VE r llRI
GIFT OF THE
OF THE UNITED STATES
us Doc 2.791
Committee on Un-American Activities
Table of Contents
(Since these hearings are consecutively paged
they are arranged by page number, instead of
alphabetically by title)
1. American National Exhibition, Moscow, ^f^<^
2. Communist Training Operations, pt.l y\u >
5. Testimony of Clinton Edward Jencks %l<^^
k. Testimony of Arnold Johnson, Legislative iidi
Director of the Communist Party, U.S.A.
5-7. Western Section of the Southern California ^ ^^z
District of the Communist Party, pt.1-3
8. Issues Presented by Air Reserve Center ^juC
9-10, Communist Training Operations, pt. 2-5
11-12. Communist Activities Among Puerto Ricans in
New York City and Puerto Rico, pt.1-2
ISSUES PRESENTED BY AIR RESERVE
CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES
FEBRUARY 25, 1960
Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
^^OZQ' WASHINGTON : 1960
COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES
United States House of Representatives
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California
CLYDE DOYLE, California GORDON If. SCIIERRR, Ohio
EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York
WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan
EiCHARD Arens, Staff Director
Thursday February 25, 1960
Statement of Dudley C. Sharp, Secretary of the Air Force __ 1285
Public Law 601, 79th Congress
The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American
Activities operates is PubHc I.aw 601, 79th Congress , chapter
753, 2d session, which provides:
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States
of America in Congress assembled, * * *
PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
BEC. 121, STANDING COMMITTEES
4 i|c :|: >l< * * *
17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members.
POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES
(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities.
(A) Un-American activities.
(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit-
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent,
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States,
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa-
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary
The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi-
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable.
For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting,
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be Issued under
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person
designated by any such chairman or member.
LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES
Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the lawa
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it m,ay deem neces-
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic-
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shaU study all pertinent reports
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of
RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS
House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959
1. There shall be elected by the House, at the conimeneement of each Con-
(q) Connmittee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members.
)tf :if ilf H! # * !tf
POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES
18. Committee on Un-American Activities.
(a) Un-American activities.
(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee,
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char-
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States,
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop-
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu-
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress
in any necessary remedial legislation.
The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi-
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable.
For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person
designated by any such chairman or member.
* * * * * #
26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary,
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government.
ISSUES PRESENTED BY AIR RESERVE CENTER
THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 25, 1960
United States House of Representatives,
Committee on Un-American Activities,
The Committee on Un-American Activities met, pursuant to call,
at 10 :00 a.m., in Room 228, Old House Office Building, Hon. Francis
E. Walter, of Pemisylvania (chairman) , presiding.
Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter,
of Pennsylvania ; Morgan M. Moulder, of Missouri ; Clyde Doyle, oi
California; Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana; William M. Tuck, of
Virginia; Donald L. Jackson, of California; Gordon H. Scherer, of
Ohio ; and August E. Johansen, of Michigan. (Appearances as noted. )
Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; Frank S.
Tavenner, Jr., counsel; Donald T. Appell and Raymond T. Collins,
The Chairman. The committee will come to order, please.
(Members present at the convening of the hearing: Representatives
Walter, Moulder, Doyle, and Scherer. )
The Chairman. Some few weeks a^Oj this committee began hear-
ings on the subject of Communist activities and propaganda among
youth groups. In opening those hearings I stated :
I know Uiat this committee's investigation in this area will probably pre-
cipitate a barrage from the Communist press and from Communist sympathizers
characterizing our work as an investigation of youth. The Communists know,
as well as we do, that the overwhelming majority of the young people of this
Nation are of unquestioned patriotism and dedication to all that is good and
noble in our society. But by equating an investigation of Communist activities
among youth with an investigation of youth itself, the Communists and their
sympathizers hope to becloud the issues. This, of course, is an old trick which
the Communists repeatedly use. When this committee investigates Communist
activities in defense plants, the smoke screen that the Communists use is that
we are investigating organized labor. When we investigate Communist activi-
ties in an educational institution, it is protested by the Communists that we are
investigating education. I am sure that the overwhelming majority of the
American people readily see through this fraud, and it shall not dissuade us
from our task.
Although the only witnesses who were subpenaed for those hearings
on Commmiist activities and propaganda among youth groups were
hard-core members of the Communist Party who had been identified
as such under oath, the Communist and pro-Communist press of this
Released by the committee and ordered to be printed.
1286 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
country followed the course which I predicted on the day on which
the hearings were opened.
Typical of the reaction which I anticipated was a statement of one
columnist that tlie Committee on Un-Ainerican Activities was now
en<Taged in intimidating children.
An editorial in the Washington Post proclaimed that the Com-
mittee on Un-American Activities:
♦ • • aims to stigmatize as subversive a healthy curiosity and a youthful
hope that peace can be promoted by letting young people of the world rub
elbows and minds.
With reference to the hard-core identified Communists wlio were
subpenaed before this committee, the Washington Post editorial
The House Committee on Un-American Activities has now used its subpena
power to hale before it five young men and women who had the temerity to at-
tend one or another of the yoiath festivals held at Moscow, Warsaw and Vienna.
Based on extensive experience as chairman of this committee, I
now predict that the instant hearings will be publicized as an in-
vestigation by the Committee on Un-American Activities of religion ;
that we on this committee are concerned about religious beliefs or
theology- or that certain ministers of the gospel must be subversive
because they advocate tenets with which the committee does not con-
Again I say, as I said when we were investigating Communist
activities and propaganda among youth groups, that this diversion-
ary tactic will not dissuade us from our task. We thoroughly ex-
pect attack by Communists, pro-Communists, dupes, and misguided
liberals who would use the facade of religion to mask Communist
activities. We on this committee are as proud of our enemies as we
are of our friends.
In the military stalemate between the forces of freedom and in-
ternational communism, the chief arena of conflict has now shifted
from the military to the nonmilitary. The enemy's threat, however,
becomes even more dangerous because it is more difficult to detect
and engage in combat. His arsenal includes weapons of internal
subversion, espionage, sabotage, propaganda, and economic and polit-
ical warfare. His objective remains the same — destruction of all
free societies, conquest of the world, and enslavement of mankind.
The battlefields are every institution and organization of society, in-
cluding the home, the church, the school, and every agency of our
During the past summer a 2-week National Strategy Seminar for
200 carefully selected reserve officers from all over the Nation was
held at the National War College in Washington with the en-
dorsement of the Department of Defense and with the assistance
of the Reserve Officers Association, the Foreign Policy Research
Institute of the University of Pennsylvania, and the Institute for
The officers who attended this seminar did not study military
science. They did not listen to lectures on military strategy, tactics,
weapons development, and other subjects usually associated with the
Armed Forces. Rather, the major theme of this seminar, at which
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1287
a score of the country's top authorities on communism lecturedj was
"fourth dimensional warfare" or, as it is sometimes called, "political
warfare" — combat aimed at destroying an enemy by nonmilitary
means. This is a combat science which has been developed by the
Commiuiists to its highest degree in the history of civilization.
Au implication of this seminar — and a point previously made by
many experts — is that this countiy could be conquered by Com-
munists without a shot behig fired; that the military know-how and
capabilities of our Armed Forces, our tremendous array of weapons,
and the huge sums spent to develop them might never be used in a
fmal defense effort to prevent the enslavement of the American people.
In this struggle between freedom and the forces of slavery, the Con-
gress of the United States has charged the Committee on Un-Ameri-
can Activities with the responsibility for mamtaining continuing sur-
veillance over the agitational and propaganda activities within this
Nation, of the international Communist conspiracy. It has also
charged it with continually reviewing the administration and opera-
tion of our security laws for the purpose of recommending such revi-
sions as are necessary to cope with the everchanging Communist
Recently the Secretary of the Air Force, Dudley C. Sharp, was
quoted in the press as categorically repudiating" the Air Reserve
Center Training Manual as representing Air Force views. Much of
this manual deals with problems of Commmiist infiltration and sub-
version. Indeed, in the sections dealing with this subject, there ap-
pear nmnerous quotations derived from hearings conducted by the
Committee on Un-American Activities, in which are presented au-
thoritative statements by experts on each of several facets of the
Since it appears that the "categorical repudiation" of the Air Re-
serve Center Training Manual by the Secretary of the Air Forca
stemmed largely because of statements in the manual respecting "in-
filtration of fellow-travelers into churches" — see manual, page
15-14 — all God-fearing, freedom-loving people would do well to
pause and reflect on the irresolute opposition of atheistic commmiism
Here are the words of J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal
Bureau of Investigation :
Communism Is secularism on the march. It is the mortal foe of all the world's
religions which acknowledge the existence of God. Either the faith of our
fathers will triumph or communism will engulf us. In this land of ours the
two cannot live side by side.
Nowhere among the leaders of the Communist Party In the United States,
Russia, Red China or in any other part of the world will you find one who loves
and believes in God. God is truth. Communists hate truth and, therefore, they
hate the church.
One of the leading slogans of the Communist Revolution in Russia in 1917
was : "Religion is the opium of the people."
This was first uttered by Karl Marx, the founder of communism, In 1843.
Lenin, now resurrected by the Kremlin as the Communist Idol and guide of
the present and future, restated it in 1905. * * ♦ Nikita Khrushchev, the present
head of the Russian Communist Party, publicly proclaimed that Communists
have not changetl their opinion on religion and said :
"We remain the atheists that we have always been ; we are doing all we can
to liberate those people who are still under the spell of this religious opiate."
52029"— 60 2
1288 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
Sworn testimony from religious leaders who have escaped from
Communist regimes amply demonstrates the intensity of the warfare
which commimism is waging against the churches.
I am inserting, as an appendix to my remarks, excerpts from typical
testimony on this issue.
What of Communist infiltration in church groups in the United
Incidental to investigations conducted by the Committee on Un-
American Activities in our pursuit of Communists, at least a dozen
persons who have been identified as members of the Communist Party
have also professed to be ministers of the gospel. In addition, several
undercover operatives of the FBI who have served in the Communist
Party have testified under oath respecting the directives under which
they and other members of the Communist Party operated with re-
spect to penetration of church groups.
I am likewise inserting in the appendix to my remarks excerpts
from sworn testimony on this subject.
How successful have Communists been in their attempts to pene-
trate church groups ?
Although this question is not subject to precise qualitative or quan-
titative analysis, it is a fact, however, supported by the record, that the
Communists have duped large numbers of the clergy, as well as lay
leaders of the churches, into supporting Communist fronts and causes
which masquerade behind deceitful facades of humanitarianism. This
is not to say that these persons are necessarily consciously supporting
Communist enterprises, but the net result is, for all practical purposes,
Some 2 or 3 years ago the Committee on Un-American Activities
held consultations with three prominent clergymen of the Jewish,
Catholic, and Protestant faiths, respectively, on the subject "Tlie
Ideological Fallacies of Communism." These clergymen, Rabbi S.
Andhil Fineberg, Bishop Fulton J. Sheen, and Dr. Daniel A. Poling,
clearly exposed the fallacies of this devilish force. In the course of the
consultation Dr. Fineberg was asked this question :
Have the religious forces of the world, In your judgment, been as vigorous In
opposition to the spread of communism as they might have been?
He replied :
Too few religious leaders have accepted the responsibility of refuting Com-
munist propaganda. Like most Americans, clergj'men have been against com-
munism without studying it and without effort to expose its fallacies.
In my judgment, mucli good can come from an objective inquiry
into the reasons why the Air Reserve Center Training Manual, which
in part dealt with this very problem, was repudiated by the Secretary
of the Air Force. Without apology, therefore, and with firm determi-
nation that we will pursue this subject matter honestly, fairly, and
sincerely, with the end in view of developing the truth, the whole
truth, and nothing but the truth, we are opening our inquiry today
by receiving the testimony of the Secretary of tlie Air Force, Dudley
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1289
(The appendix referred to follows:)
Appendix to Opening Statement, Honorable Francis E. Walter
(D-Pa.) Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities, on
Issues Presented by Air Reserve Center Training Manual,
Washington, D.C, Thursday, February 25, 1960
Father Theodoric Joseph Ziibek, a Franciscan priest who escaped
from Slovakia, testified before the Committee on Un-American
Activities in December 1959 as follow^s :
". . . Male religious orders and congregations were suppressed in
April 1950. There were over 700 male religious priests and brothers
living in 137 monasteries in Slovakia. * * * and were subjected to
Communist-sponsored reeducation. If they complied with this brain-
washing and took the oath of loyalty, they were sent to parishes and
churches as diocesan priests. If they remained miyielding, they were
sent to forced labor camps, and later in 1957, released to manual work.
Clerics and religious brothers, if they did not want to leave the reli-
gious life, went also through the forced labor camps, and eventually to
manual work on their own. A similar fate met the female religious
congregations. There were 3,548 religious sisters in Slovakia, living in
210 convents. The convents were suppressed in August 1950, and the
sisters w^ere forced to leave the religious life. If tliey refused, they
were sent to work without any salary in forced labor camps, collective
farms, or various state plants.
". . . The Communist control can be said to be twofold: public
control and secret control of activities of the church. By public con-
trol, I mean the antichurch laws of 1949.
"Besides, they have secret control of the church. Spies attend every
ceremony. They trail priests and bishops wherever they go."
Concerning Communist persecution of church groups in Red China,
Rev. Peter Chu Pong, general secretary of the Hong Kon^ Inter-
national Christian Leadership, testified before the Committee on
Un-American Activities in March 1959, as follows :
". . . They (the Communists) formed an indoctrination class in
the assembly hall of our church. For 2 weeks they worked on the
members of my church, brainwashing them into accusing me of being
an imperialist agent and a running dog of the missionaries . . .
"From morning to night they taught my church members all about
communism. They indoctrinated our people along three major points :
1. They entirely denied there is a living God which exists in this
universe. They told the people the whole universe was created
through evolution. 2. They denied Lord Jesus and His salvation.
They told the people that Jesus Christ was just a common carpenter,
that the people had crucified him because he wanted to lead the people
in counterrevolution work. 3. They told the people that Christianity
is a religious instrument of the foreign imperialists to poison our
Chinese people and sell them into slavery.
". . . They held an accusation meeting to accuse me, my wife, and
the elders and deacons in our church of being imperialists. They
1290 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
tied our hands with long rope and forced us to kneel on the platform
in our church assembly hall with signs around our necks which said
'Guilty Crime.' They slapped our faces, kicked our bodies, and poured
cold water on our heads. They made my children stand and watch.
If they cried, the Communists beat them. They wanted me to con-
fess that I was an imperialist agent and reveal the amounts of money
I was supposed to have received from the missionaries. They wanted
me to tell what kind of guns and radios the missionaries had given
to me. They accused me of helping twelve missionaries escape from
Nanking before the Communists came. They wanted me to reject
Christ, give up my church, and admit that the only God was Mao
Tse-tung, head of the Communist government.
". . . If I had confessed they would have killed me immediately.
They were going to put me into prison any way. * * *"
Under dat« of October 20, 1959, Moiselle dinger, former under-
cover agent for the FBI who served in the Communist Party, testi-
fied as follows :
"Question : What was the practice of the Communist Party during
the period of your membership with regard to assigning people to
work in mass organizations ?
"Mrs. dinger: Almost everyone was assigned to some type of a
mass organization. Now, there may have been something that they
were interested in. I mean, they were all in some group that they
may have belonged to, but if you didn't belong, you were told where
or what to join. I remember the churches. There was one period
where they felt it was quite necessary that different people join dif-
ferent churches, and for
« 1)1 i|c * 1(1 41 «
"Question : . . . Now, if you will recall other assignments, you spoke
of assignments in church work. Do you know of anyone who re-
ceived such an assignment who was known to you personally to be a
member of the Communist Party ?
"Mrs. dinger : Yes. Tlie same O. E. Burrell, I know, did quite a
bit. I know that he belonged to the church in Santa Monica, and to me
this was kind of an odd thing, and to many of the old-timers in the
Communist Party it was kind of earth shaking to have to go into a
church. * * * I noticed it was mostly the younger — I wouldn't say
younger, I mean the newer — members that they were able to do this
with. I noticed it was not the older members, long-standing members
who were too interested in taking on this task of going into the
churches to work.
"I know my husband was asked to join a church, and I frowned
on this, so that he was not pushed to go ahead with this."
Hi * «: »: >!: * Hf
A few months ago Mrs. Dorothy Healey, a member of the National
Committee of the Communist Party, reported in a convention speech
respecting tlie activities of the Communists of southern California, in
part, as follows :
"* * * Communists * * * are working in community organiza-
tions, fraternal organizations or churches * * *
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1291
"A further expression of the way to develop and consolidate the
antimbiiopoly alliance, is through our participation in activating the
program of the people's organizations to wliich we belong."
* * # * * « >i<
Marion Miller, former undercover agent for the FBI, testified be-
fore the Committee on Un-American Activities on October 21, 1959, as
"Mrs. Miller: * * * these people * * * carry out this Communist
propaganda and the w^ork of the party no matter where they are be-
cause this is their duty, to promote communism wherever they are,
what.ever time it might be. They live and breathe as Communists, in
whatever organization they go into. I can't emphasize this too
strongly, whether in a trade union or in a fraternal organization, or in
a religious group, in a church, wherever it may be, the duty of a Com-
munist is to carry out the Commmiist program."
^ H: ^ H: ^ 'i' *
IMiss Carol Bayne, San Diego native and resident, appeared before
the Committee on Un-American Activities in public session on April
21, 1954. She became a Communist sympathizer late in 1948, and
joined the Communist Party early in 1949. She testified that she prob-
ably was dropped from party rolls sometime in 1951 at her request,
and that she made an efl'ort to rejoin the party in February 1954. She
testified as follows :
"Question ; Were you given instructions at any time by the Com-
munist Party as to the attitude that should be taken by Communists
toward religion or toward religious groups ?
"Miss Bayne : Toward religious groups. I can answer that. I was
instructed not too long ago, in the hopes of assisting the FBI, when I
tried to get back into the party, I was uistructed that I would have to
join a church youth group, or a church, and become active in its work.
"Q.uestion : You were told if you came back
"Miss Bayne : In order to get back into the party I would have to
get into a church group and work within it and try to influence it."
Kev. Joseph S. Nowak appeared before the Committee on Un-
American Activities in public session on March 25, 1954. He was born
in Lwow, Poland, on October 17, 1903, and was brought to the United
States by his parents in June 1906.
In the coui-se of his testimony, Rev. Nowak admitted that in 1946 he
formally joined the Communist Party. In discussing his associations
with the Communist Party and its membei's, he testified that from
1934, upon his graduation from the Union Theological Seminary,
until 1942, he was in charge of a small mission, St. Paul's Presbyterian
Church, in Baltimore, Maryland. He testified that, while not a mem-
ber of the Communist Party, he held an office in a Communist- front
organization, the American League Against War and Fascism, know-
ing that its leaders were officials in the Communist Party :
Question : Were you a member of the Communist Party while you
were on your assignment in Baltimore ?
"Mr. Nowak : No, sir : I was not.
1292 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
"Question: Although you were not a member of the Communist
Party while you were in Baltimore, did you collaborate with function-
aries of the Communist Party while you were there
"Mr. Nowak : I worked together
"Question: And worked with the Communist Party?
"Mr. Nowak : I worked together with them ; yes.
"Question : Knowingly ?
"Mr. Nowak: As an official of the American League [Against War
and Fascism] ; yes, and also knowingly. I knew that they were officials
in the party."
9)1 « Ht * 4: He *
Herbert A. Philbrick was a member of the Communist Party as an
undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Follow-
ing are excerpts from his testimony before the Committee on Un-
American Activities on July 23, 1951 :
"Question : You have testified that you were active in various youth
organizations in your church work. Did you continue to be active in
your church work after joining the Young Communist League?
"Mr. Philbrick: Yes, I did. First of all, of course, I wanted to
continue because I wanted to maintain my contacts with some healthy
minded individuals; but beyond that, and to my good fortune, I was
instructed by the party to continue my contacts and to continue my
affiliations in all my normal groups.
"These instructions were also given to other members in my cell . . .
"Question: Who gave you those instructions?
"Mr. Philbrick: ... I recall that in a discussion at the apart-
ment of Dave Bennett we were given those instructions. I was also
given those same instructions by Fanny Hartman and by Alice
"Question: "Was Dave Bennett known to you to be a member of
the Communist Party ?
"Mr. Philbrick: He was known to me long before I actually be-
came a formal member myself . . .
"Question: From the instructions which you received from the
Communist Party, did it appear, or were you led to believe, that in
the field of religious activity the Communist Party was incompatible
with any religious belief ?
"Mr. Philbrick: Absolutely. We were taught that the socialistic
theories of Marx had nothing to do with the idealistic superstitions
of religious organizations."
Earl Reno, former high-ranking official of the Communist Party,
testified before the Committee on Un-American Activities on March
25, 1954, as follows :
"Question : ... In the performance of the work of the Communist
Party through the American League Against War and Fascism, and
through the Ethiopian Defense Committee, did you utilize at any
time the services of any ministers or any members of the ministry ?
"Mr. Eeno: Yes. We had two ministers who were particularly
active in the American League Against War and Fascism and the
Ethiopian Defense Committee. * * * Rev. Joseph Nowak and Rev.
Jack Hutchison. * * *
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1293
" * * * These two young ministers came there, said they had recently
come from the Union Theological Seminary in New York, that they
had been students of Harry Ward and intimated that they had some
previous contact with the Communist Party and wanted to know in
wliat way they could work. * * *
" * * * they were assigned to churches in Baltimore; that they had
previously done some work in conjunction with the Communist Party,
I believe, in New York and wanted to know in what waj they could
do cooperative work while in the period they were in Baltimore. * * *
"Then, in the meantime, I had had discussions with Leonard Pat-
terson about the possibility of their working in the Ethiopian Defense
Committee, and at the second meeting with them I suggested they
work both with the American League Against War and Fascism and
the Ethiopean Defense Committee, and they did. They became mem-
bers of these two organizations and participated. * * *
"Question : Did they advise you at any time that they were not mem-
bers of the Communist Party ?
"I\Ir. Reno : No. There were times when they asked the advisability
of joining the Communist Party, which I advised them against, and
at one point Dr. Albert Blumberg came and said one minister had
asked the probability of leaving the church, joining the Communist
Party. I said, 'This is ridiculous.' * * * Dr. Albert Blumberg came
to me to discuss the possibility of Eeverend Hutchison joining the
Communist Party, and at that time I said I didn't think it was wise
and I thought it was rather ridiculous, and as lon^ as I was in Balti-
more I would not have accepted membei-ship application from either
"Mr. Reno: I didn't feel a minister belonged in the Commmiist
Party. * * * If a minister were identified as a member of the Com-
munist Party, his use in the Commmiist Party at that time would
have been nil. In my own words, an unemployed minister of the
Communist Party has no value.
"Second, I felt ideologically the training for the ministry inevitably
comes in conflict with the ideological training of the Communist, that
if they did join they would inevitably come in conflict with it and,
therefore, they would be of much more use not being members of the
Commmiist Party than if they were members.
"Question : You mean use to the Commimist Party ?
"Mr. Reno : That's right.
"Question : I gather in your position as a fimctionary of the Com-
munist Party it was your feeling you could put ministers to a much
better use if they were not members of the party than if they became
membei-s of the Communist Party ?
"Mr. Reno : That is correct."
Mrs. Anita Bell Schneider, a native of California, appeared before
the House Committee on Un-American Activities in public hearings
in June and July of 1955. She had served IT months as a control-
tower operator in the WAVES during 1944 and 1945 ; attended San
Diego State Teachers College in the following few j^ears, receiving
a bachelor's degree in sociology and economics; worked for Deputy
Sheriff Robert Newsom from February 1951 to August 1951, when sha
1294 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
became an undercover operative for the FBI. At their request she
joined the Communist Party in the smnmer of 1951. Most of her
Communist Party work was done in San Diego, some in Los Angeles
and Sacramento and a little in Chicago. Her major party assign-
ment was to become chairman of the San Diego Peace Forum. Other
assignments included membership on the county central committee of
the Independent Progressive Party ; service as secretary of the State
Independent Progressive Party Convention in Chicago in 1952 ; and as
secretary of the women's division of the Independent Progi'essive
In her testimony on June 27, 1955, Mrs. Schneider stated that the
Communists, recognizing the universal desire for peace, felt that at-
taching the word "peace" to their efforts would aid in getting the use
of churches to meet in, "we could involve other people and active
church people. . ." She further testified that she had been given lit-
erature to take to the ministers of the two churches she attended in an
effort to make them more active in the peace movement.
The Chairman. Mr. Secretary, we appreciate your coming here this
STATEMENT OF HON. DUDLEY C. SHARP, SECRETARY OF THE AIR
FORCE (ACCOMPANIED BY MAJOR GENERAL THOMAS C. MUS-
GRAVE, JR., DIRECTOR OF LEGISLATIVE LIAISON; MAJOR GEN-
ERAL LLOYD P. HOPWOOD, DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL PROCURE-
MENT AND TRAINING; BRIG. GENERAL ROBERT F. BURNHAM,
AIR PROVOST MARSHAL; COLONEL JOHN W. BAER, EXECUTIVE
ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE; AND MAJOR
LEE SECREST, LEGISLATIVE LIAISON)
Mr. Arens. Mr. Secretary, would you kindly give uSj please, sir,
jurt a word of your own personal background, with particular refer-
ence to your career in the military ?
Secretary Sharp. Yes, sir, I would be glad to do that.
I was in the Navy during the war, during World War II, a large
part of the time at sea, as an executive officer and commanding officer
of antisubmarine warfare vessels.
Since that time my only connection with the services has been with
the Air Force as Assistant Secretary for Materiel, beginning in Octo-
ber, 1955 ; as Under Secretary of the Air Force, beginning in August,
1959 ; and Secretary, as of December of 1959.
Mr. Arens. If you could give us just a capsule-outline of your basic
responsibilities and duties, please, sir.
Secretary Sharp. As Secretary of the Air Force do you mean ?
Mr. Arens. Yes, sir.
Secretary Sharp. Well, my responsibilities are to report to the Sec-
retary of Defense on the activities of the Air Force and generally
supervise the activities of the Air Force as they are directed by the
Secretary of Defense.
Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Secretary, I have in my hand — and I see you
have before you — a copy of Air Reserve Center Training Manual,
Student Text, which has this identification "NR. 45-0050 Vol. 7,"
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1295
which is also entitled "Reserve Non- Commissioned Officer Course, Stu-
dent .Text, Continental Air Command."
May we start our interrogation, if you please, sir, by asking you
when your attention was first directed to this manual, and by whom?
Secretary Sharp. Well, it was on Tuesday evening. I don't re-
member the date.
General Hopwood. IGth of February, Tuesday morning.
Secretary Sharp. The 16th of February; on Tuesday morning of
the 16th of February it was brought to my attention by presentation
of a copy of a letter from Mr. Wine — I think the letter was signed
by — to the Secretary of Defense, with a copy sent to the Secretary of
the Air Force. I received this copy on Tuesday morning.
The Chairman. Do you remember Mr. Wine's first name ?
Colonel Baer. James.
Secretary Sharp. James.
The Chairman. According to this morning's newspaper, Mr. Wine
is quoted as saying that he thinks subversives prepared the manual.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Secretaiy, prior to that time were you familiar
with the contents of the manual concerning which we are directing
your attention ?
Secretary Sharp. No, I was not.
Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us
Mr. ScHERER. Pardon just a minute. Mr. Chairman, do we have a
copy of the letter that was received by the Secretary of Defense ?
Secretary Sharp. I don't believe I have that here.
Does anybody have a copy of this letter that was received ?
Mr. Scherer. Can you get us a copy of it for the record ?
Secretary Sharp. We can get a copy for the record.
Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I move that a copy of the letter be
made a part of the record.
The Chairman. Yes. It is understood a copy of the letter will be
submitted to the committee and will be made a part of the record.
(The letter referred to follows:)
National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.
475 Riverside Drive, New York 27, N.Y., Riverside 9-2200
Rev. Edwin T. Dahlberg, President Rev. Roy G. Ross, General Secretary
February 11, 1960.
The Honorable Thomas S. Gates, Jr.
Secretary of Defense
Department of Defense
Dear Mr. Secretary: Enclosed Is a copy of Air Reserve Center Training
Manual, Student Text, NR. 45-0050, Increment 5, "Volume 7 prepared, printed
and distributed as indicated in the document itself.
We respectfully invite your attention to pages 15-13 to 15-20 of the document.
Let me express surprise and indeed grave concern at these portions of the text
Tlie National Council of Churches vigorously protests that a service document
prepared by an agency under the auspices of the United States Government con-
tains edited material regarding the Christian churches in America.
The appearance of this material, in the circumstances, is a patent contraven-
tion of the first amendment of the Constitution of the United States.
To imply some relationship between the Revised Standard Version of the Holy
Bible and Commiinism la insidious and absurd.
62029"— GO 3
1296 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
To aver by innuendo that the National Council of Churches is associated or in
any way influenced by the Communist party is an example of irresponsibility at
its worst. The adoption in the text as oflScial Air Force statements of the opin-
ion of prejudiced persons identified only on page four of the appendix ; to wit,
Circuit Riders Inc. pamphlet, "Apostate Clergymen Battle for God-Hating Com-
munist China;" "The National Council of Churches Indicts Itself on 50 Counts
of Treason to God and Country" is an incredible reflection upon the judgment and
sense of responsibility of all those involved.
It is respectfully urged the document in question be immediately withdrawn
and all copies which have been distributed be recalled.
We consider this entire matter to be of the most serious proportions and re-
quest a conference with you and such others as may have been involved so that
we may have the complete explanation which we believe we are entitled to have.
I am sure you know that the National Council of Churches is the representative
body of 33 Protestant and Orthodox denominations of the United States. The
interim national governing body, The General Board, of this organization meets
on February 24 and 25 in Oklahoma City. For reasons which will surely be
obvious to you I should like to discuss this matter prior to the meeting of the
General Board so that my report to the General Board may cover the explanation
and remedial action of the Department of Defense and Air Force.
I should be pleased to hear from you at your early convenience.
(Signed) James Wine.
Associate General Secretary
cc : Hon. Dudley C. Sharp Hon. Carl Vinson, Chairman
Secretary of the Air Force Committee on Armed Services
Gen. Thomas D. White USAP House of Representatives
Chief of Staff, Dept. of the Air Hon. Richard B. RusseU
Maj. Gen. Wilton B. Persons USA Committee on Armed Services,
Ret US Senate
Assistant to the President
The Chairman. Go ahead.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Secretary, would you kindly tell us what action
you took after you received this letter?
Secretary Sharp. I immediatey started an investigation of the con-
tents of the manual. I received a manual that day — and I don't re-
member the exact time — in which I read the excerpts wliich were re-
ferred to in Mr. Wine's letter to Secretary Gates, and I found that
the manual had already been withdrawn for investigation on the 11th
(At this point Representative Tuck entered the hearing room.)
Mr. Arens. Who had caused tliat action to be consummated ?
Secretary Sharp. I think General Hopwood.
Mr. Arens. Tell us, please, sir, who is General Hopwood ?
General Hopwood. I am General Hopwood, Director of Personnel
Procurement and Training, on the staff of the United States Air Force.
Mr. Arens. General, if it would not be an impropriety to yourself,
would you kindly interrupt our theme here to tell us under what cir-
cumstances and when you caused the directive to be issued withdraw-
ing this manual ?
General Hopwood. I became aware of the manual on the morning of
the 11th of February.
Mr. Arens. By what device did you become aware of it?
General Hopwood. Two of my staff officers came to my office with
the manual, and there were questions in three general categories that
caused mo to withdraw the manual for review. The first of these —
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING ]VIANUAL 1297
I would like to read, if I may, some of the statements.
Some of the statements introduced confusion and misinterpretation
of Air Force policy and doctrine. This was fairly apparent in the
latter portions of the manual.
We recognized that, although the Air Force is obliged to prepare
its personnel, whoever they may be, to preserve their eftectivenass and
loyalty despite subversive pressures, the examples used in this manual
appear to be in excess of these requirements and tend to infringe on
prerogatives of other governmental agencies and national institutions.
We did want the time to verify and investigate these passages prior
to the time that we had issued all the manuals and statements that
would go in the text.
]\fr, Aeens. Would you kindly tell us the nature of the directive
which you issued ?
General Hopw^ood. Yes, sir. The directive was telephonic, first to
Headquarters, Continental Air Command, telling them to stop issue
and to prepare to withdraw manuals that had been issued for further
evaluation by appropriate representatives of the Air staff. This was
confirmed in a message dispatched at approximately 11 :00 o'clock on
the morning of 11 February.
The Chairma^t. What was in the manual that caused you to take
that action, item by item?
(At this point Representative Willis entered the hearing room.)
General Hopwood. I can illustrate the
The Chairman. I don't want you to illustrate. I want you to tell
me what was in the manual that caused you to have it withdrawn.
General Hopwood. In the first instance, we issued a 14:-paragrapli — -
page 14—13 — about where we are talking about Communism in
The Chairman. 14-13?
Secretary Sharp. No. 15-14.
General Hopwood. Excuse me. 15-14, Communism in Religion.
It begins on the bottom of that page and extends for several pages
The Chairman. All right —
la its own brochure, the National Council of Churches listed the names of
the Revision Committee and the Advisory Board.
Is that what you mean ? Starting there ?
Among these were Walter Russell Bowie of Grace Church, New York.
Is that it?
General Hopwood. The sent-ence which attracted my particular at-
tention, sir, was the first paragraph, which says : "From a variety of
authoritative sources "
The Chairman. Where is that?
Mr. Jackson. Right here.
The Chairman (reading) :
From a variety of authoritative sources, there appears to be overwhelming
evidence of Communist anti-religious activity in the United States through the
infiltration of fellow-travelers into churches and educational institutions.
Is that it?
General Hopwood. That is right.
The Chairman. What is wrong with that?
1298 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
General Hopwood. There is not necessarily anything wrong, Mr.
Chairman; but, because "a variety" was mentioned, because we had
not had a chance to review, we felt we should not issue the manual.
The Chairman. Suppose it said "From several sources" ?
General Hopwood. I think our reaction would have been the same.
The Chairman. Why? Why would you criticize that language
"From a variety of authoritative sources" ? What is wrong with that ?
General Hopwood. I think ■
The Chairman. It came from a variety of sources.
General Hopwood. This is true. Our decision was based on an
analysis of what this noncommissioned officer needed to be trained
to do. There are other passages I can refer to.
The Chairman. Wait a minute. Let's go right to that. "Should
be trained to do." Isn't one of them recognizing his enemy when
he sees one?
General Hopwood. This is true.
The Chairman. Why are you trying to prevent him? Wliy are
you trying to prevent him from knowing who his enemy is ?
General Hopwood. Because, pending an investigation, which we
will still continue, we felt that the Air Force could accomplish certain
objectives, perhaps, without citing specific examples which may or
may not be required for the education and preparation of our military
Mr. Arens. General, did you then, or do you now, repudiate the
essence of this first paragraph which is to the effect that there has
been infiltration of fellow-travelers into churches and educational
institutions and attributed to authoritative sources?
General Hopwood. No, sir, I do not repudiate the validity of the
My question is the propriety of this degree of specific information
and the need for this amount of specific information to accomplish
the training purpose for which the manual is written.
Mr. Arens. General, you were cognizant at the time you issued
your order to withdraw this manual and to have it reviewed — and I
take it you are cognizant now — of the statements from authoritative
sources, from such men as J. Edgar Hoover, from people of unques-
tioned integrity and ability and knowledge who testified before this
committee, undercover agents of the FBI, similar testimony before
other congressional bodies respecting infiltration of fellow-travelers
into churches and educational institutions, were you not ?
General Hopwood. Oh, yes.
The Chairman. Before we go into this, I think the record ought to
show that the Secretary merely acted when he apologized — I put it
abjectly. Was it?
Secretary Sharp. I didn't apologize abjectly.
The Chairman. Either you or Mr. Gates did. At any rate, the
apology came as a result of the recommendation from the general.
You had no independent knowledge of this yourself, did you?
Secretary Sharp. No, sir.
I would have acted the same way. As a matter of fact, I was a little
surprised tliat this action had been taken before I entered the case-
let's call it the case — because I would have acted the same way as
regards tliis paragraph; not the paragraph that has just been men-
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1299
tioned, but the subsequent paraf^raplis on pa^^e 15-14 of this Air
Reserve Center Training Manual, indicating that — pointing their
finger at any particular organizations in the churclies. I felt that this
sort of accusation was not necessary, from an Air Force standpoint, to
warn itvS people that they must look in all organizations for Commu-
nist infiltration. I think that the Air Force should not enter into the
controversy as to whether or not a particular organization or group is
infiltrated by communism.
Certainly, unless this group is listed on the Attorney General's list
of subversive activities, I feel that this is something we should keep
ourselves clear of, and this is my objection.
ISIr. Arens. Mr. Secretary, when you issued your press release re-
pudiating the publication as representing the Air Force views, and
issued your apology to the National Council of the Churches of Christ
in the U.S., did you, by that act, mean to convey the impression that
the Air Force was convinced that the National Council of the Churches
of Christ in the U.S. was not infiltrated by fellow-travelers?
Secretary Sharp. No, I did not intend to indicate any concurrence
with this statement, or objection to the statement as to its validity. I
felt simply that this kind of a statement should not be made in an Air
I^Ir. Ajrensj If the facts had been developed by investigators who
had checked the records of the Committee on Un-American Activi-
ties and other authoritative sources, and if the facts did reveal that a
very substantial number of the leadership of the National Council of
the Churches of Christ in the U.S. had Communist-front records and
were infiltrating in churches and educational institutions, would you
nevertheless have repudiated the statements in the manual ?
Secretary Sharp. I think I would ; yes, sir, because I don't believe
that this is a controversy in which the Air Force ought to indulge.
I think this kind of a controversy is the prerogative of this committee
and other activities in the United States, but not of the Air Force. I
think we should warn our people that communism mi^ht be found
in the churches, might be found in the schools, it might even be
found in the armed services, it might be found in any organiza-
tion ; but I think to point our finger at any particular group who is
not absolutely proven and on the list of un-American activities as
published by the Attorney General, I feel unless these criteria are met
we should not involve ourselves pointing our fingers at organizations.
Mr. Aeens. Mr. Secretary, did you, in the course of the last few
days, give assurance to the National Council of Churches people that
remedial action would be taken with respect to Air Force Training
Manual NR. 45-0050, which is a guide for security indoctrination ?
Secretary Sharp. I don't remember making any such statement. I
did write this letter to Mr. Wine. If you would like to have the con-
tents of the letter that I wrote to Mr. Wine.
Mr. Arens. Did you, in essence, assure Mr. Wine that there would
be changes made in a second manual which has been developed. Guide
for Security Indoctrination ?
Secretary Sharp. The second manual — you mean now — which
manual are you referring to now, sir?
Mr. Arens. Air Force Manual 205-5, Guide for Security Indoc-
1300 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
Secretary Sharp. I did not.
Mr. Arens. Did anyone in the Air Force in position of authority
give such assurance ?
Secretary Sharp. I don't know of anyone having given any such
Mr. Arens. I should like to invite your attention to the quotation
attributed to Mr. Wine appearing in the Washington Evening Star,
February 24, 1960 :
Mr. Wine also said the Air Force has agreed to amend portions of a second
manual objectionable to the council which served as primary source material
for the reserve document. The second manual — 205-5 — is used now as a guide
to security indoctrination.
Did anyone in the Air Force, to your knowledge, give such assurance
Secretary Sharp. I don't know of anyone who gave such assurance.
Do you know anyone ?
General HopwooD. No.
Secretary Sharp. I mi<^ht comment there that I read the manual
205-5 that you are referring to, and the portions of it that refer to
communism in American churches and American Schools. I do not
find them objectionable. I think they are proper to have in a man-
ual of this type.
Mr. Arens. The essence then of manual 205-5 with respect to
Communist infiltration in churches and in church groups is a tenet
with which you are in accord ?
Secretary Sharp. I am, yes.
Mr. Arens. So the record may be absolutely clear, based upon the
investigation of the investigators of the Air Force who have been
working on these manuals and their reports to you, is it your position,
sir, that the facts are that Communist^ and fellow-travelers are now,
and have been in the past, infiltrating church groups, among other
Secretary Sharp. I have heard that they have infiltrated church
groups; I do not know whether this has been positively proven, but I
certainly think we ought to warn our people that they would be in
all probability — and I mean by "they" the Communists — would in all
probability attempt to infiltrate churcli groups or schools or any im-
portant group in the United States which they could infiltrate.
Mr. Arens. In manual, AF Manual 205-5 you say, in essence — or
the manual says, in essence, does it not — that Communists are now in-
filtrating church groups or have infiltrated church groups?
May I invite your attention to page 53? I should like to read you
a few sentences from Air Force Manual 205-5, which I understand
you to concur in, and then we will discuss, if you please, sir, some of
On page 53 of Air Force Manual 205-5, the following appears, does
it not sir ?
A while back Americans were shocked to find that Communists had infiltrated
our churches. It isn't so shocking though when you consider how the Communists
are using Russian churches today. They want to do the same thing here. They
want to teach the Soviet gospel from the pulpit.
The Communist Party, USA, has Instructed many of its members to join
churches and church groups, to take control whenever possible, and to influence
the thou.trhf.s and actions of as many clinrch-goers as they can.
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1301
Communists form front organizations especially to attract Americans with re-
ligious interests. The party tries to get leading church men to supi)ort Com-
munist policies disguised as welfare work for minorities. Earl Browder, former
head of the American Communist party, once admitted :
"By going among the religious masses, we are for the first time able to bring
our anti-religious ideas to them."
Are there Communist ministers? Sure. The Communists have members in
Just about every profession in our country. Of course no clergyman admits he
is a Communist when he is one (he is required to keep his membership a
secret), but he still does Communist work. The House Un-American Activities
Committee lists two Communist ministers — the Rev. Claude C. Williams, a former
Presbyterian whose congregation kicked him out for party activities, and the
Rev. Eliot White, retired Episcopalian who served as a delegate to a Communist
convention and lectured at Communist meetings.
As to whether Communist ministers are a real danger, let's turn to a state-
ment by former President Herbert Hoover :
"I confess to a real apprehension, so long as Communists are able to secure
ministers of the gospel to promote their evil work and espouse a cause that is
alien to the religion of Christ and Judaism."
Communists try everything when it comes to churches. They sneak disguised
propaganda into church bulletins. They send Communists around to lecture
church groups. The head of the Communist Party once spoke at Union The-
ological Seminary in New York, and the legislative secretary of the party ad-
dressed a conference of 100 ministers in Washington, D. C. The Communists
order their younger members into youth groups where they can spread atheism
and recruit new Communists. Atheism, Communist-style, is also spread through
various organizations like the People's Institute of Applied Religion, which
teaches Communist ideas under the disguise that they are Christian teachings.
Again, to stop Communists, rve must be careful not to attack the majority of
faithful ministers and church-goers. We must merely search out those who
back Moscow right down the line. We can do this, first, by understanding and
supporting the teachings of our own religions to the hilt ; then, by getting rid of
those who try to pass off Communist ideas as substitutes for what we know
are true religious teachings.
I have read you the pertinent paragraphs of Air Force Manual
205-5 concerning which Mr. Wine is quoted in the Washington Eve-
ning Star of February 24, as saying that the Air Force has agreed to
amend portions which are objectionable.
Am I correct in my interpretation of your testimony that neither
you nor anyone to your knowledge in official position in the Air Force
has given Mr. Wine the assurance which is attributed to him in the
Secretary Sharp. Certainly I have not. I do not know of anyone
Mr. Arens. Am I likewise, and is the record likewise, clear that you,
sir, based upon the information which has been made available to you
by your subordinates, concur in the language which I have just read
to you in Air Force Manual 205-5 ?
Secretary Sharp. I would say that I certainly agree with the as-
sumption that the Communist Party would obviously in its activities
attempt to infiltrate the churches as outlined here.
I must say that I have not investigated the two individuals referred
to by name in these paragraphs which you have read as to whether
or not they have actually been proven to be guilty of the charges out-
Mr. ScHERER. The counsel in reading from the manual merely
stated that those two are listed by this committee.
The Chairman. Among others.
Mr. ScHBRERs Among others.
1302 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
Mr. Arens. I would like to ask permission of the chairman to back
up a bit in the manual because there are two other items in this main
manual which precede the matter which we are talking about now.
I would like, if you please, Mr. Chairman, to ask him about those.
The Chairman. Before you do that, I think we ought to go over
the contents of this manual.
Mr. Arens. That is what I meant, Mr. Chairman.
The Chairman. That is at the bottom of 15-14 :
In its own brochure, the National Council of Churches listed the names of
the Revision Committee and the Advisory Board. Among these were Walter
Russell Bowie of Grace Church, New York.
Do you know anytliing about him, Mr. Secretary?
Secretary Sharp. No, I don't.
The Chairman. Go ahead.
Mr. Arens. Does the Air Force to your knowledge maintain a liai-
son with the congressional committees investigating communism?
Secretary Sharp, I don't know whether they do or not. No, sir;
I don't Imow that. I don't know.
Mr. Arens. Do you knoAv, sir, that the information of the House
Committee on Un-American Activities and of the Senate Internal
Security Subcommittee is available on a liaison basis to the military ?
Secretary Sharp. I am sure it is.
Mr. Arens. I announce to you without any sense of criticism that
that information is from time to time readily made available to the
military upon their request to the committee.
Mr. Scherer. Are such requests made ? Do you know that ?
Mr. Arens. Yes, sir.
Mr. Secretary, you are cognizant, of course, of the fact that all of
the information of the Federal Bureau of Investigation respecting
Communists and Communist infiltration is available to the Air Force?
Secretary Sharp. Yes, sir.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Secretary, the chairman stated in his opening re-
marks that at least a dozen persons who have been identified before
this committee by competent witnesses under oath as Communists also
profess or have professed to be members of the clergy. Do you have
any information which would dispute that, or any reason to doubt
Secretary Sharp. No, You mean to doubt the fact?
Mr. Arens. To doubt the validity of that statement ?
Secretary Sharp. Of that statement ?
Mr. Arens. Yes, sir.
Secretary Sharp. That certain witnesses testified against other wit-
nesses to tlie effect that they were members of a Communist organi-
Mr. Arens. Yes, sir.
Secretary Sharp. No, sir. If that was the statement of this com-
mittee I have no reason to doubt it.
Mr. Arens. Did your statement of repudiation of the Air Force
manual in any sense mean a repudiation of the validity or the integrity
of the statements attributed to committee sources by the author of
the manual ?
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1303
Secretary Sharp. I have no reason to doubt that they were authen-
tic, although, actually, I have not checked in detail to find whether
the statements were accurate.
Mr. Arens. Did you, in your statement of repudiation, intend a
repudiation of the integrity, validity, or accuracy of the testimony
before the Committee on Un-American Activities which is quoted in
Secretaiy Sharp. No, sir. If it is properly quoted, I certainly did
not intend such a repudiation.
Mr. Arens. May I, if you please, Mr. Chairman, ask about two
things that precede this and then proceed to some specifics?
The Chairman. Before you do that I think we ought to go to the
section that the Secretary has found objectionable.
"Not only were these men — " and mentioning the names of people
in the document — "Walter Kussell Bowie with a total of 29 — " Com-
munist fronts — "Henry J. Cadbury and George Dahl, 13"
Mr. Arens. Mr. Chainnan, would you pardon an interruption on
We have checked our records very carefully since this manual has
been produced, and I have the latest statistics on each of these men
that I would be glad to read into the record. In many instances, it
The Chairman. This is an understatement.
Mr. Arens. A complete understatement.
The Chairman. This is an understatement of their Communist
Mr. Arens. Would you care to have me give those?
The Chairman. You go ahead and do that.
Mr. Arens. May I first say, Mr. Chairman, in view of the Secre-
tary's repudiation of the information conveyed respecting the National
Council of Churches of Christ in America, the chairman issued a
statement to the effect that the leadership of the National Council
of Churches of Christ in the United States of America had hundreds
or at least over 100 affiliations with Communist fronts and causes.
Since then we have made careful, but yet incomplete checks, and it
is a complete understatement. Thus far of the leadership of the
National Council of Churches of Christ in America, we have found
over 100 persons in leadership capacity with either Communist-front
records or records of service to Communist causes. The aggregate
affiliations of the leadership, instead of being in the hundreds as the
chairman first indicated, is now, according to our latest count, mto
the thousands, and we have yet to complete our check, which would
certainly suggest, on the basis of the authoritative sources of this com-
mittee, that the statement that there is infiltration of fellow-travelers
in churches and educational institutions is a complete understatement.
Now, w4th reference to the people whose names are specified, on
15-14 the first is Walter Eussell Bowie whose name appears on
15-14. Our records thus far, and we have only made an examination
of the most available information, is that he has had over 33 affilia-
tions with Communist fronts and causes ; that Henry J. Cadbury has
had a total of not less than nine, which we have been able to con-
firm — the manual says 13 — that George Dahl, concerning whom the
1304 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
manual says had 13 affiliations, we have thus far verified not 13 but
18. With reference to Leroy Waterman, we have thus far identified
and verified 20 connections with Communist fronts or causes. With
reference to Fleming James, we have thus far verified a total of 25.
The Chairman". Who are these people ? Are they connected with
the National Council ?
Mr. Arens. These are persons, most of whom are connected with
the National Council of Churches in some capacity.
The Chairman. It was their representative who complained about
this manual ; is that it ? Wine ?
Mr. Arens. That is correct.
On the next succeeding page, Mr, Secretary, you see the reference
there to Dr. Harry F. Ward as being a person who has been identified
as a member of the Communist Party.
Did your repudiation of the Air Force Training Manual and your
apology to the National Council of Churches carry with it an inten-
tion on your part to deny the validity or integrity of the records of
this committee showing that Dr. Harry F. Ward has been identified
as being a member of the Communist Party ?
Secretary Sharp. No, sir. It did not intend to either deny or
affirm the fact that this committee's records were accurate or not
accurate. I simply felt and still feel that while it is the duty of this
committee to investigate these matters pertaining to individuals and
particular groups, whether religious or otherwise, that it is not in the
best interests of the Air Force to point out specific organizations or
specific people, who it is claimed by this committee or are connected
with Communist fronts.
Mr. Arens. Did you at any time in the course of your public state-
ments or press releases make it clear that you were not repudiating
the authenticity, validity, or integrity of the records of this committee
or of the records of the FBI or of the other source material ?
Secretary Sharp. No, I did not, sir.
Mr. Arens. You are doing that now ; is that correct ?
Secretary Sharp. I only stated that this was not an Air Force posi-
tion; that we repudiated this as an Air Force position. It might
well be the position of this committee or the position of the FBI, but
it was my feeling that the Air Force should not establish a position of
this kind as to any particular individuals who were not specifically
listed on the Attorney General's list of un-American activities.
Mr. Arens. Ajh I absolutely clear, and is the record clear, that you
are not now nor did you at any time intend a repudiation of the
validity of the material attributed to this committee, attributed to the
FBI or other intelligence agencies, which is quoted in here respecting
Communist infiltration in churches and infiltration by fellow-travelers
in church groups ?
Secretai-y Sharp. That is correct. ,
The Chairman. Mr. Secretary, would it not have been sufficient to
have withdrawn this manual without apologizing to people who have
been in prominent active places in their organization, people whose
object is to destroy the Government of the United States, belonging
to organizations which have that as their objective ?
Would it not have been adequate to have withdrawn this manual ?
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1305
I just had occasion to read the statement by the Secretary of De-
fense, whom I admire very much. I do not know why he would say
such a thing :
"In response to the letter of the National Council of Churches of
Christ of the United States"— a response to a letter, nothing else — "I
have assured this fine organization of my very genuine regrets re-
garding the statement that appeared in Air Force Keserve Manual,"
and so on.
Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I would say in connection with that,
and I subscribe thoroughly, I think such a statement as was made by
the Secretary of Defense, whom I also admire very greatly, has done
great hann to the already difficult task that confronts this committee,
the committee on the other side, and the Attorney General. Actually,
the effect of the action taken by the Air Force, Mr. Secretary, was
to tell 180 million people in this country by the retraction of the
manual that the Air Force did not believe the statements made.
The effect of this repudiation handled in the way it was and cou-
pled with an apology to individuals who, as the chairman has said,
have hundreds of Communist-front affiliations has been to hurt our
Secretary Sharp. Mr. Jackson, I think it is very unfortunate if
that is the impression we gave.
I would like to read
Mr. SciiERER. May I say, Mr. Secretary, that the mail that I am
getting from my district and from other places in the United States
indicates that that is what the effect of tliat statement has been in-
sofar as the public is concerned.
Mr. Doyle. May I state at that point that my mail is such that it
indicates that the work of this committee in the minds of the people
out West who have read the newspaper reports — that the work of
this committee is discredited as a result of the unfortunate apology
and letter by the Secretary — without further explanation as to why.
The Chairman. You may call it unfortunate. I call it stupid.
Secretary Sharp. I wonder if I might read into the record the let-
ter that I wrote to Mr. James Wine, associate general secretary of
the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States :
475 Riverside Drive,
New York, New York.
Dear Mr. Wine :
This letter is to confirm our conversation of yesterday and again assure to
you tliat the Air Force does not condone the publication of material such as
that contained in the CONAC training manual about which you wrote Sec-
retary Gates. The manual has been withdrawn and action is being taken to
prevent recurrence of issuance of such material.
The Chairman. Why did you do that ? Don't you want the non-
commissioned officers to know who these people are ?
Secretary Sharp. Yes, sir. But I think it is a dangerous thing for
the Air Force to delve into the areas that this committee should delve
into. I think that we should leave that to this committee by simply
making a statement that there is danger in the infiltration in the
areas of the churches and of the schools and of others, almost every
group in our country.
1306 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING IMANUAL
Mr. ScHERER. The Air Force is not delving into it. The Air Force
manual is merely reporting what has already been fonnd to exist by
various congressional committees, by the Federal Bureau of Investi-
gation, and other security agencies.'
Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Secretary, the thing that I cannot reconcile
is this : I understand, according to your testimony here this morning,
you have no objection, apparently, to generalizations vs^ith regard to
the fact that there is infiltration and that there is a continuing
threat of infiltration. What you state now to this committee is that
you object to specifics.
Secretary Sharp. That is correct.
Mr. JoHANSEisr. I cannot understand from the portion of the letter
to Mr. Wine that you quoted that you make any such distinction at
all. It seems to me that you are repudiating both the general and
the specific statements and, in other words, it seems to me your re-
pudiation to Mr. Wine is quite different and much more sweeping
than your statement and your distinction that you draw here before
Secretary Sharp. No, sir
The Chairman. Did you ever deny the truth about it ?
Secretary Sharp. In my meeting with Mr. Wine I made it quite
clear that what I was objecting to in the Air Force manual was the
fact that it was pointing its finger at a particular group or a partic-
ular organization but which did not appear on this list.
Mr. JoHANSEN. If the manual makes the generalized assertion,
isn't the Air Force open to challenge to support that generalization
with specifics? And yet you repudiate any reference to specifics.
How can you justify the generalization without relating it to specifics,
particularly if it is under a challenge ?
Secretary Sharp. I think in that case what we should do is refer
to the testimony of this committee but not publish this testimony
gratis. Some of these quotations might have been taken out of con-
text. It is very difficult to know how many of them are provable
in court or accepted as adequate proof by the Attorney General in
his statement of people involved in un-American activities or or-
ganizations which are involved in un-American activities.
I don't think it is the business of the Air Force to indicate which
of these bits of evidence or perhaps they are conclusive evidence —
I don't know — which have been brought before this fine committee.
The CHAntMAN. We will concede that. But then when you wanted
to correct what is not in conformity with your idea, why did you
go way out of your way to apologize ?
Secretary Sharp. I don't think we apologized. I simply think this
is not what we like to have in our manual. There is certainly nothing
in this letter that indicates we are apologizing. _ I am simply saying
we do not condone the publication of this kind of controversial
detailed material in our training manual.
Mr. Johansen". Are the statements that appeared in 205-5 under
challenge or have they been under challenge from this same source?
Secretary Sharp. They apparently are now; yes, sir. They have
never been under challenge directly to me.
]\fr. Johansen. In other words, what Mr. Wine and those of his
mind want is the avoidance of any reference to the fact of infiltration
or attempted infiltration of the religious groups.
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1307
Secretary Sharp, I have read indications of that attitude in tlie
newspapers. I have never received a direct communication from Mr.
Mr. JoHANSEN-. Are you prepared to resist that sort of demand?
Secretary Sharp. Yes, sir ; I am.
The Chairman. Did Mr. Wine ever deny the statements contained
in the manual ?
Secretary Sharp. No, he didn't.-
Mr. Willis. May I ask a question ?
The Chairman. Yes, Mr. Willis.
Mr. Willis. Wliat puzzles me is the letter that you read and it is
this: Why did you stop so abruptly? And I am just wondering why
couldn't you have gone as far as you are going today in adding a
sentence: "We do not mean to imply that there is no infiltration in
church or other groups or question the accuracy of the reference ma-
terial. We simply do not want to take sides with you or the reference
material, but we simply prefer not to have it in there."
You have left a wide impression that you are taking sides, and that
what is in there is inaccurate.
Secretary Sharp. I think that undoubtedly
Mr. Willis. It is a black eye on this committee, ultimately, or will
certainly be made so.
Secretary Sharp. We certainly did not intend any aspersions on
this committee. I am sorry that I did not go into more detail in this
letter. There is no question about that, because that was my opinion
at the time, and I certainly expressed it that way. There w^as no
doubt about that.
The Chairman. Mr. Sharp, this is the thing that disturbs all of us :
In your statement to the press, the very first thing you said was :
"Secretary Sharp categorically repudiated the publication as rep-
resenting the Air Force views."
Now the segment of the left-wing press and others that want to
look at things in certain ways did not go further than to just pick out
the words "categorically repudiated the publication."
Secretary Sharp. Whether I made that statement in exactly those
words, I meant to say, certainly, that we repudiate these as Air Force
views because I feel that in going into this kind of detail the Air
Force was getting into areas which it should not be in, and we
should — I feel that it is better stated that it was ill-advised and ill-
considered for the Air Force to include these things in its training
manual, which was w^hat was intended.
The Chairman. You saw the statement made by the Secretary,
didn't you ?
Secretary Sharp. I had seen it ; yes, sir.
Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, going back to the matter of naming
the National Council of Churches by name and following that with
some additional information, I am trying to place myself in the posi-
tion of an instructor in this subject
Secretary Sharp. Yes, sir.
Mr. Jackson. I have given military instniction, Mr. Secretary.
As to a general subject "communism in religion," the statement is
made categorically that from a variety of authoritative sources there
has been infiltration of some churches and church groups. One of
1308 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING ]VIANUAL
the men attending a class using a manual may say, "How do I know
that ? Tell me more about it."
You are asking him to take, on faith, a very serious statement, and
precluding- him from asking any questions to the point.
Secretary Sharp. I would think, then, you would suggest, if he
wanted to go further into the matter, that he should request a copy
of the hearings of this committee and reports of this committee and
the great deal of evidence.
Mr. Jackson. I think that is the long way around the barn. He is
in a class. He is being taught. He is being given instruction, and
categorical statements are made. I don't think we should require the
individual enlisted man to run around Capitol Hill to get a variety
of hearings so that he can probe further into the matter.
The Chaikman. If he could find Capitol Hill.
Mv. Jackson. It seems to me that, having made that statement, it
is absolutely necessary to give some substantiation to it in the text-
book, the letter and text.
Mr. JoHANSEN. At least in t^rms of source material.
Mr. ScHERER. All through this manual, Mr. Secretaiy, you refer to
other organizations, you name them specifically, you point out which
are Communist-front organizations. You refer by name to individuals
who have participated in Communist activities.
I call your attention to page 15-4 where you name: 1 he Abraham
Lincohi Brigade, American Youth for Democracy, The League 9!
American Writers, American Patriots, Inc., and about five or six
others. , , , . -,• .
I doubt whether the Air Force would be m a position to prove in
court that these are Communist-dominated and controlled organiza-
tions. Yet you have no hesitancy in naming these. ^
Secretary Sharp. I think we should have great hesitancy m naming
these unless they are listed as subversive organizations. ^
I don't think "the Air Force ought to be in a position of oftermg as
such fact any specific organization because this is not our business.
I think that we can, certainly, list those organizations, if we wish,
that are listed specifically by the Attorney General as subversive
organizations, but I don't think that the Air Force should point its
finger at any organization in an official publication that it cannot
^^Ur. ScHERER. Just hurriedly glancing through this manual-
The Chairman. Wait a minute. ., j, ^i nv. i. r. r.f
This does not charge the National Council of the Churches of
Christ in the U.S. as being a proscribed organization at all. ^ it
mere y tatisthat of the 95 persons who served in the project which
Ihey sVonsored, 30 have been affiliated with pro-Communist fronts,
projects, and publications.
I think that is a great example to show a youngster.
I, too, tauaht in military Uools, in the Navy; nava aviation ac-
tually. And I know that the only way to make these kids understand
is to o-ive them an example of something. ^i^-^„
Here you are not charging this National Council, with anythi^^
I think you are depriving people. who oug^it to know l^^t ;^x%f ^ ^^7^
these enemies of ours operate, just what kind of a cloak they get
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1309
If you do not put it in your new manual, then you are depriving
them of something they ought to know.
Mr. Aj?ens. Mr. Chairman, we have two other areas of inquii-y, if
you please, sir.
Mr. Secretary, beginning on page 15-3 of the manual there is
language which I have to characterize or talk about, and then I will
The public press has carried in its stories respecting the manual,
language which intimates that the authors of the manual feel that
Americans don't have a right to know what is going on in general.
I would like to read the entire two or three paragraphs to you, and
then we will talk about it, if you please, sir.
Secretai-y Sharp. All right.
The Chairman. At the bottom of the page?
Mr. Arens. Yes, sir.
When a newspaper prints some so-called secret data, it merely means that
the Government no longer considers that particular data secret — it does not
mean we have no secrets left. Or it could mean that clever newspapermen
took pieces of unclassified information which they were authorized to have,
put them together, and came up vrith the right answer. However, because such
accounts may have given the correct information does not mean that the infor-
mation is no longer classified. Newspapers are not oflScial — and until the
Government declassifies security information, it remains classified.
Another rather foolish remark often heard is that Americans have a right
to know what's going on. Most people realize the foolhardiness of such a sug-
gestion. If a football team should start telling the other side the plays it
planned to use, their opponents would sweep them off the field. It's the same
in war — hot or cold ; if we tell our secrets, we are likely to be beaten, and beaten
Mr. Secretary, the whole import of that language is that the mili-
tary is entitled to protect secrets, is it not ?
Secretary Sharp. Yes, I would think so; yes, sir.
Mr. Arens. It is not intended, as you read the two paragraphs in
entire context, to convey the impression that the American people as
such are not entitled to know in general what is going on ; isn't that
Secretary Sharp. That certainly is correct; yes, sir.
Mr. Arens. Is it your impression, sir, that there has been conveyed
a misinterpretation of the essence of this language because it was con-
veyed out of context ?
Secretary Sharp. I certainly would agree with that; yes, sir.
The Chairman. May I ask just one more question. I think this
is of greatest importance.
Will this information, this material that Mr. Arens just read, be
contained in the new revised issue ?
Secretary Sharp. I would hope that the substance of it would be
contained. I would personally have changed the words of the first
sentence in such a way that they could not be taken out of context,
and I think there was unfortunate wording that lent itself to that
sort of thing. I think it was even unfortunate that from the manual
205-5, where they discuss the same thing in the first sentence, two
words were in it which were not in this new manual.
Mr. Jackson. What is the page number on that?
Secretary Sharp^ That is page 82 in the old manual, and 15-4 in
the new one.
1310 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
You will notice on page 82 of the manual 205-5, at the bottom of
the page, the first sentence of the last paragraph reads, "Another
ratlier silly remark often heard concerning security is that Amer-
icans have a right to know what's going on."
]\fr, Arens. The only reasonable interpretation on that is that the
author of the manual is trying to say, is he not, that we cannot let
secrets, defense secrets or intelligence secrets, be available to the pub-
lic because the enemy would catch them ? Isn't that correct?
Secretary Sharp. I am sorry. I missed that.
Mr. Arens. I was just saying, sir, that the only reasonable inter-
pretation of that language, when it is read in complete context, is
that we cannot make available, the Government cannot make avail-
able military secrets or intelligence secrets to the public at large
because, of course, the enemy would then get them. Isn't that correct?
Secretary Sharp. I think that is perfectly clear; yes, sir. If you
read the whole paragraph
Mr. Jackson. When taken in its proper context.
Secretary Sharp. I think it was unfortunate that they left out the
words "concerning security," those two words in the quotation of the
same paragraph in the training manual, the Air Reserve Center Train-
ing INIanual, which was a later publication.
The Chairman. Concerning security only ?
Secretary Sharp. I mean that would clarify what they are talking
about. It is security matters.
The Chairman. Oh, yes.
Secretary Sharp. It would have been better if they had left those
Mr. Arens. But in the manual they speak of secrets, do they not?
Secretary Sharp. Oh, yes.
INfr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, if it meets with your approval, I would
like to inquire respecting another item in the manual.
The Chairman. All right.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Secretary, on page 15-6 there are two paragraphs
where I suggest we probably have the same situation, namely, where
there has been conveyed to the American people a wrong impression
respecting the contents of the manual because certain language was
taken, again, out of context.
I should like to read to you two paragraphs :
At this point it may be well to make some separation between real subversives
and the disaffected and chronic complainers. Subversion Is willful activity
against the United States, punishable under the Uniform Code of Military Jus-
tice. Disaffection is a lack of loyalty or affection for the United States not
accompanied by action and isn't a crime. Chronic complaining Is only grum-
bling, and is not directed at the United States but rather at specific persons or
activities. Often th« complainer works harder than anyone else, and finds in
complaining a sort of nervous escape valve, such as, "I do all the work around
here; why don't you guys help out sometime?" However, if you suspect an
individual of deliberate subversion, report him, of course ; but try to be sure he
isn't just disaffected or a complainer.
If you do know of a disaffected person, nevertheless, he will bear watching.
Mr. Secretary, in the public press I saw an inten^retation to the
effect that the reader of this manual is admonished by_ its author to
watch disaffected persons because they may be subversive.
It is true, is it not, INIr. Secretary, when we read the entire two para-
graplis in complete context that the author of the manual is trying to
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1311
make a complete distinction between a deliberate subversive and one
who is only a complainer on the other hand ?
Secretary Sharp. It certainlj seems that way to me ; yes, sir.
Mr. Arens. Do you agree with the interpretation which I suggest,
namely, that there has been conveyed a wrong impression respecting
the contents of the manual on this score because certain language was
taken out of context ?
Secretary Sharp. That certainly is my impression ; yes, sir.
Mr. ScHERER. May I ask a question ?
Has the Air Force or the Department of Defense in any way com-
plained or made a statement publicly that this charge about "right to
know" was taken out of context? Have you tried to explain the full
import of this part of the text?
Secretary Sharp. I don't think we have.
Mr. ScHERER. Don't you think you should do that ?
Secretary Sharp. I think we should ; yes, sir.
Mr. Moulder. Mr. Secretary, when was the manual first printed
containing the statement that the National Council of Churches ob-
Secretary Sharp. Air Reserve Center Training Manual was issued,
as I understand it, on January 4, 1960. It was the one that they
objected to first.
If you are speaking of the Air Force manual, which is
I want to point out this is an Air Reserve training manual, and
tli« other one referred to is 205-5, which is an Air Force manual.
An Air Force manual is an approved Headquarters Manual — Head-
quarters, Air Force. It applies to more than one command whereas
manuals applying to only one command — and this Air Reserve Cen-
ter Training Manual applied only to the Continental Air Command —
are not referred to as Air Force manuals, and do not receive the
same kind of supervision at Headquarters, United States Air Force.
Mr. Moulder. In the beginning of your testimony you made some
reference to the conclusion that it was not within the prerogative
of the fimctions of the Air Force to investigate communism in
These manuals are not instructions or directions to investigate,
are they? They are really in the nature of an educational or in-
formation carried on and given to the members of the Air Force.
Isn't that correct ?
Secretary Sharp. I think they are simply
In talking largely about security, this earlier manual 205-5 is a
guide for security indoctrination for the Department of the Air
Force, and is simply to point out, while we must look everywhere
for Communists' infiltration
Mr. Moulder. Is it your plan to revise the manuals or have they
been revised ?
Secretary Sharp. "We are having a revision of this Air Force
manual 205-5 prepared. This was ordered some time ago.
Is that right, General Hopwood ?
Not as a result of this investigation simply, because this manual
was published in 1955 and we felt it should be brought up to date.
Mr. Moulder. In the process of doing that will you confer with
the Committee on Un-American Activities and the Internal Security
1312 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
Subcommittee and the Attorney General's office and the FBI for any
inf onnation which you may wish to use in the manual ?
Secretary Sharp. Yes, sir. I would hope we would, to be sure it is
This Air Reserve Center Training Manual of the Continental Air
Command has been withdrawn from distribution for restudy.
Mr. Willis. When was that report issued ?
Secretary Sharp. What was that ?
Mr. Willis. Wlien was that report issued? Was that issued?
Secretary Sharp. It was issued January 4, this year.
The Chairman. Is there anything in this manual that links
churches, as such, with communism ?
Secretary Sharp. I don't think so. I don*t know exactly what
you mean by link.
It means it can be used
The Chairman. Members of various churches.
Secretary Sharp. That is right.
The Chairman. Yes.
Secretary Sharp. It can be used
The Chairman. I am looking now at an article that appeared in
the press this morning concerning a resolution purportedly adopted by
the General Board of the National Council of Churches of Christ in
the U.S.A. which convened in Oklahoma City. The resolution stated
that the Air Force had violated the guarantee of "the free exercise
of religion" contained in the first amendment of the U.S. Constitu-
This is the sort of thing this "fine" organization is capable of.
Tliere is nothing in this manual, is there, that indicates an interference
with the free exercise of religon ?
Mr. JoHANSEN. In that comiection, Mr. Secretary, have you yet
received a copy of that resolution adopted in Oklahoma City this
week by the General Board of the National Council of Churches?
Secretary Sharp. I have not received a copy of it. I only know
of it from what I read in the paper this morning, which the chairman
just read from.
]\fr. JoHANSEN. I direct the Secretary's attention to this paragraph
3 of the resolution as quoted in the press this morning ;
Resolved : Tliat the General Board of the National Council of Churches :
(3) Insists that the material contained in Air Force Manual 205 — 5 "Guide
to Security Indoctrination" dated 1955, which is considered equally objection-
able, be deleted and that a full exi)lanation of all matters incidental to the
appearance of such material in these manuals be made public at the earliest
possible moment * * *.
I think that is a clear notice to you that this General Board ex-
pects to exercise censorship control over what appears in this manual,
and I think the department ought to be on clear notice that that
is the intent of this General Board.
And it is my personal judgment that that ouglit to be resisted, and
resisted completely, and that the Secretary of Defense and the Sec-
retary of Air Force and all other parties concerned ought to be aware
of the pressures ajid of the apparent end purpose that they have in
mind, and, without meaning to be critical, at least not to be naive as to
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1313
what their intention is. That intention, as I see it, is to control and
censor the facts about Communist activity in this country, whetlier it
is in general terms, that you say is proper, or in specihc terms, the
expediency of which you question.
Secretary Sharp. I read that quoted minute, I guess they were
called, of this meeting tliis organization had in Oklahoma recently,
and I was disturbed, too, by the implications that appeared there.
I feel very strongly that we have a right and duty to educate our
people as to the dangers of communism so that they can be on guard
against it all the time.
Mr. JoHANSEN. Wherever manifest; wherever those dangers are
Secretary Sharp. Apparently there is some difference of opinion as
to how far it is appropriate for the Air Force to go in this area.
Mr. JoHANSEN. I do not think there is any difference of opinion on
the part of the authors of this resolution. Any mention of communism
or Communist infiltration or attempts in the religious field is, by this
dictum, to be taboo completely.
Secretary Sharp. If that is a correct statement it would indicate
that ; yes, sir.
Mr. Jackson. Mr, Secretary, in the revised edition of this particular
manual, is it contemplated that the material relative to communism
in religion is going to come out of the revised manual ? Is any men-
tion at all going to be in the new manual with respect to the efforts of
the Communist Party to infiltrate into church institutions?
Secretary Sharp. I would hope so ; yes, sir.
Mr. Jackson. I would think it would be a dismal retreat from the
facts of life if it is not pointed out that these efforts are going on.
The Communist Party is not stupid and, obviously, would not
neglect as important a field in our national life as churches.
Within the last month, here in the city of Washington, in a Method-
ist church, a former president of the National Council of Churches sat
in a forum discussion with an identified agent of the Communist Party,
one who was convicted of contempt of Congress, whose appeal was
recently turned down, and who is probably going to jail. This was
not a matter in which the church individuals involved had no knowl-
edge of the nature of the meeting, because for weeks it had been dis-
cussed in the press.
One Baptist church in the District — and I hope Heaven will look
kindly on the minister of that church — refused to let the group use
his church for that purpose when the nature of the meeting became
apparent and when it was made known that an identified, convicted
Communist was going to be on the platform with high church officials.
I would hope that in this revised manual it will again be pointed out
very clearly that there is a continuing effort to infiltrate the churches
of this country.
Secretary Sharp. I would say that if it were not in the manual, we
would be very derelict in our duty to inform our people.
Mr. Jackson. I would look forward to seeing the manual when it
comes out because the same thing that pertains to churches pertains to
some of the schools of this country.
Secretary Sharp. That is correct.
The Chairman. Mr. Arens, do you have any more ?
1314 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, may I inquire, as the chairman knows,
in your discussion with me, there is another item on which we could
interrogate the Secretary. It is not germane to the manual as such.
May I inquire whether or not the chairman wants to get into it now ?
The Chairman. On the security field ?
Mr. Abens. Yes, sir. It ia a question for your own determination if
you want to get into that now.
The Chairman. This is off the record.
(Discussion off the record.)
Mr. Doyle. I would suggest that the new manual should direct the
attention of the Air Force personnel further than to churches and
Mr. Jackson. I did not mean to so limit it.
ISIr. Doyle. Directed to all and any organizations, such as labor
unions or others. Do not limit it to churches and schools. That is my
i call your attention to the statement by our chairman in his pre-
liminary statement with reference to the Department of Defense
I had the privilege of being there at least a few hours as a guest of
one of my distinguished reserve officers from California. I saw the
manual used there. It may be that our library has that manual. I do
not know. But if it does not, Mr. Chairman, our library ought to
have a copy of that Department of Defense manual which goes ex-
haustively into this very subject of the Communist attack.
It seems to me that with the Department of Defense bringing
some 200 more or less reserve officers from all over the Nation to at-
tend that seminar there in order to indoctrinate them with the danger
of communism and to emphasize that the Department of Defense per-
sonnel must be aware of that as another battlefront, it just seems
too bad that this incident would come up after you spent thousands of
dollars to bring men from all over the Nation to indoctrinate your
very personnel to the danger of communism, then to be caught in
this situation where the authoritative sources in this field on the
Hill and the FBI and tlie Attorney General's list are more or less
I want to call to your attention, Mr. Secretary, an item that ap-
peared in the morning paper, to show you one reason why I make
the statement about the effect of this incident on this function with
this particular committee, and I want to ask you one question:
Here it is, referring to the fact of your appearance and being
scheduled to tell the House Un-American Activities Committee why
you withdrew the training manual and ordered the security guide
Notice this, and this news item goes all over our Nation, by the
Associated Press :
Much of the material in both publications —
that is both your publications that we are discussing —
was based upon information compiled by the House Un-American Activities
So nationwide this committee is getting a kick and a cussin' from
its enemies and from those who don't know the facts.
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1315
Now, one thing more
The Chairman. We do not object to that, but we do not like it com-
ing from people we think are on the same team. That is the thing we
Mr. Doyle. One thing more.
I noticed you several times referred to the Attorney General's list
as an accredited list in your judgment. Is that correct?
Are you willing to take the appraisal of the Attorney General's list
for your authority in the new manual, for instance, as to their
Secretary Sharp. I always thought that that was an accredited list
of organizations in which
Mr. DoYi.E. I am not inferring it is not. I noticed you relied upon
it, apparently inf erentially, at least, and you are willing to rely upon it.
Secretary Sharp. I would think that any organization that might
not be on that list, it might be such a controversial issue that it Avoiild
not be wise for the Air Force to enter into a criticism of that
Mr. Doyle. Then you are not willing to rely on any Government
list or conclusion if you are not willing to rely on that.
Secretary Sharp. Yes, sir. I am willing to rely on that. I think
we would point at that list as being pretty conclusive evidence or quite
conclusive evidence that these organizations are subversive.
Mr. Doyij:. All right. Thank you.
Mr. Willis. ]\Ir. Secretary, I would like to make this statement and
ask you a question :
"\Vlien we look into defense contracts we are accused of investigating
labor unions, and when we find some Communists in colleges we are
investigating schools. Recently we looked into the youth movement
and we were accused of investigating youth. But at the same time on
the basis of your advice, because we rely on the military, and we spend
between $40 billion and $50 billion a year for defending somebody
against someone. I am under the impression that is the Communists.
We are in a bad fix, aren't we, both you and we.
Secretary Sharp. We have a battle on our hands, if that is what
The Chairman. Governor Tuck?
Mr. Tuck. I have no questions.
Mr. Jackson. Just to summarize the position and get this abso-
lutely clear on the record : in the repudiation of the material in ques-
tion, the Air Force was taking the position that they should not desig-
nate by name, organizations or individuals who might be subversive
It was not, however, the intent of the Department of the Air Force
to bring into question in any way the sources upon which the writer
of the pamphlet drew. I think this is very important in order to cor-
rect a widespread impression that, by repudiation and apology, the
Department of the Air Force was saying in effect that this is a lot of
This was not the position that you took, Mr. Secretary, in your
action respecting this manual.
Secretary Sharp. It was not, and I agree with your statement, and
in all probability we should do something in the way of a statement
to clarify this position.
1316 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
Mr. Jackson. I think it would be very helpful to all concerned.
It would clear the atmosphere a great deal if something along this
line could be done.
I^Ir. Willis. Mr. Jackson, may I say that is exactly what I meant
to convey a while ago, that his letter stopped in such an abrupt
fa.'jhion that, unfortunately, a wrong impression was left.
Mr. Jackson. Now an excellent opportunity to do this might be
upon receipt of the resolution from the National Council of Churches
when it comes to your attention.
Secretary Sharp. Surely.
Mr. Jackson. One more brief question.
Is any action contemplated, disciplinary or in reprisal, agamst Mr.
Hyde who was responsible, so I understand, for writing this material ?
Secretary Sharp. This matter has not been finally decided yet. I
think that people who do not follow their instructions — and it might
appear that Mr. Hyde had not — should be certainly reprimanded,
if that is the case.
Now it is my understanding — we are investigating this matter —
that certain outlines were sent from the Continental Air Command
to the Air Training Command on which to write this manual, and
that it appears that the outlines were not followed. And it appears,
in my opinion, that certain bad judgment was used in what was put
into the manual.
Mr. Jackson. I think this points up another important aspect of
this matter. It certainly does to me.
I would like to see what guidelines were laid down to the man
or men who authored this manual.
The Chairman. Wliere are the guidelines?
Secretary Sharp. I would think that I can produce them.
The Chairman. I would like to have them right away.
Let me tell you something : If you so much as say "Naughty boy"
to this group of people who are far more expert than you are, it will
blow that up out of all proportion. They will have him shot at sun-
rise, figuratively speaking, for telling the truth.
Mr. Jaokson. Furthermore, some sort of ruckus will break loose on
the floor of the House of Representatives. This I can assure you, Mr.
Secretary, unless there has been a violation of direct and explicit in-
structions — that is an entirely different matter
Secretary Sharp. These are the things we are deciding now and try-
ing to get the facts.
Mr. Jackson. If there were enough flexibility in these general di-
rectives which conceivably could have led the man or the men respon-
sible for this material to exercise their judgment as to what should
go in, that puts an entirely different face on the matter, regardless
of how definitive these instructions were as to what was to be put
in and what was to be omitted, as I see it.
Mr. Scherer. Mr. Secretary, do I understand the import of your
testimony this morning to be that this manual was not withdrawn be-
cause any of the statements contained therein were not true ?
Secretary Sharp. It was not withdrawn because we interpreted
them to bo not true. We did not investigate whether or not the state-
ments were true. We did not consider it to be appropriate to put
those statements in.
]\Ir. Scherer. Can't you give me a Yes or No to my question f,
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1317
Isn't that the import of your testimony here this morning, that
this manual was not withdrawn because any of tlie material con-
tained therein, about which complaint was made, was untrue? The
truth or falsity of these statements had nothing to do with the with-
drawal of this manual.
Secretary Sharp. That is correct. The truth or falsity of these
statements had nothing to do with the withdrawal of the manual.
Mr. ScHERER. When I made the statement that the import of your
testimony is that the manual was not withdrawn because any of tlie
statements contained therein were not true, that is an accurate sum-
marization of your testimony, is it not ?
Secretary Sharp. Except that I w^ould like to put it this way, that
whether they were true or not had nothing to do with withdrawing the
Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I would like to make just one more
observation. I have been a member of this Committee on Un-Ameri-
can Activities for the past 8 years. Every time we have inquired into
the attempts of Communists or Communist-frontcrs to worm their
way into the churches, the committee has been bitterly attacked and
charged with investigating religion — with opposing churches — with
interfering with religious freedom in violation of the Constitution.
In connection with this current inquiry, these same charges are again
being made by some people. I feel, therefore, it is necessary and
timely that I point out a few facts which show conclusively that these
accusations are completely false and that just the opposite is the truth.
In 1953 and 1954 this committee conducted some rather lengthy
hearings, as I recall. Among others, we heard evidence from indi-
viduals who had been in the Soviet Union in the early days when the
Communists began their unremitting assault upon the church. The
testimony showed conclusively that the Communist apparatus early
came to the conclusion that if communism was to succeed throughout
the world, it would be necessary to destroy or neutralize the great re-
ligions of the world.
The Communists knew, and so stated, that it was the church that
was one of the greatest obstacles to the eventual take-over of the
peoples of the earth by the Communists. The Communists concluded
that before people would or could accept the ideology of commimism,
religion, which they called the opiate of the people and which they
said controlled the mass mind, had to be eliminated or neutralized.
The Communists first attempted a frontal assault on the church;
they harassed, persecuted, and imprisoned the clergy. Church prop-
erties were confiscated and destroyed. The Communist hierarchy,
however, soon learned that the frontal assault had failed ; that religion
and morality were so embedded in the minds and souls of men that
this outward assault on the church would not accomplish the objective.
They then realized that they must begin the long and tedious proc-
ess of infiltration and gradually neutralize the religious doctrines of
the churches from within by subtle propaganda and other devices.
Since the Communists understood that religion was the greatest
obstacle to the success of the Communist cause, this committee conse-
quently has always recognized and pointed out that our religious in-
stitutions are the free world's greatest bulwark against atheistic, god-
less comnnmism. We have, therefore, urged the growth and strength-
ening of our religious institutions. All that the committee, by its
1318 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL
work in this field has ever tried to do, is to point out so all may know
and understand this basic Communist policy. The comniittee has
tried to show why the church and religion are the focal point of as-
sault by the Communists.
The Committee on Un-American Activities has uncovered the tech-
niques used by the Commmiist apparatus to infiltrate and destroy the
church. It has done this so that the church itself could be fully aware
of the Communist offensive against it; so that church leaders could
understand that our religious institutions were in the front line of this
battle ; so that with tliis knowledge the church would be better enabled
to foresee and combat this indirect, subtle, and diabolical attack
It should be obvious to all from the testimony before our committee
that some people in our church organizations, whose loyalty both to
this country and the church is unc[uestioned, have not, and still do not,
understand the nature and objective of the Communists, as I have just
pointed out. It is unfortunate that some of these good people have
been taken in. It is deplorable that many of this group bitterly resent
and interpret as an attack upon the church any efforts by this com-
mittee to bring to light the nature and techniques of the Coimnmiist
attempt to infiltrate the church.
If what I have said is true, and I assure you it is, instead of bitterly
resenting this committee, these good people should join hand in hand
with us in what I believe is, and should be, a mutual objective, namely,
to better understand the nature of the Communist teclmiques and ob-
jectives in so far as religion and the church are concerned and to
strengthen our religious institutions so that they can become an even
greater bulwark against the most deadly enemy, not only of free men,
but also of the church itself.
Mr. JoHANSEN. I just Wanted to repeat one statement very briefly
and very quickly, and that is that I think that the Air Force and the
Defense Department still face their most crucial test in this whole
matter and that a great deal can be done to offset any mistakes that
were made if that test is met. That test is in paragraph 3 of this
resolution, which is an announcement to you that you have got to
go farther in any compilation and absolutely ban any reference to
Communist efforts to infiltrate religious groups.
I just want to say as a reverse of what my colleague from Cali-
fornia said, if that effort is persisted in by them for whatever it is
worth, you will have my support in resisting that effort, and it will
be given on the floor of the House.
Secretary Sharp. I am sure we will resist any such effort ; yes, sir.
Mr. Tuck. Did I understand you to say that this publication was
suppressed on account of the letter of Mr. Wine alone, or were there
Secretary Sharp. No, sir. It was investigated. This training
manual had never been edited at the Headquarters, United States
Air Force, and as soon as attention was called to the fact that there
were some features in it that were objectionable to the group of people,
we investigated the manual, and we recalled it for review at the time
because of what we thought were objectionable statements in it which
could be misinterpreted and get the Air Force into difficulty.
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1319
Mr. Tuck. Then did I understand you to say that you suppressed
the manual and withdrew it without investigating to determine
whether or not the statements made in that manual were true?
Secretary Sharp. Yes, sir. We were only interested in the fact
that we do not feel in tlie Air Force that in a training manual it is
our job to point at specific groups and organizations, that we should
point out the danger of communism infiltrating the churches, but we
should not point our finger at certain individuals who are suspex't or
otherwise being connected with Communist organizations. I think
tliat this is the duty of this committee, which it certainly carries out
remarkably well, and tlie duty of the FBI and others.
I think we should point out to our people, however, that there is
danger of Communist infiltration even in the cliurches and schools
and the labor unions and almost every other kind of organization of
importance in the United States.
Mr. Tuck. But if those statements are true and if the dangers do
exist, do you not conceive it to be your duty as head of the Air
Force to point out these dangers to the men whom you are training.
Secretary Sharp. I think as I mentioned before, that the matter
of getting into testimony before this committee, whether it was accu-
rately transcribed in our records, and so on, is an area that we
should not get into in the Air Force. We should point out that
there are dangers in the schools, in the churches, in the military
organizations of Communist infiltration. But I think for us to
point a finger at a particular group is the duty of this committee
and other organizations set up for that purpose, rather than the Air
Mr. Tuck. I am not very skilled in the art of warfare and combat,
but my understanding from my limited knowledge of the subject is
that the first object of successful combat is to identify your enemy.
Is that not correct ?
Secretary Sharp. You certainly have to do that.
Mr. Tuck. Do you not as head of the Air Force recognize the danger
of infiltration on the part of these Communist forces as one of the most
serious problems confronting the Defense Department and the people
of America today ?
Secretary Sharp. There is no question. It is an extremely danger-
ous area. Of course, our primary area is military defense, and the
responsibility of this committee and of the FBI and others involved is
with the actual routing out of the Communist movement throughout
the country. As far as Communists within the Air Force, this is
definitely our job to point them out.
Mr. Tuck. Wlio were some of the other people who have complained
about this publication prior to the time it was suppressed ?
Secretary Sharp. Do you know of any. General Hopwood ?
General Hopw^ggd. None.
Mr. Tuck. Then this sole letter from Mr. Wine was the only com-
General Hopwood. I withdrew the manual before I ever heard of a
man named Wine.
The Chairman. "Wliy did you apologize to the National Council if
you had already withdrawn it? Why didn't you say, "We have with-
drawn this document" i
1320 AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING IvIANUAL
Are tliete any further questions ?
Mr. Jackson. Again going to the point of giving definite proof of a
categorical statement, you do it in the manual in one instance where
the manual mentions Reverend Claude C. Williams.
The Reverend Claude C. Williams, on May 17, 1946, in the First
Baptist Church, Denver, Colorado, said, and I quote :
'Denominationally I am a Presbyterian, religiously a Unitarian,
and politically I am a Communist. I am not preaching to make people
good or anything of the sort, I'm in the church because I can reach
people easier that way and get them organized for communism."
I think you might very well pick up that statement, which is a
documented statement, and put it m the manual to give the noncom-
missioned officers under instruction some idea what your opening
statement with respect to infiltration by Communists into the churches
Mr. DoTLE. May I ask how many thousands were distributed be-
fore you withdrew it ?
General Hopwood. Sir, approximately 3,200 were distributed to the
Mr. D0Y1.B. In the United States ?
General Hopwood. In the United States exclusively.
Mr. Doyle. You cannot possibly get all those back, can you ?
General Hopwood. No, sir.
We ha^-^e recovered approximately 80 percent.
Mr. Doyle. 80 percent.
Mr. Tuck. Mr, Chairman, while these gentlemen are here I would
personally like to have a copy of this document and study to see if
there is anything in it untruthful.
I cannot see any objection to a member of the Congress, particu-
larly a member of this committee, having a few of those documents.
The Chairman. We have a few.
Do you think you could probably dig up about a dozen ?
General Hopwood. Usually manuals are furnished that are re-
quested through liaison, that are requested by members of the Con-
gress. The request is acted on quickly.
Mr. ScHERER. Send us nine of them for the members on the com-
Mr. JoHANSEN. Send both manuals.
The Chairman. I think you, Mr. Sharp, and Mr. Goies apologized
for the manuals telling the truth about Communist infiltration of
the National Council of Churches.
What was the apology based on? It was based on_Mr. Wine's
desire to suppress the truth about the organization which pays his
salary. I cannot help but reach that conclusion.
Secretary Sharp. No, sir.
I would like to say we did not suppress the manual because of the
truth or falsity of any of those statements. It was the propriety of
the Air Force to enter into this area in detail, as I have discussed
many times before. This is the reason for withdrawing the manuaL
Mr. Tuck. Mr. Chairman, at the risk of making a curt remark,
I think, in the light of the Secretaiy's apology to Mr. Wine, it is in
order now for him or the Defense Department to apologize to the
American people for having made the first apology.
AIR RESERVE CENTER TRAINING MANUAL 1321
Secretary Sharp. I tliink we should make it very clear what onr
position is and why we withdrew tlie manual. And we have not in
the Air Force apologized to Mr. Wine that I know of. We simply
stated we witlidrew it because it did not represent tlie opinions of tlio
Mr. Doyle. I presume your statement will come out rather promptly
Secretary Sharp. I guess it will unless you have objection, of the
committee, of making it.
The Chairman. We have no objection at all.
Gentlemen, Avill the members of the committee remain just a min-
(Whereupon, at 11 :45 a.m., Thursday, February 25, 1960, the com-
mittee proceeded to other business.)
(Members present at conclusion of the hearing: Representatives
Walter, Moulder, Doyle, Willis, Tuck, Jackson, Scherer, and Johan-
Baer, John W - 1294
Bayne, Carol _ -- 1291
Bennett, Dave (David) 1292
Blumberg, Albert (Emanuel) 1293
Bowie, Walter Russell 1297, 1302, 1303
Browder, Earl 1301
Burnham, Robert F_ 1294
Burrell, O. E.._ 1290
Cadbury, Henry J 1303
Clinger, Moiselle (J.) 1290
Dahl, George 1303
Dahlberg, Edwin T 1295
Fineberg, S. Andhil 1288
Gates, Thomas S., Jr 1295, 1296, 1298, 1305, 1320
Gordon, Alice. 1292
Hartman, Fanny 1292
Healey, Dorothy (Ray) 1290
Hoover, Herbert 1301
Hoover, J. Edgar. 1287, 1298
Hopwood, Lloyd P 1294, 1296
Hutchison, John A. (Jack) 1292, 1293
Hyde (Homer H.) 1316
James, Fleming 1304
Khrushchev, Nikita 1287
Lenin (V. I.) 1287
Mao, Tse-tung 1290
Marx, Karl... 1287, 1292
Miller, Marion 1291
Musgrave, Thomas C., Jr 1294
Newsom, Robert _.. 1293
Nowak, Joseph S.. 1291, 1292
Patterson, Leonard 1293
Persons, Wilton B 1296
Philbrick, Herbert A. 1292
Poling, Daniel A 1288
Pong, Peter Chu 1289
Reno, Earl (C.) 1292, 1293
Ross, Roy G 1295
Russell, Richard B 1296
Schneider, Anita Beh 1293, 1294
Secrest, Lee 1294
Sharp, Dudley C 1287, 1288, 1294-1321 (statement)
Sheen, Fulton J 1288
Vinson, Carl. 1296
Ward, Harry F 1293, 1304
Waterman , Leroy 1304
White, Eliot 1301
White, Thomas D. 1296
Williams, Claude C 1301, 1320
Wine, James 1295, 1296, 1299-1301, 1304-1307, 1318-1321
Zubek, Theodoric Joseph 1289
American League Against War and Fascism 1291-1293
Abraham Lincoln Brigade . 1308
American Patriots, Ino 1308
American Youth for Democracy 1308
Communist Party, USA _ _ 1300
National Committee 1290
Ethiopian Defense Committee 1292, 1293
Hong Kong International Christian Leadership 1289
Independent Progressive Party 1294
Intitute for American Strategy _ _ 1286
League of American Writers 1308
National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S 1295-1297,
1299, 1302-1305, 1307, 1308, 1311, 1313, 1319, 1320
Advisory Board 1297, 1302
General Board _ _. 1296, 1312
Revision Committee - _. 1297, 1302
National Strategy Seminar _ - 1286
National War College -- 1286
People's Institute or Applied Religion 1301
Reserve Officers Association 1286
San Diego Peace Forum 1294
Union Theological Seminary _ 1291, 1293, 1301
United States Government:
Air Force, Department of the 1294,
1297-1301, 1304-1307, 1311, 1315, 1318, 1319
Air Training Command 1316
Continental Ah- Command... 1297, 1311, 1310
Defense, Department of 1286, 1314
University oi Pennsylvania, Foreign Policy Research Institute 1286
Air Force Manual 205-5, (See Guide for Security Indoctrination.)
Air Reserve Center Training Manual, Student Text, NR. 45-0050, Incr.
V, Vol. 7 1287, 1288, 1294-1321
Guide for Security Indoctrination, AF Manual 205-5 --- 1299-1301,
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