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I. I B 11 A Jl Y 


Theological Seminary, 

('".<, Division "^ U L.i.i./^r... 

I Boa/: 


(?go autem biffuUlime bomts jubfv Irgo quob stripsmm, Btb aul 
limrbtor mto nut tnpibior. !l!)ibfo dinm rnlfrbum bttia mca; seb 
bacc mnio aubiw a meltovUnis, iic cum me tnk fortasse rcirrtljcnbtro, 
nirsus mibi blaubiar, cl meticulosam polius mibt btbcar xn me, quam 
justnm tultssc sfntmtram." ^t. 3lur|nstiiic. 









"0 GOD HOW LONG shall the adversary do this dishonodr : how lonc. 

shall the enemy blaspheme thy name, — for ever? Arise o cod, 

plead thine own cause !"' Psalm lxxiv. 11. 23. 

The entire proceeds of this work will be giveu tdwards founding a 
"Society for propagating the Oospel among the Mohammedans." 




Had it not been for the recent outbursts of Mos- 
lem fanaticism, it would almost have been forgotten, 
that Islamism maintains an unequivocally hostile 
relation to Christianity. We should doubtless, have 
continued to flatter ourselves, with having done 
our duty towards its followers, in praying once a year, 
that God might "have mercy upon all. . . Turks, . . . 
and take from them all ignorance, hardness of heart, 
and contempt of His Word." But, if the calculation 
of the learned French infidel Bayle be correct, — that 
were the globe divided into thirty equal portions, 
nineteen of them would fall to the dominion oi Pagan- 
ism, six to Islamism, and ^w only to Christianity, 
— we must acknowledge that something more is to 
be done, and if so, the object of this work can scarcely 
be deemed futile or chimerical. 

It is not only, since the Mohammedans have so 


painfully protruded themselves upon the attention of 
Europe, but many years ago, that the author first 
commenced gathering information upon the subject 
of this volume, — and that, during a sojourn in Egypt, 
Arabia, Palestine, East-Africa, Abyssinia, and more 
especially in India. The work is now published with 
a view to cherish, if possible, the missionary spirit 
which has been called forth by recent events; and to 
place some of the leading truths of Christianity anti- 
thetically to the falsities and perversions of the Koran, 
so as to render the comparison available for actual 
missionary operations among the numerous posterity 
of Ishmael. 

May God, in His infinite mercy, "stir up^ by 
this , or any other means, "the spirit of the remnant 
of His people," that they may no longer neglect to 
do this ''work in the house of the Lord of hosts." 

* J. lu. A. 

, Febr. 10, 1859. 

V ^ 





















PART 11. 














PART 1. 




"Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ? He 

is Antichrist that denieth the Father and the Son. Whosoever 

denieth the Son , the same hath not the Father." 

1 John II. 22. 23. 

1. It was in the act of blessing Mary andJosepli, 
that the inspired Simeon uttered the remarkable pre- 
diction concerning our Lord Jesus Christ: "Behold 
this one is set for the fall and risino- again in Israel; 
and for a sign which shall be spoken against:"* and 
how many since that day have stumbled, fallen and 
been broken at this rock of offence. That the Son 
of Man was "for a gin and for a snare" not only to 

' Idov ovrog y.klrat iig nroSaif y.(xl ilvaaraaiv tioXXcSv iv rw 
Vff^a^A , y.(d Hg (Ti^i^uaov urriXfyn/if-ior. Lu. 11. 34. Tlie fact of 
of TTuTg being omitted, which is generally supplied in versions, is 
significative, since the prophecy embraces the character of the Re- 
deemer in all its comprehensiveness. 



both the houses of Israel, but also to the house of 
Ishmael is sufficiently proved by the very existence of 
Islamism : ^ nor was it for the first time that our blessed 
Lord ''was spoken against" when IMohammed in "the 
spirit of Antichrist," ^ and as one of the false prophets, 
denied that Jesus Christ the Son of God is come 
into the world. As there is a wonderfid harmony in 
the testimony of all the true,* so is there a striking 
uniformity in that of the many false Prophets, who 
openly as well as "privily bring in damnable heresies," 
and agree in disallowinjx the chief cornerstone, de- 
nying the Lord that bought them/' 

It was to be expected that no dogma would have 
to sustain such contradiction and opposition from 
"the gates of hell," as that touching the Divinity of 
Jesus Christ, it being the very life and soul of the 
Christian religion/ yet, thanks be to God, they have 

- "And he shall bo for a sanctuary; but for a stono of stuiu- 
blinar. and for a rock of ofl'ence to both the houses of Israel, for a 
gin and for a snare "Op.^'Jai^ HSb to the inhabitants of Jerusalem."' 
Isa. VIII. 14. The W'^'l in verse 15. indicates that the offence is 
not confined to Israel. 

' TO sci. 7i)'8vi.ia rov dvTi^Qi'ffTov implies a system of false 
doctrine, and a succession of personal uit{i(ji(Jtoi. The one .^piritus 
of Antichrist pervades the entire body of false teachinfj, and in- 
spires individuals or communities. The o (cy.i/.oart. on h^j^f-nxt 
affords an insight of the Apostles' teaching concerning this subject. 

1 John IV. 3. 

* tov7(o navTtg oi TTQOCfrjtai fiaatvQovmv. Act, X. 43. 

^' This uniformity in spite of individual shades of difference is 
owing to tlie nifvfiix tov dmii^ifJTov or the Trrf-vfia t/"^* Tihcrtjg, 
which commissions and controls the whole body of T/;fi;^0(5nV«:'7X((Ao^ 

2 Pet. II. 1. 1 .lohn II. G. 

*" Tliis "fiindamontum fundamonti" or nrvkog y.ia i-i^oia'tofuc tZ/C 
dhjOeiag 1 Tim. III. lo. was therefore assaulted by all the xptvdo- 


not prevailed and shall not prevail against it. ' When 
men in vain take connsel together against Jehovah 
and Ilis Christ, "He shall speak unto them, in His 
wrath and vex them in His sore displeasure." It is 
therefore natural that Islamism would not be isolated, 
but closely connected with, and forming part of that 
system of religious error, which the devil has spread 
like a huge net over the face of the earth ; for from 
the days of the Apostles up to this time, there has 
ever been at work within the Church an invisible 
hand, lengthening its cords and adapting its meshes 
with wondrous skill and ingenuity to the circum- 
stances of each particular period. 

A cursory view of those heresies which success- 
ively denied the Divinity of Christ before the days of 
Mohammed, will convince us that Islamism merely 
reproduced and extended the already existing elements 
of apostacy in a new form, instead of striking out 
a fresh path of religious error. We should however 
be much mistaken, if we were understood to place 
Islamism on a level with those heresies which were 
now and then ejected from the body of the Church,'* 
but we recognise in its system a rank and most per- 
nicious apostacy of a peculiar type. Whilst Islamism 
however introduced a new element of delusion, it 

didaaMxkot , 7Tievi.iara TrXavoi , ipf:v6o7TQO<f)^Tai. , dida(JKa'k(at rmr 
8umovi(ov and ai()6aiis (InoXetag. IV. 1. 

^ Vide Ps. II. ]. 2. 4 and compare the rrrr-'hy 'nn; -"-IC": 
"'IT'OTa ~5""1 in verse 2. with (Ti^uHor (aTiXf-ynmror. I.u. H. 34. 

'^ A living divine compares heresies to the "excrementa", natu- 
ral to a healthy and living body. 



gathered up and embodied the characteristic prin- 
ciples of those lieresies, which denied the Godhead 
of" the Redeemer. 

2. The mystery of Godhness that Christ was 
born of a virgin, very God of very God, was only 
gradually revealed, being purposely hidden from the 
carnal gaze of the world for a considerable time. ^ If 
we seek for the popular opinion of our Lord's person 
and character during His life-time, we find that Jesus 
up to His thirtieth year was supposed to be the son of 
Joseph. ^"^ After His baptism Christ was spoken of 
by Philip "as Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph." ' ^ 
When He connnenced His public ministry, the people 
ask astonished: ''Is not this Joseph's son?"^^ At a 
later period they exclaim: ''Is not this the car])en- 
ter's son? Is not His mother called Mary?"^'' Onlv 
one year before His passion the Jews ask: "Is not 
this Jesus the son of Joseph, whose father and mo- 
ther we know." ^* The same opinions prevailed among 
the unbelieving masses long- after the Ascension of 
the Redeemer; and even in the days of the Apostles, 
heresies sprang up within the Church, adopting the 

^ It may be said of this mystery, what was said of aiiotlier in- 
volved in it, viz., the dogma of the bles.sed Trinity tliat it was vnl{): 
rovv, vnt(> Xoynv mxl vnlfJ ndaw ■naxuXi[i.\:ii\ Just. Martyr, in 
confut. Grace. Quest. 

*" "And Jesus himself began to be about 30 years of age, being, 
as was supposed [mv , (os HOiu'ti-TO , vioi '/fo'J7;qfi, not: cor, vto^ 
'iw(r/^'(jp, aj5 tmm'Ci-ro) the st)n of Joscjih. Lu. HI. 23. 

*' John 1. 45. fi'iJi'jKix/iUi' ^Iijaovv rof vior tov 'lojaijCf, tor drro 
*^ Lu. IV. 22. " Matt. XIII. 55. " John VI 42. 


views then cuiTeiit, viz., that He was no more than 
"Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph." Amongst 
these heretical teachers who in the apostohc age 
paved the way for Mohammed, Irenaeus mentions Ce- 
rinthus, a Jewish convert, who subsequently relapsed 
and w-as the first who dared to question the Divinity 
of Christ, asserting that His entrance into the \vorld 
was according to the ordinary laws of nature :^^ Epi- 
phanius also writes that Christ was considered an 
ordinary man by the Cerinthian heresy, adding that 
it admitted His Cross and Passion, but distinctly 
denied His Resurrection;^*' and their testimony is 
confirmed by St. Augustine.*^ 

Another heresy of the same age and tendency as 
the preceding, was that of the Ebionites,^^ who, like 
the Cerinthians , adopted the popular notion con- 
cerning Christ, which was current during His life- 
time.*^ There has been much uncertainty as to the 

^^' "Cerinthus quidam in Asia docuit, Jesum non ex virgine natum 
fuissc, autem tuni Joseph et Mariae filium (similiter, utrelicjui onines 
honiiius, et plus potuisse justitia et prudentia et sapieiitia prae 
onmibus." Ireii. lib. I. cap. 25. 

"' They are declared to have asserted: tx umoiag xal <"■'?{ UTT^iJ- 
fiaTog ^luKilq) 70V ^(jiUTov yi-yei ff^Oat. Epiphan. lib. I. torn. II. 
pag. 53. 

*^ Vide August, torn. VI. haeres. VIII. That Cerinthus propa- 
gated his heresy in the days of the Apostles will appear from the 
well known incident, which Polycarp is said to have recorded viz., 
that St. John immediately left the bath at Ephesus on seeing that 
Cerinthus, "the enemy of the truth" had entered the building. 
Iren. lib. III. contra liaeres. cap. 3. 

'** Ebion is probably the name of the founder of this heresy; 
some however receive it as a cognomen, from """"5^ plur. C'p"'3S*: 

'" "Ebionaei ex Joseph Christum gencratuni esse dicunt." 

6 THP: fore-runners of MOHAMMED. [paht 1. 

minor, and for our purpose less important items of 
this ancient heresy, but however indefinite and muhi- 
fonn^" their system of error may have been, one 
thing was clear and decided, that they denied the 
Godhead of Christ and lowered Him to the level of 
mortal man. It is but due to Mohammed to add, 
that he abstained from going to the full length of 
these early heretics, when he admitted the miraculous 
character of our Lord's entrance into the world, which 
was by them denied. ^^ 

These are the two chief heresies , which gained 
ground in the days of the Apostles , to refute which, 
is said to have been one of the objects which St. John 
had in view in his Gospel and Epistles. The Evangelist 
indeed himself assigns a cause for writing as he does, 
in these words: "These are written that ye might 
believe, that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and 
that believing, ye might have life through His name." ^ ^ 

Irenaeus writes: ''John the disciple of the Lord, 
wishing by the preaching of the Gospel to refute 
the error, which had been spread by Cerinthus and 

Iron. lib. 111. cap. 24. See also: lib. I. cap. 26. V. pag. 539. 
IV. cap. 59. 

^^ The Fathers describe it as rroXvfiOQqov, and Epiphanius de- 
scribes it: ^afta()ttrcor t](^!i to fS(%}.v(i()r, ^lovdta'cor df- to oioina, 
^Ooaaicov fie xnl Niy.C<K(J(n(x>i> yjxl NixauQiuayr 7)jv yicour^v, Ki]{»irOia- 
vmv TO f-iSo^ , Ka(jTrox(JiKTu<icov tr;v xay.0T(j07Tu(v , zal X{jmriar(ov 
^ovXt7h. kikiv rriv nQOcn]yo(Jiav. Epiphan. lib. I. contra haeres. torn. II. 
pag. 59. 

^* This was expressly done by Ebion: t,y. 7Ti(fjar{Jt.;^r^i (Tnt(j- 
t-iatog drdQos Tovrfcm tov 7a)f7/;(jr rov Xqkttoi' ytyeniji^ai, tXf-yn\ 
Epijih. toni. II. pag. 60. 

^^ Scopus Ev;\n;>-olii : ravTa f^f- ylyfjamai . irn TTinrfVtrrjf on 
6 'lt]aovg hnr XPIl'TOl TlOX TOK-JEOT. John XX. 31. 


Still earlier by those who were called Nicolaitanes, 
commenced His Gospel with a view to confound and 
persuade them, that there is one God, who made 
all things by His Word, and to establish a rule of 
truth in the Church." ^^ St. Jerome says: "Even 
when John was still in Asia, the seeds of the heretics, 
Cerinthus , Ebion and others , who deny that Christ 

came into the flesh, had already sprung up whom 

in his Epistle he calls "Antichrists," whom Paul also 
frequently attacks — and he was compelled by al- 
most all the Bishops then in Asia, and by legates 
from many Churches to write more deeply concerning 
the Divinity of Christ."^* Since St. John's Epistles 
are also directed against the same errors,'^' what 
force and significance passages like these acquire: 
"Who is a liar, but he that denieth, that Jesus is 
the Christ. He is Antichrist, that denieth the Fa- 
ther and the Son. Whosoever denieth the Son, the 
same hath not the Father." Again: "Beloved be- 
lieve not every Spirit, but try the spirits, whether 
they are of God, because many false prophets are 
gone out into the world." In the second Epistle, 

'" Iren. lib. III. cap. XI. pag. 184. 

Vide Hieronymus in proxini. Comment, in Matt. In his "Ca- 
talog. Script, ecclesiast." Cap. LX. the same Father adds ; that St. 
John wrote the last Gospel "at the request of the Bishops of Asia, 
against Cerinthus and other heretics, chiefly the Ebionites, who 
maintain that Christ did not exist prior to Mary." 

^pevarj]g; 6 dgiov/nevog Tor mo,:; 6 uvrii(jiiTTo; ; to 
nnv^m rig nXarrjg-, nolXol xpevdo7T(jO(f,^Tai , are all terms regar- 
ding that "sin unto death" viz., tlie denial that Christ is the Son of 
God, being y.ur f^^oxijv the foundation of Christian faitli and doc- 
trine. 1 John II. 23. IV. 1 . 


he complains of "many deceivers, Avho confess not, 
that Jesus came into the flesh. This is the deceiver 
and the Antichrist.'^'' Look to yourselves, that we 
lose not those thins^s, which we have wrought, hut 
that we receive a full reward. Whosoever trans- 
ofresseth and abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, 
hath not God; he that abideth in the doctrine of 
Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son. If 
there come any among yon and bring not this doc- 
trine^' receive him not into your house, neither bid 
him God speed, for he that biddeth him God speed, 
is partaker of his evil deeds." 

3. In the beginning of the second century we 
have a revival of the above heresies under Carj^ocra- 
tes, Theodotus, and Artemonius. The first was a 
philosopher of Alexandria , and though his teaching 
is not clear on all points as far as ecclesiastical wri- 
ters notice him, yet his disciple Theodotus A. D. 146, 
a leather-merchant by trade, broadly affirmed the 
doctrines of the Cerinthians and Ebionites.^^ Arte- 
monius followed in the siime track of heretical teach- 
ing; ^^ whilst Paulus Samosatenus, Bishop of An- 
tioch A. D. 270 admitted that the Word and the 
Spirit have always existed in God, but denied their 

^•^ Who the noXXol nXdrot and the /n/) OfioXoyoviTtg It;(Jovv 
X(Ji(Troi' are, has been already specified. 

^'^ The difstxiTj tov XoKTTOv is clearly that doctrine, which 
teaches, tliat Jesus is Christ the Son of God, 2 John 9. 10. which 
the heresies in (juestion rejected. 

^^ Eiplian. haeres. 54. pag. 462. Theodoretus lib. II. haeretic. 
fabul. cap. 5. pag. 220 

^^ Eusebius lib. V. hist. Eccles. cap. 28. It has been suspected 


personality and self-existence. ^° Had we no other 
testimony concerning this heresy we should have con- 
sidered it purely a revival of theSabellian error; this 
error would of itself imply a denial of the personal 
Divinity of Christ: there is however additional evi- 
dence that the Samosatenians dated the beginning 
of Christ from His birth of Mary, esteeming Ilim a 
mere man. ^ ^ We must therefore take it for granted 
that the Word as conceived by Saniosatenus, was 
something altogether different from Jesus Christ, or 
that his followers carried the denial of Christ's Divi- 
nity to a still greater extent, and thus, as is usually 
the case, out-stripped their leader. The Bishop was 
deprived of his office and his doctrine branded as 
heresy, but far from being eradicated, it was only cut 
doM^n for a time to sprout up again with fresh vigour 
at a future season. 

4. Exactly fifty years afterwards, the Arian 
heresy arose, as another precursor of Islamism; it 
admitted our Lord to be a personal and self-existing 
being, but denied that He was "God of the substance 

that he expunged the passage 1 John V. 7. from some of the an- 
cient Manuscripts. Theodotus and Artemonius were both cut off 
from the Church, the former A. D. 146. the latter A. I). 191. 

■^° ^uaKSi de ovrng •Ofoi' rrurfQu x«t vioi' y.rd ayiov nvi-v^a 
tru {^tov' ii> xficS dl. dii ona rof dviov Xoyov xal ro TTievfia nv- 
70V, axyneQ iv <xv-b(JC07iov y.aQduc o mV/os Xoyos /"/ f'''«' f''^- tov viof 
rov ■deov irvnoaratov. Epiphan. lib. II. torn. II. haer. G5. 

^' "Paulini a Paulo Samosateno Christum non semper fuisse 
dicunt, sed ejus initium, ex quo de Maria natus est, asseverant, nee 
eum aliquid amplius, quam hominem putant. Ista haeresis aliquando 
cujusdam Artimonii fuit, sed cum dcfecisset, instaurata est a Paulo, 
et postca sic a Photino confirmata, ut Photiani quam Pauliani celc- 
brius nuncupentur." August, de hacres. 


of the Father, not made, nor created but begotten."^' 
Christ accordino- to Arian teaehino- was a mere crea- 
ture, but one endowed with gifts and virtues of a 
superior character; ^^ Jesus was the 8on of God not 
by nature, but by adoption, and on account of His ex- 
cellencies deserved to be called the Son of God in 
Holy Scriptures: our Lord was therefore considered 
not consubstantial with the Father, but of a diverse 
nature and essence,^* neither co-eternal, there being 
a time, when He did not exist. It assumes also that 
the power He possesses was received from God;'^^' 
that the Son knows the Father or His secrets only 
so far as was revealed to Him; that He is not to be 
worshipped in the flesh; that He was inclined to good 
and evil , ' ** and that His kingdom will perish at the 
end of the world. 

This pernicious heresy was condemned at the 
Council of Nice A. D. 325 where 318 Bishops as- 
sembled to establish the faith in "one Lord Jesus 
Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of 
His Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of 
Light, very God of very God, begotten not made, 
being of one substance with the Father, by whom all 
things were made."^^ The sudden check, which this 

'^ Arius a presbyter of tlie Alexandrian Church A. D. 320. 

^■^ He was created in jutj onoav. SomeArians however believed 
that he was made from some pre-existing matter. August, lib. Ill 
contra Max. cap. 14. 

^* Not bf-ioovaioi Tw ■&ho but Ftegovaiog. 

^'' Athanas. Orat. contra Arianos. ^^ Theodoretus lib. I. cap. 9. 

•" Kal elg tva xv(JtO)> ^Iijaovv xQKftov' rov vtov rov -dfov yf;i"vri- 
Ohth hY. 70V 7TaT{Jog (.loroyovfj rovitarir fx r'fjq ovmag rov najQog, 

ciiAi'. 1.1 THE AKIAN HERESY. 11 

heresy received in the terrible death of its founder, 
in answer to the prayers of the pious Bishop Alexan- 
der, need only be referred to, to stimulate Christian 
Bishops and Pastors in these days to do the like as 
regards kindred errors. ^^ Neither the mii-aculons 
death however of its founder, nor the condemnation 
of the heresy conld extinguish the flame which had 
been kindled; nnder the Emperor Valens it spread 
over Greece, part of Asia, over Italy as far as Milan, 
and among the newly converted Goths. ^^ 

Beryllus, Bishop ofBostra in Arabia, had already 
prepared the way for Arianism in the Peninsula, 
denying, as he did, the pre-existence of Christ and 
with it the Godhead of the Redeemer; *° hence it was 
comparatively easy for Constantins to propagate the 
Arian creed among the Arabs. He sent Theophilus 

■deov ex 'deov, qpoJg ix (fcorbg, •deov ah]-&ivov in -deov ahj&itov yev- 
■VTj&tvra 6v TToUi&trra , of-ioovaiov tm Trar^l. Theodoret. I. 11. 
Nicaenum fidei syniboluni. 

^® ^Avroq yag 6 y.vfjiog dixdaag raTg dneiXatqnSv ntQVEvGf^iov 
xal rrjf ivxfiAXi^(ad(jov y.atmQivs rrjv ^Ageidniv ui(jeoii>. Athanasii 
Op. torn. I. pag. 341. Again: ov yc.Q ilXXog aXk' (Ivrog 6 (Himcfrj- 
/uovfitro'g -nufj' (Ivrcov xvQiog yxirf^y.Qire ttjv vxn dvrov avcFTdaav 
diQtmv. pag. 342. 

^^ So mightily grew the evil: "ut totus ingemisceret orbis, se- 
gue tain cito factum esse Arianum miraretur." Hieronym. adversus 
Lucifer torn. III. fol. 65. 

*° Bi](jvX?^og 70V (Tmr}j(j<x Xeyeiv toXuoSv jiit] nQOvcprnTaira xin' 
iSi'ay ovmag 7TeQ(y(j((C(t)i> ttqo n~g tig a.v-&{)(y>novg tTridtjiiiucg pi^dh 
iia]r ■&fory]ra tdiav extm , «AA' fiLi7ToXiTevoi.i6tr]i> dvroj fi6i>7]v zijv 
TTccToty.fii'. Euscb. Yl. 33. cfr. Orig. comm. ad Tituni: hominciii 
dicunt Dominum Jesum praccognitum et pracdestinatum , qui ante 
adventum carnalem substantialiter et propria non exstitcrit, sed 
homo natus patris solam in se habuerit deitatem." Ullmann do Be- 
rvUo Hamb. 1835. 


to the king of the Ilimyarites with considerable pre- 
sents to ask permission to build churches; one was 
accordingly built in his capital, Tapharon, a second 
at Adena, the now British Aden in Sontli Arabia, 
and a third in the Persian Gulf.** 

5. It is the object of these introductory re- 
marks to show that not only in truth , but also in 
error, remarkable epochs are gradually introduced 
and systematically fore-stalled. Mohammed's new 
creed, as far as we may designate it new, did not 
appear, until the w^orld was in a measure prepared 
for it by heresies of a cognate and analogous charac- 
ter, such as those we are reviewing. We now arrive 
at a period extending from the Nicene Council to the 
rise of Islamism. Soon after its condemnation the 
Arian heresy split up into two distinct sections, which 
nevertheless agreed in denying the divine character of 
our blessed Redeemer. 

The first sect was' that of the strict Arians,*^ 
who not only denied the Son of God to be of the 
same substance with the Father, but declared Him 
to be altogether unlike the Father : ^"^ the Semi- Avians, 

*^ This happened 350. Theophilus was a native of India from 
the Island Divus (Diu) who had been sent as hostage to Constan- 
tine the Great. He became an Arian Monk, and Eusebius of Nico- 
media ordained him a deacon. I'hiio.storgius Hist. Eccles. epit. 
lib. II. 6. lib. III. 4 

*^ They were called «7 0,uo*0{, because they considered Christ 
Hvopiooq or tteQovaiog. The chief leaders were Aetiuti , a deacon 
of Ali'.xaiidria ; EunominK, described by Ruffinus as a man "corpore 
et animo leprosus," and Acacius. August, torn. \\. haeres. 54. 

*'^ Aetius was styled: \fQeiaiog tia^vtarog and taught ror 
vinr ((lonoior too ndtQi vnafJiKjhir mxi 6v ravtov thai i^ ■&totij'n 

tiiAr. i.j 

SEMI-AllIANS. 1 -i 

whilst rejecting the orthodox dogma, that Christ is 
of the sul)staiice of the Father , held that He was of 
a similar nature.** It was this latter section which 
was by far the most powerful and mimerous of the 
two; sufficiently so, to continue to distract the Church 
in the following ages, till Islamism had growai potent 
enough, to arrest and supplant the heresy alto- 

6. That the creed of Mohammed absorbed the 
various heresies wdiich denied the Divinity of Christ 
is evident, from the fact that they vanish from the 
Church on the rise of Islamism; and it is not less 
remarkable, that they remained dormant till the 13"' 
century, wdien Islamism sustained a fatal blow by 
the dissolution of the Kaliphate in the year A. D. 
1258.*'' Abdallah had been ^^roclaimed Kaliph, with 
these w^ords: "The Kaliphate is reserved to our family 
by virtue of the divine decree, and shall remain in it 
for ever till the end of time,"*** and we argue from 
this alleged prediction, that the dissolution of the 
Kaliphate must be considered a remarkable epoch in 
the history of Islamism ; and it will confirm our opi- 

TT^og TOT TTaTf'iin. Epiplian. toni. I. lib. III. pag. 388. Photinus, 
the Bishop of Siriuium being deposed A. D. 351. is said by some to 
have followed Samosatenus, but according to Augustine, he hear- 
tily joined the strict Arians. 

** According to them Christ was not Of-ioovdiog but oiiotoiuTio;; 
Tu) TiuTfji; hence their name: iji.vuiJt.toi or ofWiovduaiTui. They 
were also styled Eusebians from Eusebius, Bishop of Nicomedia. 

^" Abbot Joachim was the first after Mohammed who denied 
the divinity of Christ ; his heresy was condemned by the I^ataran 
Council A. D. 1215. 

*^ In d'Ohsson tab. de TEmpire Otliom. fol. 1. pag. 138. 


nion of an internal connection subsisting between the 
heresies of the Church and the character of Islamism ; 
for it was at the breaking up of the Kahphate as a 
pohtico-reHgious power, that we recognise the first 
revival of the Arian heresy in the Church; Islamism 
was not indeed destroyed at that period, although in 
losing its Kaliph, it lost its head.^' 

After the days of St. John many Antichrists went 
out into the world, who for the space of seven centuries 
denied that Jesus Christ was the Son of God. As 
they served merely as fore-runners to a still more 
fatal error, they naturally retired when Mohammed 
and his successors arose, and presided over that 
system of error which destroys the very foundation 
of our holy faith and brands the confession of Christ 
being the Son of God as idolatry and blasphemy. 

Islamism is organically connected with the worst 
kinds of Chrntian heresy, but to assume it to be a 
Christian heresv, as some writers have done, is to 
take for granted that it sprang up within the Church, 
and that Mohammed himself was an apostate from 
the Christian faith. The fact that Islamism served 
as an outlet or receptacle for those heterodox and 
antichristian elements, which occasionally arose within 
the Church, does not by any means establish the 

*" Joacliim of Calabria, in wliom to nvfviLta rov ainxf^iarov 
re-appeared was succeeded by his countrymen Laelius and Faustus 
Socinus A. 1). 154G. from whom sprung the Socinian and Tnitarian 
heresy. The following' may serve as a correct estimate of their 
character: "Ab Ebione enini initium, ab Ario increnientum, a Plio- 
tino ilxfii]!' erroris hauserunt. Ariani recte diciintur. quia conveniiint 
in sumnio controversiae j)uncto, quod est, divinitas Christi neg-.atio." 
Quonstedt Theol. did.-pol. Pars I. cap. IX. pag. 367. 


creed of INIoliainmed to be a Cliristian sect;*^ heresy 
according to its etymological signification implying 
a separation or dcpartnre from orthodox faith and 
practice. * ■' 

The Moslem admits the law and the Gospel to 
be of divine origin , he knows however nothing of 
either, except throngh the distorted medium of the 
Koran; and it is just because Islamism acknowledges 
so many truths and borrows so many weapons of the 
Cliristian armory that it becomes so dangerous an 
adversarv. '" We have to do, not Avith a heresy within 
the Church, which might be condemned at a general 
council, but with a fearful conspiracy against the 
very existence of the Church itself. The Christian 
dispensation is declared to have been superseded and 
abrogated, as if decayed and waxen old; the very 
identity of the facts and truths recorded in the Koran 
is destroyed by its misrepresentations and perversions ; 
and in asserting that the Bible has been corrupted, 
Mohammed takes from us the most effectual means 
of proving his imposture. With a view of giving, as 
far as lies in our power, a Natural History of the 
creed, which we have thus introduced to the reader, 
we shall next inquire for the land of its birth , and 
the people among whom it first made its appearance. 

*'^ 8h yaiJ (uotdfig fv vf^uv 1 Cor. XI. 19. Again: nul tv 
vfiXv eaoirac xpav8odi8(X(7KaXoi. 2 Pet. II. 1. both refer to heresies 
within the Church. 

*^ "Haercsis disoessus est unius partis ab unltate ecclesiae, vol 
in fide, vel in cultu." Bengelii Gnomon ad 1 Cor. XI. 19. 

** The Indian mutineers were formidable, because they fought 
with our own arms and ammunition against us. 

10 THE LAND OF ITS BIRTH. \\'.\in i. 



"For there shall arise false Clirists and false prophets; wherefore 
if tlicy shall sav unto you, Behold he is in the desert, go not forth. 

Matt. XXIV. 24. 26. 

1. A close affinity may be recoonised between 
the natural religions of the Pagan world and the re- 
spective countries , in which they obtain. Whilst 
true Religion is of a purely S2)iritual character and 
admits none of the natiu-al and accidental elements 
of the country in which it was revealed, or in which 
it is planted, '^ ^ false creeds ever yield to the physical 
influences, to which they are exposed. We could not 
conceive for instance that the Hindoo Mythology in 
all its exuberance could have sprung up in a poverty- 
striken country like Arabia." There are several 
names descriptive of the position and character of 
the land in which Islamism was reared. In the East 
it is called Bar-cl- Yemen, or the 'dand to the right" 
in contradistinction to Bar-eshrSham, the "land to 
the left", bv which Syria is known. In Chaldea it 
was called the "land of the evening", and in Europe 
and Africa it was known as the "land of the East".'' '* 

■'' "In growing men, religion received none of the 
frail elements of humanity or nature into its sy.stem. It enters into 
the world without becoming of the world."" True and false Reli- 
gion pag. 7 

^^ V)^' '"' *^ r*-^ Arabia; compare, h rjj f\>i'jf((i> Maft. 
XXIV. 20. 

^^ 3nj^ yn^? = land of the evening; Q-J^__ }*'^X or ihaToXij : 
land of the East. 


In the Bible, where it occurs four times it is invariably 
called Arabia/* and the signification which it could 
alone have to the Hebrew in Palestine, is that of de- 
sert or ivilderness and this is by far the most ap- 
propriate apjiellation , the characteristic feature of 
Arabia being that of an interminable desert.". If 
there be a fountain, a rivulet, a green spot, a plea- 
sant garden or a fruitful vale here and there, it only 
the more painfully convinces the traveller, who sets 
his foot on its sandy wastes, that Arabia is indeed 
"a desert land", and that no other name could ex- 
press its physical aspect more correctly. As the 
country, so the religion; for although Mohammeda- 
nism embodies some elements of a spiritual character 
yet beyond what it borrows from Judaism and 
Christianity, it only faithfully reflects the nature of 
the country, in wdiich it originated, being poor, bar- 
ren, and highly expressive of the rigid severity of 
the land of its birth. 

We have only to travel through the length and 
breadth of Arabia, and peruse the Koran on our jour- 
ney, to be convinced of this remarkable analogy be- 
tween the physical aspect of the country, and the 
book in question.''^ In the Koran we travel from 

^* 1 Kings X. 15. 2Chron.IX.14. Isa.XXI. 13. Jer. XXV. 4. 

in the last passage we read of ni^y ^"ohlz, Kings of Arabia; and the 
Arab is called ^'2yj,. 

^ "^"^i! = desert: the Arabs themselves speak of tlieir native 
land as Bar el Arab, the land of the Arabs; the same term is used 
by their neighbours. 

*® A learned Prelate once observed in a letter to the author: 
"1 often felt during my studies of the Koran , as one , who has to 


1 8 THE LAND OF ITS BIRTH. [part i. 

Sura to Sura, and all appears like a dreadful and 
howling- desert, with sandy steppes and dark rocky 
hills without a single vestige of" vegetation; we find 
indeed a few^ sparks of heavenly truth on its dismal 
pages, wdiich have been borrowed from the Bible, 
and which are fairly represented by the solitary foun- 
tain, the occasional oasis, and the few green valleys, 
in which the weary and w^ay-worn reader may repose 
for a moment. 

2. The next point to be considered regards the 
inhabitants of Arabia, who were the first to embrace 
Islamism. They are either pure Arabs, said to have 
descended from Joktan^^ the great grandson of Ar- 
pliaxad, the son of Shem; or Ishmaelite Arabs who 
were grafted upon the primitive stock. Otherwise 
they are classified into Hadesi, or Arabs w^ho live 
in fixed habitations; and i5ec?i/ms,''^ who now, as in 
olden times, are rovino- about wdth their flocks and 
tents in the vast desert between the Euphrates and 
Egypt. The Hadesi who settled chiefly in Yemen, 
claimed their orioin from Noah throuoh Joktan. It 
is amongst them we find the ancient kingdom of the 
Sabians;''^ and according to the Koran the Queen 

■wade through the endless sands of the desert, and frequently I tur- 
ned aside to refresh myself at the fountain of Israel." 

^^ Respecting these genuine Arabs or aborigines, ibs ulII o«juI 

the Arabs of the Arabs , compare Joktan lUSp^ ; amongst his sons 
we find N^O so well known in Arabia. Gen. X. 26. 27. 


'■''^ Beduin, (C.ljo from Badia, desert, which they inhabit. 
In Syriac: Ber JJroie: hence Berber, Barbarv. 

■'''' In the days of Lokman "the kingdom shone like a diamond 
on the forehead of the universe." The prophecy then: N5'^ "'S^^ 


of Sheba came from tlience to liear the wisdom of 
Solomon. The time however arrived when the kings 
of Yemen were akernately dependent on Ethiopian 
and Persian monarchs ; and manv of the tribes emi- 
grated and spread over the Peninsula. Amongst 
them there was one family, that of Rebia, which 
pushed towards the north and conquered Mecca, the 
sanctuarv of the Pa^an Arabs; but owino- to their 
corrupting influence it became the seat of a still 
grosser idolatry. In the year A. D. 464 they were 
expelled by the Koreishites , who took possession- of 
the old heathen temple at Mecca. 

When Nauwash a Jew, the last king of Yemen 
persecuted the Christians in the sixth century, Nagush 
came from Abyssinia to espouse their cause. The 
Abyssinian host obtained a glorious victory and Nau- 
wash threw himself into the sea in despair. Encou- 
raged by their success the victorious army besieged 
Mecca with a large force including thirteen Ele- 
phants; but Abd elMotalleb, alvoreishitehero, saved 
the town and the sanctuarv A. D. 570. The Arabs 
subsequently counted their time from this "year of 
the Elephants", as it was called, till it was superseded 
by a new era in the days of Mohammed.^® Strange 
to say it was his grandfather, who saved Mecca from 
the Abvssinians. 

^^■''^p: ^?^^. *<?y^ "t^Je kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts 
acquires force. Psalm LXXII. 10. 

*° J^V^'f *L£ , era of the elephants. The legend of the battle 
and its marvels: Wahl pag. 716. note to Sur. CV. -which is called 
"the Elephant". 

B» • 

20 THE LAND OF ITS BIRTH. [part i. 

3. We have above mentioned that the Joktan 
Arabs were chiefly to be looked for in Yemen, whilst 
the Ishmaelite Arabs or theBednins occupied "Arabia 
deserta" in contradistinction to "Arabia lelix" or Yemen. 
Upon what authority however, may we ask, do we be- 
lieve that the Arabs in question descended from Ish- 
mael? Josephus in speaking of circumcision as being 
administered among his own nation, on the eighth 
day, thus continues: "But the Arabians administer 
circumcision after the thirteenth year, forlshmael the 
founder of their nation, the son of Abraham by his 
concubine was circumcised at that time of life."^* 
According to Origen , "the Ishmaelites , who in- 
habit Arabia, practise circumcision in the thirteenth 
year; for this history tells us concerning them."^^ 
Still more ancient, and more important testimony is 
found in the Old Testament; there we have the names 
of the 12 sons of Ishmael, ^^ and their dwelling-place 
in after ages; namely, "froniHavilah unto Sliur, that 
is before Egypt as thou goest toward Assyria." This 
is confirmed by subsequent sacred writers. The Pro- 
phet Isaiah mentions Nebaioth and Kedar^* in con- 
nection with Sheba. Again Duma and Tema are 

®^ ^^Qa^eg 6e fitru trog TQig xal SanaTOf. ^lafKKtjXog yao 6 
xn'(TTTj5 dvtcoi> rov td-povg, 'Afiouinco yfyojuf-jos ix r}~g 7T(xXX(XKf;g iv 
TOVTip TT^Qiriinvi-roci tcS ^(jovoj, Flav. Joseph. Antiqu. Jud. lib. I. 
cap. X. pag. 26. 

^' TovTO yiiQ laTOQtiTai neQi avrdoi. Origen torn. II. pag. 16. 
Edit. Bened. 

^^ Nfbaiotli; Kedar; Adboel; Mlbsani; Mishnia; Duma; Massa; 
Hadar; Tenia; Jetur: Naphish ; and Kedcmah. Gen. XXV. 13 — 15. 

'^* Lsa.LX. 6. 7. "They from Sheba": "flocks of Kedar"; "rams 
of Nebaioth". 


mentioned in connection with Kedar, and this in a 
prophecy, conveying the burden uj3on Arabia. ^^ Je- 
tur and Naphish were overcome by the Reubenites 
in the days of Saul ; and their abode was the desert 
towards the East of Gilead.*^® 

Ishmael's posterity on multiplying, soon became 
mixed with other nations; the six sons of iVbraham 
byKeturah,^^ who had been sent "'eastward unto the 
east country", had in the days of the Judges , so far 
blended with the Ishmaelites, as to render the terms 
Ishmaelite and Midianite interchangeable. ^** That 
the Edomites or Idumaeans mingled at an early pe- 
riod with the Ishmaelites is proved by Strabo, when 
he says that the Nabataeans or the descendants of 
Nebaioth w^ere one and the same people/^ 

Thus we see that the promise was speedily ful- 
filled: "I will make him a great nation",- "behold I 
have blessed him"; 'T will multiply thy seed ex- 
ceedingly, that it shall not be numbered for multi- 
tude". '° In answer to the prayer of Abraham God 
promised that Ishmael should become the father of 
twelve princes analogous to the twelve Patriarchs that 
sprung from Isaac. A celebrated geographer whose 
judgment cannot be suspected of partiality, describes 
Arabia as "a living fountain of men, the stream of 
which had poured out far and wide to the East and 

*■' Isa. XXI. 11— 17. «6 1 (;;j,j.j,jj V iQ i9_21. 

" Gen. XXV. 6. ^r judges VIU. 1. 24. 

^^ Nafiaraioi d' hah 6i 'ISovftaot. Strabo lib. XYI. pag.1081. 

^^ Gen. XXI. 18. XVU. 20. and XVI. 10. The last words were 
spoken to Hagar. 

22 THE LAND OF ITS BIRTH. [part i. 

to the West for thousands of years. Before INIoham- 
med's time, the Arab tribes had spread throughout 
Asia Minor. In the middle a^es they are found in 
India. In the whole of North Africa as far as INIor- 
rocco spread their Avandering hordes ; and their ships 
Avent through the Indian ocean as far as China; on 
the Molucca islands and on the coast ofMosambique 
they had their settlements. In Europe they popu- 
lated the south of Spain, where they ruled for seven 
hundred years, and remaining unsubdued themselves, 
the Arabs ascended more than one hundred thrones 
beyond their native soil." ' ^ V\ q have seen that 
the descendants of Joktan and the })osterity of the 
six sons of Abraham blended with the Ishmaelites, 
and that all these elements united in the population 
of Arabia, yet it is beyond doubt that the Ishmaelites 
gained the ascendency and impressed their character 
upon the rest. The above testimony may therefore 
be legitimately adduced to jirove that God made good 
his words to Hagar: '"1 will multiply thy seed ex- 
ceedingly , that it shall not be numbered for multi- 

Again the character of Ishmael and his Arab- 

" „9(ralnni ift dm [chcn't'ic\( 2)}cn[d)enqucne , bcrcn Strom feit Saljr; 
taiifcnbcn ftcf) wdt iinb brett iii'^ SKcrc^cii; imb 9(f>cuHanl> criioffen luit. 93i.n- 
5D?iil>nmmcb ^cfoiibcn foinc (Etamiiif ficfi frfunt in i\<in\ Q^ovbcvaficn , in Cfl-- 
incicn [duMi im lliJiticlalti'v, ini svinj^on novHid'cn 9lfiifa I'ic ^.Piavoffo ift c^ 
tie S5>iciie oUcr Sl^ant'cvdorbeu. STnrdi ten <.}^-\\\\\n inbifrf'cn S^cean bi^ ^u 
ten Sliolnrtcn din Imitcn ftc friu>n im illtittcKiltcv 9(nficbcluniicn ; ch-nfo cm 
tcv .ftiiftc aiiofiimbif, U'ic ihxc edMJtf'il'vt iitu-r i">intcvinbicn (lii? O'liina iiic'i?- 
in (iurcpa l'cv>olfcrtcn fie (Bttbftmnien nnt bedenfcfiten c^ 700 Sofjre lanc\ ; 
unfc ivdbrcnt fie felt'ft unbe^Unnujen Mieben, (nibcn Jlrabcv an^erljalb iiirc^ 
<gtammKinte(? metir al^ 100 ITirone beftioijen." 9titter. 


posterity was defined with wonderful precision by the 
Spirit of Prophecy: "He will be a Mild man or a wild 
ass of a man," his hand will be against every man, 
and every man's hand against him; and he shall 
dwell in the presence of his brethren." The ''wild 
ass", to whom Ishmael is here compared is described 
in the book of Job ' ^ as . a wild , independent and 
haughty animal, living in the wilderness. He is 
known in natural history as the Dsigetai;^* a fine, 
strong and noble creature; of the size and bearing 
of a lightly-built horse, light-footed and slender, 
with a neck resembhng that of a stag, wdiich he al- 
ways carries upright; the forehead is high, the ears long 
and erect. His colour is cherry brown, cream or grey, 
with a dark woolly mane, and a coffee brown bushy 
stripe of hah down the back; his limbs are nimble 
and his motions swift; he runs like lightnino- snuffino- 
up the air,^' and thus easily escapes the hunter. 
His wild and proud appearance indicates unsubdued 
power and perfect independence; and indeed no one 
has hitherto succeeded in taming him. Even when 
caught young they prefer to die in their fetters, than 
to submit to the will of man. ^'For vain man would 

" Q'^N N'lE r.fn: Nrnn and he will be a wild ass-man. Gen. 
XVI. 12. 

" "Who has sent out the wild ass free? Or who has loosed 
the bands of the wild ass? Whose house I hare made in the wil- 
derness, and the barren land his dwellings. He scorneth the multi- 
tude of the city, neither regardeth he the cryine- of the driver." 
Job XXXIX. 5—8. 


Vide Naturgeschichte von H. Rebaupag. 320. 

"A wild ass used to the wilderness, that snuffeth up the wind 
at her pleasure." Jer. II. 24. 

24 THE LAND OF ITS BIETH. [part i. 

be wise, thoiioh man he born like a wild ass's colt."^^ 
Anotlier very remarkable feature in theDsigetai spe- 
cies is this, that they only exist in treeless and in- 
terminable deserts, especially in Central Asia, where 
they live sociably together in herds from 15 to 100 
in number. The strongest and most courageous of 
the males acts as guide and watchman , who in time 
of danger gives the signal for flight, running three 
times round in a circle. If the leader is killed the 
flock is instantly dispersed and falls a prey to the 

The Arab bears precisely the stamp of the wild 
ass, here described. He lives in herds and tribes 
and is as untamed and untameable. Tie feels as free 
as the air, whilst roving through boundless deserts; 
and delights to wander in wild and unfettered free- 
dom throucrh the wastes of his inheritance. Like 
the -wild ass he "scorneth the multitude of the city;" 
despising a civilised life with its comforts, and as 
little as the Dsigetai could he be subdued. "^ '' Only 
single portions of the Peninsula have been subjugated 
for short periods, although every man's hand has 
been against its M'ild inhabitants. The Abyssinians, 

^^ The only parallel passage to the C'lN N'^S in Gen. XVI. 12. 
is in this place of Job XL 12. :-lbr CiN n::5 -i:yi. 23?: 2^3; y:\V-l 
and a vain man would be wise although he were born the colt of a 

''^ "Saraceni ncc ainici nobis unquani, nee hostes optandi, ultro 
citroque discursantes , quidquid inveniri poterat momento temporis 
parvi vastabant. Onines pari sorte sunt bellatorcs , per diversa 
reptantes in tranquillis vel turbidis rebus; nee quideni aliquando, 
sed errant semper per spatia longe lateque distenta, sine lare sine 
sedibus fixis aut legibus." Animian. Marcellin. I. XIV. cap. 4. 


Babylonians, Jews, Persians, Romans and otlier 
nations have made war against them, but by no na- 
tion, however powerful, could they at any period be 
permanently subdued. To rob whomsoever they can, 
is no crime, for they allege that Ishmael was turned 
out oi his father's house and received the wilderness 
for his inheritance with permission to take what he 
could. Like theDsigetai, each tribe chooses a leader, 
a Sheich, from among its own people, under whose 
direction they fight, rob, and rove about from place 
to place. However united they may appear as a 
nation they nevertheless present the scene of a "house 
divided against itself," the respective tribes maintain- 
ing the most inveterate and interminable feuds with 
one another. It is a proverbial saying among them: 
"in the desert every one is the enemy of the other." 
That these animosities commenced in the days of 
Ishmael, we may conclude from the wild and mis- 
anthropic disposition , which was first of all exempli- 
fied in his ovm person; and the marginal reading of 
the account of his death would lead us to infer, that 
he ''feir in the act of fighting. ^^ "He grew, we read, 

''^ "And they, viz. the twelve prince.s, dwelt from Havilah unto 
Shur that is before Egypt , as thou goest toward Assyria ; and he 
fell in the 2)'>'esence of all his brethren." :bE3 TTlN ~33 "'p.S ~3? Gen. 
XXV. 18. Having examined all the passages where the verb bsj 
occurs, we find that with, or without qualification , it invariably 
means, falling by violent means. Where this is not tlie case, it is 
always specified ; and we have no reason to depart from this ordinary 
sense. Vide Gen. XIV. 10. E.xod. XXII. 28. Josh. YIIl. 25. Judg. 
IV. 16. V. 27. VIII. 10. XII. 6. XX. 44. 1 Sam. IV. 10. XIV. 13. 
The usual term for dying is: 3'1>';i he gave up the ghost; or rW^T 
and he died. Then the preposition 3^ before "'p.S implies opposition; 
over, againet the face of all his brethren. See the meaning of by 


and dwelt in the wilderness and became an archer'" 
That there was many a '"'cunning hunter' amongst 
his brethren, whose hand was against him, we have 
i^ason to judge from several incidents, which are re- 
corded of those early days; and it is most natural 
that the fore-lather of the Arabs should have perished 
or fallen in one of those conflicts , of wdiich he was 
the author. The meaning of the expression; '*He 
shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren," is 
determined by the context; it implies not only that 
Ishmael and his posterity should have a fixed boundary 
within which they should ''ihveir, but also that they 
would assume a posture of hostility towards their 
brethren. There is however another reason for as- 
suming that the dwelling together could not be of so 
peaceable a nature , as we might suppose from the 
English version. The words "He shall dwell in the 
presence of all his brethren", would be more correctly 
rendered as in most translations; thus, "He shall 
dwell against all his brethren;" signifying, that not 
only would Ishmael's hand be against every man in 
general, but even in dwelling with his brethren, he 
would maintain his characteristic hostility. Not with- 
out peculiar significance Mas it predicted that Ishmael 
should "dwell opposing all his brethren"; and that 
his death should be recorded in these words: "He 
fell whilst opposing all his brethren".''" What a 

2 Kings XIX. 22. He fell then in the act of opposing his brethren ; 
in resisting them to the face. 

" The angel saith before Ishmael's birth: rtiN "b'S "pD. "br"] 
:'j'du3': after bis death we read : bc: vnN "bD ^?.S "b? In both cases 
not: ■•■D^ as in 1 Sam. XIV. 13. but:^-':s "b? 


marvellous book that of the Bible, to sketch a people's 
character, to poiirtray a nation's destiny so many thou- 
sand years in advance with snch accurate precision, 
and in so few, simple, yet graphic words! 

5. The word of Jehovah thus set forth the future 
character of the wild man Ishmael, in it most dis- 
tinctly fore-shadowing that of His posterity. The 
fact however which stands out most prominently in 
the history of the world is this, that out of all the 
nations of antiquity, only those descended from the 
two sons of Abraham have presented their nationality. 
Phenicians, Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, and 
Persians have either altogether disappeared, or they 
exist only in degenerated remnants. The Chinese 
and Hindoos remain only in two great masses, inert 
and torpid, then- ancient vigour of life having utterly 
decayed. ''^ The Greeks and Romans of the present 
day are essentially different from the Greeks and 
Romans of classic times: but the sons of Israel and 
the sons of Ishmael to this day stand in the Avorld 
as two separate and distinct nations, unchanged from 
what they were in the pristine ages of their existence, 
retaining their ancient manners and customs to a 
considerable extent, and what is still more remarkable, 
their distinctive peculiarities of character. That the 
Ishmaelites should have preserved their independence 
and nationality in their desert w^ilds, is indeed less 
surprising than that the Hebrews should have con- 

^" They hare moreover mixed with other nations, who have 
successively conquered them. Each wave of foreign conquest left 
its deposit upon the native soil. 


tinned a separate people after having been dispersed 
and persecuted Ironi eighteen to twenty four centuries 
among all nations. 

The peculiarity of the Jewish type in matters of 
religion is a blind adhesion to the vain traditions of 
their ancestors, as well as to the dead letter of the 
Old Testament, which has virtually become a sealed 
book to them.*^^ The Ishmaelites with their egotism, 
their indomitable love of freedom and their ruling 
principle of embracing everything with the under- 
standing, proved the very soil for the growth of Is- 
lamism; and in a religious point of view we may take 
the Mohammedan as a true type of the Ishmaelite. 
Of all people therefore, the Jews and the Moham- 
medans are the most determined opponents to Christ- 
ianity; Judaism being the embodiment of a dead 
v/ orthodoxy and Islamism the personification of a cold 
/ religion of the understanding, such opposition is 
easily accounted for. It is a principle with the Mo- 
hammedans to believe only what is intellectually tangi- 
ble; or to use their oAvn expressive words, they receive 
nothing with their hearts, ''which does not fall into 
their heads." They are acquainted with some of the 
leading facts of Divine Revelation, but after having 
corrupted what they have borrowed , like Ishmael, 

"* "They arc drunken, but not with wine; tliey stagger, but 
not with strong drink; for the Lord liatli poured out upon you the 
spirit o^ deep sleep; and hatli closed your eyes. The prophets and 
your rulers, tlie seers, liath he covered. And the vision of all is be- 
come unto you as the words of a book that is sealed : "lES" T^'^S. 
:C"rnri which men deliver to one that is learned saying: Read, I 
pray thee and he saith: I cannot for it is sealed," Isa. XXIX. 


they ''mocF at the truth. Being mflated with gross 
superstition, wild fanaticism, inconceivable pride and 
a special animosity against the Christian, the Moham- 
medan is far more difficult to convert than even the Jew. 
Having noticed the position which these tw^o na- 
tions assume with regard to the Church of Christ, 
we now refer to their distinctive features of natio- 
nality. The Ishmaelites cling to the hostile and 
nomadic habits of their patriarch Ishmael, and up 
to this day follow exactly the same rude and natural 
mode of life which existed amonor them 3500 years 
ago. They prefer a wild and independent life in the 
desert to the comforts and conveniences of a civilised 
state, and no foreign power has ever been able to 
impose new manners and customs upon them; a fact 
without parallel in the annals of nations. In the Jews 
we perceive a finer and more delicate shade of na- 
tionahty ; they are more flexible and of a less untrac- 
table spirit than the Ishmaelite. They accommodate 
themselves more easily to the strangers amongst 
whom they dwell, without however endangering their 
national character. With nothing to call forth the 
higher and more spiritual aspirations of the immortal 
soul they throw themselves with double zeal and 
energy upon the material w^orld. The Jews aud Ish- 
maelite Arabs reciprocally indulged in an international 
hatred, the hand of the latter being especially directed 
against the posterity of Isaac, whom they supposed 
to have acquired the blessing, which legitimately be- 
longed to Ishmael, as the first-born of Abraham. 
6. After considering the land in which Islamism 

30 THE LAND OF ITS BIRTH. [parti. 

was first planted, and the people who first received 
it, we now revert to the relu^ion of the ancient Arabs. 
If we discover fragments of truth in Mythologies, 
more remote from the fountain of primitive revela- 
tion, ^ ^ why may we not in Arabia, where there existed 
proximity of locality, analogy of language, unity of 
ancient tradition and consanguinity of descent? In 
the Pagan creed of the ancient Arabs we find a dis- 
figured Patriarchal faith. The celebrated symbol of 
the Mohammedan creed, "there is no God but one" 
Mas known to the Arabs before Islamism existed. ^^ 
In times of peace and security they resorted to idols, 
their apology, as preserved in the Koran, being, "w-e 
worship them only, that they may bring us nearer 
to God;" but thev instinctivelv fled to the Most II? ah 
God in time of peril and danger. Nor is it difficult 
to account for their knowledge, superficial as it was, 
of the true God. We have direct evidence, that the' 
ancient Arabs were brought into contact with reveal- 
ed Religion, since it is generally admitted, that the 
book of Job was written in Arabia;*^* if this be the 

''^ "When we compare the Pagan systems of belief with the 
most ancient records of the Bible, we discover that the history of 
the primitive days of the human race and the primary elements of 
sacred tradition constitute the foundation of every ancient system 
of Pagan Mythology." Arnold's True and false Religion. Vol. II. 
pag. 211. 

'^' The following was a form of prayer usual amongst them: 
"I dedicate myself to thy service; God I Thou hast no compa- 
nion, except thy companion, of whom thou art absolute Master, 
and of whatever is his." Abulfarag pag. IfiO. 

®* Uz the chief part of Idumaea. Lam. IV. 21. Job is not 
without cause considered the same as king .lobab. the king of 
Edom. Gen. XXXVl. 31. 32, That Job was a king, a prince, see 


case, it doubtless embodies views and ideas, which 
were current in that land. Again, we can scarcely 
conceive that Moses could have lived , forty years in 
Arabia, and leave no good seed behind him. Nor 
could the host of Israel sojourn forty years amidst the 
ancient Arabs, who must have heard of the miracles 
which God had wrouoht on their behalf, without re- 
viving ancient traditions and exercising a directly 
beneficial influence upon the inhabitants of that 
country. Indeed the Rechabites, one of the tribes 
of Arabia with their zeal for the true God might 
serve as a testimonv, that there was a remnant of 
God-fearing people among them ; the character of 
Jethro , the father-in-law^ of Moses , who was a pure 
Arab, and a Priest of Midian, might also be men- 
tioned. The queen of Sheba's coming from the south 
of Arabia, where it was customary for w^omen to in- 
herit sovereign power, also confirms the idea, that 
some light of truth had found its w^ay into the deserts 
of that great Peninsula. As the wise men are also 
supposed to have come from Arabia to see "one 

Job I, 2. chap. XXIX. XXXI. 37. His friends are called kings, 
in the book of Tobit II. 14. and are also found in Idumaea as like- 
wise belonging' to the family of Esau. See Gen. XXXVI. Isa. 
XXXIV. 6. LXIII. I. Aristeas, a heathen writer, is reported to 
have said in his "Historia Judaica" that "Jobum ex Esavi liberis in 
Idumaea atque Arabiae finibus habitasse et cum justitia tum opibus 
precipuum fuisse." Eusebius lib. IX. praepar. Evang. fol. 251. 
St. Chrysostomus speaks of Arabia as "terram illam, quae Jobi 
vlctoris certamina et crucem omni auro precioslorem suscepisset." 
Chryso. homil. V. At the end of Job the LXX interpreters have 
these words: oirrog fQ/nrjifvETia fy. rr^g ^vQiaKi^g ^i'[JXov, ri' luv y^ 
y.aroiyMP ttj ^AyoixiSi , inl toig oQioig trig Idovpiaiag \4Qa(iiag, 
noovTTTJoye fie dvrco oroua ^Iw^a^. Xa^cov be yvvalya 'A{)a^Kjaav, 
ykvvuvior, w oioi^ia^Erioov. 

32 THE LAND OF ITS BIRTH. [parti. 

greater than Solomon," they doubtless were in pos- 
session of the remarkable proj)hecy of Baalam, 
which was delivered in Arabia, by an Arab prophet, 
in the hearing of an Arab king. This is not the 
place to enter upon the history and character of Ba- 
laam; all we wish to maintain is this, that there was 
in those days still a priest, or a prophet of the true 
God among the Arabs, who uttered remarkable pro- 
phecies in His name. Nor did God disdain to ad- 
minister counsel to Moses through Jethro his father- 
in-law. What this priest of Midian taught his Arab 
countr>Tnen, we may gather from his confession of 
faith: ''Now I know that the Lord is greater than all 

To refer only to one more point. When Ishmael 
was sent away into the desert with his mother, he 
doubtless took with him something more than ''bread 
and a bottle of water;" nor can it be supposed that 
Abraham in sending his six sons*'^ by Keturah into 
Arabia failed to add to the "gifts" which he is said 
to have bestowed upon them, the parting injunction 
that they should keep the way of the Lord, wdiich 
they had learned from their father: ''For I know 
him, that he will co nun and his children and his house- 
hold after him , and they shall keep the w^ay of the 
Lord, to do justice and judgment."^'' 

^' What makes this the more important was liis acknowledge- 
ment of the covenant name, Jehovah; he said: Exodus XVIII. 11. 

a-'-'b^^r; -hziz rrrr b'-ny — 'S "r^yji nn? 

^^ Ziniran, Jokschan , Medan, Midian, Ishbak, Shuah. Gen. 
XXV. 2. 6. 

" Gen. XVIU. 19. 


7. Together witli the many noble truth.s, pre- 
served among the fii'st settlers m Arabia, which were 
subsequently revived by the sons of Abraham , and 
still later by the sojourn of Moses and the Israelites, 
an admixture of superstition and idolatry existed. In 
tracing out these Pagan elements we meet with no 
small difficulties. The native writers are strangely 
silent on the subject, and that because they were 
taught by the Koran ^*^ to consider themselves supe- 
rior to any other nation, even in "the time of igno- 
rance," as they call the days prior to Mohammed. 
It was natural, they should dwell as little as possible 
on a point, which humbled then' national pride. If 
the Koran however eight idols are mentioned; and 
as the destruction of these external marks of idolatry 
formed an essential part in the spread of Islamism, 
we become incidentally acquainted with several par- 
ticulars relating to it. 

The chief feature seems here, as indeed in all 
ancient Mythologies, to be a worship of the heavenly 
bodies; perhaj^s the noblest effort of man without 
revelation to represent "the Father of lights," and 
the least degrading species of idolatry. ^^ It was the 

^® "Ye are the best nation, that hath been raised up unto 
mankind." Sura III, 106. 

®^ "Lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou 
seest the sun and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of 
heaven , shouldcst be driven to worship them and to serve thera, 
which the Lord thy God hath imparted (meted or measured out 
p?n T«i;^.), unto all nations under the whole heaven. Deut. IV. 19. 
This "meting out" may be taken in the same sense as the words : 
eg iv taig 7iaQ(oxri(^itvaig yti'talg eiaae ndvta ta e&ft] noQevea&ai 
raig odolg avtojr. Act. XIV. 16. 



first step ill the downward course of superstition, 
when Babylon, that "mother of harlots" considered 
the heavenly bodies as the representatives of the in- 
visible Majesty of the Lord of Hosts. Bel or Beliis 
for instance, throughout aj">pears as the solar deity, 
whose temple still stood in the days of Herodotus. 
Another not less celebrated temple of the moon stood 
atHaran; the well-known sojourn of Abraham. Terah 
had already taken Abram and Lot from Ur of the. 
Chasdim or Chaldees; and if Chasdim or Chaldees 
signifies "worshippers of idols" as has been thought 
by an eminent scholar, we can easily account for the 
exodus of Terah's family from Ur. When Haran 
however proved no better shelter from idolatry, as we 
infer from the early existence of the lunar temple 
there, Abraham was altogether removed from his 
native country. ^^ . ■ , . 

That the Arabs fell into the snare of worshipping 
the heavenly bodies at an early period, may be gather- 
ed from various authorities. Job, himself an in- 
habitant of Arabia, bears witness to the fact of the 
existence of this idolatry amongst the Arabs of his 
day. ^^ An Arab author of the eighth century, writes: 
"The Arabs also held the religion of the Sabiaus:"^^ 

^o Gen. XI. .31. and XJI. 1. 

^^ "If I bclield the sun when it sliined, or the moon walking in 
brightness, and my lieart liath been secretly enticed, or my mouth 
liath kissed my hand; (an idolatrous practice still in vogue, and 
witnessed by the author) this also were an iniquity — /or J should 
have denied the God, that is above." Job. XXXI. 26 — 28. Compare 
also Ezck. VIII. IG. 

^^ twjjjut XjoLoJt j>J Jo (mVj (>+^^ Samsaddin ad-Dimaski 
in his Kosmography. Zcitschr. der ^lorg, Gesellschaft Vol. V. 392. 


which explains the following admonition: "worship 
not the sun neither the moon, but worship God, who 
hath created them; if ye serve Ilim."-'^ Twice oc- 
curs the name of "servant of the Sun" in the list of 
the Himy arctic KinQs; for as in the Bible we find 
the names of God associated with "nomina propria" 
so the ancient Arabs called themselves the servants, 
slaves, and property of their i<lols;^^ according 
to the Musnad-inscription , Samir Jaras reared a 
temple to "the Lord, the Sun."^^ In a Sabian Al- 
manac , under the month Subat or February it is 
stated: "They fast in it seven days, commencing on 
the ninth day of the month , and this fast is held' in 
honour of the great Lord , the Sun , the Lord of all " 

According to Strabo,the descendants of Nebaioth 
offered up sacrifices to the sun on the roofs of their 
houses. Nor was this luminary alone worshipped by 
the Arabs ; for there existed among them seven tem- 
ples in honour of the presiding deities of the days of 
the week, consisting of sun and moon and five pla- 
nets*®^ Like other nations, the Arabs had j)i'oceeded 
from a more or less pure Monotheism to consider the 

^■•' Sur. XLI. 37. 

^* e. g. ITJJT from ";"'; and IW, given of Jehovah; bN'?i'?3^ ' 
from yiy6 (not bN",:: as might appear) and ^N God: "God hatli 
heard." In the same way we have "the servant of the sun" and 
"the prince of Manat," among the Arabs. 

^5 The parallel to this ^^2^n^5 Jer. XLIII. 13. 

^^ Sun and moon ; Aldabaran, Jupiter, Canopus, Sirius, and 
Mercury, Abulfarag histor. dyn. pag. 160. See Studien iiber die 
vorislamitische Religion dor Araber von Dr. E. Osiander ; Zeitschrift 
der deutsch, Morgenliind. Gescll. Band YII. 1853. pag. 463. 

36 THE LAND OF ITS BIRTH. [parti. 

heavenly bodies as symbols of the Divhie Majesty; 
the next step was to worship them as self-existing 
deities; this being done, the third step to actual 
idolatry was rendered comparatively easy. Nor was 
this new element an entirely distinct form of error. 
It will be necessary, distasteful as it may be, to 
glance at the more corrupt form of superstition, which 
in a measure co-existed with Sabeism and a jjar- 
tial retention of the patriarchal faith. Beginning in 
the South of Arabia, we meet with a mountain of 
witchcraft near lladramaut, in one of the caves of 
which, resided the master of sorcery, who exercised 
considerable influence upon the benighted Arabs 
around him. In lladramaut itself we find the two 
idols Galsad and Mavhal. The capital of the Him- 
yaretic Kings contained the colossal and gorgeously 
ornamented temple of Gumdau. ^ ^ The god Ricmi 
was also worshij)ped in Sana,^^ to whom sacrifices 
were offered, and at whose temple oracular informa- 
tion was sought. It is not improbable that we have 
a parallel of this oracular deity in Baal, of whom 
king Ahaziah in his sickness inquired. ^^ The temple 

^^ Sahrastani adds these words: S*JC*j| |VA*/i (c-^' it "^^'^s de- 
dicated to Venus. Her worship being established in Sana, it is 
not only probable, but almost certain, that the name Athatar: 
•.aLaLc so frequent in the Hiniyaretic inscriptions might be the same 
as the Pheuician idol: nn"lPC5; Judges 2, 14. X. 6. 1 Kings 
XI. 33. 

®^ Riani, the exalted one; in Ethiopic, licaven. It is perhaps 
not too much to think, that this deity was the same as -J[5, if the 
goddess was n""in;23y. They are always put together in Scripture. 

^^ 2 King. I. IG. 



of Riam was first destroyed on the estaLlislimcnt of 
the Jewish kingdom among the Himyarites, and a 
second time, when Islamism was introduced. 

Another idol in the Himyar country was Nasar;*- 
he was worshipped , as his name implies , under the 
form of an eagle. Two days journey from Sana to- 
wards the north, we meet with Yauk, another deity 
mentioned in the Koran ; ^ which like Nasar, Waad, 
Sowa, and Yagut is said by the Koran, to have 
been worshipped before the days of Noah. He was 
adored under the image of a horse. ^ Yagut had 
his temple at Djoras or Goras not far from the road 
leading fi-om Mecca to Sana ; and was the deity of 
the tribe of Madhig , but that his name was revered 
among other tribes is proved by the fact of its ap- 
pearing among them as a component part of their 
surnames. This deity was worshipped under the 
figure of a lion, and in the choice of this image there 
may be an allusion to the corresponding sign of the 
zodiac , as that also was an object of divine worship 
among the ancient Arabs.* 

Diff'erent fi^om Naser, Yauk and Yagut, who 
were worshipped under animal forms, are the two 

* »-vwo; compare with it the Assyrian '^IP? Isa. XXX. 38. 
The eagle entered largely into all the systems of ancient Mytho- 
logy. Nasar is mentioned Sur. LXX. 23. 

^ ^yJtJ, Yauk, the refrainer; deus averruncus. 

^ Horses dedicated to the sun at Jerusalem. Were destroyed 
2 King. XXUI. 11. 

* Ideler Dntersuchung iiber die Stern, pag. 161. The lion is 
a celebrated religious symbol, and has fretjuently become an object 
of religious worship. 

38 THE LAND OF ITS BIRTH. [parti. 

other deities, Soiva and Waad, wlio are named with 
the former in the above-mentioned passage of the 
Koran/ Sowa was adored nnder the image of a 
woman, Waad under the figure of a man. All five 
are said to have been antediluvian idols , ^ which 
being discovered after the flood came to be wor- 
shipped by the Arabs. Sowa was worshipped at 
Ruhat north of Mecca, and Waad on the north east 
of Arabia among the tribe Kalb, but we notice them 
in this place, because they were associated in the 
Koran with the idols, to which we have just alluded. 
Resuming our northerly route, we proceed from 
Goras the seat of Yagut, to Talabah, a to\\^i four 
days journey south of Mecca; in this place we meet 
with the goddess Chalasah,' whose temple was of 
such reputation, as to be considered a rival of the 
sanctuary of Mecca, and called "the Kaaba of 

We now enter the j^rovince of Hedgas , and in 
Taif, about sixty geographical miles south of Mecca, 
a place otherwise important in the history of the 
Arabs , we find the great goddess of the Takif tribe, 
Allat,® who was represented under a white square 

^ Sur. LXX. 23. 

•^ They are always mentioned with the addition: ^y'^ iv-v^ 


'' The temple of Chalasah seems to have been in Yemen what 
that of Giinidan was in Sana; namely a temple to Venus. The in- 
timation of Fasi that Clialasah was introdiici'd from Syria, is there- 
fore worthy of notice. Sprengcr's Life of Muhammed, pag. 7. not. 1. 

® The name of Allat: »oJjl was derived by the ill-disposed 

Mcccans from »X}\ Allah. Herodotus calls her 'AXi^ar or 'AXnxa, 


stone, upon wliicli a temple was built. This idol was 
carried with that ofUzza before the army in battle ; ^ 
and was one of the goddesses, whose names are re- 
corded in the Koran: — "What think ye of AUat, 
alUzza and Manah that other third goddess." From 
the fact that Mohammed frequently protested against 
the goddess A Hat, and from other more direct evi- 
dence , the importance of her rites and the extent of 
her worship is sufficiently established. There can 
be no doubt that this square-shaped idol, called by 
the Arabs "the Goddess," ^° represented an astro- 
nomical deity; and from reasons, unneccessary here 
to specify, it could only have been the moon. That 
this luminary was worshipped among the Takif and 
the adjoining tribes Beder and Hilal we know from 
other sources. ^ ^ 

In the valley Nahlali^^ we find Uzza, the second 
great goddess of the Arabs, mentioned in the Koran; 
she was worshipped under the form of the tree , Sa- 
murah. ^^ This is not the only instance in which 
trees were adored by the Arabs. The Koreishites 
worshipped a palm-tree, offering up sacrifices, and 

^ Caussin de Percival III. p. 9. Sur. LIII. G. 

'-" Al-Lat, unlike other deities, always has the article. We 
never hear of a goddess "Lat". 

^' »tXj name of a tribe means "full moon"; JtJ^, Ililal ■ — ■ 
another tribe, signifies "newmoon". 
*^ Valley of dates. 

*^ The 8»-4-w — Saniurat , species of Acacia, called "spina 

Aegyptiaca". The sanctuary was called Boss. Uzza is thought to 
be the lunar deity like Allat. 


hanging their arms upon it. At Nagran they cele- 
brated an annual festival in honour of a sacred palm- 
tree , on ^vhich occasion they adorned it with the 
garments and ornaments of women. The traveller 
in Arabia may at this day see Acacia trees, hung 
all over with rags of divers colours.^* Over the 
"vegetable" idol of Uzza a temple was built, and 
when Boss, the name of this sanctuary, was destroyed 
by Chalid , one of Mohammed's generals, after mur- 
dering the priestess, who had rushed forth \vith her 
hair dishevelled, and her hands on her head as a 
suppliant, he uttered these words: "0 Uzza, I deny 
thee, I praise thee not: I have seen how Allah has 
humbled thee!"^^ When Mohammed heard of the 
success of the expedition he exclaimed: "This is 
Uzza, never again shall she be served." 

Mecca became the centre of the Ante-Moham- 
medan religion of the Arabs , about the beginning of 
the first century B. C. Arab historians have very little 
to say as to how matters stood during the time of 
the Gurhamites;^® except that they took away the 
golden gazelles, and the weapons which were hung 
up in the Kaaba , when they were driven away from 
Mecca. ^' They left however some traces of their 
idolatry behind, which it is needless for us to examine. 

** A fine spoclmen of these rag-clad Acacia trees could be seen 
some time ago in the desert between Cairo and Suez. 

*^ (^y*-'' or _yfc Uzza, the most mighty and powerful, 

**• Ley, de tcmpli Meccani originc, Berlin 1851. 

*^ Remarkable is it that among its ancient kings , we find one 
with the Christian name, Abd al-Maseeh, "set'vant of Christ". 


The Kaaba itself, whicli was tlie sanctuary of tlie 
Pagan Arabs, and remained such after they had em- 
braced Islamism, is a building about thirty four feet high 
and about twenty seven broad, so called from being 
almost a perfect square, as the name implies.*^ In 
this buildinix we find no less than 360 idols, the chief 
of them, Hubal,*^ was at once the presiding god in 
the temple, and the principal deity of the Koreishites, 
who were its guardians. The pre-eminence of this 
idol was evinced by the fact, that before it, the casting 
of lots with arrows took place. Prior however to its 
obtaining this honour, it passed through a term of 
probation, for we learn upon good authority, that for 
a considerable period it stood outside the walls of 
the Kaaba, patiently waiting for its admission. ^° 
It was probably introduced when the sanctuary of 
the Koreish tribe was converted into the Pantheon 
of the whole of Arabia. The name of Hubal remains 
a mystery.^* The opinion that it is synonymous 
with the Babylonian and Syrian Baal or Bel is sup- 
ported by the testimony of Arab authorities, according 

^* 2Lot.di, the square or the Kaaba. 

** Hubal was |V^L-^-of *Jhs^ the most excellent of the idols; 

and -was said to have been brought from Mesopotamia, by Amru 
ben Luhai. 

^^ The man to whom it was indebted for its promotion was 
Amru ben Luhai. He according to Sharastani introduced it 

^^ Pocock, who is still the great authority, since his "Specimen 
historiae Arabum" has not yet been surpassed , derives Hubal from 
bnr. or byn-, ba"; nor is this derivation to be censured. Vide 
pag. 97. 98. 


to whom Ilubal was originally imported from Sp'ia; 
these do not indeed maintain that Ilubal was J5aal, 
but they admit him to be an astronomical deity; 
there is therefore nothing which militates against 
the idols being identical. 

Again when it is stated by Abulfeda that the 
image of Abraham occuj^ied the chief place in the 
Kaaba, and that he was represented by Ilubal, we 
may take it for granted that Ilubal had a double 
character, like Baal, who was both the founder of 
the Babylonian empire and the solar deity. Nor is 
the popular notion of the Arabs, which considers 
Ishmael to be the original founder of the Kaaba, to 
be enthely rejected. The well-known adherence of 
that extraordinary people to then- ancient customs 
seems to warrant the high antiquity of that sanctu- 
ary. That patriarchal associations were connected 
with the Kaaba will appear from a practice which 
is censured in the Koran. The Pagan Arabs used 
to compass the sanctuary naked, because they con- 
sidered garments to be signs of disobedience to God. 
Then the celebrated black stone, fixed outside the 
Kaaba, towards one of the corners, indicates an ac- 
quaintance with a Patriarchal custom. ^ ^ The Arabs 
attribute its introduction to Ishmael himself, and 
their superstitious regard for it, is just what might 

" Woil gives tlic following from the Manuscripts Insan and 
Chamis: 3^er fd^UMrjc gtcin wax urfvriuuitirf) cin &nc\d, bcr Slbam im 
s^Himbtcfc t^cumrficn folltc, inib l^ell C'U>tt luid) ^Ibamei Siuibo in ciiicn ©tciii 
vcrUMiibcU usnb. (Sv \v\x)> at'cr am 9liifi-rftcbiiiiiioto;ic fid) niit i?cm'o, rin-cn, 
3itiu^c iiiib ?(iiiicii n-(}cbcu, imb bcii fvommcu *;^iKJcvu nlo ^cn^c htiftdjau 
Weil i)ag. 40. Note 45. 



be expected from the abuse of the early practice of 
setting up stones in commemoration of extraordinary 
mercies, received from God.^^ The black stone is 
no doubt older than the Kaaba itself. 

Not only was Mecca as well as the Kaaba holy 
o-round to the ancient Arabs , but also the adjacent 
country. The valley of Mina^* was as much the 
place of religious resort before Mohammed, as it has 
been since the days of Islamite pilgrimage to the 
Kaaba. Leaving Mecca and its immediate neighbour- 
hood, w^e find an idol inKudaid, a town about seventy 
three geographical miles north of it, the name of which 
indicates some connection with the valley of Mina. 
The goddess Manat^^ was worshipped under a large 
block of stone, over which a sanctuary was construc- 
ted. Near Jeddah we find another of these grim- 
looking monster idols , cut out of a solid rock, which 
was worshipped in a large sandy plain under the 

2' Gen. XXVIII. 18. "Jacob took the stone, that he had put 
for his pillows and set up for a pillar and poured oil upon the top 
of it, and he called the name of that place, Bethel." XXXI. 45. 
And Jacob took a stone and set it up for a pillar, also 52. XXXV. 
14. Exod. 24. 4. Josh. IV. 3. 7. 8. ;.?5^ V'^'^A ~^'<.' ^'t^?:' 
:Dbn3> -^y bN^->IJ: In Josh. XXIV. 26. 27.' r,bi^>. fntj. I Sara. VII. 
12. we have the ^TSTJ ';nN of the prophet Samuel. Compare also 
the Phenician Baelyla or Baelilos ; and the traces of holy stones 
in the West. 

2* Mina _!«; Amr ben Luhaj raised seven idols in this valley. 
Reiske, primae liueae p. 124. 

*^ cyLLxt, Manat. As we have no further information touch- 
ing the character and worship of this goddess , we naturally think 
of the Chaldean deity ^573, Meni; see Margin Isa. LXV. 11. and 
the lunar goddess Mijfrj. 

44 THE LAND OF ITS BIRTH, [parti. 

name of Saad. Several other Arabian deities were 
worshipped near Medina, ^^ but excepting their 
names scarcely any thing has been handed down. 
We have however seen enough to convince us, that 
the Arabs had widely swerved from their original 
patriarchal faith. Many of their idols were of a rough 
and uncouth appearance, square stones, white or 
black, trees and solid rocks, figures of birds and 
beasts, images of men and women, all served to re- 
present their imaginary deities. There is however 
reason to think, that some of the Arab idols were 
artistically conceived and skilfully shaped. The utter 
destruction by the Mohammedans of every vestige of 
Paganism as regards idolatry , prevents our forming 
any accurate opinion upon the subject; but the fact 
of Arabian poets comparing beautiful women to idols, 
and the proverb "more beautiful than an idol,"^' 
would seem to indicate, that the Arab idols were not 
all of them without some degree of form and beauty. 
In reviewing the religion of the Pagan Arabs we 
find remnants of the Patriarchal faith, the Sabian 
worship of the heavenly bodies , and the elements of 
a more corrupt idolatiy, amalgamated together. The 
custom of visiting the Kaaba; the rite of circum- 
cision; the doctrine of the Resurrection,^*^ to be in- 

*^ We hear of Nuhm, Humara, Halal, Bagir, Ruda, Aud, Awab, 
Manaf, Gaum, Kais, Durigcl, Fuls, Dariban, and others. 

" iLyojJ! 1^ jj-«Ai>.f and ,j^V-'' ^^ ,^^-^^^Ji.l more beau- 
tiful than an idol. Arab. prov. I. pag. 408. prov. 195. 

^^ "I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand 
at the latter day upon the earth: and though after my skin worms] ELEMENTS BORROWED. 45 

ferred from the Heathen custom of tying a camel 
near the grave of the departed; the belief that de- 
mons are transformed into serpents ; abstinence from 
wine; preference for green among the colours; the 
custom of sacrificing the first-born of the camel ; the 
habit of swearing by religion; the national traditions, 
especially the stories relating to Abraham, Ishmael, 
and other early characters of Bible history; these 
Mohammed already found among his countrymen, 
and the same motives, which induced him to adopt 
the ancient sanctuary and the Pagan rites of the 
Kaaba as the groundwork of the ceremonial part of 
his religion, would naturally suggest the adojDtion of 
Arabian tradition as the basis of his doctrinal pre- 
cepts in the Koran. 



"Who is more wicked than he who forgeth a lie concerning God? 

or saith, This was revealed unto me, when nothing hath been 

revealed unto him?" Sur. VI. 93. 

1. No ordinary mortal ever exercised such an 
immeasurable influence upon the human race in a 
religious , moral and political point of view , and this 
during a period of twelve centuries , as did the man, 

destroy this body, yet in ray flesh shall I see God. Whom I shall 
see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another." Job 
XIX. 25. 26. 27. Such teaching of the DTiia:^ ^inn, was known 
among the ancient Arabs. 


whose age, history and character we are about to 
consider. Although not one of those extraordinary 
individuals, endowed by divine Providence wdth genius 
and power to break up long established institutions 
and to strike out new j)aths in the history of politics 
and religion, yet Mohammed, a man of limited powers 
of mind and apparently too destitute of materials for 
the formation of a new religion, succeeded in throwing 
his seemingly indestructable net of doctrine and prac- 
tise over millions of souls and in impressing a uni- 
form stamp upon the thoughts and actions of the 
heterogeneous tribes and nations, scattered over Asia 
and Afi'ica. ^^ 

It cannot therefore be without interest to trace 
out some of the details connected with this remark- 
able man and the age in which he apj^eared. The 
period which ushered Islamism into the world was 
marked by great changes and startling convulsions. 
The Western Empire was already overrun by the 
Northern Barbarians, whilst the Eastern and Greek 
portion of it, enfeebled by luxury, fell a prey to all 
its enervating consequences. ^° Persia torn to pieces 

^9 "SlitffaKcnb ifi e^, ba^ aT^ot^aiiiinct' bcr <Bdm 5l^b mUih'^, bcffcn 
Volitifdic iinb rdiiiiofc Umlvdl^niui \o tui eiiigriff iiiit' fo iin-it urn fid) iiviff, 
6i^ jc^t fiicrin fo fcBr i^cnmrijlafniU ivurbc. ©clvifj vcrbicnt bod) ein aijaitn, 
bcr cin llfcidi iirunbctc, ta^ Kilb luid) fciiicm 5obc ba^ vvfifrf^c i^crfrfilaiu^, 
tmb bcm bvjiiutiuiidicn bic ticfficn QBiinbcii frfihtii, bcv cine 9{cliiiion ijcftiftct, 
bi'c nod) jc^t ben fdionftcn JTjcil bcr attcn SBcU ju 53efcnncrn 5a()lt wn alien 
Seiten, folvcW in ben iicfcfMcfitlicfien !il)vTtfadien, aK^ in ben iilu'v ilin fiivfiren; 
ben 2)h)tt)en, genan gefannt jii ivevbcn." ffieil'^ "aiinljammeb ber '■^.U-o^.'fjct." 
93orrebc I. 

^^ The western empire of the Romans fell A. D. 323. The 
Greek succeeded and was divided into an Eastern and Western 
empire under the sons of Theodosius. 


by intestine divisions botli political and religions had 
now become incapable of any vigorous resistance. 
Whilst these emiiires were declining, Arabia on the 
contrary, which had hitherto displayed no conspicuous 
part in the history of the world, retained the vigour 
and energy, which characterise nations, untainted by 
luxurious habits. ^^ The attempt of ^tlie Pharaohs 
of Egypt, of the Persians, the Abyssinians, and 
the Romans to subdue that country was equally un- 
successful.'^^ The Arabs continued an independent 
race, and it was left to God's more special and direct 
Providence to rouse them, and to accom2^1ish the 
mysterious purposes of Him, of whom it is written: 
"The fierceness of man shall turn to thy j^raise, and 
the fierceness of them shalt thou refi-ain."'^^ 

Islamism being a grand apostacy from the truth 
it was natural that it should start up, when true and 
vital religion had reached it lowest ebb. On examining 
the records of the CImrch at that period, we discover 
the grossest corruptions in doctrine and practice. 
The }Vester7i and Eastern Churches being abandoned 
to the most degrading immorality, became agitated 
in those days by violent and rancorous controversies, 
which extinguished all true piety and practical devo- 
tion. ^* The earliest simplicity, which flourished 

^^ The ancient Greeks and Romans, and those very nations 
which destroyed the Western empire, may serve as examples. 

^^ What classic historians record of the successful inroads of 
Sesostris and Cambyses, Crassus, Aelius, Gallus and Trajan refer 
only to partial and temporary conquests. 

" Psalm LXXVI. 10. 

^* We refer to the fierce controversies connected with Arian 


among the suppressed and persecuted Christians had 
passed away. When the Church was no longer ex- 
posed to trials, but favoured and honoured by the 
first Christian Emperors , it began to fade and lose 
its primitive power ; and it was then, to use the words 
of JSt. Chiysostom that the world entered the Church. ^' 
Bishops struggled for the highest and most lucrative 
sees;^'' and as once when the "tree of knowledge" 
was perferred to "the tree of life" the greatest evil 
, was produced, so now a curious philosophy being 
substituted for vital godliness , it led to the most la- 
mentable consequences: those who were to feed the 
Church indulging in fearful controversies, mutual 
persecutions followed in rapid succession as the con- 
tending parties alternately came into power. The 
interests of Christianity were made the pretext for 
carrying out ambitious views and vindictive feelings. 
The worship of Saints and images had reached such 
a scandalous pitch, that Christian Churches rather 
resembled Heathen temples, the objects of adoration 
only, being changed. This humiliating exhibition 
might well convey the idea that Christianity was 

and Semi-Arlan heresies, which agitated the Church up to the be- 
ginning- of the seventh century, when Islaniism absorbed them. 

^^ "Eratque super his admire facilis , quae donabat, Christia- 
nam religioncm ab.solutam et sinijilicem anili suporstitione confun- 
dens: in quo scrutanda perplexius , quam componenda gravius ex- 
citavit dissidia plurima; quae progressa fu.sius aluit concertatione 
vcrborum , ut catervis antistitum, jumentis publicis ultro citroque 
discurrcntibus perSynodos, quas appellant, dum ritum omncm ad 
suuni trahcre coiinatur arbitriuni, rci vehiculariae succideret nervos." 
Ammianus Marccllinus fine libri XXI. de Constantio. 

'^ Ammianus lib. XXVII. records the case of Damasus and 


merely another system of idolatry, a notion still cm-rent 
among Mohammedans, who judge of our faith only 
by the unmeaning and vain ceremonial of fallen 
Churches.^' When religion was thus turned into 
faction, and the Church of the East indulged in dis- 
putes on 'mysterious subjects, in deciding abstruse 
metaphysical questions by seditious councils, in fabri- 
cating spurious Gospels, and in anathematizing some 
of her less corrupt members , God raised up instru- 
ments of his displeasure to remove the candlestick 
from many a place, and to introduce a "strong de- 
lusion," that she might "believe a lie."^^ 

As long as the light of the Holy Scriptures, 
remained in the Church, the means of ultimate re- 

^^ To convey an idea of the low standard of religious life we 
subjoin the following descnption given by St.Eligius or Eloi Bishop 
of Royon of the character of a good Christian in the seventh century: 
"Bonus Christianus est, qui ad ecclesiam frequenter venit, et obla- 
tioneni, quae in altari Deo otferatur, exhibet; qui de fructibus suis 
non gustat, nisi prius Deo aliquid offerat; qui quoties sanctae so- 
lemnitates adveniunt, ante dies plures castitatem etiani cum propria 
uxore custodit, ut secura conscieutia Domini altare accedere possit ; 
qui postremo symboluni, vel orationem dominicam memoriter tenet. 
Redimite animas vestras de poena dum liabetis in potestate reme- 
dia; oblationes et decimas ecclesiis afl'erte; luminaria Sanctis locis, 
juxta quod habetis, exhibete; ad ecclesiam quoque frequentius con- 
venite; Sanctorum patrocinia humiliter expetite; quod si observa- 
veritis , securi in die judicii ante tribunal aeterni judicis venientes, 
dicetis: Da, Domine, quia dedimus." Mosh. Vol. II. p. 22. 

^^ Thus it happened that some who were most zealous in sup- 
porting the interests of their own party, were foremost in abjuring 
Christianity in toto. Individuals who would not part with an ab- 
struse notion or a favourite term of expression for the peace of the 
Church, did not hesitate to abandon her comnmnity altogether, 
when it was their worldly interest to do so. Vide Predaux's address 
to the reader, prefixed to his "Life of Mohammed". 



fonnatioii "vvas retained, but the "strong delusion" 
■which Lslamism introduced destroyed this remedy. 
The Western Chiu'ch in preserving the Bible amidst 
the corruptions to which she fell a prey, jDreserved 
the element by which her reformation was alone 
rendered possible. Both the Eastern and Western 
Churches however were fallen, and it is not a little 
remarkable, that judgment began in each at the same 
period ; for Mohammed announced his career as a 
2)rophet about the same time, that Pope Boniface V. 
by virtue of a grant from the weak and tyrannical 
Emperor Phocas 1. assumed the title of Universal 
Bishop. ^^ 

Arabia itself presented in the sixth century a 
most miserable spectacle, being torn by the intestine 
commotions of civil and religious warfare. Jews and 
Christians were so numerous and powerful in that 
country, as to struggle for the government, and each 

^^' It has been considered by students of propbecy, that these 
two rival ccclesiastico-political powers were rejjresented by tlie 
Eastern and Western horns. Dan. VHI. 5. 9. Be this as it may: 
the sins of both Churclies did find them out, bring-ino- down ui)on 
them a corresponding judgment. Tlie heresii of the Eaatcrn , and 
the .nqyerstitioa of tlie Western Church were both visited in one 
hour; the former received its retribution in the Arch-heresy of ls- 
lamism; the latter was chastised by the spiritual and temporal 
tyranny of the Pope. As they chronologically coincided as to their 
rise , so we trace between them points of sympathy and antipathy. 
What Mohanuned was to the East, the Pope became to the West. 
The „Key of heaven" to Mohammed was the sword ; the Pope held 
the Keys of St. Peter. Both united in tlieir persons the supreme 
civil and ecclesiastical power. Both are acting the part of Antichrist 
by "casting the truth to the ground;" and not Avithout reason 
is it supposed by many, that as they commenced at the same 
period , so they will perish together. 


party succeeded in raising kings to the throne, who 
w^ere followers of their respective creeds. We have 
already adverted to the persecutions of the Christians 
by the Jewish king of Yemen , in which many who 
would not embrace Judaism were executed; nor was 
the Christian prince Abraha, who was placed upon 
the throne by Nagusli, more successful in gaining 
the esteem and affection of the different sects, ex- 
tant at that period in Arabia. 

Judaism as a religion had greatly degenerated 
from its original purity. When Mohammed charges 
the Jews in the Koran with believing Ezra to be 
the Son of God,**^ we may at least take for granted 
that they manifested a su2:)erstitious reverence for his 
memory: although they retained the Monotheism of 
the Old Testament, yet Jehovah, according to their 
view, was no longer the God of the Universe, but ex- 
clusively the God of the Jews. In the Talmud, which 
was ah-eady considered a standard authority in mat- 
ters of faith, God is represented "as roaring like a 
lion in each of the three watches of the night, and as 
shaking his head;"*^ and according to it the "divme 
Spirit" was heard "moaning like a dove out of grief 
for Israel" as often as the Atnen was responded to 
in the spiagogue.*^ Strangers naturally shrank 

*o )d}\ ^j| yi^ <^y^^ y-^' "tlie Jews, say: Ezra 
(Ozeir) was the son of God." Sur. IX. 30. 

*^ Talmud I. Sect. I. 

*^ b"p na invariably signifies the Divine Spirit in Talmudic 



from the exclusive creed of a hated nation , who had 
made themselves obnoxious by the spirit of persecut- 
ing proselytism,*' to which we have alluded, and 
this produced a desire for a religion, whose blessings 
were not confined to one particular race. 

That Christianity prevailed in Arabia to a great 
extent cannot be doubted, when we read of so many 
Bishoprics having existed in divers parts of the coun- 
try**. When the Jewish Kingdom was destroyed by 
the Christians about forty years before the birth of 
JVIohammed, a Church was built in Sana eclipsing the 
temple of Mecca in beauty and magnificence. But 
how corrupt the doctrines and practices of the Arab 
Christians were at that period, will appear partly 
from the Koran *^ and partly from the writings of 
the Church historian Epiphanius, who speaks of a 
- Christian sect deifvinp" the Virfiin Marv, and off'erincr 
a twisted cake on her altars, from whence their name 
. ColhTidians.*" That Mohammed made use of spu- 

*^ Essai sur I'llistoire des Arabes avant rislainisme , pendant 
I'EiJoque de Mahomet. Par A. P. Caussin de Perceval toiu. 1. 
p. 128. 129 

** "STic Sefire 3ofit fmttc fefir fnifie ni 9(ralM'cii Q^cfcinifr i^cfitiibcn, 
jinb c^ fint' fiifilbft vcvfclHorcnc ^^it^thumcv iiiif in mclircvcn 2^tdctcn iDJctro? 
Volitaufivct^cn crrici)tct iic>iHl"cn. ^inMii ttilten 3al)rl)untctt an iialjmcn and) 
bie in aiibcnt l'dlI^cvn 9(ficiio rcvfoli^lcit unb bctrdiu^tcn cfiriftlirficn *J.*artcicu 
tf)re 3itfluclit unb ^ivciftatt in SlralMcn." Sinif)! pag. 15. 

*^ Jesus is asked whetluT it was true that lie said to men : 
xJJl ij5<^ jO"^ LT^-^^^ (C^S L5^5'^'^^^ "accipite me et matrem 
meam in duos Deos practer Deum." Sur. V. 116. "Again they are 
certainly infidels who say God is the third of three." Sur. V. 77. 
to which Jclladin adds: \x)|. i,^-^ Lj'rT*^^'; "*'"^ others are 
Jesus and his mother." 

*'^ Epiphanius speaks of a sect, which he describes as: <<m 


rioTis Gospels, and that these Pseudo-Gospels counte- 
nanced the deification of the Virgin is equally cer- 
tain.*' Amidst the bloody feuds of the Eastern 
Church, many of its corrupt members fled to the 
Huns and Vandals in Africa and some into Arabia; 
in most instances carrying with them nothing but a 
Christian Paganism; hence their proselytes were but 
a shade superior to the Pagans. As an additional 
proof of heretical teaching in those days, may be 
added, that the mysterious and blessed dogma of 
the holy Trinity was converted into a positive Tri- 
theism; thus representing, Father, Son and Holy 
Ghost as three distinct Gods.*^ From these scanty 
allusions to the condition of the Eastern Church in 
general, and to that of Arabia in particular, it will 
be sufficiently clear, that Christianity in the age in 
which Mohammed appeared, had been reduced to a 
mere carcase, and "where the carcase is, there the 
eagles will be gathered together."*^ 

•dtov tavr7]f (i. e. the Virgin Mary) inxQuaaysTi' anovda^ovTeg. 
Haeres. LXXYIII. 79. And d'Herbelot Orient. Lib. HI. 398. ob- 
serves that the oriental Christians have given to Mary the title : 
sJlajwwJ': domina , and that the Greek Father Cyril styled her the 
supplement of the Trinity. Then the &fotoKOg which was so stoutly 
defended, gave cause to corrujjt teaching. Vide also the article: 
"Das Theologumcnon voni nrtvi.(a ayiov als dor INTutter Christi." 
Nitzsch "Theologische Studlen". Vol. 1. 1816. 

*^ Origcn. in Joan. Vol. IV. pag. 63. ed. de la Rue. 'Eav fif-: 
TTQoaitrid rig to mx\^' 'Efi(j(aovg ivuyythov , ti>&a dvTog 6 aoJtrjQ 
^fi'iir' cc{Jti tXaj^t fii-. I'l f(rtij(j ,uop, to ayiop iT)'kvf.ia iv fuu rcSv 
7(jtidjv ^ov aitrjI-yY.b /.u fig ro (.i^ya Qafiofj. 

*® This was done e. g. by the celebrated Joannes Philojjonus, 
who died in 610. the very year of Mohammed's Mission. Leontius 
de sectis act. V. 6. 

*^ Dr. Grant's Nestorians pag. 267. The Arab independence 


Lastly the Arabs tliemselves at that period were 
roused and perplexed by the discordant elements of a 
corrupt Judaism, and a depraved Christian Church, 
on the one hand, and by native idolatry, blended 
with noble remnants of a Patriarchal JNIonotheism on 
the other. The Jews, they thought, in rejecting 
their last prophet, had forfeited their ancient dignity; 
and they considered that the Christians had run into 
an oj)posite extreme by ascribing to him a divine 
character, and surrendering the doctrine of the di- 
vine unity, ddiey deemed the time now come for 
them, to have a prophet of their own, who would 
restore the religion of Abraham, and put an end to 
the state of ferment, into which the Peninsula had 
been thrown by the concussion of Judaism, Chris- 
tianity, Sabaism, and the idolatry which they in- 
herited from their fore-fathers. 

As a proof that such was the state of things we 
refer to certain signs of dissatisfaction with the state 
of religion, some years prior to the alleged Mission 
of Mohammed. ^^ On the occasion of a great meet- 
ing of the tribe of Koreish four men sat in secret 
conclave and imparted to each other the following 
sentiments: "Our fellow-countrymen are in a Mrong 
path, they are far astray from the religion of Abra- 

of thought displayed itself among' the Christians in the acceptance 
of nearly every kind of heresy. Ebionites, Beryllites , ISazaraeans, 
Arians, Semi-Arians and Collyridians vied with each other to de- 
stroy the Chiirfh, which was planted by St. Bartholomew, St. Pan- 
taenus and St. Simon Stylites. Epiph. de llaeres. lib. I. Haer. 40. 
and Sozom. Hist. Eccles. lib. I. cap. 16. 17. Sale's Prelem. remarks 
Sect. II. pag. 24. 25. 

''" Lectures on Mahomctanism by Cazenove pag. 47. 


ham. What is this j^retcudeJ divinity to which 
they ininiolate victims, and around which they make 
solemn processions ? A dumb and senseless block of 
stone , incapable of good and evil. It is all a mis- 
take: seek we the truth, seek we the pure religion 
of our father Abraham. To find it, let us quit our 
country, if need be, and traverse foreign lands."'* 
Three of these became acquainted on their travels 
with the truths of Christianity; but one of them, 
Zaid, having been kept back by his relatives, who 
were offended at his evident estrangement from pa- 
gan superstition, went day by day to the Kaaba, and 
prayed the Almighty to enlighten him. ' ^ 

Not knowing the truth, he opposed what he 
knew to be false, testified against superstition, for- 
bade men to eat the flesh of victims offered to idols, 
and protested against the practice of destroying their 
infant daughters. When imprisoned by his uncle 
he escaped and after wandering from place to place, 
he heard from a Christian monk, that an Arab pro- 
phet was preaching the religion of Abraham at 
Mecca. Zaid hastened back to hear Mohammed, but 
was robbed and murdered on the road.^^ Nor were 

'^^ These four men wore Waraca, son of Naufal; Othman, son 
of Houwayrith ; Obajdallah, son ofDjahch; and Zaid, son of Amer. 
The three first became Christians , and thus satisfied their craving 
after truth. 

" He might be seen leaning his back against the wall of the 
temple , repeating the prayer; "Lord if I knew in what way thou 
didst will to be adored and served , I would obey thy will ; but I 
know it not."' Caussin torn. I. p. 321. 

^^ This precursor of Mohammed, says M. Caussin de Perceval, 
has been hitherto almost unnoticed by European Savans. 


others wanting during tlie life-time of Mohannned 
who sought to control the stream of national feeling, 
and asserted rival claims. Amongst them we may 
mention Ommaiah,'* who died an early death; and 
Toleicha and Moseilama; the latter was so successful 
in making disciples; that even to this day an Arab 
tribe in western Africa trace their religion back to 
him and his immediate folloM'ers.'^' 

From this cursory glance at the age which gave 
birth to Islamism, we can well understand that a 
creed embodying the elements of all the religious 
systems extant among the Arabs and yet avoiding 
their flagrant excesses would be acceptable to the 
nation: what it desired w^as, a religion possessing a 
simple formula of belief, coming apparently from in- 
disputable authority, freely open to all, and affording 
to believers the enjoyment of a sensual Paradise; 
and this was most skilfully contrived and adapted 
by the man, whose personal history we are now to 

2. Mohammed''^ was born in the month of April 

^'* He was grandfather of Moviah, who usurped the Kali- 
phato. Dr. Dollinger's Muhaninied's Religion" pag. 4. 

^^ Relation des voyages de Saunier, a la cote d'Afrique p. 217. 

•'^ tX»:S\w<) or (X».a>t, from j^ , to laud; 4X4-^ laudavit, 

signifies "laudabilis, multa laude dignus." Compare the Hebrew 

"nT^n dcsideravit "TJ^ilTO and r;~T);n. Gesenlus Hebrew Lexicon. 

FT T : - T • V 

Called Muhanuncd, Meheniet, Mahomet, better Mohammed. This is 
the pronounciation also of the modern Arabs. The faith which he 
founded is called by Europeans: Mahonunetanism , Mahometism, 
Mohammedism, or better Mohnnimedanism : but bv himself and his 
followers exclusively: i»J>kAw', Islam (from L«cLw, to spread peace, 

in the fourth sense: to be saved, to be put in a state of happiness) 


A. D. 571 or 286 of the Diocletian era, his bio- 
graphers however do not agree as to the exact date, 
being more anxious to chronicle the marvels which 
are stated to have accompanied his birth, than to 
ascertain the precise period, when it took place.'' 
We are furnished with a genealogical table compris- 
ing thirty generations, tracing Mohammeds descent 
from Ishmael through his second son Kedar. The 
tribe to which he belonged was that of Koreish, and 
the family that of Hashem, princes of Mecca and 
the hereditary guardians of the Kaaba. Hence they 
were called "Ahal Allah" or "the people of God." 
Mohammed therefore was "Arab al Araba" or a pure 
Arab. Yet in spite of his noble descent he inherited 
only poverty from his ancestors. Abdallah, his father 
dying two months after Mohammed saw the light of 
the world, the whole property which remained for 
the support of his widow, Amena, and her infant 
son, consisted of a house, five camels, an Abyssinian 
female slave, a few sheep, and as some say, a slave 
called Sakran. 

Notwithstanding the marvels which are said 
to have attended the birth of her child, Amena had 

which signifies: resignation, subniis.sion. The Germans retain the 
Arabic Islam; the French transform it into Lslamisme, and the 
English generally adhere to Islamism Moslem is the appellation 
for the believer in the Koran ; the plural Moslemin. The trans- 
formation into Musselman and Musselmen, is therefore incorrect. 

" Pagan images fell to the ground , the sacred fires of the 
Parsees were extinguislied , demons were expelled from heaven: 
the drying up of the lake Sawa, inundation of the desert of Samawa, 
illumination of the whole earth, white clouds, voices from heaven, 
and other prodigies are recorded to have solemnised his birth. 


difficulty in procuring him a nurse; at last one was 
found in Ilalema, a Beduin woman, who failing in 
her attempt to procure an infant at Mecca, whither 
according to custom, she had come to seek one to 
nurse, ^** rather than return without a charge accept- 
ted the orphan prophet; and Amena confided him to 
her care for the space of two years. ^^ On restoring 
the child to his mother at the end of that time , the 
nurse for some reason begged, to be permitted to 
resume her charge for a longer period; in conside- 
ration of his health, Amena willingly consented , but 
to her surprise, within two months the child was 
returned in consequence of spasmodic fits , which 
Halema attributed to evil spirits. ''° It is not to be 
expected, that the biographers of the Pseudo-jitrophet 
would allow this period of his infancy to pass over, 
without ascribing to it events of a marvellous cha- 
racter, and such are gravely recorded upon the au- 
thority of his nurse!' 


^^ The Meccan mothers still send their children to the country, 
to live with the Beduins in tents till they are eight or ten years old. 

^^ The time of weaning a child, is after two years. See Lane's 
modern Egyptians I. 59. Also Siir. II. 234. 

*"" The term, which Abulfcda and Sirat Arrasul apply to these 
attacks, to which we shall have occasion to refer at a future period, 
signifies to be overcome by mi.sfortune , to be mortally injured, but 
is specially ap])lied to people, possessed. "I fear," said the husband 
of Ilalema, "thi« child /»" ^>o^6<?s*ef? , take him to his people before it 
becomes known." The fable of IMohanmied's chest being opened by 
two angels to remove the tares of lust and to fill it with jirnphctic 
light, is assigned to that period. Sur. XCIV. 1. '2. 

•"^ The mule on which Halema rides home with her charge, 
tells her that he carries the best of prophets, the Lord of Apostles, 
and the darling of God and the world. Sheep courtesy to the little 


At the age of six , liis mother having taken him 
to Medina to visit his relations , died on her way 
home. The orphan being now left to the care of the 
female slave Barakat , was brought by her to his 
grandfather Abdalmutalib who M'illingly receives 
him, and shortly has occasion to take him to a monk 
near Okaz for the benefit of his eyes , which had 
been deemed incurable at Mecca. 

On losing his grandfather two years later, the 
young Mohammed was adopted by his uncle Abu 
Talib, whom he accompanied, in his ninth or twelfth 
year, on a mercantile journey to Bussora, their cara- 
van was entertained by a Christian monk, called by 
some Bahira, by other Serdjis, who being so much 
pleased with the boy predicted his future great- 

In his sixteenth year Mohammed accompanies Zu- 
beir, another uncle on a mercantile trip to southern 
Arabia, and in his twentieth year he is seen on the 
battlefield with the same relation. ^^ After this no- 
boy, the moon bends down to his cradle ; he is endowed with ^tpeech 
immediately after his birth , etc. etc. Weil's "Mohammed der Pro- 
phet" pag. 26. 27. 

*^ Bahira according to the Sirat al Zuhra quoted in theCharais 
of Hussein, Ebn Mohiimmed was formerly a Jew, and this explains 
his second name. He was "H^na or ^"TlS and on his baj)tisra was 
called Georgius, which name the Arabs changed into luj^yMj, 
Serdjis or Djerdjis. Christian writers mention a Nestorian monk, 
twcS\j, Bahira, who being expelled from his Monastery in Syria, 

fled to Mecca. After Mohammed had extracted all the information 
he required, he put him to death to prevent his divulging the secret. 
Whether these two monks are identical is a disputed point. 

^' This war against the Beni Kinanah is called "vicious", be- 


thing is lieard of liim till liis twenty fifth year, except 
the facts of his obtaining his livilibood as a shepherd 
near Mecca/* and of his joining the bnsiness of a 
hnen-trader named Saib, in whose company he visit- 
ed the market at ITajasha, six days journey south of 
Mecca/ ^ In the latter place Mohammed makes 
the acquaintance of Ilakim Ebu Chuzeima, who re- 
commended him to his rich widowed aunt Chadija 
as an honest and trustM'orthy young man;"^ being 
compelled by famine, Mohammed offered his services 
to her as a mercantile agent. Chadija having at that 
time many goods to send to S}Tia engaged him in 
her service and promised him double wages, viz. two 
female camels. 

His success in this transaction was so great, that 
his mistress made him a present in addition to the 
promised wages, and as a proof of her confidence 
subsequently sends him to the south of Arabia upon 
other business.^' This occupation of traffic, in af- 

cause it commenced in the four holy months, in which wars by 
ancient custom were interdicted. 

^* Prof. Weil gathered this fact previously unknowTi in Europe 
from the "Insan Alujun" by All ITalcbi ; M. S. of four folio Volumes, 
and the „Chaniis" by Hosscin Ebn Muliammcd Ebu Alhasan Addi- 
arbekri in two folio Volumes, M. S. ; both being biographies of M. 
of the sixtenth century, obtained in Gotha. "Mohammed der 
Prophet" pag. 33. 

•"^ This also unknown fiict is derived from the "Insan Aluyun" 
and explains how Chadija came to take M. into her service. Ali 
Halibi has it from the Uyun Alather by Hafiz Abul Fath. 

^® M. had already acquired the cognomen: "Amin", the trust- 

'■•' Tradition endows the journey to Syria with strange marvels. 
In Bussora M. meets Nestor, another monk, who recognises a 


fording Mohammed an opportunity of acquiring a 
knowledoe of the world became in after life of the 


greatest service to him."* Mohammed having for 
some time conducted Chadijas affairs so much to her 
satisfaction, in spite of the great disjiarity of age® ^ 
and the opposition of her father she at length deter- 
mined to raise him from the position of her servant 
to that of her husband :^° having made a feast 
Chadija helped her father so bountifully with wine, 
that becoming drunk he gave his consent to their 

After this event Mohammed still continued tra- 
ding, but soon lost all his fortune;^* nevertheless 
his acknowledged honesty made him so respected 
that he was frequently called upon to act the part of 
umpire in matters of strife. In his thirty fifth year, when 

prophet in the merchant: because he has red eyes and a cloud 
every-where overshadows him; and because a withered tree under 
which be sits begins to blossom, and bear fruit. He also cured two 
camels on the road. Chadija saw him on his return overshadowed 
by the wings of two angels. 

®^ The Meccan people chiefly depended on commerce for sup- 
port , and their habits strongly remind us of the company of Ish- 
maelites coming from Gilead, with their camels laden with spicery, 
balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt. Gen. XXXVII, 25. 

®^ Chadija was forty, M. only a few months past twenty five. 
Other traditions make him twenty nine, thirty, or thirty seven, and 
Chad, twenty eight, thirty or thirty five. 

^" Chad, offered her hand through Nafisa, a female slave, and 
appointed the hour of meeting. 

^^ Insan Aluyun says respecting M's stay in the cave of mount 
Hara: "He could not remain a month in it, because his circum- 
stances were not so favourable as to provide a month's provision." 
It is also stated , that Abubcker had to advance his travelling ex- 
pences at his emigration to Medina. 


the chiefs of Mecca quarrelled, as to who should re- 
store the black stoue on the occasion of the rebuil- 
ding of the Kaaba, he settled the dispute to the 
satisfaction of the contending parties by laying the 
sacred stone on a carpet, and requesting the foiu* 
pretenders to lift it up by the four corners, whilst 
he himself took the stone and put it in its place.'' 
For the next five years Mohammed lived more and 
more in retirement; he frequently, especially during 
the sacred month of Ramadhan resorted to a cave in 
mount Ilara, sometimes with Chadija, but generally 
alone. His grandfather Abdahnutalib was accustom- 
ed before him to ascend this mountain for religious 
exercises, and there to feed the poor. '^^ It was 
doubtless iluring this period of seclusion that Mo- 
hammed projected his scheme of becoming the re- 
former of the religion of his people; there also he 
had leisure to digest his impressions of the Jewish 
and Christian religions. 

3. In his fortieth year intending to avow his pro- 
phetical Mission'* and "the night approaching 
which," according to Abulfeda "was to cover him 

'^ "(Sr He^ ben ©tcin oitf ciiicii jivojifn au^flebreftcten 3"c^3t"'^ tfgcn, 
itnb biefeii wn ben ^^retcnbentcn in bie ^otje ticben , bi^ an ben E'rt \vc tx 
InnfLMnnifn fpflfc. ^icronf ncihm cr ii(obann fclbft ben Stein niit cij^enet 
^iinb vvm Jcppicli anf, nnb bradUe ilm an ben Crt, WO er \ic<\(n mufite." 
2Ba[)[ pag. 24. E. 

^■^ Thus Ali Ilalibi in his Insan Ahi;yiin, who quotes Ebn Ala- 
thir. The same in Sirat Arrassul by Ibrahim Ilalibi, fol.36. whose 
biograpliy, compressed in sixty three lines of 2)oetry was printed at 
liulak 1248 of the Ilcdgra with a Turkish commentary. 

^* This jicriod was no doubt fixed upon in accordance with an 
ancient Arabic tradition, that God never called a prophet before 
the fortieth year of his age. 


with plorv" Mohammed withdrew to the solitary 
cave in the recesses of mount Kara; and it worthy 
of notice that his pretended revelations here began 
with those spasmodic convulsions, to which he had 
been subject as a child , and which had frequently 
attacked him durino- the interval. 

That Mohammed was subject to a species of 
epileptic fits has been recorded by Theophanes and 
other Christian writers who followed him; and though 
some learned critics, who might have been better 
informed, have accused these authors of slander, * ^ "* 
yet the fact is established and placed beyond the 
shadow of a doubt by the oldest and most faithful 
Moslem biographers. As this subject is of the ut- 
most imjiortance for a just appreciation of the real 
nature of Islamism, we must be permitted to subjoin 
the testimony of those , whose interest it might have 
been to deny the matter. 

Ali Halibi writes in his history of the prophet: 
"Ebn Ishak relates , what he has heard from his 
masters, viz., that Mohammed was subjected to the 
treatment of an exorcist , when in Mecca before the 
Koran was revealed to him. '^'^ On the coming down 

"'" This was done by the learned Frenchman Gagnier in his 
work: "La vie de Mahomet; traduite et compilec de I'Alcoran des 
traditions authentiques de laSonna et des meillours auteurs Arabes," 
A. D. 1732; which has become the foundation of almost every other 
European biography since his day; and it is not perhaps to be 
wondered that more modern authors should have followed his views 
on the subject in question. See also Ockley Hist, of the Saracens, 
Vol. I. pag. 3UU. 

^^ The word applied signifies: "Treated or cured by an ex- 
orcist." That this could not refer to the attacks which M. had as 


of the Koran the same attacks returned which he 
had before. Prior to that period he was subject to 
fainting fits after violently trembling; with closed 
eyes he foamed, and roared like a young camel. ^' 
Chadija (God be gracious unto her) then said: I will 
fetch somebody to cure thee (an exorcist); but he 
replied. I want nobody at present." ^'^ 

After the first alleged vision of the angel Gabriel 
Mohammed coming to Chadija trembling and damp 
with perspiration, exclaimed: "Cover me;'^ I fear 
for my soul." Chadija said: "rejoice: God will not 
put you to shame, thou art so kind to thy relations, 
sincere in thy words, afraid of no trouble to serve 

a child is clear from the fact, that this was not in Mecca, but in 
the country; and then, the Moslem saw nothing in that attack but 
the effect of M"s breast being opened by the angel. 

''"' Ali Ilalibi adds to this term: "this is an attack which ^fo- 
hanimcd sometimes had; referring especially to the /o/«.^/»(7 which 
was caused by demons, on which account M. said to his wife I fear 
for my soul." 

^** See the Arabic text: "Journal Asiatique, Juillet 184:2." 

^^ Sur. LXXin. with an allusion to this fact, M. is called "the 
wrapped up," Jooy4.Jt, the participial form, which is used per syn- 

copen instead Joo.jJiL»J(; and Sur. LXXIV. 1. he is addressed: "0 

then covered one": jj<X*Jt. "Gj? hat allc 93ermut^ung fur ftrf), bag 

fd)Lnt jeiter, 3lmme uiib Tlntkx in Sdirerfcn fc^fiitc 5lnfa((, wMhx tl)n in ber 
friiiifftcn ,<^iiibfioit cvfdnittcvto, in ircld'cm t'ic 5linmc i^cvaPC;^!! Satano ®cvfe 
crblidcu ivolltc (Abulf. Vit. Muh. cap. IV.), nid^te antcrce iicivcfeu i|1 aleS 
hjaei mx 3amnier unb fflofc^ ©cfeii ^u nennen ^.^ftciicn. 2i}ar SJl. eiii ^alU 
fiidi tiller, fo crfKut cc fid) I)icrauo am Icid^tcftcn, bag ilin fciiic uiu^laubii^en 

3citiifiuMTcii ciiicn Q3fl'flTciu-ii, (laemoniacum, naiintcii iDJaii liattc bic 

©civolnilu'it, foldic jii ;i3obcu v^cfivcrftc, yttcvnbe (SaUfud)tic)e, iiHU)reiib 
bet tramvfhaftcn fdnittchibcn 33crjiidinii^cii , urn bcm 9(ut^c ben ijranfamcn 
5(nMi(f 511 cnt^iclicn, obcr iim ben i'lh-Knn-iiditii^tcn ^wfali \n vcvtuWcn , iiiit 
©elvanb ju bcbcrfcn cccv in Jllcibcr einjiiI;uUcn." Wahl pag. U39. G43, 


tliy neighbour, supporting the poor, given to hospi- 
tality, and defending the truth." From these words 
it is clear that Mohammed was all but certain of 
being under the control of an evil spirit. According 
to Janabi, Chadija had the difficult task of consoling 
her husband, AA'hilst in her own mind she was troub- 
led as to the nature of the vision. She went with 
him to Waraka, a relation and a Christian priest, 
who told her that a holy angel would flee at the 
sight of an unveiled woman, but that an evil spirit 
could bear the sight. ^"^ Chadija was determined to 
apply the test,^^ and requested her husband to in- 
form her when the vision should next appear; Mo- 
hammed did so; and on her removing the veil from 
her face he declared, the angel was gone; which cir- 
cumstance convinced her that it was a holy angel 
and not the devil! 

As it is of the utmost importance to establish 
the connection between the visions of Mohammed 
and these dreaded ^^ attacks, we refer to other evi- 
dence derived from Ali Halibi, who records the ac- 

^^ Probably an allusion to the words of St Paul : Sm tovto 
ocpeiXei Tj yvvTj i^ovoiav t/^eiv inl tfjg xecpaXfjg , dux rovg dyysXovg. 
1 Cor. XL 10. 

*'^ Ali Ilalibi records that Chadija made M. sit in different 
positions and that in each of them he declared, he saw the angel, 
till she removed the veil, when he saw him no more. "Then said 
she: "by God! it is true, it is true, it was an angel and no devil." 
To this tradition the author of the Hamzij'ah refers, when he writes: 
„She threw her veil away to know whether it was a true revelation 
or a fainting produced by demons." 

®* As a proof of Mohammed's misgiving as to the source, from 
which his revelations proceeded, may be added, that he used to 
tremble and shake violently, when the time of his visions drew near. 



count given by Ayesha. We read in his Insan Alu- 
yun: "A tradition, which is founded upon Ayesha's 
testimony, says : the prophet was exceedingly oppress- 
ed, as often as the angel appeared; the sweat fell 
from his forehead during the coldest weather, his 
eyes became red, and at times he roared like a young 
camel." "^ Zaid, an eyewitness adds: "As often as 
the prophet received a revelation, it was as if his 
soul was to be taken from him, he had a kind of 
fainting, and looked like a drunken man." Abu Ha- 
riri,^* says: "when the revelation came down to 
Mohammed, none dared to look at him; according to 
another account, he was angry if any one looked at 
him: his face was covered with foam, his eyes were 
closed, and sometimes he roared like a camel." 

Ilarith Ebn liisham asked the Arab prophet: 
"In what manner dost thou receive the revelation? 
He answered: sometimes an angel ajipears in the 
form of a man^'' and speaks to me; sometimes I 
hear sounds ^^ like those of a bell; then I become 
very bad, and when he (the angel) leaves me, I have 
received the revelations."**'^ 

From these facts we gather, that ]\Iohammed 

^^ Weil "Mohamniod dor Prophet," pag. 44. note 48. Zaid 
Ebn Tliabit repeats tlie same , and adds that he was frequently at- 
tacked when riding on the camel. 

^* In "Moslem's Collection of traditions", 

^'^ Generally in that of his friend Dihja, the subsequent am- 
bassador to the I'ersian Monarch. 

^^ Noise in the ears is one of the well-known symptoms of 

^^ See the MSS of Insan Aluyun and Chamis. 


was subject to violent spasmodic attacks at various 
periods of his life; that he himself considered them 
the work of an evil spirit; that he put himself under 
the treatment of an exorcist; and that even after his 
alleged Mission he expressed his misgivings as to 
the nature of the demon which inspired him; and 
we can easily understand the reason why his coun- 
trymen constantly charged him with being possessed 
by a devil, even after he and his followers had per- 
suaded themselves to the contrary/^ 

Waraka, Ebn Naufal, the cousin whom Chadija 
had consulted, was a learned priest, converted to 
Christianity from Judaism 'in the time of igno- 
rance," well read in the Old and New Testament, ^^ 
and is said to have translated the Gospel into Ara- 
bic; ®° all this explains the influence which he had* 

^® "Why will they not understand," he makes God complain 
"that there is no evil spirit in their fellow man." Sur. VII. 183. 
Gagnier makes M. a hypochondriac and Noel des Vergers pag. 8 
considers him mad; "atteint de folie." Others class him with 
Montanists, quakers and jumpers, and thus account for his alleged 
inspirations. Theophanes was of opinion that M. put forth the 
vision of an angel to hide his disease , but the disease no doubt 
was the cause of the vision , only in a different sense from what is 
commonly accepted, as will be shown towards the end of this 

Sirrat Arrusul fol. 36. 

Lsxci (j^ V^-'^ ij' «-Ut ^^ ^^ J^^V=?^^' 1^^ *^)-*^^ 

4^ tXi' tv^vy Chamis second leaf of the chapter "Of the events 

at the beginning of the prophetical mission." See also Mamizade ' 
pag. 53. 



with his cousin and Mohammed in removing the 
suspicion that his attacks were caused by satanic 
agency. That Mohammed held this man in great 
esteem and acquired from him much of his know- 
ledge of Judaism and Christianitv is sufficiently 
known to require any further corroboration: and this 
may accoimt for the importance, which ]\Iohammed 
attached to Waraka's testimony, that he was the 
gTeat prophet, who had been prophesied in the 

In the fii'st three years of his Mission,^* Mo- 
hammed required his friends and relatives only, to 
acknowledge him as a prophet; among the fii'st who 
did so, were Abubeker, a man two years his junior, 
Zaid, Mohammed's slave and Ali, a youth whom 
Abu Talib adopted during the famine,®^ who after- 
wards became his son-in-law. It will be remembered 
when Mohammed asked, who would he his Vizier 
or assistant to share the burden of his office, and 
none ventured to answer that Ali , then a mere 
youth, rose and spake: "I, proj^het am the man, 
whom thou seekest, whoever he be that shall rise 
up against thee, I will knock out his teeth, will 
tear out his eyes, will throttle him and grind his 
bones. Let me proj^het be thy Vizier!" This 

^^ Respecting the day and month of his mission, the traditions 
do not agree , and it is a disputed point whether the celebration of 
jtXii-'' RJLJ, the night of power or destiny, which falls on the 

twenty seventh of Raraadhan, is correct. See Lane's Modern Egypt 
II. pag. 238. and Abulfeda ed. Noel des Vergers pag. 107. 

^^ Ali was only from eight to eleven years old ; some say four- 
teen years, at all events he was a mere lad. 


shows tlie spirit of the youth , and explains , why 
INlohammed afterwards called him the "lion of God." 

Among the first INIoslemin may also be reckoned 
Arkam, — in whose house their meetings were held 
after having been surprised and maltreated in the 
cave, — the dw^arf AbdallahEbnMasud, and the brave 
Abu Ubeida. Among the women we have besides 
Chadija, Um Afdal, the wife of Abbas, Um Eiman 
or Baraka the Abyssinian, and Asma, the daughter 
of Abubeker. The total number of Mohammed's 
followers, during the first three years of his Mission, 
amounted scarcely to forty, mostly young people 
strangers and slaves, yet a beginning w^as made. 

In the fourth, or as some state the fifth year, 
Mohammed resolved to go a step further and openly 
proclaim himself a prophet ;^^ first combating the 
idea that he w^as possessed by a devil. ^* In this 
bold step, from which he evidently shrank for some 
time, he met with the most decided opjDosition. On 
one occasion w^hen threatening his relatives with 
hell-fire, he w^as loaded in return with imprecations: 
and on denouncing their idols as impotent, and their 
fathers as having lived in a state of ignorance, he 

^^ To this he received a special commission : "Wherefore pub- 
lish that which thou hast been commanded and withdraw from the 
idolaters. We will surely take thy part against the scoffers." 
Sur. XV. 94—99. 

'* "The devils did not descend with the Koran (as the infidels 
give out) it is not for their purjjose , neither are they able (to pro- 
duce such a book) for they are far removed from hearing 

Shall I declare unto you upon whom the devils descend ? They 
descend upon every lying and wicked person." Sur. XXVI. 210. 


would have been strangled in the Kaaba, had not 
Abiibeker come to his assistance.^" 

Equally dangerous became the position of his 
followers ; Mohammed therefore advised them to 
leave the country; consequently eleven men and four 
women sailed for Abyssinia, where with others who 
followed, they found an asylum, till Islamism became 
established in the Peninsula. ^^ 

The next step taken by the enemies of Moham- 
med was to plot against his life , and a price of a 
hundred camels and 1000 ounces of silver was set 
upon his head: but Omar, who had undertaken to 
murder him,®^ when about to perpetrate the deed, 
relented and became a Moslem. Notwithstanding 
this escape Mohammed's position soon became un- 
tenable, and he was so cast down and discouraged, 
that either from fear or with a hope of conciliating 
his enemies, he made a most dangerous concession: 
that of restoring the idols of the Arabs to the rank 
of mediators between God and man. Subsequently 
however being reassured by the protection of his 
uncle he declared this concession to have been made 
at the instigation of Satan.''*' 

^^ Abu Talib being no longer able to protect M. requested his 
connections to share the responsibility. 

^'^ These emigrants were pursued to the coast, but managed to 
escape in a ship. Nor did the bribe afterwards sent to the Abys- 
sinian j)rince, induce him to give them up. 

^" Omar, afterwards one of the stauachest defenders of Isla- 
mism was then only twenty six years of age. On his way to 
murder M. he is told by a secret Moslem, that his sister Fatiraa 
was a convert; going to her he finds her learning the twentieth 
Sura, and the result is his own conversion. 

^'^ The concession is alluded to Sur. XXII. 51. where Satan is 


Abu I'allb fearing further attempts on the hfe 
of his nephew, removed him to his fortified castle in 
the country, whither he was followed by many ad- 
herents of the new creed , who during the space of 
three years shared Mohammed's privations.®^ The 
Koreishites exasperated at his escaping through the 
assistance of his uncle, resolved to outlaw him and 
his friends as enemies of the peace , which they did 
by affixing a document to that effect on the walls of 
the Kaaba. Whilst an exile from Mecca two instan- 
ces of conversion are recorded , the first being that 
of a Christian caravan from Nadjran, the second that 
of an exorcist, who hearing that Mohammed was 
possessed, offered to cure him, instead of which, he 
himself caught the infection of Islamism. ^ When 
at the end of three years, the interdict was removed, 
Mohammed returned to Mecca, and shortly after 

said to have put wrong' things into all the prophets before him; and 
Sur. XVII. 75. 76: "It wanted little (but the unbelievers) had 
tempted thee to swerve from the instructions , which we had re- 
vealed unto thee, that thou shouldst devise concerning us a ditterent 
thing, and then they would have taken thee for their friend, and 
unless we had confirmed thee thou hadst certainly been very near 
inclining to them a little." 

^^ It was only during the sacred months that they were per- 
mitted to enter Mecca; for during the festivals (mausam) hosti- 
lities were still suppressed, according to the Chamis and Jannabi. 

* These two conversions were brought to light by Weil, who 
refers to Insan Aluyun, where Ali Halibi quotes Ujun Alather. M. 
said to the exorcist; "Thou profcssest to be able to deliver men 
from demons? Only God we may intreat for help; whom he guidetli 
no one can lead astray, but whom he leads into error, no one can 
deliver. Confess that there is one God , who has chcsen mo to be 
his apostle " In this period fell the revelation of Sura XXX. and 
the prediction of the conquest of the Persians by the Greeks. 


sustained the loss of his uncle, who died as a Pagan, 
never having acknowledged the Mission of his nephew: 
for although he protected him from first to last, he 
like most of his contemporaries considered his visi- 
ons to be nothing but the effect of satanic inspi- 
ration.^ Within three days of his uncle's death 
Mohammed lost his wife Chadija, but was, it ap- 
pears, less afflicted at this event; for although his 
consideration for her prevented his taking other 
wives during her life time, only a month elapsed be- 
fore he married ^anda a refugee widow in Abyssinia, 
and shortly after he was betrothed to Ayesha , the 
daughter of Abubeker, who was then only seven 
years old. 

After the death of his uncle Mohammed's ene- 
mies became more violent than ever and expelled 
him from Mecca. In Taif, two days journey east of 
his native town, whither he fled for safety, he received 
no protection, although connected with its inhabi- 
tants , but was hunted out of the place by slaves and 
children, and compelled to return to Mecca, where 
happily through the influence of INIutim, a respectable 
non-Koreishite citizen of the town, he was re-ad- 

In spite of all the misfortunes connected with 
this disastrous occurrence, the persecuted 23ropliet re- 

' 2 The homage of the Genii is related Sur. LXXII. 1 — 14. The 
rapture to heaven is a traditional legend, which is recorded in ex- 
tenso: Gagnier, "La Vie de Mahomet" II. pag. 195—251. and is 
looked upon by many IMoslomin as a mere vision, whilst the night- 
journey to Jerusalem is admitted by them as real. See Sur. XVII. 
61. where M. speaks of this also as a vision; compare verse 1. 


entered Mecca greatly strengthened by the hom- 
age of the demons, and the celebrated journey to 
heaven, whither he had been carried by a winged 
horse, and where he was saluted by God as the most 
beloved of messengers, and most excellent of crea- 
tures. The relation of this marvel exposed him 
to fresh outbursts of ridicule and contempt, and many 
of the faithful left him in consequence.^ Yet du- 
ring the ensuing festival, Mohammed found some 
willing ears among the pilgrims from Medina; his 
new disciples could not indeed alter his precarious 
position, but they could use then' influence on return- 
ing to their country to circulate his doctrines. In this 
they prospered to such an extent, that we find in the 
following year A. D. 621 a double number of con- 
verts in Medina, able to afford protection to refugees 
from Mecca.* 

On the occasion of the next annual festival, when 
Mohammed was fifty three lunar years old, no less 
than seventy three pilgrims came from Medina, all 
Moslemin; the meeting on Akaba was resumed, and 
a treaty offensive and defensive concluded between 
them, with the request -that Mohammed should emi- 
grate to Medina. The prophet however remained for the 

' His own aunt, Uni Hani thought it so incredible, that she 
took hold of his garment and conjured him not to make himself 
more contemptible in the eyes of the Koreshites. Weil pag. 171. 

* The men first taught by M. on mount Akaba belonged to 
the tribe of Chazradj , with whom he was connected through his 
mother , and who had long been allies of the Jews at Medina ; 
through the latter they must have heard of a great projihet, the 
expected Messiah. 


time at Mecca, but in September 622, in consequence 
of a conspiracy to murder him, lie fled to Medina;^ 
meeting the tribe Beni Sahm on his way, he gained 
them as converts, and their chief Bureida taking off 
his turban and tying it to his lance for a flag, accom- 
panied him to Medina. 

Arrived at Yathrib the ancient name of Medina, 
the latter simply signifying "town", — Mohammed's 
first acts were these, to institute the religious rites, 
to give a new home to the emigi-ants, to build the 
first Mosque,^ and to organise a fraternity between 
the Meccan and Medina believers, which extended 
even to mutual inheritance at the expence of their 
own relatives. 

In the seventh mouth after his arrival he mar- 
ried Ayesha in her ninth year, the wedding break- 
fast consisted of a cup of milk, which Mohammed 

^ For three months Abubekcr had two camels in readiness to 
carry them away at a moment's notice. After his followers had 
left, M. was exposed to imiiiiiiont peril, for expecting he would 
follow, his enemies surroiiiuled his house to murder him. M. having 
been sicquainted Avith their design ordered Ali to be put into his 
bed, whilst lie escaped on the other side of the house and retreated 
with Abubeker to a cave one mile East of Mecca; leaving it on 
the fourth day they went towards Medina by a less frequented 
road along the Red sea. From this flight or rather emigration," 
dates the era of the Mohammedans ; 8wjS\iC, emigration; »s>.t\jO, 

the emigrant. The flight is confirmed by Sur. Vlil. 30. 

'' l^nte trees were cut down, the dead hurried beneath them 
exhumed, and a simple structure was reared of live to seven yards 
high, and a 100 square. At night it was illuminated with burning 
pieces of wood , till oil lamps were provided by some generous 
Moslem. The Kaliphs transformed it into a gorgeous temple, which 
is to this day a ])lace of j)ilgrimage. By the side of it was built 
a harem, for Mohammed's favourite wives. 



obtained from Zaad, who with A sad alternately sup- 
plied him with food. His daughter was shortly after 
married to Ali; her outfit was two garments, a 
kohel-apparatus , two silver bracelets, a leathern 
pillow of palm-leaves , a cup and a few water jars. 
Her bridal bed was a sheep-skin; and a dish of dates 
and olives composed the wedding feast. 

With a view to gain the Jews Mohammed made 
several concessions; such as the turning of the face 
towards Jerusalem, the retaining of the celebration 
of the Sabbath, and the adherence to other Mosaic 
ordinances; he even went so far as to command the 
observation of the fast, Yom Kipur, or the tenth 
day of the month Tishri, with which the Jewish year 
commences; but failing in his scheme, these con- , 
cessions were subsequently rescinded.^ His most/] ^ 
important act during the first year of the Hedgra 
was the proclamation of war, as the heaven-or- 
dained means of spreading the faith. He could not 
yet venture on open warfare, but contenting himself 
with the irregular exploits of a robber, he plundered 
the Meccan caravans, which passed near Medina on 
their way to and from Syria.** 

As the Koreishites however, were too cautious to 
be entrapped, he resorted to the base and treacherous 
measure of attacking them during the four sacred 

^ The Jews desired to retain all their laws and rites ; and re- 
jected M's claim , mainly because he was not of the house of 

^ M. once issuing forth with seventy men against a caravan 
the expedition ended in a league; a second was attcmi^ted against 
2500 camels, a third against 1000, but both failed. 


months, wlien they considered themselves perfectly- 
safe. ^ 

The first actual engagement at Beder between 
the rival parties took place in the month of Ramad- 
han, in the second year of the Hedgra; this time 
also Mohammed set out against a richly laden cara- 
van, returning from Syria. But its chief, Abu 
Sofian having received news of his movements, sent 
"for troops from Mecca, which came forth to meet 
Mohammed, whilst the caravan safely passed another 
way. In this struggle between 314 Moslemin and 
600 Meccans;^° the latter lost seventy men on the 
spot, many being made prisoners. Mohammed took 
no active part in the battle , but was engaged in 
prayer, hence the victory was ascribed to the help 
of angels.^* This success with its rich spoil so far 
increased his ranks , that he now felt strong enough 
to revenge himself upon the Jews.*^ After a few 
assassinations open war was made against the tribe 
of the Beni Keinukaa, some of whom lived in Me- 
dina; on their refusing to embrace Islamism they 
were made prisoners, and would have been masacred, 

* Great scandal was occasioned by M. sending Abdallah against 
them with sealed orders and it required a divine sanction to justify 
his murderous attack. Sur, II. 217. 

1" Journal Asiatique VII. p. 97 etc. and Sur. 111. 124. 125. 
VIII. 9. 10. IG. 

1* Sur. Vin. 41. 

*^ The first victim was Asma , the daughter of Mervan 
who had A\Tittcn some satyrcs against him ; the second a 
Jew wlio was 120 years old. Weil, p. 117. 118. 


had not Mohammed been prevented from carrying 
out his purpose.*^ 

For thirteen months Mohammed continued phui- 
dering the caravans of Mecca with impunity , until 
the Koreishites determining to revenge themselves 
sent 3000 men against Medina. The prophet was 
compelled to meet them and in the battle of Ohod, 
lost seventy of his best men, amongst whom was 
his uncle Hamza; he himself being wounded was for 
some time considered dead/* 

Many other misfortunes followed the battle of 
Ohod, which fell specially upon the Missionaries of 
Islamism, several of whom were murdered. With a 
view therefore to indemnify his followers Mohammed 
attacked another Jewish tribe,*' but being well for- 
tified in their castles they held out for some time 
and he permitted them to emigrate with part of 
their substance. As the spoil was gained without the 
sword, Mohammed's followers were disappointed by 
his claiming it for himself. These and other success- 
ful dej)redations caused another army of 10,000 men 
to be raised against Mohammed; it was commanded 
by Abu Sofian the head of the Koreishites.*^ The 

*^ They were put in fetters, that he might slay them the more 
easily, but Abdallah, under whose protection they were, prevented 
it; Sur. V. 59. 60. was revealed to rebuke him for his interference. 

** He was found in a ditch, and had lost one of his front-teeth; 
had he not been recognised by Kaab through his armour and hel- 
met, he would probably have perished on the field. 

^^ The Beni Nadhir, see Weil p. 134 till 139. and Sur. LIX. 

'^ This was in the fifth year of the Hedgra, March A. D. 627. 


prophet now dreading an open engagement, en- 
trenched himself within the walls of Medina, working 
himself at the fortifications. But want of courao;e to 
storm the place, unfavourable weather, and discord 
among the besiegers induced them after twenty 
days to raise the siege. Mohammed however wish- 
ing to revenge the siege upon the Jewish tribe, Beni 
Koreiza, who on this trying occasion had joined the 
allied army against him, ordered a wholesale mas- 
sacre of the men and the women to be sold as slaves or 
exchanged for horses;*' one of them, Rihana was 
converted and added to the number of the prophet's 
wives. *^ 

The humiliating siege of Medina, and the domes- 
tic affairs of Mohammed stirred up a party among 
his followers headed by Abdallah Ebn Ubej who had 
long looked upon his growing power with extreme 
jealousy; having uttered some severe remarks on the 

'^ Respecting the siege of Medina and this infamous war with 
the Jews: see Weil, pag. 160 — 170. A description by M. is found 
Sur. XXXIir. 9—14. 20. 25. 20. 

^^ Shortly before this M. had married the beautiful widow Uni 
Salma, and Zeinab the wife of his liberated slave Zaid , whom he 
had persuaded to divorce. As it caused great oflcnce to his fol- 
lowers he received a sjiecial licence from heaven. Sur. XXXIII. 4. 
5. 37 — 39. Another wife he had lately taken was Barra, one of 
the 200 captives from the Beni Mustalik. We cannot be surprised 
that the faithfulness of Ayesha was called into question at this 
time, when so many rivals were added. To silence her accusers, 
Sur. XXIV. 11 — 20. appeared. The case of Kihana reminds us of 
the words of Homer : 

Tng 6' kXa&' th^X&cov Ilfjia/iiog /Afyag uyxi 8' u^a aag 
Xi'.(j()li> ^/t^dXijog Xitj'ii: yhiuTa, yvuf X''^^'^^ 
zitivag, urd(JO(povovg, la oi noXeug y.xuiov viag. 

Iliad. ^ L. 477. 


prophet, — who had not then the power to resent 
the affront — Abdallah was requested by his tribe 
to seek Mohammed's pardon, to which he repHed: 
"you asked me to become a behever, and I became 
one; you commanded me to pay taxes for rehgious 
purposes, and 1 paid them; now nothing is wanting 
but that I should worship Mohammed."*^ 

The pro[)het having thus raised a powerful feeling 
against himself, felt it necessary in order to recover 
his position and revive the enthusiasm in his cause, 
to take a fresh public step, and therefore proclaimed 
a pilgrimage to Mecca, inviting both his followers 
and allies among the Pagan Arabs to join him. This 
scheme however partialy failed, for in spite of having 
mustered only 700 men, he was compelled to start 
at once for Mecca in consequence of a dream, ^* 
trusting that the Koreishites would forbear active 
hostilities during the sacred months. Changing his 
armour for the garment of a pilgrim and taking 
seventy camels , whom he had marked for a sacri- 
fice, " he set out, and without molestation reached 

** This produced the infallible Sura, called "the hypocrite," 
which came down during one of his so called epileptic fits. See 
Sur. LXIII 1. 2. 5. 7. 8. 

^^ Great murraurring was also caused by his cruel destruction 
of the palm-trees , which served as a means of subsistence to the 
Jewish tribe, Ben Nadir, whom he afterwards drove into exile and 
the appropriation of the entire spoil , which the verses , Sur. LIX. 
1 — 8. 11 — 16. could not allay. 

^^ M, dreamed that he entered Mecca, and as his dreams were 
revelations from God, in order to be consistent, he was compelled to go. 

^- The mark consisted in a cut on the back of the animal, and 
a piece of leather or an old sandal round the neck. The first was 
called "ishar" the latter "taklid." 


the vicinity of Mecca; failing however to gain ad- 
mittance, the ceremonies of the Hadj or pilgrimage 
were performed at a distance; and a truce with the 
Meccans was made for ten years with the promise 
that at a future festival Mohammed might enter 
their city as a pilgrim and remain for three days. ^^ 
To divert the discontent of his fellow-pilgrims 
under these discouraging circumstances, he proposed 
war against the Jews of Cheibar and Fadak, who 
dwelt about four days journey north-east of Medina: 
some of their fortified places were stormed, and the 
rest submitted, engaging to pay half of their income 
as tribute.^* Not satisfied with the fifth part of the 
spoil, which he always claimed as divine right, he 
appropriated an additional wife, in the captive Jewess 
Safia, whose husband he had killed on account of 
his hiding some of the treasures.^' Zeinab another 
Jewess seeking to revenge the death of her relatives 
prepared a poisoned lamb , for the prophet, who did 
not however take sufficient of it to cause his imme- 
diate death; yet he believed his health to have been 
destroyed from that hour. *^ On his way back to 

^* Resi:)ecting this visit at Mecca see Sur. XLVni. 1 — 27. 
^* Mohammed's progress resembled that ascribed to Caesar by 
the Roman poet: 

Acer et indomitus, quo spes, quoque ira vocasset, 
Ferre manum, et munquam temerando parccre ferro ; 
Successus urgere suos — — 
— — Impellens, quidquid sibi summa petenti 
Ostaret; gaudensque viam fecisse ruina. 

Lucan. lib, 1. 146. 

^''' Gagnier "La vie de Mahomet" II. p. 57. 

^^ When Zeinab was charged with the crime, she said.- "Thou 
knowest how my people are treated by thee ; I thought therefore : 


Medina two other Jewish tribes were conquered and 
made tributary. 

Just at this period, returned the exiled Moslemin 
from Abyssinia, bringing with them a report of the 
kind treatment, they had received from tlie Prince of 
that country, ^ ^ and this circumstance probably em- 
boldened Mohammed to send ^mtten demands to 
foreign potentates,^® requiring them to acknowledge 
him as a divine prophet and to embrace Islamism. 
Some are said to have complied with this demand, 
others doubtless from fear of his marauding bands, 
treated the ambassadors with courtesy and respect; but 
Chosroes, the Persian king tore up the epistle before 
he had finished reading its contents, and Amru, the 
Ghassanide killed the ambassador. To revenge the 
murder, Mohanmied sent 3000 men against Amru, 
but the latter, being supported by Greek troops, de- 
feated them near INIutta, and thus for the first time 
were Moslem forces brought into contact with a 
Christian army. 

After Mohammed had performed a pilgrimage 
to Mecca, staying only three days according to the 
treaty, the Meccans broke their faith with him by 

art thou only a prince I shall obtain rest; art thou a prophet, 
thou wilt be instructed of it." Traditions do not agree whether 
she was executed or pardoned. 

^^ Amongst them was the widow of a Christian , Um Halibi , to 
whom he was betrothed before her return to Arabia, and by whom 
he enriched his Harem. 

*® To the Persian king Chosroes II; the Abyssinian king; and 
the Emperor Heraclius ; the Governor of Egypt and the heads of 
various Arab tribes. 


rashly attacking a tribe under his protection. Re- 
jecting an offer to renew the treaty, the psendo- 
prophet advanced with 10,000 men against Mecca, 
and when he unexpectedly encamped before the 
town, the inhabitants were only able to save them- 
selves by acknowledging him as a sovereign and a 

Order being restored, Mohammed circumambu- 
lated the Kaaba seven times, each time kissing the 
sacred black stone. The 360 idols without and 
within the sanctuary were then destroyed, and these 
idolatrous remains being removed, the prophet 
commenced his prayer; after which he received the 
homaoe of men and women on mount Safa. Whilst 
Mohammed was occupied in consolidating his power in 
the town his generals went through the provinces, 
destroying idol temples, murdering priestesses and 
propagating Islamism. 

Mohammed had not yet however subjected all 
the Arab tribes ; a strong army was now arrayed 
against him in the valley of Honein which being too 
numerous for his troops, the Moslemin narrowly 
escaped a most disastrous defeat. Equally unsuc- 
cessful was Mohammed's attack upon the strongly 
fortified toA\ii, Taif: for after twenty days he was 
compelled to raise the siege; then having settled a 
violent dispute in his army, and ordered the affairs 
at Mecca, he returned to Medina. 

The ninth year of the Hedgra bringing embas- 
sies from various tribes in Arabia, was therefore 
called "the year of the deputations." Mohammed 


now felt sufficiently strong to tliink of revenging his 
defeat at Mutta, and proclaimed a holy war against 
the Byzantine Empire; he perceived however but 
little enthusiasm among his troops, notwithstand- 
ing his promise of pardon for sins past and future 
to those, who should engage in it. Some dreaded 
the intense heat of the season, others were occupied 
with the date-harvest, or could not afford the neces- 
sary provisions, but the greater part doubtless feared 
to measure their strength with the Greeks a second 
time on the field of battle. Half the army return- 
ed the next day to Medina under the disaffected 
Abdallah Ebn Ubej, regardless of the menacing Suras, 
which were hurled against them. Mohammed then 
proceeded to Tabak, but his army being reduced 
and discontented, he could not venture further, and 
had the mortification of being obliged to return to 
Medina amidst the reproaches of his disappointed 
soldiers. Added to this vexation, a domestic occur- 
rence at this juncture occasioned so much scan- 
dal that he deemed it unsafe to make a pilgrimage 
this year to Mecca, he therefore sent Ali to proclaim 
to the pilgrims there assembled, that no league 
between non-Mohammedans should be valid after 
the expiration of four months; that the sanctuary 
should hereafter be approached only by Moslemin; 
and finally Ali was to recite among them the ninth 
Sura. On the following year the tenth of the 
Hedgra, Mohammed made his pilgrimage to Mecca 
in perfect safety at the head of at least 40,000 pil- 


grims ; it was his last visit, and of this he seemed to 
have a presentiment. 

Some months after his return from Mecca to 
Medina, Mohammed prepared for a third expedition 
to Syria, which indeed was never carried out; owing 
to his sudden iUness. Doubtless excited by fever, he 
rose up one night desiring his slave to accompany him 
to the burial-place of the town; on reaching the spot 
he saluted the dead, and said to Abu ^Munhaba: "To 
me is left the choice to remain in the world, whose 
treasures are opened to me till the last day or to 
meet my Lord earlier , and by God , I have chosen 
the latter." He then prayed for the dead saying, he 
was commanded to do so. On his return home 
Ayesha complaining of headache, he said; "let me 
rather complain, I feel in great pain." 

From this moment his illness rapidly increased, 
he nevertheless continued his routine among his 
wives; when at last with Maimuna, he called them 
all together and requested, that he might be allowed 
to remain in Ayesha's house, which adjoined the 
mosque. Here his fever reached such a height, that 
seven skins of water were poured over his head; 
when relieved he said: "Now I feel that the poison 
I took at Cheibar tears the vein of my heart." He 
then went to the mosque to announce his end; and 
there commending Abubeker and Usuma, — the 
latter of whom he had appointed general of his army 
against the Greeks, — he concluded with this charge: 
"Whosoever among you has anything on his con- 
science, let him rise, that I may ask God's grace on 


his behalf." A man who was considered a good 
Moslem rose saying: "I was a hypocrite, a liar and 
an indolent Moslem." Omar vocifbrated: "Woe to 
thee, why revealest thou, what God has hidden!" 
Mohammed rejoined: "0 son of Chattab, it is better 
to blush in this life than in the life to come;" and 
continued: "Have I beaten any of you, here is my 
back, let him smite me in return; have I injured 
the honour of any, let him attack my own; have I 
robbed any one of money, let him receive it back, 
and fear no anger on my part, for that is not my 
way." When a man came forward to claim three 
denars, he gave them, repeating: "better to blush 
in this world, than in the world to come."^^ Return- 
ing to Ayesha's house he fainted; Abbas caused 
them to give him some medicine; which so annoyed 
him, that on recovering his consciousness, he made 
all present take a dose. 

During the last day of his life he appeared much 
better: but a fresh attack coming on, before losing 
his consciousness he granted liberty to his slaves, 
caused them to divide seven denars among the poor, 
and prayed : " God stand with me in the agony of death." 
He then expired A. D. 632. in the arms of Ayesha, 
his last words being: "to the highest companion in 
Paradise!" His body remained, contrary to all eastern 
custom, two or three days uninterred, whilst his 
friends and relations were occupied with the task of 

^' M. visited the mosque several times after, but with one ex- 
ception , never took an active part in the worship. Abubeker ge- 
nerally acted for him , which doubtless favoured his subsequent 
election as Kaliph. 



choosing a successor; when the contest was decided 
in favour of Abubeker, they at last agreed on his 
being buried in Ayesha's house, where he died, 
which was accordingly carried into effect at night. 

4. Mohammed is said to have been of middle 
stature; to have had a large head, strong beard, 
round face, and reddish-brown cheeks. His biogra- 
phers state, that his forehead was high, his mouth 
wide, his nose long, and somewhat of an aquiline 
shape; that he had large black eyes; that a vein 
which extended from his forehead to his eyebrows 
enlarged, when excited by anger; that his splendid- 
ly white teeth stood far apart; and upon his lower 
lip was a small mole. His hair hanging over his 
shoulders retained its dark colour to the day of his 
death: he sometimes dyed it brown but more fre- 
quently apj)lied to it odoriferous oils. It was only 
at his last pilgrimage that he had his head shaven. 
He trimmed his moustache and his finger-nails every 
Friday before prayer. His neck, it is said, "rose 
like a silver bar upon his broad chest." Between 
his shoulders he had a large mole, which was looked 
upon as the prophetic seal. A physician once wish- 
ing to remove it, Mohammed objected, saying: "He 
who made it, shall also heal it." His hands and feet 
were very large, yet his step was so light, as "to 
leave no mark on the sand." 

Mohammed spoke but little, yet occasionally per- 
mitted himself a joke. A woman once came to him, 
saying: "My husband is ill and begs thee to visit 
him;" upon which he enquired, "has not thy hus- 


band something white in his eye?" She returned in 
order to examine it; on her husband asking, what 
she was doing, she repHed: „1 must see, whether you 
have anything white in your eye, for the Apostle of 
God asked the question." Her husband at once re- 
cognising the joke convinced her, that this was com- 
mon to all eyes. On one occasion when an old 
woman conjured him to pray for her, that she might 
enter paradise; he replied: "no old woman dares 
enter paradise!" As she began to weep, he reminded 
her of the verse in the Koran which declares that 
perpetual youth will be restored to women. 

The Arab prophet was compassionate towards 
animals , and would wipe down his horse , when it 
perspired with his sleeve ; but this was nothing 
extraordinary among his countrymen. His cat was 
lifted up to share his own dish; and a white cock, 
which he had, he called his fi'iend, considering him 
a protection against devils, genii, witchcraft and the 
evil eye! What he could do for himself, he never 
allowed to be done for him by others. He bought 
his own victuals in the market, cleaned and mended 
his own clothes, milked his own goats, and often had 
no fire for cooking purposes for several days to- 
gether. From the time he had tasted the poisoned 
lamb at Cheibar, he never received food fi-om stran- 
gers, before they had themselves partaken of it. He 
was very superstitious and prognosticated good or 
evil fi-om the most trivial incidents. 

His dress was simple, usually consisting of a 
cotton shirt, and an upper linen garment of native 


manufacture, but on festive occasions lie wore a 
yellow mantle. His woollen cap was sometimes tur- 
baned with a white or black piece of cloth; to trow- 
sers he only accustomed himself in after life. ^° He 
constantly used a tooth-pick, and even died mth 
'. one in his hand. His sleeping apartments accorded 
, with the general simplicity of his habits. He slept 
. on straw-mats covered with a cloth; his pillow was a 
leathern cushion filled with the fibres of the palm. 
The prophet however displayed considerable vanity 
in his toilet: he always carried with him a mirror in 
which he loved to contemplate his person, also a 
comb, a pair of scissors, odoriferous oil and paint for 
the eyelashes. On the battle-field Mohammed was 
anything but brave, generally wearing a double shirt 
of mail and a helmet with a visor, which covered 
the whole face, the eyes only excepted. 

After these preliminary remarks on the personal 
appearance, habits and manners of Mohammed, we 
arrive at the difficult task of defining his extraordi- 
nary character. No character has ever been painted 
in more varied and opposite coloiu-s than that of this 
remarkable individual; some authors applying to him 
every opprobrious term that could be invented ; others 
representing him a pattern of greatness, power and 

'" „Sei aiif;crorbentIiriKr S^cranfafTinui bffiaiib foiu i^rofitcr Staat in ein; 
jedien Stiirfcn, un'ld^e cr ,^inii C^U-friiciif ci(}altcii l)attc, in cincni voni Jtaifct 
J^cratliue i;um ©efdicnf crftaltcnen tudbfiicu, mit Scit'e burdjircbtcn uiib ge* 
^irftcn ©civante, cinem 'iiaat innn .%m\<\ von 5(hiffinicn i^cfdicnftcn fdjivnr; 
gen, tninti'icnialton Stiefein, rincni i^vof;on >ftovfhinb, nnb cincni ®nrt otct 
ar>c()riichcnf luni .R'nvfctblcrf) mit fiUn-rnct SdMiallc , filln-rncn J^aftfvoniicn, 
brei filbcrncn Sh'ni^en itnb filbcvnem ©ebranic. STic (^arbcn fctncv .ilkiMing 
jvarcn fcinc I'icHingefarbeu ivcifj, [d^iinuj, ijriin, and) rt>tli."' SBal;! pag, 73. 


virtue. Nor can we be surprised at this contrariety 
of views , when we remember how^ one excess is ge- 
nerally followed by another, and re-action is the na- 
tural consequence where truth and justice have been 
outraged. ^ * 

It is indeed no easy matter to form a just esti- 
mate of a character composed of such consummate 
duplicity. If we regard Mohammed as acting the 
part of a conscious impostor or as a monster of 
cruelty and injustice, we shall find it hard to re- 
concile with our view the Sf)arks of real devotion 
wdiich here and there appear in his life, and to 
account for the moral and religious revolution which 
he accomplished among the nations of Asia and 
Africa in so wonderfully short a period. Again, if 
ambition alone is put forth as the main-spring of Mo- 
hammed's mind, we must remember that the love of 
power manifested in one party, is always opposed by 
the instinctive unwillingness of the other to be go- 
verned; if then there had been no admixture of truth 
in his work and character, or if a want had not been 
felt, to induce men to submit to his claims, his pas- 
sion to rule would have met with but little result. 

To judge from the manner in which Mohammed 
constantly alludes to his impression that the Jews 
and Christians had corrupted their Scriptures he 

^* Before the twelfth century it was hardly understood in the 
West, that M, was only a false prophet and not a pretended divi- 
nity; and still earlier he was known as Maphomet, Baphoniet, 
Bafum (whence the French words bafumerie and momerie our Eng- 
lish mawmetry and mummery, see M. Renan and Trench "on the 
study of words"), and believed to be a false god to whom human 
sacrifices were oft'ered ! 


must at one period of his life have believed, that the 
ancient prophets AATote of him as the last prophet: 
never deeming it necessary to give an account of 
their dishonest transaction but always taking it for 
granted as a well-knowTi fact. He accuses them^^ 
of having been bribed by their spiritual guides to 
suppress those prophecies, which referred to him. 
He censures the ei\\y of the Jews ^ ^ which would not 
allow them to admit, that any other nation, besides 
their own, could give a prophet to the world. Again 
he declares^* that having killed their prophets, no 
one need be astonished that they should corrupt 
their Scriptures ^vitll a view to reject him. He also 
tells the Christians that in perusing their books, 
they might as certainly recognise his divine Mission, 
as a father would recognise the features of his son; 
but in the wickedness of their heart they denied 
him."^^ That Mohammed was strengthened in this 
faith by his friend Waraka, who was a Christian 
priest and acquainted with the Old and New Testa- 
ment, has been already seen in this chapter. 

Taking these and other matters into conside- 
ration, we cannot possibly side with those who con- 
sider Mohammed to have been a thoroughly self- 
conscious impostor at the co^nmencenient of his career. 
If the question therefore be raised whether we are to 
consider him as an impostor or a misguided fanatic, 

" Sur. III. 185. '^ See Sur. II. 89. '* Sur. III. 21. 103. 

^^ He flatters them, especially the monks , to induce them to 
give up the writings they had secreted , and proceeds to threaten 
them and the Jews with awful judgments, if they would not deliver 
those prophecies, which they had so long withheld. 


we answer, that lie was neither , wholly the one nor 
the other, and yet 'he was both. Mohammed in our 
opinion commenced his pseudo-prophetical career 
with honest intentions. Though Satan contrived to 
delude him with consummate craft, and even though 
there was in Mohammed's own heart the germ of 
all the evil of which he became the author, it still 
remains to be proved, that he was from the begin- 
ning an ho^Delessly wicked impostor. A man may 
be in error, and yet be sincere; those who killed 
prophets and apostles, thought that they were doing- 
God service; nor can we ascribe want, of sincerity to 
Saul the Pharisee, when raging against the Church 
and destroying her members. 

We have seen in the previous biographical sketch 
of INIohammed, that in his infancy as well as in after 
life , he was afflicted with a kind of epileptic fit, 
which was considered both by himself and others to 
be the effect of demoniacal possession. He was 
treated by an exorcist with a view to the expulsion 
of the demon. When his alleged revelation com- 
menced, it was accompanied with the same spas- 
modic convulsion which he had had before, and Mo- 
hammed himself, as well as his li-iends, was at first 
impressed with the idea, that it was an evil spirit, 
which influenced him. It was no doubt from a 
fear, of sanctioning this apparently superstitious 
view of the native Arabs, — whose testimony in the 
matter has been deemed too doubtful and luiintel- 
ligent to be regarded by European savans — that 
these facts have been wholly disregarded in forming 


an estimate of JMohammed's character. But have we 
not a parallel case^® m holy Scriptures, where a 
youth is described as being possessed of a devil, who 
was precisely affected in the way , in which we find 
Mohammed is represented to have been in the wri- 
tino^s of his own followers? Mohammed's attacks are 


considered to be of an epileptic character: and no 
physician will fail to recognise the same type of 
disorder in the case brought before us in the Gospel. 
If in the latter instance the author of the evil was 
the devil, why should we not assume him to be the 
author in the case of the false prophet?^' 

Independently of INIohammed's own impression, 
the belief of Chadija , Abu Talib and the generality 
of their contemporaries in Arabia, we cannot resist 
expressing our conviction that the assumption of 
Satanic influence can alone solve the mystery which 
envelops the origin of this fearful "delusion." Even 
supposing that no evidence existed of Mohammed's 

^® "And one of the multitude answered, and said: Master I 
have brought unto thee my son, which hath a dumb spirit, and 
wheresover he taketh him (x«t«A«:/-?j] cfr. the asabahu of M.) he 
teareth hira, and he foamethf and gnasheth with his teeth, and 
pineth arvay {^r^oixt'if-rai cfr. ighniau in M's case). And they brought 
him unto him; and when he saw him, straight way the spirit tare 
him {t(T7T(({j((^tv), and he fell on the tjround and wallowed foamimj 
(M's face was covered with foam). And the spirit cried (M. roared 
like camel), and rent him sore, and came out of him ; and he was as 
one dead, insomuch tliat many said he is dead." Mark IX. 17. 

^^ It need scarcely be added that the ordinary cases of epilepsy 
present some of the most unaccountable and perplexing phenomena 
to medical science, since post mortem exanu'nations entirely fail to 
discover flie slightest trace of disease in any part of the body , a 
circumstance, we believe, without parallel. But, alas we have 
altogether swerved very far from Biblical views as regards maladies 
in general, their true source and the secret of healing I 


having been afflicted with such a malady — one 
which was invariably ascribed to the immediate 
agency of the powers of darkness, — could we con- 
sider it possible, that so grand » comprehensive and 
lasting an apostacy as that of Islamism should have 
been conceived, and have obtained such a fearful 
dominion over nations , some of whom M^ere polished 
and civilised, without the direct co-operation of the 
prince of darkness? 

Mohammed the Arab prophet must be considered 
a type of Antichrist , if that last great enemy of the 
Church is to win his temporary power through the 
abounding of heresy among Christians, and is to 
claim that position in the world, which is due only 
to the Son of God.^® If this be so, may we not 
assume, that his coming would be also "after the 
working of Satan with all power of signs and lying 
wonders, and with all deceivableness of unrighteous- 
ness in them that perish ?"^^ How natural therefore 
that Satan should appear to Mohammed as an "angel 
of hght;"*° and if we assume, that he took the form 
and acted the part of the angel Gabriel, we account 

^^ It can only be ascribed to the sceptical views of too many of 
our learned men , that they so carefully avoid this point of satanic 
agency at the commencement of Islamism. See 1 Chron. XXI. 1. 
John XIV. 30. Lu. XXU. 3. 31. Math. XEI, 25. 29. 

Uv eativ Tj TzaQovma xar evs(jyHar rov aarara tv naajj 
dviaiifi, y.ixl a7]inHotg huI tfQaai xphvdovg, xal iv ndari ixYanfl Ti]g 
uSiY.iag Iv rotg dnoXXvfieroig. 1 Thess. II. 9. 10. 

*" "For such are false Apostles (xpevSoarroaroXoi, cfr. Jy'*') 

xJJ}) deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the Apostles 
of Christ : And no marvel ; for Satan himself is transformed (jU6T«- 
axr,iiaTt^ into an angel of light." 2 Cor. XI. 13. 14. 


not only for the mysterious origin of Islamism and 
its potent spell among the nations of the world , but 
also for the otherwise inexplicable contradictions in 
the character of the false prophet. If ever it has 
been fulfilled that: "God shall send them strong — or 
energetic — delusion, that they should believe a lie,"*^ 
it was in this instance. 

Assuming then that Mohammed had the vision 
of an angel, or rather of a devil "transformed into an 
angel of light," we may take it for granted that he 
began his work of reformation with honest inten- 
tions, and not with the consciousness of acting the 
part of an impostor. If we consider the imposture 
as the master-piece of Satan, framed and carried out 
under the immediate co-operation of the powers of 
darkness; if we allow for the workings of Moham- 
med's natural fervent imagination, at a period when 
his nation expected a prophet; and if we regard the 
mature age, at which he announced his Mission; the 
convictions of Chadija, Abubeker, Omar and others, 
wiio had the opi>ortunity of judging of his real 
state of mind; his endurance for twelve years, 
of every kind of insult, abuse and persecution; 
his rejection of all offers of riches and power, when 
made on the condition of abandoning his infatua- 
tion;*^ the simplicity of his mode of life to the day 

** Kal dux Tovro nifxxpH ilvroTg 6 Qfog in(jytiav nhinjg, its 
TO TTimvaai avrovg tw xptvdsi. 2 Thess, II. 11. 

*- According to the Sirat Arrassul a Korcishito said to him at 
the beginning of his Mission: "Resign thy faith, wilt thou money, 
beautiful women, or desirest thou for power? Say what thou wilt, 
it will be granted unto thee ; seest thou a spirit from which thou 


of his death: — taking these and other conside- 
rations into account we cannot beheve that Moham- 
med coiiwienced his work merely as an ambitions 
conqueror, or a base impostor, who had no faith in 
himself or his Mission. 

He was the chosen instrument of the Evil One 
for the originating of an unjiaralled delusion, which 
should maintain the most active and lasting anta- 
gonism to Christ's religion; and he was urged on in 
his work by immediate, and direct satanic agency 
which in the course of time he vainly jiersuaded 
himself to be the inspiration of Heaven. Thus having 
set his bark afloat, his zeal kindled, his work pros- 
pered and in his enthusiasm he may have interpreted 
this success as a mark of God's favour and supjDort. 
His new religion was not therefore a premeditated 
scheme of deception on his part, but was suggested 
to him as the most appropriate means of uniting 
the professors of the three creeds, then prevalent 
among his countrymen, and of thus satisfying an 
acknowledged want among them. Thus led on step 
by step Mohammed soon came to act the part of a 
conscious and decided impostor: in whatever way, 
therefore the question as to his individual guilt in 
first proclaiming his false system of religion may be 
determined there can be no doubt upon the subject 
as soon as he enters consciously and deliberately 
upon his work. The following alleged revelations, 
incontrovertibly stamp Mohammed as an impostor 

canst not free thyself, we will pay the exorcist with our own 
money." Sirat Arassul fol. 47. 48. 



and a false prophet; first the Sura which had for its 
object to re-estabhsh the innocence of Ayesha his 
favonrite wife ; then the authority to empower him to 
marry the wife of his adopted sonAli: to enlarge his 
Harem at pleasure; and to obtain a larger proportion 
of the spoils, made by his army.*^ The first drop of 
blood which was shed in his name by Abdallah during 
the sacred months, marked him as a man, who has 
now consciously entered the j^ath of deception, and 
wilful imposture.** He might possibly persuade him- 
self that he was acting in the spirit of Moses, and 
following the steps of some sincere Christians, when 
he declared war against the unbelievers, and agreeably 
to the practice of his age and country he might 
justify single instances of murder; but he could 
not desecrate the sacred months by plunder and 
bloodshed without having some real or pretended 
revelation to sanction the act: yet according to his 
most orthodox biographers, this sanction was not 

*^ In Sur. VIII, 41. the fifth part is apportioned to the projihet. 
The Sura respecting the innocence of Ayesha is XXIV. 11 — 20. 
also 4 — 5. The answer to the murmurs which were caused by his 
marrying Zeinab, the wife of Zaid, is found Sur. XXXIII. 4. 5. 36. 
39 — 39. No one will be surprised when Maraccius commences his 
"RefutJitiones" to this Sura with those words: "Inter alia quae 
manifeste demonstrant Alcorarura uon esse a Deo , illud est prae- 
ci2)ium, quod in eo Mahometus omnia fere ad commodum suum 
metitur." This will also aid us to deline Mohammed's character. 

** The letter which was given to Abdallah Ebn Djach contained 
those words: "In tlio name of the Most Merciful, the Most Gracious, 
go with thy companions, God's blessing be upon thee, into the 
valley Nachala , and watch there the caravans of the Koreishites, 
perhaps thou canst bring mo word about them." The last sen- 
tence seems a Moslem addition, to protect M's character. Sura II. 
217. refers to this transaction. Weil, pag. 98 — 102. 


given till a considerable time had elapsed after the 
return of Abdallab from bis infamous expedition, 
Tbe mystery with wbicb be confides to bim an am- 
biguously written letter to be opened only after 
be bad travelled a few days from Medina, again 
stamps Mobammed as an impostor, who was con- 
scious that he was committing an act of injustice and 

Again tbe "Sura of Joseph",*'' composed by Mo- 
bammed in Mecca, before his flight, is given as a 
direct revelation fi'om Heaven, and appealed to as a 
proof of his divine Mission, though it contains incon- 
trovertible proof of having been partially borrowed 
from the Bible and still more largely from Rabbini- 
cal tradition. Here was no delusion, no deceivable 
vision or satanic inspiration, which could have been 
mistaken for divine revelation, but a wilful fraud, 
and palpable deception. But even granting the sup- 
position that Mohammed justified base means by 
the good end be had. in view, before his flight, we 
still find bim acting with a crafty, inconsistent and 
shortsighted policy throughout his stay at Medina. 
He first flatters the Jews and makes surprising con- 
cessions in order to win them to bis cause but being 
disappointed in his expectations , he rescinds all his 
former concessions in their favour and becomes their 
deadliest enemy. Some be pardons through fear 
of Abdallab, others he slaughters like a flock of 

*' Sur. XII. was ■written in a romantic style and was meant 
to attract the Arabs , whose taste for such compositions is 



sheep. To day lie limits tlie number of wives , to 
morrow he transgresses his own laws in the name 
of God.**^ The murderer may save his life by paying 
a ransom , but the thief is to have his hand cut off. 
In critical moments he seeks the advice of others, 
which he carries out against his own will.*^ His 
strange shortsightedness became apparent, in his 
neolectins to choose a successor. 

It was comparatively easy for Mohammed to 
gain the assent of his Pagan contrymen to his pro- 
phetical dignity without any distinguished talent, 
for his creed was unquestionably of a higher order 
than their own; added to which his attractive man- 
ners , his eloquence , liberality and general iipright- 
ness were sufficient to secure him many admirers. 
At Medina, success was attributable rather to his 
good connections, the prospect of spoil, the dis- 
union of the tribes, and his own powers of deception 
than to his personal bravery or talents as a general; 
he deemed no means too base to rid himself of an 
enemy, where he felt strength and courage to do so: 
his art consisted in first acquiring every possible 
information and then surprising the enemy; hence 
he preserved the greatest secresy on all occasions, 

*^ Sur. XXXIIL 47. 48. 49. After mentioning various degrees 
of affinity, within which the prophet may marry it is added, "and 
any other believing woman, if she give herself unto the prophet, 
in case the prophet desircth to take her to wife. This is the pe- 
culiar privilege unto thee above the rest of the true believers." 

*^ At Ohod he goes forth against his will; during the siege of 
Medina he wished to make a separate league, and at Taif he com- 
mands the storming, although he knew it would be fruitless. 


and only in one instance did he inform his army be- 
fore-hand of the plan and object of his expedition. * "^ 
In reviewing the character of Mohammed, we 
find that it decidedly deteriorates from the time that 
he had assumed the office of a jyropliet, and this most 
significant fact ought to be specially borne in mind. 
In his early days of religious reform he commenced 
as a sincere fanatic , mistaking dreamy visions and 
Satanic influence for divine inspiration; but he com- 
pleted his career as a licentious impostor, who 
brought forth his pseudo-revelations whenever he 
found it necessary to sanction the most unjustifiable 
acts. It now devolves upon us to examine the history 
and the general character of the document, con- 
taining those revelations bequeathed by Mohammed 
to the world. 



"They have seen vanity and lying divination saying: The Lord 
saith, and the Lord hath not sent them: and they have made others 
to hope that they would confirm the word. Have ye not seen a 
vain vision and have ye not spoken a lying divination, whereas 
ye say : The Lord saith it ; albeit I have not spoken." 
Ezek. XUL G. 7. 

The Koran *^ ^^^H^oi'^i^^g ^^ ^^ ^^^ work of Mo- 
hammed could not long remain an indifferent book 

*® This was the expedition against the Greeks to Tabak. 
*^ ^IwAJt Koran from \ji legere ; hence lectio, liber lectionis, 



to the literary and religious world, hence we possess 
a considerable number of printed editions in the ori- 
ginal; ^^ various translations being also made into 
other languages. The first Latin version appeared 
in the days of St. Bernard A. D. 1143. When at 
the request of Peter, abbot of the Monastery at 
Clugni, the Koran was translated by Robert of Retina 
an Englishman, and Hermann of Dalmatia a German, 
but it remained hidden in the cloisters for nearly 400 
years, when A. D. 1543 it was published at Basle 
by Theodor Bibliander''*; and though scarcely de- 
serving the name of a translation it was again ren- 
dered into Italian, German and Dutch." 

N'n'p73 in the same sense among the Jews: Another name .Lsyi, 

']P^'ns, Foorkan; often only i^>Jc5T fitfiXog, liber answering to ^EO 

•'''' The Koran was Urst printed in the original Arabic at Venice, 
at the beginning of the sixteenth centurj^ under the short title: 
„Alcoranus Arabice. Venet." but no copy seems now to exist. 
Ilinkelmann edited it in Hamburg 1694. In the year 1698 Ma- 
raccius followed with his edition : "Alcorani textus universus" etc. 
The next was by the Russian Emp. Catharina II: "Al Koran Ara- 
bice. Petropoli 1787." Anno 1829: "Muzihi-el-Koran in Calcutta; 
Arabic and Hindustani." The same in Serampore 1S3.3; with an 
English yersion, Cawnpore 1834. Again at Calcutta in Arabic and 
Persian 1831 ; the same at Cawnpore 1835. G. Fliigel edited it 
1834 Lips. Another followed in Leipsic 1837. and in Calcutta 
appeared the same year an edition with two Pers. Com. and an 
interlin. Hindi translation. 

^^ "Machumetis saracen. princ. ipseque Alcoran quae ante an- 
nos CCCC Petrus Abbas Cluniacensis ex Arab, lingua in Lat trans- 
ferri curav. Hacc omnia in un. Vol. red. sunt op. et st. Th. Bibli- 
andri Eccles. Tigur. Ministri . . . Basil. 1543. Fol." 

■''^ The Italian appeared at Venice 1547. "L' Alcorano di 
Macometto nel qual si contie ne la dottrina, la vita, i costumi e i 
legge sue." The German version by Sal. Schweiger appeared 1616 
and 1623 at Nurnberg, and the Dutch 1641 at Hamburg. 


The learned Maraccio published his work, con- 
sisting of the Koran in Arabic, a Latin version, with 
notes and refutations A.D. 1644.^' This Latin trans- 
lation was published separately in Germany and ren- 
dered into the language of that country.''* The oldest 
French version was executed by M. du Ryer, who 
had acquired a knowledge of Arabic at Constan- 
tinople and Alexandria;'^ and this version became 
the mother of several other translations into English, 
Dutch and German. '« M. Savary gave a new version 
to the world in the year 1783;" and still more re- 
cently we received a fresh translation from M. Kasi- 
mirski. ^ ^ 

The only English translation of the Koran from 
the original is that of George Sale , so well and 
deservedly known to the British public; it was pub- 
hshed in 1734 and is frequently quoted in this work 

5 3 u 

Alcorani textus universus ex correct. Arabum exempl de- 
scriptus . . ex Arab, idiom, in Lat. translat. appositis unicuique 
cap. notis atque refut. his omnibus praemiss. prodrom. Auct. Ludo- 
Tico Maraccio. Patavii 1698. Fol." 

'* The German version by David Nerreter Nurnbero- 1703 
Ihe^Latin one was edited by Chr. Reineccius Lips 1721 
PariTlS'T''"'^'' '^'^ Mahomet. Translate d'Arabe en Frangais. 

^^ Alexander Ross turned it into English, Lond. 1649 and 1688 
Glazemaker into Dutch 1698. Rotterd. and G. Lange published a 
German version from the Dutch at Hamburg. 

^^ Le Coran traduit de I'Arabe accomp. de not. et preced dun 
abrege de la vie de Mahomet tire des ecriv. orient, le plus estimes 
par M. Savary. Paris 1783. 

^\ Pantheon litteraire , collect, univers. de chefs d'oeuvres de 
1 esprit huraain, les livres sacres de I'orient. pag.463— 752- Civili- 
sation musulmane, le Koran, traduction nouvelle faite sur le texte 
Arabe, par M. Kasimirski. Paris 1840. 2'^^ edition 1841. 


in spite of the great inconvenience which arises from 
his neglecting to divide the ^uras into verses, which 
are invariably in the original and several of the fo- 
reign versions. "^^ Sale's version was rendered into 
German by Theod. Arnold, who in translating it con- 
sulted other versions, especially that of Maraccio.*'" 
The first German version h-om the original was 
accomplished by Professor Megerlin; it has the ad- 
vantage of being divided into verses/^ In 1773 a 
new translation n^peared in Germany, which was 
made by Boysen . nd furnished with literary notes/ ^ 
His version was revised and corrected from the ori- 
ginal by Wahl in the present century, and is accom- 
panied by a valuable introduction. ^ ^ Another version 
from the Arabic was added to the above by UUmann 
a short time since , fi'om which some of the quota- 
tions made in this Avork have been rectified." 

There are not wanting other auxihary means' to 
render the Koran more intelligible to the European 
student, such as concordances and indices specially 
compiled for this purpose.*^' The commentaries of 

^' The Koran commonly called the Alcoran of Mohammed by 
G. Sale. London 1734. 

^o Arnold's translation was published A. D. 1746. at Lcnigo. 

^^ Tie !iiivfifciic 33itH-(, obcr bee Jtoran't^ aUorcvf^c bciitfd'c UcKn-fe^uiu] 
au^ bcr 5ltalMfd}cn Uvfd}rift w\ m. 2). %x. SDleiicrlin, ^•rauffitrt 1772. 

^* !Der Moxan cbcr ia^ @efe^ fiit bie 2}iufTcImannct bur* aitiilmmmcb, 
iiiimittctf'ar an^ bem 9(rabi[rf)eu iiberfc^t iiiit ?himcvfiiiuicn. .^>aac 1773 
iiuf 17 75. 

" 2)cr .Koran nad) ©oi^fcu von 9ieucm uterfe^t an§ bent Slrabifdicn 
mit einer l)ifiorifd}en ©inlcitunc] ic ic. i^on ®. aBaljI. ^allc 1828. 

^* 2>er .Ronin aw bcm 9(rabi[dien Jtortgetrcn ncu iitcrfoljt i^on Dr. S. 
lltlmann. Lncfclt 1840. 

^^ Noojoom ool Foorkan. An Arabic index to the Koran. Cal- 


Moslem doctors are so numerous, that their names 
alone would fill entire volumes. There are not less 
than 20,000 of them in the library at Tripolis in 
Syi'ia; but the best and most known are the works 
of Zamakshari, Bedawi, Mahalli and Sujuti. 

1. The Koran, as we now have it, is confessedly 
not the work of Mohammed, but of his followers/^ 
On his death, his alleged revelations were found 
scattered in fi-agments here and there, some in the 
hands of Hafsa, one of his numerous widows , others 
remained only in the memory of believers. Moham- 
med not only omitted to compile these written frag- 
ments, but with the exception of a few, he never en- 
couraged then- general circulation; this w^ould have, 
precluded the possibility of his adding, altering, mo- 
difying and recalling previous revelations, as occasion 
might require. That it was a common practice of 
the prophet to revoke and alter his phrenetic jDro- 
ductions is proved by the Koran itself, ^^ as well as 
by tradition. ^^ On one occasion a verse having been 

cutta 1811. and Concordantiae Corani arabicae ad literarum ordi- 
nem et verb, radices dilig. disp. Gust. Fliigel. Lips. 1842. 

^^ That M. employed secretaries to write down liis visions is 
not called into question; less known is the fact, that he must have 
had the knowledge of writing during the latter part of his life. 
He required writing materials in his last moments. Again he said 
to Muawia, one of his secretaries: "Draw the iw> sti'aight, divide 
the (jw properly etc. etc." Note et extrait. des Manu. de la Biblio. 
Imper. torn. VIII. p. 357. 

^^ "We recal none of our verses, or bring them to oblivion 
without supplying better ones or at least some equally good." 
Sur. n. 100. also Sur. XVI. 103. 104. 

®® When it was revealed that those who stay at home were 
not before God as those who go forth to war, Abdallah and Ebn Urn 


recited by Mohammed to a fi-iend, wlio immediately 
MTote it down, it was the next morning discovered 
to have been effaced; the prophet on being told of 
the disappearance of the verse replied, that it had 
been taken back to heaven ; in other words , that he 
himself had obliterated the Amting. ^^ 

As Mohammed was not always able to destroy a 
condemned or recalled Sura, or any part of such, the 
many contradictions and abrogations which are to be 
met with in the Koran are easily accounted for. 
Commentators indeed seek to explain away many 
of these discrepancies, yet in spite of their ingenuity 
they are compelled to admit no less than 225 pas- 
sages, containing laws and dogmas, which have been 
abrogated by subsequent Suras. Mohammed fre- 
quently made experiments with his heaven-sent com- 
mands, not scrupling to alter his ins^^ired directions 
according to circumstances: thus we have seen that 
when his faith was greater in the Jews and Chris- 
tians than in his Pagan countrymen, he fixed the 
Kebla at Jerusalem, and made other similar con- 
cessions; but when the former disappointed his ex- 
pectations, he altered it for Mecca hoping to con- 
ciliate the latter. The law which Mohammed had 
made "^^ on behalf of the Moslem fraternity of emigrants 

Maktum exclaimed: "and what if we were blind'! The prophet 
asked for the shoulder-blade upon which it was written — then had 
a sj)a.sni()(lic convulsion and wlicn recovered — made Zaid add: 
"not having a bodily infinuitj." Sur. IV. 94. The secretary re- 
lated long after: "I fancy, I see the words now on the shoulder- 
blade near a crack." Mem. de TAccad. des inscrip. I. 308. 

^"■' Sell, ©inleituiig in ben .Reran, pag. 45. '" ffieil pag. 355. 


at Medina, excluding their kindred from inheritance, 
was repealed when they had acquired property and 
had taken root among the original inhabitants. 
Originally Mohammed required two believers as wit- 
nesses in special cases , but afterwards when his 
power increased, he declared one to be sufficient. 
Again, at an early period toleration w^as recommended 
towards non-Moslem commnnities, but it was abol- 
ished in Suras of a later date;''* so long as his 
cause remains weak, the false prophet preaches gen- 
tleness and patience under persecution but no sooner 
does he obtain a firm footing, than he proclaims death 
and destruction to all non-conformists. Such being 
Mohammed's mode of enacting and revoking laws 
and precepts throughout his proj)hetical career, we 
can easily understand, that it would have been con- 
trary to his uniform policy, to collect all the Manu- 
scripts of his alleged revelations and to give them to 
the world. 

The following circumstance will serve as a proof 
that the posthumous collection of the scattered 

^^ Sur. V. 78. II. 61. where Jews, Christians and Sabians are 
assured of heaven, are in toto abolished by Sur. XLVIII. 13. LXIV. 
11. III. 84. See Maracci Eefut. ad Sur. II. pag. 33. The most re- 
markable contradiction concerning M's private life occurs Sur. 
XXXni. 47 — 47. where he first receives an unlimited licence to 
marry, and in the latter part he is restricted to the wives he al- 
ready possessed. As M. died betrothed to a fresh wife, commen- 
tators assume , he first received the restriction , and afterwards 
the broad licence; for it is added: "the verses do not follow in 
the Koran in the order they were revealed." It is however 
enough for our present purpose to prove that M. enacted and 
abolished laws in the name of God as it suited his personal con- 


Suras, depended much upon the memory of Moham- 
med's followers. — In the engagement between the 
INIoslem troops and the army of the rival prophet 
Moseilama, the most celebrated mnemonical reciters 
of the still uncollected Suras were slain, and Abube- 
ker, fearing lest they should all be cut off, requested 
Zaid Ebn Thabat to compile the book, whose history 
we are now to consider. '' ^ Zaid therefore collected 
all the pseudo-revelations that could be found, writ- 

. ten upon parchment, leather, palm-leaves, shoulder- 
blades of mutton, stones and other materials, and 
collated these wdth the Suras, which the survivors 
knew by heart. ^^ It w^as not to be expected that 

, this compilation would be acceptable to all parties, 
many of whom professed to be in possession of 
verses which were either altogether omitted or differ- 
ently worded in the collection;^* the consequent dis- 

. cord increased to such a degree under Kalipli 
Othman, that he determined to remedy it by a coup 
d'etat: Zaid was now charged to revise his former 
collection, to omit the "variae lectiones," which had 
been retained in the first, and to make several copies 
of this new edition; these were sent to the chief 

''^ "I fear said Abubeker, the learned might all die out, and 
therefore advise the collection of the Koran." Weil pag. 348. 

'^ Mem. de I'accad. des inscriptions. Tom. I. pag. 330. Alcoran 
cd. Maracci. pag. 38. etc. etc. 

'* Different editions of the same Suras were in existence during 
M's life-time. Once two men (juarrelled as to the correctness of 
the twenty fifth Sura. Each being requested to read his own version 
before the projjhet, he declared both to be correct, adding (he Ko- 
ran was revealed in seven different readings. Mem. de I'Accad. 
Tom. L. pag. 330. 


cities of the Empire with a command to burn all 
others then existing. ^^ 

It will be seen that the object of Othman was to 
establish for fnture ages, the unity rather than the 
purity of the text, and in removing those discre- 
pancies which Mohammed had suffered to exist, he 
not only compiled but reformed the Koran. As 
however the vowels and interpunctuations were not 
introduced before the second century of the Hedgra, 
when fi-esh differences had already crept into the 
Manuscripts, the unity enforced by Othman was of 
very short duration: we soon meet with seven different 
editions, possibly to accommodate Mohammed's asser- 
tion that the Koran was revealed in seven different 
readings. '^^ The. perplexity arising from these various 

''^ It is however not quite certain whether Abubeker did more 
than collect the materials, whilst Othman caused copies to be made 
from them. M. Quatremere appealing to Mudjmil Attawarich says : 
Le Kaliphe Othman, troisieme successeur de Mahomed, s'etait oc- 
cupe avec un soin infatigable a faire reunir en un seul corps Ics 
parties dispersees et incoherentes de I'Alcoran etc. Journal Asia- 
tique de Paris, Juillet 1838. pag. 41. 

'^ Othnian's own copy of the Koran, which he read when he 
was assassinated , is said to have been brought to Antartus , and 
four leaves marked with his blood were preserved in the Mosque of 
Cordova. In Egypt too they professed to have a copy of his; the 
same in Marocco and Tiberias. Journal Asiatique de Paris tom. VII. 
pag. 41. 

''^ Two editions originated in Medina, a third in Mecca, a fourth 
at Kufa, a fifth at Bussura, a sixth in Syria, the last was the 
"editio vulgaris." The first of the two in Medina counts 6000 
verses; others as many as 6236. This will explain the difference 
which frequently occurs in the quotation of verses. All are said 
to contain an equal number of words, some say 99,464, others 
77,039; and 323,915 letters. It has been also computed how many 
times each letter of the alphabet occurs in the Koran. Reland. p. 25. 


editions is naturally heightened by the confusion 
prevailing in the Koran itself, and serves not only 
as an apple of discord among Moslem divines , but 
also baffles the most acute criticism of European 

The division of the entire book into 11 4 Suras'*' 
or chapters, was made upon most arbitrary principles 
and their succession wantonly defies all chronological 
sequence. Nor is this all; even verses which were re- 
vealed in one Sura are transposed and inserted into an- 
other which appeared at a different time and on a dif- 
ferent occasion. A learnedMoslem doctor declares : — ' ^ 
"Whosoever will give his opinion respecting the book 
of God, must know how the Suras appeared in suc- 
cession, in Mecca as well as in Medina, and be acquaint- 
ed with those, concerning the period of which the 
learned disagree; he must know what has been re- 
vealed twice; what appeared in Medina concerning 
the people at Mecca, and what appeared in Mecca 
belonging to the Suras of Medina, and what was made 
known inDjofa, Jerusalem, Taif and in Hudeibia. He 
must be able to discover which Mecca verses are mixed 

" The word Sura occurs 9 times in the Koran. Sur. II. 23. IX. 66. 
88.126. 129. X.38. XI. 14. XXIV. 1. XLVII.21. Here it may signify 
verses; literally it implies a row, order or scries; a rank of .soldiers. 
Sowar being the plural of Sura, is now the term in India for horse- 
men. In Rabbinical Hebrew rn^UJ signifies also a row or line ; and 
we conclude Sura to be of Hebrew origin as 3 names of the Koran 
correspond to Hebrew names:' — jjljXlt, N'p'ipW; TI5"J2, ^jLswftJl, 

Foorkan; lEi^., or v^^JC^Kitab. Each Sura is subdivided into verses, 

called Ayat ibl, from the Hebrew niN, a sign or wonder. 

^' Imam Abul Kasim Hasan Ebn Mohammed, in the introduction 
to the MS. "Cliamis", quoted by Weil pag. 363. 


up witli Medina Suras, and wliicli INIedina verses were 
confounded witli Mecca Suras; he must be likewise 
acquainted with those which were carried from Mecca 
to Medina, and from Medina to Mecca and Abyssinia; 
finally he must know which are the revoking and re- 
voked verses." 

In defining the chronological succession of those 
Suras, produced in Mecca before the Hedgra, there 
are three things which may serve as guides to our 
intricate path; first, the frequent allusions to histor- 
ical events of that period; secondly, the peculiar 
character of the Suras, which became entirely, al- /) 
tered at Medina, where Mohammed assumed the 
character of a lawgiver and prince in addition to 
that of a prophet; lastly, the style of the Suras, 
which originally was rhythmical greatly resembling 
that of the Arabian soothsayers, but which Moham- 
med afterwards exchanged for j^rosaic diction, that 
he might not be considered possessed, *^° and also be- 
cause he was spent and exhausted by his first effu- 
sions: for it is remarkable that the very subjects which 
kindled all his enthusiasm at the commencement of 
his so-called Mission, were subsequently treated in a 
most prosaic style. 

It is generally agreed that Mohammed's first re- 
velations were the sixtyninth and seventyfourth 
Suras, in which he refers to his alleged Mission and 
writing. ^^ The CXI. chapter wdtli its imprecations 

®° Sooth.sayers were generally considered to be possessed by 
an evil spirit. 

^* In assigning the Suras to their respective periods it must 


against his uncle Abu Lahib, — who had cursed 
his nephew and lifted up a stone against him, when 
delivering his first sermon, — belongs to this pe- 
riod. ''^ Then follow a series of chapters in which 
Mohammed is encouraged to persevere in his course, 
in sj^ite of the opposition of his townsmen; the 
divine character of the Koran is proclaimed; ^^ his 
own office as a prophet is defined, as distinguished 
from that of poets, soothsayers and possessed per- 
sons, and the doctrine of the Resurrection and Judo-- 
ment to come is defended against the reviling attacks 
of his antagonists.^* These chapters, produced dur- 
ing the first five years of his Mission bear the stamp 
of deep conviction, earnestness and sincerity, in which 
Mohammed appears rather as a misguided fanatic 
than as an impostor. The man evidently believes 
. what he preaches and is carried away by his en- 

The second period of Mohammed's prophetical 
career at Mecca, still produces some very poetical 
Suras, but in these we discover more of the proj^het 
and less of the dreamy visionary and enthusiast; more 

not be forgotten , that sometimes verses or portions of tliora belong 
to a different period. 

^^ Tiie same may be said of the last 6 verses of Sur. XV. where 
M. is commanded to proclaim his Mission beyond the circle of his 
friends and connections. 

^^ Although not yet coin])lctcd; "Koran" here and in other 
places signifies any writing which is to be read. See Sur. XXXIII. 25. 


c. cviii. cii. cvii. cv. cxiir. cxiv. cxii. xcvri. xci. 



effort is apparent in his teaching and less freshness 
in the outpourings of his supposed inspirations. His 
censures of the superstitious Meccans become more 
detailed ; his doctrines assume a calmer tone ; hell 
and Paradise are more minutely described; ^^ and the 
attributes of God more clearly defined; legends touch- 
ing the ancient prophets increase in number and 
variety, so as to excite the suspicion of his being 
materially assisted in his strange productions/® This 
suspicion among his sharp-sighted townsmen is al- 
luded to in the Koran, and in no way satisfactorily 
repelled by the assertion that the persons suspec- V 
ted as his coadjutors, being foreigners, were not suf- / 
ficiently acquainted with the Arabic tongue to be of / 
use to him ; ^ ^ for, — admitting they were foreigners, — 
they might nevertheless supply him with materials, 
which he could easily work up into pseudo-revelations. 
The Suras produced during the last few years of 
Mohammed's life at Mecca, seldom rise above the 
the level of ordinary prose, the first glow of prophetic 
vision having entirely subsided. It would seem that 
at the outset of his career the false j)rophet was 
impelled by an unseen power, which gave his mind 
for a time an extraordinary zeal and impetus, but 

^^ Promises of paradise and threatenings of hell together witli 
their detailed descriptions occupy at least the 6*^ part of the Koran. 

^® The chapters for which we are indebted to this period are : 
Sur. I. LI. The first 23 verses may be older. XXXVI. L. LIV. 

^^ Sur. XXV. 4. 5. XLIV. 14. XVL 105. ^^^J\ ^LJ 

C^^^ (5^r^ Vij'~^ ^<Xj»^ -♦■^v^I K-vAr. ^.JlsxAj 


that he was subsequently left to carry out that system 
of delusion which, ere long, degraded him to an art- 
ful impostor. ^^ 

A new and strongly marked period in the histoiy 

of the gradual production of the Suras commences 

after the Hedgra, when Mohammed's line of policy 

became entirely changed. It is generally received 

f that the Sura of "the Cow" was the first revealed 

i after his arrival at Medina; Mohammed's principal 

! object now was to win the numerous and influential 

' body of Jews, who lived in and around that city; that 

he entertained great hopes regarding them, may be 

gathered from previous Suras, in which he frequently 

appeals to their testimony;®^ he shows the Jews from 

their own history, that they had always been wanting 

in faith, even in the days of Moses, and enlarges 

generally on the history of their ancestors. 

- Relioious, social and civil laws are now enacted 
for the community of believers. ^° From this period 

•** The portions produced before the approaching- iliglit are the 
following: Sur. VII. LXXII. XXXV. XXVII. XXVIII. XVII. X. 
verse 33. must have been given at Medina; also 77. 

^^ "If thou art in a doubt concerning any part of that which we 
have sent down unto thee, viLLj i^^aXJI ^j^v^ ^H*^ (>*«^ them who have read the book of the law before thee." Sur. X. 
94. "Was it not a sign unto them, that the wise men among the 
children of L-^rael knew it ?"' Sur. XXVI. 19^. Sec also Sur. XXVIIL 
53. 54. XXIX. 47. XLVL 10. LXXXVII. 18 — 19. 

^^ The Kebla is fixed and again altered ; precepts for worship, 

fasting, pilgrimage, divorce and legal purifications are intermixed 

. with directions for warfare, keeping Friday as a day of worship, 

making wills, dealing with thiefs, murderers, userers, and dividing 

the spoil. 


Moliainmecrs character grows decidedly darker; he 
recals revelations previously comniunicated, shifts his 
course and alters his policy at every turn; enemies 
are murdered: oaths are broken; wickedness and 
treachery receive divine sanction; war and plunder 
become the means of spreading that creed, which he 
originated amidst discouragements and difficulties.^* 
In the twenty three chapters which jNIohammed pro- 
duced at Medina, ^^ a marked deterioration of charac- 
ter is observable; — "the path of the just is as a 
shining light, that shineth more and more unto the 
perfect day: the way of the wicked is as darkness: 
they know not at what they stumble." 

2. In tracing the divinity of the Koran, ®^ we shall 
at present as far as jDossible, confine ourselves to 
the distinctive doctrines of Islamism, intending here- 
after more particularly to notice what has been de- 
rived from Judaism and Christianity. We are indeed 
aware that there is perhaps scarcely a page in the 
Koran in which a most determined plagiarism is not 
perceptible; yet as the real character of Mohammed's 
teaching can only be gathered from the manner in which 
he amalgamates those foreign elements with his pe- 
culiar system of religion, a concise view of the leading 

«• Sur. n. 116. 140. XXII. 53—55. II. 61 III. 8. XLVIII. 13. 
LXVI. 2. 

" These are Sur. II. XCVIH. LXII. LXV. XXII. IV. VIII. 

^' Seethe excellent treatises: "Beitrage zu einer Theologie des 
Korans" von Dettinger in der Tiibinger Zeitschrift fur Theologie. 



dogmas cannot be dispensed with at this point of our 

The Koran clings with the utmost tenacity to 
the primary article ol' faith , the Unity of the God- 
head; — the words "there is but one God" repeatedly 
recur in it and indeed constitute the key-note of Is- 
lamism. The arouments brought forth for the Unity of 
the Godhead are not always conclusiye; sometimes it 
is inferred from the works of creation and providence, ^* 
at other times it is maintained, that a plurality of 
Gods is against reason,^' that two deities would of 
necessity counteract and destroy each other, ^^ and 
that each would strive to overcome his rival. ^" The 
chief evidence however rests upon the united testi- 
mony of the prophets, who all preached the same 

With this dogma the Koran protests not only 
against the Paganism of the Arabs, ^'^ whose idols 
are represented as nought and vanity ; * but also 
against the Jews, who are accused of regarding Ezra 
as the Son of God, and of considering their Rabbis 
to be Lords besides God. ^ But especially violent 
is the opposition of the Koran to the Christian dogma 
of the Holy Trinity, which it represents as consisting 

^* Sur. 11. 165.166. VI. 96—100. XVI. 3—22. XXI.31-36. 
XiVII. 60—65. XL. 64—70. XLI. 9. XXXI. 10. 11. 

^^ Sur. XXUI. 119. ^6 XXI. 22. " Sur. XXIII. 93. 

38 Sur. XXX. 35. XXI. 25. XXXIX. 65. LI. 50—52. . 

^^ Sur. LIIL 19. LXXI. 23. 24. XVL 57. XVIL 4. XLIIl. 16. 
LII. 39. 

• Sur. X. 19. Xyi. 20. 21. XL. 75. XXI. 74. XXXIV. 22. 
XL. 42—44. 

2 Sur. IX. 30. 


of God, Jesus the son of Mary, and His mother!' 
Yet m spite of the indignation justly expressed against 
this misconceived and bhisphemous idea, the Virgin 
Marv is highly exalted and honoured;* and our Lord, 
notwithstanding that His mere human nature is as- 
serted,* and His crucifixion denied,® is styled, the 
Word and the Spirit of God, and acknowledged as 
an Apostle and Pruphet come from God. " The doc- 
trine of the Trinity and the Divinity of Christ is com- 
batted by considering the gross impropriety of the 
supposition "that God should have a wife and beget 
a son ;" ^ by arguing that to have a son , would mili- 
tate against the supreme mdependence and all-suffi- 
ciency of God, ^ and by showing that it might become 
dangerous to the sovereign power of God to have an 
offspring. '° To believe therefore in the doctrine of 
the Trinity and in the Godhead of Jesus is a mark 
of infidelity and excludes from Paradise.^* 

The Majesty of God is described in the Koran in 
words of considerable powder and beauty; Moham- 
medans fi-equently recite these words and carry them 
about their persons, engraved on agate or other pre- 
cious stone I "God! there is no God but he, the living, 
the self-subsisting: neither slumber nor sleep seizeth 
him; to him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and 

' Sur. IX. 25. V. 82. * Sur. XXI. 91. III. 42. XXIII. 52. 

^ Sur. XVI. 43. XXI. 8. XVIII. 110. « Sur. IV. 156. 157. 

^ Sur. XIX. 32. IV. 169. III. 39. V. 119. VI. 58. 

^ Sur. XIX. 34. LXXII. 3. XIX. 87, 

" Sur. IV. 169. XXV. 2. XXXIX. 5. *" Sur. XXIII. 93. 

•^ Sur.V. 58. IX. 31. III. 78. 


on earth. Who is he that can intercede with him, 
but through his good pleasure? He knoweth that which 
is past, and that which is to come unto men and they 
shall not comprehend anything of his knowledge but 
so far as he pleaseth. His throne is extended over 
heaven and earth and the preservation of both is no 
burden unto him; he is the high the mighty."*^ Ac- 
cording to the Koran God is incomparably excellent 
and no similitude can possibly reach His perfection.*^ 
His indescribability is thus strangely expressed: "God 
is the self-sufficient, the praise-worthy. If whatever 
trees are in the earth were pens, and if he should 
after that swell the sea into seven seas of ink, the 
words of God would not be exhausted." Amongst 
the hundred names which Moslem divines ascribe to 
God, that oi Allah is the nomen maximum.** The 
appellation of "Lord" never occurs in the Koran; 
Mohammed no doubt excluded it from its being in- 
variably applied to the Lord Jesus Christ in the sa- 
cred books of the Christians. ^^ That these "beautiful 
names," must be considered to indicate the incom- 
parable Majesty of God, we may gather from the fol- 
lowing passage: "Serve the Lord of heaven and earth 
and persevere in his service, for knowest thou one 

^' Sur.II.256. XXIV. 36. *^ Sur. XLII. 10. XVI. 74. XXX. 27. 

** The 99 names are recorded: Fuiulgruben IV. p. 16 the last 
being not so much ~'r-r, as jJUl, the standing name of Hod. 

*^ *j Jtjdominus, is only used with personal pronouns: my Lord, 
^x; thy Lord, ^ s , their Lord, (V^^, or with the following 
Gcnitivus: ^.a^JLjiJI (*^^, Lord of the worlds. 


who has a nam^ like his?"*^ This leads us to the 
worship which the Koran maintains is due to God. 
"All things in heaven and earth adore God volun- 
tarily or involuntarily; their shadows also morning 
and evening" are said to ''bow themselves right and 
left."^" Not only is God to be glorified on rising up 
and lying dow^i, — but his Majesty is considered so 
great and august, that little is said to be wanting to 
cause the heavens to rend asunder from a sense of 
his glory. ^* Allah is eternal, the living one, who 
never dieth , the first and the last, * ^ and the omni- 
present. ^° 

The attribute of Holiness is utterly ignored in the 
Koran; all that is said of God might be asserted of 
any honest man.^* This total negation of the Holiness 
of God may be considered the fundamental lie of 
Islamism, which marks its teaching as directly op- 
posed to reason and revelation, and as false from 
beginning to end. The favourite attribute of the Koran 
seems to be the Omnipotence of God; who is there 
described, as Lord of the worlds ; Lord of heaven and 

^^ vLcfAw *AjiJ' O^i knowcst thou one named like him : or who 
comes up to him? 

*^ Sur.XIir. 15. XXII. 18. XXIV. 42. XYI. 48. xJOtj^^U*;, 
nQooxvvovvrtq to) dt(S. 

^8 Sur. LH. 48. XLII. 4. ^^ Sur. XXV. 58. LVH. 3. XV. 23. 
'0 Sur. n. 187. 116. LVII. 3. LXXIII. 8. LXX. 40. H. 116. 

** ^j,,AA*v.^\*JI S-^S\J aJ.Jt, God loves them that do well. 

Sur. n. 196. or "he loves the pure", ^^y^iojJo Sur. II. 223. 

"them that deal justly" V. 49. II. 191. III. 140. V. 73. XV. 23. 
VU. 29. 34. 


earth and of all that is between them;*^ it also adds: 
to Him belongs their government;^' His word of com- 
mand must be obeyed;^* His are the treasures of 
heaven and earth, as well as the j>owers which are 
therein, and His energy is indefatigable.^^ All human 
events and deeds are to be ascribed to His irresis- 
tible Omnipotence. Hence the reason, why so much 
weight is given to the formula: "so Godivilir which 
is constantly upon the lips of the Moslem. ^^ As the 
most convincing demonstrations of God's omnipotent 
power, the creation of the world, and the future Re- 
surrection of the dead, are instanced. ^ ^ 

The Omniscience of God is also mentioned in 
almost every Sura, and in the second chapter alone, 
we have at least twenty six expressions to the effect, 
that "God knows and sees all ye do;" He has the 
keys of knoAvledge and in the dark furrows of the 
earth, happens nothing wdiich is not entered into the 
book of God; the secrets of the heart are known to 

*- Sur. XLIV. 7. II. 20. 106. 109. VI. 101. 102. 

'^ Sur. II. 107. 256. 285. IV. 130. IX. 118. 

^* Sur. II. 118. III. 47. VI. 73. XIX. 30. XXXVI. 82. XL. TO. 
XXIII. 82. XL. 16. 

2* Sur LXIII. 7. XLVIII. 7. XXXL 28. 

'^ «-L!l tL.cio ^f Deo volente. cfr. ntv 6 mfJiog ^fXrjcFri 
tr,aotitv. JaiiK's IV 13. 15. Act. XVIll. 21. 1 Cor. IV. 19. Hebr. 
VI 4. See also analogies in Classics: Schneckenburger Com. in 
Epi. Jac. ad locum. Sur. XVllI. 25, 

2^ Creation: Sur. XIV. 11. 111191.192. XLV. 3 — 5. LL 
20—22. X. 6 7. XXX. 20--25. Xllf. 4. 5. XXIV. 44. 45. Re- 
surrection: XVII 50. 51. 98. 99. XXIIL 12-14. 15. 16. XXXIL 7. 
XXL 104. XXXVL 78-81. IL 260. 

" Sur.VL58. XXXIV. 2. XL 6. 7. XXXIV. 2 — 4. 11.235.236. 


Mext to the Omnipotence of God His Mercy, is 
most prominently set forth and to these two attributes 
all the rest are deemed subordinate.^^ As the Koran 
ignores God's holy will and purpose of love to save 
the world in righteousness, its conception of the di- 
vine Mercy could not fail to prove a most revolting 
carricature. The formula: "/?i the name of the most 
merciful God,"' has indeed become the Shibboleth 
of Islamism , ^^ being the superscription to every chap- 
ter, with the exception only of the ninth Sura; and 
is to Mohammedans what the Lord's Prayer is to 
Christians. The application of the Bismillah is ac- 
companied with the most magical effects; not only 
are all letters and public documents inscribed with 
it, but it is worn as a talisman against evil spirits; 
nor is meat considered eatable to this day except 
the animal has been killed ''in the name of the most 
merciful God."^* 

To the Mercy of God are ascribed the comforts 
of life; such as rest at night, the services of brute 
beasts and the production of the earth. ^^ Among 
&t.^>.«.j' 2(.Aw.xJ (c-^ i»-/-^5 scripsit super animam suam 


clementiam. Sui\ \T;. 12 


l*"^"^)" U^"^F *^"^^ (*-^ ^" ^^^ name of God the most 
merciful, is briefly called Bismillah. 

^' "When these words were first revealed ," quotes Abu Zaid 
from a Moslem author "the clouds fled to the east, the winds were 
hushed, the sea roared, the animals pricked up their ears to listen, 
the demons were chased with fiery darts from heaven, God swore 
he would bless all upon whom his name was called, and whosoever 
should utter these words would enter Paradise." See also Sur. V. 5. 
n. 175. XVI. 115. VI. 21. 

" Sur. XL. 63. XYL. 5—8. XXXIV. 6. XLII. 19. XXXV. 
1—3. XL. 80—82. LVn. 25. 


spiritual mercies are enumerated the Revelation of 
the true Religion; specially the sending down of the 
Koran. ^^ The revelation of Islamism is called the 
perfection of divine Love and Mercy, and the Mission 
of Mohammed is said to have been granted out of 
compassion to all creatures. ^* The sin-forgiving ^lercy 
of God is characterized as an act, altogether capri- 
cious and arbitrary, being overruled by His irresistible 
power. "He forgiveth whom he pleascth;" is one of 
the standing phrases of the Koran. The Holiness of 
God being disowned the divine Mercy is consequently 
made dependent on the imperfect services of man. 
God is represented as willing to pardon sin upon 
man's repentance: "But as for those who repent and 
amend, and make known what they have concealed, 
I wuU be turned unto them, for I am easy to be re- 
conciled and merciful." ^' But faith, that is the acknow- 
ledgement of Mohammed as the greatest of all Apos- 
tles, — is the most meritorious of all virtues; whoso- 
ever beUeves in the prophet and repents, receives 
pardon and a free admission into Paradise.''' Thus 
no one need fear lest the standard of repentance and 
good works might be beyond his reach; and with such 
views of God's Holiness and Mercy the Koran is 
quite consistent in repeatedly declaring, that none 
need despair of obtaining Mercy.'' As the Mercy of 
Allah is manifested by the arbitrary acts of a capri- 

" Sur. XII. 39. II. 90. 105. 235. 

" Sur. V. 4. XXI. 100. '•' Sur. II. 155. 162. 

«« Sur. XXIX. 7. XXIII. 1.59. XVIII. 31. 9. XIX. 95. XX. 71. 
XXI. 94. XXII. 14. 111. 135. 136. 


cious potentate, so is hh Bighteousness by the work- 
ing of an uncontrollable power. The Righteousness 
of God recompences and punishes in this life and in 
the Ufe to come; and is termed the reward from 
Heaven, the wrath of God, the revenge of the Lord, 
who is powerful and swift in bringing man to account. 
lie is Lord of the day of Judgment , and not indif- 
ferent to what we do. ^^ But God is said to lay snares, 
deceive and mock in administering Righteousness.^^ 
The Justice of God is frequently alluded to under 
the figure of a balance. Good and evil of the size of 
the smallest atom shall meet with its just recom- 
pence; only with this difference, that good works 
will be rewarded two or tenfold whilst evil deeds will 
meet with simple punishment.**^ 

3. That Mohammed should have received the 
biblical doctrine of the world having been created by 
God in the beginning of time, is neither astonishing 
nor meritorious. In some places the Koran assigns 
six days for the creation, in others only four.*^ Con- 
cerning man's formation, it states, — God made man 
from clay or earth, and endowed him with a beautiful 
form. That the woman was formed out of a rib is 
no where stated in the Koran, but the Sonna sup- 

'^ A woman condemned to hell was pardoned, because on 
passing a well, ^he tied up her ass and gave water to a dog on the 
point of perishing from thirst. Fundgruben I. pag 278. quoted 
from the Sonna. Sur. XXXIX. 53. XII. 87. XV. 53. 54. 

^» Sur.n.58.61. IU.5. 11. XL. 3. II. 168.221. 1.4. 11.74.85. 

" Sur. VIII. 29. m. 53. XXVII. 51. LXXXVI. 15. 16. IV. 
14. 15. IX. 51. 

*o Sur. XCIX. 7. 8. XLII. 39. VI. 170. XVI. 88. 

*^ Sur. X. 3. XI. 9. L. 37. LVII. 4. XLI. 8—11. 


plies the omission:*^ "Treat women with consideration, 
for the wife was formed out of a crooked rib, and the 
best of them bears traces of the crooked rib; if thou 
seek to make it straight it will break , if thou leave 
it alone, it will continue to be crooked. Treat women 
with consideration." 

The Koran teaches, that the soul of man is en- 
dowed with power for good and evil, and is known 
only to God; that God has implanted in man an 
inclination for good and evil; and in harmony with 
the doctrine of predestination, it affirms that man's 
moral liberty consists only in choosing the one or the 
other. *^ The external condition of Adam is described 
to have been one of great felicity; the place of his 
original abode to have been heaven — no distinction 
being made between an earthly and a heavenly Pa- 
radise, — and his knowledge to have surpassed that 
of the angels.** Adam and Eve were neither to 
hunger nor thirst, nor feel their nakedness, which 
the learned doctors explain by assuming that they 
were covered with hair ! * ^ Of their immortality, nothing 

*^ Sur. VII. 12. XV. 20. 27. XVII. 62. XXXVIII. 72. cfr. VI. 
2. XX. 51. XXXVII. 11. XL. 65. LXV 3. LXXXII. 7 8. and 
Tundgruben I. No. 389. pag. 276. 

*5 Sur. LV. 4. XVII. 86. and XCI. 8. it is said of God: 
Laj«Ju« LiCj^-SXi L^.*-gJI claudestino instincta docuit (s. inspi- 

ravit in) aninuun nialitiani suani ct pietatera suam ; and it will be 
found difficult to explain it otherwise. 

** Sur II. 30—36. 35. VII. 20. 13. 25. 

*» So Jahja expounds in Sur. XX. 116. 117. the "non eris nu- 
dus;" and he deserves the ironical note of Maraccius Prod. IV. 107. 
col. 1. and: Refut. in loco IV. p. 448: "Duos, scilicet msos , non 
homines, creaverat Deus !" 


is mentioned in the Koran; on the contrary it is 
the uniform opinion of this book, that mortality es- 
sentially belongs to human nature.*^ Much is said 
of the superior knowledge of man in his primal state 
but nothing of his moral perfection. 

The history of man's fall is closely interwoven 
with that f>i' Satan. "We created you and afterwards 
formed you, and then said unto the angels, worship 
Adam, and they all w^orshipped him, except Eblls 
who was not of those who worshipped;"*^ upon which 
Eblis was ejected from Paradise and "'caused them 
to fall through deceit."*'' The fall of man therefore 
was brought about by the devil in order to revenge 
himself, by the destruction of the happiness of our 
first parents. The Koran making no difference be- 
tween the tree of knowledge and the tree of life teaches, 
that the devil tempted man, to eat of the tree of im- 
mortality and the punishment which ensued was Adam's 
banishment from Paradise, and the enmity which 
should spring up between man and man, which to 
Mohammed's mind was the extreme point of human 
misery. The nature of sin appears to be such, as to 
cause the earth only, to be corrupted;*^ for a correct 
notion of it: as a moral offence against the Divine 
Majesty, w^e vainly seek in the Koran; nor is the 

*^ Sur. LVI. 62. XXI. 36. HI. 186. IV. 77. To obtain exemp- 
tion from death the tempter entices them to eat of the forbidden 
tree. Sur. XX. 218. 

*^ Sur. Yll. 10—26. 

*^ Eblis, y*AJLj| from duifioXo^; Satan, ^.Lti-Ui f'om lU^^ 

*^ Sur. Yll. 25. cfr. U. 36. (jOs!^t ^ J-wj! corrumpere in 
terra. H. 27. XIU. 27. XLVII. 22. XII. 73. LXXXIX. 11. 12. 


fearful truth of original sin ever acknowledged. Hence 
it was sufficient, that Adam should be instructed, *° 
and left with a promise of future direction from God.^* 
This direction is to be looked for in the Koran; on 
receiving which, man is certain of eternal bliss; but 
its rejection is the sin which of all others is unpar- 
donable. We here perceive the utter holkfvness and 
falsity of the creed of the Koran, in which the denial 
of the Holiness of God and the moral depravity 
of man revenges itself: had both these fundamental 
doctrines been acknowledged, the need of Redemption 
would necessarily have been felt; as it now stands, a 
meaningless petition for mercy, is substituted for the 
teaching "0/ salvation in right eo u sness ,"' and the 
Koran presents merely the unauthenticated message 
of a pseudo-prophet, as a "direction." 

4. The next point we shall notice among the doc- 
trines of the Koran is the Fnenmatologij of Islamism, 
as forming an essential branch of its system. Among 
intelligent beings, angels occupy the highest rank; 
they were created before man and take a considerable 
part in the dispensation of God's providential govern- 
ment. ® ' They are represented as having been created 

'" Adam was taught \i:j\..^)S: words, which he was to repeat; 
Sur. II. 37.38. Maniccio: "verba, yuibus petcret veniam peccati 

^* _JiJO: directio, which according to Jelladdiu is none other 
but the Jv^); ^^^, the Koran and the apostle, liber etlegatus. 

" iS^^ messenger like the Hebrew "^^hlZ to be desired from 
<if !^, <i5Jf i"^^- misit related with "r^brj. That the angels are superior 
to man may be gathered from Sur. XXXVH. 8. 11. 



from fii-e , ^ ' and as possessing a subtle , penetrating, 
etherial nature.'* As ministering servants they are 
near God, but that they are holy is nowhere stated 
in the Koran, the notion of sinless purity being fo- 
reign to the author of that book. The only allusion 
to the purity of angels is to be found in the Sonna, 
where we are told, that they never enter a house, in 
which a dog is to be found!''' Angels generally appear 
in human form; thus Gabriel showed himself both to 
Mohammed, and to Mary. Should infidels demand the 
appearance of an angel to convince them, it is stated, 
that God would have to clothe him as a man for their 
sake. Animals are capable of seeing angels or devils : 
"If you hear a cock crow, pray for mercy, for it has 
seen an angel; but when ye hear an ass bray, take 
refuge with God, for the ass has seen a devil," '^ The 
Koran speaks also of an invisible presence at the 
battle of Honein, where the Moslem army trusting 
to their numerical strength were at first repelled, but 
at last gained the victory through the heavenly host, 
which they saw not. 

^3 Aj ^, Sur. Vn. 12. XXX. VIII. 77. LV. 15. XV. 27. 

Hebrew Theology speaks of an angel bN"''^"N, fire of God. Ode de 
angelis pag. 312. Origen describes the body of angels as ul^}^glu 
and uvyotidf-g <J(og, Tatian ascribes to them a 7ntV[.itniK7] av/xTJi^^ig 
(og nv(jO^, (og uif:(jog. See also Sur. XV. 27. 

'"'* "Nous sorames tenus de croire, que ce sont des corps subtils, 
purs, formes do luniiere, qui ne niangent, qui ne boivent, qui ne 
dornient et qui n'ont ni sexe, ni appetit charnel , ni pere ni mere." 
Moslem Confession of faith Reland. pag. 11, 

''^ v«aJj ^-^-!^ L^^ &Xj^L»JI JJ> Jo^) non entrant angeli 
domum in quo canis est. Ode de angelis p. 452. Fundgrub. I. p. 187. 
No. 354. 

*« Fundgrub. I. No. 383. pag. 278. 


A belief in the existence of angels is an essential 
article of the creed of the Koran: "he is an infidel, 
who is an enemy of God, of his prophets and angels, 
especially of Gabriel and Michael." ''' The same 
teaching is maintained in the creed of Islamism as 
translated by Reland/^^ Gabriel is considered the 
most celebrated angel, to be prevailing in his inter- 
cessions, of great power and might , and chief medi- 
ator of divine revelations; he is called the Spirit, or 
the Spirit of holiness ;^^ in order to magnify him the 
Koran invents a variety of fables.*^" Gabriel h par 
excellence the angel of Islamism; and the mention of 
Michael in the above quotation, is donbtless out of 
compliment to the Jews, as Mohammed considered 
him to be their guardian. 

In several Suras Mohammed swears by the angels ; 
in these they are described as ordering and settling- 
affairs, as reading the counsels of God; abstracting 
the soul from the body in the agony of death : guiding 
the righteous into Paradise; running swiftly and ful- 
filling God's demands with diligence; spreading their 
wings; conveying admonition and bearing the burdens 
of prophecy.^* Among their heavenly offices, are the 
contemplation and adoration of the divine Majesty, 

" Sur. n. 98. 286. IV. 1^5. 

^^ "C'est une des conditions absolues de la foi , de les anges, 
aimer tons; c'est une infidelite, de Ics hair, ou d"en hair un seul ; 
et quiconque no se soucie point de croire en eux, ni de les aimer — 
qu'il soit tenu pour infidele. ODieu, preserve nous d'infidolite." 
Reland Leg, IV. No. 4. pag. 12. 

5' Sur. LXXXI. 20. 19. LIH. 5. 6. "" Sur. XX. 94. 

«• Sur. XXXVII. 1. 3. LXXIX. 1.2. ;i. 4. 5. LXXYII. 1. 2. 3. 5. 
LI. 1. 2. 3. 4. 


and making processions around the throne of God; ''^ 
the consideration and the writing down of the mys- 
teries of God; the act of intercession for the faith- 
ful is not however restricted to Gabriel."^ Among 
then- ecu'thly offices are enumerated that of trans- 
mitting fresh revelations to those whom God has 
chosen; counting the days of men, and specially pro- 
tecting, blessing, and comforting behevers; at death 
they examine and pass a preliminary judgment upon 
the departed soul;«* "How will it be with the un- 
believers, wdien the angels shall make them die and 
beat their faces and backs." «■' If the departed soul, 
on being examined, disavow Mohammed, the two 
angels present on the occasion, will inflict such a 
blow on the head of the poor victim, as would 
be sufficient to crush aiid dislodge mountains. ^^ 
Lastly, the angels are active in the day of Judgment, 
and have their appointed functions in hell and Para- 
dise; eight of them will bear the throne of the Judge 
of the world, the rest will be filed in lines on each 
side ; Judgment being passed , they will convey the 
just to Paradise and drive the wicked into liell." 

Xl's ^"'■•^^"•^^- ^^^- ^^- ^^1-19.20. XVI. 49. XXXIX. 75. 

^' Sur LII. 37. XXXVn. 10. LXXX. 12— 1.5. XXXIII 41 
II. 161. XL. 8—10. ■ ■ 

" Sur. XLII. 50. XCVII. XXII. 76. XXI. 26-30. L 16 
XXIII. 114. VIII. 9. XLI. 30. XXXIII. 53. LXXXVI. 4 VI 6o" 
LXXU. 27. 28. XIU. 13. LXXXII 8-14. XXXII. 12. Vh' 38* 
VI. 94. XLVII. 27. Vm. 53 

" Sur. XLIX. 27. 

«« Fundgr. I. No 468. p. 290. No. 173. p. 167 also Commenta. 
Maracc. Schol. Sur. II. 161. pag. 67 

" Sur. LXXXIX. 23. LXXVIH. 18. LXX. 4. 5. XXV. 23 
XXXVII. 23. LXIX. 30. XLIV. 45. 


Other angels open the gates of Paradise and welcome 
the faithful. The wicked are received into hell by 
nineteen tormenting angels, who are also called 
^' Lords of fire r and preside over the place of punish- 
ment;^^ these are described as being very terrible 
and ferocious; the number nineteen is said by com- 
mentators to have been chosen, because that number 
was specified in the Scriptures of the Jews and Chris- 

Eblis, as we have seen, fell from pride, having 
refused to worship the newly created man;^° when 
questioned as to the cause of his disobedience, he 
urged his superiority to man, who was created from 
dust, whilst he was formed horn fire; in spite of this 
difference God had honoiu'ed man more than him; 
hence Satan has received his cognomen of "envier." 
In consequence of pride and disobedience he is 
expelled fi-om Paradise: God said "Get thee down 
therefore, for it is not fit, that thou slialt behave thy- 
self proudly; get thee hence, and be thou one of the 
contemptible. He answered: give me respite until the 
day of Resurrection. God said: verily thou shalt be 
one of those who are respited." '^^ Where the devil 
abides, until the execution of the sentence at the last 
day, is not stated in the Koran, but that his power 

«^ Sur. XXXIX. 73. 71. XL. 50. LXVU. 8. 

*^ Maraccio, who always sides with the commentators wlu'n 
they ascribe a folly to the Koran, exclaims here as usual : "inipu- 
flenter nicntitur." 

^» Sur. II. 34. XV. 31. XXXVIII. 75. 

'^ Sur. VII 12. 13. U. XV. 34. XXXIII. 78. and 35 it is said: 
super te erit maledictio usc[ue ad diem judicii, 


in this world is in nowise circumscribed, and that he 
takes possession of certain individuals, is distinctly 
affirmed, as we have already seen. Eblis is declared 
to be the author of all bodily evils," to be invisible 
but able to see men on all occasions; to betray, de- 
ceive and carry on his work with the fiercest malig- 
nity; to be false in his promises, whilst God remains 
true. '^ On the day of battle he is said to assure the 
unbelievers, that no one shall conquer them, but when 
the fight commences, he turns away and leaves them 
in disgrace.^* Satan is also stated to be the author 
of all anti-Moslem feelings, sentiments and move- 
ments, but of sin, only in so far as it is not con- 
sistent with Islamism. Sin itself, as such, is not con- 
sidered to be the peculiar work of the devil, and may 
be committed upon divine authority, as we have seen 
in the life of Mohammed. 

The cardinal sin is unbelief; not to believe in the 
Koran is deemed equivalent to siding with Satan; ^^ 
for as the Koran comes fi'om God, so all error pro- 
ceeds from the Evil One.^^ Idolatry is condemned 
as the special work of the devil ; ch'inking wine, plapng 
dice, divining with arrows, sowing discord and abstain- 

" Sur. XXXVnr. 43. where Job is introduced. 

" Sur. Vir. 28. II. 170. 208. VI. 142. XVII. 53. XVIII. 15. 
XXXV. 6. XXXVI. 59. XLIU. 60. XL VII. 53. 

'* Sur. XV. 30. XXXI. 33. XXVIH. 15. IV. 116. XXH. 3. 
XXXI. 33. VII. 24. IV. 117. III. 156. IV. 117. XXXVI. 61. IV. 
58. XXIX. 38. XIV. 22. LIX. 16. VIII. 50. 

" Sur. II. 257. rV. 74. XIX. 42. II. 108. IV. 82. XXII. 3. 
II. 258. VII. 28. 31. IV. 118. XLIII. 33. IV. 37. XLVH. 25. 

" Sur. XUI. 36. XIX. 3. XXXVI . 209. 



ing from certain meats are also his works, "^ Pro- 
digals are called the brethren of Satan; but he is 
said to be chiefly skilled in placing the sin of opposing 
Islamism in an alluring light; ^^ and to these decep- 
tions the prophets are particularly exposed. Divine 
revelations are alleged to be abstracted by the devil 
and his own falsehoods substituted; this is educed 
from Mohammed's own experience: ^^ a poor comfort 
for his followers! who have the sad and perplexing 
task of separating in the Koran what is from God, 
and what from the Wicked One. To relieve the 
minds of the faithful from too much disquietude , it 
is added, that the power of Satan extends only so I'ar 
as God permits /° The Koran however contains no- 
thing which bears any comparison with the extravagant 
teaching of the Sonna upon this point of Moslem 
divinity. ^ ^ 

Genii, ^^ a class of beings otherwise called demons, 

" Sur. II. 160. IV. 118. VI. 141.142. H. 171. IV. 117 — 119. 
V. 99. 100. V. 4. XVU. 53. XII. 100. 

^8 Sur. XVn. 27. VIII. 50. XV. 38. XVI. 03. XXIX. 38. 
XXXV. 36. 8. XLI. 25. 

" Sur. VI. 12 XXn. 53. 54. LUI. 18—23. VI. 67. Sur. XII. 
42. forgetfulness is also the work of Satan. 

8" Sur. LVin. 10. XXXIV. 35. IV. 47. XVI. 99. 100. XV. 
38. XVII. 10. VII. 200. 201. CXIV. 4. 

81 FundgruLcn No. 374. pag. 277. 

®^ Three forms: JjLsvJI, /V^^^ ^^^ iU-^vJf; the first signi- 
fies Genii more in the abntract , the second in concreto; third, in 
collectivo. The Greek rvi^i(f(xt, roi^iaSeg y.((i dmuoif-g can only par- 
tially be compared with the Moslem Genii ; the Rabbinical D""n'0. or 
d"'"^.^ are also different from tlioir having come into existence after 
the human race, whilst the Genii of Islamism were thought to liave 


— the term being promiscuously applied to both 
angels and devils — are sometimes treated as a non- 
descript link between good and fallen angels: they, 
like the angels, are created of fire and partake of 
their general character; Mohammed took them under 
his pastoral charge, and read the Koran to them.^^ 
Some of the Genii seem to be of the fallen, others 
rank more among the pure angels; but much con- 
fusion respecting them prevails in the Koran. Idola- 
ters are said to worship and believe in them.®* As 
devils , they are described to be friends of the un- 
believers, to whom they communicate what they occa- 
sionally jDick up from the conversations of angels; 
but the Koran must not be considered to proceed 
from them.^^ The Genii orDjins are said to rove over 
hill and dale, displaying their sprite-like nature, espe- 
cially at night ;^^ none among men had so great a 
power over them as Solomon, for he had in his army, 
not only men and birds , but also Genii , wdio made 

been created long before mankind, j^la*- answers to the Genius 
of the Latins; genere, gignere or yeriur, from which this word is 
generally derived, has been traced to the Sanscrit, — Wahl pag. 632. 
633. • — where dshan signifies to be produced, begotten, created, 
born. See Buxtorf lex. Talni. Rab. verb. "T?0 

8" Sur.LV.14. 15. XXXVn.158. LV. 31. LXXIL 1. XVEI. 51. 

«* Sur. XXXIV. 40. compare with this « ^vti ra k^vi], 6ia^io- 
'yioig dvei, xal 6v Qf.(S 1 Cor. X. 20. 

•5 Sur. VII. 28. VL 112. XIX. 82. XXXVIL 7—10. LXXH. 
8. 9. XXVI. 219. M. guards himself verse 209. 

'" "3Bcnn He m<i(i\t e\nhxici)t Xjaltd cure MnaUn jit J^aufc , bcnn bie 
ileufel irren Ijeritm ju bicfcr Stunbe; fd)lie§e bein lijox uiib vufe ben Jpcrvn 
an , (ofdje betne iampe au^ unb rufe ben §errn on , tefcrge beine Wil^s 
fdjldu^e unb rufe ben &exxn an, becfe betne ©efaffe ju unb tufe ben Jperrn an." 
gunb^rub. I. No. 375. pag. 277. 



for him, "whatever he pleased of palaces and statues, 
large dishes like fish-jDonds and cauldrons, standing 
firm on their trevets."*^ Lest these skilful artificers 
should cease from work after Solomon's death, the 
event was concealed from them, but they at length 
discovered it on perceiving a worm eating the 
staff upon which the dead king was leaning: then 
the Genii declared, had they known the truth, they 
would not have continued at so degrading an occu- 
pation. As an instance of the swiftness of these Genii 
the Koran gravely relates , that one of them brought 
the throne of the queen of Sheba in the twinkling of 
an eye, and placed it before Solomon. The uncer- 
tainty which prevails in the Koran resjiecting the 
Genii, is less indeed than that regarding angels and 
devils; probably owing to the fluctuating sources from 
whence Mohammed derived his information. 

5. The Resurrection of the dead and the Judg- 
ment to come are fully taught in the Koran, concer- 
ning which detailed descrijDtions are not wanting.*^ 
"Surely those who believe, Jews, Christians and Sa- 
bians, whosoever believeth in God and the Last Day 
and doeth that which is right they shall have their 
reward with their Lord."*^^ Each man therefore will 

8' Sur. XXXVm. 40. Others he kept in chains. XXVIT. 18. 38. 
XXXIV. 12. 13. 

88 Sur. XVII. 50. 51. L. 40— 43. LXXV. 3— 15. XXIH. 102— 
115. L.16 — 33. XXV.12— 21. LU. 13— 16. LIV.46 — 49. XLIV. 
9—15. XLVII. 19. 

8^ ^«-xaa2.JL i^vLo-J. l.t>bo i^jJI, Jews, Christians 
and Sabians. Tlie latter Iiero not tlic worshippers of D^'QUJ" N?^^ 
although they are also called ^^aajLoJI or ^^W(oLi,oJ| by Arab 


be judged by the light he possesses; this is more 
plainly set forth, in another passage: — "On a certain 
day we will call all men to Judgment with their 
guides, every one with the book of his actions in his 
right hand, and they shall read it and they shall not 
be wi'onged a thread." •'" Here is clearly an allusion 
to the different religions existing before IMohammed's 
time. Every one, the Koran declares, will bear his 
own burden, and no satisfaction or substitute will be 
accepted;^* nor will intercession from any be admis- 
sible on that day; not even Gabriel will be allowed 
to intercede: this privilege is reserved to Mohammed 
alone: ^^ hence his cognomen among the prophets 
of "the intercessor." 

Commentators inform us that the souls of pro- 
phets are at once admitted into Paradise, but those 
of martyrs abide in the crops of green birds, which 

writers ; but the "Mendai Juchanan," as the disciples of John the 
Baptist are called in Syriac ; from zaba, baptise. Sur. II. 61. 

^° Sur. XVII. 72—73. J^^jti signifies like the Hebrew b^nD, 
thread, "Fadeti" not, hair as Wahl and Sale give it. 

"^ Sur. X. 41. XVII. 15. H. 135. 142. LIU. 38. XXXIX. 8. 
XLV, 15. XXXV. 18. XXIX. 12. 13. XVI. 25. III. 90. 

^^ Sur. Lm. 28. LXXVIII. 37. XXI. 28. 29. In the last pas- 
sage: "except him, whom God will;" j^-*^;^ ^J^ ^' cfr. XXXIV. 
23. If doubts remain , they arc removed by the Sonna. "Setetn 
^kotfteteu irir^ 'oon bent ^(xxn @rf}orung etuet S3itte bctvilligt. 3df) hat ben 
^ertn, bag ic^ tn biefer itnb in jener SSelt 93ertreter mcine^ S^olfe^ fein 

moc^te." Again: "^d^ itin bet ^err bcr 9)Zenf(i^cn am lac^i beg ®ixid}t^ 

5d) werfe midi ijcr bem Jljrone @otte^ mebet, unb c^ erfdjalU bie ©ttmmc: 
2Jicf). f)cbe bein ^anpt cm^jor ! £ege j5iirfpui«^« ci"/ unb fic linrb ixljoxt, if 
gefjte, eg h*irb bit serliel^en Ivcrben." Wahl pag. 415. Note c. Here 
then is Antichrist! 


eat the fruit and drink the water of Paradise; that 
other departed spirits remain near their sepulchres; 
some imagine them near the well of Zemzeni, others 
place them in the lowest heaven with Adam; some 
hide them in the great trumpet which the archangel 
will sound at the Resurrection; and others again 
make them dwell in white birds beneath the throne 
of God! The souls of the wicked are confined in a 
dungeon under a green rock, or, according to a tra- 
dition from Mohammed, placed beneath the jaws of 
the devil to be tormented. One part of the body, the 
rump-bone, is preserved to serve as a base for the 
new body. The dead will appear fi*om the grave in 
three classes, some walking on foot, some riding, 
others will come forth with their ftices on the ground; 
each according to his merit. 

Descriptions of hell and Paradise abound in the 
Koran; it has been computed that one sixth of it 
is filled with the details. He that is punished lightly 
will be shod with shoes of fire, the heat of wdiich 
will make his skull boil like a cauldron. The happiness 
of the blessed is depicted in colours not less material 
and revolting: — gold and silver, precious stones, 
crowns of pearl, bracelets of gold, gardens of pleasure, 
pleasant fruits, sweet rivers, and arbours of delight, 
ravishing girls with large black eyes, beautiful youths 
and angels, enchanting songs and sweet sounding 
bells; all kinds of food and beverages; beasts for 
riding and litters, couches and pillows, silken carpets 
and other furniture embroidered with gold and gems, — 
in these and such like material enjoyments consist 


the glories of the Moslem heaven !^^ According to 
Mohammed it Mill take 1000 years for the meanest 
dweller in Paradise to see his gardens, wives, ser- 
vants, furniture and other possessions; the portion 
of the distinguished Moslemin may be guessed from 
this estimate."* 

6. Among the ceremonial in junctions of the Ko- 
ran, we first notice the precepts respecting ablutions, 
which however were in use among the Pagan Arabs, "^ 
having, it is said, been prescribed to Abraham by 
the angel Gabriel.®^ With a view of endowing them 
with a religious character, Mohammed styled these 
lustrations to be the "key of prayer." Lest so ne- 
cessary a preparation for devotion should be omitted, 
either from want of water or from consideration of 
health, sand is permitted to be used instead. In this 

" These descriptions strongly remind us of the savage ideas 
which the "West Indian or Scandinavian warriors , entertained of 
the future existence, and Virgil thus describes the occupations and 
pleasures of his heroes in the world to come: 

Pars in gramineis exercent membra palaestris 
Contendunt ludo, et fulva luctantur arena. 
Pars pedibus plaudunt choreas, et carmina dicunt. 
— — — — quae gratia currura 

Armorumque fuit viWs, quae cura nitentes 
Pascere equos ; eadem sequitur tellure repostos. 

Virg, Aeneid, VI. 
^* Sur. Xm. 35. XLVII. 16. LV. 54—77. 

"5 Herodot lib. III. C. 198. 

^^ Al Jannabi in Vita Abrah. Pocock. Spec. pag. 303. Compare 
with this the Spanish Gospel of St. Barnabas chap. XXIX. "Dixo 
Abraham ; Que hare yo para servir al Dios de los sanctos y pro- 
phetas? Respondio el angel, Ve a aquella fuente y lavate, porque 
Dios quiere hablar contigo. Dixo Abraham, como teugo de lavarme? 
Luego el angel se le apparecio como uno bello mancebo, y se lavo 
en la fuente, y le dixo, Abraham, haz como yo. Y Abraham se 
lavo etc. etc." 


accommodation the Koran followed the Jews and Chris- 
tians there being an instance on record in ecclesia- 
stical history, of sand being used instead of water in 
the administration of holy Baptism, prior to Isla- 
mism. ^ ^ Tertullian notices the observance of ablutions 
among the early Christians. 

Prayer is to be offered up five times a day; at 
day-break, at noon, in the afternoon, at sun-set and 
one hour and a quarter after it. The 2:)rayer itself con- 
sists in the constant repetition of certain small Suras, 
the Moslem confession of faith, the salutation of Mo- 
hammed and of the angels. ^^ Personal observation 
will convince the spectator that these acts of devotion 
are not performed with the solemnity which certain 
descriptions have represented to the European world 
as usual; they are rather the cold and mechanical 
performance of a meritorious duty, than the outpour- 
ing of the heart, real devotion therefore cannot be 
expected. A man may be frequently seen in the act 
of prostration, giving orders to his servant about his 
horse, coffee or pipe, and then continuing his devo- 
tions. The Mohammedan has no conception of prayer 
beyond his prescribed forais of vague and unmeaning 
repetitions, to recite which, he requires a string of beads, 
resembling the rosary of the Church of Rome. In 
the 10,000 verses of the Koran there are not so many 
petitions as in the Lord's prayer;^" this book incul- 

^^ Sur. III. 46. V. 8—9. Geniar. Beraclioth cap. II. Pocock. 
not. ad Port. Mosis pag. 389. and as used in baptism, Cedren. p. 250. 
^» Sur. III. 188. II 230. XXIII. 3. IV. 46. 

^^ A thoughtful Hindoo lad about 19 years of age was over- 
heard repeating the Lord's Prayer adraidst his heathenish devotions ; 


cates a spirit too proud to ask any gifts even from 
heaven, hence the arrogant bearing of the Moslem; 
he wants nothing and asks nothing, self-sufficiency, 
self-righteousness and a blind confidence in his own 
merits constitute his entire character. These feelings 
are strengthened by the alms, fasting and pilgrimages 
which the Koran commands. Alms are called "an 
acceptable loan unto God" they deliver from hell and 
ensure a free entrance into Paradise.* Specially 
meritorious are contributions for the propagation of 
Islamism by holy warfare, and collections are still 
made among the faithful for the support of religious 
institutions in Mohammedan countries. 

The Koran teaches that charities, to ensure an 
everlasting reward, are not to be distributed from 
ostentation, or mth uncharitable feelings; — "for a 
fair speech and to forgive is better than alms followed 
by injustice." ^ There is however no precept enjoining, 
deeds of charity towards any but the faithful ; this is 
the more remarkable as kindness is frequently en- 
forced towards brutes : nor ought it to be overlooked 
that notwithstanding Moslem charity claims heaven 
for its reward, Christian charity, admitting of no such 
motive, far exceeds it. Fasting was considered by 
Mohammed as "the gate of religion, and the breath 
of him that fasteth is more grateful to God than that 

■when taunted by his friends with being a Christian , he replied , he 
was no Christian, nor had he any desire of becoming such, but that 
he had learnt that prayer at School , and he never had heard or 
conceived language that expressed his wants or feelings so well, 
therefore he should continue to use it! 

* Sur. LVn. 10—12. n. 255. 265—267. ' Sur. II. 265. 266. 


of musk." The month of Ramadhan is one continued 
fast, no one being allowed to eat, drink or smoke 
from sunrise to sunset. Exceptions are made in fa- 
vour of the sick, women with child, old persons and 
travellers. After a day of rigorous fasting and sleep- 
ing, follows a night of feasting, revelry and excess. 
The month of Ramadhan is chosen for fasting be- 
cause during that month the Koran began to be re- 
vealed. ^ 

The Hadj, or pilgrimage to Mecca though a pre- 
Islamite rite is enforced by the Koran and made an 
imperative duty to all true believers ; * it is to be per- 
formed during the anciently sacred months with the 
observance of various precepts, sacrifices, alms and 
processions. The pilgrim is allowed to trade, whilst 
performing this sacred rite. ^ We have seen that the 
second Sura , which first ordains the Hadj , was re- 
vealed on Mohammed's arrival at Medina, at a period 
when his plans were not sufficiently matured to pro- 
claim a universal religion; for no other than a national 
religion can prescribe pilgrimages to any specific lo- 
cality. The Israelite indeed was to perform a pil- 
grimage to the temple three times a year, and this 
w^as possible so long as divine revelation was confined 
to a single nation, but when the hour came, in which 

' Sur. II. 179 — 186. Ramadhan is also called vAaoJI v-g-w, 
the month of patience. 

* Sur. II. 191 — 195. V. 3. 104—106. CIX. 1—5. CVIII. 2. 
III. 90—92. XXII. 27—38. 

* When at Jedda, the author observed an inconceivable variety 
of goods from all parts of the world being hawked about by Moslem 
pilgrims who shouted forth the sum of the highest bidder. 



God was to be worshipped in Spirit and in truth, 
men were neither to worship in Jerusalem nor on a 
mountain in Samaria. Mohammed therefore in or- 
daining the Hadj proved to the world, that his creed 
w^as neither adapted to all nations, nor originally in- 
tended for any, but the native tribes of Arabia. If 
pilgrimage to Mecca be an essential article in the 
teaching of the Koran, and if its doctrines are ex- 
pected to be embraced by all nations, it follows that 
all nations must visit the Kaaba;^ if it be non- 
essential it was folly to ordain a vain and useless 
ceremony; if essential to salvation, it was unjust and 
inconsistent to institute a rite of such momentous 
import, when comparatively so few believers could 
possibly perform it. Such inconsistencies and mis- 
calculations are however not surprising in a book like 
the one whose dogmas we are now reviewing. 

Some European wi'iters represent Islamism as 
destitute of sacrifices, but this is a palpable mistake. 
"0 true beUever violate not the holy rites of God nor 
the sacred month, nor the offering, nor the ornaments 
hung thereon."^ During the Ramadhan 1846, a Mos- 
lem sacrifice of three sheep took place in Jerusalem 
on the occasion of three companies being discharged 
from military service. Mohammed himself set the 

^ Mohammed is said to have declared that he who dies without 
performing the Hadj, may as well die a Jew or a Christian. 

^ Sur. V. 104—106. Peace-offerings exist among the Arabs to 
this day. Two servants of the autlior having once quarelled , on 
the day they were reconciled , they sacrificed a sheep , declaring 
such was the usage of their countrymen. 


example ofsacrificing duringliis pilgrimages to Mecca. * 
To this may be added that every animal slaughtered 
for use, may be considered an immolation, being 
killed "in the name of the most merciful" God. ^ Most 
of the religious rites connected with the Iladj , the 
pilgrim garment, the shaving of the head, the throwing 
of stones at Djumrah, the circumambulation of the 
Kaaba, the kissing of the black stone, the sacrifices, 
and almost every other item too tedious to enumerate, 
were borrowed from the j)re-Islamite religion of the 

Circumcision, though a part of the ritual of Is- 
lamism upon wdiich no small stress is laid , is not so 
much as once mentioned in the Koran : if it be essential 
to Islamism, then the Koran is deficient, and if defi- 
cient cannot be a divine revelation; Baptism for in- 
stance is considered essential to Christianity, as the 
initiatory rite of admission , but if it were nowhere 
mentioned in the Bible, the Mohammedan might 
fairly object, that Baptism was not what we believed 
it to be; or that the Bible omitting to ordain a rite 
of such great importance was imperfect , and there- 
fore not a true Revelation. If the rite of Circumcision 
was intended only as a sign of distinction from other 
rehgious communities, then it will appear singular 
that INIohammed should have chosen that already in 

® His successors, the Saracen Kaliplis annually immolated a 
camel in their capacity as High-priest of the faithful. The Jewish 
traveller Benjamin of Tuleda witnessed the ceremony at Bossura 
in the 12"' century. 

^ In Abyssinia therefore, Christians abstain from meat slaught- 
ered by the Mohanmiedans, and these refuse , what has been killed 
by Christians in the name of the Holy Trinity. 


use among the Jews, and one, which existed also 
among the Pagan Arabs! In omitting to notice its 
existence, we infer that Mohammed possibly dis- 
approved of the rite , or did not consider it of a reli- 
gious import, or, that he passed it over as the self- 
understood and natural mode of initiating into the 
religion of Abraham: the latter assumption seems 
at variance with the fact that Mohammed admitted 
his first converts by the rite of baptism, correspon- 
ding to the baptism of Jewish proselytes. Among 
the forty kinds of ablutions, given by Reland, one is 
the baptism of Kaffers on their becoming Moslemin: 
we here discover one of those singular vacillations 
which so frequently^appear in Mohammed's mind and 
practice, and find the national custom eventually re- 
stored to its primitive character as a religious ordi- 
nance, one moreover to which his countrymen were 
already reconciled. Circumcision is not administered 
by the Mohammedans in the thirteenth year as among 
the ancient Arabs, but generally as soon as the can- 
didate can say the confession of the Moslem creed: 
"There is no God, but God, and Mohammed is his 
prophet," or whenever a convenient time occurs 
between the ages of six and sixteen. These few 
remarks on the history and leading dogmas of the 
Koran may suffice for the present; other doctrines 
will be brought forward in later chapters of this 
work; in the two following, it will be our object to 
notice those portions of the Koran which were more 
particularly borrowed fi-om Judaism and Christianity. 




"I am a prophet also as thou art; and an angel spake unto me by 
the word of the Lord, hut he lied unto him." 1 Kings XIII. 18. 

1. The Koran frequently assumes a polemical 
bearing towards the Jews and the Jewish religion, and 
Arab writers frankly admit that IVIohammed now and 
then made alterations in his plan to diminish, as far 
as possible, the analogy which his creed bore to that 
of the Jews.^° The Jews are styled the enemies of 
Moslemin because they killed the Prophets, are bi- 
gotted, proud and self-conceited, consider Ezra to be 
the Son of God, believe Paradise to be created only 
for themselves, trust to the intercession of their pious 
ancestors and corrupt their sacred Scriptures. * * Hence 
the Koran is not scrupulous in opposing Judaism in 
its laws of divorce,*^ in abolishing certain laws con- 
cerning particular kinds of meat, ^^ and in the laws 
of retaliation.^* Yet in spite of this opposition, Mo- 

*" Oy^^i'Li &AA-Cwjdt j^Aa^I xJiiik^J iLJClji^ "from necessity 

to abolish the analogy with the Jews." Pocock. not, miscell. cap. IX. 
pag. 3G9. 

'' Sur. V. 85. n. 58. V. 74. 21. II. 88. LXII. 6. IX. 30. II. 
128. 135. II. 73. 

*2 Sur. II. 229. 230. with Dcut. XXIV. 1. 

^^ Sur. IV. 158. 111.44.86. IV. 158. V. 89. 90. V. 4. VI. 14G. 
XVI. 116. VI. 47. cfr. Leo. XI. 3. VII. 27. III. 9. 

" Sur. V. 94. with Exod. XXI. 23—25. M. admits of expiation 
by money, only where the offended parties agree; but the Rabbis, 
whom he calls "unjust" extend it (o all cases: Vd7> ''TV TN N73C3 

p^-uja 13725 "i2>' ^^'^ ^^N3 ^n-N VN-.-1 ^b>-i nN I3u5 -T' nM 

I — T : ••• ;• * : ' : ~* v — • t v; 

r;?" N;r. r;?2D'l "S'' r.\-. nias r75\yT Mishnah Baba Kamma VIII. 1 . 

•7t T-:vrTT t-''t; 



hammed borrowed so largely from Judaism, that hi 
creed could not exist without it. This gross plagiarism 
has long been universally acknowledged, but few have 
taken the trouble to point out in what it consists. ^^ 
We have already noticed the frequent collisions 
between Mohammed and the Jews, who were at that 
time numerous and powerful, dreading them both in 
argument and on the battle-field, the shrewd Arab 
prophet found it expedient to conciliate their deep- 
rooted prejudices on various occasions ^^ and also to 
advise his followers to deal gently with them. * ^ There 
was cause therefore, why Mohammed should desire 
to adopt as much of Judaism as he possibly could 
without sacrificing any of the distinctive doctrines of 
Islamism; he had every opportunity of becoming 
acquainted with Jewish divinity and practises:^"* but 
that this knowledge was neither very correct nor pro- 
found is abundantly shown in the Koran! ^^ His igno- 

*^ Much may be gleaned from Eisenmenger, Pococke, Sale, 
Maraccio, Wahl, Hottinger and others, but pre-eminent still remains 
the Prize-essay of a Jewish Rabbi, Abraham Geiger, in answer to 
the question put by the University at Bonn: "Inquiratur in fontes 
Alcorani seu legis Mohammedicae eos, qui ex Judaeismo derivandi 
sunt." We shall follow in this chapter the published translation: 
"Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthurae aufgenommen ?" Bonn 

^6 Sur. ir. 38. XVI. 119. XXVII. 78. XXXII. 25. XLV. 15. 
II. 136. 

'' Sur. XXIX. 45. ^b ^it ^UXJt Jjol lycjLsG ^^ 

^^ His intercourse with Jews on his travels, with Abdallalt, 
Waraka and Habib Ebn Malek are well known. 

*^ His o»-c?«r of enumerating the prophets : Job, Jonas, Aaron, 
Solomon, David, Sur. IV. 161. Still more ridiculous: Sur. VI. 84. 
85. 86: David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, Aaron, Zacharias, 
John, Jesus, Elijah, Jonas, Lot! 


ranee of Jewish history is proved for instance by his 
solemnly declaring that before John the Baptist, no 
one bore that name at any time.^^ To return to our 
subject, it was perfectly consistent with Mohammed's 
avowed principles to adopt freely from Judaism, since 
he professed to reveal nothing but what was in har- 
mony with all that had come down before him. At 
other times he plainly styles it a "repetition:" "God 
sent do^vn the most beautiful news, a repetition si- 
milar to other Scriptures:"^* with this distinction 
however, that he desired to be considered the "seal 
of the prophets," whose book was so "clear and per- 
spicuous" that no occasion could arise to make any 
other prophet necessary after him." 

The contemporaries of Mohammed not only re- 
cognised in some of his prophetic communications a 
reproduction of what had previously been considered 
divine revelation, but suspected that he was assisted 
by a certain man, or men of Jewish or Christian be- 

'" John, Aj«fVjSj 1;Ti% 'l(oain]g, in the name of which we 
read Sur. XIX. 8. Ll«-w Jco ^ »J JJt^^.j jj. Mohammed 

however knew nothing of 1 Chron. III. 15. 24. V. 36. 36. 2 King 
XXV. 23. Ezra VIII. 12. Jcr. XL. 8. 1 Mace. II. 1. 2. It arose 
evidently from misunderstanding Lu. I. 61. 

^* The peculiar charm of the Koran was, that it was ^^•t^-«flJC 
|v4JLX) L^J : in accordance with what they already possessed. Sur. II. 

89. XLVI.Il.andSur.XXXIX.24.add:O^.Jcit ^j..^ Sy^ &-0I 

^^ M. is said to be the seal of the prophets : ^j.aa^ |VJ'L&., 
Sur. XXXIII. 4. and his book, ^j.aax ljLd ; so clear as not to be 
doubted or liable to be disputed. 


lief. ^' If these coadjutors were Jews, as doubtless 
were some of them, we can thus account for the 
Hebrew ideas and expressions we meet with in the 
Koran, which cannot be explained from analogy of 
language or idiom, but are considered to be directly 
imported from Judaism. The word "^Ark'' as used 
in the history of Moses and in connection with the 
''ark of the covenant'"' is applied in the Koran exactly 
in the same way as in the old Testament. ^* Again 
Torah^' the law, is made to signify the entire Old 
Testament as it is in the New Testament, and the 
term clearly dates its origin from the Hebrew; again, 
the Hehreiv name for Paradise was also adopted, by 
Mohammed, as well as the Rabbinical description of 
the place itself. ^^ The same may be said of the Hebrew 
term for hell. *^ Gehinnom was originally nothing but 

" Sur.VIir. 31. XVI. 26. XXIII. 85. XXV. 5. 6. XXYIL 70. 
XLVI. 10. 16. LXVIII. 15. LXXXIU. 13. 

2* Sur. XX. 39. Exod. II. 3. Sur. II. 249. The word, liy^lj 
is not Arabic in its termination, v;y,__, and answers to "IJ'^P or the 
Rabbinical t^n'^n^P.. 

'^ ^OV^' ~"5^^' *^® law, is always used in a sense analogous 
to rofjiog in the New Test. 

26 "(ja^ ^i)arabie§ ifi ein £?rt, iro man cfine aKe forV'crliriie S^nfircn^itng 
i§t unb trinft, unb too bie (Jbelfteine ju ^aufe finb, feibene SBetten, 
(gtrome i^cit ®ein, UiD^Iriecf)cnbe Cete, unb onbercS ber 5lrt." 
Again: "(Sben ij^ cin £rt ber 29onne, bag frucf)tbar(le Sanb, too fefir viele 
Siid^e unb ^rucf)tMumc fi'nb , ivelrfie ®ott fiinftig ben a)ieufcf)en jeigen toivb, 
urn bcrt erfreut ju toerbcn." Maimonides apud Sanhed. XI. 1. (oLl-;^ 
jjtXt from T3? l-!i is the usual name of Paradise, seldom Ci>LLs»- 
^ju^i^ySU] from naradeifjog. 

'^ Gehenna, ■^i ; , g ->wj Ci""'>; in the New Test yitvva. The term 

occurs Sur.II.201. III.IO. 198. IV. 58. 95. 99. 115. 120. That |w4^ 
was adopted direct from the Jews is proved by the final letter *. 



the valley of Ilinnom near Jerusalem, which being at 
one time so notorious and detested for its idolatries, 
its name was applied in the Talmud and the New 
Testament to hell. Again, among the Pharisees or 
Sej^aratists who formed themselves into a distinct 
community, holding the traditions of the elders and 
studying to excel by exterior sanctity, was a party 
distinguished for learning and intelligence whose 
members were called Chaberim or "fellows;" thus the 
term became identical with teachers; and this usus 
loquendi in Rabbinical language, was adopted by 
the Koran. ^^ The words "Rabaan" another term 
signifying teacher, "Sabbath" the seventh day of the 
week, "'Shekinah" implying God's peculiar presence, 
"Foorkan" signifying redemption, and "Mathani" 
meaning repetition, are all terms of Hebrew origin 
introduced into- the Koran. ^^ 

2. It w'ould be irrelevant to our purpose to wade 
through all the incongruous matter of the Koran 
in order to discover every trace of Judaism, but we 
shall glance at some peculiarly Jewish ideas, which 

^'* jL^I, D""inn; "nnn, socius was the term of a member of 

a party among the D'''d^lS3, claiming peculiar knowledge. Thus 
fi"i3n acquired the sense of teachers. Sur. V. 48. 68. IX. 31. 34. 

29 Compare Sur. III. 73, V. 48. 68. 80. IX. 31. 34. ^Gp 
and la-n. Re.specting v:>.x*v , nso Sur. II. 61. VII. 163. XVI. 
125; and about sJuS^L*,, r,r2;4 .see Exod.XXV. 8. Deut. XXXIII, 
12. 16. Sur. II. 249. IX. 26. 40. XLVIII. 4. 18. 26. ^^y^, 
■Jj:-)?^, help, salvation: Sur. VIII. 29. 42. 181. ^Ux) or r.ri^?;, 
repetition. Moh. put his book in the place of the entire Jewish 
teaching called it: ^^'Ji, i^'^T-'^ as well as ^lix, ~.5''4'?' 

CHAP, v.] 


ought to be noticed. Passing over the creation, we 
remark that the seven heavens and the seven earths 
which are held in the Fahiiud, have found their way 
into the Koran. •^'^ During the creation, God's glorious 
throne was placed in the air upon the water. ^^ "The 
world is the sixtieth part of the garden, the garden 
is the sixtieth part of Eden" according to the Talmud; 
and INIohammed states that the breadth of the garden 
is that of heaven and earth. ^^ Both in the Koran 
and Talmud we find seven hells as the appointed 
abode for the damned, and each hell has seven gates, 
in both documents. ^^ The entrance of the Gehinnom 
is marked by two date-trees, between which, smoke 
issues, and the Koran speaks of a tree in hell, of 
which the damned are to eat and of which many 
terrible things are related.^* 

In the Talmud the prince of hell demands supply 
for his domain, and a similar request is made in the 
Koran. ^'' Between the seven heavens and the seven 
hells is an intermediate place, for those who are too 
good to be cast into hell , and top imperfect to be 

^° Chagiga IX. 2. 'CT'p.^. ~>^:^. "there are seven heavens." 
Eniek Rammelech Eisenmenger I. pag. 459. and Sur. II. 27. XVII. 
46. 88. XLI. 11. LXV. 12. LXVH. 3. LXXI. 14. VAyL^-sJl ca*«. 

3^ Sur. XL 9. XXVII. 26. XXIII. 117. LXXXV. 15. and 
Rashi to Gen. I. 2. D'^im "'^E hv tin'Tn:! 'T':iN3 nry 

.__ ... _ |.. _. . — ^ _^ 
" TaanithX. Pesashim XCIV. ini* ■)> "Jja D""4*^''5 'inN Qb^S 
:n.?2: ^^4'^^. and Sur. III. 127. 

" Talmud Erubin XIX. 1. Midrash at the end of Psalm XI. 
Sohar II. pag. 150. Sur. XV. 44. 

" Sakkhah XXXVII. and Sur. XXXVII. 60 XLIV. 43. 

"^ Othioth by Rabbi Akiba VUI. 1. and Sur. L. 29. 



admitted into heaven.^® This intermediate abode is 
however so narrow that the conversations of the bless- 
ed and the damned on either side may be overheard. 
The happiness of Paradise is similarly depicted in both 
Talmud and Koran ;^' and the difficulty of attaining 
it is equally set forth; the Talmud declaring that it 
is as easy for an elephant to enter through the eye 
of a needle, the Koran merely substituting a camel 
for an elephant. ^^ That the dead live in the sight of 
God is stated in both documents in the same terms, 
and that the admission to the actual presence of the 
Almighty is not to be expected before the day of Judg- 
ment and the Resurrection of the dead. ^° The signs 
of the last day, as given in the Koran, are borrowed 
equally from the Scriptures and the Talmud.*'' 

The lengthened descriptions in the Koran of the 
future Resurrection and Judgment are also decidedly 
tinged with a Talmudieal colouring. That the several 
members of the human body shall bear witness against 
the damned, and that idols shall share in the punish- 
ment of the worshippers is stated both in the Talmud 

^^ Midrash to Eccles. VII. 14. Sur. VII. 44. 45. 46. 47. 

" Mislmah Aboth IV. 17. Sur. IX. 38. XUI. 26. 

'® Compare the Talmudic : N^n?:-! NC -53 Nj-'E h'^."'^~i N7p. 

with icL^Jt jU- ^c' cU^'' /^^^ (^-^"^ '» Sur. VII. 38. 

^^ The pious "enjoy the glory of the Shechinah." 1''T'?3 I"!"?. 
rs/^-^Ij- Sur. LXXV. 23. s\Job L^s J^\ "their Lord contempla- 
ting". Also Sur. LXXXIX. 27. 

*° Sur. XXI. 104. XXXIX. 67. XLIV. 9. XVII. GO. XXII. 2. 
XXVII. 89. Isa. XXXIV. 4. Ezek. XXXVIII. XXXIX. Sur. 
X-S.I. 96. 


and Koran. *^ The time of the last Judgment Mo- 
hammed dedined to fix, resting upon the Jewish or 
Scriptural sentence that "one day with God is like 
a thousand."*^ The Jews in speaking of the Resur- 
rection of the dead allude to the sending down of 
rain; the Koran also affirms that this means of quick- 
ening the dead will be employed;*^ and the Tal- 
mudical idea that the dead will rise in the garments 
in which they were buried has likewise been adopted 
into Moslem tradition.** The Jewish opinion that 
"all the Pro23hets saw in a dark, but Moses in a clear 
mirror"*^ is modified in the Koran by the addition 
that God sends down his angelic messenger Gabriel, 
as "the Holy Ghost" with revelations ; this extra- 
ordinary notion of Gabriel being considered the Spirit 
of God is also imported from the teaching of the Jews. *^ 
Again, the Deinonology of the Koran is chiefly 
borrowed from the Talmud. "Three of the properties 
of demons are in common with angels, and three 

** ChagigaXVI. ThaanithXI. and Sur.XXIV. 24. XXXVI. 65. 
XLI. 19. Sukkah XXIX. and Sur. XXL 98. 

*2 Psa. XCIV. Sanhedr. 96, 2. and Sur. XXII. 46. XXXII. 4. 
Ezek. XXXVII. 13. and Sur. C. 9. 

*^ D^>~ ^T'l.'^W "who sends down the rain" is introduced: 
Thaanith' at the beginning. Sur. VI. 95. XXX. 49. XXXVI. 33. 
XLI. 39. XLIII. 10. 

** Sanhed. XC. 2. Khethubhoth CXI. 2. See also VI. 95. and 
Pocock. not. misc. cap. VII. p. 271. ^^Lo ^ <^*^ ci»-A+JI t^\ 
^JO o^ ^1 

*■' Jebamoth XLIX. with Sur. XLII. 50. 

**^ 1 King XXn. 21. rp'-\r^ N3>:i; and n'';p,pC n^^ "the clearly 
speaking spirit" is also taken as Gabriel ; Sanhedrin XLIV. and 
Sur. LXXVIII. 38. XCVH. 4. XVII. 87. 


with men; they have Avings like angels, can fly from 
one end of the world to the other, and know things 
to come. Bnt do they know future events? No, 
but they listen behind the veil. The three properties 
in common with men are; they eat and drink, indulge 
in physical love and die."*^ This was adopted in the 
Koran and spun out ad libitum; for instance, whilst 
listening once to the angelic conversations they were 
hunted away with stones! Their presence in places 
of worship is admitted both in the Talmud and the 
Koran: "when the servant of God stood up to in- 
voke him, the Djins all but pressed on him in the 

d" 48 

Amongst the moral precepts which are borrowed 
from the Talmud, we may mention, that children are 
not to obey their parents, when the latter demand 
that which is evil;*^ prayer is to be performed stand- 
ing, walking, or even riding;^" devotions may be 

*^ ri^y^T!?'? n'n^r: ^psb'^rs n'ibui D^i"v:;53 C-^n^NS a'"'^ni niao 
n"S?5 voyi" n-crs cnb "ui"' ni-ir; ^3^3733 r;db":3 uiN "ina 
siN cipyn spbo ry-ir n'-^r.b rr^vzi r>73 ry-in-'i no^o -lyi cb^yr, 
V"^.? rr^l r"<P^N D7N '':33 r.^^b^ij^ ":^>"!E~ '"?."'^??'^ Wt^^ 
:rr?:? yyr] ciiagiga' xvi/l. and Sur. Xv! 17. 34. XXXVIII. 
78. LXXXL 24. LXVII. 5. XXXVII. 7. LXXII. Hence the ap- 
pellative (vx:^\, the stoned one. 

*^ Compare the Talmud: 6<-r. rrT^STO nbs "ni. N^^n"^. ^~ and 
Sur. LXXII. 19. 

*' "Saith the father to his son being a Priest, defile thyself, or 
return not that which is found, should he in this obey him?" Jeb- 
hamoth Vr. cfr. Sur. XXIX. 7. 

*" Sur. II. 230. III. 188. X. 13. The Jews, Berachoth X. 
^''IJ't? nrCP, pray standing; may be done riding on an ass. 
Mishnah Berachoth IV. 5. 


shortened in urgent cases, without committing sin;'^ 
drunken persons are not to engage in acts of wor- 
ship.-''^ abkitions before prayer are in special cases 
enforced, but generally required both in the Talmud 
and the Koran ;^^ each permit the use of sand instead 
of water, when the latter is not to be procured. ^* The 
Talmud prohibits loud and noisy prayers , and Mo- 
hammed gives this short injunction: — ''cry not in 
your prayers;"^' in addition to this secret prayer, 
public worship is equally commended. ' ^ The Shema- 
prayer of the Jews is to be performed, "when one is 
able to distinguish a blue from a ivhite tkreacir and 
this, is precisely the criterion of the commencement 
of the fast in the Koran. ^ ^ The following social pre- 
cepts are likewise copied from Judaism, — a divorced 
woman must wait three months before marrying 
again; ^^ mothers are to nurse their children two full 
years; and the degrees of affinity within which 
mariages are lawful. ^^ 

^^ Sur. IV. 102. and Mishnah Berachoth IV. 4. 
^^ Sur. R". 46. and Berachoth XiXI. 2. Erubin LXIV. 
*3 Sur. IV. 46. V. 9. Mishnah Berachoth III. 4. 
^* Sur. V. 8. and Berachoth XLVI. ''r'^^ n~^i:2 n2)573 he puri- 
fies himself vith sand and has done enough. 

^^ dbyLaj y^^ Sur. XVII. 110. with Berachoth XXXI. 2. 

ibip V2iyq2 ^^'^, ^!"2n72b 1573 that he do not lift up his voice. 

^^ Sonna LXXXVI. LXXXVII. LXXXVUI. and the r.^Dp 
ntQirn. of the Jews. 

" Mishnah Berach. I. 2. Sur. II. 183. 

^^ Sur. n. 228. Mish. Jabhamoth IV. 10. 

••^ Sur. II. 233. XXXI. 13. The Talmud: Kethuboth LX. 1. 
•where it is added, that beyond that period it was like suckling a 
worm; and Sur. XXIV. 31. 


3. The historical incidents, which Mohammed 
borrowed from Judaism, are recorded with the most 
grotesque and fabulous admixtures; regardless of the 
sources from which he gleaned them he is indifferent 
to all order or system. Ignorant of the general fea- 
tures of Jewish history, Mohammed appropriates none 
of the historical waymarks which determine the great 
epochs recorded in the Old Testament, but confines 
himself to certain occurrences in the lives of single 
individuals; we shall review these in chronological 
order, noticing the flagrant anachronisms as they 
arise in the Koran. 

At the head of the line oi Patriarchs prior to the 
flood, stands the primogenitor of the human race. 
Even before the formation of man, the jealousy of the 
anoels existed to such a degree, as to cause them to 
oppose his creation; but God revenged it by endowing 
Adam with superior knowledge: — "When thy Lord 
said to the angels, I am going to place a substitute 
on earth, they said: wilt thou place there one who 
will do evil therein and shed blood ? but v»e celebrate 
thy praise and sanctify thee; God answered: Verily 
I know that which ye know not; and he taught Adam 
the names of all things , and then proposed them to 
the anoels, and said: Declare unto me the names of 
these things, if ye say truth; they answered: Praise 
be unto thee, we have no knowledge but what thou 
teachest us, for thou art knowing and wise. God 
said: Adam tell them their names. And when he 
had told them their names, God said: Did I not tell 
you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and 


know that which ye discover, and that which ye 
conceal." ®° Let us examine whence the Koran ob- 
tained this occult information: "When God intended 
to create man, He advised with the angels and said 
unto them we will make man in our own image, 
Gen. 1, 26. then said they, What is man that Thou 
rememberest him, Psalm vill. 5. what shall be his 
peculiarity? He answered his wisdom is superior to 
yours. Then brought He before them, cattle, animals 
and birds, and asked for their names but they knew 
it not. After man was created He caused them to 
pass before him and asked for their names, and He 
answered: this is an ox, that an ass, this a horse and 
that a camel. — What is thy name'! To me it becomes 
to be called "earthv," for from "earth" I am crea- 
ted. — And I? ''Lord," for Thou rulest over all thy 

To this may be added the fable that God com- 
manded the angels to worship Adam;^^ which is 
likewise appropriated with certain modifications fi'om 

60 Sur. II 28—33. 

N^a-' t^\'4^o hn'n7b/^rw:?n 'i-b nwij nai: r.79 -j nnx ^::75Jn ^6, 

r.N: ■':n ib 'iwn rjTco -hnt b^rj'-n 6-^.0 -t 'li^oq -t -i'"iii3 

5 'n'""^"''!''^ bbb 11"IN .-:riNTl5 ■'blX ni^'^'i?"^. Midrash Kabbah to 
Leriticus Parashah XIX. and Genesis Parashah VIII. and Sanhedrin 

" Sur. VII. 10— 26. XV. 28— 44. X^TI. 63 — 68. XVUI. 48. 
XX. 115. XXX Vm. 71—86. 


Talmudical wTitings. Some Jewish fables record, that 
the angels contemplated worshipping man, but were 
prevented by God;^^ others precisely agree with the 
Koran/* that God commanded the angels to worship 
man, and that they obeyed with the exception of 
Satan. The Sonna informs us that Adam was sixty 
yards high, and Rabbinical fables make him extend 
from one end of the world to the other, but upon the 
angels esteeming him a second Deity, God put his 
hand upon him and reduced him to a thousand yards ! ^* 
Jewish writings thus record the intention of the crea- 
tures to worship Adam: — ''When the creatures saw 
Adam, they were afraid thinking him to be the Crea- 
tor and came to worship him, but he said to them: 
Ye come to worship me, but come with me, and we 

^^ There are signs of great veneration for Adam, but when 
about to worship him, God prevented it: 1>3 nDi? TCN"!" C~J< 

V ^3 r:?i:i:" ^-ciz ib 'rh-:c ni">:3r; ■'SNbT: r-rn --- 'ny 
Sanhedrin XXIX. Again: PN N"r. "J-'-.n ;D-;-i"?ri N-^rO r.rd^ 
r>^'j r.?2 u:n-ip rrsb ^wTb ':i^';?n:i n'ndr; ^Dsbi3 ^2 ^ya D-ixn 
:c-iN N^n'd 53- •ny-T'T r;73Tin i^by b-'cn 'n'n'pr: Midrash Rab- 

T T V - ;t : T " : — T T • • T T 1 T 

bah ad Genesis Parash. YIII 

''■* The Midrash of Rabbi Moses Haddarshan examined by Zunz 
"Die gottesdienstlichen Vortrage dcr Juden" pag. 296. "Locutus 
est Deus angelis niinisterii, ut supplicarent Adae. Venerunt angeli 
ministerii ad beneplacitum Dei. Satan vero erat major omnibus 
angelis in coelo. Locutus est igitur Deo sancto et benedicto , et 
ait: Doraine mundi, uos creasti ex splendore Schechinae et tu dicis 
nobis, ut supplicemus ei , vel ut adorcnnis eum quem de limo terrae 
formasti. Dixit ei Deus sanctus et bcnedictus, in isto, qui est de 
limo terrae, est plus sapientiae et intelligentiae, quara in te. Factum 
est itaque, cum nollet supplicare ei , nee obedire voci Dei sancti et 
benedicti, cxpellit ilium de coelis et factus est Satan, et de eo dicit 
Jasaj. XIV. 12. quomodo cecidisti de coelo, splendor, fili aurorael" 
cfr. Raj-mund Martini Pugio fidei edit. Carpzov. pag. 563. 564. from 
Bercshit Rabba to Gen. V. 5. 

^^ Fundgrub. I. p. 278. and Eisenmcngcr's Judcnthum I. p. 365. 


will take Him as our king who has created us."*^ 
The account given in the Koran of Cain's murder of 
his brother, is borrowed from the Bible; his conver- 
sation with Abel before he slew him, ^' is the same 
as that in the Targum of Jerusalem. After the mur- 
der, Cain sees a raven burying another, and from this 
sight gains the idea of interring Abel. Jewish fable 
differs only in ascribing the interment to the pa- 
rents: — Adam and his wife sat weejDing and lament- 
ing him, not knowing what to do with the body, as 
they were unacquainted with burying. Then came a 
raven whose fellow was dead, he took and buried it 
in the earth hiding it before their eyes; then said 
Adam, I shall do like this raven, and taking Abel's 
corpse, he dug in the earth and hid it."^^ The sen- 
tence following in the Koran: — "wherefore we com- 
manded the children of Israel that he who slayeth a 
soul not by way of retahation, or because he doeth 
corruptly in the earth , shall be as if he had slain all 
mankind; but he who saveth a soul alive, shall be as 

''^ Eisenmenger's Judenthum I. jiag. 367. quoted from the Pirke 
Rabbi Elieser. To prove Adam's extraordinary knowledge , the 
Talmud and Koran relate that the angels brought down from the 
higher worlds a book fullof mighty things beyond their com- 
prehension, in order to learn from Adam the mysteries it contained. 

" Sura V. 30—33. "I will certainly kill thee; Abel answered, 
God only accepteth the offerings of the pious ; if thou stretchest 
forth thy hand against me to slay me, I will not stretch forth my 
hand against thee to slay, for I fear God, the Lord of all creatures." 

68 D^y-i-; r-Tj .sbT vhy D^briNnT:^ D"':Di3^ D^nuJ: iityi DnN ri^n 
ib r'^.^. nnx n'n^y "xn n-n^inpa h^>'r,^. ^^rj iihiii, '-nnb n-^rb n^a 

T * — T V •• " : f T : ' V T T - T : l~ r ■(...-... TV 

n;r:?7 V~'?^ ^?rj"! "^^•" ^'4 '^'^^'. '^vk ^^^'^ ""*t'^' ^?^ ^T^'^ 

Pirke Babbi Elieser' cap. XXI, Compare with this: Sur. V,' 34, 35, 


if he saved all souls alive,"" — would have no connection 
with what precedes or follows, were it not for the 
Targum of Onkelos in the paraphrase of Gen. IV. 10. 
where it is said that the "bloods" of Cain's brother 
cried to God from the earth, thus implying that Abel's 
posterity were also cut off: and in the Mishnah San- 
hedrin, we find the very words which the Koran 
attaches to the narration of the murder without sense 
or connection. ^^ 

4. Noah stands forth as the preacher of righte- 
ousness, builds the ark and is saved with his family 
whilst the whole of mankind perish: '° his character 
is however drawn more from Rabbinical than Biblical 
sources. The conversations of Noah with the people 
and the words with which they mocked him whilst 
building the ark, ^^ are the same in Talmudical wri- 
tings as in the Koran: the former declare that the 
waters of the flood were heated , and the latter that 
the generation of the flood was punished with boiling 
water. ^ ^ 

N^25 1D''E5 ■|\n-:''J"nT d'ti ^?:T ^"HN '^73^ N2N l^'nN CT ^■'SK -c-N 

T :* -f— • : T ' ;— — : t i • r •• : t v i • t ~ *• 

i'5j' r;by73 bN^b-'Ts nni< cca i2N7rr. b2;:3 X^i£tb ■"rn: D-in 

T r V : - •• T : • • r t *•"•• " - : - t ••• I t : - : ■ • ; t t 

rhviz bi^T^i'Ti nriN -^r;: a'pirr; bDi Nb)2 ^t'-v 'i^N -Vns s^n^n 
sbiS tiV^V D^n tibto n^nsr; rby Misnah Sanhedrin IV. 5. 

•• T T •• • • : T - r T 

^« Sur.VII.57 — 63. X. 72 — 75. XI.27— 50. XXII.43. XXm. 
23—32. XXV. 39. XXVI. 105—121. XXIX. 13. 14, XXXVII. 
73-81. LIV. 9—18. LXXI. 1—29. 

''^ triTsb it naTl Ipt^b "'nWN Old one, wherefore this ark? 

T T T " ' ''T ; T 

Sanhedrin CVIII. cfr. Midrash Kabbah ad Gen. Parash. XXX. and 
XXXIII. ad Eccles. IX. 14. Midrash Tanchuma adds: Vpn-^:):. ^^r; 

Cnnna 'J"'>"'?b70'1 '^I'l^'O they mocked and annoyed him with words. 

'^ syi^\ ^ti. the oven poured forth boiling water. Sur. XI. 


The next Patriarch after the flood is Hud, who 
is none other than Eher; another sample of the ignor- 
ance of Mohammed. ^^ In the days of Hud'* the 
tower is constructed; the "ohstinate hero T^'' — pro- 
bably Nimrod, takes the lead; the sin of idolatry 
abounding, an idol is contemplated as the crowning of 
the tower; but the building is overthrown, the tribes 
are dispersed and punished in this w^orld and in the 
world to come:'^ these particulars are evidently bor- 
rowed from Scripture and Rabbinical wTitings; in the 
Koran however the dispersion is caused by a poi- 
sonous wund and not by the confusion of tongues. 
The significance which the Koran gives to Hud is 
again in perfect accordance with Rabbinical Judaism. 
"Eber was a great prophet, for he prophetically cal- 
led his son Peleg (dispersion) , by the help of the 
Holy Ghost, because the earth was to be dispersed." ' ^ 

42. XXIII. 27. '?3'rt5 ^^nnS^a b^n^in ^1^ the race of the flood 
was punished with hot water. Rosh Hashanah XVI. 2. Sanhediin 

" t>*iCi, Hud. "iny hence "'l.nJJ, Hebrews. This original name 
was forgotten and "'""r.";, Jews or C\ (;,; sometimes jjyD became 
common among the Arabs. 

'^ Sur. VIL 63-71. XL 52—64. XXIL 43. XXIII. 33-44. 
XXV. 4. XXVI. 123 — 141. XXIX. 37. XXXVIIL 11. XL. 32. 
XLL 12 — 16. XLVL 20—25. L. 13. LL 41. 42. LEL 50. LIV. 
18—20. LXIX. 4—9. LXXXLS. 5—9. XVL 28. 

^^ JoOLc >i ^ '^ see Nimrod's cognomen of '1^2> Gen. X. 7. 8. 

''^ Sur. XL 63. and Mishnah Sanhedr. X. 3. where we read: 
"The generation of the dispersion has no part in the world to come." 

" Mj^p- n^^2 >bs '^^-2, ti-q. nN N'lp/iJ. ^n? rrr. b--i> N^55 
V")Nr. r;>bE: rwn -e'^'O Seder 01am quoted Midrash Jalkut 
cap. LXII. 


5. Among all the Patriarchs, Abraham ^^ was the 
most esteemed by Mohammed, as being neither Jew 
nor Christian but a INloslem!^^ That he wrote books 
according to the Koran, is also the belief of the Jewish 
doctors/" His attaining the knowledge of the true 
faith; his zeal to convert his generation, his destruc- 
tion of the idols; his placing the staff in the hand of 
the largest idol and ascribing to it the deed; his 
effort to persuade the people of the impotence of 
their gods; the fury of the people; their insisting on 
his being burned, and his marvellous deliverance ; all 
these particulars in the life of Abraham, as given by 
the Koran, ^ ^ are minutely copied from Jewish fictions. 
We confine ourselves to one passage; ''Terah was 
an idolater , ^ ^ and idol-maker. — Once he went a 
journey and left Abraham to sell the idols; who, when 
a j)Lirchaser came, asked his age : if the person replied 

''^ *-\ic|wjt, Ibrahim; £";::«, called aJL'l J^JU:*., friend of God. 

'^ Sur. XVI 124. II. 129. III. 60. VI. 79. XVI. 121. 124. 
II. 134. IV. 124. 

**" The Jews ascribe to him tlie cabbalistical Sepher Jozirah, 
which is certainly very old. 

81 Sur. VI. 74— 82. XIX. 42— 51. XXI. 52— G9. XXII. 43. 
XXVI. 69—105. XXIX. 15—23. XXXVII. 81 — 95 XLIII. 25 — 
28. LX.4— 6. IX. 115. XXVI. 86— 104. Sonna 395. Sur. 11.260. 
XXI 69—74. XXIX. 23 — 27. XXXVU. 95 — 99. 

^^ 1^^*?. called .-.t, Asar by I\I. Sur. VI. 74. Eusebius in his 

Church History calls him 'ylOiuj wliich may have*risen from Qa(ja 

and the Greek Vldaf) was turned into .v|, Asar. The later Arabs 

however know the proper name • Aji^ See Elpherar to Sur VII. 78. 

According' to Tarikh Monteklieb Asar was the father of Terah. 
The words r.^~ C'T^jj::: "ab n"r according to the context must 
imply also a seller of images. 


fifty or sixty years, Abraliam said to him: Woe to 
a man of sixty who will worship the work of one day; 
so that pm'chaser w^ent away ashamed. '^^ Once a wo- 
man came with a dish of flour and said: here, put 
this before them! but he took a stick, broke all the 
idols and placed the stick in the hand of the largest 
of them. When his father returned, he asked, who 
has done this? whereupon Abraham said, — "why 
shall I deny it? a woman came with a dish of flour, 
telling me to place it before them; scarcely had I 
done this when each was determined to eat first, and 
the largest of them beat the others to pieces with 
the stick he has in his hand. But Terah said, why 
dost thou impose upon me, have they any knowledge? 
Abraham replied, do not thy ears hear what thy mouth 
speaketh? Then Terah seized his son and handed him 
over to Nimrod, who said to Abraham: we will worship 
the fire! Abraham: — Rather the water, which ex- 
tinguishes the fire! Nimrod: — then the water! Abra- 
ham: — Rather the cloud which carries the water. 
Nimrod: — then the cloud! Abraham: — Rather the 
wind, which disperses the cloud. Nimrod: — then the 
wind! Abraham: — rather man who resists the wind. 
Nimrod: — Thou art talking vain things; I worship 
the fire and cast thee into the midst of it, may the 
God whom thou worshippest come and save thee out 
of it. Abraham was then cast into a burning lime- 

i^ycxio ^^ JiJy l*-^;^^ (j^-^ ^-^^H^ I^^'t^' ^' 
■ HXSlXj ^t, Sw^dJ Lo Abulfeda histor. ante Islam, pag. 20. 


pit and was saved." '^* The Koran states that the 
angels whom Abraham received, appeared as ordi- 
nary Arabs, and he was astonished when they de- 
chned to eat. ^* According to the Talmud, they also 
"appeared to him no more than^raJ.s;"^^ but another 
passage adds: "The angels descended and did eat. 
are they then said to have really eaten ? No ! but they 
appeared as if they did eat and drink." ^^ As a proof 
of Mohammed's uncertainty respecting the history 
of Abraham we add, that the doubt regarding their 
having a son in their old age, is expressed in the 
Koran by Abraham instead of Sarah, and she is 
made to laugh at the promise of a son, before it was 
given;**' again, the command to offer his son, is given 
to Abraham before Isaac is born or promised, so that 
the son who was to be offered up could be none other 
than Ishmael,^^ who was spoken of immediately be- 
fore as the ''meek youth T Mohanmiedan divines are 
however not agreed whether Ishmael wa.s to be ofifered 
up although it is reported by some, that the horns 

®* Midrash Rabbah ad Genesis Parash. XVII. 

8'^ Sur. XI. 72— 79. XV. 51— 61. XXIX. 30— 32. LI. 24— 38. 

®^ D""??""^:'" NiN ib '^:12^i^ N5 Kiddus^hin LII. 

8^ in:'-; Nprs ^ins Cnb ?b:2N'i rr^tob ^th^ r^"v::n ^^nh'/i 
^n;i"1 ^bSN'O •'TTD "wS-: N7:-wS ^{l^^< Baba Mezia LXXXVI. 2. 

^® Sur. XV. 54. XI. 74. This caused the most absurd ex- 

*^ Sur. XXXVII. 99—114. explains wliat II. 118. is only 
hinted at, viz. the son Ishmacl was to be sacrilicod but was "ran- 
somed with a noble victim"; and after that 112. ^^_^-S\*w o sLij-Cio. 

^^wA^Lo-'l j^x LxxJ and we rejoiced him with the promise of 


of the ram which was sacrificed in his stead, were 
preserved at Mecca his dwelling-place! '•^° We may 
perhaps account for Mohammed's speaking oflshmael 
as a pious man and reckoning him among the prophets 
and patriarchs, ^^ from the fact, that he was consi- 
dered the patriarch of the Arabs and the founder of 
the Kaaba, ^''' yet nothing but ignorance could betray 
him into the mistake of counting Ishmael among the 
forefathers of Jacob; ^^ not less surprising is the as- 
sertion that the latter was the son of Abraham!^* 
The dying charge of Jacob, as related in the Koran, 
is in perfect accordance with what is found in Jewish 
writings: "When Jacob was dying he called his sons 
together and said unto them: hear ye sons of Israel, 
is there perhaps a doubt in your hearts concerning 
God? they replied: hear Israel our father, as there 
is no doubt in thy heart concerning God, so is there 
none in ours; but the Lord is our God, the one Lord 

Among the sons of Jacob, Joseph occupies the 
pre-eminence. His history is mainly the same as in 

^0 Geiger pag. 133. 134. 135. 

^^ Sur. XIX. 55 — 56. XXL 85 86. IL 130. 134. VL 86. 
XXXVIII. 48. XIV. 4 1. The Talmud records that Ishmael re- 
pented: Vl^i* ^:ri2 r,^'tP r.'vl'r ^•zav'C-dl Lshmael repented during 
the life-time of his father. Baba Bathra XVI. 

" Sur. IL 119. «3 suj.. IL 127. 

^* Sur. XI 74. VI. 84. XIX. 50. XXI 72. XXIX. 26. Sonna 
398 and 400, Joseph is called the grandson of Abraham, and Jacob 
his son. 

^* Sur. II. 126. 127. and Midrash Rabhah to Gen. Parash. 98. 
and to Deut. Parash. II. Also Targum Hierosolyni. to Deut. VI. 4. 
Tractat. Pesachira pag. 56. 


the Bible, embellished with fabulous traditions of the 
Jews. Among these is the assumption that Joseph 
"would have resolved to sin, had he not seen the 
evident demonstration of his Lord;"^^ that this is 
borrowed from the following fable none can fail to 
admit. "Rabbi Jochanan saith : both intended to 
commJt sin; seizing him by the garment she said: 
lie with me . . . Then appeared to him the form of 
his father at the window% who called to him: Joseph! 
Joseph! the names of thy brothers shall be engraven 
upon the stones of the Ephod, also thine own, wilt 
thou that it shall be erased?" ^^ This is almost literally 
repeated by a Moslem commentary to the Koran. ^* 
The fable of Potiphar's w^ife inviting the Egyptian 
ladies to a feast, to see Joseph, because they laughed 
at her being so charmed with him and of their being 
so overcome with admiration of Joseph ^^ that they 
accidentally cut their hands in eating fruit, is ex- 
actly so related in a very ancient Hebrew book from 
which Mohammed doubtless derived it. The story 
about the garment being rent, and the setting up of 
an evidence of guilt or innocence respecting it, is also 


Sur. XII. 24. aoj ^Is^^ ^\^ ^\ Siy L^ ^^ 

T>Tii r:r-S2 ^■^i^'W zr-:'vi^ '-r^^rb ^bra "cii^.'d '■ity rni^'d ^?:Nb 
no-' TD^-' lb ";7:n vbnn ^,b n'N~:i rns be Nrp'-i r-;rN3 
.-n^^:\;j. ~r:i:-i s-'r^^ ~n5>ti ~:"2i< ?:nN by "^ns;"*^. T^'ns "'■^n^r:? 
Urr;-ZT3 r^^'4 Sotah XXXVl. 2. " 

^« Elpherar to Sur. XII. 24. Geiger pag. 142. 

"^ Sur. XII. 26. 31. 50. and the commentary of Elpherar to 
the passage. 


borrowed to the very letter from the same source.* 
In this Sura it is also stated that "the devil made 
him (Joseph) forget the remembrance of his Lord,"^ 
in perfect harmony with the Jewish tradition: "Vain 
speech tendeth to destruction; though Josejoh twice 
urged the chief butler to remember him yet he had 
to remain tw^o years longer in prison." ^ The seeking 
protection fi'om man is here represented as the in- 
stigation of Satan. The Koran causes Jacob to tell 
his sons to enter at different gates; and the same 
injunction is given by the Patriarch in the Jewish 
writings : "Jacob said to them enter not through one 
and the same gate."* The exclamation of the sons 
of Israel, when they found the cup in Benjamin's sack: 
"has he stolen, so has his brother also;" are clearly 
a perversion of the words which the Jewish traditions 
put into their mouths: "Behold a thief, son of a fe- 
male thief," referring to the stealing of the Teraphim 
by Rachel. ' Mohammed again acquaints us that 
Jacob knew by divine revelation that his son Joseph 

^ The "^^"^4 ICD Sepher Hajjashar, quoted in the Midrash Jal- 
kiit by the name "llitr; C'7jT. ■'Hal and existing in a Jewish — 
German version with the title ^">:3"'1 £n. cfr also the intimation in 
the Midrash Abhkir quoted in Mid. Jalhut cap. CSLVL 

^ Kis Jij ^^\.Ja.jiMtJ] sLvw-jLi This is falsely applied to 

the chief butler; the translators were betrayed by the previous 
verse. Sur XIL 42. 

* Midrash Rabbah to Gen. XL. 14. Geiger pag. 146. Sur. XIL 
42. "wherefore he remained in the prison some years." 

* Sur. XII. 67. and nnM nrcr nr^3 rorsn bs h^y Cr.b ^.WN 
Mid. Rabbah to Genesis Parash XCI. 

* Sur. XII. 77. and Nrs^.^ ^3 Nn;?. N" Midrash Rabbah Parash. 

XCU. Gen. XXXI. 19. 



was Still alive/ and Jewish tradition enables us to 
point out whence he obtained the information. "An 
unbeliever asked our master: do the dead continue 
to live? your parents did not believe it, and will ye 
receive it? Of Jacob it is said, he refused to be com- 
forted; had he believed that the dead still lived, would 
be not have been comforted? But he answered, 
fool, he knew by the Holy Ghost that he still really 
lived , and about a living person , peoj^le need no 
comfort." ^ 

6. Mohammed made but scanty allusions to the 
early patriarchs, Joseph only excepted; but concer- 
ning Moses it was his interest to be more liberal and 
definite in his communications, — possibly from the de- 
sire to be considered like him, as he is generally 
thought to have taken that prophet as his model — 
whose character as lawgiver and whose personally 
eventful life, furnished him with abundant materials 
which he wove together as follows. Among the 
oppressions which Pharaoh exercised towards the 
Jews are named, his ordering their children to be cast 
into the water. Moses the son of Amran^ was put 
into an ark by his mother; Pharaoh's ivife observing 
the child, rescues him from death, and gives him 

'' Sur. XII. 86, 97. and Miclrash Tanchuma quoted in Midrash 
Yalkut cap. CXLIII. The Koran also makes Joseph tell B(>njaniin 
first, that he ^vas his brother XII. 69. in harmony with the Sepher 

^ Of the contradictions and inconsistencies with which the "Sura 
Joseph" abounds, we only mention that Joseph interprets the 
dream in Sur. XII. 47. and in 50. he is fetched from prison. 

® Moses is introduced as: D^7;y ^3 nuitt, or .%l*-»-fc ..wj j-****^ 
Gen. VI. 20. " ' ^ /^ <^ iS^r 


back to his mother to nurse. When Moses was o:rown 
up he sought to assist his oppressed brethren, and 
kills an Egyptian; being the next day reminded of 
this deed by an Hebrew, he flees to Midian, and mar- 
ries the daughter of an inhabitant of that country.^ 
When about to leave Midian he sees a burning bush, 
andr approaching it, receives a call to go to Egypt, to 
exhort Pharaoh ^° and perform miracles; he accepts 
the mission but requests the aid of his brother Aaron. ^ ^ 
Pharaoh however remains an infidel and gathers his 
sorcerers together, who perform only inferior miracles, 
and in spite of Pharaoh's threats they become be- 
lievers. ^ ^ Judgment falls upon the Egyptians, they are 
drowned whilst the Israelites are saved. * ^ A rock yields 
water; Moses receives the law** and desires to see the 
glory of God. ^^ During Moses' absence, the Israelites 
make a golden calf, which he destroys, and reducing it 

^ Sur. XX. 37-44. XXVIII. 2 — 29. 

'" cjv^y^ ~*"^.^ Pharaoh, title of Egyptian kings. 

** ^J^y^> Aaron. Sur. XX. 8 — 37. 44—52. XXVI. 9 — 17. 
XXXVIII. 29—36. LXXIX. 15—20. 

*^ Sur.VII. 101 — 125. X. 76 — 90. XI. 99— 102. XX. 50 — 79. 
XXIII. 47—51. XXVI. 15 — 52. XXVII. 13—15. XXXVIII. 36— 
40. XL. 24—49. XLIIl. 45—54. LXXIX. 20—27. 

^3 Sur. II. 46. 47. VII. 127 — 135. X. 90 — 93. XX. 79—82. 
XXVL 52—69. XXVIII. 40—43. XLIIL 55. 

** ^U^'- rinrbr: Sur. YIl. 143. 150. Elpherar says to 

the first passage: "Ren Abbas says, he means the Torah by Al- 
wach;" and more correctly to the last: sk-Jul Lg-o ,-aJI where- 
in the Torah is. 

" Sur. VII. 135—147. 17U. IL 52—55. 60. 87. IV. 152. 


to powder, makes them drink it;^*^ after this, Moses 
chooses seventy men as assistants.*^ The spies sent 
to Canaan are all wicked with the exception of two; 
the people being deceived by them must wander forty 
years in the desert.*** Korah, on quarrelling with 
Moses, is swallowed up by the earth. *° The marvellous 
journey of Moses with his servant is an addition which 
should not be omitted in this summary of events.^'' 

Among the details, deserve to be mentioned that 
Haman and Korah were counsellors of Pharaoh. * ' 
It is not surprising that Mohammed should associate 
Haman with Pharaoh , as an enemy of the Jews ; 
since he cared little, when individuals lived provided 
they could be introduced with advantage. Korah, 
according to Jewish tradition, was chief agent or 
treasurer to Pharaoh. ^^ The Ante-Exodus-perse- 
cution of the Jews is ascribed to a dream of Pha- 
raoh ;^^ this is in exact accordance with Jewish fable: 
"The sorcerers said to Pharaoh, a boy shall be born 
who will lead the Israelites out of Egypt; then thought 
he, — cast all male children into the river and he will 
be cast in among them."^* The words, Exod. 11. 7. 

*6 Sur. II. 48—52. 87. VII. 147—155 XX. 82—99. 

" Sur. YII. 155. '« Sur. V. 23 — 30. 

*' Sur. XXVIir. 76 — 83. *" Sur. XVIII. 59 — 82. 

'' ^Ujo and ^;^U Sur. XXVIII. 57. 38. XXIX. 38. XL. 25. 

" -iy-iD bia ^n'a^ D'-ip-'b^n]: rrr^ n^j? Midrash to Numbers 
Parash. XIV. 

^» Sur. XXVIII. 5. 

" nij s-::'''"' N"--] *^):-r\^, ^tl ^T*^ "i?"??^ fi^'r^inr; '^^tttj 
bti a-'-iDT.- cn'b'.- b:: '■Zi^'-:-^- "zba "''':n"i nam £"^1:^:73 btt-i'i3"» 
t~-i'J ^:>-dil N:m -lis^- Pirke llab. Elieser cap. XL VIII. 

V T • It ; ■.. : : - r 


"I will call one of the Hebrew women" produced the 
Rabbinical fiction: "why just a Hebrew-woman? 
This shows that he was handed to all the Egyptian 
women, but he would not drink; for God said: the 
mouth which shall once speak with Me, should it 
drink what is unclean ?"^^ This was too valuable for 
Mohammed to omit in his Koran. ^'' Although it is 
nowhere said in the Bible, that the sign of the leprous 
hand was wrought in the presence of Pharaoh, ^^ yet 
the Koran relates it as having there taken place, ^* 
and in this also it was preceded by Jewish tradition : 
"He put his hand into his bosom and withdrew it 
leprous white as snow; they also put their hands into 
their bosom and withdrew them leprous white as 
snow."^^ Again among Moses' own people none but 
his own tribe believed him;^° this Mohammed doubt- 
less inferred from the statement of the Rabbis: "the 
tribe of Levi was exempted from hard labour." ^ ' 
Among the sorcerers of Egypt who first asked for 
their wages and then became believers when their 

\nr:'^ 'nn-i p;" rr:' "is-ib -i'r?u: "? n"- "i^is 'uj-nrr, -i73ji'p:'' 

• ■ T T T I - • • • •■ - : 'TV V ■' I- It - - T ' -r 

Sotah XII. 2. 

" Sur. XXVIII. II. 

^^ It was wrought in the wilderness on the occasion of Moses 
being called; but as to its being repeated before Pharaoh, Scripture 
is silent. 

2« Sur. VII. 105. XXVI. 32. 

" '0^33r. D- D>i >b",^3 n?^-it)3 nij^ii^'l ^PT^ i^; ta^JP" 
3ib;^3 n-y^i:?: ir-N :&<^i:-r:n Dp^n'b nn^ Pirke Rabbi Elieser 

V ••• — T : ' T • : >T " \ T T 

cap. XLVIII. 

^° Sur. X. 83. 

'' T)"?. rr;-a:'.7?. r;;rj ^^\ bir '^ua^a Midrash Rab. to Exod. 
Parash. V." 


serpents were swallowed by that of INIoses, '^ Pharaoh 
hhnself was chief; ^^ here again Mohammed is indebt- 
ed to Judaism. "Pharaoh who lived in the days of 
Moses was a great sorcerer."^* In other places of 
the Koran he ascribes divinity to Pharaoh; ^^ and 
Jewish tradition makes him declare: "Already from 
the beginning ye speak falsehood, for I am the Lord 
of the world, I have made myself as w^ell as the 
Nile; as it is said of him Ezek. xxix. 3. "mine is 
the river and I have made it.''^^ The prophet seems 
to have been much confused with regard to the plagues ; 
in some places he enumerates nine, ^^ in others only 
five, the first of which, is said to be the Flood!'*' As 
the drowning in the Red Sea, happened after the 
plagues, he can only allude to the Deluge. 

The following somewhat dark and uncertain pas- 
sage ^^ concerning Pharaoh, has caused commentators 
great perplexity; it is stated that Pharaoh pursued 
the Israelites until actually drowning, when confessing 
himself a Moslem he was saved alive from the bottom 
of the sea, to be a "witness for ages to come,"*" but 

" Sur. VII. 110. XXVI. 140. ^^ Sur. XX. 74. XXVI. 48. 

■''* -;- b"-i> ■'^:i>?2N ri^^l2 ^"D^^z ";~ V. ny"7E Midrash Yalkut 
cap. CLXXXIl. ' 

'^ Sur. XXVI. 128. XXVIII. 38. XLIII. 50. 

•"•^ Db^y~ r"iN N^T. ^!i« ■'3 a^"i7?5< uPN "i|^o "brin'^g crib T^jj 

"r^""'^?. 't^.1 ""rJ*". '^ ""r??..^'^. 0"'" r^?1 ""^^M TN7^ '?**1 Midrash 
Rab. to Exod. Par. V. ' " 

" Sur. XVll. 103. XXVII. 112. '» Sur. VII. 130. 

'^ Sur. X. 90. 

*" Bedawi, see Henzii frag. Arab. pag. 201. alone keeps to the 
literal sense of the text: Kf-i Jts» \.^^ C/JJLo ^La^aJ p»«jJLi 


we find that it is merely a Mohammedan version of 
a Jewish fable : — ''Perceive the great power of repen- 
tance! Pharaoh king of Egypt uttered very wicked 
words: who is the God whose voice I shall obey? 
Exod. V. 2. yet as he repented saying, who is like 
unto thee among the gods, XV. II. God saved him 
from death; for it saith, — almost had I stretched out 
my hands and destroyed, — but God let him live that 
he might declare his power and strength."** As 
Jewish commentators add to Exod. XV. 27. — where 
we read of twelve fountains being found nearElim, — ■ 
that each of the tribes had a well,*^ so Mohammed 
transposes the statement and declares, that twelve 
fountains sjDrang from the rock which had been smitten 
by Moses at Rephidim. The Rabbinical fable that 
God covered the Israelites with mount Sinai on the 
occasion of the lawgiving*^ is thus amplified in the 
Koran : "We shook the mountain over them as though 
it had been a covering, and they imagined that it was 
falling upon them; and we said: receive the law which 
we have brought unto you, with reverence."** The 
Koran adds, that the Israelites now demanding 
to see God, die, and are raised again. *^ It will not 
be difficult to trace the origin of this figment: — 

nfi<T ^^nra cb"NT '2-4 ^"'''^r-"^ in''?' ^n'n?3>i. -nb ncob. DT'?" 
Tn-'?.:'.n Pirke Rabbi Elieser cap. XLIII. cfr.Mid. to Psalm CVI. 
Mid. Jalkut cap. CCXXXVIII. 

*' c-^ -rTS^T: D^UEp -\'^^ d\:u3 ^^^3 Rashi to Exod. XV. 27. 
cfir. also Targum Hierolym. 

*' iT'r.^s nr;- rx ts^by "DN roS Aboda Tarah II. 2. 

♦* Sur. VII. 170. 171. *'' Sur. II. 52. 53. IV. 152. 


"Two things demanded the Israelites from God; that 
they might see his glory, and hear his voice, and both 
were granted to them, as it is said: Behold the Lord 
our God has shown to us His glory and greatness and 
liis voice we heard out of the midst of the fire. Deut. 
V 21. These things however they had no power to 
resist; as they came to mount Sinai and He appeared 
unto them their souls escaped by His speaking, as it 
is said: 'my soul escaped as He spake'. The Torah 
however interceded for them, saying: 'does a king give 
his daughter to marriage and kill his household? 
The whole world rejoices (at my appearance) and thy 
children (the Israelites) shall they die?' — At once 
their soul returned, therefore it is said: 'the doctrine 
of God is perfect and brings back the soul."*^ 

The history of the golden c«//'afforded a favourable 
subject for the Koran which follows as usual, the 
fabulous account of the Rabbinical traditions relating 
to it. Both represent Aaron as having been nearly 
killed wdien at first resisting the entreaty of the people 
to make it. The Sanhcdrin relates: "Aaron saw Chur 
slaughtered before his eyes, (wdio opposed them) and 
he thought, if I do not yield to them they will deal 
with me as they dealt with Chur."*'^ According to 
another passage in the Koran, an Israelite by the 
*'^ nn-D D-5 r.^>;i tdI: ^N^'d rs i-'i2vh nb D-n rrr, 'nhri 

\-i-'a 'drx >7r,i -rn H'-clio "b?; 'd'^ '"?"!?" ^'r.^J.")-! Ci"'?:rT-; c-'b? 

T13d2 nl't;?3 r;?:')?!! Abodah Sarah 11. 2. 

*^ Sur. VII. 150. and Nb -N -n^s v:cb. n^nt^. -i^n -ij-i i^l-N 
'ntina tn^ms 'b "in:' n*"^'4j- r-b n:5:?:"4 Sauhedrin v. 


name of Samari enticed them and made the calf.*^ 
Like the wandering Jew in the Christian fable, Sa- 
mari is punished by Moses with endless wandering, 
and he is compelled to repeat the words "touch me 
not."*" Jewish traditions makeMicah assist in manu- 
facturing the idol calf;''° but ^lohammed either 
derived Samari from Samael; or as the Samaritans 
are stated by the Arab writers to have said: "touch 
me not," he may have considercl Samari as the 
author of the sect of the Samaritans. "^ 

That the calf thus produced by Samari from the 
ornaments of the people, lowed on being finished," 
is evidently a Koran repetition of the following Jewish 
tradition: "The calf came forth Exod. xxir. 24. 
roaring, and the Israelites saw it. Rabbi Jehuda 
says: Samael entered the calf and roared to deceive 
the Israelites." The addition that the tribe of Levi 
remained faithful to God, is both Scriptural and Rab- 

*8 Sur. XX. 87. 90. 96. The name ^^yeL^Jt , Samari, may 
have arisen from hv^pt'O who is said to have assisted in making 
tlie calf. 

*^ Sur. XX. 97. the words he has to repeat, are: (j^La^^xi J*, 
no touch! 

*o Rashi to Sanhedrin CI. 2. The Micah the same as Judg. 
XVII. hence Arab writers consider Micah and Samari identical 
Achmed ben Idris in Hotting, hist, orient, pag. 84. 

'^ It may also have arisen from a Pharisaical sect called by the 
Talmud: ':u3^7:P b^ xL'^'^Zl "the separated one: touch me not!" 
The fable is clearly a composition from various elements. 

" Sur. VII. 147. XX. 90. and ^^r'N '^i^-JT r.VS 'ir^, bj?" i^^'l 
PN P'yrnb -r:. rrr^ "S-rb. o:p: bx;|D 172N r.-j^ir;-; ■'•jn b^nqi 
bx-i'd^ Pirke Rabbi Elieser cap. CLIX. 


binical.'^^ In the following events we have abbrevia- 
tions, but no alterations or additions, except in the 
"matter of Korah" which is honoured with singular 
embellishments; for instance, Korah had such riches, 
that from ten to forty strong men were required to 
carry the keys of his treasures.^* Moslem traditions 
go much further; Abulfeda says forty mules were 
required to convey the keys. Nevertheless Jewish 
tradition, whence it is taken, is still more extravagant. — 
"Joseph buried three treasures in Egypt, one of which 
became known to Korah. Riches are turned to de- 
struction to him that possesses them, Eccles.V. 12. 
and this may well be applied to Korah. The keys 
to the treasures of Korah made a burden for 300 
white mules," ^^ The accusation from which God 
cleared his servant Moses, of which the Koran makes 
mention, was according to the best commentators, 
occasioned by Korah. "Abu Aliah says: it refers to 
Korah hiring a harlot to reproach Moses before all the 
people, upon which God struck her dumb, and destroyed 
Korah, which cleared Closes from the charge." ^^ This 
is unquestionably an amplification of the following 

" Sur. Vir. 159. Exod. XXXII. 26. Pirke Rabbi Elieser 

cap. XLV. 

** Sur. XXYIII. 76. The words by Sale: "many strong men" 
signify a general number from 10 — 40. 

55 «.- n^rnb r^-Tnc n-N73 "Sri "'^tow ri^'P ^^. '^^'4y "T 
n'^p b^. T'Ta"-' n"'2 n"nP2W Pirke Rabbi Elieser cap. XLV. 

^6 Sur. XXXIII. 69. LXI. 5. ^^^^^^ y^ sJLxJJ yJ JU^ 

1 (7| ^mi^ iLJ ^j^-k jJLc- 1. (^".QO ^5*-^ O iXftJ &AXJ ^Uu*-! 

,M5)U i*5JboL <£5J3 ^ iS^y^ 'y^'^ ^^ Elpharer to Sur. 
XXXIII. 69. 


passage. "Moses heard and fell on his face. What 
was it he heard? That they accused him of having 
to do with another man's wife." Other commen- 
tators of the Koran conceive the unjust charge from 
which Moses was cleared, to have heen that of mur- 
dering Aaron on mount Ilor, because he and Eleazar 
only were present when Aaron died!""* That they 
have again had recourse to Jewish tradition will appear 
from the subjoined extract: — "The whole congre- 
gation saw that Aaron was dead; and when Moses 
and Eleazer came down fi-om the mountain, the whole 
congregation gathered together asking: where is Aaron ? 
But they said, he is dead. — How can the Angel of 
death touch a man, by whom he was resisted and 
restrained, as it is said: he stood between the dead 
and the living and the plague was stayed; if ye bring 
him, it is well, if not we will stone you. Moses prayed: 
Lord of the world, remove from me this suspicion! 
Then God opened and showed them Aaron's body, 
and to this the passage applies : the whole congre- 
gation saw etc. etc. Numb. XX. 29.'"^® 

7. The time of the Judges is passed over un- 
noticed, and from the manner in which the election 

■d'N r'CJN;:; Piik R. Elieser cap. XLV. M. speaks of the unjuist 
charge against Moses in the very Sura in which he strives to clear 
himself from just imputations ! 

^® According to Elpharer and Abulfeda, the angels showed the 
dead body of Aaron. 

^' Midrash Tanchuma to Numb. XX. 29. The fabulous ex- 
pedition of Moses, Sur. XVIII. 59 — 82. is likewise of .Jewish origin. 
Zunz: S^ie gottcetienftlidien a^ortrdj^e ber 3uben, fiiftorifdj entltncfelt. 
The hero of the tale is however a certain Rabbi Jushua. 


of a king is introduced Sur, II. 247. 253. it would 
appear that Mohammed was ignorant of the long in- 
terval between Moses and Saul. ^° Of David's history 
only his victory over Goliath and his fall through 
Bathsheba are recorded. The Sonna makes men- 
tion of the brevity of his slumbers, and commentators 
of the Koran affirm the same: "The apostle of God 
said: David slept half the night, he then rose for a 
third part and slept again a sixth part."^* This the 
Koran derived from the Rabbis, who assert that the 
king slept only for the term of "sixty breathings." ^^ 
Of the wisdom of Solomon the Koran makes parti- 
cular mention; and to support the statement, adds, 
that he understood the language of birds; this was 
also the opinion of the Jewish doctors. The winds, 
or more probable sjyirits obeyed him;^^ and demons 
birds and beasts formed part of his standing army/* 
Jewish commentators record that ''demons of various 
kinds and evil spirits Avere subject to him."^' The 
story of the queen of Sheba and the adventures of 

''^ M ascribes to Saul what Scripture relates of Gideon. Jurig'. 
VII. 5—6. 

«^ Sonna CXLVIII. Elpharor to Sur. XXXVIII. 16: J^x Jo 

l»Lo. ajLA.j ivvaj^ J>^' ^^2.3 *lxj O^fv^ |jL^*.A-Lo xJJf 

''^ "'ll'Ci'; ""r^w. Berachoth. In his days the Sabbath-breaking 
Jews are nietaniorphised into apes. Sur. II. 61. IV. 50. V. 65. 
VII. 166. 

«' ^j. like n-m^ the Spirits. Sur. XXVII. 15. 16. 

'^» Sur. XXI. 81. 82. XXXIV. 11. 12. XXXVIII. 35—40. 
The secoud Targum to E:3ther 1. 2. 


the lapwing/'^ are only abridgements from Jewish 
traditions. As the original is less accessible and more 
important to the student of the Koran we shall in- 
sert aversion of this ridiculous fable. — "The wild 
cock was once sought for among the birds, and not 
being found the king angrily commanded that he 
should be brought in, intending to kill him. Then 
said the wild cock to the king: My Lord king, give 
heed and hear my words! Already for three months 
I weighed, in my mind, and flew about in the whole 
world in search for a town, which does not obey thee. 
I saw then a city in the East, of the name of Kitor, 
in which are many people, and a woman governs them 
all, she is called queen of Sheba. If it please thee, 
my Lord king, I shall go to that city, bind their kings 
in chains and their rulers with iron fetters, and bring 
them hither. As it pleased the king, wa'iters were 
called, who wrote letters and bound them to the 
wings of the wild cock. He came to the queen who 
observing the letter tied to the wing, loosened it and 
read the following contents: — From me king Solo- 
mon, greeting to thee and to thy princes ! Thou knowest 
well that God has made me king over the beasts of 
the field, over the birds of heaven, over demons, spi- 
rits and goblins, the kings from all regions of the earth 
approach me with homage; wilt thou do this, thou 
shalt have great honour, if not, I will send upon thee 
kings, legions and horsemen. The kings are the 
beasts of the field, the horsemen the birds of heaven 

The sagacious bird tXjO JjO forms a conspicuous part in the 
fable of the queen of Sheba: Sur. XXVII. 20 — 46. 


the hosts, demons and spirits; the gobhns are the 
legions who shall strangle you in your beds." When 
the queen had read this, she rent her garments and 
called for the elders and lords, sayino-: know ye what 
king Solomon has sent to me? They answered, we 
neither know nor esteem him. The queen however 
trusting them not, called for sailors and sent presents 
to the king, and after three years she came herself. The 
king on hearing of her arrival sat in a crystal hail 
to receive her, which made her fancy that he was 
sitting in water, she therefore uncovered her feet to 
pass through. On seeing his glory she said: may 
the Lord thy God be praised who has found pleasure 
in thee and made thee sit on the throne to exercise 
mercy and justice. ^^ 

With regard to the fable before alluded to, that 
demons assisted Solomon in the building of the temple, 
and being deceived, continued it after his death, we 
may here add that Mohammed borrowed it directly 
from the Jews. ^*^ When Solomon became haughty, 
. one of his many demons ruled in his stead till he 
repented. ^^ The Sanhedrin also refers to this de- 
gradation: "In the beginning Solomon reigned also 
over the upper worlds;" as it is said: "Solomon sat 
on the throne of God," after that only over his staff, 
as it is said: "what profit hath a man of all his 

*' Targum II. to the book of Esther. 
«« Sur. XXXIV. 13. and Gittin LXVIII. 

"^ Compare Talmud 2-:"' yy Psa. II. Tract. ■-:;> et ::Tp5'' in 
lib. Reg. png. 1S2 with Sur. XXXVIII. 33—35. Sale, 374. Wahl 
peg. 451 not. b. 


labour," and still later: this is my portion of all my 
labom-.'"'" On repenting lie maimed his horses con- 
sidering them a useless luxury. In the Talmud and 
the Scriptures we find allusion to his obtaining them 
as well as to their being prohibited. ^ * 

Among the few characters which Mohammed no- 
tices after Solomon, Elijah the prophet takes the 
precedence; nothing is mentioned of his rapture to 
heaven, yet he is considered a most remarkable pro- 
phet. '^ Among the Jews, Elijah is deemed an inter- 
mediate person between heaven and earth; he a2)pears 
in human form to the pious on earth, visits them in 
their places of worship) and communicates revelations 
from God to eminent Rabbis. In this character Elijah 
also appears in Moslem divinity. Jonah "the man of 
the fish"^^ is not forgotten; Mohammed relates his 
story in his usual style, not omitting his journey to 
Nineveh or the gourd which afforded him shade.'* 
Job too, with his suffering and cure is noticed;'* also 

i^tt?5 baa. D";Nb ynry: r,?5 '-;*d rVp'^'iy t^^jj ^^^2 nd ci-onbi 
■'bwS b2^ •'•J^'zn rrr, rr n-nD/ Sanhedrin XX.' also Mid. Rabh.'to 
Numb. Parash. XI. 

^^ Sur. XXXYIII. 29— 33. Sanhedrin XXI. and Deut. XYI. 16. 
1 King X. 29. Wahl pag. 451. The fable of the ants Sur. XXVII. 
18—20. arose probably from Prov. VI. 6. Compare Talmud, Chul- 
lin LYII. 7. 

" Sur. VI. 85 XXXVII. 123. 130, y^LJt; among the Jews: 
N"'?^* ""^bN, Elijah the prophet. 

^^ (jmJ«_>, Jonah, also (c.j«^ wokL^o, the man of the fish, 

Sur. YI. 85. X. 98. XXXYII. 139. XXI. 87. LXYIII. 48. 

'* The whole very briefly Sur. X. 72. XXI. 87. 88. XXXYII. 
139—149. LXYIII. 48—51. 

" Sur. XXI. 83. XXXYIII. 40—45. 



the three men who were cast mto a burniiiQr fiery 
furnace,'^ the turmng back of the shadow of degrees 
on the occasion of Hezekiah's recover}', ' ' and the 
excessive veneration of the Jews for the memory of 
Ezra,^® may be added as instances of the most fla- 
grant plagiarism. 

On reviewing the contents of this chapter, we 
find the assertion that Mohammed borrowed largely 
from the Judaism of his age — encumbered as it was 
by fabulous traditions — has been fully established. It 
would seem that Mohammed drew his knowledge of 
Jewish history and religion only from these impure 
fountains which long before his day had been placed 
on a par with the Word of God. .Many more tables 
and teachings of the Koran might doubtless be traced 
back to same source, but let those already adduced, 
suffice to prove to Moslemin, whence the alleged re- 
velations of their prophet date their real origin. We 
shall now see what the false prophet adopted fi-om 
Christianity and examine the relation of the Koran 
to the New Testament. 

^6 Sur. LXXXy. 4. etc. Dan. III. 8. 

^^ Sur. XXy. 47. 47. 2 King XX. 9—12. 

Ezra would have been worthy to have given the law, if it had not 
already come by Moses. Sanhcdrin XXI. 2. and Sur. IX. 30. 




"It was needful for me to write unto you , and exhort you that ye 
should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto 
the saints. For there are certain men crept in unawares , who 
were befoi-e of old ordained to this condemnation; ungodly men, turn- 
ing the grace of our God into lasciviousness , and denying the only 
Lord God and our Lord Christ." Judc 3. 4.^^ 

It will appear in the course of this chapter that 
Mohammed was better acquainted with the traditions, 
than with the canonical Scri^^tures of the Christians, 
just as he was more versed in the Rabbinical ^^Titings 
than in the Old Testament; hence we may expect to 
find most of those parts of our Lord's life, on which 
the apocryphal writings chiefly treat. The Koran 
however going beyond the favourite subject of the 
childhood of Jesus, begins with the fore-rimner of 
Christ; Zacharias his father dwells in the temple, and 
asking for a son and heir, is promised one by the 
angels , or according to another account, by God Himself. 
Although the New Testament relates nothing of the 
parents of the Virgin 3Iary , the apocryphal Gos- 
pels invariably call them Joachim and Anna; the 
Koran however designates her family, the family of 
Amran or Imran.^° From her being called the sister 

'^ This will only be fully understood, when we remember, that 
St. Jude was one of the founders of the Arabian Church , and pro- 
bably addressed these prophetic words to it in particular. 

Evang. de nativitate Mariae and Protevang. Jacobi cap. I. 
and II. Also Euseb. Hist. eccl. lib. I. cap. VI. and Sur. III. 33. 35. 
LXVI. 12. 


of Aaron, and the daugliter of Amran^'^ it has been 
fairly conchided that Mohammed considered the Vir- 
gin Mary, and Miriam the sister of Moses and Aaron, 
as identical; and no sophistry on the part of Mo- 
hammedan divines or European writers can remove 
this imj)ression.®^ The birth and childhood of Mary 
are related in these words, "The wife of Imran prayed. 
Lord verily I have vowed unto thee that which is in 
my womb to be dedicated to thy service. Accept it 
therefore of me, for thou art he, who heareth and 
knoweth. And when she was delivered of it, she said 
Lord verily I have brought forth a female; — Allah 
knew what she had brought forth; — and a male is 
not as a female. I have called her Mary, and I com- 
mend her and her issue to thy protection against 
Satan driven away with stones. Therefore the Lord 
accepted her with a gracious acceptance and caused 
her to bear an excellent offspring. And Zacharias 
took care of the child, whenever he went into the 
chamber to her, he found she had provisions with 
her, and he said, Mary whence hast thou these? 
She answered, this is from God, for God provideth 
for whom he pleaseth without measure." ^^ Again, 

^^ 'Oy^V, the father of Moses and Aaron, also of dp'?2, Mk^juxjui: 
i^.jJC o«.^i ^m'v*£- o*-ot (VJvOj Mary, daughter of Amran and 
sister of Aaron. 

®^ It is assumed that Miriam was kept alive to become the 
mother of Jesus: in this they liave partly the Rabbis on their side: 

r,3 t:b":i jibi nr?: r-/"w::-5 nVn rvt- TiN572 na ^bd ^b Dp7q 
r;5'.5"r"| ~"|"l "Over Miriam the angel of death had no power, but 
she died by tlie divine breath, and no worms molested her." Babha 
Bathra XVI[. Geiger pag. 173. 

8' Sur. UI. 35—37. 


"The angels said, Maiy, verily God hath chosen 
thee and hath purified thee and hath chosen thee 
above all women of the world, Mary he devout to- 
wards thy Lord and bow thy knees with them that 
bow their knees. This is one of the secret histories; 
we reveal it unto thee (jNIohammed) because thou wert 
not with them, when thev threw in their rods to cast 
lots which of them should have the education of Mary, 
neither wast thou with them when they strove among 
themselves."^* This is faithfully borrowed from Chris- 
tian apocryphas.^^ We here perceive the same pre- 
tensions of Mohammed to having received by reve- 
lation "a secret history," — though in reality, one 
which was in the mouth of most oriental Christians 
at that period, — as in the history of Joseph, which 
he pretended to divulge as one utterly unknown till 

«* Sur. III. 42—44. 

^* ^EiTts 8s "Arva' tf] >iVQi05 6 ■deog nov , iav yavv^ao) el'te 
ccQQSV lite ^rXv , ngoau^fo avro ditjQOv xvqim rw &tco f.iov , xai 
taxai XeiTov()yovr avroj ndaag tag t]iif^ag tfjg ^co/~,' dvTOv. Prot- 
evang. Jacobi cap. IV. In the Gospel of the Nativity of Mary we 
read "voverunt tamen (Mariae parentes) si forte Deus donaret eis 
sobolem, earn re domini servitio niancipaturos." Evang. de nat/'v. 
Mariae cap. I. Again cap. VII: "Quotidie ab angelis frequentabatur, 
quotidie divina visione fruebatur, quae earn a malis omnibus custodiebat 
et bonis omnibus redundare faciebat." Again Protevang. Jacobi 
cap. VIII: ''rjv de MaQid/ii matl negiareQcc ve^o^uvt] ev t(3 vacS kv- 
Qiov , Kcd iXufi^ai't t{joq:,rjV iy. Xf^'Qog ilyyeXov." Again in "Historia 
de nativitate Mariae et de infantia Salvatoris," cap. IV: "Abierunt 
simul Joachim et Anna, uxor ejus, ad teraphim domini, et offerentes 
hostias domino tradiderunt infantulam suam Mariam in contubernio 
virginum, quae die noctuque in Dei laudibus manebant." Cap. VI: 
"Quotidie esca, quara de raanu angeli accipiebat, ipsa tantum re- 
ficiebatur ; escam vero , quam a pontificibus templi consequebatur, 
pauperibus dividebat. Frequenter videbantur cum ea angeli loqui 
et quasi carissime obtemperabant ei." 


then. The casting of lots as to who shonld have the 
care of the infant INIary, who was probably left an 
orphan at a very early age, is liillv described in the 
apocryphal books, and Mohammed, although "none 
of the party who cast the lots," could have read it 
there in all its minutest and most circumstantial de- 
tails.^® It may be added that the Koran omits all 
mention of Joseph, Mary's relation to him being 
never once alluded to ; but the apocryphas assert that 
she vowed perpetual virginity when the subject of 
marriage was on one occasion brought before her.^^ 
3. The birth of Jesus is thus recorded by Mo- 
hammed in Sur. XIX. 16 — 21 : "Remember to notice 
in the book concerning Mary, when she retired from 
her family to a place towards the East, and took a 
veil to conceal herself fi'om them; and we sent our 
Spirit^® unto her, and he appeared unto her in the 
shape of a perfect man; she said I fly for refuge unto 
the merciful God to defend me against thee , if thou 
fearest God: he answered, I am sent to give thee a 
holy son; she replied, how shall I have a son, seeing 
a man has not touched me, and I am no harlot; he 
answered, so shall it be; thy Lord said, this is easy 
with me , and we shall ordain him for a sign luito 
men and a mercy from us, for it is a thing decreed." 
In another passage, the annunciation is made not by 

^^ Evang. de nativit. Mariae cap. VI — VIII. Protevang. Jacobi 
cap. VIII. IX. 

^^ Evang. de nativitate Mariae cap. VU. 

^® n"1, — ,•%, nvtv^ia is here not the Holy Ghost in the Chris- 
tian acceptation of the word, but the angel Gabriel. 


one, but by several angels; which is the more authentic 
of the two versions of the story we must leave to 
jMohammedans to decide. ''The angels said, Mary, 
verily God sendeth thee good tidings of the word 
from him, his name shall be Christ Jesus the son of 
Mary, honourable in this world and in the world to 
come, and one of those who approach God, and he 
shall speak to men in the cradle and be righteous in 
his old age; she answered, Lord how shall I have a 
son, since a man hath not touched me? he answered, 
so shall it be, God createth what he pleaseth, and 
when he decreeth a thing, he only says unto it, he, 
and it is.""^^ 

When Mary was overtaken by the pains of child- 
birth "near the trunk of a pahn-tree, she said, would 
to God I had died before this and were forgotten 
and lost in oblivion; ^° and he who was beneath her"^ 
said, be not grieved, now hath God provided a ri- 
vulet under thee, and do thou shake the palm-tree 
and it shall let fall ri23e dates unto thee, ready gather- 
ed; eat and drink and calm thy mind. Shouldest 
thou meet any one who should question thee (on 
account of the child) say, I have vowed a fast unto 
the most merciful God, wherefore I will by no means 

89 Sur. III. 45—48. 

^^ "Historia de Nativitate Mariao et de infantia Salvatoris' 
probably gave rise to this statement, when it relates caj). XX. that 
on their flight to Egypt, Jesus commanded the branches of a palm- 
tree, under which they rested, to bend down to refresh the travellers 
by their fruit, after this the infant Saviour causes a fountain to 
bubble up from between the roots of the tree, 

®^ L^.X^VJ) ij^, refers to the new born babe. 


speak to auy man this day."^^ We find in con- 
sequence, that Mary answers the inqmries of her 
relatives only by signs, as if to say: the birth of this 
child is a subject concerning which, I have only to 
answer to God and need not justify myself before 
men.^^ The fear which Mary expresses in the Koran 
leaves no doubt as to the manner in which the con- 
ception was thought to have been accomplished; hence 
we may account for the accusation which the Jews 
are said by Mohammed, to have brought against her, 
and which seems to be intimated by the apocryphal 
writings, when they declare that Mary "hid herself 
from the sons of Israel."^* 

Throughout the Koran, Jesus is called the son of 
Mary; in accordance with the New Testament he is 
also styled the "word from God" and "the word of 
truth." ^' It also adds, "To Jesus the son of Mary 
gave we proofs of his divine Mission, and strengthened 
him by the spirit of holiness."^" In another place 

^' Sur. XIX. 22 — 25. As regards the dates and the fountain: 
Hist, de nat. Mariae ct de inf. Salvat. cap. XX. 

^' Gerock's Versuch einer Darstellung der Christologie des 
Koran, pag. 36. We make free use of this work; but would caution 
otlicrs who may consult it after us, of its singular partiality to 

^* Sur. IV. 155. In the Protevang. Jacobi cap. Xtl. we read: 
tK(JV(iev iavri]^ uno rcSv vicop 'la(jai]X. 

'■•''' Jesus Sur. XIX. 32. is called J^j", 5";p, whilst otherwise 
^JUt s^^JS'l or i^i>i J5J' ' word of truth. The Arab translation of 
the Bible gives John I. 1. by &^jS. 

»6 j^jjJI J sLjJo! Sur. II. 87. 254. V. 119. 


He is called tlie Spirit from God,''' Again, we are 
to "remember lier who preserved her virginity, and 
into whom we breathed of our Spirit, ordaining her 
and her son for a sign unto all creatures." ^^ As the 
same is said of Adam, INIohammed finds a strong 
analogv between him and Jesus, as regards their 
respective entrance into the world. ^° After the hirth 
of Jesus under the palm-tree, the Koran thus continues : 
"She brought the child back to her people, carrying 
him in her arms, and they said unto her, Mary, 
now hast thou done a strange thing, sister of 
Aaron, thy father was not a bad man, neither Avas 
thy mother a harlot. But she made signs unto the 
child to answer them; and they said, how shall we 
speak to him who is an infant in the cradle? Where- 
ujion the child said, verily I am the servant of God, 
he hath given me the book of the gospel, and hath 
appointed me a prophet ; and he hath made me bless- 
ed, wherever I shall be, and hath commanded me to 
observe prayer, and to give alms, so long as I shall 
live, and he hath made me dutiful towards my mother 
and hath not made me proud or unhappy; and peace 
be on me the day whereon I was born, and the day 
whereon I shall die, and the day whereon I shall be 
raised to life."* 

^^ X-Lx) ^v , the Spirit from him. Sur. IV. 169. 

'« Sur. XXr. 91. LXVI. 13. cfr. XXX\^II. 72. 

®^ Sur. III. 58. Bedawi adds to Sur. V. 84. "God created Jesus 
without father , Adam without co-operation of father and mother, 
which is a greater miracle." 

* Sur. XIX. 26—32. Of this reproach of Mary by her friends, 
nothing is said in the Apocryphas ; but the friends of Mary say to 


That the chikl spoke m the cradk% Mohammed 
borrowed from the Arabic Gospel of the mfancy. ^ 
During his childhood, Christ performed various mira- 
cles which are recorded in the apocryphal books of 
the early Christians. From them therefore the fol- 
lowing details of the Koran are copied: "Verily I 
come unto you with a sign from your Lord; for I 
will make before you, of clay, as it were the figure 
of a bird, then I will breathe thereon, and it shall 
become a bird by the permission of God,- and I 
will heal him that hath been blind from his birth, 
and I will heal the leper and raise the dead by 
the permission of God."^ Again: "I taught thee 
the Scripture and wisdom and the law and the Gos- 
pel; and when thou didst create of clay, as it were the 
figure of a bird, by my jjermission, and didst breathe 
thereon and it became a bird by my permission, and 
thou didst heal one blind fi"om his birth, and the 

her mourning husband: "Quotidie cum ea angelus domini loquitur, 
quotidie escam de manu angeli accipit. Quomodo fieri potest , ut si 
aliquod peccatum in ca? Nam si suspicionem nostram tibi vis ut 
pandamus , istam gravidam non fecit nisi angelus Dei." Joseph 
replies: "Dtquid seducitis me, ut credara vobis, quia angelus domini 
inipraegnassct earn? Potest enim lieri, ut quisquam finxerit se esse 
angelum domini, ut deciperet earn." Ilij^'ioria de nativitate Mariae 
et de infantia Salvat. cap. X. 

2 Compare Sur. III. 46. XIX. 27. V^ 119. with the following: 
"Invenimus in libro Josephi pontificis , qui vixit tcmi)ore Christi, 
Jcsum locutum esse, et quidem cum in cunis jaccret dixisscque matri 
suae Mariae: Ego, qucni peperisti, sum Jesus, filius Dei, verbum, 
quemadmodum annunciavit tibi angelus Gabriel , misitque me pater 
mens ad salutem mundi." Evangel, infantiae, cap. I. 

^ Sur. III. 48. The last part of the passage may likewise refer 
to the infancy of Jesus, for the apocryphal books relate many such 
miracles performed by the infant Saviour. 


leper by my permission, and didst bring forth the 
dead by my permission, and when 1 withheld the 
children of Israel from killing thee, when thou didst 
come to them with evident signs, and such of them 
as believed not said. This is nothing but manifest sor- 
cery."* Again, — Jesus being seven years old and 
at play with several children of his age , they made 
several figures of birds and beasts of clay, for their 
diversion ; and each preferring his own workmanship, 
Jesus told them that he would make his, walk and 
leap; which accordingly at his command they did. 
He also made several figures of sparrows and other 
birds, which flew about or stood on his hands as he 
ordered them, and also ate and drank when he of- 
fered them meat and drink. The children telling this 
to their parents, w^ere forbidden to play any more 
with Jesus, whom they held to be a sorcerer!^ 

4. What the Koran relates of the miracles of 
Christ, has already been noticed. All he did, is said 
to have been done hy the permission of God to prove 
his being an apostle of God." "I come unto you with 
a sign from your Lord, therefore serve him, this is 
the right way." ^ But Jesus perceiving their unbelief, 

* Sur. V. 119. 120 Respecting these marvels see: Thomae 
Evang. Infanttae cap. 11. ; and: Evang. Infantlae Arab. cap. XXXVI. 

^ Evang. Infantine pag. III. etc etc. The apocryphal books as 
well as the New Test, have nothing to say of the life of Jesus be- 
tween his 12''' and 3 O*'' year. Yea the "Arab. Evang. Infantiae" 
says expressly, cap. LIV. that Jesus performed no miracles after his 
12*^ year till the commencement of his public ministry. Nor is the 
Koran more communicative respecting the 18 years of retirement. 

« Sur. la. 49. 


asked who would be his helpers, when the Apostles 
offered then- services , confessed their belief in God, 
and desired to be acknowledged true believers by 
Christ. ' He , like David , cursed his unbelieving ge- 
neration, which ascribed all he did and said to sor- 
cery.^ The believers in Jesus are generally called 
Nazarenes; the Apostles are nowhere mentioned by 
name, nor is their number specified, but three are 
said to have been shamefidly treated by the inhabi- 
tants of a certain town. ^ No intimation is given in 
the Koran as to how the disciples of Jesus were made, 
or when they were called, but it gives a strange mis- 
representation of the institution of the Lord's Supper, 
in the following conversation between Jesus and his 
Apostles. — ''When I commanded the apostles of Je- 
sus saying, Believe in me and in my messenger; they 
answered, we do believe and do thou bear witness 
that we are Moslemin. When the apostles said, 
Jesus son of Mary is thy Lord able to cause a table 
to descend unto us from heaven? He answered, fear 
God, if ye be true believers. They said, we desire to 
eat thereof, that our hearts may rest at ease, that we 
may know that thou hast told us the truth and that 
we may witness thereof. Jesus the son of Mary said, 
Lord our God, cause a table to descend unto us 

'Sur.III.50.51. » Sur.V,87. LXI.6. 14. 119. 

^ Sur. XXX^^. 13 — 26. Apostles or as they are called 
l^fcjjfcil, which signifies the white, pure, candidi ; then friends, 

assistants , Ansarier. In the transitive sense the word signifies 
also: lotor , dealbator vestlum, whence some commentators thought 
the Apostles were engaged in the trade of bleaching ; others as- 
sume they wore white garments; candidati! 


from heaven, that It hecome a festival day unto us, 
unto the first of us and unto the last of us and a 
sign from thee, and do thou provide food for us, for 
thou art the hest provider. God said, verily I will 
cause it to descend unto you. But whosoever shall 
disbelieve hereafter, I will surely punish him with a 
punishment wherewith I will not punish any other 
creature."^" The concluding denunciation reminds us 
of the w^ords which St. Paul subjoins to his account 
of the institution of the Lord's supper. '' ^ 

5. The last events of our Lord's life are singularly 
j^erverted in the Koran. It has been already noticed, 
in the summary of its dogmas, that Mohammed 
emphatically denied the death of Jesus to have been 
caused bv violent means; hence he M^as consistent in 
disguising the nature of the Lord's Supper. The son 
of Mary, he alleges, was miraculously saved from death 
on the cross. ''The Jews devised a stratagem against 
him, but God devised a stratagem against them, and 
God is the best deviser of stratagems. Allah spake 
thus, Jesus verily I will cause thee to die, and I 
will take thee unto me, and I will deliver thee from 
the unbelievers, and I will place those who will follow 

'" Sur. V. 121 — 124. Maraccio Refut. pag. 241. YII. assumes, 
that the feeding of the 5000, and the parable of the wedding feast 
had been here thrown together by M. , but we can easily recognise 
the TQantCcc y.v(Jiov , or the dtinror xv^iaxov of the Christian 
Church. The Sura is itself called : StX^UJl : the table. Nor was 
it likely M. should have overlooked so essential an institution, 
which was retained by the Christians, even in the most corrupt ages 
of the Church. 

^' 1 Cor. XI. 27. Commentators liberally supply the table with 
fish and fruit. See L. Warner, Compend. histor. pag. 25. etc. and 
Maracc. Prodroni. pars IV. p. 89. also Refut. to Sur. V. p. 238. 239, 


thee, above the iinbehevers, until the daj of the Re- 
surrection, then unto me shall ye return, and I will 
judge between you of that, concerning which ye dis- 
agree." "The Jews have said, we have slain Christ 
Jesus, the son of Mary, the apostle of God; yet they 
slew him not neither crucified him , but he was re- 
presented by one in his likeness; and verily they 
who disagreed with him, were in doubt as to this 
matter, nor know they anything but opinions about 
him, but they have not really killed him, but God 
hath taken him up." Again, "I A^athheld the children 
of Israel from killing thee when thou hadst come unto 
them with evident signs." *^ 

The Moslem divines severallv agree in the denial 
of Christ's death upon the cross; ^^ but they differ as 
to the person crucified in his stead. Some record 
that a jDcrson similar to Jesus was crucified, whose 
body was taken down, after six hoin*s, by the carpenter 
Joseph, to bury it in his own grave, having obtained 
the permission from king Herod, whose name was 
also Pilate. In the mean-time, the son of INIary was 
sent down to his mother to assure her of his happiness 
and safety. Others inform us: that Jesus, when pre- 

^" JiyjJ^jia ^l« 5«Jjo^ they slew him not, nor crucified him. 
Sur. IV. 156. 157. lU. 53. 53. V. 119. 

*' The death of Christ is not in itself denied. Christ to M. was 
a mere man; and every man tastes death: OB-fj' &JL)li3 {j*j^ uS 

8ur XXI. 36 LVI 62. III. 186. IV. 77. The necessity of all men 
dying is spoken of in the apocryphal books in the same terms. See 
'^Historia Josephi" cap. XXII. pag. 42. cap. XVIII. XXVIII. XXXI. 
Maracc. Refut. pag. 113. 114. Prodrom. pars III. pag. 63 — 67. 
supplies copious extracts from Moslem writers , as to the person 
crucified in his stead. 




dieting his being taken to heaven, asked, who among 
his disciples would assume his form and be crucified 
in his stead, with a view to a reward at the day of the 
Resurrection. One offered to comply with the pro- 
position, whilst Jesus was taken to heaven. Ebn 
Abbas adds: Jesus was brought into a certain house 
through the window, and thence taken to heaven 
through a sky-light. Titianus, persuaded by Judas, 
got into a side window to murder Jesus ; on entering 
the room, Titianus being suddenly changed into the 
form of the son of Mary, was himself crucified by 
the Jews. 

That this is not an original invention of Moham- 
med may be gathered, from the history of the early 
heresies of the Christian Church. The Basilidians 
denied that Christ suflPered, and held that Simon horn. 
Cyrene was crucified in his stead. ^* The Cerinthians 
and Carpocratians believed that one of his discij^les 
suffered death upon the cross in his stead.*' The 
Gospel of St. Barnabas represents Christ to have been 
snatched to heaven, when the Jews were on the point 
of apprehending him in the garden, and that Judas 
being transformed into the form of his master was 
taken, delivered to Pilate and crucified.*^ Others 

^* Iraen. lib. I. 1. cap. XXIII. Eiph.iHaeres. XXIV. 3. 

*^ In the "Ue^iodoi dnoatoXmv" Photius discovered the 
same error: noXXug ds xai rov atixvQov xtvoXoyuxq xal aroniaq 
avanXaTTfi xal tot Xgiarov Ilii] aTav(j(od-t}i.'(xi dXX' txtQov dir' 
dvTOv. See Photius Biblioth. Cod. CXIV. pag. 192. Jesus then is 
made to laugh at those who thought they had crucified him. To- 
land's Nazarenus pag. 17. 

" Menagiana torn. IV. p. 326. 


again taiiglit, that tlie prince of darkness was cru- 
cified in the place of the Saviour of the world! *^ It 
would seem that Mohammed revenged himself upon 
the vicarious atonement of Christ, by adopting these 
heretical opinions, which represent other persons as 
having suffered in His stead. 

From the various passages referring to the death 
and exaltation of Christ, ^^ we gather, that Jesus nuist 
have been dead and removed to Paradise at the time 
Mohammed compiled his Koran; if this be the case, 
it must be considered a special mark of divine favour, 
for even Abraham is spoken of, as one who would 
hereafter have his place among the blessed ones in 
the world to come, thus making it a future event. ^^ 
The Christian Apocryphas speak of the Virgin's as- 
sumption without death, and Mohammed in ascribing 
this honour to her, as well as her Son, doubtless bor- 
rowed fi'om them.^° 

6. Of the Ascension of Christ, in the Christian 
acceptation of the word, the Koran knows nothing, 
nor was it possible that Mohammed should admit the 
royal dignity of the Redeemer at the right hand of 

^^ Mani, Epist. fundanienti, ap. Evodium : Princeps itaque tene- 
brarum cruci ost affixus, idem(]U(' spineam coronam porta vit. Joh. 
Damascemif^ de Ilaeres. pag. 4G0. ed. Bas. states it to be Moslem 
belief: "Judaeos contra legem euiii in crucem agere A'oluisse; et 
cum eum tenuisscnt ejus quidem unibrani cgisse in crucem, Christum 
autcm ncc in crucem actum fuisse, nee mortuum. Deum enim eum 
ad se in coelum transtulisse, quod ei esset carissimus." 

*« Sur. XIX. 32. III. 54. V. 126. IV. 156. 157. XXIIl. 52. 

»» Sur. II. 131. XVI. 122. XXIX 27. Wahl pag. 303. Note. 

*° "Et posuimus filiiim Mariae et matrem ejus in miraculum, et 
recepimus utrunique in locum sublimum." Sur. XXIII. 52. 


God; since this would militate against the leading 
doctrine of the divine Unity, as taught in the Koran. 
The second Advent of Chrht was received as a formal 
article into the creed of INlohammed , but there are 
only scanty allusions to it in the Koran. ''He shall 
be a sign of the approach of the last hour, wherefore 
doubt not thereof." ^^ The second advent of Christ 
is differently described by Moslem divines ; some say 
that he will appear near the white tower, east of 
Damascus; others that he will descend on a rock on 
mount Moriah, confess Islamism, destroy Christianity 
and every other creed, kill all swine, break every cross, 
pierce Antichrist with his lance at Ludd or Lydda, 
near Jaffa; after this he will marry, beget children, 
die after forty or forty-five years and be lamented by 
Moslemin, who will bury him by the side of Moham- 
med. After this he will appear again at the Resur- 
rection as Judge. ^^ The Koran, however ascribes no 
such honours to the son of Mary; instead of acting 
as Judge, it teaches that Christ himself will be re- 
quired to give an account of his doings upon earth, 
like all the other prophets. ^^ 

2^ Sur. XLIIL 59. X£.LwJU JLj«J \j|^ literally, et iUe est 

cognitio horae. The expounders make it: His advent is the sign of 
the approaching Judgment. In the: "Carmen Arahicum , Atnali 
dictum" edited by Bohlen 1825 we read verse 31 : "Jesus aliquando 
reveniet contra Antichristura miserum astutumque, quem tunc per- 
det." When the Kaliphate was restored to the Abbassides, Ab- 
dallah I. was told by his uncle David that the Kaliphate would 
remain in his family , till it would be transferred into the hands of 
Jesus Christ, the son of Mary. M. d'Ohsson I. 1.39. 

" M. d"Ohsson I. pag. 138. 

"^^ We have thus an account of the birth of Mary, her parents, 



7. We now come to the consideration of those 
Christian dogmas, which the Koran represents as 
blasphemous. The doctrine of the blessed Trinity 
was either not known to jMohammed, or maliciouslv 
perverted into a Tritheism , with which he reproaches 
the Christians from beginning to end: — "Say not, 
there are three gods, forbear this, it will be better 
for you. God is but one God. Far be it from him 
that He should have a son." Again; "They are cer- 
tainly infidels who say, God is the third of three, 
for there is no God beside one God." ^* The Tritheis'HL 
against which the Koran so strongly protests, con- 
sists of God, Jesus Christ and Mary His mother. 
The first and highest of these, is Allah. '^^ That Allah 
however should be considered Father and have a son 
is a doctrine which rouses the highest indignation of 
Mohammed. ^^ It is unworthy of Allah to have a son; 

her guardian and intercourse with angels: Sur. III. 33 — 37. 42 — 
44; promise of the birth of John the Baptist, XIX. 1 — 15. XXI. 
89. 90. III. 38 — 41. Jesus announced to Mary: III. 45—48. XIX. 
16—21. His birth: XIX 22' — 28. Speeches of the newborn babe:' 
XIX. 29 — 32. His miracle.s: III. 48. V. 119. Description of his 
prophetical work: V. 87. XXXIII. 7. XLIII. 56 — 63. LXI. 6. 
Choice of the Apostles: III. 51. 52. LXI. 14. The Lord's table: 
V. 121 — 124. Mistake of the Jews in crucifying another in His 
stead: III. 53. 54. IV. 156—158. V. 119. Miraculous removal of 
Christ: XIX. 32. III. 54. Assumption with Mary into Paradise: 
XXIII. 52. Christ's second advent the signal to Judgment : XLIII. 
59. Lastly His giving an account of Himself: XXXIII. 7. 8. V. 
118. 119. 125 — 127. IV. 158. 

2* Sur. IV. 169. V. 82. 

'^ Allah ^JU|, fromtil^bN, Chb^it; the expression: God the 
Father is therefore never used in the Koran. 

^•^ "They say, Allah hath begotten a son, God forbid." Sur. X. 
67. cfr. Ps. II. 7. Act XIII. 33. Hebr. I. 5. and the Nicene for- 
mula : ytvvTj&tna ix rov narQog, 


he has neither a son nor a partner. ^^ He hatli be- 
gotten no issue, neither is there any besides Allah. 
The idea appeared to Mohammed so impious that 
he says, "it wanted but little, that the heavens should 
rend and the earth cleave asunder and the mountains 
be overthrown and fall."^** How should Allah have a 
son, having no partner? They are certainly liars, who 
maintain that he has offspring. He provides for all 
things, and is Lord over all; he speaks and it is 
done."^^ The Koran therefore, classes Christians 
among Polytheists as they associate two other Gods 
with Allah. ^'^ The second person of the alleged Tri- 
theism of the Christians, is Mary, who was both 
mother and goddess. She is, as we have already seen, 
highly exalted by the Koran and considered the most 
distinguished among her sex, beloved of God, ho- 
noured by angels and praised as a miracle. ^ ^ God 
breathed into her of His Spirit and she was favoured 
to be the mother of Christ. Yet she was no more 
than a human being, which is proved by the fact 
that both she and her son ate food!^^ Jesus being- 
asked at the day of Judgment, whether he told men 

" Sur. XES. 34. 91. VL 101. LXXII. 3. 

2« Sur. XXIII. 93. XIX. 87. 

" Sur. XXI 26. XVn. 110. X. 67 XXV. 2. XIX. 34. 

"* The standing- name for Pagans and Christians is ^^wA5wXu.4Jt, 
iantos. Sur. VL 14. IX. 34. ^ •• / 

Mariam, ^^o, Dpi'Q, Mafjian. Sur. XXI. 91. IIL 42. 41 



XXII. 52. XLX. 20. 

(.LxiaJt ^;^^b \ji\S' they both ate food. Sur. V. 84. 

"His mother was a woman of a truth;" JUbJufl x^L , or a real 
woman. V. 125. 


to receive him and his mother as Gods besides Al- 
lah, is made to answer: "Praise be unto thee, it is 
not for me to say that which I ought not , if I had 
said so, thou wouldest surely have known, thou knowest 
what is in me, but I know not what is in thee for 
thou art the knower of secrets. I have not spoken 
to them any other, than what thou didst command 
me, viz. worship God, my Lord and your Lord."'"* 
The question arises, whence has Mohammed de- 
rived the blasphemous notion, that Christians wor- 
shipped the Virgin INIary as a goddess, and considered 
her a member of that Tritheism which the Koran 
asserts to be an article of their creed? We have al- 
ready noticed that Epii)hanius speaks of a sect, call- 
ed the CoUyridians which arose in Thracia towards 
the end of the fourth century and afterwards spread in 
Arabia and other parts of the East. ^* But there is 
no need to fix upon any particular heresy as the source, 
whence Mohammed obtained the idea that the wor- 
ship of the Virgin was the practice of Christians in 
general; for on referring to the History of the Church 
in those corrupt ages, we cannot fail to notice the 
persecutions which fell upon those of her members, 

•^' "Hoc enim commoniorat, Christum cum in coclum pervcnisset, 
a Deo interrogatum fuisse: an Dei filiuni se esse dixisset, eunique 
facit hoc modo respondcnteni : in nic Doniine sis placato aiiinio. 
Scis, liiinc nieani orationcm non fuisse, meque tuam non fastidire 
servitutem ; homines sunt isti, qui contra leges hoc me dixisse ar- 
guerunt, falsoque me circumvcnerunt crimine, et veheracnter crra- 
runt. Tuni Deum haec ei vult respondisse : Scio, hanc tuam non 
fuisse orationem." Joan. Damascenus de haeres. pag. 4G6. 

^* Epiphan. Tom. 1. Haeres. LXXVm. lib. HI. cap. 1. Haeres. 
LXXIX. cap. 23. 0pp. edit. Petav. Colon, pag. 10.54- 1057. Ana- 
kephalaeos Tom. II. pag. 128—130. 150. Also this work p. 52. 53. 


who resisted the appellation of "Mother of God" as 
applied to the Virgin. It was therefore at that period 
by no means a difficult step, to transfer the divinity 
of the person of the Holy Ghost to the much honoured 
and highly favoured Mother of Jesus. Hence we find 
attempts among Christian wTiters to represent the 
Holy Ghost as oHhe feminine gender; and this being 
done, it required no very great stride of erroneous 
teaching to transfer the honour direct to the Virgin 
Mary.^* The Gnostic sects looked upon the words 
spoken on the occasion of our Lord's baptism, "This 
is my beloved son," as spoken by the Holy Ghost, 
who descended upon Christ. ^^ Simon Magus is de- 
clared to have considered his wife Helena the third 
person of the Trinity. ^ ''' Epiphanius speaks of a Jewish 
sect of the Ossenes, who held the Holy Ghost to be 
of the feminine gender. ^ ® 

In other apocryphal writings of which fragments 
are preserved, the Holy Ghost is invoked as the mother 

''■'* Long before M. we discover traces of tlie Holy Ghost as 
fitvrf(jog ■&f,og being of feminine gender; n?"! being sometimes con- 
sidered so , but "^pn always. I^oqca appears personified already 
in the canonical books of the Old Test. Prov. VIII. 22—32. but is 
frequently synonymous with nitvfiu ayto» in the Apocryphas. 
Wisd. Sol. IX. 9. Sirach I. 1. 4. 9. XXIV. 14. Wisd. Sol. I. 4. 5. 
VII. 7. 22. 

'^ "Descendit fons omnis spiritus sancti et requievit super eum 
(Jesum) et dixit illi: Fili me etc."; quoted by St. Jerome from the 
Gospel to the Hebrews. The same with Epiphanius : "Me fili in 
omnibus prophetis exspectavi te, ut venires." 

'^ Gerock's Christologie des Korans, pag. 77. 

The chief passage is however: Origen, in Joan. V^ol. IV. 
pag. 63. already quoted note 47. pag. 53. 


of the believer;?.'^" The author of the apostoHcal con- 
stitutions compares the Bishop with God the Father, 
the Deacon with the Son, and the Deaconess with 
the Holy Ghost; which shows at least a tendency in 
the same direction. The Arabic Gospel of Christ's 
infancy, — wliich if not existing in the days of Mo- 
hammed has at least drawn from the same fountains 
as he did, — invariably speaks of the mother of Jesus 
as ''the exalted divine Mary.'' She is always there 
set forth, as the object of the highest veneration, nay 
of formal adoration , in consequence of the miracles 
which she wrought upon her own authority. Under 
the circumstances now stated, what was more natural, 
than that the \ irgin Mary should assume the posi- 
tion of the Holy Ghost in the alleged Tritheism, just 
as the angel Gabriel is invariably styled, Spirit or 
Holy Spirit in the Koran. ^"^ 

8. The third member of the Christian Tritheism, 
according to the Koran, is Jesus Christ the son of 
Mary.'^^ "The Christians say, Christ is the son of 
God .... may God suppress them. How are they in- 
fatuated! They take their priests and monks for 
their Lords besides God, and Christ the son of Mar}% 
although they are commanded to worship one God 
only, there is no God but he. The curse be on those 

^^ A^'alentiuus stylos him fUjf^Q nor ^ari'Trov. The nrtv(.iix, 
aocfia was also sometimes looked upon by heretics as the sister or 
spouse of XfjKTTog. 

*« Sur. LXX. 5. LXXVIII. 37. XCVII. 4. XV. 29. XLII. 52. 
_^v or (j^JJL'l-^.. XVI. 102. XXVI. 192. 

*' (vJj-^ 1^ g^wvwAj ^^_A.tiM.tJl, Mesich Isa ben Mariam. 


whom they associate with him in his worship."*^ 
Christ's omnipotence and omniscience is denied as a 
matter of coin*se; and to worship him is idolatry. 
Christ himself is made to declare that he is not more 
than any other man or prophet;*^ he is only a ser- 
vant and need not be ashamed of it.** Jesus and 
Maiy had bodies which, requiring to be sustained by 
food, were thus proved mortal, consequently they are 
not Gods; nor could any one prevent God from de- 
stroying Christ, his mother and all the inhabitants 
of the earth. Again to suppose that Allah should 
beget children is highly irreverent nor does his all- 
sufficiency admit of any increase to his happiness; 
for his are all things in heaven and earth.*' Nor has 
he need of an assistant in his government of the 
world; and to associate any one with Allah is an un- 
pardonable crime.*® 

Whilst however Mohammed insisted upon the 
mere human personality of our blessed Redeemer, he 
suffered him to be endowed with all the power and 
authority of a divinely accredited messenger.*^ It 
was however not without imminent danger to his 

*- Sur. IX. 31. 32, to believe Christ to be God, is the mark of 
an infidel. V. 19. 

*^ Sur. V. 125. 85. XLIU. 80. III. 78. V. 81. 125. 126. 

** Slt. XLin. 58. IV. 170. XVI. 43. XXI. 7. 

*^ Sur. XXI 8. V. 19. 84. X. 67. XIX, 91. II. 117. LXXII.3. 
XXV. 2. XXXIX. 5. IV. 169. 

" Sur. IV. 169. V. 85. XVII. 110. XXV. 1—3. IV. 46. 169. 
V. 81. 

*' He was a Nabi _aj, N'^^J, and Jy^s, who commenced his 

office in the cradle. Sur. XIX. 29. IV. 169. 


system, that INIoliammed admitted certain names and 
titles to Christ, which he borrowed from the New 
Testament. He is called the Messiah,*^ but the Jews 
and Christians associated very different ideas with 
the name from what the Koran could possibly admit. 
Again, Jesus is called "the word of truth ;"*^ the 
word of God; "the word, who is called the Messiah." ^° 
This is evidently an allusion to St. John's Gospel; 
and we might expect that it would bear the same 
meaning in the Koran which it does in the New 
Testament, whence it was borrowed. As this appel- 
lation of Christ points distinctly to an extraordinary 
and Divine nature, we need not be surprised to find 
that its application has caused no small perplexity 
to Moslem divines. Again the Koran speaks of our 
Lord as the Spirit of God; and of His having been 
strengthened with the Spirit of holiness.^* All these 
terms , if they have any meaning at all , imply that 
there was something in the person of Christ, which 
no other prophet could claim; we must however re- 
member that the false prophet adopted titles from 

*^ c*-^. ?^^% Jesus, Saviour : ^s.A-wv^t, D^^''?, from ni^^, 
^. w„^j to annoint, is "the Annointed One," 6 XQiarog; and both 
the Old and New Test, plainly assert His Divine character. 

*^ "This is Jesus, the son of Mary," the word of truth , J^J 
fX-^lj concerning which they doubt." Sur. XIX. 33. 

*" "And his word, iuC^JX, which he planted into Mary. Sur. 
IV. 169. Again: ^.JUv-JI X-m*/! »juc JL*J.Xj ii5'v'C^J Sur. III. 45. 

•''• gjue _,.x, the Spirit from Him, viz., iJJI. Sur. IV. 169. 

^OJii\ ^;vJ sbjol Sur. II. 87. 254. V. 119. 


the Christians and their Scriptures without retaining 
the original sense. The Koran admits one of the 
mysteries of Christianity , in stating , that God sent 
His word into the Virgin INhiry, and yet paradoxically 
denies that the word was made flesh; whilst therefore 
the son of Mary is said to be conspicuous in this 
world and in the world to come, and to be one of 
those, who approach God to intercede, there is not 
one passage in the Koran, which alludes to the sin- 
lessness of His nature without which He could not 
effectually perform the office of intercessor. It will 
therefore be seen that the clear and unequivocal ab- 
negations of the Divinity and assertions of the mere 
humanity of the son of Mary, prevent our ascribing 
to the above titles of distinction, any other than a 
common and general meaning, very different fi"om 
that Avhich they bear in the New Testament. Mo- 
hammed's own dignity being then by no means af- 
fected by these admissions of the Koran concerning 
Christ, he could well admit Jesus to be the greatest 
prophet before him, and to be endowed with extra- 
ordinary power, without prejudice to himself; nay he 
mioht even flatter himself with the idea of crownina: 
and of perfecting the work which Jesus had com- 
menced.^^ Mohammed, in spite of his usual incon- 
sistency, was cautious to give no honour to Christ 
which might endanger his own position, though pe- 
rilous indeed was the admission that Christ was ''the 
ivord of Gocir hence the anxiety of the Moslem di- 

*^ Compare the blasphemous assumption of M. that Christ pro- 
phesied him as the Comforter. 


vines to confer the like honour on their prophet'^ 
and on his Koran. ^* The supernatural events, attend- 
ing the birth of Christ, M'hich distinguished Him 
from the rest of mankind , are carefully supplied by 
a host of miracles which are said to have accompanied 
the birth of the Arab prophet. 

9. Christ is throughout represented as the Author 
of the Gospel, including the entke body of the books 
of the New Testament, which God revealed to Him 
from heaven.'^ This Gospel or Ingeel was a con- 
firmation of the Torah. "We also caused Jesus the 
son of Mary to follow the footsteps of the prophets, 
confirming the law which was sent down before him, 
and we gave him the Gospel, containing du-ection 
and light; confirming also the law which was given 
before it, and a direction and admonition unto those 
who fear God: that they who have received the Gos- 

'^^ God decreed 50,000 years before hand that M. was to be 
the greatest prophet. Adam had the surname of Jk-^^iSS^I vol. 
father of Mohammed ; the latter was in existence before Adam and 
his name was read by him in the empyrcum before the throne of 
God; surrounded by prophetic light. M. d'Ohsson pag. 64. In the 
Pend-Nameh a poem in praise of M. we have this passage: "le 
prince du monde present et du monde futur ; les prophetes , et les 
Saints out eu recours a son intercession; la creation de ce prophete 
a etc le salut de I'univers, I'extremitc dc son doight a scpare en 
deux parties I'astre de la nuit ; que chaque instant de notre vie soit 
consacre a honorer et a bcnir mille fois sa menioire et celle de ses 
enfans et de sa race." Fundgrub. des Orients II. pag. 15. 

'''* Que le Courann est la parole de Dieu increee ; qu'il est ecrit 
dans nos libres , grave dans nos coeurs, articule par nos langues et 
entendu par nos orcilles, dans lesquelles est re^u le son de la parole, 
et non la parole ellc-meme qui est eterncUe et existante par soi." 
M. d'Ohsson i)ag. 29. 

*^ Sur. V. 119. III. 48. XIX. 29. JoyS3u!i(| being a corrup- 
tion from Evangeliuni, ivayyeXiov, 


pel might judge according to what God hath revealed 
therein; and whoso judgcth not according to what 
God hath revealed, they are transgressors. We have 
also sent down to thee the book of the Koran with 
truth, confirming that scripture which was revealed 
before it, and preserving the same safe from cor- 

There are but few allusions in the Koran to the 
doctrinal parts of the New Testament, these being 
unsuited to Mohammed's purpose in the compilation 
of his spurious creed. ^'' In the passage, "How 
many beasts are there, which provide not their food? 
It is God who provideth for them and for you, and 
he both heareth and knoweth," we recognise a mere 
imitiation of the sentiments expressed. Matt. VI. 26. 
Lu. xn. 24. Again, "Say not of a thing, I will do 
it to morroAv, except thou addest, if God will," re- 
produces the admonition of St. James in his general 
Epistle.^* An allusion to St. Paul's words as to a 
man reaping what he sowed, is found in the following 
passage, "Whoso chooseth the tillage of the life to 
come, unto him will we give increase in his tillage, 
and whoso chooseth the tillage of this world, we will 
give him the fi-uit thereof, but he shall have no part 
in the life to come."^^ 

^^ Sur. V. 54—56. m. 3. 

*^ Sur. II. 104. "Pray without ceasing," seems to refer to 1 Thess. 
V. 17. ii6ia}.ei7iT(og TiQoijtvita&f.. Also Sur. III. 58. which contains 
a comparison of Adam and Christ, might allude to 1 Cor. XV. 45. 57. 

Sur. X\Tn. 25. and James IV. 13. 15. «» O w ^ > 

*^ Gal. XI. 6—8. with Sur. XLU. 41. 


It is doubtful, as we have seen in the previous 
chapter whether the words , "Neither shall they enter 
Paradise until a camel pass through the eye of a 
needle/' are borrowed from the Rabbinical writings 
or from the New Testament; the latter however is 
more 23robable, partly on account of the more striking 
resemblance,— the Gospels having also the image ot 
the camel, — partly because it is more frequent, occur- 
ring three times in the New Testament and but once 
in the Talmudical writings where it is considerably 
altered.*''' When Mohammed enjoins his followers 
not to give alms "to ajDpear unto men" we at once 
detect a borrowing of our Lord's words on the same 
subject.^* Again among the descriptions of hell, we 
find the following passage, "and the inhabitants of 
hell-fire shall call unto the inhabitants of Paradise, 
saying, pour upon us some water," which strongly 
reminds us of the rich man's request, when in tor- 
ment. ^ ^ 

10. According to the Koran, Christ was exclu- 
sively sent to the children of Israel: "I come," the 

^0 Sur. VII. 41. with Matt. XIX. 24. Mark. X. 25. Lu. XVIII. 

24. Jtf^. , J. t-^ J '^^?j camelus, xdixrjXog; if the reading were 

xa/jiikog, J.|'»^, funis rudcns, b'2n, cable, the sense is altered, but 
the fact of M. borrowing from the Gospel still remains. 

*' Sur. 11. 272. with Matt. VI. 3. 4. on<ag ^ aov rj ikevixoavvt] 

f.v r(3 xovnno. 
I. > t 

" Sur. VU. 272. with Lu. XVI. 24. Compare also Sur. LVII. 

13: "On that day the hypocritical men and women shall say unto 

those who believe , stay for us that we may borrow some of your 

light. It shall be answered. Return back into the world and seek 

light;" — an evident allusion to Matt. XXV. 8. 9. 


Messiah is made to say, — after He was declared 'tlie 
apostle to the children of Israel,' to confirm the law 
which was revealed before me and to allow you as 
lawful, part of that which hath been forbidden you, 
and I come unto you with a sign from your Lord, 
therefore fear God and obey me." This then clearly 
shows the object of Christ's Mission to the Jews, 
who are said to have broken the covenant and put 
the Scriptures away from them. ^ ^ The Jews through- 
out the Koran are represented as frivolous trans- 
gi'essors of the law of their fathers, who had killed 
their prophets, and were cursed by David and Jesus 
the son of Mary ;^* as might be ex^Dected, it declares, 
that Christ taught all the leading dogmas of Islam- 
ism, specially the Unity of the Godhead; also that 
the children of Israel were to serve his God and their 
God, and those who associate any other with him 
are excluded from Paradise and threatened with hell- 
fire.®' Mohammed speaks of Christ as a favom^ed 
servant and prophet of God;°® yea he cedes to the 
son of Mary the honour of being the chief of all the 
prophets who appeared prior to Mohanmied, but to 
the latter alone belongs the prerogative of being the 
greatest of all divine messengers, since Abraham is 
said to have prayed for him, and he was prophesied 
in the Torah and the Gospel. ® ' 

^' Sur. in. 48. 49. Also V. 54. LXI. 6. XLIII. 61. V. 14. 17. 

" Sur. VI. 92. U. 91. IV. 154. 155. V. 97. 87. cfr. 1 Thess. 
II. 15. 

«■* Sur. XLin. 62. III. 50. V. 121. 126. V. 81. 

^^ Sur. XLIII. 30. XIX. 4. 30. III. 46. XVII. 55. II. 254. 

" Sur. n. 129. 130. LXI. 6. 


Convenient it is for the Moslem doctors to find 
a distinct prophecy of INlohammed in the Arabic 
Gospel of 8t. Barnabas, where Jesus predicts the 
coming of the Arab prophet , who would free the 
world from all error. ''^^ The interpolation of this spu- 
. rious Gospel by a Moslem hand, is too palpable to 
deserve a word of comment or argument. Still more 
so, is it to conjecture how the false prophet came to 
claim the honour of being j^redicted in the Gospel 
of St. John as the (omforter;^^ it is not improbable 

• that he derived it from his early proselytes, who, 
knowing of the promise of the Holy Ghost may pos- 
sibly have flattered their newly-acquired prophet 
by declaring it to be fulfilled in his person; hence 
the idea that Mohammed was taught by the Holy 

• Ghost, sent down ujion him. As however this pro- 
phecy does not stand in the New Testament as INIo- 

. hammed has quoted and applied it, commentators 
on the Koran maintain, that the Christians had ma- 
liciously expunged it from their Gospel; the same 
• charge is boldly made against the Christians respec- 

^^ "^'go vero, quantuiiKjue innocentein vitam in luundo trans- 
I'gi, tamcn, cum liomines me Dcum ct lilium Dei vocaverint , Deus, 
ne in die judicii olim daemonum essem ludibrium , voluit in miindo 
ignominia me afBci ab hominibus per mortem .Tudae , persuasis 
omnibus, me in cruce mortem obiissc. I'nde ista ignominia durabit 
usque ad adventum Mohamedis, qui, cum in nmndum venerit, omnes 
legi Dei credentes ab hoc errore liberavit." Fabricii Codex apocryph. 
N. T<»st. tom. II. pag. 378. 384. 

"^ Sur. LXI. 6. it is stated that Jesus prophesied of Achmed, 

tX_4.£Skl, Mohammed, Jl4.^Vx, landabilis, multa dignus; 7r((g((y.Xr;T0i 
John Xl\'. I(). XV. 26. being turned into nt{Jiy.?.vT6g, inclytus, the 
object was gained. 


ting other prophecies, said to have been extant in 
their sacred Scriptures. The parable of the labourers, 
it seems, has been overlooked by Christians, though 
considered particularly applicable to Mohammed's 
followers !^° Again the true worshippers, who neither 
worship in Jerusalem nor on Samaria's mountain are 
none others than the Mohammedans! The boldest 
and shrewdest of all the mis-applications of Scripture 
by jMoslem divines , is that of their finding a most 
flattering allusion to Mohammed in a passage which 
more than any other marks him as one of the truest 
types of Antichrist: — Mohammed is s^aid to be the 
Spirit from God who confesseth that Jesus Christ 
appeared in the flesh, that is, as a mere man, and 
not as God ! ^ * 

11. Having seen what Mohammed taught con- 
cerning Christ and what he borrowed from the cano- 
nical and apocryphal writings of the New Testament, 
it remains yet to show, what sentiments he entertained 
towards Christians. It has been satisfactorily proved, ' ^ 
that there are two distinct systems of teaching in the 
Koran; the one assuming a thoroughly peaceful, the 
other a perfectly inimical relation to Judaism and 
Christianity, as well as to all pre-existing creeds; the 
former being an act of compromise on the part of Mo- 
hammed, the latter, a violation of the pacific principle 

'" Mishcat-ul-Masabih , or a collection of the most authentic 
traditions regarding Mohammed ; from the Arabic by Capt. A. N. 
Matthews, Calcutta 1809. Vol. II. pag-. 814. 

^ ' 1 John IV. 1—3. 

'* In the article by Dr. J. A. Mohler: "Ueber das Verhaltniss 
des Islam's zum Evangelium." 1839. 


just laid down, inculcating instead, the rankest bigotry 
and cxclusiveness, and enforcing a sanguinary system 
of propagandism. Mohammed, on several occasions 
put forth the following statements: that it evidences 
a spirit of pride to assume that only one religion is 
of a saving character to the exclusion of all others, 
such an assertion implying that all nations were not 
equally the object of Divine favour; that the cause of 
the existence of various beliefs must be sought for 
in the decrees of Allah, and that it will only be dis- 
covered in the world to come, where truth alone is 
to be found; and he adds, that it was sufficient for 
Jews, Christians and Moslemin to live in accordance 
with the laws of God, respectively revealed to them, 
and to be prepared to give an account on the day of 

Mohammed accuses the Christians and Jews'^ of 
considering themselves exclusively the people of God, 
whilst they might easily gather from the judgments 
which had fallen upon them, that they were no better 
than other peojjle. It would have been easy for God 
to unite all men in one religion, but as he did other- 
wise, it naturally followed that each nation would be 
judged according to its particular religious law; and 
that it would be better for all nations to strive to 
excel each other in doinjx ffood than for unconditional 
superiority. All would return to God , who would 
explain the real cause of their differences. ^* From 

^•' "Tlio Jews and Christians say, we are the children of God 
and his beloved. Answer, why tlierefore doth he punish you for 
your sins." Sur. V. 21. 

^* "Into every one of you have "we given a law and an open 


these premises it naturally follows, that Jews and 
Christians will be judged according to the law, they 
severally possess; the Sabians also are included in 
the same class of rehgionists, who need fear no evil, 
provided only they believe in God, the last day, and 
act justly. ^^ According to the Koran then, the plu- 
rality of creeds has its origin in a divine decree, and 
each party has a right to prefer his own: a certain 
delusion on the subject being now suffered to prevail, 
which will be removed in the world to come. 

These views however being not only modified, 
but actually abrogated by other passages, we cannot 
possibly determine the relation between Christianity 
and Islamism through any conclusions which might 
be drawn from them. There are numerous passages 
in which Christianity is totally set aside , and which 
assert that all unbelievers of whatever persuasion are 
to be destroyed: ^^ no league is to be made with the 

path; and if God had pleased, he had surely made you one people, 
but he hath given you different laws , that he might try you in 
that which he hath severally given you. Therefore strive to excel 
each other in good works. Unto God ye sliall return and then will 
he declare unto you concerning which ye have disagreed." Sur. 
V. 56. 

15 "Yerily they who believe, and the Jews, Sabians and Chris- 
tians, whosoever of them believeth in God and the last day, and 
doth that which is right, there shall come no fear on them, neither 
shall they be grieved." Sur. V. 73. And Sur. XXIX. 46: "Dispute 
not with those who have received the Scriptures (\,j\.XXj* tl^') 
unless in the mildest manner, except against such as behave in- 
juriously, say: we believe in the revelation, sent down unto us and 
unto you; our God and your God is one, and unto him we are 

^^ "Kill the associating ones (Pagans and Christians) where- 
ever you find them." Sur. IX. 5. 


Scripturalists and unbelievers. The question there- 
fore is, which of these two antagonistic views expresses 
Mohammed's real meaning; incompatible as they are, 
they yet claim some attention fi-om us, for even in 
contradictions an internal connection may often be 
discovered, by which they may be rendered intelligible. 
Certain Arabian Theologians maintain, that the majo- 
rity of passages is to determine the real views of 
Mohammed; and as those occur more frequently, which 
equalize all religions, they declare that Judaism, 
Christianity and Islamism differ only in external laws 
and ceremonies! As this oj^inion however assumes 
that Mohammed's real views may be obtained by a 
mere casting up of numbers , others j^refer to ascer- 
tain which were the prophet's views in the latter part 
of his life, judging those to be the most orthodox; 
and this is certainly the more rational method of 
solving the difficulty.'^ As the dates of the 
respective Suras cannot be positively determined, 
some of the Christian apologists aver, that so long 
as INIohammed was in straitened circumstances, he 
feigned the greatest reverence for the Jewish and 
Christian religion, but as soon as his power became 
established, and his cause free from danger, he enun- 
ciated those mandates which condemn all other creeds 
and supplant his own. 

Had Mohammed /i'o^/i the heginnirtg been a con- 
summate and ambitious impostor, this reasoning would 

" "9Unil .flafam S;>ahAi SKla bcmcrft in tiofcm Siiuic C[m\ h\x\, buvdB 
(Sura IX. 5. fcieii 124 anbcrc ^Bctfc t'ci^ (ioran cntfvdftet U'tnicn." SlioHcr'i^ 
fflefanimeUe Scf^tifteu pag. 3t)5. 


be completely convincing, but as we have shown 
that he set out with honest intentions, we must 
attribute the contradictions in the Koran to his va- 
cillating state of mind at different periods of his life. 
The Arab prophet, at first, directed his attention 
solely to national objects, seeking to establish for his 
countrymen a iiationaJ Deism; he therefore only tole- 
rated Christianity, as a religion not unsuitable to other 
nations; but, carried away by enthusiasm on meetinor 
with unexpected success, his views enlarged beyond 
his own city, tribe and nation, and he began at length 
to entertain the idea that Monotheism must of ne- 
cessity, be therehgion of the whole world. ^'^ Embrac- 
ing the doctrine of the divine Unity as distinctly as 
jMohammed ultimately did, he was led to change his 
position from a national, to that of a universal prophet, 
and having comprehended this new and enlarged 
scheme, he felt that Christianity could no longer be 
co-ordinate with his own creed, but must necessarily 
take a subordinate relation to Islamism. ^^ 

In accordance with all national creeds, Moham- 
med mixed political elements to such an extent with 
his system of belief, that national and religious in- 
stitutions became scarcely distinguishable; and as in 
most national creeds there is but one head for both 

'^ In describing tlie process by which Mohammed's future 
system was developed, we merely illustrate a well known psycho- 
logical law, that the speculations regarding a future project begin 
with broad generalities and gradually take a more concise view. 

^^ M. was an idolater up to the 40*'^ year of his age. The 
religion of his nation was a mixture of Monotheism and idolatry 
and it was not without many a hard struggle, that he confessed 
the unity of the Godhead as clearly as he does in the Koran. 



religion and state, so he made himself at once, the 
executive of spiritual smd civil ^ower.^^ Again, the 
fact that Islamism was spread by the sword, can only 
be explained by its being of a national character, 
mixing religion with politics; as these were not kept 
distinct, internal conviction by argument was super- 
seded by external force. Hence to submit to Moham- 
med's jDolitical power, was equivalent to acknowled- 
ging him as a prophet; and when his religion be- 
came universal, his monarchy assumed the like pre- 
tensions, war being proclaimed against all states as 
well as against every other system of belief. Thus 
the Mohammedans in passing over the fi-ontier of 
the Peninsula to propagate their religion, with it, in- 
variably imposed their national manners and customs 
upon the conquered and converted nations, destroying 
their national jDCCuliaritics.^^ Christianity on the 
contrary, when it passed the boundaries of Palestine, 
appeared at once as a universal religion, throM'ing 
off its national character and leaving its Jewish rites 
behind. ^^ 

^° In this double capacity he ajipealed for a precedent to Moses. 

®^ The rite of circumcision, fasting in the manner required, 
being in many places, e.g. the polar regions, impracticable, and the 
Hadj to Mecca are all proofs that Islamism was calculated to be 
only a national religion. 

®^ It started as the religion of Spirit and truth, and claimed to 
be universal. Depending on its own spiritual power, it permitted 
the kingdoms of the earth to stand , leaving the national peculiar 
characteristics undestroycd, only refining ami ])iirifving them. Christ 
being Himself the Truth, had not to work out His way by experi- 
ments like fallible men, but saw the whole scope and object of His 
divine mission from the beginning; M. on the contrary, began not 
knowing where he was to end; Mohler pag. 375. he fell into mis- 


Another proof of the exchisively national charac- 
ter of Islamism, is founded in its pecuHar system of 
ethics and moraUty; universal philanthropy is not in- 
culcated in the Koran ; love or charity in its widest 
sense, is among Moslcmin, strictly circumscribed to 
their own community, their prophet having utterly 
ignored the law of universal kindness.®^ Again, the 
national custom of the "lextalionis," and the institution 
of polygamy with power to divorce at pleasure , in- 
volve principles, totally adverse to the spirit of a uni- 
versal religion. In Mohammed's personal life, those 
moral requisitions only were fulfilled, which would 
answer to a prophet of Arabia; for although he must 
be condemned as a false prophet, if brought before 
the tribunal of pure ethics, yet according to the ethics 
of Arabia, his very faults would be deemed virtues,*^* 
thus it becomes intelligible why his claims to the 
dignity of a prophet were not rejected, notwithstand- 
ing those flagrant immoralities, which the Koran 
records to his shame. 

Lastly, it does not appear from Mohammed's per- 
sonal history, that he originally desired to establish 
a catholic religion; for it will be remembered that 

takes and was driven from one extreme to the other j without after 
all finding the truth. 

^^ The fact that Moslemin are the chief promoters of slavery 
and that from among them, no voice was ever raised against it, 
proves that thej do not recognise the common brotherhood of the 
human race. 

^^ Mankind first became acquainted with pure ethics through 
the only perfect character of Christ , in whom, the ideal of a spot- 
less morality is represented to the world at large ; since as the Son 
of man He belonged to the whole of mankind, and not to any one 
nation in particular. 


a few years after he had asserted his pretensions as 
a prophet, a number of his followers were obhged to 
flee to Abyssinia, when it would naturally be expec- 
ted that, — like the primitive Christians, who under 
similar circumstances were driven from Jerusalem — 
the persecuted Moslemin would be zealous in pro- 
pagating their faith; but as no effort of the kind was 
then made, we may infer that Mohanmied had 7iot 
yet given injunctions to his followers to proselytize 
among foreigners.®^ It was not till the twentieth year 
of his Mission that we discover any trace of Moham- 
med's enlarged plans, when he sent those embassies 
to foreign potentates, to which we have previously 

Thus we see that Mohammed did not originally 
intend framing a religion for all nations, and there- 
fore looked so favourably upon Christianity that he 
even received his Jirst converts by the rite baptism, 
which mode of admission, he subsequently discon- 
tinued. Most of the distinctive features of the Mos- 
lem ceremonial, date as we have seen, from the lat- 
ter years of the Arab prophet; the same may be said 
of the most prominent doctrines of his new creed.®* 

*^ Very different was the conduct ofKatris, an officer of rank, 
when obliged to leave Arabia after the death of M. Scarcely had 
the ruler of Mazenderani assured the refugee of his protection, 
than the latter boldly desired his jjrotector, either to confess Islamism, 
or to pay tribute. Mohler pag. 380. 

**'' When Assad of Yathrab asked M. before his flight , in what 
his religion consisted , M. replied , that he taught men to worship 
one God, to requite kindness to parents, not to kill children nor 
any other person , to shun every crime . not to touch the goods of 
orphans and to keep promises. M. added no more and Assad at 
once acknowledged him as a prophet. Mohler pag. 382. 


During its early stages, Mohammed savs' no reason 
to exalt Islamisni above Christianity, but when he 
ultimately adopted the Christian doctrine of the atone- 
ment and asserted, that only those, for whom he 
should intercede with God, could obtain remission 
of sins, and that none who believe in Mohammed 
could be absolutelv condemned, then it became ne- 
cessary to subordinate Christianity to Islamisni. ^ ^ As 
soon as he claimed to be the only mediator between 
God and man, he was compelled to make his creed 
universal and to deny all further authority to Chris- 
tianity: those passages therefore which declare it 
to be of equal authority with Islamism, refer to that 
period of Mohammed's life , when he was as yet un- 
decided as to his own influence and the full extent 
of his alleged Mission; those which annul Christianity 
and every other creed, belong to the more matured 
form of his system.®^ 

12. Christians then being considered infidels or 
KafiFers, as such, are to be shunned, or fought 
against to the death. "Fight against them" is the 
divine command "until there be no more opposition, 
and the religion be wholly God's. "^^ When philo- 

'^^ It became then a principle: "La foi et I'lslaniism sont une 
seule et menie chose." M. d'Ohsson I. 54, 

^^ When M. felt persuaded that his external position was more 
exalted than that of the Founder of the Church of God, he foolishly, 
though quite logically asserted , that the internal worth of his 
tidings was likewise of far greater value, and therefore that Chris- 
tianity ought to make way for Islamism. 

»^ Sur. Vm. 3. 9. 47. IL 216. IIL 82. XLVIIL 29. Still more 
hostile: XLVU. 4: "When ye encounter the unbelievers, strike off 
their heads until ye have made a great slaughter amongst them, 
and bind them in bonds." See also IX. 4. 6. 


Mohammedan writers endeavour to modify these fierce 
denunciations of the Koran , alleging that they were 
intended to be humane and temporary, we can only 
reply that such an explanation is opposed to the en- 
tire spirit of Islamism, and has at least never yet 
been carried out. ^"^ The same spirit of hatred to 
Christians and their religion, which inspired the 
author of Islamism and those })ropagators who im- 
mediately succeeded him, has been transmitted with 
all its pristine zeal and fanaticism to the present 
generation of Moslemin. Scarcely a month passes 
in which some outrages, against the followers of 
Christ, are not recorded in the public journals of 
Christian Europe; and the greater part of the cruel- 
ties and barbarities which are committed against our 
brethren, never reach the ear of their fellow-christians 
who live under European protection. Those conces- 
sions and mitigations which Christians of the Turkish 
Empire have in later times acquired, have only been 
wrung from the Porte by the influence of Christian 

If any doubt had remained as to the sentiments 
of Mohammedans towards Christians, the recent oc- 
currences in India, Arabia, Syria and ^lorocco must 
have removed it for ever. Lest it should however 
be thought that the Indian Sepoys simply strove to 
recover their national freedom, and as patriots were 
carried beyond the point of a just resistance against 
foreign oppression, let us notice a few passages from 

^^ Tychsen: Com. soc. rcg. Gott. torn. XV. pag. 156. may here 
be consulted. 


the Koran, from which it will appear, that they simply 
carried out its precepts when perpetrating the most 
barbarous atrocities ever recorded in the annals of 
rebellion or Avarfare. "But the recompence of those, 
who fight against God and his apostle and study to 
act corruptly in the earth, shall be, that they shall 
be slain, or criicijied, or have their hands and their 
feet cut off on the opposite sides , or be banished the 
land. This shall be their disgrace in this world, and 
in the next world they shall suffer a grievous punish- 
ment."^* Again: "I will cut o^' your hands and your 
feet on the opposite sides, and I will crucify you 
alh"^^ Again: "I w^ill cast a dread into the hearts 
of the unbelievers. Therefore strike off their heads 
and strike off all the ends of their fingers. This shall 
they suflPer, because they resisted God and his aj^ostle, 
verily God will be severe in punishing. This is your 
part, taste it therefore; and the infidels shall also 
suffer the torment of hell fire."®^ In various parts 
of the Koran, war is enjoined against all non-Mosle- 
mites or Kaffers;^* but what w^e now wish to estab- 
lish is this, that the book in question taught and 
commanded those very atrocities which were com- 
mitted against Christians in the recent rebellion in 

^1 Sur. V. 38. Again Sur. VH. 121. "Then I will cause your 
hands and feet to be cut off, and after that make you all to be 

*' Sur. XXVI. 49. This passage does not refer to the Chris- 
tians directly, but it indicates, whence the Sepoys gained instruction 
in the diabolical art of torturing. 

^^ Sur. YIII. 12. Unbelievers are not to be made friends of, nor 
to be taken as allies. Sur. IV. 143. V. 62. 

^* See the entire Sura, VIII. especially 40. 57. 60—62. 66. 


India. ^^ Nor is it probable, that the history of the 
original spread of Islamism and its marvellous suc- 
cesses, after the death of its founder, Mill aflford us 
more favourable impressions touching the spirit of 
this terrible and wide-spread scourge. 



"Loose the four angels which are bound in the great river Euphra- 
tes; and the four angels were loosed, which were prepared for 
an hour, and a day, and a month and a year for to slay the third 
part of men. And the number of the army of the horsemen were 
two mi/riads of myriads: and I heard tlie number of them." 
Rev. IX. 14— 21. 

The rapidity of the spread of Mahommed's creed 
is, in the annals of propagandism, without parallel. 
In the twenty-first year of the Hedgra, the crescent 
floated over an extent of territorv as wide as that of 
the Roman eagle; and the Saracen empire may be 
said to have extended its dominion over more king- 
doms and countries in eighty years than the Roman, 

^* Were the celebrated " Testanientum et pactiones inter Moham- 
medem et Christianae fidei mltores" (Paris 1630 and JTanib. 1690) 
a mni'ine document, which it is not,' — it would only be a "snare 
and delusion" after the above teaching of the Koran. Compare 
Reland: Diss, de jure militari Mohammedanorum contra Christianos 
bollum geventium;^ Institutioncs juris Mohamniedani circa bellum 
contra cos, qui ab Islamo sunt alioni. ed. Kosenmiiller, Lips. 1825. 
The Turks now com])lain that Jeddah was bombarded for having 
simply fulfilled the jirecepts of the Koran. 



in 800.^^ In Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Asia Minor, 
North-Africa and other countries, the Koran was in- 
troduced at the point of the sword. Thence its con- 
tents were promulgated eastward to the frontiers of 
India and China; westward to the shores of the Atlan- 
tic ocean ; and northward to the banks of the Oxus 
and Jaxartes, reaching to the fi'ozen borders of the 
Caspian Sea, in an incredibly short space of time. 

1. In twelve years the whole of Arabia had em- 
braced Islamism; there was indeed some opposition 
yet to overcome, but the chief work was accomplished. 
The Koreishites, who at one time contemplated re- 
turning to the religion of their ancestors, were dis- 
suaded by Sohael; ^' and the rest of the discontented 
Arabs, who had been tempted to rebellion by the 
rival prophet Moseilama, and roused by the recollec- 
tion of that much-loved independance which now 
seemed lost for ever, were speedily subjected by the 
sword of the ferocious Khaled. With a view to di- 
vert the minds of the people, Abubeker, the first 
Kahph, declared war against all nations, especially 
against the Emperor of Constantinople and the "great 

'•'^ "SBic eine ver5e()reiibe ('<(amiiu brad) X^i^^M) bie neuc (iUauBcu^form 
iiiit un>viberfie{)lirf)er, 9(((c£i i^ernid^teiicor @eiva(t Ijervn^r au^ ben SCiiftcu 
Slraticng, itnb in jedenfad) cierinc^erer 3«'tt, aU bie OJinnet ^^orbem ^nt 5hif; 
ririitnnci tdreg 9BeUreid^eg hcinxft liattcn, ivarcn bie i^olfcr von bcr cfiinffis 
fc^cn 2)iauer bie jn ben Sdulen bet^ ^crfu(et^, v^om C^afpifriien Sieerc bio jnm 
9ligeic bcr J^errfrfrnft be^ Setam ober borfi ber ®cnmlt feiner a3efenner unter; 
irorfen," 5)>rpf. !I:o(linc|er\^ '-gKufiammeb'g 9ieligion", pag. 5. Ockley, Hist. 
of the Sarac. Vol. I. pag. 315. 

^^ Sohael addressed them in these words: "Ye men of Mecca, 
will ye be the last to embrace Islamism, and the iirst to aban- 
don it?" 


king of Persia ," at that time the two most powerful 
monarchs of the East. 

Abubeker pubhshed a proclamation to the Arab 
tribes, encouraging them to join the army which he 
proposed sending to S}Tia, to fi'ee that country from 
infidel dominion.^® Accompanying the assembled 
host on foot for a considerable distance from Medina, 
the Kaliph gave them a few parting injunctions®^ 
and dismissed them with his blessing. The assault 
was impetuous, but Sergius the Byzantine commander 
resolutely maintained his ground in Syria, till the 
country was opened to the Arabs by the conquest of 
Bostra. Another division of Greek troops was con- 
quered near Gaza, and amidst the treachery and in- 
ability of the Greek generals , the cowardice of the 
soldiers and the discontent of the inhabitants, the 
Moslem army made rapid progress in the conquest 
of the country. During this expedition Abubeker 
died, and Omar who was with the army, was no- 
minated his successor. One of his first acts was the 
conquest of Damascus, in after ages, one of the three 

^^ "In the name of the most merciful God, to the rest of the 
true believers : peace and happiness , grace and blessing from God 
upon you. I laud the Most High God, and prav for his prophet 
Mohammed. It is known to you tliat I intend sending the true be- 
lievers to Syria to take that land from the hands of the unbelievers, 
and I make known to you that it is an act of obedience to God to 
fight for religion." 

^^ "Keep yourselves from injustice and oppression, said he to his 
generals, in conducting the battles of the Lord; fight like men 
without wavering, but defile not the victory by the blood of women 
and children. Destroy no palm-tree, burn no corn-fields ; what ye 
have promised keep faitlifully; spare all except the shorn crowns, 
(the monks) for they belong to the kingdom of Satan." 


holy cities of the Mohammedans. But the battle which 
decided the fate of Spia, was fought near the lake of 
Genezareth, whilst Khaled shouted to his soldiers, 
"Paradise is before, and death and hell are behind 
you!" Three times the Arabs gave way before the 
enemy, and three times they were driven back into 
the fight amidst the reproaches and castigations of 
their wives, who, being armed with bows and arrows, 
fought in the rear with desperate courage; and the 
result was the utter defeat of the Byzantine army. ^ 

Jerusalem capitulated upon easy terms , yielding 
her neck to the yoke of Mohammedan tyranny which 
she has born to the present hour; and Omar, whose 
name has been handed down by a Mosque, called 
after him, and built upon the very site of the ancient 
temple of Jehovah, entered the holy city, riding on 
a camel in mean attire, a wooden drinking-vessel 
being fastened to his side, a bag of dates before and 
one of barley behind him: such was the stern simph- 
city of the first Kaliphs; such also the just retribu- 
tion upon the sacred city of the Jews, whose corrupt 
teaching had furnished the false prophet with so large 
an amount of error in the compilation of the Koran ! 

2. From Jerusalem, Omar wrote to, one ol 
his generals, who was on his way to Egypt, that if 
still in Syria, he should return at once on the receipt 
of the letter, but if he had crossed the boundary he 

* The proclamation of the Moslem army was to this effect: 
"150,000 enemies are killed, 40,000 are made prisoners, and of 
the faithful 4030 have perished , to whom God had decreed the 
honour of martyrdom. Allah has made us the lords of their country, 
their riches and their children." 


slioiild proceed depending on the help of Allah and 
his brethren. Amrii received this epistle whilst en- 
camping near Gaza, but in spite of its contents, pro- 
ceeded towards Egypt until the tents were fairly 
pitched beyond the boundary of Palestine, when, col- 
lecting his officers, he inquired the name of the sta- 
tion and reading his instructions aloud to them, added 
that he was ready to comply with the commands of 
Omar. After a siege of thirty days, the army carried 
Pelusium, the key of Egypt. Amru then marched 
against the m\Q\G\\t Memjyhis, and after a seven months 
siege, the Moslem army stormed BalniJon which was 
situated in the suburbs of Memphis. Bnhop Ben- 
jamin submitted to the invaders with the whole com- 
munity of the Coptic Church, and paying poll-tax, 
secured to themselves their property and liberty of 
conscience. Alexandria was most bravely defended 
during fourteen months by the Melchites, but the 
noble city surrendered A. D. 640 after 23,000 Arabs 
had fallen before her walls. Amru was made prisoner, 
but owing to an artifice of his slave was not recognised 
and so escaped. 

Upon the fall of Alexandria, Amru wrote to Omar 
his master: "I have conquered the great city of the 
West; it is impossible to specify its manifold riches, 
and I must be satisfied to mention, that it contains 
4000 palaces, 4000 baths, 400 places of pleasure 
and amusement 12,000 shops, selling victuals, and 
40,000 Jews paying tribute." When the general 
asked Omar, at the request of the philosopher, John 
PhilojDonus, whether he would consent to his sjjaring 


the Library, the Kaliph is said to have replied, "If 
the books of the Greeks agree with the Koran, then 
they are superfluous and need not be preserved, if 
not, they are dangerous and must be destroyed."^ 
The conquest of northern Africa wsls fairly com- 
menced by Amru. In Cyrenaica or Cyrene, and in- 
deed on the whole of the southern shores of the 
Mediterranean sea, the Arabs met with but little re- 
sistance, for recognising in the inhabitants, people 
of the same stock, the introduction of the religion 
and power of the Saracens, was greatly facilitated. 
Amru sent an embassy of the natives to Omar who 
received them kindly and acknowledged them as 

Nor was the scheme of subjugating Persia aban- 
doned by the successors of Mohammed; whilst Amrii. 
was engaged in the West of Arabia, Khaled turned 
to the East and made fearful progress ; Omar however 
did not live to see the result of the enterprise as re- 
gards Persia itself, being assassinated by a Persian 
in a mosque at Medina, A. D. 644.^ At this period 

^ This cruel less of some of the best treasures of the world by 
Moslem fanaticism cannot be suiBciently deplored ; especially as 
regards Manuscripts of the Holy Scriptures and the writings of the 
early Church. It is not however likely that much was left of the 
celebrated Library of the Ptolemys. The 400,000 volumes in the 
Museum in that part of the city, called Bruchion , were burned 
when Julius Caesar besieged Alexandria, but this loss was partially 
restored by Antoninus, who presented Cleopatra with a library of 
parchment. The 300,000 vols in the temple of Serapion, were de- 
stroyed in the 4"^ century under the Emperor Thcodosius, when a 
fanatical mob of Christians stormed the temple. 

^ During his Kaliphate the foundation of the Saracen empire 
was laid upon a broad basis: 36,000 cities, were taken and 4000 
churches and temples destroyed! 


innumerable Christians apostatised, many from fear, 
others from ignorance and some embraced Ishimism 
voluntarily;* those who remained faithful were ex- 
posed to shame and persecution. When Khaled en- 
tered Persia he said to his warriors, "If we wished 
not to fioht for the cause of God, and were only bent 
upon seeking our own interest, we should still be 
anxious to conquer these provinces, leaving distress 
and hunger henceforth to others."' Irak or Aif.vjria 
was subdued and plundered, Bussora occupied, the 
Euphrates together with the Gulph of Persia fell into 
the hands of the Arabs; Ktesijjhon or INIadani with 
Faristan , whither the king of Persia had fled , were 
placed under Saracen domination.^ 

3. The successor of Omar was the weak and 
aged Othomai} , but his career was cut short being 
assassinated soon after his accession to the Kaliphate. 
The Ommmjades, who were the chief promoters of 
the rebellion and the murder of theKaliph, being 
headed hy Moavyia or Movia, now accused ^1/i of the 
crime. In spite of this accusation Ali was appointed 
to the Kaliphate,'' but is said to have accejDted it 
with reluctance, doubtless fearing so powerful a rival 

* Tlie Christian writer Elmacin states: that there was also a 
Toluntary influx of Pagans, Magians, Jews and Christians. 

■' Taberistanensis Annales reguni atque legatorum Dei. (Ed. 
Kosegartcn, Gryphisvald 1833.) II. p. 25. 

^ In Ktesiphon a booty was raised which has been estimated 
by Arab historians to have amounted to some 3000 millions of pure 
metal. This naturally kindled the zeal of Moslem jjropagandisni. 

^ Three times he had been passed over, and even now Ayesha 
sought to prevent his election. 


asMovia, The latter, who happened to have Ayesha's 
influence on his side, took possession of most of the 
Persian provinces, but notwithstanding he was com- 
pletely defeated in a fearfulbattle with Ali, — in which 
Ayesha was made prisoner, and magnanimously given 
up, — INfovia gained the ascendency, and was made 
Kaliph though destitute of all claim to the dignity. 
Ali was assassinated at Kufa, and his eldest son, 
Hassan died of poison atlNIedina, given to him by his 
own \\ife at the instigation ofMovia;* not long after, 
his brother Hossein also fell before his enemy, being- 
pierced with three and thirty wounds. But neither 
the fame , nor yet the house of Ali was extinguished 
by the death of his two sons; for although the Ome- 
yades were victorious for the time and numbered four- 
teen rulers, many of the faithful were attached to the 
original line of succession. Amongst those who ac- 
knowledge Ali , as the legitimate successor of the 
prophet, the Persians stand foremost, and we notice 
it as one of the chief points of difference between 
the Shiites and Sonnites. 

To avoid needlessly wearying the reader with de- 
tails of horror and bloodshed, connected with the 
further propagation of Islamism, we hasten to its in- 
troduction into Europe. It was during the twenty 
years reign of Movia, the usurper, that Sicily was 
completely subdued, and Constantinople endured one 
of its long and heavy sieges; but the hostile fleet of 

® Hossein his brother swore to revenge his death, but the dying 
man replied, "0 brother, life in this world consists only of transitory 
nights, let him go till he and I meet before Allah." 



the Saracens being destroyed by the celebrated Greek 
fire, the siege was raised for some time. More for- 
tunate was Movia's army in Afi'ica than before the 
walls of the Byzantine capital ; one of his generals ^ 
marching through the desert of Barke and passing 
victoriously throufih the country of the Moors, hoisted 

• O ft ' 

the standard of Islamisni and there established Mos- 
lem supremacy. From the year A. D. 697. under 
Movia's successors, we may consider North-Africa the- 
home of Islamism; — Christianity, which once flou- 
rished in that country, having, alas been completely 

4. The Saracen empire obtained its greatest ex- 
tension under the Kaliph TF'a/^W, who succeeded his fa- 
ther Abdelmalek A.D. 705. In his efforts to propagate 
the Koran in the West, Walid derived the greatest 
assistance from Mum, the Governor of North-Afi*ica. 
Tarik, one ofMusa's subordinate officers, being invited 
^0. by count Julian to assist him against Roderich, king 
of the western Goths, readily complied, and landed on 
the rock of Gibraltar, or Gebel elTarik. Roderich met 
Tarik near Cadiz with a host of about 1 00,000 strong, 
but after a battle of a week's duration, this immense 
army was dispersed and Roderich lumself drowned in 
the Guadalquivir. ^° One23rovince of Spain after another 

^ Akbo Ben Nafi beholding- the Atlantic Ocean in the harbour 
of Asfi and elated by a succession of victories , urged his liorsc into 
the surging waves, exclaiming, "Great God if my power was not 
limited by this sea, I should proceed to unknown empires of the 
West to preach the unity of thy holy name and to exterminate 
with the sword those rebel nations , that worship other Gods be- 
side thee !" 

*° The Saracen host consisted of 12,000 men. "How should one 


now became speedily subdued, and for 800 years the 
country remained under the dominion of the Saracens. 
Meanwhile, Musa, who had previously obtained per- 
mission from the Kaliph to conquer Andalusia, fol- 
lowed Tarik, and instead of rewarding him for his 
glorious achievements, actuated by jealousy, called 
him to account, caused him to be scourged and cast 
into prison. Musa now conceived the idea of de- 
stroying the new kingdoms oHhe Franks and Louqo- 
bardians, of passing through Germany, taking Con- 
stantinople by land and then retiring to Mecca for 
the rest of his days : but whilst one day mustering 
his army, a message arrived from Damascus to request 
his return to Syria. On his arrival, he was publicly 
scourged like a criminal by command of Kaliph So- 
loman, Walid's newly appointed successor, and sent 
to Mecca, where he died of a broken heart. Brave 
Tarik ended his days among the slaves, which crowded 
the effeminate court of the Kaliphs at Damascus. 
How diff'erent their luxury from the austere simplicity 
of the first Kaliph Omar, whose daily fare was barley 
bread, a few dates and water, whose royal robe con- 
sisted of an old cloak, and wdio was not seldom dis- 
covered by his generals sleeping upon the steps of a 
Mosque among beggars! Solomon least of all seems 
to have followed the abstemious habits of Omar; 
whilst preparing for a fi-esh attack on Constantinople 
he died suddenly of a fit of indigestion. ^ * 

chase a thousand to flight , except their Rock had sold them , and 
the Lord had shut them up !" Deut. XXXII. 30. 

According- to Abulfeda he ate two baskets of eggs and figs, 


Althoiigli deprived of Miisa's counsel and energy, 
the Saracen army did not abandon the plan of subduing 
the whole of Europe; crossing the Pip-enees, it entered 
Gaul under Abderrachman with a force of 400,000 
men, spreading consternation throughout the woods of 
Allemania. Here everything gave way before it ; having 
crossed the Rhone it wasted the country, burned houses 
and Churches, and carried the women into slavery. In 
this emergency, Charles Martel, son of Pepin, gathered 
together the scattered forces of the empire, and be- 
tween Tours and Poitiers the great question was to 
be decided, whether the Koirm or the Bible was to 
be the future rule and portion of Europe. After the 
two armies had faced each other for seven days, one 
Saturday evening the Saracen host rushed upon the 
army of Christian warriors, as if sure of victory; but 
steady like a wall stood the iron-harnessed forces of 
the Franks. After much fearful bloodshed, which 
led to no decision, the giant-like Austrasian warriors 
rushed forward; their large battle-swords doinor terri- 
ble execution, and Abderrachman himself, falling 
before them, the fate of the invading army was de- 
cided. Some 375,000 Arabs remained slain on the 
field, and from that time, A. D. 732 the wave of 
Saracen conquest appeared to be broken and steadily 
to retire from Europe. 

5. Whilst these mifjhty efforts were beinff made 
by the Saracens to establish and maintain their re- 
concluding his repast with marrow and sugar. On one of his pilgrim- 
ages to Mecca he consumed at one meal, 70 pomegranates, a kid, 
6 fowls and a large quantity of grapes from Tayefl 


ligion and political supremacy in the West, another 
army penetrated eastward into Asia, pushing forward 
as far as China; but here their progress was stayed 
by means of bribes from the Emperor. Returning to 
India they founded vast empires on the shores of the 
Indus and Ganges, which for a long period were 
strongholds of Islamism. As a fresh success, deserves 
to be mentioned the restoration of the Kaliphate to 
the house of Ali;^^ and with the accession of the 
legitimate line, a period commenced in which litera- 
ture was cultivated among the Saracens to a con- 
siderable degree. Th^ empire was however unable 
long to support its colossal weight, and gradually 
became Hke a ''house divided against itself:" the 
governors of the provinces in Africa, Spain and the 
East assuming the rank of independent princes, their 
respective feuds and jealousies so weakened the Mos- 
lem dominion, that had not the Christian powers 
been utterly destitute of vigour, they might then have 
given it a fatal blow. ^^ 

Fresh energy how^ever was infused into the Mos- 
lem community by the accession of the Turks.'* 
After this very ancient tribe had descended from 

** The Abbassides re-assumed the Kaliphate A. D. 750, and the 
Omayades lost, on one occasion, during the struggle 600,000 men. 

*•' The Kaliphate being now split in two, one of the contending 
Kaliphs resided at Bagdad, the other at Cairo. 

'* The Turcomans or Turks derive their name from a certain 
founder called Turk, which reminds us of the Targitus or Targitaos 
of Herodotus IV. 5. and 'izyyr, Togarmah Gen. X. 3. In Ezek. 
XX\ II. 14. XXXVIII. 6. the name of this northerly tribe is written 
n^-'.JT, The Armenians also call themselves: "the house Torgum". 


Altai, they inhabited the fruitful steppes of the high- 
lands of Asia, between Thi])et, Siberia and the Aral 
Sea, which are still known by the name of Turkistan. ^^ 
0(jhus-Khaii, the founder of the nation, originated 
three great dynasties, the Ot/huses, the Seltschuks 
and the Osmans. The Turks are however historically 
celebrious only since the sixth century, when they 
appear as the enemies of the Parthians, Saracens 
and Romans, by whom they were alternately opposed ■ 
and flattered. jMohammed Ebn Inbriel having sought 
their aid against the Indians and Babylonians , they 
accordingly seized upon Pt'l'sia, made themselves 
masters of the Grecian empire, and established the 
seat of their government at Iconium or Nice. *^' The 
Turks, in their turn, were overrun by Mongol and 
' Tartar tribes , also of Scythian origin , who coming 
from the shores of the Caspian Sea, passed over 
Persia, Armenia and Asia Minor, laying the founda- 
tion of the empire of the Ottomans or Turks , pro- 
perly so called. * ' It is remarkable that both the 

'* "Uratt ifl bag SSclf bcr !?urfeii , beren norfi ticrrfrf)cnbcr 3lvcii^ bcr 
C^mnncn. S^om 9[(tai, i()rem llrfi^ , (leraK^'flici^en, belvofinten fie bag 
frucfjtbarc 2ti'VVci'I*i»b -!pod;afieii 5iviftl)cn liibct, 2ibiricu itiib bcm 5JraI- 
fee, bag nadi ifincn ben ?Jamcu liirfiftan fu()rt." i\ .^ammcrg ®efcf)idjtc 
beg Ogmanifdjeu Dtetdjeg. 

*^® Mosheim Vol. II. pag. 51. 52. also: Veneniae Institut, Hist. 
Eccl. torn, V. pag. 150. 157. 

*^ Othman , Osman or Ottoman is the founder of it. The first 
of those barbarous deeds , which for 500 years wore perpetrated 
against the Christians y was that of Osman, when he commanded 
the brother of Kelanus to be eviscerated, v. Ilammor adds: "?]pd) 
jf^t ()ci§t bte StfUc bag j^intenbe j^clb beg augi'^clvcit'ctcn ><?unbeg." He 
also killed his uncle , who contradicted him. The Ottoman empire 
was founded 1307. 


Turks, and their successors, tlie Mongols and Tar- 
tars, voluntarily embraced Islamism, from the very 
people whom they conquered.*^ The Mongols and 
Tartars had slaughtered in Irak alone, 24,000 Mos- 
lem doctors, ^'^ and destroyed the Kaliphate ; but after 
their conversion, they founded the Ottoman empire, 
which for so long a period constituted the right arm 
of Islamism. 

The end of the Byzantine empire was now fast 
approaching; Ainurath, who came across to Europe 
extended his conquests and made Adrianople his ca- 
pital. Bajesid, who commenced his reign with fratri- 
cide, obtained a signal victory over the emperor 
Sigismnnd, who, at the instigation of the Pope, had 
undertaken a crusade against the Turks. Whilst the 
enterprizing Sultan was rejoicing over his success, 
and threatening shortly to feed his horses on the 
high altar in the Church of St. Peter's at Rome, he 
was suddenly recalled into Asia, to oppose Timur or 
Tamerlin, who had appeared against the Turks with 
800,000 men, with the intent of re-establishino" the 
Mongolian empu'e. Bajesid was overthrown and had 
to follow Timur's army in a portable iron cage. Yet 
the Turks recovered under Mohammed, and Amu- 
rath II. left nothing to the Greek Emperor but Con- 
stantinople, the cajDital, which was not long destined 
to remain in his hands: for Mohammed II, a wild 

^^ Here also it was true: "Graecia cajHa ferum yictorem cepi't." 
Seneca declared respecting the influence of the Jews upon the 
Romans: "Victoribus victi leges dederunt." See, True and false 
Relig. Vol. I. pag. 140. 

'^ Ebn Batuta's travels by Lee pag, 89. 


and passionate young man of twenty-one years of age, 
resolving to conquer it, besieged the city by land and 
sea, and took it after a few months. ^° The Moham- 
medan empire now became the terror of Italy, Hun- 
gary and Germany for many centuries. Meanwhile, 
Timnr extended his conquests to India; and the 
Mohammedans in that country have recently proved 
themselves worthy sons of this monster tyrant, to 
whom they are indebted for the Koran. In order to 
quell a revolution Timur piled \i\) 2000 living human 
beings with mortar, in layers like bricks, in order to 
construct a tower of human bodies. He caused the 
inhabitants of a Christian town to have their heads 
tied between their feet and to be buried alive in 
graves, which, to prolong the torture, were first only 
covered with boards. When Bagdad was taken, he 
struck off 90,000 heads and heaped them up in a 
tower-like shape. He died A. D. 1405, seventy-one 
years old, leaving as monuments of shame, devastated 
countries, smoking cities and skull-pyramids. 

6. We have now seen that Islamism, as a rule, 
never extended its boundaries by means of instruction 
and conviction. The heretical sects indeed, which 
rose in the second century, had recourse to this peace- 
able and rational method of conversion, and their 
Missionaries or Dais sought to win the orthodox 
members with indefatigable zeal and perseverance. 

^^ The inhabitants mot tlie assault with desperate resistance; 
a chain, drawn across the harbour, was of good service to the 
Greeks; but the storming of the city, in which the Emperor was 
killed, decided its fate: the public buildings were spared and the 
beautiful Church of St. Sophia was turned into a Mosque. 


In the conversion of Kajf'ers however, this was an 
exception, which only proves the rule; for instance 
it is related that the inhabitants of the Maldive is- 
lands were converted by an Arab of Magharib, ^ ^ but 
this man not being a Missionary, merely took ad- 
vantage of the readiness of the king and the favour- 
able circumstances in which he was placed, to intro- 
duce his creed. It was always considered sufficient 
in the eyes of Moslemin to send a demand requiring 
a town or an army to embrace Islamism, if this was 
not complied with, the disobedient were forthwith 
treated as infidels, wdiose hearts were hardened by 
divine decree. ^^ Those peaceful conversions which 
occurred among the Turks and Mongol tribes, it must 
be remembered, took place only after the warlike 
zeal of the Saracens had spent itself. 

The same exception to the general practice may 
be traced in the peaceful conversions which w^ere ef- 
fected in the interior of Africa. £JbnBatuta tr3i\ersed 
the great desert and found Islamism widely propa- 
gated in Sudan and 31ellt.^^ In Bornu the creed of 
Mohammed reigns in its most bigotted form : whoso- 
ever breaks the fast of Ramadhan by taking a drop 
of w^ater is scourged to death and women of lewd 

-' Travels of Ebn Batula (1352) transl. by Lee pag. 180. 

^^ Evidences are never thought of except those arising from 
the beauty of the Koran , which is inappreciable to foreigners. 
"3n ten Satibern, in Uielcfteu bei SD^oelcniifrfie ganiitif^mue nccfe am uiciiigfteit 
c^efdnvdc^t ift, iinrb eg fogar fitr eiu aScrbrfd^en cv'()altni, ctnen (S^riften 
Slralnfdf) ^w IcBren , unb ircUtc cin (^remi'er cine *JWofrfiee betretcn , urn fidi 
burd) bic bcrt ftattfinbcnben ®ct'otc unb relic^iofon 5?ortrds5e jii belelnen, fo 
h?urbe ct ba§ I'eben s>ern.nrfen." !I;otttno;er pag. 17. 

" Ebn Batuta by Lee pag. 233—241. 


character were liung.^* In Sudan and Hussa the 
great kingdom of the Felatahs, and in the kingdoms 
of Ghana, Tokrur Bussa, Bevum, Wawa and Itiatna 
we have hkewise Mohammedan rehgion and customs 
prevaihng. ^^ It is also the estabhshed religion in 
Timbnctn.^^ A remarkable instance is found in the 
history of the il/rt^it/mgo-land , north east of Sierra- 
Leone. A century ago, a few jNIohammedans settled 
in that country, they established schools in which 
Arabic and the Koran were taught, a comnnmity was 
formed which increased, and after some time the 
whole country fell into their power. ^^ Nor is this a 
singular instance: none but those wdio have witnessed 
the missionary zeal of the modern Arab merchant, 
would believe what efforts are still being made to 
proselytize the Pagans in the interior of Africa; 
every year fresh tribes are added to the Moslem com- 
munity. ^^ The Galla tribes are converted one by 
one ; and in Malabar, the Mohammedans purchase or 
procure children of the lower classes to bring them 
up in the "true faith". War and bloodshed then are 
the means by which the Koran is generally propa- 
gated, but when power is wanting or policy dictates 

^* Narrative of travels and discoveries in North and Central 
Africa, by Denhani, Clapperton and Oudncy, pag. 103. 

^•'' Journal of an expedition to explore the course of the Niger, 
by Richard and John Lander. 

"^^ Park's Travels into the Interior of Africa. 1817. Chap. TI. 

^^ Sec Report of the directors of the Sierra Leone Comp. in 
Wiiiterbottom's account of the native Africans near Sierra-Leone. 
1810. Vol. 1. 

^*^ This the author may confidently assert from his own ob- 
servation on the African coast. 


another method, it is peaceabl)' effected in opposition 
to its avowed principles and character. 

7. The success then of Ishimism, was great and 
beyond all measure surprising. With the exception 
of Spain, it has never yet been suppressed in any 
country where it had taken root; on the contrary, as 
it is almost the only creed besides Christianity, which 
proselytizes, it makes perhaps more converts than 
all the others put together. There are at this day, 
at least three Mohammedan empires, Turkey, Persia 
and Morocco. In India, the Pagans are in proportion 
to the Mohammedans, as eight to one. If not in 
numbers, yet certainly in territory it preponderates over 
Christianity. To give anything like a correct estimate 
of the numbers of its professors seems to be impos- 
sible. One thing only appears certain from more 
recent calculations, viz. that the statistical tables 
which have been carefidly constructed from the ma- 
terials, which were formerly accessible, are far below 
the truth. Considering the great progress which Is- 
himism has made in the interior of Africa, and the 
mystery which still hangs upon that unhappy con- 
tinent we cannot assume a smaller number than from 
140 to 180 millions of Moslemin. In India alone we 
have 15,000,000 of Mohammedans, so that it may 
well be said, that the Queen of Great Britain has 
more Moslem subjects than the Sultan of Constan- 
tinople. Here then is an immense body of fellow-men 
and fellow-subjects , little thought of, and only re- 
membered, when they become a thorn in our side ! 
8. We shall now brieflv examine the causes of 


this rapid success, as well as of the permanence of 
the Mohammedan creed. It may first be noticed that 
the disciples of INIohammed appeal to the startling 
success of this impostm-e, as the grand evidence of 
its truth, and the enemies of Christianity have taken 
advantage of this circumstance to depreciate the evi- 
dence arisino- in its favour from the marvellous sue- 
cess of the Gospel. With this view no pains have 
been spared to render the analogy, which partially 
exists between them complete , by a laboured com- 
parison of all the points touching their origin and 
promulgation.^® The folly of the attempt and the 
weakness of such a comparison could only be over- 
looked by dishonest and disingenuous minds. Some 
have represented the success of Islamism as the ful- 
filment of the blessing, promised to Abraham for 
Ishmaels seed.^^ This line of argument is pursued 
by the Mohammedans themselves, wdio thus seek to 
establish their creed upon the foundation of a divine 
promise, and this alone ought to have prevented 
Christian men from adopting it. Where no spiritual 
promise was given, there can be no fulfilment of a 
spiritual character. The promise to Ishmael implied 
a numerous posterity, including twelve princes, which 
was a mere temporal blessing; ^^ whilst the prophecy 

"^^ The obscure rise, the irresistible jjiogress, the rapid and 
wide ditlusioii of both creeds liave been adduced and dwelt upon, 
in order to level the claims of the Gospel and the gratuitous as- 
, sumptions of the Koran to the same standard. 

^" This is the perverted scope of Mr. Forster's large work: 
"Mohaninicdanisni unveiled." Vol. II. 

b--i> "'yh vr.h;. T'V"^ £ij'">^-. "'"^K ^"^ ""^'n "ii<^^""*f^^ Gen. 
XVU. 20.' 


concerning him defined his character and that of his 
descendants.^^ To acknowledge the f'ulfihnent of a 
promised blessing in Islaniism, is to admit it to be 
a true religion; it may be the fulfilment o{ prophecy, 
but that is essentially different from the fulfilment 
of a promise. Is the creed of Mohammed the actual 
fulfilment of a promise to Abraham, then it is of ne- 
cessity a divinely revealed religion. But to recognise 
more than the temporal fulfilment of a temporal pro- 
mise is to confound the flesh with the Spirit, and 
prosperity in this world with the blessings of the life 
to come. 

Whilst we repudiate the notion of the success 
of Islamism being the fulfilment of a divine pro- 
mise, we do not deny that it w\as permitted to 
grow and flourish, in order to accomplish the myste- 
rious designs oi Divine Providence; since God often 
permits the success of those actions and the spread 
of those opinions, which it is contrary to His holy 
nature to approve. Svccess therefore in the propaga- 
tion of a creed is not necessarily demonstrative of 
its being of divine origin. In God's providential ad- 
ministration one evil is frequently the antidote of 
another. Islamism belongs to the class of means, 
which Divine Providence employs to counteract the 
greater of two evils , until the final triumph of good 
is achieved, and the ultimate separation of good and 

" It was implied in Abraham's prayer, that Ishmael should 
partake of God's mercy and blessing, but this could only be granted 
through Isaac and his seed, in whom all the families of the earth 
were to be blessed; for if all nations were to be blessed in the 
seed of Isaac, why should Ishmael be excluded .'' 


evil can be safely effected; it being a fixed principle 
of God's dealings to let the tares and the wheat grow 
together till the harvest.^' In this case, a smaller evil 
is tolerated for a time, to prevent a greater. In a 
period and in j)laces where pure and undefiled religion 
could not through unbelief and darkness vet be re- 
ceived, a mixture of good and evil was suffered to 

There is clearly much inconsistency in the anxiety 
of Christian writers to escape fi'om the recognition 
of a providential interference in the rise and progress 
of Islamism. All commentators seem to agree, that 
its rise had been predicted in Holy Scripture; to deny 
therefore the overruling providence of God in bring- 
ing about an event which has been the subject of 
prophecy, and to ascribe it solely to the independent 
operation of human causes, is to take the government 
of the world out of the hands of God. ^* Wlien Da- 
niel e. g. foretells the fate of the four great empires 
of the world, or when Isaiah speaks of Cyrus, as the 
servant of God, we do not hesitate to admit the 
actual guidance of Divine Providence in shaping the 
career of those empires, or the special act of raising 
up instruments to execute His judgments. To account 
for the efforts made to explain Islamism from mere 

ft'/' ToJ y.uifjM rov ■dirfjumov ^'(jcJ rotg '^HJiarccis k. t. A. Matt. XIII. 
30. Turn crit perfecta scparatio. 

'* This view coulH not have been entertained, had it been con- 
sidered that if carried to the extreme it would impugn prophecy 
itself, making tlic word of God a predictor of events , over which 
the Author of that word had no special control. 


natural causes, we must take it for granted that those 
who make them, deem it essential to the interests of 
Christianity to ignore the notion of Divine interposi- 
tion in the production of any results independent of 
revealed religion. ^^ . 

9. We have already adverted to the condition 
of the Church at the time when Islamism appeared; 
and it is indeed a subject which cannot be sufficiently 
urged with a view to vindicate the dealins^s of God 
and to prove that just and true are the ways of the 
King of saints. After the Nicene council, the Eastern 
Church was engaged in perpetual controversies, which 
gave rise to the most bitter feelings between those 
who were commanded to love each other as brethren. 
The Arian Emperor Constantius^^ made himself no- 
torious by confounding pure and undefiled religion 
with anile superstition, and in exciting disputes upon 
intricate and abstruse subjects. This grew still worse 
imder Justinian, who, not to be excelled in zeal by 
the Bishops of the fifth and sixth centuries, thought 
it no crime to condemn to death a man of a different 

•'^ This view of the subject does in no way militate against the 
idea, that the author of Islamism commenced his work under the 
immediate control of satanic agency; for every believer in the 
Bible readily admits "that even devils are subject unto Him," who 
worketh all things after His good pleasure. 

^^ "Eratque super his adimere facilis, quae donabat, C'hristia- 
nam rcligionera absolutam et simplicem anili superstitione confun- 
dens: in quo scutanda perplexius , quam componenda gravius, ex- 
citavit dissidia plurima: quae progressa fusius aluit concertatione 
verborum , ut catervis antistitum, jumentis ])ublicis ultro citroque 
discurrentibus per Synodos , quas appellant, dum ritum omnem ad 
Buum trahere conatur arbitrium, rei vehiculariae succideret nervos." 
Amniian. Marcellin. lib. XXI. de Constantio. 


persuasion from his own.^^ Arabia and Africa were 
polluted by schism and heresy of the worst descrip- 
tion,^^ and ripe for one of the sorest and most lasting 
judgments of God. The European Church was cor- 
rupt in practise, but it still retained an amount of 
sound catholic doctrine, especially on the Divinity of 
our Lord, which served as an antidote to the false 
teaching of the Koran, and which prevented this 
judgment from falling so severely upon the Western, 
as upon the Eastern Church. ^^ Europe did not in- 
deed altogether escape the plague of Islamism, be- 
cause it had partly adopted the false teaching of the 
Eastern Church.**^ Arian Spain was overwhelmed in 
a manner, which clearly showed the finger of God. 
The Spanish army melted away before a handful of 

" Procop. in Anecd. pag. 60. 

^® The Archbisliop of Toledo describes the state of religion 
thus in the 7*'' sec. "Cum Arabia et Africa inter lidem Catholicani 
et heresin Arianam, et perlidiam Judaicam et idolatriam, diversis 
studiis traheretur." Hist. Arab. pag. 2. ad calc. Elmac. Hist. Sa. 

^^ "Non dissimulavit Deus haec populi sui vitia: (juin ex ultimo 
Scythiae ac Germaniae recessu immensa agmina, quasi diluvio, ef- 
fudit in orbem Christianum; et cum datae ab his strages maximae 
non satis profecissent ad corrigendos superstites, justo Dei per- 
niissu, in Arabia Mahumetis novara sevit religionem, pugnanteni 
earn directa fronte cum Christiana religione, sed quae verbis quo- 
daniodo exprimeret vitam niagnae partis Christianorum." Urotius 
de verit. Relig. Christ, pag. 277. 

qamr, uyouag y.ul nnjinarovg y.ui ^tinua n<>i't ffinf-jihixum tj;^ 
■df-oXoyiag ,K(u ovdt rovtov loi ijXior dtax^'fonat /jdiJTVfja to*' 
ilnxidn'ag noiov^una. Gregory lib. VII. 


Saracen soldiers; the Godhead of the Redeemer being 
ah'eady denied, there was nothino- to resist or to 
prevent an occupation of the country for the space 
of 800 years! But the Mohammedan invasion was 
effectually repelled by the glorious victory of Charles 
Martel.*^ In the seventeenth century, when Europe 
was once more assailed on her eastern frontier, God 
raised up Sobieski, to set bounds for ever to the 
Turkish empire, and the creed of Mohammed. 
''Hitherto shalt thou come and no further; and here 
shall thy 23roud waves be stayed!" In all these things 
we trace a remarkable Providence controlling the 
spread of Islamism. Nor can we fail to adore the 
wise and gracious choice of the instruments, by which 
God chastised the fallen Churches! The Western 
Church was first punished by the influx of Pagan 
hordes from the North, and had God chosen idolaters 
for the correction of the Eastern Church, there might 
have been cause to apprehend danger for the very 
existence of Christianity, more especially as Western 
Europe was already overrun by Pagan nations; but 
the enemy whom God chose to administer judgment 
in His name was one , who was as greatly op- 
posed to idolatry as the fallen Church could be in 
her better days. Islamism made common cause with 
the Church in protesting against Paganism, and 
precluded the possibility of Pagan powders uniting 
against Christianity. We may therefore consider 
Mohammed, the servant of God in the same sense 

** Calcutta Review No. VIII. December, 1845. to which the 
author is indebted for some of these remarks. 



in which Pagan Cyrus was called the servant of 

Islamism was thus made subservient to great and 
important ends in the dispensation of the justice and 
hohness of God. It does not however follow, that 
this admission must necessarily place the Koran and 
the Bible upon the same footing: Mohammedanism, 
in its provideuticd aspect, was the result of the natural 
course of events; ( hristianity, on the contrary, was 
introduced by a miraculous deviation from that 
course.*^ If we refer to Holy Scripture for guidance 
in this matter, we notice God's interposition in cases 
as unlikely in our estimation as that of Islamism. 
The lying spirit for instance, which was j^ut into the 
mouth of false prophets , purporting to j)rophesy the 
truth, may serve as an illustration.*^ The special 
interference here, is unquestionable, and one peculiarly 
to the point; God, for purposes only known to Him- 
self, might as easily have put a lying spirit into the 
mouth of Mohammed.** The action of the instrumen- 
tality being employed upon a greater or lesser scale, 
makes no difference as to the establishino- of the 
principle of providential interference, riic just dis- 
tinction between Islamism and Christianity seems to 

*^ The principle of an overruling Providence, working without 
a miracle, has been ably set forth by Mr. Davidson : Discourses on 
Prophecy, pag. 76. 77. 247. 248. 

*•• 1 King. XXir. 19—23. "Now therefore behold, the Lord 
hath put a lying Spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets :" 

'n''N''n:~b3 ■'ca "rpiu rrri rr\rr ira nsn T^^\v^ 

I V • ; T • ; 1... v - T : ' - T " • T - : 

** Kal bia Tovto TTfjiiypH. dirotg Qtbg irtQyeiaf nXuyT]g, iig 
TO martvatxi dvTovg rcJ iptvdai' 2 Thess. II. 9 — 11. 


be this: the plieiiomena of the spread of Christianity 
prove that it came from God, but those of Islamism 
show only that it sprang from an overruled agency 
of natural events, and that as to its permanence, it is 
still upheld by their providential concurrence. 

At the very period when the Lombards were de- 
stroying the last vestiges of the Roman empire, God 
raised up an obscure people to a sudden greatness 
in order to correct His erring Churches , and to re- 
move the candlestick from such as were past correction. 
The salt having lost its savour was cast out and trod- 
den under foot of men.** This explains without com- 
ment, the cause of the success of Islamism. Our 
Lord indicated the characteristics of those devouring 
eagles , which were sent forth into the world by the 
false prophet who arose "in the desert", to prey upon 
the dead members of His Church. As the eagle 
does good service by consuming carcases, which 
otherwise would be left to poison the atmosphere, so 
Islamism benefited the Church, by consuming those 
dead members, which had become offensive in the 
sight of God , and if allowed to remain , would have 
endangered the very life of the body. It is remarkable 
that our Lord's words literally occur, in Alwakidi's 
description of the primitive Moslemin, "The Saracens 
he says, fell upon them like eagles upon a carcase."*^ 

45 in 

"UeBcr bfefc^ d^riftlirfie 2>?crijen{aub , in ivefrdem bag (Sr)rif}eiitf)um 
feit tanger Sett in ber gtirfluft bee SDe^ottemu^, unb untet bcm tobten 
Sptntetlrcfcn , bur* bae feine Sbeen lurfitmmcrten unb »erfamcn, 
tobtfranf n^ar, fam bcr §err \>lo^M) unb fcin ©eridit." SimmermannS 
?ftcnggcf(^irt)te bcr ^ircf)c 3efu C^firtfti, Vol. II. 518. 

**■ Ocklcy's History of the Saracens, Vol. I. pag 220. 


The black eagle was moreover the ensign of the first 
Saracen conquerors, and that affords an additional 
reason for applying the prediction to them, as well 
as to the Romans, by whom the Jewish Church was 
devoured.*' Nor is it against the i^rinciple of ger- 
minant interpretation of prophecy, to make it include 
both visitations upon the Old and the New Church, 
which had alike sunk into decay. 


10. An auxiliary cause of the success of Islam- 
ism, was the time in which it appeared; for we may 
safely say, that in no former or subsequent 2)eriod of 
the world could Mohammed have met with equal suc- 
cess. All the circumstances of that period, plainly 
and undeniably concurred to favour the rise and pro- 
gress of the new religion. The heresies which divided 
and the corruptions which then degraded the Church, 
presented an open field for Mohammed. The poli- 
tical state of the world was likewise propitious. Is- 
lamism being a religion of conquest, the union of 
nations under comjDact and vigorous governments, 
would have oj)]iosed insuperable obstacles. Its suc- 
cess obviously depended, not on the strength and 
stability, but on the decay of the kingdoms of the 
earth; and its establishment could only be promoted 
by the divisions and distractions of mankind.'** At 
a later or an earlier date, that of Trajan, of Constan- 
tine or Charlemagne, the assault of the half-naked 

" Ockley Hist, of the Sarac. Vol. I. 172. Walil pag. 73. E. 

*^ "It lias been observed by a great politician Macliiavelli, that' 
it is imiiossible a i)erson should make himself a prince and found a 
state, without opportunities." Sale, Prelcm. Disc. pag. 25. 


Saracens would soon have been repelled, and their 
rehgious fanaticism extinguished. This most favour- 
able concurrence of a diversity of circumstances, both 
ecclesiastical and political, at once so contrary and 
so harmonious, cannot fail to strike every candid ob- 
server of the age in which Islamism made its ap- 

11. Another cause of the rapid spread and per- 
manent estabhshment of Islamism, is to be looked 
for in the means which were used in its propagation. 
The appeal to the sword is natural to a politico- 
religious system, and in prescribing both moral and 
civil laws to the state, it decides every question of 
life or property.*'' In almost every Mohammedan 
country, so intimate is the connection and so absolute 
the dependence of the religious, upon the civil govern- 
ment, that in propagating the tenets of religion, an 
appeal to the civil force would be unavoidable. With 
few exceptions, this maxim of the Koran: — "Fight 
against them , until there be no opposition in favour 
of idolatry and the religion be wholly God's," has ever 
been strictly carried out. No alternative was allowed 
to the Pagan, he had to choose between an immediate 
recantation of his opinions and a cruel death. The 
Christian was permitted the privilege of compounding 
for the preservation of his life and property, by the 
payment of a heavy tribute. To men who had lost 

*^ The recent appointment of a Minister of justice by the Sul- 
tan of Constantinople, is an innovation ; inasmuch as this duty was 
till that time, incumbent upon their spiritual head of religion, the 
Mufti, who was the locum tenons of the Sultan himself, in his cha- 
racter of Kaliph. 


almost every thing but the name of their religion, this 
mode of conversion was irresistible. Nor can we won- 
der that in many such cases, the voice of conscience 
was unheard amidst the cries of interest. Temporal 
ease and security under the banners of the pseudo- 
prophet, were to them, jDreferable to the distress of 
the despised and persecuted Christians. 

We should however be much mistaken, were we 
to look upon the enthusiasm of the first propagators 
of Islamism, as springing merely from religious zeal.^^ 
The hope of gain and the prospect of plunder gathered 
hosts to Mohammed's standard, even in his life-time; 
and the national pride of the Arabs felt flattered by 
following a prophet who had risen fi'om amongst 
themselves : ^ * then Mohammed's rank , his personal 
influence, his consummate art and prudence, his 
fervent enthusiasm, which in the first instance, re- 
sulted from a sincere conviction that he w^as a 
chosen messenger of God, — all gave strength and 
solidity to each step in the early propagation of Is- 

12. Mohammed's appeal to the Patriarchal faith 
and the Ishmaelitish descent of the Arabs, w^as like- 

^^ Khaled who was termed "the sword of the swords of Allah," 
well described the mixture of power and persuasion by which he 
and the Koreishites were converted, when he said, that Allah 
seized them by their hearts and by the locks of their hair to lead 
thera to the prophet. Taberistanensis Annales regum atque lega- 
toruni Dei. Edit. Kosegarten. II. pag. 103. 

*' The Arab general said to the Christian Arabs of Hira, who 
declined to receive Islamism: "Ye fools, will you wander to and fro 
in the wilderness of error; when two guides oiler themselves to 
you , a foreigner and an Arab , will ye follow the first and forsake 
the latter?" Taberistanensis Annal. U. pag. 39. 


wise highly favourable to a sudden spread of his 
creed. There was an artful accommodation to the- 
divers classes of his countrymen, by which he 
th'ew the Jew, the Christian and the idolater into 
his net. A certain writer brings forward fifty pages 
of coincidences between Judaism and Islamism: — 
Each professes to derive a politico-religious economy 
fi'om a prophet who united in his person the political 
and spiritual administration of the affairs of the na- 
tion. Each came to be possessed of a sacred book, 
composed by their respective lawgivers. In both cases 
we have a people in arms, professing to go forth by 
divine command to conquer, and so far as their re- 
spective conquests should extend, to extirpate the 
religion of the subdued countries and to substitute 
their own. The Jews, as far as their commission 
went, were to cut off the idolatrous inhabitants ii'om 
the land of promise ; the Mohammedans, according to 
the terms of their extended commission, demanded 
either conversion or death. Each nation left the same 
desert. Again Moses and Mohammed descended fi'om 
Abraham, both commenced their office at the age of 
forty; the former received the law in Arabia, the lat- 
ter the Koran. Both prophets are exiled, commune 
with God, and die in the desert before their followers 
leave the country; and no one will fail to perceive 
that in several points, Mohammed artfully accommo- 
dated himself to the history of Moses to give weight 
and effect to his pretensions. 

We have noticed on a former occasion, with what 
skill Mohammed accommodated himself to the Chris- 


tian relioion, at tlie commencement of his career. 
The immaculate and wonderful conception of Christ 
was acknowledged, His miracles were admitted, His 
prophetical character was asserted, and certain titles 
were ascribed to Christ, which the Christians affirmed 
belonged to Him. It did its work and favoured Moham- 
med's cause among the Christians for a time. Then 
how well the national superstitions of the Arabs were 
blended with Islamism, to conciliate their love for 
ancient institutions! ]\fecca, the centre of the national 
worship, was chosen to become the sanctuary of the 
new creed; pilgrimage \\ith all its Pagan rites was 
continued; circumcision and other national usages 
were adopted and incorporated into the system of 
Mohammed's religion. There was a com})ilation of 
heterogeneous religious elements, which proved ac- 
ceptable to all parties, each finding in it, dogmas 
which were held by their respective ancestors. 

13. The yoke which Islamism imposed upon 
the first believers, was by no means oppressive. It 
was presented as the religion of Abraham, a name 
revered by all parties; the Unity of God was a dogma 
which was held in common by Jews, Christians and 
Arabs. The rest of the teaching of the Koran was 
simple, — consisting mainly of precepts and male- 
dictions. There was an absence of those holy and 
blessed mysteries of our faith, which are at all times 
humiliatinof to human reason. Fhat which is most 
needful, but at the same time most opposed to the 
depraved taste of the natural man, is carefully ex- 
cluded. Islamism, as a false creed, offers no Redemp- 


tion, no means of grace; insists on no repentance, 
no sell-denial and no mortification of the flesh , and 
where there exists no love of the truth, it can reckon 
upon a more ready reception than Christianity can 
expect. The mixtm-e of truth and falsehood, the 
simplicity of its formula, the mechanism of its devo- 
tions , washings and fastings , combined with an un- 
bridled licentiousness, renders it more acceptable than 
the Gospel of Christ, with its free mercy to lost sin- 
ners, with its rigid morality and elevating hope of 
glory; for the w^orld will love its own in religion, not 
less than in other things. ^^ 

The 2)enna7iency of Islamism, which is another of 
its striking features, may in some measure be attributed 
to its close connection with the existing Governments. 
Any attempt to alter or reform the religion, neces- 
sarily involved the ruin and overthrow of the Govern- 
ment of the land. Every case of religious apostacy 
is therefore punished by the state as a capital crime. 
It was solely owing to the external pressure of the 
European powers of late years that an alteration has 
been made in the Turkish empire. Again, the per- 
manence of Islamism is in no way surprising, when 


"(Sntfai^ung, ?htf3ebutic? iex licbficii 5)?eioiiinc5en \mxU nirfit geforbert; 
bic I'fibcnfd'nften fo((tcn nt'rfit fptvotU gchiiibigt uiib in ftveiige 3ii*t genoni; 
nun irerben, a(^ niiv auf eineu ©cgcnflaitb, ten Si<im\'^ fiir bie 9luebrcitiiiuj 
bee neucn ^Uauben? concentrivt wcrbcn . . . 3:!ae SPcvdot beg Setnee lonnte 
nicfit lafiig fein in einem ?anbe, ivo bie ^nirfU bev ?Jebc nicf^t gebeif)t, bag 
tieriobifdie ??aftcn nicfjt ba, tvc Unfru*t(\ufeit bee 33obcne oft audi bcii ®o()I- 
^abenben (Siitbcl)nmgen auferlcgt, inib fdion bae ^lima pr grofjfeu 2)ld^i-- 
guitg im ©enuffc bet 91af)rung einlabct. 5)ae !Driicfenbe wax am Slnfang 
bie JRcIigionefteuer, bie aber balb biird) bie reidie 93eiite fiiinbertfattig v^er-- 
gittet tturbc; fiir fo getinge £vfcr evfaiifteii ^if ©Idubigcn bie Sluefidit auf 
cnblofeg g(^tve(gen im ^paiabife finiilid;er Sitj!e." 3)o(linger pag. 4. 5. 


we remeniber that each child swells the ranks of the 
coninmiiity ; for according to Moslem teaching, every 
child is born a Moslem, and it is only the i)arents 
Avho make him a Jew or a Christian! Not so with 
Christianity; for according to its teaching, every child 
is born in sin; and as by natnre, all are children of 
wrath, the Gospel has to struggle against the whole 
course of nature, and when it has prevailed with one 
generation of professed Christians , it has to renew 
the struggle in the next.^^ 

These then are some of the principal causes, the 
joint agency of which, sufHciently accounts for the 
success and permanent character of Islamism. We 
protest against the dangerous and fallacious assump- 
tion, that there is in it any fultilment of a divine 
promise, but willingly admit a providential control ol 
this heaven-sent scourge/* IIow often did God raise 
up instruments of His wrath to chastise the Jewish 
Church , and these after having served as the rod of 
correction, were invariably cast into the fire! Let 
only the cause of the scourge be remedied, let the 
Eastern Churches be cleansed from their dross; let 
the Church of Christ in the West fulfil her duty 
towards both the Christian and the Mohammedan 
comnumity , and the scourge itself will be removed ; 

'^^ The Church in extending her Missionary operations has to 
contend with these natural obstacles which impede her ])rogress, 
whilst Islaniisni in propagating its tenets and in maintaining its 
ground , only flatters the natural pride and indulge^s the pasnions 

of man. 

■'* Success alone, can afford no absolute proof of divine favour; 
for we observe , how God permits error to prevail upon earth and 
that, not seldom, to a far greater extent then truth itself. 


let Paganism also be abolished, and Islamisni, which 
in God's purpose has served as a barrier to the 
abomination of idolatry, will be destroyed. 

14. Thus we have seen how the sword has been 
the chief instrumentality in propagating Islamism; 
but God, who brings good out of evil, life out of death, 
peace and order out of strife and confusion, evidently 
assigned certain functions to this apostacy, which' m 
the end should work together for good. At a period 
when the nations of the East had reduced Christianity 
to a miserable caricature, Islamism, being armed 
against all teaching except its own, seemed to be 
the less fatal of two evils.'' Whilst it spread the 
Koran, and assumed an attitude of inveterate hos- 
tility, it acted at the same time, as an antidote to the 
poison of heretical teaching in the Church. As regards 
the Western Church , Islamism roused her from her 
slumber, served as a correction of her abuses and 
corruptions, and called forth new Hfe and energy 
among the stagnant masses of her professors. When 
this object was attained, God withdrew the rod, and 
showed mercv to His Church, which could not be 

** "S^Iain t-iente ate rie i?cijlige Cuarantaine , in wclrf)eic bi'c a?oU'et 
(^cgen ba^ dontaoiium eincr fold)"en CS'omH.^tioit abgeft^errt, beffcrcv 3eiteu unb 
be^ aSc^cne veinerer I'itfte fiaueii. ^af-, iciie ©efafir wxxiM) tfovfiaubeu uiib 
t>riii.^^nt) i^elvefen, bae be^eiic^t uirfit inir bet >§aitg ^um baretifrinni %dU\v 
iuffen, bcr imtet ben orientalifdjen Sfirifien icnet 3eit.l'd}on iiberlviegcnb \»ar; 
eg bejengt eg and) bet gto^e (Si-folg , luelrfje bie giftige, alle ©ittlicfitcit jer^ 
fteffcnbe Sefirc ber ^'auficianct intb Sogomilen untet ^cn (?f)riften, fo \\>k bet 
mit biefeu nabc i^ernmnbten U3ateni'g \m^ S^lameU's untct ben a)loelemen 
^atte. aSat bodj fetbft bic abenbldnbifdje birdie bet »on Diefer brotienben 
©efafii in fo fjofjem ©tafc fclo^geftcnt , fajj im ©eginne beg 13. Scculum^ 
beteitg gan^e ^royinjen i^on ber ^eftartig imi fid) gteifenben Sefjre angefieitt 
ivaren." ^JoiUnget pag. 140. 


destroyed in this terrible earthquake. "^^ Moslem his- 
torians maintain, that the locust armies carried on 
their wings the Arabic inscription: "We are the host 
of Allah , every one of us carries ninety-nine eggs, 
and if we had a hundred, we would destroy the world 
with all that is therein." The Moslemin themselves 
are these locust armies, and more than once, the want 
of the hundreth egg alone has prevented their utterly 
destroying the noblest powers of Christendom. Such 
an epoch was the Kallphate of Othman; when in the 
course of the seventh century, the whole of the weak 
Byzantine empire would probably have fallen, and by 
its fall would have opened the door to central Europe, 
had not the best powers of the ^loslem empire been 
consumed by those intestine feuds which succeeded 
the assassination of the Kaliph. Another crisis oc- 
curred, after the occupation of the south of France 
by Moslem troops, when the fate of Europe was 
suspended on that memorable battle won by Charles 
Martel. The third critical period, at which the hun- 
dreth egg was wanting, occurred in the third century 
of the Hedgra, when the Aglabites, having already 
subjugated Sicily, threatened to establish themselves 
in lower Italy: for had not the Moslem power at that 
period, succumbed to the Fatamites in Africa, Italy, 
as well as Spain, would have been overrun by the 
Moors, especially as it was in a defenceless condition, 
and France in a state of disturbance. Again, in the 
fourth century of the Mohannnedan era, after the 
restoration of the K.-diphate to its legitimate line, the 
^^ Ouslcv's Travels II. 149. 


Saracen power, having recovered its pristine vigour 
and threatening to penetrate to the very heart of 
Christian Europe, was signally checked: — theSelchuk 
Turks under Soleiman A. D. 1084 had united the 
whole tract of country between the Euphrates and 
the Hellespont into one kingdom, and stood before 
Constantinople, prepared to march into Europe; when, 
the Emperor of Constantinople sending letters to the 
Christian princes imj^loring their assistance, Peter 
the Hermit with the assembly at Clermont, brought 
the whole of Europe to arms; and for the first time 
the religious enthusiasm of the Christians proved 
itself stronger than the fanatical zeal of the Moslem 



"Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grajjes from 

thorns or figs from thistles? Even so every good tree bringeth 

forth good fruit, but a corrupt tree bri ay eth forth evil fruit.'' 

Matt. VII. 16. 

1. Mohammed, assuming to be a prophet rather 
of the type and character ofMoses than that of Jesus, 
took upon himself to legislate on moral, civil and 
religious matters. The divine authority ascribed to 
his precepts on religion, was necessarily extended to 
those regarding the civil and social relations of life, 
and being thus endowed with a character of stability, 
an insurmountable barrier was placed to the free 


development ofTslamism in future ages. '^' Hence the 
rude, simple and in some instances, barbarous, cus- 
toms of the Arabs of that age, — which Mohammed 
had tolerated by way of accommodation to their na- 
tional prejudices, — became the fixed law for all future 
Generations. Among these we may mention the "le,v 
taIioim\ which in subsequent ages, was introduced 
and adopted by all Mohammedan states."*^ The entire 
administration of the Moslem code of law may be 
fau-ly reduced to the precepts of the Koran , which 
also in this particular, adopted the traditional prac- 
tice of the Arabs. That the adoption of this system 
could not fail to cause many crying abuses when ap- 
plied to a semi-civilised people, may be easily imag- 
ined. That brief and simple mode of conducting trials 
previously used by the armed and roving Beduins of 
the Peninsula, is still maintained among all Moslem 
nations; this total absence of the legal forms and 
courtesies of European courts of justice, together with 
the non-acceptance of written documents to serve as 
evidence, produce a host oi' fahe ii'itvessea, who in 
large tomis, make a systematic trade of their infamous 
perjuries at the courts of law. On the other hand, 
the prophet blessing those "who cast the mantle 

■'' "3^ic ©cUHiiiber, iveld'c pcm Jiiiabcn i^'V^if't (mttfi' - fcUte audi t>er 
Wann, tcr idiicn Kiju-^ft eutumrtifen umv, nidit aHcc^en tuivfcn." From the 
valuable treatise by Prof. D.illiiiger : aihthamincb'« Oieltnion luid^ 
ttuer innercn ©ntlviff liinji »In^ i hrcm (Siufdifff auf Dvi^ ?fbcn 
bcr a^olfer. 1B3f=(. pag. 7. 

^^ "9ic>* iflU wcrtcn hilicv aifortcr ten iieU^lid)cn (Svln-n obcr 3?cr- 
nmubtcn rct^ (hmorbctcn ubcvliefcrt, urn luit i(nicn nil* ^illfiir ju vex- 
foljrcn, ja fclbfi unmiinbinc MixMx ivcvbcn mil SOicffcrn iH-umftnet, nm if)ro 
^antc in ta^ 33hit bee SOioxber^ ifirco aSdterS jn taudien." S^iUlinijcrpag. 8. 


over the crimes of their brethren," created an abuse 
in the opposite direction; evidence to convict the 
guilty party in criminal cases being scarcely procur- 
able among Moslemin.''^ 

The nefarious practice of wantonly making and 
breaking an oath, was enforced by the example of 
the prophet himself. Mohammed swore on the most 
frivolous occasions. At the beginning of Sura XXXVIII. 
he swears "by the Koran full of admonition", but no 
commentator has yet discovered for what reason. He 
swears in Sura XLiv. "by the perspicuous book" that 
it came down on the blessed night. In Sura LI. he 
makes oath by the winds, clouds, ships and angels, 
that the day of -Judgment will surely come; also by 
the ways of heaven , that the Meccans quarrel about 
him; in SuraLXVllL by "the pen and writer" that he 
is not possessed by a demon ; in Sura LXIX. 34 by 
things "visible and invisible" that the Koran is not 
a poetical figment or a magical production. In Sura 
LXXY. he swears "by the day of the Resurrection and 
the soul that accuseth itself", but for what purpose, 
it is difficult to guess. God is made to swear by the 
planets, by night and day-break, that the Koran was 
revealed by Gabriel, and that Mohammed was not 
possessed.***^ In Sura XC. Allah is said to swear that 
he created man in toil, sorrow, and affliction; but in 

As the courts of justice take cognizance only of crimes com- 
mitted against religion and the head of the state, offences which 
would be severely punished in Christian lands , are generally al- 
lowed to pass unnoticed. Correspondence d"Orient par Michaud et 
Poujoulat. Paris 1833. Ill pag. 288. 

^^ Sur. LXXXI. 15. cfr. with this Hebr. VI. 14—16. 


Sura XCV. he makes oatli 1)V the fia-tree, the ohve, 
mount Sinai ami Mecca, that he "created man of a 
most excelk-nt fabric, and afterwards we rendered 
him the vik^st of the vile." In Sura XCII. we are 
assured by a double oath that men have different 
opinions ! 

From these examples of swearing on the part of 
x\llah, it is not surprising that the Koran solemnly 
teaches, that oaths made precipitately, may be bro- 
ken. ''^ Mohammed himself broke his oath on several 
occasions; and taught his followers (Sura II. 225.) 
that after, or within four months, they may fairly 
break their vows, "for God is gracious and merciful." 
The expiation of an inconsiderate oath (Sur. v. 90 — 
95), is "to feed ten men ^^'ith moderate food, or 
clothe them ; or else to deliver a captive, or if unable 
to fulfil these things, to fast for three days." 

How greatly this contempt for the sanctity of an 
oath must tend to demoralise a people, can scarcely 
be conceived; we would challenge any traveller to 
find such, even amongst Pagans. Triple oaths, on the 
most trivial occurrences, are constantly on the lips of 
the Arabs. No Paean nation deals so wantonlv with 
the names of their gods, as the Moslem does with 
the sacred name of Allah. Oaths are affixed to the 
most outrageous falsehoods, and this being done from 
mere habit, such thoughtless and vain oaths are ac- 
cording to the Koran, unpunishable, "for God is 
gracious and merciful." 'Jdie perjury committed at 

^* "God will not punish you for an inconsiderate word in your 
oaths." Sur. II. 224. 


courts of justice, is therefore only one link in tliat 
chain of lying and falsehood, which Islamism has 
thrown around the entire community of its pro- 

2. In spite however of the conscientious ad- 
herence ofMoslemin to a system of legislation, which 
was considered unchangeable, the strictly literal sense 
of this heaven-sent theory was in some cases modi- 
fied, where its application to the stern realities of 
practical life was found to be absolutely impossible. 
It was with this view partially, that the Son7ia was 
added to the Koran. ^^ The Sonna, or traditi07is, 
embody the expressions, occasional remarks and acts 
of Mohammed, which are traced back to his com- 
panions, his wives and the first Kahphs;^' and the 
doctrines as well as religious rites and ceremonies of 
the Mohammedans, are fixed and regulated according 
to these received traditions. On them, the true sense 
of the Koran depends, for the Koran can only be 
explained and its meaning understood, as it is given 
or hinted at by the Sonna. Regarding them, there 
is great uncertainty among Moslemin; as these tra- 
ditions are neither all collected into one book nor are 
all approved by the whole body of their renowned 
divines. Collections indeed, have been made with 
great labour by learned men, but as they do not agree 
in all cases, latitude enough has been left to any 

&A*w, Sonna mos rcceptus, traditio, regula; from ij.**< for- 
mavit; .secutu.s fuit regulara. 

^^ Wiistenfeld's Dahabi: liber classium viroruni , qui Coraui 
et traditionoruni cognitione excelluerunt. Getting. 1834. 



writer of reputation to add or to reject at his own 
choice/* To tell a lie for a good purpose, especially 
to add by it something to the glory of their prophet, 
is considered by Moslemin and particularly by the 
Shiites, quite right and proper. But whatever be the 
merits or demerits of these traditions , they widened 
the narrow limits of the legislature of the Koran and 
afforded some elasticity to the cramped and narrow- 
minded precepts of Mohammed. 

The real character of Islamism may be better 
ascertained from these traditions, in which we see 
how the contemporaries of Mohammed and his im- 
mediate followers understood his teaching, than from 
the monotonous repetitions of the Koran. ^'' What 

^* "Bukhari, one of the first of the collectors of the traditions, 
and esteemed the highest in point of authority, had, as is said, col- 
lected 200,000, or according to another statement, 630,000 tradi- 
tions, of which he regarded but 100,000 as somewhat to be relied 
upon, and only 7275 as actually authentic and true. He died A. H. 
250. Another collector has received only 5266, and the author of 
the Musabih only 4484 as authentic. The writers of the Shias 
differ still more than those of the Sunnis about the number of the 
traditions to bo regarded as actually to be relied upon ; for since 
the Shi'cis regard as canonical also the sayings of their Imams, 
they have a much greater number of traditions than the Sunnis, 
and consequently it is still more difficult for them to fix their num- 
ber, or to distinguish between an authentic and an unauthentic 
tradition." Dr. C. G. Pfander's Remarks on the nature of Moham- 
medan tradition, pag. 30. 

''■' "One of the most acknowledged collections of the Hadiths 
or traditions approved of "by the Sonnis is, MiKlicit id Masaiih," 
which has been translated into English and published by H. N. 
Mathews, Calcutta 1810; and most of the traditions received by 
the Shias are contained in the books of " Jlrnmt ul Ki'litb , llaq zd 
Ydfuin," and "Ain ul ILiyat," written by Mullah Muhammed Hakir 
Majlisi, a famous Persian divine, who lived about 200 years ago, 
and which were printed in Teheran in 4 folio Volumes." Pfander's 


the prophet taught concerning divine truths, apart 
from a few practical injunctions, seems to be con- 
sidered of Httle importance compared with the more 
attractive legends of the Koran which are over-laden 
with mythical embellishments. Let any one read 
what has been rendered accessible to Europeans, and 
they will find wearisome commentaries upon legal 
washings, ceremonial attitudes and histrionic posi- 
tions at prayer, the physical relations of women, 
matrimony and divorce, buying and selling, saluta- 
tions and the most ordinary transactions of life, inter- 
mixed with the most outrageous and wildly extra- 
vagant fables concerning the visible and invisible 
world. Ignorant of the real discij^line of the soul, 
Islamism, in its traditions, beats out a path of vain 
and useless ceremonial, the fulfilment of which, pro- 
duces a delusive sense of security; and the very irk- 
someness of the ceremonial enhances the feeling of 
its meritorious character. As regards the absurd 
and marvellous stories contained in them, it has been 
justly remarked that they exercise even a greater in- 
fluence on the minds of the Mohammedans than 
the doctrines contained in the Koran, and this ex- 
plains why they are so indiff'erent to the plain and 
unvarnished truths of the Gospel. These extravagant 
fables have so destroyed and vitiated their taste, that 
they have little relish for sober truth and look down 

Remarks on the nature of Muh. pag. 8. See also Harrington's 
"Remarks upon tlie authorities of Moselman law" Asiatic Re- 
searches Vol. X. pag. 478. where he mentions 4 collections of tra- 
ditions, which the Shiites consider authentic. 



with contempt on the simple but snbhme doctrhies 
of Christianity/*^ 

3. In considering the ivarlike fanaticism wliich 
the Mohammedans manifested in propagating their 
faith, we recognise the fruits of the much enforced 
doctrine, that the blood of infidels is the best sacrifice 
which can be made to God. The means of conversion 
by sword and conquest soon assumed a cruel and 
sanguinary character. Thousands of prisoners were 
usually massacred after a victory; not in the heat of 
contest, but in cold blood and as a matter of prin- 
ciple,^' and the law which assigned the wives and 
children of the slain to the conquerors greatly tended 
to inflame their zeal and increase the number of vic- 
tims. Lest it might be thought, to be only the fresh- 
kindled enthusiasm of the first Moslem warriors which 
led to such excesses, we must add, that the same 
thirst for blood distinguished all subsequent conquests 
on the part of Mohammedans. This was evinced for 
a number of centuries, during which religious wars 
devastated the countries oi India; and we may con- 
sider it but one instance out of many, when Mohammed 

' ^^ The demoralising- influence of these traditions may be seen 
from the fact, that some of the tortures which they ascribe to the 
Moslem liell, were applied to Christians during the recent mutiny 
in India. "With liooks they tear their bodies and witli iron maces 
they are beaten; angels stout and fierce torture them, showing no 
mercy." Again: "There are such in hell of whose sides the angels 
cut off the flesh with scissors, and throw it into their mouths." 
Hayat ul Kulub Vol. II. leaf 174. 

'^'' Khaled, who was once M.'s right hand, vowed in a heavy 
engagement against Christian Arabs and Pagan Persians, that if 
God would grant him the victory, he would dye the waters of the 
stream with the blood of the slain. Taberist. Annal. reg. II. p. 29. 



Shah Bahniim, king of the Deccan, fulfilled his vow 
1368, that he would not sheathe his sword, till he 
had slain 100,000 infidel Hindoos, in order to revenge 
the defeat of a detachment of Moslem troops.'' 
When Reinald from Chatillon attempted an expedition 
aoainst Medina and Mecca, Saladin the celebrated 
hero of Islamism , declared it to be his sacred duty 
to cleanse the earth from these men, and to kill every 
Christian who should fall into his hands. Thereupon 
part of the captive Christians were dragged to the 
valley of Mina, where the pilgrims slaughtered them, 
instead of the accustomed sheep or lambs ; the rest 
were brought to Egypt, where the Moslem ascetics 
considered it a meritorious work, to kill these "Chris- 
tian dogs" with their own hand.^^ That demoniacal 
blood-thirsty hatred entertained byMoslemin towards 
all who disbelieve the Koran, imbibed from their very 
infancy, has ever operated so powerfully among them, 
that even their noblest characters have been tarnished 
by it:^" thus the abomination of human sacrifices 
came to be revived by those, who prided themselves 
in having destroyed Paganism, as far as their arm of 
power could reach! 

4. This flame of hatred towards all other reli- 

^** Ferishta, history of the Mohammedan power in India, trans, 
by Briggs. 1829. Vol. II. pag. 311. 

^^ After the battle near Hittin, Saladin caused the captured 
knights and hospitallers to be killed by the pious fanatics , who 
followed his army. Reinaud Journal Asiatique V. pag. 237. 290. 

'" It is well known that Saladin has frequently been compared 
and preferred to his Christian contemporary, the Emperor of Con- 


gionists wliich is indeed the very element of Islam- 
ism, '^ is continually nourished by the reading of the 
Koran, replete as it is with threatenlngs and curses 
aoainst unbelievers; it is also the necessary conse- 
quence of a doctrine, which teaches that the sword 
is the sanctified means of conversion, — and which 
inculcates warfare against all unsubdued KafFcrs of 
every shade of opinion ; warfare , interrupted only by 
a longer or shorter armistice, as necessity may demand. 
In this sense Mohammed's assertion, — that "the in- 
fidels are all one people," — must doubtless be under- 
stood; and hence believers are destined to convert 
them by force of arms; if this be impossible, to ex- 
terminate, or make them tributary. Mohammed and 
the first Kaliphs, as we have seen, occasionally pre- 
tended to recommend milder measures towards the 
Scripturalists , but in proportion as their followers 
became conscious of the gulph, which separates the 
Moslem from all others, and the more the two parties 
became entangled in mutual hostilities, the more de- 
cided became their animosity towards Christians, and 
consequently the more oppressive the yoke which 
they laid upon them. Christians were not unfrequently 
dealt with on the same principle as Pagans; their 
holding the doctrine of the Holy Trinity was alone 
sufficient to place them on a level with Polytheists, 

'1 "^a^ c^tc^tn bic ^Bcfcinicr aubercr 9ielifiii?it ift 511 aUcn Scitcn bag 
Ceteneetcment bcf l^L^Kimieimio iKivcfcn, nub borf man von bcin 'in'maniicneu 
auf bae Siifunflijic fdilicf;cn , fo uioriitc man Inljauvtcn, bafi, ivcnn cinmal 
bicfer 6af5 aKiiftiimpft fein ivivb , audi ber S^crfad bc(? flan^cn e«ftcmt^ un= 
auf()aafam t'crcinbrcrficn, obcv baji bnlrfamc Wcfinnnn^^ c\i\}cn ?(nrcrec\lan(M'cie 
unb reli^iofc rsnbiffovcn^ bci ben 2V^o(1ammc^ancrn ^tanb in ^-^anb ge(;cn 
hjcrbcn." 5:oUinijer pag. 14. 


for, SO early as the beginning of the Moslem era, 
were they branded by Abu Sofian with that oppro- 
prious terms. '' Kaliph Motawakkel A. D. 850. added 
bitter mockery and indescribable tortures to their al- 
ready heavy afflictions, and in the bloody persecutions 
of the Fatamite Hakem, many lost their lives. Even 
common intercourse was interdicted between Mos- 
lemin and Christians,'^ and a Moslem to this day, 
is not permitted either to eat with a Christian or to 
partake of the same meal.''* 

If we come to more recent times, we find the 
notorious Sultan of Mysore, Tippo Sahib, perpetra- 
ting acts of persecution for the sake of religion which 
appear the more hateful , for being accompanied by 
the most brutal lust. The majority of his subjects 
being Hindoos, his object was to convert the whole 
population of the Malabar provinces to the faith of 
the Koran ; in this he was assisted by the Moplays, 
descendants of an Arab colony, who, falling like wild 
beasts upon the defenceless Hindoos forcibly circum- 
cised many ; others , robbed of their wives , children 

" Julal-Addin Al Siuti, history of the temple of Jerusalem; 
translated by Reynolds. 1836. pag. 197. 240. Encouraging the 
Arabs before a battle against the Greeks, Abu Sofian says: '^Vos 
quidem propugnatores Arabum estis , atque Islamismi adjuvatores ; 
illi vero propugnatores Graecorum atque adjutores polytheismi 
sunt." Taberist. 11. pag. 101. 

" Mohammed Ebn Lshmael, the king of Granada, was assassi- 
nated A. D. 1333 by the Moors because he had eaten with Chris- 
tians and wore a garment which he received from the king of 
Castilia. Conde, Geschichte der Herrschaft der Mauren in Spanien. 
m. pag. 134. 

^* The author speaks from his own experience. See also: 
Eraser, Narrative of a journey into KJiorasan. 1825. pag. 182. 


and property, were driven back to the jungles. Tippoo 
Sahib took away the daughters of the Brahmins and 
having dishonoured them sent them back to their 
parents, who refused to receive them since they had 
lost their cast. Tippoo then compelled the Brahmins 
themselves to marry these outcasts, by which they 
also losing their cast, were expelled from their com- 
munity.'* Can we be surprised that such fearful 
outrages, which acknowledged no other than the un- 
conditional right of the stronger party, should, as op- 
portunity occurred, produce the most bloody reactions? 
Hence it is, that the KafFers north of Badshur, the 
neighbours of the Moslem Afghans, deem no action 
more meritorious than that of killing a Moslem. But 
few comparatively of the deeds of darkness, com- 
mitted in India by the Moslem conquerors, have ever 
come to light, since the only account we have of their 
rule in that country, was written by themselves."^ 
The only exception to this bloodthirsty and oppressive 
rule, was made by the Mongol emperor ^A-k/r, who 

^^ It will be remembered that the loss of cast is ten times 
worse to a Brahmin than the crudest death. The cruelties of 
Tippoo Sahib are recorded by Buchanan, "Journey from Madras 
through Mysore and Malabar." 1807. I. pag. 5G. il. 550. 

""^ Ferishta, History of the Mohammedan power in India, trans, 
by Briggs, 1829. As late as Sept. 1849 we had an instance of this 
fanaticism; 64 Moslemin entered a temple in a town near Calicut, 
murdered every devotee then present, and then .shut the doors, 
expecting to be slain and sent to Paradise. A small detachment 
of Sepoys, sent against them, was repulsed and the conmiaiiding 
European officer killed; a European detachment next forced an 
entrance, and as the fanatics declined to submit, they were cut 
down, and in the belief of themselves and their brethren, they went 
straight to Paradise! 


adopted a more peaceable policy. As "tlie shadow 
of God upon earth," he said, it became him to suffer 
other rchgions, after the example of Allah, else it 
would be his duty to destroy five sixths of his sub- 
jects. Lest we should however ascribe such clemency 
to Idamism, we are informed by his son, that his 
father had become an apostate, having been persuaded 
by his Mzier Abulfadhel, that ^lohammed was no 
more than an Arab gifted with extraordinary elo- 
quence, and that the Koran was an invention!^' 

5. In examining the influence of Islamism upon 
the social and domestic relations of life we touch upon 
one of the darkest sides of that pernicious creed. 
It is perhaps not too much to say, that everywhere 
beyond the precincts of Christianity a special curse 
rests upon one half of mankind, — the female por- 
tion, — but that this is nowhere so conspicuous as 
under the domination of the Koran. ''^ Its detailed 
legislation respecting women in general, is founded 
upon the erroneous idea, that they are an inferior 
grade of rational beings, whose sole destiny is to 
bring forth children and to serve their husbands. 
Hence the Koran places the entire body of the fair 
sex in a condition of perpetual imprisonment, and 
encourages the jealousy and suspicion of the men, at 
the expence of the freedom anddignity of the women. 

^^ Memoirs of the emperor Jahangueir written by himself, 
translated by Price. 1829. pag. 54. 

'* "J^ter tecjcc^net iin^ eine ber bunfclfien Seiten btefer 9?cIi(iion, itnb 
ein fprecfienber SSeitci^, luetd) eincn terberblirficn @influ§ bie Vfrfonlid^cn 
Seibenfdiaften unb bie tiationale SScfaniienfieit eincg felbftcrfornen JHelii^ion^^ 
fiiftere fott unb fort iiben muf." 2)oUinc)er pag. 20. 


To the husband is extended by the heaven-sent Ko- 
ran, the riuht of inflicting corporeal punishment upon 
his wife, and unfaithfuhiess on her part is punished 
with death or the most degrading and painful chas- 
tisements. Islamism, in short, lowers matrimony be- 
neath the standard of Roman Paganism. The wife, 
not being the companion of the life and partaker of 
the joys and sorrows of the husband, entertains for 
him feelings of fear, rather than of affection, and re- 
cognises in him only the lord who decides her fate 
just as his capricious mood may dictate. ^^ However 
low the standard may be which Moslemin take of the 
matrimonial alliance, they nevertheless consider it 
the duty of every woman to live in the marriage estate ; 
to lead a single or widowed life, before she has reached 
old age, is regarded as wilfully transgressing a divine 
law. But this also arises fi'oni the idea that women 
are incapable of self-control, and incompetent to 
maintain a moral position without due supervision 
and guardianship; it also implies the deplorable im- 
potence of Islamism, which despairs of effectually 
disciplining the heart of a woman, and resigns the 
task of controlling her passions as one hopelessly 
beyond its power.'''' 

^' Perfectly consistent with this view the prophet never ele- 
vated the solemnization of matrimony to a religious rite, the Imam, 
Molla or Sheich being only present in his civil capacity, at the ex- 
ecution of the marriage contract. Chardin voyages en Perse, ed. de 
Langle's II. pag. 230. D'Ohsson I'Empire Othoman II. 362. 

*" Though women are not directly excluded from future hap- 
piness, yet it is a disputed point in the schools of Moslem divinity, 
whether they are to have a separate Paradise, with pleasures cor- 
responding to that of the men. Dollinger pag. 21. 


The religious education of the Moslem women is 
limited to their being drilled into a mechanical repe- 
tition of certain forms of prayer, in which the spirit 
of true devotion never breathes. The innate suspicion 
and utter want of confidence with which Moslemin 
regard their religious teachers, forbids their women 
obtaining the shadow of religious instruction from 
the Sheichs, — the legitimate fountains of authoritative 
teaching;*^* Moslemin indeed discourage their wives 
from strict adherence to their religious duties, lest 
they should fancy themselves on an equality with 
their husbands and kick against their authority. ^^ 
Under such circumstances it is not to be wondered, 
that a total destitution of religious feeling should 
exist among the females of the Moslem community. 
An Arab writer alludes to an exception in the case 
of Rabia,^^ but this isolated case, such as it, only 
renders the general darkness of female ignorance and 
degradation the more perceptible. 

6. Polygamy has been defended with consider- 
able ingenuity by Moslem writers but as might natur- 
ally be expected, with little success. The Koran itself 
admits the difficulty, in expressing Mohammed's own 
experience in the matter : "Ye cannot carry yourselves 

^^ Admission to the Mosques is only granted to the more aged 
females, and that only at times. 

^- Burkhardt's Travels in Arabia. 1829. IL pag. 196. 

^•^ She lived in the 2^ century of the Hedgra, but the account 
given by Ebn Chalikan implies that the Koran rather damped than 
nourished her flame of devotion ; she considered herself divinely 
punished by sickness for having contemplated the pleasures of 
Paradise, as she had learned them from the Koran! Tholuck's 
Bluthensamnilung aus der Morgenlandischen Mystik, pag. 31. 


equally between women in all respects." 6nr. iv. 3. 
It has proved a curse in the education of the children ; 
the sons are separated from each other from their 
childhood, and initiated into the revengeful plots of 
their intriguing mothers. ** Hence it happens, especially 
in royal harems, that brothers only recognise in each 
other dangerous rivals and threatening usurpers. In 
one Moslem dynasty only, viz. that of the Ottoman 
empire, have we an undisputed line of succession; 
but how dearly was it purchased! The crime of fratri- 
cide was duly legalised and raised to an imperial 
statute bv Mohammed 11*^' after he and his oreat 
grandfather Bajesid had given the precedent for the 
perpetration of this atrocious crime ;^^ not only were 
brothers of the Sultan thus cleared out of the way 
but also uncles and nephews. The Fetw a or sanction 
of the Moslem divines, is given upon the authority of 
the Koran: ''Disquietude is worse than murder." 
Thus the successor of that prophet, who condemned 
the exposure of new-born children as a Pagan abom- 
ination legally becomes the murderer of his brother, 
nephews and uncles! The Persian custom of the 

®* See the excellent remarks on Polygamy Mohler : Ucbcr bag 
aScrliciltntg bee 3elame ^um (S^anc^eliiini. ©efammclte Sdiriften p. 399 — 402. 
The article was tran.slated into English by Mr. Menge. 

®^ The Historian Raima records the murder of 19 brothers of 
Mohammed III. with a calmness, which is truely characteristic : "In 
a tumult which arose on the occasion of the funeral of the Sultan, 
19 brothers of the emperor, all mnocent and guiltless, were strangled 
and added to the comi)any of Martyrs." Annals of the Turkish 
Empire, translated by I'raser 1829. I. pag. 41. 

®^ Mouradgea D'Ohsson III. pag. 315. Hammer's Geschichte 
des Osmanischen Reiches. 


Sofi-dynasty, of blinding those princes not destined 
to succession, appears merciful, in comparison with 
this barbarity."'' In addition to these pernicious and 
terrible consequences of Polygamy which, besides four 
lawful wives, permits an unlimited number of con- 
cubines, we need scarcely mention the glowing revenc^e 
and the hot-burning jealousies of the incarcerated 
inmates of the harems, which are transformed into 
nurseries of unnatural vices, assassinations and secret 
poisonings. These crimes are committed with the 
greater impunity, as these hiding-places are closed 
to the surveillance of the organs of justice. Not in 
vain have Moslem historians remarked, that certain 
princes have understood the difficult task of keeping 
order and peace in the several departments of their 
respective harems. Thus it is stated in praise of the 
Spanish king Aben Alahmar, that his consummate 
skill succeeded in restoring and maintaining peaceful 
relations among his wives.*® 

It is one of the laws of divine providence that 
every offence against the natural order of things is 
sure to be revenged ; that polygamy is recompensed 
in its prejudicial effects, no one will deny; but it re- 
mains yet to be shown, that the institution has no 
foundation in the natural or psychological organisation 

®' Chardin V. pag. 242. Malcolm's History of Persia. II. pag. 
431. Fraser in his Journey into Khorasan pag. 204. records, that 
he found a young prince in his room with his eyes closed , groping 
about with his hands. Upon inquiring what he was doing, the 
prince reph'ed, "I practise myself in being blind, for thou knowest, 
when my father dies, they will either kill us, or put out our eyes." 

®^ Conde III. pag. 29. The late Mohammed Ali, Pasha of Egypt 
is said to have met with equal success. Michaud Nil. pag. 92. 


of either sex. It is in the first place, morally imposs- 
ible for a man to treat each of his Mives with the 
like affection and confidence; and before it can be 
assumed to be desirable for men to have more than 
one wife, it must be proved, that the female heart is 
of such an organisation, as will enable it cheerfully 
to divide the affection of one husband. This we know 
is impossible; nor dare we suppose that here alone 
was an oversight in the wise providence of God, which 
caused Him to create w^ants in the nature of man, 
which He did not alike create in the constitution of 
woman. ^^ Matrimonial love surrenders itself entirely 
and requires a similar return; but this cannot exist 
under the baneful influence of Islamism; that the 
wife is here but a slave and a commodity is proved 
by the fact, that the poor man has only one wife, just 
as he may happen to possess but one camel or one 
tent, whilst the rich man may have many; if it can 
be proved that man's constitution demands a plurality 
of wives, it is then unjust to withhold it from the less 
wealthy of the community. ^° 

7, Being considered as a piece of property, which 
the thief hides in a dark corner of the house and re- 
moves from society, the woman can be disposed of 
at any moment by her lord and husband. Divorce^ ^ 

®^ Polygamy obviously ilostroys all spiritual alicction in matri- 
mony; the spiritual clement wliich .should predominate, — since a 
mere physical union is not one of a matrimonial character in the 
Scripture term and signilication,— is utterly unknown to the Moslem 

^" Journal Asiatique 1836. II. pag. 4120. Mohler pag. 401. 

*" The prescribed words need only be pronounced to make it 
effectual. Hedaya I. pag. 201. 


makes it easy for Mohammedans to change their 
wives at any time; they have moreover the powerful 
example of the prophet: who, to enable him to 
marry Zaids wife, with whom he had fallen in love, 
persuaded him to divorce her!^^ That divorce is not 
so common among the better classes of society, is not 
to be ascribed to a deeper sense of the responsibility 
of such a step, but to the law which requires the 
husband to restore to the divorced woman her t/ouTy; 
also to the husband's jealousy which makes the thought 
intolerable that his wife should be ever seen by an- 
other man. '3 Among the poorer classes, separation 
is of daily occurrence. As Seneca could say of the 
Roman ladies of his day that they counted the years 
no more after the Consuls, but after their husbands,, 
so Mohammedans mark the events of their age by 
the number of their wives. A French traveller having 
asked an aged Egyptian, whether he remembered the 
campaign of Napoleon, he answered, that he had his 
seventeenth ivife at that time!^* Even among the 
simple Beduins , the cooling down of the husband's 
affection is sufficient reason for a divorce. ^^ 
'- Sur. XSXril. 4-6. 37. 38. 39. 

J^ The difficultj of restoring the dowry is avoided, by com- 
peJhng- the poor woman through harsh treatment to .sue for divorce 
as in this case, she can claim nothing. Qanoon-e-Islam: or the 
customs of the .Aloosulmans of India by Jaffure Shureef , translated 
byHerklots. 1832. pag. 146. xAIalcolm's Hist, of Persia II. p. 592. 

"* Michaud VII. pag. 84. He also relates that a man once re- ' 
jected his wife, casting her out into the street, because the day 
before she gave birth to a daughter, instead of a son, as h. had •' 

■• An Arab 45 years of age was found to have had 50 wives 
in succession. Burkhardt's Notes on the Bedouins and Wahabys. 
looy. pag. 64, "^ 


In the face of so deep and prevalent a corruption, 
which gnaws at the very roots of social life, dissolves 
all family tics, and poisons the most sacred relations, 
it cannot be deemed exaggerated to aver, that Islam- 
ism hypocritically presents only the external ap- 
pearance, instead of the reality of truth. Thus, it 
glories in maintaining the fundamental doctrine of 
the Divine Unity, but in its denial of the Divine Tri- 
nity, possesses only the abstract form without the 
substance of the truth; it surrounds itself with the 
external show of conscientious devotion, but as its 
ritual is destitute of the living breath of true and 
fervent prayer, it can only represent the semblance 
of communion with God. It enjoins fasting and re- 
quires abstinence from certain meats and drinks, but 
in letting loose those appetites, which most require 
s])iritual restraint, it affords only another instance of 
the pharisaical straining at a gnat and swallowing a 
camel. What, it may be asked, is the careful veiling and 
the complete separation from men, which the Koran 
imposes upon women, but a revolting caricature of 
purity; since the practical contempt for women and 
the sanctity of matrimony, together with tlio extra- 
ordinary facility of divorce, stand directly opposed to 
the preservation of female morality. Not satisfied 
with this looseness of the matrimonial tie, Moham- 
med, after the conquest of Mecca, introduced a kind 
of temporary marriage, ^^ which consisted in hiring 

"' The J/ota orMatu was repeatedly sanctiened by ^lolianinied; 
on some occasions, e. g. during the campaign to C'heibar it was 
interdicted. Weil's "Mohammed der Prophet", pag. 228. 


a wife for any definite term, at the expiration of which, 
she might be dismissed without any formahty. Omar 
is said to have abolished it, but Kahph Mamun was 
only prevented from legalising it again, by the per- 
suasion of Moslem divines.^" It is condemned by 
the Sonnites, but is practised among the Persian 
Shiites to the present day. ^'^ The condition of morals 
among the men , who so degrade the position of wo- 
man, may easily be imagined. It would be an offence 
to European, not to say, Chridian refinement, to 
drag to light those heathenish and unnatural vices 
which are perpetrated under the patronage of the 
religion of the Koran. ^^ This doubtless has hitherto 
been one of the main causes of the general failure of 
Missionary enterprize among Mohammedans : for the 
Moslem is naturally averse to abandon a creed which 
makes such extraordinary concessions to his most 
depraved and vicious appetites. * It is very true that 
Christianity met with equal opposition among Pagans 

^^ Abulfeda Annales Muslemici II. p. 197. 

"* Malcolm's History of Persia. II. pag. 591. A parallel case 
in Arabia. Burkhardt's Travels in Arabia II. pag 378. 

*^ Whoever may desire information upon these dark subjects, 
will find it in the "Memoirs of Barber" pag. 59. Mouradgea d'Ohs- 
son III. pag. 270. Michaud VU. 86. Fraser's Journey into Khorasan^ 
pag. 547. 

* "La sects est trop libertine et trop attrayante pour la quitter, 
c'est une peste de loi , qui s'est introduite par les armes et par la 
force, et qui va toujours avan^ant de meme (1680) je ne vois guere 
d'autres moyens que ceux-la niemes qui soient capables de cora- 
niencer a lebranler et a la dcraciner, si ce n'est done qu'il sur- 
vienne de ces grands et extraordinaircs coups du ciel, et que Dieu, 
par cette toute-puissante et toute particuliere providence n'y mette 
la main." Dernier, Voyages Arasterd. 1699. II. pag. 86. 



at the commencement of our era; but Paganism was 
not supported in its vices by a religious system like 
that of Islamism, the shaking and uprooting of which, 
will finally constitute one of the noblest triumphs of 
the Gospel of Christ. 

8. To a somewhat more favourable result leads 
the examination of the domestic and national institu- 
tion of slavery , as it exists among the Moslem com- 
munity. The legislation of the Koran is on the whole, 
;, less cruel and degrading respecting slaves than it is 
concerning women. Although the female slaves who 
enrich the harem, share, as a matter of necessity, 
the degradation of the entire sex, yet iMohammed in- 
culcates the mild treatment of slaves in general, ^ and 
to give them their liberty is deemed by him a meri- 
torious work; Sura XXIV. 33. A female slave is not 
to be separated from her child, and if it be the child 
of the master, she is to be free at his death. ^ As 
the power of the Saracens became extended, and the 
number of slaves were multiplied, their lot consequently 
became more imbittered, and the Moslem divines de- 
clared the murder of a slave to be a legal act.* As 
acts of oppression are generally revenged by rebellion 
and bloodshed, so it was in this case; the Zengi slaves 
at Pussora rose A.D. 868 against their masters, and 
acknowledging Ali, the Fatamite, as their ruler, a revo- 
lution followed which is stated to have cost 100,000 
human lives, and could only be suppressed after nine 

' Matliews' Translation of the Mishcat-ul-Masabih II. p. 139 — 
141. 601. 

" Hedaya I. 479. * Hedaya II. 414. 


years of bloodshed.' A notorious enemy of the Syrian 
Christians, Imad-ed-Deen, was likewise murdered in 
1145 by a rebellious host of slaves, and not seldom 
it happened that fugitive slaves fought bloody battles 
at the head of an army of insurgents. But when 
rulers surrounded their persons with hosts of slaves, 
upon whose protection they mainly depended for per- 
sonal safety, and began to entrust them with some 
of the most important offices of state, these slaves 
ultimately became lords of their masters, and the re- 
sult was, that in Egypt, the unheard-of institution of 
a Dulocratical Government came to be established. 
The Circassian slaves were first introduced into Egypt 
by Sultan Almansor Kelaun , and they were soon 
powerful enough to possess themselves for 128 years 
of the government of the land, and to place thirty- 
two princes of the Circassian dynasty of Mamelukes 
on the throne/ 

9. It is part of the character of Islamism, as a 
politico-religious system of faith , to put forth the 

^ Price's Mohammedan History 11. pag. 162. 

* Edebali , the Vizier of Urchan, proposed the horrible plan of 
forming the Jew, Tjerry , Janissaries or the ''New Armt/", o? Chris- 
tian children; and for nearly 500 years, boys, all born Christians, 
were enlisted into a body of at first 12,000, at last 40,000 strong, 
torn away, year by year from their parents , circumcised , trained, 
corrupted to the faith and morals of their masters; thus producing 
a threefold apostacy from parents, religion and native country in at 
least half a mill/on of instances. On the place where both the 
Nicomedian and Caesarian Eusebius were once forced to abjure 
their errors and to subscribe to the Nicene creed, there, these 
Christian youths were compelled to abjure their faith , and the 
walls of the Church of the holy Synod wore written over with the 
Moslem creed! Hanmier's Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches. 



most extravagant and illimitable claims. As successors 
of the Imams, the government of the miiverse belonged 
to the kings of Persia, and the like pretensions lie 
dormant in the Sultan of Turkey, as the alleged suc- 
cessor of the ancient Kaliphate. Ever since Selim I. 
was acknowledged by the Meccan sherifs. titular Ka- 
liph of Cairo , as the successor of the last Abasside, 
the Sultan of Constantinople has been acknowledged 
as the spiritual head of the Sonnite section of the 
Mohammedans; and all Moslem princes with then- 
dependencies consider themselves only members of 
the Osmanic Autocrat; even the Emperor of Morocco 
acknowledges the spiritual supremacy of the Sultan. ' 
According to the claims of the Kaliphate as a 
political and spiritual supremacy,, no other than a - 
Moslem ruler can demand obedience from Moham- 
medans; a point which statesmen at the present day 
would do well to bear in mind, in dealing with the 
refractory Mohammedans of India. The precept that 
the subject is bound to pay homage to '"the powers 
that be," is not to be found in the Koran; INIohammed, 
never imagining that the true believers could ever 
fall under the dominion of any foreign power, made 
no provision for such an event; and so long as breath 
remains in the body of the Moslem community, they 

' "STarouo ciitfvraiivjen tie 2d)Uneri(^feifcu , »vclf(;e bic i5or^orunl1 9hi^- 
lantc bci ten 5victci!ei''erluii'i'liiiiiicn bc^3a(irc^ 1772, i>a^ tie UiuU'l'aiuji^; 
feit tcr !?artarcu von Seitcii bev 5)5for^e oiierfannt iverten folic, errci^e; tie 
Jiirfifrfien 33cvp(liiuic(Uiiiff" crtlartcn, taf; tor Sultan alo .<!aliv'lie tcr c\t\^i 
Ifd^e Cberf^err oiler Sonni^, alfo and) ter lortarcn fei, ta^ tcr Jartaren; 
(5fian tadcr tie onvcflitur turdi ten SnUiin tcfnvfc, nnl' tiij? ticfcr feine 
ijodifte ©ciualt iibcr 3ntien, 33crtwra nno i'liuoifo nur wt^ax tcr ju ^vopcn 
(Sntfcrniing nict^t auoitbc." STollin^er pag. 36. 


will never, except from dire necessity, submit to any 
other than Moslem rule and government. They can 
only feel allegiance to be due, where they conceive 
Allah demands it from them; that is to say, only 
towards the government which derives its power, in 
some way or other, from the prophet himself, and 
this power, of course, could be delegated to no other 
than a Moslem sovereign. The rulers of Persia, if 
Shiites, or the Sultans of Constantinople, if Sonnites, 
can alone claim their obedience, for in them, they re- 
cognise the legitimate heads of the Shiite or Sonnite 
Mohammedans, both in a spiritual and political point 
of view. * 

As the right of government belongs only to a 
Moslem representative and successor of Mohammed, 
— who is "the shadow of God upon earth'' — the Mo- 
hammedans of India, being accidentally placed under 
a Christian power, feel themselves bound to consider 
it only as usurped for a time, and that they are in 
duty authorised to take the first favourable opportunity 
of shaking it off, and of transferring their allegiance, 
to a Moslem ruler. The Moslem divines of India, at 
one time , w^ere prepared to consider that resistance 
to the Government of the East-India Company should 
be dealt with as a crime ;^ but their readiness to sup- 

* As long therefore as Mohammedans remain, such it is not 
wise or prudent to trust to any loyal expressions, which they may 
utter when they feel compelled to submit to another, than that 
which they consider their divinely appointed government. Rebellion 
is not only a dominant natural instinct in Moslemin, but with them, 
it is religion and a matter of conscience to throw off a foreign yoke, 
at the very first opportunity. 

* See Edinburgh Review L. pag. 473. 


port the pretensions of the king of Delhi, in recent 
times, has proved their hypocrisy. *° As the confession 
of Ishimism is the indispensible prerequisite to legi- 
timatize a government, a Christian power ruling over 
a Mohammedan community, can only be looked upon 
as an insufferable anomaly. 

When Ferdinand of Spain expelled the Moors 
from his dominion, the measure was not merely 
prompted by a blind religious fanaticism, as has been 
thought by some, but was dictated by a deep-sighted 
policy. ^ ^ The Spanish Mohammedans from the be- 
ginning were always well-armed and ready for action ,• 
and after their subjugation cast longing eyes towards 
their African brethren, with whom they sustained a 
secret intercourse ; so long therefore as they remained, 
a threatening thunder-cloud hung over the Peninsula; 
since, the first landing of a INIoslem army on its shores 
would have brought every Moslem under arms. *^ 

*" With wonderful precision Diillinger predicted this event as 
far back as 1838. "3ivnr finfc bic (SicfcHcec^cIcIirten in J^iutoflan fefit 
bercitJiM'Uig, ben SWo^Icmifcficn Sciuiit firafbarer (S'linjoruncj auf jebcn 2Dtber; 
fiaiib i^ci^cn bic ^crrfdmft ber Cfl. (Somvai?nic an^mvciibcn; aber bicfcltcn 
unirben, ivcnn man von bem $^crfa(iren ifucr GoUec^cn imiur; 
fifdun DJcidif ev^entiicU auf ba^ ibrii^e [dilicpcn barf, bei bcr crflcn c^iwv- 
ftii^en 9Uh^fid)t bie 5lnfpriid)e eineo 3)Jo<?(cmifdien ^^jratenbcnten mit Srcuben 
bnrdi ibrc ^ft'^'^T^ untcrftii^cn." T'oUini'jcv pag. 36. note 64. 

'* The Moors were expelled from Spain and driven back to 
Africa in the 15"' century. 

*^ Hence the Moslem rulers treated Christian princes simply 
as usurpers, who, as infidels, could not receive their power from 
God , or act as his vice-regents upon earth. Hence also the Arab 
word, Targhi, rebel-chief, usurpator , which the Moslemin already 
applied to the Byzantine Emperors ; and after them to other Chris- 
tian sovereigns. Louis XVL caused a complaint to be lodged at 
the court of Morocco, requiring the Emperor to apply the title of 
Sultan to the kings of France ; the reply was: "None knew who 


Moslemin and Christians can never be fused into one 
political body; the former must ever remain a clog 
in the machinery of a commonwealth, owing to their 
singular pretensions and their peculiarly obstinate 
views and customs , which , from their heterogeneous 
character, resist every process of assimilation: on the 
other hand. Christians must ever remain strangers 
or passive members in a religions polity, which is 
administered npon the principles of the Koran. This 
has long since been exemplified in the Turkish 

10. The absolutely despotic form of Moslem 
government has been sometimes considered as the 
general type of Asiatic rule, but erroneously so, as 
is evident fi'om the fact of the sovereign powder being 
limited in the non-lNIoslemite states of Asia. No 
Hindoo monarch e. g. could interfere with the im- 
munities of the Brahmins or with the institution of 
caste. The Emperor of China, although the son of 
heaven, and approached by his subjects with profound 
reverence, yet can only fill up the oflfices of the state 
from a list of candidates which is prepared for him 
by a learned body of his subjects. Difi'erent is it with 
''the princes of the faithful;" here, the union of the 
civil and spiritual power, and a military rule, founded 

should deserve this title in the life to come ; those whom God would 
crown in paradise, were the true Sultans, and not those who were 
to be cast into hell-fire; the court could therefore never give that 
title to the monarchs of France; yea it would rather give it up, 
and though Turkey had given that title, it was done only by the 
Vizier, for the Sultan could never have sanctioned it." Sacy Chres- 
toniathie Arabe III. pag. 318. Agrell's Reise nach Marokko. 1790. 
pag. 282. 


upon the prestige of conquest, produce the most un- 
quaUficd form of a despotic government. In Persia, 
the military, and in Turkey, the theocratical element 
of the Kaliphate predominate: hence we have less 
brutal tyranny, less convulsions of dynastic changes 
in the latter, than in the former.*^ To show that the 
despotic rule of the Sultan originates in the religion 
of which he is the head, we may add, that his acts 
of tyranny are all looked upon as proceeding from a 
kind of divine inspiration, which none ventures to 
question. The INIoslem divines assert that the Sultan 
may kill fourteen people every day Avithout owing an 
explanation to any one. The official holiness of his 
person is in nowise destroyed by any vicious deeds, 
he may commit as a private individual.^* 

The Sultan who is generallv stvled bv his mother, 
"my Lion," or "my Tiger," is chiefly dreaded by those 
who are in his immediate presence. The higher the 
dignity and the greater the confidence, the greater 
has always been the danger; this is proved by the 
history of the ministers of the Porte. From 1370 
to 1789, 168 of these dignitaries have occupied the 
highest post in the realm; few of them have retained 
it so long as two yea,rs, and many have died by the 
hand of the executioner. Soleiman caused most of 

*^ The Persian proverb, "tlie j)resence of the Shah is a con- 
suming fire"; and the Turkish titles of the Sultan, "the shedder of 
blood", "the murderer" Chunkar or Kan-Jdisid, mark the character 
of both Governments. Chardin V. 220. Thornton's present state of 
Turkey 1809. I. 112. 

** The same may be said of the Sultan of Morocco: "9{((f^ ficingt 
tjon feiner UBidfur a\>, cr martU tic ®cff(}e, diitcrt, ncrftort fie, ftcKt fie uneber 
1)ix, unb ircdM'elt bamit gcmdg feiner ?aiine, (SLMUienienj ober feincm 3ntercffe. 


his prime ministers to be executed one after the other ; 
but an instinctive obedience and inchnation to submit 
to ^vhat is deemed the heaven-ordained power, so 
strongly influence the Moslem, that he considers any 
barbarity tolerable, and the most perverted deeds wise 
and natural; even to die by the hand of the >Sultan 
or at his command , has been looked upon as a sure 
pledge of eternal salvation, and a mart^Tdom worthy 
to be desired.*^ 

1 1 . The question arises , whether amidst such 
tyrannical oppression, these despotic princes ever at- 
tempted to alter the religion of the country. The 
history of Islamism replies in the negative. There 
are but few instances in which Mohammedan princes 
have ventured to make any alterations in their creed ; 
for they well knew, that were they to attempt such a 
thing, they would cease to be the organ of the God- 
head in the eyes of the people , and the foundation 
of their ov^^ power and security w^ould be fatally under- 
mined. ^^ The creed in question, had rooted too deeply 
in the hearts and lives of the people for any prince 
ever to succeed in accomplishing the task. The Mos- 

©0 flibt weber ein (5crv^ i'er UJema'g , nod) eitten init vom ^errfdjer unab-- 
r)ancitiier ©eivalt te!Icibcten Siufti , webcr 5)ivan nod) (5o((ec(tcn iinb mint-' 
ftftiflie J^cvattemente ; Mt^ flefd)iof)l narf) bem aaetnigen ®ibot be^ §etr; 
fdjcr^." ©raberg son Jgiemfo'^ ^aifcrU'um, a)iorpffo 1833, pag. 138. 

*' Bollinger pag. 39. 

*** The king of Delhi , Allah-T'ddin-Chilshi 1 830 conceived the 
idea, but was dissuaded from carrying it out. Ferishta 1. pag. 339. 

The Emperor Akbar under the title of «Jjl ii^A-lia. , Vice-regent 
of God, attempted to originate a new form of Deism, but with his 
death it fell to the ground. Vans Kennedy's account in the Trans- 
actions of the Liter. Society of Bombay Vol. 11. 1820. 


lem seldom cares to fight for his native country, his 
home or liberty, but should his religion be endangered, 
he zealously takes his stand beneath the banner of 
the crescent. For the last 300 years, the defence 
and spread of the Shiite principles was the pretext 
for every battle which was fought by the Persians/' 

More fortunate were Moslem monarchs as re- 
formers of abuses, suppressors of heresies, defenders 
of orthodox doctrines and revivers of religious zeal; 
and so long as the head of the nation was satisfied, 
the subjects considered all to be right. ''The power 
of religion is too weak without the authority," said 
Akhun Dervezeh, and he explained his failure in 
bringing back the sect of the Rosheniah to the ortho- 
dox faith, by the fact of there having been no monarch 
at hand to strike off the heads of the heretics.*** 
This, indeed, was the usual method of settling disputes 
and suppressing abuses. Mir Zaid Sherif gave it as 
his opinion, and he was considered the prince of 
doctors, that Timur had been called by Allah to de- 
stroy infidels and heretics ; Avhich he did by saturating 
the earth with the blood of nations, and by causing 
the inhabitants of Damascus to be cut to pieces , in 
order to revenge the death of Ali, 800 years after 
the murder was committed.*® 

12. That the cause of Islamism should have been 

*^ Malcolm's History of Persia II. pag. 339. 

** Leyden's Memoir on the Rosheniah sect, Asiat. Researches 
Vol. XI. pag. 386. 

*' Instituts politiques et militaires de Tanierlan , proprement 
appelle Timour, ecrits par lui-mcme et traduits par Langles 1887. 
pag. 17. 120. 


supported by such fearful destruction and bloodshed, 
is to be traced, not so much to the personal character 
of its protectors and reformers, as to the nature of 
Islamism itself, which teaches that religion is a system 
of compulsion, and maintains that it is the duty of 
God's vice-gerents upon earth, to punish transgression 
as a civil offence by physical power. ^° Offences against 
the precepts of the Koran, such as the ordinance of 
fasting or the prohibition of wine, are therefore, in- 
variably punished with pecuniary fines or corporeal 
chastisements. Ebn Butata relates, with peculiar 
satisfaction, that in each Mosque in China, a whip 
was hanging, for the spiritual benefit of those who 
were not at their places during prayers, the castiga- 
tion being performed by the presiding Imam. ^ ^ Burnes 
found the same practice prevailing in Bokhara, where 
he saw persons publicly scourged because they had 
slept during prayer, or smoked on a Friday. ^ ^ In times 
of extreme severity , an order of spies was regulaily 
formed, who penetrated private families in order to 
betray the secrets of domestic life. ^ ^ As the legis- 
lation of the Koran and the So una extend over private 
and public life, it is considered the duty of the organs 

'" DoUingf^r pag. 47 says: "Ticfe JWefic^t'cn ifl ndmticft tOret 9(n; 
(acie nad) fine t^eli^cilidie Sn^anfieanftalt, ciii flrenge^, niit cinem 3aiin von 
«P6naIfanctiotien itnigebenca @eff^, unb bie ^fiidjt bet ©tfttvertreter ©ctted 
nuf ©rben ijl t6, bie Uebertretungen ju ftrafen." 

^' Travels of Ebn Butata (1325) translated by Lee 1829. 

^^ Burne's Travels in Bokhara 1834. I. pag. 313. 

*' Kaliph Omar sanctioned this odious practice by his example, 
but Dhaher Billah , after it had risen to a scandelous pitch under 
his father, suppressed it. Price's Mohammedan History II. 211. 


of its administration to inspect both departments and 
to punish offences in each. 

It cannot therefore sin-[)rise us to learn, that the 
Fatamite, MoesHdin-Allah, who was by no means one 
of the most blood-thirsty and cruel, caused every person 
who was seen in the streets of his capital after the 
last evening prayer, to be beheaded. ^* This compulsory 
system of religious police attained its greatest height 
under Hahem Bmmar-Allah from 996 to 1021; he 
prohibited the cultivation of certain plants , because 
they were favourites with the opponents of Ali, and 
the brewing and selling of beer, because Ali disliked 
it; dogs and swine were destroyed as impure animals, 
and the fishing and selling of eels was visited with 
capital punishment; people with wdiom were found 
resins, honey, or dates were executed, because these 
products were used for the preparation of spirituous 
liquors; chess was interdicted; women were no more 
allowed to look out of their windows nor to go into 
the streets, and shoemakers w^ere forbidden to supply 
them with shoes. ^^ This man, who committed in- 
numerable cruelties against the Sonnites, Jews and 
Christians, and treated his subjects with such con- 
summate tyranny, is still w^orshipped by a numerous 
sect, as an incarnation of the Deity! Religious zeal 
has rarely been carried to such an extreme, but the 
pseudo-theocratical principle, which points out the 

^* Quatremoro, Vie dii Khalife Moezz .Tournal Asiatique 1837. 
pag. 44. He resided at Kairowan A. D. 959. 


The consequence of these prohibitions was , that many died 
from starvation in tluir houses. Sylv. de Sacy, vie du Khalife Ha- 
kem Biamar- Allah. Expose de la religion des Druzes 1838. Tom. I. 


despotic ruler as the person "to whom vengeance 
belongeth," could not fail to lead to tyrannical op- 

] 3. This leads to the low estimation of human 
life, and that lust of abusing and mutilating the human 
body, of which the history of Islamism furnishes such 
numerous and unparalleled instances. ^*^ The Koran 
is not responsible for all the atrocious crimes com- 
mitted in its name, but it is powerless to check or 
control the terrible satisfaction which its followers 
feel, not only in executions en masse, but especially 
in inflicting the most ingenious and unheard-of tor- 
tures. It cannot be said that the Koran directly ad- 
vocates a cruel legislation; yet we must look for the 
cause of the inhuman atrocities committed by its 
followers, partly in the licentious excesses which it 
sanctions and which are generally accompanied with 
cruelty, and partly in its teaching that war and de- 
struction are the legitimate means of propagating the 
faith. The Koran thus directly excites and sanctifies 
the worst passions of human nature. Weapons at 
first used against infidels, were soon turned against 
each other, and never perhaps were cruelities more 
fully revenged on the perpetrators, than when the 
Moslem parties executed vengeance upon each other. ^ ' 

•^ Christianity in holding that the body is the temple of the 
Holy Spirit, protests, not indeed against capital punishment when 
lawlul, but against any profanation of it by wanton and cruel mu- 
tilations: whenever these have been perpetrated, it was against 
the spirit of the Gospel. 

^^ The reader will remember that more of the friends and com- 
panions of the prophet fell by the hand of co-religionists than by 
that of the enemy. In the battle between All and Moviah 70,000 


In addition to tlie terrible struggle which ensued 
when the Omayades usurped the Kaliphate, we may 
refer to the equally cruel strife when they were de- 
feated, and the Abassides, as the legitimate line of 
succession, resumed the power. ^* 

Not less ferocions was the subsequent struggle 
between the Shiites and the ruling Kaliphs: in order 
to revenge the death of Hossein, Mochtar executes 
48,000 Moslemin, and the great Sonnite Hadshadsha 
sacrifices in return 120,000 Shiites, leaving 30,000 
men and 20,000 women in prison when he died. 
Another tyrant, who seeks for the Kaliphate, massa- 
cres 17,000 innocent inhabitants in Chorasan, only 
as a measure of precaution lest they might go over 
to Abu Moslem. What a revenge upon the doctrine 
of the Koran, that all true believers are brothers ! If 
it be objected that this seed of Cain has been also 
at work among Christians, we may add, that wherever 
this w^as the case, they had rejected the precepts 
and denied the character of their INIaster. ^loslem 
monarchs have not hesitated, in their dying moments, 
to give orders lor unjust executions and even for put- 
ting their nearest relatives to death. ^^ The Christian 
custom of granting condemned persons time and op- 
portunity for repentance and preparation for death, 

Mosloniiu tell. (juatvciiRre , Mcnioires sur la dynastie des Khalifes 
Abassides, Journal Asiatique XVI. pag. 301. 

*® Price's Mohammedan Hist. I. pag. 571. 11. 12. 

^"^ As soon as Mohammed VII, king of Granada, was sure of his 
death he wrote, "Alcayde of Xainbonia, thou my servant, on re- 
ceiving this letter, kill my brother Zeid Jusef and send his head by 
the bearer." Conde lU. 187. 


is of course unknown among Mohammedans. Had 
such a humane law existed, many a life might have 
been spared, as time woidd have thus been given for 
the cooling down of the wrath of the despot, who 
had ordered the execution. ^° 

14. The dogma o{ predestination, or rather fatal- 
ism, as taught in the Koran, produces a feeling of 
apathy and indifference on the part of the people 
which tends greatly to strengthen Moslem despotism. 
Mohammedan divines have indeed sought to modify 
the dogma by limiting it to religious matters, but 
the peoj^Ie indifferent to these metaphysical distinc- 
tions, have ever believed, that the minutest incidents 
of human life are pre-ordained and unalterably fixed 
by a Divine decree, and that no effort on the part of 
man can possibly alter or avert that which is written 
in the book of decrees ;^^ nor can it be overlooked, 
that this belief, allied as it was with religious enthusi- 
asm and warlike fanaticism, rendered most essential 
service to Islamism in its rise. As a moral opiate it 
served a variety of purposes, by calming the mind in 
disappointment, stimulating it to exertion in difficul- 
ties or presenting an excuse for incompetence and 
apathy. When Kalipli Hasham contemplated taking 

•"' "The English Governors, said the ex-king of Ceylon , have 
an advantage over the kings of Candy; they are surrounded by 
counsellers who do not permit them to do anything in the heat of 
passion ; and this is the cause wJjy ye have so few capital punish- 
ments ; unfortunately however for us the offending person is already 
dead before our anger is cooled down." Events , in the I-Jand of 
Ceylon, written by a gentleman on the spot. 1815. pag. 31. 

^' So it is written i^jjJLft^ I jl, the Moslem says on every oc- 
casion. Chardin III. p. 4U6. 


measures against tlie Abassides, who sought for 
the KaHphate, he was dissuaded by being told, that 
if it was decreed that the Abassides should recover 
the Kaliphate, all his efforts would avail nothing, and 
if it was not decreed, he need not resist their efforts 
to obtain it. ^^ When a general sustains a defeat, 
he consoles himself by the reflection that such was 
his unavoidable fate written in Allah's book of de- 
crees.^' As evil, as well as good is pre-ordained, the 
dogma produces a most listless apathy in resisting 
temptation; nor need we enlarge on its prejudicial 
effects in times of calamity; when active measures 
might arrest an evil, all efforts are paralysed, and 
every vicissitude of life is borne with a morbid re- 
signation. This doctrine has undoubtedly proved one 
of the most effective causes of the deep moral and 
political decay of the Moslem community. 

Closely connected with the INIoslem view of pre- 
destination is the eagerness with which Mohammedans 
pursue the baneful art of reading the fate of man in 
the stars. Astrology has become to them one of the 
most necessary and practical sciences of life. As the 
heavenly bodies are said to indicate the otherwise 
hidden decrees of Allah, the influence of this spurious 
science upon the acts of individuals has been immea- 
surably great. The mightiest monarchs made their 
greatest enterprizes dependent upon the predictions 
of astrologers : generals , governors and even re- 
latives were suddenly murdered because it was read 

^' Quatreniere, Journal Asiatique XVI. 331. 
'^ Quatremere, Journal Asiatique 1837, p. 72. 


in the heavens, that they meditated rebelHon; and 
rebels again succeeded in dethroning a despot and 
in raising a creature of their own to the throne , be- 
cause it was ascertained that the stars were favour- 
able.^* Each day and hour being placed under the 
favourable or unfavourable influences of the constella- 
tions, every nndertaking, from the waging of a battle 
to the putting on of a new suit of clothes , requires 
the happy moment to be astrologically determined. ''^ 
15. Although heterodox teaching \vas in most 
cases summarily suppressed, by sending heretics to 
the rack and thence to the place of execution,^" yet 
there was perhajDS no religion more distracted by 
sects and heresies than Islamism,- and as they afford 
a deeper insight into the character and influence of 
this creed, they may fitly be noticed in this chapter. 
The prediction of Mohammed that the world would 

^ Kaliph Motiss shut himself up in a subterraneous vault, 
which was constructed for that purpose , for a whole year , because 
the astrologers predicted, that only by so doing, he could escape 
a fearful calamity. Quatreraere, Journal Asiatique 1837. p. 207. 

''' Bernier I. pag. 113. says respecting their decisions: "ce qui 
est une gene incroyable , et une coutume qui traine avec soi des 
consequences si importantes , que je ne sais comment elle pent sub- 
sister si long terns. Car eniin il faut que I'Astrologue ait connai- 
sance de tout ce qui s'entreprend depuis les plus grandes affaires 
jusqu'aux plus petites." See also Malcolm 11. 576. 

^^ Such measures were already sanctioned by the example of 
Kaliph Omar; when a man was brought before him, who doubted 
the divinity of the Koran, he cut him completely in two, and thus 
earnf d the honourable cognomen of "decider'. See other instances 
Abulfeda Annales K. 51. 641, Hammer, Geschichte des Osman. 
Reiches I. 499. 663. Herbelot p. 397. d'Ohsson. I. 156—159. 
Price's Moham. Hist. II. 464. Chronique d'Abou Djafar Tabari, 
traduite par L. Dubeux 1836. I. 255. 



not come to an end, until one of his family and name 
should appear upon earth to assert his divine mission, 
and perfect the conversion of mankind to Islamism, 
was so direct an invitation to imposture, that even in 
his life-time, no less than three pretenders arose in 
Arabia. In a few years after his death, eight others 
sprang up, giving rise to endless schisms, sects and 
heresies. We will not recur to Mohammed's pre- 
diction, that his followers should be divided into 
seventy-three sects, ^' for its falsity is proved by the 
Moslem doctors themselves who so long ago filled 
up that number that they ceased to count them. 
Remarkable however as it might seem, that a creed 
without mvsteries which may fairly be inscribed on 
the nail of a finger , should produce any dissent, yet 
in the fourth century of the Hedgra, there were no 
large towns or provinces, where hosts of sectaries were 
not found. ^'^ 

At this rapid inci'ease of heresy we may perhaps 
be the less surprised, if we consider that Islamism 
itself is but an arch-heresy; and it may be added that 
some of the sectarian offshoots of the creed in ques- 
tion, approximated nearer to Christianity. Christian 
heresies Generally differ fi'om the orthodox creed touch- 
ing the mysteries of Redemption, the Incarnation 
of the Son of God, the dogma of the Holy Trinity, 
and the means of grace ; but Islamism, being ignorant 

'' Sliarcstani speaks of 71 Jewish, 72 Christian, and 73 Mos- 
lem sects. One alone of the latter is said to attain salvation. Po- 
cocke Spec. hist. Arabuni, pag. 213. 

^® Sacj', Expose de la religion des Druses, Introd. pag. 25. 


of anything higher than their prophet and his suc- 
cessors, could yield no other pretext for dissent than 
the question, who was the legitimate head of religion 
and the state. The rejection of the God-man Jesus 
Christ, has been justly pointed out, as the reason, ' 
why most of the Moslem sects thrust themselves, we 
might almost say instinctively , on some precarious 
substitute, veneration for whom, absorbs their religious 
feeling, and from whom they expect their salvation.^* 
We can only explain this fact from the instinctive 
longing of the human heart after an approachable 
mediator between God and man, which, Islamism, in 
denying the incarnation of the Son of God, leaves un- 
satisfied. The principal cause for faction in the Mos- 
lem camp was connected with the Kaliphate, which 
was intended to unite the body of the believers. From 
the very earliest period questions arose as to whether 
Abubeker, Omar and Othman were legally chosen, 
or whether they were to be considered intruders and 
usurpers; whether Ali, as the relation and son-in-law 
of Mohammed, was the legitimate heir and successor; 
whether the Ommayades, or the Abassides — who 
successively assumed the power of the Kaliphate after 
the murder of Ali — were to be acknowledged; and 

^^ "2)ag ttefe, buret) ben S^Iam unbcfricbigt gelaffenc <8cburfni^ be^ 
tnenfdbHdjen ©etfte^, ficfi ber®ottf)ett burrf) cinen gottIicf)--iitetifd)Iid)en SKittlcv 
IV. naf}eii, mitfjtc jciie l'el;rcn iinb Seften f}cn>prriifcn , imrf) bcTicn einc 3n; 
hjofinung ber ©ottl'cit in cinjelncn 8el}rcrn nnb >^anvtcrn ber Religion fiatt- 
finbet . . . Ucberr)aui?t abfr erfennt man in bem SDJanget be^ ©laubfn^ an 
ben ®ottmenfcf)cn ben ®runb, Irarum bie aTcoeleniifrfien (geften groientfjeil^ 
faft inftinllrndpig fid) an ei'njehie 2)Jenfc()en onnammerten, beren 93erel)rung 
all i()t rcligii3fcg ©efutjl abforbivte, unb »on bcncn fie i{;r §eil enoarteten." 
JTollingcr pag. 85. 



whether the twelve Imams who succeeded Ali were 
the lawful and only successors. To these, other points 
of dispute were added, such as, whether the Kaliphate 
was at all hereditary and confined to one family, or 
whether the choice of a successor was not left to the 
faithful at large; whether only one Imam could reign 
at a time, or whether two might not reign at the 
same period;**^ whether in times of division there 
was a true Kaliph at all, or whether only he could 
be considered such , who was universally acknow- 
ledged.** Several sects insisted upon the sinless 
nature of the Kalij^hs, and consequently upon their 
infallibility. Allah was thought to have united him- 
self with Ali and his successors, or as the Hatibis 
understood it, the spirit of Allah became incarnate 
in the successors of the prophet. The different sects 
of the Rafedhis believed, that the Kaliphate was only 
reserved to a few chosen individuals ; whilst their 
fierce opponents, the Karedshis, held it lawful to take 
up arms against any Kaliph wdio committed sin;*^ 
and these again were opposed by the Kamelis, who 
taught that Ali himself became an unbeliever, when 
he declined to fight out his rights with the sword. 
The MohahMms, a branch of the latter sect, rejected 
Ali, because at Safein, he placed the decision as to 
the right of succession in the hands of the Harawris, 

*" The first opinion held, iiLyoLci.^'1, the Hashemis; JLoU-a-XawJI, 
the Soleimanis, io».^,S\Jt, or the Djaboris, the latter that of the 
followers of Hamssa, iL>v4_S\J|. Ishmacl Shachinshah apud Abrah. 
Echellensis Eutychius vindicatus. Rom. 1661. II. pag. 384 etc. 

*^ Sacy Expose introd. pag. 41. ** Makrissi apud Sacy p. 13. 


who neither acknowledged Ali norMoviah;*^ and the 
Shebibis, who admitted that even a woman was not 
exchided from exercising the functions of aKaHph.** 
The Ali-IlIaMs , a sect which exists to this day 
in Persia, Arabia and Hindostan, receive the widely 
spread notion, that Allah united himself with the 
several Imams; only with this difference, that Adam 
was the first and Ali the last of these incarnations 
of the godhead. Ali is worshipped as such, his seat 
is supposed to be that of the sun, and the Koran, as 
it now stands , is considered to be the forgery of the 
first three Kaliphs.*^ That Ali-Allah or Ali-Murteza 
ranks above Mohammed can be easily inferred fi-om 
this; and indeed, it is taught by this sect, that Allah 
assumed the form of Ali, on perceiving the incom- 
petency and the defects of Mohammed as a prophet.*^ 
The Garabis, in the same spirit maintained, that the 
angel Gabriel was sent to Ali, but being misled by 
a great family-likeness, turned to Mohammed by mis- 
take;*^ whilst the Halbanis andDhemmis openly de- 
clare, that Mohammed usurped the prophetical office, 
which by right belonged to Ali. Others were more 
liberal and ascribed a divine character to Mohammed, 
Ali andFatima, and their two sons Hasan andHossein. *^ 

*^ Qiiatremere, Nouv. Journ. Asiatique, IX. p. 400. 

** Hazala, the mother of the author of this sect acted asKaliph, 
in the Mosque at Kufa. Bollinger pag. 86. 

*^ So the Dabistan apud Colebrooke on the origin and peculiar 
tenets of certain Mohammedan sects. Asiat. Researches VII. p. 338. 
*" Fraser's Journey into Khorassan pag. 286. 
*' Abulfeda 11. 758. 
*" Ishmaei Shachinshah apud Abrah. Eschellens. pag. 432. 


16. One of the most fertile causes of various 
sects among the Shiite section, was doubtless the 
uncertainty as to the real successor of Ali; for at one 
time it was this, at another, that member of his fa- 
mily; and sometimes a stranger was fixed upon as 
J mam. The Kissanis at a very early period fastened 
their veneration upon Mohammed Ebn Hanefieh, one 
of the sons of Ali, but not by Fatima.*^ The Bas- 
lemis looked upon Abu-Selma asKaliph; andllakem 
Ebn Ilashem or Mokana, the veiled j^^'ophet with 
the golden mask, who lived at Moravalnahar and 
Khorassan A. D. 779 — many of whose followers are 
still found in the provinces of the Oxus — maintained, 
that the divine spirit of the assassinated Abu-Selma 
had descended upon him. ^^ The Bajanis offered divine 
honours to their master, Bajan, who was supposed to 
have inherited the Kaliphate from Ali. The pro- 
phecy of Mohammed, according to which, the true 
guide or Mahdi, should come after a period of trouble 
and oppression to rear up a kingdom of peace and 
happiness, was naturally one of the most productive 
sources of heresy. ^ ^ The Shiites transfer the idea of 
the Mahdi to the last of the twelve Imams, the young 
Abul-Kasem Mohammed, who disappeared A. D. 879. 
in the twelfth year of his age; they believe that he 
is now concealed in some secret place, and will reappear 
on some great emergency, to resume the spiritual 

*^ Quatreniere, Nouv. Journ. Asiat. X. 41. 

^^ Abulfeda U. 47. Price II. 25. Sacy Expose pag. 61. 

*' He is only to live 8 or 9 years among the faithful. Siuti, 
History of the temple of Jerusalem pag. 296. 



and temporal power of the Moslem community 
The kings of the Sofi-dynasty with reference to him, 
bore the title: "servant of the king of the land." Ebn 
Batata found a mosque at Hilla in Mesopotamia, the 
entrance of which was veiled with a silk curtain, and 
the building called the mosque of "the Lord of ages." 
The inhabitants appeared day by day before the gate 
in full armour with a saddled horse, calling for the 
Mahdi, and imploring his appearance to "suppress 
tyranny and to separate truth from error. ^ ^ We can 
easily conceive that where such fervent expectation 
existed, it could be no difficult task for any descendant 
of Ali to claim the dignity of the promised Mahdi. 

17. The doctrine of the divine attrihites being a 
point which comes next in importance to that of the 
succession, w^e should naturally expect that a diversity 
of views and opinions would spring up , wherever an 
interest in metaphysical questions haj^pened to be 
excited. The schools of Moslem Theology have ever 
been distracted by religious controversies but par- 
ticularlv since the second centurv^ In its earliest 
period, Islamism needed no other M'eapon than the 
sword; but when KaliphlNIamun caused the writings 
of the Grecian philosophers to be translated into 
Arabic, a leaven was introduced which, according to 
Makriss, produced incalculable mischief. The contra- 
dictions in the teaching of the Koran became now 

** At Ispahan two saddled horses were always kept in readiness, 
one for the Imam Mahdi, the other for his vice-regent, Jesus. 
Chardin \TI. 456. IX. 144. Pfander's Remarks, pag. 6. 

" Ibn-Batuta's Travels pag. 109. 


more and more apparent, sects arose in multitudes, 
and each fled to the newly acquired armoury of" Grecian 
philosophy, appropriating such definitions and rea- 
sonings as best suited their particular views and tastes.^ * 
The orthodox Moslem divines being alarmed at such 
an influx of heretical teaching, resolved to use the 
poison itself as an antidote. Hence the memorable 
resolution of a theological assembly at Bossura: "Re- 
ligion is so defiled and mixed with error, that only 
by the aid of the Grecian philosophy can it be puri- 
fied." ^^ 

It will not be out of place to notice the diff'erence 
between Islamism and Christianity under the pressure 
of Heathen Philosophy. Islamism, more than any 
other creed, w^as destitute of those elements which 
could be amalgamated with the speculations of classic 
antiquity; it was therefore rather for the benefit of 
the heretical sects that they were introduced. The 
most celebrated men among the orthodox party, who 
attempted to introduce these elements of Grecian 
philosophy into the body of Moslem divinity, openly 
avow-ed that their religious views had nothing in 
common with that of the masses ;^^ hence, they were 

** "Alors se produisirent au grand jour diftercntes sectes, telles 
que los Kadris, Ics Djahiuis , les Motazalcs, Ics Kcramis, les Kha- 
redjis, les Rafcdliis , les Karmates, les Batenis, ct la terre fut 
rerui^lie. II n'y cut aucune de ces sectes, dont les partisans n'etu- 
diassent la philosopliic , et n'onibrassassent parmi les doctrines des 
diflTerentes sectes de philosophes celle, qui leur agreait davautage." 
Makrissi apud Sacy cap. I. p. 25. 

^^ Greg. Abul-Pharaji historia Dynastiaruni Oxon. 1663. p. 218. 

''® This was done byAlGazal, the author of a philosophical 
Romance. Tholuck comment, de vi, quam Graeca philosophia in 
theologiam Muhammcd. exercuerit. 1835. p. 15. 


suspected of heterodoxy. ^ ^ Christianity on the con- 
trary, has always possessed sufficient power to admit 
a free and honest inquiry into its teaching on the 
one hand, and on the other it has never lacked strength 
to repel the infusion of heterogeneous elements into 
its system. It preserved its distinctive doctrines for 
instance, in the third and fourth century against the 
Platonic errors of Origen, and when the philosophy 
of Aristoteles assayed to strike up an alliance with 
Christianity in the thirteenth century, it was confined 
to a few subtle schoolmen. Indeed the difference 
between an exoteric and esoteric religion, as held by 
the philosophical Moslemin, remained happily un- 
known to Christianity, being a creed essentially suited 
to the mass of the people. ^'^ 

Several expressions in the Koran, and others 
ascribed by tradition to Mohammed, such as, "God 
making man in his own form," and the prophet feeling 
"the cold finger of Allah on his shoulder," produced 
certain anthroj)omorphistic conceptions of the divine 
nature , and gave rise to the sects of the Moshabites 
or "the assimilating ones." The Keramites ascribed 
a body and members to Allah; the Beyanites, upon 
the authority of a j^assage in the Koran , maintained 
that Allah had a human face, which alone should 
remain for ever; and the ALogarites ascribed to him 

^^ This happened to Gazal, Ebn Sina and Alkendi, the three 
greatest men of Moslem science. Takieddin asserted : that God must 
revenge the damage done to piety by Mamun when he introduced 
Greek learning among the Arabs. 

*^ <IitXo(TO(fjtiv . . . to nXri&og ddwatoi nvai, was already said 
by Plato de Republic, lib. VI. pag. 89. 


a luminary body with human outhnes. On the other 
hand, the orthodox behevers being at a loss how to 
reconcile the spirituality of Allah with the infallible 
authority of the Koran , warned men against a too 
literal acceptation of its expressions/** 
•V 18. To avoid the distinction of persons in the 
Holy Trinity, the JJjarnis and the powerful sect of 
the Motazalites, which again split into twenty con- 
flicting parties, denied the divine attributes, asserting 
that to ascribe eternal attributes to Allah, is to as- 
sume so many personalities and to fall into the error 
of the Christians /° Thus the Koran dogma of the 
abstract Lnitif led to a complete denial of the glorious 
character of God, and an utter negation of His divine 
perfections ! The Sefatians or attributists rushed to 
the opposite extreme of a gross Anthropomorphism. ^* 
It was to be expected that the dogma of the un- 
conditional predestination of all events and deeds 
without respect to their moral or immoral nature, 
would be opposed by many a thoughtful Moslem; for 
according to the prevalent belief of the orthodox party, 
the bad as well as the good works of men were pre- 
determined by the irrevocabledecreeof the Almighty. 
This doctrine was opposed by the Motazalites, and 
especially by the Kadris,^'^ who taught that Allah did 

^^ Pococke spec, liist. Arab. pag. 172. Sharistani apud Pococke 
pag. 226.228. 2;il. iL^A.cL*Jt, Maf^habites, Assiiuilantcs; aUxwC't, 
Caramitac; x.<oLyJt, Bajanitae; and ibj-i^-t) Moglieiritac. 

'''' iL!j.AJL«.J|, tht'Motazalitae. SeeMaracc. Prodiom. Pars 111. 74. 

^' XAJLft.oJf, Sapliatitae. Ishniael Shacliinslia pag. 396. 
''^ XjviXJi-M, Kadritae so called from »tXJ' power, or moral 
liberty to act. 


not decree beforehand the deeds and inclinations of 
his creatures. Maabad, the leader of this party, was 
put to the rack and then executed at Bussora A. D. 
699. by the command of the Kaliph Abdelmalek. 
The antipodes of the Kadris, were the Tjabaris,^^ 
who denied in toto that man has any power or 
liberty of his own, but that Allah compels him to 
perform all his deeds; also the Rayatis, who main- 
tained that evil actions must be acceptable to Allah; 
and the Djamis^ who taught that man is merely a 
dead instrument in all he performs ; the Kalfis con- 
sistently added, that to punish man for his deeds 
would be unjust on the part of Allah. The Heshamis 
on the contrary, rejected several passages of the Koran, 
especially those, in which it is said that "Allah leads 
into error whomsoever he will," lest the moral liberty 
of man should be endangered: whilst the Maimunites 
and Basharites denied that God had any connection 
with human actions, hence excluding also the co- 
operation of his grace. ^* 

19. Some of the Moslem sects ventured to ap- 
proximate considerably closer to the truths of Chris- 
tianity than Islamism; but even the Hayetis and 
Hadathites, who ascribed a divine character to the 

^^ Vox Arabica vA^^^.-^! est negatio actionis verae in homine, 
tribuendo illam Deo. Maracc. Prod. III. 75. hence their name 
J!b«_A-S\JI, Gebaritae, 

^* Respecting the Chalphitae, RaA-I^JI, or Kalfis see, True 
and false Relig. I. pag. 367—377. upon Brahmanism. The Mai- 
munitae, JLu«-»jLfJI, belong likewise to the many antinoniistical 
sects, whose respective names we pass over on account of the licen- 
tious character of their views. 


"son of IMary" can scarcely be said to have raised 
themselves above the level of Arianism, masmiich as 
they recognised in Christ only a secondary, created 
divinity, who was to judge the world at the end of 
days. ^^ The true character and influence of Is- 
lamism will be better understood from the compa- 
ratively new-born sect of the Wahabees, than from 
any other; since they not only profess to restore Is- 
lamism to its primitive form, but remind us in many 
respects of the days of Mohammed. ^^ 

Wahab, the author of this sect, destroyed the re- 
ligious veneration with which ^Mohammed was regard- 
ed as the intercessor of the faithful, as well as that 
which was extended to a host of Moslem saints. The 
precepts of the Koran were again enforced at the 
point of the sword. His first disciples , Ebn Sehud 
and Abd el Assis, the son of the latter, revived Mo- 
hammed's original i)lan of restoring the religious and 
political unity of the Peninsula under one head. All 
Moslemin who had departed from the primitive creed, 
and other unbehevers were to be converted and re- 
formed by compulsion; pilgrims and caravans, towns 
and mosques were plundered; thousands were slain, 
and the most desperate havoc w^as made of the se- 
pulchral monuments and chapels of the Moslem saints. 
The successor of Sehud musteredanarmy of 120,000 

^* iujjk.:!.!. aLdljLlf, Hajetitae et Hadathitac ; they also 
asserted ^f-rfMXpvxoiaiq. 

^^ Its author was Mohammed Abd cl Wahab; A. D. 1729. They 
are only known since 1750 in Europe. See also: Burkhardt's notes 
on the Bedouins and Wahaby's. 1830. pag. 282. 


and about thirty tribes of the Arabs were subdued by 
these sectarians. It was reserved to the hte I'l oh atJi- 
medAli of Egypt, to break up their power, Abdallah 
their last head was taken to Constantinople and exe- 
cuted, notwithstanding which, the sect survived. 

20. A very important link in the chain of Moslem 
sectarianism is found in the mystical Sufiism °' which 
chiefly prevails among the Shiites. The feeling of 
animosity against the sect was always very bitter, 
and Gazal declared it to be a more meritorious work 
to kill a Sufi than to save ten human lives. ^^ The 
whole structure of Sufiism is based upon these two 
ideas: first, besides God all is deception and vanity 
and nothing really exists; secondly, union ivith God 
is the highest scope and object of human effort. The 
means to obtain this highest degree of perfection is 
self-denial, total abstraction of the mind from earthly 
pursuits, and entire devotion to mental contemplation 
of the Deity and the human soul, by which all prac- 
tical modes of religious worship, such as fasts and 
feasts, stated periods of prayer, ablutions and pilaH- 
mages are rendered superfluous. It need scarcely be 
observed, that this religious mystical philosophy has 
been grafted upon Islamism from the religious systems 
of Paganism in the East. The Indian Yogee, the 
contemplative Buddha, and the philosophic Sufi are 
of the same type of religious error, and the way to 
perfection is alike with each. 

^^^, Sufi, derived from oLw, -Arabic, Hindustani and ■ 
Persian, pure, clear, sincere. 

Pococke, spec. hist. Arab, pag 263. 


To obtain the final beatitude of these philosophic 
dreamers, we have to pass through four different stages 
of probation; in the first, the candidate for the state 
of perfection is bound to a strict adherence to the 
religion of the Koran and the observance of all its rites 
and precepts/^ when duly disciplined by these, he 
enters upon the second stage of mental worship, in 
which he is at liberty to throw off all external rites and 
ceremonies. In the third stage, the mind is rendered 
capable of diving into the essence of truth itself in 
its logical acceptation, and of receiving immediate 
inspirations fi'om the Deity; and in the fourth and 
last stage the union of the soul with Allah is fully 
realised ; the symptoms however of this state are ge- 
nerally those of delirium and madness. The "con- 
fession of the Unity ^ appears in the conviction, that 
nothing exists beside Allah, ''the garment of self- 
existence is thrown off," and with a view "to be freed 
from the burden of existence the soul dives into the 
ocean of nothingness.'^ '° It will appear that this sect 
destroys the very foundation of all religious faith and 
practice; since '"the i^>?^g//e/ of the perfected Sufi is 
in comparison with the faith of other people, Mdiat a 
costly garment is to filthy rags;" ^^ and as the yoke 
of precept is broken, we may expect but a very low 

^^ Graham's Treatise upon Sufiism in the Transactions of the 
Lit. Soc. of Bombay I. 94. 

'" Djami in Notices ct extraits. XII. pag. 339, 

^* The mystical book Gushenrass says, "When there is no 
more T' and no more "thou" (when man is no longer a difl'erent 
individmnn from God), what is there any more in the Kaaba of the 
Moslem, the synagogue of the Jews or the cloister of the Christian?" 


standard of morality ; we have in addition, the extra- 
ordinary custom of the Sufis of describing their reli- 
gious exstacies under the most sensual and lascivious 
images ; such as oriental depravity alone could supply. 
Some of the sects of the Sufis in Persia and India, 
abandon themselves to intoxicating drinks, music and 
dancing in order to kindle the flame of devotion. ^^ 
There is little indeed to move the popular mind in 
this transcendental Theism or Piintheism, and its 
success can only be attributed to its ofi'ering a diver- 
sion to the serious portion of the Moslem community, 
who fail to find rest in the dry and heartless system 
of the Koran. Sufiism however contributes its share 
to weaken the fanatical dependence upon the Koran, 
and this is especially the case among the higher classes 
of the Persian Moslemin; yet the leaven is not con- 
fined to them, and recent computations have estimat- 
ed their number to be not less than 300,000 souls. '^ 
21. There was indeed no small amount of reli- 
gious dissension, and at times, cruel persecution be- 
tween the various conflicting parties in the Christian 
Church; but whilst Christianity expelled or recalled 
many of its most dangerous sects by its inherent yita,- 
lity and power, Islamism, destitute of power to subdue 
heresies in any other way than by fire and sword, 
sought only to maintain its warlike character in its 

'' Mrs. Meer Hassan Alis Observations on the Mussulmans of 
India. II. p. 249. 

^^ Dr. Pfander found a considerable number oS Sujis among the 
lower classes. Sufi Mir Massum AliShah gathered 30,000 disciples 
in Shiraz , Malcolm II. pag. 417. and his follower, Nur All Shah 
after the execution of his master, could muster in 1800, double that 


efforts to suppress them. The sects too generally 
caught up the spirit of the parent creed from w4iicli 
they sprang, and thus it was natural that religious 
wars, mutual persecutions and attempts at extermi- 
nation were the necessary result of Moslem sectaria- 
nism. As long as the Kaliphate existed in full force, 
heresy was of course treated as high treason. The most 
fatal wound was however inflicted by the schism be- 
tween the Somiite and Sh lite \:>^Yt\es, which to this day 
are opposed to each other with the deadliest animosity. 
The anniversary of the murder of Hossein is sufficient 
to make the smouldering fire of mutual hatred burst 
forth with virulence. The Kaliphs of Bagdad exe- 
cuted thousands of Shiites, and declared their pro- 
perty, their wives and children to be the legal prey 
of the orthodox faithful; and even the fall of the Ka- 
liphate was accelerated by these dissensions. '* When 
religious wars penetrated the Turkish Empire in the 
sixteenth century, Selim I. caused a list of the Shiites 
to be executed by secret agency, and some 40,000 
of them were slain or imprisoned. ^ ^ 

All this was perfectly consistent with the legis- 
lature of the Sonnites against the Shiites; the se- 
verities which were severally prescribed against ido- 
laters apostates, blasphemers and infidels, were con- 
jointly enforced against them: it is deemed more 
meritorious to kill one Shiite in war, than seventy 
Christians or other infidels, and their corpses 
are denied the honour of burial. ■'" Even in recent 

">* Price's Moh. History II. 222. M. d'Ohsson I. 117. 
. '* J&anmer'^ Ct^man. Slcid). n. 402. '« M. d'Ohsson III. 236. 


times the Sonnite tribe GocJdan, was excommunicated 
by their brethren for acknowledging a Shiite power! ^'' 
Extermination was always the rule concerninsf dissent, 
whenever it was practicable, and in this, the sects 
themselves were in nowise behind the orthodox com- 
munity. The sect of the Bargawata, which arose in 
the ninth century among the Berbers, lasted only about 
a century, but one of its leaders alone destroyed 387 
towns, the inhabitants of which, were cut to pieces. ^^ 
The African, AbdallahBenTamurt, founded a sect, in 
1116, which was less distinguished by new doctrines 
than by a zeal for reforming abuses ;^^ and it is re- 
lated of this strict moralist, who severely punished 
the most trivial transgression of the precepts of the 
Koran, that he destroyed some 70,000 peof)le, by 
causing them to be precipitated over a rock. "^ Even 
as late as the year 1625, it happened that a Shiite, 
who declined to abjure his religious views, was impal- 
ed alive in Mecca. ^ ^ It would not be difficult to add 
other facts, but these may suffice to show the general 
tendency of Moslem sectarianism. 

22. We have already seen how far the reli- 
gion of the Koran has contributed to impress the 
character of despotism upon the Mohammedan 
Governments ; and it may not be without interest to 
add a few remarks respecting the influence of that 

^^ Fraser's Journey into Khorassan I. 143. 

''^ Description de I'Afrique, Notices et extraits XII. 578 — 591. 

This founder of the sect of Mowaheddins, completed the con- 
quest of Mauritia and Spain. 

^" Abulfeda III. 405. »' Burkhardt's Travels in Arabia II. 12. 



creed upon the liistoiy of Moslem states, and the fre- 
quent change of dynasties, to which they were expos- 
ed. According to a tradition mentioned by Siuti,^^ 
there have been only Jive righteous Kaliphs among 
the entire number: Abubeker, Omar, Othman , Ali 
and Abdelassis. Movia is accused of having introduced 
Pagan usages, *^ his son, Jezid, was an infidel who 
neglected the religious duties belonging to his office 
and spent his time in riotous living/* Abdelmalek 
increased the hatred which already rested upon his 
house, by avarice and cruelty; Omar Abdelassis was 
poisoned by his own family, on suspicion of having 
favoured theShiites;*^ and the extravagant Walid II. 
was deprived of his throne and life by his relation 
Jezid III. The rule of the Abasside Kaliphs, com- 
menced at a period when the Kaliphate was already 
sunk in the estimation of the people, by the godless 
and tyrannical rule of their predecessors; and their 
own immorality, tyranny and occasional heterodoxy 
mainly contributed to destroy whatever remained of 
that nimbus of sanctity, which once surrounded the 
Kaliph, as vice-regent and " shadow of God upon earth." 
It was therefore only natural, that the provinces, one 
by one, should become severed from the overgrown 
body of the colossal empire. There is, however, nothing 
which will better show the effects of Islamism upon 

^^ History of the Temple of Jerusalem pag. 309. 

®' Ebn Hamsa, Notices et extraits IV. pag. 703 

®* The Medinites declared him unworthy of the Kaliphate. 
Price's Moham. History I. pag. 414. 

^* Price's Mohammedan History I. pag. 526. 


the history of the states and rulers, placed under 
its immediate protection and supervision, than the 
fact, that out of fifty-nine Kaliphs Mho ruled in 
the name of God and religion, thirty-eight died by 
violent means, and those who escaped the edge of 
the sword died of hunger or poison/^ In the year 
934 the dignity of theKaliphate had sunk to such a 
depth, that Kaliph Kahir, who had been degraded 
and blinded, was seen every Friday for the space of 
fifteen years begging his bread at the entrance of the 
chief mosque of his capital !*^^ 

Can it be wondered that dynasties founded by 
blood and rapine should succeed each other with 
unnatural rapidity? Copper-smiths and highway rob- 
bers, camel-drivers and adventurers were seen to raise 
themselves to be founders of royal houses. ^^ That 
these violent changes of dynasties are attributable to 
the insufficient provision of the author of the religion, 
relative to the succession of power, no one will deny: 
Mohanmied established a politico-religious system, but 
neglected to make the most necessary arrangements 
as to its future government. The instability of IMos- 
lem rule has been pre-eminently shown in the history 
of the Persian Empire. In the space of 900 years 
we have no less than fourteen different dynasties, 
which rapidly succeeded each other*, and each was ac- 
companied with the most startling convulsions of the 

®^ In many cases, they were immured alive or thrown into 

^ Elmakin hist. Saracen, pag. 199. Price's Moliamnied. Hist. 
II. pag. 177. 

^^ Price's Mohammedan History II. pag. 231. 



state. The fact that in the Turkish Empire we have 
the same dynasty for the space of 500 years, has been 
ah'eady accounted for, by the religious awe with which 
the Sultan was regarded as the last heir of the hea- 
ven-ordained Kaliphate/^ 

23. Ask we for the durable effects of Islamism 
as regards the civilisation ofthe manners and customs 
of nations, and the cultivation of literature, science and 
art, it is only what we might naturally ex^^ect from 
such a religious system. It may be fairly asserted 
that the chief work of this creed was ])ulling down, 
rooting up and destroying, rather than j^lanting and 
building up; and no one can say that we overstep the 
limits of moderation when we add, that it has de- 
stroyed more in eighty short years, than its united 
efforts could rear up in the space of twelve centuries. 
It is painful to read some elaborate rehearsals of the 
great things which moslem genius is said to have 
achieved ; but it ought not to be forgotten that virgin 
soil is always productive for a season, till the in- 
herent vitality be exhausted. ^° When in the day of 
visitation, God ploughed up the nations by the Mos- 
lem conquests, some fruit might naturally be ex- 
pected to follow ; but natural results must not be 
confounded with grace or blessing from heaven. As 
Islamism had no inherent vitality of its own to sus- 

®* The Kaliphate properly speaking was dissolved 1285 wlien 
Mostassem sunoiulcred himself to Ilulagus; the Sultan of Turkey 
therefore could only be nominallv a successor to the ancient 

^^ It has been declared by agriculturists that even cliafl' will 
grow for a time being sown in the field, but that it soon withers. 


tain the orowth, the incidental beneficial effects soon 
died away. We would ask those authors who write, 
as if they were almost Mohammedans, whether it 
was probable that the Arabs, being an energetic and 
vigorous people, could be expected to conquer na- 
tions more civilised than their own, without acqui- 
ring accomplishments unknown in their native de- 
serts ? That it was only a concussion of various 
nationalities and a temporary impulse from without, 
which promjDted the cultivation of sciences for a 
period, may be seen from the fact, that the Arabs 
live at this day in the most perfect simplicity, 
scorning everything which is not in accordance with 
patriarchal custom. 

In pro23ortion as barriers are broken down, com- 
merce is likely to be extended among nations; but 
we do not observe the effects of any specially civilising 
influence, when we see their wretched boats creeping 
along the coasts inhabited by Moslemin;^* and every 
one acquainted with Mohammedan trade will readily 
admit, that with the exception of a few articles of 
traffic , the slave trade is the most flourishing. Yet, 
the conquests of foreign lands, the slave trade, and 
the rite of j^ilgriniage could not fail to extend the 
science of geography; ^^ nor is it just to dispfirage 
the services which they have rendered in this re- 

^^ The writer has but too lively a recollection of the days when 
he was driven up and down in the Red Sea, in miserable boats, 
manned by people who never venture to lose sight of the shore. 

'^ The author frequently gleaned most interesting facts from 
slaves and pilgrims from the interior of Africa. 


spect. ^ ^ The fine arts however, are utterly neglected by 
the Arabs, and their musiv is just that which is met 
M-itli among every savage tribe; to assume, as some 
have done, that it exerted a favourable influence upon 
Italian music, is too preposterous to deserve a refuta- 
tion. As regards the mathematical sciences which 
Avere not neglected in better days, we must remember 
that they Avere not the productions of the native mind, 
but the translations of Archimedes and Ptolemaeus 
on the one hand, andMarinus of Tyre on the other: ^* 
We must not forget that we are indebted to the 
Arabs for the transmission of our cyphers, which 
superseded the less convenient mode of arithmetical 
notation by the letters of the alphabet, in use among 
the Greeks and Hebrews; but as some ancient in- 
scriptions found on stone and copper in Guzerat, 
contain those cyphers or hieroglyphics, now used as 
our figures with but little variation, we cannot well 
ascribe their invention to the Arabs. Among the 
algebraic discoveries, the solution of equations of the 
second degree, is ascribed to Mohammed Ebn Musa. 
The astronomy of the Arabs was derived fi-om foreign 
sources ;^^ they have however the merit, characteristic 
of their ingenious superstition, of perverting the science 
into astrology. The only science of which the Arabs 

^^ Abulfeda, who visited- England in the 1 4*'' century, in his 
work on Geography, quotes several authors in order to illustrate 
his explorations of the region beyond the Oxus. 

^* Al Hazan wrote a work on optical science and ably suc- 
ceeded Ptoleray who lived 1000 years before him. 

®^ The worship and study of the heavenly bodies were common 
in the south of Arabia; both were imported from the Babylonians. 


can claim the discovery is that of Chemistry, which 
originated in their alchemical pursuits to discover the 
philosopher's stone. ®^ 

The translations into Arabic, of works on history, 
medicine, botany, geometry, algebra, astronomy, phi- 
losophy, jurisprudence, grammar, logic and rhetoric 
were so imperfect, that they only obscured the sense 
of then- originals ; ^ ^ slavish dependence upon foreign 
sources, especially on the only half-understood Greek 
classics , precluded the possibility of a national 
literature. The partial benefit derived from the 
classics, was confined to the court and the higher 
classes of society; the people generally, contenting 
themselves with the beauties of poetry and the extra- 
vagant productions of romance, to enliven the dulness 
of a sterile and heartless creed. ^^ The pursuit of 
knowledge among the iSaracens was stimulated rather 
by pedantic eagerness to acquire information from 
foreign literature , than by a spirit of free , practical 
and independent inquiry; hence the utter decay of 
those institutions, anciently established for scientific 
and theological education. The schools and colleges 
in the metropolis oflslamism are mostly extinct, and 

*^ More important still was their thirst for the elixir of imnror- 
tality, in searching for \yhich, they did service to Chemistry, and 
good was brought out of evil and superstition. Medical science 
was only a species of magic. 

^^ Harun el Reschid appointed a body of learned men to pro- 
cure them. 


®^ The public schools at Bussora, Kufa, Damascus and other 
large cities, together with libraries, observatories and laboratories, 
established by some of the Kalijihs , form but a striking contrast 
to the usual neglect of national instruction. 


ignorant fanaticism alone survives. ^^ In Cairo, the 
classical seat of moslem learning, each mosque had 
its hospitium and library, but of all this scarcely 
any trace is left. The great school attached to the 
"Flower-mosque", which formerly provided Africa and 
Syria with Ulemas, numbered formerly 1 200 students; 
but now for many years, it has only counted 500. 
Of 500 mosques only 150 are still opened, the re- 
mainder are decayed;^ and of the hundred mosques 
of Alexandria, scarcely fifty continue to be frequented: 
and then it is customary almost throughout the East 
for boys only to study. 

24. The depopulation and devastation of the 
country are also the direful effects of the sway of 
Islamism. The neighbourhood of Aleppo, as late as 
the beginning of the eighteenth centuiy, could number 
300 villages, but towards the end of it, only twelve 
remained ! ^ In the district of Mardin in jNIesopotamia, 
were once 1600 villages, and now scarcely 500 are 
remaining.^ Before the conquest by the Moslem 
armies, Cyprus had 1400 towns and villages, but in 
1670 it could boast of only 700.* No better was the 
fate of the island of Candia, where at this moment a 
fierce excitement of the Mohammedans against the 

^9 Travels of Ali Bey 1816. II. 136. 

* Michaud VI. 4. 7. What a contrast this with the estimation, 
in which arts and sciences were held by the Romans! "Adolescen- 
tiam alunt, senectutem oblectant, secundas res ornant, adversis 
perfugium ac solatium pracbent, delectant domi , non impediunt 
foris , pcruoctant nobiscum, peregrinantur, rusticantur." Cic, Orat. 
pro Arch. 

* Russel's History of Aleppo I. 339. ^ Niebuhr II. 320. 

* Rycaut's State of the Greek Church pag. 91, 


Christians is raging. Few only of the towns and 
cities, which were populous and flourishing at the 
time of the Kaliphate, are now existing ; and how fear- 
fully Egypt has suffered under the leaden sceptre of 
Islamism since its first conquest by the Saracens, is 
too well known to require any comment.' Persia is 
covered with ruins, and the remaining towns are in 
the saddest condition ; even Shiraz and Ispahan pre- 
sent only the skeleton of their former grandeur and 
magnificence ; and the once beautiful and fruitful 
province of Khorassan is reduced to utter poverty, 
wearing the aspect of a desert. ^ The once flourishing 
province of the Roman Empire of North- Africa, which 
even in the days of the Vandals gloried in more than 
400 Episcopal sees, is reduced to misery and decay. 
Lastly, the Turkish Empire is brought to the very 
verge of political insolvency; its subjects are reduced 
to the most despicable condition, and the provinces, 
some of the finest in the world, are depopulated and 
left in an uncultivated state. ^ 

^ Before the Moslem invasion, the Coptic population amounted 
to 6 millions, but according to modern statistics, the Coptic Chris- 
tians of Egypt, including probably those of Abyssinia are put down 
at the low number of 3,200,000! Dr. Newman says: "I might call 
your attention to particular instances of such atrocities, such as 
that outrage perpetrated within the memory of many of us , how 
on the insurrection of the Greeks at Scio , their barbarian masters 
carried fire and sword throughout the flourishing island, till it was 
left a desert, hurrying away women and boys to an infamous cap- 
tivity, and murdering youths and grown men, till, out of 120,000 
souls in the spring time, not 900 were left them when the crops were 
ripe for the sickle." Lect. on the Hist, of the Turks pag. 135. 136. 

® Kinneir's Memoir of the Persian Empire 1813. pag. 117. 

^ The Turkish Empire would however be in a still more deplor- 


Dissolution and decay then are the foot-prints of 
the rehoion of the crescent; but lest the philo-Mo- 
hammedan latitudinarians of Europe should be tempt- 
ed to accuse us of narrow-mindedness, bigotry, or 
ignorance of the real state of things , we insert the 
testimony of a Moslem, the excellent Historian Ebn 
Chaldun, who enlarges upon the piteous spectacle of 
countries, conquered by the Saracens: ''The cause of 
it , he adds , is in the fierce character of the people, 
whose wild habits are as much a part of their nature 
and inborn, as those of a wild beast; and such innate 
propensities are adverse to , and destructive of civili- 
sation. The principal feature of their character is a 
love of change and revolution, one, utterly opposed to 
that quiet which civilisation requires. Their instinct 
leads to plunder; trade only prospers beneath the 
shadow of lances, their thirst for robbery knows no 
limits, they plunder whatever comes within their reach. 
Meditating only how they may possess themselves 
of the substance of others , they desist not from se- 
verities till they have obtained it; fiscal punishments 
are invented for gain and as a means of procuring 
money; vice and obscenities therefore are not sup- 
pressed but rather encouraged. The fact of the sub- 
jects being thus left to themselves, must be injurious 
to mankind and destructive to civilisation. Again, 
they have an aversion to all control, few submitting 
themselves to the command of a father or to the 

able condition if it had not been for the Avholesome influence of 
European diplomacy, and more especially for the large admixture 
of a Christian population among its subjects. 


brother or elder of their tribe. . . . Look only at the 
countries, which they conquer in the name of the 
Kaliphs, how they are stripped of cultivation, how 
the inhabitants are plundered , and the very soil has 
been entirely changed. Yemen the seat of their power 
is lying waste with the exception of certain tracts, 
cultivated by the Ansars; the same may be said of 
the Arabian Irak. The cultivation of Persia has ceas- 
ed and likewise that of Syria. The African desert 
and Mauritia have been laid waste, since the Beni 
Hilal and the Beni Selim settled there; and how 
the country between Nigritia and the Mediterranean 
was formerly inhabited, may be seen from the ruins 
of buildings , and the deserted sites of villages and 
towns." ^ 

Were we to collect what evewitnesses and his- 
torians have recorded of the immorality, injustice, 
deceit, oppression and cruelty of the Moslem com- 
munity, combining it with a religion either too weak 
to heal the evil which consumes the marrow of the 
nations, or too accommodating to the vilest passions 
of man, we should form a picture, the contemplation 
of which, would be truly appalling. The consideration 
of the character and inftuence of Islamism reminds 
us of the vision of the dry bones, and when here, as 
there, the question is asked: ''Son of man can these 
hones live'? we also can only reply, in the words of 
the Prophet Ezekiel; "O Lord thou hiowest!" 

Quoted in, and translated from von Hammer's Landerverwal- 
tung unter dem Chalifate. 1835. Berlin pag. 62. 




All false creeds , of comparatively modern date, 
endeavour to show that they are connected with the 
beginning of time, and that they have been prepara- 
tively introduced in by-gone ages. Nor could Islamism 
hope to prosper in the world without resorting to a 
similar expedient; it was therefore convenient and 
indeed necessary for Mohammed to rest his new creed 
upon the Jewish and Christian dispensations, and to 
do this consistently, he was compelled to admit their 
divine origin.* As the Jewish dispensation was of 
a temporary character being superseded by Chris- 
tianity, so the Christian religion, according to Mo- 
hammed, was only to be in force till Islamism should 
appear to supplant it! There is however a strange 
inconsistency in INIohammed's claim to succession, 

^ Mohlcr's gcsammelte Scluiften Yol. I. pag. 350. 


since it involves an entire change and abrogation of 
the previous dispensations. The immutabihty of Ju- 
daism and Christianity are asserted in the Koran, ^ 
yet we have seen, in the first part of this work, that 
thev are both virtuallv ignored and aboHshed. The 
change which we recognise in the succession of the 
Christian to the Jewish dispensation, is analogous to 
that which takes place between the laying of the 
foundation of a building and its completion. The Jew- 
ish Church was the ground-work of that temple, of 
which Christ is the ''head-stone \ ^ If change there 
be, it is this; in the Old Testament we have pro- 
phecy, in the New, fulfilment.* The bud gives place 
to the blossom, and the blossom to the fruit. We 
have a change, but only such as God had promised 
and foreshadowed. Nothing was abrogated by the 
Gospel, but the ritual ordinances and the ceremonial 
precepts, which being of a typical character, were 
necessarily transient.^ Looking upon the whole Mo- 

^ ""Wherefore be thou orthodox, and set thy face towards the 
true religion , the institution of God , to which he hath made man- 
kind disposed; »JJ\ ^^-L^J JjJcxJ ^ there is no change in what 
Allah created." Sur. XXX. 3U. 

' ri'dNir, pN,-;-nN N-^S^m Zech. TV. 7. That this refers to 
Christ who shall build and complete the temple , see chap. III. 8. 

and \T 12. :r,V.- b^^-:-nvS r;:3^: '^lo-o nw^ u:\N;--?r; 

* 'Oi'x eX&ov y.aTuXvaai TOP r6j.ioi: 1] tovg TTOoqi^Tag' akXa nXij' 
Qooaai. Matt. V. 17. Siiiar ift ia§ alte Jeilament in tev (Sintjeit te^ 
^eilebcfcfilufTce uub irn SJI^atfacfie ber Effeubanmcj mit bcm neiten eineg, 
(ibex nidjt einerlei, fonbern h'cfeg vicvfuiU fid) ^u jciicm une bie 93ot(ciibung 
juv SBorteveititnt^, ivic bie Sntfrf^rcinfmig jiir Seftf^rdnfimg , Wit baS Uit-' 
mittclbnvc juiu 2)JittcI()arcn. 9hl!,fcfi. 

^ "Abrogatae sunt leges ceremoniales , exhibitio Messia, et fo7'- 
enses, sublata politia judaica ; moralis non item. Lex moralis Mosaica 

318 INTRODUCTION. [part il. 

saic constitution with its personal and impersonal 
types, and with its figurative ceremonial, we find every- 
where "a shadoiv of things to come" the body of 
which was Christ. Every single hieroglyphic figure 
had its meaning; every historic character, event, and 
circumstance, down to the very items of the drapery 
and the ornaments of the temple, so minutely recorded, 
were divinely chosen symbols for conveying truths of 
lastino- interest to the whole human race.^ Whilst 
we recognise unity of purpose and harmony of design 
in both dispensations of the Bible, ' in Islamism, we 
find a creed, which is radically different from the Old 
and directly opposed to the New Testament. If the 
Koran had merely abrogated a few ceremonial obser- 
vances of the Christian religion, and if this abrogation 
had been predicted in the Gospel, as an event which 
would take place in a succeeding dispensation, then, 
there might have been less cause to dispute the claims 
of Islamism. But unhappily for the creed of JNloham- 
med, we have nothing typical in the Gospel. There 
is no shadow in Christianity for the substance and 
body of which, we might have to look in a subsequent 
dispensation. On the contrary, our expectation is 

seu Decalogi eadem est cum lege Christi ; illam cnim a Pharisaicis 
corruptelis purgavit et rectius declaravit, non precepta nioralia plane 
nova dfclit lidelibus.'" Baior. Compare also Article VII, "Of the 
Old Testament." 

^ "Theologia typica, quae futurorura praedictionem , ex inten- 
tione Dei sub rebus, personis factisque latontum in V. T. scrutatur 
- et explicat. Typus, (jy.ia, vnof^tiyi-dx, est adumbratio, praeliguratio, 
praesignatio." Carpovius. ' ■ 

' Novum Testamentum in vetere latet (velatum est) vetus in 
novo patet (revclatum est). Augustine. 


from hecaven, "from ivhence also we look for the Sa- 
viourr being tanglit ''to ivait'' for Him from heaven. 
Instead therefore of having the fulfilment of type 
or promise in Islamism, the most essential truths of 
the Old and New Testament are denied and rejected. 
To assume that God is the author of Islamism, is to 
assume that He decreed yesterday, what to-day He 
abolishes; that He established the old and new dis- 
pensation, but, that after more mature consideration. 
He determined to give the world a better religion; 
that His legislation for mankind was imperfect, since 
He found it necessary to revoke what He before had 
solemnly ordained. That after the Gospel was preached 
and attested by signs and wonders, in various parts 
of the world, according to God's will and command,^ 
this very Gospel was recalled and God promulgates 
through a certain Mohammed of Mecca, doctrines 
and laws directly opposed to it; and this changeable- 
ness of mind and purjoose is to be proclaimed , if we 
may believe the Koran, not only to mankind but even 
to demons!^ If this principle of succession or rather 
abrogation be defended, as it is, on the ground of 
Christianity becoming unsound; we reply, that a 
distemper in the body or a disorder in any of its 
members does not of necessity prove fatal to existence. 

® Uooevdenes iig tor xoapov anavta , no exception being 
made: X7:(jv§ar£ to tvayyiXiov naafi rfj ktiuh. Mark. XVL 15. That 
the xr.fjvyuu penetrated Arabia, is proved by the existence of an 
Arabian Church prior to Moliammed. 

U:S\^ Ij^Ji Uju-«. Sur. XXXIL 1. See also XLVL 30. 31. 

320 INTRODUCTION. [part ii. 

Neither tlie moral corruption of the Christians at the 
period of the rise of Islamism, nor the heresies which 
then infected the Church, could make the abrogation 
of the Christian religion requisite. It was foretold 
bj Christ Himself, that there would be a mixture of 
good and evil within the Church, to the end of time ; 
and that heresies would spring up, was predicted by 
the Apostles. ''° 

The chief charge, brought by Mohammed against 
Jews and Christians, as the representatives of their 
respective disj)ensations , and for the sake of which, 
both were to be superseded , was that of corrupting 
the Old and the New Testament. * ^ That Christians 
had altered the New Testament, Mohammedans pro- 
fess to prove fi'om their holding the doctrine of the 
Holy Trinity, and the Divinity of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
but most of all from their rejection of Mohammed, 
though required by the supposed original Gospels, 
to receive him. In order to justify their alleged errors 
and their rejection of INlohammed, the Christians are 
accused of having expunged from their Scriptures 
all that related to the prophet , and of having made 
such additions, as they deemed necessary. This ob- 
jection, is constantly urged in religious disputations, 
and naturally falls first in our way when about to 

»" Matt. XIII. 24—30. 47—50. XXrV'. 5. 11.24. Act. XX. 
29. 30. 2 Pot. I. 1. 

'^ Tlie suppression of Scripture jiassages, which were favour- 
able to the cause of Mohammed, and the crime of corrujyting them, 
are frequently censured in the Koran. Sur. II. 73. also 17G- — 178. 
III. 188. V. i7. wJiere it i,s fully stated tliat they "knowingly hide 
or conceal certain passages;" "i)ervert or dislocate the words out of 
their places," and corrupt the "signs of God for vile gain." 


compare Islamism with Christianity. It must there- 
fore be our first care to examine, whether there be 
any ground for so grave a charge as that made by 
Mohammed, and whether we can satisfactorily prove 
the integrity of the Holy Scriptures; for so long as 
the Bible lies under any such suspicion, we are de- 
prived of our best and most valuable weapon. The 
Jews being first accused of having corrupted the Old 
Testament Scriptures, we shall in the next chapter 
endeavour to substantiate the integrity of that portion 
of the Bible, which for so long a period was entrusted 
to their guardianship. 



"Verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one 

tittle shall in no wise pass from the law till all be fulfilled. And it 

is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than one tittle of the law to 

fail." Matt. V. 18. Lu. XVI. 17. 

1. That we may prove to better advantage the 
integrity of the Old Testament, it will be necessaiy 
to introduce some items respecting the history of 
that part of the Bible. ^^ It is generally known as 
"the Scripture," "the Old Testament," "the book of 
the covenant," or simply "the Law,"*^ — the latter 


The entire Bible, so termed since Chrysostom: t« ^i^^lia sc. 
■^tra ;hbri y.arj^iiv. Chrysost. in Suic. thes, eccles. pag. 696. 
Also Uija y(j(xq7]i uyia joaqii; &da yQaCfij, and Bibliotheca sancta. 
Isidor. Orig. cap. IV. pag. 3. 

nn3., Chald. n-nz-, ^"^^^ V y(Jcc<f>V 2 Pet. I. 20; di ygaqai 




being the standing- name in the Koran. After the 
Church had been without Scriptures for more than 
two thousand years, and when the word of God could 
no longer be orally transmitted with safety, Moses 
wrote the Pentateuch, and thus laid the foundation 
of that series of holy books which Malachi concluded 
in the year B. C. 397. — This collection of holy 

■ Scriptures is divided into the Law, the Prophets and 
the Psalms.^* 

The Law comprised the five books of Moses, and 
admitted of no other division. The Prophets were 
divided into ''tlie former" and "the latter Prophets ;" 
among the "former ProjDhets" were reckoned the 
book of Joshua and of Judges, the books of Samuel, 
and of the Kings. "The latter Prophets" are the 
Prophets properly so called, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Eze- 

, kiel and the twelve minor Prophets. ^^ Amongst the 
Pmhns or "other holy writings" are understood all 
the rest of the holy Scriptures, including also Daniel, 
wdiom the Christians, according to the Septuagint, 
count with the Prophets, there being a considerable 
difference as" to the order m which these books are 
made to follow each other, with the Jews, the Sep- 

Matt. XXn. 29; 1l3~jv~ ^5r3, yQa(f>iu ayi'ai Rom. I. 2: Uqo. yQnfi- 
fiara 2 Tim. III. 15. ""P'r, Saiihed. fol. 91. col. 2. o ro/nog, John 
XII. 34; r'-:;- ^j:D, ^I'.^hop diadt'y.t;^ Exod. XXIV. 7; "vetus Tes- 
tamcutum" siucc the third century; // naXaiu 6ia^i[y.ri 2 Cor. III. 14. 

^* Our Lord's division: o lofios MoJoV a)^ , ot 7T(jo(f fjnxi nai oi 
xpidiiioi Luke XXIY. 44. Or 1. ~n^n, 2. C'tt'r?, 3. CZ^ni), yQa- 
qtia, uyioyijuqa, xpu^iiio), also: xixl ta dkXa {iifikia. 

^'^ Q';h-inN a'Nrn; so called in contradistinction to t;"'J<''3.3 
D"'5"'C&l'i pnores and posteriores. 


tuagint, and the Fathers of the Church.^** Again, 
from the fact of our Lord speaking of the "Psahns," 
as the "third division of the Old Testament, it would 
appear that the book of Psalms stood first on the list 
of that division, and thus gave its name to all the re- 
maining books" or Hagiographa, as this section of 
the "sacred writings" has been called; just as we 
speak of the whole of the New Testament, as "the 
Gospel," because the portion so called stands first. * ^ 
Others think that our Lord made use of the title of 
"the Psalms" to signify the entire division of the 
Hagiographa, not so much on account of its standing 
first on the list, as because of the poetical character, 
which distinguishes the greater part of this class of 
writings. ^'^ Both Josephus and Pliilo speak of the 
Hagiographa as containing chiefly hymns and praises 
to God/ ^ 

^® The Talmud thus: "Ordo Prophctarum : Josua et Judlces, 
Samuel et Reges , Jeremia et Ezcchiel , Jcsaia et duodecim Pro- 
phetae." Eaba Bathra f. 14. cap. 2. The cause is thus stated: "Cum 
libri Regum finiantur in desolatione , et Jeiemias totus versetur in 
desolatione, Ezechicl vero incipiat in desolatione et finiat in consola- 
tione, et Jesaias totus versetur in consolatione, copulaverunt desola- 
tionem cum desolatione , et consolationem cum consolatione." J. G. 
Carpzov. Introductio ad libros can. III. 88. 

*^ The Talnuid . with the exception of Ruth , places them thus: 
"Ordo Hagiographoruni: Ruth, Psalmi et Hiob et Proverbia, et Co- 
heleth, Canticum et Threni , Daniel et Esther et Chronica." Baba 
Bathra f. 14. cap. 2. 

^^ Josephus speaks of them as containing vnrovq iig rhv &e6v. 
Joseph, cont. Ap. §. 23. 

*^ Mr^dln H(Jxotuii^niTf-g , ju/( norm', /^itj mrlor , fir^Stti rwv aX- 
Xmv oaa n^'ig rag rov nwfxarog XQ^'^^- (ivuyyaia, aXXa voixovg 
Xoyia 8tfT7riadti>Ta 8 tic n ^oqijrwf Xfa. % /^irovg ye.} tu a/h< ntg 
tniorijur^ tvat^tux oviav^onui y.ul TtXtiovmu. Philo de vita 
contemplat. §. 13. p. 893 ed. Ircf. 



As the Psalms stood first on the iist of the thh*d 
division of the Old Testament, so the book of Chro- 
nicles appeal'^ to have stood last among the Hagio- 
orapha ; that this book closed this division, and hence 
the entire Old Testament, is evident from our Saviour's 
words, in which He sums up the bloodshedding of 
martvr-prophets from the foundation of the world, to 
the last martyrdom recorded in the canonical books 
of the Jews, viz. "from the blood of Abel unto the 
blood of Zacharias, which perished between the altar 
and the temple." "^^ 

2. The enumeration of the books of the Old Tes- 
tament has been variously made out; we mention 
this, lest thelNIohammedans should rush to the con- 
clusion, that there is either confusion or uncertainty 
respecting the real number of the canonical books. 
Josephns, to whom we are indebted for the first cata- 
logue of these writings, with a view evidently, of ma- 
kino- their number correspond with that of the letters 
in the Hebrew alphabet^* reduces them to twenty- two 
combining the books of Ruth and the Judges into 
one, as also Jeremiah and the Lamentations, after the 
manner of the Septuagint.^^ If however the five books 
of Moses be counted separately, as they are by Jo- 

^" Luke XL 50. 5 L Matt. XSIIL 35. 2 Chron. XXIV. 20. 

21 'Ovx dyror,teov d' itrai TihJi'6ia{>/jy.ovg ^{(iXovg, cog'Eii^aioi 
naQa8i86uaii' , 6vo xat ti'xooi , oaog 6 di>i&i.t6s rcor TTa{j' avTOig 
OTOix^iojv tar if. Origcn. Euseb. H. E. VI. 25. 

2^ YJv yitQ fiv()iddf.g /?/|Wj'&)^ f:im TTutj t]nlv , uaviiCf(oi(or xal 
fxaxofitiOjV dvo di: (.lora nyog roig iixoat fii(iXi(x, rov Tranog 
%ypvrtt HJOfov rrr (hiqQKqtjP , t« diY.aiiag ^eta nmiartvfiera. 
Joseph, contra Apion. lib. I. cap. 8. 


sepbiis, the rest may justly be counted singly; this 
being done in the Bibles of the present day , the 
number amounts to thirty-nine books. 

The question now arises, when do we hear of 
their being collected together in the form in which 
we now possess them? We find the entire Old Tes- 
tament deposited in the temple immediately after 
the Jewish captivity.^' Again, at the time when the 
prologue was wTitten to the apocryphal book of Sirach 
or Ecclesiasticus, which was about 130 years B. C. 
the collection of the canonical books had been ac- 
complished. ^* 

Josephus, born 37. B. C. quotes not only nearly 
all the books, but gives a detailed account of their 
names and number. He informs us that the above- 
mentioned twenty-two books of the Old Testament 
were completed in the days of Artaxerxes Longimanus, 
king of Persia , who in his twentieth year had com- 
missioned Nehemiah to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem. 
Five of the books were written by Moses ; thirteen 
viz. Joshua, Judges and Ruth, Samuel, Kings, Chro- 
nicles, Ezra and iSehcmiah, Esther, Isaiah, Jeremiah 
and Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, the twelve minor 
Prophets and Job, were added to the Pentateuch 
during the interval between Moses and Artaxerxes. 

^^ Joseph. Antiquit. V. I. 17. de bello Jud. YYi. 5. 5; traces of 
the holy Scriptures being preserved in tlie sanctuary before the 
Captivity 1 Sam. X. 23. Deut. SX5I. 26. 

** The books were collected by Ezra and the other members of 
the synagoga magna, n;"";;" PppS, avraywyri yfjafxi-Lareoiv in 
1 Mace. Vn. 12; but the conclusion of the canon is said to hare 
been eifccted under Simon the Just. B. C. 292. 


Josephus particularly mentions that the other four 
books were Hymns, being the Psalms proper, Pro- 
verbs, Ecclesiastes and Canticles. From Artaxerxes 
to his own day, he adds, that some others had been 
written , but that they were not worthy of the same 
faith as the preceding, not containing the same teach- 
ing as the prophetical books. ^'^ 

3. The above twenty-two canonical books of the 
Jewish Church, of which Josephus wrote, were the 
same in the days of Christ, as they were at the time 
of Josephus. Our Lord and his Apostles fully ac- 
knowledged the integrity and completeness of the ca- 
nonical books in the beginning of our era; and from 
that period, the Christians had an equal interest in 
watching over the Old Testament, having received 
it as the foundation of their faith. They read these 
books in their Churches from the very earliest times 
and their guardianship thus became divided between 
two rival parties. ^^ The Law, the Prophets and 

^" After saying the Jows had only 22 divine books, lie proceeds 
"Kul rov'cov Ttf.i'Te |<fcV itiTt ru Mim'at<og « tovs tr roj^iovg ntfji- 
ix^-i, Mxl rijv rfii (xi>&(Jio7Toyoviag naiJaf^oair, n^XQ'' ''V'^ dvrov tfXai- 
Tfjs' ovTog i) ;tco/'Og unoXHrrfi rQia^iXicov oXiyor irojT. Ano (Vf rriq 
Mcovotojg Tf-ltirf^g fi^XL" '^V? ^AfjTu^to^ov roi fieiix. '^H)^r,v lltooiov 
[i(K(TiXt(x)g ilyxflg (reign not beginning) oi fura Mavof,!' ttoo ifJTui 
T«' ilvtovg TTQuxOtira nvviy{ja^Hcv iv rQial xal dena [i^-iXiOig 
ui fil Xnincl rh(J(jaiJfg vfivovg iig tov i>^o/', mTg ail}(jco7TOig 
vnoiU' rov jiiov nnjuxovair. llrro dt \f(JT(c:Hj^nr fif-Xi." '^^^ 
xa&' ij/xag xyo'ov yfy(janrm fiev kxaara' nicmcog Se ovx o,uotag 
r/^i(OTiu Tolg 7T0Q avrdjr , diu to ,t<^ yf-ifad-ni Ti;y riyiv tt(jo ) r^T(ot> 
tly.Qfiri dindox'i]!'. JriXor 6' Arrh tfjyoo, TTwg tjiftg ToTg tdt'oig y^ufi- 
/.((((Ti TJ^niartvy.ui.uv" Joseph, contra Apion. Lib. I. cap. 8. 

^^ Too*' q)t(joijei03v y(j<xq,c3r tV naamg ty.y.Xr^aiaig ■dtov 
TrfTTiaTfvjueicrr nnu ■d^ticov ovy. ar vcfu'inoi Tig Af'/oor THJbyrnyip- 
iTifjui ^dv tor MojvatMg ro/mov, a7H({iX^]v f>t to 'Evayyekior. 
MtTu yu^ tovg navTag x<3v 7i(J0\!\)i]T(or xafjnovg, r(5p ^txQi rov 


the Psalms orHagiographa, were considered one and 
the same Holy Scripture, having the same authority 
and demanding the same faith. *^ As however the 
Septuagint was used in the Churches, and as that 
translation of the Old Testament contained the apo- 
cryphal books, these were read together with the ca- 
nonical Scriptures, ''for example of life and instruction 
of manners , without applying them to establish any 
doctrine."^" We here have the key to the reading 
of the apocryphal books in Churches; but to prevent 
them gaining authority, as this seemed to be the case 
in the Latin Church, and amongst the ignorant in 
the East, fresh catalogues of the canonical books were 
from time to time issued. The first of these Christian 
catalogues of Jewish books was compiled by Melito 
of Sardes, who died A. D. 171. In his epistle to 
a certain Onesimus, who had made inquiries of him 
respecting the books of the Old Testament, Melito 
offers to give the names, the exact number, and the 
order in w^hich the books follow each other. We have 
in his enumeration ^ ^ all the books of the Jewish Ca- 

KVQiov 'hpov, 6 Jthiog f)SXuaTr,ae loyos. Origen. Comm. in Joh. 
torn. I. §. 4.^ 0pp. IV. 4. ^Cont. Cels. HI. 45. 0pp. 476. on fiovXe- 
tai Tjnag tmu mqovg 6 Xoyog , deiy.rtof nal ilno rail' mtXmwv 
Yjxl 'JovSa't' yOiXj.inar(ov, tj dig xul rjp.tTq ;^ooj,u6<^«, 6vi 
fjttor dh y.ui uno tmv ihstu rbv ''Irjaovf ygaq evt(oi> kuI iv taig 
iw.hiauag -dticoy iiiai TTtniarev^iirmv. 

" Clemens Strom. III. p. 455: Nonog re o/nov xal TTQoffijtai 
aw Tco iiayyt-Xup iv ovonari Xoiarov itg fiiav crviayomu yioS- 
aiv. Irenaeus adds: "Cum itaque universae Scripturae, et Prophetiae 
et Evangelia, in aperto sint, etc." Iren. 11. 27. 2. 

"Libros legit quidam Ecclesia , sed inter canonicas Scripturas 
non recepit." Hierony. praef. in libros Salomonis. 

AptX'dcov ovv iig tT]i> (xi>aToXi]t', xal toog rov ronov yeroixevog 


non witli the exception of Neliemiali and Esther, 
which were sometimes considered to form an integral 
part of the book of Chronicles. ^*^ As Melito nnder-. 
took a journey to Palestine in order to ascertain the 
correct number of books, his catalogue is endowed 
with special authority. A similar catalogue from 
Origen, who died A. D. 254, is still extant, it gives 
a double list of the Greek and Hebrew names of the 
two and twenty canonical books of the Old Testa- 
ment. ^^ At the Council of Laodicea held between 
360—364 an other list was set forth, which entirely 
agrees with those which preceded or followed with 
this exception only, that it admits, Baruch, like the ca- 
taloofue of Orioen, amono: the canonical books. '^ Some 
time later, Cyril, the Patriarch of Alexandria, issued 
another index of the canonical writings of the Old 
Testament, which, omitting Baruch, numbered twenty- 
two books. '^ The catalogue of Athanasius agrees 

kvda iyj]Qvx&ri ^TiQaxdri , axQifiros /na&wf rix rvj? naXaiaq 
dia&Tjy.ij^ iii,iu'a, vnoTu^ag tnc.i.ixpu ooi' coi' tan. a orojiuxra' ilfoou- 
aawg rrttrt' rtvt(n:,"E.:o6og, Atvniy.ov, ^^(ji&fiot, yftvrt(JOtoiuii.oi' 
Vr,(T0V5 N'lvfj, K(jiral, Tovd, BaaiXfAWV tfjmafja, I laoa\tinoi.ihQ)v 
fivo' y^r^A/zoTr ^<ir/9((V, 'EoXoi.i(5iog r[a{)ni.uuu , 7] S^oqi'a , En- 
y.Xc.'UaaTi.g , uaf-ia (aJftdTOJi' , 7o),-J' Ifoocrj^rdjr, ^Hmu'ov, h(j(jutov, 
r(Si> dcSd^y.a tv fxotofli^Xb) , /iantjX, 'le^fy.iijX, "Ead^ag' i^ cov yal 
tug iaXoyag inotriaafAev, tig t^ ^i^Xia 6uX(ap. Euseb. H. E. IV. 26. 

' »» Eichhorn Einleit. in das Alt. Test. I. §. 52. Ewald I. 242. 

^* Euscb. II. E. VI. 25. See Lchrbudi dor historisch-kritischen 
Einleitung in das Alte Test, von de "SVctte pag. 37. 38. 

^- The catalogue is introduced with these words: Ori ov del 
idimriHOvg rpaXi-iovg Xfytad(Xi ii' rfi ty.y.Xijdtu, ordt ay.awnarn ^i- 
^Xia, dXXa fjtova t« yavonya trig y.aiviig y.iu naXmdq 8u<.&i]yi]g. 
Concil. Laodic. Cant. 59. 

" C;\Til. Hierosol. Cateches. W. 33—36. pag. 67—69. 


with that of Cyril, with this difference only, that it 
counts the book of Ruth separately and places the 
book of Esther amongst the apocryphal books. ^* 

To Fjpiphanim Ave are likewise indebted for an 
enumeration of the canonical books ; who, after men- 
tioning the twenty-two books of the Old Testament 
and the principle of their computation, adds a very 
brief and simple catalogue, in which we recognise the 
identical names, mmiber, and order of arrangement, 
which we find in all the preceding lists. ^'^ Thus the 
catalogues of the fourth century show not only that 
the Scriptures of the Old Testament were read, and 
believed as the "fountains of salvation," but that they 
were ecclesiastically established under the term of 
canonical books. ^^ 

4. We enter upon these details with a view to 
prove, that no books were lost, and none were added 
since the Canon of the Old Testament was closed. 
We have the same number of Scriptures, with the 
same names, arranged in the same order. When 

^* Athan. epist. festalis Op. I. pag. 961. Edit. Bened. 

TIu^oii.uti}V ■ — iy.y.Xtmaatt^s — to "Aaf.ux. t(3v (ari^iuTmi- — to Jo8ey.a- 
7iQO'(f,tov — 'Hmxtov — ''Tf-Qf^iiov — ^h^exitX — 7) rov "EnSga nQOjrt] 
— Sfvrtoa , 7) tfjq ^Eo&j]Q. Epiphanius de mens, et pond. c. 22. 23. 
Op. II. 180. 

^^ This is shown by the terms, ftifih'a navontoneva , y.mapon- 
toixira, cofjiautra and xavonxa. These Scriptures are not only 
nriyai rov ncoTt;(jiOV, according to Athanasius; but the Christian and 
Jew recognised in them toi' y.uivru Tf;£ dXrj'&tiag. Isidor. Pelus. 
epist. 114. 


Mohammed charged the Jews with withholding cer- 
tain books, wdiy did he not name the correct Hst, and 
pointing out the absent ones, request that such and 
such a missing Scripture might be brought forth? 
As we have the same books now, which the Jews and 
Christians had in the fourth century, they must have 
possessed the same Scriptures at and after the rise of 
Islamism. Possessing therefore, as we do, in the above 
catalogues the perfect skeleton, the complete frame- 
work of the Old Testament, can we prove that the con- 
tents of each book have escaped the corruption, which 
the Koran assumes to have taken place? In reply 
to this question we proceed to show, that with the ex- 
ception of a few verbal and accidental differences, by 
which no single article of faith, nor any one historical 
fact is called in question, we possess the books of the 
Old Testament in their original integrity. These books, 
it will be remembered, were copied a thousand times; 
but the infallibility of the authors was not transferred 
to the men who copied them in after ages. Dif- 
ferent readings would naturallv arise from want of 
attention or judgment; but such mistakes may be 
remedied by an ordinary application of skill and the 
necessary amount of learning and intelligence. Errors 
committed through ignorance and carelessness, can 
always be repaired by learning and research. ^^ — The 

^^ "Observaiiduni, in hac thesi de intcgritate Scripturac , qucs- 
tionem esse de tali corruptionc, qua finis Scripturae, hoc est, salu- 
tnris illius usus, impedirctur. Adeoque vnria)kte.s lectiones integritati 
illi, quam nos tuemur, non satis pcrite objiciuntur: 1. quia quanta- 
cunque sit earum niultitudo, nulla tanien historia scitu nobis neces- 
saria, niulto minus aliqua salutis doctrina intcrcidit ; 2. quia ipsa 


transcribers of the Hebrew original have occasionally 
''seen amiss,^' as a German writer quaintly but justly 
expresses it,^*^ and exchanged letters of a similar 
form, ^^ or transposed them, putting one letter in the 
place of another. *° Another kind of oversight is 
observed, where letters were omitted, and whole words 
overlooked; especially in cases where tw^o sentences 
end alike.** 

Other examples of unintentional mistakes, in mul- 
tiplying the Manuscripts of the Hebrew text, might 
be added, where the transcribers ''heard amissj' 

lectionis varietas argumento est, inutationem non factam esse in 
omnibus qui supersunt codicibus ; 3. quia eruditorum inter Christia- 
nos diligentia dubiis de genuina lectione sufficientem medelam , ad- 
hibita Crisi sobria, attulit. Supersunt quidcni affectl , quos Critici 
vocant, loci, hoc est tales, quibus per media critica, collationeni co- 
dicum, versionura, patrum, subveniri nondum ita potuit, quin etiam- 
num suspendi judicium debeat. Sed illi quidem perpauci sunt." 
Sartorius Conip. Theolog. Dogmat. II. ^. 57. 

^* "Sie fa(}cn falfrft, unb ijcrirccfifcltcn iU)iiIi*e ffiudjftafien, licrfc^ten 
fic, vicrff|tcn flaiijc Sorter ober Sd^e, lichen ©ucfMlaticn, Sorter luib Sa^e 
a\x^, beunl^crs wtmx fid^ j»et <BA%t gleidi eurigtcti." Dr. be 28ette, §tfi. frit, 
©int. pag. 124. 

^^ Frequently - for "i, Ps. CX. 3. XIX. 4. cfr. LXX. *! for S, 
Josh. XY. 47. n fur D, Ps. 78, 69. 1 for \ Gen. 36, 23. See also 
the numerical letter 2 Sam. 24, 13. > for T; hence seven years fa- 
mine in Sam.; whilst LXX. in loco has r(ji(<. tri] hfing, the same as 
I Chron. XXI. 12. Again D for D I King XU. 21. has 180,000 
men whilst the LXX has 120,000 ey.aTOp iiHoai xiXia8ag. 

*o ■'^7:d for '''jVi? Ezra II. 4. and Neh.VII. 48. Algum tree in- 
stead of Almug l' Kings X. II. 2 Chron. IX. 10. Ps. XVIU. 46. 
?S-n: and 2 Sam. XXII. 46. '^ni'n:. 

*' Asaiah in I Chron. TX. 5. Maaseiah Nch. XL 5. See also Ps. 
"XVm. 42. 2 Sam. XXU. 42. 'yr,ty, 2 Sam. 23, 25. with 1 Chron. 
XL 27; Gen. 36, II. 12. with 1 Chron. 1, 36; Josh. XXL 23. with 
1 Chron. V. 53. 54; 1 Chron. XL 13. with 2 Sam. XXUI. 9—11. 


and exchanged alike-sounding letters of the alphabet.** 
Again, mistakes were made where the copyist trusted 
too much to his memory, and exchanged synonymous 
expressions;*^ or altered the word after more frequent 
forms in parallel passages.** Again we recognise 
errors raising from w^ant of sufficient knowledge of 
what they copied; these more likely occurred at a 
period, when the words were not yet divided, and the 
practice of writing the original text without the vowels 
was in vogue. Abbreviations for instance, were mis- 
understood and treated as ordinary letters.*^ It is 
obvious to all, that in copying a manuscript, mistakes 
maybe easily and most unintentionally made; those 
above specified will sufficiently explain the existence 
of various readings; which being purely accidental, 
they are such, as Mohammed could neither have de^ 
tected nor referred to, when he accused the Jews of 
wilfully suppressing prophecies, relating to himself, 
and of designedly corrupting the Old Testament. 

5. The idea that the Jews falsified any portion 
of their sacred books, is in the first place, altogether 
at variance w-ith, and opposed to their notorious and 
almost superstitious regard for the dead letter of the 

*^ 1 Sam. XXII. 18. 3.:.-^ Kcri JNT ; Ps. LIX. 9. -7^'4s and 
rrn^STN: LXX. 1 Sam. XYU. 34. nj in several Cod. instead of r."^.. 

*3 Lev. XXV. 36, ^N instead of b?. 2 King. I. 10. nanil for 
-|^.N*1; and often mr."' for ■^2^^N. 

** Isa. LXllI. IG. some have l^'JOb instead of D;-y73. ; just be- 
cause the former is the more common. 

*^ Jcr. VI. II. <";;"":, '"'"nWn was read T.'?3n, my ^^Tath, like 
LXX. xai TO ^vfiov Jiov. cap. XXX. 37. '^~^i<, '^m, ^i'nov ^lov; 
instead of r;'^r;";~t]N. 


law. The Talmud, which was concluded in the fifth 
century of our era, abounds with injunctions which 
tend to preserve the integrity of their holy Scriptures. * ^ 
It speaks of most careful comparisons of divers Ma- 
nuscripts,*^ and the most tedious and painful enu- 
meration of verses, words and letters;*^ as the Mo- 
hammedans borrowed this practice from the Jews, 

*^ "Ita autem scribendum vobis est; ut sit scriptura perfecta 
(mpn r.nT.a), ne scribatur Aleph pro A in, et vice versa, Beth pro 
Caph, et V. v.; Gimel pro Zadeh, et v. v.; Daleth pro Resh, et v. v.; 
He pro Cheth, et v. v.; Vav pro Jod, et v. v.; Zain pro Nun, et v. v.; 
Teth pro Peh, et v. v.; incurvae litterae pro directis, et v. v.; Mem 
pro Samecli, et v. v.; clausae litterae (a linale) jiro apertis (73), et 
V. v.; sectio aperta ne fiat sectio clausa, et v. v." Tr. Shab. f. 103. 
c. 2. A Manuscript having only 3 mistakes on one leaf might be 
corrected, but if they amounted to 4, it was hid or put aside as in- 
admissible. Gemar. Babylon. Tract. Monachot. cap. lU. sect. VII. 
Again : "Viginti de hoc praecepta enumerat R. Moyses in tractatu 
de lib. Leg. cap. 10. Inter quae X™"™ est, ut ab homine Haeretico, 
vel profano exscribi non possint , XI"'"™, ut scriptor ita attentus sit, 
dum aliquod ex Dei nominibus exarat, ut si eo te'mpore a Rege Israe- 
lis salutetm; salutem illi reddere non debeat. XII'""'" et XIH'""'", et 
Xiymum ac XVI"^"", ut si scribendo literula ulla per incuriam vel 
addatur vel detrahatur : si unus character ab alio nimis distet , vel 
eidem plus justo adhaereat, totus liber profanus habeatur." Maraccio, 
Prodrom. Part. L pag. 9. 

■^^ "Tres libros invenerunt in atrio . . . . in uno invenerunt scri- 
ptura (Deut. XXXIII. 27.) l^yw, in duobus r.l^VlZ, et approbantes 
duos, rejecerunt unum. In uno invenerunt (Exod. XXIV. 5) scriptum 
■'li'cJyT, in duobus ■'*1>5, <?t approbantes duos, rejecerunt unum. In 
uno invenerunt scriptum, (Gen. XXXII. 23) i^T. rCP, (ed. Fr. 
N-n "^V -r\^), in duobus NT; TH'^y inN (ed. Fr. N^n ^"d? "IHN) et 
approbantes duos, rejecerunt unum." Hieros. Tr. Taanith f. 68. c. I. 

*^ "Idcirco vocati sunt prisci, D'^'^D'O, Numeratores, quia nume- 
rarunt oranes litteras legis, dicentes : littera Vav vocis yTiy Lev. XI. 
42. media littera libri legis: MJI"! '^"n Lev. X. 16. media vox 

legis: Lev. XIII. 33 medius versus in lege: Ps. LXXX. 14. J' 

vocis ^y est media littera in Psalmis: Ps. LXXVIII. 38. est medius 
versus in Psalmis." Kiddushin f. 30. c. 1, 


and applieil It to tlie Koran, they ought fully to ap- 
preciate this scrupulous anxiety of the Jews to pre- 
serve the integrity of the very letter of their law. In 
the Talmud, it is declared to be a sin altogether un- 
pardonable to alter any thing in the Scriptures, and 
it is added, that to alter. a singlellebrew word would 
endanger the existence- of the world , as God had 
created this world on account of the Scriptures ! If 
the sacred books accidentally fell to the ground, so 
great was their horror at this apparent desecration, 
that they appointed a fast to avert the judgment of 
heaven. The Talmudists added a notice at the end 
of Leviticus and some other books, that it was not 
permitted, even to the prophets, to make the very 
least alteration or innovation in the Law. 

The assumption that the Jews intentionally cor- 
rupted Scripture, is further opposed to the solemnity 
with which some few mistakes which had crept into 
the text, were removed and corrected.*^ Nor can we 
omit to draw attention to the fact, that there are 
fifteen words in the Old Testament which are encum- 
bered with a number of extraordinary dots, ""^ concer- 
ning the rneaning of which, both Jewish and Christian 
philologists and divines are to this hour at a loss. 

*" We refer to the "ablatio scribarimi' C'TC/O 'n'^i? which re- 
moved the 1 in Gen. XVIII. 5. XXIV. 55. Numb. Xn. 14. P.s. LXVIII. 
"26. XXXVI. 7. And the "correctio da'iboiifm" or ^"C'D "^"T, 
which amendod 18 passages; e. g. Gen. XVIIl. 22. 1 Sam. III. 13. 
Munib. I. I. 

■''" These pvncta extraordinaria are more ancient than tlie vow els. 
We find them Ps. XXVU. 13. isb'^b. Numb. XXI. 30. Gen. XIX. 
33. r:7:-p3 etc. etc ■ ' 


Conjectures as to their origin and signification have 
not been wanting-, vet no one has been able to unravel 
the mystery, and we are now, no wiser upon the sub- 
ject than they were in the days of St. Jerome/^ Yet 
as these points or dots stood for more than 2000 
years, so they stand unmeaning but unaltered to this 
day.*^ Wherever the Hebrew text has been copied 
or printed, those extraordinary and practically useless 
points have been conscientiously transferred; but if 
they serve no other purpose, they at least act the part 
of most faithful and impartial witnesses to the integ- 
rity of the Old Testament, and to the reverence of 
the Jews for every "jot or tittle" of their law. 

The Jews w^ere indeed accused of having corrupted 
their Scriptures before Mohammed's time. '' ^ St. Je- 
rome noticed that the Samaritan Pentateuch and the 
Septuagint read the passage Deut. xxvii. 26. "'Cursed 
be every mem that confirmeth not all the words of 
this law to .do them;" whilst the Hebrew text merely 
says, " he who confirmeth not the words 

^^ "Appungunt d-esuper, quasi inoredjbile et quod rerum natura 
non capiat , coire quempiam nescientem." Hieron. quaest. in Gen. 

■^^ Although the Jews crucified the Lord of Glory, yet they 
spare these useless dots : this is indeed straining a gnat and swal- 
lowing a camel ! Matt. XXIU. 24. 

^^ "Quando itaque, Patres nonnulli, ut Justimts Martyr in Dia- 
logo cum Tr_)iJhone, Eusebius lib. lY. Hist, cedes, cap. 18. Origencs 
Homil. XII. in Jereni. Chrysottiomus Homil. V. in Matth. et Hierony- 

rnus in Epist. 89 ad Augustinum in cap. V. Micheae asserunt; 

a Judaeis te.itiim biblicum esse corntptum, non de tcxtu Hebraeo, 
sed de versionibus praedictis loquantur. Vel de aliquibus salteni, 
non de omnibus Codicibus Hebraicis id intelligi debet." Quenstedt 
Theologia didactico-polemica Vol. I. pars I. x^ag. 195. 


of this law to do them."^* Upon this discrepancy 
he founds a grave charge against the Jews, maintain- 
ing that they probably expunged those two words 
which constitute the difference; a charge which it will 
be very difficult to establish. Some have suspected 
foul play on the part of the Jews, in the passage Ps. 
XXII. 16. where certain Manuscripts read, "The as- 
sembly of the wicked have inclosed me, like a lion, 
my hands and my feet;" insteadof ''they have pierced 
my hands and my feet;"''' but whether this proceeds 
from a mistake of the transcriber, or fi'om a wilful 
alteration must be left undecided. We cannot how- 
ever reconcile ivilfid corruption with the fact, that 
owing to the scarcely perceptible difference of the 
respective w' ords in the Hebrew characters, one read- 
ing may have passed into the other without in reality 
altering a single letter.^'' 

The Jews, during their contests with the Samari- 

■''* "Incertum habcmus, utrura LXX interpretes addidcrint 5 Mos. 
XXVII. 2G. omuls homo et in omnibus, an in vetcri Hebraeo ita 
fuerit et postea a Judaeis delctum sit .... Quani ob causam Sama- 
ritanorum Ilebraca volunilna rolegcns inveni 53 scriptum esse, et 
cum LXX intc'ipretibus concordare. Frustra igitur illud tulenmt Ju- 
daei, ne vidcrentur esse sub maledicto , si non possint omnia com- 
plere, quae scripta sunt: cum antiquiores alteiius quoque gentis 
litterae id positum fuisse testcntur." Hieron. Comm. in Gal. III. 10. 
The LXX lias, Cursed be nilg ui'&tJConog og ovx f/</<6r£( tr nam 
rolg Xoyoig rov rofiov. 

^^ ■'•nSO sicut leo, as in Isa. XXXVIII. 13. Our version reads 
"~iJS perfoderunt. So also the LXX. (Ofjv^nr ;|j6riJ«s IJOV , xal no- 
dug. The Clialdee version unites both and translates "perfoderunt 
sic velut leo maims meas et pedes meas." 

•''' Before the vowels were placed, the difference was simply in 
the T; 1~iND and ""iN3. Besides! and" are litterae eV/ttrajSoAot 
give invicem permutabilis, 


tans , might liave been tempted to corru^^t certain 
passages , touching the points of difference between 
them, but they nobly resisted the temptation ; Mdiilst 
the Samaritans on the contrary, failed to preserve 
their Pentateuch in its original integrity. The Sa- 
maritans desiring to "worship on mount Gerizim" in 
opposition to the Jews who said that "Jerusalem was 
the place where men ought to worship" — in order 
to have some divine sanction for their choice, sub- 
stituted "Gerizim" for "Ebal."'^ Here, indeed we 
discover ivilful corruption of the sacred text; but the 
most profound examinations of the various editions 
of the Old Testament have proved, that those handed 
down by the Jews are the purest to be found ; fewer 
inaccuracies having crept into their Manuscripts than 
in any others. Origen in his Hexapla and St. Jerome 
in his versions made use of Jewish editions, and they 
are still preferred by the most intelligent Divines. 

Again, if the Jews had been desirous to corrupt 
the Scriptures , they would have found it impossible, 
from this circumstance; that after the first, and more 
especially after the second destruction of Jerusalem, 
they were dispersed all over the East. How, it may 
be asked, could they have met in conclave to agree 
upon what parts were to be altered, and in what the 
alterations should consist? After the advent of Christ, 
the Hebrew Scriptures were in the hands of the 

^^ "Ye shall set up these stones %vhicli I command you this day 
in mount Ebal (Samaritan reading: in mount D^r'lj) .... and there 
shall thou build an altar unto the Lord thy God;... and thou 
shalt offer burnt-oflerings thereon unto the Lord thy God." Deut. 
ZXVU. 4. 



Christians as well as the Jews, and independently 
of the Jewish converts to Christianity, there have 
always been some in the Church, well versed in 
the Hebrew tongue, who would easily have detected 
any corruptions that might have been perpetrated. 
Again, Manuscripts became very early multiplied, a 
statute existing among the Jews to the effect, that 
no father of a family should be without a copy of the 
Law; '''^ if therefore, corruptions could have been effected 
in some, or even in most of the Manuscripts , a con- 
siderable number must still have remained inaccess- 
ible to those who conspired to corrupt them.^^ 

6. We have moreover internal proof, that the 
Jews abstained from making any alteration in their 
Scriptures, and that Mohammed's accusation falls to 
the ground. The books in question record their his- 
toiy with the utmost impartiality, neither favouring 
their prejudices, nor concealing their faults. Their 
holy Scriptures expose their pride, their rebellion, 
and their obstinate unbelief, and announce at the same 
time all the evils which should come upon them. 
Had the Jews been disposed to alter the sacred Scrip- 
tures, they would naturally have expunged those parts 

^^ "Apud Judaeos legibus statutum, ne quis paterfamilias codice - 
biblico dcstituatur." Gerhard. Loci Theolog. Vol. II. p. 260. 

^^ "Si quaeram, quid sit credibilius Judaeoruni geiitem tarn longe 
lateque diflusam^ in hoc nicndacium conscribendum uno consilio con- 

spirare potuisse? Sed absit, ut prudoiis aliquis Judaeos cujus- 

libet perversitatis ac malitiae tantum potuisse credat in codicibus 

tarn niultis et tarn longo lateque dispersis hoc de invidenda 

g'ontibus veritate unuiu coniniunicasse consilium." August, lib. XV. 
de civit. Dei cap. 13. That there was a copy in Ethiopia, vide Act. 

vm. 30. 


which reflected dishonour on their character as a 
nation; and after the coming of Christ, they would 
most likely have made alterations concerning those 
prophecies which prove , that JesKS of JSazareth was 
the Messiah wliose advent they had been led to expect. 
But all the prophecies concerning Christ, which were 
found in "Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms" be- 
fore His coming, still exist in the Jewish Scriptures in 
all their integrity. ^° If the Jews corrupted the Scrip- 
tures, says Origen, it must have been done, either be- 
fore or after Christ. If it was done before Christ, 
how is it, that our Lord and his Apostles fail to ac- 
cuse them of this crime, whilst they charge them 
with all their other sins ; if they altered them after 
Christ, how is it that we have the wonderful agree- 
ment between the original and the quotations in the 
New Testament? ^^ The quotations in this case, must 
have been made prophetically, exactly as the Jews in- 
tended to falsify them, and notas they actually stood, 
when Christ and His Apostles made them! 

^° "Si Yoluisset Judaei diviiias scrii)turas in odium christianorum 
corrumpere, praecipua vaticinia de Christo vel sustulissent , vel im- 
mutassent, quod taiitum abest ipsos fecisse, ut ex textu hebraeo for- 
tiora contra ipsos argumenta proferri possint." Gerliard. Loci Theol. 
Vol. n. pag. 259. 

^^ "Quod si aliquis dixerit hebraeos libros postea a Judaeis esse 
falsatos , audiat Origenem quid in octavo Aoluraiue , explanationem 
Esaiae huic respondeat quaestiunculao : quod nunquam Dominus et 
Apostoli , qui caetera crimina arguuut , in Scribis et Pharisaeis , de 
hoc criniine , quod erat maximum , reticuissent. Sin autem dixerint 
post adventum Domini Salvatoris , et praedicatiouem Apostolorum 
libros Hebraeos fuisse falsatos, cacliinnum tenere non potero, ut 
Salvator et Evangelistae , et Apostoli ita testimouia protulerint ut 
Judaei postea falsaturi erant." Hieron. Comm. in Esaiara cap. VI. 


We shall now attempt to prove historically , that 
the accusation in the Koran of the corruption of the 
Law, is utterly without foundation. It cannot be said 
that the Jews failed to preserve the integrity of their 
Scriptures before Christ, for whilst our Lord rebukes 
their false interpretation; their '"laying aside the 
commandment of God that they might keep their 
own traditions;" their "making the word of God of 
none effect" through their tradition; their "erring 
not knowing the Scriptures ;"''^ neither He nor His 
Apostles ever accused them of either interpolating 
or subtracting any passage of their holy books. Christ 
urges His audience to "search the Scriptures," and 
argues that what the Scribes and Pharisees teach 
sitting in Moses' seat is to be heard , observed and 
obeyed ; ^ ^ the five brethren also of the rich man 
are required to "hear Moses and the Prophets." And 
is it to be su2:>posed possible, that Christ, whom the 
Mohammedans themselves consider a great prophet 
should direct men to fountains that had been cor- 
rupted? — As if anticipating the rise of a false prophet, 
M'ho would endeavour to destroy the antecedent dis- 
pensations, under the pretext of the Scriptures having 
been corrupted, our blessed Lord makes the emphatic 
declaration, "Think not that I am come to destroy the 
law and the prophets, I am not come to destroy but to 
fidjil.'" For verily I say unto you till heaven and earth 

^- KaX(os (l&fTHTe Ti^v H'Tolfjf Tov ■&f-ov .... ur.vQOvrTfg rov 
Xnyor 70v ^i-ov etc. etc. Mark VII. 9. 13. See also Matt. XXII. 29. 
nXuy(((Tx}t, ixij fidori-g rikg y{>((q'ug. 

®' The Mosaical teaching to be observed and done nance ovi' 
oaa «r iinooan'. Matt. XXIII. 2.3. 


shall pass , one jot or one tittle shall in nowise pass 
from the law, till all be fulfilled ; whosoever therefore 
shall break one of these least commandments, and 
shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in 
the kingdom of heaven."^* These remarkable words 
of Jesus put the seal to the integrity of the Old Tes- 
tament in His day ; and imply that it would be pre- 
served in the same purity to the end of days ; for how 
could the smallest jo^ which is here placed in juxta- 
position with the universe, be fulfilled, were it not to 
retain its integrity? 

The Apostles likewise acknowledged the Scrip- 
tures of the Old Testament to have come down to 
them unadulterated. Had the passage for instance, 
which the Ethiopian Eunuch was r.eading, been cor- 
rupted, Philip the Evangelist would have corrected, 
rather than expounded it. Again, how could the Be- 
reans be praised Act. XVIII. 1. for testing the sound- 
ness of the doctrine which Paul preached, by search- 
ing the Scriptures daily, if those wTitings were 
themselves unsound? St. Paul supported his own 
testimony by declaring, that he preached "none other 
things, than those, which the prophets and Moses 

^* Matt. V. IS. IdSra in Alphabeto hebraeico littera minima, 
niaxirae elementaris , et in qua Keri et Cethib persaepe diflferunt, 
ut promiscae videatur abesse rel redundare. In Codice Hebraeo 
66420 jota numerantur. Graeci jota subscribunt aut praeterraittunt. 
y.afJiaa, apex, literae appendix, aut portio, linca, qua litera a li- 
tera, ut 3 a D vel ^ a 1 distinguitur, vel sonus a sono, ut punctum 
vocale aut accentus: denique quicquid ullo modo in lege pertinet ad 
divinani voluntatem significandam ycI ejus significationem adjuvan- 
dani." Bengeli Gnomon ad locum. Eom. X. 4. teXog ya^ vonov 


did say should come" Act. XXII. 22. The same Apostle 
testifies Rora. ill. 2 that to the safe keeping of the 
Jews "were committed the oracles of God," and the 
fact of his numbering this, among the high privileges 
and honours of that nation , implies , that we are in- 
debted to them for their having been preserved in- 
violate. Josephus, who although belonging to the 
Jewish communion, was in no way inclined to favom' 
it, ^'^ makes the following remark, "During so many 
ages as have already passed, no one has been so bold 
as either to add anything to them, (viz. the 22 books) 
to take anything from them , or to make any change 
in them; but it is become natural to all Jews, im- 
mediately from their very birth , to esteem these 
books to contain divine doctrines, and to persist in 
them, and if occasion be, willingly to die for them." ^^ 
Testimony from such an impartial authority, carries 
no small weight. 

The early Fathers of the Church not only watched 
over the Old Testament in their day, but also gave 
credit to the unbelieving Jews for preserving their 
holy Scriptures in their original purity. Eusehius 

'^^ Josephus did not hesitate to confess of the mass of the people : 
"I cannot refuse to declare what the nature of the case demands ; 
I believe if the Romans had hesitated to fall upon this frivolous 
nation, an earthquake would have swallowed, or a flood would have 
drowned them, or the lightening- of Sodom would have burned them 
up. For this generation was more wicked, than all those could have 
been who suffered these things." 

*'*' "TocTovfov yvcQ dicSvog 7]dj] naQcoxi]MTog , ovre TTQoa&Hvat 
tig ovf^h, ovrf uq^tXtTr iwrair, ovrc ufTaO^fTim rtTGlur/.tr Tlaai 
Sh oi'iiKpvToi' tarir fvOvg ir. rf^g TZQcoTrg yi-.mTeojg 'JovSatoTgto rojuii- 
^eiv dvra Qtov doyjuixTu, rovtotg fftjufietv, kixI v7Z£(j dvxdji', ii 
dioi, d^vrioKHV ijdeoig. Joseph, contra Apion. lib. I. cap. 8. 


agrees with Jose2:>hus Sind Fhilo, that up to their time 
"for the space of more than two thousand years, not 
one sinole word m the law of the Hebrews had been 
altered, and that any Jew would rather die a hundred 
times, as was shown, than alter the law in the least 
degree." ^^ 

7. We have seen from a comparison of ancient 
catalogues of the Old Testament Scriptures, that the 
same books, bearing the same names which existed 
m the days of Josephus, were received by the Chris- 
tians, and by them handed down to the present day; 
no books beino: lost, and none added to them. We 
have also shown, that although verbal differences arose 
from the neglect or ignorance of copyists, which gave 
rise to different readings in many passages , yet that 
none of these could be referred to by Mohammed 
who spoke of wilful corruptions; nor was any one 
dogma of the Jewish faith thereby affected. ^^ Lastly, 
the foregoing testimonies of competent and impartial 
authorities are sufficient to convince us, that with 
no degree of justice can w^e accuse the Jews, at any 
period, of having altered their sacred books. 

There is however another way of satisfying the 

^'' Usque ad mea tempora per spatium amplius quam duorum 
raillium annoi-um , ne verbum quideni fuisse unquara in lege hebraeo- 
rum mutatum et quemlibet Judaeum ceuties potius moriturura, quara 
ut pateretur , legem in aliquo mutari." Euseb. lib. HI. Eccles. hist, 
c. 10. and lib. VUI. de praep. Ev. c 2. 

^* God permitted these "variae lectiones" to adhere to His 
blessed book, to constitute a kind of likeness to the eternal Word, 
Xoyos, when He had taken the form of a servant, inog(pr]V dov?.oy 
Xafiiviv, tv OfxoidijxuTi dv'&Qomoav yt.v6i.ief 05. It made the Bible "in 
fashion", ayrifxati, ivQt&elg , as an ordinary production. Phil. H. 


most sceptical mind, that at no period could there 
have been the opportunity, even if there had been 
the desire on the part of the Jews , to corrupt their 
Scriptures. We possess versions of the Old Testa- 
ment which agree ^ith the original and with one 
another; versions too, which exist in Manuscripts, of 
dates 23rior to the rise of Islamism. We commence 
with those oriental translations, made bv the Jews 
during their exile in Babylon, to supply a national 
want. Moses and the Prophets wrote in the Hebrew 
tongue, that the mass of the people might hear and 
understand the words of the law.^^ During the Cap- 
tivity, the pure Hebrew dialect being lost for ever, — 
for it was never restored after their return to Palestine, 
— the Scri23tures read in the synagogue had to be 
orally translated and exj^lained in the Chahlee lan- 
guage , and ere long , we find written versions of the 
original in that tongue. These translations, owing to 
the analogy of the Hebrew and Chaldee languages, 
generally required no change of words, but merely an 
alteration in the grammatical construction. '*^ AU ob- 
jections to the high antiquity of these Chaldee ver- 
sions have been ably refuted. ' ^ 

The first Targiun or version of Jonathan, '^ '' was 

«^ Deut. XXXI. 11. 2 Chron. XXXIV. 30. 

''"'' Targumim D'???-.-:;! ; a trace of Targuraic version is recognis- 
ed in 'HX\ JJXl , hc^iu mjax^^ari; Matt. XXVH. 46. ."Wb -bi< -bs 
♦ ^jr::;!^ cfr. Psalm xxn. 1. 

^* Aug. Pfeifferi Critfca sacra cap. VIII. sect. 11. pag. 756. 896. 

"^ Jonathan, the son of Uziel, was a disciple of Hillel, and lived 
about 42 years B. C. "Dicunt de Jonathane fil. Uzelis cum sederet 
et operaretur legi , quamlibct avcm super ijisura voliantem sta- 


made before Christ and comprised the entire Old Tes- 
tament ; but only the historical books, or the "former 
prophets," and the prophets properly so called, are 
now extant. The Jews considered this translation 
of great weight and authority, as appears from the 
many fables which they concocted about it ; the work 
however, seems more a paraphrase than a literal 
version. The second Targum was made hj Onkelos.''^ 
This version is four times mentioned in the Talmud, 
and is considered very faithful and literal. Among 
the other Chaldee versions, we only mention that, ge-, 
nerally known as the Targum of Jerusalem; though 
not written in so pure Chaldee as the rest, yet it was 
no doubt made before the rise of Mohammedanism. 

The Greek translation of the Old Testament, 
commonly called the Septuagint, ^* was executed under 

tim combustam. Baba Bathra f. 134. c. J. And in Megilla f. 3. c. 1. 
we read that ho wrote his version fi'om the mouths of Haggai, Ze- 
chariah and Malachi; adding: "turn coniniota est terra Israeli.s ad 
CCCC parasangas, egressa est filia yocis et dixit: Quis ille, qui re- 
velavit secreta niea filiis hominum? Constitit Jonathan f. U. super 
pedes suos, et dixit: ego sura illc, qui reA-elavi secreta tua filiis ho- 
minum , verum non ad gloriam meam , neque ad gloriam i^atris mei, 
sed ad gloriam tuam." 

^^ 0"~~:~N surnamed "1:*" the proseljte ; said to be ai'yiQOvoq 
with Gamaliel stnen'. That he was a Babylonian is inferred from 
his pure Chaldee. The Masora rinioW, -'n"073, ni-DW, from '^073 
tradtdlt, or the traditions respecting certain letters, words and verses 
— first handed down by oral communication and then collected by 
the Jewish Rabbis, chiefly of Tiberias, between the S"" and the e*"*. 
century — was also of service in preserving the sacred text. The 
rr^'STS ■'.?5'3 or Masorethae embodied their theological , critical, 
orthographical or grammatical notices in the so called ^TDi ""Ip, 
always signifying that which they consider the more correct reading 
with p, h. e. ■'"np legito. 

^* So called, not so much from "septuaginta interpretes ," who 


Ptolemaeus Philadelphiis, the generous protector of 
the Jews, 284 years B. C, and has done more to 
confirm the mtegrity of the Law than any other event. 
As the Chaldee versions were made for the benefit 
of the Jews in Babylon and Palestine, when Hebrew 
ceased to be a living tongue ; so the Septuagint w^as 
made in Alexandria, on behalf of the Jews living in 
countries where Greek was spoken. If Kaliph Omar 
had been anxious to ascertain whether the Jews had 
corrupted their Scriptures , he might have convinced 
himself of the contrary, by the examination of the 

ft' ft' 

original Manuscripts of this version, which were pro- 
bably deposited in that celebrated Library w^hich his 
fanaticism caused to be burned. Happily for our ar- 
gument and the interests of truth, the Septuagint 
version, at that period, was spread far and wide. '^ 
Josephus referred to this translation more than to 
the Hebrew, and Philo used it exclusively. It has 
been quoted on many occasions in the New Testament, 

are said to have made this version , as from the fact of its having 
been approved of, and sanctioned by the Jewish Synedrium existing 
at Alexandria. There were at Alexandria LXXI seats for the great 

Synedrium. Q-^^'no -!>:3 nr;T 5^ nNTinp PHi^T c^yn'^i: -2 TT.n 
.-;b-n> V"i^i^-& -"»2J 'IHNT Gem. Succa fol. LI. c 2. Quae Raschi in 
suis scholiis codcm modo exponit: "CTh TC""iD D'lr'pT 'NT "S "1>"13 
:Vnr,:0 namely the Synedrium Alexandrinum. That this version 
was approved by the Jewish heads at Alexandria, appears from the 
following, "nuo^yAtXhaav (Judaei) Tfi dovnu yuxi roTg ijyor/nnotg av- 
TCOJ' clrayrdjica tor lOfxov: ij^icoaur ra nunf-g, ori- aQtvg y.a\ tdSv 
iQi-irfveon' 6i n^jta^vtefjoi hiu tov noXirtv^arog 6i 7TQoe(TT},y.orfg 
intl Y.aXMg ra 7r,g iyfii^rd'ag ((7n]Q«Trai , kuI diauthuxi 7av&' (og 
^lii YMi (xij juenxKiii-rr dvTix. Joseph. Lib. XU. c. U. ]). 397. 

^^ At the time of Christ it was quoted: "quia co tempore ilia 
erat in gentibus divulgata." Hierou. in cap. XLVIl. 


but without the defects having been adopted which 
crept into the translation.^^ 

The Syriac version of the Old Testament com- 
prises all the canonical Scriptures, and was in all 
probability a work of the Jews, from whom it received 
its name.''^ It was executed in the first, or certainly 
not later than the second century. Unlike the Chal- 
dee versions , the Peshito had not only to adjust the 
grammatical construction, but to convey the sense of 
the original in a new form; hence perhaps the name 
of ''literar translation. If Mohammed had a suspi- 
cion of the Jews having corrupted their Scriptures, 
and if he could not satisfy his mind from an inspection 
of the Hebrew Manuscripts, he had opportunity dur- 
ing his commercial pursuits in Syria to institute a 
comparison between the Peshito and the original. 
The false prophet however, appears not at any time, 
to have "inquired diligently" for the truth. 

The translation of Aquila , which was made for 
the use of the Jews, in the second century of the 
Christian era, is an exact and faithful rendering of 

^^ They quoted according to this rule: "Uhicunque de veteri in- 
strumento jn-ophetae et apostoli testimonia protulerinit, diligentius 
observandum est, non eos verba secutos esse, sed sensiim , et uhicun- 
que septuaginta ab hebraeo discrepant , hebraeum sensum suis ex- 
pressisse sermonibus." Hieron. Epist. 151. 

" Peshito means '• the literal ." D:'>'^n, Targum, with the Jews, 
signifies every version into another language. Holy Scriptures are 
said by them to have a double meaning, viz. 'O'Xt the literal sense, 
and '»y'ni'?2 the learned or allegorical sense. The Hebrew llO'uJD is 
turned '^^'CB in Chaldee; and in the Syrian ND^'dE. Hottinger, 
Thesaurus philologic. seu clavis sac. scripturae Lib. I. cap. H. sect. 7. 
pag. 233—237. 


the original. ^^ The translator was a native of Synope 
in Pontus, and his version was preferred by the Asiatic 
Jews to the Septuagint. "^ That Aqiiila himself was 
a Jew, is clear from the inimicial bearing which he 
fi'equently evinces towards Christianity. Moham- 
medans willingly admit that we have the genuine 
production of a Jew in this version; but though 
he strains a word here and there to favour the Jew- 
ish view of the text, Aquila cannot be charged by 
Christians with having corrupted the word of God. ^° 
Theodotion a proselyte of Ephesus , revised the 
Septuagint, and he was followed by Symmachus, who 
strove to give his version of the Old Testament a 
clearer and more classical finish , than it had pre- 
viously received.*'* 

At the beginning of the third century, we find a 
mighty work in the celebrated Heccapla of Origen. 

'* Dlb"'py in the Hieros. and Dlbp:5< in the Babylon. Talmud 
^AnvXas 6 IJoiTixog; he also is called niJOOi]XvTog. Iren. III. 24. 

^^ ft>iXorii.wttQOf TTsmarfviiiivos 7ra(ja JovSaiovq.. i}{i'tVHtvai 

XtnTov yioT^O'dai. Origen. Epist. ad African, pag. 13. 

*" "Jam pridem cum voluminibus Ilehraeorum editioncm Aquilae 
confero, ne quid forsitan jiropter odium Christi synagoga mutaverit : 
et ut amicae menti fatear, quae ad nostram fidem pertineant robo- 
randam plura reperio." Hieron. Epist. 74. ad Marcel. Op. IV. 2. 61. 

"^ "SjTnmachus more suo manifestius." Hieron. Comm. ui Jes. I. 

"^ "Undc nobis curae fuit omnes veteris Legis libros, quos nos 
Adamantius in llexapla digessorat , de Caesariensi Bibliotheca de- 
scriptos , ex ipsis authcnticis emeiulare , in quibus ipsa Ilebraea pro- 
priis sunt characteribus verba descripta, et Graccis littcris tramite 
expre.ssa vicino. Aquila etiam et Svnnnachus, Si-ptuaginta et Theo- 
dotio suum ordiiu-m tcnent. Noiniulli vero libri , et inaxime hi, qui 
apud Hebraeos versu compositi sunt, tres alias editiones additas 
habent, quam Quintam et Sextam et Septiniam translationem vocant, 


In drawing attention to this undertaking, we furnish 
fresh evidence for estabHshing the integrity of the 
Old Testament Scriptures, upon a still broader foun- 
dation. All the translations we have hitherto men- 
tioned, originated with the Jews; but the Hexapla 
was the w^ork of a Christian, converted from Heathen- 
ism, and the weight of this testimony can scarcely 
be overrated. In placing the Hebrew, both in its own, 
and in Greek characters, parallel with the versions of 
Aquila, Symmachus, his own, that of Theodotion and 
the Septuagint, (and in some books of the Scriptures, 
with three other anonymous translations), Origen con- 
structed an iun:)aralleled bulwark against any attempts 
to undermine the integrity of the sacred text. There 
are only fragments of this valuable work remaining; 
the Hexapla itself no doubt perished with the Library 
at Alexandria. 

At the time of Augustine, several Latin versions 
were in existence, among which, he gave the preference 
to the Itala, a work of the second centurv. ^^ St. 
Jerome first revised this translation in the year A. D. 
382, and whilst engaged in this work, he was re- 
quested by his fi'iends to make a new Latin trans- 
lation from the original, which was finished A. D. 
405, and is known as the Vulgata.^^ Another trans- 

auctoritatera, sine nominibus interpretum consequentas." Hieron. 
Conim. in Tit. III. 

®^ "In ipsis autem interpretationibus Itala caeteris praeferatur: 
nam est verboruni tonacior cum perspicuitate sententiae." August, 
de Christ, doctr. II. c. 15. 

*** "Desiderii mei desideratas accepi epistolas . . . obsecrantis, ut 
translatum in Latinani linguani de Hebraeo sermone . . . nostrorura 
auribus traderem." Hieron. praef. ad Pentateuch. 


lation into Ethwpic — the language of the people who 
subdued the Jewish kingdom in the south of" Arabia 
— was made in the fourth century. It is said to have 
been the work of Abba Salama. An entire copy of 
this version is now being printed in Germany.^'' 
Egyptian translations of the Old Testament are found 
as early as the third and the beginning of the fourth 
century; both the Coptic version and the translation 
into the language of Upper Egypt could therefore 
have been consulted by every one suspecting a cor- 
ruption of the text of the Old Testament. "^^ The 
Armenian Church received a version from Miesroh 
in the fifth century; the Septuagint from M'hich this 
translation was made, was brought from the Council at 
Ephesus. Miesrob was assisted by two of his dis- 
ciples whom he had sent to Alexandria to acquire a 
knowledge of the Greek/ ^ There is only one more 
version of the Jewish Scriptures, made before the 
days of Mohammed, of which we have a detailed ac- 
count, and that is the Georgian; it was finished in 
the sixth century.®* 

8. All these translations agree with each other, 
though made in different ages, by people of different 
views, and with different objects; they exist inManu- 

^•' The learned Orientalist, Dr. Dillmann, Prof, at Kiel, is engaged 
in carrying this version through the press, after a careful collation 
of the MSS. extant in Europe. 

®® Vide, Quinque II. Mosis Prophet, in lingua Aegypt. dcscripti 
et Lat. versi a David AYilkins, London 1731, as containing printed 
samples of tlie Coptic version. 

, ^^ Mosis Chorenensis hist. Armeniae cap. 54. pag. 299. 

®® Allg. Biblioth. der biblischen Litterat. I. 153. von Eichhorn. 


scripts considerably older than the Koran, and are 
accessible to any sceptic who may doubt the integrity 
of the Old Testament. As no dissentient voice then 
is heard, among all the witnesses that can be sum- 
moned by either party, the charge which Mohammed 
brought against the Jews, of corrupting their Scrip- 
tures, inevitably falls to the ground. But where, we 
may ask, is the Arabic versio7i of the Old Testament ? — 
Chaldee Targumim, Syriac, Ethiopic, Egyptian, Greek, 
Latin, Armenian and Georgian translations were made 
at an early period, and circulated before even the name 
of Mohammed was heard of; and yet we seek in vain 
for an Arabic copy of the Hebrew Scriptures, in the 
East , before the tenth century of our era , when the 
Hebrew prophets were translated into Arabic by a 
Christian priest at Alexandria.^" The books of Solo- 
mon, the book of Ezra, and the Psalms — which as w^ell 
as the Prophets just now mentioned, are found in the 
Paris and London Polyglotts — were rendered into 
Arabic by Abdallah ben Alfadi, in the eleventh cen- 
tury."" Rabbi Saadias-Gaon^ ^ who died A. D. 942 

^^ Gabr. Sion. praef. ad Psalter. Sjt. Par. 1625. In Spain in- 
deed, we meet with an Arabic rersion in the middle of the eighth 
century, which had been made by John Bishop of Sevilia. "Joannes 
Hispalensis praesul divinos libros lingua arabica donabat utriusque 
nationis saluti consulens : quoniam Arabicae linguae multus usus 
erat Christianis acque atque Mauris; latina passim ignorabatur. 
Ejus interpretationis exempla ad nostram aetatem conservata sunt ; 
extantque non uno in loco in Hispanis." Mariana de rebus Hispan. 
lib. Vn. cap. 3. 

®° The psalms were printed at Haleb 1706. 

^' Paulus Spec. vers. Pent. Arab. pag. 33. 

" * He was a native of Fajiim in Egypt , and president of a 
school at Sora in Babylon. Some ascribe to him a translation of 
Job and Eosea. 


left an Arabic Pentateuch, and the book of Isaiah 
with Targumic and Rabbinical ex[)lanations. An- 
other Pentateuch was translated by an African Jew, 
in the thirteenth centmy. ^^ In the year A. D. 1468 
Hareth hen Senan translated the Psalms, Job, Pro- 
verbs, Canticles, Sirach, the minor Prophets, with 
Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel and Isaiah.^* Lastly, Ara- 
bic versions were made in behalf of the Roman Ca- 
tholic Christians in the East, from the Vulgata; but 
the first of these bears no earlier date than A. D. 
1G71.^^ This version was reprinted by the British 
and Foreign Bible Society in 1822. The fact of 
there being no Arabic version of the Old Testa- 
ment prior to the tenth century, seems incredible. 
We know that the Jews were sufficiently powerful 
to found a JeAvish kingdom in the south of Arabia ; 
how is it that they here, neglected to do, what they 
invariably did during their sojourn in other lands? 
For in Babylon, they made a Chaldee, in Egypt, a 
Greek, in Syria, a Syriac version of their holy books. 
We also know that there existed several Bishoprics 
in Arabia, prior to the rise of Islamism;®^ and it is 
certain that some Churches were there planted by 
the Apostles themselves. The question therefore arises 

*^ Edited as "Pentatcuclius Mosis Arabice "by Erpenius 1622. 

^* Copies are preserved in Manuscripts; 2 in Oxford, and 2 in 

^'' Biblia Sacra Arab. s. Congregationis de propaganda fide jussu 
edita ad usum Eccles. orientaiium, additis e reg. Bibliis Lat. Rom. 
typis sanct. Congreg. 1G71. \'ol. 111. 

^^ There was a Bishop ofDhaf'ar, another of Ilajran; the Jaco- 
bites had two Bishops , one at Akula , the other in Hira ; and the 
Nestorians had one in the Peninsula. Sale's Prelim. Disc. pag. 17. 


whether the Christians would not have translated the 
Old Testament into Arabic, within the space of 600 
years, as they rendered them into the Syriac, Ethio- 
pic, Egyptian, Armenian, Greek and Latin tongues. 
We can scarcely deem it possible, that a Church built 
upon the joint foundation of the Prophets and Apos- 
tles, could possibly exist for 600 years without a ver- 
sion of the Old Testament in the vernacular tongue! 

We have moreover the testimony of the learned 
TJieodoretus, who lived A.D. 450. that the Old Tes- 
tament in his day, was translated into every language 
then spoken. We may then take it for granted, that 
the Jews and Christians, both of whom so strongly 
mustered in Arabia, would have made versions of the 
Old Testament, and that the Arabic though not spe- 
cified by Theodoretus, A.D. 450 was included. That 
he did not mention all the translations by name is 
clear, from his omitting the Chaldee, Ethiopic and 
Syriac. ^ ' 

Inference may in some cases amount to a moral 
certainty, and in this particular, it seems to justify 
our assumption of the existence of an Arabic version 
of Scripture. We have however direct and historical 
evidence, that the Old Testament had been translated 
into Arabic at the time when the Ethiopic version 
was being made. A poem and also a martyrology 

■^ "Hebraici libri noii niodo in Graecum idioma conversi sunt, 
sed in Ronianam quoquc linguara, Aegjpticani , Persicam, Indicam, 
Armcnicam, et Scythicani, atquc adeoSauromaticani, semelque ut di- 
cara in linguas oninos, quibus ad banc diem nationes utuntur,"' fig 
naaag rag yXcarTag ccTg anana t« e&rrj y.EiQriniva diurtXtt Theo- 
doretus lib. Y. de Curan. Graecor. torn. n. pag. 521. 



in Etliiopic , both bear testimony that Aba Sa- 
lama^*^ translated the Scriptures into Geez, and that 
he made his version fi'om an Arabic text. ^^ The con- 
ckision then to which we are driven by our argument 
is this, that there was an Arabic version of the Scrip- 
tures in existence before the rise of Islamism; and 
but little doubt can exist that Mohammed or his fol- 
lowers destroyed it, to remove the possibility of his 
charge against the "Scripturalists" being refuted. 

9. If the Old Testament Scriptures be corrupted, 
as the Mohammedans will have it, then it must follow: 
that God either would not or could not preserve His 
own word in its original purity, which is opposed to 
either His goodness or power; again, the only source 
of our faith is for ever contaminated, since neither 
the original nor versions can be depended on ; Christ 
and His Apostles stand convicted of blaming the Jews 
for minor offences, whilst they allowed so great a 
crime to pass unnoticed; the toil and study of Hebrew 
scholars in investigating and scrutinising the editions 
of the original have proved utterly unavailing; all that 
Philo, Josephus, Eusebius, Origen, Augustine, and 
others have stated of the scrupulous care of the Jews 
touching their Scriptures, is false, or the testimonies 
of these men have likewise been corrupted; the ho- 

'* Jobi Ludolplii historia Aethiop. Lib. 111. cap. 2. 

'* "!ric >!pa('cftTnicr iicnncu iintcr ibrcn cvftcn ©laubeneVrcDi^evn nut 
»crjiui(i*cin JHufniic ciiicn iiciviiTcn 5lba Salanm, unt bicfcm fdircibt e^ and) 
ein inlduMfcfier S^irfitet unb fin atliiovifflK^ ^Piaviin-olcsiium ju, l-af; cr He 
JBiiri'cv t>c^ ©cfcljco unt- ©iMiu^cIiiimi? an? tcv ?(valMfc(un iit idrc evvad)e 
iiterff^t Imbc." Dr. 4"*iKj'e (Siiilcitiiiu^ in ric£dnitten rcc ncnen Tcftamcntc^. 
Vol. I. pag. 375. See also Ludoli)lii comiufntar. in liistor. Aethiop. 
lib. III. cap. 4. pag. 295. ' - 


nour of keeping the oracles of God, as ascribed by 
St. Paul to the Jews, is nothing less than a cruel 
and unseemly satire; and Mohammed himself, in seek- 
ing to build upon Moses and the prophets has cho- 
sen but a rotten foundation. As these necessary se- 
quences are utterly opposed to all sense and reason, 
still more absurd must be the assumjDtion from which 
they are deduced. * 



"Hearen and earth shall pass away but MY words shall not pass 

away." Mark XEI. 31. 

1. Having repelled the charge of Mohammed 
against the Jews, we shall now proceed to remove 
the aspersions which he endeavoured to cast upon 
the Christians , who are likewise accused of having 
suppressed some of their Scriptures and corrupted 
others. In the time of Nero, the Christian Religion 
had spread not only over Palestine , but throughout 
the vast Empire of the Romans, aspiring to become, 
in the full acceptation of the word, the dominant 
creed of the world. ^ 

That the New Testament Scriptures were written 
in the respective countries and ages ascribed to them 
by the Church, has been satisfactorily tested and in- 

^ Gerhardi Loci Theologici torn. H. pug. 261. 

- Vide Taciturn lib. XV. Annal. cap. 44. Also : Suetonium in 
Nerone cap. 16. Plinii lib. X. Ep. 97. 



controvertiblv j^roved by internal and incidental evi- 
dence, ^ and also by external historical testimony.* 
It is not our intention to go over this ground again, 
but in order to obtain a solid foundation for our 
present argument, it will be requisite to premise some 
particulars relating to the early history of the sacred 
books, included in the New Testament. 

2. We have many relics of ancient literature, 
concerning the genuineness and integrity of which, 
we are convinced without having any other, than in- 
ternal evidence. Not so with the New Testament; 
there is no one book, among all the ancient works 
of the Greeks and Romans, which has an equal 
amount of historical evidence as regards its date and 
origin. Supposing the Scriptures of the Christians 
to have been written , the first under Nero , the last 
under Domitian, the witnesses, stretching as far down 
as Diocletian, would only be two centuries removed 
from the conclusion of the period in which they were , 
composed. These early writers of the Church have 
been consulted, with a view to ascertain how soon the . 
books in question had been circulated , and that 
with eminent success. ' It may be added, that theii' 

^ This was happily done in manj' instances hy Poley , in his 
"Horae Paulinae," and hy Hu a, "Einleitung in das neuo Testament." 
Band I. pag. U— 32. 

* Lardner's "Credibility of the Gospel History, or the facts 
occasionally mentioned in the New Testament, confirmed by passages 
of ancient authors." 1727. 

^ Lardncr was followed by Ch. Fr. Schniid in the "Historia et 
vindicatio canonis." 1775. G. Less in his work: "Ueber Keligion, 
ihre Geschichte und Bcstiitigung;" 1786. and Paley, "A view of the 
evidences of Christianity." 1797. 


quotations are more exact in citing from the didactic, 
than from the /ji'sfoncrt/ portions of the New Testament; 
again , the Old Testament is more carefully quoted, 
than the New, simply becanse their readers were 
better acquainted with the latter than with the former. 

Clemens Homamis, whose' "name was in the book 
of life," Phil. lY. 3. speaks of the Epistle of "the 
blessed Apostle Paul;" ^ and faithfully quotes passages 
from the Epistles to the Romans and to the Hebrews/ 
Ignatins, Bishop of Antioch A. D. 69. who suffered 
martyrdom under Trajan at Rome, alludes to the di- 
dactic parts of the New Testament/ and also quotes 
St. Pauls words, "that ye all speak the same thing 
and be perfectly joined together in the same mind 
and in the same judgment."^ In his Epistle to the 
Church of Philadelphia, he mentions the Gospel and 
the Apostolic writings conjointly, which implies, that 
he was acquainted with both. ^^ 

Polycarp , the disciple of St. John and Bishop of 

^ ^Afokd^tTd TTjv iniaToXip tov i^ianaQiov TlavXov rov Ano- 
aroXov' tl 7i{j(5iof viilv iv uQxft '^^^ 'Eva/yfliov ey(jaxptp; in' uXr]- 
■dtiag TinviJiaTiy.Mq intrTri-iXtv vf.uv nffji iIvtov re nal Kt;(fa 
AnoKkd), dia TO ro't nooxXimig i'l-iixg ntnoiiiai^ui. Clcra. Rom. 
I Epist. ad Corinth, cap. 47. 

' Compare Clem. Rom. Epist. ad Cor. c. 35. with Rom. I. 29— 
32. and cap. 36. with Hebr. I, 3—7. 

^ IlavXov (TVni.iv(Ttat tov nyiaanEiov o iv ndari imcFToX^ 

jurjjjwoov'it VfiOJi' if X()ioT(S ^hitjov. Ignat. Epist. ad Ephes. c. 12. 

^ Ignat. Ep. ad Ephes. cap. 2. with 1 Cor. I, 10. 

*" nQOG(f)vy<iyv TM^EvayyeXioi (og aa^xl 'Ir](Tov, xal toTg anoaroXoig 
we niJkiJ^vTt{JL(o iy.y.XijGiug' Ignat. Epist. ad Philadelph. cap. 5. cfr. 
also Ignat. ad Trail, cap. XI. and ad Philadelph. cap. HI. also 
ad Smyrn. cap. I. with Matt. XV. 13. III. 15. where two other 
quotations occur. 


Smyrna, \vho became a martyr A. D. 169, likewise 
refers to the Epistles generally/^ and to that of the 
Corinthians in particular.*^ In his Epistle to the 
Philippians, he writes, "Remember what our Lord 
said, when He taught, — Judge not that ye be not 
judged, forgive .and it shall be forgiven you; be mer- 
ciful and ye shall obtain mercy; with what measure 
ye mete, it shall be measured to you again." *^ Bar- 
nabas , the companion of St. Paul , and according to 
some, Bishop of INIilan , refers to the following words 
of our Lord, "many are called but few are chosen;"** 
and •"whosoever will come after me, let him deny him- 
self and take up his cross and follow me."*^ Clemens 
Romanus bids the Corinthians remember the words 
of the Lord Jesus, and then rehearses several detached 
sentences from the sermon on the mount, especially 
as recorded by St. Luke.*^ Li his second Epistle 
he adds, "And another Scripture saith. — I came not 
to call the righteous to repentance but the sinners."*' 

** fJavXov, og ytvojufrog iv vptXv narix nQormnov ro5v Tots ai>- 
SQ(6rT<i)v, idida^tv dnQi^ifo: xal ^f-^aiojs rov nf.iA dkr]&H'<xg loyoV 
og dniov Vfur ty^juxptf fjnaroXdg. Polycarp. ep. ad Philip, c. 3. 

^^ Compare Polycarp. ad Philip, c. 5. with 1 Cor. VI. 9. 

*' Mi't]!i(orf,v(j(xneg.Se (av knev 6 Y.v{)iog SifidaxMr' Mi] y.Qirare, 
ha HT] xgtSrJTfr ktA. Polycarp. Epist. ad Philip, c. 2. Also Clem. 
Rom. ad Corinth, c. 13. 

" "Attfiidamns ergo, ne forte, sicut scriptum est, multi vocati, 
pauci electi invtiiiamur." Epist. Baruab. cap. 4. 

*^ OvTOj, q)i]alv Cbfaovg) m diXovrig /t« 18hv dxpaadai ^lov 
trig ^amlnag, ocpHkovm ^hfieiTf.g y.m nixdoirfg X(x[iHr fu. Epist. 
Barn. cap. 7. Vide Matt. XVI. 24. Mark. VIII. 34. Lu. IX. 23. 

'^ Clem. Rom. Epist. ad Corinth, cap. 13. with Lu. VI. 36—38. 

*^ Kal aTeya yita^fj Xeyn , ori 6vh r,Xdov naXhai 6iK<xiovg, 
dXXu d^iaQT(X)Xovg. Clem. Rom. Epist. II. ad Corinth. 


He also refers to the words of our Lord , touching 
faithfulness in little things, with the special addition 
that they were found in the Gospel.*® 

More detailed evidence of the existence of the 
New Testament , than the above , may be deduced 
from the works of the early Fathers of the Church. 
Justin Martyr, born in Palestine A. D. 89. was well . 
acquainted with the Gospels;*^ and whilst mei'ely 
alluding to the existence of the Epistles, he ascribes 
the Apocalypse to St. John. ^° Athenagoras, who died 
A. D. 180. quotes the first Epistle to the Corinthians, ^ * 
and shows a general acquaintance with the Epistles 
of St. Paul. Theophilus, who flourished A. D. 180. 
speaks of the Gospels, mentions that of St. John by 
name , refers to the Epistles of St. Paul to the Ro- 
mans and to Timothy," and is said to have made use 
of the Apocalypse. In the year A. D. 170. Dionysius, 
Bishop of Corinth, speaks of the New Testament 
Scriptures as the books of the Lord Jesus Christ. ^ ^ 

3. The above quotations prove two things, first, 

*8 Clem. Rom. Epist. H. cap. 10. cfr, Lu. XVI. 11. 12. 

*^^ 'Oi yccQ dnoaroXoi iv toTg ysvofjihoiq vn" dvtmv dnoiiivijino- 
vtvpLam, a KuXfttut 'Evayyelia , 6vt<as naQeSmy.av. Just. Martyr. 
Apolog. I. cap. 66. pag. 83. 

-" Just. Mar. Dialog, cum Tryph. cap. 81. pag. 179. 

** Evdr^Xov nanl to Xttnofxkvov, on 8tt xaru tor dnoatoXov 
TO (f&a{iTor rovro y.ul dtaaxef^narov hSvaaadai d(f&a(jmav. 
Athenag. de resurrect, cap. 18. p. 531. and 1 Cor. XV. 54. 

'^' ... ra T<op nQoqirjroiv nal tcSp ivayysXi(ov tXHV. Theoph.^ ad 
Autolyc. in. pag. 338. and pag. 389. he quotes as 6 dtloi loyog 
what "is written 1 Tim. H. 2. Rom. XIU. 7. 8. 

^^ y(ja(f)al y.v(jiaiiul Euseb. H. E. IV. 23. where Dionysius is 


that the books of the New Testament existed m the 
first two centuries and were known among the Chris- 
tians, and secondly, that they had the same books 
then , as we have now. That these writings should 
have been corrupted during the above period, is clearly 
impossible. They could not have been corrupted dur- 
ing the lifetime of the Apostles, because these Scrip- 
tures were speedily multiplied and circulated among 
the Churches, and the greater the number of manu- 
script copies, the greater the difficulty to altei' any 
portion of them. Nor did the Apostles, or their im- 
mediate disciples, the Apostolic Fathers, complain of 
any such corruptions, although they had occasion to 
censure many a disorder which had crept into the 
Churches. After the decease of the Apostles, the 
original Manuscripts of the various detached books 
of the New Testament, were reverentially preserved 
in the archives of the principal Churches, and served 
as a check against any alteration, wdiich might be 

Still more weighty, and in the eyes of the 
Mohammedans, more impartial, must be the evidence 
which is to be obtained fi'om the enemieswho assaulted, 
and the heretics who separated from the Church, dur- 
ing the jBrst two centuries. Celsus, an Epicurean phi- 
losopher, wTote a work^* against Christianity, which 
has been partially preserved in a refutation by Origen. 
He refers to the various miracles, wrought by our 
Lord, and gives many details of His passion ; and all 
these things, he states, had been wi'itten by His dis- 

^* He gave it the arrogant title of "^AXT]&7)g Xoyog" 


ciples.^^ Althougli lie speaks of these writings as 
the Gosjjel,'^^ yet he plainly indicates two of the Evan- 
gelists, (St. Matthew and St. Luke), when he states, 
that those writers assume too much, who trace the 
lineal descent of Jesus, the one genealogically to the 
first man, the other, to the Jewish kings. ^^ 

As Celsus refers, in one part of his work, to 
Christ being asked in the temple,^*' by the Jews for 
a sign to prove His divine Sonship; and in another 
part, to the fact of His showing His wounds in His 
side and hands after His Resurrection;^^ and also 
alludes to the word, being declared in the Gospel to 
be the Son of God;^^ we have a threefold proof that 
he was acquainted with the Gospel of St. John. 

That Celsus was also in possession of the remain- 
ing Gospel of St. Mark, is placed beyond all doubt, 
by his urging it as a point of disagreement between 
the writers of the Gospel, that, "some say there were 

-* Tovs St pia&rjTas, rovg naru top ^Jrjrrovv dfayayQacpsfai ntgl 
tlvtov ToiavTix. Celsus lib. 11. 13. and lib. U. cajo. 16. Shortly after 
he adds, "All these have we taken out of your own Scriptures; we 
need no other witnesses, as your own weapons are sufficient for 
your destruction." Lib. 11. cap. 74. 

^'' ^Evayyehov ; just as the most ancient Manuscripts are inscribed. 

^^ ^Anrjv&aSrjG'&ai rovg yanixXoyrioarteg dnh tnv TTQonov q>vv- 
rog y.izl ralv h' ^Invd<ti'-')tg fiumXfcov tov ^Ir^aovv. ymI .... on ovx 
av rj rov removog yvvrj rj]lixovrov ytvovg zvy)^inovGix rjvoti. Cel- 
sus lib. n. c. 32. 

" 'Er Tcp kQM. cfi-. John H. 18. 

^^ Kai rd rrr^jiif-ia Tfjg xoXaatojg tSfi^ev n ^fi]GOvc, xal tag i^t- 
{jag cog rjaav neneQOvr^^tfivai. Celsus lib. II. cap. 59. with John XX. 27. 

^^ After stating that Xoyor nrta vior rov x^i-ov, Celsus makes 
the Jew whom he introduces, blasphemously object, that "it was an 
impure and unholy koyog, who was abused and executed." 


two angels, and some, there was only one angel at 
the sepulchre of Christ." ^^ To justify this expression, 
there must have been at least two writers on each 
side, and this accords with the four Evangelists.^^ 

Without further examining the allusions of Celsus 
to Apostolic writings, ^ ^ Ave hasten to notice, what this 
bitter and subtle enemy of Christianity neglected to 
do. Celsus assaulted Christ and Christianity, Chris- 
tians and their Holy Scriptures with an extraordinary 
skill and virulence, but in all his attacks we seek in 
vain for any charge against the integrity of the Holy 
Scriptures. He ridicules the Christians, and nothing 
apparently would have given him greater satisfaction 
than to prove to the world, that from some motive 
or other they had corrupted their sacred books. His 
silence therefore must be considered the most con- 
vincing j^roof that up to that period, no alteration 
had been affected .in the sacred text. 

Scarcely less important is the testimony of the 
Christian heretics^* of the first two centuries, both 
as to the early existence of the sacred books of the 
New Testament, and to their being preserved in their 
integrity during that period. In the fragments pre- 

^^ Kal [iiep mi nfjos rov dvrov rovde racpov iXOeTv ayysXov, 6i 
dl 8vo rovg dnoxQtrOfievovg talg yvvai^lv, on dnart;. Celsus lib. V. 
cap. 52. 

^^ Matthew and Mark speak of one angel ; Luke and John 
of two. 

^^ Quotations of the Epistles of Paul are seen Celsus lib. V. 
cap. 64. lib. YI. cap. 12. lib. VUl. cap. 24. 

^* Tatian , Julius Cassian, Theodotus; anonymous heretics men- 
tioned by Tertullian and Origen ; Marcion , Ptolemaeus , Ileraclion, 
Valentinus and his school, Basilides and Isidorus. Hug Vol. I. p. 38. 


served of these heterodox teachers, we have numerous 
quotations from every book of the New Testament 
with the exception of the Epistle of St. Paul to Titus. 
Although some of these heretics altered or omitted 
both books and passages in their own Manuscripts, 
yet we recognise portions from the New Testament 
Scriptures, in most of the quotations which they made 
to support their own particular views. 

4. It is not necessary here to show, how soon the 
early Churches interchanged and collected the various 
books of the New Testament, but it would appear, 
that it was fairly commenced in the lifetime of the 
Apostles. ^^ Some of the Apostolic writings, specially 
those addressed to jyrivate individuals, were naturally 
slower than others in becoming known and circu- 
lated ; ^ ^ yet they too ere long were read in the Churches, 
and thus escaped being placed among the unknown 
or apocryphal books. ^^ As however Epistles of the 

*5 It was requested by St. Paul Col. III. 16. thatEpisOes should 
be exchanged. That the Epistle to the Laodiceans here mentioned 
was that to the Ephesians is clear from the fact that tv E(fiea(o was 
not originally in the text Ephes. I. 1. Marcion altered it to "ad 
Laoclicenos". The idea of Archbishop Usher seems to be the most 
natural , and agrees best with the whole tenor of the Epistle , viz. 
that it was an encych'cal A\Titing addressed to various Churches. 
That St. Paul's Epistles were at least partly collected when St. Peter 
wrote his second Epistle would appear fi'om the expression h na- 
amg raig imaro'kais. 2 Pet. in. 16. 

^^ Addressed to Timothy > Philemon, Titus, and the 2^ and 3<i 
Epistle of St. John. 

" The word an6y.Qvq>ov, liber ubaconditus , as Augustine has it, 
was taken from the Jews, who called those writings a"'213>; not 
being put with the sacred books in the holy chests , but separately 
in secret places; a manuscript having 4 mistakes in one leaf, was 
hid. Justin, Dialog, c. TrjT)h. translates with «qp«>fS notthi in op- 


Apostolic Fathers were sometimes read in tlie Churches, 
it became necessary to set forth catalogues of those 
Scriptures which were to be considered canonical. 
The first of these is found in the Homilies of Origen 
upon the book of Joshua, where he gives an allego- 
rical exposition of the seven trumpets of rams' horns." 
The first, he saith, who blew the trimipet, was Mat- 
thew, then Mark, Luke and John among the Evan- 
gelists; Peter in two Epistles, then James and Jude. 
John resumed the trumpet-call in his Epistles and 
the Apocalypse, and Luke in the Acts of the Apos- 
tles. But Paul, the last, threw every thing down 
before him with the twice seven-fold sound of his 

Eusebius in his Church History, classifies the 
entire body of the sacred literature of the Christians 
into three divisions ;^^ i\\e first of which, consisted of 
books which were universally acknowledged as divine, 
comprising the four Gospels, the Acts, the Epistles 
of St. Paul, the first Epistle of St. John, the first 
Epistle of St. Peter, and the book of Revelation. The 
second division,^'' embracing the Epistle of St. James, 
that of St. Jude, the second of St. Peter, and the 

position to this , Origen uses the expression ^lavEQa (iii'iXi'a ; Epist. 
ad Afric. cap. 9. The first who uses «.70K(>yqp05 is Clemens Alex, 
lib. UI. cap. 4. 

*® Euseb. Eccles. Hist. lib. III. cap. 25. also explanatory lib. III. 
cap. 3. and cap. 24. The 3 divisions were OfioXoyovfisvot , dni- 
Xf.yov^nvot and vo&a. 

^® Not to be confounded with the nuntXco^ loi^a; and held 
TTiXQa nXtvTToiq TcJr fcVuXfa/mjT/Ku)/'; yi'(x)ijtj.ia noXXol^, Lib. 111. 
cap. 25. ^tra r(5r XoindSv fv nXtiaTiag iKv.Xtauus nufju noXXotg 
6t8ri!.ioattvixev(x. III. 31. 


second and third of St. John, was received bv manv, 
but had been doubted by some. This uncertainty- 
was removed by the Council of Nice, when they were 
received into the Canon. The third and last division 
of the Christian books by Eusebius, comprised wri- 
tings of an apocryphal character, such as "the Acts 
of Paul," the ''Shepherd of Hermes," the "Epistle of 
Barnabas," the "Apocalypse of Peter" and the "teach- 
ings of the Apostles." *° With this third class of 
books we must not confound the many spurious 
Gospels, of Peter, Thomas and Matthias, or the 
Acts of Andrew, John and other Apostles; together 
with many other fabulous and heretical productions, 
which Eusebius pronounced to be godless and pre- 
sumptuous, and unworthy to be classed among his 
third and last division.** 

5. Thus we see, that no small care was bestowed 
upon the collection and preservation of the books of 
the New Testament. They were religiously set apart, 
and no other book could gain admission among their 
number, under whatever name it might claim to be 
admitted.*'^ In proportion to the fear of the Catholic 

*" 'Ef xoTq vo&oig y.ararerdi&oi tcSv JJavXov nQa^icov tj 
yQuqiTj , 6, re Xtyofxafos noifxrjv, K«t ii unoy.dXvxpig Tltrfjov. Kal 
TTfJOi TovTOt^ i) Cff-oo/iitri; Ba^mfia tniGroli] , ya] kSp ^AuoatoXmv, 
ui Xf-yojiifiai 6i6(Cj(ixi. Euseb. Hist. Eccl. lib. III. cap. 25. 

*' O&tv oi> d' tv rodoi; dtrd aaraTaxjeov , dkX' ojc drona 
ndpTt] xal dvaat^i; nuQaitrjTtor. Euseb. Hist. Ecc. lib. III. 25. 

** "Sicut olim in populo Judaeorum multi prophetiam pollicc- 
bantur, ot quidein ciant pseudoprophetae . . .: ita et in N. Testanicnto 
multi conati sunt scribcre Evaiigelia, sed non omnes recepti. Et ut 
sciatis non solum quatuor Evangclia, sed plurima esse conscripta. ex 
cjuibus haec, quae habemus, electa sunt et tradita ecclemis , ex ipso 


Church, lest a book should be received upon insuffi- 
cient authority, was the zeal to preserve those which 
were admitted in their original integrity. Yet in spite 
of the greatest Matchfulness, some discrepancies crept 
into the sacred text; partly through the inattention 
of the copyists, partly from other causes, which cannot 
be left unnoticed. 

Unintentional "Variae lectiones" not unfrequently 
arose here, as in the Old Testament, from the copy- 
ists sometimes "seeing amiss," and so exchanging 
letters, transposing words and sentences, and making 
repetitions;*'^ from hearing air? m they were also liable 
to commit numerous mistakes.** To these may be 
added, faults arising from want of memory, such as, 
misplacing words, and exchanging synonymous ex- 
pressions;*" faults arising from want of knowledge, 

prooemio Lucae . . . cognoscamus . . . Hoc , quod ait, conati sunt, la- 
tentem habet accusationem eorum, qui absque gratia Spiritus S. ad- 
scribenda Evangelia prosllierunt. ^latthacus quippe et ilarcus et 
Johannes et Lucas non sunt conati scribere, sed Spiritu S. pleni scrip- 
serunt Evangelia . . . Ecclesia (h«t« to'' ty.yXtGinoTiy.or y.arova 
Euseb. VI. 25) quatuov habet Evangelia, haereses plurima; e quibus 
quoddam scribitur secundum Aegyptios, aliud juxta duodecini Apo- 
stolos . . . Sed in his omnibus nikll olivd proboiiofs, ^cW quod Eccle- 
sia, i.e. quatuor tantura Evangelia recipicnda." Origen. Horail. I. 
in Luc. ni. 933. 

*■'' Exchanging Utters: Mark. V. 14. icrt'yyeiXar for dTTryyeiXni. 
Act. XXVII. 6. drt^((iaatr for fif-^i,iu(rt-v. Rom. XII. 13. luitiag for 
^yttag. Iranspos/ng : Rom. I. 13. Hix^jTror Tiva for ri>d mxQnov. 
Repetition: 1 Thess. IJ. 7. i^ytf/jOrjuv rijTHOi for tyti'i]. r'jnioi. 

** Thus Rom. 11. 17: idt for a Si. 1 John IV. 2: yito'jay.ttat for 
yii>oi(jy.f.Tt. Matt. XXVII. 60: Kinv for xaiixS. 

*•' John XVI. 22. vvv (xh Xvnryv for kvnrjv ^h vvr. Rev. XVU. 
17. tu (>//,i<«T« for 01 koyoi. 


where abbreviations were mistaken for single letters, 
or words were wrongly divided.*^ 

More or less intentional , tliongh certainly not 
malicious, were other mistakes committed in the act 
of transcribing the books of the New Testament. 
It was the natural w^sh of the early Christian tran- 
scriber and reader to render the text of the sacred 
books as plain as possible, and with a view to accom- 
plish this object, they sometimes wrote a more in- 
telligible word over, or on the margin of an unusual 
expression. A Ch^eek reader for instance, considering 
that the term used for tribute-money was not ge- 
nerally intelligible, placed a more purely Greek word 
by its side, and a subsequent copyist introduced the 
word from the margin into the text, and thus caused 
a different reading.*' Another took the events re- 
corded Luke xn. 38. as happening during the day- 
time;*'* to prevent misunderstanding, he followed the 
computation of the Romans, who divided the day as 
well as the night into four watches, and instead of 
"the third watch" added by way of explanation, "the 
evening watch;" a mistake, afterwards copied into 
the text of several Manuscripts. Again, another reader 
conceiving that the thirty pieces of silver, Matt. XXVI. 

" We refer only to 1 Tim. IH. 16. where QS was taken OS 

or the reverse. Mistakes such as (TvnTriaxoTTOtg for avv iniay.O'oig 
Phil. I. 1. will easily be accounted for, when we remember that the 
original MSS. were not divided into words or sentences, 

*^ Krjraog was superseded by iniMqaXairyp. Mark. XII. 14. 
In Pet. II. 20. instead of y.oXa(fit^6/.itiot, some Codd. read nohx^oueroi. 

*® The third Hebrew watch T^tV/; qvXaxt) answers to the Greek 
fitaofvy.rior ; the day being- divided in quatv.or e.ccnbias; the third 
of these day-watches was therefore the iont(jhri (fvXuKi'j. 


15. seemed to require explanation — being intelligible 
only to the Jews — ventured to subjoin the equivalent 
Greek sum of "thirty staters," in the margin, which 
was eventually substituted in the text of some JNIanu- 
scripts for "thirty pieces of silver." Another critical 
reader of Mark X. 12. not finding it consonant to the 
taste and manners of the Greeks, that a woman should 
"put cnvay her hnshand,'' their laws endowing the 
man only with power, to put a way his wife, the Cam- 
bridge IManuscript turns the sentence thus, "if a 
woman go forth from her husband, and be married 
to another etc."*^ The following expression, "to catch 
something out of His mouth," was considered too 
Hebraically idiomatic for the Greeks, and was there- 
fore rendered in this form, "seeking occasion to find 
something to accuse hini."^° The many other Hebra- 
isms, which constitute so striking a peculiarity of the 
New Testament, did not meet with greater indulgence 
from the fastidious Greek orammarians. The harsh 
inflexions and foreign combinations of the various 
parts of speech could not fail to create a desire for 
correction, in a people who thought so much of purity 
of style and diction; hence, the purely Hebraic ex- 
pression, "and he added to send another servant"** 

*■' rvvi] iur «|«A^r] dno rov dvdgog xal yajM]ari, thus accom- 
niodatiiig- it to Oiccian ]a\v, which only gives man the power of 
unoXvuv and (Inontfintii'. 

A,ipovi;eg irrjQi-vaat ri tK rov orofiaTog iwrov ira, «tA. be- 
comes: ^ritovrng ilcfio^Ji^lv tuu hi^tiy dvzov tV« iv(jc6ai xarayo- 
{Ji\(jiu. Lu. XI. 54. 

'"* Ka\ 7T{)oat\}fTO TrHnf'm- nrJb flSl" is rendered Lu. XX. 11. 
at once knf-fnprr. INIavk. II. J 5. /■'/• no y.aiay.f-AaOai (Jito/' is made,<X}r uvroor, See also John XI. 33. where we read in 


was more concisely rendered by, "and he sent another 

The rough Hebreiv construction Lu. vn. 1. "now 
when He had ended all his sayings in the audience 
of the people," was rendered by the more smooth and 
classical Greek, "when He had finished speaking all 
these words. He came to Capernaum." ^^ Other dis- 
crepancies arose, from the desire of making the text 
more clear and perspicuous ; by adjoining parallel 
passages from the other Evangelists, merely for the 
purpose of illustration, and these notes gradually in- 
truded into the text itself. To give only one striking 
instance, — Mark. Xin. 2. Our Lord speaking of the 
destruction of Jerusalem says, "there shall not be 
left one stone upon another," to which the Cambridge 
addition adds, "I will build it again in three days 
without hands;" absurdly interpolating these words 
fi'om St. John n. 19. The Z^m^essarons of the Gospels 
also contributed their share tothe variety of readings; 
one of these was made by the disciple of Justin Mar- 
tyr, the heretical Tatian. The Cambridge Manuscript 
e. g. must have borrowed from one of them, the 
words in Matt. XXVn. 28; "And they put on Him a 
purple garment and clothed Him with a scarlet robe;" 
clearly a combination from the other Evangelists.'^ 

Cod. D , iragd^&Ti t(3 nvevfiati (ag tn^Qifxa^i-iivoq , instead of the 
textv^ viceptus. 

^^ ^Etth 81 in):riQ(aae navta xa orji^iara (xvtov eig rag dy.oag 
xov Xaov iiofjXd-tp iigKanefj. is turned into the easy Greek sentence: 
0T6 irtkKJtf narra ia ^rjjuaTu XaXcoT , rjX&tv ng Kaqi-y, k. r. A. 
Mark. XIV. 25. they put: ovxkti 6v firj ttioj instead of 6v ixt] tiqo- 


^' 'Exduffai'Tes dvrov, Ihutiov noQ<f,vQovv nal x^ccfitSa KOKXiyrjv 



Lastly, we find omissio^)S where sAiionymoiis expres- 
sions occur; these being defects of composition which 
no polished Greek could permit, he would naturally 
eject, what in his opinion would be tautological: 
thus the svnonymes in Mark. vill. 15 — " Take heed, 
beware of the leaven of the Pharisees etc. etc." being 
looked upon in this light, the former one was omitted. 
In the passage Mark. XI. 28. "by what authority 
doest thou these things, and who gave thee this au- 
thority to do these things?" the second clause of the 
interrogation was considered redundant, and therefore 
struck out. For the same reason in Lu. XXI. 15. — 
"your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay or re- 
sist," the last verb was omitted.'* 

6. Among these "variae lectiones" justly com- 
plained of by Clemens Alexandrinus , Origen and 
others,^' there is not o??^ instance of wilful corruption, 
properly so called. Nor is it possible for Mohammed 
or any other enemy of Christianity to point out the 
malicious suppression , addition or perversion of any 

7if.(Jitdiiy.av Ca'tM. Now Mark XV. 17. had a noQi)vija'v; Luke 
XXni. 11. has the iad-tja; John XIX. 2. has the nukiov no^- 
(fivfjovr; the itdvovaiv Mark had to give; and Mathew furnished 
the x^ax/^ivdit KOKy.ur,v. 

^* Mark XIT. 23. instead of Iv tt] avaarami, otav draatmmv 
several Codd. simply: f'r TJJ avixarami. 

on dvTol tijonat ttXtioi- Clem. Alex. Strom. I. IV. cap. 6. p. 490. 

Again: Nvrl di- f<t]Xoi'6n noXXi; ye'yonv tj rarf dmyimcficof ("^taqofja, 
iitf. dno (ta^vfit't<g riiojr y{)a(fh(ov , HTt dno j6Xia]Q nroJr fioydi;- 
Qds 7^s dto(i\}(j)(7tb}g Tidv /(/((Cfo/iif.rncar, n'rt duo Tcor nc i-cxv- 
ToTg hny.ovita fv Tjj dio{)&amf-i TTfJOdTi-denojr i] dtfai^ovnoor. 
Origen. Coram, in Matt, XV, Vol. III. pag. 671. ed. Ruaei. 


book or passage in the New Testament, It may not 
however be altogether inappropriate, to bring forward 
an example of such corruption, as might well justify 
the accusation of Mohammed, had it been perpetrated 
by the Chm'ch, instead of by a heretic, cast off from 
her communion. — Marcion, a heretic of the second 
century, made it his object to destroy what he con- 
sidered the Judaism of Christianity; portions of his 
work, which he called the Antitheses, fi'om its giving 
his view of the antithetical character of the New Tes- 
tament, are handed down to us bv Theodoretus.^^ 
He even went so far as to severally reject the Apos- 
tles, whom he considered imbued with Jewish preju- 
dices , St. Paul , only excepted , whose Epistles he 
partially admitted. Of the Gospels, he considered 
St. Luke's the least to be suspected of Jewish ten- 
dencies , he being the friend and companion of St. 
Paul; nevertheless he altered passages and even ex- 
punged entire portions from St. Paul's Epistles, and 
still more from the Gospel of St. Luke, which to his 
mind were objectionable. ^ ' The Epistles to the He- 
brews, Titus and Timothy he utterly rejected; and 

5^ Theodoret. liaeret. fab. lib. I. cap. 24. 

'''' Marcion's followers ruaintained that the words of Christ 
Matt. V. 17. must be reversed: ovx ovtwq dt htti-v 6 Xgiarog, Xtyec 
yccQ, ovx i^kdov nXi (jojaai tor tdinov, dXXic r.ataXvcrai. Dialog. 
(Pseudo-Origenis) contra Marcionitas Sec. II. pag. 63. How Marcion 
dealt with St. Luke's Gospel may be gathered from Epiphan. adv. 
haeres. XLII. §. 11. 12. A collation of the above, vide, Se^rbud^ bet 
Ijiftorifd^-fritifdicn Ginlcitiiiig in tie fanonifc(ien ffiiidicr bes D'ieiieit Tcfta; 
tneiitce innx Dr. 3)i. ?. u SBette. 4. Sluft. pag. 106—112. His alterations 
of the Epistles were exposed e. g. Iren. adv. haer. I. 27. I. Tertull. 
adv. Marc. I. V. Epiph. adv. haer. XLU. §. 9. Hieron. comm.- in 
Epist. ad Galat. 



this wholesale alteration or rejection was justified by 
theMarcionites, who considered this sacrilegious abuse 
in the light of extending to the New Testament "'the 
benefit of medical treatment." ^^ 

The grounds upon which Marcion endeavoured 
to introduce his 7iew Gospel, were in some respects 
similiar to those, upon which Mohammed ushered 
his Koran into the world: both pretended that the 
originals had been corrupted, but with this difference; 
, that Marcion fixes his accusation upon the Apostles 
in particular, instead of the Christians in general.^® 
In thus throwing the act of corruption upon the au- 
thors of the books, ^^ he cuts off all possibility of 
showing to the world, by vrhat means he himself ob- 
tained the original in its integrity. Hence Tertullian 
in his argument with him, asks, whether he does not 
see, that by his charge he reproached Christ Himself, 
for choosing such untrustworthy and faithless Apos- 
tles, ^ * and requests to be informed, fi-oni what source 
he obtained the true Gospel; adding, that from the 
time of Tiberius to that of Antoninus , Marcion was 
the first who dared to take upon himself the office 

*® Tertull. lib. I. adv. Marcion cap. XX. 

'^^ In lii.s "Antitheses" ho starts from the charge of St. Paul 
against .St. I'etor Galat. II. 9 — 13. and .suspects the A])ostles in 
general of Judaising |)rincipU'S, which impelled them to corrupt the 
Gospels, "rraovaricationis et simulatiunis su.spectos qitcritur usque 
ad depravationem Evangelii." Tertull. lib. IV. cap. 3. 

''*' "Senietipsum esse veraciorem , quam .sunt hi qui Evangelium 
tradiderunt Apostoli. suasit (Marcion) discipulis suis, non Evangelium, 
sed particulani Evangelium tradens eis." Iren. adv. haeres. lib. I. 
cap. 27. 

«' Tertull. lib. IV. cap. 3. 


of emending the Gospels, nor indeed did they require 
emendation. ^ ^ 

Here then, we have an instance of the New Tes- 
tament Scriptures having suffered corruption; not 
however fi-om the parties, accused by Mohammed, 
but fi'om an adversarv of the Church , who at that 
perilous hour, when the truth was so fiercely attacked, 
wanted not champions, earnestly to "'contend for the 
faith." In writings which are preserved to this hour, 
they pointed out what Scriptures had been altered, 
which portions omitted, and what passages were cor- 
rupted. This is what we might justly have looked for, 
from Mohammed : with his charge, we had a right to 
expect that kind of proof, which the Fathers brought 
forth conjointly M'ith their charge against Marcion. 
But Mohammed failed to prove even the existence 
of those passages concerning himself, which he ac- 
cuses the Christians of having suppi*essed; neither has 
he pointed out in what the alterations consist, nor 
where they are to be found. 

7. We have now noticed the early existence of 
the books in question ; and have repelled the charge 
of Mohammed from evidence, gathered out of the 
writings oi enemies d^^s well as o{ friends, during the 

'^ "Emendator sane Evangelii a Tiberianis usque Antonina tem- 
pera eversi Marcion solus et jjrimus obvenit , expectatus tamdiu a 
Christo poenitente jam, quod Apostolos praemisisse properasset sine 
praesidio Marcionis ; nisi quod humanae temeritatis , non dirinae 
auctoritatis negotium est haeresis , quae sic semper emendat Evan- 

gelia dum A-itiat itaque dura emendat , utrumque confirmat , et 

nostrum alterius, id emendans quod invenit : et id posterius , quod de 
nostri emendatione constituens suum fecit." Tertull. lib. PS . adv. 
Marcion cap, 3 — 4. 


first two centuries. We have examined the most an- 
cient cataloc/ues of the New Testament Scriptures, 
and have found in them the veiy same books, which 
existed in the days of Mohammed , and which are in 
our possession at this day. Again, we have seen that 
the different readings, which had here and there crept 
into Manuscripts, could not possibly be, what Moham- 
med referred to in his charge against the Christians : 
for the icilfid corruptions which were perpetrated 
by certain heretics, were detected and exposed by the 
Fathers of the Church , in a manner worthy of Mo- 
hammed's imitation, and lono- before he uttered his 
charge. ** ^ 

For the further establishment of the integrity of 
the New Testament Scriptures, we now appeal to those 
venerable Manuscripts, written prior to the rise of 
Islamism. Their respective ages are indicated, by the 
changes which were effected fi'om time to time in 
the shape of the letters, the style of the handwriting, 
the materials on which they were executed, as well 
as other particulars connected with their internal ar- 
rangement. ^* Auxihary helps for the discovery of the 

''^ "Etsi multa depravere conati sint haeretici," scribit Bollar- 
minus lib. 11. de Verbo Dei cap. 7, "tamen nunquam defucrunt ca- 
tholici, qui eorum corruptelas detexerint, et non pcrmiserint libros 
sacros corrumpi." Plurima ex toto nov. Test, abstulit, mutavitque 
Marcion, sod ilia omnia fere notarit Epiphaiiius haercs. 42. et in 
postris codicibus recte habeutur." Gerhard. Loci Thcolog. Vol. II. 
pag. 278. 

" "'^K aitcftcu >(Saiibf*riftcii ftnb init Uiu-iall"*rift iicfrfirifkn , U'cld^c 
jcbpci) nid)t imnicr ein {xdmt^ 3ei*cn t'ce JUtcvf? ift, ^ic iuno;cren (innn 10. 
3al)r(). nil) mit (MirftiM'clnift. l'eicf;t faun mauteii dltcvcn aufrec^teu, vicr-- 
cctigen, nmben gd^riftcf^arnftet torn patent gebniftten unterfcf)eiben : bcr 
geuBtc bivlomattfdfie 93licf irei^ nc* feinctc Untevfd^iebe ju finbcn. 2:er 



ages of Manuscripts are aflPorded by Church Alma- 
nacks, ecclesiastical registers, notices of the festivals, 
marginal explanatory notes, psotscripts, and other ad- 
ditions, which were frequently appended to these an- 
cient documents by the calligraphers. Some historical 
hints may also be gathered, by which to judge of the 
age of the Alexandrian Manuscripts. Strabo for in- 
stance , mentions two cities , Alexandria and Rome, 
in which the making and selhng of Manuscripts was 
a regular branch of trade. ^^ Some celebrated names 
are met with among the Alexandrian calligraphers ; 
one Philodemus, who became blind in the pursuit of 
his art, **^ and another, Ilierolcas, who prosecuted the 
tedious w^ork of copying till his ninetieth year with 
unfailing sight. ^^ But as we approach that period of 
decay which commenced wdth the conquest of Egypt 
by the Saracens, we find the Greeks withdrawing 
themselves from this laborious means of earning their 
bread; and leaving calligraphy to the native Copts,^^ 
they became soldiers and taxgatherers, by which they 

SJJaiiflel ter <H)ortaln(KtIung iji ctn ftd^erere^ 3eict>cii be^ Sitter^ <A^ bet bet 
?lccentf unr fcr 3ntervunfttiMi , I'nbem jfue audiin juiu^eren i^^anbfdniften 
fcl'tcn, biefe in dltercn in^rfommt. Uiifidier ift bae iWcrfinal bet Stidjo^ 
metrie imb ber ^aviteleintficiluitg cber bag %t^^\\ berfeli^en. 3)ie 9Jec^t; 
fcfirctberei ld§t auf bae aSatcrlanb fc[)Iicpen. be SBette'g i'eBrbuc^ pag. 63. 

•^^ Strabo lib. XUJ. p. 419. Whilst CWeek MSS. were chiefly 
made and sold in Alexandria , Latin ones were made hq n{)aaiv in 

**** Athol. Graec. H. Grotii lib. VI. epigr. Juliani Aegyptii 6. et 7. 
Bninck, analecta Tom. II. pag. 495. 496. 

«' Epiphanius Haeres. LXVH. §. 3. pag. 712. edit. Colon. 

^** Renaudot. Histor. Patriarchar. Alexandrinor. Benjamin Patr. 
XXXVm. pag. 164. The author procured an Arabic MS. of this 
■work from Egypt. 


made themselves so hated that A.D. 641. they were 
all ultimately driven out of the country. The sale of 
Manuscripts was at length impeded through the Sa- 
racens having interrupted the connection with the 
Empire of Constantinople; in addition to which the 
Copyists were deprived of the beautiful originals, 
which were destroyed with the Alexandrian Library. 
But few Manuscripts embrace the entire New 
Testament; most of them contain only parts, more 
frequently the Gospels and St. Paul's Epistles, many 
only the lessons and Gospels required to be read in 
Churches. Some give the text with a parallel ver- 
sion and explanatory notes. The Codices themselves, 
as regards their form, consist not of rolls as the He- 
brew Manuscripts , but of, from four to eight sheets 
oi parchment, silk, cotton or linen paper stitched to- 
gether. The oldest Manuscript in our posession is 
that preserved in the Vatican Library at Rome, ^^ 
consisting of the Old and the New Testament; though 
of the latter, the Epistles to Timothy, Titus, Philemon, 
the end of the Epistles to the Hebrews and the Apo- 
calypse have perished. This Manuscript is written 
on the finest parchment, in the most simple, uniform 
and beautiful characters. All the letters are placed 
at equal distances, there being no division of words. 
To denote the beginning of a new section, the space 
of the breadth of a letter, or half a one, is left vacant. 
It has three columns on each leaf, and is broader 

«^ Known as Codex B. or Vatic. 1209. The naming of MSS. 
with letters , probably commenced in some incidental way without 
any scientific definition. 


than long. The ink, having grown pale by age, has 
been revived by a later hand, and in some places 
words and sentences have been re-written at the side 
of the original. ^° Whenever punctuation occurs, which 
is seldom the case, it has been added at a subsequent 
period. These are all marks of great antiquity ; but 
there are two pointa, which will enable us to fix 
its age more definitely. St. Basil born at Cesarea 
A.D. 329. states, that according to the learned doc- 
tors of the Church who lived before him , the words 
"m Ephesus' Ephes. I. 1. had been wanting in the 
ancient 3Imiu scripts , and he himself had seen them 
omitted m Old Ma^iu scripts. The Vatican Codex 
therefore must have been old in his day, for it is with- 
out the words in question, which are only placed in 
the margin. ' * 

The second point by which the date of the Va- 

^° The Manuscript has internal marks of its having been written 
by an Egyptian Calligrapher. Instead of (JvlXriiprj, Xr'^pea&e, Xrjcp'd^- 
aerai, dvekrjij'd'T] we have avXki;iitxprj, Xr/jLixpaaOf' , h;jx(fi&r}attai and 
uitXr^]. This peculiar orthograpliii is only found in Graeco- 
Coptic monuments. In Coptic manuscripts we have dnoxaXviiypii; 
instead of a.noy.aXv\\}iq. In Graeco-Thebaic fragments of St. John's 
Gospel VII. 52. we have drcby.fjidriGav Htd iinav. So Codex B. al- 
ways writes iidav , tntaav , fjX'&ui' Lu. IX. 36. ic6(jayMi> and Rom. 
XVI. 7. ytyovav. 

''^ '£r 'Ecftaoo. He says: the Apostle called his readers orrag, 
and that be did so: idia^oircog , exclusively or peculiarly, adding 
ovroj yag ol nyo 7]iud5p nagadtSojy.aoi , ijHtlq iv rotq na 
Xaioi? t(ai> ihrtyguqcov tvQrjy.afJiBV. Basilius Editio princeps Vened 
1535. pag. 127. St. Jerome also assumes that the words were not 
in the text in the original MSS. He says, some think St. Paul would 
denominate the readers ^essentiae vocabulo , ut ab eo , qui , qui 
sunt appellentur •" but others hold, that the Epistle was not ad- 
dressed "ad eos qui sunt," but " ad eos qui sunt Epkesi" Hieron. 
ad locum. Hug de antiquitate cod. Vatic, pag. 26. 


tican Manuscrijyt can be determined, is the order in 
which the Epistles are placed.'^ The Epistles of St. 
Paul being taken as a whole, are divided into so many 
sections or chapters. Those to the Momans, Corin- 
thians, Galatians, stand in the order in which we now 
have them. The last Epistle concludes at the fifty- 
ninth division; the next, that to the ^^>/ies2a«s, begins 
with the seventieth instead of the sixtieth section, 
the figures afterwards continuing regularly through 
the Epistles to i\\e Philip pians, Colo ssian s Siud Thes- 
salonians, the last ending with the ninety-third divi- 
sion. We naturally in<]uire, where are the missing 
sections, between the numbers fifty-nine and seventy, 
i. e. between Galatians and Ephesians ? We find them 
in the Epistle to the Hehreius , which stands in this 
Manuscript, after those to the Thessalonians, but 
commences with the sixtieth instead of the ninety- 
fourth section, as we should expect. From this ir- 
regular enumeration we infer, that the Epistle to the 
Hebrews, in the original collection, stood immediately 
after that to the Galatians, but was subsequently pla- 
ced, where we now find it in this Manuscript. '^ Now 
at the time when the Manuscript in question was 
written, it is evident, that this ^r«?i.s/(?r must have 
been of so recent a date, that the former mode of 
reckoning the sections was retained, although the 

" Dr. Hug, Einleitung in das Neue Test. Vol. I. 237. 

''^ Epiphanius at a later period records, that there were two 
kinds of manuscripts, some of them placing- Ih'bnnvs after the Epis- 
tles to Timoth}', Titus and riiilenion ; others placing it after the 
second Epistle to the Thessalonians. Epiphan. Haeres. XLII. p. 373. 
juxta Petav. coloniens. 


position of the Epistle itself had been altered. In 
the catalogue of AthanasiKS, we find the Epistle to 
the Hebreivs placed after those addressed to the Thes- 
salomans. Had this alteration taken place before the 
time of Athanasiiis born A.D. 296, the Vatican Co- 
dex must necessarily be of an earlier date than this ; 
on the other hand , if Athanasius was the Jirst who 
placed the Epistle to the Hebreivs after Thessalonians, 
then the Manuscript may have been WTitten during 
his lifetime , when the new arrangement had not yet 
become universal.'* At all events, the arrangement 
of Athanasius was universally adopted in the fourth 
century;''' and as it is clear that this Manuscript 
must have been written at a period prior to the uni- 
versal adoption of the new arrangement , or at a time 
when it was first introduced , we must assign to it a 
date not later ^than the beginning of the fourth 
century. ^ ^ 

The so-called Alexandrian Codex, in the British 
Museum,'^ likewise comprises the Old and NewTes- 

^* Vide, Hug, de antiquitate Codicis Vaticani commentatio. 

^* Ta de rf/Q xaif^g 8ia&r]KTjg ravta ^Evayyeha teaaaQa, y.ara 
Mar&., H. Ma^jff.., K. AovK., Kara ^Icouv. Flua^tiq ^AcfioGToXmv' ^Eni- 
(TToXal xa&o?.(xai f-nra, nvrcog' ^laxw^ov fua, HtT(jov Svo, 'Io)dn>ov 
TQtig, lovda j.iui' EntiJToXal dexaTtoauoug, ovrcog' 7T(Jos'l\of/. fxia, 
TTQog KoQ. 6vo, ngog FaX. itia, 7T()6g"E(ferf. fua , -rrgog ft)iX. fxia, 
n(jog KoX. (.ua, n(j6g Otoa. 8vo, noog ^Ej^fj. iiia, ngog Siuo&. 8vo, 
TTQog Tit., n(Jog '7>di;fi. in'a. Concil. Laodic. between 360 — 364 
apud 3Ionsi. Concil. nor. et ampliss. collect, n. pag. 574. 

''^ Montfancon jilaces Cod. B in the 5'^ or 6"' century; Blanchini 
in the 5*''; Hug in the 4*'' century. 

'''' Codex Alexandrin. Miis. Britanmc. is known under the figure 
A. The N. T. begins Matt. XXV. 6. up to which it has been de- 
stroyed ; otherwise it is complete with the exception of John VI. 


lament. The order of the books is the same as in 
the Vatican Manuscript; Hebrews taking its place 
after Thessalonians. The letters are similar, only a 
little larger; the whole is written in two columns. We 
find no accents, aspirates or division of words; and 
the inscriptions are most simple. It was printed A. D. 
1786.'*^ The absence of the divisions of Euthalws, 
and of other marks of a later date, are sufficient evi- 
dences that it was written before the second half of 
the ffth century. The orthography indicates its Alex- 
andrian origin.'^ The Parisian Codex^^ embraces 
parts of the Old, and the whole of the New Testa- 
ment; and resembles, in all important points, the Va- 
tican and Alexandrian Manuscripts. Considering that 
it has less of punctuation and fewer additions of a 
later time than the Alexandrian Codex, it is rightly 
considered the older of the two. That it was also of 
Egyptian origin is proved by its orthography.^* 

The Dublin Manuscript of the Gospel according 

50 — Vm. 52. and 2 Cor. IV. 13 — XII. 2. It was given to Charles I. 
by CjTillus Lucaris , first Patriarch of Alexandria , afterwards of 

^* Nov. Test. Graec. e cod. Alexandrine, qui London! in Biblio- 
theca Musei Britannici asservatur, descriptura a Godofr. Carolo Woide. 

^^ Here also we have in Mark. XII. 40. Xiji^ixpoiTai; XVI. 24.^EU&t. Lu. XIII. II. m'\\)ai. Act. X. 39. avtiXar. 

^" Codex C. n. 9. Regio-Parisinus, also called rcscriptus or palira- 
psestus, Cod. or Ephraeni Syri , because the original having been 
partially effaced with a spunge , ascetical essays of Ephrem were 
•written upon the parchment ; but the original still shows through. 
It was written according to Wetstein before 542. Hug makes it 
older than Cod. A. 

** Lu. I. 31. ^raXr^n\pE(oq. Act. I. 2. nnav. Matt. X. 13. ik- 


to St. Mattheiv is of importance, inasmuch as it sup- 
plies the lost portion of the Codex Alexandrinus.^^ 
Judging from the absence of accents , the paucity of 
punctuation, and from other marks of antiquity which 
have been noticed in connection with the above-men- 
tioned Manuscripts, we cannot ascribe a more recent 
date to this noble fragment of the New Testament 
than we assigned to the Parisian Codex. ^^ The C«m- 
hridge Codcw^^ contains the four Gospels and the 
Acts of the Apostles , and was written after Sticho- 
tnetry had come into practice. It presents the Greek 
text on one side, and on the other, one of those Latin 
versions which were in existence before St. Jerome 
executed the Vulgata. The calligrapher here, did his 
work mechanically; the internal and external arrange- 
ment clearly shows that the Manuscript was made after 
Euthalius, and before the rise of Islamism, about the 
end of the jifth, or at the latest during the sixth cen- 
tury, when the Greeks had given up the writing of 
Manuscripts to the Copts who understood but little 
of Greek and Latin. Of the same age is the Manu- 
script of the Acts of the Apostles, preserved in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford;^'' both the Greek text 

®^ It is called Codex S. Matthaei Dublinensis rescriptus. It was 
discovered and edited by Mr. Barret 1801. Like Codex C. it was 
partly obliterated and other essays wTitten upon it; yet the original 
writing could easily be read; it is described: "nee habet spiritus aut 
accentus omnino." 

®' Alexandrian forms are chap. X. 41. Xrjjuixpktai; VII. 25. ttqo- 
atneaav; XI. 7. 8. 9. t^i]}.&ixre. 

®* Codex Cantabrigiensis or Cod. D. , also called the Bezan MS., 
or Codex Theodori Bezae Cantabrigiensis, was edited 1793. in two 
beautiful folio-Volumes. 

^^ Cod. E. or Codex Laudianus , because given by Archbishop 


and the old Latin version were sticliometrically written 
and executed in Alexandria.^'' As Me can scarcely 
date it later than the surth, or the beginning of the 
seventh century, it was in existence when l\rohammed 
brought forward his charge against the Christians of 
corrupting their sacred books. As the Dublin Manu- 
script supplied the deficiency of the Alexandrian, so 
the Coclecc Claromontmms , preserved m the Library 
of Paris, supplies those Eputles of St. Paul, which 
are wanting in the Cambridge jNlanuscript. ^ '' Although 
not written in the same hand, they were executed 
in the same jieriod, and upon the same principle, 
giving sticliometrically both the Greek text and a 
Latin version. Fragments of another copy of the 
Epistles of St. Paul, in the Greek text only, written 
with accents on the stichometrical principle, were at 
one time preserved in the celebrated library of Bishop 
CoisUn at Metz.^^ As it was written in Alexandria ^^ 

Laud; also Cod. Bedlei. It was printed at Oxford 1765. by Thomas 
Hearne. Written according to Hug andWuido in Alexandria; Marsh 
and Eichhorn suppose it to be the work ofWestern Europe, perhaps 
Sardinia or Gallia. 

®^ See, specimens of MSS. Montfaucon palaeogr. gi'., Manchini 
Evang. quadrup. Matthaei ed. N. T. 

^' The Codex Claromontanus n. 107. is complete with the ex- 
ception of the first and last leaf, which have been lost. It is marked 
with the figure D. Montfaucon places it within the 7"' cent. 

^^ This IklS. is known as Codex H. Griesbach Symbol, crit. part II. 
pag. 85. It came originally from Mount Athos, A. D. 1218. where 
it was used as old parcliment, with which to bind other books, as is 
proved by a note on a book, which it served as a cover. It was 
printed and published by Montfaucon, Biblioth. Coislin. Part U. pag. 

^' The formation £VK«r«A;;/u 7-01' , in the subscription, is purely 


in a genuinely antique style, it must have been copied 
during the sixth century, before the invasion of the 
Saracen army. 

We have now noticed those Manuscripts of the 
New Testament, written prior to the rise of Islamism; 
and reckoning the last mentioned Codex from Mount 
Athos as supjDlementary to that of the Vatican, we 
obtain — the Apocalypse only excepted, — an entire 
copy of the New Testament. The Alexandrian and 
the Dublin Manuscripts form a second complete edi- 
tion, whilst the Parisian Codex is entire in itself. 
Lastly, the Cambridge and Clarmontane documents 
of the sacred Scriptures constitute a fourth edition, 
\vhlch Is however deficient in the general Epistles 
and the Ajiocalypse. ^^ We can therefore produce 
four distinct coj^Ies of those Nom- Testament Scrlp- 
tiu-es, the integrity of which, Mohammed so wan- 
tonly impeaches: amongst them are several bi-lingual 
Manuscripts, containing Latin versions, which were 
made at least in the beginning of the fourth century. 
These Manuscripts are found in regions the most re- 
mote from one another, cherished by Churches, which 
hold different shades of opinions upon some of the 
doctrines they contain; yet wonderful to say, there 
exists between them the most perfect harmony. On 
comparing these documents together, we find, — not- 
withstanding the different styles of calligraphy, the 
different methods of placing the books, and the dif- 
ferent readings, which have accidentally found their 

"" The Codex Cantabrigiensis and the Codex Claromontanus, 
are both marked D , and have been considered by some , to belong 


way into the text, — no trace of alteration or inter- 
polation. Any attempt to corrupt these venerable 
Manuscripts, could easily be detected. Although the 
Parisian and Dublin Codices have been literally wash- 
ed through, and other matter Mi'itten upon the parch- 
ment, yet, the original writing is still almost as legible, 
as if no attempt had been made to efface it. 

If these efforts to obliterate the sacred writings — 
springing as they did , from mere ignorance of their 
value — have failed, surely malevolent attempts to 
corrupt the text, would be attended with no better 
success. Should doubts of the integrity of these 
documents, still linger in the mind of any intelligent 
Moslem, we invite him to examine them for himself, 
as they are still accessible to every sincere inquirer 
for the truth. ^* Older witnesses however, than the 
most ancient Manuscripts which testify to the integ- 
rity of the New Testament, are to be found, among 
the versions of its sacred books; and to these, we 
shall next turn our attention. 

^* The following learned works relative to the collation of MSS. 
•will show that this branch of Divinity has not been neglected : 
Hist, du Card. Ximenes par Flechier. 1502. Roh. Stephan. Novum 
Test, ad vetustissima exeniplaria M. S. C. excusuni. 1551. Novum 
Test. Parisiis , impensis viduae Arnoldi Blrkmanni. 1549. Bt^. Fell 
published his work "7'//? K((ii'r]S dia&r]K7]g aTKina." 1675. Mill, 
encouraged by him , worked in the same line. Bengcl took the lead 
among the Germans. 1734. ^V€tstein and Gr/esbac/i followed it up 
in a masterly manner. F. Matthaei of Moskau pursued the same 
path. 1782 — 1788. in the same age appears Altet- of Vienna. Nor 
are Tre^chow , Adler , Eiujelbrcth , Sclwlz and Zoc/^wfl/o) to be for- 
gotten. Birch compared the Vatican Cod. for the Royal Danish 
edition of the N. T. with the exception of Luke and John; of these 
he received a comparison which had been made for Mr. Bentley, and 
Woide published the whole of Bentley's comparison in appendice 
Cod. Alexaud. 


8. We are now to demonstrate the integrity of 
the New Testament from those versions made prior 
to the rise of Islamism. If the Christians corrupted 
their sacred Scriptures, as Mohammed alleges, those 
translations must support the accusation; for any al- 
terations made in the original must appear in the 
versions made from it. The Peshito, comprising the 
New as well as the Old Testament, has been noticed 
in the previous Chapter. ^^ This version was first 
cited in the works of Ephrem ; a proof that it was 
used in the first half oi the fourth century. Yet there 
is reason to assume its existence in the second cen- 
tury of our era, as Eusebius declares, that Hegesippus 
had quoted from a Gospel in Syriac.^^ From these 
and other data, too tedious to enter upon, we may 
reasonably infer, that this version was executed to- 
wards the end of the second century; a Syriac tradi- 
tion mentions Achaeus, a disciple of St. Thaddaeus, 
as the author. ^* 

^* The Peshito omits the 2^ Epistle of St. Peter, the 2<^ and 3<1 
Epistles of St. John, and the Epistle of St. Jude. There are strong- 
reasons for supposing- that the Apocal^qjse formed part in the ori- 
ginal version; Hug Vol. I. 306. „3d) fann mid^ iiirfit bereben, ba§ bit 
*l>c[d)itp nrfpriiiuilidi bie SliJcfali^^^fe nirf)t init Iicjiriffcn l)a(ie, ba tm Criente 
fo grofe St'iis^f" fiir fte fpra^cn trie 3uftiii, ber SJdrt^irer in *t^alefitna, :inb 
3;f)ecirf)ilu6 in 3(ntiorf)ifn, ba^ Ctcrfjaupt bcr aiu3cfcf)cnften.Sirrf)e in(2^)rifn; 
ti mii§te nur fein , ba§ bie ^^Jcfrfnto crft nod) ben antiaUegcrifdjen ©treiltg; 
feiten bee Ste^jc^ cntf^anben, »ro6 id) mi^ nod^ »tel njeniger bereben fann." 

'•^ 'jEk T£ tov y.a&' i^gatovg ivayysXiov rov avgiaxov' Idiijog ix Tr;s i[i()aiSog diaXexrov rnu ri'di^aii . Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 
lib. IV. cap. 22. 

®* "2llt ift fie tfieilS barum, tvtil bie genannfen 2(ntifegpmenen feine 
Sufnafinie in fic gefnnben, t^eile tt'cil fte i^o^ aUen ftirifc^cn .Kirdjenfarteien 
ancrfannl, ti)til6 weil bet il^r ju ®runb liegenbe 2:ert fef)t alt ifi; a«c^ Idft 



Another Syriac version was made on behalf of 
the Monophysite section of the Syrian Church, by 
Polycavp, at the request of the Patriarch Philoxenus 
A. D. 508.°^ This translation which was made from 
the Manuscripts of Origen, was improved by Bishop 
Thomas A. D. 616;"^ who compared it with two or 
three old Manuscripts in the Antonine cloister at 
Alexandria. It is not without interest for our argu- 
ment to observe, that this rival translation of the 
Peshito, which was made by a sectarian branch of 
the Syrian Church, not only alters nothing in the 
sacred text to support its particular views, but in its 
scrupulous adherence to the original, does violence to 
the rules of the Syriac grammar. ^ ' The more stu- 
diously a version retains the grammatical and philo- 
logical peculiarities of the original text, the more 
faithful must consequently be the translation. 

A third, or the Palestino-Syriac version, was made 
either before the fall of the Roman Empire, or whilst 

tie friitie, nac^ bev SWittc bc^ 2. ^aBdiunbert^ fcc^^inncnbe ?iteratur crlvartcn, 
ba^ biefe friih aiirf} bvi^ Sebiirfnip einer fi)ri(d)eu Uebevfe^uug ivcrben gefulilt 
^aben." Scftrbucf) »LMt be aSette pag. 13. 

^^ Vide, Versio Syriaca Philoxeniana ed. Jos. White, pag. 641. 

^•^ He was then only "the poor Thomas," also Thomas of Char- 
kel. His version contains the umXeyofxtioi , which were omitted in 
the Peshito, excepting only the Apocalypse. The most perfect edi- 
tion of this version is that of Glocester Ridley's, now preserved in 
the Is'ew College at Oxford. 

^^ 0, //, to also tan and iim are scrupulously translated . al- 
though contrary to the pure S;\Tiac idiom. The affixes avrog and 
avTr^ are likewise given, contrary to Syriac usage. Compositions 
with ngo, ovr, em, Hara, foreign to all Semitic tongues are rendered 
in a manner, too artificial to be consonant with good taste. Vide 
Markn. 26. XII. 16. 


that part of Syria , in which it was made , was still a 
Roman province. This is shown by several terms 
which are retained in the translation. *** What the 
Peshito was to the region of Edessa, and what the 
Philoxenian version was to Antioch, the Palestino- 
Syrian translation was to Damascus, to the north of 
Palestine, and to the mountains of Assyria. The Ar- 
menian \ers'ion was made by Mesrob, and the state- 
ment of some, that C/wi/sostom gave a translation to 
the same people, is probably explained by his having 
lent his assistance and encouragement to this version, 
during his exile in Armenia, which coincides w^iththe 
period, in which the version was made. ^^ 

In Upper and Lower Egypt we meet with versions 
of the New Testament, at a very early period of the 
Christian era. We have seen, that the Old Testament 
was translated into the Coptic dialects in the third 
or the heyinning of the fourth century; and the ver- 
sion of the New Testament was certainly not of a 
later date. That of Lower Egypt, following the text of 
Hesychius , could not have been made prior to the 
middle of the third century, but as we find a version 
in the fourth century,* it must have been made during 

^® Specimens fi'om Matt. XXVI. 3 — 32. which were printed by 
Dr. Adlor. The soldiers v. 27. are simply called Rommis; aTTngu 
rendered castnim: as the garrison is called caMrum , "we may easily 
guess under what rule the country was at the time. 

** That Chrysostom took a part in this work, whilst an exile in 
Kttkns , appears from the passage — 8uiy.t.Xtvtadat tori x^jaXri-^Jioy 

Anonjin. Vita Chrysostom. cap. 113. 

^ Palladius visits John of Lycopolis , who is unacquainted with 
Greek, and yet he was well versed in the New Testament. Palladii 
historia Lausiaca cap. XLIU. de Abbate Joanne urbis Lyco pag. 963. 



that interval. Again, Antonms, the founder of a 
monastic order in Egypt, who died A.D. 356. though 
ignorant of the Greek language, yet hearing the Gos- 
pel read in a Church, the words Matt. XIX. 21. pro- 
duced in him the resolution to part vAt\\ his fortune 
and retire from the world; which resolution was fur- 
ther confirmed, by his entering the Church a second 
time, and hearing the Gospel, especially Matt. V. 34. 
A clear proof that it must have been read in the ver- 
nacular tongue. ^ In the desert of Central Egypt, to 
which he retired, he addressed his disciples in a long 
speech in the Egyjotian tongue, quoting largely from 
the Old and the New Testament. Antonius was so 
well acquainted with the Bible, that he is said to have 
known the entire Volume by heart. ^ We have there- 
fore a version of the New Testament, in Lower, and 
Central Egypt. That there was a translation in the 
Thebaic dialect of Upper Egypt, is clear from the 
rules, which, according to Palladius, Father Pa- 
chonnus framed for his 7000 monastic brethren; one 
of which required, that all should learn to read the 
Psalter and the New Testament:* this requisition 

' 'Eiatjkdti' iig trjn iy.KXrimav , nal avvi^r] tore to ivayyiXiov 
apnytVMOY.hadai , x«i r/KOvae tov hv(jiov Xeyonog too TrXovaioj x. t. X. 
Athanas. Vita S. Anton, cap. 3. cfr. Matt. XIX. 21. atg d'e nuXir 
H(jtXd(oi ig TO y.v^^lUHO^' i/.ovae iv too ivayytXico x. t. X. ditto 
cap. 3. Matt. V. 34. 

' August, de doctr. Christ. lib. I. §. 4. That other Anachorites 
accomplished the same task, is known from their biographies, rra- 
Xalai df y.((l yam, v yoc^ffl >' aTrfCTT/'t^iOE' Palladius cap. 1 2. in Ammonio. 
And, Vita abb. Aphthonii cap. 33: (xTTOarriOi^ovm naaag rug yoa- 
qag. Lastly: Epiplian. lib. III. haercs. LVIII. pag. 1U71. if aro^u^Tt 
de (Tjiidov Ttaoar Ot^iai' y(jaqr^r anayytXovai. 

' See the 139»>'and the 140"" sections of these rules. Hieronym. 
Praef. in rog. S. Pachomii. 


would have been a mockery, if the latter had not 
been translated into the vernacular dialect of the Up- 
per provinces.® In the collection of Cardinal J5o7'^ea, 
were found fi-agments of a third Egyptian translation, 
in the Bashmurian dialect, which was spoken in the 
eastern portion of the Delta.* To judge from the 
condition of the text which it followed, and the style 
of the language in which it is given, we cannot as- 
sign to it a later date than the first half of the third 

On ascending the Nile, we discover the jE'^Aioj^mn 
version, which like that of the Old Testament was 
executed by Abba Salama. The text follows some- 
times one reading and sometimes another, and the 
opinion, previously alluded to, that it was translated 
from an Arabic version, gains some ground. These 
Arabic translations , either of the Old or of the New 
Testament, are however nowhere to be found. Having 
been pronounced corrupted, they were doomed to 
destruction, on the same principle, that prompted the 
infatuated Omar to destroy the Alexandrian library. 

Latin versions were found in Africa, Italy, and 
Gallia, before the days of St. Jerome; but when they 
were made, it is difficult to guess. Augustine declares, 
that they were "innumerable" in his days, but gives 

* Vide: Novum Test. Aegyptium, vulgo copticura exMSS. Bodle- 
ianis descripsit cum Vaticano et Parisiensibus contulit, et in latinura 
sennonem convertit David Wilkins. 1716. 

' Containing portions of St. John's Gospel, Isaiah, Corinthians, 
Ephesians, Philippians, Thessalonians, and Hebrews. Vide W. F. 
Engelbreth : fragmenta Basmurico vet. et nov. Test, quae in Museo 
Borgiano Velitris adservantur. 1811. 


the preference to the Itcda. That some of them were 
in use in the time of Tertullian, or at the end of the 
second century, is proved, by his speaking of a ver- 
sion , which to his mind misrepresented a certain 
passage of the New Testament. ' The most enduring 
work of this kind was the well-known Vidgata of 
St. Jerome, which was sanctioned by Pope Gregory 
in the sixth century, and has ever since remained 
the authorised version of the Church of Rome. The 
Gothic version was given to the world, in the last half 
of the fourth century, by Uljila , Bishop of Moesia. ^ 
We have some very old jNlanuscripts of this trans- 
lation; the Silver Codex of Upsala, — so called from 
its being written in silver characters, upon fine purple 
parchment, — was executed at the latest, in the be- 
ginning of the sixth century, before the Goths were 
expelled from Italy, and therefore prior to the rise 
of Islamism. ^ As the Dublin and Parisian Manu- 
scripts were discovered beneath writings of a later 
age; so, fragments of the Epistle to t\\Q Romans were 
happily detected beneath some of the writings of 
Isidorus. *" In the year 1817, the several Epistles of 
St. Paul, belonging to Uljila s version, were found in 

^ Tertullian. de monogam. cap. 11. 

® Ancient writers extend his version to the entire Bible, as em- 
bracing severally T«? yoaCfag ^Ha^, tfQ(xg ^i[iXovc;, divinas scriptu- 
ras. Socrates hist, cedes, lib. IV. cap. 27. Sozomen lib. VI. cap. 37. 
The Cod. Argent, contains the 4 Gospels. 

^ The Codex Argent, was published by Mr. Ed. Lye in 1750: 
"Sacrorum Ev. versio Gothica ex codice Argento." Oxford. 

'" They were published in the year 1762 by Knittel, who had 
discovered thera. - 


the Ambrosian library, beneath the ^'HomiHes of 
Gregory upon Ezekiel," which had been written over 
the ivashen Manuscript. ^ ^ A second copy of these 
Epistles, w^ith the exception of those to the Romam 
and to the Hebreius, was found hidden under "St. 
Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah;" which was written 
over the original Manuscript.*^ 

At the risk of being tedious, we have now gone 
through some of the particulars connected wuth the 
ancient versions of the New Testament. Had we to 
deal with an enemy unprejudiced and open to con- 
viction, we might have been satisfied with a bare 
enumeration of their titles ; but we must remember, 
that in dealing with Mohammedans, we may take 
nothing for granted. In countries, where Islamism sup- 
planted Christianity, doubtless other versions existed: 
Chrysostom e. g. speaks of Indian and Persian ver- 
sions which are no longer to be found; having pro- 
bably shared the same fate as the Arabic versions.*' 
According to Theodoretus, the words of the Gospel 
were alreadv in his day "in the whole w^orld under 
the sun;"** and the Venerable Bede, born 673, ac- 

'^ This MS. was published at Milan 1819. "Ulphilae partiura 
meditarum iu Anibrosiauis palimpsestis ab Angelo Maio editum." 

^- The entire remains of UlUla's version was collected and pub- 
lished by Gabelenz and Loebe : Ullila's veteris et novi test. vers. 
Gothicae fragmenta, quae supersunt. 1843. 

'^ "Syi-os, Aegyptios, Indos, Persas, Aethiopcs et alias innume- 
ras gentes , divina dogmata in suam linguam transtulisse atque ita 
homines barbaros philosophari didicisse." Chrysostom. homil. I. in 
Johan. torn. III. col. 15, 

** "Universam faciem ten-ae, quantacunque soli subjicitur, ejus- 
modi Terborum plenam jam esse." Theod. de Curan. Graeco. aflfect. 
lib. V. 


qiiaints us, that the Scriptures were read in his time 
in Jive British dialects. ^^ St. Jerome is said to have 
rendered the New Testament into the Dalmatian 
tongue; nor should we forget the Georgian version, 
which was made in the sixth century of our era. 

9. These versions existed in the most remote 
countries of Christendom, during the lifetime of Mo- 
hammed. Most of them are preserved to this day, 
and they severally agree with each other, and with 
the venerable Manuscripts just examined; although 
they were made for the benefit of different Churches, 
among whom rivalries were not unfrequent. What 
a task then, to corrupt the New Testament in the 
seventh century! The zealous and enterprizing in- 
dividual who accomplished this tremendous under- 
taking, must have collected every Manuscript, every 
copy of the many translations from every part of 
Christendom; he must have penetrated into every 
church, monastery, college, library and dwelling- 
place, for the purpose of altering or destroying them, 
as the case might be! It would be preposterous, to 
assume that nations of various tongues, characters, 
laws , and religious views should have agreed in so 
sacrilegious a cause ; and this , on account of Mo- 
hammed, of whose existence they had not so much 
as heard, when the alleged corruption is stated to 
have taken place. Except in the case of Marciou, 
history affords no analogy to such a proceeding. 
Though the Arian heresy highly prospered for a time, 
being countenanced by mighty potentates, yet no- 

'* Beda lib. I. histor. cap. 1. 


where do we hear of any attempt to alter those pas- 
sages of the New Testament which assert the divinity 
of our Lord. ^® If therefore no permanent alteration 
of the Scriptures could be effected, at a period when 
the gates of hell sought, under the most favourable 
circumstances, to prevail against the truth; is it pos- 
sible that under less temptation, prophecies of any 
kind should have been abstracted? Or, can we be- 
lieve that the Jews and Christians in Arabia could 
have so done, in the expectation that all their brethren 
would acquiesce in the deed? Assuming it to have 
been the work of the Christians and Jews in Arabia, 
Syria, and Egypt, and supposing all the Manuscripts 
of the Bible to have been corrupted among the 
Eastern, would not the Western Churches have ulti- 
mately discovered these alterations, and charged their 
Eastern brethren with the crime? Had even corrup- 
tion been attempted, and partially effected, by the 
Christians in the East and in the West, it must have 
met with instant resistance; for those Jews and Chris- 
tians, who embraced Islamism, would undoubtedly 
have confronted them with the true copies of the 
sacred books; and thus at once have frustrated their 

^^ The words 1 John V. 7. were said, to hare been erased from 
old MSS. by the Avians, but says Gerhard: "piorum ecclesiae docto- 
ruin vigilans industria illud rcstituit." VoL XL 278. Yet the passage 
was also omitted by Cyril lib. XIV. thesauri , by St. Augustine and 
Bede. St. Jerome says: In prologo sup. epist. can. ''ab haeretida 
eitm erasit esse." As another proof that no alteration could be made 
in the hope of escaping detection, see also Ambros. de fide V. 8. 
"Scriptum est, inquiunt (Ariani): De die autem illo et hora nemo scit, 
neque angeli coelorum , nee fdins , nisi solus Pater. Primum veteres 
non habent codices Graeci, quod nee fiUus scit. Sed non mirum, si et 
hoc falsarunt, qui Scripturas interpolavere." 


intention. Again, though the early Christians were 
hunted and burned by some of the Roman Emperors, 
yet they would rather give up the ghost, than sur- 
render their holy books ; and is it probable that they 
should alter those Scriptures, at a period when as 
yet they were not exposed to the like persecutions? 
Nor have our adversaries shown us any rival copies 
of the New Testament, which would naturally have 
been the case, if some, or most of the copies had been 
corrupted; for it is unnatural to suppose that all the 
true, were suppressed, and all the spurious ones, were 
propagated. If the books which we possess are not 
the true and genuine copies, let Mohammed and his 
followers produce them in their original integrity, and 
point out in what, the alleged corruptions consist. 

10. Lastly, the New Testament being suspected 
of corruption, is therefore deemed of no further ser- 
vice; yet Mohammed considers its Founder a great 
Prophet, calls Him the "Word'' and "Spirit of God'' 
and admits that He has wrought manv miracles. Is 
it reasonable in the eyes of a Moslemin, that the 
Gospel, which he ascribes to ''Jesus the son of Mary," 
should be permitted to be corrupted so as to become 
useless ! If what Mohammed maintains of Jesus Christ 
be true, then the Gospel must have been preserved 
in its original integrity ; if not, then is Mohammed a 
false witness, and if he be a false witness, he cannot 
be a true prophet. Again it is asserted, that Christ 
was sent into the world to beari(;?Y«fss of Mohammed, 
and that this was his peculiar mission ; Sur. LXI. 6. 
but how could He fulfil this mission, if His testi- 


mony in favour of Mohammed was lost.^ We recog- 
nise therefore a flagrant contradiction, in the Mo- 
hammedans alleging that Christ came to bear record 
of their prophet , and at the same time in their de- 
claring the documents containing that record, to have 
been corrupted. The impossibility, moreover, of God's 
word being corrupted, is stoutly asserted in the Ko- 
ran.*^ We might justly inquire, whether the follow- 
ers of Mohammed are acting the part of rational 
beings , M'hilst persisting in the accusation that our 
Scriptures are corrupted; unless they have proof, that 
their prophet had examined, and by his examination, 
had placed himself in a position to point out what 
portions had been altered, and what prophecies re- 
specting him had been expunged. If we may believe 
Mohammed and his followers , he could neither read 
nor write-, hence he was directed in the Koran to 
ask those who had the Scriptures,**^ and not to read 

^^ "Et jam quidera mendaces habiti sunt legati ante: sed patien- 
ter sustinuerunt , quod mendaces haberentur et vexarentur , donee 

veniret ad eos auxilium nostrum. isJj\ iiyL*AxJ JcXax jf. Et non 

est, qui immutet verba Del." Sur. VI. 33. Again: c^jL^-O cy-»J'« 

^jJI ;»A4-wJI yo^ auUIXJ J Ju.^ !^i ^ J^^ UtX^ dj^ Et 

couipleta sunt verba Domini tui quoad veritatcra et aequitatem: non 
est qui permutat verba ejus, et ipse est audiens, sciens. Vers. 115. 
Sur. XXIX. 46. and XLII. 14. M. avows his belief in the Christian 
and Jewish Scriptures. 

** "Ask those (GoJ.says to Mohammed) who are acquainted 
with the Scriptures, if thou doest not know it." Sur. XXI. 7. Again: 

^•JL) (jjjJt JwwsO viLJI LJyjf U,/) dl^ ^ '^j^jS ^li 

>iLLo ^J^ (^LaX^I Sur. X. 93. The charge of coiTupting the 
Scriptures was fabricated when flattery failed to gain the "Scrip- 
turalists" and after M. had acknowledged the divine authority of 
the law and the Gospel. 


them himself: how could a man charge a book with 
being corrupted, which he never saw, or if seen, he 
could not read ; and even if he could read an Arabic 
version , could not examine , either the ancient Ma- 
nuscripts of the original, or the numerous versions 
which existed in the world? ^^ 

Having thus established the integrity of the Bible, 
we finish the argument by impeaching that of the 
Koran. No one is able to prove that Mohammed is 
the real author of the Koran, as we now find it. After 
his death, detached fragments of it were discovered, 
and it must be left undecided what was from Moham- 
med, and what has been added by other hands. There 
being no system in the book, we may have double 
the amount of the original matter , or have lost half, 
and remain for ever ignorant of the fact ; how could 
it be otherwise expected than that his followers should ' 
be thrown into confusion by this uncertainty? Nor 
can any one acquainted with the early history of the 
Saracens, have failed to notice the bloody /di^c/s which 
succeeded each other, concerning the many editions 
and alterations of the Koran. The first Kaliphs suc- 
cessively took the matter in hand, and supplying from 
memory what seemed to be wanting, seven most con- 

*' What would the Mohammedans think of a Christian, who 
should charge them with having corrupted the Koran, but dislaiming 
at the same time, all knowledge of Arabic, and boasting that he 
could neither read nor VTite? The author of Islamism is called the 

"illiterate" by Allah himself: ^^JUl J^Jf ^jy»^. ^J JJf 

^^1 who shall follow the apostle, the illiterate prophet." Sur. Yll. 

158. and 159. "Credite ergo ?'n Deum et Legatum ejus prophetam 

idiotam." /l^^t (C^'" 


flicting editions of the Koran came into circulation, 
during the first century after Mohammed's death. ^° 
The edition of the Shiites differed so greatly from 
that of the Sonnites, as to affect the essential doctrines 
of Mohammedanism. It was not therefore without 
good reason, that the Mohammedans gave up the 
point, as to which was the original copy of the Ko- 
ran, affirming that it was placed beneath the throne 
of Allah! 



"Tekel; thou art weighed in the Balance and* found wanting." 

Dan. V. 27. 

1 . The concluding remarks of the previous chapter 
lead us to a closer comparison of the religious docu- 
ments of Christians and Mohammedans. It is not 
within our present scope to enter upon a detailed 
examination of their respective doctrines , but even a 
cursory inspection will . convince us , that w^e have 

^° Nay, according to the following tradition, there were seven 
editions before he died. "3ebcg 3a^t im SWi^nat Diamab^an irteber^clte 
2J?cf)ammcb tcr bcm Gngcl ®a6ricl, xca^ big baf}in »on bcm .^cran gccffcn-- 
bart U'orben; man fagt fogar, im (c^teu I'ebenejaljre fjabe er ifin jireimal 
teieberl^Dlt. So oft cr eine ncue Sefeart {)injufc|te, cbet ttwai liieglief, 
troraug bie erfien 7 Slu^gaBen entfianben, ^^ragten feine ©efdfjrten 
fciefe 93arianten fog(eid) ine ©ebdt^tnig ein unb fjanbeltcn biefen ^xi- 
fa^en ober 93erdnberungen gcmdf." ^ifiorifrf)4ritifd)e Ginlcitung in 
ben jloran t>on Dr. SBeil pag. 49. These various readings , sanctioned 
by M. himself, were however destroyed by Othman , and one of his 
own; substituted instead. See pag. 106. 107. of this work. Where 
then, we ask, is Mohammed's original Koran ? 


398 THE BIBLE AND THE KORAN. [part ii. 

to do with writings of a directly opposite character. 
— The first thing which strikes us, is the constant 
anxiety of the author of the Koran, to guard against 
objections, to justify his cLaims, to defend his conduct 
and to account for the absence of those seals , which 
always accompany the dignity of a true prophet.^ 
How often he reiterates, that his declamations are 
true; how repeatedly he swears, that his words are 
those of a faithful messenger. ^^ The author of the 
Koran betrays precisely that disquietude and suspi- 
cion, which invariably indicate fraud, and never exist 
in guileless, honest and truthful minds. Mohammed 
always anticipates contradictions and expects oppo- 
sition.^^ Truth on the contrary, has no need of such 
apprehensions, or precautions, therefore never uses 
them. The writers of our sacred Scriptures are "not 
careful" to obviate cavils, to anticipate objections, to 
remove doubts, or to explain what may seem strange 

^^ "They have sworn bj- God. by the most solemn oath , that if 
a sign came unto them, they would certainly believe therein. Say 
verily signs are in the power of God alone." Sur. YI. 109. also 
Xin! 8. U. 112. 

" Allah is made to say, "If hg (Mohammed'), had forged any 
part in his discourses concerning us, we should surely have taken 
him by the right hand , and cut in two the vein of his heart." Sur. 
LXTX'. 42 — 50. 

-^ "There is no doubt, in this book, it is a direction to the 
pious." Sur. II. 1. This is the real beginning of the Koran; the 
first Sura being a doxology. "This is the mission of the book (Ko- 
ran), from the Lord of all creatures, there is no doi'hf thereof. 
Will they say he (Muhaniiiied) has forged it?" Sur. XXXII. 1. 2. 
"A book hath been sent down unto thee, and therefore. let there be 
no fear w doubt in the breast concerning it." Sur. YII. 1. "Praise 
be unto God who hath sent down the Koran . . . which deceives not." 
Sur. XVin. 1. also Sur. XIII. I. 


and incredible; and this, simply because they enter- 
tain no doubts themselves, knowing they record facts, 
which they allow to speak for themselves by their 
own intrinsic force and power. 

There is in the Bible an artless relation of events; 
all bears the stamp of genuine simplicity; all is real 
and unaffected, fi'ee from every meretricious ornament; 
it is destitute in short, of all that highflown grandi- 
loquence and declamation, so much studied in the 
Koran. ^* The sacred writers make no reflections on 
what they record; if we may be permitted the ex- 
pression, they manifest a sublime indifference, which 
takes the heart by storm and inspires a feeling of 
confidence. We feel at once that we are reading facts 
not fictions, revelations fi'om heaven, not the outpour- 
ings of a wild imagination, or a heated brain. How 
different for instance, must an impartial Mohammedan 
feel in reading Livy, and in perusing the Gospel ac- 
cording to St. John; it is as if the former was giving 
his ideas of the events he describes, and the latter 
was recording the events themselves, as they actually 
happened. Livy must ever retain his fame as an 
historian , but apart from all other considerations, 
one must instinctively give his preference to St. John's 
style, of narration. If only compared with this or any 
other Pagan author, how tedious and unmeaning, 
how ambiguous and confused, is the style of this so 

'* St. Matthew thus records his own call to the Apostleship 
"As Jesus passed forth fi-om thence, He saw a man named Matthew, 
sitting at the receipt of custom and He said unto him : follow me, 
and he arose and. followed Him." Matt. IX. 9. 

400 THE BIBLE AND THE KORAN. [part li. 

called ''persjncuous hook come down from heaven,"^* 
betraying throughout that guarded and mistrustful 
tone which unmistakeably betokens it to be a fraud- 
ulent production. 

2. Proceeding to investigate the contents of both 
documents, we shall first endeavour to trace out the 
vein of history, which from beginning to end runs 
through the Bible, and embraces the divine plan of 
salvation. ^^ Soon after the fall, mankind came to be 
divided into tw^o distinct branches, "the sons of God" 
and ''the children of men.'' When at a future period 
they became united , it w^as only for evil , the rapid 
growth of which , ended with the destruction of the 
human race, by the flood; Noah and his family 
alone finding "grace in the eyes of the Lord.'' His 
descendants vainly sought to frustrate God's purpose 
that they should be scattered and replenish the earth; 
but after this dispersion, it being impossible that 
God should reveal Himself to each particular nation 
in the peculiar manner which His plan demanded, 
He chose one people to be the steward of His past, 
and the depository of His future revelations. As this 
chosen people were in all points to be educated for 
a peculiar purpose, the education commenced with a 

" ,j-iCA>o ^♦vi'; ^bjCJf ^\.J siXJb' Sur.XV. 1. a standing 

term. Sur. XXVI. 1. XLIV. 1. XU. I. 

'° To select a few passages here and there, would lead to no 
definite and just appreciation of the books to be contrasted. This 
mode of dealing has been justly condemned with regard to Natural 
Science. "Naturae rerum vis atque majestas in omnibus momenti» 
fide caret, si quis modo partes ejus, ac non totum complectatur 
animo." Pliny. 


single individual; and Abraham that he might be- 
come "the father of them that believe," was trained 
by God to "walk by faith" in the land of promise; 
thus consecrating Canaan as the future home of his 
posterity. ^^ To prevent a premature settling down 
in the promised land, and a possible intermixture 
with the idolatrous nations of Canaan, the people 
were sheltered for a period in the land of Goshen. 
Although the promise of a numerous posterity was 
speedily fulfilled , yet it might seem as if God had 
forsaken His people during their oppression in Egypt 
3Toses therefore, on receiving the commission to lead 
them forth from the house of bondage, announced 
the God. of their fathers to be the unchangeable 
Jehovah. ^^ 

The Jews, by the E.rodus, had become an indepen- 
dent nation, and having thus far grown up under God's 
fostering care, were now placed under the schoolmaster 
of the law to bring them unto Christ; but as no finite 
being could comprehend the tenor of their future con- 
stitution, — wdiich should embrace all ages and meet 
all exigencies, — nor conceive the ultimate destiny of 
this people, God alone could be the lawgiver; thus 
their private, civil and religious character was formed 
upon a model, which He gave to Moses in the wil- 

'^ Notice the contrast of the promise of God to Abraham 
l^'C'd, r.b^^Nl "I will make thy name great," and the resolve of 
those proud patriarchs, "let us make us a Shem, i. e. a name; 
Cd ^:r-r",v::'5n. How great a difference in the end! Gen. XII. 1—2. 
XL 4. ' 

^^ "!!"'*. ■'^.^. "!!"'?. pro qui ero; o wf K(« 6 f^p xai 6 tp;i;o7(c*'Og; 
cfr. Exod.'lV. 14.' with Rev. I. 4. 


402 THE BIBLE AND THE KORAN. [part ll. 

derness. As these laws neither emanated from the 
nation itself, nor yet from any human legislator, it 
was natural that the eocecutive power should remain 
in the hands of the Divine Sovereign, who framed 
them ; hence it was an offence against God, when Israel 
demanded a king. The Divine plan of educating 
them required a symbolical instruction adapted to 
their childish perception; types and symbols ?ire there- 
fore employed, as the most natural mode of conveying 
divine truths. Israel being like unto other nations, 
the fact of their having been chosen, implied no mirac- 
ulous translation from their days, to an epoch some 
thousand years in advance. To prescribe to them a 
religion in which the spiritual elements preponderated 
over external forms, types, rites and ceremonies would 
have been to apply moral force to produce a jDre- 
mature result, a plan which would have defeated its 
own object. Amongst all the emblems and types of 
good things to come, the appointed jcrVesMooo?, with 
the prescribed sacrifices, was the most important. 
That the cause of their efficiency was not in man, 
but in the blood, of which God declared, " I have given 
the blood to atone your soiils,''^^ is a point not to be 
overlooked. The means of atonement was something 
independent of man, he not having the principle of 
sanctification in himself; hence the person for whom 
the sacrifice was intended, was not permitted to as- 
sist in the services. Another soul was required for 
his soul, but this substitute being that of an animal, 

2° Lev. XYll. 11. -h: crb Tpr:_ 'is;! Nin n-js ^b^n ce; ^3. 


Standing in no connection with man, it was inadequate 
to take away sin , Hebr. X. 4. and did no more than 
point to the blood of Christ, Who, pouring out His 
blood and giving His soul as a ransom for many, 
took away the sins of the world. Hebr. JX. 12. — 
Again, as it was God's purpose to keep the Jewish 
nation separate from all others, it is not surprising 
that its future abode was physically guarded from 
foreign influence. On the other hand, it possessed 
singular advantages for spreading that light amongst 
the surrounding nations of antiquity, of which the 
Jews were the chosen guardians. "Thus saith the 
Lord God, This is Jerusalem: I have set it in the 
midst of the nations and countries that are round 
about her." Ezek. V. 5. 

The first period of Israel's possession of the coun- 
try being the time of the Judges, was one of per- 
petual change and confusion; yet no epoch afforded 
so many striking evidences, that no vicissitudes could 
alter the purposes of the unchangeable Jehovah. To 
infuse new life into the Jewish church, neither the 
transitory enthusiasm of Jewish conquerors , nor yet 
the oracle of the Urim and Thummim was henceforth 
sufficient: it demanded something more spiritual and 
quickening; and this necessary, and extraordinary aid 
was imparted in the days of Samuel, when the Spirit 
of Prophecy supplied a living commentary to the law 
of Moses, and the symbolical forms of the constitution. 
Not less opportune was the introduction of this new 
element, in checking the influence of the political 
power which was added to the government of the 



Jews, when — no longer satisfied with the priestly 
representative of Jehovah — they demanded a king, 
"to judge them like all the nations" 1 Sam.vm. 5 — 7.^° 
Scarcely had the nation reached its highest degree 
of worldly prosperity, under the peaceful reign of So- 
lomon, than a fearful declension of spiritual life took 
place, and the Jewish kingdom speedily became ripe 
for judgment. Yet, as it would militate against the 
promise given to David, to allow an idolatrous power 
to destroy Solomon's temple, and to overthrow David's 
throne,"'^ the kingdom was only weakened, being 
divided into a "house of Israel" and "a house of 
Judah," the latter retaining the temple and capital 
of the nation, whilst the former fell into idolatry. 

But the wisdom of Jehovah, could not be baffled 
by the depravity of man; it was manifest that full 
scope was given to the passions of men, and yet that 
no human error could make void the purposes of God. 
The ten tribes of Israel, having lost their savour, are 
cast out, and driven back to that very land, from 
which Abraham was called forth. JohnXV. 2. 6. The 
house of Judah soon followed into captivity, but after 
being "purged," JohnXV. 2. it was to return for pur- 
poses set forth by Isaiah , w ho spoke of a "branch 
Old of a dry ground T of a Mng , wdiose throne no 

^° According' to the original plan, the office of high priest com- 
prised the threefold dignity of king, priest and prophet. Numb. 
XXYU. 21. P.sahn LXXXII. 6. Exod. XVIII. 5. The regal dignity, 
as a separate office, not being originally included in the theocratical 
constitution, \vas after a short period, dissolved. 

tT^^iW 2 Sam! VU. 14. 15. 


idolatry could undermine; of a prophet who would 
possess the Spirit without measure; and of a priest 
who would pass from death to life, and from humilia- 
tion to glory. When the civil power was dissolved 
as a cumbersome appendage, J^remza/i mourned upon 
the ruins of Jerusalem; Daniel watched on behalf of 
God's people near the Babylonian throne; and Ezekiel 
guarded the scattered and captive flock of the Al- 
mighty on the shores of the Chaboras. Nor could 
thil apparent breaking up of God's long cherished 
plan of education endanger the safety of the remnant, 
upon whose preservation the issue depended; for there 
exists no record of their falling into idolatry durmg 

their captivity. 

When the house of Judah returned, their condi- 
tion was by no means encouraging; a shadow only 
being left of the house of David, and the second temple 
could not be compared to the glory of the first; yet a 
living hope and prospects of a brighter nature were 
still preserved. ^^ When the house of David had fallen 
into oblivion , the guardianship of the prophets over 
the political power was no longer required; besides, all 
that was needful had been uttered respecting the 
advent and work of the Messiah. The Spirit of Pro- 
phecy fled, and in its flight, nothing more is said of 
a ''house of David T but it prophesied of "the ruler 
desiredr Mai. m. 1— 4. iv. 5. 6. Who would come to 
His temple as a purifier of the nation , Who would 

" Jehovah who chooses "things which are not,"— the words 
Isa. XLY. 1. being uttered 176 years before the birth o^ ^>'J""^ T". 
put it into Cyrus' heart to grant permission for the return of Judah. 
Ezra L 1.2. 

406 THE BIBLE AND THE KORAN. [part il. 

separate the gold fi'om the dross, and be introduced 
by a man of the spirit of Elias. 

3. The time between 3Icdachi and the forerunner 
of Christ was a time of deep silence, in which, "the 
kingdom of heaven was hke unto a man travelling 
into a far country, who called his servants and de- 
livered unto them his goods." ^^ They were to keep 
fast what they had already received: the last pro- 
phet departing with the injunction, ''Remember ye the 
law of Moses, my servant, which I commanded you 
in Horeb, with the statutes and judgments." The 
period immediately preceding the advent of Christ, 
was the time when the blossoms of the theocratical 
constitution had fallen oif, and the fruit had not yet 
appeared. That it must have added to the trial of 
the nation to see their ancient privileges, 07ie by cue, 
die away, can easily be conceived. Nor was this all; 
the feeling of disappointment and misery which pre- 
vailed on the eve of the long expected advent of the 
Messiah, was such, that nothing short of the appear- 
ance of "the Lord from heaven" could satisfy the 
wants, and allay the intense desire of the Jewish 

^'^ This period of silence which lasted 400 years has its parallels. 
The Jews were in Eg^^-pt about 400 years without a voice of comfort 
or advice from the God of Abraham. Such a period also, was the time 
of the Judges, which lasted above 300 years. How inexplicable 
these periods of captivity, silence and apparent neglect seem to the 
natural man , may be seen e. g. from the celebrated conversation of 
Caecilius with Octavius: "Unde autem, vel ijuis ille , ant ubi Deus 
unicus, solitarius, destitutus, quern non gens libera, non regna, non 
saltem Romana superstitio noverunt? Judaeorum sola et misera 
gentilitas unum et ipsi Dcum, sed palam, sed templis , aris, victimis, 
caerimoniisque colueruut; cvjus adeo nulla via nee potestas est, ut 
sit Romanis hominibus cum sua sibi natio)ie captivus." ]\iinuc, Fel. 
cap. X. - 


nation.^* But here again we begin with small things, 
a babe in swaddling-clothes lying in a manger. ^^ 
We have to do, not with rhvthmical effusions, nor 
with metaphysical disquisitions upon divine things, 
nor yet with an unheard-of aggregate of moral pre- 
cepts, from which the salvation of the world was ex- 
pected. On the contrary, we have a sober, calm 
and simple narration of historical facts, "which were 
not done in a corner;" not a solitary, but a fourfold 
record of the leading events , words , deeds , and 
sufferings of the Son of God. Christianity was 

'* That Christ had become "the desire of all nations " was 
proved by the general expectation of the world. The Chinese at 
that period looked for "the Holy one who was to appear from the 
West." The Persian Sosiosh was then expected as the Oshander- 
bega, or "man of the world." The Buddhist waited for a new 
Buddha , and the Hindoos for a fresh Avatar or incarnation of the 
Deity. The ivise men in the East watched for the star of the king 
of the Jews. The Romans were not behind: "Percrebuerat Oriente 
toto vetus et constans opinio, esse in fatis, ut eo tempore, Judaea 
profecti rerum potirentur." Suetonius in Vita Vesp. Vide also Com. 
Tacit. Hist. L 5. Virgil nat. 70. A. D. w:-ote at the time of Herod 
the Great: 

"Ultima Cumaei venit jam carminis aetas: 
Magnus ab integro saeclorum nascitur ordo. 
Jam nova progenies coelo demittitur alto. 
Tu modo nascenti puero, quo ferrea primura 
Desinet, ac toto surget gens aurea mundo — 

— Nee magnos metuent armenta leones. 
Occidet et serpens, et fallax herba veneni occidet. 
Aggredere magnos (aderit jam tempus) honores, 
Chara Deum soboles, magnum Jovis incrementum! 
Aspice convexo nutantem pondere mundum, 
Terrasque, tractusque maris, coelumque profuudum : 
Aspice venturo laetentur ut omnia saeclo. 

Pauca tamen suberunt priscae vestigia fraudis, 

— Erunt etiara altera bella. Virgil. Eclog. TV. 

'* "Ut homines nascerentur ex Deo, primo ex ipsis natus est 
Deus. Descendit Deus, ut assurgamus." 

408 THE BIBLE AND THE KORAN. [part il. 

based upon the foundation of the historical facts re- 
corded in the four Gospels; and these books, with 
their contents, indicate "the fulness of time," and 
constitute the very centre of all ancient and modern 
history. The Koran itself, in speaking of the Law 
and the Gospel, as two distinct dispensations which 
chronologically succeeded each other, virtually ac- 
knowledges the beginning of a new epoch with the 
coming of Christ. Nor is it possible that any general 
history of the world, though written in a spirit di- 
rectly opposed to Christianity, could fail to recognise 
the natural division of time, at the commencement 
of our era. 

The supernatural conception of the Lord Jesus, 
and His manifestation of miraculous power are ad- 
mitted by the Koran, though His death and resur- 
rection are denied. In the Gospel, all these dogmas 
rest upon one and the same foundation; but the Ko- 
ran rejects the death and resurrection of Christ, as 
being the groundwork of Redemption ; since He gave 
His life "by the eternal Sjnrit,''^*^ His blood is the 
blood of the Son of God which cleanseth from all sin. 
1 John I. 7. All types and prophecies being in Htm 
fulfilled, the distinctive rites of the Old Testament 
were no longer required : for the Gentiles being ad- 
mitted to the blessings of the Gospel, the partition 
wall between them and the Jews was broken down, 
and Christ thus made in Himself, of twain one new. 
body to be henceforth called by a new name. ^' The 

" "Mors Christi vita niundi." Also John XII. 24. 

" Compare Isa. LXY. 15. where the name of the Jews was to 


order in which the Apostles were to bear witness, 
after having received the power of the Holy Ghost, 
w^as, — first at Jerusalem, then mJiidea, then in Sa- 
maria, and after that, in the uttermost parts of the 
earth; ^'' thus making fully known the mystery, "that 
the Gentiles should be fellow-heirs and of the same 
body, and partakers of His promise in Christ by the 

It must be considered one of the greatest marvels 
in history, that a nation should exercise the greatest 
influence upon the rest of mankind, only after it was 
destroyed; having during its existence remained com- 
paratively unknown. Possessing for ages the secret 
of the world's salvation , the Jewish nation lost its 
importance on that secret being divulged. It then 
became manifest, that it was not partiality which 
prompted the choosing of this remarkable people. 
As the Jewish Scriptures have the peculiarity of being 
read backwards, from right to left, so, God's dealings 
with that people can only be understood, when they 
are retrospectively considered; thus St. Paul regarded 
the Ephesians, when saying they were "built upon 

be left for a curse , rjr^nuib, and His servants called by another 
name, ^HN D">p., with the fact of the disciples being called xQiatia- 
TOvg first in Antioch. Act. XI. 26. 

*® The Serai-pagan Saniarit-ans and the Semi-Jewish Ethiopians 
served as the medium for the transmission of the Gospel from the Jews 
to the Gentiles. After the baptism of the proselyte Eunuch, follows 
the conversion of the Apostle of the Gentiles, Act. EX. and cap. X. 
St. Peter preaches the Gospel to the Gentiles "without respect of 

"' ovH tyv6)Qia^7]: non notificatum est. Non dicit: ovx dnty.a- 
kvcpdr^: non revelatum est. Bong. Gnora. ad Ephes. ni. 


the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets."' ^^ It was 
only through the Gospel that they became possessed 
of the kev to the Old Testament. 

The Koran contams no evidence, that prior to Is- 
lamism, a similar training of the Arabs took place, to 
fit them to convey a new dispensation to the world; 
and until this point be established, the Moslem has 
no right to place Islamism in the same category with 
the Law and the Gospel. The Arabs doubtless have 
a mission to fulfil in God's providential government 
of the world, like any other nation;** but as regards 
their instrumentalitv in the salvation of mankind, 
had they not hitherto existed, no nation under heaven 
would have sustained any loss whatever. Not so with 
the Jews ; if we suppose that they had never existed, 
all would necessarily have taken a different course. 
Idolatry must have prevailed , and no element would 
have remained to serve as a foundation for the recov- 
ery of mankind. The history of the Jews, considered 
in this light, eclipses in importance the combined 
history of all other nations of antiquity. But the Jews 
in rejecting the Messiah, forfeited their right to na- 
tional independance and the possession of the land 
of their inheritance , and thus lowered themselves 
beneath those nations from whom they had been so 
honorably distinguished. 

**• To use another simile : the Old Testament was written with- 
out vowels; these being added in the beginning of the Christian 
era. The Gospel supplied the vowels to the Old Testament, "so that 
he may run, that readeth." 

*' (V-gJU-ft iwl JjCI Laj\ viJU Jo "We have given a work to 
every nation." Sur. VI. 108. 


Lastly, we find not only an organic connection of 
the several parts of the Bible, which we vainly seek 
in the Koran or in any other religious document, but 
that each historical feature has a prophetical or ty- 
pical character which embodies a miniature of the 
whole , and so anticipates the final consummation of 
the entire counsel of God. Thus, in reading the last 
three Chapters of the book of Revelation, we observe 
every single incident brought into close connection 
with something which has been recorded in the first 
three Chapters of Genesis; so that the beginning 
and the end of the Bible are linked together by an 
indissoluble bond of divine perfection and harmony." 
4. This organic connection and harmony between 
the Old and the New Testament are fully acknowledged 
in the Koran, "we also caused Jesus the son of Mary 
to follow the footsteps of the prophets , confirming 
the law which was already in their hands , and we 
gave him the Gospel, containing direction and light, 
confirming also the law which was given before it." *^ 
It would undoubtedly serve as a confirmation of the 

" Gen I. 1. and Rev. XXI. 1. Rev. XXI. 2. and Gen. I. 3. 
Gen I 14. and Rev. XXL 23. Gen. I. 9. 10. and Rev. XXI. 1. 
Gen. n. 9. and Rev. XXII. 2. Gen. II. 10. and Rev. XXIL 1. Gen. 
II 7 and Rev. XX. 13. Gen. H. 22. and Rev. XXL 1. Gen. IE. 8. 
and Rev XXL 3. Gen. II. 2. 3. and Rev. XXU. 14. Gen. L 28. 
and Rev. XX. 4. Gen. lU. 3. and Rev. XXI. Gen. lU. 15. and Rev. 
XX "> 10 Gen. m. 16—19. and Rev. XX. 12. Gen. UI. 17. 16. 
and Rev. XXI. 4. Gen. III. 17. and Rev. XXH. 3. Gen. UI. 19. 
and Rev. XXI. 4. Gen. lU. 21. and Rev. XIX. 7. XXL 2. Gen. IH. 
24. and Rev. XXU. 14. 

'ilyXi\ ^ iwJo c^^ Sur. V. 54. See also XU. 111. 


claims of Mohammed and his alleged revelations, 
could it be proved, that the Koran stands in the same 
relation to the Gospel, as the Gospel stands to the 
Old Testament: although this is the pretension of 
the Koran from beginning to end,** yet the complete- 
ness of the historical and doctrinal character of the 
Bible at once precludes the assumption. The Old 
and New Testament appear as a perfect whole, which 
requires no fresh revelation, nor the introduction of 
any new dispensation, excepting that only, which will 
unfold with the end of the world. Not only have we 
no single truth revealed in the Koran which we have 
not already in the Bible, but there is an absolute ab- 
rogation of some of the essentials of the preceding 
dispensations; there is no historical vein in the Ko- 
ran, which would either lead back to the Gospel era 
or to the beginning of the world ; but a direct denial 
of some of the most important historical facts recorded 
in the Gospel, and confirmed, as we shall see, by the 
testimony of profane writers. 

It is not our design to comjjensate for weak- 
ness of argument by applying aspersive epithets to 
Islamism; it would be not only unseemly in any 

** The same terms, which are used to signify the relation of the 
Gospel to the law, are applied to the Koran conjirmina the law and 

the Gospel, ^j-^ UJ Ls'tX.^ax' (^_^.S\JL) ^oLiXJ! *iijJt \jJJi\^ 

v^LaJCJI ^^jo KjJo Sur. V. 56. Again, "This book, which is 
blessed, we have sent down, con/iroihui that which was before it.' 
Sur. YI. 92. Again, "The Koran could not have been invented by 
any other , but it is from God ; a confirmation of that which was 
revealed before it. and an explanation of the Scripture. There is no 
doubt, that it come from the Lord of all creatures." Sur. X. 38. 


work of a religious or theological character, but 
would only defeat our object, by closing the mind 
to the power of truth and strengthening the preju- 
dices of those, whose conversion we have in view. Yet 
the interests of truth must not be sacrificed to the 
desire of maintaining peace. After studiously per- 
using the Koran, with a view to ascertain whether 
the book had any pretext to consider itself as sup- 
plementary to the law and the Gospel, we are com- 
pelled to confess, that the judgment of the sober- 
minded enemies of Mohammed, as preserved in the 
Koran, is the most correct estimate which can be 
formed of its contents.*^ The Koran ostensibly pro- 
fesses to be of an historical character , but when the 
author borrowed a few fragments from sacred history, 
it was with the pompous claim to revelation, — "This 
is out of the secret histories, and we reveal the same," 
— forgetting that it had been already preached 
throughout the world as a matter of history, not re- 
velation for the period of 600 and 2000 years!*' If 
any person ventured to question the pretensions of the 
"perspicuous book sent down from heaven," Moham- 
med, instead of meeting rational objections with ra- 
tional arguments , enveloped himself in his alleged 
prophetical dignity, and in the name of Allah he 

*^ "But they say, the Koran is a confused heap of dreams, nay 
he hath forged'it; nay he is a poet." Sur. XXI. 5. Again: "They 
also say. These are fables of the ancients, which he hath caused to 
be written down; they are dictated to him morning and evening." 
Sur. XXV. 5. 

*® (.^A^xJl sLaj! ^jjo JU j hoc est ex historiis arcani. Sur. 
ni. 44. • " ' 

414 THE BIBLE AND THE KORAN. [part ii. 

poured forth a volley of maledictions upon his oppo- 
nents and condemned them to be roasted in hell.*^ 

To trace any fixed plan or system of doctrines^n 
the Koran or to discern an historical thread of any 
kind is simply impossible. Some of the events con- 
nected with Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Moses, and 
other distinguished characters of the Bible are re- 
peatedly related in diflferent parts of the Koran , and 
always with a painful admixture of fabulous additions. 
Sur. xn. introduces the history of Joseph as a fresh 
revelation, although it had happened 2870 years be- 
fore Mohammed's time, and was written 200 years after 
it occurred. The conclusion therefore, to which we 
must of necessity arrive, is this, that there is no his- 
torical feature whatever in the Koran; on the con- 
trary the matter is thrown together in the utmost 
confusion: historical events of the day are amalga- 
mated with traditions of the most remote antiquity; 
biblical characters are brought forward in utter de- 
fiance of the order oftheir chronological succession.** 
In the midst of declamations against his enemies, 
Mohammed suddenly alludes to a period, when some 

*^ I will afflict him with grievous calamities . . . may he be 

cursed 1 And again may he be cursed He looked and frowned 

and put on an austere countenance; then he turned back and was 
elated with pride , and he said , This is no other than a piece of 
magic , borrowed from others , these are only the words of a man. 
But such a one will I roast in hell. And who will say, in what thij 
hell consists? It leaves nothing unconsumed, and nothing escapes. 
It scorcheth all the flesh of the human body; 19 angels have we 
appointed over them." Sur. LXXIV. 16 — 30. 

*^ Contrast the apology of St. Stephen. Act. VII. and the lucid 
record of Peter in Acts II. and III. Or the historical sketch of the 
Psalmist Psalm CV. and CVL 


of the disobedient Jews were turned into monkeys 
and 2^ig^ , leaving liis readers at a loss where to find 
an authenticated record of so extraordinary a meta- 
morphosis! Sur. V. 65. vn. 166. H. 61. Though divided 
into chapters and verses, no arrangement of subject 
is perceptible in the Koran. Invectives and curses 
against enemies are interwoven with instructions for 
fighting with infantry or cavalry. The history of the 
Red Coiv of the Israelites is thrown together with 
charges against Jews and Christians and the usual 
denunciations of hell-fire; conversations of the damn- 
ed are mingled with challenges to produce a Koran 
like his own; incidents from the Gospels and the 
apocryphal books of the New Testaments are linked 
together with precepts for fasting, and promises of 
the material pleasures of Paradise. Asseverations of 
the truth of the pseudo-prophet's revelations and la- 
mentations at being considered an impostor, are 
coupled with the enaction of civil laws and the terrors 
of the day of Judgement.*^ 

5. The next point of contrast, to be observed is, 
— the Bible, a standing miracle of God's power and 
wisdom, ^^ and the so called miracle of the Koran. 
Beginning with the former, we notice the miraculous 
character of the Old and New Testament. — Unlike 
the alleged nightly visions of Mohammed, the mani- 
festations of Jehovah in the Bible were for the most 

*^ The learned HInkelmann declared A. D. 1694, when the 
Koran was less known: "negotiiim nobis est cum libro, quern legere 
et detegere est refiitare." 

^° Vide, Koppen, JDie SdiM ein ©erf bet getllic^cn SlKmac^t mi 
^tisijiit. 2 JBanoe. 

416 THE BIBLE AND THE KORAN. [part ll. 

part of a tangible and public nature. The cloudy- 
pillar, the smoke, the thunder and lightening on 
mount Sinai, accompanied with the voice of the living 
Jehovah, and the song of the angels at the birth, with 
the visible and audible manifestations at the baptism 
of the Lord Jesus, well befitted the respective intro- 
ductions of the two dispensations. Whenever visions 
to single individuals are recorded in the Bible, such 
as vouchsafed to Moses in the bush, to Isaiah in 
the temple, to Ezekiel in Chaldea, to Zacharias- dur- 
insf his ministrations and to Marv in her house, al- 
though not attested by others, yet they are invariably 
proved by their mighty results; a proof, for which we 
fruitlessly search to corroborate any one of Moham- 
med's visions. 

Another class of miraculous demonstrations re- 
corded in the Bible were those witnessed in the sun, 
moon and stars; it being the j^rerogative of the Lord 
of hosts "to bring out their host by the greatness 
of His might," and to cause them to hide themselves 
at His bidding, as was the case during the darkness 
which covered Egypt before the Exodus and which 
enveloped Palestine during the Crucifixion. As in- 
stances of Jehovah's sovereign power over the ele- 
ments, we may remember that Sodom and Gomorrah 
were miraculously overthrown by Jire; and Aadab 
and Abihu were killed by the same element. Elijah's 
prayer was answered hy Jire; the two companies of 
fifties, sent to the same prophet by the superstitious 
king Ahaziah, were consumed by Jire; and Daniel's 
three friends were preserved "in the midst of fire." 


Marvels were also wrought in the air. Moses pro- 
phesied a destructive hail , which fell in some locali- 
ties , whilst others were spared. A similar miracle 
was performed in the days of Samuel to ensure the 
victory to Israel. Rain from heaven ceases and falls 
upon the "fervent and effectual prayer" of the prophet 
Elijah. At another time, dew fell upon a fleece of 
wool, when the whole earth round about was dry, and 
again, upon all the earth, leaving the fleece dry. Lastly, 
our Lord rebuked the wind and it was calm. Water 
at one time is changed into blood, at another, into 
wine. A dry path is opened by Jehovah in the sea, 
and on three occasions through the river Jordan; 
again, Christ and Peter are seen walking on the lake 
of Galilee. Li the days of the Flood, a miraculous 
interposition of Jehovah embraced both the dry earth 
and the water. The earth swallowed up Korah, 
Dathan, and Abiram with their rebellious followers, 
and all their substance. The rochs at one time 
were rent assunder, at other times, fire and water 
issued from them. Iron is made to swim; chains fall 
from the hands of holy prisoners, and an iron gate 
opens of its own accord. Thei^oc? of Moses becomes 
a serpent, and that of Aaron "budded, and brought 
forth buds, and bloomed blossoms and yielded al- 
monds" in a single night; and at another time a 
green fig-tree withered within the same period, at the 
Saviour's command. The Manna which for forty years 
was the miraculous food of the Israelites, falls on 
some days and not on others, remains good over the 
Sabbath, yet becomes foul, if kept on other days. 


418 THE BIBLE AND THE KORAN. [part li. 

Poisonous herbs become wholesome: the barrel of 
meal and the cruise of oil never foil. A hundred men 
are fed upon scanty provisions, and Jesus feeds at 
one time 5000, at another, 4000 men, with a few 
loaves and a few fishes. Moses, Elijah, and Christ, live 
without food, during forty days in the wilderness. 
Again, a disobedient prophet is killed by ^lion, whilst 
his ass stands by unharmed; but the prophet Daniel 
is safe in a den of lions. Bears are commanded to 
kill forty- two wicked children; two milch l-iue, upon 
which there had come no yoke, conduct the ark of 
the covenant in safety; quails are sent, at the prayer 
of Moses; Elijah is fed by ravens; an ass speaks with 
man's voice; Jonah is cast alive on the sea-shore by 
2ijisli; another fish supplies the tribute money; and 
others are found in a disciple's net in miraculous 
abundance. Locusts, frogs, fiery serpents and other 
creatures suddenly appear as judgments upon guilty 
nations. The greater number of the miracles of the 
Bible were wrought upon man. Languages are sud- 
denly confused; people Avith open eyes, fail to find 
their way; a proud monarch is degraded to the con- 
dition and instincts of a beast of the field, and after 
seven years , is restored to his reason and kingdom ; 
Bezaleel and Solomon are endued with supernatural 
wisdom. Sennacherib's host is miraculously destroyed 
in one night ; Ananias and his wife fall down dead at 
an Apostle's feet; Miriam and Geliazi are punished 
with leprosy. Zacharias is suddenly struck dumb, 
and Elymas is struck blind. As bodily powers are 
miraculously taken away, so are they given; as in 


the case of David, and Samson. Still more numerous 
are the miracles of Mercy. Devils are cast out , le- 
pers are cleansed, fever and palsy are removed, the 
bloodv flux and the issue of blood are staunched, the 
deaf hear, the blind see, the lame walk, the ear cut 
off is replaced, withered limbs are cured, the dying 
are restored to health at a word, and the dead, even 
in a state of corruption, are instantly recalled to life.^* 
These miracles are distributed over the visible 
and invisible world, among animate, inanimate, ra- 
tional and irrational creatures; thus setting forth the 
inimitable supremacy of Jehovah over the luhole uni- 
verse. The Koran, having no miracles of its own, re- 
lates some of the above-mentioned, with the most 
grotesque and fabulous exaggerations; while others 
recorded for the first time, have never been authen- 
ticated, and are invariably of an undignified, puerile 
and incongruous character, such as would worthily 
form a part of "the Arabian Nights" or any like 
fiction. ^^ The Biblical miracles, on the other hand, 
although wrought in different parts of the world, 
amidst an endless diversity of circumstances , in dif- 
ferent ages, by diff'erent persons, and for diff'erent 
purposes, yet are each, severally impressed with a 

^' Josh.Vn. 14— 21. Exod. XVn. 2. Judg. VIL 1— 6. 16— 20. 
2 Chron. XX. 1 — 30. XII. 1 — 16. ivond&fftd battles are recorded. 

^■' See Abraham's deliverance from fire Sur. XXI. 69; the meta- 
morphosis of the Jews into apes and swine Sur. V. 65; Solomon's 
power over demons, spirits and birds Sur. XXYII. 7 — 20; the story 
of Ezra, his ass, his basket of figs and cruise of wine Sur. II. 261; 
Job's cure on washing in the fountain which sprang up after stamp- 
ing on the ground, Sur. XXXVIII. 43 — 46; the miraculous virtue of 
the shirt of Joseph. Sur. XQ. 93—96—99. 


420 THE BIBLE AND THE KORAN. [partii. 

peculiar stamp and significance. — Here then, the 
question arises, how comes it that these miracles form 
such a well ordered, highly diversified, duly propor- 
tioned and completely organised system of wonderful 
deeds? As it was impossible that they could have 
been fortuitously thrown together in the Bible, they 
doubtless were recorded under the immediate direc- 
tion of God Himself, in the manner in which we find 
them, and in the order in which they were wrought. 
Since no human prescience could foresee what kind, 
and what number of miracles would be ^vl•ought, and 
no human wisdom could suggest how many of them 
should be selected, and in what manner they should 
be recorded so as to produce a collection not wanting 
in any of the essential links of the entire system, and 
yet, not needlessly replete with wonders of the same 
type and character; and since God alone could both 
work such miracles, and cause them to be so recorded, 
it unquestionably follows, that the Bible, in which we 
find them, must in itself he a stupendous miracle of 
God's absolute power and wisdom. 

6. The Bible more especially appears a miracle 
of God's wisdom, when we examine its fulfilled pro- 
phecies. The prediction of the Flood; the numerous 
posterity of Abraham; the prophetic definition of the 
period , during which the Israelites were to be in 
bondage in a strange land ; the announcement of the 
seven years' famine in Egypt; the threatening of the 
dispersion of Israel among all nations, in case of dis- 
obedience; and the still greater marvel, — one indeed 
without parallel in the annals of nations, — their re- 


maining amidst the widest possible dispersion, a dis- 
tinct people ; all these predictions were clearly beyond 
the scope of human penetration to anticipate. The 
same may be said of Deborah's prediction that Je- 
hovah would sell Sisera into the hand of a woman ; 
of Samuel's telling Saul what should befall him on 
the way; of the message of Ahijah to the wife of Je- 
roboam; of the prophecy which Elijah conveyed to 
Ahab and Jezebel ; of that of Ehsha concerning the 
king of Samaria; of the promise of sons to Sarah, 
to the Shunamite, and to Elizabeth, Again, 300 
years beforehand, it was predicted that Josiah 
would sacrifice the priests of Baal upon a certain 
altar; and the victory of Judah over the Moabites 
was prophesied by Jehaziel, under most improbable 
circumstances. The prophet Isaiah described the 
glory of Babylon, 250 years beforehand, and that, 
when it was yet an insignificant place; and he 
also predicted its ultimate downfall and conquest by 
the Medes. The same prophet mentioned Cyrus by 
name, as the person who should destroy Babylon, 
grant permission to the Jews to return fi'om their 
captivity, and rebuild Jerusalem and the temple of 
Jehovah. Jeremiah foretells the captivity of Judah 
for the space of seventy years, and the lasting de- 
struction of Babylon by the 3Iedes and Persians; 
he also prophesies the early death of the false pro- 
phet, who had announced the destruction of Babylon 
within two years. The destinies of the four empires 
which succeeded the Babylonian, were unmistakeably 
pourtrayed by the prophet Daniel; he also foretold 


the destruction of the holy City by one of these four 
powers, and fixed the time of the advent of the Messiah. 

Our Lord prophesied the details of His passion, 
His death, His resurrection, and ascension Avith a 
fearful precision; the locality where these events would 
take place, the persons who would take part in them ; the 
denial of Peter , the betrayal of Judas and the flight 
of all His disciples. The pouring out of the Holy 
Ghost , the endowment of the Apostles with miracu- 
lous power; the manner of the death of Peter; his 
prominent part in the founding of the Church; the 
growth of God's kingdom ; the prolonged existence 
of good and evil ; the offence which the Gospel would 
cause, and the universahty of its proclamation, as a 
witness among all nations; the duration of the Church 
in spite of opposition ; the rising of false Christs and 
false prophets ; the fate of the Jewish polity ; the 
dispersion of the Jewish peoj^le ; the call of the Gen- 
tiles, and the establishment of a new dispensation, 
in which men would no longer worship God in Jeru- 
salem only; all these, and other events were foretold 
and fulfilled with wonderful exactitude. 

As it could not be the work of man , in the first 
instance, to distribute the foregoing predictions over 
a space of thousands of years, giving to each its proper 
position in the economy of grace ; and then to insert 
their respective fulfilments in after ages, so as to con- 
stitute that comprehensive organism which we find 
in the Bible ; it must of necessity be the immediate 
work of God. Containing sufh marvellous revelations 
of future events as no finite intelligence could con- 


ceive, or liuman tbresiglit prognosticate, revelations 
moreover, constituting a well-ordered system amidst 
an endless diversity of circumstances, the Bible 
bears in itself incontestible proof of being of divine 
origin; and we are thus led to the same conclusion, 
we arrived at with regard to the miracles, viz. that 
the Bible can be nothing less, than a miracle of God's 
infinite wisdom and power. 

7. To start a comparison on these points with 
the Koran, is impossible, from the simple fact of Mo- 
hammed denying that he ever possessed the gift of 
prophecy, or the power to work miracles. ^^ In the 
absence of these two kinds of evidence in favour of 
the Koran, Mohammed and his followers insist upon 
the book itself being a miracle, such as no previous 
prophet had wrought. Mohammed thus harangues 
the men of Mecca; "If ye be in doubt, concerning 
that which we sent down unto our servant (Moham- 
med) produce a chapter like unto it, and call upon 
your witnesses .... but if ye do not, nor shall be 
able to do it, justly fear the fire, whose fuel is men 
and stones, jDrepared for the unbelievers." Sur. n. 
21. 22. In another place, he is made to say, "Ve- 

" Ul io^ ^ Sot XA-U Jyt 5l \^ystf ^.c3Jt Jyb^ 

sdJ^ Ci^jt Sur. Xni. 9. Ill XLVI. 23. A prophet is made to de- 
clare "Surely the knowledge of the future standeth only with God. 
But I only show you for what I am sent." IMohammed is told to 
say verse 9: "Say I am not singular among the Apostles, neither 
do I know, what will be done Avith me or with you hereafter." 
The alleged predictions Sur. SXX. 1—3; XLVni. 27. 28. and III. 
108. alluded to by Ebn AbdoDialim in his Apologia, pag. 355. thus, 
falling to the ground , need no refutation. 


rily if men and genii were purposely assembled, that 
they might produce a book like this Koran, they 
could not produce one like it, although the one of 
them assisted the other." '^* It seems that Moham- 
med was confirmed in the belief of his being inspired, 
when, on the appearance of Sur. n. Labid Ebn Rabia 
tore down his own prize-poem, which had been af- 
fixed to the walls of the temple of Mecca, declaring 
that only a divine pen could produce such a compo- 
sition as that of Mohammed." Every chapter and 
verse of the Koran is hence considered a no less strik- 
ing miracle, than the leprous hand of Moses was to 
the beholders; and this, chiefly on account of the 
beauty and sublimity of its style and language. Mo- 
hammed, it is argued, was an illiterate person, and 
as the Koran could not be the production of an illi- 
terate man, it must necessarily be from God; the 
miracles recorded in the Bible, they assert, will become 
less and less striking in the lapse of ages ; but that 
of the Koran will become more and more convin- 
cing, in proportion as learned men multiply to ap- 
preciate its merits, and to admit their inability to 
produce one equal to it! 

5* Sur. X\m. 90. See also Sur. X. 38. If^.y^S (J^r^ c' 

jJLi/o 'i\y^ \y'i\J Jo An dicent: confinxit euro (Mahumetus) ? 

Responde, atqui afferte Suram unam, sicut (Suras) illius. 

" "@o fflbft gemu^fam fidi aiJoTtammcb , 'twxA) Salute (£c{)mcirf)clct 
vcrfiitirt, fiiv ciiien UnrflirfuMt, ia fL\vn- fiiv ten iivofUcn Tiditcv fticlt, imb tie 
gcf)reiKirt in feincii iSiircu fo cntjiirfcur fduMi faiit, fo foimcn ivir ibm bod) 
beibce biirc^aue nirfit cin^iofteljen, iinb tiirfm c^ nidn v>crfd)U^cigfn , bag feine 
<BA)xnhaxi mm tm^iw ©tcUcn felbft fiir ^rofa ju nict-rig ift." Sa^l'^ ©ins 
leitiing pag. 87. 


Althoudi the beauties of the Koran were ac- 
knowledged by some of Mohammed's contemporaries, 
yet we have proof from the Koran itself, that this 
was rather the exception than the rule. Sur, VIIL 31. 
Several Arab writers have maintained, that the Koran 
could be surpassed in beauty and elegance; e.g.Ish- 
mael Ehn Ali held, that being human, it might be 
equalled. The author of the work "Sharah alMukaf," 
asserted that it was possible to surpass it. Ahiodham, 
and others expressed similar sentiments. European 
authors of the highest reputation, who must be con- 
sidered competent judges of the language and style 
of the Koran, have not failed to destroy the evidence, 
upon which, the divinity of the Koran has been mainly 
established. To quote one amongst many, the cele- 
brated Dr. Lee says, "no one who can read the 
'■'Mukamal of Hamadavi" and ''Hariri,'' will doubt, 
that the Koran has been surpassed." ^^ The admis- 
sion that the Koran contains many elegant and sub- 
lime portions, does not prove its superiority to any 
other work; nor does the allegation that Mohammed 
was an illiterate man , prove it to be miraculous. 
Many unlearned men have distinguished themselves, 
so as to command the admiration of posterity. Again, 
the alleged ignorance of Mohammed is incompatible 
with the fact of his being considered by his followers 

'^ Maracdo: "Ego sane a capite ad calcem totimi legi ac mul- 
toties relegi ; atque ut melius iiitelligereni adhibui praecipuoruni 
doctorum Moslemorura glossas et commentaria et iieque in unica 
Sura, neque in decem, neque in omnibus, miraculum idlum, vel umbram 
miraculi potui reperiri, imo plures ineptias , nugas, fabulas, errores, 
mendacia inreni." 

426 THE BIBLE AND THE KORAN. [partii. 

the wisest and most enlightened of men; if then, the 
Koran be the production of so wise and enlightened 
a man , it ceases to be a miracle ; but it is admitted, 
that Mohammed was assisted by various individuals. ^ ' 
The fact that Mohammed was a member of the 
tribe of Koreish, amongst whom, poetry and rhetoric 
were favourite studies, and the circumstance of his 
having retired to the celebrated cave near Mecca, 
greatly diminish the so-called miracle of the Koran. 
Supposing that the Koran has hitherto been unsur- 
passed , this does not im2)ly the impossibility of its 
being eclipsed at ^future period: but assuming that 
this will never be the case, the assumption affords 
no proof that the Koran was ms/>zV(?(^; if so, we should 
be compelled to acknowledge the divinity of the Hin- 
doo Vedas and the classical writings of the Greeks 
and Romans, since they are never likely to be sur- 
passed or equalled; there being in every production 
of genius an individuality which cannot be reproduc- 
ed. Again, elegance of style being the result of good 
taste and mental cultivation, cannot reasonably con- 
stitute SL proof oi f^iViV^^j inspiration; and to determine 
the divinity of the Koran by the rules of rhetoric, 
is to argue strongly against the supposition of its 
being a miracle. As all the rules of Arabian rhetoric 

*' Sur. XVI. 105. ri Zaniakshari, Bcdawi and Yahia say it 
was a Grct'k, Zaliav, who could read and write well. Another tra- 
dition .say.s, that .labar and Yesar often read tlie Old and New Test, 
to M. Yaish, a man of some learning, is also mentioned. Jellalodin 
says that M. frequented Kais's house, who was a Christian. Yahia 
also mentions Addas and Salman a Persian. Christian writers men- 
tion as coadjutors, Abdallah, the Jew, and the Nestoriau monk Ser- 
gius, called Boheira. Sale's Koran pag. 223. note. 


are taken from the Koran, and established by quota- 
tions from that book , and as it is understood among 
IMohammedans, to contain the best laws of grammar, 
it must follow, that every composition which is not 
in perfect accordance with it, is inelegant and objec- 
tionable. The absurdity of proving a book to be di- 
vine from its language is still more apparent, when 
we remember that all language is composed of change- 
able elements, and subject to changeable laws, so 
that a book may be considered elegant in one age, 
and rejected as inelegant and unpolished in another. 
In addition to this, it will be admitted, that the most 
pernicious sentiments and doctrines may be clothed 
in language surpassingly beautiful. — Again, the Ko- 
ran having been written in Arabic, how could the 
world at large be satisfied of its divine origin ? The 
style of the book , as one of the chief evidences of its 
inspiration, has been most inappropriately chosen, 
since its peculiar beauty could only be appreciated 
by the Arabs, or the few learned, acquainted with 
their tongue. If the evidence be intended for none 
but the Arabs , then the Koran is destined for their 
nation only; and if so, the book cannot be true, because 
it professes to be a revelation for all nations. Lastly, 
if the excellence and merit of the Koran consist in so 
high a degree in the beauty of its language, this cer- 
tainly would be perceptible in its translations ; but it 
is in the versions that the real poverty of the book 
is especially apparent. Hence probably, the prohibi- 
tion among jNIohammedans to render the Koran into 
any vernacular tongue. 

428 THE BIBLE AND THE KORAN. [part ii. 

The reasons assigned by Moslemin for deeming 
the Koran a miracle, are thus diametrically opposed 
to the grounds upon which the Bible may be so con- 
sidered. Mohammed's chief object was to charm the 
ear and to beguile the mind. The Bible, on the con- 
trary, uses a speech, which all may understand, and 
disdains enticing words of man's wisdom.®* Yet it 
will be admitted by every competent and impartial 
judge, that it has a loftier style, and more beautiful 
passages in the fortieth chapter of Isaiah, than can 
be found in the celebrated second Sura of the Koran. ®® 
The Bible, indeed, can well afford to yield the palm 
in point of elegant composition, to books which, in 
the absence of real worth, require such means to re- 
commend them ; yet , in point of vigorous expression 
and innate power, as well as in simplicity of style, it 
stands unparalleled. 

8. The historical feature of the Old and New 
Testament has now been examined, and the absence 
of this element in the Koran, has been demonstrated. 
The Bible, regarded as a miracle of God's power 
and wisdom, has been contrasted with the alleged 
miracle of the Koran. We will now consider the in- 

^® " Verbis appertissinus et humilimo genere loquendi se cunctis 
praebens et exerceiis intentiotieni eortnn , qui non stmt leves corde ut 
exciperet omnes popidari sinif." Aug. Conf. lib. VI. cap. 5. The 
preaching is not x((\^' vnegoxiii' Xoyov t; aocfiag , ovu ip natx^oTg ar- 
■&Qa)7TiVT]g aoqi'ag Xoyoig, dXX' fv anodH^ti Hnvfiaros xal dviaixtcog. 
1 Cor. 11. 1 — 5. 

^^ In spite however of all the inspired rhetoric of the Koran it 
declares that none besides God can understand it. f*-^^^. '-*9 

Jut Si edj^b* Sur. m. 7. 


terncil connection subsisting between the several books 
of the Neiv Testament, as opposed to the contra- 
dictory character of the contents of the Korayi. — 
The Gospel according to St. Matthew sets forth the 
Lord Jesus as the pro w^/s^fZ Redeemer, and recognises 
throughout His life, death, and resurrection the ful- 
filment of the law and the prophets.^'' The genea- 
logical descent of the Saviour from David and Abra- 
ham; the history of the wise men from the East; the 
sermon on the mount as the re-edition of the law on 
mount Sinai; the numerous quotations from the Old 
Testament; Christ's prophecy regarding Jerusalem, 
as the centre of the Jewish economy; — all represent 
Christ as the promised seed of Abraham. The meek- 
ness and humility of His human nature; His charac- 
ter as the Messiah of Israel; His spotless purity and 
holiness as the Lamb of God; these, and similar fea- 
tures in our blessed Lord's life, shine forth vnth. pe- 
culiar lustre in this Gospel. — Though the Gospel 
according to St. Mark has some features in common 
with that of St. Matthew and St. Luke, yet being 
wTitten with a special reference to the apostolical 
work among the Gentiles, it condenses select portions 
of the life of Christ. Omitting fi-equent allusions to 
the Old Testament and the longer addresses of our 
Lord , it vividly sketches the most important scenes 
and graphically records many of the smaller incidents, 
in such a manner, as to form distinct and perfect 

«" Hence the constant repetition of the formula: I. 22. tva nXi]- 
Q(o&^ TO grj^hi H. 17. tore inlriUf^&r, to ^rf&h; H. 23. oncoq 
nh,Q<a&^ to ^rj-&h. 

430 THE BIBLE AND THE KORAN. [part il. 

pictures. — St, Liihe , commencing with the fore- 
runner of Christ, goes through the life of Jesus with 
chronological precision, and terminates with the As- 
cension ; his object is to ",sy^ forth in order" the 
gradual development of the life of the God-man Jesus, 
to the Gentile converts. It supplies St. Matthew and 
St. Mark , yet, so that each of the three maintains a 
position of its own. — The Gospel according to St. 
John was not written to any particular class of people, 
but to the Church at large, united as it was into one 
body, after the destruction of Jerusalem. This Gos- 
pel was supplementary to the preceding ones; omit- 
ting what has in them been fully stated, it presents 
Christ in a new aspect, and starts with what has been 
made the scope and end of the other Evangelists. 
Hence St. John gives all those discourses of our Lord, 
relative to His person, and connection with the Father. 
Hence the detailed evidence of the reality of Christ's 
Death and Resurrection ; the omission of the parables ; 
the relation of a few only of the miracles, ^ * and lastly, 
the record of the Saviour's intercessory prayer and 
valedictory addresses to His disciples. 

These four records were called the Gospel ^^ of 

^* Naziamenus thus: TlavQix ^ ''lojdnov drjaig isQfl in ^I'^Xtco, 
&(xvf.iara Stj ttoXXovq de Xoyovs X^iatov uraKtog. 

®^ ^EvayyiXiov'Ir^aov X(ji(TTov y.aru MiXTx^aior, MaQxov , /lov- 
y.av, v.a\ ^Io)(ait;r. As the fourfold figure of tlie cherubim constitute 
tlie throne of the Divine Majesty of Jehovali, so, the 4 Gospels sup- 
port the throne of the revealed Majesty of the incarnate Son of 
God, agreeably to the ancient view of the Church, which led to the 
•symbolic representation of St. Matthew under the tigure of a man, 
St. Mark under that of a lion, St. Luke under that of an ox, and St. 
John under that of an eagle. 'Entidi, itmaQix y.h'i.iata tov y.6a,uov, 
iv c5 iafxer, iim , rtaaaycx y.a&oXiyxx nrtvf.iata, yxxTtOTicx^jTixi 6i' 


Jesus Christ to intimate their close connection and 
unity. Four men were moved by tlie Holy Ghost to 
write the life of Jesus, doubtless because, one indivi- 
dual would have been incapable of representing all 
its fulness ; since it is not within the grasp of a single 
mind to receive and reflect all the rays of the ''Sun 
of righteousness'". Each Evangelist, as a distinct 
mirror, reflected the image of the glory of Christ in 
a different light; each writing for a diff'erent class of 
readers, and with a special object in view. Not as if 
there were any essential difference in the Redeemer's 
character, as severally pourtrayed by the four Evan- 
gelists, for they were equally inspired; yet each brings 
out one or other of the leading features of the history 
of Christ, in a more prominent degree. The Acts of 
the Ajyostles together with the Gospels, form the 
historical foundation of the New Testament. The 
Apostolic writings represent Christ in His Church 
and people, as the Son is in the Father. The Acts 
show to the world, in what manner Christ became the 
Shepherd of the flock, which was gathered into one 
fold from Jews and Gentiles; thus, connecting the 
Acts of the Apostles with the Gospels and the Epis- 
tles. Some of these exhibit the true nature of a living 
faith in Christ Jesus; ^^ others exemplify the working 

Tj eKKXriaui iirl nticnjg tf^s yi^c , arvXos 6e xal arriQiyna exHXr](nag to 
tvayyihov 7trf:V(.ia td^S' H>i6ro)s ttdOaQns tx^tv avri,v OTvXovg, 
navTa-j(6&tv mioirug rr^v u%&a.(j(jittv vau dtaCojTzvQoviras rovg 
aT-&Q(67Tovg. '£§ <av qtavefjor, on 6 twv aTTccvtcoi' texntJ;? ^oyog, 

o Kai^rintiog tm tmv XeQov^ilfi s&ojKtv ■fi^Xv tktQdixoQfov to 

ivayyaXtov. Iren. adv. haer. III. 11. 8. 

^* This is the case in the Epistles to the Romans , Corinthians, 
Galatians, Ephesians and Philippians. 


432 THE BIBLE AND THE KORAN. [part ll. 

of faith by love;^^ others agam, hold forth to the be- 
Uever the hope of glory, amidst the distress, vanity, 
and opposition of the world. ^^ 

We admit that a smgle book might not probably 
be missed, if absent from the Canon, esj)ecially as 
the others belonging to the same class , would in a 
measm-e supply the deficiency; if however entire sets, 
as for instance the Gospels, or the Acts of the Apos- 
tles, or the Epistles, exhibiting the faith, the love or 
the hope of the Church were wanting, the rest of the 
Scriptures could owt supply the deficiency. Though 
we willingly admit, that none might be able to dis- 
cover, which link or member of the organism of Gos- 
pel truth were wanting, yet this does not affect our 
argument; since the question is not what books we 
may deem necessary a p)riori, but whether the ex- 
isting Scrijiture form an organic whole. It might, for 
instance, be difficult for the naturalist to point out a 
gap, and to specify a missing member in the systems of 
natural science, yet, he would nevertheless be justi- 
fied in insisting upon the systematic union of the re- 
spective families and species of botany and zoology. ^° 

^* This particularly in the Epistle of St. John. In those to Titus, 
Timothy, Philemon and the Thcssalonians the work of Christ in 
single individuals and whole communities is made manifest : whilst 
the writings of fcjt. Jude and St. James describe the new life in Christ 
as opposed to the carnal life, the snares and seductions of the world. 

^^ This the scope of the Epistles of St. Peter, the Epistle to the 
Hebrews and the book of Revelation. The latter sketches the future 
history of the Church up to the final consummation of Christian 

''' The same argument holds good as regards the Old Test. A 
book was considered a revelation from God, as far as it partook of 


9. Moslem divines have never yet attempted to 
trace any connection between the 114 Suras of the 
Koran ; such a task would be impracticable, since they 
form a confused mass of heteroofeneous matter. That 
a book with no connection and with direct contra- 
dictions cannot be from God, is acknowledged by the 
Koran itself;*^' and that the followers of Mohammed 
made no attempt to disguise its contradictory cha- 
racter, may be inferred from the fact of their having / 
recognised 225 instances, in which the author ab- 
rogated passages previously revealed, in consequence 
of a change in his policy/^ In the Koran, all the 
patriarchs and ^^rojohets are considered Moslemin, 
Sur. ni. 60. and yet Mohammed was ordained to be 
the first to confess Islamism. Sur. VI. 14. At one 
time, "Christians, Jews, and Sabeans" are promised, 
deliverance at the day of Judgment , as well as Mo- 
hammedans, Sur. V. 73. III. 109. at another, the Koran 
urges a fierce and exterminating war against them 
as "unbelievers, whose dwelling shall be hell." Sur. 

the theocratical character and expressed the hope of Israel. Christ 
is the head , under which both Testaments are united ; each single 
book forming an essential part of the organic whole. "2)aS tft bcr 
red)te l^riifftcin aUe ®ii^ei j^u tabelii, irenu maitfieljet, ob fte S^riftum 
treiben cber nidit, finteniaf a(( Sd^vift (Sf)riftiim jcii^t. 9{i5m. III. 21. 2Ca^ 
Sliriftum nici^l lefirt, ba^ tfi nic^t ai^oftotifc^ , ivenn e^ iiUid) <£t. ^titx unb 
5pau(u^ lelirte." Outlier. 

" Jj( y^ JOA ^ c;*-^ y^ u'y^' ij;;:?tUj ^it 

fvAJo Li^LiLs.! auj l.cX^aJ "Will they attentively consider the 

Koran? Were it from any other but God, they would certainly have 
found therein many contradictions." Sur. IV. 81. 

®* Wli\){tx, Ueber bag aSerljattnip be^ 3^taJiiS jum (Scangelium. pag. 



IX. 74. Force, in religious matters, is prohibited in 
one Sura; Sur. n. 257. in another, behevers are com- 
manded to fight against the unbelievers "with what- 
ever /orc^ they may be able." Sur. yttt. 40. 62. God 
is said to have implanted into man power to choose, 
and liberty to act for good or evil; Sur. XCI. 7.8. but 
in Sur. "VI. 39. and elsewhere, we read, that Allah will 
lead into error or into the right way, whom he will. 
Sur. n. 6. 7. VII. 176. Lastly, the duration of the last 
Judgment is estimated Sur. XXXII. 4. to last 1000, 
but Sur. LXX. 3. it is prolonged to 50,000 years! 

To these examples oi contradictions, we add some 
specimens of gross mistakes. These, according to the 
to the Koran, are common to all prophets, and there- 
fore claim our indulgence. "We have sent no apostle 
or prophet before thee, but when he read, Satan sug- 
gested some error in his reading." Sur. XXII. 51. The 
case of John the Baptist, amongst others, has already 
been referred to, Alexander the Gi^eat is represented 
as a worshipper of the true God, who enjoyed pro- 
phetical communion; whereas he was an idolater: 
pretending to be the son of Jupiter, he caused coins 
to be struck of himself with two horns, hence his 
name oi Dhidharnain in the Koran, or the master of 
two horns. ^^ In his marches, which are likewise mis- 
represented in the Koran, Alexander came to a place 
"where the sun setteth, and he found it to set in a 
spring of blacJc mud.'" Another error seems to have 

^^ ^AJJL'!^3, 6ixi(jaiog, bicornis. Sur. XVm. 85—98. has 
been invariably applied to ncXaXam^I, Alexander,] CONTRADICTIONS AND MISTAKES. 435 

been "suggested by Satan," when the prophet fabled 
of the conqueror's raising a wall of iron and brass to 
check the inroads of Gog and Magog. Not to refer 
to ancient mythologies, which severally embody tradi- 
tions respecting the Deluge, the Pentateuch was read 
in the days of Mohammed by Jews and Christians 
throughout the world ; yet the Koran in describing the 
flood, professes to reveal an unheard-of secret! Sur. XI. 
51. Again, the Israelites are stated to have retmmed 
to Egypt after the passage of the Red Sea, to take 
possession of gardens, houses, and fountains. Sur. 
XXVI. 57 — 59. As samples of anachronism, which 
abound, we only mention that Pharaoh and Haman 
are made contemporaries, Sur. XXYin. 5. and the Vir- 
gin Mary is called the sister of Aaron! Sur. XlX. 17. 
If the Koran being the w^ork of one individual, 
contain so many contradictions, anachronisms, blun- 
ders and incongruities,**" wdiat would have been the 
result, had it been written by many authors, in 
different countries , languages and ages , like the 
Bible ! 

"^^ We avoid entering into further details, referring the reader 
to the Koran itself, or to Maracc. Prod. Pars IV. cap. XVII. Fabida, 
falsa, impia ac siiperstitiosa , quae in Alcorano continentur, ex parte 


436 TRINITY AND UNITY. [part ii. 



"The natural tnan receivcth not the things of the Spirit of God: 
for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, be- 
cause they are spiritually discerned." 1 Cor. U. 14. 

1. It behoves us to approach this subject with 
befittine: reverence, lest we reduce the transcendent 
Majesty of the triune God to an idol, the work of our 
own imagination. The nature of God is so farbevond, 
and above all similitude and comparison, that in at- 
tempting to consider it, we stand in imminent danger 
of putting forth a set of arbitrary notions concerning 
the Deity, of making His divine character the subject 
of ordinary reflection and reasoning , and of creating 
an image of God which would fall infinitely short of 
Him, who "dwelleth in the light which no man can 
approach unto."'* Specially important is a just ap- 
preciation of those symbolical anthropomorphisms, in 
which the Bible transfers upon God human passions, 
such as anger and jealousy; or human relations, such 
as His being the Father of the human familv, and 
in a special sense, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. 
The attributes of God," have been divided into mo- 


" Anthropomorphismus dogmaticKs i. e. ea cogitandl ratio per- 
versa, quae huniani et iniperfecti aliquid ad Deum transftrtur." Hut- 
terus Redivivus pag. 148. 

^^ Attributa divina, roijtara u^toof-iara , i. e. conceptus essen- 
tiales , quibus notio Dei absolvitur ; as they are styled by the old 


ral and metaphysical;^^ the moral attributes comprise 
His holiness, justice, mercy, and truth; whilst His 
metaphysical perfections refer to the physical world 
and are known as His omnipotence, omnipresence, 
omniscience, and eternity. All these perfections are 
revealed in the Bible in due proportion, and what is 
more important, in perfect harmony with each other.'* 
But the Koran passes over the moral attributes, and 
treats almost exclusively of the metaphysical perfec- 
tions of the Godhead; thus producing a fearfully dis- 
torted image of the Divine nature. When the Bible 
declares, "God is light," it gives a sjTnbolical defini- 
tion of His glorious majesty, ^' a beautiful illustration, 
not only of the harmony between the divine attributes, 
but also of the manner, in which, if we may be allowed 
the expression, we may analyse the glory of God, and 
separately consider its component rays. As by the 
aid of the prism, a ray of light may be reduced to its 
primitive colours , and as we can make one of these 
colours the object of distinct contemplation, so may 
we bring each of the divine attributes under our se- 

''^ Attributa metaphysica (physica, naturalia); and attrlbuta 
moralia; to them are added: attribvta mixta, spirituality, wisdom 
and happiness. 

^* " Ilarmonia attributorum in eo consistit, cjuod omnia rite inter 
se coraparanda sint, ne uni tantimi tribuatur, ut alterum toUatur, 
vel evertatur. Sic de misericordia div. ita censendum , ne quidquam 
detrahatur justitiae, et vice versa, dejustitia, ne quidquam detrahatur 
miscricordiae." Buddeus Dogniat. pag. 214. 

^* The question, so much agitated by the schoolmen, whether 
the difl'erence of the attributes was real, or nominal, was decided by 
the old divines, to be neither realiter nor yet merely nominaliter but 
formaliter, i. e. no real ditference in God Himself, but only necessary 
to our apprehension. This their unity in God implies the necessity 
of the mutual harmony of the divine attributes. 

438 TRINITY AND UNITY. [part ii. 

j)arate and special consideration: yet it is the union 
and harmony of these colours, which produce the 
clear, pure and colourless ray of light. Were one of 
the primary colours disproportionably strong and pro- 
minent, the appearance of light would be necessarily 
changed. In like manner, if one of the attributes of 
God be unduly set forth to the prejudice of the rest, 
we shall consequently have a distorted and imperfect 
representation of the Divine character. 

The undue predominance which the Koran gives 
to God's omnipotent power, presents a painfully one- 
sided view of the Divine character. In its efforts to 
represent God as an incomprehensibly powerful Deity, 
the Koran withholds the gracious and loving attri- 
butes of God ; hence the fi'igid nature of Lslamism. 
In thus destroying the glorious harmony of the divine 
perfections, the Koran deprives the sinner of all true 
comfort, as well as of ever)- incentive to a holy life. 
Jnstead of announcing the divine attributes as abstract 
ideas, after the manner of the Koran, the Bible pre- 
sents them as historically exemplified in creation, 
providence and redemption; and although infinite and 
incomprehensible in themselves , they thus , at once 
assume an intelligible and practical form. In the 
Koran, an unknown God speaks of what "he is to 
himself," entirely omitting what he is pleased to be 
unto man.''^ How fearfully true are here proved the 

^^ "Qualiter cognovi te? Cognovi te in te! Cognovi te nou 
sicut tibi cs, scd certo sirut niihi cs; ot non sine to, sod in te, quia 
tu lux, quae illuniiiiasti nie. Sicut enim tibi es, soli tibi cognotus es; 
sicut mihi es secundum gratiam tuam et milii cognotus es; — cognovi, 
quoniara Deus meus tu!" Augustine. 


words, "Wlicsoever denieth the Son, the same hath 
not the Father." The Moslem indeed has not the 
Father, that consoHng name never crosses his Hps; 
and there is so far consistencv, since in Christ Jesus 
only, God is a Father. We ask, what comfort can 
the brokenhearted sinner derive from approaching a 
Deity, such as described in a Persian treatise on 
Divinity: "God is not a body that can be measured; 
He possesses neither length nor breadth, dejDth nor 
height; it is impossible, that there should exist in 
His nature any necessity to possess the properties 
of any thing; and He is no line, that is, a thing 
which can be divided in but one direction; nor is He 
a flat surface; that is, a thing which can be divided 
in both directions. He, the great God, is neither 
heavy nor light; He is neither in motion nor at rest; 
He is neither in space nor in time. Before Him the 
past and future are but the eternal present, and He 
is free from all properties of the creatures.'!" 

Widely different from Allah , Jehovah in the ad- 
ministration of His providence "declares His Almighty 
power most chiefly in showing mercy and pity." The 
omnipotence of God is manifested by redeeming His 
people, by upholding them that are ready to fall, by 
raising up them, that are bowed down, by giving meat 
to all in due season, by satisfying the desire of every 
living soul, by showing Himself nigh to all that call 
upon Him, by preserving the righteous, and by finally 
destroying the evil doers. '^ The providential care of 

''"' Pfanders Remarks pag. 11. 

" Psalm LXXVn. 12—15, CXLV. 8. 13—20. Matt. V. 17. 
Act. XIV. 17. 

440 TRINITY AXD UNITY. [part ii. 

Allah is partial, being confined to the Mohammedans ; 
whilst Jehovah makes "His sun to shine upon the 
evil and the good, doing good, giving rain from heaven 
and fruitful seasons and filling all hearts with food 
and gladness. 

2. If then, the Theology of the Koran be unsound 
in its best points, viz., the metaphysical perfections of 
God, still more unsound is it as regards those attri- 
butes which bear upon i\iQ moral nature and the spi- 
ritual wants of man. Islamism confines itself to those 
points of faith, which may be found with more or 
less clearness, in natural religion; but these cannot 
lead to a saving knowledge of God:''*' since it is not 
"God reconciling the world to Himself" who is re- 
vealed in natural religion, but only the omnipotent 
and eternal Creator, manifesting Himself by "'the 
things that are macUy Rom. I. 19. 20. The world's 
Redemption being connected with the revelation of 
God, as Father, as Son, and as Holy Ghost, belief in 
the triune God is alone of saving efficacy. John v. 23. 
xvn. 3. 1 John n. 23. This blessed doctrine in which 
all the divine attributes are practically displayed in 
perfect harmony, could not be gathered from nature 
or reason; because neither of them could anticipate 

'« "2)ic natiirlidjc ©ottc^fenutni^ ifi cin angcbornc^, tiird) 33etractitiinfl 
ttt 5ncitur unb ®cfd)id)te aueif^eCntbetcg QJeiriiptfein t?on @ott, ba^ \\vax ten 
53eciriff tee vodfoiumenftcii aiJcfciu^ ciithdd, al'cv im fuiibiiicn iDJcufdn-n nicfit 
hinrcidn ^um Jpcile, fpiifcvn luir ecu Slbfall von ©ott ^arIhllt, lln^ ^aMlrri) 
fcte Selinfiiriit Jvecft narfi bcr iitcrnatiirlidicn rffcnlmruityV ^'icfc allein cd^ 
£ffcnhinvcrrcn bcr Xrinitat ift bcfclivic"^-" nutt(>ru.s Kedivivus \rAg. 121. 
"Notitia Dei naturnlls ad .salutcm procurandaiu , aut .saltern damna- 
tioiiem arccndani , sufficiens non est , ncc ullu.s mortaliura per earn 
solam vol ad saluteni pcrductus fiiit, vel perduci potuit." Quenstedtl. 
pag. 261. 


the mystery of Redemption; anclit could not be plac- 
ed before the tribunal of man's finite intellect ;^° 
since it is revealed in the Gospel, not in the form of 
a doctrinal system, but as the merciful achievement 
of Divine love , Avisdom , holiness , justice and power. 
The triune God is revealed in the Bible, as the Father 
who resolves upon our redemption; as the Son who 
accomplishes the blessed work, and as the Ilohj Ghost 
who communicates its gracious and sanctifying in- 
fluences to the Church in all ages; hence the formula 
of baptism, expressive of our Christian faith. To 
defend the doctrine of the holy Trinity by arguments 
drawn from reason, cannot then be our object, being 
avowedly above its power and beyond its sphere/* 
It w^ould have been better for the interests of 
truth, if Christian apologists and Missionaries had 
never attempted to make this mystery acceptable to 
Mohammedans by illustrations and comparisons, which, 
moreover, have not always been the happiest or most 
elevated. The Scriptures simply reveal the fact, and 

•^^ "Mysterium Trinitatis quod est vrrtQ fovv, vnsfj Xoyov xal 
vntQ ndaav y.aTah^xpiv ex ratione naturali oppugnari non potest." 

*^ "@0 >viberi>ri(t)t 1) ttm iTenfc^efe^e, t>a^ etit I'deil gleirf) tern ©an-- 
jeu, ba^ ©anje (jleirf) bent Ificile fei; 2) bem ©efe^c ber (Saufalitdt, bap 
generatio, liMc aud) flcbacfit, tine urfddilicfie ^anbluncj auger ber 3eit crfolge; 
3) ber 3bce be# 2(bfofnten, iiibcm ber character hiipostaticus entU'cber etoa^ 
Sufdlligei?, fonarii Unvellfommcnee iff, bae in ®i)ti nid;t fleracf)t iverben tann, 
ober etU'oS 2Cefcntli^c^ iinb Q?o([fonnncnee, bann tt'iirbe biefe 33oUfomment)eit 
ben anbern *l.<erfonen uKv't}?"- 3^ai? JToj^na ift baficr SDhiftcriitm, al^ iiber 
alien 93erftanb erf}a&eneC' '^Hiftulat be^ (»()viftcntl)unie, irenn bie ©ottlieit De^ 
<2ol)nc^ unb *l>erfi3nli*fcit bee Jpeiligen (^Seiftce im veligiofen i^eten unb ber 
J^eilii^en Scf^rift na(f)cteiincfen ift, fo ruliic; in feiner unfereinbaren ^Trcilieit 
unb Qin^eit auf^uftellcn, alg bie gteicf)falle in ber 3^emonftration unvereiu= 
baren grei^eit unb 33orfef)un9." J&afe. 


demand simple and childlike faith ; any attempt there- 
fore to expound a mystery therein revealed, must 
only "darken counsel by words without knowledge." ^^ 
We believe it to be so; hoiu it is, we are not ashamed 
to say we cannot tell; nor can we understand why 
we should be expected to explain it. A revelation ivith- 
out miracles, and a. faith without mysteries, such as 
is found in Islamism, present a most unreasonable 
anomaly. How little this was felt by the eclectic pro- 
phet of the Arabs , is clear , fi'om his anxiety to ex- 
punge from his creed, every article which he could 
not square with his sharp but unsanctified intellect. 
As the doctrine of man's Redemption is so intimately 
connected wath that of the holy Trinity, both were 
struck out from his system of faith. The belief of 
the Trinity will ahcays be rejected, where neither the 
burden of sin is felt, nor the authority of Scripture 

As if to revenge himself upon the holy mysteries 
of our faith , both the dogma of the Trinity, and the 
doctrine of the Incarnation of the Son of God were 
grossly and blasphemously misrepresented by Mo- 
hammed. It w^ould be unjust to lay the teaching of 
a Moslem heresy to the charge of orthodox Islamism: 
equally unfair is it, to borrow Irom the Colyridian 
heresy, — which flourished in Arabia and was convicted 
of Mariolatry,— and to set forth its teaching as a Chris- 

^^ The philosophical theory concerning the A6yog\ the ancient 
comparison of lire , brightness and heat in light , and the mysterious 
harmony of three sounds and forms, which run through creation, 
have been vainly resorted to, with a view to ellucidate this myste- 
rious dogma. 


tian dogma. Mohammed, therefore, from whom we 
might have expected a better knowledge, is alone, 
responsible for this misrepresentation. Our Lord and 
His Apostles might as well have rejected the old dis- 
pensation as unsound and heretical, because at cer- 
tain periods the Israelites worshipped Baal and serv- 
ed the host of heaven. INIohammed however was de- 
termined to reject certain doctrines ; and the heretical 
views, which were current in his corrupt age within 
the Church , afforded him a plausible reason for so 
doing. — All the Christian Missionary can do in this 
momentous dispute, is to remove those erroneous no- 
tions and prejudices, which the Koran has taken 
such pains to impress upon the minds of its followers; 
and to show that there is nothing umvorthy of God 
in the teaching: that fi-om God, the Father are all 
things, that by the Son are all things and that to 
the Holy Ghost are all things ; and also that it is not 
blasphemy to preach "the grace of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy 
Ghost ;" avoiding '"'lyrofime questions' upon so sacred 
a subject; and shunning illustrations and comparisons 
with a view to render the mystery comprehensible to 
the limited powers of human intellect. '^^ 

83 "Mysterium hoc ex natural! ratione nee a priori, nee a poste- 
riori demonstrari potest; non a priori , quia Deu.s in se et prout ipse 
est. in liac imbecilitate cognosci nequit, quicquid de Deo scitur, id 
oranc a posteriori tantinu scitur. Non a posteriori h. e. ex operibus 
et creaturis Dei, nulla eniin vera et j^lena similittido vel imago Trini- 
tatis in creaturis est e.cpressa . . . lllaeque congruentiae naturales et 
anuloitia reruni creatarum' cum hoc fidei mysterio non divinam fidem, 

sed opinionem tantum hv.manam generant lino ne quidem pos- 

sibilitas hujus mysterii e naturae lumine haberi potest, cum rationi, 

444 TRINITY AND UNITY. [part ll. 

3. In perfect accordance with this view, the Church 
in her symbols endeavours to express the mystery, as 
set forth in Scripture ; not to embrace it with the in- 
tellect, but to protect it both against Unitarianis'ni 
and Tritheism; so that a Christian may possess sav- 
ing faith in the triune God, Father, Son and Holy 
Spirit without the knowledge of these dogmatic forms; 
yet no one can reject these, without rejecting the Tri- 
nity. When modern theologians endeavour to shake 
these venerable safe-guards of our holy faith, we can 
only ascribe it to a secret leaning to Unitarianism; 
hence we have sufficient reason to hold fast the dog- 
matic representation of this doctrine in our creeds.®* 
That neither the doctrine of the Incarnation nor that 
of the Trinity are in themselves irrational, may be 
inferred from the religious speculations of Pagan an- 
tiquity. As true religion commenced with manifes- 
tations of the Deity and ended with the Incarnation 
of the blessed Godhead, so Paganism commenced 
with oracles and pseudo-prophetical revelations, and 

propria principia consulenti: a8vtarov nal dvnqtarmov, absurdum et 
impossibile vidcatur." Quenst. Tlieolog. Didactico-polemica Vol. I. 
pag. 318. 

** "Fides Catholica non in hac loquendi formula praecise sita 
est, quod trcs sint per.sonae in una div. e^-^entia , scd in oo ut sincere 
credamus, Patrem, Filium et Sjiiritum S. unum esse Deum, — ut per 
omnia et unitatcm in Trinitate et Trinitatom in unitate veneremur. 
Geniina illic loquutionis illius necessitas statuitur a S. Augustine : 
altera ab huninni eloquii inopia, altera ab haercticorum versutia 
Prinio dictum ita f'uit, quum non liceret aliter, ut aliquo saltem mode' 
explicaretur ineffabilis ilia Unitatis et Trinitatis ratio , non ut illud 
diceretur, sed ne iaceretur . . . . Patet igitur. quo pacto ncccssaria 
sint illae formulae, non quitlein ab^iohitc, sed ex /ii/pot/ws/' turn dc- 
clarandae o(jd^ofio^ta;, tum diguoscendac ttfQodo^ux^, tametsi hujus 
videatur potior esse, quam illius ratio." Calovii Dog. III. pag. 4. 


ended with incarnations of the Deity. Again, may 
we not go further, and admit that some image, ideal 
or material, exists in almost every false creed, by 
which the blessed Trinity is adumbrated. We find 
in almost every Mythology a divine Triad, and in 
some cases even a Monad in connection with a Triad; 
we refer to the Trimurti of the Hindoos, the Triads 
of the ancient Egyptians, and Scandinavians, also to 
the Neo-platonic philosophy. To this may be added 
the remarkable fact, that the Jewish philosophers 
B. C. assumed three lights, three names and one 
substance in God. ^^ Errors, when universal, may be 
invariably traced to some perversion of truth ; if so, 
we may recognise a corruption of the Trinity in all 
these Triads, if not in Polytheism itself. 

As far then as the philosophico-religious specu- 
lations of the Pagan and Jewish world have any weight, 
we have their testimony, that it is precisely the ab- 
stract r^ietaphysical Monotheism of the Koran which 
satisfies neither faith nor reason. ^^ Waving however 
the question, whether the dogma of the Trinity or 
this rigid Unitarianism be the more opposed to rea- 

^'^ See Maraccio Prodrom. Pars En. cap. IX. Ex veterum He- 
braeoi'um doctrina , Sanctissimae Trimtatis Mt/stei'ium comprobatur. 
pag. 26—28. 

*® "S'^ ift iveniger 5Kenfc[)enfad)e , ben fpefulattven 3Bcrtfj eine^ Se^^r: 
c^ebdube^ \v. ijerfcilc^cu unb ^u cr^nmben; bie ^emerfung tiirfte Cemnaci) fiit 
aBiele vo(lic( unmi^ fein, bap bet 5rionctf)ei^mu^ bes 3^fam bie )if)ifo[c>?I}ircnbe 
3Sernunft nirfn befriebic^e unb gerabe bonn \>erivpvfen u^erben muffe, ivenn ijon 
ber I^enfbarfeit orcr Unbcnfbarfeit eincr beftimmtcn 5?orftc((unci vcn 
®ctt bie Diebe ifi. ^C[% bie ©ottlieit Sine *4>erfon fei, ift ebcu cae ganj unt 
gat UnPenfbarc, burcliau^ llnverniinflige, unb alter tuabren Sl>efulation 
©ntgegengefe^te. 5)ap ©ott nid)t 2)Zenfd) getrorbcn, ift eben ba^ aUibev; 
fiuuiae." aWo^let'e ©efammette SBerte pag. 397. 


son, let it suffice us to know and to feel that the 
Holy Trinity is what the human heart practically needs. 
Indistinct and undefined as were the longings ex- 
pressed in Pagan errors, and far beyond the power 
of human reason to anticipate , yet they gave loud 
utterance of the real wants of man, 

Lastly, our opponents have in themselves a spe- 
cies of unity in trinity, which though unable to un- 
derstand, they will have some difficulty to deny. We 
do not allude to the human constitution in its three- 
fold aspect , as an illustration of the Divine Trinity, 
but we would ask those , who consider that doctrine 
unreasonable, to explain how the human spirit acts 
upon the soul, and how the soul acts upon the hodii: 
let them define how their reasonahle thoughts upon 
the Trinity ^^I'oduce the words , with which they op- 
pose the truth , and how these words call forth cor- 
responding thoughts in the minds of others, and when 
they have satisfactorily explained this mystery, we 
will undertake to explain the mystery of the holy 
Trinity.^' 'Tfl have told you of earthly things, said 
our Lord, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if 
1 tell you of heavenly thinos ?" 

*' "1. STieff^ (Sfflifinnuf; I'cUMfn-t tie ^^ce i<e^ yiottlidien t'cbcni? cfmc 
bic unftattftaftc 9tiuuihmc cincv cumjIcu 2dM>i.''fiiiuj; 2. ericictitcrt ben (5k- 
banfeii ber OffenKuunci ®ettt§ , c()ue auf^u^cben ben ©chinfcn fciuer Uiu 
crfcrfcfilidifcit; 3. ilcKt ^Hnt in feincr CffcnlHivuiui , iiu^tcfiMibeve ini Solme, 
al^ uii^ i^fvU'anbt nalje, o()nc aufjul)cbeu tie 3ffe bci Uncrmeiiliriifcit [ciiie^ 
2Befciu\" J>al;ii. 





"What fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? And 
what communion hath light with darkness? What concord hath 
Christ with Belial? What hath he that believeth with an infidel? 

2 Cor. YI. 14. 15. 

1. The comparison which devolves upon us in 
this chapter, is of a character from which we naturally 
recoil; but the interests of truth, and the arguments of 
our adversaries compel us to point out the infinite 
difference, existing between the prophet of the Arabs 
and the Messiah of the world: since it is against the 
Divine Sonship of the Redeemer, that the Koran 
chiefly levels its concentrated wrath. The Koran 
asserts that Christ is nothing but a messenger; Sur. 
V. 79. those are infidels, that confess Christ the son 
of Mary to be truly God. Sur. V. 19. Allah has no 
son, Sur. xxm. 93. and the impossibility of this is 
proved from the fact of his having no partner. Sur. 
LXXn. 2.*^ It is foreign to our intention to exhaust 

88 "oflfendi se ajunt >lahumetistae, quod Deo filium demum cum 
uxore non utatur; quasi filii vox in Deo non possit diviniorem habere 
significationem. At ipse Mahumetus multa Deo ascribit non minus 
indigna, quam si uxorem habere diceretur: puta manum ipsi frigidam 
esse, idque se tactu expertum: gestari in sella et his similia. Nos 
yero cum Jesum Dei filium dicinius , hoc significamus , quod ipse cum 
eum Verbum Dei dicit : verbum enim ex mente , suo quodam modo 
gignitur : adde jam , quod ex virgine , sola Dei opera vim paternara 
supplente, natus est, quod in coelum evertus Dei potestate , quae et 
ipsa Mahumeti confessa ostendunt Jesum singulari quodam jure Dei 
filium appellari posse et debere." Grot, de veritat. relig. Christ, 
pag. 288. 

448 CHRIST AND MOHAMMED. [partii. 

the subject in all its bearings; all that we contem- 
plate, is to furnish hints and supply materials for 
the inexperienced Missionary, or any other Christian 
man who may have occasion to sustain an argument 
with Mohammedans on these momentous subjects. 
The Divine Sonship of Christ maybe sometimes prov- 
ed from the admissions, which the Koran has haz- 
arded, respecting the dignity of "the son of Mary." 
That mode of reasoning, which carries the argument 
within the camp of our oj^ponents and fights with 
their weapons, if ably conducted , is one of the most 
powerful, which can be adopted; and is moreover 
accompanied with this singular advantage, that the 
Koran is proved to be inconsistent and false , if its 
admissions do not imply that Jesus is the Son 
of God. 

When Christ is styled "the Word," not only His 
prophetical character, but also His pre-existence with 
the Father is admitted. If Jesus be the Word, in 
the sense of St. John, from whom alone, Mohammed 
could have borrowed the expression, He must have 
been with God from the beginning, and by Him all 
things were made. Christ could not be the Word, 
if he was not God or the Son of God ; INlohammed 
therefore, either declared a falsehood when he ad- 
mitted Christ to be the Word, or he is wrong in de- 
nying Him to be the Son of God.®* 

^' "Si inteiTogatus cs a Saraceno, quis sit Christus? respond! ci: 
Verbura Dei , ncc existiines 2)eccare quia et vcrbuni dicitur in Scrip- 
tura et brachium et potentia Dei et niulta alia. Vicissem autem in- 
terroga ipsura et tu: a Scriptura quid dicitur Christus? Turn forte 
volet interrogare te et ipse aliud , cupiens sic effugare te : non vero 


Again, Mohammed having asserted Sur. LXI. 
6. that his coming had been predicted bj Christ, 
clearly admits the dignity of Christ as a prophet, 
and the divine character of the New Testament. 
Jesus, whose prophetical character is thus granted, 
asserted more than once, that He is the Son of God, 
and that He and the Father are one; His testimony 
of Himself, must equally be true ; if it be not, Christ 
could not have been a true prophet, and Mohammed 

tu respondens ei , donee utique respondeat tibi , dicens : a Scriptura 
luea Spiritus et Verbum Dei dicitur. Dum rursus interroga ipsum : 
Verbum a Scriptura tua creatumne an increatuni? Et sic dicat: in- 
creatum, die ipsi : Ecce conseutis mihi ; omne enira non creatum sed 
increatuni Deus est. Si autem dixerit: creata esse Verbum et Spiri- 
tum, turn quaere: et quis ereavit Verbum et Spiritum? quod necessi- 
tate eoactus responderit : Deus ipse creavit ; turn tu rursus : ergo 
antequam creavit Deus Spiritum et Verbum, non babuit Spiritum 
neque Verbum? Quod quum audierit , fugiet a te, non habens, quod 
respondeat. Disecptantes enim sunt tales secundum Saracenos et 
omnino abominabiles et abjeeti. Quod si vero tu interrogatus fueris 
a Saraceno : Verba Dei creatne sunt an increata? Haec enim pro- 
ponunt advcrsus nos Saraeeni probleniata , potentius volentes osten- 
dere creatum Verbum, quod non est. Et si dieas : creata, dieet tibi : 
ecce dicis creatum Dei verbum. Si autem dieas : increata, dicet tibi : 
'quoniam ecce omnia verba Dei increata quidem sunt, Dii autem non 
sunt. Ecce tu confessus es , quoniam Christus Verbum est Dei, non 
Deus est.' Propter quod neque creata dieas, neque increata, sed sic 
responde ei : ego unum solum Verbum Dei confiteor increatum ens, 
omnem autem scripturam meam non dico Xoyovg i. e. verba, sed 
(j7]/.iutu i. e. sermoues Dei. Et Saracenus: qualiter dieit DaA'id : 
verba Domini casta? Die ei, quod propheta tropolice loeutus sit, et 
non cjTologiee , i. e. non propria et firma verborum significatione." 
Disceptatio Christiani et Saraeeni, Joan. Damascenus pag. 477. ed. 
Bas. With this may be compared: "Respondet Gelaleddinus : ,^+*w 

j^j 'LtXXj ^3"-^ &j^ «Jj1 iUJj^ nominatus est Verbum Dei, 
quia creatus est •per verbum, Esto. Sed hoc mode omnia dici poterunt 
Verbum Dei . . . Eadem ratione, qui per aquam mundatur, aqua di- 
cendus erit ; et qui ignem calefit, ignis : et qui per pharmacum sana- 
tur, pharmacum appellandus erit." Maraccio Prod, Pars III. pag. 61. 


450 CHRIST AND MOHAMMED. [part ii. 

in declaring Ilim to be such, has proved himself" a 
false witness. — Christ is also styled, in the Koran, 
the Spirit of God,* Sur. IV. 169. whilst the first man 
Adam is said only to have received of the divine 
breath. If the Spirit proceed from God, and if 
Christ be that Spirit, the Koran establishes the Di- 
vinity of ''the son of Mary." Supposing however, that 
the Holy Spirit only dwelt in Christ, it would at least 
imply what is otherwise stated in the Koran, viz. that 
Christ was a true prophet: for the Holy Spirit can 
neither dwell in a false prophet, nor speak false things 
through a true prophet. If therefore, Christ had the 
Spirit of God, and spoke through the same Holy Spi- 
rit, all that He said of His coming from God, and of 
His equality with the Father, must be true, Christ 
then, was either not the Spirit of God, and in that 
case the testimony of the Koran is false; or. He 
was the Spirit of God, and in this case, His record 
of Himself is true; and Mohammed thus in vain 
denies His Divine character and Sonship. 

The son of Mary performed many miracles, as 
the Koran expresses it, "by the permission of God." 
If miracles, therefore, can only be performed by 
persons who receive the gift from God, they are wit- 
nesses to the truth of the doctrine which is preach- 
ed. The miracles of Christ then, were seals to the 
truth of His teaching. In His teaching He openly 
declared Himself to be the Son of the Most High God; 
if this His teaching be true, that of Mohammed must 
be false. If on the contrarv theteachiup- of Moham- 
med be true , that of Jesus must be false. As the 


testimony of Christ is proved by miracles, the testi- 
mony of Mohammed, which has no such seal, must 
be false ; for if Christ be not the Son of God , God 
has put His seal to a false testimony. As God cannot 
attest what is false, Christ could have wrought no 
miracles ; and if He wrought no miracles , the Koran 
is a false witness, and Mohammed, who wrote it, a 
false prophet. 

Again, our Lord is generally called ''the son of 
Mary."" From this extraordinary appellation, it ap- 
pears that Mohammed did not consider Jesus the Son 
of Joseph, nor indeed, have we any suspicion thrown 
out on this subject, in any part of the Koran; on the 
contrary, Mary is always spoken of as the woman who 
preserved her virginity. Sur. XXI. 9 1 . Her imma- 
culate and marvellous conception is fully admitted, 
and she is held uj^ as the most distinguished person 
of her sex, beloved of God, praised as a miracle and 
honoured in all ages. Sur. III. 42. God appointed the 
Son of Mary and His motlier for a sign. Sur. XXIII. 
52. That Mohammed did not look upon Joseph, as 
the father of Jesus, will appear from the fact, that he 
is not even so much as once mentioned in the Koran. 
Yet if we had no further evidence of Mohammed's 
admission of the supernatural origin of Christ, the 
standing appellation of ''the son of Mary" would in 
itself, be sufficient to mark Him as the Son of God. 
The ancient oriental custom, which prevails to this 
day, of always associating a man's name with that of 
his father, proves that Mohammed held, that Jesus 
had no earthly father ; since, against all usage, ancient 


452 CHRIST AND MOHAMMED. [part n. 

and modern, he calls Christ "the son of Mary," 
thereby indicatmg, that he had no earthly father; 
we may therefore regard this singular departure from 
a customary practice, as tantamount to calling Him 
the Son of God. 

2. Mohammed, elevating himself to the same 
position as Christ, challenges the world to examine 
his claims, and to ascertain, by what evidence, his 
pretensions to be considered the prophet of the last 
age, are siij)ported. His followers urge two things on 
his behalf, viz. the miracles he is said to have perform- 
ed, and the prophecies which are alleged to have been 
fulfilled in his person. As Mohammed was considered 
the greatest of the prophets, he was also represented 
as having performed more miracles than all of them. ^" 
The commencement of the old and new dispensation 
were acknowledged in the Koran to be miraculous ; 
and although Mohammed constantly excused himself 
for not working miracles, yet his followers could not 
resist furnishing Islamism with this indispensable 
prerequisite to every creed; and thus it came about, 

LiJi ;t-Lo : "Si rccenseremus omnia miracula et signa ejus, de quibus 

montiunom fcccruiit historic! in libris .suis. corto cxcri-scorct toiuus. 
Isam pvophtta nostcr faustac lucnioiiae reliquos prophotas in niulti- 
tudine niiraculoruni superavit. Et quidara auctores asserunt, mira- 
cula ejus ad nunurum millenariura pervenisse." Author of the book 
^cX^I |V^^^ 'Ic signis directionis. Marac. Prod. P. 11. pag. 30. 
Some authors count 4440, others GO milHons of miracles. 


that as early as the second century, when the first 
biographers of Mohammed appeared, the prophet's 
life was so overcharged with miraculous tales, that 
even the keenest European eye is often unable to dis- 
tinguish between historical facts and legendary fictions. 
As an act of justice to our opponents, we give some 
of the currently received miracles of Mohammed. 

A camel weeps and is calmed at the touch of 
Mohammed ; the hair grows upon a boy's head when 
the prophet lays his hand upon it; a horse is cured 
from stumbling; the eye of a soldier is healed and 
made better than the other. He marked his sheep 
in the ear, and the species retains the mark to this 
day; he milked an emaciated goat with marvellous 
success. A stick turns into a sword; one palm-tree 
sings, another walks up with a great noise and bears 
testimony to Mohammed's Mission. On his entrance 
into Mecca, his majesty the prophet, was saluted by 
all mountains and trees, saying, "Peace be with thee, 
prophet of God!"^* He put his toes and fingers 
over empty vessels, and so copious were the fountains 
flowing fi-om his extremities, that camels were in dan- 
ger of being drowned; or he spits into a pool of water 
and it becomes sweet. He fed 130 men upon the 
liver of a sheep, and two dishes remained over and 
above what they had eaten. Once, a million of people 
were fed on a few loaves and a lamb, and many fi*ag- 
ments were left. On a different occasion, eighty men 
fed upon a crust of bread which Mohammed had 

"' Mishcat Vol. U. pag. 717. Aclimed Ebn Abdollialimi's Apo- 
logia i)ag. 382. classifies th.e miracles of Mohammed. 


blessed. A woman having offered him melted butter 
from a leathern bottle , the butter continued to flow 
till the woman pressed it, and it is added, the bottle 
would still flow, had the woman abstained from squeez- 
ing it. «^ 

Another miracle, the returning of the sun, is re- 
lated in the following manner; "One day his majesty 
the prophet had laid his blessed head on the skirts 
of Ali's cloak and slept, and receiving a revelation he 
wrapt up his head in the cloak, and was engaged in 
hearing the revelation till the sun had nearly gone 
down. When he had received his revelation, he got 
up, and said, 'Ali, have you performed the evening 

* prayers?' He said, 'No, prophet of God, for I could 
not remove thy blessed head from the skirts of my 
cloak.' His majesty then said, '0 Lord, bring back 
the sun.' Asman said, by God, I saw, that the sun 
returned and got high. And after his majesty had 
performed the prayer, the sun went down again.' 
Once, Mohammed went, accompanied by his followers, 
who were a large number, to the house of Abdallah. 
After he and Ali had eaten of the dish prepared for 
him, consisting of a roasted lamb , he gave it to his 
followers, and they all ate and were satisfied, leaving 
nothing but the bones. They said then; '0 prophet 

■ of God, we want some milk to drink.' His majesty 
having spread his handkerchief over the bones said, 
•0 Lord, in like manner as Thou didst send Thy 
blessing on this animal and satisfy us with its meat, 
so bless it again, and do such an act, that we may 
^^ Maracc. Prodrom. Pars U. cap. VI. 


drink of its milk.' Accordingly through the divine 
power , flesh grew on those bones , and the animal 
began to move, and got up, and its udder became 
full of milk. They then all drank, and filled besides 
all the basins in the house with its milk."^^ 

It is superfluous to multiply specimens, or to en- 
large upon the frivolous and puerile character of the 
miracles ascribed to Mohammed. There is not a 
shadoAV of proof for any one of them ; but could it 
even be jDroved, that Mohammed had wrought mira- 
cles, he w^ould still be what he was before, viz. a false 
prophet, wdio "speaks his own words and prophesies • 
out of his own heart;" for miracles alone, furnish no 
proof of divine Mission, since they may be performed 
by false prophets, to establish false doctrine, through ■ . 
the agency of Satan.®* But the prophet himself re- 
peatedly asserts, in the clearest possible language, 
that he never possessed the powder of working mira- 
cles, declaring that he was not a worker of miracles, 
but was commissioned only to preach;®^ — we must 
therefore either believe Mohammed and reject the 
above miracles, as mere fabrications, or, believe the 
miracles, and reject him as a lying prophet. 

3. It is admitted by the Koran that the divine 

^^ Pfander's Remarks pag. 23—30, Hayat ul Kulub Vol. II. 
leaf 126. 127. 

'* Deut. Xm. 1 — 5. 2 Thess. II. 9. 3^ John W. 1. Rev. XIH. '' 

13. 14. Exod. Vn. 22. 2 Tim. m. 8. Act. VHI. 9. 

'' v:^b^lt \J\ Jo 4^ ^K ^Lt xaJU Jyt ^ly lyii'^ ^ ' ^^4 

jj^Avo *JtXJ bl UjI^ xJJt tX;x Sur. XXIX. 50. See also 
xm. 8. XVn. 92—95. VI. 57. 58. 109. XXI. 5—6. 


456 CHRIST AND MOHAMMED. [part il. 

Mission of our Lord was accredited by miracles ; but 
the question arises, whether they are sufficient to prove 
His Divine character or not. Before this can be an- 
swered in the affirmative, it must be decided, whether 
the miracles of Jesus Christ can in any way be com- 
pared with those, wrought by prophets and apostles 
who claimed no such distinction; and here it will be 
granted, that our Saviour's miracles differ not so 
widely in character, from those \M'ought by the prophets 
of the 01(1, and the Apostles of the New Testament, 
as to bear no comparison with them; on the contrary 
there is a great similarity to them. The highest 
order of miracles, that of raising the dead, was wrought 
by messengers of God, who laid no claim to Divinity. 
A second point to be decided, before we admit our 
Lord's miracles to be a conclusive proof of His Divine 
character, is this ; whether there be any external mark, 
through which, miracles wrought by God, can be dis- 
tinguished from miracles wrought by satanic agency. 
As regards this question, it cannot be denied that in 
many cases, they are perfectly ahke; Exod. Mil. 11; 
in some , a criterion is added , which is too vague to 
be generally applicable; Deut. XIU. 1 — 3. in others, 
the power by which miracles are wrought, will not be 
revealed before the day of Judgment. Matt. vil. 23. 
24. Again, miracles are wrought by the powers of 
darkness, without any distinguishing mark being given, 
as to the source from whence they spring. Lu. XI. 
19. Matt.xxiY. 2. 

Again, if miracles were meant to prove the Divi- 
nity of Christ, He and His Apostles >vould undoubt- 


edly have appealed to them , as unerring credentials 
of His Divine character. Our Lord indeed appealed 
to His tvorks, but not exclusively to those of a mira- 
culous character. ^^ When asked whether He was the 
promised Messiah, Jesus refers to His mighty deeds; 
but rehearsing these in gradation, He signifies the last 
mentioned to be the highest and most convincing — "to 
the poor the Gospel is preached."®^ The Apostles 
also refrained from appealing to the miracles of Christ, 
as an irrefragable evidence of His Divine nature.^* 

Again, if miracles were alone sufficient to esta- 
blish His Divinity, Christ would have desired their 
becoming as extensively known as possible : in many 
instances however, we know this was just what He 
sought to j)revent. Matt. ix. 30. xn. 15. 16. Miracles, 
moreover, failed to accomplish their object, for Christ 
had to upbraid the cities, "wherein mos^ of His mighty 
works were done, because they repented not." Hence, 
our Lord uniformly repels a craving after signs and 
wonders; complying in no one instance with the re- 
peated request to show "a sign from heaven." When 

^^ When Christ speaks : ra HQya a iyoi noidS i^tafjrvQsT ttsqI 
ijLiov on 6 naTTjQ juf, ilntaraly.f,: or when He exhorts: dut ra eQya 
uvTu niatevtre ixoi. He refers to His miracles, but not to them 
alone. John V. 36. XIY. 11. 

®^ Matt. XI. 3 — 5. with this climax He refers likewise to the 
prophecy , in which His divine glory and excellency is set forth : 

inrrrbN -inq rr^rr — nhp tN-n^ jsaiah XXXV. 2. LXI. 1. 2. 

^® Where this seems to be the case: the Xoyoq GOJtTjQiag, spoken 
by the Lord , and confirmed unto us by them that heard Him , is the 
chief thing; avvi-.nifxaQtvQovvrog tov ■&sov arjfieioig te xal TSQam, 
YAxl noiy.iXaiq fivviXfi^Gi is superadded: Christi est, testari: Dei est, 
(Tvvtnif^uxQTVQHv , testimonium superaddere." Hebr. H. 3. 4. Beng. 
Gnomon ad loc. 

458 CHEIST AND MOHAMMED. [part ii. 

at one time He had wTought a double miracle , and at 
another, cured a man, who was possessed, blind, and 
dumb, the Jews ask, "what sign showest thou then that 
we may see and believe thee ?" When they reiterate their 
demands, our Lord invariably directs their attention to 
the "sic/ns of the time' in which they lived, to the 
singular dignity of His person, to His death and re- 
surrection;^^ and when Herod, on the eve of these 
crowning signs of His wonderful life , hoped to have 
seen a miracle done by Him, He answered him no- 
thing. *■ These numerous solicitations for fresh signs 
clearly demonstrate, that the many mu'acles which 
had been wrought, did not in themselves sujfice to prove 
Christ to be the Messiah ; but to give them their pe- 
culiar value, as infallible demonstrations of Divinity, 
they must needs be connected with a distinctive dig- 
nity in His person. 

Christ never appears in the Bible, as the worker 
of single miracles ; He is on the contrary represented 
as the Sipi of signs, and is called ^'Wonderful. 


»5 John VI. 1 — 14. 18—21. 30. Matt. XII. 13. 22. 38. 39. 40. 
John n. 18. The same Matt. XVI. 1—4. John IV. 48. 

' It seems Herod was most importunate in asking Him for a 
sign: in r; QOiT tx d I diTor ir Xoyoig IxaioTg. Lu. XXIU. 8.9. "He 
questioned with Him in many words," does not convey the exact "" 

^ NS^, nWMJ, His name is called Wonderful, as much as Messiah 

or ^li]aovg , Isa. IX. 6. From Him emanate all that may be called 

N^^., 'Qavi.i.aaiov , miraculum; n^N, whence jol, ot]ueTor , signum, 

ostentum, portentum; riC"?3, Tt^jitg, monstrum, prodigium; "H^nj, 

6v/'«|i/tg; He is the mediator of all the rrT','] nisy.s''?, e^yw lov 

Qtov , or simply egyu xai' t'lox^'S also called by the Fathers, 

sacrammta, mystcria visibilia. 


Being Himself the fountain-head of all that is wo7ider- 
fiil, in the truest sense of the term, signs and miracles, 
in Christ's life, were but the natural manifestation of 
His Divine character, and the necessary mode of ope- 
ration: the absence of miracles and signs in His life 
and history, would have been most wonderful, and 
inexplicable. In working miracles, the Prophets and 
Apostles exhibited their seal of office to the Church; 
but Christ, in contradistinction to all duly accredited 
messengers of God, revealed His glory. 

We can but admire the divine sobriety of Holy 
Scripture, in never appealing to a miracle as a suffi- 
cient proof of our Lord's Divine character. The single 
wonders performed by our Lord are so many distinct 
rays of His Divine Majesty , and though essentially 
belonging to His work of Redemption , they are un- 
able to reflect the whole fulness and glory of the per- 
son of Christ. ^ They were indeed, proofs to the dis- 
ciples, serving to confirm their already existing belief ; 
but only those who already believed in Christ, recog- 
nised in His person, "a man approved of God among 
them by miracles and wonders and signs which God 

^ There is no order or system in our Lord's miracles , if we ex- 
amine them simply as "facta ineMpUcabilia , quae admirationem ex- 
citavenint spectutorihus ;" or in which" naturae leges suspenduntur." 
But we observe both harmony and order , when we regard them as 
expressive of our Lord's work of Redemption. It begins with chang- 
ing water into wine in the hour of need ; then follow healings of 
the sick; cleansing of lepers; casting out of devils; and it finishes 
with raising the dead. When Lazarus was raised, "many believed in 
Him." The last miracle , on the fig-tree , expressed the judicial 
power of Jesus over those that believe not. Here we have a system 
of miracles , expressive of a wondroud Redemption. When prepara- 
tory signs were repeated , it was in places , where the first were as 
yet unknown. 

460 CHRIST AND MOHAMMED. [part li. 

did by Him in the midst of them."* Instead, there- 
fore, of enlarging upon the miracles, in their dis- 
courses, the Apostles simply preached "Christ and 
the Resurrection." 

Thus we consider the miracles of Christ, not only 
as a proof, that He was a teacher come from God, 
but as the manifestation of the glory of the incarnate 
Redeemer, which can only be appreciated in connec- 
tion with liis entire life. Amongst the things testi- 
fied by St. John, that we might believe, are not only 
signs and wonders , but many other things , which 
Jesus did, and taught. 

4. Having glanced at the miracles of Christ and 
the alleged prodigies of Mohammed, we next examine 
the prophecies, said to be fulfilled in the respective 
founders of Christianity and of Islamism. OurLord pro- 
j^hesied, and as prophecy is only a miracle of another 
kind , ^ we might fairly introduce a summary of His 
predictions in this place; as however, Mohammed dis- 
claims the gift of prophecy, we shall pass it over and 
confine ourselves to those predictions or prophecies 

* Act. n. 22. Hence it is also stated, that Christ in certain 
places did not many miracles "because of their unbelief." Matt. XIII. 
58. That it was expected in every pro])het to have this seal, ac- 
counts for John the Baptist denying that he was a prophet. .John 
I. 21. 

* ~N"n; , jTiJoqrjHa , are ''miraculn vaticana mit praescientlae 
sunt persplcuae rerum fnturarum earnmque continffentium praedica- 
tiones , qitibus eventus respondit, pet div. omniscientiam" Hume 
asserts in his Essays on miracles: "All prophecies are reed miracles, 
and as .such only, can be admitted as proofs of any revelation. If 
it did not exceed the capacity of human nature to foretcl future 
events, it would be absurd to employ any projihecy as an argument 
for a Divine mission or authority from heaven." 


which are respectively said to have been fulfilled in 
Christ and Mohammed. We have already noticed 
that the Arab prophet claimed to have been predicted 
by our Lord, John XV. 26. and that by name. ^ 

This blasphemous misappropriation of the pro- 
phetic promise of the Holy Ghost is too revolting to 
dwell on; but were it possible to apply it to any 
mortal, Mohammed, of all men in the world, has the 
least claim to be considered the Comforter, which 
Christ promised to send to His Church. Our Lord 
required His disciples to wait in Jerusalem ; if Mo- 
hammed, therefore, had been the promised Pareclete, 
he would have appeared in Jerusalem, not in Mecca, 
and that, 600 years earlier than he did. Again, if 
the prophet of the Arabs were the Paraclete , it was 
his part, according to the tenor of the promise of 
Christ, that he should abide with the Church for ever. 
The promise, moreover, was made to the Church of 
Christ; Mohammed therefore ought to have come to 
the Christians, not to the Pagan Arabs. Then, the 
office of the promised Paraclete was to glorify Christ; 
to take of the things of Jesus and show them unto 

" cX4>s>'t KtMj^ ^^i\3U (>^ i<^'- ^r**'r? ')-«*'^5 Annun- 

ciaturus JLegafum, qui veniet post me: nomen ejus Ahmad. Sur. LXI. 
6. Now to Trievjua rfjg uXri&tiag is in Hebrew r'53N n''n and in 

Arabic iooLfc —%Jj\', from this , Moslem subtil ty made Achmed or 

Mohammed. The na(jayXi]rog was likewise shrewdly turned into 
ntfJmXvzoq, id est tnch'tus, valde mclitiim, which agreed again witli 

tX»a»t or cX.«.i^Vx with the sense laudabilis , laudatum, multa dig- 
nus; cfi-. also "i^n, desire after; ^-Un, the dearest, most beautiful. 
IWnttj desire, darling. 

462 CHRIST AND MOHAMMED. [part ii. 

His people; now where does Moliammed glorify Christ? 
The Gospel of Jesus is altered into "another Gospel," 
His divine character is denied, His truth perverted, 
His Church destroyed, His work of Redemption dis- 
owned, and the glorious dispensation of the New Tes- 
tament is considered to be superseded! Had Mo- 
hammed represented the promised Comforter, he 
would not have been guilty of elevating himself above 
the Lord Jesus. The Holy Ghost glorified Christ, 
bore witness of Him, taught many things concerning 
Him; remained with the Church for ever, and called 
the things of Christ to the remembrance of the dis- 
ciples; but Mohammed, under the impulse of another, 
than the "Sj^irit of truth,'' maintained throughout a 
contrary part,' 

Another fulfilment of prophecy is found by Mo- 
hammedans, in the blessing of Moses, where the three 
mountains, Sinai, Seir, and Paran are considered to 
be typical of three successive dispensations: Judaism, 
Christianity, and Islamism.^ Independently however 
of the fanciful and arbitrary character of this exposi- 
tion, it is unfortunate for those who urge it, that 
Seir is in Idumaea, instead of Galilee or Judea: and 
Paran between mount Seir and Sinai, about 500 
miles from Mecca! Such is the perversion of the 
words of Moses, who refers to the mountains which 

' Very significant is the expression : rb TTrf.Vfia rf,? (O^r^&tn^?- 
" AUaa est quoeclam falsa cognitio, falsa fides, falsus amor, falsa 
spes; sed non falsa Veritas." Bengelius. 

^ "The Lord came from Sinai, (Judaism); and rose up from 
Seir, {Christianity); He shmed forth from mount Paran, (Islamism)." 
Deut. XXXIIl. 2. 


witnessed God's works during the march of the Is- 
raelites. The next prophecy referred to Mohammed, 
is the celebrated prediction of Moses, that God would 
raise up a prophet from among Israel like unto him. 
Deut. xvm. 15. But Mohammed was not like Moses; 
nor was he raised up among Israel ; norcan the Arabs 
be said to be brethren of the Jews ; nor does Moham- 
med come before the world with the like credentials 
as Moses; nor can any one reason be demonstrated 
in his person, his creed or his Koran, why we should 
"hearken unto him." 

Another misapplication of prophecy, or rather of 
a plain description, was perpetrated by the Moslem 
doctors, when with the aid of the Syriac, they endea- 
vour to wrest the words, ''perfection of beauty ,"' Ps. 
L. 2, being a descriptive epithet of Zion,^ and make 
them to signify, ''the croivn of Mohammed^ This 
shows , their extreme anxiety to establish the point, 
that Mohammed had been prophesied in the Old and 
New Testament. We shall notice but one other at- 
tempt to support Mohammed's dignity, by evidence 
derived from prophecy, one, which has at least this in its 
favour, that it is the most ingenious. In the following- 
passage from Isaiah, "he saw a chariot with a couple 
of horsemen, a chariot of asses, and a chariot of 
camels,"^" the learned Mohammedans see a clear 

^ The Moslem doctors read thus , with the SjTiac version : 

^yj^*0 ^je xJJt «..g pf lt>«-»iSX^ iLyLM Coronam laudatam 

Dens manifestavit ex Sion. Were the version correct , which it is 
not, the coronam laudatam comes not from Mecca but from Sion. 

*° It is said of the watchman: -l-72n 23"i S'^nE '^-i: 23^ r>iiyi 

464 CHRIST AND MOHAMMED [part il. 

prediction of" Christ, who rides into Jerusalem upon 
the ass; and Mohammed, M'ho frequently rode upon 
a camel ! But the chapter contains burdens of pro- 
phecy against Babylon, Duma and Kedar , the two 
latter beinfr the descendants of Ishmael: and Babvlon 
was taken by the IMedes and Persians ^:>rgC2s^/?/ as 
here prophesied. * * 

Mohammed, might however, have been prophesied 
by name, — as was the case with C>tus, the "servant" 
of God, — centuries before he w^as born, and yet be in 
the same predicament, in which he now stands: for 
it does not necessarily follow, that the person pre- 
dicted must be a true projihet of God. Antichrist 
is prophesied in the Old and New Testament, but 
this in nowise puts a divine seal upon his work, or 
makes him the less "that man of sin, and the son of 
perdition." Nor shall we contradict the Koran, when 
it repeatedly asserts, that we find Mohammed "\\Tit- 
ten down in the law and the Gospel." Our Lord bids 
us to "beware of false prophets;" He prophesies, that 
"many false prophets shall rise and deceive many;" 
"false Christs and false prophets shall rise, and shall 

b?:-. ns'l. Isaiah XXI. 7. Vulgate: ""Et vidit curt-um duorum equi- 
turn, nscensorem asini , et ascender em cameli." The LXX read: xni 
iiSoi> dnx^dnxg InnHgSvo, iha(idrr>v oiov , dnx^tirt;y xa- 
,it/^Xov. GiTiuan version: "(§x \~icM abcr dtcitcx rcitcit imt' fafncn auf 
9iojTen, (Sfcin nut ^ftamclcn." Vitriiiga: " vecturam a^/nomm, vecturam 

' * Babylon being taken when feasting in security, cfr. Isa. 
XXI. 5 — 10. "Prepare the table; Avatch in the watch-tower; eat, 
drink: arise ye princes and anoint the shield. For thus hath the 
Lord said unto me. Go set a watchman, let him declare what he 
seeth." This watchman then sees, what is here alleged to be a 
prophecy of Christ and Mohanuned, 


show signs and wonders, to seduce, if it were possible, 
even the elect." His Apostles agree with their Master 
in warning the Church of /a/se teachers and prophets, 
who shall bring in damnable heresies; adding that 
"many shall follow their pernicious ways." We are 
therefore not unwilling to give IMohammed the pre- 
eminence among the prophets, who are plainly pre- 
dicted in the New Testament. ^^ 

5. Let us now examine whether our Lord's 
Divine Sonship and prophetical dignity can be proved 
from Prophecy. That He Himself prophesied, has 
already been shown; but can we establish from pro- 
phecies of the Old Testament "that Jesus is the 
Christ?'"' To gather together a few detached pre- 
dictions is no difficult task, but instead of obtaining 
a correct view of our Lord's character, bv this means, 
we may possibly arrive at most erroneous conclusions. 
Such was the case with the Jews, before the advent 
of Christ. They formed their estimate of the Messiah 
from single predictions, and the result was, a spirit 
of dissatisfaction and rebellion. Listead of kindling 
their hope and quickening their expectation of the 
coming of the Redeemer, it only engendered a desire 
to throw off the yoke of the Romans, and strengthened 
their worldly ambition to become the dominant race 
of the earth. The "wise men from the East had caught 
up one of the prophecies of the Old Testament; but 
by their inquiring for the new-born ^/«^ oftheJeivs 
at Jerusaleyn, they clearly showed that as yet they 

** Matt. Vn. 15. XXR'. 11. Mark XIU. 22. 2 Pet. H. 1. 2. 
1 John IV. 1. Keith, Signs of the times. Vol. L 35—47. 192—197. 



were labouring under very mistaken impressions, 
and it required yet another prophecy to lead them 
to Bethlehem. Except therefore, Christ be acknow- 
ledged as the "Alpha and Omega" of all prophecy, in 
Whom all the single predictions are ''Yea and Amen,'' 
the evidence arising from them can never be rightly 
understood, nor fully appreciated. Mark xvi. 14. Lu. 
XXIY. 25. We have prophecies, because we have 
Christ; but not the reverse. Scriptural prophecies 
can only be understood, when we consider them as 
living members of the entire body of revealed truth. 
As sinole miracles were sufficient to confirm the faith 
of those who already believed, so the fulfilment of 
single prophecies was sufficient to the believing Is- 
raelite; hence the frequent allusions to them in the 
New Testament, especially in St. Matthew's Gospel. 
Not less frequently however, the fulfilment of detached 
predictions gives place to that of the entire system 
of fulfilled prophecy. ^^ 

In proving from the Scripture that "Jesus is the 
Christ," especially to unbelievers, we have to place 
prophecy and fulfilment, before our opponents, in its 
totality, without giving undue prominence to isolated 

*' Matt. XI. 13. Lu. XXIV. 27. John V. 39. Act. X. 43. 
rovToo rruiT^g 6i noocfrrca uagrvgovmr. Act. VIJ. and Hebre-\vs XI. 
"3)er ©vuntdjaraftci: De^ 3urciitlnini£i, tmd) ten e^ fi* alt^ Cffcnbanmg 
redjtffrtigt^ tft a3orbereituiuj imb ®ciffaguiig gu fcin. {Dafjcr bic mef; 
fianinifrfu 50 ciffai^iiug bcr ^ofKiMinft bci^ 9((tfn, iiiib fcinc Rintieit mit 
bem DJcucn Jcfianicut ift . . . . STabcr iiur cine untcvi^ccvbucte *-Bt'; 
beutitng bcffcU'cn iit, ba § an ifirer (Svfulluni^ im Sinjelnen bet 
ajjeffta^ erfannt ivuvbe. iTcd) im Jini^enicincn ift bicfc ©rfuniinci in 
bcr birdie nUc^cit ancrfauut Ifcrbcu uiib fcit (Socccjii^ in eincr "prophetica 
Theologia" na(;ev aia^gefiitiit ivotbcn." Uutt. Red. pag. 91. 92. 


predictions fulfilled in the person of the Messiah. 
We proceed therefore to take a succint view of the 
leading prophecies, concerning Christ, which are 
fulfilled in Ilim. — Beginning with those, which de- 
scribe His human nature, as the promised "seed 
of the woman,'* no Moslem will fail to recognise 
"the son of Mary," who "preserved her virginity."** 
That He was to be born of a virfjin was however 
specially added. * * The genealogy of Christ is minute- 
ly predicted; He was to spring from the family 
o{ Shem, the seed o{ Abraham, the line oi Isaac, the 
tribe of Judah and the house of David. ^^ It was 
predicted that the Messiah should appear, at the 
period when the tribe of Judah should have lost its 
political independence. * ^ The place of His birth, and 
the circumstances connected with it, were likewise 
given.*® Again, we have a prophetic description of 
the person and character of the forerunner of Christ; 
also of the commencement of our Lord's public mi- 
nistry;*^ the places He was to visit; the condition of 
His life; the miracles He would perform; the nature 
and mode of His teaching; the details of His passion; 

** The ynt of the woman Gen. III. opposed to •dtXrjfia dr6()di 
John 1. 13. and parallel with the l^antcJTtiXtv o Qfog tov viof 
avTov ytro/bityor ix yvttay.og. Galat. IV. 4. 

" Ps. XXn. 10. LXLX. 8. LXXXVI. 16. CXYI. 16. Isa. VU. 14. 
XLIX. 1. Micah V. 3. Jer. 31, 22. Lu. L 26—35. 

" Gen. IX. 26. XIL 3. XVII. 19. XLIX. 10. Mic.V. 2. 2 Sam. 
VU. 12—16. 1 Chron. XVn. 11 — 14. Isa. XL 1. 10. 

*' Gen. XLIX. 10. T"3:^'n ■j-'273 'p?^'^^' '^rrJ^ tina -i-o;-n3 

'» Mic. V. 2. Hos. XL 1. Ps. LXXIL 10. Isa. LX. 6. 
'« Mai. IV. 5. 6. m. 1. Isa. XL. 3. 


468 CHRIST AND MOHAMMED. [partii. 

and of His death on the cross; together with the 
specific mention of the time when He should give up 
the ghost. ^° We would call particular attention to 
those prophecies concerning the violent death of 
Christ, which the Koran thought fit to deny. Again, 
the entombment of Christ was distinctly foretold by 
the Spirit of prophecy, — "His grave was appointed 
Him with the wicked, but with the rich man was His 
tomb in His death." ^^ His flesh however should 
only rest in hope, and not see corruption; He was to 
rise from the dead, prolong His days,^^ and ascend 
into heaven. ^^ In addition to these prophecies, which 
comprise a biographical sketch of our Lord from His 
birth to His glorious ascension, we have numerous 
predictions descr'ihinglhs characterand ojices, human 
and divine. He is represented as the Son of God and 
as the Son of man; as the Holy One of Israel and 

-0 Hos. XI. 1. Isa. IX. 1. LIII. 2. XLII. 6. 7. LXI. 1—3. 
XLII. 2. 3. LV. 1 — 4. Ps. XLY. 2. Gen. III. 15. Isa. LUI. Ps. 
XXU. LXIX. 21. Zech. XUI. 6. 7. Dan. IX. 24—26. 

^^ This version of Lowth is the correct rendering of the original: 

;vr7:n -,^dy"TNT i"iDp a^ypn-nN "ir-i Isa. LIII. y. ir":i fre- 

quently has this meaning: our Lord was counted among the male- 
factors, and His grave was to be among theirs: i. e. He was not to 
be buried at all: 1, but, contrary to all expectation. He was with 
the rich man; "l""«:3y being singular: whilst wicked: D"'y;^'i is plural. 
Hence it could be said : truqii . . . xatic ru,' y^ac^d^. I Cor. XV. 4. 
See Matt. XXVI. 57. 

" Ps. XVI. 10. Isa. LUI. 10. Ps. XVII. 15. and the Theologia 
typica adds: Abraliam receiving his son on the third day tr naga- 
^oXfi. Heb. XI. n>. and to rn^ufJov 7ojm rov nQoqrjov. IMatt. XII. 
39_L40. ''(^0. ivcuiitlidi jiim Suffiitlium gcliovtc, tap tcr ^eiligc @cift 
fic^ jur tiefdhvanftcn :j![afTungetraft tKrabncicite : fo ift bic nufjTanii"*e 2l>ei^; 
fagung in vtclctlci *.8iltcrn au^gefyredKn." Hutt. Red. pag. 91. 

2» Ps. Lxvm. 18. vm. 5. 6. xLvn. 5. ex. I. 


the Saint of saints ; as the Word of Jehovah and the 
Saviour of the world; as the Lamb of God and the 
intercessor of His people; as ''the Shiloh"' or the 
Apostle without equal; as the Hit^h priest for ever 
after the order of Melchizedek ; as the Prophet like 
Moses; as the Christ of God, and the Messiah of 
Israel ; as the Lord coming to His temple , and the 
Ruler, higher than the kings of the earth. ^* Mos- 
lemin doctors in adducing a few indistinct prophecies 
from the Bible , which they consider fulfilled in the 
person of their prophet , admit the force of the evi- 
dence, which establishes the prophetical dignity of 
"Jesus, the son of Mary;" ^' and which proves Him 
to be the Son of God and the Saviour of the world ; 
this leads us to the next point of comparison. 

6. It was not within our scope in the preceding 
remarks to define the prophetical office of Christ, 
and to describe its character. All we desired, was to 
advance such evidence in its favour, as is vainly put 
forth on behalf of Mohammed. But proceeding a 
step further in our argument, and presenting Christ 
as the Redeemer of the world, we come to a point, 
in which both creeds diverge to opposite poles, where 

" Ps. n. 7. Dan. VH. 13. Ps. VIU. 4—6. X\^. 10. Dan. IX. 
24. Ps. XXXUI. 6. Job XIX. 25—27. Gen. XL VIE. 16. "[^T^' 
\^},ri and Isa. XLI. 14. Isa. Lm. 7. Gen. XXE. 8. Job XXXIU. 
23. Gen. XLIX. 10. Exod. IV. 13. Ps. CX. 4. Deut. XVIII. 15. 
Isa. LXI. 1. Ps. n. 2. Dan. IX. 26. Ps. LXXIX. 27. 

** " Oiristus est propheta maximus, cathoUcus, illuminatissimus , 
obsignatissimvs , efficatissimus et exemplaris , i. e. qid quod verbis 
docuit, expressit factis." Holazius. Augustin speaks of this pi-ophet 
as, "Doctor doctorum Christus, cujus schola in terra et cathedra in 
coelo est." 

470 CHRIST AND MOHAMMED. [part n. 

no comparison is possible. Yet as this work pro- 
fesses not only to give a comparison, but to contrast 
the leading features of both systems of belief, the 
following argument must be considered admissible. 
Christ's prophetical office, is in a qualified sense, 
admitted by the Mohammedans; and in advancing 
certain evidences to establish what is undoubted, it 
w^as rather with a view of showing the kind of proof 
we require, before we can admit the claims of the 
self-styled Apostle of God. No unprejudiced mind 
can fail to perceive that the evidence which has been 
adduced, proves more than Mohammedans are willing 
to admit, and implies, that Christ ''the son of Mary" 
was a prophet, in a sense, in which it could not be 
said of any other individual. 

It is not without instruction to observe how the 
Person and the Wo7^k of the Redeemer is the point in 
religious controversy, around which, all antagonistic 
powers seem to rally; evidently from an instinctive 
feeling, that the battle must be once more decided 
beneath His cross. The doctrine of the Hohj Trinity 
is distasteful to the Unitarian of whatever shade; 
because the Divinity of Christ and the work of atone- 
ment, are dogmas which they cannot suffer. The 
doctrine of the cross will ever be rejected as irrational, 
where man's sinfulness and helpless condition is un- 
felt, and denied, as is the case in the Koran. ^^ The 

*•' Sin is characterised as: rNi:q, ~>>0., r>'qr\, aua()Tta, (f/i«(j- 
rrjut, departure from the right way. Or: Tui"^,, yy, uvopiia, aHiKux, 
;r«(u<j^«ai3' , transgression , unrighteousness. Or: TT^C, "l'!!'?? "^^' 
ataaia, dtih^Ha, falling away, ungodliness. Or: byw, nagaTCKOfia, 
fall. Or: d<^tiki]i.ui, guilt. 


Moslem looks upon sin, as an external act, to be estim- 
ated merely by its results. Lying and false swear- 
ing e. g. are not considered in themselves, intrinsically 
evil, but only possibly so, in the issue, and for good 
purposes are sanctioned, as will be seen from the 
following extracts. "God passeth over the forgetful- 
ness and mistakes of my sect and forgives them 
what they do by compulsion."^' Again, "It is not 
right to lie, except in three cases; the first, when a 
man tells lies to please his wife; the second in war; 
the third, in order to make peace between men."^* 
Again, it is unlawful to say a truth which might be 
injurious to a believer, or endanger his life ; and it is 
lawful and obligatory to tell a lie, when a believer can 
be saved by it from death, imprisonment, or from any 
loss. And in the case of a believer having intrusted 
us with some of his property, and an op^pressor re- 
quiring it of us, we are obliged to deny having it, yea 
we are even allowed to swear an oath that none of 
the property of that man is with us. It is Hke- 
wise lawful to tell a lie before an officer of customs, 
an oppressor, or a judge, if by telling the truth the 
property would be taken away from him."^^ In the 
next page of the same book we read, "It is said in a 
tradition from his majesty (Mohammed) that there 
are three cases in which it is right and good to tell 
a lie; in the treachery which they make use of in 
war; in the promises made to a wife; and in making 
peace among men." Again, ''Takia, or religious dis- 

" Mishcat Vol. 11. pag. 817. '^ Mishcat Vol. H. 464. 

^^ Ain ul Hayat leaf 242. 

472 CHRIST AND MOHAMMED. [part 11. 

simulation, in the land of Takia, ^^ is obligatory. An 
oath, sworn for Tahia, and to escape oppression is 
no sin, nor is any atonement required for it." And 
again, "False witness, on account of Takia, is allowed, 
when it would not occasion the death of a person; 
and a false oath to remove oppression from one's self 
or from any other of the believers is lawful. In both 
these cases it is necessary to use as much dissimula- 
tion as possible. And Takia is allowed even in speak- 
ing blasj^hemous words, as Aamar did, and the Al- 
miirhtv made known his excuse in the Koran." ^^ 

That ^177 thoughts are not considered sin may be 
gathered fi*om the following tradition, "It is related 
that his majesty Mohammed said, — when a believer, 
a Banda , forms the intention of doing a good work, 
although he may not do it, God still writes down for 
it one good work in the book of his good works. And 
if he forms the intention of doing a sin, b.ut does not 
actually do it, he does not write down anything against 
him. And wdien he executes his evil intention, they 
give him time, seven hours, and the angel of his right 
side , who is the recorder of his good works , says to 
the angel of the left side, who is the recorder of his 
evil actions, Do not be hasty in writing it down, per- 
adventure he may do a good work, which will blot 

^^ A name given to a country where a Moslem is exposed to 
religious persecution. Pfander's Remarks pag. 40. 

'' Haq ul Yaquin leaf 240. Aamar and others being tortured 
by the Koreishites renounced their faith from fear, but believed with 
their heart. The following words refer to liim : iuULj UiS ^^yo 

^j-t-Jojo X-JLi'. 8*5^1 fj^ ^t «jUjt iXxj ^ etc. Sur. XVI. 


out his sin." '^ Since sin is not regarded as sin, by 
Mohammed, he could not admit the crowning act of 
Christ's sacerdotal office, namely, His death upon the 
cross, by which an atonement was made for the sins 
of the world. Had Mohammed assumed our Lord's 
body to have been a mere phantom, as was the case 
with some of the early heretics, we could explain his 
denial of the death of Jesus; but the Koran insists 
upon the purely human nature of Christ, and in ap- 
parent contradiction with the view that our Lord had 
a mortal body, yet with a fearful and well-calculated 
consistency, the Koran denies the Crucijixion. The 
death upon the cross was an historical fact, attested, 
not only by the Gospels, which he considered inter- 
polated, but by profane testimony, of Jews, and Pa- 
gans.^^ Yet Mohammed preferred opposing a well 

" Ain ul Hayat leaf 80. See also Hayat ul Kulub Vol. U. 
leaf 177. 

'^ Moses ben Maimones in lib. Jud. cap. XI. says: "Jesus Naza- 
renus yisus est Messias , et occisus est per domum Judaicii , at ilia 
causa fuit ut Israel destruetur in gladio et disperguntur , reliquac 
ipsorum et desprimerentur." Again, "Jesus Nazarenus propinquus 
fuit regno (idest fuit familia Regia) et in vespere Paschae crucifix- 
erunt eiun." Sanhed. distinct. Nigmar Hadin. Again Josephus adds: 
riveTcu 6t xara rovtov jov xyo"'^'' 'I^'iovg, aocpog drijQ, fiye avSga 
avrof Xtyuv XHV > V^' Y^^Q ntxaafio^mv eoyorv nntrjri^g , difiaaxaXog 
dv&QCOTKor ToTr Tjdorfj t« «A?-^^ Sfjoi.ihxor. Kal noXXovg jnh lor- 
fiaiovg, TToXXovg df tov 'EXXr^vixov inrf/dyero' 6 Xgiarog ovrog 
r^v , xal dvrov , ivSn'^ti t<ov nQmrcov (hSfJcSv naii" r^ulv , atavQw 
f7iiTtTifii]}i6rog rov TliXdxov , 6vx Inavaapxo o'l ye uqcotov dvrov 
nyamqaavrtg. 'Eapdrt] ydg dvtoTg rgi'rrjv ex(»v rjiiigav ndXiv ^(Sr, 
T(ov &f:i(ov TTQO(pr]T(or Tavrd re xal uXXa nvgiu x}(xvf(d(na ntQi dv- 
rov HQr,x6r(iaT' 'Eig hi pvv rcSv XQiariavwv dno rovSi. (ovo^arsi^uvayv 
Svx iiiXmc. ro q}vXor. Joseph. Archaeolog. lib. XVrH. cap. III. 3. 
Again Tacitus writes: "Auctor nominis ejus Christus Tiberio iniperi- 
tante per procuratorem Pontium Pilatuni supplicio affectus erat; 
repressaque in praesens exitiabilis superstitio rursus erumpebat, non 

474 CHRIST AND MOHAMMED. [part il. 

authenticated historical fact, rather than admit the 
death upon the cross; because he clearly saw, that 
with it, he would be compelled to acknowledge its 
meritorious character, which rested entirely upon the 
innocent and violent death of "the Lamb of God 
which taketh away the sins of the world." 

If Christ were no more than an ordinary prophet, 
and if His death be not the crowning part of His vi- 
carious work, why should JNIohammed deny it, any 
more than the violent death of other prophets? The 
false prophet having rejected the doctrine of the atone- 
ment, was led to adopt the view of an ancient he- 
resy, in preference to the truth. Had he admitted 
the Crucifixion, he could not have denied, that our 
Lord's person and work were far superior to the per- 
son and work of any other apostle of God; and he 
would thus have involved himself in a contradiction and 
inconsistency which would undoubtedly have proved 
ruinous to his creed. Mohammed nowhere ven- 
tured to introduce himself as the Redeemer of the 
world; it was therefore his interest to protest against 
Christ having made an atonement for mankind; and 
to deny the principle of transferring either merit or 
demerit ; in order to place his own life and death in 
juxta-position with that of the Son of God. Sur. vi. 
161 — 165. It will not here be without interest, fur- 
ther to examine the Biblical doctrine of the atone- 
ment, in order to show more fully, that Mohammed 

modo per Judacani , originem ejus mali , sed per urbem etiam , quo 
cuncta undiquc atrocia aut pudenda contluunt celebranturque. Corn. 
Tac. lib. XV. cap. 44. 


could not admit the death upon the cross, without 
at the same time acknowledging this doctrine. 

7. In the Bible, sin is neither a mere negation, 
nor yet an innocent imperfection of human nature ; 
but sin is tmrighteousness , a positive evil, a living 
active principle of enmity against God: otherwise it 
could not be said that Christ died for our sins, or 
that we have Redemption and forgiveness of sin through 
His blood. When Christ's death is chiefly spoken 
of as the ransom of our souls, it is not meant to deny 
that the whole life of our Redeemer is also of saving 
efficacy, through its unfailing obedience to the will of 
God.^* Hence Jesus is spoken of as the Mediator 
between God and man; the Priest who offered Him- 
self in such a manner, that it could be said of this 
great act of atonement, that " God was in Christ, re- 
conciling the world unto Himself."*' It would be in 
direct contradiction to this view, to assume, that the 
death of Jesus was necessary to excite the Heavenly 
Father's love, and to move Him to pardon us, for God 

'* Matt. XX. 28. XXVI. 18. 1 Pet. I. 18. 19. 2 Cor. V. 21. 
1 Tim. n. 6. Gal. UI. 13. 2 Pet. II. 1. 1 Tim. H. 5. Col. I. 20. 
1 John n. 2. IV. 10. 

^* "What was held and believed in all ages, was shown to be 
necessary in the 11*"^ sec. by Anselm in his admirable little work, 
"Cur Dens homo?" which demonstrated the so-caWeA satisf actio , a 
term introduced by Tertullian , as to its theoretical and theologico- 
philosophical bearing upon the plan of salvation. Through sin, 
God's Majesty was infinitely offended. In His love He was willing 
to pardon ; in His righteousness He could not pardon. Only an in- 
finite and Divine Being could make infinite satisfaction for this 
infinite offence; but he must be man so that the requisite satisfaction 
might be made by mankind. Hence God became man, and this God- 
man taking upon Himself the guilt of man, and expiating the same 
by His death, thus rendered this infinite satisfaction. 

476 CHRIST AND MOHAMMED. [part ii. 

Himself "so loved us that He gave His only begotten 
Son." The primary cause of man's Redemption is 
the love of God; and the blood of Christ is the means 
by which it was accomplished. Human justice, to be 
legally administered, demands the punishment of the 
guilty, and in punishing the innocent, instead of the 
guilty, supreme justice would only accomplish its ob- 
ject by an act of supreme injustice; and thus destroy 
its own character. If transgression demand punish- 
ment, it cannot be an indifferent matter who receives 
it : it can only be just and lawful when the punish- 
ment falls upon the offender. The human judge is 
not at liberty to pass the sentence ofthe law on whom 
he will. He cannot indeed prevent innocent children 
from suffering when their parents are punished ac- 
cording to law ; since the lot of those children is not 
a punishment, but a misfortune. But all seeming con- 
tradictions and inconsistencies disappear, as soon as 
we cease to treat of this blessed mystery according 
to the laws and rules by which human justice is ad- 

God would not be the Holy One,^^ Who is above 
and beyond the world, if He were not above the mo- 
ral law, prescribed to man ; according to which , the 
guilty are to be punished. God must punish guilt, 
but He is free as to the manner of administering 
justice. As He stands above all law; as neces- 
sity to Him implies, at the same time, perfect and 

'* The Tlii'np , )««t' t^oxrj , ^vho is made to stand out as the 
incomparably great and glorious Jehovah. 


supreme liberty of action, ^ '' He can pardon the trans- 
gressor , but not in the arbitrary and partial way re- 
presented in the Koran ; it will, on the contrary, be in 
a manner in which all His blessed attributes, not ex- 
cluding His righteousness, shall be exhibited in perfect 
harmony. — The object of Divine punishment is not 
only the amendment of the person punished, but also 
to set up a warning for others, and to produce the 
feeling that "God is holy and sanctified in righteous- 
ness;^^ this object is attained in two ways. When 
the transgressor of the law is punished and the in- 
separable connection between sin and its penalty is 
thus demonstrated; or when the Divine Judge takes 
the punishment upon Himself, with the declaration, 
that the sinner may consider himself pardoned on 
the condition of repentance and faith; whilst those 
who refuse to submit to this divine plan of salvation 
must inevitably bear their own burdens. 

" This view, which prevailed before Anseira , is taken by Au- 
gustin: "Sunt stulti , qui dicunt: non poterat aliter sapientia Dei 
homines liberare, nisi susciperet hominem et ex femina nascet'etur ; 
qidbus dicimus: poterat omnino, sed si aliter face^-et , similiter 
vestrae stultitiae displicei-et." Lib. de agone Christi cap. XI. "In- 
stitutum , quo Deus voluit servatorem generis humani naturae subli- 
mioris esse socium, naturalem habere necessitatem, nee esse in numero 
voluntariorum, non ausim adserere : neque enim consentaneura duxe- 
rim , munificentiam divinam , quae tantum donum liberaliter concessit 
generi humano , necessitati subjicere , ac , quod sponte tribuit , it ra- 
tionibus subductis extorquerere velle. Satius sit. benignitatis et 
sapientiae vestigia persequi ac tanto magis gratiiicari salubre con- 
silium , quanto liberalius arbitrio divino fuit constitutum. John III. 
16. Rom. VIII. 32. Ephes. I. 7." Doederlein Inst. Theolog. Christ. 
U. pag. 305. 

^^ Isa V. 14—16. XXVI. 9. 10. LIX. 17 — 19. Jer. HI. 8. 10. 
XXXI. 18. 19. Deut. Xm. 11. 1 Cor. X. 11. V. 5. Rom. XI. 20. 


The taking upon Himself of our guilt, by Christ, 
would certainly be against the law by which the sin- 
ner must be dealt with, as such, if there were not a 
higher law, by which sin and its punishment could 
be transferred; and this higher law is revealed by the 
Gospel. The eternal Son of God is made flesh, '^ and 
because He is man, God has given to Him all judg- 
ment, *° In this, His human nature, the Judge of man- 
kind suff'ered , and because He bore the sins of the 
world, John I. 29. 1. Pet. n. 24. we are reconciled 
unto God. Rom. V. 9. 10. In order to redeem \is 
from the curse of the law. He submitted to its curse;** 
as this was done by a law of which finite reason could 
have no conception, it is to be counted a mystery; 
and, regarded as the law of faith, it stands higher than 
the law of works. '^^ 

In order to show how the righteousness of God 
is particularly conspicuous in the Atonement of Christ, 
St. Paul argues, Rom.Ui.23 — 31. — The Redemption 

»^ Vide Anselm. "Cur Deus homo," lib. II. cap. 7. "quod necesse 
sit eundem ipsum esse pcrfcctum Deum et perfectuni hominem." And 
cap. 8. "Quod ex generc Adae et de virgine femina Deum oporteat 
assumere hominem." 

*° 'Ov(S« yuQ 6 nari;Q y.qvvh 6v8eva, aXka ri,v xQiaiv itdaav 6e- 
Stoy.e Toj vtoj . . t^ovoiav eSfOMV dvTcS xut xft'au' noith' , on 
viog av&i>0}7Tov iuri. John V. 22. 27. The article here omitted; 
not because he is X(jiar6g, but because He is a son of man, judgment 
is given to Him. "Hie homo homines salvat, hie homo homines ju- 
dicat." Bengelius. 

*' Gal. HI. 13. yerofif-rog vntQ /'jwcor k«t«^«; cfr. rr:!i1Z n^S^, 
i^odfJtv&i^aerai. Dan. IX. 26. 

*^ Rom. XVI. 25—27. dnoKaXvxpig ^v(7tt;qiov. 111. 27. ro'juoff 
m'areo)?. Hence St. Paul's expression: "I through the law (of faith) 
am dead to the law of works;" .so that it has no further claim upon 
roe. Gal. U. 19. 


by Christ is an act of free grace, but we must not 
fancy that God is indifferent to sin, because He mer- 
cifully pardons. That He is just and holy is proved 
by His not wishing to forgive otherwise, than through 
tha blood of Christ , in Whom, all the claims of the 
law are fulfilled. The Atonement was accomplished 
under circumstances, which satisfactorily demonstrate 
the righteousness, as well as the grace of God; and 
the ''declaration of His righteousness''^^ by the death 
■ of Christ, was especially necessary, since God had for- 
given sins for Christ's sake, before He accomplished 
the act of Atonement;** it was therefore to be put 
in a proper light, why God had forgiven so many sins 
in past ages, when only "the forbearance of God" 
seemed to have been the motive of His pardoning 
mercy.*' The demonstration of "the righteousness 
of God" became likewise necessary to destroy boasting, 
so that neither Jews nor Gentiles could expect sal- 
vation as a reward. Now "boasting is excluded" when 
"the law of works" condemns the sinner; but "the 
law of faith" excludes it more efi^ectually, by freely 
justifying him from all things. Yet we must not think 
that because God demands faith, the law is made void; 
on the contrary, it is established, when Christ "the 
end of the law" is preached to the world. *^ Most of 

*^ ti'dfi^tg rf^q Sixaioavvrjg avrov. Rom. in. 26. 27. 

** It seemed to be done tr Tj] ((Toxfj d^tov; hence the hdsi^ig of 
His righteousness by the death of Christ. 

*' Hence God forgave sins in the Old Testament not upon the 
indefinite principle of mercy, as represented in the Koran, but in 
prospective regard to the sacrifice of Christ , which was tj'pically 
set forth. 

*'' TiXog yaQ v6(iov X(JtGtog tig diMuoavyfjy nartl tcJ niartV' 

480 CHRIST AND MOHAMMED. [part il. 

the objections to the cardinal doctrine of the Atone- 
ment have arisen from a superficial notion of sin.*' 
The man that never weighed the fearful character of 
transgression, may well argue against Redemption. 
If man is not what he is represented in the Bible, 
then, the objections of Mohammedans, Unitarians, and 
Rationalists against the dogma of the Atonement, 
acquire force, and cannot be impeached; but where 
sin is felt, and the holy character of God's law is ac- 
knowledged, the preaching of the cross of Christ will 
be thankfully accepted.*^ 

8. Since Mohammed rejects the Atonement of 
Christ, it may not be out of place, at the end of this 
chapter, to review the terms, upon which his followers 
/ are promised pardon of sin and the rewards of paradise. 
Here we notice the same superficiality and the same 
materialism, which distinguishes the Moslem notion 
of sm. — God chooses one individual to convey to the 
rest the terms of mercy. Sinners are to rememher 
God and to ask pardon.*^ Repentance of past wrong, 

OfTi. Rom. X. 4. TiXog and nXr^JCoina are synonyms in this appli- 
cation, cfr. 1 Tim. 1, 5. with Rom. XIU. 10. and Matt. V. 17. 

*' Anselm. "Ct(r Deus homo" lib. I. cap. 21. Quanti ponderh 
sit peccatwn. 

*® The viYect of reception is: dtxixiovv, justum declare. Matt. 
XU. 37. Act. XIll. 39. Rom. II. 39. II. 13. III. 20. etc. V. 1. 9. 
Vm. 30. 33. Tit. III. 7. The sense of it is fixed by the parallel 
XoyiC^Tixi TTian^ ng 6txaioavn;r Rom. IV. 5. The effect of rejecting 
Christ and wilfully persisting in sin: OVH tri 7it(ji (xixa(jri(iji' uno- 
kfintrai ■&v(na, qo^f^^u de tig ty.fioxt] y-iJtatajg xal nvfiog Cfi^og, 
fAJ&itiv liiiXXontg rovg vneraniovg. Hebr. X. 26. 27. 28. 29. 

^•-JLiu (v^« \yXjLi Lo J^ ^yy^. ®^^- ^^- ^- ^^^- 


the performance of certain external rites, the repeti- 
tion of certain words, are recommended as infallible 
means of salvation. ""^ As the ceremonial precepts 
have been elsewhere set forth , we shall here confine 
ourselves to the subject of Moslem prayer, or rather 
the efficacy of reading the Koran. — The Sonnites 
hold, that he who properly performs the ablutions 
and then comes to the Friday prayers, hearing the 
Khatbah , viz , the repeating of the praise of God 
and Mohammed, will be pardoned for the ten following 
days/* The repeating a hundred times in a day, of 
a certain doxology "will silence faults, though they 
be as loud as the waves of the sea." Again: ''His 
highness said. Repeat, Praise be to God a hundred 
times and then a thousand virtues shall be written 
for you, ten virtuous deeds for each repetition, or a 
thousand faults shall be put away."^^ And "Who- 
soever shall say, when wishing to go to sleep, T ask 
forgiveness of that God, except whom there is no 
other,' thrice, God pardons his faults although they 
may be as numerous as the waves of the sea, or equal 
to the sands of the deserts, or in number equal to the 
leaves of the trees , or as many as the days of the 
world." ^' 

The same efficacy in procuring pardon, is ascrib- 
ed to these vaiii repetitions of the Koran in the 
Shiite traditions. "Whosoever reads often Sura, /S«/a 

*° Sur. XXIX. 7. rV. 21. XXIH. 1. XVm. 31. this work p. 120. 

** Mishcat Vol. I. 301. and pag. 542. it is added that the re- 
peating of God's 99 names will open paradise. 

*^ Mishcat Vol. I. 547. 548. " Mishcat Vol. I. 574. 


482 CHRIST AND MOHA\nd[ED. [part ii. 

sael, the Almighty will take no account of any of his 
sins, and will let him dwell in paradise with God's 
prophet." And again, 'To one who reads the Sura 
Sejda, every Friday night, the Almighty will give, at 
the day of the Resurrection, his book in his right 
hand, and shall not call him to account, though he be 
a sinner."** A flight's reading and prayer will make 
a man "as free fi'om all sin as at the day when he 
was born;" as many good works will be put to his 
account as all the people of God have ever performed; 
and God will reward him in the highest paradise with 
100,000 towns, and acknowledge his deed before the 
holy angels. ''* Reading a certain Sura once, brings 
a blessing upon the reader; if twice, a blessing comes 
upon him and his family; if he reads it a hundred 
times, Allah will forgive him the sins of twenty-five 
years; 400 times will bestow upon him the merits of 
400 martvrs; and if he reads it 1000 times in one 
day and night, he shall not die till he has seen his 
place in paradise/® Again, at another place it is 
said: "It is, according to an authentic tradition, related 
by Imam Jafer, that whosoever after the afternoon 
prayer, says 100 times, '"May God forgive me,'' the 
Almighty will forgive 700 sins; and if he should not 
have 100 sins, the amount needed to make up the 
number will be taken from the sins of his father; and 

" Ain ul Hayat leaves 208. 211. 

^* Ain ul Hayat leaf 189. Compare J>, 5V ,gx.i J-JJI ,^^ 

xvn. 80. 

*» AinulHayat leaf 215. 


if his father aho should not have so many, then they 
will be taken from the sms of his mother; and in case 
she should not have so many, then the sins will be 
taken from his son, and then from the nearest rela- 
tives, till the number be made up."*' 

Another and most effectual means is the inter- 
cession of Mohammed. In addition to what we 
found in the Koran on the subject, we find in the 
Hadiths, — "Moslemin will be prevented from moving 
on the day of resurrection, so that they will be sad 
and say, 'Would to God we had asked grace from 
our Cherisher, and produced one to intercede for us.' 
Then these men will come to Adam and say, You 
are Adam, the father of all men, ask grace for us 
from your Cherisher ; but Adam will say, I am not in 
that degree of eminence, which you suppose me. They 
then make the same application to Noah, Abraham, 
and Moses, and also to Jesus; but all decline it, saying, 
that they do not enjoy such an exalted degree, as to be 
able to intercede for them. Jesus will then direct 
them to Mohammed. Then the Moslemin will come 
to me, (said Mohammed) and I will ask permission 
to go into God's court, which will be given, and I will 
see Almighty God , and will j)rostrate myself before 
him , and he will keep me , so long as he will , and 
then he will say. Raise up thy head, Mohammed, 
and say what thou wishest to say, it will be heard 

" Ain ul Hayat leaf 165. In leaf 261. it is added that 40 great 
sins done in one day and one night, will be pardoned on saying, with 

penitent feelings : [• v^-^i I^t yC ^1 «Jt ^ i^ JJi itJJI »-ttiju*/| 
etc. etc. Sur. 11. 256. 


484 CHRIST AND MOHAM^fED. [part ll. 

and approved. The prophet then mtercedes for se- 
veral classes of Moslemin who are successively deli- 
vered out of hell, so that none but the infidels will 
remain there." *^ The Shiites have added Ali, his two 
sons, — whose sufferings are considered meritorious 
— and Fatima, of whose excellency and mediato- 
rial merits, as w^ell as of her large veil, the following 
tradition testifies: "Fatima is the best of all women, 
and w^hen the Almighty shall awake all the creatures, 
the first and the last, then the outcrier of heaven shall 
call out fi*om the platform of God's throne, '0 all ye 
creatures, shut your eyes till P'atima the daughter of 
Mohammed and the lady of the women of the world 
has passed theSerat.'^^ Then all creatures will shut 
their eyes, exceptMohammedand Ali and her children 
the Imams ; she then passes the bridge, having spread 
the skirts of her veil over it, in such a way, that one 
end of it is in Paradise in the hands of Fatima, and 
the other, on the plain of Resurrection. Then our 
God's outcrier calls out, "0 friends of Fatima, adhere 
to the threads of Fatima's veil, who is the best of all 
women ! Whosoever therefore is a friend of this glo- 
rious lady , takes of one of the threads ; and there 
adhere to it more than ten Faams, — every Faam 
amounting to one million, — and all these shall be saved 

*^ Mislicat Vol. II. pag. 604. 99. The Shiite traditions agree 
with this, Ilayat ul Kulub Vol. II. 60. 184. 45. Whosoever sends 
70 congratulations to M. and liis family, "his sins shall fall off, like 
as when a strong wind shakes the leaves from the trees." 

^^ A su.spension-bridge , as thin as a hair and as sharp as a 
razor, leading' over hell into Paradise. 


from the fire of hell by the blessing of the veil of this 
glorious lady."°° 

Now according to the Koran , Adam is expelled 
from the heavenly paradise on account of 07ie sin; 
but his posterity, after having committed innumerable y/ 
sins, are received into favour and admitted to para- 
dise upon the easy terms, just specified! God is there- 
fore represented, as regarding sin in one instance, as 
an evil of so serious a nature as to exclude man from 
His presence ; but subsequently in countless instances, 
He is represented as considering it of so light a na- 
ture, as to pardon it freely though a man's sins "be 
as numerous as the waves of the sea." The ways 
of Allah are clearly not equal, if we may believe 
the Koran and Moslem tradition. He is there de- 
scribed, as changeable in principles and unjust in his 

Again, it is admitted that a Moslem commits sin 
to the day of his death; yet the Moslem plan of sal- 
vation specifies no means adequate to remove it, or 

®° This tradition savours of the corrupt notions of oriental Chris- 
tians respecting the Virgin Mary. See Pfander's Remarks pag. 49. 

®* How utterly the sense of Divine equity, justice and righteous- 
ness is blunted in the Moslem mind, may be seen from the following 
tradition: "There was a saint who performed none but holy actions 
and near him lived a wicked man, who did nothing but evil ; both of 
them being friends, the good man exhorted his wicked neighbour to 
amend, lest God should close paradise against him. The sinner how- 
ever turned a deaf ear to his warning and only said , leave that to 
God and myself. At last both died at the same time , and on ap- 
pearing before the Judgment-seat, God a.sked the saint, Can I save 
this man ? He replied , Thou art Almighty and canst do what thou 
wilt. Then answered God, Well spoken; and turning to the sinner 
he said, Enter thou into heaven, but to the righteous, Go thou to 


to make man pure and holy. But for argument's sake, 
taking it for granted that the terms proposed should 
approve themselves to an enlightened mind, let us 
inquire, whether they are ever perfectly carried out. 
No Moslem will hesitate to acknowledge, that as no 
one strictly performs what is required, none can 
be saved by the performance. But , if God does not 
exact all the fasts, alms, prayers and pilgrimages 
commanded in the Koran and in the approved tradi- 
tions, who shall determine how much may be safely 
dispensed with? In other words, how often shall 
Allah alter his purposes, accommodate his conditions 
of salvation to man's frailty , and so demonstrate his 
changeableness and weakness to the universe ? If he 
make no change in the said terms; this plan of saving 
mankind must be defeated, in that no one is saved: 
if he make a change, it follows, that Allah is neither 
just, nor holy, but capricious, weak, and inconsistent. 
The deity of the Koran accepts an imperfect obe- 
dience; making known that he will be satisfied with 
sorrow for past sins, and a promise to commit less 
for the future ; that some things he most enjoin , but 
that he will not be very strict in exacting an obser- 
vance of them ; that he is ready to abridge his de- 
mands from time to time, as occasion may require; 
that he is willino: to receive whatever amount of obe- 
dience man may please to render and decide on for 
himself; that he indeed, punished Adam severely for 
his one sin, but that he has changed his plan of sal- 
vation in favour of his posterity; that Adam is now 
recompensed in heaven for having suffered an imne- 


cessarily severe sentence ; and that if any of us were 
to sin, it need not be a cause of anxiety, for God is 
merciful and easy to be reconciled. ^ ^ 

The plan of salvation , as taught by Mohammed, 
is however, obnoxious and unsound, upon the ground 
of its being man's own work of obedience which is 
put forth as the rock of salvation; this being the 
case, he cannot divest himself of the idea, that his 
attaining it, is justly due to this obedience, rather 
than to God's free mercy and grace alone. Salvation 
given upon the fulfilment of these conditions, becomes, 
plainly speaking, a matter of work performed, and 
wages received. When the work is done, the wages 
will be claimed; and when the wages are received, 
pride and self-complacency inflate the mind of the 
recipient. Or if short-comings be felt, God will be 
regarded as a cruel taskmaster; and the service re- 
quired, instead of being perfect freedom, will be a yoke 
too hard to be borne. That the Moslem thus, regards 
what the Christian deems his highest privilege , viz., 
approaching God in prayer, — will appear from this 
tradition : Allah first required fifty prayers a day from 
Mohammed and his followers, but being advised by 
Moses, the Arab prophet obtained a gradual reduction 
of the number till it was brought down to five prayers 
a day. ^^ Islamism represents God not as bestowing 
a gift, but as prescribing a task, on the jDcrformance 
of which, He pays its due ; the principle of this plan 

" Mshcat Vol. n. pag. 694. Hayat ul Kulub Tol.n. leaf 176. 


of salvation nourishes pride, awakens distrust, yields 
neither motive nor power for sanctification, engenders 
despair, and excluding for ever the exercise of both 
love and gratitude, fully accounts for the frigid cha- 
racter of this miserable creed. 



"Why will ye not willingly contribute of your substance for the 
true way of God, or the carrying on of war against the unbelievers, 
since God alone is the possessor of heaven and earth? Whosoever 
will lend unto God an acceptable loan, to him he will double it 
again and he shall receive moreover an honourable reward." 
Sur. LVII. 10. 11. 

1. The zeal ofMosleminin proselytizing was not 
extinguished, when they ceased to conquer. The duty 
of spreading the faith is still made paramount in the 
education of every Mohammedan; and it is equally 
incumbent on the governor, the soldier, the merchant, 
the captain of the ship, and the Sheich or Mollah, to 
watch every opportunity of disseminating the doctrines 
of the Koran. It cannot be without humiliation, that 
■we contrast this zeal, with the culpable apathy of Chris- 
tians concerning the souls of Mohammedans. Although 
the first tide of Moslem invasion had been success- 
fully repelled , some of the Saracen settlements con- 
tinued to exist for centuries in Europe; and the clos- 
ing conquest ofEuropeanTurkey with Constantinople 


in the fifteenth century, perpetuated the approxima- 
tion of Christianity and Ishimism. During those twelve 
centuries that the Church of Christ stood face to face 
with her gigantic foe, should we not have expected 
that many a David would have gone out to meet this 
blaspheming adversary, "in the name of the God of 
the armies of Israel ?" But how little was attempted in 
comparison with the magnitude of Christian respon- 
sibility!^* Yet to our shame we must confess, that 
our forefathers did more in darker ages, than has 
been accomplished, or even attempted, in this our self- 
conceited generation. We have, for instance, noble 
relics of the eighth century,^' and subsequent ages 
were not altogether inactive in the work of converting 
the Moslem/^ 

With a view to christianize the Saracens , Pope 
Honorius IV. strove in 1285 to establish schools at 
Paris , in which Arabic and other oriental languages 
might be acquired; and the Council of Vienna A. D. 
1 3 J 2 recommended professorships to be established 
for the same purpose in Oxford, Salamanca, Bologna 
and Paris; but the resolution remained without effect 

•* Maraccio, in his preface, justly remarks, " Contra Mahurnetum, 
Mahumeticamque superstitioneni , quae per annos supra mille per- 
severat, qui scripserint, sive ex antiquioribus, sire ex recentioribus, 
pauci, ne dicam paucissimi, numerantur." 


Disceptatio Christ, et Saraceni exstat. Tom. I. oper. Joann. 


A list of works is found in J. Alb. Fabric, syllab. Saipt. de 
ver. relig. Christ, cap. L. pag. 735. Eusebii Renaudoti Mstoria pat/i-i- 
archanim Alexandrin. pag. 377. may also be consulted, as mentioning 
various works against Islamisra. But still, how true it is, "Apparent 
rari nantes in gurgite vasto." 



until Francis I. called it into life ; the result however 
of these feeble efforts was scarcely perceptible. There 
was no practical tendency which could lead to any 
tangible issue ; and a few learned works on the Arabic 
language, some translations of Arabic authors, and a 
couple of commentaries of small value , alone remain 
to testify to the deplorably inert condition of the 
Church, which during the whole period, from the rise 
of Islamism to the time of the Reformation, failed to 
make one vigorous attempt for the conversion of the 
Mohammedans. Nor was it, as we might justly have 
expected, one of the immediate consequences of that 
blessed event, to remember either the Heathen or the 
Moslem world. It was left to the Church of Rome 
to renew the Missionary work among the Moham- 
medans, when Ilieronymo Xaviei\ at the commence- 
ment of the seventeenth century, presented a some- 
what elaborate treatise on the truth of Christianity to 
the Emperor Jahangueir; but the chef-cV oeuvre is the 
well known work oiMaraccio. Lest however we should 
ascribe to the Romish Church, what was achieved by 
a few enterprizing members of her community , it is 
but just to add, that in 1530 a Venetian edition of 
the Koran was publicly burned, and INIaraccio himself 
had to struggle with unheard-of difficulties to procure 
permission to print his work from Pope Innocent XL 
whose father- confessor he was. Amongst other wii- 
tings against Islamism,^' that of PhiUppo Guada- 

^^ We might mention "Triumphis cathoUcae fidei contra sectam 
Mahumetanam;" also " Manudnctio ad convosionem Mahumetaiw- 
rum' by the Spanish Jesuit P. Turs. Gonzales. 


gnoli deserves to be mentioned; it was printed in 
Arabic and Latin, being intended as a reply to a 
Persian work by Achmed Ebn Zini, which was written 
in golden characters and sent to Pope Urban VIII. 
with a challenge to refute its contents. 

In perusing these works , we cannot fail to per- 
ceive under what great disadvantages Roman Catho- 
lics labour, in attempting to argue with Mohammed- 
ans: since Islamism, to a certain degree, maybe said 
to have originated from opposition to those identical 
errors and degeneracies of the oriental Churches, 
which the Papist strives to defend. There can be 
no doubt that one of the reasons which stimulated 
Mohammed in forming his creed, was the offence 
which he took at the worship of the Virgin, and the 
adoration of saints and relics, and which is even now, one 
of the chief causes of the bitter opposition of his fol- 
lowers to Christianity. The Roman Catholic is com- 
pelled to waste his skill in arguments upon the un- 
meaning draperies of the Romish Church, which is 
not simply loss of time and vain expenditure of power, 
but actually throws discredit upon all the sound rea- 
soning on the vital truths with which they are con- 
nected. It may therefore be safely inferred, that the 
Romish Church is not destined to have any great 
share in the conversion of Mohammedans.^^ 

*® The Church of Rome cannot be said to fulfil Christ's com- 
mand, xvQv^uts to ivayytXiov nuari rfj utioti Mark. XVI. 15; but 
her missionaries preach instead, salvation by the Church, "in qua opor- 
teat Rom. Pontificem habere potestatem avvntV'dvvov, de qua nemini 
liceat disputare aut judicare, condendi articulis fidei, abolendi Scrip- 
turas, quas yelit, instituendi cultus et sacrilicia etc. etc." Again, after 


2. But before we presume to cast a stone at the 
Church of Rome , for attempting to do God's work 
among the Mohammedans , in a manner which we 
must condemn as unscriptural , it behoves us to 
mourn over the sinful indifference, which the Reform- 
ed Churches manifest, in neglecting to make any 
efforts to reclaim and convert these lost sheep of the 
house of Ishmael. If the command of the Redeemer 
be of a binding character, till the Gospel has been 
preached to every creature, what a fearful amount 
of guilt must rest upon the Church! The duty of 
evangelizing the world was indeed never quite for- 
gotten, because the Church, from the days of the 
Apostles has never ceased to live. Thus, the Nesto- 
rian Church distinguished itself by its Missionary la- 
bours during a period, in which the European Churches 
neglected their sacred Mission; and the Church of 
Rome founded her Society for propagating the faith, 
before the Protestant Churches considered it time to 
establish Missionary Societies. It was only when the 
Churches of Europe awoke to a more just apprecia- 
tion of their religious privileges, that Societies were 
established by which Christian knowledge and Gospel 
truth should be extended among those who are still 
sitting in darkness and the shadow of death. 

In noticing some of the feeble attempts of Mis- 
sionary labour in recent times, w^e cannot fiiil to men- 
tion Henry Martijn, as one of the principal cham- 

assiiming this power, which heaven never granted to her, she goes 
presumptuously beyond the divine command of the Redeemer : 6i- 
Sdaxoneg uvrovg rr](jeiv nana oaa tvtTtiXainevrji.m'. Matt. XXVIII. 
20, in teaching many things, which Christ never commanded. 


pions for Christianity against Islamism. Situated as 
that devout man w^as in Persia, alone, with no other 
assistance in the unequal contest, than what he could 
derive from a small tract on Mohammedanism , and 
oppressed by the burden of a weak constitution, the 
course which he took, was perhaps, under such cir- 
cumstances, the only one practicable. In perusing 
his arguments, we are struck with the skill and wis- 
dom, which they display; and his reasoning appears 
generally conclusive;^" yet probably, few will doubt 
that many a Missionary, not excluding Henry Martyn 
himself, might have rendered more effectual service 
to the cause of Christianity among Moslemin, had 
they possessed a more thorough acquaintance with 
the tenets of Islamism. ^° 

3. Lest it should be imagined that success in the 
work of propagating Christianity, depends mainly upon 
superior power in controversy, it may be observed 
that controversy alone, was never blessed with the 
conversion of a single soul. The Apostles were not 
charged to dispute, nor to argue, but to preach the 

®^ Henry Martyn will always be looked upon as a model of a 
devoted missionary, but he has not always taken up the most ad- 
vantageous grounds in arguing. The editor of his Controversies, 
Dr. Lee, adopts a different line of argument; having exposed the 
insufficiency of the evidence upon which the Mohammedan builds 
his faith, he substitutes in the place of erroneous principles, the true 
laws of evidence, as enforced by Locke's six considerations. He then 
devotes some parts to the integrity of the Scriptures ; after this , he 
foregoes the proof by miracles , and lays down from Scripture , that 
a true prophet must prophesy, and that even then, if he opposes a 
previous revelation, he is not to be credited. 

" There are not wanting able and devout missionaries , who 
have composed tracts in the native languages, but excepting those 
of Dr. Pfander, few seem to be of any very great value. 


Gospel, testifying "repentance towards God and faith 
towards the Lord Jesus Christ." If Christianity were 
to offer itself as a system of speculative doctrines, it 
would have been the part of the Missionary to com- 
mence, continue, and end with arguments; but the 
message of the missionary, constitutes him a '"'wit- 
ness' of Christ, and this is his distinctive character. 
The heart, even in a physiological point of view, is 
older than the head, and we must therefore be the 
less surprised when in religious matters it likewise 
takes the precedence: for when the light of God 
shines into the heart in "the demonstration of the 
Spirit and of power" it will produce "the knowledge 
of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ."^* 
The witnesses of the Gospel disdain to discharge the 
functions of their sacred mission with "enticing words 
of man's wisdom;" because the philosophy of reason 
has amply proved itself a broken cistern which yields 
no water. '^ The reasoning faculties, which are chiefly 
called into action in matters of controversy, are not 
admitted to their legitimate functions till the heart 
is ready to receive the truths of the Gospel. Natural 
reason, with regard to revelation, is precisely what the 
eye is with regard to the natural light, it cannot see 
without light from heaven; just as there can be no 
harvest without seed, no house without foundation, 
no digestion without food, and no reflection without 

^* "Fides praecidit intellectum , neque vero intelligo ut credam, 
sed credo ut intell/'aaui," Augustin. The divine order is: n(X(j8ia 
niartvtiv Rom. X. 10. .'ind niarti yoov/iitr. Hebr. XI. 3. 

" " Philosophia quaei-'U, religio poaaidet veritatem,'' Bacon, 


matter for thought. In the ministration of God's 
word, there is therefore no notion, which it behoves 
the missionary more specially to guard against than 
this, — that argumentative preaching and controversial 
disputation are the means, by which success is to be 
obtained. Let the missionary have faith in his mission, 
and rely upon the irresistible weight of the message 
of which he is the honoured ambassador: for much 
unfruitfidness may be traced to a want of confidence 
in the all-sufficient power of the Gospel. 

4. Although arguments are frequently provoked 
by the cavils and objections of the Mohammedans, 
yet Islamism is not the creed to court inquiry or en- 
courage a free discussion upon religious subjects. 
The Arab prophet repeatedly enjoins his followers to 
abstain from discussions, and he makes Allah require 
him to recede from those who dispute about the 
Koran. Sur. VI. 65. Arguments with the Scriptural- 
ists are especially discountenanced, Sur. XIX. 46; dis- 
putes are to be settled by imprecations on those in- 
vited to meet for argumental inquiiT, Sur. m. 59; 
discussion is postponed, upon the grounds that God 
would decide differences on the day of Judgment, 
Sur. XXll. 65; a term, certainly too late for those in 
the wrong. Again we read, "As to those who dispute 
concerning God, after obedience hath been paid him, 
their disputing shall be vain in the sight of their 
Lord, and wrath shall fall upon them, and they shall 
suffer a grievous punishment." Sur. XLn. 14. 

The Christian missionary is not to seek for argu- 
ments; but where they cannot be avoided, he is not 


to shun the contest, remembering the example of St. 
Paul who frequently "reasoned out of the Scriptures, 
disputing and persuading the things concerning the 
kingdom of God." Where discussion is entered upon 
in the like spirit of love, and zeal for the salvation of 
souls, we shall be guarded against a display of vanity, 
in gaining a victory which may simply prove a supe- 
riority in education, or philosophical acumen. The 
main point at issue will never be forgotten in the 
heat of the contest; and controversial disputations 
will always on that account, be as short, as kind and 
as seldom as possible. 1 Pet. III. 15. We shall never 
be drawn aside to non-essential or fiuvolous discus- 
sion, neither shall we be tempted to excite or wound 
our opponents by using harsh, satirical and unbe- 
coming expressions. Missionaries are fi-equently ex- 
posed to the most wanton insult, purely with a view 
of provoking resent; but to fall into the snare thus 
laid, is to inflict an irretrievable injury to our cause. 
As a rule, it is well to commence our discourse 
upon subjects in which both parties agree, and to 
proceed from similarities to differences; or we may 
approach the heart of the Moslem in an indirect way 
by bringing forward a parable, or a point parallel to 
that we are about to discuss, which we lead him 
to admit. Thus, in arguing for the impossibility of 
the Bible being corrupted, the missionary may ask 
the Moslem, whether he has ever read Abulfeda, ad- 
ding, that some individual had questioned its integrity, 
but that he had defended it by putting forth Abul- 
feda's general credibility as an author, that he showed 


him several manuscripts, which all agreed to a word; 
that these manuscripts were wTitten in several cen- 
turies , and among various nations ; that he ad- 
duced several other testimonies from writers of ac- 
knowledged worth; that he obtained a collection of 
quotations, made in various writings, which all agree 
with the text ; that he exhibited versions of the work 
in divers languages , all of a different date , but har- 
monizing with the original; yet in spite of all 
that was advanced, the sceptical man persisted in 
declaring that Abulfeda's work was corrupted. When 
the wrath of the Moslem has run as high as that of 
David, the missionary like Nathan, may turn round 
upon him and say, "Thou art the man," and this is 
precisely your obstinacy in refusing to admit the in- 
tegrity of the Bible." 

Again , supposing a Moslem assert the divine 
character of his creed, and the infallibility of the 
Koran, he may be asked, whether Islamism was de- 
signed for the whole race of man, and whether all its 
precepts, not excluding the fast of the Ramadhan, 
are equally binding upon every true Moslem. When 
the universality of the creed is affirmed and the 
binding nature of the precept of fasting from sunrise 
to sunset, admitted, the missionary may remind his 
opponent of the geographical fact , that in the arctic 
and antarctic regions, the period from sunrise to sun- 
set extending to several month's duration, the ob- 
servation of this fast would there be a physical im- 
possibility. The inference may then be urged, that 
the Koran cannot be intended for all climes and 



nations, and consequently cannot be divine. That fur- 
ther, the author of the Koran could not possibly have 
been inspired; but must have been a man ignorant 
of the first principles of geography, with which every 
Christian schoolboy is acquainted. — This circuitous 
mode of reasoning is the most peaceable, perhaps 
also the most difficult, yet at the same time, forcible, 
and perfectly legitimate. 

Above all, never let us withhold any one of the 
leading truths of Christianity with a view to conciliate 
Moslem animosity. In order to win souls, we cannot 
with a good conscience, yield one iota of the truth; 
for such an act of perfidy on our part, would involve 
our own souls in a snare of the devil, and after all 
defeat our object. There has been a considerable 
amount of this kind of Jesuitical accommodation in 
the missionary labours of the Church of Rome; yet 
even Xavier admitted, that Christianity resembled a 
good physician, who administers nothing but whole- 
some medicine to his patient, however distasteful it 
may be to his palate; Avhilst Islamism played the 
part of a cook, who studied the likings of his 

5. It is natural that the hopes and fears of the 
Church , with regard to ultimate success , should 
be differently expressed. Some TVTiters entertain re- 
markably sanguine views upon the subject, assuming 
that Islamism has been doing the work in God's 
providence, which the Jewish dispensation did in the 
Old Testament, viz., preparing the way of the Gos- 
pel, where the minds of the people were incapable of 


receiving the full light of the truth. ' ' Whilst first 
rejecting the plausible and purely gratuitous assump- 
tion, that any preparation in the Pagan world is re- 
quired for the preaching of the Gospel, we are bound 
to add, that the practical experience of every mis- 
sionary who has confronted this apostacy, has proved 
the fallacy of this view. ^* If ever there were ""enemies 
of the cross,"" the Moslem deniers of the Criicijixion 
must be considered such; and admitting that they 
have frequently fought against idolatry, we cannot 
forget, that they have constantly and upon principle 
fought against the Cross. Since Christianity has 
suffered a most fatal check by the spread and con- 
tinuance of Islamism, whilst the latter has suffered 
no check, and sustained no real loss by conversions 
from their ranks to Christianity, we are not justified 
in adopting this assumption. It is confirmed by every 
Missionary who has had to deal simultaneously with 
Pagans and Moslemin, that a perfectly barbarous 
and superstitious people will be more easily gathered 
into the fold of Christ's Church, than the proud and 
self-sufficient Mohammedans, who are indeed, in pos- 

^' Professor '\\Tiite, in a sermon appended to his "Bampton Lec- 
tures," spoke hopefully of the chances of converting Moslemin. Mr. 
Forster maintains that Islamism must eventually prepare the way for 
the missions of the cross and claims the supjiort of Mede and War- 
burton for his opinion. Dr. Mohler who regarded the subject from 
a point of view precisely opposite to that of Mr. Forster, yet agrees 
with him, that Islamism in Africa is doing the work of Judaism. 

^* According to Archdeacon Grant, the system of the false pro- 
phet "offers the most formidable obstruction to the faith of Christ, 
from the fact of its being, as it is, a counterfeit of the truth itself." 
Bampton Lectures Lect. VII. pag. 227. 



session of some fragments of truth, but hold that 


truth in unrighteousness. 

Our fears of success ought not however to over- 
balance our hoj^e of winning converts from Islamism: 
more especially as our confidence rests on no slender 
grounds. One encouraging fact is, that the Koran 
has laid the foundation of its own destruction, in 
ascribing considerable authority to the Law and the 
Gospel , without in any degree establishing its own 
assumed superiority. The intelligent Moslem, on 
reading the Bible, cannot fail to discover the sophis- 
try of the Koran, in professing to confirm the fore- 
going revelations , whilst it virtually abrogates them ; 
and thus the charm which rivets him to that book 
will be inevitably destroyed.''^ Again, the intimate 
connection of religion and state must not only prove 
irksome to both, but eminently dangerous to the 
existence of Islamism. It is impossible that no re- 
forms should be required in the political affairs of a 
nation, especially when brought under foreign in- 
fluences, as is the case with the Ottoman Empire; 
but to reform a Moslem state is to undermine the 
religion, since they are so inseparably bound together 
that the one cannot be altered in the remotest degree 

"^ A great and good man to -whom the autlior is much indebted, 
and one eminently qualified to give an opinion, deilarrs : "(?'^ 
ift uncnUid) fdjwcvcv, cincii iDiubammcraiicr fiir ten (SUiiutcu an (ilniftum 
ju gennnnen, ale ce bei l>en rofjcftcn *I^iilfcrii tre Jpci^clltf)l^m0 ber j^alt ift; 
«nb fo ift bur* ^cn 3oInm bcr dn-iftliriicu 9.lJiffioiie;icfriM*te cin iiui(luii3cr 
Sd^tacibaiiin in ben ©cii flfftellt, bcv niiv ron rcr i>anr bee 5lllniaduigen 
IjimrcfliJciuMnnii-n ivcrbcn fann." W. *lMuniliarbt'iS i1Jifficn0-'®cfdi. '!8^.III. 33. 

"^ Compare the com'ersions of Kabiz Eflendi , d'Ohsson Tom. I. 
51. and that of Abdallah and Sabat. 


without detriment to the other. The very fact of the 
decay of the civil poHty proves the iintenableness of 
the creed, since both date their origin from the same 
source. ' ' It would have been utterly impossible for 
the Sultan to have carried out the many innovating 
measures, which he has done, without endangering 
his throne, had it not been for the foreign influence 
which supported his exertions: since the strength of 
a Moslem state consists only in being stationary, and 
Mohammedans consider that the sovereign who en- 
acts reforms , betrays his trust and has himself be- 
come a Kafl'er. There can be no doubt that the pre- 
sent artificial existence of the Ottoman government 
can be only of very short duration ; and the prevalent 
feeling among the Turks is, that the termination of 
their political power is at hand ; an event which they 
anticipate with the calmest resignation, as one of the 
things which are written in the book of decrees. If 
a feeling of instinctive fear take possession of brute 
beasts before an earthquake, or in birds and bees 
before the coming of a storm, may we not consider 
the presentiments and traditions so rife among Mos- 
lemin, as significant of the approaching decay of Is- 
lamism ? 

6. The oldest prediction was recorded as early 
as the year 1548.^^ Another Turkish prophecy more 
clearly states that the "fair sons of the North" would 
be the destroyers of the Osmanic Empire. In A. D. 

^' Mahler's gesammelte Schrifteu Vol. I. pag. 390. 

^^ Ludovico Domenichi in his , Profetie dei Maometam, Firenze. 


1678, Hycaut speaks of a special liking for theMos- 
covites on the part of the Greeks, because they were 
destined, according to ancient prophecies, to become 
their deliverers and avengers. ^^ Another prediction 
says, "The fair-haired race with all their associates 
will overthrow the Empire of Ishmael , and conquer 
the seven-hilled city with its imperial privileges." ^° 
In Jerusalem, the gate on Mount Moriah towards 
the Mount of Olives, is walled up, because of the tra- 
dition, that whenever a Christian shall pass through 
that gate, the Moslem religion and empire will go 
down. Within the mosque of Omar, there is said to 
be a board containing so many nails which myste- 
riously disappear one by one; and when all shall have 
vanished the Moslem rule will come to an end. As 
another presentiment of their ultimate expulsion from 
Europe, may be mentioned the fact, that the Turks 
always bury their dead on the Asiatic side of the 
Hellespont.^* An Austrian savant who has just tra- 
velled over Asia Minor a second time, in his work 
upon JSaturcd History, states, that the entire Moslem 
community expect a speedy dissolution of the Turkish 
Empire, and this upon the ground of ancient tradi- 
tions. — On a Sunday it will happen that the Chris- 

'^ Rycaut "State of the Greek Church" pag. 83. 

•" Walsh's Journey from Constantinople to England pag. 436. 
Michaud II, 254. observes, "D'apres d'anciennes predictions les Turcs 
sent persuades , que la ville de Constantinople tombera au pouvoir 
des Francs." 

®' The Mosleniin in India hold that, "When all 4 parts of the 
world contain Christian inhabitants, and the Christians approach the 
sacred territory of the Kaaba, then people might look out for the 
long expected Imam." Mrs. Hassan Ali's Observations I. 136. 


tians will receive back all that was taken from them 
by the Moslemin. Not only European Tm-key, but 
the whole of Asia Minor, and SjTia, with the excep- 
tion of Damascus, will be restored to the Christians, 
and Arabia alone will constitute their inheritance/^ 
How great will be the change in the position of Is- 
lamism, when the ruins of the Ottoman Empire shall 
fill considerable portions of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 
and how encouraging to the Christian to look forward 
to the breaking up of the old, and the commencement 
of a new order of things ! ^ ' 

7. The chief incentive however to our Christian 
hope, as regards the conversion of Moslemin, must 
always be, the command of Christ that to all nations 
the Gospel should be preached. Irrespective there- 
fore, of facilities and difficulties, hopes and fears, en- 
couragements and discouragements , we have a plain 

*2 9kife in ben citictfdicn Sauru6 ubcr 3:arfu^ tion Dr. ^ctW^. During 
the appearance of the last Comet, addresses were delivered in the 
mosques at Constantinople till late at midnight, of which, the ap- 
proaching destruction of Islaraisra and the Turkish empire formed 
the chief subject. "This calamity, they say, was occasioned by the 
Sultan when he commanded infidel powers to assist him against 
Russia , instead of trusting to Allah and his prophet ; and when he 
punished the inhabitants of Djedda for obeying the precepts of the 
Koran !" 

85 "3:^ic SKfiifrfifieit fiilitt fein brituienbee Q3cKivfni^ nadi ^ofictem, 
ali \vtnn bagi 9iicbrtge burd) iint fciircf) iiertrauriit ift." 2)i6(i(cr pag. 397. 
"SBeit entfcrnt, cficliaftifci)en einbilruiti^en Bon etnet vK>§(id> 5" l^ennrfcntcn, 
line t»Dm Jpimmel f)craKaaenbcn ^Bcfclirinui tinb Siebergctnirt bcr iWo^Icmt-- 
fdten S36(fer bao ®ert rebcu ju tvcKcn, biirfcn wix borfi t'cfiai4>ten, bag 
©ctteei ginger in ben (Sreigniffen unfercr 3ett mit Ieferltcf)er 
(Sd^tift bie gcnbung, bte bcm d^rifiUd^en (furo^a in Scjug auf 
bte 2»J«tiaTinnebanif*c gBelt ativettrant ift, luuge^eidinct Iiabe." 
Bollinger pag. 147. K this could be said in the year of our Lord 
1838, how much more iu 1859! 


duty, from which, it is faithlessness to shrink. The 
Moslem may reject the message, and like Ishmael 
mock at the truth; the Jew may blaspheme Christ 
and cleave to his dead system of pharisaical ortho- 
doxy; the Pagan may persist in his devotion to a 
degrading idolatry ; but after having heard the Gospel 
message, they all stand in a new moral position, 
having passed the demarcation line between willing, 
and unavoidable ignorance. 

There are how^ever additional reasons, why we 
should no longer neglect the posterity of Ishmael. 
It cannot be without deep meaning to us , that for 
the first time in the history- of divine revelation Christ 
should appear to llagar as "the Angel of Jehovah."^* 
It is also in a high degree significant, that the very first 
occasion in which Jesus-Jehovah is revealed, should 
be to seek and bring back the haughty mother of 
the Ishmaelites, when she had gone astray! CalHng 
her by name and styling her "Sarai's maid," Christ 
gently reminded her of her sin, and commanded her 
to return , and to submit herself to her mistress : a 
touchingly beautiful example for us, as to how we 
are to deal with her erring, but equally haughty 

The Angel of Jehovah had never prior to this, 
personally manifested Himself; it being merely said, 
"Jehovah ajDpeared unto Abraham," or "the word of 
the Lord came unto him;" but now, after God had 

®* The Angel of Jehovah "^H* '!^n"*''3, who here as the good 
Shepherd goes after that which is lost until He find it. is invariably 
the Lord Jesus , and here , Gen. XM. 7. the appellation occurs for 
the first time. 


made a covenant with Abraham, Gen. XV. He show- 
ed Himself to Hagar, Gen. XVI. as the Angel of 
the covenant or as the Angel of Jehovah. That the 
manifestations of the second Person of the Trinity, 
which now opens a long series of revelations , were 
ordinarily in human form, is clear from several ac- 
counts.'*^ Jacob speaks of Him as the "Angel who 
redeemed" him from all evil.^^ He called Moses; He 
led the Israelites in the wilderness; He fought for 
them as "the Prince of the Lord of hosts" on their 
taking possession of Canaan ; He guided the people 
in the days of the Judges, and took up His abode in 
the Most Holy of the Temj^le.^^ 

The Angel of Jehovah is one with Jehovah, and 
yet different from Him; He is called by Isaiah "the 
Angel of His presence;" ^^ at a later period He pro- 
mises to "search His sheep and seek them out" as 
the good Shepherd;*^ and in Malachi He declares, 
"Behold I wdll send my messenger, and he shall pre- 
pare the way before me, and the Lord whom ye seek, 
shall suddenly come to His temple, even the 3Iessen(/er 

"* Whilst Gen. XII. 7. fi^J^.N-bx nV."; N'nn and Gen. XV. 1. 
C'n3N~3N rrr;';'""!!"! S^^" we find tliat the angel of Jehovah appear- 
ed as one of three men, D'''^;n r;;i^b">23 ^IT:']. The assumption of the 
hnman fwn\ prior to Christ's taking upon Him human nature is not 
a solitary instance, of new epochs existing in revelation, long before 
their actual appearance. 

®^ :n-b273 "Tij* ''^>~ '^Nb'?|r; the Angel, the Redeemer from all 
evil. Gen. XLVIII. 16. is distinguished fi-om the God who fed him 
all his life, and who is called QT^'b^r; verse 15. 

" Exod. m. 2. XW. 19. XXni. 20. XXXm. U. Josh. V. 13- 
Judges II. 1. VI, 11. XIII. .3. Ps. LXXVII. 21. LXXVIH. 52- 
1 Kings VUI. 10 — 12. 

88 C:?"i2}-;n v;e TIn'^to Isa. LXKI. 9. «" Ezek. XXXIV. 11. 


or Angel of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold 
He shall come, saith the Lord of hosts." ^" Whilst 
the angels nowhere speak in the name of Jehovah 
without drawing a broad line of demarcation between 
themselves and Him, by whom they are sent, "the 
Angel of Jehovah" who appears to Hagav, speaks, 
as Jehovah; and God says of this Angel, "Beware of 
Him and obey His voice, provoke Him not, for He 
will not pardon your transgressions, for My Name 
IS in Mini." ^ * 

The reason why Christ the Angel of Jehovah, 
first appeared toHagar, was doubtless, because He is 
"the same yesterday, to-day and for ever." It befitted 
the Friend of sinners to condescend to appear in 
hitman form to the erring mother of the Saracens, 
as He afterwards appeared in human nature to men 
and women who were sinners. She was, moreover, in 
afiliction, and probably already conscious of her guilt, 
Gen. XVI. 2. and was therefore permitted to see God's 
face, as it only can be seen, in Christ. ^^ By this 
'" Mai. m. 1.; D-'Stcri cnN ^.^.^ ri-"na.r; "i^n^W; by 

Daniel he had been already seen \2;;5< '^5?. like the Son of man 
chap. VII. 13. 14. See also Zech. XIl". 9. 10. XIH. 7. 

®' Exod. XXUI. 21. The term "r^Nlb?? Anael is applied here in 
the same way as, dnoatokog in Hebr. 111. 1 ; and has been used by 
our Lord Himself, when He .speaks of His "being sent"' by the Father, 
this being the ctymolog-ical sense of nyyfXog. Matt. X. 40. Lu. X. 
16. John V. 23.' VI. 29. XVI. 28. XVll. 3. Upon going through 
the passages of the N. Test, where the English version renders, — 
"the angel of the Lord" we find that the original in harmony, with 
the Old Test, has only ayy^Xo? Kv(jiov , an angel of the Lord ; the 
only exception being Matt. I. 24. where o was in all probability in- 
serted by a subsequent copyist. This is the more surprising as the 
distinction seemed less necessary in the New Test. 

" Exod. XXXTir. 20. Isa. VI. 5. 1 John I. 18. 1 Tim. VL 16. 


manifestation to the proud and rebellious bondmaid 
of Sarah, it was shown to the world, that whilst Je- 
hovah was pre-eminently the God of the Hebrews, 
Jesus- Jehovah was the Saviour of the ivhole world. 
They who cannot understand why Christ should first 
appear to the Egyptian Hagar, instead of to Abra- 
ham or Sarah, forget or disown the love of Jesus 
to the most reprobate of sinful humanity. Hagar 
was the mother of a posterity which more than 
any other have distinguished themselves by their 
animosity to Christ, their hatred to Christians, 
and their enmity to the Gospel: the appearance of 
Christ to her, as "the Angel of Jehovah," at once 
implied, that His future incarnation as the seed of 
the woman, M-as not only for the then chosen people, 
but also for those who seem hopelessly lost, in wild 
fanaticism, inconceivable pride, and enmity against 
God. It taught the same truth in the Old Testament, 
which is taught in the Gospel by the parables of the 
lost sheep and the prodigal son. 

The strong motives which are here supplied by 
our Lord's example, for Missionary enterprize among 
the sons of Hagar, are further supported by special 

2 Cor. V. 19. Col. I. 19. 20. John XIV. 23. XYH. 21. 24. As this 
reconciliation was retrospective as well prospective, Hagar saw God 
in the face of Jesus Christ. This is also the sense of her words, 
Gen. XTI. 13. 14. ■'':n.5i T'!^'^ ff-u tS^L! T^^N ''2 \n;i bx r.PN 
•K1 "'n5 '^N2 "iNab N"iT5 p~by : -N") After altering- the vowels in the 
two last •"M" to make it passive like the first, which seems the more 
correct, the sense would be: "Thou art the visible God. For she 
said , behold , also here I see still (am alive) after the visible God 
(after he appeared to me). Therefore she called the well : Well 
of the living and visible." Gen. XVI. 13. 14. 


promises, that they shall be re-admitted into the 
family of Abraham , fi'om which , for a season they 
were expelled. Neither the Jews nor the Ishmaelites 
are everlastingly excluded from the blessings of the 
Gospel; and as in the end "all Israel shall be saved," 
Rom. XI. 11 — 32, so will also be fulfilled what is 
written of the future conversion of the posterity of 
Ishmael.^'' As Israel "shall look upon Him, whom 
they have pierced and shall mourn for Him ;" so shall 
the house of Ishmael mourn, when their eyes shall 
be opened, and they think upon the gracious ap- 
pearance of Christ to their mother Hagar, and His 
giving her a blessing, by w^hich they multiplied, and 
upon which they shall continue to subsist to that very 
hour. For as Hagar returned and submitted herself, 
"not being disobedient to the heavenly vision," so may 
we hope that her sons will return ; and when they re- 
turn and submit to Christ's yoke, then will be solved 
the great mystery, why God has blessed Ishmael 
with so numerous a posterity, — a posterity which 
has invariably proved inimical to the kingdom of His 
dear Son. 

8. A survey of the statistical distribution of the 
various creeds among the inhabitants of the world, 
is truly appalling; and it requires a higher ground of 
confidence than ordinary principles of calculation, to 

^^ "The multitude of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries 
of Midian and Ej^hoh , all they from Shebn shall come . they shall 
bring gold and incense; and they sliall show forth the praises of the 
Lord. All the flocks o^Kedar shall bo gatliered unto thee, the rams of 
Nehaoth minister unto thee : they shall come up with acceptance on 
mine altar, and 1 will glorify the house of my glory." Isa. LX. 6. 7. 
cfr. Gen. XXV. 2. 4. 




feel assured of" the final triumph of Christianity.^* 
But apart fi'om what has been previously adduced of 
the hopeful views of the Christian, respecting the 
Mohammedans, there are certain facts connected with 
the statistics of the Church which are encouraging. 
It is acknowledged that there has been a steady nu- 
merical increase of Christians ever since the founda- 
tion of the Church, and that with the exception of 
the apostolic age, never perhaps greater than in the 
present century. Yet on equally dividing the addi- 
tional numbers of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries, we obtain an increase of 33,000,000 
for each; whilst in the preceeding five centuries there 
was only an addition of 10,000,000, and in the five 
before them, of 7,000,000 per century. ^^ If there- 
fore, the leaven of Christianity be actively distributed 
by Missionary operations among "the three measures 
of meal,'"' — which may fairly be taken to represent the 

^* The Moliammedans are far below the real number in the 
following statistical table , but we cannot refrain from inserting it, 
as it affords in other resi^ects, a correct estimate. 

Religionists: 1 Malle-Bnin. ^ Graberg. Pinkerton. 

Hassel. Balbi. 

Christians . . . 






Jews .... 












Brahmin. Hindus . 






Buddhists . . . 






Other religions . 






Total numbers . 

ti53, 000,000 





^^ hi the 1"' century Christians numbered 

. . 500, OOU 


n n ^ n >i n 

. . 15,000,000 

n n AU „ „ „ 

. . 50,000.000 


. . 100,000,000 

„ „ li 

^'^ n 



. . 20 



Jewish, ihe Pagan, Zindi i\\e Mohammedan, communi- 
ties; — we may confidently look forward to the period, 
when "the whole" shall be leavened. The present 
distribution oi j^olitical supremacy, also, in some mea- 
sure, relieves the darkness of the prospect. The Pro- 
testant States of Europe and America could not a 
hundred years ago, muster 350,000,000 of subjects 
including their Colonies ; and now they extend their 
power in both hemispheres, over six times that num- 
ber. Within less than a hundred years, the popula- 
tion of Great Britain has risen from 13 to upwards 
of 150 millions, or about a sixth portion of the human 
race. A hundred years ago, the Moslem powers of 
Turkey, Persia, and India still ranked amongst the 
most powerful governments of the world. The two 
former are weakened, and the Mogul Empire has 
yielded to English supremacy in the East. But how 
has this political facility been employed? 

The policy, so long in force, in the Government 
of the Indian Empire, has produced few of the bless- 
ings which one might justly have looked for. What- 
ever of real good has been efiPected , was the work of 
private individuals, carried on in spite of, rather than 
in co-operation with the ruling powers. It must not 
be forgotten, that the East India Company expelled 
Christian Missionaries from their dominions, and 
they, to avoid persecution fi-om a Christian Govern- 
ment in a Heathen land, were driven to seek shelter 
in a foreign settlement. Hindoo-temples and Moslem- 
mosques were not ou\y protected hut endoived. Native 
converts were dismissed from the ranks of the army 


as though they were "pestilent fellows;" and even 
during the recent struggle to quench the rebellion, 
the offer of the Christians of Krishnaghur to act as 
Coolies or bearers, when greatly needed for the army, 
was rejected, because they applied not as subjects, 
but as Christians. By law, the publication of a Bible 
is a penal offence, punishable by seizure of the presses, 
and though not enforced, we believe it still exists, 
not less to our shame than to the contempt of the na- 
tives. The most rigid measures were enforced to ex- 
clude the possibility of a ray of Christian light pene- 
trating the Government institutions for education. 
When the Elphinstone College was founded in Bom- 
bay, the Native Committee had sanctioned there being 
a class in the Institution in which Christian Divinity 
might be taught, and that it should be left to the 
option of the students to attend ; but the professedly 
Christian Government, in revising the statutes of the 
plan of education, deliberately struck out the provision 
thus made and sanctioned by the natives. 

It was indeed just, that in India, as well as in 
every other dependency of the British crown, there 
should be perfect toleration of all religious behefs; 
but this principle of toleration does not imply a ne- 
cessity on the part of the Government, to disavow 
its Christian character, to pay a premium on false 
religion, and to act on all occasions as if England 
had cause to feel ashamed of avowing her Chris- 
tianity! Such a course of policy was however pursued 
by the Indian Government, till it produced, in God's 
righteous judgment, an army of traitors and assassins. 


Had the East India Company been the most intolerant 
oppressors, and had they no more respected the re- 
ligious feelings of the people, than the ^Moslem con- 
querors themselves had done for the space of 700 years, 
they could not have reaped a more bitter harvest ! An 
intelligent native stated years ago, — "Your Govern^ 
meoit alone, preve^ited India from becoming a Chris- 
tian country. '"^^ "Shall I not visit for these things, 
saith the Lord: shall not my soul be avenged on 
such a nation as this?" The hour of vengeance did 
come; — and upon it, it was said to the East India. 
Company, "Thou mayest be no longer steward." 

May the new Government of India avoid pro- 
voking the like Nemesis, by adopting a manly, open 
and straightforward course; not being ashamed of 
their God, their Christianity and their Bible. Let 
not the light, which casts no shadow, be wilfully 
hidden under a bushel; for it is sinning against his- 
tory and experience, to expect happiness and salvation 
fi'om a godless civilisation, and an education which 
separates the head from the heart, and the intellect 
from the conscience. 

9. But to expect or demand everything from 
Government, as regards the conversion of the Mo- 
hammedans, is to fall into one of the snares of 

^* Prof. "White said nearly a century ago , "Narrowminded in- 
deed, and false is that philanthropy wliich feigns anxiety for the 
rights and liberties of those, fur Avhose eternal salvation they evince 
no concern. "NViiat can a virtuous people do more laudably tiian 
propagate their religion, where their laws are obeyed?" Banipton 
Lect. 1784. It has been for a long period the custom of the French 
Government to convey missionary priests, nuns and monks, gratuitously 
on board their steampackets. 


Islamism.^' It is the special work of the Church to 
evangelize the world; the part of the Government 
being to countenance, protect, and assist such efforts 
as are being made through her agency and instrumen- 
tality. What then has been done by the Church of 
England, on behalf of the conversion of Mohammed- 
ans? On the awakening of a Missionary spirit with- 
in the present century, there were founded Societies 
for conveying the leaven of the Gospel into two of 
the "three measures of meal," viz. the Jews and 
Pagans. But where is the Missionary ''Society for 
propagating the Gospel among the Mohammedans,'' 
by which the Church, as the woman in the parable, 
might convey the leaven into the third measure of 
meal ? How many are the stations in Turkey, Egypt, 
Syria, Africa and India? How many schools are under 
its direction? How many agents are employed in its 
service? What is the annual income of the Society? 
How many catechumens, converts and communicants 
were put down in its last annual report? Which are 
the countries where most help is required and what 
fresh stations are now in contemplation by the Com- 
mittee? How many newly ordained men, who have 
difficulty in finding work at home, have offered them- 
selves, Hke Henry Martyn, for this work? What says 
the last annual report of the College of the Society, 
in which men are specially trained, for the work of 

^^ "Not by might, (better, army, ^"^n^) nor hy poiver, nbs but 
by MY Spirit, saith the Lord of hosts." Zech. IV. 6. Both h-.Ti and 
pb are singularly applicable to the means employed in the propaga- 
tion of Islamism. 



preaching the Gospel to the sons of Ishmael ? How 
many sermons are annually preached on behalf of the 
Society, and to what extent, has the Institution seized 
hold of the sympathies of the faithful of the land? 
Which of the nobility and Bishops have felt the 
privilege of being permitted to give their name and 
influence to the Society? Alas, for the humiliating 
answer to these inquiries! "Thus speaketh the Lord 
of hosts, saying, This peojyle say, The time is not 
come, the time that the Lord's house should he built." 
Hagg. T. 2. 

10. One of the causes why the Mohammedans 
have not hitherto received a due proportion of Mis- 
sionary SMTipathy, is unquestionably owing to the pre- 
valent fallacy, that the Moslem worshipped the true 
God; that he occupied an infinitely higher position 
than the idolater; and therefore, stood not so much 
in need of the Gospel. May be, there has been an 
excess of Anti-Mohammedan feeling in some of the 
older works on Islamism, and that more recent in- 
vestigations have produced a re-action, by placing 
some of its features in a less hideous light. But a 
considerable modification in our views has doubtless 
arisen from teacherous and malignant causes, at work 
amongst ourselves : the more men lose faith in the 
Son of God, the more lenient will become the terms 
in which they speak of Moliamnicdanism. The ele- 
ments of misbelief and infidelity, which have been 
ever more or less afloat within the Church, assumed 
a definite and consistent form, in Unitarianism; a 
heresy which, like Arianism, is but a subtle modi- 


ficatiou of the teaching of the Koran, — the essence of 
this triple apostacy being alike, the denial of the 
Divinity of Christ. 

There are indeed, many striking points of analogy 
and contrast, which it is not our province to particu- 
larize. Enough for our purpose to observe, that Uni- 
tarians or Socinians virtually adopt the teaching of 
the Koran, in denying the Godhead of the Redeemer; 
though in so doing, they are less consistent than the 
author of Islamism, whom they reject. Mohammed 
feehng that he could not admit the Bible in its pre- 
sent form to be true, and at the same time reject the 
Divinity of Christ , chose to deny the Son of God, 
and, with a terrible consistency, rejected the Bible, 
alleging it had been corrupted. The Unitarian, on 
the contrary, rejects the Divinity of our Lord and 
yet retains the Bible, 

But how is this Semi-Mohammedan heresy re- 
garded in our day by a Christian pubhc? It is merely 
considered as one of the numerous Christian sects 
which abound in the land. The highly intellectual 
and philanthropic bearing of many of its members, 
secures them esteem in this age of reason and bene- 
volent enterprize ; and meanwhile, it is forgotten, that 
the Lord Jesus Christ, "God blessed for ever," is de- 
graded by them to a mere creature. Since thisAnti- 
christian apostacy is treated with such culpable in- 
difference at home, how can we expect that any con- 
cern should be manifested for the conversion of the 
Mohammedan abroad? 

It may be startlmg to broach the idea of the 


possibility, yet judging from appearances, it would 
seem more probable that Islamism might gain converts 
from our countrymen, and that mosques should be 
erected in England , before Churches are built in 
Mecca or Medina ! Nay, incredible as the tidings may 
seem and humiliating as it is to confess it, we are 
compelled to add that a number of Englishmen, — 
doubtless before Unitarians in heart, if not in pro- 
fession, — have already embraced Islamism, and avowed 
their determination to rear a mosque in the heart of 
London, as soon as they could muster forty in num- 
ber! That our ignorant and depraved masses are in- 
deed ripe for any snare or delusion, however absurd 
or degrading, has been sufficiently proved by the 
fearful ravages which the follies and impieties of 
Mormonisni have made; a phenomenon perfectly 
analogous to Mohammedanism, and which indeed 
sprang up in that country, where the Unitarian heresy 
is most flourishing. 

This may be justly deemed one of the insidious 
causes of our neglecting Missionary work among the 
posterity of Ishmael; and it must be considered a 
sad symptom of our national Christianity, that Eng- 
land should so willingly have sacrified her sons and 
her wealth to defend the civil freedom and guard the 
territorial integrity of 'J'urkey from foreign aggression, 
and yet should have made no effort for the spiritual 
emancipation of its inhabitants ! But as we have shown 
no zeal for the honour of Christ among the Moham- 
medans, and manifested no concern at His Name being 
blasphemed, we have been taught that they at least, 


would be in earnest to serve God after the fashion 
prescribed in the Koran. God saw it required nothing 
less than the Indian rebellion to correct our past 
neglect of the followers of the Koran, to rebuke 
our sinful latitudinarianism, to chastise our extra- 
ordinary infatuation for Turkey, and to compel us 
to remember our j^eal Mission to the descendants 
of Ishmael.^* 

It was acknowledged on the Day of humiliation 
Oct. 7. 1857, in almost every pulpit of the land, "that 
our fast ought to assume a practical turn;" that 
"foremost among our sins, was neglect in spreading 
Christianity among the idolaters and Moslem popu- 
lation of India;" that "the number of jNIissionaries 
was painfully disproportionate to the task;" that "the 
only remedy given from heaven against the natural 
depravity," manifested during the mutiny, "was the 
religion of Jesus Christ ;" that we were to preach the 
Gospel to every creature rather than "pander to 
Heathen follies or sympathise with the followers of 
a false prophet;" that "it was the godless education, 
and liberty without religion, as afforded by the Govern- 
ment schools, which became the cause of the mutiny; 
just as education and liberty without religion first 
brought about the French revolution;" that as soon 
as the war was over, we "must commence repairing 
our religious neglect of India;" that "we have not 

T/ie Turkish aid Society" indeed, was a feeble demonstration 
on the part of British Christians , that they were not altogether in- 
sensible of their obligation to do something for the Turks at least, 
if not, for the Mohammedans in general. But its chief object seems 
to be to make grants of money to other Societies. 


done a tithe of what we might have done for India;" 
that "we still owe her a mighty debt," and cannot 
deny that "we have fallen short of our obligations to 
that great empire, which Almighty God has entrusted 
to our care during a hundred years;" that "little had 
been done to promote the glory of God, in the ac- 
quisition of that vast and populous region, we had 
held for ourselves, not for God;" that "'of the enormous 
revenue derived from our Eastern possessions, next 
to nothing; had been sanctified for the service of God, 


and the maintenance of adequate Christian Missions 
to evangelize these benighted multitudes;" that "from 
motives of worldly policy we had truckled to many 
of the worst superstitions;" that "we had been timor- 
ous and timeserving, and had failed to exhibit our 
religion in such an aspect as to gain the respect and 
affection of the people;" that "our visitation must be 
regarded as a severe, but merciful act of the Almighty, 
to recal us to a sense of our duties towards India;" 
that "we would not proselytise hj force, but cease to 
encourage idolatry, or sanction it by timid disrespect 
to our own holy religion;" that "we had not been 
faithful to India , nor manifested to them our belief 
in Christianity;" that "the horrors of the mutiny 
should rouse Christians to greater Missionary efforts ;" 
that we had "proved unfaithful to our trust, and had 
rather helped idolatry, than Christianity;" that "in 
India we have fearfully neglected our duty by not 
proclaiming God's Gospel , lest we should offend the 
nations and lose our wealth through their jealousy 
and estrangement, and we have even encouraged their 


idolatries ; and now, that very fanaticism, which might 
have been removed by the power of the Gospel, is 
made onr scourge;" that "the Sepoys had been strictly 
guarded from all intercourse with Christian Mission- 
aries, and that in the year 1819 a Sepoy who turned 
Christian was compelled by the sentence of a court- 
martial to leave the army;" and that "this occurred 
at Meerut, the very city, where the mutiny broke 
out;" that "if we believed that the Lord was God, 
we should have faithfully followed Him and spread 
His Church and honoured His Name among the 

11. These convictions, confessions, and resolu- 
tions have been solemnly uttered in God's house by 
Christ's servants, amidst devout and contrite assem- 
blies; and since the English mind is of a strictly jwac- 
tical turn, should mc not expect that the deep-felt 
sense of its duty, would lead at once to amendment, 
and not prove a merely evanescent outburst of feel- 
ing.^ Unless repentance of sins of so deep a dye, as 
confessed, on so solemn an occasion, be followed by a 
correspondent change of conduct, the expression and 
acquiescence in such sentiments is but a national 
mockery, which God cannot leave unpunished. 

Yet the Indian rebellion, which thus opened 
our eyes, has in itself, rather an encouraging than 
discouraging feature. The furious outbreaks of 
rancorous animosity against Christians, which now 
more than ever animates the Moslem community, 
is far less to be dreaded than a state of religious 
stagnation. When Saul of Tarsus was most viru- 


lent against Christ, ''breathing out threatenings 
and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord" 
and "making havoc of the Church," in a truly 
Moslem spirit, he was on the very eve of his sud- 
den and marvellous conversion. The Mohammed- 
ans, like him, do it "ignorantly," being "zealous to- 
wards God," and "thinking to do Him service." And 
we ask, was there ever a more favourable opportunity 
for Christian people to show "the same mind which 
was in Christ Jesus," when lie appeared to perse- 
cuting Saul on his way to Damascus , w^hen He met 
Hagar, in the path of rebellious w^a)"v\'ardness , and 
when He prayed for His enemies, amidst the tortures 
of the crucifixion ? 

That we may be enabled to evince a like mind 
towards the Mohammedans, and effectually to carry 
out Christ's work among them, fresh channels will 
in all probability be needed, through which, the bless- 
ings of the Gospel may be fully transmitted to them. 
None of the established Societies are specially pledged 
to this work; their Missionaries being instructed, with 
a few solitary exceptions , to regard them only in so 
far, as they come in their way. The smallest amount 
of reflection will convince every one that a separate 
Society is required for the Mohammedans, upon the 
same grounds and for the same reasons, that a dis- 
tinct Society was founded for evangelizing the Jews, 
If the existing Societies had nearly fulfilled their re- 
spective Missions amongst Jews and Pagans, so that 
their attention could be legitimately turned to the 
Moslem community, the desired instrument would be 


already supplied. But what is the actual state of 
things? No person able to judge of the merits of the 
question, will doubt, that had there been lack of work 
in Africa and India, the newly-opened Empire oi China 
would alone be sufficient to absorb the combined re- 
sources of both European, and American Missionary 
Societies. One of the first steps then, seems to be to 
prepare the net, and to found a Society to which we may 
confide the work of evangelizing the Mohammedans. 
Many individuals are no doubt willing to do some- 
thing, but as long as no legitimate instrumentality 
is appointed by which single efforts can be properly 
directed, they are at a loss what to do, and doing 
nothing, is meanwhile considered excusable, if not 

12. But be it by one means or another, the work 
must be done ; and every soul is required to share the 
labour, according to the ability which God has given 
him. How often it is the case, that individual re- 
sponsibility is unfelt when the duty of collective bodies 
is enforced; yet is it not just through the members 
that the body performs its various offices and func- 
tions? In like manner, the individual members of the 
Church are destined to perform the work of the Body 
of Christ ; and those members that will not work in- 
dividually, but wait for the whole body to move, are 
said to have a name that they live, but are dead. 
Yet how frequently it happens , that because we 
cannot do much, or everything, as individuals, we do 
nothing at all, and thus fall into the condemnation 
of the city oi Meroz, Judg. V. 23. whose inhabitants 



were cursed by the Angel of the Lord; not because 
they were wicked as Sodom, or hardened Hke Caper- 
naum, but because they did 7iothing, and "came not 
to the help of the Lord, against the mighty." Now 
Meroz is nowhere besides mentioned in the Bible; 
in vain do we look for it in any profane work of an- 
tiquity, or on any ancient map of the Holy Land. It 
was a town or village undoubtedly small, and even 
perhaps ''least among the thousands of Judah;" yet, 
little as was its strength , unknown as was its name 
and locality, insignificant as was its position and in- 
fluence in the world, it was expected to do something 
for Jehovah ; and because the inhabitants delayed in 
coming, wdien there was a general call for all true Is- 
raelites to help, they w^ere bitterly cursed. 

There is a like call to every true member of "the 
Israel that now is," to come and work in behalf of the 
180 millions of Mohammedans. And to all whose spirit 
the Lord has at any time stirred up, it is said, "Yet 
710W he strong, O Zeruhbahel, saith the Lord, and he 
strong, O Joi-Azm son of Josedech, the high priest; and 
he strong, all ye people of the land, saith the Lord, and 
work: for I am with you, saith the Lord of hosts: 
according to the word , that I covenanted with you, 
w^hen ye came out of Eg^^it, so my Spirit remaineth 
among you; fear ye not. The silver is mine, and the 
gold is mine, saith the Lord of hosts." Hagg. n. 

The chief thing, however, is yet to be mentioned; 
we refer to the work of prayer and faith. Epaphras, 
the servant of Christ, is commended for "always la- 


hour in g fervently in prayers."' Since the apocalyptic 
woe of Islamism was ushered into the world by "a 
voice from the golden altar," — thereby intimating, that 
there no longer existed a sufficient power of prayer 
in the Church, to resist the breaking in of that dire- 
ful judgment, — we may rest assured, that nothing can 
be done towards the diminishing of this antichristian 
power, except every effort be sustained by the most 
humble and confident approaches to "the throne of 
grace." The very name of the progenitor of the people, 
for whom we are to labour in prayer, contains in 
itself, a command and an encouragement to pray; as 
well as a distinct promise and pledge, that ''God 
ivill heary'"^^ and will say concerning every prayer 
offered up in his behalf, "as for Ishmael I have heard 

All Missionary work is of necessity a work of 
faith, and can only prosper in an atmosphere of 
prayer. But how especially is this the case, when 
we aim at the conversion of the Ishmaelites and the 
destruction of Islamism! As therefore, the walls of 
this spiritual Jericho can only fall by faith, let no 
one put his hand to this work, who is ignorant of 
the true secret of prayer; and who has not "this 

^^ bt«?|W"^:, Juut4-wwf, 'Irfnca]Xog, Ishmael, from ywuj fut. yttU?: 
and 5N, God shall hear. Hence the patronymic, ■'^Ny'53^'; plur. 
d-bMSTS^:, "Ishmaelites" Gen. XXXVII. 25. When Abraham, his 
father, had cast him out, and when Hagar, his mother, had "cast him 
tinder one of the shrubs" in the scorching desert, to let him die, 
"God heard the voice of the lad," who, having ceased to mock, like 
Saul of Tarsus, had now commenced to pray. See Act. IX. 11. Idov 
yaQ 7i(jO(Jtvxerai. 


confidence , that if we ask anything according to His 
will, He heareth us:" and this is His will, — that 
"All men should be saved, and come to the know- 
ledge of the Truth." 




Pag. 11 2, note 89. for dLLo read, AJuJs ^juo. 

„ 144, „ 20. for in the name, read, in the name. 
„ 145, „ 26. for narudtTaog read, naoadetdog. 

... ^1"' 

„ 146, „ 29. for ^b read, ,j'j»- 

„ 149, „ 46. for N:'.n read, N^C-l. 

„ 157, „ 73. for --s;: read, 2^-3^:. 

„ 161, „ 91. for "i'DS read. r^N.' 

„ 357, „ 6. for noaxXiaeig read, ngoay.h'ofts. 

„ 415, line 14. for New Testaments read, iSew Testament, 

ite^' iiiniffr 

^) :i<>t^<Ql'UltawWJ