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\ 



THE ISLAND OF 

GUAM 



WITH MAP AND 12 ILLUSTRATIONS 



BY 

Civil Ejigineer L. M. COX, U. S. Navy 

1904 

PARTIALLY REWRITTEN BY 

Capt. E. J. DORN. U. S. Navy 

1910 

REVISED BY 

Passed Asst. Paymaster K. C. McINTOSH, U. S. Navy 

1911 

REVISED AND ENLARGED BY 

Lieut. Commander M. G. COOK, U. S. Navy 

1916 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFHCE 

1917 



■^•' ^ "1 c\-],s 



1 



Harvard College Library 

Aug. 30, 1017. 
From 
United States aovernment 



I ' ■w • . < / 



^ . r 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

I . Geography, topography, and geology 7 

II. Ethnology, flora, and fauna *. 10 

III. Climate 28 

IV. Discovery, occupation, and missionary work, 1521-1670 30 

V. Rebellions and wars, 1670-1696 33 

VI. Latter colonial organization, 1696-1898 37 

VII. Guam under the United States 40 

VIII. Ancient inhabitants 46 

IX. Present inhabitants, population 52 

X. The capital city of Agana 57 

XI. Towns and villages, roads 59 

XII. Arts and crafts, religion and education 71 

XIII . Government, past and present, courts and laws 77 

XIV. Revenues, products, imports, and exports 80 

XV. Miscellaneous information for visitors and prospective settlers 82 

APPENDIX. 

1. Interesting document 87 

2. Capture of Guam — OflScial docmnent relating to 88 

3. Pronunciation of letters in Chamorro 93 

4. Bibliography 94 

3 



LETTEK OF TRANSMITTAL. 



Naval Government of Guam, 
Govemraent House^ Septerriber 12^ 1916. 

From : Lieut. Commander M. G. Cook, U. S. Navy. 

To : Capt. Eoy C. Smith, U. S. Navy, Governor of Guam. 

Subject : Revision of pamphlet Island of Guam. 

Reference: (a) Department's letter No. 9351-1429 of June 15, 1915. 

1. In accordance with the department's request contained in refer- 
ence (a), there is forwarded herewith the manuscript of a revision 
of the pamphlet entitled " Island of Guam," originally written by 
Civil Engineer L. M. Cox, U. S. Navy, and subsequently revised by 
Capt. E. J. Dorn, U. S. Navy (retired), and Paymaster K. C. Mc- 
intosh, U. S. Navy. 

2. The old pamphlet being out of print, it was considered desir- 
able to take this opportunity to revise such portions as had become 
obsolete and to add new matter which has since been discovered, ot 
which was considered necessary in amplification of statements made 
by previous writers. 

" 3. The delay in completing the revision has been due to the neces- 
sity of obtaining information from sources outside of Guam and in- 
terference caused by other official duties. 

4. A large share of credit is due to the Rev. M. Saderra Maso, S. J., 
of the Weather Bureau, Manila, P. I., who revised the historical part 
of the pamphlet, rewrote the article on climate, and made valuable 
suggestions on the arrangement of the chapters. Thanks are also 
due to Hospital Steward H. W. Elliott, U. S. Navy, who contributed 
the photographs which accompany these pages ; to Mr. N. M. Flores, 
of the Bureau of Lands, Manila, P. I., who drew the excellent map 
of Guam forwarded herewith ; to Mr. A. T. Perez, chief clerk to the 
governor, who has contributed many items of general information as 
well as proof-read the manuscript; to the Hon. Francisco Portusach 
of the Island Court of Guam, Mr. Vicente Herrero, jr., Mr. Lorenzo 
Franquez, commissioner of Agana, and Mr. W. W. Rowley, who 
have contributed many items relating to the capture of Guam and its 
subsequent administration by the United States ; also to Corp. H. Gt. 
Hornbostel, U. S. Marine Corps, formerly chief forester of Guam, 
who revised that part relating to the topography of Guam, and to 
Chief Yeoman J. C. Poshepny, U. S. Navy, who has done the actual 
work of writing these pages. 

M. G. Cook. 



UxiTED States Naval Station, 

Island of Guam, 
Marianas f January 13 j 1912. 

From : K. O. Mcintosh, Passed Asst. Paymaster, U. S. Navy. 

To: Capt. G. R. Salisbury, U. S. Navy, Oommandant. 

Subject: Revision and completion of reprint of report concerning this island 
made by Civil Engineer L. M. Cox, U. S. Navy, and partially reprinted by 
Capt. E. J. Dorn, U. S. Navy (retired), former governor of Guam. 

1. In the work of revision and completion of the pamphlet partially printed 
by former Gov. E. J. Dorn, it was decided that, in view of the rapidity of the 
island's progress since that time, many points of the text were out of date. 
Much additional information of undoubted value was discovered that had not 
been incorporated in the former revision or in the original report, so the best 
course seemed to be to rewrite the entire book, adding these additional para- 
graphs. In this rearrangement, the original text has been adhered to us closely 
as possible, the majority of the book being unchanged. 

2. The manuscript which is herewith submitted is, as far as can be dis- 
covered, historically and technically correct. Historical dates and events have 
been verified by old records of the island and of private individuals resident 
here; ethnological notes have been compiled from many sources; the article on 
** Ctovernment previous to the American occupation " is based on the printed 
reports of the home Grovernment at Madrid; and those added portions of the 
pamphlet which deal with the superstitions of the natives have been gathered 
from conversation with the natives themselves. 

3. Great indebtedness must be acknowledged to Capt. P. M. Duarte for much 
documentary information and assistance in reading the manuscript, and to Mr. 
Jose Herrero, of Agana, for the loan of some valuable and interesting records. 

K. C. McIntosh. 



Government House, 
Agana, Chuam, October, 1910. 

In 1904 Civil Engineer Leonard M. Cox, U. S. Navy, prepared and submitted 
to Capt. Seaton Schroeder, Chief Intelligence Officer of the Navy and former 
governor of Guam, a report on that Island, which, together with other data 
relating to Guam, was issued as a public document by the Navy Department. 
In 1907, when the undersigned was about to leave for Guam as governor, 
he tried in vain to get a copy of this pamphlet from official sources, it being out 
of print. 

Recognizing the desirability of having the information contained in this ex- 
cellent and most carefully prepared report placed within reach of the younger 
generation of the Island — ^where great changes have taken place In the last 
six years, made possible by the liberality of Congress and the zeal and Intelli- 
gence with which affairs have been administered both by the officers stationed 
there and by the native officials of the civil branch of the .government — I have 
undertaken to bring it up to the present, rewriting portions where necessary. 

It is believed that the pamphlet, as far as it goes, presents the island of 
Guam as it now is and that the pupils of the schools, in whose interest more 
particularly it Is republished, may derive therefrom the benefit toward which 
the efforts of the revlsor have been directed. 

E. J. Dorn, 
Captain, U. 8. Navy (retired), Governor. 
6 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 



I. GEOGBAPHT^^TOFOGBAPHT, AND GEOLOGY. 

Guam is the largest, most populous, and most southern in position 
of the Marianas Islands, a group which trends almost north and 
south along the one hundred and forty-fifth meridian east from 
Greenwich and between the thirteenth and twentieth parallels of 
latitude, a distance of some 420 miles. The group forms a linear 
system of 17 islands of volcanic origin, but the south end of the 
chain has long been free from volcanic action. The only active 
appearance of igneous action on the southernmost island, Guam, 
are a number of hot springs with temperatures ranging from 89° 
to 106° F. 

Capt. J. C^ Voss, who made a trip around the world in 1914 on the 
yacht Tilikwm 11^ stopping in Guam in the spring of that year, 
while enroute from Port Lloyd, Bonin Islands, visited a new vol- 
canic island which had been lifted about 500 feet above the level 
of the ocean on January 23, 1914. This island was about a mile in 
diameter, was bare of vegetation, and in fact was nothing but a 
volcanic cone. He named it Tilikum, after the name of the vessel 
in which he was making his trip. 

While the northern end of the Marianas group still has its smok- 
ing cones, volcanic action decreases as we go southward and the ex- 
tent of the coral reefs increases. No reefs occur about the north- 
ernmost island, while they are found about the central islands of the 
group, and are quite extensive along the shores of Guam. The 
: largest reefs in extent surrounding Guam are found on its south- 
: west coast. 

! The island of Guam is about 30 miles in extreme length and from 

J 4 to 8i miles in width. It lies almost north and south, with the 
; southern half set slightly to the westward of the northern half. In 
) shape it is not unlike the sole of a human foot. Its superficial area is 
estimated as 225 square miles. The geographical position of Fort 
c* Santa Cruz, in the Bay of Apra,.is latitude 13° 26' 22'' north, longi- 
tude 144° 39' 42" east. The sailing distances from Guam (Apra 
Harbor) to various ports are as follows : 

Guam to— Miles. 

Manila 1, 506 

Hongkong - 1, 822 

Yokohama 1, 353 

Nagasaki , 1, 440 

Shanghai 1, 687 

Honolulu 3, 337 

Panama 7, 988 

Sydney 3 ,067 

San Francisco 5, 053 

San Francisco via Honolulu 5,428^ 

Rota, Marianas 49 

Salpan, Marianas* 121 

Tlnlan, Marianas 110 

Yap, Carolines - 458 

7 



8 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

The southern part of the island is high and mountainous. A chain 
or ridge of hills ranging in altitude from 700 to 1,300 feet begins 
near the Bay of Pago and crossing to the west coast near Agana 
follows that coast to the extreme southern part of the island. The 
slope of these hills or mountains is very steep to the northward and 
westward, while to the southward and eastward it is steep until an 
elevation of about 400 feet is reached, where an elevated plateau 
stretches eastward, terminating in coastal highlands of coral rock 
which end in abrupt cliffs. This plateau is broken by the valleys of 
five streams with their numerous tributaries, each having its source 
near the top of the ridge, thence crossing nearly the whole width of 
the island and emptying into the sea on the east coast. The slope 
toward the west merges into low foothills some little distance from 
the sea, leaving a narrow belt of rolling lowlands valuable for cul- 
tivation and pasturage. 

The highest peak is Lamlam, about east of Facpi Point, which 
attains an elevation of 1,334 feet. Mount Sasalaguan (" Hell Moun- 
tain ") is 1,110 feet high and forms the southern prominence. Mount 
Tenjo, near the head of Apra Bay, is 1,013 feet high -and makes a 
convenient landmark for approaching vessels. 

Most of the mountains are bare of foreign growth and are covered 
with various grasses and shrubs. The mountains from the town of 
Agat south to a point east of Facpi Point are heavily wooded. The 
highest plateaus, or mesetas, are covered with various cogon grasses 
and the valleys are wooded. 

The east coast of the southern part of the island is indented by 
numerous bights or bays lined by narrow strips of beach land more 
or less under cultivation. Coconut groves are planted near the sea, 
together with patches of maize, taro, and camotes, while here and 
there rice is grown where a stream furnishes a swampjr bottom. 

The topography of the northern half of the island is entirely dif- 
ferent from the southern, inasmuch as it is one large plateau ranging 
in elevation from 200 to 500 feet, sloping generally from the cliffs 
bordering the sea inland and from the northernmost point to the 
swampy land north of Agana, through which flows the Agana River. 
This part of the island is watered by no perennial stream except a 
few brooks that rise on Mount Santa Kosa and disappear in the coral 
rock at its base. Running water can also be found during 10 months 
of the year at the foot of Mataguac, a small hill east of Santa Rosa. 
The cliffs on the north and northeast sides of the island are the high- 
est in Guam, reaching a height of 600 feet above the sea. These 
cliffs are covered almost entirely with verdure except where there is 
a sheer drop of 200 feet or so, and at their base lie coconut plantations 
and white beach sand. The whole presents a very pleasant tropical 
scene. 

The eastern exposure of the northern part, like that of the southern, 
is precipitous, dropping abruptly into the sea, with the reef lying 
so close that the waves in stormy weather break directly against the 
cliffs. The only beach land of any consequence along the whole 
of the eastern exposure is between the mouths of the Ylig and Talo- 
fofo Rivers in the southern part of the island. 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 9 

GEOLOGY. 

It would appear that the ridge or chain of mountains extending 
through the southern part of the island was thrown up by volcanic 
action during some remote geologic period, and that originally only 
this ridge and a very small part of Santa Eosa appeared above water, 
while Barrigada was probably a shoal. The condition being favor- 
able, the formation oi coral reefs was begun, which, together with 
alternate elevations and subsidences, have brought the island to its' 
present state. This is shown by the conditions observed at present, 
which are as follows: 

(a) The formation of the mountains is ancient and offers abundant 
evidence of volcanic Action in the distorted and broken stratification, 
the presence of lava rock, flint quartz, and clay in different forms. 

(&) Ancient coral has been found at an elevation of 1,200 feet 
above the sea. The northern plateau consists almost entirely of some 
form of coral limestone or "cascajo" (a soft coral of comparatively 
recent origin). All coast bluffs, hills, and other elevations in this 
part of the island, except Mount Santa Rosa, Mataguac, and Sabana 
jNIaagas, show ^ere exposed hard madreporic rock, while on the 
surface are evidences in the way of shells, pebbles, and boulders, 
showing that at one time it was covered by shallow water. 

/Special features. — On the slope of Mount Santa Rosa, and 50 feet 
below the top, a portion of the formation has been exposed by the 
action of water. The section shows an infinite number of thin layers 
of hard clay, presenting every shade of color from light green to red, 
white, gray, and brown; dip, about 25° to northwest; strike, south- 
west. On the northern slope fragments of flint quartz are found, and 
coral on the plateau below at an elevation of about 350 feet. 

All coast bluffs, Barrigada Hills, and other elevations in the north- 
ern part of the island, except Mount Santa Rosa, show only, where 
exposed, the madreporic rock. 

Starting at the sea level in Agana Bay to the top of Macajna, the 
nearest knob of the main ridge, the following rough section was 
observed : 

Beach land, elevation 6 feet; sand and coral, one-fourth mile. 

Meseta (table-land), elevation 225 to 300 feet; light-red soil, a little 
sand overlying cascajo, 1 mile to foot of Macajna. 

Clay strata in every direction and all inclinations, often curled and 
crumpled, elevation from 300 to 700 feet; 1 mile to top of Macajna. 

From Mount Macajna, in the direction of Pago Bay, a series of 
rounded hills are seen, decreasing in elevation to the level of the coast 
meseta. These hills are covered by reddish soil, and the only vegeta- 
tion is scattered clumps of sword grass. There are clay stones, clay 
iron stones, and dark, heavy limestones, called " jomon " (identified 
by the United States Geological Survey as a lava rock), outcropping 
from these hills, and no trace of coral down to the elevation of about 
300 feet. The vallevs which lie between show coral limestone in their 
creek beds. 

The hill next Macajna to the northwest is crowned by thin strata 
of " jomon " of hardness and a weight almost equal to granite, while 
below it is an outcropping of coarse sandstone, soft and friable where 
weathered, but hard and compact in the interior. Below the sand- 



10 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

stone is a kind of conglomerate composed of rounded boulders of 
'" jomon " held in a matrix of gray sandstone similar to the strata 
above. The boulders appear to be water worn, and run from egg 
size to the volume of a cubic foot or more. This stone is also soft on 
the surface and hard when broken into. 

From the last hill to the top of Mount Chachao, which reaches an 
elevation of 1,046 feet, the surface is almost entirely some form of 
clay, ranging from the thin strata of soft paste to large masses of 
light-gray stone, easily cut bv a knife, and of low specific gravity. 

From Mount Chachao to 'Mount Tenjo it is necessary to traverse 
a backbone a mile long and about 850 feet above the sea. Along the 
lower part of this ridge only clay stones are seen, but on the last 
climb to the top of Tenjo, 1,000 feet high, fragments of flint quartz 
are scattered about, and the backbone is formed of a ledge of trap- 
like reck, giving it the appearance of a knife edge. Tenjo has three 
little peaks, and between them may be seen quartz strata or veins 
dipping in opposite directions. 

On the western slope of Tenjo thick ledges of rock can be seen from 
the coast, which appear to have a general dip to the eastward of about 
10°, and are lost to view in the foothills below Cha<Aao. ' 

II. ETHNOLOGY, FLORA, AND FATTNA. 

The natives of Guam are called Chamorros. Their vernacular is 
called the Chamorro language. The word Chamorro is derived from 
Chamorri or Chamoli, the ancient name for "noble." They them- 
selves, in speaking of their language, call it Fino-jaya, or " idiom 
of the south," in contradistinction to Spanish, which they call Fino- 
lago, or " idiom of the north," the Spaniards having first appeared 
to tliem as coming from the north. 

The language appears to be intermediate between the Philippine 
and the Melanesian linguistic groups. Internal evidence, such as 
their use of the Sanscrit names for rice and the betel nut, tends to 
show that the ancient Chamorro race migrated from the Malay 
Archipelago later than the Polynesians, who took their departure 
before the introduction from India of either rice or betel nut. 

The ancient Chamorros wer^ Malays. The ]>resent inhabitants are 
a very much mixed race, with the Malay strain predominating. The 
average native has a brown skin, straight black hair, dark eyes, oval 
face, well-formed features, smooth skin, prominent nose and lips, 
short stature (below that of Europeans), well-padded flesh, but with 
no tendency to corpulency. The women are somewhat shorter than 
the men, are in general somewhat stronger, and, at least when young, 
have clearer light-brown complexions, with straight, well-oiled hair, 
which they do after the fashions prevailing in Manila. 

Many of the natives have an infiltration of Chinese bl(;od, which 
may be seen in the prominent cheek bones and decided oriental cast 
of the eye. 

No pure-blooded Chamorro probably exsts in Guam to-day. The 
present inhabitants are mainly descended from the Spanish. Mexican, 
and Philippine soldiery who were brought to Guam to subdue the 
natives. During the conquest nearly all the native men were 
butchered, but many of the women became wives of the conquerors. 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 11 

and as few foreign women found their way thither, it was from their 
Chamorro mothers that tlie children learned to talk, and the language 
was thus preserved. 

The various races have amalgamated pretty thoroughly, and even 
descendants of Englishmen and Scotchmen call themselves Cha- 
morros. The language has been entirely modified by Spanish in- 
fluence, just as Hawaiian has been influenced by English. Many 
English words are rapidly being introduced to the language since 
the coming of the Americans. 

For further information the reader should consult " The Chamorro 
Language of Guam," by W. E. Satford, published at Washington, 
•D. C., 1909, which contains besides an etymology of the language 
a grammar of the idiom spoken by the inhabitants. A dictionary of 
the language is now being compiled, and will probably be ready for 
printing in a few months. 

The following on the flora and fauna of Guam is taken entirely 
from the complete work entitled " The Useful Plants of Guam," by 
William E. Safford, published at Washington, D. C, 1905, as " Con- 
tributions from the United States National Herbarium, Volume IX." 

INDIGENOUS AND SPONTANEOUS ECONOMIC PLANTS. 

Among the plants growing without cultivation on the island are 
Cycas circinalis^ the nuts or seeds of which furnish the natives with 
food in times of famine; the wild fertile breadfruit {Artocarpus 
communis), having edible chestnutlike seeds; wild yams {Dioscorea 
spinosa), which in places form impenetrable thickets; the betel-nut 
palm {Areca cathecu) , which is abundant in some of the rich valleys 
in the southern part of the island; and Pariti tilidcemn^ which fur- 
nishes the natives with cordage. Besides these a number of plants 
of minor importance have escaped from cultivation and are spread- 
ing over the island, such as the guava, the bullock's heart, the orange 
berry, Pithecolobiuw, dvlce (which yields fine tanbark) , and Biancaea 
sappwri^ which is important as a dyewood. 

CULTIVATED FOOD AND STIMULANT PLANTS. 

Garden plarUs. — ^In addition to their small farms, nearly all the 
natives of Guam have a town house. Adjacent to many of these are 
gardens in which grow perennial eggplants, red peppers, bananas, 
plantains, various kinds of beans, squashes, gourds, watermelons, 
melons, peanuts, tomatoes of a small and inferior kind, balsam pears, 
mustard, and perhaps yams and a few vines of betel pepper. Among 
the fruit trees in gardens the most common are lemons, limes, the 
sugar apple, and the sour sop. Pomegranates are grown more for 
ornament than for use, although a very refreshing drink is made 
from the acidulous pulps surrounding their seed. In some of the 
gardens giant taro (Alocasia) is grown for the sake of its leaves, 
which are used instead of paper for wrapping up meat and fish. 
Banana and plantain leaves deprived of their stiff midrib are used 
for the same purpose, and for cordage strings are stripped from 
their stem, or the leaves of the textile Pandanus are used, a plant 
which is sometimes grown in the garden for convenience. Radishes, 
onions, garlic, and lettuce are sometimes planted. 



12 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

Cereals, — ^The only cereals cultivated in Guam are rice and maize. 
The natives cultivated rice in considerable quantities before the dis- 
covery. It was among the supplies furnished to Magellan and 
Legazpi. The Dutch navigators, who came after them, in IGOO and 
1621, complained that the bales were increased in weight by the addi- 
tion of sand and stones. These bales weighed on an average from 
70 to 80 pounds. 

At present not sufficient rice is grown on the island for the use of 
the natives, though there are several localities well suited for its 
culture. The methods followed are very much like those of the 
Filipinos, (,'arabaos are used for plowing. The plow is of wood 
with an iron point, usually fashioned by the blacksmith of Guam 
out of an old gun barrel. It has but one handle. Many of the best 
rice growers on the island within recent years have been Filipinos. 
At present rice is imported from Japan, Manila, and the United 
States. This would not be necessary if a little greater effort were 
made on the part of the planters. As a rule they plant only enough 
for their own use and do not lay by a surplus. The result is that 
when the crop is ruined by a hurricane or a drought, which not in- 
frequently happens, there is a dearth of rice on the island. One 
reason for the small size of the crops is the difficulty of obtaining 
labor. Nearly everybody has a ranch of his own and prefers to reap 
all the benefits of his own labor rather than share them with an 
employer. 

Maize was introduced from Mexico at a very early date and soon 
became the principal food staple of the early missionaries and the 
soldiers sent to assist them in the conquest of the islands. With 
maize came the Mexican metate and mano, a low inclined stone slab 
supported on three legs on which tortillas are prepared and a stone 
rolling pin, cylindrical in shape, with the ends slightly tapering. 

Maize is now the most important crop. On the higher land it is 
planted at the beginning of the rainy season. In the lowland, as in 
the valley of the Talofofo River, it is planted at the beginning of 
the dry season. As soon as it is harvested it is shelled and spread 
out on mats in the streets to dry in the sun. Then it is stored in 
earthen jars as a protection against dampness and against rats and 
weevils. In places where the soil is deep enough the land is pre- 
pared for maize by plowing. On the higher land the weeds and 
bushes are cleared, dried, spread over the field, and burned. This 
process serves to kill many weeds and at the same time to fertilize 
the land. The only instrument of cultivation used in such places is 
the fosinos, or scuffle hoe, which consists of a wide transverse blade 
placed T-like on the end of a long slender handle, the stem of the 
T being a hollow socket into which the end of the handle fits tightly. 
This is thrust ahead of the laborer and serves to clear awav bushes 
and to cut the weeds. After the corn is once planted the surface is 
easily kept clear of weeds with the fosinos, the natives usually cover- 
ing at one thrust a space of 6 feet in length and the width of the 
blade. The use of this implement is universal. Even the women are 
adepts and tiny fosinos are made for the little children. 

Edible roots. — Among the edible roots of the island are taro {Cola' 
dium colocasia) and yams {Dioscorea spp,)^ both of which are 
cultivated by the natives and are a resource for them during the 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 13 

periods of famine which usually follow hurricanes. Taro is culti- 
vated either in swamps or in newly-cleared ground. Certain varie- 
ties, the best of which has purplish stems and is called Visayan taro, 
"sunin visaya," are grown on hillsides and are of fine consistency 
and flavor. The closely allied Alocasia indica and A. mdcrorrhiza 
are not so commonly cultivated, but grow wild in many places. 
They are very acrid and are only eaten in cases of necessity. 

The cultivated yams are probably varieties of Dioscorea alata^ D. 
sativa^ and D. aculeata. Closely allied to the last is the wild gado 
or nika cimarron (Dioscorea spinosa) , which forms thickets in many 
places on the island. Yams are more difficult to cultivate than taro 
and are therefore not planted so commonly by the natives. 

Sweet potatoes are far superior to the best varieties of yams and 
of taro. Several varieties occur in Guam. Unlike the yams and 
taro, which grew on the island before the discovery, sweet potatoes 
were introduced by the Spaniards. One variety was brought from 
the island of Agrigan, where it had been introduced by settlers from 
the Hawaiian Islands. 

Among other plants with starch-bearing roots are the indigenous 
T<iGca jnnnaiiflda^ or Polynesian arrowroot; the true arrowroot 
{Maranta arwiidinacea) ; and the mandioc plant {Mcmihot manihot)^ 
which yields cassava and tapioca. 

Starchy fruits. — The principal starchy fruits are those of the 
sterile breadfruit {Artocarpus com/munis)^ called "lemae" or 
"rima" by the natives, and the well-known plantain (Mvsa para- 
disiaca). Of the plantain there are several varieties. The fruit 
differs from that of the banana in bein^ starchy instead of sweet, 
and it must be cooked before eating. W^en baked it has somewhat 
the taste and consistency of a potato, but is inferior to it in flavor. 
As both the breadfruit and plantain are seedless they must be 
propagated by suckers. This is readily done with both plants. They 
both grow with little care and produce abundantly in Guam. As 
the breadfruit is in season only during certain months of the year, 
some of the natives lay in a store of it for the rest of the year by 
slicing it and drying or toasting it in ovens, making a kind of biscuit 
of it, which they call "biscocho de lemae." If kept dry this will 
last indefinitely and may be eaten either without further preparation 
or cooked in various ways. It is fine food for taking on a journey, 
as it is light and conveniently carried. 

Squashes and pumpkins are grown, but they do not occupy a 
prominent place in the economy of the natives. 

The nuts of the Oycas circinalis^ called " f adang " by the Chamor- 
ros and " f ederico " by the Filipinos, yield a nutritious starch. As 
these nuts are poisonous in their crude condition, there was con- 
siderable prejudice against them on the part of some of the Spanish 
governors of the island. In other countries, however, a fine sago, or 
arrowroot, is made from them, which is declared to be superior to 
that made from the pith of sago palms. 

Tree fruits, — The principal fruits are oranges, bananas, man- 
goes, papayas, and sugar apples (Annona squamosa)^ all of which 
are of fine quality. In the vicinity of Agat and the harbor of Apra 
there are inferior varieties of oranges, but in the districts of Santa 
Rosa and Yigo, in the northern part of the island, and in Yona, on 
the eastern coast, the oranges are excellent. 



14 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

Lemons and limes produce continuously in great quantities all 
the year round. Among the introduced Annonaceae, the soursop {A. 
miCricata) is used for making jellies and preserves, and the bullock^s 
heart {A, reticulata) is eaten as a fruit, but it is inferior to the sugar 
apple above mentioned. Citrons, pomelos, shaddocks, and berga- 
mots are abundant. Arei'rhoa carambola^ improperly called "bilim- 
bines " by the natives of Guam and the Filipinos, bears a translucent 
oblong fruit, with the cross section of a five-pointed star, which has 
a pleasant acidulous flavor. Guavas grow spontaneously and pro- 
duce abundantly. Little use is made of the fruit, however, owing 
to the scarcity of sugar on the island. Among introduced trees are 
the cashew {Anacaf'dium occidentale) and the tamarind (Tamarin- 
dies indica)^ neither of which have spread upon the island, but 
which are found only near villages or on the sites of ranches either 
in cultivation or abandoned. 

Coffee and cacao. — Coffee and cacao have been introduced and 
thrive well in Guam. Coffee receives little care. It will grow in 
various situations and in almost any soil, and yields abundant 
harvests. Often most of the houses of a village, as at Sinajana, 
are seen surrounded by coffee bushes, and the fresh seeds sprout 
spontaneously beneath the parent plant or if thrown upon the 
surface of the soil in a shady place. There are no large planta- 
tions in the island, each family planting enough only for its own 
consumption. The berries are gathered, pulped, and hulled by 
hand. 

The cultivation of cacao is more difficult. The plants are very 
tender, they have a long taproot which is easily broken, and do not 
bear transplanting well. They are very sensitive to violent winds, 
and must be planted in sheltered valleys. Both coffee and cacao 
must be protected from the sun when very young. The use of 
shade trees is not necessary in Guam, though, in starting a cacao 
or coffee plantation, the intervening space between the rows of 
plants is usually planted in bananas, which yield fruit and at the 
same time serve* to protect the tender young plants from the sun. 

Narcotics, — The principal narcotics cultivated on the island are 
the betel palm and the betel pepper, which grew on the island before 
the discovery, and tobacco, which was introduced by the Spaniards 
from America. The betel palm, although frequently planted by the 
natives, also grows spontaneously. Thousands of young plants may 
be seen in the rich valleys of the southern part of the island where 
seeds have fallen from the palms. The betel pepper is a vine with 
glossy green leaves closely resembling the common black pepper 
{piper nigrum). It occurs only in a state of cultivation, but requires 
little care, the natives propagating it very easily from cuttings and 
allowing it to creep upon stone walls and to climb over trees. 

Toddy, or tuba, is a fermented drink made from the sap of the 
coconut. Before the arrival of the Filipinos brought by the early 
Spaniards to assist in the conquest of the islands the use of tuba was 
unknown. Until the arrival of the Americans an inferior brandy 
was distilled from fermented tuba, but its manufacture has been 
prohibited. 

Nearly every family on the island has its tobacco patch, each 
raising barely enough for its own consumption. The seeds are ger- 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 15 

minated in nurseries and transplanted to spots near the plantations, 
where they are kept shaded by canopies of muslin, and then are 
set out in fields, each plant shaaed by the segment of a coconut leaf. 
All hands assist in its cultivation — ^parents, children, and grand- 
parents — and it requires constant attention and no little effort in 
fighting against weeds and tobacco worms to make the crop a 
success. 

Oil-yielding plants. — ^The coconut is the principal source from 
which the natives derive oil. Coconut oil is used for cooking, light- 
ing, and anointing. In taking the place of lard fresh coconut oil 
imparts an agreeable flavor to many articles of diet. Nearly every 
house on the island has its patron saint enshrined in a niche or side 
room, with a light of coconut oil burning before it. The oil is con- 
tained in a goblet half filled with water, which keeps the glass 
cool. The wick is supported on a float. Oil used for massaging 
the body (a custom which Guam shares with many Pacific islands) 
and for anointing the hair is often perfumed with flowers of vari- 
ous kinds. Dried coconut meat, or copra, is exported from the 
island. Most of it is used for oil which enters into the manufacture 
of candles and soaps, and is an ingredient of a number of medicines. 
Among other oil-yielding plants are the castor bean {Ricinus com- 
mmiis). the physic nut {Jatropha curcas)^ and the candle nut 
{Aleurites moluccaiia)^ which has been sparingly introduced. 

I'imher trees. — The ifil {Intsia hijugd) is the most important tim- 
ber tree in Guam. The heartwood of the tree is very hard and heavy, 
but not elastic. It is cross-grained and hard to work. It is very 
durable and is used for the posts of the best houses. The wood is 
yellowish at first, then it turns rust color, and finally assumes a dark 
color with time, resembling that of black walnut. Although of 
coarse grain, it takes a fine polish. Nearly all of the better houses 
of the island have tables and settees made of it, and even floors, which 
are kept beautifully polished by rubbing them with grated coconut 
wrapped in a cloth through which the oil oozes. The wood has the 
virtue of resisting the attacks of termites, or white ants. Trunks 
meters long and 1 meter in diameter are sometimes found, but 
they usually vary from 2.5 to 5 meters in length and from 30 to 60 
centimeters in diameter. Houses made of newlv sawn ifil are not 
whitewashed or painted until the wood has had time to dry and 
season on account of the brown coloring matter which discolors the 
surface. As it grows old the wood becomes so hard that holes must 
be bored into it for nails. The trees are becoming scarce in the island 
and their felling for timber is strictly regulated by law. 

Other hardwoods used in carpentry and joiner work are chopag 
{Orchrocarpus ohovdlis)^ principally used for ceilings and interiors, 
also for joiner work; ajgao {Premna guudicJiaudii) ^ used as supports 
for the poorer class of houses and for live fence posts ; uf a {IJeritiera 
Uttorcdis), used for spokes of wheels, knees of boats, and especially 
for plows; daog (Calophyllum m(?;?AyZZwm),used for the solid wooden 
wheels of the carts drawn by oxen and carabao; and dugdug {Arto- 
carptis communis)^ or seeded variety of the breadfruit, which grows 
everywhere in Guam. The seedless variety is too valuable as a fruit 
tree to destroy it for timber. 



16 THE ISLAND OF QUAM. 



TEXTILE AND THATCH PLANTS. 



Fiber plants. — ^Among the monocotyledons yielding fiber are the 
coconut {C0CO8 nucifera)^ from the husks of which is derived the 
coir, which is twisted and braided into cords and sennit; the pine- 
apple {Ananas ananas)^ the leaves of which yield a beautiful, fine, 
silky fiber, which the natives of Guam twist into thread for making 
the finer fish nets; the abaka, or manila hemp {Musa textilis)^ intro- 
duced from the Philippines, and growing without care on the part 
of the natives, but not utilized by them on account of the labor and 
skill necessary to extract its fiber; and a species of agave, called 
"lirio de palo," evidently introduced from Mexico, the leaves of 
which yield an excellent fiber, which in Guam is utilized only for 
wrapping cigars. In addition to these, a palm called " cabo negro " 
has been introduced from the Philippines. This species, which is 
known to commerce as the "gomuto," is Saguenbs pinnatus. Its 
stem when young is entirely covered with sheaths of fallen leaves and 
black, horsehairlike fibers, which issue in great abundance from their 
margins. As the tree increases in age these drop off, leaving a colum- 
nar stem or trunk. Cabo negro ropes are said to be more durable, 
than any other kind when subjected to repeated wetting. At the 
base of the leaves there is a woolly material suitable for calking the ; 

seams of vessels. The species grows well in Guam, but on account orf j 

the abundance of other fibers it is not utilized by the natives. j 

Among the dicotyledons the principal fiber plants belong to the ! 

Malvaceae, Tiliacese, Urticaceae, and Moracese. The chief of all is 
Pariti tiliaceum^ a tree widely spread over the tropical regions of j 

the world, from the inner bark of which ropes and twine are twisted. 
Its use for this purpose is so extensive in Guam that there is scarcely 
a family which does not possess a rope-making apparatus similar to 
the simpler forms of those used in ropewalks elsewhere. On the east 
coast of Guam, in traveling from Pago to the southern extremity 
of the island, it is necessary, to cross the mouths of several rivers. 
Balsas (rafts), composed of several layers of bamboo, are used for 
this purpose. The cables by means of which they are pulled across 
are made from the fiber of Pariti tiliaceum. Though this fiber is not 
easily worn out in its natural condition, its strength and durability- 
are increased by the application of tar, such as that used on board 
ship. Among other members of the mallow family are several species 
of sida, called " escobilla " by the natives. They grow without culti- 
vation on the island in waste places and along the roadsides. They 
yield a good, strong fiber, but on account of the abundance of other 
material, the natives do not use it. Allied to these in general appear- 
ance and use are several species of Tiliacese, including Triwrnfetta 
proGumhens^ which is called " masigsig " by the natives, allied to the 
species which produce the jute of commerce, so extensively used in 
the manufacture of gunny sacks, matting, and carpets. They are 
not, however, utilized in Guam. 

The principal member of the ITrticaceae, or nettle family, is the 
celebrated rhea fiber plant {Boehmeria tena^ssima) . In (jruan^ it 
grows to the height of a shrub or small tree, though in many other 
parts of the world it is herbaceous. Though allied to the nettles in 
appearance and inflorescence, it is not armed with stinging hairs. 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 17 

The closely related Boehmeria rdvea^ which yields the China " grass 
cloth " fiber, is a plant of temperate regions, the lower surface of the 
leaves being covered with white down, like felt. The leaves of the 
Guam plant, though pale beneath, are not coated with felt. This 
plant, though of great importance in other parts of the world and 
growing in Guam rankly and without care, is in this island not 
utilized at all, except for medicine. 

The last species I shall mention is the principal member of the 
Moracese, the breadfruit tree {Artocarpus com/munis). In addition 
to its importance as yielding the principal staple of food, excellent 
wood, fodder for animals, and a gum suitable for paying the seams 
of canoes and for use as a medium in mixing paints, it yields a tough, 
leathery bark, which in the olden times was made by the natives into 
aprons or breechcloths. 

Mat and hat plants. — ^At least four species of pandanus occur in 
Guam, two of which, called " pahong " and " kaf o " by the natives, 
are widely spread in the forests and furnish food to the fruit-eating 
bats and wild rats. The third species furnishes leaves which, when 
young and tender, are cooked with vegetables as a flavoring. The 
fourth species is called " aggag." Its leaves are remarkably strong 
and pliable. They are used tor lashing together the parts of a house 
or hut and for string; and when divided into narrow ribbons they 
are braided into hats, sleeping mats, mats upon which corn and other 
seed are dried, and bags for holding corn and rice. Only one sex of 
this plant occurs in Guam. It is propagated by cuttings, limbs when 
cut off taking root readily in almost any kind of soil. The leaves of 
the other species are inferior and are scarcely at all used. 

A coarse kind of mat is made by weaving or wattling the stems of 
a reed which grows in marshy places {Trichoon roxburghii)^ called 
*' karriso " by the natives. These mats are often used to cover the 
walls of lightly constructed houses and are sometimes coated with a 
kind of clay. 

Thatch plants. — The majority of houses in Guam are thatched with 
coconut leaves, but those of the better class with the leaves of Nypa 
fruticans^ an interesting trunkless palm introduced from the Philip- 
pines, which has established itself at the mouth of every stream of 
importance in the island. When there is a dearth of coconuts and 
nipa, sword grass or " neti " {Xiphagrastis -floridula) is used. 

Coconut leaves to be used for thatching are gathered, dried, and 
split down the midrib, the two halves being placed together in re- 
verse direction and the leaflets interwoven diagonally. Women are 
usually employed in this work. Leaves thus prepared are lashed to 
the framework of the roof with strips of pandanus leaves, beginning 
at the eaves and ending at the ridgepole, the leaves being placed so 
close together that they form a thick imbricating thatch. Coconut 
thatch is not very durable. As a rule it lasts only three or four years. 

In preparing the leaves of the nipa palm the leaflets are detached 
from the midrib or rachis, cured by drying, and attached to reeds 
in the form of a fringe. These are laid on the timbers of the roof 
frame in the same way as the coconut leaves, but closer together. 
Neti is prepared in the same way. The thatch thus formed is more 
homogeneous, compact, waterproof, and durable than the former. 

70238—17 2 



i 



18 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 



FOBAQE PLANTS. 



As garden patches are not inclosed, cattle, horses, carabaos, and 
pigs can not be allowed to run at large. They are kept tethered and 
consequently require to be cared for, fed, and watered. Often the 
available pasturage in the vicinity of a town or village is exhausted, 
and it is necessary to take the animals a considerable distance before 
a good grazing place can be found. Usually forage is gathered and 
brought to the animals. Besides several species of grasses the best 
forage plant is the breadfruit {Artocarpus corwmunis)^ great quanti- 
ties of the leaves of which are gathered for this purpose. The 
branches of several leguminous shrubs and of Moringa moringa are 
much relished by cattle, and the plants of the cultivated Phaseolus 
mungo and of peanuts form excellent forage. Attempts have been 
made to cultivate alfalfa (Medicago sativa), but this plant evidently 
flourishes best in dry climates where irrigation is practiced. It does 
not thrive in <juam. The nearest approach to clover on the island 
in the tiny Meibomda triflora^ which grows close to the ground and 
forms a thick swar J in places where the grass does not crowd it out. 

Cattle and hogs are very fond of the fruit of Artocarpus comr 
m/wnis. After hurricanes, when the ground becomes covered with 
breadfruit, hogs eat great quantities* of it and become very fat. The 
sweet pods of Pithecolohium dulce are also eaten by animals. Pro- 
eopis jtUifloraj which is an important forage tree in the Hawaiian 
Islands, has not yet become established in Guam. Cattle and horses 
feed upon its foliage as well as upon its pods, and there is no reason 
whv it should not thrive on the island. 

Among the grasses the most nutritious is Bermuda grass (Cap- 
riola dactylon) , called " grama " by the natives. It grows luxuriantly 
in the sandy soil of the lowlands. Dactyloctenium a^ggptiacum and 
Eleusine indica are edible but coarse and not much relished by 
horses. Stalks of green maize and the leaves of ripe maize are ex- 
cellent for food. Many of the coarser grasses growing in damp places 
which horses and cattle will not eat are eaten by carabao. Reeds 
(Trichoon roxhurghii) are often collected for fodder and are espe- 
cially relished by carabao. When old they are rather coarse for 
cattle, but the young shoots are eaten by them. Para grass has been 
introduced lately and thrives well. 

Among the plants elsewhere reputed to be injurious to animals is 
Leuca^na glauca^ an introduced shrub, which is very common in the 
Bahama Islands. 



WEEDS. 



The number of tropical weeds which have found their way to Guam 
is remarkable. In waste places, along the roadsides, on the borders 
of rice fields, and among growing vegetables, nearly all the weeds 
are of species widely spread over the warmer regions of the world. 
Some of them, like the malvaceous Urena and tiliceous Triumfetta, 
have prickly, burrlike fruits with hooked spines ; others, like the milk- 
weed {Asclepias cv/rdssavica) have silky pappus attached to the 
seed, which provides for their dispersal by tne wind. There are also 
composites (Glossogyne) ^ with retrorsely scabrid bristles attached 
to their achenes, and marsh pjlants, with seeds which readily adhere 
to the feet or feathers of birds. These peculiarities undoubtedly 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 19 

account for the wide dissemination of many of the weeds. Many of 
the marsh birds and shore birds visiting Guam are migratory, and it 
is very probable that they have brought with them seeds or fruits 
from other regions. 

It is pleasant to note the absence of the troublesome sensitive 
plant {Mimosa pvdica) and the Lantana camara from the flora of 
Guam. Other shrubby plants of wide distribution occur in Guam, 
however, especially the guava, the two common species of indigo, 
Leucaena glauca^ and several American species of cassia. Nearly 
all the composites on the island are introduced weeds, belonging to 
the genera Vernonia, Elephantopus, Adenostemma, Ageratum, Ec- 
lipta, Glossogyne, and Synedrella. 

ANIMALS OF THE ISLAND. 

MAMMALS. 

Bats, — There are no indigenous quadrupeds in Guam. The only 
mammals in prehistoric times were two species of bats, the large 
fruit-eating Pteropus keraudrerd (Q. and G.), or " flying fox," called 
" f aniji " by the natives, and a small insectivorous species, Embal- 
lonura sendcaudata (Peale), called " payesyes." The fanihi flies 
about in the daytime, flapping its wings slowly like a crow. It has a 
disagreeable musky odor, but this leaves it when the skin is removed, 
and the natives sometimes eat it. The flesh is tough, but not un- 
savory. The principal fruits eaten by it are guaves, fertile bread- 
fruit, the drupes of the fragrant screw pine, called " kaf o," and cus- 
tard apples (Annona reticulata)^ which it has undoubtedly helped 
to spread over the island. Emhallonura semicaudata^ the insectiv- 
orous bat, is nocturnal in its habits, and flutters about very much 
like our own common species. It remains in caves during the day 
and ventures forth at twilight. 

Rais and mice, — ^The Norway or brown rat {Mus decumamis 
Pallas), called " chaca " by the natives, was probably introduced into 
the island through the agency of ships. It is very abundant and is 
a great pests, especially m plantations of maize and cacao. It also 
destroys young coconuts, ascending the trees and often making its 
nests there. The common mouse (Mvs musculus L.) has also been 
introduced. It apparently causes little harm. 

Deer, — A species of deer {Cervus marianrms) was introduced by 
Don Mariano Tobias, who was governor from 1771 to 1774. Its flesh 
has a fine venison flavor, and was a favorite food for the natives. 
Since the general introduction into the island of sporting' arms its 
numbers have rapidly diminished, and it has become necessary to 
protect the deer by game laws. 

Domestic animals, — Carabao (water buffalo), cattle, horses, mules, 
pigs, goats, cats, and dogs have been introduced. The water buffalo 
(Buhalus iuffelus L.) are used for carrying burdens, drawing carts, 
and for plowing rice, just as in the Philippines. Their flesh is 
seldom eaten in Guam, and their milk, which is of excellent quality 
and in some countries is an important food staple, is seldom used. 
They are very strong animals, but awkward and more difficult to 
manage than oxen. It is a common sight in Guam to see a small boy 
riding a carabao bull. As the huge, ungainly, great-horned animal 



20 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

goes galloping along the road it suggests some monster of prehistoric 
times. The carabao can not endure long periods of drought. They 
love to wallow in swamps, and, if hot and dry, will sometimes lie 
down with their riders when crossing a marsh. 

Many of the Guam cattle bear a general resemblance to Jerseys in 
size and color, though their udders ar^ much smaller. Both bulls and 
cows are used as steeds and for drawing carts. A foreigner is espe- 
cially struck with the speed developed by some of these animals. It is 
a common sight to see a dainty, smooth-skinned cow, saddled and 
haltered, trotting along as swiftly as a horse, with her calf galloping 
at her side. With the exception of a few herds of cattle and. carabao 
in the interior of the island, all animals in domestic use are kept 
tethered, to keep them awav from the unfenced garden patches and 
cornfields of the natives. They are subject to the attacks of wood ticks 
(Acarina), so that they must be frequently examined. The natives 
rub their skins and curry them like horses. Sometimes a neglected 
animal dies in consequence of the attacks of these pests. 

Horses do not multiply on the island. Colts are l>orn, but do not 
thrive, due almost entirely to lack of care. Goats are not plentiful. 
Wild hogs roam the forests in the northern part of the island. They 
live on fallen wild breadfruit and various roots. It is interesting to 
note that they eat the exceedingly acrid rootstocks of the great 
Alocasia, which grows wild in the forests. Hogs kept on ranches 
and fed on coconuts, breadfruit, and other vegetable substances are 
prized for food. The excellent flavor of the Guam pork was much 
praised by early navigators. Dogs are pests in the island. They 
are not well cared for as a rule, and get their living by foraging. 
Cats have gone wild, and sometimes destroy the eggs of sitting hens 
and catch young chickens and turkeys. Dogs and cats are fed upon 
coconuts when other food is not available. 

BIRDS. 

Land birds, — The most beautiful bird on the island is the rose- 
crowned fruit dove (Ptilopus roseicapillus Less.), called "tottot" 
by the natives, and closely resembling the manutangi of Samoa 
(P. fdsciatus Peale). The general color of its plumage is green. 
Its head is capped with rose-purple and the lower surface is yellow 
and orange, with some purple on the breast. The sexes are similar. 
When it utters its mournful sobbing note it presses its bill against 
its breast and swells the back of its neck. Birds kept in captivity 
would frequently cry out in the middle of the night. Their favorite 
food was the fruit of the ilangilang {Ganangium odoratum)^ cestrum 
berries (called " tintanchino ") , and orange berries {Triphasia 
irifoliata) . They also eat the plumlike fruit of Ximenia amerncaiia^ 
called " pint " by the natives. 

Another fruit dove is PMegoenas xanthonura (Temm.), the female 
of which is smaller than the male and is of a uniform reddish-brown 
color, while the male has a white throat and olive-green reflections 
on its breast. Another dove, which was probably introduced from 
the Philippines, is Turtur dussumieri (Temm.). It is quite common 
in the open stretches of the mesa, and is called "pahmianjalom- 
tano," or wild pigeon, by the natives. It is a graceful, dove-colored 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 21 

bird resembli3Qg the common turtle dove, to which it is closely allied. 
Another introduced bird is the beautiful little pigmy quail (Excal- 
fdctoria sinensis Gm.), called "bengbeng" by the natives, from the 
peculiar whirring noise it makes in flving. This little bird, which 
IS only 5 inches long, is remarkable for the large size of its eggs. 
They are of a brownish color, sprinkled with deeper brownish dots, 
broadly ovate in form, and 1 inch through in their greatest diameter. 

Tenesti'idl Mngfishers. — ^One of the commonest birds in Guam is 
Halcyon cinnamominus (Swains.), called "si jig" by the natives. 
It is of a beautiful blue and tawny color, the female differing from 
the male in having white on the bellv. This bird is allied to the 
" tio-tala " of Samoa {H, pealei). It feeds upon insects and lizards, 
and is said to eat young birds and to pick out the eyes of young 
chickens. It utters a strident rattling note, which is often heard in 
the middle of the night. An allied species. Halcyon aZbicilla^ occurs 
in the northern islands of the group. 

Other birds are the edible-nest swift, Collocalia fuciphaga 
(Thumb.), called "yayaguag" by the natives and "golondrina" by 
the Spaniards, which in Guam makes nests of leaves stuck together 
with a secretion from the mouth very different from the typical 
nests used for food by the Chinese ; the fan-tailed flycatcher, Rhipi- 
dura uranice (Oustalet), called "chichirika" or "chichirita" by the 
natives, a pretty little bird which follows one along the road and 
spreads its tail as though wishing to attract attention. Another 
little flycatcher frequenting shady woods, Myiagra freycineti (Ous- 
talet), called " chiguanguan "; the starlinglike sali, Aptords kittlitziy 
closely allied to the Samoan miti-uli (Ahrevirostris) ; a crow, Corvus 
kuharyi (Keichenow), called " aga," which is fond of terminalia nuts 
and does much damage to the maize crops of the natives; two honey 
eaters, the little red-and-black Myzomela rvhratra (Less.), called 
^'eguigui," which frequents the blossoms of bananas, coconuts, and 
scarlet hibiscus, and the olive-green and yellow Zosterops conspicU* 
lata, caller " nossac " by the natives. The only real song bird on the 
island is the ga-karriso, or ga-piao, a reed warbler, which is well 
named Acrocephalus luscirda. It nests among the reeds of the large 
swamp near Agana known as "la Cienaga," and has a song of 
exquisite sweetness. 

Shore birds. — Among the shore birds are a peculiar bittern, Ardetta 
sinensis (Gmel.), called "cacag" by the natives; the common reef- 
heron of the Pacific, Demigretta sacra (Gm.), called "chuchuco," 
which is not rare but wary and hard to approach; two rails called 
"koko'' Ilypotaenidia owstoni (Rothschild) ,B,ndPoliolimna^ cinereits 
(Vieill.), both of which are caught by the natives by means of snares 
laid in paths ; the widely distributed water hen or gallinule, GaUimda 
(hi or opus (Lath.) , called " pulatat " by the natives, excellent for food 
and easily distinguished by a red shield on its forehead ; three birds 
called " kalalang," the Pacific godwit, Limosa lapponica haueri 
(Xaum), the Australian curlew, Nwneniibs cyanopus (Vieill.), often 
seen on newly tilled fields, and the oriental whimbrel Numenivs 
phaeopus variegatus (Scop.), somewhat smaller, usually seen at 
periods of migration ; and the widely spread snipe, Gallinago viegala 
(Swinh.). Among the shore birds called by the general name 
"dulili" are the gray and white Asiatic wandering tattler, Heter- 




22 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

ffctitts hrevipp.s (Vieill.) ; bullhead or black-bellied plover, Sqiuita- 
TOla squqtarola (L.) ; the well-kiiowii Asiatic golden plover, Chara- 
drius dominUms gulws (Gm.), very conunon on cultivated fields and 
along the shores of the island; the Mongolian sand dottei-el, Aeylo- 
lites mongola (Pall.) ; and the common turnstoue, Arenaria inlerf>rea 
(L.), which may be easily distinguished from the rest by its bright 
yellow feet. A duck, Anas oustalet'i (Salv.), called "nganga*' by 
the natives isjpecuHar to the Mariana Islands. It is closely allied to 
species occurring in Hawaii and Samoa. 

Sea birds. — No gulls are found in the vicinity of the island. Nod- 
dies, Anous Leucocapillua (Gould) and Anous stolidue (Jj-), called 
'" fajang," by the natives, are common. The beautiful snow-white 
tern, Gygia alba kittUtzi (Hnrtert), called " cliunge " by the natives, 
bi-eeds on the island in great numbers, not making a nest but lay- 
ing its single white egg on the bare, branch of a tree. The common 
booby Sula aula (L.), is common in the vicinity of the island. 
Great numbers of them may always be seen off the coast of Orote 
Peninsula, and the red-footed booby, Sula ptscatrix (L.), with white 
plumage, also occurs. They pursue flying fish, and dart into the 
water from great heights. The frigate bird, Fregata aguUa (L.), 
called " payaava " by the natives, is not rare, but is seldom seen near 
the sliore of Guam. The tropic bird, Phaeihan leptiwus (Daudin), 
iiests on the northern islands of the group. 



There are few reptiles in Guam. The most conspicuous is a large 
lizard (Varanus sp.) about 4 feet long, of a black color, sprecklSi 
with lemon-yellow dots. The combination of these colors gives to the 
animal a greenish appearance as it runs through the busncs. As in 
the Guam kingfisher or " sijig " we have a lizard-eating bird, so in 
this animal, called "jilitai" by the natives, we have a bird-eating 
lizard. It is a great pest, frequently visiting the ranches of the 
natives, eating the eggs of fowls and young cliickens, and robbing 
birds' nests. It is a common thing on walking through the woocis 
of the island to hear an outcry among the birds and to discover one 
of these creatures in the vicinitv of a nest which he has just robbed. 
Several pigeons belonging to the author were caught and killed by 
jilitais, tneir wings having been clipped to prevent their flying away 
from a ranch to which they had been carried. These lizards are 
eaten by Filipinos living in Guam, but the natives look upon them 
with disgust. 

AU houses of Guam are frequented by small lizards called 
"gualiig." They are harmless creatures and are welcomed by the 
natives on account of their habit of catching insects. Their toes 
are so constructed as to enable them to run upside-down on the ceil- 
inff and rafters with ereat rapiditv. At nieht thev mav be seen 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 23 

gitudinal bronze lines along the back. The only snake on the island 
IS Typhlopa braminus (Dandin), a small species, with microscopic 
eyes and mouth and covered with minute scales. It is sometimes 
called "blind-worm." from its general resemblance to a large earth- 
worm, and is found in damp places, under stones and logs. Turtles 
i in the sea, and are sometimes taken. 



General notes. — The fishes of Guam have been collected by Quoy 
and Gaimard and Mr. Alvin Seale, of the Bemice Fauahi Bishop 
Museum of Hawaii. Although the natives do not devote themselves 
to fishing so extensively now as was formerly the case, yet many 
of them liave case nets with which "they catch small fish swimming 
in schools near the beach, and a few have traps and seines. The 
ancient custom of trawling for bonitos and flying fish has nearly 
died out, but the natives still resort occasionally to the method pur- 
sued by their ancestors of stupefying fish with the crushed fruit of 
Barri/ngtoma spectosa, a narcotic widely used for this purpose in the 
islands of the Pacific. The fruit is pounded into a paste, inclosed 
in a bag, and kept overnight. The time of an especially low tide is 
selected, and bags of the pounded fruit are taken out on the reef the 
next morning and sunk in certain deep holes in the reef. The fish 
soon appear at the surface, some of them lifeless, others attempting 
to swim, or faintly struggling, with their ventral side uppermost. 
The natives scoop them up in nets, spear them, or jump overboard 
and catch them in their hands, sometimes even diving for them. 
Nothing more striking could be imagined than the picture presented 
by the conglomeration of strange shapes and bright colors — snake- 
like sea eels (Ophicthiis, Muraena, and Echidna) ; voracious lizard 
fishes (Synodus) ; garlike houndfishes (Tylosurus), with their jaws 
prolonged into a sharp beak ; half-beaks (Hemiramphus) , with the 
lower jaw projecting like an awl and the upper one having the ap- 
pearance of being broken off; long-snouted trumpet fishes (Fistu- 
laria) ; flounders (Platopkrys pavo) ; porcupine fish (Diodon hys- 
trix), bristhng with spines; mullets of several kinds (Mugil), highly 
esteemed as food fishes; pikelike Sphryraemas; squirrel fishes {lK)lo- 
centrus) of the brightest and most beautiful colors — scarlet, rose- 
color and silver, and yellow and blue; surmullets (Upeneus and 
Pseudupeneus) of various shades of yellow, marked with bluish lines 
from the eye to the snout; parrot fishes (Scarus), with large scales, 
parrotlike beaks, and intense colors, some of them a deep greenish 
blue, others looking as though painted with blue and pink opaque 
colors; variegated Chaetodons, called "sea butterflies by the na- 
tives; black -and -yellow banded banner fish {Zanclus caneaceria) ; 
i and armor; gaily striped lancet 
iyug; leopard -spotted groupera 
the cabrillas of the Peruvian 
iaius), striped from head to tail 
ir; hideous looking, warty toad- 
lus spines, much dreaded by the 
s marffinatus), with a spur on its 



24 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

As many young fish unfit for food are destroyed b^^ this process, 
the Spanish Government forbade this method of fishing, but after 
the American occupation of the island the practice was revived ; but 
the Spanish law is now again enforced. 

In the mangrove swamps when the tide is low hundreds of little 
fishes with protruding eyes may be seen hopping about in the mud 
and climbing among the roots of the Ehizophora and Bruguiera. 
These are the widely spread Periopthalnvus koelreuteri^ belonging to 
a group of fishes interesting from the fact that their air bladder has 
assumed, in a measure, the function of lungs, enabling the animal to 
breathe atmospheric air. 

MARINE INVERTEBRATES. 

Guam offers most favorable conditions for the study of marine 
invertebrates. On the western coast of the island there are broad 
fringing coral reefs and level platforms, covered even at high tide 
with only a few feet of water and at low water bare over considerable 
areas. Here a collector in a boat or wading, with his feet protected 
from the sharp spines of sea urchins and the rough branches of the 
coral, can always get abundance of material. When the reef is cov- 
ered with a foot of water and there is no breeze to ruffle the surface 
the bottom appears like a garden, the corals and marine annelids 
expanding like beautifully rayed composites. On the bottom lie 
f ungia corals, like huge inverted mushrooms, with pale green tentacles 
expanding from their radiating laminae; indigo-blue, five-fingered 
starfish; sea urchins; and holothurians. Some of the latter creep 
about like huge brown slugs. If one attempts to pick them up, they 
thrust one of their extremities between the branches of coral or into 
a crevice of the rock, and by forcing water to that part of the body 
distend it and wedge it so tightly that it can not be removed without 
being torn in two. A long translucent holothurian (Synapta) moves 
through the water so rapidly that it is caught with difficulty. When 
lifted from the water it hangs limp and helpless, like a skin full of 
water, its internal organs showing distinctly through the body wall. 
As soon as it is dropped back into its native element it makes off at 
a great speed and soon finds shelter in some hole in the reef. Among 
the moUusks are a number of handsome olives, cones, and many small 
cowries, which evidently feed upon the coral. There are also naked 
moUusks that protect themselves by spurting forth clouds of purple 
fluid. Filefishes, tetrodons, and other fishes are always seen nibbling 
at the coral. Sometimes a great sea porcupine makes for them, and 
off they all swim as though afraid for their lives. 

The natives eat many kinds of marine animals, but they do not 
depend upon the reef to the extent that the Samoans and Caroline 
islanders do, having become essentially an agricultural people, and 
few of them find it to their advantage to neglect their fields for fish- 
ing. In former times several governors found it profitable to collect 
and dry certain kinds of holothurians, called " balate," " trepang," or 
" beches de mer," and ship them to Manila or Canton. 

Crabs of several kinds abound, most of them of wide distribution 
in the Pacific. Some of them (" alimasag ") have shells brightly deco- 
rated with orange-red spots {Z admits aeneus L.) ; others are cov- 
ered with spines, and others when they fold in their claws look like 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 25 

smooth, Water-worn boulders. Scrambling over rocks along the 
shore are Grapsus tenrdcrustatus (Herbst.) of a deep red color, 
speckled, and striped with yellow. Spiny lobsters or crayfish 
(Panulirus), with long antennae and carapax covered with spines, 
abound at certain points along the coast; and in the fresh-water 
streams on the islands are delicate semitransparent prawns (Bithy- 
nis), which move about the pools in a stealthy, ghostlike manner, and 
are almost invisible to the casual observer. Both the spiny lobsters 
and the prawns are valued as food. 

Among the land crabs is CardisoTna rotundum (Q. and G.)? which 
burrows in the groimd and does great damage to gardens. This is 
caught in traps made of bamboo by the natives. It visits the sea 
at regular intervals to deposit its eggs, going after nightfall in 
straight lines and climbing over all obstacles in its way. Among the 
hermit crabs are Amculus (Herbst.), with red carapax orna- 
mented with deep red spots, and Dardanus punctulatus (Olivier), 
prettily marked with blue ocelli with white centers. The most inter- 
esting of all the land crustaceans is the well-known Birgua Zatro (L.), 
or robber crab, called "ayuyu," which is kept in captivity by the 
natives and fattened on coconuts for the table. 

No general investigation has been made of the moUusca inhabiting 
the littoral of Guam, but such an investigation is to be made in 1917 
by a naturalist from the University of Wisconsin. 

INSECTS. 

The insects of Guam have never been systematically collected. 
Many of those now occurring on the island have undoubtedly been 
introduced since the discovery. The butterflies are not especially 
striking to the casual observer. Among them is the widely spread 
tawny-colored milkweed butterfly, Anoaia plexippiLS (Fabr,), which 
has found its way to Guam, together with the introduced Asclepias 
curassavica^ on which its larva feeds. Both the plant and the insect, 
although of American origin, now occur on many islands of the 
Pacific Ocean. Among the night-flying lepidoptera there is a large 
sphinx moth {Protoparce ceteus Hbrt.), the larva of which feeds on 
the tobacco plant and resembles very closely the tobacco worms of 
America. It is possible that this insect may have lived on the 
island before the introduction of tobacco, feeding upon some solana- 
ceous plant, but it is probable that it came to Guam with the tobacco. 
Possibly its eggs were brought on dried leaves of the plant. Among 
the other pests introduced by the foreigner are clothes moths {Tinea 
peUionella L.). In the zoology of the Freycinet expedition several 
butterflies collected in Guam, including an Argynnis and two species 
of Danais, were described as new. 

Among the hymenoptera there are several interesting species of 
wasps and ants. One wasp, probably a species of Polistes (P. 
hehraeua Fabr.?), is social in its habits. During the greater part 
of the year it frequents open fields, building its nests in bushes a 
foot or two from the ground, attaching them to a limb by a peduncle 
with the mouth of the cells pointed downward, and not covered by 
a papery wall, as in our hornets' nests. In these cells the eggs are 
laid and the larv8B are fed. When about to undergo transformation 
the larvae spin a covering wtiich seals up the cell. The males differ 



J 



26 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

from the female in appearance and are stino:less. Besides the males 
and perfect females there are workers. Both the females and the 
workers sting, but their sting is not very severe. These insects are 
very abundant all over the island, especially in abandoned clearings 
grown up to guavas and other low bushes. It is almost impossible 
to cross such a field without stirring up a nest or two, and one of the 
commonest occurrences on an excureion is to hear a loud outcry on 
the part of your guide, whose naked legs are covered with the stings 
of the "sasata," as they are called. In revenge he usually finds a 
dry leaf of a coconut, which he converts into a torch and burns the 
nest. These wasps are not very pugnacious, and will only sting 
when they think their nest is attacked. After it has been burned 
they fly around and around the place without attempting to take 
vengeance. In the wintertime (the month of December) they flock 
into house in great numbers and settle upon some prominent point 
on the ceiling or on a chandelier, clinging together in masses like 
swarming bees. There they remain for a month or two in a state 
of torpidity. They are disagreeable guests, as they have a habit of 
droppmg to the floor from time to time, and it is not unusual on 
getting out of bed in the morning to step on one of them, too stupid 
to fly but lively enough to sting. On one of the Government vessels, 
which had visited Guam in January, w^ere found some of these 
wasps after her arrival in San Francisco. They had sought an 
asylum while she lay in the harbor of Apra, and remained hibernat- 
ing during the return voyage of the vessel. Another species found 
on board was a solitary wasp, a species of Odynerus or an allied 
genus. The mother had made a series of mudlike cells in a pamphlet, 
which had remained rolled up, and in each cell she had deposited a 
small green caterpillar, the larva of one of the smaller moths of the 
island, laying an egg and sealing up the cell and then making another 
cell on top of it and repeating the operation. In Guam these cell- 
making wasps are very common. Every hole in the wall of a house 
is plastered up by them; rolled-up magazines or newspapers lying 
on the table, bamboos, empty cartridge cases, even gun barrels — 
everything which is tubular in shape is filled by their cells. Their 
sting stupefies the caterpillar, but does not kill it, and their larvae in 
eating their animal food are much more active than those of pollen- 
feeding species, turning their heads from side to side and living for 
some time after having been taken from their cells. 

Among the ants ("otdot" or "utdut") there is one (Salenopsis 
sp. ? ) of which the workers are very small and sting severely. The 
females are considerably larger. These little creatures, when out 
on foraging expeditions, travel in lines and sting every animal that 
crosses their path. Sometimes young chickens are killed by them. 
They are common in houses, and it is not unusual on turning in at 
night to find a line of them crossing the bed. In another species be- 
longing to the same family (Myrmicida^), probably of the genus 
Pheidole, there is a form with enormously developed cubical heads 
and strong jaws, called " soldiers." It is very interesting to watch 
these insects swarm. They come out of the ground in great numbers. 
Both the males and females are winged. The females are very much 
larger than the males and the workers are smaller. The soldiers, 
which are very conspicuous, are sometimes called " workers major," 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 27 

and the common small-headed form " workers minor." Soon after 
swarming the sexes mate. They then lose their wings and establish 
new colonies. Another stinging ant, much larger and of a black 
color, is called " jating." 

The Diptera are represented by several species of flies and at least 
two mosquitoes. It has been asserted that the early natives blamed 
the Spaniards for having introduced both flies and mosquitoes to 
Guam. This is probably false, since the vernacular names of these 
insects in Guam are etymologically identical with the names of the 
same insects through the greater part of Melanesia, Polynesia, and 
New Zealand, and have evidently the same origin as the modern 
Malavan. 

Mosquitoes are very troublesome both day and night in Guam. 
The day-flying species avoids the sunlight, but makes life a burden 
in the shade. All Europeans sleep under mosquito nets, and the na- 
tives habitually make a smudge in their houses after dark to smoke 
out the night-flying species. This is effective if the lights in the 
house are first extinguished and not relighted. 

Fleas are not common; the climate is probably too damp for them 
to flourish. The author passed a year on the island without seeing 
either a flea or a bedbug. Neither do lice appear to be abundant. 
This may be owing to the habit of the natives of frequently washing 
the hair with soap, oranges, and bergamots. 

Among the Hemiptera, besides lice there are plant lice of several 
kinds, large water bugs (Belostoma) in stagnant pools, and swarms 
of Ploteres, which skip over the surface of the water. Several varie- 
ties of roses have been introduced into Guam, but happily the rose 
aphis (Siphonophora) has not reached the island. 

Among the Neuroptera are several handsome dragon flies, one of 
which is bright red. Termites, or " white ants," called " annai" by 
the natives, are pests. They do great injury to books and furniture 
and to the woodwork of houses, often building covered galleries of 
mud along the walls of a room. In construction wood must be 
chosen which will resist the attacks of these insects. It is not an 
uncommon occurrence for a chair or table to collapse, and to find 
that it has been honeycombed by termites. Sometimes they form 
continuous galleries through a whole shelf of books or a pile of 
manuscript. These insects do not confine their attacks to deadwood ; 
they attack living trees and are among the insects injurious to the 
cacao. 

Among the Coleoptera may be mentioned the weevils, which de- 
strov great quantities of corn, rice, and other farinaceous food. 
Grain must be thoroughly dried in the sun and then stowed in 
earthen jars for protection against these pests. 

The Orthoptera are represented by several species of grasshop- 
pers, which furnish excellent food for chickens and turkeys, and 
which do not seem to cause much injury to the crops of the island. 
Mole crickets (Gryllotalpse) are very common. 

SCORPIONS, SPIDERS, AND CENTIPEDES. 

A small scorpion is common in Guam. Its sting is painful, but 
not dangerous. Among the spiders one of the most interesting is 
a large dark-brown species, probably belonging to the Epeirida?, 



28 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

• 

which carries about with it a white disk-shaped membranous case 
filled with eggs. There are no tarantulas nor other dangerous spi- 
ders. Wood ticks (Acarina) are great pests and sometimes infest 
cattle to such an extent as to cause them to sicken and die. 

Centipedes, called "saligao" by the natives, are common. They 
inflict a very painful but not dangerous bite. They are usually 
found in damp places under stones or rotten wood, the mother often 
surrounded by a brood of brightly colored young, similar to her in 
form. Like spiders and crustaceans thev cast their skins in growing. 
The jaws are modifications of a pair of legs. They are sharp, pre- 
hensile, and fanglike, and are perforated at the tip so as to inject 
their venom into the wound inflicted by them. Their body is flat- 
tened, so that they can force their way into small cracks, under 
stones, and beneath the loose bark of trees in search of their insect 

[)rey. They are carnivorous and seize their victims with their pincer- 
ike jaws, injecting their venom. They are very quick in their move- 
ments and tenacious of life. When one is cut in two each part 
makes off in an independent direction at full speed, but the posterior 
part does not get very far. 

For further information as to the flora and fauna of Guam the 
reader is advised to consult the complete work, "Useful Plants of 
Guam," mentioned above. 

III. CLIMATE. 

The climate of Guam is healthful and on the whole pleasant. 
The northeast and east-northeast trade winds prevail for six months 
of the year, during which time the rain is relatively little. The 
driest month is frequently April, yet in this month the mean quan- 
tity of rainfall, drawn from the last nine years, is an inch and a half 
with a minimum average of eight rainy days. From June to No- 
vember the southwest monsoon blows at more or less frequent inter- 
vals influenced by the typhoons and depressions rather numerous 
at this time of the year. These warm winds bring very abundant 
precipitation, the monthly average of rainfall varying during this 
rainy season from 5 to 15 inches, and that of the rainy days from 
16 to 24. The yearly mean total of rainfall of the last nine years 
amounted to 81 inches, of which 60 per cent fell during the six 
rainy months. The greatest monthly fall during the said period 
was 26 inches (August, 1914), and the greatest in a single day 9 
inches, on the 13th of July, 1907; the most prolonged drouth, 24 
days, February and March, 1907. 

The mean annual temperature is 81, and it is nearly constant along 
the year ; the daily variation is very small, the mean maximum being 
88 and the mean minimum 72. There is always a constant breeze, 
especially during the clearest and hottest months, and one may be 
comfortable when sheltered from the sun. 

Although very often during the rainy season the island is within 
the sphere of influence of typhoons because of its location within the 
limits of the region of the western Pacific wherein the most of them 
originate, yet only at long intervals is it visited by severe ones which 
cause loss of propertjr or life. One of the most disastrous in the 
memory of the inhabitants occurred on November 13, 1900, and de- 
stroyed all crops, fruits, and many wooden houses. The U. S. S. 



spi- 
fest 

hey 
Jly 

'ill 

»re- 
ect 
at- 
ler 
ect 

IT- 

rt 

or 

le 
.f 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 29 

Yosemitey station ship at Guam, in the early hours of the storm was 
driven on the reefs inside Apra Harbor in front of the town of 
Sumay and severely damaged. During a later shift of wind, the 
ship was blown out to sea over the Calalan Bank near the Spanish 
Eock, and although the vessel was drawing 40 feet forward the rocks 
were never toucned. Here she lost her remaining anchor. At 4 
o'clock the next morning, when the storm subsided, it was seen that 
the Yosendte was a total derelict ; her boats were gone, her rigging 
torn to pieces, her rudder was gone, and the propeller was so badly 
damaged that it was impossible to make more than 2 knots an hour. 
After drifting helplessly for 36 hours the crew were ifinally taken oflf 
by the U. S. S. Justin^ which had weathered the storm in safety. As 
the Yosemite could not be towed into port, she was sunk after remov- 
ing all the Government property that could be saved. The loss of 
life in the island amounted to 20, of whom 4 were members of the 
crew of the Yosemite, Two years after this event the coconut trees 
in the island w^ere just beginning to recover from the effects of the 
storm. 

Prior to the typhoon of 1900 the most recent occurred in November, 
1895. In 1871 there was one of the most severe, and recently — 
November, 1914 — ^some buildings of the island were damaged by a 
typhoon. 

As in the Philippines, earthquakes are of common occurrence ; the 
island being at the southern end of the submarine chain or ridge ex- 
tending northward to Japan, and surrounded south and southeast by 
the Challenger Deep, one of the deepest oceanic depressions known, 
must be considered as very unstable. Light shocks, unnoticed during 
the noises and distractions incident to the day are of frequent occur- 
rence once each week or two. It is known that a violent earthquake 
occurred in 1779 which first destroyed the cathedral and palace at 
Umatac, but little else is known of it than the record written on the 
tablet of bluestone embedded in the ruined wall. 

The older inhabitants tell of two severe earthquakes which oc- 
curred in 1825 and 1834, which did damage to buildings. About 2.50 
p. m., June 25, 1849, an earthquake shock, described by Ibanez as 
" terrible," was expeci^nced in Guam, and all houses of mamposteria 
were destroyed. Ibanez. also says that a curious person counted 550 
succeeding shocks and trembles between January 25 and March 11 
of that year. This earthquake again destroyed the governor's palace, 
church, and forts of Umatac. 

Later, June, 1862, and May, 1892, the island was again violently 
shaken by damaging shocks. On September 22, 1902, an earthquake 
occurred, which ruined or badly damaged every masonry house on 
the island, wrecked highway bridges, blocked roads, and scarred the 
mountains with great landslides. There were two shocks, each of 
about a minute's duration and separated by about the same interval 
of time. The loss of the inhabitants was great, and that to the insular 
government so great that, with the failure of the Federal Govern- 
ment to grant the requested aid, it was necessary to send the American 
school-teachers home, suspend all native schools, suspend all public 
works in progress, and curtail expenses in every possible way. More 
recently some less violent earthquakes were felt — ^February, 1903, 
and December, 1909. 



30 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

IV. DISCOVEBY, OCCITPATION, AND MISSIONABT WOBK, 

1521-1670. 

On March 6, 1521, the island of Guam was discovered by Fernando 
de Magallanes, then on his historic voyage around the world. His 
crew was in a sorry state, for provisions were exhausted and water 
ruAning short. It was his purpose to land and revictual his ships, 
and he dropped anchor and furled sail, probably in the lee of Cocos 
Island. The natives s^varmed out and around the sliip, manifesting 
a lively and fearless curiosity. The canoes excited the admiration of 
the adventurers, who speak of them as " flying proas," on account of 
their great speed; and because of their huge triangular sails, the 
group of islands was named by Magellan "Lateen Sails Islands" 
(Islas de Velas Latinas). However, this name did not long endure, 
for, as a result of the natives appropriating everything portable 
upon which they could lay hand, and particularly the disappearance 
of a ship's boat, the Spaniards landed under arms and fired upon the 
natives, killing half a dozen, recovered the missing boat, and sailed 
away in high dudgeon, rechristening the islands " Ladrones." Al- 
though subsequently called the "Marianas" (late in the seventeenth 
century) in honor of Maria Ana de Austria, the name of Ladrones 
has remained in common use, even until now. The islands were 
always referred to officially by the Spanish Government as " Maria- 
nas," and this name was confirmed by the United States Navy 
Department; but the probability is that to the world at large they 
will always be known as the " Robber Islands." The island is now 
officially Guam, without group designation. 

In spite of this first unfavorable impression, the situation of these 
islands and the facilities for obtaining fresh provisions were such 
that succeeding expeditions to the Philippines and Moluccas made 
it a stopping place, beginning an intercourse with the inhabitants, 
which in time greAv more friendly and mutually profitable. The 
attention of the age, however, was so occupied with the conquest of 
the Moluccas, rich in spices, and of the Philippine Archipelago, 
abounding in minerals and every variety of fruit, that, though consid- 
ered of value, no attention was given to the little Marianas, and it 
was not until 1565 that anything like a formal occupation was 
attempted. Philip II of Spain, becoming interested in the smaller 
lands of recent discovery, ordered an expedition for the purpose of 
investigating them, and on the 21st of November, 1564, three ships 
sailed from the port of the Nati\dty in New Spain under the com- 
mand of Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, who was vested with the title of 
governor of all lands he might conquer. On January 22, 1565, they 
sighted the Marianas and took possession of the same in the name 
of the Crown of Spain. They remained on the island of Guam only 
long enough to take on water and fresh vegetables. On January 25, 
1565, the Augustinian fathers celebrated the first mass in the islands. 
Irregular communication with the islands was kept up by vessels 
stopping for provisions en route to and from Acapuico and the 
Philippmes, but no form of government was established until later. 

In 1588, on the 3d of January, Guam was visited by the English 
privateer Cavendish, who traded with the natives for fresh provi- 
sions. He speaks admiringly of the natives' skill as seamen and 
swimmers, and of the quality of the provisions he received, but his 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 31 

admiration did not prevent his sheeting a gun at them " to be rid of 
them." 

In 1638 the ship Goncepcion was wrecked on the shores of Tinian 
but the survivors, with a lew exceptions, made their escape in a small 
boat to Manila. Some of those who remained made their way eventu- 
ally to Guam; one of whom, a man named Pedro, was found there 
when the first mission arrived on the island 30 years later. 

In the year 1662 the ship San Damian^ bound with Jesuit mis- 
sionaries from Acapulco to the Philippines, stopped at Guam for 
water. Among the missionaries was a Padre Diego Luis de San- 
vitores, who was so much impressed with the condition of the natives 
in the canoes that surrounded the ship that he determined to dedicate 
himself to their conversion to Christianity. He proceeded to Manila, 
and after overcoming much opposition from the insular government 
succeeded in obtaining a royal decree ordering a vessel and means 
for the establishment of a mission to the Ladrone Islands. To his 
disappointment the ship was ordered to Peru before going to the 
Ladrones, and contrary winds compelled them to put in at Acapulco 
instead of Peru, where Sanvitores and his assistant found themselves 
in January, 1668. Here he met with more opposition from the 
viceroy of Mexico, who declined to honor the royal decree by fur- 
nishing funds. Even these last troubles were overcome, however, 
by furnishing 18 wealthy bondmen, by the donations of the Society 
of Jesus in Mexico, and finally by a timely earthquake which was, 
according to the astute churchman, direct evidence of God's anger. 

Sanvitores and his party of missionaries started their expedition 
from Acapulco on the 23d of March, 1668, and sighted Guam at 
nightfall on the 15th of the following June. They landed and found 
the natives to be friendly, through the good offices of Pedro, the sole 
survivor of the ill-fated Concepcion. The party consisted of San- 
vitores and four other fathers, a lay brother, a few laymen, a captain, 
and 32 soldiers, made up of Spaniards and Filipinos. A chapel and 
a dwelling of wood were built, but nothing of a military character. 

The natives received the missionaries and the new religion in a 
friendly manner, and the work of converting and baptizing pro- 
gressed satisfactorily until they met their first obstacle in the " libels 
of a Chinaman named Choco," the only survivor of a wrecked sam- 
pan which had been driven on the island some 20 years prior to the 
advent of the Spaniards. This Choco had settled at Paa, a town 
that fbrmerly existed near the site of the present village of Merizo, 
in the southern part of Guam. He had, on account or his superior 
knowledge, attamed some prominence in his district, and fearing 
for his influence he worked on the supei'stitions of the natives and 
made them believe that the sacrament of baptism was a work of 
sorcery and the water used a subtle poison. The fathers put an 
effective end to this trouble, as far as the island of Guam was con- 
cerned, by the simple method of converting and baptizing Choco 
himself, but the disaffection he had started spread to the northern 
islands and continued to cause opposition, finally ending in the death 
of two soldiers and the wounding of one of the fathers. 

This first fatal clash between the natives and missionaries led San- 
vitores to attempt a personal tour of the northern islands. He 
started in October, 1668, and in six months he and his assistant, 



32 TirW ISLAND OF GUAM. 

Father Morales, visited the islands of Rota, Saipan, Tinian, Anatajan, 
Sariguan, Alamagan, Pagan, and Agrigan, a notable feat when it is 
considered that their vessels were the island canoes, manned and 
navigated by the native boatmen, and in seas beset by varying winds 
and strong currents. 

On his return from this expedition Sanvitores commenced a church, 
with funds amounting to 3,000 pesos provided by Queen Maria Ana 
of Austria, whose generosity also provided the sum of 21,000 pesos 
to maintain the defenses of and to promote intercourse with the is- 
lands, besides 3,000 pesos for the establishment of a college for the in- 
struction of the natives. The church was built of stone and lime, and 
was formally opened on the 2d of February, 1669, and named Dulce 
Nombre de Maria. (Monsignor Jose Palomo, a native of Agana, and 
for the past 50 years a priest of the church, is of the opinion that the 
present church Dulce Nombre de Maria in Agana, is the original 
church referred to in the text, and that the tablet over the main door, 
which bears the date 1779,^ is misleading, having been placed there 
by the Augustinian friars many years after the church was built. 
He furnished the following interesting information on the subject: 
In 1668 the Jesuit fathers landed in Guam, Mariana Islands, and 
in 1669 a report was made by them to Her Majesty the Oueen of 
Spain, Maria Ana de Austria, stating that a church had been built 
in Agana. Upon the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain and her 
possessions in 1767, Augustinian friars were sent out to replace them, 
arriving in Guam in 1769, and remaining until 1899, when they were 
sent away by the then governor, the late Capt. R. P. Leary, United 
States Navy. No record exists of the building of a church in Agana 
by the Augustinian friars. An examination oi the pillars of the main 
altar shows that all the carvings formerly thereon have been chiseled 
off. It is known that this was done in compliance with an order from 
Friar Aniceto Ibanez, Augustinian, at the time in charge of the 
parish. The pillars on the altars of St. Mary and St. Joseph, upon 
wiiich. it is well known, were carved the double-headed eagle, the 
arms of the roval house of Austria, were removed from the church to 
the convent, and were destroyed within the memory of living men. 
It is improbable that the Augustinians would have carv^ed there the 
coat of arms of the house to which that order was as violently op- 
posed as were the Jesuits to the house of Bourbon, of which King 
Charles III of Spain, who signed the royal decree of expulsion^ was a 
member. It is, therefore, reasonably certain that the church in ques- 
tion is the original church built bv the Jesuits in 1669.) The school, 
begun jabout the same time as the church, was built of the same mate- 
rial, and I'eceived the name Royal College of San Juan de Letran. 

The work of converting the natives went on steadily, though 
against constantly growing o])position, as it became more and more 
apparent to the liberty-loving inhabitants that the new religion, which 
was based on love, mercy, and humility, was, as administered by the 
zealous priests, a strict code of living, which deprived them of their 
freedom and threatened to change in every respect their customs, 
habits, and even manner of dress. Whatever may have been their 
true characters, and notwithstanding the fact that their reports show 

» In the records of the Augustinian Recoletos it is stated that the church was restored 
In 1793. 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 33 

a total of 32,000 ' baptisms during the first eight months of their work, 
11 of the party met violent deaths at the hajids of the natives during 
the years 1668-1672. 

One of these deaths was the direct cause of the first open warfare 
between the Spaniards and the natives, and came about in this wise: 
A native convert, one Jose Peralto, having been sent into the woods 
to cut wood for crosses, was set upon and slain. In order to avenge 
his death the Spanish soldiers arrested several suspects, which action 
so enraged the islanders that they gathered about 2,000 men and 
attacked the mission. The whites erected stockades and barriers, and, 
mounting their two fieldpieces, made their defense. Sanvitores tried 
in vain to make peace, holding aloft the crucifix, but they fired volleys 
of stones and darts at the image and charged the defenses. Having 
been repulsed in their assault, they discharged burning lances and 
stones wrapped in combustible material against the thatched roof of 
the church. When the situation appeared desperate the Spaniards 
prayed fervently to St. Michael, according to the statement made by 
the old fathers in their report, and a heavy rain fell, quenching the 
flames. Despite this divine intervention, the islanders persisted in 
their attacks, when a second demonstration of Providence, in the way 
of a destructive typhoon, which lasted upward of 24 hours, finally 
convinced them that " neither by force nor craft could they hope to 
resist the Christians," and they accordingly made peace in October, 
1670. 

V. BEBEIiLIONS AND WABS, 1670-1696. 

The disaffection did not disappear with the making of this peace, 
however, and the Chamorros still hoped to throw off the yoke of the 
conquerors. This feeling was fostered by the chiefs and macajnas, 
who saw the new regime usurping their power and authority. In 
the year following five of the missionaries met martyrdom, one of 
whom, a Nicolas de Figueroa, was killed in Ypao, near the site 
of the present leper colony. These troubles culminated on April 2, 
1672, in the murder of the president of the mission, Padre Sanvi- 
tores, and his servant at Timbon, a spot on the beach of Tumon Bay 
near Lovers Point. The old padre was macheted while in the act 
of baptizing a child, bjr Matapang and Hirao, two chieftains or 
nobles of the people. His body was thrown into the sea and floated 
ashore at a spot on the beach one- fourth of a mile east of Agana, 
and rude wooden crosses mark this place to-day. 

A detachment from the galleon San Diego^ which stopped at 
Guam on its way to Acapulco, marched to Tumon to arrest tne mur- 
derers of Sanvitores. They reached the locality, and after a fruit- 
less search started to return to Agana. The natives had in the 
meantime gathered in their rear and obstructed the woods in order 
to force the Spaniards to march on the beach, which they ambus- 
caded. The Spanish captain, to avoid the danger, marched his 
men in the water breast deep, only to find his dangers increased 
thereby, as a fleet of canoes, commanded by Matapang himself, 
attacked their seaward flank, while from the cover of Qie bushes 
and trees along the beach they received volleys of poisoned lances 
tipped with human bones. They kept up a running fight around 

^ It is generally considered as an exaggeration. 
7023S— 17 3 



34 THE ISLAND OF CfUAMl 

Saupon Point, and finally gained the road to Agana, but not nntil 
many of their number ^^wert wounded, all of whom, except the 
captain, subsequently died from the poison. 

This warfai*e was kept up incessantly until November, 1673, 
when to all appearances the natives again became pacified. Eloquent 
appeals were made to the home government for reinforcei^entSj but, 
although an order was sent to Manila for 200 Pampangos, none had 
arrived up to this time. This apparent state of peace was disturbed 
by the murder of Padre Esquwra and five companions on the road 
between Cetti and Fouha (supposed to be between Umatac and Agat) 
on February 2, 1674. 

In June, 1674, Don Damian de Esplana arrived with 30 men and, 
assuming the office of military commandant, iindertoofc the con- 
quest of the rebels. He defeated them on several occasions Arid 
burned the towns of Chochoga, Pepura, Sidia-Aty, Sagua, Naa:an, 
aiid Nittca, with many isolated homes and ranclie^: *T^e pLse 
which followed this punishment was marked by the building of 
churches at the towns of Ritidian, Taragtte, and Tepungan, in addi- 
tion to those already built in Merizo, Pagat, Paicpouc, and Ngachang. 
In June, 1675, the galleon San TeJmo arrived, bringing a new 
superior. Padre Bo^eus, with Padre Bustillos 'and 20 soldiers. Sev- 
ei*al schools Were established in the villages and the children taught 
Spanish and the elements of religion. Outbreaks continued at 
intervals, however^ and in December, 1675, the church, pastorag^, 
and school at Ritidian were sacked and burned, and Padre Diaz, 
with two companions, cut to pieces with machetes, which brought 
in retaliation the destruction of the village by the Spaniards. In 
January, 1676, Padre San Basilio, while trading' with a native of 
Upi, accused the latter of cheating and was slain with clubs, and his 
arm bones used to point arrows. The villagers Of Tkrague in 
revenge burned the town of Upi. 

In June, 1676, the ship Acapulco arrived at Guam and left Capt. 
Francisco Irrisarri, the new governor, 5 priests, and 74 soldiers. 
This govemoir, warned by previous experitoce, began his adminis- 
tration by a campaign against the natives in which he killed five 
persons of Talisay and burned many houses. " The introduction of 
Christian rites of marriage was made during this governor's titne. 

The first wedding was celebrated in the town of Urote, the contract- 
ing parties being a Spaniard and a native maiden of that town. This 
event caused another outbreak, which proved to be the most serious 
yet encountered. The father of the bride objected to the marriage, 
because thereby he lost tlie price of his daughter's chastity, which, 
according to their customs, he would have sold, before marriage, to 
the bachelors. The priest tried in vain to appease his claim by 
offering, more money than the unmarried men could afford to pay; 
and the trouble resulted in the murder of a Spaniard. The governor 
had ordered tl^at the father of the bride be garroted, which so incensed 
the natives that they organized a new insurrection on a larger scale. 
They attacked Father Monroy and six soldiers in Sumay, but the 
natives would not fight in the open for fear of the Spanish firearms, 
and, the padre Jnight have escaped to Agana had it not been for the 
treachery of the Chamorro, Cheret, who was regarded as friendly. 
This Cheret, under the pretense of taking them to safety, decoyed 



THE iSLAKi) OP GUAM. S6 

them itito his boat, and when out in the bay he overturned them and 
wet the powder of their guns. €heret atid his natives then made short 
work of the fugitives with sticks and larices; At th6 same time the 
city of Agana was attacked. The garrison was besieged in the diurch 
and several of the stone houses, from which it made sorties, and suc- 
ceeded in repulsmg the natives with great loss. Judicial punishment 
was meted to the^prisoriers^ Vhich so disheartened' the natives that the 
siege was raised. . . . , . 

£i June, 1678, Don Juan deSalas arrived as governor and brought 
with him 30 soldiers. His first act was to sack aiid burn the villages 
of PuAton, Tipalao, Pouha, Orote, Sumay, and Taleyf ac, with other 
smaller towns and many ranches. In; their report the Jesuit fathers 
thus described the maniier of the warfare waged : 

Our handful of men was opposed by multitudes. Although our arms were 
superior, we had to meet them Iti the defiles of the mountains, where they were 
at home. We fought adversaries who never presented a battle front, but pre- 
ferred- tiie cover of ambuscades^ attacking withlanees and stones^ which they 
tiurled upon Qur heads in clouds. -_ , . 

The. Spanish inflicted much punishment, however, and a peace was 
effected in the latter paort of 1679 by which the padres.were allowed for 
a time, to go about the island unmolested. 

" In 1680 Got. Jose de Qqiroga amved in ttie island, relieving Oov. 
Salas. The' new governor hroiight with him articles of iiistruetion 
issued by the viceroy of Mexico, and in compliance therewith he 
began to arrest and punish all malcontents and to pillag^ their homes. 
He discovered that many rebda had fled to Rota, and sending an 
expedition he brought back to Guam more than 160 fugitives, among 
whom were Matapang and Hirao, murderers of Sanvitores, and 
Aguarin, the leader oi the last insurrection and the slayer of Padre 
Monroy. AH of the latter paid the penalty of their patriotism with 
their laves. Roads were opened throughout the island of Guam to 
facilitate intercourse, and the country farmers were compelled to 
come together and form villages in places convenient for th« adminis- 
tration of government. .Churches were erected in Jinapsan, Umatac, 
Pago, Agat, and Inarajan, At all villages were assigned municipal 
officers, and everything ran smoothly for a brief space. In February, 
1681, however^ the government house and church of Jinapsan were 
burned, and, as the authors could noi be apprehended, the natives 
fled in fear to Eota, where thci governor's agents followed, burning 
many houses and killing many of the refugees. 

Don Antonio Sara via succeeded Quiroga as governor, and his short 
administration was marked by complete pacification of the island. 
Encouraged, he next attempted the subjugation of the northern 
islands, but on his way to carry out these plans he suffered exposure 
to a violenft storm, and died in November, 1688. 

Don Damian de Esplana succeeded Saravia and pushed the work 
of conquest, visiting Tinian and Saipan, burning towns, killing those 
of the natives who offered opposition, and building forte and 
churches. The refugees ctti Rota fled to Saipan and Tinian, and 
from there increased numbers fled farther nortn. The operations in 
the north caused a di virion * ittf 1fcejB^[0gjg^ *# hiteh the Chamorros were 
quick to take advantagt: olJ|||^||UM^||gM^ expedition, under 
the leadership of Anto^'"'^^^^^^^^^^ "''^ Apurguan. Per- 



86 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

suading them that only the sick and weak remained in Agana, he 
drew about him a company of 30 men, and under pretense ox attend- 
ing mass on Sunday, attacked the unsuspecting Spaniards. Gov. 
Esplana was badly wounded on the plaza, the sentmels were slain, 
houses broken open, and the streets filled with frenzied people! The 
priests and soldiers managed to reach the college (the college of San 
Juan de Letran stood to the east of the plaza, about 200 yards from 
the site of the present hospitals) and tried to defend themselves, but 
two of the priests were killed and four wounded, until the " college 
was bathed in blood." With the aid of Hinesi^ a friendly islander, 
and his followers, the rebels were finally driven oflF, after their 
leader was slain. The headman of Ritidian dispatched agents to 
Zarpana to incite the people of that island to rebellion, with the re- 
sult that more than 70 canoes arrived at Guam to assist the in- 
surgents. The insurrection in the meantime had spread to Saipan, 
where Maj. Quiroga was leading the expedition sent out bj^ the 
Government for the conquest of the northern islands. The Spaniards 
under Quiroga were attacked in a little fort they had built, and 
after a hard fight succeeded in beating off their assailants and em- 
barking for Guam. They arrived at Agana in November, 1684, and 
in the nick of time to reinforce the garrison at that place. The 
natives, in the face of this opportune help, abandoned the siege and 
repaired to the mountains. The city of Agana was left free from 
danger by the energy of Quiroga, but his services brought him only 
jealousy and persecution from Gov. Esplana. Jose Tapia, with a 
detachment from the northern islands, was returning to Saipan when 
the natives who manned his boats, desiring to aid their countrymen, 
upset them and only 6 out of the 25 soldiers escaped. 

To recuperate his health, Esplana went to Manila and left Quiroga 
as governor pro tern. The soldiers, demoralized by the recent re- 
volts, had become undisciplined and were living in disorder. Quiroga 
attempted to put a stop to this, but the soldiers, fond of their licen- 
tious mode of living, seized the acting governor and put him in the 
jail, liberating him after a time at the solicitations of the priests. 
Quiroga punished some of the offenders, and, when occasion offered, 
sent the others to the Philippines. He rebuilt the churches that had 
been burned and sent an expedition, under Alonzo Soong, to search 
for the Carolines, news of their discovery having reached him in 
1680. This expedition, however, returned without having located 
the islands in question. 

In June, 1690, the ship Nuestra Setwra del PUar^ having on board 
a number of criminals bound for New Spain, was wrecked on Cocos 
Island. These criminals plotted to seize the arms of the presidio, 
where they had been placed for security, and, on Santa Kosa day, to 
kill the ffovemor, officials, and missionaries, making themselves 
masters of the islands. The Manila ship, arriving before it was ex- 
pected, however, postponed their plans until, one of their number 
having turned informer, the whole party was captured. On the 11th 
and 12th of September, 1690, by the order of Gov. Esplana, who had 
previously returned to the island, 20 were executed in Agana and 3 
others in Umatac on the 13th of the saihe month. Gov. Esplana failed 
to find his health in Manila and died in August, 1694, having nomi- 
iiated Jose Quiroga in his stead. 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 37 

Quiroga immediately recommended his old work of subjugating 
the northern islands and begun a campaign in Zarpana, Saipan, and 
Tinian, which culminated in a decisive battle on the little island of 
Aguiguan, lying near Tinian. All the rebels had gathered on this 
almost impregnable rock and for some time kept tne Spaniards at 
bay. A bold assault finally resulted in the surrender oi all on the 
terms that they should return to Guam and become Christian sub- 
jects of the Spanish King. This battle occurred in 1696 and marked 
the final conquest of the islands. 

VI. LATTEB COLONIAL ORGANIZATION, 1696-1898. 

The conquest consequently began June 16, 1668, and entirely ended 
in the last victory of the valiant Don Jose Quiroga in Aguiguan 
July, 1695. 

Gen. Jose Madrazo became governor in August, 1696, and his 
administration was without event, with the exception of a small 
expedition to quell certain disturbances in the north in the year 1698. 

From this time on the islands were in a peaceful state, and the 
work of organizing a colonial government was carried on by the 
Spaniards. 

The government was administered by an officer, usually of the 
army (m two cases naval ofiicers were appointed), who was ap- 
pointed by the Crown as governor, at first subordinate to the vice- 
roy of Mexico. After the independence of Mexico, the captain gen- 
eral of the Philippines was the inmiediate superior of the governor 
of Guam. A code of Spanish laws, similar to that provided for the 
Philippines, was adapted to the Marianas. The insular officers con- 
sisted of the governor and his aide, a judge of the court of first in- 
stance, a treasurer and auditor, and justices of the peace, commis- 
sioners, and deputies in each town. Appeals were submitted to 
the viceregal courts of Mexico, and later to the court of appeals 
in Manila. The work of improving the island was pushed, and 
roads were built connecting all towns, more as military means of 
keeping the natives under subjection than of facilitating communica- 
tion among the islanders. The natives were not required to pay a 
money tax (tribute), but were called upon for so many days' work 
during the year. They did pay a tithe to the church, but this was re- 
duced in later years to amounts charged for church services, such as 
christening, marrying, funerals, and special masses. Every able- 
bodied native between 18 and 40 years of age was called upon for 
service in the militia. 

A short time prior to 1769 the Jesuits, who were first instrumental 
in the effort to civilize and Christianize the islands, were expelled by 
the order of the Crown. 

In 1788 a number of canoes, containing Caroline islanders, landed 
in Talofofo Bay. They were pleasantly treated, and after trading 
with the Chamorros departed, promising to return the following 
year. They said that commerce had been carried on between the two 
groups prior to the Spanish conquest, and that, although communica- 
tion had ceased a hundred years before, the sailing directions had been 
preserved in their songs. According to their story, they sailed first to 
Fogo, an island whicH they descrited as lying to the north of Lam- 
ureck, and thence to Guam, requiring five days for a voyage of 500 



J 



38 T,HK ISLAND OF QUAM. 

miles on the open sea^ The following year they: r^p^^ted the vi^it, but 
were lost on the return voyage, and. the intercourse was dropped ioj: 
18 years. In 1807 they again began makixig annual tripe, and for 
several years thereafter 18 Qanoes left the L^amnreck group in April 
of each year, and afteJT trading, with the people of Guam returned in 
May, 

In the nineteenth century, two governors stand out from the rest 
^ having worked h^rd and well for the benefit of the island, i. eu, 
Don Francisco Bamon de Villalobo^, .1831-1837; and Don Felipe 
Maria de la Corte, 1855-1866. They were both devoted to the inter- 
ests of the people, and* both taiekas and honest; workers. Don Fran- 
cisco Ramon de Villalobos was sent to Guam in 1828 from Manila. 
He was a captain of artillery at the time. . Mexican independence had 
just been established, and the incumbent governor, Don Jose de Medl- 
nilla y Pineda, had asked instructions as to the governmental future 
0t the Marianas, formerly under tbe Viceroy or Mexico. To inves- 
tigate conditions in Guam and report the state of affairs to the cap- 
tam general of the Philippines was the object of Villalobos^s vijsit. 
He seems to have found much to investigate and much to correct, ifor 
as a result of his report Medinilla was recalled and Villalobos ap- 
pointed governor in his place. The six years of his incumbency 
were a busy six years forG^aiti. He systematized the affairs of the 
treasury, especially the schedule of port fees; he personally superin- 
tended the building of roads and bridges; with nis own money hd 
built a pottery ; he opened the Atantano Vallev for tlie culture of rice; 
he studied agricultural conditions and taught the planters- how to 
better their crops. History gives but a bald view of men and events, 
but we get a clear picture of this man from his recorded actions, and 
can easily imagine him, nervous, vigorous, hurrying from one task to 
another, driving his workmen and himself as well to the point of ex- 
haustion, and yet beloved by them ; very much the aristocrat, ' but 
wandering alone over the island and stopping to talk ch>ps with the 
poorest ranchero. 

Don Felipe Maria de la Corte, a captain of engineers with the rauk 
of lieutenant colonel, came to the island in 1855. His great aim was 
to alleviate the dire and prevalent poverty of the Chamorros. 

In 1856, in a report to the captain general of the Philippines re- 
garding economic conditioiis, he speaks of the pitiful hand-to-moutti 
existence of the natives and of the fact that good and bad years 
alike they starved for some part of the year. His first plan was 
to establish great granaries in which surplus crops might be stored. 
He attempted to establish sugar making as a resource of the 
island, but the soil was not of the right sort for the * culture of 
cane and the experiment failed. The 11' years of de la Corte's term 
were a succession of economic experiments^ many of which were' use^ 
less except as a lesson of the limitations of the island's powers of 
production. As de la Corte himself quaintly remarked in oiie oif 
his later reports, *' I have the faculty of making errora" Hbwevier, 
although many of his schemes and much of his work seemed barren 
of result, his service here was not without great benefit to the island. 
He had taught the spirit of agriculture and had encouraged effort 
toward a competent anrd economic land culture. He left the natives 
poor, perhaps as poor as he found thein, btlt he had taught them to 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM- 39 

look forward and, whenever po^bl^, tp provide spmething against 
a "rainy day." He was relieved in 1866, at his own request, by Don 
Francisco Moscoso y Lara. De la^ Gorte's Memoria De^riptiva de 
las Marianas, published by the Spanish Government, i? probably 
the best account of these islands ever printed. 

In 1856^ during de la Gorte's administration, ^smallpox was intro- 
duced into the island from Manila, and the ensuing epidemic swept 
awaymQre than half the population. The scenes occurring during 
this terrible plague are recalled with the utmost horror by the. oldest 
inhabitants, who describe them with niuch vividness. . 

The Spanish for many years used Guam as a place of • Confinement 
for prisoners from the Philippines. Early in December, 1896, the 
steamship Veni^, one of the mail steamers ttiat in those days plied 
between Manila, the Garoline Islands, and the Marianas, left in 
Guam about 120 prisoners who had been sent over from Manila. The 
prisoners were confined at night in the buildings liow occupied as 
the marine barracks, Agana. On Ghristmas Eve one of the Filipino 
soldiers in the insular -artillery reported to the commanding officer 
and governor that he had overheard the details. of a conspiracy that 
had been entered into by the priscmers to revolt that evening, kill 
their guards, assassinate the goveimor, and take charge of the island 
until they could arrange for means to escape. The details having 
been verified, the guards: were ordered to exercise extraordinary pre- 
cautions and the force on watch was doubled. One of the guards, 
having detected some movements which he thought were the be- 
ginning of the revolt, opened fire on the prisoners and the fire was 
immediately taken up by the* whole guard of soldiers. Before the 
firing ceased 40 prisoners had been killed and nearly all of the 
remaindier were iii'ounded. The survivors Were returned lo Manila 
by the same vessel that brought them over. , 

The following list of governors of Guam up to the year 1898 is 
taken from the records of the island : 



I 



MILITARY COMMANDERS. 

• 

Capt. b. .Titan de Santa Cruz June 16, 1668 

Oapt. D. Juan de Santiago May 2, 1672 

Capt. D. Damian de Esplana June 16, 1674 

0OVICRNOR8. 

• ' . .... 

Capt. D. Francisco de Irisarri June 10, 1676 

Capt. D. Juan Antonio de Sttlas— June 21, 1678 

MaJ. D. Jose Quiroga—i June 5, 1680 

Capt. D. Antonio Saravia.j : 1681 

Maj. D. Damian de Esplana, by deatli of predecessor Nov. 3, 1683 

Maj. D.Jose Qttlroga :i^_^_-'_wu-^: 1688 

Lieut. Gen. D. Damian de Esplana June, 1690 

Maji D. Jose Quiroga, by death of j)redeeessor Aug. 16, 1604 

(Jen. D. Jose Madraso * ^- ^^ , Aug. 1, 1696 

Maj. D. Francisco Medraso y Asiam ^ '. Sept. 15, 1700 

Maj. D. Antonio Villanior y Vadlllo Sept. 1. 1704 

liieUt. Gen. D. Juan Antotiio Pimeiitel Sept. 1, 1709 

Capt. D; Luis Antonio Saucliez de Ta^e^_ 1 Nov. 21, 1720 

Capt, D» Juaa de Ojetia^-^ ,^ ^^^.^^^ Apr. 4, 1725 

Gen. D. Manuel \rguelles Valda Sept. 28, 1725 

.Maj. J). Pedro Laso do la Vega Feb. 12, 1730 

General of tlie- fleet D. BYancisco Cardenas Paclieco_-Aug. 21, 1734 



40 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

Maj. D. Miguel Fern, de Cardenas, by death of 

predecessor Apr. 2, 1740 

Capt. D. Domingo Gomez de la Sierra Sept. 21, 1746 

Lieut. (Navy) D. Enrique de Olavide y Michelena Sept. 8, 1749 

Gen. D. Andres del Barrio y Rabago Nov. 6, 1756 

Lieut. (Navy) D. Jose de Soroa Nov. 20, 1759 

Lieut. (Navy) D. Enrique de Olavide y Michelena June 9, 1768 

Maj. D. Mariano Tobias Sept. 15, 1771 

Maj. D. Antonio Apodaca June 15, 1774 

Capt. D. Felipe de Cerain ^ June 6, 1776 

Lieut. Col. D. Jose Arlegue y Leon Aug. 21, 1786 

Lieut. Col. D. Manuel Muro Sept. 2. 1794 

Capt. D. Vicente Blanco Jan. 12, 1802 

Capt. D. Alexandro Parrefio Oct. 18, 1806 

Lieut. D. Jose de Medinilla y Pineda July 26, 1812 

Capt. D. Jose Montilla Aug. 15, 1822 

Capt. D. Jose Ganga Herrero May 15, 1823 

Lieut. Col. D. Jose de Medinilla y Pineda Aug. 1, 1826 . 

Captain of Artillery D. Francisco Ramon de Villa- 

lobos Sept. 26, 1831 

Lieut. Col. D. Jose Caslllas Salazar Oct. 1, 1837 

Maj. D. Gregorio Sta. Maria (died Apr. 4, 1848) Oct. 1, 1843 

Treasurer, acting governor, D. Felix Calvo Apr. 7, 1848 

Lieut. Col. D. Pablo Perez ^ Sept. 8, 1848 

Capt. Engineers, rank of lieutenant colonel, D. Felipe 

Maria de la Corte May 16, 1855 

Lieut. Col. D. Francisco Moscoso y Lara Jan. 28, 1866 

Colonel of Infantry D. Luis de Ybaflez y Garcia Aug. 17, 1871 

Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry D. Eduardo Beaumont y 

Calafat Mar. 24, 1873 

Lieutenant Colonel of Cavalry D. Manuel Brabo y 

Barrera Jan. 15, 1875 

Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry D. Francisco Bro- 

chero y Parreno Aug. 15, 1880 

Colonel of Infantry D. Angel de Pazos Vela-Hldalgo__Mar. 14, 1884 
Captain Commandant of the Garrison D. Antonio 

Borreda, by death of predecessor Aug. 4, 1884 

Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry D. Francisco Olive y 

Garcia Nov., 1884 

Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry D. Enrique Solano July 17, 1884 

Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry D. Joaquin Vara 

de Rey ^v Apr. 20, 1890 

Lieutenant Colonel of Cavalry D. Luis Santos Aug. 14, 1891 

Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry D. .Vicente Gomez 

Hernandez (died Sept. 1, 1893) Aug. 23, 1892 

Lieutenant of Infantry, acting governor, D. Juan 

Godoy Sept. 1, 1893 

Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry D. Emlllo Gallsteo 

Brunenque Oct. 26, 1893 

Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry Jacobo Marina Dec. 24, 1895 

Lieutenant of Infantry, acting governor. Angel Nieto-Feb. 15, 1897 
Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry Juan Marina Apr. 17, 1897 

VII. GUAM UNDER THE UNITED STATES. 

Owing to the remoteness and isolation of Guam the inhai>itants 
heard little of the negotiations between the United States and Spain 
preceding the SpaniSi- American War and were totally unaware of 
the declaration of war. The last mail steamer that visited the island 
about the middle of April, 1898, brought advices that the trouble 
between the mother country and the Americans was in a fair way 
toward setttlement. 

It was therefore with some degree of curiosity, but not with any 
feeling of fear, that the authorities sighted on the morning of June 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 41 

20, 1898, in front of Agana four vessels flying the American flag, of 
which one, at least, was a warship. The vessels in question were the 
cruiser Charleston^ commanded by Capt. (afterwards Eear Admiral) 
Henry Glass, United States Navy, escorting three transports with 
troops proceeding to the assistance of Admiral Dewey at Manila. 

The Charleston steamed into the harbor and opened fire on Fort 
Santa Cruz, which the Americans had been informed was the prin- 
cipal defensive work of the harbor. As a matter of fact, the fort 
had been abandoned, and no shots were, of course, returned. It was 
reported to the governor that the Charleston was saluting the port, 
but later on, the true identity of the mission of the Charleston hav- 
ing been determined the inhabitants, at least the poorer and more 
ignorant classes, began migrating to the bush, as they had been 
informed by the Spaniards that the Americans were savages, and 
that they might expect all sorts of ill treatment at their hands. 

Shortly after the ships were sighted the captain of the port, an 
oiBcer of the Spanish Navy, and the army doctor went to Piti with 
the object of making the usual boarding call on the approaching 
vessels if they were intending to call at Apra. 

From Piti they took a boat and proceeded out to the Charleston^ 
which was already in port. When on board they were much sur- 
prised to learn that war existed between the United States and Spain, 
and were directed to return to Agana and request the governor of 
Guam to surrender the island and his command to Capt. Glass within 
24 hours. 

The visitors on their way from Piti met a lieutenant of artillery 
with a detachment dragging behind them two small field pieces. The 
officer in command informed them that he had been ordered to Piti 
to reply to the salute of the American vessel. He was then informed 
that no salute was necessary, as the firing of the Charleston had been 
with hostile intent. 

On the morning of the following day, June 21, 1898, the governor, 
Don Juan Marina ; the captain of the port, Francisco Garcia Guttier- 
rez; Dr. Don Jose Romero; and the governor's aide, Don P. M. 
Duarte, in compliance with the demand of Capt. Glass, proceeded to 
Piti where they were met by Lieut. Braunersreuther of the Charles- 
ton in command of the landing force from that vessel. They there 
surrendered and were taken out and placed on board one of the 
transports as prisoners of war. Capt. Glass also called for the sur- 
render of the troops in Guam, about 110 in number, who were com- 
posed of Spanish marines and a force of insular artillery. On June 
21 the troops surrendered at Piti to the American forces and were 
made prisoners with their conunanding officer and lieutenant. The 
Spanish soldiers were carried away as prisoners of war, but Capt. 
Glass contented himself with disarming the insular force. The 
Charleston and convoy sailed the same day for Manila. 

Mr. Francisco Portusach, a naturalized American citizen, residing 
in Guam, states that Capt. Glass directed him to look out for the 
affairs of the island, he being the only American citizen then residing 
in Guam. His commission, however, not being in writing, was not 
recognized by the reinaining Spanish officials in the island^ and the 
treasurer, Don Jose Sisto, assumed charge of the administration. For 
several months this state of virtual anarchy continued. On January 



42 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

1, 1899, the collier Brutus came into port and the officer in command, 
Lieut, Commander (now Rear Admiral, retired) Vincendon L. Cott- 
man. United States Navy, was appealed to by both factions. He de- 
cided that the legitimate governor was Jose Sisto. The Brutus re- 
mained in _port until the arrival, on Februai^ 1, 1899, of the cruiser 
Bemungton, whose commanding officer. Commander (now Rear 
Admiral, retired) Edward D. Taussig, United States Kavy, took 
formal possession of the island in the name of the United States and 
hoisted the American flag over the palace at Agana. In the interval 
between the capture by Capt. Glass and its formal, occupation by 
Commander Taussig, tne future sta,tiis of Guam was considered by 
the United States to be assimilated to that of the Philippine Islands 
and dependent upon the flnal decision as to the disposal to be made 
of those islands. When finally settled by the United States Govern- 
ment that the Philippines would be retained by the United States 
some attention was given to Guam. Its excellent harbor and strategic 
position, lying as it does very nearly on the great circle between 
Honolulu and the Straits of San Bernardino, made it at once desir- 
able as a base for the United States Navy. Accordingly, on Decem- 
ber 23, 1898, the President of the United States, by Executive order, 
placed the island of Guam under the control of the Department of 
the Navy and directed the Secretary of the Navy to take such steps 
as might be necessary to establish the authority of the United States 
and to give Guam necessary protection and government. In pursu- 
ance of this order the island was formally taken over by Commander 
Taussig. 

Early in the spring of 1899 the President of the United States, 
on recommendation of the Secretary of the Navy, commissioned' Capt. 
Richard P. Leary, United States Navy, as governor of Guam, and 
directed him to proceed to that island and establish therein "the 
Naval Government of Guam." The U. S. S. Yosemite was desig- 
nated a station ship and fitted out with Capt. (now Rear Admiral, 
retired) George E. Ide, in command, and sailed from the navy yard, 
'^ ' »' -" •■ ^jjjj Capt. Leary on board. On the day 
t McKinley and a party, including Cfipt. 
flicers, and Miss Helen Gonid (now Mi-s. 
and inspected the ship and crew. After 
he Atlantic and stops made at Gibraltar, 
ingapqre, the Yosemite reached Manila 
he stop in Manila was short, and, sailing 
cached on the 7th day of August, 1899, 
ving the United States, 
er the island, Capt. Taussig appointed 
e of the affairs of the island, with the 
e Bennington then sailed. 
On the morning of March 1, 1899, the collier Nan^ftan, in command 
of Ensign (now Commander) L. A. Kaiser, United States Navy, 
arrived with orders to take charge of the affairs of Guam pending the 
arrival of a duly appointed governor. Ensign Kaiser recalled the 
appointment of Don J. Perez and appointed as acting governor one 
William Coe, a half-breed Samoan, who arrived on the island subse- 
(luent to the departure of Commander Taussig. Coe remained in 
charge until the arrival of Capt. Leary. 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 43 

Upon arriving in Guam the officers and men of the Tosemite were 
in general very much surprised at the conditions existing in Guanu 
Very little could be learned about the island in the United States, and 
most of the newcomers expected to find it peopled with savages of the 
same sort as those residing in the Solomon Islands. Their surprise 
can well be imagined when they found several inhabitants, who could 
speak English. The surprise was, however, mutual, aS the natives 
had been led by the Spaniards to believe that the Americans, wer^ 
a barbarous and heretical race, and that they might expect the most 
miserable f atie under their government, . , 

The Tosemite brought out with her a fresh- water distilling and 
ice-making plant and the erection of these and other modem, int- 

f)rovemerits was immediately begun at Agana. About the site of the 
irst distilling plant the present ^o-called navy yjird at Agana has 
been built up. 

After the signing of the treaty of peace with Spain the tJnited 
States, an entirely new mother country, set about the business of 
governing her newly acquired possessions beyond the seas. Colonies 
were a new thing to us, dependent peoples had previously formed no 

?art of our scheme of things, and we found the new work not easy, 
^erhaps nowhere else did our colonial governors find so much labor 
before them as in Guam. Many things long a matter of course with 
other governing nations . were not only new but distasteful to u& 
Illiteracy, unhygienic conditions, imf amiliar and appalling diseases 
were foimd to exist in Guam to a degree characterized as horrible by 
the first American comers. As in every case of change in sovereignty, 
the interregnum brought forth its crop of abuses with which the 
American governor had at once to deal. Our troops, ney? to conquest 
and familiar -with only one race other than their own, needed a jgreat 
dear of control and correction in matters unofficial and nonmilitary, 
and they were in many cases lawless and turbulent. Undoubtedly the 
usual complement of adventurers who invariably infest a recently 
disputed territory were here represented. 

Capt. Leary, the first American governor, before attempting any 
change or reorganization of forms of government then existing, 
turned his attention to the reestablishment of law and order. In 
General Order No. 1, issued frona the Government House August 16, 
1899, he forbade the sale of intoxicants to " any person not a resident 
of this island prior to August 7, 1899," thus beginning his house 
cleaning among his own garrison. General Order No. 2 prohibits 
the iinportation of intoxicants except by special authority. Next 
Gov. Leary provided against the machinations of carpetbaggers. 
Having safeguarded the island against the Americans of the un- 
desirable sort, then, and only then, did Gov. Leary turn to the ref- 
ormation of the government. His first move in this direction was 
to divorce the church and State and to institute civil marriage. He 
ordered all couples to marry at once according to law. 

In order to prevent a failure of food supplies, menaced by the 
interrupted traffic during the war, he forbade the exportation of 
foodstuff and ordered that everyone without a trade should have "at 
least 12 hens, 1 cock, and 1 sow," and should plant fruit or vegetables 
sufficient to provide for one family. He opened the Government 
lands for occupation of those without ranches. He then took up the 




44 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

unlicensed sale of intoxicants to natives, ordered all dogs to be 
licensed, and reformed the method of collecting the land tax. 
Things were well underway by that time, and during the remainder 
of Gov. Leary's time here "he occupied himself in enforcing the new 
reforms. An order dated January 19, 1900, addressed to the Ameri- 
cans, stating that the natives of Guam are not "damned dagoes" 
" nor niggers " shows that the education of ourselves as a ruling na- 
tion was not overlooked in his efforts toward the education of our 
new wards. He also abolished peonage, promulgated sanitary laws, 
regulated the schools, and lifted the export tariff on copra. 

In July, 1900, Gov. Leary was relieved by Commander Seaton 
Schroeder. This officer busied himself with revising the taxes and 
the code of laws concerning property, not overlooking education and 
hygiene. From August 11, 1901, to November 2, 1901, while absent 
in the United States, he was temporarily relieved by Commander 
William Swift. Commander Swift's only order, other than his con- 
firmation of previous general orders, regulated, in the interests of 
sanitation, the peddling of foodstuffs. Gov. Schroeder on his return 
took up the work where he had left off. He began a cadastral survey 
of the island, but this has from time to time been suspended on ac- 
count of lack of funds. It is still going on. During his term a 
system of accountability for the naval government of the island of 
Guam was approved by the President and put in force. The first 
hospital was begun and built largely through the efforts of Mrs. 
Schroeder. Under his government the Tumon Leper Colony was 
established and all lepers formerly unrestricted were recluded there. 
Commander Schroeder was relieved February 6, 1903, by Commander 
W. E. Sewell. 

Gov. Sewell carried on the work of revision of tlie laws ener- 
getically, with especial regard to taxes and fines. He reformed the 
prison laws and promulgated orders for the control of commercial 
corporations. He also published game laws and began the revision 
of the Criminal Code. On January 28, 1904, Gov. Sewell was in- 
valided home, dying soon after he reached the United States. Lieut. 
Raymond Stone, United States Navy, acted as governor until a relief 
for Commander Sewell was sent out. During Stone's incumbency 
of three months he issued orders relating to the unauthorized selling 
of drugs and attempted to regulate the extortionate prices then pre- 
vailing. Commander G. L. Dyer, United States Navy, assumed com- 
mand May 16, 1904. 

Gov. Dyer found the bulk of code revision on the way to com- 
pletion and affairs beginning to shape themselves so that some more 
drastic changes were now ripe for promulgation. He established 
and defined the duties of the department of public health and 
strengthened the compulsory-education laws. In 1905 he abolished 
the supreme court of the island and substituted therefor the court of 
appeals. About this time the Spanish titles of gobernadorcillo, 
teniente cabeza, and suplente were abandoned in favor of their 
English equivalents. The excise was the subject of several of Gov. 
Dyer's orders. In August, 1905, he disbanded the insular artillery 
and established the police force. Late in 1905 he was relieved by 
Lieut. L. McNamee as acting gov^nor. During the four months 
of Lieut. McNamee's incumbency the court officials were placed on 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 45 

salaries from the island government and all fees and fines directed 
to revert to the treasury. The costs of criminal actions were thereby 
much reduced. Lieut. McNamee imposed a tax on vehicles and ex- 
cluded swine from Agana. 

In March, 1906. Commander T. M. Potts assumed the reins of 
government. Gov. Potts first took up the question of treatment of 
the disease known as gangosa, then believed incurable, and had the 
sufferers therefrom segregated and confined at Ypao. Through his 
efforts an appropriation for the care and medical treatment of the 
natives of Guam was obtained from Congress. It was largely due 
to his wise and beneficent efforts that this frightful and devasting 
disease, gangosa, was finally conquered and that it is now in a fair 
wsij to be banished from the island. Capt. Potts also issued a law 
against the practice of usury and established quarantine regulations. 
Excise, education, taxes, and court procedure^ claimed a great deal 
of his attention, in general in the nature of amplifications or amend- 
ment of previous orders which the light of experience had proved 
necessary. In the fall of 1907 Gov. Potts was relieved, Lieut. Com- 
mander L. McNamee again acting as governor until the arrival of 
Capt. E. J. Dorn (retired) in December, 1907. 

A vast number of new laws and rulings mark the term of Gov. 
Dorn. While education was his especial care, no point of law, sani- 
tation, municipal regulation, excise, commerce, or agriculture was 
too small or petty to escape his attention. Reform of court pro- 
cedure, the registration and taxation of real property, revision of 
criminal code, new license-regulation revision, the extermination of 
insects and vermin were only a few of the things that had a share 
of his consideration. He was detached in October, 1910; Lieut. 
Freyer acted as governor until January 12, 1911, when the Supply 
brought Capt. G. R. Salisbury from Manila. Capt. Salisbury de- 
voted his energies mainl;^ toward road building and the encourage- 
ment of agriculture, which had been steadily declining for many 
years, and the laws issued by him were mainly to that end. Capt. 
Salisbury was relieved on April 30, 1912, by Commander (after- 
wards Capt.) R. E. Coontz, United States Navy, who administered 
the affairs of Guam until September 23, 1913. Capt. Coontz de- 
voted his attention principally toward public works and inaugu- 
rated many improvements in public utilities, both insular and Fed- 
eral. He began a comprehensive scheme of public works, looking 
toward the improvement^ of the whole island. He also made a few 
needed changes in revision of penalties prescribed by law which 
were no longer in accord with modern ideas, and promulgated the 
Guam insolvency law. 

Commander A. W. Hinds succeeded Capt. Coontz, and remained 
as governor until March 28, 1914, when he was relieved by Capt. 
W. J. Maxwell, United States Navy. The efforts of Gov. Hiiids were 
mainly directed toward the carrying out of the projects of Capt. 
Coontz, many of which he, as public works officer, had first sug- 
gested. Capt. Maxwell established the Bank of Guam and the insu- 
lar patrol. He reorganized the method of levying taxes and raised 
the assessments of property in order to meet the increasing needs of 
the government. He also took a great interest in road building. 
Capt. Maxwell was relieved by Lieut. Commander W. P. Cronan, 



46 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

United States Navy, the senior officer present on April 29, I9l6, 
Capt. R. C. Smith, United States Navy, had been previously com- 
missioned as governor of Guam as the relief of Capt. Maxwell, and 
pending his arrival in Guam the Navy Department directed Capt. 
Edward Simpson, United States Navy, the commandant of the naval 
stations Olongapo and Cavite, to take charge of the affairs of the 
island. Capt. Simpson arrived on May 8, 1916, and was relieved by 
Capt. Smith on May 30, 1916. 

Don jQ3e Sisto— , •.•^— ^»*actlng\t„nA oo icmm 

Dpu Francisco Portusach ^ acting^/''™® ^* ^^*^ 

Don Jose Sixto acting, Jan. 1, 1899. 

Don Joaquin Perez acting, Feb. 1, 1899. 

Mr. WlUiam Ooe .dieting, Apr. 20, 1899. 

Capt Richard P. I-eary ,U. S. N., Aug. 7, 1899. 

Commander S. Schroeder ^U. S. N., July 19, 1900. 

Commander W. Swift XJ. S. K, Aug. 11, 1901. 

Commander S. Schroeder tJ. S. N., Nov. 2, 1901. 

Commander W. B. SefweU U.S.N.,Feb. 6, 1903. 

Lieut. F. H. Schofleld ,U.S.K, (acting) Jan. U, 1904. 

Lieut R. Stone*^, .U. S. N., Jan. 28, 1904. , 

Commander G. L. Dyer ^U. S. N., May 16, 1904. 

Lieut. L. McNamee .XT. S. N., (acting) November 2, 1905. 

Commander T. M. Potts U. S. N., Mar. 8, 1906. 

Lieut Commander L. McNamee^...^U« S. N., (acting) Oct % 19(^. 

Capt. E. J. Dorn U. S. N., (retired) Dec. 28i, 1907. 

Lieut F. B. Freyer ^U. S.N., (acting) Nov. 5, 1910. 

Capt G. R. Salisbury U. S.N.,Jan. 12, 1911. 

Capt R. B. Coontz ^^.--U. S. N., Apr. 80, 1912. 

Commander A. W. Hinds U, S» N., Sept. 23, 1913. 

Capt W, J. MaxweU U. S. N., Mar. 28, 1914. 

Lieut Commander W. P. Cronan U. S. N., (acting) Apr. 29, 1916. 

Capt B. Simpson _^U. S.N., (acting) May 8, 1916. 

Capt R. C. Smith U. S. N;, May 30, 1916. 

VUL. THB AKCISNT INHABITANTS. 

The earliest accounts of the natives of Guam are almost unanimous 
in their description of the people, their houses, their boats and their 
mode of life. In fact, no other race has been described by the old- 
time navigators with such consonance of opinion, and we may safely 
draw our picture without fear of great error. 

The first characteristic noticed by the historians was the natives* 
skill in fashioning and handling their boats. These crafts were 
from 20 to 30 feet m length, not more than 3 feet beam, were double- 
ended, and steadied by outriggers. Some of them had rudely carved 
figureheads, supposed by some to be images of gods, but more prob- 
ably merely ornaments, or, like the " winged hats " of the Saion 
rovers, intended to lend an inspiring and warlike appearance to the 
boat. These canoes were propelled at great speed by huge triangular 
sails of woven palm fronds; and various words of the Chamorro 
tongue confirm the tradition that voyages of great length were made 
in them, even Hawaii being reached. Voyages to the Philippines are 
known to have been made in 14 days. 

The strange appearance of the ships and their bearded crews ap- 
parently struck no terror to the native mind, for they at once oame 
aboard and showed no hesitation in getting acquainted, nor when the 
quarrel came with Magellan's men, backwardiiess in joining battle 
^ith the newcomers. ' 



raE ISLAKD OF GUAM. 47 

Legaspi, tlie leader of the expedition in 1565 called the natives am- 
phibious, as they " lived in the water half the time, and even drank 
salt water." He states that rice and fish were plentiful, btit that 
there were no animals, wild or tame, that the only meat used by the 
natives were fish and large bats,or flying foxes, which abound in the 
interior of the island to-day. * Two persons of Legaspi's expedition 
describe the houses of the islanders as lofty, well built, and well di- 
vided into compaitments, and state that they were always elevated 
from the earth by strong pillaris of stone. In addition to the dwell- 
ing houses, they had others for their canoes, likewise supported on 
stone pillars. One of these was near the spot where the sailors pro- 
cured fresh water, and it contained four of their largest canoes. 

The island is thickly dotted to-day with the remains of the ancient 
houses described by Legaspi, and in every direction are to be encoun- 
tered clusters of stone pillars ranging m height from 2 to 5 feet. 
The best examples are found southeast of Mount Sasalaguan. Here 
may be seen the remains of a large village. There are several rows 
of foundation stones, some 7 feet in height. In the surrounding 
coimtry many stone celts and slingshot stones have been picked up. 
Another example is met with near the source of the Fonte River in a 
district called by natives Libugon. If it was once a house, as de- 
scribed above, it must have been about 11 by 45 feet in plan, and the 
height of the floor at least 6 feet f rpm the grounds The rUins are 
composed of two rows of stone columns spaced 11 feet apart, and in 
each row are five stones about 5 feet in hdght. The material of the 
columns is madreporic rock, rectangular in section, and tapering 
toward the top. At or near the bases, and partly buried m the 
earth, are rounded stones, possibly intended as spheres of the Hie 
ironstone. Although Legaspi's report would lead to the conclusion 
that these ruins were originally Used as dwelling houses^ not a few 
persons who have studied the ethnology of the Chamorros, express 
the opinion that they had some religious significance, and that the 
boulders on the ground were spheres, or hemispheres, and had been 
placed on the tops of the pillars after the fashion of some yet to be 
seen in the island of Tinian. That this mav have been the case in at 
least some instances may have been possible^ as among the ruins at 
the mouth of the Atantano River, and which ;must have been the 
watering place referred to by Legaspi, there is one piUar of about 4 J 
feet in height, which has at its base a well formed hemisphere nearly 2 
feet in diameter. Almost perfect hemispheres of the same size, cut 
from the Pigo bluestone, are to be found half buried in the ground 
here and there all over the island. 

It appears that the aborigines of Guam did not know the use of the 
bow and arrow nor did they use war clubs, swords, or shields ini war- 
fare. According to information derived from contemporary accounts 
regarding these people they had spears of wood points and hardened 
with fire or pointed with spear heads of bone. These bone spear- 
heads were barbed, but none of them havei ever been found in recent 
times. Great quantities of celts are to be found buried in. localities 
near which ancient villages undoubtedly stood. Hammers, adzes, 
hatchets, mortars, pestles, chisels, and slingshot stones have been 
found in Guam. All these celts, except some of the slingshot stones, 
are of a hard granitelike rock, with a beautiful finish. How they 



48 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

were made remains unexplained, as none of the old writers mention 
the methods used in manufacturing them. The sling stones are oval 
in shape, and of three different materials; some of nard rock, some 
of clay, and some of coral rock. Some smaller utensils such as spoons 
and faiives have been found which were cut from shell. 

. On the arrival of the missionaries in 1668 the natives had known, 
and carried on an intermittent intercourse with the Spaniards for a 
hundred years, furnishing water and fresh vegetables to the passing 
galleons in return for articles of iron and other things of value to 
them. They still retained their ancient government and customs of 
living, however, as related in the reports of the Jesuit fathers of the 
first mission, published in 1683, some 15 years after they first arrived, 
and which furnished the only information in existence. 

They lived in towns or villages scattered throughout the island. 
The coast towns had each from 50 to 150 houses, while the-inland 
towns had an average of 20. The houses were clean, roofed with 
coconut leaves, and divided into four rooms by mats woven in one 
piece. The men were taller than the average European of that day, 
and very corpulent, so much so that they appeared swollen. In spite 
of their fatness, they were active and strong, "yare and nimble," 
according to one account^ and shaved their heads with the exception 
of a sort of scalplock which they allowed to grow very long and tied 
in one or two knots. They were of a tawny color. The women were 
lighter in color, tall, slenderly built and graceful. They are said to 
have stained their teeth; and both men and women bleached their 
hair to a reddish yellow. The hair of the women was remarkably 
long, one historian (Pigafetta) stating that it fell to the ankles. 

There are the usual accounts of their longevity, records of the 
Jesuit fathers noting the baptism of a' large number at 100 to 120 
years of age; but such stories must, also as usual, be taken with a 
grain of salt. Primitive peoples age rapidly, and a native of 50 or 
even 40 might easily present to Caucasian eyes, the appearance of 
80 or 100. And birth records^are even now at times unreliable. 

Notwithstanding their obesity, they were elegant in stature and 

f)hysical constitution — the common people less so, since they were 
ess given to athletic sports. They were expert swimmers, runners, 
and climbers. The women of the higher class were not so handsome, 
and aged rapidly. The country was divided into districts composed 
of a number of villages each village being presided over by a noble, 
and the confederation ruled over by a chieftain. Society was divided 
into three classes, and dividing lines were rigidly drawn. The high- 
est class, that of the nobles, was called the Mataos, the intermediate 
class the Achotes, and the lowest class Mangtchangs. The Mataos 
were distinguished by a love of honor and truth, and held homicide 
and theft in great horror. Their vanity knew no bounds, and their 
pride bordered on insolent arrogance. They lived according to 
rigid rules which regulated every act. If a Matao committed a 
crime, or in any way dishonored his class, he became for a longer or 
shorter period, according to the sentence of the tribunal which tried 
him, an Achote, and as such was supported as a kind of high-class 
serf on the farm of some noble. Under no circumstances, however, 
could a man who had once been a Matao ever fall to the state of 
Mangtchang. The Mangtchangs were virtually slaves, unclean and 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 49 

almost unmentionable. They were forbidden to pass the vicinity of 
a noble without prostrating themselves^ and they could not approach 
within a certain distance of a noble's house or touch an article of his 
food. They could ^ouch no implement other than stones or staves, 
could work for themselves no land, and were forbidden to catch or 
eat any sea fish. They were allowed to catch only river eels with 
sticks, and only at night. The nobles possessed all the coconut and 
rice farms, the estates passing to the eldest surviving male relative. 
The . Achotes and Mangtchangs worked the fields and did all manual 
labor. The Mangtchangs, at mealtime, would approach within the 
allowed distance and beg for the food which was thrown to them. 
The principal town was Agana (Jagatna), the location of which was 
selected on account of the stream of fresh water which empties into 
the sea at this place. Arrogance and pride were strongest in that 
city, and the people of other towns held those of the capital in fear 
and respect. 

They worshiped various spirits or ghosts of the mountains, of their 
crops and plants, of the sea and rivers, and finally, of their houses. 
They invoked these spirits in their daily work and actions, and wor- 
shiped also the souls of their ancestors — calling on them for aid, and 
offering a sacrifice to them — a trace of which custom they retain in 
their memory to this day. Their dead they buried at the foot of a 
great tree in the forest, and the groves used for this purpose were 
honored and feared by all. Whenever they entered such a district 
to cut wood or hunt they always asked permission of the dead before- 
hand, believing if they omitted this ceremony they would be attended 
by misfortune. 

In their religious rites each family constructed a hut and adorned 
it with flowers and lights. They congregated here and made pros- 
trations and other acts of worship, accompanied by the clamor of 
musical instruments. After this the hut was destroyed and an orgy 
of feasting and drinking was begun. The priestesses (women only 
officiated in religious ceremonies) prepared the sacred food for the 
feast. They believed in the custom of offering a sacrifice for the 
purpose of curing the sick. A house was built at the expense of 
the patient, in which he was placed, and a priestess killed an animal 
to be sacrificed, which, according to Ibanez y Garcia in his His- 
toria de las Marianas, was a pig, an ox, or even at times a slave. 
This statement may well be doubted, however, as the earliest naviga- 
tors who visited the island state that there were no animals prior to 
the arrival of the Europeans. "Whatever m.ay have been the victim of 
the sacrifice, the accounts state that the patient was smeared with 
the blood and the future read in the entrails. If the prognostication 
wfis unfavorable, he was consoled by the assurance that the gods 
desired to take him for the purpose of making him an Anito, the 
name applied to the spirits they revered. They believed that the 
souls of their ancestors left their bodies and returned after death 
to hold intercourse with the living, but they did not believe in the 
transmigration of souls to living species. It seems certain that they 
looked forward to living another life varying in the degree of its 
pleasures according to the merit possessed by the individual, and 
that they also believed in a place of punishment for the wicked. They 
held that the human race had its origin in Guam, and that all 

70238—17 4 



50 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

strangers were descended from wanderers who had strayed away 
from the island and forgotten the language. All evil they be- 
lieved to have come from abroad. The world, in their mythology, 
was created by the sister of a gigantic being named Puntan out of 
his body after death. The earth was his back, the sky his breast, 
and his eyes the sun and moon. Even these miraculous persons were 
in no way deified, however, but were merely supposed to be wonder- 
ful beings; as indeed they must have been. 

They were not brave, but excitable and exceedingly high-tempered. 
For trifling causes a few villages would declare war against others, 
and proceed to battle in this manner : The peasantry collected all 
arms and ammunition and carried them to the place of meeting, often 
agreed upon beforehand ; the nobles then appeared, and the peasants, 
debarred from the use of weapons, retired until a^ain wanted for use 
as beasts of burden; both sides would form in hne, and much time 
would be spent in haranguing and calling upon one another to sur- 
render. If neither side was satisfied with this, and matters finally 
came to a crisis, the fight began. They used lances tipped with 
human bone, which the priests assert were very poisonous. These 
generally broke off inside the flesh in such a way " that they were 
not able to find means to cure them." With the iron they were able 
to obtain from Spanisli ships they made machetes, or cutlasses, and 
such weapons were highly prized. The principal ancient weapon, 
however, was the sling, which they were reported to have used with 
" admirable force and precision." All over the island to-day are to 
be found the egg-shaped sling stones used by the old warriors, rang- 
ing in size from a boy's toy to the polished white oval, 2 inches long 
by 1^ inches in diameter. Their battles were not of long duration, 
for as soon as two or three were killed the side receiving the loss sent 
forward ambassadors with tortoise shells, a sign of submission. The 
conquerors celebrated their victory with noisy clamor and songs, in 
which they taunted the defeated and exaggerated their own prowess. 

They were a sociable people, fond of festivals, and any pretext was 
sufficient to cause a gathering. They met together to play at mimic 
warfare, and to exercise themselves in the use of their weapons, as 
well as athletic sports, at which they were very adept. They ran 
races, held jumping contests, and vied with each other in feats of 
strength, agility, and endurance. Food, in the shape of rice, fish 
aiid roots, was distributed, together with a drink made of rice and 
grated coconut, called atule. The woman also met together, adorn- 
ing themselves with necklaces of flesh-colored shells, strings of shells, 
and fringed sashes made from the fibrous roots of trees. They 
formed a ring of 12 or 13 persons, and, without moving from their 
positions, chanted their histories and antiquities in meter. They 
sang with jingling shells, which they rattled with a clicking noise 
like that of castanets. 

They were monogamous, and when married were true to their 
spouses, but before marriage chastity was not required. Spanish 
and Tagalog words have been incorporated in the language to meet 
the needs of an increasing vocabulary ; but these importations are in- 
flected and reduplicated according to the ancient rule, and the gram- 
mar and syntax of modem Chamorro is practically the same as that 
of 400 years ago. The passing of the old spirit worship has left its 






OTHE ISLAND OF GUAM. 51 

train of superstitions of a peculiar sort. Ghosts, as we understand 
them, are no part of Chamorro psychics; the only two instances 
known both being of Spanish origin. The ancient dead come back 
in another guise. These barbarian forefathers, the Chamorro calls 
"taotaomona" (peojjle of before time), "gente del monte" (as the 
Irish speak of the hill people), or "ancianos," the ancients. These 
are the "people of before time" in the flesh, not really dead, but 
immortal and endowed with miraculous qualities. They are some 
20 feet tall; chameleon like, they can be black or white at will, 
and can as they choose, appear or remain invisible. When treated 
according to a strict etiquette, they are innocuous; but are very sensi- 
tive and vindictive. They have no objection to being seen in the 
open, but to look at a taotaomona through a window or a knothole 
is to insult him ; and is followed by a wasting sickness to the offender. 
One may converse freely with a taotaomona when he opens the con- 
versation; but he who speaks to one without waiting to be addressed 
is rendered dumb for life. The ancients at times choose a friend from 
among the mortals and will aid him in his daily work, finally carry- 
ing him away to the " bush," there to make him immortal. The price 
of this uncanny friendship is lifelong celibacy. There are certain 
localities which' no native will willingly visit alter nightfall, notably 
Missionary Point, Cocos Island, and a hill near Pago. 

Along the paths and trails in the imsettled interior are to be found 
everywhere tne old stone mortars used by the ancients for grinding 
rice or roots; also the half -buried hemispheres, the exact use of which 
is now unknown, and numberless slingstones, and fleshers, or axes. 
Whenever a native accidentally touches one of these old relics with- 
out having asked permission he dreads a period of misfortune. Civil 
Engineer Leonard M. Cox, U. S. N., once tried to obtain a fine mortar 
which was nearly imbedded in the trunks of two trees grown to- 
gether but when the ranch owner was asked for permission to cut 
it out he made various excuses, finally promising to bring it in the 
next day. He fulfilled his promise, but when questioned as to his 
method of obtaining it, he was obstinate for a while, finally explain- 
ing that it had been necessary for a male member of his family who 
had done no wrong to ask it of the spirit of the tree, otherwise the 
hand of the despoiler would have been shriveled. When asked which 
member of his family had never sinned, he replied, "My youngest 
son, 3 years old, went to the tree at sunset and said, ' Oh, ancient one, 
I come to you without sin and ask for this stone,' " whereupon the 
father cut it from the trunk. That permission was granted seemed 
to him evident from* the fact that his hand was uninjured. 

There is only one kind of actual ghost known in Chamorro super- 
stitution. This is " Biju," the uneasy spirit of one who dies with im- 
settled financial affairs. The " biju " of a departed debtor will ap- 
pear to his creditor and appealingly go through the motions of 
counting money until assured that he is forgiven; and similarly to 
those wno owed him in life, " biju " will appear until he has received 
a satisfactory excuse for not having received his money. 

They have a few songs which the students of the Chamorro lan- 
guage consider good examples of the old ones, naturally modified to 
some extent by mtercourse with foreigners. They are m a plaintive 
minor, and are well sung,. in parts. They are, as a rule, untranslata- 
ble, and are sung by only the lowest classes. 



52 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

They seem singularly poor in legendary lore, or if they have such, it 
is extremely difficult to get the reticent native to relate examples. 
There are a few sample tales told, as explaining the names of certain 
spots, of which the following is a fair sample : "A gente del monte 
named Donao lived on a hill back of Inarajan. He was a very wicked 
gente and persecuted the people. Another gente del monte, who was 
good, and often defended the natives from Donao, lived in a cave 
across the bay from Inarajan, where ancient characters are yet to be 
found carved on the walls. One night Donao stole down from his hill 
and, coming to the cave, stabbed the good gente in his sleep: the 
latter was very brave and, with the knife still in his wound, pursued 
Donao as far as the conical red mound on the edge of the highland, 
and there fell dead." The mound and surrounding mesa is called 
Asdonao from this legend. " There was also a family of giants called 
Asgordos, who lived on the western coast. Now, there was one partic- 
ular Asgordo who developed great strength while quite a youth. The 
fame of the young giant's strength, as well as his well-known good- 
ness, excited the envy of Donao when it reached his ears. He went in- 
cognito to Asgordo's ranch and, sitting on the doorstep, teased the 
young man. Asgordo was trying to cook something for the stranger's 
entertainment, and, becoming tired of Donao's remarks on his pov- 
erty, he asked him to open a coconut and ^ive him the milk to cook 
with. Donao replied that he couldn't open it without a machete, and 
that his host seemed too poor to own one; whereupon the youth, 
taking the nut in his hand, squeezed the milk through the shell and 
the heavy husk. Donao, astonished, fled and was seen no more in the 
land." 

IX. PRESENT INHABITANTS, POPITLATION. 

Social classes in Guam can not be drawn in most cases along the 
usual lines of cleavage. Practically all of the inhabitants are land- 
owners; many of the lower classes have recognized good blood, and 
no family in the island can be called wealthy. The distinction, 
roughly speaking, falls between those who live merely from day to 
day and^ those who are thrifty and provident. The better class are 
exclusive, cultured, and refined. They are usually large landowners, 
their ranches being rented on shares to persons of lower class, but 
the bulk of their income is usually from small shops or the rental of 
houses. Their customs and mode of life are those of Europeans of 
the better classes, and they are the last to accept American ideas of 
society and social affairs. This class furnishes the island officers, such 
as treasurer, island attorney, judges, clerks, and -minor offices. 

The citizen of the middle class is a comfortable person whose ranch 
furnishes him with a competent livelihood. This he adds to by 
skilled labor such as silver and gold smith work or cabinetmaking or 
work in the navy yard. He dresses in white drill coat with a military 
collar and tails like a shirt, loose trousers, a straw hat, and, when at 
home, half slippers without stockings. His wife and daughters are 
notable housekeepers and models of convention and propriety. Their 
dress is usually a trailing skirt of silk or muslin, and a full, low- 
necked, wide-sleeved blouse of stiff pina cloth. His younger daugh- 
ters are often dressed in American fashion. This class is temperate, 
though rarely abstemious; and the use of betel nut, or of tobacco by 
women, is not sanctioned. 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 53 

The lower classes differ even in appearance from the higher, which 
is possibly accounted for by the fact that there is less foreign blood in 
their veins. They may be less intelligent than the Tagal, and less 
energetic, but they are a peaceful, good-natured, law-abiding people, 
industrious in their own way and on their own work; sensitive and 
clannish to the point of protecting miscreants from the law when 
they themselves are the victims of the wrongdoing. They are slow to 
make friends, and a little suspicious of advances, but once having 
formed a friendship they are staunch and true. It is a fact, that 
farmers have sold copra to a friend for 3^ cents per pound when rival 
merchants have offered as high as 4 cents. After a two years' ex- 
perience in handling Chamorro laborers, no instance is recalled of a 
single direct falsehood, though instances of promises made and not 
fulfilled were frequent. The native cook sometimes steals, and so 
may the house boys and cook's assistants, but they steal nothing 
more valuable than food, and regard it as part of the privileges 
of the office. 

The rancher will never make a business success until he abandons 
his present practice of living in town and running out to his ranch 
on working days. This custom owes its origin to two causes : First, 
to the fact that the early Spaniards made it compulsory to live in 
the vicinity of a church (it was much easier in that way to collect 
taxes) ; and, second, it was important to be near a water supply. 
All through the southern half of the island water is accessible, and 
in the northern part there are few places where wells could not be 
driven successfully; but the difficulty of attending church will be 
the obstacle in the way of a change until better and more roads are 
constructed from ranch districts to neighboring villages and until 
those who actually work the ranches become accustomed to living 
upon them instead of returning to villages each night. If a ranch is 
within an hour's walk of the town, its owner will spend two hours 
of his day on the road to and from his work; if at a greater distance, 
he will spend a- day or two, or even a whole week (at certain sea- 
sons) on his farm, but will never fail to reach his village for church 
Sunday morning and evening, and the Sunday afternoon cockfigiit. 

In town the laborer's costume differs from that of his well-to-do 
neighbor only in the quality of material. He wears the same shirt- 
like coat on the outside of his trousers, which are of blue " jeans," a 
straw hat, and on Sunday he adds a pair of half slippers. In the 
country he wears sandals composed or a leather or fiber sole piece, 
held by a thong which passes over the instep, around the heel, and 
between the great and second toes. At work on his ranch he dis- 
penses with shirt as well as hat and rolls his trousers to his hips, 
leaving his bronzed body naked, except for the trunks formed by 
what is left to view of his trousers. In town he lives in a plank or 
bamboo house perched some 2 or 4 feet from the ground, and con- 
sisting usually of only one room, ventilated by three or four small 
openings for windows, which he closes by sliding wooden shutters. 
Only the more prosperous boast the possession of a Filipino bed, 
the majority being perfectly contented on a grass mat without cov- 
ering. Whole families, including sons, daughters, and their hus- 
bands and wives, sometimes sleep in one room with the doors and 
windows tightly closed. The natives fear the night air and prefer 



64 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

the poison of poor ventilation to the risk of imaginary fevers or 
cold. Both men and women sleep in the same clothes they have 
worn during the day. Each house has a thatched lean-to at one end 
beneath which they do their cooking. The stoves consist of a stone 
inclosure filled with earth, on which they build a fire. A number of 
smaller stones of proper shape serve as supports for the vessels. 

The women of the poorer classes wear on feast days or Sundays 
a long trailing skirt of brilliantly colored calico and a white pina 
or muslin blouse over a short chemise. On their heads they wear 
a folded handkerchief of cheap quality. On working days their 
dress is of the same style, but older, with the train of the skirt 
tucked in at the waistline. They wear no stockings and discard even 
the half slippers when indoors. At their ranches they tuck the 
skirts up above the knees and do all the harder kinds of labor with 
the freedom and ease of a man. It is no uncommon sight to see a 
woman climbing a coconut tree by the notches cut in the trunk, 
going hand over hand to a height of 40 feet, her skirts gathered 
about her waist, and a short, black pipe held between her teeth. 
The women stand in the water waist deep and pound the clothes 
against wooden tables set over the stream. After washing the 
clothes are spread upon the ground to dry, and finally ironed with 
a queer little charcoal flatiron from the Japanese trading store. 

The men are short of stature but well formed* and strong in the 
legs. They have great endurance but not much strength in the arms 
and back, and are not good at lifting weights or striking hard blows. 
They can walk great distances in the hot sun and carry quite heavy 
burdens. The women are well formed, very erect in carriage, and 
almost without exception have beautiful black hair, of which they 
take great care and are very proud. 

The children in many cases dress in exactly the same style as their 
elders. The usual garment for small children consists of a one-piece 
dress of about the same pattern for both gexes. Little girls of from 
5 to 10 years of age often wear long trains and have their hair knotted 
on the back of their heads. The little boys wear long trousers with 
shirts, the tails of which hang outside the trousers. In Agana and in 
the more traveled sections of the country the children are rapidly 
adopting American dress, and the native costume will probably dis- 
appear m a few years. Many of the native games formerly played 
have been abandoned in favor of those introduced by the Americans. 
Baseball, marbles, spinning tops, rolling hoops, and flying kites are 
the principal games of the children. Baseball, introduced to Guam 
by the marine detachment, has become the most popular of all sports 
among the children, boys, and young: men. The native baseball team 
regularly carries oflP the pennant. Nearly every school has a basebaU 
team, and games between different schools are regularly played. 
Baseball uniforms for the schoolboys are provided by the Govern- 
ment. The little girls also play ball, but, of course, have no regu- 
larly organized teams. Each school is provided with a playground, 
with the usual swings, merry-go-rounds, and gymnastic appliances 
found in the playgrounds of American schools. The playgrounds are 
very popular and are continuously in use during the day. 

The cockpit is the attraction on Sundays and holidays, and the 
crowds about the entrance to the inclosure give it all the appearance 



riVE MOTHER AND DAUGHTERS HULLING RICE. 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 55 

of a country fair in America. The pit is a sandy space about 25 or 
30 feet square, inclosed by a low bamboo fence. On one side is the 
entrance and the shed covering the owner in charge of the gambling. 
There is a table divided into two sections by a low combing, and the . 
bettor places his money on the side assigned to the bird he selects. 
The fight never comes off until the money on each side balances, and 
the betting is therefore even. This condition they are often unable 
to bring about, and consequently there is much delay and wrangling. 
The birds are armed with knife-shaped gaffs 2^ inches long by J inch 
wide, and sharpened to a razor edge. The fight is usually of short 
duration and results in the death of one or both of the combatants. 

The Chamorro has very little idea of the value of money ; he has 
no idea of economics, and the prices he charges you for anything you 
wish to purchase are largely dependent on what he thinks you will 
pay. He spends his money freely on articles of clothing or adorn- 
ment for his house or for his wife and children. He is very prone to 
buy all kinds of goods on credit, and while cases of fraud have been 
known among the younger generation, nothing is further from the 
average respectable Chamorro's mind than the avoiding of payment 
of his just debts, but the creditor must at times strain his patience 
almost to the breaking point. 

Since the opportunities for importing goods from the United States 
have so much increased, all kinds of American goods are now found 
in the home oi, even the poorest Chamorro. The houses of the well 
to do are as well furnished as houses of the like kind in the United 
States, and many of the people possess automobiles and motorcycles, 
and in general live as well as do the American residents. All classes 
are purchasing American furniture, musical instruments, sewing 
machines, graphophones, and many other novelties to Guam. 

All classes stand in great awe of the law, and manifest the greatest 
respect for its humblest officer. No threat of personal violence may 
move a stubborn Chamorro, but a mention of the law will end all 
opposition and make him a willing prisoner, if not a doer. The gov- 
ernor, or "y magalaje," as he is known, is the personification of power 
to him. The governor and the American colony are his standards in 
everything, and his ideas of Americans and American customs are 
formed from his observation of them. The natives are as quick to 
learn the best as the bad, and it is a matter of the greatest importance 
to furnish these people with the very best examples as regards mo- 
rality, gentility, and ordinary methods of living. 

It is not just to the Chamorro to call him lazy. He does not like 
to work it is true, but until within the past few years he needed 
money only for the purpose of paying his taxes ; there were very few 
things which his money could buy beyond rice during famine times, 

« little suffar now and then as a luxury, and a plug of tobacco as a 
*;? uTd,7y Sght on the road between Agan. and Pit! to meet the 



56 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

coal or stores, or repairing the roads, for all feel that they must live 
at Agana, irrespective of where their work lies. 

As has already been said, he walks to and from his ranch — unless 
he is the fortunate possessor of a bull cart — and works in the hot 
sun, not steadily it is true, but enough to produce the food he and his 
family need ; seldom does he produce a surplus for sale. As a work- 
man he is very unreliable, the ranch calling him from his work at 
times most inconvenient to the contractor, and holidays invariably 
claiming him. You may drop in at the shoemaker's or silversmith's 
for an order faithfully promised for to-day to find that the artisan 
has gone out to his ranch and will complete the order later in the 
week. 

The idea that one set of men can be artisans and another farmers ; 
that the shoemaker can remain at his last continuously, and with his 
earnings buy the necessaries of life from the fanner, seems beyond 
the Chamorro mind, but until it is adopted more or less dissatisfac- 
tion will always result to intending purchasers and loss of oppor- 
tunity to the artisans. 

There is little trouble in getting domestic servants in Guam, 
although like every other place in the world good cooks are scarce. 
The number availaole is, however, about equal to the demand. House 
boys, nurse maids, and personal maids are plentiful. 

According to a report of the Jesuit historian Murillo, but contra- 
dicted by other Jesuits, and specially by the historians of different 
monastic orders, the population of all the Marianas was not less than 
60,000 in 1668, when the missionaries first arrived. In 1710, on ac- 
count of the wars against rebellious towns waged by the Spaniards, 
the conseq^uent emigration or flight of numbers of the inhabitants to 
the Carolines, epidemics, and also, according to some writers, in- 
fanticide, the. population dwindled to 3,539. In 1816, under Gov. 
Jose Medinilla y Pineda, it was 5,389, although Zuniga (1800) and 
other historians of the same period state it at 7,500. In 1849 the pop- 
ulation of the island of Guam amounted to 7,940, and was so dis- 
tributed; Agana, 5,620; Anigua, 217; Asan, 190; Tepungan, 73; Sina- 
iana^ 250; Mongmong, 102; Pago, 273; Agat, 287; Umatac, 224; 
Merizo, 358; Inarajan, 346. Since then it has slowly increased until 
1902 the number of persons in the island of Guam alone exceeded 
10,000. The Official Guide of 1898 gives 10,116. In 1901, by order 
of Gov. Schroeder, an accurate census of the inhabitants was taken, 
which included statistics of condition, occupation, nationality, and 
education. The result of this census showed on October of 1901 a 
total of 9,675, including onlv natives and foreign permanent resi- 
dents. This was taken as a basis, and an accurate account has ever 
since been kept of all changes in the population from whatever cause. 
The figures of the population at the close of the fiscal year, June 30, 
1916, which are as follows, may be accepted as reliable : 

Native population . 13, 285 

Increase over preceding fiscal year 317 

Births, native 1 609 

Birth rate per thousand 45. 8 

Deaths, native 292 

Death rate, per thousand 21.9 

Marriages, native 90 

Population, foreign 206 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 57 

(The above does not include the officers and men of the military 
and naval establishments and their families.) 

The percentage of illegitimate births was 12. This rate has re- 
mained about constant for several years. In this connection it is to 
be remembered that there is no race suicide in Guam, and divorce is 
practically unknown. The commissioners, moreover, do not recognize 
in reporting births the validity of common-law marriages, and. in 
general, report as legitimate only those children bom to couples 
married by the parish priest. There is, furthermore, no attempt to 
conceal illegitimate births. 

X. THE CAPITAL CITY OF AQANA. 

No one knows how old the capital, Agana, is, since the earliest navi- 
gators report the existence of a village on its present site. This vil- 
lage was the most important on the island and was the home of the 
chieftains and nobles. The site was doubtless originally chosen on 
account of the little stream of water that makes its source in a 
large spring 2 miles inland. The city is situated on a low sandy 
beach that skirts the bay of the same name. It extends for a mile 
east and west, and is limited on the south by a line of coral bluflfs, 
densely covered with trees and shrubbery, which rise to an elevation 
of 200 feet above the sea. The highest point in the city is only 7 feet 
above average high tide, and there are few points that exceed 6 feet 

in elevation. 

The seat of government is in Agana and the most imposing struc- 
tures are the palace, now the Government House, Marine Barracks, 
hospitals, and the Catholic Church. The city is laid out with some 
attempt at system; the streets are named and all lots are numbered. 
The names given the streets are usually taken from the names of 
Spanish governors, explorers, generals, and missionaries. The city 
is divided into five districts or barrios but has no independent 
municipal government. 

The approach to Agana from the landing at Piti is in an easterly 
direction, over an excellent, winding, cascajo road, kept in good 
condition by the Federal Government. It runs close to the beach 
through coconut groves, past the neatly kept villages of Tepungan, 
Asan, and Anigua, entering Agana by the main street, Legaspi, 
which becomes San Juan de Letran as it reaches the center of the 
town, the Plaza de Espaiia. 

The plaza is an open green about 100 yards square, bordered on 
all sides by row^s of coconut palms. Before the American occupation 
one corner of it was used as a dumping ground, and part of it was a 
vegetable garden. It is now leveled and sodded. It is used as the 
parade ground of the marine detachment, and as an athletic field. 
On the west side is the band stand, where the station band plays 
each night, and where spectators of the baseball games find shady 
seats — for baseball has taken firm root in Guam, a league of four or 
six teams competing yearly for a pennant. On the opposite side of 
the plaza from the grand stand are two tennis courts, of cement. 

The old " palace," now called the Government House, in which on 
the ground floor are located the executive offices, fronts north on the 
plaza, as does the older building to the eastward which houses the 
post office, the pay office, and the high school. On the west front 



58 THE ISLAND OP GUAM. 

are the Marine Barracks and Dom Hall, the latter used as a public 
school during week days. Back of Dorn Hall is the library pre- 
.sented by Mr. John Rothschild, of San Francisco. On the north- 
west corner of the plaza is Agana School No. 1, used as a primary 
school. On the north side of the plaza is the courthouse and jail, 
the Ja^atna Civil Club, and the residence of the commanding ofBcer 
of marines, while bounding the plaza on the east is the property of 
the Catholic Church, on which stands the Agana Church, commonly 
.called " The Cathedral," the parochial school, and back of them the 
parish house and residence of the bishop. 

Until 1912 a very old church named Dulce Nombre de Maria, badly 
rent by the numerous earthquakes it had experienced, including the 
very destructive one of 1902, stood on this site. In 1912 this church 
was demolished in order to erect a much larger one with walls of 
reinforced concrete. In its construction special care was taken to 
include in the front and adjoining walls the same cut stones of the 
cold one in order to give the new structure some of the venerable ap- 
pearance of the old church. This new church is still (1916) under 
.construction. 

A little beyond the church is the Naval Hospital, consisting of six 
main buildings connected by overhead walks. The separate build- 
ings are all administered by the medical officers of the Navy attached 
to the naval station, Guam. The most easterly buildings, however, 
:are maintained from a fund contributed by Mrs. Russell Sage for 
the purpose of maintaining a ward for the treatment of women and 
tchildren. This portion of the hospital is named Susana in honor of 
3Irs. G. L. Dyer, through whose efforts the funds were obtained and 
the building constructed. 

On the bank of the small stream known as the Agana River and 
^almost directly north of the Plaza are grouped the various facilities 
which compose the so-called " navy yard." To the westward of the 
power plant is an old bridge of one arch where daily the native 
women collect to wash clothes, standing waist deep in the water for 
liours at a time and affording one of the most picturesque sights in 
Guam. The river bed is frequently cleaned of grass and weeds but 
:their growth is so rapid as to defy all efforts to keep it clear. 

Agana is an attractive town of about 8,500 inhabitants with many 
comfortable looking mamposteria (lime and coral-rock houses), 
prosperous-looking shops, and a general air of peace and well being. 
The cleanliness of its streets is a subject of general comment on the 
part of visitors. Like a great many towns of Spanish origin there 
-are no sidewalks. 

There are three public schools, two of which are located on the 
ivest side and northwest corner of the Plaza ; the other on the south 
side. The total attendance in the Agana schools is about 1,000, and 
it is an interesting sight during recess to see the Plaza filled witli 
romping and playing cliildren. There is no coeducation in Guam. 
The boys go to school in the morning and the girls in the after- 
noon. According to the present scheme every native child in the 
island is sent to the hosi^ital at least once a year for observation and 
treatment, if necessary. As a result, the stupid and anemic looking 
children that confronted the American first comers are rapidly be- 
coming a rarity, and the children of the present day are as full of 
'ife and play as American children of the same age. 



THE ISLAND OP GUAM. 59 

Agana has a modem sewerage system and good water system 
j( furnished from two different sources), an electric light plant, and 
in general all the conveniences of an American city of the same size. 
Owing to the small extent of level ground available, the city is con- 
siderably^ overcrowded and there are practically no lawns and few 
gardens in the city. Beautiful residence sites are available on the 
bluffs to the southward of the town, but have not so far been utilized 
owing to the lack until very recently of water and sewerage systems. 

The port of Agana is Piti, from which it is distant 8 kilometers. 
There is an anchorage off the city, but the holding ground is not good 
and is exposed to the northward. All water shipments now pass 
through Piti, where the customhouse is located. 

Other towns on the island in order of importance are, after A^ana, 
Sumay, Agat, Merizo, Inarajan, Umatac, Asan, Piti, and Sinajana, 
each of which is mentioned in the next chapter. 

XX. TOWNS AND VILLAGES, BOADS. 

The road leaving Agana for Piti passes through Anigua, a little 
suburb of the capital, and due west through coconut groves to the 
mouth of the Fonte or Pigo River for a distance of about a mile. 
This river is spanned by a 30- foot timber bridge with concrete abut- 
ments. 

The Catholic cemetery is located at this point, and to the westward 
the road branches. The left-hand road leads up through the hills 
to the Government farm, the new radio station, and Mount Tenjo, a 
distance of about 7 miles. This road is by far the most interesting 
in the island for tourists, as from it the best and finest views of all 
parts of the island are obtained. 

The Piti road then passes Point Adelup, or Missionary Point, a 
projecting spur of the cascajo bluff which forms the western limit of 
Agana Bay ; thence southwest for a quarter of a mile along the beach, 
with coconuts on either side, to Cape Horn, where the bluff again 
approaches the sea. During a heavy typhoon of 1905 this portion of 
the road was entirely destroyed but was rebuilt by the Federal Gov- 
ernment and now sweeps around the base of the cliff, a magnificent 
bit of road with a retaining wall to seaward, affording the best view 
of the beautiful sunsets for which Guam is noted. 

A few hundred yards beyond the sea wall the village or barrio of 
Asan begins. At the eastern end of the village a road branches off to 
the left across the rice paddies of the town. This road leads to the 
Asan Spring Reservoir, from which the greater part of the water 
supply of Agana is taken. The reservoir was completed in 1916. The 
water which comes from this spring, situated at an elevation of 117 
feet in the hills in rear of Asan, is clear, cool, and uncontaminated. 
The spring has never been known to fail, and the flow has so far been 
sufiBcient to afford a plentiful supply through all seasons of the year, 
t^revious to the construction of this reservoir the city of Agana was 
dependent on a reservoir formed by a dam near the source of the 
Fonte or Pigo River in the hills back of the city. The supply fre- 
quently f ail^ during the dry season and it was always necessary to 
put the town on short allowance during about one-half of the year, 
^ince the construction of the Asan Spring Reservoir no difficulty 



60 THE ISLAND OF GUAM, 

has been experienced through lack of water. The overflow from the 
reservoir is piped to Asan, Piti, and Cabras Island. 

The town or Asan stretches along the road for over one-half mile 
and is constantly being extended in both directions. The Agana- 
Piti road is its only street. The town boasts of a church, school- 
house, and a number of houses of mamposteria. A short distance to 
the westward of the town of Asan the Presidio of Asan is located. 
This is an inclosure belonging to the Government, which was for- 
merly the site of a leper isolation colony. When, in 1900, the United 
States decided to send political and military prisoners from the Phil- 
ippines to Guam, barracks, quarters, kitchens, etc., were built for 
their accommodation and a guard of marines placed in charge. When 
the Philippine insurrection was finally put down and a general am- 
nesty proclaimed, the prisoners were allowed their freedom. A few 
of them settled in Guam and have become prosperous and influential 
citizens. At the present time the Presidio of Asan is maintained as 
a depot for the marine command, and a detail from the various com- 
panies is constantly stationed here. In addition a target range has 
been laid out to the southward of the road, and a large number of 
men are generally camped at Asan undergoing instruction on the 
target range. 

Crossing the little river that drains the rice fields, another cascajo 
bluff makes the road hug the sea. This bluff is almost vertical and 
rises to a height of about 150 feet, while its top is ornamented by a 
tower-like pinnacle, which gives the whole the appearance of an old 
ivy-grown castle in partial ruins. A cascajo quarry is opened here, 
but its product is not as good for road building as that from the 
quarry at Missionary Point. 

The road continues from this point for half a mile to the village 
of Tepungan, which contains several substantial mamposteria houses, 
most of them occupied by the descendants of a thrifty old Chinaman, 
who was one of the colony imported for labor in the fifties and who 
acquired much valuable land in this section. 

Fr(Mn Tepungan to Piti the road runs parallel to the beach through 
a wide flat bottom land, cultivated and planted to bananas, coconuts, 
and rice. The United States Department of Agriculture maintains, 
on the south side of the road, an agricultural experiment station. 
Several buildings for offices, residences, and barns are located on 
this tract, which is cultivated in the same manner as American farms, 
and the few scenes caught at intervals through the high hedge or 
kapok trees reminds one forcibly of a farm in the Middle West of. 
the United States. Visitors are always welcome at the station. 

The road to Agat branches from the Piti road about a quarter of a 
mile from the latter village proper, and from the junction of the two 
roads to- the boat landing at Piti picturesque native huts line the 
western, or seaward, side of the road. At Piti there are several store- 
houses owned by trading companies, a naval storehouse, quarters for 
the beachmaster and a few enlisted men, the customhouse, several 
small repair shops, and a slip for hauling out steam launches. There 
are two landing wharves, one for freight and one for passengers. 

On Cabras Island, opposite the landing, is the quarantine station 
where, if necessary, suspected cases can be isolated. The United 
States Government coal shed is about 1,500 yards to the westward. 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 61 

A causeway has been built from Piti to Cabras Island, having a pas- 
sage wide enough to permit boats to pass through. East of Piti and 
adjoining the village is a large rice swamp, water for which is led 
from a dam built in the hills, impounding the headwaters of the 
Masso River. To the southward the mangrove swamp begins and 
holds its own almost without a break around the Bay of Apra to tlie 
landing place of that name. 

The road from Piti to Agat was rebuilt in 1908, to join with the 
road from Agat to Sumay and thus connect the naval reservation at 
Piti with the tract purchased by the Federal Government in 1903 for 
a naval station. The old Spanish road had fallen into bad repair and 
for most of the distance was scarcely passable, although much money 
had been spent on it; much of the old roadbed was used, but several 
short cuts and easier grades were made, and after crossing the 
Atantano Eiver the new road winds off to the left along a gentle 
ascent instead of leading off to the right over the hill. 

The road from the junction, with the Agana-Piti road, extends 
in a southeasterly direction through rice fields to the ravine of the 
Sasa River, over which a new bridge has been built to replace the 
old Spanish wooden bridge destroyed by the earthquake of 1902. 
Leaving the Sasa River a turn is made to the southeast, and a half 
mile of good bottom land, cultivated at two or three points in sugar, 
leads to the edge of the wooded land just back of the mangrove 
swamp that skirts the bay. The road here was formerly hardly 
more than a trail, ankle deep in sticky mud during the wet season, 
and at many places so narrow, on account of the encroaching vegeta- 
tion, that it was impossible to pass through it except on foot. It 
is now a fine, well-laid road over which a procession of bull carts is 
constantly passing, especially on Sundays and holidays, and which 
is responsible for the material increase of land under cultivation in 
maize and rice. Many new clearings are met with, and some fine 
looking trees, called by the natives " nonag," it being not uncommon 
to see trunks 4 feet in diameter and 30 feet to the first branch. 
Unfortunately, this wood is of no use whatever for construction 
purposes. 

About halfway between the Sasa and Atantano Rivers, on top of 
a small rise, the road branches. The left-hand branch leads over 
the hills to Camp Barnett, at which a detachment of marines is main- 
tained. The view from the Camp Barnett road of the harbor and the 
surrounding country is hardly surpassed anywhere in Guam. 

The right-hand branch, after a little over 2 miles, passes through 
a short stretch of mangrove swamp and comes to the Atantano 
River, which is here spanned by a new bridge supported by masonry 
piers, rebuilt to replace those of the original bridge which were de- 
stroyed partly by the typhoon of 1900 and partly by the earthquake 
of two years later. At the eastern approach of this bridge stands 
a small shrine consisting of two stone tablets mounted on a masonry 
base and surmounted by a cross. They bear the following interesting 
inscriptions, showing the origin and age of the original road : 

El Gobernaclor Don FeHpe Cerain, Q. E. D. hize cpnstruir esta dificil calzada 
anos, 1784 y 1785 planto los cocales del coniunidad y predigo inumerables bene- 
ficios ft estas islaa. Rnegan fi, Dios por su alma. 

Translated: Governor Felipe Cerain, R. I. P., ordered the con- 
struction of this difficult road in the years 1784 and 1785, planted the 



62 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

coconuts of the community and produced countless benefits for the 
island. Pray to God for his soul. 

El Gobemador Don Francisco VUlalobos; Los Gobemadorcillos Don Antonio 
Guerrero, Don Juan de Rivera y Don Lucas de Castro y todos los Gabezas 
de Barangay de Agafia que con el auxilio de sus vecinos logaron desde el afio 
1832 a 1834, establecer las primeras ^embras de palay en esta fertU vega. 

Suplican agradecidos la proteccion de la Virgen Madre de Dios y a honor de 
tan soberana Reyna descanse nombre en adelante cienega de la purlsima. 

Translated: Governor Francisco Villalobos, the Commissioners 
Antonio Guerrero, Juan de Rivera and Lucas de Castro and all the 
deputy commissioners of Agana with the help of the inhabitants, 
succeeded in raising the first rice crops in this fertile valley in 1832 
and 1834. Thanks to the Virgin Mother of God and in honor of her 
Majesty the Queen, this swamp shall in the future be known as the 
" Swamp of the Inmiaculate Virgin." 

The tablets and the base had also suffered from the shock of the 
earthquake, but were carefully repaired. 

A native shelter, thatched with coconut leaves, has been built over 
the shrine where bums usually a small, crude, oil lamp, replenished 
by devout passers by. 

Near the Atantano River the road branches, the original road con- 
tinuing on to Agat. The newer section to the right hand leads to 
the westward along the shores of Apra Harbor to the town of 
Sumay, distant about 3 miles. This newer road was constructed 
at a considerable cost in 1912 to reduce the distance between Piti 
and Sumay. This road, while the most direct, does not afford so 
much varied scenery as does the old road to Agat. 

This latter road after crossing the Atantano River winds through 
the river valley. This valley is entirely given over to rice cultiva- 
tion and is the largest single area in Guam devoted to this crop. 
The valley is watered by irrigation ditches from the river and its 
tributaries and since the completion of the new road the cultivated 
area has greatly increased. The road crosses the paddies on a well- 
built dike 5 feet above their level, the old Spanish roadbed, the 
masonry abutments of the old bridges being utilized. It is between 
6 and 7 miles from Piti to Agat, ttie last part of the road leading 
over little hills covered with cogon or sword grass, and near Agat, 
through thickly planted coconut groves. There is nothing to ob- 
struct the view of the brown slopes which stretch up to the top of 
the mountains from Ten jo, in the southeast, to Sasalaguan in the 
southwest, some 2 or 3 miles apart, and to the ri^ht, the northward, 
spreads out a beautiful view or rolling country, the villages of Apra 
and Sumay, with the buildings and tall towers of the cable station, 
near the latter, the sheltered harbor, formerly San Luis de Apra, 
now Apra Harbor, protected on the northward and westward by 
Luminao Reef. 

Inside, at her buoy, will probably be seen the station ship Supply 
and beyond the fringe of surf the Pacific Ocean stretches out to the 
horizon. The entrance to the harbor lies close along the bluffs and 
stretches of sandv beach at the foot of Orote Peninsula; the white 
beacon on the old, dismantled Fort Santa Cruz upon which the 
Chwrleston fired on entering, indicating the course for entering. 

Agat is a town of about 800 inhabitonts and has 15 or 20 houses 
of mamposteria, including a church, an old parish, and a public 
school, together with a hundred or so plank or bamboo houses with 



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THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 63^ 

nipa roof. It is built along the road beach for a distance of one- 
fourth of a mile and is about three streets in depth. It is in the 
center of a good agricultural district, lying between the sea and the 
foothills of the main range of mountains, and extending from the 
Atantano River on the north to about 2 miles below Agat. Coconuts^ 
sweet potatoes, corn, and rice are the principal products, and are 
grown in the bottoms east and south of the village, as well as on the 
neck of the Orote Peninsula. One or two of the wealthier citizens 
own cattle ranches in the foothills of the mountains where the buncL 
grass thrives. Good fishing is afforded by the coral shallows of Agat 
Bay, and fish are to be seen inside the reef, while near the houses on. 
the beach great nets drying in the sun are always a part of the view 
in good weather. The spiritual welfare of the inhabitants is looked. 
after by one of the Capuchin friars. 

From Agat to Sumay is about 3^ miles over an excellent roady 
which, however, has several steep ascents and descents: It passes in 
a northeasterly direction through a half mile of beach land closely^ 
cultivated, a mile of higher but good land on the neck of Orote 
Peninsula, partly cultivated and partly wooded, and finally 1^ miles 
of upland with poor, red soil on coral formation. Though this last 
stretch is not so fertile, many ranches of maize and sweet potatoes, 
line the road. 

The village of Sumay has a population of about 1,000 and presents, 
a prosperous appearance. A considerable number of its houses are 
of mamposteria and it has a pretty church and a school. A detach- 
ment of marines is encamped on the west side of the town. To the 
northward and westward lies the property of the Commercial Pacific 
Cable Co., on which is located the cable office, barracks, and resi- 
dences of the superintendent and employees of the company. Cables 
from Midway Island, the Philippines, Yokohama, and Yap are 
landed here. All the shallows in front of Sumay are dotted with 
fish weirs and quite a number of the inhabitants make a living by 
fishing. 

Some of the best land for farming purposes on the island is to be 
found where the peninsula joins the mainland; good tobacco is 
grown here, also maize, sweet potatoes, coconuts, and bananas. 

Beyond Agat the road, which is no longer passable for vehicular 
traffic, follows a southerly direction for a distance of about seven and 
one-half miles, of which the first miles lie along and on the sandy 
beach. Coconut, sweet potatoes, and maize are grown along the sea, 
with some rice and an occasional sugar field in the well-watered 
valleys near the hills. At one time there was a road of some char- 
acter extending from Agat to Umatac and evidences of its existence 
are still to be seen along this part of the way. Especially worthy of 
note are two stone arch bridges, in perfect condition to-day, the sup- 
ports of which are of cut stone and of the best workmanship. The 
present road, if it may be called a road at all, since it is no more 
than the beach itself, with an occasional trail leading around rocky 
points, does not follow the old route, and the bridges referred to are 
not in use to-day. The beach is broken by Facpi Point, making it 
necessary to go inland over the hills. This point is a spur of the 
mountains and projects out into deep water, allowing no room for a 
road around it. It is 50 feet high at its extreme point and increases 



64 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

in elevation shoreward. It is of soft, friable sandstone rock, and 
a road could be easily cut in its face, well out of the way of the 
waves in stormy weather. To pass this obstruction the road leads up 
over several steep hills, the highest of which is 350 feet in elevation, 
barren of vegetation, except for scattered bunches of sword grass, 
and impossible for vehicles of any description. The trail, for it is 
nothing more than that, now descends into a fertile valley and, pass- 
ing through a good coconut grove, fords a little stream and begins to 
climb again. A succession of small hills with intervening stretches 
of beach are passable, and the road winds around an occasional point 
of rocks before climbing over the promontory which forms the north- 
ern boundary of Umatac Bay. Standing where the road crosses the 
backbone of this spur, a most beautiful view meets the eye. The 
little bay runs east from its mouth nearly a half mile and is from 
1,200 to 1,500 feet in width. Its surface varies in color from deep 
blue at the anchorage ground to the pale green of the coral shallows. 
The hills on either side rise steeply up to the jagged peaks and crags 
of the main range, and the foothills form a picturesque little amphi- 
theater, inclosing the bay, while nestling at their feet the brown- 
thatched roofs of the village appear between the tops of waving 
palms. 

Umatac was originally selected as the site of the capital of Guam ; 
its harbor was safe and convenient for the sailing vessels coming 
from Acapulco or Manila, with arms and recruits for the garrison. 
A palace for the governor, a cathedral, and the necessary fortifications 
for the defense of the harbor, were built and, although Agana had 
meanwhile been made the capital, the governor and his official staff, 
as the time for the arrival of the galleon approached, moved to 
Umatac, remaining there until the departure oi the galleons. 

Later on Umatac was used as the summer capital during the prev- 
alence of the monsoon, being more comfortable in that season than 
Agana. The palace, through whose basement floor flowed a small 
brook, and the cathedral which, judging from the ruins remaining, 
must have possessed considerable architectural merit, were both de- 
stroyed by the earthquake of 1779, and a subsequent earthquake de- 
stroyed tne town on February 25, 1849; in 1864, according to the 
chart of the harbor, there were about a dozen huts on the site. 

The harbor is small — measuring but 2 cables (400 yards) between 
the points of the entrance and less than 1 cable between the 5-fathom 
curve on either side. 

From the point sheltering the bay on the north, around to the head 
of the bay, the land is low and sandy for a breadth of about 100 
3^ards between the water and the foot hills. At the head of the bay, 
where the Umatac Eiver makes its mouth, the beach is formed of 
large round gravel about 2 inches and under in size, together with 
fine black sand. From the mouth of the river to the southern point 
a low madreporic ledge runs down to the water's edge. From about 
the center of its length to its mouth the bay is from 5 to 7 fathoms 
in depth, with a sandy bottom ; this ground runs out into the road- 
w^ay for a mile or more before striking greater depth. The harbor 
is safe for boats under 30 tons during the dry season, when pre- 
vailing winds are from the north to northeast, but with the westerly 



l!Hfi ISLAND OF GUAM. 65 

winds of the wet season there is no protection and the heavy seas 
enter the mouth of the bay. 

Good water can be obtained with facility from the little river. 
Several forts, now in ruins, defended Umatac from the attack of 
enemies or of the English pirates whose raids on Spanish colonies 
are recorded in history. Opposite Fort Santo Angel, whose ruins 
crown the cliff on the northern shore, may still be seen the stone 
sentry box formerly part of the Fort of Nuestra Senora de la Sole- 
dad on the hill on the south side ; and traces of the site of the water 
battery, Nuestra Senora de Carmen, near the stream, are still visible, 
the stones, as also those of* the cathedral, being gradually carried 
away for building purposes. 

I^matac now consists of one street lined on both sides for an eighth 
of a mile with bamboo huts of the poorer class. It contains 250 
inhabitants, and has a public school, and a small church in which 
services are held every Sunday by the Capuchin friar stationed at 
Merizo. 

From Umatac to Merizo, with the exception of the climb over the 
promontory guarding Umatac Bay on the south, the road lies along 
the beach. A narrow belt of land immediately adjoining the sea 
is cultivated, and good fishing is to be had where the surf breaks 
on the reef. It is only a mile and a quarter from Merizo to Umatac, 
practically due south. 

The village of Merizo is in a fairly prosperous condition under 
the administration of a very intelligent native. The town boasts of 
several mamposteria houses, a church and parish house of the 
same material, and some 150 or more bamboo huts. The streets are 
clean and the people, about 800 in number, industrious. There is a 
good rice swamp just east of the town and farther up the little 
stream that waters it are healthy looking ranches of coconuts. The 
best fish are caught by the Merizo fishermen and boatloads are taken 
to Agana for sale. 

Cocos Island, a strip of land about 1 mile long by 150 yards in 
width, lies nearly a mile to the southwest, and the water between is 
filled with coral, except for a narrow channel near the shore. 

From Merizo to Inarajan the road runs along the beach, and the 
distance is about 7 miles. It takes an easterly direction to Ajayan 
Point, which is the extreme southeastern land of the island, and 
thence north by east to Inarajan. A good coral road, with a number 
of wooden bridges has been ouilt by the island government, almost 
the entire distance between the two villages, stretches of the beach 
being occasionally utilized. This road is now being rebuilt (1916). 

Leaving Merizo the rice paddies are first passed, then a mile of 
rich bottom land well watered and cultivated. The ranches here 
appear vary prosperous and the cultivated land runs back into the 
little valleys of the foothills. After crossing a little inlet, the vege- 
tation changes and the road lies for a mile and a half through a grove 
of gnarled old ironwood trees, which have a foliage something like 
oni' cedars. This stretch is one of the most attractive spots to be 
met with on the island as, instead of the weeds and rank growths 
that crowd the trails in mcst instances, the ground here is carpeted 
with a short green turf and the road lies only 30 feet from the water\s 

70238—17 5 



j^ 



■r_j 



66 THE IBIAND OF QIJAM. 

edge. The shore is protected by coral reefs and numerous little 
islety, which, with its position in the lee of the island, makes the 
water usually smooth and glassy. Now and then a ranch is passed 
and rows of fish, split and drying in the sun, tell of the principal 
occupation of the ranchers. It looks delightfully cool and com- 
fortable in the shade of the trees, the green turf (a rarity in Guam) 
invites to repose, while just inside the belt of ironwoods the waving 
tops of the coconut palms promise a refreshing drink. 

Another little inlet ends this grove, and several rocky points sepa- 
rated by sights of the sea are passed before reaching Ajayan Bay. 
This bay is about half a mile in circumference and contains a small 
island calleH Agrigan near its western shore. It has an opening 
in the reef for small boats, has about 50 feet of water in its narrow 
mouth and from 60 to 20 feet inside. There is a cluster of ranches 
here, which is called Sumay Merizo, though it can not be classed as 
even a small village. The beach near the numerous points on this 
side of the island is often strewn with fragments of broken coral, 
very hard on beasts and on the shoes of pedestrians. The road 
climbs over Ajayan Point, and running a little north of east for a 
mile on the dividing line between the sabana land of the foothills 
and the productive lowlands, finally descends to the broad sandy 
beach of the eastern coast of the island. The direction then changes 
to the northward and follows the beach to Agfayan Point. The 
beach here is 200 yards wide and is bare of vegetation, except the 
tenacious sea bean, which makes walking a difficult feat, and the 
green sprouts from numerous dead ironwoods. 

Agfayan Point is a finger of madreporic rock covered by a dense 
thicket of scraggly trees and lemonchina bushes, and it forms the 
southern limit of the bay of the same name. The road crosses over 
the neck of this point and descends into the little valley at the head 
of the bay. A shallow river empties here, and at its mouth it is 
80 feet in width by 4 feet in depth, with coral rock bottom. It was 
formerly crossed by a footbridge formed of bamboo poles placed 
lengthwise and bound by bark thongs to bamboo bents placed directly 
on the bottom. When the wind was from the east the sea washed 
into the mouth of the river and periodically destroyed the crude 
bridge built by the neighboring ranchers. The island government 
therefore, in 1907-8 built a substantial bridge over this river, and 
in addition, two other bridges across the Sumay and Liyog Rivers, 
and one at Merizo, beside three culverts, making it now possibh 
for carts to make the trip between Merizo and Inarajan during tht 
rainy season. Several minor bridges and culverts have since been 
constructed and the road along the beach at the Inarajan end aban- 
doned. 

Agfayan Bay is about a quarter of a mile long and from 15 to 20 
feet in depth. The valley of the little river is broad and well wa- 
tered, extends nearly a mile, and could be utilized for the cultivation 
of rice, instead of being left, as it is now, an uncultivated swamp 
From Agfayan to Inarajan the beach is broken by rocky ledges and 
islets, and as the reef here lies only a short distance from shore, the 
sea dashes violently against them and makes a striking picture. 

The town of Inarajan, which has about 800 inhabitants, is situ- 
ated on the south side of the bay of that name, and has been a place 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 67 

of some importance. It has a pretty Catholic church, recently com- 
pleted to replace the one destroyed by the typhoon, and has several 
houses and a parish house. The American Baptist Foreign Mission 
Society maintains a small Protestant mission at Inarajan. 

There are about 100 houses of plank or bamboo on the two streets, 
extending about a fifth of a mile in the direction of the beach. The 
bay is about half a mile in length by a quarter of a mile in width at 
its mouth. It has a small anchorage ground with sandy bottom, and 
from two to three fathoms in depth, and a narrow opening in the 
reef guards the entrance. It is exposed to the east and southeast 
winds and is dangerous. Tw^o small rivers empty into the head of 
the bay, and the beach here is of a black or brownish sand brought 
down by the streams from the highlands. These streams have broad 
valleys, which are very productive in rice, sugar, sweet potatoes, 
corn, tobacco, and fruits. The principal industry of the people is 
farming, fishing, and hunting. Besides the deer of the mountains 
and the ordinary reef fish, there is caught here a species of crayfish, 
the size and appearance of our lobster, which is highly prized by 
the natives of the village and is also marketable in Agana. Sea 
turtle abound in certain seasons in deep water about the reefs both 
here and at Merizo and Umatac, but the natives are not expert in 
taking them, and they are not often seen in the markets. 

In 1909 Inarajan was supplied with wholesome water piped down 
from a reservoir formed by a concrete dam built in a small gorge in 
the hills about 2 miles to the westward of the town. Public shower 
baths were constructed and a marked improvement in sanitary con- 
ditions has resulted. 

Inarajan has a public school with about 100 pupils of both sexes 
and a dressing station in charge of the principal of the school. 

A telephone line connects Inarajan with Agana by w^ay of Merizo, 
Umatac, Agat, Sumay, and Piti. 

Both the southern and northern points that bound the bay of 
Inarajan are bluflFs of madreporic rock, and as the coral reefs lie 
close in they are continually lashed by the waves of tlie sea. Xear 
the extremity of the northern point is a small cave. formed by the 
water, on the walls of which are to be found certain characters. 
There is no doubt that the characters are genuine, as similar marks, 
apparently representing men and women have been found in the 
caves near the Talofofo and elsewhere by Capt. E. H. Ellis, United 
States Marine Corps, and as these characters are, moreover, similar 
to the petroglyphs found in ciives in the Hawaiian Islands, there is 
no reason to think that they are not anc'ent. The figures were 
apparently cut into the rock and have been subsequently covered 
with lime precipitated from the water that percolates through the 
coral formation, thus giving them the appearance of what looks 
like a white pigment. The figures in the cave at Inarajan are all 
white, having been filled by lime in a similar manner to those found 
by CJov. Fritz, of Saipan, in caves on the' island of Tinian and de- 
scribed by him during a visit to the cave at Inarajan. Those found 
in some of the other caves have not been so washed with lime and 
thus remain true petroglyphs. 

Proceeding on the road northward, the rivers emptying into 
the head of the bay are crossed on substantial wooden bridges, 




68 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

after crossing the low valley, with rice fields on either side, the 
climb to the top of the mesa is begun. The road is impracticable foi* 
carts and is no more than a series of foot trails, a new one being 
adopted as the old one becomes too soft from rains. After a short 
climb the bottom loam and its vegetation give way to the red soil 
of the mesa, with its covering of brown sword grass, and the sword 
grass gives way, in turn, when the top is reached, to sc>attered clumps 
of short bunch grass on an otherwise barren soil. The mesa at this 
point is about 350 feet in elevation, and standing where the road first 
reaches the summit a splendid view of the southeastern corner of 
the island is obtained. The coast, with its little bays, points of 
shrub-covered coral rock, and stretches of sandy beach is spread 
below like a map, while to the southwest, west, and northwest lie 
extensive pasturage plains, sweeping upward to the timbered sides 
of the mountains on the west coast. Beyond the timber belt the 
brown peaks of Sasalaguan, Bolanos, Jumullong Manglo, and Ten jo 
stand out in profile against the clear tropical sky, with Alifau 
standing between the last two, covered entirely with timber, its sharp 
peak surmounted by two sentinel-like trees. The rivers can be traced 
by the winding strips of green which mark the timbered valleys 
against the brown of the mesetas. 

The road passes to the northward for a mile to Pauliluc Creek, a 
little mesa stream which furnishes water for the cattle ranches near 
by and which just below where the road fords it falls in a series of 
pretty cascades to the level of the sea. The native name of the creek 
signifies " smells of iron," and its waters are impregnated with that 
material, while the bed rock, from its weight and appearance, must 
be the source of supply. About a mile beyond this creek is a ranch 
house, situated on the top of a high butte JFormed by the wash of the 
rains. On three sides the approach is nearly vertical and 50 feet 
higher than the surrounding plain. The washed sides of the butte 
are bright red in color, and the house, with its cluster of fruit trees 
and two lon^ coconut palms on the top of this red mound, makes a 
landmark visible from all elevated points on the island. Tn the plain 
below are two small, ponds, or lakes, where a species of wild duck 
peculiar to the Marianas Islands make their home, feeding in the 
ndjacent rice paddies and fresh-water swamps of Tnarajan and 
Merizo. The ranch in question comprises about 1,000 hectares, or 
•2.400 acres, of this land, and has at present from 125 to 150 head of 
cattle and carabaos. The road to Agat branches off the main road 
near Dandan (the name given to this district) ; leaving Dandan, the 
road passes through the timber land which skirts the sabanas along 
the east coast and, after crossing one or two wooded ravines, climbs 
the southern point of Talofofo Bay. The coast line between Talo- 
fofo and Inarajan is marked by almost vertical madreporic cliffs, 
with the coral reef so close to their feet that the waves in stormy 
weather break high up on their faces. The bay of Talofofo is about 
half a mile long by 1,200 feet in breadth, is bounded on the north 
and south by high madreporic bluffs and on the w^est by the fertile 
valley of the Talofofo River. The coral reef follows the bluffs inside 
the bay, leaving a mouth 800 feet in width, with 50 to 60 feet of water 
on mud bottom. Farther in the water is 25 to 30 feet in depth, with 
bottom of sand and cascajo. Both the north and south points are 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 69 

guarded by high peaks connected with the mesa by a ridge composed 
of sharp rocky points and romided knobs. The peak Malilog is 
said to have historical associations connected with the early history 
of the island. Two rivers empty into the bay ; one, a small stream of 
no great length, has its mouth near the entrance of the bay on the 
south side; while the Talofofo River, the largest and longest on the 
island, makes its mouth at the head. The valley of the Talofofo here 
is wide and contains fine groves of coconut trees for nearly a mile of 
its length toward the interior. The river is crossed on a bamboo raft, 
propelled and guided by a " pago " rope stretched from bank to bank. 

Leaving this bay, the road climbs the side of Malilog and, round- 
ing its eastern face at a height of 250 feet above the water, descends 
to the beach at a steep grade. A short part of this descent is by the 
}»id of rough stairs cut in the coral rock of the mountain, which is the 
only remaining evidence of the old military road built b}^ the Span- 
iards in the beginning of the eighteenth century, when the island was 
first completely pacified. It is a picturesque spot, with its almost ver- 
tical walls on either side, and it is an interesting sight to see the bulls 
•and carabaos make their way down the crude steps m safety. For the 
next 2 miles the road lies on a broad sandy beach from 600 to 1,600 
feet in width plartted in coconut trees. This plantation, containing 
18,000 trees, is the largest on the island. It is owned by a Japanese, . 
Mr. J. K. Shimizu, of Agana. 

The beach is terminated by another point of coral rock, beyond 
which lies the Ylig River. Ylig Bay is a small indentation sur- 
rounded by reefs, with an opening for small boats. It is bounded on 
the north and south by coral bluffs and on the west by the low bottom 
of the Vlig River, -the second in point of size on the island. The Ylig 
River is about 50 feet wide at its mouth and is crossed on a bamboo 
raft, similar to the one described at Talofofo. The valley is fertile, 
l)ut not wide, and is cultivated here and there in coconuts. The road 
climbs the mesetas after leaving Ylig and passes through cultivated 
Iiighlands for a little over a mile and a half to Pago Bay. 

Xear the highest j)oint of the meseta and about one-half mile from 
the Ylig River is the schoolhouse of Yona, which has an attendance 
of about 50 pupils of both sexes and a dressing station in charge of 
the principal of the school. A new road is now (1916) under con- 
struction between the Ylig and the Pago Rivers by way of the Yona 
school and this road from Pago has now reached the top of the 
meseta. From this point on an improved road is found all the way 
to Agana. A bridge over the Pago River (now projected) will sup- 
])ly, when completed, the last link of an excellent wa^on road be- 
tween Yona and Agana. A village is proposed in the vicinity of the 
school and it is likely that one will soon come into existence. The 
inhabitants of the district have already begun the construction of a 
church or chaj)el a short distance from the school. Many ranchers 
live in this vicinity engaged in raising coconuts, corn, bananas, poul- 
try, and hogs. 

Pago Bay is a semicircular sweep of sandy beach between two 
headlands, and is inclosed to seaward by the reef which has an open- 
ing for small boats some 50 feet in width. The water inside has no 
great depth, and only the smallest boats and canoes can enter. The 
Pago River empties at the head of the bay, is 40 or 50 feet wide at the 



70 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

mouth, and is crossed on the usual bamboo raft. The river valley is 
wide here, but narrows a short distance above, so that it does not offer 
space for extensive cultivation. 

Pago at one time was a flourishing village but was abandoned after 
the terrible scourge of smallpox which visited the island in 1856 and 
caused the death of a large portion of the inhabitants. Two-thirds 
of the people of Pago died therefrom, and the priest in charge recom- 
mended the abandonment of the chapel and school. The survivors 
moved to Sinajana and Agana. 

The typhoon of 1900 caused great havoc among the coconut trees, 
and for a while only a few salt-boilers lived on the site of the village, 
mostly in the small caves in the cascajo bluff. Recently a few settlers 
have again located at Pago and begun the cultivation of coconuts. 

From this point to the north the east coast is an unbroken line of 
high coral bluffs escalloped by crescent-shaped bights, but w ithout a 
boat h&rbor of any kind or beach lands suitable for cultivation. The 
reef, where it exists at all, lies close under the cliffs, and as a conse- 
quence this part of the coast is dangerous for small craft fc^r the 
greater part of the year. 

From Pago toward Agana the road passes for a short distance 
through the wooded valleys of the Pago River and then climbs the 
higher ground of the interior in a direction almost due north. A 
series oi little hills, alternating with muddy creek bottoms, are trav- 
ersed, the greater part of the w^ay being through dense jungle growtli. 
The woods are left behind at the point where the road crosses a 
swampy bottom near the source of one of the tributaries of the 
Agana River. From here a long rise is climbed, and from its top to 
the village of Sinajana cultivated tracts with coconut groves and 
sweet-potato patches are more and more frequently met with. 

From Sinajana the road winds through the rolling country back 
of the coast toward Agana. The soil is mostly thin, poor, and red, 
covering cascajo from 6 inches to 2 feet below the surface. There is 
very little of this land under cultivation, a few ranches being situated 
in the groves of breadfruits, cqponuts, and camachili. The majority 
of it is pasturage, covered with lenionchina shrub. The road follows 
approximately a ridge of hills until, passing through a deep cut, it 
pitches down the bluff at a .«teep and tortuous incline into the barrio 
San Ramon of Agana. A short distance from Agana the cascajo 
road to the old radio station leaves the Sinajana road and strikes 
across a broad savanna, thinly wooded and scrubby, to the slope of 
Mount Macajna, which is covered with sword grass — " cogon " — 
extending nearly to the summit. The road winds around the hillside 
on a gradual slope, at times cut from the rock, until the summit, 
where the old radio station is situated, is reached. Notwithsanding 
the precipitate sides of Mount Macajna, this road has nowhere a 
grade of more than 13 per cent. 

The roads in the northern half of the island radiate from the 
barrio of San Antonio of Agana and are grouped in two systems, 
the main branches of which are known as the Barrigada and Yigo 
roads. The first-named road turns inland from the edge of the town 
and proceeds in a general direction across the island slightly east by 
north toward the east coast. It passes through rolling country with 
a gradual rise to the northern plateau, which for some distance from 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 71 

Agana, as far as the upland jungles, is practically all under cultiva- 
tion to com, beans, sweet potatoes, taro, and yams, with an occa- 
sional banana patch or grove of coconuts, betel nuts, or cacao. This 
road has several branches leading short distances into the farming 
country. At a distance of about 2 miles the road forks, the branch to 
the right being known as the Sabana Maagas and the one to the left 
known as the Tiyan road. Each l^ads into the country for a mile or 
more. A mile and a half farther the road again branches ; the right- 
hand road, known as Lalo, leads for about 2 miles into the country, 
terminating a short distance from the coast. 

The Yigo road leaves Agana in a northerly direction, changing 
to northeast. For about 2 miles it hugs the shore closely, separated 
from the beach by a narrow strip of coconut grove. As the road 
leaves the coast line it begins a gradual and steady climb up to the 
northern plateau. This continues with *f ew breaks as far as the road 
now extends. Shortly after turning inland, a branch to the left 
hand strikes toward the sea and ends at the Tumon Colony, formerly 
maintained as a leper isolation colony. All lepers have now been 
removed to Culion, P. I., and the buildings formerly occupied by 
them have been destroyed or removed. A short distance to the west- 
ward of the Tumon Colony there is an interesting geological forma- 
tion popularly termed " Hole in the ground " (by the natives known 
as " Liyang ") . This is an earth bubole, the vertical depth of which 
is about 200 feet. The opening into it is only about 50 feet in diam- 
eter, but a short distance below the surface the diameter increases to 
several hundred feet. The bottom is filled with water. Several such 
formations have been found in Guam, but none are so remarkable as 
this one near Tumon. 

From the point where the Tumon road branches the road con- 
tinues in a northeasterly direction for a distance of 2^ miles, where 
it again forks, the left-hand fork continuing for a distance of about 
2i miles past the Dededo schoolhouse toward a locality known as 
Finagua\4c. The right-hand branch continues for a distance of 4r| 
miles toward Mount Santa Rosa. A short distance before passing 
the Yigo schoolhouse a branch leads off to the northward through 
the forest country toward a large ranch, known as " Upi," owned by 
Commander E. L. Bissett, United States Navy (retired). 
• The whole northern portion of the island is densely forested and 
clearings occur at only long intervals and do not extend far on either 
side of the road. 

ZH.— -ABTS AND CBAFTS, RELIGION AND EDUCATION. 

After the priesthood, the highest calling in the eyes of the Cha- 
morros is the law. There are no native physicians and, after the 
law, the highest ambition of the native is to become a clerk or writer 
in some one of the departments of the Federal or Insular Govern- 
ment. The pay for this class of service is very small, but the prestige 
is counted nipon to make up the deficiency. 

Before the advent of the Americans, carpenters were scarcely as 
efficient as our unskilled labor. They were untrained and used anti- 
quated tools. Those who have had the advantage of working under 
American foremen, however, have learned the use of modern tools, 



72 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

and are now capable of doing all ordinary house eaipentery as well 
and as quickly as could be desired. In building a house the buiiio 
plan is followed that was introduced by the Spanish missionaries 
long ago. Heavy ifil posts, of length sufficient to reach to the eaves 
of the finished structure, are sunk into the ground at intervals of 
from 9 to 11 feet. At the desired floor elevation, usually 6 to 8 feet 
from the ground, holes are cut in, the posts to receive a 3 by 5 inch 
ifil stringpiece, that serves as a sill. This sill ovei^hangs the end 
posts by at least 3 feet, to support the gallery which is always found 
on all four sides of the better Guam houses. On the sills, 2 by 4 inch 
ifil joists are laid, and these support a floor of planks of about 1 inch, 
of varying widths, thicknesses, lengths, and degrees of smoothness. 
Notches in the tops of the posts are cut to receive a heavy horizontal 
key or roof cord, extending transversely across the building. This 
key is at least 4 by 5 in section and acts both as a tie and to resist 
typhoons or earthquake shocks. A plate of the same size caps the 
posts, and on this the rafters are spaced 4 feet apart. If the roof 
is to be tiled the pitch is flat, and besides, 3 by 2 inch ifil purlines, 
light secondary rafters, are provided, spaced for the width of the 
tile. Beneath the roof rafters are provided, spaced for the width of 
several rooms which are usually ceiled with dugdug planks often 
rather carelessly matched. After the frame is completed the masons 
begin to lay up the walls in a kind of concrete, made by placing 
coral boulders in a mortar of the native lime and beach sand. 

The walls are made 18 to 24 inches thick from the foundation 
to the floor and 14 to 20 inches above and, when dried, smoothed by 
a coating of lime plaster. If properly protected from the hard rains 
until thoroughly seasoned, this wall has considerable strength, though 
no more perhaps than sun-baked adobe. The entrance to the house 
IS usually from the rear, by way of steps leading to the terrace con- 
necting the house and kitchen. The latter is always in a small de- 
tached building. Windows are usually closed by solid wooden 
shutters, provided also with sliding shutters. ^ 

Besides the small skill required in house building, the native 
mason possesses the ability to do first-rate stonework. The old 
S])anish arch bridges, still defying storms and earthquakes, are good 
testimonials to their handiwork. 

Plank houses are formed on the siime plan, but lighter than the 
stone houses. They never use tile for roofing on account of the 
weight. Thatch is preferred, though the American practice of using 
galvanized corrugated iron is gaining favor among those who can 
afford it. The bamboo houses are framed, floored, and sided with 
bamboo fastened by strips of nipa or " pago " bark. The siding is 
prepared by making numerous alternate longitudinal slits in a sec- 
tion of bamboo in such a manner that it may be opened out, forming 
flexible slatting. A house of this sort is erected and roofed in one 
day, and the occasion is made a lively one. All the neighbors are 
invited to assist, and with laughter, songs, and jokes, aided by a good 
dinner, they make short work of the building. 

The shoemakers tan their own leather, by the aid of the tannin 
in the bark of the camachili tree, and carry it through every opera- 
tion to the finest shoe, machete belt, or harness strap. The heelless 



THE ISLAND OP GUAM. 73 

slipper, crudely made and of coarse material, is their coiimionest 
product, although a few can turn out finished work. 

The native silversmith does remarknbly good work when his mate- 
rials, tools, and lack of training are taken into consideration. His 
crude material is the Mexican dollar, which he melts and hammei-s 
and saws into knives, forks, spoons, bracelets, belt buckles, silver- 
mounted coconut glasses, chains, and a variety of useful articles, as 
well as other novelties. 

The Chamorro blacksmith has little knowledge of tempering and 
makes a poor shift at forging. His best woik is shown in the manu- 
facture of machetes from steel s^crap. When the silversmith and the 
blacksmith work together, a very good weapon is turned out, with 
a well balanced blade anil a carabao horn handle inlaid with silver 
devices. 

Some of the women sew welt, and there is scarcely a household 
that does not boast of a little hand sewing machine, which they 
treasure above everything else that thev own. They have infinite 
patience and will spend a year on one piece of intricate embroidery, 
but they can not hurry over any sort of work. They can copy any- 
thing, and are very apt in making things for their homes instead 
of sending to Manila or Japan for them. For instance, they have 
been known to spend a year or more in making Ince curtains by cov- 
ering net with designs of flowers and fancy stitchings. The women 
are also expert in making baskets of plaited grass, as well as in the 
manufacture of straw hats, baskets, and floor mats. 

The islanders are very devout Roman Catholics, and the influence 
of the priests of that church has always been very great and guides 
the Chamorro in all the iuiportant acts of his life. The island chnrch 
was until a recent period under the authority of the Bishop of 
Cebu, but that city being 1,500 miles away and means of communica- 
tion extremely rare, this part of his diocese was practically never 
visited by him. The venerable Padre Jose Palomo. a native priest 
of Agana, who on the occasion of his golden jubilee in 1909 was 
created monsignor by the Pope, was for many years the ^-icar of the 
bishop, with authority, under special papal dispensation, to perform 
the rites of confirmation and such other duties as are usually assigned 
to the bishop. 

After the Augustinian friars left the island the missionary work 
was continued by Padre Palomo. aided by some Oapuchinp from the 
Carolines. In 1908 a German Capuchin was sent out from Germany 
as apostolic prefect of the Marianas, with headquarters at Saipan. 
He paid many visits to Agana, but the people of Guam did not look 
with favor on the substitution of German for the Spanish Capuchins 
who had faithfully served them since their arrival in 1902. They 
resented, also, the apjiarent relegation to a subordinate position of 
their beloved parish priest. Pad 
expulsion of the Augustinian : 
arrival of the Spani^ Capuchi 
unassisted, in spite of his years, 
up to by the natives and foreigr 
cation, untarnished reputation, | 
among his people for progress 



74 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

ideas. His assistance along these lines has been appreciated by suc- 
cessive governors, all of whom speak most highly oi him. 

In 1911 an apostolic vicar, titular bishop, was designated to the 
Marianas from the same Spanish Capuchin order, and the Agana 
Church was chosen as his cathedral. 

Besides the "cathedral" in Agana, already described, there are 
churches in Sumay, Agat, Umatac, Merizo, and Inarajan and chapels 
in Sinajana, Anigua, Asan, and Piti, most of them built of mam- 
posteria and in the style of Mexican and California monasteries. 
All through the island are found shrines and rude crosses, often 
placed to commemorate some event in the history of early mission- 
aries but at times merely to remind the traveler of his religious 
duties. N^ 

As in all Spanish countries, fiestas or feast days occur with aston- 
ishing frequency, and every native feels it incumbent upon himself 
«nd family to attend the services held at the cathedral and then 
devote the rest of the day to pleasure. A prolonged ringing of the 
church bells at noon of the day preceding the fiesta warns those who 
might possibly have forgotten the coming event. The "number of 
these days has greatly decreased since the American occupation. 
The first naval government abolished all public celebrations of the 
feast days of patron saints of villages and ordered that only the 
holidays authorized by the United States laws be observed. This 
drastic law was, however, modified a year later so as to permit the 
public celebration of feast days by special permit of the governor, 
the same not to be construed as giving this day the character of a 
public holiday. 

One of the principal feast days is that of Corpus Christi, cele- 
brated with a great parade, when nearly every able-bodied man, 
woman, and child in the island is in line; it is a spectacle to be re- 
membered to see 5,000 persons, dressed in the liveliest of holiday cos- 
tumes, bearing candles, images, crosses, and banners, parading 
through the streets of Agana, halting for a short service before each 
of the four temporary and highly decorated booths, called " ranchos," 
erected in the several quarters of the town by the devout inhabitants. 

Good Friday is celebrated with the largest procession of the year. 
The second Sunday after Easter, the " Promesa " in fulfillment of a 
vow made after the earthquake in 1858, is also a processional day. To 
the omission to parade on that day in 1900 many lay the disastrous 
typhoon of that autumn. 

On nine days of the school year beside the national holidays the 
attendance of children is not compulsory in the public schools, and 
none fail to take advantage of this privilege, most naturally, as child 
nature is the same all over the world, although the children of Guam 
are, as a rule, very fond of their schools. 

Until March, 1910, the American Board of Missions maintained a 
Congregational missionary in Agana, but has withdrawn its repre- 
sentation. Previous to the withdrawal, the Right Rev. C. H. Brent, 
missionary bishop of the Philippines, paid a visit to Guam to look 
over the field, but his decision was unfavorable to establishing a mis- 
sion by the Episcopal Church. 

A Baptist congregation of about 100 has recently been formed and 
is in a thriving condition. Some of the members of this church are 



THE ISLAND OP GTJAM. 75 

drawn from the American colony but a large majority are Cha- 
morros. The pastor in charge is sent out by the Baptist Board of 
Missions. 

Ever since the advent of the early missionaries schools have been 
maintained in every town and village of the island, while in Agana 
was the College of San Juan de Letran, founded by Queen Maria 
Ana de Austria in 1668 and endowed from her private fortune with 
an annual income of 3,000 pesos. Unfortunately, this sum gradually 
dwindled through misappropriation and dishonesty until the annual 
income of the college shrank to barely enough to pay one teacher. 
Naturally, with the American occupation it ceased entirely. 

The college does not seem to have been popular with the Spanish 
governors, many of whom disapproved of the higher education of 
the natives, being quite content with the course which, at the period, 
was outlined to consist of instruction in " music and primary letters," 
and in giving a few boys sufficient instruction to serve as acolytes for 
the priests. 

One governor suggested to the captain general that the college be 
abolished and that the funds be applied to "general education, to 
repairs and ornaments of the churches, and to the improvement of 
Government buildings and priests' residences on the island." He 
also recommended that the schoolhouse be converted into an inn or 
great house for the entertainment of strangers, and that the fixed 
income therefrom be applied to Government purposes. 

The pupils, it was asserted, were injured rather than benefited by 
their education and rendered unfit for future usefulness. On enter- 
ing the college they soon forgot the misery and poverty of their 
homes, and during their stay of five or six years became accustomed 
to good food, clothing, and lodging, without learning any trade by 
which they might afterwards earn a living and without forming 
habits of industry. The discipline was declared to be bad, and every- 
thing tended to make the students incompetent to earn their living, 
discontented with their lot, and, the more quick-witted among them, 
thorns in the side of the governor, who was often obliged to impose 
" correctional punishment " upon them. 

Another govei'nor recommended that the education of the natives 
be limited to the merest rudiments, to avoid their acquiring a super- 
ficial knowledge of the more advanced branches of learning, which 
would lead to pretensions on their part to be men of education. 
Such persons, he declared, gave more trouble to the authorities than 
any other class and were a disturbing element among the natives. 
In spite of these recommendations, however, the captain general at 
Manila did not see fit to divert the fund from its original object. 

From these and other extracts from the archives it is easily seen 
that the Spanish governors of the island of Guam discouraged the 
higher education of the natives, not because they thought them 
incapable of receiving it, but because they believed they would be 
more tractable if they remained ignorant. 

The village schools appear to have been of small account when 
judged by our standard, but were vastly better than no schools at 
all. As a result of their work the majority of the people could read 
and write a little Spanish. In later years a free-school system was 
maintained by liberal appropriation and shortly after the change of 



76 THE 'ISLAND OF GUAM. 

sovereignty an attempt was made to continue the old Spanish school 
system, for a want of better, mider American administration. A 
family of American teachers was brought out to Agana in 1901, 
Hnd organized the school system on American lines, but, after a year, 
it was foimd that the revenues of the island were not sufficient to 
permit of this added expense, and all efforts to obtain Federal aid 
having failed, the teachers returned to the United States. 

As at present organized a naval officer is head of the department 
of education, with a superintendent of public instruction as adminis- 
trative officer. Through the liberality of the Navy Department a 
number of Federal employees have been allotted to the naval station, 
it being understood that their duties will comprise, for part of the 
time, teaching in the public schools. They are assigned to the more 
important schools and classes. The remaining teachers are natives 
educated in the public schools. The latter are naturally kicking in 
correct methods and their pronunciation in many cases is open to 
criticism, but they are faithful and zealous in their work. All are 
compelled to attend a normal school, the faculty of which consists 
of naval officers and American teachers, and in a few years it is 
expected that they will be as well equipped as most of the country 
common-school teachers of the United States. Licenses to teach in 
the public schools are req|aired. The qualifications for licenses are 
about the same as for third-grade licenses in the Middle Western 
States. 

The laws require compulsory attendance at the public schools of all 
children between the ages of 7 and 12. As a rule only half-day ses- 
sions for each sex are practicable, both on account of the prejudices 
of the people and on account of the lack of school room. There are 
at present over 2,000 school children in Guam and nearly all school 
buildings are overcrowded. New school buildings are being con- 
structed as rapidly as the meager funds of the government of the 
island will permit. At present (1916) there are, outside of Agana, 
seven village and four rural schools. In general, two teachers are 
assigned to each village school and only one to each rural school. 
Three teachers are employed at the grammar school at Agana and 
10 in the other citv schools. 

The instruction given in the primary grades is elementary, the 
purpose being to ^ve the children a practical working knowledge 
of every-day English and the rudiments of arithmetic. The course 
. in the grammar school embraces English grammar, geography. 
United States history, and more advanced arithmetic. Children be- 
yond the age limit of compulsory attends nee may continue in the 
schools on applicatton. 

A limited number of boys l)etween the ages of 14 and 20 are ac- 
cepted as apprentices for the several trades — oarpentei's, machinists, 
blacksmiths, harness makers, and gardeners. 

As a rule the children are fond of school and make fair progress, 
although their natural shyness militat^es ajjainst their ap])lying prac- 
tically the knowledge acquired, especially when addressed by 
strangers or those in official positions: Questions which, in the school- 
room would be answered without hesitation, are apparently beyond 
their understanding when put to them on the street or elsewhere, but 
: a little patience and kindness of manner usually result in a satis- 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 77 

factory, if diffident reply: Until quite recently the children at the 
close of school walked sedately homeward, the little girls carrying 
their absurd, long trains in hand or sweeping the streets with them, 
but since an order went into effect compelling the shortening of 
dresses for school wear, new life seems to have come with the 
greater freedom of movement, and running games and games of 
ball — in which a green orange or lime serves as the ball and a piece of 
bamboo as the bat — are vigorously played by the girls as well as by 
the boys. 

XIII. GOVEBNMENT FAST AND PRESENT, GOTXBTS AND LAWS. 

Under Spanish administration, the Marianas were governed by an 
appointee of the Crown, almost invariably an army officer. The 
governor, from the time of the Spanish occupation until 1821, the 
year of Mexiciin independence, was subordinate to the viceroy of 
'Mexico ; after that date, to the governor general, or " adelantado 
mayor " of the Philippines. The code of laws in force was, like that 
of all Spanisli over-sea possessions, based on the code used in the 
mother country, adapted to fit the peculiar needs of the colony. 
Guam, as the largest of the group, was the seat of government, and 
Agana was the capital city and residence of the governor. Before 
the destruction of the forts and palace by earthquake, Umatac was 
used as a capital during the months of the southwest monsoon. 

The go\'enior was assisted by a secretary and an aide, both of 
which offices were frequently combined in the same person. This aide 
was also an officer of the army. The insular officers consisted of a 
treasurer, who was always a Spaniard, and an auditor or "inter- 
ventorr' a chief of public works, whose duties were sometimes filled 
by the aide ; a judge of the cx)urt of first instance, usually a Spaniard, 
but once a Filipino lawyer ; and a health officer, customarily an officer 
of the army. 

The powers of the executive were limited. Besides his subordina- 
tion to the Philippine government, he was also bonded in the in- 
terests of the islands, and his conduct and policy were examined at 
the close of his term by a traveling judge. The treasurer had custody 
of all moneys belonging to the government, derived from taxes, fines, 
and licenses. There was no Crown appropriation for the Marianas, 
and no import or customs other than port charges. He was strictly 
governed in his disbursements by the budget prepared annually in 
Madrid for the Pacific Islands; and beyond these sums, he dared not 
go. No payments of any sort could be made by him without the 
cognizance and countersignature of the interventor. The chief of 
public works had control of the distribution of personal tax labor, 
and the application, though not the disbursement,' of such sums as 
were designated for public works. The judge of the couil of first 
instance presided over that court, and was the highest judicial author- 
ity of the islands. Capital sentences required the review and ap- 
proval of 'the court of appeals in Manila and supreme court in Spain 
before being executed. The commonwealth's attorney and the regis- 
trar of lands were usually appointed from among the natives. 

The present goveniment of Guam, with the exception perhaps of 



American Samoa, is unique under the supreme authority of the 
Ignited States. The governor is the only duly appqij^i^ and com- 




78 THE ISLAND OP GUAM. 

missioned officer. All officers, judicial and. executive, are subordinate 
to him and are appointed and removed at his pleasure. The governor 
is the only legislative power. He administers the island by virtue of 
a commission from the President of the United States and is, in 
theory at least, responsible only to the President in the latter's ca- 
pacity as Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United 
States. 

By virtue of the treaty of Paris, which terminated the Spanish- 
American War, the status of Guam was assimilated to that of the 
other territory acquired from Spain. The civil status and political 
rights of the inhabitants were specifically reserved, to be determined 
by the Congress of the United States. So far Congress has in gen- 
eral failed to legislate concerning Guam ; and the inhabitants there- 
fore are still, so far as civil status and political rights are concerned, 
under the common law of Spain, or at least of the Spanish law as it 
existed in 1898. 

The following extracts from various decisions of Attorney Gen- 
erals of the United States are of interest regarding the peculiar po- 
litical status of Guam : 

The political status of these islands is anomalous. Neither the Constitution 
nor the laws of the United States have been extended to them, and the only 
administrative authority existing in them is that derived mediately or immedi- 
ately from the President as Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the 
United States. 

On December 23, 1898, the President placed the island of Guam under the 
control of the Department of the Navy, with directions that the Secretary *' wiU 
take such steps as may be necessary to establish the authority of the United 
States and to give it necessary protection and government " ; and in pursuance 
of the authority thus conferred, the then Secretary appointed a naval officer 
as ** naval governor of the island of Guam," this duty being in addition to your 
(his) duty as commander of a division of the Asiatic Fleet. 

Congress has not yet extended the laws of the United States relating to entry, 
clearance, and manifests of steamships, and other similar laws, to Guam. 

Guam is an unorganized territory of small extent, concerning which Con- 
gress has abstained from legislating almost wholly ; and I do not think, in 
view of this inaction of the legislative body, that we should search among old 
statutes for fragments of law which we can, by construction, apply to the 
island. Congress will doubtless at the proper time take up the subject and 
legislate for Guam, either by special laws fitted to its situation and condition or 
by extending to it, as it did in the case of Alaska, Porto Rico, and Hawaii, the 
general laws of the United States not locally inapplicable. 

Within the absolute domain of naval authority, which necessarily is aiKl 
must remain supreme in the ceded territory until legislation of the United 
States shall otherwise provide, the municipal laws of the territory in rosnect 
to private rights and property and the repression of crime are to be consid- 
ered as continuing in force and to be administered by the ordinary tribunals 
as far as practicable. The operations of civil and municipal government are 
to be performed by^ such officers as may accept the supremacy of the United 
States by taking the oath of allegiance, or by officers chosen, as far as may 
be practicable, from the inhabitants of the island. 

These instructions seem not to have been superseded in June and July, 1900. 

Their recognition of the continuance In force of the municipal laws of the 
territory was not intended as more than a recognition of what would have been 
presumed Ih the absence of instructions, and can not be regarded as intended 
to deny the power of the governor to alter the laws. They were continued in 
force as to the inhabitants among themselves, but not to control the governor ; 
that Is to say, the government Itself. His power as a military governor was 
intended to be plenary. He had authority to do what the exigencies of military 
government required, and hold the supreme legislative, executive, and judicial 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 79 

authority of the island. At that time, In that distant and little-known island, 
the President could not do otherwise than leave him a large discretion, and his 
acts should not be held void upon strictly technical reasons. 

The official title of the government of the island is the " naval gov- 
ernment of Guam-," and the title of the chief executive is the " gov- 
ernor." The governor is also commandant of the naval station. The 
entire island was made a naval station at the time it was turned over 
to the Navy Department. This step was necessary in order to com- 
ply with certain laws regarding expenditures from the United States 
Treasury. As a matter of fact, only a very small portion of the 
island is actually used by the Federal Government. Its status as a 
naval station does not, in general, affect in any way the residents 
other than the members of the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps. 
From time to time, as the complexity of the government increased, 
new offices have been established, until the organization at present 
is very similar to that of a county in the United States. The names 
of the officers, in general, are the same as those of the average Amer- 
ican county, with a few exceptions. For administrative provision 
the island is divided into six districts, namely, Agana, Yona, Agat, 
Sumay, Merizo, and Inarajan. These districts are each in charge 
of a commissioner. Where necessary, an assistant or deputy com- 
missioner is appointed to assist the commissioner. Their duties are 
not exactly the same as the commissioners of townships in the United 
States, but they are in many ways similar. 

The highest court of law in the island is the court of appeals, con- 
sisting of a chief justice and two associate justices. The trial court 
is known as the island court, and is presided over by a judge who is 
a native of the island. Minor offenses are punished by police court, 
also presided over by a native judge. In addition to these, there is a 
court for the trial of equity cases, presided over by an officer of the 
naval service. 

The following-named codes of laws and procedure, as amended by 
Executive, general, and special orders issued from time to time, are 
in force in Guam : 

Translation of the mortj^age law for Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Philippines 
(1893). 

Translation of the penal code in force in Philippines (act No. 190 of the Phil- 
ippine Commission, entitled '*An act providing a code of procedure in civil 
actions and special proceedings in the Philippine Islands"). 

Translation of the code of commerce in force in Cuba, Porto Rico, and the 
Philippines, as amended by the law of June 10, 1897, including the commercial 
registry regulations, exchange regulations, and other provisions of a similar 
character, with annotations and appendices. 

Translation, compilation of the organic provisicms of the administration of 
justice in force in the Spanish colonial provin(es and appendices relating 
thereto (1891). 

The police force of Guam consists of a chief of police, who is gen- 
erally an officer of the Marine Corps, assisted by a sergeant and 
corporal and 8 to 10 privates of marmes, known as " insular patrol- 
men," These last named are stationed at various points throughout 
the island for the purpose of enforcing the laws and educating the 
people in matters of sanitation, agriculture, and forestry. In addi- 
tion, a native force consisting of 1 sergeant and 10 policemen is 
maintained, principally, for police supervision o^ * ^^^^^ ji^d its 
suburbs. 




80 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

All matters of sanitation, hygiene, and quarantine are under the 
control of the senior medical officer attached to the naval station, 
who has, besides the pharmacist's mates, certain native sanitary in- 
spectors detailed to assist him. 

Besides the officers and men of the Begular Navy and Marine 
Corps assigned to duty in the island, a native force of about 40 
men regularly enlisted and under command of a warrant officer 
of the Navy are stationed at Piti. They man the station craft, 
have general care of the naval facilities at Piti and in Apra Harbor, 
and assist in tlie discharge of freight from Army transports and 
other vessels visiting Apra Harbor. 

In addition to the above the station ship (the U. S. S. Supply) 
when not absent on her commercial or health trips, is generally 
moored in Apra Harbor and her crew assist in maintenance of aids 
to navigation and moorings. 

The marine detachment assigned to Guam is stationed at present 
at four or five diflFerent localities where their services are most nec- 
essary. The officers and their families live generally in Agana or 
Sumay. The families of other officers and enlisted men of tlie Navy, 
including the American civil employees, usually reside in Agana, 
although a few live in Piti and Sumay. 

XIV. REVENUES, PBODUCTS, IMPORTS, AND EXPORTS. 

The commercial needs of Guam are served by the Army transports, 
which stop on their westerly trips to the Philippines ; by the station 
ship, which makes frequent trips for the purpose of conveying 
freight and passengers to and from Manila and other points in the 
Orient; by a line of sailing vessels under the manfigement of the 
firm of Atkins, KroU & Co., which sail at more or less regular inter- 
vals from San Francisco, and by another line of small Japanese 
sailing vessels under the management of the firm of J. >K. Shiraizu 
& Co., which ply between Guam and Yokohama. Statistics of the 
foreign commerce of the island for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1916, are given below : 

Imports fro Ill- 
Japan $29,557.98 

China 1, 47.3. 33 

(Jrejit Hritniu 2,142.78 

Germany 44. 00 

Philiijpine Islands 45, 262. 15 

Hawaiian Islands 24, 310. 14 

T^nltod States 226,712.85 

Total 329,503.23 

Exports to — 

Japan 30,748.95 

Philippine Islands 385. 10 

United States 34, 766. 37 

Other countries 667. 78 

Total ^_ 66 ,568. 20 

The above does not include material imported by the United States 
Government for the needs of the naval and militarv forces stationed 
in Guam. 



s 

I 



THE ISLAND OP GUAM. 81 

The principal Guam product exported was . copra, of which 
958,958 pounds was shipped to Japan and 982,610 pounds to the 
United States. The island at present produces very little toward the 
support of the Naval Establishment. As the whole military and 
naval forces of Guam may be considered as nonproductive, and as 
they constitute by far the greatest purchasing class, their presence 
operates to increase the balance of trade against Guam. 

Due to the lack of adeauate transportation facilities which followed 
the closing of the port or Apra to foreign vessels, the trade of Guam 
has steaduy decreased so far as products of its own soil are con- 
cerned. For many years the island has not been self-supporting. It 
is believed that it could be made so, and the efforts of the government 
are directed toward this end. 

Besides copra there are many articles of produce which have proved 
successful in Guam in the past and need only a market to establish 
themselves. These articles are as follows : 

Cacao of excellent quality has been raised and commanded good 
prices in the Manila market. This article could be raised in sufficient 
quantity to supply the local demand and to export at least 50 tons 
annually. 

Coffee of good quality grows all over the island in groves of fair 
size. In the past this coffee commanded a higher price in Manila 
than the Mindanao product. The possible export is not less than 
75 tons annuallv. 

Sugar cane has been grown in Guam, but has never proved a suc- 
cess in the manufacture of sugar on account of the shallowness of 
the soil. However, it has been found excellent for the distillation 
of rum and alcohol. This industry, formerly of comparatively re- 
spectable size, has been entirely abandoned. 

Other articles which have never been made the subject of export 
but for which there are large possibilities in the line of production 
for market are : 

Pineapples. This fruit is planted in very small quantities ih 
Guam and is not in sufficient abundance to fill the local demand. 
It has been found, however, to grow well in all parts of the island 
and is of very superior flavor. Those who have eaten Guam pine- 
apples consider them sweeter and better than the Hawaiian article. 

Tabasco peppers. Never cultivated for market in recent times, 
but used by the natives. These peppers grow wild in great profusion 
along the roads and trails all over the island. The peppers are of 
large size and excellent flavor. A sample submitted to a seed mer- 
chant in the United States was declared by him to be unusually fine. 
Tons of these peppers could be gathered annually. 

Cotton of several varieties grows largely uncultivated in Guam. 
Egyptian cotton of fine quality has been grown successfully. Bush 
cotton grows wild in large quantities; the shrubs attain a height of 
about 8 feet. They bear perennially, a single bush bearing buds, 
blossoms, green and ripe bolls at the same time. The bolls are round, 
about 2 inches in diameter, and the fiber is soft, about 7 inches in 
length. Dwarf cotton is also found in small quantities, and the 
shrub grows about 18 inches in height; the bolls are small and the 
fiber short 

70238—17 G 



82 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

In addition to the above, kapok trees are found all over Guam. 
These trees attain a height of from 60 to 70 feet, bearing annually. 
The bolls are large, and the fiber, about 5 inches in length, is fine 
and silky. At present the trees are so widely scattered that the 
expense "of gathering the pods is greater than the market value of 
the fiber. 

Vegetable ivory (marble palm) grows in fair quantity and large 
size. 

Trepang exists on all the beaches and reefs in limitless amounts. 

Dugdug, a variety of the breadfruit tree, grows in profusion over 
the entire island. The sap of this tree has been found to contain 
18 per cent of rubber, but it is not known whether it is of quality 
sufficient to make it of commercial importance. 

Produce which is raised for the local market comprises rice, com, 
garden vegetables, alligator pears, mangoes, oranges, limes, papayas, 
tobacco, etc. Production of these articles at present is not sufficient 
to fill local demand. . 

Poultry raising is done on a small scale, but is difficult on account 
of rats and iguanas, which overrun the entire island. 

The total receipts of the government during the fiscal year 1916 
were $91,816.40, of which the principal sources were as follows : 

Taxes $15, 270. 24 

Licenses and fees (excluding excise) 10,171.87 

Fines and court fees 8, 081. 75 

Excise 9, 657. 45 

Customs (including liquors) 7,997.00 

Receipts from sales of electricity, water, ice, etc 33, 967. 53 

The ordinary expenditures were : 

Agriculture 5, 153. 42 

Customs 1, 044. 17 

Executive 13, 075. 14 

Civil registry 885. 36 

Education 8, 354. 46 

.Judiciary 6, 022. 91 

Police 4, 887. 88 

Public works ^ 21, 429. 60 

Treasury 1, 826. 80 

Maintenance of municipal and government undertak- 
ings (principally ice plant, water system, electrical 

plant, government farm, etc.) 24,379.18 

Total ordinary expenditures 87,058.92 

Excess of receipts over ordinary expenditures 4, 757. 48 

XV. MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION FOB VISITORS AND PROS- 
PECTIVE SETTLERS. 

The harbor of Apra, which is the port at which ships call, is un- 
improved. While large and commodious, the depth of water, many 
shoals, and absence of breakwaters make it insecure during typhoons. 
At present ships either moor to buoys or anchor some 2 miles from 
Piti. Passengers and freight are ferried through a shallow channel 
dredged across the reefs from deep water to the landing. 

At Piti several automobiles or other conveyances for hire at mod- 
erate rates by the trip or by the hour may always be found. 



Si 



THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 83 

There are no hotels in Ouam, but meals may be obtained at the 
Civil Club or at the Officers' Club in Agana. The Agana Lodge of 
Elks has a very large clubhouse, and members of this order are 
always welcome at the clubrooms. 

In general, officers or others coming to Guam are taken to some 
private home until permanent lodgings can be obtained. A few per- 
sons can be accommodated at the Officers' Club, but with this excep- 
tion no beds can be obtained. 

The number of houses built or equipped in American fashion is 
never equal to the demand, and it will generally be found necessary 
to rent some native house and refit and refurnish it to make it habit- 
able for Americans or Europeans. On account of the scarcity, both 
of desirable houses and of good household servants, it is strongly 
recommended that persons coming to Guam write or cable in advance 
of the arrival of the transport to some friend with request that 
arrangements for house and servants be made. 

Outside of Agana living conditions are of course much less com- 
fortable, and a great deal of readjustment will generally be found 
necessary. There are no Government quarters except for the gov- 
ernor, the commanding officer of marines, and the beachmaster at 
Piti. There are no quarters for married enlisted men. 

There are no furniture stores, properly speaking, in Guam; and 
while there are facilities for manufacturing nearly ail kinds of heavy 
furniture, no stock is kept on hand, and settlers are strongly recom- 
mended to bring with them a complete outfit of kitchen, bedroom, 
dining-room, and sitting-room furniture. Houses of over five rooms 
are not obtainable in Guam, and furniture for larger houses will not 
be found necessary. On no account should a small kitchen range 
and a refrigerator be omitted from the furniture brought out to 
Guam. At the present time electrical appliances are of little use, as 
the supply of electric current is limited and power is not available 
to private consumers except during the evening hours. The voltage 
of the electric plant is 250, direct current. 

On account of the climate, only the very lightest of summer cloth- 
ing is ever worn, but due to the rapid cooling off during the evening 
hours blankets may sometimes be found very useful. Linen and 
cotton clothing should be brought rather than silk or other fabrics 
which are much more liable to attack by insects and mildew. Canvas 
shoes or low-q^uarter oxfords are generally worn, although a pair of 
heavy-soled high shoes are necessary for use in tramping through 
the bush or walking in the country. There are several good tailors 
and a few dressmakers whose prices are very much lower than in the 
United States. The price oi cloth and dress goods is of course 
much higher in Guam than in the United States. 

The cost of living is in general higher than in the United States 
on account of the high cost of foodstuffs, most of which are imported 
from the United States or foreign countries. The privileges of pur- 
chasing supplies from the Government commissary, including the 
cold storage, is granted to all Federal Government employees and, 
in a limited degree, to all Americans residing in Guam. 

A knc^jvledge of Spanish is unnecessary, as only about 5 per cent 
of the population can speak it, and a much larger number speak 



84 T4fE I8I-AJfU OJ- GUAM, 

English. T1k» lai^gufige of the people is Chauiaioro, one of the Poly- 
nesiaii toiigijei>, 

Autoiuobile^ qi niotr^rcycles, while not ubb<;Uitely necesssiiT, are 
very desirable in (iiiam on account of the lack of public transporta- 
tion facilities and th^ great distances between various scenes of 
activity* Tt is recommended that pei*sons coming to Guam bring 
with them a light automobile or motorcycle with side car. Stockg oi 
gasoline and tires and spare parts for the more popular types of 
ught cars are carried by private dealers in Guam. Bepair facilities 
are gooxl. Xative chnuffeiirs are available and may be hired for a 
verv' moderate com])ensation. 

Health conditions in Guam are good. I^eprosy existed in the inland 
until the last few years. Since the lepers were recluded at Culion, 
P. I., a sporadic case occurs now^ and then among the natives. The 
diseases Known as yaws and gangosa occur among the natives, b\it 
are now all under obsei-vation, and these diseases readily respond to 
a specific treatment. 

Some foiTOs of tropical dysentery cccur from time to time, and it 
is necessary to exercise reasonable care in eating. Drinking water 
should be boiled. A limited supply of distilled water is available at 
Agana. 

Many varieties of intestinal parasites infest Gu^m, including 
TTncinariasis (hookworms). Most residents of Guam, especially 
children, bt'.comp infected with one or more kinds after a time, but 
the treatment is effective. 

All medical treatment is administered by the medical officers of the 
United States Navy. 

Malaria, yellow fever, ])lague, cholera, and other common fatal 
diseases of the Tropics are unknown in Guam. 

The insuhtr g<)vernment operates a bank, known as Urn Bank of 
Guam. This bank maintains both a creneral banking and a savings 
department. Money may be remitted through it by check or cable. 
No other similar institution exists in Guam. The bank's representa- 
tive in the Ignited States is the Wells Fnrgo Nevada National Bank 
of San Francisco, Cal. 

The insular government also publishers at Agana, monthly, a semi- 
official })eriodical called the Guam News Letter. The subscription 
price of this publication is $1.00 per annum. Besides chronicling 
the news happenings, tliis j)aper contains much varied information 
about Guan). 

The public lands of Guam are about 67,200 acres in extent, about 
83,()00 of which are at present leased and more or less under cultiva- 
tiou. Tt is mostly timberhmd and savanna, and a fair portion of it is 
fertile. However, Guam is not a good place for prospective settlers 
and home seekers, for the following reason^s: 

As almost every native of the island owns land or has a plot leased 
from the government, it is difficult to locate tracts of sufficiei^t si«e 
to appeal to, settlers in good land. 

The rapidity of jungle growth over most of the island makes con- 
stant clearing ue^jessary, and renders it impossible for one man to 
c^re properly for more than a small patch ; and it is almost inapoesible 
to hire farm laborers. • The natives when not employed as laborers 



THE ISLAND Ot GUAM. 85 

on roads or other public works, have all small ranches of their own 
to which they devote their attention. 

The shallowness of the soil (an average of 12 to 18 inches only 
down to the casajo) makes scientific farming, as Americans under- 
stand itj out of the question. 

A native considers himself prosperous, and really is so, under 
conditions which would barely permit a settler to live. A native who 
can obtain a diet of vegetables for himself and his family, two or 
three new suits of blue denim or white drill in a year, and $50 cash 
annually considers himself very well oflf indeed. He is satisfied with 
a hut oJ woven bamboo and palm leaves, without sanitary arrange- 
ments, without water beyond what he carries home on his shoulder 
in a long bamboo, with a pile of stones under a thatched lean-to for 
a kitchen, and a constant war against the vermin and insects that 
mutilate or destroy a large part of his crop. 

The native population is increasing, but is not beginning to turn 
again to agriculture as its main support. Owing to the cheapness of 
their mode of life, the native ranchers caji aflford to and will sell 
their products at prices which would bankrupt, a white man who was 
depending upon his ranch for his entire sustenance. 

Government land in Guam can be acquired by lease for a definite 
period, but is subject to withdrawal at any time when it may be 
needed for government purposes. 



I 



r 



APPENDIX. 



1. INTEBESTING DOCTTMENT. 

A quaint document in tlie possession of Mr. Jos6 Herrero of Agana, is worth 
insertion here. It is entitled " Victims sacrificed by the natives of the Marianas 
Islands because of their propagation of the holy Catholic faith among them." 
and is as follows : 

JSLAJSD OF GTJAli. 

Jo86 de Peralta, killed in the hills, September, 1671. 

Diego Bazan, a native of Mexico, in Ohochogo, March 31, 1672. 

Manuel Vangel, a Spaniard, in Chochogo, March 31, 1672. 

Nicolas de Figueroa, in Ypao,*March 31, 1672. 

Damian Berpol, in Tumon, March 31, 1672. 

Manuel de Nava, in Guae, March 31, 1672. 

Diego Luis de Sanvitores, Jesuit priest, a native of Burgos, 45 years old, 
and his servant Calasor, a Visayan, killed in Tumon, Saturday, April 2, 1672. 
between 7 and 8 in the morning. 

Francisco Esguerra, .Jesuit priest, native of Manila, 30 years of age; D. 
Luis de Vera Pizarro, merchant, of Manilla; Sebastian de Rivera, soldier, ol 
Manila; Matfas de Segura, soldier, of the town of Los Angeles; Pedro Alego, 
soldier; Matlas Altamurano, soldier of Guam, killed at 1 o'clock on the road 
between Gati and Tufana, on their arrival in Sagua, 2d February, 1674. 
, Pedro Diaz, Jesuit brother, of Talavera ; Corp. D. Isidro de Leon, of Seville ; 
Nicolas de Espinosa, soldier, of Mexico, in Ritidian, December 9, 1675. 

Antonio M. de San Basilio, Jesuit priest, January, 1676. 

A soldier killed in October, 1676. 

Sebastian de Monroy, Jesuit priest, of Andalucia; Lieut. Gov. D. Nicolas 
Rodriguez Carbajal, of Austria ; Santiago de Rutia, soldier, of Mexico ; Juan de 
los Reyes, soldier, of Pampanga; Alonzo de Aguilar, soldier of Los Angeles; 
Jos6 Lopez, soldier, of Quer^taro ; Antonio Perea, soldier, of Guernavaca ; 
Antonio de Vera, soldier, of Cholula, in the sea before Sumay, October 6, 1676. 

Forty or fifty Spanish soldiers killed in the plaza and streets of Agana; 
and Manuel Solariano, Jesuit priest, native of Estremadura; and Baltazar 
Dubois, Jesuit brother, of Flanders, killed in the college, Sunday, July 23, 
1684. 

Teofllo de Angeles, Jesuit priest, 33 years, of Trlana, killed in Ritidian, Julv 
24, 1684. 

ISLAND OF ROTA. 

Carlos Boranga, Jesuit priest, born in Vienna, killed in Agor, October, 1684. 

ISLAND OF TINIAN. 

Agustin Strobach, Jesuit priest, native of Moravia, and 18 Spanish soldiers, 
names unknown, in August, 1684. 

IN SAIPAN. 

Serjrt. Lorenzo Castellanos, a Spaniard ; Gabriel de la Cruz, of Manila, soldfer, 
killed AupTust 19, 1668. (First martyrs in the conversion of these islands.) 

Luis de Medina, Jesuit priest, of Malaga ; and Ypolito de la Cruz, soldier, 
a Visayan, January 29, 1670. 

Two Filipino , soldiers, in 1672. 

Two Spanish 'soldiers in 1684. 

87 



88 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

Jos4 (le Tapiu, merchant, and 20 Spanish soldiers, violently drowned off 
Saipan, September, 1684. 

Pedro Comans, Jesuit priest, 47 years of age, l£ille<l in July, 1685, the last 
of the martyrs. 

ISLAND OF A NAT A J AN. 

Companion of Father Sanvitores, horento Malabor de Morales, August, 1669. 

2. CAPTUBE OF GXTAH BY THE NAVAL FOBGES OF THE UKITBI) 

STATES. 

[June 21, 1898.] 

I 

June ^0, 21, 1808. — The following is an extract ninde from the official report 
of Capt. Glass. United States Xavy, commanding the U. S. S. Charleston, con- 
cerning the capture of this island : 

Arriving off the north end of the island at dnylight, June 20, I first visited 
the port of Agana, the capital of Guam afad of the Mariana group, and finding: 
no vessels there of any kind, proceeded to San Luis D'Apra» where it was 
expected tliat a Spanish gunboat and a military force would be fVnirit^, a rnitoor 
to that effect having reached me while at Honolulu. Arriving off the port 
at 8.30 a. m., it was found that Fort Santlago^on Oroto Point, was abandoned 
and in ruins, and I steamed directly into the harbor, having ordered the trans- 
ports to take a safe position outside and await instructions. A few .«?hots were 
fired from the secondary battery at Fort Santa Cruz to get the range and 
r.scertain if it was occupied. Getting no response, ceasetl firing and came to 
anchor in a position to control the liarbor, and it was then found that this fort 
also was abandoned. 

The only vessel in port was a small Japanese trading vessel from Yoko- 
hama. 

An officer had Just shoved off from the ship to board the Japanese vessel 
ancT obtain information as to the condition of affairs on shore, when a boat 
was seen approaching the ship, through the reefs at the howl of the h«rbor» 
flying the Spanish flag and bringing two officers, the captain of the port, a 
lieutenant commander In the Siianlsh Navy, and the health officer, a surgeon of 
the Spanish Army. These officers came on boanl, and, in answer to my ques- 
tions, told me they did not know that war had been declared between the United 
States and Snain, their last news having been from Manila, under flate of 
April 14. I informed them that war existed and that they must consider them- 
selves as prisoners. As they stated that no resistance could be made by the 
force on the island, I released them on parole for the day to proceed to Agana 
jind inform the governor that I desired him to come on board ship at once, 
Ihey assuring me that he would do so as soon as he coidd rench the port. 

While awaiting the return of these f)fficers, an oxaminntioVi was made of the 
harbor, the only dangers to navigation were buoyed, and the transports came 
in during the afternoon. 

At 5 p. m. the governor's secretary, a captain in the Spanish Army, came on 
board, bringing me a letter from the governor, in which he state<l that he was 
not allowoil by law to go on board a foreign ves.sel, and requested me to meet 
him on shore for a conference. This letter is appended, marked '*A." 

As it was then too late to land a party, from the state of the tide on the 
reef beween the ship and the landing place, T directe<l the secretary to return 
and say to the governor that I would send an officer ashore with a communica- 
tion for him early next day. 

A landing force was organized to be ready to go ashore at 8.30 a. m. next day» 
when the tide would serve, the force being composed of the marines of tlie ship, 
those sent out in the Pekin, and two companies of the Second Oregon Infantry 
Regiment, placed at my disposal by Gen. Anderson. 

At 8.30 a. m., on June 21, Lieut. William Braunersreuther was sent ashore, 
urnler a flag of truce, with a written demand for the innnediate surrender of 
the defenses of the Island of Guam and all officials and persons In the military 
service of Spain. (Copy hereto appended, marked "B.") 

Mr. Braunersreuther was directed to wait half an hour only for a reply, to 
bring the governor and other oflficials on board as prisoners of war In case of 
surrender, or in case of refusal or delay beyond the time given, to return and 
take command of the landing force, which he would find in readiness, and 
proceed to Agana. (Copy of order appended, marked **C.") 



I 



THE ISLAND OP GXTAM. 89 

t 

At 12.15 p. m. Mr. Braunersreuther returned to the ship, bringing off tlie 
governor and three other officers, his staff, and handed me a letter from the 
governor acceding fully to my demand. This letter is appended, marked " D." 
Mr. Brauner^reuther's report of his actions oo shore is appended, mailed 
** B.** Appended, marked " F," is a list of persons and propearty captured. As 
the natives are qulfet and inoffensive and thoroughly w^ll disposed, I approved 
Mr. Braunersreuther's course with regard to them after they had been disarmed. 
Having received the surrender of the Island of Guam, I took formal possession 
«t 2.45 p. m., hoisting the American flag on Fort Santa Cruz and saluting It 
>vith 21 guns from the Charleston. 

From a personal examination of Fort Santa Cruz, I decided that It was 
entirely useless as a defensive work, with no guns and In a partly ruinous con- 
dition, and that It was not necessary to expend any mines In blowing It up. 

The forts at Agana, San Luis D'Apra, and Umata are of no value, and no 
guns remain in the island except four small cast-iron guns of obsolete pattern 
at Agana, formerly used for saluting, but now condemned as unsafe even for 
that purpose. Appended, marked " G," is a plan of Fort Santa Cruz. 
No Spanish vessel of war has visited Guam during the last 18 months. 
No coal was found on the island. 

From want of berthing Space on board this ship I considered It advisable 
to send the prisoners to the Army transport Ci^y of Sydtiep, which vessel had 
ample accommodations for the officers and men, and this was done by arrange- 
ment with Brig. Gen. Anderson. (Copy of my letter appended, marked "H.") 
Appended, marked " I," Is receipt from Lieut. Commander T. S. Fhelps, jr., 
on duty on the City of Sydney, in whose charge the prisoners were placed for 
transportation to Manila. 

Having completed the duty assigned, the Charleston sailed on the 22d instant 
from San Luis D'Apra for Manila, with the transports In company. 

I would respectfully Invite the attention of the department to the officer- 
like conduct and excellent judgment displayed by Lieut. Braunersreuther in his 
discharge of the important duties intrusted to him. 

The chief engineer of the ship being ill at the time she reached Guam, I 
accepted the services of Pussed Asst. Engineer H. G. Leopold, who, on the 
probability of an engagement, volunteered for duty in charge of an engine 
room under his junior Passed Asst. Engineer McKean, acting as chief engineer. 
Going into the port of San Luis D'Apra, Mr. T. A. Hallett, third officer of 
the steamer Australia, being familiar with the place, volunteered to act as 
pilot and performed the diity efficiently. 
Very respectfully, 

Henry Glass, 
Captain, U. i<. N., Commanding. 
The Secretary of the Navy, 

Nary Department, Washington, D. C. 



A. 

[Translation.] 
[Private.] 

Government " P. M." of the Marianne Islands, 

Aga'}iay June 20, 189 8. 
Mr. Henry Glass, 

Captain of the North American Cruiser Charleston. 

By the captain of the port in which you have cast anchor I have l>een cour- 
teously requested, as a soldier, and, above all, as a gentleman, to hold a confer- 
ence with you, adding that you have advised him that war has been declared 
between our respective Nations, and that you have come for the purpose of 
occupying these Spanish Islands. 

It would give me great pleasure to comply with his request and see you per- 
sonally, but, as the military laws of my country prohibit me from going on 
board a foreign vessel, I regret to have to decline this honor and to ask that 
you will kindly come on shore, where I await you to accede to your wishes as 
far as possible, and to agree as to our mutual situations. 

Asking your pardon for the trouble I cause you, I guarantee your safe return 
to your ship. 

Very respectfully, Juan Marina. 



ud 



90 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

C. 

U. S. S. " Chabi^ston,*' 
San Luis D'Apra, Ouam Island^ Jvne 21, 189S. 

Sib: Tou will take command of a landing party composed of the marine 
guard of this ship, the marines from the steamer City of Pekin, and two com- 
panies of the Oregon Regiment of Volunteers from the steamer Auatraliaj and 
proceed to Agana, the capital of this island, for the purpose of capturing tlie 
governor of the island, other officials, and any armed force found there. 

You will bring the prisoners captured to this ship, destroying such portions 
of the defenses of Agana as practicable in the time at your disposal and sucli 
arms and military supplies as can not be conveniently brought off. 

You will see that private property is respected as far as possible, consistently 
with the duty assigned you, and will prevent any marauding by the force under 
your command. 

The greatest expedition must be used, and It Is expected that the men of the 
landing party will be able to return to their ships before dai*k to-day. 

The men landed will be supplied with nitlons for one day and be equipped in 
light marching order. 

Very respectfully, Henry Glass, 

Captain f U. 8, Navy, Commanding. 

Lieut. W. Bbaunebsreutheb, U. S. Navy, 

U. 8, 8. Charleston. 



B. 

U. S. S. ** Chableston," 
8an Luis D'Apra, Guam Island^ June 20, 1898. 

Sib : In reply to your communication of this date, I have now, in compliance 
with the orders of my Government, to demand the Immediate surrender of the 
defenses of the Island of Guam, with arms of all kinds, all officials and persons 
In the military service of Spain now in this island. 

This communication will be handed you to-morrow morning by an officer 
who Is ordered to wait not over one-half hour for your reply. 

Respectfully, Henby Glass, 

Captain, U. 8. Navy, Commanding. 
Senor Juan Marina, 

Governor of Guam. 



D. 

[Translation.] 

GOVEBNMENT " P. M." OF THE MARIANNE ISLANDS, 

Piti (Agana), June 21, 1898. 

1 am in receipt of your communication of yesterday, demanding the surren- 
der of this place. 

Being without defenses of any kind and without means for meeting the pres- 
ent situation, I am under the sad necessity of being unable to resist such 
superior forces and regretfully to accede to your demands, at the same time 
protesting against this act of violence, when I have received no information 
from my Government to the effect that Spain is in war with your Nation. 

God be with you. 

Very respectfully, ,Tuan Marina, 

The Governor *' P. M." 

The Captain of the Nobth Amebican Cruiser " Charleston." 



E. 

U. S. S. " Chauleston," 
San Luis D'Apra, Guam Island, June 21, 180H. 

Sib : I have the honor to make the following detailed report of my actions in 
compliance with your orders dated June 21, 1898, and to inclose herewith a 
communication signed by Henry P. McCain, first lieutenant and adjutant. Four- 



I 



XHB I8L4KD OF GUAM. 91 

teenth Infantry, acting assistant adjutant general. Referring to tliis communi- 
cation, I desire to call attention to the fact that it was handed to me while I 
was on my return to this ship, after having in my possession in writing the 
complete surrender of the Spanish territory under the jurisdiction of the gov- 
ernor general of Guam, who was (at this very time) with his entire staff a 
prisoner of war in my boat about 12 m. 

On reaching the landing at Petey, under a flag of truce, I was met by the 
governor general with his staff, and, after a formal introduction, I at once 
handed to the governor your ultimatum, noting the time, 10.15 a. m. I called 
attention to the fact that but one-half hour would be given for a reply and 
casually informed the governor that he had better take Into consideration the 
fact that we had in the harbor three transports loaded with troops and one 
war vessel of a very formidable nature. He thanked me and retired to a 
building near-by with his advisers. Twenty-nine minutes later he reappeared 
and, handing me a sealed envelope addressed to commanding officer of Charles- 
ton, informed me that that was his reply. I broke the seal. While doing so 
he again and very hastily remarked : " Ah ! but that is for the commandante." 
T replied, " I represent him here," and requested the governor to read his letter. 
He did so, and after studying it a few moments I said : " Gentlemen, you are 
now my prisoners ; you will have to repair on board the Charleston with me." 

They protested, pleading that they had not anticipated anything of the kind ; 
had no clothing other than that they then had on; that they all had property 
interests and families ; and numerous other protests^ I assured them that they 
could send messages to their families to send clothes and anything else they 
might desire, and that I would have a boat ashore at 4 p. m. ready to take off 
for them anything sent down. I would even secure passage for such of their 
families as they might desire and give them a safe return to Petey. 

The governor, after a short consultation with his advisers, protested against 
being made a prisoner, saying I had come on shore under a flag of truce for an 
interchange of ideas on the condition of affairs, and that he now found himself 
and his officers prisoners. I replied I came on shore with orders from my com- 
manding officer to deliver to him (the governor) a letter, and I had now in my 
possession his reply thereto, making a complete surrender of the entire place 
under his command. This alone, if it meant anything, permitted me to make 
any demands I desired and deemed proper to make. He agreed and I then 
gave him 10 minutes In which to write an order to his military authority In 
Agana. directing him to have at this landing at Petey at 4 p. m. the 54 Spanish 
soldiers with their arms, accouterments, and all ammunition, together with 
all the Spanish flags in the place (four in all), the two lieutenants of the 
companies to march the soldiers down. This letter was written, read by me, 
and sent to Agana. A general demur was made at the hour fixed upon, but I 
Insisted that it must be done. 

I then gave all the officers an opportunity to write letters to their families, 
which letters were by me considered private, and which left their hands un- 
read by anyone but the parties concerned. 

This being concluded at 11.30, I embarked with the governor and his staff, 
consisting of a doctor, the captain of the port, and the secretary to the governor. 

On my return, when within signal distance of one division of the landing 
party which had been organized for use in case of emergency, I signaled them 
to " return." When within less than a mile of the ship I stood to the wind- 
ward to send the same message to the second division of landing party in tow 
of steam launch. In reply I was requested to come alongside to receive a mes- 
sage from Brig. (Sen. Anderson (appended, marked "A"), making signal " Sur- 
rendered " to Charleston as soon as f came within signal distance. 

Having returned on board with prisoners and reported verbally my actions, 
I was directed to hold myself in^ readiness to carry out the remainder of the 
conditions of surrender at 4 p. m. 

Ijcaving the ship with four boats and all the marine guard of this ship. In 
charge of Lieut. Myers, U. S. Marine Corps, and with Ensign Waldo Evans, 
U. S. Navy, as my aid, I left the ship at 3.30 p. m. for Petey, disarming the 
Spanish soldiers, and embarking them in a scow pressed into service for their 
transportation to the Charleston. The native soldiers, a couple of whom 
brought down the riffes of two absentees, supposed to be ill, manifesting such 
great joy at being relieved of their arms and giving away to men in my force 
buttons and ornaments on their uniforms, thereby conveying to me the Im- 
pression that they were equally glad to be rid of Spanish rule, were allowed 
by me to return to their homes without any restriction whatever, which action 




92 THE ISLAND OP GUAM. 

on my part will, I tru»t, meet wtth your approval. Pifty^four Spani.<)h soldiers 
and two Ileutenatote were brought on board at 7 p. ni. 

The following is a list of the nrticles cai)tnred: 7*500 hall cnrtridires, 7- 
millimeter clips, Mauser; 2,000 ball cartridgeH, Remihfjton ; 52 belts, Mauser 
rifles ; 45 bayonets and scabbards for same ; 04 cartridge boxes, Heniington ; 54 
lenther l)elts. Remington; 60 bayonets and scabbards. llemingUm; 52 Mauser 
rifles: 3 swords: 62 Remington rifles; 4 Spanish flags. 

In closing my report I desire to call attention to the absolute obedience and 
splendid discipline of all the force (30 marines and 16 sailors) I hiul with 
me, particularly to the efficient aid received from Lieut. J. T. Myers, U. S. 
Marine Corps, and Ensign Waldo Evans, IT.- R. Navy. 

Both of these gentlemen were fully nlive to the dangers and necessities of 
the occasion and rendered most valuable assistance, 

A casual glance at the class and number of rifles capture<l. together with 
the quantity of ammunition, will demonstrate the care that had to be exer- 
cised in disarming and making prisoners of a force of men more than double 
the number I had with me, and will also call attention to the fact that the 
entire undertaking was neither devoid of danger nor risk. 
Very respectfully, 

Wm. BBAtTNERSBEUTHER, 

TAeutenant, 11. 8. Narp. 
Capt. Henry Glass, TT. S. Navy, 

(Jommanding TJ, S. fif. Chnrleftton. 



A. 

Heaikjuartbrs First Brigade, U. S. Expeditionary Forces, 

Steamer Australia, June 20, 1898, 

The Commanding Officer Second Oregon Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 

Steamer Australia. 
Sir: The commanding general directs that you prepare Companies A and D, 
one medical officer, and one hospital private of your regiment to go ashore 
to-morrow at 8.30 a. m., under the senior line officer, who will report upon land- 
ing to the senior officer of the landing forces from the Charleston. This force 
will be used in the discretion of the commanding officer in such operations on 
land as may be necessary to carry out orders from the captain of the Charleston. 
The trooips will be in light marching order, with rations for one day in the 
haversacks and 40 rounds of ammunition. 

You will also detail from your regiment 25 rovvei-s to take this detachment 
to and from shore. These men, under the connnand of a first lieutenant, will 
he equipped in the same manner as Companies A and 1), and will remain with 
the boats until the return of the landing force. 
On completion of the above duties the troops will return to this ship. 
Very respectfully, 

Henry P. McCain, 
First Lieutenant and Adjutant Fourteenth Infantry, 

Acting Assistant Adjutant General. 

Commanding Officer Landing Force from the Charleston. 

Prisoners and property captured at San Luis D'Apra, Guam, June 21, 1898: 
Sefior D. Juan Marina, lieutenant colonel, Spanish Army, governor of 

Guam. 
Don Pedro Duarte, captain, Spanish Army, governor's secretary. 
Don Francisco Garcia Gutierrez, lieutenant commander, Spanish Navy, 

captain of port. 
Don Jose Romero, surgeon, Spanish Army, health officer. 
Lieut. Ramos, Spanish naval Infantry. 
Lieut. Berruezo, Spanish naval Infantry. 
Fifty-four noncommissioned officers and privates. 

Four Spanish flags. • 

Fifty-two Mauser rifles. 
Sixty-two Remington rifles. 
Three swords. 



TB£ ISLAND OF GUAM. 98 



Forty-five bayonets and scabbards for Mauser rifles. 

Sixty bayonets and scabbards for Remington rifles. 

Fifty-two belts for Mauser rifles. 

Forty-five leather belts for Remington rifles. 

Sixty-four cartridge boxes, Remington. 

7,500 ball cartridges, 7-mllllmeter clips, Mauser. 

2,000 ball cartridges, Remington. 



H. 

U. S. S. " Chablesto^/' 
San Luis DWpra, Guam Island, June 21, 1H0S. 

Sir: In consequence of the want of berthing space on board this ship. I 
request that the prisoners of war taken at this port to-day l)e receiveil on 
board the transport steamer City of Sydney tor passage to Manila, where 
orders for their final disposition will be given by the commander in chief. 
United States naval force on Asiatic SUtioa: 

The cost of subsisting these prisoners will be borne by the Navy Department. 

I transmit herewith list of the oflilcers and men captured. 

Very respectfully^ 

Hejnry Glass. 
C0ptain, U, 8. Navy, Com/mandinrf. 
Brig. Gen. T. M. Anderson, U. S. Army. 



U. S. S. " Chabugston," Skcond Rate, 
Port San Luis D'Apra, Island of Guam, June 21, 1S9S, 

JAst of oflBcers and men, prisoners of war: 

IJeut. Ool. Marina, Spanish Army, governor. 
(3apt. Duarte, Spanish Army, secretary* 
Lieut. Ramos, Spanish naval Infantry, 
liieut. Berruezo, Spanish naval infantry. 

Lieut. Commancler Garcia Gutierrez, Spanish Navy, captain of port. 
Surg. Romero, Spanish Army. 
Fifty-four noncommissioned officers and privates. 
Received the above-named officers and men from the U- S. S. Charleston. 

T. S. Phelps, Jr.. 
Lieutenant Commander, f*. S. yarp. 

3. PBONTJNCIATIOir OF LETTEBS IN CHAHOBBO. 

A as in Italian (a in "father"). 

B as in English, except for a slight tendency toward v. 

C hard before a, cy, or u ; soft before e or l. 

D as in English, but softer. 

E like a in ** fate." 

F as in English. 

G hard before a, o, oi* u; like a strongly aspirat<M li l)efore e or i; final g 

almost like k. 
H silent. 
I like ee In "meet." In final syllables, e and 1 are almost interchangeable, 

and frequently confused in spelling. 
.T like a strongly aspirated h. 
K as in English. 
L as English. 
LL as j in English, with a slight nasal twang. 
M as English. 
N as English. 
N as ni in " onion." 



94 THE ISLAND OF GUAM. 

NG as 111 "song"; never as In *' finger." To obtain the latter sound the g 
must be doubled. 

O as In no. 

P as in English. 
QU before e or i, like k. 

R as English. 
RR rolled. 

S always hissed. Never as in " reason.'* 

T as English. 

V like oo in " hoot." In final syllables, u and o are .similar and practically 

indlstingu ishable. 
X as English. 

Y as j in " joke." 

Z exactly as s. It is not lisped as in Spanish, or buzzed as English. 

In common speech the letter r is disappearing and is being replaced by 1. 
Some words of Chamorro, mostly imported from other islands, are spelled with 
an apostrophe ('); to indicate halt or catch in the voice. This, as in Samoa, 
shows the elision of an obsolete k. 

4. BIBLIOGBAFHY. 

Memorial que el P. Diego Luis de Saiivltores, religioso de la Ck)mpafila de 
Jesus, rector de las Islas Marianas, remltl6 & la Congregaclon del.Glorloso 
Apostol de las Indlas, San Francisco Xavler, de la cludad de M^jlco, 
pldi^ndole ayuda y socorros para la fundaci6n de la mlsion de dlchas Islas. 
M^jlco, 1669. 

Noticia de los i)rogresc)s do miestra santa fe on las islas Marianas, Uamadas 
antes de los Ladrohes, y del fruto que ban hecho en ellas el P. Diego Luis 
de Sanvftores y sus compafieros, de la Compafila de Jesus, desde 15 de 
mayo de 1669 hasta 28 de abrll de 1670. Sacada de las cartas que ha 
escrlto el P. Diego Luis de Sanvftores y sus compaileros. 

Vida y Martirio del veiierahle P. IHvyo Luis dc l^anvitores, de la Compafila de 
Jesus, primer apostol de las islas Marin nas, y sucesos de estas islas desde 
el afio 1668 hasta el de 1681, por el P. Francisco Garcia. Madrid, 1083. 

Cartas sobre las Marianas y CaroUnas, dirlj^idas al padre procurador general 
Antonio Xaramlllo: la. Del P. Jose Sanchez, desde Saii Pedro (en Maria- 
nas), y abrll 29 de 1696. 2a. Del P. Andreas Serrano, 11 de mayor de 1097. 
3a. Del P. Pedro de Sllva, desde Manila, 27 de junio de 1097. (Kn l:i 
Academla de la Hlstoria Madrid. Papeles varios de jesuitas.) 

Histoire des Islas Marianas, nouvelleniont converties a la lleligion (Mirastieniie 
. . . mort glorleuse des premiers niisslonnalres qui y ont preche la foi, par 
le Pere Charles Le Gobien, de la Conipagnie de Jesus. Paris. 17U0. 

Description de isles Marianes. Tome dixieme, pag. 364, del Historic goneralle 
des voyages, ou Nouvelle Collection de toutes las relations de voyages par 
mer et par terre, par I'Abbe Prevost. Paris, 1752. 

Oceanle ou cinquienie partie du moiide, Revue geographiqne et etnographlqne 
de la Malaisie, de la Micronesie, de la Polyuesie et de la Melanesle, et. 
Par M. G. L. Domeny de Uienzl voyageur on Oceanie, en Orient, etc. Paris, 
Fermln Didot, 1836 ; tres tomos en S^ 

Renseignements geographlques, etnographiques, etc., sur quelques lies do L'Ocean 
Paclfique — Ladrones, Carolines, Marshall et Gilbert. Annales hy<lro- 
graphiques, par A. le Gras. Troisieme trlmestre de 1864, pag. 15. Paris, 
1864. 

Occano Pacifico-l8las,Mariana8-Vi(if/c de la Corbeta dc Gucrra '^ Narvaez" desde 
Manila d dichas islas. Parte Oficlal de su Coniandanto, D. Eugenio Sancliez 
y Zayas. Anuarios de la Direccion do Hidrografia. Afio III, pag. 142. 
Madrid, 1865. 

Ligeros Apuntes sobre las islas Mariaruis y adelantos que han tenido desde 1863, 
por el tenlente de Navlo D. Gulllermo Camargo. Idem. Afio XII, pag. 309. 
1874. 

Memoria descrlptlva 6 hlstorica de las islas Marianas y otras que las rodoan eu 
relaclon con ellas, y de su organlzacion actual, por el teniente coronel D. 
Felipe de la Corte y Ruano Calderon, del Cuerpo de Ingenleros del ejercito. 
gobernador de dichas islas. Madrid, 1875. 

Remark. Geographical and historical data about the Mariana Islands 
are found in all the general histories of the Philippine Islands, especially 
those written by the Jesuits. 



THE ISLAl!n> OF GUAM. 95 

Historia de las islas Marianas, Carolinas y Palaos, por el coronel de la in- 
fanteria D. Luis Ibafiez y Garcia, gobemador que fue de dichas Islas. 
Granada, 1866. 

U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings. 

The Guam News Letter. Files, 1907 to 1916. 

Sailing Directions, published by the British Admiralty ; Pacific Islands, Volume 
If and Supplement thereto. London, 1908 and 1915. 

Contributions from the National Herbarium, Vol IX. Useful Plants of Guam, 
Safford, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1905. 

The Chamorro Language of Guam. Saiford. Washington, D. C, 1909. Re- 
printed from the American Anthropologic, 1903-1905. 

liord Anson's voyage Round the World, 1748. 




> 



1