 hands who 
aided Zeus in his war witji the Titans and 
then guarded them in the Underworld. 





BRICK. A loai of bread baked hard 
and shaped roughly like a brick. a< 
shown in the picture. 
BRICK. A heraldic charge resembling 
,1 billet but showing depth in per- 
spective, as seen here. 






\ ats inside .; . .'. .■^■ 
BREWERY. A factory where beer is 
bv fermenting a liquor obtained 



mad 

fro 



BRIAR-PIPE. A tobacco pipe made 
from briar-root, the hard, close-grained 
root of the white heath, or tree heath, of 
Southern Europe. A piece of briar-root is 




BRICKEErl BRIOl.li. VJ-oi ■ "I''- ■" 
the upper end of Lough Leane. Killariiey. 



BRICK-AXE. A double-headed axe 

■hi>ppiiiL' 1 ricks. 




dRIOKKItLD. A piece i)l land whei. 
and prepared lor brick- 
m iMii" A mixing machine is shown 
/ 



shown in 



the lower picture 



nd wat 






BKIUK KILN. The oven in which bruks 
are baked. A truckful is seen going in 



BRICK BARROW. An open sid 

barrow lor carrying newly-made briL 
!(. the kiln, as here seen. 



BREWSTER, WILLIAM (d. 1644). One 
Df the Pilgrim Fathers : he sailed in the 
Mayflower in 1620 and founded New 
Plymouth New England. 




BRICKBAT. A term for half a bnc 
especially when used as a missile. 




I 



BRICKLAYER. A workman who buiUi> 
iMth hncks and mortar, as seen here. 



I 



BRICK BORER. 

I r boriiif hc.le- 



A hard steel tool used 
ill brickwork. 



Br!IC-A-BRAC. 

objects ot art o.' 



A term 
curiosity ot 



snuill 
kind. 



BRICK CHISEL. A short, heavy chisel 
with a wide cutting edge used by brick- 
layers in cutting hue face-brick. 




DKIUK fWAKER. A worker at a trick, 
works. On the left we see the clay being 
pressed into moulds ; on the right the 
moulds are being removed, leavmg the 
bricks ready for drying and baking. 



BRICK MARK 



\ I :i 




BRICK MARK. A cifculur or rectani;u 
lar stamp, beariir^ the dale, inipressevl 
on the bricks of an ancient Roman 
buildini; ; also called a Brick stamp. 




BRICK MOTH. A nuctuid muth round 

all I'V^r ''ij Briti'^ti Isle-; in September 




BRICK NOGGING. In buildin,^. a tiih 
oi bricks inserted between uprJL; 
studs in a frame o; wood to niak^ 
parti t!nn wall. 




BRICK SAFE. A small sale ol the sanu 
size as a brick let Into a wall to torni .v 

v^ ;, I r ■.-..-ptacli:' ^>>T v;tiitnMe'; 




BRICK TOP. A lumrus with a brick-r. 

rap <>'tj:'. !■ Tu' I.-1 nU! trfe-^tumps- 




BRICK TRIMMER. An arch c,l hnck 
against a wooden trimmer in front oi 
a fireplace as a precaution ai;ainst tire. 
BRICKWORK REINFORCEMENT. A 

kind 01 lieht metal network lor placing 
n brickwork to strenyth-n a wall 




SRtCOLE. A medievLil war eni;!ru- !-> 
throwing heavy stones. Our ma: 
picture shows it just after a throw 
above it a stone is seen in position. 




BRIDAL CASKET. \ . i k ! 
a bride used to k.;p lier lewel: 







BRIDAL STONi:. An .ii-.Cdilt LMock .■ 
;one, ri'^i'Ced nt-iir liic top. ut tti- 

iiely farm of Grouse in Wigtowiisliire 
lOtland. it lias ions been tlie scen: 
: betrotlials. tile two parties ciaspini; 

I lids tlirou-li tile liulvV 




BRIDAL VEIL FALL. A nia<:niticeiil 
uatLTfail, 900 feet liigii. in tiie Vosemitv 
\ .illev of Caiifornia. 




BRIDAL WREATH. I iie popuiar nanu- 
lor Francoa rani()>a. a saxifrage witli 
lonp sprays of wliite llowers. 
BRIDAL WREATH. .•V wreatii ol 
llowers, now usually orange blossom?, 
worn bv a bride at lier wedding. 



BRIDE AND BRIDEGROOM 




BriJesrooin and bride in Lapland A Bulfirian p.asini weJdin; 

BRIDE AND BRIDEGROOM. A man and a woman at their wejdinj. the cride 
bein^; attended by one or more bridesmaids and the bridegroom by a best man. 
In the lirst picture here A is the bride, B the bridegroom, C a bridesmaid, and D 
the best man. As shown in the other pictures weddings in miny countries are 
often very picturesque. 



SrtCol.^H> PUll 



BRIDE BRANCH 



:!14 



BRIDGE 




BRIDE BRANCH 



o 







BRIDE OF LAMMERMOOR. A r ^ 

Iv Sir Walter Scott telling tlie Ira^'i^ 
story of Lucy Ashton, here seen witli 
her lover Ed2:ar Ravens\\ntu!. from 
till- picture hv W, P. rrith. 




BRIDE-CAKE. A cake with irult. 
almond-paste, and ornamental su^ar 
icin«, cut by the bride after a wedding. 
Bridegroom. See Brid;. 




BRIDE-KNOT. A knot of white satin 
ribbon sonietinies worn by a bride- 
grnuni in his l>uttonhole. 
BRIDE LACE. Tringed strings formerly 

i-iveti ;it ;i wediltTU' to friends of bride 




The Tiarrin'.re of the Adriatic 








BRIDE OF THE SEA. A luuiie i;ivcil tn 
old Venice, uhere in a procession ever> 
year tlie city wa.i symbolically wedded 
by the Doge to the Adriatic. We Rive 
a well-known paintinjr above, and a 
view of the Doijes' Pnhice below. 



BRIDES OF VENICE. A lumuns inciJciit in L-arly Nen^lun luslory. On one day 
-■ach year a national festival was held, when vveddings took place at the cathedral, 
but in the year 943 Dalmatian pirates ambushed the bridal procession and 
carried off the brides. The infuriated Venetians, however, put to sea and effected 
.1 rescue, shown in this picture bv J. C. Hook. R.A. 





BRIDE STAKE. 



/) . f 



BRIDE OF ABYDOS. ZuIciKa, heroine 
of Byron's pojni. who died with her lover 
£elim it .\bvdos. on the Dardanelles. 




BRIDESMAID. An attendant of th 
brid.- at a wedding, as here shown. 



became a prison (see above). 1 his cell 
is in the present Bridewell near Ludsate 
Circus. London. 



BRIDEWELL PALACE. A favourite 
London palace of Henry Vlll which 
stood at the mouth of the Fleet River at 
Blackfriars. It later became the famous 

Bridewell prison, demolished in lSfi',, 




BRIDEWORT. The Spiraea ulmaria, or 
meadowsweet, a plant with feathery 
leaves and heads of hi.chly aromatic 
llowers. crnwinii by ponds and ditches- 




BRIDGE, SIR CYPRIAN (ISijl924;. 
-\ distinenislK'.t British adin'ral. 
BRIDGE, SIR JOHN FREDERICK 

(1544-1921). EiiRlish musician, organist 
at Westminster Abbey I8S2.I924. 



BRIDGE 



:il.-. 



BRIDGE 




Obli^u; ur skew D.-ck buJ^c Kollins lip briJc;; Rope o,.;- - . .;..:j: tajje 

BRIDGE. Any kind of structure providing means of passase lor men, animals or ve.iides over a waterway, railway, roaJ, or ravjae. I.i the picturei here iivsn 
we sliow 30 types of bridges in use today. Other kinds of bridges, sueh as a ship's bridge and the bridge of the nose, are given on the ne.\t pa;e. 



BRIDGE 



;tM. 



BRIDGE WARD 





UriJ^C ol a line 



BRIDGE. A kind ol plattorin (A) 
r.ii^cJ :>midships in a vessel as a station 
lor tin navigatini; officer or pilot. In 
the picture of a liner we show also the 
hridvc hr.use ( B) -"nd h-idce deck (C) 




ijnndinf; null 



bridije of no>ie 



k 



—x 



Bridires in billiards 




I'.tuls:, 1. 1 »,u>li 1 ;iri;.u-i- l-ridi;e 

BRIDGE. Anjthiii- like a bridge : 
means ol piissage «jr svipport. In the 
pictures litre ijiven we show a varietx 
ol ccainplcs Ihc letter A bein;e used 
where needed to indicite the bridge. 
The electrical bridges are the Drjsdale 
Standard Comparison bridge and the 
r...sl OHice Bridge 




BRIDGt-COARO. The notched roard 
(A) into which the treads and uprights 
vi a staircase are fitted. 
Bridge Dock. See liridee. 




BRIDGEGATE. Uiie ol the Lily ut 
London's four original gates. It stood 
at the end nl old London Brid'.'e. 




BRIDGEHEAD. A tortilication protect 
iiig the larther end of a bridge, as seen 
in this old picture. 
Bridge House. See Br:,l 'e (ol ship) 




BRIDGEMAN, SIR ORLANDO (d. 10741 
The iodge wlio tried the regicides in 160m. 
BRIDGEMAN, W. C. (h. 1S60. ITrM 

l_r,-d nl the Adniirriltv. 1 1 J 




BRIDGE OF ST. ANGELO. The famous 
bridge over the Tiber in Rome near the 
castle of St. Angt!o, seen on the right. 




BRIDGE OF SIGHS. The bridge in 
Venice over which prisoners passed from 
llu- thical palace to the State prisons. 




BRIDGE OF SIGHS. The pupuhir name 
of the bridge connecting two parts of 
St. .lolui's College. Cambridge. 




BRIDGE PIT. The cavity into which 
tlie counter-weights of a bascule bridge 
^iiik when the roadway is raised, as here 
siuuvn in the Tower Bridge. London. 
Bridgeport. See Atlas 29, L 5. 




BRIDGE RAIL. A '.i:' ■:-. ! !-: i.nlwav 

tr.tcks over bridges. 

BRIDGES. ROBERT SEYMOUR b 

LSI O lilill>:i I'net l-.iure it - -i".:' I'il ! 




BRIDGET, ST (1 502.7 3). Swedisli Imnul- 
er of the order of the Brigittines here 
seen in a picture by Fra Bartolonimeo. 




BRIDGET. ST. (about 452-.';i.i). Or 
lirigid, a p.itron saint ol Ireland who 
lived a hermit's life at Kildare : also 
called St. Bride 

BRIDGE TOWER. In medieval lortifi- 
cation, a tower delcnding the entrance 
to a bridge, like this one it Aigues 
Mortes in southern France 



V" 



I 




BRIDGETOWN. '^.1 . 
peopled West Indian is 
Our picture shows thi 
Mriiise. See Atlas 31, 



..I .■! tlie tliickly 
and of Barliados. 
Savannah Club 
K ?. 




BRIDGE TRAIN. A detachment ol 
■ uldiers responsible lor the building of 
:nilitary bridges, as shown here. 
Bridge Tree. See Grindin'.: mill 




BRIDGE TRUSS. A Iramework ol 
eirders, joined together to withstand 
strain, forming an important support- 
ing part of a bridge. We give here 

pictured mI (\(., "xaniT'e*^ 



•^r fl !! ::.!— :^i jfi,— — JJ 



;f'.;J 



BRIDGE WARD. In locksniith's wurk 
:i key's princip.i! uaril, shown here at A 



BRITISH MUSEUM-SOME OF ITS RARE AND ANCIENT TREASURES 





I German Gospels of 9th century with 14th-century cover. 2 Gothic. Scvthian, or Sarnutian brooch and ;;enjant from South Russu. 5 Attic nslmet ot 
5th century B.C. 4 Nnrembere wine bottle, 17th century. 5 Liniojes reliquary, about I2th centurv. 6 Silver, coral, anj enamel pendant from Aleeria. 
7 Greek bronze mirror. 8 Egyptian Rold bracelet, 9th ce'nturv B.C. 9 Bronze of uthcenturv Portuguese soljier-e.xplorer from Siberia. 10 Pendant ot the 
16th century, probably Russian, ii Chinese teapot K'ans Tsi period. 12 Persian tile, litli century. 15 He.adpiece of Queen Shub-ad. 3300 B.C.: Irom 
Ur. 14 Heraldic plaque from the grave of Queen Shub-ad. 15 Roman iilass ewer, to Wedijwood poVtrait medallion ot Catherine II ot Russia, t? Nautilus 
shell and gold cup from Antwerp, t6th century. iS Bowl of translucent Rreen calcite. Ur collection, lo \ ase from the crave ol Queen Shub-ad. 20 Greek 
drinking horn, 5th century b.c. 21 Meissen porcelain group, iSth centurv. 22 Pitcher of the 14th centurv. lound in London 23 Egyptian funeral boat of 
the dead. XII dynasty. 24 Chinese vase of the Ch'ien Lung period. See pa;e 324 



BYZANTINE ART— ANCIENT EXAMPLES STILL REMAINING IN THE WORLD 




i from Pomposa 



I'iUlIiZU 



Plaques from Pompoba 



THESE BEAUTIFUL EXAMPLES OF BYZANTINE ART ARE FROM ITALIAN CHURCHES. THE FIGURES ARE IDEALISED TYPES RATHER THAN 

INDIVIDUALS AND HAVE OFTl:N AN AUSTERE GRANDEUR. THE STIFFNESS OF THEIR REPRESENTATION. WHICH BECAME A CONVENTION. 

MAY HAVE ARISEN FROM THE DIFFICULTY OF WORKING IN THE FAVOURITE MEDIUM OF MOSAIC. See page 372 

i'rom L'Art By^anltn by CharUs Errard 



BRIDGEWATER 



BRIDLE REIN 




BRIDGEWATER, 3rd OUKE OF 13 

lS05). A Lar.casiiirt; iiubknuji laiiiuus 
as a pioneer ot canals and the employer 
of James Brindley. 

BRIDGEWATER, 8th EARL OF (1756 
1S20). A scholar, founder of the 
Bridi^ew.iiLT Tr.'atisiis. 




BRIDGMAN, FREDERIC A. : 1 • 

All An'.jncui tiL';ir.- painter, i-sp^-ciall 
in trance, Alijiers. and t:;;ypt. 
BRIDGMAN, LAURA DEWEY (lS2 
S9). An American blind and deaf mui 
who became a successful teacher ol tli. 
blind and ,1-r•l^ 




A chain or rope havin'^ its end', 

■-'-' either side of the bows of j 

AJne purpi.strs. as shown here. 




BRIDGEWATER 

Chesiiire. cuiistru 
shows it crossing: t 
r 



CANAL, A famous inland uater\va\ ot L;i 
ted between 176I andl765 by James Brindley. 
he Manchester Ship Canal at Barton Aqueduct. 



The picture 




BRIDGEWATER HOUSE. The Earl ut 
EUesmere's tine house by the Green 
Park London built by Barry, 





M^ 




TBM 










^Bk"' ~ 


'■J 




.-1 







-^^<ll 

^ 


N 



BRIDGING. iv. tuiidi:... .. 

pieces of wood (marked A) to keep the 

ioists in position. 




BRIDGING CONDENSER. In tele(;raphy 
a condenser connected across part of a cir- 
cuit to by-pass high-frequency currents. 
We show a variable form enclosed in a 



^1_1^ :?_ 



BRIDGING FLOOR. < A floor with 
brid,5inij joists supporting the planks. 
Here A is the bridging joist, B the 
ceiling joist, and C the binding joist. 





- 


H^y^i. 


fe^ 


^^m:- 


W^^ljF^ 


HI 


^r_^^^ 


-tai 


3^^' 



BRIDGWATER. An old ^om.-rsct t.^wn 
on the Parret. It was Admiral Blake's 
birthplace, and thescene in 1685 of Mon- 
mouth's proclamation as king (17.OOO) 
See Atlas 4, E 5. 



HOLDER. 

c, used in stjcir 
3 horse 




■A 



ff- 



BRIDLE CHAINS. In minins'. ' 
short ch.iins (A) by which the cai,'e 
suspended tn the shaft. 




BRIDLED GUILLEMOT. I he ririKc-l 
i^iiillernot. Uria lacrimans, found on the 
coasts of Scandinavia. 

BRIDLE HAND. In ridini:. the hand 
whicli hulds the bridle rein (A), the strap 
attached to the bit. 



BRIDLE PATH. A palh 
n ^ r-j tut n.,1 !i.r :. . :: 



^^^^ 




BRIDLE PORT. 

ward tjun port (A), . 

Bridle Rein. See Bridle hand. 




Pelhani Iri ".■ Cult's mouthing bridle Picketing bri dle New r; 



\Vj;;r;n,- tr d'; 




.Wediev,, ; : Pit pony's bnJle 

BRIDLE. The part ul a horde's harness which is lilted to its head an.l l-y ni,-ans ol » -.c:! ll;. 
restrained. In the pictures above we show many types in use today .is well as some ancient ones. 



J , - .in J 
I B I 



BRIDLINGTON 



BRIGHTON 




BRIDOON. In harness, the pluiiu'St 
tortii oi snaflle bit, a smooth, jointed 
mouthpiece with rin;;? hut tio l^ars at 
either en.l : iirtc • ' '' i eurh hit 




BRtDPORT. An ancient town in Dorset, 

ii:..M i.\1-.t;i and cordage i ;of)0). 




BRIEF. .\ statement supplied by a 
solicitor to a barrister iiivini; the facts 
cf u cast- he is to conduct in court. 
Brief music). Same as lireve (q.v,). 
BRIEF BAG. A small leather bae 
with convex .sides and usually having a 
leather llap near the fastener. 
Britg (Germany). See Atlas 12, G 3, 
Britg (Switzerland). See Atlas 9, C 2. 




BRIENZ, LAKH OF. A Oeautilul 
Swiss lake, 9 miles lorn;, in heme canton. 
We show the wooded headland where 
stands IseltwalJ ''.ustle \tlas o. C 2. 




BRIG. A Scoltisli, Y"rt,shir 
N-;!h C.Hintry word Inr :t hridi; 




R..4r 




BRIGADIER-GENERAL. A rank i 
the British Army, commander of 
hri^'ade of usually four battalions. 




BRIGAND. Oiic oi a band of arin^d 
robbers, who olten levy ransom and 
blackmail. We show on the left a 
masked Mexican brigand and on th? 
right two Sicilian brigands escortini; 
prisoner. 



BRIER BIRD. A name lur the 

.American goldlinch, .Astraifolmus tristis. 




8 RIG AN DINE. A coat of armour 
made ot metal plates, scales, or rini^s 
sewn on leather; or a padded jacket. 
We ijive two examples. 



BRIGANOINE. A term lur an artiwr 
wearini; a briuandine or armoured 
j;K'kc't. as seen in tlie picture. 





' 




R ^ 


1 >^i 


ol^^ 


^ 


D'^^Li 


1^ 





BRIGANTINE. A twu-masted sailing 
ship ri:s';^ed like a brig e.\cept that it has 
a fore-and-aft mainsail. Originally .i 
hripantine was a pirate vessel. 




M 



i^ 



BRIGG. A market tow a in Lincoln - 
shirf. Its market square bein;; shown in 
the picture here iriven (3400) 




BRIGHT. SIR CHARLES TILSTON 

i -- ;_-A,>). A famous hniilish clc^ ii .^.i 
eni;ineer, who in 185S, when only 20. 
laid the first Atlantic cable between 
Ireland and Newfoundland. 
BRIGHT, EDWARD (1721-50). A very 
hi^; man who lived at Maldun. Essex. 
He weighed 44 stone. 



BRIGHT, JOHN 1 • n -S7I A i:immis 
LanciNhiij ^t.itesnian and orator, 
cliampinn of peace, free trade, and 
household suffrage. He was an asso- 
ciate Iff Cobden and a member of 
sev-ral oi (.iladstone*s ministries. 
BRIGHT, RICHARD (t7S<)MS5S). Enj:- 
lish physician who investiirated dropsy 
and gave his name to Bright's Disease. 




BRIGHT-LINE BROWN-EYE MOTH. 

\ liritisli moth appearing' in June. Its 

l.ir\M i;v.K Oil elm, doik. and nettlL-. 




BRIGHTLINGSEA. A little town t 
'li.' Hs'L.x (j'Ine noted for its riysters. 




The front at Brighton 




Bri.i^hton Pavilion 

BRIGHTON. The largest English sea- 
side resort, in East Sussex. Only 51 
miles from London, it is a very popular 
residential and holiday centre, with 
many schools. The ad)oining borough 
of Hove makes practically one town 
with it (175,000). See Atlas -1, G 6. 



BRIGHT WAVE MOTH 



.tl't 



BRINTJLEY 









m 



» 



BRIGHT WAVE MOTH. A .. 

moth, Acidalia ochrata. which appear- 
in June and is only found on the coast- 
of Essex and Kent. 

BRIGNOLE A kind ot plum which 
when dried is known to commerce as a 
prune. Fresh and dried e.xamples are 
shown here. 




BRILL. A European tlatlish allied 
to the turbot but smaller and not so 
choice in flavour. 




^^■^ 



BRILLIANT. A diamond cut especially 
finely and having a great number of 
facets. The lower part, usually tri- 
angular, is surmounted by a flattened 
oown, as shown in the four side views 
given. The larger figures show two 
kinds of crowns from above. 

BRILLIANT. In printing a very 
small size of type, 20 lines measuring 
less than an inch. 




BRILLIANT. A spirited horse with 
h)t;r..stepri:'e action, as here shown 




BRILLIANT SUN. A nrework made L- 
fJrock and C<>. m the form ot a he.xagon.(. 
frame which when lighted revolves with 
brilliant effect. 

BRILLS. The hairs or eyelashes on 
the upper eyelid of a horse. 




BRIM. An edce or border, as the shore 

n: ,) ' : ■: - •'■ - ■'-r'— "i .1 cup Or hat. 




BRIMMER. A term for .1 dnnkin; 
vessel titled to the brim. 
BRIMSTONE. Popular name lur solid 
or powdered sulphur especially the roll 
sulph ir t ^ mm re ^h w 1 h r 








BRIMSTONE WORT. A kind 01 

par>l-'-.- -.v^t'i •>.!■.- .':'.:ded leaves and a 




BRINOISI. -.- 

Adriatic port of Italy, with miporlant 
steamerservices (50,000). Atlas 1 3, F *■ 




BRINDLED BEAUTY MOTH. A moth 

s.-en ill April whose raterpiU.irs ieed on 
pe.ir, r!am. .lild lime trees. 



BRIMSTONE AND TREACLE. A 

nauseous mi.xture once used as a 

medicine. This picture, from Dickens's 

iHivel Nicholas Nickleby. shows .Mrs. 

lueers dosins the boys with it at 

Theboys Hail. 




BRINDLED BEAUTY, PALE. A mulh 

: th ■ north and west of England. 
-i i An with its wimriess leniale. 




BRINDLED BEAUTY, SMALL. A British 
moth with a wingless female (left). Its 
caterpillar feeds on oak and elm leaves. 




,} 



I _■ :ii.ii(.' iTini^l 




m^^ 




Tl'.e brimstones pupa and egg The brimstone's caterpillar 

BRIMSTONE BUTTERFLY. A common British species. Rhodocera rhanini, seen 

July and August. The male is canary yellow and the female pale greenish yellow 



s? 




BRINDLED GREEN MOTH. A Brittsh 




BRINDLED MOTH. WHITE. 

'.nillish moth '•;:ri m June jnJ Ju. 
iterrillaf IccJ^ on nettles and J'> 



BRINDLED OCHRE. A .;. .. .. . 

jppearing in October ; the iuwer insect 
shown is the (emale. 



V^>'... 



BRINDLED PUG. 

a:;J .\p.-ll ; its .2 




BRINDLED WHITE SPOT. \ :fi 

:.nind in iouthcrn Eni;UnJ in Janj- Us 
..iUrrilUr le.'ds on birch leavrt. 

Brindlf Moth. -- v :•..'.:.{ ^- - i 



The caterpillar feeds on buckthorn leaves. 




BRINDLEY. JAMES !;iI>-7;). The 

ta;..--s ; . .- .ii^incer who made the 

Bndgewaler Canal iwhich see). 



BRINE COOLEP 



BRISTLING 




BRINE COOLER. A coil ul flfii UbL.1 
fur cooling brin; in ice- making or cold 
storage. 

BRINELL TEST MACHINE. A machini; 
|..r tf^tini; the harJness ol metals b\ 
■ '- ' - -ressiire 




BRIQUET. A piece ol steel ol various 
aesuns used in olden days to strike 
lire from a Hint : also called a lire-steel. 
BRIQUET. A term for a slat) or block 
.-il artilici.ll """ • 




BRINE PAN. A siiallow trough into 
which natur.il salt water is pumped for 
evaporation in salt-makiTv/. 




BRINE PUMP. A lorm ol pump used 
for pumping brine in curing hams, 
bacon, and so on. 




BRISBANE, SIR CHARLES il7L.b 

1S29). An English admiral who served 
under Nelson and Hood, defeating the 
Dutch more than once. He was made 
Governor of St. Vincent in IS19. 
BRISBANE, SIR THOMAS (1773- 
1S60). A Scottish soldier and astro- 
nomer. Governor of New South Wales. 
Queensland's capital is named after him. 




BRINE SHRIMP. Or brine worm, .i 
small crustacean tound in salt lakes. 
In Tripoli it is eaten in a paste mixed 
with dates. 
Brinjal. Same as Aubergine (q.v.). 




BRINSMEAD, JOHN , 1 M 1-1 "i^j. An 
English manulaciurer who introduced 
many improvements in pianoforte 
n^aking. 

BRINVILLIERS, MARQUISE DE (1632- 
70). A woman whose crimes caused a 
sensation at the Court of Louis XIV. 
Was beheaded after poisoning her father 
and brother^ *- Main their fortune. 




BRISEIS. In Homeric legend, a 
Trojan maiden who became the captive 
of Achilles. She was taken from him by 
Agamemnon, and this picture after 
1-ia.xman shows her unwilling departure. 




BRISINGA. An asteroidean starhsh 
u;th Imii.; and formidable arms. 
BRISKET. A joint of beef from the 
breastbone ; it is often served as 
pressed meat, as shown here. 





BRIOCHE. A small, soft, sweet bread 
roll 01 france. It is very diBerent from 
ordinary bread, being made of butter, 
eggs, and (lour. 

BRIOCHE. A French name lor a kind ol 
knitted cushion or hassock for the feet. 




J 



. ' ----_/' 

BRISKET PRESS. For pressing the 
meat that comes from the brisket. 
BRISKET' STAND. A stand with two 
sharp spikes on which brisket of beef is 

displayed by p'-nvision dealers- 
Brisling. S.v [Wi ;:i ■, ■ 




BRISSOT, JEAN PIERRE (1754-93). 

The leader of the Girondin party, 

■■(ten called Brissotins, in the French 

Revi'Uition. He was guillotined by the 

Jacnhins. 

BRiSSUS. A sea-urchin of the Brissidae 






BRISTLE BIRO. An Aibtralian bird 
of the genus Sphenura. The example 
shown is S. longirostris. 



^^' 



-'Z^i^/?;-il -*_ ..S"- -7- ", 






BRISTLE FERN. A fern with semi- 
transparent dark green leaves, abun- 
dant in the Tropics. Trichomanes 
radicaus, shown here, is the only 
European species. 




BRISTLE GRASS. An annual grass, so 
called from the bristles on the llower- 
head, found in Europe and occasionally 
in England. We show the rough 
ileft) and green kinds. 



Brisbane harbour 
BRISBANE. Capital and chief port 
f.t Queensland, on Brisbane River. A 
healthy and well-built city, it has two 
cathedrals and a university (230,000). 
See Atlas 36, J 4. 



^>^ 



BRISE. A term in heraldry £or uiiy 
bearing depicted as torn asunder, as 
shown in these examples. 



-^- 



BRISTLE HERRING. A kind of shad 
identified by a curious, bristle-like 
extension to its dors.al fin. as shown. 




BRISTLE-MOSS. A common kind of 
moss found on tree trunks and dis- 
tinguished by its having a calyptra, or 
veil, two kinds being here shown. 



Stinging n. 





BRISTLE. A coarse, stiff hair of an 
animal or plant. In the lower pictures 
here we show a pig's bristle (magnified) 
I and gooseberry bristles. 



BRISTLE WORM. A segmented worm 
: .lass Chaetopoda. We show the 

: , Mtirede. 



BRISTLING. A small lood-lish known 
to science as Clupea sprattus. 



BRISTOL 




K.-dcIiffs. Bristol 




Bristol Art Gallery 

BRISTOL. The greatest and nifsi 
liistoric port of south-west Entjland. 
from which Cabot sailed to discover 
Newfoundland. It is a cathedral and 
universitv city and manuLictures 
notably tobacco (3S0,onn), Atlas 4, E 5. 




BRISTOL, 1st EARL OF 1 1 3SJ-11.S i). 
John Dieiby ; ambassador of James 1 
at Madrid, who later threw in his lot 
with Charles 1 and died in exile. 

BRISTOL, Znd EARL OF (1612-77). 
George Dii^hv. a royalist general, son 
of the 1st earl. 

Bristol Channel. See Atlas, England. 



BRITANNIA 




A finely modelled Bristol vase 
BRISTOL PORCELAIN. A tine type of 
«:lre ni.Kic- .it P.i isto! from 1770 to 1781. 




BRISTOL POTTERY. The Old glazed 
earthenware ut Bristol, modelled on 
that of Delft, in Holland, and usually 
cream-coloured with blue. Here we see 
J Bristol plate and bowl. 




BRISURE. Any break in the line ol a 
rampart, as, lor instance, the sharp pro. 
jections shown in this diagram of a fort. 
Brisure (heraldryi. Same as Cadence 
(which see) 



^,/^ f (5tr3gclhl^« 



(Inchluth..., 




/MS^ 



(«;st«£^V' 



' -^ ^"^ ■Wifiveresk) 




O C £ A N U S 



B R I T A N N 



BRITAIN. The name t)t tiiei-ind and Sc'itUiul belore the i.a'tons cam?- It »n 
for about four centuries, till 407 A.D.. under Roman rule. Our mip shom-s the 
network of roads made by ths Romans, their towns, and the positions ■• ^'''- ■-■- 
and Antonine's walls. Im'ilt to keep out northern barl^arians. 





BRITANNIA <coiBaet ■ 

■;^'.ir.' tirst .ip^cinn^ i ■ 
."■iprer coiiucf 11 the rsicn ■- 1 C 
u>(i>. uhen Frances Stc»'art. ai* 
:\iic1kss •>! Richnvul. was Ih; 



BRITANNIA 

SL'iitini; ln-.i 

and trident. Tins 

Bernard Partridge. 



h'^ure reprc- 

with a shield 

\ drawing by 




BRITANNIA. .\:i old wo J.- ^.::t!,-- 

ship lon-^ used for training naval officers. 



BRITANNIA 



BRITISH INSTITUTION 




BRITANNIA. Kmi; Ueor^e's well-known 
racini; yacht, built lor Kinc Edward 




BRITANNIA BRIDGE. The lamous 
tubular hriJt'L' over the Menai Strait 
built ■■• !-■■■"' !" f ■'■■•r' >.lTh'"-;"'i 



r p P l\ * 



BRITArlNIJ. A W !!;>,■ ^t.ii nn.-r n[ 
50.0(M> tons sunk in the Aegean Sea in 
toi^i ul-il? ^.Tvin'.: as a hospital ship 




BRITANNICUS i41-55). A »on ol 

Claudius whom Nero supplanted and had 
poisoned These coins bear his head. 




BRITISH ACADEMY. A learned 

society^founded in is*;3 for the study ol 
history, philosophy, and philology. We 
Show its medal 




15>--J^ 



Lumberiii; ii orilisn (.^uliimhi.i A view in Kuotenay N.n 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. The screat Canadian province lyinK west ol tl 
covers 556,000 square miles, and has about 525.000 people. Rich in 
limber, it has a fine climate and is noted for fruit-growing and salmon 
28, E 3. 



See Atla,; 




Washington! BRlTHONoili 
Fanningl 

Pitcairnl! 



SOlUUUkND fl ^ 

— TANGANYIKA <-■,-<_ 
.MaunLius ^ ^ 

YASALANO \$- ^ 
■RHODESIA ^^V.c" 
UNION OF C 

Goughl SOUTH AFRICA 

Falkland 1^ 

" , South Georgia 

"Sandwich Group 
South Shetiands,- *SoirtJi Orkneys 



(MJSTHAUA) ^'\V^ 
Macquanel- >?- 



snk 



GRAHAM LAND 



BRITISH EMPIRE. The sreiUest empire in history, covering I3.0t0,000 square 
miles or about a quarter of the world s surface, and having a population of about 
460 milUons. It is a commonwealth of peoples of everv race, colour, and religion. 




BRITISH INDIA, Order of. A militar> 
lumour Oiinl erred oil Indian native officers 
Miu-i' iS.?7 : hi-i IS tlu' star of the order. 
British India Steam Navigation Company. 

A ^t'.'jmsliip hue serving chiefly Indian 
Oll in I'-irtv Weshnw'ts dag and iunnv'l 








BRITISH INDUSTRIES FAIR. An lx 

hibition Dri^.inised bv th^ Govi.'rnmeiit 
to promote Britisli trade. These pictures 
^how the White Citv Fair in 1927 




BRITISH INSTITUTION. A society tor 

promoting the line arts wluch flourished 
1S05-67. In front of its Pall Mall gallsrv 
was this aJto-relievo bv Ranks sliowinc 
Shakespeare between tv. \\-a- 




Knight Grand Cross insignia 




Kni'^ht Commander star and badge • 
BRITISH EMPIRE. Order ol the. An 

order instituted in 1917. 

British Guiana. See Guiana. Britisli 




[nuii Hall Btl;/ Landint; Iol^wooJ mi British flonduras 

BRITISH HONDURAS. A t:n;Mcal British colony in Central America, its chid 
products being logwood, bananas, and sponges. It covers 8600 square mites and 
has about 45.000 people. Its capita! is Belize (13.000). See Atlas 31. B 4 



BRITISH ISLES 



BRNO 




E N e L 1 S H CHANNEL 



The counties of the British Isles 
BRITISH ISLES. An archipelago consistins of two large islands— Great Britain 
and Ireland— and an immense number of smaller ones, estimated at five 
thousand. Ot these the Isle of Wight, Isle of Man. Anglesey, and the Orkney. 
Shetland. Hebridean. and Scilly Islands are the chief. They cover altogether 
121,600 sauare miles and have a population of about 48 millions. The dots 
in the lower map show the positions of the county towns. See also EncUnd. 
Scotland. Ireland, and so on. and Atlas 3 at the end of this book. 



-#^' 



.>#"Uq/> 



'/// 




V 



BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL III 

British Medical Association's weeklv 
v<urnal, luunJcd in 1840 by Sir Charles 
Hnstjtuis. whose portrait it bears. 
British Museum. See page 32 1. 
British North Borneo. See Borneo. 
British Somaliland. S;e SomalilanJ. 




BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA COMPANY. A 

chartered Cnmpanv. louilde.1 in 1 SS9 h'. 
Rhodes, which till 1923 administercil 
Khodesia. On the left its arms are shown 
and on the ri^:hl a medal issued by it 
British West India Regiment. S.-.' v, ■ 




BRITONS, ANCIENT. The inhabitantv 
jl tni^land before the Romans came, 
this picture shows Agricola defeating 
Ihe Britons 01 Mona, now Anglesey. 
Brittany. See Atlas 7 B 2. 




BRIFTLESTAR. A sea creature like Ih. 
starfish with .irnis which easily break oil. 
BRITTON, THOMAS (d. 1714). Known 
,\s the Musical Small-Coal Man ; he 
founded a musical club over his small 
coal shop in Clerkenwell. 




BRITZSCKA. A carnage used lor 
travelling in Europe in the early loth 
century. The passenger could lie in it 
at fuiriength. 
Brivo. See Atlas 7, D 4. 




BKIXOAL GLACIER. V ■ in- 

."-■njir,g from Ih; hunt JoitcJililTrat 
icefield above the Nocd Fiord. Norway. 
Brixen. >- ■ r;r..t<ir,,.n- 



w^ fli^ 



WL 



r^ 



i 



Parliamen: 




BRIXHAM. The quaint tishine port in 
South Devon where William o( Orance 
iundeil in 16^SS. He is said to ha%-e hdd 
his Iirst Parliament in the tarmhoase in 
the top pitTture 




BRIZA. I lu' c 'innio:! qua^; crjs-v, uitn 
stenTS $0 slender thai its oval spifcelets 
are in constant motion. We shorn also 
J spikelct (Ieft> and a single tloȣr. 
Brno Cxecbe-Slovikil). See Bran n. 



BRITISH MUSEUM 



BRITISH MUSEUM 




BROACH 



BROADCAST 




\ -i 




A candle spike 


r^ » 






■.v.lll 


hie teetli 









A speur 
A rod used in Ihatchin: 

All a\K\ 




BROACH HANDLE. Ad ad)ii^t.ill 
handle for lioldini; a broach, a taperin 
too! used by watchmakers and others. 




BROACHING PRESS. Fur shaping hoL 

11 nu-t.ii in- ituMns of broaches. 


'4/ 


A 


I 


\. 




-~- -" ^"^L)^ 


-?*•- 


i:.^:^^;^";^^:^^-?? 3 


1* 




__ 


t- 



BROACH POST. In roofini;. another 
name for king post, a vertical strut (Al 
supportinir the apex of a roof and sup 
ported itself l^y the main cross beam. 



Key broach 




BROACH-TURNER, t )ne who turns a 

broach or roasting' snt. i im- picture !■• 
from an old 1 1. 1 1 1.1 



Watchmaker's broach 
BROACH. A name t;iven to many 
thint;s that are sharp, pointed, or taper- 
ing such as a spire that rises directly 
from the walls of its tower, a mason s 
pointed chisel, a cooper's gouge, rock 
drills of the form shown, and so on. We 
illustrate a great variety of broaches. 
Broach. See Brooch. 



BROAD. A name for a shallow lake 
marshy land, notably in Norfolk. Boats 
called wherries arc the chief cralt of the 
Broads re'^ion. as seen in the top picture- 



F"T 





BROAD. Or broad-piece, an En^'lish 

'■■i^i >-i.ni M[ 111.' Sluar! .iiul ^i.miui.ii 




BROAD ARROW '.i arrow-like mark 

;„;.;i ..: ..:.... Government r^ ■ 

perty such as Host Otiice letter ba 





tf:s 



\ 



BROAD- BILLED ,^^^^^^ ,Vh.t^ 
northern water PirJ Limicoia piatv 
rhvnca. sometimes found t. Enelard 



{ 



V 



BROAD AXE. A jumc lur a iclliii. 
axe and .liso for a battle-axe. botli o- 
which Ww' ^tiow. 
BROAD AXE. In lier.llilry. a cliarce 

resemblimr ;i InitClier's cleaver. 





BROAD BRIM 




BROAD BEAN. A i 

V. hull liu- N.-'.i. Iiere. 

8R0A0BENT, SIR WILLIAM (I.S 
1117). An tnslisli plivsician i\oteJ 
1 antliority on lieart Jiscase. 



BROAD. A latfie tool, such as these, 
for turninj the insides of cylinders 




Br.'.vJca..iliii5 n rrojreo 
BROADCAST- fn »irele,« telcpnoo>. 
ne»% music, and 50 on. sent out irom » 
cenlr.il station and heard by o«nm ■< 

\vir.LsNr.'C:i\f'i.: set^ See a's..- W:r-!e<;s 




BROADBILL Or broadmouth. a br 
liant bird ol India, Borneo, and Jav.i 
We show the yellow headed species 



BKaAUCAil. llie ancient method 
sowmc CTain by scatterine il by hand 



BROADCLOTH 



BROCADE 




BROADCLOTH \ line- quality ol niack 
woulkii cloth, now specially associated 
with the clersv. This is Lord Broufiham 
in a broadcloth coat. 




BROAD GAUGE. A railway track 
broader than the British s.Hi(;e oi 4 feet 
81 inches. Here a third line runs inside 
ciie old broad gauge to narrow it. In 
the picture the last Great Western broad 
gauge train is passing Sonning in 1S92. 




BROAD HORNED. Hui"j hi.' li..riis 
spread wide ap-'^t. .i^ shoun in this 
picture of a Sp.uush ox. 
BROADHURST, HENRY (l$«0-t9in 
English trade union leader and M.P.. a 
member ot Gladstone's third ministry. 
Broail La«>. See Atlas 1. E 3. 





BROADS. A district ol shallow lakes in 
Norinlk and Sullolk lorming a very 
popular holiday ground. Atlas 3. G 4. 




eiKOADSEAL. The ofticial or great seal 
..; .1 .ountr',. Here are the obverse and 
reverse sides ol the scai '^t S'int; l"Iri 



BROADSIDE. The side of a slop above 
the water-line, as seen in this side view 
of the Leviathan. 





BROADSTAIRS. A ] ,r 

resort 111 the Isle ol 1 hanct. k^ 
Dickens often lived 19000). 




H 




) 1 


1 


u 
' 1 



STREAK MOTH. 

: ii ■ : llu- tainily PI 



BROADSIDE. All the i;uiis on one side 
of a warship, or a salvii Imm them Here 
we see H.M.S Mood iirini; a broadside 



BROADMOOR. 

lunatics in Berkshire. 





BROAD PENNANT. The short forked 
pennant flown by a naval commodore. 



BROADSIDE. Or broadsheet, a sheet 
of paper printed on one side, used for 
proclamations, pbems, and political 
arguments. Here is one of 1675. 




BROAD STREAK VENEER MOTH. A 

li'^ht-Coliiured nvith ot the l.imilv 
Cramhui.le ulmse larv.le feed i:i lo.iss 



,-^. 



'^^f^ 



BROADSWORD. A sword with a broad 
hiade and one or both edges sharpened 





BROADTAIL. An Australian parrot Oi 
the genus Pkitycercus which does much 
damage to crops. We show the pale- 
headed (left) and Pennantian species. 
Broad Tool. See Broad. 




8R(/ADWU0U, JOHN llJ^-l.MJ). An 

I'.imlish pioneer in the developinent of 
the pianoforte from the harpsichord. 
BROB. A spike lor wedging one beam 
into another ; two brobs and a diagram 
illustrating their use -ire here given. 



if'ir 




BROBDINGNAGIAN 1 nun aS 

tall as church to^ei , ■,, ,i:J '-, i.nlliver 
in Swift's Gulliver's Travels 





•iROADWAY. A cluiriiii ii;l\ pictureSC|ue 
it Worcestershire, with many 
l.li/.duilKin houses (ISOO). 



BROADWAY. The lamous street run- 
ning through central New York, with 
line shops and places of amusement. 



BROC. An obsolete word lor a large- 
handled vessel for holding fiquids, 
','enerally of metal or earthenware. 
SROCA, PAUL (1824-80). A French 
surgeon famous as an authority on the 
brain and prehistoric skulls. This statue 
m| hmi IS 01 Paris 





^*.v*v*^ 





JROCADt. A run «oxen ..loiiC Jl.lMng 

a raised pattern, otten ol coloured silks 
and sometimes of gold or silver thread. 



BROCADED COAT 



327 




BROCADED COAT. A oat adurilcd 
with a raised pattern, as vvitll brocade 
Such coats were worn notably in tJie 
17th and iSth .enturies 




l^ark t>roc.iJe moll 







Bc-uitiiul brocadL' iimtli 
BROCADE MOTH. A ninth ol the 
Hadena ijenus ut which the dark speci;;s 
appears in End and in May and the 

he:iiititii) hniciule nvth in hi-ie 






.^.y--^ 



'M- 



hr'u':ulc mtith male 




Great brocade m)th. tetnale 
BROCADE MOTH, GREAT. A dark 
moth. Aplecta occulta, seen in July. Its 
cate'ri'l:?'' f?^i1-^ im the primrose. 




BROCADE SHELL. A beautiful shell 

of Iht- cone family, like these. 

Broea's Area. For position see Brain. 



BROCKET 




BROCATEL. A coarse fabric ol silk and 
utinl or cotton, or of wool, liaviu'.^ a 
ti'.;ured or brocaded pattern, as on this 
■t;ili;in chair. back of the I7th centi;-- 




BROCCOLI. A vMiuer table wvetable 

III Ihc cabbage laniily closely rcsemblini^ 
tlie caulillower but with a taller stem. 
Broch. Sameas Broui;h(round tower)q.v. 
BROCHANT. Or bronchant, a heraldic 
term meanint; overlyim*. as tlie lion litre 
represented ovcrlvini; a ford of water. 




Skull of beaver Skull m hart- 




Loni; tooth "' j i i n. i 

BROCHATE. A term used ot an animal 
haviui; projecting; or persistently .crow- 
ing teeth, like elephants and rodents, 
llt^re we liive some notable examples 
Broche. See Brocade 



BROCHET. A lifehU -coloured Cichlid 
hsli Crenicichla sa.xatilis. found in the 
iresh waters ol Trinidad and several parts 
of tropical South America 



-o 



BROCH ETTE. A French word meaning; 
a skewL'r or a small spit. 




BROCHURE. A >iu iM r ..... (-.niipiih.-T. 
or mo!iiv.^raph dealint; with some cur- 
rent t.'pic. We show the cover of n 
political brochure of iS20. 



n 




BROCK. \ 1 I h . M 

lor a carlh'>;sc ; the u >rd may al.s 

mean a badcer or a cabbatje 




A nuHiicnt ui p,r .. 
BROCK. SIR THOMAS iis;: \Q22i A 
noted Hni^livli sculptor, designer ot the 
\'ict>>ria ,\\emorial ni front ot Buckini;- 
ham Palace. His portrait is here given 
with two of his characteristic works 






dROCKAGE 

:ic \*ltti Jli iriipcflcCl 
BROCKAQE. Faulty 



dama 



Hut 
fed or 



■<wptk 




BROCKEN. I he chi;j 




BROCKEN. SPECTRE OF THE. v 

;n.irk.ible natural rh:r;.>n^rnon occ^r- 
nnc on the summit of the Brocken. The 
spectator sees a cieantic sbadov d 
innisclf thrown on the mist by the Sor 
A hen it is to»- on the horitcn. 




BROCKENHURST. A pleasant htlK- 

\c\^ [.'rest t.>un where pon\ sales arc 
hL-id m August .>iXK». 




BROCKET. \ 

when its first horns appej.i ii ;;:;rle 
spikes. A voung red deei is se«n here. 



BROCKET 



•A'2H 



BROMLEY 




BROCKET. A sninlt Je;;r of Central 
and South America of the ffenus Maza- 
ma. The female of the Venezuelan 
species is shnu-n her;-. 




BROCKWELL PARK 

•^rnniut III > -ulli- U.is' 

many splciuliJ tiec*. ;ls.-.^cii ui this \i 

Brodekin. Same a-^ Buskin (q.v.). 




BRODERERS COMPANY. A City nt 
London cunipanv o! whJcii wc show the 
;irm^. It was incorporated in lS6l. 
BRODERIE. Patterns of tine pottery 
i.'mhroiJery, m shown. 




BRODIE, SIR BENJAMIN C. (irs^- 

lS62). A noted Ln^lish suri;eon, ser- 
geant-suriieon to William IV and an 
authority (ni diseases of the joints. 
BRODIE, WILLIAM (d. 17SS). A 
deacon councillor ot Edinburgh who 
carried out in'any burglaries, but was 
linally betrayed and han,t;ed. Stevenson 
and Henley wrote a play about him. 




BRODlLS ,■, hosecluL-ts. 

th.: ,... ■ ,;,. t.astle, near 

Forres, were important at the time ot 
the Covenant. This is their plaid. 




BROG. In Scotland and northern 
England, a pointed steel tool lor piercin'.' 
iioles. especially an awl or bradawl. 
BROG. A North Country name for a 
swampy, marshy place among bushes. 






:V^1^ 



^¥it. 




BROGAR CIRCLE. A prclnst.jrio stoiio 
circle near Strumncss. Orkney. 




BROGLIE, DUG OE !17S5 1S70). French 

statesman, a member of Napoleon's 
council of state and a minister of Louis 
Philippe. His son (1821-1901). seen on 
tlic ri'^lit. was premier in 187^ and 1877. 




BROGLIE DUCHESSE DE (17'<7 IS3N). 
.WiJ.inR- Je Stael's daut,'llter, win") 
married tlie Due de Br.>i;lie 11785-1870). 
BROGLIE, VICTOR MAURICE OE 

(1639-1727). A noted marshal of Trance, 
whose son, Fran(;ois Marie (1671-1715), 
and grandson, Victor Francois (17I8- 
1804), were also marshals. 



^ 


^^ 



Modern brogue shoes 




His 


n 


1!.; 


hrni'Ui.- 


UM st 


vie 




BROC 


su 


E. 


A strons 


leather 


walkii 


■^ 


shoe 




in 


.;inally a roucli. raw-h 


ide sh( 


e 


worn 


in 


1 


reland and S 


"tland. 








BROGUE. A raw-hide hoot used as a 

lieraldic charge. 

BROGUE. A piece ol wood formerly 

worn on the foot in the wav shown in 




BROIDERESS. An old-fashioned 
lor an -nibroideress. as seen here 



J'MMlk ta ■ H La 
BROIGNE. I;;irlv medieval armoiit 
loriiK'd by sewiin; mtrtal rint^s or plates 
on leather or woven Tuaterial. It was 
made at home by peasant warriors. 
BROIL. To cook on a gridiron over a 
rlcar npjn hr.:, 




BROIL. A nui.,v quarrel, m 
brawl, as here. 




BROKEN HILL. \ \w llln^1 mipoi'tant 
'\ustralian mniini; ct^ntrj. its rise beinv 
due to the richness in lead, zinc, and 
silver of the Barrier Ranpe of New 
South Wales. Its mineral output is 
exported through Port Pirie, which see 
(K>.noo). See also Atlas 36, G 5. 
Broken Hill Rhodesia). See Atlas 2^1, 




BROMA. A preparation of cocoa be 



used in preparing a beverage. 
shown greatly magnified. 
Bromberg. See Atlas 15, E 2. 
BROME, RICHARD (d. l6<;2). 
[Invjish dramatist, the servant 
Irierid (it IjCU jonson 



har 



All 
and 




BROME, FALSE. A perennial crass. 

rather slender and having S(jft, hairy 
spikelets. These are European kinds. 







I airy wood 





Taper 





Upright Smuotli rye 

BROME GRASS. A coarse, heavy, 
perennial grass, strongly resembling oats. 

Here we show eight varieties. 




BROMELIA. A ;.'cnu^ -i Impiv.il .iiul 
sub-tropical plants with short stems 
and densely packed, rigid leaves, as 
shown in the e.\ample here given. 
'ccies supply valuabK- tihrc. 




BROMHAM. ' I village 

\\\\c\c "iuni ,Mu..i. ..; .;U iir.i..l ul his 

Last 35 years. He lived at Sloperton 
Cotta,ge, seen here. 




BROMLEY. A kL-ntisii town on the 
fringe of London; its High Street is 
shown in our picture (35.000). 



BROMPTON ORATORY 




BROMPTON ORATORY. A (am ii^ 
Roman Catholic churcii in tiie Renais- 
sance style in Brompton Road, London. 



Trachea 




BRONCHIAL TUBES. The two an 

passages with their subdivisions intn 
which the windpipe (trachea) divides. 
Bronchus is one of the main bronchial 
tubes and bronchiole one ol the smallest 




BRONCHITIS KETTLE. One with a 
Ion? spout used in the room of a bron- 
chitis patient to supply water vapour. 




BRONCHOSCOPE. An instrument lor 
examining; the inside of the trachea 
and bronchi, it consists of a tube, the 
inner surface of which is highly polished 
to serve as a reflector, with an electric 
lamp at the end. 
Bronchus. See Bronchial tubes 




BRONCO. A liail-wild u.Uiw liui.sc ni 
WLStern U.S.A. Breaking one is a hard 
ta'ik, as seen here. 





\.^. 




AiiiK- t-: 

(1X211-4") (ISi;-4S> 

BRONTE FAMILY. TIk f;linilv ol 
Patrick Bronte, aclersymanof Hawiirth. 
Yorkshire. wlioso tliree Jaus;liters. 
Charlotte, Emily, and Anne, were all 
novelists and poets. Emily and 
Charlotte wrote some ol the ilnest 
novels of the century. Their brother 
Branwel! was a tailure 



BRONZE 




BRONTOGRAPH. An inslrumcnl Im. 

'■."i.iin" Ml.' duration ot thinul-r i-! i- 
■ Hashes. 




BRONTOLITH. Literally a thunJe; 
\lnii,,, 1 i;,nne for any aerolite. 
Brontomeler. See Brontov'rarh. 




BRONTOPS. A huce extinct rhino- 
ceros-hke nianinial of North America ; 
this is a reconstruction. 




BRONTOSAURUS A !:isantic e.vlnict 
i^'ptilc I'f Ni.rili America, with lorn; 

:i..l. .111,1 l.nl ,in.l s,in.l h..ne.s, which 



^-^ 



BRONTOTHERIUM. A;i cxUuci .\.irt!i 
,\nuTic.in ni.i.tini.il allied to the Bron- 
Inps .i:ul ini.i^in.'J in this picture. 




BRONX, THE. 1 he northerumosi oi 
the livi- l-oro.i^hs ot New York City, 
trontiut; the hron.x River, shown here, 
with botanical .md zoological iiardens. 




'rtijn bra,' If 





».»1J ltah.1'1 .i 




\ Bronze Do> 




i'>t!i-cenlury It.ilian salt-ceJlor 

BRONZE. A i^eneral term lor my 
.utistic work made of bronze. 



BRONZE AGE 



H30 



BROOKESIA 




Jet necklace Ironi Ar'^yllshire 




ScanJinavi;in brouch Persian axeliead 




A Broiiie Age axe-head 

BRONZE AGE. The age in man's 
develop ment between the Stone and 
Iron Av;es. The change beijan with 
the discovery that copper ore could he 
smelted, and mixtures ot copper with 
other metals were invented later. The 
Egyptians ma^' have been the lirsl 
metallurgists : in Europe the Bronze Aije 
is placed between 2000 and 1000 B.C. 




BRONZE BOAR. A form ot ornament 
used by Britons ot the early Iron Ai;e 
and later, probably on their helmets. 
The on;* shown was iound at liounslow. 
Bronzer. See Bmnzinii Machine. 




^k.. 



BRONZE TURKEY. I Iw l.ir:;^;,! i'vccd 
<il domesticated turkeys in America, 
with brilliant bronze pUiniai^e. 




BRONZEWING. A nii^eon Iound m 
Australia and the East Indies, with 
bronze r-*tches on the winijs. 




BRONZING MACHINE. One lor apply- 
Mii; a powder resembhni; bronze, as in 
decorative printini;. This one is by 
Spencer and Cook. Ltd., of Stalvbridv'L-. 




BRONZITE. Lustrous. rr.Mue-Cdln 
-^pjciniens ot the metab enstatite 
diallaye ; enstatite is often cut 
polished for ornaments. 



and 
and 




Koman bruoch found in Britain 
BROOCH. An ornamental fastener lor 
the dress. Historically, it is a develop- 
ment of the primitive skewer and pin. 
precedini; the button, but it has re- 
mained popular through the ages as 
an ornament. The pictures here given 
show the immense variety of styles, 
ncttablv ol ancient times. 




BROOD. Ihi- uiiule lami^y nl a bird 
hatched at one sitting. Here is a White 
Wyandotte hen with her brood. 




BROODER. A cu:cicd pen to protect 
chickens reared without a hen. 




BROODY HEN. A lien showim; a 

Ji It -■ to sit and liatch eegs 




BROOK. . li .1 L.I small stream. 

as seen m tins view from the Derby- 
shire Peak district. 
Brooke, Lord. See Greville, I uike 




BROOKE, HENRY 

and playwriglit who was employed by 
the Irish Roman Catholics to try to 
secure a rel.txation of the oppressive 
laws aijainst them. 

BROOKE, SIR JAMES (IS03-68). An 
adventurous Englishman who reformed 
the administration of Sarawak and was 
in IS41 made rajah by the sultan, a 
title which has remained in his family. 




BROOKE, SIR CHARLES (1829 1917). 
Successor in LSbS to his uncle, Sir 
James Brooke, as Rajah of Sarawak, 
which became a British Protectorate 
during his administration. 

BROOKE. RUPERT (l8»S 1915). An 
English poet of great promise who died 
at Scyros. A portrait memorial to 
him was unveiled in Rugby School 
chapel in 1919. 




BROOKE. STOPFORD A. (is i2-l'>l6). 
A noted and scholarly writer on litera- 
ture and theology. He left the AngU- 
can for the Unitarian ministry. 
BROOKESIA. A genus of chameleons 
represented by this Madagasca species. 



BROOKE SOUNDER 



BROOWWFED 




BROOKLAND. A Kent village whose 
chur. ' 1 dt;t ached w"Oden tower 

of a remarkable shape, .is shown here. 




L^: 

BROOKLANDS. 

racing track near 
A race is here > 



een in progress. 



BROOKLIME. A b!ue-flowered species 
of speedwell found in ditches and some- 
times used in salads. 




BROOKLYN. ' i,,, ,,t N,w Vnrk\ 
most important boroughs; it is the 
part of the city standing on Long 
Island, and is connected wit h Man- 
hattan by the famous Brooklyn Bridge. 
This is the CityHall. Atlas 29, L 5. 



BROOKS. C. W. SHIRLEY (1^10-74). 

An English journalist and novelist, 
editor of Punch, in which he started 
The Essence ot Parliament. 

BROOKS. PHILLIPS (1835-93). A 

nuted American preacher. Bishrip ot 
Massachusetts. 




Wall broom and bed broom 
BROOM. A long-handled sweeping 
brush, su called because it was origin- 
.illy made with broom twigs. It is 
n<jw alsu made of bristles or hair and. 
in America, of Indian broom OJrn. 



The card room at Brooks's 
BROOKS'S. A tanious social cUih in 
St. James's Street, London, founded in 
1764. It was a resort of the Whigs. 





BROOM, ill heraldry, a blossomin.: 
r'l; ot broom used as a charge. 
BROOM. A heathland shrub of thj 
i-'t.an family, often six feet high. It has 
long, still twigs, and yellow llowers. 



Ktfd and purple trvx»m-rjpc 
BROOM-RAPE. A eenus o< leanest 
par.isit-'s irn the roots ol brooo ur 
clover, strndmg up crowded spikes o4 
llowers on lleshy stems, shown separ- 
ately in these riclurirs. 



-^J^f "• 



BROOM BRUSH. >hort-handled 




! 


1 t 


. 




«-^'-u 


'.J'i 




y^ 


"^^^^ ^u 


V 


^ 


W-^ 



BROOME. SIR FREDERICK NAPIER 

1S12-96). A British administrator. Born 
111 Canada, he was Governor ot \Vc>tern 
Austr.ilia. Barbados, and Trinidad. 
Broome. See Attas 56. C 2. 
BROOMHEAD. That part of .1 sw^ep 
ing troom to which the twigs or bristles 
are attached These diagrams iUustrat.- 
wavs ot (.istening them. 



BROOK TROUT. A North European 
brown trout which does not leave 
fresh water. It is brown or olive with 
black and red spots. 




BROOM HOOK. A lorm ot bill liook 
with an added chopping edge : il is 
used for cutting away undcrgruwth. 




BROOM SQUIRE. 




BROOM-TIP MOTH. A $<; •mct£j muth 

ot soiith-cj^tcrii En-jlind. Itscjlfrpitllr 




l\. 



BROOM-VISE. A cLimpnig Jc\icc lor 
;iatlv-;ung and holding br«>om cofu SO 
thai it cjin be sewn into brooms. 
BROOMWEED. A plant of the lime 
tam:l\. comnion in the West Indies, 
where the Negroes use it tor making 
brooms- Here' we show its leaves. 



BROOPASPUTY 



:<:52 



BROW ANTLER 



;si 



e; 



% 




BROOPASPUTY. A Hindu deity somi- 
limes called the lather of the cods, 
having creative power and protectnii; 



mankind :v^ain^t 



wicked. 




BROTOGERYS. The al\-green parakeet 
:.i e.i:>tern Brazil, Peru, and Central 
America. Flocks of these tiny birds 
ravage the rice and maize fields. 
Brotolomia. '^.■c Anile shades moth 




BROSE. A Scottish dish of oatmeal will 
l-.Mline milk, water, or broth added. 



BROTULA. A genus of small lish, 
this, found in the Caribbean .Sea. 
Brou, Church ot. See Bounr 




BROSME. A lish of the 
as Brosmius brosnii 
Brosna, River. See Atlas 6. 




BROUETTE. A 

used in France 



two-wheeled chaise 
the 17th century ; 
called also roulette and vinaigrette. 
BROUGH. A prehistoric round tower 
oi the kind found in Orkney, Shetland, 
and the adjacent mainland. The one 
shown is at Mousa, Shetland. 



Double brougham 
BROUGHAIW. A four-wheeled closed 
carriage named after Lord Brougham. 
We show two types. 

j_„,.,...,-^^,^._. 




BROW. A term for the upper edge --r 

)1 a hill or clift. 

BROW. In entomolo.gy, the part of .la 

insect's head lying between the vert.x 

and the clypeus. It is marked A in tl'.i^ 

v-tur: r.f an jarwi'^'s lu'ad magnified 




lESzc/f. 




,) 



21 feet 



BROUGHAM, LORD (I7i>4 lt>()S). A 
Scottish statesman and lawyer famous 
as the defender of Queen Caroline at 
her trial in 1S20. He w,as Lord Chan- 
cellor in the Whig ministry of 1S30. 
BROUGHTON, RHODA (1S40-1920). 
A British novelist ; she wrote Not 
Wisely but Too Well, Cometh up as a 
Flower. Red as a Ros- is She. 



BROUGH. In the Scottish ice game of 
cuihirj, one of the small inner rings 
f.AnA the mark or tee toward which 

■1 ; stnnjs are slid. 




BROUGH CASTLE. A picturesque 
ruined castle i.f the 12th century near 

Kirkbv SterliL-/. \V^- -.irland. 

iri 




BROTHERHOOD. 

c<>nii;nr.:1\ of int 



X word implying 
tresis and ideas. 



%S:^^i>' 



BROTHERS OF thl i 

adopt.'J i-; 

went throUiili tlic .\e"v;..;r...;..;.i i,, ISi'J 

doing penance for the Black Death. 
This picture is from an old chronicle. 



BROUGH. \ Scottish name for the rine 
.J, l.al,, .iiouiul the Sun, the Mnnn, or 
any luminous body. 




BROUGHAM. The Roman Brcc.ivuin. 
near Penrith, Cumberland. It has this 
ruined Norman castle, and near by is 
Brougham Hall, home of the Pelhams. 



BROUSSA. Ill Briisa. an aivi 
Auau-h.i:i Lit',, once the capital i'\ t:.' 
Turks. Situated in a fertile piain, it 
e.xports wine, fruit, and silk, and ha-s 
1 so mosques, including the Oulou mos.iu- 
shown in our picture. .Atlas 20. .\ i 




BROW. A roadway in a coal mine 
leading to a working-place. 




BROW. In shipbuilding, an old term 
for a plank gangway (A) from the ground 
to the vessel. 




BROW. In sawmills an inclined plane 
,11 railroad for hauling logs to the saw- 
mill. One is^een at A in the foreground 
of this picture of the Taupiri sawmill at 

W.iikatn. Nex Zealand. 



« «H 




BROW. I..- ridge made by the upper 
edge of the eye .socket ; also the fore- 
head, or p.irt of the face above the 
I eyes. On the right is Beethoven's brow. 



BROW ANTLER. The first spike that 
-rows on the head of a deer, as seen m 
the left-hand picture ; also the first 
tine of an antler, overhanging the fore- 
head, as seen on the right. The over- 
hanging tine is sometimes called the 
brow-snag- 



BROWBAND 



:i:i" 



BROWNE 




BROWBAND. A liliet or band worn 
round the torehead, as shown in the 
left-hand pictures : also the headband 
in a bridle passing over the horse's 
forehead and fastened to the cheekstr aps 




Silver Morilinj. tiv Anu... 
BROWN, ARNESBY {b. iSoti). \n 
English painter, notably of pastorj! 
subiects. H 

th; Tatf (.J 



'=4 

« i 

BROWN. GEORGE (I^IS-SO). A 
Canadian statesman who worked with 
Nir Jt»hn Macdonald for federation ; be 
lounded {hti Fnronto Globe. 
BROWN, SIR JOHN (1S16-96). A great 
steelmaker, oriijinator ol rolled stet'l 
artnour-rlatjii? for warships. He opet)ed 
the Atlas Steel Wor^s. Sbettield, in iS^/i. 




BROWN, DR. JOHN 1MU-.52). 
Scottish essayist l:est remembered :i 
thu author ot Kab and Ilis Friends. 
BROWN, JOHN (t735-S.S). A Scolt: 
medical reformer, son of a Berwic-. 
shire labourer. He vitjorously attack- 
hlood-lettini; and so incurred hostititv 
Brown, J. T. See Cricketer-. 







BROWN. JOHN (lsno-59). An AnieM..i:i ... .. 
cause of the slaves inspired the sonji John iiiu 
encourage n slave rising, he ■-' •'■■ ' ■'* 

captured, tried, and hansied. ^ - — - -.- , 

on the ri<,'ht he is seen savini! coodbye to hi-; friend 



-. „ ilod> . iiopni^ X" 

seized the arsenal at Harper's Ferry, but was 

On the left is his portrait, and in the picture 

his wav to exec'-itit: 




BROWN, C. BROCKDEN 

letters. 

BROWN, ELIZABETH (d. lS99). An 
English astronomer famous for her 
work, on siinspots. She travelled 
widely to observe total solar eclip.si?s. 



BROWN, JOHN (IS2(.-S3). Ouecii 
Victoria's Scottish servant, who 
attended her for 34 years. For his 
monument see Osawatomie. 





BROWN, THOMAS M,T^ l^JM \ 

notfd ^c'^tIlsll philosopher, professor »>i 
moral pliilosophy at Edinhurch. 
BROWN. THOMAS EDWARD (1S30 

>:>. A A\an\ y"-:\ u :m wr t: in Manx 
JiaU-.t 

BROWN ARGUS. A butterllv found 
siiiithern l;i:i;l.inJ and Wales, appean 
ui May and Anjust. We show the mal.- 
I left) and female ; the caterpillar feeds 
t:i 'h.' storksbill and the r-ck rose. 





BROWN, FORD MADOX (1S2I-'IJ). An LnijIisU painUi uiiini.lt. !\a:.^j 

the Pre-Raphjelite group. His portrait is here given with two of his charactenstu 

works : hii picture of Christ Washing Peter's Feet was bought for the nation. 



Ked-breUNted snipe 
BROWNBACK. The popular name oi 
ih.se iw.' birds ol the plover laniilv. 




.^ -^t 



'^*^^ 




^^' 



tfROW.1 BEAR. Ih- .^r..::w.. .;_- 
Buropc and A^ia. about louf Ifc wtn: 

.n,: tliir* ■. i-chi^ hi;:h 



dROWNBESS. . - . . ^ - 

I J ilinl-livfc miUKc! oi inc nnini-' \r' i 




aROWNBILL .^s hjiPfTj 

;vn:lt-J tTMg.r. ■.*■•.;•, --•»-?! Enf!!*"^ 

Soldiers and ujiciimri ^:tc >»ncc ir a:eX 
BROWNE. CHARLES FARRAR iS^t- 
'•7). An American tiumorous »T(ter 
well known under the ren-name oi 



i ^. 




i 



-4 



phir aiid one 




Mr. I'lCKUi.^ -■ 1 ^^ ; -. ^ -c 
BROWNE, HABLOT KNIGHT , Sis- 
S2). An English artist, tno»ii »> 
Phit. who illustrated manv of Dickens's 
novels. The picture which we give be- 
side his portrait is his illustration of Divid 
Copperheld and the [riendI^ waitet. 

I C t 



BROWNE 



:!:u 



BRUCK 




BROWNE, SIR THOMAS (I605-S2) 
An English pluiiciaii c^li-brated as the 
author ol Kili^io Medici, one of the 
notable books ot the 17th century. 
Browne, Thomsi A. See BolJrewo ij. 
BROWN GEORGE. A name ior a \Me.v 
l-n.-.Mi ..irllK-n pitcher. 




BROWNIE. In Scottish to'.klore, .1 
iooj-natured sprite believed to haunt 
.'arnihouses and to do much useful 
work duriii'^ the nii^ht. 
BROWNING, OSCAR (1S37-1923). A 
:^:unbrid'.;e sclii^Uir known for his bio- 
traphical and historical works. 



BROWN LINE BRIGHT EYE MOTH. 

A common liritish species, seen in 
July: its caterpillar feeds on grasses. 




BROWN OWL. Ine typical lari;. 
Hurnpe.in '>u t ; it nests in hollow tree^ 






BROWN STUDY. Ijeep. abstracted 
'houi,'ht. when one is oblivious of one's 
^urroundi[n,'s. as in this picture. 




^a^'^^ 



BROWN-TAIL MOTH. 

European moth whose hi 
deepen into a reddish brow 1 



A whit, 
ider part^ 




flu l'.rt>-,v]iini; home in Venice Mrs. Brownintt's tomb in Florence 

BROWNING, ROBERT (iSi2-Sy|. One of the greatest En'^iish I9th.century poets, 
■wlio spent Miiicli of his life in Italy. He married in 1S46 Elizabeth Barrett 
(IS06-61). also a very ijifted poet, and their life together at the Casa Guidi, 
Florence, was romantically happy. After his wife's death Browning lived for a time 
in London, b * ' - .1 to Italv and died in the P.ibz/.o Rezzonico. in Venicj 




BROWN WILLY. Tile lii-hi',! Mi;nmit 
Ml Cornwall, between Bodmin an,i 
L.I ince-.tMn. 13:5 feet hizn Atlas 1. D ^ 



BROWNING SETTLEMENT. A iuulh London institution L.r the int;lk-ctiijl 
betterment of the poor founded by members of Brownini; Hall, shown on the left. 
the Consrecational chapel at which Browning was baptised. The Dale Library 
of Christian Sociology at the Settlement is seen on the right. 




BRUANG. Or sun bear, a small black 
I oar o( Malaysia, north-eastern India, 
Mid Tibet. It feeds i.n VLi;elabl.. uid 
'loney having a vet\ i iv' t,.n ■ ,1 




BRUCE, SIR DAVID lb. t»55). A 
I'.ritish physician and bacteriologist 
:.imous for nis investigations of sleepim; 

ickness and Malta fever. 
BRUCE, JAMES (1730-94). The famous 

Scottish explorer of Abyssinia uid the 
SDurces of the Blue NiK- 
Bruce, Robert. See i t 





BRUCE, ROBERT (lslj-<.2). A Scot- 
iish siildier who was governor to King 
Edward VII in his youth. 

BRUCE, WILLIAM SPEIRS (1367- 

I'l'i). A Scottish geographer and 
Arctic and Antarctic explorer. 



BROW POST. An arehitectur.il term 
lor a cross beam as here marked A. 



BRUCHE. A lulded p't or mue. The 
one shown here is oi I7(h-century 
South German enamelled stoneware, 
showing the twelve apostles. 
BRUCHID. A little beetle whose larvae 
iiifcst the seeds of peas and beans. 
Bruck. See Atlas 1 5. D 5. 



BRUEGHEL 



335 




BRUEGHEL. PIETER (about 15^0-60) 
A famous Flemish painter, notably ot 
rustic life. The picture to the right ol 
his portrait shows a boy robbing; abird's 
nest ; his picture of pla'yins: children seen 
below it is one of his most noted' works. 










W^^7' 




The yuai Vert, Bruges 

BRUGES. A teautiful Belgian citv. 
one of the greatest in Flanders in the 
Middle Ages. Its medieval buildirn's 
include the famous belfry, the cathedral, 
the Gothic hotel de ville, and the lovely 
church of Notre Dame, with a spire 
440 feet hisih. It still has a large 
textile trade (60,000). See Atlas lO, B 3- 



BRUNO 




BRUGES BELFRY. The splendid ISth- 
century tower of the Bruges Market 
Hall. It is 550 feet high and has a 
famous chime of bells. 




BRUHL-S APPARATUS. A specii' 
ipparatus for fractional distillation 

uitli a vulcanite holder for tubes. 

BRUISEWORT. A name given to .i 

pl.mt supposed to heal bruises, as, for 
:'st;nice. tlie soapwnrt, shown here. 



^■^ 





BRUMMELL, GEORGE BRYAN I . . ^ 
isfo). A latnous Englisii dandy .nut 
Mder of fashion known as Beau 
liummeil : he was the most celebrated 
i .-:ui lit his time. 
Brundusium. See Atlas 18, H .<. 
BRUNE, MARSHAL (1 7fji-l.Sl 5). One 
of Napoleon's generals, whose chiel 
exploit was the defeat ol the Duke ol 
York in 1799 at Alkmaar, in Holland. 
Brunehaut. See Brunhild (of Austria). 




BRUNEI. Ill,- i.ipital town of a 
British protected State of the same 
name in Borneo, built on piles in a 
great lagoon (25,000). See Atlas 2), D >. 




BRUNEL, ISAMBARD KINGDOM 

(1S06-59). A famous iiriti->h rail-^ay 
engineer and naval architect. He dc. 
signed the Great Britain, the first 
f.-LOiiar Transatlantic steamship. 

BRUNEL, SIR MARC I8AMBARD 

I I7i)0-ist9). A great Franco- British 
engineer, father of Sir I. K. Brunei. 
He built the Thames Tunnel. 



T*^^ 



t 




BRUNNEN. Ihc .iU.c ^m^tc vn tne 
Lai;e uf Lucerne what in |}IS the 

^v. : '-■■.:■' :Tj\iit!\ wis founJtJ ' x-'rt, 




BRUNcLLE:>CHI, PILii^PO 

Classic -Ix !■: ..I ..' 

Duomo at [-"lorciK 



We sti.,u .-1 !ti: L-n his -rrav:_s; ■- 
^ seen explainin: hi*; ij^as to Cosimo d: 




BRUNETTE. A girl or Uuk..... .. 

A.uk liair and eyes. 
BRUNHILD. (J. 613). A Visi.- t 
queen of Australia whose enemies h.i 
her dra',^t;ed at a wild horse's heels. 




BRUNH 

w arrior 
lei; end. 
Gunther 



LD. The most (anunis of tlu- 
maidens, or \ alkyries, in Norse 
shown here with her husband. 

of Buri;undy. 




BRUNNER, SIR JOHN 

An En^li^h industruli^t 2.;d .:c.::al 
pohtician. lone head ot the crcat 
chemical firm of Brunner, MonJ, and Co. 
BRUNNICH'S GUILLEMOT. Abo 

known as llie Arctu cuillern .t. a birJ 




BRUNO. GI0RD4110 ,1v>-»''>»>. An 
It.tha;-. J ,.., . ....,- Jenouncsd ty the 
Lutherans and burned by the Catholics- 
BRUNO ubout 1050-1101), A Gcrmin 
saint. b«.irn at G^locne, who founded 
the Cuthusian Order and its creal 
monasterv. La Grande Chartreuw. 




BRUNN 



of the Republic. We show its t5lh-ceiuury ciihedral on the left and on the richt 
the line s^juare where stands the irih-centu'ry Oilumn of the Virjin. See Atlas 15, E 4- 



BRUNO THE GREAT 



33G 



BRUSH 




BRUNO THE GREAT lalout n2S K.^). 
An Arch hi shop ni Culoiiru' laniuus for 
liis work lor the Church und his just 
rule. He was the hrothcr of the German 
kjim Henrv the Fowler. 
Brunsbiiltei. See Atlas i^, C 2. 




The New Kathuus. lirini\\\:cL 
BRUNSWICK. An old North German 
cathedral city and a publishing centre 
(iSO.out)). bee Atlas 12, D 2. 




BRUNSWICK. An outdoor eiMt i.r 
vnmcn, lashionable in the iSth ccntury- 
it had a collar and open lapels like a 
■lan's coat. 




William (11S4-1213) 
BRUNSWICK, DUKES OF. The rulers 

'•I the ancient ducliy of Brunswick. 
Here we show three of them belonirint; 
to different periods, includinsj Charles 
William Ferdinand (1735-1806), who 
was mortally wounded while com- 
mandinu at Auerstadt. 



BRUNSWICK RIFLE. The lirst per- 
cussii'!! rille used by our Army. 18 36. 
This fine is in the Tower nf Londoi. 




BRUNTON, SIR T. LAUDER 1 1 S U 

iyi6). A British consultiiij,' physician 
and writer on therapeutics ; he invented 
Brunton's Auriscope, shown on the 
n.;ht. for seeing into the ear. 
Brusa. See Broussa. 
Brush. See Brushwood. 




BRUSH. A fox's bushy tail, especially 
when kept as a hunting trophy. 



^^i^^F^^ 



Hair brush 









Nail brushes 






|;,'nfiTprfji|iivi 




s 


iiip 


^^»^ 




Rust brush 


Crumb brush 








irrm.! .. if* ■ 


'^"-' --**■' wJ 




Gum 


t'.rush 




i(^ 



Double bannister bru^h 




Bristle tube brush 




I'uiiilun^ bi u:-ii 







4*^.J*V» 


f<? 


M-iff-r 







>li.M nrii>h 




lliHl*Jj"» 



I'jint brushes 




Motor wheel spoke brush 



BRUSH. The name of a great variety of instruments for removing dust, painting, 
smoothing the hair, and so on. They are made of many different materials, such 
as the hbres of coconut, cane, lime, and aloe, hog's bristles, the hair of horses, 
unats, hadcers. and camels, whalebone strips, and even steel wire and spun glass. 
!n these pictures we show some familiar kinds in common use. 




BRUSH. In electrical wui k, a metallic or other ton J mini;; component wli 
sweeps a contact and picks up a current. The example here given on the left is 
the brush gear of an electric generator. One of the brush contacts is seen at A- 
On the rieht is a simple form of brush (A) used in wireless. 



BRUSH 



TM 



BRUSSELS TAPESTRY 




BRIjs;'. lit sKiriiiisli cr eiK'nuii- 

ter, aa L>i.lw^;c(i outposts in wartarc. 
Our picture is from An Attack of Cavalry, 
bv WniiverriKUi 




BRUSHING HUOK. A kind of biUIiook 

iis.-il Ii'' t^rusli .iiij briers. 




BRUSHING MACHINE. U:)e lor iayitv^ 

the n.ip "\ lahncs hv brushing. 





/ 






^■^=^ 



BRUSH PLOUGH. A typ^ used lor 
hrcakim: up land in tlie backwoods. 
Brush Rack. S^^e HniKemnid\ rack. 




t "i»---: 



BRUSH TURKEY. \ 

Australia and N.v. 'jV 





BRUSH WASHER. A metal vessel, 
seuer.ally jiipanued. lor cleansin? an 



•irtist's liruslie 



We show t\v ) kiTuls. 





BRUSH WHEEL., A wheel provided 
with bristles lor polishing (left), or one 
that turns another by its roughness, as 
shown iin the ri-^ht. 



BRUSH-JACK. An instrument U" 
dampint; brushwood together whil 
binding it into bundles. Front and sid 
views of the tool are shown. 
BRUSHLET. The scopula or small 
brush n! Still hairs on the legs of drone 
be. ' ' ."leani'V..'. 




BRUSHWOOD. LI 

■'rnwth. or cut bushes 



BRUSH MONKEY. A 5'iutii American 
marmoset of the getius .Vtidas, also 
known as a tamarin. 





BRUSILOFF, ALEXIS (lS6l-192n). 
KussiKi i;eneral who won an important 
victory over the Austrians in 1916 ; 
later he served with the Bolsheviks. 
BRUSK. In heraldry, equivalent to 
tenne, or tawny, meaning orange- 
coloured ; it is Indicated by crossed 
diagonal and horizontal lines. 



m i n i iiiii ii Mm t w f j iw 




i^:t'nts df Jubt.c J !'.■ 





*» 






-V 



fia 



.itiiesirai "1 .ti. 




The Royal Palace 




The Bourse at Brussels 
BRUSSELS. The capital of Belgium, 
on the Senne, a tributary of the Scheldt. 
It is famous for its line buildings, not- 
ably the Hotel de Ville. the splendid 
Palais de Justice, and the beautiful 
13th-century cathedral of St. Gudule. 
and is also an important educational 
centre (701,000). See Atlas to. C 4. 




BRUSSELS CARPET. A m;ictMne mide 

LMr;'jt -Aith r ■■ ■ "( IiM.fs':l %/.fi»-.5 
threads "n j 'i. ... 




BRUSSELS LACE. 

■:.i,i, M-iJ, !..r A.-u'i : • 
iung been famous. Here is an cxaraflc 
of Brussels ippliqu^ lace. 



BRUSSELS LACE MOTH. 

HV 'til u n.ise tjrv J Ie:Js ■■- 




BRUSSELS SPROUTS. 

wi'ie^ cabna-je de^el-'Pinc 




BRUSSELS TAPESTRY. The beautiful 

lapcstrv vk..s.M .it l;lJ^scls in the 15th 
and tilth centuries. This early 10th- 
century example shows the Three Fates. 



BRUTON 



S38 



BUBONIC PLAGUE 




BRUTO.V. 

witll tills ime I'drptinJicuLu vlir^li 




BRYOPSIS. A scaweeJ loiijul in all 
si.i,, with ili.'fp ureeii. leathery Iroiuts. 




BRUIUS. LUCIUS JUNIUS (d. abmil mi; B.i.) 1 lu .tvin Roman pal 
overtlirew tlu: I arquins and founded the Kepnhlic. In his devotion to diil> nc i 
said to have condemned hit own sons to death for conspirin? against the Stale 
he is seen condemnini; Iheiii, in a painlini; by G. LelhiSre. 




BRUTUS, MARCUS JUNIUS I8;'42 B.C.). 
One ol the murderers of Julius Caesar 
and a famous character in Shal^espeare's 
play. He fcilled himself after his defeat 
by Antony and Augustus at Philippi. 
BRUTUS. The name of the custom, 
followed by Napoleon, of wearing the 
hair cut short, when wigs and long 
hair went out of fashion. 
Bruyire. Same as Briar-mot *see 
Briar pipe. 




BRUYCRE, jean OE la I',I5 >>) 
A celebrated fn-iuMi im.r.ilist. 
BRYAN, WILLIAM JENNINGS (ISOn. 
1926) ,\n American politician and ora- 
tor thr.-e times presidential candidate. 




BRYANI. WILLIAM CULLEN I17II 
is:s) A iioU',1 AnuTican poet. 
BRYCE, 1st VISCOUNT ( 1,S i.S 1922). A 
British statesman and historian, am- 
bassador to America 1907-13- He 
wrote "file llolv Roma'> Empire. 




BRYONY. Two unrelateu cliir.bnig 
herbs, white bryony (left) being .allied 
to the cucumber, and black ^bryonv 
(right) to the vani. 




BRYOZOA. A Class of minute marine 
animais living in structures resemblint; 
coral or seaweed, eight types of whicli 
we show here 




■ -/■ ■--»»= -..^jf -11?: 

BRYTHONS. A branch of the Cclt'C race 
said to have brought Iron Age cuUure to 
Britain about ton B c. Our artist has 
imairined a Brvthon villagein tliis picture 




BRVUNI. A >icnus of mos.ses beam 
fruit at the end ot a shoot, as here- 




BUANSU. The n.inu' nl .m Iiuiiai 
wild dog, Cyon primauvus. winch luinh 
in packs but is less active than t!u 
jackal 




BUAT. A Uaclic nanij lur a ck 

i.ul lantern, as ilhistrated heie. 
BUBAL. The ox-like yellowish-brown 
I rt .intfilops of North Africa. 




BUBALIS. A brilliant red sea tii.h 

'il.'M tak(.-n in crab pots. 

Bubalornis. Same as Buflalo weaver 

bird (which see). 




BUBBLE. \ ;:li.inilc- >>{ air inrni-.-d 
A -it.r i-r in a cnli:;sive liquid. The; 
Jia.L^rain i;iven in the lower picture shows 
how the particles puti each other and sl 

h-)ld tocclher ihc ci>verinir. 




6UBBLE, MADAM. A woman n 
[!unvan'5 Pih'rim's Progress who trie'' 
to-ntice Standfast. 




BUBBLE AND SQUEAK. Boiled 

- il I I : ,■ .itul potato Iried toijether. 
BUBBLE BOW. A ^a:,c [n a-ntain 




\ ■ . A., , J 

BUBBLE NEST. A Iloatn^ iie^t ot air 
inibhlcs, made with, a sticky secretion 
l^y the briqhtly coloured paradise fish 
r>t China, shown here 




BUBBLER. A hir.^e f.^h kn.iwn also 
.IS Uk- iniMi;rL\ is llt'sh is t;inujus. 



^^^^^^Bm ^ ^^^H 


■ 


^^^^^^^^^ 'fl^^^^l 


H 




|H 


^^H^L^^^^K^ 


■H 


^■1 


& 



BUBBLES. I'lc title ol this celebrated 
picture bv Sir John Millais. pointed 
lor Pears Soap. 




BUBBLE SHELL. The shell of the 
'.;enus Bulla. We show BuHa puntulata 
in the left-hand picture and B. solida 

"11 the riu'bt. 




BUBONIC PLAGUE. An itiiLCliuus 

.iiid deadly disease which once ravaged 
f:urope but is now practically confined 
to the E.ast. Here we show its bacilli in 
the spleen juice. They are the tiny, rod- 
shaped marks beside the dark patches 



BUBUI 



RUCK 







I. . Ihe silk-c 
pitandria. The 

ic. Jr:" covered 



otton tree, the 
seeds, shown here 
with silkv down. 




BUCCINATOR MUSCLE. The flat 

nuisiie I A) lornnni; the wall ol the 
cl;,ek and used in chewine and blowing. 
BUCCiNIO. Or buccinum. a gastropod 
the group which includes the whelks. 
'uit kinds of which .we shitw 




BUCARAMANGA. A Colombian t.u 
noted as a coflee market. We show 
-tr» • in it o'l.iyyi). See Atlas 32. D - 




SUCCULA. The tieshy tissue below 

- le chin forniinti a double chin. 
BUCENTAUR. A mvthical monster, 
l.'picted as half man and half bull, 
invented to account for the name ol 
\he State baree of Venice. 



BUCHANAN, GEORGE <l3'>"-->'> A 
S.-ofii<h hist.jrian and reformer, tutor 
to Quean .^^ary and James VI ; he held 
that kiniTship was by the people's will. 
BUCHANAN, JAMES (1791-1S6S1 
A::iTi^an I'r'.Mjent 1H:6-f)0. 






-^ 



BUCHU. A 

A the ru: lamili. »fi ' 
are used in mediane 

■ 'itrht a <:-^r'c I = Jr y ' 



mil 



■^jfe^ 





BUCENTAUR. The btjte t;ar^e ' 
\ enice, from which the Do?e use>. 
innually to wed the sea by ci.aine .; 
i:io into the Adriatic. 



>ranish 





BUCHANAN, ROBERT WILLIAMS 

lS4i-i9'jl). A Scottish poet, novelist 
.i:id dramatist who had a Ion? quarrel 
Aith Kovsctti and Swinburne. 
BUCHANAN CLAN. A ?reat Highland 

1-1 ■ t V ; irt I" IN ^hfiM II h:fre. 





BUCK. 1 : r ; 

seen here;, anlelopcs, chamots, 
rabbits hares, and foals 



BUCH AN6A. A droni!o or kinv; cro* of 
I l"an- It leeds on insects 



BUCEPHALUS. The name ol tlu 
• ivdurite uar-horse of Alexander tlu- 
',reat, here seen on horseback, h 

lied in India and the town Bucephalia 

^a; fnunded near its srave. 
Bucephalus snake). See B.Mmslam. 



BUCCANEERS. A niime applied .tiieli) 
to a confederation of piratical sea rovers 
who preved on Spanish West Indian 
trade, especially in the 17th renturv. 



V 







BUCH AN NESS. The eastern must point ol 
s^.jlMiia. ill Aberdeenshire- Atlas ;. 1 ;. 







•\ 



BUCCHERO. An ancient black Etrus- 
can pottery, polished and enttraved. 
BUCCINA. The C-shaped brass wind 
instrument with a central crosspiece, 
used !or military music in Roman times. 
Buccinator. See Trumpeter swan. 



BUCER, MARTIN (t4911551)- A Ger- 
man i,u.j..isi-iii who tried to reconcile 
th» Protestant sects and helped to revise 
the first Edwardian Prayer Book. 
BUCEROS. The classicil name ol 
several of the birds with ereat horns 
protuber.incos above their beaks. 

2^' — 






Parliament oui.Jin.n, Bucharest 



araVher who nude a study of volcanoes. 
BUCHAN. JOHN (b. .1875)- A well- 
known Scottish novelist: he became 
an M-P- in 1927- 





BUCK. A da-Js .r ^^n '"^ ;;_,•''; 
-p.ciallv in Recencv da>i Here we 

s ■, » Some of thfir lishions 



Bucharest Cathedral 
BUCHAREST. Or Bukare-sl, the capital 
and commercial and railway centre ol 
Rumania, on the Dambovitza tnbutarv 
of the Danube. It has a ""'"f^'V ,^"^ 
a line cathedral (400,000)- Atlas u, D i 




BUCK. In America, i racK * iram: 
made s^i two X-shaped ends lomeJ by 
a bar in which to lay sticks of «»J tor 
sawini; : also the saw used witB it, set 
in an adiusteJ frame. 
BUCK. A cookinc rot of British 
Ouiani made from the local day. 



BUCK AND BALL 



BUCKEYE 



1 




BUCK AND BALL. A cartrukc tor 
sniDi'lli-l'iTi- Mrcamis ciintainini; ;i 
rnund bullet aiut three bvick shot. We 
shi-'W a sectiim tlirouirli one. 
BUCK BASKET. A larje basket lor 
soiled linen : ticre tlie Merry Wives ol 
Windsor are seen hidin? Palstat! in one. 




BUCKBEAN. A pink-and-white llowtr 
ot tlie i;entian tainily. also called marsh 
Ireloi! On th; riilht is its Iruit. 




lUickets ol a drevK' 




Buckt'lv III .1 w:llcr wn.j: 




BUCKBOARO A hv;hl. lour wheeled 
\ chicle with .1 Inna board tor its body, 
iis seen in the picture. Used in America, 
it is also called a buck wagon. 




Pump piston buckets ol a paddle wheel 
BUCKET. One ol the cnmpartments or 
blades on a wheel or other device for 
littinij water mud, or ballast, as seen 
in the pictures here civen The word 
is applied also to the plui; of a pump 
piston, shown in the lower left-hand 
di.i.i;ram. The top picture illustrates 
how the buckets ol a dredger move in a 
continuous chain. 





BUCKET AND CYLINDER. A biia. ^ 

d a cylinder exactly littins; it used to 

lustrate the law ol Archimedes as to 

lisphiceinent 

BUCKET BRACKET. A wall bracket 

in wlmh a bii.-l ■■( m iv l<» hni",' 



bire bucket 
BUCKET. A 

water. Two 

lamiliar modern kinds. 



|-or sillied dressInl;^ Wooden bucket Galvanised iron 

cylindrical vessel, with an arched handle, lor holding or drawing 
finely decorated ancient examples are shown here with some 




BUCKET COIMVEYER. Ai lulks 

chain ol buckets which load themselvc 
with material as they pass a certain 
rot and move it as required. Here is a 

raser and Chalmers machine installed 

1 a power-hnuse. 




BUCKET DREDGER. A vessel carry- 
iiiK machinery tor dredjin? the bed ot a 
harbour or other waterway bv means 
ol an endless chain ol buckets 









^^ 


t 




\^ 


# 


'^ 




%^f>y^ 








<^. 


/" 








\.-^ 











Side view ol bucket and chain clevainr 




BUCKET ELEVATOR. \ ipi ir ""• 
cnnsistmi; ot an endless tii.iiii ul buckets 
which carry nriterial upward, the empty 
buckets returning inverted. This one 
was built bv Mechans of Glastrow, 




BUCKET ENGINE. A michine lor pro- 
diiciiin rotary motion from a How of 
water into an endless chain ol buckets. 
BUCKET LIFT. The liltini; piston ol a 
pump, as seen in this diairram represent- 
I ■/ a section through one. 
Bucket Light. fSee Ni'-hi li.'m 




BUCKET PUMP. A ban J pump, 
inminted in a bucket t<"i work a hose for 
spraviir^ a destructive lUiid on insect 
pests in an orchard or '..'arden. 
BUCKET ROD. The shaft (A) workine 
the bucket ol i pump. 




BUCKET VALVE. The valve I A) in the 
pi, tun ot ,1 pump bv means ot which 
water is admitted on the down stroke 
,iiul retained on the up stroke. 
BUCKET WHEEL. A wheel equipped 
with a succession ol buckets lor raisini; 
water, either by an endless chain as 
lu-re illustrated, or bv a direct ;ilt. 




BUCKEYE. The peacock butterlly ot 
the United States, known to science as 
iiiionia coenia. The caterpillar (right) 
.ds on the plantain and gerardia. 




BUCKEYE. A smill, llal-holtomed, 
decked schooner used in oyster-fishin'; 
in Chesapeake Bay United States 



CACTUS-STRIKING MEMBERS OF A REMARKABLE PLANT FAMILY 




1 Kathbunia alomosensis (Mexican cina). 2 Pediocactui sinipsonii. j Ecliiiiocereus cnselmaniii. 4 Hatiura cyliiiJrlca. 5 Hslixcercus speciosus (the sun 
cereus). 6 Cereus alacriportanus (torch cactus), 7 Neomammillaria hemisphaerica. S Rhipsalis pachyptera. 9 Pereskia eranJifolia. lO Opuntia 
bergeriana. 11 Selenicereus grandiflorus (queen of the night). 12 Nopalia dejecta. 13 Opuntia lindheinieri. 14 Hylocereus stenopterus ((orest cactus), 
i; Echinocereus (endleri. 16 Opuntia macrorhiza (bulbous opuntia). 17 Echinopsis niultiple.t i.S .Walacocarpus raammulosus. to Perestia perestii 

20 Opuntia rhodantha. See pase 379 



CASKETS AND BOXES— GEMS FROM THE ART OF FIVE HUNDRED YEARS 






I fe>i-: j.!:.T:Siv5H:i3^SES^ 



■ii-'^lTil-Ti'tti 




i ...i-, A. v.i»ket of Sevres porcelain with silver-gilt mounts. 2 Gold snuff-box with enamel portrait oi N^iiniU'jii- i Italian cjsKet wnn parqiK-try coverim; 
(15th century), 4 French box of the early ISth century, decorated in lacquer and gold. 5 Ancient Egyptian casket of brown ebony inlaid with stained ivory 
and blue porcelain. 5 Spanish casket in silver liliKree with enamel panels (17th century). 7 Boulle casket of tortoiseshell with gilt metal mounts (Louis XVj. 
8 German casket in silver filigree (17th century). 9 Gold and enamel snuff-box with portrait of Marie Antoinette. to Limoges casket in gilt metal and enamel 
(I6th century). 11 French snuff-box in gold and enamel (I8th century). 12 Casket with porcelain panel on lid bearing the initials, in forget-me-nots and roses. 
of a French princess. 13 English patch-box of about 1800. 14 French patch-box (18th century). 15 French casket in tortoiseshell ornamented with gold 
hiigree and enamel (17th century). 16 French casket with covering of silk velvet, gilt mounts, and a puzzle lock (16th century). 17 The Dyneley casket in 
_ alahaiter and silver^ilt, 1610. 18 French casket in steel with gilt mounts (iSth century). See pages 290 aad 458 



BUCKEYE 



nn 



BUCKLE 




Small Inickeye 




Red [nickevt 





^ 


^ 


^H 


is^ 


. - -■-- 




^^^ 


BUCKIE. 

R nilTsliML- 


A Scott 

fUOOO). 


ish 

See 


lishinc 

Atlas ^ 


port in 
F 3. 




















// 


^'SUkt 




_„., , 


/ 



_^f'. 111111111 j^wt 

[flHi I'J'- ^31101111 

-It , 

Buckingham House in 1750 




BUCKING IROM. Ot . .„ , 

the hamnuT uM:ii by trmicfk Iv iftt**. w(- 
or buck ViT-j,z blocks ol ofe. 

BUCKING 8T00L. A vvri 

.. tiich viiled linen is vtlpcJ 




BUCKHOUND. A li .uij lik^ a ^ 
Stagbound once used fur ^ucL-huntiny. 



BUCKINGHAM LACE. The pillow I. lee 
which is .111 old industry ol ISuckinsham. 



The white drawing room 
BUCKINGHAM PALACE. The London 
r.sul -nee ol tlie Km-. It W.1S built (or 
the Duke of Buckingham in 1703 and 
acquired by Gcome HI in 1761. 
101; the front facini; the M.1II wa? r 
built ir.ini devi-,'ns by Sir Aston Webb, 
Buckinghamshire. See Atlas 4, G 5. 



lyt'ci ol buckles used today 
BUCKLE. A metal clasp or fastener, 
esreciallv (or belts and shoes. The left- 
hand illustration in the seconJ row 
shows a Boy Scout's buckle. 

I D I 



BUCKLE 



BUD 




BUCKLE. M. . ,1. ,ilr ., .. ^....i^. i^;i. 
scntini; a L'ucKlc. as shown here. 
BUCKLE, SEORGE EARLE (b 1854) 
An Encl-.sh journalist and man ol 
letters, editor of The Times lS84-iqi2 




BUCKLE, HENRY THOMAS is.l 21 

An EnKlish scholar anJ historian famous 
as the author ot a History of Civilisa- 
tion, on the hrst volume of which he 
spent six years. He could speak six 
laniruaces and read in nineteen. 
BUCKLED. Bent out ol shape by con- 
verginc pressure. The term is used of 
girders, rails, and so on, and we jive as 
an ixjmple a buckled birvcle wheel. 





Bucklers from India 




Medieval English licht buck'ers 




^ .,., 1 hanies 

BUCKLER. In armour, a small round 
shield for parrying blows. It was made 
usually of metal or of wood or wicker 
covered with metal or leather. The 
centre picture here shows the grip and 
mode of rarr\in^ li'..iit hiu'kL-rs, 




BUCKLER. A cover litteJ to tlu 
hawse-holes at the bows of a ship 
through which mooring cables pass. 
BUCKLER. The protective head-Shiel^; 
ol primitive crustaceans ; It is marked 
A in mis representation ot the fossil ot 
Cheriuru? pkiirexanthemus 




BUCKLER. The bony protective helii 
A) on ihe head of a cat-fish. 




BUCKLER FERN. A name given t.' 
:erns belonging to the genus Aspidium 
because ol the shape of the sori or 
clusters of spore-cases. We show two 
fronds ol ferns of the genus. 
BUCKLER FISH. A fossil fish known 
is Cephalaspis. It is found in the Old 
Red Sandstone. 



■ «'■>• a ■ ■ « I 




BUCKRAM. A coarse, glue-si?ed fabti. 
ii'.el 111 hiNikl Hiding and lailoring. 
Buck Saw. Same as Bow saw (which see) 
BUCK'S HORN PLANTAIN. A plan 
tain so called because ol the shape of its 
leaves, shown here with the flower-heads. 





SUCK SHOT. Large shot used m shoot- 
ing large game, especially deer ; it is 
here shown in a cartridge. 
BUCKSKIN. Soft, yellow-grey leather 
made from sheepskin and also a woollen 
cloth resembling it and used for breeches 
1- here shown. 




BUCORAX 

ground hiiiiil^ill 111 Alrtc. 

not flying walks and runs quite 

and is' very fearless. 




BUCRANIUM. Ill Kunlaii arcliileclure, 
a sculptured figure with representations 
of the skull of an ox. 




BUCK MOTH. A ciear-winged Amen 
can mrifh. Hemilenca mala, whose cater 
piUar (right) feeds on oak and willow. 
Suck Pot. Same as tiurk (which seei 



BUCKWHEAT. A plant 01 the dock 
i.iiiiily with fruit like small beech-nuts, 
made into cakes in America. Here 
common buckwheat '.left) ir.d climbine 
I'uckwheat are shown. 



BUD. In architecture, an ornanienlal 
boss or button set at regular intervals 
in the moulding ol a capital, window, 
door and so on as here illustrated 



BXnJAPEST 



BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE 




Church of 
St. Stephen 

3UDAPEST. Cap tai and railway cen- 
tre nf Huniiary. on either bank of the 
nanube. One of the finest cities ol 
Europe, it is the depdt for the immense 
Hungarian agricultural trade: it has 
engineering works and a university. 
Several fine bridges ioin its two division.; 
o( Buda and Pest(SSO,boo). Atlas 1 5, F 5. 



BUDDHA The title ol the a:re;ii 
Indian teacher Gautama, horn about 
560 B.C., who was moved by the sorrows 
liie world and souijlit to overconu- 
them by a new reliijious philosoplu 
by wh'Ch men mi-^ht be freed from tlieii 
passions. He is represented as a seati 
ti?ure absorbed in meditation. 



..\ Inijaiiist i-r ,-1 
BUDDHIST. .\ disorle 
the BudJha. whose relitjion is professed 
by a hundred million souls in the East 
Motablv in China. India, and J.iran. 



Caves oi Elcphanta, B 

BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE. ^ ^r.-^' 

\ ;-rctv ol Exst;r:i stv:-,< .A architecture 
■jN^d in the bnildri^ v>t temples and 
shrines for more than t»T> thouMnd 
vear?. In these pictures we show son»e 
'amoiis buildings in India, wliere the 
Buddha's creed first became j force. 



BUDDING 



:u-\ 



BUFFALO 




BUDDING. A intrthod ol plant r<;pr(>- 
diiction in which a bud taken Ironi 
one plant is inserted under the bark ot 
another plant of the same or a closely 
allied species. In the 1ow\.t piciure 
we show the prone. H, rlaic. Ilute. 
and chip rnethnils of biiddni;::. 



BUDDING KNIFE. A knite. usn.illv 
with ;t tone or ivory handle, used by 
(gardeners in tlie operation of buddinij. 
Budd Land. See Atlas 31 12. 




BUDDLE. An inclined troui;h with 
runnini; water in which mineral sands 
are separated by rakin-: or sliakin-j 




BUDDLEIA. A cenus ot nun-everureen 
ihruhs ot which we show B.globosa (left) 
and IS. variabilis (rie:ht). in flower. 




BUDE. A Cornish seaside resort among 
splendid scenery (16OO). Atlas 4, C 6. 




BUDE BURNER. An arraniicniciU ut 
two or more concentric Arcand burners 
which Rives a very powerful lit;ht. 

Budejovice. Si;e Budweis. 

BUDGE, SIR E. A. WALLIS rb. 1^57) 

A notL'd lin^'lish Orientalist, keeper 
of I:-.;yptian and Assyrian antiquities 
in the British Museum. 




BUDGE BARREL. A Small barrel 
with a leather top used for carryinc: 
cartridk'es from the magazine to the 
batteries in sieges in old days. 
BUDGERIGAR. A pretty Australian 
bird known to science as Melopsittacus 
undulatus, and also called a love-bird. 
it is easily tamed and alwavs warhlinf. 




BUDGEROW. A kind u! ban;c iurmerly 
iiuch used by Europeans as a pleasure 
boat on the River Ganges. 







BUDGET. In okK'n times u bai; vt 
sack. This one is from an old print. 
BUDGET BOX. The leather despatch 
box in which the chancellor of the 
exchequer carries the papers on which 
his budi.'et speech is based. 





BUDWEIS. Nuu buJ-juvK^. .1 01 
oi Bohemia, Citcho-Slovakia. This 
the Ringplatz. See Atlas 15, D 4. 




BUD WORM, FALSE. Or cotton boll 
worm, a t( bacco an.i cotton pest . 
shown here with its parent moth and pupa 




BUO WORM, TRUE. A tubaccu po 
the larva ut the moth Chloride- 
virescens. shown above it with the [""ip. 




U 



ii--. 



BUDYTES. The ^eiu-ru 
vellow wat:l;Ml. B i^ivii 

Buenaventura. ^- \ti: 




BUFF. A name tor a hand tool covered 
with some soft material and used for 
polishing. Three types are shown here. 
Buff. See BufT coat. 
Buff. See BufTe. 





BUFFALO. A powerful and tierce ox- 
like animal of Smith Asia and Africa. 
The Indian kind becomes verv docile in 
I domestication. See also B:^'ni 



BUDLEtGH SALTERTON. 

lul liltlc ^ctNid.- pl.u-.- at the 
the Devonshire Utttr. 



8UDMITE. A tiny, boring, juice- 
sucking insect that enters young buds, 
causing them to swell and die. Thj 
currant budmite is shown here. 
BUD MOTH, A dark, ash-grey moth 
with broad yellow bands across the fore 
win^s. The larvae feed on the apple. 




I he Pala.-c ot Justice 



H 



BUDORCAS. 1 Uc cla^M.ai ii.uiu' ul u 
gri'up of anim?'.s including the Asiatic 
takin. whose picture we give here. 




r 



Mi' 111 J«*»'":^>" 



«''^ 



-**> 



riu- pre:>idcntiul palace New custuin liuusc, buenos Aires 

BUENOS AIRES. The capital and chief port of Argentina, on tlie La Plata. 
Founded in 1 576 bv Pedro de .Mendo^a, its growth has been enormously rapid since 
1S6O, and it is nowthe largest city south of the Equator. It has many fine buildings. 
Its population is approaching three millions. See Atlas 32, G 10. 



BUFFALO 



'Mr) 



BUFFE 




Lafayecte Square, Buftalo 
BUFFALO. A great American com 
mercia! city at Lake Erie's east end 
(525.000). See Atlas 29, H 4. 
Buffalo Berry. Same as Beef suet fr;-e 
(which see). 




BUFFALO BILL (i^(5 1 >I7) An 

American scout whose real name was 
William Frederick Cody. After many 
adventures with Indians and wild 
animals, he founded his famous Wild 
We-^t Show, and toured Europe. 
Buffalo Bird. Same as Beefeater (q.v.). 




BUFFALO CARPET BEETLE. A 

species of Anthrenus destructive to 
carpets and woollens, and here seen 
with its larva 'left) and pupa (centre) 



^^?7JSWw!>*r-- ' 





BUFFALO FISH. One of the sucker 
tiimily Catostomidae, so named becausi- 
111 its" humped bulTalo-iike back. 




^^-^^^^ /. 



BUFFALO GNAT. A dreaded calth- 
pest, Simulium meridlonale, of the 
United States. The pupa is slinwn 
ittached to a leaf helnw the Iarv;i. 




BUFFALO GRASS. A name lur two >•< 
three varieties o( j^rass which llourisi: 
un the dry steppes of Nurth Americ.i 
These are the male and female plant 
nl one kind. Biichhte dactvlnides 




BUFFALO JACK. Ihe popular nam. 
tor the variety of horse-mackerel foun>! 
in Bermuda waters and known to 
,irnce as Caranx piscetus. 




BUFFALO TREE-HOPPER. A little 

'^r.iss i;recn insect, Ccresa bubatus. 
which wounds the limbs of youn;j fruit 
trees. Groups of cgt,'s and their position 
on the inside of the bark are shown 
in the centre, and on the right is a 
branch daniaired bv the insect. 




BUFFALO WEAVER BIRD. lli. r.d 

billed black weaver-bird of South Africa. 
Textor ni^er, which pecks insects oil 







BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER. A 

.oiiinl'in Afii^ncjn iirj, I'^jrrJ <fn tiXzT 
nanks and the seashore. It his tisite^ 
Enfland on rare occasion*. 




BUFF CAPS. An cdlDic lun^us. pint .n. 
tan in colour, found early in * 
ijrowine amonf trrass. 




BUFF COAT A mihlarv C'H u< full 
father once worn as a substitute lor 
.irniour. Both the examr'ej shown 

HtTtf nsej in fh - ( ,-. .T U' ir 



BUFF-BACKED EGREI. .\ Uiiiili i: 
lUToii si-eii "11 111-.' I'.i'iks ol llu' Nil;' 




BUFFALO COD. The blue or cuUu.^ 
cod <f Ani:rrii-a. Ophiodon elongatus. 




iUi-'F '^ocHi^ FOrtL V lirse. nand. 
•'"M-ht trom 



BUFFALO NATIONAL PARK. 

Caii.ul.i wluT,- <)•■■-.■ tlKiii Snii 



be'ii.le* other wild anini.ils. roam at large. 




1 he bune lowerea 
BUFFE. A name lor the hinceJ r"' 
.■1 ,1 lielmet which could be lowered tc 
show the face or raised to protect it. 



BUFFEL-HEADED DUCK 



BUFF TIF 




BUFFEL-HEADED DUCK. I he Ameri- 
can representative oi the goUlen-eyc 
duck (/ Europe and Asia, characterised 
by the white patch on its head. 




Spriny centre buller 
BUFFER. In railway engineerin;;, a 
device lor sustaining or absorbing any 
shock nt collision. Springs are often 
used and also Iivdraulic buffers, as seen 
in the top picture. A butifer beam, 
carryinij the huflers of a truck, is marked 
A in the luiJdle picture 




BUFFER BLOCK. A system ot sohd 
inte'-inckiiiir butTers. as shown at A. 



,0 




BUFFER SPRING. A very powerhil 
spiral sprint: used especially in the 
buffers of locomotives. Here the cover- 
ing has been cut away to show it. 



Kl 


iva° 

RUSSIA, 
o Samarkand 

. "Merv.'--.'' './/-" 


■\ Tibet 


!Z 


r-'' Kabul, ,,^Peshawar .' 




'AFGHANISTAN; 


olahore', , 


3. 


P ,/V' 1 N 


D 1 A 

"Delhi 




Miles -^ 'iOO 


1/00 



BUFFER STATE. A term applied to 
■t minor neutral State lying between 
the territories of two greater States- 
■\ notable examrle is Alfhanistan. lyini; 

hctwt-en RiKM.l n-il Iii.li.i. 




French isth-century bufiet 




Enfflish I9lh-century bullet 




Railway station bullet 
BUFFET. A sideboard, often of eiabn- 
rate design, on which to place china, 
■^lass, and so on ; also a counter at 
which refreshments are ';i:'r\ \i 




BUFFET STOOL. A pl.ini. h\cJ se.U t-' 

custom ;r-^ at a hincheun counter. 

BUFFING LATHE. A lathe fitted witl. 
:i bul^-wheel for polishing various 
irtides. Th'S picture shows knife 
liandles beine: polished. 




BUFFING MACHINE. A power driven 
nijcliine litted with a number of buff- 
wheels of varyini; tineness. 




BUFF JERKIN. A short, sleeveless 
coat, made originally of bufT-ieather ; 
it is the white part in these pictures. 




BUFF-LACED. A term u^..l ui J 
scribing the markings on feathers < 
ImwIs. as shnwn here in Wyandottes. 



-JSlSv'v^p 



BUFF MOTH, Reddish. A nuctu. 

niuth which flies in June in the wat.T 
meadows of the South of En?:l.ind. 




BUFF MOTH, Small Dotted. A nuctuia 

moth seen in June and July in places 
in woods where flourishes the turfy hair- 
I'rass in which the rs'.i vcllow citerpillar 

! i-Jv \Vf s.hi.wth ' !n i! ■• !-i'i .1".' ' -mjl? 



.^^ 




BUFFON, COMTE DE (1707-SS!. A 
i.imous French philosopher, naturalist. 
.ind writer mm iiatnral history. 




BUFFONIA. A senus of herbs o! tht 
pink family, jrowin' in dry, rocky 
regions of South niirupe and West Asia. 
On the right is a single flower. 



-^tesi- 






^«;-f»c?^: 



BUFFON'S SKUA. A type ut skua 
named aftt-r P.nlTnn the naturalist. 




BUFFONT. A pufled-uut covering ol 
gauze or linen tor the bosom, much 
worn by women in the I8tli century. 




Buffoons of ancient Egypt 

BUFFOON. A professional jester, or 
fi>ol. who uMi,in\ w.ars a •jrntesoue cap. 




BUFFS, THE. Tlie lamiliar name o! 
tlii East Kent Regiment. We show a 
iL'eant and private in full dress. 



SUFF STICK. A polishing stick 
...verod with some snit.able material and 
nsed with enierv or other powder. 




BUFF TIP. A moth abundant in many 
parts of Britain. It appears in June, and 
its larvae feed on the upper branches of 
the elm. lime, and other trees. 



BUFF TIP 



347 



BUGLE LILV 




ut 

BUFF TIP. 

science as 

memher oS 



Lanius bucephalus, 
the shrike family 



It is 




BUFF WARE. A type ol biiff-coloured 
Stoneware made in Staffordshire, and 
usually plain. Here we show a salt 
irlazc 'coflfee-pot and teapot of tlie 
etcliteenth centurv. 




BUFF WARTY GAPS. The Amanita 

phaMoides. a hi?:hly poisonous fun-jUN 
verv coninion in woods. 
BUFF WHEEL. A wheel covered 
wirh sott material set on a machine 
for polishinu metals, ^lass. and so on. 




A;:i.i :--kI Lvj.u .I'im 
SUFO. The Latm name ot the tvpica 
genus Oi the toad family, two intcrestiii:: 
members of which are shown here 




BUFONITE .1 

AVjsozm,. ■ i , • . ■ ■■ : 'iiie 

from a toad, liiey were worn as a charm. 
Bugaboo. Same as Brnjev (which see). 




BUG. A LjcncrHi term lor a oc^lte ; u. 
"ive as illustrations pictures of a plan! 
Hur Meft) and a water bu?. 



^ijiirir-rt'nrr,, 




BUG. A i'julh Russian river, 150 miles 
Ion*!, Oowinij into the Black Sea (See 
Atias 16, E 5). Also a tributary 410 miles 
Ions; of the Polish Vistula. This view 
is of the Polish Bu^. Atlas 1^ H : 





BUGARA. A kind ot surf-lish Hyp 
Nurus caryi, lound off California anJ 
much used as a bait. 




BUGBANE A tall North American 
pi .ml ot the buttercup family. Tlr: 
leaves and (lowers are shown here. 
BUG EVE. A type of boat used on Hi.- 
Atlantic coast of North America, chicll> 
for oyster fishing. 



X' 




BJGGOLOW. A type ol hii!;hstcrncd. 
Liteen ri','iied coasting vessel used bv 
■\ra'^s in East Indiat; waters. 




A plant ot the sa^e lamilv 

th t'tue flowers, abundant in Enelun 

woods. We show leaves and flovers ol 

the creepine Melt) and pv^^'n'dil kinds. 



BUGGY CULTIVATOR. An a^nc uil ir 
machine for breaking up the soil and 
fitted with a driver's seat. 



"^^^^i 



BUGGV PUwU^rt 

111: plovtgnman, wno rides md drives, ujr piciure snnw^ a lour-iurro" 
with a team of six horses at work on a big farm in South Australia. 




plouf b 




3UGHT. 


A 

hu-h 


So. 
eu 


tti^h wiir 
es are mi 


d meanin*; a 
ked 


'^^ y^ 


^ 


*^*- 


^>v /^ ^J 


VX-CN 


C^/N 


"! 'Z y\ 


'< -1 


'^ 


^ *■'. "Z fi 


■\ \ «■ 


>^ 


r y ^ 


v *■ 




*. ^. 'i^ 


". ^ f^. 


K- ■ 


y^- '^ 


• * 


c •• 


j/r «j y^ 


'^. *^. ^ 


'-•V 


^ '^. v^-/^ 


. '^ 


^ /> ^ 


<^N-5* 





BUGI5. A .Malayan people ol the Rasl 
Indian island of Celebes whoso laniiua?; 
i-j widely spoken throughout the archi- 
peIa';ro. ' This passage from the Bible 
in Buci-i characters represents the 
;amnus words of St. John 111. th 



BUGLE. A lr;r.; :ta'S : 

ised in military bands. It i* 
.;ive *he infantrv ca'l". bu* 




American hunting bu?gy 
BUGGY. A type ot li^ht horse-vehici. 



BUGGY-BOAT. A boat so made that 
it ca:i be litt;;d with wheels. 




BUGLE-HORM. A drinkmc vfv^el made 
ot horn ; .i!-i'> 3 brass huntini: horn 




%■' 



SUGLE. A l".v;. ^knJ;T \;las-s t ca.l o: 
v.irlous loriiis u«d .IS a trimiliins (or 
..rnamontiiiR fabrics. A strini! of ttiem 
is seen on the left, and on tfie ri?lit arc 
illustrations of four single bucle beads 
nf shapes freonenllv nsed 



-^ 



Id^ 



BUGLE HORn. In ii<:(.tiur>. a liunt- 
'i>i; ii.Tii os^'j as a charye. 
BUGLE LILY. A lily ol the ceaus 
\V.\tsonia, here shoan in flower. It is a 
native of iho Cape of Gooi More 



BUGLER 



.'{IS 



BULB OF PERCUSSION 




BUGLER. A nii'mber ol a busle b.nnJ. 
!tr one wlin srunut^ fTiler^ bv hii'.rle ^mH 




BUGLEWEEO. A North American herb 
Lycnpus virijinicus of the sa^e kind. 
BUGLOSS. A plant of the borace 
fannly with prickly stem and leaves and 
vMKiH blue! Ilnw.'rs. 

Bugle Rod. Same as Bishop's staff (q.v.). 
Bugong. See P.otoni;. 




I . 1! X!\' Buhl ciirbn.ir.t 




Bulll clock from lUniilbiri PuUice 
BUHL. Or Boulle, a decorative style 
tn furniture introduced by Andre Boulle 
under Louis XIV. 




^^q^mZID 



BUHL-SAW. A kind of Irct-saw uscJ 
i[i ciittiiv^' vorieer.s tor buhl work. 




BUILDER. 1 I'.v nuiii who curries out 
111 brick and stone the architect's pl.1Il^ 
for a buildin,^. 




BUILDER'S CART. A itnnii^ly lun . 

cart witli a projt.'ctiii'^ head and portable 
top-boards used by builders. 




BUILDER'S RUBBISH BASKET. A 

."troiig basket with stout handles used 
bv housebreakers (or movins; rubbish. 
BUILDING. A word used ol a rookerv 



ir cnli.nv 
Butl:1ing. 


of nestinic rooks. 

'e.,' iVr-chiteftiir 




N 


i 1 




* 


^x 








'f"^# 



BUILDING BLOCKS. Uu timber 

baulks on which a ship's keel is laid 
Jurin-^ buildinij, as seen in this picture 
showing the keel ot the great liner 
■\quitania beinir made. 




BUILDING BLOCKS. A child's woodii 
blocks tor makini,' toy buildinc^s like th. 

line set'n nti the left 



BUILDING IRON. A '.oul. used hot lik 

a S(iIdcriiii^-iron, to till ijaps in the wax 
of an electrotype mould. 




BUILDING SLIP. The inclined wav 
which a ship is built. 




BUILTH WELLS. A lounst rrs. ut .nut sp.i 
in Brecknockshire (1750). Atlas 4. D -I. 







BUIST. A lan;e box, chest, -i . 
also a brand on sheep or cattl-' 
Buitenzorg. See Atl,is 2-1. C 7. 
Bukama. See Atlas 26, E 3. 
Bukarest. Sec 1'iueh.irest. 
Bukken Fiord. ■ Atl.is II, C 7. 

Bukov:na. ; 14. C 2. 




BULAU. The long-tailed ^ymnuru. 
rat-shrew found in Tenasserim. Burma 




BULAWAYO. I he c.nnnierci.ii cipit.il 
il Southern Rhodesia, with 8000 white 
inhabitants. 1 his statue of Rhodes 
stands in Main Street. Atlas 26, E 6. 




SeLiiiiii ; injn bulb 

BULB. All -.'A Stem with 

thick, overlapping, scale-like leaves. 




Motor tail-light bulbs 
BULB. In electric li^htin?. the sphere 
of blown glass containing the incandes- 
cent wire filament which produces the 
ilhiniination. It is connected at its 
base with the wires supplying tha 
current. Several kinds are ilhistrate.I. 




BULB OF PERCUSSION. I he charac- 
teristic mark of a worked flint, due to 
the sharp and heavy blow of a hammer 
and particularly visible on simple 
flakes. Such a mark is here shown at A. 



BULB 



340 



BULL 




i 



G.is absorption and exploding bulbs 




Potash bulbs 



Liebig's bulbs 
BULB. A spher'cal vessel made in 
various form--: and usually of blown 
glass. It is used notably in chemical 
experiments and manufacturing pro- 
cesses. Here are eight examples. 
Bulb of Brain. See Brain. 




BULB BOWL. An earthenware bowl in 

winch to plant tlnweriiii; bulbs. 



BULB DIBBER. A pointed too! used in 
gardenin'j for making holes in which to 

plant bulbs. 




BULB MtTE. A v.\A-i kauwa to scieiu-u- 
as Rhizoglyphus echinosus, found \>c- 
(■ween the scales of bulbs. 
BULBOUS AGARIC. The popular name 
of the Amanita mappa. a poisonous 
fungus found under trees. 




BULBOUS BUTTERCUP. A variety of 

buttercup so call*;d from its swollen 

r-int. r,-s:Mnl"'lin:,' a bulb. 




BULB PLANTER. A kind •>! Lulb 
dibber (which see) used by gardeners 
in planting bulbs. 

BULB TEE. An artificial stand or tee 
sometimes used in the game of golf. It 
is pressed into the ground and thu 
golfer places his ball on it for dnving- 





BULBUL. A bird of Africi, tastern 
Europe, and V/estern Asia, famous for 
the beauty of its song and often men- 
tioned by Persian poets. The species 
^shown in this picture is the gold- 
fronted green bulbul. 
Bulbul. Same as Yak (which see). 
8ULBULE. A fleshy leaf-bud growing 
HI tlu- stems of certain plants and from 
which a new plant can develop. An 
example is here marked A on a stem of 
Lilium bulhiferum. 



^■1: 



)*»«| 



-^ 



BULFORD. A village on the Wiltshtr.- 
,\\iin. near Amesbury. It is we!', 
known because of its large military 
camp, one of the most important in the 
Salisburv Plain district 




<^^; 



BULGA. A small leathern bag of Roman 
times, used as a reticule for money or 
for carrying seed in sowing. These 
pictures illustrate how it was carried. 




BULGARIA. A t i 

. - ■■m;i m:i dead tr.L- •- 
ire shown in this picture 
st;r.;e5 of growth. 
Bult^aria. Sf_- Atla; i t C i 



BULKHEAD. ^v/.^k :..c 

hull of a ship to frrf'm vatertictal com* 
rartmentv as hn-c shown at A m i 




BULGARIAN. 

covering 11.1,000 square nnles aiKi navuv^ .1 p'.p;i:^'r.-i <-\ -,.•>■',•">. •* ■ 
as its capital. They are of mixed Slav and Mongolic rice and nearly ill : 
in agriculture. Here is a group nf Bulgarian peasant* in fhafa-t*n<' 



BiriicToHira T5.»Kc?k ii^vweii iiVti-ti, i(i»t« 

ntAKofi KffiTd BtpSsi tx iiir«, ii« 4& fliu xnura 

et;itiix 



BULGARIAN. The language uf the 
Bulgarians, written in Cyrillic char- 
acters resembling those of the Russian 
hmgiiage. It is the nearest approach 
to tlie old ecclesiastical Slavonic, but 
has 2000 Turkish and looo Greek words. 
This is the well-known passage of St. 
John III. \(^. from a Hiilirarian Bible. 




BULGARIAN BACILLUS. A beneficent 

iiiicrobij used in tlie artilici-i! production 
ot buttermilk. 




BULGE. Anything that sn.-ils .uit. like 
this inner tube of a punctured tyre. 
BULGED CASK. A cask which swells 

in the middle more than is usual. 



BULIMUS. A teiUiS 'If land >;.>stro- 
pods: tlU's; sli;lls bolon5 t.i H. ihim- 
lwru<ei-si< lU'il) :n,l B. l.'iu-l-riciK. 




BULK. A uord for 
slull in front of a sliop. 



a tramcworU or 




BULKHEAD DOOR. A hejv« iron dour 
:■! a hiiU:^.-.u). THls one was made by 




BULL. The male of the ox trib- 
noublv of domestic cattle like these. 



BULL 



;i5o 



BULLET 




BULL {sacred.. A bull, chosen <'i' 
account oi certain markings, worshipped 
at Memphis in ancient Epypt as 111? 
emblem of the coiI Osiris, 




BULL. A bull useJ as a change on u 
heraldic shield . lulls also very often 
appear on tnn siEins, as seen in the 
picture on the riijht. 
Bull For constellation sec Taurus. 




BULLACE. A variety vt wild plum mi 
which we shew the flowers and roundeJ 
VL-Uow or hlack truit. 




BULL AND MOUTH. An hinhsh inn 
M.t:ii. a corruption (jI iiouli)i;ne mouth, 
-■fk'br.itine the capture of Boulogne b\ 
Henry VIII W? nive two examples. 




BULLARY. A place wher<; sait is pre 
p,ir_J hv boiling. Here we see the \\re> 
' ■ '! pans being stoked. 




BULL. An oliicial edict issue-l by the I'-. ... ■,..! with th- bulla (which see), 

Ihe pictu'-e u-i the lelt shows the famous inciJent In 1 S20 of the burniii;^ of the 
Pope's bulls :ii Wittenberv; by Luther : on the right a Pope is seen issuing one. 




BULL, GbUKtii; (l(jj) 1:1 1;. An 

English theologian who wrote againsi 
Rome and became Bishop of St. Davids. 
BULL, JOHN (1563-162S). An English 
musician who is believed tn have written 
the earliest air of our National Anthem. 
Buli, John. See John HuM 



BULL-BAITING. 

wnli dng^. :ib(..li 



The ba.ting ot buli^ 
ihed in England in 




BULLA. A LaiKi wura, niea. ung a seal useO espe 

seen in the pictnres on the kft of the seal c:\ Boniface _,. .^.^, 

meins a locket-like ornament (right! worn by Roman children, and is used of the 
ornaments hanging from t!ie Huni;arian crown, shown in the centre picture 



til the papa; seal of lead. 
VIll (1294-1303). It alsi 




BULL CALF. The male ulispring ol the 

■y. i.iniiK here is a Ilighl;uu1 bull call 




■ly^-^^iir^-^. 




h'rench bulldog 
BULLDOG. A p(Averlul and very cour 
ageous dog belonging to the mastili 
group of domesticated dogs. The 
f-'rench bulldog is of a very powerful 
^uild and lights wolves and bears. 
Bulldog ^university., f^e^ Proctor. 




BULLDOG BAT. An American bat. 
.'Iten calk-it th- mas*:l1 hat. which 
catches weM-arnnnirL'd Ihiii!: beetles. 




BULLDOG PIPE, llie name :.:tven to a 
•special brand ol short, stumpv pipe 
for smokers, like this. 




BULLDOG REVOLVER. A revolver ui 

.o'^L- c.ilibre with a short barrel. 
BULLDOZER. Californian name tor a 
iige-calibred revolver with n big bullet 



BULLDOG FORCEPS, rorceps used 
sur':erv to iTrasp an arterv. 




aULLEN, FRANK THOMAS ,1^57- 
I'JlS)- An English writer, well known 
I'-r his tales ot lite at sea. These include 
The Cruise ol the Cachalot, giving his 
experiences as a whaler. 
BULLEN NAIL. A nai! used by uphol- 
sterers. It has a short spike and a 
'■ounded head, often lacquered, 




3ULLER, SIR REDVEAS HENRY 

ilS39-190Sj, An English ^oldier, who 
C'-mnianded in the South African Wa: 
till superseded by Lord Roberts. 
Buller River. See Atlas 37, D 4. 
8ULLESCENCE. A leaf condition of 
rlister-like prominences, as illustrated 
M this picture bv a piece of cabbage leal 





The bullet that Brunswick and 

killed Nelson Tamis^ier 




/^ 



^\ 



^43 



^^ H f| f! 





BULLET. A small nietai prujectiie tor 
<niall-arms, formerly spherical but now 
.Umost always cylindrical, like the five 
examples in tlie lower picture 



BULLET BAG 



BULLJUB 




BULLET BAG. A pouch tor bullets. 
The sixteenth-centurv pouches shown 
here are combined with r'^wder flasks. 


I 1 i r i . i _L " 


\ 


; 


■ 












\ 



BULLETIN. An official report concern 
in some public event of moment. 



BULLET LADLE. A ladle lor meltini; 
lead to be made into bu.lets. The one 
shown here has a hole in the bottom 
with a removable plucr. 




BULLET MACHIiXE. A machine for 
making bullets m large quantities, 
ilat plates of lead beinj pressed between 
f^rooved rollers 




BULLET MOULD. A tool with jawslorm 
in:; a cavity used for moulding bullets. 
BULLET POUCH. Any kind of pouch 
for holdin? bullets. That shown is a 
leather bac provided with a tube. 
Bullei Screi*. See Ball screw 




BULLET TELEPHONE. An liistru 
inent for dete.-tint,' ballets in the human 
tody. It consists of a probe (which seei 
-ittached to a sma'J telephone 







BULL FIGHT. A barbarous sport, now 
ma'nly contlned to Spain, in which an 
enraged bull is set to attack expert 
swordsmen and others. 




BULL FISH. A name of the bear ' 
seal, the larirest of all the Arctic se.; 
common o'T the Greenland coast. 




BULL FLY. A name of the gadfly, ' r 
hiirsclly, which bites horses and cattle. 
Two species of the genus Tabanus are 
shown in these pictures. 




A bu 
BULLFINCH. A Eui„i.caM ......ij; i irj. 

The breast is brii:ht red in the male 
and blue-i.»rey in the female, which lavs 
from four to six blue eg^s streakt\l with 
reddish brown. 




BULLFINCH. > 

difficult jump lor n-irsi'inen. 
is a corruption of bull-fence. 



I iie wc.ul 







BULLFINCH TANAGEB. A thickbi ed 
bird of the i;er,-,i> liuphonia. so called 
irom the beauty of its song. 



■ii American buli Irog 
BULL FROG. A frog noted for its loud. 
b;'ll(uvin',' croak. The African bull Img 
IS Tomopterna adspersa, and the North 
American species is Rana cateshyana 



BULLING SHOVEL 




BULLION BAG. Alealber 

cneJ »i;h icj"--- 

a heavv wrip' ■ 




BULLION BALANCE. ^ 

lor ueichini: ,:old. Alth'UC^. '■'"- 
will tike considerable »ci(ht. 
'.'aUr-ce !* vers 




Kiver bullhead, or miller's thumb 
BULLHEAD. A name lor a numb.: 
lishes. of which we shov ■ 



T 




BULLHEAD AXE. A ^ .. i -^ 

;~..l Ml sianshter-housis. 

BULL HOOF. A West Indian passion- 

; .'A,T u'th crimson petals- 
Bullld. S..' Rubble sbei!- 
BULLINGER, HEINRICH ,l5^M-:?>. 
A prominent Swiss Protestant leader. 



BULLION BOX. V -T' - c r v.;,,.... 

-i.le to lake bullion lor trinspoet. Here 

, . <,- , ,,iTp.in-nt <-4 f'"*!*! beinc r«annneJ 




BULLIVANT. W. M. 

'.vire-ropc makers. 

BULUIUB. A Derbyshire name (or the 

river bullhead or mnier's thumb. 



BULL MOTH 



;ir>2 



BULL TERRIER 




BULL MOTH. A very small British 
member ol the tvrical family of the 
iiiieae crcnip ol moths, to which the 
clothes moths helonjr. It is shown en- 
lareed in this illustration. 
BULL NETTLE. An eversreen bush ol 
the potato lamily. a native of Chile. 
Here the leaves and flower': are shown 




BULLNOSE PLANE. A carpenter's 
plane with the Wade at the front to 
enable it to be used close up to a corner. 
It is so named because its shape 
resembles the muzzle of a bull. 




BULLOCK. A name tor an ox. or more 
exaftlv n vonne ox. like these 




BULLOCK CART. A twu-wheelcd carl 
drawn I > Iniilucks and used in many 
parts ol the world. Our picture showy 
one in use in Nova Scotia. 



BULLOCK LITTER. A litter lor the 
wounded hun^ between two bullocks. 
like this one desi'/red in 1.S15. 




BULLOCK'S EYE. A name for the 
house leek, shown here with its flower 
spike and rosette of leaves. 
Bullock's Eye. See Bull's eve (window). 
BULLOCK'S HEART. the custard 
apple. Ano"a recticulata, so called from 
the ^haiv nf th-,- fruit. 




e! 



_T3 _ 

BULLOCK TREE. A device made ol 
wiiod with iron clamps and pins lor 
exiendin'; the quarters when a bullock's 
carcase is hune after killini:. 




W '3 

42 




BULLOCK WAGON. A low, l-uii 

ui,- i,-,i , nn\ .-s .111.-.' .lra\Mi hv hiil'm-k^ 




BULLOCK WINCH. A form o: winch 
(uhich see) used in slauiihter-houses. 
Builpoui. See Bullhead. 
BULL RING. A rim; fixed in the cround 
to which the bull was tied for bnll- 
h.iitine;- This picture shows the bull 
nils at Uradinu. in th» hie of Wii;ht. 




M 



BULL ROPE. A moorinc-rope led 
thrnuKh a block at the bowsprit-end 
to the buoy to keep a vessel's stem c1-.mi 
of the buoy. 

T 




BULL'S EYE. A circular window, -.v. 
shown on the left, or a skvliuht in thi 
dock of a ship, as on the right. 




BULL'S EYE. A name given to a plano- 
convex lens, used to concentrate rays 
<iii a microscopic object. 
BULL'S EYE. A small, old-fashioned 
watch with a very thick convex glass. 
Bull's Eye. For star see Taurus, 



immmwiiiiiiu^ 




The outside of the bull ring at Valencia, in eastern Spain 
BULL RING. A large arena with seats for thousands ot spectators who crowd 



to see the ("nu-) sport of bull fighting still practised in s 



utht'rn Fr.inCL-. 



BULLOCK SHELL. The thick shell ot 
y pearl oyster of the genus Alcleagrina. 




BULL ROARER. A slat ot wlim^I, inure or less carved or ornamented, tied to a thong 
and whirled rtniiid to give out an intermittent roar. It is used ceremonially in 
New Guinea and Australia and as a tov in Europe. Various forms ar^r shown here 




A bull's eye m M', \\^\ v 



r©) 






Bull's eyes in riUe shooting 
BULL'S EVE. In target practice, the 
iniuTiiiost rin^ of the tariret or a shot 
lalliiiK within it. In rifle shootin? the 



bsniute 
diHicull 



centre is 

to 



sometimes made 
on th.. l,-li. 




BULL'S EYE. A crisp sweetmeat with 
coloured stripes, flavoured with pepper 
mint and more or less circular 




BULL'S EYE LANTERN. A lantern 
uith a poweruil convex lens, as seen 
here, and fitted with a shutter. A 
■•pecial form is used by the police. 
BULL'S EYE LIGHT. A small round 
window in which the class revolves on 
i verticTl avis. 




i 


'^1 


^ ' 


I 

\ 

\ 




i 




■"^ 


% 



BULL'S HEAD. A comninn sign lor an 
inn or tradesman's shop, sometimes 
combined with a cort)net and crown. 
as in this example from Loughborough 
in Leicestershire. 

BULL'S MOUTH. The shell of the 
gastmpiui r.issis. known also as the 




BULL TERRIER. An active and rather 
fi'^rce dog, a cross-breed between a 
smooth terrier and n bull dog. 



BULL TROUT 



:i.-,3 




BULL TROUT. A name given to ; 
number ot varietie*; ot tlie cremi« S.ilrn" 




BULL WHEEL. Ii< rock-Jrilliii-. Hit 
pulley (Ai on which the rope attached 
to the borinij-lools rests. 
Bullwort Same as Fiswort (which see). 





9 



BULLY BEEF. The popular name !<■: 
corned beef. Immense quantities of it 
were served out to the troops durini; the 
Great War. 

BULLYHEAD. Or cat's-head, a kind of 

sledge-hammer head used bv ni:- i : 




BULOW, COUNT VON irSS-lSloi A 
Prussian solditr who played a leadliii; 
part in the war against Napoleon. 
BULOW, PRINCE VON (b. IS 19). A 
Oerman statesman ani,i diplomat who 
was chancellor from lono to 190y. 



BULRUSH. One of several tall, rush 
like pla'its jrowinj; in damp places We 
show here the flowers, stems, and roots 
pi the great bulrush, Scirpus lacuslris 
(lem, and of the three-edged bulrush. 
5>cirpus tnqueter (right), the name i-. 
ciltcn applied to the reed-mace, as in the 
heraldic picture below. 




BULRUSH. A heraldic charge, once the 
device ol the Colonna family of Rome, 
displaying bulrushes. 
BULTEL. in milling, a revolving sieve 
tor scpar.itipg the flour from the offal ; 
also called a bolting miM 



BUNBURY 







"V 



/ 



BULTI. A greenish. olive lish found in 
Egypt and Palestine and known as 
Tilapia ml. tica It is a irood food lish. 



8ULT0W. Or bolt, an arransemiiet nl 
several hooks on one line used in cod. 
Iishing on Ihe Newfoundland Banks 

7^/ 




BUIMMER. A term applied 
American Civil War to a camp 

ir plundering stragpler. 



in Ihe 
follower 




BULWARK. A i,vnei.i, lenn h„ a 
rampart or b.istion in old lortitications. 
BULWARK. The part of a ship's side 

the deck. 




BULWER, SIR HENRY (1501-1872) 
An [;ii..:]i,sh diplomat. His name is 
remembered by the Clayton, liulwer 
Treaty of 1S50 regarding the neutralitv 
of the Panama Canal Me became Lord 
Dailnig and Bulwer. 
Bulwer Lytton. See Lvtton. 
BULWER'S PETREL. A blackish- 

■:-'>wn bird, ten iiuin's long, found round 

; "Ut the Canary IsJ.mds. 
Bum Bailiff. See Bailiff. 
Bumt)i» Samr- as Rumble b?e. 




BUMMER 

limber is slmi;.; lor li.in,-.r:;r! 



BUMPING POST. I 

1 r^-tmlc^ applied 
.•.ru.-tcd buBer-jlop 
BUMPKIN. A 
applied In old dj. 
rjr labourer. 




BUN. .\ ...:.. 

'PlCcd. raided Cjk; 

a glazing ol iujar 

iTUSt. S.im^ lir 




BUMP. In boat racinv; the louchiiie ol a boat bv one Ol • _■ 

lake plac- notably at Oxford and Cambridge, where 1 cohere ciU tileii.or a^tiJoip 
entitled to take .station ahead of its victim at the ne»t event. Here'st i« i 

Hiiiip diirnv^' flu- Loiit races on the Cam at CambriJce 




BUMPING. A , u,.. . . . ,.,.,„!: 

the bounds 01 a parish ot " bumping" a 
boy on reaching the boundary. ' We 
here see a boy being " bumped" at 
East Barnet in'Middlesex. 



All rii^.^Mi nuMii'Ti'as j-iricjlj: sT kinown 

chjeilv tor h-s Hints to Bad Hor<eme:i 
drawinfs. He married ont of the beauti- 
ful Horneck- Reynolds sisters, seen o 
the right. 



BXmCH 



BUNSEN 





BUNDLEK. A macllinc lor pla>iM« Hi 
\.irHiiis shcLts vl a hook evenly together 
liir sewing; ami hiiidiini. 
BUNDLING SCALES. A beam scale 
with a large pan on the load side usert 
inr weighinc bundles ol wool and so on. 



Bunch ol grapes Bunch ol banan.is 
BUNCH. A collection, group, or duste 
as ol keys, flowers, or fruit. 




BUND. I.; •;'.: 1 r I .i.i, :i causewav 
vr esplanade along a water front, 
notably in foreign concessions in China. 
Here we see the bund a^ Shanghai. 




BUNDABERG. 

chiel sugar-e.x 
Bourbon Stree 



One ol Queensland's 
porting towns. This is 
t (10,0011). Atlas 36, J 3. 




BUNDER BOAT. A Bumbu> surl boat 
plying between the landing place, or 
tMinder. and ships off shore. 





BUNG. I li. ^topper lur the hole m the 
bulge n( a barrel called the bung-hole. 
BUNG BORER. A tool used by coopers 
01 borine the hole in a cask into which 

the hull'.' IS ill erted 




Bungalows ni India 
BUNGALOW. A low. one-storeyed 
house, often surrounded by a verandah 




BUNDLE. A number ol things tie 
together as a bundle of chips (left) or 
.1 bundle of linen for the wash. 



BUNGARUS. A genus ol pi.isoiMii 
Indian 'nakes of the Elapidae familv 
like the one shown in this picture. 





BUNGAY. An oM .,lii...,n i..«i. .'.i l.i. 
Waveney. with an ancient market-cross, 
seen here, a 16th-century grammar 
school, and interesting churches. Near 
by are ruins of the famous thirteenth- 
century castle of the Bigods (3*00). 



BUNGO TREE. A resinous tree ol 
tropical Alrica : here we show its leaves 
aiul on the right a single flower 
Bunjbulum. Se;' Bornbulnm. 




BUNHILL FIELDS. An old iJissenteis 
lniri.il ground in Finshury, London, 
cuntaining the graves of Bunyan, Defoo 
Isaac Watts and WiMiam Blak" 





BUNION. An enlargement and inllani- 
malioii ot a small membrane, usually 
occurring in the lirst joint of the great 
toe. We show (right) i wav ol easing it. 





1 


kjk 


. '.'..Vv^iS 



BUNK. A recess or shell 'or si. 
bn.ird :i ship, ;k seen lu-re. 





BUNKER. A large compartment or h 
lor stowing materials in a ship. The 
marked A in this illustration of t 
interior of a ship are coal bunkers. 




BUNKER. A sandpit lunning a ll,l/.l 

I'l 1 li.- '-'.line of golf. 




BUNKER HILL, BATTLE OF. The 

lirst battle (June 17. 1775) in the 
American War of Independence. The 
English stormed Breed's Hill adioining 
Bunker Hill. Boston 




BUNKER HILL MONUMENT. The 

ril'disk, 221 leet high, on the scene ol 

Uu- battle fought m 1775 

BUNOOES. A fossil crustacean lound 

:i SiUin.in rocks m the Baltic. 



BUNK. An American term for a lo'e 
car, or truck. 




BUNSEN, BARON CHRISTIAN 11791 
ISiio), A Prns-ian diplomat. for 
I I ve.irs ambassador in London. 
BUNSEN, ROBERT WILHELM (1811- 
)o). A (ierinan chemist, lounder with 
Kirchhoff ot spectrnin analysis and in- 
ventor of the well-known Bunsen burner 
which see) and other apparatus. 



BUNSEN BURNER 



BUPHAGA 




BUNSEN BURNER. A <as bunldr in 
vented bv Robert Bunsen (wMch see), 
in which the eas is diluted with air s.. 
that it hums with a blue and very hot 
flame. Here we show two forms. 




Section throush a Bunsen cell 



"_jia22(?ci_f 




BUNSEN CELL. \ cc I lor !;eneratir. 
electricity, invented by Robert Bunser 
with zirc and carbon electrodes 




BUNSEN PUMP An air-pump lor pr" 
ducinii a hiii:li vacuum. Water enters 
through the cock on the right and forces 
the air down the tube, exhausting the 
vessel to he eiuptied. which communi 
cafes with the tube on the left. 
Bunsen's Grease-spot Photometer. A 
form of photometer twhich see) invented 
by Bunsen, consisting of a screen oi 
white paper with a grease-spot in the 
centre. Lights to be compared are 
reflected on to opposite sides of the 
screen till the grease-spnt appears 
neither lichtor nnr darker than the rest. 




BUNT. In ships, the ni'ddle ot the 
yard to which a square sail is attached 
also the middle of the square sail itselt 
when furled, as seen here. 
BUNT. A name for a Stone Age arrow- 
head of rounded shape, like this one. 
Bunt (fungus). Same as Smut (q.v.) 




Common or corn bunting 



BUNTING, JABEZ (I7;'y l(sSM ' 'ik ' i 
the leaders under whom the Methodist 
became a separate body. 

BUNTING CROW. The grey, hooded 
k'row, f^irvus cnrnix. which ranges front 
Western [lurope to East Siberia 




Mest of reed buntini; 
BUNTING. A big group of birds ol 
•he Fringillidae family, distributed over 
the northern and temperate regions. 
They have short, straight, conical beaks. 
The corn reed, and yellow buntings are 
common in England. The snow buntine, 
Plectrophena.t nivalis, lives farther 
north than any other small bird. 



first editions oi hts works 
BUNYAN, JOHN II62S-SS). One ol i:„ 
most famous ligurc.s in the life of irih 
century England. A t nker by trade, 
in 1657 he became a Nonconformist 
preacher, and was imprisoned lor Iwev. 
vears in Bedford gaol tor refusing 1 ' 
renounce his right to preach He wrote 
The Pilsrim's Progress in prison. 




BUOY. Any Ifoattng suuc:ure an- 
'i-ir.d at sea or in rivjr^ a5 j ruide to 

vessels. The tvrt* -►■-.- v " 

Merberfs.tB) mist 

I E) can, ( F> sphere; 

\ H) nun, (I) autom-i, > . 

( K) wreck, ( L and Pi mo" 

ling. (N) b»>dv. lO* barre 






BUOYANCY. 

'.■■eel !■" ilojir 







M..es. 1 r.i ts Deck scat ratls 

BUOYANT APPARATUS. A rait car- 
ried in a ship which en be U-«d as a lifc- 
t-.\lt. as seen in these pictured 
BupalDS. See BorJcied »hit; moth 
Baphaea Mr4\ See Bee:ea'.er 



BUPLEVER 



:^r,r^ 



BURETTE STAND 





BUPLEVER. A cenus ot the parsley 
iamily distinijuished by its entire 
leaves. The hare's ear (left) and slender 
varieties are 'shown. 




BUPRESTIS. A beetle that ^tin^^s 
cattle swullowin? it, and thus causes 
fatal sweMin£;s. On the left is B. 
iiniterillei and on the rii;lit is B. lalandii. 




A wheel Lobe ot Small 

stop car circular saw 




Dentist's Club Kivet 

burs moss washer 




^^s^:;>-= 



Kini;eJ hatul'e ot battleaxe and mace 




CanOii;iU>.K inir slanipevl liur ol ii;oose 

base from metal ^rass 

BUR. A word with a great number of 
meaniniis, of which wc here illustrate 
seventeen, it most commonly denotes 
a knob or excrescence, or a whlrrint; tool. 
Bur ot plant', ^ee Burdock 



1t^ 




BURAN. A snowstorm in Siberia 
lone duration driven by hie:h winds. 




BURATTmO. A puppet worked 

ihe hand (nr tooti from below. 
BURBAGE, RICHARD (1 567-1619) 
Elizabethan actor who excelled 
Shakespeare's greatest tragic parts. 




Burbank and his white blackberry 




Lidible cactus gr(A\ ■! by Burbaiik 

BURBANK, LUTHER (1S49~1926). 
America's plant wi7ard, who created 
many new triiits. Mowers, and vege- 
tables, including a white blackberrv. 




BURBIDGE. SIR RICHARD i1b47 

19171. A famous manager of several 
i^reat London shops, notably Harrods 
BURBOT. A fish, Lota vulgaris, remark- 
able as the only fresh water species i>! 
the cod family. 
Bur Chisel. See Bur 




BURCKHARDT, JOHANN LUDWIG 

117S4-1S17). A Swiss travelljr wh<j, 
disguised as a A\ohanimedan, was the 
first European to make the Mecca 
pilRfiniage. 

BURDASH. A fringed sash worn b> 
gentlemen round the waist. That 
shown IS oi th- late Stuart period 
Burdekin, River. See Atlas 36. H 2. 




8URDETT. SIR FRANCIS (1770 iSin 
A popular English relormer. twice im 
prisoned on pnlitica! charges. 
BURDETT-COUTTS. BARONESS (I Si 1- 

iw>). An English philanthropist, the 
lirst woman to receive the freedom ol 
the City of London. She was made ,1 
peeress in her own right. 




BURDOCK. A stout plant of the Com 
posite family having hooked fruits nr 
burs. The purple flnwer-heads are shown. 




BURE, RIVER. A pleasant tributar\ 
ot the Norfolk Yare. flowing through 
the Broads district. 




A modern bureau 
BUREAU. A writing-desk htted with 
drawers. Tlie first three e.xamples 
shown here are from the Wallace Col- 
lection in London. 




BUREAU BOOKCASE. A writing- 
desk surmounted by shelves and parti- 
tions like a bookcase. The one shown 
IS L'arlv iSth-centurv Enirlish. 





BURETTE. A tlask for holding liquids. 
Ihe left-hand example here is of 16th- 
century work, and the other is a 14th- 
century altar cruet. 



El 


-J 


II 




^ 




m 


: 


^ 








H 




L 


i 






i 


I 


%i I 








s 






: 








t 







tQ 



f 




BURETTE. A tube graduated to trac- 
tions ot a centimetre and used by 
chemists for measuring small quantit es 
of a solution. Made in many patterns, 
as seen here, a burette is often fitted with 
1 t:ip nr a pinchcock and iet 




n 



f Jl 



u 



BUKErrii STAND. A stanJ ui wuud 
or metal for holding one or more burettes 
in a vertical position wh;le in use. In 
this picture three kinds are shown. 



BUR FISH 



BURGONET SKULL CAP 



^hjg^- 



BUR FISH. A name lor any of the 

spiny porcupine fisli n( tropical seas. 




BURFORD. ; iauresque litt:. 

lorJshire town on the Windrusli 
is a picture of its Hieh Street. 




BURFORD BRIDGE. .A la:,, i.:. ....ut;. 
spot where the Mole flows close to Bo.x 
Hill. Surrey. At the Burford Bridi;e 
Hotel, shown here, Keats finished 
Endymion and Nelson bade farewell 
to Lady Hamilton before Trafalgar. 
Burganet. See Bureonet. 
Burgas. See Atlas 14, D 3. 




BURGESS, MOUNT. A tine peak 

?:,. 1' ,.^.i_ I'l P.Dtrsh C<tluinhia. 





BURGHLEY HOUiL. . , ,.,..,. 

sioii butit near Slarntonl, Linrolnshire, 
in I! 5,1-87 by the sreat Lord Burleiifh 
(which set'). 





BUKGUNET. .. 

'.JT'. ';c::Tict with chccib piccci a 
i. Illj>trjlcd htrc. 
BURGONET. A I ...• .1 l,-,i 

used 



HLEY, LORD h. 1905). A popular 

1; athlete, a very fine hurdler. 
LAR ALARM. A device causing; 
* 1 riT..r r,n t!u- -ipenini; of a door 
:!. Its principle 
electric circuit. 




/^ 



BURGONET CABASIET 

tury hrlmct. : —^ • 

peak with f: 
sttn in the 



i 



^ 



%.^ 



T- /-> ^ 



BURGH, HUBERT DE (d. 124;). 
Arthur's '.^a-iler in Shakespeare's K.ini; 
John ; ruler of England in boyhood of 
Henry the Third. This contemporary 
picture is from the chronicle of Matthew 
Paris. See Arthur. 




BURGAU. A magnificent shell 01 thj 
eeiu:- Turl-0 often used as an ornament. 
Burgdorf. See Atlas 9. B 1. 
BURGEE. A kind of small coal which 
IS burned in engine furnaces. 





BURGEE. A small triangular or swallow- 
tailed pennant flown by merchant ships 
and yachts as a distinguishing flag. 
Burgeon (botanyi. Same as Bud (q.v.). 



■torf^HRIi 



'>-V 




mast^T \\x\ \ !! 



BURGH CASTLE. Une 01 the line 
Riini.in t.irtress ruins in East Anglia. 





BURGHER. A Boer citi.' 
1 irnier South African ri- 



BURGEON. A boss li.ied on a book, 
cover to save the binding from injury- 
There is a boss in each corner of the 
cover of this hook. 

BURGESS, THOMAS W. (b. 1S66). A 
famous English swimmer, who swam the 
Channel in 1911 after fifteen failures. 



BURGOMASTER. 11:: cl'.u-f m,i;istr.tt.- , i rui>,.-,': .1 . v. .,.-..,.! , > „"-/'^''^'\ 

1 ,11 Old and Belgium. A famous burgonixster of mi>Jern limes »is ,M. AJoipn. 

the hero of the G.riv.i-i .'Ccup-ftion of Brusscb. and we rive hi« r.-vrtra.! 



!\rii|irandt's picture 



, one of the wivld' 



BURGHbRS OF UALAIS. A l.ii;i.i- 

sculpture group bv Kodm representmij 
the si.x men surrendered to Edward in 
in 1.147 on the fal! of the town. Queen 
Philippa save.l their live; 



BURGOMASTER. The glaucous or 
ere.it ice-guU of the Arctic, a big and 
•reedv tvraul thirty inches long. 





i^^.% 



BUR60NE I SKULLCAP. A 

fi-ting he'.f.i.!, like these, 
pieces and bar to protect Ih: 



tcfii, CiOse- 
»ith cheek 
face. 



BURGOS 



BTJRKE 




A view ol Bllriju^ 








BURGOS. An aiicifiU city ol niiitheri! 
Spain with one ol the most Kloriou^ 
catlicJrals in ffurope. The Cid, tht 
Spanish national hero, was born here 
and his bones are preserved in the towr 
liall (lo.oon). See Alla< S D 1 




BURGOYNE. An entreiuiiini; tn,,l 
■'■"'' ■■ '" '^- '!""'1 a-; a spad'^ .in .'v. 




'f 




BURGOYNE, JOHN l 7j; ,j, An tii 
li:-h i^eiura! in the Ain;n.-an War ,.1 
independence. He surrendered to th? 
colonists at Saratoga. 
BURGOYNE, SIR JOHN FOX (17»2 
1S7I). An tiniilish inihtarv engineer 
who plajed an important part at the 
Siese (>( Sftast. pol. 



\4 



/^w\y 



BUR GRASS. An annual urass ol 
North America, known to botanists as 
Cenchrus tribuloides. On the rifht a 
spikeiet is seen magniiie.1. 
Burgundy. Sec Atlas 7 F ?. 





ihp the Bold 
1 U2-1404) 



John the Fearle 
(d. 14191 






Fhilip the Good 
(n')6-l4671 



Charles the Buhl 
M4S3-77) 





'-li.il..' the Bold and L-ui- .\ I 
BURGUNDY, DUKES OF. A imhle 
li'iiise which pla>ed a t;reat part in 
1 rench history in the 14th and l.sth 
centuries especiallv, when its dominions 
included Flanders. Charles the Bold 
tried to carve out for himsell an empire 
hetween Germany and France, but wa^ 
defeated by the Swiss. For a time he 
held L'Hiis XI oi France capt've. 




.JP 



3URIAL. I he intermeiU ol the de.ij 
I his picture shows the lavins .il Jesii 
ill the sepulchre, as told in John XIX, 41 
Burial Circle. Sec Interment circle. 




BURIAL 

the 1 una 
shows the 
mcestors 



GROUND. All enclosure mi: 

1 ol the dead. This picture 
uravesoi eleven of Kitchener's 
at Lakenheath. in SulTolk 




BURIAL MASK. A mask pl.ui I ..n 
di.' l.iCi' nl :i dead person to drive aw.r. 

e\i iM'ts Mi's; nii-k; are Mexican 



*' ,.- 




BURIAL. MOUND. \ iii,,uiij ,„ sl.uies 

or earth raised over the remains of the 

dead in ancient times and often called 
I burrow or a burial hill 




BURIAL OF SIR JOHN MOORE. \ 

meniorial in St. Paul's Cathedral in 
honour of Sir .lohii Moore (which see) 
killed .11 Co- iiviii 111 180s 




BURIAL URN. A laiije earthenware 

vessel in wliich the remains of the dead 
were buried without cremation. Here 
we give two pictures of one found at 
AInieria. Spain 




■CWJI ^"-^ ^— — ^-nrw- - 

A Buruit teniplj; 
BURIAT A Montioliaii pastoral peopir 
livint; around Lake Baikal, in Siberi;! 
The relitrion of must U Lamaism. 




•k- 



1 1 




BURIN. A poll ol 
this line harbour 1 > 



BURIN. A steel cuttim; tool, like 
these, used by engravers on metal. 





BURION. The abundant housc-hnch, 
Carpodacus frontalis, of the south-west 
United States. It has crimson markings. 
BURITI. A lofty Brazilian palm with 
an-shaped leaves. The fruit, shown 
separately, is edible, and a kind ot wine 
Is made from the sap 




aURKA. A short Russian cloak ol 
h.-avy woollen cloth worn by ttie man 

seen ill this picture 





BURKE, SIR .JOHN BERNARD il.M4- 
)l) A fiiitish .i;encalOs'ist known as 
ditor ot Burke's Peerat;e, tounded by 
ii.s lather. John Burke, in 1826 

BURKE, EDMUND (172)97) A tarn- 
ous Irish statesman, orator, and writer, 
fie opposed George Ill's personal 
government and conducted the im- 
peachment ot Warren Hastings, but he 
condemned the French Revolution 



BURKE 



359 



BUHKEh 



Mtr^ '-^•^''i^^r 




SOggvaSpi 


li^ 


9h[ 


JM 






^K '^^ 


Sfe; 


Hi 


1 



# 



BURKE, ROBERT O'HARA 1IS20.I1I) 
An In-ih expiorer. He and W. J Wills 
were the 'irst white men to cross Aus 
tralia. They died ol starvation near 
Cooper's Creek on the return journey. 
BURL. A wnrd m.MrjiiL' 1 kn-it in a 
tree or ,\ i-l i-.k. .1. ,|i..u n li.r • 




BURLEIGH, BENNET (about ISIO 
lOH). A nuted Scottish war corrc- 
spondent and author who represented 
the Daily Telec:raph in 2S canipaittns. 
BURLEIGH, 1st BARON (152008). 
William Cecfl, the great minister who 
was Queen Elizabeth's trusted adviser 
almost throughout her reign, and to 
whom much of her success was due. 
His name is also spelled Burchlev 




BURLET. A c:jse-ntting hood or coit 
Two stvles. one worn by men in the 
13th century and the othei by wom. n 
in the late 15th centnrv. are shown. 




BURLET. A stuffed roll, here marked 
A, to support the frame of the hui;e 
rufts ..f the Tild. 




BURLINGTON ARCADE. A cover.i! 

^hoppini; thorou!;hfare. built in iSly 
leading out of Piccadilly, London, and 
adjoining Burlington House. 




BURLINGTON HOUSE. The line build 
011; in Piccadilly. London, housing the 
Royal Academy of Arts, the Royal 
Society, and other learned bodies. 
Burma. See Atlas 2: 




BURMESE. Or Burmans. a division 
of the Southern Mongols intermediit- 
b-rw.-n the .Malavs and Chines- 



BURMAN MEDAL. A medal jw.irded 
bv the hast India Compan to troops 
ser\in;; in the tirst Burmese War. 

\1/ fell 






BURMANNIA. A sm.tli genus vt tr.ipi 
cal herbs oi which the perianth is 
persistent. The leaves, flowers, aiui 
rruit of B. ilisticha are shown here. 




BUR MARIGOLD. An annti.U h^rb .>i 
the ;ienus BiJeiis <if t lie Composite family, 
i^Towini; near water. We show the 

tritid (left) ;nu1 n.>ddinc: bur marii,'.-!.! 






BURMESE. The laiii:[u:ti;e of Biirm.:. 
This passaije from a Burmese BibU 
represents the words of St. John III. U> 



BURNABY, FREDERICK (I.M2-S5). Am 
Gns'iish soUiier and explorer :n Central 
Asia. He wrote A Ride to Khiva. 
descrihini; adventures in 1S75. 
BURNAND, SIR FRANCIS (IS36-IQ17). 
An Hnt;lish journalist and dramatKi. 

It- was L-lit'T .>f PuiK-h f^.S'-l.!'- ■■ 



B:ils%iac and 
icetylene bumen 

BURNER. That pirt of a heatinc or 
liijhtinc .ipraralu5 »here combustion 
takes place, as m the iet oJ s Pyt*fi 
burner, or the part that h ' " " . v 
in an oil burner. Many ■ 

<h*^wn hfrf (iki? 'h *i^ ", 




MiN.i.L L.,;iui The Star ol Bethlehem 

BURNE-JONES, SIR EDWARD t IS35-9S). Oneot the most famous of 
Pre-Raphaelite school itt painters. Much influenced ^y D. G. Rv> .■!;', 
very prominent alter lS77 tor his decorative and ima;;inative nor* 
e.Kaniples of which we i^ve here. He spent much time in p*. 
stained-glass windows and illustrations for books for his friend v. 



the English 

^;? became 

■ rislic 

is for 



BURNER ADAPTER 



SCO 



BURNLEY 




BURNER ADAPTER. A snorl lulu- 
(lelt) witli screw threads (or insertion 
in a Raspipe or bracket to take a burner 
I'i smaller size. 

BURNER-DOME. A metal chimney 
(centre) used with an Argand burner to 
throw a current of air down on tlit 
llame. It is si-en llNed on the rmlU. 




BURNES, SIR ALEXANDER (l!S05 41) 

A celebrated Scottish explorer in Central 
Asia and rolitical officer in Afghanistan. 
BURNET, GILBERT (1643-1715). Scot 
tisli histcn.in clLT'.'vman, and Whii;. 
' i ■ " . ■ -. -bury IfiSi). 




BURNET, JOHN i 17,S4-1MjS). A pauitei 
and eni^raver wlio engraved many ot 
Wilkie's pictures. 

BURNET, SIR JOHN J. (b. 1S59). Scot. 
tish architect, designer of the Edward 
IV Galleries of the British Museum. 




BURNET. A perennial plant of the 
rose family. The great burnet (left) 
and the salad burnet are shown here. 



\ 7 




Broad bordered c,, onn.t^a 

five-spotted i>ix-spotted 

BURNET MOTH. An ursine moth of 
tile family Zygaenidae. of which we 
show three beautifully spotted sp^'ci--^ 



BURNET NOCTUA. A common British 
moth which appears in June. The 
caterpillar feeds on Dutch clover and 
turns into a violet-coloured chrysalis 










BURNET ROSE. A wild rose dis- 
tiu'^'uished by its white (lowers, dark 
purple fruits, dense prickles, and bushy 
habit of growth 





BURNET SAXIFRAGE. A plant ol the 
i;enus Pinipinella of the parsley family 
The two varieties shown here are the 
common (left) and greater. 






f 


4r^ 


L 


mii. 


^ 



BURNETT, FRANCES HODGSON HH'i- 
1924) An Anglo-American novelist. 
She wrote Little Lord Fauntleroy. 
BURNEY, CHARLES (1726-1814). An 
Ens^li^h m;r".u-ian. father of Fanny Bnr- 
i",|..'r ArM,lv,, 






^??i 

^f 



Aik 



BURNHAM, isl BARON (is^ViM.) 

tdward L;iwsoii, editor and Liiiei pro- 
prietor of the Dailv Telet3;raph, who com- 
missioned Stanley's African journevs. 
BURNHAM, 1st VISCOUNT (b lS62) 
Harry Lawson, who succeeded his 
lather, Edward Lawson. in the control 
ot the Daily Tclettraph, and became pro- 
minent also' Ml political and social work. 




BURNHAM, FREDERICK R. (b. l^Ol) 

An American explorer in Africa who 
served as chief of scouts to Lord 
Roberts in the Boer War. 
BURNHAM, SHERBURN W. (b. 183S). 
An American astronomer, discoverer of 
over a thousand doi:Me st.irs. 




BURNHAM BEECHES. A tamni^ 
beauty spot near Slough, in Buckim;- 
namshire. It was bought in 1S79 by the 
Citv of London for the public pleasure. 




BURNHAM-ON-CROUCH. A t pi 
vachtinc; centre in Essex (32001. 




BURNHAM-ON-SEA. A pleasant resort 

on the Snmerset coast. 




OURNHAM THORPE, m- w,i.,^c ik.u 
Wells, in Norfolk, where Nelson wa^ 
born in 175S. His birthplace, the old 
rectory, shown here, has long since been 
pulled' down, hut the church contains 
the lent at which he was christened. 







BURNING BUSH. A name Inr Dici.im 
nus Iraxmella. whose glands yield a 

volatile oil. The calyx with the pistil 
is shown on the rii^Iit. 




BURNING BUSH. The flaming bush from 
the midst of which Jehovah announced 
to Moses the coming deliverance of the 
Israelites from their bondace in Egypt, 
as here shown in an old Bible. 



f»?i 




BURNING GLASS. A convex lens which 
draws the Sun's r.iys to a focus and thus 
causes the burning of any inflammable 
object or substance. 




BURNING OF THE VANITIES. The 

lamous bonfire of luxuries and carnival 
hnery made in 1497 by tlie llorentines, 
'vtirred by the preaching of SavoiKiroi.i. 

Burnished brass moth 




Scarce burnished brass motii 
BURNISHED BRASS MOTH. A noctuid 
moth. The scarce species is very rare. 
The common variety appears twice a 
year, and its caterpillar feeds on nettles. 




BURNISHER. A tool tor smoothing 
down surfaces, like the silversmith's 
burnishers shown here. 




BURNISHING GLOVE. A steel glove 
if>r biirnishine steel parts ot harness 




St. Peter's Church. Burnley 









Burnley Town Hall 
BURNLEY. A Lancashire town with 
cotton and ensineering trades (105.000). 
See Atlas 4. E 3. 



BURNOUF 



301 



BURROUGHS 




BURNOUF, EUG£NE (isoi-52). A 
French philologist and Orientalist, in- 
vestigator of the Zend language. 

BURNOUS. Or burnoose, a hooded cloak 
o( wool worn by the Arabs and Moors, 
That vhoun is Algerian. 




BURNS, SIR GEORGE l795-i;*yO) A 
Glasgow shipowULT. founder in t8.>9 "I 
the famous Cunard company- 
BURNS, JOHN (I'. 1S5S). English labour 
leader and M.P. who led the London 
dock strike in 1SS9 and resigned from 
the Asquith Cabinet at the outbreak of 
the Great War. 

Burnt Ear. See Wheat rust 




Burnt Pillar of Constantinople. A giL.ii 
colunui of porphyry erected by Constan- 
tine and once bearine his statae. it has 
often suffered from Ire, hence its name. 




W^ 



His mausoleum His mother His drauj;.:;t^-:.; 

BURNS, ROBERT (1759-96). Scotland's national poet, the wayward, passionate, 
and lovable son of a struggling Ayrshire farmer. He was given a good education, 
spending his youth b.tweeh reading and ploughing, but his genius did not develop 
fully till he was about 25. Though the waywardness 01 his character deprived hiin 
'» the full reward of his success the beauty of his lyrics has \v»\ him ininu)riaiit\. 





BUR PARSLEY. A lierb "I the genus 
Caucalis of the parsley family, dis- 
tinguished by its bristled fruits. 
BUR PUMP. A pump in which the 
water is raised by a cup-shaped cone of 
leather (A) nailed on to the end of the 
pump ro.l. 




BURR. A broad iron ring on a tilting 
lance (A), just below where it is gripped, 
to prevent the hand from slipping. 
Burr. See lUir. 

BURR, AARON (l-jfi-lSiS). An Amer.. 
can politician who quarrelled with both 
George Washington and Ale.xander 
Hamilton. He kitted Hamilton in a 
duel and later plotted to found an inde- 
pendent reput-Iic in Te.x.is. 




Single fruit Groups 01 Iruits 

BUR REED. A plant with rounded 
he.ids oi ilowers and long, linear leaves, 
.[rowing bv ponds and streams. The 
sinele fruit sliown is much magnified. 




BURREL FLY. The name 01 a reddish 

i.ilv I tlie f.imilv Tabanidae. 
Burrhel Sheep. See Bh.ir.il. 




BURRHUS. AFRANlUt 

A virtuous Forra.n ..!}.: 
up Nero and tri:d t'. r 
cases, as sujifritcd here 
to have had him porsufieJ. 



r 



C 



1 — 



If 



UpS 



BURRtNG MACHINE. A miihine Ut 

:-'-i:t;: ■ -J.;: .■-: t^: ' ^-V "rr: anj 

partially (xjtcnc : : 

pinini; down m\< 

BURRING REAMER. A ti'. . 




BURRINGTON COMBE. 

vaiU-\ "H in; nrtrtn 5 ■ r- 
whiTii A'Ji;u«u?ToplaJv ■ 




BURRITT, ELIHU ,t>ll-T». An 
\r;'.:ricjn Macksimth »ho lel^n^3 fifty 

iUi:riuliv>njl ^£ice cont^as. 
BURROCK. An obsolete sMTd for a smj)1 
\\^\T Of J.im tn a nvcr to Ji^^ct Ihe 
curnnt t-' c-ir^ where luh trars are iit- 




BURR0U6HS. JOHN .<3r-l9^t). An 

\!v,vT:c.in .ui*.:;- r k".'u;i chiefly for his 
biH^ks abvut the ouiJ^vr world. 
Burrouehs Addin£ Mackiac S^e AdJinc:. 



BURROW 



■ir,-> 



BURYING BEETLE 




_.^-&?. 



BURROWING OWL. A.. Ainu k.ui uwl. 
Speotito cunicularia, also called the 
rr;nrie nul It lives in burrciws. 




BURSE. An old word lor a bag u^ 
pufiL* Here are two of the 16th centiirv. 




BURSLEM. One of the famous fn> 
I owns, mjw p.irt of Sloke-on-Trvnt 
The hifthplace of Josiah Wedgwood, 
it is called the Mother ol the Potteries. 
Here is its town hall ( 12.0001 



Queen's Ware bowl and centrepiece 

BURSLEM PORCELAIN. Porcelain. 

lu'tahly Queen's Ware, from the first 



W.'d 


.'U'l'iid l.u-tnry at Burslem. 






^ 


tTX 


—-"■^^d 


♦(•fcSra^ffi-^ _^ 


\ 


\, \^? 


^l^k^Wn 


1 


¥' 


rVSPw^ ^k1 /I 


\ 


M'Xr 




\ . , 


M Mr 




\ ^ 


i=aiir 



liur^lciii teapot 




BURSLEM POTTERY. Ware made at 
Burslcrm since the 17th century. The 
pieces ill the lower picture were sent to 
the issi exhibition- 




BURSTING BOTTLE. A cast iron 

vessel with a screw stopper to show th^- 
-■.\pansivc inrce cil ice. It is rilled with 
water and hurst in a freezing mixture 
BURSTING CHARGE. A small change ": 
line r'>wJi'r used in blastin? to ensure the 
ifinition of the main charge. It is placed 
where the fuses reach the exp'osiv*. 




BURT. THOMAS . 1..;; I'-J^i. A ;;reati> 
I'ved Niirtluinibnan miners' leader and 
A\ P. who started work at 12 and became 
I minister under fjladstone. 
BUR THISTLE. Or spear thistle, a stout 
thistle cnninmn throuLihout liurope 




BURTON, SIR FREDERICK IISIG 

1000). An Irksh p.iinter, strongly 
inlluenced by the Pre- Kaphaelites. 
BURTON, JOHN HILL (1H09-8I). A 
Sci'ttish historian, who devoted 1 7 
vears tn writint; a historv oi Scotland. 




BURTON, SIR RICHARD nb2l-90, 

The faninus Englisrh traveller and 
scholar, master of 3S lau'^uages, who 

tran--:lLited the Ar:ibian Nights, travelled 
ni di-.'_'ii;- : ,i^ j piljrim from Afghanistan 
tu ^V■^.\^^, .Old i'lHind Lake Tanganvika. 




BURTON, ROBERT (1577-1640). Th. 

clerical author ol the Anatomy o! 
.Melancholy, a humorous, satirical, and 
very learned work which has greatly 
influenced English literature. 
BURTON. A name for several kinds of 
light hoisting tackle used in ships. 
These are single Spanish (left), double 
Spanish, and top burtons. 







BURTON-ON-TRENT. A : i! 
town, a centre of brewiiii; for 300 years. 
We show its town hall and St. Paul's 
Church (48 000) Atlas 4, F 4. 





BURWEED. .\ co.irse Composite annual 
with luiokcd fruits which has spread 
over a great part of the globe. 
BURY, RICHARD DE (12SI 1345). 
Kicliard Aungerville, tiishop of Dur- 
ham, born at fiury St Edmunds, who 
urote PhilobiWon, an account of the 
slate of learning. This is his seal 




BURY. A Laii^.i-hl 
turing town, the birthpl 
whose statue stands in 
place. The church of' St. 
from the loth centurv. 
market hall (6o,onn>. 



Loll niaiuilac- 
ice of Peel, 
the market- 
Mary dates 
This is the 




The burying beetle at \\urk 
BURYING BEETLE. A carrion beetle 
III the genus Necrophorus ol the family 
Silphidae, also known as the se.vton 
beetle. It is black with broad orange 
bands, and feeds on dead animals. It 
buries small carcases by scraping away 
the soil below them, as shown in the bot- 
tom picture, and lays its eggs in them. 



BURY ST EDMUNDS 



'MV.i 



BUSH DOG 





Ruins of the Abbey 
BURY ST. EDMUNDS. An ancient 

Suiinlk market town, named aiti^'i 
Edmund the Martyr, who is buried here 
Part ot its on:c great Benedictine ahhe> 
remains, and the parish ciiurch is now a 
fath^Jr:iI M''..=;o:)). See Atlas 4, H 4. 
I 



BUSBY. A tur lieaddr^rss u 

1 til- British huss;ir'^. hntM.- .uinl^i^, 
.md rifle Curps. We show a hussar. 
BUSBY, DR, RICHARD (1606-95) The 
t.inious headmaster of Westminster 
School who birched 16 future bishops, 
Imt who yet gained the Rratetul aflec- 
;ion of his scholars. Uryden and 
Locke were anion? thetr. 



^9 /^5fes. 




BUSH. VV iiu country cuverrd ^bitn 
bushes or scrub, especially in Australia, 
the scene of this picture. 




BUSH, 

bunch 
to the 
ri'n'ht i' 



An inn sig 
of ivy, box, 
end of a pole 
s from the Ba\ 



n cui.di-.:ii.k; ul j 

or evergreen tied 

The one on th. 

eux Tap ' ' 




BUSH. A low, nianv-hranch-M shrub, 
as seen here in a garden in Kent. 






BUSH, IRVING T. r 

Vmt-rican business ma 
ilu^h Hox'c (»'hich ie:) 
London, and the Bush T 
inc (ricM) in Nc« Y<K-k 



BURY S LOCOMOTIVE. il.- ^m ^ ' '^'^ London 

lJirnini:;ham Kailwav Irom irti; lo \6Ai\ inliijaiuc.l bv Ldu.ird f.urv ( l 79t- ts>M 
Originally it had four wheels, hut a trailing: axle w.-js added larer. The one shown 
here is now preserved in the Science Mus?um. South Kensint-ton. ^^ 




BUS-BAR. 

uj an elt:ctr:c 
and on the 



! lu- .opper conductor which ieceiv"S Mie current ir^ni all the dynam.^s 
lighting or power station. The left-hand picture stiows its mountni^:. 
right bus-bars are seen in position, as indicated by an A 



BUSH. A ui.M.< vi -uird nuiUTt.iJ .c". 
;nto a hole, as at A in the rii;ht-hand 
picture, to strengthen it or to provide 
1 t-^t'^T bearing. On the left arc fh'initL' 
I ■ ! s bushes used in wirii 





8USH COW. A name i 

•,.',r-r. .: >'-^. noctur"al 




BUSH CREEPER. 

■*rd. io«t;r.^rs p 



BUSH ANTELOPE. A harnessed ante 

l-.pe oi Africa, also called the bushbok. 
bushbuck, or guib. and known to 
science as Tracelaphus scripta. It is 
about as big as a coat, has horns a (oi^t 
h-nt:. and lives in dense bush n?ar rivers. 




BUSH Doe. ;r.- cur> 
doc '>t Oirana. Spe»v 
shown in this picture ; 
American huntine dne. 



»us, wcas^iMikf 
hrts veniticos- 
also the South 
let iC von 



BUSH DRIVE 



:!(i4 



BUSH SHRIKE 




BUSH DRIVE. \ iii.llu>J .1 hunting 
by which the Uechuanas of South Africa 
drive wild animals into a V-shaped 
enclosure, or hobo. 





BUSHEL. A v;^s;l, Ubuall^ ol mouJ. 
used lor dry measure. A bushel holds 
lour pecks or eisht sallons. 
BUSHEL-BARREL. Either half of n 
barrel when it is cut in tsvo and u.sed for 
measurins oysters; it contains about 
a bushel and a half. 




BUSHELLING MACHINE. A macliiii^ 
which weii^hs and packs Rrain into 
sacks at the rate of 1500 to 2500 ba:.;s 
in eiiiht hours. 







BUSHET. A rare word signLlyini; 
thicker Ci'p^'" or small wood 





itUSHEY PARK. A oeautilui royai 

I ark adioinini; Hampton Court, with a 
lamous triple avenue of limes and 
iiorse-che-stnut trees planted by William 
ol Oranse It covers 1110 acres. 



:Ji 



SUSH HAMMtR. A lurt^v- haminer 
used to dress millstone*. The -^teel hits 
ire detnrhnhiL* from the hainnier-hcad. 





BUSH HARROW. A u ,ua^u ><.u.k 
work containing branches and saplnu:^ 
md used lor harrnwine erass land 



<P 



==^ 



3USH HOOK. A I in u-"k .ulii i ,oni; 
Handle so that it can be used effectively 
or cuttint; tiushes and rtramb-fs 







Picture ot a cattle drive 
BUSHMAN. A South African nativ- 
bt:loiit;ini; to a very primitive hunting 
and cave- dwelling race Remarkable 
pictures like the one shown above, have 
heen found in th^ir cav*s. 



■j*^ 



BUSHEY. A iittlt; lUrt.nr Osiurt town 

whose High Street we show here(7000) 




JUSH HOUSE. I lu- tine Du:iness tjuiidmi; adjoinini; Aldwych and Mie Mraiid (in 
Liihl'Mi. iHiilt by Mr. Irvin? T Bush iwhom see). This picture shows its northern 
iront uhichtaces Kintjsway; the complete plans include a detached winti on either 
side Ihe two fiirures over the entrance symbolise Anglo-American friendsbip- 




BUSHMASrER. 1 ti, oiMmuu:* and 
much dreaded pit- viper ol northern 
Muith America, often 12 tee* on?. 




;5UdHriELL, HORACE ^i-nO.> 70) An 
American Congregational minister who 
attacked Calvinism, greatly influencing 
ilie Protestant thought 3t his day. 
BUSH ijUAIL. A tiny Indian par- 
iridge ot the genus Pedicula The 
'iingle bush quail lives in the torest- 
lad hills, and the rock bush quail oti 
rush- I iLlJ'.l sandy or ro^-k v rlains. 
fi' ^ 

"-4- -.% 




BUSHRANGER. \n Au>lraiia,i ..lUlaw 

iivin by nighway robbery and pillage. 
This picture shows a gang ot bush- 
rangers ambushing a gold convov irom 

the mines m the old days. 




BUSHKIOtft. .■\ .i>..i ......... ..... f.itrols 

the great cattle and siieep-rearing 
stations 't the Aitstranin hii<h 




dUSH SCVfHE. A iiiufi x-Mne witli 
a stout Made u^ed lor cuttim; low i ushes. 
BUSH SHRIKE. An orange breasted Spe- 
cies ot shrike found in Ati'ica and shown 
here; also an American ant ihru''h 



BUSH SICKLE 



J 




BUSH Sickle, a Kmd oi stckle with 
:i liroaJ DIade used lor cutting brus 
w.i briars. 

BUSH TIT. A tiny bird of the Western 
United States and iV\exico which builJs 
a big bottle-nest. The species shown i- 
P^alfripanis •Tiinimn<; 




BUTCHKRS COMPANY 




BUSH WARBLER. .\ i;roup ol birds 
all tound in Asia except Cetti s warbler 
The lar?e-biiled species, Tribura major, 
is shown here 

BUSIRIS, A senus ot gastropods also 
called notnrchus. The one shown here 
is R'.i'J-ri^ Ttinnsns 



BUSONI. FERRUCCIO . 1!s6&-iy21). An 

Italian nuisician celebrated as a brilliant 
pianist and as a composer. 
BUSS, FRANCES MARY (1827-94). 
A pioneer ol women's education She 
tounded the North London Collegiate 
School lor Ladies, nt whioh she wa.s Ih^' 
head lor manv -. ^^^ 




%) 



BUSK- 111 JreiMna^,l^ti, j Ile-Vlbte 
Strip 01 whalebone or steel, as shown on 
the right, used to stilTen the front ol a 
corset or stavs. 




BUSTARD. A iitrildic charilr bhowme 

*'iM 'urk.-v. as seen here 
BUSTARD QUAIL. A lamily ot small 
"irJs ol Africa, Southern Asia, ind 
Australia. The Indian species, Turnii 
taigur, shown here, is typical, laying 
double spoiled eggs and Irequenling low 
hush lunele. 




,s^ 



.».V» 



BUST. j hr l-.eaj and shoulders i,i ,i 
ligure m relict Here we show ilie 
tamous bust ol Clytie, made in llie 
Anirustan aee in Ihe British Museum 




BU'^K rset or Dodice stirtened 

"i: -is shown m this picture ol 

Queen th.'.iheth wearing a tight, pointed 
bodu-e 




Denham's bustard 




BUTCHER « APRON, A , jjr _n. i.-ta- 
ally ol Uriped lojtn dntll wwn t» 
("utcher? 3» thr;r u--f>: 



f!f 



7' 



V< 



aurCHER S BLOCK. .. 

rim. mar'f. or faorDbcam ' 
('utchcrs chop ap meat Two : 



BUSTLE. A paJ or airt: Iranit; worn 
uluier the dress at the back bv ladies 
m tlie late nineti'cnth centurv to make 
the skirt hiinj trracetullv 



«>i'i 









BUTCHER-S SOT. \ 

II a t-utchcr'5 snop and i 
'ints 10 customers 
BUTCHER'S BROOM. A 

^1 Ih: ccnus R.i-,-u>. J-<; 
'-.' ' •-•n ;•! Ih,- ■ 



BUTCHER, SAMUEL HENRY (ISSO 

1110! -\ ivstoJ iir--,'k scholar, trans. 
iiig of Homer's 



BUSKER. A name applied to a sirolling 
playei ur street musician 
BUSKIN. A halt boot, sometimes laced 
or strapped The lirst two examples 
shown are Greek : the third and lourth 
are Roman and Tudor. 




BUTCHER SCARI. 

J movable top siirtiple [.t< t.l; ate y i 
butcher. This one vs5 maje bv Crots* 
Kills Ol Beveries 




Little busiard 
iUSTARD. A group "1 alectorid birds 
coMiined chielly to the Old World. The 
male gre.u bustard is 4 5 inches long 
but the little bustard only 17 inches 



BUTCHER BIRD. A shrike - 
.sc.ui.se .1 impales on thorns ins.. 
small birds, and mammals to h. 
ttas-'Ue them .ind Si lurnish a Llrder 




BUTCHER CROW. Ihe p. pine ct.st 
sliiike. ^ivmiiorhina dorsalis, ol Western 
Australia, locally called a magpie. It 
bas a peculiar whistling ncte. 







hutcn.Ts riiii. ririr.- 







BUTCHERS COMPANY \ 

livery company, incorporated i 



BUTCHER'S HOOK 



BUTT 




BUTCHER'S HOOK. A steel huok oi 

various paturii-. Iitc thesf. used In 
Initchers t • 



BUTCHER'^ KNIFE. A sharp, strons 
knife used by butchers for cutting up 
meat. Three patterns are shown here. 




BUTCHER'S REFRIGERATOR. A re- 

ir'geratin^ chamber ni winch carcase^ 
and toints are kept in hot weather. 




BUTCHER'S SAW. A short, bone 
cuttini; saw used by butchers. We show 
a hack ?aw ttop) and a bow saw. 




BUTCHER'S SCALE. A scclc witli 
China plate used for weighint; meat in 
butcher's shop. 




BUTCHER'S STEEL. A larse steel fitted 
with a rin-.' ( ir hancini; at the girdle. 



BUTCHER'S TRAY. A wooden tray 
with handles used io.- carrying meat. 
Bute. See Atlas S. C 1 




BUTE, KYLES OF. A narrow strait. 16 miles long, separating the l>ie oi Ijuti 
irom tlu' m.iinland ol Arcvllshire. This view is typical of it* beautiful scenery. 






BUTE, LORD(1713-l-';2). John Street, 
jrd Earl, a Scottish politician, the fav- 
ourite and adviser of George the Third 
Inmi 1760 to I765. 

BUTEA. A genus of tropical trees 01 
the pea family. fiere are the leal, 
flowers, and fruit of B, frondosa, 
Buteo. See Buzzard, 
Buteshire. See Atlas 5, '. ' 




8UTHUS. The rock scorpion 01 Alrici, 
B, afer which inflicts a very poisoiiou> 
rt'uund with its sting, 

BUTLER. A man-servant who has 
.harge 01 the dining-room, wine, plate, 
and so on, and is usually the head of a 
liousehnid stalT, 



BUTLER, DR. H. M. (l,s,13 1<'IS) 
hnelish schol.ir. headmaster of Harrow 
lor 30 vears and Master of Trinity Col 
lege, Cambridge, from ISS6, 
BUTLER, JOSEPH (1692-1752), Om 
if the greatest theoiogians nf his dav 
Bishop of Durham, 




BUTLER, JOSEPHINE (li^^-ly06) 
\n English social reformer who spent 
lier fife in promoting social purity, 
BUTLER, SAMUEL 11612-I68O). An 
English post, will, after the Restoration 
riit':i I .1 II .iiiiis, a bitter satire on 



-^ 




BUTLER, SAMUEL (1835-1902). A 

111. ted tm;lisli author, writer of En;- 
u lion, criticising Darwinism, and the 
famous novel The Way of All Flesh. 
BUTLER'S TRAY. A wooden tray, 
usually provided with a stand, for 
carrvinc class, plates, and so on. 





BUTT. A thrust with lowered head, 
.i~ by a ram or ox. Here we see a bison 
huttinu at a tree in wVich is a man.. 




BUTT. The sluiulder end ot a gun- 
stock; we show the butt of a 17th- 
centurv nuisket and that ot 1 rifle. 







BUTT. A uiirLl lur a ndye ur' sleep 
>ii.ipe which cannot be plonirhed 



^.-■tf^.-'-.^i^^ 







BUTLER, LADY ELIZABETH , i ■ ., ;,., I ,, , i,,,Muii 1. .r her nun v spi. : , ■ i , lus, notaPfv 

of the Crimean War period. We nerc give ner portrait beside her weff-known Scotfand lor Ever I shnuni'; the charge of the 
"^I'p was the elder sister of Alice Meynell the poet, and wife ot General Sir William Butler (IS38-I910), 



Scots Greys at Balaclava, 



BUTT 




BUTTERFLY 




? H J !^.u ■ , '" ''■"■""s. Ihe -.hurl uiam conneciini; each harness tue to ih 
middle of the wh.pple-tree, or crossbar, as in a ploufh. The harnessfu? or trj ' " 
.s the lone Cham Irom the collar to the end of the whipple-tree 
Butte. See Atlas 30. D 1. i ► t. 



BUTT. A lari;e cask for holdini; wine, 
petroleum, and so on. The pictiir. 
shous nne iised to catch rainwater. 




^Wjp ^^!!6 







BUTTERCUP. 

Mvcral kiij^ ol rj 

-V thrir Hr-'h! ■. 



BUTTER-BURR. ,\ Composite plant 
with manve llower:; and coarse leavei. 



Makin? b 




t V 



BUTTER. 



A valuable lood proilueed 



'.iratini; the tattv parts ol milk 



BUTTER BEATER. A wooden im 
plemeiit used in dairies and shops for 
be-itiii'.; and working up butter, 
Butler Bird. 



.Same as Bobolink (q.v.i. 



BUTT, DAME CLARA (b. iS/ji \ 
Ennhsh contraltu singer who has suiie 
in public with success from her student 
days onward. 

BUTT. ISAAC (1813-1879). An Irish 
politician who as a party leader made 
the term Home Rule popular. 
Butt. .See Butt leather. 



„_-^>«-g K?y 



.:^^ 



BUTT-BOLT. 

row used (or shi.ut 
three examples sh 
with tsthccntury 



a tar,i;et. The 
own here were used 
crossbows. 






BUTTER DISH. ,. ..., . 

i ass or potcellin, inu mten niTinc i 
Ivor or pbleJ bi\r. In liMe mt 




8UI TLR DKYER. A ml^nn 

iri.Ti but::r anj 




BUTTER FISH 



jaii0 



■r.:, ol dish i 
I bv water. 



BUTTER BLENDER. A hand or power 
machine used in butter. makinc to 
remove superfluous moisture and im- 
prove the gnalitv of the btift-' 




BUTTER BLOCK. 

.ptacle in uiiich 



A marble or slate 
butter is placed in 



a prnvisie-n shop or retail dairy, 
BUTTER BOAT. A sauce boat in which 
melted butter is served. 




BUTrtK CROJS ,Ae: 

ceitaiii nied^ew.. .iicad,;J market. 
shelters remainini; in some old towns. 
This one is at Salisburv. 



BUTTERFLY 

iisects (>; the itrder Lcp'dopicra iw scale 
Aincs. of which they iivm the clubbed- 
.uitennae section. These Ji.^,— ^—< "■•-- 
tratc their chief parts. F' - ■ 
kinds see under their -ndi^ 

Sei- jIso Cdatr PliU. H--i. 



BUTTERFLY BLENNY 



rifis 



BUTTER TUB 




BUTTERFLY BLENNY. 1 he cye.l 
blenny. so cal'ed because its spotted 
dorsal tin is I'kc a butterlU's wine. 



BUTTERFLY LOBSTER. A crustacean 

kiiow'ii to science jn ibacus peronii. 
BUTTERFLY NET. A net of line gauze 
used bv truomiUi'^ists It is often 
collapsible, a T-piece and special m.eta! 
riiii::^ bcinc used In lit it to-^etlier. 




BUTTERFLY FISH. The West African 
ir;.sh-uaii-r ilvint; fish seen here. 




BUTTERFLY GURNARD. A tish, 
Dact>Iopterus orientalis. found In the 
Indian Ocean. It flies by vibrating 
rapidlv its enormous pectoral tins. 




BUTTERFLY HEADDRESS. A late 

t>th-centurv h;:':uidrcss made ot light 
material draped uver a liL;ht wire frame 




BUTTERFLY HUNTER. A u.iicciur ol 
butt.Tllies and other winq;ed insects 
which he capture.-; :n a butterfly net. 



BUTTERFLY ORCHIS. The orchis 

HalHMinri.i hitolu. 

BUTTERFLY PLANT. The orchis 

[.>iu-iduim p.ipilm. ;i native of Trinidad. 




BUTTERFLY RAY. A stmg ray. Pter 
oplata machura. with very broad 
pectoral lins. which u'ive it its name. 




BUTTERFLY SHELL. One of liu 

Naticidae family of molluscs, like the^c 

r""" 




BUTTERFLY VALVE. A valve con 
sisting of two semi-circular clappers or 
wings hinged to a cross-rib inside a 
pump bucket or pipe line (which see). 
The one shown was made by Mechans, 
Limited, of Glasgow. 




BU1TERFLY WEED. A inui-ii iuuiu 
tor Ascicpias tuberosa, a North American 
plant with showy oraiige flowers, one ol 
which is shown separately. 



r_-^^ 



BUTTER KNIFE. A knilL- with a llu.it 
iili:;;- used at table to cut butter. 
Butter Maker. See Butter. 




BUTTERMERE. A tivautilul lake a 
mile aiiJ a quarter Ions in the Cumber- 
land Lake District, its Rreatest depth 
is about 93 feet. 




BUTTERMILK. The liquid remaining 
after the butter is separated from the 
milk. It is lariiely used for feeding pigf, 

.IS shou n in tills picture. 




BUTTER MOULD. A pair ct blocks, 
with designs indented or :n relief, for 
moulding butter into patterns 
BUTTER MUSLIN. ■ A fine open-meshed 
linen so ca'Ied because butter is packed 
ill if for market. 




C^ 



BUTTERNUT. A North American tree 
ut the walnut family. The nut, shown 
here with the leaf, is edible, 
BUTTER PACKER. A wooden tool, 
s